Skip to main content

Full text of "Coursing and falconry"

,: -I '/ 



Digitized by the Internet Arcinive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/coursingfalconryOdcoxhrich 



OF 

SPORTS AND PASTIMES 

EDITED BY 

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF BEAUFORT, K.G. 
ASSISTED BY ALFRED E. T. WATSON 



COURSING AND FALCONRY 



COURSING AND FALCONRY 



COURSING 

BY HARDING COX 

THOROUGHLY REVISED 

BY CHARLES RICHARDSON 

FALCONRY 

BY THE HON. GERALD LASCELLES 




IV/TH ILLUSTRATIONS by JOHN CHARLTON, R. H. MOORE 
LANCELOT SPEED, G. E. LODGE, and from PHOTOGRAPHS 

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 

AND BOMBAY 

1899 

All rights reserved 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE. 

First Edition November 1892. 

New Edition, thoroughly revised and with additions 

to ' Coursing^ ' February 1 899. 



LOAN STACK 



v 



fj^,^ : fcC''7g 






DEDICA TION 



TO 



H.R.H, THE PRINCE OF WALES 



Badminton : May 1835. 

Having received permission to dedicate these volumes, 
the Badminton Library of Sports and Pastimes, 
to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. 
I do so feeling that I am dedicating them to one of the 
best and keenest sportsmen of our time. I can say, from 
personal observation, that there is no man who can 
extricate himself from a bustling and pushing crowd of 
horsemen, when a fox breaks covert, more dexterously 
and quickly than His Royal Highness ; and that when 
hounds run hard over a big country, no man can take a 
line of his own and live with them better. Also, when 
the wind has been blowing hard, often have I seen 
His Royal Highness knocking over driven grouse and 
partridges and high-rocketing pheasants in first-rate 



344 



vi COURSING AND FALCONRY 

workmanlike style. He is held to be a good yachtsman, 
and as Commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron is 
looked up to by those who love that pleasant and 
exhilarating pastime. His encouragement of racing is 
well known, and his attendance at the University, Public 
School, and other important Matches testifies to his 
being, like most English gentlemen, fond of all manly 
sports. I consider it a great privilege to be allowed to 
dedicate these volumes to so eminent a sportsman as 
His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, and I do 
so with sincere feelings of respect and esteem and loyal 
devotion. 

BEAUFORT. 




%Ar-^^-^ 



BADMINTON 



PREFACE 



A FEW LINES only are necessary to explain the object 
with which these volumes are put forth. At the time 
when the Badminton Library was started no modern 
encyclopaedia existed to which the inexperienced man, 
who sought guidance in the practice of the various 
British Sports and Pastimes, could turn for information. 
Some books there were on Hunting, some on Racing, 
some on Lawn Tennis, some on Fishing, and so on ; but 
one Library, or succession of volumes, which treated of 
the Sports and Pastimes indulged in by Englishmen — 
and women— was wanting. The Badminton Library 
was produced to supply the want. Of the imperfections 



viii COURSING AND FALCONRY 

which must be found in the execution of such a design 
we are conscious. Experts often differ. But this we 
may say, that those who are seeking for knowledge on 
any of the subjects dealt with will find the results of 
many years' experience written by men who are in every 
case adepts at the Sport or Pastime of which they write. 
It is to point the way to success to those who are 
ignorant of the sciences they aspire to master, and who 
have no friend to help or coach them, that these volumes 
are written. 

To those who have worked hard to place simply and 
clearly before the reader that which he will find within, 
the best thanks of the Editor are due. That it has been 
no slight labour to supervise all that has been written he 
must acknowledge ; but it has been a labour of love, 
and very much lightened by the courtesy of the Publisher, 
by the unflinching, indefatigable assistance of the Sub- 
Editor, and by the intelligent and able arrangement 
of each subject by the various writers, who are so 
thoroughly masters of the subjects of which they treat. 
The reward we all hope to reap is that our work may 
prove useful to this and future generations. 

BEAUFORT. 



CONTENTS 



COURSING 

CHAPTKR PAGE 

Introduction 3 

I. The Waterloo Cup 8 

II. A Treatise on Breeding 50 

III. Practical Greyhound Breeding . . . . 74 

IV. Treatment of Saplings 90 

V. The Greyhound in Training . . . . 98 

VI. Enclosed Coursing in 

VII. Some Celebrated Greyhounds of the Past . 124 

VIII. Opinions of Noted Coursers . . . .145 

IX. Description and Points of the Greyhound . 172 

X. Some English Coursing Clubs . . . .179 



FALCONRY 



I. Introductory— The Modern Falconer— Im- 
plements Used — Glossary of Terms ■. . 235 

II, The Peregrine— Eyesses — Hacking Hawks — 
Training — Game Hawking — Records of 
Sport — Magpie Hawking 254 



X COURSING AND FALCONRY 

CHAPTER ■ PAGE 

III. The Peregrine — Passage Hawks— Advantages 

OF — How Caught— Mode of Training — 
Heron Hawking — Rook Hawking — Gull 
Hawking — Passage Hawks for Game— Lost 
Hawks 277 

IV. Gerfalcons— Kite Hawking— Hare Hawking 

— Merlins — How Managed— Lark Hawking • 
— The Hobby — The Sacre — The Lanner — 
ShahIns — Sport in India — Other Varieties 
OF Hawks used in Falconry . . . . 310 

V. The Short-winged Hawks — Goshawks — How 
Obtained — Training — Entering — Rabbit 
Hawking— Various Flights — The Sparrow- 
Hawk — Management— Blackbird Hawking. 328 

VI. Celebrated Falconers— Scotch, Dutch, and 
English Clubs - The Falconers' Club — 
Colonel Thornton — The Loo Club— The 
Old Hawking Club— Amateur Falconers 
—Famous Hawks— Records of Sport . . 343 

VI I. General Management — Mews — Blocks — 
Perches — Bow-perch — Bathing— Condition 
— Feeding — Castings — Imping — Moulting 
—Various Diseases— General Hints. . . 367 

Appendix 391 

Index 413 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Reproduced by J. D. Cooper and Messrs. Walker & Boutali. 
Photographs by G. Mitchell. 



PLATES 

The Waterloo Cup . . . 

Fullerton 

The Turn 

MiSTERTON 

Greentick 

Master McGrath .... 

Mespilus 

An Even Slip .... 

Excitement ..... 

Have a Cup 

In The Marshes .... 

On the Downs .... 

Peter Ballantyne .... 

Peregrine on Block — Adult Plumage 

Peregrines on Cadge . 

Grouse Hawking— ' Hit Fair and 
Square ' 

'A Close Shave' .... 

Greenland Falcon 

Goshawk— Adult Plumage 

John Frost 



TO FACK 
PAfiE 



ARTIST 

John Charlton Frontispiece 



R. H. Moon 



John Charlton 

Fi'om a photograph 
G. E. Lodge 



From a photograph 



22 

48 

50 
T18 
130 
149 

150 
170 

179 

232 
226 

262 
266 

292 
310 
328 
350 



COURSING AND FALCONRY 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT 



A Frolic 

A Waterloo Cup Crowd 

A Long Jump 

He's had enough .... 

Too many Hares .... 

On his own account 

The Judge 

The Nursery 

Exercise 

Feeding 

On the Grass 

The Toilette .... 

Exercise in the Paddock 

Preparing the Food 

Enclosed Coursing— Driving out 
Hare 



Starting the Hare 

Counting the Slain 

Driving Hares out of the Woods 

True Ta their Hares 

The High Jump .... 

Unsighted 

Ready for Action 



Outline of a Greyhound of well-balanced physique 



ARTIST 

John Charlton . 
From a photograph 
R. H. Moore 



From a photograph 
R. H. Moore . 

5 J 

Lancelot Speed 
John Charlton . 
Lionel Speed . 
R. H. Moore 
Lionel Speed . 



R. H. Moore 



From a photograph 



The Right Sort and the Wrong 
A Cliffe Meeting .... 

An Oyster Cart 

Carried over a Dyke after a Course 



R. H. Moore . 
Lionel Speed 



ILL US TRA TIONS 



The Game 

At a North-Country Meeting . 

Finished 

Dutch Hood 

Indian Hood 

Rufter Hood 

Jesses 

Leash 

Swivel 

Indian Bell 

Lure 

Falconer's Bag .... 

A Peregrine's Eyrie 

Falconer ' Making-in ' to a Hawk 

Tiercel and Teai 

Tiercel and Woodcock 

Magpie Hawking .... 

Tiercel on Partridcje . 

Passage Hawk under Bow-net 

Falcon flying Rook 

Iceland Falcon .... 

Lark Hawking .... 

Merlin 'Feeding up' 

Goshawk with Rabbit in her Foot 

Sparrow-hawk on Bow-perch . 

Young Goshawk on Captain Salvin 
Bow-perch 

Process of 'Imping' a Feather 

Process of 'Sewing-in' a Feather 



AKTIST 


PAGE 


From a photograph . 


219 


John Charlton 


230 


Lionel Speed 


231 


G. E. Lodge . . 


244 


,, 


245 


>5 


245 


„ 


246 


,, 


247 


?? 


247 


,, 


248 


„ 


249 


,, 


250 


?? 


255 


„ 


265 


?> 


271 


,, 


273 


„ 


275 


,, 


279 


5? 


28s 


„ 


301 


>J 


• 313 


55 


. 319 


55 


• 323 


55 


• 333 


55 


• 341 


55 


• 371 


5, 


• 379 


55 


• 379 



COURSING 



HARDING COX 



b 




A frolic 



INTRODUCTION 



Coursing, as a national field sport, holds its own for antiquity 
with any other that is now followed. How far back it dates 
cannot, indeed, be precisely said, but it is at least certain that 
very nearly nineteen hundred years ago coursing- was practised 
very much in the same manner as it is in the present day ; for 
Arrian, a.d. 150, wrote a long and elaborate treatise on the 
subject, from which the student may ascertain thatinall essentials 
the sport was what it remains ; though it may be added that 
in its leading features it is not easy to see how it could be 
otherwise conducted. 

Arrian describes coursing with an appreciation of sport 
which will be cordially recognised. He insisted on letting the 
hare have her start, creep from her form as if unperceived, and 

B 2 



4 COURSING 

recover her presence of mind. Then, he says, ' if she be a 
racer she will prick her ears and bound away from her seat 
with long strides ; ' and he grows enthusiastic over the sight 
that ensues when the greyhounds stretch out at full speed after 
her. The spirit in which this ancient Greek wrote will warmly 
commend itself to readers of to-day. Those coursers who are 
true sportsmen, Arrian asserts, 

do not take their dogs out for the sake of catching a hare, but for 
the contest or sport of coursing, and they are glad if the hare 
escapes. If she fly to any thin brake for concealment, where they 
see her trembling and in the utmost distress, they will call off their 
dogs. Often, indeed, when following a course on horseback, have 
I come up to the hare as soon as caught, and have myself saved 
her alive, and then have taken away my dog, fastened him up, and 
allowed her to escape. And if I have arrived too late to save her, 
I have struck my head with sorrow that the dog had killed so good 
an antagonist. 

All this is as it should be, and in passing on with a tribute 
of respect to the good sportsman who wrote it nearly two thou- 
sand years ago, it need only be incidentally added that he says 
nothing about testing the relative merits of greyhounds. These 
old coursers went out merely to see their dogs run a hare, and, 
though Arrian enforces the rule that more than a brace of 
greyhounds should never be slipped at a time, this is because 
he thought two greyhounds to one hare made a fair encounter. 

The date when matches were first made between dogs is 
not easily to be traced, but it was certainly before the time of 
Elizabeth, during whose reign, by special command of the 
Queen, certain * laws of the Leash or Coursing ' were drawn up 
and * allowed and subscribed by Thomas, Duke of Norfolk.' 
They will be of much interest to the coursers of the present 
time, and are therefore here quoted : — 

I. That he that is chosen Fewterer, or that lets loose the grey- 
hounds, shall receive the greyhounds matched to run to- 
gether, into his Leash, as soon as he comes into the field, and 



INTRODUCTION 5 

follow next to the hare-finder, or he who is to start the hare 
until he come unto the form ; and no horseman or footman 
is to go before, or on any side, but directly behind, for the 
space of about forty yards. 

2. You ought not to course a hare with more than a brace of 

greyhounds. 

3. The hare-finder ought to give the hare three so-ho's before he 

puts her from her form or seat, that the dogs may gaze 
about and attend her starting. 

4. They ought to give twelve score yards law before the dogs are 

loosed, unless there be danger of losing her. 

5. The dog that gives the first turn, if after that there be neither 

cote, slip, nor wrench, wins the wager. 

6. If the dog give the first turn, and the other bear the hare, he 

that bears the hare shall win. 

7. A go-by, or bearing the hare, is equivalent to two turns. 

8. If neither dog turn the hare, he that leads last to the covert 

wins. 

9. If one dog turn the hare, serve himself, and turn her again, it 

is as much as a cote, and a cote is esteemed two turns. 

10. If all the course be equal, he that bears the hare shall win, 

and if she be not borne, the course shall be adjudged 
dead. 

11. If a dog take a fall in a course, and yet performs his part, he 

may challenge the advantage of a turn more than he gave. 

12. If a dog turn the hare, serve himself, and give divers cotes, 

and yet in the end stands still in the field, the other dog, if 
he turn home of the covert, although he gives no turn, shall 
be adjudged to win the wager. 

13. If by misfortune a dog be ridden over in his course, the course 

is void, and to say the truth, he that did the mischief ought 
to make reparation for the damage. 

14. If a dog give the first and last turn and there be no other 

advantage between them, he that gives the odd turn shall 
win. 

15. A cote is when a greyhound goeth endways by his fellow, and 

gives the hare a turn. 

16. A cote serves for two turns, and two tripplings or jerkings for a 

cote ; and if she turneth not right about she only wrencheth. 
The first version has it thus :— A cote shall be more than two 
turns, and a go-by or bearing the hare equal to two turns. 



6 COURSING 

17. If there be no cotes given between a brace of greyhounds and 

that the one of them serves the other as turning, then he 
that gives the hare most turns wins the wager ; and if one 
give as many turns as the other, he that beareth the hare 
wins the wager. 

18. Sometimes the hare doth not turn but wrencheth, for she is 

not properly said to turn, unless she turns as it were 
round ; and two wrenches stand for a turn. 

19. He that comes in first to the death of the hare, takes her up 

and saves her from breaking, cherishes the dogs and 
cleanses their mouths from the wool, is adjudged to have 
the hare for his pains. 

20. Those that are judges of the leash must give their judgment 

presently, before they depart the field. 

The earliest coursing seems to have been private, but in the 
reign of the first Charles matches were decided in public, and 
they have increased in popularity till the present day, when the 
Waterloo Cup is recognised as one of the chief events of the 
sporting year, even by those who are in no way enthusiastic 
about the greyhound. 

It is not the purpose of this work to trace the history of 
coursing as related in the works of Dame Juliana Berners, 
Wynkyn de Worde, Daniel, and other authorities, nor wall 
space be occupied with well-worn quotations from Shakespeare 
and elsewhere. It is rather the object to describe the method 
in which coursing is carried on, so that any reader who has a 
fancy for the leash may be provided with information which 
will help him to join the ranks of the coursers with some 
knowledge of what is done, and some perception of (what the 
writer's experience has induced him to regard as) the best way 
of attaining success. Those who are curious as to the progress 
and development of coursing may be referred to the third 
volume of ' The Greyhound Stud Book,' in which an exliaustive 
chapter on the subject appears. 

Much misconception prevails about coursing. Compara- 



INTRODUCTION 7 

tively few men really appreciate the niceties of the sport, and 
many persons have no ideas beyond a vague belief that two 
greyhounds run after a hare, one kills her — if she does not get 
away — and wins in consequence. This is, of course, by no 
means the case. Very often the dog that actually kills loses, 
the winner being the one that ' does most towards killing the 
hare ; ' it has even been estimated by some devotees of the 
sport that as often as nine times out of ten the worse of the 
two dogs kills. 

Judging a course is, therefore, a somewhat elaborate busi- 
ness, requiring special knowledge and aptitude, the keenest 
eyes and quickest observation, on the part of the official who 
undertakes the duty. He is guided by Rules set down by the 
National Coursing Club ; but, for the better appreciation of the 
sport by those who are altogether unacquainted with the sub- 
ject, it may here be briefly said that the points of the course 
are six in number, and include ' speed,' the ' go-by,' the * turn,' 
the ' wrench,' the 'kill,' and the ' trip.' For a full explanation 
of these terms the reader is referred to the aforesaid Rules, 
which are quoted in an Appendix to this portion of the 
volume. 

So much will, it is hoped, serve for general introduction. 
Before closing these preliminary remarks, the author desires 
to add his acknowledgments to Mr. Charles Richardson, 
for his chapter on Coursing Clubs, and for various other aid 
kindly furnished. 

We now proceed to a detailed examination of the sport. 




A Waterloo Cup crowd 

CHAPTER I 

THE WATERLOO CUP 

Mention of public coursing is to be found as far back as the 
middle of the seventeenth century, but it is only in compara- 
tively recent years that public stakes have become a sporting 
institution. In an admirable article by that sterhng authority, 
'Robin Hood,' in the ' Field Quarterly Magazine and Review* 
of February 1870— an article to which I am indebted for much 
valuable information on the coursing of the past — the writer 
estimates that at least 50,000/. was run for in stakes in the 
preceding year. This was in the palmy days of Lords Sefton, 
Craven, Lurgan, Grey de Wilton, and a host of others, for the 
sport was then a thoroughly popular one, and was supported 
by the highest in the land. We have already spoken of the 
origin of coursing. For a long w^hile greyhounds were used 
as a means of catching hares, apart from relative merit, and a 
dog that ran cunning and could account for fur with unfailing 
regularity was regarded as a real friend, instead of being 
promptly put out of the way— a fate that generally overtakes 
rogues since stakes were instituted By-and-by owners would 
match their dogs against each other ; but for a long time the 



THE WATERLOO CUP 9 

killer was considered the winner,' apart from any points of 
merit as calculated nowadays. When these points had been 
adopted small stakes were run for, and no better illustration of 
the progress and development of the sport can be found than a 
reference to the historical records of the Waterloo Cup, which 
is rightfully called ' The Blue Ribbon of the Leash ' — for is it 
not the summit of a coursing-man's ambition to be returned 
the winner of the great event? and should he be fortunate 
enough to have bred and trained his successful nomination, 
the achievement will rank as a red-letter performance in the 
pages of his life's history. The Waterloo Cup finds its parallel 
on the turf. In these days of 10,000/. stakes a man may win 
a prize of greater pecuniary value than the Derby ; but even 
the most mercenary of racing-men and those who look upon 
the sport as a profession would in all probability, if asked, tell 
you they would rather win one Derby than two Eclipse Stakes. 
So it is with the great trophy of Altcar. A Gosforth Gold Cup is 
won and forgotten, but a Waterloo triumph is a living memory. 
Let us then look to the foundation of this popular stake, 
and, again adopting 'Robin Hood' as our authority, unearth 
its records. The year 1836 saw its beginning. That begin- 
ning was modest in the extreme, for we find in the 'New 
Sporting Magazine' a record of the event described as an 
eight-dog stake at 2 sovs. each. The contest was conducted 
under the auspices of a Mr. Lynn, and resulted in a win for 
that gentleman's nomination, Melanie, though the owner of the 
bitch was none other than Lord Molyneux, eldest son of the 
Earl of Sefton, who had kindly given permission for the stake 
to be run on the now classical plains of Altcar. In addition 
to the stakes, a trophy, in the form of a silver snuff-box, was 
presented to the winner. The following year saw the nomina- 
tions increased to sixteen at 5/. each \ and the eight dogs 
beaten in the first round could compete for ' the Altcar Plate,' 
an equivalent to the Waterloo Plate of to-day. The next 
celebration found thirty-two nominations at 25/. each, and no 
1 This was evidently not the case in Queen Elizabeth's time. — Ed. 



lo COURSTNG 

alteration occurred for twenty years, with the exception of a 
distinct stake called ' The Waterloo Purse,' which was added 
to the card. It was not until 1857 that the stake attained its 
full dimensions as follows : — 

The Waterloo Cup, sixty-four subscribers at 25/. each = 
1,600/., which is allotted as follows : 1,240/. to the thirty-two 
dogs left in the Waterloo Cup proper, comprising 500/. to the 
winner, 200/. to the second, 50/. each to the third and fourth, 
30/. each to the next four, 20/. each to eight, and 10/. each to 
the other sixteen. The thirty-two dogs beaten in the first 
round to run again for the Waterloo Purse, for w^hich 260/. is 
reserved, the winner getting 100/., the second 50/., two dogs 
15/. each, four dogs 10/. each, and eight dogs 5/. each respec- 
tively. For the Waterlpo Plate 100/. is reserved for the sixteen 
dogs beaten in the second round of the Cup, the winner 
receiving 45/., the second 20/., two dogs 7/. loi-. each, and four 
others 5/. each. 

Now, having regard to these conditions, it is easily gathered 
that the owner of a smart dog stands a fair chance of drawing 
a prize of some sort, even should he fail to win the laurel 
crown and its substantial concomitant ; so no wonder that the 
nominations are eagerly sought after, and that the fact of one 
being allotted is considered a high honour in the coursing 
world. 

A short account of some of the more remarkable winners 
of this trophy may here prove acceptable to the reader, and 
amongst the older generation may recall many half-forgotten 
scenes of interest and excitement. 

1847. — This was the first year in which Lord Sefton com- 
peted on his native soil, and he won ; w^hat is more, he bred 
the winner, Senet, himself, and also his sire and dam.. 

1854. — Lord Sefton repeated his triumph with Sackcloth, a 
son of Senet, a victory that must have been specially gratifying. 

1850-52-53. — In these years the winner was Cerito, who 
was only a puppy on the first occasion. Altogether this smart 
bitch was slipped fifty-three times and won forty-five courses. 



THE WATERLOO CUP II 

1855 saw the victory of Judge, a dog who subsequently 
proved of inestimable value at the stud, and who was runner- 
up in the following year. 

1857 was the first year that the stake attained its full 
dimensions, and the winner proved to be King Lear, the 
runner-up being Sunbeam, w^ho was backed to win an enor- 
mous stake. 

1858 saw a rank outsider in Neville victorious ; another 
greatly fancied one, named Deacon, running up. 

1859. — In this year the stakes were divided ; and when 
' Robin Hood ' wrote the article to which I have referred, this 
was a record ; but in late years we have three examples of a 
division of stakes : by Miss Glendyne and Bit of Fashion, by 
Herschel and Greater Scot, and by Fullerton and Troughend, 
further allusion to which will be made in the proper sequence. 
On the occasion under notice the dividers were Clive and 
Selby ; the latter, whose success was expected, was the property 
of Mr. Jardine, while Clive was by the 1855 winner. Judge — a 
good example of the transmission of merit. 

1 86 1 saw the victory of a sterling greyhound in Canaradzo, 
whose name is conspicuous in most of the tabulated pedigrees 
of our present -time celebrities. A sister of Canaradzo, called 
Cioloja, was believed to be a perfect wonder, and became a 
very hot favourite for the Cup ; but, as ill luck would have it, 
she broke her thigh a few days before the event. 

1863 was remarkable for the victory of Chloe, another 
daughter of Judge, the favourite and runner-up being Rebe, 
the property of Messrs. Heywood and Racster. 

1864. — Rebe again ran up, being unluckily beaten in the 
final by King Death, a son of Canaradzo, and in 

1865 she divided the Purse with Beckford. In 

1866 she ran into the last four, this proving the finale to a 
remarkable but luckless career. 

1865. — In this year Brigadier was returned the winner, a 
dog that had previously shown wretched form and had cost 
his owner the modest sum of twenty-five shillings — a most 



12 COURSING 

profitable investment as it turned out ; for Mr. Gorton had 
backed his nomination to win a good round sum, having an idea 
that a bitch called Wild Geranium (believed to be very smart) 
would fill it. So he won his money, as it were, against his 
will. 

1866. — Here again was a dea ex machina^ to the great benefit 
of Mr. Stocker, who had secured the Newmarket Champion 
Puppy Stakes winner, Saucebox, to fill his nomination. This 
bitch went wrong after a trial with Lobelia, but so smartly did 
the latter run that Mr. Stocker sent her to fill his nomination, 
and, moreover, threw a fresh commission into the market. 
* Lobelia,' says 'Robin Hood,' ' ran her first three courses some- 
what unsteadily ; but settling down to her work she won the 
remainder most brilliantly : her decisive victory over Royal 
Seal in the last course being one of the smartest performances 
imaginable. She took part in the Waterloo Cup in the two 
subsequent years, and won four courses each time, but 
was compelled twice to lower her colours to the invincible 
Irishman.' ^ She was a small wiry greyhound by Sea Foam, 
weighing a shade over 44 lbs. 'When Lobelia secured her 
memorable victory, so great was the enthusiasm at Southport 
that a messenger was despatched from Altcar with instructions 
that the bells of the parish church were to be rung in honour 
of the event.' 

We now come to what may be termed the Master McGrath 
era— viz. from 1868-187 1, for this prodigy made a mark on the 
records of coursing which is quite indelible, and stamped it 
with a public interest which reaches far beyond the limits of 
the true votaries of the sport. His was a name to conjure by, 
and many a one who had never seen a course, who would 
not know a greyhound from a lurcher, would discourse of the 
prowess of this canine giant — giant only in achievement, for he 
was by no means a big dog ; nor was he a remarkably hand- 
some one. having a short, even sour, head; but he was compactly 
built, and stood on the best of feet and legs. In another 

1 Master McGrath. 



THE WATERLOO CUP 13 

portion of this volume, when discussing breeding theories, we 
shall enter into an analysis of Master McGrath's pedigree, 
which cannot fail to be of interest to students of the subject. 
For the present we must return to his career as affecting the 
history of the Waterloo Cup. 

1868. — In this year Brigade was favourite, and though the 
Irishmen were very sweet on their puppy, and entrusted him 
with solid support, the fact remained that the coveted trophy 
had never crossed the Channel, and the English division were 
in happy ignorance of the sort of goods that was to be slipped. 
Prior to leaving his native soil. Master McGrath had won the 
Visitors' Cup at Lurgan, and those who witnessed his victory 
did not forget him when he went to the slips. His first opponent 
was Belle of Scotland, and he began moderately by running 
an undecided, but at the next time of asking he polished her 
off in decisive style, and made quite an example of Kalista, 
Marionette, the favourite, Brigade, and the previous year's 
winner, Lobelia. For the final he met Mr. Lister's Cock 
Robin. In the previous round this dog had tumbled on his 
sister Charming May, who was drawn in his favour, though she 
ran the bye with him, and, strange to say, easily beat him, so 
that when he made a very respectable show against the Irish 
crack, Mr. Lister must have been sorry that he did not leave 
the bitch in. This year was also remarkable for the debut in 
the stake of Bab at the Bowster, whom contemporary critics 
considered second only to McGrath. She came from Scotland 
with a great reputation untarnished by defeat, and won two 
courses in brilliant fashion ; but then she met Lobelia and 
went down after an undecided. 

The following year (1869) was full of interest, for both the 
Irish dog and the Scotch bitch had added to their laurels since 
the last meeting. The bitch's record was indeed brilliant, for 
she won the Scarisbrick Cup (128), the Douglas Cup (64), the 
coveted Altcar Cup (20), and the Elsham Cup (32). In the 
Douglas Cup she had had her revenge on Lobelia, for on a 
strong outside she led her former conqueror three lengths and 



14 



COURSING 



gave her a good beating. Notwithstanding this the British 
public would not be stalled off their idol, and McGrath was 
steadily backed down to 6 to i, whilst 'tens' were procurable 
about Bab, who ran in Mr. R. Paterson's nomination. As 
luck would have it, the great rivals were drawn well apart, so 
that as the contest progressed excitement waxed higher and 
higher, until it culminated in their going to slips together for 
the final. Lobelia, who had grandly worked her way into the 
last four, had met the Irishman in the morning. At one 
moment in the course it looked as if the idol would be 
shattered, as Lobelia fairly held him, and had she killed at the 
drain when she made her great effort, McGrath would never 
have been hailed winner of a triple Waterloo. No sooner, 




A long jump 

however, had the hare crossed than the leviathan came like 
great guns and snatched the verdict in a brilliant finish. 
Meanwhile Bab at the Bowster had settled Ghillie Galium, who 
made no show against her. Then came the tug of war : away 
they went to a splendid slip and to a stout hare, and a shout 
arose as it was seen the bitch was slightly leading. On 
approaching the drain McGrath steadied himself, and clearing 
it more smartly than the bitch, he scored first and second ; 
Bab soon joined issue, and brilliant exchanges ensued ; then 
McGrath drew out, and concentrating his forces in the marvel- 
lous way so often noticed, he dashed in and effected a grand 
kill, thus winning his second, but not his last, Waterloo. 

In 1870 the meeting was interrupted by frost, and an ob- 
jection was lodged by Mr. Borron against the nominations of 



THE WATERLOO CUP 15 

Lord Lurgan and Mr. Jones on the ground that they had not 
named by the time fixed. As Master McGrath represented 
his owner, there was a deal of excitement ; but the objection 
was overruled by the stewards, and was similarly treated on 
appeal to the National Coursing Club. On Wednesday the 
frost gave, and a start was made the following day. Although 
the Irish champion had not been seen in public since his 
previous triumph, he went to the slips a hot favourite, as little 
as 7 to 2 being accepted about his chance. What then was 
the general dismay when it was seen that Lady Lyons was not 
only holding him, but giving him a severe dressing. She drew 
right out, and the course ended at the river Alt, still covered 
with rotten ice. In following the hare it gave way, and McGrath 
was in imminent peril, but was rescued by Wilson, the Irish 
slipper. The next morning the poor dog was in a pitiable state, 
and Lord Lurgan, in the heat of the moment, expressed his 
opinion that he had been poisoned, and swore that he should 
never run again ; but the general impression was that the crack 
was short of work, and that he was upset by the treacherous 
state of the ground. Meanwhile Bab at the Bowster had won 
three courses, and was then put out by Cataclysm, but the 
winner turned up in Sea Cove, a bitch with very fair credentials. 
Bed of Stone and S. S., two sterling greyhounds, competed in 
this stake. The latter, having been unluckily put out in the first 
ties, scored decisively in the Plate, and it is the general opinion 
that, had he got clear of his first course, the Cup would again 
have gone to Ireland by aid of her second string. 

Lord Lurgan, repenting of his hastiness, put McGrath into 
training again, and won the Brownlow Cup, when it was seen 
that the old dog had lost none of his dash, so that on the night 
of the draw for the Waterloo Cup (187 1) he was again installed 
favourite, but this time at the extended odds of 10 to i. It 
was soon apparent that he would make it as hot as usual for 
the best of his opponents. His first course against Wharfinger 
was not particularly brilliant, and many expected a repetition of 
last year's fiasco ; but he improved as he went on, and when 



i6 COURSING 

he met the puppy Pretender in the final he crowned a very 
smartly run trial with one of those dashing kills which went so 
far to uphold his fame. In this Cup, Bed of Stone had the bad 
luck to run no less than three undecideds with Bendimere, which 
of course destroyed her chance ; but she came out like a giantess 
refreshed, and polished off her opponents in the Plate in grand 
style. This was the last course that the great dog ran in public, 
and, as we have said before, his name became a household word. 
Even Her Majesty the Queen commanded him to appear at 
Windsor Castle, and expressed a lively interest in his perform- 
ances. He did not long survive his retirement, for he died 
of heart-disease two years after. In the chapter of this volume 
entitled ' Famous Greyhounds of the Past ' will be found the 
measurements of this remarkable greyhound, whose running 
weight was 54 lbs. 

1872 found Bed of Stone victorious. She was a sterling 
bitch, and had previously won the Purse in 1870 and the Plate 
in 187 1, so that this last performance set a seal on her fame, 
and as a matron she was a decided success (see chapter on 
* Celebrated Greyhounds '). The runner-up was Peasant Boy, 
who occupied the same berth the following year (1873), when 
Muriel was successful. On this occasion there was a dis- 
graceful demonstration against the judge, Mr. Warwick. It 
having got wind that he had judged a private trial of Peasant 
Boy, an idea prevailed that he meant pulling that dog through 
at all hazards ; consequently, when he went to the slips with 
Muriel for the final, Mr. Warwick was literally mobbed, and 
although Muriel fairly won at the finish, there w^re not wanting 
those who declared that the judge had been intimidated ; these 
were probably the disappointed backers of Peasant Boy. Mr. 
Warwick had judged the Waterloo Cup thirteen years, and 
had given every satisfaction ; but this was the last time he 
officiated. 

1874 was remarkable for being the first year in which Mr. 
Hedley acted as judge ; he had every qualification for the post, 
which he has held up to the present time. Magnano, the winner, 



THE WATERLOO CUP 



17 



was a rank outsider, and he put out Muriel in the first ties ; 
she, however, making amends by winning the Purse. 

In 1875 the Irish were again successful with their much- 
fancied representative Honeymoon, the favourite Sirius going 
down the first round. 

The next year (1875) Honeymoon, who in the interim had 
won the important Brownlow Cup, started a hot favourite at 
II to 2. She beat in grand style Warren Hastings, Handicraft, 




He's had enough 



and Lucetta, but in the next round fell foul of her compatriot 
and kennel companion, Donald, who succeeded in lowering 
her colours, and eventually proved the winner of the Cup. 
After his victory Donald was sold for 300/., and was immediately 
put to the stud. 

1876. — Now once more we have to deal with a canine mar- 
vel, for the winner was the diminutive Coomassie, who made 
very short work of all her early opponents, with the exception 

c 



r8 



COURSING 



of Master Sam. This dog, who was a regular electric flash, led 
the little bitch, but he had one conspicuous failing, which was 
his utter inability to kill his hares. On this occasion it cost 
him the course, as Coomassie, getting a chance, put in some 
telling points, and wound up with a brilliant kill ; for she was 
as clever with her teeth as her opponent was deficient. When 
it came to the final, the fawn had a hard nut to crack in Braw 
Lass, who was favourite for the stake ; but she led her, and 
though the latter was very busy afterwards, Coomassie, finishing 
with another brilliant kill, gained the award. 

The next year (1878) Coomassie, who had not been seen 




^^i^f^« 



Too many hares 

out since her previous victory, was naturally enough installed 
favourite at 9 to i, with a point longer odds accepted about 
her old opponent Braw Lass. Now it appears that Coomassie 
had been amiss, but the secret was well preserved, and did not 
leak out till she had run her first two courses in anything but 
her old form ; however, she pulled through, and improving 
as she went on, she went to slips for the last time with Zazel, 
who had been somewhat hard run. She made a fair show 
against the crack ; but, killing too soon, settled her chance, 
and gave Coomassie her second Waterloo Cup. 

This year witnessed Tom Wilkinson's debut as slipper, a 



THE WATERLOO CUP 19 

post he filled most efficiently until 1890, when Wright handled 
the slips. 

As the time approached for the next Waterloo (1879), it was 
thought that the little wonder Coomassie had a chance of rivalling 
the feats of Master McGrath, but these hopes were disappointed. 
She had the ill-luck to fracture a small bone in her leg during 
training, so that she never ran again. Coomassie was the 
smallest greyhound that ever won the Waterloo Cup, as she 
weighed but 44 lbs. ; but, with the exception of Master McGrath, 
Fullerton, and possibly of Miss Glendyne, she stands out from 
other winners as an animal of exceptional merit. She was bred 
by Mr. Cafley, of Runham, near Yarmouth,' and when at walk 
at a butcher's there, might have been purchased for a few shil- 
hngs. It was not until she ran in, and won, the Newmarket 
Champion Puppy Stakes that her merit was discovered. 

1879. — The way now being clear for Zazel, she was made 
favourite for the great event ; but she was not destined to re- 
compense her owner for the previous disappointment. The 
winner sprang from the extreme outside division, viz. Misterton, 
a dog who was to make a great name for himself at the stud. 
He started at the remunerative price of 1000 to 6, which is rather 
odd, considering that in the Newmarket Champion Puppy Stakes 
he had won four courses in grand style, and had been most 
unluckily put out. The final with Commerce was a close affair, 
and she had none the best of the luck against Mr. Miller's dog. 

1880. — Misterton had a rare gruelling in his first course, 
and was put out by Devastation next round. Honeywood and 
Plunger (100 to i chance) were left in for the final, but after 
the former had made a strong beginning, he ran roguishly, and 
Plunger all but succeeded in snatching the verdict out of the fire. 

A very smart and clever greyhound won in 1881, viz. 
Princess Dagmar : she was a big bitch (58 lbs.), and disposed 
of all her opponents with considerable ease. The next year 
(1882) she made but a poor show, having been amiss, and 
the winner turned up in Snowflight, who fought out the issue 

1 There are those who declare that Coomassie was stolen, in Cumberland, 
when a puppy. — Eu. , 



20 COURSING 

with the aged Hornpipe. The last-named had had a hard 
time of it, having run an undecided with Banchory, and de- 
feated GlenHvet, Death or Glory, Sut, and Leader. In the 
final, after a stiffish course, the hat came off, and at the second 
go a fresh hare crossed them and they separated ; so that, when 
at last they were fairly off, the poor old bitch was spun out, 
and, to add to her misfortunes, the hare favoured Snowflight 
throughout the course. 

1883. — Snowflight was within an ace of repeating her victory, 
but it was snatched from her by Wild Mint, who had the luck 
of the contest, and who is generally considered the worst 
greyhound that ever won the trophy. 

In 1884 Mineral Water won, and the runner-up was that 
good, game but unlucky greyhound Greentick, who made a 
name for himself that seemed unapproachable until it was 
rivalled by Herschel as a sire. Here again it was thought that 
a bad dog had won ; but Mineral Water's subsequent perform- 
ance in the Gosforth Gold Cup went far to remove that impres- 
sion, though his defeat in the Waterloo Cup of 1885 was easily 
brought about in the first ties. Here we had another division 
when Bit of Fashion and Miss Glendyne were left in for the 
final. These bitches represented one interest, though owned 
respectively by Mr. E. Dent and Mr. C. Hibbert. Had they 
run it off, it would have been, bar accidents, a very one-sided 
affair, as Miss Glendyne was quite a class above her kennel- 
companion, though the latter has subsequently been immorta- 
lised as the dam of FuUerton. 

That Miss Glendyne was a really peerless bitch was proved 
the next year (1886). In the summer she had the misfortune 
to break a toe, and as the time approached for her preparation 
it was found she was constantly falling lame. The late eminent 
surgeon, Mr. Hutton, however, performed a most successful 
operation, and though the bitch was brought to the slips very 
big and made a slovenly exhibition of herself in her first two 
courses, she ran herself into condition and wound up with a 
brilliant victory over the midget, Penelope II., who was even 



THE WATERLOO CUP 21 

smaller than Coomassie, and weighed no more than 41 lbs. 
To see the two bitches in the slips together was really comical^ 
and to look at, it was 20 to i on one ; nevertheless, the pigmy 
could go a great pace, and was as clever as a monkey ; she 
rendered an excellent account of herself, and only just lost 
one of the grandest trials ever run. We remember asking 
Mr. Hedley, during one of the intervals this year (1890), what 
was the finest course he ever witnessed, and he immediately 
said the one under notice. 

In 1887 a division once more occurred, the heroes being 
Greater Scot and Herschel. The latter was a particularly 
brilliant all-round performer, and would in all probability have 
beaten his kennel-companion, especially as the latter was very 
hard run with Jenny Jones. 

1888 witnessed the victory of Burnaby. The original fix- 
ture had to be abandoned owing to frost, and the draw was 
declared void. This year is indelibly fixed on our memory, as, 
for the first time, we held a nomination and journeyed to 
Liverpool to see her (it was a bitch) run ; but, owing to the 
postponement, we returned to town after a bootless journey. 
At the second time of asking, Herschel and Miss Glendyne 
were drawn together, and there was great excitement when 
they went to slips ; but the dog led and beat her decisively, 
though she eventually won the Purse, one of her victims being 
our above-mentioned hope and joy, who had won two 
courses in great style before he unluckily met the crack. 
Curiously enough, when the hare to which Miss Glendyne 
and Herschel had been slipped was picked up, it was found 
to liave but three legs, though this mutilation was not 
apparent when the dogs were slipped, and she seemed to 
go strongly and well. Greater Scot raised but one flag ; 
but Herschel survived until meeting Burnaby, when he was 
seen to be spun out, and Mr. Pilkington's dog won rather 
easily. The runner-up was Duke McPherson, an Irish dog 
that had recently been purchased by Colonel North, who had 
just risen on the horizon of the coursing world. His blue 



22 



COURSING 



dog made a good show against the winner ; but, to add to the 
bitterness of the defeat, the Colonel had the bad luck to lose 
his dog. Since then Fortune has come with both hands full, as 
in 1889, 1890, 1 89 1, and 1892 he has had it all his own way in 
the Waterloo Cup. In 1889 he sprung a mine on us in the 
shape of his puppy Fullerton, by Greentick— Bit of Fashion. 
Whatever may have been the opinion of the critics after the 
division between this dog and his kennel companion, Troughend 
— and it is not unlikely that his colours would have been 




On hi 



s own account 



lowered by Herschel, who was 
going in his best form, had not 
the latter got away with a demon 
hare that ran him as stiff as the 
proverbial poker — nevertheless, 
there could be no mistaking his 
quality after his brilliant performance in 1890 and the two 
following years. 

As for Troughend, the divider in 1889, he did very badly, 
and was very lucky to get as far as he did in the Purse. The 
runner-up. Downpour, was a sterling little bitch, very fast and 
clever withal ; with Fullerton out of the way she would have 
easily accounted for the stake. 

In the Waterloo Cup of 1892 Fullerton set a seal on his 
fame and broke all records by winning outright for the third 
year running —after having divided with his kennel companion 



THE WATERLOO CUP 23 

Troughend (whom he could assuredly have beaten) in his 
puppy season. On this occasion great interest was centred in 
the event ; the eyes of all coursers, and a vast concourse of 
those who, as a rule, pay little attention to the affairs of the 
leash, were bent on the contest, and all items of news con- 
nected with it were greedily scanned. 

At one time a feeling of uneasiness and dissatisfaction 
prevailed, because at the first draw Colonel North had 
announced his intention of drawing any or all of his dogs 
that might meet FuUerton, in the latter's favour. On the first 
blush Colonel North was to be commended for a very natural 
desire to smooth the path for his matchless favourite ; but 
when the pros and cons were fairly weighed, it was obvious 
that the proceeding was not a sportsmanlike one. In the first 
place, it would be grossly unfair on the nominators who were 
represented by his other dogs ; and, secondly, were the great 
brindle to pull through under such circumstances, a substan- 
tial handle would be afforded his detractors for dragging in a 
host of ' ifs ' and ' perhapses.' 

Fortunately, it soon dawned on Fullerton's owner that he had 
made a mistake, and having arrived at such a conclusion, he lost 
no time in altering his tactics, and the result must have left him 
heartily thankful that he did so, though, as it happened, the old 
dog did not meet any of his kennel companions. 

For the third time in the history of the contest a postpone- 
ment on account of frost was found necessary ; but the follow- 
ing Tuesday (February 23) a beginning was made. In both 
draws Colonel North may be said to have been favoured by 
fortune. In his first course, FuUerton made short work of 
Likeness, for he raced away quite six lengths and ran clean into 
his hare ; and Maggie Miller in the first ties fared no better 
when opposed to him ; for she failed to score a point, as the 
brindle led four lengths, and though momentarily thrown out 
at a dyke, managed to keep possession until the end. 

The following day he came out like a giant refreshed, and 
then came across a foeman worthy of his steel in Rhymes — 



24 COURSING 

indeed, there is no disguising the fact that his neck was fairly 
stretched, and at one time his opponent had won the course ; 
but just faiHng to kill at the critical moment, the never to-be- 
denied champion put in some of his finest work and pulled 
through. The course was one of the most interesting that 
the Cup contest has produced — which is saying a great deal — 
and the enthusiasm at the result was unbounded. It is thus 
technically described : — 

To a good slip Fullerton led nearly three lengths and 
scored thrice ; but Rhymes shot up as the hare broke away 
and rapidly put together a sequence of strong points and soon 
had matters equalised ; he then made a bold attempt to kill 
and just failed ; this let up Fullerton, who again scored twice, 
but he was not left in possession long, as his opponent joined 
in, and the hare taking them over some rough ground, quick 
exchanges followed ; but at last the crack drew out, and 
scoring twice, smartly picked up his hare, and won. 

His next victim was the puppy Patrick Blue, who had 
previously disposed of Great Fly and Burlador in smart 
fashion before being favoured by a bye through the withdrawal 
of Pleasant Nancy, who was lame ; and though the white and 
black actually got his head in front when nearing the hare, he 
pecked and let up Fullerton, who flew the drain in grand style, 
and got up quite two lengths to the good. The puppy now 
crossed behind and managed to score a little one, but the 
other soon clinched matters by spinning round him, wrenching, 
and killing brilliantly. 

The following day Fullerton was due to meet Racecourse, 
a very highly-fancied dog belonging to, and nominated by, 
Mr. Russel ; but as he (Racecourse) had got away with a fresh 
hare after defeating a very smart puppy in Ivan the Great, and 
had been run to a standstill, odds of 7 to i were laid on the 
old dog, whilst 2 to i that he won outright was freely betted 
by his supporters. The former odds were fully justified, for 
whatever chance Racecourse may have possessed before the 
mishap alluded to, he now failed to make any impression on 



THE WATERLOO CUP 25^ 

his opponent, who led three lengths, and running a magnificent 
course, ended with a particularly brilliant kill. The hare having 
broken across a drain, he was round on her scut like lightning, 
and pinned her down on landing before she could recover 
herself. Now came the final course, and excitement ran high 
when Fullerton and FitzFife were delivered to Bootiman. 
Certainly two more strikingly handsome greyhounds have never 
gone to slips to fight out the final stage of the great contest ; 
well matched in size and symmetry, but not in colour, for 
FitzFife shows a deal of white — is, in fact, a white and 
brindle. He ran remarkably well in the 1891 Cup, but had 
the misfortune to be run to a complete standstill early in 
the contest. Seeing how he acquitted himself on this 
occasion, the Messrs. Fawcett are surely to be condoled with 
that, through her going amiss, they were unable to run 
Faster and Faster (the 1891 runner-up), who at home was 
always reckoned a good two lengths in front of FitzFife and 
quite as clever ; albeit, Fullerton had already lowered her 
colours, and on form should have done so again, though great 
improvement was claimed for the bitch, whereas it was reason- 
able to suppose that the champion had lost some of his speed 
and dash. All this is a matter of speculation, for the question 
now to be settled was not, Could he beat Faster and Faster ? 
but, Would he beat FitzFife ? The latter had run quite well 
enough to promise an interesting struggle, having beaten 
successively Sir Sankey, Woodcote Green, Silver City, and 
Texture — the last-named, who is evidently an exceedingly smart 
bitch, somewhat luckily, as she was easily leading, but made 
a slight mistake at the drain, and FitzFife, making the most 
of his opportunity, had just won, when Texture shot up for a 
mutual kill ; had the hare lived, in all probability the verdict 
would have been reversed — another case of ' if.' 

To a good hare Bootiman despatched them on their fateful 
journey on capital terms, and everyone held breath as it was 
seen that the younger dog was holding his own for pace ; but, 
nearing the hare, Fullerton put on a great spurt, drawing clear 



26 



COURSING 



he reached her nearly two lengths ahead, and slaying there 
scored the second; but puss, breaking round, gave FitzFife 
an opening, which he used to great purpose, as he shot up, 
scored once, and effected a very fine kill, Mr. Hedley's hat 
coming off, rather to the surprise of the skilled spectators, 




for it certainly looked a good thing for FuUerton. However, 
the old coursing adage that no one can decide a trial but 
the judge is a good one, and doubtless on this occasion Mr. 
Hedley must have seen something that was lost to the general 
body of beholders. Anyhow, the excitement was protracted, 
and had lost none of its fever-heat when, for the second time, 
the doughty pair went to the slips, odds of 4 to i being laid. 



THE WATERLOO CUP 27 

This time the old dog was on his legs quickest and, making the 
best of his way, drew out a good four lengths for the turn and 
again scored decisively twice, the third being gained by his 
brilliantly sweeping round his opponent ; a slight scrimmage 
now took place, out of which the younger dog came best, and 
he began to run up such a smart sequence that the odds were 
in jeopardy ; but, not to be denied, the crack came again, 
a series of exchanges followed, and then FitzFife had an 
innings of small points. Meanwhile the hare had ringed, and 
they were approaching the slipper's shelter. With one of those 
mighty efforts that have distinguished him throughout his 
career, the great dog now drew past, and driving the hare 
before him very strongly over the bank, swept her up on the 
other side, and thus won what may fairly be termed his fourth 
successive Waterloo Cup. 

Had the voting circulars as to the merits of greyhounds 
that form another chapter been sent out subsequent to this 
great achievement, surely Fullerton would have stood at the 
head of the poll, instead of occupying third place to Master 
McGrath and Bab-at-the-Bowster? That his equal has been 
seen we doubt — his superior we deny. Surely his detractors 
are now silent ; where is the flaw in his reputation ? In his 
early days he was decried as not being smart with his teeth ; 
but this theory has been completely falsified by a succession 
of really brilliant kills. Long will it be before we see such 
another, and in bidding him farewell, we can only hope that 
he will live to reproduce a modicum of his own brilliancy in a 
long line of offspring ; and that his stud achievements may 
rival if not outstrip those of his remarkable parents. 

1893. — The preceding paragraph was written very shortly 
after Fullerton had got to the end of his fourth Waterloo Cup, and 
when it was generally supposed that the most brilliant grey- 
hound of all time had run his last public course. As already 
stated, he had divided the Cup with his kennel companion 
Troughend in* 1889, and had won it outright in the three 
following years. In 1893 he was— rather to the general 



28 COURSING 

surprise — brought out for the fifth year in succession, and 
though he got through one course, his first display clearly 
showed that he was not the old Fullerton, but a decidedly 
deteriorated greyhound. Flashes of his former prowess were 
visible both in the course he won, and again when he was 
beaten by Full Captain, but it was nevertheless evident that he 
had lost a great deal of his fire, that his pace was not what it 
had been, and also that his stamina was nothing like so pro- 
nounced as in earlier days. 

At the same time it can be truly urged that Fullerton 
struggled gamely under difficulties, and had he killed his hare 
early in his first course, instead of merely flecking it, he might 
once more have gone far down the stake. As a matter of fact, 
however, the hare stood up marvellously after her lucky escape, 
and Fullerton was fairly pumped out when his opponent killed. 
The first part of the course had been all in favour of Fullerton, 
so that although Castlemartin scored the final points, the old 
dog deservedly gained the award. In the second round 
Fullerton's opponent was Full Captain by Millersdale out of 
Dear Eleanor, and the latter had also been rather hard run in 
his first course, but had got oif more lightly than Fullerton. 
The pair seemed to be about equally matched for pace, for 
though Fullerton scored the turn, he had a slight inside, and 
Full Captain had shown in front as long as they were running 
straight. Fullerton also scored a second point, and then after 
an exchange or two fell into a drain. He joined issue again, 
but was being beaten when he came down heavily, leaving Full 
Captain to bring off the kill and secure the verdict. After- 
wards it was found that Fullerton's knee was a good deal 
bruised and swollen, but whether he wrenched it when the 
course was in progress or when he fell will of course never be 
known. 

Increasing years had probably a good deal to do with 
Fullerton's defeat, but it must be stated in defence of the dog 
that he had, previously to this defeat, been sent to the stud and 
found wanting. That Fullerton was unable to perpetuate his 



THE WATERLOO CUP 29 

species is a matter for general regret, but such was the fact, and 
his owner and trainer may well be excused for having run him 
again when it was discovered that the great dog was of no use 
as a sire. 

After his last appearance at Altcar, Fullerton was taken 
back to Short Flatt Tower in Northumberland, where he had 
always been trained by Mr. Edward Dent ; but his owner, the 
late Colonel North, wished to have him at home, and so he 
was removed to Avery Hill, near Eltham in Kent. He had 
not been long located in his new quarters when he disappeared, 
and though his loss was noised abroad all over the country, 
nearly a week elapsed before he was found by a country post- 
man. The old dog was in a pitiable condition, worn out for 
want of food, footsore and weary, when he was happily restored 
to Eltham, and it is on the cards that, after the manner of dogs 
whose quarters are changed late in life, he had attempted in 
vain to find his way back to Northumberland. 

It should be mentioned that in spite of his age Fullerton was 
greatly fancied on the night of the draw, as were Fine Night and 
FitzFife. This pair met in the second round, but the course 
between them was unsatisfactory, FitzFife securing the verdict 
after a very poor trial. Fine Night after showing pace from 
slips tripped at a drain, and let up FitzFife, who twice slightly 
moved his hare, and picked her up before Mr. Fletcher's bitch 
joined issue. In the third round FitzFife fell against Wild 
Hornet, and in a gruelling course of great severity the bitch 
rendered him very little assistance, Messrs. Fawcett's dog 
winning all the way, though at the expense of a considerable 
amount of stamina and condition. In the fourth round Fitz- 
Fife came to slips rather badly cut, from having run a consider- 
able distance along the road in his last course. He would have 
been drawn, we believe, had he not been so heavily backed by 
the public, bearing which fact in mind the Messrs. Fawcett let 
him take his chance, and accordingly he was beaten by Button 
Park. The trial was only a short one, and FitzFife made a 
gallant effort to divert defeat, but his previous bad luck in 



30 COURSING 

getting far too long a course, some of it on hard ground, brought 
about his defeat, and thus he did not go so far into the stake 
as in 1892, when he had been the runner up to Fullerton. 

With Fullerton, Fine Night, and FitzFife all out of it on 
the second day, the finals did not arouse so much interest as 
usual. The last four left in were Character, Patrick Blue, 
Button Park, and Texture ; and Character, who had got off 
very lightly, led and easily defeated Patrick Blue, while Button 
Park disposed of Texture even more easily, and had a rather 
severer course than Character. The final course was a short 
one. Character not only showed speed, but also had the best 
of the subsequent work and the kill to his credit, though it 
should be mentioned that Button Park was suffering from 
shoulder lameness when he went to sHps. Sensational as the 
early stages of this Waterloo Cup were, the ending was singu- 
larly tame, and there was a very general opinion that the stake 
had been won by a moderate greyhound, whose position at the 
end was in a great measure due to his having escaped all bad 
luck, and having got very lightly off in all his courses. 
Character was owned and trained by John Coke, of Birkdale, 
Southport, and it is also worthy of mention that Button Park, 
the runner up, was also one of Mr. Coke's charges, so that he 
emulated his feat of six years before, when he had trained the 
dividers, Herschel and Greater Scott. In this particular 
Waterloo Cup the Birkdale kennel ran Dillon and Green 
Cherry, in addition to Character and Button Park, Dillon being 
the ' first string ' of the kennel. Character was a second season 
greyhound, who had been beaten four times as a puppy, and 
as a matter of fact he had never got to the end of a stake 
before. His best previous performance was running up to Sir 
Sankey for the Scarisbrick Cup at Southport, but he had per- 
formed moderately on three other occasions during the season, 
and only a few weeks before he won the Waterloo Cup he had 
been on offer to Mr. W. Ward of Blackburn for the insignifi- 
cant sum of 25/. 

1894 was in no respect a wonderful year, and the names of 



THE WATERLOO CUP 31 

very few of the greyhounds which took part in the Cup are 
likely to be handed down to fame. Still the winner, Texture, 
was always a sterling bitch, and she went through the stake in 
good form, showing very fair speed, good working abilities, and 
a consistent style of running. Nor can it be said that she had 
a great deal of luck on her side, except that in the final course 
she had much the best of the handicap with the puppy Falconer, 
who when he went to slips was running his fourth course of 
the morning. It should be mentioned here that coursing was 
impossible on the Wednesday (Wednesday is always the first 
day of running) on account of severe frost. On Wednesday 
evening the weather changed, the frost quickly gave way, to be 
followed, however, by a visitation of fog, and thus it happened 
that the first brace of greyhounds were not slipped until after 
two o'clock on the Thursday afternoon. The result of this 
delay was that the first round of the Cup was not completed 
on the first day of running, and that on the Saturday morning 
eight dogs were left in the Cup, instead of the usual last day 
complement of four. As a natural consequence the winner 
and runner-up were obliged to go to slips three times, and 
Falconer, in the fifth round, ran an undecided with Follow 
Faster, so that when sent to slips with Texture for the final, he 
had taken part in three previous courses. It should also be 
added that all these four courses wee run off within a space of 
not more than three hours, and this was a tremendous ordeal 
for a puppy, especially when it is remembered that the ground, 
was rather heavy and holding— a natural result of the frost 
earlier in the week. 

Pennegant was led and beaten in the first round by Grey 
Crow, one of the many useful greyhounds who owed paternity 
to Herschel and Raven, but Falconer and Free Kick each got 
through the first round with credit, and Texture showed good 
form in her defeat of Lady's Fan. Count Stroganoff's bitch 
led three lengths to the hare ; and though she once lost her 
position, she was quickly there again, and had won very easily 
when Lady's Fan killed. In the second round Falconer ran a 



32 COURSING 

good course against Camerino, and Free Kick met Texture, 
who was non-favourite for the course. The trial between 
this pair was not a very satisfactory one. To begin with, the 
hare was circHng round when slipped at, and this gave Texture 
a nice advantage. Nevertheless she did not gain the first point, 
as Free Kick came behind her, and so got the turn on the in- 
side. She failed to bring her hare round, and Texture, at once 
taking advantage, had put on a nice sequence before Free 
Kick joined again. The latter afterwards had none the best of 
the luck, but all the same Texture worked well, and had 
deservedly secured the verdict when she finished matters with 
the kill. In the third round Texture and Grey Crow came 
together, and were a capital match for pace. Texture got the 
turn on the inside, then in a well-contested trial she showed 
superior cleverness, and was in a considerable majority when 
she killed. In Falconer's third course he met a half-brother 
and kennel companion. Four in Hand (by Freshman out of 
Fine Sport); and though at one time it looked as if he 
might be beaten, he had the best pace, and the beginning and 
end of the course to his credit. Four in Hand having a strong 
sequence in the middle of the trial. On the Saturday morning 
Texture met Mellor Moor, whom she led a couple of lengths, 
and fairly outworked in an average course, which the loser 
also ran well. In the fifth round Texture's opponent was 
Ivan the Great, who had been somewhat hard run on the pre- 
vious day, owing to his having got away on a fresh hare after 
he had won his third course. Texture led three lengths, and 
always had a nice balance in her favour in just an average 
course, which she finished with a good kill. 

Falconer meantime had well beaten Thistleton in the 
fourth round, but had been twice to slips before disposing of 
Follow Faster. With the latter Mr. Pletcher's puppy had 
nothing to spare, for though he led the Messrs. Fawcett's bitch 
well, in the opinion of very many critics he was outworked 
afterwards, and certainly the bitch had a majority of points 
after first turn had been secured by her opponent. In the 



THE WATERLOO CUP 33 

deciding course Falconer again led, and ran straight into a 
weak hare ; and here it may be remarked that Follow Faster 
was the unlucky greyhound of the stake. On the first day she 
ran a terribly long trial against Little Robin, and on the Friday 
she had an undecided, won two courses well, and then had a 
long single-handed with a fresh hare ; so that she was really 
running her sixth course when she made the undecided with 
Falconer. We have now brought the winner and runner up 
down to the final course, in which Falconer was generally 
expected to lead. To the great surprise Texture had a shade 
the best of the speed, and reaching the hare about her own 
length clear, she came round in possession and scored twice 
again before Falconer got in. The last named was busy for 
two or three points, but Texture was not to be denied, and 
with the best of the exchanges to her credit, she then' drove 
her hare out, moved her two or three times, and flecked her 
strongly, bringing up Falconer, who gave puss her death-stroke. 
It was a clear win for Count Stroganoff's bitch ; but it should 
be mentioned that some of the crowd (those on the lane side) 
were of opinion that Falconer had won, this being due to their 
difference in position. 

Texture was bred in Northumberland, by the Messrs. 
Thompson of High Thorneyburn, and was by Herschel out of 
Tinsel by Jester (son of Ptarmigan and Gallant Foe, but of a 
later litter than that which included Princess Dagmar, Paris, 
&c.). She (Texture) as a puppy first ran at the Upper Niths- 
dale meeting, where she divided a sixteen-dog stake with three 
others. She was unluckily beaten in the first round of the 
Champion Puppy stakes at Newmarket, but, as a puppy, won 
three courses in the Waterloo Cup, before being put out by 
FitzFife, the runner up to Fullerton in 1892. Some time 
after this performance Texture was sold by the Messrs. 
Thompson to Mr. H. Fenning, and for her new owner she 
won four courses in the Waterloo Cup of 1893, going down 
before Button Park in the semi-final, after having been very hard 
run. She next ran in the Netherby Cup, in which she won two 

D 



34 COURSING 

courses, and was beaten by Fallen Fortune In the third round. 
She was then put by for the Waterloo Cup, but unfortunately 
Mr. Fenning was obliged to go abroad, and much to his dis- 
appointment he had to part with his favourite, who passed into 
Count Stroganoff's hands for no guineas at a Barbican sale, 
only six weeks before she won the envied trophy. Falconer, 
like Texture, was by Herschel out of a Jester bitch, and the 
same sire was in this year responsible for one of the dividers 
of the Purse and one of the dividers of the Plate, neither of 
these stakes being run out. Pennegant got to the end of the 
Purse, as also did Happy Relic, by Herschel out of Happy 
Omen, and the Plate was divided between Tasmania by 
Restorer out of Tinsel (the dam of Texture) and Free Kick, 
one of the Herschel-Fine Sport litter, and, as stated above, a 
full sister to Falconer. 

1895. — In this year frost interfered much more seriously 
than it had done twelve months before. In fact, on the 
original date the whole country was iron-bound, with a tem- 
perature which in some places went below zero, and coursing — 
as also necessarily hunting and steeplechasing — was quite out 
of the question. Finally a start was made on March 12, three 
weeks after the original date, and nominators generally were 
much puzzled about their greyhounds, hardly knowing which 
to send to sUps, so much had training operations been inter- 
fered with. 1895 was, too, the first year of office of Mr. 
J. Hartley Bibby, who had been chosen to succeed Mr. Harold 
Brocklebank as secretary of the Altcar Club. At the last 
moment Bootiman, the properly elected slipper for the meet- 
ing, wired to say he was ill, and R. Wright was chosen to take 
his place. On the night of the draw Falconer, runner up to 
Texture in the previous year, was favourite ; Fabulous Fortune 
was the next choice ; Fair Floralie, Fortuna Favente, and 
Thoughtless Beauty were believed to have good chances. 
The latter proved to be the winner of the stake, and she got 
through her task with great credit to herself, proving herself 
a fast and good greyhound. Curiously enough she was a very 



THE WATERLOO CUP 35 

little bitch, only about 45 lbs. in weight, and like Texture, her 
predecessor, was bred by the Messrs. Thompson in North- 
umberland. She was by Herschel out of Thetis by Greentick, 
and thus unites the blood of the two most successful stud 
dogs of the present decade. In her first course Thoughtless 
Beauty met The Quorn, whom she led, and beat almost 
pointless ; . in the second round her opponent was Cloudy 
Night, against whom she ran brilliantly. The first turn she 
took quite three lengths ahead, flecking her game as she 
reached it. She just failed to hold the hare, but continued to 
keep her place, and in a short trial was always right on the top 
of her hare until she pulled it down. In the third round Thought- 
less Beauty met Kilrosa, who was no match for her as regards 
speed, and who was led many lengths in a long run up. Mr. 
Pilkington's bitch put on a good sequence before losing her 
place, but Kilrosa had the end of the trial and the kill, though 
she never looked like wiping off the early score made by 
Thoughtless Beauty. In the fourth round against Fabulous 
Fortune Mr. Pilkington's bitch showed to far greater advantage 
than in her trial with Kilrosa. At first it appeared as if she 
would be led, but the hare favoured her slightly at the end of the 
run up ; she quickly took advantage of the chance, and had 
scored twice before Fabulous Fortune began to exchange 
points. The latter part of the trial was all in favour of the 
bitch, who was a most decisive winner when she killed. On 
the last day of the meeting the four left in were P'alconer, 
Fortuna Favente, Thoughtless Beauty, and Gallant ; and over- 
night Falconer was favourite to win outright. He was, how- 
ever, led and easily beaten by Fortuna Favente. Gallant (a 
puppy) made a good fight with Thoughtless Beauty, who, how- 
ever, was too smart for him, and though not faster in the run 
up, fairly outworked him at close quarters. In the final course 
Thoughtless Beauty and Fortuna Favente were well matched 
for pace, but Mr. Pilkington's bitch secured an advantage in 
jumping a dyke, and gained the first turn when just clear. 
Exchanges followed, and Thoughtless Beauty once fairly lost 



36 COURSING 

her place through missing an attempt to kill. She was soon in 
possession again, and driving her hare before her two or 
three times, picked it up when a decisive winner. 

Fortuna Favente, the runner-up, was also by Herschel, out 
of Fair Future, and to Herschel also went first honours in the 
Plate, won by Mr. Fletcher's Forum (out of Fine Sport), and 
half the honours in the Purse, divided between Word of 
Honour, by Herschel out of Watchful Duchess, and Fertile 
Field, by Townend out of Honey Deer. 

1896. — The Waterloo Cup of 1896 was chiefly remarkable 
for the fact that at last the coveted trophy was secured by the 
Messrs. Fawcett, whose kennel had suppHed the runners-up in 
three of the five previous years. The Messrs. Fawcett have 
during the last few years probably run more greyhounds than 
any other owner or combination of owners, and as a rule 
their efforts have been attended with great success. When 
the two brothers first began to keep greyhounds in "partnership, 
they went to the public market for their dogs ; but almost 
immediately they began to breed, and having the advantage 
of good walks in Durham, Northumberland, and elsewhere, 
they very quickly began to make a big mark in modern 
coursing. For some years past they have been quite at the 
top of the tree with their numerous ' double F's,' and it is 
worthy of mention that as a general rule the greyhounds they 
run have been bred by themselves, though they have occa- 
sionally given high prices at the Barbican sales. They have 
always gone for the big stakes, and have invariably been 
represented at the most important fixtures, but with regard to 
the Waterloo Cup their luck was extraordinarily bad, for 
Faster and Faster ran up to Fullerton in 1891, FitzFife ran up 
to Fullerton in 1892, and Fortuna Favente ran up to Thought- 
less Beauty in 1895, Fertile Field also running up to Word of 
Honour for the Purse in the same year. 

1896, however, saw the long delayed prize won at last, and 
the victory must have been all the more welcome because 
Fabulous Fortune proved himself to be far and away the 



THE WATERLOO CUP 37 

fastest and best all-round greyhound in the stake. In the 
previous year he had been beaten in the fourth round by the 
ultimate winner, Thoughtless Beauty, but on that occasion it 
was a tight fit between the pair ; Fabulous Fortune had 
shown fine speed, and would have secured the turn had he not 
dwelt for a moment at a drain, just before the hare was 
reached. In 1896 he showed no disposition to dwell, or in 
fact to do anything which a high-class greyhound ought not to 
do, and only once on his way through the stake was he any- 
thing like seriously challenged. 

To go a little more into detail, it may be mentioned that 
on the night of the draw favouritism was practically divided 
between Thoughtless Beauty (the winner in the previous year) 
and Fabulous Fortune, the former just having the call. Two 
more of the Messrs. Fawcett's team, Fortuna Favente and 
Fair Floralie, were also highly esteemed, and probably no 
kennel ever showed a bolder front on the eve of a Waterloo 
Cup. The pair just named and Fabulous Fortune were all of 
the same litter, by Herschel out of Fair Future, and it has 
been the opinion of many competent critics that so much 
excellence was never combined in one litter before. Fair 
Floralie, who had succumbed to Fortuna Favente in the pre- 
vious year, now only won one course, being put out by Weather- 
wise in the second round, after a long course the beginning 
of which was all in favour of Fair Floralie. The hare, however, 
was a regular stag ; Weatherwise, an Irish-bred son of Her- 
schel, stayed the better of the pair, and had fairly rubbed off 
the early points scored by his opponent when the flag went 
up in his favour. Curiously enough, Weatherwise also ad- 
ministered the coup de grace to Fortuna Favente in the next 
round ; but this was a very near thing, the Irish dog, who got 
the turn by favour, being only in a slight majority when he 
killed. 

Meantime Fabulous Fortune was pursuing the even tenour 
of his way through the stake. In the first round he met a 
second-class greyhound named Stipplefield, whose only claim 



38 COURSING 

to reputation rests on the fact that he is generally supposed 
to have jumped over thirty feet when covering a drain at 
one of the Heatley and Warburton meetings. With Fabulous 
Fortune he was quite outclassed, the latter leading many lengths, 
and winning a short course in most decisive fashion. In the 
second round the Messrs. Fawcett's first string fell against Mr. 
James Russel's Reception, of the Restorer — Real Lace litter, and 
as regards pace there was not a great deal to choose between 
the pair. In fact, it looked as if either might get the turn, until 
Reception faltered slightly at a drain. Fabulous Fortune instantly 
shooting ahead to score the coveted first point about a couple 
of lengths in front. The hare was one of the dodging short- 
running tribe, and the work that followed as she crossed and 
recrossed a drain was an unsatisfactory test of merit. At the 
same time Fabulous Fortune was always doing the greater 
share, and won very easily indeed. In the third round 
Fabulous Fortune fell against High Dappley Moor, a grey- 
hound of fairly high character, who had been backed at 
25 to I on the night of the draw. High Dappley Moor 
began much faster than his opponent, and showed daylight 
before they had travelled very far. Fabulous Fortune, however, 
was not to be denied, and laying himself down to his work in 
grand style, he soon drew past and scored the turn about three 
lengths in front, on a slight outside. He served himself again 
and then turned the hare to High Dappley Moor, who scored 
three sharp quick drives, and just for a moment looked like 
holding his own ; he could not, however, keep his place longer, and 
Fabulous Fortune, regaining possession, wrenched and killed, 
being a clear winner at the time. This was a well-run course 
on the part of both greyhounds, as neither of them ever threw 
away an opportunity, and both went with plenty of fire. In 
the fourth round Fabulous Fortune's opponent was Juggernaut, 
and though the latter showed a nice turn of speed, and was 
not led very far, he really never had a chance in a short course. 
In fact, Fabulous Fortune covered his hare so strongly from 
the turn that it never could break away again, the favourite 



THE WATERLOO CUP 39 

killing after some short work in which he received no assist- 
ance from Juggernaut. In the fifth round, against Utopia, 
Fabulous Fortune had a longer course, but he won it all one 
way, leading several lengths and running up a fair sequence 
of points before the bitch was able to score. She did eventu- 
ally get in, and by no means disgraced herself while she re- 
tained possession ; but Fabulous Fortune recovered his place 
with a racing go-bye, and had won with a great deal to spare 
when he fell into a drain, Utopia driving the hare into a 
sough almost simultaneously. In the final course Fabulous 
Fortune was opposed by the Irish dog Wolf Hill, who had 
beaten Thoughtless Beauty in the fourth ties, and had 
previously put out Mellor Moor, Grey Morn, Gallant, and Real 
Point. Fabulous Fortune was of course favourite, and he led 
the Irish greyhound many lengths to the hare, though it 
should be mentioned that the latter lost a good deal of ground 
through stumbling in the run up. The hare was just an 
average one, but Fabulous Fortune retained strong possession 
throughout, and when he killed had practically beaten his 
opponent pointless ; indeed, a more decisive victory in the 
final course of a great stake is seldom seen, and as already 
stated the Messrs. Fawcett's greyhound proved himself a Triton 
among the minnows right through the stake. That he got 
lightly off in the early stages of the Cup cannot be denied, but 
this was chiefly due to the fact that he was remarkably handy 
with his teeth, as he killed five of the six hares at which he 
was slipped. 

Reception, who had gone down before Fabulous Fortune 
in the second round of the Cup, won the Plate for Mr. James 
Russel, beating the Northumberland greyhound. Gallant, in 
the final course ; and Sir Thomas Brocklebank's Biere won the 
Purse, for which Mr. C. Murles's Brummagem Man was the 
runner-up. 

1897. — This was not in any way a remarkable year, and we 
are somewhat inclined to think that the form was a little below 
the average. The winner was Mr. Thomas Holmes's Gallant, a 



40 COURSING 

brindled dog by young Fullerton out of Sally Milburn by Mis- 
terton, who ran in the nomination of the late Mr, T. P. Hale, 
and who, though he had often run most moderately elsewhere, 
has always been seen at his best over the Altcar ground. Two 
years before (in 1895) Gallant had survived the fourth round, 
but had been put out in the semi-finals by Thoughtless Beauty, 
the winner of the stake. In 1896 he had been beaten in the 
second round by Wolf Hill, the runner-up to Fabulous For- 
tune ; and in the same year he had run up to Reception for the 
Waterloo Plate. Thus, after his Cup victory it could be 
claimed for Gallant that he had won fourteen out of seventeen 
courses at Altcar, and only succumbed to high-class greyhounds 
when beaten. It should be added that, at the Border Union 
Meeting of 1896, Gallant had run so badly that he could have 
been bought for a 10/. note; but Mr. Tom Graham, who had 
trained him originally, had not quite lost faith in him, and 
persuaded Mr. Holmes to send him back to his old quarters at 
Great Corby, near Carlisle. He soon began to recover his 
form, and having divided small stakes at Kirkoswald and Bar- 
nard Castle, he came to Liverpool considerably fancied by his 
connections. At the same time the running hardly showed 
Gallant to be a superior greyhound to everything else in the 
stake, as had been the case with Fabulous Fortune in the pre- 
vious year. Mr. Holmes's dog was twice led, and in the final 
he had an advantage over his opponent, because he had been 
nothing like so hard run. Throughout the stake Gallant ran 
kindly and showed marked cleverness, and though, no doubt, 
his speed was hardly equal to that of the average Waterloo 
Cup winner, he was nevertheless by no means the worst 
greyhound which has got to the end of the stake. 

Rather a curious feature of this particular Waterloo Cup 
was that a much greater number of puppies took part in the 
stake than is usually the case. Nor were there the average 
number of ex-Waterlooers among the sixty-four, the entry at last 
including only eleven who had run in 1896, and no fewer than 
thirty-eight first season greyhounds. Amongst the eleven just 
referred to were Fabulous Fortune and Wolf Hill, the winner 



THE WATERLOO CUP 4' 

and runner-up of a twelvemonth before, also Weatherwise and 
Fair Floralie, who had shown good form at Altcar. Fabulous 
Fortune stood at a remarkably short price on the eve of 
running, and others backed at comparatively short odds were 
Five by Tricks, Fair Floralie, Royston, Rouge Croix, Weather- 
wise, and Faber Fortunae. Mr. T. Graham's Under the Globe 
stood at half the odds accepted about his kennel companion 
Gallant, and doubtless carried the confidence of the Corby 
establishment, though, as stated just now, Mr-. Holmes's dog was 
backed to win a good stake. Gallant's first opponent was 
Realism, by Restorer out of Real Lace, and in this course Mr. 
Holmes's dog showed great superiority] He led two or three 
lengths for the turn, and working his game very closely in a 
trial of just average length, he had hardly allowed Realism 
more than an odd point or two when he clinched matters with 
the kill. In the second round Gallant met Laurel Leaves, a 
smart bitch puppy owned by the Duke of Leeds. Gallant led 
about a couple of lengths, and sent the hare right round to the 
puppy, who wrenched, killed, and brought the hat off. In the 
decider curiously enough the lead was reversed, Laurel Leaves 
reaching the hare well clear of the older greyhound. The 
latter obtained possession as the hare came round, and put on 
a winning sequence before Laurel Leaves got in again. He 
then quickly shouldered her out, and finishing with the death 
had easily outcounted the bitch's beginning. In the third 
round the Messrs. Fawcett's Faber Fortunae fell against Gallant, 
and odds of 9 to 4 were laid on the first named. To the 
general surprise Gallant showed better speed and cleverer working 
abilities, and when Faber Fortunge killed, Mr. Holmes's dog was 
an undisputed winner. For first point Gallant led a good 
length, and he continued to score several times before Faber 
Fortunae got in. The latter had done very little before Gallant 
was there again for another short sequence, and he also had the 
best of two or three exchanges before Faber Fortunae brought off 
the death. In the fourth round against Wildfire II., Gallant had 
about five-sixths of an average course. He led quite three 
lengths to the hare, and put on a telling sequence before he 



42 COURSING 

lost his place. Then after an exchange or so he resumed 
strong possession, and finishing with the death was a most one- 
sided winner. 

On the last day of running the four left in were Five by 
Tricks, Fabulous Fortune, Gallant, and Black Veil, and over 
night Fabulous Fortune was a decided favourite, while Gallant, 
being generally expected to beat Black Veil, was in slightly 
stronger demand than Five by Tricks, his chance of getting into 
the final course looking better than that of Five by Tricks, who 
had to meet the favourite in the fifth round. It may be men- 
tioned here that Fabulous Fortune had not been quite so well 
liked on his way through the stake as had been the case twelve 
months before. He had shown great smartness more than 
once, and had evidently not lost his killing powers, but, on the 
other hand, he had steadied himself too soon at the end of the 
run up, and in his first course against Charioteer had certainly 
thrown away a chance in this manner. Still, on the Friday 
morning he was very generally expected to repeat his triumph 
of 1896, and there was much disappointment when he was both 
led and beaten by Five by Tricks. It was again the tendency 
to dwell which cost Fabulous Fortune the all-important first 
point. In the run up the pair were well matched, but the 
favourite was showing in front when he steadied himself, and this 
allowed Five by Tricks to get there two lengths to the good, 
and put on a strong sequence before he lost possession. . After- 
wards the course was of the give and take order and very well 
contested, but when Fabulous Fortune killed he had not rubbed 
out his opponent's good beginning, and was decidedly in arrears. 
Gallant was favourite against Black Veil, but the latter showed 
the better pace in the run up, and was well clear when she 
brought the hare round. Unfortunately for herself Sir Thomas 
Brocklebank's bitch did too much with her hare, brought it 
too far round in fact, and thus helped Gallant to score. 
Had the hare broken to the right or left, or even half round, 
Black Veil would probably have gone on with it ; but as it 
was, she brought it right round, and Mr. Holmes's greyhound, 
who was not slow to avail himself of the opportunity, had 



THE WATERLOO CUP 43 

nearly all the rest of a short course and the kill to his credit, 
his victory in this particular trial being due partly to good luck, 
partly also to very marked cleverness. For the final course, 
•Five by Tricks was a slight favourite, but he certainly had the 
worst of the handicap, his course against Fabulous Fortune 
having been much longer than that in which Gallant beat Black 
Veil. Unfortunately the hare slipped at was not a very strong 
one ; but such as it was, it served to show the superiority of 
Gallant, who had the lead, the best of the work, and the death 
to his credit. It is just on the cards that Five by Tricks was 
momentarily ' blinked ' in the run up, for after he had been 
level with his opponent for a short distance, he threw up his 
head for a second, at which instant Gallant drew out to score 
the turn about a couple of lengths in front. Mr. Holmes's 
greyhound came well round with his game, and scored again 
before Five by Tricks joined. An exchange then took place 
before Gallant resumed possession, wrenched and killed, 
leaving off a most decisive winner. Gallant' is by Young Fuller- 
ton, who was a full brother, though of a younger litter, to the 
famous Fullerton, by Greentick out of Bit of Fashion. 

The Purse this year was won by Mr. M. G. Hales's Happy 
Sight, a very fast puppy, who had been beaten in the Cup after 
leading. The Waterloo Plate went to Under the Globe, who 
beat Laurel Leaves in the deciding course, the latter being the 
Duke of Leeds' puppy who had led Gallant in the second round 
of the Cup. Thus the chief honours of the meeting, Cup and 
Plate, went to a brace of Cumberland-trained kennel com- 
panions ; and curiously enough this double victory was achieved 
by Mr. Thomas Graham just after that well-known courser had 
disposed of almost his entire kennel by auction at the Barbican. 

1898. — Like its predecessor, 1898 was not a particularly 
sensational year, though on all three days of the meeting first- 
rate coursing was afforded. Indeed, it is questionable if the 
Altcar hares have ever run better than they did on this occa- 
sion ; and we may also add that the weather was fine through- 
out the meeting, though it rained heavily on at least two of the 
intervening nights. The winner of the Cup was forthcoming 



44 COURSING 

in Mr. H. Hardy's f.w.b. Wild Night, by Freshman out of 
Fine Night, who owed her position at the end of the stake to 
cleverness, to the rapidity with which she scored when in 
possession, and to her killing powers. Like Gallant in the 
previous year, Wild Ni^ht was more than once led on her way 
through the stake, and to carry the parallel further she was also 
the second string of her kennel, Wet Day running in Mr. 
Hardy's own nomination. Wild Night had always been a 
consistent performer and a clever runner, though short of pace 
for a Waterloo Cup winner. As a puppy she had won three 
courses in the Oaks at Massareene Park (Ireland), and had 
shared in a three-cornered division of the puppy stakes at the 
Border Union meeting, her co-dividers being Fiery Furnace 
and Farmer's Folly from the Messrs. Fawcett's kennels. She 
also won four courses in the Croxteth stakes at Altcar, being 
very unlucky when beaten, and at Newmarket she had been 
drawn, after an exceedingly long trial in the first round. She 
was at that time the property of Mr. Waters, who inherited the 
kennel of the late Mr. Matthew Fletcher, but she was sold, 
together with Wet Day, Wintry Weather, and Five by Tricks 
(the runner-up to Gallant in 1897), for 850/., to Mr. Hardy, and 
for her new owner she shared in the division of the De Grey 
Cup at the Studley Royal (Ripon) meeting. Wild Night's 
pedigree is a most interesting one ; her sire Freshman was by 
Greentick out of Mary Mole by Paris, her dam Pretty Nell by 
Countryman. Paris was one of the famous Ptarmigan- 
Gallant Foe litter, and was also the sire of Bit of Fashion (the 
dam of Fullerton), Miss Glendyne and a host of other winners. 
Fine Night (Wild Night's dam) was by Herschel out of Harp- 
string by Glenlivet out of Polly, and Mary Mole was sister 
to Bit of Fashion ; Harpstring was bred by Mr. Thomas 
Graham at Great Corby. Fine Night when owned by the late 
Mr. Fletcher was a very fine performer, and we remember 
seeing her run grandly at Newmarket as a puppy. 

Before going more into details we may mention that this 
year the services of a new judge were requisitioned, the change 
being the first that has been made for five-and-twenty years. 



THE WATERLOO CUP 45 

Mr. R. A. Brice, of Witham in Essex, was chosen to succeed 
Mr. James Hedley, whose health does not at present allow of 
his undertaking the duties. No fewer than twenty-four consecu- 
tive Waterloo Cups has Mr. Hedley judged — from 1874 to 
1897 inclusive — and this constitutes a wonderful record. That 
Mr. Hedley was a perfect master of his work, there were never 
two opinions among coursing men, and probably there never 
was any other judge of this particular sport in whose in- 
tegrity and ability the public had so much faith. He knew 
thoroughly well the value of good and bad work in greyhounds, 
he never gave a long undecided course, and his nerve was of 
the strongest. We remember on one occasion, when Mr. 
Hedley had only been judging a year or two, his taking office 
at a miners' meeting in the county of Durham. Now these 
miners — who nowadays are so ably controlled by Mr. Thomas 
Snowdon and the North of England Coursing Club — were, 
nearly thirty years ago, a very rough lot, who inclined greatly 
to the * win, tie or wrangle ' school. They thought nothing 
of * bo-hooing ' the judge when a popular favourite went down, 
and it is beyond question that some of their earlier judges 
occasionally gave decisions which would please the crowd, 
whether they were right or not. On the occasion we refer to, 
a well-backed favourite had just failed to raise a flag, and 
immediately afterwards Mr. Hedley had to ride right past the 
crowd, as they were changing the beat. As he approached, 
some of the roughest of the spectators drew out threateningly, 
and there was a loud shout of ' Pull him off his horse ! ' 
with a deal of strong language. The judge took little notice ; 
but when two of the noisiest took hold of his horse's bridle, 
he raised his heavy whip and promptly laid one man's head 
open, while the other, as he tried to bolt, received the lash of 
the hunting crop full in the face. Confidence was at once 
restored, and we have an idea that Mr. Hedley was never 
jeered at again. 

Among the sixty-four who contested the Cup in 1898 
puppies were in a minority, only twenty-one of that age being 
entered for the stake, against six third season, two fourth 



46 COURSING 

season, and no fewer than thirty-five second season grey- 
hounds; and it may be added that the last (our left in the 
Cup and the winner of the Plate were all in their second 
season. 

Wild Night was drawn against Cissy Smith in the first 
round, and she would have led a long way had she not 
stumbled in the run up. As it was, she reached the hare well 
clear, came nicely round with her, and after a short drive or 
two put her into a sough, winning in very one-sided fashion. 
Her second course with Bella Dobson was equally decisive, as 
she led many lengths and ran straight into her game, thus 
getting off very lightly in both efforts. In the third round she 
met Faber Fortunae. Between the pair the issue was very 
close, and Faber Fortunae would probably have won had he 
not stumbled and lost his place at a critical point of the course. 
As it was, he had the lead and the death to his credit, but 
the bitch outworked him at close quarters in the middle of the 
course, and just pulled through a clever winner, but with no 
big balance to her credit. In the fourth round Wild Night 
came against Under the Globe, who had won the Waterloo 
Plate in the previous year. The pair were a grand match for 
pace, but Under the Globe just secured the turn, having a 
slight inside at the finish of the run up, but the bitch came 
round more quickly than the dog, scored three or four times 
with great celerity, and finishing with a smart kill, raised the 
flag in her favour. On the last day of the meeting the four left 
in were Ryde, Lang Syne, Wild Night and Chock ; and over- 
night Wild Night was favourite for her course, as also indeed 
favourite to win outright. Lang Syne beat Ryde for speed 
with a straight-going hare, and Wild Night very decisively dis- 
posed of Chock, whom she just led, but beat in hollow fashion 
when it came to working. She had, in fact, about three-fourths 
of the course to herself, Chock giving her little assistance 
during the latter half of the trial. For the final course Lang 
Syne went to slips very lame. The Duke of Leeds' dog had 
been more or less lame all through the stake, and in conse- 
quence he began slowly each time. After going a short dis- 



THE WATERLOO CUP 47 

tance he warmed up to his work, and though the odds were 
against him, he led Wild Night in the final course, after a 
grand race between the pair in which each in turn had shown 
in advance. From the turn Wild Night came round more 
smartly than her opponent, and put on a nice sequence before 
the dog got in again. The latter — who would have done better 
with a straight-going hare — only exchanged points, then Wild 
Night was there again, scoring very fast, and when she finished 
the course with a clever kill, she had a large balance in her 
favour. That she was lucky in meeting a lame dog in the final 
cannot be disputed ; but her marvellous quickness in scoring 
more than equalled his extra speed, and she would always beat 
him except with a very straight-going hare, such as used to be 
found when the enclosure system was at its zenith. 

Gallant, who won in the previous year, was this time put out 
in the second round by a Falconer puppy named Peregrine 
Pickle, who, after winning his first course, had coursed and 
killed a second hare single-handed. Peregrine "Pickle was far 
too fast for old Gallant, now in his fourth season, but he was 
picked up so hopelessly lame after winning the course that he 
had to be drawn. Several competent judges expressed the 
opinion that Peregrine Pickle was the best greyhound in the 
stake. Wet Day, the kennel companion and full brother of 
Wild Night, won three courses, and was then beaten by Lang 
Syne, Five by Tricks failing to survive the first round, and he 
had evidently lost his form. The purse was divided between 
Mr. Russel's Real Turk and Mr. John Coke's Cissy Smith, 
both puppies by F'alconer, and the Plate went to Mr. D. 
Graham's Genitive by Norway, who beat Silver Lace in the 
final course after an undecided. It should be added that 
Wild Night was nominated by Mr. Joseph Trevor of Lichfield, 
a popular Midland courser, who has held a Waterloo nomina- 
tion for very many years. It was Mr. Trevor's Lady of Lyons 
(running for the late General Goodlake) who put out Master 
McGrath as far back as 1870, and though he had never before 
owned or named the winner. Downpour, who filled his nomi- 
nation, ran up to Fullerton in 1890. 



48 



COURSING 







WATERLOO CUP.- 


-WINNERS 




Date 

1836 


Winner 


COLOUR 


Sire 


Dam 


Owner 


Milanie . 


r. b. 


Mile 


Duchess 


Lord Molyneux 


1837 


Fly . . . 


bk. h. 


Tommy Roads 


Fly 


Mr. Stanton 


1838 


Bugle . . .be. d. 


Bachelor 


Nimble 


Mr. Balls 


1839 


Empress , . 1 r. b. 


Tramp 


Nettle 


Mr. Robinson 


1840 


Earwig . i bk. d. 


Hailstone 


Pastime 


Mr. Easterby 


isji 


Bloomsbury . | r. d. 


Redcap 


by ^Valton (Sister 


Mr. King 










to Preserve) 




1842 


Priam . 


f. w. d. 


Emperor 


Venus 


Mr. Deakins 


1843 


Major 


f. d. 


Moses 


Melon 


Mr. G. PoUoks 


1844 


Speculation 


r. vv. b. 


Sandy 


Enchantress 


Mr. N. Slater 


1845 


Titania . . i bk. b. 


Driver 


Zoe 


Mr. Temple 


1846 


Harlequin , . bk. w. d. 


Emperor 


Lady 


Mr. Sampson 


1847 


Senate , . i r. d. 


Sadek 


Sanctity 


Lord Sefton 


1848 


Spade. . . ! bk. w. b. 


Nonchalance 


Margery 


Sir St. G. Gore 


1849 


Magician [Long) 


bk. d. 


King Cob 


Magic 


,, 


1850 


Cerito (late Lucy 


f. w. b. 


Lingo 


Wanton 


Mr. G. F. Cooke 


1851 


Hughie Graham . 


f. d. 


Liddesdale 


Queen of the May 


M. W. Sharp 
Mr. G. F.Cooke 


1852 
1853 
1854 


Cerito . 


f. w. b. 


Lingo 


Wanton 


Sackcloth . 


bk.d. 


Senate 


Cinderella 


Lord Sefton 


1855 


Judge 
Protest 


r. d. 


John Bull 


Fudge 
Pearl 


Mr. Jefferson 


1856 


f. b. 


Weapon 


Mr. W. Peacock 


1857 


King Lear. 


w. f. d. 


Wigan 


Repentence 


Mr. W. Wilson 


1858 


Neville . . 


f. d. 


Autocrat 


Catherine Hayes 


Mr. S. Class 


1859 


J Clive . 
1 Selby . 


bk. b. 
bk.d. 


Judge 
Barrator 


Moeris 
Ladylike 


j- J. Jardine 


i860 


Maid of the Mill 


r. b. 


Judge 


Bartolozzi 


Mr. J. Blackstock 


1861 


Canaradzo . 


w. d. 


Beacon 


Scotland Yet 


Mr. I. Campbell 


1862 


Roaring Meg 


bk. b. 




Polly 


Mr. Gregson 


1863 


Chloe . . . 


.w. bk. b. 


Judge 


Clara 


Mr. T. T. C. Lister 


1864 


King Death 


w. bk. d. 


Canaradzo 


Annoyance 


Dr. Richardson 


1865 


Meg . . . 


r. or f. b. 


Terrona 


Fanny Fickle 


Mr. G. Carruthers 


1866 


Brigadier . 


bk. w. d. 


Boreas 


Wee Nel 


Mr. Foulkes 


1867 


Lobelia . 


w. bd. b. 


Sea Foam 


Lilac 


Mr. W. J. Legh 


1868 


Master McGrath 


bk.w.d.p. 


Dervock 


Lady Sarah 


Lord Lurgan 


1869 


„ [Covet) 


jj 




J) 


>> 


1870 


Sea Cove (late 


r. b. p. 


Strange Idea 


Curiosity 


Mr. J. Spmks 


1871 


Master McGrath 


bk.w.d.p. 


Dervock 


Lady Sarah 


Lord Lurgan 


1872 


Bed of Stone 


f. b. 


Portland 


Imperatrice 


Mr. J. Briggs 
Mr. R. Jardine 


1873 


Muriel . . 


r. w, b. p. 


Fusilier 


Portia 


1874 


Magnano . 


r.d. 


Cauld Kail 


Isoline 


Mr. C. Morgan 


1875 


Honeymoon 


bk. w. b. 


Brigadier 


Hebe 


Mr. W. F. Hutchinson 


1876 


Donald 


bk. d. 


Master Burleigh 


Phoenia 


Mr. R. M. Douglas 


1877 


Coomassie . 


f. w. b. p. 


Celebrated 


Queen 


Mr. R. Gittus 


1878 








^ 


Mr. T. Lay 


1879 


Misterton . 


bk.w.d.p. 


Contango 


Lina 


Mr. H. G. Miller 


1880 


Honeywood 


r. w. d. 


Cavalier 


Humming Bird 


Earl of Haddington 


1881 


Princess Dagmar 


w.b.d.b. 


Ptarmigan 


Gallant Foe 


Mr. J. S. Postle 


1882 


Snowflight 


bk. b. p. 


Bothal Park 


Curiosity 


Mr. G. Hall 


1883 


Wild Mint . 


r.b. 


Haddo 


Orla 


Mr. M. Osborne 


1884 


Mineral Water . 


w. bk. d. 


Memento 


Erzeroum 


Mr. J. Mayer 
Mr. E, Dent 


( Bit of Fashion . 


bd.w.b.p. 


Paris 


Pretty Nell 


188s 


1 Miss Glendyne . 


b. d. b. p. 




Lady Glendyne 


Mr. C. Hibbert 


1886 


Miss Glendyne . 




,j 




,, 


1887 


j Greater Scott . 


bk. d. 


Macpherson 


Madge' 


Mr. R. F. Gladstone 


IHerschel . . 


r. d. p. 


,, . 


Stargazing II. 


Mr. T. B. Hornby 


1888 


Burnaby 


bk. w. d. 


Be Joyful 


Baroness 


Mr. L, Pilkington 


1889 


f Fullerton . 


bd. d. p. 


Greentick 


Bit of Fashion 


Colonel North 


( Troughend 


>) 




Toledo 


„ 


1890 


Fullerton . 


bd. d. 


>> 


Bit of Fashion 


,, 


i8?i 1 


„ 


„ 


»» 


„ 




1892 1 „ 

1893 Character . 


w. bd. d. 


R. Halliday 


Mermaiden 


Mr. I. Coke 


1894 I Texture [Beauty 


r.b. 


Herschel 


Tinsel 


Count Stroganoff 


1895 1 Thoughtless 


f. b. 


" 


Thetis 


Mr. L. Pilkington 


1896 Fabulous Fortune 


r.d. 




Fair Future 


Mr. G. F. Fawcett 


1897 Gallant 


bd. d. 


Young Fullerton 


Sally Milburn 


Mr. T. Holmes 


1898 1 Wild Night 


f. w. b. 


Freshman 


Fine Night 


Mr. H. Hardy 



WATERLOO CUP 

WATERLOO CUP.— RUNNERS-UP 



49 



Date 

1836 


RUNNER-UI' 


Colour 


Sire 


Dam 


Owner 


Mucus 


b. r. d. 


Hornet 


Fly 


Mr. Morris 


1837 


Dr. Fop . 


bk. w. d. 


Bob Logic 


Spinner 


Mr. Speed 


1838 


Risk (late La! age) 


r. b. 


Luff 


Minikin 


Mr. Jebb 


1839 


Brenda 


r. b. 


Topper 


Belinda 


Mr. Blundell 


1840 


Emperor . 


bk.d. 


Hellenus 


Fly 


Mr. Easterby 


1841 


Saddler . 


be. w. d. 


Old Sailor 


Fanny 


Mr. Brooks 


1842 


Barrier 


f. d. 


Blueman 


Lady 


Mr. Bradley 


1843 


Solon . 


r. d. 


Merchant 


Myrtle 


Mr. N. Slater 


1844 


Dressmaker 


bk. w. b. 


Hector 


Lill 


Mr. Clarke 


1845 


Sherwood . 


bk.d. 


Kenwigs 


Sarah 


Mr. B. Smith 


1846 


Oliver Twist 


r. d. 


Sadek _ 


Sanctity 


Mr. O'Grady 
Mr. W. Webb 


1847 


Flirt . 


r. b. 


Marquis 


Coquette 


1848 


Smut . 


bk. w. b. 


Sam 


Lucy 


Mr. B. Robinson 


1849 


Forward . 


bk.d. 


Foremost 


Catch'em 


Mr. Temple 


1850 


Neville . 


r t. d. 


Scot 


Grace 


Mr. G. Gregson 


1831 


Staymaker . 


bk.d. 


Foremost 


Dressmaker 


Lord Sefton 


1852 


Larriston . 


f. d. 


Liddesdale 


Hannah 


Mr. G. F. Henderson 


1853 


Movemer.t . 


bk. w. b. 


Foremost 


Fairy 


Mr. G. Gregson 


1854 


Larriston . 


f. d. 


Liddesdale 


Hannah 


Mr, G. F. Henderson 


1855 


Scotland Yet 


w. b. 


Wigan 


Veto 


Mr. Campbell 


1856 


Judge . 


r. d. 


John Bull 


Fudge 


Mr. Jefferson 


1857 


Sunbeam . 


r. d. 


,, 


Fleur-de-Lys 


Captain Spencer 


1858 


Deacon , 


r. d. 


Ben 


Buttress 


Mr. E. Dixon, jun. 


1R59 


Divided . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


i860 


Sampler . 


b. d. b. 


Sky Rocket 


Stitch 


Lord Sefton 


1861 


Sea Rock . 


f. d. 


Willow 


Fanny 


Mr. J. Spinks . 
Mr. T. Brocklebank 


1862 


Bowfell . 


bd. w. b. 


Judge 
Regan 


Rhapsody 


1863 
1864 
1865 


Rebe . . . 


bk. b. 


Lady 


Mr. H. Haywood 


King Tom '. '. 


w."d. 


Canaradzo 


Kitty Nicholson 


Mr. Kennedy 


1866 


Fieldfare . 


bd. w. b. 


Dalgig 


Woodpigeon 


Mr. F, Johnston 


1867 


Royal Seal . 


bk. b. 


Patent 


Romping Girl 


Mr. Haj'wood 


1868 


Cock Robin [ster 


w.bd.d.p. 


King Death 


Chloe 


Mr. T. T. C. Lister 


1869 


Bab-at-the-Bow- 


r.b. 


Boanerges 
Cauld Kail 


Mischief 


Mr. Blanshard 


1870 


Bendimere . 


r. w. d. p. 


Bergamot 


Lord Binning 


1871 


Pretender . 


f. d. p. 


Ewesdale 


Peerless 


Mr. W. H. Punchard 


1872 
1873 


Peasant Boy 


bk. d. p. 


) Racing Hop 
j Factor 


} Placid 


Mr. A. Smith 


1874 


Surprise 


f. d." 


Sir William 


Modesty 


Mr. Martelli 


1875 


Corby Castle 


r.orf.d.p. 


Silver Fox 


Bet 


Mr. J. Cunningham 


1876 


Lord Glendyne . 


bk.d. 


Smuggler 


Fanny Wharfield 


Mr. D. J. Paterson 


1877 


Braw Lass . 


bk. b. p. 


Blackburn 


Happy Lass 


Mr. R. Briggs 


1878 


Zazel . 


bk.w.b.p. 


Mast. Frederick 


Geneora 


Lord Fermoy 


1879 


Commerce . 


bk.w.d.p. 


Contango 


Cumelion 


Mr. R. B. Carruthers 


1880 


Plunger 


f. w. d. 


Backwoodsman 


Gretna 


Mr. J. Hinks 


1881 


Bishop 


bd. d. 


Barleycorn 


Daffodil 


Mr. T. Brocklebank 


1882 


Hornpipe . 


bk. b. 


Bedfellow 


Hornet 


Earl of Haddington 


1883 


Snowflight . 


bk. w. b. 


Bothal Park 


Curiosity 


Mr. W. ReiUy 


1884 


Greentick . . 


bk. d. p. 


Bedfellow 


Heartburn 


Mr. R. F. Gladstone 


1885 


Divided . 


. 





_ 


— 


1886 


Penelope II. 


f. b. 


Macpherson 


Stitch in Time 


Mr. L. Pilkington 


1887 


Divided . 


— . 








— 


1888 


Duke Macpherson 


be. d. p. 


Macpherson 


Prenez Garde 


Colonel North 


1889 


Divided . 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


1890 


Downpour . 


f. b. p. 


— [press 


— 


Mr. N. Dunn 


1891 


Faster and Faster 


be. b. 


Northern Ex- 


— 


Messrs. Fawcett 


1892 


FitzFife . 


w. bd. d. 


Royalty 


— 


)» 


1893 


Button Park 


bd. w. d. 


Tester 


Brampton 


Mr. T. Baxter 


1894 


Falconer 


w. f. d. p. 


Herschel 


Fine Sport 


Mr- M. Fletcher 


1895 


Fortuna Favente 


r. d. p. 


,, 


Fair Future 


Messrs. Fawcett 


1896 


Wolf Hill . 


f.d. 


Carrs Green 


The Pug 


Mr. W. Smyrl 


1897 


Five by Tricks . 


f. d. 


Freshman 


Full Hand 


Mr. H. Hardy 


1398 ■ 


Lang Syne . 


bk.d. 


Boss 0' the 


Belle of Soham 


Duke of Leeds. 






Shanty 







50 COURSING 



CHAPTER II 

A TREATISE ON BREEDING 

In giving Misterton a place amongst greyhounds of the past, 
we must use him as a connecting Hnk with the dogs of the 
day, as his blood is intimately intermingled with the running 
strains, and his puppies were so recently running with success. 
Later on we shall give a table of this remarkable dog's 
winning progeny, together with those of Macpherson and 
Greentick, the former of whom predeceased Misterton ; but 
the latter still flourishes and adds laurels to his crown as a sire 
as surely as the seasons come round. Now, as a basis for 
breeding winners, we should take these three dogs as primary 
sires, representing as they do a long hne of highly successful 
ancestors, and on them we should ring the changes and em- 
body the Glendyne and Clyto family. An indiscriminate use 
of these dogs or their representatives would, of course, be futile, 
and due regard must be had to size, constitution, tempera- 
ment, faulty points, points of excellence and other details that 
command a breeder's closest attention ; but when once a suc- 
cessful ' nick ' has been discovered, it should be closely adhered 
to, if not on identical, at any rate on similar, that is to say col- 
lateral, lines ; such, for example, as the union of Beacon with 
Scotland Yet, one to which we shall have to make frequent 
reference in a subsequent chapter, which produced Canaradzo, 
Sea Foam, Sea Pink, Cioloja, Bugle, and through them a host 
of high-class winners. In recent times we have good examples 
in the produce of Misterton and Lady Lizzie, Misterton and 
Gulnare II. (which includes Mullingar, Habeas Corpus, Ayala, 



A TREATISE ON BREEDING 51 

Glenmahra, Hibernian, &c.), Macpherson and Rota (Happy 
Rondelle, Have a Care, lulus, Rotula, &c,), Macpherson and 
Stargazing H., Ptarmigan and Gallant Foe, Greentick and 
Tonic, Greentick and Bit of Fashion (FuUerton, Jupon Vert, 
Kate Cuthbert, Young Fullerton, Simonian, Netherwitton, &c.), 
Greentick and Governess (Greengage, Greengoose, Greenhouse 
and Greenstick). 

It will be interesting to scan the respective pedigrees of 
these well-mated ones, and try to discover to what the success 
of their progeny is attributable. To begin with, let us take 
the Misterton-Gulnare H. combination. Gulnare H. was 
bred by Mr. Horner, and was by his dog Harfagar out of his 
Herrenhausen. Now here is a bitch possessed of good stout 
blood, traceable to the strains that are most noticeable in the 
pedigrees of Waterloo winners. Harfagar was by Harold (sire 
of Saxon King) by Farrier by Cavalier, son of Cauld Kail ; 
whilst Gulnare, dam of Harold, was a granddaughter of Master 
McGrath on her sire's side, and a great-granddaughter of 
Canaradzo on her dam's side. Herrenhausen owns a different 
infusion altogether, but is a descendant of Cock Robin (grand- 
son of Canaradzo) and Glimpse of Glory (Goodlake's strain). 
Turning back to Misterton's pedigree, we find it full of 
Canaradzo blood, whilst his maternal grandsire is Cock Robin, 
so that the cross is identical with that which produced Saxon 
King, whose dam. Locomotion, was a granddaughter of Con- 
tango. Here is an example of constant but discreet inbreed- 
ing to a famous strain, but when the performances of the pro- 
duce are looked to a curious fact presents itself. The pace of 
the family is concentrated in Mullingar, whose gx^dX forte was 
speed ; all the rest are deficient (as regards first class) in that 
respect, though all are stout honest runners. In conformation 
they are of good size and strongly built, with plenty of bone 
and good legs and feet, though some show a tendency to coarse- 
ness. 

Now that Misterton is dead, breeders who want to follow 
up the line indicated must make choice of a successor, and 

E 2 



52 COURSING 

that choice will naturally fall on Mullingar, as his performances 
will bear looking into, and his speed is undeniable ; more- 
over, such of his stock as we have seen are full of promise. 
In fact, we are convinced that a carefully selected com- 
bination of Mullingar with Macpherson bitches will assuredly 
produce high -class winners. Our own dog Habeas Corpus 
was a sticker of the first water with fair speed, and he kept 
on winning. That Mullingar was a dog of very great 
courage we take leave to doubt, and on one occasion we 
saw him deliberately 'cut it.' Next we will analyse the Mac- 
pherson-Rota combination. MacPherson himself was got by 
Master Sam, son of Contango, and one of the speediest dogs 
ever slipped, whilst his dam, Annie Macpherson, was by 
Fusilier (a grandson of Judge), so that there is no doubt about 
his running blood. Rota was by Balfe (a son of Contango) 
out of Ruby III. Now it may be held that the cross between 
a Misterton dog and a Macpherson bitch is carrying inbreed- 
ing to a dangerous extent ; but, supposing there is no consti- 
tutional weakness on either side, and taking care that the 
Misterton dog has a fresh strain on his dam's side, and that 
the Macpherson bitch has a like advantage, we maintain that 
the happiest results may be expected. 

We will now pass on to the Ptarmigan-Gallant Foe 
combination, which includes a Waterloo wanner in Princess 
Dagmar, Paris (sire of Miss Glendyne and Bit of Fashion, 
hence grandsire of Fullerton), and Jester (sire of Huic 
Holloa and other winners noted for speed). Here, indeed, 
we have a grand running strain. Ptarmigan was by Contango, 
and his dam is inbred to the Canaradzo strain, with a telling 
admixture of Cauld Kail's desirable blood. Gallant Foe also 
has plenty of the grand vein, but one remarkable fact in her pedi- 
gree is that her dam, Maggie Smith, is descended from a union 
of Beacon, not with his ever-successful and legitimate spouse, 
Scotland Yet, but with Miss Nightingale. A careful study of 
Princess Dagmar's pedigree (p. 140), and a comparison with 
that of Misterton and Macpherson, will show ~ how similar 



A TREATISE ON BREEDING 53 

they are, and how the same telHng blood stands out clearly 
defined in each. Paris is dead, but this variety of the strain 
is ably represented by Jester, who is a remarkably fine hand- 
some dog, and whose stock, as we have remarked above, are 
nearly always possessed of a fine turn of speed. Gay City, too, 
is bred on similar lines, being by Paris — Lady Glendyne, hence 
own brother to Miss Glendyne. His first batch of saplings, 
or rather such as we have seen of them, are hardly to our 
liking ; but it seems as if this dog, himself a brilliant performer, 
is absolutely certain to get some big winners in the future. He 
is a remarkably handsome dog, but his back is as level as a 
billiard board, his tail is set on too high, and he carries it 
badly. We remember judging at a show where he was a com- 
petitor, and he had to put up with second place to a dog of 
Dr. Salter's, faultless in conformation, but who in these running 
days would have had to ' look on ' from a respectful distance 
if he had been slipped with the dashing red. So much for 
show points. 

Now we come to Greentick, and we take the union of that 
game and honest dog with Bit of Fashion (a speedy, though 
somewhat flashy bitch, but one of the best-looking ones we 
have ever seen) as productive of indubitably the best grey- 
hound of our time. Bit of Fashion's dam. Pretty Nell, was by 
Country Man out of an unnamed f. w. bitch by Willie Wylie — 
Miss Johnson (a granddaughter of Canaradzo), whence it will 
be seen that she is outbred to a considerable extent, and as 
her dam produced London (a good winner and sire of winners) 
to Pathfinder (by Ptarmigan — Gallant Foe) we may feel assured 
that the cross is a successful one. Besides Fullerton and Bit 
of Fashion in her first litter, she threw Yooi Over (Jupon 
Vert), Yo Doit and Kate Cuthbert, all winners, her second lot 
including Young Fullerton, Simonian, Netherwhitton, Over 
the Alt, &c. From a cross of Greentick with Miss Glendyne 
great things were naturally expected, but the result was rather 
disappointing. One of the progeny, a blue brindle dog called 
Cagliostro, ran in the Waterloo Cup of 1890, and after 



54 COURSING 

cleverly defeating Hughie Fearon in the Purse, was put out 
by the speedy Plymouth Rock, though, had the hare lived a 
bit longer, the verdict might have gone the other way. Struck 
by the dog's good looks and his clever performance in the 
previous round, Mr. William Ingram and the writer purchased 
him from Mr. Hibbert.^ 

Unfortunately Macpherson himself is dead, but he has left 
four good dogs to represent him — viz. Herschel and Lance 
Macpherson (out of Stargazing II.), Jock Macpherson, and 
Greater Scot (out of Madge). Of these our choice would 
fall on the first and last named, though their puppies have 
yet to make their dcbut^ and Jock and Lance have already sired 
several good winners. We have never seen Jock, but some of 
his saplings have not the best of legs. 

Having rung the changes on these three branches of the 
Canaradzo family, we may find it necessary to breed out again, 
and we must look out for a strain that is fairly remote, though 
it is hard to find any good greyhound that has not the Scotland 
Yet quarterings on his coat-of-arms ; but a few years back 
;Mr. Crosse owned a good greyhound in Clyto. A short study 
of his pedigree shows a digression from the strongly marked 
line that we have indicated, and he was a dog that got a large 
number of winners, though few if any were of the very first 
order. The most promising of his sons was perhaps Holmby, 
and next to him Clytorus, who, after dividing the Plumpton 
Stakes and showing a fine turn of speed, fell and injured him- 
self so badly at Kempton that he could never be trained 
again. His dam, Mabel, was by the Canaradzo dog Crossfell, 
which proves the efficacy of the cross. Clyto himself w^as by 
Caleb Garth, a dog inbred to David and going back through 
his sire, Racing Hopfactor, to Senate, Hannah, and Tollwife, 
and through his dam, who was by Brigadier, to Figaro. Clyto's 
dam was Clytie by Howden out of Acute, the former being a 
grandson of David and the latter a great-granddaughter of the 

1 In her next litter by Fullerton, Miss Glenciyne threw Not Out, a useful 
dog. Miss Glendyne died in 1891. 



A TREATISE ON BREEDING 55 

same dog, so he was well inbred to a good old-fashioned strain, 
while the only trace of Scotland Yet blood is through Sea 
Foam, maternal grandsire of Howden. Hence, if a dog by 
Misterton out of a Clyto bitch were crossed with a bitch by 
Greentick out of a Paris or Jester bitch, we should get a 
grand concentration of running blood. The value of Clyto 
as a stud dog was evidenced by his getting 33 winners and 
dividers from his first season's puppies, and eight saplings out 
of a Misterton bitch fetched 600/. at auction ; so the cross 
was evidently appreciated. 

The difficulty is to find a Clyto dog whose efforts at the 
stud have met with marked success. We cannot say we 
altogether like the running of the progeny of Clytorus, but 
we should have no hesitation in using Holmby, and his first 
batch of puppies were decidedly smart. His dam, High Opinion, 
was by Good Authority out of H. P., and through the latter 
(a granddaughter of King Death) he has a dash of Canaradzo 
blood. Fury, dam of H. P., was a granddaughter of David, 
and as Good Authority was by Howden (sire of Clytie, Clyto's 
dam), we find very close inbreeding to the Tollwife strain, which 
is very stout, physically and morally. This, then, is, in our 
opinion, the dog to use to Misterton bitches ; he was a sterling 
greyhound and won forty courses in public, setting a seal to 
his performances by securing the Kempton Park Grand 
Champion Prize. All the Clytos are distinguished for quality, 
a matter of great consideration when we have in view the 
tendency to coarseness shown by some of the Greenticks, 
especially those inbred to Contango. 

Another useful dog by Clyto is Clyto IV., who has size and 
substance, and is free from Contango blood, his dam being 
Governess, a thorough winner-producer, as when put to Green- 
tick she threw Greengage, Greenstick, and Greenhouse, who 
between them won over sixty courses their first season ; hence 
Clyto IV. should suit either Misterton or Greentick bitches or 
those that combine their blood. A very valuable strain is that 
of Cui Bono, who was a decided success at the stud. He was 



56 COURSING 

by Gone, by Strange Idea— Gaudy Poll, and his dam was Ruby 
(sister to Rota), a most remarkable bitch, as she was not only 
a fine performer, but as a matron she threw such first-class 
performers, besides Cui Bono, as Rhodora, Romney, Rufina, 
Rufus, Radiant (dam of Fluttering Fersen and Happy Omen), 
Hector, Edwina Balfe, <S:c. 

Calix and Clamor are both by Cui Bono, and though 
neither is free from Canaradzo blood, the strain that they have 
will prove beneficial, even with bitches that are inbred thereto. 
A dog that possesses this blood already fused with that of 
Greentick is Edwin Greentick, and as he combines two 
crosses of Bab-at-the-Bowster and one each of Bed of Stone, 
Ruby and Rebe, he may be considered one of the best-bred 
dogs of the day, and should not want for patronage. A\^e are 
under the impression that he never ran, having met with an 
accident when in training ; his dam was that flying bitch Edwina 
Balfe, own sister to Hector. 

Of course there are numerous high-class dogs worthy the 
attention of breeders of to-day, and in making the foregoing 
remarks we have but indicated certain strains that we opine 
should never be lost sight of, and have pointed out a few of the 
choicest dogs available for carrying out the theory we uphold. 
Before touching on the practical procedure of greyhound 
breeding, we must not omit to mention a noticeable failing, and 
a very serious one, to be observed in the produce of Greentick. 
For the time he has been at the stud this dog has sired more 
winners than any greyhound that preceded him, and the number 
of sons and daughters which he has had running for him in 
1890 was something remarkable. His puppies kept winning 
good stakes ; but his second-season produce, with a few notable 
exceptions, trained off to an extraordinary extent. Troughend is 
an example of this, and a score of others could be mentioned; 
the one marked exception that proves the rule being the 
mighty FuUerton, who, good as he was as a puppy, went to 
slips for his second Waterloo Cup a better greyhound in every 
respect. We do not think that a search through Greentick's 



A TREATISE ON BREEDING 57 

pedigree will expose the weak spot, but we feel confident that 
the cause is not far to seek, and that it is because the dog's 
physical powers have been overtaxed, for his early successes at 
the stud did not escape notice. As a rule his stock are particu- 
larly robust and stout in their early days, and the decline of 
energy and vital power is not noticeable until their second season 
comes round. It will be interesting to watch the future progress 
of his progeny, and it is devoutly to be hoped that the same 
falling off will not be apparent when the seasons come round. 
As a useful index to those crosses that have proved most 
efficacious, we give a table of winners of sixteen dog stakes 
and upwards with names of their dams, got by Misterton, 
Macpherson, and Greentick respectively ; following this will be 
found the tabulated pedigrees of some of the most celebrated 
stud dogs of the day, and of those that are dead but that are 
directly represented. 

After perusing the tables of winners springing from the 
loins of Misterton, Macpherson, and Greentick, the intending 
breeder can have little doubt as to the success that has con- 
stantly attended the strains that have been indicated. We 
have already thrown out a few hints as to inbreeding, in fact 
our whole argument as followed out in this chapter is entirely 
in favour of the practice if not carried too far, and if conducted 
not only with common sense, intelhgence, and a general know- 
ledge of physiology, but with what is of still greater service, ex- 
perience Take a dog and bitch descended from a common 
ancestor of marked type or peculiarity ; neither may show 
the remotest trace of its origin, neither may they resemble 
each other in any way, yet the produce of their union are 
usually reproductions of the aforesaid common ancestor, 
sometimes wonderfully like, but always recognisable. The 
natural inference is that any great greyhound can be repro- 
duced simply by mating descendants, and that all a breeder 
has to do is to follow this theory and produce a succession of 
Master McGraths, Coomassies, Miss Glendynes, and Fuller- 
tons ; but such is not the case, and for this reason. 



58 COURSING 

The general resemblance of the product of your sagacity to 
his (or her) illustrious ancestor may be striking in a degree ; 
but take measurements and you will find wide discrepancies, 
and even when points are well balanced and measurements in 
due proportion, there is often something wanting when the 
subject is asked to display his prowess ; when the weak 
point, moral or physical, is discovered, our breeder must 
search for it amongst his other ancestors ; and with a view to 
the next generation must mate him (or her) with one claiming 
descent sufficiently remote from the same common ancestor 
and being entirely free from the blood of that dog or bitch 
from whom he (or she) inherited the fault. 

A perusal of the tabulated pedigrees herein printed will 
show that certain strains bear inbreeding very much better 
than others. Where a particular dog or bitch is concerned 
success may almost invariably attend the experiment, and yet 
an attempt to inbreed to a brother or sister of that dog or 
bitch may meet with hopeless failure, the probability being 
that some constitutional weakness exists in the latter which is 
accentuated by the process of inbreeding. Notable instances 
of success in this particular are Scotland Yet, King Cob, 
Tollwife, Cauld Kail, and Judge. Of these Scotland Yet is 
the most striking example, for not only was inbreeding to 
this bitch herself eminently successful, but it seems to be 
possible to carry it to any extent, as witness the results of in- 
breeding to Canaradzo, Bab-at-the-Bowster, and Contango. 
Several great greyhounds have had four and five crosses of 
1 oUwife, generally through her son David ; and the blood of 
King Cob, Cauld Kail, and Judge generally lends itself readily 
to the experiment. The question is where to stop ; and we 
are far from advocating incestuous union, though we have 
known even that productive of winning greyhounds. In most 
cases puny rickety whelps would be the result, which, if they 
escaped the ravages of distemper — a most unlikely contingency 
— would never be worth training, and might probably exhibit 
signs of mental deficiency or highly timid and nervous tern- 



A TREATISE ON BREEDING 59 

peraments. There might be exceptions, and supposing a 
sound, strong bitch to be produced by the incestuous inter- 
course of a brother and sister, a father and daughter, or a son 
and mother — supposing this bitch to turn out a fairly good 
performer and eventually to be mated with a dog of a distinct 
strain — it is possible, nay, probable, that the progeny would 
distinguish themselves ; that is, if their incestuous grand- 
parents were the representatives of a robust and successful 
strain. Personally we are testing this theory, and so far it has 
been borne out to the letter ; but the difficulty in procuring a 
strong and healthy bitch as the result of too close inbreeding 
is so great that we do not advise our readers to follow our 
example ; for in our case the original dam was the result of an 
accidental union of brother and sister, and we should not 
have thought of deliberately setting about such an experiment ; 
but having thus produced a winning bitch that was likewise 
blessed with a hardy constitution, we bred out, and in her 
first litter she produced a winner, and in her next (to Green- 
tick) she had four. There is one noticeable peculiarity in this 
bitch which may be attributable to her origin : she has had 
three litters, but twice she has only thrown two puppies and 
once four. 

Having now discussed the theory of breeding, we will pro- 
ceed to the practical part, which is quite as important, though 
it does not afford so much food for reflection, certain data 
being always present, and years of experience having immutably 
fixed the mode of procedure. 



6o 



COURSING 



MISTERTON 



Name 


Dam 


Won 




Aberbriant .... 


Promotion 


_ 




Aber Menai . 


Truthful 


— 




Away .... 


Merr>' Heart II. 


Quarrington Stakes 




Allegroist .... 


Ettrick 


Westraw Purse 




Alice Daisy 

Apperley (late Shipley) 


Graceful Girl 







Mermaiden 


Tenant Farmers* Stakes 




Bermondsey 


Lady Lizzie 


Durling Stakes 




Bessie May .... 


Flywheel 


- 




Braggart .... 


Merry Maid II. 


— 




Bronze .... 


Speculation 







Bloomsbury 


,, 







Bog Oak . . . . 




Wandon Lodge Stakes 




Bouquet of Beauties . 


Nell 






Blink 


Sister to Alec Halliday 







Brewer's Boy 


Graceful Girl 


__ 




Bank Street 


Fairation 


Redshank Stakes 




Branston .... 


Burglary 






Baseball (vide Go Ban? II.) 


— 







Cherry . . . . 


Clytie 







Coronet .... 


Hark Forward 







Cotillon .... 


Waltzing Kate 


— 




Cymbeline .... 


Merry Heart II. 


Brough Cup 




Clamontes .... 


Ripe Cherry 


— 




Cottage Nymph . 


Cottage Maid 


Hassocks Stakes 




Countess Lilian . 


Lady Macbeth 







Countess Dudley 


jj 







Crown Point 


Rose Marie 







Donington .... 


Deborah 







Eltham Lad 


Durable 






Freewill .... 


Village Girl 







Fusilier II 


Foam Belle 


Tenants' Cup 




Gaily 


Tennis Ball 






Gladsome .... 


Merry Maid II. 







,. 


» 


Craven Cup 




Glenbloom ... 


Mary Hill 


Brighton Cup 




Glencotho .... 


1 Glengowan 


Scarisbrooke Cup 




)> 


J, 


Hesketh Cup 




Glenkirn .... 




— 




Glaucus .... 


Hilda 


October Stakes 




Glenmahra .... 


Gulnare II. 


Olanteigh Stakes 




Glenmaid .... 


Redemption 






Gorse 


Hertha 


— 




Giuseppe .... 


Mascotte 


— 




Go Bang II. . " . 


Tennis Ball 


Adderley Stakes 




Glenkirk .... 

1 


Glengowan 


- 




j Happy Hampton 


Corsica 


Ashford Stakes 





A TREATISE ON BREEDING 



6i 



MISTERTON 



Meeting 


Divided 


Meeting 


Season 





Mistletoe Stakes 


Haydock 


1884-S 


— 


Beaudesert Stakes 


Lichfield 


1885-6 


— 


Anglesey Cup 


J 


1885-6 


— 


Leamington Stakes 


Wappenbury 


1886-7 


Sleaford 


— 





1885-6 


Carmichael 


— 


_ 


1886-7 


— 


New Grange Stakes 


Louth 


1887-8 


Bickerstaffe 


Second North and South Lan- 
cashire Stakes 


Ridgway 


1889-90 


Cliffe and Hundred 


Folkestone Stakes 


Wye 


1884-5 


ofHoo 








— 


^j 




1886-7 


— 


Hythe Stakes 


\\ 


1887-8 


— 


South Lancashire Stakes 


Ridgway Club 


1884-5 


— 


Maiden Stakes 


Wye 


1884-5 


— 


Paget Stakes 


Lichfield 


1884-5 


— 


Coombe Stakes 


CliflFe 


1885-6 


Lichfield 


— 




1885-6 


— 


Brough Cup 


Catterick 


1885-6 


— 


Hoddom Stakes 


Mid-Annandale 


1886-7 


— 


Lichfield Stakes 


Lichfield 


1886-7 


Farcet Fen 


— 





1888-9 


— 


Molyneux Stakes 


Altcar 


1888-9 


— 


Catterick Stakes 


Darlington 


1884-5 


— 


Gosforth Derby 


Gosforth 


1884-5 


— 


Olanteigh Stakes (Jan.) 


Wye 


1884-S 


— 


(Mar.) 




1884-5 


Darlington Club 




— 


1884-5 


— 


Produce Stakes 


Plumpton 


1886-7 


Plumpton 


— 


— 


1886-7 


— 


Wye Oaks 


Wye 


1887-8 


— 


Dover Stakes 




1887-8 


— 


October Stakes 


Haydock 


1887-8 


— 


Hastings Stakes 


Plumpton 


1886-7 


— 


Sandgate Stakes 


Wye 


1887-8 


— 


Monmouth Stakes 


Berkeley 


1888-9 


Corrie 


— 


— 


1889-90 


— 


Farmers* Stakes 


Hale Tenants 


1889-90 


— 


Peahall Stakes 


North Lancashire 


1889-Q0 


— 


Paget Stakes 


Lichfield 


1884-5 


Ashdown 


— 




1888-9 


Plumpton 


— 


— 


1884-5 


— 


Blagdon Stakes 


Gosforth 


1886-7 


— 


Border Union Stakes 


Border Union 


1885-6 


— 


St. Mungo Cup 


Mid-Annandale 


1886-7 


Southport 


— 


— 


1887-8 


RufFord 




— 


1887-8 


— 


Earlstown Stakes 


Haydock 


1885-6 


Haydock 


— 




1886-7 


Wye 


— 


— 


1889-90 




Oakbank Stakes 


Longtown 


1885-6 


— 


Wye Derby 


Wye 


1885-6 


— 


Wilton Stakes 


Wilton 


1886-7 


Market Drayton 


— 


— 


1887-8 


— 


Second Spoonley Stakes 


Market Drayton 


1889-90 


— 


September Stakes 


Haydock 


1888-9 


— 


Gosforth Gold Cup 


Gosforth 


1888-9 


Wye 


— 


- 


1884-5 



62 



COURSING 



MISTERTON- 



Name 



Harraby 
Hieland Fly 



Hibernian . 

Homers* Claim 
Hooe Lassie 
Heavy Cavalry 
Habeas Corpus 

Ivy Green . 



Jealous Squaw (late Wild- 
girl) 



Jolly Mystery (late Bonny 

Glen) 
Kilkoo . . . . 



Kilkiel 
King Cole . 

Knockshea . 

Kilchief . 

Longest Day 

Mada . 
Magic . 

Maid of Kellena 
Maidstone . 
Matin Bells 



Miranda 
Miss Baxter 



Mullingar 



Master Tom Harbison 



Miss Avon . 
Miss Harries 

Missing Son 
Maggie Park 
Mid Lincoln 
My Dear , 

Northern Expre 
Phantom II. 



Dam 



Hook 

Sail o' the Mill 



Gulnare 11. 

Hilda' 
Go 

Hilda 
Gulnare II. 

Arama 

Woodsdown 



Mermaiden 
Koriata 



Lyonese 
Koriata 



Avon Beauty 
Romanoffski 

Now or Never 
Glengowan 
Memorial 
Ma Chere 

Prenez Garde 
Speculation 



Won 



Ashdown Stakes 
Scarisbrooke Cup 
Burscough Cup 
Cowley Cup 
Wallasea Stakes 

Dover Stakes (No. i) 



Bagley Cup 
Westminster Stakes 

Roche's Point Stakes 



Quarrington Stakes 

Second Southern Club Stakes 





Scarva Stakes 


Mermaiden 
Arama 


Buccleuch Cup 
Southminster Oaks 
Beaudesert Stakes 


Madcap Violet 
Princess Dagmar 
Joyful 


Tenants' Cup 


Promotion 
Flywheel 

Gulnare II. 


St Mungo's Cup 
Queensberry Stakes 
Cardinal Wolsey Stakes 
Gold Cup 


Mrs. Eliza 


— 



September Stakes 



Conington Stakes 



Lady Hill Stakes 



A TREATISE ON BREEDING 



63 



continued 








Meeting 


Divided 


I 
Meeting | 


Season 


_ 


Dinnington Stakes 


Gosforth 


1888-9 


Haydock 


— 


— 


1885-6 


— 


— 


— - 


1886-7 


Burscough 


— 


— 


1887-8 


South minster 


— - 


— 


J888-9 


Rochford Hundred 


— 


— 


1888-Q 
1885-6 




DuUingham St. Leger 


DuUingham 


Wye 


— 


— 


1888-9 




Hasting Stakes 
Hassocks Stakes 


Plumpton 


1887-8 







1888-9 


_ 


Brook Stakes 


Wye " 


1889-90 


— 


Cliffe Stakes 


Chffe and Hundred 
ofHoo 


1889-90 


Bagley 


— 


— 


1884-5 


Kempton 


_ 


_ 


1885-6 


— 


Leamington Stakes 


Wappenbury 


1886-7 


— 


Second Gold Cup 


Haydock 


1889-90 


Southern Club 


Needham Purse 


North of Ireland 


1884-5 


Ireland 




Union 






,, 




1884-5 


— 


Maiden Stake 


Wye 


1884-5 


Sleaford 


» — 


— 


1886-7 


Southern Club 




— 


1884-5 


Ireland 








— 


Downshire Stakes 


Banbridge 


1887-8 


Banbridge 




— 


1888-9 


_. 


Purdvsburn Stakes 


Purdysburn 


1889-90 


— 


Carmichael Cup 


Carmichael 


1884-5 


— 


Carmichael Stakes 


J, 


1887-8 


Upper Nithsdale 


,, 


,, 


1885-6 


Southminster 




— 


1889-90 


Lichfield 


- — 


— 


1884-5 




Beaudesert Stakes 


Lichfield 


1885-6 


_ 


Earlstown Stakes 


Haydock 


1884-5 





Garrick Stakes 


Kempton 


1885-6 


— 


Eldon Stakes 


Gosforth 


1885-6 


Lower Gosforth 


— 


— 


1886-7 


— - 


Prestwick Stakes 


,, 


1887-8 


— 


Tibbers Castle Stakes 


Upper Nithsdale 


1885-6 


Mid-Annandale 


_ 


— 


1885-6 


Upper Nithsdale 


— 


— 


1885-6 


Kempton 


— 


— 


1885-6 


Gosforth 


— 


— 


1886-7 


— 


Kilmorey Cup 


Mourne Park 


1888-9 


— 


,, 


)> 


1886-7 


Northern Club 


— 




1887-8 


— 


jj 


jj 


1887-8 


— 


Killingworth Stakes 


Gosforth 


1887-8 


— 


Kilmorey Stakes 


jj 


1887-8 


— 


Blagdon Stakes 




1887-8 


Carmichael 




— 


1886-7 


— 


Paget Stakes 


Lichfield 


1886-7 


— 


Southport Stakes 


Southport 


1886-7 


— 


Newton Stakes 


Haydock 


1886-7 


— 


jj 


jj 


1886-7 


— 


Dudley Maiden Stakes 


Gosforth 


1888-9 


— 


First Club Stakes 


Cliffe and Hundred 
ofHoo 


1889-90 


— 


Trabolgan Stakes 


Trabolgan 


1886-7 


Haydock 


— 


1 — 


1884-5 



64 



COURSING 



MISTERTON- 



Name 


Dam 


Won 




Phantom II. 

Penalty .... 

Peseta. .... 


Speculation 

Durable 

Glengowan 


- 




Rainbow .... 
Rebound .... 


Rosemary 
Gulnare II. 


Sefton Stakes 




Royal Prince 


Regal Court 


— 




Ruby IV 

Run Forward < , 
•Revolt .... 


Hopper 
Hark Forward 
Cottage Maid 


~ 




Sewing Maid , 


Stitch in Time 
>> 


Carmichael Cup 




Soprano .... 


Adelaide 


Cowley Cup 




Sorcerer (late Shopwalker) 


Lady Lizzie 


Heath Stakes 




Spider II 

Spinage .... 
Settling Day 

1 - 


Star of Woodcote 
Sally'bay 


Hordley Stakes 
Anglesey Cup 




Sister Eliza 

Strongbow .... 


Lady Jessie 
Graceful Girl 


— 




j Sarah Day .... 

1 SallieDay .... 

SwafFham .... 

1 Startaway .... 


Sally'bay 

Star of Woodcote 
Go 


Rufford Stakes 
De Grey Jubilee Cup 
Craven Challenge Cup 
First C/ub Cup 




Stonebow .... 


Fairation 


— 




Swan" 

Talbot .... 
Tres Bien .... 
Twenty Five 
! The Guv'nor 


Graceful Girl 
Ladybird 
Truthful 
Lady Lizzie 
Redemption 


Farmers' Stakes 
Isle of Grain Stakes 




! The Slut .... 


The Squaw 


The Oaks 




The Bard .... 


Gulnare II. 


- 




Veracity .... 

Wainfleet .... 
Welsh Gem. . . . 
WiUoughby 
Woman in Black 
Wine Bottles 


Truthful 
Lady Lizzie 
Gulnare II. 
Wheel of Fortune 
Promotion 
Madcap Violet 


Hamsey Stakes 




Westrup .... 
Winchelsea .... 
Woodcote .... 


Lyonese 
Redemption 


Old Sleaford Stakes 
Preston Stakes 
Chapel Bridge Stakes 




» 

t 


» 







A TREATISE ON BREEDING 



65 



continued 



Meeting 


Divided 


Meeting 


! 
Season 





Westminster Stakes 


Ecclestone 


1885-6 


— 


Lytham Cup 


Lytham 


1886-7 


; 


January Stakes 
February Stakes 


Haydock 


1888-9 


— 


J, 


1888-9 


Altcar 


Derby Stakes 


Bickerstaffe 


1889-90 


— 


Benton Stakes 


Gosforth 


1885-6 




St. Leger 


Cliffe and Hundred 


1889-90 


— 




ofHoo 




— 


Chilham Stakes 


Wye 


1885-6 


— 


Wye Stakes 




1886-7 


— 


Champion Stakes 


Amesbury 


1885-6 


— 


Olanteigh Stakes 


Wye 


1886-7 


— 


Gravesend Stakes 


Cliffe and Hundred 
ofHoo 


1888-9 


— 


Corrie Cup 


Corrie 


1884-5 


Carmichael 


— 


— 


1884-5 


— 


Lytham Cup 


Ridgway 


1884-5 


Southminster 


— 


— 


1884-5 


— 


Produce Stakes 


Ludham 


1884-5 


Haydock 


— 


— 


188I-? 


— 


Hove Stakes 


Plumpton 


1884-5 


— 


Brighton Stakes 


,j 


1887-8 


Bagley 


— 


— 


1884-5 


Lichfield 


— 


— 


1885-6 


— 


Last Trial Stakes 


jj 


1884-5 


— 


Manor Stakes 


South Lancashire 


1885-6 


— 


Southport Stakes 


>> 


1888-9 1 


— 


Royal Plate 


Yorkshire Club 


1888-9 


— 


Wye Stakes 


Wye 


1888 9 


— 


Anglesea Cup 


Lichfield 


1884-5 


— 


Champion Produce Stakes 


Haydock 


1885-6 


— 


Christmas Stakes 




1885-6 


Rufford 







1886-7 


Yorkshire Club 


— 


— 


1887-8 


— 








1887-8 
1888-9 


Cliffe and Hundred 


— 


— 


ofHoo 








— 


Old Sleaford Stakes 


Sleaford 


1888-9 


— 


Winchelsea Stakes 


Ewerby 


1889-90 


Hale 








1888-9 


— 


Holly Stakes 


Haydock 


1884-5 


— 


Beaudesert Stakes 


Lichfield 


1885-6 


— 


Maiden Stakes 


Plumpton 


1885-6 


Cliffe and Hundred 


Club Cup 


Cliffe and Hundred 


1886-7 


ofHoo 




ofHoo 




— 


Factory Stakes 




1887-8 


Southminster 


— 


— 


1886-7 


~ 


Cowley Cup 
Aske Cup 


Southminster 


1887-8 


— 


Darlington 


1887-8 


— 


Newton Stakes 


Newton 


1887-8 


— 


Prestwick Stakes 


Gosforth 


1887-8 


— 


Wandon Lodge Stakes 


Lichfield 


1885-6 


Plumpton 


— 


— 


1884-5 


— 


Bagpath Stakes 


Kingscote 


1889-90 


— 


Royal Stakes 


Four Oaks Park 


1884-5 


— 


November Stakes 


Gosforth 


1884-5 


— 


Londesborough Stakes 


Market Weigh ton 


1886-7 


— 


Dawnay Jubilee Cup 


Leeds and County 


1887-8 


Sleaford 


— 


— 


1885-6 


Plumpton 


— 


— 


1885-6 


Whittlesea 





— 


1887-8 


— 


Quarrington Stakes 


Sleaford 


1887-3 

1 



66 



COURSING 



MACPHERSON 



Name 


Dam 


Won 




Be at Home 


Baby 


Manor Stakes 




Be Good .... 


,, 


— 




Bird's Head . . 


Stargazing IL 


Watlass Cup 




Bonny Dick . . 


Bal Gal IL 


• — 




Brave Scot .... 


Duchess of Delvin 


— 




Buxton Lad 


Baby 


— 




Carratze .... 


Patella 


— 




Caterham Usher. 


Hush 


— 




Charming Sally . . . 


Avon Conway 


— 




Christmas Day . 


Christmas Box 


Trabolgan Stakes 
November Stakes 




Companion .... 


Hush " 




Dingwall .... 


CEnone. 


Produce Stakes 
Scarisbrooke Cup 




Duke Macpherson 


Prenez Garde 


Holestone Derby 




Faliant Fhairshon 


Strawberry Girl 


— 




Fenton Fairy (late Charm- 


Avon Conway 


Needham Stakes 




ing Sally) 








Flattering Fersen 


Radiant 


Z 




Flora Scotica 


Strawberry Girl 


Ashton Stakes 




Footboard (late Backbiter). 


Peppercorn 


— 




Gentle Eva .... 


Bal Gal 


— 




Greater Scot 


Madge 

>5 







Half a Chance , 


Sing Song 







Haifa Scot. . . . 


Agnes 


— 




Hamilton Palace 


Heart of Oak 


— 




Happy Rondelle (late 


Rota 


Members' Cup 




Rondelle) 








Harpoon .... 


Hush 


February Stakes 




Hartington .... 


Prenez Garde 


— 




Have a Care 


Rota 


Burradon Stakes 




Hayleaf . . . 


Hush 


— 




Haytime ♦ . . . 




- 




Heli'ce 


Starlight 


Newton Stakes 




Her'schel .... 


Stargazing IL 


Sefton Stakes 
Haydock Grand Prize 




Highland Laddie 


Holei'n Lass 


— 








Scarisbrooke Cup 




Hostia .... 


Ladv Agnes 


Golbourne Stakes 




Hush Money 

1 


Hush 


— 





A TREATISE ON BREEDING 



67 



MACPHERSON 



Meeting 


Divided 


Meeting 


Season 
1887-8 


Southport 










Christmas Produce Stakes 


Haydock 


1887-8 


— 


Tenants' Cup 


North of England 


1886-7 





Earsdon Stakes 


Gosforth 


1886-7 


Thornton Watlass 


Brancepeth Stakes 


Willingion 


1887-8 





Tenants' Stakes 


Windlestone 


1888-9 





Farmers' Stakes 


Halewood 


1887-8 





Valentine Stakes 


Haydock 


1887-8 





Burscough Cup 


Burscoua;h 


1888-9 


— 


Lady Hill Stakes 


Haydock 


1887-8 


_ 


Sefton Stakes 


Altcar 


1886-7 


— 


Seghill Stakes 


Gostorth 


1887-8 


— 


Gosforth Oaks 




1887-8 


— 


Southern Club Stakes 


Cork 


1884-5 


Trabolgan 


— 


— 


1886-7 


Haydock 


— 


— 


1887-8 


Plumpton 


— 


— 


1887-8 


Southport 


— 


— 


1888-9 




Brownlow Stakes 


Mourne Park 


1887-8 


Northern Club 


— 


— 


1887-8 





Paget Stakes 


Lichfield 


1887-8 


Mourne Park 


— 


— 


1887-8 


_ 


Gosforth Oaks 





1886-7 


— 


Netherby Cup 


Border Union 


1887-8 


— 


Kilmorey Stakes 


Mourne Park 


1887-8 


Haydock 


— 


— 


1887-8 


— 


Club Cup 


West Cumberland 


1888-9 


— 


,, 




1889-90 


— 


Farmers' Stakes 


Hale 


1886-7 


— 


Waterloo Cup 


— 


1886-7 


— 


Champion Produce Stakes 


Haydock 


1885-6 


— 


Produce Stakes (Dec.) 


„ 


1885-6 


— 


St. Leger 


DuUingliam 


1887-8 


— 


" 


Cliffe and Hundred 
ofHoo 


1888-9 


— 


Acle Stakes 


Stokesby 


1887-8 


Altcar 


— 


— 


1888-9 


Haydock 


Border Union Stakes 


Border Union 


1884-5 


— 


City of London Stakes 


Kempton 


1887-8 


Gosforth 


— 


- — 


1887-8 


— 


Bitch Maiden Stakes 


Haydock 


1889-90 


— 


Club Cup 


West Cumberland 


1889-90 


— 


Sprinkell Stakes 


Springkell 


1889-90 





Border Union Stakes 


Border Union 


1884-5 


— 


Gosforth Stakes 


Gosforth 


1886-7 


Haydock 


— 


— 


1887-8 


— 


Spring Stakes 


Haydock 


1888-9 


Altcar 


Champion Pioduce Stakes 


,, 


1886-7 


— 


Waterloo Cup 


— 


1886-7 


-*- 


Members' Cup 


— 


1886-7 


— 


— . 


Altcar 


1887-8 


— 


Consolation (Maiden) Stakes 


Haydock 


1884-5 


South Lancashire 


— 


— 


1885-6 


Haydock 


Sefton Stakes 


Altcar 


1885-6 




South Lancashire Stakes 


Ridgway 


1884-5 


— 


Sefton Stakes 


Altcar 


1885-6 



68 



COURSING 



MACPHERSON— 



Name 


Dam 


Won 




Jinne Macpherson (late 
Black Lass) 


Stargazing II. 


Rainham Stakes 






»» 


Newby Stakes 
Catterick Stakes 




lulus 


_ » 

Rota 







Just Asleep 

Lacerta .... 


Hush 
Starlight 


Maiden Stakes 




Lance Macpherson (late 
Blackman) 

Last of the Macs 

Little Giant (late Sailor V.) 

Meol's General (late Colin 

Campbell) 
Meol's Hero 


Stargazing II. 

CEnone 

Bugle 

Sweet Daughter 


Hutton Stakes 

Blaydon Stakes 
Bristol Stakes 

April (Maiden) Stakes 




Meol's Vixen 


Waterloo Plate 




Mlsr, Webster . 
Penelope II. 


Lilac" 

Stitch'in Time 
»» 
>> 


Tenants' Cup 
Altcar Club Cup 
Members' Cup 




Porcia 

Prince Alexander 


Patella 
Brighton Lady 


- 




» 


» 


March Stakes 




Prince Napoleon 


Lady Agnes 


Leamington Stakes 
Downshire Stakes 
Foyle Stakes 




Rags and Feathers . 
Relentless .... 
Ripe Berry .... 
Rose Macpherson 


Cosy 
Baby 

Strawberry Girl 
Stargazing II. 


Scarisbrooke Cup 
BrafFerton Stakes 




Rhoda Macpherson (late 
Flossie) 


>> 

Cosy 

5> 


Paget Stakes 
Queensberrj' Stakes 




Rotula " . . 


Rota 


— 




Scotch Pearl 

Silence ' . . . . 

Simba 

Sir E. K 

Sparkling Gem . 

Step Aside .... 

Strathpeffer 

Warden .... 

Willie Macpherson 


Sea Maid 

Hush 

Salamis 

Sister Ada 

Oi^none 

Salamis 

Nuit Blanche 

Mazurka 

Duchess of Delvin 


Mourne Park Plate 
Sleaford Stakes 

Ewerby Stakes 





A TREATISE ON BREEDING 



69 



conti7iued 



Meeting 


Divided 


Meeting 


Season 


North of England 


Prestwick Stakes 


Gosforth 


1884-5 


— 


Selby Stakes 


Selby 


1884-5 


Newby 


— 


— 


1885-6 


Catterick 


— 


s 


1885-6 


— 


Willington Stakes 


Willington 


1880-7 


— 


Ravensworth Cup 


North of England 


1886-7 


— 


,, 


— 


1887-8 


— 


Wye Derby 

Members' Produce Stakes 


Wye 


1887-8 


— 


Plumpton 


1887-8 


Haydock 


— 


— 


1888-9 


— 


Rain ton Stakes 


Rainton 


1887-8 


— 


Royal Stakes 




1888-9 


North of England 


Plessy Stakes 


Gosforth 


1884-5 


Gosforth 





_ 


1885-6 


Sleaford 


Westminster Stakes 


Kempton 


1888-9 


— 


Earlstown Stakes 


Haydock 


1884-5 


Haydock 


— 


— 












1885-6 


— 


Gosforth Stakes 


_ 


1887-8 


— 


Oaklands Stakes 


Longtown (Local) 


1888-9 


Corrie (Tenants) 


— 


— 


1887-8 


Altcar 


— 


— 


1885-6 


•• 


— 


— 


1885-6 




Lytham Cup 
Ravensworth Cup 


— 


1885-6 


— 


North of England 


1886-7 


— 


Clifton Cup 


Ridgway 


1886-7 


— 


Covington Plate 


Carmichael 


1884-5 


— 


Scarva Stakes 


Banbridge 


1887-8 


— 


Champion Produce Stakes 


Haydock 


1887-8 


Haydock 


— 


— 


1887-8 


— 


Holestone Stakes 


Northern Club 


1888-9 


— 


October Stakes 


Haydock 


1888-9 


Wappenbury 


— 


— 


1888-9 


Banbridge 


— 


— 


1889-90 


Black Brae 


— 


— 


1889-90 


— 


Lady Hill Stakes 


Haydock 


1885-6 


— 


October Stakes 


^ 


1887-8 


— 


Barnton Stakes 


Barnton 


1888-9 


South Lancashire 







1888-9 


— 


Valentine Stakes 


Haydock 


1889-90 


Heworth Park 


Ripon Stakes 


North of England 


1886-7 


— 


Prestwick Stakes 


Gosforth 


1886-7 


Lichfield 


— 




1888-9 


Upper Nithsdale 








1889-90 


— 


Paget Stakes 


Lichfield 


1889-90 


— 


Molyneux Stakes 


Altcar 


1889-90 


— 


Quarrington Stakes 


Sleaford 


1889-90 


— 


Keymer Stakes 


Plumpton 


1889-90 


— 


Gordinnog Stakes 


Bangor 


1886-7 


_ 


March Stakes 


Four Oaks Park 


1885-6 


— 






1888-9 





Bickerstaffe Stakes 


Bickerstaflfe 


1888-9 


Sleaford 


— 




1887-8 


— 


Gordinnog Stakes 


Bangor 


1887-8 


— 


Burscough Cup 


Burscough 


1888-9 


— 


December Stakes 


Kempton 


1888-9 


Ewerby 


— 


— 


1887-8 



70 



COURSING 



GREENTICK 



Name 



Dam 



Blue Tick , 
Brief Bliss . 
Cagliostro 

Cheque Book 
Coca Water 

Cunningarth 

Dove Cot . 
Ilquivocal . 
Full of Fashion 
Fraulein II. 

FuUerton 

German ie . 
Goldfinder . 
Green Cot . 



Green Fern 



Greengage . 



Greengoose . 

Green Hat . 
Green Hay . 

Greenhouse 
Green Moss 
Greenshanks 

Greenstick . 
Green Stone 
Hammock . 



Happy Fun 

Hellebore .... 
Herrick .... 
Highland Green . 
Howitzer .... 

Huddier .... 
Ivy Green .... 

Jupon Vert (late Yooi Over) 

Kaiser II 

Kate Cuthbert . 
Lecturer .... 
Manilla .... 
Marsayas .... 
Mespilus .... 
Mickleton .... 



Cayenne II. 
Lady Macpherson 



Cayenne II. 
Madeline 

Ecumenical 

Maid of Taunton 
Ecumenical 
Bit of Fashion 
Waterwitch 



Bit of Fashion 

Governess 

Cosy 

Baby 



Jinne Macpherson 



Governess 



Jinne Macpherson 
Jinne Macpherson 

Governess 

Jinne Macpherson 

Rufina 

Governess 

Jinne Macpherson 

Hedge Rose 



Suppliant 
Hedge Rose 
Hostia 
CEnone 
Suppliant 

Diadem II. 
Arausa 

Bit of Fashion 
Waterwitch 
Bit of Fashion 
Madeline 

Miss Edith II. 
Madeline 
Miss Edith II. 



Won 



Spoonley Stakes 



Maiden Stakes 



Waterloo Cup 
Stanley Stakes 
Wye Stakes 



Haydock Derby 



Covington Stakes 
Caledonia Cup 



November Stakes 



Southminster Derby 



Roche's Point Stakes 



A TREATISE ON BREEDING 



71 



GREENTICK 



Meeting 


Divided 


Meeting 


Season 


Market Drayton 


_ 


_ 


1889-90 


— 


Manor Stakes 


South Lancashire 


1888-9 


— 


North Seaton Tenants' Stakes 


Bothal and North 
Seaton 


1889-90 


— 


Berkeley Stakes 


Berkeley 


1888-9 


Haydock 


— 


— 


1888-9 


— 


Second Waterloo Plate 


Waterloo 


1889-90 


— 


Portland Stakes 


North of England 
Club 


1889-90 





Wye Oaks 




1888-9 





Second Tenants' Stakes 


Widdrington 


1889-90 


— 


Valentine Stakes 


Haydock 


1888-9 


— 


Manor Stakes 


Second South Lan- 
cashire 


1889-90 


— 


Waterloo Cup 




1888-9 


— 


— 


— 


1889-90 


Bickerstaffe 


— 


— 


1888-9 


Wye 


— 


— 


1889-90 


— 


Haydock Oaks 


Haydock 


1889-90 


— 


Christmas Produce Stakes 


jj 


1889-90 





Second Members Cup 


Altcar 


1889-90 


_ 


Christmas Produce Stakes 


Haydock Park 


1889-90 





Haydock Oaks 




1889-90 


— 


Second Members' Cup 


Altcar" 


1889-90 


— 


— 


— 


1888-9 


— 


Scarisbrooke Cup 


Second South Lan- 
cashire 


1889-90 


Carmichael 





1888-9 


Scottish National 


— 


— 


1888-9 


— 


Second Haydock Derby 


Haydock 


1889-90 





Second Selton Stakes 


_ 


1889-90 


_ 


Haydock Oaks 


Haydock Park 


1889-90 


— 


Champion Produce Stakes 


jj 


1888-9 


— 


HaydoctfOaks 


,, 


1889-90 


— 


Dunmore Stakes 


East Stirlingshire 
Club 


1888-9 


Haydock 





1889-90 


— 


Champion Produce 


Haydock 


1889-90 


— 


Border Union Stakes 


— 


1888-9 


— 


Spring Stakes 


Haydock 


1888-9 


— 


Sunbur y Stakes 


Kempton 


1889-90 


— 


Produce Stakes 


Newmarket 


1888-9 


— 


Blundell Cup 


Little Crosby 


1889-90 


— 


Valentine Stakes 


Haydock 


1889-90 


— 


Old Sleaford Stakes 


Sleaford 


1888-9 


— 


Wye Stakes 
Ashford Stakes 


Wye 


1889-90 





„ 


1889-90 


Southminster 






1889-90 


— 


Wye Oaks 


Wye " 


1888-9 





De Grey Plate 
Sefton Stakes 


Yorkshire Club 


1888-9 


— 


Altcar 


1888-9 


— 


Old Place Stakes 


Sleaford 


1889-90 


— 


Gosforth Gold Cup 


— 


1888-9 


— 


Brownlow Stakes 


Mourne Park 


1889-90 


Trabolgan 


— 


— 


1889-90 


— 


Newton Stakes 


Haydock 




— 


December Stakes 


Xcmpton Park 


1889-90 


— 


City of London Slakes 


Kempton 


1887-8 




Olanteigh Stakes 


Wye 


1888-9 



72 



COURSING 



GREENTICK— 



Name 


Dam 


Won 




Micklelon .... 

Mixed Affair 

Restorer .... 

Sweet Home 
Sweet Music 
Terms. .... 


Miss Edith II. 

Waterwitch 

Tonic 

Sa'l'ly Day 

Tonic 


Kilmorey Cup 
Clifton Cup 




Thetis 

Thicket . , . . 
Toboggan .... 


Toledo 


- 




Townend .... 


Tonic 


_ 




» 


»> 


— 




Troughend . r . . 


Toledo 


November Maiden Stakes 




Whaup . , . . 


Whim 


*"~ 





A TREATISE ON BREEDING 



73 



continued 



Meeting 


Divided 


Meeting 


Season 


__ 


Sunbury Stakes 


Kempton 


1889-90 


— 


Old Place Stakes 


Sleaford 


1889-90 


Mourne Park 


— • 


— 


1889-90 


Ridgway 


— 


— 


1889-90 




Sleaford Stakes 


Sleaford 


1889-90 





Newton Stakes 


Haydock 


1889-90 


— 


Portland btakes 


North of England 

Club 
West Rainton 


1888-9 





Second Tenants' Stakes 


1889-90 


_ 


Christmas Produce Stakes 


Haydock 


1888-9 





Pettinain Stakes 


Carmichael 


1889-90 


_ 


Spring Stakes 


Haydock 


1888-9 


— 


Second Kilmorey Cup 


Mourne Park 


1889-90 


— 


Gosforth Derby 


— 


1888-9 


— 


St. Leger 


Gosforth 


1888-9 


— 


Port Victoria Stakes 


Cliffe and Hundred 
of Hoo 


1888-9 


Gosforth 


Christmas Produce Stakes 


Haydock 


1888-9 




Waterloo Cup 


— 


1889-90 


— 


Second Waterloo Purse 


— 


1889-90 


— 


Ashford Handicap 


Wye 


1888-9 



74 COURSING 



CHAPTER III 

PRACTICAL GREYHOUND BREEDING 

The greyhound-breeder having now made up his mind as to 
which particular strains he will patronise, and having his theories 
as to certain crosses and inbreedings that may be calculated 
to produce desirable stock, must look to individual merit and 
characteristics ; for a certain ' hit ' in breeding may be clearly 
established both in theory and practice, and yet in some cases 
may fail, not through any miscalculation of genealogy, but owing 
to some defect, physical or mental, on the part of the immediate 
parents, a defect that will surely be accentuated if inbreeding 
is included in the programme. It therefore behoves him to be 
very careful in the selection of his brood- bitches, and in mating 
them he must always keep in view their individual peculiarities 
as well as their inherited characteristics. 

To begin with, we think it a mistake to breed from a very 
big bitch ; rather would we choose a medium or even a small 
one, provided she came of a family that usually produced fair- 
sized animals. Very often it occurs that in a large litter three 
or four of its members greatly distinguish themselves, but one 
little bitch may fail to follow their example, simply and solely 
on account of size. Such a one can usually be bought for 
a few sovereigns, and we would as soon breed from her as 
from her larger sister, who had perchance won the Waterloo 
Cup ; in fact, it is seldom that a hard-run bitch ever 
distinguishes herself as a matron, though there are notable 
exceptions to this rule, such as Bab-at-the-Bowster, Tollwife, 
Bed of Stone, Ruby, Rebe, and Bit of Fashion. 



PRACTICAL GREYHOUND BREEDING 



75 



In breeding from such a bitch as we have described, when 
mated with a dog of size and substance, there would be Httle 
fear of the produce being undersized ; but she must not, of 
course, be weak in bone, rickety, splay-footed, or in any way 
misshapen. As we said before, size must be the sole supposed 
objection. 

When this bitch has her litter she will, in all probabihty, 
be found a good mother. Big bitches are prone to lie on and 




The nursery 



Otherwise injure their whelps. It might be argued that in like 
manner it is better to breed from an own brother to a great 
winner than from the dog himself. 

A list of winners would not, at first sight, show this to be 
the case ; but we think the reason is that the distinguished dog 
gets more and better chances, and unless an unknown dog, by 
accident as it were, produces some great winner, he will not, 
however well bred, be generally patronised by breeders. This 
is so with thoroughbred stock ; unless a horse is * fashionable,' 



76 COURSING 

he gets few chances, and hardly ever a first-class mare. We 
feel certain there are at the present moment not a few grandly 
bred horses covering half-bred mares at five guineas that, if 
they had a fair chance, would produce as good an average of 
winners as those that stand at 50 and 100 guineas. In the 
preceding chapter we mentioned a greyhound that would come 
under this category, viz. Edwin Greentick. We have not the 
remotest interest in him, but from his breeding and all we have 
heard of his individual merit (in appearance), we do not doubt 
his proving a successful sire if provided with a sufficient number 
of suitable dames. 

Having procured our brood-bitches, and premeditated a 
line of breeding that we must closely adhere to, we must try 
to get our puppies introduced to the world at a suitable season. 
Unfortunately the exigencies of nature forbid us producing 
whelps whenever we want them, but at any rate we can 
determine when not to have them. Those who breed for public 
auction count themselves fortunate when they have a goodly 
proportion of January litters. A sapling is a greyhound 
whelped on or after January i of the same year in which 
the season of running began, and no greyhound is to be 
considered a puppy which was whelped prior to January i of 
the year preceding the commencement of the season of running. 
So that obviously a litter born from August to December is 
practically worthless for coursing purposes ; but a January 
puppy when brought in front of the rostrum has a pull over 
those born in the spring or early summer. Those, however, who 
breed to run may well consider the advisability of getting their 
litters in March and April. We do not mean to say that a 
bitch coming in season in the first part of November should 
be 'passed,' for early puppies come in handy for early produce 
stakes, and meet their younger opponents at a distinct advantage. 
But it will be found easier to rear, say, a March Htter than one 
born in January ; for just as they are fit to be reared the spring 
will be well advanced, and the months of May and June, so 
admirably adapted for the development of all young things, 



PRACTICAL GREYHOUND BREEDING 77 

will lend powerful aid to the breeder ; whereas the rigours of 
!March and the uncertainty of April are calculated to retard 
the growth and impair the well-doing of the January puppy. 

Those who are anxious to see their charges in the slips as 
early as possible would do well to avoid breeding from a bitch 
that comes in use later than May i, because dogs born in 
July and August are seldom of much account during their 
puppy season ; but we have known very late ones, that have not 
run at all as puppies, come out in good form the following 
season. 

During pregnancy the bitch should have plenty of exercise ; 
it is not everyone who finds it convenient to let her wander 
about at her sweet will, though this is the most desirable 
course ; but, at any rate, she must be taken out for slow 
exercise, which must be gradually decreased as she nears the 
time of labour. For those that run loose a suitable place must 
be provided for whelping, and for early bitches it will be found 
necessary to call in the aid of artificial warmth. A loose box 
in a warm but wxll-ventilated stable is an excellent accouchement 
chamber, and if the bitch is shut in every night she is sure to 
betake herself thither when the time of her trouble comes. 
Great care must be taken that she has constant and uninter- 
rupted access thereto, or we may have the chagrin of finding 
that our best bitch has whelped a fine litter to a 2 5 -guinea 
dog under a neighbouring stack of firewood or behind a 
haystack, and that they have all been frozen to death. 

A bedding of good oat straw sprinkled with K eating's 
insect powder should be placed on a low bench not raised 
more than six inches from the ground, and guarded by an 
edging of matchboard four inches in depth, and this should 
be placed in the corner of the stall. Many people allow their 
bitch to whelp in an old wine case or other box ; but this 
is dangerous, especially if it be her first litter, as she is 
prone to injure her babies when she jumps out or in. The 
reason for providing a low bench is obvious : not only might 
the w^helps fall off, but, in her naturally weak condition after 



78 COURSING 

whelping, it would be highly injurious for the mother to have 
to jump up to, or down from, a height. 

If a bitch is permitted to whelp on straw thrown into a 
corner of the box, it will be found that in a day or two the 
whelps will have scratched about until they lie on the bare 
floor, which is not at all conducive to their welfare. Some 
place a piece of carpet and throw the straw on that ; but it 
quickly absorbs the urine and becomes foul and unwholesome. 
Of course care must be taken that all draughts are excluded, 
and that there is sufficient light and ventilation. For our own 
part we have converted a row of loose boxes that were used 
for brood mares, and fitted them with movable benches, under 
which we have run a two-inch hot-water pipe ; this is fed 
from a boiler erected in the furthest partition, and the same 
furnace heats it and the boiler wherein the food is prepared. 
The doors of these boxes are divided in the centre, and when 
the top portion is open a sheet of galvanised netting secures 
the inmates. 

It is not everyone, however, who can find the facilities at 
hand, but in most country places there are buildings that can 
be converted to the purpose, and a bay of a barn or a clean 
and well-drained pigsty is not to be despised as a substitute 
for a more commodious lying-in hospital. 

So far we have said nothing about the medical treatment of 
a pregnant or suckling bitch, and if dosing can be avoided by 
all means let it be ; but there are circumstances under which 
it is necessary to have recourse to physic. Foremost amongst 
these is when the bitch shows signs of irritant skin disease, 
whether it be follicular mange or eczema, and she should be 
very carefully watched ; for should she litter down with her 
blood or skin disease, her whelps will assuredly contract the 
complaint, and a load of anxiety will fall on the breeder. What 
is born in the blood will come out in the flesh, and although 
the little creatures may appear sound and clean up to the time 
of weaning, they will, nevertheless, break out subsequently, and 
a deal of care and attention will be necessary to restore them 



PRACTICAL GREYHOUND BREEDING 79 

to health ; often, indeed, every effort will prove futile, and they 
will become masses of corruption. In cases of follicular mange, 
during pregnancy, the bitch should be isolated at once, and 
well dressed with one of the lotions in vogue. That of Messrs. 
Spratt is good. A more cooling diet should be resorted to, and 
a mild aperient administered. Most people prescribe castor-oil, 
but for our part we prefer to use flower of sulphur, or one of 
Norton's camomile pills given every other night till six have been 
taken. These are mild in their action, and stimulate instead of 
exhausting the digestive organs, whereas castor-oil always causes 
a certain amount of griping. The dressing should be applied 
once a week, and continued until the skin presents a healthy 
appearance and all humid spots have entirely disappeared. 
In the case of a bitch who has broken out subsequently to the 
birth of her puppies a somewhat different course must be 
pursued, for it would not do for them to take in with their 
mother's milk a large percentage of strong dressing, or to be 
in continued contact therewith. Therefore the spots and sore 
places must be well anointed and rubbed in, and the super- 
fluous dressing removed with a dry cloth ; after which the back 
and sides may be covered with a light mixture of sulphur and 
vaseline, and the same concoction may be applied to the 
puppies themselves when they are upwards of a fortnight old. 
If it be possible to obtain a foster-bitch, of course this plan 
should be adopted, and an exchange of puppies will mini- 
mise the risk of infection as regards the little greyhounds, 
while the other puppies will serve to draw the milk from the 
tainted bitch and keep her from fretting. 

It often happens that a bitch after whelping shows a certain 
amount of eruptiveness during her suckling period. This is 
generally the result of too heating food, and must not be con- 
founded with mange or eczema, as it will disappear on change 
of diet and a cooling draught. When the bitch is suffering 
from true eczema the internal treatment is more severe, though 
we have found the mange lotion very efficacious, even when 
the disease is entirely sanguineous and no parasites exist in the 



8o COURSING 

epidermis. Here we recommend a strong dose of sulphur or 
fluid magnesia to begin with, and a teaspoonful of concentrated 
essence of sarsaparilla placed in the water daily, whilst all meal 
must be removed from the food, which should consist of lean 
meat and gravy mixed with brown bread, and well boiled and 
mashed carrots, turnips, beetroots or tomatoes, the two last for 
choice. In many cases eczema proves a stubborn enemy, 
and its cause and cure vary so that fixed rules for treatment 
are impossible, and the breeder must be guided by circum- 
stances. 

Constipation is often present in pregnancy and during 
nursing, and here the camomile pill or sulphur may be em- 
ployed; but if obstinate and continual an enema of glycerine 
and Castile soap may be administered. Other ailments may 
trouble the breeder ; but, as a rule, a brood-bitch, if constitu- 
tionally strong, is exempt from serious contagion. It is always 
as well, however, to give a bitch a worm powder in the middle 
of her pregnancy, for we are strongly of opinion that internal 
parasites are often contracted in the womb, and not always 
acquired with the food after weaning. 

The bitch should be left almost entirely to herself during 
parturition : in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred Nature 
is far the best midwife, and any interference is calculated 
to do more harm than good, though exceptional cases may 
occur when the veterinary surgeon should be called in, as any 
attempt at an operation by an inexperienced hand is to be 
deprecated. After she has pupped and has made herself 
comfortable, the bitch should be quietly provided with a bowl 
of gruel, and no attempt should be made to count or over- 
haul her whelps. Gruel, sheep's-head broth, beef-tea, or 
some extract of beef should form the sustenance for the 
first week, during which time no solid food should be given ; 
but after that the diet may be varied, though very little, if 
any, meat should be included. If there is a scarcity of milk, the 
gruel must be continued ; fresh fish carefully freed of all bones 
will be found very beneficial, and half a teaspoonful of cod- 



PRACTICAL GREYHOUND BREEDING 8i 

liver oil, with the same quantity of Parrish's chemical food, can 
be mixed in the feeding-trough. 

Greyhounds are very prolific, and have been known to 
throw upwards of twelve puppies at a birth, nine and ten being 
of frequent occurrence ; but such numbers are more than any 
ordinary bitch can manage with justice to herself and them. 
When practicable, a foster-bitch should be ready at hand, and 
this provision should not be left to the last moment, for they 
are often very hard to procure. It is better to get a healthy 
spaniel, poodle, pointer, or other bitch of suitable size, served 
at the same time as the greyhound bitch, and then you know 
that the time will fit in conveniently ; a maiden bitch, however, 
should not be chosen, but one who has already performed 
her maternal duties creditably. However much milk the grey- 
hound is apparently blessed with, she ought not to be asked 
to bring up more than five whelps at the most ; for often 
the lactine flow will suddenly cease, and it will be necessary to 
rear the whelps by hand, always a risky undertaking, and even 
those that survive are heavily handicapped for months to come. 

Some breeders are inclined to believe that the moral attri- 
butes of the foster-mother are assimilated with the milk. For 
our part we do not accept this theory ; but, were it true, a bull 
or bull-terrier bitch would be a most desirable wet nurse, 
likely to impart some of her courage to her charges. 

In changing the puppies from the real to the foster-mother 
it Avill be as well to do so gradually, and always to leave at least 
one of her own pups with the latter. Should it be impossible 
to procure a foster-mother, and should your greyhound produce 
a large litter of, say, nine, it will be necessary to harden your 
heart and doom three or four of them to destruction. We 
are quite aware that this requires Spartan fortitude, especially 
when a large fee has been paid for some celebrated sire 
to your choicest bitch, and when the whole litter presents 
an appearance of level excellence. If, as sometimes happens, 
there are three or four obviously weakly ones, smaller than 
their brothers and sisters, and very deficient in bone, then 

G 



82 COURSING 

the choice of victims is easy enough ; but otherwise there is 
always the thought present that you may be destroying an 
embryo Waterloo Cup winner. Experienced greyhound breeders 
have various methods of selecting choice whelps, and they are 
guided by general appearance ; but the tiro may easily be 
deceived. ' Stonehenge ' gives a hint which is certainly worth 
attention. Let the puppies remain with their dam for a week, 
then hold each up by the tail ; the best ones will bring their legs 
well over their head, and you can see which possess length, and 
the promise of good ribs. And here we would impress on the 
reader that a well-chosen pup of this age, even if he subse- 
quently deteriorates, will eventually assert his superiority ; and 
however much a grand-looking puppy goes off, he should 
never be despaired of until he has arrived at full maturity, 
unless, of course, he has been disabled by accident, or has 
become 'chink-backed'— an axiom that applies not only to 
greyhounds, but to foxhounds, and, indeed, to all members of 
the canine race. 

With regard to early whelps (January and February), it will 
be necessary to keep them in their compartment until they are 
well over their weaning ; but if the place of their birth is 
small and cramped, or not sufficiently lighted, they must be 
placed in the warm bay of a barn or an old loft for an hour or 
two daily, where they will exercise themselves. Great attention 
must be paid to cleanliness ; during the suckling period the 
bitch will see to these sanitary measures if she is allowed 
sufficient liberty, but after weaning the room or box must be 
regularly cleansed. In the case of a loose box, it should be 
washed out, but must on no account be allowed to remain wet, 
or even damp ; a good supply of Sanitas sawdust should overlie 
the bricks or tiles, and on this should be spread short clean 
oat straw. The tin containing the food should be placed on a 
slab, or, at any rate, the straw and sawdust should be cleared 
from around it, as the whelps persistently pull their food out 
of the vessel and would devour a considerable quantity of saw- 
dust, which is very irritating to the intestines. 



PRACTICAL GREYHOUND BREEDING 83 

But now we must speak of the process of weaning, which we 
have somewhat anticipated. Should it unfortunately happen 
that the mother's milk dries up suddenly and that no foster-bitch 
is at hand to continue the nursing — a mishap that may occur 
as early as the first week — recourse must be had to the feeding- 
bottle, and Dr. Ridge's food and Swiss milk will be found as 
good as anything. Cow's milk, we feel convinced, is not a 
good food for dogs, but if given it should be first boiled and 
then diluted with a fifth part of water. The bottle-feeding 
must be very carefully attended to, and should only be tempo- 
rary ; for in the case of valuable whelps — and we trust no 
man would be so foolish as to breed those that are not 
presumably valuable— the country should be scoured for a 
foster-bitch ; but when the milk supply fails in the fifth week 
or later, an attempt at hand-rearing is more likely to prove 
successful, as by that time the little ones will make an 
effort to feed themselves. As soon as their noses have been 
dipped in the basin, and their appetites thus whetted, many 
dog-breeders would begin to give them bread and milk ; a hope- 
less diet, and one that would, in a very brief space of time, pro- 
duce what are vulgarly termed ' pot-bellies ' and bowed backs — a 
state of things brought about by the internal parasites whose 
presence is, our experience tells us, directly traceable to raw 
cow's milk. Dr. Ridge's food, to which glycerine in the pro- 
portion of a teaspoonful to a pint has been added, will prove 
staple food, and after the sixth week Brand's extract of beef 
(in the jelly form) may be given ; but bread, meal, soaked 
biscuit or solid meats are carefully to be avoided until after the 
eighth week, when the weaning proper begins; then brown 
bread with shreds of well-boiled sheep's head may be made 
into a partially solid mess with the broth of the latter, and even 
the Swiss milk should cease. Now is the time when a careful 
look-out for internal parasites must be kept, and the attendant 
must not cease his vigilance because the faeces contain none 
of these pests, as they are sometimes present for months in 
the intestinal canal without signs, except those produced on 



84 COURSING 

the patient by their baneful influence. If, then, the puppies, 
after weaning, grow emaciated, their backs round, and the 
vertebrae distinctly limned ; if the ribs are tucked and easily 
counted ; if the nose is dry, the coat staring, the breath foetid, 
then the natural conclusion will be arrived at, and prompt 
measures taken to remove the pests : but if no portions have 
come away with the motions, it is difficult to determine the 
variety of parasite with which the victims are infested. 
There are two varieties frequently met with in recently weaned 
puppies. First, the common tapeworm {Tcenia serrata\ 
which in its disjointed existence is held by many writers to be 
identical with the maw- worm, though 'Stonehenge' is inclined 
to an opposite opinion, which we share, and for the same 
reason — viz. because the maw-worm is almost innocuous, 
whereas the tapeworm proper produces the marked symptoms 
of constitutional disturbance mentioned above. 

Of still more frequent occurrence is the round-worm 
{Ascaris marginata), which, unlike the Tcenia serrata, is ac- 
quired from liquids, especially cow's milk. Very few puppies 
escape a visitation of these pests at some period or other of 
their youth, but they are more easily got rid of than their flat 
cousins, and the effects of their ravages soon disappear. 
Even if puppies fail to show any signs of their presence, it is 
as well to dose them all round a fortnight after weaning, and 
the agent to employ is santonine. The patients should be kept 
without food for at least twelve hours, when enough of the 
powder to cover a sixpence, made into a bolus with butter, 
should be administered ; half an hour later a dessert-spoonful 
of castor-oil must be given, and the puppies taken out for 
exercise ; and they should be carefully watched to see if they 
void any worms. When the attendant is satisfied that round- 
worms are present, he has nothing to do but to repeat the 
treatment after the lapse of a week or so ; if, however, none 
are passed and the symptoms of internal parasites continue to 
be marked, the existence of the tapeworm may be suspected. 
In this case the same preparation for medicine by fasting must 



PRACTICAL GREYHOUND BREEDING 85 

be practised, but freshly grated areca nut must take the place 
of santonine, and enough of it to cover a shilling. This dose 
must be followed, as in the case of round-worm, by castor-oil. 

The breeder, as soon as he feels confident that his charges 
are entirely freed from the unwelcome presence of these para- 
sites, should give cod-liver oil and Parrish's chemical food — one 
teaspoonful of each daily to each puppy ; or he may administer 
half a tonic ball, as described later on. The former may be 
mixed in the feeding-trough, and in a very short time he may 
expect to see a marked improvement in his charges ; the eye 
will become bright, the nose cold and w^et, the body well 
nourished, the coat soft and sleek, and the spirits exuberant ; 
failing this desirable state of things, he will have cause to fear 
some undiscovered malady. 

To cure worms is, in our experience, easier than to prevent 
them. The tapeworm usually comes from the use of raw animal 
food, and he who allows the cooked meat to be placed in a 
vessel that has previously contained the raw material runs the 
risk which is also attendant on the picking up of offal during 
exercise. The danger arising from round-worms may be 
avoided by using nothing but boiled water in the kennels ; but 
if these measures are attempted at all they should be most 
strictly carried out, for one lapse will render abortive the 
care of months. About this time that dire disease, the 
bugbear of all cynophihsts — distemper — must be looked for ; 
though we certainly do not subscribe to the old-fashioned 
theory that every dog must necessarily pass through the ordeal. 
Nevertheless, the frequent appearance of the plague, despite 
the most stringent measures and the strictest quarantine, is un- 
doubted, and the breeder must be ever prepared and strongly 
armed against it Every whelp should be overhauled daily, 
and on the slightest symptom of a disordered state of health 
should be immediately isolated and a careful examination 
made. 

"When the whelps are thoroughly weaned and in good 
health, the question of * walks ' arises, and here we must 



86 COURSING 

begin to discuss the pros and cons of a rery important step. 
Personally we have no hesitation in advising the breeder to 
keep his youngsters under his own watchful eye, if he is so 
fortunate as to be able to afford them his undivided attention, 
and if he has the space, accommodation, and exercise-ground 
necessary to rear them to the pitch of strength and vitality to 
which they must be brought before they enter upon their 
training. Cramped quarters and overcrowding are fatal, and 
space is a sine qua non when any number of young greyhounds 
are to be considered. Presuming that the advantages we 
speak of are at the command of our breeder — in the shape of 
a dozen acres of paddock land — he cannot do better than en- 
close six pieces of about half an acre each with iron fencing 
of a sufficient height to imprison the inmates securely ; for, as 
the youngsters wax big and strong, they develop marvellous 
jumping powers. The grass in the enclosure should be cut, 
and a roomy kennel on four small stout wheels should be 
placed within. If it is convenient to enclose a tree, this should 
be done, as the shade afforded thereby will be grateful during 
the hot summer days ; failing a tree, a sheet of bevelled zinc 
coated with whitewash may be shelved m one corner of the 
yard. Such a place will hold half-a-dozen greyhounds from 
three to nine months old ; but the whole paraphernalia must 
be so constructed that it is easily taken down and re-erected 
on another site. The youngsters should never be kept on 
the same spot for more than a month at a stretch, nor must 
they be left there when long-continued wet weather has 
rendered the ground soaked and slushy ; in that case they 
must return to their barn or stall, or wherever they have been 
placed after leaving their dam, and road exercise in batches 
for at least two hours daily must be the rule. We say advisedly 
in batches, for several six-months-old greyhound puppies are 
a rare handful for anyone to manage. Even when penned 
oat in the way described above, the road exercise must not 
be neglected, or bad feet, and legs far from straight, may be 
expected. 



PRACTICAL GREYHOUND BREEDING Z^ 

With regard to food, it should be varied occasionally : good 
old hound-meal, carefully and freshly prepared, with an ad- 
mixture of flesh, and well-soaked biscuits mashed up with beet- 
root or cabbage, are the staples, and the changes may be rung 
thereon. Some extravagant breeders think that no greyhound 
can be put into training with any hope of winning a stake un- 
less it has been reared on prime joints of mutton and beef ; but 
this is all rubbish, as good sound horseflesh contains quite 
sufficient nourishment to develop the bone and muscle of any 
dog that was ever born. Another useful article of food, when 
properly combined with the others, is plain suet pudding, and 
after all it is not a very expensive one, and in rearing grey- 
hounds, as also blood stock, it never does to economise food, 
lest we prove penny wise and pound foolish. After our re- 
marks about beef and mutton, we may appear to contradict 
ourselves, but in the case of prime joints the extravagance is 
thrown away and no good purpose is served. 

The danger attached to the rearing to maturity of one's 
greyhounds is this. We have, so to speak, all our eggs in one 
basket ; the outbreak of distemper in its most malignant form 
may have fatal results, and the first victims are sure to be 
our most cherished youngsters. Moreover, to do the thing pro- 
perly, quite a staff of servants is required, and, unless these are 
trustworthy lads and have learnt their duties under a competent 
master, they will be found as great a trouble to their employer 
as the young greyhounds are to them. Unless all circum- 
stances are favourable, it will be as well to send the whelps out 
to walk at ten weeks old, and let them remain there until 
they are a year old, or until their delinquencies are so 
marked that they can no longer be kept in a state of freedom. 
To puppies reared in this way there are innumerable risks, and 
the breeder may deem himself fortunate if a third of those sent 
out are returned to him sound and well. If a sufficient num- 
ber of ' walkers ' who have any real knowledge of dogs, and of 
greyhounds in particular, can be found, the risks are minimised, 
and the puppies fare better at walk than they do at home. 



88 COURSING 

Butchers form a class that are in great request, and if they have 
the necessary knowledge, and take a personal interest in their 
charge, no better can be found, because they have plenty of good 
food at hand, and can prepare it properly ; but if, on the other 
hand, one's puppy is stuffed with raw scraps and offal, he is a 
pretty sure victim of mange and eczema, and distemper will 
hardly pass him by. The crime of chaining a greyhound up 
is one that must be condemned most forcibly, and the watch- 
ful eye must see that it has not been committed ; for the 
wife of our friend, having had a dozen of her chickens de- 
molished one fine morning, is prone to insist on the culprit 
being so treated, and by-and-by a rheumatic, twisted-legged, 
splay-footed, and useless creature is sent in. Unless a puppy 
walker has had any real experience with dogs, he should com- 
municate with the owner or his kennelman directly he becomes 
aware of the fact that his charge is ailing, when the matter 
should be seen to without a moment's delay. A little knowledge 
is a dangerous thing ; and save us from the man who, on the 
appearance, or supposed appearance, of distemper, forces salt, 
tobacco, and other such nostrums down our puppy's throat. 
Another danger that threatens puppies that are walked in 
villages and towns is that of being run over, an accident of far 
too frequent occurrence ; there are brutes in human shape 
who will not trouble to turn their cart-wheels aside to avoid 
crushing to death an innocent and valuable dog standing in 
the road or basking in the sun. 

At least once a week the head kennelman, or trainer, 
having armed himself w^th a good supply of worm powders, 
mange lotion, and other products of the canine pharmacopoeia, 
should drive round and thoroughly overhaul all the * walks,' 
and, if he finds ailing puppies, should there and then supply 
the necessary drugs and give careful instruction as to feeding. 
In this way much mischief is avoided. Very often greyhound- 
puppy walkers take a keen interest in their charges, not only 
during the time they are under their care, but also when the 
time comes for the animal to go to the slips for an important 



PRACTICAL GREYHOUND BREEDING 89 

stake ; and those who breed greyhounds on a large scale might 
do worse than follow the example of M.F.H., in giving a 
dinner to the walkers and awarding a prize to the best walked 
puppy. For our own part we rear a few choice puppies, to 
which we have taken a particular fancy, at home, allowing them 
to roam about at their own sweet will, and smiling cheerfully 
when a list of their dehnquencies (murdered cats, fowls, ducks, 
torn clothes, and homesteads laid waste and devastated) is placed 
before us, putting our hand in our pocket and paying the piper 
cheerfully, always hoping that some day a good tune may be 
played whilst we drink from the mythical cup that hails from 
Altcar, and is called Waterloo. The rest we send out, and 
fortunately can congratulate ourselves on a long list of safe 
billets. 




Exercise 



CHAPTER IV 

TREATMENT OF SAPLINGS 

When the greyhound sapUng has reached the age of nine 
months, a course of treatment which will fit him to begin 
active training must be put in force. With those that have 
come in from walk, the first step is a thorough overhauling, 
carefully looking for signs of accidents, such as scars, enlarged 
joints, &c. Being satisfied of their freedom from outward 
weaknesses, the skin should be closely examined for symptoms 
of mange, eczema, or vermin ; should such be discovered, 
the youngster must be isolated and treated accordingly, and 
under any circumstances a thorough washing with soft soap in 
tepid water is recommended, care being taken to thoroughly 
dry with a rough towel and rub down with a hair glove. The 
practised eye is pretty certain to detect the presence of internal 
parasites in a large percentage of the saplings that come in 
from walk unless they have been constantly attended by the 
kennelman on the system mentioned in the previous chapter. 
Anyhow we strongly advocate a general course of physic all 
round as soon as the youngsters have been cleaned up and 
have settled to their new abode. A dessert-spoonful of castor- 



TREATMENT OF SAPLINGS 91 

oil, or, better still, a full teaspoonful of German liquorice 
powder, is first given, and this alone will often betray the 
presence of worms in the individual. A couple of days later 
they should be deprived of their evening meal, and on the 
following morning a dose of freshly grated areca-nut — as much 
as will lie on a shilling -should be given in butter ; in short, 
the same process is to be gone through as was practised in the 
days when they were weaned ; but now the doses must be 
stronger. If the presence of tapeworm is discovered, those 
suffering from it should be put aside and dosed again with 
areca-nut after the lapse of a week, but those which betray no 
sign of parasites should after a like interval be treated with 
santonine. When the owner is satisfied that his saplings are 
purged of all such pests, a tonic treatment will be found most 
desirable, and with this and regular feeding on suitable food, 
plenty of exercise and warm clean quarters, he will be pleasantly 
surprised at the rapid improvement that takes place in his 
charges. We have already given a description of tonics that 
are most beneficial, and also general directions for feeding, so 
we need only point out that the attendant must be guided by 
circumstances in his choice. Cod-liver oil, for instance, which 
is most valuable where there is lack of flesh and the patient 
remains thin and ' tucked up,' must not be administered too 
freely in the summer months, as it is very heating, and is apt, 
moreover, to develop an undesirable quantity of internal fat ; 
if sufficient and regular exercise is not given, it is sure to 
damage the liver and cause a complication of diseases, so 
that a watchful eye and common sense should be the guides that 
must determine the quantity to be used and the duration of 
the course. These remarks apply with equal force to Parrish's 
Food, a most useful agent both in wasting of tissue and where 
there is a tendency to rickety limbs and weak joints. 

Now is the time when both home-reared saplings and 
those that have been sent in from walk must be removed to 
the kennels proper and rendered amenable to discipline ; but 
on no account must this be done till they are outwardly and 



92 COURSING 

inwardly free of all ailments. The number of saplings placed 
in each department depends, of course, on the size thereof, 
but in no case should more than five be left together, and, if 
possible, they should already have been accustomed to one 
another's society, as greyhounds are apt to be nasty to a ' new 
chum.' 

As a rule it is not advisable to place saplings with the old 
ones of either sex, or they may be terribly bullied ; but a quiet, 
well-behaved old brood-bitch or young dog of well-tried and 
exemplary respectability is a most desirable kennel companion 
for the youngsters, and the force of example is never lost on 
them. Under no circumstances must a dog who has been 
used for stud purposes be placed with any of his own sex. 

Most owners, in registering their dogs for running purposes, 
give them fancy names, such as would be both unwieldy 
and absurd for ordinary everyday work ; so it is customary to 
bestow such appellations as Dick, Tom, or Harry on the 
saplings as soon as they have been relegated to the kennels, 
unless some name has been used at walk, in which case a deal 
of trouble is saved. The kennelman should always make a 
point of inquiring into this. At feeding-time they should be 
' drawn ' singly by name, and the allowance of food regulated 
according to the constitution and appetite of the individual. 
In fact, no better lesson can be learnt by the beginner at 
coursing than is obtained by a visit to a neighbouring kennel 
of foxhounds, always provided that the hounds have the repu- 
tation of being properly and methodically managed. 

The greyhound is not half such a fool as he looks or is 
popularly supposed to be. If properly treated he will develop 
into an intelligent, affectionate and tractable animal, sometimes, 
indeed, suffering from an overflow of spirits, but he never need 
be either vicious, disobedient, or treacherous. Comparing 
his behaviour in kennel and his amenity to disciphne with 
that of the foxhound, the balance is in his favour. There is an 
old adage that a greyhound cannot be a good one unless he is 
a fool ; but we beg to diifer, and most strongly object to the 



TREATMENT OF SAPLINGS 93 

employment of fools for any purpose save that of making wise 
men laugh. The idea is that an intelligent dog is prone to 
run cunning, which may in some instances occur ; but, on the 
other hand, a real fool of a dog does not possess the spirit of 
emulation that prompts him to ' cut out ' his opponent, nor 
does he show the fire, devil and dash that enable him to 
dust his hare in the style so taking to the eyes of experienced 
coursers. 

In exercising on downs, in parks, or paddocks, a smaller 
number of greyhounds must be taken out at a time. Dogs 
that have trotted quietly enough at the horse's heels will now 
rush about and play, and these romps are sure to degenerate 
into bickerings and quarrels, sometimes indeed ending in blood- 
shed. Nor must old dogs be exercised with young ones under 
these circumstances ; for, instead of leading them in a gallop, 
they will content themselves with hanging back and nipping 
the youngsters in the haunches; in fact, one of the most difficult 
tasks of a trainer is to keep his charges skin-whole and free 
from scars. 

Having a due regard to the difficulties and dangers attending 
horse exercise, perhaps the safest plan is to lead the grey- 
hounds for two or three hours' exercise on the roads, and give 
them an hour's galloping and play on the grass alternate days. 
Three months of this treatment (the saplings now being about 
a year old) will find most of them fit to be tried, and this 
point should be absolutely assured before they are allowed 
to see a hare. If on passitig the hand from the point of the 
shoulder down the back to the stern, and then over the thighs, 
the muscles appear firm and wiry, if the coat is smooth and 
glossy, the eye bright, the nose cold and wet, and the pads of 
the feet hard and strong, there need be no hesitation, and it 
only remains to find a suitable place for the trial to take place, 
a difficulty that is very often hard to solve. The ideal trial- 
ground for young greyhounds is a fair-sized, flat water- 
meadow or a soundly turfed park if the space in the latter 
is not too great, an objection that would apply to marsh-land, 



94 COURSING 

and such flats as those found at classic Altcar — for here our 
saplings run the danger not only of a terrible gruelling from 
one hare, but may get on to another before they can be picked 
up, thus being run to a standstill, and receiving a shock to the 
system from which they may never recover, and in such cases 
those of highest courage and promise are likely to be the first 
victims. Very hilly country is to be avoided, and a flinty soil, 
such as is found in Bucks and Herts, utterly forbids the slipping 
of a valuable greyhound, as one course would be sufficient to 
cut him to ribbons. Stubbles, too, are dangerous, and very apt 
to produce sore feet. Suitable ground being for h coming, the 
question as to the advisability of trying a sapling with an old 
dog arises, and we have no hesitation in condemning the prac- 
tice — that is, for the first time of asking, for saplings are easily 
discouraged. An old dog has an immense pull over one of 
this age, and is pretty sure to take every advantage ; whereas 
if two saplings run together they meet on even terms, and will 
vie with one another, thus fostering the spirit of emulation 
which is so necessary in a dog that is asked to win stakes. 

Should it be found impossible to obtain suitable trial-ground, 
recourse must be had to sapling stakes, affairs that are regarded 
with righteous horror by a large section of old-fashioned 
coursers, who maintain that to run a sapling is to ruin him. No 
doubt this prejudice arose before the days of enclosed meetings, 
when there was always the risk of a dog being clean pumped 
out ; for these stakes were held at large open meetings, on the 
ground used for all-aged and puppy stakes. Moreover, many 
coursers would send their saplings to the slips unfit to gallop 
across a meadow, and how much more so to dust a hare ! But 
at such enclosures as Haydock and Wye most useful trials for 
saplings can be had,^ and nothing but benefit is likely to accrue, 
providing the youngsters have been properly prepared for the 
ordeal. By this we do not mean thoroughly framed, a pro- 
ceeding that would certainly ruin any sapling, but brought to 

1 Since this was written we are glad to note that enclosed coursing has 
become practically extinct, and sapling stakes are also nearly unknown. — Ed. 



TREATMENT OF SAPLINGS 



95 



such a pitch of physical welfare and freedom from external and 
internal fat, by the regime that we have indicated, as to render 
him capable of putting forth his powers of speed and endurance 
without an undue strain on his constitution. 

In such sapling trials a shorter slip is given, and the escape 
is brought half way up the ground, by which means the severity 
of the course is greatly modified. Moreover, the stakes are 




x'r^ 



Feeding 



limited to four dogs, and if a sapling wins his first course, but 
shows symptoms of distress, a division can generally be agreed 
upon, or he can be withdrawn. 

Thus a good line can often be obtained, and a dog that has 
acquitted himself well when pitted against a fancied one of 
another kennel will later on serve as a useful trial-dog for his 
kennel companions. 



96 COURSING 

It will now be found an excellent plan to divide the saplings 
into three classes, keeping them in separate compartments, and 
placing the best accommodation at the service of Class I., which 
will consist of well-tried youngsters and those who from their 
quality, conformation, breeding or style of moving promise great 
things. Class 11. will contain promising but backward ones, in 
whom time may work wonders, and who, as they come on in 
looks, or win a satisfactory trial, may be promoted to the 
superior class. Class III. will consist of very backward ones, 
and such as lack size and substance, or show but little quality, 
but whom one is loth to part with, living in hopes that they 
may see a better day ; and it is far from improbable that a gem 
may suddenly be discovered in this ragged company. It is 
wonderful what strides very late puppies take when once they 
begin to improve, and the ugly duckling may yet develop swan's 
plumage. But the maim, the halt, and the blind, and such 
as have, with every advantage thrown in, failed signally in 
their trials, should be destroyed, or bestowed on a neighbouring 
farmer who enjoys a sporting course on his own land ; for a grey- 
hound that ' is not good enough ' is good for nothing from a 
courser's point of view. We are quite aware how difficult it is 
to make up one's mind thus summarily to dispose of a dog of 
whom from his earliest days great things have been expected, 
and whom we have trotted out with pomp and pride. We make 
all sorts of excuses for his failure, and are always giving him 
'another chance.' Undue precipitancy may once in a way 
lead us to dispose of what subsequently proves to be a smart 
dog, but in nine cases out of ten we shall not repent the loss, 
and a long bill for food, entrances, travelling expenses, with 
zero on the credit side, will be avoided. 

When the season has finally closed and the erstwhile sap- 
lings (now puppies) have been thoroughly weeded out, a good 
dose of sulphur or fluid magnesia can be given, and a dressing 
of black sulphur and vaseline applied from head to foot. 
They can now rest awhile from long exercise on the roads, 
but should be taken out for at least an hour daily and allowed 



TREATMENT OT SAPLINGS 97 

to stretch their legs on the grass. At this period the food must 
not be of too heating or fat-producing a nature, and cod-liver 
oil must be eschewed, but old hound-meal, dog-biscuits, 
lean horseflesh,^ with carrots, turnips, vegetable marrows or 
beetroots, will form the staple diet, and if a tonic is required 
iron pills may be used ; also Parrish's food mixed with the 
pudding, in the proportion of one teaspoonful to each dog, 
will be found most beneficial. Now that the youngsters begin 
to look like business, attendants are fond of polishing their 
coats up too much ; but this should be delayed for three or 
four months, as the benefit is only temporary, and is calculated 
to produce a ragged and thin jacket later on. 

After a month's rest the road-work should begin once 
more, and must be continued at an increased ratio till the 
puppies are ready to enter upon strict training. 

The leisure can be employed in mapping out a campaign 
for the coming season, and nominations must be taken for 
suitable produce stakes. The season generally opens about 
the middle of September. For early produce stakes it would 
obviously be useless to enter anything born later than March, 
or April at the outside ; for the more mature ones, that saw the 
light at the ushering in of the new year, hold an advantage that 
can only be wiped out by phenomenal merit, though the May 
or June puppy may turn the tables in a stake run in the ensuing 
spring, if not earlier. These facts will therefore guide the 
courser in taking his nominations, and his plan for the season 
being satisfactorily decided, he should not trouble himself 
about the puppies until the beginning of July, beyond seeing 
that they are properly fed, exercised and kept in a state of 
boisterous health. 

t Few trainers use this ; the majority much prefer mutton.— Ed. 



98 COURSING 



CHAPTER V 

THE GREYHOUND IN TRAINING 

* Stonehenge,' in his standard work on the greyhound, gives 
very explicit directions for the reduction of fat and weight, 
whereby a dog that was absolutely unfit may be hurriedly 
prepared for a stake. With such we shall not deal ; but rather 
we shall presume that both puppies and older dogs have by 
degrees been prepared for the final touches by the regular and 
gradual treatment that we have advocated in the preceding 
chapters. Hurried preparations are seldom satisfactory, and 
though in some instances a dog thus treated may see the end 
of an important stake, it is generally more by good fortune 
than by reason of his training; even if his first two courses 
are brilliant, a sudden collapse is likely to occur in the third. 
If the dogs are thoroughly well exercised and carefully fed 
during the summer months, very little extra work is needed to 
complete the winding-up process ; nevertheless, the trainer must 
be very careful that he does not ' bring on ' his charges too 
quickly ; if a dog, and especially a puppy, is prematurely 
wound up to concert pitch, he is sure to run down and become 
stale before he is wanted. 

In this treatise on training we shall only deal with dogs 
that are presumably fit to begin work, that are in themselves 
sound and well, and that will eat with relish what is given to 
them. It may be the lot of many a trainer to have a dog to 
prepare that is gross and fat, with soft feet and long nails, or 
one that is so upset by strong work that he goes off his feed. 



THE GREYHOUND IN TRAINING 



99 



These are exceptional cases demanding exceptional treatment 
from practised hands ; for ourselves, we repeat, we shall pre- 
sume that we start with our team in good health, and more 
than half-prepared by summer exercise. We are greatly in 
favour of a very gradual preparation, a belief that has been 
engendered by our experience of foxhounds, whose work calls 
for training such as will produce the physical state so desirable 



^■^, 




On the grass 

in the greyhound — for to account for his fox the hound must 
be possessed of pace, dash, and stamina relatively as great as 
may enable the greyhound to win an important stake. It has, 
therefore, struck us that what is sauce for the goose is sauce for 
the gander ; and since we have possessed a pack of foxhounds 
that could travel fifteen miles to the meet, hunt from ii a.m. 
to 4 P.M., return to kennel with sterns up, and could repeat this 
performance with variations five days a fortnight throughout 
the season, we fail to see why a similar r'egime applied to grey- 



H 2 



loo COURSING 

hounds should not prove eminently successful. We say similar, 
because the nature of the hound and his conformation are 
not identical with those of ' the long dog.' Nor has the foster- 
ing of top speed to be considered in the preparation of the 
former. 

In the early days, say from the beginning of July, slow 
exercise on the roads in the early morning, and a frolic on the 
grass in the evening, will be sufficient. As time goes on, the 
duration of exercise must be increased ; but if any member of 
the string is footsore on his return to kennel, or appears inert 
and jaded, he must be eased in his work. On returning from 
road exercise the trainer should wash the feet of his charges in 
strong brine or a saturated solution of alum. If any inflammation 
or soreness is visible, an application of Friar's Balsam will give 
relief ; but the individual must not go again on the roads until 
the symptoms have entirely disappeared. If a gash has been 
cut by a flint or piece of broken glass, the application of 
Spratt's Locurium — a most valuable preparation — will be found 
efficacious. 

The next proceeding is thoroughly to rub down each dog 
with a horsehair hand-glove. This massage should begin at 
the shoulder and forelegs, be carried down the back and loins 
to the root of the stern, and end with the thighs, stifles, and 
hocks ; after which a clean chamois leather may be applied. 
The usual time for feeding greyhounds in training is the middle 
of the day ; but we much prefer it on their return from evening 
exercise, for two reasons : first, the dogs are more likely to curl 
themselves up and pass a restful night if fed late ; whereas, if 
they are given their meal earlier they are prone to prowl about 
and sing choruses that, however charming to their own ears, 
are not at all calculated to call forth blessings from their human 
friends who have the misfortune to dwell within hearing. 
Secondly, dogs that are accustomed to a midday meal will be 
upset by the want of it when engaged at a coursing meeting ; 
for, of course, conditions may not be favourable for them to be 
indulged. 



THE GREYHOUND IN TRAINING 



loi 



The question of gallops is one that requires more thought 
and tact than that of road-work, as with the former there are 
many matters to be considered and many theories to be 
advanced ; with regard to the latter, the duration of the exercise, 
and the pace, are all that need trouble the trainer. Many 
trainers are of opinion that this style of road exercise is calcu- 
lated to ' slow ' a greyhound ; and we are hardly prepared to 
contradict the theory emphatically, though our opinion is not 




The toilette 



in accord. What we do assert is, that the effect on stamina is 
most marked, and the advantage that dogs thus trained have 
over those that have only been walked out is very manifest at 
open meetings where hares are strong and courses long. We 
have always held that, where a dog is being trained for an en- 
closed meeting, a preparation widely different is necessary ; 
but as this style of coursing is practically moribund, it would 
serve no good purpose to enter upon the subject at any 
length. 



I02 COURSING 

Stamina, then, is as important as pace, and many a half- 
trained flyer is out-counted by a plodding dog who means 
' being there ' as long as the hare lives. 

Now comes the question of gallops, and, to begin with, it 
will be necessary to find a strip of sound turf on the decline, or 
slightly undulating. With young greyhounds it is a fatal mis- 
take to gallop them uphill ; for that, we have no doubt, is highly 
prejudicial to speed, and induces an undesirable shoulder 
action, whereas a gallop on a decline is calculated to produce 
speed and develop the shoulder. There are several ways of 
galloping greyhounds, and the one usually practised is for a 
boy to take the string some three furlongs from the trainer. 
The latter then holloas or whistles, and the boy releases one 
that is sure to go straight ; when this one has traversed a 
couple of hundred yards another is slipped, and so on until the 
whole string is under weigh — each one will strive to overtake 
the dog in front of him, and will thus be properly extended. 
If sufficient interval is not allowed they overtake one another, 
and rough play begins, generally ending in torn flanks and 
perforated thighs. 

When the gallops are increased in length, the trainer must 
mount his horse and gallop away whistling, when in like 
manner the dogs are slipped one by one, and in their eagerness 
to overtake the horse they will refrain from interfering with one 
another! 

It is very important that the horse selected for this duty 
should be thoroughly quiet, or disastrous results mav ensue. 
The most likely animal is a hunt servant's horse, that is 
thoroughly accustomed to hounds crowding round his legs ; 
such a one is not only free from kick, but will carefully avoid 
treading on them, whereas one that has not been accustomed 
to hounds is almost sure to let fly when they come racing up 
to his heels — bounding and barking as is their wont — and even 
if he refrains from so doing, is likely by clumsiness and 
fidgetting to put his hoofs on their precious toes. 



THE GREYHOUND IN TRAINING 



Those who have closely followed ' Stonehenge's ' directions 
for galloping greyhounds, and now turn to these pages, will be 
struck by the fact that the great sporting writer advocates up- 
hill galloping and lone work. In fact, he goes so far as to say 



3,/^, 




Exercise in the paddock 



that the trainer 
should mount his 
horse and gallop his 
charges for four miles 
at top speed. This, we 
confess, is positively 
astounding. Perhaps 
the greyhounds of the 
day are a degenerate lot ; but we fancy that there are very few 
whose constitution would stand such an ordeal. And what 
about the horse ? The days of Beacon courses and rides to 
Ghent, not to mention York, are over, and if greyhounds are 
not what they were, the same applies to horses — yea. even to 
trained racers. 

No, we opine that stamina should be induced by road-work, 
and speed by short gallops, six furlongs being quite the limit if 

1 Stonehenge had some good grounds for advising uphill work, and a 
notable case was that of the greyhounds owned by the late Mr. T. T. Lister. 
This gentleman, who possessed a very strong kennel some thirty years ago 
(he won the Waterloo Cup with Chloe), in the days of the great matches 
at Ashdown and Amesbury, had his greyhounds trained in the Valley 
of the ■V\'harfe, and they were regularly galloped from the levd^ of the 
river to an elevation several hundred feet above. The distance was nearly 
a mile, the going good, but for most of the distance on a terribly steep 
ascent. — Ed. 



I04 COURSING 

the dogs are fully extended. It is true that greyhounds have 
to cover long distances when contesting a course in public; 
but the very bends, wrenches, and turns afford relief that is 
not obtained in a straight-away gallop, in the same way that 
a racehorse, who cannot stay home in a five-furlong sprint, 
is often seen to advantage in a race of two miles over 
hurdles. 

When we advised that the first gallops should take place 
on a decline, we did not mean that this should apply to the 
whole period of training. As condition improves and the date 
of ' cherry-ripeness ' approaches, undulating ground will be 
desirable, so as to bring into play all the muscular powers ; but 
we still object to a long incline. 

Every day the trainer must overhaul his charges, and the 
first spot on which he must place his hand is the chest and 
brisket. If these, and particularly the former, are soft and 
flabby, then is the subject far from fit, and increased work will 
be necessary ; but if they are firm and hard to the touch, 
a near approach to fitness is indicated. Next, the hand is 
passed down the neck, back, and quarters, and second thighs, 
and here the eye will aid the touch ; but experience alone will 
guide the two. 

The question of vv^eight is a most important one, and every 
kennel should be supplied with a machine for the purpose. 
A weighing-machine has been invented of late which is much 
in vogue at dog shows, where the exhibits are classified by 
weight, and this is well adapted to the purposes of the grey- 
hound trainer. It consists of a cage or cradle of galvanised 
iron in which the dog is easily placed, when the exact weight 
is registered on a dial. 

It is almost an axiom with trainers that the weight of a 
twelve-months-old sapling, when in full and lusty condition, 
but not fat, is the weight at which that dog should run as a 
puppy when trained to the hour. There are frequent exceptions 
to this rule, as some dogs train lighter than others, while 
some show to greater advantage when running big ; but the 



THE GREYHOUND IN TRAINING 105 

rule is a good one to keep in view when reducing flesh, and 
is for the most part approximately correct. When once the 
trainer has found the weight at which a mature dog shows to 
greatest advantage, the weighing-machine will always answer 
the important question as to ripeness, and will frequently check 
a tendency to over-train. 

The advice we have given as to the final preparation of 
greyhounds must only be taken generally, as it is impossible 
to lay down any hard and fast rule, for the simple reason 
that the constitutions and temperaments of greyhounds vary 
to a remarkable degree. The old saying that ' What is one 
man's meat is another man's poison,' is peculiarly applicable 
to greyhounds ; a preparation necessary to enable one dog 
to stay to the end of a big stake would send another to 
the slips jaded and ' over - marked.' Here is where the 
ability, experience, and intelligence of the trainer are tested. 
It is his duty to mark the running of each of his charges most 
carefully, and when he sees one display fire and dash, together 
with stamina, he will know that he has had a preparation that 
suits his constitution. But when a kennel companion that has 
had identical work shows speed and smartness in his first or 
first two courses, but, without undue pumping, or any unforeseen 
contingency such as a cut or a sprain, fails to raise a gallop, 
and lobs along behind his opponent without attempting to 
share the work, he may reasonably suspect that the dog is 
over-trained, and on a future occasion it will be as well to send 
him to the slips a pound or two heavier. 

There are many greyhounds who, starting in a stake a bit 
above themselves, yet manage to survive a couple of courses, 
and, improving as they go on, run themselves into perfect con- 
dition, and wind up brilliantly. Examples of this are very 
frequent, and a notable one is Miss Glendyne, who was 
decidedly 'jolly ' when she went to the slips for the Waterloo 
Cup the year following that in which she had divided with 
Fullerton's dam, her half-sister Bit of Fashion. She ran her 
first two courses in very slovenly style ; but by the time she 



io6 COURSING 

met Penelope 11. in the final she was thoroughly fit, and her 
display was one of the grandest ever seen. 

The adage that we have quoted as applied to work is of 
still greater force when the all-important question of food is to 
be considered ; and here, again, observation and study of the 
individual must constantly occupy the trainer's mind. It used 
to be considered a sine qua non that the only way to prepare a 
dog was to stuff him with unlimited mutton, on the principle 
adopted by domestic servants, I suppose, who fancy that they 
will drop down dead or faint over their menial tasks if they 
fail to consume a sufficient poundage of 'butcher's meat.' We 
are quite opposed to this idea, and feel convinced that nothing 
upsets a dog's stomach and renders him stale and useless more 
than a continued use of toasted mutton, without a variety of 
other food. A greyhound will stand his road- work and gallops 
for several months, and flourish thereon ; but stuff him with a 
surfeit of animal food for one month only, and the chances are 
he will utterly lose his form. It is very easy to ascertain 
when a dog has had too much animal food — on examination 
the faeces will be found to be black ; if, on the contrary, there 
has not been a sufficient quantity, the motions will be almost 
colourless ; when they are the colour of ochre the proportion is 
correct. 

When a dog has been trained and run for a stake, and is 
wanted again in, say, three weeks' time, it is a good plan to ' let 
him down,' i.e. his exercise should be gentle and only sufficient 
to keep him healthy and active, and his food should consist 
of old meal, brown bread, vegetables, trotter jelly, and broth 
of sheep's heads. No more solid animal food should be given 
till within ten days of his running again. As soon as he 
returns from the first meeting he should have a dose of Epsom 
salts or German liquorice powder, to be followed by a tonic 
ball. It is wonderful how this treatment and the cessation of 
solid animal food will freshen the stomach, and prepare the 
dog for another ordeal. The resumption of solid mutton for 
a week previously to running will be found ample ; even if he 



THE GREYHOUND IN TRAINING 



107 



went to the slips on the former occasion rather stale and 
over-trained, he may now appear in totally different colours, 
and surprise everyone by his smartness. Very likely this will 




Preparing the food 



cause him to be dubbed an uncertain animal, but the trainer 
will know to what his success is due, and will make a note of 
it for further use. 

Cases of dogs winning important stakes when practically 



io8 COURSING 

untrained are common enough, and their connections imme- 
diately say, ' If Fly-by night could perform like that in such 
condition, what could he not do if thoroughly prepared ? ' So 
they proceed to trot and gallop him vigorously, stuff him with 
slices of mutton from prime joints, and bring him to the slips 
heavily backed for a big stake ; and great is their dismay when 
he is upset in the first round, perhaps by a dog whom he easily 
beat when untrained. 

As with racehorses so with greyhounds : many an under- 
trained one wins, and many an over- trained one goes down. 
Moral:— It is better to under-train than to over-train your horses 
and dogs. 

Many trainers are in the habit of ' letting down ' their 
charges immediately before running — that is to say, they give 
them a strong preparation to within four days of the meeting ; 
they then dose with Epsom salts, and substitute a light farinaceous 
diet up to the day on which they are to run. The wisdom of 
this plan we take the liberty of doubting, believing that a too 
sudden reaction of the digestive organs would be induced, and 
a consequent relaxation of nerve and muscles ensue ; and we 
have noted that greyhounds thus treated have perhaps shown 
speed and brilliance, but have failed to stay beyond a course or 
two, even when they have been lightly let off. With regard to 
general feeding, variety should be the watchword ; for, how^ever 
good the food may be, no dog will thrive without a change, 
not only in the ingredients used, but in the method of prepara- 
tion and the consistency of the pudding. Taking a dog of 
ordinary constitution whose peculiarities are unknown to us, 
and given a month to prepare him for a stake, w^e should feed 
him as follows, having first administered opening medicine 
followed by alterative condition balls, and an external dressing 
of black sulphur and train oil. 

For the first iveek. — Well-boiled and shredded horse-fiesh 
with its broth, old hound-meal, mashed turnips and beetroots. 

Second week. — Toasted horse-flesh cut into small squares, 
brown bread, trotter jelly, carrots or parsnips. 



THE GREYHOUND IN TRAINING 109 

Third iveek. — Fried sheep's heads, a very Httle meal, brown 
bread, Brand's Extract, a few potatoes and beetroots. 

Fourth week. — Toasted mutton, no meal, brown bread, 
trotter jelly, and a few mashed turnips (every other day). 

Pity the poor trainer and owner whose brightest hopes are 
centred on the female members of the kennel ! When bitches 
are really brilliant there is no denying them, and it is almost im- 
possible to refrain from hopes that may at any moment be dashed 
by the exigencies of Nature. All may go well till the night of 
the draw, and then the discovery is made which leads to despair. 

Sometimes a bitch in use will run with even greater fire 
than usual ; but the effort generally dies away after a course 
or two, and a collapse may be looked for at any moment ; 
nor do we think it is fair for an owner to send a bitch to 
the slips in such a state. Should she meet a dog, the latter 
is sure to be upset, and his attention will be distracted; 
nevertheless, it is a remarkable fact that on the appearance 
of the hare everything will give way to the ruling passion for 
the chase. 

Where important issues are involved, owners and trainers 
often make great efforts to bring a bitch to the sHps in the face 
of Nature's attack. Should she come in use, say, three weeks 
or a month prior to the date on which the stake is to open, a 
common practice is to put her to the dog, and it not infre- 
quently happens that at the beginning of pregnancy she may 
quite retain her form. 

If a bitch is allowed to miss (i.e. if she is withheld from 
the dog), it will be useless to dream of running her for at least 
three months from the first appearance of the symptoms. The 
reason of this is that Nature keeps on accumulating internal fat 
and tissue to fit the bitch for the duties that should have been 
hers, while toward the time when, in the natural course of 
things, her whelps would have been born, the lacteal glands 
secrete a certain amount of milk. To be on the safe side, 
fourteen weeks should elapse before the bitch is sent to the 
slips, though training may start three weeks earlier. 



11^ COURSING 

Having regard to this difficulty, the hopes of a courser's 
kennel should never be entirely centred in bitches ; and so often 
does this exasperating disappointment occur, that there are 
many old and knowing hands who never train or run bitches, 
but keep them, if found in the kennel at all, solely for breed- 
ing purposes. 



Ill 



CHAPTER VI 

ENCLOSED COURSING 

The idea of enclosing grounds for coursing purposes originated 
with Mr. T. H. Case, who, as is well known, showed marked 
acquaintance with the habits of the hare, and also considerable 
powers of organisation. Towards the end of December, 1876, 
the ground at Plumpton, which had been enclosed with wire- 
fencing at considerable expense, was ready for the first meeting 
to be held in the new style. A programme, consisting of a 
thirty-two, two sixteens, two eights, and a four, was considered 
large enough to start with, and the stakes filled without diffi- 
culty. The dinner and draw were held at the Gloucester 
Holel, Brighton. The late General Goodlake, V.C., took 
an active part in the general arrangements, and also used 
his influence to have special trains run from London and 
Brighton at convenient hours each morning. The principal 
event was the Street Place Stakes, which was won by Mr. H. G. 
Miller's Master Banrigh, Mr. T. Quihampton's Quaver running 
up. The success which attended the first fixture induced Mr. 
Case to increase the entry fee, and in the following March we 
had the Southern Cup for thirty-two All-ages at 10/. 10s. each. 
This brought eight ex-Waterlooers to slips, namely : Dark 
Rustic, Kilkenny, Serapis, Huron, Sir Magnus, Conster, The 
Squatter, and High Gillerspie. The stake resulted in a division 
between Mr. G. Darlinson's Dark Rustic and Mr. H. Heywood's 
Early Morn. The following year more important stakes were 
run for, the entry for the Great Southern Cup (sixty- four sub- 
scribers) being increased to 12/. loi". each, the winner to receive 



112 



COURSING 



250/. and a piece of plate value 50/. In the final course Mr. 
G. Darlinson's Deceit beat Mr. G. Woodward's Woodland 
King. The fame of the Plumpton ground had now spread 
far and wide, and we had amongst the Irish supporters Lord 
Lurgan, Captain Archdale, Mr. F. Watson, and Mr. J. Sands. 
Other patrons of the meeting were the Duke of Hamilton, 
Lord St. Vincent, Sir John D. Astley, and Colonel Goodlake. 




Enclosed covrsing. Driving out a hare 



It may be mentioned that, although the new style had become 
popular with a certain section of the coursing community, 
many of the old school opposed it strongly, and with the best 
reason, for it utterly lacked the elements of real sport. The 
Ground Game Act, however, which came into operation in 
September 1880, having naturally led to a lessening of the 
number of hares throughout the country, it was urged that, if 
coursing was to exist, the enclosed system became almost a 



ENCLOSED COURSING 



113 



necessity. From that time old-fashioned meetings dropped out 
one by one, owing to the scarcity of game. 

The September fixture in 1884 was a very successful 
meeting at Flumpton, the Grand Produce Stakes of 6/. each, 
i/. ft., securing no fewer than 128 runners, out of an original 
entry of 298. The prizes were 500/. the winner, 150/. the 
second, and 50/. each third and fourth. For tl^e deciding 
course Mr. T. Graham's Glen Islay, by Glenlivet— Glengowan, 







Starting the hare 

and Mr. H. J. Norman's Newsboy, by Peter— Nellie, divided 
after an undecided. Mr. C. W. Lea's Latha and his Lara 
were third and fourth. The meeting was carried on for 
another five years, but despite the erection of a commodious 
stand, the outside pubUc held aloof, and February 1889 saw 
the last of the Plumpton gatherings. 

Gosforth followed Plumpton (the enclosure being made by 
Mr. Case), and was w^ell supported, as might be expected from 
the number of greyhounds kept in the north of England, and 



114 COURSING 

the ardour with which coursing has always been pursued in 
this locaHty. The trials at Gosforth during Mr. Case's manage- 
ment were of the very best description. Coursing continued 
to flourish there until March 1889, when several of the 
directors who did not care for the sport called a special 
meeting of the company and it was resolved to discontinue it. 
The following return of the winners and runners-up in the 
Gold Cup shows that speed has well served at Gosforth, for we 
find that a greyhound like Cangaroo, whose only redeeming 
point was speed, carried off the prize from a brilliant per- 
former like Greentick. Many greyhounds who distinguished 
themselves in the open ran at Gosforth, notably Mineral 
Water and Burnaby (both Waterloo Cup winners), Free 
Flag (Netherby Cup winner), Markham (Netherby Cup 
divider as a puppy), Waterford, Todlaw Dene, Nimrod, Glen- 
kirk, and Plymouth Rock, whose names will all be found in 
the following list : — 

1881 

THE HIGH GOSFORTH PARK GOLD CUP, at 6/. ioj. 
each ; winner 150/. and gold cup, value 50 guineas, second 90/.; 
64 subs. 

Mr. G. Darlinson ns (Mr. J. Hinks's) be d Marshal M'Mahon, 
by Master Sam — Death, beat Mr. J. W. Morrison's bk d Free Flag, 
by Freeman — British Flag. 

1882 

GOSFORTH GOLD CUP, at 10/. los. each : winner 500/. and 
gold cup, second 200/. and silver cup ; 128 subs. 

Mr. G. J. Alexander's w bd d Alec Halliday, by Fugitive — Free 
Trade, beat Mr. W. Osborne's r or f d Waterford, by Bothal Park 
— Curiosity. 

1883 

GOSFORTH GOLD CUP, at 10/. \os. each ; winner 500/. and 
cup, second 200/. and piece of plate ; 128 subs. 

Mr. L. Hall ns (Mr. A. Vines's) wf d Markham, by Banker- 
Pall Mall, beat Mr. O. Markham's bk w d Woodpecker, by Bed- 
fellow— Agricola. 



ENCLOSED COURSING 115 

1884 

GOSFORTH GOLD CUP, at 10/. los. each, cup value 50 guineas, 
with piece of plate, value 15 guineas to the second ; winner 
500/. and gold cup, second 200/. and piece of plate ; 128 subs. 
Mr. M. Spittle ns (Mr. W. Carver's) rorfd Britain Still, by 

Misterton — Arama,beat Mr. W, P. Greenall ns (Mr. H.J.Norman's) 

bk w d Nimrod, by Misterton — Fair Helen. 

1885 

GOSFORTH GOLD CUP, at 12/. 12^. each, with 500/. added ; 
winner 1,000/., second 250/. ; 128 subs. 

Mr. J. Mayer's w bk d Mineral Water, by Memento — Erzeroum, 
beat Mr. Postlethwaite ns (Mr. H. Thompson's) r d Todlavv Dene, 
by Herrera — Terrific. 

1886 

GOSFORTH GOLD CUP, at 12/. 12s. each, with 500/. added ; 
winner 1,000/., second 250/. ; 128 subs. 

Mr. H. Emmerson ns (Mr. J. Kellett's) bk d Cangaroo, by 
Bothal Park— Bundle and Go, beat Mr. R. F. Gladstone's bd d 
Greentick, by Bedfellow — Heartburn. 

1887 

GOSFORTH GOLD CUP, at 12/. 12s. each, with 500/. added ; 

winner 1,000/., second 250/. ; 128 subs. 

Mr. H. G. Miller's bk d Mullingar, by Misterton— Gulnare H., 
beat Mr. E. Dent's w bk d Huic Halloa, by Jester — Countess. 

1 888 

GOSFORTH GOLD CUP, at 10/. los. each ; winner 470/. and 
cup, value 50 guineas, second 190/. ; 119 subs. 

Mr. E. Dent's w bk d Huic Halloa, by Jester— Countess, and 
Mr. L. Pilkington's bk w d Burnaby, by Be Joyful — Baroness, 
divided. 

1889 

GOSFORTH GOLD CUP, at 10/. los. each ; winner 350/., second 
125/. ; 75 subs. 

Mr. T. Edwards' r d Glenkirk, by Misterton— Glengowan ; 
Col. J. T. North's bd b Kate Cuthbert, by Greentick— Bit of 



ii6 COURSING 

Fashion ; and Mr. W. Paterson's r w d Plymouth Rock, by 
Carratze — Process, divided, without the latter running his bye. 

Kempton came next, and the fact of Mr. S. H. Hyde being 
at the head of affairs (coursing) was a guarantee for good 
management. It was over the Sunbury pastures that the first 
1,000/. prize was run for, the ground, like Haydock, being a dead 
flat. Hares ran very weakly at first, and coursing was a com- 
parative failure, but after a year trials were fairly good, and 
continued to improve subsequently. Coursing at Kempton took 
immensely at first with Londoners, but after a few meetings 
the attendance fell off, and the patronage of the general public 
became so scant that the directors resolved to cease holding 
meetings, and the champion fixture of January 1889 was 
abandoned. 

The reason given was that during the last three years the 
directors had to fill several nominations the best way they 
could, so as to secure the requisite number of runners, and the 
meetings were carried on at a loss. The following return gives 
the winner and runner-up in the Great Champion Stakes : — 

1883 

CHAMPION STAKES, at 25 guineas each, with 500/. added ; 

winner 1,000/., second 500/ ; 64 subs. 

Mr. L. Nicholl's f d p Royal Stag, by Ptarmigan — Raby Lass, 

beat Dr. T. S. Hosford ns (Mr. W. Osborne's) r or f d Waterford, 

by Bothal Park — Curiosity. 

1884 

CHAMPION STAKES, at 25 guineas each, with 500/. added ; 

winner 1,000/., second 400/. ; 64 subs. 

Mr. G. Bell Irving ns (Mr. H. G. Miller's) r d Manager, by 

Misterton — Devotion, and Mr. T. Stone's r d Sea Pilot, by Haddo 

—Sea Beauty, divided. 

1885 

CHAMPION STAKES, at 25/. each, with 500/. added ; winner 
1,000/, second 400/ ; 64 subs. 
Mr. S. H. Hyde's bd d Ballangeich, by Craighton Castle- 
Heathbird, beat Mr. W. Carver's r or f d Britain Still, by Misterton 
.^Arama. 



ENCLOSED COURSING 117 

1886 

CHAMPION STAKES, at 25/. each, with 500/. added ; winner 
1,000/., second 400/. ; 64 subs. 

Mr. T. Stone ns (Mr. L. Pilkington's) bk d Phcebus, by Coleraine 
Diamond — sister to Lady Hester, beat Mr. C. Hibbert ns r d Gay 
City, by Paris — Lady Glendyne. 

1887 

CHAMPION STAKES, at 25/. each, with 500/. added ; winner 
1,000/., second 400/. ; 64 subs. 

Mr. W. Reilly ns (Mr. E. Dent's) Huic Halloa, by Jester- 
Countess, beat Mr. R. F Gladstone's bk d Greater Scot, by Mac- 
pherson — Madge. 

1888 

CHAMPION STAKES, at lo/. \os. each ; winner 600/., second 
200/. ; 64 subs. 

Mr. S. Handfordns (Mr. G. Hobbs's)bk d Holmby, by Clyto— 
High Opinion, beat Mr. H. G. Miller's bk d Mullingar, by 
Misterton — Gulnare II. 

1889 

CHAMPION STAKES, at 10/. icy. each, with 400/. added ; 
winner 600/., second 200/. ; 64 subs. 
Major H. Holmes's bk w d Puddletown, by Domino — Bonniness, 
beat Mr. A. Sydney's bk w d p Pilate Black, by Northern Express 
— sister to Petrarch. 

Haydock Park succeeded Gosforth Park, and with capital 
management some good sport of its kind has been witnessed here 
from time to time. Being in the midst of a coursing district, and 
adjacent to such populous centres as Liverpool, Manchester, 
Wigan, &c. &c., Haydock has hardly received that amount of 
patronage from the public one would naturally expect. Many 
stirring and striking associations attach to Haydock Park, 
and Greentick, FuUerton, Herschel, and Gay City have all 
tingled the blood of onlookers by their brilliant displays. 
FuUerton first came out in the Lancashire enclosure, and 
took people by storm in his succession of fine courses, though 
one hammerins; after another over the adamantine surface, the 



Ii8 COURSING 

ground being very hard that week, entailed defeat in the final 
trial, the only one he has suffered. Herschel won his spurs 
at Haydock by dividing the Champion Produce Stake, and 
undoubtedly his very best performance was over this ground 
in the Haydock Gold Cup, when he shot clean away from 
one speedy greyhound after another. Probably Gay City's 
best display was for the same cup upon another occasion. One 
of Greentick's Haydock victories will always be recollected 
from the sensational incident of his striking the escape hurdle 
with such force as to fall back api)arently dead. The sym- 
pathy that existed for this gallant greyhound was shown by the 
cheer that greeted him when his trainer, John Coke, led 
him back shortly after the accident, and his own gameness 
was testified when he afterwards won the final course. 

The Irish greyhound, Pinkerton, also upon one occasion 
made a succession of brilliant displays, winning course after 
course in one-sided fashion, though every hare took him to 
the top of the ground. 

The Wye Racecourse being easily converted into an en- 
closure, Mr. G. Kennett started his first meeting in 1883. The 
trials generally are of indisputable excellence, and as the 
ground gradually rises to the escape, a capital view is obtained 
of the working-powers of a greyhound, which is often lost 
when running on the level. A few years since, Mr. Kennett 
started the East Kent Club, and has on his list sixty members. 
Wye, however, fares no better than Haydock Park as regards 
the support of the public, and it remains to be seen if either 
of these meetings— now the only two enclosures in England 
— will be carried on after another season. Several good 
greyhounds have made their debut over the Wye ground, viz. 
Holmby, Puddletown, Glenmahra, Winfarthing, Myra Ellen, 
and Janet's Pride. 

The Four Oaks Park Company was started with a large 
capital to carry on racing and coursing, and, being situated close 
to Birmingham and other large Midland towns, everything 



ENCLOSED COURSING 



19 



looked promising for the shareholders. The coursing en- 
tailed a considerable loss from 1883 to the close of the season 
1886; but as the enclosure never took with either the racing 
or coursing public, the autumn of • 1 890 saw the company 
go into liquidation, and the estate is now to be built over. 
Many good greyhounds were seen at Four Oaks Park, amongst 




Counting the slain 

others Marshal McMahon, Winchester, Witchery, Quicklime, 
Rosewater, Golden Star, Miss Staton, Fair Floraline, &c. 

The Doncaster Coursing Company, Limited, with a capital 
of 5,000/. in 5/. shares, had a very brief existence. The first 
meeting was held December 1882, and the next and last the 
following year, when, owing to want of proper management, 
hares ran so badly that many sportsmen left the ground in 
disgust. The fixtures were soon afterwards sold off, and the 
ground is now under cultivation. 



I20 COURSING 

Mourne Park, the first of the Irish enclosures, was esta- 
blished by the Earl of Kilmorey in the autumn of 1879. The 
ground could hardly then, nor could it till a couple of years 
later, be strictly called an enclosure, as the hares were driven 
from a spinney ; in fact, it was not an enclosure as the term 
is generally understood. A few years later the present 
coursing ground was designed by Mr. Case. Hares have 
never run stoutly at Mourne Park, but it was well adapted for 
trying puppies, and being generally the first meeting of the 
season was well patronised by English and Scotch coursers; 
the beauty of the surrounding scenery was also a great attrac- 
tion to visitors. One meeting, sometimes two in the season, 
continued to be held until the year 1890. 

Purdysburn was established in the North of Ireland in 
1890. A club was formed in Belfast, and permission obtained 
from that good sportsman, the late Mr. R. N. Batt, to hold 
a couple of meetings during the season in his demesne. 
The ground was well adapted for coursing, and the manage- 
ment being in the hands of a most business-like and energetic 
committee, Purdysburn soon took high rank amongst the 
coursing fixtures of the season. As with Holestone, there is 
no lack of support in the shape of greyhounds, large numbers 
being bred every year in the surrounding country. 

Trabolgan, in the South of Ireland, if not so easy of access 
as the other three meetings just mentioned, is not inferior 
to any of them in the quality of the sport provided. Situated 
in Lord Fermoy's demesne overlooking Cork Harbour, in 
fine weather it is a delightfully wild and picturesque spot. 
Hares are reared on the ground, and are driven from two spin- 
neys, one at each end of a large field, so that the running 
happily partakes of the character of open coursing. Few 
understand better than the noble owner of Trabolgan, Lord 
Fermoy, coursing and the management of hares, and hence 
sport of a high order may always be reckoned upon at 
the Southern Club meetings. Unfortunately, there is not 
the same keen ardour for coursing in the province of Mun- 



ENCLOSED COURSING 



121 



ster as in Ulster, and a difficulty in filling stakes is ofteti 
experienced. 




Driving hares out of the woods 

Holestone followed Mourne Park, and from the very be- 
ginning was a decided success. The enclosure is situated on 



122 



COURSING 



Mr. James Owen's property, and a better or more genial sports- 
man than the proprietor of Holestone does not exist. The 
running is rather severe, as it is all uphill, but the trials are 
of the very best kind. The running ground being in the midst 
of a district celebrated for the number of good greyhounds it 
has produced, it is almost needless to add that little difficulty 
is experienced in filling the stakes. Indeed, there is no part 
of Ireland where so many greyhounds are bred and reared as 
in the district surrounding Holestone, nor in Her Majesty's 




True to their hares 



wide dominions are there keener coursers to be found. En- 
closed coursing was much overdone when in its zenith, and 
its greatest attendant evil was caused by the fact that it 
attracted a crowd who neither knew nor cared anything for 
the sport, but who came for the sake of the betting alone. 
After a while genuine coursers began to notice that many 
of the greyhounds which were run time after time at the en- 
closures gradually became exceedingly cunning, and deliberately 
waited for their more honest opponent to put the hare round 
to them. Occasionally two shifty ones were slipped together, 



ENCLOSED COURSING 



123 



and then the proceedings became actually farcical. It was 
evident, too, after a few years of enclosed coursing that the 
best strains of blood were becoming seriously affected, and 




The high jump 



that coursing generally was in a fair way to collapse if 
something was not done. That something practically removed 
the enclosures en bloc, and without doubt the running is far 
truer and more genuine now than it was. 



124 COURSING 



CHAPTER VII 

SOME CELEBRATED GREYHOUNDS OF THE PAST 

In our resu?ne of the Waterloo Cup we touched on the 
winners in the early contests when the trophy was a thirty- 
two dog stake ; and among the heroines of those days Cerito 
is worthy of a niche in the Temple of Fame : she won no 
fewer than three times — viz. as a puppy in 1850, in 1852 and 
1853. She was by Lingo out of Wanton. The next grey- 
hound of mark that comes under notice is Senate, for his victory 
of 1847 was repeated by his son Sackcloth in 1854 ; and here 
we append a table of Waterloo winners whose progeny have 
also been successful : — 

Senate (1847) begat Sackcloth (1854) 
Judge (1855) „ Clival (1859) 

„ „ Maid of the Mill (i860) 

„ Chloe(i863) 
Canaradzo (1861) begat King Death (1864) 
Brigadier (1866) „ Honeymoon (1875) 
Bit of Fashion (1885)2 gave birth to Fullerton (1889-90)^ 

It will be seen that this is a very limited list, and the old 
adage that ' like begets like ' is not borne out to a remarkable 
extent ; however, there are many examples of dogs who have 
run prominently in the Waterloo Cup shining as sires of abso- 
lute winners ; such, for instance, as Fusilier (sire of Muriel), 
Greentick (sire of Fullerton and Troughend), and Macpherson 
(sire of Greater Scot and Herschel). 

1 Divided with Selby. ^ Divided with Miss Glendyne, 

5 Fullerton won in 1891 and 1892, and during the next three years the 
winners were by Herschel, who divided the Cup with Greater Scot. — Ed. 



CELEBRATED GREYHOUNDS OF THE PAST 125 



1 

i 

Is 

fe 

§1 

M 

a 
1 


« 





2 

c 


Briton (late 
Knight of the 
Garter) 

Lady 


Emperor 
Knavery 


Helenus 

Fly, by Blue Wart 


Bachelor 

Nimble, by Lunardi 


Nathan 

Risk (late Lalage) 


Levite 
Milliner 


Luff 
Minikin 


Sandy 
Smart 


Bachelor 

Venus (sister to 
Solomon) 


Bachelor 

Nimble, by Lunardi 


Dart 
Smut 


Streamer 
Bride 


Colwick 

Sister to Herdsman 


Baron 
Verity 


s 


5 


Sadek 
Sanctity 


Kouli Khan 
Harriet 


Topper 
Hannah 


Spartacus 

Fly, by Snowball 


Stradbroke 
Leanthe 


Mariner 

Fly (Rev. R. Day) 


Lifter 
Leah 


Carronade 
Gaunt 


Carron 
Sister to Fairy 


Viscount(late Bluebeard) 




Vagrant 
Garland 


Balloon 
Violet 


Mortimer 

Sister to Mirth (missing) 



Above is the pedigree of Judge, who won in 1855, ran up 
the following year, and was, moreover, the sire of three subse- 
quent winners — viz. Clive, Maid of the Mill, and Chloe. His 
pedigree, it will be observed, goes back on his dam's side to 
Lord Sefton's strain, her sire, Oliver Twist, being an own brother 
to his Lordship's winner, Senate. 



126 



COURSING 



a. 

e 

'go 

ti 

<-s 

Z I 

<! 00 
\Joo 

i 



Monsoon 



Stave 



Waterloo 



Clarinda 



Colonel 
Smart 



Topper 
Pearl 



Streamer 
Bride 



Bugle 

Strawberry 



Bachelor 
Nimble 



Stradbroke 



Dusty Miller 
Exotic 



Cessnock 
Young Hornet 



Tinto 
Swan 



Nestor 



Chance 
Meriten 



Sport 

Old Hornet 



Drift 



Cutty Sark 



Dux 



Tillside Lass 



Driver 
Coquette 



Monarch 
Lassie ' 



Tippoo 
Bustle 



Kirkland 
Cutty Sark 



Driver 
Duppy 



Draffin 

Old Tillside Lass 



Old Sport 
Purity 



Claret ' 
Swallow ' 



Monarch 
Lassie ' 



Bred by Mr. Marshall 
of Neilsland 



Smoker 
Bess 



* Doubtful. 

Here is an example of the celebrated Beacon and Scotland 
Yet blood. Canaradzo won the Waterloo Cup in i86i, and 
was the sire of King Death, who was victorious in 1864. His 
breeder was the late Mr. Ivie Campbell, and in Scotland Yet's 
next litter there were three of great merit — viz. Sea Foam, Sea 
Pink, and Cioloja. The first-named distinguished himself as 
the sire of Lobelia, but Cioloja was considered to be far and 



CELEBRATED GREYHOUNDS OF THE PAST 127 



away the smartest of the lot, and though Mr. Campbell sold 
Sea Foam and Sea Pink to Mr. Spinks for 220 guineas, nothing 
would induce him to part with the other. She subsequently 
became one of the hottest favourites for the Waterloo Cup on 
record, but unfortunately, after reaching the scene of action in 
safety, she broke her thigh in a spin a few days before the con- 
test. She was afterwards purchased by Mr. Brocklebank for 
stud purposes, but she brought him no return for his outlay. 
Although Cioloja was a failure, Canaradzo has been a pillar of 
strength to the 'Stud Book,' especially through his son Boanerges, 
who sired that grand bitch Bab-at-the-Bowster. 

We now append the pedigree of King Death, the Waterloo 
winner of 1864, who adds lustre to the same telling strain : — 



'it 

WW 

^1 




< 

Pi 

t 


§ 

c 

1 


Bluelight (late 
Seabreeze) 

Frolic 


Monsoon 
Stave 

Waterloo 
Clarinda 


Colonel 
Smart 


Bugle 
Strawberry 


Dusty Miller 
Exotic 


Cessnock 
Young Hornet 


Wigan 
Veto 


Drift 
Cutty Sark 


Driver 
Coquette 


Kirkland 
Cutty Sark 


Dux 
Tillside Lass 


Driver 
Duppy 


Draffin 

Old Tillside Lass 


u 

< 


12; 

< 


C 

c 


Game Chicken 
Seedling 


Figaro ' 

Fancy 


King Cob 
Frederica 




Spring 
Marigold 


King of the Links (late 

Dan O'Connell) 
White Cockade 


Tout 
Mawkin 


Admiral 

Miss Quack 
(bought from 
Mr. C. Jar- 
dine's kennel) 


Miner 
Countess 


Twister 
Witch 











Doubtful. 



128 



COURSING 



The next pedigree is that of Brigadier, who won the Cup in 
1866, and was the sire of Honeymoon, the 1875 winner. It is 
noticeable that his sire Boreas was closely inbred to King Cob, 
Figaro, who begat Boreas, being by that dog out of Frederica, 
whilst his dam was by King Cob— Lively. 

A third cross of this strain is found on the dam's side, Wee 
Nell being out of Lady Watford, who was out of Consideration, 
who was by Kentish Fire by King Cob. 



King Cob 



Frederica 



King Cob 



Lively 



Ion 
Kate 



Stumps 
Ida 



Deptford 
Sister to Fanny 



Damon I 

Daffodil 



Smoker 
Lady 



Brother to Brigand 
Lady 



What Not 
Non Pareil 



Rubens 
Eve 



Tinker 
Fan 



Hermit 



Fly 



Larriston 



Consideration 



Weapon 

Sister to New World 



Croton Oil 
I,ady Maria 



Liddesdale 
Hannah 



Figaro 
Ruby 



Columbus 
Wilful 



Case is Altered 
Waterwitch 



Bang Up 
Tulip 



BowhiU 
Lady Seymour 



Buff 
Catlowdie 



Kentish Fire 
Linnet 



King Cob 
Knab 



Emperor 
Old Linnet 



Lord Stradbroke's Mawworm has been given. 



CELEBRATED GREYHOUNDS OF THE PAST 129 



A sterling bitch was Lobelia, the 1867 winner. In our 
chapter on the Waterloo Cup will be found an account of 
her remarkable performances in that event. She hved in the 
days of giants, and, with the exception of Master McGrath 
and Bab-at-the-Bowster, she could hold her own gallantly 
against all comers. Twice she fell foul of the Irish wonder in 
the Cup, but she defeated Bab after an undecided on the first 
occasion of their meeting — viz. in the Waterloo Cup of 1868; 
but a month later the latter had her revenge in the Douglas 
Cup, and administered a decisive beating. 





< 

g 


> 
1 


Bluelight 

Frolic 


Monsoon 
Stave 


Colonel 
Smart 


Bugle 
Strawberry 


Waterloo 
Clarinda 


Dusty Miller 
Exotic 


Cessnock 
Young Hornet 


Wigan 
Veto 


Drift 
Cutty Sark 


Driver 
Coquette 


Kirkland 
Cutty Sark 


Dux 

Tillside Lass 


Driver 
Duppy 

Draffin 

Old Tillside Lass 




< 


1 


Skyrocket 
Silkworm (Stone) 


Bluelight 
Syncope 


Monsoon 
Stave 


Worcester Marquis 
Synecdoche 








Barabbas 
Medora 


Egypt 

Cobcea Scandens 


Vraye Foy 
Elf 


Foremost 
Cygnet 


Czar 

Wideawake 


Foremost 
Catch'em 


Grasshopper 
Nell 



The entire pedigree of Snowdrop is doubtful, and indeed some authorities give 
Liraeflower as the dam of Lilac. 

K 



I30 



COURSING 



From what we have just written it will be seen that here is 
another example of the excellence of the Scotland Yet strain. 
Next we append the pedigree of 'the mighty McGrath ' : — 



< 
si 

rJoo 

CO 

<J 



o.s 

Pi rt 



H o 

Q 



Figaro (Fyson) 



Black Fly (Prid- 
more) 



Lightfoot (Howie) 



Jenny Lind 

(Jones) 



King Cob (Daintree); ^^^t^ 



Frederica (Fyson) 



Damon 
Daffodil 



Marquis (Webb) 
Kirtles (Webb) 



Sam (B. Robinson) 



Empress (B. Robin- 
son) ' 



Scythian (Edleston) 
Syren (Lord Sefton) 



Rocket 
Stella 



Kouli Khan 
Knavery 



Hilcoolie 
Old Whiskey 



Bennet's Rocket ' 
Easterby's Empress 



Fox 
Warwick 



Sadek 
Sanctity 



IJ 



Motley (Jardine) 



Wanton (W^ad- 
ham) 



Lariston (Sharpe) 



Consideration 
(Willis) 



Sam (Gibson) 
ToUwife (Jardine) 



Traveller 
Tippitywitchet 



King Cob 
Matilda Gillespie 



Senate (Lord Sefton) 
Coquette (Webb) ^ 



Liddesdale (Sharpe) 
Hannah (Saunders) 



Kentish Fire (Dain- 
tree) 

Linnet (Thomas) 



Sadek 
Sanctity 



Kouli Khan 
Knavery 



Bowhill 
Lady Seymour 



Buff 
Catlowdie 



King Cob 
Knab 



Easterby's Emperor 
Old Linnet 



Doubtful. 



■' Spelt ' Kokef ' in Thacker. 



Reference to our chapter of reminiscences of the Waterloo 
Cup will give particulars of this incomparable dog's career, 
so that here we shall simply add his measurements and 
list of his performances, with amounts won by him during his 



CELEBRATED GREYHOUNDS' OF THE PAST 131 

career. It will be noted that his dam, Lady Sarah, was, like 
Boreas (sire of Brigadier), inbred to King Cob, though in a 
more distant degree. 

WINNINGS OF MASTER McGRATH 



Meeting 


Courses | Courses 
Lost j Won 


Value 


1867-68 
Won Visitors' Cup, Lurg^an .... 
Divided Moneyglass Purse, Creagh . , 
Won Waterloo Cup . . . • . 

1868-69 
Divided Brownlow Cup, Lurgan • • . 
Won Waterloo Cup . . • • . 

1869-70 
Lost first course Waterloo Cup . • 

1870-71 
Won Brownlow Cup, Lurgan . • , . 
Won Waterloo Cup 


III II - II 


5 
4 
6 

% 


£ 
60 
40 
500 

50 
500 

100 
500 


I 


36 


1,750 



Measurements of Master McGrath. 

(Taken from the * Coursing Calendar,' vol. xxi.) 

Head.— From tip of snout to joining on to neck, 9^ in. ; girth of 

head between eyes and ears, 14 in. ; girth of snout, 7|^ in. ; distance 

between eyes, 2\ in. 
iV^^>^.— Length from joining on of head to shoulders, 9 in. ; girth 

round neck, 13I in. 
Back. — From neck to base of tail, 21 in. ; length of tail, 17 in. 
Intermediate points. — Length of loin from junction of last rib to hip- 
bone, 8 in. ; length from hip-bone to socket of thigh-joint, 5 in. 
Fore leg.—Yxovcv base of two middle nails to fedock-joint, 2 in. ; 

from fetlock-joint to elbow-joint, \i\ in. ; from elbow-joint to 

top of shoulder-blade, \2\ in. ; thickness of fore leg below the 

elbow, 6 in. 
Hind le£^.— From hock to stifle-joint, 9| in. ; from stifle-joint to top 

of hip-bone, 12 in. ; girth of ham part of thigh, 14 in. ; thickness 

of second thigh below stifle, 8:^. 
Body. — Girth round depth of chest, 26| in. ; girth round loins, 

17^ in. ; weight, 54 lbs. 

A study of these particulars by those accustomed to grey- 
hound measurement will show what a ' big httle one ' McGrath 



132 



COURSTNG 



was. Unfortunately he did not survive his triumphs long 
enough to give him a really fair chance at the stud, for it is 
seldom that a dog sires anything of high class until he has 
been at least a year out of training, though there may be ex- 
ceptions to the rule. In his two seasons he was sire of several 
minor winners, and his blood is to be found in the pedigrees of 
some of the smartest dogs of the present day. 



•013 

ffl t. 

Ho 

<:^ 



Beacon 



Scotland Yet 



Hughie Graham 



Wild Duck 



Bluelight 
Frolic 



Wigan 
Veto 



Liddesdale 
Queen of the May 



Sam (Gibson's) 
Nimble 



Monsoon 

Stave 



Waterloo 
Clarinda 



Drift 
Cutty Sark 



Dux 

Tillside Lass 



Bowhill 
Lady Seymour 



King Cob 
Minerva 



Traveller^ 
Tippitywitchet 



Douglas (Raine's) 
Unit (Raine's) 









Priam 



Virago 



Mynheer 



Sister to Lass o' 
Gowrie 



Cambridge * 
Mischief 



Muley (Forster's) 

Alice Hawthorn 
(Hutchinson's) 



Mangonel 



Marionette (sister to 
Mocking Bird) 



Figaro 
Bessy Bedlam 



Sportsman (Jolly) 
Lucy 



Figaro 

Countess (Bartholomew) 



Figaro 
Malvina 



Said to be brother to Bedlamite. 



CELEBRATED GREYHOUNDS OF THE PAST 133 

As a companion picture we now give the pedigree of Bab- 
at-the-Bowster. There are many who consider this bitch the 
best greyhound of all time, though her actual achievements do 
not equal those of her great opponent. True she won more 
courses — viz. sixty-two^but five times the flag went against 
her ; nevertheless she stands out from all others of her sex, 
and her gameness and stamina were wonderful. To have won 
such big events as the Scarisbrick Cup and the Douglas Cup 
two years in succession is a mighty record. Her merit in this 
respect is to be expected by students of running blood, as she 
is closely connected with the Scotland Yet strain through her 
sire Boanerges, son of Canaradzo, and through her paternal 
grandam Baffle. She goes back to King Cob, and is very 
much inbred to that pillar of the 'Stud Book' on her dam's side 
through Figaro, whose name occurs three times in five genera- 
tions. That Bab would have had her name enrolled in the 
list of Waterloo Cup winners had she not chanced to live in 
the days of McGrath is a moral certainty. 

We append a list of her winnings : — 



Meeting 


Courses 
Lost 


Courses 
Won 


Value 


1867-8 
Divided Scottish National St. Leger 
Divided Croxteth Stake at Altcar . 
Won two Courses Waterloo Cup . . 
Won Scarisbrick Cup at Southport 
Won Douglas Cup at Scottish National . 

1868-9 

Won Altcar Club Cup 

Divided Elsham Cup at Brigg 

Second for Waterloo Cup .... 

Won Scarisbrick Cup at Southport 

Lost first Course Douglas Cup at Scottish 

National 
Divided Biggar Stakes at Scottish National . 

1869-70 
Won Douglas Cup at Scottish National . 
Won one Course Brownlow Cup at Lurgan . 
Won three Courses Waterloo Cup . 
Divided Clifton Cup at Altcar. 


I 
1 

X 

1 
I 


5 
5 
2 

I 

5 

4 
5 
7 

4 
5 

i 


£ 

11 

25 

350 

180 

60 
105 
200 
300 

6S 

60 

30 
25 


5 


62 


1,540 



34 



COURSING 



The next to come under notice is Sea Cove, the Waterloo 
winner of 1870, and we give her pedigree as another instance 
of a successful combination of the same blood, through Black- 
cloud (an own brother to Beacon) on her dam's side, and 
through Bugle (own brother to Canaradzo) on her sire's side, 
whilst several traces of King Cob are found through Figaro. 



> 

O 

< ^ 



Q 
"ft 

H 
tn 



U 



Jacobite (Gibson) 



Forest Queen 
(Diiulop) 



Blackcloud 
(Borron) 



Eve (Hyslop) 



Bedlamite (Brown) 
Flounce (Fox) 



Ruthless King 
(Dunlop) 



Fornarina (Dunlop) 



Figaro 
Bessy Bedlam 



Carronade 
Gaunt 



Merry Monarch 
Ruby 



Dreadnought 
Judy 



Blue Light (Borron) 

Frolic (Lord 

Eglinton) 



Monsoon 
Stave 



Eden (Clemitson) 
Old Eve (Atkinson) 



Waterloo 
Clarinda 



Winspiel 
Brenda 



Tyrant 
Hannah 



Beacon (Borron) 



Scotland Yet 
(Campbell) 






A (Lambert) 



The Pullet 
(Black) 



Blue Light (Borron) 



Frolic (Lord 

Eglinton) 



Wigan (Hyslop) 
Veto (Greenshields) 
Bedlamite (Brown) 
Calypso (Lambert) 



Gamechicken 
(Anderson) 

Sultana (Surties) 



Monsoon 
Stave 



Waterloo 
Clarinda 



Drift 
Cutty Sark 



Dux 
Tillside Lass 



Figaro 
Bessy Bedlam 



Field Marshal 
Effie Deans 



Figaro 
Fancy 



Sultan 
Alice Grey 



CELEBRATED GREYHOUNDS OE THE PAST 135 



p 

" 



< 



1 

I 

1 


Lariston 
Hopmarket 


Liddesdale 
Hannah 


BowhiU 

Ladj' Seymour 


BuflF 
Cathowdie 


Bedlamite 
Cerito 


Figaro 
Bessie Bedlam 


Lingo 
Wanton 


Blackcloud 
Prize Flower 


Blue Light 
Frolic 


Monsoon 
Slave 


Waterloo 
Clarinda 


Paramount 
Isis 


Idas 
Pamela 


Probity 

Dam by Fantai 


u 

<: 
Pi 

w 

Oh 


•-> 


Motley 
Wanton 


Sam 
Tollwife 


Traveller 
Tippitywitchet 


King Cob 
Matilda Gillespie 


Senate 
Coquette ' 


Sadek 
Sanctity 


Kouli Khan 
Knavery 


Judg.^ 
Moll Troll 


John Bull 
Fudge 


Lodore 
Jane 


Oliver Twist 
Fairy 


Young Champion 

Maid of the Mill 
(Slater) 


Champion (Atkinson) 
Fly (Cuthbert) 





' Spelt by Thacker ' Koket.' 

Bed of Stone, who won the Waterloo Cup in 1872, was 
certainly a remarkable bitch, and showed to great advantage 
on the Altcar Flats. She gradually worked her way to the 
pinnacle of a greyhound's fame, for she won the Purse in 1870 
and the Plate in 1871. Her pedigree is full of the blood of 
Waterloo winners, and that of King Cob crops up on both sides. 
Her dam, Imperatrice, is a granddaughter of Judge, and her 
sire, Portland, a great-grandson of the triple winner Cerito. 



36 



COURSING 



Appended is a short pedigree of King Cob, which we have 
taken from the appendix to ' Stonehenge's ' well-known work on 
the Greyhound. Going beyond the dog himself we feel out 
of our depth, so refrain from any comment on his ancestry. 



KING COB, 1838, 

w and bd, 
Captain Daintree 


ION bd '34 


Stumps '28 
Ida '29 


Pilot 
Bliss 


Pilot 
Spring 


KATE r '33 


Deptford w '28 
Sis, to Fanny '29 


Gunshot, late Webb's Whirlwind, 
according to Mr. Howard, and 
not Lane Fox's, as generally 
given ; but Capt. Daintree 
gives it as Lord Rivers'; seventh 
from the bulldog 



Reverting to the time when the Waterloo Cup was a thirty- 
twQ dog stake, this list would certainly be incomplete without 
the addition of Cerito's pedigree, for this bitch won the stake 
three times, and although the feat was not to be compared with 
that of Master McGrath, when the nominations were doubled, 
the competition keener, and the eclat more coveted, yet it must 
be admitted that the performance was a most meritorious one. 



11 

►^ 


LINGO r '45 


Lark »b '43 
Lady bk 


Leader 
Tongue 


Gunshot 
Venus 


WANTON bd '41 


Emperor bk '35 
Blossom 


Helenus 

Fly 


, Haemus 
Hadiz a Higa 



Mr. Goodlake gives Best's Turk 1822, who was by Lane Fox's Txirk— Lord Rivers' Fly 

Cerito in all won forty-five courses out of fifty-three, and 
just 1,000/. in stakes, exclusive of trophies. 

In writing the name of Misterton as a celebrity of the past 
we almost seem guilty of an anachronism, for he has carried 
his powers as a stud dog to a comparatively recent date ; his 
sons and daughters are still running, and he has left plenty 
of sterling greyhounds to carry on one of the most successful 
strains of modern times ; and whilst such dogs as Mullingar, 
Aberbriant, &c., are advertised at stud (with them we shall 



CELEBRATED GREYHOUNDS OF THE PAST 137 



deal in a subsequent chapter), there is little fear of its being 
neglected. A glance at the subjoined pedigree will show a 
profusion of the ever-telling Scotland Yet blood combined with 
the equally desirable Judge cross. 



JSffl 

e5 



Jacobite 



Bedlamite 
Flounce 



Cardinal York | 



Forest Queen 



Lady Stormont 



Blue Ruin 



Ruthless King 
Fornarina 



Antipas 
Carolina 



Holiday (late 

j Jubilee) 



Skyrocket 
Jailbird 



Boanerges 



Mischief (late 
Bessy Bedlam) 



Canaradzo 



Baffle 



Beacon 
Scotland Yet 



Hughie Graham 
Wild Duck 



Priam 



Dam 



Priam 
Virago 



Mynheer (late Flying 
I Dutchman) 
Sister to Lass o' Gowrie 



King Death 



Chloe 



Canaradzo 
Annoyance 



Judge 

Clara 



Freshman 



Consequence 



Combat 
Lively 



Beacon 
Scotland Yet 



Heart of Oak (late 

Felling Pet) 
^iss Johnson 

John Bull 
Fudge 



Lopez 

Mrs. Kitty Brown 



Stanley 

Money Taker 
Click 'em in) 



(late 



Forerunner 
Linda 



David 
Remedy 



Motley 
Wanton 



Mechanic 
Ratcatcher's Daughter 



Misterton on his first appearance showed great promise, and 
was very unluckily beaten in the Newmarket Champion Puppy 
Stakes ; notwithstanding this he started at a good outside 
price for the Waterloo Cup. Having won it, his subsequent 



138 



COURSING 



performances were very moderate, but he proved a gold mine 
to Mr. Miller, and a complete list of winners by him would fill 
several pages. 



o So 
-o.c 



o « 

ffi-a 



Union Jack 



Scotia's Thistle 



Cardinal York 



Meg o* the Mil 



Bridegroom 
Attermire 



udge 
lartolozzi 



British Grenadier 
Lady Neville 



Selby 
Meg 



Barrator 
Ladylike 



Jacobite 
Forest Queen 



Bonnie Prince Charlie 
Fanny 



Bedlamite 
Flounce 



Ruthless King 
The Fornarina 



Bonnie Prince 
Charlie 



Fanny 



Cardinal Wiseman 
The Widow 



John o' Badenyon 
Kepentance 



Cauld Kail 



Bergamot 



Union Jack 



Scotia's Thistle 



Bridegroom 
Attermire 



Selby 
Meg 



Sackcloth 



Darkness 



Senate 
Cinderella 



Jacobite 
Queen of Hearts 



Strange Idea 



Curiosity 



Cardinal York 



High Idea 



Jacobite 
Forest Queen 



Bugle 



Banter 



Blackcloud 

Eve (late Jane's my 
Darling ) 



Beacon 
Scotland Yet 



Abk 

The Pullet or Emily 
Deans or Miami 



Honey wood, the winner of the Waterloo Cup, 1880, was 
inbred to Cauld Kail, and possessed an infusion of the Beacon- 
Scotland Yet blood, his dam, Humming Bird, being out of 
Baby Blake, out of Curiosity by Bugle. 

There seems to be a general impression that the pedigree 



CELEBRATED GREYHOUNDS OF THE PAST 139 

of Coomassie is not absolutely authenticated. With this doubt, 
which we are not in a position to traverse, we shall not give 
a tabulated pedigree, but shall reprint the following particu- 
lars of this ' pocket edition ' from vol. 41 of the ' Coursing 
Calendar.' Coomassie, a light fawn bitch, by Celebrated out of 
Queen (whelped March 10, 1875), was bred by Mr. J. Cafley, 
of Runham, near Yarmouth. The dam of Queen was Cottage 
Girl by Monarch out of Nell, the property of Mr. Bulwer ; she 
ran years ago at a local meeting near Yarmouth. Magic was 
the property of Mr. Pollard, of Burgh St. Peter. The sire of 
Celebrated was Mr. Allen's f. w. d. Albatross by TuUochgorum 
(own brother to King Death) out of Cygnet by Brewer out of 
Glimpse at Glory (an own sister to Gaudy Poll), and through 
this Coomassie has the same excellent strain of blood as 
Bed of Stone had. Gilderoy had this strain, as he was by 
Crossfell out of Gaudy Poll. Queen was by Captain Dod's 
r.w.d. Lord Derby by May Morning out of Lady Bathilde. 
The dam of Celebrated was Mr. Cafley's Caribella by Magic 
out of Regalia,' Magic by Joe out of Topsy. 

The measurements of Coomassie, corrected by Mr. J. T. 
Shaw, Northallerton, are appended. 

Coomassie 

Head. — From tip of snout to joining on to neck, 9 in. ; girth of 

head between eyes and ears, 13 in. ; girth of snout, 7 in. ; distance 

between the eyes, 2 in. 
Neck. — Length of joining on from head to shoulders 7J in. ; girth 

round neck, 13 in. 
Back.—YTOVCi neck to base of tail, 22^^ in. ; length of tail, \(i\ in. 
Hips. — Length of loin from junction of last rib to hipbone, 8^ in. ; 

length from hipbone to socket of thigh-joint, ']\ in. 
Fore leg. — From base of two middle nails to fetlock-joint, 2.\ in. ; 

from fetlock-joint to elbow-joint, 10^ in. ; from elbow-joint to 

shoulder-blade, 11^ in. ; thickness of the fore leg before the 

elbow, 6 in. 
Hind leg. —From hock to stifle-joint, 10 in. ; from stifle to top of 

hipbone, 10^ in. ; girth of ham part of thigh, iS^in. ; thickness 

of second thigh below stifle, T^ in. 



I40 



COURSING 



Body. — Girth round depth of chest, 27 in. ; girth round the loins, 
I9i in. 
Weight the day before starting for the Cup, 44 lbs. 

As a marked contrast to this little creature we give the 

measurements of the 1881 Waterloo Cup winner, Princess 

Dagmar, who was a remarkably fine slashing bitch. She was 
bred on the same lines as Misterton : — 



< 
% 

P4 



Cashier 



Bab-at-the-Bow- 
ster 



Waywarden (late 
Leek Kail) 



Bocca Chica 



Cardinal York 
Lady Stormont 



Boanerges 



Mischief (late 

Bessy Bedlam) 



Cauld Kail 
Charmer 



Strange Idea 
Witchery 



Jacobite 
Forest Queen 



Blue Ruin 
Holiday 



Canaradzo 
Baffle 



Priam 

Dam by Mynheer (late 
Flying Dutchman) 



Union Jack 
Scotia's Thistle 



Canaradzo 
Speculation 



Cardinal York 
High Idea 



Canaradzo 
Speculation 



Elsecar 



Peggy Taft 



Engineer 



Snow 



Patent 
Jessica 



David 
Lady Clara 



Gallant Graham 
Emily 



Regan 
Cordelia 



Nimrod 
Princess Royal 



Canaradzo 
Benton Belle 
Gaspard 
Nellie 



Harold ' 
Benton Belle 



Beacon 
Scotland Yet 



Fyson 
The Pullet 



Beacon ^ 

Miss Nightingale 



Grasper 
Moonlight 



* A stolen service. 



CELEBRATED GREYHOUNDS OF THE PAST 141 



Princess Dagmar 

Head. — From tip of snout to joining on to head, 8^ in. ; girth of 
head between eyes and ears, 13^ in. ; girth of snout, 8^ in. ; 
distance between the eyes, 2 in. 

Neck. — Length of joining on from head to shoulders, 9^ in. ; girth 
round neck, 13! in. 

Back. — From neck to base of tail, 24 in. ; length of tail, 19 in. 

Hips. — Length of loin from junction of last rib to hipbone, 8| in. ; 
length of hipbone to socket of thigh-joint, 5^ in. 

Fore leg. — From base of two middle nails to knee-joint, 6 in. ; 
from knee-joint to elbow-joint, 9^^ in. ; from elbow-joint to 
shoulder-blade, 12 in. ; girth (thickness of the fore leg below 
the elbow), 6 in. 

Hind leg. — From hock to stifle-joint, iif in. ; from stifle to top of 
hipbone, 12\ in. ; girth of ham part of thigh, 16^ in. ; thickness of 
second thigh below stifle, 9^ in. 

Body. — Girth round depth of chest, 27 in. ; girth round the loins, 
23 in. 
Weight the day before starting for the Cup, 58 lbs. 

A comparison of measurements is very interesting, for it 
will be noticed that in several points the little bitch exceeds 
the other, and, despite the disparity in size, she equals her in 
chest measurements. 

Another sterling bitch that now claims our attention is 
Snowflight, who won the Waterloo Cup in 1882 and ran up 
the following year. She was the first of Bothal Park's progeny 
to show up conspicuously, but since her victory he has 
produced a long list of winners and added to the lustre of 
Scotland Yet, to whom Snowflight traces back on both 
sides. 



142 



COURSING 



fe 2 
IZiH 



Cashier 



Bab-at-the-Bow- 
ster 



Black Boyd 



Gang-a-wee 



Cardinal York 



Lady Stormont 



Boanerges 



Mischief (late 

Bessy Bedlam) 



Cardinal York 



Hurrara (late 

Blossom) 



Clansman (I^te 
Nana Sahib) 



Bergamot 



Jacobite 
Forest Queen 



Blue Ruin 
Holiday 



Canaradzo 
Baffle 



Priam 

Dam to Mynheer (late 
Flying Dutchman) 



Jacobite 
Forest Queen 



Sackcloth 
Winifred 



Acrobat 
Tela 



Sackcloth 
Darkness 



Linnaeus 



Spendthrift 



St. George 



Lu.xur>' (late Con- 
vent Chime) 



Seagull (late Reveller) 
Seaweed 



Monk of Thorney (late 

Seth) 
Mazourka 



Canaradzo 



Speculation 



Beacon 
Scotland Yet 



Judge 
Banter 



Kingwater 



Widow Machree 



Jacobite 
Meg 



Bedlamite 
Flounce 



Bonnie Prince Charlie 
Fanny 



The Bounding Elk 



Old Grannie 



Baron 
Fairy Queen 



Captain 
Lady 



CELEBRATED GREYHOUNDS OF THE PAST 143 



Herrera was one of the most successful sires of modern 
times, and when his pedigree is carefully examined the reason 
of this success is easily perceived. 









King Death 



Chloe 



Cardinal York 



Meg 



Canaradzo 
Annoyance 



Judge 
Clara 



Jacobite 
Forest Queen 



Beacon 
Scotland Yet 



Heart of Oak 
Miss Johnson 



John Bull 
Fudge 



Lopez 

Mrs. Kitty Brown 



Bedlamite 
Flounce 



Bonnie Prince 
Charlie 



Fanny 



Ruthless King 
The Fornarina 



Cardinal Wiseman 
The Widow 



John o' Badenj'on 
Repentance 



Cardinal York 



Lady Stormont 



Cauld Kail 



Bergamot 



Jacobite 
Forest Queen 



Blue Ruin 

Holiday (late 
Jubilee) 



Union Jack 
Scotia's Thistle 



Sackcloth 
Darkness 



Bedlamite 
Flounce 



Ruthless King 
The Fornarina 



Antipas 
Carolina 



Skyrocket 
Jailbird 



Bridegroom 
Attermire 



Selby 
Meg 



Senate 
Cinuerella 



Jacobite 
Queen of Hearts 



Herrera won nine courses out of ten as a puppy, but met 
with an accident, and although he ran again he never recovered 
his form. 

The last pedigree we publish in this chapter is that of 
Macpherson, who may be placed in the same category as 
Misterton, as he has passed away recently, and seems to belong 



144 



COURSING 



more to the present than the past. Macpherson was a good 
greyhound, and won the Waterloo purse in Snowflight's year 
(1882), but it is as a sire that his name will live, and the names 
of Herschel, Greater Scot, Happy Rondelle, Rhoda Macpherson, 
Jock Macpherson, Lance Macpherson, and a host of others 
are a credit to any dog. In the chapter on theoretical breeding 
we have taken occasion to allude to him as one of the greatest 
pillars of the ' Stud Book,' and the representative of a strain 
that must never be lost sight of. His sire. Master Sam, 
was a son of Contango and one of the speediest greyhounds 
ever slipped, but a bad killer. The descendants of Macpherson 
are usually very fast, but they likewise display sterling clever- 
ness, a fact borne out by the running of Happy Rondelle — who 
when at her best was a gem of the first water — Herschel, one 
of the best greyhounds of all time, and Greater Scot. 

In siring the two last named Macpherson shares with 
Greentick the honour of having begotten co-dividers of the 
Waterloo Cup. 

By glancing at the appended pedigree it will be seen that 
the excellence of the strain is the combination of the Contango 
and Judge blood, the latter derived through Fusilier, sire of 
Annie Macpherson. 





Pi 

£ 


MASTER 
SAM 


Contango 
Carlton 


Cashier 
Bab-at-the-Bowster 


Cardinal York 
Lady Stormont 


Boanerges 

Mischief (late Bessy 
Bedlam) 


Samuel 

Lucy (late Rachel) 


David 
Patch 


Pugilist 
Cinderella 


ANNIE 

Mcpher- 
son 


Fusilier 

Maid of Pow- 
hillon 


Picton 
Blooming Daisy 


Jacobite 
Forest Queen 


Judge 
Fanny Fern 


Black Tom 
Miller's Maid 


Wellington 
Bessie 


Merry Miller 
Alice 



MS 



CHAPTER VIII 

OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS 

When chatting with the coursing fraternity on subjects 
connected with their favourite sport, one is often asked, 
' Which do you consider the best greyhound of all time ? ' 
* Who is the most successful courser ? ' 'What is the best-looking 
greyhound you ever saw ? ' and so on. When engaged in the 
writing of this work of love, it struck us that a consensus of 
opinions on these leading questions, gleaned from those whose 
knowledge and experience of coursing matters are undeniable, 
would prove of interest to our readers. With a view to this we 
sent circulars to a large number of the leading owners, trainers, 
and breeders, the result being that most interesting matter 
was returned, furnishing tables that must prove of the greatest 
value to all those who have made a hobby of this ancient and 
fascinating sport. 

The questions put were as follows : — 

1. Give in your opinion the twelve greatest greyhounds of 
the century. 

2. Name absolutely the best you have ever seen run. 

3. Give in your opinion the twelve most successful stud 
dogs of the last thirty years. 

4. Name the most successful living one. 

5. Describe the best contested and most exciting course you 
ever saw. 

6. Name the six best-looking dogs or bitches you remember 
to have seen. 

7. In your opinion, have greyhounds improved or de- 



146 COURSING 

teriorated of late years ; and to what do you attribute such 
improvement or deterioration ? 

8. State whom you consider 

{a) The most successful Courser 
ip) „ „ Breeder 

{c) ,; „ Trainer 

{d) » » Judge 

{e) „ „ Slipper 

9. Relate any anecdotes or incidents relating to greyhounds 
or coursing that may prove of interest to readers of this 
volume. 

10. What do you consider the best coursing ground, 

(a) In England and Wales ; 
\b) In Scotland ; 
if) In Ireland? 

11. Do you think it prejudicial to the welfare of a sapling 
to run him 

{a) At an enclosed meeting when the shield is moved half- 
way up the ground ; 
ip) In the open ? 

12. Your opinion on any other matters connected with 
coursing will be highly esteemed. 

Now, in the first place, let us analyse the returns as relating to 
the ' greyhounds of the century.' As might be expected. Master 
McGrath heads the poll with 32 votes, and Bab-at-the- 
Bowster follows with two fewer, whilst FuUerton comes third 
with 26, a reversal of the order we had expected ; the fact being 
that there are a few old coursers who took exception to the 
latter's style on the occasion of his winning (or rather dividing) 
his first Waterloo Cup, a prejudice that time and most brilliant 
achievements have not altogether effaced. But we confess it 
does seem strange that any of those answering the questions — 
even though they considered the claims of one or two other 
dogs and bitches to surpass those of Fullerton — should go so 



OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS 147 

far as to omit his name altogether from the list of the twelve 
best dogs of the century. Let these remarks suffice for the 
present ; elsewhere we have entered more closely into the 
merits of .this remarkable dog. To proceed, Coomassie and 
Miss Glendyne tie with 25 votes, then there is a drop to 18 — 
a number obtained by Bed of Stone. Herschel is two behind 
with 16, Greentick and Cerito tie with 13 each, Patent has 10, 
and Honeymoon and Lobelia tie for last place with 8 ; the 
lionoured twelve reading as follows : — 

Votes 

Master McGrath 32 

Bab-at-the-Bowster 28 

Fullerton . 27 

Coomassie 



Miss Glendyne '' ^ 

Bed of Stone 18 

Herschel 16 

Greentick 





7 

o f Greentick ] 

^ Cerito y^ 

10. Patent 10 

Honeymoon \ 9, 

Lobelia ) 

Others that have received a fair share of notice are 
Mocking Bird, Princess Dagmar, Honeywood, Chloe, David, 
Canaradzo, Rebe, Gay City, Misterton, and Riot ; whilst a whole 
host have received one or two votes each. Even Simonian is 
included in the list by one enthusiast, which shows that in some 
cases the form has been filled up without due consideration ; 
for surely this promising yf;? de siede puppy (1891) had hardly, 
when the question was put, done sufficient to ensure himself a 
niche in the temple of fame. 

With regard to the second question — viz : ' Name the best 
greyhound you have ever seen run ' — Fullerton, being fresh in 
everyone's memory, gets a good majority. The older coursers 
go for Master McGrath, with the exception of three, two of 
whom name Babat-the-Bowster and the remaining one Patent. 

The following is the return for the twelve most successful 
stud dogs of the past thirty years : — 

L 2 



148 



COURSING 



Votes 

30 
28 
27 
26 
18 
17 



14 



12 



II 



1. Greentick 

2. Misterton 

3. Contango 

4. Macpherson 

5. Patent . 

6. Canaradzo 
f Ptarmigan 

^i Judge . 
( David . 
' 1 Cardinal York 
/ Countryman 
II- Paris . 
V Brigadier 

whilst Beacon, Clyto, Fusilier, Master Sam, Bothal Park, 
Bedlamite, King Death, Jester, and Cashier have all gained 
more than six votes. 

Of course Greentick's name at the head of the poll was 
a foregone conclusion, and well he deserves the honour; so 
also was it certain that breeders would not forget Misterton, 
Contango, and Macpherson ; but we must confess to a feeling 
of considerable surprise at not finding Beacon's name higher up, 
though the compliments to his descendants are a sufficient 
testimony to his own merits. 

Clyto, again, is one who might have received more sub- 
stantial recognition, and we fancy that his blood will be very 
highly prized in the near future. 

For the best stud dog of the day Greentick * walks in,' as 
they say in racing parlance. 

Of course there is an immense diversity of opinion when it 
comes to electing the six best-looking dogs and bitches within 
the memory of voters. The results gave : — 

1. FuUerton , . . . . 

2. Miss Glendyne 16 

3. Bit of Fashion 9 

4. Lauderdale , . .8 

( Honeymoon \ , 

' \ Princess Dagmar J 



Votes 
18 



OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS i49 

with Canaradzo, Shepherdess, Jester, Chloe, Mespilus, London, 
and Greater Scot, close up. It will be seen from the reduction 
of the poll that the question has been altogether shirked by 
quite a third of those who have answered others ; and we frankly 
admit the difficulty that lies in making a satisfactory selection. 
We were pleased to find that Lauderdale, who was a shining 
light on the show bench, had not escaped notice ; undoubtedly 
he was a grand specimen of the greyhound to look at, and we 
believe, unlike most show dogs of the breed, was a useful per- 
former in his day and secured a fair share of stakes. 

Fullerton could hold his own in any show ring, as also could 
his dam and her peerless half-sister, whilst a really grand- 
looking dog is Colonel North's Not Out by Greentick — Miss 
Glendyne, consequently own brother to Cagliostro. Handsome 
is as handsome does, and though Master McGrath was, we are 
told, by no means the sort to take a prize at a beauty show, 
the sons and daughters of Greentick from Paris bitches are 
pleasing both to the eye and the pocket. 

Beauty may only be skin deep, but that skin often covers a 
conformation calculated to realise a courser's fondest hopes, and 
long may it be so. 

The accounts of the most exciting and best contested 
courses are somewhat meagre ; for instance, a man of such 
experience as Mr. William Ellis names that between Master 
McGrath and Bab-at-the-Bowster in the deciding course for 
the Waterloo Cup, but omits to favour us with particulars from 
his own point of view, which would surely be interesting ; but 
another writer, choosing the same course, thus describes it : — 

The bitch was going the faster, until the hare bearing to the 
dog's side crossed the drain by a hare-bridge. In taking the drain 
the bitch had to go round by a post at the end of the bridge, or 
she would have made the turn — a point just achieved by the dog ; 
the course continued in three wide circles in which ' six of one and 
half a dozen of the other ' was the cr)-- ; at last the dog, on the 
inside, wrenched and killed, thus winning a grandly contested 
course. 



ISO COURSING 

Mr. Edward Dent, whose remarkable success as a breeder, 
trainer, and courser is almost unprecedented, speaks as 
follows : — 

1 have many times stood alone at Altcar, placed where I 
thought it best to be to pick up my dog. With none near me, but 
I shall never forget the roar from the crowd when Fullerton drew 
out for the finest kill I ever saw made in my life, and he also made a 
point during this course • which for quickness and sagacity I never 
saw equalled. The following were remarkably fine performances, 
and all intensely exciting : — 

Phoebus beating Gay City 
Gay City beating Greater Scot 
Greater Scot beating Gay City 
Miss Glendyne beating Greater Scot 
„ „ beating Penelope II. 

The greatest race I ever saw to the hare was at Haydock, 
between Greentick and Nolan ; they ran neck and neck for at least 
300 yards, and the former just shot out for the turn. Nolan never 
got over it. 

When Princess Dagmar ran her first course at Newmarket, the 
hare dropped dead inside the Jerusalem Covert, and her opponent 
(Haford) died half a mile before reaching it. The bitch lay down 
just outside, but notwithstanding this terrific gruelling, she came 
out and won two more courses, and in the interval of three months 
divided at Plumpton and won the Waterloo Cup. When she ran 
at Newmarket she must have been very well and trained to the 
hour. 

The longest course ever run in my time was between England 
Yet and Bishop Juxton, this being the 'decider' for the Uffington 
Cup at Ashdowr. 

We have already spoken of the course between Master 
McGrath and Bab-at-the-Bowster in the Waterloo Cup of 1869. 

' Mr. Dent omits to say which of Fullerton's numerous Waterloo 
courses he refers to, but we presume it was the final for the Waterloo 
Cup, 1891. Whatever the great dog lacked in killingpower as a pupj^y, there 
is no doubt that this weak spot in his performance was quite remedied 
subsequently ; for during the campaigns of 1890-91 he was handy 
enough with his teeth and made some remarkably fine kills. 



OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS 151 

This is selected by no fewer than five coursers as by far the 
best contested and most exciting they had ever witnessed ; and 
of these three are strongly of opinion that, had the bitch been 
better placed, the remarkable record of the little Irishman 
would have been somewhat tarnished. It was obviously owing 
to a close and skilful observance of this course that Bab-at-the 
Bowster is, on several papers, pronounced the greyhound of the 
century. 

It will be observed that one of the courses named by Mr. 
Dent was that between Gay City and Greater Scot at Kempton ; 
and Mr. G. M. Williams, a courser of considerable experience, 
refers to this, remarking that, though the son of Paris fell, he 
was quite under the impression that he finished a winner. We 
were ourselves a witness of this course, which was undoubtedly 
a most exciting one, and our opinion as to the result quite tallies 
with that of Mr. Williams. 

The following courses are named once : — 

Between Bed of Stone and Lurline 
„ Honeymoon and Corby Castle 
„ Fullerton and Real Lace 
„ Burnaby and Duke Macpherson 

It will be noticed that nearly all have been fought out on 
classic Altcar, and there are several reasons why such records 
live in the minds of spectators. In the first place, excitement 
runs higher on these occasions, and the impressions are there- 
fore calculated to be more lasting ; secondly, the high class of 
dog competing tends to well-contested and exciting trials ; and, 
finally, the nature of the ground lends itself to the highest tests 
of a greyhound's merit. 

Before closing our remarks on the answers to this question, 
it will be interesting to note the opinion of no less an authority 
than Mr. James Hedley. During the intervals of coursing on 
the occasion of a recent Waterloo Cup contest, in conver- 
sation with the judge we asked him whit was the best con- 
tested, cleverest, and most exciting course he had ever seen. He 



152 COURSING 

paused, but only for a second or two, and then replied decidedly, 
' That between Miss Glendyne and Penelope II. in the final for 
the Cup.' It will be seen that Mr. Dent has made particular 
mention of this trial, and we fancy that there are very many 
skilled coursers who will readily endorse the verdict of our lead- 
ing judge. The course is thus described by 'Robin Hood': — 

From a splendid slip Penelope II. quickly began to show in 
front, and held the lead for quite two-thirds of the ran up, then 
Miss Glendyne, who was certainly slow in getting into her stride, 
began to get on terms, and, after drawing level, made a great 
effort on nearing the hare, and eventually made the turn just over 
a length in front ; the hare went to Penelope II.'s. side, and she 
swept round with it for two short points before Miss Glendyne 
resumed possession, and then a couple of exchanges followed, after 
which the brindled drew out for a wrench and a fine kill, thus 
winning a viery exciting trial. 

When we consider what a pigmy Penelope II. was, her per- 
formance in this spin was really marvellous, and she must have 
been made of the best stuff". 

The question relating to the improvement or deterioration 
of greyhounds we will leave for subsequent discussion, and will 
pass on to the ballot for pride of place as courser, breeder, 
trainer, judge and slipper respectively. 

Taking the first named, we find Colonel North at the head 
of the poll with 2 1 votes ; Mr. E. Dent, 1 1 ; Mr. H. G. 
Miller, 9 ; the Earl of Haddington, i ; Mr. Hornby, i ; Mr. 
Gladstone, i. 

Undoubtedly the success of Colonel North as an owner 
of greyhounds has been phenomenal as far as it has gone, and 
it is hardly to be wondered at that those who have filled in the 
forms should pronounce him the most successful courser of 
modern times. We believe it was Mr. W. J. Hope-Johnstone 
who recruited him to our ranks, and who acted as guide, 
philosopher, and friend during his novitiate. His first 
important purchases were, if we remember rightly, Jock Scot 
and Mickleton, both good second-rate dogs, with which he 



OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS 153 

took a stake or two ; but in the Waterloo Cup of his first year 
(1888) he was represented by a real good one in Duke Mac- 
pherson, and when this puppy met an older and more seasoned 
opponent in Burnaby in the finale, we were treated to a most 
exciting tussle, and the old one only just pulled through. 
Shortly after. Colonel North had the misfortune to lose this 
most promising youngster ; but he was not to be denied, and, 
in the face of this disaster, he outstayed all opposition when 
FuUerton was placed before Mr. Rymill's rostrum at the memor- 
able sale of Messrs. Dent and Hibbert's greyhounds. The price 
(860/.) was a long one, but the purchase has proved most profit- 
able, and the young dog's first essay under the new ownership 
quite recouped the purchaser, who was also rewarded when he 
gave a good round sum for the beautiful half-sisters and co-divi- 
ders of the Waterloo Cup, Bit of Fashion and Miss Glendyne ; 
and it is somewhat remarkable that, when mated with the same 
dog, the bitch who was doubtless of inferior class has produced 
the best runners. At present Miss Glendyne's reputation as a 
matron rests upon decent performers such as Cagliostro and 
Not Out ; but how ran she compare in the stud-book with 
Bit of Fashion, the dam of Fullerton, Simonian, Young 
Fullerton, Jupon Vert, Kate Cuthbert, and others ? 

From Messrs. Thomson, Colonel North purchased Trough - 
end, who soon made a capital beginning to his career ; and 
when this dog, somewhat luckily be it confessed, divided 
the Cup with his kennel companion, also lucky in having met 
the mighty Herschel when that dog was quite spun out, the 
Colonel had good reason to shake hands heartily with him- 
self, and to glow with gratitude towards those friends who 
had counselled him when making selections for his kennel, 
and choosing a trainer. Nor did his success stop here ; for, 
as everyone interested in coursing knows, Fullerton stalled 
off all opposition, and easily secured the coveted blue ribbon 
of the leash the three following years. When we say easily we 
must pause to remark that the overthrow of the big dog was 
very nearly being brought about by his younger brother and 



154 COURSING 

kennel companion Simonian, in the first round of the Cup, 1891 ; 
and we may mention in parenthesis that when the names 
of Colonel North's two cracks were drawn together from the 
classic jug, there was a good deal of commiseration showered 
on the owner ; but the sequel proved that nothing could have 
been more fortunate. When these two went to the slips there 
was much curiosity and excitement, as Mr. Dent had not 
hesitated to state his opinion that the younger dog was the 
faster, though he would not hear of the elder being beaten. To 
a bad hare the black came at a great pace from the slips, and soon 
showed in front. We were luckily placed for the run up, which 
was not a long one, and we should say the puppy finished a 
good length in front, Fullerton never having fairly got into his 
stride. After making the turn, however, Simonian went wide 
and let in the brindle, who put in two or three dashing points 
in his own inimitable style before letting in the other, who 
wrenched twice and then just failed to kill, when Fullerton took 
possession, and using puss smartly for a couple of minor points, 
picked her up and just won. This was a scrambling course 
with a weak hare, and till the flag went up there was some uncer- 
tainty as to the result. Later on the brindle improved on this 
form and wound up with another brilliant victory, whilst his early 
opponent and younger brother ran through the Purse in grand 
style. Here is Colonel North's record for his four essays in 
the classic event of the coursing year : — 



1888 Duke Macph 
go ( Fullerton 
^i Troughend . 

1 890 Fullerton 

1 89 1 Fullerton 


erson . . Ran up for Cup 
• s Divided Cup 

. Won Cup 
. Won Cup 


1 89 1 Simonian 


. Won Purse 


1892 Fullerton 


. Won Cup 



Besides these wonderful achievements, the Colonel has won a 
number of good stakes with such dogs as Mickleton, Tarset, 
Blue Green, Huic Holloa, Nuneaton, Not Out, Netheravon, 
Kate Cuthbert, &c. ; and as long as he sticks to the strain 



OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS 155 

of which he is the fortunate possessor, nothing but a complete 
reversal of the luck that has followed him can prevent him from 
appropriating a good share of the plums of the season. 

The brilliant career of this meteor on the coursing 
firmament has thrown into shade the consistent shining of 
such stars as Mr. Dent and Mr. Miller. The former is so 
closely identified wnth the success of Colonel North that 
the honour is due to him even in a greater degree than to the 
owner ; not only did he breed Fullerton and his progenitors on 
the dam's side, but he also trained them for all their engage- 
ments, and certainly no trainer of modern times can show such a 
record as regards the special preparation requisite for success at 
Altcar. The eleven voters who named Mr. Dent as the most 
successful courser must have borne these facts in mind, and in 
the highest sense of the word theirs is a happy selection \ for we 
take it that there is a distinction to be drawn between a courser 
and an oivner, and in the former capacity there is no doubt 
that Mr. Dent easily bears off the palm. 

Mr. Miller, who comes third, has very great claims ; in fact, 
in all-round coursing his successes, if totted up, would, we fancy, 
exceed those of the master of Shortt Flatt, though as regards 
the Waterloo contest his record is not so brilliant. Misterton's 
victory came as a pleasant surprise, judging by the price 
at which he started ; and from this mighty sire sprang a 
host of winners to do honour to the Dorsetshire courser. 
Mullingar, Millington, Middleton, Madeleine, Mickleton, 
Match Girl are but a few from a long list, and a reference 
to the table of winners got by the Waterloo Cup winner 
of 1879 will reveal many a winner that credited Mr. Miller 
with good stakes. Of late years Mr. Gladstone, by the aid 
of Greentick and his descendants, can show a brilliant list 
of triumphs ; while the Messrs. Fawcett, who stick religiously 
to their own particular strain, can be quoted as coursers whose 
success has been conspicuous of late — a remark that also 
applies to Mr. Hornby and the Messrs. Thomson. 

Mr. Dent, of course, heads the list of breeders with 27 



156 COURSING 

votes, and what we have already said renders further comment 
needless. Mr. Miller can, on the same grounds, be dismissed 
with the remark that he takes second place with 13 votes, 
whilst Mr. Hayward is the only other breeder who has 
gained suffrage. This gentleman, who bred, amongst a host 
of other good ones, that sterling little bitch Happy Rondelle 
(whose litter brothers and sisters, Have-a-Care, lulus, and 
Rotula, were all good winners) by Macpherson — Rota, has 
a wide knowledge and experience and a fine faculty for 
pedigrees, only equalled by that of Mr. Ellis and Mr. N. 
Dunn. Once more Mr. Dent heads the poll as a trainer 
with 23 votes, the late Archie Coke coming second with 11 
and J. Coke following with 9 ; but as this vote is practically 
identical, the mass brings this kennel to 21 votes, which is a 
strong testimony to the esteem in which it is held and to the 
success that has attended its efforts. Many an owner can bear 
witness to the integrity and energy of the late veteran, and the 
establishment now presided over by his son is patronised by 
some of the most influential and enthusiastic followers of the 
greyhound. 

We now come to an opinion on the merits of the judges of 
the day. Two stand out conspicuously, and these are Mr. 
James Hedley and Mr. Brice. It is easy to see what the opinion 
of the coursing world is; for the former gains 31 votes to 7 
scored by Mr. Brice, and the election of the former as judge 
of the Waterloo meeting year after year by a large majority 
speaks volumes for the confidence which nominators repose 
in him. We take it that, with Mr. Hedley put out of the 
question, Mr. Brice would distance all other opponents quite 
as markedly, as there is no doubt that he is held in very 
high esteem by all classes of coursing men and also by 
the pubhc. He is always steady, careful, and entirely impartial 
in his decisions, and his services, especially in the South, are 
in great request. The advent of Judge Hedley marked 
a new era in the sport ; for we are informed by the most 
competent authorities that the earlier systems and methods of 



OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS 157 

deciding trials were far from satisfactory, and he (Mr. Hedley) 
was the first to mitigate the nuisance of undecideds — an evil 
that had previously flourished to an irritating and dangerous 
extent ; one courser of long experience informing us that in the 
old days he had seen the judge's hat come off no fewer than five 
times for one trial, which shows how the practice was used as a 
foil to the confusion and vacillation of judges. 

Tom Wilkinson scores as easily in the list of slippers as 
Mr. Hedley did in that of judges, receiving as many as 
27 votes. Some of the older generation of coursers 'go for' 
Tom Raper, so that he is second with it. This slipper is 
beyond our memory, but the fathers of the sport speak of 
him in terms of the highest praise. Jeffery and Bootiman 
get I vote each, and they are undoubtedly painstaking and 
skilful men. 

Opinions differ considerably as to the merits of the various 
coursing grounds, but with regard to the English venues 
Amesbury is held in highest esteem, and is voted for by fifteen 
of those who filled up the forms. Altcar and Border Union 
are next with seven. Other grounds that are thought well of 
are Ashdown, Newmarket and Brigg. Carmichael is, par excel- 
lence^ the pick of the Scotch meetings, whilst Upper Nithsdale 
and Kelso Border Ground are also noticed. With one voice 
Lurgan is pronounced the ideal of Irish coursing, and we 
have been told that this ground will bear comparison with any 
in the United Kingdom. 

With reference to the question, Which have been the most 
successful sires within the last thirty years ? we will go somewhat 
further back, and give a rough sketch of the best strains as 
far as we have any information which can be relied upon ; and 
that, as all breeders know, at the cost of much time and temper, 
is most meagre. 

The average generation of a greyhound is about five years ; 
by which is meant, that from Topham's Snowball, who was 
pupped about 1796, to the present time we shall find in any 
pedigree about nineteen or twenty generations. And the usual 



158 COURSING 

age of successful breeding seems to tally with this period. 
But there are very great exceptions. We have not been able to 
go further back than Lord Orford's Czarina, who was pupped 
about 1778. She was the grandmother of Snowball. It is 
recorded of her that she won forty- seven matches, and never 
was beaten. A melancholy interest attaches to her last appear- 
ance, as her owner. Lord Orford, was so excited at seeing his 
favourite win that he fell off his pony and died. 

This bitch is the progenitor of all our best greyhounds, we 
might almost say of all greyhounds of the present day. She 
was exceptional in every way. Not only was she an exception- 
ally good performer, but she was exceptional in breeding : 
we are told that she did not breed till she was thirteen years 
old, and then she bred Claret and Vengeance, two very good 
greyhounds, of which Claret was the sire of Snowball and 
Major. This is more exceptional than it would seem at first 
sight ; for very few bitches have bred at that age, and none that 
we know of have produced winners, even if they had litters. Mr. 
G. Carruthers's Meg, by Terrona, the winner of the Waterloo 
Cup, is the only instance we have come across at all like that of 
Czarina. She bred Bellini when she was twelve years old, and 
he in his turn has got some winners. We believe she had a litter 
when she was fourteen years old, but do not think any of the 
produce could be called successful. It is rare for greyhounds 
to produce anything good at the age of ten years. Out of a 
list of about 2,400 successful breeders, there are only about no 
of that age or more. Those of the age of eleven and twelve 
are very few indeed, certainly not twenty ; while not one has 
attained the age of Czarina — thirteen years. It is to be under- 
stood that the point dwelt upon is success in breeding, not in 
running. It is possible that Misterton may have winners to 
represent him begotten when he was thirteen years old ; but 
we cannot tell if they will, in their turn, be successful as 
breeders. That is the point. David and Meg are the only 
two we know who have produced successful breeders at the age 
of twelve years. 



OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS 159 

It will now be clear that Czarina must have been truly 
an extraordinary greyhound ; and from her must date an 
improvement in the quality of the breed. Her sons, Claret 
and Vengeance, were famous ; but still more was Topham's 
Snowball, the Eclipse of the leash, and his brother, Thornton's 
Major, who were her grandsons. Snowball never was beaten, 
and his fame was so great that Sir Walter Scott immortalised 
him in verse. From him and from his brother Major come 
all our successful runners, through Senate and Oliver Twist. 
Most probably King Cob, who might be compared to Touch- 
stone, was of the same blood. He was of what would be 
called in those days the Newmarket breed. Gunshot, one of 
his ancestors, is said to be of Lord Rivers's , breed ; and Lord 
Rivers's Rhoda, a favourite brood bitch, was a granddaughter 
of Snowball. Other breeders about Newmarket, such as Inskip 
and Hassall, would value the strain as highly as he did. There 
is probably not a greyhound now running who has not King 
Cob as his progenitor. 

Lidderdale's Champion, Best's Streamer, and later on 
Hassall's Hercules and Longden's Old Derbyshire Grasper, were 
all of this breed. 

It is difficult for us at the present time to say which were the 
successful breeders among greyhounds in the early years of this 
century ; there was so much more private breeding then, and 
with it so much jealousy in keeping successful strains to their 
own kennel, and a dislike to give information on the subject. Un - 
fortunately for us, Thacker was aware of this feeling, and excused 
some of his mistakes in his ' Annual ' on the ground that it would 
have been an impertinence in him to have written to a breeder of 
greyhounds for information on the subject. As a consequence, 
the records of pedigrees are faulty in detail. 

When we come to Hill's Bachelor in 1828, and to Daintree's 
King Cob in 1838, we find ourselves on somewhat firmer 
ground. Captain Daintree was one of the first to put his dog 
at the service of the public, and from that time we find more 
pedigrees advertised. 



i6o COURSING 

From these two greyhounds come the modern breed. 
Bachelor was the ancestor of Bugle, who through Borron's 
Bluelight founded what might be called the Canaradzo breed ; 
including in this title the progeny of Lady Stormont, and that 
of Blackcloud. Bugle is also represented in the pedigree of 
David. Bachelor is likewise the ancestor of that other famous 
line of Senate and OHver Twist. Oliver Twist, who was said 
to be by no means a good dog himself, though he was second 
to Harlequin for the Waterloo Cup, was the sire of Fudge at a 
year old, and died two years afterwards. He was the grandsire 
of Judge and Sunbeam. The family of Judge was, and is, one 
of the most successful. Sunbeam, we think, still lives in Sir 
Thomas Brocklebank's strain, which is ever astonishing us by 
exhibitions of its stoutness. 

Oliver Twist's brother, Senate, has a larger and an equally 
successful family to represent him. The descendants of his 
sons, Junta and Sackcloth, still take high rank among the best. 
He is also the ancestor of Long's David. In this great sire the 
two branches are united, for he has also a double strain of 
King Cob. 

This other great branch in modern pedigrees, i.e. King Cob, 
>vas the sire of Figaro and The Tollwife, and grandsire of 
Sam. Through Figaro we have Bedlamite and the four sisters 
Mocking Bird, Marionette, and Humming Bird, and one 
without a name, which has made a name for herself, as the 
ancestor of Bab-at-the-Bowster, the most worthy descendant 
of Czarina. 

Bedlamite was the grandsire of Cardinal York, his brother 
Picton, and that great family. Mocking Bird, through Mansoor 
and Mechanic, has a large family to keep her name alive. 
Humming Bird lives in the progeny of Lady Stormont and 
her son Cashier, and joins her unnamed sister in Contango. 

Again, Sam was the progenitor of Bab-at-the-Bowster, and 
the union of Sam and The Tollwife produced Motley, and 
Mrs. Kitty Brown, the ancestors respectively of David and 
Chloe. 



OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS i6i 

Roughly speaking, here are the Hnes of the great sires of that 
time : Canaradzo, Judge, Cardinal York^ David. 

Contango represents the lines of Canaradzo and Cardinal 
York ; the dams of Misterton and Greentick (his son and 
grandson) furnish those of Judge and David. These two, the 
great sires of modern days, will be seen to be of almost the 
same blood ; and are worthy of the greatest sires in their several 
generations. 

Several strains of Mocking Bird and her sisters are to be 
found in both ; Greentick boasts also the names of Cerito, 
Racketty Hoppicker, Riot and Prizeflower in his ancestry. 
Some hold that the excellence of the greyhound comes more 
from the dam, and some believe that he will prove the greatest 
sire of all time. With these great names in addition to the 
others, ' Is it folly that we hope it may be so ? ' 

In some sort of way, the above account, as it may well be 
termed, of these two champion sires furnishes us with an answer 
as to the most successful sires of the last thirty years. 

Bugle, Bluelight, Beacon, Canaradzo, King Death, Judge, 
Senate, David, Sam, Figaro, Bedlamite, Cardinal York, have 
made their mark among the sires of old ; while Cashier, his son 
Contango, his grandson Ptarmigan, and the produce of the last 
from Gallant Foe, Jester, Peter, and Paris are among the best 
of later days. Bedfellow, a son, and Macpherson, a grandson,, 
of Contango have much the same blood. 

Cauld Kail has the addition of some very good lines, 
notably of Barrator, by many thought to have been the very 
best, certainly the most wonderful dog of his day ; of Jardine's 
Ladylike, and of Lord Eglinton's Waterloo, the champion of 
his day. 

Patent was of the same blood as the great-granddam of 
Greentick, and was great-grandsire of Gallant Foe ; but with 
these exceptions, neither he nor Clyto, who shares most of his 
lines with Greentick, will be found in the pedigrees of the day 
as often as their success in the first generation seemed to 
promise. 

M 



1 62 COURSING 

It should be remarked that Beacon owes his chief, if not 
sole, representation in these days to his union with Scotland 
Yet, as Ptarmigan does to that with Gallant Foe. The family 
of the last couple, Ptarmigan and Gallant Foe, is probably 
the most distinguished in the annals of coursing. Princess 
Dagmar, Miss Glendyne, Bit of Fashion, FuUerton, all winners, 
two of them more than once, of the Waterloo Cup, and in 
1 89 1 the v/inner and runner-up for the Cup, as well as the 
winners of the Purse and Plate, may be said to have established 
a record. 

Strange Idea should not be passed over. He was one of 
the successful sires of his day ; and furnished the winner of 
the Cup in Sea Cove. Brigadier was another favourite sire ; 
and he claims Honeymoon among the Waterloo roll. Bothal 
Park should also be named, being the sire of the winner of the 
Waterloo Cup and of the Gosforth Gold Cup ; these stakes 
requiring very different styles of running. And Fusilier should 
not be left out, as in his short career he was the sire of one of 
the Waterloo Cup winners in Muriel, and laid the foundation 
of the success of Mr. Thomas Graham's kennel with Annie 
Macpherson and Mary Hill. His strain is undoubtedly much 
valued by breeders. 

But, after all, it is difficult to say which sires are the most 
distinguished for their success. The grounds on which to found 
the distinction are so various. The number of winners of all 
kinds may be one standard : the numbers of winners of the 
first class may be the recommendation to others ; the power of 
perpetuating its good qualities, as breeders w^ould term it its 
prepotency, would be valued by another class. 

Then, again, the length of stud life would greatly modify 
any statistics. We have Oliver Twist, a sire at a year old, and 
•dead in three years ; Fusilier, with a stud life of about three 
years ; Macpherson, with four years, compared with David and 
Misterton, who lived till they were thirteen years old. 

Once more ; the means of popularising the dog or the fame 
of the kennel would have an effect. Bothal Park, for instance, 



OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS 



163 



was allowed to run loose in a pit village till Snowflight had 
made a name for him ; while Misterton was carefully managed, 
the best of mates were found for him, and a word was never 
wanted to illustrate the excellence of his produce. 

We add, as a sort of rough guide, the number of times in which 
each of the sires named appears in a collection of pedigrees of 
the winning strains of modern days. It must be noted that it 
cannot be accepted as a criterion of the success of each dog, for 
the above reasons ; besides which, the latest sires are credited 
with winners whose excellence in breeding has not yet been 
proved. The older sires occur only as the parents of those who 
preserved their names in the annals of breeding, not of running. 
Still, some interest may attach itself to the list 



Misterton 


. 168 


Ptarmigan 


40 


Greentick 


. 87 


Jester 


39 


Canaradzo 


. 68 


Brigadier 


36 


Macpherson . 


■ 59 


Cardinal York 


35 


Patent . 


• 52 


Cashier . 


11 


Bedfellow 


• 50 


Pinkerton 


31 


Clyto 


. 49 


Strange Idea . 


27 


Cauld Kail 


• 45 


Bothal Park . 


27 


Contango 


. 40 


King Death . 


22 



The following are rather before i860 : — 

David 45 

Judge 35 

Bedlamite .32 



We now come to those questions which relate to coursing 
in general, and first we will go over the answers received to 
question No. 5, viz. 'In your opinion have greyhounds im- 
proved or deteriorated of late years ? To what do you attribute 
such improvement or deterioration ? ' 

There is a strong balance of opinion that pace has improved, 
but that pluck and determination have deteriorated, and 
many prominent coursers have attributed this state of things 
to the run on enclosed coursing, which lasted till the obvious 
evils arising therefrom, and the great danger that threatened 



164 



COURSING 



the sport, as it had hitherto been conducted, fairly frightened 
the better class of coursers into a steady opposition. A 
valuable opinion in this direction is given by Mr. J. Porter 
Porter, who says : — 

Now that enclosed coursing is losing popularity all must see 
the ruin that has arisen from it ; good greyhounds spoiled ; fluky, 
flashy ones benefited ; stamina and determination lost sight of ; 
encouragement to every public-house landlord to keep a dog of 




Unsighted 

sorts ; encouragement to small bookmakers and welshers ; and 
deterioration of all long-odds betting before a meeting, and conse- 
quent prejudice to good books ; strong incentive to run for money 
value only, and not for sport's sake. It now lies with the real sports- 
men of Great Britain and Ireland, who course for the love of the 
thing only, to raise the standard of coursing, which has sunk far 
below its proper level. The thanks of all may thus be ensured, no 
matter how a few may be annoyed for a year or two. 

Mr. Frank Richardson, a northern courser, who took to the 
sport as far back as 1850, but who for the past four or five 



OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS 165 

years has ceased to maintain a kennel of greyhounds, declares 
himself Laudator te?nporis acti, and proceeds thus : — ' The en- 
closed meetings have spoiled the all-round characteristics of 
the greyhound ; for since these meetings were established he 
has been bred for speed alone. There is also much more in- 
breeding than in the olden time, which tends to deterioration.' 
The latter part of this opinion is well worthy of notice, and 
induces speculation as to whether or no in-breeding tends to 
lower the general standard of merit, and if so in what direction. 
Is it prejudicial to stamina? and does it promote speed? 
In our chapter on breeding this will be found fully discussed, 
and with it attention is called to the evils arising from the 
overstrained procreative powers of the fashionable sires of the 
day, a reason assigned by J. T. Shaw for what he holds to 
be a slight deterioration in our present running dogs. The 
opinion as to the evils arising from enclosed coursing and the 
consequent 'flashiness' and lack of stamina given by Messrs. 
Porter Porter and Frank Richardson is shared by Messrs. 
W. Ellis, J. L. Reed, J. Taylor, Horace Ledger, and A. J. 
Humphery, who all express themselves more or less strongly 
on the subject. 

Some there are who stoutly maintain that the greyhound 
is a decidedly improved animal, and they mostly attribute this 
desirable state of things to the greater care and attention be- 
stowed by coursers on breeding, rearing, kennelling and train- 
ing, as compared with the slipshod procedure of the days of 
yore. Amongst this number are Messrs. Dent, F. Graves, 
F. Dobson, G. M. Williams ; several others hold that the 
average of merit has been maintained. 

Now, to sum up this question, we are inclined to agree 
with those who point to flashy and roguish greyhounds as the 
product of the enclosed meetings, to admit a great improve- 
ment in average speed, and a corresponding falling off in 
stamina and courage ; and moreover we would point to a 
quality that may bear good fruit, but which, if abused, may 
be disastrous in its consequences, viz. mtelligence, which, if 



i66 COURSING 

unduly developed, is prone to induce cunning and trickery. 
We have already traversed the opinions of the old writers who 
held as an axiom that 'the greater the fool the better the 
greyhound,' for we do not believe that crass stupidity is cal- 
culated to fit the individual, human or animal, for any work 
that he may be set to do ; and many a noted greyhound has 
been well developed in the intellectual faculties without ever 
having run otherwise than bravely and honestly. 

Doubtless the enclosed meetings are responsible for the 
increase of this roguish propensity in far greater degree than 
the development of the intellect ; though in such cases a clever 
dog is far more likely to fall a victim to undesirable habits 
than if his efforts had been confined to the open country. A 
dog of average intelligence, running time after time at the same 
enclosure, cannot fail to notice the run of the hares ; and his 
deductions, though they may lead to his picking up puss 
before the escape is reached, will probably have lost him the 
verdict and possibly cost him a fatal knock on the head ; 
whereas this identical greyhound, if relegated to the open, 
would have sufficient intelligence to see that his old style of 
running did not lead to like results, and in the interests of his 
teeth he would find that honesty was the best poHcy. 

Still, although we agree as to the evil induced by a too 
free patronage of the enclosures, we cannot subscribe to the 
dictum that the alleged deterioration affects either the average 
or the aggregate, and we feel convinced that, though there may 
be more rogues than in bygone eras, there are undoubtedly more 
good greyhounds and fewer bad ones running than ever there 
were ; and we join those who attribute the improvement to 
the care, trouble, and expense that are nowadays bestowed in 
breeding, training, and running greyhounds capable of holding 
their own in the important stakes of the year. The fact of 
the matter is that in olden times the few good dogs stood out 
as Gullivers in Lilliput ; but now, unless a dog is quite phe- 
nomenal — a Fullerton, in fact — his merits are applauded when 
he wins ; then he is forgotten until the occasion of his next 



OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS 167 

success, and he is continually meeting opponents of equal 
calibre and class. A parallel may be found in the case of 
the Turf ; for we opine that during the past decade we have 
been richer in the aggregate of good horses than we ever were 
previously, while the average of merit far surpasses that of the 
earlier portions of the century. 

Therefore our verdict on all counts is as follows : — 

1. The average speed has increased. 

2. Stamina and courage have decreased. 

3. Both average and aggregate merit have improved. 

4. Flashiness and roguishness are far more frequently met 
with. 

Rider. — The causes that have led to the unsatisfactory 
portion of this verdict are : — 

{a) The attention that has been bestowed on pace at the 
sacrifice of stamina and courage, consequent on breeding for 
the rostrum and the demand for ' speedy ones.' 

ip) The evils resulting from the system adoped at enclosures. 

{c) The breeding on lines which, however good, are too 
closely identified : whereby we do not mean in-breeding ; but 
rather the too free use of ' fashionable ' sires to the exclusion 
of a host of hardy, useful customers whose merits at the stud 
are never fairly tested, yet whose blood is of the bluest, and 
whose performances have been full of merit. A reference to 
the list of greyhounds running through the season will reveal 
the fact that there are not above half-a-dozen sires who have 
as many runners to represent them — which is remarkable, con- 
sidering the large number of sterling dogs advertised as at the 
service of the public. Before quitting this subject we must not 
forget to point out that, as every dark cloud has a silver lining, 
it would be unfair in the extreme to heap nothing but unquaH- 
fied abuse on all enclosed meetings. They have their uses 
and abuses, and in the former capacity should receive recog- 
nition from even the most bigoted of the old school. A large 
produce stake such as is run at Haydock is a most interest- 
ing event. For a puppy competing it is likely to be more 



1 68 COURSING 

beneficial than the reverse, and may prove an excellent initia- 
tion, whereas the ordeal of the open with so large an entry 
might very well settle all future hope for those that got to the 
end of the stake. 

We now approach the much -vexed sapling question, viz. : — 

Do you think it prejudicial to the welfare of a sapling to 
run him — 

{a) At an enclosed meeting, where the shield is moved 

half-way up the ground ? 
{b) In the open ? 

The answers we have received to this query are so diverse 
and diametrically opposed to one another that it is almost 
impossible to arrive at a real consensus of opinion. For 
instance, Mr. Dent boldly declares that he would not hesitate 
to run saplings, and that in so doing their career would not be 
in any way prejudiced, bar accidents ; while Mr. J. L. Reed 
and others are strongly opposed to running saplings under any 
circumstances. Some see no harm in running them at en- 
closures, but condemn open coursing ; whilst others — a more 
limited band — hold that to run a youngster in the open, where 
he has a fair chance of killing his hare, is preferable to the 
first proposition, where they may use their hare to the escape, 
and then be disappointed — which they are apt to remember, to 
their owners' cost, when their legitimate running career com- 
mences — an argument in which there is some sound common 
sense, albeit the risks and dangers of over-exertion and heart- 
breaking trials are so great under such circumstances that the 
disadvantages must inevitably outweigh the advantages. 

Some hold that sapling-running is only detrimental when 
training is involved, whilst others declare that it must be 
injurious unless the youngster is well trained. Here we should 
certainly fall in with the views of the latter section. To run a 
sapling soft and quite untrained would surely be to court 
disaster. On the other hand, be it understood, we should 
not advocate a course of training such as would be given 
a mature greyhound. In foregoing pages the method of a 



OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS 169 

semi-preparation has been carefully set forth, and it would be 
out of place to discuss the matter any further in the present 
chapter. 

To revert to the opinion of Mr. Dent and his followers, who 
pooh-pooh the idea of harm accruing to the sapling through 
running, that astute breeder, owner, and trainer points tri- 
umphantly to the fact that both Miss Glendyne and Bit of 




Ready for action 

Fashion won sapling stakes, which is a fair clincher to his 
argument. Bat, notwithstanding this, we fancy that statistics 
would go far to prove that winners of these affairs very seldom 
distinguish themselves subsequently, and that the exceptions 
might be quoted to prove the rule. To dig to the root of the 
matter and unravel the problem satisfactorily would be a hard 



I70 COURSING 

task, for it is difficult to ascribe a feasible reason why a trial 
of moderate length should be prejudicial to a young grey- 
hound. Take, for instance, one which is born, say, in January. 
He does well, gets over a mild attack of distemper, and by 
March of the following year is, as far as the eye and the hand 
can tell, a well-developed and mature youngster, as well fitted 
for the task as a two-year old racehorse or a University athlete. 
His speed may be at its prime ; his stamina should be sufficient 
to carry him through the apparently by no means trying ordeal 
of working his hare up half the space of an ordinary coursing 
enclosure. Without being trained to the hour, he is yet in a 
state of excitement, health, and fitness, carrying no superfluous 
flesh or fat within or without. He does what is asked, and 
shows no outward or visible signs of temporary distress or 
lasting deterioration ; he has seen a hare, and enjoyed the 
fiery joy of the chase ; henceforth he is on the alert, he has a 
degree of confidence lacking in the green novice, and he 
despises opposition. When the forthcommg campaign looms 
in the near future you have no reason to doubt his prowess. 
His performance as a sapling was unexceptionable, his physique 
and breeding all that could be desired ; but what is the result ? 
In nine cases out of ten he proves to be practically useless, and 
his retirement from public running rather than ' the Blue Ribbon 
of the Leash ' is the goal to which he is inevitably drifting. 

Hence, in summing up, we are reluctantly compelled to 
record our opinion that, though in theory there is no discernible 
reason why a mature saphng of fifteen months, in a state of 
physical well-being, is unfit to compete against one of his own 
age in a trial of limited length, practice, on the other hand, 
holds up a warning finger, and, despite the mighty achieve- 
ments of Miss Glendyne and her half-sister, the peerless matron 
Bit of Fashion, warns us that, if we have a sapling of excep- 
tional promise, his public efforts should be decayed until he 
enters upon the season of his legitimate puppyhood. With 
these remarks we bring to a close our analysis of the answers 
received to our circular. Such an expression of opinion from 



■"%! 



^ 



^^'^• 







OPINIONS OF NOTED COURSERS 171 

those whose experience in coursing matters carries immense 
weight must prove both interesting and instructive to all who 
follow the fortunes of the leash, and our most grateful thanks 
are tendered to them for having given so much time and 
thought to our appeal. 




CHAPTER IX 

DESCRIPTION AND POINTS OF THE GREYHOUND 

* Handsome is as handsome does ' is an old and trite adage ; 
but all who have had any intimate experience of the various 
species or breeds of dogs will agree with us that, as a rule, the 
best looking are the best. That exceptions are frequently met 
with cannot be gainsaid. Many a plain-looking greyhound has 
proved of sterling merit ; but then, if his points be carefully 
scanned, it will be found that they are well balanced, and that 
what is deficient in striking beauty is made up for by some 
remarkable development conducive to speed, stamina, or 
activity, or else that all points are so evenly balanced that no 
great merit or defect stands out prominently. Master McGrath 
was by no means an imposing specimen ; but he was com- 



DESCRIPTION AND POINTS OF GREYHOUND 173 

pactly built, and had a phenomenal development of quarter that 
lent him remarkable propelling power which enabled him to put 
in that wonderful 'extra bit' when he was apparently fully ex- 
tended, a power shared by every great greyhound or racehorse. 
The sketch at the head of this chapter represents the out- 
line of a greyhound of well-balanced physique. The letters 
indicate the points familiar to all cynophilists, but useful as 
references when studying the description which ensues : — 



A A Head 


H Pastern-joint 


A B Muzzle 


I Foot 


A« Jaws 


J Brisket 


C Eye 


D N N Back 


^-[Neck 
^Ear 


L L Ribs 
LM Couplings 
N Stifle 


E E Shoulder 


P Thighs 


E E ^ ^ K K Chest 
F Elbow 


Q Q Whip or tail 
R Hock 


F F Forearm 


S Second thighs 


F G Pastern 





The vertical line cutting the diagram divides the dog into : 
X Fore quarters z Hind quarters. 

The \jtxvc\.forehand is generally taken to include chest, shoulders, 
brisket, and forearm ; whilst quarters signifies back, couplings, 
stifle, thighs, second thighs, and gaskins ; but each term is elastic, 
and is often applied to the whole of the fore and hind quarters 
respectively. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE SHOW POINTS OF A GREYHOUND 

An old writer has summed up the description of the 
greyhound in the following rhyme : — 

Heade lyke a snayke 
Necke lyke a drayke 
Backe lyke a beame 
Cheste lyke a breame 
Foote lyke a catte 
Tayle lyke a ratte. 



174 COURSING 

With regard to the head of the greyhound it is somewhat 
far-fetched to hken it to that of a snake, although the term 
is very frequently met with in modern journalism ; ' a long 
snake-like head ' being quite a cant phrase with advertisers of 
fox-terriers and other such dogs. 

* Neck like a drake ' is fair, for in this particular no dog can 
vie with the greyhound and his cousins-german as regards the 
acme of grace and symmetry. If novelists would only describe 
their heroines as being possessed of greyhound-like necks 
instead of swan-like ones, the simile would be more accept- 
able. It is madness to allow the mind to dwell on a vision of 
female loveliness attached to a swan-like neck ! 

' Back like a beam ' would seem to imply a broad, flat 
back, the same width from end to end, which would, of course, 
be wrong ; but we must only take it as applying to its strength 
and breadth. 

* Chest like a bream ' is sufficiently descriptive, and quite 
applicable. 

' Foot like a cat ' will not quite do, as the foot of a grey- 
hound is not as round as that of grimalkin, nor are the toes of 
the latter as arched as those of the former, though in closeness 
and compactness they resemble one another. 

' Tail like a rat ' will do, except that we do not often see rats 
with the terminal pot-hook, characteristic of the greyhound. 

The following is a categorical description :— 

Head {includmg nose, muzzle, jaivs, eyes, ears, and skull). — 
'That head is the best which is most often in front,' was the 
answer given by a well-known M.F.H. when asked which he 
considered the best type of foxhound head. This applies 
with almost equal force to the greyhound. We say ' almost ' 
advisedly, for the latter has more work to do with his head 
(physically speaking) than the former. The head itself should 
be long and tapering, the skull slightly domed, but flat at the 
junction with the neck ; the muzzle long and powerful, and 
the nose pointed ; the jaws strong, muscular, and level ; pig- 
jaws or overshot teeth are very objectionable, and prevent a dog 



DESCRIPTION AND POINTS OF GREYHOUND 175 

from holding his hare when he has floored her. Undershot 
greyhounds are seldom met with, and should not be encouraged. 

The eyes are of moderate size, neither deep-set nor pedun- 
culated, and of varying colour ; generally speaking, a light eye 
in a dog of dark colour is to be avoided. The usual measure- 
ment of the head round the ears would be from 14I to 15^ 
inches according to sex and size, but a tape run round the eyes 
should show a considerably reduced measurement. 

The cheek should be very muscular, so as to lend additional 
strength to the striking and holding power of the jaw. 

The neck of the greyhound is peculiarly graceful, and its 
length, symmetry, and set on are of vital importance. It must 
be of sufficient length and flexibility to enable him to strike 
his hare without losing stride. A ewe neck — i.e. one that is 
concave above and convex beneath instead of the reverse — is 
a terrible fault, and one seldom met with, for the simple 
reason that all puppies thus afflicted are as a rule promptly 
destroyed. If the tape is run from the point of the nose 
to that of the shoulder, the junction of the head with the 
neck will, in a well- formed dog, be found to be midway. 
This fact is mentioned by ' Stonehenge,' and is well worth 
remembering, for where the test fails it will be found that 
either the head or the neck is too short for well-balanced 
symmetry. A long, graceful, and well-set neck adds greatly 
to that vague— but to experts well-understood — term, quality. 

Chest and shoulders. — The chest of the greyhound is 
somewhat flat, but deep and roomy, giving plenty of space for 
lungs and heart to bear the extra strain so often put on them. 
The shoulders are long, oblique, and laid well back, working 
smoothly on the flat surface of the ribs, the latter bein^; well 
separated and more convex as they approach the quarters It 
is of great importance that in none of these details excess 
should be noticeable, for unless a happy medium is maintained 
the effect of the whole is neutralised. 

The back is arched and very powerful and supple ; it is 
broad, and shows enormous muscular development. These 



176 COURSING 

muscles should lie forward, setting the back well into the 
shoulder-blades, and rising prominently on each side of the 
spine, which lies, as it were, in a trough between the ridges. 

The quarters. — The general impression is one of great 
power, and in following a good and well-trained dog, it will 
strike the observer that the balance of power is uneven, and 
that the development of the hind quarters somewhat dwarfs 
that of the fore : such an impression as is produced in inverse 
ratio when meeti?tg a bulldog. This is not really the case, the 
fact being that the functions of the hind quarters are more 
obvious to the eye than those of the fore. 

The thighs are well breeched, and full of muscle. 

The stifle long and well bent. 

The second thighs and gaskins exceedingly muscular, and far 
more developed than in any other animal. This is one of the 
first points to which a practised courser will direct his eye. 

The hocks let down, strong, and well separated from the 
leg bone. 

The tail long and slightly curled at theextremity — a fine whip 
tail is sometimes insisted on, but some of the hardest and speedi- 
est strains show a considerable coarseness in the stern. This 
peculiarity is very noticeable in the dogs inbred to Contango. 

The fore legs should be straight, and the bone carried well 
down, muscular on the outer surface, but flat on the inner. 

The pasterns long, but very strong and springy. 

The feet of moderate size ; the middle toes, being slightly 
longer, make them appear more oval or pointed than round, 
but the impress will show that such is not the case. A flat 
foot is very bad, and a splay one horrible. The knuckles 
should be strong, close, and well-arched ; but it is a bad sign 
to see a dog too much ' on his toes.' 

Quality. — ^It is difficult to define this point ; but, as we 
previously hinted, it is easily discerned and appreciated by all 
' doggy ' critics. It consists in a coup d^oeil, which precludes 
analysis, but which embraces symmetry, blood, life, grace, 
movement, condition, and freedom from all coarseness. 



DESCRIPTION AND POINTS OF GREYHOUND 177 

Colour. —There is really no rule in this respect, and no 
allowance should be made in a scale of points. 'A good 
horse cannot be a bad colour,' is a saying as true when applied 
to a greyhound. A long chapter— and interesting to boot- 
could be written on the cause and effect of colour- production ; 
for a good deal remains to be learnt by breeders in this direc- 
tion. One fact is worth mentioning, however, which may only 




The rijrht sort and the wrong 

be due to the accident of chance. It is that, until Fullerton 
appeared, no brmdled dog had ever gained any marked distinc- 
tion, though numerous brindled bitches had had their names 
enrolled as classic winners. 



SCALE OF POINTS OF THE GREYHOUND 

General symmetry and quality . ... 10 

Head and neck 20 

Chest and shoulders 20 

Back 10 

Quarters . 20 

Legs and feet . 20 

Total. . . 100 
N 



178 COURSING 

This is a simple and compact scale, and would be convenient 
for judging a dog roughly ; but each of these items could be 
subdivided ; for instance, the quarters, " for which we have 
allowed 20 points, could be made up as follows : — 

Rump 3 

Tail 2 

Stifle .3 

Thighs 3 

Second thighs 5 

Hocks 4 

Total . . 20 

And so on, with regard to the other divisions. 

In the Hunting volume of the Badminton Library the 
Duke of Beaufort gives a specimen of a good and a bad fox- 
hound. The latter is of course presented in the guise of such a 
monstrosity that no master or K.H. would ever have sent him 
out to walk ; but he serves as an example in every way of 
what a foxhound should not be. 

Following his Grace's example, we give (p. 17 7) the counter- 
feit presentments of two greyhounds. One. ' The right sort,' 
the other, 'The wrong.' The one a model of symmetry 
and power, the other a nightmare. Observe his ewe neck, his 
straight shoulder, his tucked-up chest, weak ribs, straight back, 
long couplings, straight stifles, muscleless thighs, upright hocks, 
long (and presumably splay) feet ; and you will at a glance 
perceive what a greyhound should not be. 



179 



CHAPTER X 

SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUES 

By Charles Richardson ('King Cob'). 

Clubs have at all times played an important part in the history 
of coursing, and the earliest records of the sport show that for 
many years the public meetings were all promoted by one or 
other of the existing clubs, which, according to historians of 
the leash, differed very widely in their rules, constitution, and 
method of conducting their fixtures. The early history of the 
clubs is so much mixed up with the early history of coursing, 
and so many once important associations have so long ceased 
to exist, that I shall pass over the historical part of the subject 
as quickly as possible, and shall deal almost exclusively with 
the clubs which are in existence to-day, as in writing of 
these I am able to trust my own experience instead of search- 
ing the badly* kept records of bygone generations. I have 
made some attempts to obtain particulars of the early doings of 
existing clubs ; but, except in a few instances, so little record 
has been kept, and so little is really known, that a successful 
issue of the investigations was quite out of the question, 
and with secretaries in office who had had innumerable pre- 
decessors, I was referred from one to another, and then back 
again, until I found the utter impossibility of getting correct 
information. 

To revert, however, for a moment to earlier times, the 
Swaffham Club in Norfolk, founded by Lord Orford in 1776, 
was the first association of coursers of which there is any 
record, and four years later the Ashdown Park Club was 

N 2 



i8o COURSING 

brought into existence. Swaffham and Ashdown were both 
very powerful associations in bygone days, and among the 
rules of the former it is stated that the number of members 
was confined to the letters of the alphabet, each member 
taking a letter and also a colour. What the colour was used 
for is not shown, but each member was bound to use the parti- 
cular letter allotted to him in naming his dogs. The running 
consisted almost entirely of matches, and, curiously enough, 
everyone chose his own judge, the two judges for each match 
appointing an arbiter, who was to decide when they disagreed. 
At Swaffham, a 50/. cup was run for by sixteen greyhounds 
once a year, but stakes were the exception and matches the 
rule. Malton Club was founded in 1781, one year after Ash- 
down, with a membership limited to twenty, and two meetings 
annually, in November and February. The immortal Snowball 
won the cup twice, and in 1828 the hst of members embraced 
such well-known names as those of the Duke of Gordon, 
Lord Macdonald, Sir John V. B. Johnstone, Sir Bellingham 
Graham, Messrs. Lowther, Best, Vansittart, and Bower. 

A coursing club was founded at Louth, in Lincolnshire, in 
1806, and in the same year the association at Ilsley, in Berk- 
shire, was established by Lord Rivers, one of the leading 
figures in early public coursing. About this time, too, the 
Newmarket Coursing Society sprang into existence, and in 
181 2 Berkshire was again to the fore, with an association at 
Newbury, under the patronage of Lord Carnarvon. In 18 14, 
Mr. Goodlake formed a club to course on his estate of Letcombe 
BowerSjin Dorset, and one year later the Morfe Club was estab- 
lished by Mr. Davenport, already a member of the Swaffham, 
Ilsley, and Ashdown. This last sentence may not seem of 
much importance at first glance, but it shows that gentlemen 
were in the habit of taking their dogs long distances by road, 
years before railways had come into existence, and thus we 
find Mr. Davenport a member of clubs which are more than 
150 miles apart. The next few years witnessed the establish- 
ment of several other coursing associations or clubs, but all, with- 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS i8i 

out a single exception, have ceased to exist ; although there 
is coursing at x\shdown to this day, the meetings of late years 
have been entirely open, and therefore quite out of my pro- 
vince. In 1825, Altcar Club was founded, and from that date 
a gradual change came over the spirit of public coursing, with 
the result that the Lancashire association in the course of a 
few years came to be looked upon as the most influential of 
all the clubs, and was soon recognised as the leader in all 
matters relating to innovation or reform. 

Since the foundation of Altcar, dozens of other clubs have 
had their day and have died out, and it is witli regard to these 
chiefly that the information obtainable is so meagre. In the 
Midlands, the Derbyshire, the Chester, the Sheffield, and the 
Burton-on-Trent were all important institutions for many 
years, whilst in the South, the Rock (Epsom), the Everley 
(Amesbury), the Spelthorne, and the Amicable had long and 
interesting careers. Of late years large open meetings have 
taken the place of club gatherings, and to-day Altcar and Ridg- 
way in Lancashire, the Scottish National, and the South of 
England are the only important associations of coursing men 
where the hard-and-fast rule is complied with to the effect that 
no dog is allowed to run which is not absolutely the sole 
property of a member. Other flourishing clubs there are, of 
the hybrid order, where certain stakes are ' club,' and certain 
others are open, or where all the stakes are open to the public 
after the members have taken what nominations they require, 
and in dealing with the associations now in existence I shall 
make mention of these half-and-half affairs, as they are just 
now so much in fashion. It may be observed that Altcar still 
takes the lead, whilst Ridgway comes in a good second. The 
North of England affords its members far the most meetings, 
and the Yorkshire has taken a much higher place of late ; 
the South of England is still comfortable and exclusive, and 
the Cliffe and Hundred of Hoo has come to the front with 
extraordinary rapidity. The new institution at Sleaford also 
bids fair to attain prestige. 



i82 COURSING 

ALTCAR COURSING CLUB 

Although it would seem that at the beginning of the 
present century some of the southern and eastern counties 
stood first in the coursing world, it has long been a recognised 
fact that Lancashire holds the pride of place, and at the 
present time we find the two most important clubs of the 
kingdom— Altcar and Ridgvvay — with their coursing grounds 
only twenty miles apart, and both situated near the coast-line 
of Southern Lancashire. The former club ' was established in 
the year 1825 by Viscount Molyneux, on his father's property 
near Liverpool,' and from that date to the present time the 
association has continually gained in importance, whilst ' its 
influence upon coursing has been an ever- increasing quantity.' 
The last sentence describes in a few words the position of the 
Altcar Club with regard to the rest of the coursing world, and 
although the words quoted are Mr. Harold Brocklebank's (the 
Honourable Secretary of the Altcar Club) and not mine, I 
can testify that they exactly bear out the general feeling with 
regard to Altcar which is held by coursing men who are not 
fortunate enough to be members of the premier association. 

Writing of Altcar historically, I must dip into Mr. Brockle- 
bank's interesting volume on the doings of his club, and, 
following the sentence about Viscount Molyneux, I must note 
his remarks that : — 

At the first meeting of the club the members acted as umpires 
for each other, but last season (probably 1827) when a cup was run 
for, a regular tryer was employed. The members dine together on 
the first day of the meeting at the Waterloo Hotel, Liverpool, when 
the matches for the cup and other sports are arranged. The hares 
are abundant, and the noble Earl of Sefton appears gratified when the 
sport is good. There are two meetings each season, the first in the 
early part of November and the last in the early part of February. 
The club consists of twenty members, and four honorary members. 

It will be seen from the above that in some particulars 
there has been little change, for the members still dine 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 183 

together on the first day of the meetings, and annually hold 
their first fixture in the early part of November. Their second 
gathering has, however, been moved forward about a month, 
to make way for the Waterloo Cup, which is run for over the 
same ground ; and whereas the membership was twenty strong 
some sixty years ago, it is now of nearly three times the 
strength, whilst honorary members have almost disappeared 
from the list. This membership of Altcar is an honour which 
is eagerly coveted by all good coursers, and perhaps no 
higher evidence as to the prestige of the club can be afforded 
than the fact that the greatest care has always been main- 
tained whenever the ballot box has been in requisition. A 
courser who is elected a member of the Altcar Club has been 
thereby embossed with the hallmark of the leash, and it is 
satisfactory to note that the first great essentials for member- 
ship are a liberal patronage of the sport, and a line of conduct 
in public coursing which must be altogether above suspicion. 
Social position, too, is justly made something of a sine qua 
non, but it is not the case (as has been sometimes alleged) that 
the club is a peculiarly exclusive one. Although it recognises the 
fact that a long purse m coursing has as much power as else- 
where, it insists that an applicant shall have served a proper 
apprenticeship, and shall have proved himself (as far as can 
be judged) a stayer at the game. 

As may be easily understood, Lancashire men are numeri- 
cally stronger in the club than sportsmen from any other 
county ; but this is perfectly natural, for coursing is the sport 
of the County Palatine, and where the nature of the land will 
not admit of riding across country, it can easily be under- 
stood that greyhounds are to the Lancashire man what 
foxhounds and harriers are to the denizens of more accommo- 
dating counties. Then, again, the South Lancashire seaboard 
probably carries a greater head of hares than any other portion 
of the Kingdom, and go to whatever public coursing you will, 
nowhere else are to be seen the droves of hares which come 
down the ground at Altcar when beating operations have begun. 



i84 COURSING 

Reverting again for a moment to the histoiy of the Altcar 
Club, it should be noted that the far-famed Altcar Cup has 
been in existence almost from its first year. Produce Stakes 
were first introduced at the November meeting of 1852, since 
which time they have always figured at the earlier of the two 
annual gatherings. From that date up to 1887 the entries 
for this class of stake had been 5,486, of which number 2,620 
started. The club matches at Ashdown and Amesbury in 
i860 and 1864 are perhaps the most important landmark in 
the Altcar history, and of these Mr. Brocklebank has furnished 
us with a complete history. 

Altcar Club Matches at Ashdown and Amesbury, 
i860 AND 1864 

In commenting on the club's meetings during the several seasons, 
I have made no reference to the matches in which it took part in 
the years i860 and 1864 respectively, considering that they could 
best be treated in a separate notice. 

The first and least important of the matches took place over 
the Ashdown country, in the March of i860. It resulted from a 
challenge issued by the club to the World, to match sixteen grey- 
hounds in the Craven Challenge Cup against sixteen to be drawn 
by the members of the Ashdown Club from any source. Great 
interest centred in the contest, and when at the close of the first 
round the World stood with ten winners against six, it seemed as if 
the challengers were to have the worst of it ; but this unfortunate 
start was retrieved as the struggle progressed, and when Rosy 
Morn beat Little Wonder and Lord Sefton's Sweetbriar overthrew 
Veronica, the club was left with first and second, Mr. Randell 
being the ultimate winner with Rosy Morn. In addition to this 
important stake there w^ere a number of others in which North of 
the Trent was pitted against South, and much wrangling ensued 
on the point of guarding. At this distance of time it would serve 
no good purpose to enter into details of the arguments advanced 
on both sides ; certainly the visitors considered themselves 
aggrieved, and the conditions appear to have been so loosely drawn 
as to leave some justification for the feeling they manifested. 

It sounds somewhat un-English, but there does not appear to 
have been any anxiety manifested on the part of the World to try 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 185 

conclusions again with the club, and the next proposal for a renewal 
of the contest appears to have come from the club itself ; for we 
read in vol. xii. of ' Stonehenge's ' Calendar, p. 59, that at the 
Wiltshire Champion Meeting in October, 1863, 'The Earl of 
Scfton, Lord Grey de Wilton, Viscount Uffington, Mr. Jefferson, 
Mr. Brocklebank, Mr. J ebb, and Mr. Randell represented the 
Altcar Club (Mr. Hornby being absent from ill health), and 
broached the subject of a match between that fiourishmg institu- 
tion and the World at the next Amesbury Meeting, they taking 
sixteen nominations in the Ladies' Plate and Challenge Cup.' 

What brought about this proposal on the part of the club was, 
I understand, a suggestion made by Mr. Brocklebank to Mr. W. 
Long, the Secretary of the Wiltshire Club, that the dogs of the 
members of the Altcar Club, who had come so far should be 
guarded, as they had plenty of opportunities of competing against 
each other over their own ground. Finding his suggestion could 
not be met, Mr. Brocklebank hinted that the best way out of the 
difficulty would be to make a match, the club taking the one halt 
of the nominations in the plate and cup. The subject having been 
favourably discussed, the Earl of Sefton on behalf of the club at 
once took sixteen nominations in each stake for the following 
season, on condition of being guarded throughout. 

With a view to carrying the match to a successful issue I find that 
the Hon. Secretary of the club promptly issued the following circular, 
and the details it gives confirms the particulars above related. 

'Dear Sir,— It has been arranged that sixteen nominations in 
the Challenge Cup for thirty-two greyhounds of all ages, and six- 
teen in the Ladies' Plate for thirty-two bitch puppies at the Wilt- 
shire Champion Meeting in October 1864, are to be taken by 
members of the Altcar Club. Dogs belonging to members of the 
club will be guarded throughout in the above-named stakes, and also 
in two open Produce Stakes which will be run for at the same time. 

' I beg you will be so good as to let me know whether you wish 
to take any, and if so, what part in this engagement, before the Club 
Meeting in January at which the allotment of the nominations will 
be settled. — I am. Dear Sir, — yours truly, 

'T. D. Hornby, Hon. Sec. 

' Druids' Cross, Liverpool, December, 1863.' 

During the end of 1863 and early part of 1864 steps were taken 
on the part of the club and the world to perfect their arrangements, 
and it was agreed that, instead of two stakes in which the club and 



1 86 COURSTKG 

the World should compete there should be three, and I find that in 
March 1864 the following circular was issued by the committee of 
the Amesbury Match, and as it gives the corrected programme and 
illustrates the vigour with which the contest was taken up, I think 
it is well to give it in full : — 

(For Private Circulation only.) 

VyiLTSHIRE CHAMPION COURSING MEETING will take place at 
Amesbury, on Monday, October 17, and following days, when the follow- 
ing stakes will be run for. 

THE GREAT WESTERN CUP, for an unlimited number of bitch 
puppies of 1863 ; entrance 5/. each, 2/. forfeit. To be named and close on 
August I. The Altcar Club to be guarded as long as possible. 

THE DRUID CUP, for dog puppies of 1863. The conditions the same 
as above. The Altcar Club to be guarded as long as possible. 

THE LADIES' CHALLENGE PLATE (No. i), for thirty-two bitch 
puppies of 1863 ; entrance 61. 10s. each, i/. from each nomination to be 
applied to the purchase of a bracelet for the winner, and 10s. from each nomi- 
nation for a brooch for the second. To close and name on the evening of the 
draw, October 17. Sixteen nominations in this stake have been taken by the 
Altcar Club, to contend against the World ; both parties to be guarded as long 
as possible. 

THE LADIES' CHALLENGE PLATE (No. 2), for thirty-two dog 
puppies of 1863 ; entry and conditions the same as in Ladies' Challenge 
Plate (No. i). 

THE CHALLENGE CUP, for thirty-two dogs and bitches of all ages ; 
entrance 61. xos. each. To close and name on the evening of the draw, 
October 17. Sixteen nominations have been taken by the Altcar Club, to 
contend against the World ; both parties to be guarded as long as possible. 
The rules of the National Club will be strictly enforced. 
No dog will be allowed to start on any account unless the stake be paid. 
Application to be made to the Hon. Secretary, Red House, Amesbury, 
Wilts. 

Thk Earl of Sefton, T. D. Hornby, Esq. \ 
C. Randell, Esq. W. Long, Esq. [ Committee of 

J. S. Bowles, Esq. Joshua East, Esq. ] ^^^^^S'"'<^''i' 

Mr. W. Long, Hon. Sec. 
Mr. Warwick, Judge. 
T. Raper, Slipper. 

It has been decided by the committee, who are engaged in 
collecting greyhounds which shall be best qualified to represent 
the World in the match with the Altcar Club at Amesbury, ne.xt 
October, that, as the honour of the World is at stake, the only 
principle to be adopted is that of ' Selection,' and that this must be 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 187 

left entirely to the committee, or to those to whom they may depute 
the management of the matter. 

It is indispensable, therefore, that all apphcations which may 
have been already made to the Hon. Secretary, and entered by him, 
as well as future applications, shall be considered simply as Pro- 
visional, and not at all as entitling the applicant to the right of a 
nomination hereafter, in any of the Challenge Stakes. 

A memorandum has been made of the names of those who have 
applied to the Hon. Secretary ; but, with the view of facilitating 
the eventual selection, it will be very obliging, if all those who may 
be desirous to compete in a match, which promises to be one of 
unusual interest, should at once communicate with the committee. 

It is recommended, wherever it may be possible, that the 
owners of greyhounds shall endeavour at once to ascertain 
which are the most promising puppies, and forward full particulars 
to the committee, with names, ages, pedigrees, &c. The specifica- 
tion of their size and weight would also be useful. 

It is taken for granted that parties who may be anxious to com- 
pete in the match will also enter their puppies in the unlimited 
Open Produce Stakes, so as not to be without the opportunity ot 
running their greyhounds in a good stake, should they ultimately 
not be selected for the Challenge Stakes, such entry for the Produce 
Stakes to be made in due course to the Hon. Secretary, in pursuance 
of the advertisment. 

The present intention (should time and opportunity admit of its 
being carried out) is to appoint some day, of which notice will be 
given in the Autumn, previous to the Amesbury Meeting on which 
preliminary trials shall be arranged in the presence of a selected 
body of competent public coursers, to determine who shall be the 
champion representatives in the Challenge Stakes : and it is ex- 
pected that owners of greyhounds engaged in this competition will 
cheerfully agree to abide by the selection which shall be thus made. 

All communications on the part of the world, in regard to the 
Challenge Stakes, should be addressed to 

The Committee for the Amesbury Match, 
15, Great Stanhope Street^ May Fair, IV., London? 

London, March 19, 1864. 

• The address given at the end of this circular was that of Mr. Marjoribanks 
(of Messrs. Coutts and Co.), who undertook the chief direction of the arrange- 
ments on the part of the World. 



1 88 COURSING 

It will be noticed that, in addition to the three Challenge Stakes, 
there were two Open Stakes for puppies in which the club was to 
be guarded as long as possible. It is also worthy of note that, 
while the draw is announced for the 17th, it really took place on 
Saturday the 15th, and the running beginning on Monday extended 
over the whole week, the final tie for the Druid Cup not being run 
off till the Monday following. 

The Committee of the Altcar Club were not behind in their 
anxiety to be Avorthily represented, as the following circular 
shows : — 

' March 31, 1864. 

'All the members of the Altcar Club will be anxious that it 
should be represented as strongly as possible in the match-stakes, 
at Amesbury, in October next ; and in the meantime there may be 
some desirous either to give up a nomination, on finding the want 
of a dog of sufficient quality, or to acquire one in the expectation 
of being able to fill it with a good greyhound. As the committee 
appointed to act for the club at the Amesbury meeting, we beg 
leave to offer to be the medium of communication and arrangement 
in such cases, and shall be glad to hear from any member who may 
wish either to drop a nomination or to take one up. Letters to be 
addressed to the Secretary. 

'Sefton, 
C. Randell, 
T. D. Hornby. 

* In case of any transfer of a nomination by private arrangement, 
it is requested that the secretary may be informed of it.' 

There probably was on both sides some difficulty in getting 
together the most reliable representatives, and the anxiety of the 
club to be fully prepared is strikingly exemplified in the annexed 
circular : — 

Altcar Club 

' Dear Sir,— I beg to draw the attention of those members who 
think of attending the Amesbury Meeting to the advertisement in 
last Saturday's papers of the Great Western and Dru^d Cups (the 
entry for which closes on August i), and especially to the condition 
of a very small forfeit for puppies entered, if subsequently chosen 
to run in the Challenge Stakes, while they reta'n the option of 
starting again in the former stakes, if in the latter they are un- 
luckily put out in the first round. 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 189 

' I take this opportunity of expressing the hope that all the 
members will co-operate as far as possil^le towards success in the 
Challenge Stakes by promoting the entry of the best greyhounds 
that the club possesses. This can only be done by comparing 
notes as to the results of trials and by trials between the kennels 
of those members who are neighbours. If this view is adopted, I 
hope I may receive by-and-by from the members reports of the 
opinion they entertain of the form of their kennels, and of the 
trials on which the opinion is founded. If information can thus 
be brought together, it will not, I think, be difficult (without inter- 
fering with the rights of any gentleman who holds a nomination) 
to make arrangements, by common consent, which will ensure (at 
any rate pretty nearly) the representation of the club in the three 
Challenge Stakes by the greyhounds most likely to do it credit. 
' Yours faithfully, 

'T. D. Hornby, Hon. Sec. 

'July 25, 1864. 

Of course between this time and the date of the meeting many 
details had to be adjusted, both as to competitors, quarters, &c. ; 
but at last all was arranged, and the meeting began on October 17, 
the draw for the three Challenge Stakes having taken place on the 
Saturday after dinner, at which Mr. Hornby, Mr. B. H. Jones, Mr. 
Randell, and Mr. Brocklebank repiesented the interests of the club. 

At the close of the first day it was found that the club were 
winners of eleven courses out of sixteen in the Bitch Puppy Stake, 
nine in the Dog Puppy Stake, and eleven in the All-Aged. This 
was a great triumph for the club, and it is satisfactory to note from 
the comments on the day in the ' Calendar ' that ' the members 
mustered in great force on the downs and bore their honours with 
a proper amount of modesty.' After the dinner in the evening the 
Open Stakes were drawn, and it was found that in the five stakes 
208 different dogs had been engaged, probably a larger number 
than had ever been brought together at a meeting before. 

At the dinner on the evening of the second day's running a 
discussion took place as to guarding, and I give the comments upon 
the subject as given in the ' Calendar' : — 'Some little discussion 
took place among the subscribers as to the method to be adopted in 
drawing up the pairs in the Challenge Stakes, for which both sides 
were guarded ; but fortunately Mr. Randell had seen the necessity 
of providing against the chance of any dispute like that which 
occurred at Ashdown some years ago, and had set down his ideas 



190 COURSING 

in writing, which were agreed to by all the other stewards piesent, 
and thus all discussion was avoided. The rule is clear enough, 
viz, : that the draw once made shall only be disturbed for the 
purpose of guarding. The programme set forth that both sides 
should be guarded as far as possible and tlje general practice in 
the north, where Scotch and English are usually guarded, is that 
the first brace of either side coming together shall be split and 
each shall take the next two of the opposite side. This was pro- 
posed by Mr. Randell and adopted, and 1 cannot see how it can be 
objected to, though next morning there were several mfluential 
coursers who thought the plan wrong.' 

The result of the third day's running was still in favour of the 
club, and after a full week's coursing the match ended in success 
attending them in the first and second events, while the World took 
the third. For the All-Aged Challenge Cup, Mr. T. T. C. Lister's 
Cheer Boys beat Mr. Borron's Bit of Fashion in the final, and it is 
rather remarkable that while the World had five representatives 
that survived the first round, all of these went down in the second. 
In the Challenge Bracelet for bitch puppies the same proportion 
stood in the first round, and Mr. Bartholomew's Mock Modesty 
managed to get into the fourth, but the final was fought out between 
Mr. Randell and Mr. G. A. Thompson, both members of the club, 
the former with Rising Star, by Beacon— Gregson's Polly, defeating 
Theatre Royal, by Cardinal York— Meg of the Mill. In the 
Challenge Bracelet for dog puppies, the fortune of war was com- 
pletely reversed, the World having three of the last four left in, 
and running first and second with Mr. Strachan's St. George by 
Seagull — Seaweed, and Mr. J. Jardine's Jacob by David — Goneril. 
In addition to these three thirty-twos, wherein the club dogs were 
guarded as far as practicable, there were two open stakes for bitch 
and dog puppies, seventy-four of the former and forty-six of the 
latter putting in an appearance. In these stakes the final positions 
were reversed, for while the club, in the person of Mr. Randell, 
won the Druid Cup for dogs with Revolving Light (beaten in 
the first round of the Challenge Bracelet, No. 2 for dog puppies 
by Jacob, one of the dividers), a brother of Rising Star, the World 
was first and second in the Great Western Cup for bitch 
puppies with Mr. Purser's Pastime by Seacombe — Peony, and 
Mr. S. Smith's Sultana by Sea Foam — Editha. The triumph of 
the club was very marked, especially as in the Open Stakes they 
were to a large extent overmatched in numbers by the representa- 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 191 

tives of the World. Mr. Warwick, of Shrewsbury, who judged the 
meeting, declared to me long afterwards that the second day's 
coursing over Tanner's Down was the grandest he ever witnessed, 
course after course going right away from the slips for quite a 
couple of miles. On a moderate computation he calculated that 
he rode over 120 miles that day. 

For any further comments on the actual running I cannot do 
better than refer to the account of the meeting as it appears in 
vol. xiv. of the ' Coursing Calendar,' from which much interesting- 
information may be gathered, and in conclusion I quote from the 
remarks prefacing the report of the Saturday's running : — 

' By two o'clock all but the deciding course of the Druid Cup 
were run and the party separated with a vivid impression of the 
charms of Salisbury Plain as a coursing ground, and a strong im- 
pression that we shall never see the like of the late meeting, which 
has gone off without a single contretemps. Of course, one side 
must lose ; but as the managers of the World have the consolation 
of knowing that no pains have been spared to bring the contest to 
an issue successful to themselves, and as after the first round the 
contest has been a very close one, they have no reason to feel in 
any way disgraced. The trouble of carrying through the manage- 
ment of the World in a meeting of this kind is so enormous, that I 
do not believe there is the slightest chance of a return match, 
especially as, with the prestige gained by the Altcar Club, it would 
be considerably increased.' 

The following is the return of the matches detailed in the fore- 
going article : — 

ASHDOWN PARK CHAMPION MEETING. MARCH i860 

Stewards— \.o^T) Sefton, Lord UffingtOxV, Mr. T. D. Hornbv, Mr. 
Randell. Field >te oards— Mr. Etwall and Mr. Bowles. Fta£- 
Sienmrd—M.9.. Mallabey. Judge— Mr. J. H. M'George. Slipper— 
H. Spring ALL. 

Craven Challenge Cup 



(vv) Mr. King's bk d Ruler, by, u,,, ( ^'^l'^!; l' "* -J^^^f/ ^^ ^ >^:^^ 
^ Rutland-Redwing [ ^^^' j f^^'^' ^X Junta-Humm.ng Bird 

(c) Capt. Bathurst's r b Bapla, by) J (w) Lady B. Craven's bkd Comet 0/ 

Skyrocket— Shame i " 1 '5.8, by Ld. Mayor— The Cure (i) 

(w) Mr. Oates's bk w d Glengarry, ) j (c) Mr. 'W. G. Borron's r d Bloody 

by Blackcap - Black Bess ^ " I Heart, by Beacon — ^Judy 



19: 



COURSING 



ASHDOVVN PARK CHAMPION ME?:TING Continued. 



(c) Mr. C. Randell's r d Rosy Morn, » , , 
by Black Cloud— Riot [ ^^^^ 

(w) Mr. W. Long's bk d Little\ 

Wonder, by David — Lewanna.... ' " 
(C) Lord Grey de Wilton's f dj. 

Greek Fire, by Weapon — Pearl .. ' " 
(w) Mr. Hole's bk b Opal, by Bar-). 

rator — Integrity * " 

(c) Lord ^efton's r b Sweetbriar, 1 

by Skyrocket — Shame ^ " 

(vv) Mr.' Minton's r d Sailor Prince, \ 

by Euclid — Minerva * " 

(w) Mr. Price's bk b Patience, by i 
Black Cloud— Rint.... f " 

(w) Mr. Allison ns be d Hyena, by ) 

Black Cloud — Young Eve '..^ " 

(C) Mr. Blundell's bk w b Barbelle, \ 

by Weapon — Japonica * " 

(c) Mr. Randell's bk b Refulgent, ) 

by Hlack Cloud— Riot ^ " 

(vv) xMr. Marflcet's bk b Monolo, by I 

Ranter — Highland Home ^ " 

(w) Mr. G. Gregson's be w d | 

Ravenswortli, by Conqueror — \ ,, 

Campfollower ' 

(w) Mr. Etwall ns bk wb Veronica, ) 

by Vauban — Valinda i " 



(w) Mr. G. Gregson's bk \v d Raw 

Recruit, by Harpoon — Cat-o'- 

nine-tails 

(c) Mr. Jebb's bk h Stirfs, by 

Peacemaker — Blooming Heather 

(w) Mr. Hill's bk b Hobl^v Bird, by 

Black Cloud— Lady 
(c) Mr. Hornby's bk b Hammer, by 

Junta — Jael 
(w) Lady E. Craven's f w d Flas/i- 

m.jn, by Larriston — Lively (i) 
(C) Mr. E. Haywood's f d Hardy, by 

Hardstone — Hummmg Top 
(c) Lord Utlington's bk wb Trip- 
tlie-Daisy, by Jacobite — Forest 
Queen 
( (c) Mr. Spinks's bk w b Seasiiell, 
^ by Weapon — Japonica 
( (w) Mr. Loder's bk d Snap, by 
^ Loyts — Vanitv 

i(w) Mr. T. L.' Bootes f b Wild 
^ Wave, by Larriston — Fly 
J (c) Capt. Spencer's bk b Skittles, 
* by Black Cloud— Southport 

i (c) Mr. T. T. C. Lister's bk w d 
^ Corporal, by Corporal — Clara 

' (C) Mr. W. G. Borron's bk d Bold 
^ Enterprise, by Beacon — Judy 



Bapta beat Ruler (i) 
Rosy Morn beat Glengarry 
Little Wonder beat (ireek Fire 
Sweetbriar beat Opal 



Barbelle beat Snilor Prince 
Patience beat Refuigent (i) 
Monolo beat Hyena 
Veronica beat Ravensworth 



Little Wonder beat Bapta 
Rosv Morn beat Patience 



Sweetbriar beat Monolo 
Veronica beat Barbelle 



Rosy Morn beat Little Wonder | Sweetbriar beat Veronica 



Mr. C. Randell's Rosy Morn (C) beat Lord Sefton's Sweetbriar (C) and 
won the Cup 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 



193 



WILTSHIRE CHAMPION (AMESBURY) MEETING. 
OCTOBER, 1864 

Stewards — LORD Sefton, Messrs. T. D. Hornby, C. Randell, Bowles, 
AND Strachan. Field Stewards — Messrs. F. Long, C. Rendall, 
R. Loder, W. Long, and East. JHon. Sec. — Mr. W. Long. Judge — 
Mr. Warwick. Slipper— T. Raper. 

The Challenge Bracelet, No. i— Bitch Puppies 



\-[ 



C) Mr. C. Randell's bk w Rising > 

Star, by . Beacon — Gregson's I beat 

Polly .0) 

w) Mr. Saxton's be w Skylark, by ) ,, . 

David— Patch i 

C) Mr. Brocklebank's w Bowness, \ „ 

by Canaradzo— Bowfell I 

c) 'Mr. J. Brundrit's bk Birdseed,] „ . 

by Bramwell — Bird of Passage ... J 
c) Lord Sefton' s f Soubrette, by) ,, , 

Skyrocket — Susannah ) , 

c) Mr. T. T. C. Lister's r w Cora, ) ,, 

by Red Lion— Kitty ) 

w) Mr. W. Long's w \^Lulu, by> ,, 

Sea Foam— Editha i 

w) Mr. R. Jardine's f w Annahelle, 
by David — Goneril 

w) Mr. Bartholomew's be w Mock\ 
Modesty, by David— Bonnie Las- r 
sie ' 

c) Mr. Blanshard's r Brownie, by \ 
■ Cardinal York— Baffle \ 

c) Mr. G. A. Thompson's w r> 
Theatre Royal, by Cardinal York L 
—Meg of the Mill ) 

C) Mr. Jebb's bk Regan, by Regan , 
—Judge Bitch \ 

C) Lord Grey de Wilton's bk 1 
Guillemot, by Seagull— Golconda 1 

C) Mr. B. H. Jones's bk Joke, by > 
Seagull — Jollity i 

C) Mr. Hornby's r w Her Majesty, \ 
by Balmoral — Martha f 

w) Mr. Cunningham's bd Belle of 
Eden, by Mongoose — Maid of the 
Vale 



}"i 



w) Mr. Price's be Pride of Bishton, 
by Seacombe — Patience 

C) Mr. Borron's r Bright Star, by 

Skyrocket— Tritonia 
w) Mr. Ellis's bk w Evening Bell, 

by Seacombe — Patience (i) 
w) Mr. East's f Entertainment, by 

Effort— Columbine 
W) Mr. Purser's w bd Purity, by 

Seacombe — Peony 
w) Mr. Morgan's bk Melody, by 

David — Brunette 
C) Mr. Spinks's w be Sea Fair, by 

Seacombe — sister to Blue Hat 
C) Lord Uffington's be w Rob- 

beena, by David— Trip the 

Daisy 

c) Mr. Jefferson's bd Ida, by Sea 
Foam or Derry — ^Java 

w) Lord Craven's bk t Country 
Dance, by Monk of Thorney — 
Mazourka 

w) Mr. J. C. Russell's bk Roseleaf, 
by Regan — Gambol 

w) Mr. Davy's bk t Convent 
Chime, by Monk of Thorney — 
Mazourka 

w) Mr. Deigh ton's bk Donna 
Diana, by Errand boy — Early 
Blossom 

w) Mr. F. Lorg's bd Celeste, by 
Bigwig — Columbine 

w) Mr. Hole's bk Yes, by Silver- 
sides — Quiver 

c) Mr. S. C. Lister's bk Lace, by 
Liverpool — Lovely 



Rising Star beat Skylark 
Lulu beat Bowness 
Birdseed beat Annabelle 
Mock Modesty beat Soubrette 



Cora beat Belle of Eden 
Theatre Royal beat Brownie 
Regan beat Guillemot 
Her Majesty beat Joke 



194 



COURSING 



WILTSHIRE CHAMPION M.Y.Y.TmQ— Continued. 
in 



Rising Star beat Lulu 
Mock Modesty beat Birdseed 



Theatre Royal beat Cora 
Regan beat Her Majesty 



IV 



Rising Star beat Mock Modesty | Theatre Royal beat Regan 

V 

Mr. C. Randell's Rising Star (C) beat Mr. G. A. Thompson's Theatre 

Royal (C) and won. 

Challenge Bracelet, No. 2— Dog Puppies 



w) Mr Strachan's f St. George^ by 1 ^^^^ 
Seagull — Seaweed i^ 

C) Lord Lurgan's f Master Mark, \ 

by Seagull — Lady Norah > " 

c) Mr. G. A. Thompson's r Teddy\ 

the Tiler, by Cardinal York — Meg r ,, 

of the Mill ' 

c) Mr. Borron's r Bright Belt, by j. 

Black Hag— Isabelle^ * " 

c) Col. Bathi rsi'sf ^4^^ of Trumps, \ 

by Bosphorus — Bapta ' '* 

c) Lord Sefton's bd Signal, by \ 

Sk' rocket — Susannah ■• " 

C) Mr. Blanshard's r Bubwith, by ) 

Baffler — Burning Shame ' " 

c) Lord Uffington's {King Cole, by I 

Effort— Enjoyment ^ " 

w) Mr. T. L. Reed' sf Rambler, by I 

Flashman — Risk ' " 

c) Mr. J. Brundrit's bk Bulrush, 

by Sister of Jacobite— Sister to 

Wild Wave 

w) Mr. Saxton's bk Samuel, by j. 

David— Patch > 

c) Mr. W. W. 'Rmndr\\.'?,r Accident, l 

by Joshua — sister t(j Gauzewing... ' 
w) Mr. J. ]2ix6.\n&' ST Jacob, by David I 

— Goneril ' 

W) Mr. East's f Evident, by Effort I 

— Enjoyment ' 

W) Mr. Davy's bk t Consternation, j. 

by David— Doubt ' 

w) Lord Craven's bk t Sir Roger de\ 

Coverley, by Monk of Thorney — j 

Mazourka 



c) Lord Grey de Wilton's bk 
Glamour (late Lan Chester), by 
The Wizard— Rosley 

w) Mr. Bland's f w Bishop of St. 
David's, by David — Rip 

w) Mr. R. Jardine's r Aimsfeld, 
by David— Goneril 

w) Mr. Fuggle's f Farmer Foster, 

by Woodman — Finesse 
w) Mr. Purser's be Pleader, by 

Seacombe — Peony (i) 
w) Mr. F. Long's r Chief Justice, 

by Bigwig — Columbine 
w) Mr. Trinder's w be Triad, by 

Seacombe— Lola (2) 
w) Mr. Esdaile's bk Sunbeam, by 

Shakespeare — Sister to Silverside 
c) Lord Sefton's bk Stingo, by The 

Brewer — Sylphide 

w) Mr. Dunlop's be The Blue Boy, 
by Canaradzo— Diana Vernon 

c) Mr. J. Johnston's bd Joint Stock, 
by the Brewer — Sr. to Streamer 

w) Mr. Loder's f Light-Train (i. 
Long-train ) , by Railroad — Lustre 

C) Mr. C. Randell's r Revolving 
Light, by Beacon-Gregson's Polly 

C) Mr. Hornby' sr Highland Chief", 
by Balmoral— Martha 

c) Mr. Brocklebank's w Broad- 
water, by Canaradzo — Bowfell (i) 

c) Mr. H. B. Jones's bk Jemshid, 
by Shooting Star — Jenny Caxon 



St. George beat Master Mark 
Teddy the Tiler beat Rambler 
Samuel beat Bright Belt 
Jacob beat Ace of Trumps 



Signal beat Evident 

Bubwith beat Consternation 

K. Cole beat Sir Roger de Coverley 

Accident (a bye), Bulrush (dr. i.) 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 



195 



WILTSHIRE CHAMPION yiY.Y.TV^G -Continued. 



St. George beat Teddy tha Tiler 
Samuel beat Signal 



Jacob beat Bubwith 
King Cole beat Accident 



St. George beat King Cole | Jacob beat Samuel 

V 

Mr. Strachan's St. George (W) and Mr. J. Jardine's Jacob (W) divided. 
The All-Aged Challenge Cup 



(c) Mr. B, H. Jones's be w d Jem , 
Mace, by Pugilist — Happy Lass I 
and ) 

(C) Mr. T. T. C. Lister's bk d) 
Cheer Boys, by Skyrocket — Clara i 

(c) Lord Sefton's r b Syringa, by i 

David — Sweetbr-iar ' 

(c) Mr. G. A. Thompson's bk w bj. 

Tirzah, by Mariner — Titmouse... ^ 
(w) Mr. S. Smith's w b Snowjlake, ) 

by Cantab — Enna > 

(C) Mr. B. H. Jones's f d Justice, by ) 

Vengeance— Swiss * 

(w) Mr. Lea's bk b Coronella, by) 

Blackadder — Luck's All ' 

(c) Mr. Borron's bk w b Bit of 

Fashion, by Black Flag — Bit of 

Fancy 

(c) Mr. Jebb's w f b Dog-sick, by ) 

Skew — Desdemona ' 

(c) Mr. Spinks's r b Sea Girl, by l 
Seacombe— Sea Flower ' 

(w) Lord Craven's f w d Commercial L 

Traveller, by Wrangler— Welfare ' 
(w) Mr. Price's bd w d Patent, by l 

David — Lady Clara ' 

(c) Lord Sefton's r d Sackbut, by I 

David — Sweetbriar (a bye) ' 

(w) Mr. Dunlop's bk d Marshall 

Forivard, by Picton — Coquette... ' 
(c) Mr. Blanshard's f d Boanerges, I 

by Canaradzo — Baffle ' 

c) Mr. Brocklebank's bk d Baron ) 

Lyndhurst, by Nester— Blengdale * 



Jem Mace beat Snowflake 
Cheer Boys beat Coronella 
Syringa beat Commercial Traveller 
Tirzah beat Patent 



beat \ ^^ ^^' Gregson's bk w b Torpedo, 
\ by Canaradzo — Sealed Orders 

( (w) Mr. Cunningham's wbk b Belle 

\ of the Campbells, by Canaradzo — 

i Sister to Black Hy (i) 

( ( W) Mr. Bland's be w d Beadle of the 

1 Parish, by The Brewer — Haidt-e 

f (vv) Mr. Gree 's r b Gipsy Queen, 

I by Twixt — Thanks 

i (c) Mr. Borron's f w b Bon& Fide, 

' by Flashman — Elfin 

I {yi) Mr. W.Long's fd Loud Timbrel, 

^ by Lapidiit — Kissing Crust (i) 

\ (c) Lord Lurgan's bd w b Lady 

^ Java, by David — Java 

J (\v) Mr. J. Jardine's bk d Owersby, 
' by Selby — Mazourka 

J (w) Mr. Boote ns bk b Trip the 
' Daisy, by Brandy — Polly 
(w) Mr. Marshall's bk b Riotous 
Hoppicker, by Buckshorn — 
Racketty Hoppicker 
J (c) \^oxA\}^ng\.ovL?,ihEzangeline, 
' by Effort — Ju>t Decision 
! (c) Mr. Brocklebank's r b Bindweed, 
1 by David — Sweetbriar 
j (vv)'Mr. Loder's r b Lyra, by David 
t —Czar Bitch (dr.) 
i (C) Mr. C. Randell's bd w b Rho- 
' danthe, by Dalgig — Myrtle 
i (w) Mr. Saxton's be b Sea Nymph, 
^ by Seacombe— Prairie Flower 
J (w) Mr. Ellis's bk b Evening Star, 
' by Baronet — Muslin 



Justice beat Marshal Forward 

Bit of Fashion beat Dod-sick(r, dr.) 

Sea Girl beat Sackbut 

Baron Lyndhurst beat Boanerges (i) 



196 COURSING 



WILTSHIRE CHAMPION WE.KYmO— Continued. 

in 

Cheer Boys beat Jem Mace I Bit of Fashion beat Justice 

Tirzah beat Syringa | Baron Lyndhtirst beat Sea Girl 

IV 

Cheer Boys beat Tirzah | Bit of Fashion beat B. Lyndhurst 



Mr. T. T. C. Lister's Cheer Boys (C) beat Mr. Borron's Bit of Fashion 
(C) and won 

The Altcar meetings of to-day are among the most 
popular coursing fixtures of the year, and are attended by 
coursers from all parts of the kingdom as well as by the club 
members ; indeed, the January meeting is now-a-days a huge 
gathering, and probably more interest is attached to the 
Members' Cup than to any other stake of the year, the 
Waterloo Cup alone excepted. When the enclosures were at 
their zenith some few years ago, their influence had an effect 
upon nearly all open country meetings ; but at Altcar, in January, 
this was less noticeable than elsewhere, and during the time I 
have just referred to the stake filled as well as ever, such cele- 
brities as Stitch in Time, Hornpipe, Greentick, Penelope II. and 
Herschel having either won or divided the coveted trophy. The 
ground coursed over is the same estate which is used for the 
Waterloo Cup, but the beats are varied, and while the Withins 
was a few years ago the best going and productive of the 
strongest hares, there has lately been a leaning to North 
End, Monks Carr, and the meadows below Lydiate Station. 
Hares, as I have just stated, are exceedingly numerous on all 
portions of Lord Sefton's estate, but wet weather has an ad- 
verse effect upon their well being, and during the last two or 
three seasons it has unfortunately been the case that the sport 
has sadly suffered from their weakness. A few days of frost 
and hard weather before a meeting generally insure the strength 
of the game ; but the fact is that there are no dry hillsides of 
which hares can avail themselves in long-continued rain, and the 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 197 

moisture hangs so much about the flats that poor puss's food 
becomes far too soft, and she suffers accordingly. 

Occasionally a third meeting is held in March, but for the 
reason just stated this has not taken place for the last two or 
three seasons. Luckily for spectators of Altcar coursing, there 
are plenty of high mud banks on which the crowd can be placed, 
and although it is sometimes necessary to take up one's position 
on the dead level and in sloppy ground, this is the exception and 
not the rule. 

THE BOTHAL CLUB 

Although little is now heard of this once celebrated club, it 
is still in existence, and, thanks to three of its chief patrons, 
the Hon. W. C. Ellis, Dr. Richardson of Harbottle, and Mr. 
Nathaniel Dunn of Newcastle-on-Tyne, the coursing world 
was placed in possession, some four or five years ago, of the 
' Bothal Club Stud Book,' an amusing and interesting work, 
which dealt with north-country coursing generally, and the 
Bothal Club in particular. The writer was luckily fortunate 
enough to visit Bothal when the meetings were at their zenith, 
some twenty years since, and in his opinion the place was then 
quite unique as regards the amount of enthusiasm shown by 
the natives. Even now, at the revived meetings, *the crowd ' is 
wonderfully large ; but the pernicious Ground Game Act has 
done its deadly work here as elsewhere, and, in spite of the 
efforts of Mr. Ellis and Mr. John Stott of Coneygarth, only 
comparatively small programmes are now possible. 

Dealing with the history of the club, it must be mentioned 
that the present society only came into existence in 1866, but 
as the ground was simply first-rate, coursing had long been a 
favourite sport of the district, and other clubs had previously 
availed themselves of the permission granted by the Lord of 
the Manor. Thus, we find in 'Thacker' that the Morpeth 
Club held a meeting over the Bothal Barony in 1841, by per- 
mission of the Rev. Mr. Parry, the rector, when Mr. Jobling 
won a fifteen -dog stake, value eighty guineas. The Morpeth 
Club at this period was a very powerful association of coursers, 



198 COURSING 

who had 4eave ' over all the best ground in South Northum- 
berland, and whose meetings were numerous and largely 
patronised. There must, however, have been something wrong 
with the customs in existence at their gatherings, for about 
1850 the club died out, and, as far as Bothal is concerned, 
the Newcastle, Northumberland, and Durham Union took its 
place The newcomer did not last long, but was soon merged 
into the North of England Club, and then, after a short 
interval, the Bothal Club, well supported by the tenants on 
the estate, sprang into existence. The promoters of the new 
venture were Mr. Ellis, the rector of the parish, a relation of 
the then Duke of Portland, whose property Bothal was, and 
Mr. Angus of Whitfield, one of the largest tenants on the 
estate. These gentlemen actually succeeded in organising 
fortnightly private meetings, which at once ' caught on ' with 
the inhabitants of the district. In 1866 the first public meet- 
ing was held, fifty-four greyhounds taking part in the puppy 
stakes, and victory going to Mr. EUis's El Soudan, among 
the defeated lot being such a first-rate after-performer as 
Hyslop's Strange Idea, a subsequent winner of the Waterloo 
Plate, and the sire of a Waterloo Cup hero, in Sea Cove, 
two years later. The succeeding years saw an enormous in- 
crease in the Bothal entries, and as the place became more 
widely known, so much the more did it grow fashionable as a 
trial ground for puppies ; indeed, such produce stakes in the 
open were never equalled elsewhere, the entry in 1870, when 
Cottage Girl and Charming Belle divided, reaching 345 for 
one of them. This enormous number of subscribers caused 
a division of dogs and bitches, with the result that in 1871 
the former numbered 209, the bitches reaching the gigantic 
total of 242. The big entries were found to be quite unwork- 
able, and, consequently, the next year the stake was limited to 
members only. Even then 259 names were set down. At this 
period there were five members' meetings in a year. With the 
victory of Gallant Foe in 1875 the early history of the club ceases, 
as for some years afterwards the meetings were in abeyance. 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 199 

I need hardly remind my readers that Gallant Foe was the 
mother of that wonderful litter which included, amongst others, 
Princess Dagmar, a winner of the Waterloo Cup ; Paris, the 
sire of Miss Glendyne and Bit of Fashion, and therefore the 
grandsire of Fullerton, Palm Bloom, Prenez Garde, and Path- 
finder. Gallant Foe, as Mr. Ellis tells us, was altogether a 
Bothal Club greyhound, for her sire was Mr. Nathaniel Dunn's 
Don Antonio, by Mr. Ellis's Elsecar, from Coxon's Peggy 
Taft, and her mother Wilson's Meggie Smith ; all four owners 
mentioned being members of the club. 

During the ten years which followed the victory of Gallant 
Foe only one public meeting took place over the Bothal ground, 
but in 1884 a revival was brought about, and with Mr. Ellis 
showing all his old energy in the interests of the Northumber- 
land coursers, the club gatherings soon began to be of import- 
ance again. It was, however, never intended that any more 
large stakes should be attempted, and thus the revived meet- 
ings have been kept within limits. For all that, the number of 
members of the Bothal Club is still very considerable, and as 
long as the supply of hares holds out, the fixtures will be quite 
as important as any held in Northumberland. During the 
last two or three years the meetings have been run off as 
joint affairs of the Bothal and North of England Clubs, and 
as this arrangement allows of the services of Mr. Thomas 
Snowdon as secretary, the prosperity of the gatherings has 
been increased. 

And now, for the benefit of south-country coursers, I may 
add that the ground is, most of it, quite first-rate. There 
is a mixture of arable and grass, with hedges between ; but the 
grass predominates, and the large field between two small 
coverts, which is called ' Abyssinia,' is as grand a trial ground 
as any to be found in England. From the Cooper's shop at 
Ashington, on either side of the lane, right down to Longhirst, 
the coursing is always unexceptionable, and it is only when the 
few rough fields, directly east of Longhirst station, are used, 
that the fluky element is ever likely to enter into the trials. 



200 COVRSJNG 

The venue is on the main Hne of the North-Eastern Railway 
from Newcastle to Edinburgh, and a morning train from the 
first-named place (about twenty miles) brings visitors to Long- 
hirst exactly at the right time. Those who come from a dis- 
tance with greyhounds can stay at Morpeth, five miles away, 
or at the little watering-place of Newbiggin-on-the-Sea, four 
miles off, on the eastern side of the ground. 

The North Seaton estate, which adjoins Bothal on the east 
side, has also been a favourite Northumbrian coursing-ground 
for a long period. Since Mr. I. Lowthian Bell went to reside 
at North Seaton Hall, some half-dozen years ago, the revival, 
which I mentioned in connection with Bothal just now, has 
extended to the sister estate, and for the last two or three 
seasons the meetings have been joint affairs, under the auspices 
of the North of England Club, the coursing taking place 
one day on North Seaton and the other day on the Bothal 
estate. Mr. Bell has been most generous in his numerous 
presentations of tenants' prizes, and no Northern courser 
has worked harder in the interests of the sport, or has had 
more difficulties to contend with, he having essayed — with 
success— the task of getting back a head of game where, 
owing to the Ground Game Act, it had almost ceased to 
exist. The North Seaton ground is very similar to that of 
Bothal, and between the line of railway and the village 
first-rate coursing is always obtained, the big pastures round 
the 'ten acre plantation' being particularly good. Nearer 
the sea a high ridge and furrow, even on the grass, slightly 
spoils the view, and causes occasional flukes, but on the whole 
the place ranks high among coursing fields. The hares are 
always strong and never affected by wet as in some parts of 
Lancashire. 

CLIFFE AND HUNDRED OF HOO CLUB 

Of late years the Cliffe and Hundred of Hoo Association 
for the Preservation of Hares and Wildfowl, to give it its 
proper title, has become a very important factor in south- 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 



country coursing ; indeed, the club is now the most influ- 
ential within hail of London. Its rise has been of a very 
rapid description, whilst its ever-increasing popularity is a 
sure sign that coursing still has a great hold upon the Kentish 
sportsmen, who assemble in great numbers whenever it is 
announced that the hare will be publicly coursed upon the 







A Cliffe meeting 

marshes which lie between the chalk cliffs and the river wall 
of the Thames m Northern Kent. 

The meetings are well worthy of more than passing men- 
tion ; for the venue, now that the North Woolwich and Amicable 
clubs, whose meetings used to be held on Plumstead Marshes 
and about Bushey Park and Hampton respectively, have 
ceased to exist, lies nearer to London than any other coursing- 
ground, and the sport enjoyed is of the good old-fashioned type, 
where hares are walked up and slipped at as they leave their 



202 COURSING 

' form.' The headquarters of the Chffe Club are at the Bull 
Hotel, Rochester, and this old-fashioned inn, with its museum 
of curiosities and countless relics of the late Charles Dickens, 
is well worth a visit. Here it was that Mr. Jingle abstracted 
Mr. Winkle's dress-coat while that worthy was enjoying a post- 
prandial nap, and in the long room, where the club members 
now dine, was celebrated the famous ball, whereat the extra- 
ordinary strolling player cut out Dr. Slammer of the 99th with 
the widow of Rochester. 

It appears that Dickens had actual foundation for this 
particular story, for much the same thing had really occurred 
at the Bull some years before ' Pickwick ' w^as written, and to 
this day one is shown the two bedrooms, one within the other, 
where the two Pickwickians slept, and from the inside one of 
which the garment was taken. Be that, however, as it may be, 
the Bull is full of interest to a lover of Dickens's works, and 
apart from the coursing attraction at Cliffe there is much 
to be seen in Rochester and Chatham which will repay the 
stranger from a distance. 

At the December meeting of the Cliffe Club, w^hich is the 
most important fixture of their season, an annual dinner is 
given at the Bull Hotel to the landholders on the Cliife Marshes, 
which function is generally attended by nearly one hundred 
members and friends, and where, with the popular and versatile 
Dr. Swayne in the chair, the fun generally grows fast and (almost) 
furious as the evening wears on. I have, however, heard at 
this dinner better speeches on coursing than I have ever listened 
to elsewhere, and the visitor who is not identified with the 
neighbourhood of Cliffe cannot fail to be impressed with the 
good feeUng which exists between the club and the tenants 
of the land coursed over. 

The drive from Rochester to the marshes is through about 
seven miles of pretty country, and the hotel need not be left 
before 9 a.m., the ' meet ' being usually fixed for one hour 
later. This reminds me, too, that Gravesend is also well with- 
in reach, either by road or rail, so that anyone preferring the 



- "\ 1 







^X^^^^L 


V - 


}»§ ^ ,^ ^ "'"•• ^aB^a. 


;^-.^>-.,^ 


d2^ ' ' "^ ~ 














"T7 


l"JF*il 






M .^ ^ ,. 




^M^ ^ 


"---.-.■_.., 


^>< ^ k' 


■-r - ' 










W^ " A 3 ■ t ' 


', ^"^ — 







SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 203 

well-known hostelries overlooking the river in the last-mentioned 
town have their choice of quarters. I myself have tried both 
Rochester and Gravesend, and find that the only advantage 
in the former place lies in the fact that the express trains to 
Chatham are available. 

With meetings recurring every two or three weeks during 
the season, the stakes at Cliffe are made to suit all comers, and, 
ranging from 30^. to 4/. \os. and 5/. 10^., the average is probably 
about 3/. 3i'. The one-day fixtures are entirely confined to 
members of the club, but at the larger meetings the more 
important stakes are of the hybrid character so often met 
with nowadays, i.e. open to the public after the members 
have taken what subscriptions they may require. Thus we 
have seen here, at a December meeting, dogs from Lincolnshire, 
Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and South Wales, in addition to the 
usual supply from the Southern Counties, and curiously enough 
many owners have sent animals in order that they may get 
something approaching a Waterloo trial. I shall refer to this 
subject again directly, but first it may be as well tu mention 
that the coursing ground is of enormous extent, and almost 
entirely composed of what are called ' Marshes ' in the local 
vernacular, but they really are the soundest old pasture, 
enclosures intersected and divided by dykes or ditches. The 
country lies on the south side of the river Thames, and, be- 
ginning at a point half-a-dozen miles east of Gravesend, it 
extends to Port Victoria, five-and-twenty miles away. Readers 
who are acquainted with the lower reaches of the Thames will 
know that the cliffs lie back some four miles from the river 
between Gravesend and Sheerness, and the tract between the 
sea-wall and the higher land — 25 x 4 miles — forms the happy 
hunting ground of the Cliffe Club. Oxen and sheep are 
grazed on the marshes, and one has only to glance once at the 
hve stock to be able to form an opinion as to the enormous 
feeding properties of the grass, which necessarily must be also 
the regular diet of the hares. Down on the ' Isle of Grain ' 
close to Port Victoria there is some arable land, but as it lies 



204 COURSING 

fifteen miles from Cliffe, and is not very plentifully populated 
by hares, it is seldom resorted to, and indeed is mostly used 
for trials. I have occasionally seen rare good coursing here, 
and once remember to have witnessed the driving of a few- 
acres of Brussels sprouts, with the result that half a dozen 
capital spins were obtained. 

The first meeting of the club's season is usually held in 
the same week as that of the South of England Club at Stock- 
bridge, and sometimes at this fixture long grass is a sad de- 
terrent to the sport. Indeed, the ' marshes ' have to be very 
carefully chosen early in the autumn, or else the mortality 
among the hares is out of proportion, and the trials too short 
and fluky. As soon as there has been half a dozen degrees of 
frost in the night, the grass is laid, and the going of the very 
best. The hares are on the whole very strong indeed, so much so 
that ' homes ' are scattered about the marshes, and if this was 
.not the case there would be any amount of distress amongst the 
puppies, who, as it is, sometimes get courses of abnormal length. 

The run up is perhaps the least satisfactory part of the busi- 
ness, the lead being often of very little value at Cliffe, owing to 
the fact that a majority of the hares lie close to the drain-side, 
and that in consequence the shpper is obliged to give them very 
short law, or else miss them altogether. The drains are very 
much wider than those at Altcar, and hares rarely jump them 
when coursed, but usually make for the gateway and bridge 
leading on to the next marsh. There are, generally speaking, an 
entrance and exit to each enclosure, and great pains are taken 
to prevent the crowd getting in the way of these modes of 
egress ; the result is that the drains are seldom used by puss 
unless she is very hard pressed, and then she generally tries to 
swim, and is often seized in the water. From the above it 
will be noticed that Cliffe and Altcar are really quite dissimilar, 
and I have frequently met disappointed individuals who have 
taken dogs into Kent with a view to a Waterloo trial, and who, 
when considering the matter afterwards, have recollected that 
no drain jumping was brought into play. 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 205 

No beaters are engaged at Cliffe, but the farmers and 
others generally ride in line up and down the marshes with 
the Slipper and Judge together in the centre. The progress is 
a steady three miles and a half per hour, the crowd following 
behind the horses and never getting a rest for a moment, 
unless it happens that a marsh is walked over to which there 
is only one entrance. There is absolutely no galloping when 
a course is going on, and as at Altcar it is often impossible for 
the judge to leave the marsh in which the dogs were slipped. 
I have seen Mr. Brice ride a long way occasionally, but this 
has always occurred when he has been able to follow his dogs 
through an open gate. Coursing generally ranges over a 
period of from six to seven hours — according to the time of 
year— with half an hour's interval for lunch. The spectator, 
therefore, gets a fair day's walking in addition to the sport, and 
I have often wondered how the Lancashire men, who stand 
still whilst all their hares are driven for them, would like the 
change to the primitive style of the Kentish marshes. An 
intending visitor should write to Rochester for a hack if he 
does not care about pedestrian exercise, and I may mention 
that once, when suffering from a sprained ankle, I borrowed a 
pony from the shepherd, upon whose back (the pony's) I was 
able to write the full report of a three days' meeting. 

Although visitors generally choose Rochester or Gravesend 
for their temporary quarters when running dogs at Cliffe, I 
must not omit to state that there is a station only a mile from 
the village — on the single branch line from Gravesend to Port 
Victoria — and this brings to my mind a somewhat amusing 
recollection in connection with the splendid time kept by the 
railway which serves the district. The incident took place 
two or three years ago, when the Company referred to used to 
run a special to Cliffe, and was as follows. The special had 
come down fairly well filled in the morning, and as the day 
was the last of the meeting we, who had been stopping in Kent, 
were very anxious to know what time it returned, as by availing 
ourselves of it the journey to London ought to have been 



2o6 COURSING 

shortened by two or three hours. We were informed that 
4.45 P.M. was the appointed hour, and when four o'clock 
arrived we were just finishing close to the Sea Wall, nearly 
four miles from the station. I was very anxious to get to 
town, as my ' copy ' was required as soon as possible, and 
bearing this in mind I made the best of my way across the 
marshes, almost at a run. When I reached the village the 
church clock showed that it was already a quarter to five, but 
I jumped into a tradesman's trap that was standing about, and 
was at the railway in another five minutes. I need not have 
hurried, for the waiting-room was full of coursers who had come 
on before, and they all reported that not only had the special not 
started, but that it had been sent down to Port Victoria, instead 
of being shunted into the Cliffe siding. The officials, however, 
told us they expected it back every moment, and so we waited, 
an impromptu concert taking place in the waiting-room. 
Meanwhile half an hour passed, and still no train — an hour, 
and then another quarter, when (at six o'clock) a porter began 
to ring a bell furiously. We all rushed on to the platform, only 
to be told that 'the bell meant six o'clock, time to change 
hands in the Signal Cabin.' Another quarter was passed, and 
then someone suddenly fancied that a green light, a long way 
down the line, was moving towards us. The porter could give 
no information, but the betting fraternity began to gamble over 
the apparition, and in about ten minutes it was placed beyond 
doubt that the lamp was moving towards us. Everyone 
waited anxiously, wondering whether this was the special, and 
when lighted compartments were discerned our fears were set 
at rest. On came the train, the pace increasing as it neared 
the platform, and as it steamed slowly /^j-/ the crowd, someone 
shouted out to the functionary whose head was seen looking 
out of the van, * Is that the special, guard ? ' ' Oh no, sir,' 
was the reply. ' This is a yesterday's train that was lost in the 
fog ; we're now taking it back to Charing Cross.' 

The day before had been extremely foggy — indeed, coursing 
had been interrupted for some hours — and the official, like 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 207 

many others on the line referred to, was so accustomed to 
getting chaffed, that he had his Httle bolt ready for us the 
moment he was tackled. 

THE ESSEX CLUB 

This club in itself is of such minor importance that, were I 
to place it upon its own merits, half a dozen lines would suffice 
to describe its doings ; but as it is mixed up with one of the 
most important southern fixtures, I may treat of the combined 
affair at rather greater length. The Essex Club is, in fact, 
affiliated to the Southminster meeting, and although that 
gathering is nominally celebrated under the wing of the club, 
the open stakes are of far larger dimensions than those confined 
to members, the support of the public being absolutely neces- 
sary to maintain the present standard. 

How matters would be, supposing the Essex Club was 
properly worked up — like its neighbour on the south side of 
the Thames at Cliffe— I do not pretend to know, but certain 
it is that Southminster coursing has an exceptional popu- 
larity among south-country followers of the sport, whilst the 
running witnessed there is usually of the very best type. 
Southminster used to be a most unapproachable place when 
the nearest railway station was at Maldon, twelve miles off, but 
now, with a new line right up to the village itself, there is little 
to complain of in this respect, and London is brought within 
about two and a half hours of the place. The meeting is gener- 
ally run off in the first week of December, and all the arrangements 
are in the hands of Dr. Salter, a rare type of sportsman, who 
acts for both the club and the open stakes, and who has brought 
about, and thoroughly maintained, a feeling of extreme cordiality 
with the Marsh farmers. 

The programme consists of a Produce Stake for dogs and 
bitches, for club members, and the D'Arcy Cup for all ages, 
also confined to members, but beside these there are the 
Southminster Derby and Oaks, open to the public, and the 
Cowley Cup (also open), a really important All-aged Stake at 



2o8 COURSING 

5/. 10s., to which is added a handsome cup, given conjointly 
by Mr. E. R. Lightfoot of Cowley and Messrs. Elkington of 
Regent Street, London. This stake usually produces a very 
good class of greyhound, and is a most coveted trophy amongst 
southern coursers. 

The meeting extends over three, and sometimes four days, 
and headquarters are at the King's Arms Hotel, Southminster, 
where there is a largely attended dinner each evening. Most 
of the regular habitues of the fixture go to the same lodgings 
each year, for the hotel can only accommodate a very small 
portion of the visitors, and so the cottagers have to make pro- 
visions for strangers. I can safely affirm that the accommodation 
set forth, though primitive in appearance, is spotlessly clean and 
extraordinarily cheap ; there is none of the ' fleecing ' existent 
at other places, and it is a well-known fact that coursers who 
have once been to Southminster always want to go back when 
the meeting comes round. 

Whilst I am on this subject of quarters I may mention, too, 
that the change in diet is very welcome ; for it is the fashion 
during the sojourn in the village to live upon oysters and 
widgeon, both of which are procured in their native excellence 
on the spot. Indeed, the oyster carts follow the coursing all 
day long, and wonderful are the stories as to the vast quantities 
of Burnham natives which have been swallowed by some of 
the midland division, who have come from a country where the 
bivalve is an unaccustomed luxury. The widgeon are brought 
from the decoy close at hand, and no one is thought to have 
done his Southminster meeting properly unless he gets through 
at least one each evening at dinner. As a rule, the widgeon is 
a bird that is not much esteemed, but cooked in Southminster 
fashion he becomes a veritable tit-bit, as witness hundreds of 
attesting coursers. 

The system was thus explained to me : — *You wring the 
bird's neck, then cut an incision in the skin (of the neck) and lay 
a piece back all round. With one quick stroke you then chop 
the head off, and sew the skin over, without allowing a drop of the 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 



209 



blood to escape. The bird must then be " drawn " very quickly, 
and the place instantly sewn up also. Ten minutes before a 
hot fire, and the trick is done.' When dissected, the flesh is 
apparently quite blue, but it literally melts in one's mouth, and 
no one who has eaten widgeon cooked as I have described will 
ever care for them done in any other way. 

The ground coursed over is very similar to that at Cliffe ; 
grass covers by far the larger portion of it, but there is 




some arable, which latter affords rather heavy going. The 
land is, however, quite free from stones or flints, and as the 
enclosures are mostly large, very genuine trials are seen. 
Wide dykes intersect the various fields, and I think that hares 
jump more than they do at Cliffe, but still there are ' homes,' 
and the short 'breaking back' from the bank often occurs. 
The hares are uniformly stout, and by the end of the meeting 
the dogs which are left in the various stakes have all had 
enough of it. Coursers ^o to Southminster from all parts of 



2IO COURSING 

the South of England. A year or two ago over a hundred 
greyhounds competed, the number being about the third largest 
seen out at any open gathering in that particular season. I 
omitted to mention that a third very valuable cup (the Essex 
Cup) is given to be run for by the winners of the Derby and 
Oaks, and as this is subscribed for by a deduction of \os. each 
from the stake, the amount is generally over 20/. 



C^ 







Carried over a dyke after a course 



Before the railway w^as opened to Southminster, the reports 
of the coursing had to be sent by road to Maldon, whence 
they were telegraphed to town, and on one occasion I recollect 
that when the London papers reached the village next morning 
not a word was to be found about the meeting, except a foot- 
note in each to the effect, ' our correspondent's message had not 
reached the office in time for publication.' 

Great was the consternation amongst the scribes, for sport 
had finished early, and the man entrusted with the messages 
had had ample time at his disposal. Enquiries were at once 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 211 

made for this functionary — a well-known follower of coursing, 
and he, being run to ground in a beer-shop, at once confessed 
that he had posted the reports in the hollow of a tree as he 
left the marshes. There surely enough they were found ; the 
general laugh that followed — in which no one joined more 
heartily than the unabashed offender — was small consolation to 
the discomforted writers, who had to witness their handiwork 
drawn out of a puddle of water, which had entirely obliterated 
the account of the day's doings. 



LICHFIELD COURSING CLUB 

Since the passing of the Ground Game Act, many coursing 
meetings have altogether died out in the Midlands, and now Lich- 
field and Wappenbury, the latter an open meeting, have to do 
duty for a large tract of country, wherein there are still, luckily, 
plenty of greyhounds kept. The Shropshire and Worcestershire 
one-day country fixtures are still in existence, but in Derbyshire 
and Notts public coursing has almost entirely disappeared, so 
that the dwellers in those counties have no really good meeting 
nearer than Lichfield, where, however, there are always two, and 
sometimes three, lengthy programmes during the winter months. 

The club at Lichfield is well established and of good posi- 
tion, but of itself is not strong enough to attract outside attention, 
and therefore its meetings are worked off" with valuable open 
stakes, the latter being really the most important events on the 
card. All the land coursed over now is the property of the 
Marquis of Anglesey, but at one time other estates were re- 
quisitioned besides Beaudesert, and King's Bromley in par- 
ticular used to afford good sport. 

The first meeting is usually held in the early days of 
October, the second about eight weeks later, and the third 
six or eight weeks beyond that date, the running generally 
extending into a third day. The programme mostly consists 
of two thirty-twos, one for puppies and one for all ages, the 
Anglesey Cup (club) for all ages at 5/. icf., and at least three 



212 COURSING 

supplementary eights. If the first day has proved very 
successful, made-up stakes are quite the rule, and matches are 
also often added to the card. The fixtures are attended by 
coursers from all parts of the kingdom, Scotland, Ireland, 
and at least a dozen English counties, being sometimes repre- 
sented at the same meeting. 

The draw dinner at Lichfield is a great institution, and Mr. 
Trevor, the secretary (at whose Swan Hotel headquarters are), 
is so popular in the district that some of the neighbouring 
gentry always put in an appearance, prepared to support the 
host and welcome the visitors from a distance. 

The first day's coursing usually takes place at Cooper's 
Coppice, about six miles from the city, and on high land in 
the immediate vicinity of Cannock Chase. On this part of the 
ground there are some first-rate trial fields, but the stubbles are 
not quite free from stones, and the venue, good though it is, is 
not to be compared with Fiaxiey Green, which is the alternate 
meet. This place is quite ten miles away from headquarters, but 
the drive, either by way of Longdon and Rugeley or through 
Beaudesert Park, is exceedingly pretty, and though the train to 
Rugeley does the distance in a quarter of an hour, it is little 
used except in wet weather. The courses at Flaxley Green 
are now run entirely upon grass, and the forty-acre meadow at 
the bottom of the hill is undoubtedly one of the finest trial 
grounds in England. There is a give and take about it which 
causes an infinite variety in the coursing ; the view to the 
crowd is, from the conformation of the ground, simply perfect, 
and it can safely be said that the courses average at least forty 
points before puss comes to grief or makes good her escape 
at the boundary fence. 

A characteristic of the coursing on Beaudesert estate is to 
be found in the fact that speed is hardly so much served as 
elsewhere, and though dogs are sometimes slipped to demon 
hares who take a vast deal of reaching, it is nevertheless the 
fact that clever -and sometimes little— bitches always show their 
best form over this ground, quick turning and general sharp- 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 213 

ness being an important factor in the result of many of the 
trials. Reference to the Calendar will show that clever bitches, 
who would be outpaced in an open stake at Haydock or Wye, 
are often returned winners at Lichfield, and writing from 
memory of what has occurred in the last few seasons, I can 
instance such as Daisy of the Green, Rheda Macpherson, 
Jenny Jones, Flowering Fern, and Dear Sal, all of which were 
successful in the more important stakes. 

NORTH OF ENGLAND CLUB 

Since Mr. Snowdon became secretary of the North of Eng- 
land Club, that association has rapidly increased its opera- 
tions, and now is virtually the controlling power of all the open 
public coursing in the county of Durham, and a very great part 
of that which takes place in Northumberland and the North 
Riding of Yorkshire. No other coursing club has ever assumed 
the dimensions of the North of England, and in proof of what 
it can do, let me state that in the season 1890-91, thirteen 
meetings with eighteen days' coursing were satisfactorily ac- 
complished, while no fewer than eighteen different postpone- 
ments took place. This is a tremendous record for such a 
severe winter as that just mentioned, and it may further be added 
that, had the season been an open one, second meetings 
would have been held over several of the estates where leave is 
granted. 

Begun in a very humble way by a few Newcastle-on-Tyne 
innkeepers, the North of England dates back to 1835 ) ^^ut 
early accounts are altogether wanting, and I can only learn 
that the draws were held at the houses of each of the licensed 
victualling members in rotation, and that he whose turn it was 
engaged his own judge and slipper. Tradition further adds 
that the choosing landlord generally won ; but I will not insult 
the good people of Newcastle by asserting that I believe this. 
Joking apart, however, the club under discussion was never 
exclusive as regards membership, and although respectability 



214 COURSING 

and integrity in running were, of course, rigidly insisted 
upon, social status was not an important factor when the ballot 
was in requisition ; thus we find at the present moment a 
membership of 215, ranging from all the most prominent 
northern coursers to small village tradesmen and even sporting 
colliers. This liberality with regard to election has really 
been of enormous benefit, for it has made the club 
exceedingly popular with all classes of northern coursing- 
men, and now its hold upon the affections of the districts 
where it flourishes is so strong that nothing is ever likely 
to interfere with its well-being. The present patrons are the 
Duke of Portland, the Marquis of Londonderry, the Marquis 
of Ripon, the Earl of Ravensworth, Sir William Eden, Sir 
John Lawson, Hon. W. C. Ellis, Admiral Carpenter, Mr. 
W. D. Russell, and . Mr. V. W. Corbett, all of whom grant 
leave for meetings. There are in addition several shooting 
lessees, who occasionally allow small meetings to be held 
on their ground, and between Eslington in Northumberland, 
the most northerly fixture of the club, and Rainton, near 
Boroughbridge, the most southerly gathering, there are at least 
a dozen estates where the North of England is received. The 
two places just named are more than one hundred miles apart, 
and this fact alone will convey to the uninitiated some idea of 
the magnitude of the club's operations. Of late years quite the 
most important fixture has been the three days' meeting held over 
the Marquis of Ripon's estate at Rainton, which usually takes 
place in the week following Waterloo, and always brings out 
a fair class of greyhound, with, generally, several of the pre- 
vious week's Waterlooers in the principal stake. The Rainton 
meeting has been in existence some sixteen or seventeen years, 
and from a very humble beginning it has risen to exceedingly 
large dimensions, the programme now consisting of a sixty- 
four, a thirty-two, three sixteens, and some minor stakes. The 
ground lies on the east side of the town of Ripon, and consists 
for the most part of large enclosures, of an average of from 
thirty to forty acres, which are divided by small fences, 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 



15 



and are almost alternately grass and arable land. The best 
of the coursing takes place oh either side of Leeming Lane, 
that famous old North Road which has for more than a 
hundred years served as the trotting ground for North Riding 
matches, and hares are generally driven off the ploughing on to 
grass. The ' crowd ' have to move pretty often, but a fair view 
of the sport is always obtainable, and the going is for the most 
part first-rate, flints and stones being almost entirely absent. 
The breed of hares, too, is far above the average, and the 
courses are, in nineteen cases out of twenty, sufficiently long 
to thoroughly test the greyhounds' merits. I may here recount 
an incident which occurred some half-dozen years ago, and of 
which I myself was a w^itness. 

We were coursing in the low ground close to Rainton 
village, where the inclosures are rather smaller than on 'the 
Moor,' and where also the hedges are very much thicker and 
higher. Hares were being driven into a grass field, Bootiman 
the slipper being hidden behind the fence, Mr. Hedley stand- 
ing some fifty yards out. A brace of greyhounds were slipped, 
the hare was reached about the centre of the field, and a pretty 
course followed, puss finally taking her pursuers through the 
further hedge. Some twenty points at least were scored in the 
slipping field, and Mr. Hedley rode over to the other side as 
his dogs worked their hare across. He (Mr. H.) could, how- 
ever, see nothing more of the course after he reached the hedge, 
and so the decision w^as given, and a second brace put in 
the slips. Another hare was quickly sent through, slipped at, 
coursed, and killed, without having left the field, and then a 
third brace of greyhounds were taken to Bootiman, who still 
remained in the same place. We had not long to wait for the 
third hare, and she, being of the short running, jerking type, 
went round and round the centre of the field, affording a pretty 
course of the sort, and really standing up well. This trial had 
been in progress for some considerable time, when hare number 
one, with her attendant followers, struggled back into the 
original arena, and there we had the spectacle of the two 



2i6 COURSING 

courses going on close together. The greyhounds who were 
running number one were, of course, dead beat, and neither 
was any use afterwards ; but it was clearly established at the 
time that the sa?ne hare was always before them, several of the 
stragglers having been able— in different positions — to watch 
the performance from start to finish. I may mention that the 
hare was fresher than her opponents at the end, and, if my 
memory serves me right, she actually escaped. 

Of course, with such an enormous programme set forth 
every year, it can easily be understood that game is very plen- 
tiful over the Rainton estate, but for all that the card often takes 
a lot of working off, and to my mind the dimensions thereof 
are sadly in want of a shortening process, which would allow 
of a somewhat later start in the morning. As it is, Mr. Snowdon 
marshals his forces long before the February sun has struggled 
through, and on the first and second days headquarters at 
Ripon have to be left very shortly after seven o'clock, it being 
nothing unusual to find the sport in full swing an hour later ; 
indeed, I once saw the sixth brace handed over to the slipper 
just as the Ripon Cathedral clock tolled out the half after 
eight, and I recollect perfectly that there had been no waiting 
for late dogs, and that the crowd was even then almost as big 
as at any portion of the day. 

Another very important fixture of the Club is the two days' 
gathering held over Lord Ravensworth's Eslington estate in 
North Northumberland, and here again the early rising move- 
ment is strongly practised. The country is of a wild and 
roughish type, but the scenes amid which the courser's day is 
spent are exceedingly picturesque, and the air which blows off 
the Cheviots is of the purest and keenest character. The 
getting to and from Eslington was once a very serious matter. 
Hundreds of enthusiastic coursers used (before the railway 
was made) to make Alnwick their headquarters, and, rising in 
the middle of the night, drive in December darkness over the 
fourteen miles of hilly ground which lie between the ducal 
domain of the house of Percy and the battle-ground of the 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 217 

club. Tlie meeting generally takes place early in December, 
and is therefore often postponed ; but when the weather is 
right, no more enjoyable fixture exists for those who are stimu- 
lated by the air of the Cheviot Hills, and who do not mind 
roughing it to a certain extent. 

Dealing with the other grounds in vogue with the North of 
England Club, Bothal and North Seaton have been treated 
of in the account of the Bothal Club. West Rainton, near 
Leamside, in Durham, is another very favourite spot for one-day 
meetings. The ground lies so handy for all the big northern 
towns that it is easily reached from Newcastle, &c., on the 
morning of coursing, and the programmes usually consist of a 
sixteen and two eights, with sometimes a supplementary stake. 
Hares are very numerous, despite the fact that the neighbour- 
hood is a densely populated one, and good coursing generally 
ensues. The class of greyhound competing here is not, how- 
ever, so good as at Ripon or Eslington, and the meeting may 
be said to be of local interest only. The same remark applies 
to the fixture held over Sir William Eden's Windlestone estate, 
but at Catterick and Scorton, in Yorkshire, larger programmes 
and of better class are to be found. At both the last-named 
fixtures two-day meetings are held, but the enclosures are 
smaller than those coursed over at the Rainton (Ripon) 
gathering, and the meetings, generally speaking, of a less im- 
portant character. New ground, too, is being constantly 
requisitioned by Mi-. Snowdon, and, in addition to the places 
I have mentioned, there were last season meetings at Rushey- 
ford, Lumley and Washington, in the county of Durham, and 
at Londonderry in the North Riding. Good ground has 
been used by the club where coursing no longer takes place, 
and I may mention Minsteracres in South Northumberland, 
where a large and important meeting was held for many years, 
and Flotterton in Coquetdalc, where the coursing — in the time 
of the late Mr. Weallans — was exceptionally good. It happens 
sometimes at the larger meetings of the club, that there are 
nominations to spare, and if that is the case, non-members are 



2i8 COURSING 

allowed to take them up. Should any south-country coursers 
wish to witness the doings of the most successful club in the 
north-east district, they should arrange to visit Ripon, where 
they could hardly fail to be delighted with the entertainment 
provided. 

THE RIDGWAY CLUB 

I have before stated that the Ridgway Club ranks second 
only in importance to Altcar among the coursing institutions 
of the country, and this opinion I actually find to be the 
opening line of Mr. David Brown's account of the club, 
which — probably before these lines are in print — will have 
been given to the coursing public in the tenth volume of 
the Stud Book, the proof sheets of which have been most 
kindly placed at my disposal by a gentleman who has done 
much for coursing hterature, and whose indefatigability in 
research has gained him the warm approval of all coursing 
men. I attempted some months ago to get at the history of 
the Ridgway Club, but at the outset I found that Mr. Brown 
had taken up the matter some time before, and therefore I 
gladly avail myself of his permission to use his information. 
As regards the early doings of the association, I cannot do 
better than quote his own words, remarking at the same time 
that such obscurity about an institution not more than sixty 
or seventy years old seems most remarkable. Mr. Brown's 
account will, however, show the trouble he has been at in his 
research, and, although it is probable that the earlier history of 
Ridgway is still far from perfect, it is also pretty certain that 
no further light will be forthcoming about the early doings 
of the Club. 

Mr. Brown writes : — 

Long ago I began to institute enquiries about its (the RidgAvay 
Club's) early history, but found upon application to Mr. Mugliston, 
its present courteous secretary, that he could afford me not the 
slightest assistance. When he took over the books from his pre- 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 



219 



decessor, Mr. Percival, he found that these went no further back 
than Mr. P.'s appointment in 1879. Prior to this Mr. James 
Bake, of Bird's Cliff, Cheetham Hill, had been in office from the 
March Meeting of 1854, exactly a quarter of a century, and doubt- 
less his books contained a carefully kept record of the club's transac- 
tions, possibly from its start. By some strange carelessness it would 





The game 



appear that no effort was made at his death to recover the books 
and documents belonging to the club, and possibly it is too late to 
make any effective attempt now. This is greatly to be deplored, 
as the most contradictory reports exist as to its inception, 
Goodlake, whose history of coursing was published in 1828, makes 
no mention of the club, and as he appears to have taken great 



220 COURSING 

pains to elaborate a complete list of all the existing clubs, going so 
far as to supply the names of the members in most cases, I should 
have been tempted to believe that it did not exist in his day were 
it not for the testimony of a living member to the contrary. During 
the winter of 1889 two letters appeared in the 'Field' from 'A 
Sportsman of the Olden School,' appealing to the younger members 
to take the trouble of supplying a history of the club, such as had 
been published in connection with Altcar. There being no response 
to his appeal, I opened up a private correspondence with this 
gentleman, which has ever since been maintained with much 
pleasure on both sides. He supplied me with many details of 
coursing as conducted in his early days, and specially of his con- 
nection with the Ridgway Club. Contrary to my belief, he affirms 
that when he joined the club in 1828 it had been in existence 
some years, and was at this date a flourishing institution, to be 
connected with which was accounted no small honour. He was 
barely twenty years of age when he found admittance to the Select 
Circle, and the circumstances were impressed upon his mind, as 
well by the fatherly interest which the preside^it took in him, as by 
the sound advice he gave him ' to drink little wine or spirits, avoid 
cards and gambling, and go early to bed.' Mr. W. G. Borron, 
the gentleman referred to, has been at great pains in corresponding 
with the descendants of Mr. Ridgway in the hope of being able to 
throw light upon his connection with the club, but except a remark 
contained in a letter from Mr. Ridgway's daughter, there is nothing 
to help us materially. The note is to the following effect ; ' I can- 
not tell when the Ridgway Coursing Club was founded, certainly 
some years before my marriage in 1832.' 

Mr. Brown then goes on to tell us how he visited the British 
Miiseum, and overhauled BelPs Life in search of what he 
wanted, but that he could find no trace of the club earlier 
than 1839 ; he, however, also discovered that at the Southport 
meetings there had been a ' Ridgway Stakes ' as far back as 
1833, which stake continued to be run until the meeting dis- 
appeared in 1839, and the Ridgway took its place. This 
appears to have raised a doubt in Mr. Brown's mind as to 
whether Mr. Borron was right in his dates, but, on being inter- 
viewed, the latter gentleman stuck to his story, detailing inci- 
dents which had made a firm impression upon him at the time, 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 221 

and recounting how the field costume of the club in 183 1-2 
was a green-cloth frock-coat, drab vest, corduroy breeches, 
and long leather boots coming well up on the leg. Mr. Brown 
next consulted the files of several local papers, but his 
investigations led to little or no result, and therefore he fell 
back upon the conclusion that the Ridgway Club grew out of 
the Southport Club, and that the latter was merged into the 
former through the growing popularity of its president, Mr. 
Thomas Ridgway, in whose honour a stake had been named 
some ten years before the actual change of title took place. 

I believe that local testimony goes to favour the idea just 
promulgated as to the Ridgway Club having sprung out of the 
Southport, and it is certain that the meetings of the former 
were held over the ground of the latter at no very far away 
date ; indeed, the present ground at Lytham was not used 
until 1845, and for twenty years after that date the meetings 
were divided between the two places. Since 1865, the club 
has been wholly indebted to the Clifton family for its leave, 
and no better locale for the sport is to be found in all that 
part of Lancashire, where, by the way, there is a meeting of 
some sort at nearly every village. 

Leaving the historical epitome and treating of the asso- 
ciation of the present day, Ridgway holds quite a unique 
place amongst coursing clubs. The membership is almost 
as select as Altcar, and there is a certain spirit of bonhomie 
and good-fellowship in the Lytham gatherings, which is alto- 
gether wanting in some more sedate and dignified institutions. 

The present membership of the club is fifty strong, and the 
meetings held are two annually, one in the early days of 
October, and the other in the first week of February. At the 
first-named there are separate dog and bitch Produce Stakes, 
Clifton Cup, Tenant Farmers' Cup, and sundry supplementary 
stakes of minor importance ; and at the latter the United 
Produce (North and South Lancashire) Stakes, Clifton Cup, 
Lytham Cup, and Peel Stakes, a goodly programme, which 
/ causes the running to extend over a third day. The ground 



222 COURSING 

coursed over is a mixture of grass and arable land, but there are 
some nice sloping hillsides, which, though not high in them- 
selves, are sufficient to afford dry lying for the hares, and, as a 
consequence, there is none of the 'weakness ' referred to in the 
account of Altcar. The hares, indeed, are veritable demons in 
point of staying powers, and the particular breed to be found 
on one portion of the ground has earned great notoriety 
by the name of 'Jock o' Pods.' These specimens of the 
furry tribe have the reputation of being the stoutest hares 
in the kingdom, and although I, personally, have seen game 
go stronger at Stockbridge than anywhere else, I must say 
that a ' Jock o' Pods ' hare takes a great deal of kiUing, even 
when he has a pair of the fastest greyhounds of the day at 
his scut. 

As mentioned before, the coursing takes place on the 
Clifton property, and although the present owner, Mr. Talbot 
Clifton, has not yet joined the ranks of public coursers, he 
takes great interest in the sport, and certainly shows a wonder- 
ful head of game. On the first day of the meetings Birk's 
Farm is generally the meeting-place, and operations are begun 
with the driving of a large tract of arable land on to a grass flat. 
The sport is generally very fair here, but if puss once reaches 
the hillside, she generally gives her pursuers leg-bail in the 
plantation. The ' crowd' have a first-rate view of this beat, 
which generally takes a couple of hours to get through. A 
move of half a mile is then made to another large flat, and 
sometimes the card is worked off here ; if, however, this 
cannot be managed, a second move of another half-mile has 
to be undertaken, the ground reached this time being generally 
arable. On the second day the coursing is somewhat further 
afield, and the ground sometimes rather deeper, but ' Little 
Plumpton ' now serves for all the finals, and the field so nick- 
named affords a grand stretch of galloping, where, so long as 
hares do not attempt the ' wired ' fence, the trials are most 
legitimate. I have seen some gruelling courses on Little 
Plumpton at the end of a meeting, but the going is always 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 223 

delightfully sound and springy, and after running on such stuff 
dogs naturally recover much more quickly than on really hard 
ground. 

SLEAFORD CLUB 

The club which has been recently formed in connection 
with the Sleaford Open Coursing Meetings is hardly more 
than a year old, and has, as yet, done little to establish its 
claims to be reckoned as of first-class importance amongst 
coursing institutions. The sport, however, with which it is 
associated is so good that I imagine there should be a great 
future before the meetings, and in the face of the support 
accorded them during the last few seasons, I feel tempted to 
put on record (for the benefit of those who do not know) what 
manner of coursing Sleaford provides. 

At present, all the stakes are offered to members of the club 
first, and after they (the members) have taken what nominations 
they require, the balance is submitted to the public. Whether 
in the future the club or the outsiders will play the chief 
part it is impossible to say just now, but about the quality of 
the sport there is 'no possible probable shadow of doubt 
whatever ' ; and, given good management and a strong com- 
mittee, I see no cause why Sleaford should not take high 
rank amongst the hybrid associations which seem to suit 
the coursing public of to-day better than really enclosed clubs 
where no one but members can run greyhounds. 

Public coursing at Sleaford is only about half-a-dozen years 
old, but Lincolnshire has always been a great greyhound 
county, and when several old fixtures, such as Brigg, dis- 
appeared [by the way, Brigg has been resuscitated again as an 
open meeting], it was only natural that new ground should be 
sought for. This was forthcoming on the Marquis of Bristol's 
estate at Sleaford, and as the shooting was, and is, mostly in 
the hands of the tenants, that sporting body are mainly 
responsible for the new departure. Mr. Fred Ward of Quar- 
rington has in particular bestirred himself in the matter, and I 



2 24 COURSING 

may also mention the names of Mr. G. H. W. Hervey, agent 
to the Marquis of Bristol, and the Messrs. Sumner, as gentle- 
men who have lent able and willing hands, and who, with 
Mr. Charles Smith, landlord of the Bristol Arms Hotel at 
Sleaford and secretary of the club, are possibly the leading 
spirits in the movement. 

The meetings, two in number, are held about the end of 
October and in the middle of January, and the programme 
generally consists of four thirty-twos, two of which are for all 
ages — one at 6/. loj". and the other at 2/. 10s. — and two for 
dog and bitch puppies respectively, both these latter being at 
4/. loj"., non -members in every case paying ^s. per nomina- 
tion more than those who have joined the club. As may be 
imagined, with such valuable stakes on the programme the 
class of greyhounds competing is very good all round, and now 
the meetings, like Lichfield, are attended by coursers from all 
parts of the kingdom. On the evening of the draw a large 
public dinner is held in the Corn Exchange, and some two 
years ago, when I was last present, the company numbered 
over one hundred, tenant farmers turning up in great force, 
and by their presence entirely disproving the idea that they 
wish the hare to be exterminated. 

The show of game is first-rate everywhere, and each time 
I have visited the meeting the question of a close time for 
hares has been vigorously discussed, the farmers hereabouts 
being particularly keen on the Bill, and most desirous that a 
restriction should be placed upon the wholesale slaughter 
which occurs elsewhere. 

A peculiar feature of Sleaford coursing lies in the fact that 
there is no long walk or drive to the scene of action, for the 
meet on two days is just outside the little town, and a five 
minutes' stroll from the Bristol Arms down the old-fashioned 
street brings one to the first stand. The land coursed over is 
a mixture of grass and arable, but at the earlier meeting hares 
are nearly all driven out of turnips on to grass and slipped at 
in large enclosures where a good view can be obtained and 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 225 

where the trials are of a most legitimate character. This 
turnip driving is worked in small beats, the village school- 
boys being employed to the number of about sixty, each boy 
carrying a small yellow flag. The little army is ' dressed ' up 
in close rank, and with the noise they make, and the waving 
of the flags, it is 100 to i on ail the hares going forward. 
The moment game is on foot the captain calls a halt, the 
flanking horsemen ride forward, and generally succeed in 
sending puss where she is wanted. Mr. Ward is particularly 
clever at this riding hares out, and as a natural consequence of 
the pains he takes with the beating arrangements, it is always 
possible to run off about sixty courses or more between ten 
and five o'clock — really good work for the open ! The fences 
are mostly small, and on the Quarrington Side I have seen 
Mr Hedley jump at least half a dozen when following a 
course of exceptional length. 

THE SOUTH OF ENGLAND CLUB 

Coursers on the south-western side of the metropolis used to 
be cared for some thirty years ago by a couple of clubs- -the 
Amicable and the Spelthorne — both of which used the same 
ground, viz. the home park at Hampton Court. It was, how- 
ever, found that the members of one mostly belonged to the 
other club, and therefore the two were joined together under 
the title of South of England. The membership of the joint 
venture some few years ago was sixty-four strong, but the num- 
bers have fallen off of late, and now the list is only of half the 
strength it used to be. It is exceedingly probable that the 
Ground Game Act is responsible for the decline, for now the 
club has to go much further a-field for its sport, and last year 
the meetings were held at Stockbridge in Hampshire and 
Amesbury in Wiltshire, both first-rate coursing grounds but by 
no means so easy of access as Hampton Court had been a 
few years before. Newmarket, too, has been frequently visited 
by the South of England, but hares are woefully short on 



226 COURSING 

Chippenham field to what they used to be, and I do not know- 
that the club ever used the Six Mile Bottom or Lord Gerard's 
ground where the Newmarket open meetings now take place. 

The Stockbridge Meeting is usually held in the early days of 
October, and if the weather is fine (which by the way it generally 
is) no more enjoyable sma// fixture occurs in the year's Calendar. 
The stakes consist of a Produce Stakes for dogs and bitches, the 
Stockbridge Cup for all ages, and the Longstock, Andover, and 
Danebury Stakes of lesser importance. Headquarters are at 
the Grosvenor Arms Hotel at Stockbridge, where the club use 
the same room which has served for the Bibury racing club 
three months before, and where the party is always jovial and 
pleasant, if not of very large dimensions. The ground coursed 
over belongs to Mr. Joshua East, of Longstock House, himself 
an old courser of note, and a most enthusiastic sportsman, who, 
despite the fact that he is an octogenarian, still rides with the 
beat all day and continues to direct all the arrangements. The 
meet is usually at Vicar's Cross, hard by the pretty Danebury 
racecourse, and operations are conducted in a circle round 
the copse-crowned hill of Money Bunt, so well known as a 
landmark in the Tedworth Hunt, which serves so efficiently as 
shelter for the Longstock hares. 

The drive — or walk — up to Vicar's Cross on a pleasant 
autumnal morning is a thing to be enjoyed by London sports- 
men, and a stranger coming upon the scene, and accustomed 
to other coursing grounds, could hardly fail to note the 
striking difference between this and the usual state of affairs 
at a coursing meet. No cardsellers are here, no itinerant 
vendors of ' Ormskirk gingerbread,' or other well-known coursing 
viands, no loud-voiced bookmakers vociferating the odds on 
the coming event, no miscellaneous crowd of ' hangers-on ' or 
' pickers-up,' but, instead, a group of gentlemen, gaitered and 
knickerbockered to their hearts' content, some mounted and 
some on foot, and attended only by their servants with the 
dogs in charge. 

Veritably a private day it seems, and yet by the time the 







I'W^ ^^1 c 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 227 

low ground is reached on the other side of Money Bunt, a 
goodly array of carriages, bearing their freights of Hampshire 
ladies, will have put in an appearance, and when the good 
things, which are spread out on a table in the stack-yard of the 
farm where the luncheon halt is made, are tackled, it will be 
found that the scene savours more of a picnic than anything 
else. As the afternoon wears on the ' crowd ' is also increased 
by numerous horsemen from adjacent Danebury, but the 
attendance is never large, and the rowdy element at all times 
conspicuous by its absence. 

The best of the sport is generally forthcoming from a beat 
along the valley, where turnips are driven on to grass in most 
systematic and clever fashion. The beat is not very wide, but 
is flanked on either side with horsemen, and the boys employed 
carry a long rope, which they keep dropping on to the tops 
of the turnips in order to prevent hares breaking back. The 
effect is first-rate, and though it is a difficult matter to conceal 
the slipper hereabouts, the quarry is easily sent where he can 
reach it. Hare after hare is ' used ' in the low ground, and 
hare after hare clears her pursuers as the hill- side is reached, 
only to go right away on the steep ascent and gain the covert 
far in advance of the greyhounds. I have seen course after 
course from this low ground when the points scored would tot 
up to seventy or eighty, could anyone keep count, and not 
many years ago two stakes had to be divided after having been 
once run down, not a single hound being fit to go to slips 
again ! 

The stock of hares, too, is large enough for a meeting of four 
times the dimensions, and some three or four years ago Mr. 
East told me that 300 had been shot in one drive, in the pre- 
ceding year, and after the coursing had taken place. 

The second meeting of the club is generally held about a 
month after the first, and now Amesbury is the venue, the old 
place having been once more requisitioned after a spell of 
Newmarket. Another Produce Stake is run off at this fixture, 
but the chief event is the Craven Cup for all ages, and the first 

Q2 



228 COURSING 

day's sport is usually on Tanners' Down, the finals being run off 
hard by the weird pile of Stonehenge. Headquarters are at 
Amesbury, but Sahsbury is of course available also, and if 
only the weather is right the meeting is sure to be enjoyable. 
Some old coursers think Amesbury Downs the finest coursing 
ground in England, and certainly the 'going ' is better for grey- 
hounds' feet than the flinty downs at Stockbridge ; but on a wet 
day there is no escape from the downpour, and late in the year 
the wind makes itself very strongly felt in the elevated positions. 
Down coursing is essentially a fine-weather pastime, for rain 
and wind which would hardly inconvenience the crowd on 
Cliffe Marshes, or on the Lancashire coast, seem to come in 
the form of hurricanes here, and the severest wetting I ever 
got when watching the long-tails was in a twenty minutes' 
storm on Tanners' Down. The force of it was quite strong 
enough to ' unsight ' the only pair of greyhounds slipped during 
the time of its continuance. 



WEST CUMBERLAND CLUB 

Coursing meetings have been held in the Whitehaven 
district for many generations, and, indeed, love of the leash is 
so inherent in Cumberland men that it is really difficult to 
say in what part of the country there has not been coursing, out 
of the mountain district. There is, however, no doubt that the 
Ground Game Act had a severe effect here for some years 
after it had been passed, and it was only when that ardent 
courser, Mr. Anthony Dixon, took matters into his own hands, 
that the sport began to look up again. Mr. Dixon began very 
young as a public courser, almost his first purchase being the 
brother and sister Record and Requisite by Hector from Netley 
Burn, w^hich pair he afterwards renamed Dunmail and Disguise. 
Both were fast greyhounds, a fact that was clearly proved when 
they got to the end of Gosforth Derby and Oaks respectively, 
and while the former won some good stakes for his new owner, 
the last-named — a beautiful bitch of the seldom-seen colour of 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 229 

white, black, and fawn — has been invaluable as a matron. At 
one West Cumberland meeting lately, nearly all the winners 
were greyhounds bred by Mr. Dixon, of whom it can certainly 
be said that his energy, determination, bonhomie^ and popularity 
have worked wonders with regard to the coursing revival on 
the west coast of Cumberland. 

The Rheda estate of Mr. Thomas Dixon— elder brother of 
the gentleman just mentioned — furnishes the ground for the 
West Cumberland Club, which was founded in 1887 by Mr. 
Anthony Dixon, and which, supported by coursers like Sir 
Thomas Brocklebank, Mr. E. M. Cross, the Messrs. Hyslop 
of Denton, Mr. Lowingham Hall and Mr. H. B. Boardman 
is certain to increase in popularity and importance. The 
stakes range from 2/. to 4/. loi"., and the Club and Rheda 
Cups, of twenty-four dogs each, are hmited exclusively to 
members, the minor stakes being generally open. The 
membership shows a steady increase every year, and the 
meetings, two or three in number, are nearly always of two 
days' duration. The ground coursed over lies principally in a 
circle round Rheda Hall, and it may be mentioned that the 
estate is situated between two large mining centres, Frizington 
and Cleator ; but the stock of game is simply enormous. 
At no open meeting of to-day do courses follow each other 
more quickly than at Rheda, and this, occurring with an attend- 
ance of 5,000 miners looking on, speaks volumes for the hare- 
preserving qualities of the delvers for coal and iron. The 
crowd at a West Cumberland meeting is certainly most 
remarkable, and even more wonderful still is the manner in 
which they are held in check. Mr. Thomas Snowdon of the 
North of England Club is almost facile prhiceps in the 
management of a chance crowd, but Mr. Anthony Dixon is 
absolutely not to be beaten in this line, and as a rule he has a 
much more cramped country in which to manoeuvre his forces. 
The first time I visited the meeting I found the system was 
worked thus : Mr. Dixon and his friend Mr. Robert Jefferson 
(master of the Whitehaven Harriers) were mounted, and when 



230 



COURSING 



a change of beat took place they simply drove the vast herd of 
miners before them like a pack of hounds, the effect being 
perfect in its result, but exceedingly laughable to watch. Hares 
run very strongly on all parts of the estate, but there is too 
much covert near the Hall for the coursing to be quite first- 
rate there, and my experience inclines to the belief that 
Weddicar Hill is the best trial ground used. 

Headquarters of the club used to be in the village of 
Frizington, but lately they have been moved to the Grand 




At a North-country meeting 



Hotel at Whitehaven, and at that hostelry the stranger can be 
thoroughly comfortable. I could tell many stories of the social 
part of a modern West Cumberland meeting, but I do not care 
to tell tales out of school, and therefore will content myself 
with saying that the Whitehaven people give a ready welcome 
to coursing visitors — only they would rather they did not come 
on a ball night. The drive out to the ground is about five 
miles, up and down hill. 

One little story and I have done with the West Cumberland 
Club. Many years ago, not quite at Whitehaven, but some- 



SOME ENGLISH COURSING CLUBS 231 

where else in the north of England, I was lugging a greyhound 
along the road, being then a youth of tender years with a strong 
partiality for the long- tails. My canine friend was being sent 
under my charge to a field half a mile off in order that he might 
be tried, and as usual when there were trials in the neighbour- 
hood, some of the miners were hanging about to witness the 
sport. On my journey to the field one of these worthies rose 
from under the wall where he had been sitting, and, taking his 
pipe out of his mouth, addressed me as follows very solemnly : 

' Master C , if ivvor ye want to make yer fortun at cooours- 

ing, ye mun get a grand bitch and put her to a grand dog, and 
keep on breedin, till yer get five pups, arle (all) of one colour. 
They needn't be mair (more) than five, but mind ye, they mun 
be arle of one colour.' 

The last words were spoken with great emphasis, and thus 
having got rid of what he had to impart, my mining friend 
resumed his pipe and his seat. I was most anxious to know 
what he meant, but he only kept repeating his last words, ' they 
mun be arle of one colour,' and it was some years before I 
understood the gist of the remark. This story was a great one 
for Mr. Dixon to tell the miners at a Frizington draw, and 
coursing men — especially those of the North county — will 
instantly understand the old miner's implication. 

The West Cumberland Club is in abeyance, or has ceased 
to exist ; but sport still flourishes at all the other places of 
which an account has been given. Altcar and Ridgway more 
than hold their own, the North of England Club has secured 
a new and enthusiastic patron in the Duke of Leeds, and new- 
ground on the Hornby Castle estate. In the South of England 
new institutions have been promoted quite close to London, 
viz. the Eastern Counties and Stock Exchange Clubs, and the 
two held joint meetings over the CHffe ground in 1898; the 
Stock Exchange Club have also held meetings on the Essex 
Marshes. 



FALCONRY 

BY THE 

HON. GERALD LASCELLES 




l\: '^^^7^ 



PETER BALLANTYNE 

The last oj the old Scotch Falconers 



235 



CHAPTER 1 

INTRODUCTORY — THE MODERN FALCONER — IMPLEMENTS 
USED — GLOSSARY OF TERMS 

A WORK upon falconry, the most ancient of all the field sports 
which men follow at the present day, needs no apology for its 
introduction to the public, especially when, as is the case with 
the following chapters, it forms part of the series of volumes 
which deal comprehensively with all our English sports. That 
falconry is not better known or more commonly practised 
is due to the great alteration in the character of the country 
since the days when it was the pursuit chiefest in the estima- 
tion of the sporting public. The almost universal enclosure 
of the land, accompanied in many cases by the planting of 
hedgerow timber, the introduction of the art of shooting 
flying, which at once supplanted hawking as a means of 
providing game for the table, the adoption of the system of 
forming plantations which came so much into vogue about one 
hundred and fifty years ago — all these things contributed to 
make falconry less possible and therefore less popular than it 
had been up to the time of the Commonwealth, when men's 
minds were occupied with greater concerns than those of 
sport, and when falconry, the chief amusement of the upper 
classes, received its rudest shock. So now in the present day 
the parts of the country where hawking can be successfully 
carried on are comparatively few and far between, and though 
there are a goodly band of devotees to the sport (and there is 
no pursuit with the love of which its votaries become more 
deeply imbued), yet it is not possible for them to respond to 



236 FALCONRY 

the innumerable invitations which they receive to show their 
friends something of their favourite diversion, because the 
country where their host would seek to fix the venue is not 
merely bad, but impossible for the sport. This is rarely under- 
stood. In other sports the best can be made of a bad country : 
foxes can be hunted over plough lands, if not with the same 
success as attends the sport in the wide pastures of the Mid- 
lands, yet with satisfaction to those who are enterprising enough 
to carry on the pursuit under grave difficulties. In the absence 
of covert birds may be driven, and so on. But in a country 
unfavourable to that sport falconry cannot be carried on at all, 
and any crude attempts to do so must result in the disap- 
pointment of all concerned and in the depreciation of what 
is, under more favourable circumstances, one of the wildest 
and noblest of all the field sports in which man has ever 
indulged. 

Hawking can only be carried on in a perfectly open country, 
that is to say, open enough for the particular flight that is to be 
followed. Thus partridge hawking can be pursued wherever 
the fields are large and the fences small without much hedge- 
row timber. Magpies require a rather more open country and 
entire absence of trees of any kind, while rook hawking can 
only be practised successfully in a perfectly open country, such 
as the downs of Wilts or Berks, or Newmarket Heath. It is 
therefore clear that only the residents in certain favoured 
localities can follow this amusement with the same facilities as 
are ready to hand in the case of most other field sports, and 
on the other hand a man must be really deeply ' bitten ' who is 
willing to leave his home and his ordinary avocations in order 
to follow his favourite amusement in suitable yet distant local- 
ities. Yet there are many such enthusiasts left even in these 
degenerate days. Falconry has never for a single hour been 
extinct in Great Britain ; and there are probably at the present 
time more hawks in training, well and ably trained too, both 
by amateurs and professionals, than ever there were since the 
beginning of the century. 



INTROD UCTOR V 237 

In this work we propose to treat of modern falconry alone. 
That it is the most ancient of sports none can doubt. That it 
was the popular sport in the East centuries before it travelled 
to Europe is well known. Sir A. Layard records in his work 
on ' Nineveh and Babylon ' that in the ruins of Khorsabad he 
found a bas-relief representing a falconer bearing a hawk on 
his wrist. In this case we may start our history of the sport 
from 1200 B.C. But we have no intention of following its 
course from that date to the present. As from the time of 
Alfred to that of James I. falconry was the chief sport of the 
aristocracy, so there were published more works on that subject 
than perhaps on any other. To these we would refer those who 
are curious in the history of the sport. First and foremost is the 
old ' Boke of St. x\lbans,' printed in i486, purporting to be 
written by Dame Juliana Berners, Abbess of Sopwell, Herts, con- 
taining treatises on ' Hawking, H unting, and Cote Armour.' Next 
the ' Booke of Falconrie,' by George Turberville, Gentleman, a 
most excellent and quaint work abounding in good advice. In 
16 1 5 was printed 'The Faulcon's Lure and Cure,' by Symon 
Latham, a thoroughly good, practical work on hawking, full of 
good sense. In the various editions of Blome's ' Gentleman's 
Recreations' (1670) are to be found many hints on training 
hawks, although most of the letterpress is copied from the older 
works quoted above. But a very good and original work, now 
very scarce, treating chiefly of the management of the short- 
winged hawks, is 'A Treatise on Hawks and Hawking, by 
Edmund Bert, 16 19.' ^ In these books, with various other 
treatises, can be found many interesting details of this sport, 
which probably was at the height of its popularity about the time 
of Elizabeth. Her chief falconer was Sir Ralph Sadler (who 
was for some time the custodian of Mary Queen of Scots), and 
the abode which he selected in order to follow his favourite sport 
and for the better training of her Majesty's falcons was Everley 
in Wiltshire, now the seat of Sir J. D. Astley. In the old manor 

' A reprint of this work was published in 1891 by Mr. Quaritch, limited to 
100 copies. 



238 FALCONRY 

house there is a portrait of Sir Ralph in the Court costume of 
the period, with a falcon on his hand bearing a jewelled hood. 
Not far from the manor house is the old chalk pit, to this day 
known as ' Sadler's Pit,' where tradition says that a member of 
the chief falconer's family met his death by unwarily galloping 
over its precipitous edge while eagerly following a flight. There 
is an ancient hostelry hard by the spot which has now for many 
years been selected as the headquarters of the Old Hawking 
Club, showing how little the character of the country has 
changed since Sir Ralph Sadler selected it as the best he could 
find for the sport he loved so well. 

That hawking was intensely popular in the days of Shake- 
speare can be proved ' by a hundred trite quotations, which we 
spare our reader, with the exception of one which shows so 
perfect a knowledge of the falconer's practice, and is expressed 
so exactly in the technical language of a falconer, that it is hard 
to believe it was written by anyone who was not a perfect 
adept in the art. It is in ' The Taming of the Shrew,' where 
Petruchio says of Katherine — 

My falcon now is shafp^ and passing empty ; 
And, till she stoops she must not be i\yS\. gorge df 
For then she never looks upon her lure. 
Another way I have to man my haggard^ 
To make her conie^ and know her keeper's call ; 
That is, to watch her, as we watch these kites 
That bate^ and beat, and will not be obedient. 
She ate no meat to-day, nor none shall eat ; 
Last night she slept not, nor to-night she shall not. 

Had Petruchio been a falconer describing exactly the manage- 
ment of a real falcon of unruly temper he could not have done 
it in more accurate language. 

But to pass by the ancient practice and to come to modern 
falconry. There, again, we find the art fully described in many 
a work. Campbell's treatise, dated 1773, though full of extra- 
vagant nonsense, contains many a useful hint. The brief trea- 
tise of Sir John Sebright (1828) is most excellent, and has but 



INTRO D UCTOR V 239 

one fault, viz. that there is too little of it. * Belany on Fal- 
conry,' 1848, is a useful work, and in 1855 was published 
' Falconry in the British Isles,' which has ever since been re- 
cognised as a standard work on the subject, excellent for its 
letterpress, but beyond all praise for the admirable engravings 
from the drawings of the late Mr. W. Brodrick, with which 
the book is so copiously adorned. This book was followed by 
' Falconry : its History, Claims, and Practice,' by Messrs. 
Freeman and Salvin, and by various other smaller treatises 
which bring the history of the sport down to the present day. 

These works are all in the English tongue. There are in 
French, German, Italian, in Swedish, Russian, Japanese, and 
Hindustani, nay in every tongue that has existed since the 
days of the Tower of Babel, works on falconry. Of all these, 
manifold and curious as they are, we will commend but one to 
the notice of the student on falconry ; that is the magnificent 
work of Messrs. Schlegel and Wiilverhorst, published at Leyden 
in 1 84 1. The illustrations, from the pencil of Wolff, are in 
themselves an education in falconry, while the letterpress (in 
the French language) comprises as good a treatise upon the 
art as it is possible to write. Especially interesting to English 
readers are the graphic accounts of the heron hawking at the 
Loo, which was chiefly carried on by the Hawking Club, a full 
history of which is appended to the work. 

The student of falconry who desires to perfect himself in 
the art need only possess himself of all the lore to be found 
in these books. To their instructions we can add nothing. 
With the knowledge contained in them we cannot presume to 
vie ; but we will endeavour to describe the pursuit of falconry 
precisely as it is carried on at the present day, with all the 
advantages of modern science, with the disadvantages of 
modern agriculture, and the modern manner of life. This is 
an age of progress, and hawking, like other sciences, has not 
altogether stood still. Facilities for travelling, modern educa- 
tion, and the more rapid mode of thought have left their 
mark upon this ancient art, jus: as they have upon other 



240 FALCONRY 

matters. Clever as our ancestors were in the training of hawks, 
much as we have learnt by following closely in their footsteps, 
yet, as we live faster ourselves in these days, so we expect 
more to be got out of our hawks than would have contented 
the falconers of an hundred years ago. At that period the 
training of falcons was entrusted either to a man well taught 
in the practice of the Scottish school, and, therefore, well 
versed (and probably very clever) at hacking and training 
hawks taken from the nest ; but the mysteries of catching and 
taming the wild-bred hawks were a sealed book to a man of 
this stamp, and the higher forms of falconry to be followed by 
the aid of hawks of this class were unknown to his employers. 
Or, again, where the master of the hawks was of more ambi- 
tious temperament, a Dutch falconer was imported, whose 
patience, skill, and delicate handling of the ' passage ' or wild- 
caught peregrine were incomparably superior to the arts of 
the rougher professional, who was only familiar with the easily 
tamed, because never wild, nestling. But such a man as this 
was, as a rule, entirely ignorant of game or of game hawking, 
and, good as might be the sport which he showed, a great 
deal of the fun which, on an English manor, can be got out 
of a team of hawks, was lost to his followers. 

The falconer of the present day is a different personage 
altogether. Met, perhaps, in the spring on the breezy downs, 
with a first-rate team of wild-caught hawks, where he is show- 
ing sport every day — ay ! and all day — to a large party at rooks, 
magpies, &c., you next encounter him on the platform at 
Perth on his way north to fly grouse with a combined team of 
eyesses and passage hawks which he has educated on totally 
different principles for a totally different flight. Some, per- 
chance, are the very same rook hawks as were flown in the 
spring, but so altered in education and habit as hardly to seem 
the same birds. Next he will be seen at Holyhead, returning 
from a successful trip to Ireland, where he has been pursuing 
the flight of the magpie, just in time to cross over to Holland 
to help the Dutchmen in capturing the hawks for the following 



THE MODERN FALCONER 241 

yeai, and to render no little assistance in the early breaking 
and training of these captious pupils. Naturally he must be a 
man of experience, versatile, intelligent, and of some education, 
so as to be able to study and master the different forms of the 
science. No rule-of-thumb education will do here, for at a 
few weeks' notice he is called upon to train different kinds of 
hawks, in an entirely different manner, for flights which differ 
one from another almost as much as it is possible for sports 
to do. 

As is the modern falconer, so is the modern sport. We 
travel faster, we get over more ground, and our hawks do more 
work. Only a year or two ago the score of quarry killed by our 
principal hawking club reached 600 head of winged game 
taken in England, Scotland, and Ireland by different kinds of 
hawk, all differently trained, entered, and managed. In ancient 
days where one system was pursued such scores were impos- 
sible, and though, perhaps, we are not nowadays superior to 
the best of the old Scotch falconers as regards game hawking, 
nor are we able to beat the best Dutch falconers as to their 
management of the wild-caught hawk, yet in the combination 
of both systems, with perhaps a few wrinkles from the Oriental 
falconers, whose practice has been a good deal followed of 
late years, we believe that modern falconers can lay claim to 
a distinct superiority in their science over those of any one 
school in ancient days. 

In one respect, certainly, English falconry has made a 
great stride during the last twenty-five years — that is, in the 
general management of passage hawks. A great deal has been 
learnt here from the Indian falconers, to whom nestlings are 
unknown, but who are able to do as much in every respect 
with their wild-caught birds as European falconers can with 
their eyesses. 

At any rate, in these later years, passage hawks are tamed 
and trained, and that early in their career, to an extent which 
was unknown to those masters of the art who, forty years ago, 
achieved great results with them in certain flights, where clever 



242 FALCONRY 

management and good entering were essential, but where very 
high training was not required. 

In the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' Col. Delme Ratcliffe, a 
falconer second to none, states it as his opinion that eyesses, 
or nestling hawks, have been far better managed in the nine- 
teenth century than they were in the middle ages. Whether 
this be so or not we cannot tell ; certainly if hacking such hawks 
was not formerly practised, this would be the case, but we are 
disposed to think that this practice was generally followed by the 
old falconers in Scotland and the north of England, where 
falcons could easily be procured from the nest, and that the 
good sport which they appear to have enjoyed was shown by 
eyess falcons which can hardly have been without hack. At 
any rate, he has placed upon record his opinion that the 
falconers of the present time have learnt to manage their hawks 
better than their ancestors were able to do, and we believe 
that he is perfectly correct in this view. 

The hawks which are used in falconry in the present day 
are of various kinds, and are divided into two great varieties. 
First, the true falcons, or long-winged hawks ; secondly, the 
short-winged, or true hawks. 

In ' Falconry in the British Isles ' we find the following 
excellent definition of the two varieties : — 

The falcons or long- winged hawks are distinguished from the 
true or short-winged hawks by three never-failing characteristics, 
viz. by the tooth on the upper mandible (this in some of the foreign 
species is doubled), by the second feather of the wing being either 
the longest or equal in length to the third,^ and by the colour of 
the irides, dark in the case of the falcons, yellow in that of the 
hawks. 

Falconers will, however, find many more differences be- 
tween the two species than are here described ; for their whole 
nature is different, and so, consequently, is their mode of flight. 

1 In the short-winged hawks the fourth is the longest feather in the wing. 
The tail and also the legs are far longer than in the falcon, and the foot more 
powerful. 



THE FALCONER 243 

Whilst the falcons are fine-tempered, generous birds, whose 
home is in the open country, and whose dashing style of flight 
is only adapted to wide plains or hills, the hawks are shifting, 
lurching fliers, deadly enough in their own country, which is 
the close woodland through which they can thread their way 
like a woodcock or an owl, and that with extreme rapidity, for 
a short distance. 

Of the first named variety the species which are commonly 
used in modern falconry are, first and foremost, the peregrine, 
which is to be found in every quarter of the globe, and wher- 
ever it has been trained, east or west, has always proved itself 
to be the hawk which is by far the best suited to the service of 
man ; next the gyr-falcons and the merlin. These have been 
regularly made use of from time immemorial. Besides these 
we sometimes find the Barbary falcon, the sacre, the lanner, 
and the hobby ; but though, no doubt, these birds are very 
capable of showing sport, they have been treated more as 
pets in this country, and trained as an experiment rather than 
with any serious intention to kill game with them. In the 
East both sacre and lanner are trained with success, as well as 
various other species of falcon. 

Of the short-winged hawks the goshawk and the sparrow- 
hawk are the only varieties in use. 

Of the implements which are in use for the confining and 
training of hawks, the first and the most important ig the Hood. 
This is a cap of stiff leather, so contrived as to blindfold the 
hawk, while at the same time it fits easily to her head and 
does not press upon her eyes, and yet is so well fitted that she 
cannot get it off. Two patterns are in ordinary use, Dutch 
and Indian. The Dutch hood is the old European form, and 
is made of three pieces, one body-piece and two eyepieces. 
These latter are usually covered with cloth or velvet, not 
only for appearance' sake, but also because the cloth being 
drawn into the seams of the leather makes a close joint and 
does not allow a glimmer of light to come through the hood just 
above the hawk's eye, and just where it should not. 



244 



FALCONRY 



Many a fine falcon has been made into an incurable 
* jumper' or a 'restless brute' by straining to get at a ray of 
light which fell through an ill-made hood, and was just enough 
to do away with all the effect of hooding her, while at the same 
time it gave her no comfort or sense of freedom. 

A good pattern of hood, nearly akin to the Indian pattern, 
made out of one piece, is given in ' Falconry in the British 
Isles,' Plate XVI., but we have never seen this hood in actual 




Fig. I.— Dutch hood 



use. The Indian hoods are excellent, easily made, and most 
comfortable to the hawk. In fact, they are perfection so long 
as the hawk is on hand ; but hawks can readily get them off 
if left hooded by themselves, and therefore there are many 
occasions on which they are useless. 

Rufter hoods are light caps of leather which blindfold the 
hawk, but are open at the back, and securely tied with a strap 
and button round the neck. Hawks can readily feed through 
them, but they cannot be taken on and off, and are only used 
for the controlling of hawks that are just caught. 



IMPLEMENTS 



245 



What the bridle is to the horse, that the hood is to the 
falcon 3 it is the only means by which she is controlled ; with- 
out it, so nervous and excitable is her temperament that she 
would, even if trained and fairly tame, dash herself from the 




Fig. 2. — Indian hood 



perch at every strange sound or sight, and after an exhausting 
struggle would not, perhaps, recover her equanimity for a whole 
day. To take her to the field on the hand, or to travel with 
her from place to place, among sights and people most strange 




Fig. 



■Rufter hood 



and alarming to her, would be an impossibility. With the 
hood on her head she sits like a stuffed bird ; she can be 
handled, passed from one person to another, carried for 
hundreds of miles, and taken through streets, railway stations, 



246 FALCONRY 

or where you will, without the slightest trouble and without 
feeling any alarm or inconvenience herself. 

Sir John Sebright very aptly remarks : — ' It may, perhaps, 
appear paradoxical to assert that hawks, by being kept hooded, 
are brought nearer to their natural habits ; but this is un- 
doubtedly the case, for, by this treatment, they are induced to 
remain at rest when they are not feeding or in pursuit of game, 
and such are their habits in a wild state when left undisturbed.' 

Jesses are two short strips of leather (see fig. 4) by 
which the hawk is held at all times. They are about one 
quarter of an inch wide for the greater part of their length, 
and half an inch wide at the part where they encircle the hawk's 
legs. Two slits are made about one and a half inch apart, 



Fig. q 




Jesses 

and the jess being placed round the hawk's leg, the shorter end 
is passed through the slit nearest the middle of the jess, and 
the longer end passed through both slits, which makes a neat 
knot around the leg. (See fig. 5.) 

At the end of the jess furthest from the hawk's leg is a long 
slit which is passed over a swivel (see fig. 7), through the 
lower end of which is run the leash. This is a strap or thong 
of leather about three feet in length, with a button at the end, 
formed by folding the leather several times, then punching a 
hole through the folds and drawing the end of the thong through 
the hole. By this leash the hawk is tied to her block or perch. 
Dog-skin well tanned is the best leather that can possibly be 
used for jesses, and out of the centre part of the back, in very 
large skins, can be cut the best leashes. When skins of suffi- 
cient size cannot be got, calf leather or 'kip' is very good. 



IMPLEMENTS 247 

Once we saw some capital leashes cut out of lion's skin, but this 
leather is not often found in the tanyard. White horse-skin 
is very tough and very good for hawks that are prone to gnaw 
and tear their jesses, but it is apt to grow very hard with wear 
and requires constant greasing and attention, and nothing is 
better for leashes than ' porpoise ' hide or the leather of the 
white whale. In India a leather is used that is very light and 
good, and also soft : it is usually dyed some bright colour on 
one side and appears co be goatskin. Swivels should be made 
of brass in all cases ; iron or steel rust with bathing and then do 
not act well. In old days ' varvels ' or rings of brass, silver, or 
even gold (often engraved with the owner's name) were attached 





Fig. 6.— Leash Fig. 7. -Swivel 

to the jesses, and the leash run through them. But this more 
clumsy arrangement has for a long time been superseded by the 
swivel. 

Bells should be very good ones or they are not worth 
putting on to a hawk. By far the best and most durable are 
the Indian bells, of which the shape is peculiar (see fig. 8, p. 248). 
They are easily procured through any friends who may have 
taken up falconry in India, and they are largely made in 
Lahore. Of rough manufacture and cheap in price, they are 
perfect for the purpose for which they are intended and few 
falconers use any others. They are light, of good tone in 
general, and marvellously durable. We have used some for 
many years, even until a hole was worn through the metal of 
the bell by the clapper within it, and yet the tone was unim- 
paired. Many attempts have been made to get these bells 



248 FALCONRY 

exactly copied in Europe, but the result has always been utter 
failure : probably the metal used in India is a different alloy to 
that in use in Europe. Bells are made in Holland and are 
fairly good when new, but nearly always crack and lose their 
tone after a season's use. Bells are fastened to the hawk's legs 
by short straps called 'bewits,' which are attached in the same 
manner as the jess. 




Fig. 8.— Indian bell 

The Cadge is a frame or perch on which hawks are car- 
ried to the field. It should be made of light deal, and 
the edges well stuffed and covered with stout canvas. It 
is supported by four legs, which can be made to fold up for 
convenience sake, and it is hung over the shoulders of the 
bearer, who stands in the midst of the frame, by two cross belts. 
The box cadge is simply a light box, without a lid, and with 
padded edges, on which hawks are placed for railway travelling, 
&c. To induce hawks to sit quietly on the cadge they must 
frequently be brailed. The Brail is a strip of leather similar 
to a jess, about ten inches long, with a sht in the middle about 
two inches long. This slit is passed over the shoulder, and one 
end of the brail is passed round the wing and tied on the 
outside. The wing is thus lightly confined in its natural 
position, and the hawk, being unable to use it, will sit perfectly 
still as long as she is allowed to do so. 



IMPLEMENTS 



149 



The Lure is a most important instrument in the training 
of hawks. The chief requirements are : that it should be 
attractive in form to the hawk, too heavy for it to carry, and 
convenient for the falconer to carry and use. A very good 
lure is made of a horseshoe, w^ll padded with tow, and bound 
and covered with leather. It should be covered over with two 
pairs of wings, of which wild duck's will be found to be the 
best, and strings are attached by which food may be fastened 
to the lure, on which the hawk may feed. A lure is figured 
below. 

A good lure is formed of two or four fresh pairs of pigeon's 
or fowl's wings laid face to face, and bound together. The 
hawks can pull enough at 
it to be rewarded after a 
flight, and it more closely 
resembles a bird, dead or 
alive. But, as hawks can 
carry such lures as these, 
they must be held by a 
long string, and are usually 
thrown up to the returning 
hawk to be taken in the 
air, instead of being thrown 
out on to the ground. 

The falconer's left hand^ 
on which hawks are car- 
ried must be protected by Fig. 9.— Lure 
a stout glove. Buckskin is 

the proper material for this, roughly tanned, and it should be 
sewn double over the thumb, fore-finger, and upper part of the 
hand, or sharp claws will penetrate. 

A Falconer's Bag, with different compartments for live 
and dead lures, snaring hues, &:c., is most useful. A pattern is 

1 European falconers always carry the hawk on the left hand, but Indian, 
Persian, Arabian, and other Oriental falconers invariably on the right. Japanese 
falconers, however, use the left hand, like Europeans. 




250 



FALCONRY 



shown below. It is usually worn round the waist on horse- 
back, or, if used on foot, over the shoulder. 

Many falconers use the voice freely when training or exer- 
cising their hawks. Tradition is in favour of the practice, and 
it seems to have been in use in Shakespeare's time, or he 
would not have made Juliet exclaim : — 

Hist ! Romeo, hist ! O ! for a falconer's voice 
To lure this tassel-gentle back again. 

Romeo and Juliet^ Act II. Sc. ii. 

Yet we have our doubts as to the efficacy of the practice. A 
short sharp cry as game rises is certainly of use, as it ma\' 

attract the attention of a hawk 
that is waiting on so w-ide that 
her eyes may be turned for 
the moment in another di- 
rection. An old hawk, too, 
may become so used to her 
trainer's voice that she may 
not, however wnlful she be, 
stray beyond sound of it. 
But, as a rule, hawks are 
birds that work solely by 
the eye. They will generally 
detect game the instant it 
rises from the covert, many 
seconds ere the sound of the 
falconer's voice reaches them. 
So, too, they will see the lure 
the moment it is shown to 
them, and if they will not 
come to it when well in 
their view, no strains of the human voice, however melodious, 
will attract them. If the falconer has a fine sonorous voice 
and he likes to exercise it either in calling or in cheering on 
his hawks, he can do so with eyesses without doing the slightest 




Fig. 10. — Falconer's bag 



GLOSSARY OF TERMS 251 

harm ; but many passage hawks do not Hke a noise, and, as a 
rule, in hawking, as in all other sports, the quieter you are about 
it the more successful are you likely to be. 

In ancient times the number of technical expressions used 
in falconry were almost innumerable ; hardly a motion could 
be made by the hawk, hardly a feather shaken, but a special 
term was applied. We in modern times have much reduced 
the number of these terms, and in describing our hawks are 
content to make use of the ordinary expressions of everyday 
life ; but in a sport so peculiar there are necessarily many tech- 
nicalities and many terms which must be used and understood 
when falconry is the topic. We here append a glossary of 
terms now used in hawking, and, while we have endeavoured to 
include all those that are in daily use, we have excluded all that 
are unnecessary or obsolete. 

Glossary of Terms used in Hawking 

Bate. — To flutter off the perch or fist through wildness or from 

temper. 
Bewits. — The strips of leather by which the bells are fastened to 

the legs. 
Bind. — To seize and hold on to quarry in the air. 
Brail. — A strip of leather with which one wing of a hawk is 

secured so as to prevent her from moving it. 
Cadge. — A frame of wood with padded edges upon which hawks 

sit when carried to the field. Cadges for travelling are made 

in the form of a box without a lid, and the edges of the box 

are padded as in an ordinary cadge. 
Calling off. — To call the hawk to the lure from the fist of an 

assistant. 
Carry. — To fly off with the quarry which has been taken, on the 

approach of the falconer : a fault hawks are very liable to con- 
tract. 
Cast. — A couple of hawks. 
Castings. —Fur or feathers given to a hawk, together with its food, 

to promote digestion. 
Cere. — The waxlike skin above or round the beak. 
Check to. — To leave the bird flown at for another. 



252 FALCONRY 

Coping. — Trimming and paring the beak and talons. 

Crabbing.— Hawks fighting with one another. 

Deck feathers.— The two centre feathers of the tail. 

Enter. — To train a hawk to a particular quarry. 

Eyess, or Eyas.— A hawk taken from the nest. 

Falcon. — Means the female of any hawk as opposed to the male, 

when used by falconers. Naturalists use the word to signify 

a long -winged as opposed to a short-winged hawk. 
Falcon Gentle. — Another name for a peregrine. 
Frounce. — A disease in the mouth and throat of a hawk. 
Gorge. — To give a hawk as much as she will eat. 
Hack. — A state of liberty in which young eyesses are kept for 

some weeks to enable them to gain power of wing. 
Hack- BOARD. — A board or table upon which the hawks at hack 

are daily fed. 
Haggard. — A hawk captured after she has assumed the mature 

plumage ~z.^. is two years old at the least. 
Hood. — A cap of leather used for blinding a hawk, so as to bring 

her under proper control. 
Imp. — To repair broken feathers. 

Intermewed. — A hawk that has been moulted in confinement. 
Jesses. — Leather straps about six inches long permanently secured 

to the legs of a hawk. 
Leash. — A leathern thong fastened by a swivel to the jesses in 

order to secure the hawk to a perch or block. 
Make-hawk. — ^An old hawk flown with a young one to assist and 

encourage her. 
Manned. — A hawk that is tame enough to endure the company 

of strangers. 
Mantle. — To sit on the perch with wings and tail fully spread — a 

sign of an ill-tempered hawk. 
Mews. — The place where hawks are kept. 
Mutes. — Hawks' droppings. 
Nares.— Hawks' nostrils. 
Nestling. — The same as an eyess. 
Pan n EL. — The gut of a hawk. 

Passage. — The regular flight of any quarry to or from its feeding- 
ground ; also the annual migration of hawks. 
Passage hawks. — Hawks which are caught when fully grown, as 

they migrate. 
Perch. — The pole or rail on which hawks are usually kept within 

doors. 



GLOSSARY OF TERMS 253 

Pitch, — The highest point to which a hawk rises when waiting on. 

Point, to make. — The perpendicular shoot up of a hawk over the 
exact spot where quarry has put in. 

Put in. — The quarry is ' put m ' when driven to take refuge in 
some covert. 

Put over. — To digest food. 

Quarry. — The game flown at. 

Ramage. — Wild and stubborn. 

Rangle.— Small stones which hawks take with their food to aid 
digestion. 

Reclaim. — To tame a hawk, or bring her from, her wild condition 
to such a point that she is fit to enter at quarry. 

Red hawk. — A hawk of the first year — i.e. in the 'red' or im- 
mature plumage (sometimes also termed a ' soar ' hawk). 

Ring. — To rise in wide circles, or spirally. 

Rousing.— Shaking all the feathers. 

Rufter hood. — A hood of peculiar construction used for freshly- 
caught hawks. 

Serving a hawk. — Driving out the quarry which has 'put in' to 
the hawk as she waits overhead. 

Slight falcon. — A peregrine. 

Stoop. — The rapid descent from a height upon the quarry. 

Swivel. — Used as a link to attach the jesses to the leash, and to 
prevent entanglement. 

Tiercel, Tercel, or Tassel. — The male hawk as opposed to the 
female ; he being a 'tierce' or third smaller in size. 

Truss. — To clutch or hold on to the quarry in the air. 

Varvels. — Small rings of brass or silver which used to be attached 
to the end of the jesses. Now disused and a swivel adopted, 
being less likely to become entangled in trees, &c. 

Waiting on. — To soar steadily above the head of the falconer or 
his dog, in expectation of the springing of game. 

Watching or Waking. — Sitting up at night with a newly caught 
hawk, so as to tire out and tame her. 

Weathering — Is placing hawks unhooded upon their blocks in 
the open air. 

Yarak. — An Indian term to signify good flying condition. 



54 FALCONRY 



CHAPTER II 

THE PEREGRINE — EYESSES — HACKING HAWKS — TRAINING — 
GAME HAWKING^RECORDS OF SPORT — MAGPIE HAWKING 

The peregrine falcon breeds in most parts of the United 
Kingdom where a suitable situation can be found for its eyrie 
and where it is allowed to remain unmolested. Wild sea-cliffs 
or lofty scaurs on inland hills are the most common situations ; 
but the sea-cliffs are generally preferred because of the abund- 
ant food which is provided, both for the parent birds and the 
young, by the dense flocks of sea-birds and rock-pigeons which 
have also resorted to the same range of cliffs for breeding pur- 
poses. The chalk cliffs of the South Coast ; rocky islands, such 
as Lundy or Handa ; the headlands on the Welsh coast ; the 
north and west of Ireland ; and almost the whole of the coast 
of Scotland, are dotted with the breeding-places of the pere- 
grine. Only one nest is found within a considerable circle, for 
the pair which have taken possession of an established eyrie 
will brook no intruder on their hunting-grounds. Taking the 
young from the nest is an operation attended with considerable 
difficulty and danger, and, if possible, experienced cliff-men, 
who are in the habit of descending the cliffs by means of ropes 
in order to take sea-birds' eggs or to gather samphire, should 
be employed. It is absolutely essential that the right moment 
should be selected for taking the young birds, and that moment 
arrives when the birds are nearly fledged, but have not yet left 
the nest. If taken too young the nestlings are very difficult 
to rear ; are very liable to be taken with cramp, which is incur- 
able, and, even if they survive, are almost certain to contract 




PEREGRINE ON BLOCK— AD DLT PLUMAGE 



THE PEREGRINE 255 

the vile habit of incessant screaming, and to be hot, bad- 
tempered birds. The nest should be carefully watched with 
a glass from some coign of vantage until all the down which 
at first clothes the nestlings is seen to be replaced by brown 
feathers, and, when this is the case, the birds may be taken. 




A peregrine's eyrie 

This should be done, if possible, towards evening. They 
should be placed upon long straw (not upon hay), in a hamper 
v,'ell lined with canvas, and sent off at once to the falconer, so 
that they may accomplish as much of their journey as possible 
during the night. No food should be placed in the hamper 
unless the journey is likely to be a very long one, and great 



256 FALCONRY 

care must be taken that no hay, grass, or woollen material be 
placed at the bottom of the hamper, or else the young birds 
will very probably pick up and swallow pieces thereof. Many 
a young hawk has been destroyed in this way. Young hawks 
well taken and well sent off are worth about i/. to i/. loj-. each. 
Those taken too young are literally not worth one shilling. Un- 
less the falconer can thoroughly rely upon the cliff-men who are 
to take the nest for him, it is well worth his while to go himself 
or to send a man to see the nest taken. Not unfrequently there 
is some competition as to which man or set of men shall 
secure the nest, and in such cases birds are often taken young, 
and kept, generally in a bad place and on bad food, until they 
are fledged, and then sent to the falconer as freshly taken birds. 
Such nestlings as these are the most worthless of all ; their 
weakly nature, tame disposition, and screaming will betray them, 
at once, and the best and cheapest plan is to send them straight 
back again to wherever they came from, if, as should always 
be the case, proper directions have been sent for taking them, 
and a stipulation made that they are carried out. As soon as 
they are received, they should be taken from the hamper and 
placed in a roughly-made nest on the floor of a large loft, or 
even a shed or coach-house, in the vicinity of which they are 
intended to fly at hack ; jesses and a couple of large bells should 
be put upon them at once, and, after that, the less they see of 
any human presence the better. The object of flying at hack 
is to get the young hawks wild and powerful on the wing. All 
training should be left until this part of their rearing is past 
and done with ; the wilder they get the better, so long as they 
feed regularly. Food should consist of fresh beef finely 
chopped, with every other day a new-laid egg mixed with it ; 
a change of diet should also be resorted to as the birds get 
older, and freshly-killed birds, rabbits, and even squirrels and 
rats, form good diet for hawks at hack. All food should be 
tied on a piece of board (which should be kept scrupulously 
clean) and placed withirj sight of the young birds by the 
falconer, who should show himself as little as possible and 



EYESSES 257 

retire as quickly as he can. If the young hawks learn to asso- 
ciate his presence with a supply of food, they will at once begin 
to scream at the sight of a human being, and, if this habit is 
contracted, it will never be lost, and the' hawks will become a 
positive nuisance to their owner. The method of rearing 
hawks which was adopted by Peter Ballantyne, one of the most 
successful of Scotch falconers, was to place them in an open 
loft or old pigeon-house, along the front of which was nailed a 
wide board or shelf at such a height that a man standing 
underneath it could just reach up high enough to place food 
on the shelf. On this board the young hawks spent most of 
their time in fine weather, their food being placed before them 
twice or three times a day without their catching sight of a 
living creature near enough to alarm them. Gradually they 
extended their flight to the roof of the house and the adjoining 
trees, and soon were on the wing and taking long trips into the 
adjoining country, regularly returning when hungry to the 
board, where they never failed to find their food at regular 
intervals. This was an excellent method of rearing nestlings, 
and its principle should be followed as nearly as possible. 
Where the hawks are reared in an ordinary loft, the window 
should be set open as the hawks get stronger, and they should 
be allowed gradually to come out, care being taken to set their 
food, when they have done so, on a large board called the 
hack-board, in a conspicuous place just outside the loft : for, 
when once in the open air, they will not re-enter the house. 

In some places the contiguity of a village or some other 
circumstance renders it undesirable to let the hawks out until 
they are strong enough on the wing to extend their first flight 
to the tops of high trees well out of harm's way. In the first 
\\\on flights of the very young birds they are, of course, very 
liable to be knocked over by a stone from some mischievous 
boy, or picked up and injured by some ignorant but well- 
meaning person. In such a case as this the hawks must be 
reared in a good large loft or loose box until they are quite 
strong on the wing. They must then be taken out and tied 



258 FALCONRY 

down to blocks close to the hack-board for two or three days 
until they get thoroughly familiar with the surroundings. 

At the end of that time the falconer should quietly, and 
without frightening the hawk, cut its jesses off close to the 
swivel and leave it on the block loose. At night, after the 
hawk has fed, is the best time to do this. In the morning it 
will, after looking about it, quietly take wing, though its first 
flight will probably not take it out of sight of the hack-board, 
to which it will come down and feed, as it has been accustomed, 
at the usual time. 

As soon as the young hawks have each spent the day on the 
wing and returned to feed at evening on the hack-board, they 
may be considered safe, and may be kept in this state of liberty 
until they learn to prey for themselves, which will not be for 
some weeks. It is a beautiful sight to see them playing 
together, coursing each other through the air, stooping and 
dodging, till at last, hot and weary, they ring up in wide 
circles into the cooler currents high overhead till they are out 
of sight and you see them no more till the feeding-time draws 
near.' Possibly as the time approaches, none, or at most but 
one or two, are to be seen about the hack-board ; but before 
the hour strikes, a httle dot will be seen in the far distance, 
which in a few seconds resolves itself into a falcon, hastening 
like ' a bolt from the blue,' to take her place at the dinner- 
table ; in a minute more another speck is visible in another 
direction, then two or three together, and in a few minutes 
the whole vicinity of the hack-board will be alive with hawks, 
racing and chasing each other, till at last they drop down 



' In the summer of 1881, an old wild tiercel came daily to play with the 
young hawks which we were flying at hack, and so lost his natural fear of 
mankind, through associating with them, that he would at times stoop within 
a few yards of the windows of the house, and even took to roosting on the ad- 
joining church-steeple with the young hawks. When some of the nestlings 
were caught up, he disappeared, but, unhappily, carried off with him his 
favourite playmate, an exceedingly promising young falcon, which he kept so 
well provided with food that she ceased to feed at the hack-board and so never 
could be taken up. 



HACKING 



259 



one by one to the ground, and soberly settle down to the serious 
business of the evening meal. 

Strict punctuality must be observed in feeding young 
hawks : six o'clock morning and evening are good hours to 
appoint J They will not go far away at so late an hour, and 
will drop down from their roosting- places for their morning 
feed before they attempt to leave the place for the day ; conse- 
quently every hawk goes away with its crop full, safe from getting, 
into mischief for the present. Care must be taken to fasten the 
meat securely to the hack-board, so that it cannot be carried 
9ff by any hawk, and for feeding at this stage very tough beef, 
alternated with rabbits, skinned partially and cut into four 
quarters, is as good as anything. 

As long as each young hawk appears regularly at the 
morning and evening feed, it is in no danger of being lost by 
its own fault, however far it may roam from home, and a careful 
watch must be kept to see that all have attended. But directly 
a hawk absents itself at feedmg-time it is a sign that it is killing 
for itself, and, should it be missing a second time, it should be 
caught at once. Probably, however, this will not happen until 
the hawks have been at large for a fortnight or three weeks. 

In order to secure them the bow-net must be used. This 
is a plain, circular, or oval net about three feet in diameter ; for 
half of its circumference it is fastened to a light hazel-rod, bent 
into a semicircular or ' bow ' shape. To the centre of the 
bow is attached one end of a line fifty yards long. To set the 

1 Hawks that are irregularly fed, or are allowed to go for any protracted 
length of time while their feathers are growing, are apt to develop a serious 
defect in their plumage known as ' hunger traces.' Sir John Sebright in his. 
work on falconry describes it thus : — ' The defect when strongly marked may 
be seen in some degree on every feather of the body, but it is especially ob- 
servable on the expanded wing or tail, in a line crossing all the feathers. On 
the shaft of each feather the mark may not only be seen but felt as a ridge 
slightly projecting. It may also be seen as a line of imperfection across the 
web of every feather neatly marked as if a razor had been lightly passed across 
the wing. The injury from this cause is sometimes such as to occasion the 
feathers to break off at the hunger-trace, and it is not improbable that the 
razor-mark seen on the web is in fact owing to the breaking off of all the fine 
fibres of the web in the line of the trace. ' 

S 2 



26o FALCONRY 

net, spread it open on the ground near the hack-board, and peg 
down that half of it to which the bow is not fastened with half 
a dozen pegs set round its outer edge. Then fold the bow 
back over the pegged-down portion, tuck away all the loose 
part of the net under the bow itself, till but little is seen except 
the hazel stick lying on the ground. In the very centre of the 
net place the food of the hawk, firmly pegged down, draw the 
long line tight, and the net is ready. Care must be taken not 
to allow the hawk which is wanted to feed with the others, and, 
as it will probably be the shyest and wildest of them, it will be 
easy enough to move it off till all the others have fed. Then 
remove all food except the piece which is in the net, and ere 
long the hawk will come to it. One pull of the line brings the 
bow flying over the hawk's head ; the net is spread out to its 
original shape of a circle, in the centre of which, under the net, 
is the hawk. It must be secured as quickly and as quietly as 
possible— a hood put on its head, a swivel and leash attached 
to the jesses, and then it should be tied down upon soft grass 
with a block to sit upon, and so left to itself for an hour or 
two to settle down. 

No unnecessary delay must intervene before training must 
be seriously taken in hand. At first the young falcon must be 
carried on hand for two or three hours at a time, being con- 
tinually stroked with a feather and otherwise gently handled. 
She will show great impatience at every touch and every strange 
sound, but she will gradually settle down to her unaccustomed 
perch and its concomitant disagreeables. As soon as she does 
this she will pull at a piece of meat laid across her feet, and 
will shortly take a fair meal through the hood. The next stage 
is quietly to remove the hood, by candle-light, while the hawk 
is feeding and hungry. Probably she will continue her meal 
without taking much notice, but the hood must be replaced 
ere the meal is at an end, and a few mouthfuls given after it is 
put on ; for the appearance of the hood must never be associated 
with the abrupt termination of dinner in the hawk's mind. 
If, however, she will feed well and fearlessly by candle-light, 



TRAINING 261 

she should be tried by daylight on the following day, and, if 
she has been carefully handled, no doubt she will feed well 
enough on hand in a short time in the open air, with strange 
people about her. She should now be carried as much as 
possible among strange dogs, children, &c., and her idle 
moments may be spent bareheaded on a block in some place 
where she will see many strangers of all sorts, and in this way 
she will tame herself in a few days, and will eagerly jump to 
the fist for the evening meal, which she has become accustomed 
to take there. The next step in her training is to break her 
to the hood, and this is a most important one, for to be shy of 
the hood is one of the most serious vices with which a hawk 
can be cursed. It is hardly too much to say that there is no 
fault that a hawk can possess which may not be induced by 
a dishke to the hood in the first instance. It lies with the 
falconer himself whether his hawk shall be perfect in this 
respect, and there is no greater test of the skill and patience 
of the trainer than the way in which his hawks stand to the 
hood. Not on his own fist. Ke may be an exceedingly skilful 
hooder, and his hawks may know him perfectly, and let him 
hood them easily enough ; but a well-broken hawk should 
stand well to the hood on the hand of any and every man who 
knows how to use his hood with ordinary skill. To do this 
well requires much practice and some dexterity : it is hardly 
possible to describe the process on paper. It should be done 
firmly, quickly and gently ; no shots or dabs taken at the 
hawk's head, nor should the middle finger of the hand which 
holds the hood by the plume be used to thrust the hawk's 
head into the hood ; but it must be gently placed on her head 
and a quick movement made of the hand on which she perches, 
so as to cant her forward, as it were, and let her hood herself. 
Any person who aspires to become a successful trainer of 
hawks must practise this branch of his art under good tuition, 
and should he master it he may be assured that the rest of 
the business will give him no great trouble. 

But suppose the young eyess to feed well on the hand, to 



262 FALCONRY 

jump readily to the fist for food, and to stand well to the hood, 
the next step is to introduce the lure — an instrument which has 
been described at page 249, but which is really any convenient 
piece of food which may be offered to a hawk, and which she 
cannot readily carry away. A dead pigeon or a fowl will 
do very well. Let your hawk take a bite or two from it and 
then fling it to the ground; she will follow it with a little en- 
couragement, and, after you have helped her to feed upon it, 
she will again fly a few yards to it when thrown from her. 
During this part of her education she must be confined by a 
long string. Let her finish her meal upon the lure with your 
assistance ; and the next day if she will fly keenly at it directly 
it is thrown at a little distance from her, and not offer to leave 
it at your approach, she is fit to fly loose with due care. She 
should be called from the block a few times at increasing 
distances, hut before this lesson has been often repeated, the 
falconer will find that he cannot walk far away from his hawk 
with the lure in his hand without her following him. 

She should be now placed on an assistant's hand and 
'hooded off' to the falconer, who will swing the lure at a 
distance of about 200 yards. The hawk will be well on the wing 
when she reaches him, and when she stoops at the lure he will 
twitch it from her, and keep it from her sight for a while. She 
is sure to mount and circle round his head for a few moments, 
when the lure will be thrown out to her, and she should be 
fed on it. In a few lessons she will follow her master, circling 
round his head at a greater or less height, according to her 
natural inclination, for five or six minutes at a time, and then 
the rest of her education is a mere question of practice. 

This hawk has never killed for itself, so it will be necessary 
to arouse the instinct within it by offering her a pigeon at the 
block. She will almost surely seize and kill it, and the next 
time she is flying round the falconer may be offered an easy 
pigeon, which also she will take and instantly kill. If the 
falconer has thoroughly won the confidence of his hawk he 
will have no fear of her carrying, but if it be otherwise the 



TRAINING 263 

pigeon must have a short line attached to it. When the hawk 
has taken two or three pigeons from the hand thus, let her 
have a real good old blue-rock fresh taken from the dovecote. 
If she should catch him, you may hug yourself on having got 
a ' wonder,' but in nine cases out of ten he will either beat her 
to some covert, if she presses him hard, or will fairly defeat her 
in the air.' In either case (if the country be open, and none 
other should be selected for such a trial) the hawk will return 
high in the air in consequence of the distance from which she 
comes. Then the moment she is well overhead throw out to 
her a pigeon which she can easily catch, feed and reward her 
well, and the lesson is learnt — viz. that to catch quarry she 
must be high and well placed over her master's head. Another 
lesson or two of this sort and the hawk is fit to fly at game. 
The less work that is done at pigeons the better — it is but 
a paltry amusement not fit to be called sport — and if hawks are 
kept very long at bagged quarry, they will soon fly at none 
other, and become useless, half-hearted brutes. This remark 
applies to all kinds of hawks and all varieties of quarry. 

The first essay at wild game should be attempted with 
great care, and, if possible, in private, so that the hawk may 
be given every chance, and nothing sacrificed in an endeavour 
to show sport to an admiring circle. The weather must be 
fine — not necessarily a dead calm. A steady, good dog, well 
used to hawks, must be put down on favourable ground — 
the most favourable that can be selected— and should he get 
a point at birds in a good place, let the young falcon be flown. 
Plenty of time must be given her to attain her highest pitch, 
which the falconer will employ in getting round the birds so as 
to head the dog. The hawk must be exactly ' placed ' when 

1 For three years we tried all our hawks, to the number of six or seven, 
annually with the same old Belgian homing pigeon that was the pride of a very 
fair loft. He stood the test well and sailed home in triumph year by year, 
when his feebler mates were defeated, although some very high-class hawks 
were tested by him. At last ' Buccaneer ' fairly caught him, and, though we 
were fortunately up in time to save the old bird's life, we never used him as a 
' trial horse ' again. 



264 FALCONRY 

the birds are sprung- that is to say, she must be as high as she 
isHkely to mount, exactly over the birds, but a little up wind of 
them. If, then, the falconer springs the birds at the right 
moment, and turns them down wind, a good stoop will be made, 
which will probably result in a kill. O fortunati 7ii7nium ! if 
such be the result, for, with future care and caution, the hawk is 
made. Let then the falconer go carefully in to her as she sits 
with the game in her foot ; if he has trained her carefully he 
need have no fear of her carrying, for she will but regard his 
approach as an extra assistance by which she may the more 
rapidly obtain the tit-bits of her meal. She should be given a 
fair good three-quarter crop with plenty of casting, hooded up 
and taken home, and flown again the afternoon of the next day. 
Should she kill her bird again, treat her in the same manner, and 
then fly her twice or thrice a day as long as she kills well, and 
get all the spoU you can out of her. After being flown for a 
while at game the hawk will (if it is ever to become a good one 
at all) begin to mount higher and higher. Unless it does so, it 
will be of no use at all later in the season, and, indeed, it is sur- 
prising how few hawks can kill grouse regularly and well after 
September 15, or partridges (especially in the case of tiercels) 
after November i. The higher a hawk mounts the more ground 
it will cover, and where the pitch is good game will be killed 
that has sprung very wide of the hawk ; but, as a rule, the 
hawk should be high, and directly over the game, which should 
be sprung down wind, so as to ensure a down-wind stoop. To 
ensure success these three points must ever be strictly observed, 
and for grouse late in the season, or even December partridges, the 
falconer will find that he can afford to give very few points away. 

Should the quarry be driven into a fence or other covert, a 
good spaniel is useful either to retrieve or to drive him 01 1. 
Old hawks are thoroughly alive to this part of the sport, and 
v/ill recover their pitch with extraordinary rapidity after having 
driven a bird headlong into covert, so as to be ready should he 
emerge from it. 

Game hawking, contrary to what might be expected, has 



GAME HAWKING 



26 s 



not the effect of banishing the game flown at from its haunts, 
A single afternoon at the sport will prove to any man of ex- 
perience that it is not likely to have this effect. Immediately 
a covey is flushed, the hawk being overhead, its members 
hurry with the utmost speed they can command to the nearest 
covert. One bird only is killed, and the rest find a refuge 
within a few hundred yards of the place where they were 




Falconer 'making-in* to a hawk 



found. Directly they discover that they are not pursued they 
will be out on the feed again, for there is nothing unnatural or 
unusual to them in being frightened by a hawk. Probably on 
any ground open enough for hawking, they see a wild one 
every other day, and merely consider the trained bird to be 
one of their natural enemies, which they readily avoid by their 
natural powers and instinct. 



266 FALCONRY 

We have not unfrequently, in countries where there were 
but few spaces open enough for hawking, flown almost daily at 
the same coveys, both of grouse and partridges, and found 
them without fail on the same feeding grounds, though in 
diminished numbers, as they were one by one taken ; nor did 
flying hawks at them regularly appear to make them nearly so 
wild as even a day or two of shooting over the same ground. On 
moors where, for convenience, a separate beat is devoted to 
the use of the hawks, it has been found that, towards the end of 
the season, birds lie better to dogs and are considerably more 
numerous than they are upon the beats where they have been 
shot regularly. This has been proved most conclusively upon 
the Achinduich moors in Sutherlandshire in 1882 and 1883, and 
upon the Langwell moors in Caithness in the seasons of 1885, 
1886, and 1887. 

A good flight at game is one of the prettiest sights hawking 
can afford, especially when grouse is the quarry. The moor 
should be rather a flat one, and the less broken the ground is, 
and the fewer burns intersect it, the better the hawk's chance of 
success. Grouse will 'put in ' to a burn with steep sides, like 
a partridge into a fence, and get right underground where 
the banks are hollow. Good dogs are essential : they must be 
wide rangers, very steady, and thoroughly understand the sport, 
into which they will enter most keenly. As soon as the dog 
stands the falconer should unhood his hawk and throw her off. 
If she is an old hand at the game she will not be long 
mounting. Possibly, if a dashing flier, she will do so in very 
wide circles, ranging, it may be, a mile or more from her 
master. Especially will she do this when flying hard daily, and 
being fully fed upon the game she is killing, she becomes full 
of flesh, muscle, and vitality, and at the same time what is 
called ' a little above herself.' Should she stray too far away the 
swinging of the lure, or in extreme cases, one flutter of the wing 
of a pigeon, will bring her back ; but, as a rule, all exhibition of 
lures while a hawk is mounting high on the wing should be con- 
demned. Directly she returns, and has shown by a few short turns 




GRQ-DSE HAWKING— ' HIT TAIB AND SQUARE 



GROUSE HAWKING 267 

that she is steady, the birds may be flushed. The hawk ought 
now to be hanging steadily, with her head to the wind, at least 
three gunshots high. She looks no bigger than a butterfly, and 
here and there bits of scud may be seen drifting between the 
earth and her ; yet she is under command, and, should the 
point prove a false one, will follow her master at that lofty 
pitch while, say, fifty acres of heather are beaten below her. But 
at the right moment the falconer, who has moved quietly round 
so as to head his dog while the hawk gains her pitch, dashes 
down upon the point, the birds are sprung, and the hawk, turning 
on her side, flies downward for a few strokes as hard as she can, 
and then with wings closed she falls like a stone slung from a 
mighty catapult, almost like a flash of light, right on to the 
very top of the bird she has from the first moment selected. 
Should she hit him fair and square, there will be a little cloud of 
feathers in the air, and the grouse will bound on to the heather 
as dead as though he had received the contents of a choke- 
bore at forty yards ; but if the quarry pursued be an old cock 
grouse, perchance at the critical moment he will give three or 
four abrupt side shifts like those of a newly-sprung snipe, and 
the bafiled hawk will shoot up after her stoop to a height half 
as high as that which she came from, ready to drive at the 
grouse again as he scuds off to the shelter of the nearest burn. 
It then becomes a trial of speed between the two, the result of 
which depends on the distance of the flight, the lay of the 
ground, and similar circumstances ; but the falconer will only 
occasionally be able to see the actual finish, and following 
on the line of flight will either find his falcon beneath the 
lee of some great boulder surrounded by a mass of feathers, 
about to begin her feast on the body of her victim, or else 
hears the tinkle of her bell as the defeated hawk, having re- 
covered her wind, takes flight again to search for her master. 

It is a great advantage when the dog can be trained to dash 
in towards his master and flush the birds at a given signal, 
instead of the man having to run down and spring them 
himself. The dog's nose tells him exactly where the birds are. 



268 FALCONRY 

They may be at a little distance from him, and will lie like 
stones with the hawk overhead, so that the falconer may be 
unable to light upon them instantly, and the delay of a few 
moments may be fatal. We have seen two or three dogs of 
the breed of lemon and white setters, belonging to Mr. St. 
Quintin, that would dash in ' as keen as mustard ' at the signal 
and flush the nearest grouse of the covey, dropping instantane- 
ously as they did so. There they would remain during the 
time the hawk was flown, was taken up, and a fresh hawk 
taken from the cadge and hooded ofl", and after she had got to her 
pitch would again dash in and flush, at the exact moment, the 
remaining bird or birds of the covey. In this way we have 
seen, especially with one magnificent setter called ' Prince,' who 
worked for many seasons solely with hawks, three and four 
flights obtained from the same point at one covey, the dog 
lying immovable during the long time — perhaps twenty minutes 
— that elapsed during the flight and taking up of the hawk in each 
case. Yet these dogs were no potterers, but were dashing, high- 
ranging dogs of the highest class, thoroughly acquainted with the 
work they had to do, and fond of it. They were seldom used with 
the gun, and seemed to work with more intelligence and sense 
of responsibility than dogs which are shot over usually display. 
As a rule we have found setters more suited to hawking, and 
more capable of understanding the peculiar work that is required 
of them than pointers. This appears to have been the experience 
of falconers at all times, and is placed on record in various books. 
Partridge hawking is very similar to grouse hawking, but 
is, from the nature of the country, more circumscribed. Hence 
very dashing fliers that have done well at grouse cannot 
always be flown in the low country. Tiercels, which, as a rule, 
cannot kill grouse regularly after the first fortnight or so, are 
best suited to this flight, and if only they will go high enough, 
and wait on steadily, they will show perfect sport wherever the 
fields are large enough to give a fair chance of a flight. A good 
spaniel or two that is used to the hawks should be taken out in 
order to put out or retrieve a bird driven into a hedge. 



GAME HAWKING— RECORDS OF SPORT 269 

It is, of course, not possible to kill very large bags with hawks, 
nor is the sport of such a nature that the number of head killed 
can be always taken as a fair criterion of the amusement which 
has been afforded. In 1830 the hawks belonging to the Duke 
of Leeds ^ are recorded to have killed 317 head of game, and 
in 1832 one tiercel of his, 'The General,' killed 129 head out 
of 134 flights. Most of this work was done at partridges. 

In the season of 1870 that excellent falconer Peter Ballantine 
killed 269 head of game in Ayrshire, being then in the service of 
Mr. Ewen, and in 1871 he killed no less than 346 head with six 
hawks, which is, we believe, the highest score (if ground game 
killed by goshawks be excluded) that a team of game hawks has 
yet made. The greater number were, however, partridges, with a 
few grouse and young blackgame in the early part of the season. 

In 1882 the hawks belonging to the Old Hawking Club 
achieved what may be termed a ' record ' in the annals of game 
hawking, killing between August 12 and September 14 exactly 
one hundred brace of grouse upon the Achinduich moors, in 
Sutherlandshire, which were taken by Mr. St. Quintin and 
Colonel Brooksbank for the purpose. The score for this season is 
sufficiently remarkable to be appended here, and is as follows : — 



Hawks 


c 


1 


^ 


1 


.2 




Parachute, eyess falcon, 2 years old 
Vesta ,, ,, I year ,, 
Aneela, passage falcon, 2 years ,, 
Creole „ „ . . . . 
A.-D.-C, eyess tiercel, i year old 
Amesbury, passage falcon, 3 years old . 
Virginia, eyess falcon, i year old . 
Belfry, eyess tiercel, i year old 


57 
43 

10 

16 

32 

3 

3 


76 

9 

I 


s_ 


3 


5 

I 


146 
62 

36 
10 
26 
32 

4 
3 


200 


104 


5 


3 


7 


319 



See Falconry in the British Isles, y>. 64. 



270 



FALCONRY 



In 1883 the Club hawks, under the same management, 
killed :— 



Grouse , . . . 


. - 85 


Blackgame .... 


• 7 


Partridges .... 


, 87 


Pheasants .... 


• 3 


Sundries , . - . 


, 21 



203 

But considering how bad a partridge year this was, and that 
no hawking was done after November i, it can hardly be 
called a fair average year. About six hawks were flown during 
the season. In 1886 ninety six grouse and one woodcock were 
killed at Langwell, Caithness, in August and September, and 
in 1887 ninety-three grouse on the same moors, two blackcock, 
and two pheasants. 

Where grouse are so wild that they cannot possibly be in- 
duced to lie to the dog, flights may be obtained by putting up 
the hawk to wait on as soon as likely ground is reached, and 
forming a good wide line of beaters across the moor. If the 
hawk is steady and goes high, a good many grouse may be 
killed in this way ; but it is, of course, an inferior sport to the 
legitimate practice of working the highly trained dog in con- 
junction with the highly trained hawk, which has been de- 
scribed in the preceding pages. 

The method of putting the hawk up beforehand has been 
regularly followed by Major Hawkins Fisher, a falconer of 
thirty years' experience, who has met with success of no mean 
order. In 1887 Major Fisher made the excellent bag of in 
grouse, nine partridges, one snipe, and a woodcock owl, and in 
1886 he also met with excellent sport, of which we have not 
a record. Major Fisher also gives an account of an extraor- 
dinary flight which one of his eyess falcons made at a woodcock 
on the shores of Loch Eil, when both cock and hawk mounted 
into the air over the loch to such a height that even powerful 
glasses failed to discern them. At last a speck was seen coming 



GAME HAWKING 



271 



out of the sky, and the woodcock dropped like a stone towards 
the very patch of bracken from which he had originally been 
sprung. His pursuer, however, was close behind him, and long 
ere he could reach his haven of refuge he was cut over stone- 
dead in mid-air and fell at the falconer's feet. In another 




Tiercel and teal 

moment the hawk was upon him, and received the full crop she 
had so well earned. 

Wild ducks and teal afford the best of sport, provided the 
water is not too large and they can be driven out of it. Most 
hawks will fly them readily, but ducks shift quickly from the 
stoop, and will then take the air, when a fine high flight is 



272 FALCONRY 

sometimes obtained, the duck when outflown generally making 
straight for the pond whence he was sprung. Few tiercels will 
take mallard, but for teal they are excellent. 

Woodcocks afford the finest kind of game hawking, but can 
rarely be found in sufficiently open ground to be flown at. 
Should the cock avoid the first stoop, as it probably will do, 
even when a high- mounting hawk is waiting on, he will cer- 
tainly ring up into the air, and a beautiful flight, akin to heron 
hawking, may be witnessed after the usual description of game 
flight is over. Falcons are the best for this quarry, and though 
it taxes the powers of the hawk, yet with a really good falcon 
the woodcock is not an exceptionally difficult bird to kill. 
Snipe are occasionally cut down by a good tiercel, and some- 
times the hawk will ring up over them, but they are not easy 
to kill except in August. Pheasants, if found in the open, are 
easily caught, but not many tiercels care to tackle an old cock, 
which buffets them sadly when on the ground, 

Blackgame when young are very readily taken, and are 
useful for entering young hawks, but when fully fledged, say 
after October i, the blackcock can take care of himself. A 
high -mounting hawk, well placed, may cut him down at the 
first stoop, but should he shift from it he will almost certainly 
outfly the hawk. 

We have never known hares to be successfully taken with 
the peregrine except in one season. This was in 1883, on the 
Achinduich moors, when a particularly fine, high-mounting 
grouse- falcon, called ' Parachute,' was waiting on at a great pitch 
over a point, which turned out to be at a blue hare instead of a 
grouse. To the surprise of all, the moment the hare moved the 
falcon came down like a flash, and striking it behind the ears rolled 
it over and over. Shooting up, she repeated the blow again and 
again, and finally binding to the exhausted hare would no doubt 
have very shortly killed it, even if an officious spaniel had not 
come to her assistance. The case seemed so remarkable that 
the experiment was tried again the next day, and the hawk 
purposely allowed to gain her pitch over a blue hare that had 



GAME HAWKING 



'2-11 



been espied in its seat. Precisely the same thing happened, 
the hawk flying her game with the greatest courage and deter- 
mination, and a third essay produced the same result. With- 
out a doubt, then, if a little pains were taken to enter peregrines 




Tiercel and woodcock 



to this quarry, they could be trained to take it, and perhaps 
might, with the help of a dog, tackle even an English brown hare ; 
but it seems a pity to use the noble long- winged hawks for a 
flight at ground game which is far better suited to the goshawk. 



274 FALCONRY 

Magpie hawking, though not one of the higher branches of 
falconry, is nevertheless most excellent sport, and possesses 
this charm, that the field, one and all, may take an active part 
in the chase, for their assistance is necessary to bring "about a 
kill. It is a flight well within the powers of either eyess tiercels 
or falcons that do not mount high enough to kill game well. 
Passage tiercels are also very good, and if they become well 
entered to the quarry are, from their superior dash and style, 
rather more deadly than eyesses. Two tiercels should be 
flown together, as the magpie shifts so rapidly from the stoop, 
and avails himself so cleverly of every possible covert that 
might protect him, that a single hawk has not much chance 
with him, and the whole beauty of the flight consists in the 
pretty double stooping in which the one tiercel takes up the 
chance that the other has missed. 

A partially open country devoid of trees is the best for the 
purpose. The best sport we have seen is in Ireland, where 
the sport was ever heartily welcomed and cordially joined in. 
Great sport has been seen in co. Kildare in the neighbourhood 
of Sallins and of Kildare, and in Wexford, near Enniscorthy. In 
Tipperary, near Fermoy, Captain Salvin ^ records that in 1857 
he killed in four months 184 magpies, killing as many as eight 
in one day with his excellent tiercels ' The O'Donoghue ' and 
' Dhuleep Singh.' In 1873 the same gentleman, together with 
the author of this volume, took twenty-eight magpies, three 
sparrow-hawks, and about the same number of rooks and other 
quarry in one month's tour in Ireland ; and in 1879 certain 
other members of the Old Hawking Club had a most suc- 
cessful trip of three weeks in Kildare and Tipperary, killing 
fifty-eight head. Of this number ' Buccaneer' and ' Meteor,' 
two excellent eyess tiercels, killed in thirteen days forty- four 
magpies. 

The great object in flying the magpie is to cut him off from 
his point, and to drive him into the open at the moment when 
the hawks are well placed for a stoop. Cunning to the last 

1 See Falconry in the British Isles, p. 68. 



MAGPIE HAWKING 



275 



degree, however he may be pressed, a magpie never loses his 
head, or ceases to make for the point on which he has set his 
mind from the first. Unless he is headed by horsemen or 
active runners, he will sneak from bush to bush, from tuft to 
tuft, nay, even within a deep rut or a furrow, never moving 




Magpie hawking 

except when the hawks are a little wide of him, and shifting 
rapidly into covert the instant he is stooped at. No hawk can 
kill him without assistance, except in the most open ground. 
As soon as a magpie is seen a high-mounting hawk should be 
thrown off ; his presence in the air will keep the magpie quiet 



2/6 FALCONRY 

in the bush or hedge in which he may be. This will give the 
field time to get well round him and cut him off from any 
strong covert there may be in sight. The quarry may now be 
moved, and as soon as the first hawk comes at him, a second 
may be flown. It will all depend upon the ability of the field to 
keep the magpie out of covert, and move him often enough for 
the hawks to stoop at him, whether the issue will be successful 
or not ; but in favourable ground we have often known a 
magpie hunt, with an active field, and two good hawks, to last 
thirty minutes, and not always result in a kill then. 

Good sport may be obtained on open downs where many 
scattered bushes exist if there are magpies breeding in any 
plantations bordering such ground. The woods must be 
beaten systematically, down wind, by a line of beaters, and the 
hawks concealed to the leeward of the covert. The magpies 
usually pass out very high, and it requires a good and experienced 
hawk to go straight and well at them, and fetch them down into 
the scattered bushes. As soon, however, as they see the 
tiercel coming hard at them, they will drop, and if he waits 
on well and steadily, they will remain in their hiding place till 
the field comes up and the hunt begins. But they are 
exceedingly clever, artful birds, and on ground of this kind a 
great deal of manoeuvring is necessary to obtain a flight at all. 



277 



CHAPTER III 

THE PEREGRINE— PASSAGE HAWKS — ADVANTAGES OF — HOW 
CAUGHT — MODE OF TRAINING— HERON HAWKING — ROOK 
HAWKING— GULL HAWKING — PASSAGE HAWKS FOR GAME 
— LOST HAWKS 

What the professional is to the amateur, or rather, perhaps, 
what the thoroughbred horse is to all other varieties of the 
equine race, the passage hawk is, according to species, to 
every other hawk which is trained, inasmuch as she is swifter, 
more active, more hardy, and more powerful than the nestling. 
That this should be so is no matter for surprise when it is 
recollected that the passage, or wild-caught, hawk has spent 
days and weeks on the wing in every kind of weather, and has 
killed dozens, or perhaps hundreds, of wild birds in fair flight, 
while the nestling has only gained what power of wing she 
possesses from some three or four weeks of flying at hack, and 
since that time has been flown at from two to three birds a 
day, and that only when the weather was fine. Moreover, 
though we cannot definitely account for this, the temper of the 
wild-caught hawk is, as a rule, far gentler and more amiable, 
when once she is tamed, than is that of a hawk taken from the 
nest ; and, while the latter are rarely free from the horrible 
trick of screaming, that vice is almost unknown among passage 
hawks. 

These difl'erences in temper were well understood by Symon 
Latham, who pubHshed in 1615 his book called ' The Faulcon's 
Lure and Cure ' (which is to this day the best English work on 
falconry ever written), and who says in conclusion of a chapter 



278 FALCONRY 

on eyess falcons : ' But leaving to speak any more of these kinde 
of scratching hawks, that I did never love should come too 
neere my fingers, and to returne unto the curteous and faire 
conditioned haggard faulcon whose gallant disposition I know 
not how to extoll or praise so sufficiently as she deserves.' 

What the falconers of ancient days thus recorded is 
abundantly confirmed by the practice of their successors in 
modern times. The passage hawk, as every wild-caught 
peregrine is termed, with the distinction of ' haggard ' when 
she is captured in the mature plumage — perhaps aged several 
years — has proved herself, in our own experience, the superior 
to the eyess in every kind of flight to which the peregrine can 
be put. But, moreover, there are many flights such as those 
at the heron and the rook, for which the passage hawk alone 
is well adapted, and of which the eyess, as a rule, is not capable. 
It is true that there have been many eyesses which have been 
fairly good rook hawks — in one or two instances they have 
even taken the heron ' on the passage,' but such hawks were 
exceptional ones. 

To obtain a team of, say, six good hawks that would take 
the heron, or even the rook, in the rough winds of March as 
he passes to and from his feeding-grounds, it would be neces- 
sary to train and test at least twenty eyesses ; but a better 
result w^ould be obtained from the training, in experienced 
hands, of ten well-caught passage falcons. And, again, even if 
the trainer of the eyesses were to succeed in producing hawks 
that took rooks or herons fairly well, he could never hope that 
they would emulate the style and dash with which iheir wild- 
bred congeners accomplished the feat ; nor, above all, would he 
be as independent of weather as are those who use the hardy 
passage hawk, which seems to glory in a gale and laugh at the 
bitterness of the north-east wind. 

For game hawking the passage hawk requires both time 
and careful training, and here, perhaps because of the difficulty 
of managing the wild-caught hawkj the eyess holds her own. 
Yet even when the best possible eyesses are being flown — 



THE PEREGRINE— PASSAGE HAWKS 



279 



hawks that may be trusted to kill three and four head of game 
every day — if there be in the stud a passage falcon that will 
wait on high and steadily, she will so eclipse the eyess for style 
and pace, and above all in ' footing qualities,' i.e. accuracy of 
striking her quarry, that there is no comparison between the 



J" 




)Kt^iW.' 



'■'i^M 



^**f-^'?¥'iJJ 



■y£^\r. 









jil 



Tiercel on partridge 

pleasure which is afforded by the flights shown by the two hawks. 
Probably no game hawk has beaten the record of ' Parachute,' 
as shown on page 269, of 146 head of game in five months, 
or of ' Vesta,' also the property of the Old Hawking Club, who 
has killed 297 grouse (besides other game in numbers) during 
her nine years. Yet in nearly every season that such hawks 



28o FALCONRY 

have flown they have had to take the second place, as regards 
briUiancy of execution and deadhness of stoop and style, to 
some one or two of the passage hawks which have accompanied 
them to their hawking ground, and this will ever be the case 
when both varieties are given a fair trial. 

Naturally, the hawk which has spent so long a period in a 
wild state, during which she has imbibed a holy horror of man 
and all his works, regarding him as her natural foe, is very 
much more difficult to train at first than the nestling, which 
requires at any rate little or no taming, and whose idea of man 
is that he is a being created in order to bring food to hawks. 
First, however, how are passage hawks to be obtained ? They 
may be caught doubtless in many parts of the United Kingdom, 
where, every autumn about the middle of October, peregrines 
appear, for a day or two, on ground where they certainly do 
not breed, and where they are very seldom seen at other 
times. Thus falcons have been taken, at huts specially put 
out for the purpose, both in Northamptonshire and on the 
downs of Wiltshire. These no doubt w^re stragglers from 
the great army of birds of all kinds and descriptions which 
annually migrates from north to south at the commencement 
of winter. Upon the outskirts of this army hang the falcons 
and other raptorial birds ; whether they are themselves follow- 
ing the same migratory instinct that urges onward the other 
innumerable varieties of birds, or whether they are simply 
following their food as it changes its quarters, it is -impossible 
to say. 

In North Brabant in Holland, near to Eindhoven, there is 
a vast wild plain or heath, and this plain appears to lie in the 
very centre of the track which the great concourse of migratory 
birds follows. Wild fowl of every kind, cranes, larks, linnets, 
all varieties of birds may be seen, during October and 
November, passing over this plain and steadily pursuing their 
route southwards. Here, too, come the falcons, first the 
haggards and tiercels, after them the young falcons of the 
year, and here from time immemorial have they been cap- 



PASSAGE HAWKS 281 

tured for hawking purposes. On the edge of the heath hes 
the Httle town of Valkenswaard, which takes its very name 
from the falcons, that in old days were its staple article of 
trade. Therein reside certain families of men who from gene- 
ration to generation, as far back as history goes, have been 
falconers and catchers of falcons. Some hundred years ago, 
even, there were from twenty to thirty huts put out at Valkens- 
waard for the capture of hawks during the autumn passage, 
and the little town could boast of the like number of men 
skilled in training hawks. In those days a sort of fair was 
held after the migration was over, which was attended by the 
chief falconers of various noblemen and princes from every 
country in Europe. The hawks that had been caught were 
sold by auction, and rare prices were occasionally paid for 
very choice specimens, with such a competition as took place 
under the circumstances described. Ichabod ! The glory has 
departed. Some three huts now supply all the wants of the 
hawking world. They are under the management of one family, 
the Mollens, the head of which, Adrian Mollen, was formerly 
head falconer to the King of Holland, and his customers 
average annually some half-a-dozen only, mostly Englishmen, 
with a Frenchman or two added to them. The actual instru- 
ment which is used in taking the hawks is the bow-net, which 
has been fully described in the chapter on hacking and training 
eyesses at page 259. Two or perhaps three of these nets are 
set out at about a hundred yards each from the falconer's hut, 
into which lead the strong lines by which they are worked. 

The hut itself is a very simple affair, partly sunk in the 
ground and partly built of turfs and sods covered with heather. 
The roof is very often made of an old cartwheel, which is well 
covered over with heath and turf, so that the hut itself looks 
exactly like a small natural mound on the surface of the plain, 
and perfectly conceals the falconer even from the sharp eyes 
of a bird of prey. 

The bait for each ol the bow-nets is a live pigeon, which 
is kept in a cleverly constructed little house built of turves, 



282 FALCONRY 

with a hanging curtain over the door, made of a heather sod, 
so that when the long Hne, which is attached to the pigeon by 
soft buckskin jesses, is pulled by the falconer the curtain 
gives way and allows the bird to be drawn out. This line 
passes through an eye in the head of an iron pin, which is 
driven into the ground exactly in the centre of the bow-net, 
so that the falconer knows, whether he can see it or not, that 
when the pigeon's line is pulled taut and checks, the bird 
itself is on the ground exactly in the middle of the net. 

A fourth pigeon inhabits a similar little house immediately 
in front of the hut, and about fifty yards from it. The line from 
this pigeon passes over the top of a light pole about twenty feet 
high, so that when this line is pulled the pigeon is raised to 
that height and flies well out so as to be easily seen. This 
pigeon is intended to serve as a lure and attract a hawk from a 
distance. 

Sometimes it happens that the falconer will catch, early in 
the season, an old or a bad plumaged falcon that he does not 
think highly of for hawking purposes. Such a falcon he will 
set out, hooded, with a line attached to her, passing over a 
pole just as in the case of the lure pigeon. A few feet in 
front of the hawk is fastened to the line a bunch of feathers, 
so that when the line is pulled tight the hawk is lifted to the 
top of the pole and flies round with the bunch of feathers in 
front of her, looking from a distance exactly like a hawk in full 
pursuit of, and on the point of catchmg, some quarry. This 
forms a most attractive lure to a wild hawk, which is almost 
certain to pause in her flight and lower her pitch to join in the 
fray. 

Last of all comes the most important adjunct to the apparatus, 
in the shape of a butcher bird, or grey shrike, which is used as a 
watch-dog or sentinel to give notice of the approach of a hawk. 
These curious little birds are always on the alert and on the 
look-out for birds of prey ; their power of vision is most mar- 
vellous, far beyond the reach of any human eye. They can detect 
a falcon, which minutes afterwards will come into sight as a 



PASSAGE HAWKS— CATCHING 283 

tiny black speck, high in the heavens. Two of these shrikes 
are generally used, tethered upon mounds near the hut, with a 
little house, like those in which the pigeons are kept, to shelter 
them. As soon as they see a hawk they will chatter and scream, 
pointing steadily in the direction of the bird's approach. An 
experienced falconer can tell fairly well from the action of his 
butcher bird what species of hawk is in view. More alarm 
will be shown at the approach of a goshawk than of any 
other variety, while at tiercels or merlins his gestures are those 
of absurd indignation and defiance. 

Everything being then prepared, the falconer will arrive at 
his hut and have all in readiness by daybreak. Early morning 
is the best time for catching hawks, and the passage for the day 
is over by three o'clock as a rule. With a good stock of tobacco 
and some occupation such as net-making or cobbling, to while 
away the many weary hours of waiting, he establishes himself 
inside his hut ; presently, if all goes well, his butcher birds 
will chatter, point, and warn him to be on the look-out. Far 
away, it may be, he sees a tiny speck, which he believes to be a 
peregrine. At any rate he pulls the line attached to the pole 
hawk, and soon brings up the wild bird to rather closer 
quarters. Should it be a peregrine such as he desires to cap- 
ture, he drops the line attached to the pole hawk, which at 
once subsides to the ground, and draws that which lifts the 
pigeon to the top of the pole, and lets it fly well out. At this 
pigeon the wild hawk most likely ' comes with a rattle,' but at 
the nick of time the falconer drops the line, and the frightened 
bird will bolt into its little hut for safety. Angry and disap- 
pointed, the wild hawk will shoot into the air and give a circle 
round to see what has become of her prey. At this juncture the 
falconer pulls out the pigeon attached to one or other end (ac- 
cording to the direction of wind and position of the hawk) of 
his bow-net. The wild falcon's blood is up ; she has been dis- 
appointed once, and she dashes like lightning on to the pigeon, 
which she imagines to be the one that just escaped her. Of 
course she has no difficulty in taking it, and as she is killing it 



284 FALCONRY 

the falconer steadily draws the line till it checks at the head of 
the iron pin in the centre of the net. One pull of the net line 
and the hawk is safely caught. As rapidly as possible she is 
taken out of the net, a rufter hood is placed on her head — that is 
to say, a light, comfortable hood, open at the back, and easy for 
a hawk to feed through — she is then placed in a ' sock,' which 
is simply the leg of an old stocking, which pins her wings to her 
sides and acts as a strait-waistcoat, making it impossible for her 
to move or to struggle, Jesses are placed on her legs, the points 
are taken off her beak and claws, and she is left to lie quiet until 
the time arrives for leaving the hut and going home. 

Two hawks in one day is unusually good fortune. More 
often the falconer sits day after day without any luck at all. 
Sometimes it happens that from something going wrong with 
his tackle, or from some such cause, he misses the hawk. 
This is a serious reverse, for he will not easily get the chance 
to catch the same bird again. Such a mishap occurred to 
Mollen, senior, in 1872. He had just caught a falcon, and 
was taking her out of the net when there came up, attracted by 
the pigeon, an exceedingly fine dark falcon. It was too late 
to hide ; but when, an hour or so afterwards, she again appeared 
on the scene, and he pulled out the lure pigeon, all that resulted 
was, that after a shy stoop the falcon followed the line at the 
height of a yard or two right from • the net to the hut, spread 
her wings, and sailed away. There were many wild fowl on the 
heath at the time, and he could see this grand hawk day after 
day chasing and killing them in the finest style, till his mouth 
fairly watered to catch her. In vain did he try all his arts ; 
every time he showed his lure the crafty bird would sail along 
the extended string, as if to show how well she understood the 
game, and then would bid him good-bye. Worst of all, she 
would brook no intruder on her hunting grounds, and day after 
day as other falcons passed and began to stoop to the pigeon, 
she would descend upon them from the clouds, and after a 
buffeting match would drive them away. Mollen was in de- 
spair, the season was slipping away, and his business being lost. 



PASSAGE HAWKS 



285 



At last he took his gun to the hut, having made up his mind 
to shoot the hawk as a last resource and free himself from the 
incubus. Hour after hour he sat with gun in readiness — a 
strange position, indeed, for a falconer. But that day she came 




Passage hawk under bow-net 



not, nor the next, and at last the gun was laid aside and the 
hawk catching went on as before. 

At the end of the week one of Mollen's sons who was 
working a hut many miles away returned home with his catch. 
He had not much to boast of, except one, 'a real beauty.' 
Hardly had the old man set eyes on her than he recognised 
his tormentor — unmistakable from her size, dark plumage, and 



286 FALCONRY 

beauty. She had gone straight to the other hut after plaguing 
him the last day he saw her, but never having been frightened 
at that place was less suspicious and so was caught. This 
hawk came into the possession of the Old Hawking Club, 
where she was known as ' the Duck-killer,' and was one of the 
grandest hawks for temper, flying qualities, and steadiness that 
the Club have ever owned, killing over forty rooks her first 
season. She was eventually lost when flying rooks at Feltwell 
in Norfolk, and it is to be hoped became the mother of falcons 
as good as herself on some wild cliff in North Britain, or Scan- 
dinavia. 

But to return to the freshly caught falcon. Her captor 
will have little difficulty in carrying her home on his fist ; so 
dazed and terrified will she be by her novel situation that she 
vvill sit like a hawk of stone. On arrival the hawk may be 
temporarily set on the perch wuth any others that have been 
lately caught, or, better still, fastened securely to a soft grass 
mound (which sometimes takes the place of the sock) ; but the 
sooner she is taken in hand, the better. The directions which 
have been already given for the training of the freshly taken- 
up eyess will apply in this case also, but it must never be for- 
gotten that the passage hawk has hitherto spent her days in 
avoiding men as her natural enemies, and that it will take much 
time, care, and gentleness ere this terror and aversion can be 
overcome. A single impatient action or hasty gesture may 
undo the work of days, and the man who tries to tame a wild- 
caught hawk should possess a temper which is under perfect 
command and a patience which is ' above proof.' 

The first step is to take the hawk on hand and to handle 
her gently, stroking her with a feather or some such thing, to 
accustom her to being taken hold of and handled. Hawks 
differ marvellously at this stage of their education. Some will 
display the most passionate temper, will fight, bite, even scream, 
and dash themselves about like passionate children. Such as 
these are usually the easiest to deal with ; their passion soon 
abates and generally develops into a fine, generous temper. 



PASSAGE HAWKS— TRAINING 287 

Some sit like statues— immovable, indifferent, resenting no 
handling, noticing no food — such are difficult hawks to train, 
and only time and patience, added to experience, will train these, 
though it can be, and annually is, done. Gradually the hawk 
will become reconciled to the touch, to the sound of the 
human voice, and will in a few days comport herself more like a 
tame bird and less like a wild beast. Most of this work is done at 
night ; and the best method of training wild-caught, or indeed 
any other birds, is to deal with them at night, and to tame them 
by depriving them of their natural rest and by handling them 
by lamplight, which dazes them and takes away half their 
power of resistance. Where time is an object, hawks are kept 
awake for the whole night for three or four nights together, 
and by such treatment a hawk may be tamed in about four 
days. Such haste is rarely needed, and in ordinary cases any 
hawk may be got into good order in reasonable time by taking 
her on hand, say, from seven in the evening until eleven at 
night ; and, indeed, a man may have two or three hawks on 
the perch by his side, and by taking them in hand alternately 
bring them all on together at the same rate. 

It is very important, if the most is to be made of passage 
hawks, that each one should be taken in hand as soon as 
she is caught, and tamed at once. This is not always easily 
managed, and sometimes several birds are left to stand idle for 
many days while others are being caught. This leads to many 
faults, always causes delay (sometimes very great delay) in the 
training and entering of such hawks, and not unfrequently 
ruins them altogether. 

The great secret in successful training of passage hawks is 
to get food into them by fair means. This is by no means so 
easy as it appears to be, and requires no little skill in the way 
of handling the hawk so as to get her to bite at the food which 
is held on to her feet, and to continue feeding after she has 
once begun. The room must be perfectly quiet, there must be 
no changes of light or distant sounds heard, or the hawk's 
attention will at once be arrested and she will leave off feeding. 



288 FALCONRY 

There is also great knack in getting her to pull at the meat 
without being frightened. Adrian MoUen boasts, not without 
reason, that he can get a quarter of a crop more into any 
hawk after any other man has done his best with her. It is 
very important that hawks shall be well fed ; they will lose 
their wild condition quite fast enough from the change of food, 
the numerous shocks to their nervous system, and the loss of 
exercise ; but if they are allowed to get down too low they will 
never recover their power or their courage. If all goes well, 
however, in a few days the hawk will feed well and boldly 
through the rufter hood, will allow herself to be handled, and 
will feel more at home on the fist. The rufter hood should 
now be removed by candle-light, and the hawk induced to feed 
bare-headed. A hood of ordinary make can also be placed 
on her, and she can be frequently hooded and unhooded and 
broken carefully to the hood in the same way as eyesses are 
treated. When she sits quiet and bare-headed by candle-light, 
the same lesson may be repeated by daylight, and ere its close 
the hawk will jump to the hand for her food — at first a short 
distance only, afterwards the full length of the leash — and will 
do so promptly and briskly as soon as the meat is shown her. 
All this takes a good deal of time and patience, but anything 
like hurry is to be avoided, or the hawk will probably go back 
rapidly as soon as she is taken out into the open air. So long 
as a little progress, be it ever so little, is made every day, the 
falconer should be content, and not endeavour to hurry his 
more backward, shy tempered birds in order to keep pace with 
one or two good-tempered ones that ' never look behind them,' 
and almost train themselves. 

As soon as the hawk will feed fearlessly on the hand bare- 
headed she should be entered to the lure : this at the first 
outset must, in the case of wild-caught hawks, consist of a 
live pigeon. The moment the hawk seizes it the falconer 
should twist its neck, so as to kill it instantaneously and pain- 
lessly, and the hawk should be allowed to break into and eat it 
while still warm. 



PASSAGE HAWKS— TRAINING 289 

Many passage falcons are very stupid and troublesome to 
enter to the lure just at first. The process of taming and 
training them seems to have completely transformed their 
nature and driven all recollection of their past life out of their 
minds. It is very curious to notice how the young eyess, 
which has no fear at all of man or nervousness at its sur- 
roundings, will, almost to a certainty, seize and kill in- 
stinctively the first live pigeon shown to it, though it has never 
killed a bird before ; while the passage hawk, which has, 
perhaps, chased and killed hundreds of wild birds during its 
life, and has subsisted on nothing else, will sometimes sit and 
blink stupidly at a pigeon within a few feet of it, as though it 
had never seen such a creature before. A little patience will 
overcome this difficulty also, and as soon as the hawk will 
seize and kill a pigeon within doors, and feed quietly upon it 
without fear of the falconer, she may be tried out of doors on a 
long string with the pigeon similarly confined. Should she 
behave equally well this time also she may be trusted to fly 
loose. A good deal of care must be exercised the first few 
times she is flown, for if any little thing should go wrong and 
upset the hawk's equanimity it may become a difficult matter 
to take her up at once ; and if she is at large, even for an hour 
or two, out of control, her wild ways will at this stage return to her 
with great rapidity. She should be very sharp-set, and for the 
first trial it will be quite enough to call her from the fist of 
an assistant (who must not be a perfect stranger to her) about 
a hundred yards to the falconer. One or two stoops will be 
enough, and she should then be allowed to feed on the lure. 
As soon as the hawk behaves well and flies keenly, the use of 
Hve pigeons should be abandoned, and the hawk trained to the 
dead lure. In former days it was supposed that passage hawks 
could not be trained to dead lures until they had been in work 
for a long time, but we have proved this to be a fallacy, and 
that it is, with care and good management, quite as possible to 
get passage hawks to come to the dead lure as it is to train 
eyesses to it. The early education cannot in either case be 

u 



290 FALCONRY 

carried on without the sacrifice of two or three pigeons. These 
should be killed instantaneously the moment the hawk touches 
them, and all unnecessary cruelty avoided. But as soon as 
these first stages of the falcon's education are completed the 
' live lure ' should become a thing unknown, except in cases of 
emergency, such as a lost hawk. 

As soon as the passage falcon flies well and steadily to the 
lure, stooping at it for seven or eight minutes at a time, she 
should be entered to the quarry at which she is to be flown. 
It is a very bad plan to keep hawks that are fit to be entered 
flying on at the lure day after day, for weeks together. Such 
hawks will become very tame and very handy, but they will 
lose all that dash which is the special charm of the passage 
hawk, and will become so wedded to the lure that they will 
fly at nothing else.^ 

The quarry which, as a rule, the passage hawk alone is 
capable of taking, is the heron ' on the passage ' ; to enter her 
to this quarry she should first be allowed to take and kill a few 
large-sized towls. If she should seize and tackle these powerful 
birds with determination, she will have no hesitation in binding 
to a heron if ever she shall get to close quarters enough to do 
so. After this education she must be flown at a bagged heron, 
first in a string and afterwards loose and at some distance 
from her. During these lessons her beak and talons must be 
cut very short and well rounded off, so that beyond seizing the 
hieron she can do him no injury before the falconer runs to 
save him. Having once ' bound to him ' the falcon must be fed 
upon some food which she relishes, and after a lesson or two 
of this kind she should be fit to fly at a wild heron. 

Heron hawking, however — sad as it is to record it— must 
be written down as a sport almost extinct in England. To catch 

1 But it is necessary to observe that the passage hawk must at first only be 
entered to quarry which she cannot easily carry (unless, indeed, extraordinary 
pains are taken to tame her). Otherwise she is very likely to lift any light 
bird (such as a pigeon), and, though not actually wild at first, she becomes so 
frightened at being followed with a bird in her foot, which she repeatedly 
carries, that she becomes unapproachable. 



HERON HAWKIJ^G 291 

a heron with a hawk as it rises from the stream where it may be 
feeding is easy enough ; any nesthng that has been well entered, 
even the short-winged goshawk, can do this to an absolute cer- 
tainty every time that it is brought near enough to the quarry ; 
but this is not heron hawking. To arrive at this sport the follow- 
ing conditions are necessary. A heronry of large size, situated 
far from any river or feeding-ground, so that the herons pass 
continually to and from the nearest river to the heronry, and 
pass also over some vast open space of ground suitable to be 
ridden over and wide enough to afford a flight of at least 
two miles ere the heron could reach either a sheltering wood 
or a piece of water into which he will dive like a duck. Nay, 
we have known a heron to put in even to a sheepfold when 
hard pressed on an open field ! 

Such conditions as these were well fulfilled at Didlington 
in Norfolk, which was for many years the scene of the sport of 
the High Ash Club. But here, even so long ago as 1838, the 
draining of the fenland and breaking up and cultivation of 
the open heaths so hmited the area in which it was possible 
to pursue the sport that blank days became more and more 
common, and eventually the club was broken up. Better still 
were the conditions under which the sport was pursued at the 
Loo in Holland, where the heronry was of vast size, and the 
country surrounding it even better than at Didlington. Here 
heron hawking was pursued on a princely scale, the joint 
establishments of the King of Holland and of the English Club 
being equal to any emergency, and some idea can be obtained 
of the sport which they obtained when it is recorded that in 
one year (1852) the hawks took no fewer than 292 herons, 
while for eight years in succession they actually averaged 178 
herons annually.^ 

Of course so large a number of herons taken in the breeding 
season would very soon ruin the finest heronry in the world, but 
it was the practice to save and liberate every heron that was taken, 
and it was a point of honour with the members of the Club to 

1 See Schlegel's Traiti de Faucottnerie, 1844. 



292 FALCONRY 

ride hard enough to be handy at the finish, so as to make sure 
that the heron should not be injured. When Hberated a small 
copper ring was fixed to his leg with the date of his capture 
written on it, and herons have been taken with as many as 
three and four of these rings on their legs. ^ 

The method of conducting the sport is as follows. The 
falconers with their hawks are placed at intervals of half a mile, 
in two or three parties, down wind of the heronry, and at some 
considerable distance from it. As the heron passes homewards 
with his crop full of fish, he must pass within sufficiently close 
distance of one or the other of these parties. As soon as he is 
well past, and up wind of the hawks, they are hooded off. Pro- 
bably the heron is two hundred yards away, and at least a 
hundred yards high, and with such a start as this he can set to 
work to ring into the air with confidence. It is useless for 
him to attempt to reach the heronry, which is dead up wind, 
while he has such pursuers as these behind him. Below him 
is no protecting covert, and therefore his only resources are 
the clouds above him. Ring after ring he makes, mounting 
into the air in long spiral curves. Ring after ring do the hawks 
make after him, tearing into the wind for perhaps half a mile 
without a turn, and then swinging round in a great circle that 
sends them higher and higher. At last one hawk is over him, 
though at such a height we cannot distinguish the distances 
between them ; but we can see her shut her wings and drive like 
a bullet at the heron. A rapid shift, and the hawk has fallen 
many hundreds of feet below her quarry, but, shooting up with 
the same impetus, at once sets to work to ring into the wind, 
so as to regain her lost advantage. During this time the 
second falcon has climbed almost out of sight above her mate 
and her quarry, and can be just distinguished poising herself 
for a terrific stoop. The good heron can just, but only just, 
avoid it, and that with the loss of a few feathers and a down- . 
ward sweep that sacrifices some minutes of the hard ringing by 
which the height he is now at was attained. This sweep gives 

1 See Falco7iry in the British Isles, p. 8i. 




;;.iX^='it,v. • 



A CLOSE SHAVE 



HERON HA WKING 293 

a chance to the first hawk and down she comes, pressing the 
heron hard — so hard that as her mate follows her at an interval 
of a second or two he is hit heavily. In another moment one 
hawk has bound to him, and ere the struggle can commence 
the other has joined in the fray, and all three birds steadily 
descend to the ground. The wind has carried them for at 
least a mile from where they were hooded off, and that, too, at 
a pace as good as a horseman cares to gallop over fairly rough 
ground with his eyes in the air. 

Old hawks will always let go the heron as they approach 
the ground, so as to avoid the concussion, and will renew the 
attack the instant that they are safely landed. Some falcons 
are a little slow in ' making in ' to a heron on the ground, and 
in this way have been badly stabbed. If the heron has time 
afforded to him to collect himself and get into a fighting attitude 
he is a dangerous opponent, but the fables of hawks spitting 
themselves as they stoop upon beaks upturned in the air are 
myths which have no foundation in fact. A heron on the 
ground is, however, a formidable enemy, and when hawks are 
flown at a bagman it is essential that his beak be muzzled by 
being cased in a double piece of soft elder, one for each 
mandible, or mischief is sure to ensue. 

It is absolutely necessary that hawks should be well entered 
to herons and should be kept to this flight alone. So far as we 
know, there is hardly any place left in England where a heronry 
exists with suitable country round it so that one or even two 
flights could be obtained daily. It is not, therefore, worth the 
while of any falconer to set aside a cast or two of his best 
hawks for a flight which, noble as it is, he could not obtain 
with any certainty. Probably at the Loo — although even there 
much of the country is enclosed and cultivated — very good sport 
could be obtained, but it is thirty-six years since the cry of ' A la 
vol ' echoed in the domain of ' Het Loo,' and it is doubtful if 
there are more than two or three falconers now alive who have 
seen the heron taken 'a la haute volee.' Heron hawking 
must, for the present, be looked upon as a thing of the past ; 



294 FALCONRY 

but hawks are still trained annually that are as capable of this 
noble flight as any that ever have been reclaimed by man, 
and it needs only a little enterprise to reinstate this, the most 
magnificent form of falconry, if it could meet with the same 
cordial support, and be organised under those Royal auspices 
that were extended to it forty years ago. 

Perhaps even superior to heron hawking was the flight at 
the kite, for which passage falcons combined with gerfalcons 
were used. It is many years since kites were common enough 
in England to be an object of sport, and the method of flying 
them is more particularly described in a subsequent chapter on 
the gyrfalcon. 

The modern substitute for heron hawking is the flight at the 
rook, and it is by no means a bad one. Rook hawking is the 
finest form of the sport that is nowadays readily available, 
provided that it is carried out in a proper manner, in a good 
country, and with the best of hawks. Rooks, just like herons, 
may be caught in a bad country by very inferior hawks. In 
the autumn, in a country where the fields are large, the fences 
small, and the hedgerow timber scarce, rooks may be driven 
into covert and (possibly) caught, after a chase partaking of the 
nature of a rat hunt, by almost any hawk that has courage 
enough to go straight and hard at her quarry. But this is not 
rook hawking. The falcons that have beaten down rook after 
rook into fences or covert in enclosed country in November 
would find themselves at a sad nonplus if they were hooded 
off at an old cock rook travelling away over the wide downs of 
Wilts or Berks in the teeth of a March north-easter. The 
proper time for this sport is the month of March or early 
April when the hen birds are in the rookery and the cocks 
are traveUing great distances in search of food. A very open 
country is requisite. The chalk downs of the south of England 
are, generally speaking, the best. Parts of Salisbury Plain, the 
downs near Lambourne and Ashdown, and near Brighton, at 
Royston, and other parts of Cambridgeshire are capital country, 
and in fact, wherever a clear open space of a mile can be found 



ROOK HAWKING 295 

rooks may be flown with success. The difificulty is to find any 
country where flights can be obtained day after day ; for this 
quarry becomes very crafty, and the appearance of the well- 
known hawking party over the sky-line is enough to send every 
rook in the plain below scurrying to his home if the visits have 
been too frequent to the same portion of country. 

A flight may be obtained wherever the quarry is found far 
enough from covert, whether following the plough, feeding on 
new-sown corn, or on open downs. After rain with a south-west 
wind they will be found on the turf downs, but in dry, cold 
weather they will haunt sheepfolds or villages, and flights are 
not so easily obtained. The best flights are obtained at rooks 
* upon the passage ' — that is to say, passing regularly from the 
rookery to some favourite feeding ground across an open 
stretch of ground. Such a slip is generally a pretty long 
one ; the rook at any rate is well on the wing, and a fine flight 
is almost a certainty. It is most essential that the hawks should 
be slipped dead up wind at the rook. This is a cardinal rule, 
and must never be transgressed, although with a very good 
hawk liberties may be taken now and then. If the slip is down 
wind, or so nearly on a side wind that by a swerve right or left 
the rook can get to leeward of the hawk, he will dash away 
down wind at a pace that will leave all riders far behind. 
Although the hawk will follow him just as fast, it will be a stern 
chase and a long one, and in no country that we are aware of 
is there room for a flight of this kind to end successfully ; the 
result must be a long uninteresting chase without a stoop, with 
the rook safely ensconced in covert at the end, some miles from 
the falconer. The hawk is there with no one to take her down 
to the lure, and is left to dash after any fresh quarry as soon as 
she gets her wdnd, and thus is lost. 

If the slip be dead in wind, the rook cannot go straight 
away from the falcon, who is better at flying into the wind than 
he is ; but he will at first do his best to escape her by flying up 
wind, rising all the time to keep above her ; thus ere she can 
reach him both birds will have attained a considerable height. 



296 FALCONRY 

But as soon as the hawk gains her pitch fairly over the rook, 
he can no longer carry on in the teeth of the gale, but must 
turn down wind, thus passing under the falcon and giving her 
the chance of her stoop, and also passing by all the horsemen, 
who, up to this point, have been following the flight up wind. 
Although the rest of the flight will be down the wind, the hawk 
will have so far got the advantage that she will put in stoop 
after stoop, and thus the horsemen will be able to keep up 
fairly well, and, at any rate, to see a pretty flight with many 
stoops, far different from a long down-wind stern chase, and 
should, moreover, be near enough at the finish (if their horses 
can gallop, and they can ride them) to secure the hawk, if, per- 
chance, she is, after all, beaten to some covert. Let it then be 
considered an inviolable rule in rook hawking and all similar 
flights that the hawk be flown dead in the wind at the quarry, 
just as in game hawking the birds should be flushed dead down 
wind under the hawk. 

It is not always an easy matter to enter falcons at rooks. 
The quarry is distasteful to them because it is difficult to catch, 
difficult to master when on the ground, and disagreeable to 
eat. Many hawks can only be brought to fly them by very 
skilful management, and at first all must be extra sharp set 
when first entered to them. No hawk, however, can be made 
to show any sport by the process of starvation, and, though she 
may be so reduced by hunger as to dash keenly at anything 
alive, yet her strength will fail her directly she is asked to climb 
into the wind over a rapidly mounting rook. The famous 
hawk * Bois-le-Duc ' was a striking instance of this unwillingness 
to fly rooks. Throughout her training she had shown such 
power, speed, and dash that it was clear she was a hawk of no 
mean order. When entered at bagged rooks she would dash 
at them and take them out of sheer devilry ; and when first 
flown at wild rooks she would tear away over them, in spite 
of wind, snow, or any disadvantages, but having them once 
at her mercy would disdain to stoop and finish her work. To 
have starved her into flying would have been to sacrifice her 



ROOK HAWKING 297 

great powers or to lower her to the level of an ordinary falcon. 
Instead of this she was flown in a string at bagged rooks, and 
the moment she seized them a fresh-killed pigeon was thrust 
under the wing of the rook, and the falcon fed upon it. After 
a time or two she began to think that rooks were not such bad 
eating after all, and, being slipped at a wild one, brought it 
down in splendid style. The same process was repeated, and 
the lesson was learnt. After that day Bois-le-duc was slipped 
at sixty consecutive rooks, which she killed with but a single miss 
during that whole season, a feat which has never been rivalled 
by any other hawk. For some time the greatest care was paid to 
her condition and to her feeding, but ere long she became so 
wedded to her quarry that no slip was too far, no chance too 
bad for her, and she became, perhaps, the best rook hawk that 
has ever been trained. 

Eyesses will sometimes take rooks very well, and there have 
been many good rook hawks of this kind. As a rule, they lack 
the dash and drive requisite for work of this kind. They will 
kill on fine days and in nice places, but cannot take the long 
slips in wild weather, and under all circumstances, that passage 
hawks will attempt, even if they cannot succeed, nor are they 
clever enough at footing to be deadly at a quarry so active in 
shifting as the rook. It would be almost impossible to produce 
a team of eyesses that would show sport to a large party, day 
after day, in all weathers during March and April ; but with 
passage hawks this can annually be done. 

Tiercels will fly rooks well enough, but are naturally rather 
more difficult to enter than falcons ; for the rook is, on the 
ground, almost as powerful a bird as the tiercel, and knocks 
him about sadly. As a rule tiercels are not entered to this 
quarry, but are kept for game and for magpies, &c. One of the 
best that ever was flown was an eyess called ' Druid,' belonging 
to the Hon. Cecil Buncombe, which for three years held his 
own and flew in his turn with a first-class team of passage 
falcons — no small feat indeed when the difference in size, 
power, and training are considered. There have been many 



298 FALCONRY 

good passage tiercels trained to rooks, of which the last was, 
perhaps, ' Plenipotentiary,' in 1878. Rook hawking must needs 
take place in very open and exposed country. It is also pur- 
sued during a very bleak stormy time of year. To insure sport 
it is advisable to use a light covered van in which to carry the 
hawks, built after the fashion of a carrier's cart, or light game 
waggon ; the interior is fitted with perches, on which the hawks 
sit as well protected from weather as if they were in their mews 
at home. Far different is it when they are dragged over the 
downs on an open cadge, straining themselves to the utmost to 
retain their footing against the bitter breeze, and, if feeding 
time be delayed for an hour or two, starved by the cold 
till they develop many diseases of different kinds. Without 
warmth and protection no man can keep his hawks in the high, 
yet keen, condition that is essential to sport, and without the 
' van,' or some such contrivance, rook hawking could not be 
Ijrought to the perfection to which it has attained of late years. 
In their comfortable carriage the hawks are readily conveyed 
from place to place over a large tract of country. If rooks 
cannot be found in one place, the party can easily shift to 
another, taking the hawks with them, and in this way can 
cover a great deal of country. 

A good horse that can gallop, but that is quiet enough to 
carry a hawk, is indispensable. At the end of a flight, when 
the falconer must needs dismount to take up his hawk, he 
should be tethered by a leaden weight, which is carried in a 
socket at the pommel of the saddle and attached to the bit by 
a rein. To stand well with this weight, which can be dragged 
if the horse bolts (i.e. do not break the bridle), and to carry a 
hawk well, requires a little education, and we have always found 
thoroughbred horses (especially young ones) more fearless and 
better suited to this work than any others. A good deal may be 
done with a very nervous horse by keeping him in a loose box 
with three or four live pigeons till he is thoroughly used to them, 
and to stand with the weight is best learned by long hacking 
rides with the frequent use thereof among fresh spring grass, 



ROOK HAWKING 299 

when the horse will rapidly appreciate the luxury of being left 
to himself with only a slight check upon his movements, and 
will be only too glad to remain near the spot where his master 
dismounts as long as he pleases to leave him. 

The following description of a flight at rooks appeared in 
print some years ago, but as it gives a fair idea of the sport we 
venture to reproduce it with slight alteration : — 

Let us suppose that we are out for a day's rook hawking, and 
that we have arrived at our ground. All around, as far as the eye 
can reach, are wide rolling downs, partly cultivated, but still in a 
great measure clothed by the smooth virgin turf that has never 
known the touch of ploughshare or harrow. It is a lovely spring 
day ; there is a mild gentle wind from the south, with a warm sun, 
tempered by great fleecy clouds, throwing upon the turf huge 
shadows which seem to race one another from slope to slope of the 
downs. 

We take up our position behind a stack to wait for a rook 
passing on his way from the rookery in the valley to the sheepfold 
on the hill. Presently we see one coming, toiling slowly over the 
shoulder of the down. Shall we fly one of the young falcons lately 
entered and coming on so well ? Or shall it be the old heroine of 
a hundred flights, victress over more than double that number of 
rooks, that flies now in her fourth season with all the vigour and 
dash she displayed in the blinding snowstorms and heavy gales of 
her first year ? A hundred or two of yards is far enough for a slip 
with a young hawk, but with a real good one a quarter of mile is 
not too far, while many and many a time, if the wind be right 
for her, the old hawk has been slipped at rooks a fair half-mile 
away. It looks as if this slip would be too far for a young hawk, 
so the handsome old falcon is taken on hand, to the delight of the 
whole field, not one of whom, however large it may be, but will 
stay out 'just one half-hour more' when it is announced that it is 
the turn of old ' Bois-le-duc' to fly at the next chance that occurs. 

All is hushed as the rook, a single bird, presumably a strong 
old cock, comes slowly up. He passes us and is going nicely on 
up wind when something about the party awakens his suspicions, 
and he gives a sudden swerve that in one second takes him about 
150 yards off on a side wind. We are not to be done in this way 
though, and in a moment the head of our party, with the falcon on 
hand, dashes out at a brisk gallop down wind of the rook, which 



300 FALCONRY 

hastens on up wind. But a hundred yards or so is no matter to us 
with this hawk, and the moment we are fairly down wind of him 
the old hawk is unhooded and flung off ; and the falcon is in hot 
pursuit of her quarry, rising with each stroke of her powerful 
wings till she seems to shoot upwards like an arrow from the bow. 
The rook has seen her, and is making his way upwards at no mean 
rate, but the pace of the falcon is too much for him, and ere long 
she is above him ; poising herself for a moment she comes, with 
one terrible perpendicular stoop, straight at him. It would seem 
as though nothing could escape ; but our rook is equal to the 
occasion, and with a clever shift he has dodged her attack by a 
good yard or more. Well done, rook ! but there is clearly now no 
safety for him in the air, for the falcon has shot up again with the 
impetus of her stoop to a height scarcely inferior to that from which 
she descended ; so, turning his tail to the wind, he makes all pos- 
sible haste to a small patch of thorns and whins that promises a 
temporary shelter, having, however, on the way to evade two similar 
stoops from the hawk, almost as fine as the first. Alas for friend 
rook ! On reaching the covert he finds it already occupied by the 
enemy, in the shape of the excited field, who soon drive him with 
halloo and crack of whip from his shelter, and compel him to 
again seek the open. The falcon has, however, strayed a little 
away, so he starts with might and main to ring in spiral curves into 
the very clouds. After him starts the hawk, but soon finds that a 
really good rook, such as this is, can mount nearly as fast as she 
can. Up, up they go, gradually becoming smaller and smaller. 
Ring above ring does the falcon make, yet without getting above 
him, till, apparently determined to gain the victory, she starts off 
into the wind to make one tremendous circle that shall attain her 
object. Steadily into the wind she goes, the rook striving to follow 
her example, and appearing from below to be flying after the hawk. 
At length, as she almost completes the outer circumference of her 
circle, the rook, perhaps feeling his powers exhausted, turns down 
wind, and, at a great height, makes off as fast as he can go. Surely 
the flight is over, for the falcon is still working away, head to the 
wind, as hard as she can — in fact, the two birds are flying in oppo- 
site directions, half a mile apart. ' Not a bit of it ! ' say the 
initiated, who are off down wind as fast as they can ride. In 
another moment you see the falcon come round, and though at 
such a height she looks no bigger than a swallow, you can see that 
she is far above the rook, whilst her pace, slightly descending as 



ROOK HAWKING 



301 



she is, is almost that of a bullet. So thinks her quarry apparently, 
for, shutting his wings, he tries to drop like a stone into a clump of 
trees now nearly beneath him. Swiftly as he drops there is a swifter 
behind him, and down from that terrific height comes the falcon 
like a thunderbolt. Lord ! what a stoop ! By the powers, she 
has missed ! And now surely he must escape. But no ! shooting 









^^V 


M 




^ffi 


i^^m 






^^ 


^^ 


«v 






5^ ■ ^ 


^ 




w*^^ > 


„,...^ 


WL 




i. .dtMS^^^^^ 


^- 5x.£M,t, 



Falcon flying rook 

upwards like a rocket, the old falcon puts in one more straight swift 
stoop, and the rook is taken just as he enters the sanctuary which 
he has had his eyes on from the first. Whoo-who-op ! A grand 
ring ! a magnificent stoop ! a splendid flight ! — Bravo, *Bois-le-duc ! ' 

All flights are not of course so long or so good as this one, 
but generally afford some sport. As many as nine and ten 



302 FALCONRY 

have been killed in one day, while the total score of rooks and 
crows taken in the spring of 1887 by the Old Hawking Club 
reached 209. One year with another some 150, for the last 
fifteen seasons, have generally been killed, which represents 
many a ringing flight, and many a brisk gallop over the breezy 
downs. 

Another flight which taxes to the full the powers of the 
best passage hawks, but which is capable of affording the 
finest of sport, is the flight of the seagull. In many places 
herring and other gulls are found far inland, and in open places 
following the plough or feeding on the land. In 1877 the 
Rev. W. Willi mott, a thoroughly practical falconer residing in 
Cornwall, trained a passage falcon, that had been entered at 
rooks, to this quarry with no little success. The hawk took so 
keenly to the gulls that she would fly them well even with 
flocks of rooks or other birds around her, and several very fine 
flights were the result, In fact, on the only occasions when 
the falcon was defeated the gull made good its point to the 
sea, but in the air the falcon had the mastery. More recently 
considerable success has been achieved in flying gulls upon 
the Yorkshire Wolds by Mr. St. Quintin. This gentleman has 
chiefly used tiercels for the sport, and principally passage 
tiercels. With these he has succeeded, on one or two occasions, 
in taking even the big herring gull, and, perhaps, from their 
greater activity, they are even better suited than falcons to 
the small, black-headed gull. Still, upon the whole, we think 
falcons are most likely to achieve success with seagulls. In the 
year 1890 Mr. St. Quintin succeeded in killing no fewer than 
forty-three gulls during winter and early spring, using both 
tiercels and falcons, and many of the flights were of the finest 
possible description. As gulls will put in to no sort of covert 
except water, this flight can be obtained in a country where 
any other kind of ringing flight would be impracticable. It is 
not an easy quarry to enter hawks to, and considerable know- 
ledge of the condition and management of hawks is necessary. 
As a rule, care must be taken to avoid letting the hawks break 



GULL HAWKING 303 

into and eat the flesh of the gull, which is very distasteful to 
them, and likely to sicken them of the flight. A freshly-killed 
pigeon should be substituted for the gull the moment it is dead, 
and the hawk fed upon it, on the body of the gull where it has 
killed. Hawks require to be very ' fit ' for this flight, as the 
gull's power of shifting from the stoop is marvellous, while he can 
also ring into the clouds very rapidly, and both hawks will need 
to work hard and to stoop straight and often before they can 
master him. Moreover the gull, especially the herring gull, 
bites very sharply, and the falconer must make every effort to 
be near enough at the close of the flight to assist his hawk, as, 
should a hawk be injured at first entering, it is not likely to 
take well to the quarry ever afterwards. It is, however, placed 
upon record that the seagull is perfectly within the powers of 
hawks of the best class, and we are of opinion that it is a flight 
well worthy the attention of falconers, and likely, if well 
managed, to afford sport of the highest kind. 

The lapwing or green plover is an exceedingly difficult bird 
to take, so much so that it may be termed outside the category 
of * quarry.' We have, however, taken a few in the spring, 
when they are strongest, with a very first-rate cast of passage 
tiercels specially trained to the flight. In i\ugust or July, 
when the old birds are moulting and the young have hardly 
arrived at their full power, they could perhaps be taken readily, 
but at any period of the year their powers of high-mounting 
and of swiftly dashing from the stoop must make them a very 
difficult bird to catch. 

The Norfolk plover, stone curlew, or thicknee, is compara- 
tively easy to take, but is very powerful and fights hard on the 
ground. It is a good quarry at which to fly hawks that are 
intended to fly the heron later on. It may be flown either out 
of the hood, or it may be marked down, and a hawk trained for 
game-hawking may be put up to wait on overhead and to capture 
it as it rises. In this way they are more easily caught. Yet 
occasionally a bird is met with that will shift from the first 
stoop, and fairly ring away into the clouds, beating, as we have 



304 FALCONRY 

sometimes seen, hawks of the very highest class that were doing 
their best to catch them. 

The marked excellence of passage hawks at game hawking 
was proved for the first time in recent years in the season of 
1869, when the two falconers John and Robert Barr, the one 
in the service of the Champagne Hawking Club and the other 
in that of the Marquis of Bute, met at Grandtully Castle by the 
invitation of the Maharajah Dhuleep Singh. The team of 
hawks was a very strong one, both of eyesses and of passage 
hawks, the latter having been caught and trained for other 
purposes, but soon in the skilful hands of John Barr well 
entered to game. The report of this clever falconer to the 
author of these lines was as follows : — ' We are having the finest 
grt>use hawking here that has ever been seen, killing three or 
four brace of grouse a day, but our hawks are too good — they 
kill every time they are flown, very often far out of sight, and 
are not found the same day, and often are difficult to take up 
after they have been left out one night.' • This, no doubt, is 
the fault of wild- caught hawks, if they are used for any kind 
of hawking in which they cannot be ridden up to ; but for 
swiftness, style, and deadly stooping, eyesses have no chance 
with them. Haggards especially seem to take to waiting on 
very w^ell as soon as they are thoroughly well tamed, and 
naturally they are most deadly at their stoop. In 1869 — the 
year referred to above— John Barr had a very old haggard falcon 
named * Granny,' that was a splendid game hawk and also very 
good at the heron. But the best of all his passage hawks was 
a falcon called 'Aurora,' so small that ' all the talent ' assembled 
at Valkenswaard voted her to be a tiercel when first she was 
caught, until the veteran Adrian Mollen pointed out sundry 
points of distinction and proved them all to be wrong, and that 
she really was a tiny falcon. 

Of late years 'Sibyl,' 'Bacchante' (an old haggard), -and 
* Elsa,' all the property of the Old Hawking Club, have proved on 
the Caithness moors that, however trustworthy and good eyesses 
may be, they cannot hold their own when tried against wild- 



PASSAGE HAWKS— GAME 305 

caught hawks in an open wild country with a strong swift quarry 
hke the grouse. The fatal word ' lost,' entered against the name 
of "many a good passage hawk in the game book, has prevented 
her score from reaching that of the steady-going eyess, who is 
rarely lost, or if lost is very easily recovered after an extra day 
or so at hack ; but even if the score of killed be not as great in 
the one case as in the other, the fine style in which the smaller 
number has been taken will fully balance the account between 
the two hawks. 

In former years it was supposed that passage hawks were 
not fit to fly at game till after they had been for a long time in 
training. As long ago, however, as 1869 we saw passage tiercels 
waiting on perfectly in February that had been caught in the 
previous October and had been trained by John Barr. Since 
that time we have had several hawks that were perfectly steady 
for magpie hawking in the spring succeeding the autumn in 
which they were caught, and so lately as 1887 we took a magpie 
in April with a haggard falcon of the previous November. As a 
rule any passage hawk that has had a good spring season of work 
at rooks, &c. may be got up in condition, and after a few pigeons 
from the hand will wait on as well as any eyess. 

Peregrines differ both in size, colour, and general appearance 
to an extent so great that it is sometimes almost impossible to 
believe that they are the same species of hawk. Some falcons 
of the first year are of a bright reddish cinnamon on the back, 
the breast being almost all of one rufous shade, blotched with 
dirty cream-coloured markings. Next to such a bird on the 
same perch will be perhaps a falcon nearly a third taller, with a 
rich dark brown back and wing coverts, and her breast and 
thighs of a bright cream colour regularly marked with very dark 
brown markings ; the head of such a bird will be nearly black, 
her thighs very evenly marked, and not a trace of red or 
cinnamon in her whole body. Other hawks will perhaps be 
there, all caught on the same passage, of every intermediate 
shade between these two, some nearly black, others almost the 
colour of a kestrel. So, too, with the adult birds. One will 



3o6 FALCONRY 

moult out with a beautiful pale blue back, a crop and breast 
almost white, with a few regular bars across the lower part. 
Another will have a back of the darkest blue, with head and 
cheeks very nearly jet black and a breast of rich salmon colour, 
almost rose, so strongly marked with black that, excepting that 
the markings run horizontally and not perpendicularly, they are 
almost as thick as they were in the young plumage. In old 
hawks pale cinnamon feathers are not uncommon about the 
nape of the neck, so that the hawk has somewhat the appear- 
ance of F. Babyloniais. 

We are satisfied from close observation that it is not possible 
to tell from the plumage of hawks in the immature stage 
whether, when fully inoulted out, they will be of the darker or 
lighter variety. As a rule those falcons which are very black in 
the young stage will be of a dark variety when moulted out; 
Itut we have known very light red young hawks moult to a dark 
variety, and vice versa. 

A disagreeable but a common phase of falconry is the loss 
of a hawk, and her recovery taxes oftentimes both the patience 
and the skill of the falconer. Usually the first cause of the 
loss is that the flight has carried both hawk and quarry far 
beyond the ken of their followers. In such case the falconer 
will follow on down wind as fast as he can to the spot where 
he last saw the birds, or beyond that to any point where he 
thinks the flight likely to have terminated. Here he will search 
all covert into which the quarry may have been driven and 
killed, from time to time showing his lure, in case the hawk 
may be either soaring to cool herself after a hard flight or be 
sitting sulky and disappointed close to where she lost her prey. 
If he has with him any of the field on horseback, they must be 
sent on straight down wind to look over all likely places, and 
especially to the neighbouring rookeries. If the hawk is near 
these or within them there will be a most unmistakable com- 
motion, and a signal will show the falconer either that she is 
there or has passed that way. If the latter prove to be the 
case, the hawk is probably to be sought for still farther down 



LOST HA WKS 307 

wind of this spot. Flying another hawk to the lure will often 
bring up a sulky hawk, if done in an exposed place where it can 
be seen from all sides. 

Should all these devices fail, it may be taken as certain that 
the hawk has killed and has gorged herself upon her quarry. 
In that case she will not be recovered the same day. The 
falconer will therefore make his arrangements to be upon the spot 
where the hawk was last seen or heard of before daylight the 
following morning. He will, with a pair of good glasses, watch 
the motion of every bird that moves at dawn, and these will 
act as his scouts, especially in the case of rooks and crows. 
If he is able to reach a point where he can command a rookery 
from which the birds are travelling in all directions for their 
food, he can, sitting quietly glasses in hand, make good an 
immense extent of country. Should the hawk be sitting in 
a tree, or on her kill — nay, should she have recently killed 
any bird— no rook or crow will pass over it without ' mobbing,' 
i.e. circling round and cawing. If the rooks pass to and fro 
in all directions peacefully, the falconer may rely upon it that 
his hawk is not and has not lately been in that neighbourhood ; 
but if he sees one or two consecutively ' mobbing ' in one place 
he may be sure it is worth his while to inspect it. Possibly it 
is only the kill of the day before, but it is an assurance that 
the hawk is not far off. Later in the morning he may see a lot 
of rooks and plovers ' sky up ' in a cluster as if alarmed, and 
if lucky he will, near that spot, find his hawk, perhaps half 
gorged. 

If very tame, she may even in that state come to a live 
pigeon, and allow him to take her up. She will almost certainly 
come to the pigeon, but perhaps, with a full crop and a day 
(or may be more) of liberty, will not allow him to take her up. 
He should try every plan he can think of to do so, but if he fail, 
then he must snare her. 

If she will, as is often the case, allow him to come within 
twenty or thirty yards without notice, he will produce from his 
bag a long light line of about 100 yards (a salmon line is very 



3o8 FALCONRY 

good) with a peg at one end. Driving the peg into the ground, 
at forty yards from the hawk, as she sits plucking the pigeon, 
he will walk round and round, never approaching her, but thus 
winding the line round her legs, above the bell. As long as he 
keeps moving and not coming towards her the hawk will not 
notice him. So soon as he sees that the string is well lapped 
round her legs he will make quietly in towards the hawk ; but 
even now, if he can, let him try to take her up, so that she may 
not find out she is snared. If once a hawk realises this, she is 
always difficult to manage, very shy of a string and of all tackle, 
and half spoilt. But if she attempts to leave the pigeon and 
fly off, the falconer must needs pull his string tight, march in 
upon her, and the quicker the hood is on her head the better. 

Possibly, if she is a wild-natured hawk and has been out 
for a few days, she will not allow any man even within gun- 
shot. The best plan in such a case is to throw out a live pigeon 
with a long string attached to it which it can carry away pretty 
well. If the hawk takes this and kills it, go right in upon her, 
seizing the string, and frighten her off it. She will not go far. 
The long line must then be set with an ordinary slip-knot 
round the pigeon, which must be firmly pegged down just as 
the hawk left it ; a few wing feathers should be stuck round 
the noose so as to guide the line upwards and round the hawk's 
legs. The falconer must retire to the end thereof, conceal 
himself, and play the game of patience. Sooner or later the 
hawk is sure to return to her kill, and, if she does so, one pull 
secures her. 

This snare can be set with a long spring of india-rubber 
and a trigger, so that the lighting of the hawk on the pigeon 
will liberate it and tighten the noose. If the falconer finds 
more kills than one, a snare or two of this kind will aid him 
much. 

A very good device for catching a half-hungry hawk that 
will stoop at a pigeon, half in play, half in earnest, is as follows. 
A short strap of stout leather is cut, about three inches long 
by three-quarters of an inch broad ; to this there are attached 



LOST HA WKS 



309 



four or five little snares of catgut, or of gimp, so arranged that, 
when open, they stand like a series of little wings on a salmon 
fly, upright, all along the strap, about an inch high. The whole 
apparatus is next fastened to a pigeon's back by means of double 
strings round the shoulder of each wing and one round the root 
of the tail. The strap then fits close along his back among his 
feathers without impeding his flight in the least, and the snares 
stand up the whole length of his back and well above it. The 
pigeon is now thrown out with a long line attached, and should 
the hawk make but a half-hearted stoop, it is ten to one she 
will catch her claws in one or other of the snares and be fast. 
With a pigeon, and a long string attached to her toe, she is 
readily taken, and we have known even wild hawks to be 
caught in this way in England. In the East, where they are 
far tamer, it is almost a certainty.^ 

* Should a hawk persistently carry any light quarry, the best plan to adopt 
is to fly another — a very tame hawk— at her. Both hawks will then hold on to 
the prey, and the falconer can easily approach. Failing this device, the hawk 
must either be snared, or else frightened off her quarry, and then taken down 
in the usual way. 



510 FALCONRY 



CHAPTER IV 

GERFALCONS — KITE HAWKING — HARE HAWKING — MERLINS — ■ 
HOW MANAGED — LARK HAWKING — THE HOBBY — THE SACRE 

■ — THE LANNER — SHAHINS SPORT IN INDIA OTHER 

VARIETIES OF HAWKS USED IN FALCONRY. 

The noblest kind of hawk that is, or ever has been, used in 
falconry is certainly the ger-, or gyrfalcon, as the three varieties 
of the great Northern falcons are each called indiscriminately 
by falconers. These varieties are, first, the Greenland Falcon, 
the handsomest of the three, almost (in its adult plumage) 
snow-white, with handsome, regular markings. This variety is 
more widely distributed than the other two, but the only 
specimens which have been trained have been either ship 
caught birds or stray hawks that have been taken by some 
chance. Secondly, the Iceland Falcon. Very many hawks of 
this variety have been trained, some being birds taken from the 
nest in Iceland (to which country it is almost entirely confined) 
and others birds caught when fully grown, besides chance speci- 
mens. Thirdly, the Norwegian variety, which has been taken 
both adult and from the nest by expeditions of falconers sent 
expressly to procure them. Three specimens also have, during 
the last fifty years, been taken on the passage at Valkenswaard, 
all of which were trained with varying success. 

Just as big yachts sail faster than little ones, so the ger- 
falcons, being nearly twqce the size of peregrines, can fly far 
faster even than those swift birds. Moreover, in their style of 
flying they excel all other hawks. No gerfalcon that has the 
full use of her wings ever makes a bad stoop or flies in bad 



i 



J 






m^M-. 




j£.4.,Aa^y>„ 



GiUfiRNLA-TsTD FA.LCON 



GERFALCONS 311 

form. Whether at the lure or at wild quarry their style is per- 
fection. But yet, in spite of this, they cannot altogether be 
termed a success in falconry. Their tempers are generally 
very violent and stubborn, making them difficult to train in the 
early stages ; they are always troublesome to break to the hood, 
and it requires an infinity of pains to get them to stand to it at 
all. From their great size and wild disposition they are very 
prone to carry, and altogether it requires a very experienced 
hand to do any good with them. 

Worst of all, it is extremely difficult to keep them in health 
until they become thoroughly acclimatised. The Iceland variety 
especially is afflicted with a form of asthma that is almost 
universal among those hawks which are caught wild in the 
island, and which are in other respects the most likely to 
succeed. Few of those which are seized with this disease ever 
recover ; it is closely allied to that lung disease which in ancient 
books is described as the ' pantas.' In the Norwegian falcons, 
within our experience, this disease has not been so prevalent, 
but they have been very liable to a virulent, and generally fatal, 
form of frounce, resulting in a tumour in the throat, which 
generally kills them. Both varieties, when flymg well, have 
been apt to lose all form and to become useless when a change 
has occurred from cold to warm weather, and they seem espe- 
cially sensitive to a damp, muggy climate. Of the constitution 
of the Greenland Falcon we cannot speak from actual experience, 
but from its wider distribution it may possibly be more hardy. 
One in the posiession of Lord Lilford was a fine-tempered 
hawk and a good flier, keen at rooks. 

When once, however, the first moult is past, these birds 
seem to thrive well in England. The Maharajah Dhuleep 
Singh possessed a beautiful Icelander which was moulted for 
many years, and there have been many instances of these hawks 
living to a considerable age. Symon Latham, writing in 161 5, 
says : ' I have known a gerfalcon an excellent hearenor, and to 
continue her goodnesse very neare twenty years-, or full out the 
time.' In 1845, John Pells, the falconer, brought over several 



312 FALCONRY 

Icelanders for the Duke of Leeds, and these were trained at 
the Loo and entered to herons. One or two were pretty good 
birds, but upon the whole they did not turn out well. Some 
of the falcons were entered to hares and took them fairly 
well. 

In 1839, M^- E. C. Newcome visited Norway in search of 
gerfalcons, of which he always had had a high opinion— .so 
much so that, several years before that date, he had systematic- 
ally issued hand-bills to the captains of whalers sailing in the 
North Seas, requesting them to take every opportunity of pro- 
curing for him birds of that species. Having selected the 
place most suited to the purpose, he caused huts to be built 
the following year for the taking of the falcons in the Dutch 
method, and in digging the foundations for these the men 
came upon those of the ancient huts which had been used by 
falconers in bygone days, all knowledge of which, except as an 
ancient tradition, had perished. In this place he took three 
gerfalcons, and in the succeeding year the Dutch falconers 
caught ten or a dozen. All of these birds were trained at the 
Loo, but out of all the lot only two — a falcon and a tiercel — 
turned out to be good ones, one being trained by James Bots 
and one by Adrian Mollen. 

The great fault of gerfalcons, even when they could be 
induced to persevere at this flight, was that their stoop was 
so hard that they would either kill or cripple the heron, and 
this, in the breeding season, when it was important to save 
every heron, was a serious drawback. Their nature is ever to 
stoop repeatedly at their quarry, and after they have so 
knocked it about as to cripple it, then to seize or bind to it. 
In 1869, John Barr and James Barr, his nephew, were sent to 
Iceland by the Maharajah Dhuleep Singh for the purpose of 
procuring gerfalcons. In this they were exceedingly successful, 
bringing back no less than thirty-three of these magnificent 
birds.' In the spring of 1870 we had the pleasure of inspect- 

1 Naturally great difficulty was experienced in bringing these hawks home. 
The greater part of one steamer had to be specially retained for them, and for 



GERFALCONS 



2>^2> 



ing this stud of hawks, together with Mr. E. G. Newcome. 
They were then established at Elveden, and all, or nearly all, 
were trained, and many entered. Probably, since the earliest 
days of falconry, a stud of hawks has never been seen of 




Iceland falcon 



so magnificent an appearance as this collection presented at 
that time. Besides the thirty-three gerfalcons, there was a fair 
team of peregrines, a sacre in full work, a goshawk or two, and 

some half-dozen ponies which Barr purchased in order to be slaughtered during 
the voyage to provide the hawks with food, no other flesh being obtainable. 



314 FALCONRY 

other varieties. Several of the gerfalcons were flying at the 
lure in the finest conceivable style. In fact, three of them 
were, in our opinion, and in that of Mr. Newcome, whose 
judgment could hardly be called in question, among the best, if 
not absolutely the finest, fliers that have been trained during 
the memory of any living man. The falcons were being, some 
of them, regularly flown at hares, and we saw a curious flight 
or two of this nature. Alas ! Even at this early stage the 
asthma, to which we have referred above, was rife among these 
noble hawks, and by the close of the year almost the whole 
team were defunct or useless, with hardly a record to their 
names of wild quarry killed ! 

In 1876 John Barr, who was then employed by the Falconry 
Club, was sent to Norway in order to obtain gerfalcons of the 
variety of that country, which it was hoped would be more free 
from the fatal disease which was so destructive to the Ice- 
landers. He succeeded in taking ten, all of which but one 
were females, and all young birds. Out of those which landed, 
six were dead by the end of December of the fatal 'pantas' ; 
of the two which fell to the portion of the Old Hawking Club, 
one died in a few weeks, and the other was successfully, but 
with great trouble, trained and entered. She was in no respect 
a good hawk, and died the following August of a fatal form of 
frounce. Of the others, one only took wild quarry, viz. rooks, at 
w^hich she was flown on Epsom Downs by Mr. J. E. Harting. 
Three gerfalcons have been caught at Valkenswaard. Of the 
first we have no record, save that it was trained at the Loo, and 
was no great success ; the second was for some time in England, 
fn the possession of Lord Lilford ; the third was a noble tiercel 
caught in 1878 in the adult plumage, and, so far as we know, is 
the only haggard gerfalcon (of that species) that ever was trained. 
He fell into the hands of the Old Hawking Club, and w^as very 
carefully trained by their falconer, John Frost. Although a 
haggard, he had a finer temper than most gerfalcons, and was 
trained without a great deal of trouble. He was entered to 
rooks on Sahsbury Plain, and turned out a most splendid hawk, 



KITE HAWKING 315 

one of the grandest fliers the club has ever possessed. Yet 
when hot weather set in he fell off in style, and refused to fly, 
being very untrustworthy, and was lost, owing to an unfortunate 
accident during his first moult. 

Upon the whole, then, gerfalcons must be termed unsatis- 
factory hawks to train, and though no falconer likes to miss 
giving a fair chance to one of these noble birds, yet if sport 
alone be the object aimed at, it is not worth while to waste 
time upon them while the peregrine is readily obtainable. 

In old times the gerfalcon was especially valued for the 
purpose of flying the kite, then a common bird, and probably 
that flight was the finest that has ever been followed in this 
country, not even excepting the ' heron on passage.' It is still 
a common flight in India, where the sacre, a bird of almost 
equal power to the gerfalcon, is used for it ; but the difficulty 
of training and entering hawks to this quarry, and the courage 
and perseverance needed to overtake so swift and high-mounting 
a bird, show us how skilfully our ancestors must have managed 
their hawks in order to succeed in the undertaking. 

The method by which the kite was flown was somewhat 
peculiar. As soon as the bird was descried soaring in mid air, 
generally at a height so great that it could hardly be dis- 
tinguished, a live owl was let fly by the falconers, to whose legs 
was attached a fox's brush. This both impeded the owl's 
flight to such an extent that it could not escape, and also pre- 
sented to the kite the spectacle of a bird of prey, such as could 
easily be robbed, carrying off some quarry. Immediately then 
he would descend from his lofty pitch to attack the poor owl, 
when the falcons, generally three in number, would be slipped 
at him. 

In the Appendix to Mr. Southwell's edition of Lubbock's 
' Fauna of Norfolk,' written by Professor Newton, it is stated, 
speaking of the practice of falconry in Norfolk, that : — 

Lord Orford's chief quarry seems to have been the kite, which 
was then very common throughout England, and apparently 
especially abundant in this district so rich in rabbits. Years ago 



3i6 FALCONRY 

I well remember haying heard from several old men in the neigh- 
bourhood of the excellent flights which this species afforded, and 
especially of one flight, which, beginning on Eriswell or on the 
adjoining part of Elveden, ended in Lord Bristol's park at Ickworth, 
near Bury St. Edmunds, a distance in a straight Hne of some ten 
or twelve miles. 

The famous Colonel Thornton, who succeeded Lord 
Orford as the manager of the Falconers' Club (or, as the Colonel 
describes it in his ' Northern Tour,' ' The Confederate Hawks of 
England '), seems to have been very successful at this flight 
with the gerfalcon, as also at hares. Whence he got his hawks 
we are not able to trace, but as it is certain that the falconers 
of that day were in frequent communication with those of the 
Continent, we are inclined to suspect that the ancient huts 
for hawk-catching which Mr. Newcome discovered on the 
Dovrefjeld had some connection with the gerfalcons trained 
by Lord Orford and Colonel Thornton, and with the princely 
estabhshments of hawks which they maintained. 

In Colonel Thornton's 'Northern Tour' is described an 
episode which bears so strongly upon the subject of this 
chapter that we venture to reproduce it verbatim. He 
says : — 

A Mr. A , attended by a little humpbacked servant with a 

large portmanteau, joined our party ranging for kite near Elden 
Gap. At length one was seen in the air, and I ordered the 
owl to be flown. He came as we wished, at a proper distance. 
The day was fine, and the hawks, particularly 'Javelin' and 
* Icelanderkin,' in the highest order, and with them ' Crocus^ a 
famous slight falcon. Never was there a finer day, a keener com- 
pany, or for six miles a finer flight. When he was taken, in an 
ecstasy I asked Mr. A how he liked kite hawking. He re- 
plied with a sort of hesitation that expressed but small pleasure, 
' Why, pretty well ! ' We then tried for hare with a famous hawk 
called ' Sans Quartier.' After ranging a little we found one, and 

in about two miles killed it. Mr. A , coming up again slowly, 

unwilling or unable to leave his portmanteau, I repeated my former 
question, and though the flight of a hare is fine, yet being in no 
way equal to that of a kite, was surprised to see his countenance 



HARE HAWKING 



317 



brighten up and to hear him express himself with uncommon 
pleasure. 'Ay, that,' he said, ' was a nobler kind of hawking ; the 
hare would be of use — a good roast — the kite of none.' Desirous 
to gratify his wishes, and to get quit on easy terms of the trouble 
the servants would have to carry an old jack hare in the month of 
May, I begged his acceptance of it, to which he very readily con- 
sented ; and his servant was ordered to add this trophy to the top 
of the enormous portmanteau. I leave every sportsman to guess the 
observations that were made by a set of lively young men on the 
occasion. 

Apart from the humour of this anecdote, it is clear that 
the Colonel had in his service at least three good well-trained 
gerfalcons, and probably others. It is, we believe, on record 
that ' Sans Quartier,' the falcon that was flown single-handed 
at an old jack hare, was a gerfalcon. Clearly * Icelanderkin ' 
was one of that species, while the express allusion to ' Crocus ' 
as a 'slight' or peregrine falcon seems to show that both the 
other two which were flown with her were of another species. 

The kite, however, is no longer to be flown in this country, 
and with its disappearance the necessity for the gerfalcon as a 
bird of sport has also vanished. That they can be trained and 
used has been well proved in these modern times, but they 
now have to be flown at quarry for which the peregrine is 
better suited, and therefore it is not to be wondered at if they 
are beaten out of the field by that most serviceable of all 
falcons. Their chief excellence is at quarry that mounts high 
in the air, and we have never known one used successfully at 
game as yet. 

Merlins are a very beautiful variety of hawk, tiny in size, but 
full of dash and courage. They are always great favourites with 
young falconers and with amateurs, because of their docile, even 
affectionate, nature, and of the ease with which they may be 
managed. Unfortunately their constitution is so delicate that 
they require the greatest care to keep them alive, and only few 
falconers have succeeded in keeping them through the winter, 
fewer still after the first moult. 

They are not uncommon hawks in this country, breeding 



3i8 FALCONRY 

on the moors of Yorkshire and the northern counties. Their 
nest is placed on the ground among the heather, and they are 
late breeders, the young being rarely fit to take before the 
third week m July. Wild merlins are also caught at Valkens- 
waard on the autumn migration, in the same manner as pere- 
grines, special nets and lures being arranged for them. Those 
taken from the nest are easily reared with sufficient care. They 
should be fed three times a day on the tenderest possible beef, 
with all fat and gristle cut away ; an occasional change to pigeon, 
chicken or rabbit is desirable. When merlins are full-grown they 
must be kept as much as possible upon birds, trapped ones in 
preference to those that are shot ; but if a shot bird be given, an 
abundance of casting must be given with it in case any shot 
corns should be swallowed. They can be flown at hack, and 
if they are likely to be flown when trained near the place 
where they were hacked, it is a great advantage to rear them 
thus, as a lost hawk will then return home of herself very often. 
But it is impossible to fly them at hack together with pere- 
grines, for the latter, being much more forward than the 
merlins, are easily able to take them when first put out, and 
would be very likely to kill them. Care must also be taken 
not to have peregrines sitting out on blocks near where merlins 
are hacked ; they are bold, confiding little hawks, and are very 
likely to drop down by the side of the peregrine, attracted 
perchance by some food, or else for company, and in that way 
are likely to be killed. 

A very good way both to keep and rear merlins is to bring 
them up altogether in a good large room or a loft ; there must 
be a perch or two for them, and all corners should be rounded 
off as much as possible to prevent injury to the feathers. The 
bars to the windows must be fixed perpendicularly and not 
horizontally, so that the hawks cannot fly at the windows and 
cling to them. A very little carrying will soon accustom the 
merlins to fly to the hand of anyone they know well in order 
to be fed, and this with a little calling to the lure is really all 
the trainirg they require. We have brought up birds in this 



MERLINS 319 

way many times, and have also hacked them, and we have 
found those reared in a room prove just as good fliers as those 
that had been hacked. It was also the method employed by 
Mr. Newcome, who was very successful with these little hawks. 
Whether hacked or not, merlins will do better loose in a room 
than on blocks or perches. On days when they are to be 




Lark hawking 

flown they can be taken up, and after being given a few 
mouthfuls in the morning, set down on small-sized blocks or 
on the bow-perch (see description in Chapter VII.) ; the latter 
is the best perch for merlins. ^Vhen in the house they can 
be secured on the ' screen.' The flight for which merlins 
are most esteemed is that of the skylark, and an exceedingly 
beautiful flight it is, closely resembling that of the heron in 



320 FALCONRY 

miniature. The lark as a rule mounts straight into the air, 
and that very rapidly. The little hawks must ring again and 
again to get above him, and even then will sometimes fail 
It is a common thing to lose sight of the lark in the clouds, 
even on a clear day, and not unfrequently both the hawks 
flying with him will also disappear fairly overhead in the air. 
Presently the two larger specks reappear, and then in front of 
them you may see the smaller dot, falling like a bullet from 
the clouds into a fence below, with the little falcons stooping 
right and left at him till he is taken just as he gains his sanc- 
tuary. It is better to fly two merlins together at larks, and 
the females w411 be found more persevering and harder fliers 
as a rule than the males. During August the larks which are 
moulting can be readily taken, but after September i they are 
very much stronger, and it is not easy to get the merlins, which 
are easily discouraged by a tew defeats, to persevere in flying 
them, unless a plentiful supply of bagged larks be kept where- 
with to encourage them, after failure, by affording an easy flight. 
As the season grows later the larks get stronger, and generally 
the merlins give up the flight altogether, though we have known 
larks taken in the winter occasionally. Therefore in the North of 
England, where the corn remains on the fields, either standing 
or in stooks (into which the larks will drop instantly), until very 
late in August, it is no easy matter to get merlins entered in 
time to show any sport before the season is practically over. 

The first falconer who took up this branch of hawking on 
any large scale, in modern times, was Mr. Newcome. He used 
merlins for several years, and killed a great number of larks, 
but we have no precise record of his doings. Like other 
falconers, he found merlins inveterate ' carriers,' tame as they 
are, and a small hook on the end of a long stick, by which he 
could lay hold of the body of the lark when killed, was often 
of great assistance. We have found a similar hook, at the end 
of a Japanese fishing-rod which folds into the butt, very useful, 
especially when the merlin has been so unfeeling as to carry 
her quarry into a tree. As larks, when put in, will often lie like 



LARK HA WKING 321 

stones, a good terrier, that will nose them out, is of considerable 
service. In more recent times the Rev. G. E. Freeman, 
author of ' Falconry : its History, Claims, and Practice,' has 
been successful with merlins at various different flights ; his 
doings are well recorded in Chapter XIII. of that work, and he 
appears to have had considerable sport in flying the ring ousel 
as well as the skylark. 

More recently Mr. E. B. Michell, an amateur falconer of 
some experience, met with great success with merlins. In i88t 
he succeeded in taking, up to September 15, fifty larks with 
two male merlins; but in 1883, with three merlins, two of them 
females, he killed (on very first-rate ground on Salisbury Plain) 
no less than 136 larks. Whether this surpasses Mr. New- 
come's scores of former years or not we do not know, but it is 
certainly very good work, and deserves to be placed on record. 
For ourselves, flying in bad country, we have found from thirty 
to forty larks killed between August 20th to September 20th to 
be fairly successful work, and our practice for some years was to 
allow our merlins to fly loose after the autumn migration began, 
and to procure fresh ones the following year, by which we 
avoided the probability of losing our little pets during the 
winter, and yet had fresh ones ready for the only time of year 
when much can be done with. these hawks. 

Any varieties of small birds can be flown with merlins, 
where the fields are large enough and the birds to be found ; 
they are very quick and active, even among trees and bushes, 
partaking a good deal of the character of the true hawks, such 
as the sparrow-hawk and goshawk, as well as of the falcons, to 
which they properly belong. 

The more courageous females can be trained to fly pigeons 
well, and so great is their activity that it requires a good 
pigeon to escape them ; and if the quarry seeks refuge in a bush 
or a hedge the merlin is almost sure to follow and seize him. 
Their method of killing birds of this large size is peculiar, 
being by strangulation, a method not usually adopted by any 
other hawk ; in fact, a full-grown pigeon is as strong as a merlin, 

Y 



322 FALCONRY 

and therefore the hawk cannot master its prey so as to put it 
to a speedy death as the peregrine does, by breaking its neck. 

It requires some trouble, as a rule, to enter a merlin to 
pigeons, just as in the case of any other quarry that is somewhat 
beyond the strength of the hawk which is to fly it ; but, although 
it is rather interesting to see these little falcons tackle a bird 
with powers fully equal to their own, yet as it can only lead to 
flights at bagged quarry, we do not propose to enter further 
into a description of this flight. 

We cannot, from personal experience, say that snipe can be 
killed with trained merlins, but it seems very possible that 
hawks accustomed to ring after larks would be able to take 
this quarry also. 

On the whole merlins, though, if compared with the falcons 
treated of in the preceding chapters, they must be ranked as 
toys, are well worthy the consideration of falconers, especially 
of the tyro in that art. They require but little training, or 
trouble to manage. They are not easily broken to the hood, 
nor is much education necessary, for so tame are these little 
birds that they will sit quietly enough bareheaded until the 
bird springs near them. The hood should only be used when 
travelling, and should be removed as soon as the field is 
reached, for it will be found that merlins will not fly readily 
' out of the hood ' as peregrines do, especially on bright sunny 
days. 

They must always be fed twice a day, kept very warm, and 
especially free from damp ; either a loft with a stove in it, or a 
condition of entire liberty at hack with liberal feeding, affords 
the best chance of keeping them alive after summer is past. 

Of hobbies we can say but little from personal experi- 
ence, except that they are, of all falcons, the most elegant, 
whether on the wing or on the block. Partly insectivorous in 
habits, they lack the dash and courage requisite for a bird of 
sport. Many have been trained of late years, but with no 
success as far as sport is concerned, although the hawks them- 
selves were found perfectly docile, very fine-tempered, admir- 



HOBBIES 323 

able at waiting on, and very fine fliers to the lure. Here their 
good qualities ceased ; when tried at wild quarry of any kind 
they failed, and though, perhaps, with perseverance, individual 
birds might turn out well, this variety can hardly be included 




Merlin ' feeding up 



among the birds used in sport at the present day. Mr. E. 
Michell did, we believe, succeed in training one to fly larks as 
well as the best merlins, but it is the only case we know of.^ 

1 In the spring of 1885, a pair of hobbies took up their quarters for breed- 
ing purposes in an old wood in the country of the Old Hawking Club. It was 
a common practice to let fly an eyess tiercel near this wood for the purpose of 
• drawing the hobbies,' which would rally out to mob and drive away the in- 
truder with the greatest vigour. Never have we seen so fine an exhibition cf 
flying and stooping as was shown by these beautiful little falcons, and deeply did 
we regret that it was not possible to make use of such splendid powers as they 
possessed for the service of man. 



324 FALCONRY 

The sacre is a falcon almost equal in size and power to the 
gerfalcon, but belongs to a different species, now termed the 
* Desert falcons.' They are fine fliers, but slack mettled, soft 
feathered birds, unable to face rough weather, and, therefore, 
unsuited to this climate. It is many years since sacres were 
used in this country. We have ourselves seen but one in 
regular use, which had been imported from Egypt, and in 
England was only flown at pigeons. They are mentioned in 
most of the old books on hawks, but seem to have been im- 
ported as passage hawks, taken in the Levant, Egypt, &c. 
But -svhen Adrian MoUen was in the service of Prince Trauts- 
mansdorff, near Vienna, about the year 1838, he trained three 
young sacres which were taken from the nest in Hungary. 
We know of no more recent instances of the training of 
European sacres, and we give this fact on the authority of 
Professor Schlegel, and of Mollen himself.' In ancient times 
the sacre was valued for her kite-flying qualities. Blome, in 
the ' Gentleman's Recreation,' treats of her thus: — 

This hawk will make excellent sport with a kite, who, as soon 
as she sees the saker (the male whereof is called a sakaret) cast off, 
immediately betakes herself to, and trusts in the goodness of her 
wings, and getteth to her pitch as high as possibly she may by 
making many turns and wrenches in the air, which, well if observed, 
together with the variety of contests and bickerings there are be- 
tween them, it cannot but be very pleasant and delightful to the 
beholder. I have known in a clear day and little wind stirring 
that both the saker and the kite have soared so high that the 
sharpest eye could not discern them, yet hath the saker in the 
encounter conquered the kite, and I have seen her come tumbling 
down to the ground with a strange precipitancy. 

Sacres are much used in India for flying at the kite, 
ravine-deer, bustard, and other quarry. They are difficult to 
manage, and are usually induced to fly by the free use of 
drugs ; these can only be administered safely where the 

^ We have been offered nestling sacres through a falconer resident in 
Moscow, but we do not know where the eyrie is situated. They appear, how- 
ever, to be easily obtained. 



SACRES—LANNERS 325 

climate can be* relied on, and if for no other reason than this, 
sacres would be unsuitable for use in variable weather such 
as British falconers have to contend with. They are trained 
for gazelle hawking in Persia and Arabia, in conjunction with 
greyhounds. See also Burton's * Falconry in the Valley of the 
Indus ' for a description of this sport. 

The lanner is a falcon of type similar to the foregoing, but 
considerably smaller in size, being somewhat less than the 
peregrine. In former years it bred freely in Europe, but recently 
we do not find a record of a single nest ; in Egypt and Nubia 
it breeds freely on rocks and ancient ruins. Many specimens 
have been tamed in this country and kept without any difficulty; 
they are easily tamed, but like the species last described are too 
slack mettled to be of real service at European quarry, and 
nearly akin to the kestrel in their habits. The Barbary falcon 
is an extremely beautiful hawk very like the peregrine, but about 
one-third less in size. Several have been imported and trained 
in England of late years, and two nestling birds were hacked at 
Lyndhurst for a member of the Old Hawking Club in 1885. 
They are dashing little flyers, and take pigeons in fine form ; 
they might make good partridge or even magpie hawks, 
but are not very well suited to English quarry. They have 
perhaps hardly had a sufficiently good trial in recent times, and 
we should certainly advise any falconer to try one if he has an 
opportunity to procure a specimen in good plumage. 

There are besides these several varieties of hawks used in 
Oriental falconry, of which perhaps the chief are the black 
shahin {F. peregrinator) and the red-naped shahin {F. Babylo- 
nicus), both excellent hawks, nearly akin to the peregrine, but, 
though of smaller size, better built and equally good fliers ; 
they are specially used for wild fowl, partridge, and the endless 
varieties of wader that India affords. The sacre and the luggur 
are also used, but in India, as in Europe, the best hawk that 
can be trained is the ubiquitous peregrine. Goshawks, merlins, 
and sparrow-hawks are all used with great success at various 
quarries. The East is the home of falconry, and in countries 



326 



FALCONRY 



where for many centuries it has formed ' the sport of kings ' it 
is only natural to find hawking carried to great perfection and 
exceedingly well understood. So great is the variety of quarry 
at which hawks may be flown, and so certain the climate, that 
the sport may be carried on under advantages such as the 
European falconer sighs for in vain. In India hawks are easily 
obtained and cheaply kept. Whatever species is trained, it is 
not difficult to get flights to use it at. From the highest art of 
training the sacre to the flight at the kite, down to the use of the 
sparrow-hawk, every branch has its votaries. Indian falconry 
would need a volume to itself, and it might be one far more 
comprehensive than the Western sport will admit of, but space 
does not allow of our dealing with the subject here. We would 
recommend any man, who is sufficiently enthusiastic to desire to 
see the sport in perfection, to spend a winter in India, and to 
study the methods of training hawks and of flying game which 
Eastern, and especially Anglo-Indian, falconers have brought 
to so great perfection. As an example of the sport which may 
be obtained we append a return of the quarry killed by the hawks 
of two members ' of the Old Hawking Club during the months 
of November and December 1888, and January and part of 
February 1889, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Meerut. 
Fifteen hawks in all were trained : — ^ 



Herons . 
Houbara 
Black Ibis . 
Egrets . 

White-necked Stork 
Bar-headed Goose 
Ruddy Sheldrake . 
Common „ 
Mallard 



24 
i7 
1.3 

7 

I 

4 
2 

31 



^ Mr. B. H. Jones and Captain Biddulph. 

2 Of these hawks, three shahins were brought to England, one of which 
had killed no less than seventy duck of various sorts out of the above score. 
This falcon, one of the red variety, was successfully flown at grouse, partridges, 
and magpies in England and Scotland, and lived till 1C91, through two severe 
English winters. 



INDIAN FALCONRY 357 

Spotted-billed Duck 12 

Red- crested Pochard ..... 3 

Pintail 1 

Gadwall 18 

Shoveller 24 

White-eye 4 

Tufted Duck i 

Teal 68 

Red-wattled Lapwing 72 

Indian Roller 12 

Various. . . . . . . .7 

Total 322 



328 FALCONRY 



CHAPTER V 

THE SHORT-WINGED HAWKS — GOSHAWKS — HOW OBTAINED — 

TRAINING ENTERING — RABBIT HAWKING VARIOUS 

FLIGHTS THE SPARROW-HAWK — MANAGEMENT — BLACK- 
BIRD HAWKING. 

Of the short-winged or true hawks only two varieties are 
used in England, viz. the goshawk and the sparrow-hawk ; the 
latter is common enough in every country, the former is only 
an extremely rare visitant to this country. It breeds pretty 
freely in the forests of Germany, in France, and in Norway, 
the hawks from the latter country being as a rule the best. 
They are widely distributed, however, throughout Europe, and 
varieties of this species are found throughout the world. We 
know of na authenticated instance of its breeding in Great 
Britain since Colonel Thornton in his ' Northern Tour ' found 
several nests in the forests of Glenmore and Rothiemurchus, 
whence he took and trained a young bird. Passage goshawks, 
which are in every respect infinitely the best, are sometimes taken 
at Valkenswaard in the same manner as peregrines. Full-grown 
birds can also be caught not unfrequently in the German and 
Norwegian forests ; such as these will prove very superior to the 
hawks taken out of the nest, which are spoken of by Bert, who 
wrote in 1619 one of the best and most practical books ever pub- 
lished on falconry, treating entirely of the short-winged hawks, 
as ' the eyas hawk upon whom I can fasten no affection for the 
multitude of her folHes and faults.' In ancient times, however, 
falconers or ' ostringers,' as the trainers of the true hawks were 
termed, seem to have been in the habit of turning their hawks 



fe> 














"aA 






GOSHA.WE— ADULT PLUMAGE 



GOSHA WKS 329 

into woods to breed. From the 'Colloquium' of Archbishop 
^Ifric, written about a.d. 995,^ it would appear that the practice 
of Saxon falconer^ was regularly to turn their hawks in the 
spring into the woods, and to take the young at the end of the 
summer. With birds like the goshawks, which are not greatly 
inclined to stray from where they can get food, we can well 
believe that this plan might answer. 

In the ' Paston Letters,' edited by Mr. Gairdner, a corre- 
spondence is given between John Paston the younger and his 
elder brother, in which the younger man prays the elder : — 

' I axe no more gods of yow for all the servyse that I shall 
do yow whyll the world standyth butagosshawke.' After some 
further correspondence his desire seems to have been granted, 
but alas ! 

She hathe ben so brooseid with cariage of fewle that she is as 
good as lame in both hyr leggys, as every man may se at iee. 
Wherfor all syche folk as have seen hyr avyse me to cast hyr in to 
some wood wher as I wyl.l have her to eyer,'but I wyll do ther in as 
ye wyll, wheder ye wyll I send hyr yow agen or cast her in Thorpe 
wood and a tarsell with hyr for I weit wher on is. 

This practice was therefore known, if not common, in 1472, 
but we cannot find an account of the goshawk having bred in 
England within the last century. 

There is little difficulty in procuring nestlings from France, 
Germany, or Norway now, though if it be possible to find a 
keeper skilful enough to snare the young birds some months 
after they have flown, it is worth while to pay an extra price for 
them. Goshawks average in value about 5/., females being 
wOrth considerably more than males ; they do not require to 
be flown at hack. 

The training of short-winged hawks is not difficult, as 
they are hardy and easily managed, but it is a laborious task, 
and requires time to accomplish, nor is it very easy to get a gos- 
hawk into such condition that she will fly well and keenly. They 

' See also the Introduction by J. E. Harting to ' The Perfect Booke for 
kepinge of Sparhawks, 1575,* printed by B. Quaritch, 1886. 



330 



FALCONRY 



are * hawks of the fist ' — that is to say, they are flown straight 
from the hand, and do not mount after their quarry ; the 
nature of the flight is a short, sharp dash at their prey, and 
they either take it or give up the flight in a short distance. 
They are never hooded except during training and when 
travelHng. It is their nature to he in wait for prey on some 
coign of vantage, remaining immovable perhaps for hours, till 
the chance occurs of a swift dash at the unsuspecting quarry, 
which rarely escapes. The trained bird, therefore, will learn to 
look upon her master's hand as the vantage post whence she is 
to kill, and will soon learn to sit thereon, bareheaded and 
immovable, but ready to dash like lightning at the first prey 
that stirs. The art of training her, then, is to carry her day 
and night, till she is so familiar with her master and his hand 
that she looks on the latter as her home on which she lives, 
from which all her sport is obtained, and to which she will 
return without lure after an unsuccessful flight. 

To arrive at this desirable end a great deal of trouble must 
be taken. The older falconers made a good deal more use of 
the hood than is done nowadays with goshawks, and took as 
much pains to break them to stand well to the hood as they did 
with any other kind of hawk ; we believe that they were wise, 
for the more training these birds undergo the better they will 
be. However, having procured a goshawk and put upon it 
jesses of stout leather — white horseskin, if kept well greased, 
is the most reliable — the best plan is to put on her a rufter 
hood through which she can see a little — a loose old one with 
a hole bored near the eye is very good — and to carry her for 
the greater part of the day, and as much of the night as possible, 
handling her in every possible way, and inducing her to pull at 
a piece of beef in the same way as is recommended in the case 
of the freshly-caught peregrine (see Chapter III.) As soon as 
the goshawk will feed well and keenly through her hood, let it 
be discarded, but from experience we think that the use of the 
hood in the early stages of training saves time, and that it should 
not be left off till the hawk is thoroughly at home on the fist. 



GOSHA WKS 331 

and feeds thereon without hesitation. When first the hood is 
taken off it should be done by candle light, and the hawk 
should be carried till she recovers her first alarm at being bare- 
headed. She must then be placed in a dark room, on the 
perch, and taken on hand therein for half an hour or so in the 
morning before she is brought into the daylight. As soon as 
she will sit pretty quietly on the hand, she should be carried 
at intervals for the whole day. Every time she is taken on to 
the fist a reward of meat should be given her. She should 
gradually be taken among all the strange people, sights, or dogs 
that can be found, and in fact accustomed to everything 
that is unusual. An hour or two in the village blacksmith's 
forge, with all its strange sights, sounds, and constantly changing 
succession of visitors, is admirable training, provided that her 
food be given her at intervals, so that she may learn to pull 
away at a meal amongst all these disturbing influences. Colonel 
Delme Ratcliffe most wisely advises carrying a hawk in the gas- 
ht streets of a crowded city — an excellent means of taming her 
where it can be carried out. In fact, as Bert phrases it, ' She 
shall be well assured to finde no other perch than the fist, from 
the time I rise till I goe to bed, when she shall goe with 
me.' 

Very soon, if the hawk be well handled by her master and 
not frightened by any harsh treatment either by look or by 
deed — for goshawks watch their carrier's eye and are very sen- 
sitive to it — she will become very tame, and show but little 
Xear of strangers. Long ere this stage is arrived at she will 
have learned to jump to the fist the instant she sees food, and 
have begun to come to it when held out to her in the expecta- 
tion of being fed. 

She should now be called to the hand in a long string out 
of doors. It is better that she be set on the ground for these 
lessons ; she will come the more readily, and it will not tend to 
get her into the habit of taking perch in a tree after a flight — 
this should always be discouraged. The fist is the home of the 
goshawk, and she should never be allowed to fly quarry from 



332 FALCONRY 

any other position, however tempting it may be to do so when 
she is well placed. As soon as she comes readily to the fist 
the distance may be increased very rapidly, till she will come as 
far as she can see her master in enclosed country ; in fact, if 
hungry she probably will not allow him to go a hundred yards 
from her. Goshawks, for all their wild savage nature, when so 
thoroughly tamed are very affectionate birds, and learn to know 
their trainer very well. They should be used to a short cry or 
call when they are coming to the fist, and it will often bring 
them up when in a wood or covert where their owner cannot 
see them. 

They can now be entered at the quarry they are to fly ; 
females are generally used for rabbit hawking, and this is on 
the whole the best purpose to which goshawks can be put in 
England. A few live rabbits must be obtained, and having 
carried the hawk for an hour or two, and when she is sharp 
set, a rabbit must be offered her. She will almost certainly 
take it, when it should be instantly killed by the thrust of a 
knife, and the hawk well fed on it. The next day she will be 
ready to fly a bagged rabbit in a good place, and then may try 
a wild one. Should she fail to take it, it will be wise to give 
her an easy bagman, feed her on it, and make a fresh essay 
next day. 

Rabbits lying out in old pasture give the best and most 
dashing flights, especially where there are a few bushes, &c. for 
them to dodge in. Great sport may be had in summer even- 
ings, when the rabbits feed a long distance out from the covert, 
by creeping between them and the wood, when one or more 
will be seen to squat, and may be taken in detail and 
captured, each one so noiselessly as not to alarm the others. 
In fact, a good goshawk in full training is very deadly indeed. 
The number killed by her need only be limited by the time her 
master spends on her, and the more she has flown the more 
trustworthy she will be. In 1877 we killed T12 rabbits in two 
months with one goshawk, never using her more than three 
days a week. During this period ten was the greatest number 



RABBIT HA WRING 



333 



taken during an evening walk, but we have known sixteen and 
seventeen killed before the hawk was tired. Good sport may be 
obtained by using a ferret to bolt the rabbits, but care must be 
taken lest the goshawk take the ferret and kill it. A good 
female will kill pheasants ; they are best flown among hedge- 
rows or in a very open plantation, and should they gain covert 







\\::^0^ 



Goshawk with rabbit in her foot 



in front of the hawk they will not dare to run, but will lie very 
close. The goshawk will ' make her point,' i.e. shoot up again 
in the air, very accurately at the spot where the pheasant has 
put in, and when she is called down to the fist the bird may be 
freshly found by a spaniel and will generally be taken at the 
second flight. 

Hares may be taken by female goshawks in precisely the 



334 FALCONRY 

same way as rabbits, to which they should be at first entered. 
The next attempt must be at a leveret, found in a good place, 
and if it be taken, an old hare may be attempted ; but a hawk 
must be kept entirely to hares, for one that is frequently used 
for taking rabbits will soon learn to refuse the more powerful 
quarry. 

A good hawk will always get her quarry fast by the head, 
when it is almost powerless in her grip, which is tremendous. 
We have often seen a goshawk with one foot over the head of 
a rabbit, plant the other across his loins and, almost before we 
could stoop down to kill poor bunny, he has turned over dead, 
killed almost instantaneously by the simple grip of the hawk's 
terrible feet. A very stout glove must be worn when carrying 
a goshawk, or the hand will not only be injured, but the whole 
arm numbed by the pressure of her claws. 

The male goshawk is very much quicker than the female, 
and will take pheasants well. Young partridges, too, he can 
take, but old ones will generally outfly all but the best. Few 
male goshawks can take rabbits regularly ; they too often fail to 
hold them, and so get disappointed. Waterhens and coots, when 
they can be driven from the water, may be killed to a certainty. 
Wild ducks or teal, if they can be stalked, will be taken as they 
rise ; but if once on the wing the goshawk has no chance with 
them. Grouse, where they lie well, have been caught in this way. 
In fact, a goshawk in really good 'yarak,' or flying condition, can 
be used like a fowling-piece — he will dash at and kill almost 
anything that rises within reach of him, provided he can overtake 
it within a certain limited range. Thus, in the list of ' various ' 
quarry that have been killed by one goshawk, now in training, 
we find (besides her legitimate quarry of rabbits and hares) 
pheasants, partridges, wild duck, rats, squirrels, waterhens, stoats, 
blackbirds, &c. Of actual performances on the part of a male 
goshawk in recent years, we are informed by Mr. Riley, of 
Putley Court, Herefordshire — a gentleman who has been 
markedly successful with short-winged hawks in a county well 
suited to their capabilities — that he took with his male goshawk 



GOSH A IVKS 



335 



(an eyess) in 1886, 26 partridges (all well-grown strong birds), 
10 pheasants, t6 rabbits, 5 landrails, 12 waterhens, and one 
stoat ; and with a female bird, in the same year, he killed 1 36 
rabbits, 4 ducks, 3 waterhens, a pheasant and a stoat — good 
work, indeed, for two hawks, and, as regards the male bird, 
better than has been recorded for some time past. They grip 
their prey firmly on taking it, and are seldom inclined to 
' carry.' Goshawks, though not capable of emulating the fine 
flights of the falcons, are able to show a great deal of sport in 
a country where the higher branches of falconry are impossible. 
Like a good fox-terrier, there is no more delightful companion 
in a morning's stroll round an ordinary English country-place 
than a goshawk in good form on the fist of a man who knows 
how to work her. If she be not required, she is no trouble ; 
but if a good chance occurs, almost any game that is likely to 
be met with can be killed with her. 

The determination of a goshawk is something surprising ; 
we have seen one drive downhill at a rabbit, and as it leaped 
four feet in the air to avoid the stroke which grazed it, turn 
over and catch it from underneath while in the air, rolling 
afterwards down a steep bank head over heels, but never 
leaving go her hold. It is not uncommon to see a rabbit 
captured at the mouth of a burrow, and hawk and all disappear 
under ground ; but when she is lifted out, however much she 
is knocked about, the rabbit is in her foot. No covert will 
stop them, and they dash between the bars of a hurdle or 
through a meuse like a flash of light. 

Goshawks, though easily tamed, if sufficient trouble be 
taken with them, require experience and a considerable know- 
ledge of condition to be induced to fly well. They must be a 
little lower in condition than most other hawks, but require a 
good gorge every fifth day, lest they lose strength. It is better to 
give them washed meat than to shorten unduly the quantity of 
food, and when being got into flying order they may be given 
washed meat for as much as a week at a time. It is not 
l)ossible to lay down fixed rules for their management, as the 



336 FALCONRY 

tempers of individual hawks differ so much. It is easy for the 
falconer who is constantly carrying his hawk, and calling her to 
his fist, to judge if she be keen and fit to fly or not. If she be 
slack-mettled or sullen, he can judge of the cause and govern 
himself accordingly. It is useless to fly a hawk unless she be 
in perfect ' yarak.' If not in good order, even the best of them 
will take perch and sulk, appearing absolutely unconscious of 
live rabbits, pigeons, or other lures, a few feet below her. 
This sulkiness is a great drawback to the use of goshawks, but 
it is the effect of imperfect or insufficient training ; and the 
same hawk which one day spoils an afternoon by her sulky 
refusals to fly will, two days afterwards, behave to perfection, 
and perhaps continue to do so for weeks, if properly handled. 
Nay, even at the height of their ' sulks,' we have seen them 
leave their perch, with live and dead lures below them, and 
follow their master who has made as though he were leaving 
them ! When in true ' yarak ' the feathers are set up, as if the 
hawk were cold, the crest is erect, the hawk immovable, gripping 
the fist with a grasp of iron, yet noticing the movement of every 
living thing and ready to dash at it. When not fit to fly her 
feathers lie close to the body, she constantly utters a chirp or 
twittering cry, and will h2X&from the fist, but not at everything 
that moves. When in this condition it is hopeless to fly her. 

Even when in good ' yarak ' a goshaw^k must be carried for 
an hour or two to get her into flying order on every day that 
she is wanted. If left idle for a day or two, more work will be 
wanted. An hour or two of carriage will work a transformation 
in a hawk that obviously was not fit to fly in the morning. 
Thus a goshawk will require more time to be expended on her 
than a team of four or five peregrines when once they are in 
condition, and two goshawks are as much as any one man can 
manage if he be required to keep both in flying order. 

Goshawks can be kept in-doors upon the screen and out- 
of-doors on the bow-perch (see Chapter VII.) They are 
dangerous brutes with other hawks, and must be kept well away 
from them at all times. If convenience admit of it, they should 



GOSH A WKS 337 

not be kept in the same house as peregrines, for, if by any acci- 
dent they get their leash untied, they may kill every other hawk 
in the mews. Very much more can be done in India with 
goshawks than in Europe, because — first, there is so much 
greater a choice of quarry to fly them at ; and, secondly, labour 
is so much cheaper that a man can be told off solely to attend 
upon each bird, by which means they are kept tamer and in 
more constant ' yarak ' than an English falconer in charge of 
many other hawks can find time to do. 

In Colonel Delme Ratcliffe's work on the Falconidae used in 
India he gives the list of quarry at which he has flown goshawks 
as follows : — * Hares, cranes, geese, ducks, teal, houbara, florikin, 
pea-fowl, jungle- fowl, partridges, crows, kites, mynas, a great 
variety of other birds, and ravine-deer.' With a list such as 
this it is no wonder that the goshawk is very highly esteemed, or 
that her price is sometime as high as 20/. Goshawks seem, from 
some illustrated works in our possession, to be very popular in 
Japan, and to be flown chiefly at pheasants, cranes, and wild 
fowl. They are carried on the left hand, as in Europe, and 
appear to be rarely hooded, and usually taken from the nest. 

We take from ' Falconry in the British Isles ' the following 
description of the goshawk : — 

The colour of the young goshawk differs considerably from that 
of the mature bird. During the first year the whole of the under- 
portion of the body is of a rusty salmon-colour, marked with long 
lanceolate streaks of blackish brown, while the upper part is liver- 
brown, each feather being margined with reddish- white. At first 
the eyes are grey : ' this colour gradually changes with age to 
lemon-yellow, and eventually becomes orange ; the cere is waxen 
yellow, with tarsi and feet of a deeper tone. At the first change 
the whole of the under-plumage becomes light grey, striped 
transversely with narrow bars of a dark brown colour, the top of the 
head, back, wings and tail becoming of a uniform brown, with five 
distinct bars of a darker colour on the latter. There is also a 

' In very old birds the colour of the eyes changes to a deep fiery red. Gos- 
hawks do not deteriorate much with age, are at their best at three or four years 
old, and with care will last up to nine or ten seasons. 



338 FALCONRY 

streak of light grey over each eye, speckled, as are the cheeks, with 
minute brown splashes. The bars on the breasts of the adult birds 
differ considerably in width in different individuals. The under 
tail coverts are pure white. 

The sparrow-hawk, or ' spar-hawk ' of our ancestors, is the 
commonest species that is used in hawking ; it is familiar to 
everyone who knows anything at all of the ornithology of this 
country. Being a true or short-winged hawk, its training and 
management are almost identical with that described in the 
foregoing pages as suitable for the goshawk. But, as the 
sparrow-hawk is a more delicate bird, the severe discipline as 
to diet which is necessary for the goshawk cannot be resorted 
to in her case. They require a great deal of carrying, but 
must be well fed, as much as possible upon birds, and should 
be given a mouthful or two in the morning without any castings, 
as well as the usual meal at night They are birds of a highly 
nervous organisation, and when first taken on hand will seem 
to be, and in fact are, so absolutely paralysed by terror as to 
lose all use of their legs. Nothing is to be done but to replace 
them on the fist as often as they fall off, and so steadily to 
inure them to being carried, and then to follow out the course 
of training as before described. 

Although delicate and rather liable to fits, the sparrow-hawk 
is full of dash and courage, and has not so sulky a temper as 
that with which her larger congener is cursed. Instances of 
their dashing through windows to get at caged birds are so 
common as to be hardly worth recording, and during the 
present year a sparrow-hawk belonging, to Mr. Riley took and 
held a pheasant nearly full-grown and three times her own 
weight. In fact, they are most sporting birds, and well worth 
training and using in a country which does not admit of the 
higher forms of falconry. 

Sparrow-hawks can easily be flown at hack in the same 
manner as is prescribed for peregrines and merlins, but there 
is no advantage in doing this ; birds brought up in a large 
room or loft will fly quite as well as those that are hacked. 



SPARRO W-HA WKS 339 

Moreover, they can be well entered at birds while yet in the 
loft, and before they are taken in hand to train. The males 
and females must be kept in different lofts, or the former will 
probably be killed, and in any case they must all be highly fed. 
It will be found that one, or at most two, of these hawks will 
take up the whole of a man's time, and it is better for the 
falconer to restrict himself to one good bird than to attempt 
too much by trying to train several. 

The female sparrow-hawk will take partridges — even full- 
grown ones — fairly well. In, early September she will kill 
many. Formerly they were of no little account for killing 
landrails, which were far better for the table when thus killed 
than if they had been mangled with shot. The best sport to 
be had with them is at blackbirds and at thrushes in large old 
hedgerows, and this is really an excellent flight, requiring much 
skill and management. Two assistants are advisable, and, the 
hedge being beaten and a blackbird marked down into it, the 
falconer, hawk on hand, should make a detour, and having got 
well round the bird, should advance close to the bush where 
it is concealed, while the beaters, one on each side of the hedge, 
advance towards him. The blackbird is thus well between the 
two fires, and if the beater on the opposite side to the falconer 
is a little in advance of his fellow, and uses his stick well, the 
blackbird is certain to be forced away between the falconer 
and the advancing beater, and so affords a fair good chance 
in the open. Thrushes are more active and not so easy to 
take. 

Sparrows and similar small birds may be taken by the 
male or ' musket,' but upon the whole he is not worth training. 
If the female be used for small birds, almost any number may 
be killed by her, but the sport is not very good— and if she 
is to fly blackbirds, she must be kept to them and not allowed 
to fly at easier quarry, or she will become slack-mettled. The 
late Sir Charles Slingsby — whose melancholy death by drowning 
(caused by the overturning of the Newby ferry-boat when he 
was crossing the river Ure during a run with his hounds) is 



340 FALCONRY 

fresh in the memory of all hunting- men — was an excellent 
falconer, and especially clever in the use of this little hawk. 
AVe have witnessed his skill on various occasions, but the only 
record we can find of his performances was a score of forty- 
seven blackbirds with one hawk in 1853. His friend, Mr, 
Bower, was also exceedingly successful with these hawks, and 
(we quote from ' Falconry in the British Isles') in 1857 he 
killed 327 head between August 23 and October 20 — mostly, 
however, sparrows. In 1858, with another hawk, he killed, 
in nineteen hawking days, 46 blackbirds, 36 thrushes, 17 
partridges, 11 sparrows, and i starling - total, in; the best 
day being 6 blackbirds, 3 thrushes, 2 partridges, and i sparrow. 
And in 1861 Mr. Bower killed 126 birds in twenty-seven days, 
Avith a young sparrow-hawk which was in flying order by July 27, 
the score being — 68 blackbirds, 42 thrushes, 5 sparrows, 3 
greenfinches, 7 partridges, i wood-pigeon, i sundry. He had 
an excellent hawk in 1865 ; but, though we witnessed some of 
its performances, we have no record of the result. But Mr. 
Bower was, no doubt, the best and cleverest hand with these 
•delicate little hawks that has attempted to use them during the 
present century. 

For a good many years after 1866 nothing much has been 
done with the sparrow-hawk, until about the year 1883, when 
Mr. Riley — whom we have mentioned above as having done 
very good work with goshawks — commenced also to fly sparrow- 
hawks in Herefordshire with great success. Commencing with 
a hawk which took 34 head in the first season in which he 
attempted the sport, he in the year 1887 killed with one 
hawk 51 blackbirds, 4 thrushes, 3 partridges, i pheasant, and 
2 small birds — total, 61. Mr. Riley informs us that he only 
uses one beater, and that he frequently lets the hawk take her 
own stand in trees, and beats the hedge up to her. Mr. Bower's 
practice was always to have two assistants, and to so place 
himself that he could ensure the hawk a fair chance at the 
blackbird as it crossed the open ; he never allowed the hawk 
to fly except from his hand, and he never let her go except 



SPARROW-HA WKS 



341 



when she had a chance to kill. Except when he had an inferior 
liawk, he was most careful never to allow them to take a small 
bird ; but with one that was not good enough for blackbirds 
(and very many are not) he would kill as many sparrows, &c., 
as he pleased. Mr. Bower and Mr. Riley concur in using the 



I r. 




^,€.C>f!j(t 




Sparrow-hawk on bow-perch 

lure occasionally to call their hawk out of trees ; but Mr. Bower's 
hawks would nearly always (unless half-fed) come to his hand 
with or without food, and this is the proper way to manage 
short-winged hawks. 

Sparrow-hawks are rather delicate and very liable to fits ; 
the best recipe to preserve them in health is to feed high, work 



342 FALCONRY 

hard, and protect them from cold draughts and damp. If 
fed high without . work, they will probably have fits ; but if 
worked too hard without condition to bear it, they will be sure 
to do so. They are best kept on the bow-perch, and indoors 
on the screen. They must be flown with very short jesses of 
rather stiff leather, for ordinary jesses are very apt to become 
entangled in hedges, &c., and when on the perch a short leash 
or strap, four inches long, should connect the ordinary leash 
with the swivel, so as to give them room to jump on the perch 
without recoiling on to their long tails, which are ever apt to 
suffer in confinement. 

In conclusion, sparrow-hawks are the very best of all hawks 
for the beginner who lives in an enclosed country to try his 
hand at ; they cost nothing to procure, and, if failure be the 
result, the loss is not great. If the beginner has the patience 
and perseverance to master the peculiar temperament he has 
to deal with, he may be sure that his further efforts in the art 
of falconry will be made infinitely easier to him by this 
experience ; and, if he succeeds in training a good hawk, he 
may have a considerable amount of sport with her, as the 
preceding records will show. 



343 



CHAPTER VI 

CELEBRATED FALCONERS— SCOTCH, DUTCH, AND ENGLISH 
CLUBS — THE falconers' CLUB — COLONEL THORNTON — 
THE LOO CLUB — THE OLD HAWKING CLUB — AMATEUR 
FALCONERS — FAMOUS HAWKS— RECORDS OF SPORT. 

The histories of those individuals by whose skill and know- 
ledge any sport, science, or art has been maintained will always 
be interesting to those who at a distance of time may follow in 
their footsteps. A few pages describing the men who in recent 
times have kept the art of Falconry not only alive, but have 
now and again fanned its glowing embers into a blaze, will no 
doubt prove of interest to the student of the sport. 

For a history of the falconers of the last century we would 
refer our readers to the introduction to ' Falconry in the British 
Isles.' We will ' take up the running ' from the point where 
that work has abandoned the task. Among the chief friends 
of John Anderson the great Scotch falconer, who was born in 
1745 and died in 1833, was one Ballantyne, who was the steward 
at Lord Bute's residence, Dumfries House, in Ayrshire, and who 
had at one time acted as falconer to the Earl of Eglinton. 
Ballantyne, like his friend, loved a hawk, and his boy Peter was 
trained to carry one as soon as he could stand erect. Peter 
Ballantyne was born in 1798, and at the age of twenty was 
apprenticed to his father's old friend, John Anderson, who was 
at that time falconer to the Renfrewshire Subscription Hawks. 
Mr. Fleming was the manager of this club till his death, and 
the head -quarters of the hawks was at his seat, Barochan Castle. 
For some years after Mr. Fleming's death, Anderson and the 



344 FALCONRY 

hawks, with Ballantyne to assist him, continued at Barochan ; 
but for the last two years of his professional life he was in the 
service of the Earl of Morton at Dalmahoy. It was during the 
time of Peter Ballantyne's apprenticeship to him that he visited 
London in a fancy dress of the period of James I., on the occasion 
of the coronation of George IV., in order to present to the king 
a cast of falcons on behalf of the Duke of Athol, who held the 
Isle of Man on that ancient feudal tenure. Very quaint indeed 
was Ballantyne's description of his master's appearance in this 
'get up,' and the old picture at Barochan, which has been 
engraved (though impressions are scarce), fully justifies the 
language applied to it by Anderson himself. 

After Anderson's retirement in 1832, Ballantyne entered 
the service of Lord Carmarthen under John Pells, senior, at 
Huntly Lodge, Aberdeenshire, Both passage hawks and 
eyesses were kept, and great sport was obtained both at herons 
and at game. The finest flight was that at the woodcock, which 
could then be obtained in perfection among the young plan- 
tations on Deeside. From Pells Ballantyne learned the Dutch 
method of training hawks, of making hoods, and of using the 
swivel and jesses in lieu of the old heavy varvels, and by com- 
bining both systems was able to become the successful falconer 
that, so far as game hawking is concerned, he undoubtedly 
was. 

After leaving Lord Carmarthen's service Ballantyne entered 
that of Sir James Boswell, where he had charge of greyhounds 
as well as hawks. At vSir James's death he was employed by 
Mr. Ewen of Ewenfield, Ayr, and it was in that gentleman's 
service that he was most successful, and showed the great sport 
that is recorded in a previous chapter on game hawkmg. On 
Mr. Ewen's death he became falconer to Mr. Oswald of 
Auchincruive, in whose service he died in 1884, a falconer to 
the last, at the age of eighty-six. 

Though he failed a little for the last year or two of his life, 
so lately as 1880 he was able to show good sport, and probably 
never flew a better hawk than the falcon ' Pearl,' which was then 



CELEBRATED FALCONERS—SCOTCH 345 

in fine form ; but even at the time of his death he had one 
hawk in training, which died on the same day as himself. 

A notable family of Scotch falconers have been the Barrs. 
William Barr, the father of the family, was by profession a game- 
keeper, but having been bred in the good days when a talcon 
or two was a necessary part of the appanage of a north -country 
gentleman, he had learned the rudiments of management, and 
acquired skill enough to train eyesses for game very successfully. 
His sons, all learned the business with aptitude. William, the 
eldest, was a clever falconer with eyesses, and for some years 
made a living by exhibiting his trained hawks at racecourses 
and similar places, and flying them at pigeons— a description 
of hawking which cannot however be sufficiently condemned as 
being degrading to those who practise it, and a prostitution of 
what is essentially a genuine wild sport. William Barr emigrated 
to Australia in 1853, and is we believe still aUve. Robert Barr, 
the third son, was trained under his elder brothers William and 
John, was for a time in the service of Captain Salvin and of 
the Maharajah Dhuleep Singh, and eventually became falconer 
to the Old Hawking Club. He remained in their service for 
about seven years, and then entered that of the Marquis of Bute, 
dying soon afterwards, in the year 187 1. 

John Barr, the second son, was, however, the falconer who 
will be best remembered of the whole family, probably also as 
the cleverest professional falconer of this century. John Barr 
may be said to have been the first of that school of falconers 
who have been able to combine all the different methods of the 
various countries where hawking is practised. Brought up 
under a Scotch falconer, he was from childhood familiar with 
the method of rearing and training eyesses. As a lad he 
travelled through Italy and Syria, with the Maharajah Dhuleep 
Singh, and associated regularly with the professional falconers 
of the East, observing their system and bringing his own 
energy and cleverness to bear upon it ; while year after year 
he visited Holland to assist in the catching of hawks, and what- 
ever the Dutchmen could teach him was at his disposal. A 



346 FALCONRY 

real lover of hawks, active and intelligent, it is no wonder that 
he more thoroughly fathomed the mysteries of catching, taming, 
and training a hawk than any man we have as yet met. There 
was no quarry that he had not flown at, no kind of hawking 
that was not familiar to him. 

From 1857 to 1865 he was with the Maharajah, during 
which period he may be said to have trained every variety of 
hawk used in falconry, and to have taken every quarry that 
can be killed by means of hawks. After this he became head 
falconer to the Champagne Hawking Club, whose head-quarters 
were at the camp of Chalons. A good deal of sport was shown 
by Barr at rooks, herons, magpies, curlews, &c. In 1869 the 
club was broken up, but the hawks were kept on by the Comte 
de Aldama, and though Barr subsequently brought them over to 
England, he was still, we believe, in the Count's service. At 
that time he had several excellent hawks in training, some of 
whose performances have been referred to on page 286. In 
1869 John Barr, with his nephew, James Barr, also a falconer, 
made a successful visit to Iceland to capture gerfalcons, 
which, mainly owing to John Barr's skill, resulted in his 
bringing home thirty-three, though he was, of course, a 
perfect stranger to the country, and probably had not at 
that time seen a wild gerfalcon. He was next engaged by 
Lord Bute to take the place of his brother Robert, who 
had recently died, but he only remained for a short time in his 
lordship's service, and after that he gave exhibitions of trained 
hawks at various places, chiefly the Welsh Harp at Hendon, 
after the fashion of his brother William. In 1872 he became 
head falconer to the Old Hawking Club, and showed very 
good sport on the Wilts downs. In 1873 he had an excep- 
tionally good team of passage hawks, and we may remark 
that he was the only falconer we have seen who succeeded 
in taking peewits in the spring with a trained hawk. He 
was next engaged by Captain Dugmore, who organised the 
Falconry Club, to be described hereafter. At this time Barr 
had three under- falconers, and flew hawks in Ireland, on 



JOHN BARR 347 

Epsom Downs, in the grounds of the Jardin d' Acclimatisation 
at Paris, and at the Alexandra Palace, near London. It was 
not, however, during this period that Barr's talents as a sports- 
man and a falconer had the best scope for their display. In 
the summer of 1876 he was sent by Captain Dugmore to Nor- 
way to catch gerfalcons. Here the old talent came out, for 
though unfamiliar with the country, he came back, after an 
absence of but eight or nine weeks, with ten fine falcons, and 
as many goshawks as he cared to bring. At catching a wild 
hawk or at recovering a lost bird Barr had no rival ; he seemed 
to know instinctively where the hawk would be, and what she 
would be about at the time when it suited him to search for 
her, and somehow or other he generally came back with a 
hawk on his hand. In 1879 Barr entered the service of Mr. 
Evans, of Sawston, Cambridgeshire, and in 1880, after having 
successfully trained and flown some passage hawks at rooks in 
the spring of that year, he died at the age of thirty-nine. As 
skilful in the mews as he was in the field, and that is no light 
word, it will be many years before such another falconer is 
found to ensure success to the sport of which he was so ardent 
a lover. 

With the Barrs and Ballantyne the ancient line of Scotch 
falconers seems to have died out, and though many an in- 
telligent ghillie and keeper has shown an aptitude for the 
science, and, with the opportunities at their disposal, might 
soon have developed into falconers, yet, for the first time we 
believe in the history of sport, there is at the present time no 
Scotch falconer of note now practising the art. 

The Scotch school was, as we have previously said, always 
the exponent of the management of eyesses and of game hawk- 
ing. For many years, therefore, the Englishmen who cultivated 
the higher flights at the rook, the heron, and the kite, with 
passage hawks, were dependent upon the Dutch falconers for 
their servants. We are indebted to Professor Schlegel's ' Traite 
de Fauconnerie ' for an account of the more celebrated of these 
clever trainers and managers of hawks. 



348 FALCONRY 

Jan Daams, born at Valkenswaard in 1744, entered the 
service of Lord Orford about the year 1772.^ After Lord 
Orford's death he was engaged by Colonel Wilson, at Didlington 
in Norfolk, and in 1808, while waiting at Cuxhaven for a 
passage to England after one of his annual voyages to Holland 
to procure hawks, was arrested by Louis Bonaparte, then king 
of that country, and was made to re-organise the mews at Het 
L0O5 which had been abandoned since the departure of the 
Statholder William V. in 1795. There he stayed until King 
Louis's abdication in 1 810, when he was summoned by Napoleon 
to take charge of the hawking establishment at Versailles. 
This was suppressed in 181 3, when Daams returned to Valken- 
swaard, and died in 1829. 

Frank van der Heuvell was born at Valkenswaard in 
1766, and when very young was apprenticed to Frank Daams, 
nephew of Jan Daams. In 1780 he entered the service of the 
Elector of Hesse, where he remained till in 1785 he was engaged 
at Versailles under M. de Forges, Lieutenant de Chasses to 
Louis XVI. In 1792 the royal establishment was suppressed, 
and he returned to Valkenswaard. Two years later he joined 
Colonel Thornton, with whom he stayed till 1799, when he 
was hired by Lord Middleton, and in 1804 entered the service 
of Sir Robert Lawley. Subsequently he engaged with Colonel 
Wilson from 1820 to 1828, when he went back to Valkenswaard. 
In 1840 he was taken on by the recently formed Loo Hawking 
Club, and he died in 1845. 

Jan Peels, a pupil of Jan Daams, and with him at the 
time of his detention at Cuxhaven, was also a native of 
Valkenswaard. After making several voyages between Holland 
and England, he returned to the latter country in 1808 (when 
his master was carried off), and was engaged by Sir John 
Sebright and others. About 1814 he entered Colonel Wilson's 
service, and was sent for heron hawks to Holland. He returned 
to England in 181 5 with Jan Lambert Daankers (who had 

1 See also ' Hawking in Norfolk,' Appendix to Mr. Southwell's edition of 
Lubbock's Fauna in Norfolk. 



DUTCH FALCONERS 349 

been his fellow-pupil under Jan Daams, and died in 18 16), and 
continued to make annual trips till 1827, being for part of that 
time in the service of Mr. Downes of Gunton (see Sebright, 
*0n Hawking'). He was subsequently enagaged by Lord 
Carmarthen, afterwards Duke of Leeds, and then by the Duke 
of St. Albans, in whose service he died in 1838. 

Jan Bots, a pupil of Daankers, first came to England as 
an assistant to Frank van der Heuvell in 182 1. From 1828 to 
1838 he was regularly at Didlington, but on the death of Lord 
Berners he went to Baron Oifemont in France. In 1840 he 
was engaged by the Loo Hawking Club, and continued in its 
service until 1852, making in that time one expedition or more 
to Norway to take gerfalcons. 

Arnold Bots, brother of the preceding, accompanied 
him on his voyages to England from 1829, and was also one 
of the falconers to the Loo Club. 

James Bots, a third brother, was also in his youth employed 
at Didlington, and he subsequently entered the service of 
Colonel Hall at Weston Colville. He then returned to Hol- 
land, and was employed by the Loo Club. He established 
himself at Valkenswaard, Avhere he kept the Valken Inn. He 
occasionally visited England, and died about the year 1869. 

John, the elder son of Jan Peels, was born in England, and 
adopted the English form of surname. Pells. He succeeded 
his father in the service of the Hereditary Grand Falconer of 
England, the Duke of St. Albans. When the present Duke 
gave up all active participation in the sport of hawking, Pells 
was pensioned off, and continued to train and fly hawks at 
Lakenheath, in Suffolk. In 1845 he made an excursion to 
Iceland, to procure gerfalcons, and brought home fifteen, 
eight of which were trained at Loo. He was an excellent 
falconer, well known to many of the present generation, and 
always ready to impart his knowledge to beginners. He died 
in 1883 

Adrian Mollen — almost the last of the old Dutch 
falconers — was a native of Valkenswaard, and a pupil of Jan 



350 FALCONRY 

Bots, when in Lord Berners's employ from 1833 to 1836. In 
1837 he entered the service of Prince Trautmansdorff, near 
Vienna, when he trained hawks, principally for game and for 
the flight at the thick-kneed plover. During his stay he procured 
from Hungary a nest of young sacres, two tiercels, and a falcon, 
which he trained for game. Occasionally, but rarely, he saw 
a wild sacre when flying his hawks. In 1841 he returned to 
Holland, and became head falconer to the king, flying his 
hawks at Loo and working with the falconer employed by the 
Loo Hawking Club. After the abandonment of the annual 
hawking at Loo, Mollen returned to Valkenswaard, and since 
then, aided by his two sons, has annually caught, and in many 
cases trained, what passage hawks are required by English 
or other sportsmen. Of his skill and ability all falconers are 
aware. 

Paul Mollen, brother of the last mentioned, was under 
Adrian Mollen when he was at Loo. After the breaking up of 
the king's stud of hawks he obtained employment at the 
Zoological Gardens at Antwerp. About the year i860 he was 
engaged as falconer and attendant on his aviaries by Lord 
Lilford. A few years ago he retired, and lives at Oundle in 
Northamptonshire. 

This closes the list of a race of falconers which Sir John 
Sebright well describes as 'sober, industrious men,' as well as 
clever and patient trainers of hawks. To their skill and care 
the art of modern falconry owes much, and it is to be regretted 
that men of this stamp have almost ceased to exist. 

We have treated above of Scotch falconers and of Dutch 
falconers — both masters of the art — practising in England 
under English masters ; but as yet we have named no English 
falconer. Singularly enough, from the days of Colonel Thorn- 
ton up to the time of the present generation no Englishman 
professionally has attained eminence in the science of falconry. 
In Colonel Thornton's 'Northern Tour' (1804), his chief fac- 
totum seems to have been ' William Lawson, Head falconer and 
Inspector-general,' and from the Colonel's account he seems 




JOHN FROST 

For eightesn years Falconer to the Old Hawking Club 



CELEBRATED FALCONERS— JOHN FROST 351 

to have been an old and highly valued servant. We believe 
he was an Englishman. But we have to pass from that date 
to 1870 before we again find an Englishman similarly well 
qualified and in a position equally of trust, in the person of 
John Frost, head-falconer to the Old Hawking Club. Being 
the son of a keeper to Mr. Newcome, of Feltwell, Norfolk, 
Frost was brought up from childhood among hawks, and 
had the opportunity of learning the intricacies of the art, 
not only from Mr. Newcome himself, but from Robert Barr 
(to whom he acted as under-falconer at one time), and John 
Pells, who lived at Lakenheath, hard by. In 1872 the present 
writer engaged him for the Old Hawking Club as under- 
falconer to John Barr, and in 1873 he was promoted to the 
post of head-falconer, which he filled to the year 1890. 
During that time he annually visited Holland to train the 
freshly-caught hawks of the Club, and under Mollen and his 
assistants had the opportunity to master the Dutch school 
of falconry, just as his education under the Barrs started 
him with an acquaintance with Scotch methods. Those 
who have seen the sport shown by the Club hawks when under 
his charge on Salisbury Plain and Yorkshire, in Kildare, Cork, 
and Wexford, in Sutherland and Caithness, will know that the 
art of falconry had in him an able English exponent. His 
death, at the early age of thirty-six, occurred in September 
1890, at Langwell in Caithness, where he was engaged in flying 
his hawks on the moors of the Duke of Portland, one of his 
employers. Those only who have participated in the sport 
shown by the hawks under his care will realise what a loss the 
ancient science of falconry has sustained by the death of one 
so capable of demonstrating its practice both in the field and 
in the mews. 

Even in the last few weeks of his life he had the greatest 
success in the difficult sport of grouse hawking, killing, although 
in failing health, ninety-six grouse between August 12 and 
September 6 with four hawks only. He lies buried at Berrie- 
dale. 



352 FALCONRY 

It is not too much to say that, with the exception of John 
Barr, Frost has had no rival as an ' all-round ' falconer during 
the present century, and it is hard to say what perfection the 
sport, as adapted to modern times and modern methods, 
might not have attained under his intelligent care and un- 
failing keenness. As a first-rate sportsman he excelled, and 
with dog, gun, or hawk was equally good. With an education 
and an intelligence not commonly met with in persons of his 
station, he was not only an admirable servant, but an interest- 
ing companion, clever at all sports, and as such, and as a 
friend, he will be most regretted by all those who knew him best. 
Fortunately Frost was not the only English professional falconer ; 
his brother, Alfred Frost (in the service of Mr. T. J. Mann), 
George Oxer (formerly falconer to Mr. St. Quintin), now in the 
service of the Old Hawking Club, both trained under John 
P>ost, are as able to train and fly hawks as either Dutchmen 
or Scotchmen of fifty years ago. James Retford, falconer to 
Major Hawkins Fisher, is a pupil of John Pells the younger, 
and is an able falconer, as also is Cosgrave, now falconer to 
Lord Lilford, and Peter Gibbs, falconer to the Hon. C. W. 
Mills, M.P. ; and E. Dwyer, in the service of Major Bingham 
Crabbe. But with this short list our account of living pro- 
fessional falconers must close, though other men beside these 
no doubt exist, well able to train and fly a hawk to the satis- 
faction of their employers. 

Like many other sports hawking has, especially of late years, 
been most successfully carried on by means of clubs, or estab- 
lishments maintained by joint subscriptions. One of the first 
of these institutions was the Renfrewshire Subscription Hawks, 
to which John Anderson was falconer, and which had its head- 
quarters at Barochan Castle, the seat of Mr. Fleming, who 
seems to have been the master of the hawks until his death 
about 1812. After that event the hawks seem to have remained 
at Barochan for many years with Anderson still as falconer, and 
Sir John Maxwell of Pollock as master. They would appear 
to have been given up about 1830. 



THE FALCONERS' CLUB 353 

A larger and more ambitious establishment was maintained 
at about the same date under the managem.ent of Colonel 
Thornton, and is described by him in his ' Northern Tour ' by 
the name of the ' Confederate Hawks of Great Britain ; ' but it 
was more generally known by the name of the Falconers' Club. 
Lord Orford was the president of the club, and apparently its 
manager both before and after the reign of Colonel Thornton. 
The date of the formation of this club is not certain, but it 
would seem to have been started in 1770 or thereabouts, and to 
have been maintained on a high scale, chiefly for kite and heron 
hawking. The falconers were almost entirely Dutchmen, and 
the hawks used passage hawks. From the chapter on Hawking 
in Norfolk, in Stevenson's 'Birds of Norfolk,' we take the 
following ancient advertisement, which gives a good idea of 
the transactions of the club : — 

Swaffham : February 5, 1783. 

HAWKING. 
Earl of Orford, Manager of this Year. 

The gentlemen of the Falconers' Society are hereby acquainted 
that the hawks will be in England the first week in March, and 
will begin kite and crow hawking immediately on their arrival. 
The quarters are fixed at Bourn Bridge, Cambridgeshire, forty- 
eight miles from London, until the first April meeting, when they 
will go to Barton Mills and Brandon until the 31st May, when the 
season will finish. 

The hawks to be out every Saturday, Monday, and Wednesday 
in each week at ten o'clock, provided the weather is favourable. 

Subscribers are desired to pay in their subscriptions for this 
season on or before the 20th March, to Messrs. Coutts & Co., 
Bankers, in the Strand, London. 

N.B. — The cage consists of 32 Slight falcons, 13 German 
hawks, and 7 Iceland falcons. 

The * German hawks ' were probably goshawks, but the 
number of these birds seems very large. ' Slight ' falcon was 
a term often used for the peregrine at that date. Colonel 
Thornton appears to have taken the management of this club 
in 1772, and to have resigned it in 1781, when Lord Orford 

A A 



354 FALCONRY 

took his place. In that year a handsome piece of plate in the 
form of a silver-gilt urn, with a hawk killing a hare, well 
modelled on the top thereof, was presented to the Colonel by 
the club. (This urn was exhibited in 1889 at the 'Sports and 
Arts ' exhibition at the Grosvenor Gallery by the present Lord 
Orford, who purchased it from a descendant of Colonel 
Thornton.) The inscription on the urn, and the list of names 
which is engraved on it, are interesting as recording something 
of the progress of the chief hawking establishment of a hundred 
years ago, and the names of those who patronised the sport at 
that date. The inscription runs as follows : — 

Col. Thornton, the proposer and manager of the Confederate 
Hawks, is requested to receive this piece of plate from George, 
Earl of Orford, together with the united thanks of the members of 
the Falconers' Club, as a testimony of their esteem and just sense 
of his assiduity, and of the unparalleled excellence to which, in 
the course of nine years, he has brought them, and when unable 
to attend to them any longer, he made them a present to the 
Earl of Orford. Barton Mills, June 23rd, 1781. 

MEMBERS OF THE CLUB 

Earl of Orford Mr. Vaughan 

Mr. Sturt Mr. R. Wilson 

Mr. Snow Mr. Musters 

Mr. Smith Mr. Barrington Price 

Mr. Stephens Mr. Daniel 

Earl Ferrers Hon. W. Rowley 

Hon. Thos. Shirley Lord Mulgrave 

Sir John Tancred Mr. E, Parsons 

Mr. A. Wilkinson Captain Grimstone 

Mr. B. Wrightson Captain Yarburgh 

Mr. Drummond Earl of Leicester 

Sir Cornwallis Maud Mr. Stanhope 

Duke of Ancaster Mr. Leighton 

Mr. Williamson Mr, Francis Barnard 

Mr. Baker Mr. Nelthorpe 

Mr. W. Baker Mr. Potter 

Mr. Pierse Col. St. Leger 

Mr. Chaplin Mr. Serle 



THE FALCONERS' CLUB 355 

MEMBERS OF THE ClAJB—COnthwed 

Mr. Coke Mr. Parkhurst 
Duke of Rutland Mr. Molineux 
Duke of Bedford Earl of Surrey- 
Mr. Lascelles Lascelles Sir William Milner 
Mr. Prxker Sir John Ramsden 
Mr, Tyssen Mr. Royds 
Mr. Molloy Sir Richard Simonds 
Mr. Affleck Earl of Lincoln 
Mr. St. George Marquis of Graham 
Earl of Eglinton Mr. Parsons 

Lord Orford remained manager of the Falconers' Club till 
his death in 1792. After his death the control of the establish- 
ment passed into the hands of Colonel Wilson of Didlington, 
who subsequently became Lord Berners. The hawks were 
kept at High Ash, near Didlington, but as kites became very 
scarce the heron was the chief quarry. The club seems 
to have been carried on and the hawks maintained, to some 
extent at any rate, by subscription up to the date of Lord 
Berners's death in 1838. Several sketches were made by Sir 
E. Landseer of the hawks at Didlington, one of which, with 
the date, 'Didlington, June 30, 1831,' is in the author's pos- 
session. 

Previously to Lord Berners's death herons had become com- 
paratively scarce at Didlington, and what was of even more 
importance, the ground over which hawks could be followed 
had become very circumscribed, owing to the breaking up of 
the heath land and bringing it under the plough. Kence it 
occurred to the members of the club that they might find 
better sport further a-field, and instead of bringing their hawks 
from Holland over to England to fly at a quarry becoming 
more and more scarce, they might go over to Holland to their 
hawks, and in that country turn them to better advantage. A 
prospecting party was formed of Mr. Stuart Wortley and the 
Baron d'Offemont, with the result that in 1839 the Loo Hawk- 
ing Club was^ formed. Mr. E. C. Newcome, of Feltwell, who 

A A 2 



356 FALCONRY 

had for several years been the backbone in the field of the 
English Club, became secretary of the new Anglo-Dutch insti- 
tution. In 1839 he appears on the list of the club as its soUtary 
member, but in 1840 a goodly number of members was en- 
rolled, and at their head were the Prince of Orange, with the 
Princes Alexander, Frederick, and Henry of the Netherlands — 
of Englishmen, the Duke of Leeds, Rev. W. Newcome, Mr. 
Jerningham, Lord C. Hamilton, Lord Sufifield, Mr. E. Green, 
Mr. J. Balfour, and Mr. Knight were early members — and thus 
the Hawking Club was established at the Loo under the 
protection of his Majesty King William H., and under the 
presidency of his Royal Highness Prince Alexander of the 
Netherlands. 

With the establishment of the Loo Hawking Club there 
came to an end the old Falconers' Club of England, which for 
some sixty-six years had maintained the sport with no little 
success and prestige. It had carried on the art of falconry from 
the days when the kite and bustard were quarry readily found 
on our wolds or warrens, till the heron was the only flight left 
of those which were deemed most worthy of pursuit. But from 
its ashes a worthy successor had arisen, and the Loo Club was 
destined to carry the sport to a pitch of excellence never before 
achieved. The establishment of the club consisted as a rule 
of twenty-two falcons, that of the king twenty-two more with 
their attendants, and with such a staff success became merely 
a question of opportunity. The sport that was shown has 
been related in the chapter on heron-hawking, to which branch 
of falconry the club solely confined its operations. In the 
eight seasons during which it lasted nearly 1,500 herons were 
taken by hawks, and never has hawking been managed so 
skilfully or on so princely a scale. Of the hawks that were 
most successful the best were a falcon called ' Bull -Dog,' which 
had the character of rarely needing to make more than three 
stoops at any heron. Mr. Newcome used to speak of this 
falcon as the best heron hawk he had ever met with. Next to 
her came a famous cast of falcons, ' Sultan ' and ' De Ruyter,' 



THE LOO HAWKING CLUB 357 

which after their first season as club hawks became Mr. 
Newcome's own property. This cast of hawks, always flown 
together, took in 1843 fifty-four, and in 1844 fifty- seven herons, 
besides many rooks in England. ' De Ruyter ' was ultimately 
lost at Feltwell while rook hawking, but ' Sultan ' adorns the 
splendid collection of stuffed birds which Mr. Newcome formed 
at Hockwold, set up as his hands alone could do it. Besides 
these a ger-tiercel called ' Morock ' was noteworthy. 

Among the Englishmen who were members of the club we 
find, besides the names already quoted, those of Mr. Stirling 
Crawford, Lord Alvanley, Lord Chesterfield, Mr. Thornhill, Mr. 
Fred. Milbank, Lord Strathraore, Hon. C. Maynard, Hon. C. L. 
Fox, and Hon. C. Fitzwilliam. In 1853 the club came to an 
end ; the royal patronage was withdrawn, and its head-quarters 
at Loo ceased. For the next ten years after that date the 
maintenance of falconry in England was due chiefly to the 
efforts of Mr. Newcome, who, himself the ablest and most 
skilful amateur falconer of the present century, was ever ready 
to assist beginners or to further the sport of those who were 
already entered to the sport. Few of the mature falconers of 
the present day do not owe something of their success to his 
kindly assistance and advice, or to his experience, which was 
ever at their disposal. During this period Mr. Newcome, who 
could not always procure passage hawks from Holland, suc- 
ceeded in taking herons on the passage with one or two eyess 
falcons, a feat never before achieved, but possibly never 
attempted, nor perhaps one of special difficulty, since a really 
good eyess is as good as the average passage hawk, but it is 
necessary to train and to discard many before one sufficiently 
good is obtained. At this time also Mr. Newcome practised 
game hawking — of which, however, he was never very fond 
— and was also very successful with merlins at lark 
hawking, which sport he ranked next to the flight at the 
heron. 

In 1863 the Hon. C. Duncombe, with Robert Barr as his 
falconer, commenced rook hawking on Salisbury Plain, con- 



358 



FALCONR V 



jointly with Major Fisher ; and the year following, finding that 
the management of the hawks, which was left on his hands, 
was more than he could attend to, a club was organised which 
grew and prospered as the present Old Hawking Club. The 
original members in 1864 were : 

The Hon. C. Buncombe Mr. E. C. Newcome 

Lord Lilford Mr. Amherst 

The Maharajah Dhuleep Col. Brooksbank 

Singh A. E. Knox, Esq. 

Robert Barr continued as falconer, and the chief sport of 
the club was then, as now, shown on the Wilts downs in March 
and April, rook hawking. A little heron hawking was done 
in Norfolk in May after the hawks returned thither each year, 
and some good work was done at grouse, chiefly in Perthshire 
on moors taken by the Maharajah Dhuleep Singh. In 1871 
falconry in England sustained a severe blow by the death 
of Mr. Newcome at the comparatively early age of sixty, and, 
under that shock and other difficulties, the fortunes of the 
club for a brief while were at a low ebb. But in 1872 it was 
reorganised on a rather larger basis. The Wiltshire downs 
were again visited, and in that autumn ? peculiarly fine team 
of passage hawks was got together. John Barr had been 
engaged as falconer, and the present writer succeeded Mr. 
Newcome as secretary and manager. The area of operations 
became somewhat extended. A first-class team of hawks, 
eyesses, and passage hawks has ever since 1872 been 
maintained, suitable for every description of hawking. The 
annual two months' visit to the Wiltshire downs has been kept 
up as the leading feature of the club's sport ; and the great 
kindness and liberality of a large body of owners and occu- 
piers of land on the open downs of Salisbury Plain has 
enabled the club to establish itself on a tract of country wide 
enough to show sport every day without doing damage to any- 
one. Besides this, the hawks and their falconer are at the 
disposal of any member of the club who desires to use them 



THE OLD HAWKING CLUB 359 

during any part of the year, and thus the green jackets of 
the members and their servants have become well known in 
Kildare, in Wexford and in Cork, in Sutherlandshire and 
Caithness, in Yorkshire and in Hants, in fact wherever hawking 
could be carried on in the United Kingdom, while it is only 
the lack of time and leisure that has prevented them from 
carrying the sport yet further afield in response to numerous 
invitations. Of the sport which has been shown we have 
treated to some extent under the various heads of game and 
rook hawking. The total number of head of quarry killed of 
all sorts is very large, but perhaps the return of the year 1887 
may serve as a specimen of the sport carried on by the club ; 
it was as follows : — 

Rooks 209 

Magpies 13 

Grouse 95 

Black game 2 

Partridges 114 

Rabbits 112 

Pheasants 5 

Hare i 

Various ....... 25 

576 

During the year 1890 244 rooks were killed in the spring 
and 95 grouse between August 12 and September 6, when 
game hawking came to an end temporarily, owing to the 
death of the falconer, John Frost. 

During the period of its existence the club has owned many 
hawks of marked excellence. One of the first that is worthy 
of mention was an eyess tiercel called ' Druid,' trained in 1864, 
which, after a visit to Ireland and being entered to magpies, 
was flown regularly at rooks for some three seasons on Salis- 
bury Plain, as we have already stated when treating of rook 
hawking. We have not known an eyess tiercel to repeat 
this feat since the days of ' Druid,' though in recent times Mr. 
St. Quintin has trained and flown one or two at gulls that would 



36o FALCONRY 

in our opinion have been equal to any performance that a 
tiercel is capable of. 

In 1 87 2, among others of a remarkably good team of hawks one 
falcon called ' Empress ' was trained, and for general excellence 
has hardly been surpassed. Her record of 63 rooks in one season 
has not yet been beaten. She was flown for three seasons, and 
died from an accident. In 1876 — a remarkably stormy spring — 
a passage hawk called ' Bois-le-duc,' from the name of the place 
where the hut at which she was taken is located, formed part of 
the consignment sent to the club. Probably this falcon is the best 
that has been trained since the days of the famous ' Bull Dog ' 
of the Loo Club. Troublesome at first to enter, when once 
she took to rooks she killed no less than 60, missing but one 
flight. It seemed impossible to give her slips that were too 
long or for a gale to blow strong enough to stop her, and the 
magnificent style of her flying and stooping left nothing to be 
desired. She was flown for five seasons, in three of which she 
made the highest score of rooks killed against any of the other 
hawks, and eventually was given away as a pet. Another 
excellent servant was the falcon 'Elsa.' This falcon is 
especially remarkable for her excellence at all sorts of quarry. 
A passage falcon trained in 1886, she killed by far the highest 
score of rooks in her first three seasons, and was not far 
behind the best in 1889 and 1890. While in her second 
season she was entered to grouse, and has each year since then 
proved herself to be one of the most perfect game hawks that 
it is possible to fly, steady, tractable, and as high a mounter 
as can be procured. In the spring of 1890 she killed 35 
rooks, and in the autumn 31 grouse, nor does the flight at 
the one appear to interfere in the least with her keenness to 
take to the other quarry when the time comes. In all 186 rooks 
and 123 grouse have been killed by this falcon, besides many 
sundries. 'Elsa' was lost at Langwell in the autumn of 1891. 

'Vesta,' an eyess falcon from CulvercHff, Isle of Wight, 
has been spoken of w^hen describing game hawking. As a 
grouse hawk she is nearly perfect for killing, but lacks a little 



FAMOUS HAWKS 36j 

of the perfect style of the passage hawks with which she has 
been generally flown. This falcon was flown chiefly at grouse 
(though a great number of sundries were killed by her, as well 
as partridges in one or two years). For nine successive seasons 
she visited Scotland, and her average score for each season 
is 2)Z' She died in the winter of 1890. 

The remarkable score made in 1882 by an eyess falcon, 
'Parachute,' is recorded when treating of game hawking in 
Chapter II . This was a very steady high-mounting tractable 
falcon, easily worked, and thus very deadly. She was in 1882 
two years old. Nor must the ger-tiercel 'Adrian,' trained 
in 1878, be forgotten when speaking of hawks perfect in 
style. 

Of tiercels two very good passage hawks were trained in 
1873, 'The Earl' and ' The Doctor.' These tiercels were the 
only two trained hawks with which we have succeeded in taking 
wild peewits in March. Many excellent magpie and partridge 
hawks have been trained, among which ' Cabra ' and * Meteor ' 
will long be recollected by members of the club. ' Shamrock ' 
and * Shillelagh,' two Irish tiercels (eyesses), were flown in 
the autumn of 1873, in Kildare and Wexford chiefly. These 
two formed an almost perfect cast of magpie hawks, and 
with them the smallest field could kill a magpie. It was 
beautiful to see how perfectly the two little hawks under- 
stood the whole game, and to watch how they divided the 
labour, one always mounting high and remaining steady at a 
lofty pitch, so as to dominate the magpie and command every 
point by which he could escape, while the other at a lower 
pitch would drive at the quarry every moment that the white 
wing fluttered, and either drive him below the fatal pitch of 
his comrade or else seize him for himself. These tactics never 
failed, and the two hawks rarely omitted to adopt them, and 
would exchange roles as often as flights were found for them. 
A year or two afterwards a cast of tiercels, ' Buccaneer ' and 
'Meteor,' killed in thirteen days 44 magpies on similar 
ground. Such performances as these have no doubt been 



362 FALCONRY 

equalled over and over again by hawks belonging to private 
individuals.^ They are set down here simply as a record of what 
has been done with hawks within our own knowledge, and in 
order to prove what can be done in the way of modern falconry 
by anyone who will devote that time and care to it which is 
necessary for the attainment of excellence in any kind of sport. 
The members of the Old Hawking Club in 1890 were as 
follows : — 

Lord Lilford Duke of St. Albans . 

Mr. F. Newcome Duke of Portland 

Rev. W. Newcome Hon. E. W. B. Portman 

Mr. W. H. St. Quintin Col. Watson 

Earl of Londesborough Mr. A. Newall 

Mr. B. H. Jones Hon. G. Lascelles, 

Manager ajtd Secretary. 

Honorary Members 

Hon. Cecil Duncombe Col. Brooksbank 

Hon. G. R. C. Hill Mr. F. H. Salvin 

The objects of the club have ever been to promote falconry, 
first, by keeping up a first-class establishment of hawks for 
every description of hawking ; secondly, to train young men 
and boys as falconers under an able man ; and, thirdly, by every 
year getting a fresh lot of hawks and by drafting out at the end 
of each season all bur a few favourites of very high class, to keep 
up the supply of well-trained hawks available for the public. In 
this way many beginners have been assisted when first taking 
up falconry, by obtaining a perfectly trained hawk at about her 
original cost price, and even if they have found that an edu- 

1 In 1883 a remarkable tiercel called ' Destiny ' was caught at Valkenswaard 
and trained by George Oxer for Mr. St. Quintin. He was flown regularly for 
seven seasons, and was one of the most beautiful fliers that we have ever 
witnessed. During his career he killed 88 partridges, 40 magpies, 64 sea- 
gulls (assisted by a second tiercel), and 30 ' sundries,' which include grouse, 
blackbirds, pheasants, curlew, landrails, rooks, &c. This is an apt illustration 
of the amount of fine sport which can be obtained by means of one good hawk 
if in proper hands and well cared for. 



CHAMPAGNE HAWKING &- FALCONRY CLUBS 363 

cated hawk is not as easy to handle as a barrel-organ, still they 
have been able to make a better start than by those crude 
efforts at ' training a hawk for themselves ' which result in the 
death of the subject to be trained and the hopeless disappoint- 
ment of the trainer. 

A club on rather similar lines was started in France in 1866 
under the title of the 'Champagne Hawking Club,' with M. 
Alfred AVerle as president, other members being M. Pierre 
Pichot, Comte de Montebello, Vicomte de Grandmaison, 
Comte Alphonse de Aldama, Count le Couteulx de Canteleu, 
&c. John Barr was head falconer, and the country mainly 
resorted to was in the plains near Chalons. A large establish- 
ment was kept up, and a sincere desire was shown to follow 
the best traditions of falconry ; but in 1869, owing to various 
circumstances, the club came to an end, though the esta- 
blishment was maintained for a year or so longer by the 
Comte de Aldama. But the good which the club did in 
reviving falconry in France may be traced by the existence in 
that country of more than one excellent and able falconer who 
might perhaps never have taken to the sport had it not been for 
the fillip administered at a critical moment by the organisa- 
tion of so good an establishment as that of the Champagne 
Club. 

In 1878 an English club was promoted on an ambitious 
scale by Captain F. S. Dugmore under the title of the 
Falconry Club. The head-quarters of the club were fixed at 
the Alexandra Palace, Muswell Hill, near London, where the 
hawks, sometimes forty in number, were kept on view and were 
occasionally flown to the lure or at bagged pigeons for the 
public amusement. Branches were proposed to be established 
in France, Ireland, Spain, Holland and Belgium ; four or five 
falconers were engaged, and a large number of hawks of all 
kinds ordered and procured. The scale of operations was so 
large as to be unwieldy, and the method of carrying out the 
scheme did not prove successful. A certain amount of sport 
was shown at rooks on the Epsom Downs under the manage- 



364 FALCONRY 

ment of Mr. J. E. Harting, who acted as secretary and devoted 
much trouble and time to the perfecting of the arrangements, 
but after a brief period of life the club was broken up and the 
establishment scattered. 

Besides clubs, there are various private establishments in 
the United Kingdom, as well as many amateurs who keep a 
few hawks which they manage themselves, in some cases, with 
marked ability, and show very great sport on a small scale. 

A private mews has for very many years been kept up by 
Lord Lilford, whose falconer was, as stated previously, Paul 
Mollen, and subsequently Ed. Cosgrave. Falcons have been 
successfully taken on the passage in the autumn as they 
migrate over Northamptonshire, and indeed we believe the 
hut placed there has rarely failed to secure one or two when 
the attempt has been made in earnest. Although the country 
about Lilford is not particularly well suited for the sport, Lord 
Lilford stands high as one of our oldest and ablest falconers, 
and the ancient sport owes no less in these modern times to 
his munificence and energetic support than it did in the days of 
a former generation to the support of Lord Orford or Berners. 
It is not too much to say that the maintenance of falconry of 
the higher class in England during the last hundred years is 
due to the three noblemen named above, together with Mr. 
E. C. Newcome. At the present day the sport is wider spread ; 
fresh enthusiasts spring up from year to year, and falconry no 
longer depends, as for so many years it did, upon the mainte- 
nance of one single establishment which in its turn was depen- 
dent on the liberalities of its principal patron. 

Among amateur falconers Mr. W. H. St. Quintin, of 
Scampston Hall, Yorks, has been very prominent. He has 
had special success both in game hawking and in the flight at 
seagulls, and is seldom without a cast or two of tiercels of 
superior excellence. For many years his falconer was George 
Oxer, formerly under-falconer to the Old Hawking Club, who 
has now returned to that establishment as head falconer, his 
place being taken by young Charles Frost. 



PRIVATE ESTABLISHMENTS 365 

Major Fisher's establishment is one of the oldest now in 
England. He has principally devoted himself to game hawking, 
especially at grouse, but has annually visited the downs in the 
spring for a brief season at rooks. For the first years of his 
hawking career Major Fisher chiefly confined himself to eyesses, 
of which he trained some very superior hawks, especially those 
taken from Lundy Island. But of late years he has adopted 
the passage falcon for game as well as for other flights, although 
his original predilections were in favour of eyesses alone for 
this flight ; and we have the Major's authority for saying that 
he has found the passage hawk as superior for game as he had 
already proved her to be at other quarry, especially in the case 
of a famous falcon called 'Lady Jane Grey,' which he has 
flown for some eight seasons. His falconer for many years 
past has been James Retford. 

Another well-known establishment is that of Mr. T. J. Mann, 
of Hyde Hall, Sawbridgeworth, who with Alfred Frost for his 
falconer has had much sport in Norfolk and Herts both with 
peregrines at rooks and game, and with a famous goshawk 
known as 'The Shadow of Death.' 

Colonel Watson and Mr. Bingham Crabbe have also a 
joint mews in Ireland, with E. Dwyer as falconer, now located 
in Ireland. And in that country lives also a veteran falconer, 
Mr. W. Corbet, of Rathcormack, Cork, to whom many a 
beginner is indebted for assistance. Mr. Corbet had a fine 
acquaintance with the numerous eyries of Ireland, and in some 
years reared and hacked a great number of hawks, which were 
often at the disposal of those to whom he thought they would 
be of good service. 

The Hon. C. W. Mills has also a mews of hawks at Mul- 
grave Castle, Yorks, under the charge of Peter Gibbs, but the 
principal work done hitherto has been with the goshawk at 
rabbits. 

Besides these gentlemen, many amateurs as stated above 
train their own hawks, among whom may be quoted the 
veteran Mr. F. Salvin, one of the authors of * Falconry in the 



366 FALCONRY 

British Isles/ Mr. A. Newall, Major Anne, and Mr. E. Riley, 
whose successes with the short-winged hawks have already been 
referred to. Nor is the church ill-represented among the ranks 
of falconers, for the successes of the Rev. W. Willimott in the 
difficult branch of gull hawking have been mentioned when 
describing that sport, while all readers of the 'Field' are familiar 
with the writings of the Rev. G. E. Freeman, under the nom- 
de-guerre of ' Peregrine,' dealing chiefly with game hawking 
with eyesses, and with the training of merlins. 

Even this brief list of the better-known amateurs will show 
that English hawking is in no moribund condition. Very 
rarely does a sportsman who has once taken it up abandon it 
during his life, and though from the nature of the sport, and of 
the country requisite for it, it can never become generally 
popular, we believe that as it is already the most ancient, so it 
will continue to be one of the most enduring of the field sports 
in which mankind takes delight. 



5(^7 



CHAPTER VII 

GENERAL MANAGEMENT — xMEWS — BLOCKS — PERCHES — BOW- 
PERCH — BATHING — CONDITION — FEEDING — CASTINGS — • 
IMPING — MOULTING — VARIOUS DISEASES — GENERAL HINTS. 

The first consideration of a falconer will naturally be to pro- 
vide himself with a 'mews,' or place to keep his hawks in. 
Almost any stable or loose box will do for this, and elaborate 
buildings are rather to be shunned. The requirements are : 
first, that it be well ventilated, but quite free from draughts ; 
second, that it can be made dark at any time. The best mode 
of ventilating is what is known as a ' Tobin ' tube, by which plenty 
of air is admitted without either light or draught, combined with 
a ventilator in the roof which can be closed. When the place 
is made dark, hawks will remain still, and can be left for the 
night without any fear of their jumping or fidgetting during the 
early morning hours. The ' mews ' should be kept as dry as 
possible, and for this purpose one of the little slow-combustion 
stoves known as a ' Tortoise ' stove is exceedingly useful, and, 
though anything like coddling hawks is undesirable, still it is 
a good plan when they are getting no exercise at all to give 
them a little extra warmth, and the stove keeps the whole place 
dry. The perch may be arranged in the mews just as is most 
convenient to the shape of the building ; a very good plan is 
place it round the house, parallel with the walls, and not less 
than three feet from them. It should be four feet high, and is 
best made of a rough larch pole with the bark on it. In any 



368 FALCONRY 

case it must not be too smooth, lest the hawks slip off it.^ On 
the under-side of the perch is nailed a piece of stout canvas, 
(whence it is often called the screen). This is best nailed 
firmly along the pole, with the use of leather washers to pre- 
vent the canvas from tearing at the nail-holes. At intervals of 
about eighteen inches can be worked large eyelet holes, through 
which the leashes can be passed, so as to tie round the 
perch. If it is preferred, the nails can be put in at intervals of 
about eight inches, so as to allow the leash to be passed 
between the canvas and the perch ; but by the first-named plan 
the canvas will last twice as long. The object of the screen is, 
first, to make sure that a hawk that has bated off the perch 
will certainly attempt to regain her position on the same side 
that she came off from, and so will not get her jesses twisted 
round the pole ; secondly, it enables a hawk that is not very 
active, to struggle to the perch again by getting a hold with 
her claws in the canvas. This perch is in universal use in- 
doors and is perfect for passage peregrines, merlins, or the short- 
winged hawks ; but eyess peregrines, being less active, cannot 
safely be placed on the perch at first, though most of them 
will gradually become used to it. A sick hawk should never 
be placed on any perch from which it can possibly be hung. 

A bed of sand, three inches thick, should be placed below 
the perch, and that part which is foul must be removed every 
morning. If sand is not procurable, sawdust can be used ; but 
in that case great care must be taken lest any of it find its way 
on to the hawk's food, especially if it be deal sawdust, which 
contains turpentine. 

In fine weather hawks must be kept in the open air as 
much as possible, and every day, before they are flown, should 
be placed out at least for an hour or two to ' weather.' If put out 
for this purpose by seven o'clock in the morning they should be 
well weathered and ready to fly by eleven o'clock at latest, and 

^ If a padded perch is required, the best and most durable method is to 
cover the pole with Brussels carpet turned the reverse side out ; it will be found 
to answer every purpose and to come cheap in the end. 



MEWS 369 

those which are so indined will have bathed and got thoroughly 
dry ; but when hawks are being flown every day, and perhaps 
late in the day, they cannot be so fed as to be ready early the 
next morning, and therefore, when the same lot of hawks are 
being daily used, the sport must take place in the afternoon for 
the most part. 

The blocks on which hawks are kept in a garden or on a 
lawn are made in different ways, but the best pattern is the 
simplest and the cheapest of all. Take a plain simple log of wood 
with the bark upon it, saw into lengths fourteen inches long and 
six inches in diameter ; drive into the base thereof an iron 
spike ten inches long, the end of which is then sharpened so 
as to be driven into the ground and thus hold the block firmly. 
Into the centre of the top drive an iron staple, to which the 
leash is to be tied, and for a few pence a block is produced 
that cannot be surpassed for all practical purposes. Hardwood 
of any kind is the best, for fir decays, loses its bark, and rots from 
the staple, which may thus wax loose. Birch with the bark on 
it makes a very neat, pretty-looking block, and a very durable 
one ; while holly, if it can be obtained of large enough size, is 
almost imperishable and very neat. Both blocks and perches 
have been devised of various and more or less complicated forms. 
Blocks which revolve and blocks which do not ; with fixed staples 
and with revolving rings (which have been known to hreak, and 
which invariably jam). Blocks of the shape of wine-glasses on 
stems, of wine-glasses without stems, and of wine-glasses upside 
down, are all recommended by their various inventors ; but the 
only advantages we could ever see in them are those which 
are obtained by the turner and the carpenter, who are able to 
charge roundly for their manufacture ! 

Short-winged hawks, and also merlins, are better kept on 
the bow-perch which is figured on p. 341. This is best made 
of a simple piece of hazel or ash, shaved on the lower side to 
make it bend readily, and kept in its position by a stout piece 
of iron wire bent round the bow and securely fastened. The 
ends of the bow should be shod with iron, so as to be driven 

B 6 



370 FALCONRY 

into the ground, and a stout iron pin, at least ten inches long, 
must be run on to the wire and driven into the ground in the 
centre of the perch as an extra safeguard. A ring, large enough 
to run over the perch with /^^/^<r/ freedom, is put on to the 
bow before the wire is made fast, and to this the hawk's leash 
is tied.- So long as this ring is large enough to run freely there 
is no fear of the hawk ever becoming fast or hung up in any 
way. 

An iron perch similar to the bow-perch, and figured on 
p. 371, has been invented by Capt. Salvin. In this perch a small 
space for the hawk to sit upon is padded with leather. It is a 
very useful handy perch for travelling, and answers well, but for 
permanent use at home the old wooden bow is a more natural 
and comfortable resting-place for a hawk A canvas screen is 
sometimes fitted to the inside of the bow-perch on an inner 
bow of wire, between which and the perch the ring runs. We 
do not know that there is any special advantage in this arrange- 
ment, for if the running ring be large and loose enough it will 
never jam, and the hawk cannot get entangled by any possi- 
bility. 

The blocks are best placed upon grass and frequently 
moved, and in very dry weather it should not be closely 
mown, or feathers will suifer. Where space is confined and 
blocks cannot be daily moved, it is a good plan to cut a circle 
in the turf all round the block and fill it with sand, which should 
be changed at least every other day ; hawks may be kept neat 
and clean in a very small garden in this manner. 

Peregrines and goshawks can be kept out of doors in almost 
all weathers, but with valuable birds we think it is better to keep 
them in the mews at night, and when this is done it is wiser 
not to put them out in cold windy weather or in gales with 
rain. Simple cold without wind rarely hurts hawks, and to 
wet they are almost impervious, unless it is accompanied by a 
gale ; but it is not the nature of a wild hawk, hardy as she is, to 
expose herself to the full stress of bad weather, and it is not 
right to tie hawks down in a place where they cannot obtain 



PERCHES 



yji 



the shelter their own instinct would teach them to provide for 
themselves. 

The author of ' Falconry : its History, Claims, &c.' recom- 
mends the use of a lean-to shed against a wall, closed at the 
ends but open in front, as a sheltered and convenient place to 




;p^,'f''^v 



^^* 






«.j.i. X/OAjt , 



Young goshawk on Captain Salvin's bow-perch 

keep hawks. From lack of opportunity we have never our- 
selves tried this form of an open-air mews ; but we can well 
believe that it would answer extremely well, both in summer 
and winter, for eyess hawks, though for passage hawks during the 
earlier stages of their training it is obviously unfitted. 

B B 2 



372 FALCONRY 

Hawks must not be exposed to the full heat of the sun in 
midsummer. We have known more than one killed in this 
"way. 

As a rule, cats, foxes, &c. will never meddle with hawks 
■on their blocks, but stray dogs must be guarded against. In 
^ Falconry in the British Isles ' it is stated that turkeys and 
peacocks will attack hawks that are tied ; they may possibly be 
dangerous, but we have never known a case of the kind, and 
have kept hawks on a lawn with peacocks and turkeys running 
among them for a long time. But we have known these birds, 
and very many others, to attack a hawk that had brought down 
her quarry close to them and was busily engaged in killing, and 
no time must be lost by the falconer in ' making in ' to his 
hawk under these circumstances.^ 

A bath should be offered to each hawk every fine day in 
summer, and twice or thrice a week in winter. Some hawks, 
especially eyesses, will not fly at all till after they have bathed. 
A large tin milk-pan makes a very fair bath, but a shallow 
round tub of wood about two feet six inches in diameter and 
four inches deep is better, especially if the edge be wide 
enough for the hawks to perch on before they enter the 
water. It is a good plan to sink the bath in the ground. 

When travelling, flower-pots inverted make capital blocks, 
and the falconer will have a store of stout iron pins with a ring 
in the head to which he can tie his hawks down. These pins 
should be at least ten inches long and five-eighths of an inch in 
thickness. Hawks travel on the ' box cadge ' described it 
Chapter I., and if brailed they can be carried about by rail or 
otherwise with no more trouble than a hamperful of pigeons. 
A temporary perch can generally be rigged up in some stable, 
and it is a good plan to have canvas ready prepared, in short 
lengths, and with a strap and buckle to fasten it to the perch, 

^ Carrion crows, where several are collected in one place, will often make 
a determined and combined attack upon a falcon, that has killed in their 
vicinity, in order to drive her from her quarry. We have once seen magpies 
attempt to do the same. 



CONDITION 373 

by which means any pole is made into a good screen perch in 
five minutes. 

In training hawks so as to make the best of their powers, 
the most important matter for the trainer's consideration is that 
of condition. And this in hawks, as in most other animals 
from which severe exertion at a high rate of speed is required, 
is arrived at, by the greatest amount of work which can be given 
without such fatigue as. results in staleness, so that the muscles 
may be thoroughly developed and the wind clear, while at the 
same time the utmost quantity of firm flesh is carried that is 
consistent with the entire absence of fat, internal or external, 
more especially the former. Birds, however, lose flesh rapidly, 
and alter from day to day much quicker than larger animals, 
and the falconer will anxiously feel the breast and the rounded 
muscles under the wing almost as often as he takes a hawk 
on hand. The practised touch will tell to a nicety the state 
tihe bird is in. Game hawks, as a rule, will fly in higher 
condition than rook or heron hawks, and peregrines generally 
in fuller flesh than goshawks ; but individuals vary much, and 
nothing but experience will teach the falconer the proper con- 
dition of each hawk. It is always easier to take flesh off than 
to put it on again, and, therefore, it is better to err in the 
direction of high condition than in the other. The heavier a 
hawk is the more strongly can she fly, and the more fatal is 
her stoop. A wild hawk, whose powers no trained bird can 
hope to emulate, is generally ' as round as an apple,' but then 
she has only to fly exactly when it suits herself. It is the 
essence of the falconer's art to make his hawk fly just when it 
suits him to see her exert her powers, and, therefore, if at all 
' above herself,' she may, though in perfect health, decline to 
work for him, become independent of lure or call, and even 
soar away till she is lost to her owner ere she is hungry' 
enough to obey him. The ancient maxim is a wise and true 
one which says that ' a fat hawk maketh a lean horse, a weary 
falconer, and an empty purse.' Yet a half- starved hawk is not 
worth a rush, though she may be docile enough for anything, 



374 FALCONRY 

and ' Medio tutissimus ibis ' must be the falconer's motto. 
Hawks are fed but once a day except in the case of merHns or 
sparrow-hawks, which usually have a light meal given to them 
in the morning, even before flying. These little hawks must 
always be kept in high condition, and are too delicate to 
undergo nmch discipline. They should also be kept as much 
as possible on their natural food, i.e. small birds, if plenty of 
casting be given. We have never known a hawk injured by 
being fed upon shot birds, but of course one would prefer that 
a hawk should not swallow lead if it can be avoided. 

For a stud of the larger falcons birds cannot always be 
procured in sufficient quantities to feed all the hawks, and 
beef will form the staple diet. Mutton is good when lean 
enough, as also veal. When hawks are doing but little work, it 
is a good plan to let them pull hard at a very tough piece of 
beef, and so, as it were, earn their food by work ; but where a lot 
of hawks have to be fed, time is not always available to do this. 
In such cases the meat should be well chopped up into a 
mince, and it is a good plan to sprinkle a little fresh water 
with it, and so mix it all up into a kind of pudding. For 
young, delicate, or moulting hawks a new-laid egg may be 
beaten up in lieu of the water. Nothing makes feathers come 
down broad and strong so well as a diet of egg given occasion- 
ally ; it also gives to the feet and cere, that rich yellow colour 
which is always to be seen in wild hawks. Fresh butter will 
also, to some extent, produce this effect. 

The quantity of this food which is to be given to each hawk 
must, as we have said above, be regulated entirely by the dis- 
position of each bird. Speaking generally, about two-thirds of 
a crop may be given daily. But in every case, whether a hawk is 
being lowered in condition or not, a 'gorge' or full crop should 
be given at least once a week. The gorge should be followed 
by a very light feed on the next day, and indeed the quantity 
given to hawks should not always be regular in amount, but 
may vary according to circumstances or discretion. This state 
of things is precisely what a wild falcon has to submit to, when 



CONDITION 375 

^»om bad weather or scarcity of quarry she is unable to kill, for 
a day or two at a time, and consequently has to put up with 
short commons. 

But when a wild hawk kills and is hungry she will always eat 
as much as ever she can, and for this reason not only must the 
gorge never be neglected, but also no hawk must be kept on 
small feeds for many days together, however intractable she 
may be, or she will certainly lose her powers of digestion and 
with them her health. It is in a difficulty of this sort that ' washed 
meat ' proves to be an aid so valuable to falconers. Washed 
meat is simply fresh meat that has been soaked in fresh water 
for from twelve to twenty-four hours according to circum- 
stances. Before use it is taken out of the water and thoroughly 
squeezed till all the juices are extracted from the meat. The 
object of this is that the falconer may be able to give his hawk 
a full crop of food which she shall digest very rapidly and 
which shall at the same time add but little to her condition. 
By this means the powerful digestive organs are kept at work, 
but the hawk gains no flesh, and is in fact reduced more and 
more in condition without being starved. Washed meat is very 
valuable in the case of a hawk that has been flying well for a 
long time, and is fed highly, but needs a little discipline to render 
her obedient ; it is also useful in entering a hawk to a quarry 
which she does not readily take ; but it is a thing to be used 
with care and discretion, and only under special circumstances 
and for a special purpose. 

*" Rangle^ ox small stones is also a valuable 'conditioner.' 
For a falcon the stones may be of the size of good large peas ; 
smooth pebbles off a gravel walk are very good. Four or five 
may be given at a time, either over hand, to a gentle hawk while 
sitting on the fist, or else the hawk may be cast and held by an 
assistant and the stones given by the falconer. If the hawk is 
fed lightly in the morning and the stones given at night, they 
will be found in the morning to have been thrown up thickly 
coated with slime and mucus. Their effect is to cleanse the 
interior of the hawk, and render her clean and lit to fly, and for 



376 FALCONRY 

one that has lately moulted or has been idle for a length of 
time they are almost indispensable. No ancient saw is more 
true than that which says — 

Washed meat and stones makyth an hawk to fly ; 

Long fasting and much casting will cause an hawk to die. 

Some writers advise that rangle should be placed within reach 
of the hawks on their blocks so that they may voluntarily take 
it. No doubt they will do so at times, and this is a capital plan 
to adopt where hawks are standing idle — as when moulting — for 
a long time together. But when they are being regularly flown 
the falconer should, in our opinion, know precisely what his 
hawks are taking, and should regulate it himself with the greatest 
exactitude ; nothing should be left to chance, but day by day the 
food and other means for producing good condition should 
be carefully administered in accordance with a preconcerted 
plan for each individual hawk. Rangle should therefore be 
given by hand. 

Among all these arrangements castings will hold an important 
place. Castings are the mouthfuls of fur, feathers, bone, &c. 
which are freely swallowed by a hawk every time she breaks up 
and devours any quarry she has killed. These indigestible 
substances are ejected, generally within twelve hours, in the 
form of a large oval pellet, the condition of which is a sure 
test of the health of the hawk. In a healthy bird the pellet 
should be firm, dry, and perfectly sweet ; if it is soft, intermixed 
with mucus or with bits of undigested meat, the bird is out of 
health. 

It is not natural for hawks to be kept long without casting. 
In fact, in their wild state they get it at every meal, and therefore 
when they are being kept for a long while on butcher's meat 
some steps must be taken to supply them with it. The natural 
form, that of a bird's skin and feathers, is the best. The skin 
of the whole of the head and neck of a pigeon turned inside 
out and dipped in blood is as good as anything ; rat's skin forms 
-excellent casting, and the heads of ducks or poultry are good. 



CASTINGS 377 

Sometimes no natural casting can be procured ; in such a case 
tow dipped in blood or woollen threads form a fairly good 
substitute, A hawk should never go more than a week without 
castings, and they are never in such good health as when they 
are fed daily upon birds and given an abundance of casting (or 
allowed to take it naturally) at every meal. 

There is yet one recipe for bringing a hawk into good 
flying order which we have tried ourselves when all others have 
failed, but with qualified success. It is an Indian method, 
and it may be here remarked that the Eastern falconers are 
always prone to the use of drugs in the conditioning of their 
hawks, more so than European falconers have ever been. In 
the case of some varieties of falcon, e.g. the education of the 
sacre to fly the kite, the administration of drugs is an integral 
part of the training, and the composition of the physic is a 
secret handed down from generation to generation of falconers, 
The prescription we refer to is a well-known ' dodge,' and is as 
follows : Take, say, 4 oz. of sal-ammoniac, boil or melt it into a 
solid mass in fresh butter in an iron ladle over a fire ; as it cools 
squeeze over it the juice of a lemon to remove any grease 
which has not been strained away. Feed the hawk, which is to 
be doctored, for three days upon well-washed meat, giving a 
three-quarter crop each day, then leave her absolutely without 
food for twelve hours. Take of the sal-ammoniac a piece as 
large as a filbert, wrap it neatly round with cotton-wool, and 
administer it over hand. In about twenty minutes she will 
cast the cotton-wool thickly covered with a mass of greasy fat. 
If this be floated off" into hot water, it will be found to consist 
of the whole of the fatty lining of the stomach, and the quantity 
is sometimes very remarkable. About two hours after this 
casting give the hawk some three mouthfuls of warm blood or 
very fresh meat. In the evening let her have half a crop of 
well-washed meat. The day after she is fit to f v, and may be 
fed as usual ; the greater part of her internal fat is gone. 

The effect of this removal of the inner lining of the stomach 
is to induce a condition of ravenous hunger, while the hawk 



378 FALCONRY 

is not weakened by that starvation which alone could produce 
a similar effect. But the treatment is a powerful one, and must 
be used with extreme caution. Especially the drug must only be 
administered in settled fine weather ; a sudden change to cold 
or wild weather will destroy the bird when thus physicked ; 
nor will a hawk in low or weak condition withstand so drastic 
a treatment— it will in itself lower her quite enough. We have 
adopted it in the case of old self-willed hawks that were in 
high condition and good fliers, but had become, as such hawks 
sometimes will, independent of lure or discipline, uncertain as 
to doing their best when hooded off, and inclined to soar away. 
The effect has always been to reduce the hawk to absolute 
obedience, and to bring her under perfect control ; but though 
sometimes keen to fly, we think there has always been a loss 
of dash and courage attending the effect of the physic. One 
or two have been made very ill, and occasionally a hawk has 
been killed by it. On the whole, it is a device infalHble in 
its action, but dangerous to use and not well suited to our 
climate. It is sometimes highly successful, but must be used 
with discretion, and in our opinion the more of this quality 
that the falconer himself possesses, the less he will use of sal- 
ammoniac for his hawk. 

After keeping his hawks in good health a falconer's chief 
care should be to maintain their feathers in the most perfect 
order. Without these hawks clearly cannot fly, and the loss 
of even one important flight feather means as much to a 
falcon as an impost of lo lbs. extra does to a racehorse. 
Feathers, however, are but frail things, and in spite of all care 
accidents to them will happen. Travelling, both on the box 
cadge and still more so in hampers, is a fruitful source of 
injury, and in killing rooks on dry hard fallows in March and 
April hawks often get a good deal knocked about. In every 
case a broken feather should be mended at once. So long as 
the whole wing is intact, it presents but one outer edge to 
strike against hard substances, with the combined strength of 
all the feathers to bear the force of the blow ; directly a gap 



'IMPING' AND 'SEWING IN* 



379 




^rocess of ' imping ' a feather 



Process of ' sewing in ' a feather 



38o FALCONRY 

appears there are two more of such outer edges, and a blow 
that catches either of the feathers singly will be sure to break 
it, though the wing, if intact, would have had the strength and 
elasticity to resist such injury. In this way the mischief that 
begins with a single feather will spread till the hawk becomes 
a ragged creature, so much knocked about as to be past repair. 
A broken feather should therefore be replaced without delay. 
When a feather is merely bent and frayed it will straighten 
itself perfectly if dipped and held in hot water. If, however, 
it is actually broken, it must be carefully 'imped.' The 
simplest and easiest way to do this is to cut the feather, across, 
about half-way up, slantingly, and having selected from the 
stock, which every falconer is careful to maintain, the corre- 
sponding feather which has formerly belonged to a hawk of the 
same age, species, and size as the one now under treatment, 
it must be cut at such an angle as to precisely correspond with 
the feather in the hawk. An ' imping needle ' is now thrust 
into this feather (see last page), and both ends are then pushed 
up till they meet. The needle having been dipped in brine 
will rust a little and hold so firmly that it would be easier to 
pull out the feather itself, in many cases, than to pull the joint 
apart. 

Imping needles are merely three-sided needles, sharp at 
both ends, which are filed out of soft steel wire ; different 
sizes must be prepared for different kinds of hawks. Some 
care is requisite to get them made of the proper temper, as if 
too soft they bend, but if tempered too hard are apt to be 
britde. 

Sometimes a feather is broken so near the quill that there 
is nothing solid to hold the needle. In such a case it must be 
mended thus. Cut off the broken stump just where the shaft 
of the feather merges into the quill, leaving that part only in 
the bird. With a sharp-pointed penknife slit this quill on the 
under side from the point where the quill enters the flesh up to 
the broken end. Having selected the proper feather to replace 
the broken one, cut its quill into the form of a rather elongated 



IMPING 381 

pen, running the whole length of the quill,but of course without a 
nib. Slide this pen into the stump of quill which remains in 
the bird's body. Being split, it will admit it easily, and the 
feather can be pushed home so as to exactly replace the broken 
one. Then take a needleful of waxed silk, and pass it through 
the double quill just below the joint, whip the silk a few times 
round the feather and over the joint, pass the needle back 
through the feather above the joint, and finish off. To mend 
a feather well in this way requires some skill, but if it is well 
done, and great care taken that the feather lies exactly right, 
viz. at the same angle as the others in the wing, it will be im- 
possible without the closest examination to tell whether the 
hawk has a mended feather in her body or not. Sometimes a 
feather broken at the quill is repaired by inserting a plug of 
wood or of the stem of a larger feather into the quill and mend- 
ing on to this with an ordinary imping needle, the plug being 
held fast by cobbler's wax. Of course, for all such operations 
as these a hawk must be securely held by an assistant. The 
proper way to do this is as follows : Tie a knot in the corner of 
a silk handkerchief and throw it on to the hawk's back as she 
sits on the perch, so that the knot is at the nape of her neck 
and the sides of the handkerchief fall over her shoulders. 
Take her round the middle with both hands so as to wrap 
the silk well round her, and lay her on a soft yet firm cushion 
on the operating table ; then let the assistant hold her 
with both hands, confining her legs and wings, his thujnbs 
lying in the channel of her back, and exercising enough pres- 
sure to keep her from struggling ; the cushion protects her 
breast from injury and the silk preserves her feathers from 
being frayed. 

' Coping' is the necessary shortening of both beak and 
claws, and is done best with a sharp penknife and a pair of nail 
clippers. Claws only require to be dealt with in the early 
stages of training, when hawks are prone to use them to the 
detriment of the falconers hands. It is also well when two 
hawks are flown together not to allow the claws to be very 



382 FALCONRY 

sharp, for fear of an accident in case of 'crabbing.' The 
beak, however, requires constant attention. In a wild state, no 
doubt, hawks counteract the growth of the horn by the inces- 
sant wear and tear of tough pulling at their food, the breaking 
of bones, and pulling up of rough skin ; but when domesticated 
and fed principally on soft food the beak is apt to grow fast, to 
become soft and unsound, and to split. It must be watched with 
care, and on the appearance of any split or scaling off must 
be well examined. All the rotten part must be carefully pared 
away till the root of the crack is arrived at, if not at the first, 
then at the second or third operation. 

Moulting is a period when hawks require special care, both 
to get their frames into the most vigorous condition, so as to 
ensure the growth of strong broad feathers, and also to avoid 
risk of injury to the feathers in the blood when they are very 
soft and easily damaged. With care, however, hawks can be 
flown at all stages of the moult, especially at a quarry, such as 
game, which they are very fond of, and at which they can be 
used when in very high condition. Eyesses usually commence 
the moult much earlier than passage hawks — why this is so 
we cannot tell. As a rule, a healthy eyess will throw her first 
feathers — which will be the seventh in the wing — then the two 
centre or ' deck ' feathers of the tail early in May or even in 
April. Such a hawk if well fed will get through the more 
important stages of her moult and be ready for use, even if she 
has a feather or two to throw, by August 12. Passage hawks, 
on the other hand, do not generally begin to moult till July, 
and very often not till August. Such hawks as these can very 
well be flown at game in the earlier stages of the moult without 
their powers being very much affected. Occasionally, however, 
a falcon will lose a fortnight or so in the latter part of Septem- 
ber, owing to the wide gaps in her wings, for this will render it 
difficult for her to overtake grouse, which are then very strong. 
It is better to let her rest for a time than to risk her being 
frequently disappointed. 

We have, however, successfully flown passage hawks at 



MOULTING 383 

game year after year, from August 12 up to about October 10, 
and then put them down to moult, or rather to finish 
moulting, and have taken them up at the end of February, 
in time for the spring rook hawking, perfect in every feather : 
this we consider to be the best method of managing passage 
hawks, and the means by which the most work can be got 
out of them. The last feather thrown is the first or outside 
feather of the wing. Very great care is necessary to avoid 
injury to these feathers as they come down, which they do very 
slowly. Very quiet tame hawks will moult very well on the 
block, but when they are put down to moult late in the season 
or where they are of a wild, excitable nature the best plan is 
to turn them into a warm loft or loose box, as large and as 
light as possible ; the windows should be protected \yj perpen- 
dicular bars, to which the hawks cannot cling, and so break 
their feathers, and all corners or inconvenient perching-places 
should be rounded off or protected. Two or even three 
hawks of the same sex ^ may be moulted in one loft in this 
way. Their food should be securely tied to small boards, so 
that it may not be dragged into corners, and should consist 
as much as possible of birds, with their feathers on to form 
castings, and of rough food such as rats, rabbits, fowls, or 
pheasants' heads, and similar things — the less butcher's meat 
is used the better. A hawk should always be turned into the 
mews with new, or, at any rate, very sound jesses on her in 
order to avoid any struggle with her in replacing unsound ones 
when she is first taken up, wild and full of flesh. 

According to the ancient writers, hawks appear to have 
suffered from as many and as complex diseases as human 
beings, and the pharmacopoeia employed was as extensive and 
as filthy in the one case as in the other. In modern times our 
practice is more simple, but it must be owned that some of the 
diseases of our hawks baffle our skill. We propose, first, to 
treat of such complaints as have been found curable, and 

1 Except goshawks, which can never be tnisted near any other hawk of 
their own 01 another kind. 



384 FALCONRY 

afterwards to deal with those for which we cannot with con- 
fidence recommend remedies. 

Croaks or kecks is a very common disease : it is caused 
by a cold, frequently induced by a low state of condition, and 
answers nearly to an ordinary cough in beasts or human beings. 
The noise, however, from which the name is derived only 
appears when the hawk is exerting herself, as by bating or 
flying. For physic give half a chili, or three or four pepper- 
corns daily, for two or three days. Keep the hawk constantly 
pulling at rough food, such as pigeons' backs, fowls' heads, and 
the like, so that she may constantly be feeding, and yet always 
exerting herself a little ; finish off each day with a crop of 
light food, such as rabbit's or tender meat ; every third day give 
a cropful of ' warm blood,' such as a freshly-killed pigeon, 
and as the hawk gets better give her plenty of flying to the 
lure. This ailment often hangs about a hawk for a long time, 
but if she can be kept up in condition and in good heart it 
will gradually die out. 

Frounce is a canker of the interior of the mouth, and 
occasionally spreads to the throat, when it is apt to prove fatal. 
It is caused generally by damp, and sometimes by feeding 
hawks upon foul meat. The symptoms are, a frothing at the 
mouth and difficulty in eating, and if the hawk's mouth be 
opened the w^hole of the tongue and palate will be seen to be 
covered with a whitish scale or scab. As much of this scale 
as can be removed without making the parts bleed should be 
scraped away with the edge of a quill or a knife, and the 
exposed part dressed once a day with burnt alum mixed with 
vinegar. In ordinary cases this will effect a cure in a few days, 
but if the canker spreads downwards and into the throat it will 
be found impossible to cure it. Lunar caustic will sometimes 
prove effective. 

Ififlammation of the crop is a serious complaint, and causes 
the hawk to throw up the contents of her crop in an undigested 
form shortly after feeding. If not taken in time it will prove 
fatal. About three grains of powdered Turkey rhubarb must 



DISEASES OF HAWKS 385 

be given without castings and on an empty stomach. A little 
light warm food should be given, as a freshly-killed pigeon or 
rabbit, at frequent intervals as the hawk seems able to take it, 
and the rhubarb dose may be repeated for two or three days 
(but not more) until the hawk is able to digest a full meal. 

The falconer will always examine with special care both 
the mutes or droppings as well as the castings of his hawks in 
order that he may judge of their condition of health. The 
mutes should be perfectly white, of the consistency of cream, 
with occasionally a black spot in them ; if they are thick or 
with much black in them the hawk is out of order. Green 
mutes are a very bad sign, generally indicating an advanced 
stage of inflammation of the crop. For all disorders of this 
kind rhubarb is the best and safest remedy, but not more than 
three or four consecutive doses should be given without an 
interval of some days, or it loses its effect. Sugar candy and 
manna are also useful and harmless laxatives. Hawks are 
liable to fits, both epileptic and apoplectic, especially when 
very fat and suddenly excited or frightened. We cannot re- 
commend with confidence any remedy except keeping the hawk 
perfectly quiet and feeding her lightly, getting her as soon as 
possible into better condition. 

Hawks that are taken too young from the nest or that have 
been much exposed to cold when taken are sometimes seized 
with cramp in the legs ; this will completely paralyse- the limbs 
and render the bird useless. Indeed, in bad cases we have 
known the bones of the leg dislocated. Mild attacks will 
sometimes pass off of themselves, but there is no remedy for 
bad cases. 

Sivelled feet and corns are common but troublesome com- 
plaints which affect trained hawks. The first and more serious 
form of the disease is a swelling and inflammation of the whole 
ball of the foot ; the latter are small tumours which appear 
on different parts of the foot and generally come slowly to a 
head, open, and discharge their contents in the form of a core 
cf hardened pus. Time is generally the best cure for this 

c c 



386 FALCONRY 

complaint, care being taken to diminish every cause by which 
inflammation can be maintained. Very soft and loose jesses 
should be put on, and in cases of swelled foot a padded perch 
and block should be used, or, better still, the hawk kept on a 
mound of turf, and not on a perch at all. It will be found 
that she will spend most of her time lying down, so that her 
feet are relieved of all pressure. Gradually the tumour within 
the foot will come to a head and the hardened core, at times 
as big as a hazel nut, work its way out, when all that is neces- 
sary is to anoint the open wound with goose-grease or vaseline, 
and get it to heal as rapidly as possible. Hot fomentations 
are sometimes used to bring the inflammation to a head rapidly ; 
we cannot speak very highly of this treatment, but in the earlier 
stages a lotion composed as follows has been found very use- 
ful : Brandy, one wineglass ; vinegar, one wineglass. Steep in 
the above a good handful of fresh parsley, keep in a covered 
jar, and apply with a sponge three times daily. 

Many falconers attribute swelled feet to the use of hard 
blocks or perches, and consider that all such resting-places 
should be padded. Hawks, however, do not in a wild state 
get padded perches to sit on, and we do not believe that 
hard perches really induce the complaint, but more often the 
constant strain on the feet caused by incessant jumping against 
the jesses does so. The frequent concussion on a hard perch 
may no doubt aggravate the evil, but the true remedy is to 
keep the hawk so quiet as to remove the causes which induce 
her to bate and jump, or, if necessary, keep her hooded — or 
even brailed— till she learn to sit quiet. 

A simple improvement on the ordinary perch, which appears 
to be founded on common sense, has lately been devised by 
Captain Biddulph, one of our most successful Anglo-Indian 
falconers ; it is merely the cutting of a groove half an inch wide 
and a quarter of an inch deep along the top of the perch, so 
that pressure is taken off the ball of the foot which rests in the 
groove. It is probable that this may operate so as to check a 
tendency to develop swelled feet in some hawks, which, though 



DISEASES OF HA WKS 387 

quiet on the perch, seem to be specially prone to this com- 
plaint. 

Inflammation of the lungs is a complaint which hawks oc- 
casionally acquire, and it seems to be near akin to the 'pantas,* 
of which ancient writers tell us so much ; the chief symptoms 
are feverishness, a peculiar shortness of breath, and quick 
heaving of the body, especially of the lower part or pannel, as 
each breath is drawn ; the hawk steadily pines away and dies, 
when her lungs are either found to be in a highly congested state 
or in some cases are almost altogether gone. We have tried 
various remedies, but have found none in which we have such 
confidence as to recommend it to our readers. Latham in his 
'Faulcons' Lure and Cure' gives the following as a remedy, if ad- 
ministered in the very earliest stages, and we give it for what 
it may be worth : — ' Take a quarter of a lb. of the best 
sweet butter and put it into dammaske rose water and there 
preserve and keep it close. And as you have need to use it, 
which must be very often, take some of it forth and with the 
powder of rue and the powder of saffron and a little brown 
sugar candie mingled well together make a pellet or two and 
give every morning to your hawk for a week together early in 
the morning, and keep her very warm.' Each ingredient in 
this prescription is one that is usefully administered to various 
birds, and may be serviceable even in so extreme a case as the 
pantas. 

Blain is supposed to be peculiar to passage haw^ks and to 
be incurable. • It takes the form of a large watery blister on the 
pinion joint at the extreme end of the wing ; gradually this 
stiffens, the feathers become immovable, and the power of the 
wing so greatly impaired that the hawk is useless. In extreme 
cases the pinion joint will rot off altogether. The cause is 
perhaps the sudden inactivity which is enforced upon freshly 
caught hawks just when they have been using their powers of 
flight most freely during the migration. We have also noticed 
that it is most prevalent in very severe winters, and may there- 

1 An eyess was taken with this complaint in the spring of 1892. 

CC 2 



388 FALCONRY 

fore be in some cases attributable to frost bite. We know of 
no remedy. 

Parasites. — All hawks are occasionally subject to lice very 
similar in character to those which appear on pigeons, fowls, and 
other birds. Especially when hawks are being frequently flown 
at rooks in the spring they are apt to get covered with lice, which 
abound on those birds, especially on any that may have been 
sitting. The parasites quit the lately killed bird for the living one 
by scores. They are easily got rid of by either blowing tobacco 
smoke through the feathers or by giving the hawk a good dressing 
of tobacco water. Both these remedies are apt to make the 
hawk herself sick and to throw her out of condition for a few 
days, and a better plan is to induce the hawks to bathe regularly, 
even daily in fine weather, and to allow them plenty of time to 
* weather,' or to dry and preen themselves. Where this is done 
very little will be seen of these pests. 

Formerly it was supposed that passage hawks would not 
bathe or even sit on their blocks bareheaded until they had 
been at least one summer in training, In later times enlarged 
experience of these hawks, coupled with lessons learnt from 
the Indian falconers, who use no other kind, whether for game 
or for the 'high mountee,' have taught us that they can be 
made in every respect as tame as eyesses ; and there are few 
passage hawks trained nowadays that are not reclaimed 
sufficiendy to bathe freely at the block before the spring hawking 
season has even commenced. 

A more troublesome form of parasite is known as 'mites.' 
These are tiny red insects that burrow into the wax-like skin or 
. 'cere' around the nostrils and the eyelids, gradually forming large 
scabby sores. They are the infallible accompaniment of low, 
impoverished condition, and often appear in cases of croaks, 
or even when a hawk has been left out for a night or two and 
been starved. The true remedy is to feed the hawk into better 
condition, when the mites will all disappear ; but, as they are 
certainly contagious, and must inconvenience the hawk, they are 
better removed. This is easily done by dressing the parts with 



NUMBER OF HAWKS TO KEEP 2,^c) 

tobacco water to which is added a little spirit. This mixture 
should be carefully applied with a camel-hair pencil, and the 
second application generally effects a cure. 

We do not give directions for setting broken limbs in hawks, 
as, though such injuries may be cured in them just as in other 
animals, it can only be in some very exceptional case that it is 
worth while to attempt the cure. It is, as a rule, better to 
destroy the suffering hawk at once in all cases where there is 
not a fair prospect of effecting a cure, and it is very improbable 
that a hawk which has met with an accident of such a kind 
will ever be available for purposes of sport. 

A word of caution, in conclusion, to the beginner in 
falconry — avoid keeping too many hawks. Out of the twenty- 
four hours there are not more than six per diem available for 
such a sport as hawking. Hawks will fly every day, and are, 
in fact, all the better for being thus worked. Three or four 
good hawks will, under ordinary circumstances, provide sport 
for the whole of each day, and will be much improved by 
being thus freely used. Where more are kept, except in estab- 
hshments of the largest size, the result usually is that half of 
the hawks rest in idleness, deteriorating day by day, and 
occupying time and attention which had better be devoted to 
their more useful compeers. To obtain three or four really 
good hawks no doubt entails a trial of twice that number, and 
the discarding of the inferior birds. But we strongly urge 
upon the tyro that he should content himself with one or two 
useful steady hawks, gradually testing more and retaining 
those, and those only, which he finds to be of the first class. 
He will obtain more sport from a single good tiercel than from 
six or seven moderate hawks, and will benefit both as to his 
pocket and his leisure time by the abridgment of his estab- 
lishment. 



APPENDIX 



COURSING SECRETARIES 



Club 

Aberdeenshire Club . 
Abergele .... 
Acle Bridge 
Adderly (Salop) 
Aldford (Cheshire) . 
Altcar Club 

Amesbury (Open) 

Annandale (Mid.) . 

Appleby(lateBurton-upon- 
Humber) 

Appleton Wiske 

Ashdovvn Park. 

Aston Hall (Salop) . 

Bagley (Salop) . 

Banbridge (co. Down, Ire- 
land) 

Bangor 

Barnton Club . 

Berkeley (Open) and Yeo- 
manry 

Bickerstaffe (Lancashire) . 

Black Brae (Londonderry) 

Blandford 

Blenkinsopp (Northum- 
berland) 

Bothal Club . 

Border Union . . 

Bradbury (Durham) 



Name and Address 

W.Lowe, Don Terrace, Woodside, Aberdeenshire. 

John D. Jones, Bodergh, Abergele, N.W. 

B. J. Foulsham, Duke's Head, Great Yarmouth. 

W. Bankes, Market Drayton, 

Richard Brown, Churton, Chester. 

H. Brocklebank, 4 P'ulwood Park, Aigburth, 
Liverpool, hon. sec. 

G. M. Williams, Countess Manor Farm, Ames- 
bury, Salisbury. 

A. Chapman, Buckon Hill, Lockerbie, N.B. 

J. Ashton, 73 Wrawby Street, Brigg. 

F. Hesletine, Appleton Wiske. 

J. H. Laurence, Shrivenham, Berks. 

— Cartwright, Oswestry. 

E. WilUams, 7 Chester Street, Shrewsbury. 
T. M'Clelland, hon. sec. 

T. Hampshire, Bangor, N.W. 

J. Gray, 6 Bath-street, Portobello, Edinburgh. 

T, Pearce, Berkeley, 

R, Anderton, New Hall, West Derby, Liverpool. 
Sir T. Lecky, Foyle Hill, Londonderry, Ireland. 

F. V. Ensor, Dorchester, Dorset. 
J. Ord, Fetherstone, Haltwhistle, 

Dr. F. Richardson, Rothbury, Northumberland. 
R. B. Carruthers, Huntingdon Lodge, Dumfries, 

N.B. 
J. Madderson, Fishburn Hall, Ferry Hill, Durham, 



392 



COURSING 



Club 
Bradford Club . 
Brandon (Durham) . 
Bredwardine (Hereford- 
shire) 
Burnham (Essex) 
Burscough-Bridge(Lancs.) 
Buttervvick (Durham) 
Byer's Green (Durham) . 
Carmarthenshire 
Carmichael 
Castlerea(co. Roscommon) 

Chaddesden (Derby) 
Chilton .... 
Chirbury (Salop) 
Chirk .... 
Cliffe and Hundred of Hoo 
Clyro Club 

Colli ngbourne . 

Corrie .... 

Cothelstone (Taunton) 

Croome .... 

Cross Hands (Gloucester- 
shire) 

Darlington Club 

Dirleton and North Ber- 
wick 

Docking Club . 

Draycott (Staffordshire) . 

Dumfries .... 

Dunston .... 

East Kent (Wye) . 

East Stirlingshire Club . 

Ecclefechan 

Eccleston and Aldford 

Edenderry (Ireland) . 

Elemore (Durham) . 

Elm Club 

Everingham (Yorkshire) . 

Everleigh (Wilts) . 

Evesham (Worcestershire) 
Ewerby (Lincolnshire) 
Farcet Fen 

Felton Park (Northumber- 
land) 



Name and Address 
J. Tillotson, Bradford. 
G. Thornton, High Brandon, Durham. 
C. Farr, Merton Hotel, Hereford. 



E. Thorougood, Burscough. 

T. Towes, Sedgefield. 

R. Robinson, Todhills, Willington, Durham. 

H. Cadle, Half-Moon Hotel, Carmarthen. 

R. Paterson, Birthwood, Biggar, N.B. , hon. sec. 

T. Clancey, Ballintubber, French Lawn, Castlerea. 
CO. Roscommon. 

J. W. Bailey, Wood Farm, Chaddesden, Derby. 

E. Salmon, Chilton Buildings, Ferry Hill, Durham. 

T. E. Issard, Newtown, Montgomeryshire. 

P. O. Gill, Trewern Hall, Oswestry. 

Horace Ledger, Chffe, Rochester. 

W. Price, Baskerville Arms Inns, Clyro, Brecon- 
shire. 

Reynolds & Rose, Bear Hotel, Devizes. 

A. Chapman, Buckon Hill, Lockerbie, N.B. 

W. T. Gibbs, Manor House, Cothelstone, Taunton, 

J. Millington, 50 Foregate Street, Worcester. 

T. L. Ben net, Combsend Farm, Old Sodbury. 



W. Watson, Tower Corner, Darlington. 

J. Hutchison, Woodside, by Hamilton, hon. sec. 

G. Flatten, Sedgford, Lynn. 

J, W. Beech, Taynsley Hall, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Andrew Lawson, Dumfries. 

J. H. Mutimer, Dunston, near Norwich. 

G. Kennet, Harville, Wye, Kent. 

J. Morrison, Steeple Land, Falkirk, N.B. 

J. Irving, Bank, Ecclefechan, N.B. 

D. F. Chalton, Rake Farm, Eccleston, Chester. 

J. O'Brien, Edenderry, King's County. 

T. Lamb, Brewery, Hetton-le-Hole, Durham. 

G. J. Moore, Chambers, Wisbeach. 

H. Myers, Holme-oa-Spalding Moor, York. 

J. T. Randoll, 2 Melrose Villas, London Road, 

Salisbury. 
A. W. Morris. 

G. Lee, White Hart Hotel, Sleaford. 
J. Tilbury, Bell and Oak, Peterborough. 
J. Adams, Red Lion, Felton. 



APPENDIX 



393 



Cl.UB 
Great Thurlow (Suffolk) 
Greencroft (Lanchester) . 
Hale (Lancashire) . 
Halewood ( Lancashire) . 
Halston .... 
Hawthorn (Durham) 
Haydock Park . 
Heatley Warburton 

(Cheshire) 
Herefordshire (West) 
Hetton (Durham) . 
Holme-on-Spalding Moor 

(Yorkshire) 
Hook and co. Wexford 

Club 
Horbling (Lincolnshire) . 
Hull, Beverley, and East 

Riding Club 
Hunmanby (Yorkshire) . 

Ince (Cheshire) 

Ince Blundell (Lancashire) 

Isle of Man 

Kelloe (Durham) 

Kilkenny Club. 

Kilmarnock (co. Wexford) 

Kingscote 

Kinver Hill (Worcester- 
shire) 
Kyle Club 

Leeds and County . 

Leinster Club . 

Lichfield .... 

Liddesdale Club 

Limerick Club . 

Little Crosby . 

Little Maston (N. Lanes.) 

Littleton (Staines) . 

Longstock 

Longtown (Cumberland) . 

Louth and Meath Club . 

Lydbury, North (Salop) , 

Maidenhead . . • 

Malton . . . . 



Name and Address 

C. Maynard, 19 Old Elvet, Durham. 

E. Rowe, Child of Hale Inn, Hale. 

W. J. Eccleshaw, Halewood. 

G. Cottle, West Felton, Salop. 

W. Cowen, Innkeeper, Sunderland. 

R. J. Bury, Haydock Park, Newton-le-Willows. 

A. F. Pope, Barton House, Manchester. 

G. Farr, Merton Hotel, Hereford. 

W. C. Day. 

John Brown, Tillingham, Holme-on-Spalding 
Moor, York. 

John Murray, South Street, New Ross, co. Wex- 
ford. 

C. Smith, Spalding. 

C. Greensides, Beverley. 

J. Hutchinson, White Swan Hotel, Hunmanby, 
Yorkshire 

A. Howcroft, Moss Hay, Tarvin. 

John Coke, Birkdale, Southport. 

J. Gore, Douglas, Isle of Man. 

C. Maynard, 19 Old Elvet, Durham. 

T. Manning, Kilkenny. 

L. Murphy, Priest Haggard, New Ross, co. Wex- 
ford. 

Ellas Hobbs, Huntsman Hall, Kingscote, Glou- 
cestershire. 

J. P. Hitchings, Wordsley, Stourbridge. 

Jas, Murray, jun. , Dumfries Arms Hotel, Cumnock, 

N.B. 
J. Allanson, 87 New Briggate, Leeds. 
J. Manning, 36 Arran Quay, Dublin. 
J. Trevor, Swan Hotel, Lichfield. 
J. Scott, Newcastleton. 

R. Bourke, Dromlasa, Pallas Green, co. Limerick, 
T. Barnes, Little Crosby, near Liverpool. 
J. Nickson, Talbot Hotel, Blackpool. 
P. Fowles, Staines. 

J. T. RandoU, Wyndham Terrace, Salisbury. 
S. McClure, Longtown. 
F. W. Leland, Drogheda. 
A. Wright, New Inn, Lydbury North. 
F. Clease, Burnham, Bucks. 
J. King, Malton. 



394 



COURSING 



Club 
Market Drayton (Salop) . 
Market Weighton . 
Marlborough (Wilts.) 
Middle .... 
Moorhampton (Hereford- 
shire) 
National Coursing Club . 
Newmarket (Champion) . 
North Kent . 

North of England Club . 
Northern Club(Holestone) 
Orford, Open (Suffolk) . 
Ossory Club . 
Oxfordshire Club 
Pawlett (Bridgwater) 
Perthshire Club 
Pilling (North Lanes. ) 
Piumpton (Sussex) . 
Powderham (Devon) 
Pulborough (Sussex) 
Purdysbury Club (Belfast) 
Purslow (Salop) 

Quebec and Lanchester 

(Durham) 
Riccall (Selby) 
Ridgway Club . 
Rochford Hundred (Essex) 
Rokeby (Yorkshire) . 
Rufford (Lancashire) 
Salisbury and Amesbury . 
Scarboro'(Open and Club) 
Scottish National 



Sedgefield 
Selby (Yorkshire) 
Sheraton (Hartlepool) 
Shotton (Durham) . 
Sleaford 

South Essex Club (Rain- 
ham) 
South Lancashire (Sthprt. ) 
South of England Club . 

Southern Club (Trabolgan) 



Name and Address 

T. W. Banks, Market Drayton. 

F. Brough, Market Weighton. 

H. Partridge, Castle and Ball Hotel, Marlborough. 

T. Parry, Red Lion, Middle, Salop. 

T. Packwood, Palmers Court, Holmes, Hereford. 

R. B. Carruthers, Huntingdon Lodge, Dumfries. 
J. Williams, Ross Road, Newmarket. 
W. Hayward, 38 Plumstead Common Road, Plum- 
stead, Kent. 
T. Snowdon,33 Mosley Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
J. Stevenson, Fourmileburn, Doagh, co. Antrim. 
W.Wilson, Raydon Hall, Orford, Wickham Market. 
E. WiUiams, Rathdowney, Queen's Co. 
W. R. Pratt, 22 Commercial Road, Oxford. 
Horace Hurman, Auctioneer, Bridgwater. 
W. Bartholomew, Auchtertool, Kirkcaldy, N.B. 
W. Jemson, Ridge Farm, Pilling, Garstang. 
W. H. Hollis, 42 Bond Street, Brighton. 
S. Dobell, Louthtown, Kenton, Exeter. 

A. Agate, Wareham, Horsham. 

W. Gibson, 2 Great Edward Street, Belfast. 

E. Smith, Hundred House, Purslow, Aston-on- 

Clun. 
J. Cockerill, Hamsteds Colliery Hotel, Durham. 

J. W. Pratt, Riccall. 

J. Mugliston, Lytham, Lancashire, hon. sec. 

W. Whistler, Southend. 

R. Hedley, Three Horseshoes Inn, Barnard Castle. 

Phillip Ascroft, Rufford, Lancashire. 

W. G. Knight. 3 Milton Place, Salisbury. 

C. Postill, St. Sepulchre Street, Scarboro'. 

B. Paterson, Birthwood, Biggar, N.B. 

Assist. Sec. A. B. Paterson, 13 Walker Street, 

Edinburgh. 
T. Lowes, Hardwicke Arms Hotel, Sedgefield. 
T. L. Palframen, Shipton, Market Weighton. 
J. Carter, West Hartlepool. 
T. Lamb, jun. , Hetton-le-Hole, Durham. 
C Smith, Bristol Arms Hotel, Sleaford. 

F. T. Davis, 2 New Road, Woolwich. 

J. Bell, East Bank Street, Southport. 

A. J. Humphrey, Walton Leigh, Addlestone, 

Surrey. 
A. H. LedUe, Victoria Hotel, Cork. 



APPENDIX 



395 



Club 
Southminster (Open) 
do. (Local) 

Springhill ^Dumfriesshire) 
Stamfordhani (Northum- 
berland) 
Stokesby (Norfolk) . 
Stych (Salop) . 
Sully (Cardiff) . 
Sundorne (Salop) 
Surrey Club 
Swansea Club . 
Sydmonton (Berks.) 
Tadcaster 

Tarbock (Lancashire) 
Thirsk .... 
Tillingham (Essex) . 
Tintern (co. Wexford) 
ToUeshunt D'Arcy . 

Upleatham (Redcar) 
Upper Nithsdale Club 

(Dumfriesshire) 
Vale of Avon and South 

Wilts Club 
Vaynol .... 
Walshford Bridge . 
Watford Club • 
West Cumberland Club . 
Westwick (Durham) 
Westby (Lytham) . 
Whitfield (Northumber- 
land) 
Whittlesey (Cambs. ) 
Widdrington (Northum- 
berland) 
Wilton (Redcar) 
Willington (Durham) 
Winmarleigh (N. Lanes.) 

Woodhouse (Salop) . 
WooUey Park (Berks ) . 
Wye (Kent) . 
Yorkshire Club 



Name and Address 
J. H. Salter, ToUeshunt D'Arcy, Kelvedon, Essex. 
J. Prior, Southminster. 
J. E, Byers, Greenurne, Gretna, N.B. 
W. Reed, Pen's Close, Stamfordham. 

B. J. Foulsham, Duke's Head Hotel, Gt. Yarmouth. 
W. Banks, Market Drayton. 

C. Moir, V.S., Cardiff. 

E. Williams, Chester Street, ^rewsbury. 
W. Haydon, Tulse Hill, London, S.W. 
C. Richfield, Swansea. 
A. Booth, Burghclere, Berks. 
Miss Laurence, Londesboro" Arms, Tadcaster. 
W. H. Gregory, Tarbock. 
T. Long, Three Tuns Hotel, Thirsk, 
^^^ G. Small, Easthall, Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex. 
M. Power, St. Kearns, Arthurstown, co. Wexford. 
J. H. Salter, D'Arcy House, ToUeshunt D'Arcy, 

Kelvedon, Essex. 
G. Clay, Red Lion Hotel, Redcar, 
J. B. Little, Sanquhar, N.B. 

W. G. Knight, 3 Milton Place, Salisbury. 



H. Harwood, Vaynol, North Wales. 

G. O. Sergeant, Hunsingore, near Wetherby. 

H. B. Didsbury, 52 High Street, Watford, Herts. 

Dr. J. E. Lace, Frizington, near Whitehaven. 

R. Hedley, Three Horseshoes, Barnard Castle, 

T. Windebank, Ship Hotel, Lytham. 

J. Johnson, Kingswood, Whitfield, Langley. 

H. Brown, Whittlesey, Cambridgeshire. 

H. Annet, jun., Widdrington, Northumberland. 

G. Clay, Red Lion Hotel, Redcar. 

J. Robinson, Masons' Arms, WiUington, Durham. 

R, Thornton, Gibstick Hall, Winmarleigh, Gar- 

stang. 
P. O. Gill, Trewen Hall, Oswestry. 
W. H. Fyer, Newbury, Berks. 
George Kennet, HarviUe, Wye, Kent. 
E. Dobson, 67 Northgate, Bradford. 



396 



COURSING 



PUBLIC GREYHOUND-TRAINERS 



Name 
Abrams, A. 
Aldred, John . 
Askew, John . 
Bamford, John 
Barlow, Richard 
Barnes, George 
Baty, W. . 
Benn, W. 
Bullock, T. 
Burrows, George 
Burton, G. 
Byrne, H. 
Coke, Archibald & Sons 
Cole, Mark 
Collard, A. J. . 
Cross, J, . 
Deans, J. . 
Deighton, W. . 
Dixon, J. G. . 
Elliot, Andrew. 
Erricker, G. T. 
Fall, George . 
Fitzgerald, John 

Godfrey, W. . 
Graham, A. 
Hancock, H. . 
Hodd, T. . 
Hope, William 
Horsburgh, Alexander 
Johnson, Henry 
Jolly, F. . 
Jones, E. . 
Jutsum, T. 
Kellaway, J, 
Langley, H. 
Liddle, Thomas 
Little, William 
Maxwell, M. L. 
May, J. . 
Munro, D. 
N agnail, Richard 
North, W. 
Poole, Jno. 



Address 
Calne, Wilts. 
Blakeley, Manchester. 
Yaxley, Peterborough. 
2IO Latimer Road, London. 
West Houghton, Bolton, Lancashire. 
Cross Street, Beverley. 
Cargo, Carlisle. 

Lolby Hall Lodge, Wisbey, Bradford. 
Killingworth, Northumberland. 
Newton-le- Willows, Lancashire. 
Bridge Hotel, Durham. 
Ludlow. 

Blundell Arms Hotel, Birkdale, Southport. 
Woodcote Lodge, Epsom, Surrey. 
Cherry Tree Kennels, Newmarket. 
Stratton Heath, St. Helens, Lancashire. 
47 High Street, Musselburgh, N.B. 
2 Providence Row, Durham. 
Wansbeck Place, Morpeth. 
North Seaton, Morpeth, Northumberland. 
Lawn Cottage, West Molesey, Surrey. 
Jolly Sailor Inn, Redcar. 
Woodside Cottage, Curragh Road, Evergreen, 

Cork. 
Great Warley, Brentwood, Essex. 
Mallsburn-by-Brampton. 
Stanley Arms, North Stanley, Ripon. 
4 St. Mary's Terrace, St Anns, Lewes. 
Croft Stables, W^orcester. 
Idstone, Shrivenham, Berks. 
Flimby, Maryport, Cumberland. 
Victoria Street, Chorley, Lancashire. 
Red Lion Inn, Tarvin near Chester. 
Beaufort Kennels, Wichlo Place, Brighton. 
Tyler's Green, North Weald Bassett, Epping. 
Mizpap Villa, Exning Road, Newmarket. 
South Shields. 

Thorneymoor, Walton, Cumberland. 
British Lion Hotel, Ipswich. 
4 Henrietta Cottages, Bathwick, Bath. 
Brown Street, Stewarton, N.B. 
West Houghton, Lancashire. 
Bramley, Leeds. 
Bridge Inn, Gateacre, Liverpool. 



APPENDIX 



397 



Name 
Presdee, C. J., jun, 
Reid, Alexander 
Simpson, J. 
Souch, W. 
Stamp, J. 
Stamper, Joseph 
Stickley, J, 
Stretton, J. & Son 
Thompson, J. B. 

Thorpe, Oswald 
Wade, J. . 
Waterer, R. 
Whitelock, G. . 
Wilkinson, Edward 
Wood, Jesse . 
Wood, John . 
Wright, Joseph 



Address ^ 

Sidbury, near Worcester. 
Strathaven, N.B. 
Gosforth-on-Tyne. 
St. John's, Worcester, 
Walkeringham, near Gainsboro*. 
Ellenborough, Maryport. 
54 Ditchling Road, Brighton. 
Stanton Road, Burton -on-Trent. 
Victoria House, Noith Howard Street, Great 

Yarmouth. 
Kersall Moor, Manchester. 
The Guinea, Ridge, Herts. 
Cook's Ferry, Edmonton. 

Hookstone Lodge, Woodlands, Knaresborough. 
117 Manchester Road, Southport. 
Walkergate, Beverley. 
Ship Inn, Fisher Row, Edinburgh. 
Horwich, near Bolton. 



COURSING JUDGES, SLIPPERS, AND 
FLAG STEWARDS 



Bell, T. S. 
Betts, Henry . 
Blaxland, E. V. 
Brice, R. A. . 
Bull, E. J. 
Cherrington, W. 
Coke, J. . 
Cottle, G. 
Cowing, W. 
Cumstive, Richard 
Dalziel, R. H. . 
Dunbar, Valentine J 
Fulwell, H. C. . 
Foord, W. 
Gardner, J. 
Gray, J. . 
Goldsbrougl: 
Hay, John 
Heatley, S. P. . 
Hedley, J. 



B. 



JUDGES 

Torrorie, Dumfries, N.B. 
Claibanisam, Ballyroan, Ireland. 
Heath, Leighton Buzzard. 
White Hart Hotel, Witham, Essex. 
Tarvin, Chesire. 
AUscott, Bridgnorth, Salop. • 
Blundell Arms, Birkdale, Southport. 
West Felton, Oswestry. 

Engineers' Arms, Coronation Street, Sunderland. 
Great Eccleston, near Garstang. 
Water Hall, Workington. 
36 North Great George Street, Dublin. 
Whitteley, Coventry. 
Bobbing House, Sittingbourne. 
Moulton, Newmarket. 
6 Bath Street, Portobello, Edinburgh. 
Hutton Rudby, Yarm, Yorkshire. 
Dovecot, Preston Pans, Edinburgh, N.B. 
Whitehouse, Ditherington, Shrewsbury. 
9 Roseworth Terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 



598 



COURSING 



Name 
Huntley, R. 
Jillings, W. G. 
Johnston, D. . 
Kemp, Leslie J. 
Lindsay, G. 
Maner, H. 
Millar, C. 
Moore, J. J. 
Myers, H. 
Palframan, G. H. 
Roe, P. . 
Spafford, E. . 
Stephenson, Thomas 
Steward, A. A. 

Swarnlcy, W. H. 
Vawser, C. 
Wadhams, F. G. 
Warwick, GeoriTe 
Watton, E. 
Wentworth, N. K. 

Williams, R. L. 

Wilson, Frank. 
Wood, A. B. . 



Address 
Glebe Farm, Bedlington, Northumberland. 
Bridgham, Harling, Thetford, Norfolk. 
Wall Club. Carlisle. 
Southminster, Essex. 
Annan, Dumfriesshire, N.B. 
Red Bear, Sherburn, South Milford, Yorks. 
Old Shildon, near Darlington. 
Wightwich, Wolverhampton. 
Shipton, Market Weighton. 
Bray ton, Selby, Yorks. 
Ballykelly House, Roscrea, Tipperary. 
Hill House, Nasenby, near Grantham. 
Shipton, Market Weighton, Yorks. 

23 Park Road, Wimbledon. (Telegrams to Judge, 

New Wimbledon.) 
Boakefield, Ballytose, Athy, Ireland. 
Burton, near Sleaford. 
Shakespeare Hotel, Stratford-on-Avon. 
Greyhound Hotel, Shrewsbury. 
Palace F'arm, Upton-on-Severn, Worcestershire. 
Great Bedwyn, Hungerford, Berks. (Telegrams 

Gt. Bedwyn Station. ) 

24 Mansfield Chambers, St. Ann's Square, Man- 

chester. 
Newington Avenue, Alnaby Road, Hull. 
29 Rose Lane, Mossley Hill, Liverpool. 



Barfoot, R. 
Birks, S. . 
Bootiman, J. . 
Bootiman, T. . 
Cook, J. . 
Cummings, W. 
Deighton, W. . 
Dwyer, Edward 
Groves, J. 
Holesworth, F. 
Hoysted, W. J. 
Hutchins, G. W. 
Jeffrey, R. 
Kent, Joseph . 
Luff, Alfred , 
Magee, E. 
Maltman, J. , 
Moore, E. 



SLIPPERS 

Frankton, near Rugby. 

Carr Woodside, Ripley, Derbyshire. 

Harbottle, Rothbury, Northumberland. 

Harbottle, Rothbury, Northumberland. 

Winmarleigh, Garstang, Lancashire. 

Royal Oak Inn, Preston. 

2 Providence Row, Claypath, Durham. 

Cabra, Thurle, Ireland. 

Upper Brook Street, Oswestry, Salop. 

South Newbald R. T. O., East Yorkshire. 

34 Northbrooke Avenue, Dublin. 

Biggleswade, Bedfordshire. 

Chapel Street, Ely, Cambs. 

Aycliffe, Darlington. 

Newnham Croft, Cambridge. 

Castle Eden, co. Durham. 

Alexandra Place, Barrhead. 

Gale's Cottage, Woking Station, Surrey. 



APPENDIX 



399 



Name 
Nailard, A. 
Penrose, W. 
Pond, A. , 
Raper, J., jun. 
Rimmer, J. 
Robertson, T, 
Shaw, F. . 
Souch, W. 
Titchmarsh, V. 
White, T. 
Wilkinson, Thomas 
Wright, R. . 



A. 



Address 
Bine's Green, Ashurst, Steyning, Sussex. 
i6o Lifton Street, Southport. 
Cock Inn, Tillingham, Essex, 
Gihing, Richmond, Yorks. 
Formby, near Liverpool. 
South Gyle, Corstophine, near Edinburgh. 
Northallerton, Yorkshire, near Edinburgh. 
Worcester. 

Crystal Palace Hotel, St. Albans, Herts. 
Ramsay, Isle of Man. 

' The Leash,' Lime Street, Southport, Lancashire. 
Waverton, near Chester. 



Bell, John 
Bettoney, S. . 
Bootiman, J. . 
Crozier, H. N. 
Cunningtod, R. 
Erriker, G. T. 
Gunton, M. 
Hicks, B. W. . 
Jolly, E. . 
Kelsey, Walter 
Penrose, W. . 
Reeves, R. 
Weightman, H. 



FLAG STEWARDS 

Wellington Hotel, Southport. 
Crosby Street, Maryport. 
Harbottle, Rothbury, Nortnumb and. 
Chelmsford. 
Newmarket. 

Lawn Cottage, West Molesey, Surrey. 
II King's Road, Hay Mills, Yardley. 
North Fields, Stamford. 
Chorley, Lancashire. 
Fox Inn, Petergate, Yorkshire. 
i6o Lifton Street, Southport. 
Newbury, Berks. 

6i Bell Terrace, Westmoreland Road, Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. 



Bootiman, John 
Gunton, M. 
Jeflfery, R. 
Jolly, E. 



SLIP STEWARDS 

Harbottle, Northumberland. 
Waterloo Hotel, Birmingham. 
Chapel Street, Ely, Cambridgeshire. 
Chorley, Lancashire. 



400 COURSING 



CODE OF RULES OF THE NATIONAL 
COURSING CLUB 

1. The Secretary and Stewards. — For any proposed open 
meeting a committee of not less than three shall be formed, who, 
with the secretary, shall settle preliminaries. The management of 
the meeting shall be entrusted to this committee, in conjunction 
with stewards, who shall be elected by the subscribers present on 
the first evening of a meeting. The stewards alone shall decide 
any disputed question by a majority of those present, subject to an 
appeal to the National Coursing Club. The secretary, if honorary, 
shall be a member of committee and a steward ex officio. No 
steward shall have a right to vote in any case relating to his own 
dogs. The secretary shall declare, on or before the evening pre- 
ceding the last day's running, how the prizes are to be divided ; 
and shall give a statement of expenses, if called upon to do so by 
any six of the subscribers, within fourteen days after the meeting. 

2. Election of Judge. — The judge may either be appointed 
by the secretary and committee acting under Rule i, in which case 
his name shall be announced simultaneously with the meeting, or 
elected by the votes of the subscribers taking nominations ; but 
each subscriber shall have only one vote, whatever the number of 
his nominations. Not less than ten days' notice of the day of 
election shall be given to the subscribers, and the appointment 
shall be published at least a fortnight before the meeting. The 
names of the subscribers voting, with the votes given by them, 
shall be recorded in a book open to the inspection of the stewards, 
who shall declare the number of votes for each judge, if called 
upon to do so by any of the subscribers. When a judge is prevented 
from attending or finishing a meeting, the committee and the 
stewards (if appointed) shall have the power of deciding what is 
to be done. 

3. Description of Entry. — Every subscriber to a stake 
must name his dog before the time fixed for closing the entry, 



APPENDIX 401 

giving the names (the running names if they had any) of the sire 
and dam of the dog entered. The secretary shall publish on the 
cards the names of those who are subscribers but do not comply 
with these conditions. These nominations shall not be drawn, but 
must be paid for. For produce stakes the names, pedigrees, ages, 
and colours, and distinguishing marks of puppies, shall be detailed 
in writing to the secretary of a meeting at the time of the original 
entry. Every subscriber must also, if required, state in writing to 
the secretary, before or during the meeting for which such entry is 
made, the names and addresses of the parties who reared his 
puppies ; and any puppy whose marks and pedigree shall be proved 
not to correspond with the entry given shall be disqualified, and 
the whole of its stakes or winnings forfeited. No greyhound is to 
be considered a puppy which was whelped before January i of the 
year preceding the commencement of the season of running.' A 
sapling is a greyhound whelped on or after January i of the year 
in which the season of running commenced. 

4. The colours, sex, names, pedigrees, and ages of all grey- 
hounds, with the names of their owners, and the owners of their 
sires and dams, shall be registered in a Greyhound Stud Book. 
The registration fee shall be \s. for each dog registered on or 
before July i, and a double fee shall be charged for registra- 
tion of all greyhounds (other than saplings) after that date to the 
end of the coursing season immediately following. Any owner 
may, by payment of il. annually, compound for the registration 
of any number of greyhounds bond fide his own property. The 
keeper of the Stud Book shall give a receipt for the registration 
fee of every greyhound, which shall be called a certificate of 
registration. 

5. The Greyhound Stud Book shall be published under the 
authority of the National Coursing Club, on September i, or as 
soon after as possible, 

6. Applications for registration of greyhounds shall be made 
on or before July i, and registrations applied for subsequent to 
that date that do not appear in the Stud Book of that year will 
appear in that of the following year. 

7. If the same name has been given to more than one grey- 
hound, the keeper of the Stud Book shall give priority to the dog 
first registered, and shall add to every other such name, except the 
one first registered, a numeral commencing with II. 

8. All greyhounds whose names do not appear in the Stud Book, 

D D 



402 COUA'S/NG 

or whose owners cannot produce a certificate of registration from 
the keeper of the Stud Book on being required to do so by a 
steward or the secretary of any coursing meeting, shall be dis- 
qualified, and shall forfeit all entry moneys which may have been 
paid, and any stake or prize, or share of any stake or prize won at 
such meeting, and such entry moneys, stake, or prize or share 
thereof, won by any dog so disqualified, shall be disposed of as 
provided by Rule ;^7 applicable to disqualification. 

9. Payment of Entry Money.— All moneys due for nomi- 
nations taken must be paid at or before the time fixed for closing 
the entry, whether the stakes fill or not, and although, from in- 
sufficient description or any other cause, the dogs named may be 
disqualified. No entry shall be valid unless the amount due for it 
has been paid in full. For all produce and other stakes where a 
forfeit is payable no declaration is necessary ; the non-payment of 
the remainder of the entry money at the time fixed for that pur- 
pose is to be considered a declaration of forfeit. The secretary is 
to be responsible for the entry money of all dogs whose names appear 
upon the card. 

10. Alteration of Name. — If any subscriber should enter 
a greyhound by a different name from that in which it shall have 
last been entered to run in public, or shall have been registered in 
the Stud Book, he shall give notice of the alteration to the secretary 
at the time of entry, and the secretary shall place on the card both 
the late and the present names of the dog, and this must be done 
at all meetings at which the dog runs throughout the coursing 
season in which the alteration has been made. If notice of the 
alteration be not given, the dog shall be disqualified. The new 
name must be registered before the dog can run under it. 

11. Prefix of ' Ns.' — Any subscriber taking an entry in a 
stake must prove to the satisfaction of the stewards, if called, upon 
by them to do so, that any greyhound entered by him, without the 
prefix of the word ' Names,' is domi fide his own property. If a 
subscriber enters a dog not his own property without putting ' ins ' 
after his own name, the dog so entered shall be disqualified. 
Every subscriber shall, if requested, deliver in writing to the 
secretary of the meeting the name of the bo?td fide owner of the 
greyhound named by him, and this communication is to be pro- 
duced should any dispute arise. No dog purchased or procured 
for a less time than the entire period still remaining of its public 
running, or belonging to two or more persons, unless they are 



APPENDIX 403 

declared confederates, shall be held as bond fide the property of a 
subscriber. The names of confederates must be registered with 
the keeper of the Stud Book — fee, \s. for each name. Assumed 
names must also be registered with the keeper of the Stud Book — 
fee, 5 guineas. 

12. Death of a Subscriber. — The death of a subscriber 
shall only affect his nominations if it occur before the draw, in 
which case, subject to the exceptions stated below, they shall be 
void, whether the entries have been made or not, and any money 
received for forfeits or stakes shall be returned, less the proportion 
of expenses when the amount has been advertised, and when the 
nominations rendered vacant are not filled by other subscribers. 
If he has parted with all interest in the nominations, and dogs not 
his property are entered and paid for, such entries shall not subse- 
quently be disturbed. When dogs that have been entered in 
produce stakes change owners, with their engagements and with 
their forfeits paid, the then owner, if entitled to run them in those 
stakes, shall not be prevented from doing so by reason of the death 
of the former owner. 

13. Draw. — Immediately before the greyhounds are drawn at 
any meeting, and before nine o'clock on every subsequent evening 
during the continuance of such meeting, the time and place of 
putting the first brace of dogs into the slips on the following morn- 
ing shall be declared. A card or counter, bearing a corresponding 
number, shall be assigned to each entry. These numbered cards 
or counters shall then be placed together and drawn indiscrimi- 
nately. This classification, once made, shall not be disturbed 
throughout the meeting, except for the purpose of guarding, or on 
account of byes. 

14. Guarding. — When two or more nominations in a stake 
are taken in one name, the greyhounds, if bond fide the property 
of the same owner, shall be guarded throughout. This is always 
to be arranged, as far as possible, by bringing up dogs from below 
to meet those which are to be guarded. This guarding is not, 
however, to deprive any dog of a natural bye to which he may be 
entitled, either in the draw or in running through the stake. Dogs 
whose position has been altered in consequence of guarding or of 
byes, must return to their original position in the next round, if 
guarding does not prevent it. 

15. Byes. — A natural bye shall be given to the lowest available 
dog in each round. No dog shall run a second such bye in any 

DD 2 



404 COURSING 

stake, unless it is unavoidable. When a dog is entitled to a bye, 
either natural or accidental, his owner or nominator may run any 
greyhound he pleases to assist in the course, provided always that 
in sapling stakes only a sapling may be used, and in puppy stakes 
none older than a puppy. But if it is proved to the satisfaction of 
the stewards that no sapling or puppy respectively can be found to 
run an accidental bye, an older dog may be used. No dog shall run 
any bye earlier than his position on the card entitles him to do. 
The slip and the course in a bye shall be the same as in a course 
in which a decision is required, and the judge shall decide whether 
enough has been done to constitute a course, or whether it must 
be run again, and in the latter case the judge shall give the order. 
If at the commencement of any round in a stake, one dog in each 
course of that round has a bye, those byes shall not be run, but 
the dogs shall take their places for the next round as if the byes 
had been run. A bye must be run before a dog can claim the 
advantage of it. 

i6. Slip Steward. — The committee of an open meeting and 
the members of a club meeting shall appoint, on the first evening 
of a meeting, a slip steward, whose duty shall be to see that every 
greyhound is brought to slips in its proper turn, to report to the 
stewards, without delay, any greyhound that does not come to the 
slips in time, and any act on the part of the slipper, nominators, 
or their representatives, which he may consider should be brought 
to their knowledge. If a nominator or his representative should 
refuse to comply with the directions of the slip steward, or should 
use abusive and insulting language towards him, the stewards may 
inflict a penalty not exceeding 2/. on the person so offending. 

17. Postponement of Meeting. — A meeting appointed to 
take place on a certain day may, if a majority of the committee 
and the stewards (if appointed) consider the weather unfit for 
coursing, be postponed from day to day ; but if the running does 
not commence within the current week all nominations shall be 
void, and the expenses shall be paid by the subscribers, in propor- 
tion to the value of nominations taken by each. In the case of 
produce stakes, however, the original entries shall continue binding 
if the meeting is held at a later period of the season. 

18. Taking Dogs to the Slips.— Every dog must be brought 
to the slips in its proper turn, without delay, under a penalty of il. 
if absent for more than ten minutes (according to the report of 
the slip steward or of one of the stewards), its opponent shall be 



APPENDIX 405 

entitled to claim the course, subject to the discretion of the stewards, 
and shall in that case run a bye. If both dogs be absent at the 
expiration of ten minutes, the stewards shall have power to dis- 
qualify both dogs, or to fine their owners any sum not exceeding 
5/. each. The nominator is answerable for his dog being put into 
the slips at the right time, on the right side, and against the right 
dog. No allowance shall be made for mistakes. No dog shall be 
put into the slips for a deciding course until thirty minutes after 
its course in the previous round without the consent of its owner. 
See Rule 31. 

19. Control of Dogs in Slips. — The control of all matters 
connected with slipping the greyhounds shall rest with the stewards 
of a meeting. Owners or servants, after delivering their dogs into 
the hands of the slipper, may follow close after them, but not so 
as to inconvenience the slipper, or in any way interfere with the 
dogs, under a penalty of \l. Neither must they holloa them on 
while running, under the same penalty. Any greyhound found to 
be beyond control in the slips may, by order of the stewards, be 
taken out of the slips and disqualified. 

20. Greyhounds of Same Colour to Wear Collars. — 
When two greyhounds drawn together are of the same colour, 
they shall each wear a collar, and the owners shall be subject to 
a penalty of \os. for non-observance of this rule. The colour of 
the collar shall be red for the left-hand side, and white for the 
right-hand side of the slips. The upper dog on the card must be 
placed on the left hand, and the lower dog on the right hand of 
the slips. 

21. The order to slip may be given by the judge, or the slip 
steward, or the stewards of a meeting may leave the slip to the 
sole discretion of the slipper. The length of slip must necessarily 
vary with the nature of the ground, but should never be less than 
from three to four score yards, and must be maintained of one 
uniform length, as far as possible, throughout each stake. 

22. The Slipper. — If one greyhound gets out of the slips, 
the slipper shall not let the other go. In any case of slips break- 
ing, and either or both dogs getting away in consequence, the 
slipper may be fined not exceeding i/., at the discretion of the 
stewards. 

23. The judge shall be subject to the general rules which may 
be established by the National Coursing Club for his guidance. 
He shall, on the termination of each course, immediately deliver 



4o6 COURSING 

his decision aloud, and shall not recall or reverse his decision, on 
any pretext whatever, after it has been declared ; but no decision 
shall be delivered until the judge is perfectly satisfied that the course 
is absolutely terminated. 

24. The judge shall decide all courses upon the one uniform 
principle that the greyhound which does most towards killing the 
hare during the continuance of the course is to be declared the 
winner. The principle is to be carried out by estimating the value 
of the work done by each greyhound, as seen by the judge, upon 
a balance of points according to the scale hereafter laid down, 
from which also are to be deducted certain specified allowances 
and penalties. 

25. The points of the course are — 

a. Speed— \\'\uc\\ shall be estimated as one, two, or three points, 

according to the degree of superiority shown. [See definition 
below (a).] 

b. The Go-bye. — Two points, or if gained on the outer circle, three 

points. 

c. The Titrn. — One point. 

d. The ^r^;/f/!. — Half a point. 

e. The Kill. — Two points, or, in a descending scale, in proportion to 

the degree of merit displayed in that kill, which may be of no 
value. 
/ The 7>z>.— One point. 

Definition of Points 

{a. ) In estimating the value of speed to the hare, the judge must take 
into account the several forms in which it may be displayed, 
viz : — 

1. Where in the run up a clear lead is gained by one of the dogs, in 

which case one, two, or three points may be given, according to 
the length of lead, apart from the score for a turn or wrench. 
In awarding these points the judge shall take into consideration 
the merit of a lead obtained by a dog which has lost ground at 
the start, either from being unsighted or from a bad slip, or 
which has had to run the outer circle. 

2. Where one greyhound leads the other so long as the hare runs 

straight, but loses the lead from her bending round decidedly in 
favour of the slower dog of her own accord, in which case the 
one greyhound shall score one point for the speed shown, and the 
other dog score one point for the first turn. 



APPENDIX 407 

3. Under no circumstances is speed without subsequent work to be 
allowed to decide a course, except where great superiority is 
shown by one greyhound over another in a long lead to covert. 

If a dog, after gaining the first six points, still keeps possession 
of the hare by superior speed, he shall have double the prescribed 
allowance for the subsequent points made before his opponent 
begins to score. 

b. The Go-bye is where a greyhound starts a clear length behind his 

opponent, and yet passes him in a straight run, and gets a clear 
length before him. 

c. The Turn is where the hare is brought round at not less than a 

right angle from her previous line. 

d. The Wrench is where the hare is bent from her line at less than a 

right angle ; but where she only leaves her line to suit herself, 
and not from the greyhound pressing her, nothing is to be 
allowed. 

e. The Merit of a Kill must be estimated according to whether a 

greyhound, by his own superior dash and skill, bears the hare ; 
whether he picks her up through any little accidental circum- 
stances favouring him, or whether she is turned into his mouth, 
as it were, by the other greyhound. 
f. The Trip, or unsuccessful effort to kill, is where the hare is 
thrown off her legs, or where a greyhound flecks her, but cannot 
hold her. 

26. The following allowances shall be made for accidents to a 
greyhound during a course ; but in every case they shall only be 
deducted from the other dog's score : — 

a. For losing ground at the start, either from being unsighted, or 
from a bad slip, in which case the judge is to decide what 
amount of allowance is to be made, on the principle that the 
score of the foremost dog is not to begin until the second has had 
an opportunity of joining in the course, and the judge may decide 
the course or declare the course to be an undecided or no course, 
as he may think fit. 

I). Where a hare bears very decidedly in favour of one of the grey- 
hounds, after the first or subsequent turns, in which case the next 
point shall not be scored by the dog unduly favoured, or only 
half his points allowed, according to circumstances, No grey- 
hound shall receive any allowance for a fall or an accident, with 
the exception of being ridden over by the owner of the cbmpet- 



4o8 COURSING 

ing greyhound, or his servant, provided for by Rule 30 or when 
pressing his hare, in which case his opponent shall not count the 
next point made 

27. Penalties are as follow : — 

a. Where a greyhound, from his own defect, refuses to follow the 

hare at which he is slipped, he shall lose the course. 

b. Where a dog wilfully stands still in a course, or departs from 

directly pursuing the hare, no points subsequently made by him 
shall be scored ; and if the points made by him up to that time 
be just equal to those made by his antagonist in the whole 
course, he shall thereby lose the course ; but where one or both 
dogs stop with the hare in view, through inability to continue 
the course, it shall be decided according to the number of points 
gained by each dog during the whole course. 

c. If a dog refuses to fence where the other fences, any points sub- 

sequently made by him are not to be scored ; but if he does his 
best to fence, and is foiled by sticking in a meuse, the course 
shall end there. When the points are equal, the superior fencer 
shall win the course. 

28. If a second hare be started during a course, and one of the 
dogs follow her, the course shall end there. 

29. Greyhound Getting Loose.— Any person allowing a 
greyhound to get loose, and join in a course which is being run, 
shall be fined i/. If the loose greyhound belong to either of the 
owners of the dogs engaged in the particular course, such owner 
shall forfeit his chance of the stake with the dog then running, 
unless he can prove, to the satisfaction of the stewards, that he had 
not been able to get the loose greyhound taken up after running 
its own course. The course is not to be considered as necessarily 
ended when a third dog joins in. 

30. Riding Over a Greyhound.— If any subscriber, or his 
servant, shall ride over his opponent's greyhound while running a 
course, Ae owner of the dog so ridden over shall (although the 
course be given against him) be deemed the winner of it, or shall 
have the option of allowing the other dog to remain and run out 
the stake, and in such case shall be entitled to half its winnings. 

31. A 'no course' is when by accident or by the shortness of 
the course the dogs are not tried together, and if one be then 
drawn the other must run a bye, unless the judge on being appealed 
to shall decide that he has done work enough to be exempted from 
it. ' An undecided course ' is where the judge considers the merits 



APPENDIX 409 

of the dogs equal, and if either is then drawn the other cannot 
be required to run a bye ; but the owners must at the time declare 
which dog remains in. (See Rule 33.) The judge shall signify 
the distinction between a 'no course' and an 'undecided' by taking 
off his hat in the latter case only. After an ' undecided ' or 'no 
course,' if the dogs before being taken up get on another or the 
same hare, the judge must follow, and shall decide in favour of 
one if he considers that there has been a sufficient trial to justify 
his doing so. A ' no course ' or an ' undecided ' may be run off 
immediately, if claimed on behalf of both dogs before the next 
brace are put into the slips, or in case of ' no course ' if so ordered 
by the judge, otherwise it shall be run again after the two next 
courses, unless it stand over till the next morning, when it shall be 
the first course run ; if it is the last course of the day, fifteen 
minutes shall be allowed after both dogs are taken up. 

32. The judge shall render an explanation of any decision only 
to the stewards of the meeting if required, through them, before 
the third succeeding course, by the owner, or nominator, or repre- 
sentative of the owner or nominator, of either of the greyhounds 
engaged in the course. The stewards shall, if requested to do so, 
express their opinion whether the explanation is satisfactory or not, 
and their opinion in writing may be asked for and published after- 
wards, but the decision of the judge, once given, shall not be 
reversed for any cause. 

33. Withdrawal of a Dog.— If a dog be withdrawn from 
any stake on the field, its owner, or some one having his authority, 
must at once give notice to the secretary, or flag, or slip steward. 
If the dog belongs to either of these officials, the notice must be 
given to the other. When, after a ' no course ' or an ' undecided,' 
one of the greyhounds has been officially drawn, and the dogs are 
again, by mistake, put into slips and run a course, the arrange- 
ment come to shall stand, whatever the judge's decision may be, 
and all bets on the course shall be void. 

34. Impugning Judge. — If any subscriber, owner, or any other 
person, proved to be interested, openly impugns the decision of the 
judge on the ground, except by a complaint to the stewards, 
according to Rule 32, he shall forfeit not more than 5/., nor less 
than 2/., at the discretion of the stewards 

35. Stakes not Run Out.— When two greyhounds remain 
in for the deciding course, the stakes shall be considered divided 
if they belong to the same owner, or to confederates, and also if 



4IO COURSING 

the owner of one of the two dogs induces the owner of the other 
to draw him for any payment or consideration ; but if one of the 
two be drawn without payment or consideration, from lameness, 
or from any cause clearly affecting his chance of winning, the 
other may be declared the winner, the facts of the case being 
clearly proved to the satisfaction of the stewards. The same rule 
shall apply when more than two dogs remain in at the end of a 
stake which is not run out ; and in case of a division between three 
or more dogs, of which two or more belong to the same owner, 
these latter shall be held to take equal shares of the total amount 
received by their owner in a division. When there is a compulsory 
division all greyhounds remaining in the class that is being run, 
even where one is entitled to a bye, shall take equal shares. The 
terms of any arrangement to divide winnings, and the amount of 
any money given to induce the owner of a dog to draw him, must 
be declared to the secretary. 

36. Winners of Stakes Running Together.— If two or 
more greyhounds shall each win a stake, and have to run 
together for a final prize or challenge cup, should they not have 
run an equal number of ties in their respective stakes, the grey- 
hound which has run the smaller number of courses must run a 
bye, or byes, to put itself upon an equality in this respect with its 
opponent. 

2,7. Objections. — An objection to a greyhound may be made 
to any one of the stewards of a meeting at any time before the 
stakes are paid over, upon the objector lodging in the hands of 
such steward, or the secretary, the sum of 5/. which shall be for- 
feited if the objection proves frivolous, or if he shall not bring the 
case before the next meeting of the National Coursing Club, or 
give notice to the stewards previous thereto of his intention to 
withdraw the objection. The owner of the greyhound objected 
to must deposit equally the sum of 5/., and prove the correctness 
of his entry. Expenses in consequence of an objection shall be 
borne as the National Coursing Club may direct. Should an 
objection be made which cannot at the time be substantiated or 
disproved, the greyhound may be allowed to run under protest, the 
stewards retaining the winnings until the objection has been with- 
drawn, or heard and decided. If the greyhound objected to be 
disqualified, the amount to which he would otherwise have been 
entitled shall be divided equally among the dogs beaten by him ; 
and if a piece of plate or prize has been added, and won by him, 



APPENDIX All 

only the dogs which he beat in the several rounds shall have a right 
to contend for it. 

•^Z. Defaulters. — No person shall be allowed to enter or run 
a greyhound, in his own or any other person's name, who is a 
defaulter for either stakes, forfeits, or bets, or for money due under 
an arrangement for a division of winnings, or for penalties regularly 
imposed for the infraction of rules by the stewards of any meeting, 
or for any payment required by a decision of the National Coursing 
Club, or for subscriptions due to any club entitled to have repre- 
sentatives in the National Coursing Club. As regards bets, how- 
ever, this rule shall only apply when a complaint is lodged with 
the secretary of the National Coursing Club within six months 
after the bet becomes due. On receipt of such complaint the 
secretary shall give notice of the claim to the person against whom 
it is made, with a copy of this rule, and if he shall not pay the bet, 
or appear before the next meeting of the National Coursing Club, 
and resist the claim successfully, he shall be considered a defaulter. 

39. Judge or Slipper Interested.— If a judge or slipper 
be in any way interested in the winnings of a greyhound or grey- 
hounds, the owner and nominator in each case, unless they can 
prove satisfactorily that such interest was without their cognisance, 
shall forfeit all claim to the winnings, and the dog shall be dis- 
qualified ; and if any nominator or owner of greyhounds shall 
give, offer, or lend money, or anything of value, to any judge or 
slipper, such owner or nominator shall not be allowed to run dogs 
in his own or any other person's name during any subsequent 
period that the National Coursing Club may decide upon. 

40. Any person who is proved to the satisfaction of the 
National Coursing Club to have been guilty of any fraudulent or 
discreditable conduct in connection with coursing, may, in addition 
to any pecuniar}- penalty to which he may be liable, be declared 
incapable of running or entering a greyhound in his own or any 
other person's name during any subsequent period that the National 
Coursing Club may decide upon ; and any dogs under his care, 
training, management, or superintendence, shall be disqualified 
during such subsequent period. 

41. Bets. — All bets upon an undecided course shall stand 
unless one of the greyhounds be drawn. All bets upon a dog 
running further than another in the stake shall be p.p., whatever 
accident may happen. Bets upon a deciding, as upon every other 
course, are off, if the course is not run. Long odds bets shall be 



412 COURSING 

void, unless the greyhound the bet refers to shall run one course 
in the stake, other than a bye, after the bet is made. Long odds 
bets, with this exception, shall be p.p. 

. 42. Bets on Stakes Divided.— Where money has been laid 
against a dog winning a stake, and he divides it, the two sums 
must be put together and divided in the same proportion as the 
value of the stakes. 



INDEX 



Accidents to greyhounds during 
a course, allowances for, 407 
Achinduich moors, Sutherland- 
shire, 266, 269, 272 
A.-U.-C. (eyess tiercel), 269 
Adrian (ger-tiercel), 361 
Aldama, Comte Alphonse de, 

346, 363 

Alec Halliday, 114 

Alexander, Prince, of the 
Netherlands, 356 

Alexandra Palace, Muswell 
Hill, hawking at, 363 

Altcar Coursing Club, 181 ; its 
influence on coursing, 182 ; 
prestige of membership, 183 ; 
predominance of Lancashire 
members, 183 ; the Cup, 184 ; 
matches (i860, 1864) at Ash- 
down and Amesbury, 184 ; 
representative members in 
1863, 185 ; circular issued by 
the committee of the Ames- 
bury match in 1864, 186 ; the 
Altcar Club's circular, 188 ; 
discussion on guarding, 189 ; 
results of the meetings, 191- 
196 ; present position, 231 

Altcar coursing ground, 9, 157 

Altcar Plate, the, 9 

Alvanley, Lord, 357 



Amesbury (passage falcon), 269 

Amesbury coursing ground, 157, 
227 

Anderson, John (falconer), 343, 
344, 352 

Angela (passage falcon), 269 

Angus, Mr., of Whitfield, 198 

Anne, Major, 366 

Annie Macpherson, 144 

Annoyance, 127 

Archdale, Captain, 112 

Arrian, quoted on coursing, 3, 4 

Ashdown Park Champion Meet- 
ing, 191, 192 

Ashdown Park Coursing Club, 
179, 181, 184 

Astley, Sir John D., 112 

AthoU, Duke of, 344 

Avery Hill, 29 

Aurora (passage hawk), 304 

Ayrshire, hawking in, 269 

Bab-at-the-Bowster, 13-15, 
132, 133, 146, 147, 149, 150 

Bacchante (haggard falcon), 304 

Bachelor, 159, 160 

Bag for falconers, 249, 250 

Balfour, J., 356 

Ballangeich, 116 

Ballantyne, Peter (falconer), his 
method of training hawks, 



414 



COURSING AND FALCONRY 



257 ; record of game killed 
in hawking, 269 ; professional 
career, 343-345 

Banchory, 20 

Barbary falcons, 243, 325 

Barr, James, in Iceland for ger- 
falcons, 312, 346 

Barr, John (falconer), 304, 305 ; 
in Iceland for gerfalcons, 312 ; 
in Norway for same, 314 ; his 
professional career, 345-347? 

351. 358, 363 
Barr, Robert (falconer), 304, 

345. 346, 351. 357, 358 
Barr, William (falconer), his 

professional career, 345 
Barrator, 161 
Batt, R. N., 120 
Beacon, 126, 148, 162 
Beckford, 1 1 
Bed of Stone, 15, 16, 135, 137, 

147, 151 

Bedlamite, 148, 160 

Belany on falconry, 239 

Belfry (eyess tiercel), 269 

Bell, I. Lowthian, 200 

Bella Dobson, 46 

Belle of Scotland, 13 

Bellini, 158 

Bells for hawks, 247, 248, 267 

Bendimer, 16 

Berners, Dame Juliana, on 
coursing, 6 ; on falconry, 237 

Berners, Lord, 349, 350, 355 

Bert's ' Treatise on Hawks and 
Hawking,' 237 ; on short- 
winged hawks, 328, 331 

Betting on greyhounds, 401, 402 

Bewits, 251 

Bibby, Mr. J. Hartley, 34 

Biddulph, Captain, 326 ; his 
improvement on the ordinary 
hawk's perch, 384 



BOW 

Biere, 39 

Birkdale kennel, 30 

Bishop Juxon, 150 

Bit of Fashion, 43, 44, 53, 148, 
169, 170, 190, 196 

Blackbird hawking, 339 

Blackcloud, 134 

Blackgame hawking, 272 

Black Veil, 42, 43 

Blome's ' Gentleman's Recrea- 
tions,' on falconry, 237, 324 

Boanerges, 127, 132, 133 

Boardman, H. B., 229 

Bois-le-Duc (passage hawk), 
296,297, 299, 301, 360 

Bootiman (slipper), 25, 34, 157, 
215 

Border Union coursing ground, 
157 

Border Union Meeting, 40 

Boreas, 128, 129 

Borron, W. G., 220 

Borrow, Mr., 14 

Boswell, Sir James, 344 

Bothal Coursing Club, the, 197 ; 
its Stud Book, 197 ; early 
days, 198 ; large entries for 
produce stakes in the open, 
198 ; decadence and revival 
of its meetings, 198, 199 ; 
character of the coursing 
ground, 199 

Bothal Park, 141, 142, 148, 162 

Bots, Arnold (Dutch falconer), 

349 
Bots, James (Dutch falconer), 

312, 349 
Bots, Jan (Dutch falconer), 349 
Bower, Mr., record of his sport 

with the sparrow-hawk, 340 ; 

his manner of flying, 340, 341 
Bow-nets, 259, 281 
Bow-perch, 336, 369-371 



INDEX 



415 



BRA 

Brabant, North, catching pas- 
sage hawks in, 278 

Brail, the, for hawks, 248, 251 

Braw Lass, 18 

Breeding of greyhounds, 50 ; the 
Misterton— Gulnare II. com- 
bination, 51 ; Macpherson— 
Rota combination, 52 ; Ptar- 
migan — Gallant Foe, 5^ 5 
Greentick — Bit of Fashion, 

53 ; Macpherson's represen- 
tatives, 54 ; Clyto's pedigree, 

54 ; Clyto IV., 55 ; Cui Bono, 
55, 56 ; failing in the produce 
of Greentick, 56; in-breeding, 
57 ; general resemblance and 
measurements, 58 ; tabulated 
pedigrees -Misterton, 60-65 '■> 
Macpherson, 66-69 '■> Green- 
tick, 70-73 ; practical : selec- 
tion of blood bitches, 74 ; size 
in matrons, 74, 75 ; proper 
season for litters, 76 ; sap- 
lings, 76 ; exercise for the 
bitch during pregnancy, 77 ; 
the accouchement chamber 
and its appurtenances, ^'J ; 
medical treatment of a preg- 
nant or suckling bitch, 78 ; 
cure of follicular mange or 
eczema, 78, 79 ; remedy for 
constipation, 80 ; diet after 
parturition, 80 ; what to do 
when the litters are too big 
for the bitch to suckle, 81 ; 
the theory that the moral 
attributes as a foster-mother 
are assimilated with the milk, 
81 ; selection of superfluous 
puppies for destruction, 81 ; 
discrimination of the choice 
whelps, 82 ; the treatment 
of early whelps, 82 ; bottle- 



BUR 

feeding, 83 ; first foods for 
pups, 83 ; detection and rid- 
dance of worms, 83-85 ; dis- 
temper, 85, 87, 88; the 
question of ' walks ' and 
proper exercise, 86 ; food, 
87 ; butchers as ' walkers,' 88 ; 
overhauling the ' walks,' 88 ; 
training treatment of saplings, 
90 ; purging them of parasitic 
pests, 91 ; removal to kennels 
and subjecting to discipline, 
91, 92 ; accustoming to coup- 
lings and leads, 93 ; alternate 
horse and ' led ' exercise, 93 ; 
choice of trial-grounds, 94 ; 
sapling stakes, 94, 95 ; class- 
ing saplings, 96 ; medicine 
and diet for puppyhood, 96, 
97 ; entering for early pro- 
duces takes, 97 

Brice, Mr., 45, 156, 205 

Brigade, 13 

Brigadier, 11, 128, 148, 162 

Brighton Downs, rook hawking 
on, 294 

Bristol, Marquis of, 233 

Britain Still, 115 

Brocklebank, Harold, 34, 182, 
185 

Brocklebank, Sir Thomas, 39, 
42, 229 

Brood bitches, selection of, 74 

Brooksbank, Colonel, 269 

Brown, David, quoted, on the 
Ridgway Coursing Club, 218 

Brummagem Man, 39 

Buccaneer (tiercel), 263 n., 274, 

361 
Buckskin gloves, falconers', 249 
Bugle, 134, 160 
Bull -dog (falcon), 356 
Burlador, 24 



4i6 



COURSING AND FALCONRY 



Buinaby, 21, 114, 151, 153 
Burton's ' Falcon^ in the 
valley of the Indus,' on sacres, 

325 
Butcher birds, 282 
Bute, Marquis of, 304, 345, 346 
Button Park, 29, 30, 33 
Byes in coursing, 403 

Cabra (hawk), 361 

Cadge, the, for hawks, 248, 251, 

298, 372 
Cafley, J., 19, 1 39 
Cagliostro, 53, 149 
Calix, 56 
Cambridgeshire, rook hawking 

in, 294 
Camerino, 32 
Campbell, Ivie, 136 
Campbell, on falconry, 238 
Canaradzo, ii, 126, 127, 133, 

147-149 
Cangaroo, 114, 115 
Canteleu, Count le Couteulx de, 

363 

Cardinal York, 148 
Carmarthen, Lord, 344, 349 
Carmichael coursing ground, 

157 
Carpenter, Admiral, -214 
Carrion crows, 372 n. 
Carruthers, G., 158 
Case, T. H., iii, 113, 120 
Cashier, 148, 161 
Castings, 251 
Castlemartin, 28 
Catterick Coursing Meeting, 217 
Cauld Kail, 58, 138, 161 
Cavalier, 138 
Celebrated, 139 
Cerito, 10, 124, 135, 136, 147 
Champagne Hawking Club, 304, 

346, 363 



CLU 

Champion Stakes, Kempton, 
116, 117 

Character, 30 

Charioteer, 42 

Charles I., public coursing in 
his reign, 6 

Charming Belle, 198 

Charming May, 13 

Cheer Boys, 190, 196 

Chesterfield, Lord, 357 

Chloe, II, 103, 125, 147, 148 

Chock, 46 

Cioloja, II, 126, 127 

Cissy Smith, 46, 47 

Clamor, 56 

Claret, 158, 159 

Cliffe and Hundred of Hoo As- 
sociation for the Preservation 

■ of Hares and Wildfowl, 181, 
200; its meetings, 201 ; head- 
quarters, 202 ; character of 
the coursing ground, 203; the 
sport, 204, 205 ; anecdote of 
the rail, 205, 206 

Clifton, Talbot, 222 

Clive, II, 125 

Cloudy Night, 35 

Clubs, coursing, early, 179; 
rules of membership, 180; 
members of the Malton in 
1828, 180 ; foundation of the 
Altcar, 181 ; supersession of 
its club gatherings by open 
meetings, 181 ; modern asso- 
ciations, 181 ; position of the 
Altcar, 182, 231 ; this club's 
matches and meetings (i860, 
1864), 184-196 ; the Bothal, 
197-200 ; the Cliffe and 
Hundred of Hoo, 181, 200- 
205 ; the Eastern Counties, 
231 ; the Essex, 207-211 ; 
the Lichfield, 211, 212; the 



INDEX 



417 



CLU 
North of England, 213-218, 
231 ; the Ridgway, 218-222, 
231 ; the Sleaford, 223-225 ; 
the South of England, 225- 
227 ; the Stock Exchange, 
231 ; the West Cumberland, 
228-231 

Clubs, hawking, 314, 3^6, 34^, 
352-364 

Clyto, 54, 55> 148, 161 

ClytoIV., 55 

Cock Robin, 13 

Code of Rules of the National 
Coursing Club, 400-412 

Cod liver oil, use of, for dog's 
disorders, 85, 91 

Coke, Archie, 156 

Coke, J., 30, 47, 156 

Collars, to be worn by dogs of 
same colour, 405 

Confederate Hawks of Great 
Britain, 353, 354 

Conster, 1 1 1 

Contango, 137, 148, 161 

Coomassie, 17- 19, 139, I47 

Coot hawking, 334 

Corbet, W., his hawking estab- 
lishment, 365 

Corbett, V. W., 214 

Corby establishment, 41 

Cornwall, seagull hawking in, 
302 

Cosgrave, E. (falconer), 352, 

364 

Cottage Girl, 198 

Countryman, 44, 141 

Coursers, opinions of, on grey- 
hounds, 145-168 ; penalties 
on fraudulent, 411 

Coursing, antiquity of, 3 ; Arrian 
quoted on, 4 ; Queen Eliza- 
beth's ' Laws of the Leash or 
Coursing,' 4-6 ; in Charles 



BAR 
L's reign, 6 ; the points of a 
course, 7, 406 ; the Waterloo 
Cup and its winners and run- 
ners-up, 8-49 ; on breeding, 
50-59 '■> pedigree tables of 
celebrated dogs, 60-73 ; 
practical greyhound breeding, 
74-89 ; treatment of saplings 
90-97 ; the greyhound's train- 
ing, 98-100 ; enclosed cours- 
ing, 1 1 1- 1 23 ; celebrated grey- 
hounds of the past, 124-144; 
opinions of noted coursers on 
greyhounds and their per- 
formances, 145-171; descrip- 
tion and points of a grey- 
hound, 172-178 ; clubs, 179- 
231 ; officials of clubs and 
courses, 39i-395» 397-399; 
public trainers, 396 ; code 
cf rules of the National 
Coursing Club, 400-412 
' Coursing Calendar,' quoted, 

139 

Crabbe, Major Bingham, 352 ; 
hawking establishment of, 365 
Crawford, Stirling, 357 
Creole (passage falcon), 269 
Crocus (falcon), 316 
Cross, E. M., 229 
Croxteth Stakes, 44 
Cui Bono, 55, 56 
Curiosity, 134, 142 
Czarina, 158 

Daams, Frank (falconer), 348 
Daams, Jan (falconer), profes- 
sional career of, 348 
Daankers, J. L. (falconer), 348 
Dagmar, 148 
Daintree, Captain, 159 
Daniel, on coursing, 6 
Dark Rustic, 1 1 1 

E E 



4i8 



COURSING AND FALCONRY 



DAV 

Davenport, Mr., i8o 

David, 147, 148, 158, 160 

Deacon, 1 1 

Dear Eleanor, 28 

Death of a subscriber (coursing), 

403 
Deceit, 112 

Defaulters, coursing, 411 
Definition of points in coursing, 

406 
De Grey Cup, 44 
Dent, Edward, on coursing, 

29, 150, 152, 154, 155, 165, 

168 
De Ruyter (falconer), 356, 357 
Dervock, 130 
Desert falcons, 324 
Destiny (tiercel), 362 n. 
Devastation, 19 
Dhuleep Singh, Maharajah, 304, 

311, 345, 346, 358 
Dhuleep Singh (tiercel), 274 
Dickens, Charles, and the Bull 

Hotel, Rochester, 202 
Didlington, Norfolk, hawking 

at, 291, 348, 349, 355 
Dillon, 30 
Diseases of greyhounds, 83-88, 

91 ; of hawks, and their treat- 
ment, 383-389 
Disguise, 228 
Distemper, 85, 87, S2, 
Dixon, Anthony, 228, 229 
Dixon, Thomas, 229 
Dobson, F., 165 
Dogs, use of, in hawking, 263, 

264, 266-268 
Donald, 17 

Doncaster coursing ground, 119 
Dovrefeld, the, falcon-catching 

huts on, 316 
Downes, Mr., of Gunton, 349 
Downpour, 22, 47 



ENC 

Druid (eyess tiercel), 297, 359 
' Duck-killer,' the (passage 

hawk), 286 
Dugmore, Captain F. S., 346, 

347, 363 
Duke Macpherson, 21, 153, 154 
Duncombe, Hon. Cecil, 297, 357 
Dunmail, 228 
Dunn, Nathaniel, of Newcastle, 

197, 199 
Dutch bells for hawks, 248 
Dutch falconers, 240, 241, 28 1- 

286, 312, 348-350 
Dutch hoods for hawks, 243- 

245 
Dwyer, E. (falconer), 352, 365 

Early Morn, hi 

East, Joshua, 226 

East Kent Coursing Club, 118 

Eastern Counties Coursing Club, 
231 

Eczema in dogs, 78, 79, 90 

Eden, Sir William, 214 

Edwin Greentick, 56, 76 

Eglinton, Earl of, 343 

Elizabeth, Queen, her ' Laws of 
the Leash or Coursing,' 4-6 

Elkington, Messrs., of Regent 
Street, 208 

Ellis, Hon. W. C, 197-199, 
196, 214 

^EUis, William, 149, 165 

Elsa (passage falcon), 304, 360 

El Soudan, 198 

Elveden, gerfalcons at, 313 

Empress (falcon), 360 

Enclosed coursing, 1 1 1 ; Plump- 
ton, hi; its patrons, 112; 
effects of the Ground Game 
Act, 112; Grand Produce 
Stakes, 113; Gosforth, 113; 
winners and runners-up at 



INDEX 



419 



ENC 
Gosforth frcm 181 1 to 
1889, 114-I16; winners and 
runners-up of Champion 
Stakes, Kempton, 116, 117; 
Haydock Park, 117; Wye 
Racecourse, 118; Four Oaks 
Park, 118; Doncaster Cours- 
ing Company, 119; Mourne 
Park, r20 ; Purdysburn, 120 ; 
Trabolgan, 120; Holestone, 
122 ; effect of repeated run- 
ing in enclosed grounds on 
greyhounds, 122 ; evils of, 
164-166 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' the^ 

on falconry, 242 
England Yet, 150 
English falconers, 350-352 
Entries, coursing, 400-402 
Entry money, payment of, on 

nominations, 402 
Epsom Downs, hawking on, 

314, 363 
Eslington Coursing Meetirg, 216 
Essex Coursing Club, the, 207 
Evans, Mr., of Sawston, Cam- 
bridgeshire, 347 
Everley, Wiltshire, hawking at, 

237 
Ewen, Mr., of Ewenfield, Ayr, 
269, 344 

Faber Fortun/e, 41, 46 

Fabulous Fortune, 34-43 

P'air Floralie, 34, 37, 41 

Fair Floraline, 119 

Fair Fortune, 36, 37 

Falcon, definition of a, 252 ; 
breeding-places, 254 

Falconer, 31-35. 47 

falconers' Club {'The Con- 
federate Hawks of England '), 
316 ; Lord Orford and Colonel 



FAL 
Thornton managers, 353 ; 
advertisement of, 353 ; pre- 
sentation of silver urn to 
Colonel Thornton, 354 ; mem- 
bers of the club, 354, 355 ; 
Lord Berners manager, 355 ; 
wind-up of the club, 356 

Falconers, Dutch, 240, 241, 
281-286, 312, 348-350 ; Eng- 
lish, 350-352 ; Scotch, 240, 
242, 343-347 

Falconry, causes of its deca- 
dence, 235 ; suitable country 
for hawking, 236 ; the most 
ancient of sports, 237 ; Eng- 
lish works treating of, 237- 
239 ; Queen Elizabeth's inte- 
rest in, 237 ; extract from 
Shakespeare on, 238 ; foreign 
works on, 239 ; ancient and 
modern falconers contrasted, 
240, 241 ; management of 
passage hawks, 241 ; eyesses 
or nestling hawks, 242 ; hack- 
ing, 242 ; true falcons and 
short-winged hawks, 242, 
243 ; Dutch and Indian 
hoods, 243-245 ; rufter hoods, 
244, 245 ; jesses, 246, 252 ; 
bells, 247 ; the cadge 
and brail, 248, 251 ; the 
lure, 249 ; the falconer's bag, 
249 ; European and Oriental 
fashions of carrying hawks, 
249 n. ; use of the voice in 
training, 250 ; glossary of 
hawking terms, 251-253 ; 
breeding-places of the pere- 
grine falcon, 254 ; taking the 
young from the nest, 254 ; 
hawks at hack, 256 ; rearing, 
256 ; Ballantine's method, 
257 ; feeding, 259 ; use of 
E E 2 



420 



COURSING AND FALCONRY 



FAL 
the bow-net, 259 ; training, 

260 ; breaking to the hood, 

261 ; introducing the lure, 

262 ; early essays in killing, 
262 ; setting at pigeons, 263 ; 
at wild game, 263 ; dogs in 
aid, 263, 264, 266-268 ; 
making-in to hawks, 264 ; 
limits of date in killing, 264 ; 
effects of hawking on game, 
265 ; at grouse, 266 ; flushing 
game with setters, 268 ; at 
partridge, 268 ; Old Hawking 
Club's records of game killed, 
269, 270 ; putting the hawk 
up beforehand, 270 ; wild- 
duck sport, 271 ; falcon at 
woodcock, 272 ; snipe, phea- 
sant, and blackgame, 272 ; 
hares, 279 ; magpie hawking, 
274-276 ; superiority of the 
passage hawk to the eyess, 
277 ; its temper, 277 ; where 
and how to catch wild falcons, 
280-286 ; handling them after 
capture, 286 ; coaxing them 
to eat, 287 ; entering to the 
lure, 288-290 ; entering to 
the quarry, 290 ; heron hawk- 
ing, 290 ; at Didlington and 
Loo, 291 ; method of con- 
ducting the sport, 292, 293 ; 
kite hawking, 294 ; rook 
hawking, 294 ; the best flights 
at rooks, 295 ; hawks slipped 
dead up wind at rooks, 295 ; 
distastefulness of the rook 
quarry to the hawk, 296 ; 
how Bois-le-Duc was induced 
to fly at rooks, 296 ; eyesses 
and tiercels at rooks, 296 ; 
instructions for conducting 
this sport, 298 ; description 



of a flight at rooks, 299-301 ; 
sea-gull hawking, 302 ; dis- 
taste of hawks for the flesh of 
this quarry, 303 ; difticulty of 
taking lapwing or green 
plover, 303 ; Norfolk plover, 
stone curlew, or thicknee, 
303 ; John Barr's report of 
the marked excellence of 
passage hawks at grouse, 304 ; 
haggards, 304 ; early fitness 
of passage hawks after catch- 
ing, 305 ; differences in size, 
colour and appearance be- 
tween peregrines, 305 ; re- 
covering lost hawks, 306-309 ; 
varieties of gerfalcons, 310- 
317 ; their liability to asthma, 
311 ; merlins, 317-322; mer- 
lins at larks, 319-321 ; at 
pigeons, 321, 322 ; the hobby, 
322, 323 ; hobbies mobbing 
off" tiercels, 325 ; sacres, 324, 
325 ; lanners, 325 ; Barbary 
falcons, 325 ; the shahin, 325 ; 
the lugger, 325 ; passage gos- 
hawks, 328 ; training of 
short-winged hawks, 329-332 ; 
entering to quarry, 332 ; at 
rabbits, 332 ; at hares, 333 ; 
various quarry killed by gos- 
hawks, 334 ; their determina- 
tion, 335 ; antagonism of gos- 
hawks to other hawks, 336, 
337 ; the sparrow-hawk, 338- 
342 ; its liability to fits, 341 ; 
hawking on racecourses, 345 ; 
celebrated Scotch falconers, 
343-347 ; famous Dutch fal- 
coners, 348-350 ; English 
falconers, 350-352 ; clubs, 
352-366 ; private establish- 
ments, 364-366 ; the manage- 



INDEX 



421 



FAL 

ment of the mews, t^S"] ; 
ventilation, 367 ; perches, 
367, 368 ; garden blocks for 
hawks weathering, 369 ; the 
bow -perch, 369 ; Captain 
Salvin'siron perch, 370, 371 ; 
guarding hawks from bad 
weather, 370, 371 ; foes to 
hawks, 372 ; bathing, 372 ; 
on the cadge, 372 ; getting 
in condition, 373-378 ; diet 
and feeding, 374, 375 ; rangle 
as a conditioner, 375, 376 ; 
administration of castings, 
376 ; an Indian recipe, 377, 
378 ; keeping the feathers in 
good order, 378 ; imping, 
380, 381 ; coping, 381 ; the 
moulting period ; 382, 383 ; 
treatment of diseases, 383 ; 
croaks or hecks, 384 ; frounce, 
384 ; inflammation of the 
crop, 384 ; cramp, 385 ; 
swelled feet and corns, 385 ; 
Captain Biddulph's improve- 
ment on the ordinary perch, 
386 ; inflammation of the 
lungs, 387 ; blain, 387 ; para- 
sites, 388 
Falconry Club, the, 314 ; organ- 
ised by Captain Dugmore, 
346 ; its inception and failure, 

363, 364 
* Falconry in the British Isles,' 
quoted, 239, 242, 244, 269, 
274, 292, 337, 343, 372 
Fallen Fortune, 34 
F^armer's Folly, 44 
Faster and Piaster, 25, 36 
Fawcett, Messrs., 29, t,!, 36-39, 

41, 44, 155 
Penning, Mr. H., 33, 34 
Fermoy, Lord, 120 



FRO 

Fertile Field, 36 

Fewterer, the, 4 

' Field Quarterly Magazine and 
Review,' quoted, 8 

Fiery Furnace, 44 

Fine Night, 29, 30, 44 

Fine Sport, 32, 34, 36 

Fisher, Major Hawkins, hawk- 
ing record of, 270 ; his hawk- 
ing establishment, 365 

FitzFife, 25-27, 29, 30, :iz^ 36 

Fitzwilliam, Hon. C-, 357 

Five by Tricks, 41-44, 47 

Flag stewards, coursing, 399 

Fleming, Mr. (manager of the 
Renfrewshire Subscription 
Hawks), 343, 352 

Fletcher, Mr., 29, 32, 36, 44 

Follicular mange or eczema in 
dogs, cure of, 78, 79 

Follow Faster, 31-33 

Forges, M. de, 348 

Fortuna Favente, 34-37 

Forum, 36 

Four in Hand, 32 

Four Oaks Park coursing ground^ 
118 

Fox, Hon. C- L-, 357 

Frederick, Prince, of the Nether- 
lands, 356 

Free Flag, 114 

Free Kick, 31, 32, 34 

Freeman, Rev, G. E., his 
' Falconry : its history, &c.,' 
239» 321 .; (' Peregrine '), 366 

Freshman, 32, 44 

Frost, Alfred (falconer), 352, 

365 
Frost, Charles, 364 
Frost, John (falconer), 314 ; 

professional career of, 351, 

352 ; death of, 359 
Flounce, 252, 311, 314, 384 



422 



COURSING AND FALCONRY 



FUD 

Fudge, 125, 160 
Fugitive, 143 
Full Captain, 28 
Fullerton, 22-30, 33, 36, 40, 43, 
44, 47, 56, 117, 124, 146- 

151. 153-155 
Fusilier, 124, 144, 148, 162 

Gallant, 35, 39-44, 47 
Gallant Foe, 33, 44, 52, 140, 

162, 198 
Gay City, 53, 118, 147, 150, 

151 

Gazelle hawking, 325 

Genitive, 47 

George IV., presented with a 
cast of falcons by the Duke of 
Atholi, 344 

Gerfalcons (gyrfalcons), charac- 
ter of, 310 ; liability to asthma, 
311, 312; their faults, 314, 
.346 

Ghillie Galium, 14 

Gibbs, Peter (falconer), 352, 365 

Gladstone, Mr., 155 

Glen Islay, 113 

Glenkirk, 115 

Glenlivet, 44 

Glenmahra, 118 

^los=:ary of terms used in hawk- 
ing, 251-253 

Go-bye, the, in coursing, 406, 
407 

Golden Star, 119 

Goodlake, General, 47, in, 112 

Goodlake, Mr., 180 

Gorton, Mr., 12 

Gosforth Gold Cup, 114, 115 

Goshawks, 243, 269, 273, 283, 
291, 325 ; passage, 328 ; train- 
^rigj 329-332 ; entering to 
quarry, 332 ; at rabbits, 332 ; 
at hares, 333, 365 



GRE 

Graham, Mr. D., 47 

Graham, Thomas, 40, 41, 43, 
44, 162 

Grand Produce Stakes, Plump- 
ton, 113 

Grandmaison, Vicomte de, 363 

Granny (haggard falcon), 304 

(iraves, F., 165 

(ireat Fly, 24 

Gr-^at Southern Cup, Plumpton, 
III 

Greater Scot, 30, 51, 124, 149- 

151 
Green, E., 356 
Green Cherry, 30 
Greenland gerfalcons, 310, 3 II 
Green plover hawking, 303 
Greentick, 35, 43, 44, 50, 53, 
56, 57, 70-73. 114, 118, 124, 
144, 149, 150, 161 
Grey Crow, 31, 32 
Grey de Wilton, Lord, 8 
'Greyhound Stud Book, The,' 

on coursing, 6 
Greyhounds, celebrated, of the 
past, 124; Judge, 125 ; Can- 
aradzo, 126 ; King Death, 
127 ; Brigadier, 128 ; Lobelia, 
129; Master McGrath, 130 ; 
Bab-at-the-Bowster, 132 ; Sea 
Cove, 134; Bed of Stone, 135 ; 
King Cob, 136 ; Cerito, 136 ; 
Misterton, 137 ; Honeywood, 
138; Coomassie, 139; Prin- 
cess Dagmar, 140 ; Snow- 
flight, 142 ; Herrera, 143 ; 
Macpherson, 144 
Greyhounds, description and 
points of, 172-177 ; scale of 
points, 177 ; trainers, 396 ; 
entries, 400, 401 ; alteration 
of name, 402 ; guarding, 403 ; 
control in slips, 405 ; collars 



GRE 

worn when of same colour, 
405 ; points in coursing, 406, 
407 ; accident allowances, 
407 ; penalties, 408 ; objec- 
tions made to, 410 

Grey Morn, 39 

Ground Game Act, effects of, on 
coursing, 112, 197, 225, 238 

Groupie hawking, 264-270, 334 

Guarding greyhounds, 403 

Gulnare II., 51 

Gunshot, 159 

Gyr-falcons. See Gerfalcons 



Habeas Corpus, 52 

Hacking hawks, 242, 256, 259 

Hale, Mr. T. P., 40 

Hales, Mr. M. G., 43 

Hall, Colonel, of Weston Col- 

ville, 349 
Hall, Lowingham, 229 
Hamilton, Duke of, 112 
Hamilton, Lord C, 356 
H-ippy Omen, 34 
Happy Relic, 34 
Happy Rondelle, 1 56 
Happy Sight, 43 
Hardy, Mr. H., 44 
Hare hawking, 272, 314, 316' 

333 
Harfagar, 51 
Harpstring, 44 

Harting, J. E., 314, 329, 3^4 
Have a care, 51, 156 
Hawking. See Falconry 
Hawking terms, glossary of, 

251-253 
Haydock Park coursing ground, 

117 
Hayward, Mr., 156 
Hedley, James, 16, 21, 26, 45, 

151. 156, 215, 225 



INDEX 425 

HUN 

Henry, Prince, of the Nether- 
lands, 356 
Heron hawking, 239, 278, 290- 

294, 356, 357 

Heronries, in England and 
Holland, 291, 295 

Herrenhausen, 51 

Herrera, 143 

Herring gull hawking, 302 

Herschel, 20-22, 30, 3 1> 33-37, 
44, 118, 124, 147 

Hervey, G. H. W., 224 

Heuvell, Frank van der (fal- 
coner), professional career of, 

348 
High Ash (Hawking) Club, 291 
High Gillerspie, in 
Hobby, the, 243 
Holestone coursing ground, 122 
Holland, trapping falcons in, 

278 ; heron hawking in, 291 
Holmby, 117, 118 
Holmes, Mr., 39-43 
Honey Deer, 36 
Honeydew, 143 
Honeymoon, 17, 128, 147, 148, 

151 
Honey wood, 19, 138, 147 
Hoods for hawks, Dutch and 

Indian patterns, 243 ; use of, 

252 ; breaking hawks to, 260, 

261, 288 
Hope-Johnstone, W. J., 152 
Hornby, T. D., 155, 185, 186, 

188, 189 
Hornpipe, 20 
Horses, use of, in rook hawking, 

298 
Huic Halloa, 1 15, 117 
Humming Bird, 138, 160 
Humphery, A. J., 165 
* Hunger traces ' in the hawk, 

259 n. 



424 



COURSING 

HUR 



Huron, ill 

Hyde, S. H., ii6 

Hyslop, Messrs. , of Denton, 229 

Iceland gerfalcons, 310-314, 

346 
Icelanderkin (gerfalcon), 316 
Ilsley Coursing Club, 170 
Imperatrice, 135 
Imping hawks' feathers, 379^ 

380, 381 
Imping-needles, 380 
Impugning the decision of a 

judge, 409 
Inbreeding, 57 
India, hawking in, 324 326, 

337 

Indian bells for hawks, 248, 347 ; 
falconers, 241 ; hoods, 243, 
244 ; jesses, 247 

Ion, 136 

Ireland, coursing in, 120 ; hawk- 
ing in, 274, 359, 361 

Ivan the Great, 24, 32 

Jacob, 195 

Janet's Pride, 118 

Japan, hawking in, 337 

Jardine, Mr., 11 

Javelin (gerfalcon), 316 

Jefferson, Robert, 229 

Jeffery, 157 

Jenny Jones, 21 

Jerningham, Mr., 356 

Jesses for hawks, 246, 247, 252, 

330 
Jester, 33, 34, 52, 53, 148, 149 
John Bull, 125 
Jones, B. H., 326 ;?. 
Judge, II, 58, 125, 148, 160, 

i6i 
Judges, coursing, 397 ; election 

of, 400 ; duties of, 405, 406 ; 



AND FALCONRY 

LAT 

when decisions are impugned, 
409; when interested in stakes, 
411 
Juggernaut, 38, 39 

Kate, 136 

Kempt on coursing ground, 116 

Kennet, G., 118 

Khorsabad, bas-relief of falconer 

at, 237 
Kildare, hawking in, 274 
Kilkenny, 11 1 

Kill, the, in coursing, 406, 407 
Kilmorey , Earl of, 1 20 
Kilrosa, 35 
King Cob, 58, 128, 131, 133, 

134, 135, 136, 159, 160 
King Death, 11, 127, 148 
King Lear, 11 
Kite hawking, 294, 315-317, 

324 
Knight, Mr., 356 

Lace, Dr., of Frizington, 231 

Lady Jane Grey (falcon), 365 

Lady Lyons, 15 

Lady Sarah, 120 

Lady's Fan, 31 

Landseer, Sir E., his sketches 

of hawks at Didhngton, 355 
Lang Syne, 46, 47 
Langwell moors, Caithness, 266, 

270 
Lanner, the, 243, 325 
Lapwing hawking, 303 
Lara, 113 
Lark hawking, 319-321, 323, 

357 
Lascelles, Gerald, 358 
Latha, 113 
Latham, vSymon, his ' Faulcon's 

Lure and Cure,' 237 ; quoted, 

277 ; on the gerfalcon, 311 



INDEX 



425 



LAU 

Lauderdale, 148, 149 
I^aurel Leaves, 41, 43 
Lawley, Sir Robert, 348 
Lawson, Sir John, 214 
Lawson, William (falconer), 

350 

Layard, Sir A,, quoted, on 
falconry, 237 

Leash, for hawks, 346, 252 

Ledger, Horace, 165 

Leeds, Duke of, 41, 43, 46 ; 
record of hawking bag, 268, 
312, 349, 356 

Letcombe Bowers Coursing 
Club, 180 

Lichfield Coursing Club, 211 ; 
meetings, 211 ; its coursing 
ground, 212 

Lightfoot, E. R., of Cowley, 
208 

Likeness, 23 

Lilac, 129 

Lilford, Lord, 311, 314, 350, 
352, 362 ; his hawking esta- 
blishment, 364 

Lina, 137 

Lingo, 136 

Lister, Mr. T. T., 13, 103 

Little Robin, 33 

Lobelia, 12-14, 126, 129, 147 

Loch Eil, hawking at, 270 

London, 149 

Londonderry, Marquis of, 214 

Long, W., 185, 186 

Long's David, 160 

Loo Hawking Club, 348-350 ; 
Mr. E. C. Newcome secre- 
tary, 355 ; hawks in its pos- 
session, 356 ; members, 357 ; 
end of the club, 357 

Loo, Holland, heron hr.wking 
at, 239, 291, 293 ; gerfalcons 
trained at, 312, 314 



MET 

Louth Coursing Club, 180 
Lubbock's ' Fauna of Norfolk,' 

quoted, 315, 348 n. 
Luggur, the, 325 
Lundy Island hawks, 365 
Lure, the, for hawks, 244, 249, 

262, 266, 288 
Lurgan coursing ground, 157 
Lurgan, Lord, 8, 15, 112 
Lynn, Mr., his nomination, 

Melanie, wins Waterloo Cup 

in 1836, 9 

Macpherson, 52, 54, 66-69, 

124, 143, 144, 148 
Maggie Miller, 23 
Magnano, 16 
Magpie hawking, 236, 274-276, 

361 
Maid of the Mill, 125 
Major, 159 

Malton Coursing Club, 180 
Manager, 216 
Mange in dogs, 78, 79, 90 
Mann, T. J., 352 ; his hawking 

establishment, 365 
Markham, 114 
Marshal McMahon, 114, 119 
Mary Mole, 44 
Massareene Park, Oaks at, 44 
Master Banrigh, 1 1 1 
Master McGrath, 12-16, 47, 

130, 131, 146, 149, 150, 172^ 
Master Sam, 17, 144, 148 
Maxwell, Sir John, of Pollock, 

352 
Maynard, Hon. C, 357 
Meg, 158 
Melanie, 9 
Mellor-Moor, 32, 39 
Merlins, 243, 283, 317-322 
Mespilus, 149 
Meteor (eyess tiercel), 274, 361 



426 



COURSING AND FALCONRY 



MEW 

Mews, private, 364-366 ; man- 
agement of hawks in, 367-388 
Michel, E., training merlins to 

fly larks, 323 
Middleton, Lord, 348 
Milbank, Frederick, 357 
Miller, H. G., 155, 156 
Millersdale, 28 
Mills, Hon. C. W., 352 ; his 

hawking establishment, 365 
Mineral Water, 20, 114, 115 
Mischief, 132 

Miss Glendyne, 20, 21, 44, 53, 
105, 147, 148, 150, 152, I53» 
169, 170 
Miss Staton, 119 
Misterton, 19, 31, 40, 60-65, 

136, 137, 147, 148, 155 
Mock Modesty, 190 
Mocking Bird, 147, 160 
Mollen, Adrian (falconer^*, 281 ; 
his mishap with and subse- 
quent capture of the ' Duck- 
killer,' 284 ; his system of 
feeding freshly-caught passage 
hawks, 288 ; discrimination 
of Aurora's points as a falcon, 
304 ; training gerfalcons, 312; 
training sacres, 324; profes- 
sional career of, 349 
Mollen, Paul (falconer), profes- 
sional career of, 350, 364 
Molyneux, Lord, 9, 182 
Montebello, Comte de, 363 
Moors, hawking, 266 
Morfe Coursing Club, 180 
Mojrock (ger-tiercel), 357 
Morpeth Coursing Club, 197 
Morton, Earl of, 344 
Moulting period with hawks, 

382,383 
Mourne Park coursing ground, 
120 



NOR 
Mugliston, Mr. (secretary of the 
Ridgway Coursing Club), 218 
Mullingar, 51, 52, 115 
Muriel, 16, 17 
Murles, Mr. C, 39 
Myra Ellen, 118 



Names of greyhounds, alteration 
of, 402 

National Coursing Club, Rules 
of the, 7, 400-412 

Netherby Cup, 33 

Neville, 1 1 

Newmarket Champion Puppy 
Stakes, 33 

* New Sporting Magazine,' early 
record of the Waterloo Cup, 9 

Newall, A., 366 

Newbury Coursing Club, 180 

Newcome, E. C, trapping ger- 
falcons in Norway, 312, 316 ; 
*^nt Elveden, with Iceland fal- 
cons, 313, 314; his method 
of training merlins, 319 ; lark 
hawking with same, 320, 321 ; 
secretary of the Loo Club, 
355» 356 ; maintenance of 
falconry by him in England, 
357 ; death of, 358, 364 

Newcome, Mr,, of Feltwell, 
Norfolk, 351 

Newcome, Rev. W., 356 

Newmarket Coursing Society, 
180 

Newsboy, 113 

Newton, Professor, quoted, on 
falconry, 315 

'No course,' a, 408 

Nolan, 150 

Norfolk plover, 303 

Norfolk, Thomas, Duke of, 
' Laws of the Leash or Cours- 



INDEX 



427 



NOR 
ing' allowed and subscribed 
by him, 4-6 
North, Colonel, 21, 23, 24, 29, 

149, 152-155 

North of England Coursing 
Club, 181, 198 ; early days 
of its institution, 213; mem- 
bership and present patrons, 
214; the Rainton Meeting, 
214 ; a singular incident of 
■ sport, 215 ; early hour of 
meeting, 216; the Eslington 
Meeting, 216 ; at West Rain- 
ton, 217 ; minor meetings, 
217 ; non-members' nomina- 
tions, 218 ; new patron and 
new ground, 231 

North Seaton coursing ground, 
200 

Northamptonshire, trapping of 
passage hawks in, 280, 364 

Norway, 47 

Norwegian gerfalcons, 310-312, 

3H 
Not Out, 149 

Oaks at Massareene Park, 44 
Objections made to greyhounds 

in coursing, 410 
Offement, Baron d', 349, 355 
Officials of clubs and courses, 

391-395. 397-399 
Old Hawking Club, headquarters 
of, 238 ; record of game killed, 
269, 279 ; sport in Ireland, 
274 ; in possession of ' The 
Duck -killer,' 286;- score of 
rooks and crows taken in the 
spring of 1887, 302 ; owners 
of Sibyl, Bacchante, and Elsa, 
304 ; fate of their Norwegian 
gerfalcons, 314; Barbary fal- 
cons, 325 ; record of sport by 



OXE 

two members in Meerut, 326 ; 
Robert and John Barr in its 
service, 345, 346, 358; mem- 
bers in 1864, 358; reorganisa- 
tion in 1872, 358 ; Mr. Gerald 
Lascelles manager, 358 ; re- 
turn of head of quarry killed 
in 1887, 359; and in 1890, 
359; famous hawks in its 
possession, 359-361 ; mem- 
bers in 1890, 362 ; objects 
of the club, 362 

Oliver Twist, 125, 160, 162 

Opinions canvassed of noted 
coursers, 145 ; on the twelve 
greatest greyhounds of the 
century, 146 ; the best ever 
run, 147 ; twelve most suc- 
cessful stud dogs of the last 
thirty years, 147 ; the best 
stud dog of the day, 148 ; six 
best-looking dogs and bitches 
within memory, 148 ; the 
most exciting and best con- 
tested courses, 149-152 ; the 
most successful of coursers, 
breeders, and trainers, 152- 
156; judges, 156; sHppers, 
157; merits of the coursing 
grounds, 157; most success- 
ful sires within the last thirty 
years, 157- 163 ; the question 
of the improvement or dete- 
rioration of greyhounds, 163- 
167 ; on the running of sap- 
lings, 168 

Orford, Lord, 158, 179, 315, 
316, 348, 353, 354 

Oriental falconers, 241 

Oswald, Mr. (Auchincruive), 344 

Owen, James, 122 

Oxer, George (falconer), 352, 
362 n., 364 



428 



COURSING AND FALCONRY 



Pantas (lung disease common 
to falcons), 311, 314 

Parachute (eyess falcon), 269, 
272, 279, 361 

Parasites in dogs, 83-85, 90, 
91 ; in hawks, treatment for, 
388 

Paris, 33, 34, 52, 53, 148, 199 

Parrish's Chemical Food, for 
dogs, 65, 71, 97 

Partridge hawking, 236, 264, 
266, 268-270, 334 

Passage hawks, 241 ; superiority 
of, 277 ; how caught, tamed, 
and trained, 280-290 ; John 
Barr's testimony to their ex- 
cellence, 304 ; early fitness 
after catching, 305. See Fal- 
conry 

' Paston Letters,' quoted on the 
goshawk, 329 

Patent, 147, 148, 161 

Patrick Blue, 24, 30 

Pearl (falcon), 344 

Peasant Boy, 16 

Peels, Jan (falconer), profes- 
sional career of, 348 

Peewit hawking, 346 

Pells, John (falconer), 311, 
344 ; professional career, 349, 

351 

Penalties on hounds in coursing, 
408 

Penelope II., 20, 153 

Pennegant, 31, 34 

Perches for hawks, 367-371, 386 

Peregrine Pickle, 47 

Peregrines, 343 ; breeding 
places of, 254 ; differences in 
size, colour, and appearance 
between, 305. See Falconry 

* Perfect Booke for Kepinge of 
Sparhawks, The,' 329 



QUO 
Pheasant hawking, 272, 333 
Phoebus, 117, 150 
Pichot, Pierre, 363 
Pigeon hawking with merlins^ 

321, 322 
Pilkington, Mr., 35 
Pinkerton, 118 
Pleasant Nancy, 24 
Plenipotentiary (passage tiercel), 

298 
Plover hawking, 303 
Plumpton coursing ground, 1 1 1 
Plunger, 19 

Points of a course, 7, 406, 407 
Points of a greyhovmd, 173; 

head, 174 ; eyes, 175, cheek, 

175 ; neck, chest, and shoul- 
ders, 175 ; back, 175 ; quar- 
ters, 176; thighs, stifle, 
gaskins, 176 ; tail, 176 ; 
forelegs, pasterns, and feet, 

176 ; quality, 176 ; colour, 

177 ; scale of, 177, 178 
Polly, 44 

Porter, J. Porter, quoted, 164 

Portland, 135 

Portland, Duke of, 214 

Postponement of coursing meet- 
ings, 404 

Pretty Nell, 44 

Prince (setter), 268 

J'rincess Dagmar, 19, 33, 52, 
140, 141, 147, 148, 150, 199 

Ptarmigan, 33, 34, 52, 140, 148, 
162 

Puddletown, 117, 118 

Purdystown coursing ground, 
120 

Quaver, hi 
Queen, 139 
Quicklime, 119 
Quorn, the, 35 



INDEX 



429 



RAB 

Rabbit hawking, 332 

Racecourse, 24 

Rainton Coursing Meeting, 196, 

215 

Randell, Mr., 189, 190 

Rangle for hawks, 253, 375, 
376 

Raper, Tom, 157 

Ratcliffe, Col. Delme, on fal- 
conry, 242, 331 ; list of the 
quarry at which he has flown 
goshawks, 337 

Raven, 31 

Ravensworth, Earl of, 214 

Realism, 41 

Real Lace, 38, 41 

Real Point, 39 

Real Turk, 47 

Rebe, 11, 147 

Reception, 38-40 

Red hawks, 253 

Reed, J. L., 165, 168 

Renfrewshire Subscription 

Hawks, 343, 352 

Restorer, 34, 38, 41 

Retford, James (falconer), 352, 

365 

Ilheda Coursing Meeting, 229 

Rhoda, 159 

Rhymes, 23, 24 

Richardson, Dr., of Harbottle, 
197 

Richardson, Frank, quoted, 164 

Ridgway Coursing Club, the, 
181, 182, 218 ; Mr. David 
Brown's researches into its 
history, 218-221 ; local testi- 
mony as to its origin, 221 ; 
its position, 221 ; present 
membership, 221 ; meetings, 
221 ; coursing ground, 222 ; 
Little Plumpton, 222 ; pre- 
sent position, 231 



SAI 

Ridgway, Thomas, 221 

Riding over a greyhound, 418 

Riley, E,, his record of sport 
with goshawks, 334, 335 ; 
manner of flying the sparrow- 
hawk, 340, 341, 366 

Riot, 147 

Ripon, Marquis of, 214 

Rising Star, 194 

Rivers, Lord, 180 

' Robin Hood,' quoted, 8,9, 11, 
12, 152 

Rook hawking, places suitable 
for, and mode of conducting, 

236, 278, 294-302 
Rosewater, 119 
Rosy Morn, 184, 192 
Rota, 52, 56 
Rouge Croix, 41 
Royal Seal, 12 
Royal Stag, 116 
Royston, 41 

Ruby, 56 

Rufter hoods, 244, 245, 253, 

284 
Rules of the National Coursing 

Club, 400-412 
Russell, Mr. James, 38, 39, 47 
Russell, W. D., 214 
Ryde, 46 

Sackcloth, 10, 124 

Sacres, 243 ; set at kite, 324, 

350 
Sadler, Sir Ralph, Queen 

Elizabeth's chief falconer, 

237, 238 

St. Albans, Duke of, 349 

St. George, 195 

St. Quintin, Mr., his breed of 
setters, 268 ; record of game 
killed in hawking, 269 ; sea- 
gull hawking, 302, 352, 359, 



430 



COURSING AND FALCONRY 



362 n. ; his hawking estab- 
lishment, 364 

St. Vincent, Lord, 112 

Salisbury Plain, rook hawking 
on, 294 ; lark hawking on, 
321, 357, 358, 359 

Sally Milburn, 40 

Salter, Dr., 207 

Salvin, Captain, 239, 274, 345, 
365 ; his perch for hawks, 

370, 371 

Sam, 160 

Sands, J., 112 

Sans Quartier (gerfalcon), 316, 
317 

Saplings, treatment of, 88-97 > 
running of, on enclosed 
grounds and in the open, 168- 
171. See under Breeding 

Saucebox, 12 

Scarisbrick Cup, 30 

Schlegel, Professor, on falconry, 
239, 291, 324, 347 

Scorton Coursing Meeting, 217 

Scotch falconers, 240-242, 343- 

347 
Scotland Yet, 58, 126, 130, 

137, 141 
Scottish National Coursing Clul), 

181 
Sea Cove, 15, 134 
Sea Foam, 126, 127, 129 
Sea Pink, 126, 127 
Sebright, Sir John, on falconry, 

238, 246 ; on • hunger traces ' 

in hawks, 259 ;/. ; quoted, 

348-350 
Secretaries of coursing clul)s, 

391-395 
Sefton, Earl of, 8, 9, 125, 182, 

185, 186, 188 
Selby, II 
Senate, 10, 124, 160, 161 



Serapi?, 11 1 

Setters, use of, in hawking, 268 

Shahin, black (F. peregrinator), 
325 ; red-naped (F. Baby- 
lonicus), 325, 326 

Shakespeare quoted on falconry, 
238, 240 

Shamrock (eyess tiercel), 361 

Shaw, J. T., of Northallerton, 
139, 165 

Shepherdess, 149 

Shillelagh (eyess tiercel), 361 

Short Flatt Tower, Northumber- 
land, 29 

Shrikes, grey, 282 

Sibyl (falcon), 284 

Silver Lace, 47 

Simonian, 147, 154 

Sirius, 17 

Sir Magnus, 1 1 1 

Sir Sankey, 30 

Sleaford Coursing Club, the, 
181, 223-225 

Slingsby, Sir Charles, 340, 341 

Slippers, coursing, 398, 405 ; 
when interested in stakes, 411 

Slip stewards, duties of, 399, 404 

Slips, taking dogs to, 404 ; 
control of dogs in, 405 

Smith, Charles, of Sleaford, 224 

Snipe hawking, 272 

Snowball, 158, 159, 180 

Snowdon, Thomas (Secretary of 
North of England Coursing 
Club), 45, 199, 213, 216,217, 
229 

Snowdrop, 129 

Snowflight, 19, 20, 141, 142 

Southern Cup, Plumpton, 1 1 1 

South of England Coursing 
Club, 181 ; formation of, 
225 ; members, 225 ; meet- 
ings, 226, 227 



INDEX 



AZ\ 



sou 

Southminster Coursing Meeting, 
the, 207-211 

Southport Meeting, 30 

Sparrow hawking, 339 

Sparrow-hawks, 243, 325 

Spratt's treatment for mange or 
eczema in dogs, 79 ; Locuriura 
for cuts in dogs' feet, 100 

S. S., 15 

Stakes not run out, 409 

Stevenson's 'Birds of Norfolk,' 
quoted, 353 

Stipplefield, 37 

Stock er, Mr., 12 

Stock Exchange Coursing Club, 
231 

Stockbridge Coursing Meeting, 
226 

Stone curlew, 303 

' Stonehenge ' on the selection 
of choice whelps, 82 ; on 
worms in dogs, 84 ; on 
preparing greyhounds for 
matches, 100 ; on galloping 
greyhounds, 105 

Stott, John, of Coney garth, 197 

Strange Idea, 134, 162, 198 

Strathmore, Lord, 357 

Street Place Stakes, the, 1 1 1 

Stroganoff, Count, 31, 33, 34 

Studley Royal (Ripon) meeting, 

44 
Suffield, Lord, 356 
Sultan (falcon), 356, 357 
Sumner, Messrs., 224 
Sunbeam, 1 1 

Swafifham Coursing Club, 179 
Swayne, Dr., 202 
Sweetbriar, 184, 192 
Swivels for jesses, 247 

Tasmania, 34 
Taylor, J., 165 



TOB 

Terms used in hawking, glossary 
of, 251-253 

Texture, 25, 30-35 

Thacker, quoted, 159 

The Doctor (passage hawk), 
361 

The Earl (passage hawk), 361 

The General (tiercel), 269 

The O'Donoghue (tiercel), 274 

The Shadow of Death (gos- 
hawk), 365 

The Squatter, 11 1 

Theatre Royal, 194 

Thetis, 35 

Thistleton, 32 

Thompson, Messrs., of High 
Thorneyburn, 33, 35 

Thomson, Messrs., 155 

Thornhill, Mr., 357 

Thornton, Colonel, anecdote 
from his ' Northern Tour ' on 
kite hawking, 316 ; on train- 
ing the goshawk, 328 ; quoted, 
348, 350, 353 

Thoughtless Beauty, 34-37, 39, 
40 

Tiercel, a, definition of, 253 ; 
anecdote concerning, 258 n. \ 
limit of date in killing wild 
game, 264 ; at partridge, 268 ; 
The General, 269 ; at wild 
duck, 272 ; at snipe, 272 ; at 
magpies, 274 ; capture for 
hawking purposes, 280 ; at 
rooks, 297 ; at seagulls, 302 ; 
at lapwing or green plover, 
303 ; passage, 305 ; haggard 
gerfalcon, 314 ; drawing the 
hobbies, 323 

Tinsel, 33, 34 

Tipperary, hawking in, 274 

Tobin tube for ventilating mews, 
367 



432 



COURSING AND FALCONRY 



ToUwife, 256 
Townend, 36 

Trabolgan coursing ground, 120 
Trainers of greyhounds, 396, 397 
Training of greyhounds, 98 ; 
dangers of forced preparation, 
98 ; treatment after road exer- 
cise, 100 ; feeding, 100 ; the 
question of gallops, 101-104 ; 
the question of weight, 104 ; 
exercise of discrimination in 
the constitution and tempera- 
ment of hounds, 105 ; judg- 
ment in the administration of 
animal food, 106 ; letting a 
dog down, 106-108 ; variety in 
feeding, 108 ; bitches and their 
drawbacks, 109 
Training of hawks. See under 

Falconry 
Trautmansdorff, Prince, 324, 350 
Trevor, Mr, (secretary of Lich- 
field Coursing Club), 47> 212 
Trip, the, in coursing, 406, 407 
Troughend, 22, 27, 56, 153, 154 
Tuberville's ' Booke of Falcon - 

rie,' 237 
Turn, the, in coursing, 406, 407 



Under the Globe, 41, 43> 46 
Upper Nithsdale meeting, 33 
Utopia, 39 

Valkenswaard, origin of the 
name, 281 ; capture of passage 
hawks at, 281 ; gerfalcons 
trapped at, 310, 314 ; passage 
goshawks taken at, 328, 348, 
349 ; Dutch falconers at, 348- 

350 
Yarvels, 247, 253 
Vengeance, 158, 159 



WID 

Ventilation in hawks' mews, 

367 

Vesta (eyess falcon), 269, 279, 

360 
Virginia (eyess falcon), 269 

Walks, 86 

Wanton, 136 

Ward, F., of Quarrington, 223, 

225 
Ward, Mr. W., of Blackburn, 

30 

Warwick, Mr. (judge), 16 

Watchful Duchess, 36 

Waterhen hawking, 334 

Waterloo, 161 

Waterloo Cup, the, foundation 
and beginnings of, 9 ; some of 
the more remarkable winners, 
10-27 5 tables of winners and 
runners-up, &c. , from 1836 
to 1892, 48, 49 

Waterloo Plate, 9, 10 

Waterloo Purse, the, 10 

Waters, Mr., 44 

Watson, Col., his hawking 
establishment, 365 

Watson, F., 112 

Weatherwise, 37, 41 

Wee Nell, 128 

Weighing-machines for dogs, 
104 

Welsh Harp, Hendon, hawking 
at, 346 

Werle, Alfred, 363 

West Cumberland Coursing 
Club, 228-231 

West Rainton Coursing Meet- 
ing, 217 

Wet Day, 44, 47 

Wexford, hawking in, 274 

Wharfinger, 15 

Widgeon at Southrainster, 218 



INDEX 



433 



WIL 

Wild-duck hawking, 271 

Wild Geranium, 12 

Wild Hornet, 29 

Wild Mint, 20 

Wild Night, 44, 46, 47 

Wildfire IL, 41 

Wilkinson, Tom (slipper), 18, 

157 

William II., King of the Nether- 
lands, 356 

Williams, G. M., quoted, 151, 
165 

Willimott, Rev. W., 302, 366 

Wilson, CdI., of Didlington, 
348, 355 

Wilson (slipper), 15 

Wiltshire Champion Coursing 
Meeting, 1864, 186, 193 

Wiltshire Downs, hawking on, 
358 

Wiltshire, trapping passage 
hawks in, 280 

Winchester, 119 

Winfarthing, 118 

Winners of stakes running to- 
gether, 410 



Wintry Weather, 44 

Witchery, 119 

Withdrawal of a dog, rule on, 

409 
Wolf Hill, 39, 40 
Woodcock hawking, 270-272, 

344 
Woodland King, 112 
Word of Honour, 36 
Worms in dogs, 83-85, 90, 91 
Wortley, Stuart, 355 
Wrench, the, in coursing, 406, 

407 
Wright (slipper), 18, 34 
Wye Racecourse coursing 

ground, 118 
Wynken de Worde on coursing, 

6 

Yarak, 253 

Yorkshire Coursing Club, 181 

Yorkshire Wolds, the, seagull 

hawking on, 302 
Young Fullerton, 43 

Zazel, 18, 19 



PRINTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODK AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE 

LONDON 



F F 



THE BADMINTON LIBRARY. 

Edited by the DUKE OF BEAUFORT, K.G. assisted by 
ALFRED E. T. WATSON. 



ARCHERY. By C. J. Longman, Col. H. Walrond, &c. 
With 19s Illustrations and 2 Maps. Crown 8vo. loj. dd. 

ATHLETICS. By Montague Shearman. With 49 Illustra- 
tions. Crown 8vo. I ox. dd. 
BIG GAME SHOOTING. By C Phillipps-Wolley, &c. 
Vol. I. AFRICA and AMERICA. With 77 Illustrations. Crown 

8vo. \os. 6d. 
Vol. II. EUROPE, ASIA, and the ARCTIC REGIONS. With 
73 Illustrations. Crown Svo. los. 6d. 

BILLIARDS. By Major W. Broadfoot, R.E. With 
29 Illustrations and numerous Diagrams. Crown Svo. los. 6d. 

COURSING AND FALCONRY. By Harding Cox and the 
Hon. Gerald Lascelles. With 76 Illustrations. Cr. Svo. 10s. 6d. 

CRICKET. By A. G. Steel and the Hon. R. H. Lyttelton. 

With 64 Illustrations. Crown Svo. los, 6d. 

CYCLING. By the Earl of Albemarle and G. Lacy 
HiLLiER. With 59 Illustrations. Crown Svo. 10s. 6d. 

DANCING. By Mrs. Lilly Grove, F.R.G.S. With 

Contributions by other Authorities. With 131 Illustrations. Crown 
Svo. los. 6d. 

DRIVING. By the Duke of Beaufort, K.G. With 65 
Illustrations. Crown Svo. los. 6d. 

FENCING, BOXING, and WRESTLING. By Walter 
H. Pollock, F. C. Grove, C. Prevost, &c. With 42 Illustra- 
tions. Crown Svo. los. 6d. 

FISHING. By H. Cholmondeley-Pennell. 

Vol. I. SALMON, TROUT, and GRAYLING. With isS Illustra- 
tions. Crown Svo. los. 6d. 

Vol. II. PIKE AND OTHER COARSE FISH. With 132 Illustra- 
tions. Crown Svo. los. 6d. 

GOLF. By Horace Hutchinson, the Right Hon. A. J. 
Balfour, M.P. Andrew Lang, Sir W. G. Simpson, Bart. &c. 
With S9 Illustrations. Crown Svo. los. 6d. 

HUNTING. By the Duke of Beaufort, K.G. and Mow- 
bray Morris. With 53 Illustrations. Crown Svo. los. 6d. 

^^.^^^^^^^^^.^^^s.^^^.^^^ [over. 

LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO., London and Bombay. 



THE BADMINTON LIBRARY 

Edited by ihe DUKE OF BEAUFORT, K.G. assisted by 
ALFRED E. T. WATSON. 



MOUNTAINEERING. By C. T. Dent, W. M. Conway, 
D. W. Freshfield, C. E. Mathews, C. Pilkington, &c. With 
1 08 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. los. dd. 

POETRY (THE) OF SPORT. Selected and Edited by 
Hedley Peek. With 106 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. \os. 6d. 

RACING AND STEEPLE-CHASING. By the Earl of 
Suffolk and Berkshire, W. G. Craven, &c. With 58 Illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo. 10^. 6d. 

RIDING AND POLO. By Captain Robert Weir, J. Moray 
Brown, the Duke of Beaufort, &c. With 59 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. los, 6d. 

ROWING. By R P. P. Rowe and C. M. Pitman, &c. 
PUNTING. By P. W. Squire. With 75 Illustrations; also 
4 Maps of the Oxford and Cambridge Boatrace and Metropolitan 
Championship Course, Henley Course, Oxford Course, and 
Cambridge Course. Crown 8vo. los. 6d. 

SEA FISHING. By John Bickerdyke, W. Senior, Sir 
H. W. Gore Booth, Bart., and A. C. Harmsworth. With 
197 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. \os. dd. 

SHOOTING. By Lord Walsingham and Sir Ralph Payne 

Gallwey, Bart. 
Vol. I. FIELD AND COVERT. With 105 Illustrations. Crown 

8vo. loj. (>d. 
Vol.11. MOORAND MARSH. With 65 Illustrations. Cr. 8vo. ioj. 6^. 

SKATING, CURLING, TOBOGGANING, &c. By J. M. 

Heathcote, C. G. Tebbutt, T. Maxwell Witham, &c. With 
284 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. \os. 6d. 

SWIMMING. By Archibald Sinclair and William Henry, 
Hon. Sees, of the Life-Saving Society. With 119 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. los. 6d. 

TENNIS, LAWN TENNIS, RACKETS, and FIVES. By 
J. M. and C. G. Heathcote, &c. With 79 Illustrations. Crown 
8vo. los. 6d. 

YACHTING. By Lord Brassey, the Earl of Onslow, &c. 
Vol. L CRUISING, CONSTRUCTION, RACING RULES, &c. 

With 114 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. lO^. 6d. 
Vol. II. YACHT CLUBS, YACHTING IN AMERICA AND 
THE COLONIES, RACING, &c. With 195 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. lOs. 6d. 

LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO., London and Bombay. 



r 



RETURN TO the circulation desk of any 

University of California Library 

or to the 

NORTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 
BIdg. 400, Richmond Field Station 
University of California 
Richmond, CA 94804-4698 

ALL BOOKS MAY BE RECALLED AFTER 7 DAYS 
2-month loans may be renewed by calling 

(510)642-6753 
1-year loans may be recharged by bringing books 

to NRLF 
Renewals and recharges may be made 4 days 

prior to due date 

DUE AS STAMPED BELOW 



r 



Desk 
e 



OCT 15 1993 



OCT 2 3 1992 llf CO 



MAR 1 8 ?.m 



JAN [> 2003 



tKELEY 



DCK^CLt 1 , y-r\ 7-' 



YC 58558