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3 1833 01704 6035 
Gc 977.2 C8235 

Counties of Porter and Lake, 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 





Historical and Biographical 


Weston A, Goodspeed, Charles Blanchard, 

977. 3L0I 

Historical Editor. Biographical Editor. 



1/;> (r> «r> ^^ O Q 


THIS volume goes forth to our patrons the result of months of arduous, un- 
remitting and conscientious labor. None so well know as those who have 
been associated with us the almost insurmountable difficulties to be met with 
in the preparation of a work of this character. Since the inauguration of the 
enterprise, a large force has been emplo3'ed — both local and others — in gath- 
ering material. During this time, most of the citizens of both counties 
have been called upon to contribute from their recollections, carefuU}' pre- 
served letters, scraps of manuscript, printed fragments, memoranda, etc. 
Public records and semi-official documents have been searched, the news- 
paper files of the counties have been overhauled, and former citizens, now 
living out of the counties, have been corresponded with, all for the purpose 
of making the record as complete as could be, and for the verification of the 
information b^^ a conference with man^-. In gathering from these numerous 
sources, both for the historical and biographical departments, the conflicting 
statements, the discrepancies and the fallible and incomplete nature of pub- 
lic documents, were almost appalling to our historians and biographers, who 
were expected to weave therefrom with any degree of accurac}", in panoramic 
review, a record of events. Members of the same families disagree as to the 
spelling of the family name, contradict each other's statements as to dates of 
birth, of settlement in the counties, nativity and other matters of fact. In 
this entangled condition, we have given preference to the preponderance of 
authorit}-, and while we acknowledge the existence of errors and our inability 
to furnish a perfect history, we claim to have come up to the standard of our 
promises, and given as complete and accurate a work as the nature of the 
surroundings would permit. Whatever ma}- be the verdict of those who do 
not and xmll not comprehend the difficulties to be met with, we feel assured 
that all just and thoughtful people will appreciate our efforts, and recognize 
the importance of the undertaking and the great public benefit that has been 
accomplished in preserving the valuable historical matter of the counties and 
biographies of many of their citizens, that perhaps would otherwise have passed 
into oblivion. To those who have given us their support and encourage- 
ment, and they are man}', we acknowledge our gratitude, and can assure 
tliem that as years go by the book will grow in value as a repository not 
only of pleasing reading matter, but of treasured information of the past 
that becomes a monument more enduring than marble. 

December, 1882. THE PUBLISHERS. 




Antiquities 13 

Authors --1 

Bailly Town 20 

Birth, The First 18 

Circuit Court, First Session of 20 

Coffee Creek, Origin of Name 17 

Court House and Jail 20 

Geology 11 

Hoosier's Nest, Song, Descriptive of. 19 

Insurrections and Invasions 14 

Jurors, The First 19 

Kankakee Valley Drainage Association 23 

Mail Route, The First 16 

Markets, The Early /... 21 

Memorable Sensation 23 

Murder Case 23 

Murder Trials, Late 24 

Plank Road 21 

Public Buildings, Early 22 

Public Officers 25 

Railroads, The Early 22-23 

Sensational Trial 22 

Settler, The First White 16 

Settlers of 1833 17 

Stage Line 17 

Statistics 29 

White Occupants 13 


Action of First Board of Commissioners 38 

Acts of Commissioners 49 

Agricultural Society 60 

Alterations in Boundaries 54 

Anti-Horse Thief Societies 67 

County Library Association 48 

County of Linn 56 

County Press 67 

County Seminary 53 

Creation of County 31 

Elections, The First 31 

Election of 1836 ,. 36 

Election Statistics 72 

Fair, The First 62 

Jurors for 1837 50 


CHAPTER U— Continued. 

Land Entries 34 

Location of County Seat 41 

Morgiin Township, First Election in 32 

Old Settlers' Association 65 

Organization of Present County 35 

Poor Farm, The First 59 

Politics of County 71 

Railroad and Telegraph 58 

Recapitulation of Taxes, 1880 77 

Roads 43 

Ross Township, First Election in 32 

School Commissioners' Report for 1836 52 

Treasurers' Report, The First 41 

Waverly Township, First Election in 31 


Appeal to the Germans 87 

Battery, The Fourth 93 

Battery, The Twentieth 93 

Cavalry, The Fifth 93 

Cavalry, The Seventh 93 

Cavalry, The Twelfth 93 

Feeling During the War 97 

Gil Pierce's Song 86 

In the Field 85 

Infantry, The Ninth 90 

Infantry, The Fifteenth 91 

Infantry, The Twentieth 91 

Infantry, The Twenty-ninth 91 

Infantry, The Thirty-fourth 92 

Infantry, The Forty-eighth 92 

Infantry, The Sixty-third 92 

Infantry, The Seventy-third 92 

Infantry, The Eighty-sixth 92 

Infantry, The Ninety-ninth 92 

Infantry, The One Hundred and Twenty-eighth 92 

Infantry, The One Hundred and Thirty-eighth 93 

Infantry, The One Hundred and Fifty-first.... 93 

Military Statistics 88 

Old Soldiers 78 

Roll of Honor 94 

Sundry Corps 94 

War of the Rebellion 79 

War Meetings and Enlistments 83 




Valpahaiso and Centre Township 102 

Banks 127 

Centre Township 104 

Churches..... 139 

City Taverns and Hotels 130 

Collegiate Institute 128 

Early Tradesmen of Valparaiso 115 

Elections, The Firnt 107 

First Buildings in Valparaiso 114 

First White Settlers The 104 

Incorporation of Valparaiso 127 

Lakes, Streams, Etc 102 

Marriages and Deaths 108,139 

Mills and Industries, The Early 110 

Normal School 134 

Physical Description 102 

Professional Men 126 

Population 112 

Portersville 113 

Retrospective 149 


CHAPTER lY.—iConlinued). 

Schools 132 

Secret Societies 125 

Temperance Crusade 129 

Trails and Roads 109 

Valparaiso 112 

Valparaiso Mayors 129 


Westchester Township 150 

Ancient Cemetery 155 

Bailly Family, The 150 

Birth, The First 155 

Churches 156 

Death, The First 195 

Early Elections 166 

Early Events 155 

Early Settlers 155 

Homicide 161 

Industries 165 

Maniage, The First 155 



TOWNi^HIP HISTORIES— (Coutinnedj. 


CHAPTER 1\.— (Continued). 

Schools 156 

Societies 156 

Stage Line, The Old 156 

Villages 162 


Boone Township 166 

Birth, The First 167 

Busiuess Pursuits 1G9 

Churches 17:5 

Death, The First 167 

Election, The First 166 

"Free Press," The 172 

Hebron Village 171 

Indian Adventures 168 

"Local News," The 172 

Marriage, The First 168 

Permanent Settlers, The First 167 

Schools 169 

Secret Organization 177 


Washington Township 177 

Churches 184 

Early Homes 178 

Election, The First 179 

Enterprises, Various 181 

Indians 179 

Indnstries, Early 180 

Organization 179 

Prattville Village 181 

Schools 183 

Taxation 181 


Morgan Township 185 

Burial, The First 191 

Cemeteries ,. 191 

Churches 189 

Early Incidents 185 

Growth of Township 192 

Industries 188 

List of Early Settlers 185 

Officers, The Early 187 

Origin of Township 185 

Schools 190 

Tassinong Village 187 


Boone Township 192 

Accidental, Criminal, Incidental, etc 195 

Creation of Township 192 

Elections 194 

Facts of First Settlement VXi 

Hoosier's Neat 197 

Milling and Merchandizing 199 

Origin of Name 192 

Physical Features 192 

Schools and Secret Societies 199 

Wheeler Village , 200 


Jackson Township 201 

Churches and Cemeteries 204 

Early Events 202 

Elections. The Early 205 

Mills, The Early 202 

Origin of Name 201 

Physical Characteristics 201 

Schools and Teachers 202 

Settlers, The First 204 

Villages 203 


Liberty Township 20& 

Early Settlements 207 

Elections, Early 211 

Forest Productions 207 

Indian Incident 208 

Industries, Early i09 

Land Sales of 1835 20& 

Pioneer Exj)erienccs 208 

Post Offices 211 

Roads, Early 210 

Schools 212 

Secret Society 213 

Stores 211 

Water Supply 207 

Worship, Places of 212 


Portage Township 213 

Churches 216 

Crisman Village 217 

Early Conditions 215 

First Settlers and Elections 217 

Future Prospects 218 

General Description 214 

Mills, etc 214 

Old Stage Line 215 

Ot-igin of Name 213 

Schools and Teachers 215 

Taverns 214 

Wild Animals 214 


Pleasant Township 218 

Churches 220 

Crime 221 

Early Events 219 

Fatal Caauality 221 

First Klection 218 

Industries 221 

Kout's Village 221 

Li.-<t of Early Settlers 219 

Officers, Present 221 

Origin of Name 218 

Schools 219 


Porter Township 222 

Churches 226 

Early Election 222 

Early Events 224 

Formation 222 

Mound, Pre-historic 224 

Origin of name 222 

Post Offices and Stores ...t 226 

Reminiscences 223 

Schools 224 

Settlers 223 


Pine Township 227 

A Mystery 230 

First Settler, The 230 

Fish Lake 230 

FonnatioM 227 

Industries 228 

Origin of Name 227 

Roads 229 

Schools 228 

Settlement 227 

Stores 2.30 

Surface Features 227 


Boone Township 314 

Centre Township 280 

Jackson Township _ 355 

Liberty Township 363 

Morgan Township 347 

Pine Township .•<92 

Pleasant Township 374 

Portage Township 369 

Porter Township 378 

Union Township 339 

Valparaiso, City of 2;il 

Washington Township 328 

Webtchester Township 290 





Barnard, Nelson 81 O'Reilly, Michael 117 

Campbell, T. A. E 27 Forbes, J. T 63 

Green, H 99 | 


Residence of G. W. Merrill 45 I Residence of Albert Hankins 135 



Boundaries 415 

Early Occupants 405 

Land Entries, Table of 411 

Landmarks 404 

Land Sales at La Porte 410 

Location and Dimensions 401 

Mai) Routes 416 

Physical Features 401 

Settlers 405 

"Squatters' Union" 406 

Statistics 417 

Streams and Lakes 402 

Surface and Soil 403 

Swamp Land Speculation 412 

Wabash Canal Land Entries 414 


Agricultural Society, Organization of 434 

Agricultural Society, Fairs of the 435 

County Buildings 437 

County Offices 428 

County Officers (1837 to 1880) 444 

County Seat, First Location of 426 

County Seat, Relocation of. 427 

Early Proceedings of Commissioners 420 

Erection of Township 418 

Formation of County 419 

Legislative Acts 430 

Licenses, Early Tavern and Other 425 

Officers before Present Formation 419 

Old Settlers' Association 444 

Political Features 445 

Poor Farm 431 

Press, The County 439 

Recapitulation of Taxes, 1881 450 

School Fund, Receipts and Expenditures (first 

five years) 424 

Tables of Election Returns 447 


Bounty and Relief Fund 471 

Calls for Troops 472 

Companies, First Enrolled 457 

Death of Lincoln 467 

Draft Officers 467 

Enrollment Table for 1862 463 

Fourth of July, 1862 •. 461 

Fourth of July, 1863 463 

Jubilation 466 

Mexican War, The 452 

Muster Roll of Company H, Sixteenth U. S. 

Infantry 453 

Old Militia System 451 

Rebellion, The 456 

Recruiting, General 461 

Roll of Honor, Lake County's 473 

Roster of Officers of Lake's Four Companies... 471 

Soldiers' Aid Society 469 

Volunteers, Table of 458 

War Meeting, The First 457 


Cbown Point and Centre Township 475 

Acts of Crown Point Trustees 499 

Additions to Crown Point 488 

Attempts at Settlement, First 476 

Bank, The First National 498 

CHAPTER lY— {Continued). pagb 

Churches 501 

Claim Seekers of 1834-35 482 

Crown Point 479 

Death, First at Crown Point 485 

Educational Enterprises, Private. 492 

First Election of Crown Point Officers 498 

Incorporation of Crown Point 498 

Indubtries, Etc : 486 

Land Entries 484 

Marriage Licenses, Early 484 

Permanent Settlement 479 

Pioneer Experiences 480 

Population of Crown Point 501 

Postmaster, First 483 

Present Business of Crown Point 500 

Professions, Etc 486 

Schools 489 

Secret Societies 494 

Trades, Etc 486 

White Persons, The First 475 


Cedar Creek Township 505 

Business of Lowell in 1882 516 

Churches 519 

Creston Village 518 

Early Events 5o8 

Formation and Name 505 

Industries, Etc 509 

Lowell Village 512 

Outlet Post Office 517 

Pioneer Life, Incidents of. 506 

Press of Lowell 517 

Railroad 518 

Schools and Teachers 510 

Secret Orders 521 

Settlers, Early 506 

Stores, Etc 509 


Hob ART Township 522 

Baxter's Addition to Chicago 531 

Churches 528 

Early Settlers 532 

General Description 523 

Growth of Township 53u 

Hobart Village 525 

Industries 527 

Lake Station ' 528 

Liverpool Village 523 

Name and Boundaries 522 

Railroads 526 

Schools and Teachers ; 530 

Secret Orders 529 

Settlement 523 

Shaw's Subdivision 531 


North Township 532 

Boundaries 532 

Churches 537 

Lakes and Streams 535 

List of Taxpayers in 1839 533 

Physical Features 534 

Progress of Education 536 

Tavern and Other Licenses 533 

Tolleston Club 542 

Towns and their Industries 538 




Boss Township ^■IS 

Civil Officers 549 

Early Events 544 

Merrill ville 546 

Miscollaneoue 550 

Organization 543 

Redsdiile 548 

Schools 548 

SettlemenU and Villages 545 

Settly^, Early 544 

Soil, Pr.iductions, Etc 54;5 

Ro(.8 Village 547 

Water Supply 543 

Wood's Mill 547 


Hanovek Townshu- 562 

Brunswick Village 5CZ 

Erection of Township 557 

Hanover Centre 5G1 

Klaasville Village 563 

Pioneers, The Earliest 552 

Pottawatomie Indians 556 

Privations of Pioneers 553 

Religious Growth 564 

Residents of 1837 554 

Schools 558 

Statistics of Township Fund in 1858 567 

Taxed Settlers of 1839 554 

Villages 561 


St. John's Township 568 

Dyer, Industries of 569 

Dyer, Town of 568 

Incidents 575 

Industries of Township 574 

Large Farm 575 

Organization 568 

Origin of Name 5G8 

Schererville, Town of 572 

Schools and Churches 572 

Settlers, Early 575 

St. John's, Town of 571 



Eaole Cueek Township 576 

Birth, The First 580 

Churches- 580 

Early Items 580 

Formation of Township 676 

Game, Indians, Etc 577 

Industries 580 

Kankakee Marsh, Draining of 579 

Marriage, The First 580 

Post Oflice, Early 580 

Schools 580 

Settlers, First and Early 576 

Timber Thieves 578 


Wkst Crkkk Township 582 

Anecdotes and Incidents, Early 583 

Churches 585 

First Events 584 

Formation and Name 582 

Industries 584 

Schools .586 

Settlers, Early 582 



Cemeteries 59& 

Churches 595 

Creation of Township 590 

Death, First 592 

Incidents of Early Days 592 

Indian Relics 691 

Leading Products .■<89 

Mounds 590 

Occupations 593 

Pioneer Hardships 591 

Pottawatomie Indians 591 

Roads 596 

Sanitarv Condition 595 

Schools". 594 

Settlement 690 

Surface and Soil SSO- 

Town Officers 594 

Valuation .")97 

Villages 593 


Cedar Creak Township 637 

Crown Point and Centre Township 599 

Eagle Creek Township 738 

Hanover Township 719 

Hohart Township 666 

North Township 687 

Ross Township 704 

St. John's Township 725 

West Creek Township 7.52 

Winfield Township 761 


Griffin, Elihu 477 

Miller, H. F. C 513 

Pettibone, Harvey 531 

Wood, John, Sr 4.59 

Wood, T. J 495 






Geology— Evidences of Glaciation— The Drift— Topography— Water- 
Courses— Pre-Historic Remains— The French and Indians— The 
Bailly Family- Summary Yiew of County Settlement— The First 
Court— Public Buildings— Capital and Other Crimes— The Plank 
Road— Railways— County Authorship — Statistical Tables— Pub- 
lic Officers. 

THE geologist who delights to enrich his cabinet with fossils gathered 
from the paleozoic rocks, will find nothing in Porter County to 
reward his search ; but to one who is interested in the study of glaciation 
and its effects, this region presents a most interesting field for investigation. 
The floor of Porter County was laid in the Devonian age, and below us 
lie myriads of fossilized organisms of this " age of fishes." But these are 
hidden by the vast deposits of glacial drift, and could be reached only by 
excavations of great depth. The strata of drift are at least 170 feet in 
thickness, and there are no outcroppings of the original rock -bed. Upon 
the surface we find occasional fragments of limestone, crinoids and other 
traces of the Silurian age ; but they were brought hither from regions far 
to the north. Upon the surface, and sometimes beneath it, we find 
granitoid bowlders of various size scattered through the county ; and in 
the beds of all our streams are innumerable pebbles, worn smooth by the 
constant action of the water. These, likewise, are not native, but were 
transported to our borders frora the distant northland. 

So complete are the evidences which support the glacial theory, that 
it is unnecessary here to present any arguments in its favor. It is 
sufficient to give the conclusions at which scientists have arrived, upon 
the most careful study and investigation of the subject. 

Formerly the lake, which beats upon our northern shore, was a part 
of the great ocean ; and, even now, fragments of marine Crustacea are 



found by dredging deep into its bed. At the close of the Mammalian age, 
was ushered in the glacial epoch. There was then an elevation of the 
crust in the northern latitudes, which was followed by a period of intense 
cold. Immense masses of ice were formed, and the procession of glaciers 
moved southward from their mountain home. Over Porter County passed 
a sheet of ice which extended hundreds of miles in width, which reared 
its head 400 feet above the surface, and which extended in an unbroken 
mass a thousand miles in length. Firmly clasped in its icy embrace 
were immense bowlders and masses of sand, clay and gravel. Huge 
masses of rock were ground to powder by its action. The water, which 
flowed beneath this river of ice, deposited its sediment in its course. Far 
to the southward, the glacier wasted away, and, melting, formed the Ohio 
River. As the glacial epoch waned, lesser glaciers passed down to the 
rock barriers of the Wabash region, and, dying, gave birth to the stream. 
In the glacial drift, we find the remains of animal and vegetable life. 
Some of the bones of the mastodon were found a few years since upon our 
eastern border, near Wanatah. Fossilized fragments of trees and of 
fruits have been discovered. Geologists rarely estimate in years the 
duration of the geological periods. However, it may be of interest to 
know that the lowest calculation places the duration of the ice age at 
50.000 years, and the time of its termination is thought to have been 
175,000 years ago. After the glacial epoch, came the lacustrine period. 
The northern regions, which had been raised to such an elevation, subsided, 
or were deeply eroded, and the lakes were formed. This subsidence 
or erosion, extended to about the center of Porter County, where the 
water-shed now extends in an irregular line. The water no longer flowed 
in from the ocean, and the inland sea became changed into fresh water 

The line of sand hills upon our northern shore has no counterpart in 
the known world. Other lakes have ranges of sand hills, but none a 
2ange like ours. The combined action of the winds and waves through 
untold ages, has reared these beautiful ridges to a height of one hundred 
and fifty — sometimes two hundred — feet. In color, they are a bluish 
white, and from afar they glisten in the sun with an unearthly beauty, 
contrasting with the deep blue of the lake that dashes upon the beach. 
On our southern border, the sluggish Kankakee pursues its sinuous course, 
little changed in its appearance and natural surroundings through a long 
lapse of ages. Porter County contains about a dozen small lakes. The 
most considerable of these are Flint and Long Lakes, north of Valparaiso, 
and Longinus, Mud and Fish Lakes, near the northern shore. The 
Calumet River flows in a westerly direction through the northern part, 
its principal afiluents being Salt and CoSee Creeks. Sandy Hook and 


Crooked Creeks flow southward through the southern part of the county ; 
the former discharges into the Kankakee, while the latter is lost in the 
extensive and low marsh adjoining the river. 

While not remarkably rich in antiquities, Porter County contains 
many objects of interest to the archaeologist. It was once occupied by 
that strange and problematic people — the Mound-Builders — who have 
left numerous traces of their occupation. The Mound-Builders are com- 
monly supposed to have been a great people, who occupied the Mississippi 
Valley, and who migrated to the southward. The Spanish accounts of 
the Aztecs, Toltecs and Chichemecs, the ruined cities of Mexico and 
Central America, and the inscriptions found in these have been carefully 
studied for a solution of the mystery in which this race is involved. But 
the mystery is yet unsolved. Numerous earth mounds are found in Porter 
County ; but there are no fortifications or other works of any great mag- 
nitude. In the mounds have been found human bones, arrow heads and 
fragments of pottery. Scores of stone ax-heads, and thousands of arrow- 
flints have been collected from the prairies and from the banks of streams. 
There is a most interesting earthwork to be found near Deep River, at 
the western border. Here is a mound of earth, reared by human hands, 
and rising to the height of twenty feet. It is shaped like a flat-iron, and 
regularly built, the principal sides measuring each twenty feet in length 
from the apex. Near the latter, there is a well, which was formerly of 
enormous depth. The excavation is circular, and has a diameter of eight 
or nine feet. Into this well, the early settlers threw the debris of their 
clearings, with the intention of filling it up ; but the capacity has been so 
great that it remains yet unfilled. Numerous small excavations in the 
adjacent soil and rocks have led to the conclusion that this was once a 
" water-cure " establishment, and resorted to in ancient times for its 

The First White Occupants. — It is not known when Porter County 
was first visited by white men. The supposition is that French explorers 
and traders occasionally passed through this region from about the middle 
of the seventeenth century. The first Europeans whose visits were recorded 
were fathers Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon. These famous missiona- 
ries landed upon the lake shore, and traversed the country to the Kankakee 
River, inspecting the natural features of the land, and becoming acquainted 
with the natives. In the summer of the following year, 1673, Father 
Jacques Marquette returned from his Mississippi expedition, and with his 
six followers paddled up the Kankakee to its source. Here the party 
crossed the marsh, carrying their boats to the St. Joseph, and continued 
their journey down the river and up the lake to Green Bay. In 1679, 
a celebrated company passed down our winding river. The leader of the 


expedition was Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle ; the lieutenant was 
the Chevalier De Tonti. Father Hennepin and the Sieur de la Motte 
were among the number. This band of about thirty men paddled in 
light canoes down the Kankakee and Illinois. The next year, in the 
spring, La Salle passed through our territory on foot, with three compan- 
ions, on his march to Frontenac (now Kingston). In the last days of 
1681, he returned and passed westward over our lake border with a con- 
siderable company of followers. In 1711, many of the natives of this 
region came under the influence of the missionary Chardon, who was 
stationed at a post upon the St. Joseph, and many were baptized in the Chris- 
tian faith. The next year, 1712, many of these natives repaired to De- 
troit to assist the French against the Fox Indians. A friendly feeling 
between the French and the natives was the result. Traders resorted to 
the post and carried on an extensive traffic in furs and corn. A conse- 
quence of this traffic was a demoralizing indulgence in " fire water," the 
baneful effects of which were noted by the missionary Charlevoix. In 
1759, our territory, together with that of all Northern Indiana, passed 
into the hands of the British. English and French traders, between whom 
existed a deadly hatred, now traversed the lake shore. The French had 
the advantage of their rivals since they enjoyed the confidence of the 
natives, and understood their language. The Pottawatomies of this re- 
gion assisted in the capture of the post on the St. Joseph in 1763. This 
was a part of the general insurrection planned by Pontiac ; and the suc- 
cess of this expedition was rendered valueless by the failure of the at- 
tempts elsewhere. The overthrow of Pontiac led to a long peace. 

In 1781, our territory was invaded from an unexpected quarter. The 
Spanish commander, Don Eugenio Pierre, came from St. Louis to seize 
the lake shore in the name of the King of Spain. A force of sixty In- 
dians from the West accompanied the Spanish troops. The march was 
made very early in the year, amid the storms of winter. Don Pierre 
probably followed the old Sac trail which led from Twenty-mile Prairie 
through the site of Valparaiso to the eastward. 

Over the soil of Porter County had now waved the flags of England, 
France and Spain, and now a fourth power was to claim the territory. 
The treaty by which England acknowledged the independence of the 
United States, at the termination of the Revolutionary war, was signed 
in 1783. The British, however, continued to occupy Detroit, and to 
claim this region until 1796, at which time the territory of Porter County 
became in reality a part of the American republic. Among the local 
Indian legends, the most noticeable is that of the Boundary war, waged 
by the natives of this region, and a tribe adjoining upon the west. The 
former possessed themselves of the ford of the Kankakee at Eton's Cross- 


ing, as a rendezvous. A battle was fought at the north end of Morgan 
Prairie ; and the invaded tribe, simulating terror, fled from the field. The 
second battle was fought near the rendezvous. Those who had before 
appeared to fear the intruders, now effected their complete rout. The 
victors pursued the foe to the Chicago River, where the boundary was 
adjusted satisfactorily. Evidences that some such struggle actually oc- 
curred have been found upon the prairie and at the river ; but no date 
can be assigned to it, and it must remain simply a subject of legend and 
not of history. The troops of Col. John H. Whistler, of Detroit, com- 
missioned to erect a fort upon the lake shore, at the mouth of the Chicago 
River, passed through our territory in 1803. Col. Whistler made the 
journey from Detroit in a Government vessel, the '' Tracy," which was 
the first ship that ever entered Chicago harbor. In the spring of 1804, 
the fort was completed, and named in honor of Gen. Dearborn. An ex- 
tensive trading post was here established ; and from the first, Fort Dear- 
born exercised an extensive influence over the region of Porter County. 
Trails leading thither became roads of regular travel, and men were to be 
seen at all times passing to and from the fort. Native trappers and hunt- 
ers resorted to the shores of the Calumet and the Kankakee, and gath- 
ered large quantities of valuable furs ; corn was raised in abundance upon 
the prairies, and carried to the fort for sale. Transportation was con- 
ducted by means of canoes upon the lake, and also by means of ponies 
with pack saddles of bark. 

One of the leading spirits of this region at that time was Alexander 
Robinson, a remarkable man, in whose veins were mingled the blood of 
the English, the French and the Indian. He was in the employ of John 
Jacob Astor, and was stationed at the fort, but made numerous journeys 
to our territory, purchasing and transporting corn and furs. Another 
prominent man of the time was Joseph Baies, or Bailie, a Frenchman 
who was associated with Robinson in the fur agency. Eventually, he 
became widely known as a pioneer of Northwestern Indiana, and was the 
first white settler of Porter County. 

Capt. Heald succeeded Col. Whistler in command of the fort. Lah- 
wasika, the " Prophet," and brother of Tecumseh, sent his emissaries to 
the tract lying north of the Kankakee to secure aid in his intended war 
upon the whites. Aid was promised and given. The battle of Tippe- 
canoe was fought in 1811. At the time of the conflict the shores of the 
Kankakee were thronged with women and children, the aged and the 
helpless. Those who returned from that battle were enraged and embit- 
tered against the white people of Indiana Territory, and were divided in 
their feelings toward the garrison of Fort Dearborn. Many were disposed 
to be friendly with their neighbors of the Northwest ; but the influence of 


British emissaries and the thirst for blood aroused by their defeat fore- 
boded danger to the garrison and village on Chicago River. One morn- 
ing in August, 1812, Winnemeg, an Indian messenger, was seen running 
nimbly along the beach and over the sand hills of our northern shore. 
He came from Detroit, and bore the fatal message to the commandant at 
Fort Dearborn. Capt, Heald called a council, in which the natives of 
this reorion participated. About the same time, Capt. Wells, of Fort 
Wayne, accompanied by fifteen Miamis, hastened over the trail in the en- 
deavor to protect from danger his sister, who was at the fort. The mas- 
sacre of Fort Dearborn occurred on August 15. Two noble-hearted In- 
dians, Winnemeg and Wabansee, endeavored to save their friend, Capt. 
Wells, but in vain. He fell in the massacre, bravely fighting. For 
four years but few white faces were seen in our territory. The fort lay 
in ruins ; traders feared to mingle with the perpetrators of the massacre. 
At length, in 1816, the fort was rebuilt and garrisoned. Indiana was 
now admitted into the Union as a State. The Government purchased from 
the natives a strip of land ten miles in width, extending across the north 
end of the State. 

In 1822, the first white settler made his home at the place now known 
as Bailly Town, in Westchester Township. This was Joseph Bailly, or 
Bailie, of whom mention has been made. Mr. Bailly established a store, 
and built up a very considerable trade with the natives. He had married 
an Indian woman, and was thoroughly acquainted with the habits, cus- 
toms and language of her people. Madame Bailly spoke French fluently, 
and adopted many of the customs and refinements of civilized life, but 
always retained the dress of the aborigines. The settlement at Bailly 
Town became widely known ; travelers, traders, adventurers, mission- 
aries and Government ofiicers made it their rendezvous. It was the lead- 
ing place of assembly for religious exercises ; it was an important center 
of trade ; it was a place of safety in time of danger. Mr. Bailly pur- 
chased a sloop in order to navigate the great lakes, and gave his daughters 
the advantages of travel and Eastern education. 

In 1831, a road was cleared from Detroit to Fort Dearborn. It 
passed through what now constitutes Jackson, Westchester and Portage 
Townships. It was a wild, rude pathway, fatiguing in its roughness, 
abounding in dangers, and often uncertain in its course. Over this road 
a mail line was established between Detroit and Fort Dearborn, the mail 
being carried in knapsacks upon the backs of soldiers, two of whom were 
regularly detailed for this purpose. 

In 1832, the entire Northwest was thrown into great consternation by 
the tidings of outrage and massacre committed by Black Hawk in the 
regions near the Mississippi. The territory of Porter County, with its 


single white inhabitant, had little to fear, but the natives were much ex- 
cited by the events. Government troops were immediately dispatched to 
the scene of war, and passed over the Detroit and Fort Dearborn road. 
Alexander Robinson, of whom mention has been made, was now chief of 
the Pottawatomies, having been chosen to that office in 1825. He was 
known among the natives by the name of Chechebingvvay. He convened 
a great council of the tribe at Fort Dearborn, and successfully used his 
influence to establish a lasting peace with the whites. Within this year, 
the Government purchased the Indian title to all the lands of Porter 
County lying south of the old Indian boundary established in 1816. 

The year 1833 was an important era in our history. A stage line 
was established, and coaches ran from Chicago to Detroit, making three 
trips per week. The first contractors of this line were Messrs. Converse 
& Reeves. At a season of high water, the mail carriers lost a sack of 
cofiee in a large, swollen stream, which incident gave to Coffee Creek its 
name. With the establishment of this stage line, commenced the actual 
settlement of Porter County by white families. The Morgan brothers. 
Jesse, William and Isaac, natives of Monongalia County, Va., arrived 
early in this memorable year. Jesse settled in what is now Westchester 
Township, on Section 6. The Chicago and Detroit road passed through 
his farm, and invited him to assume the character of "mine host." He 
accordingly christened his home the " Stage House," and had no lack of 
guests in his hostelry. Isaac and William Morgan chose locations upon 
the fair and extensive prairie which bears their name. Late in April, 
Henry S. Adams, of Jefferson County, Ohio, arrived at the prairie, ac- 
companied by his mother, his wife and three daughters, and encamped for 
a time on what is now Section 9, Morgan Township. In May, he erected 
a dwelling and otherwise improved his farm. George Cline, of Union 
County, Ind. ; Adam S. Campbell, of Chautauqua County, N. Y., 
and Reason Bell, of Wayne County, Ohio, arrived in June and located 
upon the prairie. Other settlers joined these pioneers, and soon a very 
considerable settlement of hardy, sober, industrious pioneers grew up in 
what had been an almost unknown wild. 

In May, the site of Valparaiso was visited by Thomas A. E. Camp- 
bell, then a young man of twenty-two years, who accompanied his uncle, 
Adam Campbell, in his explorations previous to the settlement of the 
latter upon the prairie. On the evening of the 21st, these gentlemen 
arrived at the new home of Isaac Morgan, and on the next day they 
arrived at the banks of Tishkatawk, the stream now known as Salt Creek. 
Thomas selected a site for his future home, and returned subsequently to 
take possession. Jacob Fleming, the Colemans, Ruel Starr and others 
removed hither within the same year. In the fall, an Indian trading 


post was established near the Stage House, and its proprietor, Peter 
Pravonzy, was successful in money making. He disposed of eleven bar- 
rels of " fire water " in a single winter. One of his customers was mur- 
dered in a drunken revel, and it is a matter of surprise that there was no 
greater effusion of blood. As a rule, the pleasantest relations subsisted 
between the early settlers and the natives, and the pioneers, exempt from 
the horrors of border wars, lived without fear of molestation. 

Early in 1834 came J. P. Ballard, who erected the first house upon 
the site of Valparaiso. It was in the valley of the stream which crosses 
Morgan street, and in the grounds south of Judge Talcott's present resi- 
dence that this first cabin was constructed. A. K. Paine settled in what 
is now Jackson Township, and built the first dwelling in that locality. 
Jesse Johnston took up his residence near the old Indian town of Chiqua, 
near Valparaiso. Thojnas and William Gosset selected farms in the 
northern part of the county. Jacob and David Hurlburt repaired to the 
borders of Twenty-mile Prairie, which then appeared like a lake filled with 
islands. Theophilus Crumpacker, Jerry and Joseph Bartholomew and 
Jacob Wolf, arrived within the year ; also, William Frame and Abram 

On the 11th of January, the first white child was born within the pres- 
ent limits of the county — Reason Bell, whose father. Reason Bell, Sr., 
resided on what is now Section 15 of Washington Township. Hannah 
Morgan, daughter of Jesse Morgan, the first native white daughter of 
this region, was born at the Stage House, February 11. John Fleming, 
of Union Township, was born within the same year. 

The Government surveyors, Messrs. Polk and Burnside, ran the lines 
and divided the lands into sections. John J. Foster laid off a town to 
the east of the " Stage House," and christened it " Waverly," but the 
enterprise did not prove a success. 

The number of immigrants was considerably increased in the follow- 
ing year. Among the new-comers were Putnam Bobbins, David Hug- 
hart, E. P. Cole, Hazard Sheffield, Allan B. James, Peter Ritter, G. W. 
Patton, the Baum brothers, George Z. Salyer and David Oaks. The 
town of Porterville was laid out on the site of the old Catholic cemetery, 
but did not prosper. In 1835 was the sale of public lands. This sale 
was conducted at La Porte, then a town consisting of a few log cabins. 
Our early settlers were present, almost to a man, and there were a num- 
ber of Eastern capitalists present who made large purchases. The 
Hoosier's Nest was a settlement on the old Sac trail, and was established 
by Thomas Snow. It contained a frame house, built of lumber hauled 
from La Porte County. It was this place that was described in the once 
popular poem of John Finley, running : 


I'm told, in riding somewhere West, 
A stranger found a Hoosier's Nest ; 
In other words, a Buckeye cabin 
Just big enough to hold Queen Mab in. 
Its situation low, but airy, 
Was on the borders of a prairie ; 
And fearing he might be benighted. 
He hailed the house, and then alighted. 
The Hoosier met him at the door ; 
Their salutations soon were o'er. 
He took the stranger's horse aside, 
And to a sturdy sapling tied ; 
Then, having stripped the saddle otF, 
He fed him in a sugar trough. 

The stranger stooped to enter in, 

The entrance closing with a pin ; 

And manifested a strong desire 

To sit down by the log-heap fire, 

Where half a dozen Hoosieroons, 

With mush and milk, tin-cups and spoons, 

White heads, bare feet, and dirty faces, 

Seemed much inclined to keep their places ; 

But madam, anxious to display 

Her rough but undisputed sway. 

Her offspring to the ladder led 

And cuflFed the youngsters up to bed. 

Invited shortly to partake 
Of venison, milk and Johnny-cake, 
The stranger made a hearty meal. 
And glances round the room would steal. 
One side was lined with divers garments, 
The other spread with skins of varmints : 
Dried pumpkins overhead were strung. 
Where venison hams in plenty hung. 

Two rifles hung above the door, 

Three dogs lay stretched upon the floor — 

In short, the domicile was rife 

With specimens of Hoosier life. 

The host, who centered his aff'ections 

On game, and range, and quarter sections. 

Discoursed his weary guest for hours 

'Till Somnus' all composing powers. 

Of sublunary cares bereft 'em. 

And then I came away and left 'em. 

The following men were summoned to appear as jurors at the first 
term of the Circuit Court of Porter County : Grand Jurors — William 
Thomas, Samuel Olinger, William Gosset, Joseph Wright, Samuel Havi- 
land, James Walton, Asahel Neal, James Spurlock, John Bartholomew, 
Thomas Adams, Reason Bell, Peter Cline, Royal Benton, William Clark, 


William Trinkle, Robert Wilkinson, J. Todhunter and W. Snavelj. 
Petit Jurors — William Downing, Elijah Casteel, Asahel K. Paine, Jesse 
Morgan, Henry S. Adams, Lewis Comer, John Jones, Charles Allen, 
David Bryant, Solon Robinson, R. Frazier, Joseph Willey, Richard 
Henthorne, William Brim, Theophilus Blake, Wilson Malone, Isaac Mor- 
gan, Warner Winslow, Adam S. Campbell, Jesse Johnston, William 
Frame, Abraham Stoner, James Ross and John McConnell. 

The first session of the Circuit Court was held in October, 1836, at 
the house of John Saylor, Judge Samuel C. Sample seated himself with 
great dignity behind a deal table, on which were placed a few law books, 
and court was declared to be in session. The first cause was called, and 
went by default, as the plaintiff did not put in appearance. The Grand 
Jury strolled out of the small, close court room, and held their delibera- 
tions under a large oak tree, on the site of the T. G. Miller Block. The 
rain commenced to fall, but they were tolerably well protected by their 
canopy of leaves. A fire was built, and imparted warmth and cheer to 
the dismal session. 

In 1837, a subscription paper was circulated to secure the funds 
necessary for building a court house and jail. The subscription reached 
^1,250. A frame court house was built west of the square in Valpa- 
raiso, and completed late in the fall. Until this time, court was regu- 
larly held in the house of John Saylor, on the site of the Empire Block, 
but was henceforth held in the large room above the 'post office until the 
erection of the brick court house in 1853. The county jail was built of 
logs, on Mechanic street, to the southeast of the square, in 1838. 

The settlement of Bailly Town by the French trader Bailly, in 1822, 
has been mentioned. This interesting locality and the remarkable fam- 
ily which possessed it deserve more than a passing comment. For 
eleven years. Monsieur Bailly was the only white inhabitant of the 
region of Porter County. His influence over the natives was unbounded, 
and his traffic in furs yielded him an almost princely revenue. His 
home would more properly have been termed a rendezvous than a town, 
for it owed importance to the large gatherings of the natives for the con- 
sideration of every important matter, and for the purposes of trade and 
of religious worship rather than to any considerable resident population. 
This, indeed, it never possessed ; and, with the departure of the Indians 
to the new reservations in the West, its importance departed forever. 
One of the most interesting characters among us in the forties was the 
good Bishop of Vincennes, Maurice de St. Palais. This untiring apos- 
tle was accustomed to travel on horseback from Vincennes to Bourbon- 
nais Grove, a French Catholic settlement near Kankakee, 111., and from 
that point to Bailly Town. On his arrival at Bailly's settlement he was 


always greeted by a vast concourse of the Indians, in whose presence he 
oflEiciated at the solemn sacrifice of the mass. Thomas A. E. Campbell, 
traveling once through the woods to Bailly Town upon a white horse, 
was seen by the Indians at a distance and mistaken for the good Bishop. 
Instantly and eagerly the word was passed along, " The Father is com- 
ing," and Mr. Campbell on arriving at the trader's house met a large 
and disappointed company of natives. The home of the trader pre- 
sented an anomalous appearance in the forties. It was a singular 
compound of the barbarous and the refined, the rudely simple and the 
tastefully luxurious. The trader had one son, mention of whom is made 
elsewhere. In education as well as in wealth his daughters were far 
more favored than those of the most fortunate white families of the 
county. Capable of adorning any circle of society, they yet preferred 
the seclusion of their home to association with the families of the immi- 
grants. Hortense, the youngest, won universal admiration wherever she 
appeared. She was remarkably beautiful in feature and graceful in form 
and movement. Mentally, she was bright and quick of perception. 
She frequently rode to the county seat upon her favorite pony, a beauti- 
ful snow white animal, in which she took great pride. She was always 
accompanied by her dog, to which she seemed equally attached. Her 
dress was simple, but of a richness of which other misses in the county 
would not have dreamed. A cloak of rich velvet, a cap of silk, with a 
long, soft plume or a jaunty eagle feather, a severely simple dress, made 
of some costly fabric brought from the East — this was the garb of our 
Pocahontas. She transacted with the county officers the business upon 
which she came, and amused herself by playing with her dog and pony 
in the square until after the heat of the summer day had lessened, then, 
alone and fearless, rode silently away to her solitary home. 

In all the early history of Porter County, Michigan City was the 
great market for produce and supplies. This city dates from 1831. Its 
young life was full of promise. Vessels sought its harbor, and the farm- 
ers of the tributary region, extending far to the east, the south and the 
west, gave it their almost undivided patronage. People reckoned the 
distance of every point in our county from "the city." Twenty-mile 
Prairie took its name from the measure of distance which separated it 
from this port. The roads which led to the city were generally very 
inferior, and sometimes almost impassable — entirely unequal to the de- 
mands of transportation. Late in the decade, a grand project was under- 
taken. It was the construction of a plank-road from Valparaiso to 
Michigan City. The outlay necessary to the construction of such a road 
was immense, considering the sparseness and comparative poverty of the 
population in that day. But the people demanded that it should be 


built, and when the people are in earnest, they are apt to have their 
way. They looked upon this road as something for the future — some- 
thing that would endure forever — and their vision could descry no time in 
future ages, however distant, when the wheat and corn of Porter County 
would not be carried to market in wagons over this plank-road. It was 
commenced in 1850, and partly finished in three years. The expected 
cost was $128,000. A number of citizens of this county were stock- 
holders of the plank-road company. Money was scarce, and much of 
the cost of construction was paid in orders. The use of these orders, 
in a measure, illustrated the English idea that "a national debt is a na- 
tional blessing." For a number of years, the orders of the plank-road 
company were in circulation as currency, and formed a large portion of 
the circulating medium in the hands of the people. 

While this road was in process of construction, a greater work claimed 
and occupied the attention of the people. Railways were pushed through 
to "the city " and to Chicago. Through Pine, Westchester and Portage 
Townships, and over the border of Jackson, lay the course of the rails. 
The Lake Shore road and the Michigan Central appeared at our borders 
almost simultaneously. They crossed near Calumet, a village which had 
grown up north of the old "Stage House," and which has since become 
the town of Chesterton. From this time. Porter County was brought 
into direct connection with the outside world. From the county seat a 
rapid drive in an easy coach over the smooth plank floor brought one to 
the railway, where he might enjoy the luxury of travel in "steam cars." 
The first goods received in Porter County by rail were sent on a con- 
struction train from Michigan City in 1851, and landed upon the prairie 
at Old Porter. They were sent to Hubbard Hunt, then a Valparaiso 
merchant. They came by way of the Michigan Central. The Lake 
Shore road was then in process of construction, but the Avork was not so 
far advanced as that of the Central. The mails were henceforth carried 
far more rapidly than hitherto. 

The public buildings of the public square at Valparaiso were com- 
menced in 1850. They consist of the court house and two other build- 
ings for the county offices. The court house was not completed until 
1853. Its cost was about $13,000. It was of a style similar to that of 
La Porte, and had north and south entrances. It had a brick floor and 
the seats were ranged in tiers. At the time of its construction, it was 
one of the best in the State. The delay in its construction was due to 
alleged fraud in the use of unsuitable building materials by the contract- 
ors. Part of the wall in which these materials had been used was torn 
down and rebuilt before the work could be approved. 

In 1850, the new court house was the scene of a very sensational trial. 


A man named Lovering, b}' profession a school teacher and minister, was 
convicted of theft, and sentenced to four years' imprisonment. Three 
years later, a murderer was brought into court, but, owing to popular fury, 
was granted a change of venue. It was John Mcintosh, who murdered 
an old gentleman, Charles Askam, in Pleasant Township. Other changes 
of venue were obtained, and the murderer escaped conviction through a 
legal technicality, being set at liberty at South Bend, two years later. 

The Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway was laid through 
Porter County in 1858. John N. Skinner and Ruel Starr were the prin- 
cipal contractors. The road passed through Valparaiso, where a large 
grain depot was built, and brought a great deal of trade to the county seat. 

In 1869, Henry Andrews was murdered by Philip Schaffer, in a 
saloon, at Valparaiso, and the murderer was sentenced to two years' im- 
prisonment for his crime. 

Among the legislative acts in the sixties was that under which the Kan- 
kakee Valley Draining Association was organized. The assessments made 
upon the lands to be benefited by the draining of the Kankakee region were 
regarded as excessive and unjust. Very bitter feeling was aroused against 
the company, and vigorous denunciations and threats were uttered at 
numerous indignation meetings. The scheme as contemplated was never 
carried out. 

The new jail was built in 1871, opposite the southeast corner of the 
public square in Valparaiso. It cost somewhat more than ^26,500, and 
is a fine piece of architecture. For some years the county had been with- 
out a jail, and the prisoners had been taken to La Porte County for safe 
keeping. Notwithstanding the apparent security of the new prison, there 
were several "jail deliveries" which startled the community and per- 
plexed the oflScers. The famous monte man and desperado known as 
"Texas Jack " was confined here in 1876. His preliminary trial was 
held before Mayor Skinner at the court house. Dense crowds thronged 
the court room, and large numbers of people visited the prisoner at the 
jail. He was held for trial. His pals and supporters in Chicago were 
determined to effect his rescue if possible ; and though a close watch and 
eflScient guard appeared to be maintained, he disappeared one night, hav- 
ing been aided by accomplices in his escape. 

A memorable sensation was caused in 1872 by the discovery of a mur- 
dered man, or a suicide, hanging from a tree a short distance southwest 
of the county seat. The circumstance is a mystery which has never been 
satisfactorily explained. 

The Peninsular Railway reached Valparaiso in 1874. A station was 
established near Prattville and named Malone. It is near the site of the old 
Indian village called by the aborigines " Skeenwa's Town." The Balti- 


more & Ohio Railway was completed at about the same time. In the fall, 
there was a serious riot at Crisman Station, in Portage Township. The 
Baltimore road was resisted by the Michigan Central in its attempt to cross 
the track of the latter. Hundreds of men arrived at the scene. Fire- 
arms were obtained, and, for a time, a fierce and bloody battle seemed 
imminent. Wiser counsels prevailed, the diflficulty was adjusted and the 
track was laid. The next year the town of Sumanville was laid out as a 
station upon this line in Jackson Township. A strong, substantial bridge 
was constructed over the Kankakee River near Mayville, Capt. De Cour- 
cey being the engineer. The Chicago & Lake Huron Railway, formerly 
the Peninsular, passed into the hands of the Grand Trunk, and arrange- 
ments were made to extend the line to Chicago, which work was com- 
pleted the next year. In 1881, the line of the New York, Chicago & 
St. Louis was extended through Porter County to Chicago. The Chicago 
& Atlantic Railway line was also surveyed through our county, and the 
work of construction vigorously pushed. The first of these lines passes 
through Valparaiso, and the last crosses the Pan Handle line at Kout's 

Court continues to be held in the old court-house of 1853, which has 
been so greatly changed since its construction as to be scarcely recogniz- 
able as the same building. A new building is contemplated by the au- 
thorities, being greatly needed at the present time. The only murder 
trials of late years were those of Charles Stevens, in 1879, and Brainerd 
Taft, in 1881. The former was acquitted of the crime alleged; the 
latter was found guilty of the murder of John Dutton, and sentenced to 
the penitentiary for four years. 

While not famous as the home or resort of any large number of 
authors. Porter County has numbered among her citizens several who 
have achieved some distinction as writers. Doubtless the most gifted and 
polished author among Porter County's sons is Col. Gilbert A. Pierce, 
formerly Secretary of the United States Senate, and later editor of the 
Chicago Inter Ocean. His " Dickens* Dictionary " is recognized as a 
standard work in Great Britain as well as in the United States, and has 
received high commendation from the reviewers of both nations. His 
novel, " Zachariah, the Congressman," is a charming story, charmingly 
told, and having a well-arranged plot. Of Col. Peirce's lectures and 
addresses, that entitled " To Laugh or To Cry," is very popular, and 
places him in the front rank of American humorists. 

Hon. Worthy Putnam, of Michigan, was formerly Professor of Elo- 
cution in the V. M. & F. College, at Valparaiso, and published a large, 
admirable work under the title of "Putnam's Elocution." The treatise, 
as well as the selections, showed ability and taste in the authorship and com- 


pilation. Prof. A. Y. Moore, an instructor in the V. C. Institute, wrote 
the "Life of Schuyler Colfax," a well-prepared and interesting biography 
of the Indiana Statesman. Rev. Dr. Sims, now Chancellor of Syracuse 
University, is the author of the "Life of Dr. Eddy," an interesting 
biography in Dr. Sims' happiest style. Miss Frances R. Howe, a grand- 
daughter of the first white settler. Monsieur Joseph Bailly, of Bailly 
Town, is the author of " A Visit to Bois d'Haine," a charming narrative 
of European travel, in which she describes her visit to Louise Lateau, the 
Belgian Stigmatica. Dr. E. W. Fish, a former practitioner of this 
county, and sometime Professor of Cliemistry at Pulte College, Cincin- 
nati, is the author of a large and carefully prepared text-book on chem- 
istry. Rev. J. Milton Kennedy, a Methodist pastor, formerly stationed 
at Chesterton, is the author of a highly commended book of Poems. 
Mr. A. G. Hardesty wrote and published a brief but most interesting his- 
tory of Porter County in 1876, in connection with his admirable atlas of 
the same. J. W. Holcombe, of the Normal, is the author of a text-book 
entitled " The Latin Sentence," published in 1876. It is a valuable 
work of a finished scholar and a practical teacher. Mrs. Lizzie Newell, 
of Fargo, D. T., formerly of Valparaiso, is the author of the " Silent 
Counselor," a beautiful and ingenious work of Scriptural and poetical 
compilation. Prof. 0. P. Kinsey, of the Normal, is the author of an 
admirable little work entitled " The Normal Debater." Mrs. M. Elna 
W. Haverfield, M. D., has written a work entitled " Enlightened 
Woman," on subjects of special interest to her sex. Scientific and tech- 
nical compositions have been written by Harlowe S. Orton, President of 
the Law College of Wisconsin State University ; Orpheus Everts, M. D., 
Superintendent Indiana Asylum for the Insane ; Wooster Beman, Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics at Michigan University, and other former residents 
of Porter County. Of musical composers and publishers, J. William 
Sufi'ene, J. W. Ruggles and Prof. Straub, of Chicago, have been connected 
with institutions of musical instruction at Valparaiso. The Congressional 
speeches of Congressmen Calkins and De Motte would form a large 
volume. These gentlemen resided for many years at Valparaiso, and the 
last mentioned is now a resident of that city. 

County Commissioners. — Noah Fowts, 1836 ; Benjamin Spencer, 
1836-37 ; John Seff'on, 1836-37 ; J. Y. Wright, 1837-38 ; James Wal- 
ton (who is an 1812 pensioner and lives in Michigan, where he went with 
his son in 1872), 1839 ; Jonathan Griffin, 1838 ; John Jones, 1838 ; 
Joshua Hobart, 1839; John H. Whistler, 1839-40; Reason Bell, 1840- 
43 ; Thomas J. Field, 1843 (appointed by Probate Court to fill vacancy 
occasioned by the resignation of Col. Whistler) ; Jesse Morgan, 1841- 
42 ; John Dinwiddle, 1841-43 ; Russel Dorr, 1843-44 ; Nathaniel Saw- 


yer, 1843-45 ; Richard W. Jones, 1844-46 ; Samuel Olinger, 1845-46 ; 
Isaac Morgan, 1846-48; J. Dinwiddle, 1847-50; Walker McCool, 
1848-51 ; Azariah Freeman, 1849-50 ; Ruel Starr, 1850-55 ; Asa Cobb, 
1850-53 ; Alexander Chambers, 1851-53 : Ira Cornell, 1853-57 ; H. E. 
Woodruff, 1854-57; Asa Cobb, 1857-60; John Hardesty, 1855-67; 
William Williams, 1857-58 ; Eli B. Lansing, 18^8-62; W. Stoddard, 
1860-61; L. A. Cass, 1861-62; S. P. Robbins, 1862-65; A. B.Price, 
1862-63 ; William Stoddard, 1863-67 ; Edward C. Osborn, 1865-68 ; 
T. B. Cole, 1867 ; A. B. Price, 1867 ; A. V. Bartholemew, 1868 ; S. P. 
Robbins, 1868; Andrew J. Harrison, 1874; L. P. Scott. 1876; Fred- 
erick Burstrom, 1880 ; Nicholas Pickrell, 1880. 

Common Pleas Judges. — First, H. Lawson ; second, William C. Tal- 
cott ; third, Hiram A. Gillette. Office abolished in 1872. 

Judges Circuit Court. — First, Samuel Sample, of South Bend ; sec- 
ond, E. M. Chamberlin, of Goshen ; third, Robert Lowry, of Goshen ; 
fourth, Thomas Stanfield, of South Bend ; fifth, Andrew Osborn, of La 
Porte ; sixth, Hiram A. Gillett, of Valparaiso ; seventh, Elisha C. 
Fields, of Crown Point. 

Treasurers.— W\\\\2im Walker, 1836-39 ; T. A. E. Campbell, 1839 ; 
resigned ; G. W. Salisbury, appointed in his stead, 1839-40 ; John W. 
Wright, 1840-43 ; T. A. E. Campbell, 1841-44 ; Elias Axe, 1844-47 ; 
E. Campbell, 1847-51 ; John Ball, 1851-53 ; William Wilson, 1853-55 ; 
0. L Skinner, 1855-59; Warren Dunning, 1859-63; S. W. Smith, 
1863-67 ; F. F. B. Coffin, 1871-75 ; J. W. Felton, 1875-79 ; J. W. 
Crumpacker, 1879. 

Auditors. — George W. Turner, 1841, appointed ; Philander A. Paine, 
1841-43, resigned ; Ellis E. Campbell, 1843, appointed; Ruel Starr, 
1843; S. W. Smith, 1843-58; Reason Bell, 1858-66 ; Z. B. Field, 
1866-70 ; Reason Bell, 1870-78 ; William E. Brown, 1878. 

Sheriffs. — Benjamin Saylor, appointed by Governor 1836; George 
Cline, 1837 ; Charles G. Merrick, 1838-43 ; John W. Wright, appointed, 
1843 ; Moses Trim, Richard W. Jones, Vincent Thomas. 1850-52 ; 
Thomas G. Lytle, 1852-56 ; Thomas B. Cole, Stephen L. Bartholemew, 
Henry Binamon, Robert Jones, 1872-76; James Malone, 1876-80; 
Charles Dickover, 1880. 

Judges., Probate Court. — 1st. Jesse Johnson — Seneca Ball and James 
Blair, Associate Judges. 2d. George W. Turner — Enos Thomas and 
John Herr, Associate Judges. 3d. Nathaniel Campbell — H. E. Wood- 
ruff and Benjamin N. Spencer, Associate Judges. 4th. William Talcott. 
6th. John Jones (appointed to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resigna- 
tion of Judge Talcott, who remained on the bench about six months, till 
the office was abolished in 1852). 


Clerks.-^l&i. George W. Turner, 1836-43. 2d. John C. Ball, 1843- 
50. 3d. William W. Jones, 1850-55. 4th. 0. Dunham, 1855-59. 5th. E. 
J. Jones, 1859-67. 6th. S. W. Smith, 1867-71. 7th. R. P. Wells, 
1871-79. 8th. John Felton, 1879—. 

Recorders.— Ut. Cyrus Spurlock, 1836-39. 2d. George W. Salis- 
bury, 1839-41 (appointed to fill the vacancy occasioned by the removal 
of Cyrus Spurlock) ; Obediah Dunham, 1850-55 ; Edna L. Whitcomb, 
1855-59 ; Thomas Jewel, 1859-67 ; Henry Stoddard, 1867-75 ; Thomas 
C. Shepard, 1875-79 ; William C. Wells, 1879—. 

Senators. — In 1837, our Senatorial District was composed of the 
counties of La Porte, Newton, White and Pulaski. Our State Senator 
was Charles W. Cathcart, 1837-70 ; Sylvanus Everetts, 1840-43. In 
1842, the district was changed so as to contain only La Porte, Porter and 
Lake. Joseph W. Chapman, 1842-45 ; Andrew L. Osborn, 1845-49 ; 
Abraham Teegarden, 1849-51 (no record for 1852) ; Samuel I. Anthony, 
1853-57 ; Morgan H. Wier, 1857-58. In 1859, Porter, Lake and Jas- 
per — Senator, David Turner, 1859-61. In 1863, Porter, Lake, Jasper 
and Newton — Senator, Ezra Wright, 1863-65. In 1869, Porter, Lake 
and Newton — Senator, Erwin Church, 1867-69. In 1871, Porter and 
Lake— Senator, Richard Wadge, 1871-75; D. L. Skinner, 1875-79. 
Thomas Wood, 1879—. 

Representatives. — In 1836, Porter and Newton Counties composed 
our Representative District. Representatives: Benjamin McCarty, 
1836 ; Jeremiah Hamil, 1837 (no report for 1838-39). In 1840, Porter 
and Lake, represented by Seneca Ball, 1840-41 ; Lewis Warriner, 1841 ; 
Adam S. Campbell, 1842-43 ; Alexander McDonald, 1843-44 ; Samuel 
I. Anthony, 1844-45 ; Alexander McDonald, 1845-46 ; Harvey E. 
Woodruff, 1846-47 ; Alexander McDonald, 1847 ; Benjamin Spencer, 
1848 ; Lewis Warriner, 1849-50 ; William H. Harrison, 1850-51. In 
1851, Porter County was formed into one distinct district, and repre- 
sented by Gideon Brecount, 1851-53 ; Artillus Bartholomew, 1853-55; 
Andrew B. Pierce, 1854-57 (no record for 1859) ; Robert A. Cameron, 
1861 ; Levi A. Cass, 1863-65; Firmin Church, 1865; John F. McCar- 
ty, 1865-67 ; Gilbert A. Pierce, 1867-69 ; William H. Calkins, 1869- 
73; Theophilus Crumpacker, 1873-78; S. S. Skinner, 1878—. 


Amount of money in County Treasury May, 1882 $53,895.97 

Amount of permanent school fund of county May, 1882 $43,037.91 

School enumeration of county May, 1882 5,496 

Number of schoolhouses — 26 brick, 68 frame, May, 1882 94 

Value of schoolhouses, grounds, seats, etc., May, 1882 |124,280 

Value of school apparatus May, 1882 $3,817 

Number volumes in township libraries May, 1882 460 

Population of County.— In \%4.0, 2,155; 1850,5,229; 1860, 10,295; 1870, 13,903; 
1880, 17,229. 3 



Meadow and Hat, 



Ibish Potatoes, 

Sweet Potatoes, 








































956 ' 




3474 ! 
1981 , 



20 1320 
50 5450 
67 21842 
40 : 5160 
15 2400 
20 ■ 8880 
25 3760 
50 2500 
30 5560 
25 ; 4625 
25 7625 







908 : 



36 3745 





15347 ' 

32 1 72847 



Total last year 















WHEAT IX 1881. 



Total 18,382 

Total last year! 25,016 











CORN IN 1881. 


Bush, per 


2 c 






OATS IN 1881. 

8371 26 
802i 30 






4671 20 
1,205{ 25 
2,074 26 

939 30 
2,730| 30 

382i 26 









Creation of Porter County— Its Existence under La Porte Jxjrisdic- 
TiON— Early Subdivisions and Election Eeturns— French and In- 
dian Land Claims— Sale of Public Lands— Organization of the 
County— Proceedings of the Comjiissioners- The County Seat- 
Public HiGHAVAYS— The Library Association— The County Semi- 
nary—The Bible Society— Township Boundary Alteration— Linn 
County — Temperance Organizations— The Poor Farm— The Agri- 
cultural Society— Old Settlers' Association— The County Press 
—Politics— Statistics. 

THE County of Porter had its first political existence in the month of 
March, 1835, at which time the County Commissioners of La Porte 
County, then having jurisdiction over the soil now comprising the counties 
of Porter and Lake, ordered that all the territory west of the La Porte 
County line and attached to that county should be laid off in election 
districts or townships as follows : 

The township of Waverly to be bounded on the north by Lake Mich- 
igan, east by the La Porte County line, south by the line between Town- 
ships 35 and 36 north, and west by the line through the center of Range 
6 west. The township of Morgan to be bounded on the north by the 
south line of Waverly Township, east by the La Porte County line, south 
by the Kankakee River, and west by the line through the center of Range 
6 west. The township of Ross to include all the attached territory west 
of the line through the center of Range 6 west. 

At the time of the creation of these townships, an election of two Jus- 
tices of the Peace and other officers was ordered held at the house of 
Isaac Morgan for Morgan Township, at the town of Waverly for Waverly 
Township, and at the house of Cyrus Spurlock for Ross Township. John 
J. Foster was appointed Inspector of the election in Waverly Township ; 
Isaac Morgan, of the election in Morgan Township, and Benjamin Mc- 
Carty, of the election in Ross Township. The following is the result of 
the three elections, with the number of votes polled for each can- 
didate : 

Waverly Toiunship. — Justice of the Peace, John J. Foster, 18 ; Eli- 
jah Casteel, 11 ; John Sefford, 7. Constable, Owen Crumpacker, 15 ; 
Jacob Beck, 14. Superintendent of Roads, Eli Hendricks, 16 ; L. G. 
Jackson, 5; Abraham Snodgrass, 11. Overseers of the Poor, Jesse Mor- 
gan, 16 ; William Frame, 16. Fence Viewers, Alexander Crawford, 14; 


Edmund Tratebas, 14. Inspector of Elections, William Gosset, 1 ; John 
J. Foster, 1. Total number of votes polled, 32; the following being the 
only names which appear upon the records : Jesse Morgan, J. J. Foster, 
William Conant, Lemuel G. Jackson, S. N. Clark, William Gosset, 
Clark Waldriss, Owen Crumpacker, Elijah Casteel, Peter Ritter, Mere- 
deth Braylock, William Downing, Jacob Beck, Isaac Mossey, Pressley 
Warnick, Abraham Snodgrass, Daniel W. Lyons, William Calhoun and 
Thomas J. Wyatt. 

Morgan Township. — Justice of the Peace, Adam S. Campbell, 26 ; 
George Cline, 26. Constable, T. A. E. Campbell, 25 ; Jones Frazee, 25 ; 
William Morgan, 1. Supervisor of Roads, Henry Rinker, 21 ; R. C. 
Brayton, 19. Overseers of the Poor, Reason Bell, Sr., 25; Jacob Cole- 
man, 25. Fence Viewers, Jacob Coleman, 24 ; Benjamin Saylor, 24. 
Inspector of Elections, Isaac Morgan, 26. Total number of votes polled, 
26, by the following persons : Henry Rinker, Benjamin Saylor, Henry 
H. Williams, White B. Smith, James Blair, Jonathan Moulton, Jacob 
Fleming, John Coleman, James Frazee, William Morgan, William Bill- 
ings, James Laughlin, Jeremiah Bartholomew, Reason Bell, Adam S. 
Campbell, George Cline, Warner Pierce, Jacob Coleman, Edmund Bill- 
ings, Peter D. Cline, Russel Brayton, Stephen Brayton, Robert Walters, 
Isaac Morgan, T. A. E. Campbell and Reason Reed. 

Ross Township. — Justices of the Peace, James Turner, 29, William 
B. Crooks, 28 ; Constable, George W. Turner, 27, John Huntley, 13, 
John G. Forbes, 14 ; Overseers of the Poor, Benjamin McCarty, 5, The- 
ophilus Blake, 22, John G. Forbes, 24 ; Superintendent of Roads, Daniel 
Turner, 13, Richard Clark, 7, John Huntley, 9 ; Fence Viewers, Moses 
Wilson, 25, James Walton, 25 ; Inspector of Elections, Benjamin Mc- 
Carty, 14, Samuel Haviland, 2. Total voters, 29, as follows : Richard 
Clark, William D. Wolf, Theopilus Blake, John Lyons, Michael Young, 
Moses Wilson, David Spurlock, John Spurlock, Stephen Spurlock, Cyrus 
Spurlock, George Spurlock, Barzilla Bunnel, Knighton Parrott, John G. 
Forbes, Benjamin McCarty, John Huntley, Samuel Haviland, Wright P. 
Taylor, George W. Turner, Burton Blake, William B. Crooks, Daniel 
Turner, Noah Fouts, Pascal Coghill, Jesse Pierce, James W. Turner, Ja- 
cob Hurlburt, John Wolf and Mason Randle. 

It must not be thought that the above men were the only ones resid- 
ing in their respective townships ; for it will be observed that votes were 
polled for men Avho were absent, or the names of all present were not re- 
turned upon the tally sheets by the officers of the election. The follow- 
ing vote polled in August of the same year shows a population but little 
heavier^ The returns of Waverly Township could not be found : 








County Com- 























































r% 1 -; 



1 1 d 




















































As the three townships — Morgan, Ross and Waverly — had no exist- 
ence except as a part of La Porte County, the returns of this election 
were counted in with the general vote of that county ; and but two of the 
candidates voted for, so far as known, resided within the limits of the ter- 
ritory now comprising the county of Porter. These men were John J. 
Foster and Benjamin Spurlock. At that period in the history of what 
afterward became Porter County, partisan lines were not strictly drawn, 
and political ambition was scarcely known. The empty honor of oflBcial 
position was regarded with indifference, as no profit was to be seen, save 
the stern discipline associated with the self-denial incident to a life lived 
within the salary received. As such profit was regarded as a burden, and 
as it was abundantly found, the early settlers were not anxious that it 
should be increased. With the exception of a few accidentally favored 
positions, the pay of office was merely nominal, and possessed no attrac- 
tion to those who were fortunate in owning a goodly share of this world's 
goods. The few county offices which afforded suitable recompense for 
time and labor, were as seduously sought as at the present day. Money 
in this new country was so extremely scarce, and the investments to be 
made with it Avere so filled with promise, that men of every degree of in- 
telligence and responsibility sought eagerly for any employment which 
would yield financial returns. The settlers were a motley collection of the 
representatives of every State in the East, and of many European nations, 
with habits of life and views of public polity diametrically opposed ; and, 
from the start, the clashing of settled conviction, and the unfavorable in- 
fluence of personal prejudice were forcibly felt in every public gathering 
until the waves of disunion in thought were hushed to silence and har- 
mony. The only unison in views was upon the subject of the accumula- 
tion of property. Speculators appeared with prodigious pocket books, and 
founded their fortunes. The impecunious and unscrupulous sought by 
art and intrigue to accomplish what their conspicuous lack of funds pre- 
vented. The billows of speculation of that inflated financial period swept 
over the county ; and unbounded faith in sudden transitions from poverty 



to wealth took possession of every breast. Notwithstanding the lack of 
money in this new country, commercial transactions were conducted with 
reckless prodigality. Debts were contracted under the insane delusion 
that their ultimate liquidation would be the careless pleasure of some 
future day. Counterfeiters overran the county, offering tempting baits to 
the unwise or unwary. Every commercial transaction or relation became 
filled with the wind of false promise, and was distended out of all propor- 
tion. Many of the settlers of the years 1834, 1835 and 1836 invested 
their last dollar in land at spots which, to them, seemed the most likely 
to become important, and even went so far as to borrow money on the 
security of their land to devote to the same insane purpose. Scores of 
mortgages were given under the fancied security that the lifting of the 
same was an afterthought of no moment or consequence. The result is a 
matter of history. The distressing financial crash of 1837 produced a 
chaos. Money, which had so long represented inflated values, fell pros- 
trate to the basis of actual worth. Men who, the day before, had counted 
their ducats by the thousands, now sorrowfully counted them by hun- 
dreds, or even by dozens. The distress was universal, is well known, 
and need not be detailed. The hard times were gradually overcome ; and 
the lesson that prosperity is often as dangerous as adversity was taught by 
wretched experience, and will not be forgotten. 

Land Entries. — The following tracts of land were the first entered in 
Porter county, and all that were entered prior to January 1, 1834, in- 
cluding the Indian and the French reservations that were made at the 
treaty of October 16, 1826, when that portion of the county north of an 
east and west line through the southern point of Lake Michigan, became 
the property of the Government by cession from the Pottawatomies and 
the treaty of October 27, 1832, when all the county south of such line 
became the property of the Government, except, of course, the reserva- 
tions which were not approved by the President until 1836 : 



William Burnett 14 

Joseph Bailly 27 

Old Man Macito 6 

Chop-i-tuck 23 

M. A. Briiner 9 

Kesis-sliadouah 5 

Lemis-shadonah 7 

Mis-sink-quo-quah 8 

Peter Lauglois, Jr H 

Mas-coh 17 

Layette Allins Vi 

Pa-peer-k.'ih 22 

Louis Burnett 5 





Range. Acres. 


Date of Entry. 

:By treaty Oct. 16, 1826; 

j approved 1837. 

S. E. \ iDecember 1, 1880. 

By treaty Oct. 27,1832 

' approVed 1836. 


N. E. \ Same. 


5 640 

6 159.80 
5 661.41 

5 640 

5 160 

5 578.24 

5 320.33 I Same. 

5 640 Same. 

6 320 IE. i Same. 

5 160 In. W. } Same. 

6 160 ,N. E. \ Same. 

7 640 Same. 

5 592.44 1 Same. 






Francis De Jeans 

Polly Griffiths 



Ursule Duquindres 


John Brown and Isaac Morgan. 

Joseph Bailly 






William Gosset 

James and Ira Morgan 

James and Joseph Morgan 

John Brown 

William A. Welsh 















































































IE. ^, N. E. \ 

S. frac. N. E. J., 

W. ^ N. E. J 

S. E. \ 

E. h S. W. i 

N. frac 

N. frac. N. E. ^. 
W. J S. W. J 

!w. |n. w. j.... 
IE. ;^s. w. 1 

jS. E. \ 

Iw. k S. W. I 

Date of Entry. 


Aug. 13, 1833. 
Aug. 15, 1833. 
Aug. 15, 1833. 
Aug. 14, 1833. 
Aug. 15, 1833. 
Oct. 21, 1833. 
Oct. 21, 1833. 
Nov. 7, 1833. 
Dec. 18, 1833. 
Dec. 18, 1833. 
Dec. 2G, 1833. 
Dec. 30, 1833. 

During the year 1834, there were entered in the county fifty-nine 
tracts of land, representing an aggregate of 5080.75 acres, all of which, 
without exception, was in Townships 36 and 37 north. In 1835, 938 
tracts were entered in the county, as this was the year that the land south 
of the old Indian line running through the southern point of Lake Michi- 
gan was thrown into market, and there was a great rush into the new 
county by speculators and by those who expected to become residents. 
During this year, 1835, nearly 90,000 acres of land in the county were 
entered at the Government price of ^1.25 per acre. Eight thousand and 
eighty acres of Wabash & Erie Canal lands were located in Porter 
County, the first sale of the same occurring in 1843 and the last in 1862. 
This land was confined to Townships 34 and 36, Range 7. Three thou- 
sand two hundred acres of Michigan road land were also sold in 1835. 
The State has derived no little income from the sale of the swamp lands 
in Porter County, that were donated by Congress. The splendid systems 
of drainage, both county and State, have reclaimed large tracts of land 
that in early years were very wet or covered with water. There has been 
spent in the county for open and underground drainage not less than 
$200,000. The first great ditches began to be built between 1850 and 
1860, and since then many others have been added at high expense. 
The Kankakee Drainage Company flourished for a time at the very 
zenith of pleasurable anticipation, but the citizens were too wise to be 
caught by these Shylocks, and therefore did not have to pay a pound of 
flesh nearest the heart. 

Creation and Organization of Present County. — No other changes 
were made in the civil division of what, in 1836, became Porter 
County, than those made by the Commissioners of La Porte County as 


above described, until the winter of 1835-36, at which time the following 
enactment was passed by the State Legislature : 

Section I. — Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That from 
and after the first day of February next, all that tract of country included in the follow- 
ing boundary lines shall form and constitute the county of Porter, to wit : Commencing at 
the northwest corner of La Porte County, thence running south to the Kankakee River, 
thence west with the bed of said river to the center of Range 7, thence north to the State 
line, thence east to the place of beginning. And all that part of the country that lies 
north of the Kankakee River and west of the county of Porter within the State of In- 
diana, shall form and constitute a new county, to be known and designated by the name 
of Lake County. 

Sec. 2. That the county of Porter shall, from and after the first day of Febru- 
ary next, enjoy and possess all the rights, privileges, benefits and jurisdictions, which, to 
separate and independent counties do, or may properly belong. 

Sec. 3. That Joel Long, of Kosciusko, Andrew Wilson, of Fountain, Mathias Daw- 
son and Judah Leaming, of La Porte, and William L. Earl, of St. Joseph, Counties be, and 
they are hereby appointed Commissioners agreeably to the act entitled " An Act fixing 
the seat of justice in all new counties hereafter to be laid off." The Commissioners afore- 
said shall meet on the first Monday in June next, or any day thereafter they may agree 
upon, at the house of Thomas Butler, in the said county of Porter, and shall proceed im- 
mediately to perform the duties required of them by law, and it shall be the duty of the 
Sherifi" of the county of St. Joseph to notify said Commissioners, either in person or by 
writing, of their appointment, and for such services, said Sheriff shall receive such com- 
pensation as the board, doing county business of Porter County, may deem reasonable. 

Sec. 4. The Circuit Court and Board of County Commissioners shall hold their ses- 
sions as near the center of the county of Porter as a convenient place can be had until 
the public buildings shall be erected. 

Sec. 5. The county of Porter shall be attached to the Eighth Judicial Circuit of this 
State for judicial purposes. 

Sec. 6. The board doing county business may, as soon as elected and qualified, hold 
special sessions not exceeding three days during the first year after the organization of 
said county, and shall make all necessary appointments, and do and perform all other 
business which may or might have been necessary to be performed at any other regular 
session, and take all necessary steps to collect the State and county revenue, any law or 
usage to the contrary notwithstanding. 

Sec. 7. This act to be in force from and after its passage. 

Caleb B. Smith, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Approved, 28th of anuary, 1836. 

N. Noble. David Wallace, 

President of the Senate. 

During the same session of the Legislature that the above creating 
enactment was passed, provision was made for the organization of Porter 
County by the appointment of Benjamin Saylor, Sheriff, with full power 
to order an election of two Associate Judges of the Circuit Court, three 
Commissioners, one Clerk of the Court, and one Recorder, and to trans- 
act other necessary business. Accordingly, an election of such officers 
was ordered held on the 23d day of February, 1836, and resulted as fol- 
lows : 







Isaac Morgan ... 
John Spurloek... 
Morris Witham., 
L. G. Jackson... 
William Gosset.. 



46 ] 18 
32 1 35 


• i 90 


63 123 



25 24 

137 1122 156 






The following more fully explains this table : At an election held at 
the house of William Gosset February 23, 1836, for the purpose of 
electing two Associate Judges of the Circuit Court, three County Com- 
missioners, a Clerk of the Circuit Court, and a Recorder for the county 
the following men voted : James Turner, Pressley Warnick, John Saylor, 
Jesse McCord, Samuel Haviland, William Nernon, Beda Cornell, James 
Thomas, Isaac Sanford, John Hageman, William Gosset, Jacob Beck, 
William Coleman, John Reed, Jeremiah Frame, William Thomas, Enos 
Thomas, Benjamin Joslin, William McCoy, William Frame, Jesse Mor- 
gan, John Casteel, Eli Hendricks, Curtis Parkes, Samuel Thomas, Abra- 
ham Hall. Total, 26. 

The vote for the same candidates on the same day at the house of 
Isaac Morgan, in Morgan Township was polled by the following men : 

John Coleman, Jacob Coleman, D. S. Holland, John Blair, Jacob 
Fleming, Isaac Thomas, Levi Chamberlin, James M. Buel, William Mor- 
gan, John Herron, P. D. Cline, Reason Bell, Andrew Ault, Stephen 
Brayton, Joseph Hines, Benjamin Taylor, Orrin Lewis, J. S. Heming, 
Peter Hesser, Reason Reed, Antony Boggs, Henry Stoner, Sanford 
Hammond, W. B. Smith, Simon Drouillard, George Cain, Edmund Bil- 
lings, Asa Hughes, Benjamin Bingham, James Blair, William Bingham, 
Benjamin Reed, G. Z. Salyer, Henry Rinker, James Laughlin, G. Hughes, 
John Robinson, John R. Sargent, Robert Wallace, Nelson H. Smith, 
Benjamin Carr, William MofFord, Joshua Goodrich, John Jones, A. G. 
Denison, Isaac Morgan, Samuel Stoner, Peter Wininger, Isaac Wininger, 
Sperry Howard, Henry Barklow, Enos Neil, Warner Winslow, Frederick 
Wininger, John B. Taylor. Total, 55. 

The vote for the same candidates on the same day at the house of 
Morris Witham was cast by the following persons : 

Adam S. Campbell, Wiley James, Morris Witham, Charles Allen, 
Washington Ault, Martin Reed, John Bartholomew, Jesse Johnson, 
Christopher Barns, Asahel Neil, Miller Parker, M. Coghill, George 


Shoultz, G. W. Coghill, Benjamin Spencer, Jacob Kinsey, William Bil- 
lings, John Adams, James Ross, James Palmer, Joseph Bartholomew, 
Henry S. Adams, G. W. Turner, Enoch Billings. Total, 24. 

The vote for the same candidates, on the same day, at the house of 
John Spurlock, in Ross Township, was cast by the following men : 
Washington Williams, John F. McGrew, Preston Blake, Wright Taylor, 
William Brim, Richard Clark, Joseph Willey, John F. Walton, Eri 
Fouts, John Conway, Henry Herold, Ezra Crosby, Sylvester Forbes, 
Theophilus Blake, James Walton, David Spurlock, John G. Forbes, 
William Wolf, Edwin Abbott, H. S. Webster, Stephen Spurlock, P. A. 
Paine, Russell Darr, James Conant, W. A. Nichols, Lewis Walton, 
Edmund Wolf, George Spurlock, Jacob Wolf, John Spurlock, Noah 
Fouts, Moses Wilson, Cyrus Spurlock, Andrew Wilson, Joseph Wilson ; 
total, 35. 

The vote for the same candidates, on the same day, at the house of 
L. G. Jackson, was polled by the following men : William Eaton, Sam- 
uel Olinger, James M. Davis, Alexander Crawford, Thomas Crawford, 
L. G. Jackson, Lewis Todhunter, Lewis Casteel, William Calhoun, Eli- 
jah Casteel, Joel Crumpacker, Griffin Holbert, Abraham Snodgrass, D. 
W. Lyons, Jerry Todhunter, William Downing, Solomon Hobaugh, John 
Casteel, Ruel Starr, James Spurlock, A. K. Paine, Owen Crumpacker, 
Thomas J. Wyatt, John Sefford, H. A. K. Paine, John P. Noble, G. W. 
Faulkner, William Snavely, Benjamin McCarty, Joel Walker, H. E. 
Woodruff, Levi Massey, Joseph Wright, William Walker, Nelson Ellison, 
Alfred Winter, J. S. Wallace, J. R. C. Brown, Mordecai Massey, Roby 
R. Parrott ; total, 40 ; grand total, 180. 

The following action of the first Board of Commissioners is taken 
from the record of the Auditor of Porter County : 

At a special session of the Board of Commissioners in and for the county of Porter 
aforesaid, begun on the 12th of April, 1836, the following persons came forward and pro- 
duced their certificates of election, signed by the Sheriff of said county, with the necessary 
oath of office indorsed thereon : John Sefford, Benjamin N. Spencer and Noah Fouts. Also 
present George W. Turner, Clerk of said Commissioners' Court, and Benjamin Saylor, 
Sheriff of said county. 

Ordered by the Board, That for the purpose of electing township officers for the 
county of Porter, the following district of said county shall form and constitute a town- 
ship to be known by the name of Lake: Commencing at the northeast corner of Porter 
County, thence south with said county line to the line dividing Townships 36 and 37, 
thence west on said line to the southeast corner of Section 31, Township 37 north, Range 
5 west, thence north to the State line, thence east to the place of beginning. 

That the following territory shall constitute a township to be known by the name of 
Jackson: Commencing at the northeast corner of Section 1, Township 36 north, Range 
5 west, thence running south with the county line to the southeast corner of Section 36, 
Township 36 north. Range 5 west, thence west to the southwest corner of Section 32, 
Township 36, Range 5, thence north to the southwest corner of Lake Township, thence 
east to the place of beginning. 


That the following territory shall constitute a township to be known as Washington : 
Commencing at the northeast corner of Section 1, Township 35, Range 5, thence south 
with said county line to the southeast corner of Section 36 in said town, thence west to 
the southwest corner of Section 32, Township 35, Range 5, thence north to the southwest 
corner of Jackson Township, thence east to the place of beginning. 

That the following territory shall constitute a township to be known by the name of 
Pleasant: Commencing at the southeast corner of Porter County, thence north to the 
northeast corner of Section 1, Township 34, Range 5, thence west with the southern 
boundary of Washington Township to the southwest corner of the same, thence south to 
the Kankakee River, thence east with the same to tlie place of beginning. 

That the following territory shall constitute a township to be known as Boone : Com- 
mencing at the southwest corner of Pleasant Township, thence north with the western 
boundary of Pleasant to the northwest corner of the same, thence west with the line 
dividing Townships 34 and 35 to the county line, thence south to the southwest corner of 
Porter County, thence east with the Kankakee River to the place of beginning. 

That the following territory shall constitute a township to be known as Centre : Com- 
mencing at the southwest corner of AVashington Township, thence north to the southwest 
corner of Jackson Township, thence west to the northwest corner of Section 4, Township 
35, Range 6, thence south to the southwest corner of Section 33, Township 35, Range 6, 
thence east to the place of beginning. 

That the following territory shall constitute a township to be known as Liberty: 
Commencing at the northwest corner of Washington Township, thence north to the south- 
west corner of Lake Township, thence west to the northwest corner of Section 4, Town- 
ship 86, Range 6, thence south to the southwest corner of Section 33, Township 36, 
Range 6, thence east to the place of beginning. 

That the following territory shall constitute a township to be known as Waverly : 
Commencing at the southwest corner of Lake Township, thence west to the county line, 
thence north with said line to the northwest corner of the county, thence east with the 
northern boundary line of the county to the northwest corner of Lake Township, thence 
south to the place of beginning. 

That the following territory shall constitute a township to be known as Portage : 
Commencing at the northwest corner of Liberty Township, thence west to the county 
line, thence south to the southwest corner of Section 34, Township 36, Range 7, thence 
east to the southwest corner of Liberty Township, thence north to the place of beginning. 

And that the following territory shall constitute a township to be known as Union: 
Commencing at the northwest corner of Centre Township, thence west to the county line, 
thence south to the northwest corner of Boone Township, thence east to the southwest 
corner of Centre Township, thence north to the place of beginning. 

The Board adjourned to meet the following morning at 9 o'clock A. 
M. At this session it was ordered that an election of one Justice of the 
Peace be held in every township that had been created the day before, 
except in the township of Washington, which was to have two such 
officers ; and the election for Washington Township was ordered held on 
the 30th of April, 1836, at the residence of Isaac Morgan, who was 
appointed Inspector of Election. At the same session an election was 
ordered for Jackson Township, to be held on the same day (30thj, at the 
residence of Asahel K. Paine, and Samuel Olinger was appointed In- 
spector. The election for Lake Township was ordered held, same time, 
at the residence of Edward Harper, who was appointed Inspector. The 


election for Waverly Township was ordered held, same time, in the town 
of Waverly, and William Gosset became Inspector by appointment. The 
election for Liberty Township was ordered held, same time, at the house 
of Daniel Y. Kesler, and Jerry Todhunter was appointed Inspector. An 
election for the same date was ordered for Centre Township, to be held 
at the house of C A. Ballard, and G. Z. Salyer became Inspector. An 
election the same date was ordered for Pleasant Township, to be held at 
the house of Henry Adams, with William Billings, Inspector. An elec- 
tion on the same date for the township of Boone was ordered held at the 
house of Jesse Johnson, with Asahel Neil, Inspector. An election was 
ordered for the township of Union, on the same day, to be held at the 
house of George W. Turner, with James Walton, Inspector. An elec- 
tion on the same day, for the township of Portage, was ordered held at 
the house of Jacob Wolf, Sr., with James Spurlock, Inspector. George 
Cline was appointed Assessor for all that portion of the county lying 
south of the line dividing Townships 35 and 36 ; Peter Ritter, same, for 
all the county lying north of such line, and John Adams, same, for all 
the attached territory on the west (Lake County). 

At the May term of the Board (1836) the county was divided into 
Commissioners' Districts as follows : All the territory lying south of the 
line dividing Townships 34 and 35 to be District No. 1 ; all the territory 
lying between the line dividing Townships 34 and 35, and the line divid- 
ing Townships 35 and 36 to be District No. 2 ; and all the territory 
north of the line dividing Townships 35 and 36 to be District No. 3. At 
the May term of the board, Benjamin McCarty, County Treasurer, re- 
ported that no moneys had been received by him yet in virtue of his 
official position; whereupon Benjamin Saylor was appointed County Col- 
lector. John P. Noble was appointed Constable of Jackson Township ; 
Thomas Crawford, Supervisor of Roads ; Joseph Wright and Levi Massey, 
Overseers of the Poor ; James M. Davis and Luther Jefferson, Fence 
Viewers ; all for Jackson Township. For Liberty Township, Daniel W. 
Lyons was appointed Constable ; Jesse Morgan and Richard Clark, Over- 
seers of the Poor; William Downing and Edmund Tratebas, Fence View- 
ers, and Solomon Habans, Supervisor of Roads. For Pleasant Township, 
Archibald Demand was appointed Constable ; Morris Witham, Supervisor 
of Roads ; Thomas Adams and Morris Witham, Overseers of the Poor; 
John Adams and John Jones, Fence Viewers. For Union Township, E. 
W. Fonts was appointed Constable ; Richard Henthorn, Supervisor of 
Roads ; Daniel Turner and David Spurlock, Overseers of the Poor ; 
Washington Williams and B. Bunnell, Fence Viewers. For Ross Town- 
ship, John Young was appointed Constable ; Royal Benton, Supervisor 
of Roads ; Daniel Wallsworth and William Thornburg, Overseers of the 

history' OF PORTER COUNTY. 41 

Poor ; W. B. Crooks and Jesse Pierce, Fence Viewers. For Portage 
Township — James Connett, Constable; William Brim, Supervisor of 
Roads ; T. Blake and Jacob Wolf, Overseers of the Poor ; John Wolf 
and Stephen Spurlock, Fence Viewers. William Billine;s was appointed 
Seminary Trustee of Porter County. 

The following is the three months' report of William Walker, County 
Treasurer, rendered November, 1836 : 

From Benjamin Walker, former Treasurer $4 87 

From Ebenezer Clark, license 93 

From Francis Willey, license 10 00 

From Ebenezer Clark, license 10 00 

From Samuel Haviland, license 56^ 

Total $26 36|^ 

By order to G. W. Turner | 50 

By order to G. W. Turner 87^ 

By order to G. W. Turner 3 00 

By order to G. W. Turner 10 00 

By order to G. A. Ballard 2 50 

By order to 3 00 

Balance on hand 6 48| 

Total $26 36} 

The following is the report of the Commissioners selected by the State 
Legislature, as will be seen by the enactment several pages back, to locate 
the county seat of Porter County : 

The undersigned Commissioners to locate the county seat of Porter County, Ind., 
make the following report : That they met, pursuant to agreement, on Tuesday, the 7th 
inst., at the house of Thomas Butler, and were duly sworn to discharge the duties of Com- 
missioners to locate the county seat of Porter County, Ind.; that they proceeded to view 
all the sites on Tuesday and Wednesday following, and inquired upon what terms the 
same might be secured ; that after duly inspecting the different sites and taking into con- 
sideration all the matters to which the law called their particular attention, your Com- 
missioners concluded that the southwest quarter of Section 24, Township 35 north. Range 
6 west, was the most eligible site for said county seat. Your Commissioners accordingly 
gave notice that they were ready to receive proposals, if any were to be made, of this or 
other parts for such county seat. The Commissioners received from the proprietors of 
said town (Portersville) and others donations of each alternate lot — 192 lots to be laid 
out at or near the center of said southwest quarter of Section 24, Township 35, Range 6» 
and a donation of forty acres of land — part of Section 20, Township 35, Range 6, and 
donations of money, for a more particular description of which you are referred to the 
bonds filed herewith. Your Commissioners then proceeded to the said southwest quarter 
of Section 24, and located the county seat upon said quarter section, and stuck a stake 
which is half-way between the northwest corner and the northeast corner of the public 
square, on the north side of said square, and which by a line run with a compass was 
found to be south 53 degrees east 29 chains and 10 links from the half-mile post on the 
west side of Section 24. The donations made for said point were upon condition that said 
site and public square shall be located as they are above described, and for which bonds 
are filed in the name of different individuals with the Commissioners of Porter County. 


And the county seat of Porter County, as hereby established by the undersigned Locating 
Commissioners, is on the site as above described ; and the stake, having the bearings 
above, is on the north line of the public square, and the alternate lots are to be laid oflf 
by the donors on said site — the southwest quarter of Section 24, Township 35 north. 
Range 6 west. W. L. Earle, 

Mathias Dawson, 
JuDAH Leamino, 
June 9 1836. Locating Commissioners. 

The amounts of the bonds that were given for the payment of the 
money that was donated to Porter County by the proprietors of the 
county seat, for the erection of county buildings, with the names of the 
obligors, are as follows : Bond No. 1, ^500, Benjamin McCarty, John 
Walker, John Saylor, Enoch McCarty, L. L. Hillis and William Walker; 
Bond No. 2, ^50, James Hutchins ; Bond No. 3, ^100, George Cline ; 
Bond No. 4, $75, A. S. Campbell ; Bond No. 5, $100, Isaac Morgan ; 
Bond No. 6, $2.5, Charles G. Minick ; Bond No. 7, $100, Thomas But- 
ler ; Bond No. 8, $100, G. Z. Salyer ; Bond No. 9, $50, Isaac Morgan ; 
Bond No. 10, $100, Ruel Starr. These several amounts pledged by 
the proprietors of the county seat, together with the various town lots 
that were donated to the county, furnished, for many years, quite an 
important source of revenue. From time to time the anthorized county 
agent, to whom was intrusted the disposal of the lots, sold the same to 
citizens or new settlers, usually taking notes for the consideration, due 
with interest at a future day. As the pressure for means for the first 
few years after the county was organized, to aid in the construction of 
bridges, roads, public buildings, and in the payment of public functiona- 
ries was very great, the town lots and the bonds were converted into 
money by the Commissioners as soon as possible ; but even the amounts 
thus obtained were not sufficient to satisfy the clamor for the collection 
and expenditure of sums that would render the public highways servicea- 
ble, and the Commissioners, under the stricture, levied heavier assess- 
ments, and thus, like Oliver Twist, were guilty of the unpardonable 
offense of asking for " more ; " but, still further, like Oliver, were pressed 
into the measure by others as hungry as themselves. 

At the May term of the board, 1836, A. S. Campbell and George 
Cline, Justices of the Peace, paid to the County Treasurer $3 fines which 
had been imposed by them for theft and assault. An election of an addi- 
tional Justice of the Peace for Centre Township was ordered held at the 
house of C. A. Ballard. For Centre Township, Charles G. Minick was 
appointed Constable ; Robert Wallace, Supervisor of Roads ; J. R. C. 
Brown and P. A. Paine, Overseers of the Poor ; Abraham Stoner and 
James Buel, Fence Viewers. For Washington Township, Adam S. 
Campbell and Reason Bell were appointed Overseers of the Poor ; Peter 


Cline, Supervisor of Roads ; George Cline and John Shinabarger, 
Fence Viewers. For Boone Township, Isaac Cornell was appointed 
Supervisor of Roads ; William Frame and John Robinson, Overseers of 
the Poor ; A. Neil and John Downing, Fence Viewers. For Bryant 
Township, Simeon Bryant, Constable ; Payne Bryant, Supervisor of 
Roads ; David Bryant and Thomas Childers, Overseers of the Poor ; 
David Chandler and Lyman Wells, Fence Viewers. For Clark Town- 
ship, Richard Fancher, Constable ; William Clark, Supervisor of Roads ; 
Solon Robinson and Peter Steinbrook, Overseers of the Poor ; C. H. 
Paine and J. W. Holton, Fence Viewers. C. A. Ballard was allowed 
$2.50 for house rent for the County Commissioners for five days, and 
Reason Reed was allowed 75 cents for making returns of the election in 
Washington Township. 

Roads. — At the June session of the board, the first petition was 
received for a county road extending from Portersville (Valparaiso) by 
" the best and nearest route to the new crossway between Andrew Tay- 
lor's and James Blair's, thence to the county line, intersecting a road 
leading via Cathcart's Grove to La Porte." Wilson Malone, Morris 
Witham and James W. Turner were appointed Viewers. At the same 
time a road was ordered viewed from the northeast corner of Section 24, 
Town 36 north. Range 5 west, thence west to E. Casteel's mill on Coffee 
Creek, thence west to William Gosset's mill on Salt Creek, thence west 
to the county line ; Peter Ritter, Samuel dinger and William Thomas, 
Viewers. In July, 1836, a county road was established from the quarter 
post on the north line of Section 30, Town 35, Range 5, to Sherwood's 
Ferry on the Kankakee ; Jesse Johnson, Joseph Willey and Samuel G. 
Jackson, Viewers. In September, 1836, a county road was established 
from the southwest quarter of Section 12, Town 34, Range 7, to Liver- 
pool, but this road was not built. At the same date as last a road was 
ordered viewed from Portersville (Joliet road) to the county line near the 
mouth of Taylor's Run ; Isaac Morgan, Reason Bell and Andrew Taylor, 
Viewers. One from Portersville to Sherwood's Ferry was viewed, but 
reported on adversely. In September, 1836, a road was established from 
the northeast corner of Section 22, Town 33, Range 7, to Portersville ; 
Isaac Morgan, Henry Rinker and John Shinabarger, Viewers. This 
road was soon altered somewhat. Other roads established in 1836 were 
as follows : From Portersville to Thomas Snow's store by a circuitous 
route; from Portersville to Elijah Casteel's mill; from Portersville to 
Athens, near Gosset's mill ; from Isaac Morgan's on the north side of 
Morgan's Prairie to intersect the State Road from Portersville to Michi- 
gan City, but this was not built ; from the new bridge on Calumet River 
at the mouth of Salt Creek, to Deep River, at crossing of Hickory 


countv road, John Walton, Preston Blake and John Forbes, Viewers ; 
from the southwest corner of Section 12, Town 34, Range 7, to Liver- 
pool, same Viewers as last ; from the southeast corner of Adam Camp- 
bell's land (Section 20, Town 35, Range 5), to intersect Michigan City 
and Barleytown road (southeast quarter of Section 18, Town 37, Range 
5), Viewers, Enos Thomas, John Sefford, A. S. Campbell, White B. 
Smith and Eli Hendricks ; from Portersville to Michigan City (Septem- 
ber, 1836), John Taylor and Asahel Neil, Viewers ; from Michigan City 
(November, 1836), west through Porter and Lake Counties to the State 
line, Benjamin McCarty, Viewer. The following is from an act entitled 
"An Act Relating to State Roads." approved February 6, 1837 : 

Sec. 9. That Daniel M. Learning, of La Porte County, William Frakes, of Porter 
County, and William Hatton, of Lake County, be and they are hereby appointed Com- 
mis8ioiier9 to view, mark and locate a State road from the town of La Porte, in La Porte 
County, on the nearest and best route to the town of Valparaiso, in Porter County, 
thence west by the way of the seat of justice of Lake County to the Illinois State line, 
in the direction of Joliet, in the State of Illinois; Provided, however, That if the seat of 
justice in the said county of Lake shall not be located at the time of the location of the 
said State road, the Commissioners aforesaid will proceed to locate said road on the 
nearest and best route from the town of Valparaiso west to the State line in the direction 
of Joliet, in said State of Illinois. 

By an act of the Legislature, approved February 18, 1839, Philander 
A. Paine and William C. Talcott were appointed Commissioners to locate 
a State road from a point on the Valparaiso and Sherwood Ferry road, 
thence by Ruel Starr's, thence to a county road running north on a line 
dividing Sections 19 and 20, in Township 35, Range 5, to extend such 
road to City West, and the county road was declared a State road. By 
enactment also William C. Talcott and A. S. Campbell were appointed 
to lay out a State road from Portersville west to intersect a State road at 
Preston Blake's or James Grafton's. Also, by enactment, William C. 
Talcott was appointed to lay out a State road from Valparaiso via Enos 
Thomas' mill to City West. Also, by enactment, William K. Talbot and 
Henry Rinker were appointed to view a State road from, at or near Pa- 
gan's Mill, in La Porte County, thence to the center of Section 17, 
Township 37, Range 5, thence to City West, thence to Long Lake, so as 
to intersect a State road near the head of the lake. Various State roads 
were laid out across the county, while the same remained attached to La 
Porte County. By suitable enactments, the Legislature provided what 
was called the " 3 per cent fund," apportioning such fund to the several 
counties throughout the State, and appointing Commissioners to expend 
the same in the construction of roads. This relief to the early settlers 
was fully appreciated. The County Commissioners levied as heavy a tax, 
also, as the settlers could bear, to carry on the same work. From that 







h- — 


time onward, through the years 1837, 1838, 1839 and 1840, and until 
the present time, roads were laid out in all directions through the county, 
at enormous cost in the aggregate, but of indispensable use to the citizens. 
At a special session of the board on the 16th of November, 1850, 
the following petition was considered : 

To the Honorable the Board of Commissioneni of the County of Porter: Your peti- 
tioners, the Board of Directors of the Valparaiso & Michigan City Plank Road Company, 
would humbly represent to your honorable body that a company has been organized for 
the purpose of constructing a plank road from Valparaiso to Michigan City, making a 
point on the Buffalo & Mississippi Railroad at or near the place where the line between 
Ranges 5 and 6 crosses the same. That the nearest and best route for the construction of 
said road would probably be to run on the road from Valparaiso to Michigan City 
between Valparaiso and the above-named point on the railroad, and thence running part 
or all the way to Michigan City on the road that leads from the above point to Michigan 
City, as far as the eastern line of the county of Porter, near Michigan City. 

Your petitioners, therefore, ask your honorable board to grant to said company the 
right of way on said road or roads from Valparaiso to the eastern line of the county of 
Porter, near Michigan City aforesaid, or to so much or such part of said i-oad or roads 
as you may deem expedient and right. 

W. P. AVard, President of the Board of Directors. 

Attest : George W. Turner, Secretary. 
November 16, 1850. 

Whereupon the Board of Commissioners 

Ordered, That the right of way be granted to the Valparaiso & Michigan City Plank 
Road Company to construct a plank road from Valparaiso to Michigan City on, over, 
along or across any or all State or county roads which they may desire. 

The road was never built as had been designed, as much of the route 
over which the plank were to be laid was a compact sandy soil, which, 
three-fourths of the year, furnished almost as solid a foundation as the 
plank would. Some two or three miles of plank w^ere laid just south of 
Chesterton, and about the same just north of Valparaiso, but between 
these sections of road none were laid, though toll was collected both at 
Chesterton and at Valparaiso. The stock of the company was largely 
owned by wealthy men in Michigan City, who were the founders of a 
private bank there, and the issuers of a paper money, which, from com- 
mencement to end, unlike the usual wild-cat bank issues of that day, was 
always at par with coin, and redeemable at any time upon demand. It is 
stated that a man, on one occasion, becoming greatly scared by the ap- 
palling depreciation in private bank issues, and having in his possession 
some $30,000 of the Plank Road Bank bills, presented himself in Michi- 
gan City and demanded the redemption of the paper of the bank in his pos- 
session. The gold was paid him, whereupon, becoming satisfied that the 
bank was solid, he asked to have his gold deposited again, but was posi- 
tively refused, and, as that was the only bank in the city, he w^as obliged 
to cart his coin home with him. Toll was collected on the road a few 
years and then the company collapsed. 


In 1851, another association was formed to construct a plank road 
from Valparaiso to La Porte, and permission was granted the same to use 
the roads of the county for that purpose. About seven miles of plank 
were laid, partly in Porter and partly in La Porte Counties, and toll was 
collected over this route for a few years, but finally the whole matter was 
abandoned. While the original plan was to extend the road from Valpa- 
raiso to La Porte, this design was changed, and, in 1852, the termini of 
the road were Henry Clyburn's in La Porte County and Beeche's Corners 
in Porter County. 

Library. — As early as the summer of 1838, in pursuance of an act of 
the State Legislature, approved February 17, 1838, subscriptions to the 
amount of some sixty-odd dollars having been pledged, a meeting of the 
citizens was called to elect Trustees and other necessary officers, and to in- 
corporate the Porter County Library Association. Books were purchased 
and added to from time to time, as subscriptions were paid, until at last, 
in about 1850, some 500 volumes were owned by the association. In 
1855, the books were distributed to the townships as follows : One set to 
Centre, one to Jackson and Washington, one to Westchester, Pine and 
Liberty, one to Portage and Union, one to Porter and Boone, and one to 
Morgan, Pleasant and Essex. These libraries were added to by the State 
for several years, but finally they were not replaced, and were soon de- 
stroyed or lost. It was 

Ordered by the Board acting as Trustees of the County Library, That the Librarian be 
allowed the sum of $10 per annum for his services as such Librarian ; that said Librarian 
be required to procure a strong book case for the use of said library, and that the follow- 
ing by-laws be adopted : 

1. That none but subscribers shall be allowed to read the books, or draw any of them 
from said library. 

2. That any volume of 300 pages or under may be drawn for one month by any sub- 

3. That any volume over 300 pages and under 500, may be drawn for two months by 
any subscriber. 

4. That any volume over 500 pages may be drawn for three months. 

5. That the Librarian shall mark each book, showing the length of time said book 
may be drawn. 

6. That any person keeping a book over the time marked as the period for which it 
may be drawn, shall forfeit the sum of 5 cents for every week it may be kept over said 
time, and that any fractional part of a week shall be considered as a week, and the fine 
collected accordingly. 

7. That no person shall draw more than one volume at a time, and after a subscriber 
shall have drawn a book, he shall not be allowed to draw any more until he shall have 
duly returned said book, and paid all fines and forfeitures due said library from him. 

8. That the Librarian shall examine all books upon their return, and if any shall 
have been damaged or disfigured more than reasonable wear, he shall assess a fine upon 
said subscriber drawing the same, and said subscriber shall never after be allowed to 
draw any book until he shall have duly paid such fine. 

9. That said Librarian shall purchase a blank book at the expense of said library, in 


•which he shall keep a full list of all subscribers, the time subscribing, the date each shall 
draw a book and return the same, and the amount of fines assessed to, and paid by, each 
subscriber, and of all other matters of interest to said library a complete and full report 
he shall make of which at each term of the County Commissioners' Court. 

Miscellaneous Acts of the Commissioners. — In June, 1836, the 
board appointed Samuel Olinger County Agent, with Peter Ritter, B. 
Saylor, George Cline and Wilson Malone, sureties. They deducted »^60 
from the levy made by John Adams and George Cline, Assessors, upon 
the personal property of those families which had been assessed for "bed 
and bedding." It was ordered that, for the year 1836, a levy of two and 
one-half per cent be made on all personal property and real estate, and a 
poll tax of 75 cents be imposed, for county purposes ; but in July this 
order was rescinded, and in lieu thereof one half of one per cent was 
levied. The board ordered paid to Peter Ritter $20, to John Adams 
$26. and to George Cline $22, for services as County Assessors. A road 
tax of one per cent was levied in July. In May, 1836, a tavern license 
was granted Samuel Haviland, of Westchester Township, for one year, 
at $10. A license was granted Andrew Ault to vend foreign and do- 
mestic groceries. Same with merchandise to Ebenezer Clark, of Porters- 
ville, and license to sell liquor to Francis Willey, of Bailly Town. Ex- 
penses of catching W. C. Maley, a horse-thief, were paid by the board. 
Samuel Haviland was granted license to keep a ferry across Deep River 
at Liverpool, and to keep a tavern and sell liquor there. Saylor & Reed, 
a license to sell merchandise in Valparaiso ; same to Solomon Cheney. 
As early as January 4, 1836, a license was granted Hamell & Hening 
by the Commissioners of La Porte County, to vend merchandise in Mor- 
gan Township. This was at Valparaiso, or Portersville, which was then 
in such township. John B. Turner was granted a license to sell grocer- 
ies, 1837; same, merchandise, to George Bishop; Seneca Ball, same ; 
Jeremiah HamelL same; Marshal & Bigelow, a tavern at City West. 
David Oaks, of Washington Township, was granted a license to retail 
merchandise. Leveret Bradley, licensed to keep a tavern and sell liquor 
at City West. Palmer & Andrews, licensed to sell merchandise in Boone 
Township, April, 1838. W. P. Ward, licensed to keep a tavern and sell 
liquor in Westchester Township March, 1839. In 1843, W. A. Hins- 
dale and Edmund Woodman were licensed to keep separate taverns in 
Westchester Township. In 1837, a premium of $1 was ordered paid for 
scalps of prairie wolves over six months old, and 50 cents for those of 
wolves under that age. Same ordered paid for the scalps of gray wolves. 
After that, from time to time, the premium on wolf scalps was gradually 
increased until, finally, a number of years ago, as high as $15 was paid 
for a single scalp of the gray wolf. At present the premium is $10. 

At the September term, 1836, John Saylor was appointed Commis- 


sioner of the 3 per cent fund, which was applied in the construction of 
public highways. Specifications for a county jail were drawn up in de- 
tail, the building to be 14x28 feet, timbers one foot square of oak, build- 
ing to be completed by September, 1837 ; payment for the same to be in 
installments, one-third when the timber was all delivered on the ground, 
one-third when the house was raised and covered, and one-third when the 
work was completed. Bids from contractors were called for. In Novem- 
ber, Adam S. Campbell became County Agent. The rates of ferriage 
across Deep River at Liverpool were fixed as follows : Each footman, 6 
cents ; man and horse, 12J cents ; horse and Dearborn wagon, 25 cents ; 
two horses and wagon, Sl^ cents ; for each yoke of oxen or span of 
horses over and above one yoke or span, 12J cents. No person was 
taxed with ferriage who was crossing with his team and who paid the 
above rates for such team. The ferry across the Kankakee, which had 
been formerly known as Sherwood's Ferry, and upon which no license 
had been paid, was advertised to be let to the highest bidder, the rates to 
be as follows : Each footman, 6^ cents ; man and horse, 12|- cents ; horse 
and Dearborn wagon, 25 cents ; two horses and wagon, 37|- cents ; one 
yoke of oxen and wagon, 37|- cents ; four horses and wagon, 50 cents ; 
two yoke of oxen and wagon, 50 cents ; any higher number of animals to 
wagon, 50 cents ; each head of cattle, 6^ cents ; each sheep, 3 cents ; 
each hog, 3 cents ; each horse, 6^ cents ; asses and mules, each 6J cents ; 
and when the water was high, so that the ferry would have to run up to 
the head of the canon, three times the above rates were charged. 

In January, 1837, it was ordered by the Board that the following 
persons should serve as Grand Jurors at the April term, 1837, of the Por- 
ter County Circuit Court : Wilford Parrott, Robert Wallace, John Say- 
lor, Eli Hendricks, George Spurlock, Joseph Willey, John P. Noble, 
Edmund Billings, White B. Smith, David Hughart, Henry Adams, John 
Sefford, G. Z. Salyer, Abraham A. Hall, John Adams, John G. Forbes, 
Sr., William Walker and William Bissell. The following persons were 
selected to serve at the same time as Petit Jurors : Thomas L. Hyatt, 
John B. Turner, Enos Thomas, Jacob Beech, James Laughlin, A. K. 
Paine, Robert Fleming, William Morgan, Newton Frame, Henry Rinker, 
George Shigley, Jefierson Tenor, Abraham Cormack, Benjamin Saylor, 
Sr., Isaac Cornell, Lewis Holton, Barzilla Bunnell, William Malone, P. 
A. Paine, Henry Herrold, Luther Jefferson, Jaines Baum, William Eaton 
and Barrack Dorr. John Saylor reported that he had received of the 
Treasurer of State $1,926.86 of 3 per cent fund due Porter County. 
This amount came to the county in good time, and was immediately ap- 
plied toward the improvement and construction of public roads. In Jan- 
uary, the board again took up the county jail question, and new specifi- 


cations were prepared, the building to be a very strong frame structure, 
17x33 feet, with two rooms below — one for debtors, and the other for 
criminals — and two above. At the same time, specifications for a court 
house were prepared, the building to be a frame structure, 20x48 feet. 
In March, 1837, a license to keep the old Sherwood Ferry across the 
Kankakee was granted Joseph Stearns and John Ship, the license being $9. 
S. Campbell was paid $85 for his services as Assessor of Porter County in 

1837. Cyrus Spurlock was appointed Seminary Trustee of Porter County. 
A levy of 1 per cent on all real and personal taxable property was levied 
for the year 1837. At this time (May, 1837), the project of building the 
Erie & Michigan Canal, or of assisting in the building, began to receive 
attention from the Commissioners, who made preparations to turn over 
the 3 per cent fund on hand for that purpose. 

In September, 1837, the Commissioners met at the house of Jeremiah 
Hammell. From this period on, for several years after, the board con- 
tinued to appoint officers for the various townships. At this term, it was 
" ordered that Thomas Randall be appointed Commissioner of the 3 
per cent fund for Newton County (or the territory attached to Porter 
County called Newton County), and that he come forward and qualify 
himself accordingly." It was also " ordered that all the territory attached 
to Porter County that is called Newton County, shall form and constitute 
a township to be known by the name of Marion, and that there shall be 
an election held at the house of John Price, on October 25, 1837, to elect 
one Justice of the Peace, and William Donahue is appointed Inspector." 
At this time the county was pushing, in the construction of its highways, 
to its utmost, and every penny was faithfully applied. The bonds which 
had been given as a guarantee for the payment of the money which had 
been donated by the proprietors of the county seat, fell due, and the money 
was collected and applied upon the roads. The amount of county revenue, 
for 1836, was $522.29. In November, 1837, the court house was com- 
pleted by the contractors, Solomon Cheeney and others, and accepted by 
the board, after examination. The following appears upon the records : 

To the Honorable Board of Commissioners of Porter County, Ind.: — The following 
ia a list of fines imposed by me on account of Sabbath-breaking : Reuben Meadows, $1, 
and Leonard H. Coghill, $1. Given under my hand and seal this 1st day of January, 

1838. (Signed) John Adams, J. P. 

Since that period, Sabbath-breaking has multiplied, and fines for the 
same have divided. The following fines were assessed in the Circuit 
Court for 1837 : Michael Ault, assault, $20 ; G. W. Coghill, assault, 
$10 ; David Cook, retailing without license, $2 ; Ashbal Goodrich, 
retailing without license, $2 ; Moses Wilson, assault, 1 cent ; Aaron 
Lewis, retailing without license, $2 ; J. Bartholomew, assault and 
battery, $2. G. Z. Salyer's report as Seminary Trustee was as 


follows : Received of William Billings, $6.50 ; of G. Z. Salyer, $4 ; 
of G. W. Turner, $38; total, $48.50, which had been loaned at 10 per 
cent per annum. The County Clerk was ordered to procure a set of law- 
ful weights and measures, to be kept in his office, and also an iron seal 
with the letters P. C. S., which should be stamped on all lawful weights. 
A pound was built for Valparaiso, in 1838, by William Eaton. 

SCHOOL commissioner's REPORT, PORTER COUNTY, 1836: 

Received from B. Saylor, Collector of State revenue $ 8 55 

Received from the sale of Section 16, Township 35, Range 5 360 85 

Received from money loaned 205 00 

Paid Isaac Morgan interest 205 00 

Received State revenue 1 08 

Received Surplus revenue 27 77 

Loaned interest money 360 85 

Paid for notice of sale in Michigan City Gazette 2 60 

Received surplus revenue from Seneca Ball, Commissioner 224 40 

Received from the sale of Section 16, Township 35, Range 6, with 

interest 91 78 

Paid for books 11 50 

Money loaned 50 99 

Paid John McConnell interest 144 67 

Paid John McConnell surplus revenue 30 06 

Paid John McConnell State revenue 1 14 

Paid Gazette for notice of sale 2 25 

Received from sale of Section 16, Township 36, Range 5, with interest 24 20 

Money loaned 18 00 

Paid Phineas Hall surplus revenue 28 67 

Paid Phineas Hall State revenue 1 06 

Paid Michigan City Gazette 2 25 

Received from Treasurer of State amount of poll-tax due for school 

purposes for the year 1836 35 50 

[Signed.] Ruel Starr, School Commissioner. 

The following appears upon the record : 

Notice. — A copartnership has this day been formed at Valparaiso, Porter County 
under the laws of the State regulating limited corporations, for tlie purpose of dealing in 
all things relating to trade in merchandise, bonds, notes, exchanges, etc., the business to 
be conducted by E. Brown Bishop as general partner, who is auihorized only to sign for 
the company; and the name and style of the company will be E. Brown Bishop, and the 
following-named persons will be special or limited partners : 

Sylvanus Evarts, La Porte County, Ind., has given bonds to pay 

in specie or good Eastern paper, when demanded $1,000 00 

John Bishop, Porter County, same 2,600 00 

Jesse Johnson, Porter County, same 300 00 

Henry Dillingham, Porter County, same 1,000 00 

Samuel Shingley, Porter County, same 300 00 

George Axe, Porter County, same 300 00 

Jonathan Herold, same 500 00 

Total §5,000 00 

The copartnership is to commence the 1st of .June, 1888, and continue for one year 
from such date, and to be renewed from year to year by advertising. 


What became of this corporation or what was done cannot be learned 
with certainty. It did not continue long, however. In the autumn of 

1838, Newton County was attached to Jasper County, and the Collector 
for that county turned over his funds and was discharged. In October, 

1839, William Eaton was licensed to keep the ferry over the Kankakee, 
where John Ship and Joseph Stearns had formerly been. In September, 

1840, the board advertised a bounty of $1.50 on each scalp of full grown 
prairie wolves and $3 for each scalp of full grown gray wolves. 

The following order appears upon the records : 

Ordered by the Board, That from and after the Ist day of April, 1841, the door of the 
court house shall be shut against preaching by any denominations of Christians, and that 
the SheriflF of Porter County is required to procure a lock for the door at the foot of the 
stairs in the hall, and place said lock permanently on said door, and keep the same locked 
against all denominations of Christians from and after said 1st of April, 1841, without 
respect of persons; and that the Sheriff is further ordered to give public notice of the 
passage of this order immediately. 

For a time during 1841, the county paid $5 and $3 for scalps of gray 
and prairie wolves respectively. In February, 1842, it was " ordered by 
the Board, that the Methodists, Presbyterians, Mormons, Universalists, 
Baptists, Campbellites, 'Associate Reformers, Infidels and all other de- 
nominations be allowed to hold meetings in the court house, provided they 
do not interfere with the business of the courts of the county and political 
meetings." In June, 1842, John W. Wright reported that $106.87 had 
been received from the seminary fund. In December, 1842, it was 
^'ordered, that John Mcintosh be appointed Inspector of flour, beef and 
pork for the county of Porter for the term of three years." 

County Seminary, etc. — A legislative enactment of February, 1838, 
made provision for the maintenance of county seminaries throughout the 
State by the appropriation of certain fines and penalties, such as for break- 
ing the Sabbath, for assault and battery, etc., etc., and it was made the 
duty of the Board of Commissioners in each county to appoint Trustees, 
who were to constitute a body politic with general powers and liabilities 
in the founding, controlling and maintaining of a county seminary of 
learning. Such Trustees were appointed in Porter County as early as 
the autumn of 1838, to whom were paid the funds designed for the above 
purpose until, in 1849, the amount collected had reached over $2,000, 
when the project of erecting a seminary building was instituted, but not 
carried into effect, for some reason unknown, until the year 1851, when 
grounds were purchased in the eastern part of Valparaiso and a building 
erected thereon, the total cost of house and lots amounting to about $2,- 
300. The two-storied frame building was furnished with three rooms 
above and two below, and was not fully completed in the autumn of 1851, 
when the first school therein was taught by Ashley M. Pierce, Principal, 


and Miss Eliza J. Forsyth, now Mrs. William Wilson, Assistant. The 
session was held in the upper story, the lower not having been finished 
nor furnished. About 120 students were in attendance during the win- 
ter, but the following year, when the new school law came into existence, 
the County Commissioners, in pursuance of legal requirements, offered 
the seminary building and the grounds upon which it stood for sale, one- 
tenth to be paid down and the balance in nine equal annual installments, 
the proceeds of the sale to go into the common school fund of the county. 
The sale was advertised by the County Auditor in June, 1852, the day 
of sale being fixed for the fourth Monday of July, 1853, on which 
day the building was purchased by the School Trustees of Valparaiso for 
$1,200, and transformed into the " Union School of Valparaiso." Thus 
ended its existence as a county institution, three terms only having been 
taught within it while it remained as such. The building was destroyed 
by fire in the spring of 1857. 

As early as 1850, there was organized the " Porter County Bible So- 
ciety," a corporate body, whose mission was to place in each citizen's 
cabin a copy of the "Book of books." In 1853, the Treasurer of the 
society reported the sale of $8,200 worth of Bibles. At this time D. 
Crawford was President, and J. C. Brown, Secretary. The society sur- 
vived some five or six years and then disbanded, as its mission had ended. 

Alterations in the boundary of the various townships have been fre- 
quent, and some townships have been wholly blotted out of existence and 
others erected in their place. At the second session of the board, the 
northern boundary line of Pleasant Township was extended west to the 
great marsh, thence south with the center of the marsh to the Kanka- 
kee.* At the same time, the eastern boundary of Boone Township was 
fixed at a point on the west side of the marsh. In 1837, the western 
half of Section 29, Washington Township, was attached to Centre 
Township. In March, 1838, Boone Township was confined to its terri- 
tory south of the line dividing Townships 83 and 34, and, at the same 
time, all of the territory of Porter County west of the marsh dividing 
Horse and Morgan Prairies, and between the line dividing Townships 33 
and 34, and the line dividing Townships 34 and 35, was organized 
as Fish Lake Township. In March, 1839, the west halves of Sections 17 
and 20, Washington Township, were attached to Centre; but, in May, 
1840, they, with the west half of Section 29, were re-attached to Wash- 
ington Township. Prior to this, in June, 1836, the citizens of Lake and 
Waverly Townships petitioned the Board, setting forth the inconven- 
ience of the boundaries of their townships, and praying that the same 
might be united, which was accordingly so ordered, and the new town- 

*ThiB marsh was tho one diyiding Horse and Morgan Prairies. 


ship was named Westchester. In March, 1841, all of Township 37, 
Range 5, and fractional Township 38, Range 5, were stricken from West- 
chester and created into a new township to be called Berry, and 
an election of township officers was ordered held at the house of Orson 
Petty, with George W. Rice Inspector. In June, 1841, the following 
petition was presented to the County Commissioners : 

To the Honorable Board of County Cjmmissioners of Porter County, Ind. : 

We, the undersigned petitioners and inhabitants of Westchester Township, most 
respectfully represent to your honorable body, that the division heretofore prayed for at 
your March term, 1841, to be injudicious and uncalled for, and is inconvenient for the 
citizens of your township generally, and that we pray your honorable body to set aside 
all divisions, and continue the said township of Westchester as it originally was before 
any alteration at your March term last, and the place of holding elections as before. And 
in duty bound your petitioners will ever pray. 

Enos Thomas, John Millaed, 

W. P. Wakd, William Coleman, 


William Knapp, William P. Jacobs, 

Brazilla Millard, Rufus Pierce, 

Joseph Clark, Daniel Hulbert, 

Henry Hageman, William Thomas, 

John Thomas, James Thomas, 

Thomas Frazier, Samuel Wheeler, 

Edmund Tratebas, Vincent Thomas. 

Allen Blair, 
Ordered, That the above petition be granted, and that the oi-der for the division of West- 
chester Township, and for the establishment of Berry Township, made at the March term 
of this board, 1841, be rescinded, and that the elections hereafter be held at the former 

In June, 1841, Fish Lake Township became Porter Township, and at 
the same time the division line between Pleasant Township and Boone 
and Porter Townships was established to commence at the northwest cor- 
ner of Section 2, Township 34, Range 6, thence south to the southwest 
corner of Section 14, Township 33, Range 6, thence west one mile and 
thence south to the Kankakee River. In August, 1843, Pleasant Town- 
ship was divided, and Morgan Township was erected from the territory 
north of the line running east and west between Sections 29 and 32, 
Township 34, Range 5. During the year 1836, in pursuance of a peti- 
tion from Solon Robinson and William Clark, the boundary of Clark 
Township (Lake County) was changed as follows : All that part of Town- 
ship 35 lying south of the center of the same in Lake County, and Sec- 
tions 1 and 2 in Township 33, Range 9, were added to Clark Township. 
In February, 1847, Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, in Township 36, Range 
5, all of Township 37, Range 5, and all of Township 38, Range 5, were 
established as a new township called Calumet. At the same time it was 
ordered that Township 37, Range 6, and the east half of Township 37, 


Range 7, in such township, should constitute Westchester Township. 
Jackson Township was constituted as it is at present, except Sections 3 
and 4, which then belonged to Calumet. In June, 1847, all that part of 
Westchester Township lying west of a line dividing Ranges 6 and 7, 
and Sections 29 and 32 in Township 37, Range 6, were attached to Por- 
tage. In February, 1850, Sections 29, 30, 31 and 32, Township 37, 
Range 6, and Sections 25, 26, 27, 34, 35 and 36, Township 37, Range 
7, were attached to Portage. In February, 1847, Liberty was constituted 
as it is at present, except Sections 1, 2, 3 and 4, now forming the south- 
ern part of Westchester, which then belonged to Liberty. In February, 
1850, Sections 1, 12, 13, 24, 25 and 36, and the east halves of Sections 
2, 11, 14, 23, 26 and 35, Township 34, Range 5, forming a part of Mor- 
gan Township, were erected into a new township called Essex ; but some- 
time afterward (the exact date could not be found) a strip the same width 
as the township (one mile and a half) was severed from the east side of 
Morgan and attached to Essex, making the latter six miles long and three 
miles wide ; thus the Township remained until 1880, when, upon the 
petition of sixty-seven citizens of Essex and Morgan Townships, the 
former was merged in, or united with, the latter. In June, 1852, 
Westchester Township was divided by a line commencing at the south- 
west corner of Section 5, Township 36, Range 5, thence running north 
on the section line to Lake Michigan, and all the territory east of such 
line was constituted Pine Township, that west of the line remaining West- 
chester Township. Sections 2, and 11, Township 33, Range 6, were at- 
tached to Boone, in June, 1852. In December of the same year. Sec- 
tions 1, 2, 3 and 4 were severed from Liberty and made a part of West- 
chester. In March, 1855, Sections 14, 23, 26 and 35, Township 34, 
Range 6, were attached to Porter. In March, 1864, the east half of the 
east half of Section 30, Township 35, Range 5, was taken from Centre 
and attached to Washington ; but upon petition of S. A. Campbell and 
others, it was re-attached to Centre in December, 1868. In September, 
1864, Sections 3 and 4, Township 36, Range 5, were stricken from Pine 
and added to Jackson. In August, 1848, an attempt was made by peti- 
tion to create a new township from portions of the present townships of 
Jackson, Liberty, Westchester and Pine ; but there was too much oppo- 
sition to the measure, and the board refused to issue the order. 

In December, 1859, a petition, or rather a series of petitions, was 
presented the County Commissioners, praying that a committee of three 
be appointed, empowered to confer with a similar committee from La 
Porte County, for the purpose of laying off and establishing a new county 
to be called Linn, from territory belonging to Porter and La Porte Coun- 
ties. This was aa attempt made by the citizens of Michigan City, to ac- 


complish a result for which that municipality had vainly struggled for a 
long series of anxious years — its transformation into a county seat. It 
had long before given up the oft-baffled attempt of wresting from La Porte 
the coveted boon, and by a dexterous, and perhaps desperate, policy, sought 
to effect, by new and novel methods, what it had failed to effect by re- 
peated and skillful attempts with the old. Upon the petitions were the 
names of 2,017 citizens living within the limits of the territory to be 
erected into the new county, and this long array of names called for sober 
consideration. After mature deliberation, the Commissioners refused to 
appoint the committee, or to give their approval to the attempt, for the 
following reasons : 

1. The spoliation of Porter County, specified in the petitions, would 
reduce its territory below the Legislative limit of 400 square miles. 

2. The County Commissioners have no power to create new counties, 
and therefore cannot delegate such power to committees. 

3. The new county would not be of the form required by law. 

The Commissioners of La Porte County disposed of the question in a 
similar summary manner, and the plan was abandoned. 

Societies and Other Matters. — The following is taken from the Com- 
missioners' records, 1859 : 

Whereas. — J. N. Thompson and others, citizens of Centre, Morgan and Washington 
Townships, in the county of Porter, have formed themselves into an association for the 
apprehension of horse-thieves and other felons, to be known as the Morgan Prairie Anti- 
Horee-Thief Society, and 

Whereas, The Secretary of said society has notified the Board of Commissioners of 
the county of Porter of the existence of said society, and the names and residences of the 
members, and has furnished them with a copy of its constitution, by-laws, or articles of 
association ; it is therefore, 

Ordered, That the objects for which such association is formed, and the laws gov- 
erning the same, be approved. 

At the September term, 1861, the following appears : 

In the matter of the Lake and Porter Counties Anti-Horse-Thief Society, now comes 
Isaac Hardesty, Secretary of said society, and shows to the board the articles of associa- 
tion, the by-laws, and a list of the members of said society, and on its behalf, asks that 
the same be approved, and after due inspection thereof, the same are in all things by the 
board approved. 

In 1861, an attempt was made by sundry petitions to change the 
boundary line between the counties of Lake and Porter, but the scheme, 
from the outset, met with cold reception, and, after being considered by 
the proper authorities, was rejected. 

In June, 1866, a committee consisting of R. A. Cameron, Joseph 
Peirce and A. Gurney, appointed by a mass meeting of the citizens of 
Valparaiso, petitioned the board to aid in building and establishing upon 
the public square suitable water works or reservoirs for the use of the 


citizens ; whereupon it was ordered that, when such works were completed 
in a fitting manner, ^1,316 should be paid the Treasurer of the city of 
Valparaiso. This amount was paid in March, 1867, upon the comple- 
tion of the works. 

The articles of association of another Morgan Prairie Anti-Horse- 
Thief Society were approved by the Board in 1869. In June, 1880, the 
Board was petitioned by the citizens of Valparaiso and vicinity to take 
$20,000 stock in the Joliet & Valparaiso Railway Company ; but before 
definite action was taken, the project was abandoned or postponed. 

In July, 1852, there was great excitement among the citizens of Val- 
paraiso, and indeed throughout the whole county, in response to the 
report that the *' Ohio and Indiana Railroad Company " had out its sur- 
veyors, and the line of the projected road was sure to pass across the 
county. The prospect of connection by telegraph with the outer world 
was very encouraging, especially to the editor of the Observer^ who en- 
deavored by notices in his paper to excite the citizens to the pitch of 
substantial help to the railway and telegraphic enterprise. When the 
projection of the road through Valparaiso became a certainty, that little 
town could scarcely contain itself, but indulged in bonfires, bell-ringing, 
drum-playing, gun-shooting, and general noisy, public rejoicing. 

Soon after 1840, the citizens of the county became deeply interested 
in the temperance movement, which was sweeping throughout the entire 
country on its mission of mercy. The Observer appeared with strong 
editorials, declaring for total abstinence, and drawing artistic pen-pictures 
of the numerous sad cases of the work of alcohol, which came under its 
observation. In about the year 1850, the movements of temperance co- 
workers in Valparaiso and throughout the county began to assume for- 
midable proportions ; and the determined attacks upon what in former 
years was regarded as one of the " necessaries of life," grew bitter and 
protracted. But the citadel of King Alcohol was not to be taken so 
easily. People who had been educated to its use, and who had inherited 
an appetite for it, could not, or would not, forego what they regarded as 
the luxury of its use. The result was a protracted siege, longer than 
that of old Troy, and even more hopeless. In 1846, a strong temperance 
union league was organized at Valparaiso, with branches in some four or 
five other places in the county. Dealers were besought to relinquish the 
trafiic, and consumers were urged and prayed to quit its use. The 
churches took up the matter, and lent their powerful aid to the move- 

In June, 1847, in pursuance of an act of the State Legislature passed 
during the session of 1846-47, it was submitted to the citizens of the 
several townships throughout the county, whether a license to sell spirit- 


uous liquors should be granted, each township being called upon to settle 
the question within its own borders. The citizens of the townships of 
Centre, Liberty, Jackson, Porter, Morgan, Washington and Portage re- 
fused, some of the townships by substantial majorities, to grant such 
licenses ; while in the townships of Union, Boone, Calumet, Westchester 
and Pleasant, the people declared for license by small majorities. In 
1851, the board established the liquor license, in those townships which 
had voted it, at $100. But this was found no cure for the evil, as liquor 
was watered and weakened in indirect ratio to the increase in the price 
of the license. If this did not produce satisfactory results, the price of 
liquor was increased, or the measure rendered smaller, in any case the 
loss falling on the unfortunate buyer and consumer ; or, was it his gain ? 
— as the poorer and weaker the infernal liquid, the less damage it did, and 
the sooner the money of the debaucher was gone without bringing the 
curse of inebriation. 

On the 7th of June, 1855, the County Commissioners purchased of 
William C. Pennock, for $3,000, the east half of the southwest quarter 
of Section 26, Town 35, Range 6, and the northwest quarter of the 
southwest quarter of Section 27, same town and range, and Mr. Pennock 
became, by appointment, the first Superintendent of this, the first poor farm 
owned by the county. Upon this farm was a respectable dwelling, which, 
for a short time, did duty as a home for the county poor. 

Prior to this, the care of the county paupers had been intrusted to such 
responsible persons in the county as were willing to assume the charge, 
at from $1 to $2 per week, each person. There was not a township that 
did not have, in its time, some pauper in the care of its citizens. Physi- 
cians contracted to furnish all county paupers with suitable and necessary 
treatment, at so much by the year. At length the board felt able to 
furnish the poor and helpless with that home and care not obtained when 
parceled out among divers widely scattered individuals. Mr. Pennock 
rented the Poor Farm of the Board, conditioning to retain two-thirds of 
the productions, the county getting the remaining third, besides which 
he was to board the paupers at $1.50 each, per week, exclusive of the 
expense of sickness. The care of the poor continued in about this shape 
until 1855, when a contract was entered into with George C. Buel, to 
erect a frame poor house, 32x45 feet, for $2,482, $500 to be paid on the 
Ist of the January following, $1,000 on the 1st of March, 1856, and the 
remainder in county bonds, to be issued on the last date, payable in one 
year with 6 per cent interest, the house to be ready for occupancy Sep- 
tember 1, 1856. The building was immediately constructed, and is yet 
in use, though additions and improvements have been added. 

In March, 1866, the board purchased for $3,200 the west half 


of the southeast quarter of Section 26, Township 35, Range 6 west, as 
an addition to the poor farm. In September of this year, there were 
fourteen inmates. On the 16th of June, 1875, the Commissioners pur- 
chased of W. C. Hannah, for $1,200, all that part of the northeast quar- 
ter of Section 35, Township 35, Range 6, which lies north and east of 
Salt Creek and south of a line drawn parallel with the north line of 
said quarter, and distant seventy rods and thirteen feet south therefrom ; 
subject to this year's (1875) taxes ; the same to be an addition to the 
poor farm. On the 9th of June, 1876, the Commissioners purchased for 
$1,200 the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of Section 27, 
Township 35, Range 6, except ten acres off the south side, and this was 
also made a part of the poor farm. 

On the 14th of June, 1851, a mass meeting of the citizens of Porter 
County assembled at the court house for the purpose of organizing 
an agricultural society. Aaron Lytle was made Chairman, and George 
W. Turner appointed Secretary, and a committee, consisting of the fol- 
lowing citizens, was appointed to draft a constitution and by-laws : 
William C. Talcott, David Hughart, W. W. Jones, H. E. Woodruff and 
Aaron Lytle. The constitution provided that, upon the payment of $1 
into the treasury by a citizen of the county, such person became a mem- 
ber of the Porter County Agricultural Society. In September, the 
following men became the first Board of Directors : W. A. Barnes, W. 
C. Talcott, Azariah Freeman, H. E. Woodruff, H. A. K. Paine, W. W. 
Jones, A. B. Price, Walker McCool and Ruel Starr. At this time, 
sixty-five citizens had appended their names to the constitution and paid 
their dollars. It was decided to hold the first fair on Wednesday, 
the 29th of October, 1851 ; to offer $80 in premiums ; and a specifica- 
tion of the premiums to be paid was made out and published in the 
Practical Observer, a Democratic county paper edited by William C. 
Talcott. As, of course, the society had no ground of its own at that 
time, the fair was announced to be held at the court house. Premiums 
were offered for horses, cattle, swine, sheep, fruit and vegetables, dairy 
products and farming implements. The 19th was a rainy, disagreeable 
day ; yet, notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather, about four 
hundred citizens assembled at the court house. Ruel Starr, H. S. 
Adams, H. G. HoUister, Isaac Miller, Samuel Burns and T. A. E. 
Campbell took premiums for draft and blooded horses ; T. Beach and J. 
J. Caswell, for cattle ; Ruel Starr, for sheep ; A. B. White, for swine ; 
H. E. Woodruff and W. Barnard for fruit and vegetables, and T. Beach 
and H. E. Woodruff for dairy products. The fair, though on a small 
scale, was regarded as highly successful and encouraging, and accord- 
ingly it was decided to hold another the following year. No man 


did more to encourage this enterprise than William C. Talcott, the editor 
of the Observer. Every few weeks, articles appeared in the columns of 
his paper, urging the citizens to become interested in an enterprise such 
as the county fair, that would so well repay them for the trouble. The 
citizens mentioned above were also active. In November, 1851, the fol- 
lowing certificate was presented the County Auditor by the officers of the 
society : 

In accordance with Section 1 of an act of our Legislature, approved February 14, 
1851, and entitled " An Act for the Encouragement of Agriculture," this is to certify that 
there has been paid into our treasury (as fees) the sum of $61, and we therefore ask for 
the amount in our County Treasury donated our society by said act. 

William A. Barnes, President. 

AzAKiAii Freeman, Treasurer. 

Section 1 of the act referred to in this certificate is as follows : 

Be it enacted hy the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That whenever thirty 
or more persons, residents of any county or district embracing two counties of this State, 
shall organize themselves into a society for the improvement of agriculture within said 
county or district, and shall have adopted a constitution and by-laws agreeably to the 
rules and regulations to be furnished by the Indiana State Board of Agriculture, and shall 
have appointed the usual and proper officers, and v/hen said society shall have raised and 
paid to their Treasurer, by voluntary subscription, or by fees imposed upon its members, 
any sum of money not less than $50 ; and whenever the President of said society shall 
certify to the respective County Auditors the amount thus paid, attested by the oath or 
affirmation of the Treasurer before a Magistrate, it shall be the duty of said County 
Auditors embraced within the district in which society shall be organized, to draw an 
order on the Treasurer of his respective county in favor of the President and Treasurer 
of said society for whatever amount of funds there shall have been received during the 
previous year for all licenses issued to persons exhibiting menageries, circuses, or theat- 
rical performances, or other shows ; Provided, said order shall not exceed the amount 
raised and paid in by said society by voluntary subscriptions or fees, and it shall be the 
duty of the Treasurer of said county to pay the same. 

Accordingly, the Auditor paid to the officers of the society $25, which 
had been received as stated in the section above. The fair of October 14 
and 15, 1852, was even more successful than the first; $100 were paid 
in premiums. Charles R. Luther, of Washington Township, was paid 
$10 for the best managed and cultivated farm in the county ; second best, 
H. E. Woodruff, $5 ; third best, Azariah Freeman, $3. Mr. Woodruff 
took first premium for the best acre of wheat. H. Bates, Ruel Starr, 
James Dye and Isaac Miller took premiums on horses; E. West, J. C. 
Paine, Lewis Connor and T. A. E. Campbell on cattle ; H. A. K. Paine, 
L. A. Cass and Ruel Starr, on sheep ; Nelson Malone, A. B. White and 
W. Bartholomew, on swine ; Mrs. Phoebe Starr and Mrs. H. E. Wood- 
ruff, on butter ; Mrs. Isabella Farrington, on cheese ; H. E. Woodruff, 
Ruel Starr and G. W. Finney, on fruit; Mrs. Eliza Aicks, on bed-quilt, 
and Mrs. J. J. Fifield, on rag carpet. A long, excellent address was de- 
livered by President Barnes. The report of the general awarding com- 


mittee was long and interesting. In 1853, over $300 were paid in premi- 
ums, and the establishment of the fair was permanent, or would have been 
under all ordinary circumstances. During this year, President Barnes 
was authorized to invest $50 belonging to the society in an agricultural 
library. He soon reported that he had purchased twenty-nine volumes 
of standard works, treating of farming, gardening, stock- rearing, domestic 
economy, horticulture, floriculture, etc. From this time onward until the 
year 1862, inclusive, the society continued to hold fairs annually, and to 
prosper, growing stronger in numbers and means, and offering higher, 
better and more numerous premiums and other inducements. 

The fair was held in the court house and court yard until October, 
1859, and, after that and until October, 18lJ2, on the "old grounds" 
west of the present woolen factory. Upon what terms or conditions the 
society used the "old grounds," cannot be definitely stated. If the 
property was purchased, the deed was not recorded, but this is probably 
the fact in the case. It is probable that the society purchased the 
grounds, deferring payment until the future ; and, when the war came on, 
and after it had continued two and a half years, draining the financial 
resources of the county, and filling the minds of the citizens with almost 
everything except agricultural interests, it was found impracticable, if not 
impossible, to hold fairs after the autumn of 1862 ; and the society did 
not even make the attempt, but mutually resolved to wait until the dawn 
of peace before renewing their interest and association with the peaceful 
pursuit of agriculture. After the war had closed, and peace had come, 
there also came such a stringency of money matters, and so universal a 
shrinkage in values, that the fair question, which required, to be made suc- 
cessful, a considerable outlay of money and no little sacrifice of time and 
labor, was almost wholly overlooked. At last, on the 4th of October, 
1871, thirty-two citizens met at the Auditor's office, and after electing A. 
V. Bartholomew, Chairman, and appointing Reason Bell, Secretary, 
resolved that there be organized the " Porter County Agricultural So- 
ciety." A committee, consisting of Cyrus Axe, D. F. Jones and J. C. 
Barnes, was appointed to solicit subscriptions for the purpose of defraying 
the expense of conducting a fair, which was fixed for the 19th and 20th 
of October, two weeks after this meeting. Milan Cornell was elected 
President of the society ; G. W. Bartholomew and Theodore Crum- 
packer. Vice Presidents ; Reason Bell, Jr., Secretary, and M. L. Mc- 
Clellan, Treasurer. S. S. Skinner, E. Zimmerman and C. W. Dickover 
were appointed to draft a constitution and by-laws. Milan Cornell, A. 
C. Stanton, Isaac Cross, N. A. Kennedy and A. C. Coates were 
appointed to prepare a list of premiums. Upon this short notice, with 
but two weeks before them to prepare everything, the members were so 


energetic that the fair was eminently successful. About $500 in premi- 
ums were offered and paid, and the net profits were $400. Over one hun- 
dred horses were entered, besides almost a proportionate number of cattle, 
swine, sheep, and large quantities of all agricultural products. Without 
going into details, it is sufficient to say that since the flill of 1871, no 
county in the State with the same or less population has had better fairs, 
or greater interest shown therein by the citizens. Premiums to the value 
of about $1,200 were offered for the fair of September 27, 28 and 29, 
1882, The present officers are L. A. Cass, President ; J. B. Decrow, 
Vice President ; T. Crumpacker, Treasurer, and T. Keene, Secretary. 
Board of Directors — James Fulton, William Hughart, A. St. Clair, 
Isaiah McGinley, Isaac Ilardesty, Jacob Peoples, N. Pickrell, Christian 
Arndt, M. C. Williams, Frank Campbell, T. S. Bull, II. Loomis, A. J. 
Harrison, S. S. Skinner, George Morgan, Frank Harris, John Morrison, 
William Rigg, E. J. Green, C. N. Tanehill, Jerome Massey, J. B. De- 
crow, C. L. Dille, Younger Frame, Charles F. Way and Reason Bell. 

On the 13th of July, 1872, the County Commissioners purchased of 
N. A. Kennedy, for $2,500, the following tract of land: "Commencing 
three chains and forty-one and one-half links east of the quarter stake on 
the south line of Section 13, Township 35, Range 6, thence on a mag- 
netic course north twenty degrees and twelve minutes east twenty-two 
and twenty-five hundredths chains ; thence north eighty-five degrees east 
nine and ninety-hundredths chains ; thence south twenty degrees and 
twelve minutes west twenty-two and twenty-five hundredths chains ; 
thence south eighty-five degrees west to the point of commencement ; 
containing twenty acres, more or less." A high, tight board fence was 
immediately built around this land and suitable buildings and stalls 
erected, at a cost of nearly $1,800. Thus fitted up, the grounds were 
turned over to the Agricultural Society, Here the fair has been held 
since 1872. The principal fact which has rendered the fair so success- 
ful since 1871 is because the society has not been burdened with a debt, 
as most societies are, for its fair ground. 

Old Settlers' Association. — Quite a large gathering of old settlers 
met at the house of George C. Buel, on the 26th of May, 1881, to cele- 
brate his seventieth birthday, and while there, it was suggested that the 
occasion was appropriate for the organization of an old settlers' associ- 
ation, whereupon Joseph Pierce nominated A. V. Bartholomew, Chair- 
man, and the selection was made unanimous by vote, and Firmin Church 
was chosen Secretary of the meeting. It was then decided that all per- 
sons over forty-five years of age, who had been residents of Porter County 
not less than twenty-five years, should be considered old settlers, and a 
meeting to renew old times and perfect the prospective organization was 


fixed for the 15th of September, 1881, and a committee to make full 
arrangements was appointed as follows: Azariah Freeman, S. R. Bryant, 
William Stoddard, Stuart R. Spencer, John Hansford, Nelson Barnard, 
T. C. Sweney, Hazzard Sheflfield, Isaac Hardesty, Josephus Wolf, Henry 
Hageman, Younger Frame and William Henry. This committee met on 
the 25th of June, and decided to hold the first meeting of the Old Set- 
tlers' Association in the Court House Square on the 17th of September, 
1881. The following rules of government were adopted : 

1. We, the early settlers of Porter County, will hold social meetings at such times 
and places as our Executive Committee may designate, to be called Old Settlers' Meet- 

2. Vhat our meetings may be conducted with order and propriety, we will annually 
elect a President, Secretary, Treasurer and one Vice President from each township, who 
shall perform the duties usually required of such officers for a term of one year, or until 
their successors are elected. 

3. The President, Secretary and Treasurer shall be an Executive Committee, with 
power to make such rules and regulations as they may deem necessary and proper, to 
call meetings and attend to such business generally as will promote the objects of the 

4. Our meetings, except when otherwise directed by the Executive Committee, to be 
of the picnic order, each member to bring such refreshments as they may deem suitable 
for such occasions. 

5. All persons over forty-five years of age, and who were residents of Porter 
County twenty-five years or more previous to the 1st of July, 1881, and now citizens of 
the county, shall, by signing these rules, become members of the association during good 
behavior and, with their children, enjoy all its benefits. 

6. Our first general meeting shall be held on the public square at Valparaiso on 
Saturday, the 17th day of September, 1881, at 10 o'clock A. M., at which time our first 
board of officers shall be elected. 

On the 17th of September, a large number of old settlers met in the 
court yard, and passed the time until 1 o'clock in social intercourse. Din- 
ner was then served to over five hundred. At 2 o'clock P. M., Azariah 
Freeman called the assemblage to order, and prayer was offered by Rev. 
W. J. Forbes. Hon. J. N. Skinner then welcomed the old men and 
women to Valparaiso. After the song, " The World is Moving On," 
Joseph Peirce read all the records of the association up to that time, and 
was then followed by five-minute speeches from Hon. Mark L. De Motte, 
Jesse Johnson, Rev. G. M. Boyd, William McCool, Russel Cohoon, George 
C. Morgan, S. P. Robbins, David Merriman, E. S. Merrifield, Firmin 
Church, Nelson Barnard, H. V. Bartholomew, James M. Buel, Thomas 
G. Lytic, A. Lytle Jones, William Thatcher, Simeon Pierce and Rev. W. 
J. Forbes, the speeches being interspersed with old-fashioned singing. A. 
V. Bartholomew was made President of the association for one year, and 
Reason Bell, Secretary, but the latter failed to serve, and Joseph Peirce" 
was appointed. The following were elected Vice Presidents : Nelson 
Barnard, of Jackson ; T. C. Sweney, of Boone ; Ira Corwell, of Porter ; 


Isaac Hardesty, of Union ; William McCool, of Portage ; George Mor- 
gan, of Westchester ; Samuel Hackett, of Pine ; Simeon Witham, of 
Pleasant ; Charles R. Luther, of Washington ; William J. Forbes, of 
Centre ; Elias Cain, of Morgan ; and William Henry, Sr., of Liberty. 
The meeting was very enjoyable, and it was fully decided to continue the 
meetings annually. 

At the second regular meeting in September, 1882, A. V. Bartholo- 
mew called the meeting to order, and Rev. Robert Beer offered prayer. 
The address of welcome was delivered by T. G. Lytle, Mayor. Short 
speeches were delivered by Rev. Boyd, S. P. Bobbins, John Hansford, 
S. W. Smith, R. P. Wells, Hiram Loomis, Rev. Forbes, N. S. Fairchild 
and others. Hubbard Hunt read a list of old settlers of the county, who 
had died within his recollection. On motion of T. G. Lytle, all oflScers 
of the association were re-elected for the coming year. A large crowd 
was present, and much interest, pleasure and enthusiasm were manifested. 

Gounty Press. — In 1842, James Castle, who had purchased of Solon 
Robinson, of Lake County, a small press and a small quantity of type, 
began issuing a small folio sheet entitled the Republican, a weekly news- 
paper, 12x16 inches, devoted to the dissemination of independent political 
views and the diffusion of general knowledge. In 1844, the office was 
purchased by William M. Harrison, who changed the name to the West- 
ern Ranger, and the politics to Democratic, and continued the paper with 
moderate success until the 24th of April, 1847, when William C. Talcott 
bought an interest, and under the joint editorship and management of Har- 
rison & Talcott, a new series of the Ranger was begun, the first issue being 
No. 39, Vol. III. The paper was a small, five-column folio ; subscription 
price, ^1 per year if paid in advance, and if not paid before the end of 
six months, §1.50. The editors differed somewhat, politically and other- 
wise, and, owing to this circumstance, the paper presented the singular 
appearance of having the initials of each editor signed to the articles writ- 
ten by himself. On the 16th of August, 1848, the venture had become 
so prosperous that the paper was enlarged to a six-column folio, and the 
pages were considerably lengthened. Mr. Talcott was a '' Free-Soil Dem- 
ocrat," while his partner was a "Free-Soil Whig," or, in other words, an 
Abolitionist. The editorial relations of the two were always pleasant and 
no doubt profitable, as they prevented that extreme partisan bitterness 
which too often engenders permanent estrangement. In June, 1849, Mr. 
Talcott purchased his partner's interest, and on the 20th of June issued 
the first number owned and edited exclusively by himself. On the 25th 
of July, 1849, at the end of Vol. V, the name of the paper was changed, 
and on the 1st of August appeared the first number of the Practical 
Observer, a Democratic newspaper. A few weeks later, the page was 


enlarged to a seven-column folio, and the name changed to the Valpa- 
raiso Practical Observer ; subscription, $1, if paid in advance, and ^2 at 
the end of the year. On the 15th of March, 1852, the word "Valpa- 
raiso " was dropped from the name, and on the 10th of January, 1853, the 
entire paper was changed, so that a tri-weekly was issued on Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Saturdays, and the usual weekly on Thursday, both issues 
being furnished one year for the very small sum of $1. At this time, the 
paper was issued as a five-column folio. On the 3d of September, 1853, 
Mr. Talcott began issuing a one-page daily after the following fashion, 
still continuing the tri-weekly and weekly : One page was issued Monday, 
and the same page and another on Tuesday, constituting the first issue 
during the week of the tri-weekly ; then one page was issued for Wednes- 
day, and the same page and another constituted the tri-weekly of Thurs- 
day, and so on for Friday and Saturday. At the same time, the weekly 
of Thursday was issued from the six pages of daily matter which had been 
kept in type for that purpose. The daily, tri-weekly and weekly were 
furnished for ^5 per year. The paper at this time was a credit to the 
town and to the unwavering enterprise of Mr. Talcott. The pressure 
which the editor brought to bear upon the county on all worthy social 
and political problems assisted largely in creating a complete transforma- 
tion of public opinion on the question of the extension of slave territory. 
Mr. Talcott had formerly been a Democrat, but even then had advocated 
the limitation of slave territory, though wishing the result accomplished 
by Democratic agencies. When the Free-Soil movement was inaugu- 
rated, and the old parties began to yield up their brightest elements to 
the new, which was slowly forming, Mr. Talcott entered zealously into the 
work, and it was mainly due to the light which he concentrated upon the 
popular political issues of the day that the county took an early and de- 
cided Republican stand. 

In December, 1853, the prices of the paper became ^5 per year for 
the daily, ^1.50 for the semi-weekly, and f 1.50 for the weekly. In May, 
1854, Dr. R. A. Cameron became associate editor, but severed his con- 
nection with the paper in December of the same year. Various changes 
were afterward made in the prices and forms of the various issues. In 
January, 1855, Mr. Talcott, who had long felt the need of assistance, took 
in as associate editors Lucius Hawkins and W. B. Talcott, but neither 
remained long. In April, 1857, R. A. Cameron bought the entire oSice 
and outfit, and issued his first number on the 14th of that month. With 
Vol. I, Number 15, of this series, the name of the paper was changed 
to the Republican, and the sheet continued an earnest exponent of the 
principles of the new party from which it derived its name. J. F. Mc- 
Carthy became associate editor September 19, 1857, but left March 23, 


1858, and Thomas McConnell went in with Cameron as joint editor and 
proprietor. July 15, 1858, Mr. McConnell became simply assistant edi- 
tor, but on the 29tli of the same month purchased the paper conditionally, 
and took as an associate, Henry W. Talcott. On the 14th of October, 
1858, William C. Talcott, the veteran editor, went in with McConnell 
and H. W. Talcott, as joint editor and proprietor. On the 3d of Janu- 
ary, 1859, the Republican^ under this able management, began a new 
series, issuing a one-page daily, a four-page semi-weekly, and an eight- 
page weekly, Henry W. Talcott being publisher and proprietor. In 
March, 1859, R. A. Cameron again became owner and publisher, with 
R. A. Cameron and J. C. Thompson editors. On the 31st of March, the 
weekly was enlarged, the daily having been discontinued some time be- 
fore. In September, the last two letters of the paper's name having been 
lost or stolen during a fire, the name became the Repuhlic. In March, 
1860, Mr. Thompson severed his connection with the paper, and on the 
25th of April, 1861, with Vol. V, Number 17 (of the Republican and the 
Republic)^ E. R. Beebe went in as editor and proprietor. Mr. Cameron 
having sold out and "gone to the war," Thomas McConnell became 
publisher with Vol. V, No. 31, and on the 1st of August, 1861, the edi- 
tors became McConnell, Cameron & Beebe. Mr. Cameron was corre- 
sponding editor, and sent home long, spicy letters from the field of war. 
His interest in the paper at this time was owing to the fact that Mr. 
Beebe could not meet the payments according to the contract. In a short 
time McConnell bought the entire paper, Mr. Beebe stepped down and 
out, and Mr. Cameron, who probably held a mortgage on the ofiice, re- 
mained corresponding editor. On the 10th of April, 1862, as Mr. Mc- 
Connell had failed to meet the requirements of the contract of purchase, 
the ownership of the paper reverted to Mr. Cameron, and Mrs. Jane E. 
Cameron, wife of the owner, assumed control, with Mr. Beebe as associate 
editor. Mr. Beebe went out December 11, 1862, and the paper was ad- 
vertised for sale, though the issues appeared regularly, mainly through 
the efforts of Mrs. Cameron. June 18, 1863, Aaron Gurney went in as 
joint editor, Cameron & Co. publishers, R. A. Cameron corresponding 
editor, but in December of the same year the issue was discontinued, 
Mr. Gurney having withdrawn, and the paper having no one to properly 
manage it. 

On the 4th of January, 1866, Mr. Cameron having returned from the 
war, issued No. 1, Volume X, of the Valparaiso Republic, and con- 
tinued this until May 24, 1866, when Thomas McConnell became joint 
editor and publisher. In November, 1866, G. A. Pierce bought the 
oflBce, but immediately sold the same to Aaron Gurney, who was issuing 
the Vidette, and the two papers were merged, and issued under the title 


of " Vidette and Republic^'" a nine-column folio newspaper; Aaron Gur- 
ney, general editor; B. W. Smith, educational editor, and Pomeroy, Kim- 
ball & Co., publishers. The first number of the Porter County Vidette 
had been issued January 24, 1866, Gurney & Pomeroy, proprietors ; 
Aaron Gurney, general editor, and A. D. Cunningham, editor of the edu- 
cational department. March 19, 1867, J. F, Heaton went in with Gur- 
ney as joint editor, and, in May, Kimball became joint proprietor with 
Gurney. August 27, 1867, Mr. Heaton left, Gurney continued sole 
editor, and the paper was reduced in size, and thus remained until July, 

Mr. Pierce, after buying the Republic and immediately selling it to 
Mr. Gurney, issued during the same month, November, 1866, the first 
number of the Republican^ a new venture, or perhaps a continuation of 
the old Republic, with J. Harper, associate editor, and Orrin E. Harper 
& Co., publishers. April 4, 1867, G. A. May became joint editor, but 
went out October 31, 1867, as also did J. Harper. About this time, W. 
H. Calkins became associate editor, but on the 5th of March, 1868, left, 
and in July, 1868, the Rejniblican was consolidated with the Vidette and 
Republic under the latter name, Gurney & Pierce, editors and proprietors. 
Not long after this, Mr. Pierce sold out to Mr. Gurney, who continued to 
issue the paper until June 4, 1874, when the office was bought by Will- 
iam C. Talcott, who, two issues later, changed the name to Vidette, and 
thus it has remained until the present. December 1, 1874, C. R. Tal- 
cott secured a half-interest, and the paper was continued thus with abun- 
dant success until November, 1879, when C. R. Talcott bought his father's 
interest and assumed exclusive management, but December 16, 1880, 
William C. Talcott repurchased a half interest, and thus the paper re- 
mains at the present writing. 

In the month of June, 1856, Mr. Berry issued the first number of the 
Porter Democrat, and after continuing the same with moderate success 
until February 17, 1857, sold out to J. T. Rock and A. Lytle Jones, 
who issued No. 40, Vol. I, February 24, 1857. At this time the 
paper was a six-column folio; subscription, $1.50 in advance, $2 at the 
end of six months, and i$2.50 at the end of the year. Seven weeks later, 
Mr. Jones went out, and Mr. Rock continued alone until No. 6, Vol. II, 
when H. P. Lynch became publisher, and writer of poems and miscellany 
for the paper. Lynch left Avith No. 37, Vol. II, and in December, 1858, 
B. D. Harper became publisher. In January, 1859, S. R. Bryant be- 
came associate editor, and Harper left with No. 44, Vol. III. R. C. 
Nash became assistant publisher with No. 5, Vol. V, and three numbers 
later sole publisher, but four numbers afterward left Rock exclusive pub- 
lisher. The last number of the Democrat appeared November 22, 1860, 


with No. 16, Vol. V. Rock & Bryant then issued the Porter G-azette, 
but after continuing the same a short time with some changes, abandoned 
the venture. 

In the year 1871, Engelbert Zimmerman, an able and experienced 
newspaper man, issuied at Valparaiso the first number of the Messenger, 
a spicy, bright-faced Democratic journal. The ability, enterprise and 
skill of the editor soon placed the paper on a permanent and substantial 
footing, and its circulation and influence rapidly increased. The paper 
continued without noteworthy event under the exclusive ownership and 
management of Mr. Zimmerman until A.ugust, 1881, when H. B. 
Brown, Principal of the Normal School, purchased a half-interest, and 
thus th paper remains at present. 

The last journalistic venture in the county is the Valparaiso Herald, 
an independent newspaper, started September 29, 1881, by P. O'Sulli- 
van, a young man of bright intellect and promise. It is newsy, spicy, 
and a credit to the mind and heart of its editor and manager. It has 
met with satisfactory patronage from the citizens of the county. 

The Normal Mirror, a literary pamphlet, was conducted by the 
students of the Normal School in 1875-76-77. In its place is now the 
No7'thern hidiana ScJiool Journal, edited by W. J. Bell. 

In September, 1878, H. R. Gregory issued the first number of the 
Hebron Free Press, a small local paper, independent in politics. He 
conducted the paper with moderate success until October, 1879, when 
the office was sold to W. H. Mansfield, who changed the name to Hebron 
Local News, and the politics to neutral. In 1880, the office was 
removed to Lowell, where the paper is at present issued. 

Qounty Polities. — The political features of Porter County since its 
organization are not peculiarly striking or noteworthy. From the sub- 
joined exhibit of the county vote for Presidential electors, it will be seen 
that the Whigs or Republicans carried the county on every occasion, ex- 
cept the years 1848 and 1852 ; but this does not fully explain the poli- 
tical past of the county. From 1836 until about 1845, either party lines 
were not strictly drawn, or else the Whig and Democratic parties were 
equally matched numerically ; for, during that period, sometimes one 
party triumphed and sometimes the other, and it was next to impossible 
for the friends of any candidate to predict with any degree of certainty 
the future result of an election. The result was that, during the period 
mentioned, the county offices were filled with men from both parties, and 
even from mongrel or doubtful political organizations, if the candidate 
was of unusual prominence and worth. It is found upon examination of 
the election returns that during the first three years of the county's ex- 
istence, the Whig party was slightly in the ascendency where test votes 



were given. This was the case in the election of Congressmen and Rep- 
resentatives to the State Legislature. But in the election of county or 
township officers, the elections even during those years were just as apt 
to go Democratic as Whig. After about 1840, it seems that the Demo- 
crats became stronger, numerically, than the Whigs, though still for a 
number of years the two were so equally matched that great interest was 
shown in the elections, owing, perhaps, to the doubtful results. After 
about 1846, the superior strength of the county Democracy became so 
decided that usually every county office was filled with representatives of 
that party. The Wester-n Manger and its successor, the Practical 
Observer, were Democratic sheets, and the growth of Democracy at the 
expense of all other political ocracies was doubtless owing to the dissemi- 
nation by these papers of Democratic principles. The Observer advocated 
that phase of Democracy known as Free-Soilism, and prior to the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise steadfastly maintained this position. But, 
in 1854, when the real results of the repeal became apparent and the ex- 
tension of slavery into all the Territories and even into the Northern 
States seemed probable, the editor of the Observer, still upholding Free- 
Soilism, found himself, almost ere he was aware, an earnest worker in the 
new party — Republican. Through the influence brought to bear by the 
Observer upon the citizens, the new party immediately went to the front, 
and has since had control of the official patronage of the county. 

The following table shows the mixed condition of politics in the 
county in August, 1836 : 































































































































































































49 i 1 





(D.), Democrat; rW.), Whig. 

Bryant and Clark Townships were of Lake County, as was also Ross 
Township, the records of which could not be found. The records of 



Washington Township were also missing, the remainder of the county 
being represented in the table under a different arrangement of townships 
than as they are constituted at present. The following table illustrates 
the decided Democratic tendency of the county in August, 1847 : 


For Congress: 
Charles W. Cathcart (D).. 

Daniel W. Pratt (W) 

Robert Stewart (L) 

For Representative : 
Alexander McDonald (D). 

Harlo S. Orton (W) 

For Commissioner: 

John Dinwiddle (D) 

Samuel Van Dolson (W) .. 

Truman Stoddard (L) 

For Associate Judge: 

H. E. Woodruif (D) 

Wilson Malone (W) 

Tainter (L) 

William Barnard (L) 

Collector and Treasurer: 

E. E. Campbell (D) 

William Cheney (W) 

W. H. Fifield (L) 

For Assessor: 

A. Freeman (D) 

T. Freeman (W) 

For Coroner : 

J. Morgan (D) 

A. D. Cole (W) 

Orrin Service (L) 



















37 47 
14 30 
2 , 






















































































(D), Democrats; (W), Whigs ; (L), Liberty or Abolitionist. 





























The following returns of October, 1854, show the superior strength 
of the new (Republican) party : 





































































204 11 [22 
























291 13'23 












229 76'57 



55 20 


69 39 




















For Congress: 

Schuyler Colfax (R) 

Norman Eddy (l)j 

Prosecuting Attorney: 
M. H. Weir (R) 

D. J. Woodward (D) 

District Attorney: 

Martin Wood (R) 

J. A. Thornton (D) 

A, V. Bartholomew (R) 

E. E. Campbell (D) 




County Commissioners: 

John Hardesty (R) 

Philip Hall (D) 

Collector and Treasurer: 

0. J. Skinner (R) 

William Wilson (D) 


T. G. Lytle (R) 

A. W. Rose (D) 


John Garis (R) 

T. G. Sweney(D) 


R. W. Burge (R) 

Isaac Hutchins (D) 







58; 63 



99 42 


11 49 

20 57 


24 55 












(R), Republican; (D), Democrat. 

The following continuous exhibit illustrates the political situation in 
the county from 1836 until the present time, and shows the electoral vote 
at each Presidential election since the organization of the county, except 
where the same was unobtainable : 

NOVEMBEB, 1836. 

November, 1840. 



Harrison \ Van Buren 

and and 
Granger. | Johnson. 



and Tyler. 


Van Burn 


William Walker's ... 








Jacob Wolf's 



George W. Turner's 
William Clark's 
















NOTEMBER, 1844. 



Union , 





Pleasant — 






Total ' 311 305 



OS >»E 

u s. c 


November, 1848. 








Pleasant .... 




Total ... 



• S2 



a 9 


A s 























November, 1852. 



Jackson ... 


Portage , 

Pleasant ..., 


f^ a 

. a 


O OS § 


M — 
O 3 





c: (S 


















Morgan .. 



. a 





P o£ 
















November, 1856. 




Washington . 





(5 ^ 

S u '^ ^ 










■< t" o 

5 3 S 2 


Boone ., 


03 rj 5 ^ 

^ i. .5 





5 2 « 

2 a a o 


November, 1860. 
























































November, 18G4. 

November, li 










Grant j Seymour 

and ! and 
Colfax. ; Blair. 

















546 406 
















1 Washington 







Westchester ... 

1 Westchester ... 
1 Pleasant 



' Porter 

















November, 18 


November, 1876 







Groeley and 



























345 3 



54 :.. 





















Union .... 




Washington. . . 



Jackson . . 

















Morgan ... 















978 I 3 



November, 1880. 






































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Military History or the County— Soldiers or the Earlier Wars- 
War OF the Rebellion— Political Situation in 1860— Calls for 
Troops— Fall of Sumter— War Meetings— Newspaper Comments- 
Volunteers— The Boys in the Field— Drafts— Facts and Figures 
—Muster Roll— Public Feeling after the Close. 

THE territory comprised in this county has been, within historic times 
at least, the scene of no invasions, sieges or battles. Its settlement 
having been begun nearly fifty years after the close of the war of the Rev- 
olution, not many of the survivors of that war could be expected to find 
homes or end their days here. So far as known to the writer, the only 
soldiers of the war of Independence who have ever resided in the county 
were Henry Battan and Joseph Jones. Of the personal history of these 
but little is now known. The name of the former is found on the poll 
books of an election held at City West not long after the organization of 
the county, from which it is inferred that he was a resident of Westchester 
Township at the time. From the records of the Presbyterian Church of 
Valparaiso, it appears that he was received as a member of that church 
at its organization, on the 3d of July, 1840, and upon evidence of his 
good standing in the Presbyterian Church in the State of Virginia. Sev- 
eral of the old citizens of Valparaiso remember him as a Revolutionary 
pensioner residing here with a daughter, but have no recollection of what 
he may have said as to his services. From the records of the same 
church, it appears that he died on the 1st of February, 1845. His pas- 
tor, Rev. Dr. Brown, in an anniversary sermon preached in November, 
1859, speaks of him as " Old Father Battan, at once a soldier of the 
country and of the cross. At ninety-four he gained the victory and the 

Of Joseph Jones only these things are known, viz., that before com- 
ing to this county he had resided for some time in Holmes County, Ohio ; 
that he was married to the grandmother of the present Mayor of Val- 
paraiso, the Hon. Thomas G. Lytle ; that in the spring of the year 1841, 
he removed to this county and settled at Boone Grove ; that after a few 
years he died at a very advanced age and was buried in the Cornell Grave- 
yard, where his place of repose is unmarked by any monument. 

Mrs. Susannah Fifield, the widow of a Revolutionary soldier, came to 
this county from Enfield, N. H. The writer is able to state only this, 


that she was received by letter into the Presbyterian Church of this place 
August 22, 1852, and that her pastor says of her in 1858: "Out of her 
Revolutionary pension, she annually gave me ^10 for Foreign Missions. 
A godly woman, at an advanced age, she recently crossed over Jordan." 

Isaac Cornell and Robert Folsom, soldiers of the war of 1812, were 
buried in the Cornell Graveyard. John Curtis, who went from the State 
of New York as a farrier in the same war, came to this county in 1836, 
settled near Wheeler, and died there in 1865. Eliphalet D. Curtis, an- 
other soldier of that war, enlisted in New York, came to this county in 
1838, settled near Porter Cross Roads, and died in the spring of 1865. 
Myron Powell enlisted in Vermont, moved subsequently to the Western 
Reserve in Ohio, came to Porter County, Ind., and died here in 1865. 
The only soldiers of the Black Hawk war who ever resided in this county, 
as far as learned, were Ruel Starr and James M. Buel, the former now 
deceased, the latter is a resident of Chicago. 

No company was organized in this county to serve in the Mexican 
war, but Joseph P. Smith, of Lake County, at the time holding a county 
office, resigned and enlisted a company to serve in 1846. After the ex- 
piration of their term of service, they re-enlisted to serve from 1847 to 
1848. About thirty persons from Porter County enlisted in that com- 
pany, among whom were William Unruh, Ezra Wilcox, Peter Mussel- 
man, two men named Aley, two named Patterson, Mr. Brown, Mr. 
Risden, Mr. Preston, Mr. Hopkins and Mr. Wells. It is believed that 
the only survivors of that company, now in the county, are William 
Unruh, of Tassinong, and Jacob Aley, of Hebron. It was the duty of 
this company, while in Mexico, to guard wagon trains, and the climate 
proved to be very deadly in its influence upon them, as out of 119 men 
who went out, only thirty-six returned. In addition to these, Samuel 
Meekam, now of Valparaiso, Clinton Frazier, a man named Briggs, an- 
other named Hesser, and still others from this county, were soldiers in 
that war, but in what organization they went out is not known. 

TJie War of the Rebellion. — The political campaign of 1860 waxed 
warm in this county. The great majority of the Democrats voted for 
Mr. Douglas, though there were some votes cast for Breckenridge. 
On the one hand it was charged upon the Republicans that they were 
responsible for all the dangers that threatened the country, and on the 
other that the Democrats were in sympathy with Southern secessionists. 
In reality, until the Southern States began to pass their ordinances of 
secession, none really believed that the issues betAveen the two sections 
of the country were to be tried upon the field of battle, much less that four 
years of blood and horror were soon to follow. After the election of Lin- 
coln, when the alarm had become general at the threatened insurrection 


in the South, when conservative men of the North and South were en- 
deavoring to avert the calamities of war by timely compromise, the gen- 
eral opinion of the Republicans in this part of the country, as evinced by 
the press, was decidedly against any compromise which might bind more 
closely the fetters of the slave or recognize the institution of slavery as 
National in its character. The Republic of that day, then published in 
Valparaiso, was very decided in opposition to the Crittenden and all other 
compromises, the tendency of which would be to surrender any vantage- 
ground that had hitherto been gained in rescuing territory from the 
domination of the peculiar institution. All who are old enough can 
remember the peculiar feelings which prevailed at that time. There was 
a class of politicians at the South called fire-eaters. They had always 
been given to bluster and hifalutin. The people of the North had become 
accustomed to threats of the dissolution of the Union, and they had list- 
ened to that kind of talk until they supposed it might go on ad infinitum, 
and nothing ever come of it. Yet things were certainly looking more 
serious than ever before. South Carolina had seceded. Mississippi had 
seceded. It looked as though all the cotton States would go out. They 
did go out, one after another, in rapid succession. Men who had been 
elected to the legislatures of their several States as Union men were either 
persuaded or terrified into voting for secession. Twiggs proved a traitor 
and turned over his forces so far as he could to the cause of disunion. 
Pensacola and Mobile, with their fortifications, fell into rebel hands. 
But still the feeling was strong in many minds that all this had been done 
by a sort of collusion with the administration for the purpose of terrifying 
the North into compromises which would forever perpetuate the slave 
power in the Union, and set it in unassailable control. It was believed 
there were too many friends of the Union in the South ever to sufier the 
fire-eaters to sunder the bonds of the States. The old Whigs, who had 
no sympathy with that sort of thing, would assert themselves, and the 
sober second thought of the people would be for bearing their present ills 
rather than to fly to others which they knew not of. And then, suppose 
they did rebel ? What of it ? The North is stronger than the South, and 
whatever may come we will not submit to have slavery enthroned over the 
whole land. We will not suffer men to bring their slaves into the free 
States and there hold them. So the Republic, voicing the feelings of one 
party, said emphatically, "No compromise." The opposition paper, on 
the other hand, was saying in effect : " See how mad you have made the 
Southern people by your abolitionism. We always told you this was 
what you would bring the country to. The only way now to escape dis- 
solution and the horrors of war is to submit to what the slaveholders 
demand for their security, and let us take charge of affairs. It is no 




wonder that the South should rebel at the election of an Abolitionist for 
President." But when the memorable day came, after all the uncer- 
tainty and suspense about the Star of the West, and about what would 
come of it all, that the flag was fired upon and that the South had 
invoked the arbitrament of war, all the talk of compromise ceased. The 
great majority of all parties said, The Union must be preserved. Over 
the wires came the proclamation of the President for 75,000 men to serve 
three months. In the South it was received with derision. There it was 
known far better than here that 75,000 raw volunteers would not be able 
to put an end to a conspiracy so vast. With the Mississippi River, Gal- 
veston, New Orleans, Mobile, Pensacola, Savannah, Charleston, Wil- 
mington and Richmond in their possession, and with sympathizers in 
Kentucky and Maryland and Missouri, it was childish to suppose it could 
all be ended in ninety days and by soldiers the majority of whom had 
never smelled gunpowder in their lives. But who can describe the thrill 
of patriotism with which that message was received in the North ? Sev- 
enty-five thousand men ! They would overawe all opposition. When 
the South saw that the North ivould fight rather than surrender all, that 
would end the matter. Each volunteer then felt strong, and with the 
almost unanimous current of feeling it was thought by many that they 
would have a kind of holiday, would play at war for awhile, and then 
return home when the Union had been restored to receive the plaudits 
that would await them. It was an era of hallucinations. None foresaw 
the future, none in the North and none in the South. The Southern fire- 
eaters had utterly miscalculated the spirit of the North, and the terrible 
earnestness of the Southern fire-eaters was not understood in the North. 
On Sunday, April 14, the telegraph carried the news of the firing on 
Fort Sumter. On Monday afternoon, the 15th, the following call was 
issued for a meeting at the court house. 

Americans ! Union Men ! Rally. The war has begun. Fort Sumter has fallen ! Our 
flag has been insulted, fired upon and struck to traitors ! A Pelican and Piattlesnake 
banner floats in its stead ! Let it be torn down and the stars and stripes float in its place, 
or let us perish in the attempt. Davis, the traitor, says that next the Secession flag shall 
wave over the Capitol at Washington ! Shall it be so ? A thousand times No ! Then to- 
night let us rally at the court house, burying all party names, and come to the rescue of 
the Republic against its mortal enemies. We are beaten at Sumter, but not conquered, 
and must rally to preserve the inheritance left us by our fathers. Come one, come all 
who love their country! To-night let us pledge our lives, our fortunes and our sacred 
honor to the defense of the proudest flag that ever waved over a free people ! 

War Meetings and Enlistments. — The court house was crowded early. 
The following are the official proceedings of the meeting. " On motion 
of R. A. Cameron, M. D., editor of the Republic, Dr. E. Jones was 
called to the chair, Messrs. E. R. Chapin and Alanson Finney chosen as 
Vice Presidents, and J. F. McCarthy, Esq., and J. A. Berry, editor of 



the Starke Qounty Press, chosen as Secretaries. The object of the meet- 
ino- having been fully stated, on motion of Dr. Cameron, a committee of 
five (Messrs. Cameron, S. S. Skinner, J. N. Skinner, Jacob Brewer and 
M. L. De Motte) were appointed to draft resolutions expressive of the sense 
of the meeting. The Committee retired, and after a short absence re- 
turned and reported the following preamble and resolutions, which were 
received amid deafening applause. (Here follow preamble and resolutions 
of the most patriotic character.) 

" The meeting was addressed by Messrs. De Motte, Cameron, Lytle, 
Jones, Rock, Pierce, Putnam and others, Democrats and Republicans, 
who, heretofore differing widely politically, were a unit on sustaining 
the Government, protecting the honor of our flag, and rebuking the 
thieves, murderers and traitors of the South. At the opening of the 
meeting, two American flags, emblems of our nation's glory, were brought 
in and suspended over the stand occupied by the President and Vice 
Presidents, which were hailed with long, loud and enthusiastic raptures of 
delight by the large audience present, to which additional excitement was 
added by the presence of the Union Band, that discoursed a number of 
national airs, such as ' Hail Columbia,' ' Marseilles Hymn,' etc. At 
the close of the meeting, an opportunity was given those who desired to 
register their names as volunteers, when a number of gentlemen came 
promptly forward, enrolled their names, expressing the sentiment that it 
was not for glory ^ hut to fight.'' 

The same number of the Republic contains general orders numbered 
one to twelve from Lewis Wallace, Adjutant General in regard to the 
orc^anization of military companies, a proclamation of Gov. Morton call- 
ing for the organization of troops, the account of the bombardment of 
Sumter, and also a proclamation from Gov. Morton convening the Legis- 
lature in special session on the 24th of April. 

The following number of the Republic (April 25) was issued with the 
name of E. R. Beebe as associate editor, R. A. Cameron having gone 
to Indianapolis with his company, and the first editorial correspondence, 
dated at that place, appears. Henceforth, correspondence from the scene 
of active operations made up a large part of each issue. Letters poured 
in, not only from the editor, but from Gil Pierce, who even then wielded 
the pen of a ready writer, De Witt C. Hodsden, J. F. McCarthy and 
numerous others. On Thursday, April 18, a meeting had been called at 
the court house (in the afternoon), to which the citizens came en masse, 
without distinction of party. Joseph Peirce was Chairman, G. Bloch, 
Secretary. Speeches were made by Messrs. Morrison, Hodsden, W. 
Bartholomew, J. N. Skinner, Rev. Gurney, M. L. De Motte, I. C. B. 
Suman, Charles Gurney and G. Bloch. Among the resolutions adopted, 


was this : " That if it is found that there are Secessionists in our midst, 
we will not encourage violence and bloodshed at home, but we will with- 
draw from them our social relations, and if business men, we will not 
favor them with our patronage." After the adjournment of the regular 
meeting, those who had signified their willingness to volunteer for the 
defense of the stars and stripes, whenever and wherever called, remained 
to organize and elect officers. The following were elected officers : R. A. 
Cameron, Captain ; Lieutenants — First, I, C. B. Suman ; Second, G. 
A. Pierce ; Third, 0. H. Ray ; Ensign, J. F. McCarthy, etc. 

On Friday, the excitement was still unabated. Numbers enlisted, 
and the office of the Republic^ where the lists were opened, was crowded 
most of the day. In the evening another meeting was called at the court 
house, presided over by T. G. Lytle. Some 200 blankets were donated 
by the citizens for the use of the soldiers, and $40 were raised for the 
purchase of a flag for the company. On Saturday afternoon, the Union 
Band presented, through M. L. De Motte, their beautiful flag, which had 
a short time before been presented to them by the ladies. Speeches were 
made in behalf of the company, by Cameron, McCarthy and Rev. S. C. 
Logan. On the Sabbath, a sermon was preached to the company by Rev. 
A. Gurney, and on that evening the company took the train for Indian- 
apolis, many of the citizens accompanying them as far as Wanatah. 

In the Field. — Arrived at Indianapolis, the company, which num- 
bered 130, was divided and the overplus joined with the over- 
plus of another company from Ft. Wayne, formed a new company 
under the command of Capt. Comparet. In this company, J. F. 
McCarthy and 0. H. Ray were Lieutenants. On the 29th of May, the 
Ninth Regiment, Col. Milroy, in which the Valparaiso boys constituted 
Company H, left Camp Morton for Virginia. The first trial the boys 
had of actual conflict with the rebels was at Philippi, on the 3d of June, 
where all the Indiana regiments were engaged. The rebels were taken 
by surprise, and a large amount of arms, horses, etc., was captured. 

On Saturday, June 22, a meeting of the citizens of the county was 
held for the purpose of obtaining recruits. Speeches were made by 
James M. Lytle, F. Church, S. L. Bartholomew and Mr. Bartlet. On 
Monday, June 24, the volunteers met to effect their organization. The 
meeting was presided over by E. J. Jones, D. L. Skinner, Secretary. 
The oSicers of the company were chosen as follows ; Captain, James M. 
Lytle; Lieutenants, Galbreath and Carr. Capt. Lytle gave his life 
on the field of battle. A mass meeting was held on the Fourth of July, 
to bid farewell to the company, as they were to leave on the evening of 
that day for Camp Tippecanoe. 

In the Repuhlic of July 19th appeared this song, composed by a 


member of the Ninth Indiana Regiment. (It was forwarded by Gil 
Pierce, and doubtless he was the author) : 

•' On Sumter's proud ramparts a traitorous hand, 

Has torn from its staff the bright flag of our glory ; 
And blessed be God, who inspires our bold band, 

That flag we'll replace though the ramparts be gory. 
And the ' Bloody Ninth's ' name, and the 'Bloody Ninth's' fame 
Shall shine in our history in letters of flame. 
And the Star Spangled Banner, once more it shall wave 
O'er our country united, the home of the brave. 

" Shall we shrink from the contest, brave comrades? Oh, no ! 

Let us fight while one stripe of that banner is waving, 
Or fall with each f^ice bravely ' turned to the foe ' — 

To the traitors who fight for their country's enslaving; 
Contented to die, if that flag waves on high, 
But never before the base rebels to fly ; 
For we've sworn that the Star Spangled Banner shall wave 
O'er the Union again, or the ' Bloody Ninth's' grave. 

" Let them come with their Beauregard, Davis and Wise, 
The 'Ninth' will be there with their Colonel to lead 'em, 
And while that proud banner is floating the sliies. 

With him they will fight for their Union and freedom. 
The foe we'll destroy, and the name of Milroy 
Shall sound through our country in paeans of joy, 
While the Star Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave." 

On July 24, the " Bloody Ninth " reached Indianapolis from the seat 
of war to be re-organized for the three years' service. The Twentieth 
Regiment, Col. W. L. Brown, with Capt. James M. Ly tie's company, 
from Porter County, left Indianapolis for Washington on the 31st of 
July, just ten days after the Bull Run disaster. 

October 24, 1861, this delicate compliment is paid in the Republic to 
Secretary Cameron : " A number of horses, numbering 250, were sent this 
regiment (First Regiment Northwestern Cavalry in which was Capt. 
Buell's Company) from Pennsylvania, Secretary Cameron's State, and 
twenty-five of that number and only twent^'^-five were found fit for service, 
227 being rejected as unsound and deficient in almost every conceiv- 
able manner. This is a fair specimen of Pennsylvania swindling, con- 
nived at by officials high in power. Let the West furnish her men with 
their equipments and horses, and Pennsylvania retain her old broken- 
down hacks for her own use, if the Secretary insists upon using all the 
ring-boned, spavined, windgalled, blind, stump-tailed, lamed, knock- 
kneed, worn-out broken-winded scrubs first." In Company G, of that 
Cavalry Regiment, were forty-seven Porter County men, of whom the 
Adjutant General's report of Indiana takes no notice. 


The capture of Fort Donelson, on Sunday, February 16, 1862, was 
one of the bright spots in the history of the war, and gave rise to great re- 
joicing in Valparaiso as well as in other parts of the land. On Monday 
evening the court house was packed with the " chivalry and beauty " of 
Valparaiso. The ladies were out in full force, although it drizzled rain. 
Dr. Newland was called to the chair, and speeches were made (after 
prayer) by Gurney, Mattingly, Church, Bartholomew, President Sims 
and A. L. Jones. Of course a resolution was adopted. What would a 
meeting in the United States of America be without at least one resolu- 
tion ? This was one of " unbounded confidence in the wisdom and patri- 
otism of our military leaders," etc. Of course, with 15,000 rebel prison- 
ers just taken, they could afford to have a little confidence in the men 
who took them. 

In the Republic of March 20, 1862, is a detailed account of the 
devastation wrought to the frigates Cumberland and Congress, by the 
rebel ram Merrimac, in Hampton Roads, on March 9, written by Capt. 
Lytle, whose regiment, the Twentieth, was engaged during the fight, to- 
gether with the repulse of the Merrimac by the iron-clad Monitor. On 
the 15th of April, seventeen or eighteen men of the Ninth Regiment, who 
had been wounded in the engagement at Pittsburg Landing, were re- 
ceived at Valparaiso, and were kindly cared for by the citizens. In that 
engagement, David Thatcher, James Mitchell and David Armitage, be- 
longing to Company H, were killed, and twenty-nine others were wounded. 
It began indeed to be the "Bloody Ninth." Sixty-two ofiicers and men 
went into the action and thirty passed through it unscathed. 

May 1, 1862, a meeting was held at the residence of Rev. S. C. Lo- 
gan, to devise means of sending relief to the sick and wounded of the 
Indiana recriments. 

A sanitary commission was appointed at a meeting held at the court 
house which issued an address to the people of Northwestern Indiana. 
The commission consisted of S. W. Smith, A. J. Buel, Elias iVxe, 
Joseph Peirce, M. A. Salisbury, E. J. Jones and R. Bell, Jr. On the 
28th of April, the following patriotic appeal was made to the Germans of 
Porter County : 

An die Deutschen von Porter County. 
Der Unterzeichnete ist bereit Beitrage zum Ankaufe eines Landgutes fuer Major 
General Feanz Sigel anzunehmen. Komme yeder und gebe sein scherflein zu einein 
so noblen Uuternehmen. Dr. Met. Max Hoffman. 

The cry of " fight mit Sigel " was taken up in Porter County. 

On the 29th of May, 1862, was issued a call for a non-partisan con- 
vention to send delegates to the Union State Convention, which was to 
meet in Indianapolis on the 8th of June, and to appoint a Union County 
Central Committee to act for the year. 


July 10, 1862, there appeared the following letter: 

Columbia Hospital, Washington, D. C. 

My Dear Mrs. Larned : This moraing, for the first time, I am able to write you a 
short note. I was shot in the left side and the left thigh, and the right wrist (slightly 
the latter). Three shots pierced my coat, so you see I was very fortunate to get off at 
all. There are no bones broken, and I am improving rapidly. My folks at B. come 
over to see me, and I will go home with them as soon as I am able to ride. I think it 
■will be from four to six weeks before I could think of venturing West, but will go as soon 
as possible. Of my own brave boys, fifteen are gone and five are here wounded. They 
did their duty to a man. God bless them; but we all did so. Lytle. 

This was Capt. James M. Lytle, of the Twentieth. He was wounded 
in front of Richmond. 

July 17, 1862, this item appears, " We regret to learn that the Rev. Dr. 
Brown, Chaplain of the Forty-eighth Regiment, is lying critically ill at 
Paducah. His wife was telegraphed for on Saturday evening last, requiring 
her to repair to his bedside as speedily as possible. She started for that 
place on the first train. The Presbyterian Church of this place, of which 
he was formerly pastor, appointed A. J. Buel, Esq., on its behalf on Sab- 
bath to visit him. Mr. Buel left with his lady that evening." The 
Republic of the following week published the obituary of Dr. Brown, 
who died July 14, and the gallant Lytle passed away after long suffer- 
ing, on the 20th of August following. Thus were the people tasting of 
the horrors of the war, and learning at what a price the Union was to be 

The order for the first draft for 300,000 men to serve for nine months 
was issued August 4, 1862. There was also a call for 300,000 volunteers. 
Both these calls were met with thanks on the part of the people. On 
Monday, August 10, a mass-meeting was held at the court house, which 
was addressed by Hon. C. W. Cathcart, of La Porte County. Dr. L. A. 
Cass was chosen as President of the meeting, and Thomas Jewell, Secre- 
tary. The purpose of the meeting was to raise $25 bounty for each man 
enlisting from the county. By the 14th of August, two full companies 
had gone into camp at South Bend. Not less than three hundred and 
fifty men had enlisted under the call for 600,000 men. The subscrip- 
tions were liberal and numerous, ranging from $1 to $100. But it would 
be impossible to follow up that eventful history to its close, and necessity 
compels us to summarize the work done by Porter County in suppressing 
the rebellion. 

Military Statistics. — It is impossible to ascertain just how many 
men from Porter County were engaged in the war. The reports of the 
Adjutant General are very imperfect, omitting the names of some persons 
who served in Indiana Regiments, even those of some commissioned offi- 
cers, and of those ^ho enlisted in the regiments of other States he has 


given no account. We have seen how many there were in a single regi- 
ment of cavalry which went from Illinois, and there were many who 
enlisted in the gunboat or naval service, or in Tennessee and Kentucky 
regiments. Many also were wounded or killed of whom these records 
preserve no account. The names of Porter County soldiers are found 
upon the rolls of twenty-nine regiments of infantry, four regiments of cav- 
alry and two batteries of artillery which went from this State. But these 
names are chiefly to be found in the Ninth, Twentieth, Seventy-third, 
Ninety-ninth, One Hundred and Twenty-eighth, One Hundred and 
Thirty-eighth and One Hundred and Fifty-first Regiments of Infantry, 
and in the Fifth, Seventh and Twelfth Cavalry and the Fourth Battery. 
Of those whose names are found in the Adjutant General's report, 156 
were honorably discharged on account of disabilities from wounds or 
sickness, or for other reasons not given. Five hundred and thirty-nine 
were mustered out at the expiration of their term of service, or at the 
close of the war ; twenty-five were promoted from the ranks to be com- 
missioned officers ; sixty were wounded in battle, of whom fourteen died ; 
twenty-seven were killed in battle ; fifty-eight deserted ; in some cases 
the same person deserted twice ; even one who had served three years 
and had re-enlisted as a veteran deserted before the close of the war ; 
106 died of sickness. The mere reading of this shows how imperfectly 
the report of the Adjutant General was made out, when we remember 
what befell Company H, of the Ninth, at Pittsburg Landing, and Capt. 
Lytle's company in the battles before Richmond. It must strike all 
readers as strange that there should have been fifty-eight desertions and 
only twenty-seven killed in battle. The terms of service of the several 
Indiana regiments containing Porter County men were as follows : The 
Ninth, three months ; for three years. Ninth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thir- 
teenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth, Twentieth, Twenty-second, 
Twenty-fifth, Twenty-ninth, Thirty-fifth, Thirty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, 
Sixty-third, Seventy-third, Ninety-ninth, One Hundred and Twenty- 
eighth ; for one year, the One Hundred and Forty-second and One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-first; for 100 days, the One Hundred and Thirty-eighth. 

The various calls for troops were as follows : First call for 75,000 
men, three months, April 15, 1861 ; second call for 42,000 men, for 
three years, May 30, 1861 ; third call for 300,000 men for nine months, 
August 4, 1862 ; fourth call for 100,000 men for six months, June 15, 
1863 ; fifth call for 300,000 men for three years, October 17, 1863 ; 
sixth call for 500,000 men for one, two and three years, July 18, 1864 ; 
seventh call for 300,000 men for one, two and three years, December 
10, 1864. 

Porter County paid for bounties during the war ^65.227. 50. For 


relief, that is for sanitary and Christian commissions, and for the families 
of soldiers, $54,606.33. For the draft of October 6, 1862, T. G. Lytle 
was Draft Commissioner, W. S. Dunning Marshal, and J. H. Newland, 
Surgeon. Only nineteen men were drafted at that time. The second 
draft was on the 17th of October, 1863. The total credits by enrollment 
and draft to July 18, 1864, were 686. Total to be furnished by second 
draft, sixty-nine. Under the draft ordered for December 19, 1864, there 
were 145 recruits ; drafted men, seventy ; total, 215. The revised en- 
rollment, according to the Adjutant General's report, showed a total en- 
rollment of 1,136 from Porter County. 

It would be impossible, in the limits assigned, to give a history of the 
encampments, marches, battles, sieges, imprisonments, etc., of all the 
regiments having soldiers from this county. They made a gallant record, 
endured great hardships, and are deserving of the gratitude of their coun- 
trymen. As they returned home they were welcomed at Indianapolis 
and at Valparaiso, and since that time many of them have enjoyed public 
honors, and many have been entered upon the pension rolls of the nation. 
These things are worthy of mention : That ninety-nine re-enlisted as 
veterans after serving full three years. Nine are reported to have died in 
prison ; two were dishonorably discharged. Of those who are reported 
as deserters, the writer, after a residence of seventeen years in the county, 
can say that he does not know one of them. The names are not familiar, 
and they have evidently sought other scenes. 

The following is a list of officers from Porter County who served in 
the war of the rebellion : 

Ninth Infantry. — Robert A. Cameron, Captain of Company H, 
three months, commissioned April 22, 1861; mustered out at expira- 
tion of term ; re-entered service and commissioned Lieutenant Colonel 
of the Nineteenth Regiment, July 29, 1861 ; transferred to Thirty- 
fourth Regiment February 3, 1862; promoted Colonel, June 15, 1862; 
appointed Brigadier General United States Volunteers, August 11, 
1863; appointed Major General by brevet, March 13, 1865; resigned 
July 22, 1865. I. C. B. Suman, First Lieutenant Company H, 
April 22, 1861, three months ; re-entered as Captain Company 
H, August 29, 1861 ; promoted Lieutenant Colonel, August 20, 
1862 ; promoted Colonel April 17, 1863 ; appointed Brigadier Gen- 
eral by brevet March 13, 1865. G. A. Pierce, Second Lieutenant 
Company H, April 22, 1861, three months ; appointed Assistant 
Quartermaster August 3, 1861. W. H. Benny, Second Lieutenant 
Company H, August 29, 1861 ; Adjutant May 30, 1862 ; resigned 
November 24, 1862. Stephen P. Hodsden, Second Lieutenant Company 
E, September 1, 1861 ; promoted Adjutant March 3, 1863 ; promoted 


Captain Company H, August 1, 1864. La Fayette Burr, Adjutant 
August 1, 1864; Quartermaster February 18, 1865 ; promoted Captain 
Company G ; resigned April 5, 1865. Zaccheus B. Fifield, Second Lieu- 
tenant May 30, 1862; promoted Adjutant March 31, 1865. Harry 
Smith, Chaplain, November 17, 1863 ; resigned July 28, 1864. John 
K. Blackstone, Captain Company E, September 1, 1861 ; promoted 
Assistant Surgeon, November 15, 1861 ; resigned March 11, 1862. 
Max F. A. Hoftman, Assistant Surgeon, September 25, 1868; Surgeon 
One Hundred and Twenty-eighth, March 8, 1864. George W. Bloom- 
field, veteran. First Lieutenant, February 4, 1865. De Witt C. Hods- 
den, First Lieutenant Company H, August 29, 1861 ; Captain, August 20, 
1862 ; died July 27, 1864, of wounds received in action. Robert F. 
Drulinger, First Lieutenant Company H, September 29, 1862 ; mustered 
out January 24, 1865. William Turner, First Lieutenant Company H, 
March 16, 1865. John VV. Brown, Second Lieutenant, March 16, 1865. 
Fifteenth {three years) Infantry. — John F. McCarthy, Second Lieu- 
tenant Company C, April 21, 1861 ; promoted First Lieutenant March 
25, 1862 ; resigned July 23, 1862 ; appointed Assistant Surgeon, 
Twenty-ninth Infantry January 29, 1863 ; Surgeon December 9, 1863. 
Oliver H. Ray, First Lieutenant Company C, April 21, 1861 ; resigned 
March 23, 1862. 

Tiventieth Infantry — Erasmus C. Galbreath, First Lieutenant Com- 
pany I, July 22, 1861 ; promoted Captain August 20, 1862 ; Major, June 
6, 1863 ; mustered out October 19, 1864 ; appointed First Lieutenant reg- 
ular army, February 23, 1866; now (1882) Captain. James M. Lytle, 
Captain Company I, July 22, 1861 ; died of wounds August 19, 1862. 
Lorenzo D. Corey, Second Lieutenant Company I, August 20, 1862 ; 
First Lieutenant, March 25, 1863 ; Captain, June 6, 1863 ; mustered 
out. William T. Carr, Second Lieutenant Company I, July 22, 1861 ; 
First Lieutenant, August 20, 1842 ; dismissed March 20, 1863. Will- 
iam W. Stearns, Second Lieutenant Company I, March, 21, 1863 ; First 
Lieutenant, June 6, 1863 ; mustered out October 10, 1864. William S. 
Babbitt, Captain Company C, September 16, 1862 ; honorably discharged 
July 22, 1863. Anthony W. Smith, Second Lieutenant Company D 
(re-organized). May 16, 1865 ; mustered out as First Sergeant with regi- 
ment. Orpheus Everts, Surgeon, July 23,1861; transferred to Twen- 
tieth Regiment at re-organization ; mustered out with regiment. W. E. 
Brown, Commissary Sergeant at re-organization ; Adjutant One Hundred 
and Fifty-fifth, 1865 ; Quartermaster, April 18, 1865 ; declined July 
19, 1865. 

Tiventy-ninth Infantry. — J. F. Heaton, Assistant Surgeon, June 15, 
1865. Samuel E. Wetzel, First Lieutenant Company F, May 17, 1864; 


Captain, June 1, 1865. Anson Goodwin, Second Lieutenant Company 
I, September 10, 1861 ; resigned January 11, 1862 ; Captain Company B, 
One Hundred and Fiftieth, February 20, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. 

Thirty-fourth Infantry. — Stephen L. Bartholomew, Quartermaster, 
September 20, 1863 ; resigned December 4, 1863. S. C. Logan, Chap- 
lain, September 20, 1863. 

Forty-eight Infantry. — James C. Brown, Chaplain, 1862 ; died in 
hospital at Paducah, Ky., of sickness contracted in the service. Theo- 
philus Matott, Second Lieutenant Company D. November 1, 1862 ; 
First Lieutenant, January 23, 1863; resigned September 18, 1863. 

Sixty-third Infantry. — Henry 0. Skinner, First Lieutenant Com- 
pany B, July 1, 1864 ; Captain, August 18, 1864 ; mustered out May 
20, 1865. 

Seventy-third Infantry. — Robert W. Graham, First Lieutenant Com- 
pany I, August 5, 1862 ; Captain, October 20, 1862 ; Lieutenant 
Colonel, February 13, 1863 ; resigned March 9, 1863, from disability. 
Emanuel M. Williamson, Second Lieutenant Company I, August 5, 
1862 ; First Lieutenant, October 20, 1862 ; Captain, February 13, 

1863. Rollin M. Pratt, Captain Company I, August 5, 1862 ; re- 
signed October 19, 1862. William C. Eaton, Second Lieutenant Com- 
pany I, October 20, 1862 ; First Lieutenant, February 13, 1863 ; Cap- 
tain, March 1, 1864 ; mustered out. Adolphus H. Booher, Second 
Lieutenant Company I, February 13, 1863 ; First Lieutenant, March 1, 
1864 ; mustered out with regiment as Second Lieutenant. Charles S. 
Arnold, Second Lieutenant Company I, March 1, 1864 ; honorably dis- 
charged June 10, 1865. John L. Brown, Company E, Sergeant ; pro- 
moted First Lieutenant. 

Eighty-sixth Infantry. — Nicholas E. Manville, Chaplain, January 8, 
1862 ; resigned April 9, 1863. 

Ninety-ninth Infantry. — Fred W. Drawans, First Lieutenant Com- 
pany C, March 2, 1862 ; resigned January 1, 1865. William Harmon, 
Second Lieutenant Company C, October 25, 1862 ; resigned March 1, 

1864. Jacob Brewer, Captain Company C, August 18, 1862 ; resigned 
August 4, 1863. Charles R. Loux, Second Lieutenant Company C, 
May 1, 1865; mustered out with regiment. 

One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Infantry. — William H. Calkins, 
Quartermaster, December 8, 1863 ; promoted Major Twelfth Cavalry, 
March 4, 1864 ; mustered out with regiment. John E. Cass, First Lieu- 
tenant Company E, December 19, 1863 ; resigned March 25, 1865. 
John Fitzwilliams, Second Lieutenant Company E, June 1, 1865 ; dis- 
charged as First Sergeant. Benjamin Sheffield, Captain Company E, 
December 19, 1863 ; honorably discharged December 10, 1864. 


One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Infantry. — Thomas G. Ljtle, 
Captain Company D (100 days), May 13, 1864 ; mustered out. 
Homer A. Goodwin, First Lieutenant Company D, May 13, 1864 ; 
mustered out. 

One Hundred and Fifty-first Infantry. — John B. Marshall, 
Second Lieutenant Company 13, February 20, 1865 ; mustered out. 
John E. Moon, First Lieutenant Company B, February 20, 1865 ; mus- 
tered out. Aaron W. Lytle, Captain Company E, February 23, 1865; 
mustered out. Charles E. Youngs, First Lieutenant Company E, Feb- 
ruary 23, 1865 ; mustered out. Orlando R. Beebe, Second Lieutenant 
Company E, September 10, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment as First 

Fourth Battery. — Henry J. Willetts, Second Lieutenant, Light 
Artillery, July 2, 1863 ; mustered out October 6, 1863 (term expired). 
Mark L. De Motte, First Lieutenant, September 15, 1861 ; resigned 
March 8, 1862 ; commissioned Assistant Quartermaster by the President 
April 14, 1862 ; resigned January 12, 1864. Augustus A. Starr, Second 
Lieutenant, September 15, 1861 ; resigned July 1, 1863. 

Ttventieth Battery. — Warren C. Gilbreath, Second Lieutenant, 
March 16, 1865 ; mustered out with battery. 

Fifth Cavalry. — Arthur M. Buell, First Lieutenant, September 3, 
1862 ; resigned December 1, 1862. 

Seventh Cavalry. — John C. Febles, Captain Company A, August 
15, 1863; Major, October 27, 1863; resigned February 28, 1865. 
Aaron L. Jones, Quartermaster, June 24, 1864 ; transferred to Resid- 
uary Battalion as Quartermaster. John R. Parmelee, First Lieutenant 
Company A, August 15, 1863 ; Captain, October 27, 1863 ; mustered 
out as supernumerary. Henry S. Stoddard, Second Lieutenant Com- 
pany A, September 1, 1863 ; First Lieutenant, October 27, 1863 ; 
resigned November 25, 1863, as Second Lieutenant. John Douch, 
Second Lieutenant Company A, October 27, 1863 ; First Lieutenant, 
November 26, 1863 ; transferred to Residuary Battalion, Company C. 
John C. Harmon, Second Lieutenant Company A, November 26, 1863 ; 
resigned August 13, 1864. Charles H. Gleason, Second Lieutenant 
Company A, August 14, 1864 ; transferred to Company C, Residuary 

Tivelfth Cavalry. — James H. Claypool, Chaplain, April 22, 1864 ; 
resigned January 5, 1865. William Bissell, First Lieutenant Company 
M, January 9, 1864; mustered out with regiment. Lewis Stoddard, 
Captain Company M, January 9, 1864 ; honorably discharged Novem- 
ber 4, 1864. James M. Buell, Second Lieutenant, January 9, 1864 ; 
mustered out with regiment. 


Sundry Corps. — Alfred H. Laing, First Lieutenant Company E, 
Residuary Battalion Thirtieth Regiment, December 19, 1864. Ambrose 
Y. Moore, Hospital Chaplain, August 6, 1862. Henry -Monroe Buell, 
Captain Illinois Cavalry. 


Seventh Infantry. — Jesse Kindig, died at Nashville, Tenn., Decem- 
ber 4, 1862. 

Eighth Infantry. — Henry Powers, died January 4, 1863, of wounds 
received at Stone River. 

Ninth Infantry. — David Arvin, died near Marietta, Ga., January, 
1864 ; John Ablet, died at Paducah, Ky., April, 1862, of wounds 
received atShiloh; David Armitage, killed at Shiloh April 7, 1862 ; Elias 
J. Axe, died September 24, 1863, of wounds received at Missionary Ridge ; 
William D. Brown, killed at Chickamauga, September 19, 1863. James 
Bullis, killed at Chickamauga ; George Beebe, died July 19, 1865 ; Ham 
Gibbs, died January 24, 1863; Charles Gould, died July 5, 1864 ; W. 
H. H. Howard, died July 25, 1864, of wounds received at Kenesaw 
Mountain ; Benjamin F. Huntingden, killed at Buffalo Mountain, De- 
cember 31, 1861 ; Lewis Keller, died of wounds received at Shiloh ; 
Thomas R. Mackey, killed at Buffalo Mountain December 31, 1861 ; 
Henry Pratt, died February 2, 1862 ; Abner Sanders, died at Cheat 
Mountain January 3, 1861 ; Levi 0. Spafford, died at Evansville, Ind., 
April 28, 1862 ; Manford Thatcher, killed at Resaca May 14, 1864 ; 
David Thatcher, killed at Shiloh April 7, 1862 ; Joseph Turner, killed 
at Chickamauga September 20, 1863. 

Seventeenth Infantry. — Asahel G. Carmen, killed at Selma, Ala., 
April 2, 1865 ; Thomas W. Maxwell, killed at Selma April 2, 1865. 

Eighteenth Infantry. — Charles Allen, died at Bellaire, Ohio, Feb- 
ruary 13, 1862, of wounds. 

Twentieth Infantry. — John H. Cook, killed at Gettysburg, Penn. ; 
Duane Ellis, died at Andersonville Prison September 5, 1864 ; Anton 
Fuller, killed at Chickahominy ; John Torpy, killed at Gettysburg ; 
John Shaffer, died at Washington December 2, 1862 ; Thomas Vanness, 
died at Washington June 6, 1864. 

Tiventy-ninth Infantry. — Warren Babbitt, died at Andersonville 
Prison September 15, 1864 ; Fred Kocher, died at Andersonville Prison 
August 10, 1864; John Oliver, killed at Corinth May 9, 1862 ; Charles 
F. Skinner, died at Nashville. 

Thirty-fifth Infantry. — Charles C. Gaylord, died at Bull's Gap ; 
Henry Granger, died at Nashville ; George Miller, killed at Stone River 
January 2, 1863 ; Moses Spangle, died at Indianapolis. 


Sixty-third Infantry. — Preston Bauhm, died of wounds June 18, 
1864; Jacob Jones, died of wounds June 2, 1864. 

Seventy-third Infantry. — Andrew Black, died at Gallatin, Tex., 
February 9, 1863 ; George J. Bradley, died at Nashville, Tenn., Decem- 
ber 5, 1862 ; N. B. Blachley, died at Silver Springs November 16, 1863 ; 
Samuel Conner, died at Summersville, Ky., March 11, 1863 ; William 
Crisman, died at Nashville, Tenn,, December 9, 1863; Curtis Dorsey, 
died at Nashville, Tenn., November 28, 1862 ; Nelse A. Erickson, died 
at Scottsville, Ky., November 11, 1862; Josiah B. Fox, died at Bowling 
Green, Ky., February 27, 1863 ; Robert Fluellan, killed at Decatur, 
Ala., October 27, 1864; Asa Glazor, died at Louisville, Ky., December 
8, 1862; George N. Gunter, died at Nashville, Tenn., March 28, 1864; 
Lester Hitchcock, died at Danville, Ky., December 8, 1862 ; John Hine- 
line, died at Scottsville, Ky., November 17, 1862 ; Theodore R. Hall, 
died at Camp Chase, Ohio, June 8, 1863 ; John Hawkins, died at Camp 
Lebanon, Ky., October 29, 1862 ; William H. Hendee, killed at Stone 
River December 31, 1862; Robert Jackson, killed at Day's Gap, Ala., 
April 30, 1863 ; Andrew Johnson, died at Indianapolis, Ind., October 
23, 1863 ; Daniel Kouts, died of wounds January 18, 1863 ; Charles 
Munson, died at Silver Springs, Tenn., November 18, 1862 ; David G. 
Maine, died at Nashville, Tenn., November 30, 1862 ; Harlow Marsh, 
died at Danville, Ky., May 15, 1865 ; James McNally, killed at Stone 
River; James E. Piper, died at Louisville, Ky., March 17, 1863; 
Charles S. Spear, died at Stevenson, Ala.. December 7, 1864; Thomas 
Shell, killed at Stone River ; Alexander Smith, died at Murfreesboro 
July 23, 1863 ; Charles Stinchcomb, killed at Stone River ; Edward S. 
Squires, died at Danville, Ky., October 20, 1862 ; John A. Tidball, died 
at Louisville, Ky., November 9, 1862 ; Stephen Thornton, died in hos- 
pital January 24, 1865 ; William H. Underwood, died at Nashville, Feb- 
ruary 19, 1863 ; Elias Wheeler, died at Gallatin January 28, 1863 ; 
Wesley Watson, died at Danville, Ky., October 19, 1862 ; Hiram W. 
Walton, died at Nashville, Tenn., February 19, 1863. 

Seventy fourth Infantry. — Chancy R. Coulson, died at Jefferson ville, 
Ind., February 1, 1865. 

Ninety-ninth Infantry. — Justice Bartholomew, died at Anderson- 
ville, Ga., August 22, 1864 ; George W. Biggs, died at La Grange, 
Tenn., January 19, 1863; Benjamin Biggs, died at La Grange, Tenn., 
March 16, 1863 ; George W. Birch, died at Scottsboro, Ala., April 21, 
1864 ; Hiram A. Case, died at La Grange, Tenn., March 10, 1863 ; 
Wallace L. Depance, died at Black River, Miss., August 27, 1863 ; Ira 
Doolittle, died at Snyder's Bluff, Miss., July 9, 1863 ; James Foster, 
killed at Atlanta, Ga. ; John L. Kesler, died at La Grange, Tenn., Feb- 


ruary 25, 1863 ; George W. Livingood, died at La Grange, Tenn., Feb- 
ruary 25, 1863 ; Charles Sleeper, died at La Grange, Tenn., March 7, 
1863 ; John W. Taylor, died in Kentucky, November 17, 1862 ; Harvey 
White, died at La Grange, Tenn., March 11, 1863 ; William Wooster, 
died at Camp Towler, Tenn., February 4, 1863. 

One Hundred and Twenty -eighth Infantry. — Amos Coleman, died 
at Knoxville, Tenn., April 1, 1864 ; William Coleman, died near Mari- 
etta, Ga., August, 1864; Giles E. Cole, died at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., 
December 12, 1864 ; Thomas Dolan, died at Michigan City, Ind., 
March 22, 1864 ; Samuel Furgeson, died at New Berne, N. C, March 14, 
1865 ; George W. Hunt, wounded, supposed to be dead ; Frederick 
Keene, died at Nashville, Tenn., April, 1864; John B. Millard, died at 
Nashville, Tenn., January 5, 1865; William Marshall, died of wounda 
at Calumet, Ind., January, 1864 ; Oliver P. Quinn, died at Alexandria, 
Va., June 12, 1865; Myron S. Robinson, died at Cleveland, Tenn., 
August 1, 1864 ; Chris. S. Sholer, died near Kenesaw, Ga., June 23, 

One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Infantry. — Edward J. Garwood, 
died at Tullahoma, Tenn., September 16, 1864 ; Frank Johnson, died at 
Tullahoma, Tenn., September 15, 1864. 

One Hufidred and Fifty-first Infantry. — Elbridge Clark, died at 
Louisville, Ky., August 11, 1865 ; Reuben Clark, died at home March 
5, 1865 ; Edgar Field, died at Tullahoma, Tenn., May 18, 1865 ; John P. 
Jones, died at Nashville, Tenn., June 30, 1865 ; George Lansing, died at 
Jeffersonville, Ind., April 7, 1865 ; Luther Smith, died at Deep River, 
Ind.; Ambrose S. White, died at Nashville, Tenn, July 19, 1865. 

Fifth Cavalry. — John R. Alyea, died at Florence, S. C; John 
Billings, died at Indianapolis ; Daniel C. Bagley, died at Cleveland, 
Ohio, May 22, 1864; Homer 0. Cadwell, died in rebel prison, Florence, 
S. C, in January, 1865 ; Isaac L. Downes, died in Andersonville Pris- 
on September 29, 1864 ; Leander Lightfoot, killed at Marrowbone May 
26, 1863 ; Edwin W. Shumaker, died in Andersonville Prison August 

12, 1864; James Southward, died at Knoxville, Tenn., October 13, 
1863, of wounds ; William Terrica, died at Knoxville September 23, 
1862 ; Philip Walters, died at Kingston, Tenn.; Jacob Walters, died at 
Andersonville Prison October 28, 1864; Lewis Walters, killed at Re- 
saea Ga., May 15, 1864. 

Seventh Cavalry. — Stephen Adams, died at Memphis, Tenn., March 

13, 1864 ; John L. Babcock, died May 24, 1864 ; Edward Carpenter, 
drowned in the Mississippi River ; Samuel P. Dunn, accidentally shot 
January 3, 1864 ; John Johnson, died at Andersonville Prison January 
28, 1864; Henry Miller, died at Memphis, Tenn., May 4, 1864; Isaac 


Margeston, died at Andersonville Prison August 14, 1864 ; John Marsh, 
killed at Guntown, Miss., June 10, 1864 ; Cornelius O'Neil, died at 
Cahawba, Ala., March 16, 1864 ; Clark S. Williams, died at Indianapo- 
lis, December 31, 1863 ; Alvin Welsh, died on hospital steamer August 
15, 1864. 

Twelfth Cavalry. — Isaac Beam, died at Huntsville, Ala., July 3, 
1864; John H. N. Beck, died at Edgefield June 13, 1865; W. B. Dor- 
rance, died at New York Harbor April 19, 1865 ; Charles Friend, died 
at Nashville, Tenn., February 13, 1865 ; Ira Green, died at Huntsville, 
Ala., July 24, 1864 ; James Garrison, died at home ; John S. Gillman, 
died at Huntsville, Ala., July 22, 1864 ; William H. Huntly, died at 
Indianapolis August 5, 1864 ; Erasmus J. Jones, died at Vicksburg 
March 22, 1865 ; Benjamin 0. Jones, died at New Orleans ; Seth P. 
Sherman, died at Valparaiso, Ind., July 9, 1864 ; Arza B. Spencer, died 
at Jeffersonville, Ind., August 27, 1864 ; Thomas Welch, died at Stark's 
Landing, Ala., April 10, 1865. 

On record^ hut not properly assigned. — Thomas Buchanan, died 
June 13, 1862, of wounds received at Shiloh. 

Popular Feeling. — During the progress of the war, there were in 
Porter County as in every other part of the country, those who either 
were froni the first, or who afterward became disaffected. There were 
those who were always discouraged and engaged in discouraging others, 
continually predicting disasters and the ultimate ruin of the country. 
There were those who were always criticizing the conduct of the war, not 
making allowances for the fact that as a people, we were unaccustomed 
to warfare, greatly destitute of experienced leaders, and that the work to 
be done was gigantic. There were those who were deeply grieved at the 
proclamation of emancipation, and many who thought, in 1863 and 1864, 
that the war should be ended and peace procured at any price. But it is 
to be said to the credit of Porter County, that her citizens never thought 
of making resistance to the power of the Federal Government ; that within 
her borders there were no treasonable organizations. Nine-tenths of her 
citizens would at any time have joined in hearty eff'orts to put down any 
treasonable practices or attempts in their own midst. Men, indeed, be- 
came bitter in their feelings, because of reckless charges made against 
them of sympathy with secession, charges that often emanated from malice 
or from selfish or designing purposes. When the news came of disaster, 
deep was the feeling of sorrow on the part of all. If there were any who 
rejoiced, and it has been charged that a few did rejoice at the tidings of 
disaster, it was in secret. The power of party prejudice is often strongs 
and whatever may have been seen on such occasions to indicate a want 
of sympathy in the common feeling of horror at the defeats of which 


sometimes there was news, it should have been attributed rather to gratifi- 
cation felt that their own predictions and forebodings had been verified, 
rather than to any sentiments of disloyalty to their country, or sympathy 
with those who were attempting its destruction. It was the feeling that 
so often prompts the " I told you so," when we hear of calamities of any 
kind which we have predicted. 

When, just in the midst of the intense joy that was felt over the capt- 
ure of Richmond and the surrender of Gen. Lee, there came the news of 
the assassination of President Lincoln, there was an almost universal ex- 
pression of horror. An incident somewhat remarkable took place in 
Valparaiso at that time. F. W. Hunt had a clerk in his employ who had 
been in the habit of voting the Democratic ticket, and who was some- 
times accused of not being in sympathy with the prosecution of the war. 
In the midst of the excitement caused by the assassination, and when the 
people were ripe for thoughtless revenge, the assertion was made by some 
one, that he had heard this clerk expressing joy at the death of Lincoln. 
Immediately, without any inquiry into the truth of the charge, the report 
spread from mouth to mouth, and for a time the life of the young man 
was in danger. He was deeply hurt, soon after left the place, and, it was 
said, never recovered from the efiect produced upon his mind by the afiair. 
Within a year of tt^e time, perhaps, he sank disheartened into an early 
grave, having returned to his home in the East. In the mean time, his 
accuser removed to the far West, and the matter had almost passed from 
the minds of men, when he, being upon his deathbed, confessed, with 
deep repentance, that the charge which had cast a blight upon the repu- 
tation of another, and had caused his life to wither, had been an inven- 
tion of his own, not planned in express malice, perhaps, but in reckless- 
ness, and in the desire to add to the excitement, and to bring himself into 
some prominence and notoriety. At that time, public meetings were held, 
the usual resolutions were adopted, appropriate sermons were preached in 
the various churches, and the appointed fast observed with due solemnity. 
At length the cruel war was over, and Johnny came marching home, and 
nearly every Johnny had friends to give him a glad welcome. Tlie men 
who had been over Dixie from the Island No. 10 to Galveston, following 
Sherman on his march to the sea, or fighting "mit Sigel " on the Rappa- 
hannock, made the grateful change from the wild trade of warfare to the 
tamer pursuits of peace in agriculture or trade, and by industry and 
thrift, have helped to build up the nation's wealth with their own. The 
record of Porter County during the war, whether as to the number and 
the valor of her troops in the field, or the lo3^alty and liberality of her 
citizens who remained at home, is an honorable one. To the women of 
Porter County not less than to the men, praise is due for the loyal 


spirit that prevailed and the earnest efforts that were made to succor the 
wounded, and minister to the wants of the suffering heroes of the county. 
Since the close of the war, there have been occasional re-unions at Val- 
paraiso which have called forth the battle-scarred veterans to recount their 
adventures in camp and prison and conflict, and to laugh over their an- 
cient jests retold. On these occasions, the citizens have taken pleasure 
in furnishing the needed refreshments, not only for the soldiers, but for 
their families. For Johnny is now not so much of a son and lover as he 
is husband and father. The boys, many of them, are turning gray-beards, 
and after the saving of the nation, are now helping to develop and con- 
trol it. They are the Road Supervisors, School Directors and Town- 
ship Trustees. Some of them have held county oflSces. Some are in 
the employ of the General Government in various departments. At 
least two of them write M. C. after their names, and more of them would 
be willing to. Nor has the national custom of honoring the heroic 
dead by annual visits to the local cemetery been forgotten. Large 
numbers of the people assemble for these rites, and leave upon the graves 
of deceased soldiers coronals and bouquets of evergreens and such flowers as 
this northern latitude produces on the 30th of May. No effort, however, 
has been made to perpetuate or develop the warlike spirit in this commu- 
nity by military organizations. There has not been, since the war, a 
military company or battalion or squad in the county, and hence neither 
drill nor encampment, nor parades. But the spirit of patriotism that 
abides in the hearts of the people is strengthened by the remembrance of 
the treasure and blood which our country and her institutions have cost. 
May God grant us perpetual and honorable peace, and bring in the day 
when swords shall be beaten into plow shares and spears into pruning 
hooks, and the nations learn war no more. Amen. 




Physical Description— Minerals— Early Settlement of Centre 
Township— Indian Incidents— Statistics— Industrial Pursuits— 


—Porter County Seat— The Public Square— First and Subse- 
quent Houses— Merchandising and Manufacturing— Professional 
AND Business Men— General Growth of Valparaiso— Secret 
Organizations— Incorporation— The Woman's Temperance Cru- 
sade—Public AND Private Educational Enterprises— The Nor- 
mal—Religious Record— Concluding Anecdotes. 

THE Main Branch of the stream known as Crooked Creek, 
which empties into the Kankakee, and is one of the few consider- 
able streams in the county, has its origin at the southeastern part of Flint 
Lake, running in a southeast direction to the Washington Township 
line. Another stream rises near the southwest corner of Section 3, runs 
in a northwest direction through Section 4 to the extreme northwest cor- 
ner of the township, and presently empties into Salt Creek, in Portage 
Township. Upon this creek Henry's Mill is located. The northern 
branch of Salt Creek also rises in this township, having its origin near to 
Round Lake in the southeast corner of Section 13, runs in a southeastern 
direction through Sections 24, 19 and 30, when it barely cuts the line of 
Washington Township, on the Starr farm, whence it runs in a south- 
westerly and westerly direction, through Section 30 to Section 25, whence, 
after leaving Sager's Pond, it runs in a northwesterly direction to its 
junction with the main branch, thus making at least two-thirds the circuit 
of Valparaiso. On this branch is Sager's Mill, having one of the best 
water-powers in the county. The other branch, which rises in the south- 
western corner of Washington Township, and makes a circuit of about 
three miles through Morgan Township, enters Centre Township at the 
southwest corner of Section 36, runs in a northwesterly direction through 
Sections 35 and 26 to the junction near the southwestern corner of Val- 
paraiso, whence the united stream runs in a northwesterly direction 
to the line of Union Township. On this main stream, at a distance of 
three miles northwest from Valparaiso, is McConkey's Mill. 

Round Lake, with a reef of pond lilies surrounding its deeper parts, 
is a small but deep and clear body of water, as nearly circular as possible, 
from which feature its name is derived. It is one of those lakes whose 
depth, according to the belief of all the small boys and of some men, has 


never been measured. It is nearly two and a half miles northwest of 
Valparaiso, on the west side of the Chesterton road. Flint Lake, the 
most considerable body of water in the township, is a little more than 
three miles in a northeasterly direction from Valparaiso ; is nearly circu- 
lar in shape ; is about forty feet in depth, and is depended upon as the 
future source of water supply for Valparaiso, its water being very pure 
and free from all mineral substances. It covers an area of nearly 200 
acres, abounds in black bass of the large-mouthed variety, and in fine 
speckled bass and perch, and is a great resort for boating and fishing. Long 
Lake, so named from its shape, extending from north to south, is north 
and west of Flint Lake, into which it empties its waters by a connecting 
ditch. It covers nearly the same area as Flint Lake, but is of less depth. 
About one-third of it lies in Liberty Township. 

In the neighborhood of Salt Creek are peat bogs of considerable 
extent. In general, the water which percolates through these bogs is 
strongly impregnated with iron, and underlying them in many places are 
considerable layers of bog ore. There are also occasional deposits of 
pyrites of iron, and various kinds of iron ore in the hills about Valparaiso, 
and it is no uncommon thing to find clays highly colored with oxide of 
iron. These are the only minerals of importance in the township so far 
as known. 

An unsuccessful attempt was made at boring for petroleum in the 
neighborhood of Valparaiso about the year 1861:. The signs of iron ore 
are so abundant as to lead to the conjecture that at some not very distant 
day that substance may be found in such quantities as to warrant the 
establishment of smelting works at Valparaiso. No use has been found 
for the peat, as it is not of such quality as to render its use for fuel 
economical. There are also deposits of marl in the Salt Creek Valley, 
and it is said that it was once used in the township for the production of 
lime. In the neighborhood of Flint Lake are cranberry marshes, but not 
of great extent. From Valparaiso to the northeast, Morgan Prairie, a 
sandy loam, lies south of the La Porte road, with the " thick timber " to 
the north of it, and from Valparaiso to the southwest. Horse Prairie, a 
rich mold with subsoil of blue clay, extends along the south side of the 
Hebron road, while on the north of it are clay knobs with oak timber. 
Originally, about three-fourths of the township was covered with timber. 
Around Valparaiso, to the south and southwest, and to the northwest, are 
hills and ravines. From the high grounds to the north of the city, the 
valley of the Salt Creek presents a prospect of rare beauty, while from a 
point on the farm of James Fulton, about four and one-half miles north- 
west from Valparaiso, may be seen, on a clear day, the sand hills which 
skirt Lake Michigan. Going west from Valparaiso on the Joliet road, 


the soil is of alternate sand and clay, while to the north of Valparaiso, 
the soil is largely a stiff clay. The original forests were chiefly of the 
different varieties of oak, white predominating, though there were also con- 
siderable quantities of hard and soft maple, beech, black walnut, butternut, 
hickory, basswood, white ash and several varieties of the elm. Wild flowers 
are found in abundance from early spring till after the heavy frosts of 
autumn. In the lakes, there is an abundance of the white pond lily, and 
it would take a botanist to name all the flowers of wood and marsh and 
field, from the modest violet of the springtime, to the glorious golden rod 
of September. The prairie soils of the township are well adapted both 
to grains and grass, while the clay soils, with proper drainage and culture, 
will well repay the husbandman, either for dairy purposes or crops. The 
larger fruits have proved very uncertain, failing more frequently than they 
succeed. Grapes have not ripened well for several years past. Black- 
berries are liable to suffer from severe winters, while raspberries more 
frequently succeed. The strawberry is here on its native heath, and is 
not only productive but of excellent quality. Several attempts have been 
made to cultivate the cranberry on our marshes, but without success, 
while the native marshes yielding that fruit have been more profitable 
than any equal quantity of farming lands. The cultivation of the potato 
and other esculent roots has generally been profitable. All the ordinary 
domestic animals and poultry of the Northern States do well here. The 
black and fox and red squirrels, which were once abundant, have almost 
disappeared. Gophers are found in considerable, but not in annoying 
numbers. Ground hogs are still sufficiently numerous to foretell the 
speedy coming or delay of spring, for such as care to or can observe. 
From the earliest settlement of the township until within two or three 
years, wild turkeys. have annually been killed in its northern parts. From 
the sand hills of Lake Michigan to the " islands" of the Kankakee was 
the original paradise of the wild deer, nor had they entirely disappeared 
from the northern part of the township until within the last twenty years. 
Centre Township is six miles north and south by five miles east and 
west, being four miles in width on the east side of Town 35, Range 6, and 
one mile in width from the west side of Town 35, Range 5. It was or- 
ganized by the first Board of County Commissioners at their first session, 
which was held April 12 and 13, 1836, and was so named from its geo- 
graphical position, the round house of the P. Ft. W. & C. R. R., at Val- 
paraiso, which is about a half mile south of the center of the township, 
being as near as may be the center of the county. The first white set- 
tlers in this region found, on the west side of the southeast quarter of 
Section 19, Range 5, a little north of the La Porte road, a small Indian 
village of perhaps a dozen lodges, which was called Chiqua's town, from 


an Indian who had been a chief of a remnant of the Pottawatomies, the 
former owners of the soil, but who had been degraded from his chieftain- 
ship after a big drunk in which he had participated, and during which 
his cabin had taken fire and his wife had been burned to death. He was, 
however, still regarded as a man of some importance in his band. These 
Indians were not permanent residents of the village, but often absented them- 
selves to spend a considerable time in their favorite hunting and fishing 
grounds on the Kankakee. For a few years after the first settlement of 
the township, they would occasionally return to that spot and spend the 
time in feasting and dancing, dog meat being their favorite dish. G. W. 
Bartholomew once told the writer of an invitation he had to one of these 
feasts on fat dog at some place not far from the Kankakee. An Indian 
named Wap-muk had aimed and fired off his gun in such a way as to take 
ofi" the top of the head of another brave. Of course, according to the In- 
dian law, the life of the slayer was forfeited, but the matter was compro- 
mised by his paying to the widow the estimated value of the dead Indian. 
This was the more feasible, from the fact that the deceased had been a 
drunken and worthless fellow, and hence, judged to be worth little either 
to his family or the band. This happy ending of a deplorable affair was 
celebrated by killing the fatted dog and an invitation to young Barthol- 
omew to participate. 

The pioneers, in selecting their claims previous to the Government 
survey and the land sale, took their course from Door Prairie westward 
along the line which divided the thick timber from the prairie, so as to 
have the advantages offered by each, and the last comer built his cabin 
just a little beyond that of the previous one. In the fall of 1833, this 
border land of wood and prairie, had been claimed to the very eastern 
edge of Centre Township. Adam S. Campbell, with his family, having 
come from the State of New York, it was their hap to light upon the last 
piece of unoccupied land in Washington Township, lying upon that highly- 
favored line of wood and prairie. This was in May, 1833. His son, Samuel 
A. Campbell, now resides at the same place. There were, at that time, 
no settlers in Centre Township. 

Shortly after Mr. Campbell had set his stakes, there came a man 
named Seth Hull, who passed over the invisible boundary into Centre 
Township, made his claim on the site of Chiqua's Town, where is now the 
residence of the venerable Judge Jesse Johnson, and built himself a cabin 
there. He did not remain long, however, but it is said went farther West 
into Illinois, having sold his claim, to Selah Wallace, who became the 
purchaser of the tract at the land sale in 1835. He was, however, the 
first white settler of the township. In the fjill and winter of 1833, Thomas 
A. E. Campbell, a young man, and the nephew of Adam S. Campbell, 


made a claim and built a house between Wallace's and A. S. Campbell's. 
He never perfected this claim, but went back soon after making it to 
Chautauqua County, N. Y., and did not return to this county till 1885. 
From that time, however, until his death, a few years since, he resided 
continually in the township and was the recipient of numerous honors at 
the hands of the citizens of the county. After his return, he soon pur- 
chased of Philander A. Paine the northeast quarter of Section 23, where 
he made his home during the remainder of his life, and where his widow 
now resides. Selah Wallace's father made a claim on what is now the 
S. S. Skinner farm and about one mile east of Valparaiso, and came 
there in the spring of 1834 to live. He was the fourth resident of 
the township. In 1834, a man named Nise settled on the northwest quar- 
ter of Section 24, and about three-quarters of a mile northeast from the 
public square in Valparaiso, but either sold his claim or abandoned it. 
Theodore Jones made a claim, and occupied it, on the southwest quarter of 
Section 19, just west of the elder Wallace's place. This was in 1834. 
His brother Levi kept bachelor's hall w^ith him. They stayed about a 
year. Isaac Morgan made the first improvement on that land. A man 
named Paine, the father of Philander A. Paine, in 1834 or 1835, located 
on the east side of the Joliet bridge over Salt Creek, built a log cabin and 
commenced building a saw-mill, which was never completed, though logs 
had been hauled from a considerable distance to be sawed. He also sold 
to T. A. E. Campbell. Charles Minnick located on the northeast quar- 
ter of Section 24, after its abandonment by Nise. He obtained the east 
half of that quarter on easy terms. At the sale of lands in 1835, he had 
not the money to purchase his claim, but a man named Walker, who was 
interested in the location of the county seat, in consideration of the sur- 
render of the west half of his claim, gave him the money to buy the east 
half. This Minnick was a Dutchman, and was subsequently Sheriff of 
the county. During his term, the Hon. Gustavus A. Everts, of La Porte, 
frequently had business as an attorney in the Porter County Courts. 
The name was more than a mouthful for the Sheriff, who always, at the 
court house door, called for him as G-ustavivus A. Everts ! Samuel 
Shigley, in 1835 or 1836, built a saw-mill on the site now occupied by 
William Sager as a flouring mill ; that is to say, on Salt Creek, one mile 
south of Valparaiso. When Adam S. Campbell was on his way to the 
West, he was met in Elkhart County by a wandering and eccentric char- 
acter, known as " Bee hunter Clark," who advised him to locate where he 
did. This Bee-hunter Clark did himself locate in 1834, in the extreme 
northwest part of the township, at the present site of Henry's Mills. 
Benjamin McCarty located on the southwest quarter of Section 22, on the 
Joliet road, in 1834. 


Mr. C. A. Ballard built a house on the northwest quarter of Section 
25, near a spring and stream, on grounds now belonging to W. C. Tal- 
cott. This was not earlier than 1834 or 1835. The place was just 
south of the land afterward laid out as Portersville. Ruel Starr settled 
on the eastern side of the township in 1834, and resided in or near the 
township till his death in 1875, received honors from the people, and 
acquired a considerable estate. Alanson Finney settled west of Starr's 
place in 1835. Henry Stoner, Abraham Stoner and a man named Bil- 
lups came in 1835, and settled in the southeast part of the township. 

The first election held in the township was in February, 1836, for 
county oflScers. The next election was held at the residence of C. A. 
Ballard, April 3, 1836, for one Justice of the Peace. At this election, 
thirteen votes were cast, and Ruel Starr, G. Z. Salyer and John McCon- 
nell being candidates, the first-named received nine votes and was 
elected. May 28 of the same year and at the same place, G. Z. Salyer 
received eight votes for Justice of the Peace out of a total of fifteen. In 
August, 1836, at C. A. Ballard's, thirty-three votes were cast for State 
Senator. On the 7th of November, 1836, at the Presidential election, 
out of 105 votes polled, Harrison received fifty-nine and Van Buren 
forty-five. That was held at the house of William Walker in Portersville. 
August 7, 1837, at the State election which was held in the court house, 
David Wallace received 101 votes for Governor out of a total of 126. 
April 2, 1838, the following township officers were elected: Constables — 
J. W. Wright, I. Allen, H. G. Hollister ; Inspector, G. W. Salisbury; 
Supervisor of Roads, William Eaton ; Overseers of Poor, Charles G. 
Minnick, Robert Wallace ; Fence Viewers, Thomas Butler, William 
Bingham. At the State election, August 3, 1839, Tighlman A. How- 
ard received ninety-two votes out of a total of 166 for member of Con- 
gress. August 3, 1840, Samuel Bigger received 102 for Governor 
against 100 for Tighlman A. Howard. Henry S. Lane received 103 for 
Member of Congress, while for State Secretary, Sylvanus Everts received 
100 against 101 for Charles W. Cathcart. August 22 of the same year, 
at an election for Associate Judge, there were 158 votes cast, and the 
result was a tie between John Herr and Peter D. Cline. November 2, 
1840, out of 287 votes for President, Harrison received 149 ; Van Buren, 
137. November, 1844, for President, Polk and Dallas, fifty-seven ; Clay 
and Frelinghuysen, sixty-two; Birney and Morris none, though a few 
votes were cast in the county for the Abolition candidates. August 4, 
1845, for Member of Congress, Samuel C. Sample, sixty-four; Charles W. 
Cathcart, seventy-one. For Representative, Aaron Lytle received sixty- 
six, Alexander McDonald, seventy. August, 1846, for Governor, James 
Whitcomb, seventy-seven ; Joseph G. Marshall, eighty-three. State 


election, 1847 : For Member of Congress, D. D. Pratt, seventy-two ; 
C. W. Cathcart, ninety-five. 

From the first, the people of the township devoted themselves to agri- 
cultural pursuits, lived in a very plain way, as they still do, and were 
fairly prosperous in temporal affairs. The monotony of farm life was 
varied by an occasional visit to the county seat, especially on show or 
election days, and frequently the question was decided as to which of two 
was the better man by seeing which could stand the most punishment with- 
out crying "Enough." The wheat, as it was threshed, was hauled to 
Michigan City, and the farmers had to be satisfied to receive no more 
than 50 cents for it there. Corn was generally fed, as it did not pay to 
bring it to market. As late as 1860-61, corn sold in Valparaiso for 15 
cents a bushel, the pay being in currency, worth on an average about 85 
cents on the dollar. Pork sometimes brought no more than ^1.50 per 

At an early period, wild game was abundant, such as deer, wild tur- 
keys, grouse, quail, squirrels, and the salt pork of the settler was relieved 
by frequent feasts procured by the rifle or shot-gun from the forest or 
prairie. At a certain dancing party held in a country cabin, an immense 
dish of squirrels was the chief attraction at supper. Frequent reference 
to a bottle of corn-juice had rendered host and guests less squeamish 
than usual, so that an accident by which the dish was upset on the 
puncheon floor proved to be only a momentary interruption, but a subse- 
quent deposit in it of guano by the poultry roosting overhead proved to 
be more than they could stand, and supper was forthwith ended in dis- 
gust. Disorders, however, were rare, for the population was for the most 
part moral and industrious and not given to spreeing or riotous proceed- 
ings of any kind. The inhabitants were at the first generally natives of 
the United States, being from more southerly portions of Indiana, from 
Athens and Wayne Counties in Ohio, from New York, Pennsylvania, and 
from Virginia. Until mills were erected in the township or county, the 
people resorted to Union Mills, La Porte County, for flour, and for 
some time received their groceries, iron and merchandise generally from 
Michigan City. 

The first birth in the township is uncertain. The first marriage was 
that of Richard Henthorne and Jane Spurlock, May 5, 1836, by Cyrus 
Spurlock, who was a Methodist minister and also Recorder of the county. 
The marriage of William Eaton to Susannah Ault, by Elijah Casteel, on 
June 4, 1836, was probably in Portersville, this township, and the mar- 
riage of Rev. W. K. Talbott to Sinai Ann McConnell, on July 13, 1836, 
was doubtless in Centre Township. Of the first death and burial within 
the limits of the township, no authentic public records have been kept, 


and the recollection of the early settlers is indistinct. It is thought that 
a number of infants or very young children had passed away before the 
death of any adult. The first woman of whose death we have any cer- 
tain account was the mother of John N. and S. S. Skinner, well known 
in the political and business history of the county. Her death occurred 
in April, 1839. She was buried on the slope just above the Valparaiso 
Paper Mill, whence her remains were removed some years since to the 
cemetery. Solomon Cheney, who came to Portersville in the winter of 
1836-37, died in November, 1839. His funeral sermon was preached by 
Elder Comer, and his remains were interred on the west side of the hill 
in the old cemetery, the original ground of which was donated by the 
Cheney family for a burial place. His sister, the wife of John Herr, 
died a few weeks afterward in January^ 1840. Her funeral sermon was 
preached by Rev. James C. Brown, and she Avas buried near her brother. 

There is of course great similarity in all the pioneer history of the 
West during the same period. There were the same log-rollings, house- 
raisings and amusements that prevailed in the other new settlements, and 
diversified with occasional indulgence in distilled spirits and personal ren- 
counters, resulting in disfigured features, though the residents of Centre 
Township have borne a reputation for peacefulness even in those days. 
No serious alarms were experienced from the presence of the Indians, 
though they were not very agreeable neighbors. No such encounters 
with bears and wolves as one reads of in the lives of Boone and Crockett 
took place here, though the old hunters of that day could entertain you 
by the hour with their tales of the pursuit of deer. The barking of the 
prairie wolf was a familiar sound, but carried with it no alarm, save for 
the safety of the pigs and calves. 

The new-comers had followed from La Porte County the Indian trail 
to the southwest, which skirted the border land before spoken of. Where 
Door Village is in that county, there is an opening between forests on 
the north and orroves of timber to the south, giving it some resemblance 
to a door or gate between that portion of the prairie on the east and that 
on the west of it. Whatever may have been the Indian name of it, the 
gap received the French appellation of La Porte, which was given also 
to the prairie, and afterward to the county. The names of village and 
prairie have been anglicized, and are now called Door. Through that 
gap poured the stream of emigration following the path before marked out 
by the red men to where Valparaiso now is. At this point, the trail con- 
tinued to the west across Salt Creek in the direction of Joliet, while 
another diverfred to the northwest, running in the direction of Fort Dear- 
born. Along the high lands between Crooked Creek and Sandy Hook, 
there had doubtless been from immemorial times a trail from Lake Mich- 


igan and the head-waters of the Calumet to the Kankakee. This ran 
either through or just east of the site of Valparaiso. It is said that 
the intrepid La Salle 200 years ago passed northward over this trail when 
returning weary and disheartened from his expedition down the- Kanka- 
kee. These oboriginal engineers were wise in marking out the paths by 
which their white successors were to go, but the wagon roads overlying 
these paths have not done much honor to the present possessors of the 
soil, since both for want of material for improving the highways and the 
desultory and reckless employment of means for that purpose, their con- 
dition has been such as to reflect no credit upon the people of the town- 
ship. The building of a plank road from Valparaiso to Michigan City 
by a company organized for that purpose (1850-53), and a present 
attempt to improve the streets of Valparaiso by overlaying them with 
gravel, being the only efi'orts at bettering the public highways worthy of 
mention, since the organization of the township. There being no rivers 
or large streams in the township, the building of bridges has been an insig- 
nificant item in the construction of roadways, and this leads to the re- 
mark that the 2;reat water-shed between the Mississippi system and that 
of the great lakes, passing, as it does, through this township southward to 
the west of Long Lake, and thence southeasterly, making a circuit through 
Washington and Morgan around the coarse of Salt Creek, and re-entering 
Centre Township at its southwest corner, is a very sure protection of this 
region against any serious devastations by floods. We read of farms and 
cities and whole valleys being inundated, and of bridges and houses 
and crops being swept away by swelling floods, but here the people can 
sit in quiet security while torrents descend from the skies, assured that the 
floods cannot overflow them. 

The writer has never heard of any country taverns kept at an early 
day along the lines of travel for the shelter and refreshment of wayfarers. 
Doubtless, the latch-string of the settler was " out " for the hungry, weary 
or belated, and the rude cabin, or more comfortable home, afibrded the 
accommodation which there was no wayside inn to give. The only public 
houses of the township have been in Valparaiso, and will be spoken of 
further on. 

The first attempt at the erection of a saw-mill has been spoken of. A 
little later, a mill was put up and run for several years for carding wool 
by a man named Kinsey, about one and a half miles south of Valparaiso, 
just below the hill that skirts the valley of Salt Creek. The water flowed 
from a large spring, and was carried through a hollow beech log to an 
overshot wheel of great diameter. Attached to this power, was also a 
pair of bulirs, said to have been about the size of a half bushel measure, 
which were used for grinding both wheat and corn. On Salt Creek, half 


a mile above Sager's mill, Jacob Axe a little later erected a carding-mill, 
which was used for several years. In 1841, William Cheney built the 
flouring-mill now owned by William Sager. This subsequently came into 
the possession of M. B. Crosby. Since coming into Mr. Sager's possession, 
it was, in 1864, greatly enlarged and improved. Subsequently, there 
was built the flouring-mill owned since 1866 by William McConkey, 
formerly Eglin's mill. In 1852, William Cheney and Truman Freeman 
built a small flouring-mill just south of the corporate limits of Valparaiso. 
The power is furnished for the most part by springs flowing from beneath 
the bench of land that skirts the southeastern and southern sides of the 
city. This mill passed into the hands of the present owner in 1861. In 
1855, Samuel Haas and M. B. Crosby built a steam flouring and saw 
mill within the limits of Valparaiso, on the present site of Kellogg Broth- 
ers' machine shops. Its cost was $15,000. On the 7th of June, 1861, 
S. P. Bobbins and a Mr. Cronin, of Chicago, having become interested 
in it, it was burned with all its contents, involving the owners in heavy 
loss. The timber of the county being nearly all north of Valparaiso, we 
must look in that direction for its manufacture. There being no water- 
power north of Valparaiso, a steam saw-mill was put up at Flint Lake, 
at a date now uncertain, by a man named Allen. It was subsequently 
owned by Capt. Hixon, and was sold by him to Aaron Lytle, and after- 
ward owned by the latter and his son Bichard W. It was bought by T. 
A. Hogan about 1861. It had two twenty-eight-foot boilers, forty-four 
inches in diameter. In 1863, the end of one of these boilers blew out, 
and the boiler was lifted up bodily and carried a distance of twenty-five 
rods into the marsh at the lower end of Flint Lake. In 1867, the mill 
was sold to Bichard W. Lytle, and afterward the boiler was removed to 
the paper mill then being erected in Valparaiso. The date of the erection 
of Mr. Henry's mills, in the extreme northwest corner of the township, is 
unknown to the writer. About 1878, John McQuiston built a saw-mill 
at Flintville^ which was burned in 1881. In connection with the 
steam saw-mill at Flint Lake, Daniel Depew, agent for certain parties 
living at Sycamore, 111., carried on for a number of years quite an exten- 
sive stave factory. All the timber available for such uses having been 
consumed, the work was abandoned about 1867. J. G. Updyke, after 
the completion of the Peninsular Bailroad, built a saw-mill near the depot 
of that road, which, after being operated for a few years, was removed to 
Section 8, in Washington Township. The first tannery in the township 
was built by a Mr. Hatch in 1843, south of the corporate limits of Val- 
paraiso at the time. Afterward, a small tannery was carried by John 
Marks south of the present line of the Fort Wayne & Chicago Bailroad, 
and just east of Franklin street. About 1860, a Mr. -Gerber built a 


Steam tannery on grounds south of the Fort Wayne Railroad, and on the 
east side of Washington street. In 1865, it passed into the hands of 
George Powell and John Wark, and, in 1868, into the hands of William 
Powell and John Wark. In 1871, Wark sold to Powell. In 1874, it 
was burned to the ground, and the tanning business ceased in Centre 
Township and Valparaiso to this day. 

The population of the township, including Valparaiso, was, in 1850, 
1,012; in 1860, it was 2,745; in 1870, it was 4,159; in 1880, it was 
5,957. The population of the township, outside of Valparaiso, was, at 
these several decades, 492, 1,055, 1,394, 1,497. The foreign born popu- 
lation in the whole township, in 1870, was 872. Of these, 272 resided 
outside of Valparaiso. They are chiefly from Germany (more especially 
from Schleswig-Holstein), Ireland and Canada. Among the latter, are 
quite a number of Canadian French. The census reports for 1880 not 
being published as yet, the number of foreign birth cannot be given here. 

Valparaiso. — It is seldom that a county having its resources and 
population, has within its borders so few villages of any pretensions 
as Porter County, Ind. And Centre Township has from the first 
been virtually without any village or city except Valparaiso. Flint- 
ville, laid out in 1875 by Wheeler Goodman et al.., near Flint Lake, on 
the west half of the southeast quarter of Section 6, Town 35, Range 5 
west, is a little hamlet having a few residences, a blacksmith and wagon 
shop and a small saw mill ; while Emmettsburg, laid out by S. I. Antho- 
ny and T. A. E. Campbell, December 8, 1868, is merely a suburb of Val- 

Some towns have grown up where they are, from the very nature of 
things. A water power or a crossing of roads gives rise to a factory or a 
little store, and by gradual accretion there comes to be an assemblage of 
houses and an increase of business which, at length, necessitates the lay- 
ing out and incorporation of a village. Other towns have their origin in 
the speculative minds of men. Thus it was with the town of Portersville. 
In the early settlement of this State, and its organization into counties, 
there were wide-awake men who found it to their interest to be on hand 
at these organizations, and to have a hand in the location of the county 
seats. This was of course perfectly legitimate, if pursued without cor- 
ruption. A man named Benjamin McCarty, who had settled on what is 
now known as the Hicks place, west of Valparaiso on the Joliet road, 
became the legal owner of the southwest quarter of Section 24, in Town 
85, Range 6. It was on the road from La Porte to Fort Dearborn and 
Joliet, and at the point where that road forks, in order to reach the two 
places named, the new county having been formed with the territory of 
Lake attached, but with the understanding that that was soon to be or- 


ganized as a separate county, that particular quarter section belonging to 
Mr. McCarty was also at the geographical center of the county, as it was 
to be. It appears that before the meeting of the Commissioners of the 
new county in June, 1836, there was in existence the Portersville Land 
Company. The plat of the town of Portersville bears date July 7, 183fi, 
and was recorded October 31, 1836. It consisted of forty-two blocks, 
with the intervening streets and intersecting alleys, bounded on the south 
by Water street, on the east by Morgan street, on the west by Outlets, 
15 to 20, inclusive, while the northern limits consist of Blocks 1 to 5, 
inclusive, being a strip of four rods in width lying north of Erie street. 
How the Land Company had its origin is now a matter of conjecture. Its 
members were J. F. D. Lanier (then a resident of Madison in this State, 
but afterward a distinguished banker and financier of New York City, 
and recently deceased), Benjamin McCarty, Enoch McCarty, John Walk- 
er, William Walker, James Laughlin, John Saylor and Abram A. Hall. 
Whether the other members of the company bought their shares from 
Benjamim McCarty, or whether they were a gift to them in order to 
secure their influence, is not known. There were three other sites press- 
ing upon the Commissioners their several advantages. One of these was 
at Prattville ; another was at Flint Lake, in which the Fletchers, of In- 
dianapolis, were interested, and the other was a mile and a half northwest 
of Valparaiso, on the Chicago road. The last was owned by W. K. Tal- 
bott, with others, perhaps, interested. Mr. Talbott was a Presbyterian 
preacher, a school teacher, a Freemason, a politician and something of 
a speculator. There was not a house in the town of Portersville, and 
there was, therefore, nothing to hinder its being seen. From the records 
of the Commissioners, it appears that their dealings were with the Por- 
tersville Land Company and not with the legal owner of the land, and 
that company was able to show a fairly handsome site, to prove that their 
town was in the very center of the county, and, therefore, most conven- 
ient to the population that would come in ; and, furthermore, they pro- 
posed to give to the county Block 23, and ninety-six lots in blocks num- 
bered 11 to 35, inclusive ; that is, half the lots in twenty- four blocks. 
In addition to this, they proposed to donate to the county $1,200 for the 
erection of public buildings. There is no evidence that they paid, or 
offered to pay, anything to the Commissioners, personally, or even that 
they treated them to brandy or cigars. There is no sign of corruption 
in what was done, but everything to show that the Commissioners had a 
single eye to the good of the county. It is evident now that Portersville 
was the right place for the county seat. Only this, the Land Company 
was fortunate in owning the right piece of property. This munificent offer 
having been accepted by the Commissioners, they instructed the county 


agent, Mr. Samuel Olinger, to receive the gift in behalf of the county. 
The whole of Block 23 (now the public square), was given to the seat of 
justice of the county. As it is expected that the Commissioners will soon 
erect a new court house, it has been freely suggested that it would be 
well to build it on some lot facing the public square, and that that should 
be reserved as a public park. In view of this, it may be well to refer here 
to the conditions of the original gift, which are found recorded on page 
101 in Deed Record A, in the Recorder's ofSce of Porter County, and 
are in the words following, viz. : 

Therefore, in consideration of the seat of justice as aforesaid being and remaining 
permanently fixed as located by said Commissioners at or near the southwest quarter 
of Section 24, Township 35, north Range 6 west, in the La Porte Land District, the said 
Benjamin McCarty being the legal owner of said southwest quarter of said Section, 
have by virtue of said location and in consideration of the county seat remaining perma- 
nently fixed upon the public square, as laid off at or near the center of said quarter 
section and the public buildings erected thereon, have granted, donated and confirmed 
unto the said Samuel Olinger, agent appointed agreeably by law for said county, and to 
his successors in oflBice, block or square No. 23, in the town of Portersville, county and 
State aforesaid, as the public square and seat of justice for said county of Porter, it be- 
ing the ground chosen by the said Commissioners for the county seat of said Porter 
County, * * * and each alternate of 192 lots laid off around the public square, and 
numbered, etc. 

Who was the first to obstruct the vision of the beautiful town of Por- 
tersville by the erection of a house ? In the " History of Valparaiso, 
by a Citizen," published in 1876, it is stated that as soon as the struggle 
between the rivals for the county seat had " fairly begun, building enter- 
prises began in the east town, as it seemed to win confidence from the 
the start." "In the spring" — evidently meaning the spring of 1836 — 
" a rough board structure was erected by Cyrus Spurlock, the first Re- 
corder of the county, on the site of the Academy of Music." But the 
testimony of the old settlers seems to be about unanimous that at the 
time the county seat was located there was not a building of any kind 
within the limits of the town as laid off. What's the odds who was the 
very first to set a stake or drive a nail when quite a number began to 
build nearly about the same time? that is, when the lots had been offered 
for sale after the location of the county seat. In the latter part of the 
summer of 1886, as seems most probable, the work of building began, 
and went forward, not as it now does in an oil or mining town, but with 
considerable enerory. From one who came here in December, 1836, and 
has resided here ever since, the writer learns that he saw on his first 
arrival these buildings: 1. A one-story frame building on Lot 7, Block 
28, in two rooms, built by William Eaton, who, with his family, occupied 
one room, while the other was taken and occupied in January, 1837, by 
two families, aggregating eleven persons. It was only boarded up on 


the outside. 2. There was also a log cabin on the north side of Main 
street, on Lot 7, Block 20. 3. On Lot 3, Block 27, south side of Me- 
chanic street, was a log house occupied by Cyrus Spurlock, and there, 
doubtless, the Recorder's office was kept. 4. There was also a frame 
building on the site of the Academy of Music, where two sons of " Bee- 
hunter " Clark sold notions and liquor. 5. Dr. Miller Blachley lived on 
Main street, opposite the public square, on the west side of Lot No. 6, 
Block 18, where the shoe store of A. J. Pierce & Bro. now is. 6. On 
(corner) Lot 5, same block, was a chair-maker, a single man, who kept a 
shop, and who afterward sold to a man named Stotts. 7. William Wal- 
ker had a house on the south side of Monroe street, Block 31 (Talcott 
property), in which Hatch, the tanner, afterward lived. 8. John Saylor 
had a house where Dillingham Brothers' store now is, that is, on Lot 7, 
Block 18, opposite the court house. There the first court was held in 
October, 1836, Judge Samuel C. Sample administering, with the other 
officers and the aid of a grand and petit jury, such justice as the times 
called for. In December of that same year, the courtly Jeremiah Hamell 
was found keeping a store in the front part of John Saylor's house afore- 
said. Mr. Saylor lived in the back part of the house, and sometimes 
entertained travelers there, for at that time there was not a tavern in the 
place. Mr. Hamell had not a very large stock of goods on hand, but he 
could not have been more affable if he had been in charge of Marshall 
Field & Co.'s establishment. A lady from the southern part of the 
county, then young and fond of a joke, having called in and made a 
purchase, was addressed by the proprietor with, " Madam, is there any- 
thing more I can show you?" "Mr. Hamell, I think I'll just take the 
rest of your stock home in my saddle-bags, select what I want and send 
the balance back." No man was a more important figure in the early 
history of the county than Jeremiah Hamell. Energetic in business, 
pleasing in manners, intelligent in public affairs, a Whig in politics and 
with the prospect of many honors before nim, respected, honored, beloved, 
he passed away from earth in early manhood. His death occurred March 
14, 1846. It is generally believed that Mr. Hamell had the first stock 
of goods in the place, then John Bishop, and then Dr. Seneca Ball, 
another prominent character in our early history. He came from La 
Porte, put up the frame building in which Mr. Porter now lives (south- 
west corner Franklin and Jefferson), on the northwest corner of Main 
and Franklin streets. In the front part of that he kept store and lived 
in the back part of it. The goods kept by these merchants and those 
that followed them for a good many years were varied in character — hats 
and caps for men and boys, ladies' bonnets and ribbons, calico, broad- 
cloth, linsey-woolsey, iron, nails, rakes, hoes, grain cradles and sickles, 


tin pans and iron kettles, blue vitriol, indigo, madder, saiFron, annotto, 
logwood, sulphur, red precipitate, spices, sugar, coffee, tea, harness, 
buckles and black strap. When their goods came on from the East, 
as thej did twice a year, they had a "heap of nice things " to exhibit 
to their customers and tempt them to extravagance. The list of store- 
keepers since their day is too long for repetition. Some came and put 
out their flaring show-bills and trumpeted their own praises for a little 
while as the New York Store or the Philadelphia or Boston House, 
sold their goods and their customers, and after a brief season of noto- 
riety quietly packed up their goods and stole away. Others came to stay, 
and held on their prosperous way. Abel Isham was one of the first to 
engage in harness and saddlery trade. He afterward turned his attention 
to books, stationery, etc., and met with repeated misfortunes, his stock 
and building burning up, without insurance, in 1866-67. He subse- 
quently built the brick storeroom now occupied by Peirce's shoe store, 
and in his old age is shut out from the sight of day. He has been well 
known and honored. After him, many others engaged in the harness 
trade, among them were William Mann, the Vanattas, father and son, 
and those at present in the trade. 

About 1853, John Dunning and his son Warren sold stoves and tin- 
ware. Nearly about the same time, Joseph Whitmore engaged in the 
same biisiness, and, being a practical tinner, from time to time set up in 
the trade until, after the death of his wife, his family became scattered, 
and he departed to other fields. Joe was rather a peculiar character ; 
goodhearted and industrious, but of peculiar notions, and somehow fail- 
ing, like many a worthy man, to get on in the world. Henry Bickford 
was engaged in the hardware business about 1857 ; was succeeded by 
Carpenter & Parke, in 1859 ; they by Carpenter & Febles, in 1861 ; 
they by Hawkins & Freeman, in 1862; they by Hawkins & Cornell, in 
1870 ; Hawkins & Haste, 1871 ; Hawkins, Haste & Co., 1874 ; James 
B. Hawkins, 1877. Whitmore & Brewer, in the same business, were 
succeeded by Hubbard Hunt in November, 1859 ; sold to Wilson & Fel- 
ton in 1863 ; afterward William Wilson. G. A. Sayles came from Ohio 
and bought into a small stock of hardware in 1855. Being a prac- 
tical tinner, has had as partners at various times I. D. Marshall, William 
Wilson, Horace Foot, 1858 ; J. C. Pierce, 1866 ; Robert Jones, 1877 ; 
James McFetrich, 1879. 

Of dealers in drugs, there were Joseph Lomax, about 1845-46 ; 
Lomax & Treat, 1848 ; Lomax sold to Treat in 1849 ; he to Porter, 
Porter to William Harrison ; Bryant & Harrison, spring of 1851 ; S. 
R. Bryant drew out in the fall of 1851, and established the Old Line 
Drug Store, and continued the business for many years. Other druggists 


have been Aaron & T. G. Lytic, about 1853 or 1854; Hiram Loomis, 
about 1855 or 1856, burned out a second time January, 1866, and 
retired from the business. Also R. A. Cameron, both before and for a 
short time after the war. Others have been Frank Commerford, Com- 
merford k Marshall, W. P. Wilcox, McCarthy & Dunham, Rowley & 
Son and Rowley & Letherman. 

Who can tell who was the first shoemaker? Let him rise and speak. 
The first shoe store was kept by William Wilson ; then Wilson & Hawk- 
ins. There have been many others since, among whom were C. Bloch, 
E. T. Isbell, Isbell & Kennedy, Kennedy & Peirce, George Flake, etc. 

The manufacturers and dealers in fmrniture have been N. R. Strong, 
in 1848 or 1849 ; A. Kellogj^; & Sons eno-ajjed in the manufacture of 
cabinet work in connection with their foundry and machine shops about 
1857, and others have been the Le Pells, father and sons, starting about 
the same time as the Kelloggs, and continuing the business in the family 
to this day. Samuel Le Baron, furniture and agricultural implements, 
1865 to 1867 ; succeeded by J. M. McGill, and he by George Babcock, 
agricultural implements only ; C. W. Zorn, furniture and repairing and 
carriage building and trimming. 

In blacksmithing, wagon-making and wooden manufactures, there 
have been the following: In 1889, the brothers George C, A. J, and 
H. M. Buel, commenced blacksmithino; and waujon-makinor on Lot 2, 
Block 24. James M. Buel also worked in the wood shop. George left 
the business after a few years, then H. M. retired, and Andrew Jackson 
Buel continued. the business with energy and success till his lamentable 
sickness and death, July 3, 1868. He was a most estimable citi- 
zen, and for many years an earnest Christian. Jacob Brewer & Bros, 
also eniiaged in the business about the same time on Main street. 0th- 
ers in the business have been the Barrys, Thomas and Michael, begin- 
ning work with Jackson Buel, but going into it for themselves in 1864, 
and carrying it on separately since 1874. They have carried on the 
trade in all the branches of blacksmithing, horseshoeing, making, repair- 
ing wagons, and carriages, etc. Henry Williams, T. B. Lauderback, 
Thomas, Lorenzo Russell and Israel Trahan, Shrop, Spry, McGee, have 
also been in the wagon-making; business. T. A. Hogan has at various 
times been engaged in the manufacture of wagon stuffs, bent wagon fel- 
loes, buggy felloes, shafts and poles, plow handles and beams, sled 
timbers, cheese boxes, etc. 

Daniel White and one of the Kellogg boys went into the planing busi- 
ness in connection with the old foundry about 1858. Daniel White built 
shops for the manufacture of sash, doors and blinds on Main and Monroe 
streets in 1864 ; sold to Wasser & Vastbinder in 1868, who have been 



succeeded by Alonzo Smith, A. Freeman and John D. Wilson. White, 
Hunt & Co. engaged in the lumber trade about 1866, and started their 
planing mill in 1869 or 1870. They commenced selling hard coal in 
1870, being the first dealers in the place. Not more than eight or ten 
car loads were sold the first year, while the present annual trade is nearly 
4,000 tons. W. J. Acker & Co. established a lumber-yard on the north- 
west corner of Mechanic and La Fayette streets, now on the southwest 
corner of Washington and Monroe, and the firm. Acker & Hoyt. After 
the building of the Peninsular railroad (now G. T.) a man named Barrin- 
ger, of Michigan, started a lumber yard at that depot ; and Messrs. 
White & Bell are keeping one at the same place. The undertakers have 
been Strong, Wilbraham, the Le Pells and W. Noel. William Quinn 
began business here as a cooper in 1856, and though once burned out 
continues in the trade, and is alone in it, though numerous other establish- 
ments of a like character have flourished from time to time, chief among 
them having been the Unruhs. 

The first brickyard in the place was started by John Saylor on the 
northeast corner of Outlot No. 1. Others have been carried on at the 
present site of the paper mill at Round Lake, south of Crosby's Mill, 
and on either side of the road leading to Sager's Mill, by Moses Frazier, 
Charles Briggs, A. W. Lytle, Mr. Bhymer, Dickover & Weaver, Char- 
tier & Dumas, the Durands and others. The present production is about 
4,000,000. A brewery was started about twenty years ago, now owned 
by Korn & Junker, and producing over 2,000 barrels per annum. An- 
other was carried on for some time on the present site of the gas works, 
but came to an end about 1865. Cigars have been manufactured here 
for many years by Bernhard Rothermel, Urbahns and H. C. Kruyer. 
The production is small. Mr. Rothermel is also engaged in the manu- 
facture and bottling of soda water. Market gardening and the cultiva- 
tion of small fruits have been carried on for the supply of the local demand 
and for the Chicago market. N. R. Strong, Nahum Cross, George Por- 
ter, Wells, Dodd, Myers, De Hart, Brown and numerous others have 
followed it with more or less success. An attempt was made by Mr. N. 
R. Strong to produce grape wines during the war, and for some time 
thereafter. Though a very fair wine was made, the enterprise did not 
result favorably. Mr. Strong went to California, and the enterprise has 
been virtually abandoned. 

Mr. W. H. Holabird, about 1871, began the manufacture of shooting 
suits, and a year or two afterward established the enterprise here. His 
suits attained a wide notoriety, and the sales became large. His health 
required him to engage in other pursuits, and the business is now in the 
hands of Upthegrove & McLellan, who employ on an average fifteen 


hands, and have a large trade. The Valparaiso Paper Mill was built in 
1867. Capital, $20,000. Makes straw wrappers. Consumes 1,000 
tons of straw per annum, and produces 700 to 800 tons of paper, worth 
P0,000 to $40,000. Monthly pay-roll, $550. Don A. Salyer, pro- 

The Valparaiso Woolen Manufacturing Company was organized in 
1866, with a capital of $60,000. A good building was erected and ex- 
cellent machinery procured. The enterprise started the following year. 
Julia A. Powell, George and William Powell, A. V. Bartholomew, Hollis 
R. Skinner and others were stockholders. It was a bad time to begin. 
Building and machinery were very expensive, prices were from that time 
until about four years ago on the down grade, the water at the mill 
was not suitable, and these things, with other causes, combined to render 
the enterprise unprofitable. The Powells subsequently became possessors 
of all the stock of the campany at a low figure. The goods manufactured 
had been common knitting yarns, jeans, flannels and occasionally blankets 
and other fabrics. In 1872, arrangements were made with three brothers, 
Fontaine, skillful machinists and inventors, for the establishment of the 
National Pin Factory, in place of the woolen works. This was put in 
operation in 1872, and discontinued in 1875, the Fontaines having made 
arrangements for the formation of a company for the manufacture of pins 
in Detroit. In the meantime, the manufacture of yarns, etc., had been 
given up for the time, and the manufacture of shoddy was introduced in 
1873, and continued till 1877, under the management of H. H. Capa- 
magian, a native of Armenia, in Turkey, and a man of energy and ca- 
pacity. In the year last named, he removed to Chicago, and had just 
perfected ingenious machinery for the manufacture of shoddy when be 
came to a sudden, untimely end by being caught in the machinery of his 
mill. The present machinery was put in the woolen mills in 1876, and 
the works started anew, under the efficient superintendence of J. D. Par- 
tello. Germantown yarns were made almost exclusively, until 1881, 
when the knitting of hosiery was added, and in May, 1882, a branch of 
the knitting department was started at Chicago, where employment is 
given to 100 hands. The present firm consists George W. Powell and 
William Powell ; value of buildings and machinery, $60,000 ; annual 
products $250,000 ; 500,000 pounds of wool are consumed yearly ; 250 
hands employed in all ; monthly pay-roll, $3,700. The principal market 
for the manufactured goods is Chicago. 

Since 1868, A. W. Lytle has been engaged in putting up ice for the 
local trade at Flint and Round Lakes. Product, 1,200 tons per annum. 
Other parties put up ice for their own uses. 

Bakeries have been carried on for many years by George Franklin, 


Mr. Hutchinson, Griswold & Frazier, Alex Greyson, J. S. Lauderback, 
John W. Wood, W. G. Wi.ndle, C. Fernekes, Munger & Le Claire and J. R. 
Smith & Son. The production is large for the population, since all the 
boarding houses connected with the Normal College use baker's bread. 

The clock, watch and jewelry business has been carried on by H. S. 
Isham, now of Chicago ; Abellsham, now retired and infirm ; Aaron Rog- 
ers, a famous hunter of snipe ; W. H. Vail, Lyman Jones (died in early 
manhood) and Messrs. Budd & Bell. As to the dry goods, clothing and 
grocery trades it would be impossible to name those who have engaged in 
them from time to time, in the space allotted. The fourth store kept in 
the place was probably by G. Z. Salyer (deceased since 1860), and the fifth 
by Mr. C. E. De Wolf, who used to live where Joseph Gardner now resides, 
and is responsible for the majestic pines that surround the place. He 
now lives in Michigan City. He is a wealthy capitalist, and is still the 
owner of a large amount of land in this county. Other dry goods mer- 
chants have been F. W. Hunt, Bartholomew & McClelland, H. Dillenbeck, 
T. T. Maulsley, Don A. Salyer, Charles Osgood, Osgood & Berry, 
Quatermas? Brothers, Emerson Quatermass & Company, George Quater- 
mass, Joseph Steinfield, G. Bloch, G. Silberberg, Strauss & Joel, L. D. 
Bondey, Max Albe, A. V. Bartholomew, etc. Tailoring has been car- 
ried on by John Herr, 0. Dunham and many others, and merchant tail- 
oring by Henry Andrews, Charles McCloskey, Robert McNay, David 
Maxfield, the Benham Brothers and others, as well as by leading dry 
goods firms. 

In the book and stationery trade have been Abel Isham, M. A. Salis- 
bury, E. G. Salisbury, Cline & Sloane, J. N. Sloane, B. F. Perrine. 
Valparaiso has been for some years not only a good place to sell books 
but a good place to buy them, and the trade has been very heavy for the 
population. A prosperous trade has also been carried on in music and 
musical instruments by M. A. Salisbury, W. Huntington, R. A. Heri- 
tage and others. When the first band was started — who knows ? But in 
the Porter Democrat of October 14, 1858, is an advertisement of the 
Valparaiso Union Band, De Motte and Salyer, Conductors, and purpos- 
ing to blow music out of $-500 worth of new instruments, for conventions, 
political meetings, etc. Surely these be none other than our genial Con- 
gressman and our substantial manufacturer of paper. 

The first Postmaster of Portersville was Benjamin McCarty, and for 
a time John C. Bull was his Deputy. There was some dissatisfaction, 
growing out of the fact that Mr. McCarty did not reside in the village, 
and in 1839 T. A. E. Campbell was appointed. During his term, the 
office was kept in the southeast corner of the court house, and behind that 
Mr. Campbell kept bachelor's hall. He was at the same time Deputy 


Clerk of the Court for George W. Turner. In 1841, he was elected 
Treasurer and Collector of the county, and G. W. Salisbury was appointed 
Postmaster, and held the oflfice during the administrations of Harrison 
and Tyler. The office was then kept in his house on the south side of 
the public square. From 1845 to 1849, during Polk's administration, 
Joseph Lomax held the office, and it was kept where his business was, 
being for the most part on Main street, north side, and west of Washing- 
ton. When the Whigs again came into power in 1849, G. W. Salisbury 
was again appointed, and held the office for a time, until he left Valpa- 
raiso for Oregon, when John Dunning was appointed, and held the office 
till the accession of Franklin Pierce in 1853. Then S. R. Bryant was 
appointed, and kept the office through the administrations of both Pierce 
and Buchanan, till the accession of Lincoln in 1861. M. A. Salisbury was 
then appointed, and held the office till the fall of 1866. The office then 
" Johnsonized," as it was called, and J. Beekman Marshall, now of Kan- 
sas, became Postmaster till he was succeeded by C. C. S. Keech, on the 
20th of April, 1867. Mr. Keech held the office for a very short time, 
but was a most efficient officer, giving general satisfaction. He had not 
sufficient influence to retain the position, but gracefully yielded it on the 
17th of June, the same year, to Dr. J. F. McCarthy. On the 24th of 
April, 1882, Dr. McCarthy yielded the place to Col. I. C. B. Suman, 
after having held it fourteen years and eleven months, being by far the 
longest incumbency since the establishment of the office. According to 
the tendency in the postal service, many improvements took place during 
Dr. McCarthy's term. In the increasing duties of the office, he was ably 
assisted by Mrs. McCarthy and by J. R. Drapier. Hon. Jesse Johnson 
received the first letter ever delivered at the Portersville office. The 
name of the village and office was changed in the winter of 1837-38 to 
Valparaiso. As showing how the business has increased since the days 
when Sl^ cents postage was paid on a single letter from Madison, Ind., 
to this place, which sum was prepaid July 19, 1841, by Jesse D. Bright, 
on a letter addressed by him to T. A. E. Campbell, concerning the com- 
pensation of the latter for taking the census in this county the preceding 
year, the following statistics are presented : The amount of domestic 
and foreign money orders paid at the Valparaiso Post Office during the 
year ending June 30, 1882, was §66,079.60; number of money orders 
issued for the year ending June 30, 1882, domestic, 2, 379 ; foreign, 92. 
During the same year the receipts for the sale of stamps, stamped enve- 
lopes, postal cards, etc., were §10.308.18 ; for box rent for same period, 
§1,109 ; registered letters sent, 1,102 ; registered letters delivered, 2,573 ; 
registered letters in transit, 64. 

Various additions of territory have been made from time to time to 


the original plat of the village, as follows : Original town laid out July 7, 
1836, and recorded October 31 of same year. 1. Haas's Addition, April 8, 
1854, and 2, Peirce's Addition, April 18, 1854, the former consisting of 
one and one-half blocks north of Outlot 20, the latter the same amount of 
land north of Block 42, original survey. 3. West Valparaiso, which con- 
sists of a triangular plat of ground, bounded on the east by Outlots 18 and 
19 (Mrs. Hamell's), on the north by Third street, and on the south by 
First street and the Joliet road, May 13, 1854. 4. Woodhull's Addi- 
tion, which consists of thirty-six blocks of land lying east of Outlots 1 to 

7, original survey, x^pril 5, 1856. 5. Smith's iVddition, bounded on the 
south by the Fort Wayne Railroad, west by the old cemetery, north by 
Woodhull's Addition, and on the east by the street on the east of college 
grounds, July 18, 1859. 6. North Valparaiso, being ten blocks bounded 
on the south by the original survey, on the west by Calumet street, on 
the north by Elm street, and on the east by Valparaiso street, May 9, 
1859. 7. Powell's Addition, bounded on the north by lands of Skinner 
& Beach, east by Calumet street, south by original survey and Haas's & 
Peirce's Addition, and on the west by Campbell's farm, July 28, 1860. 

8. Institute Addition, three blocks north of Joliet road, and west of Fort 
Wayne Railroad, March 30, 1864. 9. Southwest Valparaiso, nine 
blocks, and six lots of peat marsh, south of Fort Wayne depot and south- 
west of woolen factory, November 2, 1864. 10. First addition to North 
Valparaiso, twenty-eight blocks north and east of North Valparaiso, May 
10, 1869. Other additions have been surveyed, but are not as yet included 
in the city limits. 

The report of population in 1840 is not accessible to the writer. In 
1850, it was 520. In 1860, 1,690. In 1870, 2,760. In 1880, 4,460, 
or about nine times what it was in 1850. If the increase should be in the 
same ratio in the future, the population in 1910 would be over 35,000. 

The small number of stores in 1836 to 1839 have increased to a mul- 
titude, and stocks of goods that could almost be loaded on a good-sized 
wagon have grown to a value of $12,000 to $20,000, and the annual 
sales, which could hardly have exceeded $10,000 for all the establish- 
ments during the first year, have now mounted up to $60,000, $90,000 
and $100,000 for single firms. Valparaiso has, at this time, the follow- 
ing business houses : Li((uor saloons, eighteen ; cigars and confectionery, 
six ; restaurants, four ; railroad eating-houses, two ; groceries, fourteen ; 
bakeries, five ; dry goods, clothing, etc., nine ; varieties and notions, one ; 
trimmings and fancy goods, one; millinery and fancy goods, five; hard- 
ware, etc., four; agricultural implements, two ; books, stationery, etc., 
four; leather and findings, one; lumber yards, three; planing-raills, two; 
foundries and machine shops, one; brick yards, three; woolen manufac- 


tory and knitting works, one; paper-mill, one; feed stores, three; lime, 
etc., two; cigar manufactories, two; National banks, two; banking 
houses, one; furniture, three ; undertakers, two; gunsmiths, one; hotels, 
six; drugs, etc., four; jewelry, three ; boots and shoes, seven; merchant 
tailoring, three; hats, caps, etc., two. 

As an instance of the prosperity attending business even in hard 
times, M. S. Harrold came to Valparaiso in 1864, with a few hundred 
dollars, and engaged in the grocery trade, and he has since then secured 
a comfortable competency in the carrying-on of a legitimate business, 
while the firm in which he is the principal partner sells annually more 
than ^90,000 in groceries and ships 250 car loads of grain. 

The first Blue Lodge of Freemasons was constituted about 1840 or 
1841. The charter members were Jonathan Griffin, James Luther, Ruel 
Starr, John E. Harris, John Curtis, John Wood, Arthur Buel, Adam S. 

Campbell, W. K. Talbott and Cone. After a few years, this lodge 

(No. 49) went down for want of money and a room to meet in. About 1850, 
George C. Buel, Isaac Bowman, 0. I. Skinner, John Wolf, N. S. Fair- 
childs, John Woods, John E. Harris, Andrew Hopp, George Z. Salyer, 
were charter members in the organization of Porter Lodge. Of the first 
lodge organized John E. Harris was W. M., and George C. Buel W. M. 
of Porter Lodge. Since the organization, the order has been very 
flourishing, and has kept itself very pure. A number of years since a 
Chapter was formed, and still later an Encampment of Knights Templar. 
The Chapter house and Encampment occupy the upper story in the fine 
building on the northwest corner of Main and La Fayette streets. 

Che-queuk Lodge of Odd Fellows was instituted December 2, 1848, 
the charter members being Joseph Lomax, E. Ellis Campbell, Robert G. 
Flint, John Dunning and William Harrison. The officers of the lodge 
at its organization were Joseph Lomax, N. G.; E. Ellis Campbell, V. G.; 
John Dunning, Secretary; William Harrison, I. C; Robert G. Flint, 
Treasurer, and were installed by the Grand Officers, Col. Hathaway, G. 
M., Luther Mann, G. C, and other officiating officers from La Porte, also 
Dr. Dunning, of La Fayette, and some other notables. The lodge in- 
creased from that time weekly from the best citizens. Difficulty was ex- 
perienced in finding sufficient lodge-room until a brick store was erected, 
where Dr. Edmonds' store now stands, the third floor of which was ob- 
tained and occupied until it burned August 13, 1859, with all the lodge 
furniture and costly regalia. In two weeks from that time they opened 
up again in Hughart's Hall (now William Wilson's). Before the rebellion 
broke out, the lodge had been established on a solid basis. Most of the 
members who enlisted had their dues remitted, and the charitable dona- 
tions were continued. As the lodge prospered, it contributed to the relief 


of the sufferers by the great Chicago fire, and later to sufferers by the 
Michigan fires. Obligations have been kept to pay all sick benefits, to 
to visit the sick, bury the dead, provide for the orphan and the widow, 
and all like Christian obligations. This year (1882), the lodge has erected 
a fine hall for their accommodation, which will, in a short time, be com- 
pleted and furnished for occupancy. The lodge is flourishing, and new 
members are being added weekly. Since 1860, an average of §200 per 
annum has been paid by the lodge for the education and support of or- 
phans, the relief of widows, funerals and sick benefits. 

The Thousand and One order has also flourished at times in Valpa- 
raiso, and has numbered among its members leading men in business, and 
the legal and other professions. It is said that the initiations have been 
of thrilling interest. The meetings have usually been held in the Acade- 
my of Music. 

The first physicians who located in Valparaiso were Miller Blachley, 
Seneca Ball, G. W. Salisbury, Dr. Robbins and Dr. Kersey. They rep- 
resented various schools of practice. Since that time, the number has 
been great, many staying long enough to make an unsatisfactory trial, 
and others — charlatans — staying long enough to bleed numerous victims 
and then going oS" to fresher fields and newer pastures. Of regular phy- 
sicians, there are now residing here Drs. J. H. and A. P. Letherman, J. 
H. Newland, J. F. McCarthy, H. V. Herriott, H. M. Beer ; of eclectics, 
J. H. Ryan, H. C. Coates and W. A. Yohn ; of homoeopaths, M. F. 
Sayles and W. 0. Cattron. 

Among the earlier dentists, the one who stayed longest and attained the 
greatest success was Dr. George Porter, who died of consumption previous 
to 1870, and whose family still reside here. There was also Dr. B. M. 
Thomas, a skillful practitioner and honorable gentleman, now of Santa 
Fe, N. M. Dr. Boyd succeeded him in practice, and has but lately re- 
tired with a competency, on account of ill health. The resident dentists at 
present are J. H. and Mrs. M. E. Edmonds and H. D. Newton. 

The first member of the legal profession who came to this place was 
Josiah S. Masters, said to have been of a good family in the State of New 
York. He did a very little business in his profession, and taught the first 
school in Portersville in a house on the northwest corner of Mechanic and 
Morgan streets. Samuel I. xlnthony came and was admitted to the bar 
in October, 1839. Harlowe S. Orton, now of Madison, Wis., came a 
little before that time. George W. Turner, who had served one term as 
Clerk of Court, began the practice of law probably about 1845 or 1846, 
and left in a peculiar manner in 1856. M. M. Fassett and John W. 
Murphy came afterward. M. L. De Motte came early in 1855. T. J. 
Merrifield came July 5, 1855. C. I. Thompson was here from 1859 to 


1865. From the organization of the court in 1837 to 1855, the business 
was largely done by attorneys from South Bend and La Porte, notably by 
Joseph L. Jernegan, Joseph W. Chapman, John B. Niles, John H. Brad- 
ley, James Bradley, Roberts Merri field, W. 0. Hanna and others. Joseph 
L. Jernegan was the first prosecutor. The resident attorneys at this time 
are Thomas J. Merrifield, J. M. Howard, A. D. Bartholomew, Edgar D. 
Crumpacker, William Johnson, Thomas McLoughlin, John E. Cass, W. 
E. Pinney, Hiram A. and John H. Gillett, John W. Rose, J. Hanford 
Skinner, A. L. Jones, M. L. De Motte, Frank P. Jones and Nelson J. 

The city hall was put up, in 1878, on the south side of the public 
square, and is not of any particular order of architecture, unless it be the 
Hoosier. The city bridewell was put up in 1881, just to the rear of the 
city hall. 

Valparaiso was incorporated as a village by special act of the Legis- 
lature in 1850. The Town Council usually met in the office of the County 
Recorder. It consisted of six persons, and elections for Councilmen were 
held annually. No business of great moment was transacted by them. 
They voted away the money of the people sparingly, and undertook no 
great public improvements. They had no bonded debt resting upon the 
town when it became a city. This was in 1865. The Fourth of July was 
habitually celebrated, and the older inhabitants will not forget the mar- 
shaling of the processions on those days. Valparaiso boasted a citizen 
who in form and spirit was designed to wear the marshal's sash and ride 
upon a charger. He has since become the most noted of Valparaiso's 
military heroes. It was he who headed the preachers, the Sunday 
schools and citizens as they filed into the public square to the sound of 
the old iron cannon to eat the Fourth of July dinner and listen to the 
reading of the Declaration of Independence and the annual oration. In 
1880, the Western Union Telegraph Company established a city office 
in addition to those at the depots. The Bell Telephone Company estab- 
lished an office and commenced business here in 1882. F. W. & H. 
Hunt, after carrying on the dry goods business from the fall of 1846, be- 
gan banking in 1855. They dissolved partnership in 1856, and the 
business has since been carried on by F. W. Hunt. 

The articles of association of the First National Bank were signed 
May 20, 1863, with twenty-one stockholders. Levi A. Cass, Jr., A. V. 
Bartholomew, W. C. Talcott, S. W. Smith, B. F. Schenck, Joseph 
Peirce and Thomas S. Stanfield were elected Directors July 15, 1863. 
Levi A. Cass, President, and M. L. McClelland, Cashier. Capital, $50,- 
000. Issue, §45,000. First did business on ttie east side of Washington 
street, where express office now is. Surplus, July 1, 1877, §13,606.76, 


after having paid 10 per cent dividends yearly. The first loan was made 
December 12, 18G3, and first certificate of deposit issued to Mrs. Mary 
E. Brown November 30, 1863. B. F. Schenck, President, January 12, 
1864, to July 1, 1834; then L. A. Cass to January 12, 1869 ; then S. 
S. Skinner to January 16, 1878, when D. F. L. Skinner was elected. 
M. L. McClelland was Cashier till March, 1881. In 1866, C. V. Culver, 
of New York, owner of 100 shares, and with whose house the bank kept 
its Eastern balances, being in the oil speculation, failed. The 100 shares 
of stock were purchased of the Third National Bank of New York at $80 
per share, and sold to William Powell for $120.50 per share. With $4,000 
profit on this transaction, the stockholders had no reason to feel bad 
over the failure. The bank went into voluntary liquidation May 29, 
1882, and was immediately succeeded by the new First National Bank 
with a capital of $100,000. Removed to present building on the south 
third of Lot 2, Block 4, in the fall of 1874. 

The Farmers' National Bank of Valparaiso was organized in Novem- 
ber, 1878, to succeed the private bank of Joseph Gardner, and com- 
menced business February 1, 1879, with a capital of $50,000. The 
Board of Directors first elected and serving at present are Joseph 
Gardner, A. V. Bartholomew, W. P. Wilcox, J. M. Felton and Joseph R. 
Hill, who represent nine-tenths of the capital stock of the bank. The 
deposits of the bank at its commencement as a National Bank were about 
$70,000. Since February 1, 1879, they have gradually increased until 
at the present date they are $230,000. The average deposits of the bank 
are $200,000. It has paid semi-annual dividends of 6 per cent since its 
commencement, and has accumulated a surplus fund at present of $14,- 
300. The capital was increased May, 1882, to $70,000. The bank at 
present has a capital and surplus fund of about $85,000. Joseph Gard- 
ner, President ; G. F. Bartholomew, Cashier. 

Under a general act of the Legislature which permitted towns of 2,000 
population or over to put on city airs, an enumeration was had in the fall 
of that year, and the necessary population was found, or declared to be. 
By a vote of the citizens Valparaiso became a city, and learned how 
much it costs to put on style. In 1866, water works (so-called), were put 
up with some help from the county, supplying several cisterns and occa- 
sionally a fountain (so-called) in the public square. While it is ridiculous 
to call these water zvorks, the people could hardly get along without 
them. The same year the city incurred a debt of $50,000, bearing 10 
per cent interest, to bring the Peninsular Railway here. Grounds for a 
new cemetery were purchased in 1868, more than two miles southeast 
from the court house. In 1870, the city purchased for $10,000 the build- 
ing and grounds of the Valparaiso Collegiate Institute, the procee<is of 


which were distributed among the stockholders. Bonds were issued for 
the erection of a school building, which was put up and occupied the fol- 
lowing year. The building presents a sightly appearance on the outside, 
but for the purpose it is used for is faulty in design and construction. 
Thus the city had a bonded debt of more than .^70,000 upon it. Thomas 
J. Merrifield was Mayor of the city from its organization till May, 1868. 
Then Thomas G. Lytle till May, 1872. He was succeeded by John N. 
Skinner, a man of such remarkable mold that he continued to preside 
over the destinies of the city till his death, this present year, 1882, just 
before the city election, he being then a candidate for re-election for a 
sixth term, and was twice a candidate for Congress during the same period. 
During the latter year of his first term, in the winter of 1873-74, occurred 
the temperance crusade carried on by the ladies, with watching, prayer, 
singing, producing intense excitement and feeling throughout the com- 
munity, and attracting no little attention from abroad. Valparaiso then 
had eight saloons. It has eighteen now ; but the population has well 
nigh doubled. While the interest was at its height, the Mayor issued the 
followino: : 


Whereas, For several days last past, large numbers of persons have been engaged 
in assembling on and about the premises of citizens pursuing a lawful business, and re- 
maining on said premises against the will of the owners thereof, and for the avowed pur- 
pose of interfering with their business ; and 

Whereas, Many of said persons declare their intention of persisting in such conduct. 
Now, therefore, all such persons so assembling and remaining, are hereby notified that 
such conduct is unlawful and against the ordinances of the city of Valparaiso, and they 
are admonished as good citizens to desist from the same, and that it is the duty of the 
authorities of said city and of all law-abiding citizens in the interest of public peace and 
order, to enforce the said ordinances and disperse such assemblages. 

Valparaiso, February 2o, 1874. John N. Skinner, Mayor of Valparaiso. 

In a few hours after the appearance of the proclamation, the ladies 
responded with the following manifesto, which was posted up and freely dis- 
tributed upon the streets. Both documents are historic, and in some 
houses they are to be seen hanging up framed side by side. 

Why do the Heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The Kings of the Earth set them- 
selves, and the Rulers take counsel together against the Lord, and against His Anointed, saying — Let us 
break their bands asunder, and cast away their corda from us. He that sitteth in the Heavens shall laugh > 
the Lord shall have them in derision. — Psalm 2, 1-4. 

And they called them, and commanded them not to speak at all, nor teach in the name of Jesus. But 
Peter and John answered and said unto them, Whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you 
more than unto God, judge ye. — Acts, 4, 18-19. 

We ought to obey God rather than men. — Acts, 5, 29. 

To THE Public. — In the temperance movement we have undertaken, we have had 
no purpose to violate the laws of the State, or interfere with the rights of any citizen. 
We have malice in our hearts toward none, but charity toward all. We believe we have 
the right to persuade men to cease Irom strong drink, and to plead with the liquor seller 
to cease from his traiEc. Believing, too, that God has called us to the high duty of sav- 
ing our fellow-men, we will not cease to pray and labor to this end. It is our solemn 


purpose, with love in our hearts to God and man, to go right forward in the work we 
have undertaken, and if the hand of violence be laid upon us, we make our humble and 
confident appeal to the God whom we serve, and to the laws of the State, whose faithful 
citizens we are. Mrs. A. V. Bartholomew, 

Mrs. L. C. Buckles, 
Mrs. E. Skinner, 
Mrs. a. Gurnet, 
Mrs. E. Ball, 

Executive Committee. 
In behalf of the ladies engaged in the temperance movement. 

The succeeding city election was hotly contested, but Mayor Skinner 
was re-elected. At the end of William Fox's term of office as City Treas- 
urer, 1872-74, he was found to be a defaulter to a considerable amount. 
In 1876, the fire department of the city was organized, and there are now 
three small hand-engines with hose carts and ladders, one of the fire com- 
panies being composed of Normal students. The present Mayor of the 
city is the Hon. Thomas G. Lytle. 

A word should be said about the early taverns and later hotels of the 
place. In the fall of 1836, Jimmy Laughlin had built the frame of the 
building now used by Hans Bornholdt as a meat market. It then stood 
on the alley opposite the court house, east side of public square. John 
Herr and Solomon Cheney bought and finished it, and kept tavern there 
from the spring of 1837 till the fall of 1838. This was the first tavern 
in the place. The American Eagle House was built at the southeast cor- 
ner of Main and Franklin, by Abraham Hall, beginning in 1838. In 
1839, he opened a tavern there. Herr & Cheney had kept a bar, and 
had some raspberry brandy which had been well tested by the La Porte 
lawyers, always good judges of things spirituous, and had been pro- 
nounced good. Abe Hall thought he must have some of the same when 
he opened out. When he and another returned from Michigan City with 
the first load for his bar, they having already well partaken, the barrel of 
raspberry brandy was taken from the wagon, a hole bored into it and a 
portion of the contents removed. A high (or low) time followed, and the 
barrel was forgotten. . There were hogs in that back yard, sleeping in 
piles of shavings. They smelled the raspberry brandy, tasted it and pro- 
nounced it good. Their opinion coincided with that of the legal gentle- 
men aforesaid. After midnight, Herr & Cheney, then living in the house 
built by John Saylor, were awakened by strange noises from Hall's back 
yard, and, arising, they beheld a stranger sight. The hogs were cavort- 
ing, acting for all the world like any drunken hogs, only they were more 
amusing than the other kind. In the morning, out they came from the 
tavern with a tin pail for a fresh supply. The writ was returned non est 
inventus. The barrel was empty and the hogs were helplessly drunk and 
sick, and had nothing to taper ofi" on. For awhile, the air was blue. In 


that house subsequently David Oaks kept hotel, greatly improving the 
building. Then came John Dunning and others. There Austin R. 
Gould first kept public house in Valparaiso. In 1845, Elizabeth Har- 
rison (from East Tennessee) built a tavern where the Central House now 
stands, the property now belonging to her descendants, and enlarged it 
in 1849. About 1855, A. R. Gould moved into it from the American 
Eagle, and kept it continuously till his death a few years ago, when he 
was succeeded by his estimable widow until the building was taken down 
in 1880. Mr. and Mrs. Gould became favorably known from New York 
to San Francisco. What a history is connected with every old hotel, and 
could the remains of that old house give up their secrets, what pathetic 
and amusing events they would disclose ! Here is one of the latter : 
Less than a year before his death, the late Hon. D. D. Pratt, of Logans- 
port, United States Senator and afterward Solicitor of Internal Revenue, 
told the writer the following : 

It was in 1860. He had been at the National Republican Conven- 
tion at Chicago which nominated Mr. Lincoln for the Presidency. Mr. 
Pratt was a man of gigantic frame and stentorian voice. For these rea- 
sons he was chosen Secretary of the convention. Wearied with the labors 
of that convention, he came to Valparaiso, where, on the following day, 
he was to be pitted against some of the ablest legal talent in the northern 
part of the State in a case involving an Indian title to a large quantity of 
land. When the usual hour arrived, needing rest, he retired to bed and 
had his own thoughts, etc., for company. He was restless. The hour of 
midnight came and passed. Just opposite the hotel was a warehouse or 
grocery and a great pile of salt barrels, and thither at that hour came to- 
gether all the cows of Valparaiso. There were white and black and 
brindled cows, dun-colored cows and spotted cows ; there were cows with 
bells and cows with bellows, and they were having a regular picnic there. 
In the Gould House all was still. Even Mrs. Gould had gone to bed to 
get her accustomed four hours of rest. The music made by the cows was 
a sweet lullaby to the denizens of Valparaiso. They were used to it, and 
couldn't get along without it. But with Mr. Pratt the case was entirely 
different. He could get along without the ding-donging of the cow bells 
or their plaintive lowing. He couldn't get along at all with it ; and it 
wouldn't stop. He got out of bed. He tried to " shoo" the cows away 
from his window, but they wouldn't "shoo." He came "down and out," 
sans hat, sans coat, sans trousers, and stood "in flowing robes of spotless 
white " on the sidewalk, under the bright moonlight, and tried to scare 
the "critters" away. They wouldn't scare. He hunted around for 
something to throw at them, but they stood their ground. At last he lost 
his temper, picked up a board and made a charge upon the enemy, and at 


last they went in dire dismay with tails erect and a clamor that exceeded 
all they had made before, and then the dogs awoke to a sense of their 
duty, and from Frank Hunt's to Sam Campbell's, and from Sager's to 
Artil Bartholomew's, there was a simultaneous baying and barking. It 
was, so to speak, as though a certain place had broken loose. Mr. Pratt 
thought it was time for him to disappear from the scene, which he pre- 
cipitately did. Hardly had he got into bed, when a cow bell was heard 
out at the salt barrels, and in a little time the cow carnival was renewed. 
But the exercise had been beneficial, the legal gentleman's nerves were 
quieted, and he was soon as oblivious to the noises as though he had been 
born and brought up in the place. He awoke in the morning refreshed, 
and, after a hot contest of several days, won his case. 

The Gould House has passed away, and the Central has taken its 
place. The Excelsior Block, on the southeast corner of Mechanic and 
Washington, was built in 1858 — originally designed for a hotel, but used 
for years for private families and a place where rooms were to let — and at 
length served its original design by becoming the Winchell House, and 
now, since 1875, the Merchants' Hotel, with the genial T. T. Maulsby 
as landlord. 

The first school taught in the township was on Section 7, by Miss 
Mary Hammond, and was in the summer of 1835 ; therefore, before the 
county or township organizations, and when Valparaiso was yet a wilder- 
ness. The first school taught in the village was, as we have seen, by 
Masters, and in 1837. The first lady teacher in the village was Miss 
Eldred, a sister of Mrs. Ruel Starr. The schoolhouse was a very diminu- 
tive building, which Dr. Ball had erected on the rear end of his lot, and 
which was subsequently moved to Lot 1, Block 18, and many will re- 
member having seen it long used as a woodhouse on Dr. Ball's residence 
lot, and fronting on Jefferson street. The public records, in regard to 
school matters, are in such condition that it is impossible by them to trace 
the history of the organization of the districts, the names of teachers, the 
wages, etc., and tradition in regard to such things is an uncertain quanti- 
ty. But it appears in the proceedings of the County Commissioners that 
on the 10th of June, 1811, they sold to the Trustees of School District 
No. 1, Lot 8 in Block 14, present residence of David Jones, for §5, for 
the purpose of securing the erection of a permanent school building in 
that district. The order was rescinded the following day, and another 
order passed to sell a lot equally eligible for the same purpose and on the 
same terms. Harvey E. Ball, of Lake County, and Sylvester W. Smith, 
were afterward teachers in that same little building on Dr. Ball's lot. 
Later, the Rev. James C. Brown opened a school for young ladies on Lot 
3, Block 19, which was taught by himself, by Rev. W. M. Blackburn, 


and lastly by S. L. Bartholomew. In 1849, the County Seminary was 
built on Jefferson street and Monroe, north side, Outlot No. 1. Ashley 
L. Peirce once taught school there. In 1857, through some carelessness, 
it was burned to the ground. The following year, Ashley L. Peirce 
opened a school with Rev. Horace Foot as Assistant, nearly opposite the 
present residence of A. V. Bartholomew. In 1859, the Methodists began 
the erection of the Valparaiso Male and Female College, the main build- 
ing of the present Normal School. The first term of the college was 
opened September 21, 1859, under the Presidency of Rev. C. N. Sims, 
since widely known as an eloquent preacher of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The attendance of students the first j^ear was 157. Other 
teachers in the school were F. D. Carley, Miss Moore, Mrs. Loomis and 
Mrs. Hall. The school was continued with a fine patronage, under sev- 
eral presidents. In 1867, the east wing of the building was erected. 
The building, however, was a little too far froai the center of population 
to attract all the local patronage which it might otherwise have enjoyed, 
and when the public schools were opened in the present large building, it 
w^as deemed inexpedient to continue the V. M. & F. C, but it had, in the 
twelve years of its active existence, done a good work. Shortly after the 
inception of this enterprise, the Presbyterians of the place organized the 
Valparaiso Collegiate Institute, purchased the grounds now pertaining to 
the public school buildings, and on the 16th of April, 1861, opened the 
school with Rev. S. C. Logan, Principal, and H. A. Newell, Assistant. 
As soon as the institute building was finished, the school was moved into 
it, and continued until the sale of the buildings and grounds to the city. 
In the year 1864, Benjamin Wilcox became connected with it as princi- 
pal. James McFetrich and Miss Sophie B. Loring were assistants. These 
all remained in the school while it continued. After the sale of the prop- 
erty to the city, Mr. Wilcox went to South Bend, where he became 
Principal of the High School, and continued in that relation till his death, 
which occurred some years after. He was a teacher of long experience, 
and has never been excelled by any in the place. The necessity for the 
erection of the present public school buildings was manifest and pressing. 
The only buildings in the place for that purpose were four small school- 
houses, capable of accommodating in the aggregate not more than 240 
pupils. On two occasions, it became almost a matter of necessity on the 
part of the Trustees to avail themselves of the room afforded by the Ro- 
man Catholic, Methodist and Presbyterian school buildings by hiring the 
teachers of those schools ; so that while they went on without any change 
of administration or influence, they were supported out of the public 
school fund. Technically, perhaps, this was done according to law, but 
in violation of its spirit. The schools under the present graded system 


were organized in 1871, with an enrollment of about 400. This included 
a number of German children, who were afterward taken out and sent to 
the Lutheran school. For the school year of 1878 and 1879, the total 
enrollment was 720, since which time there has been but little increase in 
the attendance. In 1881 and 1882, the enrollment reached 742, but 
owing to the prevalence of epidemics the attendance maintained was only 
466. Number of teachers the first year, 10 ; present number, 15. A 
curious phenomenon occurred in connection with this graded school, 
namely, the accumulation of a surplus tuition fund, which, in the space 
of three years, amounted to about ^15,000, and that without the levying 
of any special tuition tax. Inquiry into the cause of so strange an accu- 
mulation of funds led to the conclusion that the enumerator had probably, 
by some oversight, taken the names of the children from abroad, who 
were attending the normal school. It is now understood that such mis- 
takes will be carefully guarded against hereafter, the custody of so much 
money causing no little perplexity to the Board. Rev. M. O'Reilly has 
also greatly encouraged the education of the Roman Catholic children, 
and has been very successful in building up schools in connection with 
his church. St. Paul's Academy and the school under the care of the 
Sisters of Providence are each attracting an annually increasing number 
of students. The buildings are favorably located on the southeast corner 
of Outlot No. 20. 

The German Lutherans have also given attention to the education of 
their children, as will elsewhere appear. 

The Normal School deserves a more extended mention, not only be- 
cause of its extent, but on account of its influence upon the prosperity of 
Valparaiso and the surrounding country. It was established by Mr. H. 
B. Brown, who was born at Mount Vernon, Ohio, and attended 
the common schools, where his parents resided, until he was fifteen years 
of age, and then successively more advanced schools at Fremont and 
Delaware until he was twenty-one years of age, the winter months being 
spent in teaching. He afterward spent two years in attendance on the 
school at Lebanon, Ohio. After leaving Lebanon, he spent two years as 
a teacher in the North Western Normal School at Republic, Ohio. In 
June, 1873, having heard of the vacant buildings of the V. M. & F. C, 
at Valparaiso, he conceived the idea of starting a school of his own, and 
having made arrangements for the occupancy of the buildings, he opened 
his school on the 16th of September of that year with thirty-five students 
in attendance, thirteen of whom had come with him from Ohio. Mr. 
Brown alone had any idea of the vast results that were to follow his 
taking that step, and they have even exceeded his own great expectations, 
but in his mind he had conceived the plan upon which he has ever since 




























carried forward his undertaking. When as yet the number in attendance 
was no more than 200, ho informed the writer of his expectation that in a 
few years the number would reach 1,000, and would probably not go be- 
yond that. The first teachers were H. B. Brown, Miss Mantie E. 
Baldwin, M. E. Bogarte, B. F. Perrine and Ida Hutchison. Mr. Per- 
rine had charge of the boarding department. The plan of Mr. Brown 
seems to have comprehended these things : 1. By reducing expenses of 
all kinds — tuition, board, room rent, fuel, books, etc., to the lowest pos- 
sible figure, to make an education possible to thousands who otherwise 
would be practically debarred from it for want of means. 2. By hard 
work on his own part and that of his teachers to impart to the instruc- 
tion given that quality which would secure for the school a good reputa- 
tion, and at the same time reduce the number of salaries. There have 
been times when nearly all the teachers were engaged with their classes 
ten hours daily. It was more economical to pay one teacher 81,500 per 
annum for teaching ten hours, than it would have been to pay three 
teachers $800 each for teaching three hours. 3. By the free investment 
of money in advertising to let everybody who would be likely to attend 
school know that there was a school here and the advantages it offered. 
His plan was not to depend upon newspaper advertising alone, but 
especially upon sending circulars direct to such persons as were engaged 
in teaching in the common schools. This was done at very great ex- 
pense, but the result has shown that the money was wisely invested. 4. 
By requiring hard work on the part of the students to accomplish the 
greatest amount in the shortest time. 5. To afford facilities by which 
young men and women could receive a practical training for various de- 
partments of business. With this in view, special attention has been 
given to the classes for training teachers, to the commercial department, 
and to instruction in telegraphy, phonography and penmanship. 6. To 
govern the school by making it a working school. Students have no 
time for hazing who must put in six or eight hours a day in hard study, 
besides their recitations, or fall irretrievably behind. There has never 
been a rebellion in the school, though Mr. Brown is an autocrat. It 
should also be mentioned that arrangements are such that students can 
advantageously enter at any time and fall right to work like the hands in 
a factory, and it is also understood to be their privilege to leave at any 
time when their needs may require it to engage in teaching or other em- 
ployments. From these ideas, energetically carried out, there has grown 
up a school which has not only attracted students from the most distant 
parts of the country, but has set other educators to inquiring into the 
secret of its remarkable success. The number of students went up by 
hundreds every year, until it became a matter of the utmost diflSculty to 



find room for them in the town. Many of the most wealthy citizens for 
a time incommoded themselves and opened their homes for the reception 
of students that none might be turned away, and the best feeling has 
always prevailed between the students and the citizens. The facilities 
for rooming and boarding students is now such that it is safe to say that 
if 2,500 should present themselves at once, it would be much easier 
to provide for them than it was to provide for 800 a few years ago. 
The school is a private enterprise, and not under the patronage of the 
State, nor of any denomination. Until 1880, it was the sole property of 
Mr. Brown, since which time Prof. 0. P. Kinsey has been jointly inter- 
ested with him in it. There was a time when Mr. Brown suffered severe 
financial embarrassment. The increasing attendance made necessary a 
very large outlay for the erection of buildings and the purchase of appa- 
ratus, in addition to the constant, heavy drain of the system of advertising 
adopted. At that time, according to the provisions of the State law, he 
received aid from the county to the amount of $10,000, and the city 
bought from him the college buildings for $12,000, giving him the privi- 
lege of redeeming the same in ten years without interest. Never was 
money more profitably invested by the county or city. It would be 
impossible to estimate the benefit which the college has been to the city 
and surrounding country in a pecuniary point of view. To it the present 
prosperity of Valparaiso is largely due. The erection of buildings on 
college hill has given constant employment to a large number of workmen, 
and their furnishing has afforded a large trade to dealers in furniture, 
hardware, carpets, etc. The patronage of the grocers, bakers and meat 
markets has been vastly increased by the boarding houses on the hill. 
The average number of students has been 800 per term since the beginning, 
and they spend in the place an average of $50 per term, or at the rate of 
$200,000 per annum, which, for the nine years, would foot up a grand 
total of $1,800,000. It is estimated that not less than 200 buildings 
have been erected in consequence of the location of the college here, the 
aggregate value of which is very large. Nor has the college been less a 
source of prosperity to the surrounding country. The demand for eggs, 
meats, butter, vegetables, wood, etc., has been such that much of the 
time the market has been bare, and the prices have always kept up to a 
rate highly advantageous to the producers. In addition to the teachers 
mentioned, there have been W. A. Yohn, Lillian Bogarte, Annie McAlilly, 
Lodema E. Ward, C. I. Ingerson, J. W. Holcombe, G. Bloch, C. K. 
Bitters, C. W. Boucher, Lizzie Boucher, H. N. Carver, C. L. Gregory, 
A. A. Southworth, Mrs. A. A. Southworth, R. A. Heritage, 0. P. Kin- 
sey, Sarah Kinsey, H. A. Gillett, Mark L. De Motte, Will F. Strong, 
G. A. Dodge, G. L. Durand, M. G. Kimmel, U. J. Hoffman, W. J. 


Bell, E. K. Isaacs, Frank Nihart. The college buildings are now valued 
at $75,000. An annual sura is appropriated from the profits of the insti- 
tution for a library and reading room for the use of the students. Mr. 
Brown has no wife as yet except the college; but it is understood that 
several young ladies would be Avilling to accept the vacant situation if an 
offer were made them. The enrollment for the spring term in 1880 was 
2,143 students. 

In Centre Township there are, in addition to the schools in Valparaiso, 
nine districts. The amount paid teachers in these schools in the year 
1860-61, was $546.84 ; for expenses including repairs, $163.96 ; for the 
year ending September, 1881, the tuition fund was $1,825 ; special school, 
$871.36. In each of these districts, school is kept nine months in the 
year ; wages to teachers, $25 per month for the spring and fall terms, 
and $85 for winter. 

From the records in the Clerk's office, it appears that marriages were 
solemnized in the county by not less than four ministers of the Gospel 
during the year 1836. It has been generally said that the Rev. Alpheus 
French, a Baptist minister, preached the first sermon in Valparaiso. 
But the writer has been informed, by one who should know, that, as early 
as 1835 or 1836, a Baptist Church was organized in the township by the 
Rev. Asahel Neal, of which Benjamin Saylor and wife and a Mr. Bill- 
ings and wife were members ; and further, that this organization, and 
perhaps another, lapsed before the present organization of the Baptist 
Church was effected. It is claimed for Mr. Neal that he also preached 
the first sermon in Valparaiso, the service being held in the house of 
William Eaton. Two Methodist ministers were in the county in 1836, 
Rev. Cyrus Spurlock, County Recorder and a resident of Portersville, 
and Rev. Stephen Jones. Rev. W. K. Talbott, a Presbyterian, was 
also a resident of Centre Township. The Rev. Alpheus French was 
well advanced in years when he came to this county. He was the father 
of Mrs. Hatch, and grandfather of Mrs. Orson Starr, of this place. 
He was born in 1769 or 1770, and lived to be more than ninety. The 
stone that marks his grave may be seen on the east side of the carriage- 
way in the old cemetery. 

The First Baptist Church was organized June 10, 1837. Constituent 
members, John Bartholomew, Drusilla Bartholomew, Edmond Billings, 
James Witham, John Robinson, Rebecca Witham, Charity Billings, 
Warner Pierce, Adelia Pierce and three others. First Deacons — John 
Robinson and John Bartholomew. First Clerk — Jacob C. White. 
Trustees — Warren Pierce and James Witham. The name was changred 
to First Baptist Church of Valparaiso, February 8, 1840. First Pastor 
— Elder French. Served five years. Second Pastor — H. S. Orton. 


Third Pastor — W. T. Bly, chosen in 1844, and served three years. Elder 
A, Nicheron succeeded Elder Bly, and served the church five years. Dur- 
inor his ministry the former church was built at a cost of §2,200. It was 
dedicated March 17, 1853. Elder Harry Smith became Pastor in 1854, 
and continued six years. Elder G. T. Brayton succeeded Elder Smith 
in the pastorate from March 11, 1860, to March 11, 1861. Elder J. D. 
Coe succeeded Elder Brayton from May 12, 1861, to May 12, 1862, one 
year ; Elder I. M. Maxwell, from November 8, 1862, to July 17, 1864, 
one year and eight months ; Elder M. T. Lamb, from 1864 to 1865, about 
one year; Elder R. H. Tozer, December 9, 1865, to February 18, 1866, 
three months ; M. T. Lamb, from 1866, to July 13, 1867, about one year ; 
Elder Otis Saxton, from October 12, 1867, to October 1, 1868; Elder 
Harper, from October 10, 1868, to about May, 1860 ; Elder W. A. Cap- 
linger, from 1870 to August 10, 1872, two years and six months ; Elder 
W. A. Clark, from April 1, 1872, to December 1, 1864, one year and 
nine months ; from December 1, 1874, to October 1, 1875, the church 
was without a pastor ; Elder E. S. Riley entered upon his pastorate Octo- 
ber 1, 1875, and is still the pastor; Elder Harry Smith's pastorate was 
very prosperous. Under the ministry of Elder Maxwell, the church was 
prosperous. During this time the church purchased a bell, was free from 
debt, and increased in membership. During Elder M. T. Lamb's minis- 
try, fifty were added to the membership. During W. A. Clark's pasto- 
rate the parsonage was built at an expense, with the chapel, of 

During the present pastorate, which commenced October 1, 1875, 193 
have been added to the church, and the present membership is 202. Dur- 
ing this time, the present bell was purchased at a cost of ^175, and the 
present house has been built at a cost of §7,000. The value of the 
present church property is about §12,000. At this time, the church's 
indebtedness is about §1,000, with a reliable subscription, which is now 
being collected, which equals this amount. By the 5th of October, at 
the annual meeting, it is expected to have the larger part of this collected. 
The church has enjoyed great harmony in its work during the entire 
time of the present pastorate, and closes the seventh year with brighter 
prospects than at any former period of its history. 

From 1835 to 1844, the territory of Porter and Lake Counties was 
included in one pastoral charge, called first Deep River Mission, then 
Kankakee Mission, and afterward Valparaiso Circuit. It was served by 
Revs. Richard Hargrave, Aaron Wood, William H, Goode, Charles M. 
Holliday, John Daniel and John L. Smith, Presiding Elders ; and Ste- 
phen Jones, Jacob Colclazer, Hawley B. Beers, Samuel K. Young, Will- 
iam J. Forbes, Isaac M. Stagg, William F. Wheeler, Wade Posey and 


Warren Griffith as pastors. In the fall of 1844, Lake County was set 
off into a new charge, and Valparaiso Circuit was confined to Porter 
County, and remained so until the fall of 1852, when Valparaiso was set 
off as a separate pastoral charge. During this time it was served by C. 
M. Ilolliday, J. Daniel and J. L. Smith as Presiding Elders, and J. 
Cozad, T. C. Hackney, S. T. Cooper, William Palmer, W. G. Stonix, 
J. G. D. Pettijohn, L. B. Kent, Franklin Taylor, David Dunham, Abram 
Cary and Samuel Godfrey, as pastors. 

The preaching places were Valparaiso, Salt Creek or Gosset's Chapel, 
Twenty-mile Grove, Indian Town (now Hebron), Melvin's, Lee's, White's 
and Pennock's. The appointments increased until, when the station was 
set off, they numbered fourteen, namely, Valparaiso, Morgan Prairie, 
Kankakee, Ohio, Hanna's Mill, City West, Jackson Centre, Griffith's 
Chapel, Horse Prairie, Hebron, Union Chapel, Twenty-Mile Grove, Salt 
Creek and Louis Pennocks'. In 1852, the station was organized, J. L. 
Smith, Presiding Elder, and David Crawford, pastor, who continued two 
years. Since the organization of the station, the following Presiding 
Elders have served the district, sometimes called La Porte, and at other 
times Valparaiso District : J. L. Smith, W. Graham, B. Winans, James 
Johnson, S. T. Cooper, W. Pt. Mikels, R. D. Utter and F. M. Pavey. 
The pastors have been D. Crawford, two years; A. Fellows, one; W. 
Hamilton, one ; G. W. Stafford, two ; S. T. Cooper, two ; A. Gurney, 
one ; B. W. Smith, one ; C. A. Brooke, one ; T. S. Webb, three ; N. 
Green, two ; G. M. Boyd, three ; L C. Buckels, three ; T. Meredith, 
two ; W. Graham, two ; N. L. Brakeman, three (he dying in the middle 
of his third year, and W. B. Stuts filled out the time) ; and G. M. Boyd, 
now in his second year. The first class in the city was organized in 1840, 
by W. J. Forbes, now a superannuate, and living here respected and loved 
as a Christian minister by all his neighbors. The only remaining mem- 
ber of that class is Mrs. Xenia Salyer, now advanced in years, but rich 
in faith and zealous in good works. The house of worship was commenced 
in 1848, under the pastorate of W. G. Stonix, and finished under the 
labors of J. G. D. Pettijohn, in 1849. 

The same year a parsonage was purchased for §475, on the corner of 
Franklin and Monroe streets, but was after four years sold, and a new 
one erected in the rear of the lot on which the church now stands, at a 
cost of §900. Both church and parsonage have been enlarged and other- 
wise improved, and the charge is now one of the most desirable ones in 
the conference. From the commencement the members and congregation 
have done their full share in the benevolent work of the church, compared 
with other churches of e^^ual strength financially, besides meeting their 
own expenses, which may be safely estimated for the last thirty years 


as follows : Salaries, ^21,000 ; incidentals, $4,000 ; benevolent claims, 
$4,000; church building, §4,500; parsonage and repairs, $2,500; 
Sunday school expenses, $2,500 ; add to this several thousand dollars 
donated to the college building now occupied by the Normal College. 
The number of the membership is now 245, and 20 probationers. 

Previous to the winter of 1839-40, there had probably been several 
sermons by Presbyterian ministers in the county, and possibly in this 
township. But on the 4th day of December, 1839, Rev. James C. 
Brown, then a young man, and only a licentiate, began a ministry which 
lasted continuously for more than twenty years, by preaching a sermon 
in the second story of the court house, the text being Luke, x, 42. It 
was about Martha and Mary. Having in the meantime been ordained to 
the ministry, he in company with Rev. W. K. Marshall, of La Porte, 
organized the Presbyterian Church of Valparaiso, July 3, 1840, with 
ten members, viz.: James Blair, Isabel Blair and Elizabeth Martin, 
their daughter, Nancy Buel, Elizabeth Marshall, Bathsheba E. Hamell, 
Abby Salisbury, Mary E. Brown, Henry Battan and M. B. Crosby. 
James Blair and M. B. Crosby were elected Elders. Judge Blair has 
been dead many years. Mr. Crosby has been an active Elder in the 
church since the day of its organization, now more than forty years. 
Jeremiah Hamell was elected Trustee. In the fall or winter following, 
the Sabbath school was organized by Mrs. Brown, and a brother of the 
pastor, Hugh A. Brown. It was a union school of eighteen pupils, and 
embraced every child of suitable age in the neighborhood. The services 
were held in the court house till the spring of 1841. Then a house was 
hired for the purpose on the southeast corner of Lot 3, Block 19, where 
the church worshiped two years. In 1842, they purchased Lot 7, Block 
13, but the Methodists having purchased the adjoining lot six months 
later and declining to make any other choice, it was deemed best to re- 
linquish that, and a church was erected on the lot where Prof. Boucher's 
residence now is. The building was 35x45, and cost $750 in money, 
and a large amount of labor by pastor and people thrown in. It 
was not till 1849 that the pews and bell were furnished, though it was 
occupied from 1844. Numerous revivals attended the ministry of Dr. 
Brown, the most notable occurring in 1847 and 1854, Mr. Avery an 
evangelist assisting. Dr. Brown was a man of such piety, zeal, activity 
and self-denial as to make an impression never to be forgotten by those 
who knew him. His character may be judged from the fact that when 
the church was to be built, he shouldered his ax and went out to Barthol- 
omew's woods with the rest of the people to cut and hew the timbers, and 
during the Avhole of his ministry, he not only taught in the Sabbath 
school and preached in Valparaiso morning and evening, but preached in 


the afternoon at Tassinong, Salem, or Twenty-Mile Prairie. In 1857, 
the church building was moved to its present location on Lot 3, Block 
18, the lot having been deeded to the church by Dr. Brown, and at the 
same time, twenty-five feet were added to its length, making it 35x70. 
Additions have since been made in the rear of a lecture-room, 24x31 
feet, and of an infant-class room, 18x24 feet. At present, a subscrip- 
tion is in circulation for the building of a new church, and more than 
$8,000 has been pledged for the purpose. In 1867, the Lot 1, Block 4, 
with the dwelling on it was purchased for §2,500, to be used as a parson- 
age, and has since been improved. Dr. Brown closed his pastoral con- 
nection with the church September 4, 1860. In 1862, he was appointed 
Chaplain of the Forty-eighth Regiment Indiana Volunteers, and on the 
14th of July of that year died in the hospital at Paducah, Ky. He 
had received during his twenty years ministry here and at Crown Point, 
Salem, Tassinong and Twenty-Mile Prairie, 475 members. He w^as 
succeeded as pastor by Rev. S. C. Logan, now of Scranton, Penn., Oc- 
tober 14, 1860. His pastorate lasted through the trying scenes of the 
war. In July, 1865, he resigned. He was an able minister of the 
Word. He was succeeded on the 17th of December of that year by 
Robert Beer, the present pastor, whose ministry has lasted continuously 
from that time. During the pastorate of Dr. Logan, there were 134 
additions to the church. From the beginning, much attention was given 
to Sunday school work. This department of labor was carried on most 
effectively under the superintendency of Hon. H. A. Gillett, which 
lasted from 1864 to 1877. From its organization to April 1, 1882, 
there have been received into the church a total membership on examina- 
tion and by letter of 1,068. Of these, 459 have been received during 
the pastorate of Mr. Beer. Number of communicants at last annual report, 
236. To April 1, 1882, the total amount raised for congregational pur- 
poses was §53,459. There are no reports of amounts paid for congrega- 
tional purposes for the first ten years. These would doubtless increase the 
total to more than §58,000. The benevolent contributions of the church 
have been as follows : Home Missions, §1,916; Foreign Missions, §4,292 ; 
Education, §6,311; Publication, §300 ; Church erection, §688; Ministerial 
relief, §413 ; Freedmen, §329 ; Miscellaneous, §4,311. Total benevolent, 
$18,560. Add Congregational, §58,000, and the grand total is §76,560. 
Missionary societies have been organized as follows : Women's Foreign 
Mission Aid Society, 1871 ; Children's Mission Band, 1874 ; Women's 
Home Missionary Society, 1878. 

Any attempt to incorporate even a brief outline of the history of the 
Catholic Church in Porter, in a general history of the county, must be 
largely defective. The writer, therefore, confines himself to Valparaiso 


and those places at any time depending on it for Catholic services. St. 
Paul's Church, Valparaiso, received its name through Rev. Father Gillen, 
C. S. C, in honor of the great apostle of the Gentiles. The Holy Sac- 
rifice of mass was first offered in or about Valparaiso, according to the 
most probable statements, very close to the center of the northwest quar- 
ter of Section 15, Township 35, near where the residence of Mr. P. T. 
Clifford now stands. The name of the priest is not remembered. For 
several years after, a few Catholics were found to be in Valparaiso. They 
were occasionally attended by the priests of the society of the Holy 
Cross, Notre Dame, Ind. Amongst the names of clergymen still re- 
membered by older residents, are those of Father Curley, C. S. C, Father 
Cointet, C. S. C, Father Kilroy, C. S. C, and Father Paul Gillen, C. S. C. 
Through Father Paul, as the people called him, St. Paul's Church build- 
ing was begun and partially erected. 

The " groves were God's first temples," and they, too. served for the 
first Catholic Church near Valparaiso. The first class of children pre- 
pared for Holy Communion was instructed by Father Paul, under the 
large oak trees then standing on what is now Emmettsburg. Some of the 
members of that class still reside in Valparaiso. 

When the State of Indiana was divided by cutting off the diocese of 
Fort Wayne from that of Vincennes, Valparaiso naturally fell in the 
diocese of Fort Wayne. 

Immediately the newly appointed Bishop of Fort Wayne, Right Rev. 
J. H. Luers, D. D., attempted to locate a resident pastor in Valparaiso. 
We are told that the first resident pastor was Rev. Father Clarke, who 
remained here but a few days. After him came Rev. George Hamilton, 
who was one of the ablest priests ever in this diocese. He remained but 
a short time ; Valparaiso was then unable to afford board and lodging to a 
resident pastor. A large number of Catholics in and about the place, 
about this time, were composed of that thoughtless, wild class of persons 
who follow public works. Others, more prudent and wise, remained, pur- 
chased lands, and thus became the founders of what will yet be one of 
the best Catholic conorres-ations in the State. 

We next hear of Father John Force, who died here. He was a man 
of rare literary ability, and an able preacher, but did not live long enough 
to organize a congregation ; after him came Rev. A. Botti. This priest 
was a man of great learning, but totally unfit to be a pastor. The nat- 
ural consequences were troubles upon troubles. Unfortunately the records 
of the Porter County Circuit Court show more of the history of the 
church during his administration than the records of the church. Father 
Botti was constantly in "hot water " with his people, and at length with 
his bishop. We are glad to learn that in time he saw his mistakes. He 


secured the bishop's pardon, and died, we hope a peaceful death, in the 
Sisters' Hospital in Fort Wayne. 

After Father Botti, the present pastor, Rev. M. O'Reilly, was sent 
here immediataly from college, after his ordination to the priesthood. For 
twenty years he has presided over the constantly growing congregation 
of Saint Paul's ; with his advent here the organized congregation of 
Saint Paul's properly begins. When Father O'Reilly came to Valparaiso, 
he found the affliirs of the Catholic Church in the worst state possible — 
the church, poor as it was, closed under an injunction ; law suits pend- 
ing on every hand ; debts unlimited to be paid ; a bitter division of 
sentiment amongst the members of the congregation ; no pastoral resi- 
dence ; no school for the youth. In a word, nothing that could give the 
least encouragement toward the important work of organizing a congre- 

However, in the face of all these difficulties he went to work. He 
walked through the deep snows of January, 1863, from house to house, 
and told the people as far as he could find them, that he was here to be 
their resident priest, and that he was determined to stay. He rented 
" Hughart's Hall," now the upper story of Wilson's hardware store, for 
^2 per Sunday. Here he celebrated mass on an extemporized altar, 
preached and taught the few children he could gather together. For 
mass on week days he went from house to house, as people who knew his 
wants might invite him. After a very unpleasant series of law-suits, on 
Easter Sunday, 1863, he first secured the use of the old church. 

Before this building was ever finished, it was allowed to run into 
partial decay. The first step was to repair it, so that it could be used. 
As soon as the church was rendered habitable, the pastor at once opened 
a day school in it. This was the beginning of the present St. Paul's 
Schools, which from that time to the present were never closed one single 
day of the scholastic year. As soon as Father O'Reilly saw the possi- 
bility of establishing a congregation, he quietly purchased an acre of land 
in Outlot No. 20, where he determined to erect all future buildings 
for the use of the congregation. In due time, he erected St. Paul's 
School without any encouragement, as he received direct donations for 
that purpose only the small sum of ^35. The building cost at that time 
about $8,000, as it was built during the time of the war of the rebellion, 
when gold carried its highest premium. The school was immediately 
opened with three teachers. During this time, Father O'Reilly lived in 
difierent rented houses, with great inconvenience, often quite far from the 
church and schools. Pie now determined to erect a pastoral residence. 
This was done with much labor on his part, but with far more assistance 
from the congregation. To continue the schools with secular teachers, 


as a larger number were required, was found to be very expensive, so he 
took steps to secure the services of a religious order of teachers, who could 
not only serve the congregation at less expense, but also teach music, 
drawing, painting and all styles of needlework. To this end, he secured 
the Sisters of Providence ; but first he was obliged to provide a dwelling 
house for them. This was done with very liberal assistance on the part of the 
congregation. The Sisters opened school on the first Monday of September, 
1872. As the schools increased, further improvements were required. A 
music hall was soon erected. The school is now conducted in. four depart- 
ments and five divisions, requiring the services of six teachers. The pupils 
number about 250. No school in Porter County has sent out a larger 
number of good teachers, for its number of pupils enrolled, than St. Paul's. 
Besides the buildings erected, a large parish bell and a very fine pipe 
organ have been secured. During the time of Father O'Reilly's pastorate, 
he has baptized about 1,700 persons in his congregation. The total num- 
ber of communions administered in St. Paul's Church is about 5,500 per 
annum. The regular Easter communions are about 700, which indicates 
that the Catholic population of the congregation is about 2,100 souls. 

The congregation is composed of several nationalities — Irish, Amer- 
icans, German, French, English and Polanders. All live in harmony, 
and their children are educated together in St. Paul's Schools. Steps 
were begun in 1880 to erect a new church. The plans already approved 
show that the church Avill be Gothic, 153 feet long, ninety-five feet tran- 
sept and sixty-five feet nave, with a steeple 198 feet high. The building 
to be of hard brick trimmed with cut stone. In a few years, this beauti- 
ful building will be completed, and be an ornament to Valparaiso. 

St. Paul's cemetery, purchased from the city of Valparaiso in 1872, 
and consecrated by the present Bishop of Fort Wayne, Rt. Rev. J. 
Dwenger, D. D., in the same year, is the best laid out and handsomest 
cemetery in the county. The following places received the services of 
the pastors of St. Paul's, chiefly in the beginning of their organization as 
congregations, i. e., Plymouth, Chesterton, Hobart, Pierceton, La 
Crosse, Lake Station, Walkerton, Otis, Bourbon and Hebron. These 
places have now churches. Besides, several small stations have been 
at some time attended from here — such as Morgan, Cassello, Marshall 
Grove, Wheeler, ToUestone, Clarke Station and Horse Prairie. Regular 
services have been discontinued at present in these places. At present, 
the following places are attended from Valparaiso, i. e., Westville, Kouts' 
Station, Wanatah, Wellsboro, Hanna Station, Whiting, Edgmore, and 
such other places wherein one or more Catholic families may be found. 

The organized societies of the congregation are : The Altar Ladies' 
Society, eighty members ; Young Ladies' Sodality, 125 members ; Young 


Men's Sodality, fifty members ; Holy Angel's Society, sixty members, 
and Confirmation Sodality, 160 members. The secular societies are : 
The Columbian Society, thirty members, and St. Paul's Cornet Band, 
fifteen members. 

The Christian Church was permanently organized in Valparaiso in 
1847, by Peter T. Russell, with about eight members, although there 
was preaching before by Lewis Comer and others, but no organization. 
Since that time, the church continued to meet on every Lord's Day, with 
few exceptions. The meetings, for a time, were held in private or hired 
rooms, sometimes in the court house, and several years in the first brick 
schoolhouse built in the town, purchased by one of the brethren, and 
used for that purpose till it became unfit. Then the church rented a 
house built by the Germans, and occupied it about two years, and in 
1874 built the brick house which the church now occupies. The house 
and lot cost $3,200. The preachers have been P. T. Russell, Lewis 
Comer, Charles Blackman, W. W. Jones, W. Selmser, Lemuel Shortridge, 
R, C. Johnston, W. R. Lowe, I. H. Edwards, H. B. Davis and others. 
The church now numbers 120 members. 

In the year 1852, the first Germans settled at Valparaiso. Their 
number increased rapidly to 1856, until in about 1865 there were about 
fifty families of Germans in and around Valparaiso, the most of whom 
were Lutherans. In 1862, Mr. W. Jahn came from Holstein, and was 
engaged by the Germans as their pastor. A division occurred in the 
congregation, a number going to the Reformed Church, but a respectable 
congregation remained Lutheran, and employed Rev. J. P. Beyer pastor 
to fully organize the church. Beyer came on, and after four months (dur- 
ing which time he preached here, and also, several times, Rev. Tramm, 
from La Porte) — the Lutheran cono-regration sent a call to Rev. C. 
Meyer, in Bainbridge, Mich. Having accepted the call, Rev. Meyer 
arrived in November, 1864. Until 1865, the services were held in a 
rented schoolhouse. Then a frame building was erected on the north- 
west corner of Pink and Academy streets, to be used for services and 
school also. In 1872, after Rev. Meyer had resigned. Rev. W. J. B. 
Lange, at that time in Defiance, Ohio, received a call, and arrived in 
August, 1872, and resides with the congregation up to the present time. 
It is customary with the Synod of Missouri, Ohio and other States, 
to which both the before-named ministers belong, to pay special attention 
to parochial schools in every congregation. In conformity with this. 
Rev. C. Meyer started a school soon after his arrival, of which he was 
the teacher himself for three years. By that time, Mr. C. Peters, who 
had finished his studies in the Teachers' Seminary, at Addison, 111., took 
charge of the school, which numbers at present 130 scholars. As the 


number of members increased every year, and the school enlarged also, 
the congregation found it necessary to provide themselves with more room 
and convenience in their church, so they intended to buy a lot and build 
a new church, when an offer was made to them to buy the Unitarian 
Church, which was to be sold on Sheriff's sale. This was done in 1880, 
so they have a pleasantly situated, newly refitted church for services only, 
while the former frame church is exclusively used for a schoolhouse. 
Last year the congregation also bought the dwelling house of Mrs. Ur- 
bahns for their minister, which is on the same lot with the church. At 
present the congregation numbers about eighty families which are mem- 
bers, and about fifty more as guests. 

At the present time, there is no organization of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the township or county, but on the 2d of June, 1861, 
Bishop Upfold was present at the organization of a church, services 
having been held every other Sabbath for some time previous. The name 
of the organization was the " Church of the Holy Communion." The 
membership was small, and during the changes caused by the war and 
the visitations of death, it soon became extinct. Messrs. Febles and 
Thompson, lawyers, with their wives, were among the members. Subse- 
quently, as appears from the history of the Lutheran Church, elsewhere 
given, an effort was made to organize a German Episcopal Church. This 
effort was subsequently continued as late as 1865-66, but on the occasion 
of a visit from Assistant Bishop Talbott, in the winter of 1866-67, for the 
purpose of organizing the church, he deemed it not advisable to do so. 

For a short time, there was also a German Reformed Church, whose 
services were held in the building now owned and occupied by the Lu- 
therans, but they discontinued their efforts about 1871, and all the Ger- 
mans who attend church are now connected with the Lutheran organiza- 
tion, except such as are found in the German Methodists, an organization 
which has existed here for more than twenty years, and which has a com- 
modious church building and a good parsonage. 

The Unitarians formed an organization in 1872, and bought the 
building of the Reformed Church. They have been ministered to by 
Revs. Powell, Carson Parker and others ; but at present are not active, 
and the church building is owned by the Lutherans. 

There is also a Reformed Mennonite Church, which was organized in 
1850. Ten years ago or more, they purchased one of the brick school- 
houses owned by the city and located in Powell's Addition, where services 
are held every other Sabbath, and the Lord's Supper is administered 
twice a year. Their present membership is about thirty. They have no 
resident pastor. 

Since 1878, there has been an assembly calling themselves Believers, 


or Brethren, and commonly known as Plymouth Brethren, who hold 
services every Sabbath morning and evening, their meetings being held 
at present in a room in the third story of the store building owned by 
S. S. Skinner, on Main street. 

It is forty-eight years since the history of the township under its white 
inhabitants began. Since that time there has been advance all over the 
Christian world. It would be impossible to note these as they have 
taken place, in the space allotted. The majority of the original settlers 
are now in their graves, and the remainder are hastening on to that end. 
Many that have been born here since 1835, liave grown up through boy- 
hood and maidenhood to be the staid members of society. These joyous 
days of youth were passed here before the day of railroads and telephones. 
But they enjoyed life nevertheless. Some amusing tales are told, by 
those who participated in them, of merry doings that were transacted by 
some who are not yet too grave to enjoy a good laugh at the practical 
jokes then played upon them. Along time ago Valparaiso was frequent- 
ly visited by an apostle of phrenology, a very worthy man, and, like all 
phrenologists, he was of imperturbable good nature and boundless self- 
complacency. On one occasion he said, "Gentlemen, there have been 
only three great heads in America." " Whose were they ?" " One was 
Benjamin Franklin, and the second was Daniel Webster." " And whose 
was the third ?" " Gentlemen " (with a bow) "modesty forbids me to 
say." Once the boys arranged with him to give a lecture on phrenology in 
the old brick schoolhouse that stood just east of Mrs. Hamell's residence. 
The price of admittance was one shilling. Mexican shillings, well worn, 
were then in circulation. A tinner was kept busy coining shillings that 
afternoon. In the evening the Professor was at the door, hat in hand, to take 
in the money. The house would scarcely hold the audience. At length 
the Professor came to the desk, turned over the hat and took a look at his 
receipts. He picked up one shilling and looked at it and felt it, and then 
another and another. He surveyed the pile, and then exclaimed, " Gen- 
tlemen, close that door ! There's been a fraud committed here !" In a 
quarter of a minute the Professor was alone with his tin shillings to sigh 
over " man's inhumanity to man." Another time he was to lecture at 
Malone's Schoolhouse, and the boys were in force with a supply of cigars. 
He was soon almost invisible amid the cloud of smoke, and being an anti- 
tobacconist he broke for the door, for once almost losing his urbanity. 
We have among us a venerable banker and capitalist, who, by " accom- 
modating " his friends and building houses to rent, has made a kind of 
local Astor of himself. He came here thirty years ago, " from the East," 
you know, and the boys took especial pains to show him round. He heard 
them tell wonderful stories about catching snipe, and was interested. He 


wanted to catch some. They took him out about two miles to some low 
grounds through which ran a ditch. There were not less than a score in 
the crowd. As they approached the place where one of the number had 
seen " an acre and a half of snipe " that morning, they all provided them- 
selves with clubs for driving snipe. The novice was unanimously chosen 
to hold the bag. This he declined to do on account of his not being 
acquainted with the kind of snipe that grew in this country, but agreed 
to hold it the second time. Another was appointed in his place to first 
hold the bag, and he, being urged to provide himself with a club for driv- 
ing snipe, went into a thicket to cut one, and as soon as he was hid from 
view, lit out for town leaving them to finish the game. He arrived in 
town about an hour before the rest, and occupied a good position from 
which he could hear their comments on the expedition. The same banker 
once started an oyster saloon which was largely patronized by the 
'''■Jeunesse doree" of Valparaiso, and their patronage resulted largely to 
his profit. If you wish to know how, ask him, for he enjoys telling it. 



Westchester Township— An Interesting First Family— The Pioneer 
Piano— First Place of Worship— List of First Settlers— Early 
Items— The Stanes Murder— Schools— Secret Societies— Churches 
—Justice— Villages— Chesterton— Industries. 

"TTTESTCHESTER TOWNSHIP is the historic ground of Porter 
V V County. Here the first settlement was made. Here civilized and 
savage joined hands and trod together the paths of peace. Here white 
and red were blended under the azure sky that bends its dome over all 
races and nations. 

In 1822, a solitary "pale face" was seen by Indian eyes as he 
wended his way through the wilderness round about Lake Michigan. He 
walked without fear, for the red men knew him as a friend. Safety and a 
warm welcome were before, while weary leagues stretched away behind 
him toward his white friends. In his pocket was the following : 

To All Officers Acting Under the United States: Detroit, 15 March, 1814. 

The bearer of this paper, Mr. .Joseph Bailly (B'a-y(§), a resident on the border of Lake 
Michigan near St. Josephs, has my permission to pass from this post to his residence 
aforesaid. Since Mr. Bailly has been in Detroit, his deportment has been altogether cor- 
rect, and such as to acquire my confidence ; all officers, civil and military, acting under 
the authority of the American Government will therefore respect this passport which I 
accord to Mr. Bailly, and permit him not only to pass undisturbed, but if necessary yield 
to him their protection H. Butler, 

Commandt. M. Territory and its Dependencies, and the Western District of U. Canada. 
To all Officers of the A. Government." 


During the war of 1812, the person to whom this passport was 
granted was taken prisoner by both the United States and the British 
sohliers, but did not enlist in either army. In his wanderings, he sought 
safety and opportunity to trade with the Indians. As the Indians slowly 
retired before the "Star of Empire" rapidly rising in the East, Joseph 
Bailly, the French Canadian trader, followed. In 1822, he halted on 
the north bank of the Calumet, in what is now Porter County. On the 
southwest quarter of the southeast quarter of Section 27, Township 37, 
Range 6 west, upon a beautiful bluff he constructed of unhewn logs the 
first cabin that was raised in the county. The Calumet here is clear and 
ha3 high banks. It is here very unlike itself throughout the greater part 
of its course; for little more than a mile fiirther down begin the marshes 
and morasses, through which it creeps for the remainder of its sluggish 
and crooked course. Here this solitary settler drew around him the 
natives from whom he purchased furs and other articles, for which he 
paid them articles of use and ornament. His business increased and his 
buildings multiplied until, in 1833, there were six or eight log cabins 
clustered about the first one that was built. The place is spoken of in 
"A Winter in the West," by a New Yorker, published in 1835. 

Monsieur Bailly had wooed and won an Ottawa maid and brought his 
bride to reside at the post on the banks of the Calumet. Here they 
reared a family of four beautiful and accomplished daughters. Eleanor, 
the eldest, "took the veil" and was for a number of years Mother Supe- 
rior of St, Mary's in Terre Haute. The second daughter married Col. 
Whistler, a resident of the county ; the third married Mr. Howe, a Chi- 
cago banker, and now, a widow, resides with a maiden daughter upon the 
old homestead. Hortense, the youngest, married Joel Wicker, who was 
the first merchant at Deep River, Lake County. They had besides these 
four daughters, a son, who was born in 1817, and died in 1827. The 
whole family were devout Catholics and maintained their worship in the 
wilderness. For ten years, Joseph Bailly* and his hired Frenchmen 
were the only white persons in the township. The trading business was 
a species of barter, for the only money of the frontier was the skins of 
fur-bearing animals. A mink skin was usually §1, and raccoon, muskrat 
and other skins were some fractional part of a dollar. The values were, as 
they everywhere and always are, relative, and the various kinds of skins 
fluctuated in value as paper money does. The furs and other articles 
bartered from the Indians were transported to the lake and coasted to 
Mackinac in what were called Mackinac boats. These were row-boats, 
usually about thirty feet long. In " Wau-bun, or The Early Day in the 
Northwest," by Mrs. J. H. Kinzie, these boats are described as having 

* This name is often incorrectly spelled Bailie. 


in the center a framework of slight posts supporting a cover of canvas, 
with curtains at the side that could be raised or lowered after the fashion, 
perhaps, of those of a modern summer car. These small craft were run 
by man power and were forced to follow the sinuous shore line. A day's 
travel in one of them was from river mouth to river mouth, whether the 
distance was short or long. 

As prosperity followed industry, Mr. Bailly found means to gratify to 
some extent the refined tastes that had so long feasted upon nature un- 
aided by art. In 1830, a guitar added its mellow notes to the orchestra 
of nature, and, in 1836, the pioneer piano found its way with much diffi- 
culty to this frontier home. This instrument is still in existence. Mr. 
Bailly bought a large amount of land and planned to found a city. In 
1834, the first lots were surveyed and some of them sold ; but the death 
of Mr. Bailly in 1835, followed by the panic of 1837, caused the plan to 
be abandoned by his heirs. Bailly Town is now known only in history 
and tradition. The old homestead is preserved with great care by Mrs. 
Howe and her daughter, Miss Frances R., who live a life of refinement 
upon the sequestered spot, surrounded by the antique and the picturesque. 
Miss Frances R. Howe, and her sister Rose, who died some years since, 
have devoted their lives to the church, and their religious writings are 
quite widely read by Catholics. Here the family chapel that was built 
about 1826, and used for some years as a kitchen, is kept as a sanctuary 
and repaired to daily by mother and daughter for purposes of worship. 
The bell is rung as if a congregation were to convene at its call ; and 
here the "two or three gather together" to feel the presence of the 
Spirit. This chapel is of logs, and by its excellent state of preservation 
indicates that it is able to stand the storms of half a century yet. Here 
stands the old home, built in 1831: of logs, but now looking younger than 
it did years ago to the casual glance, because of the mask of weather- 
boarding that it wears, and with which the "• mistress of the Manse " 
seeks to save it from the ravaojes of time. Standinuj near are other build- 
ings hoary with age, among which is a log hut in which the Indians used 
to store their property for safe keeping in the care of Mr. Bailly. Many 
heirlooms are here carefully preserved, among which are a bread pan or 
bowl made of the knot of a tree which has already seen its threescore 
and ten, and still seems "just as good as new;" a number of carved 
wooden ladles showed the Indian eye to beauty as well as use ; a hexagon 
patchwork quilt sixty years old and bright enough to grace a " spare 
bed," attested alike the industry and frivolity of oar grandams. Half a 
mile north of the house is the family cemetery in which are interred the 
Catholic members of the family. Here, in 1827, Mr. Bailly buried his 
only son, a lad of ten years, and to his memory " he erected a huge cross 


of oak timber some thirty feet high, and which towered above the sur- 
rounding forest, inasmuch as it was on a knoll or knob of land. Trav- 
elers used to see this cross in the wilderness, and often it was the first 
indication to them of the vicinity of civilized persons." Beside this 
cross, he built a small log cabin which he called " the chapel," to which 
he obliged all the family to repair on Sundays for prayer, for the purpose 
of forming in them the habit of going somewhere out of the home for 
worship, so that when churches came to be established they would not 
feel like staying away from services. The above-mentioned cross bore 
this inscription: "To-day, my turn; to-morrow, yours;" and also 
" Jesus Christ Crucified ; have mercy upon us." 

For almost ten years, Joseph Bailly was the only white settler in what 
is now Westchester Township. In 1833, Jesse Morgan and his family 
came. In 1834, came William Thomas, Sr., and family, William Gosset 
and family, Jacob Beck and family, John Hageman and family, John I. 
Foster and family, William Frame and family, Pressley Warnick and 
family, Elhanan Ranks, Alfred Marvin, Mr. McCoy, William Coleman, 
and Mr. Abbott. In 1835, a mulatto named Landy Gavin, who had paid 
$600 for his freedom, and who moved later to Michigan City, came and 
settled here. In the same year, Eli Hendricks, R. Cornell and others 
came. In 1833, a French fur trader located at what is now Sand Creek, 
or Morgan's Schoolhouse. His currency was of the liquid form known 
among the Indians as " fire-water." Of this, it is said that he bartered 
away eleven barrels in one winter ; and it is further stated that only one 
death resulted directly from this large quantity of liquid fire. This 
death was the result of an aff"ray. 

The first birth of the township was in the Bailly family. The first 
child of unmixed Caucasian blood was Hannah Morgan, who was born in 
1834. The first death among the whites was that of the son of Joseph 
Bailly, in 1827. The second death was probably that of the father, who 
followed the son ten years later. The first place of worship other than 
the fireside and the groves, was that already spoken of as being erected 
in 1827 by Mr. Bailly upon the death of his son. Mr. Bailly here gave 
religious instruction every evening for a time to some Christian Indians, 
translating to them from the French a history of the Bible. The book 
that he used is still in existence. The first marriage was probably that 
of Esther Bailly and John H. Whistler, which occurred in 1836. They 
were married in Chicago, but came here to live. The second was Samuel 
Thomas and Lucille Hale. There was a tradition among the Indians that 
at a remote date, Marquette, Qr some other of the early French explorers 
had a trading post near the mouth of Fort Creek or Wau-caw-gi-ink, as they 

called it. Here, in 1834. could be seen a burying-ground, and the indi- 



cations of a battle that may have been fought years before. Here the 
old stage line crossed, and it is said that a stage sunk in the quicksand 
here, in 1836, and never was taken out. Here, in 1833, Mr. Joseph 
Morgan witnessed a funeral dance and feast of the Indians. It was upon 
the occasion of the death of the wife of Ching-wah (Lightning) one of 
the principal chiefs. About one hundred Indians assembled and danced 
and feasted in such style as, according to their ideas, befitted the occa- 
sion. Up to 1883, Vfestern travel kept to the beach of the lake, fording 
the mouths of the streams. In 1831, a mail route was established from 
Detroit to Fort Dearborn. This ran through Jackson, Westchester and 
Portage, or rather through what now constitutes those townships. The 
mail was carried in knapsacks upon the backs of two soldiers until 1833, 
when stage coaches began to run over this line tri-weekly. Converse & 
Keeves were the first contractors on this route. Jesse Morgan settled on 
this route on Section 6, and kept the Porter County Stage House. In 
1832, the soldiers going to and from the Black Hawk war passed over 
this route. The first election of this region, then a part of Waverly 
Township, was held on Saturday, April 30, 1836, in the town of Waver- 
ly, with William Gossett as Inspector. As already intimated, this region 
was formerly a part of Waverly Township. 

Schools, Societies, Churches. — The first school was a private one held in 
the home of Jesse Morgan, in the winter of 1833-31. The teacher was 
some one who was traveling through and wanted to stop for the winter. 
The first school held in a separate building was in a vacant trading-post 
on Section 5, Township 36, Range 5, during the winter of 1836. In this 
rude log cabin, greased paper was used for windows, and travelers who 
wished to rest for awhile were employed as teachers. Districts were 
formed as the population increased. The first ones formed built log 
houses ; these gradually gave way to frame and brick. At present there 
are nine districts and nine houses, all of which are in fair condition. 
They are all frame except the one at Chesterton and the one at Hage- 
man ', these are of brick. The Chesterton Schoolhouse was built in 1879 
at a cost of $6,000. It is a two-story brick, more noted for convenience 
than comeliness. The following is an incomplete list of the teachers of 
the township for some years. As the records are lost or destroyed, a 
complete list cannot be given. The name, year, and price paid per week 
are given. In District No. 1 — 1866, Bertha Cronin, $1.75 and $2; 
1867, S. D. Crane, $2 ; 1868, J. M. Yokey, $1.75 ; 1869, Andrew 
Case, $2 ; 1870, Sister Eugene, $1.83 ; 1877, R. A. Murphy, $1.50 ; 
1878, R. A. Murphy, $1.50. In District No. 2—1866, Alice J. Parke, 
$1.25, Angie Bay, $1.25 ; 1867, Angie Bay, $1.25 ; 1868, J. N. Thomp- 
son, $1.75, John C. Coulter, $1.66 ; 1869, C. D. Pelham, $1.50 ; 1870, 


C. D. Pelham, $1.89 and $2 ; 1871, Hattie A. Heaton , $1.50, C. D. 
Pelham, $2.30; 1873, J. N. Thompson, $2.12 and $2; 1874, J.N. 
Thompson, $2, C. D. Pelham, $1.50 and $1.75 ; 1875, G. D. Pelham, 
$1.75; 1877, M. Furness, $1.50, F. G. Howell, $2; 1878, F. G. How- 
ell, $2. In District No. 3—1867, Mrs. S. E. Realf, $1.25 ; 1868, Cora 
E. Butler, $1.50 ; 1869, Cora E. Butler, $1.50, Ella Morse, $1.88 ; 
1870, Ella Morse, $1.82, John C. Coulter, $2 ; 1871, John C. Coulter, 
$2, Kittie L. Peterson, $1.66; 1872, Lucy Furness, $1.66, W. L. 
Haight, $2; 1873, Angie M. Sawyer, $1.58, S. D. Hawthorne, $1.66 ; 
1874, S. D. Hawthorne, $1.66, W. M. Winters, 1.75 ; 1875, Angie Saw- 
yer, $1.75; 1876, V. E. Frisbie, $1.58; 1877, C. F. Schell, $2, John 
W. Rose, $2. In District No. 4—1867, Caroline Teed, $1.25 ; 1868, 
Caroline Teed, $1.33, Cora E. Butler, $1.50 ; 1869, Celia Cary, $1.25 ; 

1870, Celia Cary, $1.25, Laura Harper, $1.50 ; 1871, Laura Harper, 
$1.50, Mary Cary, $1.25 ; 1872, Cecelia Cary, $1.33; 1873, Zerilda J. 
Gosset, $1.50; 1774, E. S. Butler, $1.75, Cecelia Cary, $1.50; 1876, 
Lou E. Buck, $1.50, Celia Cary, $1.37 and $1.53 ; 1877, Celia Cary, 
$1.57, Mary Cary, $1.57. In District No. 5—1866, 1868-69, Caroline 
Teed, $1.25; 1869, Helen M. Pelham, $1.25; 1871-72, Hattie A. 
Heaton, $1.50 and $1.66 ; 1873, Lou E. Buck, $1.25 and $1.50 ; 1874, 
Martha Case, $1.75; 1876-78, F. G. Howell, $2.25 and $1.50. In 
District No. 6—1866-67, John G. Princell, $1.25 and $1.66 ; 1868, J. 
Telleen, $1.60, John C. Coulter, $1.60; 1869, Celia Johnston, $1.50 
and $1.66; 1870, John J. Fredein, $1.66, Fred F. B. Coffin, $1.25; 

1871, Emma Dolson, $1.66, A. Darling, $2 ; 1872, A. Darling, $2, W. 
L. Haight, $1.87 ; 1873-74, 0. A. Swanson, $1.75 ; 1874, Lou Fur- 
ness, $1.50 ; 1875, Lou Furness, $1.75, L. E. Buck, $1.75, C. W. 
Hoffman, $2; 1876, Fred F. B. Coffman, $2.25; 1877, C. F. Scheldt, 
$2.25. In District No. 7—1866, E. Owens, $1.75 ; 1867, Mr. Mc- 
Cormack, $1.75 ; 1868, Mary Miller, $1.50, J. N. Thompson, $1.75, 
Cecelia Cary, $1.50; 1869, Cecelia Cary, $1.50; 1870, Sister Mary 
Angelia, $1.50, Helen M. Pelham, $1.50; 1871, Eliva White, $1.50, 
Helen M. Pelham, $1.50; 1872, L. N. Gosset, $1.25; ^873, Samuel 
Rundquist, $1.33; 1874, C. Gaylord, $1.50 ; 1875, C. Gaylord, $1.50 
and $1.25 ; 1876, Annie Ericson, $1.50 ; 1877, Martha Furness, $1.50. 
In District No. 8—1874, Angie Sawyer, $1.50 ; 1875, Winnifred Fur- 
ness, Dora Morrical and Mary Cary, $1.50 ; 1876, Mary Cary, $1.50 
and $1.58, Martha Coffin, $1.50 ; 1877, Martha Coffin, $1.50. In Dis- 
trict No. 9—1876, Martha Furness, $1.25 and $1.58 ; 1877, Martha 
Furness, $1.58. The teachers of the township for the school year 1880- 
81 were : John Gonding, of Porter Station ; John Nickols, at Hageman ; 
Monroe Brown, at City West ; Annie Ericson, at Morgan's ; Miss Lou 


Buck, at Baillj Town ; Miss Alice Castlemant, at Salt Creek ; M. L. 
Brummitt, at Furnessville ; and M. L. Phares, at Chesterton. In 1882, 
the same corps is employed in the schools of the township except two, 
and in their places are Miss Lettie Bedell and August Gunderino;. The 
public schools of Chesterton begin the school year of 1882-83 with the 
following teachers : M. L. Phares, Principal ; Miss Maria Brummitt, 
intermediate ; and Miss Rose Murphy as primary teacher. This is an 
iacrease of one teacher over past years. The school, with an enrollment 
of 125, under the administration of Mr. Phares, is prospering finely. 

There is at Chesterton the Che-gu-mink, I. 0. 0. F., No. 161. The 
organization was effected July, 19, 1855, at least that is the date of the 
charter. The following is a list of the charter members : J. B. Ander- 
son, M. W. G. M.; A. H. Mathews, R. W. D. G. M. ; J. H. Staily, R. 
W. G. W.; James E. Blythe, R. W. G. K ; J. B. McCheney, R. W. 
G. L.; George B. Jocelyn, R. W. G. C. ; John Caldwell, R. W. G. G. ; 
P. A. Hackman, G. R. G. L. W. S. ; C. Woolsey, G. R. G. L. W. S. ; 
Milton Horndou, P. G. M. ; Enos Hoover, P. G. ; Benjamin Smith, P. 
G. ; James DeRiggs, D. D. G. M. ; Daniel Moss, G. R. ; I. A. Crane, 
P. G. ; H. G. Bosker, P. G. ; James Hook, P. G. The present mem- 
bership is fourteen, and the ofiicers are : H. H. Tillotson, N. G.; C. D. 
Jackson, V. G. ; David McHenry, Secretary, J. F. Taylor, Treasurer; J. 
P. Morgan, I. G., and H. Greene, R. S. toN. G. They own property val- 
ued at $1,500. Calumet Lodge, No. 379, of Masons, located at Chester- 
ton, bears date of May 27, 1868. They commenced working under a 
dispensation March 9, 1868. The charter members were : George Raw- 
son, W. M. ; Benjamin Little, S. W. ; John A. Harris, J. W. ; L. B. 
Osborn, John C. Coulter, F. F. B. Coffer, Abram Fuller and John 
Thomas. The present officers are : John C. Coulter, W. M.; William 
Brummett, S. W.; Herbert Miles, J. W. ; F. Michaels, Treasurer; Frank 
J. Templeton, Secretary ; Delos D. Marr, S. D. ; N. D. Curtis, J. D.; 
David McHenry, Tiler; Homer Tillotson. and Benjamin Little, Stewards. 
The property of the lodge is valued at ^400. The present membership 
is forty-four. There has been so far as known, but one death in the lodge, 
that of John A. Harris, one of the charter members. One of the mem- 
bers, F. Michael, has taken the highest degree of the order. Besides 
these societies, there have been organizations of the Good Templars, Sons 
of Temperance, and the Grange in Chesterton. 

The first place of worship has already been spoken of. The first reg- 
ular church was erected in 1857, at Chesterton, on the north side of the 
railroad by the Catholics. Rev. Father Kilroy organized the church. 
Much assistance was received from the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
Railroad when the church was started. Father Kilroy was succeeded 


by Father Fljnn of the order of the Holy Cross (C. S. C). He came to 
minister to the small congregation but a few times before the well-known 
Father Paul Gillen (C. S. C), took charge of the church. Then for 
some years Calumet Church had no priest from Notre Dame. It was 
next supplied by Rev. Father Lawler, who then was resident Catholic 
clergyman of La Porte, and came once a month to this church. Thus 
the church struggled along without any resident pastor until 1867, when 
they requested the Right Rev. Bishop Leurs to send a priest into their 
midst. The request was granted. They purchased a house and lot on 
the south side of the railroad, where the present property stands. In 
1868, Rev. John Flynn became resident priest, and labored faithfully and 
zealously here and at Westville, until August 1, 1870, when at the age 
of twentv-eicjht he was called from his labors to his reward. He was 
highly esteemed not only by Catholics, but by all who knew him, and 
those who knew him best loved him most, and can never forget his words 
of wisdom. During Father Flynn's ministry, there were thirty baptisms, 
twenty-nine deaths, two marriages, and forty-three received confirmation. 
Father W. F. M. O'R-ourke, who had come during Father Flynn's sick- 
ness, now took charge of the work. He was noted for his eloquence and 
learning, and many came to St. Patrick's Church from a distance to hear 
his sermons. Father Timothy 0' Sullivan, present pastor of May wood, 
111., and brother of P. O'Sullivan, of the Valparaiso Herald^ now at- 
tended Saint Patrick's congregation as a mission, and Calumet was again 
without a resident pastor. Father P. Koncz was the next priest, and 
now the town became known as Chesterton. By this time the little frame 
church was too small, and as Father Koncz was a Polander and unable 
to speak English or German fluently. Rev. M. O'Reilly, of Valparaiso, 
came to Chesterton on several occasions to assist in raising money with 
which to build a brick church. This was begun by the congregation, but 
finished by Rev. John F. Lang, present Secretary of the bishop of Fort 
Wayne. In the words of Father Kroll, " Father Lang, though small in 
stature, was nevertheless a man of great ability, and soon impressed the 
Chestertonians with the truth of the old adage ' precious articles are done 
up in small paroles.'" During his ministry, there were fifty-two bap- 
tisms, fifteen deaths, three marriages and thirty-nine confirmations. His 
health failing him, Father Wardy, a Frenchman by birth, and then at the 
advanced acje of sixtv-eight, took charo-e of the church. He was not 
long able to discharge the arduous duties that devolved upon him, and on 
the 21st of July, 1879, Rev. H. F. J. Kroll took charge. During Father 
Wardy's ministry there were twenty-three baptisms and sixteen deaths ; 
during Rev. Kroll's there have been fifty-five baptisms, twenty-four 
deaths and eleven marriages. In 1870, the value of church property was 


§500 ; in 1882, it is §13,000. A fine parsonage, that is to cost about 
§3,000, is now being erected under the supervision of the present efficient 
priest. The present church was built in 1876. The present membership 
is about sixty. 

The Swedish Lutherans organized at Bailly Town in 1857, with about 
thirty communicants. The first minister was A. Audrain, the second 
Rev. Sjoblom, the third Rev. Nyquist, the fourth Rev. Sodergrim. None 
of these stayed more than four years. Andrew Challman, the present 
pastor, has been in charge seven years. The communicants now number 
250. The present church edifice was erected in 1863, at a cost of 
§2,000. They own a nice parsonage valued at §1,000, besides school 
property valued at §1,000. The church at Chesterton was organized in 
1879 by those who had formerly attended at Bailly Town. They at once 
built a fine brick church at a cost of §5,000, to which many of other 
denominations and those not members of any church contributed very 
liberally. This church is not yet completed. The number of commu- 
nicants at first was 125, while now they number 227. Rev. Andrew Chall- 
man has had charore of both cono-recjations. and as he is a cranial and 
scholarly man, as well as a zealous minister, his efforts are well received 
at both places. 

The Swedish Methodist Church of Chesterton was organized Janu- 
ary 26, 1879. The church was built in 1880, at a cost of §600. The 
})resent value of all of the church property is §1,000. The first minister 
was C. J. Hisson, the second Martin Hess, the third H. L. Linquist, the 
fourth Andrew Farrell, who is the present pastor, and has had charge 
two years. The Presiding Elder, John Wigren, organized the church. 
At first, there were twelve members, now there are forty-five. All of 
these are Swedes, except Mrs. John B. Lundburg. The following is a 
list of the first members : John B. Lundburg, Swen, Johan Hjelm, Maria 
Charlotte Hjelm, August Victor Peterson, Anna Christina Peterson, Os- 
car A. Peterson, John Hylander, Anna Carolina Hylander, A. F. Gus- 
tafsen, Charles Jacobson, Christian Jacobson, Charles Hyden, August 
Melin, William Lawrence and Paulina Lawrence. The first Trustees of 
the Church were John B. Lundburo;, August Melin and Au^rust Peterson, 
and these gentlemen are Trustees at present. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Chesterton was started about the 
time that the war of the rebellion broke out. The structure was begun, 
but was allowed to stand unfinished for about two years. It was then 
completed at a cost of about §2,000. The following persons gave liber- 
ally toward its erection : D, N. Hopkins, Albert E. Letts, William Bar- 
ney, John Whitman, Gilbert Morgan, 0. Johnson, H. Hageman, J. W. 
Stewart and others. The present membership is eighty-two and the value 
of the church property is §2,000. 


The German Lutheran Church of Chesterton was begun in the fall of 
1880, and finished in April, 1881, at a cost of $2,000. The following 
is a partial list of those who contributed to the building fund : William 
Slont, Fred Lendermann, Charles Warnhoff, Henry Dorman, Mrs. Fri- 
day and Miss Allbright, $50 each ; Charles Bankey, $-40; Fred Lawrentz, 
§25, and others gave according to their means. The membership at first 
was twelve, now it is forty-five. Mr. Hammon was the first, as he is the 
only minister who has had charge. The pulpit is not filled at present. 

There is at Furnessville a Methodist Society that holds its meetings 
in the schoolhouse. At the same place there is a Society of Christians 
or Disciples organized by Rev. William H. Furness in 1869. They also 
use the schoolhouse, where, at stated times, there assembles quite a large 

Homicide. — In 1838, occurred the " Stanes murder." Francis 
Stanes and John Pelton were working at a saw-mill near Arba Heald's, in 
La Porte County, and, staying at a place of bad repute, kept by a man 
named Palmer. It seems that Stanes had become involved, and to avoid 
his creditors, had concluded to leave the locality. So he started West with 
John Pelton as a guide. Before starting, he remarked that he had $101 
of good money, besides the horse he was to ride. Subsequently, not far 
from Jesse Morgan's place, an Indian boy found in the woods a bundle of 
clothing tied in a handkerchief The boy's father came up to the spot 
and thinking that something must be wrong, began to look around, and 
soon saw in a hollow made by an up-turned tree, a boot protruding through 
some brush. Closer inspection revealed a dead man concealed in the 
cavity by means of brush and the water that had collected. The Indians 
in alarm, reported the discovery to the Indian camp, from which the news 
was carried to the whites. An inquest was held. John Pelton was one 
of the Coroner's jury, and remarked, during the inquest that, " The man 
who did that ought to be hung." The eye of suspicion was cast upon 
him ; he was arrested and arraigned for trial. He had been tracked from 
the scene of the murder, at least the tracks corresponded to his ; a split 
hoof helped in following the horse ; he was seen at the " Old Maid's 
Tavern" cleanino; his saddle, and soon afterward was seen with a new 
one ; a knife found in his pocket showed a nick corresponding to places 
upon the club that was cut for the purpose of finishing the foul deed. It 
seems that Stanes was shot from his horse by a ball fired from behind; 
was shot once after falling, and then beaten over the head with a club. 
Pelton, when asked where he had left Stanes, stated a place far beyond 
where the body was found, and the tracks showed that the horse which 
Stanes had been riding, had not gone beyond the place where the body 
was found. Such a strong chain of circumstantial evidence was forged 


about Pelton that he was found guilty, sentenced and hung, although he 
protested his innocence to the last. This is the only instance of capital 
punishment that has ever occurred in the county. 

Villages. — In the spring of 1835, the town of Waverly was laid out 
by John Foster, Surveyor, on land owned by William Gosset. This was 
about two miles northwest of the site of Chesterton and not far from the 
location of Baillytown. As the original Baillytown was no more than a 
location, Waverly may be considered the first town in the township and 
county. It is said that as much as $10,000 was expended in improve- 
ments. In 1838, the town was swept by a forest fire and never rebuilt. 
About 1836, City West was started at or near the mouth of Fort Creek. 
Then travel was confined to the beach, but as the route was changed the 
town went down to start up farther from the lake, but it never became a 
place of any importance. Porter, now called Old Porter, was started when 
the Michigan Central Railroad was built to this point. The first house 
was built by John Richards for a store ; his son occupied it for a short 
time, when a man named Charles La Hyne bought it and used it as a 
dwelling. After this it changed hands a number of times before it was 
bought by Joseph Swanson, who used it as a storeroom until 1880, when 
he built his present building, which he now occupies with a general stock 
of goods. The second house was built by Fred Michael for a store and 
dwelling ; it still stands, and is used as a dwelling. The third house was 
built by Fred Michael for a dwelling; it is now used as a stable. The 
large frame storeroom now occupied by Mr. Michael was built by him in 
1864. In this country store he keeps a general stock of from $6,000 to 
$7,000. We speak of this as a country store, for the reason that the 
station was moved to New Porter or Hageman in 1872, and there are only 
a few families living in the immediate vicinity. A. E. Whilten held the 
post ofiBce from the time that it was established up to 1872, the time of 
its removal to Hageman. From that time for about a year Porter was 
without a post oflBce. In 1873, it was re-established with Fred Michael 
as Postmaster; he still handles the mail. This is often called Baillytown, 
but not properly so called. 

The town of Hageman was started by Henry Hageman in 1872. It 
was regularly laid out by William DeCourcey, surveyor, in 1880. The 
post office was established in 1873 with Mr. Manhart in charge. He 
held the office for two years, when Henry Dalbert took charge of it and 
has held it since. The town has at present two stores (one kept by 
Davert and the other by Pillman Brothers), a blacksmith shop, a millinery 
store kept by Mrs. Howe, and a boarding house kept by Mrs. McDonald. 
The population is about two hundred and fifty, most of whom are engaged 
directly or indirectly in carrying on the extensive brick-making estab- 


lishments found here. Since the station is called Porter and the post 
office Hageman, with Porter Post Office but little over a mile away, much 
confusion arises in mail and shipping. It is earnestly desired by the cit- 
izens that a change be made so as to avoid this confusion. A post office 
was opened at what is now known as Furnessville July 9, 1861, with 
Edwin L. Furness as Postmaster. His commission was signed by Mont- 
gomery Blair. The office remained in his hands until 1874, when he 
resigned in favor of C. S. Bradley, who was appointed and served until 
July, 1878, when Miss Winnie Furness was appointed. She held the 
office until the fall of 1881, when it passed to Frank Templeton, who is 
station agent and Postmaster at present. This is not a regularly laid out 
town. At first the place was called Murray's Side Track, and after that 
for a time Morgan's Side Track. The first frame house was built here in 
1853 by Morgan, and the second, in 1855, by E. L. Furness. The first 
store was started by E. L. Furness in the basement of his house in 1856, 
and run by him until 1878, when he closed out the stock. The second 
store was started by H. R. McDonald about 1870, and run by him about 
two years. After that there was no store for some time. At present 
there is a small stock of goods kept by William Lewry, who lives over the 
line in Pine Township. He has also a blacksmith and wagon shop ; an- 
other blacksmith shop is run by August Earnest. The first school here 
was taught in a 12x16 foot shanty by Miss Sophia Graves. Afterward 
the school was moved to another board shanty one-fourth of a mile far- 
ther east, and from that to the upper story of a wagon shop, 
which is now used as a blacksmith shop. Then, in 1854, a school- 
house, 16x18 feet in size, was half-way between Furnessville and City 
West; it is now used as a barn. In 1867, the present frame 
was built at a cost of $500. There has been no liquor sold here 
since 1852. The lumber and wood business has been an important in- 
dustry. There have been as many as three saw-mills at one time — Mc- 
Donald, Morgan and Furness were the owners. The " Wide Awakes " 
organized in 1878. 

What is now Chesterton has been known successively as Coffee Creek, 
Calumet and Chesterton. It took its first name from the creek that flows 
by it on the east. The creek was named Coffee Creek from the fact that 
at an early day a teamster lost a bag of coffee when crossing it at a time 
of high water. Its second name it took from the Calumet River, and its 
third from the name of the township by derivation. The Coffee Creek 
Post Office was established in 1833, on Section 6, and placed in the hands 
of Jesse Morgan. It was kept by Mr. Morgan most of the time until 1852, 
when it was moved to the present site of Chesterton, but was still Coffee 
Creek Post Office, although the place was called Calumet. In 1853, the 


office passed to D. H. Hopkins from Mr. Morgan. Mr. Hopkins held it 
for some time, when William Thomas was appointed. From him the 
office went back to Mr. Hopkins. After Mr. Hopkins, John Taylor held 
the office for a short time. J. B. Bostwick took charge and remained in 
office ten years, when the present incumbent, Dr. D. D. Marr was placed 
in charge. He has now held it about two and a half years. The first 
house in Chesterton proper was built in 1852 by Luther French. It 
w^as known as the Sieger House. It was moved, but is still standing, and 
is now occupied by Mr. Ingraham. The second was built by a Mr. 
Enoch. The L. S. & M. S. R. R. was completed to the place in 1852. 
At the close of the year 1852, there were perhaps twenty small houses. 
It will be remembered that the place was not known as Chesterton at the 
time last mentioned. It was not until 1853 or 1854, that the name of 
the post office was changed from Coffee Creek to Calumet. There was a 
post office at "New" City "West, about a mile south of the mouth of 
Fort Creek, where " Old " City "West w^as located, and at the time above 
indicated, this office was consolidated with the Coffee Creek office and 
located at what is now Chesterton, under the name of Calumet. The 
town and office continued to be called Calumet until a short time after 
the railroad was completed to this point, when, on account of confusion 
arising from an Illinois town named Calumet, it was changed to Chester- 
ton. When the railroad was pushed through to this point, the post office 
was a mile and a half east, at Coffee Creek, but it was moved up at once, 
and retained its name until the time already indicated. In two years 
after the completion of the road, the town had a population of 300, most 
of whom were Irish. 

It is said that about this time there were nineteen places where 
liquor was kept for sale. The growth of the town had been very slow 
until within the last few years, during which a number of very substantial 
improvements have been made. The present population is about six 
hundred. The Northern Indiana Hotel was built in 1855 or 1856, by 
Leroy Brown, and kept by him for five or six years. After this it was 
kept by the widow and also by a son of Mr. Brown. After them, C. 0. 
Seamons took charge of it, from whom it passed into the hands of the 
present landlord, Gus Johnson, who has been in possession about a year- 
The first house of entertainment was opened by the Thomas heirs soon 
after the town started. The Central House was moved by Mr. Hopkins 
from City West about thirty years ago. It has passed through many 
hands, but has this year (1882) had a brick front built to it, and a general 
refitting that gives it the appearance of having renewed its youth. Here 
Landlord Shanks and his hospitable lady pay the most kindly attention 
to guests, and spread before them the most palatable and substantial 


viands. The first brick building in town was built by Young & Wolf, 
who still own it. It was built in 1874, and has been occupied by Dr. H. 
Greene with a stock of drugs. Mr. Pinncy and the Odd Fellows, in 
1879, built a substantial brick, since occupied by them. P. A. John- 
son built his brick block in 1877. Abner Harper is now building next 
door east of the Central House. The first saw-mill here Avas built by 
Brown & Morgan in 183-1 ; it went into the hands of Benton, who sold 
to Wood, of Albany, who sold to Ogden, of Chicago, who sold to Enos, 
who sold to William and John Thomas. A saw-mill was built here about 
nine years ago by Thomas Johnson, who in about a year sold to Mr. In- 
graham, who in two years sold to Thomas Blackwell, having in the 
meantime added a grist-mill. Mr. Blackwell has still further enlarged 
the mill by adding a planing department. He values it now at §10,000, 
and expects soon to enhance its value by fitting it up to work by the 
''new process." The following is a list of the physicians who have 
located here, with the dates as near as attainable : Dr. H. Greene, 1852 
to 1882; Dr. Kyle, 1855 to 1857; Dr. Bosley, 1856 to 1867; Dr. 
Saulsberry, 1865 to 1866 ; Rr. Raff, 1866 to 1872 ; Dr. Dakin, 1866 to 
1867 ; Dr. Haskins, 1868 to 1872 ; Dr. Heaton, 1868 to 1869 ; Dr. 
Jones, 1869 to 1880 ; Dr. Goodwin, 1871 to 1872 ; Dr. Morrical, 1870 
to 1879; Dr. Marr, 1875 to 1882; Dr. Richards, 1879 to 1880; Dr. 
Miller, 1881 to 1882, and Dr. Riley, 1882. The following are some of 
those who have located here for a time in the law : William Johnston, E. 
D. Crurapacker, William Pagan, F. W. Howell, John W. Rose and E. 
Wood, who has located here during the present year. 

Industries^ etc. — The central and southern parts of the township are 
well adapted to agriculture. The heavy forests that covered the region 
have been a fruitful source of wealth. Numerous portable saw-mills have 
been located temporarily in different places. Brick-making is now the 
leading manufacturing interest. This industry is located chiefly in Hage- 
raan. Mr. Owen started what was known as the Kellogg brick yards in 
1872, and soon bought an interest in a yard which was then owned by 
Moulding. Soon afterward the firm became Harland k Owen. They 
bought land and started steam works with a capacity of 30,000 per day. 
Later, Hinchclifi* bought out Harland, and the firm now is Hinchcliff & 
Owen. They have two yards at Hageman, in which they can make 65,- 
000 per day. They employ about one hundred hands. Y. Moulding 
has two yards. He began in 1871 in partnership with Edward Harlan, 
with whom he continued until 1878, since which time, he has been alone. 
He started a second yard in 1880. The present capacity of both yards 
is 65,000 per day. They make both common and pressed brick. From 
eighty to ninety hands are employed in both yards. The Chicago and 


Philadelphia Press Brick Company was one of the first yards to start. 
They have a capacity of 30,000 per day of press and common brick. 
They are now using one of Caldwell's drying apparatus. It is their in- 
tention to start another yard next year. There is an almost inexhausti- 
ble supply of first-class clay, and Hageman has here a resource which is 
as good as a gold mine. The Hillstrom Organ Factory of Chesterton, 
established in 1880 by C. 0. Hillstrom, is an important establishmant. 
They now employ thirty men and turn out about eighteen organs a week. 
They aim to keep up with the best makes in the market. 

Early Elections. — At the August election in Westchester Township, 
1836, the following men voted : Pressley Warnick, William Calhoun, 
William Thomas, Milton Smith, Abraham Ball, William Coleman, Sam- 
uel Thomas, William Ball, Jesse Morgan, David Cook, Eli Hendricks, 
Lewis Todhunter, Rufus Bundy, James Thomas, Elijah Casteel, Abraham 
Holt, Ashbel Goodrich, Enos Thomas, George Phillips, Samuel Havi- 
land and William M. Coy ; total, twenty-one. The election was held at 
the house of Samuel Haviland, with Enos Thomas, Inspector, and Will- 
am Thomas and Eli Hendricks, Judges. The above is taken from the 
records on file in the Clerk's office at Valparaiso. It is proper to ob- 
serve here that either many of the early settlers lived for short periods in 
various townships, or else they were in the habit of not only voting within 
their precinct, but outside of it also, for the names of old settlers appear 
upon the original official election returns for the same election in more 
than one township. It is quite probable that the officers of elections 
were not very careful in those days as to whether those voting actually 
resided within their own townships or not. A residence in the county 
was probably deemed sufficient. 



Boone Township— Early Settlement— First Events— Anecdotes of 
tiieIndians— Industries— Schools— Hebron— Churches-Secret So- 
AT an election held at the house of Jesse Johnson, in Boone Town- 
ship, on the 30th day of April, 1836, the following persons voted 
for one Justice of the Peace : John Prin, Thomas Johnson, Jennings 
Johnson, Frederick Wineinger, George Eisley, William Johnson and Jesse 
Johnson. Following is the return : 


We the undersigned Judges and Clerks, do certify that Jesse Johnson received six 
votes for Justice of the Peace, and Aschel Neal received one vote for the same office. 

Jesse Johnson, 

Frederick Wineinger, \ Judges. 
Jennings Johkson, 

J.UIN PrIN, , ^^^^^^^ 

IN. -I 

Thomas Johnson, J 

At an election held at the house of Jesse Johnson, in Boone Town- 
ship, on the 24th day of September, 1836, for the purpose of electing one 
Justice of the Peace, the following vote was taken : Joseph Laird, Will- 
iam Bissell, Jesse Johnson, A. D. McCord, John Moore, Isaac Cornell 
and John W. Dinwiddie. 

We, the undersigned Judges and Clerks of the above election, do certify that John 
W. Dinwiddie received seven votes for Justice of the Peace. 

Jesse Johnson, Inspector. 
J. W. Dinwiddie, 1 ^,_,_ Joseph Laird, 

Isaac Cornell, 

^^°^"' \ Clerks. J^.^^^^ L^^^^' I Judges 

ELL, J William Bissell,/ "^ 

Judge Jesse Johnson, who settled with his family in Boone Township 
in the early part of 1835, was the first permanent settler. In the same 
year, Isaac Cornell brought a large family, and Simeon Bryant, with 
his wife and son, settled at Pleasant Grove. In 1836, the folloAving 
came : Thomas Dinwiddie and family, Absalom Morris and family, Orris 
Jewett and family, Solomon Dilley and family, James Dilley and family, 
and John and Hugh Dinwiddie. Orris Jewett was a blacksmith, the first 
one in the township, and the only one for years. In 1835 or 1836, John 
Prin, Thomas Johnson, Jennino;s Johnson, Frederick Wineinorer, George 
Eisley, William Johnson, Jesse Johnson, Joseph Laird, William Bissell, 
A. D. McCord, John Moore, Isaac Cornell and John W. Dinwiddie 
came. In 1836 or 1837, Barkley and John Oliver and families, Absa- 
lom Morris and old Mr. Pricer came. In 1837, Amos Andrews, E. W. 
Palmer and T. C. Sweeney came. In the same year, David Dinwiddie 
crme. Mr. Sweeney did not make a permanent settlement until Febru- 
ary, 1838. In the spring of 1838, Mr. Smith and a family of boys located 
three miles northeast of Hebron. Dr. Griffin located at Walnut Grove 
as early as 1838. James Hildreth and Cooper Brooks came in the 
spring of 1838. James Dye, Mr. Fiske and Mr. Johnson came in 1838. 
From 1840 to 1847, many came. In 1863, with the railroad, came 
many others. The immigration, except at the times above named, has 
been gradual. 

The first birth of the township was that of Margaret Bryant, now 
Mrs. Dr. Blackstone, who was born April 16, 1837. The first death 
was that of Harriet Dinwiddie, in 1837. She was the youngest of a 
large family, and the funeral was one of unusual sadness. The second 
death was that of the wife of Orris Jewett. in 1838. One of the first 


marriages, if not the first marriage, was that of James Dilley to Sarah 

Mrs. Bryant, the oldest living resident settler of the township, tells 
of a perilous experience with the Indians in 1836. In the absence of 
Mr. Bryant, the old chief Shaw-ne-quoke came to the house, took a piece 
of chalk, made a circle with it on the floor, and said in the Indian 
language, five miles around belongs to the Indians, and ordered her tc> 
leave, threatening her with a butcher-knife to " kin-a-bode " (hill her) 
if she did not leave at once. He approached her with uplifted knife : 
she screamed and sprang to the other side of the room. The scream 
aroused two large dogs that were, contrary to orders, sleeping under the 
bed; they attacked the Indian savagely, and thus defeated his murderous 

At another time, in the absence of the family, the Indians came, and 
were trying Mr. Bryant's gun and inspecting things in general. Cath- 
erine Sadoris, a hired girl, came home while they were there. Just as 
she came around the corner of the house, an Indian raised a gun to look 
through the sights. The girl supposed that he intended to shoot her. 
and ran for life. They tried to make her understand that they did not 
intend to harm her, but she ran like a deer and disappeared in the woods. 
The Indians told the family of the incident on their return, and they 
searched for her, but she was not found until the next day, when she 
said that she had no intention of returning, as she supposed that the 
family were all slain. She stated that in the night seven deer came up 
to her, but she felt no fear except of the Indians. As a rule, the 
Indians were very civil and peaceable, and gave but little trouble. They 
would only annoy you by coming to you for food as long as you would 
furnish them. If in a good humor, they would salute you with "Bo zu 
Nick," " How do you do, friend?" Dancing was a favorite amusement 
with the Indians. With a drum made of an empty keg, having a raw- 
hide head, and gourds containing beans or pebbles, they made music ta 
soothe the savage heart, tickle the savage ear, and move the savage feet 
through the mazes of the dance; or rather to shake their savage bodies, 
for in dancing the Indians seldom move the feet, but shake themselves t<> 
the time of the barbarous music. It amused them exceedingly to see the 
whites skip around over the floor in dancing. This seemed to them 
highly improper and undignified. The Indian mothers mourned over 
their children by blacking their faces, and by cooking and eating food 
over their graves. They often buried the papooses in hollows in logs. 
When living, the babes were tied upon boards to make them straight. 
These boards, with the babies on them the squaws would stand against 
the fence or house while they went in to beg. Once, in the absence of 


the family, the Indians painted an Indian in war dress on a board and 
left it at the door of one of the old settlers. This was a threat of hos- 
tility, but n(J acts of violence followed. 

As this township is nearly all good farming land, the attention of the 
people has been confined mostly to agricultural pursuits. Raising grain 
and rearing stock have been the main and almost the sole sources of rev- 
enue. For some years, hay has been a leading crop. No manufactures 
of great importance have ever been established within the borders of the 
township. About 1845, a large wind-mill for grinding grain was built 
two miles north of Hebron. It was built by Robert Wilson, who sold in 
two years to his brother Charles, who ran it for about seven years, when 
it went down. There is a creamery in the northeastern part of the 
township, which was started by Mr. Woodhull, who sold it to David 
Hurlburt & Son, who sold it to Merrifield & Dye. There is a steam-mill 
at Hebron, owned and run by John Wilson. 

The township was at first a beautiful prairie, interspersed with fine 
groves. One of these groves covered the site of Hebron, and was about 
two and a half miles in length by three-fourths of a mile in width. About 
one-half of a mile south of Hebron was an Indian village. 

The first schoolhouse was built in 1837. It was of logs, and was 
used five or six years. After this, school was held in the Presbyterian 
Church, and after that, in the summer of 1814, school was held in a 
vacant house of William Bryant, with Ellen Hemes as teacher. Some 
of the teachers in the first house were Amos Andrews, James Turner, 
Liza Russell, Sarah Richards and Roda Wallace. The second school- 
house was a log one, situated a mile and a half southwest of Hebron, and 
was built in 1840. It was about 18x20 feet in size and had no fire-place. 
There was a hearth and jamb of mud, and the chimney, of mud and 
sticks, was built on projecting timbers at a man's height. To this 
chimney, through the intervening air, the smoke must find its way of 
exit, but, as may be imagined, it often failed to find the chimney, and 
spread through the room, filling it and the eyes of the pupils. George 
Espy, and an Englishman, named Alexander Hamilton, were among the 
early teachers. Hamilton was a man of high family and fine education, 
and subsequently became one of the leading lawyers of Chicago. The 
third schoolhouse was built on Siglar's Corner, which is in the north- 
eastern corner of Section 15. This was built, in 1842, of logs, by the 
neighbors, and used for school purposes two years, when it was burned. 
Mary Grossman was the first teacher. The fourth house was built a 
short time after the last mentioned two miles east of Hebron, on the 
southwest corner of Section 7, Town 33, Range 6. It was a log house. 
The fifth followed in a short time, on the south line of the north half of 


Section 6, Town 33, Range 6. This was also a log house. Ths sixth 
was built soon after the fifth. It was on the south line, near the quarter 
post of Section 5, Town 33, Range 6, and was of similar construction 
and size to its predecessors. The first frame was built two miles east of 
Hebron, on Section 7, Town 33, Range 6. May 28, 1853, "a special 
meeting was held by the board and voters of the township for the pur- 
pose of determining whether a special tax for the support of free schools 
in the township should be assessed, at which meeting four votes were 
given in favor of the tax and ten against the tax." The following is the 
apportionment of the school funds made November 8, 185-4 : District No. 
1, $43 ; No. 2, ^9.10 ; No. 3, §19.08 ; No. 4, $39.10 ; No. 5, $12.62 ; 
No. 6, $39.10. In 1854, a tax of 15 cents on the $100 was voted for 
school purposes. At present, there are eight schoolhouses in the town- 
ship, three of which are brick and the others are frame. The houses in 
Districts Nos. 5, 6 and 7 are brick. The one in No. 5, or the Hebron 
District, is a handsome brick, erected in 1872, at a cost of $5,000. The 
one in No. 6 cost $1,100, and the one in No. 7 cost $1,000. The one in 
No. 4 was built in 1880, at a cost of $600 ; the one in No. 8 in 1878, at 
a cost of $500. The houses in Districts 1, 2 and 3 are frame, erected 
some years ago. Nos. 2 and 3 cost about $600 each. The house in 
District No. 1 is the poorest house in the township, as it is the oldest. 
It cost probably about $300, and was moved from the present site of the 
house in District No. 2. The house in District No. 2 was moved to its 
present site from the place now occupied by the house of District No. 1. 
The following facts and figures are taken from the report of H. J. Nich- 
ols, trustee, for the year 1882 : White pupils admitted to the schools of 
the township during the year — males, 199 ; females, 183 ; colored, fe- 
male, 1 ; number who attended on the average, 250. Male teachers, 5 ; 
female, 6; average compensation of males. $1.37 per day; females, the 
same; in town, $1.78. Estimated value of school property, $8,000 ; of 
apparatus, $60. Special tax, 20 cents on the $100. Amount paid trust- 
ees for services rendered the schools, $95.91. The following is a list of 
the teachers for the years 1881 and 1882 : 1881— In District No. 1, 
Anna Kelly and Sarah A. Douglas; in No. 2, R. B. D. Simonson, 
Minnie A. Fuller and Charles F. Leeka ; in No. 3, J. N. Buchanan, Jr., 
and Emeline Massey ; in No. 4, \¥. N. Buchanan and Ella Denison ; in 
No. 5, W. B. Blackstone, R. C. Mackey. Mary 0. Buchanan, Ida E. 
Fisher, R. B. D. Simonson, R. S. Martin. S. F. Southwick, Mary 
Young and 0. J. Andrews; in No. 6, E. E. Flint and Carrie Buchanan; 
in No. 7, 0. S. Baird; in No. 8, Richard S. Martin. 1882— In No. 1, 
Sarah Douglas, Electa Elson and Effie Wilson ; in No. 2, Charles F. 
Leeka and A. A. Doyle; in No. 3, Emeline Massey and 0. J. Andrews; 


in No. 4, Ella Dennison and Sarah Douglas ; in No. 5, Mary Young, S. 
F. Southwick, 0. J. Andrews, Alice J. Sanborn and 0. S. Baird ; in 
No. 6, E. E. Flint, Sarah A. Douglas and Effie Wilson; in No. 7, Dor- 
cas Adams and Eugene Skinkle ; in No. 8, Emma Buchanan, Hattie 
Pararaore and R. S. Martin. The Hebron Graded Schools are now 
under the direction of W. B. Swearingen, assisted by Mrs. H. B. South- 
wick, Mrs. Sanborn and 0. S. Baird. Mr. Cathcart was the first Prin- 
cipal in the new building for one year. He was succeeded by Mr. Mc- 
Aflfee, who served a year, when Rev. R. M. C. Thompson took charge in 
1874 and served a year. J. C. Carson now had the Principalship for 
two years, and was succeeded by Mr. Simonson, who taught a year, and 
then gave place to Mr. McAiFee for a year, when Mr. Simonson took the 
place for another year, when 0. J. Andrews came to serve a year, ami gave 
place, in 1882, to W. B. Swearingen, the present Principal. Before the 
present commodious brick was built, the town schools occupied a small 
frame. In 1871, Mrs. James E. Bryant taught in a log house located 
near the center of the town, that was built for a blacksmith shop. After 
being used as a schoolhouse, it was converted into a stable. Thus the 
educational interests of the township have progressed from primitive 
poverty to present prosperity. 

Village of Hebron. — Hebron was located where it is because of the 
fact that two roads cross at this point. The first house was built by Mr. 
Bagley, about 1845. This was a log structure, and is now owned by D. 
Wolf and occupied by John Hoffman. The second house was built in 
1846, by Samuel Alyea, and was the first store. Mr. Alyea put in a 
stock of goods that he might have carried on his back. This was a log 
house about forty yards from the " Corners." Mr. Alyea, after awhile, 
took in E. W. Palmer, and they moved up to ''The Corners." Alyea 
soon sold to Wesley Doty, and in a short time Doty traded his interest 
to Samuel McCune, who kept the store until 1858, when he sold to 
Thomas Davis, who closed out the stock. The second store was started 
by William Siglar, who, after two years, sold to his brother Eli, who ran 
the store a year, when he took his brother, D. T., as a partner, and they 
have run the business in the same building ever since. This building stands 
on the corner of Siglar and Main streets. The first frame building was built 
by Mr. McCune. The first brick was built by Daniel Siglar for a dwelling, 
in the north part of the town, in 1867. The second brick was built by 
Sweeney & Son as a business block, in 1875. It contains the town hall. 
The name Hebron was given by Rev. Hannan, an Associate Reformed 
preacher, to the congregation that assembled here to worship, and in 
1845, Rev. Blain was installed. He circulated a petition for a post office, 
and succeeded in getting one within the year, and it was called Hebron 


Post Oflfice. Rev. Blain was the first Postmaster, and served for two 
years, when Mr. Morris was appointed, and served for the same length of 
time. John Hoffman took the office next and kept it in the woods half a 
a mile west of where the town stands, for five or six years. Amos An- 
drews held the office during the war. J. E. Bryant held it for some years, 
and gave place to Loren Pomeroy, who had it for four years. Charles 
Carmen next took it for a year, ^vhen he resigned, and the present incum- 
bent, Oscar Baird, took charge about six months since. 

The first lots were laid out in 1844, by John Alyea, who laid out 
three one-acre lots. He sold one to Palmer, one to McCune, and re- 
tained one upon which he built a blacksmith shop. In 1849, Mr. James 
had a tier of half-acre lots laid out on Section 14, on a street south and 
east of " The Corners." The mill now stands on one of these. In 1852, 
the Siglar Brothers laid out a tier west of " The Corners," on the south 
side of the street on Section 15. A few years later they laid out another 
tier south of this one. In 1864, the Siglar Brothers laid out quite a 
large plat of lots on Sections 10, 11 and 15. In 1855, Patrick's Addi- 
tion on the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of Section 10. 
The growth of the town has been slow and gradual. It received quite 
an impulse from the railroad when it came. In the last eight years 
there have been three unsuccessful attempts to incorporate the town. 
The last one was made during the summer of 1882. 

The Free Press was issued here from September, 1878, until October 
1, 1879. H. R. Gregory was the editor. The Local News was printed 
here from October, 1879, until some time in 1880, by Mr. Mansfield. In 
1856, George Washington Sampson located here, and remained about 
thirteen years. About the same time, John Quincy Roberts came to stay 
only a year and a half. John K. Blackstone is the oldest resident physi- 
cian, having been here almost a quarter of a century, but he is not now 
in active practice. Dr. S. R. Pratt is of almost as long standing. Dr. 
Andrew Jackson Sparks was here for three or four years. Dr. Sales 
came in 1868, and stayed three or four years. Dr. Price died here 
in 1880. Dr. Woods and Dr. Carson are among those who have come in 
later, and are still practicing here. Dr. Carson came in 1880. Several 
attempts have been made by parties to start here in the law, but none of 
those who attempted it stayed for any great length of time. The first 
drug store was started in 1866 by Ross Bryant, who, after two or three 
years, sold to Dr. Sales, who closed out the stock. The second was 
opened by W. B. Doddridge, who is still carrying an extensive stock. 
George Stemble has charge of the corner drug store, which is owned by 
a party in Valparaiso. The firms that carry general stocks of goods are 
Bryant, Doud & Co., E. and D. T. Siglar, Wilson Morrow and H. J. 


Nichols. J. C. Smith and Thomas Clews have grocery stores. Conner, 
Doud and David Fisher compete in the hardware line. Mr. Beebe was 
the first to start a furniture store. The business changed hands a num- 
ber of times, and is now owned by S. F. Andrews. John Baker and Mr. 
Rolliston have shoe shops, while Gus Weggen, William White, William 
Nelson and John Paramore do the blacksmithing. The first hotel was 
opened in 1849 by Samuel McCune in the frame house now occupied by 
Mr. George Mosier. After McCune, Tazwell Rice kept the house. He 
was followed by Harvey Allen, and he by John Skelton, who kept it last. 
The next hotel was the Pratt House, opened by Burrell Pratt in 1865, 
and kept by him two years. This was kept next by a Mr. Pratt not 
related to the one above mentioned ; he kept it about two years. Then 
John Brey took charge for a year, and he was followed by John Gordon 
for the same time. Harvey Allen then became landlord, and was in 
charge for three years. Then the house passed into the hands of the 
Siglar Brothers, who rented it for four or five years to a nephew, John 
Siglar, who was succeeded by the present genial and gentlemanly land- 
lord, who took charge of the house in June, 1879. Since that time it 
has been known as the Bates House. The third hotel was opened in 
1866 by Henry Smith, near the depot. This was run by Mr. Smith for 
five years, and then by Mr. Winslow for four years, after which it was 
bought by Mr. Poole, who is now using it for a dwelling. The fourth 
and last hotel built was the Central House, erected in 1878 by John 
Skelton. It was kept by Loren Pomeroy for two years and a half, since 
which time it has been used for dwelling purposes. 

Churches. — All of the churches of the township are located at 
Hebron. Bethlehem Church of Associate Reform Presbyterians was or- 
ganized on the 28th of July, 1838, by Rev. Hannan. At that time there 
were only fifteen members, and they had no church building. The first 
members were Samuel Turner and wife, Thomas Dinwiddie and wife, 
Berkly Oliver and wife, Susanna Dinwiddie, Sr., Susanna Dinwiddie, 
Jr., Margaret Dinwiddie, Mary McCarnehan, Susan P. West, John W. 
Dinwiddie, David T. Dinwiddie, Margaret J. Dinwiddie and Eliza A. 
Dinwiddie. Of these only one, Margaret J. Pierce, nee Dinwiddie, re- 
mains. Messrs. Samuel Turner and Thomas Dinwiddie were the first 
Elders, which positions they occupied until death removed them from 
ofiice. Rev. Hannan remained only long enough to organize the church. 
Rev. Wilson Blain was the first pastor. He was ordained and installed 
in 1841 or 1842, and stayed until 1847, when he was released. Prior to 
his installation, they had had occasional services by different ministers. 
After Rev. Blain left, they were without a pastor until 1851, when, dur- 
ing the month of May, Rev. J. N. Buchanan supplied the church. He 


was soon called to the work and on November 29, 1851, he was installed. 
Here Rev. Buchanan preached his first sermon and here he has con- 
tinued to preach up to the present time, a period of thirty-one years, an 
unusually protracted pastorate for these latter days of restlessness and 
change. The first members of the congregation were poor, and for some 
time they assembled in "the rude residences of these sturdy Christians. 
The first meeting was held at the house of Thomas Dinwiddie. In warm 
weather, the groves were used as temples, and they met for a time in the 
schoolhouse at the cemetery. The brethren all assisted in the erection of 
the first place of worship. Trees were felled, their trunks were hewed 
and the house was raised with no expenditure of money except for nails, 
glass and flooring. The seats were made of small logs split in halves. 
This house was located about a mile south of Hebron. The name of the 
congregation was changed from Bethlehem to Hebron, during the pastor- 
ate of Rev. Blain. The congregation occupied this building until 1852, 
when it erected a frame three-fourths of a mile south of Hebron, at an 
expense of $1,200, all of which was paid up. This was occupied in the 
fall of 1852. In 1864, the building was moved to Hebron, where it was 
used by the society until 1879, when they built the present commodious 
frame, at a cost of $2,500. Of the amount subscribed to build this 
church, every dollar was paid. The society has had a steady growth. In 
1851, there were forty members ; of these, only six now remain. The 
present membership is eighty-three, and it has been as high as ninety-five. 
The present Elders are David Turner, Joseph Wood, John Simpson, 
Hugh Fickle and H. P. Wood. This is the only organization of this 
denomination in Lake and Porter Counties. 

The Methodists held their first meetings at the dwellings of Simeon 
Bryant and Absalom Morris, and later at a schoolhouse. They organized 
a society here in 1837, under the direction of Rev. Jacob Colclasier, who 
was the first minister. Aaron Wood was Presiding Elder of the confer- 
ence at the time. Rev. Young, Rev. Biers, Rev. William J. Forbes and 
Rev. Hyde were among the first ministers. Rev. Lamb, Rev. Petty- 
johns, Rev. Wayde, Rev. Posey, Rev. Crumpacker, Rev. Wheeler, Rev. 
Griffith, Rev. Greene and Rev. L. B. Kent were among the early minis- 
ters, in about the order given. Absalom Morris, James Dilley, Solomon 
Dilley and family, Mrs. Elizabeth Bryant, Mr. Gridley and wife and Gid- 
eon Alyea and wife are some of the first members. In 1840, a protracted 
meeting of eight weeks was held. The meetings were held at Hebron 
for four weeks, and then the place of meeting was changed to a school- 
house four miles east of Hebron. This was a great revival. The first 
church of the denomination was built in 1844, half a mile south of 
Hebron. It was about 20x30 feet in size, and was built of unhewn logs. 


At the first meetings, the sleepers were used for seats. Rev. Griffith was 
the first minister in this house. This house gave place to the present 
frame, built about 1859, at an expense of §1,000. The parsonage was 
bought in 1877, of Stillman Andrews, for .^650. The Ladies' Aid So- 
ciety keep the church in repair, and during the present summer have ex- 
pended over $50 in papering, etc. Rev. Denhara is the present pastor. 
He was preceded by Rev. C. S. Burgner, who was preceded by Rev. 
Lasurd, who was preceded by Rev. Buckles, who was preceded by Rev. 
Vaught, who was preceded by Rev. Cox, who was preceded by Rev. 
Michaels, who was preceded by Rev. Kinsey. 

In 1877, a church, styled the "' Union Mission Church," was organ- 
ized with a membership of eighty. The church was built in 1878, at a 
cost of about $2,000. The principal contributors were James King, 
William Netherly and E. and D.. T. Siglar. The trustees of the first 
organization were Hiram Marsh, B. Blanchard and William Netherby. 
The Deacons were William Fry, James King and L. Temple. 

On the 26th day of April, 1882, a Congregational Church was organ- 
ized of the members of the defunct Union Mission Church, with a mem- 
bership of forty. James King, B, F. Gossett, James Alyea, J. G. Gib- 
son and A. Blanchard were elected trustees. William M. Watt and 
William Fry were elected Deacons. The church then called Rev. L. 
Adams Smith to her pastorate, who has since officiated. In the Ameri- 
can Church Review, of Cincinnati, bearing date of January 25, 1870, 
we find the following notice : " We have just closed a protracted meet- 
ing at Hebron, Ind., on the Cincinnati & Chicago Railroad, which re- 
sulted in the organization of a church of twenty-six members." The 
following are some of the first members : Mrs. Mary E. White, who was 
the first one to be baptized, Joseph Dye, who was the first Deacon, and 
his wife, Sarah Essex, Sarah A. Johnson, Mrs. Viola Robinson, Ellis 
Huff and wife, Mrs. Sheldon, Isaac Margison, Mrs. Blood and Mr. 
Montgomery and wife. The church was built in 1878, at a cost of 
$1,100. The present value of the property of the church is $1,450. 
The membership is 130. The following are those who contributed most 
liberally to the building of the church with the amounts given : Joseph 
Cathcart, George Maxwell and James Ross each gave $100 ; W. W. 
White, $60 ; William Sturgeon, $50 ; S. Andrews, George Bruff, Hugh 
Swaney, William Dye and Mary Bryant each gave $25 ; Joseph Dye, 
$15 ; Enoch Jones, William Sawyer and Dr. Blackstone each gave $10 ; 
" Boone Grove Church " gave about $60 and " Morgan Prairie Congre- 
gation " gave $50. Lemuel Shortridge was the first minister, and served 
for three years. The first meetings were held in the Methodist Church 
and in the schoolhouse. William Wheeler was the second minister and 


stayed for two years, when William Lowe came for a short stay, after 
which there were no regular services for a time. After Rev. Lowe came 
Rev. William L. Streeter, Rev. Cassel and Rev. Carpenter, each of whom 
stayed but a short time. Rev. A. P. Maston came next for a stay of 
three years. Rev. Edwards, Rev. Rower, Rev. Chase, Rev. Franklin, 
Rev. John Ellis and Rev. Barnett came in order, each staying but a short 
time. For the next two years, H. B. Davis filled the pulpit, after whom 
came the present genial Christian gentleman. Rev. Adolphus C. Carter, 
who has entered upon his second year. 

The Presbyterians proper, or, as they style themselves in the articles 
of the church, " The Presbyterian Church (0. S.)," was organized in 
1860, as is shown by the following extract from the church records : 
" Hebron, Ind., October 29, 1860, 11 o'clock, A. M. The commission 
appointed by the Presbytery of Lake met in Hebron Schoolhouse, and, 
after a sermon by Rev. S. C. Logan from Ephesians, 4, 1 — ' There is 
one body and one Spirit,' etc., the committee proceeded to the organiza- 
tion of the Church of Hebron." The articles are signed by J. L. 
Lower and S. C. Logan, Ministers, and Ezra Reeve and Nathan Strong, 
P. Elders. Those who subscribed to the articles as members are Will- 
iam Mackey, E. Mackey, Gideon Brecount, Jane Brecount, A. A. Bur- 
well, Rebecca I. Burwell, Nancy Tanehill, Mary Hill, T. C. Sweeney, 
Jane Aylsworth, Stella McCollom, Carrie M. Wilson, Margaret M. Gill 
and Mary E. Hill. William Mackey and Amos A. Burwell were elected 
Elders, and Gideon Brecount, Clark L. Tannehill and Thomas C. 
Sweeney, Trustees. In April, 1868, there were twenty-six members ; in 
1876, there were thirty-five members. June 21, 1873, the society 
bought the old schoolhouse and the lot upon which it stood of the Siglar 
Brothers for the sum of ^350. This they fitted up for a meeting-house. 
Rev. J. L. Lower was the first regular minister ; A. Y. Moore was the 
next, who was succeeded by Rev. Beer, who was succeeded, in 1868, 
by Rev. McKinney, who was followed by Rev. Flemming, who was fol- 
lowed by Rev. Spencer Baker. Since Rev. Baker's time, the congrega- 
tion has been supplied by students from the Presbyterian Theological 
Seminary at Chicago. Rev. Small is supplying the pulpit occasionally. 
He was preceded by Rev. Ferguson, who was preceded by Rev. Ely. 
Formerly, the congregation was connected with the one at Crown Point ; 
now it is connected with the Tassinong Church. The present member- 
ship of the church is twenty-five. 

Secret Organizations. — The Hebron Lodge, U. D., of Freemasons, 
commenced operations under a dispensation dated June 9, 1874. The 
first ofiicers were L. C. Dunn, W. M.; J. N. More, S. W., Protem.; L. P. 
Scott, J. W.; W. M. Nelson, S. D.; John Skelton, Treasurer; R. 


Slieine, Tiler, Pro tern.; Samuel Irvin, Secretary, Pro tern. The charter 
members were L. C. Dunn, John Skelton, W. M. Nelson, S. K. Pratt, Y. 
Welding, Samuel Irvin and L. P. Scott. The following is a list of the 
others who have belonged to the lodge up to the present time: F. 
Mikles, Thomas V. Rockwell, B. F. Hathaway, Aaron Godwin, Andrew 
Godwin, Andrew Runion, G. W. Maxwell, J. L. Baker, C. G. Carman, 
Michael Dorn, William McGinley, J. C. Carson, John Wellinger, J. P. 
Brough, N. D. Edmonds, S. C. Mclntire, Rufus Rice, Mott T. Perry, 
W. C. Shreve, E. S. Irwin, H. B. Davis, Hamilton B. Southwick, 
Spencer Baker, G. W. Mosier, W. B. Swearingen, C. H. Carman and 
John Carson. The present membership is twenty-three. 

There was at one time a lodge of the I. 0. 0. F., but, as the records 
are not accessible, and the few here now who were interested can furnish 
no definite information, its history can not be given. 



Washington Township— Its Creation— First Election of Officers— 
The Early Settlement— Old Saw-mills, Grist-mills, etc.— Per- 
sonal Anecdotes— Rollings and Raisings— Mercantile Pursuits— 
Prattville— Education and Religion. 

"TTTASHINGTON TOWNSHIP dates its birth from the organization 
V V of Porter County in 1836. The name Washington is indicative of 
the sterling worth and patriotic principles of the pioneer settlers. Will- 
iam Morgan, from Wayne County, Ohio, is said to be the first white man 
to settle in what is now Washington Township. He settled on the north- 
ern part of the prairie that bears his name early in the spring of 1833. 
The other first settlers besides William and Isaac Morgan, with their 
places of nativity, were George B. Cline, Union County, Ind.; Adam S. 
Campbell, Chautauqua County, N. Y.; Reason Bell, Wayne County, Ohio. 
During the same year, Rufus Van Pool "pitched" a claim on what is 
now the Oaks farm. In the fall, the house of this man was destroyed by 
fire, and he was compelled to move his family back to La Porte County, 
but returned in the following spring, and remained until the land sale in 
1835 ; after purchasing his claim at the Government price, he sold out to 
David Oaks. In 1833 or 1834, Jacob Coleman located and made im- 
provements two miles southeast of Prattville. In 1834, James Blair 
"pitched " his claim near what is now called Coburg, and began to culti- 
vate the soil, and to make improvements. During the same year, Isaac 
Werninger came into the settlement, and located on what is now known 


as the Crumpacker form. Ruel Starr, the same year, occupied the Starr 
farm. In the spring of 1833, Samuel Flint and Seth Hull came into the 
township. Flint made the first improvements at Prattville. During the 
fall, Hull sold his claim to J. S. Wallace and left the settlement. Among 
these early settlers were found John Huntly, a Mr. Banner and a Mr. 
Johnson ; these men being without families, did not locate permanently. 
In 183-4, James Baun came into the township and purchased a farm, 
paying §450 for 160 acres of land. At this early date no roads were 
found in the township ; these pioneers were compelled to follow the old 
" Sac trail," which passed near the present site of Valparaiso. 

Early Homes. — The "log cabin" of the early settlers was built, 
owing to the shortness of the timber, about 18x20 feet, and if more room 
was desired, two of these were built side by side with a door between ; 
often they were placed some distance apart, the space between roofed 
over, and called a " stoop." The chimney was built of flat sticks, covered 
with what was known as " cat-in-the-clay," this being composed of straw 
or swamp grass, cut fine and mixed with the clay. The chimney was 
built upon the outside of the cabin, usually at the end. The roof was 
covered with " shakes," with " weight-poles " to hold them to their places. 
The inside of the cabin compared very favorably with the outside. Wooden 
pegs took the place of nails or hooks ; the table and chairs, as well as the 
rest of the household furniture, were usually of home manufacture, and 
were necessarily of the rudest pattern. Whenever a house of this kind 
was to be built, the word was given out, and the settlers flocked into what 
was known as the " raising." The first house built in this way was a 
double log house, the property of Isaac Morgan. The house was built in 
1884, situated on the outlet of Flint's Lake, in Section 16, and it is said 
that about thirty settlers were present, this number including nearly all 
the able-bodied men of the settlement. 

The early settlers obtained their supplies at first from La Porte 
County, afterward from Michigan City ; these supplies were hauled across 
the county with oxen. For several years the nearest flouring-mill was 
located at Kingsbury, where all the grinding of the settlement was done. 
The first crop planted was corn, followed by the other cereals now raised 
in the township. In one or two instances, farmers are said to have gone 
eighty or ninety miles, in order to obtain proper seed to plant in the soil of 
their new farms. At this early date, venison was one of the principal 
sources of food, the settlers depending largely upon this for their supply 
of meat. Hunting was one of the leading occupations, it being no extra- 
ordinary feat for one man to kill as high as 100 deer in one winter. 

The first settlers who led the way were soon followed by others, and 
before the land sale, in 1835, a large number of settlers' cabins could be 


counted. The raw prairie and wild woodland were being rapidly con- 
verted into beautiful farms and happy homes ; better times were coming 
to the pioneers, who endured so many privations in order to secure com- 
fortable residences. They were soon to reap the results of braving the 
Western wilds and leaving behind them the benefits and advantages of a 
fully developed country. 

The first white child born in this township was Reason Bell, son of 
Reason and Sarah Bell, of Wayne County, Ohio, his birth occurring Jan- 
uary 11, 1834. 

The Indians. — A village of about one hundred or more Pottawatomie 
Indians was situated near the present site of Prattville. Their burying- 
ground was located on what is now Harmond Beach's orchard. These 
Indians traded with the early settlers, bartering their furs for arms and 
ammunition; they also obtained the well-known " fire-water" that has 
ever degraded the poor Indian when brought in contact with it, and its 
vender, the white man. These Indians were of considerable annoyance, 
but never committed any depredations of a serious nature upon the whites. 
A story is related by the settlers how, at one time, two of the Indians, 
Wak-muck and Cha-nin-a-win, after having imbibed a suflBcient quantity 
of whisky to make each one feel that he was the " big Injin " of the vil- 
lage, began quarreling, and finally ended in a fight to decide which should 
be the happy owner of two wives. Wak-muck came off victor. A short 
time after this, Cha-nin-a-win, while lying asleep under a tree, was shot 
by the treacherous Wak-muck. At first the white men of the settlement 
were inclined to take the matter into their own hands, but finally decided 
to leave to Indian justice the entire matter, which was to give to the 
squaw of the dead Indian several ponies and a considerable amount of 
furs, their law being that if such a crime was repeated by the same party, 
he must suffer death at the hands of his nearest relative. 

The Indians remained here until 1836, when they moved to an In- 
dian village near what is now known as Hebron, where they remained 
until about 1842, at Avhich date they, with the rest of their red brethren, 
moved beyond the rolling waters of the Mississippi. 

Organization. — Up to the time of the land sale in 1835, the early 
settlers held what is known as a "squatter's claim." The majority 
bought the land they occupied, while some of them sold their claims to 
other settlers. After the township survey, many of them found their land 
cut up by township lines and roads. One instance is given, in which 
John Coleman, Russell Brayton and Stephen Brayton found themselves 
occupying the same eighty acres of land. 

The first township election was held at the house of Isaac Morgan, 
on the 13th of April, 1836, for the purpose of electing two Justices of the 


Peace. The following-named persons voted at this election : Adam 
S. Campbell, David S. Holland, Benjamin Saylor, Levi Chamberton, 
John Saylor, Jacob Jorden, Seth Winslow, Warren Pierce, W. B. Smith, 
Andrew Ault, Reason Bell, George B. Cline, Wilson McLane, Frederick 
Yeager, Reason Reed, Joseph Todd, Michael Ault, Hiram Webster, Isaac 
Morgan, John Shinabarger, Henry Rinker, Daniel Drulinger, John 
Robinson, Warner Winslow, Isaac Werninger, Jacob Fleming, James 
Blair, Nelson Smith, Peter Cline, William Morgan, Anthony Boggs, 
Jesse McCord, John R. Sargent, Robert Fleming, Joseph Brewer and 
Clark Babcock. Isaac Morgan was appointed Inspector of this election ; 
he returned the following report : 

"We, the undersigned Inspector and Judges of an election held at 
the house of Isaac Morgan, on the 13th day of April, 1836, do certify 
that for the office of Justice of the Peace Henry Rinker received 23 
votes. White B. Smith 20 votes and Peter Cline 17 votes." 

A county election was held at the house of Isaac Morgan on the 23d 
of February, 1836, for the purpose of electing one Clerk, one Recorder, 
two Associate Judges and three Commissioners. 

In the same year, it was ordered by the Board of Commissioners, that 
Adam S. Campbell and Reason Bell be appointed Overseers of the Poor 
for Washington Township ; Peter Cline, Supervisor of Roads ; George 
B. Cline and John Shinabarger, Fence Viewers, which last office was 
finally dispensed with. 

Early Industries. — In 1834, David Oaks kept a tavern near 
Prattville. He continued in the business for several years. During the 
years 1835 and 1836, a hotel was built about one mile north of Prattville. 
The building cost about §500 or $600. This tavern was owned and con- 
ducted by John Shinnabarger. The hotel was a two-story building, the 
other dimensions being 20x45 feet. The hall in the upper story was 
used as a ball room, where the young people of the neighborhood could 
meet and shake the " light fantastic toe " to their heart's content. The 
business of tavern-keeping was remunerative. During the years of 1834 
or 1835, almost every day wagon trains could be seen wending their way 
over the rough roads toward the undeveloped West, where they expected 
to find room to build up homes of thrift and industry. There were no 
roads of any importance in the township up to this time. The first road 
was one that followed an Indian trail which passed through Prattville. 

In 1835, Adam S. Campbell opened a boot and shoe shop on the 
farm now owned by his son. He brought his original stock from York 
State. In this shop, the boots and shoes of the settlement were manu- 
factured. In 1835, Russell Brayton opened the first blacksmith shop in 
the township. It was located near Prattville. During the year 1852, 


Edward Brown and Mr. Mills built a steam saw-mill at Prattville. The 
engine was of 25-horse power, and was obtained at Coldwater, Mich., at 
a cost of $2,000. It required a considerable amount of labor to bring the 
engine from Michigan City, but the task was at last accomplished. The 
frame work of the mill cost about $1,000, making the entire cost of the 
mill about $3,000, as near as can be remembered. The saw was a simple 
upright sash saw. This mill was purchased in 1835 by Daniel S. and 
Theron White. During the same year, the new owners added a small 
run of buhrs, one for grinding corn, the other for wheat. They also put 
in three bolts. This addition to the saw-mill cost about $1,000. The 
machinery was run by the same engine that was used for the saw-mill. 
This mill was completed so that in 1836 a fair article of flour was turned 
out. At the present writing, the saw-mill remains, much improved in 
capacity and machinery, but the flour-mill has long since been discontin- 

Prattville. — In 1841, the village of Prattville was laid out by Thomas 
Pratt, who erected a blacksmith shop, also moved a small frame house 
about one mile, and improved it by additions, until it answered for a dwell- 
ing. The original owners of the ground on which Prattville was laid out 
were William Morgan and Peter and George Cline. The life of Prattville 
was destined to be short, and to-day the town exists only in name. 

Taxation. — During the year 1842, the entire tax paid by the resi- 
dents of Washington Township amounted to $262.61. There were 
13,824.86 acres of land, valued, together with the improvements, at 
$47,815. The total amount of taxable property in the township was 
$60,643. The total amount assessed was $705.79. Not more than two- 
thirds of this amount was ever paid into the county treasury. 

Various Enterprises. — In the year 1843, Reason Bell and Mr. King 
erected a tannery one and a half miles northeast of Prattville. This 
firm transacted a considerable amount of business, Mr. Bell furnishing 
the capital. Mr. King, being a tanner by trade, had charge of the work 
done in the tannery, and saw that the stock on hand was properly taken 
care of. This firm continued operations about two years. A considera- 
ble business was done here, and leather was shipped to various parts of 
the country. In 1845, the partnership was dissolved, Mr. King continu- 
ing to work at his trade in Michigan City. Mr. Bell continued in the 
business only long enough to sell the stock on hand. In connection with 
the tannery, a boot and shoe factory was put in operation, and was con- 
tinued for some time, Moses Turner having charge of the factory. Mr. 
Bundy erected a saw-mill, in 1844 or 1845, on the outlet of Flint's Lake. 
This mill was situated about one and three-fourths miles east of Prattville. 
The frame for the mill was erected at a considerable expense, after which 


Mr. Bundy began to dig the race. The work was carried forward across 
his own farm, but he was denied the right to dig the race across the 
adjoining farm, owned by Truman Freeman, and a law suit was the result. 
After having some trouble in regard to the matter, the enterprise proved 
to be a failure. The frame work to the mill was taken down and used for 
other purposes, while Bundy's mill never existed in reality, but was only 
known as one of the many things that exist only in name. In the year 
1846 or 1847, a race track was built on the farm of Joseph Brown. 
While this track cannot be called an improvement of great importance, it 
was the means of bringing some good stock into the country, and eventu- 
ally had something to do toward the organization of an agricultural 

The office of Justice of the Peace was located on the farm owned by 
Adam S. Campbell, he being one of the two Justices whom the settlers 
felt it to be necessary to have, in order that justice might be meted out to 
all. This was after the first election in 1836. A grist-mill was built by 
Ruel Starr, on Crooked Creek, which was to be run by water-power, the 
wheel being a 24-inch turbine, the race being one and one-half miles in 
length. The mill was completed and ready for operation, but nothing 
more than a few bushels of corn was ever ground. The enterprise proved 
unsuccessful, although the mill cost .^5,000. After the death of Mr. 
Starr, the mill was converted into a cheese factory by Mr. McGill. A 
considerable amount of cheese was manufactured here and shipped to Chi- 
cago, La Porte, Michigan City and South Bend. This factory was in 
operation for two years, when it was moved into Centre Township, where 
it yet remains- 

In May of 1836, a license was granted to Andrew Ault to keep a 
tavern and to sell foreign and domestic groceries ; he also sold liquor, 
paying for the license §10 per annum. This store was kept in a double 
log house, that cost about $25. As near as can be remembered, the store 
was opened in 1836 or 1837. The first stock of goods was obtained from 
Michigan City, .and cost in the neighborhood of §50. This store was 
kept open for a number of years, and was situated about three-fourths of 
a mile west of Prattville. The tavern furnished accommodations to the 
many wagon trains passing through this section, and was no unimportant 
item in the remunerative part of the business. In 1834 or 1835, a stock 
of goods was kept in the double log house belonging to Isaac Morgan. 
The stock was light, and was composed of such things as would best meet 
the wants of the early settlers. The store was conducted by Mr. Hol- 
land, who obtained his supplies from La Porte, and served as a mail car- 
rier for the settlement. Jeremiah Hamell and Mr. Henning opened a 
store in George B. Cline's double log house ; this was in 1836 or 1837. 


Their stock was composed of dry goods and groceries, the value of which 
did not exceed ^?50. They traded extensively with the Indians, exchang- 
ing arms, ammunition and whisky for furs. They obtained their goods 
from Michic^an City and South Bend. In 1837, Jeremiah Hamell (now 
deceased) moved to Valparaiso, where he is said to have been one of the 
fir^t merchants. Stores of any importance must necessarily be located in 
villages or towns. For this reason, store-keeping has ceased to be a lucra- 
tive business in Washington Township, as there are no villages or towns 
of any note in the township. 

Schools. — The first school taught in the township was conducted by 
Mary Hammond in a log house, erected by A. V. Bartholomew, the teacher 
being paid by subscription. Four families were represented. The school 
was in session three months, during the winter of 1835 or 1836. The next 
school, as near as can be remembered, was taught by Thomas Campbell, 
in a log house on a farm owned by Mr. Kimmerer. This school was in 
session one term. The common branches were taught here, including 
arithmetic, reading, spelling and writing. These schools were taught in 
houses originally intended for dwellings. They were small, about 18x20 
feet in size. The houses were warmed by huge fire-places, in which logs 
of considerable dimensions could be rolled without much difficulty, such 
being the advantages of the young seeker after knowledge in 1835 and 
1836. The first schoolhouse built in Washington Township was prob- 
ably the Morgan Schoolhouse, several old settlers to the contrary. This 
schoolhouse was built in 1836 or 1837 ; the Luther Schoolhouse was built 
about the same time; it is not known positively which one was built first. 
It is sufficient to say that among the first teachers are to be found the 
names of George Partial, Mr. Wakeman, Xancy Trim, Judge Talcott, 
Mr. Pepinger (as near as the name can be spelled), Mr. Van Hozzen, 
Lowring Hall and Dr. Pagan. The first schoolhouse was built of round 
logs at a probable cost of $25 ; the accommodations throughout were of 
the plainest quality. The wages paid to the earliest teachers were about 
$2 per scholar, or §10 or %12 per month; this sum was considered suffi- 
cient pay to the teacher who was required to wield the birch with suffi- 
cient force to overcome the unruly young man of twenty summers. It 
was one of the principal parts of school life to have spellings, and to bar 
out the teacher at Christmas ; this w^as often difficult to do, as the roof 
was usually covered with shakes, with poles laid on to keep them down, 
so that it did not require a very great effort on the part of the teacher to 
find an ingress at almost any part of the house. In 1838, George Par- 
tial was barred out in this manner ; being unable to effect an entrance 
for three or four days, he was finally compelled to treat. The treat con- 
sisted of "doughnuts" and such things as the kitchens of the neigh- 


borhood could furnish. The treat was brought to the schoolhouse in a 
two bushel sack, and was made up of contributions from the parents of 
the children. The birch was used pretty freely in those days, as a gentle 
reminder of the duties and responsibilities resting upon the young aspi- 

The small log schoolhouse of 1836 has given place to the neat and com- 
modious house of to-day. While at that time the township could boast 
of but one or two, now we find seven well-conducted schools in the town- 

Churche^i. — No churches have ever been built in the township, but 
the people used the schoolhouses for purposes of worship at an early date. 
As early as 1837, Lewis Comer preached in the Morgan Schoolhouse. It 
is said that a Baptist minister (name not remembered) preached in George 
Cline's double log house as early as 1835. The members of the Chris- 
tian Church held regular meetings in the Morgan Schoolhouse. There 
were about thirty or forty members in attendance, but no regularly or- 
ganized church. Among the earliest members of this congregation were 
Reason Bell, Mr. and Mrs. Rinker, White B. Smith and others whose 
names could not be obtained. There was no fixed salary for the minister, 
but the congregation paid him whatever they could give that would be of 
use to him or his family. It was customary for the members to gather 
together and give what was called a donation surprise party, in which the 
Ininister was often surprised by receiving many things that were of benefit 
to him. This township being situated near Valparaiso, the church-going 
people have found it more convenient to attend church in town than ta 
build and maintain a church of their own, and for this reason no churches 
have ever been erected in Washington Township. The first Sabbath 
school in the township, as near as can be ascertained, was organized by 
D. C. White in 1856 ; the school was taught in the Morgan Schoolhouse. 
The school was small, and the Sabbath school library was limited to a 
few books such as would meet the wants of the children. 

Washington Township is strictly an agricultural township, and is one 
of the richest in the county. It is difficult to realize the number and 
value of the improvements that have been made w^ithin forty years. The 
round-log cabin of the early settler has given place to the comfortable 
home and beautiful farms of to-day, while the advantages of the people- 
are in no way inferior to those of any other portion of the State. 




Morgan Township— List of First and Early Settlers— Game— Inci- 
dents AND Anecdotes— A. Tradition— Early Elections— An Old 
Town — Manufactures — Churches — Schools — Cemetery — First 
Burial— Resume. 

MORGAN TOWNSHIP derives its name from Morgan Prairie, 
which was named for Isaac Morgan, who was one of the first set- 
tlers upon this beautiful plain, in what is now Washington Township. 

List of First and Early Settlers. — The following is a list of the first 
and early settlers so far as obtainable: Joseph Bartholomew, 1834 ; 
Henry Adams and family, 183-4; Benjamin Spencer and family, 1834; 
John Baum, 1835 ; George Shultz, Jacob Shultz and John Shultz, in 
1834 ; N. S. Fairchild, Archie De Munn and Charles Allen, in 1835 ; 
Josiah Allen and Josiah Allen's wife, in 1835. Among the first were 
Rinier Blachley, Charles DeWolf, Morris Witham, William Billings, Mr. 
Kinsey, Thomas Wilkins, Mr. Dillingham, John Berry, and William 
Minton, an Indian trader. Lewis Comer and family came in 1835 ; 
Thomas Adams and family came during the spring of 1835. Among 
those who came early are Samuel A^an Dalsen, iVbraham Van Dalsen, 
Lyman Adkins, Elisha Adkins, Mr. Stoner, Enoch Billings, Elias Cain, John 
E. Harris, Ezra Wilcox, Eason Wilcox and Hank Blanchard. John G. 
Keller came in 1837 ; Enos Arnold in 1840 ; William Unrugh in 1842, and 
William Benton in 1838. Henry S. Adams, of Jefferson County, Ohio, 
came to this region on the 27th of April, 1833, and in May erected a 
cabin and laid a claim of 160 acres on Section 9, Township 34, Range 
5. He brought with him his wife, mother and three daughters. His 
was the first house erected in the township. In 1835, G. W. Patten, of 
Ohio, settled here. Miller Parker came among the very first, but 
stopped for a time in Pleasant Township. John and Stephen Bartholo- 
mew came in 1834, but settled in Pleasant, where they lived for a time 
before they moved to Morgan. 

Morgan Township originated in August, 1843, when it was set apart 
from Pleasant. The eastern part of it was formerly Essex Township, 
which was formed in February, 1850, and named in honor of the ship 
commanded by Commodore Porter, the man for whom the county was 
named. The two were consolidated a short time since. 

Early Incidents. — An old settler remarks : " When I came to Mor- 


gan Prairie, there was nothing but snakes, wolves and Indians." Game 
of all kinds native to the region was abundant. H. S. Adams, Rollston 
Adams, Asa Cobb and G. W. Patton, in 1851, during a hunt of five 
days, hilled sixteen deer. In 1843, G. W. Patton and his brother shot 
two from a herd. Supposing that both were dead, Mr. Patton went up 
to where they lay. When he reached the place, one of them that had 
been more stunned than wounded started to rise, but Mr. Patton seized 
it by the antlers and called to his brother to come and cut its throat. 
Before his brother came up and succeeded in doing so, it had cut G. W.'s 
hands and struck him on the head a number of times with its hind feet. 
Bees abounded, and barrels of honeyed sweets were stored away in the 
hollows of trees. It is a singular fact that bees seldom go far from the 
habitations of the white man. As the buffalo retreats, the bee advances. 
Prairie fires were a terror to the natives at an early day, and often 
swept the country with a sea of flame that traveled with the speed of the 
wind, laying in ashes and raising in smoke everything before it. 

A certain Assessor of Essex Township presented a bill of ^21 for 
assessing twenty-one families. He said that he would have that or 
nothing. He got the latter. Old Cuttanaw, who used to trade in this 
region with the Indians, once told them that the needle-makers were all 
dead, and that he would have to charge them §1 apiece for needles, 
which he did. He is the one who took the contract for moving the 
Indians to their new home in the West. This occurred in 183T. Once, 
at Tassinong Grove, two Indians came to trade. One of them got 
drunk. The other, upbraiding him for so doing said, " Mo-a-net Che- 
moke-man " (mean as a white man). Although all the Indians seemed 
fond of good-ne-tos (liquor), one of the party always stayed sober and 
could not be induced to drink enough to become intoxicated. It seemed 
to be the business of this one to stand guard and take care of those who 
were too drunk to care for themselves. He took charge of the guns and 
other weapons to keep those who were drinking from killing each other 
or some one else. The squaws did not drink, the reason for which fact 
is not stated. Enos Arnold speaks of having driven twelve yoke of 
oxen to a breaking-plow on one Fourth of July, which day he cele- 
brated by turning to the sun three acres of prairie sod. 

There was a tradition among the Indians found here that in the 
then distant past the Pottawatomies had a dispute with a tribe west 
of them about the boundary line between the two nations. They 
agreed to decide the question by fighting three battles. The tribe 
that was victorious in two or three of these battles was to have the 
boundary placed where they claimed that it should be. It is supposed 
that these battles occurred somewhere on Morgan Prairie, but just where 


cannot now be determined. It is possible that the ohl fort on the Kan- 
kakee in Pleasant Township was erected at that time as a place of refuge 
in case of defeat in the field. It is further stated that the Pottawatomies 
were to drive this Western tribe to the end of the lake, but no farther. 
This point thej called **Bish Chi-ca-go " or ''•water all gone." This 
some claim to be the origin of the word Chicago. If so, it is probable 
that the name was applied to the place by the Indians while the whites 
called it Fort Dearborn, and that the Indian name was in some way re- 

January 4, 1836, a license was granted by the County Commission- 
ers to Hamell & Heming for one year, for the sum of ^10, to vend mer- 
chandise. Morgan Township was then very large and a part of La Porte 

The principal Indian trail that crossed the township entered at the 
northeastern part and reached the Kankakee near the southwestern corner. 

Early Officers. — At an election of Morgan Township, held April 4, 
1853, James White, Jesse Spencer and Joseph McConnell were elected 
Trustees, David W. White, Clerk, and John Brumbaugh, Treasurer. 
The bond of the Treasurer was $200. May 7, 1853, notice was given of 
an election to be held June 11, 1853, for the purpose of voting for or 
against levying a tax for the purpose of purchasing sites for and building 
schoolhouses. The election was held at the time appointed. Francis 
Marshall, James White, Jesse Spencer, Joseph McConnell, David W. 
White, Lewis Comer, H. S. Adams and Asa Marine voted for the tax, and 
no votes were cast against it. Accordingly, a tax of 50 cents on §100 
was levied. In 1854, the total receipts for road purposes were $82.20, 
and the expenditures §76.50. The charges of the road superintendents 
for the same year were, in Districts Nos. 1, 2 and 3, $2 each ; in No. 4, 
§1.50; No. 5, §3; No. 6, 75 cents. In 1854, the Treasurer's band was 
raised to §1,000, and was signed by John Brumbaugh and William Stod- 
dard. In this year, John W. Wright was elected Justice, and Franklin 
Adkins and Aaron Stoner, Constables. Hiram Diblee, James Bundy 
and Enos Arnold were elected Trustees. William Stoddard was Clerk, 
John Brumbaugh, Treasurer. The following were the Supervisors for 
the different districts : In No. 1, John Branson ; No. 2, Lorenzo Mor- 
toe; No. 3, Joseph Holies; No. 4, Elias Cane; No. 5, John McCurdy ; 
No. 6, John Schultz. 

Tassinong. — The town of Tassiuong, or Tassinnong Grove, as it was 
formerly called, is indeed an ancient place. Its origin seems to be 
shrouded in obscurity. The whites trace the locality back to 1830, but 
the Indians spoke of it as an old place even then. Not that there was 
any town, but simply a locality bearing the name. It is probable that 


there was a French trading post here at a very early day. Col. Jesse 
Harpar, the noted Greenback orator, started the first store here, about 
the year 1846. He continued to sell goods here for a few years, and 
then took his wares and left. He had a stock worth, perhaps, §800. 
He kept his goods in an old log building that was used before by William 
Stoddard as a barn. The second store was started by William Stoddard 
in a hewed-log cabin, about 1849. Here he kept goods for a year or a 
year and a half, when one night almost the entire stock was stolen. The 
third store was started in 1850 by Joseph Unrugh. He ran it about a 
year alone, when his brother William bought an interest in the stock. 
They managed the business for two or three years, when they sold out to 
Eaton, who sold to Francis McCurdy, who sold to'Rinker & Wright, who 
kept the store about two years. In the meantime, about 1852, Abraham 
Ahart started a store, ran it about two years and closed out the stock. 
In 1852, besides two stores, there were two blacksmith shops, one kept 
by Stephen Ales and the other by A. J. Zarn. F. McCurdy had a car- 
penter shop, John McCurdy a tavern, while William Maxwell and W. 
Hammond kept shoe shops. Calvin Bowman and Adkins started a store 
in 1854. Sylvester Pierce bought Adkins out, and has kept store here 
almost ever since. He has been out of business for a short period at two 
different times. J. C. Eahart started a store, and sold to Frank Adkins, 
who sold to Spencer, who kept alone for a time, and then went in with 
Mr. Pierce. Mr. Pierce is now alone. Bowman & Son run the other 
store of the town. H. King is the blacksmith. Dr. B. A. Welch is the 
medical man. Dr. Gray located here in 1881, but stayed only about six 
months. Before him. Dr. Davis was in town from 1856 to 1861, when 
he went to the war. The present Postmaster is Sylvester Pierce, who 
has held the office for over twenty years. Mr. Pierce was preceded by 
William Stoddard, who kept the office for four or five years. Before him, 
Frank Adkins had charge for a short time. He was preceded by John 
W. Wright, who was preceded by William C. Eaton, who was preceded 
by John Ahart, who was preceded by John Jones, who was the first Post- 
master. The office was established in 1840. For some years, it was 
two miles south of its present site, and called Tassinong Grove. Tassi- 
nong is the only town the township has ever had, and the only post office 
has been located here since it was established. 

Industries, etc. — No factories of great importance have been built 
within the limits of Morgan Township. A cheese factory was started 
about 1857 by Charles De Wolf, and run for two years by Edson, when 
it was closed. Another was started by John Schultz in 1879. He ran 
it one season, when he sold the machinery to Mr. Woodhull. It is now 
run by Albert Runnels and Henry Stone. They use about a ton of 


milk a day. At a very early day, there was a small grist-mill in the 
northwestern part. This was known as the Kinsey Mill. It had only 
one "run of buhrs," through which all kinds of grain were run. The 
water was brought through hollow logs to an overshot wheel. This mill 
was owned and run by Kinsey until 1848. 

Churches. — The first religious services were held by Stephen Jones 
at the house of Thomas Adams. Rev. Colklasier was the second one to 
conduct religious services in the township. The third was Rev. Holly 
Baxter Beers. 

The Presbyterian Church of Tassinong was built about 1855, at a 
cost of ^800. It was built by the community for all denominations. 
Joseph Bartholomew and George Biggert each gave ^150 toward its 
erection. Rev. Brown also gave liberally, helped to organize and 
oflBciated for a time as minister. Rev. Moore and Rev. Logan each 
preached here for a year ; this was before the war. Since these the Rev. 
Kinney and Rev. Robert Williams each in order served a year. Then 
came Rev. S. R. Baker, who stayed four years, and after him Rev. 
Henry Cullom stayed two years, then Rev. Frank Ferguson served a 
year, after whom Rev. Ely came for a short stay of six months. The 
congregation has now been without a pastor for about a year. The 
church now has twenty-five communicants. The Old School Baptists 
held services for a time at Morris Witham's house. Elder French 
officiated for a time. They have never had a church building in the 
township. The Methodists have a church and society in the northwest 
part of the township. Among the first members were " Father " White 
and wife, William White and wife, David White and wife, Ezra White 
and wife and Mr. Cornish and wife. The Christians have a church near 
the center of the township. This society was organized in June, 1840, 
being the first society of the Christians in the county. The church, 
which is built of brick, cost about $2,000. The principal contributors 
to the building fund were H. S. Adams, Lewis Comer, Aaron Stoner, 
Enoch Baum, G. W. Patton, Elias Cain. Many others contributed sums 
according to their means. Among the very first members were, Lewis 
Comer and wife, H. S. Adams and wife, Thomas Adams and Mrs. Baum. 
Among the other early members were George W. Turner and wife, 
Joseph McConnel and wife, Elias Cain and Mrs. Elizabeth Stoner. 
Lewis Comer was this first Elder, and H. S. Adams the first Deacon. 
The present officers are, G. W. Patton, N. S. Fairchild, and Jacob 
Stoner, Elders ; William Cain and Russell Stoner, Deacons. The pres- 
ent membership is 125. Rev. Lemuel Shortage now preaches occasion- 
ally. The last regular minister was Rev. M. Goodycoonts ; before him 
was Rev. W. Lowe, who stayed two years. Rev. L. Shortage commenced 


preaching here in 1849, and has preached here more or less ever since. 
Rev. Wheeler preached two years, Rev. Robert Johnson two years. Part 
of the time there has been no regular minister, but diflferent ones preached 

Schools. — There is a difference of opinion as to where the first school 
of the township was taught, but the evidence indicates that it was on 
Morgan Prairie, near where Jesse Baum now lives. The house was, of 
course, a log one. In size, it was about 12x14 feet. The first teacher 
was Miss Orilla Stoddard, a sister of William Stoddard, now Mrs. Jack- 
son Buel, of Valparaiso, who taught here for a number of terms. The 
first term was taught in or near the year 1834. This, like the other early 
schools, was supported by subscription. The following are some of the 
patrons of the first school : Morris Witham, William Billings, John Kel- 
ler, Henry Adams and R. Blatsley. The location of this school was 
changed after a few years to the Enoch Baum farm, where a frame build- 
ing was erected. This was used for some years, when a house was built 
on the present site. The second schoolhouse was built about two miles 
south of the north line of the township, and near the center from east 
to west. This house was a log cabin, built in 1838 or 1839. The third 
house was built on the old Spencer farm, about half a mile north of Tas- 
sinong, in 1834 or 1835. This was a log house, about 18x20 feet. Among 
the early teachers here were Orilla Stoddard, Mr. Cannaday, Eggleston 
Smith, David White, Oliver Stoddard, Miss Jones, Miss Hoadley, Chris- 
topher Clines, Mr. Bloomfield and Miss Webster. The fourth schoolhouse 
was built in the White settlement about thirty-five years ago. This was 
a small frame, being the first frame schoolhouse of the township. The 
present house here is a fine brick, built in 1878, at a cost of $1,000. 
District No. 2 now has its third house, a brick, built about fifteen years 
ago, at a cost of §1,200. District No. 3 has its second house, built about 
ten years ago, at a cost of $800. No. 5 has its second house, a brick, 
built about nine years ago, at a cost of $800. The first house here was 
a frame. District No. 6 has its first house still standing ; it is a frame, 
probably thirty years old, and has been repaired many times. It cost 
about $500. The other three houses are frame. The Stoddard or Tas- 
sinong Schoolhouse was built in 1868. Ida Freer taught here during the 
winter of 1881-82, and the spring of 1882. Some of the teachers before 
Miss Freer, in about the following order, are : William Harris, Anna 
Bray, Mr. Hazelett, the Misses Baum, Miss Gary, Mr. Elliot, William Stod- 
dard, Ruth Marshall, Belle Stephens and William Bartholomew. In the 
old frame house, Emma Hammond, Alvin Bartholomew, Mr. Hutchinson 
and Mr. Bloomfield taught. David White and Eggleston Smith were 
among the first who taught in tlie old log house. The second house, a 


frame, was painted red, and stood about one- fourth of a mile south of the 
present site. The foUowing is a list of the teachers for the years indi- 
cated : 1880, in District No 1 — Priscilla Flake, Mjra Hunter and 
Sylvester Dill ; No 2 — Irena Baum and A. Knott ; No. 3 — Ida Freer 
and 0. C. Tarpenning ; No. 4 — Mary Evans, Viola Williams and J. H. 
Piatt ; No. 5— W. J. Harris ; No. 6— M. F. Bennett and Stuart Mac- 
kibbin ; No. 7 — Carrie A. Ray ; No. 8 — Alice Sanborn ; No. 9 — Ida 
Freer. For 1881, in No. 1— C. B. Diltz, R. B. Hubbard and Alice J. 
Sanborn ; No. 2 — Irena Baum ; No. 3 — Irena Baum, Myra Hunter and 
Eva Shepard ; No. 4 — Ida Freer and J. W. Smith ; No. 5 — Anna L. 
Bray and Ida Freer ; No. 6 — Carrie A. Ray ; No. 7 — Carrie A. Ray, 
Viola "Williams and M. M. Strong ; No. 8 — Carrie Bond and Anna 
Bray; No. 9 — Maud Shackelford. For 1882, up to this writing, in 
No. 1— Mary E. McHugh ; No. 2— Sylvester N. Dill, Carrie Ray, Mary 
L. Nickelson and Anna Bray ; No. 3 — Maud Shackelford and Ida Wins- 
low ; No. 5 — Ida Freer and Joseph M. Williamson; No. 6 — Carrie Ray 
and Dora Rosecrans ; No. 7 — Viola Williams and Oreste Sherman ; No. 
8 — Anna Bray, Oreste Sherman and Viola Williams ; No. 9 — Maud 

Cemeteries. — The Adams Cemetery is the largest in the township. 
Harriet J. Adams was the first one buried here. First, a suiall plat of 
about one-fourth of an acre was set apart as a burying ground. In 1867, 
an acre was added to the ground. This was purchased with money 
raised by subscription among the people of the country around. The 
ground cost about §60. This ground was deeded to the county. Burial 
here is free except a fee of $2.50 which is charged upon each lot of 8x19 
feet for the purpose of keeping the grounds in repair. The neighbors 
turner! out in force and fenced the ground. There is a private or family 
graveyard at White's Meeting House, or Salem Church, as it is often 

The first burial of the township was that of Mr. Agnew, who was 
frozen to death during a violent snow storm late in the fall of 1835. He 
had sent his family to David Bryant's the day before, and was following 
them in a wagon containing their household goods. A blinding snow 
began to fall, and he was unable to keep the ox-team that he was driving 
upon the Indian trail that they must follow in order to reach Pleasant 
Grove, Lake County, where Mr. Bryant lived, and where the anxious 
wife was awaiting Mr. Agnew's arrival. Becoming bewildered, he loosed 
the oxen and started on foot. He had gone but a short distance before 
he began traveling in a circle around a stick driven into the ground. 
Finally overcome by fatigue and cold, he gave way to the drowsiness of 
death. In the morning the body was taken up tenderly by loving hands 
and borne to Morgan Prairie, where it was placed to rest. 


Growth of Township. — Morgan Township carries the banner of the 
county for an agricultural township. As is usual with a strictly agri- 
cultural community, its growth has been steady and gradual. No sud- 
den influx of settlers has occurred since the Great Land Sale. 



Union Township — Physical Features — Eakly Settlement — First 
Election— Accidents and Incidents— The Page Murder— " The 
Hoosier's Nest "—Wheeler— Keligious Interests— Schools — Se- 
cret Societies— Cheese Factories— Miscellany. 

UN [ON TOWNSHIP was named in commemoration of the Federal 
Union, and is spoken of by many as the "Peaceful Township." 
It was first created and organized in 1836. It is five miles from east 
to west and six miles from north to south. There is nothing peculiarly 
striking in its physical make-up, though it, with Jackson Township, is 
the most diversified, with rolling lands and ridges, of any in the county ; 
yet, no part of the land is rendered unfit for easy cultivation from this 
cause. The only two streams of importance are Salt Creek (Wum-tah- 
gi-uck — Indian name for deer lick), which took its name from the numer- 
ous salt springs along its course, and Taylor Creek ; the former has its 
chief source in Sager's Pond, just south of the city of Valparaiso, and, 
after bisecting the eastern boundary of the township and flowing north, it 
cuts through the northern boundary, near the northeast corner, and 
empties into the Calumet. The latter takes its rise in Hollister's Lake 
(formerly Lake Ann), in the southern part of the township, flows north- 
east, and empties into Deep River. The only Lake of importance is 
Hollister's, and comprises some five or ten acres. At one time there was 
considerable marsh land (for which Indiana seems to be peculiarly re- 
markable), and in comparison with the same amount of territory in other 
States, there is still considerable ; but much of it has been drained and is 
now plowed, and of those marshes that remain, two or three yield quite an 
abundance of cranberries. The " Twenty-Mile Prairie " extends into 
the northern part. This was so named because, as an old settler facetiously 
said, it was "twenty miles from anywhere " — meaning, of course, that it 
was twenty miles (or some multiple of twenty) from the nearest trading- 
post, being twenty miles from Michigan City and La Porte, and forty 
miles from Chicago. The soil in the middle of the township is chiefly 
sandy. There is also some loam, and so much hard clay all over the 
township, that little corn is raised ; but it makes a good grazing country. 


Wheat, oats and rye are among the chief products. The southeastern 
part is the hilliest, and this, as well as the entire southern part, is cut up 
with ravines. To one passing along the beautiful roads intersecting the broad 
stretches of prairie, here and there, the song of the reaper and mower, 
on his every side, can suggest naught but thrift. In early times, deer 
were as numerous as sheep now, from five to ten a day being the "sport 
and prey" of the hunter's bullet. Bears were few, only now and then 
one straggling across the sparsely inhabited tract. There were a few 
prairie wolves, but many gray wolves furnished ample music for the youth- 
ful swain as he, in company with neighbors' daughters, went jaunting 
through the " dim, unventured wood." The lynx, badger, otter and wild- 
cat conspired to complete the medley in the forest's depths. 

Facts of First Settlement. — Wm. B. Blachly, Benjamin McCarty, 
James Walton, Mr. McAfee, John Brewer, John G. Forbes, B. Bunnel, 
Sylvester Forbes, Andrew Wilson, E. W. Fonts, Joseph Wilson, George 
W. Turner, Lewis Walton, Richard Henthorn, David Spurlock, John E. 
West, Joseph Willey, Wilford Parrott and Noah Fonts, were among the 
first settlers of Union Township, having come there, some of them in 
the spring of 1836, and some earlier. The following men were residents 
of Union Township in 1842, as shown by the enumeratian of polls : 
Ebenezer Blachly, Aaron Blachly, Cornelius Blachly, Boyd Blachly, 
Jeremiah Burge, William Brewer, Thomas Buel, John Brownson, B. B. 
Bunnel, James Burge, Isaac Brewer, James Congdon, J. M. Curtis, H. 
Cross, D. G. Crogan, John Currier, T. H. Fifield, S. Forbes, F. A. 
Forbes, H. G. Hollister, Stephen Hodsden, Benson Harris, Ira G. Har- 
ris, Levi Melvin, James McAfee, Lyman Melvin, Mr. McGruder, Wilford 
Parrott, Otis Robinson, D. P. Strong, 0. H. Serviss, Orson Strong, C. Spaf- 
ford, Harvey Smith, John Sturdevant, Philo Shepard, Nathan Sawyer, Ed- 
ward Saunders, R. P. Saunders, Abijah Taylor, G. W. Tabor, Edmund D. 
Wolf, James Walton, Stephen Welch, Joseph Willey, Joseph Wilson, H. B. 
Wells and John E.West. Total forty-eight. The above men, for the year 
1842, paid a total tax of $109.41, which was distributed to three funds — 
State tax, county tax and road tax. There were 6,973.51 acres of land, val- 
ued at §15,217, including improvements. Total amount of taxables, $24,- 
361. Total assessment of tax, $302.26. All this amount was not received, 
however. In those early times, the experiences of the hardy pioneers 
were indeed weird and romantic. Indiana was then the " far West," and 
where, away back in the '30's, the mournful howl of the gray wolf made 
those gloomy forests more gloomy, now we are startled with the shriek of 
the whistle and are found in the very midst of the din and bustle of 
this wonderful age of traffic. When we realize the incredible change in 
forty or fifty years, we are led to ask, Is there a limit ? Yet, even then, 


they had their amusements. If a settler wished to have a cabin erected, 
he invited the neighbors and they, unburdened with modern formalities, 
"hitched up their shoes" and flocked in from their rustic haunts. The 
cabin up, they whiled away their time in drinking beer, playing ball, etc. 
Dancing did not seem to be much in vogue, but it had its substitute in the 
"bussing-bee " which term may, perchance, carry a peculiar twang to the 
ear of the modern youth. They did their principal trading in Michigan 
City ; but they also traded in La Porte and Chicago. Their sleighs were 
rude aifairs, as might be expected, the runners consisting of saplings 
curved at either end, making them like cradle-rockers ; they were fast- 
ened together with the roughest cross-pieces, and the whole structure was 
drawn by oxen. They used the old "bull-tongue" plow, until this was 
replaced with the " Chicago Clipper." Their drags consisted of two 
pieces of rough timber crossed and fastened with wooden pegs for teeth. 
They dragged about twenty acres per day. All their farm machinery, 
which was indeed not very extensive, was of this rough nature. It wa8 
customary for one of the settlers to go to mill with the grain of his neigh- 
bors. The mill being some thirty miles away, and the motive power be-, 
ing several yoke of oxen, it took three days to go and return, and, for 
this manifestation of brotherly love, the recompense was one-third of the 
grain or flour. In 1838, John Curtis, in preference to going to mill, 
made a mortar by burning out the top of a stump, and pounded his corn 
with a pestle. The hams of deer sold at two and one-half cents per 
pound, but the shoulders could not be sold ; the hides were cut into 
"breaking-lashes." Calico was from twenty-five to forty cents per yard. 
The population of Union Township in 1860, was 867 ; 1870, 1057 ; 
1880, 1054. 

Elections. — By order of the first Board of Commissioners a local 
election was held, for the first time in this county's history, on April 30, 
1836, for the purpose of electing Justices of the Peace. We give a 
verbatim copy of a reference to those who voted at the first election held 
here: " At an election held at the house of George W. Turner, in Union 
Township, Porter County, and State of Indiana, on the 30th day of 
April. 1836, for the purpose of electing one Justice of the Peace, the 
following-named persons came forward and voted : John G. Forbes, B. 
Bunnel, Sylvester Forbes, Andrew Wilson, E. W. Fouts, James Walton, 
Joseph Wilson, George W. Turner, Lewis Walton, Richard Henthom, 
David Spurlock, John E. West, Joseph Willey, Wilford Parrott, Noah 
Fouts. James Walton, inspector." We also give a copy of the " Tally 
paper:" "We, the undersigned Inspector and Judge at an Election? 
held at the house of George W. Turner, in Union Township, Porter 
County, and State of Indiana, the oOth day of April, 1836, do certify 


that for the office of Justice of the Peace Joseph Willey got fifteen votes, 

and for the same office got votes. Testimony, E. \V. Fouts, 

Joseph Willey, Clerks ; James Walton, Inspector ; George W. Turner, 
B. Bunnel, Judges." It is seen that fifteen voted at the election in 1836. 
At the election of township officers, in the spring of 1882, the total 
number of votes polled, in Union Township, is 195 ; at the State elec- 
tion, held in October, 1880, the total number is 232 ; at the last Presi- 
dential election, held in November, 1880, the total number is 245. The 
following is an exact copy of a return made by a Justice of the Peace of 
Union Township, in 1836: 

State of Indiana, ) tt • rn , • 
-r, ., ' > Union Township. 

Porter County, j '■ 

John Burge, James Surge and Orson Strong was brought before me, Joseph Willey, 

a Justice of Peace, for trial for killen sum hogs, on or about the first day of December, 

IPSO, and I proceeded on the 8th day aforesaid to hear the proofs and allegations, and 

the defendants was acquitted for the above offense. Nicholas Mount, tried for profane 

swearing, committed, and paid his fine. 

(Signed) Joseph Wili.ey, J. P. 

The following persons voted at the Presidential election in Union 
Township, November, 1836, the election being had in a house formerly 
occupied by George W. Turner: William Huntsman, A. L. Ball, M. 
Pierce, Wm. S. Thornburg, James Walton, Joseph Willey, Jesse Pierce, 
John B. Turner, Moses Wilson, Samuel Wilson, Preston Blake, Abra- 
ham Lute. Lewis Walton, Miles Mattox, Moses Maxwell, James Hurd, 
Joseph Wilson and John Burge. Total, 18. 

Accidental, Criminal, Incidental, etc. — In November, 1872, while 
Royal White, of Lake County, and his brother-in-law, McColby, were at 
the Cascade Mills, Mr. White was accidentally killed. While waiting 
for their grist to be ground, they passed away the time in hunting ducks 
on the mill-pond. After an absence of an hour or two, they returned and 
deposited their guns in the wagon, after which they hitched the team, 
and, as McColby was preparing to drive, Mr. White reached into the 
wagon box and took the gun by the muzzle, and, in pulling it toward 
him, one of the hammers caught on a sack, and the barrel, heavily loaded 
with buckshot, was discharged, the load passing through the wagon box 
and entering his right breast. McColby ran into the mill and notified 
A. G. Hardestv, who closed the mill and went to the scene of the acci- 
dent. The wounded man was on his knees, drenched in his own blood, 
with both hands pressed to the wound, but he arose and walked to the 
house of David Hardestv. Dr. Vincent, of Deep River, was called, 
then Dr. Pratt, of Crown Point, but he was beyond the reach of surgical 
skill. Splinters of the wagon box, two inches long, and portions of gun- 
wadding, were taken from his lungs, a few hours before death. He died 
in about three weeks. His remains were placed in the Crown Point 


Cemetery. In 1840, Gen. Brady passed through this county from 
Michigan with 1,100 Indians. They camped for the night on Section 
20 of Union Township, and Dr. Cornelius Blachly, on whose prem- 
ises they located, says that when morning came, the chief, who became 
dissatisfied from some cause, stepped to the door of his tent, and, by a 
signal from him, every warrior sprang to his feet, with a gun, ready for 
action. The General told them that, although they had the mastery now 
and could butcher them all, yet " The Great Father at Washington 
would be avenged." They finally quieted down and marched oS". This 
year was also known as the year of the great wheat blight. 

The summer of 1836 was wet, and the harvest was backward. From 
1838 to 1842-43 there was snow but once, and that was in 1841, when 
it was five inches deep for two weeks. The winter of 1842-43 
was one of the severest in the history of this county ; great numbers 
starved to death, and many froze ; the snow was twelve inches deep in 
April. In 1844-45, New Year's Day was warm ; it was dusty and dry ; 
the winter was unusually mild. In 1839, nearly every able-bodied man 
in Union Township left for the gold fields of California. In 1864, New 
Year's Day was remarkably cold. Twenty-Mile Prairie was once an in- 
land lake, with occasional islands. Boyd Blachly was the first white man 
that ever ran a wagon from Valparaiso to Deep River. He, with his 
brothers and one McCarty, also opened the road from Valparaiso to Deep 
River, by hitching ten yoke of oxen to a tree some fourteen or fifteen 
inches through at the base, and dragging it through the long grass. Mr. 
Blachly has a relic that few, if any, in this county possess. It is a rifle 
that his grandfather used in the Revolutionary war. The barrel is five 
feet or more in length, and its breech is graced with an old-fashioned 
flint lock. It was loaded with an ounce ball and nine buckshot. *' Tell 
them," said he, " that you have seen a gun that was used seven years in 
the Revolution, declaring independence to you as well as me. It has 
killed many a Tory." 

Josephus Wolf owns more land than any one man in the county — be- 
tween 3,000 and 4,000 acres. He owns part of three sections in Union 
Township. The death of Mrs. McGruder was probably the first recorded 
in the township. The only post ofiice is at Wheeler, which is the only 
village of any importance in the township. Cornelius Blachly and father 
were the first physicians that settled in town. 

Chauncey F. Page murdered his helpless and innocent wife, as well 
as his wife's mother. He murdered her through jealousy. He also at- 
tempted the death of Miss Fredericka Ludolph. Page had been married 
about two years, and, being a watch-maker, was absent a good deal. His 
young wife was one of more than ordinary mental qualities and beauty, 


and being very fond of society, she was often found there. He would not 
enjoy life, nor would he allow her to enjoy it. Troubles arose in the 
family, and she was forced to return to her mother's house. January 15, 
1867, found Father Long visiting his son, Christopher, on Coifee Creek. 
Mr. Long's house stood just across the road from the house of his son-in- 
law, Ephraim Crisman, at Union Mills. Page came to the house of his 
mother-in-law one night and demanded admittance. Being refused by 
Mrs. Long, with an ax he shattered the door, and shot down Mrs. Long, 
who was standing in the hall. He then murdered his wife, who was in 
bed. He was on the point of leaving the house, when he discovered Miss 
Ludolph's feet protruding from under the bed clothes ; he said he felt 
sorry, but she must die. She begged piteously, and promised never to 
tell, but he shot her through the head ; the ball passing just back of her 
eyes. He then fired another shot through her right knee, and one through 
her right arm. After this, he beat her over the head with a chair, but 
feeling her breathe, he pounded her once more. She was conscious, but 
held her breath. His next act was to saturate the bed-quilt with lamp 
oil and set it on fire. The burning building was seen by Homer Smith 
from the house of Mr. Eglin, a short distance east, where he was attend- 
ing a party. He at once gave the alarm. Miss Ludolph was found stand- 
ing at the gate, crimson with her own blood, and almost unconscious. 
Mr. Smith wrapped his coat around her and took her to her father's house. 
She still lives, though badly scarred, and since then, has visited friends in 
Germany. The murderer took a change of venue to La Porte County, 
where he was tried, found guilty, and sentenced to the penitentiary for 
life. After many unsuccessful attempts at suicide, he succeeded in taking 
his life. He was found in his cell, in Michigan City Prison, suspended 
by the neck. 

Hoosier Nest. — As one glances over a map of Union Township, and 
sees, not far from the western boundary, so suggestive a title as a " Hoosier 
Nest," he cannot help but feel that there is a history connected with the 
" Nest" that is decidedly peculiar. In 1835, James Snow put up one of the 
first frame buildings in the county, getting his lumber from La Porte. In 
this, it is said, he kept the first store in the township. This store was on 
the old Sac trail. In 1837, it was purchased by Oliver Shepard, from 
Connecticut. Being a "down-Easter," and thinking it would be entirely 
appropriate, he stuck out the sign "Hoosier Nest." This could not fail 
to attract the eye of the wayfarer, and, in time, the Hoosier Nest came 
to be known, it is maintained, five hundred miles away, in most any direc- 
tion. Mr. Green kept this romantic inn after Shepard, and Green's suc- 
cessor was a Mr. Peters, who, with two wives and a son-in-law, lies 
slumbering beneath the green sod, not a stone's throw from the old 


"Nest," which, refitted and re-adorned, stands a "silent witness of the 
change." Jeremiah Burge has found a place for it in the background, 
and on its old site has erected a fine brick structure, which he still occu- 
pies in his old age. and seems to be ever ready to sit down and tell to a 
curious listener the many reminiscences that hover around what he has 
since transformed into a horse barn. 

Sunday Schools and Churches. — Benson Harris and Ira G. Harris, 
of Union, and George Bronson, of Portage Township, started the first 
Sunday school in these parts. It was established in 1838 or 1839. Al- 
though the place for meeting was just across the line, in Portage Town- 
ship, yet, two of its founders residing in Union, and, in fact, the school 
being more intimately connected with Union than with Portage, it is un- 
doubtedly proper to blend the history of these primitive religious efforts 
with that of Union Township. Not the least remarkable thing of all was 
their decided ignorance of the necessary equipments of a Sunday school, 
and the proper manner of conducting it. For instance, they were at a 
loss to know whether or not spelling books would be the correct things to 
use; and they preferred to have a suggestion or two as to its strict pro- 
priety, before they allowed the boys and girls to sit together; furthermore, 
as to whether they should take their dinner, prepared at the bountiful 
board at home, or feast on faith, they were again in the dark. But such 
preliminaries were of little moment, when those sturdy pioneers were so 
determined to heed the promptings of a Christian spirit. It was not long 
till the school came to have an average attendance of eighty. In times 
when the nearest neighbor was far away, this enrollment was truly won- 
derful. They came from all over Union Township and townships sur- 
rounding, and even from Lake County. Sometimes the attendance was 
more than one hundred. From this Sunday school some ten schools 
directly grew. We little know, as do those then inexperienced, though 
true-hearted settlers (the few that still live), what an influence they ex- 
erted, and what harvests are being now reaped from seed sown by them. 

In the spring of 1836, Elder Alpheus French, a Baptist minister, 
preached at "Blachly's Corners.'* The services were conducted in a 
grove, and there were about twenty-five in attendance, some coming a dis- 
tance of eight or nine miles. This was undoubtedly the first Baptist 
class in Porter County. Hickory Chapel, on the Joliet Road, was prob- 
ably the second church in the township. The Methodist Church, the 
pioneer of church organizations in this county, had for its first Presiding 
Elder the Rev. Richard Hargrave. Jacob Colclazier, a missionary, held 
the first quarterly meeting in this county in a private residence on Twenty- 
Mile Prairie, at the Hoosier Nest, in January, 1840. Rev. James C. 
Brown was instrumental in building up and organizing the church at 


Wheeler. Union Centre Baptist Cliurcb was started by letter granted 
from the First Baptist Church, of Valparaiso, bearing date April 10th, 
1858, under the supervision of Deacons Cornelius Blachlj, Orrin Peck 
and Captain Wood; they have a fine house of worship, ic having been re- 
modeled and painted through the energy of J. W. Peck and others. It 
is located in a fine grove at Union Centre. There is no resident pastor. 
During the fall of 1875, through the efforts of Elder French, this society 
received a number of additions to its membership. In 1872, the United 
Brethren formed an organization at Union Centre. The upper story of 
the church building was fitted for church purposes, and the lower story 
for school purposes. Stephen Jones was the first traveling Methodist 
preacher in the county. The salary of young preachers \yas about ^100 
per year. Older preachers were paid in proportion to the size of their 

Schools and Secret Societies. — The first schoolhouse in the township 
was at the Hoosier Nest, in Twenty-Mile Grove. It was a log affair 
18x20 feet, with a clapboard roof and puncheon floor. The teacher's desk 
consisted of a board resting on pins driven into the wall. The second 
school was at Blachly's Corners. They recited grammar in concert 
Now schools are scattered throughout the township, and the neat appear- 
ance which the school buildings present, suggests the good judgment of 
the farmers, and foretells their future educational welfare. 

Evergreen Lodge, No. -103, F. & A. M., was organized at Wheeler 
May 25, 1869, with the following first officers : Andrew J. Harrison, W. 
M.; D. S. Curtis, S. W.; Miller Shinabarger, J. W. In 1870, the pres- 
ent hall, a large two-story frame building, was purchased at a cost of 
$650 ; this is fully paid for. The present membership is thirty-one, and 
the lodge is in a flourishing condition. Magenta Lodge, No. 288, I. 0. 
0. F., was organized at Wheeler November 20, 1867, with the following 
charter members : Josephus Wolf, George Sigler, Thomas J. Stonax, 
Dr. H. Green and Daniel Saunders. They own a good, well-furnished 
hall, worth about $300, and the present membership is thirteen. 

Milli7ig and Merchandising. — In the spring of 1837, Boyd, Eben, 
Cornelius, Aaron and Josephus Blachly, erected the first saw-mill in the 
county, on a branch of Salt Creek. With their sash-saw and flutter wheel 
they sawed about 1,000 feet of lumber daily. Jacob Axe framed the mill. 
Benjamin Long had the second saw-mill in the township. He sawed 
about 2,000 feet per day. Some twelve or thirteen years ago, there was 
located, on the head waters of Little Salt Creek, a portable steam saw- 
mill. It was operated about two years, with an average of 2,000 feet per 
day. Boyd Blachly had the first carding machine in the county, and the 
only one in the township. It was built in 1843 or 1844. He averaged 


about 150 pounds of wool per day. He also fulled and dressed the cloth. 
It has since been owned by Staffer Brothers, Thomas Ailesworth, Wil- 
son & Hardesty and A. Wilson, the present owner. The first grist-mill 
in the township was conducted by the Blachly Brothers, in the building 
with their saw-mill. It was built in 1846. They used one set of buhrs 
and a turbine wheel, and ground corn only, averaging about eight bushels 
per hour. The Cascade Grist-Mills were built by David Hardesty, on 
Taylor Creek. They were built about fourteen years ago, on to a small 
brick mill which was constructed by him eighteen or nineteen years ago. 
The structure is some 18x40 feet, and two stories high. He put in two 
sets of buhrs, and, at that time, had the only overshot wheel in the county. 
David, son of Benjamin Long, and George Pierce, established, in B. 
Long's old saw-mill, what is now known as the Union Grist-Mill. George 
operated the mill awhile, but he gave way to his nephew, George W. 
Pierce, the present owner. It is located on Salt Creek. John Harris 
and Charles Arnold were prominent in the establishment of the first cheese 
factory in the township. It was established nine or ten years ago, and 
named '' Cheese Factory No. 1 " ("No. 2 " being in Portage Township). 
From twelve to twenty cheeses per day were made. A. E. Woodhull 
bought No. 1, and still runs it. 

The "Union Cheese Factory '' was built in the spring of 1879, by 
the farmers of the neighborhood. The stock was divided into forty 
shares, and held by about twenty farmers. The cost of the structure was 
about $1,500. W. H. Jones was first President, and Charles Arnold 
first Secretary. Present officers are J. Burge, President; P.Robinson, 
Secretary ; Farmers National Bank, Valparaiso, Treasurer ; W. Jones, 
W. C. Janes and Stephen Hodson, Directors. Charles Arnold, of 
Wheeler, was the first cheese maker, and was succeeded by W. J. 
Wagoner, of Canada, the present incumbent. The capacity is 12,000 
pounds of milk per day. The average daily consumption is about 6,500 
pounds and 600 pounds of cheese. The average consumption of milk in 
Cheese Factory No. 1 is nearly as much. 

James Snow had the first store in the township. James Blachly and 
and his son Edgar had the second store, at Blachly's Corners. It was 
there some five or six years before the Fort Wayne road was run through. 
Among the first merchants were Daniel and Samuel Sigler, and A. E. 
Woodhull, of Wheeler. 

Wheeler was laid out in 1858 by T. A. E. Campbell, who owned, at 
that time, the entire tract upon which the town is located. Three busi- 
ness houses were built this year : First, the frame now standing back 
of Mr. Sigler's store, erected by Mr. Monfort, and first occupied, in the 
fall of 1859, by Sigler Brothers, who placed therein general merchandise 


valued at $4,000, and increased in a year or two to about $10,000. Second, 
the Wheeler House, built by George Kimball, and conducted by him 
some five years, with Ichabod Hall successor, and abandoned about ten 
years ago. Third, a small saloon built by Carroll & Harner, and 
conducted about one year. Several saloons have been started since 
then, but in all cases have been short-lived. George Longshore was 
among the first residents, and was the first Postmaster. He was suc- 
ceeded by George Kimball, who was followed by Samuel Sigler, the 
present incumbent. The first blacksmith shop was built in 1862 by D. 
McHenry. Dr. Arnold is at present the only resident physician at 
Wheeler. There are at present two business establishments : Samuel 
Sigler, who carries a large stock of general merchandise, and D. B. 
Lott, who conducts a general store, owned by A. E. Woodhull, of 



Jackson Township— Creation and Early Settlement— Topography 
—Erection of Villages— Industrial Growth— Education and 
Religion— Cemeteries— Catalogue of Early Settlers— Election 
OF August, 1836— The Banner Federal Township. 

THIS township was created at the time of the general division in 1836. 
It is stated in the county atlas that it was named for Lemuel Jackson, 
but old settlers, who ought to know, claim that it was named for Andrew 
Jackson. The first election was held Saturday, April 30, 1836, at the 
house of A. K. Paine. Samuel Olinger was Inspector. 

Physical Characteristics. — In surface the township is quite broken or 
hilly. It is better adapted to fruit and stock than to grain, although fine 
crops of wheat, oats and corn are raised. It was all heavily timbered 
originally, but now there are not many '' monarchs of the forest" left, 
although there is much fine young timber. Since a great city has grown 
up so near, the natives have ceased to deaden and fell and burn. Much 
cord wood is cut and shipped to Chicago. Clear Lake, on the east, is cut 
through the center by the county line. Part of its beach is sandy, and 
the rest is muck. On Section 16 there is a small but deep lake, covering, 
perhaps, five acres. There is another small one on Section 16, south of 
the Cady Marsh. Both of these furnish an abundance of good water for 
stock. The water-shed runs through the southern part of the township. 
This parts the waters of the two great gulfs. There is said to be on this 
water-shed a spring or spring marsh, the waters of which divide, one part 
flowing through the Sunny South to the Gulf of Mexico, while the other 


part goes through the great lakes and the St. Lawrence River to the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. On this water-shed are found many bowlders which 
seem to indicate that during the period of glaciation this was for a time 
the southern limit of the glaciers. The soil of the township is very 
varied. Even in the same field many different kinds of soil may be 

Early Events, Mills, etc. — In early times Jackson Township was a 
fine hunting ground. Its heavy forests made a fine retreat for all ani- 
mals native to the region. A bear was killed by Alfred Williams about 
twenty-five years ago. He was out squirrel hunting and came unexpect- 
edly upon this monarch of the woods. The log-rollings and house-rais- 
ings that the primeval forests of Jackson have witnessed are numbered by 
the score, but they are of the past, and most of the brawny arms that 
felled the trees and hewed their trunks are folded in the sleep of peace 
that knows no waking. The good cheer and hospitality of the pioneer 
have given place to our modern, enterprising, but selfish civilization. The 
first, last and only tavern in the township was kept by a man named Page, 
south of the Page Marsh, as early as 1836. The marsh took its name 
from this man. The tavern was built of logs, and there was a log stable 
also. The road was chan<2;ed, which chanore caused the tavern to go down 
and Page to move away. There was at one time a pigeon roost south of 
Page Marsh that covered a hundred acres or more. Here they made 
their nests and hatched their young. They used the beach trees princi- 
pally, and there would be as many as a hundred nests upon one tree. 
When the squabs were almost large enough to fly, the people would cut 
the trees so as to get them. L. Jackson built the first saw-mill on Coffee 
Creek in 1834-35. Olinger had a saw-mill on Coffee Creek as early as 
1838. Abe Hall and Dilley builc one about the same time. Jackson 
had one burnt* soon afterward. Casteel had a saw and grist mill farther 
down the stream. These have all been gone for many years. In 1846, 
Beech and Baum built one on Fish Creek. This is now the property of 
the heirs of Loren Hall. It is not running at present. George B. 
Smith and Becker now have the only grist-mill in the township that is 
running. It is situated on Coffee Creek, and was built in 1856. It has 
two run of buhrs for wheat and one for corn. A distillery was estab- 
lished by a Mr. Enox at Casteel Mill. In 1849, it burst its boiler and 
went down to rise no more. 

Schools, Teachers, etc. — The first school taught in the township was 
held in a log cabin dwelling on Section 26. The site is now owned by J. 
P. Noble. The first schoolhouse was built in 1838, one and a half miles 
east of Jackson Centre. It was a log cabin about 16x18 feet, with a 
Yankee chimney and greased paper for windows. Jane Jones taught the 


first term and received a salary of ^1 per week, from which she had to 
pay her board. In IS-tO, Chancey Moore, the first male teacher, was 
employed. The second schoolhouse was built at Carter's, in 1846, and 
made a good summer blacksmith shop after it was no longer used for 
school purposes. At first the civil township formed one school district ; 
now there are seven districts. The buildings are all frame, and not in 
very good repair. The following are some of the teachers of the township, 
with the dates of their work and the price per day paid them for their serv- 
ices : 1874, District No. 1, Lizzie R. Andrews, $1.75; 1875, No. 2, Liz- 
zie R. Andrews, $1.75 ; 1874, No. 3, William M. Cobbs, $1.75 ; No. 5, Ol- 
ive L. Wood, $1.75 ; No. 6, R. A. Harte, $1.75 ; 1875, No. 2, M. E. Alyea, 
$2.00 ; No. 7, Carrie E-. Hall, $1.75 ; No. 3, Nettie Costler, $1.00 ; No. 7, 
Clara Jones, 85 cents; No. 7, AUie Robbins, $1.25; No. 1, W. M. Winters, 
$1.75; No. 4, Nettie Castle, $1.50 ; No. 5, Olive L. Wood, $1.50 ; No. 2, 
Louise S. Bliss, $1.25 ; No. 3, S. B. Shaw, $1.50 ; No. 4, Mary E. Alyea, 
$1.75 ; and A. M. Melville, $1.75. The teachers employed for the fall 
of 1882 are as follows: In District No. 1, Belle Ilenton, $1.25 ; No. 2, 
Orra Paine, $1.25 ; No. 3, Milton Winton, $1.50 ; No. 4, Clara Jones, 
$1.25; No. 5, Nora Paine, $1.25; No. 6, Belle Shinabarger, $1.25 ; No. 
7, Martha Williams, $1.25. It is the policy of the present Trustees to 
employ home talent. 

Villages. — The villages of Jackson are numerous, but small. They 
are Jackson Centre, Burdick, Sumanville and Steamburg. The latter 
place is now non est. At one time it was as large as five houses and a 
store. When the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad was built, a station was 
established over the line in Washington Township, and Steamburg united 
with Coburg by moving over, and thus lost its name and identity. Suman- 
ville is a very small ville in the southwestern part of the township on the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. A post office was established here about 
nine years ago, with Col. I. C. B. Suman as Postmaster. He held the 
office until about two years since, when Robert S. Greer took it, and still 
keeps it. A Mr. Jones established a store here when the railroad was 
built, but kept open only four or five months. Another store was started 
here in 1881, but was closed in about four months. Jackson Centre re- 
ceived its name from the township, and its central location therein. A 
post office was started here about 1856, with E. H. Johnson as Postmas- 
ter; after him, S. H. Runnels had the office for a time. It then went 
down, and seven years passed before it was opened again. When started 
again, it was in the hands of James S. Sanders for two years, when it 
came into the hands of the present incumbent, William Hill, who has 
handled the mail for six years. The first store here was established in 
1874, by J. S. Sanders, and sold to E. Hill in 1876. In 1881, he sold 


to John Sackman, who now keeps a small stock of goods. Burdick is a 
place of about twelve houses, situated on the railroad, in the northwestern 
part of the township. It was named from A. C. Burdick, of Coldwater, 
Michigan, a lumber dealer. The place was started in 1870. The post 
office was established in 1871, with J. M. Burdell as Postmaster. From 
Mr. Burdell it passed into the hands of the present incumbent, 0. J. Sack- 
man, who has held it for five years. Peterson Anderson, a Swede, laid 
out the first lots, and Simpson Brothers built the first house. The town 
has been built up and sustained on the lumber traffic. Sackman and 
Williams began business here in 1877, and now handle from 6,000 to 7,- 
000 cords of wood per year. Lush & Co., of Goshen, Ind., have cut 
about 1,000,000 feet of lumber here in the last year. 0. J. Sackman 
has a good, general stock of goods, and does a large business for the size 
of the place. Loveland & Co., of Chicago, have here two kilns for burn- 
ing charcoal. These have been built about two years, and cost not less 
than ^500 each. Both of these will burn about 72,000 bushels in a year. 

Churches, Cemeteries, etc. — The Quakers who settled in this town- 
ship at an early day erected on the site of what is now called the Quaker 
Schoolhouse, a double hewed-log church. In this connection it may be 
remarked that no authentic history of the Quakers can be collected at 
this late day. Before the war, the Methodists bought the old schoolhouse 
at Jackson Centre, and built an addition to it so as to use it for church 
purposes. They still use it. The first members of this organization 
were: Jefi'erson Zenu, Mr. Massey, Elijah Hill, Mr. Hamilton, Joseph 
Shumaker, John B. Johnson, Jacob Carter, Abraham Ashey and 
Chancey Moore, who was class leader for a number of years. At one 
time there was a large class here, but now it is quite small. There have 
been services at Jackson Centre for over thirty years. 

There is a burying-ground on Section 27. Here an infant of 
Jacob Carter's was buried in 1845. This is the largest in the town- 
ship. One and one-half miles east of Jackson Centre is what is called 
the Quaker Burying- Ground. It is just beside the schoolhouse of Dis- 
trict No. 1. Lansing's Burying-Ground is one mile west of Jackson 
Centre. It is not now used. Noble's Burying-Ground is eighty rods 
east of Oliver Stell's. It has not been used for thirty-seven years. The 
last one buried here was a stranger from New York. 

First Settlers. — Asahel K. Paine, who settled here in 1834, built the 
first house, and has the honor of being the first settler in Jackson Town- 
ship. In the same year came John P. Noble, who arrived in April ; H. 
E. Woodruff, in June ; Mr. Hamilton, Calvin Crawford, Samuel dinger, 
Mr. Massey, L. Jackson, E. Casteel, F. Oliver, D. Page, Joseph Wright and 
Johnson Crawford ; in 1835, William Barnard, Benjamin Malsby and 


many others. Jacob Carter came in 1837, and Oliver Stell in 1844. 
Among the other early settlers, are Jesse McCord, who came in 1837 
and erected a blacksmith shop on Section 26 ; Archer Dumond, James P. 
Cain, Eli B. Lanson, Iliram Dilley and Walter and William Thompson. 
In 1836, a man named Shinabarger lived where Steamburg was built 
later, and entertained travelers, but did not keep a regular tavern. Even 
at that time the building looked old, and although, as stated above, so far 
as known, Mr. Paine was the first settler, yet this would indicate that 
others had preceded him. 

Elections. — The first election in the township was held at the resi- 
dence of A. K. Paine, in 1836. Mr. Paine's place was at that elec- 
tion named Paineville. Mr. J. P. Noble, now of Westville, La Porte 
Co., carried the returns to Valparaiso. H. E. Woodruff was elected Jus- 
. tice of the Peace. Adam Hamilton was elected to the same ofiice in 

At an election held at the house of William Eaton, in Jackson Town- 
ship, December 24, 1836, to elect an Associate Judge in the place of 
Lemuel Jackson, resigned, the following vote was polled : George G. 
Salyer, Solomon Cheney, William Eaton, Thomas Clark, J. M. Buel, 
Warner Winslow, George Shegley, William Sheridan, William Walker, 
William Frakes, John Bishop, George Cline, George Willey, Washington 
Ault, James Blair, Martin Rees, G. W. Coghill, P. H. Coghill, Edmund 
Billings, Jacob Fleming, Robert Fleming, Benjamin Saylor, Michael 
Ault, Isaac Morgan, White B. Smith, George W. Smith, Miller Blachly, 
Nelson H. Smith, Robert William, Allen Baxter, William Bingham, Ben- 
jamin Bingham, P. D. Cline, Jeremiah Hamell, Samuel Eiler, S. L. 
Cannon, Daniel Droulinger, Isaac Werninger, Warner Pierce and Richard 
Clark. At this election Seneca Ball received for the above office forty 
votes. John Bishop, William Sheridan and William Frakes were Judges 
of Election. The following appeared in The Western Ranger, August 11, 
1847 : " The strong Federal township in this county is called Jackson. 
This is disgraceful. A township in which three-fourths of the people are 
Federalists and Abolitionists should never bear the name of the illustrious 
Jackson ! Some of our friends have suggested that the name be changed 
to Tom Corwin, and we go for it distinctly. No name would be more 




Liberty Township— Land Sales and Claims— Early Settlements- 
Incidents or Interest— Saw-Mills, Grist-Mills, Distilleries, etc. 
—First Election of Officers— Schools and Chltrches— Secret 

'T'TT'HAT is now known as Liberty Township, with an additional tier of 
▼ V sections on the north, consisting of thirty square miles in the 
northern half of the county, was formerly attached to La Porte County, 
and was included in the large tract of Government land sold at auction 
at La Porte in 1835, from which were formed the counties of Porter and 
Lake. At this sale, the land speculators, with their usual shrewdness, 
offered a quarter-section to the settlers who agreed not to bid against 
them, and thus they obtained -a two-fold benefit. They bought their land 
at a low price, and secured its rise in value by the improvements made 
upon the part given away. Liberty Township being heavily timbered 
was especially valuable to them, and the greater part was obtained, and 
held long after other portions of the county were quite densely populated. 
As a natural result, this township has been considerably retarded in its 
development, but it has advantages in soil and location which, in time, 
will make it the equal of any spot in the State. In another way the 
Government favored these unscrupulous speculators to the disadvantage 
of the settlers. Much trouble and annoyance were occasioned by the 
settlers locating upon land which, at the time of the treaties with the 
Pottawatomies, became what were known as " floats," or reservations. 
These "floats" consisted of a claim upon a quarter, a half, or a whole 
section of land, or sometimes more than one section. The claims could 
be bought of the Indians or half-breeds, who were unconscious of their 
value, for a mere song, and of this the traders and speculators took 
advantage. The settlers became much incensed, and sent several peti- 
tions to Washington, praying for an adjustment of the system. One of 
these claims was laid upon a quarter-section in the northeast part of the 
township, owned by William Snavely, and which he had bought of 
William Crawford. This led to what is commonly called the "Snavely 
war." Peter White became the owner of the claim, and he took action 
to remove Snavely from his land, but this was not to be accomplished so 
easily. Sheriff Charles G. Merrick, with a posse of men, was sent to 
remove him and obtain possession, but he, like the yeomen of England, 


considered his house his castle, and resolved, with the help of his sons, to 
defend it. The Sheriff and his men, after several vain attempts to gain 
admittance at the doors or windows, bethought themselves of the roof, 
which they immediately ascended, and began to remove, whereupon 
Snavely climed to the loft and fired upon them, wounding one of them 
severely. Supposing by the commotion caused that he had killed him, 
he became frightened and attempted to escape, but was arrested and 
taken to jail. As the man shot soon recovered, he was discharged upon 
the payment of a fine and the relinquishment of his land. Since his 
death, his heirs have obtained a partial compensation. 

Forest Productions and Water Supply. — The surface of this town- 
ship is generally very level, and in the western and northwestern portions 
there is considerable swamp land. The soil consists of a dark loam, or 
clay, and, when properly drained, will become as good land as there is in 
the county. This soil seems especially favorable for the production of 
timber. The most valuable is oak, of which the forests produced the 
finest quality. The other varieties are maple, hickory, ash and elm, with 
more limited quantities of black walnut, butternut and white wood. 
Were the trees standing to-day which forty years ago were split into rails 
or burned up in the log, they would be of the greatest value to the citi- 
zens. Two creeks of considerable size, with three small lakes or ponds, 
form the chief water supply. Salt Creek, which widens to form one of 
the ponds, passes through the southwestern part, and furnishes considera- 
ble water-power. Long Lake, in the southeastern part, the largest of the 
three, is connected by a narrow channel with Flint Lake in Centre Town- 
ship. Coflfee Creek runs through the northeastern part, and furnishes 
power for several mills along its course. It widens to form the third 

Early Settlements and Improvements. — Probably the first settler of 
Liberty Township, or at least one of the very first, was Owen Crum- 
packer, who came from Union County, Ind., in June, 1834. He settled 
on the place now owned by Mrs. E. P. Cole. During the same year, 
William Downing, Jerry Todhunter and Elijah Casteel came also. The 
next year, Peter Ritter settled on the place now owned by Amanda Mott. 
Thomas Clark, commonly known as " Bee-hunter" Clark, located on the 
place owned at present by H. Kimball. During the next two years their 
number was increased by the arrival of John Dillingham, E. P. Cole, 
William Gosset, George Hesing, Asa Zane, Ira Biggs, David Hughart, 
John White, Frederick Wolf, Samuel dinger, Daniel Kesler, John Sef- 
ford, M. Blayloch, Jerry Todhunter, Abram Snodgrass, Solomon Habany, 
William Calhoun and others ; also, Joseph and Jesse Morgan, who settled 
in what is now a part of Westchester Township. At this time the people 


were commonly divided into three settlements known as the Dillingham, 
in the eastern part, Zane, in the central, and Salt Creek in the western. 
At the latter place, immediately after his arrival in 1836, William Gos- 
set began the erection of his saw and grist-mill, and thus the settlers of 
this part of the county were spared the necessity of going forty or fifty 
miles for their lumber and flour. William Gosset also built the firr^t 
frame building in Liberty during this year. This was one story, and 
about twenty-four feet long by thirty-two feet wide. It is still in existence, 
having been used successively for a church, schoolhouse and kitchen. 

The people of the Dillingham settlement were more closely connected 
with those in Jackson Township. A mill and distillery having been 
erected on Coifee Creek by Casteel and Blayloch, they had the best of 
facilities for supplying themselves with aqua vitce and the "staif of life." 
Previous to the erection of the distillery, John Dillingham, who usually 
sheltered the " wayfaring " men that reached the settlement, dealt out the 
former article in quantities of not less than a quart. He, of course, un- 
like the " moonshiners " of the Alleghanies, paid a " government license." 

The first houses in the Zane settlement were built by Asa Zane and 
Ira Biggs in the early part of 1835. During this year, David and Will- 
iam Hughart came from Greenbrier County, W. Va., having been forty- 
five days in making the journey. They built a house sixteen by twenty 
feet, in which both families, numbering fifteen persons, lived for several 
months. A camp of Pottawatomie Indians was situated within a hun- 
dred yards of their house, and in the spring they came regularly to make 
sugar, of which they prepared large quantities. This they exchanged 
with the traders for whisky. The Indians, when not crazed with fire- 
water, lived at peace with the whites, and scarcely ever " offered show of 

One day, in the fall of 1835, four or five of the red skins who were 
returning from Bailly's trading-post, having become, as they termed it, 
" cockazy," attempted to enter the house of David and William Hughart. 
The women, who were alone, were badly frightened, barred the door, and 
climbed into the loft. After much whooping and several vain attempts to 
break down the door with their tomahawks, the Indians departed just in 
time to escape the wrath of the Hughart brothers who were returning 
home from a hunt. William Hughart's wife was so badly frightened that 
she died soon after from the effects of the shock, and his mother did not 
long survive her. These were the first deaths that occurred within the 
limits of this township. 

Pioneer Experiences. — Though these early pioneers were not com- 
pelled to endure the dangers incident to those who crossed the Alle- 
ghanies fifty years before, they lived amid their cares and labors with no 


comforts, no conveniences, no roads. They were forced to be self-reliant 
and dependent on their own resources. Their bread was often made from 
meal mixed with water and salt, and baked on a split shingle before the 
open fire. Their meat, when they had it, was usually the flesh of deer or 
other game killed in the woods. For such necessaries as they bought 
they had to go, at first to South Bend, afterward to Michigan City. 

They knew little of the so-called pleasures of to-day, yet unhampered 
by conventionalities they had enjoyments none the less rare. The raisings, 
log-rollings, shuckings, "bussing bees," and, occasionally, a wedding, at 
which " the cup that cheers " flowed freely, and the " wee, sma' " hours 
were spent in tripping it on the " light fantastic toe," furnished recreation 
suited to their life. The first of these latter occurrences was occasioned 
by the marriage of William Hughart to Elizabeth Zane on June 14, 
1836, by Elijah Casteel, Justice of the Peace. The next was that of 
Daniel W. Lyons and Anna Dillingham February 6, 1837. On April 6, 
of the same year, William Calhoun and Sarah Sefford were married by 
J. C. Spurlock, and George Humes and Sarah Crawford by Thomas J. 
Wyatt, the latter couple in a small log house near where John Johnson 
now lives. This was the occasion of unusual festivity, and was the first 
important society event of the settlement. Some thirty or forty invited 
guests, young and old, were present, and as the house contained only one 
room, fourteen by sixteen feet, with two beds in it, the necessity for 
economy of space is apparent. The Justice and the father of the bride 
having indulged rather too freely in something stronger than cofi'ee, 
became oblivious, it is said, to the surrounding festivities. The younger 
portion of the company, wishing " to thread the mazy," were at a loss to 
know how to dispose of the fallen heroes, as both beds had been used for 
wardrobes and hat-racks. The difiiculty, however, was soon solved by 
rolling the worthy pair under the beds, and the joy of the dance was un- 
confined until " night's candles were burnt out." 

Early Industries and Roads. — The first saw-mill in the township was 
built by Samuel dinger, on Damon Run, on the place now owned by J. 
Wilts, in 1836. It was run by T. J. Field until 1838, when he sold it 
to William Johnson, who, after seven or eight years, allowed it to fall into 
disuse. A little later in the same year, William Gosset began the erec- 
tion of a saw-mill on the east bank of Salt Creek, opposite the site of the 
present mill. Having finished it, he sawed the lumber for several frame 
buildings which were erected the next year, when he also completed a 
grist-mill, which he ran in connection with the saw-mill until about 1844. 
These were of the usual capacity and arrangement of the ordinary grist 
and saw-mills of those days. 

In 1844, the mills needing repairs, and thinking that the west bank 


offered better facilities for them, he began the erection of the present mill, 
but died in 1845, before its completion. It was then bought and finished 
by David Skinner, one of his heirs. From this time it was successively 
owned by Samuel Skinner, T. J. Fifield, S. P. Robbins, Abram and 
Peter Stafford, Blachly Brothers, and Blachly & Son, who control it at 
present. When first built, these mills had a large custom. People came 
from places fifty and sixty miles distant, and, at times, so great was the 
number of customers that they were compelled to wait three and four 
days for their grists. At present only a moderate business is done. 

Closely connected with the history of these mills is that of a some- 
what chimerical enterprise — the building of a steamboat for the purpose 
of navigating Salt Creek, and its trunk, the Calumet River. About 
1865-66, Abram and Peter Stafford, and Dr. Stanton, who afterward 
associated with themselves W. D, Cruthers, began the construction of a 
steamboat for conveying wood and timber to Chicago, by way of Salt 
Creek and Calumet River. It was about twelve feet wide and thirty feet 
long, and two or three years were consumed in building, xlfter its com- 
pletion, it was run up and down the creek once or twice, and was finally 
sunk in the Calumet River. 

In 1842, a saw-mill was built by Cromwell Axe, on property now 
owned by William Harvey. It is still in existence. In 1858, a steam 
mill was built by Hunt & Kellogg. It changed hands several times, and 
was finally moved away. About 1854-55, Brown & Sellers erected a 
saw-mill on Coffee Creek. This was run a few years, but finally fell into 
disuse. In 1870, David Long built another mill, just below the site of 
the old one. In 1875, it was pulled down, and a grist-mill erected by 
Long & Wondes, at a cost of $5,000 or $6,000. The present owner is 
0. W. Wheeler, who does a large business. 

During 1837-38, a chair and wheel factory was operated by Abraham 
Snodgrass, on Spring Creek. He soon sold out and went West, and it 
was used no more. 

In 1836, after the county was organized, the first regularly laid out 
road was constructed. At the spring term of the Commissioner's court, 
Peter Ritter, Samuel Olinger and William Thomas were appointed to 
run a road from Casteel's Mill, on Coffee Creek, to William Gosset's 
Mill, through to the county line, which they accordingly did, and located 
the road where it now is. Previous to this time, Indian trails had been 
the only roads, save those that had been built before the county was 
organized. About 1851, the construction of a plank road to extend 
from Valparaiso to Michigan City was began. It passed through the 
eastern part of the township. After the building of railroads through 
these places, the necessity for such a road was no longer felt, and it wa» 


never completed. In 1874, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad was built. 
Much trouble and some litigation were occasioned in procuring the right 
of way. 

Stores and Post Offices. — The first store was opened by McPherson 
& Meyers, at Salt Creek, in 1845. Their stock was small, not much 
larger than is usually carried by a stout peddler, and consisted princi- 
pally of those articles included in the comprehensive term, " Yankee 
notions." After three or four years of such extensive business, the store 
was closed, and the people of Liberty were without a mercantile enter- 
prise, until about 1866, when W. D. Cruthers, who had an interest in 
the steamboat enterprise elsewhere described, opened a store in the upper 
part of the mill then owned by Abram and Peter Stafford. As before, 
the business carried on was not large, and after being sold to Rob- 
bins & Miller, was closed out by them. A few years ago, the present 
store was opened by George Wheeler, who still conducts it, keeping the 
usual stock, and doing the business generally done by a small country 

There are but two post offices within the limits of the township, one 
of which was opened at Woodville, a station on the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad, a few months since. This will doubtless form the nucleus of a 
thriving village, as the proprietor has already erected a building for 
the storage of wheat, to accommodate shippers. The other office was 
instituted at Salt Creek about 1858, with John Beck as the first Post- 
master. It has since been held successively by John Miller, Abram 
Stafford and George Wheeler, the present incumbent. 

Elections and Fopidation. — The first election after the organization 
of the township was held at Daniel Kesler's. The following is a copy of 
the tally-sheet and list of voters used at that election : 

At an elction held at the house of Daniel T. Kesler, in Liberty Township, Porter Co., 
Ind., on the 30th day of April, A. D. 1886, for the purpose of electing one Justice of th« 
Peace for said township, the following-named persons came forward and voted, to wit : 
Peter Ritter, Thomas J. Wyatt, William Downey, Daniel W. Lyons, Joel Crumpacker, Joel 
Welker, John Sefford, M. Blayloch, Frederick Wolf, Richard Clark, William Calhoun, Isaac 
Zane, Owen Crumpacker, Hiram Snodgrass, Jerry Todhunter and Solomon Habanz. We, 
the undersigned Inspectors and Judges of an election held at the house of Daniel T. Kesler, 
in Liberty Township, Porter Co., Ind., on the thirtieth day of April, 1836, for the pur- 
pose of electing one Justice of the Peace, do certify that for the office of Justice of the 
Peace, Peter Ritter got thirteen votes, and Thomas J. Wyatt got three votes. Given under 
our hands this thirtieth day of April, 1836. Jerry Todhunter, Inspector ; John Seflford, 
Joel Crumpacker, William Suavely, Solomon Habanz, Judges. 

At the spring term of court, 1836, Daniel W. Lyons was appointed 
first Constable ; Jesse Morgan and Richard Clark, Overseers of the Poor ; 
E. Tratebas and William Downey, Fence- Viewers ; Solomon Habanz, 
Supervisor of Roads. 


On August 7, of the same year, an election was held at Kesler's 
house for State officers, at which time twelve votes were polled. At this 
election, T. J. Wyatt was elected Justice of the Peace. Since that time 
nearly all the offices, then held in the township, have been merged into 
Trustee. The present Trustee is Fritz Lindermann. The population of 
the township in 1880 was 901. 

Schools, Churches, etc. — The first school in the township was prob- 
ably taught in a log house, built in the Zane settlement in 1836. Mrs. 
Sophia Dye was the first teacher. She had about fifteen pupils, and 
received $2 per week. This, like all others at that time, was a subscrip- 
tion school. The house was built by the neighbors in common, and its 
furnishings were of the rudest character. Its windows were formed of 
oiled paper, and its seats of slabs ; the desks were made by driving pins 
into the wall and laying a board on them. The present frame house was 
built by Morris Risdon in 1854, at a cost of about ^300. 

A school was taught in the Dillingham settlement in 1837 by Anna 
Lyons, in a part of her father's (John Dillingham's) house. She had 
eight or nine pupils. The following year, a log house was built for school 
purposes, and E. P. Cole taught the first two or three terms. About 
1856, a frame house was built ; this was used until 1877, when the pres- 
ent substantial brick building was erected, at a cost of about 3^00. The 
present teacher is Miss Mary Mead, who receives $25 per month. 

A school was maintained at Salt Creek from about 1837 until 1856, 
though no house for that purpose had been erected until the present one 
was built in the last mentioned year. The first teacher in this house was 
Miss Kate Hoste, who received $10 per month. The present teacher is 
Mary Love, who has an average attendance of fourteen pupils, and 
receives $25 per month. The house in District No. 5 was built in 1854, 
by William Babcock, at a cost of $300. In District No. 1 James 
Bradley built the house in 1858 or 1859 ; in No. 4 a brick was built in 
1869, at a cost of $700. The house in No. 7 was erected in 1875. In 
1882, the number of pupils between the ages of six and twenty-one years, 
enumerated by the Trustee, was 343. The present schools are as good as 
any county schools, and fully sustain the high character for educational 
facilities which the State bears. 

Though an exceedingly quiet and law-abiding community, the people 
of Liberty have never possessed a church organization. A somewhat 
singular, and it might be said suggestive, coincidence is, that no saloon 
was ever established within the same limits. Though no chapel may be 
seen beckoning us with white spire, no den of iniquity casts its withering 
curses abroad to blight the happiness of the inhabitants. 

The first minister who visited this township was Stephen Jones, a 


member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He came at the invitation 
of William Gosset, and preached at his house. The services were held 
at 2 P. M., on Friday, the congregation having been called together by 
the blasts of a tin-horn in the hands of Mrs. Gosset. There were about 
forty persons present. A great interest in religious matters was aroused, 
and durincr the same year the Rev. Stephen Jones conducted a camp- 
meeting on Salt Creek, which lasted a week. People came from far and 
near, and many converts were made. During the next year, William 
Gosset erected a small church building, which is still standing, and is 
used by Mrs. Gosset for a dwelling. Salt Creek was now placed upon a 
circuit, and services were regularly held for some years. Among those 
who encountered the hardships and sufferings incident to the itinerant 
pioneer preacher for the purpose of dispensing the Gospel to this settle- 
ment, may be mentioned the Revs. Beer, Young, Forbes, Posey, 
Griflfith and Colclasier. The circuit-rider as he once existed has disap- 
peared, and only occasionally, except as they go to churches at a distance, 
do the people of Liberty have the privilege of meeting together for relig- 
ious services. 

The only secret society ever organized here was that of the Grangers. 
Three Granges were organized in 1875 — one at Salt Creek, another in 
District No. 5, and a third in the southern part of the township. For a 
time these societies flourished and supplied a long-felt social want — some 
place for friends and neighbors to meet and spend an hour or two together 
each week; but from a pecuniary standpoint, they were not a success, un- 
less in the returns they brought the farmers. A co-operative store was 
established in a small building owned by George Fisher, and he was placed 
in charge of it. Some jealousies in regard to the distribution of the goods 
were manifested. After about six months of not very profitable business, 
the store was closed, and soon after the organization was abandoned, hav- 
ing been in existence about two years. 



Portage Township— Surface and Soil— Agricultural and Mechani- 
cal Development— The Liquor Question— Schools and Churches 
—Village of Crisman— List of First Settlers— Reminiscences. 

THE township of Portage received its name from a county of the same 
name in the State of Ohio. It was organized at the time of the gen- 
eral division of the territory of the county in 1836. Some changes have 
been made in its metes and bounds since that time, and an effort was 
made by sundry parties of Lake County at one time to have certain terri- 


tory belonging to the above-named county set apart to Porter County. 
This scheme was defeated, and the western boundary of the township and 
county remains, as at the time when Lake County was set oflf, a straight 

G-eneral Description. — In surface the township varies from a level 
prairie in the south to sand hills in the north. These sand hills are 
highest near the lake, and shade off toward the center, where they give 
place to a sandy plane that gradually loses its " grit " as we go south. 
The soil of the northern part is about all sand, while in the southern part 
it is a rich and productive loam. 

Salt Creek cuts the southeast corner of the township, and passes out 
near the northeast corner of Section 32 to enter again at the northeast 
corner of Section 20 ; thence it flows north and west, entering the Calu- 
met in Section 31, about one-quarter of a mile west of the east line of 
the county. This is a fine stream, with numerous small feeders that 
afibrd abundant water for stock. Salt Creek Mill is situated on this 
stream, just over the line in Liberty Township. Longinus (Long) Lake 
is situated partly in the northwest corner of this township and partly in 
Lake County. It is more marsh than lake, and can boast of no beauty 
of scenery or surroundings. Much sand is shipped from this township to 
Chicago, and it may be that in time this will be a fruitful source of 
wealth, for the supply is almost limitless. That found south of the Calu- 
met is thought to be of the best quality. A peculiar kind of clay or 
" loam " is found near Crisman. It is used for fine molding, for calking 
boilers, etc. There is a large spring on the Gaylord place. It contains 
much iron and some sulphur. The water is thought by some to possess 
valuable medicinal qualities. No coal has yet been found. Some bog 
iron ore is found, but not in paying quantities. The southern part of the 
township is strictly agricultural and well improved, while the northern 
part promises to become the seat of great manufacturing interests. 

Industries, Taverns., Wild Animals., etc. — There was a saw-mill 
among the sand hills, built in 1851 or 1852. It was run awhile and 
then abandoned. There is a cheese factory which was established about 
six years ago. It has been doing a good business and is still running. 
They have been making some butter, but have been paying more atten- 
tion to cheese. Several steam saw-mills have been set up in differen 
parts of the township, but, like the steam thresher, they did not stay long 
in one place. 

The first tavern in the township was built on Willow Creek, among 
the sand hills, in 1837. An Italian by the name of Carley, who had 
previously kept a stand farther north, on the lake, built the house and 
kept it for a time. Another house was opened at the same place soon 


after by two women. These two are the only taverns that have ever 
been kept in the township. These were on the old stage line between 
Detroit and Chicago. This formerly ran along the beach of the lake, 
but was afterwards moved farther south. To enable the stages to cross 
the Calumet, a bridge sixty-four rods long was built in 1836 and 1837. 
This was made of poles throughout. Cribs were built of poles for piers ; 
poles were used for stringers, and small poles and split timber were laid 
across these for the floor. This rude bridge was situated a few rods 
below the mouth of Salt Creek. 

This is a temperance township. No regular saloon has ever opened 
its doors here to entice the youth. An attempt was made at one time to 
start one at Crisman, but as the party had no license, it was closed by 
the people in a summary manner. 

In 1836, a bear was killed in the northern part of the township. In 
1888, two cubs were killed by a man named Greene in the south- 
eastern part. Wolves were very troublesome until the railroads were 
built. The whistle of the locomotive and the roar of the trains seemed 
to scare them away. 

Early Conditions. — The first settlers endured many hardships that, 
to the tender-footed sons of these hardy sires, would seem beyond their 
powers of endurance. These sturdy pioneers sowed, and their children 
and their children's children are reaping an abundant harvest. The first 
houses were built of logs without nails. Windows were made temporarily 
of greased paper, and doors of a quilt with sticks across. At the time of 
the first settlement here, there were no envelopes or matches. A letter 
was written upon one side of the paper, and then it was folded and 
fastened with a red wafer or two in such shape that the address could be 
placed upon the other side. Postage then was 25 cents per letter, pay- 
able upon delivery. Matches made their appearance a short time later, 
in small boxes holding about a dozen ; these sold for a shilling (12| 
cents) a box Supplies were brought from Michigan City, a distance of 
twenty miles. The first birth is unknown. The first death was prob- 
ably that of a Mr. Ashton, who died in 1837. In 1838, Mrs. James 
died. This was a very sickly year. Probably the first marriage was that 
of Henry Harold to Miss Dorr. An Indian trail crossed the southern 
part of the township. On Section 36, Township 36, Range 6, was what 
had the appearance of an Indian burying-ground. Evidences of about 
twenty graves were to be seen. 

Schools and Teachers. — This township is well supplied with schools, 
except, perhaps, in one locality, where another school is badly needed. 
There are seven houses, all of which are occupied. Four of these are 
brick, and all are good, substantial structures ; in fact, Portage is noted 


for its good schoolhouses. The largest, and by many considered the best 
school in the township, is the one at Crisman Station. It has been 
brought up to its present degree of excellence by the present teacher, N. 
E. Yost, who has had the place for four years. The following is a list of 
the teachers in the township for the school year of 1881-82 : N. E. 
Yost, at Crisman, M. L. Ferris, at Blake's, W. E. Hawthorne, at 
Hawthorne's schoolhouse. Miss Lottie Hewitt, at Peak's, Miss Minnie 
Spencer, at Robbins', Miss Rose Mitchell, at Addison Crismau's, Miss 
Pettit, at Sand Knob School. The first schoolhouse was built in 1840 
on Section 20, Township 36, Range 0. One was built in the southwest 
part about the same time. Both of these were built of logs and were 
used for school only in the winter time. The desks were arranged around 
the wall. The first mentioned is still standing, and serves as a habitation 
for Su8 scrofa. Mr. Robbins was the architect, and all the material and 
labor was contributed by the people who resided in the vicinity. In size 
it was 18x20 feet. Where Crisman now stands, in 1854 was erected a 
log schoolhouse, 18x24 feet. This was used about nine years. It was 
built entirely by voluntary contribution. The first term here was taught 
by Elder Bartlett, a Baptist minister. He taught two terms. Cyrus 
Sales taught next, and after him in order came Christina Fry, Emily 
Gerhart and Chancey Gaylord, who was a cripple, and who taught two 
terms. He was the last one to teach in the old log house. This gave 
place to a good-sized frame on the northeast corner of Section 12. The 
present neat and commodious brick was built in 1879. 

The Churches. — There are three churches in the township, the Pres- 
byterian, the Methodist and the Swedish. The first church built was the 
Presbyterian in 1852, at a cost of about $800. Mr. S. P. Robbins built the 
church and furnished all the requisite materials and money except about 
$160. One hundred dollars was furnished by the missionary fund of the 
church and about sixty dollars was raised by subscription. After it was 
completed Mr. Robbins deeded it to the Trustees. The following are the 
names of some of those who helped to organize the church : S. P. Rob- 
bins and wife, Benjamin Stodard and wife, Francis James, Emily James, 
Russell Dorr and wife, Daniel Richardson, Mr. Leters and sister, and 
others. Rev. James C. Brown was the first minister. Rev. Humphrey 
and Rev. Ogden are the only other regular ministers that the church has 
had. Ministers have come in occasionally from other points and preached 
here. The Methodists have had the use of the church for some time, and 
the Presbyterians have not been having services. The Methodist Church 
is situated about one and a quarter miles northwest of the one above-men- 
tioned. It was built about two or three years later than the Presbyterian. 
It is not now used by them, but is used occasionally by the German. 


Lutherans. Mr. McCool was the principal one in its organization and 
erection. It cost about $800, and is somewhat larger than the Presby- 
terian. The first religious services were held at Spurlock's and Herold's 
dwelling houses. Afterward Robbins' schoolhouse was used for the pur- 
pose. The first society to organize was the Methodist. Two organiza- 
tions were afi"ected about the same time — one at Robbins' schoolhouse, 
and the other at the Grove on the west side. These date 1836 or 1837. 
Sabbath schools have been kept up for a part of the time at the above- 
mentioned places, and also at some of the schoolhouses. The Swedish 
Church is located in the southwestern part of the township. Here, serv- 
ices are sustained and good congregations assemble. 

Gruman Village. — The town of Crisman was laid out by Mr. B, G. 
Crisman, after whom it was named. Mr. Crisman is one of the oldest 
settlers in all this region. A post ofiice was established here in 1871, 
with Isaac Crisman as Postmaster. Mr. Crisman was followed by 
Charles Seydel. S. P. Sargeant took charge next, and handed the mail 
bag to Joseph Bender, who passed it to Joseph White, who has held it 
four years. The first store established here was opened shortly after the 
post ofiice, and was owned by Isaac Crisman. He was succeeded by 
Charles Seydel, who sold to Joseph Bender, and he to Joseph White, who 
has kept it for four years. The store has, with a single exception, fol- 
lowed the post office. This is the only store that Portage has ever had. 

First Settlers and First Elections. — In the spring of 1834, Jacob 
Wolf and family located in the solitudes of Portage with his family. His 
sons John, Jacob and E. Wolf were grown at the time. One of the 
younger sons, Josephus, still lives in the southern part of the township. 
He owns a large amount of land. At the same time came Berrett Dorr 
and family. Two of the boys, Russell and Edmund, were of age at the 
time. Reuben Hurlburt and family came the same spring. There was 
a large family of boys, of which William, Henry, Jacob, Griffith and 
David were born when the family came. The two Spurlock brothers and 
R. and Wilford Parrott finish the list for 1834. In 1835, in the spring, 
S. P. Robbins, Benjamin James and his son Allen came. From 1836 to 
1840, the following came : Mr. Blake and family, Mr. Peak and family. 
Palmer Sumner, Peter Ritter, Mr. Harrison and family, Mr. Curtis and 
family, Mr. Smith, Mr. x\rnold, Walker McCool and Thomas J. Field, 
who came in 1836. 

The first election of the township was held April 30th, 1836, at the 
house of Jacob Wolf, with James Spurlock as Inspector. At an election 
held at the house of Jacob Wolf, Portage Township, on the first Monday 
in x\ugust, 1836, the following persons polled their votes : James Con- 
net, E. D. Wolf, John Lyons, William D. Wolf, Jacob Wolf, Sr., Milton 


Wolf, Frederick Wolf, Russell Dorr, Henry Herold, William Gosset, 
Griffin Holbert, B. Dorr, John Hageman, Jacob Blake, Henry Batten, 
Daniel Whitaker, William Frame, George Spurlock, John Wolf, James 
Spurlock, Reuben Holbert, Samuel Herring, Nelson Elison, Francis 
Spencer, Benjamin James, George Hume, J. G. Herring, S. P. Bobbins 
and William Holbert — total, twenty-nine. The changes in the boundary 
of the townships will be found in a county chapter. 

Future Prospects. — A large number of Swedes have settled in the 
northern part, of later years. On the whole, the progress of the town- 
ship has been slow and steady, but sure. The rapid growth of Chicago, 
and the flattering promise of South Chicago, together with the tendency 
that manufacturing establishments show toward this section, all raise high 
hopes for the future. Many large manufacturing establishments have 
started already in the wilderness of stunted pine among the sand hills and 
morasses at the south end of the Great Lake, and the indications are that 
there are many more to follow. While all this goes on at the north, the 
fertile farms of the south will feed the mouths that nourish the hands that 
run the factories. 



Pleasant Township— Obigin of Name— First Elections— First Set- 
tlers—First Events— An Old French Fort— Schools— Churches 
—Industries— Officers— Crime— Calamity— Kouts. 

THIS township was formed at the time of the "general division " in 
1836, and its name is said to have been suggested by its pleasant 

First Election and First Settlers. — The following is a record of the 
first election : 

"At an election held at the house of Henry Adams, Pleasant Township, on the 3d of 
April, 1836, for the purpose of electing one Justice of the Peace for said township, the 
following votes were taken : John Bartholomew, Joseph Bartholomew, George Shultz, 
Henry Adams, William Billings, Martin Reed, Morris Witham, Enoch Billings, John 
Adams, James Witham and Charles Allen. Total, 11. We, the undersigned, Inspectors 
and Judges of the Election, do certify that Lewis Comer got eleven votes for the office of 
Justice of the Peace. William Billings, Inspector; Enoch Billings, Morris Witham, 

An election was held December 24, 1836, in Pleasant Township for 
one Judge and one Justice of the Peace. Seneca Ball received nine votes 
for Judge, and John Adams nine for Justice of the Peace. The follow- 
ing persons voted at this election : Morris Witham, Charles Allen, Will- 
iam Trinkle, William Billings, Jacob Shultz, Thomas Adams, Henry 
Adams, R. Blachly and John Adams. 


The following is a list of the first and early settlers as far as attaina- 
ble : J. Sherwood and family, about 1834 ; William Trinkle and family, 
fall of 1835 ; John Jones and family, 1835 ; George Eden and family, 
1837. Among the other early settlers were Hisel Coghill, Isaiah Mead- 
ows, Reuben Meadows, Oliver Coles, Luke Asher, Mr. Chandler, John 
Adams, John Bartholomew, Joseph Bartholomew, George Shultz, Henry 
Adams, William Billings, Enoch Billings, Martin Reed, Morris Witham, 
James Witham and Charles Allen. Nearly all of these were here as 
early as 1836, as will be seen by the lists of voters above given. Mr . 
J. Sherwood and family located near the Kankakee River, in the south- 
western part of the township. Mrs. Sherwood remarked to Mrs. William 
Trinkle, in 1835, that she was the only white woman that she had seen for 
two years, with the exception of a sister of Mrs. S., who lived with her. 

Early Events. — The first birth was that of Henry Trinkle, born to 
Gillie Ann and William Trinkle on December 2, 1835. The first death 
was that of Jeremiah, a son of J. Sherwood. He was buried at what is 
now the Widow Bonesteel's farm, where there are only a few graves. The 
first marriage was that of Alexander Wright to Miss S. Jones, which 
occurred about 1839. The usual hardships incident to pioneer life 
devolved upon the settlers of Pleasant Township. For some years the 
milling was done at Michigan City, and much of the trading on the 
Wabash. Great as were the hardships of these early days, there was a 
feeling of freedom on the frontier, and a spirit of fellowship and general 
good-will that made life here endurable to all, and enjoyable to many. 
Mrs. Trinkle, the oldest living settler now residing in the township, says : 
*' If I were young again as I was Avhen I came here, I should be glad to 
go and help to settle a new country." Mrs. Trinkle tells many interest- 
ing incidents of Indian times. The Kankakee Marsh was a sort of 
"Indian Paradise." Here game and fur-bearing animals abounded. 
When settlement began, the outlines of an abandoned fort near the Kan- 
kakee, southwest of where Kouts now stands, were quite distinct, and 
traces are yet to be seen. It was at a point where two Indian trails 
crossed the river, and is the only place for a long distance where the 
river and marsh could be crossed readily. It seems to have covered foui- 
or five acres, and, in 1836, bore marks of long disuse, for there were 
young trees of two feet in diameter growing on what seemed to have been 
embankments of the fort. The Indians were peaceable and punctual in 
the fulfillment of promises. When they came to borrow, if unable to 
talk English, they would indicate the number of days for which they 
wished to keep the article by holding up as many fingers as there were 
days to elapse before they expected to return it. 

Schools. — The pioneer school of the township was taught in a small 



loc schoolhouse about the year 1838. This house stood on Section 13, 
Township 33, Range 6, and was built by the voluntary labor of the 
neighbors, of material, the most of which was found near at hand. The 
light that entered this primitive schoolhouse came through the door, and 
through greased paper that answered for window glass. There was one 
good thing about these paper " panes ;" the grease rendered the paper 
translucent, but not transparent, so that light was admitted, but the chil- 
dren could not see out. It was used for school purposes for three or four 
years, when it was burned. The schools held here were supported by 

The first patrons were George Eaton, who sent two sons, John Berrier, 
who sent two children, John Jones, who sent five, and William Trinkle, 
who sent two, Nancy and Henry. The second schoolhouse was of the 
same kind and located on the same section, but larger than the first. This 
was used for several years. The third schoolhouse was built near the site 
of the first one. This was the first frame schoolhouse of the township. 
There are now seven houses, all of which are frame. The average cost 
of all, except the house at Kouts, is about §500. The one at Kouts con- 
tains two rooms, and cost §1,000. It was built in 1876. There are eight 
school districts in the township. District No. 3 has no house now. It had 
a frame house, which was built in 1860, and burned in 1879. The 
house in District No. 8 was built in 1880, at a cost of about §500. The 
houses in the other districts were built prior to 1860. The teachers for 
1882, are as follows : In District No. 1, Alice Sanborn ; in No. 2, B. A. 
Maugher and Sarah Welch ; in No. 4, Flora Wilcox ; in No. 5, Mary G. 
Noel ; in No. 6, L. Sanborn ; in No. 7, Sadie Turner ; in No. 8, Jennie 

Churches, etc. — The first religious services of the township were held 
at the house of John Jones in 1836. Mr. Jones, although not a regular 
minister, often preached in the neighborhood, and occasionally in adjoin- 
ing communities. These informal devotional meetings were changed from 
house to house at first, and at a later day from schoolhouse to schoolhouse. 
The only regular church building of Pleasant is the present edifice of the 
German Lutheran Church at Kouts. It is a frame, built in 1880 at a 
cost of §600. The present minister is Rev. Julius Dunsing, who has 
served the church one year. Before him. Rev. Philip Smith was pastor. 
He was the first minister in the new church, and conducted the dedicatory 
services. Meetings were held in the schoolhouse for about seven years before 
the church was built, and services were held for a time in private houses. 
The one to organize the society was Rev. Philip Smith, now of Valparaiso. 
The present membership of the church is seventeen. The only regular 
cemetery of the township is that located on Section 12, Township 33, 


Range 6. The first one interred here was a little boy of Mr. and Mrs. 
Milton Wright, in the last part of the year 1842. 

Industries. — The township has been strictly agricultural throughout 
its history. It has never had a grist-raiil, and only one saw-mill perma- 
nently located. This was on the Kankakee River, near where the bridge 
now is. It was built by Joseph Hackman and run by him for some time. 
He sold it to James M. Pugh, who converted it into a portable one, about 
two years ago. There have been several portable saw-mills at different 
times and places within the limits of the township. A cheese factory was 
established about five years ago by H. A. Wright. It ran a short time 
and was closed. 

Officers. — The present oflScers of the township are, William Trinkle. 
Trustee; James H. True and Simon Witham, Justices of the Peace; Stephen 
D. Johnson, Road Superintendent, and S. G. Couch, Assessor. 

Crime. — There have been three homicides committed within the limits 
of Pleasant Township. In 1879, W. Swett was shot by Charles Chase ; 
the same year, Charles Askam was shot by Mcintosh, and in 1880, Brain- 
erd Taft shot John Dutton. 

Fatal Casualty. — A very sad accident occurred to a Welsh family 
named Pugh, in 1873. They lived near the Kankakee. Mr. J. M. Pugh, 
the father, was plowing not far from the house ; some marsh grass was 
rather troublesome, so he requested his daughter, Sarah, to bring some 
fire from the house and burn the hay. She brought the fire at once, and 
stood watching the hay burn when a sudden gust of wind blew the flames 
toward and around her ; her clothing took fire, and before help reached 
her she was fatally burned. She took a few steps, fell and was carried 
home. She lived in intense agony until 4 o'clock the next morning. It 
was about 2 P. M. when the accident occurred. 

Village of Kouts. — The only town that the township has ever pro- 
duced is the town of Kouts, situated in the northwestern part, on the 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railroad. This town was laid out by 
B. Kouts and took its name from him. He built the first business block 
which is now occupied by Dr. L, Atkins. The second business house was 
built by Brown and Dilley ; the third was built by K. Williams. The post 
oiEce was established here in 1865, with H. A. Wright as Postmaster, who 
held the ofiice until 1881, when S. E. Douglas, the present incumbent, 
took charge of the ofiice, which lie has held up to the present time. The 
Chicago & Atlantic Railroad has reached town within the last year, and 
as Kouts promises to be the only station on either road in the township, 
its prospects are quite flattering. Counting the floating population brought 
in by the building of the new railroad, there are perhaps 300 people in tlie 
town. It has two general stores ; one kept by B. Kouts, and the other 


by H. Rosenbaum. There are two drug stores ; one is kept by S. E. 
Douglas, and the other by L. Atkins. A grocery is kept by Mrs. 
Margaret Williamson ; E. R. Kosanke keeps furniture ; D. A. Stark 
furnishes hardware ; H. A. Wright and J. H. Hodkins sell implements ; 
John Shultz and Joshua George make boots and shoes ; William Kee and 
William Cinkaski do the blacksmithing. The town has two saloons and 
one church. The Hodjins House is kept by J. A. Hodjins, and restaurant 
by Albert Spencer. A hay barn, belonging to a Chicago man, is oper- 
ated by H. A. Wright. Dr. Sprague and Dr. Kellogg located here, but 
did not stay long. The town is regularly laid out and platted. Three 
additions have been made to it and entered of record by Mr. Kouts. 



Porter Township— Origin and Change of jS'ame— Early Election- 
List OF First and Early Settlers— Reminiscences of Early 
Times— A Mound— Early Items— Schools— Churches— Stores— Post 

PORTER TOWNSHIP was formed in 1837, at the time when Lake 
County was set off. At first it was known as Fish Lake Township, 
which name it took from a lake then known as Fish Lake. This lake, 
situated on Section 1, Township 37, Range 7, is now known as Lake 
Eliza. The citizens did not like the name of Fish Lake Township and 
proceeded to circulate a petition, the object of which was to have the 
name changed. This petition was presented to the Board of County 
Commissioners at their meeting in June, 1841. The prayers of the peti- 
tioners were answered, and the name of Porter was supplied to the town- 
ship. This name it took from the county, which was named in honor of 
Commodore Porter. 

Early Election. — At an election held in the house of Alpheus 
French in Fish Lake Township on Monday, December 3, 1838, for the pur- 
pose of electing one Representative, the following persons voted : 
William McCoy, J. C. Hathaway, Newton Frame, William Frakes, 
Alpheus French, Henry M. Wilson, William Frame, A. M. Bartel, 
Jonathan Hough, Samuel Campbell, E. P. Hough, Edmund Hatch, 
William C. Shreve, David Dinwiddle, Mr. Wellman, Ora B. French, 
David Hurlburt and Jacob Hurlburt. " We, the undersigned Judges and 
Clerks of Election, do certify that Benjamin McCarty had fifteen votes 
for Representative, and George W. Cline three votes for the same office. 
Jonathan Hough, H. M. Wilson, Clerks ; S. Campbell, Inspector ; 
William Frakes, Alpheus French, Judges." 


Settlers. — In the years 1834 and 1835, the following named persons 
came to settle in Porter Township ; Newton Frame, William Frame, 
Samuel Campbell, Isaac Campbell, Isaac Edwards, Elder French, Ora 
B. French, Jacob Wolf, Mr. Service and David Hurlburt. Among others 
who came prior to 1838 were: P. A. Porter, Edmund Sheffield, 
Hazard Sheffield, Benjamin Sheffield, W. Staunton, William McCoy, 
William A. Nichols, Ezra Reeves, Morris Carman ; Dr. Levi A. Cass, 
who came in 18-40 ; H. Bates, who came in 1839 ; J. C. Hathaway, 
William Frakes, Alpheus French, Henry M. Wilson, A. M. Bartel, 
Jonathan Hough, Edmund Hatch, William C. Shreve, David Dinwiddie, 
Mr. Wellman, David Hurlburt and Jacob Hurlburt. Elder French, 
a Baptist minister, was the first minister in the township. Besides those 
above mentioned, the following were early : William Robinson, Robert 
Fleming, Moses Gates, Horatio Gates, William Dye, Richard Jones, 
John Robinson, Mr. Hathaway, Asa Cobb, Aaron Service and Calvin 
French, who was killed by damp in a well. From 1840 to 1850 immi- 
gration was slow but steady. A number came in during 1850. Since 
1850, there has been no special period of settlement. A large portion of 
the present population are descendents of the first settlers. There were 
fifty-six votes cast at the election of President Harrison. There are now 
nine in the township who voted here in 1842. 

Reminiscences. — The experience of the early settlers of this township 
with the Indians is about the same as that of the surrounding country. 
The Indians were friendly and made but little trouble. The township 
being chiefly prairie, was not frequented as much by them as were places 
where there was more woodland. At first, it was no uncommon thing to 
see herds of deer containing from thirty to fifty. These were gradually 
thinned out as the settlement thickened, until they disappeared entirely. 
About 1848, a great wolf hunt took place here. It was what was known 
as a "ring hunt." The territory swept by the hunters included Boone 
and Porter Townships, together with Winfield and Eagle Creek Town- 
ships, of Lake County. Most of the male inhabitants of the above-named 
townships, and some from surrounding townships engaged in the hunt. 
An immense ring was formed and all started, at the firing of a small cannon, 
toward a point about three-fourths of a mile east of where Mr. Bates then 
lived, at which point had been erected for the occasion a tall pole, from 
which floated the American flag. Officers were placed at regular inter- 
vals, and it was arranged that all should start at the firing of the gun, 
and stop at the firing of the gun to "dress ranks," after which a second 
shot was to be the signal for a second start, and so on until they closed 
around the game under the flag. It is stated that there were at least as 
many as 600 engaged in the hunt. As was usual in such hunts, they 


"broke ranks" and closed in in the most perfect disorder. The game, 
unable to keep in the circle, fell back in good order. A single wolf that 
had perhaps become bewildered in the general disorder, was slain. The 
600 came in by squads, and all indulged in a grand rally around the flag. 
The vanquished wolf was thrown across the shoulder of a horseman, who, 
putting spurs to his horse, was chased by other hunters, until some one 
succeeded in getting the wolf, when he in turn was pursued by excited 
men upon panting chargers. Finally, a man from Valparaiso arrived 
with a barrel of "black strap" whisky, and — 

"Those now drank who never drank before, 
And those who drank, now only drank the more." 

So the hunt closed in a "grand spree." Prairie fires once swept these 
broad prairies, spreading terror for miles in every direction. Two girls 
were drowned in Lake Eliza. It is supposed that they got beyond their 
depth when in bathing. 

A Mound. — There is a mound on the Wolf Place, that some years 
ago was as much as twenty feet high, and from 100 to 150 feet in diame- 
ter. It is too bad that these monuments of an ancient and now extinct 
race and civilization should be destroyed without a thought. In years 
to come, these will not only be objects of great interest, but will enhance 
the value of the land upon which they stand. 

Early Etents. — It seems that no one now living in the vicinity can 
tell with certainty about the first death, birth and marriage. One of the 
first deaths was that of a son of John Robinson, who died from a cut in 
the thigh with an ax. About twenty years ago, a steam saw-mill was 
erected by Mr. Sheffield, in the northern part of the township. 

The following is an extract from the oldest record book of the town- 
ship now in existence: "April 18, 1853. Ordered by the Board of 
Trustees of Porter Township, at the house of R. P. Wells, that Charles 
J. Blackraan act as President of said Board. — Charles Riddle, Clerk." 
R. P. Wells and David Merriman, were the other members, and E. W. 
Pennock, was Treasurer. Dr. Oass began the practice of medicine at an 
early day, in the Frame neighborhood. After a time he moved to his 
present location, where he has practiced ever since. Dr. Sampson was 
located for a time at Walnut Grove. 

Schools. — The first school that was patronized by the residents of 
this township, was situated just over the line in Lake County, on Eagle 
Creek. This was a log house, and for a window had a locr taken out the 
full length of the building. Over the opening thus made, greased paper 
was placed to keep out the cold and admit the light. Probably the 
second school was taught by Mrs. Humphrey, in her house. Among the 
patrons of this school were the Porters, the Sheffields, the Stauntons and 


Mr. McCoy, who had a large family of boys. Another early school was 
in the Frame neighborhood. This was a rude log house, and stood on 
land now owned by Mr. Freeman. The educational facilities of these 
early times Avere of a crude kind, but were, doubtless, more highly appre- 
ciated and more fully utilized than the fine facilities of these latter days. 
The following is a list of the teachers of the several districts of the town- 
ship since 1879, with some other items of interest connected with each 
school, including the price per day paid to each teacher: No. 1, 1880, 
Dora Rosecrans, $1.20, $1.25, $1.50; 1881, Dora Rosecrans, $1.50; 
1882, Sadie Love, $1.25. The house is a brick, built in 1880, at an ex- 
pense of $650. No. 2, 1880, Loe Evans, $1.25, and Bertha B. Cass, 
$1.50; 1881, Nettie Stone, $1.25, Mrs. W. S. Phelps, $1.25, and Manta 
Lucas, $1.50; 1882, Ollie Philips, $1.25. The house is a good brick, 
built about 1869. No. 3, 1880, Lizzie Beikle, $1.25, Mary Evans, 
$1.25, and Amos B. Lantz, $1.87; 1881, Maude Shackelford, $1.25, 
Mantie Lucas, $1.25, and Albert G. Hofi"man, $1.75; 1882, Nettie 
Stone, $1.25, and Sarah Dick, $1.25. The house is a brick, built about 
1870, at a cost of $1,000. No. 4, 1880, Alice C. Ball, $1.25, Loe 
Evans, $1.25, and Dorcas Adams, $1.50; 1881, Dorcas Adams, $1.25, 
Anna Kelley, $1.25 and $1.30; 1882, Fannie Griffin, $1.25. The house 
is a brick, built in 1880, at a cost of $650. No. 5, 1880, Belle Stevens, 
$1.25, Charles F. Leeka, $1.50, and America F. Merriman, $1.87; 
1881, Effie Cornell, $1.35 and $1.27, and A. F. Merriman, $2 ; 1882, 
Effie Cornell, $1.12. The house is a substantial brick. No. 6, 1880, 
Lida Herrick, $1.25, and L. M. Herrington, $1.66; 1881, M. J. Har- 
ris, $1.25, L. M. Herrington, $1.50, and W. B. Waggoner, $1.66; 1882, 
Ada B. Fuller, $1.25. The building is a frame, just repaired at an ex- 
pense of $100. No. 7, 1880, Carrie Post, $1.20, Nettie Stone, $1.25, 
Lizzie Beikle, $1.65; 1881, Olive C. Philips, $1.25, Anna Patchen, 

$1.25, Bernard Mathis, , 0. S. Baird, $1.75; 1882, Ella Axe, 

$1.37, The building is a large brick, built about 1872. No. 8, 1880, 
Jennie Sheffield, $1.25, Etta M. Pierce, $1.50; 1881, Mantie Lucas, 
$1.25, Nettie Stone, $1.25 and $1.50; 1882, M. M. Story, $1.25. The 
building is a good brick, built about seven years since. No. 9, 1880, 
Mary E. Davidson, $1.25, M. H. Maston, $1.25; 1881, Emma Hicks, 
$1.50, Flora Wilcox, $1.25, William Hicks, $1.66; 1882, William Hicks, 
$1.37. The house is an old frame, repaired in 1881, at an expense of 
$75. No. 10, 1880, E. E. Flint, $1.20, Ira B. Blake, $1.25, W. F. 
Russell, $1.50; 1881, Bertha Cass, $1.30, Carrie Fehrmar, $1.25 and 
$1.50, Hattie Bryant, $1.50; 1882, Sadie Hughs, $1.25. The house is 
at present the poorest in the township. It is a frame, built about fifteen 
years ago. No. 11, 1881, Isola Buchles, $1.25; 1882, Hattie Bryant, 


$1.25, Nettie Stone, $1.25. The building was built in 1881, at an ex- 
pense of $750. Miss Buckles had the honor of teaching the first term in 
this district. 

Churches. — The township is well supplied with churches. Salem 
Church stands near the center of Section 22, Township 34, Range 7 ; an 
Old-School Presbyterian Church, on the southeast corner of the north- 
east quarter of Section 15, Township 34, Range 7 ; at Boone Grove 
is a Christian Church, and about half a mile south of this stands an Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. The Salem congregation had their meeting for 
gome time in the houses of the settlers. The house has been used by the 
Methodists and Presbyterians conjointly for some years. It is now used 
principally by the Methodists. The Presbyterians have occasional serv- 
ices. Here, just east of the church, is one of the finest graveyards in 
the county. The first persons buried here were two daughters of Ezra 
Reeves, who were taken up from the Dunn Farm, where it was at first in- 
tended to locate Salem Church. Rev. Baker preaches at Salem Church occa- 
sionally. Rev. Brown was one of the early ministers and used to hold 
services at Mr. Humphrey's before Salem Church was erected. The grave- 
yard was started at the time that the church was built. The church has 
been almost blown down and has undergone thorough repairs since it was 
built, which was some thirty years ago. The Old-School Presbyterians, 
or Scotch Covenanters, who built the church in the Frame neighborhood, 
have most of them moved away or died. Services have not been main- 
tained here regularly. Joseph and Charles McFarland, and David Mc- 
Knight were prominent among those who organized this society and built 
the church. Rev. Thompson used to preach here. The ground for the 
cemetery at Salem Church was the gift of Jonas Cornish and Rebecca 
Cornish, his wife. 

Post Offices and Stores. — About 1845, a post office was established 
at Hickory Point, with Jeremy Hickson as Postmaster. He carried the 
mail from Crown Point for the proceeds of the office. A few years later, 
Henry Nichols took the office and kept it three years, when his father, 
William A. Nichols, took it into his care for two or three years. Up to 
this time, the office was kept just over the line in Winfield Township,- 
Lake Co. Mr. Porter next took the post office and removed it across the 
line into Porter Township, and was holding it at the time of his death, 
after which the office was discontinued. There was a post office as early 
as 1844, at the "Porter Cross-Roads, " known as the Porter Cross-Roads 
Post Office. This was closed about 1865. Ora B. French and E. J. 
Green, were among the Postmasters. There is a post office at Boone 
Grove, kept by Enoch Janes. A store was established at Boone Grove 
about twenty-five years ago by Joseph Janes, who kept it for five or six 


years, when he closed out. This place was for a time called Baltimore. 
A store was started at Hickory Point, in Porter, by Alfred Nichols. He 
kept here for a number of years, and then took his stock to Crown Point. 
Another was started after he left by Mr. Wallace. This wae run for 
several years. About the time that this one closed up, Mr. Carson came 
from Ohio with a stook of goods ; some years later, he closed out his 
stock, since when no goods have been sold at Hickory Point. 



Pine Township— Organization and Boundary Alterations—Physical 
Features — Fish Lake — Industries — Roads — Education — Election 
OF August, 1836— Death's Mystery. 

IN the year 1836, the Township of Lake was formed and received its 
name from its proximity to the Great Lake. It included the territory 
now constituting the civil township of Pine. At the June session of the 
same year. Lake was annexed to Waverly Township and called West- 
chester. In 1841, this region became a separate township, known as 
Berry. In June, of the same year, a remonstrance was submitted to the 
commissioners, and the Township of Berry was set back to Westchester. 
In 1850, the Township of Pine was created. It has retained its original 
size and shape except that two sections at the south were annexed to 
Jackson at a later date. The first election in which the people of this 
section participated was held on Saturday, April 30, 1836, at the house 
of Edward Harper, who was the Inspector. It will be remembered that 
at this time they were a part of Lake Township. The civil Township of 
Pine received its name from the growth of pine trees that covered the 
northern part. 

Surface Features. — The physical features of Pine vary from high 
barren sand-hills at the north to fertile fields at the south. The whole 
region was heavily timbered at one time, but now most of the good timber 
is cut ofi". In the north the timber was pine, while in the central and 
southern parts oak, hickory, maple, cherry and other varieties of hard 
wood abounded. Much of the timber was sold for building cars and 
canal boats. In 1852, this region was a wilderness ; deer, wild turkeys 
and other game were abundant. In mid-winter, 1854, the Indians killed 
a cub in the township. The tracks of the old bear were seen, but she 
eluded the hunters. It is not often that bears leave their dens in the 
middle of the winter as these did. 

Settlement. — This township was very backward in settlement, and 


many of those who early settled here moved away in a short time. A 
large colony of Polanders has recently came into the southern part of the 
township. They are industrious, and will subdue and cultivate a country 
that our own people would pass by for many years. Their small farms 
and log houses show industry and a determination to build homes. 

Industries, etc. — Owing to the tardy growth of the township its 
history is rather meager. There has never been a church, or its antag- 
onist, a saloon. The lumber and wood business has been the main 
dependence of the people. Saw mills have been established at various 
places, but, after using up the timber in the vicinity, have moved away. 
Charcoal and cheese are the only articles of importance that are manu- 
factured. The cheese factory is in the southeastern part. It was estab- 
lished in 1881 by Younger Frame. Its capacity is 1,200 gallons per 
day, but it has not yet been run up to its capacity, for the reason that 
milk can not be readily obtained. Samuel Hackett has three charcoal 
kilns in the southwestern part. One is about one mile west of the 
La Porte County line, and the other two are about two miles southwest of 
this one. The first mentioned holds about sixty-five cords, and the last 
two about eighty-five cords each. A good quality of charcoal is made. 

Schools. — The first schoolhouse used by the citizens of this township 
stood just across the line in La Porte County, opposite the southeastern 
part of the township. It was a small log house, and was built about 
forty-five years ago. This burned down, and a small frame was erected 
and used for some time. The next house was built on the town line about 
thirty years ago. It was an eight-square structure, built of narrow, thick 
boards placed upon each other and lapping alternately at the corners, thus 
making a wall about as thick as an ordinary brick wall, and of such a 
substantial nature that after the lapse of thirty years it stands apparently 
as solid as ever. It has been weather-boarded, and presents an attractive 
appearance. Isaac Weston sawed the lumber for this house, and John 
Frame and Elias Dresden were prominent among those who constructed 
the building and organized the school. In 1855, the number of children 
of the school age in the township was 135, of which District No. 1 had 
forty-two. No. 2, sixty-four, and No. 3, twenty-four. At this time, D. S. 
Steves was clerk. In 1858, there were two schools in which the average 
attendance was sixty-eight, and the average compensation for female 
teachers was $2.75 per week. The amount expended for instruction was 
$102, length of school term, six months, number of books in the library, 
146, and the amount paid Trustees for managing schools, §6. In 1859, 
John Reader was appointed School Director for District No. 1, and Alfred 
Booth for No. 2. John Reader was re-appointed for No. 2 in 1860 and 
in 1861. In 1865. S. C. Hackett, Trustee, reports 149 children between 


the ages of six and twenty-one years. In 1867, John Frame reports 143; 
in 1868, 191; in 1869, 156; in 1870, 156. In 1871, William Kem- 
per reports 189 ; in 1875, John Hackett reports 179 ; in 1878, John 
Frame reports 169, and in 1880 he reports 189, while for 1882, accord- 
ing to William Lewry, Trustee, there are 114 males and 104 females of 
the school age. There are at present three districts. The third was 
formed about five years ago. The following is a complete list of the 
teachers of the township for the years indicated, with the price per day 
paid them: District No. 1, 1866, E. L. Whetstone, $1.16, Jennie M. 
Gallezio, $1.66 ; 1867, Annie M. King, $1.25, Lizzie Godwin, $1.50 ; 
1868, A. M. King, $1.50, Lizzie Godwin, $1.50 ; 1869, Israel G. Haw- 
kins, $1 and board ; 1870, Israel G. Hawkins, $1 and board, A. M. 
King, $1.50, C. N. Furness, $1.16, A. M. King, $1.66; 1871, A. M. 
King, $1.50, Lottie Lucas, $1.50 and $1.66 ; 1872, Estella Van Deuser, 
^1.66, Lottie Lucas, $1.50; 1873, Lydia Beckner, $1.75, Esther Har- 
bage, $1.50; 1874, E. S. Butler, $1.66, Cynthia Stubbs, $1.75; 1875, 
Esther Harbage, $1.50, L. G. Sovereign, $1.75 ; 1876, Esther Harbage, 
$1.65, Lue Furness, $1.50, 1877, Lue Furness, $1.75, Mrs. L. E. Mc- 
Mellen,$1.50; 1882, Maria Brummitt. In District No. 2, 1866 and 1867, 
Eliza L. Whetstone, $1.50 ; 1868, Eliza L. Whetstone, $1.50, J. F. Tal- 
cott, $1.50 ; 1869, J. F. Talcott, $1.50, Louise M. King, $1.45; 1870, 
Louise M. King, $1.50, D. E. Williams, $1.50 and $1.66; 1871, Lucy 
Furness, $1.57, Cynthia Stubbs, $1.50 and $1.66 ; Cynthia Stubbs, 
31.50; 1872, Clara A. Furness, $1.60, Angie Tyler, $1.00; 1873, 
Lucy Furness, $1.66, Cynthia Stubbs, $1.32; 1874, Ida Bentler, 
$1.50, Cynthia Stubbs, $1.50 ; 1875, Cynthia Stubbs, $1.50, L. M. 
King, $1.75; 1876, L. M. King, $1.75, Mary A. Charleton, $1.50; 
1877, Mary E. Charleton, $1.75; 1882, Emily Brummitt, $1.60. Dis- 
trict No. 3 was created in 1876. The first teacher was Caroline Hall, 
who received $1.68. The second in the same year was Esther Harbage 
who received $1.50. The third was Esther Barnes, who received $1.75. 
In 1877, Esther Barnes taught the school at $1.75 and $1.50. The last 
teacher in 1882 was Atta Hackett, who received $1.60 for her services. 

Roads. — May 25, 1858, the township was divided into two road dis- 
tricts, as follows : Road District No. 1 begins on the county line at the 
southeast corner of Section 36 and follows the section line to the town 
line, thence south to the township corner of Pine and Jackson, thence east 
to the county line, thence north to the place of beginning and contains 
twelve sections. District No. 2 commences at the southeast corner of 
Section 24, thence west to the township line, thence north to the lake 
shore, thence east along the shore to the county line, thence south to the 
place of beginning. There are now four road districts. The roads of the 
township are not in good condition. 


Fish Lake, in the northeast corner of the township, was a lake of some 
size at one time. Mr. Chancey Blair has drained it and converted it 
into a fine cranberry plantation. 

Stores, etc. — There is a small store just east of Furnessville kept by 
William Lowry. This is the first and only store that the township has 
had, and this has been established but a short time. Mr. Lowry has a 
blacksmith and wagon shop, and has a reputation for doing excellent work. 

The First Settler of this township was perhaps a man by the name of 
Switzer, who built a log tavern west of Michigan City. This building 
was about 30x40 feet, and belonged at one time to William P. Ward. 

A Mystery. — In the fall of 1877, a severe storm occurred upon the lake* 
After this storm, a Mr. Crawford was gathering wood along the lake 
shore, and was startled to see upon the sands a dead body that proved to 
be that of a young lady of from eighteen to twenty-two years of age. She 
was fair, with auburn hair and pearly teeth. Her form was fine, but the 
face was so marred as to destroy its beauty. She was about five feet in 
height and of medium weight. There was a gash upon the head and an- 
other upon the neck that seemed to indicate violence. The only articles 
of clothing upon the body were the shoes, stockings and garters. A 
Coroner's jury was summoned, an inquest held and a verdict rendered of 
death by drowning. The fact of the finding of the body was advertised 
in local and Chicago papers, but no one has ever come to claim the re- 
mains, which were buried upon the beach near the place where found. 
The shoes are still in the possession of J. B. Lurdberg, of Chesterton. 
They are of good material, neat make, and of a style then much worn. 
The body was found on the Saturday preceding November 10, 1877, and 
was buried on Sunday. The place of finding is near the line of West- 
chester and Pine, but the evidence seems to show quite clearly that it was 
in Pine. In this lonely grave, with this maiden, lies buried a mystery 
which no one yet has solved. 

" One more unfortunate, 

Weary of breath, 
Rashly importunate. 

Gone to her death. 
Take her up tenderly, 

Lift her with care, 
Fashioned so slenderly, 

Young and so fair. 
" Make no deep scrutiny 
Into her mutiny, 
Rash and undutiful, 

Past all dishonor 

Death has left on her 
Only the beautiful." — Hood. 



JACOB AXE (deceased), one of the pioneers of Porter County, was 
a native of Virginia, and in 1828, his mother, Christina (Kesecker) Axe. 
widow of William Axe, moved with her family to Wayne Co., Ohio, where 
she died in March, 1836. Jacob Axe there married Miss Agnes C. Cor- 
nell, and in 1836 they, in company with William Dye and family, 
and Elias Axe, a younger brother, started into Indiana with teams and 
wagons, and after a trip of eighteen days through swamps, with no road 
and an almost incessant rain-falling, arrived in Porter County. The first 
home of Jacob Axe was on College Hill, in Valparaiso, where he remained 
about three months, afterward moving one and one-half miles east of 
the village (which then comprised about six houses), into a log 
cabin erected by some squatter. The spring of 1836, he returned to the 
village and engaged in work at his trade — carpenter and joiner. He 
then bought the Sager mill property, but sold it at the end of about a 
year, and engaged in farming east of town some six or seven years, 
succeeding which he moved to the farm now owned by his son, 
Cyrus. He was then engaged in a number of different movements, prin- 
cipally farming, working at his trade and merchandising in Valparaiso. 
He was an active and energetic citizen, and a man who commanded uni- 
versal respect. He was a Democrat, and he and wife were members of 
the Christian Church. He died August 5, 1853, and his widow 
married James Bundy, who died some few months after their marriage. 
Mrs. Bundy then moved to Delaware County, Iowa, where she married 
William Cates, and where both are still living. To the marriage of Jacob 
Axe there were born eight children, of whom six are still living. Cyrus, 
a son of Jacob and Agnes Axe, was born in Wayne County, Ohio, June 
4, 1834, and was reared to manhood in Porter County. His occupation 
has been stock dealing, and for the past few years he has been operating 
a meat market in conjunction with his other business. He spent the sum- 
mer of 1861 in Colorado, where he went in pursuit of health and on a 
mining expedition. In 1864, he was in Montana, where he and others 
were engaged in freighting goods across the plains. The summers of 1865 
and 1866, he fitted out wagons and sent them loaded across the plains in 
charge of his younger brother, Nathaniel. In 1870, he went to Salt 
Lake Valley, where he engaged in shipping stock. He was married in 
1865, to Miss Harriet L. Finney, whose parents were old settlers of Por- 
ter County. To them have been born four children — Addison C, Hattie 
B., Lida M. and Pearl. Mrs. Axe is a member of the Baptist Church, 


and Mr. Axe is a Democrat and an Odd Fellow. He owns 155 acres of 
good land in Centre Township, besides valuable town property. The 
spring of 1880, a part of his land lying between the college grounds and 
the N. Y., C & St. L. R. R. depot was annexed to the corporate city 
limits, and is known as Axe's Sub-Division. 

G. W. BABCOCK, dealer in agricultural implements, was born in 
Sandusky County, Ohio, September 1, 1829. He is a son of Clark and 
Anna (Lee) Babcock, who were natives of Ontario County, N. Y., and 
Northumberland County, Penn., and the parents of seven children, three of 
whom are yet living, viz., George W., Margaret J. and Anna. Clark 
Babcock was a farmer, and emigrated to Indiana in 1832, locating first 
in La Porte County, but that same fall moved to what is now Porter 
County (then La Porte County), and settled in Washington Township. 
What is now Porter County had less than twenty inhabitants, and was 
in a state of nature. He built a log house and engaged in farming, and 
made that his home till his death, in September, 1854, followed by his 
widow about ten years later. Both are buried in Luther Cemetery, in 
Washington Township. G. W. Babcock was reared in Porter County to 
manhood, and has always made it his home. He received a common 
school education, and was married February 22, 1855, to Elmira Lewis, 
and by her has four children — Agnes, now Mrs. Kellogg ; Lizzie, Law- 
rence R. and Luella. The mother was born in June, 1830, in Union 
County, Ind. Mr. Babcock is a Republican ; has held township offices, 
and is a member of the Masonic and Odd Fellows fraternities. Besides 
good town property, he owns a small farm in Washington Township — a 
part of the old homestead. He was over the ground where the city of Val- 
paraiso now stands long before it was laid out, and has seen it grow from 
one to hundreds of houses. 

DR. SENECA BALL (deceased) was born in Warren County, Ohio, 
August 18, 1798. His father, Calvin Ball, was born in Morris County, 
New Jersey, and was the son of Deacon John Ball, who died at the age of 
ninety-five. Dr. Ball's mother was Christina, the daughter of Jacob and 
Elizabeth Eulass, of Rockingham County, Virginia. Dr. Ball was edu- 
cated, first, in the old log schoolhouse of his day, then attended a graded 
school at Waynesville, Ohio, then studied Latin under Judge Wick, at 
Lebanon, and then became his own preceptor. He read medicine under 
Dr. William Bunnell, at Washington, Ind., and then, with his brother 
Cyrus, engaged in merchandising in Lafayette, Ind., February, 1828. 
In August, he returned to Ohio and married Miss Eliza Blackford, came 
back to Lafayette, continued his business, and practiced until November, 
1831; removed to La Porte, Ind., remained there four years merchandis- 
ing, and on Christmas Day, 1836, came to Valparaiso, being thus one of 
its earliest settlers. He continued in trade a few years longer, sold his 
stock and resumed practice, which he followed until, in his judgment, the 
infirmities of age disqualified him. He went to Kansas in 1868, and re- 
turned in 18T4, making his home with his son Erasmus until his death, 
October 4, 1875. He Avas the father of three children — Mrs. Angeline 
Gregg, of Garnett, Kans.; Erasmus, and Cornelia, who died the wife of 
Judge Henry W. Talcott, of Kansas. The Doctor had served his fellow- 
citizens as Probate Judge, State Representative for Porter and Lake 
Counties, and as Justice of the Peace. 


Erasmus Ball was born in Warren County, Indiana, February 16, 
1832; he married Mary Ann Doty, who died January 11, 1865, leaving 
two children — Ina E., now Mrs. Andrews, and Alice C. February 12, 
1866, he married Henrietta B. Clark, who has borne him three children 
— Charles S., Lily T. and Mary. Mr. Ball was araong the early drug 
merchants of Valparaiso, and afterward station agent on the P., Ft. W. 
& C. R. R., for over nineteen years. In January, 1881, he was elected 
Cashier of the First National Bank of Valparaiso, of which he was a 
stockholder, and yet fills that position. He and wife are members of the 
Presbyterian Church. 

JOHN C. BALL was born in Warren County, Ohio, July 2, 1815, 
the son of Luther and Elizabeth (Frye) Ball, natives, respectively, of 
New Jersey and Maryland, and the parents of four children, of whom 
only our subject and one sister are living. John C, like his father, was 
reared a farmer, but through the solicitation of a cousin. Dr. Ball, came to 
La Porte County, Indiana, in 1835, to act as clerk. On the laying out 
of Valparaiso, in 1836, Dr. Ball moved his stock of goods to the place, 
then containing about one hundred inhabitants, John C. coming with 
him. Dr. Ball erected a frame building on the lot where Wood's grocery 
store now stands, and here John C. clerked until about 1811. In August, 
1842, John C. Ball was elected Clerk of the Courts of Porter County, 
took his office in the March following, served seven years, and was then 
elected County Treasurer for three years, and the following fifteen years 
engaged in improving lands near the village, and since then has been 
employed in various pursuits. He is now living retired, and owns valuable 
property in and near the village. He was married in Valparaiso, in 1852, 
to Susan M. Marshall, who has borne him seven children, viz.: Wade D., 
who married Lizzie Eason, in 1878, and is the railroad agent at Colum- 
bia City ; Ivan M.; Grace H.; Mary D., now Mrs. G. E. Stanton; Caryl 
C, Lizzie and Harry R. The mother was born July 8, 1832, in Dutchess 
County, New York, and is a member of the Presbyterian Church. Mr. 
Ball is now independent in his political views and does not confine him- 
self to any creed or dogma, but votes in all cases for the competent man, 
and not for the party. 

MICHAEL BARRY, blacksmith and carriage and wagon manu- 
facturer, is a native of County Cary, Ireland, his birth occurring Decem- 
ber 12, 1843. He is one of eleven children, eight yet living, born to 
James and Mary (Fitzgerald) Barry, the father of whom is dead, but the 
mother is yet living in the old country. Michael Barry received only a 
fair education in the old country, and at the age of twenty, in October, 
1863, came to New York City and was there fourteen months, working 
at his trade, which he learned of his father in Ireland. Havins: friends in 
Indiana, he came to Valparaiso, in December, 1864, and began with his 
brother, and has remained a citizen of Valparaiso ever since. In 1875, 
he and brother dissolved partnership, and Michael then opened a black- 
smith and a wagon and carriage shop on his own responsibility. He has 
three buildings where he carries on his business — two brick rooms 
22x60. He gives employment to eleven men, and by hard work and 
economy he has made a comfortable fortune and an excellent business. 
In June, 1882, he received a patent on a spring wagon of entirely new 


design in reference to springs and reach, which for neatnesss and durability 
is unsurpassed, and is rapidly taking a front rank among vehicles of its 
kind. Mr. Barry was married in New York City, in 1863, to Miss Mary 
Griffin, a native of Ireland, and by her had one son, since deceased. Mr. 
Barry has taken an interest in the public affairs of Valparaiso, and for 
six years represented the 3d Ward in its Council. He and wife are 
members of the Catholic Church. 

A. V. BARTHOLOMEW, merchant, was born in Licking County, 
Ohio, November 26, 1818 ; one of six children of Jeremiah and Rebecca 
(Skinner) Bartholomew, natives of Pennsylvania and of English descent. 
Jeremiah Bartholomew was reared a farmer, and came with his parents to 
Licking County in time to enlist in the war of 1812. He participated in 
a number of engagements, notably those of Fort Meigs and of the cam- 
paign along the lake shore. On his return he married, in 1817, and in 
August, 1828, came to La Fayette, Ind.. entered into mercantile pursuits, 
kept hotel, and laid off the northern and better part of the city. In Sep- 
tember, 1833, he moved to Michigan City, then a hamlet of seven fami- 
lies, and kept public house until December, 1834, when he purchased 400 
or 500 acres in Washington Township, and there settled and began farm- 
ing. About a year after, he moved to Centre Township, which was his 
home till his death in 1841, his widow following in 1863. A. V. Bar- 
tholomew, who was reared to the stern realities of farm life, was married 
April 7, 1844, to Miss Elizabeth Stephens, and continued a farmer's life. 
Mrs. Bartholomew died in 1862, leaving a family of eight children — 
William M. (deceased), Mary A., Finette A., Rebecca R., Martha E., 
George F., Walter S. (deceased) and Elizabeth (deceased). In 1862, 
Mr. B. moved to Valparaiso and engaged in merchandising in the build- 
ing he yet occupies, being to-day one of the leading merchants, carrying 
a stock of dry goods, hats, caps, ready-made clothing, etc., valued at 
^22,000, manufacturing clothing to order, and doing an annual trade of 
$60,000 to $70,000. Mr. B. married Mrs. Emma (Benney) Marshall in 
April, 1864, both being members of the Presbyterian Church. Mr. B. 
helped to organize the Republican party of Porter in 1854, was elected to 
the Legislature, and served in the session of 1855 ; in 1857, he was 
elected County Commissioner to fill an unexpired term ; subsequently, he 
filled the office for twelve consecutive years. Besides valuable town prop- 
erty, he owns 640 acres in the county, the greater part of which he has 
earned by his industry. 

A. D. BARTHOLOMEW, attorney at law, was born in Morgan 
Township, Porter County, Ind., May 20, 1843 ; one of a family of te;; 
children, six of whom are yet living, born to Joseph and Mary Ann 
(Spencer) Bartholomew, natives of Greene and Somerset Counties, Penn. 
The parents were born April 3, 1801, and June 1, 1805. When six 
years old, Joseph came with his parents to Ohio, Perry County, and there, 
on the 22d of February, 1827, was married. He came to Porter County 
in 1834 ; settled in Pleasant Township, but, being dissatisfied, moved to 
Morgan Township, where he entered 160 acres of land, erected a log cabin, 
and began breaking up the prairie. Indians were in abundance at that 
time, and, when crazed by liquor, would often betiome very troublesome, 
and sometimes dangerous ; in addition to this, wild animals would carry 


away young stock, although housed. Their marketing was done at La 
Fayette, afterward Miclii,<;an City. Milling and marketing were gener- 
ally accomplished by three^or tour families getting together and making up 
an ox-team. Many other trials of a pioneer life fell to the lot of Mr. and 
Mrs. Bartholomew, but they gradually prospered, and to such people Porter 
County can attribute her present prosperity. Mr. B. died April 19, 
1881 ; his widow is yet living, and resides with her son in Morgan Town- 
ship on a part of the old homestead. A. D. Bartholomew was reared and 
educated in Porter County. He attended law school at Chicago Univer- 
sity, and began practicing in Valparaiso in 1866. His first partner was 
Col. Pierce in 1867, and his present partner is E. D. Crumpacker, He 
was married, November 18, 1869, to Miss Mary Eason, who was born 
May 22, 1848. To their union were born three children — Maggie, 
Joseph and John. Mr. Bartholomew is a Democrat, and he and wife are 
members of the Presbyterian Church. His success as a lawyer has been 
notable and lucrative. 

EZRA S. BEACH, son of Truman and Catherine (Burke) Beach, 
was born April 18, 1837. Truman Beach was born in Con- 
necticut in 1805; was reared a farmer, and was married in Canada 
in 1832. In 1836, the Beach family, consisting of Ezra and 
Polly (Stoddard) Beach (grandparents of our subject), and six children, 
came to this county, where the children still reside. They all settled on 
adjoining farms in Washington Township. Truman Beach and wife 
there resided until 1856, when they came to Valparaiso, remained one 
year, and then purchased a farm in a state of nature, but now one of the 
best improved farms near Valparaiso. For many years Truman con- 
ducted a nursery, but of late has retired from active life, and the farm is 
managed now by Ezra S. The old place consists of fifty-six acres, but 
Ezra S. owns the old homestead of 160 acres on which he was born in 
Washington Township, and 180 acres additional in the same township. 
Ezra S. was educated in the common schools, but finished iiis education 
in the old Male and Female College of Valparaiso. He was married, 
September 12, 1860, to Miss Jennie E. Fifield, who has borne him six 
children — Truman A., who died when seventeen years old ; Kittie, 
George, Minnie, INIark and Ray. Mr. Beach is independent in his politi- 
cal views. 

H. M. BEER, M. D., son of the Rev. Thomas Beer, was born in 
Ashland County, Ohio, March 20, 1838, and was reared in his native 
county. He received a good academical education, and at twenty-one 
years of age began the study of medicine under Dr. P. H. Clark, with 
whom he remained two and a half years ; then for a year he attended 
Cleveland Medical College, then enlisted as Assistant Surgeon in the 
Twenty-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry, remaining as such until the close 
of the war. He then located in Cumberland, Md., practicing, and at 
intervals attendino; the college at Cleveland, from which he graduated in 
1868. In that year he came to Valparaiso, and has here been actively 
engaged in practice ever since, having been uncommonly successful, his 
patients being among the best and most prominent families of Porter 
County. Dr. Beer is a Republican in politics, and he and wife are mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian Cimrch. 


REASON BELL, Jr., the first white child born in Porter County, 
Ind., is the son of Reason and Sarah (Darnell) Bell, and was born in 
Washington Township, this county, January 11, 1834. Reason Bell, 
Sr., now deceased, was one of the pioneers of Porter County, and was 
born December 31, 1797, in Greene County, Va. He married, August 
26, 1819, Miss Sarah Darnell, born in the same county May 9, 1801. 
Shortly afterward they moved to Ohio, and thence, in July, 1832, to 
Indiana, stopping in La Porte County until 1833, and then coming to 
Washington Township, this county, then unorganized. They are said to 
have been the third white family to settle in what is now Porter County. 
They located in the unbroken forest, and underwent all the hardships and 
privations of pioneer life. They had born to them twelve children, nine 
of whom reached maturity ; six are still living. Mr. Bell was a Whig 
and afterward a Republican, and was one of the early County Commis- 
sioners ; in religion he was a Universalist in belief, although he was a 
member of no church. He died July 16, 1867, his widow surviving him 
until July 12, 1881. The remains of both lie in the Lutheran Burying- 
Ground, Washington Township. Reason Bell, Jr., received only a com- 
mon school education, and December 23, 1857, married Miss Delia A. 
White. At the age of eighteen, he began acting as Deputy County 
Auditor, and so continued until 1857, when he was elected to the office 
by the Republicans, and re-elected, serving eight years ; in 1870, he was 
again elected and re-elected, and served eight consecutive years — in all, 
sixteen. At present he is leading a retired life, yet gives some attention 
to feal estate. He is the father of six children, viz : Theron H., 
Marion A., Herbert R., Mary, Mark D. and Clarence W. Mr. Bell is 
a member of the I. 0. 0. F., the 0. F. Encampment, and the Grand 
Lodge of 0. F., and has passed the chairs of lodge and encampment. 
The family name was formerly spelled Beall, and the first one knoAvn is 
Joseph Beall, a native of Scotland, who moved to England. His son, 
John Beall, emigrated from England to America in 1730, and settled in 
the Jerseys. He was the father of three sons ; one, Onesimus, was born 
on Long Island in 1738, and served as Captain in the French and Indian 
wars, and twenty years later as Lieutenant in the Revolution. Another 
son, Simeon Bell, was the grandfather of Reason Bell, Jr. Simeon mar- 
ried Mary McLane, a lady of Irish descent, and to them were born eleven 
children, of whom Reason, our subject's father, was the fourth child. 

HANS BORNHOLT, the younger of two children born to Max and 
Kate (Hadenfeldt) Bornholt, is a native of Holstein, Germany, and was 
born in March, 1838. The mother died in the old country, when the 
father married Anna Hendricks, who became the mother of six children, 
one of Avhom lives in Valparaiso. The father died in Germany in 1868 ; 
the widow survives and still resides in that country. In the spring of 
1861:, Hans Bornholt came to Valparaiso, and for about four months 
worked as a laborer on the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad. 
In January, 1865, he enlisted in Company B, One Hundred and Fifty- 
first Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and served about eight months. Return- 
ing, after the war, he learned the butcher's trade, which he has followed 
ever since, Avith the exception of one year in which he was engaged in 
farming. He was married, March 4, 1864, to Anna Harbek, who has 


borne him five children — Charley, Gus, Jule, Leo and Ljdia. Mr. 
Bornholdt is a Republican and has served two terms as Trustee. He and 
wife are members of the Lutheran Gliurch, and, rising from comparative 
poverty, Mr. B. has secured for himself and family a good property and 
a first-class trade. 

WILLIAM E. BROWN, County Auditor. James Caldwell Brown, 
D. D., father of the subject of this sketch, and one of the pioneer preachers 
of Porter County, Ind., was the eldest child of William and Eleanor 
(Lyons) Brown, and was born at St. Clairsville, Belmont Co., Ohio, in 
October, 1815. He attended the preparatory department of Gambler 
College, and at the age of sixteen years entered Jefferson College of 
Pennsylvania. While in the Freshman class, he experienced religion, and 
united with the Presbyterian Church. He graduated with honors, and 
passed to the Western Theological Seminary at Allegheny, Penn., re- 
mained two vears, and then spent one year teaching in Florida and 
Georgia. He then entered the Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C, 
graduating a year later, and was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of 
Harmony, S.'C, in 1838. On his way North, he married Miss Mary 
Emery, and in 1839 this couple came to the then village of Valparaiso, 
where Mr. Brown entered actively upon his ministerial labors. He was 
the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Valparaiso, and, for many years, 
was the leading representative of Christianity in Northern Indiana. Si- 
multaneously, in 1859, he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from 
Jefferson and Hanover Colleges. In 1860, he became the agent of the 
Theological Seminary of the Northwest, at Chicago, for which he resigned 
his pastorate. After a few months of fruitless work, on account of the 
war, he resigned and went to St. Louis, to fill the vacancy of Dr. Mc- 
Pheeter's, in the church there, after which he was elected Chaplain of the 
Forty-eighth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and participated in the diff"er- 
ent movements of the regiment until his death at Paducah, Ky., July 14, 
1862, from overwork, llis widow yet survives him, and resides in Val- 
paraiso. They had born to them three children. Of the two yet living, 
one is William Emery Brown, the present Auditor of Porter County. 
He was born in Valparaiso March 14, 1842, and after attending the 
schools here, entered Jefferson College. At the end of one year, he re- 
turned and enlisted, in December, 1861, in the Twentieth Illinois Volun- 
teer Infantry. He was appointed Commissary Sergeant, and when his 
term of service was out, re-enlisted in the same regiment. In the mean- 
time, he was commissioned Captain on his uncle's (Col. W. L. Brown's) 
staff". He never served as Captain, however, for Col. Brown was killed 
at Second Bull Run the same day he received his commission as Briga- 
dier General. William E. Brown remained with his regiment as Com 
missary, and part of the time as Acting Sergeant Major until April, 1865, 
when he was discharged. Owing to the irregularity of the mails, he did 
not receive his appointment as Quartermaster of the One Hundred and 
Fifty-fifth Illinois Volunteer Infantry until his retirement from the serv- 
ice. For a number of years after the war, he engaged in clerking. 
With the exception of six years, he has ever since resided in Valparaiso. 
In politics he is a Republican, and, in 1878, was elected County Au- 
ditor, with a majority of 1,224 over two other candidates. He was re- 


nominated by acclamation in July, 1882. Mr. Brown was married, in 
October, 1866, to Miss Amanda A. Pershing, of Plymouth, Ind., and to 
them have been born six children ; Fredrick J., Harry Van N., Ella L., 
Edith J., Grace M. E. and Jessie S. Mr. Brown is a member of the 
Masonic fraterity ; has been Past Master of Porter Lodge, No. 137 ; 
Past High Priest of Valparaiso Chapter, No. 79, R. A. M,, and is the 
present Eminent Commander of Valparaiso Commandery, No. 28, K. T. 

H. B. BROWN, Principal of the Northern Indiana Normal School, 
was born in Mount Vernon, Knox Co., Ohio, October 6, 1847. He is a 
son of Thomas and Rachel (Mills) Brown, of German and Scotch descent 
respectively and parents of seven children, of whom six are yet living. 
When H. B. Brown was about two years of age, his parents moved from 
Knox to Morrow County and thence to Wood County. He first attended 
the common schools, and, at the age of fifteen, began his career as teacher, 
with his earnings paying for his tuition in the higher branches. He at- 
tended the Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware and Lebanon schools, 
the National Normal School, and at Republic, Ohio, where he taught two 
years in a normal school. In June, 1873, he came to Valparaiso and 
built up his present school, of which he has made a complete success. 

T. A. E. CAMPBELL (deceased), one of the first settlers of Porter 
County, was a native of Montgomery County, N. Y.; was born July 10, 
1810, and was a son of Thomas and Mary Campbell, also natives of New 
York, and of Scotch ancestry. In 1831, he came to what is now Porter 
County with his uncle. Adam S. Campbell. He taught school for a time ; 
was the first Postmaster of Valparaiso, and served as Deputy County 
Clerk, at which he was engasced in 1841, when he was elected Countv 
Treasurer and Collector. He filled this office with satisfaction for a num- 
ber of years, and was afterward engased for a long time in mercantile 
pursuits ; he then employed himself at farming until his death. May 14, 
1878. Mr. Campbell was largely identified with the construction of the 
Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne & Chicago Railroad ; he was a charter member of 
the Masonic Lodge of Valparaiso, and always took an active interest in the 
temperance cause. He was married, March 25, 1841, to Miss Margaret 
Parkinson, of Lake County, Ind. This lady was born in Wayne County, 
Penn., November 22, 1820, and is the daughter of Gibson and Mary 
(Rogers) Parkinson, who were of English descent, and came to Lake 
County in 1836, being among the first settlers. To the marriage of Mr. 
and Mrs. Campbell there were born nine children — Mary L. (deceased), 
Eliza J. (Mrs. A. E. Woodhull), Emmett, Robert S. (deceased), Hugh 
A., Theresa (Mrs. C. E. Bacon), Dora (Mrs. E. S. Jones), Thomas A. 
and Maud (deceased). Mrs. Campbell is still residing on the old home- 
stead where she first began married life, together with her son-in-law and 
daughter (Mrs. Woodhull), and is a consistent member of the Presbyterian 

J. F. CARTER, farmer and dealer in timber, was born in Jackson 
Township, Porter County, Ind., July 4, 1842, and is one of eight chil- 
dren; five yet living, born to Jacob and Chloe (Doud) Carter, a sketch of 
■whom will be found in Jackson Township biographical sketches. J. F. 
Carter was reared in Jackson Township to manhood, receiving his educa- 
tion in the common schools. August 27, 1861, being then only nineteen 


years old, he was mu?terod into service for the defense of the Union in 
Company H, Ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and immediately went 
to the front. He participated in all the movements of his company and 
regiment until after the battle of Shiloh, and was engaged in the battles 
of Green Briar, Buifalo Mountain and Shiloli. The second day of the 
fight in the last-named battle ho was sitting on a rail pile when a shell 
from the enemy, striking the rails, exploded, and threw Mr. Carter some 
distance very forcibly. He experienced no particular injury at the time, 
but that night, during the rain, got wet, took cold which settled in his 
back, which was badly strained by the explosion, and in consequence was 
disabled for duty, and he is yet a sufferer from the effects of this. For this 
reason he was discharged the spring of 1863. As soon as able, he en- 
gaged ill farming in his native township, and there, January 1, 1865, 
married Mrs. Nancy A. (Brierly) Comer. In 1870, they removed to 
Iowa, remaining there two years, afterward returning to Porter County 
and locating in Valparaiso, where they have ever since resided. They 
are the parents of two children — Frank J. and Charles R. Mr. Carter 
is a Republican, and is one of the substantial citizens of the place. Ho 
owns a farm of 280 acres in Washington and Centre Townships, and has 
taken an equal part in the support of all laudable enterprises that pertain 
to his town or county. 

H. C. COATES, M. D., is a native of Marlboro, Stark Co., Ohio, 
was born June 8, 1826, and is the fifth in a family of twelve children, 
seven of whom are yet living, born to Amos and Jane B. (Norris) Coates, 
both of whom were natives of the Keystone State and of English descent. 
Amos Coates was a farmer, and one of the early settlers of Stark County, 
Ohio, and one of the chief educators of his day in Marlboro. The subject 
of this sketch began the study of medicine when quite young, at home, 
under the advisement of his cousin, Dr. J. G. Coates; afterward under 
Dr. G. W. Bettis. In 1855, he entered the American Medical College, 
Cincinnati, and in 1856 embarked in the practice of his profession in his 
native town. In 1861, he took a contract as Physician and Surgeon under 
the United States Government at Cleveland, remaining about three years. 
During this time he attended the medical department of the Western Re- 
serve College in Cleveland, and graduated the winter term of 1863-61. 
After the war, he continued his studies in medicine at Cleveland, and 
after attending the medical department of the University of Wooster, re- 
ceived a special diploma dated from the winter term of 1865-66. He 
also took a Practitioner's course in the Chicago Medical Department of 
the Northwestern University. The summer of 1866, he came to Valpa- 
raiso and opened an office, and has remained here ever since, actively en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession, and as resident Surgeon for the 
P., Ft. W. & C. R. R., for fourteen years. In 1882, he was chosen as 
County Physician, by the County Commissioners of Porter County, and 
is now serving in that capacity. He is a Republican, and he and wife 
are members of the Christian* Church. He married, April 15, 1847, 
Miss E. S. Ward, of Portage County, Ohio, and to this union were born 
four children — Alfred \V., Phebe L. (deceased), Lura E., now Mrs. S. 
Ramsey, and Maud D. 

MILAN CORNELL, farmer, was born December 13, 1827, in 
Crawford County, Ohio, and is one of eleven children, seven yet living, 


born to Isaac ami Priscilla (Morgan) Cornell, a sketch of whom will ap- 
pear in the biography of Ira Cornell, of Porter Township. Up to 1834, 
Milan Cornell lived with his parents in his native county, and in that 
year emigrated with them to what is now Porter County, Ind., locating 
in the southeastern part of the same, and becoming the first white settlers 
of Boone Township. The parents ever afterwards made Porter County 
their home, and died esteemed and respected citizens. Milan Cornell re- 
ceived his education from the common schools of that early day, and in 
1840, he and three others received an attack of California fever, which 
induced them to start for the far-fixmed gold fields of the West. They 
went by the way of the Isthmus of Panama, and on their arrival at San 
Francisco, our subject had only one dollar. He found employment for a 
short time chopping cord-wood, at the rate of about -$16 per day, after 
which he engaged in mining near Sonora, and the most part of his stay there 
was in the southern part of the State. He participated in many of the 
hardships, etc., of a miner's life, including fights with Indians, Mexi- 
cans and cut-throats of various kinds. In 1853, he returned to Indiana, 
and commenced farming and dealino- in stock, at which he has ever since 
continued, with the exception of about three years, while in the hardware 
trade at Valparaiso. February 28, 1854, he was united in marriage with 
Miss Cordelia Freeman, who was born in Onandago County, N. Y., Feb- 
ruary 22, 1834, and is a daughter of Azariah Freeman, appropriate men- 
tion of whom is made elsewhere in this volume. To this marriage were 
born two children — Genevieve, now Mrs. S. C. Williams, and Kate, the 
wife of Marion Baum. Mr. Cornell is a Democrat, a member of the I. 
0. 0. F., and the 0. F. Encampment. He and wife moved to Valparaiso 
the spring of 1882, and are among the best citizens of the place. They 
own, besides good town property, a valuable farm of 160 acres in Liberty 

M. B. CROSBY, native of Putnam County, N. Y., was born Novem- 
ber 17, 1809, and is one of eight children, five of whom are yet living, 
born to Zenas and Sally (Chapman) Crosby, who were also natives of 
Putnam County. M. B. Crosby was reared on a farm ; moved to Onta- 
rio County, N. Y., when a young man, and married Philura Freeman, in 
Connecticut, in October, 1834. They resided in Ontario County, N. Y., 
farming until the spring of 1836, when they moved to Michigan City, 
and the next summer, went to Crown Point, Lake Co., Ind., where he 
farmed until June, 1839 ; thence moved to Porter County, locating in 
Washington Township, where he cleared and farmed until 1846, when 
he traded his farm for what was known as the Cheney Flouring Mill. 
He ran that seven years, then sold out ; moved to Valparaiso, and for one 
year was in the dry goods trade in partnership with J. N. Skinner. He 
ami S. G. Hassthen built a large brick steam saw and flouring mill, which 
they operated five years. In this venture Mr. Crosby lost §5,000, but 
nevertheless, he bought the mill he now owns. In connection with the 
mill, which is in charge of his son, Mr. Crosby runs a flour and feed store, 
and throughout his diversified business career, has been very successful. 
He and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church, and Mr. Crosby 
was one of two male members who helped organize that church in Valparaiso. 
He is a Republican in politics; is self-made, and he and wife were parents of 


five children : Harrietta, Enoch, Emma J., now wife of Hon. S. S. Skin- 
ner, Freeman and Edwin Van S. The two eldest and the youngest of 
these are dead. 

HON. MARK L. De MOTTE, Representative to Congress from the 
Tenth Congressional District of Indiana, was born December 28, 1832, 
at Rockville, Park Co., Ind. His father, Daniel De Motte, was of 
French descent, his ancestors coming to America a number of genera- 
tions back and settling on Long Island. His mother, Mary (Brewer) 
De Motte, was of Dutch descent, her father being a native of Holland, 
but passing the greater part of his life in Kentucky. To their marriage 
were born eight children, the subject of this sketch being the youn'^est. 
His father was a minister of the Methodist Episcopal faith, and for forty 
years was occupied in ministerial labors all over the State. Fifteen years 
of this time he was financial agent for Asbury University. He died at 
Greencastle, Ind., in 1875, at the age of seventy-seven years, preceded 
by his wife in 1866 at the age of seventy-four years. Mark L. De Motte 
was reared to manhood in Indiana. After attending public schools, he 
attended a seminary for one year at Greencastle, afterwards entering 
Asbury University, at that place, from which institution he graduated in 
1853. receiving the degree of A. B. He immediately entered upon the 
study of law, attending the law school of Asbury University, and gradu- 
ating in 1855 with the degree of LL. B. In that year he came first to 
Valparaiso, Ind., and entered upon the practice of his profession. On 
the organization of the Republican party, in 1856, he was elected Prose- 
cuting Attorney for the judicial circuit, comprising the counties of Porter, 
Lake, La Porte, St. Joseph, Marshall and Stark. The month of Decem- 
ber, 1856, at Valparaiso, he was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth 
Christy, and they lived happily here until 1861, when he entered the 
Government service as Senior First Lieutenant of the Fourth Indiana 
Battery, and continued with his command till April, 1862, when he 
resigned ta accept the Captaincy on the staff of Gen. Milroy. In this 
capacity he participated in the battles of Pope's campaign of 1863, clos- 
ing with the engagement of Second Bull Run, afterwards going with 
Gen. Milroy to West Virginia, remaining there till after the battle of 
Gettysburg. The remainder of his service was on post duty at Harris- 
burg, Penn. In August, 1865, he removed to Lexington, Mo. In 1869, 
he became owner and editor of the Lexington Register^ a Republican 
newspaper, and remained in active journalistic work until 1877, when he 
removed to his old home in Valparaiso. While in Missouri, he was twice 
nominated for Congress on the Republican ticket, but, owing to a 
majority of 10,000 or upwards of opposition in his district, was never 
elected. After his return to Valparaiso, he resumed the practice of law, 
which he continued without interruption until 18S0, when he received the 
Republican nomination and was elected to Congress from the Tenth Dis- 
trict, over a fusion candidate. For the past two years he has served with 
signal fidelity and satisfaction to his constituents, who, on the 17th of 
August, 1882, complimented him by a renomination. Mr. De Motte, 
aside from being a prominent public man, is an influential and esteemed 
private citizen. He and wife are the parents of two children, Mary and 
Louise. Mr. De Motte, in 1879, was prominent and influential in the 


organization of the Law Department of the N. I. N. S., of which he is 
one of the instructors. 

C. W. DICKOVER, County Sheriff, was born in Luzerne County, 
Penn., February 17, 1832 ; is one of ten children, five yet living, born 
to George and Catharine (Rymer) Dickover, natives of Lancaster County, 
Penn. George Dickover was a stone mason and plasterer by trade. His 
father, Jacob Dickover, was a native of Switzerland, and came to America 
previous to the Revolutionary war. George Dickover and wife lived and 
died in Pennsylvania, respectively aged seventy-seven and forty-five. C. 
W. Dickover, next youngest of his parents' family, was reared in his 
native State ; fairly educated in the common schools, and there learned 
the brick mason's trade. In 1854, he came to Valparaiso ; worked as a 
journeyman several years, and then engaged in contracting. He has re- 
sided in Valparaiso ever since, except two years when working in Du- 
buque, Iowa. After the fire at Chicago, he went there and assisted in re- 
building the burnt district for about four months. In December, 1857, 
Mr. Dickover returned to Luzerne County, Penn., where, on the 5th of 
January, 1858, he married Miss Mary Willits, of Wilkes Barre. Mr. D. 
has contracted for and executed a great deal of work in La Porte, Lake 
and other counties. He and wife are members of the Presbyterian 
Church, and the parents of six children : C. Howard, Mark L., Daisy, 
living, and Jessie, Ford and Maud, deceased. He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, and has ascended to the Commandery, being a Sir 
Knight of Valparaiso Commandery, No. 28. He is a Republican, and 
in October, 1880, was elected Sheriif of Porter County, and at the Re- 
publican County Convention, in July, 1882, was renominated by accla- 

DANIEL H. DILLINGHAM, grocer, was born in Liberty Town- 
ship, this county, April 27, 1849, and is the eldest of the four children 
of Olcott and Hannah (Hale) Dillingham. Olcott Dillingham was born 
in Huron County, Ohio, in 1827, and is the youngest of three living 
brothers born to John and Hannah (Hecox) Dillingham, natives respect- 
ively of Wales and Connecticut. At the age of ten he came with his 
parents to Porter County, then a part of La Porte County, where they 
purchased 600 acres of land. Their destination, on leaving Ohio, was 
south of Chicago, but a gale on the lake forced the vessel, on board of 
which they were bound for Chicago, to put into Michigan City, and this 
incident led to their making their home in this county. Mr. Dillingham 
remained with his father until he reached his majority, when, in June, 
1848, he married Miss Hannah A. Hale, a native of Maine. The Decem- 
ber following, he built himself a house on some land belonging to his 
father's estate, in which he lived until about 1858, when he moved to the 
old homestead, his present farm, which he managed for his father until 
the latter's death in 1861. He is now the largest land-owner in the town- 
ship, his farm comprising 627 acres, well improved with first-class build- 
ings, wind-pump, etc., and thoroughly cultivated. Mr. Dillingham is 
strongly Republican in politics, and, though he was unfortunate in having 
no early educational advantnges, he is an intelligent, careful manager, 
naturally shrewd, and a progressive and enterprising citizen. There have 
been born to him four children — Daniel II. ; Carrie E., now Mrs. L. D. 


AVolf; Isaac, and Luella. now Mrs. Joseph Meade. His aged mother, 
Mrs. Hannah (Hecox) Dillin<:liam, died at the homestead in 18 — . Dan- 
iel H. Dillingham, as well as his brother and sisters, was reared in this 
county, and his education was acquired in the common schools. He was 
married, March 28, 1870, to MissElma Bartholomew, daughter of Wash- 
ington Bartholomew (deceased). In 1881, he came to Valparaiso, and 
January 1, 1882, he and his brother Isaac formed a copartnership in the 
grocery trade, and, for beginners, are doing remarkably well, and fully as 
much as some of the older houses, inasmuch as they carry a full line of 
everything belonging to the trade of a first-class grocery store, and are 
affable, obliging and attentive to their customers. Mr. D., besides his in- 
terest in the store, owns considerable town property and a farm of 360 
acres in Liberty and Centre Townships. In politics he is a Republican, 
and he is by nature a man of energy and enterprise, and is always fore- 
most in undertakings of a laudable character. There have been born to 
his marriage two children — Charles H. and Minnie E. 

OBADIAH DUNHAM was born in Otsego County, N. Y., Septem- 
ber 26, 1809, and is one of the seven living children of eight born to 
Abner and Caridace (Irons) Dunham. Mrs. Candace Dunham died in 
October, 1814, and Abner Dunham died in 1822. Obadiah was reared 
chiefly in Cooperstown, N. Y., and there learned the tailor's trade. In 
1832, he removed to Ohio, and at Cardington was married, May 7, 1840, 
to Miss Sarah W. Winshop. He changed his residence several times ; 
came to A^alparaiso in the latter part of 1844, and has since made it his 
home. Here, in 1848, he was appointed School Commissioner. He worked 
at his trade until 1850, when hs was elected County Recorder by the Dem- 
ocrats. In 1855, he was elected Clerk of Courts, and served four years ; 
he then engaged largely as administrator of estates and as deputy in 
county officials' offices, and for the past seventeen years has held the posi- 
tion of Deputy County Recorder. Mr. Dunham is an Odd Fellow and a 
member of the Encampment, and his wife is a member of the Presby- 
terian Church. They are the parents of four children — Ann E. (de- 
ceased), Charles N., George (deceased), and Mary E., the wife of E. F. 
White, of Junction City, Kan. Charles N. married Sarah Church, in 
October, 1870 ; is a resident of Valparaiso, and is a machinest by trade. 
Mr. Dunham came to Porter County a poor man, but has realized a com- 
fortable fortune, and is now living in retirement. 

DR. J. H. EDMONDS, dentist, was born in Upper Canada De- 
cember 26, 1848, and is one of the four children born to R. D. and Mar- 
garet (Ferguson) Edmonds. When the Doctor was about fifteen years of 
age, the family came to the United States, first settling at Detroit and 
then moving to Illinois, where the mother died in about 1870 ; the father 
now resides in Dacotah. The Doctor received an academical education in 
Canada, but the literary portion was finished at a college in Detroit. In 
1866, he began the study of medicine and dentistry at Rock Island, under 
Dr. Buzette, and graduated from the Philadelphia Dental College the 
term of 1873-74 : he also received a special diploma as surgeon, from 
Jefferson Medical College, qualifying him fully for the practice of dentis- 
try. He was married July 28, 1870, to Miss Marietta Pierce, who was 
born in Lake County, Ind., November 22, 1853, the daughter of Levi W. 


Pierce, an early settler. She had studied dentistry with the Doctor and 
is fully qualified in all its branches, making "filling " a speciality. They 
came to Valparaiso in 1872, and together do by far the greater part of 
the dental business of the town. They possess all the latest improve- 
ments, and their plate-work and filling cannot be surpassed. Dr. Ed- 
monds is the only dental graduate in Valparaiso or Porter County, and 
he ranks among the leading men of the profession in Northern Indiana. 
The Doctor is a Republican, a Mason and a Sir Knight of Valparaiso 
Commandery No. 28. His grandfather, Samuel Edmonds, was a native of 
England, and was for nine years in the British naval service, serving for 
a time as Commodore. The Doctor and Mrs. Edmonds are the parents 
of two children — Bruce Eugene (deceased) and Glenn. 

JOHN M. FELTON. County Clerk, was born in Westmoreland 
County, Pennsylvania, January 6, 1834. His father. William Felton, 
was a native of Pennsylvania, a railroad engineer by occupation, and 
married, about 1825, Margery McCallister, who bore him two sons, both 
yet alive. The mother died there in 1829, and in 1831 Mr. Felton 
married, Miss Margaret Mourer, and to this marriage were born eight 
children, six of whom are yet living. Mr. Felton continued the life of a 
railroad man until his death in May, 1862. His widow survived him 
until 1871, when she, too, died. Two of their sons served their country 
in the late war — one, Robert K., being killed before Petersburg. John 
M. Felton was reared in the " Keystone State," receiving a common 
school education. He learned his father's business of Civil Engineer, 
and the spring of 1857 was employed by the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & 
Chicago Railroad, on a new survey through northern Indiana. Previous 
to this time, he had been employed in Pennsylvania, and in Tennessee 
and Mississippi, as a railroad engineer. In 1860, he located permanently 
in Valparaiso — although he first came in 1857 — and since that time has 
always made Porter County his home. He engaged as a salesman in a 
hardware store here until August, 1875, when he was elected on the 
Democratic ticket to the office of County Treasurer, and, two years later, 
was re-elected, serving in all four years. In 1878, he was elected Clerk 
of Circuit Court of the county, and took his office November, 1879. 
Although Porter County gives a Republican majority of about 500, Mr. 
Felton has, by personal popularity, been elected every time he has re- 
ceived a nomination. He was married, November 18, 1863, to Miss 
Mary Jane Marshall. This lady died April 24, 1873, leaving two chil- 
dren — Robert L. and Lizzie M. The mother was born April 15, 1841, 
in Wells County, Ind., and died a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

CHARLES FERNEKES was born in Germany February 10, 
1834, the son of Antoine and Catharine (Schranck) Fernekes, who came 
to this country in 1856, and died in Milwaukee in 1872. Charles Fer- 
nekes learned to be a baker and candy-maker in the old country, and at 
the age of eishteen came to America, locatingr at Milwaukee, where for two 
years he worked at his trade; he then moved to Chicago, where he mar- 
ried Eve Griebel, September 19, 1855. In 1859, he came to Valparaiso, 
opened a confectionery and restaurant, and has secured a comfortable fort- 
une. Besides his business place, he owns five dwellings and the business 
room occupied by Munger & Le Claire. His wife died April 13, 1880, 


leaving five children — Bertha, now Mrs. H. C. Schranck; George, Peter, 
Rosa and Charley. He married his present wife, Mrs. Kate (Dauber) 
Schwitzer, November 23, 1881, and by her has one son, not yet named. 
Mr. F. and family are members of the Catholic Church, and in politics, 
he is a Democrat. At present Mr. F. is engaged in the grocery and con- 
fectionery trade, but expects shortly to return to the confectionery and 
restaurant business, for which his large experience well qualifies him. 

JOHN FITZ WILLIAMS was born in Charing Cross, St. Peters 
Port, on the Island of Guernsey, off the coast of France, February 29, 
1828. His parents, John and Mary Fitz Williams, were also natives of 
the Island. The parents came to New York in 1818, and were there natural- 
ized, that the father might do business for the Hudson Bay Company in the 
Northwestern Territory, and was located in and near the State of Wis- 
consin. Mr. Fitz Williams never returned to his native country, but after 
quitting the employ of the H. B. Company, engaged in farming in Wis- 
consin, and died there in about 1839. In 1827, Mrs. Fitz Williams went 
back on a visit to her native land, and there, in 1828, the subject of this 
sketch was born. In 1829, the mother and son came to America, and 
the mother died during the time her son — the only one — was fighting for 
the preservation of his adopted country. .John Fitz Williams, subject of 
this memoir, in the fall of 1840, was bound out as an apprentice on board 
the bark " Enterprise," of St. Peters Port, Guernsey. After serving 
four and a half years he ran away, and found employment as cook on the 
lakes. In 1854. he came first to Valparaiso, but remained here only a 
short time, afterward going back to the lakes, where he remained till 
1856, when he again came to Valparaiso and entered the employ of A. 
R. Gould, of the hotel "American Eagle." In April, 1861, he enlisted 
in Company H, Ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and served with this 
company until 1862, when he became an orderly for Gen. Milroy, in 
West Virginia. In June, 1863, he re-enlisted in Company E, One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-eighth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and promoted Or- 
derly Sergeant, afterward being promoted to the Second Lieutenancy of 
his company. Owing to an accident which happened to him while on 
Hood's campaign, he was unable to act in the capacity of Second Lieu- 
tenant, and accordingly was discharged. Mr. Fitz Williams was in a 
number of skirmishes, and engagements, among them being Second Bull 
Run, and was also through the Atlanta campaign with Gen. Sherman. 
After the war, he started a restaurant in Valparaiso, and has ever since 
been in business in the place. As a business man, he has been very suc- 
cessful, and to-day is worth a comfortable fortune, which he has acquired 
by his own efforts. He was married, in December, 1863, just previous 
to going out in the One Hundred and Twenty-eighth, to Margaret Mc- 
Carthy, and to their marriage were born five children — Annie, Fanny, 
Eliza, Fred and John. The parents are members of the Catholic Church. 

AZARIAH FREEMAN, one of the old settlers of Porter County, is 
a native of Tolland County, Conn., and was born May 23, 1809 ; eldest 
of six children, four yet living, born to Enoch and Lury (Huntington) 
Freeman, and has made farming his chief occupation through life. At 
the age of twenty years, he went to Onondaga County, N. Y., to look 
after a farm his father owned, and remained there until 1838, but in the 


mean time (1831) returned to his native State, and married Miss Amanda 
Crane, a daughter of Isaac and Sarah L. (Abbe) Crane, born April 6, 
1809. He removed West in 1838, and purchased land in Michigan and 
Indiana, locating in Elkhart County, this State, where he farmed for a 
few years. He traded his property there for 160 acres on Morgan Prai- 
rie, Washington Township, Porter County, to which he removed in 1842. 
In 1850, he, and a company of others, emigrated overland to California. 
Upon his return to Porter County the next year, he located in Valparaiso. 
He has been especially identified in the educational advancement of the 
county. He was the founder of the old Male and Female College, and 
gave much toward its prosperity. After its discontinuance, he induced 
Mr. Brown to come here and start what is now known as the Northern 
Indiana Normal School, of which he is now Vice President. He has been 
connected with many other enterprises of the town and county. For 
eighteen successive years, he was Swamp Land Commissioner of Porter 
County, also County Commissioner for a time. He has held other posi- 
tions of local honor and trust, among which was that of President of Town 
Council for a number of years before Valparaiso became a city. Although 
an old man, he is yet one of the county's best and most active citizens. 
He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the 
parents of four children, viz., Edwin E., Cordelia. George and Lura 0. 

JOSEPH GARDNER, banker, was born in Chautauqua County, N. 
Y., June 10, 1821, and is the seventh son of a family of nine children, 
two yet living, born to Robert and Martha (Maine) Gardner. He is a 
grandson of Robert Gardner, who was a native of Scotland, afterwards a 
resident of Ireland, where he died. The father of Joseph Gardner was 
born in Ireland, about 1784, married Martha Maine, at Belfast, and, in 
1818, emigrated to the United States, locating in Chautauqua County, 
N. Y., where he engaged in farming until his death, June 5, 1855. The 
widow moved to Porter County in 1861, and died on the farm of her son 
Joseph in July, 1864. Both the parents were of the Presbyterian faith. 
Joseph Gardner remained with his parents in Chautauqua County, N. Y., 
until his sixteenth year. In 1836, he began life's battleon his own responsi- 
bilitv, and for three summers engao-ed as a sailor on Lakes Huron, Erie and 
Michigan. He then entered as laborer in a warehouse at Michigan City, Ind., 
remaining there principally until the spring of 1844, when he went to 
Mackinac, where he engaged in fishing and coopering for five years. In 
company with five others, February 6, 1849, he left the straits, bound for 
California. There they mined on Bear Creek, near what is now known 
as Little York, their individual profits per day being about ^16. At 
the end of about two months they went to Sacramento, where their com- 
pany was dissolved, and in January, 1850, Mr. Gardner went to Nevada 
City, where he remained about two years, mining. He then went back 
to Little York, and engaged in mining and " ditching." Mr. Gardner, 
in the last named business, invested ^100,000, which he had made out of 
the mines. The ditch he operated is yet in fine condition, and is owned 
by what is known as the York Mining Company. In 1868, he returned 
to Indiana, and for three years farmed in Essex Township, Porter 
County. He then came to Valparaiso, and in 1874 established the Val- 
paraiso Savings Bank, which, in February, 1879, was merged into the 


Farmers' National Bank, with a cash capital of ^50,000. Mr. G. is n 
Republican, a member of the Blue Lodge in Masonry, and his wife is a 
member of the Presbyterian Church. He was married, in 1858, to Sarah 
M. Hill, and to this union was born one son — William H., who is assist- 
ant cashier of the bank. 

JEREMIAH HAMELL, deceased, one of the first merchants to lo- 
cate in Valparaiso, came to the place about the year 1836, and by his 
honor, enterprise and pleasing manners, rapidly won the confidence, 
friendship and patronage of the villagers and the surrounding neighbor- 
hood. Rev. Dr. Beatty, his former pastor, at Steubenville, Ohio, men- 
tioned him as a young man of marked ability, capable of high career in 
any vocation he might prefer. He chose the activity of mercantile pur- 
suits, although of fine literary tastes and scholastic habits, delighting 
always to spend leisure hours with books and pen. A fine orator, he 
was often called to assist in the temperance work, political campaigns, 
and on all other occasions requiring intelligence and fine address. In 
the year 1838, he represented the counties of Porter and Lake in the 
State Legislature, and had he lived, would have been selected for the 
occupancy of still higher oSices of trust and importance. A few years 
after his arrival, he married Miss B. E. Cowan, an estimable and attractive 
young lady, who, some time previous, had removed from Romney, Hamp- 
shire Co., Va., to Southern Indiana, and one of the original members of 
the Presbyterian Church, of Valparaiso. With her he enjoyed happy 
years of home life, and the generous and pleasant hospitalities they con- 
ferred upon friends, will be remembered by many who were guests at their 
table and fireside. When death called the noble husband and father, a 
universal sympathy and grief were felt ; the loss being one to a community 
as well as to the shadowed household. And now, although time has 
planted the mosses of many a summer upon his grave, the name of Mr. 
Hamell is one often recalled; his gifts and virtues frequently recounted 
and absent, he is still unforgotten. Rev. J. C. Brown, D. D., the be- 
loved and lamented first pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Valparaiso, 
was his warm friend and admirer, referring to him ever as a gentleman of 
culture, usefulness, piety and public spirit, of unnusually fine personal 
appearance, and remarkable social qualities. It is said that as a brilliant 
conversationalist he was unsurpassed, being able to discuss topics of the 
day at his storeroom while busily engaged in posting his ledgers. In 
sermons preached specially to young men of the town, Mr. Hamell was 
suggested for their imitation as a type of what one could accomplish by 
his own unaided effort in obtaining position in society, education, success 
in business, and what is above all, a name so noble as to become a cher- 
ished legacy. Such to his family and friends is that of Jeremiah Hamell, 
and this little tribute is placed to his memory with the tenderness with 
which loving hands garland a tomb. 

JOHN W. H AYDEN was born in Madison County, N. Y., May 
29, 1815, and is one of nine children (only two of whom, our subject 
and a brother, Caleb Hay den, of Morgan Prairie, yet survive), born to 
Caleb and Sarah (Wolcott) Hayden, who were natives of Williamsburg, 
Mass. The year after their marriage, they moved to New Zork State 
and lived there farming until 1817, then removed to Franklin County, 


Mass., and in 1835 emigrated overland to Indiana, locating in La Porte 
County, where Mr. Hayden died in about 1838. Mrs. Hayden lived 
on the old place until 1855, when she moved to Morgan Township, Porter 
County, where she died the following year. John W. Hayden was reared 
in York State and Massachusetts until nineteen years old. The spring of 
1834, he went to Chicago and was there a short time, afterward going to 
Ottawa, III., where he bought a claim of land in La Salle County. He 
then returned to Massachusetts, and through his persuasions the parents 
sold what little property they possessed and emigrated westward. They 
were unable to reach La Salle County before the land sales there, con- 
sequently his land was sold and he was out of a farm. On account of 
the sickness of his sister they were obliged to stop in La Porte County, 
Ind., on their way out, where they remained until her death. On the 
return of our subject from looking after his claim in Illinois, they con- 
cluded to remain in La Porte County and make it their home, which 
they did, till their removal to Porter County in 1855. John W. Hayden 
returned to Vermont in 1845, and April 17, of that year, married Abi- 
gail L. Barber. Returning with his wife to Indiana, he engaged in clear- 
ing and farming and taking such part in pioneer pursuits as are described 
in the township history. This lady bore him one daughter, Mary A... 
now the wife of Henry Stoner, of Morgan Prairie, and died February 
27, 1847, and lies buried in La Porte County. Mr. Hayden married his 
present wife, Almira Worster, February 7, 1849, in La Porte County, 
and to his last marriage there were born five children, viz.: One that 
died in infancy without name, Abigail L. (wife of Allen W. Reynolds), 
Anna L. (deceased), Hittie (deceased), and Louisa (the wife of Herbert 
Fish). Mr. Hayden is one of the old pioneers of Northwestern Indiana, 
and one of its self-made men. His life has been passed in hard work at 
farming and pioneer work until within the past three years, since when 
he has been living in Valparaiso retired. Mr. Hayden is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity, and a Democrat ; has held positions of trust in 
the county and is one of the present Jury Commissioners. 

PROF. RICHARD A. HERITAGE, Musical Director of Northern 
Indiana Normal School, was born October 28, 1853, in Williams County,. 
Ohio. He is the eldest of seven children born to James and Susannah 
(De Long) Heritage, the former of England and the latter of Ohio. At 
the age of sixteen, he left home to attend the Normal School at Bryan, 
Ohio. Three years later, he was installed as tutor in music and mathe- 
matics in the same institution. In about two and one-half years, he 
entered the Musical Convention work with W. F. Werschkul, D. Wertz 
and S. W. Straub. In 1877, he accepted the principalship of the Edon 
(Ohio) Graded School, working about one year, when, in the midst of a 
term of school, he received a telegram from H. B. Brown asking him 
to take the position of Musical Director of the Northern Indiana Normal 
School, suddenly vacated by W. F. Speer. He accepted, and has held 
the position- ever since. When Prof. H. took the position in the spring 
of 1878, there was no musical department except the vocal classes and 
three pianos for private instruction. In the fall of 1878, the musical de- 
partment was fully organized, with a course of study embracing two years' 
work, including notation, sight reading, thorough-bass, harmony, fugue, 


counter-point, orchestration, musical literature, voice culture, piano, 
organ, violin and band and orchestral instruments. This is divided into 
four courses. The three pianos, previously mentioned, were placed in the 
students' rooms ; now, the department has a room 40x42 feet, with twenty 
pianos, seven organs, and one set of band and orchestral instruments. 
The building is arranged with twenty-two private practicing rooms and 
director's family rooms, musical store and reading room, and an excellent 
musical and miscellaneous library of over 1,000 volumes, with twenty 
musical journals on file. It is also connected with the telephonic ex- 
change. Prof. H. is editor and publisher of a musical journal — The 
(Valparaiso) Musical Ideal. This has all been done through the untir- 
ing and persistent efforts of Prof. Heritage, who is a genial, affable 
gentleman of fine musical talent. The number of certificates of mem- 
bership was about 150 in 1878 ; last year the number reached 409. Prof, 
n. was married, March 22, 1877, to Mary C. Miller, a native of Ohio. 
They have one child, Harvey H. Of the F. & A. M. fraternity. Prof. 
H. is a member, having taken twelve degrees, and also a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and has always been a Republican. 

J. D. HOLLETT, of the firm of Haste^& Hollett, hardware dealers, is 
a native of Orange County, N. Y., his birth occurring May 11, 1848. 
He is next the youngest of a family of six sons and four daughters, one 
daughter of whom is dead, born to Thomas A. and Deborah A. (Benja- 
min) Hollett, also natives of the State of New York. Thomas A. Hollett 
was a farmer ; moved to Porter Township, Porter Co., Ind., from Orange 
County, N. Y., in 1851, and moved to Valparaiso in about 1864, and he 
and wife are yet living here, not actively engaged in any pursuit. J. D. 
Hollett was reared principally in Porter County, where he received the 
common school education. At the age of sixteen, he began for himself, 
and up until nineteen years of age was going to school and clerking in 
Wood Brothers' grocery store in Valparaiso. In 1867, he was employed 
as fireman of an engine on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Rail- 
road, and after firing two and a half years, entered the engine and ma- 
chine shops in Chicago, remaining there about a year, when, by reason of 
his habits and previous satisfactory work, he was given an engine. For 
four years he was employed as freight and passenger engineer on the Fort 
Wayne road. The fall'of 1874, he became the "Co." of the hardware 
firm of Hawkins, Haste & Co., but at the end of two years Mr. Hawkins 
retired from the partnership and the firm of Haste & Hollett has con- 
tinued to the present with success. They carry everything found in a 
first-class hardware and farming implement store, and do as large a trade 
as any firm of the kind in the town. Mr. Hollett is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, and is a Sir Knight of Valparaiso Commandery, No. 
28. He was married, February 21, 1872, to Miss Lura Freeman, daugh- 
ter of Azariah Freeman, one of the old settlers of Valparaiso, and by her 
has two children — Freeman and Ida May. The parents are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

CONRAD HORN, butcher, was born near Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
Germany, December 30, 1830, and is a son of Conrad and Anna M. 
(Seifert) Horn, who were also natives of Germany. They had born to 
them five children, only two of whom are yet living, a daughter, Mrs. 


Anna Stenger, of Pennsylvania, and the subject of this sketch. In 1851, 
Conrad Horn, Jr., emigrated to the United States. After arriving in 
New York City, he engaged in various pursuits, afterward going to Penn- 
sylvania and working in the coal mines. In 1855, he emigrated to La 
Porte, Ind., and for three years he was engaged in farming near that 
city ; thence, in 1858, came to Valparaiso and began butchering, at which 
he has ever since continued. Mr. Horn was married here, the spring of 
1859, to Miss Lena Knepel, also a native of Germany, and to their mar- 
riage have been born seven children — Peter, Lewis, Louisa, Charles, 
Jacob, Annie and Joseph, all living. Mr. H. is a member of the Roman 
Catholic Church, and Mrs. H. is a Protestant. Mr. Horn began busi- 
ness here in but limited circumstances. To-day he has one of the princi- 
pal butcher shops of the place ; does a first-rate business, and by hard 
work and economy, has made some money and a comfortable home. 

JOHN HOWE, son of John and Ann (Gallavan) Howe, was born in 
County Tipperary, Ireland, October 12, 1822. and came across the At- 
lantic in 1816, landing at Quebec. In 1819, he moved to New Buffalo, 
Mich., where he married, November 17, 1850, Miss Ann Gallaghar, a 
native of County^ Leitrim, Ireland. Shortly after this he moved to 
Michigan City, Ind., where for a time he was employed as foreman on the 
M. C. R. R. In August, 1853, he came to Valparaiso, and his was the 
first Irish family to settle here. He engaged in mercantile pursuits, met 
with substantial success, and w^ith the exception of two years on a farm in 
Portage, he has continued his residence here. Mrs. Howe, his faithful 
and loving wife, died May 7, 1882, having borne her husband six chil- 
dren — Mary Ann (deceased), three that died in infancy, Thomas F. (who 
was accidentally killed in 1877. aged twenty-three), and John J. Mr. 
Howe is a member of the Catholic Church, and in politics is a Democrat. 
He is a public-spirited citizen, and a successful railroad contractor and 

MOSES T. HUNT was born September 30, 1787, in New England. 
He was a carder and cloth-dresser by trade, and April 29, 1815, was 
married to Martha B. Willard, who was also a native of New England, 
her birth occurring June 17, 1798. Shortly after their marriage, 
they settled in Coos County, N. H., and here their children were 
all born, three in all, viz., Franklin W., Hamilton P. (deceased), and Hub- 
bard. Their births respectively were February 6, 1817 ; September 2, 
1818, died January 27, 1824, and January 18, 1821. The parents lived 
the remainder of their days at Lancaster, Coos Co., N. H., the father 
dying August 29, 1825, aged thirty-seven years and eleven months, and the 
mother September 15, 1822, aged twenty-four years and three month?. 
Hubbard Hunt was reared at his birthplace at Lancaster, N. H., receiv- 
ing a good common school and academical education; learned machinist 
and steel and brass finisher's trade in Fairbank's Scale Works, at St. 
Johnsbury, Vt. He was in the employ of that firm seven years, but in 
1846 came to Indiana for the first time, to look at the country. His 
brother, Franklin W., being at Valparaiso, he came to this place to see 
him, and while here made proposals to his brother, and advanced money 
to him to embark in merchandising at this place. The summer of 1847, 
Hubbard came to Valparaiso, and became an active partner, but early 


in 1849, his health failing, he went to California to seek his health, and 
remained there until November, 1850, passing through all the scenes, in- 
cidents and privations of a miner's life. He arrived home in March, 
1851, much improved in health. On his return, he again actively en- 
gaged in merchandising with his brother, their partnership never having 
been dissolved, and they continued until 185G, when their interests were 
divided, and shortly after the dissolution of their partnership in the same 
year Hubbard engaged in stock dealing till the fall, then sold his cat- 
tle in Iowa, after which he engaged in the hardware trade at Valparaiso. 
He continued at that four years; then engaged in a general man- 
ufacture of native lumber, after which, in about 18G6, he formed the part- 
nership of White, Hunt & Co., for the sale of pine lumber, which con- 
tinued some fourteen years with harmony and success. During his career 
in lumber trade, Mr. Hunt's services were often sought and engaged as 
administrator of descedents and assignee of bankrupt estates, all oi 
which he settled with satisfaction. At present he is not actively engaged 
in any pursuit, except in the looking after his personal interests. On 
his retirement from the firm of White, Hunt & Co., in January, 1882, 
he retired to private life, and is living as such in the full enjoyment that 
one could derive after over forty years of active, hard labor. Mr. Hunt was 
married May 9, 1851, to Miss Finett Dunning, daughter of John Dunning, 
an old settler of Valparaiso. They have had no children of their own, but 
have one adopted son, Willard James, the orphan child of Mr. Hunt's niece, 
Ida (Hunt) AlcConkey. Mrs. Hunt is a member of the Presbyterian 
Church, but Mr. H. is a member of no particular church or party, but is 
liberal and tolerant in his views on all subjects. Mrs. Hunt was born in 
Wayne County, N. Y., December 31, 1829, and came with her parents 
to Porter County in about 1811. She was a daughter of John and Lucy 
(Rose) Dunning. 

WILLIAM JOHNSTON, attorney at law, is a son of Judge Jesse 
Johnston, of Centre Township, who was born in Ross County, Ohio, 
June 10, 1808 ; came to Indiana in September, 1829, and to what is 
now Porter County in 1834. He is a son of Oeorge and Nancy John- 
ston ; was reared and still is a farmer, and November 30, 1830, married 
Rebecca Pickett, who has borne him a family of eleven children, six of 
whom are yet living. He is prominently identified with the early and 
subsequent history of Porter County. In politics, was first a Whig, tinct- 
ured with Free-Soilism. and afterward a Republican. In 1836, was 
elected a Justice of the Peace, but would not serve ; was Probate Judgt^ 
from 1836 to 1840, and subsequently served in various other positions oi 
honor and trust. In 1851, he became a Freemason and has ascended to 
the Royal Arch degree. In 1879, he became a member of the State 
Pioneer Association. He is now living on his farm of 240 acres near 
Valparaiso. William Johnston was reared in Porter County, receiving 
his education at the common schools, afterward attending the Valparaiso 
Male and Female College four years, and finishing his literary education 
in 1866 by graduating from Asbury University at Greencastle, Ind. 
He began the study of law in Valparaiso, and established himself first in 
practice at Chesterton. In about 1868-69, he moved back to Valparaiso, 
where he now occupies a leading position at the bar of Porter and neigh- 


boring counties. He has been twice married, first in December, 1866, 
to Belle Hopkins, who died April 23, 1870, leaving two children, only 
one of whom, Charles H., is yet living. He married his present wife, 
Almira Hankinson, in October, 1878, and to their marriage has been 
born one daughter — Flora A. Mr. and Mrs. Johnston are among the 
best of Valparaiso's people. The former is a Republican in politics, and 
the latter is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

R. W. JONES was born in Fayette County, Penn., July 16, 1816 ; 
is one of the eleven children of Richard and Margaret (Forsyth) Jones, 
natives of Maryland and Pennsylvania. The mother died in about 1830, 
and in 1853 the father came to this county, where his son, R. W., was 
living, and here died the following fall. R. W. Jones, when six years of 
age, was taken by his parents to Wayne County, Ohio, where he received 
a common-school education, and where he was married, April 19, 1840, 
to Orilla Aylsworth. Shortly after this event, he came to Boone Town- 
ship, this county, farmed for seven years, and then came to Valparaiso, 
engaged in various pursuits, and now is dealing in agricultural imple- 
ments. He is a Democrat, but was formerly a Whig, and by the latter 
party, in 1850, was elected and re-elected Sheriff, serving four years ; he 
has also served two terms as Justice of the Peace. He has had born to 
him six children, viz., Mary, who died when ten years old ; Emeline, 
widow of Elias Schenck ; Ervin D., who married Mary Baum ; Saman- 
tha, now Mrs. J. B. Luddington ; Florence, who died when about twen- 
ty-four years old; and Frank H., who married Alice Williams, and is in 
partnership with his brother, Ervin D., in the livery business. Mr. Jones 
is the owner of some good town property, besides over two hundred acres 
in Porter County, all gained by his business tact and good management. 
Mrs. Jones is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

DAVID F. JONES, son of Richard and Margaret (Forsyth) Jones, 
was born in Fayette County July 12, 1821, and, when two years old, 
moved with his parents to Wayne County, Ohio, where he was reared to 
manhood. He obtained his education from the common schools, and be- 
came a farmer. He came to Porter County, Ind., in 1846, but remained 
only four months. He then went back to his old home, and the next 
season returned to Porter County, clerking that summer in Valparaiso 
for Joseph Jones and J. Barker. He again went back the following 
fall, and there, February 11, 1848, married Eve Critchfield, and the suc- 
ceeding August moved to Porter County for good. He bought and set- 
tled on a farm on Horse Prairie, in Porter Township, farming summers 
and teaching school winters, until December, 1852, when he moved to 
Valparaiso, where he has ever since resided. He embarked in mercan- 
tile pursuits, at which he was actively engaged about two years, after- 
ward dealing in live-stock and buying and selling wool. Mr. Jones is a 
Republican, formerly a Whig ; is a member of both Masonic and Odd 
Fellow fraternities, and his wife is a member of the Christian Church. 
They are the parents of no children, but have one boy, Andrew J. Zim- 
merman, whom they have reared from three years old to fourteen. Mr. 
Jones and wife are among the well-known and respected families of Val- 
paraiso and Porcer County. 

ROBERT P. JONES Avas born in Greene County, Ohio, October 3, 
1824, the fourth of a family of thirteen children, twelve of whom lived 


to maturity, born to Jonathan S. and Lydia W. (Phares) Jones, who were 
natives of Ohio. Jonathan S. was a farmer, and in the spring of 1841 
traded his land in Ohio for eighty acres in Liberty Township, this county. 
That same fall the family located on this place, it at that time having 
about fifteen acres cleared, with a small log cabin on it. Here Mr. Jones 
died in 1855, one of the respected early settlers of Porter County. Ilis 
widow survived him until 1880, when she, too, died. Robert P. Jones re- 
ceived only the common school advantages in youth, and at the ao^e of 
sixteen, preceded his parents by two months to Porter County. He 
assisted his father in clearing up the old farm, with the exception of the 
summer of 1842, when he carried the mail between La Favette, Ind., 
and Joliet, 111. The next summer, he worked for George Z. Salyer, and 
from that time until his marriage assisted his father chiefly, but also 
worked around at odd jobs. May 14, 1845, he married Miss Clarissa 
Dillingham, and for twenty-one years succeeding was engaged in farming. 
The summer of 1866, he came to Valparaiso and engaged as clerk for 
ten months in the leather store of Powell Bros. He was then elected 
to the office of Town Marshal, serving about four years, after which he 
served as Deputy Sheriflf about two years. In 1872, he was elected 
County Sheriff by the Republican party, and in 1874 was re-elected, 
serving in all four years ; he then embarked in the hardware trade in 
partnership with G. A. Sayles, which continued until November, 1879. 
Since then has been living partially retired engaged in loaning money, etc. 
Mr. Jones and wife are the parents of three children — Samantha A. (now 
Mrs. James H. Patrick, of Valparaiso), Lyman L. (who died at the age of 
nineteen years six months and sixteen days), and Lydia L. (wHo died at the 
age of twenty years six months and sixteen days). Both deceased chil- 
dren lie buried in Kimball Cemetery with their grandparents, in Centre 
Township. Mrs. Jones was born in Huron County, Ohio, January 28, 
1826, and is a daughter of Henry and Amanda (Page) Dillingham, who 
came to Centre Township in June, 1836. Hannah, sister of the mother 
of Mrs. Jones, was taken prisoner by the Indians at an early day in the 
history of Ohio, and was kept in captivity about a year, afterward being 
sold to a doctor, through whom she regained her friends. Four brothers 
of Mr. Jones lost their lives in the late war. 

A. L. JONES, attorney at law, was born in Wayne County, Ohio, 
August 10, 1835 ; the son of William W. and Belinda (Jones) Jones, 
natives of Virginia and Pennsylvania, and parents of ten children, all 
yet living. In about 1839, the family moved from Wayne to Fulton 
County, Ohio, and thence, in 1847, to Horse Prairie, Boone Township, 
this county, purchasing a tract of land. In 1849, William W. Jones was 
elected Clerk of Courts of Porter County, on the Whig ticket, and in 
1850, moved to Valparaiso, where he performed his official duties until 
November, 1855 ; April 5, 1856, he died, mourned by a host of friends. 
He was an active business man, a fluent speaker, and strictly honest. 
Although no office-seeker, he was placed in many positions of honor and 
trust. He had been ordained a minister of the Christian Church, but 
never steadily pursued ministerial work. His widow is yet living, and 
resides with a daughter in Kansas. A. L. Jones, after attendincr the 
county and city schools, entered the State University at Bloomington, 


in 1852, and graduated in 1855, with the degree of Bachelor of Art-, 
having also taken one course in the law department, and studying during 
the interval in the law oflSce of Judge S. I. Anthony. In the winter of 
1856, he was admitted to the bar of Porter County, and until November, 
1859, assisted in his father's office as Deputy. He then opened a law 
office and began practice, which he has ever since successfully continued, 
except when he was in the army. In the spring of 1862, he entered the 
Quartermaster's Department of the Army of the Potomac as a citizen 
clerk ; so remained until May, 1863, and then enlisted in the Seventh 
Indiana Cavalry. He was made Quartermaster Sergeant, and the March 
following was commissioned Quartermaster of the regiment, being mustered 
out in April, 1866. He at present is the senior of the law firm of Jones, 
De Motte & Jones, his son, Frank P., being the junior member, and Mr. De 
Motte being the present Member of Congress from the Tenth District. 
October 6, 1858, Mr. Jones married Miss Jennie Baugh, of Bloomington, 
Ind., who has borne him four children, viz., Frank P., Kate (deceased), 
Mattie (deceased) and Grace. Mr. Jones is a Democrat ; he is a fluent 
speaker, and a successful lawyer of soundest integrity. Mrs. Jones is a 
member of the Presbyterian Church, and the family are among the first 
in Valparaiso. 

0. P. KINSEY, A. B., Professor of English Literature and History 
in the N. I. N". S., was born near Freeport, Harrison Co., Ohio, De- 
cember 7, 1849, and is one of four children, three yet living, born to 
Reese and Eliza A. (Ridgeway) Kinsey. The father is dead, but his widow 
is yet living and resides in Harrison County, Ohio. 0. P. Kinsey was 
reared principally near his native town, and after attending the common 
schools of his neighborhood, entered Harlem Springs Seminary, in Car- 
roll County, Ohio, in 1866, where he began fitting himself for the teach- 
er's profession. After a time, he returned to his native county, and. after 
teaching a number of terms, in the autumn of 1868 entered the Normal 
School at Lebanon. At the end of one year, he was given the position 
of janitor, which aided him pecuniarily until his last year, when he paid 
his way through by teaching in the school. In this way, he succeeded in 
graduating from the classical department, after which he was given a po- 
sition in the faculty and the Professorship of English Literature. He 
retained this position until 1881, when he resigned to accept a half-inter- 
est in the N. I. N. S. of Valparaiso. Previous to his location here, he 
took an extended tour through the Eastern States, Great Britain and 
Continent of Europe, visiting the principal educational institutions on his 
journey, with special reference to his profession. The spring of 1882, he 
returned to Valparaiso, took charge of his half-interest in the Normal 
School, and the tutorship of the classes in English Literature, History 
and other irregular classes. While a student at Lebanon, Prof. Kinsey 
formed the acquaintance of Miss Sarah J. Porter, also a student of the 
same place. Miss Porter afterward became a teacher in the school as did 
Mr. Kinsey, and August 24, 1876, they were united in marriage. Mn. 
Kinsey is earnestly interested in the welfare of the Normal School here, 
and has charge of the Ladies' Department ; also is the teacher of Geog- 
raphy and Natural Historv. 

KELLOGG BROTHERS. Alfred Kellogq was born in Wayne 
County, Penn., January 30, 1823. His father, Azor Kellogg, was 


born in the same place January 24, 1796, and was a farmer and 
lumberman. He married Nancy Stevens in 1820, and in August, 1849, 
to gratify the wishes of his children, came West, and located with his 
wife and youngest son in McHenry County, 111., leaving the others be- 
hind to close up affairs. In 1850, he came to Valparaiso, where he pur- 
chased, in connection with his son Dennis, and son-in-law, Daniel S. 
White, the old foundry on Block 16, Lot 5, Main street. The firm name 
was Kellogg & White until 1851, when his sons in Pennsylvania, Alfred 
and John, came out and added to the business a cabinet shop and a ma- 
chine shop. In 1860, Mr. White, who had previously withdrawn, was 
again taken in, and a planing mill was added, also a general lumber busi- 
ness by Alfred Kellogg, who was the first general lumber merchant in 
Valparaiso. The same year, the business was removed to a point near 
the P., Ft. W. & C. R. R. depot. In due course of time, the father 
withdrew from the firm, and is now living retired. His wife died in Jan- 
uary, 1879, and lies buried in the city cemetery. Mr. White again with- 
drew in 1864. The three brothers now have a two-story brick building, 
50x60 feet, with an engine-room attached, 12x24, with the latest and best 
machinery, driven by a twelve-horse power steam engine. They have an 
average force of twelve men, and do business all over Porter and the ad- 
joining counties. They are the inventors of some threshers, mowers and 
reapers that stand in the front rank, especially the "Kellogg Mower." 
Alfred Kellogg was married in Pennsylvania, in September, 1845, to 
Martha Norton, who died December 10 of the same year. In May, 1848, 
he married Isadora Chase. By her he has one child living — Martha. 

John W. Kellogg, of this firm, was born in Wayne County, Penn., 
April 13, 1825 ; was educated in the public schools, and in 1849 married 
Abigail J. Hull, born in Wayne July 28, 1824, and daughter of William 
and Elizabeth (Spangenberg) Hull. Mr. and Mrs. Kellogg came to 
Valparaiso with Alfred and his family. He is a Republican, and he and 
wife are members of the M. E. Church and parents of five children — 
Silas W., Fortunatus G., Nettie, Lizzie N. and Abbie Bell. 

Dennis A. Kellogg was born May 20, 1880; married, July 14, 
1852, to Lucinda Norton, and came to Valparaiso with his parents. 
Besides being an equal partner with his brothers in the foundry, he con- 
jointly with them owns an eighty-acre farm in Liberty Township, and 
twenty-four acres near the Porter County fair grounds, and individually 
owns his private residence. He is a Republican. His wife is a member of 
the Presbyterian Church, and they have had two children — Adelbert and 
Mark, the latter deceased. 

DR. J. H. LETHERMAN was born in Washington County, Penn., 
March 4, 1819, the son of Dr. Joseph and Sarah (Mercer) Letherman, 
natives of Pennsylvania and the parents of two children, of whom the 
Doctor only is living. Daniel Letherman, his grandfather, was a native 
of Prussia, came to America when a child, with his parents, and was a 
preacher of the Dunkard Church. Our subject's maternal ancestors were 
of Irish-English descent, and his grandfather Mercer was a Presbyterian 
minister. Dr. J. II. Letherman was reared in Pennsylvania, where he 
received a good common-school education, afterward entering Jefferson 
College, where he remained four years. Having a liking for the study 


of medicine, and his father being a physician, as were a number of other 
near relatives, he began the study of that profession in about 1843, and 
attended medical school at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, also 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Keokuk, Iowa, graduating 
from the last named and receiving his diploma as "M. D." He began 
practicing in his native State, but in 18-15 removed to Des Moines 
County, Iowa, remaining there until, in November, 1853, he came 
to Valparaiso, and has remained here ever since, engaged in active prac- 
tice, and in this time he has booked .$100,000 in Porter County. In 1871, 
he admitted his son. Dr. A. P. Letherman, a graduate of Louisville 
Medical College of Kentucky, as a partner. Dr. J. H. Letherman was 
married March 2, 1848, to Miss Jane Mary Peirce, of Cumberland County, 
Penn., and to this union was born ten children — Joseph H., an attorney 
and engaged in the Internal Revenue Department of Texas ; Andrew P., 
now his father's partner; William C. druggist, of Valparaiso; Rebecca, 
deceased; Elizabeth, deceased; Lawrence L., mail agent on the Mich- 
igan Central Railroad; John and Alice A., twins, the former deceased; 
Jane B. and Carrie M. The parents are members of the Presbyterian 
Church, and Dr. Letherman is a Republican. He has been County Cor- 
oner twelve years, and has served at different times in city official posi- 
tions, and is one of the present Aldermen of Valparaiso. 

JOHN S. LOUDERBACK, grocer and baker, was born in Cass 
County, Ind., August 28, 1835. His father, Andrew Louderback, was 
a native of Pennsylvania, and his grandfather Louderback was a native 
of Germany, coming to America shortly after the Revolutionary war. 
Andrew Louderback came with his parents to Brown County, Ohio, 
when about twelve years old, and Avas there reared to manhood. He 
learned the blacksmith's trade, and followed that as a business until about 
1840, when he worked at that in connection with farming. He was mar- 
ried to his first wife, Nancy Washburn (who was the mother of our sub- 
ject), in about 1823. This lady was born in Kentucky in 1802, her 
father being a native of Massachusetts and of Irish descent. They 
moved to Wayne County, Ind., in 1830; in 1834, removed to Logansport, 
Ind., and in 1836 removed to Fulton County, Ind., where Mrs. Louder- 
back died in 1858. To her marriage with Mr. L. there were born ten 
children, nine of whom are yet living. Mr. L. married for his second 
wife Martha Jones, who is yet living, but Mr. L. died in March, 1864. 
John S. Louderback was reared on a farm until seventeen years old, 
when he becjan learning the wagon and carriage maker's trade with Otis 
Whipple, of Delphi, Carroll Co., Ind., and when nineteen years old began 
at his trade on his own responsibility at Fulton. He enlisted in Com- 
pany I, Fifth Indiana Cavalry, August 14, 1862, and in October of the 
same year, was made Eighth Sergeant. He was promoted to Quarter- 
master Sergeant in March, 1863, and a few months afterward was made 
Orderly Sergeant, retaining that position until July 1, 1864, when he 
was promoted to a First Lieutenancy. October 1, 1864. he was made 
Captain of his company, but owing to the previous Captain being 
wounded, Capt. Louderback had, for one year previous to being commis- 
sioned, served in that capacity. He was made Quartermaster of the regi- 
ment on its being mustered out of service, and he disposed of its effects 


to the Government. He was a participant in the campaign in Kentucky 
against Morgan, and assisted in the thirty days' raid that resulted in 
Morgan's capture. They joined the Army of the Cumberland in Ten- 
nessee in 1863, and participated in the engagement at Knoxville and a 
number of its surrounding battles. Their horses being worn out, they 
were dismounted, and going to Paris, Ky., were remounted, after which 
they joined Sherman's array at Ringgold, Ga., and were placci under Gen. 
Stoneman's command. For seventy-one days they were in active fight- 
ing duty, participating in battles of Resaca, Lone Mountain, Kenesaw 
Mountain and various others. July 24, 1864, under Gen. Stoneman, 
they started on their trip South, with the intention of releasing the 
prisoners at Anderson ville, Ga., and passing through the enemy's line at 
Stone Mountain, they fought an engagement at Macon, and afterward 
learned that a General who was to co-operate with Stoneman had been 
defeated. They fought until all ammunition was used up, when the officers, 
holding a council, deemed it wise to surrender, which they did July 28, 
1864. Capt. L. was taken to Andersonville the 1st of August, and 
instead of going into other quarters as an officer, remained with his men, 
and remained there sulfering all the agonies of that place until October 1, 
1864, when they were removed to Charleston, and after being there 
twenty-six days they were removed to Florence ; here he received his 
liberty, and was sent to Annapolis. Receiving a thirty days' furlough he 
went home, then rejoined his company, remaining with them until the 
close of the war, receiving his discharge June 27, 1865. Succeeding that 
he was at Fulton a short time, and in August, 1865, came to Valparaiso, 
buying a grocery stock and engaging in that trade in partnership, con- 
tinuing as such for six years. In 1869. he came to his present place of 
business and embarked in the grocery and bakery business, which he has 
ever since continued with success. He was married in Fulton County, Ind., 
May 29, 1866, to Sarah J. Clevenger, and by her has had nine 
children — Andrew J., Effie F., Judson D., Eddie, Cora. Mamie and 
Gracie, living ; and Edgar and Alva, deceased. Capt. Louderback is a 
Republican, and he and wife are members of the Baptist Church. 

THOMAS G. LYTLE, Mayor of Valparaiso, was born in Wayne 
County, Ohio, December 3, 1824, and is a son of Aaron and Hannah 
(Jones) Lytle, who were natives of New Jersey and Pennsylvania respect- 
ively, and the parents of nine children, only three of whom are yet living. 
The Lytles are of Scotch descent, and the Joneses are of English descent. 
Aaron Lytle was a blacksmith by trade, and went to Pennsylvania when 
a young man, and from there came to Wayne County, Ohio, where he 
married. He quit blacksmithing when about thirty-five years old, and 
engaged in speculating, buying and selling land, merchandising, etc. 
During the financial crisis of 1837, he lost the greater part of his means. 
In 1840, he came to Porter County, purchasing an improved farm of 3 60 
acres in Boone Township, and in the spring of 1841 moved his family out. 
In 1852, he sold his farm, moved to Valparaiso, and bought a steam saw- 
mill near town, which he operated for some time. He speculated in 
land, and engaged in other business enterprises until his death, in the fall 
of 1870. His widow survived him until 1876, when she, too, died, and 
both are buried side by side in the city cemetery. Mr. Lytle was a 


Whig, afterward a Republican, and his wife was a member of the Chris- 
tian Church. Thomas G. Lytle lived with his parents until twenty-three 
years old, and was married, in 1847, to Miss Idilla Allen ; farmed until 
the winter of 1853, when he moved to Valparaiso, entered into the drug 
trade, and has remained in active business here ever since. He is a Re- 
publican, and in 1854, when that party was first organized, was elected 
County Sheriff, and re-elected in 1856. He was elected Mayor of Val- 
paraiso in 1868, and re-elected in 1870, serving four years. In 1882, 
he was again elected to that office, in which he is yet serving. He was 
also one of the first proprietors of the paper mill of Valparaiso. His 
wife died in June, 1861, leaving one daughter, now Mrs. R. A. Dunlap. 
He afterward married Mrs. Mary E. (Marginson) Ketchum, and to this 
union have been born six children — Effie M., Elma M., Thomas G. (de- 
ceased), Elvan A., one that died in infancy without name and Arthur W. 
Both Mr. and Mrs. Lytle are of the Unitarian faith. Mr. Lytle, in the 
spring of 1864, organized Company C, of the One Hundred and Thirty- 
eighth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and by that company was chosen 
Captain. They were in active service, but principally in detailed work. 
In 1864, they operated in Tennessee and Alabama, and in November of 
that year Mr. Lytle was duly discharged. 

Jx\]MES R. MALONE, grain-dealer and farmer, is the eldest son of 
of Wilson Malone, deceased, one of the pioneers of Porter County. His 
birth, February 7, 1843, occurred in this county, and he was here reared 
to manhood. When twenty years old, he went to Montana Territory, 
where for five years he was engaged in mining. In 1867, he returned, 
and January 1, 1868, married Miss Mary E. Smith, and settled down to 
farming, at which he continued until 1876. In that year he was the 
choice of the Democratic party for County Sheriff, and, although Porter 
County usually gives a Republican majority of 500, he was elected, and 
re-elected with increased majority, serving in all four years. Since that 
time he has been dealing in grain and looking after his farm, which con- 
sists of 700 acres in Boone Township. To his union with Miss Smith 
there have been born eight children — Charley (dead), Kittie, Bessie, Wil- 
son, Henry, Richard, James D. and Frank. One of the interesting 
epochs in his life occured while a miner. On one expedition, while the 
country was yet excited over the "Gallatin massacre" by the Indians, he 
and seven others were followed by a score or more of red-skins for over 
two days, but by the vigilance of the whites they were not able to make 
an attack with any degree of safety to themselves. The Indians then 
gave up the pursuit, but a number of others followed, out of sight, and one 
night succeeded in capturing four horses belonging to the whites. They 
were pursued, and, after a long chase, captured, and on vote, it was de- 
cided to hang the thieves. While Mr. Malone was pinioning the legs of 
one, the Indian managed to draw a concealed knife, which he plunged in- 
to the side of Mr. Malone, inflicting a dangerous wound from which he 
was not able to leave his cot for four weeks. The red-skin was promptly 
shot, and the others were soon dangling at the ends of ropes from con- 
venient trees. 

L. H. MANDEVILLE, photographer, is a native of Trumansburg, 
N. Y.; was born January 15, 1825, and is one of four children of Thomas 


C. and Mercy (Gilbert) Mandeville, natives of that State, and of Norman 
descent. Francis Mandeville, our subject's grandfather, was a soldier of 
the Revolutionary war, and Thomas Mandeville, our subject's father, 
was a soldier of the war of 1812 and the Seminole war. Generations 
back, the family were among the nobility of Holland and England. Un- 
til thirteen years of age, L. H. Mandeville was reared in his native town. 
In 1838, he came to Erie, Perm., and there engaged as clerk in a dry 
goods store of that place, afterward going west of the city of Erie about 
six miles, where he took charge of the extension of the Erie Canal. While 
there, in 1850, he was united in marriage with Sarah Jane Brown, and 
moved to Adrian, Mich., where he engaged in farming. Then went to 
Tecumseh, Mich., where he kept hotel for about one year ; then. May 5, 
1855, came to Valparaiso, where he has ever since resided. He here 
embarked in his present business. He is naturally of a mechanical turn 
of mind, and for a number of years has paid considerable attention to 
mechanical work. He has invented several different engines, which have 
proved to be of great value as labor-saving instruments. The best and 
most noted of his inventions is an automatic telephone, which for a dis- 
tance under three miles far exceeds any ever invented. Mr. Mandeville 
began life's battle a poor boy, but by industry and economy has placed 
himself and family in good comfortable circumstances. He is a Democrat ; 
is the present Master of the F. & A. M., and has ascended to the R. A. 
degree. He and wife are members of the Universalist Church, and the 
parents of one son — Cassius E., who married Elma Wells, and is a dry 
goods merchant of Valparaiso. 

JAMES McFETRICH was born in Trumbull County, Ohio, March 
4, 1840. He is the third in a family of ten children, seven of whom are 
yet living, born to John and Martha (Anderson) McFetrich, both of whom 
were natives of the County Derry, Ireland, where they were reared 
and married. In 1831, soon after their marriage, they emigrated to 
America, locating first in New York, afterward moving to Ohio, in both 
States engaging in farming. These parents are yet living, and reside in 
Trumbull County, Ohio. James McFetrich was reared in Ohio, on a 
farm, to manhood, in youth attending the district school, afterward 
attending and in 1861, graduating from the Western Reserve College at 
West Farmington. He then began the study of law at Warren, Ohio, 
with Birchard & Moses, and for one year attended the Law Department 
of the Michigan State University at Ann Arbor. He then accepted a 
situation as teacher, at Valparaiso, in the Collegiate Institute, intending 
to return to law school and graduate, with his earnings. Instead of going 
back, however, he continued teaching steadily for five years. He then 
engaged in the drug trade for a time, and in 1871 was elected teacher of 
the High School, continuing as such eight years. During this time, he 
was elected County School Superintendent (1875), and served two years. 
In 1880, he became interested in the hardware trade, from which, in 1882, 
he changed to the lumber trade, at which he is yet engaged, under the 
firm name of White, McFetrich & Co. Mr. McFetrich was married, Sep- 
tember 7, 1871, to Miss Martha J. White, daughter of Daniel S. White, 
the biography of whom accompanies this work. Mrs. McFetrich was 
born in Wayne County, Penn., December 17, 1346, and is a member of 
the Presbyterian Church of Valparaiso. 


JAMES M. McGILL was born in Erie, Penn.. June 28, 1843, one 
of seven children, all yet living, born to Robert and Susan P. (Alexander) 
McGill, natives of Pennsylvania. The grandfather of James M., was a 
native of Ireland, and came to America shortly after the Revolutionary 
war. From Erie, Penn., the parents and family moved to La Porte, 
Ind., and after living about a year there, moved to South East Grove, 
Eagle Creek Township, Lake County. Shortly after the war, the par- 
ents moved to Hebron, Ind., where they lived the remainder of their 
days. Mrs. McGill died there in 1873, and Mr. McGill in 1878, and 
both are now sleeping in the village cemetery. James McGill lived with 
his parents until nineteen years old, during which time he attended the 
public schools of his neighborhood, afterward entering and for three 
years was a student of the old Male and Female College of Valparaiso. 
August 19, 1862, he enlisted as private in Company I, Fifth Indiana 
Cavalry. He was promoted Sergeant, and retained that position until 
the battle of Nashville, when he was advanced to the First Lieutenancy 
of Company G, of the Tenth Tennessee Cavalry. Shortly after this, he was 
promoted Captain of his company, retaining that position until the close of 
the war. Capt. McGill and his company were in active service during 
his entire army career, and he participated in a number of engagements, 
notably among which were those of Knoxville, Mission Ridge, Chatta- 
nooga, Franklin, Nashville and others. After the last-named battle, they 
chased Hood across the river, then went to New Orleans, and from there 
to Natchez, where they did garrison duty for a number of months. Capt. 
McGill and company were discharged at Nashville, Tenn., in August, 
1865. Succeeding the war, he came back home, and has since resided in 
Porter County, engaged in various pursuits, chiefly farming. He was 
married. May 18, 1869, to Kittie L. Starr, daughter of the old pioneer, 
Ruel Starr (deceased), and to their union have been born four children — 
Pearl, Phebe E., Ruel S. and Mary Edna (deceased). Mr. and Mrs. 
McGill are members of the Presbyterian Church. Capt. McGill is a Re- 
publican, a member of the Masonic fraternity, and is a Sir Knight of 
Valparaiso Commandery, No 28. 

JOHN W. MoLELLAN, photographer, is a native of La Porte 
County, Ind., his birth occurring August 2, 1818. He is the youngest 
son of a family of seven children, six yet living, born to Joseph and 
Fidelia (Reed) McLellan, who were natives of Vermont and Michigan, 
and of Scotch and Pennsylvania Dutch descent respectively. Joseph 
McLellan was a farmer, and came to La Porte County, Ind., in 1833, 
settling in Cool Spring Township, but afterward moving to Scipio 
Township, where he died in July, 1881, preceded by his wife, both 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. John W. McLellan was 
reared in La Porte County, Ind., where he acquired a good common 
school education, afterward attending for two and one-half years the High 
School of Westville, Ind., and then attendin-jr and graduating from the 
State Normal School at Oswego, N. Y. He learned the photographic art 
in La Porte, Ind., of John Bryant, and for a short time afterward was 
engaged in the business at Rockford, 111. In December, 1873, he came 
to Valparaiso anu purchased the studio of W. H. Hayward. He is a 
member of the National Photographic Association of the United States, 


and has an established and enviable reputation as a photographer. He 
was married August 20, 1873, to Miss Huldah A. Forbes, daughter of 
J. T. Forbes, appropriate mention of whom is made in the biographical 
department of Washington Township. To this union have been born 
two children— Mattie P., and Frank C, deceased. Mrs. McLellan was 
born July 13, 1849, in Canada. Mr. and Mrs. McLellan are members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and Mr. McLelland is a Repub- 
lican, and a member of the I. 0. 0. F. 

MARQUIS L. McClelland, insurance agent, was born in La 
Fayette, Ind., February 26, 1830. He is a son of John T. and Sarah 
(McCarl) McClelland, who were natives of Washington County, Penn. 
John T. McClelland was born in the year 1800, and his wife in 1804. 
They were married in their native State, and from there moved to La 
Fayette, Ind., in 1828. In 1831, Mr. McC. started West through South 
Bend, Niles and to Chicago. The spring of 1832, he removed to South 
Bend, where he embarked in mercantile pursuits. He was one of the 
pioneers and was identified with some of the leading manufactories of that 
place, and at the time of his death, in June, 1840, was engaged in erect- 
ing extensive works for the manufacture of glass ; he was also engaged 
in the manufacture of pig-iron at Mishawaka. He was a very active 
Democrat, and was the first County Treasurer of St. Joseph County. 
He was a man very popular with all classes, especially so with the poor, 
and commanded the respect and esteem of all who knew him. He and 
wife had born to them three children, two of whom are yet living — Mrs. 
Mills, of Rochester, N. Y., and the subject of this sketch. Mrs. Mc- 
Clelland continued to reside in South Bend, and there married William 
S. Vail. This couple moved to Valparaiso in 1863, where they are both 
yet living at advanced ages. To their union were born two children, of 
whom only one, William H., a jeweler of Valparaiso, yet lives. Marquis 
L. McClelland was but ten years old when his father died. He learned 
the tanner's and currier's trade, but has never made that his business. 
He came to Valparaiso in 1854, was employed as salesman in different 
mercantile establishments, and the fall of 1861 was appointed Clerk of 
the Congressional Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads, of which 
Hon. Schuyler Colfax was Chairman, and at that gentleman's solicita- 
tion acted as his Private Secretary in the Forty-second Congress. He 
returned to Valparaiso in 1862 and engaged in the dry goods trade, in 
partnership with A. V. Bartholomew. He continued at this four years, 
and in the meantime was active in organizing the First National Bank. 
He was elected its first cashier, and continued as such about eighteen 
years. Since that time he has been engaged in a general life and fire 
insurance business. He was married, October 3, 1853, to Miss Sarah A. 
Wilmington, of South Bend, and to them have been born two children — 
Theodore and Flora. Mr. McClelland has been a member of the Masonic 
order for twenty-five years, and has passed through the Blue Lodge, 
Chapter, Council, Commandery and Scottish Rites, and is a Past Emi- 
nent Commander of the Commandery. The Blue Lodge at Hobart, Ind., 
is named in his honor. He is a Republican, and has filled the positions 
of Township Treasurer and Clerk of Centre Township. He is the 
county's present nominee for the State Legislature, and has served two 


terms in the City Council. He and two others were active in building 
the C. & G. T. R. R. from Valparaiso to South Bend, and he has 
always taken active part in all the public aiFairs of the county. He and 
Schuyler Colfax were raised as boys together, and have always been on the 
most intimate and confidential terms. 

THOMAS J. MERRTFIELD, attorney at law, is a native of Yates 
County, N. Y. Was born January 11, 1833, and until fifteen years of 
age, was reared on his father's farm. He then entered an academy at 
Starkey, N. Y., and studied law for four years, and also engaged in 
teaching. In 1853, he came to Mishawaka, Ind., and studied under 
Mr. Cowles ; at the end of six months, he started for Minnesota on horse- 
back, with a view of locating, but returned and entered the law office of 
Judge Robert Lowrey, and afterward that of the Hon. Thomas Harris, then 
State Senator. In May, 1855, he was admitted to the bar at Goshen, 
and two months later came to Valparaiso. Here he was associated with 
Hon. S. I. Anthony. State Senator, as partner until 1863. In 1858, he 
was elected by the Democrats, member of the General Assembly, and 
served in the regular and special sessions of that term, and was the 
author of several bills, among others that which makes persons holding 
moneys in a fiduciary capacity liable for embezzlement if such moneys 
be used for personal ends. From October, 1866, until June, 1869, he 
was partner with Maj. W. H. Calkins, now a Member of Congress, who 
had studied law under Mr. Merrifield for a year or more. Subsequently, 
lie was associated with Col. Pierce until that gentleman was called to 
Chicago to assume editorial control of the Inter- Ocean. Since then, Mr. 
M. has been in partnership with the following gentlemen : A. D. Bar- 
tholomew, William Johnston, E. D. Crumpacker and John E. Cass. In 
December, 1865, he was elected the first Mayor of Valparaiso, and served 
two consecutive terms, declining a third election. In October, 1856, he 
married Miss Paulina Skinner, who has borne him six children, viz., 
Kate, now Mrs. M. Johnson ; Harriet, now Mrs. S. Bernard ; Georgia 
Ann, now Mrs. William Dye; John A., Dora Bell and George William. 
Mr. Merrifield is a son of John and Catharine (Schumacher) Merrifield, 
natives of New York, and of English and German descent. His paternal 
grandfather was a soldier in the Revolution, and his great-grandfather an 
English naval officer. Mr. M. is one of the leading attorneys of the 
county, and is a member of the Blue Lodge, A., F. & A. M. 

PETER MORAN, son of Thomas and Bridget (Kelly) Moran, was 
born in County Meath, Ireland, December 21, 1828, and came to the 
United States in his seventeenth year. After working awhile on Long 
Island, he came to Mishawaka, this State ; he went thence to Notre 
Dame, where he learned the boot and shoe manufacturing business ; 
worked in various towns at the trade, and at La Porte, Ind., September 
5, 1858, he married Miss Catharine Kaler. In March, 1859, he came 
to Valparaiso, and is now the oldest shoe manufacturer in the city. Be- 
side manufacturing, he retails, and has secured a first-class trade. His 
children, seven in number, were born and named in the following order : 
Dennis, Mary, Julia, Thomas F., John, Catharine and one that died in 
infancy. The family are members of the Catholic Church. Mr. Moran 
is a Democrat, and is one of the present City Commissioners. Mr. M. 


began his business career in Valparaiso in somewhat straitened circum- 
stances, but has succeeded in securing a comfortable home, and a lucra- 
tive and permanent trade. 

JAMES H. NEWLAND, M. D., was born in Lawrence County, 
Ind., December 9, 1820. His father, John Newland, was a Virginian, 
and of Scotch-Irish descent. When a young man, he went to Burke 
County, N. C, where he married Miss Agnes Allen, a native of North 
Carolina, and of English descent. They resided in North Carolina until 
1818, when, to leave slavery behind, they came to Indiana, locating in 
Jackson County for a short time, removing to Lawrence County, where 
they ever afterward made their home. Mr. Newland was a farmer, and 
a very active politician in the southern part of the State, where he was 
quite widely known, and held several local positions of honor and trust. 
He and wife were members of long standing of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and their deaths occurred respectively in 1838 and 1868. Dr. 
Newland made his home with his parents until his seventeenth year, then 
engaged in school teaching, which he continued for five years. He began 
the study of medicine in 1842, in Salem, Ind., having access to the li- 
brary of his uncle. Dr. Elijah Newland. In 1852-53, he attended Rush 
Medical College at Chicago, of which he is a graduate. He began prac- 
ticing in Thorn town, Boone County, where he also was engaged in the 
drug trade. He was there burned out, and left completely in debt. He 
started anew, and for a time practiced medicine in Pleasant Hill, Mont- 
gomery Co., Ind., moving to Valparaiso in 1859. Here he has a wide 
and selected practice. He was married in 1844, to Eliza Davis, who 
bore him nine children, of whom only one, William H., is yet living. 
This lady died in 1871, and in 1872 Dr. Newland married his present 
wife, Mary Ellen Reves. Dr. N. is a Republican, and he and wife are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

ALLEN R. NICKELL was born in Monroe County, Va., March 8, 
1830, and is a son of Andrew Nickell, a native of Virginia, a farmer, 
and of Irish descent, who married Janette Cornwall in Virginia in about 
1826, and in 1835 came with teams overland to Elkhart County, Ind. 
After living there one year, he came to Porter County, and entered 240 
acres of land in Washington Township, near Morgan Prairie. Mr. 
Nickell erected a cabin and lived there one season ; then moved to Scipio 
Township, La Porte County. His wife died about 1846, leaving a family 
of four children, all of whom are yet living. Mr. Nickell afterward 
married Mary Ann Parker, and to this union were born six children. 
The mother is yet living, but the father died in 1869. Allen R. Nickell 
was reared in La Porte County, receiving a common school education. 
He lived at home until December, 1849, when he went to California, and 
for one month after his arrival worked on a farm for $150, after which he 
engaged in mining. In 1851, he returned and engaged in farming in 
Washington Township. In 1870, he moved to Valparaiso, where he is 
yet living. He was married, in 1851, to Sarah Shinabarger, who died 
in 1871. They were the parents of three children — Paulina J. (deceased), 
Malinda E. and Sarah E. April 23, 1876, he was married to Mrs. Lillie 
(Carpenter) Best, and by her has one son — Allen Roy. Mrs. Nickell is 
a member of the M. E, Church, and Mr. Nickell is a member of the 


Masonic fraternity, being a Knight Templar of Valparaiso Commandery, 
No. 28. He is a Democrat, and has served one term as Trustee of Cen- 
tre Township. 

M. J. O'BRIEN, general dealer, was born in County Tipperary, 
Ireland, May 20, 1833, and is the third child of a family of seven 
children born to James and Mary (Fitz-Gerald) O'Brien, natives of the 
same county. James O'Brien was a cooper, and came to America in 
1844, and for two years worked at Albany, N. Y. In 1846, he sent for 
his family, and they resided in Albany for some time, afterward moving 
to Onondaga County, same State, where our subject was reared in the 
village of Jordan. His parents moved to Erie County, Penn., in about 
1874, and are yet living there. M. J. O'Brien received only a limited 
education from the common schools, learned the cooper's trade of his 
father, and at the age of twenty embarked on life's voyage on his own 
resources. Up to 1857, he worked in the State of New York, and also 
during the interval. May 5, 1855, was married to Miss Ann Maria Sulli- 
van, a native of Albany. In 1857, during the panic, Mr. O'Brien and 
family emigrated West, and for about eight months worked in Peoria, 111., 
and in 1858, moved to Valparaiso, Ind., where his family has ever since 
resided, except two years, while a resident of Cass County, this State. 
He began here by working at his trade in partnership with William 
Quinn, at which they were engaged some five years. They then em- 
barked in the grocery trade, which was continued a number of years. 
Mr. O'Brien afterward purchased Mr. Quinn's interest and continued 
the business for a time alone. In 1879, he received a Government ap- 
pointment as issue clerk to the Sioux Indians, at Standing Rock, D. T., 
under the supervision of Father Stephens, a Catholic Missionary from 
Indiana. In 1880, he came back to his family in Valparaiso, and the 
same year formed a partnership with Charles Miller, of Chicago, in a 
general store at Valparaiso, and Mr. O'Brien has since been here at the 
head of the establishment. They carry everything found in a first-class 
general store, including dry goods, clothing, crockery, tin and glass ware. 
Mr. O'Brien by his first wife had ten children, seven of whom are yet 
living. Their names are Katie C, James E., William Smith, Mary M., 
Michael P., John J. and Ann, living, and James, Mary and Sophia, 
deceased. The mother died May 3, 1873. Mr. O'Brien married his 
present wife. Miss Sophia Sullivan, in the fall of 1874, in Chicago, and 
by her has three children — Frank, Bertha and Joseph. Mr. and Mrs. 
O'Brien are members of the Roman Catholic Church. Mr. O'Brien is 
a Republican. He was elected Councilman of the Third Ward of Val- 
paraiso, and served for two years. In 1872, he was elected Trustee of 
Centre Township, and served six consecutive years. He is one of the 
well-known and substantial merchants of Valparaiso. 

MICHAEL O'REILLY, pastor of St. Paul's Roman Catholic Church 
of Valparaiso, is a native of Clonmellon, Westmeath Co., Ireland, and 
was born January 29, 1834. His father, John O'Reilly, a steward on 
Ross Mead for Capt. Robinson, of the Royal Navy, was married, in 
1833, to Ann Bennett, and to this union were born one son and three 
daughters, of whom our subject and two sisters only are living. John 
O'Reilly died when Michael was but seven years of age. His mother 


again marrying, Michael began life's battle on his own responsibility, and 
up to the age of thirteen made his home with an uncle, aiding him in his 
duties as salesman of timber. In 18-16, he joined one of the secret rebel 
clubs denounced by the Government, and was, in consequence, advised to 
seek a refuge in America. In 1848, he came over alone, and made his 
way to the home of an uncle in Utica, N. Y., and for a number of years 
was engaged in various pursuits in Oneida and Genesee Counties. He 
saved his earnings, sent over for two of his sisters, and at sixteen began 
going to school. When unable to attend, his strong inclination for study 
led him to read all books of value that came in his way, and he thus ac- 
quired a good preparatory education. At seventeen, he began teaching 
in the winters, and with the money thus earned entered Oberlin College, 
(Ohio), where he remained until his Junior year. He then entered Notre 
Dame University at South Bend, studied mental philosophy and other 
branches pertaining to a classical course, and then entered St. Mary's 
Seminary at Cincinnati, went through a thorough theological course and 
was admitted to the priesthood. He was assigned to Fort Wayne Diocese, 
and a short time after came to Valparaiso and took charge of its Catholic 
congregation, then numbering fifty or sixty families, with a debt of about 
$4,000, and with neither house nor school. With commendable energy, 
Father O'Reilly went to work to remedy this unfortunate condition of 
affairs, and as a result of his zeal and persistency he can now boast of 
one of the finest congregations in the city, numbering about 2,000 souls, 
freed of all mortgages. He has .also established churches at Hobart, 
Chesterton and Westville, and is now engaged in erecting a new church 
edifice at Valparaiso. He is untiring in his labors, is one of Valparaiso's 
best citizens, and is respected and esteemed by all her people, irrespective 
of sectarian differences. 

O'SULLIVAN & McAULIFFE. Patrick T. O'Sullivan is a native 
of the village of Shannonvale, County Cork, Ireland, and was born April 
5, 1852. He is one of eight children, five of whom are yet living, born 
to John and Hanora (0' Donovan) O'Sullivan. He was educated in the 
Irish national and select schools, and in November, 1872, emigrated to 
America, landing in New York in December. He came to La Porte, 
Ind., and in January, 1873, entered Notre Dame University, graduating 
in June, 1874. The following August, he came to Valparaiso and be- 
came a teacher in St. Paul's Grammar School, where he remained eight 
years. In September, 1881. in partnership with J. F. McAuliffe, he es- 
tablished the Valparaiso Herald, issuing the first number on the 29th of 
that month. The paper is a six-column quarto, independent in politics, 
has become one of the leading journals of Porter County, and ranks 
among to most ably edited papers of Northern Indiana. 

J. F. McAuliffe was born in Porter County, Ind., in December, 
1859, and is one of the five living children of a family of nine born to 
John and Catharine (Clifford) McAuliffe, natives of Ireland. The parents 
came to America in about 1849. The father died December 14, 1876; 
the widow still survives and is living in Centre Township, on the Joliet 
road, west of Valparaiso. J. F. McAuliffe was reared in this county, 
and received a good practical education, which was finished at St. Paul's 
Grammar School, Valparaiso. He was married. May 3, 1881, to Sophia 
Haberle, and is the father of one daughter, Catharine. 


AARON PARKS was born in Erie County, Ohio, June 17, 1833, 
and is a son of E. W. Parks, a native of Vermont, a grandson of Aaron 
Parks, and his great-grandfather was a native of Ireland, and came to 
America previous to the war of the Revolution. He served in this war, 
as did also the grandfather, the former dying in the defense of his 
adopted country. The grandfather, Aaron Parks, lived to the age of 
one hundred and two years, and died in Vermont. E. W. Parks, 
was a carpenter by trade, but also farmed. He was twice married; 
first, to a Miss Olds, who died leaving him a family of four 
children, three of whom yet live. His second wife, the mother of 
Aaron Parks, of Valparaiso, was Mrs. Mary (Gilbreath) Bear, a wid- 
owed lady with two children, only one yet living. To her union with 
Mr. Parks there were born five children, only two, Aaron and a sister, 
yet living. The mother died in 1844, and the father went to Lenawee 
County, Mich., where he died in 1848. Aaron Parks lived with his father 
until his death, then went to live with a half-sister in Berrien County. 
Mich., but at the age of eighteen, went to Niles, Mich., to learn the gun- 
smith trade with William Van Blear, remaining with him three years. 
He then went to Michigan City, where for about a year he worked at his 
trade. In 1852, he came to Indiana, and for the first two years was in 
La Porte, working at gunsmithing. He then came to Valparaiso with 
but very little more than his tools, but has accumulated some property and 
a home. He was married, June 1, 1856, to Jane Cook, and to them have 
been born five children — Alice E., Gili)ert (dead), Emery (dead), Samuel 
A. and Gordie (dead). Mr. Parks at one time held the position of one 
of the " City Fathers " of Valparaiso. He is a Republican, and is the 
present Township Trustee of Centre Township. In 1864, he entered 
the Government service for seven months, and was on detached duty as 
Orderly at Camp Carrington. He is at present working at his trade, and 
in addition does a general repairing business. He and wife are members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

WILLIAM E. PINNEY, attorney at law, was born in La Porte 
County, Ind., November 10, 1847, and is the fourth of the eight children 
of William and Cynthia (Long) Pinney, natives, respectively, of Ohio and 
Virginia, and of English descent. The paternal progenitor of this family 
came to America in 1620, and his descendants are now scattered through- 
out almost all the States of the Union. In 1837, William Pinney came 
from Ohio to La Porte County with his parents, and December 23, 1841. 
married Miss Cynthia Long, who came to La Porte County with her 
parents in 1836. Mr. and Mrs. Pinney still reside in La Porte County, 
in Clinton Township, on the old homestead. William E. Pinney was 
reared in La Porte County, assisting on the -home farm, and attending 
the district schools. Subsequently, he attended the old Male and Female 
College at Valparaiso, this county, and then began the study of law in 
the office of Weir & Biddle, of La Porte, remaining with them some time. 
In 1872, he entered the Law Department of the Indiana University, at 
Bloomington, and in April, 1874, came to Valparaiso, and opened a law, 
loan and abstract office. Here Mr. Pinney has the only complete set of 
abstract titles in Porter County, and ever since his location here has been 
actively employed in his profession of attorney and counselor at law, and 


the transaction of loan and title abstract business. On the 18th of Novem- 
ber, 1875, Mr. Pinney married Miss Finette Morrison, a native of La 
Porte County, born July 7, 1850, and eldest of the three children of 
John and Susan (Blair) Morrison, both families being early settlers in 
Northern Indiana, and Judj2;e Blair, her mother's father, one of the old 
and prominent settlers of Porter County, and also one of the founders of 
the Presbyterian Church at Valparaiso. Mrs. Pinney is a lady of more 
than ordinary culture, is devoted to the interests of the family, and to 
her intelligence and industry Mr. Pinney attributes much of his success. 
Their little daughter, Myra Finette, now two years of age, and their 
only child, is very intelligent and far advanced for one of her age. Mrs. 
Pinney is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and Mr. Pinney, 
although a member of no religious society, is thoroughly orthodox in his 
views of theology. In politics, he is a Democrat, although liberal in his 
opinions, never hesitating to condemn that which he considers to be wrong 
in his party, but firmly upholding the right. His grandfather, Horace 
Pinney, served in the war of 1812 as a Drum Major, and others of his 
ancestors served in the Revolutionary war, one as Lieutenant and one as 
Colonel. The characteristic feature of the family is an unassuming, quiet 
disposition, but a number of them have become quite prominent as private 
citizens. Mr. Pinney's father, William Pinney, is a man of extraordinary 
natural ability. 

HOMER W. PORTER, County School Superintendent, was born 
in Onondaga County, N. Y., March 9, 1813, the only child of Hiram 
and Lucy (Ayres) Porter, natives of the same State and of English 
descent. Mr. Hiram Porter died when Homer W. was but two years old, 
his widow afterward marrying Abner Tillabaugh. Homer was reared by 
his grandmother Porter, and was educated chiefly by members of the 
family, and in his nineteenth year began teaching school at $8 per month ; 
the next year he received $11. In the spring of 1863, he moved to 
Somonauk, 111., where he engaged in the drug trade with an uncle for six 
months, taught another term of school, and in the spring of 1861 came 
to Valparaiso, and entered the Freshman year of the old Male and Female 
College. At the end of the summer he again taught school and clerked 
until the fall of 1868, when he married Miss Caroline Haste. He was 
next employed as first teacher in the grammar department of the high 
school ; then farmed for some time, and continued farming and teaching 
until the spring of 1881, when he moved to Valparaiso, and was elected 
County School Superintendent in December of the same year, now filling 
the unexpired term of Reason Shinabarger, resigned. Mr. Porter is a 
Republican, and he and wife are parents of two children — Willie H. and 

GEORGE QUATERMASS, retired farmer, first came to Porter 
County, Ind., with his family from Canada in 1860, and settled where 
he now resides and engaged in farininaj. He was a native of the State 
of New York, and was born February 19, 1813. Moved to Canada with 
his parents when but a small boy, and was reared there to manhood. 
Was twice married, first to Emily Harris, who died in Canada in 1830. 
He married his second wife, Sarah Janes, in Porter County, and he and 
she are yet living at Wheeler. The names of the children born to his 


first marriage were Eliza, Almira, Reuben, James (deceased), Martha, 
Emerson, George and Martin (deceased). The children are all mar- 
ried. In 1871, Reuben came to Valparaiso and opened a general store, and 
this led to the business that is now carried on by those of that name. At 
the end of four years, Emerson became a partner of Reuben, and the 
firm then became Quatermass Bros. Previous to their partnership being 
formed, the building now occupied by E. Quatermass & Co. was built, 
and into this they removed their stock in 1874. In 1878, Reuben Qua- 
termass retired from the partnership, and in March, 1882, moved to 
Moline, Kan., where he yet resides, engaged in the stock business. Em- 
erson then formed a partnership with a brother-in-law, F. W. Schenck, 
under the firm name of E. Quatermass & Co. Their stock comprises on 
the first floor dry goods, gents' furnishing goods, house furnishing goods 
and notions of every description ; on the second floor is clothing, carpets 
and merchant tailoring. They carry a first-class stock of all kinds of 
dry goods, silks, and, in fact, everything that can be found in a city of 
ten times the size of Valparaiso. Their force employed in this establish- 
ment is twenty-four persons, and they do an average annual business 
of $100,000. Emerson Quatermass, the senior member of the firm, 
was born in Canada in 1850 ; came to Porter County in 1872, and in 
November, 1878, married Miss Grace Schenck, daughter of Benjamin 
Schenck, deceased, one of the pioneers of Porter County. Mr. Q. is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and Mrs. Q. is a member of 
the Christian Church. 

AARON ROGERS, son of Elisha and Zilpha (Dean) Rogers, was 
born in Cattaraugus County, N. Y., April 27, 1827. His father was a 
native of Madison County, N. Y., and of Irish descent. He was a farmer, 
and married in Genesee County, N. Y. He and wife came to Porter 
County, Ind., in 1851, where they both died. Aaron Rogers passed his 
early years on his parents' farm, and at the age of seventeen began life's 
battle on his own responsibility, but the greater part of the proceeds of 
his labors went to his parents until he attained his majority, when he 
opened a dry goods, general notion and auction house in Western New 
York. After that, he engaged in traveling and selling goods until 1851, 
when he came to Valparaiso, and July 3, of that year, opened a jewelry 
store, and worked at manufacturing and mending until within the past 
few years, when he turned his attention more chiefly to banking and deal- 
ing in real estate. Mr. Rogers was married in Kenosha, Wis., April 
27, 1853, to Miss Jane Conner, and to this marriage have been born four 
children — Eleanor Arvilla, now Mrs. C. T. Allen ; Chauncy Jerome, 
Eugenia and Roscoe. The mother is a member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and Mr. Rogers is a Republican, but formerly was a Whig. 

J. A. RYAN, M. D., was born near South Bend, Ind., September 
23, 1852, and is the third child of a family of seven children born to 
John L. and Eliza (Nixon) Ryan, who were natives of New York State. 
Dr. Ryan's grandfather, Ryan, was a native of Ireland, and came to 
America, where he died very shortly after the birth of John L. Ryan. Our 
subject's mother died December 24, 1879 ; his fiither is yet living on his 
fiirm near South Bend, where he has resided the past thirty-five years. 
Dr. Ryan was reared in St. Joseph County, Ind., and after attending the 


common country schools, went to South Bend, graduating from the high 
school of that city. He began the study of medicine in 1875, under 
Dr. Sweetland. He taught school tiiree terras after coming out of high 
school, and the winters of 1876, 1877 and 1878 attended and graduated 
from the Bennett Eclectic Medical College of Chicago. The spring of 
1878, he took a special course in the Eye and Ear College, receiving a 
special diploma. While then not knowing where he would locate, he 
passed an examination before the State Board of Health, receiving a cer- 
tificate from that institution. He came to Valparaiso in October, 1878, 
and in partnership with Dr. Vincent, embarked in the practice of his pro- 
fession. In May, 1879, he purchased Dr. Vincent's practice, and has met 
with excellent success. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and 
is a Knight Templar of Valparaiso Commandery, No. 28. He was mar- 
ried. May 20, 1879, to Miss Carrie Wood, daughter of Agustus Wood, 
one of the old settlers of Northwestern Indiana, and now a merchant of 
Hobart. He and wife are the parents of one son — Claude A., born Au- 
gust 26, 1881. The mother was born at Michigan City, in May, 1853. 

M. A. SALISBURY was born in La Porte County, Ind., April 22, 
1836, one of five children, three yet living, born to D. J. and Mariette 
(Congdon) Salisbury, who were natives of Vermont and New York 
respectively. His grandparents, John and Sabrina (Jones) Salisbury, 
were natives of New England, and emigrated to La Porte County in 
about 1833. They were farmers, and lived and died there. The parents 
of our subject also emigrated to La Porte County in about 1834, and 
located in Kankakee Township. In about 1853, the parents went to 
Clinton County, Iowa, and thence came to Valparaiso, Ind., in 1858, 
where both are yet living retired. M. A. Salisbury was reared in La 
Porte County, during which time he received only a common school edu- 
cation. November 19, 1856, he was married in Valparaiso to Martha 
Hicks, and has made his home here ever since. He first came to Porter 
County in August, 1852, and entered as clerk in a drug store. He so 
continued until 1861, when he was appointed Postmaster at Valparaiso 
by Abraham Lincoln, retaining the position until after the assassination 
of Lincoln, when he was deposed by Andrew Johnson. He then 
engaged in dealing in books, stationery, wall-paper, musical instruments, 
etc. His wife died December 24, 1861, the mother of one daughter, 
Clara, who died at the age of twelve months. May 26, 1863, he mar- 
ried Viola (Mallory) Salisbury, who has borne him a family of five chil- 
dren — Jennie, Mariette, Charles (deceased), Alice (deceased), and Marion. 

G. Z. SALYER (deceased) was born in Tompkins County, N. Y.. 
April 16, 1809. He went to White Pigeon, Mich., in about 1831, 
and there. May 9, 1833, married Xenia Read, who was born in Susque- 
hanna County, Penn., November 14, 1814, and was a daughter of 
Belden Read, who moved to White Pigeon in 1830. Succeeding their 
marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Salyer moved to La Porte, Ind., when Mr. 
Salyer worked at his trade (carpenter and joiner) until the land sales in 
Porter County in 1835, when they removed to Centre Township, when 
Mr. Salyer purchased eighty acres and bought out a grocery store, which 
he carried on in connection with his trade. He assisted in the erection 
of some of the first buildings of Valparaiso, and made this his home 


until his death, September 20, 1865. He was one of the prominent and 
influential men of his time, and for many years acted as Justice of the 
Peace. He was a Republican, formerly a Whig, and was a member of 
long standing in the Methodist Episcopal Church. He and wife began 
married life with but very little means, and they worked hard and econo- 
mized, until at the time of Mr. S.'s death they had considerable prop- 
erty. Mrs. Salyer owns valuable city property adjoining the public 
square, and is yet a resident of Valparaiso. To her marriage with Mr. 
Salyer there were born seven children — Don A., Mary E. (now Mrs. 
David Hamilton), Charlotte (now Mrs. Elijah Wood), Leon G. (deceased), 
Orvin (deceased), Robert E., married to Orpha Dennison and residing in 
Steuben County, Ind., and Winfield S., who married Edith Patrick, and 
resides in Valparaiso. G. Z. Salyer was for many years a merchant of 
the place, and his name is familiar to all old settlers of Porter County. 
He was one of the charter members of the Masonic order of Valparaiso, 
and was buried with Masonic rites. Don A. Salyer was born in La 
Porte, Ind., September 22, 1834, and came with his parents to Val- 
paraiso in 1835, and has always made this his home. He received his 
education from the town schools, and was married in the fall of 1856 to 
Miss Amy Armstrong, daughter of Chauncy and Polly (Griswold) Arm- 
strong, of Ogdensburg, N. Y., and succeeding his marriage Mr. Salyer 
engaged in merchandising in Valparaiso, which he continued until about 
1876, when he purchased the paper mill he yet owns, which he had pre- 
viously erected in partnership with T. G. Lytle in 1864. He has oper- 
ated this mill ever since. He and wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and the parents of t\^o sons and one daughter — 
Dorsey C, George C. and Fidelia. Mr. Salyer is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, and has ascended to the Commandery, being Sir 
Knight of Valparaiso Commandery, No. 28. He is a Republican and a 
member of the City Council. 

G. A. SAYLES, of the hardware firm of Sayles & Conover, was born 
in Warren, Warren Co., Penn., January 3, 1830, one of a family of seven 
children, five of whom are yet living, born to Scott W. and Rhoda (Bal- 
lard) Sayles. who were natives respectively of New York and Vermont. 
Scott W. Sayles was a manufacturer and dealer in hats, caps, furs, etc., 
in Warren, and after his removal to Cleveland, in 1836, continued the 
same until he was burned out. He was then elected County Treasurer 
of Cuyahoga County, serving in that capacity eight years. After this 
he engaged in ship-building for three years, after which he established 
steam saw-mills at Cambridge and Erie, Penn. From the latter place, he 
removed to Cleveland, and from there to Bay City, Mich., where he died 
February, 1865. His widow survived him until July 5, 1881, when she, 
too, died. They were members of the Congregational Church, and Mr. 
Sayles was a Republican, but formerly a Whig, tinctured with Free-Soil 
ism. He served two terms as County Clerk of Bay County, Mich. G. 
A. Sayles lived with his parents until about the age of twenty-four, dur- 
ing which time he received a fair education from the common schools. 
He learned the tinner's trade at and near Cleveland, and worked for one 
year at the same in Anamosa, Iowa. In August, 1855, he came to Val- 
paraiso ; at that time he was only worth about $400, all of which he had 


earned by his own labor. He in company with Isaac Marshall engaged 
in a stove and tin store, but after Mr. M.'s death, a few months later, 
William Wilson was admitted, and this firm added hardware to their 
stock. Mr. Sayles has remained in the hardware trade ever since, and 
has been very successful. He formed his present partnership with George 
Conover in August, 1881, and this firm now carries a full line of hard- 
ware, stoves and tinware. Mr. Sayles is a Republican, and he and wife 
are members of the Presbyterian Church. They were married in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, the winter of 1854, Mrs. Sayles at that time being Miss 
Sarah Foote, a daughter of Caleb Foot. They are the parents of five 
children — Anna, Henry, Kate (now Mrs. George Conover), Emma and 

DR. M. F. SAYLES, brother of G. A. Sayles, was born in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, March 8, 1836. He received a good practical education 
from the public schools of Cleveland and high school at Erie, Penn. In 
1858, he came to Valparaiso, and engaged in clerking in his brother's 
hardware store. In 1864, he began the study of medicine with Dr. Ken- 
dall, of Valparaiso, and in 1865 attended the Hahnemann Medical Col- 
lege of Chicago. After leaving there, he went to St. Charles, Minn., 
and became associated in the practice of medicine with Dr. T. H. Everts, 
formerly of Valparaiso. He remained in company with Dr. Everts, 
profiting by his experience, for one year. He then spent one winter at 
Boonville, Mo., and then returned to Porter County, and opened an ofiice 
at Hebron, where he carried on a successful practice until 1876, when he 
came to Valparaiso, where he yet remains in active practice, and is now 
one of the well known physicians of the place. Dr. Sayles was married 
in 1860, to Miss Fanny Jones, daughter of Isaac Jones, of Chicago. 

AARON STANTON Avas born December 7, 1832, in La Porte, Ind., 
and is the eldest of seven living children of a family of nine born to 
Thomas E. and Sarah (Pagin) Stanton, who were natives of Preble 
County, Ohio, and of English and German descent respectively. The 
Stantons were Quakers, and the maternal great-grandfather of our subject, 
Fisher, was a native of Germany, and during the Revolutionary war was 
drafted from the German Empire to return a favor to England that Ger- 
many owed. He served five years on the British side, but after the war 
adopted this as his country. The parents of our subject were married in 
Union County, Ind., and in 1829 moved to La Porte, Ind., where they 
engaged in farming. The father, in 1849, crossed the plains to California, 
and remained in that country two years engaged in mining. In 1852, 
he sold out at La Porte and removed to Winneshiek County, Iowa, and 
from there moved to California in 1856, locating in Santa Barbara, where 
he died in 1874. His widoAv and the remainder of the family are still 
residents of California, Mrs Stanton making her home at Los Angeles. 
Aaron Stanton was reared in La Porte County, Ind., during which time 
he received a good common school education. He learned two trades — 
blacksmith's and tinner's — but his chief employment has been farming. 
He was married the 6th of March, 1853, to Miss Caroline S. Malone, 
and the spring of 1854 came to Valparaiso and established the first 
ready-made clothing store in the place. In 1856, he sold out and moved 
to Winneshiek, Iowa, where for two years he was in the hardware trade, 


and in 1861 moved back to La Porte County, Ind., and purchased a farm 
of 190 acres in Washington Township, and engaged in farming. In 
1881, he removed from that county to Valparaiso, and is now engaged in 
the agricultural implement business and looking after his farm. He is a 
Sir Knight of Valparaiso Commandery, No. 28, and is a Republican. 
He and wife are the parents of three children — George E., married to 
Dell Ball, and a merchant of Valparaiso ; Sarah B. and Mary E. 

RUEL STARR, deceased, one of the pioneers of Porter County, was 
born in Oneida County, N. Y., December 22, 1804, and was a son of 
Noah and Alfleda (Fuller) Starr, the former being a soldier in the war of 
1812, and in command of a company at Buffalo that crossed the Niagara 
River from Black Rock, and participated in the battle of Queenstown, 
October 13, 1812. Ruel Starr, in 1830, went to Kalamazoo, Mich., and 
in Comstock, of that State, December 29, 1830, married Phebe E., 
daughter of Caleb and Phebe (Brownell) Eldred, who was born in Otsego 
County, N. Y., January 18, 1812. This couple, in May, 1834, moved 
to Washington Township, Porter Co., Ind., where they built a cabin and 
engaged in pioneer pursuits. They partook of all the hardships of life 
in a new country, and in the spring of 1859 moved to Valparaiso, where 
Mr. Starr died April 19, 1875. His widow yet survives him and resides 
in Valparaiso with her only living child, Mrs. Kittie L. McGill, who was 
born May 3, 1849, and was married May 18, 1869, to James McGill. 
There were born to Mr. and Mrs. Starr a family of six children altogether, 
but the five following-named died: Noah VV., Octavius E., Augustus A., 
Caleb E. and Phebe E. Of the death of Mr. Starr, the following is a sam- 
ple of what the county papers said of him : " He was one of the oldest 
and most prominent citizens of Porter County. He was very active in 
evervthing pertaining to the welfare of his country and he did much 
toward building up the county to its present proportions. In every sense 
of the word he was a self-made man, coming to the county poor, and by 
industry and economy accumulating a competence. He was a Democrat 
in politics, but not by any means a politician, although he was often called 
upon and did fill both township and county oflSces. His death was sin- 
cerely mourned and regretted by a large concourse of friends who followed 
his remains to their last resting-place — the grave — but by none more than 
his family. He was interred in the city cemetery." 

COL. I. C. B. SUMAN, Postmaster at Valparaiso, is a native of 
Frederick County, Md., and was born January 4, 1831, the next to the 
youngest of a family of seven children, six of whom are still living, born 
to Albert and Mary (Lantz) Suman, who were natives of the South, and 
of English-German descent. Albert Suman was born August 17, 1763, 
and served several years in the Revolutionary war under Gen. Marion. 
He was a tanner by trade, and made that his occupation until his death, 
March 16, 1842. Mrs. Mary Suman was born December 12, 1793, and 
died December 8, 1871. Col. I. C. B. Suman was reared in Maryland, 
and received a common-school education. In May, 1846, he enlisted in 
the First United States Artillery for the Mexican war under Maj. Ring- 
gold, of Maryland. He remained in the artillery service about two 
years, and was tlien transferred to the Second United States Dragoons, 
and served in the U^nited States Army at that time a total of five years. 


He was under Gen. Taylor, and participated in the engagements of Palo 
Alto, Monterey, Buena Vista, and all the movements of Taylor's army 
after crossing the river at Brownsville until the capture of the City of 
Mexico. At close of the war, he returned to Maryland. His father had 
been a large slave-owner, but after his failure in business and his death, 
the family were left in reduced circumstances. Our subject, being 
strongly opposed to slavery, and thinking to make a better livelihood in a 
free country, started on foot for the Northwest in the fall of 1852, his 
total possessions at the time amounting to $8 in cash. At Wooster, Ohio, 
where he had an aunt living, he engaged at carpentering with a Mr. 
Daily, formerly of Valparaiso, Ind., and with him remained a year. He 
then started West, and, reaching Valparaiso, and liking the place and 
the people, concluded to make it his home. Here he resumed his trade, 
which he followed until the breaking-out of the war of the rebellion. The 
news of the fall of Sumter reached him while ho was at work on a 
frame fence for T. B. Cole, when he instantly dropped his tools and went 
down town and enlisted for the war as a private in Company H, Ninth 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, being the second to volunteer from Porter 
County. On the election for officers, Mr. Suman was chosen First Lieu- 
tenant. The day before going to the front, April 21, 1861, he was 
united in marriage to Miss Kate M. Goss, and, leaving his bride, took 
part in the three months' service, participating in the battles of Philippi, 
Laurel Hill and Carrick's Ford. The regiment was then mustered out, 
came home, and re-organized for three years, Mr. Suman being chosen 
as Captain of his Company — H. He received his commission August 
29, 1861, and as a Captain served until August 20, 1862, when, by 
reason of vacancy, he was promoted Lieutenant Colonel of the Ninth 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry. As such he served until, through the resig- 
nation of Col. Blake, he was promoted to the Colonelcy of his regiment 
April 17, 1863, and with this rank remained in active service throughout 
the war. March 13, 1865, he received from headquarters a document, a 
portion of which read as follows : " You are hereby informed that the 
President of the United States has appointed you, for gallant and meri- 
torious services during the war, a Brigadier General of volunteers by 
brevet." The war being virtually over, Col. Suman declined this pro- 
motion, as he did not enter his country's service for the sake of honors, 
but in her defense. Of all Indiana's Colonels, he alone preserved and 
retained the field books. July 28, 1 865, he was appointed Second Lieu- 
tenant in the Thirty-eighth Infantry, regular army, and this appointment 
he also declined. On being mustered out, he returned to his wife, and, 
purchasing a farm in Jackson Township, moved thereon and engaged in 
agricultural pursuits until April, 1881, when he moved to Valparaiso and 
received his appointment as Postmaster in April, 1882. On his farm, 
which comprises ov^r 400 acres, the B. & 0. R. R. Company have 
erected a station, which is named in his honor. Mr. Suman is a Repub- 
lican in politics, and is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and Mrs. 
Suman is a member of the Presbyterian Church. To them have been 
born four children — Ada May (now Mrs. Lawry, of Kansas), Alice Bell, 
Bessie E. and Frank T. Besides the battles already spoken of. Col. 
Suman took part in the following : Greenbrier, Buffalo Mountain, Shi- 


loh, Perryville, Stone River (here he was twice wounded ; one wound, 
by a minie ball passing through his body^ being very severe), Chicka- 
mauga, Lookout Mountain (where he was slightly wounded), Missionary 
Ridge (and here again he received another wound), Ringgold, Dalton, 
Resaca, Gulp's Farm, Pine Top Mountain, Rough's Station, Peach Tree 
Creek, siege of Atlanta, Lovejoy's Station, Franklin, Nashville and many 
other engagements and skirmishes. Col. Suman never curried favor 
with his superior officers, and all he is, and has been, came through his 
own self-reliance. 

WILLIAM C. TALCOTT, son of Joseph and Rebecca Talcott, 
was born in Dalton, Berkshire County, Mass., December 25, 1815, and 
during the first year of his age his parents moved their family to Madi- 
son, Lake Co., Ohio, where he resided with them till the age often, and 
then with others until nearly twenty, when he came to La Porte County, 
Ind., in August, 1835 ; in the spring of 1837, he came to Porter County, 
where he has resided ever since, except perhaps the years 1843 and 1844, 
which were passed at Waterford, La Porte County, and 1845 and 184(3, 
near South Bend. He was married, May 1, 1838, to Miss Maria Luther, 
who has borne him six children, of whom two sons and one daughter died 
young. Of the three surviving, Henry is a District Judge in Kansas ; 
Joseph, is a postal clerk between Crestline and Chicago ; the youngest, 
Charles, is his father's partner in the publication of the Porter County 
Vidette at Valparaiso, and is also Treasurer of the School Board. Will- 
iam C. Talcott became religious at the age of fifteen, and began studying 
for the Presbyterian ministry, but during his studies his faith in endless 
punishment became so shaken that he abandoned the intention. Becom- 
ing pretty well established in the belief of Universalism, he acted as a 
pioneer preacher of that creed for about ten years, when he lost his faith 
in spiritual worlds and beings, and since 1845 his creed has consisted of 
" doing as you would be done by;" and in that year he founded a com- 
munity on this basis near South Bend, which failed only through a dis- 
agreement among the investors in the land, whereby the better part of the 
promised site was lost. In 1840, Mr. Talcott was elected Justice; was 
appointed Probate Judge in 1849, and was elected to the same office in 
1850; he resigned in 1852, to accept the Democratic nomination for 
Assemblyman, but being an earnest temperance and anti-slavery advocate, 
was defeated. In 1856, he was elected Common Pleas Judge, and was 
twice re-elected, serving twelve years, after which he for six years prac- 
ticed law. His experience as a publisher began in 1846, at South Bend, 
where he started the Spirit of Reform^ hoping to advance a reform in 
spelling, of which he is still a devoted advocate. In 1847, he bought a 
half-interest in the Western Ranger, published at Valparaiso, and was part- 
ner in it nearly two years; then bought the other half, entitled it the Pra(?^zmZ 
Observer, made it a temperance, anti-slavery and otherwise reformatory 
Democratic paper until 1854, and after that Republican till 1857, when by 
reason of employment on the bench he sold out. But in 1874, he pur- 
chased the Vidette, as the successor, by another name, of what he sold, 
and after a few months his son, Charles R., became a partner with him, 
and since then the firm has made that paper what it is. Mr. Talcott 
has had some experience in Porter County in surveying, teaching, preach- 


ing, farming, publishing and practicing and administering law, and his 
experience in these things, with his economic tendency of mind, have 
made him a devoted advocate of economical reforms as advocated for 
years past in the Vidette. His life has been a peaceful one, a plain and 
tolerably temperate and healthy one, and since relieved of apprehension 
of hell-fire for himself or others, whom he cared for measurably as him- 
self, a happy one, he having been growing happy with increasing years 
despite the lack of hope of anything beyond this life but sleep, believing 
that he is habitually the happiest person in the world. 

RUFUS P. WELLS, coal dealer, a native of Athens County, 
Ohio, was born December 5, 1817. He is one of a family of ten chil- 
dren born to Varnum G. and Sarah (Davis) Wells, who were natives 
respectively of Rhode Island and Maine, and of Welsh and English 
descent. Varnum G. Wells was a millwright, and came to Marietta, 
Ohio, in about 1800, and there married. He served in the war of 1812, 
and held a Captain's commission. At the close of the war, he removed 
to Athens County, Ohio, where he engaged in farming and working at 
his trade until his death in 1835, preceded by that of his wife in 1833. 
Rufus P. Wells was reared in Ohio until seventeen years old. In the fall 
of 1837, he and his half-uncle and family moved to Indiana, and that 
winter our subject remainetl in Elkhart County. In the spring of 1838, 
he came to Porter County, and worked around at odd jobs for four years. 
He then engaged in teaching winters and working summers. September 
30, 1849, Mr. Wells married Miss Maria Smith, and moved upon his 
farm in Porter Township, which he had purchased in 1844. He yet 
retains the old farm, which now consists of 320 acres. He was elected 
in 1870 to the office of Clerk of Courts of Porter County, by the Repub- 
lican party, taking his seat in November, 1871 ; afterward was re-elected, 
serving in all eight years. Since that time, he has been dealing in coal 
and looking after his farm. Mr. Wells is a member of the F. & A. M., 
and a member of the Christian Church. His wife died in 1875, leaving 
three children — John Q., Orrin M. and Mary E., now Mrs. C. E. Man- 
deville. March 10, 1878, Mr. Wells married his present wife, Mrs. Ruth 
(Winspear) Shenck, a native of England. 

W. C. WELLS, County Recorder, was born in Fulton County, 
Ohio, March 22, 1848. His father, David Wells, was born in Maryland 
in 1800, married Rebecca Jones in Ohio, and by her had twelve children. 
He had come to Ohio when a boy, and there Mrs. Wells died. About 
1845, Mr. Wells married Mrs. Catherine J. (Crane) Maxwell, a widow 
with two daughters. In March, 1854, this couple came to Porter County, 
where they had relatives living, and where Mr. Wells had, the previous 
year, purchased 160 acres of land on Section 33, Centre Township. Into 
a log cabin on the place, Mr. Wells moved his family and household goods 
and began clearing. That fall — 1854 — the father and two sons died of 
typhoid fever. The mother, with her remaining children, shortly after 
moved to Union Township, where she married J. G. Curry, and died in 
October, 1864. Mr. W. C. Wells was reared chiefly in Porter County, 
and when but little over fifteen years of age enlisted, December 5, 1863, 
in Company E, One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Indiana Volunteer In- 
fantry. He was chosen Third Sergeant, and the spring of 1864 went to 


the front and joined Sherman's array at Resaca, Ga. He participated in 
all the movements of that army until the capture of Atlanta, when his corps 
— Twenty-third — came back to Nashville with Gen. Thomas, engaging on 
the way in a running fight with Gen. Hood's command. After the bat- 
tle of Nashville, the were sent via Washington to North Carolina, where 
they remained in active service until the close of the war, Mr. W. re- 
ceiving his discharge October 20, 1865. On his return to Porter County, 
he engaged in farming, and has remained here ever since, except one year, 
when he resided in Minnesota. He was married in 1868, to Victoria 
Morrison, of Porter County, and to this union have been born five chil- 
dren — Maud, Mabel, Guy, Paul and Ray. Mr. Wells is a member of the 
A., F. & A. M., and he and wife are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. He is a Republican, and in 1878 was elected County Re- 
corder, with a majority over three competitors of about five hundred. In 
July, 1882, he was re-elected. He was also elected Justice of the Peace 
and Township Assessor in Pleasant Township, from which he moved to 
Valparaiso, when elected County Recorder. 

THERON C. WHITE, of the firm of White, McFetrich & Co., 
lumber dealers, was born near Goshen, Mass., December 10, 1815, son of 
Frebun and Betsey White, who were parents of three sons and one 
daughter, the last now deceased. The family moved to Wayne County, 
Penn., in 1819, where they tilled a small farm, engaged in the lumber 
trade, operated a saw-mill, conducted a mill-wrighting business, and for a 
few years manufactured large numbers of umbrella handles. There the 
father died, August 9, 1844, and in January, 1855, Theron C. came to 
Valparaiso, to which place his brother Daniel had preceded him in 1850, 
a younger brother, Samuel, and his mother following in the spring of 
1855. The mother died here in June, 1856, and Samuel returned to 
Pennsylvania the same year. Theron C. was married in Pennsylvania, 
to Salina A. Horton, December 15, 1837. They are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and the parents of four children — Delia, 
wife of Reason Bell; Levi T.; Freelove, now Mrs. John W. Elam, and 
Calista, the wife of F. M. Frasier. Mr. White is a Republican, he was 
County Surveyor for two years; owns ten acres adjoining the city limits, 
and a good house, and the firm of which he is a member is doing a very 
large trade. His grandfather, Ebenezer White, was a direct descendant 
from Peregrine White, of '' Mayflower" renown, and the family line runs 
back to England as far as the fifteenth century. 

DANIEL S. WHITE was born in Hampshire County, Mass., 
November 18, 1817, and in 1819 was taken by his parents to Wayne 
County, Penn., where he was reared. He was married, in 1843, to 
Louisa Kellogg, who bore him two children — Martha J., now Mrs. James 
McFetrich, and Edwin F., who married Emma Dunning, and is now re- 
siding in Kansas. The mother died in April, 1868. In September, 
1869, Mr. White married Henrietta Cunda, who died July 25, 1870. 
His third wife was Mrs. Mary A. (Pierce) Wheeler, widow of Daniel 
Wheeler. In March, 1850, Mr. White came to Valparaiso with his 
father-in-law, Azor Kellogg, and was his partner in a foundry ; he after- 
ward built the first steam mill in the city for Crosby & Hass ; was en- 
gaged for three years in saw-milling at Prattville, with Theron C. White ; 


tlien with John Kellogg started the first planing-mill in Valparaiso, build- 
ing the engine, and after that engaged in running a planing-mill and 
dealing in lumber, first under the firm name of White, Hunt & Co., and 
now under that of White, McFetrich & Co. Mr. White is a Democrat. 
He has served as Township Trustee, and is one of the most substantial 
citizens of Valparaiso. He is a Presbyterian, having held official position 
in that church for upward of thirty years. 

BENJAMIN WILCOX, deceased, was a native of Middletown, 
Conn., was born May 18, 1816. He was a son of Benjamin Wilcox, who 
was a ship-builder of Middletown, and of English descent. Benjamin, 
Jr., spent his early years in his native town, afterward moving with his 
parents to LeRoy, N. Y., and from that time started in life on his own 
responsibility. He taught school and worked his own way through col- 
lege, and graduated from Williams College in about 1840, and soon af- 
ter this took the Principalship of Yates Academy, in Orleans County, 
N. Y., and while officiating in this capacity married in 1843, in Durham, 
Conn., Miss Harriet M. Parmalee, who was born in December, 1824, and 
was a daughter of Phineas Parmalee, of Durham. Succeeding his mar- 
riage, Mr. Wilcox remained as Principal of Yates Academy for some 
time, afterward going to Wilson, Niagara County, and assuming the 
Principalship of the Wilson Collegiate Institute. In 1856, he removed 
to River Falls, Wis., and took the Principalship of the academy at that 
place, and also engaged in a drug trade and farming, and remained there 
until 1864, when he came to Valparaiso, Ind., and took charge of a 
school, and after svard was elected Principal of the Public Schools. In 
1870, he went to South Bend, and was elected Principal of the Public 
Schools there, which position he retained until his death, August 16, 1875. 
His first wife died in 1853, and to their marriage were born three children, 
all yet living. His second wife was Caroline E. Parmelee, sister of his 
first wife, and this lady bore him three children, and is yet living in South 
Bend. Mr. Wilcox was a Republican, a member of the Masonic fraternity, 
and was an Elder in the Presbyterian Church at the time of his death. 
W. P. Wilcox, a son by his first marriage, was born in Wilson, N. Y., 
June 23, 1848. He established his drug store in Valparaiso in 1870, 
but previous to that time was in the drug trade here, in partnership with 
W. A. Bryant. He was married, December 31, 1872, to Ella C. De 
Groif, of Valparaiso, and to them has been born one son — Willis D. 

J. D. WILSON, carpenter and proprietor of planing-mill, was born 
in Luzerne County, Penn., October 2, 1829. He is one of six living 
children in a family of eight born to William and Rachel (Clark) Wilson, 
who were natives of New Jersey and of German descent. William Wil- 
son was a farmer by occupation, and followed that through life. He died 
in Pennsylvania at the age of sixty-three, in 1861 ; his widow died in 
1879, at the age of eighty-three. J. D. Wilson was reared on his parents' 
farm, received a common school education, and in 1853 came to Indiana. 
He went to Lake County first, remaining there about a year ; then came 
to Valparaiso and began working at the carpenter trade, at which busi- 
ness he has ever since been employed. For fifteen years, he was in the 
employ of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway Company, 
supervising the construction of bridges and wood work between Valpa- 


raiso and Fort Wayne. Two years of this time he resided at Warsaw, 
Ind., and with the exception of this time has always resided in Val- 
paraiso. In 1872, he purchased his present planing-mill on East Main 
street, and has since been manufacturing doors, sash, blinds, moldings, 
etc., and everything pertaining to planing-mill work. He has all the 
latest improved machinery, keeps employed an average force of ten men, 
and transacts an average annual business of over ^20,000. Mr. Wilson 
was married in Lake County in 1855, to Miss Nancy P. Brown, and to 
their union were born six children — Ed. L., Rachel, Emma J., and 
Hylin, living, and William and Frank S., deceased. The parents are 
members of the Presbyterian Church. Mr. Wilson is a Republican and 
a member of the Masonic fraternity, being a Sir Knight of Valparaiso 
Commandery. No. 28. 

JOHN W. WOOD was born in Ross Township, Lake Co., Ind., 
March 13, 1838, one of a family of eight children born to John and 
Hannah (Pattee) Wood, natives of Massachusetts and of English descent. 
The father was born in 1800, learned the tanner's trade, was married in 
1825, and in 1835 came to Lake County, and entered 160 acres of land 
as a mill site on Deep River, Ross Township, built a cabin, and the next 
spring brought out his wife and five children. John W. Wood was 
reared in Lake County, received a good education, taught two terms 
of public school, and when twenty-one began farming on his own account. 
August 14, 1861, he married Miss Maggie A. Hollett, daughter of 
Thomas A. and Deborah A. (Coleman) Hollett, and came to Valparaiso 
in 1862 and cle;:ked until 1865, when he started in the grocery trade, 
which he has ever since successfully conducted. Mr. Wood is a Repub- 
lican, and a member of the City Council. Mrs. Wood was born in Orange 
County, N. Y., March 18, 1841, is a member of the Presbyterian 
Church, and the mother of five children, viz., Mary, Fred A., New- 
ton A., Harry G. and Glen (deceased). 

W. A. YOHN, M. D., was born in Porter County, Ind., March 29, 
1850, and is the eldest of a family of five children, four yet living, born 
to Frederick and Margaret (Hewlings) Yohn, natives of Pennsylvania 
and Ohio respectively, arid paternally of German descent, and maternally 
of French parentage. These parents were married in Champaign County, 
Ohio, in 1848, and the same year, emigated to northern Porter County, and 
about four years after this returned to Champaign County, Ohio, not 
being able to undergo the malarial fevers of this section at that time. They 
remained in Ohio until March, 1882, when they returned to Porter Town- 
ship, and are yet living there, engaged in farming. Dr. Yohn made his 
home with his parents until he reached his majority, during which time 
he received his early education from the common schools where he re- 
sided, afterward attending schools of higher grade and graduating from 
the Northern Indiana Normal School at Valparaiso in 1874. In that 
year he began the study of medicine with Dr. Hankinson, since deceased, 
afterward reading under his own option, having access to the library of 
Dr. Coates. The winter of 1878-79, he attended medical lectures at 
Columbus Medical College in Ohio, and the winter of 1879-80 attended 
and graduated from the Medical College of Indiana, the Medical Depart- 
ment of Butler University. The following year, he received the hon- 


orary degree of Doctor of Medicine, from the Kentucky School of Medi 
cine, and the spring of 1880 he located in Valparaiso. Besides attending 
to his work as a physician, Dr. Yohn occupies the Chair of Natural 
Sciences in the Normal School of Valparaiso, and in July, 1881, was 
elected to the Chair of Chemistry in the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons of Chicago. Dr. Yohn is a Republican, a member of the Blue 
Lodge in Masonry, and was married in January, 1875, to Miss Mary 
E. Dunham, of Sandusky County, Ohio. 

ENGELBEllT ZIMMERMAN, journalist, was born in Blumen- 
feld. Grand Duchy of Baden, Germany, December 10, 1839, and is the 
eldest of three children born to Joseph and Walburg Zimmerman, also 
natives of Baden. In 1846, the parents emigrated to the United States, 
and settled at Fort Wayne, Ind., where Engelbert was educated in a pri- 
vate school. On the 8th of January, 1851, he entered the office of Thomas 
Figar, editor and publisher of the Fort Wayne Sentinel^ and served an 
apprinticeship of six years at the printing business. On the 17th of 
February, 1860, he accepted the formanship of the Columbia City News, 
then published by I. B. McDonald, which position he held, together with 
that of local editor, until the 14th of November of the same year, when 
he bought the office from Mr. McDonald for $600, and infused new life 
into the establishment. He continued the publication of the News until 
sometime in the spring of 1864, when he was compelled to suspend its 
publication on account of rapidly failing health. He remained out of 
business for several months, spending most of the time on the Atlantic 
Coast. In June of the same year (1864), having fully recovered, he 
started the Columbia City Pos^, with an entirely new outfit of material and 
continued its publication without interruption until December, 1865, wheii 
he sold the office to his brother, Frank J. Zimmerman, who had learned the 
" art preservative " under him. On the 14th of January, 1866, he com- 
menced the publication of the Fort W-djneDaili/ and Weekly Democrat, and 
November 14, 1868, he sold the office. He then purchased the Wyandot 
Democratic Union, at Upper Sandusky, Ohio, from Col. Robert D. 
Durum, which he published for nearly two years. On the 7th of March, 
1871, he issued the first number of the Valparaiso Messenger, and at 
once made it a financial success. In politics, he has always been an un- 
swerving Democrat, but never a party " hack " for the spoils. In 1862, 
he was married to Lucinda H. Watson, of Lima, Ohio, at Columbia City, 
Ind., by the Rev. Luke Dorland, pastor of the Presbyterian Church, He 
had seven children by this marriage, namely, Arthur F., born at Colum- 
bia City, Ind., October 11, 186-3 ; Joseph E., born at Columbia City, 
December 20, 1865 ; Clement A., born at Fort Wayne, December 10, 
1866 ; Andrew J., born at Fort Wayne, October 9, 1868 ; Walburg, 
born at Upper Sandusky, Ohio, April 9, 1879 ; Grace L., born in Val- 
paraiso, June 9, 1871 ; Horace G., born in Valparaiso, October 18, 1873 : 
Lucinda H., born in Valparaiso, May 3, 1878, (Grace L. and Lucinda 
H. are dead.) On the 3d of May, 1878, his wife, with whom he had 
lived happily and prospered, died, and he remained a widower for two 
years. On the 14th of June, 1880, he was married to Mary A. Mc- 
Mahon, a native of Indiana, by Rev. Robert Beer, pastor of the Presby- 
terian Church of this city. By this marriage, he had one child — Bertha 


F. born June 12, 1881. As a journalist, he is a ready and forcible 
writer. He is warm-hearted, generous to a fault, and never goes back on 
a man who has ever befriended him. On the 1st of August, 1881, he sold 
a one-half interest in the Messenger to Prof. H. B. Brown, of the North- 
ern Indiana Normal School. Mr. Zimmerman was the first man in Val- 
paraiso to introduce steam presses. The Messenger is one of the estab- 
lished fixtures of the city, and wields great influence in the county and 


JOHN B. BRADLEY was born in Essex County, Mass., May 28, 
1831, and is the youngest of nine children of Joseph and Charlotte (Bar- 
ker) Bradley, four of whom are still living. Mr. Bradley lived in Essex 
County until he was eighteen years old, serving a three years' appren- 
ticeship to a machinist. He then went to California in search of gold. 
and returning to Essex County, worked at his trade about one year ; 
thence he moved to Dunkirk, N. Y., where he worked two years, and 
then to Sandusky, Ohio, where he remained five years. In Novem- 
ber, 1857, in Sandusky City, he was married to Mina Smith, by whom 
he has had eleven children — the names of those living being Lottie, 
Joseph, Herbert, Annie, Guy, Bessie, Hattie, Daisy and John. Mr. 
Bradley came to Porter County in 1863, and^ excepting two years' ab- 
sence at Fort Wayne, has resided here ever since. Mr. Bradley's grand- 
father was in the Revolutionary war, taking part at Bunker Hill ; his 
father was an ensign in the war of 1812. He resides three miles north 
of Valparaiso, on his farm of eighty acres, and is a generous-hearted and 
respected citizen. 

JOHN CARVER was born in the County Cork, Ireland, March 
22, 1832, and is one of eight children born to Thomas and Honora (Mc- 
Auliife) Carver, four of whom are living in Valparaiso. At the age of 
fifteen, John came to this country with his father, landing in Boston. 
After living there and in Vermont a short time, he came to Ohio, and to 
Porter County in 1856, which he has since made his home. He has 
done some farming, but has given more attention to railroading, acting as 
foreman and contractor ; his father died in 1849, in Ohio, and his mother in 
1872, in Valparaiso. John Carver was married October 26, 1860, to Sarah 
Dwan, in Valparaiso. Eight children have been born to them — 
Honora, Margaret, Catharine, Mary, Thomas, Julia, Honora (second) 
and Sarah ; three of these are deceased. Mr. Carver lives three-quarters 
of a mile west from town, on his farm of 100 acres. He is universally 
respected as a worthy man and a valuable citizen, 

PATRICK T. CLIFFORD was born in Kerry County, Ireland, 
March 17, 1823 ; he is one of the ten children of Timothy and Margaret 
(O'Reilly) Cliiford, five of whom are living, and three in Porter County. 
Mr. Clifford came to this country in 1848, landing at Quebec. In 1854, 
he came to Porter County, which has since been his residence. Shortly 
after coming to America, he commenced the business of railroad con- 
tractor, which he has since continued. His residence is two and one- half 


miles northwest of Valparaiso, on his farm of 800 acres. He is a public- 
spirited and enterprising citizen. Mr. Clifford was married August 9, 
1843, to Mary Bennett, in the county of Cork, Ireland, from which union 
a family of seven have descended — Timothy, Thomas, Margaret, John, 
Michael, Mary and Patrick, of whom the last four are surviving. 

JOHN B. CLIFFORD was born in Richland County, Ohio, Janu- 
ary 1-1, 1852, being one of a fiimily of seven, three of whom are dead. 
His parents were natives of Ireland, his mother being a relative of Cur- 
ran, the great Irish Barrister. His father was a shoemaker, and re- 
mained in Ireland, following his business, until 1848; then he emigrated 
to America, landing at Quebec. Afterward, he went to Buc^^rus, Ohio, 
and began business as a railroad contractor, which he also established, in 
about 1854, in Valparaiso, Ind., which he has since continued. John B. 
Clifford came to Valparaiso with his father, and in February, 1874, was 
married to Margaret La Force. Mr. and Mrs. Clifford have a family of 
four — Minnie, Joseph, John and Margaret, all of whom live at home. 
For a time after his marriage, Mr. Clifford followed farming ; afterward, 
he began w^orking for the Government at Fort Yates, D. T., which he 
continued about eighteen months ; then returned to Valparaiso, where he 
now superintends the work-train on the Chicago & Grand Trunk Rail- 

MICHAEL F. CLIFFORD was born September 10, 1852, in Tiffin, 
Ohio. When he was about two years of age, his father removed with his 
family to Porter County, Ind., where they have since resided. Michael 
received a common school, and afterward an academical, education at St. 
Paul's Academy in Valparaiso. He was married, January 4, 1876, to 
Eliza Carter, in the city of Valparaiso. To this union there have been 
born two children — Edward and William. After his marriage, Mr. Clif- 
ford lived at the old home, three miles northwest of Valparaiso, about 
three years, and moved to his present home in November, 1881. The 
business of his life has been that of railroad contractor, he now being one 
of the partners of his father, Mr. P. T. Clifford. He is justly esteemed 
as a liberal and public-spirited citizen. 

SAMUEL S. COBBS was born in Bedford County, Va., February 
10, 1835, and is one of seven children born to Charles and Louisa (Scott) 
Cobbs, of whom three are living. At the age of thirteen, Samuel came 
to Valparaiso with his parents, where he has since resided. He received 
his education at the common schools and at Valparaiso Male and Female 
College, which he attended about two years. On coming to Valparaiso, 
his father engaged in mercantile business, while Samuel superintended 
the farm. His father afterward removed to Morgan Prairie, and re- 
mained eleven years. Mr. Cobbs was married, September 9, 1873, to 
Elizabeth Pinney, in Valparaiso. Two children have been born to him 
— Leroy and Charles. When the family were coming from Virginia, and 
Samuel, as he rode, admiring the flower-adorned prairies, and thinking 
how great an improvement they were over the mountains of his late home, 
his horse stepped into a mud-hole and threw him over its head. Then 
Samuel reflected how "the world is deceived by ornament." Mr. 
Cobbs resides two miles northwest of Valparaiso, on his farm of 110 
acres, which he took possession of in 1874. 


HARRY CROW was born in Hampden County, Mass., May 7, 
1802, and is the eldest of thirteen children born to William and Abigail 
(Avery) Crow. His father died about the year 18-44. at the age of 
seventy-two. Harry Crow was married about the year 1826, to Thank- 
ful Wheeler, a native of Hampden County, Mass., born September 20, 
1807. To this union a family often children were born — Henry, David. 
Jane Rurasey, Eunice Rumsey, Almeron, Emeret Wheeler, Thomas and 
Elizabeth. (Two died before they were named.) About the year 1832, 
Harry Crow moved to Medina County, Ohio, where he resided about 
seven years ; thence to Indiana, living in Vigo and Parke Counties about 
four and a half years, and thence to Valparaiso, Porter County, where 
he has since lived. He has always been a farmer, but is a most en- 
terprising citizen. He resides on forty acres about one mile north 
of Valparaiso. He also owns forty acres in Jackson Township. Mrs. 
Crow is a member of the Presbyterian Church, having joined that body 
in Montgomery, Mass., about the year 1822. 

JOSEPH DURAND, French Canadian, was born near Montreal, 
Canada, July 20, 1846. In February, 1861, he moved to Pine Town- 
ship, Porter Co., Ind., from Kankakee County, whither he had gone in 
1851, working on a farm and studying under the instruction of Charles 
Chin(^qui, the priest who converted so many Catholics to Protestantism. 
His father, Gilbert Durand, was also born near Montreal, in 1817. In 
1851, he went to California and mined gold for two years ; he is still 
living. Joseph's parents were married July 29, 1845. On February 29, 
1868, Joseph Durand was married to Mary Tatro, a native of New York, 
who came West in 1852. Mr. Durand made his home in Porter County 
in 1871, making brick in summer and chopping wood in winter; he had 
so great a capacity for hard work that he was called " the little iron man." 
In 1871, he made bricks on three-fourths of an acre, and in 1880 bought 
a yard — thirteen and a half acres — for which he was to pay $2,500. In 
1881, the New York Central & St. Louis Railroad cut through his land, 
for which he received $3,750 ; he then established another yard, and now 
has the largest in Valparaiso, employing twenty -five hands and five teams, 
and turning out 30,000 bricks daily. He values his entire property at 
$5,000. In 1882, he made his brother. Nelson Durand, a partner. He 
has been worderfully successful, though he was some time ago ridiculed for 
his supposed rashness and folly. He is a Republican, and also a member 
of the Presbyterian Church. 

NELSON DURAND was born near Montreal, Canada, May 19, 
1851. When six months old, his parents removed to St. Anne, 111., rcr 
maining ten years, and thence to Furnessville, Ind., remaining eight 
years. Nelson acquired some learning at St. Anne, and at Furnessville 
did various kinds of work, after which he went to Chicago, and left there 
just before the fire (1871), going to Michigan for about six months. He 
then returned to St. Anne, and worked on the Chicago, Danville & Vin- 
cennes Railroad about two years, and afterward on the Chicago & 
Pacific Railroad. On February 22, 1876, he was married to Lucy 
Faucher, at St. Anne. Her parents came from Quebec, and were Cath- 
olics until converted by Father Chineque, the reformer. After his mar- 
riage, he followed farming at St. Anne for six years. In December, 1881, 


he became a partner with his brother, Joseph, in tlie brick-making busi- 
ness ; they now have the largest yard in Valparaiso. Mr. and Mrs. 
Durand have four children, the youngest of whom is dead. Both he and 
his wife are members of the Presbyterian Church. 

ALANSON FINNEY (deceased) was born in Madison County, N. 
Y , in 1805. In 183-4, he came to what is now Porter County, his ob- 
ject being, as with the most of those who emigrated from the East at that 
period, to better his condition in life. While in New York, he was em- 
ployed some ten or twelve years in a distillery, in which occupation he 
accumulated sufficient means to give him a start in the West. On com- 
ing to Indiana, he was so zealous in the cause of religion that he became 
instrumental in the organization of the Baptist Church at Valparaiso. 
In the spring of 1836, he returned to New York for the purpose of 
marrying Miss Laura Allen, after which he came back to Indiana. To 
this pioneer pair seven children were born, five of whom are yet living, 
three in Porter County, one in Chicago and one in Central Illinois. He 
was first a Whig, and afterward a Republican. He died on April 16, 
1867, at his farm, one and a half miles east of Valparaiso. 

JOSEPH GALBREATH was born in Butler County, Ohio, May 
12, 1812, and is one of the ten children (two living) of John and Eliza- 
beth (Aikman) Galbreath, who were natives of Pennsylvania. Joseph's 
grandfather was a Scotchman, and came to this country during the last 
century. Joseph's father served as a non-commissioned officer in the war 
of 1812, and his nephew was killed during the war with Mexico, at the 
battle of Monterey. Our subject was reared a farmer. In 1833, he 
married Eliza Bricker, a native of Virginia, by whom he had ten children 
— John C, Martin V., Samuel, La Fayette and Byron, living ; and Char- 
lotte, Nancy, Elizabeth J., Benjamin F. and William, deceased. Benja- 
min, while in the West, wa?j accidentally killed by a self-inflicted gunshot 
wound, after serving in the late war, as did also John and Martin. In 
1838, Mr. Galbreath and family removed to Kosciusko County, Ind., 
built a cabin and commenced clearing amid the usual vicissitudes of 
pioneers. In 1866, they came to Porter County, where Mrs. Galbreath 
died January 21, 1873. In August, 1873, Mr. Galbreath married his 
present wife, Mrs. Mary (Whitney) Clover, by whom he has had two chil- 
dren — Edgar P. and Nellie May. Mr. Galbreath is a Republican and 
an influential, energetic citizen. 

JOHN S. HICKS, one of the early settlers of Porter County, was 
born on Long Island. N. Y., February, 16, 1813, and is the only child 
of Samuel and Ann (Searing) Hicks, both natives of Long Island, N. Y.; 
their ancestors were among the Plymouth Pilgrims of 1620. His father 
was a farmer, a soldier of 1812 and an honest man. His mother was a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, but died when John was 
eighteen months old. Shortly after, when his father died, he was taken 
charge of by his grandparents. He received a practical education and 
learned the trade of a tailor ; he was afterward employed by H. D. Brooks 
& Co., with whom he remained fourteen years. He then purchased land 
on Long Island and engaged in agriculture ; this he relinquished, and en- 
gaged with F. Kurby & Co. of New Y^'ork, for four years. In ISol, he ar- 
rived in Indiana and came to Porter County, purchased land, brought his 


family and commenced farming on Morgan Prairie ; this he likewise sold, 
and came to his present location. He once had two hundred, and still owns 
ninety acres. Mr. Hicks has been twice married — once in 1834, to Sarah 
Van Nostrand, who died soon after our late war, by whom he had eight 
children — John A., William F., Mary C. and Eugene, living, and Alex- 
ander H., Elizabeth A., Sarah and Ida, deceased ; of these, John and 
William served through the war. By his second marriage, to Mrs. Ellen 
(Birmingham) Gilbert, on June 10, 1873, there were two children — Ida, 
living, and Caleb N., deceased. 

WILLIAM HOLLISTER was born in Tioga County, N. Y., 
August 30, 1824, and is the youngest of nine children born to Gersham 
and Ruth (Scott) Hollister : of these, two only are living, and both in 
Porter County. His parents were born in Connecticut, but married in 
New York. His father died in 1862, and his mother in 1856, both in 
Union Township, Porter County. William Hollister resided in Tioga 
County until fourteen years old, when he came to Indiana and located in 
Porter County. His father was then living on Government land, and 
this when it came into the market the sons and father began purchasing. 
William lived in Union Township until 1877, when he removed to Val- 
paraiso and worked at carpentering. On October 1, 1851, he was mar- 
ried to Henrietta Hunt, in Union Township. They have had five chil- 
dren — Horace, Mary Caldwell, James, William and Elva ; two of these, 
Horace and James, are deceased. Mr. Hollister owns 128 acres in Union 
Township, but lives in Valparaiso, where he is recognized as a generous 
and enterprising citizen, and greatly esteemed. 

WILLIAM A. HUGHART was born in Greenbrier County, Va., 
June 23, 1830, and is one of eight children of David and Nancy (Dozer) 
Hughart, who were named Mary Keeler (deceased), Elizabeth Campbell, 
William, Arthur, Henry. David, Nancy Harding and Martha Fulton. 
Our subject's father was born May 20, 1806, in Virginia ; was a farmer 
and miller, and is still living in Centre Township ; his mother was also a 
Virginian, and died in Valparaiso about 1876. The family moved from 
Virginia to Liberty Township, Porter County, in 1835, and into Centre 
Township about 1850. On June 7, 1861, William A. Hughart was mar- 
ried to Mary Malony, in this township. By this union they had four 
children — Alta, Arthur, Clarinette and Ruth. Mr. Hughart is one of 
the oldest settlers in the county, and a most enterprising and respected 
citizen. He resides on his farm, comprising 100 acres, about four and a 
half miles northwest of Valparaiso. 

DAVID M. HUGHART was born in Greenbrier County, Va., April 
3, 1835, and is one of the eight children of David and Nancy (Dozer) 
Hughart. His father came to Porter County, Ind., in the fall of 1835, 
and purchased a farm in Liberty Township. David M. Hughart was 
married in Valparaiso, in 1857, to Emily Bull. This union was blessed 
with six children — Clinton, Elnora Parrott, Albert, Pertia, Nellie and 
Ella. Of these Albert alone is deceased, and Elnora married. In 1856, 
Mr. Hughart purchased sixty acres, a part of his present farm. He 
entered the Thirty-third Indiana Regiment during the war, and was 
stationed in the South about eleven months. Mr. Hughart has always 
been a Democrat and a farmer, as well as a worthy and conscientious 


citizen. He now lives on his place of 120 acres, about five and one-half 
miles northwest of Valparaiso; he owns also ten acres of timber land in 
Liberty Township. 

JOHN JUNKER was born in Germany June 28, 1853, being one 
of seven children comprising the family of John and Sophia Junker, 
two of whom are deceased. The father of our subject was born in Ger- 
many, and came from New York to Chicago, after emigrating from the 
fatherland, where he remained about one year, thence moving to Lake 
County with his family, where he has been engaged in farming about sev- 
enteen years. In 1881, John Junker came to Valparaiso, where he pur- 
chased a half-interest in what is now known as Korn & Junker's brewery. 
In regard to Mr. Junker, as a man and a citizen, he has always been 
foremost in every enterprise affecting the interests and welfare of his 

IRA B. KEELER was born January 14, 1826, in Seneca County, 
Ohio, and is one of the nine children of Joseph and Olive (Brite) Keeler. 
His parents were married in Cayuga County, N. Y., in 1811. His father 
was born in Fairfield County, Conn., December 29, 1787 ; his mother, 
in New Jersey, July 20, 1790. His father died February 14, 1868, in 
Marshall County, Iowa; his mother, February 26, 1858, in Centre Town- 
ship, Porter Co., Ind, They came to Seneca County, Ohio, in 1818. 
Ira labored for his father until they all moved to Porter County, in 1847. 
He had worked some time at shoemaking, and on coming to Porter Coun- 
ty continued so to do for eight years in Valparaiso. On October 1, 1848, 
he married Mary Hughart, born September 17, 1828, in Centre Town- 
ship, Porter Co., Ind. ; her parents were Virginians. In 1855, Ira B. 
Keeler purchased the eighty acres on which he resides for $1,400; he 
also owns twenty acres of timber land in Liberty Township. Mr. and 
Mrs. Keeler have had six children — David, Joseph, Harriet, Schuyler, 
Henry and Susan ; David alone is married. Mr. Keeler has been a 
Freemason since 1849. 

TIMOTHY KEENE was born in Cortland County, N. Y., March 
6, 1825, and is one of the eight children of Sprague and Chloe (Higgins) 
Keene. Sprague Keene was by trade a stone-mason, but mainly followed 
farming. In 1859, he moved with his family to Porter County, Ind., 
where he died in 1865, his wife having died in 1863. Timothy Keene 
was reared a farmer, but received an academic education. On May 9, 
1849, he w^as married to Miss Susan A. Parks, a native of New York 
City, and born September 3, 1827, a daughter of Lee and Mary (Gates) 
Parks. In 1857, he came hither and purchased the place oh which he 
now resides, which he improved and farmed ; it embraces 150 acres. Mr. 
and Mrs. Keene have had five children — Andrew B., Edna (deceased), 
Brayton L., Elmer M. and Eddie S. Mr. Keene is a Republican, and 
has been School Commissioner over seven years; he is also Secretary of 
the County Agricultural Society. Mr, and Mrs. Keene are active mem- 
bers of the Baptist Church. The father of Mrs. Keene — Lee Parks — is 
passing his last years with them, being ninety-one years of age and a 
pensioner of the war of 1812. 

WILLIAM H. KNAPP was born in Denmark, Ashtabula Co., 
Ohio, July 2, 1824, and is one of the nine children of Elihu and Nancy 


(Huntley) Knapp, the former born in New York, the latter in Washin;^- 
ton, Mass. His father was a farmer, and held the offices of Justice of 
the Peace and Postmaster of Denmark. He started to the war of 1812, 
but peace was proclaimed, and in 1833 moved his family to Ashtabula, 
where he purchased a farm, and there lived until his death. William 
worked for his father until of age, when he went to Hamilton, N. Y., 
for eighteen months, then returned to Ashtabula and purchased twenty- 
five acres. In 1855, he came to Porter County. On October 1, 1851, 
he was married, in Ashtabula, to Mary Booth, born January 17, 1828, 
whose father was a sailor and lost on Lake Erie. To this union were 
born nine children — Mary Kieffer, Maria Herrick, Herbert, Frank, 
Lincoln and Merton, living ; the deceased are Emma, Fred and Ella. 
Mr. and Mrs. Knapp are members of the Baptist Church, he having 
been an officer thereof since 1857. He resides on his farm of 137 acres, 
all of which he cleared and improved ; he also owns eighty acres two 
miles north of his residence. 

W. HERBERT KNAPP, Jr., was born February 5, 1856, in 
Centre Township, Porter County, Ind., and is one of the nine children 
of William H. and Emily (Booth) Knapp ; the family was named 
respectively — Mary Kieffer, Maria Herrick, Herbert, Frank, Lincoln, 
Emma, Ella, Merton and Fred. Of these Emma, Ella and Fred are 
deceased. Herbert remained with his father until he was twenty-two 
years old, when he purchased sixty-five acres three miles north of Val- 
paraiso, where he remained nearly three years. He was married 
December 23, 1877, in Valparaiso, to Hannah Pomeroy, daughter of 
George Pomeroy, of Porter County, who came to this county in 1864, 
a member of the Christian Church, as is his wife also. Mr. and Mrs. 
Knapp have had two children — Arthur and Etta ; the latter died February 
19, 1882. Mr. Knapp joined the Baptist Church at Valparaiso in 1868, 
and Mrs. Knapp the Christian Church in 1876. They are residents of 
Valparaiso, where he keeps a store on College Hill. 

AARON W. LYTLE was born in Boone Township, Porter County, 
Ind., July 12, 1841 ; he is one of the nine children born to Aaron and 
Hannah (Jones) Lytle, three of whom are living, two of them in Porter 
County. Mr. Lytle lived in Boone Township until he was about eleven 
or twelve years old, when he moved with the family to Valparaiso. In 
1853, Aaron's father purchased a saw mill and some land on Flint Lake, 
where he did not long remain, but returned to Valparaiso. Aaron 
received most of his education at the Presbyterian institute at this place. 
In 1863, he entered the volunteer army, serving eighteen or twenty 
months ; for nine months he was Captain. On February 21, 1866, he 
was married to Cordelia Denison, in Wood County, Ohio ; she was a 
native of Richland County, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Lytle have had five 
children — George, Jesse, Carrie, Dick and James ; the first is dead, tht* 
others live at home. In 1868, Mr. Lytle connected the ice business 
with farming, which he has continued. He moved to where he no'.v 
lives, three miles north of Valparaiso, in March, 1882. 

JOHN McAULIFFE was born in the county of Cork, Ireland, 
and came to the United States in the year 1847. He resided first in 
Vermont, then in Ohio, and came to Valparaiso in 1857. Since he 


arrived in this country, he has been engaged for the most part as a fore- 
man over the employes engaged in building railroads ; and should this 
sketch come to the notice of any of the very many men who have served 
under the good-natured rule of " Uncle John," they will no doubt remem- 
ber the old man with kindness. He died December 14, 1876. He was 
a good father, an upright citizen, and an honest man, and was one of those 
rare men who never sacrifice their honest principles. 

WILLIAM McCONKEY was born in Wayne County, Ohio, March 
10, 1^24, and is one of the twelve children of David and Margaret 
(Crawford) McConkey, of whom eight are living. William lived on his 
father's farm until he was twenty-three years of age. He was married, 
January 6, 1848, to Sarah Hague, in Holmes County, Ohio. They have 
had six children — James, Nancy Pennock, Maggie Sturgeon, Alvin, 
Camby and Vita ; five of these are living, and four reside in Porter 
County. x\fter his marriage, Mr. McConkey operated a mill in Holmes 
<]^ounty, Ohio, for sixteen years. In 1863, he came to Porter County, 
Ind. ; after farming three years in Porter Township, he came to Centre 
Township, where he has since been farming and milling. His mill is two 
miles west of his residence, on Salt Creek, and has a capacity of three 
hundred bushels per day ; this grist-mill is valued at from $10,000 to 
i$12,000. He now lives one mile southwest of Valparaiso, on thirty acres ; 
yet he owns 129 more where his mill is located. He is a worthy man, and 
an esteemed citizen. 

GEORGE W. MERRILL was born in Ashtabula County, Ohio, 
December 16, 1833 ; he is one of four children born to Nehemiah and 
Luna (Williams) Merrill ; of this family, but two are living. When 
George was two and one-half years old, his father moved to Porter County 
and purchased 160 acres of land about three-fourths of a mile east of Flint 
Lake, where the family lived about three years ; he afterward purchased 
land on the south shore of the lake, where they have since resided. On 
July 2, 1862, George W. Merrill was married to Ellen Crow, in Valpa- 
raiso. Three children were the result of this marriage — Rosa, Jennie and 
Lottie; the two first are dead. Mr. Merrill was brought up amid the 
primitive wilds and romantic scenery of this beautiful lake, then environed 
with timber, and a lurking place for Indians, deer, bears and wild cats. 
Mr. Merrill has reduced fishing to an art ; he has studied the nature and 
habits of black bass — the most valuable contained in the lake — to such 
aa extent that he can catch them when no one else can. He has been a 
member of the Methodist Church, and on all occasions an upright 

WILLIAM MEYER was born in the Kingdom of Hanover, Ger- 
many, March 18, 1828, and is one of seven sons of Christian and Marie 
(Cook) Meyer, only two of whom are living. His father was born in 
Hanover in 1792 ; he was by trade a shoemaker, and served under Na- 
poleon in his campaigns ; he was at the siege of Moscow and at Waterloo, 
and was unharmed ; he died in Hanover in 1876. His mother was also 
born in Hanover in 1800, and died in 1864. William learned the shoe- 
making trade, at which he worked while in Germany. He served three years 
in the German army, during the war against the Danish King. On June 
1, 1851, he was married to Joanna Seuram, in Dessau, Hanover. To this 


union two chiMren were born — Christian and Heary. On October 6, 
1863, Mr. and Mrs. Meyer landed in New York, with but five francs in 
hand; here he remained four years, working at shoeraaking, then moved 
to Fort Wayne, then to Stark County, Ind., then to Valparaiso, where he 
purchased land in about 1880 ; his wife died August 17, 1882. They both 
joined the Methodist Church, in New York, in 1853. Mr. Meyer now 
resides two miles north of Valparaiso ; he is a gardener, and owns a tim- 
ber tract of twelve acres in Liberty Township. 

WILLIAM H. SAGER was born in Hardy County, Va., January 6, 
1827, and is one of fourteen children, eleven of whom are living. His 
father was a native of Shenandoah County, Va. ; was a miller and farmer, 
and died in Hardy County in 1828, aged fifty-two ; his mother (Elizabeth 
Haldeman) was also a native of Shenandoah County, Va., and died in 
1837, aged fifty-three ; they were both of German descent. William H. 
Sager moved to Miami County, Ind., in July, 1817, where he remained 
one year, thence going to Cass County, where he remained five years, and 
came to Valparaiso May 5, 1854, where he is yet located. On December 
28, 1857, he was married, in Valparaiso, to Mary Gifi'ord, by whom he 
has had ten children — George, Ida Norman, Chancey, Minnie, Charles, 
Alberta, Carrie, William, Arthur and Harry, all of whom, except George, 
are living. Mr. Sager became an Odd Fellow in 1850, but withdrew in 
1860, In 1856, he became a partner with Mr. John Skinner, in the 
milling business. Since 1861, Mr. Sager has owned a mill with a ca- 
pacity of three hundred bushels a day. He is an enterprising, liberal and 
esteemed citizen. He lives in Valparaiso, but manages his grist-mill 
about one mile south of the city. 

DANIEL STONE R was born in Montgomery County, Ohio, June 
4, 1815. His father was a farmer, and he followed in his track. At 
that period, land being much higher in Ohio than in Indiana, Mr. Stoner 
came hither in 1840, in order to secure a farm and home in the " Hoosier " 
State. In common with all early settlers, he had an experience of trials 
and hardships. On June 15, 1835, he was married, in Ohio, to Eliza- 
beth Ludy, born May 21, 1813, from which union there descended eight 
children, two of whom are deceased. Those living are married and reside 
in this county. Mrs. Stoner died in November, 1880. Mr. Stoner now 
owns 255 acres of land, and lives two miles southeast of Valparaiso. In 
politics, Mr. Stoner is a Democrat. He has been a member of the Val- 
paraiso Presbyterian Church for about twelve years. 

JERRY SULLIVAN was born in the County of Kerry, Ireland, 
and is one of the six children born to John and Ellen (McCartey) Sulli- 
van. Two of this number only are living. Mr. Sullivan came to this 
country in 1851, landing in New York City, In 1857, he came to Por- 
ter County, Ind., and has since resided here. In the year 1856, he was 
married to Mary Bennett, in Northern Ohio. This union has been blessed 
by four children — Ellen, Margaret, Mary and Julia. They are all un- 
married and live in Valparaiso. Mr. Sullivan now resides two miles 
northwest from Valparaiso, on his own land, comprising ninety-four acres. 
He is a most generous man and a liberal and esteemed citizen. 

A. W. TALBOT was born in Lewis (now Barbour) County, Va., in 
1821. He came to this State, and where he now lives, in 1847, but this 


was a reconnoitering trip, and his determination to improve his condition 
is illustrated by the fact that he traveled from Virginia — a distance of 
600 miles — on horseback, and returned in like manner. He came back 
and settled, however, in the fall of the same year. In 1842, he was 
married to Ruth Baker, who died in 1854. His second marriao[e — to 
Hannah Stoner — occurred in December, 1856. She also died in October, 
1879. Mr. Talbot was left with eight children, five by his first and three 
by his second wife. Those living (three by his first marriage and one by 
his second) are married and reside in Porter County. Mr. Talbot has 
always been a Democrat, his first vote for President being cast in 1844. 
At the time he came hither, he owned a mountain farm in Virginia of 
200 acres. He now lives about two miles southeast of Valparaiso, on a 
homestead of sixty acres. He belongs to the Order of Odd Fellows. Mr. 
Talbot owes his success to untiring energy. 

JOHN J. TAFTE was born in Holstein, Germany, December 17, 
1831, and is one of the seven children of George B. and Anna (Peter- 
son) Tafte. His father was born in Holstein in 1804. He was a cabinet- 
maker and contractor, and employed twenty-five men continuously. He 
died when thirty-five years old. His mother was born in Hamburg in 
1806. Her father was a ship-builder, and met his death in a storm. 
She now resides with her son John. After his father's death, John was 
adopted by one Glaus Fasbinder, in Holstein, with whom he lived eleven 
years and learned masonry. He afterward hired out for forty-five Prus- 
sian dollars a year, and later he was employed in hauling rock to rebuild 
what the Danish gunners had demolished in the war against Denmark in 
1848-49. In May, 1852, he arrived in New York, aged twenty-one 
years. He went directly to New Buffalo, Mich., where he worked on a 
railroad, then "struck through the country," coming to the house of R. 
Starr, Centre Township, Porter County, where he hired for $8 per month. 
After learning some English, he worked at his trade, and in 1872 pur- 
chased his present place for $7,000. He was married September 26, 
1858, to Anna Rathyeu, at Hebron, Ind. Six children were born to 
them, three boys and three girls, the latter being deceased — Albert, 
George, John, Anna, Emma and an infant unnamed. Mr. Tafte is a 
Freemason and a Democrat. He lives on 170 acres two miles northeast 
from Valparaiso. He also has 108 acres two miles north and 160 in 

JEROME B. WHEELER was born in Hampden County, Mass., 
July 15, 1824, and is one of ten children born to William and Hannah 
(Crow) Wheeler, nine of whom are living. When Jerome was about seven 
years old, he moved with his father's family to Medina County, Ohio, 
and then to near Terre Haute, where his father died. The family next 
moved to Clark County, Mo., after which .Jerome, with three brothers, 
came to Porter County about the year 1844, where they purchased con- 
jointly 160 acres. On December 25, 1855, Jerome was married to Eliza- 
beth Crow, in Centre Township. As a result of this union, six children 
followed — Adelaide Smith, Octavia Kelley, Raymond, Emma, Minnie 
and Ida; excepting the second, all live in Porter County. Mr. Wheeler 
now resides about one and a half miles north of Valparaiso, on his farm 
of eighty acres, comfortable, and greatly esteemed as a liberal-spirited 
and enterprising citizen. 


JONATHAN WISE was born in Washington County, Penn., Sep- 
tember 22, 1819, and is one of the eleven children born to Samuel and 
Elizabeth (Sheidler) Wise, of whom five only are living — three in Porter 
County. His parents were also born in Washington County, Penn., and 
1839, moved from that State to Knox County, Ohio ; his father died in 
Allen County, Ohio, in 1850, and his mother, in Knox County, Ohio, in 
1847. Jonathan remained in Knox County about fifteen years before 
coming to Porter County, Ind. In 1835, he began the blacksmithing 
trade, at which he worked forty-two consecutive years in Pennsylvania, 
Ohio and Indiana. On February 2, 1850, he was married to Margaret 
Clemmens, in Knox County, Ohio. They have seven children — Burney, 
Rob, Daniel, Janney Brodey, Kitty, Margaret and Maude. They all 
live in Porter County. Mr. Wise lived in Valparaiso five years, and had 
a shop near Flint Lake six or seven years. Afterward he purchased 
sixty-seven acres, on which he now lives, for $1,000. He is a member 
of the Baptist Church and an active worker in the Sabbath school, having 
begun that good work twenty years ago; he has been blest with a fine 
constitution, as proved by continued hard work at his trade. 


WILLIAM BEAM, Superintendent of the T. Molding Brick Yards 
at Porter Station, and was born October 18, 1883, in Buflfalo, N. Y. 
He is the youngest of four children born to Christian and Henriette 
(College) Beam, both natives of Germany. When sixteen years of age, 
Mr. Beam began life for himself, working at the brick business from that 
time on to the present, first in Buff"alo, till his twenty-first year ; Erie, one 
year ; Detroit, four years ; Chatham, Canada, three years ; Chicago, 
three years ; Arkansas, four years ; Chicago again, and Otis four years, 
when he came to Porter Station and took his present position as Super- 
intendent of the brick yards above mentioned. Mr. Beam owns forty 
acres of land in Salt Creek, with fine brick houses, and town lots in 
Porter. He is a member of the Lutheran Church. While in Arkansas, 
he was pressed into the rebel service, but was soon discharged on account 
of sickness. In political belief, Mr. Beam has been a Democrat, but has 
voted the Greenback ticket and Republican, and is independent in local 
matters. He is a thorough business man, and one of our influential 
citizens. He was married in 1863, to Catherine Ackerman, a native of 
Germany. They have had five children — Bertha, Ernest (deceased), 
William, Paul and Frank. 

FRANK BERGSTROM was born in 1836, in Sweden. He is one 
of three children born to Swan and Mary E. (Millson) Bergstrom. When 
sixteen years of age, Frank began his trade, and in four years began 
business for himself. Two years later, he married Louise Johnson, a na- 
tive of Sweden. They have four children living — Fena, Minnie, Frank 
J. and Albert. After his marriage, he came to America and settled at 
Bailly Town, and also worked at his trade in La Porte about two years. 
He enlisted in the Seventy-third Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and served 


nearly three years throucrh all the operations of the regiment. He then 
settled at Chesterton, and has carried on his present business of harness 
and shoe making here ever since. He has a fine trade, always supplying 
everything in his line ; his is the only establishment of the kind in the 
northern part of the county. Mr. Bergstrom is a member of the Swed- 
ish Lutheran Church. He has always been a Republican, but has voted 
a few times with the Greenbackers. He is an industrious, thorough busi- 
ness man and first-class citizen. His first wife died in 1874. The fol- 
lowing vear he married Mrs. Ann E. Johnson, a native of Sweden. She 
has three children — Frank J., Gust, and Tilda. 

THOMAS BLACKWELL, proprietor of the Chesterton Mills (or 
Poplar Tree Mills), was born in 1845, in Isham, England. He is one of 
seven children born to George and Mary (Brains) Blackwell, both natives 
of England. The elder Blackwell was a shepherd, and from near the 
home of Oliver Cromwell. The ancestors all led a pastoral life. When 
ten years of age, Mr. Blackwell was apprenticed to learn his trade, and 
went to school no more, on account of a distaste for an overbearing "mas- 
ter " of the times. His indentures provided for seven years, but the firm 
failed, and he was given his liberty at fifteen years of age. From that 
time until his twenty-first year, he worked as journeyman miller in En- 
gland, and was always successful and determined in anything he essayed. 
He was now in poor health, on account of hereditary consumption, so he 
emigrated to America and spent a year and a half in studying American 
systems of milling, and with health improved returned to England ex- 
pecting to stay. He married Milicent H. Leeson, a native of England, 
and a lady of taste and refinement. His health failing, he went to Can- 
ada, and had charge of two mills, one "three-run " and one " five-run," 
but after about two years he came to Illinois. He was at St. Charles 
about six years engaged in his trade, including millwrighting, as all ap- 
prentices of that time had to learn. In December, 1875, he came to 
Chesterton and bought his present mills, including a grist of "three-run," 
saw-mill, planer, matcher and machine shop, now valued at over $10,- 
000. His residence, situated near the mill, is a fine two-story frame, 
valued at over §2,000, finely situated. In politics, he has always been 
thoroughly independent. 

JASPER B. BOSTWICK, ex-Postmaster, and retired, was born 
March 27, 1810, in New York. He is tjie youngest of four children born to 
Joseph M. and Loraine (Wheaton) Bostwick, both natives of Connecticut. 
Mr. Bostwick, our subject, lived on a farm in New York with his parents 
until twenty-one years of age. He built a tannery, but in about two 
years it burned, and he soon built another on the same site, but in one 
year nearly it was also burned, both supposed to be the work of an incen- 
diary. He then came to La Porte County, settling in Michigan City, 
when in about two years he went to Wisconsin with a company to found a 
town, and named it Washington. In about a year, he came back to La 
Porte County and farmed for about three years, when he returned to 
Michigan City ; after a time went to Ohio, South Toledo, and engaged 
in merchandising for about ten years. He then came to Chesterton, and 
was associated with Mr. Hopkins as merchant for a time ; then appointed 
us Postmaster of Chesterton, continuing for about ten vears. He has 


since retired from business on account of his deafness. While in Wis- 
consin, Mr. Bostwick was County Sheriff. He has always been a stanch 
Republican, but now favors the Greenback faith. He was married, 
January 19, 1834, to Elizabeth Eldridge, a native of Connecticut. She 
was educated at an academy in Pittsfield, Mass., and is a refined, affable 
lady. They have three children, all married — Ellen St. Clair, of Kansas 
City ; Joseph W., of Central City, Colo., engaged in mining, and 
Samuel E., in Golden, Colo., conductor on the Colorado Central Railroad. 

JAMES S. BRADLY, carpenter and retired farmer, was born 
September 1, 1827, in Hamilton County, Ohio, near Cincinnati. He is 
the younger of two children living, born to David and Currance (Piatt) 
Bradly, the former a native of Vermont and the latter of Connecticut. 
They lived in Ohio until James was about sixteen, when they came to 
Clinton County, Ind. Two years later, the elder Bradly died. James 
and the family soon went to Chicago, where he remained about seven 
years, engaged in carpentering. He then came to Porter County and 
worked at his trade for about four years in Chesterton (then Calumet), 
and then moved on his farm in Liberty Township. He farmed there 
from 1856 to the fall of 1*^81, when he moved to Chesterton and again 
began his trade with his son, Charles D., who has worked at the trade for 
two years. They both have a lively run of business, and are first-class 
workmen. Mr. Bradly still owns his Liberty Township farm. In 1863, 
he entered service in the Twelfth Indiana Cavalry and served in Ten- 
nessee, Alabama and Mississippi, and was mustered out at Vicksburg at 
the close of the war. He has been a member of the Sons of Temper- 
ance, the Grange, etc. He has been Township Trustee for two years. 
He was a Free-Soil Democrat, but has been a stanch Republican since 
the formation of that party. He was married, June 3, 1853, to Elizabeth 
M. Jones, a native of Ohio. They have three children living — Charles 
D., Martha E. and Lavantia. Charles D. Bradly was born March 26, 
1858, in Liberty Township. He was married, June 26, 1881, to Minnie 
D. Dettman, a native of Chicago. James Bradly's first wife died in 
1877, and in 1878 he married Mrs. Lavina Parker, a widow, and a native 
of New York. 

FRANCIS BROWN was born in 1832 in Ireland. He is one of 
four children, living, born to David and Mary (McMahn) Brown, both 
natives of Ireland. Francis lived with his father until eighteen years of 
age, when he came to the United States and settled in Chicago, engaging 
as foreman in a lumber yard. He continued in this position for a num- 
ber of years, when he came to Chesterton, and was engaged in business 
for twenty-four years, and has, as his present standing shows, been a suc- 
cessful financier. He retired from active life in the spring of 1881, and 
has since occupied his leisure in superintending his three farms. He has 
one of the finest residences in Chesterton, richly furnished. He held the 
ofiice of Corporation Treasurer for two years. Mr. Brown has always 
been a Democrat, but of late years has concluded that men. not parties, 
should be the object of a citizen's vote. He is one of Chesterton's most 
successful financial men, and is of very active habits. He was married. 
May 14, 1857, to Catherine Young, a native of Ireland. They are both 
members of the Catholic Church. They have six children living — Sam- 


uel H., John W., Frank, Thomas, May and Lydia. The three latter are 
living at home. 

FREDERICK BURSTROM was born June 17, 1826, in Sweden, 
and is the youngest of ten children born to Andrew and Caroline (Lin- 
burg) Burstrora. The elder Burstrom took the degree of M. D., but 
never practiced, while both were well educated. The grandfather, Bur- 
strom, was a government ship-builder, but lost everything in one of the 
Russo-Swedish wars. When twenty-one years of age, Frederick Bur- 
strom left home. He had received a collegiate education, but on account 
of his father's old age, he was persuaded to superintend his father's tan- 
nery for about four years ; he then came to the United States and settled 
in Chicago, engaged at his trade, but he soon had to stop the work, and 
came to Bailly Town and lumbered for about two years. He bought 
about 100 acres of land and began farming; he has since lived on this 
land, with the exception of three years in Illinois, engaged in the grocery 
business with a brother-in-law. In 1879, he spent six months visiting in 
Europe. He enlisted in the Thirty-fifth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and 
served in ponton service and guarding in almost all the Southern States 
for eleven months. His farm is all improved and excellent land, and has 
been brought from its primitive state by himself. He is a member of the 
Swedish Lutheran Church, and has been an active worker in temperance. 
He was Trustee for two years, and is now County Commissioner. He 
has always been a Republican. Mr. Burstrom was among Westchester's 
first settlers. He was married, in 1818, to Catherine Westrond, a native 
of Sweden. 

REV. ANDREW CHALLMAN, minister of the Bailly Town and 
Chesterton Swedish Lutheran Churches, was born January 1, 1841, in 
Gottenborg, Sweden. He is the youngest of six children born to Andrew 
and Christan (Anderson) Kjellman (Swedish spelling), both natives of 
Sweden. When fifteen years of age, Rev. Challman began for himself, 
and was engaged for the first four years in Gottenborg, in a carriage 
factory, and then entered a seminary, in the same place, to prepare him- 
self for a teacher, remaining one and one-half years. He then entered a 
more advanced institution at Ahlsborg, and studied for two years. He 
then began teaching in a private school for a personage corresponding to 
an English earl — Adolph Stackelberg — for two and one-half years, when 
he came to the United States in 1868, and settled in Bailly Town, and 
taught in the Swedish congregation one and one-half years, and then 
went to Chicago, intending to go into business, but he was induced to 
teach in the Immanuel congregation for three years. He then entered the 
college at Paxton, 111. (now Rock Island), to prepare himself for the 
ministry, and was then called to several congregations — among others, 
Hobart, Ind. — until, in 1875, his call to Bailly Town necessitated his 
settling here, where he has since resided in his fine residence in close 
proximity to the church. Rev. Challman has always been a Republican, 
but is independent in local affairs. He was married, in 1866, to Gustafa 
A. Johnson, a native of Sweden. They have seven children — Samuel, 
Gust A., David, Anne G., Mary, Robert and Esther. 

WILLIAM H. COUCH, ticket and freight agent on Lake Shore 
& Michigan Southern Railroad at Chesterton, was born August 30, 1817, 


in New York. He is one of six children born to Roswell and Mehitable 
(Fox) Couch, both natives of Massachusetts. The elder Couch was a 
cooper by occupation. When William was eleven years old, his mother, 
who had been a widow for two years, went to Wellington, Ohio. He 
now began to learn the trade of carpenter and joiner, in Elyria, and 
Cleveland and Medina, under instruction, for about seven years. He 
then began traveling, and working at Detroit, Grand Rapids, Akron, 
Wellington (Ohio), and other smaller places, Delaware, in Canada, Nor- 
walk, etc. At Norwalk, he worked for the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern Company for eight years, in different capacities; at the end 
of which time he went to Cleveland, where his family still resides. After 
two years, he was appointed agent at Holmesville, Ind., for four years, 
when he was sent to Chesterton, where he has had control ever 
since. There are five by the name of Couch on the road, two 
cousins, our subject and his two sons. In Ohio, he was Justice of the 
Peace, County Sheriff, City Marshal, etc. He has been a Mason for 
over thirty years, having taken all the degrees in Oriental Masonry, and 
was Master for five years in Lorain County, Ohio He was a Whig, Free- 
Soiler, Abolitionist, and is now a Republican. In his earlier days, he 
took an active interest in politics. He was married, in 1838, to Catherine 
Patch, a native of Connecticut. They have three children — Edgar, 
Frank L. and Mary L. Kirtland, book-keeper in a wholesale furniture 
store in Cleveland. 

JOHN C. COULTER was born June 28, 1824, in Berks County, 
Penn. He is the only child of Robert and Ann (Cooper) Coulter, the 
former a native of Ireland and the latter of Maryland. The elder 
Coulter was a teacher by occupation, and a self-made man. The Coulters 
mentioned in the early history of Oregon are said to be connected with 
the ancestors of our subject. Mr, Coulter's maternal ancestors were 
Quakers, and early settlers of Maryland. When young Coulter was 
seven years of age, the parents moved to Crawford County, Ohio, and 
bought land; young Coulter, in 1850, came to Indiana, his parents 
having died. He engaged in farming in Lake County for about one 
year, when he came to Calumet (now Chesterton), teaching and working 
at other things until the war began. He enlisted in 1861 in the Forty- 
eighth Indiana Volunteers, participating in the battle of Corinth, the 
siege of Vicksburg, and afterward under Sherman on his famous " march 
to the sea," through to Washington, then on to Louisville, where he was 
discharged. On his return to Chesterton, he engaged in railroading at 
the station for three years, when he taught three terms. He now began 
working in the brick yards, burning the kiln. On the day the great 
Chicago fire began, he was installed as station agent at Chesterton, con- 
tinuing in that occupation until April, 1882, when he resigned. He 
still holds the express ofiice. He also engaged in manufacturing a vege- 
table root beer. Mr. Coulter is a member of the Masonic fraternity. 
He has held the ofiice of Justice of the Peace, etc., and is at present a 
candidate for County Recorder on the National ticket. In politics, he is a 
strong Greenbacker. He was married, February 1, 1843, to Sarah Mc- 
Henry, a native of Ohio. They had four children, all living — William, 
Artelissa J., Sarah and Lana. His wife died in October, 1874, and, 


about two years later, he married his present wife, Mary Cook, a native of 
Columbiana County, Ohio. His parents are living at Helena, near 

HENRY DABBERT, merchant and Postmaster at Hageman, was 
born in 1841, in Mecklenberg Schwerin, Germany. He is the youngest of 
three children living born to Fred and Christina Dabbert, both natives of 
Germany. The elder Dabbert had charge of the Duke's race-horses. 
When fifteen years of age, Henry worked for himself at different things, 
until he came to the United States in 1864. He settled in Chicago, and 
was engaged for eight years following in a chair factory. He then went 
into the wholesale grocery business in Chicago. At the end of five years, 
he came to Hageman, and bought his present store. He keeps a full line 
of groceries, dry goods, boots and shoes, provisions, hardware, notions, 
etc. His stock at first was worth about $500. He has built the only 
brick store in the place, with his dwelling in the second story; now, his 
stock is increased to about $3,000, with an extensive trade. He is a mem- 
ber of the German Lutheran Church. In 1875, he was made Postmaster, 
and has held the office ever since. In political belief, he is a Republican 
and is an enterprising, industrious man and public-spirited citizen. He 
was married, in 1864, to Maria Zulke, a native of Germany; they have 
six children — Ida, Henry, Annie, Emma, Emilia, Frank. 

NATHAN DEMASS was born August 4, 1840, in Akron, Ohio. 
He is one of eight children born to Nathan and Elizabeth (Nye) Demass, 
both natives of New York. The elder Demass was in the battle of Sack- 
ett's Harbor, in the war of 1812. In 1853, the family moved to Chicago 
and Nathan began his trade of carpenter, working at it until 1857, when 
they came to (Old Porter), now Porter, Porter County, and bought eighty 
acres of land ; Nathan stayed on the farm until 1862, when he enlisted 
in the Seventy-third Indiana; he was with his regiment during all its 
experience, through to Lexington, Nashville, Alabama, on the Col. Straight 
raid, captured, exchanged, kept at Belle Isle, City Point, guarding pris- 
oners at Indianapolis, building forts at Nashville, about a year on a Gov- 
ernment cotton farm in Alabama, being mustered out 1865. He now 
returned to Chesterton, engaged in his trade, and was married in January 
24, 1866, to Marcia Brush, a native of Vermillion, Ohio, and daughter of 
a ship-builder. He began carpentering, increasing his business con- 
stantly, hiring two men, then three or four, and so on until he has under 
his supervision from seventeen to twenty men constantly, also five horses 
for teaming; he contracts for anything in the carpenter line, such as 
bridge-building, schoolhouses, churches, house-moving, etc. His residence 
is one of the best in Chesterton, and finely situated. He is a member 
of the Odd Fellows fraternity. Mr. Demass has always been a stanch 
Republican. He has five children — Charles, Elmer, Gracie, Ray and 

EDWIN L. FURNESS was born May 9, 1832, in Portland, Me. 
He is the youngest of three children born to Benjamin C. and Mary J. 
(Roberts) Furness, both natives of Maine. The elder Furness was a sea 
captain. His maternal great-grandfather was in the Revolutionary war, 
and donated a vessel for the Government war service, but refused a pension 
he was entitled to. His paternal great-grandfather was a Revolutionary 


soldier and one of the founders of South Berwick (Me.) Academy, a col- 
lege well known in the East. Thomas Leigh, an uncle, was a Major in 
the war of 1812, and founded the town of Leigh's Mills. Nearly all of 
Mr. Furness' ancestors were sea-faring men. When our subject was 
about eight years old, the elder Furness was lost at sea, and his mother 
died a short time after. He then went to live with his grandmother at 
South Berwick. When thirteen, he was attacked by the prevalent " sea 
fever" among boys, and ran away to sea, on board the "California," to 
the Carolinas, to London, to Wales and back to New York. He was now 
persuaded to go to school, to the above-mentioned acad.emy, where he 
took a classical course. He then began teaching and farming for two 
years, when he came West to Kane County, 111., where he taught two 
years. In 1853, he went East, and was married to Louise M. Graves, 
of Thomaston, Me. He then went to Batavia, 111., where he bought a 
store and stone quarry. In 1856, he came to Furnessville, and engaged 
in lumbering, in the firm of Morgan, Furness & Co., continuing until 
1862, when the firm dissolved, and he has continued in the same business 
ever since, in connection with farming, and about three years in a stave 
factory, in which he lost considerable money. His attention is now de- 
voted principally to farming his possessions, of between two and three 
thousand acres in Westchester and Pine Townships. Through the efforts 
of Mr. Furness, the station and post office of Furnessville was established, 
of which he was the first agent and Postmaster, and near which his resi- 
dence is situated. He was a member of the Grange and Good Templar 
orders. He has always been a strong Republican, and was a candidate 
in 1874 for State Senator, but was in the then unpopular temperance 
movement and was defeated. He is the father of six children living — 
Clara N. Leigh, of St. Louis ; Winnie F. Rose, of Valparaiso ; Leigh, 
of St. Louis ; Martha, Dwight, Marv- 

JOHN GONDRING was born April 15, 1831, in Treves, in Rhen- 
ish Prussia. He is one of six children born to Michael and Catharine 
(Pfiffer) Gondring, the former a native of Luxemburg, and the latter of 
Alsace. The elder Pfiffer was a subaltern officer in the French Army in 
1812. The elder Gondring Avas a Prussian Government contractor. 
When Squire Gondring was thirteen years old, he left Loraine, in one of 
the French Catholic pilgrimage companies, to Treves, and went to Paris, 
and was employed in one of the large railroad car-spring manufacturing 
companies of Paris as errand boy for four years. He then made applica- 
tion to the French Government to go to Algeria to join a colony ; he was 
successful, and went through Marseilles, across the Mediterranean, and 
was given charge of twenty Spanish jacks, to carry merchandise, etc.. 
and was often ctilled out to fight the native tribes. After about nine 
months, he went back to France and worked for his old company until 
the Revolution of 1848; he joined the Paris temporary guard until 
Napoleon was elected President, in 1849, when he went to Italy, intend- 
ing to go to Rome to join Garibaldi's army, but stopped in Piedmont. 
Here he joined the Italians, but aftgr the defeat at Novara, they were- 
given choice of passes to Hungary or Baden, where there were revolu- 
tions, and they went to Baden. He joined the German revolutionists. 
He was taken prisoner at Rastadt, and sentenced to over three years at 


isolated labor at the spinning wheel. After his release, he was compelled 
to join the Huzzars, but in about three days he deserted and went to 
Antwerp, where he was engaged as hotel porter, on account of ability to 
speak French and German, until he made enough to take him to Ameri- 
ca, three months later. He soon went to work on the Sault Ste. Marie 
Canal at Lake Superior, then soon to Detroit, Chicago, then to different 
places, and on steamers on Lake Michigan. In 1854, he began work for 
Hiram Joy, the Chicago ice king, remaining nine years, when he bought 
land near Chesterton ; for a year was in Chicago, also at Lake Superior, 
where he made considerable money. For some time, he was Deputy 
Sheriff in Houghton, Mich., near Lake Superior. He is the originator 
of the present brick-yards at New Porter. Since 1875, he has farmed. 
For four years before, he kept store at New Porter. He has been a mem- 
ber of the I. 0. 0. F. Lodge. Since 1876, he has been Justice of the 
Peace. He was married November 15, 1855, to Elizabeth Foederath, a 
German. She died exactly ten years after her marriage. In 1868, he 
married Theresa Kuhn, also a German. He has five children living. He 
is Independent in politics, a public-spirited citizen and a live business 

HIRAM GREEN, M. D. and druggist, was born July 19, 1829, in 
Oneida County, N. Y. He is the youngest of three brothers living, born 
to Tillinghast and Theodosia (Kellogg) Green, the former a native of 
Connecticut and the latter of New York. The elder Green was a minis- 
ter of the Baptist faith, and a regimental musician of the war of 1812. 
He died at the advanced age of ninety-one. The Doctor lived with his 
father until twelve years of age — six years in New York, and the follow- 
ing six in Ohio. In his twelfth year, he entered a normal school, hiring 
out for four months at $7 a month, at the end of which time his ^28 was 
partly invested in clothes, books and tuition. He continued thus for two 
years, working for his board and tuition, and had 30 cents of the original 
$28 left at the end of the time ; he immediately began the study of medi- 
cine with his brother in New Lisbon, Ohio ; he had peculiar advantages 
with his brother that enabled him to begin practicing at the end of six 
years ; he then went to Birmingham, opposite Pittsburgh, where the cholera 
was raging to the extent that half the town had died or left. He very 
fortunately received the practice of a well-established physician who was 
compelled to leave. Dr. Green soon went to Warren, Ohio, to take care 
of his brother's family, the brother having died. About one year later, he 
went to Somerset, Hillsdale Co., Mich., and after a residence of six 
months was attacked by the " California gold fever," a company offer- 
ing inducements if he would go and give medical aid. He started, but 
on arriving at Michigan City, he was taken sick, ill health following for 
two years. As soon as able, he came to Chesterton and took a school, 
but soon gave it up to practice, living at Gosset's Mill for about 
four years, when he came to Chesterton, the war having begun, and 
recruited a company, of which he was commissioned Lieutenant, and 
afterward Captain ; about three months later, he was re-commissioned 
Assistant Surgeon on the medical staff at Nashville, serving under trying 
difficulties. After a time, on account of ill health, he resigned and re- 
turned to Porter County, locating in Wheeler, where he remained about 


three year3, and then came to Chesterton. For about fifteen years, he 
answered every call, but his wife's health compelled him to confine his 
practice, and he soon went into the drug business, though of late years 
he has done much riding. His drug store, one of the most tasteful in the 
county, is of his own design. Dr. Green is a member of the F. & A. M. 
Commandery, and of the I. 0. 0. F., and at present Township Trustee. 
He was formerly a Republican, but is now a Greenbacker. He was mar- 
ried, in the spring of 1854, to Elsie Corey, a native of Michigan City, 
and a niece of Jesse Harper, Chairman of the National Greenback Cen- 
tral Committee. They have had three children — Florence A. (deceased) 
Cora B. and Aylmer E. 

HENRY HAGEMAN was born November 21, 1816, in Union 
County, Ind. (then Indiana Territory). He is the youngest of two chil- 
dren living born to John and Hannah (Batton) Hageman. the former a 
native of Germany and the latter of Virginia. Henry Batton, grand- 
father of our subject, was a Revolutionary soldier, and the father served 
in the war of 1812 as Major. Grandfather Batton lived to the advanced 
age of nearly one hundred years. Mr. Hageman, our subject, lived but 
a short time in Union County, Ind. ; went to Montgomery County ; then 
to Fountain County, where he received the most of his education, in the 
town of Robroy, laid out by a brother-in-law. When about twelve years 
old, he came to La Porte County, and after a year came to Porter County, 
and the family soon followed. Mr. Hageman has farmed almost contin- 
uously since, with the exception of two winters at Indian trading, in 
which he spoke two Indian languages. He lived two years in Rock Island 
County, 111., where he owned land. Before Mr. Hageman divided any 
of his property among his children, he had about six hundred acres, all 
in Westchester and Portage Townships. In 1879, he laid out the town 
of Hageman, at the Michigan Central and L. S. & M. S. crossing. He 
has been a member of the M. E. Church for about forty years, and is now 
Recording Steward and District Steward. He has been Trustee and 
Assessor of the township and was a delegate to the Congressional Con- 
ventions in 1880 and 1882. He has been a Republican since about 
1854. He is a man of great energy and enthusiasm, and is one of our 
most public-spirited citizens and among our leaders in public affairs. He 
was married, in 1836, to Hannah J. Gosset, a native of Indiana. They 
have six children living — Sarah J., John. Mariah, Rosa, Lilan and Han- 
nah F. 

JOHN HALLBERG was born May 30, 1825, in Sweden. He is 
the youngest of three brothers born to John and Mary (Danielson) John- 
son, both natives of Sweden. John's name, Hallberg, was given him on 
account of his being a soldier ; otherwise, it would have been Johnson. 
When twenty-one years of age, he began working for himself at the trade 
he had learned under his father, viz., shoemaking. When thirty years old, 
he began farming and continued up to 1866, when he came to the United 
States, stopping in New Jersey six months, and Chicago six months, and 
finally settling on his present farm of forty-five acres of fine land, mostly 
improved, and his son's — Pehr Afred's twenty acres since added. He is a 
member of the Swedish Lutheran Church. He was a Republican in politics 
until 1876, when he adopted the Greenback faith. He is one of our first 


Swedish farmers, and among our best citizens. He was married, in 1846, 
to Eliza Maria Swanson, a native of Sweden. He has two children — 
John A. (who was given the name "2000 " in Sweden, but adopted his 
father's name on coming to America), and Pehr A. 

MICHAEL C. HEFRON, telegraph operator, was born March 10, 
1861, in Chesterton. He is the youngest of two brothers born to Morris 
and Elizabeth (Ryan) Hefron, both natives of Ireland. The elder Hefron 
■was one of Chesterton's early merchants and Justice of the Peace. He 
came to the United States and settled in La Porte, and then came to 
Chesterton, where he was married, and lived until his death, which 
occurred in 1863. M. C. Hefron has always made his home in Chester- 
ton, and was connected with the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern grain 
house for several years. He learned telegraphy in Chesterton, and has 
become among our first-class operators, with a talent and business capaci- 
ties peculiarly adapted to his chosen profession. He was educated first at 
Chesterton, and afterward at the St. Paul Academy at Valparaiso, Ind., 
and, as a consequence, is well prepared for business life. He is a stu- 
dent, with a library of 150 volumes and periodicals. He takes an inter- 
est in political questions, is independent, partaking of the prevailing 
opposition to the old parties. He is a land-holder, and has already laid 
the foundation of a future fortune. 

DAVID H. HOPKINS (deceased) was born July 29, 1820, in New 
York. He was the elder son of David and Susan Hopkins, both natives 
of New York. Our subject lived at home until 1844, when he was mar- 
ried to Cynthia C. Barney, a native of Ohio. They went to Chicago and 
lived for three months. He had learned his trade of cooper of his 
father and now began business extensively. They went to Michigan, 
but in a year went to Bailly Town and then to City West, Porter County, 
where he employed forty or fifty men. In about two years, he went to 
Chesterton, and lived there until his death, which occurred in 1870. 
Besides coopering he kept a general merchandise store. Mr. Hopkins 
was a member of the Odd Fellows order. He was a stanch Republican 
and took an active interest in politics, and an energetic, able business 
man and financier, and an enterprising public-spirited citizen. The 
Methodist Episcopal Church was built mainly through his efforts. He 
was one of Chesterton's earliest settlers, and built some of its first houses 
and owned much of its property. With the exception of two years in 
Valparaiso, the Widow Hopkins lived in Chesterton until the fall of 1881. 
when she went to Michigan City, where she resides at present in quiet 
retirement. She has four children living — Laura E. Pinney, Gurdon 
H., Albert E. and Maud. 

GEORGE E. HOUSER, photographer, was born May 16, 1863, in 
Wells County, Ind. He was one of ten children born to William and 
Nancy (Mygrants) Houser, both natives of the Buckeye State. The 
elder Houser was among the early settlers of Wells County, and at pres- 
ent owns 160 acres in Huntington and Wells Counties, where he still 
lives, on the county line. When about seventeen, George began learning 
his trade in Westville, La Porte Co., Ind., and after an apprentice- 
ship of about four months he went to Michigan City, and there finished. 
In April, 1882, he came to Chesterton and established his present studio, 


where he is prepared to do anything in his line, such as photos, India- 
ink, enlarging, etc. He is a first-class workman of good taste and ability, 
and a promising young man of refined habits. In politics, he has been 
under Democratic influences, but considers himself independent. He 
has been a member of the Albright Church. 

CHARLES HYLANDER, of the firm of Hylander Bros., was born 
May 2, 1849, in Sweden. He is the youngest of nine children born to 
J. M. and Anna S. (Malmberg) Hylander, both natives of Sweden. 
Charles lived with his father until sixteen years of age ; he then entered 
a store in Helsingborg for three years, when he came to the United 
States and settled in Porter County ; here he worked at different things 
until 1874; he then ran a restaurant for some years. In June, 1881, he, 
with his brother, bought their present building and established a dry 
goods, grocery, hat, cap and queensware store, and have built up one of 
the best trades in the city. He was elected Justice of the Peace, but did 
not qualify. He was a Republican until Grant's second administration, 
when he joined the Democratic ranks, but on the formation of the Green- 
back party he voted with that; he is now independent. The brothers 
are both excellent business men, and among our enterprising citizens. 
Charles was married in 1874, to Lina Swanson, a native of Sweden. 
They have three children — Ida M., Matilda M. and Charles 0., Jr. 

August Hylander, the other member of the firm of Hylander 
Brothers, was born August 21, 1838, in Sweden ; he lived at home 
until thirteen years old, when he entered as clerk in a store in Helsing- 
borg, remaining for eighteen years. He then came to America and 
settled in Porter County and has been here ever since, with the exception 
of a short time in Chicago. In 1876, he began clerking for Jay Pinney, 
and continued until he, with his brother, established their present firm. 
He is a member of the Swedish Lutheran Church. The brothers are of 
similar belief in politics. August was married in 1881, to Matilda Swan- 
son, a native of Sweden; they have one boy — Ernst W. 

DANIEL P. INGRAHAM, lumberman, was born November 24, 
1834, in Providence, New Brunswick. He is one of nine children born 
to Charles and Betsy (Courser) Ingraham, both natives of New Bruns- 
wick. The elder Ingraham was of English parentage and a member of 
the Christian Church. Young Ingrraham lived in New Brunswick until 
about sixteen years of age, when the family came to Batavia, 111., and 
engaged in farming and lumbering for about four years. The family 
there separated, and Daniel went to Marengo, 111., where he engaged in 
railroading and farming for several years. After a journey to the West 
and back, lasting about a year, he engaged in lumbering for about a year 
in Michigan. In January, 1861, he came to Chesterton, where he has 
lived ever since, and has l3uilt up the most extensive lumbering trade in 
the northern part of the county, outside of Valparaiso. He buys, man- 
ufactures and ships lumber to the Chicago market. He has two portable 
saw-mills in Jackson and Westchester Townships. He has been a mem- 
ber of the Good Templars, Masonic and Odd Fellows fraternities, and 
also a member of the M. E. Church. He was Township Trustee for four 
years. He has always been a stanch Republican, and has been an Abo- 
litionist, and now favors the Prohibition movement. He is Superintend- 


ent of the M. E. Sunday school. He was married, in June, 1859, to 
Lois A. Bulard, a native of Marengo, 111. They have five children — 
Minnie, Frank, INIaud, Harriet and Charles. 

CLAUS JOHNSON, one of Chesterton's business men, was born 
March 29, 1850, in Sweden. He is one of three children living born 
to John S. and Mary (Swanson) Johnson, both natives of Sweden. When 
about twenty years old, Mr. Johnson came to America, and settled in 
Bailly Town, Porter County. With the exception of two summers in 
Michigan and three summers in Elkhart, Ind., he has been in Porter 
County ever since, working on the railroad until January, 1878, when 
he began his present business, where he has rooms equal to any of the 
kind in the place. He has been a member of the Swedish Lutheran 
Church and was a Republican until 1878, when he became a Democrat, 
and still believes in that party. Mr. Johnson is one of Chesterton's 
property owners and a live business men. He was married, in 1879, to 
Sophia Linden, a native of Sweden. They have one child — Edgart T. 

GUSTUS JOHNSON was born November 4, 1836, in Sweden. He 
is one of nine children born to John P. and Johannah Johnson. When 
Gustus was twenty years of age, he came to the United States and settled 
in Porter County, and after teaming for about two years in Westchester 
Township, he came to Chesterton. In 1862, he enlisted in the Seventy- 
third Indiana Volunteer Infantry as teamster, but in a short time, en- 
listed in the One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Indiana, and served under 
Thomas, in the West ; then was sent to North Carolina, where he served 
for a year, after the close of the war, on garrison duty. After a short 
time in Chesterton, he went to Kansas, but after about one and a half 
years he came back, and has been here ever since, engaged in different 
things until June, 1881, when he bought the "Indiana House" (now 
Johnson Hotel). Having taken it when badly out of repair, he has made 
a thorough cleaning, papering, painting, etc., and built an addition 16x32 
feet with two-stories, at an expense of probably $500. Mr. Johnson is a 
member of the Swedish Lutheran Church. In politics, he has always 
been a Democrat, but voted a few times the Greenback ticket. He was 
married, in 186'.', to Christina Swanson, a native of Sweden. They have 
three children living — Jobannah C. E., Oscar W. L. and Ida C. 

P. A. JOHNSON was born February 27, 1851, in Sweden. He is 
the youngest of nine children born to Johnnis and Johannah (Donnold- 
son) Johnson, both natives of Sweden. Young Johnson lived with his 
father in Sweden until his seventeenth year, when he emigrated to the 
the United States, locating for a time in Paxton, 111.; thence went to 
Water Valley, Miss., for about five years, engaging in work in a sash and 
blind factory ; he then came to Chesterton, and, in March, 1881, bought 
the stock of dry goods and groceries kept in his building by a Mr. Did- 
die, and has built up a rapidly increasing trade ; he has probably one of 
the best-selected stocks in the place, with a trade second to none ; he is a 
moderate Republican ; he is an enterprising young man, of quiet habits 
and good taste. 

DR. ERASMUS J. JONES, physician at New Porter, was born, in 
1814, in Ohio ; he is one of twelve children born to Erasmus and Mary 
(Sellarsj Jones, both natives of Virginia. The elder Jones was one of 


the first settlers of Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1778. Dr. Jones' mother \v;is 
well educated, and, as there were few or no educational facilities in those 
days, she educated her son to nearly all he received, but, as the Doctor is 
a self-made man, he early became interested in the study of medicine be- 
fore he had the least idea of making it a profession, and did so only be- 
cause he was urged to. The Doctor lived, married, studied and practiced 
medicine in the house in which he was born until 1846 ; he had 
studied and reported progress to a physician near, but as M. D.'s 
were "few and far between," and it was a sickly season, he was pressed 
into practice when sixteen years old. In 1840, he went to Philadelphia and 
attended the Jefferson Medical College. In 1846, he went in partner- 
ship with his brother-in-law, Dr. J. G. Kyle, an excellent physician in 
Southwestern Ohio, but, on account of his wife's health, he concluded to 
go West in 1851, and procured a "four-horse" team and driver and 
started, intending to go to Iowa. Upon arriving in Porter County, his 
family took sick, which caused him to stop, and, on account of induce- 
ments offered by the people of Gosset settlement, he located there, intend- 
ing to stay but a short time, but remained until 1859, when he was elected 
County Clerk, and lived in Valparaiso for two terms. He then removed 
to Chesterton, where he resumed practice, and was in the drug business 
until 1881 ; then came to New Porter, where he still resides and prac- 
tices. His robust constitution enables him to do more than the share of 
one physician. He has been a member of both F. & A. M. and Odd Fel- 
low fraternities. He was elected Justice of the Peace before he was twenty- 
one, and had to wait till of age for his commission. Dr. Jones has always 
been a strong Abolitionist and a Republican. He was married, in 1836, to 
Susan McCafferty, a native of Ohio. She died in 1839. In 1846, he 
married Elizabeth Bullard, a native of Xenia, Ohio. The Doctor has six 
children, living — Laura Terry, Theo. C, Mary J. Sovereign, Joseph A., 
Schuyler C. and Willie. 

REV. H. F. J. KROLL, priest of the Catholic Church at Chester 
ton and its surrounding missions, was born October 4, 1855, in Baltimore. 
Md. He is the elder of two brothers born to Henry and Theresa (Frei- 
muth) Kroll, both natives of Hesse-Cassel, Germany. The elder KroU 
still lives in Baltimore, engaged in the grocery business. Father Kroll 
was in the Baltimore Parochial Schools until thirteen years of age; then 
attended a priesthood preparatory college in the same city for two years; 
he then entered St. Vincent College, in Westmoreland, Penn., conducted 
by the Benedictine Fathers. After two years, he went to Milwaukee St. 
Francis Seminary, where he finished his preparation for the priesthood 
in five years; he was now ordained by Bishop Dwenger, of Fort Wayne. 
Ind., June 31, 1879, and given the Chesterton parish and its missions. 
When Rev. Kroll took the charge, it was encumbered by a debt of $1,560, 
the church poorly furnished, and a membership of thirty-five families, 
etc. The debt was paid over a year ago, the church well furnished, the 
number of families increased to fifty-five, the cemetery improved, a firie 
brick parsonage, 24x44 feet, erected and paid for ; this is the fruit of the 
untiring and persistent energy and ability of its pastor. The intention 
of Rev. Kroll is to establish a Catholic school this coming winter. These 
facts show the church to be in excellent conditon. He has a fine library 


of about 300 volumes. He, as all must be that enter his profession, has 
been a hard student, and is a fine scholar. 

ROBERT B. LANSING was born January 10, 1810, in Vermont. 
He is one four children, living, born to Robert and Martha (Bingham) 
Lansing, the former a native of New York City, and the latter of Ver- 
mont. The Van Rensselaers, of New York fame, and the Lansings were 
related. The elder Lansing was in the war of 1812. The city of Lansing, 
Mich., derived its name, it is said, from relatives of our subject. When Rob- 
ert B. was quite young, his parents moved to Ohio. Robert followed mill- 
wrighting for about twenty-seven years in Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana. 
He educated himself in advanced studies, and was enabled to teach for 
five years. In 1849, he came to Chesterton and bought eighty acres of 
land in Liberty Township, where he farmed until 1880, when he sold out 
and has since lived in Chesterton. He was Trustee for about four years, 
and Justice of the Peace for about the same time. He has been a strong 
Republican and an Abolitionist. In 1861, he enlisted in the Thirty-fifth 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and served three years under Buell and others 
in the West, and was injured by an accidental fall while charging breast- 
works at Green River. He was married, in 1828, to Amy A. Burlin- 
game, who died about eight years later. In 1841, he married Sarah A. 
Cox, a native of Tennessee. Mr. Lansing has three children living — 
Caroline Dille, Mary J. Young and Isaac. 

CHARLES LAWSON, farmer, was .born in 1825 in Sweden. He 
is one of seven children born to Carl and Lora M. (Anderson) Lawson, 
both natives of Sweden. The elder Lawson was a soldier of the Swedish 
regular army for thirty years. When ten years old, Mr. Lawson left 
home and worked out at farming until twenty-one years of age, when he 
married Hannah Nelson, of Sweden. She died four years later. He 
had 160 acres of land on which they lived. They had one child. 
About one year later, he married Charlotte Anderson, of Sweden. He 
now farmed about two years, when he came to the United States and 
settled in La Porte, Ind., near which he rented 160 acres for five years. 
He then came to Porter Post Officesettlement, and bought and cleared the 
farm owned at present by Mr. Engberg. He then bought his present 
farm of about 190 acres of good land. He is a member of the Swedish 
Lutheran Church. In political faith, he has always been a strong 
Republican. He is one of our most enterprising farmers and public- 
spirited citizens. He has three children living — Charles W., Emma C. 
and Gust A. 

DAVID LONG, one of Porter Station's business men, was born in 
1839, in Buff'alo, N. Y. He is one of five children born to Benjamin 
and Seba (Stayle) Long, both natives of Pennsylvania. When David was 
thirteen years of age, they came to Porter Station, and engaged in farming 
and milling; when David was eighteen, he owned the present Pierce Mills, of 
Union Township, until about twenty-four years old, when he went to 
Jackson Township and engaged in saw-milling. In 1869, he and others 
built the Liberty Mills, at present owned by Mr. Wheeler. In 1877, he 
went to Millersburg, Ind., and remained about two years. He then came 
to Porter Station and embarked in his present business. He has the 
only rooms of the kind in town, kept in an orderly manner. In politics 


he has always been independent, and votes for the man and not the 

JOHN B. LUNDBERG was born January 13, 1840, in Sweden, 
and is one of seven children born to Charles and Eva C. Lundberg. 
The elder Lundberg was a tailor and afterward farmer. The mother of 
our subject having died at his birth, the father married again, and when 
Mr. Lundberg was about twelve years old they came to the United 
States and settled in Chicago, where the father soon died. Mr. L. lived 
with his step-mother, she having married again, until 1866, when he 
came to Chesterton. He had learned cabinet-making in Chicago, and 
now began business for himself; besides the furniture business, he erected 
a turning factory, by which he expected to furnish turned work for the 
Chicago market, but, after about four years, the buildings burned ; he 
rebuilt them, and in addition to that went into the broom-handle busi- 
ness. He also bought land, cutting and shipping the timber. In 1875, 
he sold his other interests, and has since confined himself to undertaking 
and dealing in furniture. He belonged to a Chicago Swedish society 
for the promotion of education, charity, etc. He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, having taken all the Blue Lodge degrees. He has 
been Township Trustee for six years, also Township Assessor for four 
years. He has been a Republican, but is now a member of the National 
party. He was married in the spring of 1871 to Phebe A. Hammond, a 
native of New York. He has one child — Eva. C. 

HENRY R. McDonald, farmer and lumberman, was born in 
Canada in 1831. He is one of nine children, living, born to Walter and 
Betsy (Dean) McDonald, the former a native of New Brunswick and the 
latter of New York. The elder McDonald was drafted into the British 
service in the war of 1812, and two of his sons were in the Canadian 
rebellion. The McDonalds came from Scotland and settled in New York, 
but at the Declaration of Independence they went to Canada ; but the 
last generation has settled under Uncle Sam's protection. Senator Mc- 
Donald is a distant relative, and the name is well known in Scottish his- 
tory. When Mr. McDonald was thirteen years old, his father died, and 
three years later he went to New York and farmed for five or six years, 
with the exception of one year in Michigan. He then spent about a 
year in Wisconsin. He was married, in 1850, to Martha Wilson, born in 
Dublin, Ireland. He then went to St. Paul, Minn., but in about a year 
he came to his present settlement, now known as Furnessville, and is the 
oldest settler now living there. He was employed about five years at 
lumbering, and then began lumbering for himself, and is now one of our 
largest land- owners, and is the largest tax payer in Westchester ; a 
member of both the F. & A. M. and I. 0. 0. F. He was, up to the 
Garfield campaign, a Democrat, but has since been a Republican. He 
has six children living — Charles, Martha Jones, Fannie Lynn, Abbie, 
Henry and Mary. 

MRS. MARTHA McDonald, hotel proprietress at Hageman, was 
born in New York City in 1835. She is the youngest of thirteen chil- 
dren born to William and Mary (Dale) Wilson, both natives of Dublin. 
When Mrs. McDonald was about nine years old, her parents moved to 
Watertown, Wis. In 1851, she married Mr. McDonald, and went to St. 


Paul, Minn. They then went to Michigan, then to Michigan City, then 
to Furnessville, where they remained until the fall of 1881, when they 
separated and she went to Illinois, but soon came to Hageman and estab- 
lished a hotel, the only one in the place, where the traveling public are 
cordially welcomed and cared for. Mrs. McDonald is a lady of some 
wealth and taste. She has six children living — Charles, Martha, Fannie, 
Abbie, Henry and Mary. 

FREDERICK MICHAELS, merchant and Postmaster at Porter 
Post Oflfice, was born April 27, 1829, in Prussia, Germany. He is the 
only child living of Frederick and Wilhelmine (Mix) Michaels, both 
natives of Germany. The elder Michaels had a trade, not cqjpamon as a 
trade in this country, viz., the finishing and adjusting ornaments, crosses, 
etc., on towers. Mr. Michael's father died when the former was ten 
years of age ; and four years later our subject began shoemaking in 
Breslau, and traveled in Germany until 1853, when he came to the 
United States and settled in La Porte, where he remained until 1855, en- 
gaged as tailor, shoemaker, etc. He then came to Porter Post Office without 
money, and engaged in railroading and carpentering, and took his pres- 
^ ent store, then very limited. He has been engaged as merchant, exclu- 
sively, for about twenty years, and has built all his buildings himself. He 
has two dwellings, store and dwelling, green house, windmills, etc., in 
" Old Porter," and nearly a quarter section of one of Westchester's finest 
farms, known as the Frayd farm, what is known as the " depot grounds," 
and town lots, etc. He has a fine family vault in the Bailly Town Ceme- 
tery, value about $1,000. He was made Postmaster January 15, 1873, 
and has held the office ever since. He is a member of the Valparaiso 
Commandery, No. 28, and also of the Consistory. He owns a business 
block in Chicago, on Ogden and Central Park avenues. Since the birth 
of the Republican party, he has been one of its stanch supporters. He 
married, after he came to Porter County, Mrs. Henriette Dedskind, a 
native of Saxony, now deceased. In 1876, he married his present wife — 
Bertha Fleming, a native of Saxony, and sister of his late wife. He has 
an adopted child — Paul F., and five step-children — Hilmar, Mrs. Fran- 
ciska Faust, Mrs. Emma Lyon, Martha Fleming and Curt. 

ROBERT E. MILLER, M. D., was born May 26, 1846, in Nor- 
walk, Ohio. He is the eldest of four children born to Robert and Har- 
riet (Wilkinson) Miller, the former of Connecticut, and the latter of Penn- 
sylvania. Dr. Miller's grandfather was a soldier in the war of 1812. The 
elder Miller soon went from Norwalk to go to Illinois, but stopped in 
Hobart, Lake Co., Ind., working at his trade of blacksmith. He 
entered near there 240 acres of land, and moved onto it, living there and 
clearing until 1852, when, as one of the victims of the "gold fever," he 
went to California. He left his family on the farm, the mother taking 
care of it, and struggling to educate her family — she having been a 
teacher. After a stay of six years in California and one year in British 
Columbia, along the Frazer River, he came home, and died March 21, 
1882, at the age of seventy-seven years. The mother is still living on the 
old homestead. Dr. Miller had but few advantages of education before 
of age, but he possessed a love for reading. Five months before he was 
twenty-one, his father reluctantly consented to his entreaties to attend 


school, without any help from him. He went, and by cutting wood, board- 
ing himself, working odd hours, etc., succeeded in paying his way. He 
then came home and worked for his father, doing this a part of the sea- 
son, and acting as agent another part, for about two years; then alternated 
teaching and farming the two following years. He then began the study 
of medicine in the fall of 1871, with Dr. Morrical, of Chesterton, for 
three years, when he entered the Rush Medical College of Chicago, tak- 
ing one term of lectures. He then practiced over four years in Hobart, 
his old home, when he sold his practice, and, returning to Chicago, grad- 
uated. He remained in the city taking post-graduate studies, experiment- 
ing and studying city practice, for about eighteen months. In 1881, he 
returned to Chesterton, his preceptor having moved away, and began 
building up a practice, and has succeeded remarkably for a young physi- 
cian. He is a member of both F. & A. M. and I. 0. 0. F. fraterni- 
ties, of Hobart, Ind. He has held all the different oflBces in the Odd Fel- 
lows Lodge, including Grand Representative. He is a moderate Repub- 
lican ; a very conscientious man, of studious habits and one of our best 
citizens. In June, 1876, Dr. Miller laid out the village plat of Crisman, 
at the junction of the M. C. and B. & 0. R. R.'s. It comprises thirty- 
six acres. 

JOHN G. MORGAN was born September 12, 1832, near Kings- 
bury, La Porte Co., Ind. He is the youngest of five children, living, 
born to Jesse and Jane (Cisna) Morgan, the former of Virginia, and the 
latter born near Detroit, Mich. (For account of the settlement of the 
elder Morgan, see the general history of Westchester and the county). 
When John was but six months old, they moved to what is now Porter 
County, and settled in the present Morgan settlement, and bought a 
quarter section of the finest land in the county, and pre-empted another 
quarter. Here the family was reared, inured to the hardships of pioneer 
life, with limited means of education, but with a love for reading that sup- 
plies the want. Jesse Morgan died when John G. was twenty-one years 
old ; the latter still lived with the family up to 1867. In 1860, he was 
married to Mary A. Holland, a native of Canada. Her parents came 
from Ireland. The homestead was divided in 1867, and our subject re- 
ceived 177 acres, and has since added until he now owns about 381 acres, 
with good buildings ; he has a fine grove, much used for picnics, etc. He 
is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. of twenty-six years' standing. He has 
always been a Democrat, but is liberal in local afiairs. He is one of our 
most intelligent and thoroughgoing farmers, and among our first citizens. 
He has three children living — Bently J., Agnes C. and Annie H. 

JOHN MURPHY, cooper, was born June 15, 1823, in Ireland. He 
is one of three children born to Martin and Mary (Byrne) Murphy, both 
natives of Ireland. When nineteen years of age, Mr. Murphy came to 
the United States and settled in South Hero Island, Lake Champlain, for 
two years, when he went to Montezuma, N. Y. After about two years, 
he went to a town near Auburn, N. Y., and stayed until he came to City 
West in the fall of 1857. After a four years' residence here, he went to 
Chicago and remained a year. He then came to Chesterton and was 
engaged as foreman in Mr. Hopkins' shops for about six years, when he 
established shops of his own, but was at one time in partnership with 


Messrs. Thomas & Hopkins. He is an excellent workman and ships a 
large amount of stock to the Chicago market. He has been a member of 
the I. 0. 0. F. fraternity, and has been trained in the Catholic Church. 
He has held the office of Township Trustee and other offices. He has 
always been a Democrat, with the exception of the Whig and war periods. 
He is a thoroughly conscientious man, of broad information and good 
judgment, and a citizen of sterling worth. He was married, June 
18, 1848, to Mary Dooley, a native of Rochester, N. Y. They have 
seven children living — Mary R., Edward, James, Frank, Joseph, Lucy 
and Ella. 

W. B. OWEN, Sr., of the firm of Hinchliff & Owen, brick-yards, 
at Porter, was born June 5, 1834, in Crown Point, N. Y. He is the 
only child of Hiram and Betsy Owen, both natives of New York. The 
elder Owen was a stone-cutter ; the ancestors were purely Yankee. Mr. 
Owen's father and mother both died when he was nine years old. He 
was thrown on his own resources without even a guardian, and worked on 
farms until about seventeen, when he entered the machine shops at 
Springfield, Mass., for about ten years. At Boston, he worked for the 
next five years at the same trade. At the end of this time, he went to 
Salt Lake City, having traveled with mules 1,700 miles to Virginia City, 
where he worked in the mines one summer. In the fall he came to Chi- 
cago, where he remained about five years, engaged in the machine shops 
about two years, and afterward in the brick-yard business. On December 
12, 1867, he married Annie Pride, a native of Glasgow, Scotland. He 
then went to Champaign, 111., and began farming 640 acres of land, one 
of the best farms of the county, but it being the dry year of the great 
fire, he remained but twelve months. He then went to Porter Station 
and started what was known as the old " Kellogg " brick-yard. He soon 
bought a third interest in one of his present yards, owned at that time 
by Moulding & Harland ; after being partner for a time, he sold out and 
was their foreman for about seven years. He then bought out the senior 
member, and fourteen acres of brick-yard land of a Mr. Tuttle. The 
firm then bought nineteen acres of Mr. Hageman, on which they estab- 
lished a steam yard, with the capacity of 30,000 brick per day. The 
firm then bought 200 acres woodland of George Morgan, and also the 
Waterbury & Mills brick-yard, at Hobart, Ind., where they put in steam 
appliances ; capacity 40,000 per day. Harland then sold his interest to 
Hinchliff, of Chicago, with whom Mr. Owen is at present partner. The 
firm put in a 2,200-foot side track connecting the yards with the L. S. & 
M. S. Ry. The firm now have 150 hands employed in Porter and 
Hobart (100 in Porter), all steam yards, with a capacity of 65,000 per 
day in Porter, and 105,000 per day in Porter and Hobart. Mrs. Owen 
kept from fifteen to twenty-five boarders in Porter for about seven years, 
and in the interim built a residence in Chicago, and bought 110 acres of 
woodland near Porter Station, the latter through Mrs. Owen's personal 
efforts. Mr. 0. is a member of the F. and A. M. order and a stanch 
Republican. He has three children — Jesse C, Leonard and an infant. 

OSCAR S. PETERSON, retired farmer, was born in 1837 in Swe- 
den. He is one of eight children born to John and Anna (Lindstadt) 
Peterson, both natives of Sweden. When sixteen years of age, Mr. 


Peterson left home and came to the United States, and settled in Chicago, 
and was engaged in building the early Chicago "plank streets." In a 
short time, he went to Aurora, 111., and learned and worked at upholster- 
ing for about three years. He then went to Lyons, Iowa, and established 
his business there, but failed, and as he was but nineteen years of age, 
and lost all, he shipped on a steamboat as "roustabout" to St. Louis, 
where he was without work and food for about three days, but soon got 
work near, on a farm, for all winter. He afterward bought a team, and 
began farming in Madison County, 111. After two years, he moved to 
Westchester Township, and began farming in Waverly, remaining there 
eleven years, when he bought his present farm of 209 acres of fine land, 
near Chesterton, on which he lives in a beautifully situated brick, nearly 
hidden by a fine grove. He has altogether about three hundred and 
thirty acres, indicating him to be a successful farmer and financier. He 
has been a member of the Swedish Lutheran Church. He has always 
been a Republican, but in local affairs is liberal. He was married, in 
1861, to Christina S. Carlson, a native of Sweden. They have four 
children— Charles A., Ida B., Arthur 0. and Cora M. In 1863, he 
went to Sweden on business, and on the way there and back he visited 
and traveled through Norway, Germany, France, Denmark, all Great 
Britain and Ireland, to see the countries. 

MARTIN PHARES, Sr., farmer, was born May 16, 1816, in 
Greene County, Ohio. He is the youngest of ten children born to Rob- 
ert and Mary (Clevenger) Phares, both natives of New Jersey. Martin 
lived with his father until twenty-two years old, and received the usual 
early educational advantages. He married, October 24, 1837, Maria 
Shafer, a native of Luzerne County, Penn. In 1841, they came to Por- 
ter County; and bought eighty acres of the present farm, now consisting 
of 124 acres of good land, well improved, and farmed by their son, Fre- 
mont. Martin Phares taught a few terms of school here, held the office 
of Township Trustee, and in politics was a Whig, then joined the Repub- 
lican ranks, from which he never separated. He died February 21, 1882, 
and his widow is living on the old farm with her son. She is an intelli- 
gent elderly lady, respected by all who know her. They have eight 
children — Samuel M., Emeline Biggs, Mary A. Wheeler, Adam P., Mar- 
tin L., Lydia M., John C. F. and Amy C. 

MARTIN LUZERNE PHARES was born in Liberty Township, 
Porter Co., Ind., March 28, 1854. From the age of six until in De- 
cember, 1872, he attended the district school, at which date he was 
engaged to teach at Salt Creek, four miles away. Teaching at this place 
three terms, he went, in the spring of 1874, in company with a friend, 
A. P. Bond (the winter previous, Mr. Phares' pupil) to the "pineries" 
of Oceana County, Mich. Here Mr. Phares taught one term, then 
returned and took charge of the school in which two years before he had 
been a pupil. Here he was engaged four or five terms; also again at Salt 
Creek, and in other schools of the county, until, in 1881, he accepted the 
Superintendency of Schools at Chesterton. This position he now holds. 
Mr. Phares' higher schooling was principally at the Valparaiso Normal, 
beginning with the first term of that institution, in September, 1873, and 
continuing, alternately with teaching, until in the spring of 1880. His 


attendance here amounted to about three years, his work being such as he 
believed would be of greatest practical utility. Politically, with the prin- 
ciples of the Republican party tauglit him from early childhood, to which 
principles and their triumphs he continues warmly attached, he became 
an early convert to the National party, first voting with it in 1880. At 
this writing, he is the candidate of his party for the office of County Clerk, 
and was made a candidate a few years ago for County 'Superintendent, 
making a remarkably good race, but, on account of the weakness of his 
party only, was defeated. Mr. Phares is a young man of more than ordi- 
nary ability and promise; being a hard, thorough student, he has become 
one of the best teachers in the county, taking an active interest in, and 
studying political questions in a logical manner. As a writer he uses 
logical reasoning, and accurate, exact expressions, having been connected 
with newspaper work for some time. He has been one of the leaders in 
the County Teachers' Association, standing high in the esteem of those 
who know him, as a strictly moral and conscientious young man. 

PILLMAN BROTHERS. August Pillman, junior member of the 
firm of Pillman Bros., in Porter Station, was born July 23, 1854, in 
Sweden. He is one of four children, living, born to Andrew and Mary 
(Peterson) Pillman. The elder Pillman came with his family to the 
United States, in 1864, and settled in Liberty Township. August lived 
at home until the spring of 1882, engaged in farming. He, with his 
brother, then bought their present store, furnished with a stock worth 
about ^700. Their trade has grown very rapidly, so that their stock is 
increased to about $8,000, and includes a full line of groceries, provisions, 
dry goods, boots and shoes, crockery, hardware, etc., and they are in- 
creasing their stock daily, and do a very extensive trade. Mr. Pillman 
is a member of the Swedish Lutheran Church, and has always been a 
Republican in political faith. 

John Pillman, senior member of the firm of Pillman Bros., 
at Porter Station, merchants, was born July 23, 1851, in Sweden. He 
is the eldest son of four children born to Andrew and Mary (Peterson) 
Pillman, both natives of Sweden. The elder Pillraan's father was a 
Swedish soldier in the early part of the nineteenth century. John lived 
at home until of age. In 1872, he married Hannah Johnson, a native of 
Sweden, and began farming one of his father's farms. At the end of three 
years, he began railroading, until he and his brother formed their present 
firm. He is a member of the Swedish Lutheran Church, and in political 
faith is a Republican. He is a public-spirited citizen, and is interested 
in promoting temperance and other public benefits. His wife died in 
October, 1881. They had two children — both dead. 

JAY PINNEY, merchant, was born January 20, 1847, in La Porte 
County, Ind. He is the eldest of nine children, living, born to Horace 
and Angeline (Haskill) Pinney, the former a native of Ohio and the latter 
of Pennsylvania ; the elder Pinney and his fiither-in-law were among the 
first settlers of La Porte County. A peculiar fact concerning the elder 
Pinney and wife was that she was born without a palate, and his palate 
was eaten off by medicine. Young Pinney lived with his father in La 
Porte County until about twenty-three years of age ; he was an unusually 
bright child, and learned very fast. He has had the advantages of High 


School education ; he then went to Kansas for health and business, and 
after a residence of about fourteen months, bought two car loads of Texas 
cattle and brought them to Chicago. He now bought a half-interest in a 
store in Wanatah, La Porte County. After about fourteen months, he 
came to Chesterton and purchased his present general merchandise store. 
Mr. Pinney has built up one of the finest trades in the township ; his 
sales, the first pear, amounted to $26,000. He carries an average stock 
of $6,000 ; he has been City Treasurer, and has been a Democrat, but 
votes for the man and principle rather than party. Mr. Pinney was 
married, June 9, 1874, to Laura E. Hopkins, a native of Chesterton. 
They have one child, Clara B., born September 9, 1875. Mrs. Pinney 
is daughter of Hamilton Hopkins, one of the first merchants of Chester- 
ton, and one of the old settlers ; he died in July, 1870. Mr. Pinney is 
agent for the Studebaker Wagon Company. 

GEORGE H. RILEY, M. D., was born in Cherry Valley, N. Y., 
April 12, 1853. He is one of nine children, living, born to Nelson and 
Hannah (Wing) Riley, both natives of Cherry Valley. The elder Riley 
is a retired farmer, living in La Porte, Ind.; was a high school teacher 
for fourteen years in New York, and has taken pains to educate all his 
children. When Dr. Riley was about seven years of age, the parents 
moved to La Porte County, living on the farm until the Doctor was 
seventeen ; he had graduated at the La Porte High School, and now be- 
^an teaching and studying medicine, paying his own way through college 
after two years in the school room. He graduated at the Rush Medical 
College, of Chicago, in the spring of 1875 ; he then began the practice 
of medicine in New Buffalo, Mich. After four years of successful prac- 
tice, he found a better place in New Troy, where he built up a lucrative 
practice, but, having lost his wife, he came to Indiana, and has been as- 
sociated with Dr Green in the practice of medicine and the drug busi- 
ness. He is a member of the I. 0. 0. F., and has taken all the degrees. 
Dr. Riley held the office of School Superintendent in Michigan ; he is a 
moderate Republican, but favors the financial theories of the National party. 
He married Mary E. Phillips, a native of Michigan, and an educated 
lady, having been a teacher for several years. They had one child, 
Carrie E. 

SAMUEL A. SAMUELSON was born, in 1839, in Sweden. He 
is the youngest of seven children born to Samuel Ericson and wife, both 
natives of Sweden. When thirteen years old, Samuel and parents came 
to the United States and stopped a year in Chicago, then settled in West- 
chester Township. Our subject left home at about his twenty-first year, 
and worked out until the war began, when he enlisted in the Seventy- 
third Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and served at Stone River, Perryville, 
Murfreesboro, etc., for eight months, when he was discharged on account 
of a wound received. He was disabled for over three years, but soon 
worked his own farm alone up to the time of his marriage, in 1871, to 
Mary Swanson, a native of Sweden. She died in 1879. They had five 
children — John V., John L., Alfrida, Badea and Gustof. He has 219 
acres of land, partly improved. He is a member of the Swedish Lutheran 
Church, and has always been a Republican in politics ; he is an enter- 
prising farmer, and a good citizen. 


EDWARD F. SCHAPER was born January 25, 1851, in Hanover. 
Germany. He is the eldest of four children living born to Gottlieb and 
Johannah (Martens) Schaper, both natives of Germany. The maternal 
grandfather was an officer and served in the Franco-Prussian war, and 
his wife was of French birth. Edward lived in Germany until his sev- 
enteenth year, when he emigrated to the United States and settled in 
Fond du Lac, Wis. Here he began learning his trade of jeweler, and 
finished in Milwaukee. He then went to New Orleans, and worked for 
about eighteen months, when he came to Crown Point, Ind., where he 
was in ill-health for nearly a year. Hobart was his next home for three 
years. In February, 1876, he came to Chesterton, and established his 
present firm. He keeps a fine stock of clocks, watches, jewelry, plated 
ware, musical instruments, etc. ; also, a line of tobaccos and cigars. He 
has built up the finest trade in the country around outside of Valparaiso 
or Michigan City. He began an apiary, and expects to enlarge it in the 
future. He has been a member of the I. 0. 0. F. fraternity, and is a 
member of the Bee-Keeper's Association of Chicago. He has always 
been an Independent in politics, having voted with all the different par- 
ties, and is an intelligent man of quiet habits. He was married. May 6, 
1877, to Amalie Koehne, a native of Fond du Lac, Wis. They have two 
children — Clara and Matilda. 

CHARLES 0. SEAMANS, Justice of the Peace, was born Novem- 
ber 15, 1841, in Wheaton, 111. He is the eldest of eight children born 
to Alvin and Almira (Munyan) Seamans, the former a native of Con- 
necticut, and the latter of Massachusetts. The paternal ancestors of our 
subject have been traced back to the Pilgrim Fathers. His grandfather, 
Munyan, was in the war of 1812, and great-grandfather Munyan was 
a soldier of the Revolution. The gun he carried in that war is in pos 
session of our subject. Esquire Seamans lived with his father in Wheaton 
until about twenty years of age ; he attended the college at Wheaton, and 
when twenty years old he began teaching. After a year, he entered the 
Chicago School of Trade, to prepare himself for a book-keeper ; after his 
course was finished, he entered a retail grocery establishment in Chicago 
as clerk, and in six months had worked up to the position of book-keeper, 
continuing in their employ for about five years. He then came to Ches- 
terton and purchased the " Railroad House" (now Johnson's Hotel), and 
officiated as "mine host" for five years. He then engaged in blacksmith- 
ing for three years nearly, when he received an injury in horseshoeing, 
and was an invalid until March, 1881 ; he again took charge of the hotel 
for about three months. He then traded the hotel for his present farm, 
and has since been engaged in superintending it. He is a member of the 
Odd Fellows fraternity and the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was 
elected to the office of Justice of the Peace in the spring of 1880, and has 
served with ability ; he was a Republican, but has adopted the Green- 
back faith ; he was married in October, 1864, to Jennett Odell, a native 
of New York, and born within a mile of Niagara Falls. 

CALVIN T. D. SHANKS was born June 29, 1837, in Ontario, 
Ohio. He is the eldest of eight children born to Simon P. and Elizabeth 
(Border) Shanks, both natives of Pennsylvania. The elder Shanks was 
both carpenter and mason. When Calvin was fourteen years old, his 


parents moved to Noble County, Ind.; then to Wolcottville, La Grange 
County, where our subject received the most of his education at the Greggs 
Seminary. They soon went to the well-known watering place, Rome 
City, about three miles south of the former place, remaining there about 
eight years ; he, now of age, went into the northern part of Michigan, 
where he lumbered for about two years ; he then returned to La Grange 
County, farming for about two years. He married, September 20, 1861, 
Rachel Lownsbury, a native of La Grange County. They began keeping 
hotel at Newburg, La Grange County, remaining about eighteen months, 
when he moved to Tecumseh, Mich., where he farmed and lumbered for 
a few years. In 1866, he came to Chesterton, farming for about a year, 
when he engaged in cabinet work in Mishawaka for three years ; he re- 
turned to Chesterton and engaged in different occupations until 1875, 
when he founded the Central House, and, through his energy and effi- 
ciency as "mine host," has made one of the finest hotels of its size in the 
county. In the summer of 1882, he made some fine improvements, and 
the public may always expect a cordial reception and an excellent culi- 
nary department under the management of Mrs. S. He has been a mem- 
ber of the I. 0. 0. F. Mrs. S. is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Mr. Shanks was a Democrat up to the Garfield campaign, but 
is now a Republican. 

JOSEPH SWANSON, merchant, was born in 1826 in Sweden. He 
is one of twelve children born to Eric and Mary Swanson, both natives 
of Sweden. When twenty-three years of age, Joseph left home, where 
he had been clerking in his father's store, and came to the United States 
and settled in Boston, where he remained a year and a half, engaged in 
coopering ; he then went to New Bedford, Mass., and after a year he 
joined a whaling vessel, and was on the ocean for twelve years, mostly in 
the Pacific, leaving the Arctic Ocean in August and going South to the 
Sandwich Island, New Zealand, Australia, African coast, etc. He was in 
the Atlantic the first two years ; he made two Arctic Ocean trips, and 
then returned to New Bedford, and went to Sweden, on a three weeks' 
visit there and in other countries bordering on the Northern waters ; he 
then came back to New Bedford and started for California, remaining in 
San Francisco for about fifteen months, when he came to Porter P. 0. 
and started his store with a stock of pOO or $500. In 1879, he built 
his present store and dwelling, a large, fine frame, in which he has a 
stock of dry goods, groceries, boots and shoes, hardware, etc., worth about 
!$1,000, with a good trade. He has always been a Republican; he is a 
man of extensive experience and travel, and one of our leading business- 
men. He was married, in 1865, to Johannah Pillman, a native of Sweden. 
They have five children — Gust, Charley, John, Ida and Emily. 

JOHN T. TAYLOR, merchant, was born December 28, 1844, in 
Philadelphia, Penn. He is one of eight children born to William and 
Ann (Jenkins) Taylor, both natives of Wales. The elder Taylor was a 
machinist by occupation. When our subject was about seven years old, 
they moved from Philadelphia to Cincinnati, where they remained three 
years. In 1855, they removed to La Porte, Ind., and the following year 
to Michigan City, where they remained until they came to Chesterton in 
1860. John T. had the advantages of the city schools in the above- 


named places. At Chesterton, they engaged in farming until February 
of 1861, when he entered his present store as clerk. It was then owned 
by L. B. Osborn, afterward by other parties. After a clerkship of 
nearly three years, he went to Chicago, and soon enlisted in the One 
Hundred and Forty-seventh Illinois ; was soon promoted to the office of 
Second Lieutenant, and was mustered out February, 1866. On return- 
ing to Chesterton, he entered into partnership under the firm name of 
Taylor & Osborn, which existed one year; then Taylor & Quick, which 
lasted ten years. It then changed, and took the name it bears at present 
— Taylor Brothers — consisting of our subject and his brother, Richard 0. 
Taylor, who was born August 18, 1856, in Michigan City. He clerked 
in South Chicago for a time before this firm was formed. They are the 
only grain dealers in the place, carrying a stock of from $10,000 to 
$20,000. Mr. Taylor is a member of both Masonic and Odd Fellow 
fraternities. In 1866, he was Postmaster. Mr. Taylor has been a Dem- 
ocrat, but of late years is independent, rather favoring the National prin- 
ciples. He was married December 28, 1866, to Mary E. Segar, a native 
of New York. They have two children living — William A. and Mabel C. 

JOHN THOMAS, ex-merchant, and retired, was born in 1822 in 
Ohio. He was one of eight children born to William and Ann (Arm- 
strong) Thomas, both natives of Ohio. They came from Ohio to La Porte 
(city) when John was quite young ; here they bought land, but after 
about two years they came to Westchester, and, with the Morgans, 
were the first families to settle in the township. The Thomases owned 
considerable land, including the present plat of Chesterton, of which 
they gave to the roailroad company its present grounds, and then laid out 
the surrounding land in lots, which have grown into the present Chester- 
ton. The town has grown around the old homestead, in which Mr. 
Thomas' sister is now living, John lived at home till nearly thirty-five 
years of age. The three brothers — John, William and Vincent — were 
partners in a saw mill, and as merchants in the building at present occu- 
pied by Taylor Bros., and had the leading business for years. The three 
dissolved ; then John and William were partners until the death of the 
latter. They also carried on a coopering business for a number of years. 
John carried on the milling and farming until about 1877, when, on 
account of ill health, he retired from business. He has been a member 
of both Masonic and Odd Fellow fraternities, and was among the found- 
ers of the lodges in Chesterton. In religious belief, he has been a Uni- 
versalist. In politics, he has been a firm Democrat. He was married, 
November 18, 1836, to Jane Scott, a native of La Grange County, Ind. 
She lived for a time with a Mr. Arnold's family in Constantine, Mich., 
a member of the noted Constantine Band ; S. D. Crane, ex-County 
Superintendent of La Grange County, a lawyer, is a half-brother. She 
is in religious belief a Presbyterian. They have two children — Louis and 
Rose A. 

MARTIN YOUNG was born May 13, 1841, in Erie County, Ohio. 
He is one of ten children born to Ira and Sophia (Crippin) Young, both 
natives of New York. The elder Younsr was a fisherman on Lake Erie 
for thirty years. Maternally, Mr. Young is of English descent, and 
paternally from Holland. When Martin was about five years of age,. 


they came to Porter County, settling on " Twenty-Mile " Prairie. A 
sister of our subject was about the first school teacher of that settlement, 
and Judge Field was among her pupils. When about twenty-one years 
of age, Mr. Young enlisted in the Seventy-third Indiana, serving nearly 
three years, and participating in the famous battles of Stone River, Nash- 
ville, and on Col. Straight's raid through Georgia. After he was discharged, 
returning to Chesterton, he engaged in the meat market business ; he 
has built up the leading trade in this part of the county. He is a mem- 
ber of the I. 0. 0. F. fraternity. Mr. Young is a Republican, but 
favors the financial theories of the National party. Mr. Young has one 
of the finest brick residences in the county, richly furnished, and with 
the luxuries of piano, organ, etc. He was married in 1862 to Mary J. 
Lansing, a native of Porter County. She is well educated, having been 
a teacher. They have one adopted child — Arthur. 


PORTER AYLSWORTH is a native of Ohio, and a son of Giles 
and Mary Aylsworth, the former a native of New York, and the latter of 
Pennsylvania. His parents came to this township in 1842, where his 
father taught school in the winters of 1842 and 1843. They had 440 
acres in a home farm and 102 acres in various tracts. His father died in 
June, 1880, and his mother in October, 1879. Porter Aylsworth received 
but a spare education. He was married in 1856 to Miss Catharine Shina- 
barger, a native of Ohio. To this union there were six children — Elva, 
Giles C, Thomas M., Mary, Corbin and John. Mr. and Mrs. Aylsworth 
commenced housekeeping on his present place, in a house burned three 
weeks afterward. He now has a fine farm of 106 acres, with good build- 
ings and improvements. He was Justice of the Peace seven years in 
Iowa, where he lived eleven years, and held the same office about two 
years in this township. Mr. and Mrs. Aylsworth are members of the 
Christian Church. 

JOHN L. UAKER was born in Kosciusko County, Ind., and is a 
son of Philip and Maria Baker, both of whom died in Kosciusko County. 
He received a common school education of the day, and at the age of 
seventeen learned the trade of a shoemaker, which he abandoned soon, 
but a^ain returned to, and has since followed as a life-business. In 1869. 
he came to Hebron, Porter County, Ind., where he now has a leading shop, 
most centrally located, and which does as large a business as any other 
shop in the town. On the 1st of October, 1874, he was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Florence Thomas, a dauorhter of Euojene Thomas, a farmer. 
Mr. and Mrs. Baker have a family of two children, both living — Irvin 
E. and Maud F. Mr. Baker is a member of the order of Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons. He is a good and worthy citizen. 

HENRY BERDINE was born in the State of New York June 20. 
1831, and was a son of Nicholas Berdine, who was also a farmer. Henry 
Berdine came to Lake County, Ind., where he obtained a fair education 
at the common schools, and grew to manhood. On the 2d of October, 


1856, he was united in marriage to Rachel Sherwood, a daughter of Will- 
iam and Jane (McCullough) Sherwood ; her parents came to Porter 
County about the year 1847. This union was blessed with eight children 
— William N., Willis, Amos, Harry, Carrie A., Ralph, Clark and Leroy. 
After marriage, Mr. Berdine commenced farming on 100 acres, to which 
he added 140 acres; this laud he improved by the necessary buildings 
and appurtenances, and was prepared to enjoy life when removed by 
death, October 14, 1880, since which event Mrs. Berdine, aided by her 
children, has managed the business successfully. She is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

JOHN K. BLACKSTONE, physician and surgeon, is a native of 
Ohio, and the second of the eight children born to William and Julia M. 
(Doddridge) Blackstone ; the former was a physician, and a native of 
Virginia ; he died March 17, 1877, aged eighty-three years ; the latter a 
Pennsylvania, who is still living, aged seventy-six years. John K. Black- 
stone commenced his education in a common school at Waverly, Ohio, and 
afterward attended the Ohio University for five years. In 1846, he en- 
listed for the war with Mexico, in Company E, Second Ohio Regiment, 
and became Second Lieutenant. On his return, he read medicine with 
his father, also attending a course of lectures at Louisville, Ky., and after- 
ward at Cleveland, Ohio, where he graduated in 1848. He commenced 
practice in Athens County, Ohio, but came to Hebron, Ind., in 1856, where 
he is now the oldest living practitioner, and has limited the practice among 
his former friends. On February 11, 1858, he married Miss Margaret J. 
Bryan, a native of Boone Township, and the first white child born therein, 
a daughter of Simeon and Elizabeth Bryan. Mr. and Mrs. Blackstone 
have four children — William B., John K., Lilian E. and Benjamin E. 
Mrs. Blackstone is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

GEORGE BROUGH was born in Derbyshire, England, June 19, 
1817, and is the third of the twelve children of George and Ann M. 
Brough. The school privileges of our subject were much straitened, he 
being needed to labor at home. On coming to America, he hired by the 
month, and in sixteen years was enabled to purchase eighty acres in 
Boone Township, in the year 1850 — a portion of his present farm. In 
October, 1849, he was married to Miss Mary J. Oliver, a native of Ohio, 
daughter of John and Elizabeth Oliver. To this union succeeded ten 
children — Peter, William, Charles, Mary, Abigail, David, Margery, Sarah 
(deceased), Eliza (deceased) and George. For a time, Mr. Brough farmed 
on rented land, until he could improve his own, to which he has added, 
and now he numbers 207 acres, well developed and improved. He raises 
hogs, cattle and horses, as well as the staple products, likewise making 
annually about one hundred tons of hay. Mrs. Brough is a member 
of the Christian Church. 

JOHN B. BROUGH is a native of England, and a son of George 
and Ann M. Brough, both natives of the same country ; his parents came 
to America in 1881, and located in Susquehanna County, Penn.; his 
father came to Indiana in 1844, and established his claim to the present 
homestead, and broke thirteen acres, but did not live to occupy it. John 
B. Brough came to his present place in 1845, where he has since lived ; 
he began the business of milling before he became of age, in Lake County, 


which was the first effort there begun. On September 19, 1847, he was 
married to Miss Elizabeth Castleman, a native of Ohio, by whom he had 
thirteen children — Ellis (deceased), Maria, George P., Elizabeth, Ann C, 
Emma, Alice, Rebecca, James, William, U. A., John (deceased) and 
Elizabeth (deceased). Mr. Brough owns 120 acres in his present farm 
and fifty-two in Lake County ; he has a good frame residence, and good 
water privileges. Mr. Brough's parents endured the hardships and priva- 
tions of the pioneers, who broke the sod and cleared the land in the early 

DAVIS BRYANT is a native of Ohio, and was born September 26, 
1824 ; he attended a subscription school some little time in Ohio, being 
eleven years of age when his father came to and located in Lake County, 
Ind., where he went to school for a part of two winters, and remained on 
the paternal farm until manhood. On October 21, 1858, he was married 
to Miss Mary E. McGill, daughter of Robert and Susan McGill. Mr. 
Bryant then began farming on his own land, and, together with his 
brother, Robert, purchased 480 acres adjoining, and again 100 acres. 
At present he gives much attention to raising sheep, of which he has 280 
head, and handles fifty head of hogs annually, with from twenty to twenty- 
five head of cattle. Mr. Bryant has one of the finest farms in the countj, 
with a fine brick house, commodious buildings, and many needful improve- 
ments, all of which he greatly enjoys. He has one child by adoption, 
Nettie M. Bryant. Mrs. Bryant is a member of the United Presbyterian 

ROBERT BRYANT is a native of Richland County, Ohio, born De- 
cember 17, 1826, and is a son of Elias and Ann (Vance) Bryant. His 
parents moved to Lake County, Ind., about 1835, locating on the farm 
on which they died, being pioneers in the county. The advantages of 
schooling enjoyed by Robert were sparse. The nearest mill was 150 
miles distant, and many things were to be obtained only at Michigan City. 
Robert Bryant remained at home until twenty-one years old, after which 
he labored for two years by the month, at $12 and $13. On September 
20, 1853, he was married to Miss Mary G. Herriss, by whom he has two 
children — Daniel R. and Charles. Our subject and his brother had pur- 
chased eighty acres, which was sold, with half-interest in father's farm, 
when he moved to Porter County, Ind., in 1854, where, with his brother, 
he purchased 480, and later 100 acres more. This remained undivided 
until about 1861 ; since then he has bought forty acres and forty more of 
timber. He has now, where he lives, 310 acres of the finest land in the 
county, one and a half miles from Hebron. Mr. and Mrs. Bryant are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

JOSEPH BRYANT, farmer, is a native of Ohio, and the eldest of 
six children born to Simeon and Elizabeth Bryant. His parents were 
pioneers of Boone Township, moving hither when Joseph was a year old. 
His education consisted of what the time and locality afforded, the sim- 
plest of its kind. He remained with his parents until his marriage, De- 
cember 8, 1859. in Boone Township, to Miss Mary Same, daughter of 
John and Cynthia (Denny) Same. By this union they had five children 
— Harriet, Simeon, Adaline, Schuyler and Maryette. Mr. Bryant made 
farming his life business, and continued the same until his death, which 


took place on July 7, 1875, at which time he owned 145 acres. With 
the aid of hired help, Mrs. Bryant has maintained the business. She has 
a good residence and a wind-mill on the place, also from twenty-five to 
thirty head of cattle, about 100 sheep and four horses. Mr. Bryant was 
and his wife is a member of the Christian Church. 

ELIAS BRYANT is a native of Boone Township, Porter Co., Ind,, 
and is a son of Simeon Bryant, who came to Porter County in 1835, and 
located on the land now owned by his son. At that period, the nearest 
white neighbor was four miles distant, and his sister, Margaret, was the 
first white girl born in the county. Simeon Bryant died on the farm ; 
his widow is yet living and active. The education of our subject was but 
that of the day, and poor. On November 20, 1867, he was married to 
Miss Fannie Adams, daughter of George W. Adams, a carpenter and 
farmer. Mr. Bryant continued to farm on the old homestead ; afterward 
he received thirty acres from his father; he then purchased fifteen acres, 
and later forty acres, making eighty-five acres, and he has fifty acres of 
pasture and timber land one-half mile distant. Mr. and Mrs. Bryant 
have four children — Julia, Emma, Lorentine and E. Edmond. Mrs. 
Bryant belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

JAMES E. BRYANT, stock, hay and grain dealer, is a native of 
Boone Township, Porter Co., Ind., and is one of the seven children of 
Simeon and Elizabeth (McCauley) Bryant, the former a native of Penn- 
sylvania, the latter of Ohio. The first instruction of James E. Bryant 
was in a log house in this township ; later, he attended college in Valpa- 
raiso for two years, and finally Blooraington University for one year. In 
1862, he enlisted in Company I, Fifth Indiana Cavalry, in which he 
served nearly three years, during which he was a prisoner seven months, 
having been captured at Sunshine Church, Ga. He was discharged June 
7, 1865, at Indianapolis. On April 27, 1871. he was married to Miss 
S, S. Pratt, daughter of C. N. and Sophia Pratt. They have one child, 
Nellie M. In 1869, he engaged in the hardware line with his brother, 
D. L. Bryant, of whom he purchased the stock and continued the busi- 
ness until 1878, when he adopted his present one. Mr. Bryant now 
owns the warehouse and half-interest in a hay barn with M. J. Stinch- 
field, under firm name of J. E. Bryant & Co. Mr. Bryant owns 320 
acres, having disposed of 240 in 1881. He has been Township Trustee 
two years, and Postmaster at Hebron for twelve years. Mr. and Mrs. 
Bryant are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

JAMES N. BUCHANAN, United Presbyterian minister, was born 
December 10, 1824, in the State of Ohio, and is the fourth child of 
Thomas and Nancy (Reed) Buchanan, both of Scotch-Irish descent. The 
boyhood of James N. Buchanan was passed partly in Licking County, 
and partly in Muskingum County, Ohio, where he entered Muskingum 
College at New Concord at fourteen years of age, where he remained 
nearly ten years. In the interim he taught a school, and graduated in 
1848. He then entered theTlieological Seminary at Oxford (now Xenia), 
Ohio, remaining until graduation in 1851, when he was licensed to preach. 
He removed to Hebron, Porter Co.. Ind. In 1845, while in college, 
he was married to Rosanna S. Alexander, daughter of William and Eliz- 
abeth (Lorimer) Alexander, of New Concord; she died in 1869, leaving 


eight children — William T., Nancy, Oscar R., Mary 0.,Emma A., Sam- 
uel A., Carrie M. and James H, His second marriage, to Mrs. Mary 
A. McCracken, took place in 1870. By the second marriage, he has four 
living children — Martha A., Rosanna M., Anna G. and Jay T. Mr. Bu- 
chanan is a pioneer of Porter County. He now resides on a farm one 
mile from town, in which he is assisted by his sons. 

A. A. BURWELL is a native of Richland (now Ashland) County, 
Ohio. His parents were natives of Connecticut. Our subject attended 
the usual schools, and afterward three terms at the Loudonville Academy 
in Ohio. He remained at home until after manhood, working on the 
farm in summer and teaching school during the winter. On April 10, 
1851, he was married to Miss Rebecca J. Oliver, a native of Ashland 
County, Ohio. In May, 1851, they came to their present location, and 
lived in a log house during the summer, but afterward built on land be- 
longing to his father. Subsequently he purchased 160 acres of farming 
land, and also sixty of timber. The home farm now comprises 240 acres, 
with a good house and other needed improvements. He handles hogs, 
cattle and has several head of horses. Mr. Burwell has been Trustee of 
Boone Township three terms. He and his wife are members of the Pres- 
byterian Church, having joined said church before its organization at 
Hebron, since which event he has been an Elder. 

A. G. CARMAN is a native of Tompkins County, N. Y., and a son 
of Harris and Annie Carman. The amount of learning acquired from 
the schools by our subject was very meager, in consequence of the cir- 
cumstances of his father. His parents emigrated to Lake County in 
1837, where neighbors were scarce, but deer, prairie chickens and wolves 
were plentiful. He was married, at Hebron, to Miss Hannah Young, 
who died October 2, 1848. His second marriage was also at Hebron, to 
Miss Cornelia A. Hoffman. To this union there succeeded four children 
— Jay, Charles H,, Morris and Jason. He came to his present home in 
May, 1848, where he has since mostly lived. His farm is productive, 
and he feeds fifteen to twenty hogs each year, besides horses and cattle. 
He is well established in all pertaining to the demands of a farm. Mr. 
and Mrs. Carman are members of the M. E. Church. 

C. G. CARMAN is a native of New York, and son of Morris and 
Ann (Gregg) Carman, who were both natives of New York, but died in 
this township. C. G. Carman was brought to Lake County by his parents 
in 1834, when four years of age, and is one of its pioneers. In his early 
youth, he attended a subscription school, and at the age of sixteen years 
he began the trade of a carpenter, serving two years, and which he fol- 
lowed until the war. In 1861, he enlisted in Company I, Twentieth 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, for three years, and was engaged in many 
important battles up to Gettysburg, and was discharged at Wilmington, 
Del., in 1865. He was twice wounded by the same ball — in the hand 
and left side of upper jaw, which caused much suffering. On returning, 
he engaged in carpentering for several years, and came to Hebron in its 
early days. On January 23, 1867, in White County, Ind., he was mar- 
ried to Miss Elizabeth 0. Carson, daughter of James and L. A. Carson. 
By this union they have had two children — Mary and Loren. Mrs. 
Carman is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 


JOSEPH C. CARSON, physician and surgeon, was born at Mal- 
vern, Ohio, November 29, 1850, and is a son of Matthew and Margaret 
J. (Knox) Carson, natives of Ireland; the former died in Indiana in 
18fi3, whither he came in 1861, and the latter is yet living in Porter 
Township, Porter Co., Ind. Joseph C. Carson first attended school at 
Hickory Point, then at Hebron, and later the high school at Valparaiso ; 
he then commenced teaching and attending normal school, so continuing 
until 1876, when he graduated in the scientific course and became Prin- 
cipal of the school at Hebron for two years. Durin^; this period, he 
studied medicine and the branches appertaining thereto, and attended a 
course of lectures at Columbus, Ohio, in 1878-79. He graduated in the 
Medical Department of Butler University at Indianapolis in 1880. He 
then returned to Hebron, where he has now a good practice. On April 
22, 1880, he was married to Miss Lizzie Cain. They are both members 
of the M. E. Church. 

THOMAS CLOWES was born in 1840, in the State of Michigan, 
and is a son of Charles L. and Edith Clowes, both natives of Virginia ; 
both died in Michigan, where the boyhood of Thomas was passed, and 
where he attended school — in Cassopolis — and where he remained until 
twenty-two years of age. At fourteen years of age he commenced to 
learn the trade of a painter. In 1864, he came to visit in Lake County, 
and afterward removed to Hebron, where, on June 12, 1866, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Mattie E. Johnson, of the family of Eli and Sarah Johnson. 
They have but one child — Edith. Mr. Clowes now made farming his 
principal business until 1882, when he procured a stock of groceries and 
provisions ; he also has a room for serving ice cream and lunches. Mr. 
and Mrs. Clowes are members of the Christian Church and most gener- 
ally respected. 

ROBERT DOUGLAS is a native of Burns, Scotland, and is a son of 
Samuel and Martha (McNabney) Douglas; his father was a native of 
Scotland, where his mother died. In company with three sons, his father 
landed in America at New York in 1879. Our subject had preceded him 
in 1872. He had been in the civil service in England. On the 16th of 
June, 1872, he reached Porter County, Ind., with but ^5 as his capital; 
notwithstanding this, however, by economy, perseverance and thrift, he 
got together money enough to purchase his present property, consisting 
of eighty acres, and also the necessary amount of stock found upon like- 
sized farms. On the 6th of April, 1875, in Porter County, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Alice McNabney, a native of Porter County, whose father 
was a farmer and had been a soldier in the Mexican war. This union 
was blessed with four children — Andrew M., Mary, Roscoe and Ida. 

CONNER DOWD was born in Ohio, and is the seventh of the nine 
children of Conner and Hannah (Graves) Dowd ; his father was a native 
of Ireland, his mother, of North Carolina; both died in Ohio. The boy- 
hood of our subject was passed in Ohio, where he received the learning of 
the common schools. In 1835, he was married to Miss Cynthia Pratt, 
daughter of Rufus and Martha (Merritt) Pratt, by whom he has two chil- 
dren living — Lucretia and James H. Mr. Dowd began farming on sixty 
acres, to which he afterward added forty acres; this he sold and emigrated 
to Lake County, where he purchased 120 acres, on which he lived and 


which he cultivated for twelve years, when he removed to 400 acres on 
Eagle Creek. He came to Hebron in 1873, where he is engaged in the 
hardware trade, and has a stqck of $4,000 to $5,000; he owns his store 
site, as well as a house and lot. Mr. Dowd was Township Trustee sev- 
eral years in Vinton County, Ohio. Both he and his wife are members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, with which they united about 1832. 

HUGH FICKLE is a native of Perry County, Ohio, and is a son of 
William and Ann Fickle. His grandfather was a native of Germany; 
came to America and purchased land, for which, owing to previous claims, 
he had to pay a second and a third time. Hugh Fickle received but a 
meager education in Ohio, among the hills ; he was married in Perry 
County, Ohio, to Miss Isabella Hazlett, who died February 12, 1862, 
leaving two children — Sarah J. and Martha A. (both deceased). Having 
received 320 acres of woodland from his father, he built a house and be- 
gan clearing, on which he lived until 1864. Of this he gave 160 acres 
to each of his daughters, sold the balance, and removed to Porter County. 
In 1864, he purchased 340 acres ; then went to Ohio, where he purchased 
the old farm. On returning, he purchased his present place; he has con- 
siderable stock, and usually ships two car-loads of hogs every year; his 
second marriage was to Mrs. Oliver, to which union there have been born 
three children — David B., Charles A. and John H. Mr. and Mrs. Fickle 
are members of the United Presbyterian Church, of which Mr. Fickle 
has been a Ruling Elder for thirty years. 

D. A. FISHER is a native of the State of Indiana, where he was 
born in 1855 ; he is the eldest of the four children of William and Nancy 
(Bryant) Fisher, both living in Lake County. The schooling obtained 
by D. A. Fisher was first received at a district school, and afterward at 
the Normal School of Valparaiso, which he attended five terms ; he then 
engaged in farming. On June 7, 1876, he was married to Miss E. L. 
Bliss, daughter of W. 0. Bliss, native of the State of New York, and a 
farmer. Mr. Fisher continued farming until 1881, at which time he en- 
gaged in his present business of hardware dealing at Hebron, where he 
has a fine location and an excellent trade, carrying a stock worth $1,500 
to $2,000. In 1879, Mr. Fisher visited Colorado and other Western 
points, being absent about eight months. 

WILLIAM FRY, was born in Crawford County, Penn., March 7, 
1833, and is a son of John and Hannah (Meeker) Fry. His parents 
moved to Porter County in 1846, and wintered near Valparaiso, where 
his father died; his mother, with the children, soon moved to Boone Town- 
ship, where she died. William Fry's opportunities for acquiring educa- 
tion were very narrow; he remained on the farm until twenty-four years 
old, when he went into the lumber business in the pines of Indiana, at 
which he continued two years. While there, he was married to Miss 
Sarah J. Wallace, daughter of James and Sarah A. Wallace. Mr. Fry 
returned and sold liis heirship; he now owns 200 acres of his homestead, 
and sixty-four acres in another tract ; his farm is well improved and 
stocked, and very pro'luctive; he raises from twenty-five to thirty hogs 
and cattle every year, with five or six horses ; likewise a full line of staple 
crops. Mr. and Mrs. Fry have had seven children — Orville M., Ira V., 
Harriet E., Ancil C, John W., William (deceased), and Florence J. 
Both himself and wife are members of the Congregational Church. 



WILLIAM GIBBS was born in Athens County, Ohio, April 6, 
1829, and is a son of Hiram and Elizabeth (Shanks) Gibbs, the former a 
native of Vermont, the latter of Virginia. The father died at Hickory 
Point; the mother is yet living in Lowell, Lake County. William Gibbs 
had but meager opportunities to acquire learning from the schools. He 
came to Porter County, Ind., with his parents, in 1845, and located on a 
farm. In 18-46, he came to Lake County. After his father's death, he 
was commissioned to manage the farm, which he did until he was twenty- 
eight years old, at which time he was married to Miss Mary Gordon, 
daughter of Joseph and Ruth Gordon, by which marriage he had one 
child — Laura. After this, he farmed for five years, then peddled dry 
goods and notions, and later, in 1868, settled in the furniture and agri- 
cultural goods business at Hebron ; this he continued until 1878, when 
he moved West to improve his wife's health ; this failing, he returned in 
187-9, and in 1880 she passed away. He was made Justice of the Peace 
in 1878, and in 1879 engaged in the insurance business, in which he 
has remained. His second marriage was to Miss Mary A. Guinn, daugh- 
ter of John D. and Eliza Guinn, by which union there was one child — 
Otto W. Mr. Gibbs is a correspondent for several newspapers. Both 
he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

JOHN GIDLEY is a native of England, and a son of John and 
Mary (Maddock) Gidley, both natives of England. His parents came to 
America in 1833, and moved to Porter County, Ind., in 1840, locating 
one mile east of Hebron, where they died. Owing to the early appren- 
tice system of England, our subject obtained but a meager education be- 
fore his tenth year, when he was bound to a farmer, from whom his un- 
expired term of six years was purchased when he came away. On coming 
to this country, he engaged in boating on Lake Erie, and afterward drove 
stage in Michigan, and reached Porter County, Ind., in 1838. At Shel- 
byville, Shelby Co., Ind., December 12, 1837, he was married to Miss 
Mary Davis, daughter of Archibald and Sandal Davis, a native of Ken- 
tucky. To this union succeeded eight children — Mary S., Elizabeth A., 
(deceased), Sarah (deceased), John A., Louisa P., Andrew B., Henry W. 
(deceased) and George W. Mr. Gidley first farmed on rented land, 
afterward purchasing twenty acres, and adding forty, and later, eighty 
acres thereto, until he had 180, on which he lived until 1879, when he 
retired to Hebron, to live in ease and comfort. Mr. and Mrs. Gidley 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and among the first in 
Hebron at its organization. Mr. Gidley has been Steward and Trustee 
for thirty years. 

DAVID HURLBURT was born in Athens County, Ohio, March 4, 
1816, and is the eighth of the nine children of Reuben and Rachel (John- 
son) Hurlburt, the former a native of New Jersey, and the latter of 
Pennsylvania. His parents moved to what is now Porter County in 
1834 ; both died in Porter Township. David Hurlburt was seventeen 
years of age when he settled in the wilderness, and his opportunities for 
schooling were the very worst. In 1851, he was married to Miss Eliza- 
beth Spafford, a native of Wayne County, Ohio, and daughter of Chester 
and Margaret SpafFord. This union was fruitful by three children — 
Chester, Edith A. and Ruth S. Mr. Hurlburt continued farming in Porter 


Township, where he owned 160, and to which he added forty-five acres ; 
this he sold and purchased eighty acres, to which he added, by degrees, 
until it embraces 320 acres. He came to his present farm in 1872, and 
before giving his children portions, he possessed 700 acres ; he also has 
thirty head of cattle, 100 hogs and twenty-five milch cows, and will aver- 
age 200 tons of hay per year. Mrs. Hurlburt is a member of the Chris- 
tian Church. 

SAMUEL IRVIN is a native of Ohio, and a son of William and 
Martha (Brooks) Irvin, his father a native of North Carolina, and his 
mother of Virginia. The opportunities for education by the schools were 
very few to S. Irvin, who could not attend after his tenth year. In 1845, 
he moved to Porter County, Ind., locating in Porter Township and farm- 
ing there, where he lived nine years. He was married in Montgomery 
County, Ohio, to Miss Ann C. Keller, daughter of John and Magdalene 
Keller. In 1854, Mr. Irvin removed to Chicago, where he engaged in 
brewing until 1857 ; then returned to Valparaiso, where he erected the 
first brewery in the county, and afterward engaged in railroad carpenter- 
ing on the railway through Hebron, and also general carpentering. Mr. 
and Mrs. Irvin have had four children — William G., Alpheus A., Eddie 
S. and Annie B., living ; and Luman, Alice and Sarah, deceased. Mr. 
Irvin was County Assessor three years, and Assessor of Boone Township 
fifteen years. Both himself and wife are members of the Christian 

JOSEPH KITHCART was born in Westmoreland County, Penn., 
in 1819, and is the eldest of the ten children of Thomas and Deborah 
(Wright) Kithcart, both natives of Pennsylvania; they died in Ohio, 
having been pioneers of Richland, now Ashland, County. Joseph received 
what education was afforded at a district school, and, as soon as he became 
able, took charge of the farm, remaining until his twenty-fifth year. On 
August 29, 1844, he was married to Miss Mary J. White, a native of 
Ohio. Joseph Kithcart commenced farming on the forty acres given to 
him by his father, and which he improved. This he sold and removed 
to Auburn, De Kalb Co., Ind., and engaged in the grocery business. His 
wife died in Ohio, leaving two children — Thomas W. and Martha. His 
second marriage was to Phebe A. Barber, a native of Ohio ; this wife 
died in Auburn, leaving two children — Mary J. and J. C. His third 
marriage, in Ohio, was to May G. Tannehill, of Ohio, by whom he has 
four children— L. Ella, Charles T., Clark and Goldie. 'in 1868, Mr. 
Kithcart came to Porter County, where he bought 257 acres and made 
improvements. Mr. and Mrs. Kithcart are members of the Christian 

G. W. MAXWELL is a native of Franklin County, Ind., and a son 
of James and Mary (Thorn) Maxwell, the former a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, the latter of Maryland. The education of G. W. Maxwell was 
limited to what could be acquired in pioneer days, his father dying when 
he was two years old. In February, 1853, he was married, in Decatur 
County, Ind., to Miss Martha A. Belt, a native of Ohio : her father was 
a farmer, and her mother a nurse. Mr. Maxwell moved to Lake County 
in 1856, and engaged in farming, purchasing 80 acres, and also 40 in 
Porter County, where he removed in 1871, and located one mile south of 


town on 120 acres, on which he lived until removing to Hebron, one year 
ago, leaving the farm to the care of his son. His wife died July 9, 1853. 
His second marriage was to Miss Margaret Downs, a native of Franklin 
County, Ind., by whom he had five children — William, George R., Albert 
F., Mary E. and Bertha. Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell are members of the 
Christian Church, of which the former is a Deacon and likewise Treasurer. 

J. L. McALPIN is a native of Highland County, Ohio, where he 
lived until eighteen years of age, his father dying when he was one year 
old. The advantages being poor, he got but a scant education, being- 
necessitated to work on his mother's farm, and with whom he came 
to this State and located in Boone Township in 1844. In 1848, he was 
married to Miss Sarah Dinwiddle, daughter of Thomas Dinwiddle, 
farmer. By this union there were born nine children — Mary L., 
Augusta, Eliza J., Susie I., Emma (deceased), Maggie, John S. (de- 
ceased), James P. (deceased) and J. D. Mr. McAlpin commenced on 
sixty acres, then sold, and purchased his present farm of sixty acres, on 
which he has since lived. To this he has added until his farm now 
embraces ninety acres, with twenty acres of timber in the wet lands. 
This farm is one mile south of Hebron, and fine soil. In 1862, Mrs. 
McAlpin died, and he was married to his second wife, Miss Mary 
J. Morrow, by whom he has had seven children — Harry, William, Ber- 
nard, Carl, Freddie, Ina and Benjamin (deceased). Mr. and Mrs. 
McAlpin belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

JOHN McINTYIlE is a native of Washington County, Penn., and 
moved to Ohio with his parents, where he resided from the time of his 
tenth year until manhood. In the month of March, 1848, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Rebecca Carson, a native of Ireland, whose parents were 
farmers. In 1852, Mr. Mclntyre settled on his present farm of 120 
acres, which he had recently purchased. He has a good place, and culti- 
vates corn, oats and hay. Mr. and Mrs. Mclntyre have had a family of 
six children — Samuel, who is in Colorado ; Robert, deceased ; James, 
deceased ; William A., Robert and Rebecca A., who are single and live 
at home. 

WILSON B. MORROW is a native of the State of Ohio, and the 
second of the six children of William and Eliza (McAlpin) Morrow, the 
former a native of Ohio, the latter of Virginia, who died in Boone 
Township in 1872, where Mr. William Morrow is now living. Wilson 
B. Morrow, when two years old, came with his parents to Boone Town- 
ship, Porter County, Ind. His school days were passed in a log struct- 
ure. He remained on the farm until 1872, when he came to Hebron 
and engaged in the stock, hay and grain business with Mr. Bryant, under 
the firm name of Bryant & Morrow, which was continued nearly ten 
years. In 1882, he purchased the entire stock of general merchandise 
of William E. Sweney, having $5,000 worth of goods, and leading in his 
business. On January 8, 1863, he was married to Miss Margaret G. 
Hildreth, daughter of Gabriel and Betsey J. (Wilson) Hildreth. Mr. 
and Mrs. Morrow have five living children — Ninetta, John, Elsie, Ernest 
and Charles. 

G. C. MOSIER, retired farmer, was born in Hanover, Germany, 
and is a son of Frederick and Louisa (Herborg) Mosier. The former 


died in Germany. In 1838, G. C. Mosier came to Indiana and located 
in La Porte City, where he learned carriage painting. On October 26, 
1856, he was married to Miss Christina Fehrman, daughter of George 
and Christina Fehrman, by whom there succeeded five children — George, 
Rose (now Mrs. McKay), Samuel, Lucy and Alfred. Mr. Mosier now 
commenced farming in Union Township, Porter County, where he owned 
320 acres, and on which he lived seven years. This he sold and went to 
Valparaiso and engaged in real estate business. Seven years later, he 
removed to Hebron, Porter County. Here he deals in real estate, but 
engaged in merchandising for one year. Mr. Mosier owns two acres in 
the central part of town and some town lots on the west side of Main 
street. He served as Justice of the Peace in Union Township for four 
years, and six years in Hebron, also seven months in Valparaiso. In 
the spring of 1882, he was elected to the same position. 

WILLIAM M. NELSON is a native of Bedford County, Penn. 
His father was a native of England and his mother of Pennsylvania. 
William received the usual amount of education at the common schools, 
and, before manhood, learned the trade of blacksraithing from his father. 
At the age of twenty-two, he took charge of his father's shop in Ander- 
sonville, Franklin Co., Ind. On October 1, 1864, he was married to 
Miss E. M. Scott, born in Rush County, Ind., of which county 
her parents were pioneers. This union was blessed with four children — 
John S., Leora E., Alpha A. and Jennie. In 1867, Mr. Nelson came to 
Hebron, where he has since lived, and formed a partnership with Mr. 
Paramore in the blacksmithing trade ; this continued two years, when he 
rented and afterward purchased a shop of his own, and which is one of 
the leading ones in the town. He is a much-respected citizen. Mr. 
and Mrs. Nelson are members of the Christian Church. 

HERSCHEL J. NICHOLS was born in Ohio December 22, 1849, 
and was the first child of Jacob and Elizabeth (Hite) Nichols, both of Ger- 
man descent; his father lives at Creston, Lake Co., Ind.; his mother 
died in Lake County in June, 1871. The boyhood of Herschel J. 
Nichols was passed on a farm ; he attended the district schools, and also 
Ball's school, at Crown Point, one year ; then engaged as a clerk at Lowell 
for five years, afterward beginning for himself as a merchant at Leroy, 
and then came to Hebron, where he managed a store for Mr. Sweney 
two years, after which he purchased the present entire stock of Bryant, 
and has continued the business. He has now an $8,000 stock and one 
of the principal stores in the place. He is also in the regular shipping 
business, shipping hay at all seasons of the year. In 1872, he was mar- 
ried to Maria Lambert, daughter of Cornelius Lambert, a union blessed 
with three children — Virgil, Marshall and Floyd. Mr. Nichols was 
elected Township Trustee in 1882. 

H. J. RATHBUN is a native of New York, and a son of Harry 
and Mary (Malatt) Rathbun, both natives of New York : his parents 
became residents of Ohio when our subject was two years old, where they 
afterward died. H. J. Rathbun's boyhood was passed in Ohio, where 
he obtained some education from the common schools, remaining with 
his parents until he was twenty-four years old ; he moved to Lake 
County, Ind., on February 22, 1854 ; he was married June 5, 1860, to 


Miss Alice Bates, a native of Michigan, but a resident of Porter County. 
Four children blessed this union — Harry (deceased), Grace, Augusta 
(deceased) and Roy. Mr. and Mrs. Rathbun have lived in Boone 
Township since their marriage, except a three years' absence in Porter 
township. Mr. Rathbun has a charming farm of 383 acres, all in the 
home place except thirty-eight acres ; he makes seventy-five tons of hay 
annually ; has twelve to fifteen horses, and has raised many sheep. Mr. 
and Mrs. Rathbun are members of the Christian Church. 

L. P. SCOTT, station agent at Hebron, is a native of Cavendish, 
Windsor Co., Vt., and a son of Isaac and Polly (Eaton) Scott — the 
former a native of Vermont, and the latter of Connecticut, both of 
whom died in Welshfield, Ohio. L. P. Scott received a fair education, 
having attended, in addition to the common schools, a select school in the 
winters ; he afterward learned the trade of a carpenter. On September 
1, 1852, at Ravenna, Ohio, he was married to Miss Emma M. Pool, a 
native of Eastern New York. Mr. Scott engaged in stock dealing for a 
number of years, and afterward in merchandising at Welshfield, Ohio; 
he moved to Hebron, Porter County, in the spring of 1869, and became 
station agent, which office he now holds ; he is a Mason and an Odd 
Fellow, and likewise a member of Valparaiso Commandery, No. 28, of 

H. W. SHAFER was born in Knox County, Ohio, October 17, 
1834, and is the eighth of the twelve children of Michael and Nancy 
(Ireland) Shafer ; the former a native of Pennsylvania, the latter of 
Ohio ; both died in Hancock County, Ohio. The early education of H. 
W. Shafer was begun in the county school of Hancock County ; he 
remained with his parents until his eighteenth year, when he became a 
clerk at Huntsville, Logan Co., Ohio, where he remained five years, 
during which time he bought considerable stock, and thence went to Chi- 
cago, where he dealt in horses and cattle for four or five years. In 
1860, he came to Crown Point, Lake Co., Ind., and engaged in stock 
dealing and shipping, and purchased eighty acres. At the blast of war, 
he enlisted in Company A, Ninety-ninth Regiment Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry, but before being mustered in was commissioned First Lieuten- 
ant; he served nearly three years and was wounded at Resaca, Ga., 
captured at Sunshine Church and imprisoned, but escaped on the road to 
Columbia, S. C; he was retaken after seventeen days, and returned to Co- 
lumbia Prison; he subsequently escaped and was re-captured several times, 
and finally got away from rebeldom and was discharged at Indianapolis ; 
he was afterward married to Miss Louisa Skelton, who died in 1872, 
leaving three children — Owen, Erwin and Robert; his second marriage 
was to Miss Nan R. Reicketts, of Hancock County, Ohio, by which 
union he had three children — Clara, Ray and May. Mr. Shafer now 
owns 200 acres, all under cultivation. 

JOHN SKELTON is a native of Pennsylvania, and a son of Robert 
and Susan Skelton, both natives of Pennsylvania. The grandfather of 
our subject was a Revolutionary soldier. The early education of John 
Skelton consisted only of what he learned in a country school. When 
thirteen years of age, he went to learn blacksmithing in Philadelphia, at 
which he served four years. This he followed for eighteen years, when 


he was compelled to seek a less laborious vocation, and he commenced a 
general store in Kewanna, Fulton Co., Ind., continuing eight years. 
In 1865, he removed to Hebron, Porter Co., Ind., where he sold 
hardware and groceries. In 1877, he dropped hardware, and three 
years later commenced his present business, where he is always on hand 
for trade. On March 4, 1845, he was married to Miss Emily C. Norris, 
daughter of Arthur and Catherine Norris. To this union were born 
four children — John, Leah and Charles (all married) and Louisa (deceased). 
Mr. Skelton was Township Trustee two years and Justice of the Peace 
in Fulton County four years. Both himself and wife are members of the 
Presbyterian Church. 

J. C. SMITH was born in Pennsylvania, May 4, 1846, and is one 
of the ten children of William and Philista Smith ; the father a native of 
New York, the mother of Maine. J. C. Smith was brought by his par- 
ents to Porter County, Ind., when seven years of age, locating in Val- 
paraiso, where he attended the common schools. He afterward learned 
the coopering trade, which he followed for ten years in the village of 
Hebron. He then engaged in the restaurant business for one year, and 
in his present business (grocery) in 1879 — at that time with a stock of 
but ilOO, but now with one of $2,000 ; he has the leading trade in his line 
in the town, sales for the year reaching $15,000. On February 22, 
1871, he was married to Miss Calista Allen, daughter of Benjamin and 
Clarissa Allen. Mr. and Mrs. Smith are members of the Christian 
Church. Mr, Allen is a Republican, and a strong political worker. 

THOMAS C. SWENEY, farmer and surveyor, was born August 
7, 1807, at Gettysburgh, Penn. His parents died in Ohio. His early 
education was begun in a log schoolhouse in Adams County, Penn. At 
the age of eighteen, he began teaching, and at the age of twenty-one was 
appointed Surveyor of Crawford County, Ohio, which position he filled 
for ten years. In 1835, he was united in marriage to Margaret Dinwid- 
dle. To this union there were born three children — William E., John 
M. and H. D. Mrs. Sweney died in 1874. In 1837, he emigrated to 
Porter County, Ind., locating near Hebron, on Horse Prairie. Mr. 
Sweney left the prairie in 1875, and divided his property with his chil- 
dren. In the beginning, one had to drive forty miles to a mill, and to 
Michigan City and Chicago for marketing and produce. The nearest 
post office was at La Porte, forty miles distant. Mr. :>weney was ap- 
pointed Surveyor in 1839, and held the office twelve years, during which 
period he selected the swamp lands of the county. Previous to dividing 
among his children, he owned 400 acres ; he now owns a fine brick 
business room, with hall above and basement. Mr. Sweney is a member 
of the Presbyterian Church, as was also his wife. 

D. L. SWENEY is a native of Crawford County, Ohio, and the 
youngest of the three sons of Isaac and Emily (Farling) Sweney. His 
father was a native of Pennsylvania ; his mother died when he was one 
year and a half old, and he was brought up by a step-mother. His father 
and family moved to Porter County, Ind., about the year 1839, when 
our subject was four years old, where he attended a district school ; he 
also received instruction for two winters at the Valparaiso Seminary. 
When he was twenty-one years of age, he took charge of and managed 


his father's fann. On April 10, 1860, he was married to Miss Hannah 
J. Fry, daughter of John and Hannah Fry. Mrs. Sweney died January 
23, 1879, leaving five children — Emily, John, Ida, Bertha and Ora. She 
was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as is also her husband. 
After his marriage, Mr. Sweney lived on his father's farm twelve years, 
when he moved to Hebron, where he has since remained ; he now has 
about one hundred acres, also a good town property. 

C. L. TANNEHILL was born in Richland County (now Green 
Township, Ashland County), Ohio, September 26, 1825, and is the sixth 
of the twelve children of Charles and Mary (Oliver) Tannehill, the 
former a native of Pennsylvania, the latter of Maryland. The educa- 
tion of our subject comprises the curriculum of the common schools ; he 
learned farming and the trade of a currier before manhood. In 1850, he 
went to California and engaged in mining, at which he saved enough to 
come back and purchase 160 acres of his present farm. On September 
8, 1853, he was married to Miss Kancy A. Burwell, a native of Ohio. 
To this union followed eight children — Mary R., Eugene (deceased), 
Eliza E., Candas L., Sarah A., Ora A., Charles B. and Annie J. Mr. 
Tannehill moved to his present home in 1853, comprising, by recent ad- 
ditions, 428 acres ; he has been a very successful farmer, and feeds 
fifty head of hogs and thirty of cattle ; he also has ten horses, and pro- 
duces yearly about one hundred tons of hay. Mrs. Tannehill is a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian Church. 

N. B. WARD is a native of the State of Ohio, and the fifth of the 
six children born to Alfred and Fannie Ward, both of whom died in Ohio, 
when our subject was in tender years. N. B. Ward remained at home 
until he was seventeen years of age, when he commenced to hire out by 
the month. In Lake County, Ind., at Hickory Point, he was united in 
marriage to Miss Louisa Nichols, daughter of William and Parmelia 
Nichols, whose father was a farmer, and whose mother died at Hickory 
Point. Mr. and Mrs. Ward have two children — Schuyler and Harris. 
Mr. Ward now began farming on 120 acres, which he owned in Eagle 
Creek Township, Lake County, on which he lived five years. This he 
sold and removed to Hickory Point, and farmed land of his father-in-law ; 
he afterward purchased 108 acres of his present farm, which now com- 
prises 160, within half a mile of town, and very productive in hay ; he 
also has considerable stock. Mr. and Mrs. Ward are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

E. WARD was born in the State of Ohio March 10, 1835, and is 
the youngest of the seven children of Alfred and Fannie (Loomis) Ward ; 
both died in Ohio when our subject was very young. E. Ward, not hav- 
ing a strong love for school, did not receive a very high education in his 
youth, having to labor on the farm. When sixteen years old, he came to 
Lake County, Ind., and when twenty years old began business for him- 
self. He owned 159 acres in Horse Prairie, of which he has since sold 
ten acres. He has three lots in Hebron, on one of which he has a resi- 
dence, business room, barn and outbuildings. On December 16, 1860, 
he was married, at Hickory Point, to Miss Sarah A. Nichols, daughter of 
William A. and Parmelia Nichols. To this union followed two children 
— Alfred G. and Addie B. Mr. Ward carries a fine general stock, and 


has a large trade. He owns ten acres adjoining Hebron. Mr. and Mrs. 
Ward are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

OLIVER S. WOOD, M. D., was born in Lake County, Ind., and 
istheyoungestof the eight children of John and Hannah E. (Pettee) Wood, 
both of English descent and American birth ; his mother died in Lake 
County, where his father is yet living. Dr. Wood's earliest lessons were 
had at the district school ; he afterward, at the age of twelve, entered an 
academy at Valparaiso, where he continued three years, thence going to 
Chicago and graduating in book-keeping ; he afterward returned to Val- 
paraiso, and engaged in the grocery business for four years ; he enlisted, 
in 1861, in the Ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, in which he was band 
leader, but quit the service after nine months, on account of defective 
hearing ; removed to Kansas, where he conducted a stock-farm for four 
years. In 1876, at Deep River, Lake County, he commenced the prac- 
tice of medicine, but came to Hebron in 1879, where he has since been in 
active practice. In 1864, he was married to Miss Charity R. Farnham, 
daughter of Charles and S. A. Farnham. Their union was blessed with 
four children — Lottie B., Clayton, Carlton and Leta. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wood are members of the Unitarian Church. 


WILLIAM J. BARNES was born in Somerset County, Penn.,. 
September 10, 1829. He is the third child of a family of thirteen born 
to Asahel and Amy (Watts) Barnes ; twelve of this family are yet living, 
our subject and a sister residing in this county. The parents of our sub- 
ject moved from Pennsylvania to Canada when he was very young, and 
there resided till 1860, when the family scattered. His mother died in 
1863, his father being alive in Michigan, and in his eighty-second year. 
Our subject began at fourteen years of age to Avork by the month, and so 
continued until eighteen years old, when he learned the carpenter trade. 
In 1851 and 1852, he traveled through the West, trading with the Indians, 
and working one season on the Mississippi River. He came to Porter 
County on December 29, 1854, settling in Prattville, where he worked as 
a carpenter five years, and then settled on his present farm of 133 acres. 
He was married November 25, 1855, to Margaret J. Babcock, who was 
born in Porter County November 7, 1836 ; she is a daughter of Clark 
Babcock, an early settler. To this union five children were born — Amy 
A., wife of William Stoner, of Washington Township ; Carrie J., wife of 
Lucian Crumpacker, of Butler County, Neb.; Martha S., Ira C. and 
Dale E. Mr. Barnes is a member of the Grand Temperance Council of 
Indiana, and one of the Porter County committee of workers for temper- 
ance reform. Politically, he is a Republican. 

JAMES BAUM, one of the pioneers of Porter County, was born 
in Crawford County, Penn., February 4, 1799, and is a son of John and 
Catherine (Randolph) Baura. His mother died when he was an infant, 
and he was reared by his grandmother. His father remarried, and he 
resided with him until his majority ; his father had been an Indian spy 


during the war of 1812. Our subject also served as a wagoner in that 
war. He moved with his parents to Stark County, Ohio in 181-4, and 
he heard the roar of Perry's battle in that year on Lake Erie. His father 
subsequently removed from Stark County, Ohio, to St. Joseph County, 
Mich., where he died. Our subject removed from Stark County to Rich- 
land County in 1823, residing there until 1835, when he came to Porter 
County. His land was purchased at the land sales of 1835, he now hav- 
ing 3l0 acres of excellent soil. He was married, in Stark County, to 
Rebecca Miller, of Huntingdon County, Penn., a daughter of Peter 
Miller. Mr. and Mrs. Baum have had nine children — John, Jesse, Peter 
M., Enoch ; Lavina, deceased; Lucinda, wife of J. Bushore, of Iowa; 
James W.: Rebecca J., wife of William Wickell, of Kansas; and Sarah 
J., deceased. His children are all married, his eldest son having been in 
California and Oregon for thirty-five years. In politics, Mr. Baum is a 
stanch Democrat, his first vote having been cast for Gen. Jacksoa in 
1824. Mrs. Baum is a member of the Christian Church. 

JAMES W. BAUM is a son of James and Rebecca (Miller) Baum, 
and was born in Porter County, Ind., September 21, 1837. Mr. Baum 
lived with his parents until after his majority, receiving the usual 
school education of the time. His business has been farming, and that 
alone, since boyhood, he not having learned any trade. On September 
21, 1861, he was married to Marian Axe, a daughter of Jacob and Agnes 
C. (Cornell) Axe. She was born November 16, 1842; her parents were 
early settlers, taking up a home near the city of Valparaiso, in 1836, 
where they resided until her father's death ; her mother is now living 
in Delaware County, Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Baum have had a family of 
seven children, four of whom are living — Fannie, Allen, Ross and Lol- 
lie. Mr. Baum has an attractive and valuable farm comprising forty 
acres of land. He is a Democrat, but liberal in his political views, and 
generally esteemed. 

HARMON BEACH, one of the early settlers of Porter County, was 
born in Litchfield County, Conn., May 8, 1812. He is one of six chil- 
dren born to Ezra and Polly (Stoddard) Beach, all of whom are living in 
this county. His parents were born, reared and married in Connecticut. 
They moved to Canada about 1818, where they resided until 1840, when 
they came to Porter County, remaining until their death. Our subject 
came to Porter County in 1837; he received a fair education, and learned 
the occupation of carpenter and joiner, at which he worked about twelve 
years. On coming here, he purchased the farm he still occupies. He 
now owns 1,038 acres of land in this county, besides 120 acres in Mon- 
tana. He was married, September 15, 1855, to Olive Crane, of New 
York, but at the time a resident of Porter County ; she is a daughter of 
Jesse and Joanna Crane, and was born in 1830. They have had a family 
of five children — Mary, Eugene and Clara living, and Lester and Ella 
dead. At the time Mr. Beach came to this county, there were many 
Indians in the neighborhood, his farm being one of their hunting grounds. 
The prosperity of our subject, and his possessions, are to be attributed, 
mainly, with a good share of fortune, to his industry and economy. He 
is a Democrat in politics, but a very liberal one. 

WILLARD BEACH is the son of Lyman and Leva (Judd) Beach, 
and was born in Canada December 5, 1836. His parents were natives 


of Connecticut, moving from that State to Canada at an early day, thence 
raovincr hither and settling on Morgan Prairie in 1838, where they re- 
sided until 1867, at that period moving to Jackson Township, their pres- 
ent residence. Mr. Willard Beach has obtained a reasonably fair educa- 
cation, and has followed the primitive life of a farmer since his boyhood. 
He came to the place on which he lives, and which he owns, in 1867 ; it 
comprises ninety acres, and is well improved. On January 1, 1861, he 
was married to Hannah Peoples, who died June 8, 18 ('4, leaving a family 
of six children — Leva, Lyman, Ella, Wilden, Walter and Ralph. On 
December 23, 1874, he was married to Rosanna Adams, a native of this 
county, and born in 1835 ; she is a member of the Christian Church. By 
this second marriage he has had two children born to him — Mattie and 
Stella ; both of whom, however, are dead. Mr. Beach is a Democrat, but 
one of the most liberal of that shade of political opinion. 

JARED BLAKE, one of the early settlers of Porter County, was 
born in La Porte County, Ind., December 16, 1835 ; he is one of a 
family of seven children born to Jacob and Eleanor (Walton) Blake, four 
of whom are living — three in this county and one in Kansas. His par- 
ents were born, reared and married in what is now West Virginia, whence 
they emigrated to Jackson County, Ohio, stopping there a short time 
before going to La Porte County, Ind., and thence coming to Porter 
County in 1836, where his father died in 1844 ; his mother died in this 
township in 1870. Jared Blake lived at home until he was of age, 
having always followed the occupation of a farmer, and being now 
owner of 130 acres in this township, 100 of which are improved. He 
was married January 15, 1868, to Amelia Beach, of this county, 
born May 29, 1848 ; she is a daughter of Sheldon Beach. To 
this union five children have been given — Frank W., Alice A., Otto V., 
Harry S. and Laura P. Mr. Blake was a soldier in the war against the 
rebellion, having enlisted in Company H, One Hundred and Forty-sixth 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, in 1864, under Capt. Sparks, remaining until 
the close of the war. He was one of the guards at the obsequies of the 
lamented President Lincoln, in 1865. 

ISAAC V. BOND, born in Wayne County, Ind., is one of seven 
born to Jesse and Mary (Vore) Bond, three of whom live in this State 
and one in California. His father was a native of North Carolina, his 
mother of Pennsylvania ; they came to Indiana before its admission as a 
State, remaining until 1831, when they removed to Kalamazoo County, 
Mich.; thence to La Porte County, Ind., where they resided until their 
decease, his mother dying in 1878, and his father in 1882. Our subject 
received a fair education, and has taught several terms. When about 
twenty-five years old, he visited the Southern States, and in 1850, the 
" land of gold" — California. In this adventure, he was three times ship- 
wrecked and three times paid passage ; he engaged in mining, and after 
in saw-milling, remaining two years, and returning by way of Central 
America, and reaching La Porte in 1853. Here he was married, on Sep- 
tember 10, of the same year, to Mary E. Rogers, of La Porte County, 
when he settled to farming, but after eleven years made an overland trip 
to Idaho in 1864. He has visited nineteen States, nine Territories and 
Central and South America, having traveled over 33,000 miles, gaining 


much information and many curiosities. He came to Porter County, 
Ind., in December, 1864, settling on the land he now has — ninety-one 
acres. His wife died October 10, 1875, leavin^: two children — William 
A. and Frank A., both farmers. His second marriage was to Martha H. 
Underwood (O'Hara), and took place February 15, 1882 ; she is a daugh- 
ter of John and Mary Underwood, old settlers of La Porte County. 
Mr. Bond is a stanch Republican, and has been Assessor of Washing- 
ton Township ; he is a Quaker in religion, and a Freemason. Mrs. 
Bond belongs to the M. E, Church. 

A. L. BROWN, son of Joseph and Susan (Carter) Brown, was born 
in Spencer County, Ind., February 4, 1830 ; the youngest of thirteen 
children, five of whom are living. Our subject and a brother in Valpa- 
raiso represent the family in this county ; his father was a native of Vir- 
ginia, his mother of North Carolina ; his grandparents came from Ken- 
tucky to Spencer County, Ind., in company with Abraham Lincoln's 
parents, in 1816, living as neighbors many years. Mr. Brown's father 
came to this county about 1885, where he lived until his death, August 3, 
1850 ; he was a farmer, a Democrat and an admirer of fine horses. Our 
subject, at the age of thirteen, left Spencer County with an older brother 
and went to Missouri, where he remained seven years, returning to Por- 
ter County in 1849, and here he has since resided. In his youth, he 
learned the tobacco and cigar making trade, but has, by preference, fol- 
lowed farming; he has now two farms, comprising 360 acres, about 250 
of which are cultivated ; he has also good buildings and various improve- 
ments. On October 4, 1853, he was married to Catharine Malone, 
daughter of Wilson Malone ; they have a family of six children — Ella 
(wife of Benjamin Flood, of La Porte County), Cassius (married and liv- 
ing in this township), Frederick, William, Walter and Aaron. In poli- 
tics, Mr. Brown is a Democrat, but an extremely liberal one. 

WILLIAM T. BROWN was born in Mississippi County, Mo., Sep- 
tember 11, 1848, and is the son of Prester and Mahala (Beckwith) Brown, 
who were natives of this State, and settled in this county in 1849, on 
Morgan Prairie. His occupation since boyhood has been mainly farming, 
although he has worked at the carpenter's trade. He has at the present 
time a very excellent farm of 190 acres, the greater part of which has 
been cleared and improved by himself. Not having the best opportuni- 
ties for acquiring knowledge in his youth, his education is somewhat 
limited. For several years he has done considerable threshing, being the 
owner of a good steam threshing machine. On July 2, 1873, he was 
married to Indiana Shinabarger, a native of this county. To this union 
a family of two children have resulted — Nattie and Myron. Mr. Brown 
is a Democrat, but one of the liberal stamp. He is a fair business man. 
and in the affairs of life has been reasonably successful. 

JAMES BUNDY was born in Fayette County, Ind., May 5, 1826. 
and is a son of James and Maria (KofFman) Bundy ; his parents were 
born and married in Northumberland County, Penn., and came to Fay- 
ette County, Ind., about the year 1820, among the first settlers. In 1832, 
they took up eighty acres in Elkhart County, hewing a place in the wood 
for a cabin of logs, using greased paper for widow panes. They came to 
Porter Countv in 1841, settling on what is now the "Wilson farm;" his 



father died in 1858, his mother in 1855. James Bundy lived at home 
until of age, receiving a common school education ; he is a farmer, and 
has worked at carpentering, but never learned the trade. On December 
7, 1851, he was married to Adaline Philips, daughter of John and Esther 
(Bachelor) Philips, born June 27, 1881. Mr. and Mrs. Bundy have had 
seven children, five of whom are living — John K., William, George W. 
(the last two are carpenters, and have built some fine buildings in this 
county), Frank and Mary. Mr. Bundy has a snug farm of forty acres, on 
which he now resides. In politics, he, together with his sons, is a Re- 

S. A. CAMPBELL, one of the pioneers of Porter County, was 
born in Chautauqua County, N. Y., February 8, 1821, and is the eldest 
of three sons born to Adam S. and Polly (Adams) Campbell, and the 
only one now living. His parents were born, brought up and married in 
the State of New York. They came Westward when our subject was 
twelve years of age, and settled on Morgan Prairie, in Porter County. 
Mr. Campbell was Justice of the Peace, School Commissioner, and 
served one term in the State Legislature as a Democrat ; he died in 
August, 1850, but Mrs. Campbell is still living with her son, and eighty- 
four years old. Our subject came to this county with his parents 
in 1838, and remained "with them until of age ; he attended the first 
school taught in this county, on Section 8 of this township, in 1884 and 
1835. On March 18, 1847, he was married to Harriet Cornell of 
Wayne County, Ohio, but then residing here ; she died in June, 1864, 
leaving a family of four children — Myron and Marvin (twins), Otto and 
Helen, wife of D. Eastburn, of Benton County, Ohio ; his second mar- 
riage, to Elizabeth (Bartholomew) Finney, took place September 21, 
1875 ; she is a daughter of Jeremiah Bartholomew, and was born March 
11, 1822, her parents coming to the county in 1884. In politics, Mr. 
Campbell is a Democrat, and has been Township Trustee for many 
years ; he is a member of the Blue and Chapter Lodges, also of the Com- 
mandery of Masons. Mrs. C. is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 
The Campbells are perhaps the second oldest family in Porter County, 
the oldest being the Morgans, of Westchester Township. 

RUSSEL COHOON is a native of Yates County, N. Y.; he was 
born August 2, 1808, and is a son of Stuart and Charity (Culver) 
Cohoon ; he is the eldest of his family ; his father was a native of Con- 
necticut, his mother of New Jersey ; his father was a Captain in the war 
of 1812 ; he lived in the State of New York until 1820, when he moved 
to Erie County, Penn., and there died in 1836 ; his grandfather served 
in the Revolution. Our subject lived at home until of age, and received 
a fair education for the time, having taught two terms of school ; he 
learned the trade of a joiner, at which he worked in connection with 
wagon-making for many years, and nine years at saw-milling; he came to 
Porter County in February, 1851, settling on the farm which he now 
owns — a splendid one of eighty-five acres, besides good buildings. He 
was married October 1, 1829, to Anna Colver, of Yates County, N. Y. 
by this union he had five children — Llewellyn J., Avery R., Elliott 
Ceylon and Molross ; his wife died August 18, 1855; his second mar 
riage was to Mrs. Nancy C. Hayner, who was born April 6, 1822 


by this union Mr. Colioon had born to him four children — Charles, Car- 
rie C. (now wife of N. Dawson, of this county), Ellsworth and Grant ; 
the boys are farmers ; by a former marriage Mrs. Cohoou had two chil- 
dren. She is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. 
Cohoon is a Republican and a member of the Unitarian Church; he has 
been Justice of the Peace twenty-one years. 

NATHAN COOPER, son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Joseph) Cooper, 
was born in Putnam County, Ohio, January 10, 1841. Regarding his 
parents, Mr. Cooper knows but very little, inasmuch as they died when 
he was extremely young ; he lived with his grandparents until he was 
about nine years of age, afterward with a man named William Beard 
until his fifteenth year, when he began the battle of existence for him- 
self; he came here in the autumn of 1855, in company with his uncle, 
M. Joseph. Mr. Cooper, despite his lack of opportunity for education, 
has informed himself sufficiently for the requirements of business ; he 
moved upon the place he now holds on the day of President Lincoln's 
inauguration, March 4, 1861. He was married, January 11, 1866, to 
Lydia A. Stoner, of Porter County, born July 7, 1844, and a daughter 
of Abraham Stoner, one of the earliest settlers, coming hither in 1838. 
Mr. and Mrs. Cooper have had two children — Frankie, born July 18, 
1870, and Lulu B., November 6, 1880. Mr. Cooper has followed farm- 
ing from boyhood, and has 425 acres of land, as fine a stock farm as the 
county contains. In politics, he is independent or neutral, supporting, 
as he believes, the best man among all. 

THEOPHILUS CRUMPACKER, son of Owen and Hannah 
(Woodford) Crumpacker, was born in Montgomery County, Va., Janu- 
ary 18, 1822 ; he is one of a family of nine children, six of whom are 
living; his parents were also Virginians ; his ancestry on his father's 
side were from Germany, and on his mother's from England. The 
subject of our sketch came with his parents from Virginia to Union 
County, Ind., in 1828, and in 1834 came to Porter County ; his father 
settled upon land purchased from the Government, afterward moving to 
La Porte County, where he died July 28, 1848. Mr. Crumbacker lived 
with his parents until he became of age, receiving a fair school educa- 
tion, and remained until 1863, when he removed to Kankakee County, 
111., but returned to Porter County in 1865, and settled upon the farm 
he now owns, a fine one of 245 acres. Mr. Crumpacker has been 
a stanch Republican since the party was formed, having represented his 
county in the State Legislature three terms, from 1872 to 1878, and 
being the only man of his county who has served that number of terms. 
While in La Porte County, he was four years Township Trustee ; he has 
now retired. On February 27, 1847, he was married to Harriet Em- 
mons, a daughter of William and Elsie (Kirk) Emmons, and born 
November 17, 1823. Eight children, seven of whom are living, were 
born to them — John W., Edgar, Daniel, Eliza A. (deceased), Peter, 
Nettie, Charlie and Grant. The eldest, John W., was born in La Porte 
County March 19, 1849, where he received a good education and taught 
public school four terms. He was married, January 3, 1877, to Anna 
J. Smith, daughter of Martin Smith ; she was born March 31, 1849, in 
Huron County, Ohio. In 1872, John W. Crumpacker entered the 


County Treasarer's office as Deputy, and, in 1878, was elected Treasurer 
by the Republicans ; he is now serving his second term ; he belongs t j 
the I. 0. 0. F., also the 0. F. Encampment; his wife is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

H. W. FORBES is the eldest son of J. T. and Martha (Pettit) 
Forbes, parents of seven children, five still living; he was born near 
Hamilton, Upper Canada, January 6, 1848, and came with his parents 
to Porter County in 1854 ; he attended a common school until he was 
nineteen years old, when he attended three terms at the Valparaiso Col- 
lege ; he has worked mostly at farming, but at present owns a mill near 
Coburg ; he has also dealt in grain and wood, shipping from Coburg, 
where he was the first agent for the B. & 0. R. R.; he was also appointed 
the first Postmaster, which position he now holds, it being largely due to 
his influence that said post office was established ; he has 195 acres of 
land, about 130 of which are cultivated, and has besides buildings and 
other improvements. In politics, Mr. Forbes is a liberal Democrat. He 
was married, January 26, 1868, to Helen Shinabarger, the daughter of 
Jacob Shinabarger, who was born in La Porte County December 1, 
1845. To this marriage a family of five have been born, only two ol 
whom survive — Ross C. and Ruby J. The mother of Mrs. Forbes, now 
eighty-one years of age, residing with our subject. The first school 
attended by Mr. Forbes was a missionary school for the Indians: he at- 
tended here three years. 

THADDEUS H. FORBES, son of J. T. and Martha (Pettit) 
Forbes, was born near Coburg, Upper Canada, August 20, 1851 ; he 
came with his parents to Porter County in 1854, and attended the com- 
mon schools until about eighteen years old, thereby receiving a very fair 
education; he remained at home until past his majority, and was married, 
June 26, 1875, to Nora Pinney, of La Porte County, Ind., daughter of 
Horace Pinney, and born September 4, 1852, her parents being among 
the oldest settlers of that county. Since his marriage he has been 
engaged in farming, clearing land and stock raising ; he has a good farm 
of 150 acres, about eighty of which are improved, together with good, 
necessary buildings; he was for four years Deputy Postmaster of Coburg, 
and also kept a grocery for three years, but is now employed in farming. 
Like other members of his father's family, he is a Democrat, but exceed- 
ingly liberal in his political views. 

JOHN HANSFORD was born in Somerset, England, January 8. 
1813, and is third of a family of four children born to John and Sarah 
(Pickford) Hansford; Mr. Hansford thinks he is the only one of his 
family now living; his parents were born and died in England. Our 
subject received no school education, but is wholly self-instructed ; he left 
England for New York at fifteen years of age, where he stopped a short 
time, thence moved to New Jersey, where he lived until 1832, thence t^ 
New Orleans, Cuba, and finally landed in Chicago in 1836; he stayed 
in Cook County, 111., until 1842, when he settled in Washington Town- 
ship, Porter Co., Ind., upon the place of his present residence; he has 
now 920 acres of land, with important improvements. In November, 
1838, he was married, in Cook County, III., to Ann Moran ; she died in 
1840, leaving two children, one now living — Maria (wife of S. Lewis, of 


Morgan Township). In 1843, he was again married, this time to Hannah 
Dillingham, who died January 1, 1875 ; by this union he had thirteen 
children, seven of whom are living — Eve (now in Kansas), Effie (wife of 
Otis King, of La Porte County), Ella (wife of R. Reed, of Washington 
Territory), William, Emma (wife of J. Sulman, of this township), Jay 
and Jonah (twins). On April 4, 1876, he was married a third time, the 
bride being Mary Grundy, who died in April, 1877 ; on June 21, 1877, 
he married his present wife — Lizzie Street. In business, Mr. Hansford 
has been exceedingly successful; in politics, he is independent, voting 
for the best man. For two years he has had a position on the G. T. R. 
R., which he yet retains. 

JOSEPH KIMERER was born in Wayne County, Ohio, August 2, 
1824 ; he is one of sixteen children born to Jacob and Catherine (Korn) 
Kimerer, only six of whom survive; his parents were born, reared and 
married in Cumberland County, Penn., removing to Wayne County, 
Ohio, in 1814, and being among the pioneers of that county, where his 
father died in 1837 ; his mother removed to Holmes County, where she 
resided until her death in 1859. Joseph Kimerer lived with his mother 
until his majority, when he was married, November 10, 1846, to Jane V. 
Silcott, a native of Fairfax County, Va., born in 1828; she died in 1862, 
leaving a family of five — Mary A. (wife of S. Thatcher), Marion, Lewis 
N., William A. and Jackson. In 1864, he married Nancy Hanna, who 
died in 1865, to which second marriage one child resulted — Nancy J. 
On March 20, 1866, he was married to Mary J. Lisle, of Holmes Coun- 
ty, Ohio, by whom he has a family of three — James, Helen M. and Alice 
M. Mr. Kimerer moved from Wayne County to Holmes County in 
1846, and engaged in farming until 1872,. when he came to Porter Coun- 
ty; he has a fine farm of 246 acres. In politics, Mr. Kimerer is a lib- 
eral Democrat, and was County Commissioner of Holmes County, from 
1860 to 1866; also, Trustee for three years, and Township Clerk for one 
year. In 1852. Mr. Kimerer traveled to California, but determining 
that farming was safer as a business than gold mining, he returned the 
same year ; he was a Mason many years, and has not now abandoned the 
order. Mr. and Mrs. Kimerer are members of the Christian Church. 

T. H. LEWIS was born in Butler County, Ohio, November 25, 1838; 
he is one of a family of eleven children born to Elmander and Mary (Dodge) 
Lewis, ten of whom are living ; his parents were natives of Massachusetts, 
and his grandparents came to Ohio with their family at a very early day. 
Our subject came to this county with his parents in 1849, and settled in 
Morgan Township. In the spring of 1862, he enlisted as a private in 
Company B, Sixty-third Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and took part in 
the second battle of Bull Run ; he was with Gen. Sherman in his " march 
to the sea," remaining in the service until the war had ended. Since that 
period, his occupation has been farming, having 200 acres of land ; he 
was married, January 25, 1866, to Caroline Austin, a native of Porter 
County, and daughter of Cain and Mary (Bowker) Austin ; her parents 
were among the early settlers of this county. To this union there have 
born two children — Eddie and Florence. Mr. Lewis is a firm Repub- 
lican, and as such represents his party as Trustee of Washington Town- 
ship, and this for a second term ; he is a man of much executive ability 
and integrity, and has been quite successful in his affairs. 


CHARLES R. LUTHER, one of the earliest settlers of Porter 
County, was born in New York August 26, 1828 ; he is the sixth of a 
family of nine children born to James and Irene (Ransom) Luther, seven 
of whom are living — our subject and one sister in this county; his father 
was a native of New Hampshire ; he died in 1849, and his mother in 
1859. C. R. Luther came here with his parents when eight years old. 
After receiving a fair education, and being engaged as teacher for several 
terms, he learned the trade of carpenter and joiner, at which he worked 
for five years ; he was married, December 22, 1853, to Esther M, Holton, 
a daughter of Ira Holton, and born in Upper Canada November 19, 1837. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Luther have been born four children — Luna L. (de- 
ceased), Iredell, Harry R. and Lula B. ; of these, Iredell is a farmer, and 
Harry R. a school teacher. Mr. Luther was one of the Directors of the 
Northern State Prison for two years, and Assessor of Washington Town- 
ship for five years ; he is a Republican, having belonged to that party ever 
since its organization. 

WILLIAM L. MALONE, son of Wilson and Sarah (Swank) Ma- 
lone, was born in this county October 3, 1847 ; he received his educa- 
tion from the ordinary schools and the Valparaiso High School, since 
which time he has been farming. On December 2, 1875, he was married 
to Matilda Forbes, daughter of J. T. Forbes, who was born June 30, 
1853, a sketch of whose parents will be found in this work. To this 
union two children were born — Lawrence and Leon. In politics, Mr. 
Malone is a Democrat, and represents his party as Assessor of Washing- 
ton Township ; he has 200 acres of land, 120 being improved. Wilson 
Malone, father of our subject, came to La Porte County in 1832, and was 
among the earliest settlers ; his only possessions were a few household 
goods and 50 cents. He contracted for the building of one mile of 
what is now known as the Michigan State road, and invested the pro- 
ceeds in Porter County land. He spent his first winter in a cabin with- 
out floor or windows ; but he was industrious, and at his death owned 
over 1,100 acres ; he died December 22, 1876 ; he was father to nine 
children — Elizabeth (Mrs. Dr. Pagin), Caroline (Mrs. A. Stanton), Cath- 
erine (Mrs. A. Brown). Rebecca (Mrs. H. Slover), James R., William L., 
Martha (Mrs. E. Powell) and Harriet (Mrs. C. Talcott). Wilson Malone 
was the son of Lester Malone ; was born in Ross County, Ohio, June 18, 
1805 ; he lived in that county until manhood ; his parents died when he 
was quite young, when he was cast upon his resources for a livelihood ; he 
came West in 1826, stopping in Fountain and Montgomery Counties,* 
Ind. On February 22, 1832, he was married to Sarah Swank, daughter 
of Jacob Swank, an early settler of Montgomery County ; she was born 
at Springfield, Ohio, October 15, 1811. 

OVID OAKS, a pioneer of Porter County, was born in Allegany 
County. N. Y., February 9, 1821 ; he is the eldest of five children born 
to David and Mary (Howe) Oaks ; all are living — four in this county, the 
other in California ; his father was a native of New York, and his mother 
in Massachusetts. They came to this county in 1835, and here lived 
until the decease of both — in 1874. Our subject came to this county 
with his parents, and received a liberal education by attending the com- 
mon schools, and afterward the State University about four years ; he 


kept a hotel for two years, and taught school for some time ; he then 
moved to Missouri, where he bought land, and followed farming and 
school teaching for eight years. Returning to Valparaiso, he kept a 
grocery about five years, and returned to farming in 1875, having now 
130 acres, sixty of which are unimproved. He was married. May 31, 
1849, to Phebe Rhorer, a native of Kentucky, but a resident of Monroe 
County, Ind.; she was born April 17, 1824. Their family consists of 
four children — Omar M., Emma J. (wife of M. Kiraerer, of Valparaiso), 
Eva (wife of H. Taggart, of South Bend), and Lucian R. Mr. Oaks is a 
Republican of the liberal school. Mrs, Oaks is a member of the Chris- 
tian Church. 

JOSEPH PEOPLES was born in Carroll County, Ohio, June 27, 
1842, and is one of fifteen children born to John and Mary (Davis) Peo- 
ples, nine of whom are surviving — three in this county ; his parents were 
natives of Pennsylvania ; they came to Ohio at an early day, where they 
married and lived until 1852, when they came to Porter County, Ind., 
settling in Washington Township. Mr. Peoples' father died in 1874, and 
his mother in 1852. Our subject lived at home until of age; then followed 
farming until the present time, except for about two years, during which 
he worked at carpentering and blacksmithing ; he enlisted in the Twen- 
tieth Indiana Battery, under Capt. Rose, and was ac Franklin, Murfrees- 
boro, Chattanooga, Fort Donelson and other engagements ; he was, for a 
time, flag-bearer for his battery, and was present at Gen. Lee's surrender, 
soon after which he was discharged. On February 14, 1868, he was 
married to Anna Babcock, born August 28, 1852. They have had four 
children — Jannet (deceased), Clark J., Frank B. and Nina M. Mr. and 
Mrs. Peoples are members of the Good Templars organization. He is a 
Republican, and was Justice of the Peace from 1878 to 1880 ; his farm 
comprises 105 acres, of which about fifty-five are under cultivation. Mr. 
Peoples is a total abstainer from strong drink and tobacco. 

NICHOLAS PICKRELL, son of Nicholas and Margaret (McCoy) 
Pickrell, was born in Logan County, Ohio, March 3, 1828, and is the 
youngest of five children, two of whom only survive ; his fiither was a 
native of North Carolina, and his mother of Virginia ; his mother came 
to Elkhart County, Ind. (after his father's death), in 1835, where she 
remained until her death, in 1862. Mr. Pickrell, our subject, came to 
Porter County in 1849, settling in Morgan Township, but afterward 
came to Washington Township, where he still resides. He has 310 
acres of land, 130 of which are improved ; he is a man of fair edu- 
cation, and he served in Company G, Thirty-third Regiment Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, from November, 1864, until the close of the 
war ; he was in the*^ battle of Nashville, and was with Gen. Sherman at 
the surrender of Gen. Johnston. Since his discharge, he has been en- 
gaged in farming. In politics, Mr. Pickrell is a firm Republican, having 
been one of the earliest adherents of that party. In 1874, he was Trustee 
of Washington Township, which office he held for six years. In 
1880, he was elected County Commissioner, an office. he now holds. He 
was married, in February, 1856, to Sarah Bell, one of the early settlers, 
who died December 26, 1873, leaving a family of six children, five of 
whom still live — Lizzie B. (wife of F. Concannon), Carrie E., Mary, 


Phebe D. and John. Mr. Pickrell has been fairly successful in business 

ANDREW B. PIERCE was born in Otsego County, N. Y., April 
9, 1830, and is a son of Warner and Adelia (Beeman) Pierce ; his father 
was a native of New York, and his mother of Connecticut ; they were 
married and lived in New York until coming westward in 1831 ; they 
stopped two years in Michigan and one year in La Porte County, Ind., 
reaching and settling in Porter County in 1834 ; his father followed 
farming until his death, on May 6, 1811 ; his mother is still living, now 
in her eighty-fifth year, vivacious and healthy. Our subject came with 
his parents in 1834 ; he received a fair education, and remained with his 
mother after his father's death, until twenty-eight years old, when he 
began farming for himself; he has now 420 acres of land. He was 
married April 1, 1858, to Mary E. Johnston, of this county, daughter of 
Jesse and Rebecca (Pickett) Johnston ; she was born May 1, 1838, and 
her parents were among the first to settle here, her father being the first 
Judge of Porter County. Mr. and Mrs. Pierce have had eight children, 
four of whom are living — Morosco L., William F., Helena E. and John 
G. In politics, Mr. Pierce holds with the Democracy, but is not an ex- 
treme man. Both he and Mrs. Pierce are members of the Baptist 
Church of Valparaiso ; he has been fairly successful in business ventures. 

S. P. SHINABARGER. one of the pioneers of Porter County, was 
born in Jackson Township, Wayne Co., Ohio, January 6, 1820 ; he is 
one of a family of ten born to Jacob and Hannah (Heller) Shinabarger ; 
six of these are living. The father of our subject came to Porter County 
in 1833, settling on Morgan Prairie, Washington Township. The county 
at that time was an unbroken forest and prairie, peopled by Indians ; the 
city of Valparaiso was unthought of; his father lived in this county for 
many years, but died in La Porte County. Our subject was fortunate to 
secure a good education, notwithstanding the meager advantages of that 
period ; he lived at home until his twenty-second year, and has since been 
farming, except one year, when he was in mercantile business at Buena 
Vista ; he was married, October 20, 1844, to Esther Tabor, of Erie 
County, Penn., who died April 17, 1849, leaving two children, one, Bur- 
ton J., now surviving; his second marriage was to Laura Tabor, June 1, 
1852; bv this union, he has had nine children — Martha E., Alta J., 
Ernest F., Bell, Nellie L., Edward S., Mary C, Walter 0. and Ruther 
M. In politics, Mr. Shinabarger is a Liberal Republican ; his first vote 
was cast for Gen. Harrison in 1840 ; he has represented his party for 
over twelve years as Justice of the Peace, still holding that ofiice ; his 
farm consists of 193 acres, 180 being under cultivation ; he is a member 
of Westville Lodge, I. 0. 0. F. The father of Mrs. Shinabarger (Mr. 
Tabor), resides with our subject; he settled in La Porte County in 1835, 
and is now past eighty-five years of age. 

HENRY SLOVER, one of the early settlers of Washington Town- 
ship, was born in Cayuga County, N. Y., April 24, 1828; he is the 
youngest of twelve children born to Isaac and Polly (Watts) Slover; of 
this fiimily, only three survive, our subject being the only representative 
in this county ; his parents were both natives of New Jersey, removing to 
New York, thence to Erie County, Penn., and thence to Porter County, 


Ind., in 1843, settling in Washington Township ; his father died while 
visiting Pennsylvania in 1852 and his mother in this county in 1849. 
Our subject came here with his parents in 1843. At the age of twenty- 
four, in company with some emigrants, he crossed the plains for Cali- 
fornia. Being overtaken by sickness, he gave up mining, and worked 
by the month ; he remained in California until 1858, when he returned 
to this township. On May 19, 1859, he was married to Rebecca J. Ma- 
lone ; they have had a family of three children — Carrie B. (deceased), 
Charles W. and Hattie. Mr. Slover has been fairly successful in busi- 
ness affairs ; he has a farm of 232 acres of good land, about one hundred 
and fifty of which are improved, and containing excellent buildings, mak- 
ing a most desirable property. Mr. Slover is a Democrat, but exceed- 
ingly liberal. 


DR. GEORGE W. ARNOLD was born in Cayuga County, N. Y., 
August 6, 1837, and is a son of Elisha and Phebe (Sayles) Arnold, both 
natives of New York. When George W. Arnold was eight years of age, 
he came with his parents to Porter County, Ind., where he has since re- 
sided. During his youth, he worked on the farm and acquired a fair 
common-school education. At the age of twenty-two, he began to study 
medicine at home, and in 1871 he graduated at the Bennett Medical Col- 
lege of Chicago, and the same year located at Wheeler, where he has 
been practicing, with the exception of one year spent in South Chicago. 
In 1864, he entered Company H, Fifty-third Regiment Indiana Volun- 
teers, and served until the war was closed. Dr. Arnold is a member of 
Lodge No. 403, A., F. & A. M., and also of Valparaiso Commandery. 
In politics, he is a Republican. 

WILLIAM 0. CADWELL, farmer, was born in Onondaga County, 
N. Y., May 12, 1830, and was the fourth of eight children composing 
the family of Chester and Phila (Daniels) Cadwell ; five of these are liv- 
ing. In 1838, the family settled in Union Township, where the father 
lived until his death, in 1867. William 0. Cadwell remained at home 
until he became of age. On June 19, 1853, he married Margaret 
Frame, of this county. She died in 1860, leaving one child — Malphus 
F., a farmer of Union Township. After his marriage, he located on his 
present farm, now embracing 110 acres. His second marriage took place 
October 15, 1861, to Mary Gilbert, a native of Ohio. To this union 
three children were born — Ida M., Homer 0. and Don Alonzo. Mr. 
and Mrs. Cadwell are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 
politics, Mr. Cadwell is Republican. 

THOMAS CRISMAN, farmer, was born in Huntingdon County, 
Penn., August 13, 1805. He was the sixth of eight children composing 
the family of Benjamin and Mary E. (Yingling) Crisman, both of whom 
were natives of Maryland. In 1818, the family removed to Carroll 
County, Ohio, where Thomas lived until 1850, when he settled on the 
farm in Union Township, on which he has since resided. On November 
25, 1830, he was married to Nancy Ringle, of Westmoreland County. 
Penn. As a result of this union thirteen children were born, nine of 


whom survive — Mrs. Lavina Shearer, of Lake County ; Mrs. Hannah 
Gunder, of Porter County ; Mrs. Eliza Smith, of La Porte County ; 
Mrs. Mary Matthews, of Hobart ; Harrison, John, Thomas, Mrs. Louisa 
Scholl and Mrs. Alice Bentley. Mr. and Mrs. Crisman are members of 
the Lutheran Church. In politics, Mr. Crisman is a Republican. He 
has an excellent farm, with valuable improvements. He is a fair-minded 
and honored citizen. 

EPHRAIM CRISMAN was born in Columbiana County, Ohio, and 
is one of the eleven children of Frederick and Eliza (Hardesty) Crisman. 
In 1848, he came with his parents to Union Township, where his father 
died January 4, 1877. The Crisman family is of Dutch descent. Eph- 
raira lived at home until he was married, December 25, 1861, to Sarah 
Long, of Williamsville, N. Y. To this union there have been seven chil- 
dren — Benjamin F. (deceased), Emma (deceased), Ella D., George (de- 
ceased), A. B., A. D. and Frederick. Mr. Crisman came to this town- 
ship, living three years, and after removed to the farm on which he now 
lives. This property is rich and well improved, containing some excel- 
lent buildings. Mr. Crisman has given considerable attention to raising 
blooded horses, and has one of the finest in the country. In politics, Mr. 
Crisman gives his support to the Republican party, and is esteemed as 
one of the most intelligent and enterprising citizens. 

ELBERT H. EDDY was born in Bristol County, Conn., January 
4, 1848, and is the elder of the two children of Jeremiah and Abigail 
(Curtis) Eddy. The family is of English descent ; his father was a skilled 
machinist, and at one time foreman for Reany, Neafie & Co., of Philadel- 
phia. Elbert lost his father when twelve years old, and removed with his 
mother to Davenport, Iowa, where he was educated at the high school. 
In 1862, he enlisted in Company B. Forty-fourth Iowa Volunteers, and 
served two years and five months. At Pittsburg Landing, he was taken 
prisoner, and held four months, a few weeks of which he passed at An- 
dersonville. After his return, he was several years engaged in giving 
public readings, and, as a professor of elocution ; he acted for some time 
as a comedian in the Chicago theaters, and was widely known throughout 
the West and South, everywhere receiving the highest encomiums from 
press and people ; he is the author of an elocutionary Avork entitled, 
"Art of Personation," which is one of much merit. On June 3, 1866, 
he was married to Miss Maria Currier, of Porter County. They have 
one son, Albert Bertram. In 1871, he forsook his old profession for the 
new one of gardener, for which he had no less a taste, and settled in 
Union Township. In this he has been no less successful, supplying much 
of the country around him, and making a specialty of garden plants and 
celery. Mr. Eddy is a courteous gentleman, good business man and en- 
terprising citizen ; his greenhouses are large and extensive. In politics, 
he is a Republican. 

F. J. FIELD was born in Syracuse, N. Y.. January 10, 1830, and 
is one of the six children of Thomas J. and Louisa A. (Chapman) Field. 
His father was a native of Poughkeepsie, and his mother of Onondaga 
County, N. Y.; his uncle was a Lieutenant in the United States Navy, 
and on board the Macedonia during the war of 1812. When six years 
of age, he came with his parents to Michigan City, Ind., removing to 


Liberty Township, and later to Portage Township, where his father died 
in 1875, a Justice of the Peace, and a man much esteemed by all. F. J. 
Field, at the age of nineteen, went on a whaling voyage, through Behring's 
Straits to 72^° north latitude ; he has laid in a boat three days without 
food or water. Returning home, he again sought the sea for eight years, 
and was wrecked on the shore of Cuba. In 1861, he began sailing on 
the lakes, and, in 1864, he enlisted in Company M, Heavy Artillery of 
Illinois. After the war, in 1872, he bought the 160 acres on which he 
now resides — a rich farm, well improved. On April 2, 1866, he was 
married to Miss C. B. Selkirk, of Ashtabula County, Ohio. In politics, 
Mr. Field is a Republican, and also a substantial citizen. Mrs. Field is 
a member of the Congregational Church. 

JOHN FLEMING, farmer, was probably the second male white child 
born in Porter County ; his birth took place in Washington Township 
March 1, 1833. He was the second of thirteen children of Jacob and 
Catharine (Hesser) Fleming, the former a native of Virginia, the latter 
of Ohio. Mr. Fleming settled in Washington Township in 1832, where 
he lived until his removal to Valparaiso, where he died. John Fleming 
has always lived in this county, working at home until the age of twenty- 
two, at which time he was married, on November 2, 1856, to Joanna 
Maxwell, of Wayne County, Ohio. Ten children followed this union — 
Edward, Eliza, David, George (deceased), John C, Artemus, Mary C, 
Emma R., Maud (deceased) and Robert. In 1858, Mr. Fleming bought 
a farm in Union Township, which he left, going to Washington Town- 
ship, where he lived until 1870, when he located on the old Cadwell 
place in Union Township, where he now resides. In politics, Mr. Flem- 
ing is a Democrat. 

WILLIAM L. FREEMAN, farmer, was born in St. Thomas, 
Ontario, April 10, 1824 ; he is the youngest of eight children born to 
Leonard and Sarah (Guy) Freeman, both natives of Vermont ; his father 
was a farmer, but had served as a Lieutenant in the British Army during 
the war of 1812. William L. Freeman passed his youth in Canada, 
and at the acre of eleven began the clothier trade with his brother, at 
which he continued until of age, when he learned carpentering. In 
1847, he went to Michigan City where he worked three years. In 1850, 
he bought the farm in Union Township on which he has since lived ; it 
is a desirable property of 105 acres, containing good buildings. On 
April 10, 1852, he married Mary J. Haskin, a native of the Empire 
State. The union was blessed with one child — Charles R., of Lancaster 
County, Neb. Mrs. Freeman died xlugust 7, 1853. On September 29, 
1854, he was married to Electa L. Peck, of Erie County, Penn.; she 
also died, February 8, 1855. On November 16, 1859, he was united to 
Mahala Cheever, of New York. Three children were the fruit of this 
union — Mrs. Mary J. Beem, William and Oliver. Mr. and Mrs. Free- 
man are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Freeman is 
a member of Valparaiso Chapter and Commandery A. F. & A. M. 
and K. T. In politics he leans toward the Republicans, and is an 
influential and. worthy citizen. 

SOLON FRENCH was born in Porter County, Ind., April 14, 
1838, and is the fourth of nine children composing the family of Ora B. 


and Abigail (Dibble) French ; his parents were among the early settlers 
of Porter County, and here Solon was engaged in farming until the age 
of twenty-four years, when he afterward settled in Union Township. In 
December, 1863, he was married to Martha E. Atwell, of this county. 
This marriage was blessed with six children, of whom but two are living. 
Bertha and Emma. On October 13, 1864, he enlisted in Company D., 
Seventeenth Indiana Mounted Volunteer Infantry ; he served until the 
end of the war, receiving two wounds in his country's service. He owns 
a good and attractive farm numbering 140 acres, and is one of the lead- 
ing farmers of his section. In politics, he is a Republican ; he has been 
Township Trustee, and also Justice of the Peace for four years. 

ISAAC HARDESTY was born in Columbiana County, Ohio, May 
22, 1822, and is a son of William and Louisa (Knouf) Hardesty. His 
father was one of the pioneers of Eastern Ohio, a farmer, miller and mer- 
chant, and started the first mill in Carroll County, Ohio. He was of Hu- 
guenot extraction, his grandfather having been expelled from France for 
his religious opinions. After the death of his father, which occurred 
when he was twenty-four years of age, Isaac Hardesty worked seven years 
on the Sandy & Beaver Canal, and in 1853 came to Porter County, Ind., 
where he farmed until 1860, when he purchased a carding and saw mill 
in Union Township. Four years later, he resumed the plow, and is now 
owner of 307 acres of fine land, with commodious buildings and good 
improvements. Mr. Hardesty was married, December 24, 1846, to Cath- 
erine Sholl, of Fayette County, Penn. Four children have graced this 
union — Mrs. Margaret P. Hodson, Mrs. Elva A. McElree, Mrs. Ophelia 
M. Young and Louisa C. Mr. Hardesty is a man of original and inde- 
pendent thought, as well as extensive reading. He is a Republican, and 
has frequently addressed his community on important questions of govern- 
ment. He has been Township Trustee about fifteen years. He is also a 
Christian, though not connected with any church, and an earnest Sunday 
school worker, 

JOSEPH L. HARRIS was born in Oxford County, Canada, No- 
vember 3, 1835. He is the youngest of five children born to Gilbert and 
Berenice (Cook) Harris. His father was a native of New York, and his 
mother of Vermont. His great-grandfather emigrated from Wales to 
Nova Scotia. In 1839, Gilbert Harris located in Porter County, on the 
farm on which our subject now lives. He was an ordained minister of 
the Baptist Church, and the first who preached in Union Township ; he 
died in September, 1847. On December 23, 1872, Joseph L. Harris 
married Mary B. Barker, of Oxford County, Canada, by whom he has 
had seven children — Virgil V., Hattie V., Milo N., Bradford E., Ole J., 
Jesse A. and Georgie A. Mr. Harris received an encellent education, 
having spent three years at Franklin College, in this State, failing health 
compelling him to withdraw. He is a member of the Phi Delta Theta 
Society. He is an intelligent man and enterprising citizen, a stanch tem- 
perance champion, and an earnest Sunday school worker, both he and 
Mrs. Harris being members of the Baptist Church. In politics, he is a 
Republican. The first house erected on Twenty-Mile Prairie is still 
standing on his farm, and is carefully preserved as a relic. 

CAPT. S. P. HODSDEN is a'son of Stephen and Lenura T. (Pet- 
tibone) Hodsden, and was born at Mill Creek, Ohio, January 29, 1838. 


The Pettibones were a leading family of New England, and the grand- 
father of our subject served thirty years in the General Assembly of 
Connecticut, and was an Orderly on the staff of Gen. Ward during the 
Revolution. Stephen Hodsden received an academic education, but 
was a farmer most of his life, although he devoted several years to mercantile 
business. He served in the war of 1812, and at the battle of Plattsburg 
was complimented for his bravery. In 1841, he settled in Union Town- 
ship, after making extensive explorations in Indiana and Illinois. lie 
purchased 240 acres to which he added 60, and on which he lived until 
his death, December 24, 1872. He was a Republican and an Abolition- 
ist. Capt. S. P. Hodsden came with his parents to Union Township in 
1841. In April, 1861, he enlisted in Company H, Ninth Indiana Vol- 
unteers. During his three months' service, he was in several skirmishes. 
He re-enlisted in Company E, Ninth Indiana Volunteers, and served 
until the war was ended. He was appointed Second Lieutenant on enter- 
ing the three years' service; was afterward Adjutant, and, on the death 
of his brother, July, 1864, became Captain of Company H. He was 
wounded five times, most severely at Marietta, while in charge of the 
skirmish lines and in charging the rifle-pits. After the war, he returned 
to husbandry, locating on the old homestead, and having a good farm of 
400 acres. "On November 1, 1868, he was married to Margaret P. Har- 
desty, of Porter County. They have had six children — DeWitt C, 
Catherine T., Lillie M. (deceased), Isaac H., Maggie M. and Stephen B. 
Capt. Hodsden is liberal in religion, and a Democrat in politics. 

DeWitt C. Hodsden, at the outbreak of the war, was a student at 
law in the University of Michigan, and during vacation was studying 
with Mr. De Motte, now Congressman. He had been quite successful 
before Justices' Courts, having lost but two out of one hundred cases 
When the President's call for troops was announced, he immediately 
dropped his books, and was chosen Orderly Sergeant of a newly formed 
company, and when the company was re-enlisteil for three years he was 
chosen First Lieutenant of Company H, Ninth Indiana Volunteers. He 
was present at Shiloh, and on the death of Adjt. Patton was made Acting 
Major, and took command of the company during the battle. Being 
ordered by Lieut. Col. Blake to take a dangerous battery, he did so, with 
a loss of thirty out of fifty-six men, only twenty escaping unwounded. 
He afterward became Captain, which he remained until his death, July 
24, 1864, near Marietta, Ga., from his wounds. After the battle of Stone 
River, he was presented with a sword and sash by his men, on which was 
mentioned the battles in which he had commanded them. 

LEVI HUFFMAN was born in Hunterdon County, N. J., Febru- 
ary 1, 1830, and is one of the nine children of Nathaniel and Mary 
Huffman, both of whom were natives of New Jersey and of Dutch de- 
scent. In 1840, the family moved to Wayne County, Ohio, and later to 
Henry County, Ohio, where Nathaniel Huffman died. After this, Levi 
being eighteen years of age, he, with his mother, moved back to Wayne 
County, where, at the age of twenty, he began the milling business. In 
1853, he went to California, by way of the Isthmus, remaining three 
years, the first in the mines, the last in a grist-mill at Sacramento. In 
1856, he returned to Wayne County and the milling, and in 1859 worked 


in the Etna mills at Valparaiso. Soon after, he returned to Wayne 
County, and in 1868 again to this county. On December 4, 1868, he 
married E. F. Hammonds, of Valparaiso, by whom he had two children 
— V. Estelle and Levi R. In 1875, he purchased the farm in Union 
Township on which he now resides, giving attention to farming for three 
years, when he took charge of the Cascade Mills, which he purchased in 
1882, and is doing a prosperous business. Mrs. Huffman is a member oi 
the Christian Church. In pt)litics, Mr. Huffman is a Democrat, and 
also an esteemed and worthy citizen. 

W. C. JANES, farmer, was the eighth of nine children born to Eli- 
jah and Mary (Clark) Janes. His father was of English descent, but a 
native of Grand Isle, Vt., born in 1793. His mother was a native of 
New York. W. C. Janes began life in Oxford County, Ontario, March 
20, 1833. He came to this county and township with his parents in 
1844, remaining until he was twenty years of age, when he went to Nor- 
folk County, Canada, where he farmed for ten years ; then removed to 
Iowa, and two years later again settled on the old homestead in Union 
Township, where he now resides, and where his father died in 1878. 
On January 24, 1860, he was married to Helen McKay, of Norfolk 
County, Ontario. To this marriage five children have succeeded, four of 
whom are living — Charles W., Robert E., Mary W. and Jeannette H. 
Mr. Janes is a Republican, a leading and respected citizen. 

S. R. JOHNSON was born in Otsego County. N. Y., March 27, 
1826. He is the third of the seven children of Stanton and Ada (Sweet) 
Johnson, both of Otsego County and of English descent. S. R. John- 
son, at the age of seventeen, came with his parents to Kalamazoo, Mich., 
and in 1846 he settled in Washington Township, Porter County, Ind., 
where he rented a farm and lived eight years. Here, on September 27. 
1846, he was married to Julia A. Bundy, of Elkhart County, Ind. This 
union was blessed with four children — Mrs. Ada M. Stoner, of this 
county; Mrs. Alice Wells, of Chicago; Miran R., deceased; and Mar- 
vin P., deceased. In 1854, he moved to Morgan Prairie, where, two 
years later, he purchased a farm, afterward increased to 200 acres. In 
1863, his father came to this county, where he lived until his death, in