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Full text of "Craft artist membership organizations, 1978"

;port #13 



Craft Artist Membership 
rganizations 1978 



National Endowmc 
for the Arts 



Research Division 
January 1981 





■ 




il 

ii 
il 




Craft Artist Membership 
Organizations 1978 



National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, D.C. 



This report is produced by the Publishing 
Center for Cultural Resources as part of 
a pilot project supported by the National 
Endowment for the Arts demonstrating econ- 
omy and efficiency in nonprofit publishing . 
The Publishing Center's planning, production, 
and distribution services are available to 
all nonprofit cultural and educational or- 
ganizations. For further information write 
Publishing Center, 625 Broadway, New York 
City 10012, or telephone 212/260-2010. 



Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 

National Endowment for the Arts . Research 
Division. 

Craft artist membership organizations, 1978. 

(National Endowment for the Arts . Research 
Division. Research Division report ; 13) 

1. Handicraft — United States — Societies, 
etc. I. Title. II. Series. 

TT23.N35 1981 745'.06'073 80-21535 
ISBN 0-89062-089-X (pbk.) 



Manufactured in the United States of America 



CONTENTS 

PREFACE /page 4 

LIST OF TABLES /page 5 

LIST OF FIGURES /page 6 

INTRODUCTION 
Summary /page 7 
Methodology /page 8 

CHAPTER I 

MEMBERSHIP 

Location /page 11 

Craft media of members /page 12 

Membership size /page 19 

Members' professionalism /page 21 

CHAPTER II 

ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 

Corporate status /page 26 

Staff and facilities /page 29 

Funding sources and expenditure levels /page 29 

Problems /page 33 

CHAPTER III 

DEVELOPMENTAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS 

Longevity /page 34 

Geographic focus /page 36 

Congruence of purpose and activities /page 3 8 

CHAPTER IV 

REVIEW BY MEDIUM AND REGION /page 41 

APPENDIX A 

CALCULATION OF ORGANIZED CRAFT ARTISTS BY MEDIUM /page 47 

APPENDIX B 

REGIONS AND DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTRY AS DEFINED BY U.S. CENSUS BUREAU /page 51 

REPORTS IN THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS RESEARCH DIVISION SERIES /page 5 2 



PREFACE 



This report is part of a multi-project study 
aimed at developing a better understanding 
of American craft artists. The first part 
was a planning study to determine the feas- 
ibility of and methodology for a national 
survey of craft artists. The results of 
this effort were summarized in Research 
Division Report #2, To Survey American 
Crafts; A Planning Study (see list at the 
back of this report) . One of the recom- 
mendations of this initial planning study 
was that a nationwide survey of craft artist 
membership organizations should precede the 
study of individual artists because their 
membership lists could serve as the basis 
for sampling a large part of the craft artist 
population in a way that would insure re- 
presentation from the less popular craft 
media as well as from the very popular 
media such as the fiber arts and ceramics. 

This publication, which results from the 
survey of craft organizations , provides in- 
formation that has not been available be- 
fore on the variety and spread of craft 
media, location of craft organizations, and 
their activities and membership sizes. The 
contractor's full report ( Results from a 
National Survey of Crafts Membership Or - 
ganizations by Constance F. Citro, Penelope 
Engel, and Audrey McDonald, Washington, 
D.C.: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 
1979) also includes recommendations for 
use in studying craft artists who are mem- 
bers of the organizations surveyed. (Sev- 
eral additional studies have also been 
undertaken to provide data about United 
States craft artists who do not belong to 
an organization.) The complete report is 
available to all interested persons at the 
library of the National Endowment for the 
Arts, where it may be examined or borrowed 
through interlibrary loan. Loan informa- 
tion may be obtained from the librarian, 
National Endowment for the Arts, 2401 E 
Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20506 
(202/634-7640) . 

Research Division 

National Endowment for the Arts 

January 1981 



LIST OF TABLES 

1 Media among single-medium and general-media organizations /page 14 

2 Primary medium among national and regional organizations /page 16 

3 Membership of national and regional organizations /page 18 

4 Size of organization by primary medium /page 20 

5 Activities of national and regional organizations /page 20 

6 Organizational activities by primary medium /page 22 

7 Organizational activities by membership size /page 22 

8 Corporate status, personnel, and facilities of national and regional 
organizations /page 26 

9 Corporate status, personnel, and facilities by primary medium /page 27 

10 Corporate status, personnel, and facilities by membership size /page 27 

11 1977 funding sources of national and regional organizations /page 28 

12 Number of funding sources by membership size /page 28 

13 1977 expenditures of national and regional organizations /page 31 

14 Expenditures by primary medium /page 31 

15 Years in existence by membership size /page 35 

16 Organizational activities by years in existence /page 34 

17 Geographic focus of regional organizations /page 37 

18 Geographic focus by primary medium /page 37 

19 Geographic focus by membership size /page 39 

20 Organizational activities by whom intended for /page 39 

21 Congruence of purpose and activities /page 40 

22 Media among organizations and artists /page 46 

23 Media subcategories among organizations and artists /page 4 8 



LIST OF FIGURES 

I Regional distribution of 1,218 craft membership organizations /page 10 

II Number of organizations by state /page 11 

III Regional distribution of organizations, craft artists, and the 
working-age population /page 13 

IV Regional orientation to a single medium /page 15 

V Membership size of craft organizations /page 18 

VI Regional jury requirement for membership /page 25 

VII Jury requirement for membership by primary medium /page 25 

VIII 1977 expenditures of craft organizations /page 30 

IX Number of serious problems /page 32 

X Problems of craft organizations /page 32 

XI Years in existence /page 34 

XII Geographic focus of craft organizations /page 36 

XIII Stated purpose of craft organizations /page 38 



INTRODUCTION 



This report uses data collected in a nation- 
wide survey of craft organizations with a 
double purpose: to obtain key information 
for selecting a sample of individual craft 
artists belonging to organizations as well 
as to provide a reliable picture of the 
range of craft membership organizations 
and their role in the craft world. The sur- 
vey was completed in 1978 with responses 
from almost 950 organizations, or close to 
80 percent of the total. This report de- 
scribes what has been learned about craft 
membership organizations. 

As a result of the survey a broad-brush por- 
trait of craft membership organizations in 
the United States emerges. The typical 
(median) craft membership organization has 
been in existence for about 10 years and has 
about 90 members who come from the local area 
and are accepted without prior screening of 
their work. Not all of its members work in 
the same medium, but the majority work with 
clay and fiber. It is involved in craft 
exhibits, sales, and workshops — all open 
to the general public — and social functions 
for members. It is a nonprofit corporation 
that owns or rents facilities and has an 
annual budget of about $3,50 — with income 
largely from membership dues and proceeds 
of sales. It perceives few problems, but if 
it had to pinpoint a particular need, would 
ask for additional funding and more dis- 
play and storage space. 

This profile reflects the central tenden- 
cies in the survey data, but of course it 
is also true that craft membership organi- 
zations are represented in the full range 
of each variable. There are some large 
organizations, some offer courses as well 
as workshops, some require jurying of work 
for all members, and some perceive numer- 
ous problems. The definition of "typical" 
shifts considerably in terms of location 
and medium. 

Summary 

Voluntary craft organizations are formed 
to serve the needs and interests of their 
members, and there are clearly some common- 
sense expectations concerning their ef- 
fectiveness that can be verified by the 
results of the survey. These expectations 
relate primarily to membership size. Other 
things being equal, one would expect that 
large organizations would have existed 
longer than small ones. One would expect 
that more large organizations would be in- 
corporated, have paid staff, own or rent 
facilities, carry out more activities, and 
have more sources of funds than small ones. 
One would also expect larger organizations 
to constitute a greater proportion of those 



with regional, national, or international 
membership than those with state or local 
membership. Cross-tabulations of variables 
by membership size generally confirm these 
expectations. The same variables have also 
been cross-tabulated by geographic location 
and craft media popularity among members. 

Beyond considerations of size, location, and 
media preferences , responses to the survey 
questionnaire provide information on how 
long craft organizations have been in exist- 
ence, the activities they undertake, where 
members come from, and member qualifications 
and acceptance criteria, as well as broader 
data about funding and expenses, organiza- 
tional structure, staffing, facilities, and 
problems. 

The survey reveals that the largest propor- 
tion of the estimated 1,218 craft member- 
ship organizations in the United States 
today and their estimated 3 80,000 members 
is located in the five East North Central 
states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, 
and Wisconsin) , the second largest propor- 
tion being located in the five Pacific 
states (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, 
and Washington) . The percentages are pro- 
portionate with these areas ' share of the 
working-age (18 to 64 years old) population, 
but this is not the case in other parts of 
the country. In terms of craft artists 
relative to persons aged 18 to 64, the New 
England and East South Central states have 
the highest proportions and the South At- 
lantic and Middle Atlantic the lowest. 

Over 6 percent of responding organizations 
indicated that they are not oriented to a 
single craft medium but rather are general- 
media organizations. Of the single-medium 
groups, nearly two-thirds are organizations 
of fiber artists (weavers, embroiderers, 
quiltmakers, etc.). While organizations 
with national or international membership 
are predominantly single-medium groups , the 
reverse is true for those with local or 
regional membership. Among general-media 
organizations, clay was listed first by the 
largest number. 

When the first listing of the general-media 
organizations and the specific medium of 
single-medium organizations are considered 
jointly, fiber emerges as the "primary me- 
dium" of 42 percent of craft membership 
organizations and clay as the primary medium 
of 4 percent. Metal, wood, and other me- 
dia are each seen as the primary medium of 
about 4 to 6 percent and glass, leather, 
paper, and multimedia, as the primary me- 
dium of 2 percent or fewer. 

Fiber is the primary medium of 38 to 48 per- 
cent of craft membership organizations in 
all parts of the country except the four 
West South Central states and New England. 



Clay is the primary medium of almost half 
the organizations in the West South Cen- 
tral area, and it is the primary medium of 
35 to 45 percent of organizations in all 
parts of the country except the seven West 
North Central states. Both fiber and clay 
are the primary medium for smaller propor- 
tions of organizations with national or 
international membership than local or re- 
gional ones. 

Metal, more often than elsewhere, was named 
as primary medium in the eight Mountain 
states, and it is not reported as a primary 
medium in the West North Central area. Wood 
organizations are particularly numerous in 
the East South Central states; leather is 
the primary medium of more organizations in 
the West North Central states than elsewhere. 

The survey showed that exhibiting and market- 
ing of crafts, and craft workshops are the 
most prevalent activities undertaken by craft 
membership organizations. Social functions 
are of much lesser importance. National 
organizations report the highest propor- 
tionate involvement in publications and the 
lowest in sales among all organizations. 
Marketing activities are most important in 
New England; workshops are most important 
in the Middle Atlantic states. 

Jury review as a prerequisite to membership 
is imposed by 3 percent of craft member- 
ship organizations. New England has the 
largest proportion (45 percent) with a jury 
requirement. The proportion drops to 30 
percent in the South Atlantic states and 
to 10 percent in the West South Central 
states. Metal organizations tend to have the 
most stringent admission criteria; leather, 
multimedia, and other media organizations 
have the most open membership policies. 

The survey results indicate that over 60 per- 
cent of craft membership organizations are 
incorporated and that 8 5 percent of these 
are nonprofit and tax-exempt. A majority 
receives funding from only one or two sources. 
Only one-third have paid officers or staff, 
only 20 percent own facilities, and less 
than one-third spent more than $10,000 in 
1977. 



More than half of th 
ganizations have be 
least 10 years and 
years old. The serv 
the activities they 
ly available to the 
most reserve social 
tions for members. 



e craft membership or- 
en in existence for at 
8 5 percent are over five 
ices they provide and 
engage in are frequent- 
general public although 
functions and publica- 



Few craft membership organizations perceive 
themselves as having many problems and near- 
ly one-half reported only one or two. In- 
adequate funds and inadequate display or 
storage space were cited most frequently. 



Despite the small scale of their operations, 
craft membership organizations in the United 
States today appear to be thriving and re- 
port a wide range of activities. The or- 
ganizations are more important in some parts 
of the country and for craft artists working 
in certain specific media. There is also 
evidence that accelerated formation of craft 
organizations occurred five to ten years 
ago and a current tendency is toward con- 
solidation rather than expansion. 

Methodology 

The craft membership organizations survey 
was planned as a census of all known organi- 
zations rather than as a sampling. Mail sur- 
vey procedures were used. A master mailing 
list of organizations developed from di- 
rectories was reviewed for completeness by 
consultants from the crafts field. 

All organizations on the master mailing list 
were sent an advance letter from the Arts 
Endowment in early May 1978 to inform them 
of the survey and ask them to return a post- 
card with address correction or to request 
removal from the list if not a craft mem- 
bership organization. The questionnaire was 
mailed shortly thereafter. The original 
list was augmented with names suggested by 
respondents. 

The result of the survey effort was 947 com- 
pleted questionnaires representative of a 
total estimated universe of about 1,200 
craft membership organizations. 

The planning study conducted for the Arts 
Endowment in 1976 produced a range of esti- 
mates of craft artists belonging to organ- 
izations in the United States — the high 
estimate at about 350,000 and the low about 
250,000. The craft membership organizations 
survey indicates that the figure is probably 
closer to 3 80,000. The planning study fig- 
ures were based on an estimated 1,700 craft 
membership organizations in the United States. 
Information on membership size of about 250 
organizations listed in Contemporary Crafts 
Marketplace (the American Crafts Council 
directory) was used to extrapolate member- 
ship of a larger national group. A cross- 
check of the membership lists of about two 
dozen organizations against the mailing 
list of the American Crafts Council indi- 
cated a need for adjustment for individuals 
belonging to several organizations. The 
highest planning study estimate of 350,000 
individuals used national average member- 
ship size and an estimated percentage of 
membership overlap applied to the number 
of organizations in each of the nine geo- 
graphic divisions defined by the United 
States Bureau of the Census. The lowest 
planning study estimate made a further 
adjustment on the grounds that Contemporary 
Crafts Marketplace included a dispropor- 



tionate number of organizations with more 
than 500 members. 

The new national estimate of 380,000 craft 
artists reflects the same adjustment proce- 
dures that produced the planning study es- 
timates, and one must look to the data used 
to explain the differences. Some data ele- 
ments were the same; notably, the estimates 
of organizational overlap. However, the 
survey of organizations produced different 
estimates of the numbers and geographic 
distribution of craft membership organi- 
zations and a different picture of their 
membership size. 

Because survey respondents averaged fewer 
than 20 organizations per state, the find- 
ings were more broadly organized to accord 
with the four regions and nine divisions 
of the country as defined by the United 
States Bureau of the Census. 

The survey estimated the number of craft 
membership organizations in the United 
States as less than the planning study — 
1,218 groups compared to 1,692. The survey 
also showed a much larger proportion in the 
East North Central area and a considerably 
smaller proportion in the East South Cen- 
tral states. The smaller estimated universe 
is based on intensive efforts to determine 
the status of each organization on the master 
mailing list. It is also based on the as- 
sumption that nonresponding organizations 
include the same proportion of "not craft" 
organizations as the responding ones. The 
planning study list, in contrast, included 
many "not craft" organizations that could 
not be weeded out with the information on 
hand at that time. The geographic area 
differences are similarly explained by the 
fact that the proportion of craft to "not 
craft" organizations was much higher in 
the East North Central area and much low- 
er in the East South Central area than 
the average for the country. 

Other factors being equal, the overall ef- 
fect of a smaller estimate of craft mem- 
bership organizations would be to lower 
the estimated number of craft artists. The 
reason the new estimate is higher than any 
of the planning study figures is that the 
survey revealed a considerable increase in 
membership size. Average membership of 
regional, state, and local organizations 
listed in the Contemporary Crafts Market - 
place used in the initial phase of the plan- 
ning study was 194 craft artists; the av- 
erage for organizations with regional, 
state, or local membership responding to 
the survey was 299. In addition, there were 
more national organizations responding to 
the survey than were included in the plan- 
ning study data, so that the average for 
all organizations in the survey is over 
400 members. 



Figure I 



Regional distribution of 
1,218 craft membership 
organizations 




i 



10 



I 



CHAPTER I 



MEMBERSHIP 



Who are the people who belong to craft mem- 
bership organizations? The survey does shed 
considerable light on where they live, their 
preferred media, and how many of them there 
are. It also tells something about standards 
— whether their interests (as evidenced by 
the activities of their organizations) are 
primarily to sell or exhibit their crafts, 
improve their skills, or keep in contact 
and socialize with like-minded persons, and 
whether their membership depended on having 
had work reviewed by a jury of peers. 



Location 

Figure I represents regional distribution 
of craft membership organizations in the 
United States in 1978. The largest number — 
just over 30 percent — is located in the 
South; each of the three other regions has 
between 22 and 2 5 percent. Among regional 
subdivisions, the highest concentration of 
craft organizations — over 18 percent — is 
in the East North Central division and the 
second highest — over 13 percent — is in the 
Pacific division. The areas with smallest 
concentrations are in the West North Cen- 
tral and West South Central divisions and 
the Mountain division — none of which ac- 
counts for more than 9 percent of the total. 

In Figure II the mean number of organiza- 
tions per state is 24; the median number is 
18 — half the states having fewer organiza- 
tions than this number and half more. Both 
median and mean are significantly increased 
by a few states with large numbers of or- 
ganizations — California, New York, Ohio, and 
Michigan. 



Figure II 



Number of organizations 
by state 




11 



How does the distribution of organizations 
translate into distribution of craft artists? 
Figure III relates regional distribution 
of craft membership organizations to both 
craftspersons who could be identified by 
geographic area and the distribution of the 
general working-age population (18 to 64 
years old). While the 306,000 individual 
artists accounted for here are all members 
of organizations, an additional 69,000 craft 
artists belong to groups which indicated 
their membership was primarily national or 
international rather than regional, state, 
or local. The source for the 128,594,000 
working-age population is the U.S. Bureau 
of the Census , Provisional Estimates of the 
Population of States by Age: July 1977 . 

Figure III demonstrates a widespread dif- 
ference between concentration of craft art- 
ists and their member organizations. It 
also shows that some areas of the country 
have significantly greater or smaller pro- 
portions of craft artists than would be 
expected in relation to the area's general 
population. New England — with 10 percent 
of the organizations — has almost 15 percent 
of estimated craft artists but less than 
6 percent of the working-age population. 
The East South Central states — also with 
10 percent of the organizations — have more 
craftspersons (11 percent) than their 6 per- 
cent share of the general population war- 
rants. In the case of the Mountain states , 
the percentage of craft organizations is 
also almost double that of the working pop- 
ulation, yet the percentage of craft artists 
is not substantially higher. This phenom- 
enon reflects the small size of the craft 
organizations in this region. In the Middle 
Atlantic and South Atlantic states, on the 
other hand, craftspersons and their organ- 
izations are relatively few in proportion 
to the general population. 

Craft media of members 

The survey of craft membership organizations 
asked two general questions about the kinds 
of media or materials members work with. 
Was the organization oriented to one spe- 
cific craft medium or was it a general- 
media organization? Respondents for single- 
medium organizations were asked to name the 
medium; respondents for general-media or- 
ganizations were asked to list up to five 
media in which they knew members worked in 
order of popularity. A total of 914 organ- 
izations responded to these questions, and 
nine broad medium categories — fiber, clay, 
metal, wood, glass, leather, paper, other me- 
dia, and multimedia — emerged. By far the 
greatest proportion of respondents were 
general-media organizations, constituting 
61.6 percent of the total as opposed to 
38.4 percent single-medium respondents. Of 
the general-media organizations, 2 6.7 per- 



12 



Figure 



Regional distribution of organizations, craft artists, and the working-age population 



Regional craft organizations (N = 1,149) 

Craft artists belonging to regional organizations (N = 305,893) 

1977 working-age population (18 to 64 years old) (N = 128,594,000) 



;heast 



New England 



10.0% 
14.7% 



imm&mmmmmmmmM 



7%% 



H 



I 



Middle Atlantic 



/ 


..... . 7 


"I 1 B 9r X*X*X*X*X* 


•^^^^^^^^•^^^^^^^^^^^^SSk 




















13. 0% :::::::::::: 








".^WWmmmmmmmMMmmtWWW&S 



North Central 






18.1% 


East North Central 


17.0% 




18.9% 



4 



^ 



West North Central 



7.0% 
4.9% 
7.6% 



•>:•:•:•:•:•:■ 



W 



South 



South Atlantic 



12. 4% E 

9.9% 
15.9% 



y 



w 



East South Central 



10.3% 

10.8% 

6.3% 



m 



West South Central 



7.9? 
7.7? 
9.8? 



{fffff. :::*.::* 



West 



Mountain 



/— 




9.1% :|:|:; 


mm 


mm 


^mmmmmm 


5.1% :::: 








4.6%^; 


H 


W//A 


■M) 



Pacific 



13.3% 
16.1% 
13.9% 



1 



13 



Table 1 



Media among single-medium and general-media organizations 



_ 


Medium 


Single-medium 
organizations 


General-media 
organizations 


Primary 
medium 








First 

medium 

listing 


Second 
medium 
listing 






Fiber 


64.7% 


27.9% 


43.9% 


42.0% 




Clay 


23.4% 


50.1% 


18.4% 


39.8% 




Metal 


2.3% 


4.8% 


11.9% 


3.8% 




Wood 


2.8% 


6 . 2% 


10.5% 


4.9% 




Glass 


2.0% 


2.0% 


4.5% 


2.0% 




Leather 


0.9% 


0.5% 


2.6% 


0.7% 




Paper 


0.6% 


0.5% 


0.7% 


0.5% 




Other media 


1.7% 


5.7% 


4.3% 


4.2% 




Multimedia 


1.7% 


2.3% 


J • ,3 *6 


2.1% 




Responses (N) 


(351) 


(563) 


(538) 


(914) 





14 



cent listed five media, 16 . 6 percent listed 
four, 9.3 percent listed three, and 2.7 
percent named a single medium. 

Table 1 shows the relative standing of the 
nine broad categories among both single-med- 
ium and general-media organizations. Per- 
centages here and in following tables and 
figures are based on the number of organ- 
izations responding to questions rather 
than the total estimated universe of 1, 218 . 
The column headed "primary medium" repre- 
sents combined responses of single-medium 
organizations and first listings of general- 
media organizations. Clearly, fiber and 
clay are the predominant media of organized 
craftspersons . Almost two-thirds of single- 
medium organizations are comprised of such 
fiber artists as weavers, embroiderers, and 
quiltmakers. Fiber is second to clay as 
the first listing of general-media organi- 
zations but is listed most frequently as 
their second most popular medium. The pat- 
tern for clay, which claims the attention 
of less than one-quarter of single-medium 
groups, is just the reverse. Clay crafts — 
including ceramics, porcelain, and china 
painting — are first in popularity but run 
a distant second among the general media 
organizations. These findings suggest that 
fiber artists have formed cohesive associ- 
ations and that persons involved with clay 
crafts tend to be members of general-media 
organizations along with other types of 
craft artists. 

None of the remaining seven broad media types 
accounts for more than 3 percent of single- 
medium organizations or more than 6 percent 
of first mentions by general-media organi- 
zations, although metal and wood are each 
listed second by over 10 percent of general 
groups. Generally, craft artists working 
in these seven media are more frequently 
found as members of general-media organi- 
zations rather than single-medium organi- 
zations. This is especially true of the 
other media (which include plastic, ivory, 
tole, candles, egg decor, and bread). It 
is also true of the multimedia listings 
(which include dolls and toys, clothing, 
nature crafts, and beach crafts) . 

It is useful to know how many individual 
craft artists work in each of these media. 
Appendix A to this report shows how esti- 
mates were developed. 

Figure IV depicts relative organizational 
focus. Clearly, organizations with a nation- 
al or international membership are predom- 
inantly oriented to a single medium — almost 
60 percent. Among regional organizations, 
single-medium orientation accounts for about 
35 to 45 percent of the organizations except 
in New England and the East and West South 
Central states, with less than 30 percent. 



Figure IV 



Regional orientation 
to a single medium 




Pacific 



Percent 



15 



Table 2 



Primary medium among national and regional organizations 



Organizations 



Fiber 



Clay 



Metal 



Wood 



Glass 



National 


31.9% 


29.2% 


6.9% 


b • 3 "6 


5.6% 


Northeast region 
New England 
Middle Atlantic 


33.7% 
45.0% 


45.7% 
45.0% 


7.6% 
3.0% 


5.4% 
3.0% 


Z « /. ~6 


North Central region 
East North Central 
West North Central 


44.6% 
46.8% 


41.9% 
27.4% 


2.7% 


3.4% 
4.8% 


2.7% 
1.6% 


South region 
South Atlantic 
East South Central 
West South Central 


45.8% 
48.7% 
29.8% 


45.8% 

47.4% 


0.9% 
1.8% 


4.7% 

10.5% 

5.3% 


0.9% 
2.6% 


West region 

Mountain 

Pacific 


38.2% 
46.8% 


39.5% 

J J • J"6 


9.2% 
5.6% 


2.6% 
4.0% 


3.2% 



Total national 
and regional 



42.0% 



39.8% 



3.8 ! 



4.9% 



2.0% 



16 



Table 2 shows the geographic distribution 
of organizations classified according to 
primary medium. Fiber engages the interest 
of about 4 to almost 50 percent of the 
regional organizations except in the West 
South Central states and New England. Na- 
tional organizations also have a lower pro- 
portion oriented to fiber (32 percent) . 
Clay is the favored medium of 3 5 to 4 5 per- 
cent of organizations in all parts of the 
country except the West North Central states , 
where clay crafts claim less than 30 per- 
cent, and the West South Central states, 
where they claim over 45 percent. National 
organizations reveal a relatively low propor- 
tion oriented to clay — less than 30 percent. 



sent from the West North Central and the 
East South Central states and more than 
usually abundant in the Mountain states. 
Wood organizations are especially active 
in the East South Central states; leather 
organizations appear in larger than expected 
numbers in the West North Central states; 
and the West North Central and South West 
Central states have relatively strong rep- 
resentation of organizations oriented to 
other media and multimedia. 



Looking at the other media, the most evident 
phenomenon is the interest in metal, wood, 
glass, leather, paper, other media, and 
multimedia among national organizations as 
opposed to regional ones. Craft artists 
working in these media may be relatively 
few in number but they have clearly joined 
together to form nationally-based associa- 
tions. Some other patterns are also evident . 
Metal organizations are conspicuously ab- 



Leather 



Paper 



Other 
media 



Multi- 
media 



1.4'- 



2 • O S 



9.7% 



4.2% 



2 • 2 s 

1.0% 



2.2% 

1.0% 



2 « 2 "5 

2.0% 



4.8'- 



4.1% 
9.7% 



0.7% 
4.8% 



..85 



1.8% 



1.3% 
8.8-5 



1.9% 

1.3% 



1.3% 



6.6% 
4.0% 



2.6% 
0.8% 



0.7% 



0.5% 



4.2! 



2.1% 



17 



Figure V 



Membership size of 
craft organizations 



Under 
25 



25-49 
50-99 

100-499 

500- 
1,999 

2,000- 
4,999 



16.6% 



19.6% 



11.3% 



1.9% 



,000 =fL 9% 

more _y 



(N = 932) 




32.8% 




Percent 



10 



20 



30 



Table 3 



Membership of national 
and regional organizations 



Organizations 


Under 2 5 
members 


National 


10.0% 


Northeast region 
New England 
Middle Atlantic 


10.6% 
14.3% 


North Central region 
East North Central 
West North Central 


16.9% 
17.7% 


South region 
South Atlantic 
East South Central 
West South Central 


22.9% 
25.6% 
19.0% 


West region 

Mountain 

Pacific 


20.5% 
12.9% 



18 



Membership size 

Membership size, which the survey used to 
calculate geographic distribution of crafts- 
persons and their preferred media, also says 
something about the craft artists' joining 
patterns. Of course, membership of organ- 
izations is always changing and the size of 
any one organization at any one time may 
represent a particular stage of its growth. 
Nevertheless, it is useful to look at the cur- 
rent size range of craft membership organ- 
izations . 

Figure V shows distribution of craft member- 
ship organizations in the United States by 
seven size intervals. It is evident that 
craft membership organizations tend to be 
small in size — over one-third of the survey 
respondents have fewer than 50 members and 
only 14 percent have more than 50 members. 
The median membership is 91. The mean mem- 
bership size, on the other hand, is over 4 00 
members, due to the very large size of a 
few organizations. 

Table 3 relates size to location. Predictably, 
national organizations are well represented 
in the larger intervals (over 500 members) . 
The median membership size for each region- 
al division (indicated by a box in Table 3) 
falls in the 50- to 99-member interval. New 



England is the exception with median mem- 
bership in the 100 to 499 interval and rel- 
atively strong showing of organizations 
with more than 500 members. The Pacific 
states also show strong representation in 
the 500- to 1 , 999-member interval (almost 
13 percent compared to New England's 16 
percent) and the highest percentage of all 
regional divisions in the 2 , 000-or-more 
member interval. 



H~" -^ 


25-49 


50-99 


100-499 


500- 
1,999 


2,000- 
4,999 


5,000 

or more 




2.9% 


34.3% 




15.7% 




1.4% 


127. 1%I 


8.6% 



8.5s 
15.2i 



25.5% 

|27.6%1 



138.3%I 
32.4% 



16. 5 . 
10.5^ 



1.1% 



20.8% 
17.7% 



118.8? 
122.6'- 



31.2% 
37.1% 



11.0% 
4.8% 



0.6% 



0.6% 



16.5% 
20.5% 
12.1% 



13.8% 
I17.9%1 
125.9%! 



34.9% 
29.5% 
34.5% 



11.0% 
5.1% 
6.9% 



0.9% 
1.7% 



1.3% 



26.9% 
20.2% 



117.9 s 
121. 8 s 



29.5% 
29.8% 



5.1% 
12.9% 



2.4 ! 



19 



Table 4 



Size of organization by primary medium 



"" 


Primary 


medium 


Under 25 
members 


25-49 


50-99 


100-499 


500- 
1,999 


Fiber 




16.8% 




23.4% 


21.0% 


29.4% 


7.6% 


Clay 




17.0% 




12.0% 


19.8% 


34.0% 


14.5% 


Metal 




15.6% 




18.8% 


21.9% 


25.0% 


12.5% 


Wood 




20.0% 




13.3% 


13.3% 


24.4% 


24.4% 


Glass 




27.8% 







2 2 • 2 *6 


27.8% 


22.2% 


Leather 




20.0% 




40.0% 





40.0% 





Paper 




20.0% 







20.0% 


60.0% 





Other media 


13.2% 




7.9% 


18.4% 


47.4% 


2.6% 


Multimedia 


2 2 • 2~o 




11.1% 


5.6% 


50.0% 


5.6% 



Table 5 



Activities of national and regional organizations 



Organizations 


Exhibits 


Sales 


Apprentice 
programs 


Craft 
courses 


Workshops 


National 


87.5% 


56.9% 


21.1% 


47.9% 


77.8% 


Northeast region 
New England 
Middle Atlantic 

North Central region 
East North Central 
West North Central 

South region 
South Atlantic 
East South Central 
West South Central 

West region 


83.0% 
91.4% 


85.9% 
71.7% 


15.1% 
16.0% 


53.8% 
44.3% 


65.2% 
83.0% 


89.6% 
91.8% 


73.5% 
68.9% 


14.5% 
16.9% 


47.0% 
55.0% 


72.2% 
73.3% 


83.2% 
92.1% 
85.0% 


80.4% 
72.7% 
70.0% 


11.4% 
13.0% 
11.9% 


42.1% 
41.3% 

53.4% 


72.9% 
66.7% 
74.1% 


80.8% 
90.6% 


78.2% 
60.8% 


9.0% 
12.1% 


33.3% 
41.3% 




Mountain 
Pacific 


59.7% 
72.2% 



Total national 
and regional 



87.7% 



72.1% 



14.0% 



45.4% 



72.0% 



20 





2,000- 


5,000 


Respon- 


4,999 


or more 


ses (N) 


0.8% 


1.0% 


(381) 


2.2% 


0.6% 


(359) 


3.1% 


3.1% 


(32) 


2.2% 


£» + £% 


(45) 








(18) 








(5) 








(5, 


10.5% 





(38) 


5.6% 





(18) 



Other 

educational 

or research Social 

activities functions 



Publications 



62.9% 



58. = 



79.2% 



36.7% 
35.2% 



57. ! 
56. 6* 



44.6% 
43.8% 



42.9% 
44.1% 



70.9% 
68.9% 



46.9% 
50.0% 



50.0% 
34.7% 
38.6% 



59.6% 
61.3% 

64.4% 



46.7% 
47.4% 
44.8% 



Table 4 shows that organizations oriented 
to fiber — the most popular medium — tend to 
be relatively small. Less than 39 percent 
of fiber organizations have 100 or more 
members, while on the average 52 percent of 
all other craft organizations are at least 
this big. While only ten leather and paper 
organizations responded, none has 500 or 
more members. 

Members' professionalism 

A special survey interest was focused on 
craft organizations whose membership en- 
gaged in selling or exhibiting their work. 
Two questions were included to help deter- 
mine whether the membership of respondent 
organizations is professional in this sense. 

Organizations were asked to indicate in- 
volvement in 19 77 in exhibits, sales, appren- 
ticeship programs, craft courses, workshops, 
other educational or research activities, 
social functions, publications, and other 
activities. Almost 70 percent of organi- 
zations reported involvement in three to 
six of these activities. Table 5 shows rel- 
ative involvement in them (omitting the cat- 
egory of other media which was rarely cited). 
Over 88 percent of craft membership organ- 
izations exhibited their members' work and 
72 percent held sales and of fered workshops 
compared to the 6 4 percent that engaged in 
social functions. Publications (48 per- 
cent) , craft courses (45 percent) , and other 
educational or research activities (41 per- 
cent) figured prominently, but relatively 
few groups offered formal apprenticeship 
programs (14 percent) . The weight of the 
findings suggests that most craft member- 
ship organizations are oriented to members 
whose primary concerns are exhibiting and 
marketing their work and improving their 
skills . 

Some geographic variation is evident. Many 
more national organizations were involved 
in publications and other educational or 
research activities than was true of or- 
ganizations in any of the regional divi- 
sions. Conversely, relatively few nation- 
al organizations held sales. New England 
organizations held more sales than the av- 
erage, Pacific organizations fewer. Work- 
shops, particularly popular in the Middle 
Atlantic states, were much less so among 
Mountain organizations (which tended to show 
less commitment to training and information 
activities generally) . 



25.6% 
37.1% 



63.6% 
69.8% 



34.6% 
44.7% 



40.6% 



63.5% 



47.6% 



21 



Table 6 



Organizational activities by primary medium 



Primary medium 



Apprentice Craft 



Exhibits 


Sales 


programs 


courses 


Workshops 


84.0% 


61.2% 


7.2% 


39.8% 


77.3% 


90.8% 


81.8% 


19.1% 


52.9% 


72.5% 


99.3% 


80.0% 


17.1% 


31.4% 


51.4% 


88.9% 


80.0% 


22.7% 


50.0% 


68.9% 


83.3% 


76.5% 


11.1% 


27.8% 


64.7% 


83.3% 


JJ . J^ 


16.7% 


16.7% 


33.3% 


80.0% 


20.0% 


20.0% 


40.0% 


100.0% 


89.5% 


73.7% 


23.7% 


51.4% 


63.2% 


84.2% 


89.5% 


21.1% 


42.1% 


57.9% 




Table 7 



Organizational activities by membership size 



Membership size 



Exhibits 



Sales 



Apprentice Craft 
programs courses 



Workshops 



Under 25 


77.1% 


72.7% 


15.7% 


2 8.6% 


57.9% 


25-49 


82.4% 


59.5% 


9.8% 


33.6% 


72.5% 


50-99 


91.7% 


79.9% 


13.9% 


46.6% 


71.0% 


100-499 


90.2% 


72.4% 


13.4% 


49.2% 


74.8% 


500-1,999 


95.2% 


76.9% 


20.6% 


68.3% 


84.5% 


2,000-4,999 


94.4% 


66.7% 


11.8% 


72.2% 


83.3% 


5,000 or more 


100.0% 


75.0% 


25.0% 


62.5% 


100.0% 



22 



Table 6 shows considerable variation ac- 
cording to sphere of interest. Leather 
organizations stand out by virtue of few 
being involved in activities other than 
exhibits . 



Other 

educational 

or research Social 

activities functions 



Publications 



38.9% 


59.0% 


45.8% 


42.8% 


68.9% 


45.2% 


44.1% 


71.4% 


45.7% 


47.7% 


61.4% 


65.9% 


64.7% 


88.2% 


55.6% 





16.7% 


33.3% 


40.0% 


40.0% 


40.0% 


45.9% 


68.4% 


73.7% 


21.1% 


36.8% 


47.4% 



Organizations oriented to wood and other 
media are more involved in publications 
than the average, while multimedia organ- 
izations are more involved in sales. Almost 
all responding metal organizations cited 
exhibit catalogues. 

Table 7 shows that the largest organizations 
— those with 5,000 or more members — are in 
general most likely to be involved in a 
wide range of member activities. There is 
no linear relationship between size and a 
particular activity; the smallest organi- 
zations, for instance, have a higher-than- 
average proportion with sales and appren- 
ticeship programs although they report least 
involvement with other activities. 



Other 

educational 

or research Social 

activities functions 



Publications 



27.0% 


52.3% 


19.0% 


32.4% 


61.6% 


28.9% 


42.8% 


67.4% 


45.9% 


44.1% 


68.3% 


64.2% 


53.8% 


61.8% 


63.5% 


66.7% 


66.7% 


88.9% 


75.0% 


83.3% 


87.5% 



23 



In addition to the question about activities, 
organizations were asked if membership was 
contingent on review of work by a panel of 
accomplished craf tspersons or a "jury." 
Responses indicate that almost 30 percent 
of craft organizations require jurying of 
work for all members, another 10 percent 
require jurying for certain levels of mem- 
berships, and the remainder have no jury 
requirement. Figure VI shows that New 
England stands out as having almost 45 per- 
cent of organizations with a jury require- 
ment, closely followed by the South Atlantic 
states. In contrast, only 10 percent of the 
West South Central organizations and 20 per- 
cent of the West North Central ones require 
jurying. Jury requirement among national 
membership organizations is less than the 
U.S. average. 

Figure VII shows that 53 percent of metal 
organizations have a jury requirement com- 
pared to an average of less than 3 percent 
for all craft organizations. The organi- 
zations with the least stringent require- 
ments are those categorized as other and 
multimedia and leather organizations. 

Responses to the questions on activities 
suggest that a high proportion of craft 
membership organizations in all areas and 
representing all media are oriented to sales 
and exhibition. However, jury requirements 
suggest that there is greater variability 
in commitment to high quality work, and craft 
membership organizations oriented toward 
the various media have certainly developed 
differently in different geographic areas. 



24 



Figure VI 



Regional jury 
requirement 
for membership 



Figure VII 



Jury requirement 
for membership 
by primary medium 



Middle 
Atlantic 

East North 
Central 

West North 
Central 

South 
Atlantic 

East South 
Central 

West South 
Central 



Mountain 



Pacific 




22.4% ' 



19.0% 



10 -°* i 



10 
Percent 



44.5? 



36.5% 



40.8% 



29.5% 



25.6% 



33.1% 



20 



30 



40 




Fiber 



Clay 
Metal 

Wood 

Glass 

Leather 

Paper 



Other 
media 



Multi- 
media 



25.0% 



37.0% 



26.7% 



27.8? 



16.7% 



53.0% 



40.0% 



L0.6% j 



15.8% 



10 

Percent 



20 



30 



40 



50 



25 



CHAPTER II 



ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 



The focus here is on the structure of craft 
membership organizations and what resources 
— personnel, facilities, and funds — are 
available to sustain them. The survey in- 
cluded questions on profit status, staff 
and facilities, level of expenditure, sources 
of funds, and organizational problems. 

Corporate status 

Most craft membership organizations — over 
62 percent — are legally incorporated. Al- 
most 53 percent of the total, or 85 percent 
of the corporations, are nonprofit and tax- 
exempt under Section 501 (c) 3 of the Internal 
Revenue Code. The other 15 percent of in- 
corporated organizations are prof it-making, 
waiting to receive tax-exempt status, or 
uncertain of their status. 



Tables 8,9, and 10 relate corporate status 
and information on staff and facilities to 
geographic distribution, medium preference, 
and membership size. There is little var- 
iation in corporate structure viewed in 
terms of location, although national or- 
ganizations are more likely to be incor- 
porated than regional ones. Incorporated 
organizations in New England are somewhat 
less likely than elsewhere to have tax- 
exempt status. Organizations oriented pri- 
marily to wood, glass, paper, and other 
media are most likely to have formed cor- 
porations, organizations oriented to fiber 
and to multimedia least likely, and again, 
there is relatively little variation in the 
proportion of incorporated organizations 
that are tax-exempt. However, there is a 
strong relationship between incorporation 
and membership size — organizations with 100 
or more members are much more likely to be 
incorporated than smaller ones. The rela- 
tionship does not hold true when nonprofit 
status is related to size — smallest organ- 
izations being almost as likely as the 
largest to be tax-exempt. 



Table 8 



Corporate status, personnel, and facilities of national and regional organizations 



1 


Organizations 


Organizations 

are 

incorporated 


Incorporated 
organizations 
are nonprofit 


Organizations 
have paid 
officers or 
staff 


Organizations 
own or rent 
facilities 


National 


72.9% 


82.4% 




58.3% 


61.1% 


Northeast region 
New England 
Middle Atlantic 

North Central region 
East North Central 
West North Central 

South region 
South Atlantic 
East South Central 
West South Central 

West region 

Mountain 

Pacific 


68.8% 
57.6% 


78.1% 
86.0% 




45.2% 
31.4% 


61.3% 
61.2% 


58.1% 
61.0% 


89.5% 

91.7% 




24.8% 
21.0% 


49.3% 
49.2% 


61.3% 
71.6% 
68.4% 


89.2% 
83.0% 
82.1% 




42.2% 
36.4% 
42.4% 


56.1% 
45.5% 
57.6% 


58.4% 
55.4% 


80.0% 
86.6% 




23.4% 
25 . 8'5 


46.8% 
54.0% 


Total national 
and regional 


62.3% 


85.1% 




34.0% 


54.2% 



26 



Table 9 



Corporate status, personnel, and facilities by primary medium 



_ 










Organizations 








Organizations 


Incorporated 


have paid 


Organizations 






are 


organizations 


officers or 


own or rent 


Primary 


medium 


incorporated 


are nonprofit 


staff 


facilities 


Fiber 




50.0% 


86.4% 


21.6% 


46.4% 


Clay 




70.3% 


85.8% 


46.2% 


62.8% 


Metal 




56.3% 


77.8% 


37.1% 


50.0% 


Wood 




81.0% 


82.4% 


35.6% 


51.1% 


Glass 




80.0% 


83.3% 


33.3% 


55.6% 


Leather 




66.7% 


75.0% 


16.7% 


50.0% 


Paper 




80.0% 


75.0% 


20.0% 


60.0% 


Other media 


75.7% 


78.6% 


31.6% 


51.4% 


Multimedia 


52.6% 


90.0% 


42.1% 


68.4% 



Table 10 



Corporate status, personnel, and facilities by membership size 



Membership size 



Organizations Incorporated 
are organizations 

incorporated are nonprofit 



Organizations 




have paid 


Organizations 


officers or 


own or rent 


staff 


facilities 


16.0% 


40.0% 


13.7% 


42.1% 


19.3% 


49.4% 


40.6% 


59.1% 


77.1% 


76.5% 


94.4% 


88.9% 


100.0% 


87.5% 



Under 25 


33.6% 


81.3% 


25-49 


39.6% 


86.4% 


50-99 


58.9% 


72.8% 


100-499 


78.6% 


88.7% 


500-1,999 


88.5% 


92.4% 


2,000-4,999 


88.9% 


75.0% 


5,000 or more 


85.7% 


83.3% 



27 



Table 11 



1977 funding sources of national and regional organizations 



Organizations 



Member- 
ship 
fees 



Sales 







Funds 








from 




Work- 




other 


Local 


shop 


Private 


organi- 


govern 


fees 


donations 


zations 


ment 



National 


83.3% 


47.2% 


41.7% 


43.1% 


13.9% 


2.8% 


Northeast region 
New England 
Middle Atlantic 

North Central region 
East North Central 
West North Central 

South region 
South Atlantic 
East South Central 
West South Central 

West region 

Mountain 

Pacific 


89.5% 
92.5% 


55.8% 
50.0% 


45.3% 
57.5% 


44.2% 
30.2% 


7.4% 
12.3% 


4.2% 
12.3% 


92.5% 
79.4% 


Id 2. ■ o "6 
49.2% 


42.6% 
42.9% 


24.5% 
36.5% 


8.4% 
17.5% 


3.9% 
3.2% 


81.7% 
74.7% 
75.4% 


62.4% 
53.2% 
46.4% 


39.4% 
27.8% 
46.4% 


29.4% 
30.4% 


8.3% 

20.3% 

8.7% 


8 . 3 -o 

7.6% 

14.5% 


84.8% 
89.1% 


58.2% 
50.8% 


46.8% 
47.7% 


19.0% 
28.9% 


6.3% 
9.4% 


7.6% 
17.2% 



Total national 
and regional 



85.0% 



53.3% 



44.6% 



31.4% 



10.8% 



8.4% 



Table 12 



Number of funding sources by membership size 



g 




1-2 


3-5 


6-9 


Respon- 


Membership size 


sources 


sources 


sources 


ses (N) 


Under 25 


77.4% 


21.2% 


1.4% 


(157) 


25-49 


66.6% 


33.3% 




(155) 


50-99 


54.9% 


41.8% 


3.3% 


(183) 


100-499 


41.4% 


49.3% 


9.3% 


(306) 


500-1,999 


25.0% 


39.4% 


35.6% 


(105) 


2,000-4,999 


2. A • Z. ~5 


55.5% 


A Z. . Z. "5 


(18) 


5,000 or more 


25.0% 


62.5% 


12.5% 


(8) 


Total organizations 


52.1% 


39.4% 


8.5% 


(932) 



28 



State 
govern- 
ment 



Federal 
govern- 
ment 



Other 
sources 



No money 
received 



8.3 ! 



16.7% 



23.6 s 



1.4 s 



15.8% 
21.7% 


11.6% 
9.4% 


12.6% 
10.4% 


2.1% 
0.9% 


11.0% 
20.6% 


8.4% 
12.7% 


18.1% 
15.9% 


1.9% 

4.8% 


14.7% 
34.2% 

18.8% 


13.8% 
20.3% 
17.4% 


10.1% 
10.1% 
11.6% 


2. • O "6 

1.3% 


16.5% 
15.6% 


6.3% 
12.5% 


7.6% 
10.2% 


1.6% 



17.2% 



12.5% 



13.1% 



1.7% 



Staff and facilities 

One indication of organizational develop- 
ment is the presence of paid officers or 
staff in executive positions. The survey 
revealed that only one-third of craft mem- 
bership organizations have such paid per- 
sonnel. National organizations and those in 
New England have a higher paid-personnel 
proportion than those in other locations; 
lowest proportions are in the North Central 
and West regions. Organizations oriented 
to clay are somewhat more likely than oth- 
ers to have paid personnel, while leather, 
paper, and fiber organizations are least 
likely. The proportion of paid personnel 
varies dramatically by membership size; 
however, 100 percent of organizations with 
5,000 or more members have paid personnel, 
while this is true of fewer than 20 per- 
cent of those with under 100 members. 

Owning or renting offices, studios, or gal- 
lery space can also indicate increasing 
institutional stability and growth. The 
survey found that about 54 percent of craft 



membership organizations own or rent facil- 
ities, a considerably higher figure than 
the proportion having paid staff. About 
20 percent of the organizations actually 
own space, close to 4 percent rent, and 
5 percent both own and rent. The survey 
did not ask organizations with rented space 
whether they rented only for such specific 
occasions as exhibits and sales. 

The proportion owning or renting facilities 
shows very little variation viewed in terms 
of location, although national organization* 
and those in the Northeast rank somewhat 
higher than others. Similarly, there is 
relatively little variation viewed in terms 
of primary medium although multimedia or- 
ganizations are somewhat more likely than 
others to own or rent facilities and fiber 
organizations are somewhat less so. Pre- 
dictably, membership size follows a positive 
correlation — almost 90 percent of organi- 
zations with 2,000 or more members own or 
rent facilities compared with only 40 per- 
cent of those with fewer than 50 members. 

Funding sources and expenditure levels 

Funding and expenditures are useful keys 
to understanding operations . The survey 
asked about 19 7 7 income from sources rang- 
ing from membership fees and sales to fed- 
eral funds. The organization could also 
indicate that no funds were received in 
1977. 

The most frequently cited source of funds 
— mentioned by 85 percent of all craft mem- 
bership organizations — was membership fees . 
Slightly more than half earn income from 
sales . 

About 31 percent receive private donations, 
but few report funding from other external 
sources . 

Table 11 shows that there is little geo- 
graphic variation. National membership 
organizations report more funding from pri- 
vate donations and less state and local 
government funding than the average. New 
England has a higher than average propor- 
tion of organizations receiving private 
donations; craft organizations in the Middle 
Atlantic states rely more heavily than 
others on workshop fees; East South Central 
organizations are particularly dependent 
on federal and state government funding 
and Pacific organizations on local govern- 
ment support. 

Table 12 shows that the majority (52 per- 
cent) of craft membership organizations re- 
ceive support from only one or two sources . 
Only organizations with more than 500 mem- 
bers are likely to have more than five 
sources of funding. 



29 



Figure VIII 



$1,000- 
$4,999 

$5,000- 
$9,999 

$10,000- 
$24,999 

$25,000- 
$49,999 

$50,000- 
$99,999 

$100,000- 
$499,999 

$500, 00C 
or more 



1977 expenditures of 
craft organizations 




7 


33.5% J 


I 




7 

1 








26.1% 














z? 




10.0 s 


1/ 






7i 








8.9% 








> 




e.2%; 








/ 




6.5% J 








/ 




7.9% ; 




TjO.8% 





The survey asked respondents to indicate 
approximate 1977 expenditures in eight cat- 
egories ranging from less than $1,000 to 
$500,000 or more. The responses provide a 
general financial picture and indicate how 
the budgetary level varies according to 
other characteristics. 



Craft organ 
operations . 
third of 90 
less than $ 
spent betwe 
the remaini 
$500,000 in 
— less than 
spent half 



izations tend to be small-budget 

Figure VIII shows that one- 
7 respondent organizations spent 
1,000; and a little over a third 
en $1,000 and $10,000. Most of 
ng 3 percent spent less than 
1977. Only seven organizations 
1 percent — indicated that they 
a million dollars or more. 



o 

Percent 



10 



20 



30 



Table 13 shows the majority of craft organ- 
izations spending at least $10,000. Almost 
40 percent of national organizations spent 
over $50,000, and only 13 percent spent un- 
der $1,000. Among the regional organiza- 
tions, New England has the smallest pro- 
portion — under 20 percent — spending less 
than $1,000, and the highest proportion 
spending $50,000 or more. In contrast, the 
West North Central and Mountain states have 
the smallest proportion of organizations 
spending over $50,000 — less than 8 percent 
in each case — and the highest proportion 
making do on less than $1,000 — over 4 per- 
cent in both areas. 



Table 14 follows the general pattern of low- 
budget concentration — showing that over 
half the fiber organizations spent less than 
$1,000 in 1977 (compared with about one-third 
of all organizations) , and only 8 percent of 
them spent $50,000 or more (compared with 
over 15 percent on average) . Organizations 
that have the greatest expenditures include 
those oriented to wood, glass, and clay. 
About 30 percent of organizations oriented 
to wood or glass spent $50 , 000 or more, while 
only a quarter of them spent under $1,000. 



30 



Table 13 



1977 expenditures of national and regional organizations 





Organizations 


Under 
$1,000 


$1,000- 

$4,999 


$5,000- 
$9,999 


$10,000- 
$49,999 


$50,000 
or more 


National 


12.7% 


12.7% 


8.5% 


26.8% 


39.4% 


Northeast region 
New England 
Middle Atlantic 

North Central region 
East North Central 
West North Central 

South region 
South Atlantic 
East South Central 
West South Central 

West region 

Mountain 

Pacific 


19.3% 
36.0% 


30.7% 
28.0% 


11.4% 
10.0% 


20.4% 
15.0% 


18.2% 
11.0% 


39.5% 
43.9% 


27.0% 
33.3% 


12.5% 
5.3% 


8.5% 
10.6% 


12.6% 
7.1% 


36.2% 
34.2% 
28.6% 


23.8% 
22.4% 

30.4% 


8.6% 

10.5% 
3.6% 


15.2% 
21.0% 
23.2% 


16.2% 
11.8% 
14.3% 


40.3% 

36.8% 


29.9% 
24.8% 


14.3% 
10.4% 


7.8% 
12.0% 


7.8% 
16.0% 



Table 14 



Expenditures by primary medium 







Under 


$1,000- 


$5,000- 


$10,000- 


$50,000 


Primary medium 


$1,000 


$4,999 


$9,999 


$49,999 


or more 


Fiber 


50.8% 


23.3% 


8.6% 


9.6% 


7.8% 


Clay 


19.3% 


28.0% 


11.0% 


20.2% 


21.7% 


Metal 


21.2% 


30.3% 


9.1% 


21.2% 


18.2% 


Wood 


25.0% 


22.7% 


9.1% 


11.4% 


31.9% 


Glass 


23.5% 


17.6% 


17.6% 


11.8% 


29.4% 


Leather 


50.0% 


16.7% 





33.3% 





Paper 





75.0% 





25.0% 





Other media 


26.3% 


34.2% 


13.2% 


10.5% 


15.8% 


Multimedia 


40.0% 


26.7% 


6.7% 


26.6% 






31 



Figure IX 



Number of 
serious problems 



Figure X 



Problems of 
craft organizations 



Number 

of 

problems 



P 



■ 



0.1% 



1.6% 



3.1% 



6.0% 



8.0% 



= 



5 

Percent 



12.3% 



14.0% 



10 



(N = 915) 



20.2% 



17.3% 



17.4% 



15 



20 



Display or 
storage space 



Equipment 



Funds 



Staff 



Commun- 
ication 



Technical 
information 



Other 




(N = 756) 










35.6% 














25.4% 
















52.8% 














J 




31.0% 


) 






> 


57.8% J 












35.6% 














30.0% 

> 








> 




29.5% | 










II 




17.7% 



















20 

Percent 



40 



60 



32 



Problems 

The survey asked respondents to indicate 
problems that were "serious for their or- 
ganization. " One or more of the following 
could be checked: inadequate working space, 
lack of meeting space, inadequate display 
or storage space, not enough equipment, in- 
adequate funds, not enough staff, not enough 
communication with other craft organiza- 
tions, lack of information on available 
technical assistance, and other problems. 

Figure IX shows that 17 percent of the 915 
respondents report no serious problems and 
that another 38 percent report no more than 
two. About one-third indicate having three 
to five serious problems, while fewer than 
11 percent checked of f six or more problems . 

The number of problems shows little geograph- 
ic variation although more organizations in 
the East and West South Central states re- 
port six or more problems than elsewhere. 
There is also little variation in terms of 
membership size. Very large organizations 
— those with 5,000 or more members — are 
most likely to report few problems. However, 
small organizations — those with under 500 
members — are no more apt to report many 
problems than the average. It is middle- 
sized organizations, those with between 50 
and 5,000 members, which are most apt to re- 
port six or more problems. 

Figure X deals with specific problems. In- 
adequate funds is the problem cited by 
almost 58 percent of the 756 respondents 
and lack of meeting space troubles only 25 
percent of them, but no one problem is con- 
sidered serious by as many as three-fifths 
of the respondents. 

There is some variation in type of problem 
according to membership size , and organiza- 
tions with between 500 and 5,000 members more 
often report inadequate working space, in- 
adequate display space, not enough equip- 
ment, inadequate funds, and not enough staff 
than either smaller or larger-sized ones. 
National organizations cite lack of equip- 
ment less often than regional ones, and 
conversely, cite not enough staff almost 
twice as often. The Mountain states have 
the highest proportion of organizations — 
almost 4 percent — wanting communication 
with other craft membership organizations , 
while those in the Pacific states most often 
report inadequate display or storage space. 

Two problems — not enough staff and not 
enough equipment — vary considerably accord- 
ing to medium. Almost 50 percent of wood 
organizations report not enough equipment 
as compared with the 31 percent average; 
over 55 percent of glass organizations and 
almost 50 percent of clay organizations re- 
port not enough staff as compared with the 



average of about 35 percent. Multimedia, 
leather, and fiber organizations are least 
likely to be troubled by these inadequacies. 

One other variable that relates to problems 
is an organization's longevity. Almost 70 
percent of craft membership organizations 
that have been in existence less than five 
years cite inadequate funding as a serious 
problem compared to about 50 percent of 
those in existence 20 years or more. Sim- 
ilarly, about 50 percent of organizations 
organized one to two years ago report lack 
of information on available technical as- 
sistance as a serious problem compared to 
less than 25 percent of the older organi- 
zations . 



33 



CHAPTER III 



Figure XI 



Years in existence 



DEVELOPMENTAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL 
CHARACTERISTICS 



Several other characteristics of craft mem- 
bership organizations that affect their 
relationship to members may also shed light 
on future development. The survey included 
questions about longevity, geographic dis- 
persion of membership, clientele, and wheth- 
er stated purposes coincide with activities. 
Responses were considered in relationship 
to such factors as geographic location, 
primary medium, and membership size. 

Longevity 

Craft membership organizations, on average, 
have existed for at least ten years. As 
shown in Figure XI, nearly 85 percent were 
over five years old in 1978 and barely 6 
percent had existed for two years or less. 

One cannot conclude with confidence that 
the pattern of longevity is the same as in 
previous years or that it will continue in 
the future. Comparative data from the plan- 
ning study preceding the survey suggest 
that an exceptionally large number of craft 
membership organizations were formed five 
to ten years ago, that these have had a 
high survival rate, and that the rate of 
formation of new organizations has subse- 
quently diminished. 

It is evident from Table 15 that there is 
some relationship between size and longev- 
ity — larger organizations are older and 
smaller ones younger. Longevity also bears 
some relationship to service to members and 
the general public. As is seen in Table 16, 
relatively fewer organizations formed one or 
two years ago report exhibits, sales, ap- 
prenticeship programs, craft courses, and 
workshops , but a craft membership organi- 
zation that has been in existence for five 
years is just about as likely to carry on 
a full range of marketing and training func- 
tions as much older ones . Contrary to the 
general pattern, young organizations have 
more publications than older ones . 

Several relationships between longevity 
and location or medium are evident. Organ- 
izations oriented to metal, leather, and 
multimedia and Mountain and West North 
Central organizations figured largely in 
the boom formation of five to ten years 
ago. Conversely, organizations in the 
East North Central and Pacific states are 
least likely to have formed in that boom 
period. 




2 or 

less 



3-4 
5-9 

10-19 

20 or 
more 









5.8% 


t 










9.7% 




29.9%[, 








.. 


24.8% P 








/ 


29.7% J 









10 



20 



30 



Percent 



Table 16 



Organizational activities 
by years in existence 



1 


Years in exis 


tence 


Exhibi 


ts 


Sales 


2 or less 




55.1% 




47.9% 


3-4 




83.3% 




71.1% 


5-9 




88.5% 




79.5% 


10-19 




91.6% 




74.9% 


20 or more 




91.0% 




66.1% 


Total 




87.7% 




71.9% 



34 



Table 15 



Years in existence by membership size 



Membership size 



2 years 


3-4 


or less 


years 


9.0% 


16.1% 


9.9% 


11.8% 


3.8% 


7.7% 


4.3% 


8.3% 


3.8% 


6.7% 



5-9 
years 



10 years 
or more 



Under 25 

25-49 

50-99 

100-499 

500-1,999 

2,000-4,999 

5,000 or more 



12.5% 



3 6.8% 
33.6% 
34.6% 
26.2% 
18.3% 
16.7% 
25.0% 



38.1% 
44.7% 
53.9% 
61.1% 
71.2% 

O 3 • J "6 

62.5% 



Apprentice 
programs 



Craft 
courses 



Workshops 



Other 

educational 
or research 
activities 



Social 
functions 



Publications 



8.3% 


25.0% 


56.3% 


42.6% 


52.2% 


57.4% 


10.0% 


35.6% 


66.3% 


43.2% 


64.0% 


57.3% 


15.7% 


43.4% 


65.5% 


40.7% 


61.5% 


42.7% 


16.8% 


47.6% 


72.9% 


35.3% 


60.7% 


46.9% 


11.7% 


51.4% 


82.5% 


43.7% 


69.8% 


48.5% 


13.8% 


45.1% 


72.0% 


40.6% 


63.6% 


47.7% 



35 



Figure XII 



Geographic focus of 
craft organizations 



<N = 917) 




Regional 



National 



Inter- 
national 



62.6% 



20.4% 



9.2% 



3.7% 



4.1% 



20 



40 



60 



Percent 



Geographic focus 

Concentration of membership and service to 
members or a wider clientele help define 
breadth of organizational program. The 
membership concentration, or geographic 
focus, of the organizations is defined as 
local, state, regional, national, or in- 
ternational depending upon from which areas 
the members were drawn. Note that the terms 
"national" and "regional" are used differ- 
ently than in the earlier sections of this 
report. Previously, "national" included 
organizations with both national and in- 
ternational memberships and "regional" 
referred to all the remaining organizations 
separated according to the Census region 
in which they were located. Figure XII 
shows that, in general, crafts organiza- 
tions have a narrow geographic base with 
almost 63 percent reporting that a majority 
of their membership is local. About one- 
fifth of the organizations indicated a 
statewide membership and substantially 
fewer show regional, national, or inter- 
nationl memberships . 



Table 17 shows that some distinctive loca- 
tion patterns emerge. New England has 
relatively few local organizations and 
many more than the average with state or 
regional membership. Middle Atlantic states 
also have a larger than average proportion 
of regional organizations (although fewer 
than average state organizations) . Pacific 
organizations are preponderantly local. 

Table 18 shows metal , wood, paper, and glass 
organizations more likely than others to be 
regional, national, or international in mem- 
bership, while multimedia organizations are 
more likely than most to be either local or 



36 



Table 17 



Geographic focus of regional organizations 



1 


Organizations 




Local 
membership 


State 
membership 


Regional 
membership 


Northeast region 
New England 
Middle Atlantic 

North Central regie 
East North Central 
West North Central 

South region 
South Atlantic 
East South Central 
West South Central 

West region 

Mountain 

Pacific 




48.9% 
68.3% 


3 A . £ "6 

13.9% 


18.9% 
17.8% 


>n 


65.6% 
72.1% 


22.5% 
23.0% 


11.9% 
4.9% 




65.7% 
65.8% 

71.7% 


24.8% 
26.3% 

21.7% 


9.5% 
7.9% 

6.7% 




73.3% 
80.2% 


20.0% 
17.5% 


6.7% 
2.4% 


Total 




67.9% 


22.1% 


9.9% 



Table 18 



Geographic focus by primary medium 



Primary medium Local 



Inter- 
State Regional National national 



Fiber 




68.4% 


17.7% 


7.8% 


2.9% 


3.2% 


Clay 




58.9% 


25.5% 


9.6% 


4.0% 


2.0% 


Metal 




51.5% 


18.2% 


15.2% 


6.1% 


9.1% 


Wood 




55.6% 


20.0% 


11.1% 


6.7% 


6.7% 


Glass 




35.3% 


29.4% 


11.8% 


5.9% 


17.6% 


Leather 
Paper 


66.7% 
20.0% 


16.7% 


40.0% 


20.0% 


16.7% 
20.0% 


Other 


media 


67.6% 


10.8% 


2.7% 


5.4% 


13.5% 


Multimedia 


72.2% 


5.6% 


5.6% 





16.7% 



37 



Figure XIII 



Market- 
ing 

Work- 
shop 

Infor- 
mation 



Social 



Other 



Stated purpose of 
craft organizations 




55.9% 



43.8% 



68 



48.8% 



37.8% 



15.91 



w 



20 
Percent 



40 



60 



international. As is seen in Table 19, the 
majority of organizations with under 100 
members are local and a majority of those 
with 2,000 or more members are national or 
international in scope. 

Table 20 shows whether the beneficiaries 
of program components are members only, 
members and other craft artists, or the 
general public. Generally, craft member- 
ship organizations' programs are directed 
toward either their own members or the gen- 
eral public. Exhibits and craft courses 
are most apt to be open to the general pub- 
lic; social functions and publications are 
most often restricted to members. 

Congruence of purpose and activities 

The survey asked respondents to indicate 
applicable organizational purpose 1 from a 
list that included exhibiting, marketing, 
conducting workshops or other skill-learning 
activities for members , providing informa- 
tion on crafts to members , and fostering 
social interaction among members . Figure 
XIII shows that workshops or other skill- 
learning activities for members are seen 
as central aims by over two-thirds of re- 
sponding organizations. Exhibiting is cited 
by over half of them and providing infor- 
mation on crafts to members by close to 
half. Marketing the products of members 
and social interaction among members rank 
below these as central aims. 



The purpose categories are very similar to 
the categories relating to activities dis- 
cussed in Chapter I in connection with pro- 
fessionalism. To determine how closely 
purpose and activities mesh or diverge, 
responses to the two groups of questions 
were reorganized into four broad categories: 
marketing (exhibiting and marketing as pur- 
poses, exhibiting and sales as activities); 
training (workshops as a purpose , workshops 
and apprenticeship programs and craft courses 
as activities) ; information (providing in- 
formation on crafts to members as a purpose, 
other educational or research activities 
and publications as activities) ; and social 
(social interaction among members as a pur- 
pose, social functions as an activity) . Or- 
ganizations were classified as having cited 
one of these categories as a purpose and 
an activity (this is purpose-activity con- 
gruence) , having cited an activity without 
the same categorical purpose, and having 
cited the purpose without a related activity. 



38 



Table 19 



Geographic focus by membership size 



m 


Membership size 


Local 


State 


Regional 


National 


Inter- 
national 


Under 25 


84.4% 


7.1% 


3.9% 


4.5% 





25-49 


81.5% 


11.9% 


6.0% 


0.7% 





50-99 


72.6% 


18.3% 


8.0% 


0.6% 


0.6% 


100-499 


51.0% 


31.3% 


9.7% 


4.3% 


3.7% 


500-1,999 


30.3% 


29.3% 


21.2% 


6.1% 


13.1% 


2,000-4,999 


22.2% 


11.1% 


5.6% 


2. t- . Z. "6 


38.9% 


5,000 or more 


X z. • D "6 





12.5% 


— 


75.0% 



Table 20 



Organizational activities by whom intended for 









Members 


and 






Members 


other craft 


General 


Activity 


only 


artists 




public 


Exhibits 


23.5% 


21.8% 




54.7% 


Sales 


30.2% 


21.0% 




48.8% 


Apprentice programs 


29.1% 


27.6% 




43.3% 


Craft courses 


2 o . 8 "5 


13.6% 




57.6% 


Workshops 


35.4% 


18.8% 




45.8% 


Other educational or 










research activities 


30.8% 


19.9% 




49.3% 


Social functions 


54.2% 


14.3% 




31.5% 


Publications 


52.8% 


19.5% 




27.7% 



39 



Table 21 



Congruence of purpose and activities 



g 1 






Purpose and 












activity- 


Purpose 


but 


Activity but 


Category 




congruent 


not activity 


not purpose 


Marketing 




56.5% 


19.4% 




24.1% 


Training 




70.3% 


8.1% 




21.6% 


Information 




23.0% 


41.4% 




35.6% 


Social funct 


ions 


43.3% 


10.0% 




46.7% 



Table 21 shows the highest congruence among 
organizations involved in training — over 
70 percent of which cited training as a 
primary purpose and also claimed one or more 
training activities — and substantial con- 
gruence of purpose and activity for marketing 
and social functions. Most organizations 
that see training and social functions as 
purposes engage in related activities . Sig- 
nificant numbers of organizations engage 
in information and social activities but 
did not cite them among their purposes (al- 
though social activity is less than likely 
to be considered a primary purpose) . Over 
41 percent of organizations citing infor- 
mation on crafts to members as a primary 
purpose did not engage in informational ac- 
tivities in 1977. There is very little 
variation in congruence according to geo- 
graphic location, membership size, and 
organizational longevity. 



40 



CHAPTER IV 



REVIEW BY MEDIUM AND REGION 



(highest except for glass) 
Geographic focus: 56% local; 7% national 
(highest proportion except for paper) 



Metal 



The characteristics of craft organizations 
were discussed previously in terms of pri- 
mary medium and regional location. This 
chapter summarizes these characteristics. 

Organizations by primary medium 



Fiber 

Number : 5 
Size: med 

for lea 
Activities 

hibits 

(61%) , 
Jury: 25% 

ship 
Incorporat 

proport 
Facilities 
Expenditur 

(lowest 
Geographic 

portion 



12 (42% of all organizations) 

ian membership 73 (lowest except 

ther) 

: over half are involved in ex- 

(84%) , workshops (77%) , sales 

social functions (59%) 

have jury requirement for member- 
ion: 50% incorporated (lowest 
ion for any medium) 
: 46% own or rent facilities 
es: median expenditures $984 

for any medium) 

focus: 68% local (highest pro- 

except for multimedia) 



Clay 

Number: 485 (40% of all organizations) 

Size: median membership 114 

Activities: over half are involved in ex- 
hibits (91%) , sales (82%) , workshops 
(73%) , social functions (69%) , craft 
courses (53%) 

Jury: 37% have jury requirement for member- 
ship 

Incorporation: 70% incorporated 

Facilities: 63% own or rent facilities 
(highest proportion except for multi- 
media) 

Expenditures: median expenditures $6,227 
(highest except for wood and glass) 

Geographic focus: 59% local 



Wood 

Number: 60 (5% of all organizations) 

Size: median membership 156 

Activities: over half are involved in ex- 
hibits (89%) , sales (80%) , workshops 
(69%) , publications (66%) , social func- 
tions (62%) 

Jury: 27% have jury requirement for member- 
ship 

Incorporation: 81% incorporated (highest 
proportion for any medium) 

Facilities: 51% own or rent facilities 

Expenditures: median expenditures $6,264 



Number: 4 6 
Size: med 
Activities 

hibits 

tions ( 
Jury: 53% 

ship (h 
Incorporat 
Facilities 
Expenditur 

(highes 
Geographic 

portion 



Leather 



(4% of all organizations) 
ian membership 86 
: over half are involved in ex- 
(99%), sales (80%), social func- 
71%) , workshops (51%) 

have jury requirement for member- 
ighest proportion for any medium) 
ion: 56% incorporated 
: 50% own or rent facilities 
es : median expenditures $7,528 
t for any medium) 

focus: 35% local (lowest pro- 

except for paper) 



Number: 9 (less than 1% of all organiza- 
tions) 

Size: median membership 44 (smallest for 
any medium) 

Activities: over half are involved in ex- 
hibits (83%) 

Jury: 17% have jury requirement for member- 
ship 

Incorporation: 67% incorporated 

Facilities: 50% own or rent facilities 

Expenditures: median expenditures $1,000 
(lowest except for fiber) 

Geographic focus: 67% local 



Paper 

Number: 6 (less than 1% of all organiza- 
tions) 
Size: median membership 167 (largest ex- 
cept for multimedia and other media) 
Activities: over half are involved in work- 
shops (100%) , exhibits (80%) 
Jury: 40% have jury requirement for member- 
ship (highest proportion except for met- 
al) 
Incorporation: 80% incorporated 
Facilities: 60% own or rent facilities 
Expenditures: median expenditures $3,6 67 
Geographic focus: 20% local (lowest pro- 
portion for any medium) ; 40% regional 
(highest proportion for any medium) ; 
40% national or international (highest 
proportion for any medium) 



Other media 

Number: 51 (4% of all organizations) 
Size: median membership 189 (same high fig- 
ure as multimedia) 
Activities: over half are involved in ex- 
hibits (90%) , sales (74%) , publications 



41 



(74%) , social functions (68%) , craft 
courses (51%) 
Jury: 11% have jury requirement for member- 
ship (lowest proportion for any medium) 
Incorporation: 76% incorporated 
Facilities: 51% own or rent facilities 
Expenditures: median expenditures $3,772 
Geographic focus: 68% local 



Multimedia 



(72%) , 
Jury: 37% 

ship 
Incorporat 
Facilities 

(same h 
Expenditur 
Funding: 

fees (5 

tions ( 



social functions (57%) 
have jury requirement for member- 
ion: 59% are incorporated 
: 61% own or rent facilities 
igh proportion as New England) 
es: median expenditures $3,000 
membership fees (93%) , workshop 
8%) , sales (50%) , private dona- 
30%), state government (22%) 



Number: 26 (2% of all organizations) 
Size: median membership size 189 (same high 

figure as other media) 
Activities: over half are involved in 
sales (90%) , exhibits (84%) , workshops 
(58%) 
Jury: 16% have jury requirement for member- 
ship 
Incorporation: 53% incorporated (lowest 

proportion except for fiber) 
Facilities: 51% rent or own facilities 
Expenditures: median expenditures $2,49 8 
Geographic focus: 72% local (highest pro- 
portion for any medium) 



Organizations by region 



New England 

Number: 115 (10% of all organizations) 

Size: median membership 155 (largest for 
any region) 

Total members: 44,966 (15% of craft artists; 
0.61% of New England working-age popula- 
tion — highest proportion for any region) 

Media: clay (46%), fiber (34%), metal (8%) 
wood (5%) 

Activities: over half are 
sales (86%), exhibits (i 
(65%) , social functions 
courses (54%) 

Jury: 45% have jury requirement for member- 
ship (highest proportion for any region) 

Incorporation: 69% are incorporated 

Facilities: 61% own or rent facilities 

(same high proportion as Middle Atlantic) 

Expenditures: median expenditures $5,000 
(highest for any region) 

Funding: membership fees (90%), sales (56%), 
workshop fees (45%), private donations 
(44%) , state government (16%) 



involved in 
!3%) , workshops 
(57%) , craft 



Middle Atlantic 

Number: 136 (12% of all organizations) 

Size: median membership 86 

Total members: 39,766 (13% of craft artists ; 
0.18% of Middle Atlantic working-age 
population) 

Media: fiber (45%) , clay (45%) , metal (3%) 
wood (3%) 

Activities: over half are involved in ex- 
hibits (92%) , workshops (83%) , sales 



East North Central 

Number: 208 (18% of all organizations 
highest for any region) 

Size: median membership 82 

Total members: 52,002 (17% of craft art- 
ists — highest for any region; 0.21% of 
East North Central working-age popula- 
tion) 

Media: fiber (45%) , clay (42%) , other me- 
dia (4%) , wood (3%) 

Activities: over half are involved in ex- 
hibits (90%) , sales (74%) , workshops 
(72%) , social functions (71%) 

Jury: 22% have jury requirement for member- 
ship 

Incorporation: 58% are incorporated 

Facilities: 49% own or rent facilities 

Expenditures: median expenditures $2,556 

Funding: membership fees (93%), sales (52%), 

workshop fees (43%) , private donations 

(25%), other unspecified sources (18%) 



West North Central 

Number: 80 (7% of all organizations) 

Size: median membership 81 

Total members: 14,989 (5% of craft artists 

— the same low proportion as Mountain; 

0.15% of West North Central working-age 

population — lowest proportion except for 

Mountain) 
Media: fiber (47%) , clay (27%) , 

dia (9%), wood, leather, and 

(5% each) 
Activities: over half are 

hibits (92%) , workshops 

(69%), social functions 

courses 
Jury: 19% 



other me- 
multimedia 

involved in ex- 
(73%) , sales 
(69%) , craft 
(55%) , publications (50%) 
have jury requirement for member- 
ship (lowest proportion except for West 
South Central) 
Incorporation: 61% are incorporated 
Facilities: 49% own or rent facilities 
Expenditures: median expenditures $1,733 

(lowest for any region) 
Funding: membership fees (79%) , sales (49%) , 
workshop fees (43%) , private donations 
(37%) , state government (21%) 



South Atlantic 

Number: 142 (12% of all organizations) 
Size: median membership 87 



42 



Total members: 23,248 ( 10% of craft artists ; 
0.39% of South Atlantic working-age pop- 
ulation) 

Media: fiber (46%), clay (46%), wood (5%), 
multimedia (2%) 

Activities: over half are involved in ex- 
hibits (83%), sales (80%), workshops 
(73%) , social functions (60%) 

Jury: 41% have jury requirement for member- 
ship (highest proportion except for New 
England) 

Incorporation: 61% are incorporated 

Facilities: 56% own or rent facilities 

Expenditures: median expenditures of 
$3,319 

Funding: membership fees (82%), sales (62%), 
workshop fees (39%) , private donations 
(29%) , state government (15%) 



East South Central 

Number: 118 (10% of all organizations) 

Size: median membership 60 (smallest ex- 
cept for Mountain) 

Total members: 33,036 
0.41% of East South 
population — highest 
for New England 

Media: fiber (49%) , clay 
glass (3%) 

Activities: over half are involved in ex- 
hibits (92%) , sales (73%) , workshops 
(68%) , social functions (61%) 

Jury: 30% have jury requirement for member- 
ship 

Incorporation: 72% are incorporated (high- 
est proportion for any region) 

Facilities: 46% own or rent facilities 
(lowest proportion for any region) 

Expenditures: median expenditures $3,821 

Funding: membership fees (75%), sales (53%) 
state government (34%) , private dona- 
tions (30%) , workshop fees (28%) 



(11% of craft artists; 
Central working-age 
proportion except 



(36%) , wood (11%) 



West South Central 

Number: 91 (8% of all organizations) 

Size: median membership 85 

Total members: 23,554 (8% of craft artists; 
0.19% of West South Central working-age 
population) 

Media: clay (47%) , fiber (30%) , other me- 
dia (9%) , wood (5%) 

Activities: over half are 
hibits (85%), workshops 
(70%) , social functions 
courses (53%) 

Jury: 10% have jury requirement for member- 
ship (lowest proportion for any region) 

Incorporation: 6 8% are incorporated 

Facilities: 58% own or rent facilities 

Expenditures: median expenditures $3,816 

Funding: membership fees (75%) , sales (46%) , 
workshop fees (46%) , private donations 
(33%), state governments (19%) 



involved in ex- 
(74%) , sales 
(64%) , craft 



Mountain 

Number: 105 (9% of all organizations) 

Size: median membership 56 (lowest for any 
region) 

Total members: 15,601 (5% of craft artists 
— same low proportion as West North Cen- 
tral; 0.12% of Mountain working-age pop- 
ulation) 

Media: clay (40%) , fiber (38%) , metal (9%) 
other media (7%) 

Activities: over half are involved in ex- 
hibits (81%), sales (78%), social func- 
tions (64%) , workshops (60%) 

Jury: 26% have jury requirement for member- 
ship 

Incorporation: 58% are incorporated 

Facilities: 47% own or rent facilities 

(lowest proportion except for East South 
Central) 

Expenditures: median expenditures $2,298 
(lowest except for West North Central) 

Funding: membership fees (85%), sales (58%) 
workshop fees (47%) , private donations 
(19%), state governments (17%) 



Pacific 

Number: 153 (13% of all organizations 

highest proportion except for East North 
Central) 

Size: median membership 88 (largest except 
for New England) 

Total members: 49,249 (16% of craft art- 
ists — highest proportion except for East 
North Central; 0.28% of Pacific working- 
age population) 

Media: fiber (47%) , clay 
wood ( 4 % ) 

Activities: over half are 
hibits (91%) , workshops 
functions (70%) , sales 

Jury: 33% have jury requirement for member- 
ship 

Incorporation: 55% are incorporated (low- 
est proportion for any region) 

Facilities: 54% own or rent facilities 

Expenditures: median expenditures $3,129 

Funding: membership fees (89%), sales (51%) 
workshop fees (48%) , private donations 
(29%) , local governments (17%) 



(36%) , metal (6%) 

involved in ex- 
(72%) , social 
(61%) 



43 



APPENDICES 

APPENDIX A 

CALCULATION OF ORGANIZED CRAFT ARTISTS BY MEDIUM 

APPENDIX B 

REGIONS AND DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTRY AS DEFINED BY 
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU 



Table 22 



Media among organizations and artists 





Medium 


Organiz 


ations 






Artists 










Fiber 

Not specified 

Specified 

Total 


Primary 
Number 

280 
340 
620 


mentions 
Percent 

19.3% 
23.4% 
42.7% 


All mentions 
Number Percent 

333 12.9% 
591 23.0% 
924 35.9% 


Primary 
Number 

73,908 

73,457 

147,365 


mentions 
Percent 

24.7% 
24.6% 
49.3% 


All mentions 
Number Percent 

78,124 20.6% 

91,592 24.1% 

169,716 44.7% 


Clay 

Not specified 

Specified 

Total 


167 
296 
463 


11.5% 
20.4% 
31.9% 


191 
369 
560 


7.4% 
14.3% 
21.7% 


35,139 

55,278 
90,417 


11.7% 
18.5% 
30.2% 


36,931 
61,121 
98,052 


9.7% 
16.1% 
25.8% 




Metal 

Not specified 

Specified 

Total 


23 
76 
99 


1.6% 
5.2% 
6.8% 


109 
204 
313 


4.2% 

7.9% 

12.2% 


3,988 
11,291 
15,279 


1.3% 
3.8% 
5.1% 


10,595 
20,934 
31,529 


2. . o -5 
5.5% 
8.3% 




Wood 

Not specified 

Specified 

Total 


77 

24 

101 


5.3% 
1.7% 
7.0% 


226 

57 
283 


8 • 8 -6 
11.0% 


12,558 

3,851 

16,409 


4.2% 
1.3% 

5.5% 


23,124 

6,191 

29,315 


6.1% 
1.6% 
7.7% 




Glass 

Not specified 

Specified 

Total 


12 
30 
42 


0.8% 
2.1% 
2.9% 


81 
90 

171 


3.1% 
6.6% 


2,145 
5,382 
7,527 


0.7% 
1.8% 
2.5% 


6,205 

9,390 

15,595 


1.6% 
2.5% 
4.1% 




Leather 

Not specified 

Specified 

Total 


18 

2 

20 


1.2% 
0.1% 
1.3% 


56 

8 

64 


2.2% 
0.3% 
2.5% 


3,162 

240 

3,402 


1.0% 
0.1% 
1.1% 


5,510 

664 

6,174 


1.4% 
0.2% 
1.6% 




Paper 

Not specified 

Specified 

Total 


1 
8 
9 


0.1% 
0.5% 
0.6% 


5 
20 

25 


0.2% 
0.8% 
1.0% 


158 
1,627 
1,785 


0.1% 
0.5% 
0.6% 


449 
2,323 
2,772 


0.1% 
0.6% 
0.7% 




Multimedia 
Total 


37 


2.5% 


109 


4.2% 


6,705 


2. • 2. -6 


11,484 


3.0% 




Other media 
Total 


61 


4.2% 


124 


4.8% 


10,304 


3.4% 


14,885 


3.9% 




Total 


1,452* 


99.9% 


2,573* 


99.9% 


299,193 


99.9% 


379,522** 


99.8% 





*These estimates of the total number of craft organizations differ from the 1,218 
estimate cited earlier in this report to the extent that organizations listed more 
than one medium used by their members. 

**This represents the total estimated number of craft artists who are members of 
craft organizations. 



46 



APPENDIX A 



CALCULATION OF ORGANIZED CRAFT ARTISTS 
BY MEDIUM 



The survey questionnaire 
ent organization whether 
one medium, "fiber, clay 
than one medium. Organi 
as "specific medium" wer 
medium; organizations re 
eral" were asked to list 
larity up to five media 
worked. 



asked each respond- 
it was oriented to 
, etc . , " or more 
zations responding 
e asked to name the 
sponding as "gen- 

in order of popu- 
in which members 



Responses to these questions were classified 
to extract as much detail as possible . For 
example, lace and rug-hooking were given 
separate subgroup identification within the 
broad category of fiber. However, the large 
number of respondents who named "fiber" as 
a medium (as suggested in the question 
wording) and were subsequently identified 
as "fiber, not specified" undoubtedly in- 
clude some lace and rug-hooking organiza- 
tions as well. 

Responses that focused on objects produced 
with a variety of materials (e.g., dolls 
and toys) were classified as "multimedia." 
Conversely, candles, egg decor, and bread — 
products depending on specific materials — 
were classified as "other media." All mul- 
timedia and other media responses were dealt 
with in specific subcategories. 

Table 22 shows the number of organizations 
that named each of the major media further 
delineated as "not specified" or "specified" 
according to whether a subcategory was iden- 
tified. The numbers in the column labeled 
"primary mention" comprise single-medium 
organizations and the first and second 
listings of general media ones. "All men- 
tions" comprise these and third, fourth, 
and fifth listings of the general-media 
organizations as well. (Some general-media 
organizations named as many as eight me- 
dia, but listings beyond the fifth were 
ignored.) Table 23 provides similar in- 
formation. If the "not specified" replies 
follow the pattern of the "specified" sub- 
categories, almost 16 percent of all fiber 
mentions by craft organizations were of 
weaving (44.2 percent weaving all mentions 
from Table 23 times 35.9 percent total fi- 
ber all mentions from Table 22) . 

Estimates of craft artists working in each 
medium listed in Table 22 and in the medium 
subcategories in Table 23 were constructed 



on numbers of organizations given the fol- 
lowing assumptions: 

average membership of all organizations 
(international, national, regional, state, 
and local) is 415 craftspersons; 

all members of single-medium organizations 
and general-media organizations listing 
only one medium work in that one medium; 

members of general-media organizations 
listing five media divide as follows: 30 
percent work in the first-mentioned cate- 
gory, 2 5 percent in the second, 20 percent 
in the third, 15 percent in the fourth , and 
10 percent in the fifth; 

members of general-media organizations 
listing four media divide as follows: 33 
percent work in the first category, 28 per- 
cent in the second, 22 percent in the third, 
and 17 percent in the fourth; 

members of general-media organizations 
listing three media divide as follows: 40 
percent work in the first category, 34 per- 
cent in the second, and 26 percent in the 
third; 

members of general-media organizations 
listing two media divide as follows: 54 per- 
cent work in the first category and 4 6 per- 
cent in the second. 

To simplify the estimation process, the above 
proportions were averaged as follows: 10 
percent of the members of single-medium 
organizations work in the medium, 38 per- 
cent of the members of general-media or- 
ganizations listing a medium first work in 
the medium, 2 9 percent of the members of 
general-media organizations listing a me- 
dium second, 22 percent of the members of 
general-media organizations listing a me- 
dium third, 16 percent of the members of 
general-media organizations listing a me- 
dium fourth, and 10 percent of the members 
of general-media organizations listing a 
medium fifth. These percentages add up to 
115 percent, allowing for some members 
working in more than one medium. 

For the calculation of estimated artists, 
take the book arts subcategory under paper 
as an example. Book arts was named by one 



47 



Table 23 



Media subcategories among organizations and artists 



1 


Medium 


Organizations 




Artists 






Primary mentions 


All mentions 


Primary mentions 


All mentions 


Fiber, specified 










Weaving 


52.4% 


44.2% 


59.2% 


54.4% 


Embroidery 


11.5% 


12.0% 


11.7% 


11.8% 


Quiltmakihg 
Macrame 


11.8% 


10.0% 


10.1% 


9.5% 


7.9% 


12.5% 


4.7% 


7.4% 


Knitting 


6.2% 


6.4% 


4.9% 


5.2% 


Batik 


3.5% 


6.6% 


2.6% 


4.2% 


Basketry 


3.8% 


5.4% 


2.8% 


3.8-5 


Rug-hooking 


1.8% 


1.5% 


2.2% 


2.0% 


Lace 


0.9% 


0.7% 


1 . 7% 


1,4% 


Dyes 


0.3% 


0.7% 


0.2% 


0.4% 


Total percentage 


100.1% 


100.0% 


100.1% 


100.1% 


Total number 


340 


591 


73,457 


91,592 


Metal, specified 










Jewelry 


73.7% 


75.5% 


70.2% 


73.1% 


Silver 


15.8% 


11.3% 


13.5% 


11.5% 


Me talsmi thing 


7.9% 


7.4% 


11.6% 


9.2% 


Iron 


1.3% 


2.0% 


3.7% 


2.9% 


Gold 


1.3% 


1.5% 


1.1% 


1.4% 


Foundry 





1.0% 





0.7% 


Copper 





1.0% 





0.6% 


Wirework 





0.5% 


___ 


0.4% 


Total percentage 


100.0% 


100.2% 


100.1% 


99.8% 


Total number 


76 


204 


11,291 


20,934 


Clay, specified 










Ceramics 


94.6% 


94.3% 


92.6% 


92.6% 


China painting 


4.1% 


4.6% 


5.5% 


5.6% 


Ceramic molds 


0.7% 


0.5% 


1.5% 


1.5% 


Plaster-crafting 


0.7% 


0.5% 


0.4% 


0.4% 


Total percentage 


100.0% 


99.9% 


99.9% 


100.1% 


Total number 


296 


369 


55,278 


61,121 



single-medium organization and was listed 
first, second, third, and fourth by four 
general-media organizations. 

Applying the average above to the average 
membership figure of 415 gave an estimated 
number of 693 artists based on the most 
popular mentions: 

(1) (1.00) (415) = 415 
plus (1) (.38) (415) = 158 
plus (1) (.29) (415) = 120 



The resulting figure of 693 equals 42 . 6 per- 
cent of the total estimated artists working 
in specified subcategories. Similarly, the 
estimated number of artists based on book 
arts all mentions comprises the foregoing 
693 plus: 

(1) (.22) (415) = 91 
plus (1) (.16) (415) = 66 

The resulting 850 is 36.6 percent of the 
total represented estimated artists working 



48 



Table 23 (continued) 





Medium 


Organizations 




Artists 




Wood, specified 

Carving 

Furniture 

Marquetry 

Wood turning 

Musical instruments 


Primary mentions 

8 3 . 3 -o 
8 . 3 -o 
4.2% 
4.2% 


All mentions 

70.2% 
19.3% 

5.3% 

1.8% 

3.5% 


Primary mentions 

79.8% 

6.3% 

10.8% 

3.1% 


All mentions 

73.9% 
12.7% 

9.7% 

1.9% 

1.7% 


Total percentage 


100.0% 


100.1% 


100.0% 


99.9% 


Total number 


24 


57 


3,851 


6,191 


Glass, specified 
Stained glass 
Enamel 
Blown glass 


36.7% 
10.0% 


55.6% 
34.4% 
10.0% 


50.2% 
32.1% 
17.7% 


53.9% 
32.6% 
13.6% 


Total percentage 


100.0% 


100.0% 


100.0% 


100.1% 


Total number 


30 


90 


5,382 


9,390 


Leather, specified 

Suede 

Tanning 


50.0% 
50.0% 


87.5% 
12.5% 


50.0% 
50.0% 


81.9% 
18.1% 


Total percentage 


100.0% 


100.0% 


100.0% 


100.0% 


Total number 


2 


8 


240 


664 



Paper, specified 
Decoupage 
Book arts 
Handmade paper 


62.5% 
37.5% 


70.0% 
25.0% 

5.0% 


57.4% 
42.6% 


61.6% 

36.6% 

1.8% 


Total percentage 


100.0% 


100.0% 


100.0% 


100.0% 


Total number 


8 


20 


1,627 


2,323 



in specified paper subcategories. 

This estimating procedure has the follow- 
ing shortcomings : 

the average membership size of 415 does not 
reflect differences in medium popularity; 

some members of an organization may not 
work in any medium; members of single- 
medium organizations may also work in other 
media; members of general-media organiza- 



tions may be oriented to the listed media 
in many different proportions; and the 
members of general-media organizations may 
work in one or more of the listed media; 

no adjustment is made for nonresponse to 
the survey or for multiple organization 
memberships . 

The forthcoming survey of the members them- 
selves will provide the basis for further 
improvement of these estimates. 



49 



Table 23 (continued) 



Medium 










Organizations 




Artists 






Primary mentions 


All mentions 


Primary mentions 


All mentions 


Multimedia 










Dolls and toys 29.7% 


28.4% 


25.2% 


27.2% 


Other 


18.9% 


20.2% 


19.2% 


19.4% 


Clothing 


16.2% 


14.7% 


11.9% 


13.4% 


Nature crafts 


5.4% 


11.9% 


8.5% 


10.9% 


Indian arts 


5.4% 


5.5% 


12.4% 


9.5% 


Kitchen crafts 


8.2% 


3.7% 


6.5% 


4.2% 


Heritage crafts 


2.7% 


0.9% 


6.2% 


3.6% 


Early American 


2.7% 


3.7% 


1.8% 


2.3% 


Soft goods 


2.7% 


2.8-5 


2.4% 


2.3% 


Xmas crafts 


2.7% 


2.8-s 


1.8% 


Z- • <fe xi 


Children 


2.7% 


1.8% 


1.8% 


1.8% 


Czech folk 


2.7% 


0.9% 


2.4% 


1.4% 


Beach crafts 





1.8% 





0.9% 


Miniatures 





0.9% 


—— ~* 


0.8% 


Total percentage 


100.0% 


100.0% 


100.1% 


99.9% 


Total number 


37 


109 


6,705 


11,484 


Other media 










Lapidary 


23.0% 


18.5% 


25.3% 


Z dt • 2. is 


Tole 


26.2% 


18.5% 


24.4% 


20.7% 


Beadwork 


21.3% 


16.9% 


17.7% 


16.8% 


Candles 


3.3% 


5.6% 


5.6% 


6.6% 


Egg decor 


J • J "6 


4.0% 


5.6% 


5.2% 


Calligraphy 


3.3% 


6.5% 


2.3% 


4.5% 


Plastics 


1.6% 


7.3% 


1.5% 


4.1% 


Shuck work 


J • J "8 


5.6% 


2.3% 


3.7% 


Flower arranging 


3.3% 


4.8% 


2.7% 


3.7% 


Ivory 


J • O *6 


3.2% 


3.1% 


J • £*% 


Kites 


1.6% 


0.8% 


4.0% 


2.8% 


Bird carving 


J • o % 


1.6% 


3.1% 


2.1% 


Brooms 





2.4% 





1.5% 


Bread 


1.6% 


1.6% 


1.2% 


1.4% 


Featherwork 


1.6% 


0.8% 


1.2% 


0.8% 


Other 





1.6% 


— — 


0.7% 


Total percentage 


100.0% 


99.7% 


100.0% 


100.0% 


Total number 


61 


124 


10,304 


14,885 



50 



APPENDIX B 



REGIONS AND DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTRY AS DEFINED BY 
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU 



REGION 



DIVISION 



STATES 



Northeast 



New England 



Middle Atlantic 



Connecticut, Maine, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
Rhode Island, Vermont 



New Jersey, New York, 
Pennsylvania 



North Central 



East North Central 



West North Central 



Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, 
Ohio, Wisconsin 



Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, 
Missouri, Nebraska, North 
Dakota, South Dakota 



South 



South Atlantic 



East South Central 



West South Central 



Delaware, District of 
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, 
Maryland, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Virginia, 
West Virginia 



Alabama, Kentucky, 
Mississippi, Tennessee 



Arkansas, Louisiana, 
Oklahoma , Texas 



West 



Mountain 



Pacific 



Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, 
Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, 
Utah, Wyoming 



Alaska, California, Hawaii, 
Oregon, Washington 



51 



REPORTS IN THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT 
FOR THE ARTS RESEARCH DIVISION SERIES 



Since 1976 the Research Division of the 
National Endowment for the Arts has been 
studying matters of interest to the arts 
community and issuing reports based on its 
findings. Copies of the reports may be or- 
dered from the Publishing Center for Cul- 
tural Resources, 625 Broadway, New York 
City 10012 at the prices noted below. 



#14 Audience Development: An Examination 
of Selected Analysis and Prediction Tech- 
niques Applied to Symphony and Theatre 
Attendance in Four Southern Cities. 4 8 
pages. January 1981. ISBN 0-89062-097-0 
$2.50 

#15 Economic Impact of Arts and Cultural 
Institutions: Case Studies in Columbus, 
Minneapolis/St. Paul, St. Louis, Salt Lake 
City, San Antonio, and Springfield. 102 
pages. January 1981. ISBN 0-89062-106-3 
$3.50 



Checks should be made payable to "Publish- 
ing Center." Prices include postage and 
handling; no state or local sales tax is 
applicable. 



#1 Employment and Unemployment of Artists: 
1970-1975. 32 pages. April 1976. $2.50 

#2 To Survey American Crafts: A Planning 
Study. 32 pages. July 1977. $2.50 

#3 Understanding the Employment of Actors. 
36 pages. September 1977. $2.00 

#4 Arts and Cultural Programs on Radio and 
Television. 92 pages. September 1977 . $3.50 

#5 Where Artists Live: 1970. 80 pages. 
October 1977. $3.00 

#6 Economic Impact of Arts and Cultural 
Institutions: A Model for Assessment and 
a Case Study in Baltimore. 96 pages. 
November 1977. $3.50 

#7 Minorities and Women in the Arts: 19 70. 
32 pages. January 1978. $2.50 

#8 The State Arts Agencies in 1974: All 
Present and Accounted For. 160 pages. 
April 1978. $4.50 

#9 Audience Studies of the Performing 
Arts and Museums: A Critical Review. 106 
pages. November 1978. $3.00 

#10 Self-Employment, Migration, and House- 
hold and Family Characteristics of Artists: 
1970. 32 pages. November 1978. $2.00 

#11 Conditions and Needs of the Profes- 
sional American Theatre. 132 pages. May 
1981. ISBN 0-89062-076-8 $4.50 

#12 Artists Compared by Age, Sex, and 
Earnings in 1970 and 1976. 54 pages. 
January 1980. ISBN 0-89062-077-6 $2.50 

#13 Craft Artist Membership Organizations 
1978. 52 pages. January 1981. ISBN 
0-89062-089-X. $3.50 



52 




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