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Full text of "Cranberries; : the national cranberry magazine"

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UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS 
LIBRARY 



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RVING A $20,000,000 A YEAR INDUSTRY 




APE COD 
NEW JERSEY 
WISCONSIN 
OREGON 

WASHINGTON 

CANADA 



WISCONSIN'S VERNON GOLDSWORTHY (ri^ht) with Ralph^^S^onpson 
Story page 7. (CRANBERRIES Photo; 



30 Cents 



MAY 1958 



DIRECTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWERS 



i 



Worcester Paper 
Box Corporation! 

MEDFORD, MASS. 
Tel. MYstic 8-5305 

Manufacturers 

of 
Folding Cartons 

and 

Displays 



1 



J 



Get the right product 
for every pest problem 



Use 



= L 

ORCHARD 
BRAND lii ^ 




r 



... the first choice of 

Commercial Growers 
SENERAL CHEMICAL DIVISION 

ALLIED CHEMICAL & DYE CORP 
40 Rector Street, New York 6, N. Y. 
58 Weybosset St., Providence, R. I. 



WE DO- 

" CRANBERRY 
PR NUNC" 

OF ALL KINDS 


Wareham Savings 

Bank 
Falmouth Branch 




Welcome Savings Account 




Loans on Real Estate 


Courier Print 
Sliop 


Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 


PHONE WAREHAM 82 


WAREHAM, MASS. 
TEL. 27 


FALMOUTH 80 



The National Bank of Wareham 



Conveniently located for Cranberry Men 



Funds always available for sound loans 



Complete Banking Service 



Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. 



AMES IRRIGATION SYSTEMS 

RAINBIRD SPRINKLERS 

PRIZER APPUCATORS 

FOR 

FERTILIZERS & INSECTICIDES 



The 

Charles W. Harris 

Company 

26 Somerset Avenue 
North Dighton, Mass. 



EQUIPMENT 

HAYDEN 

- SEPARATOR - 
WAREHAM, MASS. 

Irrigation Systems 
PUMPS 

SEPARATORS - BLOWERS 
SCREENHOUSE EQUIPMENT 

DARLINGTON 
PICKING MACHINES 

Extensive Experience in 
ELECTRICAL WORK 

ALFRED PAPPI 

At Screenhouses, Boss and 

Pumps Means Satisfaction 

WAREHAM. MASS. Tel. 626 



ADVERTISE 

in 

CRANBERRIES 



DIRECTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWERS 



WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STODDARD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

Franconia Coal Co. 
— Inc. — 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. 39-R 



CRANBERRY 
GROWERS 

Choose and Use 

Niagara Dusts, Sprays and 

Dusters 






Niagara Chemical 
Division 

Food Machinery and 
Chemical Corporation 

Middleport, New York 

New England Plant and Warehouse 

Aycr, Mass. Tel. Spruce 2-2365 



CRANBERRY PICKING 
BOXES 

Shocks, or Nailed 

Let me repair your broken 

boxes — or repair them yourself. 

Stock Always on Hand 

F. H. COLE 

Tel. Union 6-3330 
North Carver, Mass. 



YOUR BEES-NESS 

IS IVIY BUSINESS 
RENTAL OF BEES 

$6.50 PER COLONY 

John Van de Poele 

West Abington, Mass. 
TRiangle 7-2656-R 



Tank Truck Service & High - Pressure Spraying 

WATER WHITE 
KEROSENE 



TEL. 

UNION 6-331 1 

HEATING 

OILS 
BOTTLED 

GAS 



•^INCOF CARVER i 



COLEMAN 
HEATING 
AND AIR 
CONDITION- 
ING 



TAKE ADVANTAGE 

of the BETTER things of life. 

The efficient USE OF ELECTRICITY is one of 

these better things — efficient use in power for cran- 
berry bog operations, and in the home. 



Plymouth County Electric Co. 



WAREHAM - PLYMOUTH 



TEL. 200 



TEL 1300 



One 



New Motion 
?n Berry Suit 



A motion was filed in May 7 
Federal District Court, Boston, in 
a suit by Morris April Brothers 
of Bridgeton, N.J., to have Mau- 
rice B. Makepeace substituted 
for the late John C. Makepeace 
as a defendant in a monopoly suit. 
Mr. Makepeace is executor of the 
John C Makepeace estate. Na- 
tional Cranberry Association is a 
ma^'n defendent in the April suit 
which was filed in July 1956. 

CAPE CLUBS ELECT 
1958 OFFICERS 

Officers of Massachusetts Cran- 
beri'y clubs elected at final meet- 
ings were: Upper Cape, presi- 
dent, Victor F. Adams, Osterville; 
vice-president, F. Maynard Gif- 
ford, Osterville; secretary-treas- 
urer Alvan Crocker, Forestdale; 



Attentioii Growers!! 

for 

your Spring 

weed control 

we offer 
water white 

kerosene 
"GRADE A" 

metered trucks 

STODDARD SOLVENT 

SUPERIOR 

FUEL COMPANY 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. 93-J 



Lower Cape, president, Ernest 
Crowell, Dennis; secretary-treas- 
urer, George Nickerson, Chatham. 
South Shore, president Louis 
Sherman, Plymouth; vice-presi- 
dent, Alvin Reid, Hanson; secre- 
tary-treasurer. Earl R i c k e r; 
Southeastern; Oscar Norton, Ro- 
chester; vice-president, Howard 
Hiller; secretary-treasurer, Gil- 
bert T. Beaton, Wareham. 



Cranberries 

AdverlEsmg 

Pays Big 

Dividends 



yOLTA OIL CO. 

Distributor of the Famous 

TEXACO 

WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For your Bog 

STODDORD SOLVENT 

Tels. 840 Ply. and 1340-R 

Plymouth, Mass. 

Rte. 44 Samoset St. 



Touraine Paints 



Hardware 



SANDVIK 

SCYTHES 

(ALSO CALLED FINNISH SCYTHES) 

CARVER SUPPLY CO. 

UNION 6-4580 

Carver, Mass. 



WATER WHITE 
KEROSENE 

STODDARD SOLVENT 

(METERED TRUCKS) 

Petroleum Sales 
& Service, Inc. 

234 water street 
Plymouth, Mass. 
tzl. pilgrim 61 1 1 



J. W. Hurley Co. 

• COAL 

e NEW ENGLAND 

COKE 
« FUEL OIL 

Water White 

-KEROSENE"" 

For BOGS 

(IvIKTERED TRUCKS) 

24-hour Fuel Oil Service 

Telephone 24-2 
341 Main St. WAREHAM 



Thorough 

Pollination 

Is Good 

Crop Insurance 

Let Our 

Honey Bees 

Do It For You 

MERRIMACK VALLEY 
APIARIES, INC. 

Formerly 
BLUE HILL APIARIES 

47 Pond Street 

Bilierica, Mass. 
Phone -Montrose 3-3079 

SS H ■ B IS a ■.■iii.Hli: ■!!''■ 



B 



Two 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Notes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 




29.73 Inches of Rain 

A record of 11.06 inches of rain- 
fall was recorded in April by 
George Rounsville. This figure 
exceeds by over 3 inches any pre- 
vious total for April and was 
easily the second wettest month 
since 1887, topped only by a tre- 
mendous 13.69 inches measured 
for September 1933. This infor- 
mation was gleaned from Dr. 
Franklin's bulletin No. 433 en- 
titled "Weather and Water as 
Factors in Cranberry Production". 
Growers will note that the rain- 
fall information found on page 30 
of this publication is given in 
terms of the averages for Middle- 
boro, Plymouth and Hyannis. In- 
cidentally, 29.73 inches of rain- 
fall has been measured at our sta- 
tion from January 1 through May 
15, leaving a balance of only 14.68 
inches necessary to reach the year- 
ly average of 44.31 inches. 

Fungicides Called For 

Temperatures for the month 
averaged approximately IVz" per 
day above normal. Apparently, 
our season is following a trend of 
relatively warm and wet weather. 
Such a pattern does not favor 
good keeping quality. It would 
peem at this time (May 15) that 
fungicide treatments will be need- 
on many bogs (both "early and 
late water") if all marketing 
agencies are to be assured of a 
good supply of sound fruit. 

Frost Season Normal 

Frost activity has been about 
normal with 8 general warnings 
being released by mid-May, com- 
pared with 7 in 1957, 1 in 1956, 
and none in 1955. These include 
both the afternoon and evening 
warnings. The coldest night dur- 
ing this period occurred May 2 



when temperatures dropped to 
16° on one bog while tempera- 
tures of 18-20° were common on 
the cooler than average bogs. 
Damage apparently has been neg- 
ligible. Before leaving the sub- 
ject of frosts, we would like to 
urge growers who subscribe to the 
frost warning service sponsored 
by the Cape Cod Cranberry 
Growers Association to have their 
frost forms and pencils near their 
telephones. A careful check with 
our telephone distributors indi- 
cates that the new system is re- 
quiring a little more time to send 
out the message due to the time 
lost on the part of some growers 
in getting properly organized for 
these reports. In general, the new 
system is well received. 



Bog Vandalism 

The Cape Cod Cranberry Grow- 
ers Association has appointed a 
committee to determine if any- 
thing can be done to curb the 
wanton vandalism around bog 
properties. Reports of destruct- 
ion of buildings, occasional fires, 
tampering with flumes, and thefts 
of equipment is almost a daily 
occurance Damages in terms of 
the cost involved of repairing of 
buildings, replacement of equip- 
ment, and the constant checking 
of bogs are reaching alarming pro- 
portions. 

No estimate is available on 
damage to the crop because of 
the tampering of flumes, result- 
ing in the loss of water for frost, 
irrigation and winter protection 
purposes, or flooding bogs at crit- 
ical stages in their development. 
The committee mentioned above 
met recently with Sheriff Donald 
P. TuUock of Barnstable County 
to ask his counsel and advice. Sev- 
eral approaches to the problem 
were discussed. It is obvious that 
there is no quick or easy solution. 

There was agreement that a 
strong educational program was 
needed to point out the serious- 




HELICOPTER PEST CONTROL 

DUSTINS AND SPRAYINS 



NORWOOD, MASS. j 

RAY MORSE, Agent Tel. Wareham 1553 | 

tttiu^^iiM^^Hii— ■^iiH'^— iiii^^iiti^^iiii^^uii^a-iiii-a>-iiii^^iiii<^— iiii^**riii^>— iiii^^iiii— ^iiii<^— iin^^nri^— •iiti^>— iJii^->riii*»iiii^^irii^^i)ii^— ii«{* 

Three 



ness of the problem and its effect 
on our industry. Organized 
groups, such as the P. T. A., scouts, 
churches and other organizations, 
should be contacted and their co- 
operation requested. The press 
could perform a real service by 
printing special articles dealing 
with the seriousness of the situ- 
ation. However, in order to be 
effective, the educational approach 
would have to be supported by 
strict law enforcement. With this 
thought in mind, the Southeastern 
Massachusetts Police Chiefs' As- 
sociation was addressed May 14 
by a member of this committee 
and its advise, support were re- 
quested. It was apparent that 
local authorities have received 
very few complaints in many 
areas. The committee, therefore, 
strongly urges that all growers 
report each and every case of 
vandalism to their local police 
headquarters. The reasons are 
obvious. 

Spring Pests 

Early spring pests will soon be 
with us. We are referring to 
Sparganothis fruitworm, weevils, 
false armyworms, blossom worms, 
spanworms, leafhoppers, and fire- 
worms. If these pests are con- 
trolled in May and June particu- 
larly those that have a new or 
second brood, such as weevils and 
fireworms, they seldom create a 
problem later in the season. 
Upland Work 

May is a good month to treat 
brush around the uplands, using 
one of the brush killers. The 
low volatile esters of brush kill- 
ers are reasonably safe for use on 
shores and uplands for poison ivy, 
brambles, and woody weeds 
if greatly diluted — one part in 
250 parts of water. Brush killers 
should not be used with oil on 
dikes or shores next to the bog at 
this time of year because of dam- 
age to the turf. For those who 
v/ill be using Stoddard Solvent af- 
ter "late water", it is strongly 
suggested that such work be com- 
pleted within 5 days after the 
flood has been withdrawn and 
within 8 days if kerosene is to 
be used. Less damage will occur 



to vines if these treatments are 
made when temperatures are be- 
low 65°. 

FSRST MASS. SPRING 
CRANBERRY CLINICS 

First cranberry clinics of the 
season were held in Massachusetts 
May 27 and 28. Plymouth County 
groups met at NCA warehouse 
Hanson in the afternoon and at 
State Bog in early evening. 

Features of the latter meeting 
were demonstrations of a new 
low-gallonagae sprayer develop- 
ed by the Station staff and of a 
newly-installed irrigation system 
on an acre of the bog. In the set- 
uo plastic pipe was laid under- 
ground, with only the risers and 
spray nozzles to disturb normal 
bog operations. 

Second day meetings were at 
A. D. Makepeace Company screen- 
bouse, West Barnstable and NCA 
screenhouse. North Harwich. At 
all sessions there was discussion 
of early spring insects and weeds 
and their control and uses of 
fertilizers. 

MORE CRANBERRY AID 
FROM U. OF WISCONSIN 

Wisconsin growers are receiving 
increasing active assistance in 
rranberry growing from the Un- 
iversity of Wisconsin. Dr. Mal- 
colm N. Dana and Dr. Roberts 
are working on weed problems. 
Professors Albert and Corey in- 
vestigation nutrition. Professor 
Weckel and his group on utiliza- 



tion of the crop; Professors 
Boone and Mitchell of the Plant 
Pathology Department are iniat- 
ing a program on disease con- 
trol, and it is possible Professor 
Wright in entomology will also 
start some work. 

Cranberry Show 
At Tabor Library 

A cranberry exhibit at the new 
Tabor Academy library in Marion, 
Mass. has been arousing much in- 
terest. It was set up through the 
cooperation of Miss Phyllis Spra- 
gue, librarian, and a group from 
Cranberry Experim^t Station, 
East Wareham, 

Dr. F. B. Chandler contributed 
a number of cranberry barrel and 
box labels,, many of these old and 
now curiosities. He also display- 
ed new labels. Dr. Bert Zucker- 
man, pathologist at the Station 
placed some cultures in the show 
and Prof. William E. Tomlinson, 
entomologist, a display of cran- 
berry insects. 



FARM WITH 
CRANBERRY INCOME 

177 acre farm, 7 acres of 
cranberries. Ideal expansion 
possibilities. Ample water sup- 
ply. Modern buildings. Write 
for details and pictures. Carl 
Jensen, W^arrens, Route 1, Wis- 
consin. 




R. F. MORSE & SON 

West Wareham, Mass., Phone 1553-R 

Cranberry Growers Agent For 

Eastern States Farmers' Exchange 

Insecticides - Fertilizers - Fungicides 

Bog Service and Supplies 
Agent for Wiggins Airways 

Helicopter Spray and Dust Service 

DEPENDABLE ECONOMICAL SERVICE 



Four 



Issue of May 1958 - Vol. 23 No. 1 

Published monthly at The Courier Print Shop, Main St., Wareham, Massachusetts. Subscription $3.00 per year. 

Entered as second-class matter January 26, 1943, at the post-oflfice at Wareham, Massachusetts, under the Act of March 3, 1878 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

April Breaks All Rain Records 

All local rain records were 
shattered for April — or any other 
month — when that 30'-day period 
ended for 1958. A total of 11.06 
inches was recorded at Cranberry 
Station, East Wareham. April 
precipitation normally is 3.85 
inches. 

A severe storm the last week of 
the month added 2.75 inches to 
the score. 

A search of records at the Sta- 
tion failed to show any very near 
approach to this record. There 
was a total of 7.34 inches in April 
of 1940 and 7.75 inches in 1933, 
previous high April record. 

Total precipitation m some win- 
ter months, which would include 
snow, had reached the 9-inch 
mark. Month of greatest rain 
previously was May 1901 with 
8.58. 

The first four months of 1958 
brought a grand total of 29.67 
inches which is well over half of 
a normal year's precipitation 
which is 44.31. 

Warmer Than Normal 

April was a month warmer 
than normal by about 45 degrees, 
or approximately a degree and a 
half a day. 

Dr. Cross, director of the Sta- 
tion, stated that so much rain and 
the warmth was not conducive to 
a quality crop, although good for 
quantity. Bogs looked very good, 
with a bud for plenty of set. 
Vines were vigorous and there was 
a happy lack of leafdrop. 

Full reservoirs almost assured 
ample frost protection for bogs 



which could be flowed. Through 
April and into the first of May, 
bogs had not advanced rapidly 
and were keeping "well behind 
the frost hazard." 

First Frost 
The first frost warning of the 
season went out on April 26th. 
Afternoon forecast was for 18 
degrees, evening 15 to 16. How- 
ever, there was some wind and 
cloud and lowest points reached 
were 18-19. Most bogs were put 
under and there was probably no 
damage. Another warning went 
out a week later, with forecast for 
19-20, both afternoon and evening. 
The temperature did drop to be- 



tween 17 and 22 and there was a 
general, heavy, white frost. This 
included the Cape proper and all 
the cranberry area. Checks by 
workers at the State Bog later 
failed to find any appreciable 
damage. 



NEW JERS EY 

April Normal In Temperature 

Despite some dry and balmy 
weather throughout the middle 
portion of the month, April aver- 
aged out just about normal in 
temperature but considerably wet- 
ter than normal. The average 
temjperature was 52.7° P., about 



LIBERTY DUSTS 

formulated especially for 

AIRCRAFT APPLICATION 

are available on the Cape from 
R. C. MOSSMAN 

Horticultural Sales 

30 South Main Street 

West Bridgewater, Massachusetts 

Tel. JUniper 3-9112 

Residence: 131 Centre Ave. 
Abbington, Mass. 
Tel. TRiangle 7-4290 

representing 

The HUBBARD-HALL CHEMICAL CO. 

Waterbury, Connecticut 



Five 



.8* warmer than normal. This 
was achieved by two 80 degree 
days and 10 in the seventies. Low 
tem'peratures of concern occurred 
on the nights of April 26 and 27, 
when cranberry bog temperatures 
dropped to the vicinity of 25°. 
However, no damage was done to 
the few bugs which were not still 
under water at this time. 

Rainfall Heavy 

The rainfall in April exceeded 
the normal for the sixth straight 
month. There was a total of 4.99 
inches on 11 rainy days, 1.58 in- 
ches more than is usually record- 
ed in this month. Through the 
first four months of 1958 a total 
of 23.33 inches of rain occurred. 
This is 10 inches more than nor- 
mal fur this period and represents 
about 54% of the usual annual 
total. There is a superabundance 
of water available for spring- 
frosts. 

Much Late Holding 

Most New Jersey cranberry 
growers as of May 6 still had 
water on their bogs. Many were 
holding until May 10. This is a 
practice being pursued by a great- 
er number of growers each year. 
It is the experience of these 
cranberry men that in the long 
i-un less frost and insect damage 
results from this comparatively 
late holding. 



will be made up and sent to all 
southwestern Oregon growers 
within two from this date from 
the Coos County Extension office. 



OREGON 

Some western Oregon cranberry 
growers lost sleep for about the 
last ten nights of April when the 
temperatures were playing around 
29° and sprinkling systems were 
kept going. It certainly is creat- 
ing a problem here at the time of 
the year when the ground should 
begin to warm up but is still wet 
and cold due to sprinkling against 
frost threat. 

R. G. Rosenstiel, Entomologist, 
Oregon State College has out- 
lined a control program for cer- 
tain cranberry insect pests in the 
1958 Oregon Insect Control Hand- 
book which is on sale at Oregon 
State College. A circular listing 
some of the more important of 
these and their control measures 

Six 



WISCONSIN 

Water Deficient 

April was slightly above norm- 
al in both temperature and pre- 
cipitation on a state wide average. 
Mean temperature for the month 
was 46.8 degrees compared to an 
average of 42.9 degrees. Maxi- 
mum for the month was 82 de- 
grees and minimum was eight 
above. The first three weeks 
were above normal in tempera- 
ture and the last week was below 
normal. Total precipitation was 
2.73 inches compared to the aver- 
age of 2.59 inches. Some areas 
received above normal precipita- 
tion, but this was mainly confined 
to local areas. The May weather 
outlook is for temperatures ex- 
pected to average below normal 
with large fluctuations. Precipi- 
tition will average above normal. 
Normal temperature for the month 
is 55.2 degrees and normal pre- 
cipitation is 3.52 ins. Deficiencies 
in precipitation for the year is 
2.86 inches. Water tables remain 
1.40 feet below normal. Total 



rainfall to date is 3.79 inches 
compared to a normal of 6.65 
inches. 

Water Pulled 

With the early April warm 
' weather, most marshes pulled the 
winter floods off the end of the 
first week in April. Vines re- 
mained exposed until the last week 
in April when temperatures drop- 
ped very low on the 27th and 28th. 
Cooler weather the latter part 
of the month curtailed vine devel- 
opment and no frost protection 
was necessary up to the first of 
May. 

Frost Service May 1 

The Wisconsin Frost Warning 
Service begin operations on May 
1. James George is again in 
charge of this project, which orig- 
inates from the U.S. Weather Sta- 
tion at Truax Field, Madison un- 
der the overall direction of Mr. 
Joe Rigney. 

150 New Acres 

Growers were busy in April do- 
ing combing, pruning and ditch 
cleaning. Some planting was 
done the latter part of the month, 
with most planting scheduled for 
the first half of May. An estima- 
ted one hundred fifty acres are 
expected to be planted in Wis- 
consin this spring. Fertilizer 
(Continued On Page 20) 





DUSTIfliG 



Aerial Spraying 

and Dusting 

also 

Fertilizing 



We Specialize 
In Parathion Applications 

both 
Sprays and Dusts 

MARSHFIELD AIRWAYS, INC. 

Marshfield, Mass. 

Thos. S. Weitbrecht (Whitey) Temple 4-7818 



From A Study Of Inventory Maps There 
Came Wisconsin Cranberry Developments 

The Enterprising Vernon Goldsworthy 

Opened Up "Sensational" Virgin Northeastern 
Counties — Now Home Of Cranberry Products, Inc. 

by 
Clarence J. Hall 

When the enterprising Vernon Goldsworthy of Wisconsin studied 
some inventory maps of Northeastern Wisconsin about a decade ago 
he started something. This, that he began has groKvn to be not only 
of importance to the Wisconsin cranberry industry but to the entire 
cranberry production picture. 

He opened up vast, virgin cranberry country with almost limitless 
growing potential. Today his vision is literally bearing fruit, and 
we might add, "and how!" At the time he conceived the idea he was 
living at Wisconsin Rapids. He also envisioned the development of 
new cranberry products, in which he is now heavilly engaged and in 
opening new sales fields. 



"Goldie" (CRANBERRIES July 
1944) is certainly one of the best 
known and most active figures in 
the Wisconsin field and through- 
out the whole industry. He has 
been in every growing area; his 
activities have been frequently 
covered in this magazine. A ua-; 
tive Wisconsinite, he has been in- 
terested in cranberries since 1933. 
In fact, since he wrote his Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin thesis on "False 
Blossom of Cranberries". As a 
ilong-tiimjs manager of Wisconsin 
Cranberry Sales Comfpany, from 
1933 to 1944, he operated when 
that unit of American Cranberry 
Exchange was at its peak; he con- 
stantly traversed all Wisconsin 
growing areas, at the beck and 
call of growers day or night. He 
became a grower himself, opera- 
ting the Berlin Marsh, near Ber- 
lin, this property which he re- 
built being one of the pioneer 
Wisconsin marshes. 

After leaving Wisconsin cran- 
berry Sales Company in 1944, for 
a time he was manager of a cherry 
cooperative in upper Wisconsin. 
Then he returned to get back into 
cranberry growing at Three Lakes 
as his Thunder Lake property was 
beginning to come into product- 
ion, and to get into processing and 
distribution of cranberries. He 
is now located at Eagle River. 

In the detailed maps of northern 
Wisconsin, made during the de- 
pression years of the *30s, Goldy 
was looking primarilly for four 



things. He thought he would find 
what he wanted at the top of 
Wisconsin. 

He Found What He Wanted 
What was the kind of soil shown; 
was it suitable for cranberries, 
was the covering growth brown 
bush or leather leaf as the plant 
is variously known? Was there 
sand supply? Was there water 
available and what was the drain- 
age? Finally, were there access 
roads in the northern woods ? 

He was searching for waste 
land that could be utilized, land 



in virgin territory for extension of 
the cranberry industry — land 
which could be purcliased econom- 
ically, economically made into 
cranberry m|arsh and then be effi- 
ciently (economically) operated. 

Studying over a long period of 
time he found virtually unlimited 
land which met the reguirements. 
Cost was from $1.00 to $2.50 per 
acre. He studied the weather 
maps for these areas over the past 
fifty years. He found exactly 
what he wanted in a numjber of 
situations. These were mostly in 
Vilas and Oneida counties. This 
study opened up the new north- 
eastern cranberry region. 

Today seven operators produce 
about 25,000 barrels annually at 
"fabulous" Manitowish Waters, 
which is in Vilas county; five more 
in Oneida county. Production and 
acreage are increasing. (The 
story of Manitowish Waters culti- 
vation around Little Trout Lake 
and that of the Querry marsh at 
One-Stone Lake will be told in fol- 
lowing separate articles. 
North Marshes Have Advantages 

The foregoing is not to say 
there was not cranberry growing 
in northern Wisconsin before 
Goldie began developing these two 



C. I L. EQUIPMENT CO. 

m LEONARD STREET ACUSHNIT, MASS. 

Cranberry Bog Service 

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Wyman 4-4601 



gev^ft 



counties. Eagle River, Vilas 
county is slig'htly north of the 46th 
parallel, tout Hayward, Spooner 
and Shell Lake, where cranber- 
ries have been grown for many 
years are practically as far north; 
Phillips, where is located Cran- 
iberry Lake Development Comp- 
any, Wisconsin's largest produc- 
ing property is only slightly more 
southerly, and central. It is the 
new northeastern country which 
Goldy pioneered. 

Incidentally the 46th latitude is 
only slightly north of Kentville, 
center of Nova Scotia cranberry 
culture. However, the norther- 
ness of such Wisconsin locations 
have proven not to be, a handi- 
cap. In fact they have one ad- 
vantage; the northness gives 
slightly more hours of sunshine, 
so growth receives a higher sun- 
shine factor. Also springs come 
slightly later which helps grow- 
ers get more easily by the spring 
frost season. 

The writer had pictured north- 
ern Wisconsin as a region of deep, 
tall woods, isolation and primitiv- 
ness. A visit there proved this 
north country to be a region of 
countless beautiful lakes, good 
roads between distant, but rap- 
idly-growing, modem comjmuni- 
ties; it is a booming resort area, 



in this respect not unsimiliar to 
Cape Cod,. 

Eagle River, for instance, which 
is the county seat, has a year- 
round population of 1500 and a 
summer census of about 30,000. 
When the writer was there, the 
100th anniversary of its founding 
was in progress, and the men were 
sporting huge beards as did the 
lumber nten who first settled there- 
Even though the streets are bust- 
ling and lined with modern homes 
and business establishments, there 
is still somehow a frontier atmos- 
phere. 

Still Frontier Country 

These towns, small in popula- 
tion appear miore city-like than 
towns of similar size or bigger in 
Massachusetts or New Jersey 
even though the wilderness is all 
around. There are wolves, occas- 
ionally a timber wolf, black bear, 
deer and toobcats. The virgin 
forests which at one time made 
Wisconsin the 1 e a d i ng lumber 
state have long been cut and there 
is no heavy second growth of pine 
generally, but hemlock, birch, pop- 
lar, tamarack. Pulp wood is an 
important industry. The lakes have 
muskies, wall-eyed pike, bass and 
trout. 

There are many pockets oi' 
large areas which are as yet to- 



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tally undeveloped. To reach some 
of these areas, which his maps 
showed to be potential cranberry 
land, Goldy had to drive as far as 
he could on a dirt road and then 
often have to break his way 
through the woods on foot. One 
such spot which he found on foot, 
was Little Trout lake. 

Well satisfied with a personal 
survey of various lots of land 
which had appeared promising on 
the maps, Goldsworthy proceeded 
to buy up about 5,000 acres in 
scattered pieces. This was most- 
ly county land, land which had 
been idle with no one thinking of 
using it until he brought the 
thought of growing cranberries. 
Much of this land could be pur- 
chased cheaply for perhaps |1.25 
an acre or $50.00 a section. 

He first planned to build his 
own bog at Little Trout, Mani- 
towish Waters, but sold after 
miaking a start, finally building at 
Three Lakes in Oneida county. 
There are probably fewer frosts in 
these northern counties because of 
the countless lakes. Winters are 
severe, temperatures can reach 
30 or 40 below zero and there can 
be three feet of snow on the level 
from November until April — ther^ 
is usually a couple of feet of ice 
on the marshes making for easy 
and economical sanding. 

Building To ICO Acres 
"Goldy's" present holdings are 
85 acres in vines at Thunder Lake 
in the township of Three Lakes, 
which is only a short distance 
from Eagle River. He has plant- 
ed all to Searls with the except- 
ion of one acre to Black Veils, 
which he obtained from Bernard 
Shaw of Carver, Massachusetts 
for experimental purposes. This 
year he plans to bring his acreage 
up to an even 100, including some 
of the hybrid Stevens and Ben 
Lears. 

The marsh is 2 ¥2 feet above the 
level of the lake so that frt-st floods 
and winter flood are pumped on 
through a flooding canal and then 
back to the lake through drainage 
canal by gravity. Beds are about 
3 acres each and can be flooded 
individually. Marsh is built pn 



Eight 



peat about 8 feet thick over which 
access ro"ads have been laid around 
each hedl^^''^^'^ ' ' 

Production last year, Golds- 
worthy g'ives as approximately 
10,000 barrels. Part of the marsh 
was cropping for the first time. 
Cranberry Products, Inc. 

As stated, Goldie's interest is 
by no means limited to cranberry 
growing. CRANBERRIES' read- 
ers will recall how in 1953-54, 
Cranberry Products, Inc. was 
formed and it's activities have 
since been frequently reported. 
The need of an indystry in that 
area was urgent and with the 
growing interest in cranberries, 
the sum of $45,000 was raised for 
a plant, through the Eagle River 
Development Committee. 

Goldsworthy had obtained for 
the corporation, right to use a new 
process developed by Kenneth G. 
Weckel, University of Wisconsin, 
and the new plant began to turn 
out "Cransweet". In the Weckel 
process cranberries instead of be- 
ing heated are pierced individu- 
ally. "Cransweet" made possible 
many unusual new food combina- 
tions in the confectionery and 
baking fields. Products now 
include strained cranberry sauce, 
whole cranberry sauce, spiced 
cranberries, cranberry-orange re- 
lish, cranberry-cherry jam, cran- 
berry-rhubarb j a m, cranberry- 
pineapple jam, whole cransweets, 
diced cransweets, Cran-vari-ice 
cream, cranberi-ice cream, cran- 
puri, gift boxes, cran-apple sauce. 
These products are finding ready 
acceptance and there is a special 
interest in cranberries in candy. 

"A goal of Cranberry Products," 
says Goldy, "is to divert from 
present cranberry consumption in- 
to new products to widen the 
market." 

A description of operations of 
this plant, which is Eagle River's 
only industry and which normally 
employes ten with 30 or 40 in the 
rush season, is interesting. Plant 
is completely modern, a single 
story building, cement block, 60 
by 123. 

The berries are first hopper-fed 



to an inclined flight-conveyor, 
which discharges them into a 35 
foot-long ceiling-suspended stain- 
less steel flume. This is the in- 
itial washing stage, following 
which they continue through a de- 
watering reel and are collected in 
a 90-capacity stainless hopper. 

From here, the berries drop on- 
to an 18-ft. rubberized canvas 
conveyor, where they get a thor- 
ough inspection. They are then 
chuted into a sump with overflow 
water from the flume. Water is 
pump-recirculated from sump to 
flume. 

A second incline flight-convey- 
or now elevates the cranberries 
into a rotary washing reel. Wash- 
ed berries next go into a small 
hopper feeding the specially de- 
signed punching machine (H. D. 
Hume Co., Mendota, 111.) that 
pierces then at 150'-lb.-per-min. 

In this operation, berries, drop 
from the hopper onto a %x2% ft. 
conveyor belt that carries them 



under a rotary stainless steel 
drum (8x12 in.) containing thous- 
ands of stainless spikes spaced Vi 
in. apart. These short spikes 
pierce the berries, which are then 
gathered in pans. 

About 150 lb. of pierced whole 
berries are next charged into 
metal drums half of sugar and 
corn syrup (varied). A vacuum 
(20 in.) is pulled and the berries 
are then held about 30 min. so 
that they become completely im- 



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Nine 



pregnated with syrup. 

Syrup-sweetened berries are 
dipped out of the drums and, with 
the acidity adjusted, they are 
poured into 16 gal. capacity jack- 
eted kettles. Then after the 
heating in syrup to 180-190F., 
they are hot-filled into 12 oz. and 
1 gal. glass jars. Berry counts 
can be varied from 1,500 to 3,000 
per gallon. 

Jars are finally capped, cooled 
for an hour in an exhaust box 
with running water, labeled, and 
packed into shipping cases. 
Steps For Other Items 

For the product used in the con- 
fectionary and baking trades, 
Cransweets coming out of vacuum 
drums are diced prior to kettle- 
cooking. Also, the pickled Cran- 
sweet product is prepared in a 
similar manner. Only difference 
is subjecting drum-charged ber- 
ries to vacuum for a second time 
and for full hour in a spiced 
syrup. 

Difference between the Weckel 
process and others as concerns 
cranberries is that hithertofore 
cranberries were ruptured when 
they were heat processed and for 
the reason they could only be 



made into a limited number of 
products. In "Cransweet" metho<l 
each of the tart berries is pierced 
so that it can be sweetened under 
vacuum with sugar syrup and 
without rupturing the fruit. This 
new "Cransweet" process has re 
ceived much notice in various 
publications. 

Something like 22,000 barrels of 
cranberries were processed dur- 
ing the past season and Cranberry 
Products expects to increase this 
tonnage materially in 1958. More 
cooking kettles are being added, 
also a boiler and other equipment. 
New, and larger outlets, to be an- 
nounced later are confidently ex- 
pected. 

Local Gift Box Sales 

Probably about 12,000 barrels 
will go into sauce and the balance 
into various products. There are 
planned 20,000 gift boxes a phase 
which is growing in popularity. 
A considerable quantity is sold 
to tourists in many eating places 
of the north country, motels, gift 
shops, hotels, even bait stands. 
This is mostly seasonal and with- 
in a hundred mile radius of the 
plant. 

In addition to the processing 



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It's SEMI -GRANULAR and is rich in those important 
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and of cranberry sales, Golds- 
worthy acts as distributor of fresh 
fruit of the area. This is sold 
under the Eagle River brand. 
Since the demise of Eatmor last 
spring about ten growers who 
ship under this brand have been 
added, according to Goldsworthy. 

Low Cost Fresh Sales 
He reports returns net to grow- 
ers for the 1957 crop have been 
$10 per barrel in cash with all re- 
turns not yet in. Fresh fruit sales 
are handled separately from the 
processing and he estimates cost 
of sales as less than two percent 
per barrel handled fresh. Total 
costs, he says, run around 10 
cents per barrel for fresh, as no 
large salaries are paid, Goldie 
taking charge of this along with 
processed sales himself. 

Cranberry Products, Inc. is a 
member of the Cranberry Insti- 
tute and Goldsworthy an active 
participant in the work of that 
industry-wide body. 

Ralph Sampson 

Going up from- Wisconsin Rap- 
ids with Goldsworthy was Ralph 
Sampson. Sampson for many 
years, under Goldy was an ac- 
countant for Wisconsin Cranberry 
Sales. He is now treasurer and 
plant manager of the Eagle River 
corporation. He has developed a 
marsh of his own with 25 acres in 
vines which is adjacent to the 
Goldsworthy marsh. A bachelor, 
he makes his home at the marsh, 
which consists of a tract of land 
1600 acres in all. 

Yield of the Sampson marsh last 
year was about 150 per acre. He 
plans to develop five more this 
year. He is a part owner of 
Sampson Canning Company at 
Wisconsin Rapids which is a large 
packer of beans and peas. This 
is a family-owned plant. 

Sampson has active charge of 
the Eagle River plant and its op- 
erations and is responsible for op- 
eration and has charge of equip- 
ment and supplies. Goldsworthy's 
principal work, besides being head 
of the corporation is sales. 

Last year was considered the 
most successful for Cranberry 
Products, Inc., in voluime of fruit 



Ten 



handled and sold. For a time the 
plant ran two shifts a day to keep 
up with orders. "Goldy" antici- 
pates a doubling of products in 
1958- As the new bogs of Vilas 
and Oneida counties mature and 
come into full production and are 
increased more and more fruit will 
presumably be grown. 

Wisconsin growers of other and 
older areas have spoken of pres- 
ent production and the possible 
potential of these northern coun- 
ties almost with awe. It is quite 
generally admitted that "Goldy" 
really started a significant de- 
velopment when he opened up this 
virgin territory in Northeastern 
Wisconsin. 

The new area may be some- 
thing of a "threat" in potential 
of future growth to some of the 
older areas, not only in the Bad- 
ger State but to all cranberry re- 
gions. However, it cannot be de- 
nied that new territory where 
cranberries can be grown in great 
abundance and economically, is, 
in the final analysis an asset to the 
industry considered as a whole. 

Even being the inspiration be- 
hind this new northern develop- 
ment has not tamed Goldsworthy's 
interest in extending cranberry 
growing. Always ethusiastic, he 



has still further visions, which 
miay or may not be possible of 
fulfillment. As reported in Dec- 
ember issue, he has been in con- 
tact with people in Holland con- 
sidering entering with a small 
amount of capital the growing of 
cranberries there. Also under 
consideration is the idea of ex- 
tending the "Cransweet" manu- 
facturing process to that Europ- 
ean country. 

The indefatigable Mr. Golds- 
woz'thy "is working" on this pro- 
ject. He plans to ship some U. S. 
vines there for planting. 



NCA Names New 
Advertising Head 



YOU 



Are reading this ad. 
Others will read yours in 

CRANBERRIES 

Magazine 



ATTENTION, PLEASE 

For the first time in 
TEN YEARS 

We reluctantly increase the subscription price of 
CRANBERRIES MAGAZINE 

from $3.00 to $3.50 a year 
single copies 35 cents 

This rate will not go into effect until May 31. Any present 
or non-subscriber may take advantage of present $3.00 rate 
until that date. 



-Mii-^— iiit^^iiil— irii^^iiK^^liii— nil— iiii^— III.— iiii— .mi^^iiii- 




Appointment of H. Drew Flegal 
to a new position as director of 
advertising and public relations 
of the National Cranberry Asso- 
ciation is announced by Ambrose 
E. Stevens, executive vice-presi- 
dent and general manager. Fla- 
gal replaces Robert D. Henklein. 

Flegal has had an extensive 
career in advertising, sales pro- 
motion and public relations in 
grocery products, Sevens says he 
was in the advertising department 
of Standard Brands, Inc., for 10 
years and spent another de^-^de 
in the advertising and sales pro- 
motion department of Lever 
Brothers Company. More recent- 
ly he was an executive of the 
Fitzgerald Advertising Agency on 
the Wesson Oil account. 

Stevens also announces Ocean 
Spray products are up 30 per- 
cent over a year ago for the first 
quarter, reaching an all-time high 
for that period. 

Although still speaking with 
conservation, Stevens says he is 
confident in long-range NCA pro- 
gress. 

"We have developed a new ad- 
vertising theme 'natural mate for 
meat,' which is intended to sell 
cranberries regularly with meat 
in additions to a long accepted 
practice of serving them with 
turkey and chicken," said Stevens. 

Ele'ven 




Dr. Franklin in a familiar, thoughtful pose at Cranberry Station, 
as many growers remember him. (CRANBERRIES Photo) 



Tributes to Late 
Henry J. Franklin 

Dr. Franklin, the grand old 
man of cranberry growing, has 
died. Those of us who worked 
with him will feel keenly his ab- 
sence. It is fitting that those 
who knew him should try to re- 
view the life work and character 
of this dedicated scientist, to un- 
derstand in part at least, what 
Dr. Franklin tried to do with his 
life and to assess the qualities of 
character which he brought and 
applied to the task. 

I think one of Dr. Franklin's 

Twelve 



first rules for thought and ac- 
tion was: "Take no man's word 
nor oath". Few men of my ac- 
f "laintance ever relied so com- 
pletely on their own thoughts, 
and so little on the thoughts, 
ideas and opinions of others, as 
Dr. Franklin. He was a Yankee 
individualist throughout, in his 
personal life as in his profes- 
sional work. The volume of anec- 
dote relative to Dr. Franklin on 

Cape Cod is enoi'mous. He can- 
not be said to have had eating 
"habits", because he was very 
likely to reverse the whole order 
of a meal! — why not try it the 



other way round starting with 
pistachio ice cream? He was 
not above having two shaves in 
one afternoon, if the first one did 
not meet his expectations. Time 
meant less to Dr. Franklin than 
to any of his associates, and it 
must have been very awkward 
for Mrs. Franklin to plan or 
schedule meals for a man who 
spent most of his time thinking 
and practically none of it looking 
at a clock. 

I mention these traits of Dr. 
Franklin's character because I 
think that in them lies the clue 
to his professional greatness. To 
any serious problem that came 
his way, he fastened hi?: mind 
with a tenacity that excluded all 
lesser things like time, meals, or 
the convenience of others. Thus 
he worked on the frost problems 
of cranberry .(growers and devel- 
oped an excellent system for pre- 
dicting minimum bog tempera- 
tures. It mattered not a whit 
that his training had been in 
entomology (where he became the 
world authority not only on cran- 
berry pests but also on the bum- 
ble bees), for he knew that by 
persistent application day and 
night, week days and week-ends, 
that any problem could be solved 
by one determined to solve it, 
and he did. The volume of effort 
required to develop his frost form- 
ulas can only be appreciated by 
those who have seen the work he 
did, who know all the blind alleys 
he followed until he proved to 
himself they were blind alleys, 
until at last he discovered the 
chief factors affecting the tem- 
perature of our cranberry bogs 
on clear calm nights in spring and 
fall. 

I can recall how reassuring It 
was to have Dr. Franklin join his 

young staff on frost nights after 
his retirement. Through the 
years of long study of our weath- 
er he had attained an uncanny 
judgment that stood as a mark 
to be aimed at by a new genera- 
tion — and the way there lies in 
singleness of purpose and long 
hard work. 

Dr. C. E. Cross 



What feelings of admiration 
and appreciation rise within us 
as we speak his name or even 
think of the man. 

It was my pleasure to spend his 
first day on Cape Cod with him. 

On that day he was thinking 
of becoming interested in apple 
growing and we also talked cran- 
berries. 

He impressed me then and after 
years of association it was evident 
that his aim was to make a con- 
tribution to the progress, the hap- 
piness, and the security of peo- 
ple engaged in some branch of 
agriculture. For this ideal in life, 
he merited and has our sincerest 
admiration. 

His broad contribution to the 
cranberry industry, his tenacity 
of purpose, his interest in the 
welfare and security of the in- 
dividual cranberry grower won 
not only our appreciation for a 
successful expert but our warm 
and lasting friendship which will 
rest firmly in our memory for all 
time. 

Cranberry growers, each in his 
own humble way, can honor the 
memory of Doctor Franklin by 
emulating his example. 

Marcus L. Urann 



DR. FRANKLIN 

I first met Dr. Franklin in 1910 
soon after coming to Amherst as 
Assistant in the Experiment Sta- 
tion work of the Department and 
not long after Dr. Franklin h|d 
instituted the work of the Cran- 
berry Station, and when he used 
to spend the winter months in 
Amherst writing up project re- 
ports and laying plans for the 
coming season. Even then he had 
begun to lay the broad foundations 
of that reputation that Was des- 
tined to become almost legendary 
in the annals of both systematic 
r.nd applied entomology. 

Getting to really know Ben was 
something of a stimulating exper- 
ience but was very rewarding and 
well worth the effort and once 
secured it was indeed a really 
prized possession. 

As the years passed and Dr. 
Franklin's work began to receive 
an ever widening recognition and 
his reputation brought him to the 
forefront in his chosen field, none 



of jas who really knew him were 
ever surprised at any honor that 
came to be bestowed upon him, 
and all of us realized that it was 
only Ben's selfeffacing modesty 
which stood in the way of his 
receiving even wider acclamation. 

Dr. Franklin had the sturdy 
physique, rugged individuality 
and sterling character so often 
proclaimed to be a feature of 
the sons of his native state, Ver- 
mont. He also had an active and 
inquiring mind and the persist- 
ence and determination to carry 
through a problem to its success- 
ful conclusion. He always stood 
for as close an approach to per- 
fection as human faculties could 
attain. 

Although Ben would be the last 
one to believe it, his devotion to 
duty and his many admirable 
qualities of mind and character 
were consciously or unconsciously 
carried in the minds and hearts 
of his friends and associates as 
an ideal for their own attainment. 

His passing can be likened to 
that of one of the "Mighty Cedars 
on the Mountains of Lebanon, 
which falls among the lesser trees 
and leaves a lonely place against 
the sky." 

Arthur I. Bourne 
Emeritus Professor of 

Entomology 
University of Massachu- 
setts 



(Editor's Note: the following 
statement, concerning Dr. Frank- 
lin annears in the single volumn 
of "Franklin, Personal Papers, 
volume one, dated August 19, 
1952 and was read at the time 
1^-^ his retirement as director of 
Massachusetts Cranberry Station. 
It so aptly sums up the career 
of Dr. Franklin as many growers 
knew him that it is being re- 
printed.) 

Franklin Philosophy 

Henry James Franklin was born 
in Guilford, Vermont, where he 
lived for eleven years when he 
moved with his parents from the 
ancestral farm to Bernardston, 
Massachusetts. Brief though his 
residence in the Green Mountain 
state, he must have absorbed some 
of the enduring qualities common- 
ly attributed to native Vermon- 
ters, for in his rugged character 
and sturdy physique, there is 



Western 
Pickers 



WESTERN PICKERS 

announce the 

appointment of 

BRALEY'S 

MACHINE SHOP 

Wareham, Mass. 

as agent 

for 1958. 

Braley's assembles 
and services all 
Western Pickers. 

Braley's is 

experienced with 

Western Pickers, 

having serviced 

them for ten years, 

and will continue 

to give satisfaction 

for many more years. 

J. E. BRALEY & SON 

78 GIBBS AVE. 

WAREHAM, MASS. 

TEL. Wareham 64-W 



Thirteen 



something reminiscent of the rock- 
ribbed hills whence he came. 

Educated in the public schools 
of Bernardston, he graduated from 
Powers Institute of that town 
in 1899, the same year entering 
Massachusetts Agricultural School 
(Now University of Massachu- 
setts) with the class of 1903. His 
habits of thrift and his penchant 
for truth, uprightness, and indus- 
try were early noted by his class- 
mates, and it was but natural 
they should dub him "Ben" Frank- 
lin, a name by which he has been 
familiarly known for more than 
half a century. 

It may surprise many who have 
known him on in his maturity 
that Ben played football on his 
college team. In those days the 
game was really rough and tough. 
With stalwart Ben Franklin at 
guard, opposing teams customarily 
came to a dead stop, when they 
tried to break through his side of 
the line. But, tower of strength 
he was, there never was a taint of 
unsportsmanship in his playing. 

Although he participated in 
extracurricular activities, his col- 
lege record was chiefly distin- 
guished by high scholarship. His 
active, inquiring mind assiduously 
applied to learning landed him at 
the head of his glass at gradua- 
tion. Continuing on at his Alma 
Mater for post-graduate study he 



came under the stimulating in- 
fluences of Professor Charles H. 
Fernald and his son. Doctor Hen- 
ry T. Fernald, in entomology, and 
Doctor Geoi-ge E. Stone in Bot- 
any, his graduation work was 
completed and the Doctor of 
Philosophy degree received in 
1908. His thesis, a monograph of 
"The Bombidae of the New 
World", is monumental and re- 
mains the authoratative publica- 
tion of this group of insects. 

After obtaining his doctorate, 
he was employed as an entomolo- 
gist at the Minnesota Experiment 
Station. 

In 1909 Doctor Franklin was 
called back to Massachusetts to 
head up and organize the newly 
established cranberry station at 
East Wareham. For much more 
than half his life he has devoted 
his great industry and rare tal- 
ents to the work of the Station 
and through it to the improvement 
and expansion of the cranberry 
industry. He and the Cranberry 
Station have become almost sy- 
nonymous in the minds of cran- 
berry growers. The high esteem 
in which they held the Station and 
its Head are eloquent testimony 
to his achievements in their be- 
half. Without attempting a de- 
failed review of his work, it may 
he stated with no fear of con- 
tradiction that the Cranberry Sta- 



FOR SALE 



A complete package or will ne.irotiate on partial basis; 

78 '/2 Acres Cranberry Bogs 

106 Acres associated land. 

Screenhouse, Pumo Houses aand Buildings 

Operating equipment including three Darlington 

Picking Machines new 1957. 

Location, South Carver, Mass.; Federal FurT>P<>e Pd.. Mayflow- 
er Rd., and around Dunham's Pond. Potential vfluable hnHdin"- 
area along Federal Furnace Rd. frontage. White pine, if cut 
complete would produce quick cash income. 

YES, it is a bit smaller than in the December add. A man 
with a bit of cash and vision bought one corner for a very 
worthy purpose. He got good value at a tight price. 

THE PRICE? It is low and realistic. Write me or phone and 
I will name it. Now is the time that the right operator can get 
hard, tight value. It takes cash or the ability to raise it plus 
a bit of faith and vision. 

Berton Benjamin, Trustee. 
Est. of W. W. Benjamin 
41 Terrace Ave., 
Riverside, Conn. 

Phone, Neptune 7-1672. 



tion presided over by Doctor 
Franklin from its inception forty- 
three years ago is an extroardin- 
arilly well organized, highly pro- 
ductive and immeasurably useful 
branch of the Massachusetts Ag- 
ricultural Experimental Station, 
and that the credit belongs in 
large part to Doctor Franklin. 

But his reputation as a scien- 
tist extends far beyond the shores 
of Cape Cod; it is indeed, world- 
wide. His record and his pub- 
lished contributions to sfientific 
literature attest to his wide and 
versatile range of thought and 
activity. He has always s^iown 
himself capable of grappling with 
the many practical problems con- 
fronting the growers, and no pro- 
blem has been too small or too 
great to engage his thoughtful 
attention. 

Tenacity of purpose is a trait 
strongly developed in Doctor 
Franklin. It has been a large 
factor in the planning and tlie 
development of the work at East 
Wareham and it has helped him 
to solve many knotty problems. 
He seldom makes an important 
decision or takes action on a mat- 
ter without first thinking it 
through. But once his mind is 
made un he is ready to defend his 
s+and, and few have ever argued 
him down. (One knowing Mrs. 
Franklin suspects she is among 
t':ose to whose judgment he has 
sometimes deferred!) 

That throup-h the years he has 
been deeply devoted to the cause 
of the cranberry growers is well 
illustrated by an incident obsei*v- 
ed by the writer. Ben and his de- 
voted wife, Esther, were in at- 
tendance at the 25th reunion of 
his class during the commence- 
p^°nt at State College in 1928. 
T'l^e rpunion banouet was held at 
the old Highland House on Goshen 
Hill, and a jolly good, but not 
necessarilly convival, time was 
being enjoyed by all. The June 
temnerature began to drop, Ben 
sniffed the air, wet his finger, and 
tested the wind direction, became 
restive and thoughtful. From 
that moment his mind was not 
with the merrymakers but away 
down on Cape Cod. He began to 
write and figure on the back of 
an envelope, soon left the banquet 
table, and called Cape Cod by 
telephone. He had gone into ac- 
tion to apply one of his greatest 
achievements for cranberry grow- 
ers, a method of prognosticating 
the advent of frost on the bogs, 
he was sending a warning to the 
growers that their bogs should be 
flooded to nrotect their crops. Ben, 
a loyal alumnus who loved good 
food and his classmates, did not 
participate in much of that fes- 
tive banquet and he took hs "rib- 
( Continued On Page 16) 



Fourteen 



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ISSUE OF MAY 1958 
VOL. 23 - NO. 1 



\^^^^JIwAtc««^ 



Jlg__ii,,^_,iii^_.,,,i^_,„ii^— iiii-^mi— tiM— irrr— iitr— iJii^— iirr— iin^— itfi— iiii-^— iirt^— iiii— Mii^— im— wiiii-^iiii^— iiii-^ii*^— I 

"DOC" FRANKLIN, A "RARE MAN" 

THE name of Henry James Franklin, 
who passed away last month at 75 as re- 
tired director of Massachusetts Cranberry 
Experiment Station will never be forgot- 
ten as long as cranberries are cultivated. 
His research was so profound, so basic that 
his works will remain as reference. His 
imprint will not be forgotton. ^ . 

Not the first cranberry reseacher in 
the nation, he became the foremost; an 
entomologist he came in when insects were 
a vital matter of concern and he turned 
his keen analytical mind to this and then 
other cranberry problems, after problem. 
He changed much of the course of think- 
ing in cranberry cultivation. He came to 
be looked upon as the father of modern 
cranberry research. His research, even 
in the limited field of cranberry research 
brought his world-wide recognition as a 
scientist. 

When Dr. Franklin began in 1909 he 
was a solitary worker at East Wareham. 
He became a man dedicated to cranber- 
ries. He laid the foundation for today's 
dedicated staff of a dozen or so workers. 
He was an inspiration to everyone with 
whom he came in contact. 

''Doc" Franklin was more than an 
advisor to cranberry growers. He was 
their friend. Many who came to the Sta- 
tion to talk cranberries stayed to talk of 
other things. He was a true philosopher. 
The writer was among the many who 
deemed it a privilege to listen to "Doc" 
Franklin's discourses. 

Henry J. Franklin was always a 
thorough gentleman of the type now often 
referred to as "old school." A favorite 
expression of his in speaking of some in- 
dividual whom he considered of real dis- 
tinction was to say, "he was a rare man." 
Dr. Franklin himself was one of "the rar- 
est." 



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GROWER'S NET OF FOOD DOLLARS 

A RECENT survey showed what the 
average person did with his 1957 income 
dollar. After taxes he had about 88 cents 
to spend or save — the average individual 
saved six cents of his 100 cents. About 
31 cents were spent for services; the big- 
gest share 41 cents went for items of daily 
living, 25 cents of which was for food and 
beverages. 

When various percentages of this 



Editor and Publisher 
CLARENCE J. HALL 

EDITH S. HALI^Associate Editor 
Wareham, Massachusetts 



CORRESPONDENTS— ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 
Wisconsin Rapids 



Washington — Oregon 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash. 



Massachusetts 

DR. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass. 



New Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 

Pemberton, New Jersey 



were subtracted, including processing and 
marketing charges it was estimated about 
7 to 8 cents were paid to the producer — 
the grower. Assuming cranberries were 
average can this net to grower be increas- 
ed to a larger proportion of the dollar? 
That is the real problem of the cranberry 
industry today. 



NOT SO VERY gratifying is a report 
of the National Canners Association con- 
cerning total volume of canned sauce 
packed in 1957. From reports of all pro- 
cessors the total pack was 5,752,320 act- 
ual cases. This is slightly smaller than the 
report for 1956 which was 6,052,467. 

With the trend of fresh fruit sales 
downward, even if slowly, this, obviously, 
must be offset by a larger processed pack. 

Fifteen 



FRANKLIN 

(Continued From Page 14) 
bing" from the assembled group. 
But he must have derived great 
satisfaction from the thought that 
once again he had been instrumen- 
tal in helping his friends, the 
cranberry growers to safeguard 
their valuable crops. That little 
episode is characteristic of Doctor 
Franklin; thoughtful, whole-heart- 
ed, unswerving in devotion to duty 
as he sees it. 

A. Vincent Osmun 

Emeritus Professor of Bot- 
any 

University of Masschuettts 

Stevens Impressed 
By Western 
"Forward Look'' 

"I was much impressed by the 
'forward look' of the western 
gro'wers, which, I suppose, is real- 
ly typical of western life in gen- 
eral", declared Ambrose E. Stev- 
ens, executive vice-president and 
general manager of NCA follow- 
ing a trip of two weeks to the 
Coast and Wisconsin. Mr. Stevens 
made the trip alone, his second to 
Wisconsin and his first to Wash- 
ington and Oregon in a cranberry 
capacity. 

"I found the growers not dis- 
couraged but with a sense of mild 
optimism as to the future," he 



added. "Tliey seemed to me very 
sound citizens." 

He noted a tendency to merge 
ownerships, mostly among second 
generation growers and particu- 
larly in the Grayland area of 
Washington. Belief of the grow- 
ers seemed to be rather strongly, 
he ascertained, that smaller units 
ed were not as economical as 
larger ones. Major factors in 
this trend were that greater mech- 
anization and the utilization of 
labor-saving devises were possible. 

He was also impressed by the 
sincerity and the dedication of 
the growers to the cranberry in- 
dustry, their appreciation of the 
need for quality. He noted that 
in 1955 5,000 barrels of Wash- 
ington fruit were sold fresh, 
10,000 in 1956, 17,000 last year 
and there is a goal this year of 
25,000. 

Mr. Stevens first stopped at 
Long Beach and held a meeting 
for member-growers with about 
50 present at which Director Leon- 
ard Morris presided. He made a 
tour of the peninsula area. He 
then visited Grayland where about 
200 growers and wives attended, 
with Director David Pryde in 
charge. 

While in Seattle, Washington 
and Portland, Oregon, he made 
appearances on live television and 



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ftlso spoke over the radio in both 
cities. He had a published inter- 
view with the financial editor of 
the Oregonian (Portland) with 
the press at Centralia, Washing- 
ton and with newspapers at Co- 
quille and Bandon, Oregon. 

About 75 growers attended a 
meeting at Bandon with "Jim" 
Olsen presiding. He also visited 
Coquille, where he inspected the 
NCA plant and visited other 
cranberry points of interest in 
the area. 

On the way back he stopped at 
Wisconsin Rapids where there 
was a growers' meeting lasting 
all day with about 150 present. 
This was at the Elk's club. Direc- 
tor John M. Potter presiding. He 
was asked many questions at this 
session. 

As concerned the whole trip, he 
said he was more than pleased by 
the lack of discouragement on the 
part of the growers as to the 
future of cranberry growing and 
marketing. 

Makepeace Shed, 
Equipment Burned 

A spectacular blaze in an A. D. 
Makepeace Company, Inc. storage 
shed at Tihonet, Wareham, Mass., 
May 13 totally destroyed the 60 x 
100 foot building. Loss was set 
at $10,000, to building and equip- 
ment which included various items 
of equipment, float boats, pickers 
and cranberry harvest boxes. 

Persons in the area were unable 
to notify firemen early because of 
burned telephone wii"es. Flames 
of the fire were seen from miles 
away. Little was left of the i 
structure to determine what star- ; 
ted the hot fire. 



Magazine 



Sixteen 



You can 



Stop fruit rots 
and improve quality 



with reliable 



DuPont Fermate 



IT'ou can depend on ''Fermate" to prevent 
-■• rot of the berries on the bushes or 
while in storage. "Fermate" gives this 
protection through excellent control of 
"ungus diseases that attack cranberries. 
What's more, "Fermate" is mild. It's hard 
3n fungus diseases but its gentle action 
means minimum danger of burning or 
stunting tender flowers, leaves or fruits. 



For brush and weed control 
use these effective chemicals 

"Ammate" X Weed and Brush Killer . . . For control 
of brush, poison ivy and to prevent resprouting of 
stumps, you can't beat Du Pont "Ammate" X. It kills 
both foliagre and roots ; prevents regrowth. "Ammate" 
X is non-volatile, reduces to a minimum the hazard 
of damage by spray drift. This is the ideal chemical 
wherever brush is a problem. 

"Karmex" W monuron Herbicide . . . For spot treat- 
ment and long-term control of annual weeds and 
grasses around buildings, farmyards, fences, etc., 
use new "Karmex" W monuron Herbicide. Only % 
to Yz cup of the cheYnical in 2 gallons of water is 
enough to control vegetation on 100 square feet for 
an extended period. "Karmex" W monuron is non- 
volatile', non-flammable and non-corrosive to equip- 
ment. 



Ferbam Fungicide 



Your bogs will give you higher yields of 
cleaner fruit when you use "Fermate." 
It's available for sprays or dusts. For most 
effective spray coverage and protection 
of waxy foliage add Du Pont Spreader- 
Sticker to the spray mixture. 

See your dealer for full information 
and supplies. Ask him for free litera- 
ture on "Fermate" and other reliable 
Du Pont products. Or write Du Pont, 
Grasseli Chemicals Department, Wilming- 
ton, Delaware. 

On all chemicals, follow label instructions and warn- 
ings carefully. 

Fermate 

Ferbam Fungicide 



mm 



'ES.U.S.PAT.OFf. 



BETTER THINGS FOR BETTER LIVING 
.... THROUGH CHEMISTRY 



Blueberries 
In The West 



The cultivated blueberry indus- 
try of the far west has developed 
principally in the coastal regions 
of Washing-ton and Oregon, vilest 
of the Cascade Range of moun- 
tains. In this area the climate is 
quite favorable; plenty of rain, 
enough cold to satisfy winter 
chilling requirements without ex- 
cessive cold, favorable summer 
temperature without excessive 
heat, and good soil. East of the 
mountains the rainfall is so light 
that the region is totally un- 
suited to fruit crops, except in a 
few scattered areas where irriga- 
tion is possible and practical. 

In spite of the favorable condi- 
tions, the blueberry industry has 
been slow in developing. The 
chief reason given for this is the 
lack of good markets. It is said 
that consumers on the west coast 
are not so accustomed to eating 
blueberries as those in the north- 
east are. One sign of this is the 
kind of pie available in restau- 
rants. One seldom finds blueberry 
pie. On the other hand, straw- 
berry or "berry" — it may be boy- 
senberry, loganberry or black- 
berry — are offered in almost every 
i'3staurant. 

Another difficulty is the scar- 
city of large markets in the north- 
west. Population density is far 
less than in the northeast. Aside 
from Portland and Seattle, there 
are few large population centers. 
This means that for any large 
volume of berries markets must 
be found in California or else- 
where. Nevertheless, there are 
several hundred acres being grown 
and the industry is expanding 
slowly. 

Because of the heavy rainfall, 
80-100 inches, diseases are more 
important than insects. A Botry- 
tis which causes shoot dieback is 
one of their worst troubles. On 
the other hand, mummy berry is 
unknown. 

One grower in the Puyallup, 
Washington, area has been unus- 
ally successful. He had 19 acres 
set to a considerable number of 
varieties. The soil and climate 



are so favorable that all varieties 
appear outstandingly vigorous and 
productive. Even such varieties 
as Concord and Scammell, which 
were erratic performers here, arc 
vigorous, heavy producers there. 

In California the blueberry sit- 
uation is quite different. Very 
few are grown at the present 
time. The principal reason for 
this appears to be lack of inter- 
est in this fruit. While much of 
California's soil and climate are 
not suited to blueberry growing, 
there are sizeable areas where, 
with a little help in the way of 
irrigation and special soil treat- 
ments, considerable quantities of 
blueberries could be grown. 

The slow development of the 
blueberry industry up and down 
the west coast is at least partly 
the result of the intense interest 
in other small fruits. All three 
coastal states are heavy produ- 
cers of strawberries. California 
is also a heavy producer of boy- 
senberries, loganberries, and trail- 
ing black berries. Washington 
and Oregon are heavy producers 
of raspberries and trailing black- 
berries. These industries are so 
large and so well developed that, 
unless there is some sudden 
change, blueberry growing will 
continue to expand slowly. The 
increasied production will probably 
b" consumed in local markets. 
Therefore, eastern growers will 
not need to worry about ship- 
ments from the far west for quite 
a number of years. 

John S. Bailey 

NCA Sales Up 
First Quarter 

April processed sales for NCA, 
concluding the first quarter went 
over recent previous years. For 
the first three months sales were 
higher than a year ago but less 
than the budget set. Sales for the 
first three months were 30 per- 
cent higher than in 1957, and the 
April sales broug-ht the total to 
?■') percent above for the quarter. 
General Manager Ambrose E. 
Stevens, reports. Through March 
of this year 60 percent of the 
pool had been moved, compared 
to 47 percent in 1957. 



A top broker in the eastern 
area reported that for the first 
four months his sales had in- 
creased 26 V2 percent, while in 
March and April there had been 
a 52 percent gain. 

^'Cranberries In 
Wisconsin*' 

Pertinent facts from "Cranber- 
ries of Wisconsin", special bulle- 
tin No. 70, just issued by Wis- 
consin State Department of Agri- 
culture, Federal-State Crop Re- 
porting Service and the United 
States Department of Agriculture: 

Searles, McFarlin, Natives and 
Howe varieties made up 98 per- 
cent of the total bearing acreage 
in 1956. Average yield per acre 
on the 3,900 acres of bearing 
marsh in that year with a total 
production of 358,000 barrels was 
91.8. 

Searles accounted for 57.7 of 
acreage and 64.7 of production. 
Yield of the Searles variety aver- 
aged 103 barrels per acre, the 
highest of any of the varieties. 

Howes, representing only 4.1 
percent of total acreage of 160 
acres had second highest yield 
with neaarly 92 barrels to the 
acre. McFarlin had third highest 
yield per acre, averaging 82.1, 
amounting to 21.8 percent of total 
bearing acreage. Natives aver- 
aged 63.8 barrels per acre and 
made up 550 acres of 9.6 percent 
of total. Miscellaneous varieties 
averaged 74.3 per acre but made 
up only 2.3 percent of total. 

Total acreage of 1957 is given 
as 4,000 and of these Searles 
make up 2,250 acres. 

Theiie were absolute and real- 
tive increases in the acreages in 
Searles, McFarlins and Howe va- 
rieties between 1952 and 1956 and 
decreases in the Natives and 
"other" varieties. 

Searles bearing acreage of 1952 
was 2,020 acres but had increased 
to 2,250 in 1956. McFarlins from 
770 to 850 in the same period. 
Natives declined from 670 bearing 
acres to 550. Other miscellaneous, 
varieties declined from 100 to 90. 

(Continued On Page 20) 



Eighteen 




Kill All Major Cranberry Insects 
with Malathion 

• Helps You Avoid Residue Problems 

• Offers Safety in Use 



Five seasons use has proved mal- 
athion's superiority as a cranberry 
insecticide. Early spraying or dust- 
ing with malathion protects the 
new crop against damage from 
black and yellow-headed fireworms, 
false armyworms, blossom worms, 
tipworms, cutworms and blunt- 
nosed leafhoppers. Later in the 
season, malathion controls the 
highly destructive fruitworvi. 



Offers safety in use 

Malathion is a phosphate insecti- 
cide with low toxicity to man and 
animals. Its wide safety margin 
makes it ideal for air application 
. . . especially in and around popu- 
lated areas. 

Avoid resitlue problems 
Malathion's fast disappearing resi- 
dues allow application on cranber- 
ries up to 72 hours before harvest. 



•photo courtesy of the National Cranberry Association 



Residues will be well below the 

limits established by law. 

Compatible with other 
chemicals 

Malathion is compatible with meet 
fungicides and other insecticides... 
another reason why so many 
growers are making it the basic 
insecticide in their spray schedules. 
Over 100 manufacturers sell mala- 
thion insecticides under their own 
brand names ... in emulsifiable liq- 
uids, dusts and wettable powders. 
For additional information on the 
uses of malathion, write: American 
Cyanamid Company, Agricultural 
Division, New York 20, New York. 
Advt. 



SERVING THE WISOONSIN GROWERS 



"CRANBERRIES IN WISCONSIN" 

(Continued From Page 18) 

In this 1957 survey, growers 
were asked for their present non- 
bearing acreage in 1957 in addi- 
tion to their bearing acreage in 
1956 and 1957. They also re- 
ported the amount of non-bearing 
acreage coming into production 
in the years 1958 through 1961. 

Approximately 650 acres of 
planted marsh was not in bearing 
in 1957 but will nearly all be in 
production by 1961 or 1962 if 
present intentions of growers are 
realized. By 1961, according to 
growers' expectations, Wisconsin's 
bearing acreage should be at the 
4,500 level. The forecast takes 
into consideration anticipated 
abandonment and replanting of 
old marsh. By 1964 if growers' 
expectation of 1958 and 1959 are 
realized another 200 acres of new 
marsh should be in production. 



Fresh From The Fields 

(Continued From Page 6) 

was being applied the last of the 
month in the southern marshes 
and the first part of May in the 
northern marshes. 



Portable Sprinkler 
Irrigation 

Sales, services, and engi- 
neering information for 
complete frost protection. 
Save your crop and save 
money too. Always have 
a complete line of nev^ 
systems for sale, also fre- 
quently used systems and 
rental systems. 

Eric Frani<e 

R.R. 5, County Trunk "U" 
Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin 



LATE MASSACHUSETTS 

May Starts Wet 

The record-breaking rains of 
April continued into the first week 
cf May maintaining the soggy 
spring season. Precipitation as 
recorded at Cranberry Station 
May 8th was 2.50 inches, with 
normal for May 3.18. 
Also Cold 

May to the 15th was a cold 
period with no really hot, sunny 
days to push growth along which 
continued about a week later than 



last year. Temperatures to that 
date were minus the normal, 28, 
or nearly two a day. 

No Frost Loss 
Nights were cold with a series 
of borderline lows which kept 
growers on edge. To mid-May 
Dr. Cross estimated there had 
been no loss, or at least no serious 
loss from frost. 



IB 'B iH'llHiilll 



iiiiif: 



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BOXES 

Shocks, or Nailed 

Let me repair your broken 

boxes — or repair them yourself. 

Stock Always on Hand 

F. H. COLE 

Tel. Union 6-3330 
North Carver, Mass. 



1 NEW 1 

I BURLAP BAGS j 

I for your } 

I PICKING MACHINES | 

MADE TO ORDER 

1 WHITMAN BAG CO. i 

I WHSTMAN, MASS. I 

I Peter B. Berman I 

I Tel. Gibson 7-4821 I 



CRANBERRIES 

is the only 

publication 

of the industry 

which accepts 

advertising 



YOUR BEES-NESS 

IS MY BUSINESS 
RENTAL OF BEES 

$6.50 PER COLONY 

John Van de Poele 

West Abington, Mass. 
TRiangle 7-2656-R 



JUNE 

Is the month of the longest daylight hours, but — 

ELECTRICITY 

Continues to play an important, time-saving part 
in cranberry activities. Make the greatest use 
of it every month in the 12. 



Plymouth County Electric Co. 



WAREHAM - PLYMOUTH 



TEL. 200 



TEL. 1300 



One 



NCA Brings '57 
Payments To $7.60 

National Cranberry Association 
members were mailed checks for 
an additional $1.00 per barrel on 
June 6, General Manager and Ex- 
ecutive Vice President Ambrose E. 
Stevens announces. This payment 
on the 1957 crop brings the ad- 
vances to date to $7.60. 

Aim of the current marketing 
program is to complete the 1957 
crop sale by November 1. The 195G 
pool was closed on October 18. 

These actions were voted at the 
late May meetings of directors. 

Next meeting of directors is set 
for June 27 at the Somoset Hotel 
in Boston. This meeting will be 
preparatory to the co-operative's 
annual meeting of stockholders at 
Hanson, August 20. 



Mass. Bog 
Holdings Decline 

(From "The Cranberry Industry 
in Massachusetts," latest bulletin 
No. 157). 

Cultivated cranberry bogs in 
Massachusetts range in size from 
half an acre or less to 200 or more. 

A cranberry bog for pui-poses of 
the survey, is defined as the bog- 
acreage reported as one operation- 



Attention Growers ! ! 

for 

your Spring 
weed control 

we offer 
water white 

kerosene 
"GRADE A" 

metered trucks 
STODDARD SOLVENT 

SUPERIOR 
FUEL COMPANY 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. 93-J 



al unit by the operator or mana- 
ger. In many instances, bog ow- 
nership or holdings by one party 
include several bogs. This is 
clearly illustrated by the fact that 
survey records were secured for 
1,250 bogs which were owned by 
only 962 parties (individuals or 
concerns). Ownership of bogs 
continues to concentrate in fewer 
holdings of larger average size. 

The number of bog holdings has 
declined steadily from 2.148 in 
1924 to 1,215 in 1946 to 962 m 
1956. The average size of hold- 
ings, on the other hand, has in- 
creased steadilly from 8.5 acres 
in 1924 to 12.5 acres in 1946 and 
13.7 acres in 1956. Since 1946 
most of the decline in number of 
holdings has occurred in holdings 
of less than 5 acres. 

The number of holdings over 5 
acres has remained relatively sta- 
ble, while the number of small 
holdings has declined especially in 
Barnstable County. Holdings of 
less than 5 acres in 1956 amount 
to just about 50 percent of total 
holdings. In 1946 the proportion 
of holdings of less than 5 acres 
was 58 percent of the total, while 
in 1924 the proportion *was 73 per- 
cent. 



Honeybees 



(From the Cranberry Industry 
in Massachusetts) 

Data on the use of honeybees on 
cranberry bogs was received from 



VOLTA OIL CO. 

Distributor of the Famous 

TEXACO 

WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For your Bog 

STODDORD SOLVENT 

Tels. 840 Ply. and 1340-R 

Plymouth, Mass. 

Rte. 44 Samoset St. 



1,109 of the 1,250 growers in the 
state or 88 percent. Of 1,109 grow- 
ers supplying complete data, 403 
or 36.5 percent used honeybees and 
706, or 63.6 percent, did not. The 
405 growers that reported using 
bees averaged 18.8 acres per grow- 
er, whereas the 706 that reported 
they did not use honeybees aver- 
aged 6.2 per grower. 

The hives used totalled 2,651 of 
which 455, or 17.2 percent were 
owned by the growers and 2,196, 
or 82.8 percent, were rented from 
beekeepers. The acres per hive 
for those reporting on this part of 
the question averaged 2.6. Grow- 
ers using bees felt that set was 
improved by honeybees in a ratio 
of 39 affirmative to 1 negative. 



J. W. Hurley Co. 

• COAh 

• NEW ENGLAND 
COKE 

€ FUEL OIL 

Water White 

-KEROSENE- 

For BOGS 

(METERED TRUCKS) 

24-hour Fuel Oil Service 

Telephone 24-2 
341 Main St. WAREHAM 



Thorough 

Pollination 

Is Good 

Crop Insurance 

Let Our 

Honey Bees 

Do It For You 

MERRIMACK VALLEY 
APIARIES, INC. 

Formerly 

BLUE HILL APIARIES 
47 Pond Street 
Bilierica, Mass. 

Phone Montrose 3-3079 



Two 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Motes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 




Rainfall 33.51 Inches 

Temperatures in May averaged 
1.7° per day below normal and 
rainfall was 6.58 inches, which is 
better than twice the monthly 
average. Incidentally, rainfall 
has exceeded the monthly average 
in 6 of the last 7 months, with 
March being the exception. We 
now have a total of 33.51 inches 
of rain for the first 5 months in 
1958, or within approximately 10 
inches of our yearly average. Our 
weather pattern has completely 
reversed itself as compared to a 
year ago this spring when temper- 
atures were above normal and 
rainfall was far below normal. 
We were already experiencing a 
serious drought in June of 1957 
and the situation became even 
more critical in July and early 
August. 

Frosts 

The contrast of the two seasons 
has been most unusual. There is 
one similarity, however, and that 
involves the frequency of frost 
v/arnings. 17 warnings have been 
released this spring as of June 12, 
compared to 19 warnings during 
the same period in 1957. There ap- 
pears to be no possibility of ap- 
proaching the record of 41 warn- 
ings released in the spring at 
1 949. These include, of course, 
both the afternoon and evening 
forecasts. The most damage this 
season occurred May 2, June 4 and 
June G. Temperatures dropped to 
25° on some bogs June 4 and 6, 
with many growers reporting tem- 
peratures of 28 - 29°. We have 

placed the frost damage at approx- 
imately 2 percent of the Massa- 
chusetts crop or possibly 10,000 
barrels. 



Keeping Quality 

The weather pattern since April 
1 has not strengthened the final 
keeping quality forecast which was 
released June 4 and is as follows: 
"FINAL KEEPING QUALITY 
FORECAST: Examination of the 
weather records from April 
through May shows 2 additional 
points — the only points out of a 
possible 16 which favor good keep- 
ing quality next fall. The pros- 
pects, therefore, are far from 
good for the general keeping qual- 
ity of the 1958 Massachusetts 
cranberry crop unless corrective 
steps are taken. Growers are re- 
minded that we had 4 points in 
1957 and experienced very poor 
keeping quality. Proper control 
measures for fruit rots are care- 



^*.i^— riii.^1111^— iiii^— iin-^nn-^iHi^^nii^^iiit^^iiii-^mi^— "11^— I 



fully outlined in the new charts. 
The need for good keeping quality 
fruit is obvious." 

Field Meetings '''^^'■ 

The county agricultural agents " 
arranged 6 field meetings the last'' 
of May and early June to ac- 
quaint growers with the latest in- 
formation on the control of in- 
sects, diseases, and weeds, plus 
the proper use of fertilizers. Live 
specimens of the early spring pests *' 
were used to help growers in their 
identification. The Station's low 
gallonage spray rig and a new 
overhead irrigation system were 
demonstrated at the meeting held 
at the State Bog. 

Insects About Normal 

Insect activity has been about 
normal to date (June 12). The.'' 
first brood of the SpaTganotliis ' 
fruitworm has not been too trou- ^ 
blesome and only a few bogs have 
required treatment. Black-headed ' 
fireworms have been common and 
those bogs that are usually trou- 
bled by this pest have required 
treatment. Growers have been 
able to use the 10-hour flood to 
check this pest on many properties 
and with excellent results when 
worms were small, the cool weath- 
er has not been conducive to se- _ 




HEllCOPTER PEST 

PUSTIN6 AND SPRAYINS 



W 



Bp 



NORWOOD, MASS. 
RAY MORSE, Agent Tel. Wareham 1553 



(l,iii^™.Mii^^iiH^^iiii™"— "ii^^ipi(^^iiii^^riii^-»iHi— nil— iiu— iiii^^iiM— iiH-^in^— iiu— •un^^nn— nn^^ipii^^iiii—^n""^i 



Three 



curing accurate counts of weevils 
but we have every reason to be- 
lieve they are plentiful and are 
causing damage on many bogs. 
Green spanw/orms and cutworms 
have not been too plentiful on 
"early water" bogs, but "late 
water" bogs, should be carefully 
checked for these pests. Blunt- 
nosed leafhoppers are just begin- 
ning to make their appearance and 
will require control measures. 

Help Available 
Returns to growers are still dis- 
couragingly low and every expense 
item has to be carefully studied 
before spending any of that limit- 
ed budget. Wider use of the in- 
sect net will help determine the 
types of insects present and 
whether they are numerous enough 
to require treatment. Bogs should 
be "swept" every 4 or 5 days from 
mid-May to about mid-July. The 
county agents and the men at our 
Station are airways willing to 
teach or demonstrate the proper 
use of the insect net. 

Weed Clippers 
Greater use of weed clippers is 
in order, particularly where grass- 
es, sedges and rushes are a pro- 
blem and chemical treatments 
have had to be postponed. There 
is still a place for spot treatments 



for such weeds as small brambles, 
loosestrife, and asters, using 
Stoddard Solvent. Care should be 
used to direct a single stream of 
this chemical to the base of the 
above weeds. New vine growith 
will be severely injured if it is 
sprayed with Stoddard. 

Permission to use Amino-tria- 
zole before bloom has just been 
denied by the Food and Drug Ad- 
ministration. Only post harvest 
treatments have been approved for 
cranberries. 

Fertilizers 

Wise use of fertilizers will defi- 
nitely improve many properties 
and increase the yields per acre. 
The new fertilizer chart contains 
the recommendations rates of ap- 
plication. For special problems or 
raore detailed information, grow- 
ers should contact the men at our 
station, particularly Dr. Chandler. 



FARM WITH 
CRANBERRY INCOME 

177 acre farm, 7 acres of 
cranberries. Ideal expansion 
possibilities. Ample water sup- 
ply. Modern buildings. Write 
for details and pictures. Carl 
Jensen, Warrens, Route 1, Wis- 
consin. 



N^*< 






For A Life Time Flume Job 
USE ALL HEART REDWOOD 

All Lengths 

Select and Construction Grade Timbers 



' 






4x4 



4x6 



6x6 



6x8 



Flume Grade Planking 



2x6 



2x8 



2 X 10 






PROMPT DELIVERY SERVICE 

LET US ESTIMATE YOUR FLUME JOBS 
Price List of Redwood on Request 

E. W. Goodhue Lumber Co., Inc. 






MIDDI^BORO ROAD 



EAST FREETOWN, MASS. 



Walter E. Piper 
Passes Away 

Walter E. Piper, 67, veteran 
chief market investigator for the 
Massachusetts Department of Ag- 
riculture, passed away at Quincy 
City Hospital June 5. Mr. Piper 
was well known to Massachusetts 
cranberry growers and had ap- 
peared at many cranberry meet- 
ings. He frequently mentioned 
cranberry products and the indus- 
try on many radio and television 
programs. 

He lived at 117 Cedar street, 
Wollaston. He was admitted to 
the hospital May 18. He first went 
to work for the department in 
1919 as an apple inspector. He 
later became market investigator 
and was made chief in 1947. He 
leaves a wife. 

A feature article concerning Mr. 
Piper appeared in Cranberries 
Magazine a year ago this month. 



«»Wi 



County Agent 
Taking Leave 

Barnstable County (Cape Cod) 
Agricultural Agent Oscar S. 
Johnson is to attend Air Defense 
School at Fort Bliss, Texas for 
five months in connection with nis 
National Guard service. His du- 
ties will be performed by agent- 
manager Bertram L. Tomlinson. 
These include cranberry work. 

Johnson is to attend the school 
from June 19 to Nov. 3. At the 
Texas school, operated by the 
Army he will take a course in anti- 
aircraft and guided missiles as 
part of qualifications for his Na- 
tional Guard post. His family will 
accompany him to Texas. 

Holding the rank of Major, he is 
executive officer of the 68th Anti- 
Aircraft Artillery Battalion, Mass- 
achusetts National Guard with 
headquarters at Buzzards Bay. 

Many a man is loud and noisy, 
but still will never be classed as 
a howling success. 



Four 



Issue of June 1958 - Vol. 23 No. 2 

Published rrmnthly at The Courier Print Shop. Main St., Wareham, Mas.sachusetts. Subscription $3.50 per year. 

Entered qs second-class matter January 26, 1943, at the post-office at Wareham, Massachusetts, under the Act of March 3. 1878 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



MASSACHUSETTS 



May Wetter, Cooler 

May was another wetter than 
normal month and a slightly cool- 
er une. Rainfall for the 31 days 
totaled 6.58 inches as against the 
normal 3.18. Temperatures aver- 
aged 1.7 degrees a day below the 
normal. 

This latter fact gave two points 
out of the possible 16 toward good 
keeping quality. Last year there 
were four. 

No Frost Losses 

While there were many frost 
warnings and borderline nights, 
frost loss for May (and the entire 
spring) was chalked up as none 
at State Experiment Station. 
On the nights when there could 
have been damage, notably May 2, 
23 and 29, growers apparently 
protected themiselves. 

Lush Weed Growth 

An effect of the cold, wet spring 
has been an unusually heavy 
growth of weeds of all kinds, and 
the wetness has not discouraged 
cranberry insects. Weeds are 
growing more vigorously than 
usual because of the more than 
abundant water supply, and can 
become a real problem as the sea- 
son advances. Growers have been 
alert to spring weeds and control 
has been practiced through chemi- 
cals to a much greater degree than 
normal. 

Insects Plentiful 

While insects may not be much 
more numerous than in average 
season there is no difficulty at all 
in finding blackhead fire worm, 
craniberry weevils, sparganothis 
fruitworm, false army worm and 
green span worm. 



Use of Fungicides 

With the keeping quality pros- 
pect not favorable for this year 
it is expected there will be much 
more use of fungicides than even 
last year, when such use was re- 
commended because of poor qual- 
ity prospects. A good deal wili 
depend this season upon such fun- 
gicide control before the '58 yield 
is harvested. 

Heavy Crop Anticipated 

With no spring frost losses, 
good control being practiced on 
weeds and well-budded, good over- 
wintered vines to start with. Dr. 
Cross is, as of present writing, 
holding to his estimate of a very 
substantial production. Some 
growers feel the crop may be only 
moderately heavy. In spite of the 
exicessive spring rainfalls they 



caused no excessive damage to 
bogs, and there were only a few 
isolated cases where the water 
could not be removed satisfactor- 
ily. Some growers had, however, 
considerable trouble in getting 
their properties dried out. 
Eo'r Work 
No new bog building of real ecu- 
sequence is going forward, al- 
though there is a reasonable 
amount of renovation. 



NEW JERS EY 

NEW JERSEY 

No Serious Freezes 
May was 3.2 degrees cooler than 
normal, having an average temp- 
erature of 59.6° as compared to 
the normal 62.8°. There were no 
serious cranberry freezes. Neither 




r /crop' ■^.-^ 



ii»«.>i«S*^ 



mii^m^m^^'f^^mtimm^ 



Aerial Spraying 
and Dusting 

also 
Fertilizing 

We Specialize 
In Parathion Applications 

both 
Sprays and Dusts 

MARSHFIELD AIRWAYS, INC. 

Marshfield, Mass. 

Thos. S. Weitbrecht (Whitey) Temple 4-7818 



Five 



were there any abnormally hot 
periods. The last day of the month 
was the hottest with a maximum 
of 87°. 

Rainfall Breaks Dams 

Rainfall was abundant with a 
monthly total of 4.39 inches com- 
pared to a normal of 3.79 inches. 
A number of dams were seriously 
damaged. Francis Sharpless of 
Medford suffered the greatest loss 
when two dams upstream of his 
property broke. The resulting 
flood burst a long series of dams 
on his Chairville bogs. 

Drawing of the winter flood was 
later than usual. A considerable 
number of bogs were not drawn 
until May 15 or 20. 

Blueberries Recovering Some 

Blueberry fields are making some 
recovery from the serious drought 
injuries incurred last summer. It 
appears that a considerable amount 
of wood was not strong enough to 
winter well, so that there has 
been a serious die-back of tips 
and whole twigs or a poor devel- 
opment of flowers and foliage on 
Weymouth and Rancocas espec- 
ially. The long period of almost 
continuous rainy and cloudy wea- 
ther from April 27 to May 11 
nrobably contributed toward in- 
creasing th(i injury. Damage from 
mizmmy berry and blossom weevil 
has been more than usual. As a 
result, blueberry growers are look- 
ing for a reduced crop this year. 



WASHINGTON 

Severe Frost Loss 
A number of frosts, one very 
cevere has been the spring cc:'ur- 
; nee here. There ha\e been more 
occasions to use the sprinkler sys- 
tems for protection tha.i in the 
past three or four years. 

Particularly damaging was one 
on May 12th with a temperature 
considerably below freezing from 
9:30 p. m. to 5:30 a. m. Amount 
of damage varies greatly from 
one bog to another, however, it 
was concluded, production in the 
state will be much reduced. Re- 
ports of 100% loss on bogs at 
Grayland and elsewhere were re- 
ported. Minimum was 25 degrees. 



Sumps Low 

This freeze came during a per- 
iod of rather dry weather which 
did not help the situation any. 
There was reported to be greater 
injury in the Grayland area than 
at Long Beach. Some bogs which 
did not have sprinkler systems, 
according to County Agent Ralph 
Tidrick, were completely wiped 
out. Other properties which did 
have systems were short of wate;- 
and also received some damage. 
With so much sprinkling, plus 
dry weather, sumps, especially at 
Grayland did not replenish as they 
normally do. In some instances 
during the latter part of the cold 
May 12 night, there was not en- 
ough water to keep the spray on. 
On some bogs sprinklers were 
started too late, after damage had 
been done. 

State Bog Injured 

Among bogs rather severely 



damaged was the Experiment 
Station bog at Long Beach. 

Maximum temperature for May 
was 84 on the 17th; on the whole, 
humidity was lower during day- 
light hours than usual. May 12, 
the minimum was 58 percent and 
May 14 the maximum 42 and on 
May 13 there was a minimum of 
16. 

Crop Prospects Down 

The prospects for the coming 
crop, at present time do not look 
encouraging. Owners of bogs 
badly damaged by the freeze will 
likely take advantage of the situa- 
tion and concentrate on weed con- 
trol with amino triazole if there 
are not sufficient berries to wai'- 
rant harvesting. 

Manzate App^o^■ed 

Charles C. Doughty, Station 
superintendent, has been notified 

(Continued On Page 16) • 




FOR PREFABRICATED FLUMES 

SEE 

RUSSELL A. TRUFANT 

HYDRAULIC CONSULTANT 

PREFABRICATED FLUMES BOG RAILROADS 

UNION 6-3696 North Carver, Mass. 



Six 



Howard Qiierry Built A Marsh 
Deep In Wisconsin Wilderness 

Former Auto Finance Businessman 
"Really Lives" at One-Stone 
Lake Property 

by 
Clarence J. Hall 



That the marsh site he wanted 
was four miles from the nearest 
highway didn't stop Howard 
Querry from going ahead with 
building and planting a finely- 
planned marsh at One Stone Lake 
near Three Lakes, Wisconsin. Mr. 
Querry, a former Kenosha (Wise.) 
businessman has carved his new 
development from the heart of the 
wilderness in the north-central 
part of the Badger State. One 
Stone, or Lone Stone, so named by 
the Indians is almost virgin coun- 
try to the white man.^ 

On the north shore of this pine 
and spruce fringed lake the pro- 
perty is in scenic isolation so far, 
Eo untamed ti at there are a few 
timber wolves, black bear, deer 
and foxes abort it, geese, ducks, 
other wild fowl and birds in sea- 
.son. The entire region is thinly 
settled. Mr. Queery loves this 
beautiful and primitive country. 
He likes the deep- solitude of his 
marsh location. This is evident 
from his conversation. 

"I really live while I'm at the 
marsh," Mr. Queery says. He has 
been coming to the north country 
for the past 25 years for his vaca- 
tions. It was while he was on 
vacation that he bought the pro- 
perty through Vernon Golds- 
worthy. With a beautiful "town" 
house on another lake at Three 
Lakes, his neighbors know him 
(and Mrs. Qiierry) as a generous 
host, and an optimistic fellow, 
fitted for the lot of a cranberry 
grower. 

To get into his marsh property 
at all it was necessary to blaze a 
narrow road through the wilder- 
ness, the four miles into the lake. 
This winding way is lined with 
poplar, birch and other trees- -in 
the summer, cool, leafed over. 
There is deep quiet all along the 
way except for the sounds of wild 



life, and at the marsh the sounds 
incidental to cranberry growing. 

This is the third year since Mr. 
Querry began operations and last 
fall he got his first small crop. 
He bought a total of 400 acres of 
this primitive land in all. The 
area has a potential of approxim- 
ately 100 acres of marsh. He has 
at present 8 acres in vines and 
plans a total of 34, all in Searls. 
All ground work for the planned 
acreage has been completed. 

Unwinding in rectangular 
course are some two miles of 
flooding and drainage canals, 
ranging in width from 35 feet for 
the flooding to 12% for drainage, 
with depth of five and three feet 
respectively. 

One Stone Lake, which Querry 
owns entirely with the exception 
of one "corner" is a body of wa- 
ter several acres in extent. It is 
a very deep lake. But even this 
water supply was not enogh to 



satisfy Mr. Querry, so he had a 
ditch dug three quarters of a mile 
long to a still bigger lake, in this 
region of countless lakes. 

Two Bailey pumps powered by 
heavy industrial engines have been 
installed, each pump having a ca- 
pacity of 14,000 gallons per min- 
ute. Concrete and steel have been 
used throughout in construction 
of flumes. 

Steel prefabricated drop-head 
inlets have been installed for each 
individual section. Two-foot di- 
ameter being used for the section 
inlet and four-foot diameter for 
the flooding canals where bridg- 
ing was necessary. Roads have 
been constructed around all the 
beds--very wide roads - - for 
easy bog operations and dikes are 
to be planted with grass to hold 
the soil in place. 

Due to irregularity of the bor- 
dering highlands there is some 
variation in the individual bed 
acreages. However, the average 
in size is roughly two acres. Bot- 
tom is rather shallow peat bog, 
with considerable sand. Good vine 
growth since first plantings indi- 
cate ideal soil conditions offered 
for these northern Wisconsin 
bogs. 

Fertilizers, 10 - 10 - 10 and 5 - 
20 - 20 have been applied up to 300 



<^B 



Brewer & Lord 

INSURANCE 
40 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. 



ARTHUR K. POPE 
CONVERSE HILL 
WILLIAM B. PLUMER 
ROBERT A. SULLIVAN 



HORACE H. SOULE 
CHARLES M. CUTLER 
EBEN A. THACHER 
HERBERT R. LANE 



EDWARD H. LEARNARD VINCENT M. WILSON 
JOHN B. CECILL, JR. 



Serving the People of New England 

Since 1859 



Seven 



pounds to the acre. Chemicals 
have been used to control, wire, 
'bunch and other grasses. 

A new warehouse is planned for 
construction this year. 

Mr. Querry is a man with faith 
in his own opinions and in spite 
of advice from residents of the 
north country he began his devel- 
opment in the fall rather than 
spring, to save a year. He was 
told the climate was simply too 
tough for winter work. But he 
and a crew worked all through a 
winter, with temperatures of 30 
below on many a day. They scalp- 
ed the leather-leaf, dug ditches 
and made a general layout des- 
pite the cold. 

Foreman of the property is 
cranberry - experienced Walt 
Goldsworthy, brother of Vernon. 

Mr. Querry is a stockholder in 
Cranberry Products, Inc., and sec- 
retaiy of the business which has 
headquarters at nearby Eagle Riv- 
er. 

Before coming to the pictur- 
esque and quietly booming north- 
ern region, Mr. Querry's interests 
were to the south in Kenosha 
where he was in the auto finance 
business. Prior to that he was in 
the automobile busiiness in Chi- 
cago. Active business interests 
other than cranberries he has now 
disposed of. 

There was a lot of hard work 
involved, with a hope for the fu- 
ture in setting out this marsh, and 
excellent progress was made in a 
period of three years. It was a 
case of starting with nothing but 
a section corner post in the cen- 
ter of a "wild" forty and building 
up to the present beautiful lay- 
out. 

NCA To Study 
Voting Stock 

NCA directors at the May meet- 
ing discussed the desirability of 
making whatever changes that are 
necessary to perpetuate the con- 
trol of the co-op in the hands of 
patron contract members. This 
was brought up by John M. Potter, 
Wisconsin Rapids, chairman of the 
fact finding committee. Object 
would be to have ownership of 



common stock on as close to a pa- 
tronage basis as is possible. 

General Manager Stevens said 
there would first have to be a study 
made of the facts, and then to set 
up procedure methods if it was de- 
cided desirable to carry the project 



through. He characterized this as 
a study with many ramifications 
and one of long range. It could 
not be presented before member- 
ship before the 1959 annual meet- 
ing. 



HAIL IS ON THE WAY 

WATCH OUT, MR. GROWER 

PROTECT YOUR PRODUCTION COSTS 

If you had a loan and lost your crop by hail you 
would still have to pay — let Hail Insurance do this 
for you. 

Our new policy protects the berries and vines against 
hail and fire from the time the water is off in the 
Spring until after harvest. 

CRANBERRY RATES ARE LOW 

For further information write or call : 

Alvin R. Reid 

Main Street, Hanson, Mass. 
Cypress 3-6336 Cypress 3-6441 



C. & L. EQUIPMENT CO. 

191 LEONARD STREET ACUSHNEL MASS. 

Cranberry Bog Service 

PRUNING FERTILIZING 

RAKING WEED TRIMMING 

Machinery Sales 

PRUNERS POWER WHEELBARROWS 

RAKES WEED TRIMMERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS - Large & Small 



For Further Information Call . . . 



F. P. CRANDON 
Rockwell 3-5526 



H. C. LEONARD 
Wyman 3-4332 



C. J. TRIPP 
Wyman 4-4601 



QUALITY-The Second Step 

By 
F. B. Chandler 

To place the best quality of fruit on the market, it is obvious that 
as a first stop the groiwers do everything possible to grow the best 
cranberries. Best berries are produced when the vines are not too 
dense, the bog surface is as dry as possible and the bog is sprayed at 
the proper time with a fungicide. Quality berries should be harvested 
with as little mechanical injury or bruising as possible. But what 
happens to even the best crop of cranberries after harvest has much 
•to do with the quality of the fruit when it reaches the consumer? This 
article assumes quality fruit has been produced and harvested, and 
presents the results of some experiments and some ideas for better 
handling and storage; in other words, this covers the operations from 
harvest to screening for shipment. This may be called tlie second 
step, or the removal of the field heat as soon as possible followed by 
storage at a relatively low temperature. 
Morse was one of the first to ture of the berries with the field 



study the storage of cranberries. 
While most of his studies were on 
the chemical phases of storage, in 
the summary of his bulletin pub- 
lished in 1920 he said "Good stor- 
age must include control of both 
ventilation and temperature." 
The first studies in Massachusetts 
of refrigerated storage of cran- 
beries were probably made by 
Gunness in 1936 and again in 
1937.. On reporting these studies 
he gave the temperatures in dif- 
ferent grower storages which 
ranged from 70 to 72 degrees the 
second week in September to the 
low 40's in January. The keeping 
quality of four grower storages 
were compared with commercial 
refrigeration (30, 35 and 50 de- 
grees F. in 1936, and 35, 40, 45, 
and 50 degrees in 1937). The 
best quality was obtained when the 
berries were stored at a tempera- 
ture of 35 degrees, and all com- 
mercial storage was better than 
grower storage. When Cox re- 
viewed the results of Gunness' 
work, he wondered why the grow- 
ers did not store the berries in a 
manner such that the outside air 
could be forced through them to 
remove the field heat and the 
berry temperature kept below 50 
degrees. Cox prepared a table 
similar to Table I which showed 
the number of days the minimum 
temperature fell below certain 

levels. This indicated the mini- 
mum temperatures in East Ware- 
ham would be below the tempera- 



heat in them, which the author 
had observed as high as 110 and 
114 degrees F. These tempera- 
tures were unusually high but 
many observations have been made 
in the 80's and 90's. (Recently 
Kaufman et al reported loading 
temperatures in cars of packaged 
berries of 68 to 72 degrees F.) 
From Table I it is evident that the 
field heat could be removed and 
the berries cooled if the coldest 
air was blown through them. 

Bulk Storage 

In the fall of 1950, bulk stor- 
age of cranberries was studied by 
Earl Cox and the author (Mass. 



Bui. 466, page 7). The bins were 
in the basement of the Cranberry 
Station in East Wareham. Some 
bins were filled with berries in 
bulk while others were filled with 
field boxes. The bulk berries 
were 5 feet deep. Air from out- 
side was forced through hardware 
cloth up through the berries when 
the temperature of the outside 
air was lower than the temperature 
of the berries. This is a very 
good method of removing the field 
heat from the berries (the best 
method is commercial refrigera- 
tion but it costs considerably 
more). One bin was filled with 
berries, uprights and chaff from 
a Western picker with no ill effects 
from the chaff or uprights. 

The results of two years study 
at the Cranberry Station were en- 
couraging enough to have the 
New England Sales Company put 
in a bin to cool berries before 
packaging. The bin was built by 
the Sales Company on the second 
floor So the berries would flow into 
the packaging machines. The bin 
was 6 feet by 10 feet and 8 feet 
high with a hardware floor which 
was pitched toward the outlet. 
This bin would hold 68 barrels of 
berries, four feet deep, and 88 
barrels if the berries were five feet 
deep. The ceiling in the room in 



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in which the experimental bin was 
built was high enough to permit 
one bin to be built on top of the 
othez% thus giving eight to ten 
cubic feet of storage for every 
square foot inside the bin. The 
air was taken from a second story 
window to the bin. The complete 
plan for bin storage with convey- 
or belts and scales would have 
made it possible for two men to 
do what seven were doing without 
bins and conveyors. 

Field Heat 

The idea of bin storage has 
been to remove field heat, reduce 
bruising, reduce cost of handling, 
have more efficient use of space, 
and reduce the capital investment. 
Fruit which can have the field heat 
removed a few hours after har- 
vest keeps better tharv fruit which 
is not cooled. It may take two 
weeks to get the heat out of cran- 
berries stacked in a pile. Some of 
the methods discussed here will 
decrease the bruising while others 
may increase it. Growers should 
consider this carefully as mechan- 
ical injury is associated with the 
quality the consumer receives. In 
the first bulk storage the idea was 
to put the berries in and take the 
berries out by means of convey- 
ors which would reduce greatly 
the laboi' required over handling 
field boxes or storage boxes. The 



field and storage box for cran- 
berries in Massachusetts if filled 
is only a 69.5 percent efficient 
use of the volume it occupies. The 
outside of a field box is 1.98 cubic 
feet. Bulk or bin storage will re- 
duce the capital eventually for at 
least the larger growers. The 
storage or field boxes will cost 
about a dollar to replace, there- 
fore storage for a hundred barrels 
in the present boxes would cost 
(in Massachusetts) about $300, 
yet the storage in the bins that 
have been mentioned or some of 
the ideas to follow will use less 
lumber and labor to build, and 
therefore will be cheaper. In some 
of the ideas, the cost of handling 
will be reduced. 

Many Thoughts 

A number of people have been 
talking about bin storage, some of 
them for a number of years and 
some of them for about a year. 
There have been almost as many 
ideas as there have been people 
talking about it. This paper is 
presented in order that all may 
benefit by the ideas which have 
been developed and possibly some 
new ideas will be forthcoming. 

Louis Sherman wanted to use 
the floor space more efficiently 
than he could by building bins that 
would hold only iVz to 5 feet of 
berries, so he suggested putting 



--SlA^ 



SHAWMUT GLASS 
CONTAINERS, Inc. 



REPRESENTING 



KNOX GLASS, Inc. 



29 STILLINCS STREET 
BOSTON, MASS. 




in shelves so the depth of berries 
would be only l^^ to 2 feet at any 
one place, yet the bins would be 
about 8 feet deep. This is a good 
idea from the standpoint of effi- 
ciency of floor space, convenience 
of loading and unloading, also the 
depth of berries. The details 
which have not been completely 
worked out are loading and air 
flow (air will follow the path of 
least resistance or will go through 
the least depth of berries). 

Someone in Wisconsin, probably 
Bain or Dana (Lawrence), told 
me about the drawer. This seems 
good, a real idea of the future, so 
much in the future that it may be 
difficult for people to imagine it. 
The drawers would be about a 
foot deep and about four feet 
wide, while the length would be 
twenty-five to fifty feet. This 
drawer would have a front and a 
back but no sides, and a bottom of 
hardware cloth. When empty, 
the drawer will be rolled up and 
when it is filled will be pulled off 
the roll and into the storage. 

Bob Gottschalk, Wisconsin, 
would like to have large flat boxes 
4 feet by 8 feet and one foot 
high, the flats to be stacked ten 
high. These flats would have a 
wire bottom and have 2x4 sup- 
ports on the bottom, and would be 
handled with a fork lift. This 
could be handled on trailers for 
dry picking and taken from the 
bog directly to the storage. 

Lawrence Dana suggested a 
bin or box 4x4 feet and 6 feet 
high. The bottom would be hard- 
ware cloth and pitched so the ber- 
ries would roll out when it was 
unloaded. This box would be hand- 
led with a fork lift. These last 
two methods permit the storage 
unit to be moved by a lift tractor 
and would have no extensive con- 
veyor belts. On the other hand, 
those considered first are fixed and 
call for an extension conveyor 
system to get the berries into 
them or out of them. Fixed stor- 
age would or should have tight 
joints in the air ducts and would 
be efficient, while the moveable 
bins would have to be properly 
placed and some opening such as 
those for the fork lifts closed 



Ten 



after the boxes are placed to get 
an efficient air flow. 

Wirebound Boxes 

The nxost recent thought is to 
use wirebound boxes which might 
be discussed, as the small box, 
used experimentally as a master 
container and a large one holding 
600 to 800 pounds. The small ones 
could be used for dry picking like 
a field box, then moved right to 
the storage. After the field heat 
has been removed, these packages 
could be used to ship the berries, 
with the chaff, to the distant mark- 
ets to be screened and packaged 
near the retail markets. This has 
been done with many other fruits 
and vegetables, and would place 
much better quality in the hands 
of the consumer. The small wire- 
bound box used to ship the berries 
before screening would be used 
as a master container for the one- 
pound packages. In car lot ship- 
ments berries in wire'bound con- 
tainers have cooled quicker and 
remained cooler throughout ship- 
ment than berries in corrugated 
containers. These packages may 
be purchased with the covers sep- 
arate which would probably be 
more convenient. The large wire- 
bound box could be used by grow- 
ers who at present harvest into 
bags and could transfer to boxes. 
The full boxes could be left on the 
shore to be picked up by a truck 
v;ith a hoist. Another possible 
use would be to have two, three, 
or four of the small dry picking- 
machines operated together and 
convey all of the berries to a 
trailer which would have a wire- 
bound box. This wirebound box 
should be chosen so it would have 



a resale value in the area to which 
it was shipped. These wirebound 
boxes would have to be handled 
by hoist and fork-lifts, but they 
would greatly reduce the labor 
cost of handling. The large wire- 
bound box might be used to re- 
ceive the berries from the dryers. 
Suggestions Requested 
The cranberry industry has had 
considerable mechanization, but 
the field box and the storage box 
still go back to the days of hand 
picking. In view of that, this ar- 
ticle has been written with '^.he 
hope that all of the readers would 
think, and out of the thinking, some 
progressive ideas on the removal 
of field heat and storage of cran- 
berries would develop. The author 
would be pleased to receive com- 
ments, suggestions and new ideas. 

Stevens Visits 
New Jersey 

Ambrose E. Stevens general 
manager of the National Cran- 
berry Association, made his first 
trip to New Jersey in a cranberry 
capacity, holding a meeting at the 
Bordentov/n plant June 11. This 
was attended by about 100, in- 
cluding growers and wives, the 
number being cut down somewhat, 
perhaps, by the fact that a near 
cloudburst occurred just before 
the meeting. 

Stevens says he found a mild 
optimism among the growers and 
was much impressed by the Bor- 
dentown plant. He later was tak- 
en on a tour of some of the bogs 
and to meet some growers by Ed- 
dv Lipman, New Jersey manager 
of NCA. At the local USD A and 
state agricultural department at 
Trenton, Stevens cut two tapes 
for local radio recording. One 
was on sauce, requiring five min- 
utes, and the other on juice, three 



mmutes. 

Table 1 

Minimum Temperature by Years and Months Recorded at 

East Wareham, Mass. 

Days at or below the indicated temperature 





Septembei 


r 




October 




Novembi 


er 


Degree 


35 45* 


55** 


35 


45* 


55** 


35 


40* 


45*** 


1948 


1 10 


23 


11 


19 


29 


12 


16 


17 


1949 


1 9 


21 


7 


17 


25 


24 


27 


29 


1950 


2 7 


23 


7 


14 


27 


15 


18 


24 


1951 


2 5 


13 


6 


16 


27 


18 


18 


25 


1952 


1 7 


18 


8 


22 


27 


17 


24 


28 


1953 


1 7 


15 


4 


17 


27 


17 


22 


29 


1954 


5 


20 


6 


14 


19 


18 


23 


25 


1955 


9 


19 


4 


14 


27 


18 


22 


26 


1956 


1 7 


20 


7 


19 


30 


16 


21 


26 


1957 


3 6 


14 


5 


20 


29 


18 


23 


30 


* Includes 35" 


sf* 


Includes 45' 




J? ^ ^ 


Includes 40' 



"Cranberries In 
Wisconsin" 

(Cont. from last month) 

Pertinent facts from "Cranber- 
ries of Wisconsin", special bulle- 
tin No. 70. just issued by Wis- 
consin State Department of Agri- 
culture, Federal-State Crop Re- 
porting Service and the United 
States Department of Agriculture. 

Further, growers reported they 
could potentially double the state's 
total cranberry acreage by using 
suitable land available on their 
own holdings. It is possible to 
further expand production by in- 
creasing the px-oductivety of exist- 
ing bearing acreage with, more 
effective fertilizer use, better cul- 
tural practices, and improved in- 
sect disease and weed conti'ol pro- 
duction. "In fact in many in- 
stances it is more economical to 
expand cranberx-y px-oduction by 
more intensive cultivation pi-acti- 
ces than it is by increased plant- 
ings." 

Water Supply 

A dependable water supply is 
essential to successful commercial 
cranberx-y production. According 
to the 1949 survey an average of 
nV2 acres of pond or reservoir was 
used for each acx'e of cranberry 
marsh in 1948. About 7 acres of 
resex-voir were used for each acre 
of vines in the Cranmoor district 
in 1928. The 1949 survey indi- 
cated that 44 percent of the grow- 
ers obtained water from creeks, 
28 percent used rivers, 14 percent 
used lakes and 19 percent secured 
their water from other sources 
such as springs, wells, and sur- 
face ditches. 

The 1952 survey indicated that 
about 40 percent of the growers 
reported ci-eeks as their water 
source. About 15 percent report- 
ed rivers and 14 percent reported 
lakes with about one-fifth indica- 
ting other water sources in the 
in the 1956 survey. About half 
of these growers used both creeks 
and rivers with the others em- 
ploying a vax'iety of diffex-ent com- 
binations of water sources. 



(To Be Continued) 



Eleven 




Sprinkled Experimental Acre, showing soil plots, pumphouse in background. (CRANBERRIES Photo) 

Two New Workers, Mass. Station - New Research Acre 



Two new workers and a new 
long-range research project are 
additions to activities at Massa- 
chusetts Cranberry Experiment 
Station, East Wareham. 

Assisting Dr. Bert Zuckerman, 
Station pathologist is John W. 
Coughlin, who will study nema- 
toids, mainly in cranberry soils. 
Walter Kentfield has been assigned 
to assist Prof. "Stan" Norton, en- 
gineering research specialist. 

An actual aci'e of the State Bog 
has been set aside for many ex- 
periments, includinf^ overhead 
sprinkler irrigation, frost control, 
draining and soil tests. Ditch 
water level in this acre is to be 
held at least two and a half feet 
below the bog floor and water put 
back through the sprinklers alone. 

Dr. F. B. Chandler, soil expert, 
will conduct tests on drainage and 
of known cranberry soils. The 
acre was designed and laid out by 
Norton. 

The irrigation system consists 
of Carlon plastic pipe, with two- 
inch mains, 300 feet long and three 



quarter inch laterals, 40 feet both 
ways. An innovation is that the 
plastic is buried in the bog bed, at 
a slope to provide for drainage. 
Risers, 12 inches in height, are 
from four to ten inches above the 
bog floor. Installation is designed 
to be permanent and there is 
nothing to interfere with ordinary 
bog operations, as in the layout of 
m?ny systems with piping above 
ground. 

Heads are Rain Bird, No. 20, 
and at present total 26. Each 
head is designed to throw 2^/4 gal- 
lons a minute, providing for an 
acre inch of water in about IV2 
hours. 

Water source is a section ditch, 
over which a small pumphouse has 
been constructed with a Myers 
centrifigal pump powered by a 
Wisconsin gas engine. Thermo 
couples have been installed to ac- 
curately measure the eff^ect of 
sprinkling at various temperature 
ranges; involved would be the size 
of berries and of size of crop on 
a basis of better drainage and 



water provided by sprinklers as 
against ditch irrigation. 

A principal problem hoped to be 
solved is the theory that a bog so 
well drained and comparatively 
dry will bring about deeper root 
system of the vines. Another 
thought is that the drier bog floor 
Avill be much firmer than one water 
soaked, and an all-puiT3Cse tractor 
will be tried out in projects such 
as sanding, chemical weed control, 
pruning. The amount of mechani- 
cal damage to vines can be deter- 
mined. 

Known cranberry soils have 
been mixed in plots under direct- 
ion of Dr. Chandler, one plot hav- 
ing peat over sand and another 
sand over peat. 

Coughlin, 27, who will work un- 
der the direction of Dr. Zuckerman 
arrived June first for the summer 
only. Born in Stoneham, Massa- 
chusetts, he attended and was 
graduated from Medford High 
School. He spent two years in the 
U. S. Army in the field of neuro- 
psychiatric work. He was sta- 



Twelve 



NEW IMPROVED 
1958 

WESTERN 
PICKER 

In Massachusetts 
this year 

MANUFACTURED BY 

J. E. BRALEY & SON 

78 GIBBS AVE. 

WAREHAM, MASS. 

TEL. Wareham 64-W 



SALES AGENT 

LOUIS SHERMAN 

7 CUSHMAN ST. 

PLYMOUTH 



Repair Service, Braley's 

and 

Bob Melvelle's 
Repair Shop 

Rocky Meadow Rd. 

RFD No. 2 

Middleboro 



Bob William's 
Garage 

Brewster 



AsWey's Garage 
East Freetown 



Contact any of 
above for information 



or 



WESTERN PICKERS 

1172 Hemlock Ave. 
COOS BAY, OREGON 



tioned in Texas, Colorado and 
Kansas. 

In 1950 he entered Stockbridge 
School of Agricuture, a division of 
the University of Massachusetts, 
where he majored in forestry. He 
holds a B. S. degree in that sub- 
ject from the University and has 
also had one year in entomology. 

His work will be mainly in re- 
search in nematoids, a microscop- 
ic parasitic worm. The studies 
will be largely on nematoids found 
in cranberry soils, and this, as far 
as is known, is the first venture 
into this field as concerns soils of 
the cranberry. He expects to re- 
turn to the University in the fall, 
where his studies will continue to- 
ward a master's degree, probably 
in the field of nematoids, which 
is a growing area of agricultural 
research. It is hoped he will be 
able to continue research prob- 



lems for the cranberry station 
during the winter and possibly re- 
turn next season. 

He is single and living at East 
Wareham during the working week 
This project is made possible by 
federal funds. 

Kentfield is a native of North 
Dartmouth, Massachusetts, but 
he is more recently of East Dover, 
Vermont. There he operated a 
farm of his own for the past 
seven years. He was concerned 
mostly with maple tree and 
dairy farming. 

He spent some time in the West, 
but has been near or on a farm all 
his life and has had much exper- 
ience in both mechanical and man- 
ual farm work. He will assist in 
machine shop work under Norton, 
doing various machine jobs such 
as welding and anything else 
which comes under the engineering 




John W. Coughlin Will Study Nematoids in Cranberry Soils. 

(CRANBERRIES Photo) 

Thjrtee^j) 



research work of Prof. Norton. 

This is a new, permanent posi- 
tion among the Station workers. 
Kentfield is married, has three 
children and is living on the prop- 
erty of Ruel S. Gibbs at South 
Carver. 

New Jersey 
Frost Loss 

The frost whoch did some dam- 
age in Massachusetts on night of 
June 6th and morning of the 7th 
also hit New Jersey. The dew- 
point was very low and it was a 
"■black" frost. Some blueberries 
were hurt and some cranberries. 

Few reports of serious injury 
came in to the Experiment Sta- 
tion at Pemberton, and it may 
not have been too damaging for 
the state asa whole. Frost was 
aparently more severe along the 
Atlantic coast than inland. 



NCA to Test 
Berry Holding 
At Onset Plant 



A test project to determine if 
cranberries can be made to hold 
up in controlled storage so they 
may be sold in the first four 
months of a year is getting un- 
dei-way by the National Cranber- 
ry Association. 

The plan is two-fold, General 
Manager Ambrose E. Stevens 
says. The first will be to test 
the ability of the fruit to remain 
suitable that long for fresh con- 
sumption, and the second, to see 
if there is demand for fresh cran- 
berries in January, February, 
March and April. 

The matter was brought up by 
the co-operative's shrinkage com- 
mittee, Chester Robbins of Onset, 
chairman, at the May meeting of 
directors. 

Test is to be made at the Onset 
plant, where a room is being pre- 




Walter Kentfield Assists in Engineering Department. 

(CRANBERRIES Photo) 

Fourteen 



pared to hold about 7,000 barrels 
at controlled temperatures and 
humidity. The temperature will be 
38 degrees and the humidity 85, 
with automatic controls and auto- 
matic ventilation. Insulation is to 
be of fibre glass. 

Installation systems with pumps 
and compressors will be similar to 
those in a modem super-market 
refrigerator section and to mod- 
ern apple coolers. The cost is re- 
ported as approximately 840,000. 

Directors voted approval of set- 
ting up this facility, thereby pro- 
viding a test, looking forward to 
providing more berries from fu- 
ture pools to sell on the fresh 
market. 

Spiced Berries In 
New Recipes 

Spiced cranberry jellies, from 
Cransweets furnished by Cran- 
berry Products, Inc. of Eagle Riv- 
er, Wisconsin have been prepared 
by USDA, Horticultural Research 
Service at New Orleans, The 
candies were made in the candy 
laboratory, as part of the coopera- 
tive research project with the Nat- 
ional Manufacturers' Association. 

Several recipes were developed 
for use of the spiced cranberries in 
the confectionary field. 

New Picker 

To Massachusetts 

Visiting Massachusetts in late 
May was Lawrence Dana, Dana 
Machine & Supply Company, Wis- 
L'onsin Rapids, Wisconsin bring- 
ing with him a new model of the 
Getsinger Picker. This is a mach- 
ine on which the operator rides. 

Mr. Dana, while in Massachu- 
setts, \isited Mr. and Mrs. Ray- 
mond Morse. The picker remains 
for vino training and use in the 
fall, 

BANDON (ORE.) PLANS 
FOR 12TH FESTIVAL 

B a n d o n , Oi'egon is already 
starting on its plans for the 12th 
annual cranberry festival. This 
is to be October 10, 11. The first 
"princesses" to appear were Linda 
Sutherlane, sponsored by Bandon 
Junior Chamber of Commerce and 
Carlleen Metzger by the American 
Lagion. 



ii^iin— M^m— n— bh— n^m^n^"— ••^"— •■— •"^"~~""~^"" 



fidlf^als 



ISSUE OF JUNE 1958 
VOL. 23 



.■■^_ai.^ii^— »^— nii^— m^— nn- 



.nii^— «ii-^iin-^in^— nn^— iin-^iiil^— nci^— «»^— II"- 



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PROLONGING FRESH SALES 

AN EXPERIMENT WHICH could have 
long-range and important effects upon the 
marketing situation is to be conducted by- 
National Cranberry Association. This is 
the setting up of a storage room at the 
Onset plant in which berries will be kept 
at controlled temperature and humidity 
until after the first of the year following 
harvest. 

It would test how well berries can stand 
up for a long period for consumption as 
fresh fruit. These berries placed in the 
market would also test whether there is 
demand for fresh cranberries after the 
holidays, through the winter months and 
into spring. 

If this preliminary small-scale project 
works out it would be a means of placing 
more berries into fresh sales and at the 
opposite end taking fruit out of the pro- 
cessed fruit pool, thus relieving it. 

In some years, at least, there is de- 
mand for cranberries after the big buying 
for the holidays. As markets would other- 
wise be bare of fresh cranberries ther^ 
might develop an active demand and pos- 
sibly at higher prices than when cran- 
berries are common in the market. 

It could be a means of extending the 
period of fresh cranberry sales and could 
work out to a betterment in cranberry 
mc^rketing. At least, we think the experi- 
ment is a step in the right direction. Any 
flcD ir-, which if not too costly and has rea- 
sonable possibilities of improving the cur- 
rent demand-price situation. 



GOV. RESEARCH HELP 

VERNON GOLDSWORTHY, president 
of Wisconsin's Cranberry Products, Inc. 
(as shown by a brief item in this issue) 
takes advantage of Federal Research in 
new products. The Southern Utilization 
Research and Development Division devel- 
oped several samples and recipes for new 
spiced cranberry candy jellies. 

He reports he has received quite a bit 
of help in developing formulas. The whole 
cranberry industry could be benefited, very 



Editor and Publisher 
CLARENCE J. HALL 

EDITH S. HALL — Associate Editor 
Wareham, Massachusetts 



CORRESPONDENTS—ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 
Wisconsin Rapids 



Washington — Oregon 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash. 



Massachusetts 

PR. CHESTER E. CROSS 
Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 
East Wareham, Mass. | 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON I 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 
Barnstable, Mass. 



New Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 
P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 
Pemberton, New Jersey 



likely, in this way. Particularly if the 
Cranberry Institute, currently not doing 
much should become active in seeking such 
assistance on a nation-wide basis in finding 
new outlets for cranberries. 



FROM that newly-arranged and experi- 
mental sprinkled acre at Massachusettes 
State Bog there may come some develop- 
ments of much interest to the industry. 
More should certainly be known about 
cranberry soils and more about overhead 
irrigation and frost control. 

Fifteen 




Betty Buchan, National Cran- 
berry Association, is shown speak- 
ing at a membership clinic attend- 
ed by representatives of farmer 
cooperatives and the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, held in Her- 
shey, Pennsylvania, recently. At 
right is Gardner Norcross, United 
Cooperative Farmers, and left, 
J. K. Stern, president, American 
Institute of Cooperation. 

Betty has also been invited to 
serve as toastmistress at the wo- 
men's luncheon at AIC's annual 
meeting in August. — Photo from 
News For Farmer Cooperatives 
published by the U. S. D. A. 
published by th U. S. D, A. 



Rudy Hillstrom 
In Massachusetts 

Rudy Hillstrom of Western 
Pickers, Coos Bay, Oregon, is in 
Massachusetts, making arrange- 
ments for the machine sales and 
service this yeai". He arrived by 
plane June 12th and will remain 
until about July 4th. 

Machines are to be manufac- 
tured in Massachusetts by J. E. 
Braley & Son, machine shop in 
Wareham, with Louis Sherman of 
Plymouth as general sales agent. 

During 1957, machines were 
made on the West Coast, with 
trials in both Oregon and Wash- 
ington on a new model which is 
now annouced as the 1958 West- 
ern Picker. 



Fresh From The Fields 

(Continued From Page 6) 

WASHINGTON 

that Manzate has been approved 
for use on cranberries in his area. 
Up to the present this material 
had been registered for use in 
other areas, not in Pacific North- 
west. 

WISCONSi N 

May Deficient 

May was slightly below normal 
in both precipitation and temper- 
ature in the cranberry areas of the 
state. Mean temperatures for the 
(Continued On Page 18) 



Sixteen 




Kill All Major Cranberry Insects 
with Malathion 

• Helps You Avoid Residue Problems 

• Offers Safety in Use 



Five seasons use has proved mal- 
athion's superiority as a cranberry 
insecticide. Early spraying or dust- 
ing with malathion protects the 
new crop against damage from 
black and yellow-headed fireworms, 
false armyworms, blossom worms, 
tipworms, cutworms and blunt- 
nosed leafhoppers. Later in the 
season, malathion controls the 
highly destructive fruitwortn. 



Offers safety in use 

Malathion is a phosphate insecti- 
cide with low toxicity to man and 
animals. Its wide safety margin 
makes it ideal for air application 
. . . especially in and around popu- 
lated areas. 

Avoid residue problems 
Malathion's fast disappearing resi- 
dues allow application on cranber- 
ries up to 72 hours before harvest. 



photo courtesy of the National Cranberry Association 



Residues will be well below the 

limits established by law. 

Compatible with other 
chemicals 

Malathion is compatible with most 
fungicides and other insecticides... 
another reason why so many 
growers are making it the basic 
insecticide in their spray schedules. 
Over 100 manufacturers sell mala- 
thion insecticides under their own 
brand names ... in emulsifiable liq- 
uids, dusts and wettable powders. 
For additional information on the 
uses of malathion, write: American 
Cyanamid Company, Agricultural 
Division, New York 20, New York. 



Advt. 



Seventeen 















































































# 










































































M^mmkmmm 


'■A, 












^JKr 







The new Call Air Agricultural 
Atw/ood and Garland Brooks of Un 

New Type Plane 
In Mass, Use 

A type of airplane for spraying 
and dusting new to the cranberry 
industry, at least in Massachusetts, 
has been placed in service this 
season by the Ben W. Atwood 
Aerial Spraying Sei-vice, Hanson. 
This is a Call Air, manufactured 
in Afton, Wyoming and is exten- 
sively used in the West in all forms 



Plane at Hanovci 
ited Cape Cod Cranberry Company 

of agriculture. 

The machine is especially de- 
signed for agriculture dusting, 
spraying, fertilizing, sowing of 
seed. It has a high safety factor, 
and a rate of climb of 500 feet per 
minute. It carries a pay load ap- 
proximately its own weight. 

Powered with a 150 h.p. Wycom- 
ing, the plane has a gross weight 
of 2150 pounds. Wing span is 35 
ft. 51/2 inches, length 23 ft. and 



with (left to right) Marcus L. Urann, Pilot Ben 

(CRANBERRIES Photo) 



9% inches, heighth 7 ft, 10 inches. 
It can operate over a 250 mile 
radius with maximum pay load. 
Ceiling is 17,500 feet and it ' 
cruises at 82 miles per hour. 

Mr. Atwood has operated for 
United Cape Cod Cranberry Co. (sf 
Hanson and others for several 
years and this firm, which has 
two air strips will be a principal 
user of the new plane. ^ 



Fresh From The Fields 

(Continued From Page 16) 

month was 54.6 degrees compared 
to an average of 55.2 degrees. 
Maximumu for the month was 90 
degrees on the 14th and minimum 
was 18 degrees on the 6th. The 
first week of the month was cold 
and rainy, the middle two weeks 
warm and dry and the latter pait 
of the month was cool and rainy. 
Precipitation varied considerably 
with the northern half of the state 
receiving above normal and the 
southern half well below normal. 
Overall deficiency was from .75 
to 1.34 inches below the normal of 
3.52 inches. Ground water table 
was reported 1.60 feet below nor- 
mal. Deficiences in precipitation 
for the year now average above 
3.50 inches. The June weather 
outlook is for warm weather and 
above normal precipitation. Nor- 
mal temperature for June is 65.0 
and normal precipitation is 4.63 
inches. 

Retarded 

The cool weather in May retar- 
ded vine development along with 

Eighteen 



frequent frost flooding. Fertiliz- 
ing operations were held up by the 
wet condition of the marshes. 
First brood fireworm control start- 
ed the last of the month, which 
was about one week late. Except 
for isolated cases the worms are 
in good control. Cool damp 
weather the last week in May 
hampered dust applications. 
Spring Chemicals 

Stoddard solvent and kerosene 
was being spot sprayed the latter 
part of the month, along with 
some under vine boom spraying 
with solvent. Growers were get- 
ting their swabbing booms ready 
to apply dalapon on various grass- 
es over the top \'ines in early June. 
Experimental work was continu- 
ing with dalapon, amino triazole 
and meleic hydrzide. It appears 
that the use of the systemic herb- 
icides will be greatly increased as 
soon as pre-harvest clearance has 
been given them. Dr. Dana is 
continuing his experimental work 
trying some of the later herbicides. 
Varieties Planted 

A check on the varieties plant- 
ed by Wisconsin growers this 
spring still showed preference to 



Searles with Pure Bain McFarlins 
second and scattered plantings of 
Ben Lears, Stevens and Black 
Veils. More Bain McFarlins are 
expected to be planted in the fut- 
ure. Most planting was completed 
by the first of June and growers 
had a good cool wet planting seas- 
on. They now are hoping ."or 
some warm weather. 

Cattle Outnumber People 
A recent survey in Wood County, 
which is the leading county in 
Wisconsin for cranberry acreage 
and production, showed that cattle 
outnumber people in the county 
roughly 40,000 to 30,000. 

Washington Bulletin 

Estimates a month later of the 
bad freeze in Washington on May 
12 is that about half the buds 
were killed, although this will be 
determined with more accuracy 
after blossoming time. Charles 
C. Doughty, superintendent of the 
Cranberry Experiment Station at 

(Continued On Page 20) 

READ 

Cranberries 
Magazine 



You can 



stop f niit rots 
and improve quality 



with reliable 



DuPont Fermate 



Ferbam Fungicide 



'^ou can depend on 'Termate" to prevent 
-■- rot of the berries on the bushes or 
while in storage. "Fermate" gives this 
protection through excellent control of 
fungus diseases that attack cranberries. 
What's more, "Fermate" is mild. It's hard 
on fungus diseases but its gentle action 
means minimum danger of burning or 
stunting tender flowers, leaves or fruits. 



For brush and weed control 
use these effective chemicals 

"Ammate" X Weed and Brush Killer . . . For control 
of brush, poison ivy and to prevent resproutinsr of 
stumps, you can't beat Du Pont "Ammate" X. It kills 
both foliage and roots ; prevents regrowth. "Ammate" 
X is non-volatile, reduces to a minimum the hazard 
of damage by spray drift. This is the ideal chemical 
wherever brush is a problem. 

"Karmex" W monuron Herbicide . . . For spot treat- 
ment and long-term control of annual weeds and 
grasses around buildings, farmyards, fences, etc., 
use new "Karmex" W monuron Herbicide. Only ^/i 
to V2 cup of the che'mical in 2 gallons of water is 
enough to control vegetation on 100 square feet for 
an extended period. "Karmex" W monuron is non- 
volatile', non-flammable and non-corrosive to equip- 
ment. 



Your bogs will give you higher yields of 
cleaner fruit when you use "Fermate." 
It's available for sprays or dusts. For most 
effective spray coverage and protection 
of waxy foliage add Du Pont Spreader- 
Sticker to the spray mixture. 

See your dealer for full information 
and supplies. Ask him for free litera- 
ture on "Fermate" and other reliable 
Du Pont products. Or write Du Pont, 
Grasseli Chemicals Department, Wilming- 
ton, Delaware. 

On all chemicals, follow label instructions and warn- 
ings carefully. 

Fermate 

Ferbam Fungicide 




"ES.U.s. PAT.OFf 

BETTER THINGS FOR BETTER LIVING 
.... THROUGH CHEMISTRY 



Nin€?teen 



SERVING THE WISCONSIN GROWERS 



Fresh From The Fields 

(Continued From Page 18) 

Long Beach, says he does not now 
expect more than 30,0UU to 35,0UU 
^arrels. 

Last year, with 83,000 barrels, 
Washington was third producing 
state. Pi-esent esttimate of Long- 
Beach production is 121,000, last 
year 21,000; Grayland, including 
iNorth Shore area, 20,000, last 
year (52,000. 

All bogs sutt'ered some damage, 
this varying from about 20 per- 
cent to 95 or total loss. 

LATE WiSCONSIN 

Reports from sources in Wis- 
consin say that although it has 
been a late, cold season, vines 
seem to be coming along very 
well. There was presumably some 
water damage because of frost 
floods, and because, with water 
scarce, some growers left water 
on. 

A larger crop than in 1957 may 
be expected if things go well from 
now on, possibly 325,000 barrels 
or better it is now being esti- 
mated. Rains were better in early 
June. But water table is 4 inches 
below normal. 

LATE MASSACHUSETTS 

Two June frosts occurred in 
Massachusetts, one on the night 
of June 4 and the second on the 
night of June 6. Both caused loss- 



Portable Sprinkler 
Irrigation 

Sales, services, and engi- 
neering information for 
complete frost protection. 
Save your crop and save 
money too. Always have 
a complete line of new 
systems for sale, also fre- 
quently used systems and 
rental systems. 

Eric Franke 

R.R. 5, County Trunk "U" 
Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin 



es on dry bogs and on high edges 
of bogs flooded, the first real loss 
of the current season. A check by 
i-.x'/.erimcrt Stativ'»n staff has 
placed the damage as possibly two 
percent, maybe 10,000 barrels of 
the crop now estimated in prospect. 
Frost of June 4 was the most 
severe, coming before midnight. 
Bog temperatures varied from 22 
to 30 with the evening forecast 
being 28-29. Twenty-nine and a 
half was about the tolerance. Sec- 
ond frost brought readings from 
24% to 27. There was some v/ind 



during the night. 

Both frosts were general, over 
Cape Cod proper and in all sections 
of Plymouth County. 

First twelve days of June were 
rainy, gloomy and colder than 
normal, temperatures being ap- 
proximately two degrees a day be- 
low the average. Bogs continue 
about a week behind normal in de- 
velopment. 



li!!!H:ll;l 



INTERESTED 
IN 

PURCHASING 
WISCONSIN 
CRANBERRY 

PROPERTIES 

Vernon Goldsworthy 

EAGLE RIVER 
WISCONSIN 




"Ask 

The 

Grower 

Who 
Belongs' 



INDIAN TRAIL Inc. 

262 W. Grand Ave. 

Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin 



WE NEED TWO WAYS 


TO 


SELL QUR CROP 




To Fresh Sales we must add increased Processed Uses. 


Our Numerous Lines are Helping the 1 


ndustry 


in this Respect. 




Cranberry Products, 


Inc. 


EAGLE RIVER, WISCONSIN 





Twenty 



SERVING THE WISCONSIN GROWlRt 



CONVERTERS 






of 




Cranberry growers have enjoyed 


CELLOPHANE 

POLYETHYLENE 

and other 

Flexible Materials 

Plain or Printed 




two decades of successful use of 

KROP-SAVER 

Insecticides, Fungicides and Herbicides 


BAGS 

ROLL STOCK 




Better Chemicals For Agriculture 


SHEETING 
TOMAH PRODUCTS, INC. 




Crop-Saver Chemical Company 


TOMAH, WISCONSIN 




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PHONE 800 










THE ONLY 

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FACTORY 


CORRUGATED 
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DANA MACHINE & SUPPLY Co. 
Wis. Rapids Wis. 
MFCS, of: 




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GRASS CLIPPERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS 

(i€tsinger Retracto tooth 

pickers 

Dryers 




LOCATED IN THE 

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CRANBERRY AREA 




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DISTR. of: 

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ROLLER CHAINS 

SPROCKETS & BEARINGS 

CONVEYOR BELTING 

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KICKAPOO 
FERTILIZERS 

Stevens Point 

1 


1 


Felker Bros. Mfg. Co. 

MARSHFIELD WISCONSIN 
Phone 230-231 








Mr. Grower ! 




Your Foreman 


THIS SPACE IS COIN' TO WASTE! 


Deserves A 




Subscription to 


It is available for those who have an advertising 
message to the Wisconsin Industry 


Cranberries; too 






— BB-^— 


i 
i 
i 




Bright New Way 

To Start 

The Day! 




*-,*|^'''^i%s 




(^cea/iSp^ 



Cranberry Juice 
For Breakfast 



Cranberry growers are enthusiastic about the new Ocean 
Spray campaign aimed at the breakfast fruit juice market. 
All thru July, August and September, big newspaper ads 
and hard-hitting radio announcements will urge consumers 
to enjoy this tangy treat every morning. New users mean 
new sales. 

Introducing new products and developing new uses are an 
important part of the big marketing job NCA does for its 
grower members. Just ask your neighbor. 



|NATIONAL CRANBERRY ASSOCIATION GROWERS' CO-OPERATIVE, HANSON, MASSACHUSETTS 







IRVING A $20,000,000 A YEAR INDUSTRY 




:ape cod 
new jersey 
wisconsin 

OREGON 

WASHINGTON 
CANADA 



ALVIN R. REID, Mass. Grower Has Faith in Industry. 

(CRANBERRIES, Photo 



35 Cents 



JULY 1958 



DIRECTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWERS 



^Worcester Paper | 
Box Corporation 

MEDFORD, MASS. 
Tel. MYstic 8-5305 

Manufacturers 

of 
Folding Cartons 

and 

Displays 



— »» ■■— 



Get the right product 
for every pest problem 



Use 



... the first choice of 

Commercial Growers 
GENERAL CHEMICAL DIVISION 

ALLIED CHEMICAL CORPORATION 
40 Rector Street, New York 6, N. Y. 
58 Weybosset St., Providence, R. I. 




MIDDLEBORCUCH 
TRUST COMPANY 

MIDDLEBORO 
MASS 



The Federal Deposit 

Member of 
Insurance Corporation 



Wareham Savings 

Bank 
Falmouth Branch 

Welcome Savings Account 

Loans on Real Estate 
Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 

PHONE WAREHAM 82 
FALMOUTH 80 



The National Bank of Wareham 



Conveniently located for Cranberry Men 



Funds always available for sound loans 



Complete Banking Service 



AMES IRRIGATION SYSTEMS 

RAINBIRD SPRINKLERS 

PRIZER APPLICATORS 

FOR 

FERTIUZERS & INSEaiCH)ES 



The 

Charles W. Harris 

Company 

26 Somerset Avenue 
North Dighton, Mass. 



EQUIPMENT 

HAYDEN 

- SEPARATOR - 
WAREHAM, MASS. 

Irrigation Systems 
PUMPS 

SEPARATORS - BLOWERS 
SCREENHOUSE EQUIPMENT 

DARLINGTON 
PICKING MACHINES 



Extensive Experience in 
ELECTRICAL WORK 

ALFRED PAri'I 

At Screenhouses, Boss and 

Pumps Means Satisfactioa 

WAREHAM. MASS. Tel. 6M 



Member Federal Depoait Insurance Corp. 



ADVERTISE 

in 

CRANBERRIES 



I >iRECTOR Y " l 



WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STODDARD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

Franconia Coal Co. 
— Inc. — 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. 39-R 



CRANBERRY 
GROWERS 

Choose and Use 

Niagara Dusts, Sprays and 

Dusters 



MSB^ 



Niagara Chemical 
Division 

Food Machinery and 
Chemical Corporation 

Middleport, New York 

New England Plant and Warehouse 

Ayer, Mass. Tel. Spruce 2-2365 



CRANBERRY PICKING 
BOXES 

Shocks, or Nailed 

Let me repair your broken 

boxes — or repair them yourself. 

Stock Always on Hand 

F. H. COLE 

Tel. Union 6-3330 
North Carver, Mass. 



Cape Growers To 
Meet August 19 

Annual meeting of tiie Cape Cod 
Cranberry Growers' Association 
will be an all-day affair at the 
Cranberry Experiment Station, 
East Wareham, Tuesday, August 
19. Directors, meeting at the 
station drew up preliminary plans. 

There was no spring meeting of 
the organization this year and it 
is planned to make the annual 
event an outstanding one. Pro- 
gram is still in planning. 

Events, however, will include 
the usual business meeting, elec- 



! NEW 

t BURLAP BAGS 

I for your 



tion of officers, probably ap ex- 
hibit of cranberry equipment and 
a tour of new research develop- 
ments at the bog, preliminary crop 
estimate from C. D. Stevens, chief 
New England statistician and sev- 
eral speakers. 



FARM WITH 
CRANBERRY INCOME 

177 acre f^rm, 7 acres of 
cranberries. Ideal expansion 
possibilities. Ample water sup- 
ply. Modern buildings. Write 
for details and pictures. Carl 
Jensen, Warrens, Route 1, Wis- 
consin. 



I 



I 



PICKING MACHINES 

MADE TO ORDER 

I WHITMAN BAG CO. ! 

1 WHITMAN, MASS. 1 
1 Peter B. Berman 1 

! Tel. JUniper 3-6466 j 



CRANBERRIES 
is the only- 
publication 

of the industry 

which accepts 

advertising 



ELECTRICITY 

Works For You With 
The Throw Of A Switch 

It Is clean. Efficient - Releases 
Men For Other Bog Work. 

Plymouth County Electric Co. 



WAREHAM 
TEL. 200 



PLYMOUTH 

TEL. 1300 



One 



COMMUNICATION 

(Editor's Note: In view of the 
harvest season now approaching, 
and the mounting intex'est in effi- 
cient harvestig methods, the fol- 
lowing letter is published. It also 
gives some pertinent reasons 
from an experienced grower as to 
why Washington is progressing 
rapidly in production and produc- 
tion per acre. The writer has 
been averaging better than 100 
barrels to the acre.) 

Mr. Clarence J. Hall 
Editor, CRANBERRIES 
Wareham, Massachusetts 
Dear Sir: 

I observed your comments and 
also those of "Chuck" Doughty of 
the Washington State Experiment 
Station at Long Beach, on the ex- 
ceptional crop in Grayland in the 
past year, which were printed in 
the recent issues of CRANBER- 
RIES magazine. 

It brought to my mind the 
thought that perhaps the Western 
Picker has been a bit responsible 
for this higher production per 
acre, too, certainly not all because 
God and this weather is all pow- 
erful. But perhaps a small por- 
tion, as I shall attempt to point 
out. 

Since 1950 I have sold over 100 
Western Pickers in the Grayland 
area. They have been doing a 
very good job of harvesting the 
crops here, and all of them are 
still being used. In this time, I 
have heard men complain that this 
Western would ruin the Grayland 
area, and the same men came 
back a few years later and bought 
a machine of their own and are 
still getting crops and better 
crops than before. 

The reason for this is, I think, 
that the machine combs out the 
vines, thinning and pruning in a 
manner which very few growers 
were practicing before. This has 
been told to me by top men in 
cranberry growing in this area 
many times. 

My personal experience with the 
machine is such that I know it 
takes practice to pick a field of 
cranberries properly with it. And 

Two 



a man improves his technique sea- 
son after season. If he is on the 
ball, he gets busy and irons out 
the bumps and hollows and makes 
the job a lot simpler. He adopts 
his fertilizer program to the ma- 
chine by increasing the phosphate 
to improve the root strength and 
structure. He also adopts a pat- 



tern to pick by making sure first 
that it is the most efficient to- 
ward getting the berries from the 

field, and then he sticks to it year 
after year. And prior to com- 
mencing the harvest and twice a 
day during harvest, he makes 

Continued on Page 4 



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E. W. Goodhue Lumber Co., Inc. 






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EAST FREETOWN, MASS. 



CORN PRODUCTS REFINING COMPANY 



Makers of 



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... and these tine grocery products 
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NIAGARA instant starch * ARGO corn and gloss starches 

KASCO® dog food 



ler rinse 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Notes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 




The spring' frost season gave 
Massachusetts cranberry growers 
a parting shot on June 17. A num- 
ber of bogs dropped below 30° 
on that date and one bog temper- 
ature of 26.5° was reported. Frost 
damage this spring has been wide 
spread throughout the cranberry 
area and severe on some bogs, 
"Umbrella blooms" have been com- 
mon. However, in terms of pos- 
sible crop reduction, we have placed 
the damage at approximately 3 
percent of a normal crop, or possi- 
bly 16,000 to 17,000 barrels. 

A total of 19 frost warnings 
were released this spring, equalling 
the same number issued last 
spring. George Rounsville handled 
the frost forecasting work in his 
usual capable manner. We are 
also indebted to the weather ob- 
servers, telephone distributors, 
telephone operators, and the four 
radio stations for the important 
part they played in this service. 
Our new system for receiving the 
frost message, including the ex- 
planation of terms used in the 
warnings, has been well received 
by growers and will be continued 
this fall. 

Temperatures in June averaged 
approximately 3° per day below 
normal and rainfall was also bo- 
low normal. Incidentally, June 
and March are the only months 
out of the last eight when rainfall 
has been less than normal. We 
now have a total of 36.39 inches of 
rain for the first six months in 
1958, or within 8 inches of our 
yearly average. The low temper- 
atures experienced in June did add 
2 points to our final keeping qual- 
ity forecast, making a total of 4 
points out of a possible 18 which 
favor good keeping quality next 
fa'll — the same total as last year 
when conditions were far from 



satisfactory. It is apparent that 
the odds this year do not favor 
good keeping quality unless cor- 
rective steps are taken. Refer- 
ence is made of course to the 
proper use of fungicides. We are 
happy to report that at least 
2000 acres of bog in Massachusetts 
are being treated with fungicides 
this year, which is a tremendous 
accomplishment and a very tangi- 
ble indication of the growers in- 
terest in sound fruit. 

Insect activity in general has 
been the lightest in years, at least 
up to the fruitworm season. It 
is too soon to know the extent 
of damage that may result from 
the fruitworm, second brood of 
fireworm, new brood of weevil, 
and Sparganothis fruitworm but 
early reports (July 16) do not ap- 
pear to indicate an extensive in- 
festation of these pests. However, 
bogs should be checked every 3 or 
4 days for the above insects. We 
want to emphasize again the im- 
portance of using the hand lens in 
making egg counts of the fruit- 
worm and urge growers to use the 
insect net to determine the types 
and numbers of insects present so 
that proper control measures can 
be taken. A little extra effort with 
these tools will enable growers to 
properly time their pesticide treat- 
ments and often saves the expense 
of extra spray and dust applica- 
tions. Before leaving this subject 
of pest control, we would like to 
again stress the importance of 
heeding the warning outlined at 
the bottom of the insect and di- 
sease control chart. Too many 
growers are still exposing them- 
selves unnecessarily to parathion 
and related chemicals. 

A flash card was mailed to grow- 
ers in mid-July from their County 
Extension Service featuring some 



timely information on the use of 
amino triazole after harvest. It 
was pointed out that excellent con- 
trol of cutgrass, nutgrass, asters, 
panic grasses, and white violets 
can be obtained by applications 
of amino triazole after harvest. 
The recommended rate is 16 lbs. 
of 50% amino triazole in 300 gal- 
lons of water per acre, as indicated 
in the weed chart. Less damage 
to the vines will occur if treatment 
is delayed until at least 5 days 
after harvest. For best results 
these weeds should be green at 
time of treatment. A second weed 
note pointed out the value of 
treating ditch Aveeds with fuel oil 
and sodium arsenite during the 
summer months. Growers should 
keep in mind that sodium arsenite 
is a deadly poison. 

The committee appointed by the 
Cape Cod Cranberry Growers As- 
sociation to study the vandalism 
problem around bog properties has 
been active. As a result of a 
meeting with the Southeastern 
Massachusetts Police Chiefs As- 
sociation when the problem was 
discussed before their group, a 
special committee of police chiefs- 
was appointed to work with our 
group. A meeting was held re- 
cently and a number of suggestions 
were discussed. The police stres- 
sed again the importance of grow- 
ers reporting immediately each 
case of vandalism. The possibility 
of initiating special legislation that 
would result in heavier penalties 
for those apprehended was sug- 
gested. It was felt that equipment 
like batteries, etc., should be mark- 
ed by growers so they could be 
identified if necessary. A report 
of the committee's work will be 
given at the August meeting of 
the Cape Cod Cranberry Growers 
Association. 

The 71st Annual Meeting of the 
Cape Cod Cranberry Growers As- 
sociation will be held Tuesday, 
August 19, at the Cranberry Ex- 
periment Station beginning at 10 
a.m. The program will feature 
guided tours of the State Bog to 
inspect some of the insect, disease, 
and weed control work, the new 
seedling plantation, and experi- 
ments in water management. There 
will be a fine equipment display. 



Three 



The popular (jhicken-cranberry bar- 
beque will be served at noon. The 
afternoon program includes a re- 
port of Station staff members and 
will conclude with a crop report 
by Mr. C. D. Stevens. President 
Ferris Waite announces that all 
cranberry growers and their fam- 
ilies are cordially invited to attend 
this annual meeting. 

Communication 

Continued from Page 2 
sure the machine is oiled and ad- 
justed properly. 

Many factors are involved in 
this increased production. Prob- 
ably No. 1 is the many more 
sprinkler systems in use today 
than ten years ago. No. 2 is the 
better understanding of applying 
fungicides, and the ever-increas- 
ing attention given to this prob- 
lem by the growers and the state 
experiment stations to which the 
growers have been voluntarily 
contributing toward research on 
twig blight and rose bloom. 

No. 3 is the attention which has 
been directed toward the insect 
program in the area by growers 
and the county agents to the ex- 
tent that the insects are largely 
eliminated or isolated on aban- 
doned land. 

No. 4 is the much better under- 
standing and use of the fertilizers 
available on the market today. 
No. 5 is the increased attention to 
the drainage problem, and No. 6 
is the fact that we have learned 
to cultivate the bogs toward im- 
proving our mechanical picking 
process and at the same time re- 
duce the amount of drop, or ber- 
ries left on the ground. 
Sincerely, 
JOHN R. O'HAGAN 
Grayland, Washington 

Eldred S. Mosher 

Eldred S. Mosher, 74, cranberry 
grower, died at his home, Pine 
Ridge Rd., Buzzards Bay, Massa- 
chusetts Sunday, July 20th. He 
was the operator of the former 
Nye bogs at Head-of-the-Bay. 
These are properties of consider- 
able acreage. Prior to that he 
owned bogs in Carver. He had 

Four- 



lived there for 35 years. As well 
as growing cranberries he opera- 
ted a school bus line and did work 
for the street department. 

He was born in New Germany, 
Nova Scotia. He was a member 
of the Carver Grange. 

He leaves a widow, Harriet G. 



(Snow) Mosher; two daughters, 
Mrs. Doris E. Dunkler of Brock- 
ton, Mass., and Mrs. A. Ruth Wes- 
on of Carver; two sons, Eldred S. 
Jr., Carver and John Nealey of 
Nova Scotia. There are also 11 
grandchildren and four great- 
grandchildren. 



HAIL IS ON THE WAY 

WATCH OUT, MR. GROWER 

PROTECT YOUR PRODUCTION COSTS 

If you had a loan and lost your crop by hail you 
would still have to pay — let Hail Insurance do this 
for you. 

Our new policy protects the berries and vines against 
hail and fire from the time the water is off in the 
Spring until after harvest. 

CRANBERRY RATES ARE LOW 

For further information write or call : 

Alvin R. Reid 

Main Street, Hanson, Mass. 
Cypress 3-6336 Cypress 3-6441 



C. & L. EQUIPMENT CO. 

191 LEONARD STREET ACUSHNET, MASS. 

Cranberry Bog Service 

PRUNING FERTILIZING 

RAKING WEED TRIMMING 

Machinery Sales 

PRUNERS POWER WHEELBARROWS 

RAKES WEED TRIMMERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS - Large & Small 



For Further Information Call . . . 



F. P. CRANDON 
Rockwell 3-5526 



C. J. TRIPP 
Wyman 4-4601 



H. C. LEONARD 
Wyman 3-4332 



Issue of July 1958 - Vol. 23 No. 3 

Published monthly at The Courier Print Shop. Main St., Wareham, Massachusetts. Subscription $3.50 per year. 

Entered as second-class matter January 26, 1943, at the post-oflfice at Wareham, Massachusetts, under the Act of March 8, 1878 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

June Cold Month 

June went down in 1958 weath- 
er records as the coldest and 
gloomiest in at least ten years. 
Temperatures averaged 3.3 de- 
grees a day below the average. 
The chilliness of the month and 
of the entire spring had retarded 
cranberry growth by about ten 
days. 

Adds to Keeping Quality 

The cool June did, however, ac- 
complish one thing favorable, that 
is, it added two points to the keep- 
ing quality forecast. This now 
stands at four out of a possible 
16, the same low figure as last 
season. 

Rainfall Under Normal 

There was a reversal in the 
rainfall pattern for the first time 
in many months, total precipita- 
tion for 30 days being 2.88 as 
against the average 3.18. It 
seemed a much wetter month than 
it actually was, as a number of 
days had drizzle, fog or were 
cloudy. 

First Heat Wave 

June 28 brought the first heat 
wave of the season, which contin- 
ued into July. Temperatures 
averaged mostly in the 80s, with 
a high of 91 on July 2. There 
was high humidity, real tropical 
weather. 



N E W J E R S E Y 

Coolest June 
Weather records taken at the 
Cranberry and Blueberry Re- 
search Laboratory at New Lisbon 
show that this was the coolest 



June in the 29-year weather re- 
cording history at this place. 
The average temperature was 
66.8° F., which is 0.6° cooler than 
the previous average low for this 
month in 1955. The average 
maximum daily temperature was 
79.6°, the only time it has been 
below 80° in June at this locality. 
The average daily minimum tem- 
perature was 53.9°, also a new 
low. Indicative of the coolness of 
the month were^ the 15 days in 
which the maximum temperature 
failed to reach 80° and the 23 
nights during which the minimum 
was below 60°. ' 

Rainfall Less 
After seven consecutive months 
of above normal rainfall, the June 



»'<<" ^ ' 








total of 3.53 inches fell short of 
normal by 0.32 of an inch. For 
the first six months of the year 
the accumulated precipitation was 
31.25 inches, 10.46 inches more 
than normal and only about 12 
inches less than the usual amount 
for an entire year. 

A Frosty Month 
Cranberry growers had fre- 
quent sleepless nights throughout 
the month, as more than the usual 
number of frost alerts were is- 
sued. Several nights were on the 
margin of doing damage. On the 
morning of June 7, temperatures 
dropped to about 24° in some 
areas and some damage occurred, 
especially to bogs in the Toms 
River area. 



Aerial Spraying 
and Dusting 



^i"<.. '»'.» 



FertiSizing 
We Specialize 

In Parathion Applications 

both 
Sprays and Dusts 

MARSHFIELD AIRWAYS, INC. 

Marshfield, Mass. 

Thos. S. Weitbrecht (Whitey) Temple 4-7818 



I 

I 

I 

I 

■ 

I 
I 



five 



Sparganothis 

There is an unusually heavy 
first generation infestation of 
Sparganothis fruitworms through- 
out the State this year. Several 
growers are attempting airplane 
applications of Zineb for rot con- 
trol, 

WISCONSIN 

June Cool, Dry 

June was unusually cool and 
dry. The first three weeks of the 
month were exceptionally cool and 
dry. The last week brought war- 
mer temperatures and general 
rains over the cranberry areas, 
amounting to about one inch. Mean 
temperature for the month was 
62.5 degrees compared to an aver- 
age of 65.0 degrees. Maximum for 
the month was 87 degrees on the 
27th and minimum was 22 degrees 
on the 14th. Precipitation again 
varied throughout the growing 
areas, with all areas being below 
the normal of 4.63 inches. Defe- 
ciencies in precipitation for the 
month was from .50 to 1.25 inches. 
Defeciencies in precipitation for 
the year now measure 5.14 inches 
and ground water table remains 
1.75 feet below normal. The July 
extended outlook is for cool and 
wet in the north to near normal 
in the south. Normal temperature 
for July is 70.4 degrees and norm- 
al precipitation is 3.53 inches. A 
series of tornadoes on the evening 
of June 4 struck north western 
Wis. killing 28 persons, injuring 
350 and damaging over 500 homes. 
The storm missed the cranberry 
areas, but brought much needed 
rain to the northern marshes. Hail 
on the 15th in the north west and 
north east caused some damage to 
marshes, but losses were light 
due to late hook development. The 
cold spring and summer has cut 
the Wis. cherry crop to an esti- 
mated 40 ^r of normal and the 
apple crop about half of normal. 
All crops in the state have been 
retarded by the cool weather. 
Heavy frosts on the 5th and 14th 
seriously damaged the potato crop 
in north east Wis. There was 
some scattered frosts damage on 
marshes those nights, but overall 
damage was light. 



Fireworm 

First brood firew^orm control 
nxeasures were completed the end 
of the first week of June. Control 
appeared good in spite of adverse 
weather conditions. Fruitworm 
millers were delayed in emerging 
due to the weather. Second brood 
fireworm were also expected to be 
late, unless temperatures improv- 
ed. Little damage was expected 
from either. 

Vine Development 

Vine development picked up the 
last week of June. First blossoms 
were observed on June 8th. A 
good scattering of bloom was ap- 
pearing the latter part of the 
month on southern marshes, with 
very little bloom in the north. 
Full bloom was not expected in 
the south until July 15 and the 
north until July 20, or about a 
week to ten days later than norm- 
al. A high population of bumble 
bees was noted in the south and 
tame bees were being moved in 



to help supplement pollination. 
New plantings were starting to 
grow well the latter part of the 
month. Dalapon and Amino Ti-ia- 
zole was being swabbed on a large 
acreage with apparent good re- 
sults. 

Crop Prospects Good 
Crop prospects look good for 
Wis. this year based on the follow- 
ing reasons. Budding was from 
ten to twenty per cent better than 
the previous year. Most marshes 
had a fairly light crop last year, 
following the bumper 1956 crop. 
Insects are in good control, more 
fertilizer is being applied and 
drainage is being continually im- 
proved. Marshes are getting clean- 
er with the better use of chemi- 
cals, better drainage and picking 
machines. Early set looks very 
good, bumble bee population is 
up and the weather outlook, while 
not the best, appears promising. 
An estimated one hundred fifty 
Continued on Page 16 




FOR PREFABRICATED FLUMES 

SEE 

RUSSELL A. TRUFANT 

HYDRAULIC CONSULTANT 

PREFABRICATED FLUMES BOG RAILROADS 

UNION 6-3696 North Carver, Mass. 



Six 



Meeting Today's Conditions In 
Cranberry Industry By Mechanization 

by 
LOUIS SHERMAN 

With the high cost and scarcity of labor, the only way out is 
mechanization. This is the way I saw the future of the cranberry 
industry back in the 1940's. The two most costly operations were 
harvesting and sanding; these required mostly manual labor, which 
was very scarce. 

During the war years in 1942 with labor not available, I built a 
cranberry picking-machine. It was impossible to get any new material, 
so it was made up with whatever I found in the junk yard. It worked 
pretty well, considering the makeshift materials used. I thought it 
best to wait until after the war, wthen new materials would again be 
available, before trying to complete it. In 1947, Mr. Hillstrom brought 
the first Western Picker from the West Coast, Which I tried on a rental 
basis. It worked fairly well, and I thought it had great possibilities, 
after a few improvements which I suggested. 

For the 1950 harvesting, I house, removing vines and chaff, 



bought m|y first two Western 
Pickers. Eight scoopers promised 
to scoop for me, but on picking 
day, not one of them showed up. 
I was thankful that I had at least 
the two machines. With 50 acres 
of bog ready to pick and no scoop- 
ers, I really was in a spot. I kept 
the machines running continuously 
by staggering the lunch hour. I 
ran the machine while each opera- 
tor would have his lunch. As long 
as the vines were dry, we worked 
until dark and managed to get the 
crop harvested in time, with the 
help of a few week-end scoopers. 

Got 99% of Crop 

The following year I bought my 
third machine, so that I would 
never have to depend upon scoop- 
ers. There was, also, quite a sav- 
ing on harvesting costs. Last 
year I used seven Western Pickers 
and we picked 99% of our crop, 
dropping less than 1%. My bogs 
are now all trained for machine 
picking. My operators go through 
a training period before I allow 
them to go on the bogs. This is 
why we can pick almost all of the 
berries with minimum vine damage. 

The last year that my bogs were 
scooped, my cost for harvesting 
and pruning was $2.62 per barrel, 
while in 1957, my cost for the same 
operation was only 64 cents per 
barrel. This included picking, 
■wheeling-off, carting to screen- 



stacking berries in screenhouse, 
carting vines and chaff to dump, 
and pruning the bog. 

We wheel off with a special ja- 
lopy which was made in 1953 for 
this purpose. It is now used for 
all types of bog work (Cranber- 
ries Magazine — August 1954). It 
is used for fertilizing, spraying, 
cleaning ditches, and applying 
kerosene for weed control. When 
used for wheeling-off berries at 
picking time, we use four inter- 



changeable 4'x7' plywood bod- 
ies on our wheeling-off rig. 
Roller skate wheels mounted on 
the bodies mate with channel 
irons mounted on both the wheel- 
ing-off rig and on three of nny 
"Model A" sanding jalopies. At 
the edge of the bog, the loaded 
body is shifted to a Model A for 
the trip to the screenhouse. An 
empty body is put onto the wheel- 
ing-off truck, which then goes 
back onto the bog. This change 
takes about three minutes. 

At our screenhouse, we have a 
blower set up outside on a plat- 
form at the same height as the 
truck bodies, for easy handling 
of the bags of berries. After the 
chaff has been taken out, the ber- 
ries are boxed and go into the 
screenhouse on roller conveyor 
tracks. The empty boxes are also 
handled by conveyors. 

We also use this special truck 
for applying our fertilizer. With 
our 13 foot fertilizer spreader at- 
tachment, we can fertilize about 
20 acres in a day. This takes six 
hours for two men. 

New Type Spray Rig 

Last year we made a spray 
rig for concentrated sprays for 
this same jalopy and it did a 
beautiful job. It only takes five 





Brewer & Lord 








INSURANCE 






40 

ARTHUR K. 


Broad Street, Boston, M 


ass. 
lOULE 




POPE HORACE H. S 


CONVERSE 


HILL CHARLES M. 


CUTLER 




WILLIAM B 


. PLUMER EBEN A. THACHER 




ROBERT A. 


SULLIVAN HERBERT R. 


LANE 




EDWARD H 


. LEARNARD VINCENT M. 


WILSON 




Serving 


JOHN B. CECILL, JR. 


Englan 


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the People of New 




Since 1859 







Se?vefl 



minutes actual spraying time to 
spray an acre of bog. This re- 
quires three men, the driver, and 
two men to move the plank from 
section to section and to refill 
the 50 gal. tank after every twc 
acres. 

Most of the sections on our bogs 
are four rods wide, therefore, we 
made a folding boom with a thirty- 
three foot spread, so that a section 
is completed in one trip around. 
The boom is in three separately 
controlled sections with a quick- 
acting master control valve. We 
can do a five, fourteen, nineteen 
or thirty-three foot swath. The 
sprayer has a nylon roller low- 
pressure pump, run by a five-horse 
Briggs and Stratton engine. We 
use our 200 gal. high pressure 
sprayer to mix the spray and to 
supply the smaller sprayer. Last 
year I put Zineb (fungicide) in 
two applications over all my bogs. 
The labor cost was only $3.24 per 
acre. 

We have a special body that .ve 
use when we wheel ofl!" in clean- 
ing ditches. This is made of a 
sheet of plywood with 8 inch 
sides and one end. It has the same 
roller skate wheels underneath for 
easy dumlping. Mornings when 
the bog is wet or on rainy days 
when there is no picking, my men 
clean the ditches, putting the dirt 
in piles on the bog. After it dries, 
we take it off in the jalopy. All 
we have to do to dump it is to pull 
out a pin and roll o'T the body. 
Last fall, we cleaned about 2V2 
miles of ditches by this method 
at a very reasonable cost. For 
crossing ditches and going on and 
off the bog, Ave r^e 2::" i-^h oak 
plank, 12 feet long. We carry 
loads up to about 1500 lbs. Using 
this machine on the bog for the 
past five years has s'.iown that very 
little damage is done to the vines, 
as long as you do not go over tlie 
same tracks more than twice. 
When cri>ssing ditches and going 
off the bog, we move the plank 
every two or three trips. 

Full Crop After Sanding 

Bog sanding is done by Model A 
Fords that back out onto the bog, 
loaded, on 8 inch plank. Trucks 




Showing Spray Rig on Bog. 




Rig with Nested Boom, Ready for Transporting. 




Controls of Rig, with pump assembly. 



Eight 



must stay on the plank, othei'wise 
there is vine injury. After the 
sand is spread, I have men rake 
up all the uprights, so that I get 
a full crop and the picking ma- 
chines can get all the berries in 
the same season. Using a small 
four-tooth rake, which is very 
light and easy to handle, the vines 
come right up out of the sand. 
Last year we sanded in early May 
and in several sections, I picked 
over a barrel to a rod, in the fall. 



When sanding, we try to fill in all 
low places and raise the edges 
near the ditches, so that it will be 
easier to pick all the berries. Do- 
ing a cost study on sanding last 
fall, I found that it cost $20 to $30 
per acre extra to raise the edges 
of ditches and fill the low spots. 
I found that the only way that 
we can economiically grow cran- 
berries and maintain our bogs 
under present conditions is by 
mechanizing all bog operations. 







Modified Western Three-Wheeled Western Picker 




Close-Up of Spray Rig. 



(Photos' Allan Sherman) 



Getsinger Picker 

Regarding tftie new Dana-Get- 
singer ("Wisconsin") Picker, Mr. 
Dana informs us the thought be- 
hind producing a riding model 
picker was to get away from the 
large amount of walking required 
to harvest a crop with the large 
machine was that it required ap- 
proximately 3.S miles walking in 
the vines to harvest an acre. Then 
in Wisconsin, the machine has to 
be returned to the starting end of 
the bed, either under its own pow- 
er or by means of a trailer. 

In case of its own power, this 
means another 3.3 miles for the 
operator. Therefore to harvest 
50 acres of berries means walking 
a minimum of 165 miles to a maxi- 
mum, of 330. 

Wisconsin is rapidly retraining 
the vines so it can harvest both 
AVays and hold walking to a mini- 
mum- By doing so this also in- 
creases production from a given 
machine. 

Another feature which was in- 
corporated into the machine was 
the means of raking the ditch 
edges by offsetting the picking 
mechanism, either to the right or 
to the left. Ordinarilly the aver- 
age grower has to leave from six 
to twelve inches of berries along 
the ditch edge, and then either 
harvesting by hand or not harvest- 
ing at all. This one feature alone, 
says Mr. Dana, will pay for the 
machine in time. A strip twelve 
inches wide by eight miles long is 
an acre. Producing 100 barrels 
per acre more, another 100 barrels 
may be added to the grower's 
income from the ditches. It i.^ 
surprising how many miles of 
ditches there can be in a bog. 

The weight of the machine is 
925 pounds carried on 6-570-500-8 
t'res so the machine is able to go 
over very soft ground, "providing 
it is well vined over. The machine 
is very manuervable in the vines 
and easily controlled for depth. 
The same machine will harvest 
either wet or dry. For some con- 
ditions dry there could be installed 
a smaller vine roller to hold down 
the vines nearer to the point of 
raking. 



J^ins 



Believes Massachusetts Cranberries Are 
In Volume Basically The Best Quality 

by 

Clarence J. Hall 

Alvin R. Reid, Who Produces Better Than 100 BBls. to Acre 

Has Faith In Industry and Especially His Area 

Meet Alvin R. Reid of Hanson, Massachusetts. He is now presi- 
dent of Cranberry Credit Corporation, subsidiary of National Cran- 
berry Association, succeeding Frank Crandon, president of NCA. He 
was recently re-elected vice-president of the South Shore Cranberry 
Club, and as this is his second term in second place he will presumably 
be president in another year. 

He is a realtor, in the insurance business, one of his specialties 
being cranberry hail insurance, notary public, was one of the organ- 
izers of a bank, is active in civic affairs, and finally is one of the bet- 
ter smaller cranberry growers. 



By better grower of Massachu- 
setts, we mean he averages 
around 100 ban-els per acre on his 
bogs which total about ten. They 
are in Hanson and adjacent Hali- 
fax and his plantings consist of 
Howes, Blacks, a few odd varieties 
including a little known old var- 
iety, the Silver Lake. This is a 
large, richly-colored fruit, when 
fully ripe, solid in content and be- 
tween the round and oblong in 
shape. It is not too tart, and this 
is the berry he sometimes gives 
away to friends to demonstrate 
the kind of fine fruit Massachu- 
setts can naturally grow. It gets 
its name from the fact his Hali- 
fax bog is on Silver Lake in that 
town. 

Mr. Reid, althougn now primar- 
ily a businessman is, one who has 
always been familiar with and is 
very fond of agriculture and es- 
pecially cranberry growing. He 
holds some interesting views on 
cranberry subjects, including cran- 
berry cultivation. For one thing, 
he says: 

Faith In Massachusetts 

"I have faith in the cranberry 
industry and its future, particu- 
larly in Massachusetts." 

That, as we all know, is flying 
to the contrary in the view of 
many who are pessimistic as to 
the whole industry outlook and 
particularly that of Massachusetts. 
He believes, and seems to be 
proving that good yields can be 
produced on bogs of the Bay State. 
He agrees, of course, that many 
methods will have to be changed, 
he fully accepts the now common 

Ten: 



conviction that mechanization in 
as many phases of cultivation as 
is possible is absolutely necessary. 
He really places the foundation 
for his faith in Massachusetts, in 
the following, even though he is 
aware that every grower, every- 
where believes the berries of his 
own area the best; 

"I am certain that Massachu- 
setts cranberries, as a whole, are 
by volume basically the best cran- 
berries grown anywhere. I think 
the Massachusetts crops taken as 
a whole are fundamentally super- 
ior cranberries." 

Does Much Of Own Work 

Mr. Reid is really a shirt-sleeve 
grower, who does as much of his 
own work as he can possibly find 
time to do. He is often assisted 
by his son, Raymond, and has to 
hire some help from time to time. 
His bogs are harvested mechanic- 
ally and he has both a Western 
and a Darlington, but says, "Don't 
ask me which I like better. With 
machine harvesting you've got to 
have an operator who really knows 
what he is doing." 

He does his own frost protection, 
water for his bog at Silver Lake, 
which is an old property, being 
pumped on and then put back into 
the lake, (which is a municipal 
water supply) by gravity. His 
bog in Hanson, he built himself 
in 1946. On this piece of 2V2 
acres he has cropped as much as 
517 barrels in a year. 

The bogs are peat and some 
hard-pan sand bottoms. He sands 
light, one third each year. He be- 
lieves in running his bogs dry and 



keeping them well drained. 

He says he spends so much time 
at his bogs, especially at Silver 
Lake that his family often com- 
plains. The bog at the Lake is lo- 
cated some distance off any main 
road and has a screenhouse. "I 
won't really say that cranberries 
is a hobby with me because it 
isn't. I'm in the business for a 
profit the same as anybody else. 
But I enjoy bog work so much it 
is almost in the nature of a hobby." 
He is much addicted to agriculture 
in any form. For a time he com- 
mercially grew raspberries at his 
home in Hanson where he has six 
acres of land. 

Should Know Cranberry Soils 

A weakness in cranberry culture, 
he is firmly convinced, is there has 
not as yet been enough study of 
cranberry soils. "A thorough 
knowledge of the soil is vital, yet 
is a neglected field in cranberry 
growing. That's not common 
sense. Where do cranberries come 
from? Why, the soil is the base. 
If we really don't understand the 
soils how can we expect to grow 
the maximum barrels per acre ? 
We must know what to feed the 
soil and when. Furthermore every 
bog almost presents an individual 
problem. A grower must know his 
own bog." 

Mr. Reid was born in Hanson 
and attended schools there — to 
grammar school. His father died 
when he was fifteen and he had 
to go to work. He recalls his first 
job with the Wheeler Reflector 
company, or Shell Factory at Han- 
son. This was during the first 
World War. His weekly salary 
for six days a week was $6.15, 
"and in those days I felt almost 
rich on that." 

He later worked for the John 
Foster Lumber Company at Han- 
son, where his father had been 
employed until he suffered the loss 
of a leg. He was with that comp- 
any for 15 years, finally being 
credit manager. In that capacity 
he did considerable travelling in 
southeastern Massachusetts. As 
a side line he began to sell in- 
surance. 

He then obtained a drawing ac- 



count position with a manufactur- 
er of paper products, including 
drinking cups. He covered a good 
deal of area in that, one of his 
main routes being down over the 
Cape where he sold to golf clubs 
and schools. He won prizes for 
salesmanship, but felt he was 
wearing out himself, his car and 
his resources and getting nowhere. 
He decided to make insurance 
and real estate his business. This 
was in the early thirties, not a 
time of prosperity as those in 
business will remember. Today he 
has built up a substantial business. 
He was an organizer of the Han- 
son Credit Union, a banking or- 
ganization, now a branch of the 
Rockland Trust Company. His 
office shares a block with the bank 
on Main street, opposite the Nat- 
ional Cranberry Association main 
office. He said he was told that 
in such a small community as the 
Hanson area a banking businsss 
could not be built up and sustained. 
But when taken over by the Rock- 
land trust he said it had deposits 
of nearly half a million, $446,000, 
and was doing a business of a 
million dollars. 

Cranberries and Hail 

The insurance business is one of 
personalized services and it has its 
specialties. One of these which 
he has developed is hail insurance. 
He has applied it to cranberries in 
particular. Hail losses in Massa- 
chusetts are perhaps higher than 
is realized generally. 

Cranberries, he pointed out are 
perhaps the only major crop on 
which loans can be obtained which 
are net covered by hail insurance, 
at the present time. For instance, 
he said you can't get a loan on a 
Maine potato crop without this in- 
surance against a sudden crop 
wipe-out. 

In southeastern Massachusetts, 
he says, charts and experience bear 
out there is a definite hail belt, ex- 
tending from about Acushnet, 
through a portion of Wareham, 
Carver, Plymouth to Duxbury and 
Scituate. This belt is somewhat 
irregular ,but it apparently exists. 



More Hail Storms? 

Reluctantly, he is coming to be- 
lieve, he says, that more hail may 
be expected than in the past. He 
is convinced the weather pattern 
has changed, at least locally in 
Southeastern Massachusetts. He 
has noted the sudden, violent and 
localized rains of the past few 
years. "You used to be able to 
trace the pattern of a storm pretty 
accurately. Of course there 
would be places where the storm 
would end abruptly. But we have 
had an awful lot of freakish local 
storms — one small area getting 
rain, another nearby none, and the 
storms seem to skip around. Such 
conditions can produce hail." 

He referred to the long, extreme 
drought in Massachusetts of early 
summer last year. He said it 
seemed time after time there would 
be rain, but none came. When it 
did rain, the precipitation varied 
a great deal from place to place. 
One small area got a lot, while 
another relatively close by got 
none. "I'm convinced we are en- 
tering into a changing weather 
pattern." 

Returning directly to cranber- 
ries, Reid places the cost of pro- 
ducing a barrel of cranberries in 
Massachusetts at $10.00, "if every 
expense and the investment is fig- 
ured in." He feels this "base" 
cost should first be considered in 
setting prices for pi'ocessed or 
fresh fruit. He feels this should 
be the basic point from which to 
start up, allowing a grower his 
costs and a reasonable profit. Not 
working from the top, the whole- 
sale price down, the grower get- 
ting only what is left after all pro- 
cessing and marketing costs have 
been deducted. 

Solution In Juice 

He, like many others, feel there 
can be a solution to the surplus in 
cranberry juice, if a sufficient 
quantity is made and marketed. 
"The demand seems to be there," 
he says. 

Mr. Reid is a Mason, past master 
of Wampatuck Lodge of Hanson 
and a member of Aleppo Temple. 



He is a member of, and helped oi' 
ganize Hanson Kiwanis club. He 
is a member of the Old Colony 
Sportsmen's club and of Massachu- 
cetts Horticultural Society. Cur- 
rently he is chairman of Hanson 
Industrial Development Commiss- 
ion and a member of the town 
planning board. He is chairman of 
Hanson Library trustees and a 
director trustee of Cobb Library, 
a privately endowed unit. 

He is, of course, a member of 
South Shore Cranberry Club, of 
Cape Cod Cranberry Growers' As- 
sociation and serves or has serv- 
ed on various cranberry commit- 
tees. His sport is fishing, fresh 
water, especially salmon and trout. 



CRANBERRY PLANT TOURS 
NOW EVERY WEEK DAY 

More than 500 vacationists have 
visited the Ocean Spray cranberry 
canning plant on Route 28 in 
Wareham ,(Mass.) each Friday 
since the guided tours began on 
July 11th. As a consequence, 
Ocean Spray has extended its pub- 
lic invitation to every week day, 
Monday through Friday, from 1:00 
to 3:00 p.m. Tours on Fridays 
will continue from 9:00 to 11:00 
a.m. as well as 1:00 to 3:00 p.m. 

Ocean Spray's guest list already 
includes visitors from New Eng- 
land states. New York, New Jer- 
sey, Tennessee, Washington, Ore- 
gon, Michigan, Virginia, Pennsyl- 
vania and California, besides in- 
terested residents of the Bay State 
itself. 

Following the tour of the cran- 
berry from freezer to cranberry 
sauce, special interest is shown in 
the cooking rooms where large 
stainless steel kettles cook togeth- 
er in quantity the simple recipe of 
cranberries, sugar syrup and water 
in much the same way as the home- 
maker does in her own kitchen, 
even to checking its doneness with 
the spoon test. There the analogy 
stops, however, as the filling, cap- 
ping, cooling, labelling and pack- 
ing for shipment present one con- 
tinuous automatic production line 
that takes but 11 minutes from 
empty can to shipping carton. 



READ 

Cranberries 
Magazine 



Eleven 



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• STURDILY BUILT 

• MADE IN SEPARABLE 
UNITS SO TRACTOR 
CAN BE ADAPTED 
TO OTHER WORK 

• PICKING UNIT 
CAN READILY BE 

OFF-SET ONE 
FOOT FOR RAKING 
THE DITCH EDGES 




A NEW DEVELOPMENT IN 
CRANBERRY HARVESTING! 



WHY WALK IF YOU 
CAN RIDE? 

A SPECIAL TRACTOR UNIT 

WITH THE GETSINGER 
RETRACTO - TOOTH PICKING 

UNIT MOUNTED ON IT. 

A VERY MANEUVERABLE 
UNIT 



Riding Type Picker 



DANA MACHINE & SUPPLY CO. 

MACHINE WORK TRANSMISSION SUPPLIES WELDING 

nth SOUTH AVE. WISCONSIN RAPIDS, WISCONSIN 



Twelve 



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^Mit^ajais 



ISSUE OF 
VOL. 23 



JULY 1958 
- NO. 3 



O^*^-^*'*'**^'*'"^^ 



ATTEND, JOIN YOUR ASSOCIATION 

UNTIL there is an over-all national 
cranberry growers organization of some 
kind, or a Cranberry Institute, in which 
growers are more directly concerned the 
best common meeting places are the gath- 
erings of the state organizations. Such as 
the annual meeting of Cape Cod Cran- 
berry Growers' Association which meets 
at the Experiment Station East Wareham, 
Tuesday, August 19th. 

These meetings are usually fairly well 
attended, but attendance could be larger. 
And to the greater advantage of everj'- 
grower and to the industry itself. Those 
in charge of the Cape meeting, and the 
meetings of other areas work hard to pro- 
vide an interesting, informative program. 
The grower who attends, gains. 

There should be larger paid member- 
ship, the dues are not drastic, even for 
these distressed times. With larger mem- 
bership such associations could speak with 
more force on matters pertaining to cran- 
berries, legislation, research or whatever. 
Important as are the Massachusetts area 
club (or other clubs) meetings, they do not 
take the place of a state association. 

Attend your state association, and if 
not a member, join, if at all possible. 

AGRICULTURE, BIG BUSINESS 

AGRICULTURE has become big busi- 
ness. Secretary Ezra Taft Benson recently 
made some statements regarding the im- 
portance of agriculture in the nation's 
economy. 

He said : agriculture buys more pe- 
troleum than any other industry. Farmers 
take 6yo million tons of finished steel and 
enough raw rubber to put tires on nearly 
6 million cars a year. Sixteen percent of 
the gross freight revenue is from agricul- 
tural products. 



PRODUCING FOR LESS 

THERE are dire and pessimistic predic- 
tions that Massachusetts cranberry acreage 
may become much less than it has been — 
maybe no more than 7 or 8 thousand acres, 
rather than the present 13,500. That 
would be less than in 1900. Should there 
be fewer acres, as we feel at the present 
moment is inevitable, there will be fewer 
growers. 



Editor and Publisher 
CLARENCE J. HALL 

EDITH S. HALI^-Associate Editor 
Wareham, Massachusetts 



CORRESPONDENTS— ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 
Wisconsin Rapids 



Washington — Oregon 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash. 



Massachusetts 

DR. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass. 



New Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 

Pemberton, New Jersey 



We would predict, that all things con- 
tinuing equal one of the surviver-growers 
will be Louis Sherman of Massachusetts, 
who has written an article for us this 
month. It concerns skilled, foresighted 
mechanization at which he seems a master. 

More mechanization as a must has been 
talked about for several years now. 
"Louis" is among those who have done 
something about it. He is cutting down 
his costs. He has tackled the problem, 
successfully from the angle that if the 
market price of cranberries cannot be 
made to rise, a grower to stay in business 
must produce for less. 

Thirteen 



Communication 

Open letter to growers —^ 
^ ' .from^a grower 

Let us give serious thought as 
to whether we are going to lose 
money again this Fall. This, after 
all our worry work, money in- 
vested and tax bills. We pay 
for what we buy. 

We are in a mess and might as 
well admit it and do something 
about this besides talk. 

Although most of our carryover 
is out of the freezers, the pipe 
lines of distribution are clogged 
with processed berries and present 
sales are sluggish. 

The coming crop probably will 
be 1,250,000 barrels. In the near 
future we face 1,500,000 barrels. 
The prospect for any year of less 
than 1,000,000 are remote. The 
fresh fruit industry is dying, slow- 
ly but surely. 

The super markets and the 
"super-super" miarkets are ex- 
panding frozen and processed food 
sections and contracting fresh fruit 
and produce space. 

Consequently, I will now discuss 
some of your problems if you 
intend to sell fresh berries through, 
a Co-op or "independent" selling 
agent or shipper. 

Both you and your selling agency 
face some tough problems to- 
gether but they can be licked. 

_ 1. About 707<- of all fresh ber- 
ries are eaten in just two days 
a year, Thanksgiving and Christ- 
mas. 

2. iNo other fresh fruit in the 
world is eaten nearly three months 
after harvesting. 

3. No other fruit is so abused in 
getting it ready to be shipped — 
cranberries are bounced (no im- 
provement in 50 years) in screen- 
ing — mechanical pickers bruise the 
fruit — cello bags hasten tne deter- 
ioation — in shipping, warehousing 
and retailing berries are often 
subjected to a sudden change in 
temperature of 20 to 40 degrees 
from "refrigeration" to store tem- 
perature. 

4. Most wholesalers and brokers 
could live happily if they never 
liandled cranberries — the volume 
and price insecurity considered. 

5. Most Supers are not excited 
about stocking cranberries before 
Nov. 1 to 10 and want very few- 
Dec. 10 to 24. 

6. Several presidents of leading- 
chains think cranberry sellers are 
crazy to reduce prices drastically 
every October. They protect them- 
selves from inventory losses by 
buying lightly until Nov. 10 and 
our "opening sales" Sept. 12-30 
are getting smaller every year. 

7. "Early Whites", are shipped 
every year in the mad rush to be 
first in some market, or to reduce 

Fourteen 



the shipping lag of Wisconsin 
harvest before the Cape harvest of 
early varieties. Housewives who 
buy their berries are disgusted for 
the balance of the season. They do 
not have to buy cranberries to 
feed the family nutritious meals. 

8. I have personally seen in 
our 100 markets, fresh berries, 
usually cello-packed, in stores with 
20 to 407r unsound berries per 
pound. Being sure berries are 
9T/f sound at time of shipment is 
not enough. The housewife is 
only interested in the quality at 
her store and at the time she 
picks up the package and decided 
whether to buy fresh cranberries 
or something else that day. Let's 
face it, usually she gets a more 
consistent, better quality in the 
can. 

9. The sale of fresh cranberries 
is poor when the weather is warm. 
Sept. and Oct. are warmer months 
where most people live in the USA 
than was true 5 years ago. 

10. Just as "bad money drives 
out good money" so do poor-keep- 
ing quality cranberries drive qual- 
ity growers crazy. 

11. Unless the housewife wants 
to cook sauce to go with seldom 
served turkey or with chicken, 
wihat is the housewife supposed to 
do with fresh cranberries in Sept., 
Oct., and the first two weeks of 
Nov. while most of your berries 
are setting: in the chaff shriveling 
away? The only recipe I have 
seen using a fair quantity of cran- 
berries is the orange-cranberry 
relish, and thei-e simply are no 
good quality, reasonably priced 
oranges in the stores during Sept. 
and Oct. 

I don't care whether you agree 
or disagree with these eleven pro- 
blems as long as you start thinking 
and decide to do something. After 
all you own part if you are in a 
Co-op or he is your employee, if 
you use an "independent". 

Now he may not consider him- 
self as your employee but in either 
event if you want to make money 
on your 1958 crop sold fresh. I 
would suggest you discuss with 
him NOW. not in Sept. or Oct. 
the following: 

1. Are your berries going to be 
sold at a profit — or at least some 
of them ? For most groKvers, a 
?4.00 per box of 24 packages or 
$16. per barrel selling price, 
f-o.b. his shipping point is the 
break-even pz-ice for you. Actual- 
ly the cost to produce should be 
$4.25 with 25c a box or $1 a 
barrel spent on some type of ad- 
vertising. 

2. Why should you pay your 
"independent" selling agency the 
same price as you pay him for 
obtaining a profitable price for 
your berries? In 1957 you paid, 
for example $1 a barrel for just 



selling. 

Would you be happy to pay $2.00 
per barrel in order to get S20.00 
for your berries instead of pay- 
ing, as you did last year, $1.00 
to get $12.00 or $10.00 per bar- 
rel ? If he sells your berries be- 
low your cost of $16.00 does he 
really earn $1.00 by "selling" them 
for you? Last year he got his 
$1.00 whether you got $12 or $6 
for your berries. 

3. Ask the man you entrust with 
selling your "fresh" berries if he 
always sells them f.o.b. his ship- 
ping point or does he "absorb" 
some of the transportation in his 
"delivered" price, or place your 
berries on "consignment" in a 
market (to draw storage charges 
while the buyers let you cool your 
heels), or does he send them to a 
market already gutted with berries 
from other shippers (to consign- 
ment price cost spreads to other 
markets hundreds of miles away). 
Ask him, because you pay the bill, 
not your selling agent. He gets 
his $1.00 anyway. 

4. Does your selling agent have 
an underselling policy? Does he 
say to the large buyer, "Whatever 
the Co-op's price is, mine is 25c 
a box ($1 a berrel) less, just 
name it." (or 10c a box less the 
first time the market is sti-ong). 
Does he tell the buyer that he 
ships superior fruit and tell you 
he must get an inferior price be- 
cause "we do no advertising". 

If two shippers chose to have 
an "underselling" policy, or other 
shippers decide they must "meet" 
the price of the underseller, a 
price war is started all over the 
country within an hour; a few 
berries are moved; the buyer be- 
comes cautious. 

In my opinion, the biggest single 
reason for poor returns to growers 
everywhere the last few years has 
been sloppy selling and the worst 
offender who starts it all is the 
"underseller". Even a school boy 
could sell something in demand 
with a consistent "underselling 
policy" and a telephone. 

What do YOU think? What 
arrangement do YOU have with 
your selling agent? What are 
YOU contributing to education of 
people to enjoy fresh cranberries ? 

If we all just grow them and 
fail to THINK about SELLING 
them at a PROFIT, and fail to 
DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT for 
FALL 1958; your pocket book 
will bleed again. 

I am not for or against " inde- 
pendents"; for or against any 
particular Co-op. I am for making 
money again. I hope you are too! 



Perley Merry 
S. Duxbury and 



Marion, 
Mass. 



— Statements Concerning Western Picker — 



Since using my two Western 
Pickers my crops have increased 
every year. The machines have 
cut down labor costs in picking 
and eliminated all labor costs of 
pruning and raking the bogs. 

Elimination of walking has in- 
creased the growth of uprights 
very remarkably. I have used 
Westerns for four years. 
Tony Lenari 
Main Street 
- North Plymouth 



Western Growers Supply 
Grayland, Washington 
Gentlemen: 

I have used the Western Picker 
in harvesting my cranberry fields 
and some of my neighbors' fields 
since 1949. I didn't like the West- 
ern Picker at first but felt com- 
pelled to use it because of the 
high cost of operating the vacuum 
machine and the low returns on 
berries. By 1951 I had gained 
enough confidence to try a newer 
model, which I still use today. 

I pick my land as clean as with 
the vacuum machine, w'hich I be- 
lieve is less than two per cent. 
Except for breaking an occasional 
vine roller spring, I have had very 
little maintenance to pay for. 

I believe the Western helps to 
maintain production and that you 
have to learn to operate it and 
train your field for harvesting with 
it. In the nine seasons I have har- 
vested with the Western, I have 
had an average crop of about 150 
barrels per acre. The berries have 
gone on the fresh market when- 
ever they wanted fresh berries and 
have not been returned for any 
reason. 

Sincerely, 
Oscar Heino 



Western Growers Supply 
Grayland, Washington 
Gentlemen: 

I borrowed my neighbor's new 
Western Picker in 1951 and tried 
it on about % of an acre. Think- 
ing it tore up my vines too much, 
I never used the machine for four 
years afterwards. However, I 
staked that % out and noticed it 
produced more berries in the suc- 
ceeding years. 

Then, in 1955, I got my neigh- 
bor's Western again and picked 
that % acre again and about 
another Vs. In 1956, I picked this 
ground with a Western and enough 
more to make up an acre and %. 
In the winter of '56 and '57, I 
got a demonstrator and trained 
another % of an acre. In 1957, I 
bought a new Western Picker that 
fall. I picked 3% acres, 1^/4 acres 
which had not been trained or 
picked. 

(ADV.) 



It seemed that the machine went 
through this vine, which was 7 
years old, easier than the older 
vines which I had turned in the 
training process. 

The machine performed satis- 
factorily and seemed to have more 
power than the older model. The 
only difficulty I experienced was 
in an area where I had excessive 
top runner and had never been 
trained with a Western before. 

I wish the machine had a high 
speed for deadheading around ends. 
The machine picked very clean in 
the trained ai^eas got 99% of the 
berries, quite a bit cleaner than 
my suction picking. 

Sincerely, 
Ralph Williams 



Western Growers Supply 
Grayland, Washington 
Gentlemen: 

I first used the Western Picker 
on my parent's farm. It was a 
machine that he had bought new 
in 1951. 

When I purchased the property 
on which we now live, there was a 
1949 model Western in the deal. 
In trying to use it to harvest the 
first year, I experienced some en- 
gine difficulty so borrowed my 
parent's machine to finish. Then 
I sold the old machine for $400.00 
and bought a new 1956 machine, 
which gave me a lot of trouble to 
begin with. It was too slow and 
kept losing berries. 

After we had speeded the ma- 
chine up, took off the right front 
wheel, and cut the side teeth back, 
it reduced the plugging to zero. 
I was able to start picking in four 
inches of water at the low end 
and continue on up to the dry vines 
without difficulty. Because the 
heavy rains that fall flooded one 
end, this was necessary. 

In the three years I have been 
here, this farm has averaged 120 
barrels per acre, and it has been 
harvested entirely by Western 
since 1949. 

If the two side teeth were still 
the original length and tied into 
the machine frames like the 1951 
model was, and it was equipped 
with a two-speed so I'd have a 
higher speed for deadheading 
around with, I would be perfectly 
satisfied. It picks very clean and 
has lots of power. 

Sincerely, 

Arnold M. Perttula 



Western Growers Supply 
Grayland, Washington 
Gentlemen: 

In 1951 I bought a new Western 
Picker. My land had been picked 
with a Western for two seasons 
prior to that on "custom picked" 

(ADV.) 



basis. 

I experienced some difficulty in 
establishing the most efficient pat- 
tern to follow because of some 
new bog which lay at one end of 
my field. However, after observ- 
ing how the picker went through 
the five-year-old vines in 1949 and 
their ability to produce even 
though combed backward, so to 
speak, I was picking all of it by 
Western in 1952. 

The only trouble I have had 
with the Western was in 1956 when 
I had the new type chain conveyor 
installed, and it damaged the ber- 
ries to the extent that they were 
unacceptable to the fresh market. 
In 1957, the angle metal lug 

clamps were replaced with the 
sheet metal lug clamps,and this 
eliminated the damage to the 
berries. 

The Western operates very 
economically, and I would have to 
use my imagination to say I left 
as much as 1% on the ground. 

Sincerely, 

Clare Reid 



Western Growers Supply 
Grayland, Washington 
Gentlemen: 

My neighbor and I purchased a 
Western Picker in 1950. In 1953 
I sold out my interest to him and 
got a new 1953 model Western 
Picker. 

I have a four-acre field which I 
pick with the help of one old man, 
who I'uns the track car up and 
down the railroad. We pick this 
field of between 400 and 500 bar- 
rels in five days. 

Since first starting with the 
Western in 1950, I have averaged 
well over 100 barrels per acre, 
and my berries have been readily 
accepted for fresh market sales. 

If the Western Picker hadn't 
come along, I would walk off and 
leave this patch. 

Sincerely, 
Emil Hegre 



Western Growers Supply 
Grayland, Washington 
Gentlemen: 

I started using the Western Pick- 
er in 1949, and I don't intend 
changing to any other type of 
picker. 

The oldest piece of my land was 
planted 22 years ago, yet the farm 
seems to be producing just as good 
as ever, averaging about 117 bar- 
rels per year per acre, and I got 
my largest crop ever after picking 
with the Western for five years. 
Sincerely, 
Uno Wilen 

(ADV.) 

Fifteen 



RVIN 



WISaONSIN GROWER 



Fresh From The Fields 
WISCONSIN 

Continued from Page 6 
new acres are expected to come 
into production this year. In view 
of the above, it is reasonable to 
expect Wis. can expect a better 
crop than last year. 
Deaths 

Theodore W. Olson, 56, presi- 
dent of the Nekoosa Foundry and 
Machine Works since 1952 died 
June 12th. Mr. Olson was adver- 
tising manager for the Wis. Rapids 
Daily Tribune and later plant 
manager for the Huffman Print- 
ing Co., before becoming associa- 
ted with the foundry in 1930. He 
was vice-president and a director 
of the DuBay Cranberry Co., a 
director of the Nekoosa-Edwards 
State Bank, Eau Claire Consistery 
and Rotary and Cranmoor Skeet 
Clubs and honorary president of 
the City Point Hunting Club. Sur- 
vivors include his wife, a daugh- 
ter, a son, a grandson, his mother 
and three brothers. 

H. F. Duckart, 74, Wis. Rapids, 
passed away July 3 at his home. 
He was manager of the Jacob 
Searls Cranberry Co., Cranmoor 
and for the past eleven years pres- 
ident of the Midwest Cranberry 
Co-operative. He also was a past 
president of the Wis. State Cran- 
berry Growers Association, 



Portable Sprinkler 
Irrigation 

Sales, services, and engi- 
neering information for 
complete frost protection. 
Save your crop and save 
money too. Always have 
a complete line of new 
systems for sale, also fre- 
quently used systems and 
rental systems. 

Eric Franke 

R.R. 5, County Trunk "U" 
Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin 



Late Massachusetts 

Insects 

As of July 23 the second brood 
of fireworm was proving quite 
troublesome, but control measures 
were in good practice. The first 
brood did not turn out to be as 
bad as feared earlier in the insect 
season. Fruitworm was not as 
bad as at first feared. 

On the whole it would not ap- 
pear, generally speaking, to be a 



bad insect year. 

Temperatures Up 
Temperatures were running 
higher than normal, an excess of 
34 by the 23rd. But this was not 
damaging as there had been a 
number of light rains and drizzles. 
Rainfall, however was on the defi- 
cient side. 



IWVIUIB 



INTERESTED 
IN 

PURCHASING 
WISCONSIN 
CRANBERRY 

PROPERTIES 

Vernon Goldsworthy 

EAGLE RIVER 
WISCONSIN 



I 
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"Ask I 

The I 

m 

Grower B 

Who I 

Belongs" | 



INDIAN TRAIL Inc. 

262 W. Grand Ave. 

Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin 



I 

ml 



WHEN YOU TRAVEL 
by 

Northwest Airlines 

AROUND THE WORLD 
try 

Eagle River 

Spiced Cranberries 

and CRANBERRY-ORANGE RELISH 

Cranberry Products, Inc. 

EAGLE RIVER, WISCONSIN 



Sixtee"!! 



RVING THE W 



CONVERTERS 

of 

CELLOPHANE 

POLYETHYLENE 

and other 

Flexible Materials 

Plain or Printed 

BAGS 

ROLL STOCK 

SHEETING 

TOMAH PRODUCTS, INC. 

TOMAH, WISCONSIN 
PHONE 800 



DANA MACHINE & SUPPLY Co. 
Wis. Rapids Wis. 
MFGS. of: 

SPRAY BOOMS 

GRASS CLIPPERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS 

Getsinger Retracto tooth 

pickers 

Dryers 

DISTR. of: 

VEE BELTS & PULLEYS 

ROLLER CHAINS 

SPROCKETS & BEARINGS 

CONVEYOR BELTING 

STEEL 



Mr. Grower ! 

Your Foreman 
Deserves A 

Subscription to 
Cranberries; too 



Cranberry growers have enjoyed 
two decades of successful use of 

KROP-SAVER 

Insecticides, Fungicides and Herbicides 
Better Chemicals For Agriculture 



Crop-Saver Chemical Company 

Spring Green, Wisconsin 



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THE ONLY 

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FACTORY 

LOCATED IN THE 

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KICKAPOO 
FERTILIZERS 




CORRUGATED 
CULVERT PIPE 

and 

FLOW GATES 

Felker Bros. Mfg. Co. | 

MARSHnELD WISCONSIN \ 

i 
J 



Phone 230 - 231 



»BM ' au— 



— — Ml — 



I — — ■■» 



THIS SPACE IS COIN' TO WASTE! 



It is available for those who have an advertising 
message to the Wisconsin Industry 



— ■ 




..,w»<«»^«"'- 



Ihe dav 



VVV^at 



KVl" . new source o^ ^^ ju^ce\ 

/imencas best ^ ^^^^ ©ven 

Try ^""^ ^,e V\tam»n ^ 
gwesvoun^ore . 




.,., n^oder^ to be ^^ ^^Vvcious- ^^^^^ 

uiihen ^" , „v,t good r"^". easy ^' . , Just 

Cranberry J"'^' ^, r^olh>"«^° ^^^s a br.ght' ^^^ „p 
S^^"« - S po-'. Ocea^ S. ,.eshjav^^ J^ 
^^'Url fo' "'^ 't "aS o- -tJ- sUv ^-;1 ^l 

. to" -'-rb'i-"- r v^-" trtTcra^r. 




NEW ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN 
SELLS CRANBERRY JUICE 

Here's an advertisement from Ocean Spray's new campaign. Big newspaper ads 
and hard-hitting radio commercials sell consumers new use and advantages of 
Cranberry Juice all through July, August and September. 

Developing new^ markets like this is just one more w^ay NCA works for its grow^er 
members. Just ask your neighbor. 

NATIONAL CRANBERRY ASSOCIATION GROWERS' CO-OPERATIVE, HANSON, MASSACHUSETTS 



IVINC A $20,000,000 A YEAR INDUSTRY 




:ape cod 
new jersey 

WISCONSIN 
OREGON 
WASHIN6T<^, 



^£p 4 '^"^ POND LILLIES, near Massachusetts Cranberry Bog. (CRANBERRIES 



UNIVERSITY OF 
MASSACHUSETTS 

35 Cents 



AUGUST 1958 



DKECTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWERS 



Wcrcester Paper 
Box Corporation 

MEDFORD, MASS. \ 

Td. MYstic 8-5305 

Manufacturers 

of 
Folding Cartons 

and 

Displays 



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CRANBERRY 
GROWERS 

Choose and Use 

Niagara Dusts, Sprays and 

Dusters 



WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STODDARD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

Franconia Coal Co. 
— Inc. — 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. 39-R 




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Division 

Food Machinery and 
Chemical Corporation 

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New England Plant and Warehouse 

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Falmouth Branch 

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Loans on Real Estate 
Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 

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Extensive Experience in 
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ADVERTISE 

in 

CRANBERRIES 



DIRECTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWIi 



POST-HARVEST AMINO 
CONTROL IN MASS. 

A "flash." card has gone out to 
Massachusetts growers, prepared 
by J. Richard Beattie, Extension 
Cranberry Specialist, concerning- 
post harvest use of Amino Tria- 
zole. It read: "Excellent control 
of cutgrass, nutgrass, asters, pan- 
ic grass and white violets can be 
obtained by applications of amino 
triazole after harvest. The recom- 
mended rate is 16 pounds of 50 
percent amino triazole in 300 gal- 
lons of water per acre, as recom- 
mended on the weed chart. Less 
damage to vines will occur if 

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treatment is delayed until at least 
5 days after harvest. For best 
results, weeds should be green at 
time of treatment." 



NATIONAL PAYS 
GROWERS $1.00 MORE 

Checks for $1.00 additional on 
the 1957 crop were paid to grower- 
members August 8. This brings 
the total to date to $8.60 for last 
season's production. 

It was announced the advance 
had bank approval and the money 
had been earned, although total 
barrels disposed of in the pool did 
not quite come up to schedule as 
of that date. 

WASHINGTON GROWERS 
CRANBERRY TOUR 

Saturday, August 13th was the 
scheduled cranberry tour and re- 
search, program at Grayland Wash- 
ington. Program was to start in 
Community building at 10 a.m. 
which featured reports on research. 
The Grayland Growers' Association 
planned a light lunch and the tour 
was in the afternoon to several 
bog locations. 



LECTRICITY 



ks For You With 



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It Is clean. Efficient - Releases 
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Stock Always on Hand 

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Tel. Union 6-3330 
North Cai-ver, Mass. 



One 



New Insect Pest 
Jn Oregon 

Cranberry bogs of Southwestern 
Oregon were visited by R. G. 
Rosenstiel Associate Extension En- 
tomologist, Oregon State College 
The purposes of the visit, at 
the request of the Coos County 
Extension Service was to study 
a new cranberry pest that was 
feeding in the foilage of sev- 
eial bogs. Moths and larvae from 
the bogs were collected for labora- 
tory study to determine the class- 
ification, life cycle and control 
practices necessary for future rec- 
ommendations. 

The new pest to the inexperien- 
ced eye, would seem to be the 
blackheaded fireworm which is no 
stranger to cranberry growers. 
For some growers the control 
practices for the black-headed 
fireworm also works successfully 
on the new invader. 

The confusing elements of the 
whole problem are that the larvae 
of the recent pest reaches about 
94 inch in length as opposed to the 
shorter size reached by the black- 
headed fireworm, the color is green, 
and the moth has not been isola- 
ted. Growers know that they 
have been severely hit by this 
insect but wonder if they can ex- 
pect the cycle again this season 
and when. 

Dr. Rosenstiel will culture the 
collected larvae and compare the 
moth produced with, those collected 
on the bogs thus laying the ground 
work for entomology studies in 
laying out a control program. 
"Catface 

Further studies are being car- 
ried on by H. B. Lagerstedt, In- 
structor in Horticulture in coop- 
eration with the extension service 
on the cat facing problem in the 
Searls varieties. This variety is 
seemingly the worst affected by 
catface although others are show- 
ing this damage in some areas. 

Fertilizer 

This is the second year of this 
study which is based upon berry 
size connected with fertilizer ele- 
ment treatments. The results are 
not conclusive and the study will 
be continued. The results, thus 
far however, show that there are 



more smaller berries catfaced than 
larger ones. Another way of put- 
ting it according to Lagerstedt, is 
that once catfacing occurs the 
berries chance of further develop- 
;;:ent is reduced. 

He further states that it is 
difficult if not impossible to draw 
any worthwhile conclusions from 
these fertilizer experiments. It 
may be too soon to tell differences, 
or the cause of the catfacing may 
be due to an entirely different 
cause. 

Further study by the experi- 
ment station at Coi-vallis will pro- 
bably include the problems in con- 
nection with fruit set. 

Grant Scott 

Receives Plaque 

Miss Jean Griffin, Abington, 
Mass., assistant home economics 
director of the National Cranberry 
Association, received national 
honor when she was awarded the 
Helma Bakeries plaque as editor 
of the outstanding Home Econom- 
ics in Business newsletter of the 
year. This was presented at the 
opening luncheon at pre-conven- 
tion in Philadephia last month. 
This is the first year the award 
has come to Massachusetts. 




Miss Griffin studied home eco- 
nomics at Simmons College, re- 
ceiving her degree in 1953, and 
since then has been associated 
with NCA. She served as finance 
chairman of the Massachusetts 
Home Economics Association in 
1956, and the following year be- 
came co-editor of the H. E. I. B.'s 
newsletter. Pilgrim Progress, and 
it was as editor of the monthly 
newsletter this year that she won 
the award. She has been named 
editor again for 1959. 



C. & L. EQUIPMENT CO. 

191 LEONARD STREET ACUSHMET, MASS. 

Cranberry Bog Service 

PRUNING FERTILIZING 

RAKING WEED TRIMMING 

Machinery Sales 

PRUNERS POWER WHEELBARROWS 

RAKES WEED TRIMMERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS - Large & Small 



For Further information Call . . . 

F. P. CRANDON H. C. LEONARD 

Rockwell 3-5526 Wyman 3-4332 

C. J. TRIPP 

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Two 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Note 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 




The contrast in weather pat- 
terns of the past two growing sea- 
sons has been most unusual. A 
year ago this August we were 
still experiencing one of the sever- 
est droughts in history, berries 
were ripening unusually early, the 
accumulation of hours of sunshine 
was exceptionally high, and tem- 
peratures were above normal. This 
season, on the other hand, will 
long be remembered as one of the 
wettest in history, with nearly our 
annual average rainfall being re- 
corded by August 21st, a greatly 
delayed harvest, a sharp decline in 
hours of sunshine, and tempera- 
tures definitely below normal. The 
weather pattern this season has 
created its share of problems for 
our growers. It has been difficult 
■ to combat the various pests be- 
cause of the frequency of heavy 
showers. Drainage problems have 
been greatly aggravated by ex- 
cessive moisture which has created 
a tremendous crop of weeds. Vine 
growth, including top runners, has 
been exceedingly heavy on many 
properties which will complicate 
the harvesting operations on such 
bogs. 

However, in spite of these prob- 
lems, Massachusetts growers have 
produced another fine crop of cran- 
berries, according to the estimate 
released August 19th by Mr. C. D. 
Stevens of the New England Crop 
Reporting Service at the annual 
meeting of the Cape Cod Cranberry 
Growers Association . Mr. Stevens 
placed the 1958 Massachusetts crop 
at 570,000 barrels, which is slightly 
higher than the revised figure of 
563,000 barrels produced in 1957. 
Incidentally, it was very gratifying 
to learn that a near record number 
of growers cooperated with Mr. 
Steven's office by returning their 
crop estimates in August with the 



necessary information. We sin- 
cerely hope that the next three 
monthly requests for this informa- 
tion will have the same excellent 
response. Accurate crop estimates 
are vital to the devolpment of 
sound marketing programs and a 
very tangible way in which grow- 
ers can assist their marketing- 
agencies. 

Adequate supplies of harvest la- 
bor are always a problem. The 
Massachusetts Division of Em- 
ployment Security will be recruit- 
ing labor and is tentatively plan- 
ing to establish field offices as 
usual in the Wareham area, at the 
National Cranberry Association 
headquarters in Hanson, and in 
the Middleboro area. As soon as 
final arrangements have been com- 
pleted regarding the location of 
field offices, growers will be noti- 
fied. Their hom.e offices in Brock- 
ton, Hyannis, New Bedford, Ply- 



mouth and Taunton will continue 
to serve growers. Those needing 
harvest labor should keep in touch 
with their local employment office. 
Another marketing project has 
been approved for our station this 
fall, making the fourth successive 
season that we have been engaged 
in this type of work. The new 
project, a study of the shelf life of 
zineb-treated berries, both with 
and without refrigeration. We 
have secured a small refrigerated 
rack and are building a small dry 
rack to facilitate controlled exper- 
iments at the station. In addition 
to the control studies, we are, 
planning to work closely with sev- 
eral local retail stores in the area 
in order to secure additional in- 
formation on the shelf life of 
zineb-treated fruit handled under 
actual store conditions. Irving 
Demoranville, as usual, will be 
working with the writer on this 
project. Incidentally, Mr. Demor- 
anville has received a well deserved 
promotion to the rank of instruc- 
tor, effective September 1. We 
know that his many friends and 
associates are most pleased to 
learn of his advancement. 

The program arranged by the 
directors of the Cape Cod Cran- 
berry Growers Association at their 
71st annual meeting held at the 
State Bog August 19 was well re- 



Brewer & Lord 

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40 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. 



ARTHUR K. POPE 
CONVERSE HILL 
WILLIAM B. PLUMER 
ROBERT A. SULLIVAN 



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ceived by growers, marketing oflpi- 
cials, and guests. Comments have 
been favorable and emphasized 
the fact that the program allowed 
ample time to tour the State Bog, 
inspect exhibits and equipment, 
visit with growers, and hear a pro- 
gram devoted entirely to cranber- 
ries. A detailed account of the 
day's activities will be found in 
this issue of Cranberries Maga- 
zine prepared by the editor, Mr. 
Hall. 



N. J. SUMMER 
MEET AUGUST 28 

Summer meeting of American 
Cranberry Groweis' Association is 
scheduled for Thuisday, August 28 
at Citta's Old Time Tavern, Toms 
River, New Jersey. Meeting will 
feature a tour of bogs of Archer 
Coddington, Edward Lipman and 
Mac Crabbe. 

Speaking program at the Tavern 
includes opening remarks by Pres- 
ident Albert T. Andrews; "Ex- 
periences in Producing and Mar- 
keting Cranberries," by Anthony 
R. DeMarco; "Current Water 
Problems in NeKv Jersey," Vinton 
N. Thompson, "Control of Spar- 
ganothis and Cranberry Fruit- 
worm", by Philip Marucci. 

Gordon G. Butler, N. J. Crop 
Reporting Service will give the 
1958 crop estimate and E. Howard 
Major, local property tax state 
supervisor will talk on "Local Pro- 
perty Taxation and Assessments 
in New Jersey. 



Solved, Blueberry 
"Bird Problem'' 

A summer visitor at the Cran- 
berry Experiment Station, East 
Wareham, was a member of the 
Holland Department of Agricul- 
ture. He was Ir. B. Roelofsen, 
an agricultural research engineer. 

Cranberries are cultivated to a 
minor extent in Holland, and there 
is a growing interest in the cul- 
tivation of blueberries. It was 
the latter in which the scientist 
was interested, particularly in ob- 
erlands. 

He also visited New Jersey anc'. 
Michigan. 

taining information as to startina 
a breeding program in the Neth- 

Four 



Dr. Roelofsen told of a prac- 
tice among the blueberry growers 
of his country concerning the 
"bird problem", that is, birds eat- 
ing the fruit before it can be 
picked. Growers there devised a 
phonograph record of the cries of 
birds in distress. When the birds 
become troublesome, a record play- 



er is carried out to the patch and 
the birds, apparently recognizing: 
the cries, fly away from the patch. 



SUBSCRIBE TO 
CRANBERRIES MAGAZINE 






\. 




R. F. MORSE & SON 



West Wareham, Mass., Phone 1553-R 

Cranberry Growers Agent For 



Eastern States Farmers' Exchange 

Insecticides - Fertilizers - Fungicides 

Bog Service and Supplies 
Agent for Wiggins Airways 

Helicopter Spray and Dust Service 



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EAST FREETOWN, MASS. 



Issue of August 1958 - Vol. 23 No. 4 

Published monthly at The Courier Print Shop, Main St., Wareham, Massachusetts. Subscription $3.50 per year. 

Entered as second-class matter January 26. 1943. at the post-office at Wareham. Massachusetts, under the Act of March 3, 1878 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

Juiy Rainfall Nearly Normal 

July ended with a total rainfall 
of 3.90 inches, the normal being 
3.21. Rainfall was deficient until 
the final day when 1.73 inches 
fell in a deluging storm. There 
were 17 days on which there was 
measurable precipitation, and the 
month as a whole was drizzle, 
cloudy and intensely humid. There 
were only three clear days re- 
corded by Boston weather bureau. 
Month was extremely uncomfor- 
table and seemed unusually hot, 
but actually there was only an 
excess of 11 degrees. It was that 
old story, "It's not the heat, it's 
the humidity!" July was the 6th 
month with more than normal 
precipitation. 

Sunshine Down 

The sunshine average for July 
was 54 percent, ten less than 
normal. This would have little 
effect upon the coming crop, but 
would adversely eff"ect that of 
1959 as has the lack of sunshine 
the whole year. 

Rain Hampered 

So much rain, drizzle, and much 
fog, hampered the insect control 
program rather seriously. Treat- 
ments were not possible at the de- 
sired times, despite the alertness 
of the growers and those supply- 
ing air control. 

As a result second brood fire- 
worm had gotten ahead of the 
growers at many places. Most of 
the fungicide sprays and dusts 
had been applied before the "mis- 
erable" weather of July, so the 
fungicide program was not hurt 
materially. More than 2,000 acres 
were treated in Massachusetts this 
year, the largest ever, about three 



times that of 1957. 



WASHINGTON 

Good Growing Weather 

Weather during June and July 
was about average. There were 
a number of warm days with hum- 
idity rather low. On July 27 
temperature was at 95 with a 
relative humidity of 62 percent. 
On the whole it has been a good 
growing season with no tempera- 
tures high enough ^o cause severe 
damage to blossoms and fruit. 
Sprinklers were going on a num- 
ber of days to prevent scald. 
Observations on Sprinklers 

As concerns the bad freeze of 
May 12. It now seems probable 
there was a little less damage than 
at first feared, which was 50 per- 



cent. Some bogs were very badly 
damaged. Crop at the Experi- 
ment. Station, Long Beach, which 
is one of the coldest spots now 
will not probably be more than 150 
to 200 barrels. 

This frost experience demon- 
strated very forcibly, in the opin- 
ion of Charles C. Doughty, Station 
superintendent, the necessity of 
having sprinklers running contin- 
uously during the period when 
temperature drops below the criti- 
cal level. The bogs on which 
systems were started when the 
temperature reached 32-33 de- 
grees and were kept running 
throughout the night suff'ered very 
little damage. However, thosie 
bogs where the sprinklers were 
late in starting or were shut down 



'>' 





CROP ^^ 

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Aerial Spraying 
and Dusting 

also 
Fertilizing 

We Specialize 
In Parathion Applications 

both 
Sprays and Dusts 

MARSHFIELD AIRWAYS, INC. 

Marshfield, Mass. 



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for brief periods, received con- 
siderable damag-e. At the State 
Bog the sprinklers were shut down 
for approximately one hour during 
the middle of the night and that 
proved just long enough for the 
damage to occur. The minimum 
temperature there was 25. In 
pockets the- degree was probably 
lower. 

Since some of the bogs Which 
sprinkled continuously received 
some damage it is a possibility that 
25 degrees is at the lower limit 
for protection from sprinkler sys- 
tems during the middle and late 
hook development. D. J. Crowley, 
former superintendent, thought the 
damage was due to the low tem- 
perature factor rather than shut- 
ting- off the sprinklers for brief 
periods. 

WISCONSEN 

July Weather 

July was near normal for tem- 
perature and from normal to above 
normal in precipitation for the 
cranberry growing areas of the 
state. Although the warmest day 
was only 90 degrees registered on 
July 26, there was a long continued 
stretch of eighty plus weather 
during most of the month. Cool 
night time temperatures brought 
the average down 1.5 degrees be- 
lov>^ the normal. The coolest night 
of the month was on the 16th when 
temperatures dropped to 29 de- 
£"rees in Cranmoor. Rains came 
the first of the month ahead o± 
bloom and also at the end of the 
month after bloom. Tue period 
during bloom was one of the driest 
on record and resulted in good 
setting weather. Heavy rains fell 
in the north on the 1st with totals 
measuring over six inches. Total 
rainfall in that area was almost 
twice that of normal. Centra! 
marshes received about the normal 
of four inches and southern marsh- 
es less than 3 in. The extended 
forecast for August has been re- 
vised to near normal in tempera- 
ture and precipitation. Normal 
temperature for August is 67.5 
degrees and 3.63 in. precipitation. 
Crop Not Bumper 

Full bloom was about one week 
to ten days later than normal in 



all areas. The native variety in 
the south was extremely late. With 
the lateness of the season, berries 
could be expected to be smaller 
than normal unless extra favorable 
weather prevails during the balance 
of the growing season. From all 
appearances the set appears to be 
above normal and very much bet- 
ter than last year. Berries in the 
north are expected to be smaller 
than normal and in the south with 
the exception of the natives, about 
normal in size. At the present 
time Wisconsin can expect a good 
crop this year, but the possibility 
of a bumper crop is ruled out 
because of berry size. 

Insects Controlled 

Fruitworm controls were applied 
during the month and in general 
it appears as if the fruitworm 
population is down this year. There 
was some second brood firewoi'm, 
but numbers were down. Early 
controls appear good in control- 
ling these two pests. Second ap- 



plications of fungicides were ap- 
plied the later part of July and 
first part of August growers were 
also applying a top dressing of 
fertilizer on sand beds and weak 
areas where vine growth was 
short. 

Dr. Dana Tour 

Dr. M. E. Dana of the Horticul- 
ture Department of the U. of Wis. 
was to conduct a tour of weed 
control plots in the Rapids area 
on Aug. 8. He was to show grow- 
ers plots that had been applied the 
past summer on numerous types 
of weeds, using systemic herbi- 
cides. 

Summer Meet Aug. 30 

The summer meeting of the Wis- 
consin State Cranberry Growers 
Assn. is to be held on August 30th 
at the Cutler Cranberry Co., Shen- 
nington, Wis. A display of cran- 
berry equipment will be on the 
grounds and some demonstrations 
will be given. Dean R. K. Froker 
(Continued On Page 19) 




m 




FOR PREFABRICATED FLUMES 

SEE 

RUSSELL A. TRUFANT 

HYDRAULIC CONSULTANT 

PREFABRICATED FLUMES BOG RAILROADS 

UNION 6-3696 North Carver, Mass. 



Six 



Selective Weed Killers For Cranberries 

Malcolm N. Dana 
Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, Madison 6, Wis. 

Discovery of 2, 4-D and development of practical methods for its 
use in weed control provided the imiDetus for a surge of interest and 
study of many materials for the selective control of weeds in many 
crops. 

Many thousands of oro;anic chemicals have been screened for her- 
bicidal activity on a wide range of weed and crop species. Only a few 
have survived the field tests and have become accepted as useful ma- 
terials. Listed among the successful herbicides are three that have 
been used with considerable success on an experimental basis in the 
cranberry marshes of Wisconsin. 



Amitrol (3-amino-l, 2, 4-tria- 
zole) is the most promising on a 
number of weed species in cran- 
berries. This material has been 
tested in other areas as well as 
Wisconsin with success 1, 2, .3). 
Researchers have also had good 
success on certain weeds from the 
use of two other materials, maleic 
hydrazide and dalapon. Under 
Wisconsin conditions, these ma- 
terials have controlled some weed 
species on which amitrol has little 
or no effect. The present report 
was prepared to acquaint cranber- 
ry growers with some of the suc- 
cessful experimental uses that 
have been found for these two 
materials. 

A note of warning: 

Maleic hydrazide and dalapon 
have not received label clearance 
from Federal Control Agencies 
and may not be used on produc- 
ing cranberry vines. Growers are 
cautioned to use these materials 
only on non-producing sections or 
small experimental areas until 
label clearance is obtained. 

MH,Maleic Hydrazide, is a mater- 
ial that can be purchased as a 30% 
liquid. Sprayed on and absorbed 
by certain plants, it inhibits vege- 
tative development for consider- 
able periods of time. Commer- 
cially, it is used to control quack 
grass, reduce growth of bluegrass, 
and to inhibit sprout development 
in onions and potatoes in storage. 
In New Jersey, Marrucci and Moul- 
ter (4) report that MH reduces 
runner growth in cranberries. 

In Wisconsin, this material was 
applied in midsummer in cranber- 
ries to perennial weeds. This was 
done to inhibit development of 
these weeds the following spring. 



With two species of weeds, sensi- 
tive fein, Onoclea sensibilis, and 
marsh smartweed. Polygonum 
natans, an acceptable degree of 
control was attained. Ten pounds 
per acre of actual maleic hydra- 
zide applied July 26, 1955, gave a 
95% reduction of fern stand in 
1956. Treatment of other fern 
infested areas about August 1, 
1956, with MH at ten pounds per 
acre brought excellent control 
throughout the entire 1957 season. 
Areas treated with five pounds per 
acre of MH showed a significant 
reduction in fern stand, but the 
control was not as complete as in 
the plots treated with ten pounds 
per acre. Applications later in the 
season were generally not as suc- 
cessful as the late July-early Au- 
gust treatments. 

Treatment of a heavy stand of 
marsh smartweed with maleic hy- 
drazide in 1956 brought stand re- 
ductions throughout 1957 as shown 
in Table 1. 

It was evident in the plots and 
the data confirmed that the ten 
pounds per acre rate of treatment 
was necessary in order to assure 
an effective job of controlling this 
species. The treatment on August 
1 was more effective than the mid- 
August application. 

Other weed species temporarily 



inhibited in their seasonal develop- 
ment by maleic hydrazide applica- 
tions were St. Johnswort, Hyperi- 
cum virginicum, and sickle grass, 
Leersia oryzoides. However, these 
species overcame the inhibitory 
effect and developed to nearly nor- 
mal stands late in the season. 

Such weed control as demon- 
strated in these plots was not at- 
tained without some sacrifice to 
the cranberry crop. Ten pounds 
per acre of MH did not measure- 
ably reduce the crop maturing on 
the vines at the time of treatment 
but it did reduce the flower bud set 
and thus the succeeding crop, in 
some instances. This was by no 
means a universal occurrance in all 
plots. However, when used in mid- 
summer, the material must be con- 
sidered as a threat to the next sea- 
son's crop. It may safely be used 
only on areas where competition 
from the specified weeds is a seri- 
ous handicap to high crop yields 
and may advantageously be elimi- 
nated even at the sacrifice of some 
crop. 

Dalapon, 2, 2-dichloropropionic 
acid, has been used experimentally 
in Wisconsin cranberry bogs with 
considerable success for several 
seasons. Dalapon is a tan-white, 
free-flowing powder that is readily 
soluble in water. It is formula- 
ted as an 85% sodium salt equiva- 
lent to 74% of active acid. Dala- 
pon is primarily a grass killer and 
has found commercial acceptance 
in other crops as a control for 
quack grass and other grass spe- 
cies. 

When applied as a post-harvest 
spray in cranberry bogs at rates 
of 6-18 lbs. per acre, dalapon 
has caused a complete loss of crop 
in the year following treatment. 
This was due to morphological 
aberrations in the flowers which 



Table 1 

Per cent REDUCTION IN STAND of perennial smartweed 

following treatment with maleic hydrazide. 

Weed Counts — September 1, 1957 



Lbs. MH Acre 



Date of treatment 
August 1, 1956 August 17, 1956 





2.5 

5.0 

10.0 



Percent 


20 
90 

954- 



Percent 


75 
85 



Seve:> 



prevented normal fruit set. Fall 
applications also caused slight de- 
ilay in cranberry bud emergence 
in the spring and marginal chloro- 
sis on young leaves. As the rate 
of application was increased, the 
leaf injury became more severe. 
Applied in early spring, equal 
rates caused a more severe injury 
and a resultant crop loss. Spray 
applications after growth started, 
at rates up to ten pounds per 
acre, resulted in serious chlorosis 
and early season stunting of the 
vines. At no time did death or 
defoliation of vines follow treat- 
ment with dalapon at rates of ap- 
plication of ten pounds per acre 
or less, regardless of season of 
application. Late season vine de- 
velopment has been good whenever 
dalapon treatment was made after 
October 1 or before June 1. 

The extent of vine injury which 
has followed spray applications of 
dalapon determine the limitations 
on the use of this material as 
broadcast applications. Poor pro- 
ducing sections — either because 
they are recently established or 
because they are seriously infested 
with susceptible weeds — would 
seem to be the only areas on which 
broadcast spray applications are 
practical. It would not be advis- 
able to spray good producing sec- 
tions, because of the certainty of 
complete crop loss for one year. 

The crop injury described above 
lasted in the vines for only one 
year. Plots established after harv- 
est in October, 1957, in a section 
seriously infested with wide leaf 
grass, Carex rostrata, were harv- 
ested for yields in October, 1956, 
with the results presented in Table 
2. 

Table 2 

All three series of plots that 
received dalapon applications pro- 
duced significantly more fruit than 
did the untreated plots. On the 
average, the treated plots pro- 
duced over twice as many berries 
as the untreated plot. The yield 
increase following treatment was 
more than enough to make up for 
the one year loss in crop due to 
dalapon injury on the treated plots. 
The control plots retained a high 
population of wide leaf grass, 
while all the treated plots remain- 



Table 2 

Yield of cranberries in the 2nd 

season after dalapon treatment. Bbls/acre 



Replicate 



Dalapon (lbs/) 

12 18 





Bbls. 


Bbls. 


Bbls. 


Bbls. 


1 


139 


246 


233 


233 


2 


65 


187 


168 


252 


3 


110 


158 


213 


215 


Mean 


105 


197 


205 


230 



ed free of this pest for three years 
after treatment (1958). 

The yield increase in the dala- 
pon treated plots was probably 
due to two factors: the elimina- 
tion of weed competition and the 
stimulation of production because 
the vines "rested" the previous 
year. These data, however, show- 
ed that, properly used, dalapon 
"would result in only one year of 
crop failure and could result in a 
potentially greater yield due to 
control of grassy weeds. 

Spray applications of dalapon 
have been successful in the eradi- 
cation of wide leaf grass and bunch 
grass, and a practical reduction 
in stand of wire grass, sickle grass, 
and several other less populous 
grasses and sedges. 

Swab applications of dalapon 
have been tried experimentally by 
several growers in Wisconsin. 
Careful applications on several 
grass and sedge species have caus- 
ed reductions in weed stand both 
in stature and number of plants 
with a minimum of injury to the 
vines. A report on this work was 
made earlier by Dr. George Peltier 
(5). 

Dalapon is primarily a herbicide 
for the control of grass and sedge 
species. It had little effect on 
the broadleaf weeds common to 
cranberry bogs. Because of the 
cranberry vine injury which re- 
sults from its use, it may not be 
applied safely to sections that are 
producing reasonable crops of fruit. 
Two or three year old sections that 
are crowded with grassy weeds, or 
older, non-productive weedy sec- 
tions would seem to offer problems 
where dalapon may find a practi- 
cal use. 

Literature Cited 

1. Demoranville, I. E. and C. E. 
Cross. 1957. Newest Cranberry 
Weed Killer, Amino Triazol?. 



Cranberries 21 (12): 16-17. 

2. Demoranville, I. E. and C. E. 
Cross. The Effects of Amino Tri- 
azole Sprays on Cranberry Vines 
and Their Fruit. Cranberries 22 
(1): 11-12. 

3. Demoranville, I. E. and C. E. 
Cross. The Effects of Amino Tri- 
azole on Cranberry Vines and Their 
Fruit. Cranberries 22 (11): 11-12. 

4. Marucci, P. E. and H. J. 
Moulter. 1957. The Suppression 
of Cranberry Runner Growth by 
Maleic Hydrazide. Proc. Amer. 
Cranb. Growers Asso. 87: 18-20. 

5. Peltier, G. L. 1956. Dalapon 
(Growers Tests). Cranberries 20 
(12): 12-13. 

New Researcher 
At National 

Dr. William F. Hampton, who 
recently joined the executive staff 
of National Cranberry Association 
as director of research and tectini- 
cal development, came to the co- 
op with a fine record in food tech- 
nology. He replaces Dr. William 
Filz, research chemist, w^ho re- 
signed last fall. 

Dr. Hampton has for the past 
three years been engaged in the 
Food and Agricultural Organiza- 
tion of the United Nations with 
headquarters in Rome. Among his 
prior assignments he spent many 
years as chief of research in sev- 
eral divisions of General Foods 
Corporation. 

Born and reared in Newfound- 
land, he received his doctor's de- 
gree at McGill University. 



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CRANBERRIES 



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fjjng 




eeiing of Optimfsim, Unity Prevails 
Annual National Cranberry Meet 



? 
f 




New President 

George C. P. Olsson (Cranber- 
ries, August, 1953) became a cran- 
berry grower in 1953 when he, 
with Judge Amedeo V. Sgarzi took 
over the interests of Albert A. 
Thomas of Middleboro in the Rocky 
Meadciw bogs in Carver, a pro- 
perty of about 50 acres. Mr. 
Olsson has been Clerk of Coui-ts of 
Plym.outh County since 1928. He 
has long been exti'emely active in 
Republican political activities. 

Born in Boston, he moved with 
his parents to Brockton and at- 
tended schools there. He was 
graduated from Boston University 
School of Law in 1926 and became 
a practicing attorney. He is a 
past president of Plymouth County 
Bar Association and also of Boston 
University Law School Association. 
He is a past president of the 
Plymouth County Republican Club. 

During the Second World "War 
he was a lieutenant in the U. S. 
Naval Reserves. Boy Scouting 
is an avocation to him and he is 
past president of Squanto Council. 

He is a director of Plymouth 
Savings and Loan Association, 
member of the Plymouth and Mass- 
achusetts Farm Bureau; a trustee 
of Chilton villa Congregational 
Church. He is a governor of Pli- 
mouth Plantations, Inc. He is 
married to the former Mary Craig 
of Plymouth and tSae couple have 
two sons. 

Mr. Olsson became a director of 
NCA for the first time in 1957. 



George Olsson 
Elected President 

"In unity is our strength," was 
the wording on a large motto at- 
tached to the wall of the meeting 
room at Hanson headquarters of 
National Cranberry Association for 
the 28th annual meeting of that 
cooperative Tuesday, August 20. 
And unity almost prevailed 
throughout a session lasting from 
10 a.m. until 4 p.m. attended by 
more than 600 stockholders and 
guests. 

Only disputes were concerning 
disposal of a canning plant at Co- 
quille, Oregon and the immediate 
dissolution of Cranberry Credit 
Corporation, a subsidiary of NCA. 
These were lively, but nothing like 
the stormy session of last two 
years. 

A feature of the meeting was 
the presentation and unveiling of 
a bronze plaque to Marcus L. 
Urann, president from 1930 to 
1955. This was presented to the 
association by Russell Makepeace, 
secretary of the organization. 

Stockholders voted election of 
the following directors: 

Massachusetts: Walcott R. Ames, 
Osterville; Alden C. Brett, Bel- 
mont: Lawrence S. Cole, North 
Carver; Frank P. Crandon, Acush- 
net; William E. Crowell, Dennis; 
Carrol D. Griffith, South Carver; 
Russell Makepeace, Marion; Law- 
rence S. Pink, Middleboro; Elmer 
E. Raymond Jr., Braintree; Ches- 
ter W. Robbins, Onset; Ellen Still- 
man, Hanson; Marcus M. Urann, 
Duxbury; George C. P. Olsson, 
Plymouth. 

New Jersey: John E. Cutts, 
Vincentown; Thomas B. Darling- 
ton, New Lisbon; William S. 
Haines, Chatsworth. 

Wisconsin: Richard J. Lawless, 
Wisconsin Rapids; Charles L. 
Leiwis, Shell Lake; John M. Pot- 
ter, Port Edwards; Tony Jonjak, 
Hayward; Bert Leisure, Chicago. 

Washington: Leonard G. Morris, 
Long Beach; David E. Pryde, 
Grayland. 

Oregon: James Olson, Bandon. 

This action followed a vote that 
the number of directors be 24. 
Wisconsin now has five directors 
and New Jersey three. This is in 
proportion to patronage and acre- 
age of the two states. All are re- 
elections with the exceptions of 
Jonjak and Olson. Slate was nom- 
inated by Alfred Pappi of Ware- 
ham, chairman of the nominating 
committee. 



Top voted in order named were: 
Marcus M. Urann, Miss Stillman, 
Russell Makepeace and Frank 
Crandon. 

Directors iii executive session 
following the meeting elected offi- 
cers. George C. P. Olsson, succeed- 
ed Crandon as president. Charles 
L .Lewis, remains first vice-presi- 
dent; Russell Makepeace, secre- 
tary; Alden C. Brett, treasurer. 

Principal addresses were by Am- 
brose E. Stevens, general manager 
and executive vice-president, with 
his first annual report, and H. 
Drew Flegal, director of advertis- 
ing and public relations. 

Of immediate concern and 
interest to the grower-members, 
Stevens said, is the date the pool 
for the 1957 crop will close and 
what the 1957 pool will pay to 
patrons. 

Stevens said, "And yet, on this 
20th day of August, it is still too 
early to make a prediction that 
you can really rely upon. The 
most that I can say to you is 
what the figures say to me — and 
that is — the 1957 pool will pay a 
somewhat better return than the 
1956 pool. 

"Will it be $11 in cash? Or 
$10, or $9.50, or $9 in cash? No- 
body knows. With you I hope for 
the best." 

To date NCA has paid $8.60. 

Stevens continued that the cran- 
berry sauce business is one-eighth 
the size of the canned peach busi- 
ness and a little over one-third 
the size of the canned applesauce 
business. This was an explanation 
as to how the cranberry business 
fitted into the American economy 
and how important cranberries and 
cranberry products are to the 
American economy. He told of 
the increase in size of the cran- 
berry crop. He said the 1930 crop 
was 82 pei'cent of the 1939 crop 
and the 1957 crop was 150 percent 
of the 1939 crop. The era of mil- 
lion barrel or more crops began in 
1953 and is continuing. He added 
he believed the industry will have 
a million barrel crop from now 
on for a long, long time. "We 
cannot plan on short crops to bail 
us out," he said. 

Stevens declared that more than 
half of the patronage in the 1957 
pool was made up of growers who 
delivered less than 200 barrels. 
"This cooperative is even more 
for the little fellow than the large 
grower," he added. 

Turning to the NCA executive 
staff he said that with few excep- 



tions, the personnel could not be 
replaced with comparitive experi- 
ence and know-how at present pay 
in management jobs. "At the 
present NCA is not overstaffed," 
lie said. 

Basic problem of the cranberry- 
industry, he said, is that not 
onoug'h people in America eat 
cranberry sauce the year-round. 
Competition with other foods is 
constant and unrelenting. Other 
industries have overcome this com- 
])etition. "We can and we will," 
lie added. 

Pertinently, he said, NCA has 
been having a very bad "downer," 
but, "I am quite confident that the 
bottom has been reached. Our 
progress may be painful, our pro- 
gress may be slow, but progress 
we have and will have." 

NCA now has 2,149 holders of 
common stock, 1,425 holders of 
preferred shares and 1,323 market- 
ing agreements: that is cranberry 
growers participating. NCA hand- 
les approximately 75 percent of the 
total ci'anberry crop. These were 
figures presented by John P. Har- 
riott, assistant treasurer. Harri- 
ott continued that the association's 
financial condition continues to im- 
prove. Dun and Bradstreet rating 
has been changed from Aa to lA. 

Treasurer Alden C. Brett assert- 
ed, "Your co-operative is in good 
financial condtion. There is nothing 
wrong but what a good dose oC 
sales will fix." 

Flegal told of advertising plans 
for sale of the 1958 crop. He said 
t.ji important part of the nationaj 
sales campaign was to use ths 
"heavy artillery" on television. He 
p-ive a preview of 60 second and 
20 second spots on this media 
They were flashed on a screen for 
the NCA audience. They empha- 
sized that cranberry sauce is the 
natural mate for meats of all kind, 
and are addressed to the "old man 
of the home." These will be heard 
over 20 television spots in Ameri- 
ca's 20 major markets after Labor 
Day. The catchy jingles empha- 
size, in some of the spots that 
vitamin C content of cranberry 
cocktail is greater than that of 
frozen orange juice. The sales 
compaign is intended to induce 
the greater use of cranberry cock- 
tail as a breakfast juice. 

There are to be full-page Fall 
ads in leading magazines and ad- 
vertisements are now being in- 
serted in New England news- 
papers. He said he sincerely be- 
lieved an exceptionally good ad- 
vertising campaign had been 
prepared. "We believe our cam- 
paign is basically sound and giv- 
en time to prove itself will sell 
Ocean Spray the year around." 
Flegal's address was received 
with much optimism by NCA 




Russell Makeoeace (left) presenting plaque honoring Retired 
President Marcus L. Urann, (right). (CRANBERRIES Photo) 



members. 

Meeting was conducted by Pi'es- 
ident Frank P. Crandon and Mr. 
Stevens. Crandon said in his wel- 
coming address, "As I stand before 
you today, I can look every one 
of you in the eye and truthfully 
say we have made considerable 
progress, and we are in a much 
more stable condition than in 
1956." 

He also said there was no intent 
on the part of management to 
limit discussion as had been 
charged in the past. 

There was lengthy debate on 
Uie proposal to sell, lease or dis- 
pose of the Coquille plant. A 
final vote was to leave this to the 



action of the board of directors. 
On the matter of the immediate 
dissolution of the Cranberry Credit 
Corp., it was voted after a long 
discussion led by Atty. Robert 
Briggs, Plymouth, that this be left 
to the board of directors to ac- 
complish this as soon as reason- 
ably possible. 

Other reports were by director 
of research. Dr. Lawrence E. 
Proesch, director of marketing. 
A telegram from U. S. Secretary 
of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson 
was read. In this he said he had 
watched with interest the efforts 
of the cooperative to improve the 
position of cranberry growers 
through the development of mark- 
Eleven 



et iftiality. 

Edward C. Bloom, attorney New- 
York, and small cranberry groTver 
of Centerville spoke in the matter 
of the Coquille plant disposal, 
saying he thought stock-hold- 
ers should be better infocrmed 
before action was taken. The suit 
of Mr. Bloom against past and 
present directors and officers of 
National is still pending from last 
year. Although he characterized 
the reports of management at the 
meeting as "baloney — a lot of hot 
air — an insult to intelligent grow- 
ers," he appeared to feel some 
progress was being made by man- 
agement to the advantage of the 
growers and that Stevens "is a 
pretty good fellow with creative 
ideas, and will do a pretty good 
job if given a free hand." 

He said to the stockholders, "I 
will continue to help you all I can." 
His remarks brought forth laugh- 
ter and applause. 

At noon a luxurious buffet lunch 

was served. 

This included a variety of cold 
meats and both whole and jellied 
sauce demonstrating the new slo- 
gan "a natural mate for every 
meat". 

During the meeting, Bruce Ar- 
thur, 52, of Pembroke suffered a 
collapse. After being given first 
aid by Dr. John lE. Angley of Hl&n- 
son he was taken to Goddard Hos- 
pital, Brockton. He was reported 
as resting comfortably, and not 
on the danger list. 

During his repoi-t Garside dis- 
cussed NCA personnel, saying that 
there are 164 persons on the per- 
manent payroll, a reduction of 21 



from previously. Total pa3nroll, 
including seasonal help, was $963, 
900 for the fiscal year ending May 
31., a reduction of $142,395 from 
previous year, even though the 
crop handled increased from 550, 
039 barrels to 765,776, and the 
number of cases of finished goods 
from 5,013,546 to 5,503,960. He 
said in summary that in a period 
distinguished by rising costs, the 
operations of National have been 
conducted with an actual and im- 
portant decrease in unit costs. 

In the report of Controller 
Gaughan, growers were given a 
clear picture of how NCA financial 
and accounting matters were hand- 
led. He said that in the past year 
his department had made tremend- 
ous progiess in bringing the ac- 
counting procedures of NCA and 
Ocean Spray of Canada up to date. 
He said all procedures are on a 
current basis. 

The plaque to Mr. Urann reads: 

*'To Marcus L. Urann, in pro^ 
found respect and admiration _for 
his major part in creating and 
building National Cranberry Asso- 
ciation. He loyally served it as 
president from 1930 to 1955. To 
him the Association owes its exist- 
ence. As a stalwart pioneer, his 
vision, courage and unbounded 
vigor in establishing the coopera- 
tive has endeared him to its mem- 
bers, all of whom have benefitted 
from his unselfish devotion to their 
welfare. His peerless leadership 
has won him the gratitude ar)d 
affections of the Cranberry indus- 
try." 

In presenting the plaque, Russell 
Makepeace also paid tribute to 
the late John C. Makepeace. 



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E, C. St, Jacques 

Many within the cranberry in- 
dustry from coast to coast will 
be saddened to learn of the death 
of Emil C. St. Jacques, head of 
Hayden Separator Manufacturing 
Company, Wareham, Mass., man- 
ufactures of cranberry equipment. 
Mr. St. Jacques, 66, died suddenly 
at his home, in the morning of the 
25th. He had recently been in hos- 
pital with a heart ailment. 

READ 

Cranberries 

Magazine 
AMERICA GREW 

GREAT _..;^^v^. 





THE 

COOPERATIVE 

WAY 



The pioneers pulled stumps, 
planted crops, teamed with their 
neighbors and licked their prob- 
lems the cooperative way. 

Now, farmers like yourself 
solve problems through Co-Op 
Farm Credit Associations, 
owned by them. When you bor- 
row, it's from a farmer's outfit, 
whose only business is low-cost 
farm loans. You become a vot- 
ing member. 

New office located on Route 
44 near Route 24 in Raynham 
will be occupied on September 
8, with Open House to be held 
on September 16. 

Warren R. Arnold, Sec'y-Treas. 

Taunton VAndyke 4-7578 

Mail Address Box 7 

Taunton, Mass. 

New Office on Rte. 44 

in Raynham 



N.F.Lft 



federal land Bank and 
I Production Credit Loans 



COOPERATIVE FARM CREDIT 



^Il I W" 



mu^—m n n^— «■ ■■ ■■ m^— w^wi^iii- 



■ ni l 




ISSUE OF AUGUST 
VOL. 23 - NO. 



1958 
4 



O t^^**^^****^ 



4..— « 



III iin mi nn iiii mi^ni, «„ mi^ii,_„B ru nu iin m m— »— m, „, m >• on »—■•_■«{• 



OUR ANNUAL TIME OF HOPE 

THE season of the year — harvest — 
for which growers have striven towards, is 
now about at hand. Preliminary crop re- 
ports are out. Yet we do not know for 
certain how many berries will be harvested, 
or of what quality the fruit will be until 
later. 

Perhaps most importantly of all we do 
not know what the selling price of fresh 
fruit will be and therefore what the returns 
for the labor of a year will be. That is 
the thought uppermost in the mind of 
every grower, and everyone in anyway 
directly associated with the cranberry in- 
dustry for an income. 

We can at least hope, at this moment, 
for cool, "good buying" weather, a brisk 
demand and adequate prices. 

INSTITUTE REVIVAL 

WE ARE more than heartened by the 
fact the Cranberry Institute, which did not 
"die," but for the past several months has 
been hibernating, is now to be re-activated. 
With officers elected at this time, including 
a board of directors not to exceed 25, in- 
stead of in January the unit is expected to 
be in full swing of activities by first of the 
year 1959. 

Long-range objectives have been 
agreed upon. The Institute can be a defi- 
nite factor towards successful marketing 
of the crop of next year. As we have 
stated more than once, we believe a strong 
and active Institute can do a great deal 
in helping the industry get out of the dol- 
drums in which it has drifted for too long. 

We wish President Orrin G. Colley and 
the other officers every possible success 
and we feel certain they are imbued with 
sufficient realization of the potential of 
the Institute to make it of real value to 
every grower. 

THANK YOU 

PERHAPS this is a good time to ex- 
press our gratitude to growers for their 
continued support of Cranberries through 
subscriptions, despite the rise in subscrip- 
tion price recently put into effect. This 
was necessary, as apparently was under- 
stood, due to constantly rising costs in the 
carrying on of a business of any kind. It 
is indeed gratifying that renewals and new 



Editor and Publisher 
CLARENCE J. HALL 

EDITH S. HALI^Associate Editor 
Wareham, Massachusetts 



CORRESPONDENTS—ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 
-Wisconsin Rapids 



Washington — Oregon 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 

Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash, 



Massachusetts 

I^R. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass. 



Ne^v Jersey 
CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 

Pemberton, New Jersey 



subscriptions continue to come in as usual. 
We have been publishing this maga- 
zine now for 22 years and one of the most 
heartwarming features of this is. that a 
surprisingly large number of subscribers 
have been with us continuously since we 
started in May of 1936. 



Next month we expect to start an un- 
usually informative series of articles by 
Dr. F. B. Chandler. With surveys from all 
areas made relatively recently, he is as- 
sembling a mass of facts (including Cana- 
da) bringing cranberry statistics up to 
date. We do not think this has been as- 
sembled before in overall entirety, 

Thifteen 





ORKIN G. COLLEY 



Cranberry Institute 
Reactivated; Elects 

The Cranberry Institute was re- 
activated Tuesday morning, Au^. 
19, at the East Wareham Cran- 
berry Experiment Station, pre- 
ceding the annual meeting of tlie 
Cape Cod Cranberry Growers' As- 
sociation. Orrin G. Colley of Dux- 
bury, who has previously headed 
this body and has been active in 
cranberry growing since 1929, was 
elected president. 

Other oflficers elected were: 
Ambrose E. Stevens, Duxbury, 
general manager of NCA, firs^i 
vice-president; second vice-presi- 
dent, Vernon Goldsworthy, Eagle 
River, Wis., secretary-treasurer, 
Kenneth E. Garside, Duxbury. 



Executive committee is Colley, 
ex officio; Stevens, alternate Gar- 
side; Goldsworthy, alternate Clar- 
ence A. Searles, Cranmoor, Wise; 
riaurice Makepeace, Wareham, al- 
tprnate Theodore H. Budd, Sr., 
Pemberton, N. J. 

Alden C. Brett, retiring presi- 
{'ent, acted as chairman, discuss- 
ing by-laws and membership. He 
i^ to give a report later. 

The treasurer reported a bal- 
ance of 810,587.50 on hand and 
this sum is to be retained. The 
treasurer is also to bill members 
for an unpaid balance of about 
816,000, based on a seven-cent as- 
sessment per barrel on the 1957 
crop. 

The group will hold fall meet- 
ings and looks forward to being 
fully active in January of 1959, 
with plans for the entire year. 



Proposals are to promote the 
industry at all levels by provia- 
ing an effective medium through 
\.'hich all segments and groups 
within the industry may work to- 
gether for the common good. 

Per\icos are to include repre- 
sentation of the industry on r.iat- 
tc^'-. fifTecting it and its econom:^, 
collection and correlation of sta- 
tistics of a marketing, selling and 
mcnhandising nature; to pr.-v'de 
ordarlv marketing; standardiza- 
tion of products; sales prumo- 
tions; to repesent in consrm.or 
relations and consumer education; 
tj'ansportation; cooperation with 
lelated industries; utilization of 
state and federal services: legis- 
lative proposals on the local, statv 
and federal levels; forward plan- 
ning; market research; and a gen- 
eral clearing house for ideas wiVr- 
in the industry. 

Directors are: Stevens, Marcus 
M. Urann; Kenneth Garside, rep- 
resenting National; Orrin Colley, 
Cape Cod Cranberry Cooperative, 
Tri? • Melville C. Beaton, Beatoa 
Distributing Agency; William De- 
cas, Decas Bros.; Goldsworthy, 
Cranberry Products, In?.; John B. 
M.-rrello, Minot Food Packers. At 
large are: Brett; Bernard C. Bra- 
zes u, Wisconsin Rapids; Budd, N. 
J., Cape Cod Cranberry Growers' 
Association; Maurice Makepeace, 
Chester Robbins, Howard B. Kill- 
er. Wi::consin Stats Cranberry 
Growers' Association: Clarence A. 
Seari- Donald S. Duckart. Amer- 
ican (New Jersey) Cranberry 
Growers' Association: Allison 
Scammell. West Coast group.s: 
en? designate. 



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Cape Cod Cranberry Growers Make 
Tour of Berry Experiment Station 



70th Annual Meeting 
Elects Waite President 

More than 200 cranberry grow- 
ers — 192 buying tickets for the 
chicken and cranberry lunch, as 
compared to 150 last year — at- 
tended the 70th annual meeting of 
the Cape Cod Cranberry Growers' 
Association, Experiment Station, 
East Wareham, Tuesday, Aug. 19. 
This was a session devoted large- 
ly to technical discussions by sta- 
tion staff members and a tour of 
the State Bog, with new develop- 
ments explained by staff members 
to groups. 

Growers also heard C. D. Stev- 
ens, chief, New England Crop Re- 
porting Service, give the prelimi- 
nary estimate of the prospective 
U. S. cranberry crop. This is ex- 
pected to be the second largest on 
record, the sixth largest for Mass- 
achusetts and the second largest 
for Wisconsin. This was the 30th 
year in which Mr. Stevens has 
made this report, which was re- 
leased from Washington at 1 p. m. 
Election of officers on a slate, 
nominated by Arthur Handy of 
Cataumet, chairman of the nomi- 
nating committee, resulted in the 
following off'icials elected unop- 
posed: 

President, Ferris C. Waite, Ply- 
mouth; first vice-president, Ralph 
Thacher, Marion; second vice- 
president, Philip S. Gibbs, Carver; 
secretary, Gilbert T. Beaton, 
Wareham; treasurer, Mrs. Ruth 
Beaton. 

Directors: Waite, Thacher, Mr. 
f.nd Mrs. Beaton, Gibbs. Dr. C. E. 
Cross of Sandwich, Paul Morse 
of West Wareham, Robert C. 
Hammond of East Wareham, J. 
Foxcroft Carleton of Sandwich, 
Handy. Also directors are cran- 
berry club presidents. South 
Shore, Louis Sherman, Plymouth; 
Southeastern, Oscar L. Norton, 
Rochester; upper Cape, Victor 
Adams, Osterville; lower Cape, 
Francis Kendrick, East Harwich. 
Honorary directors are: Chester 
A. Vose, Marion; Dr. Herbert F. 
Bergman, Amherst, and delegates 
to the Cranberry Institute, Ches- 
ter W. Robbins, Maurice Make- 
peace, Marion, and Howard B. 
Hiller, Rochester. 

President Waite, who is serving 
his second term, in opening the 
meeting went back into the his- 
tory of the organization. Rec- 
ords imply, he said, that the unit 
is 70 years old, but an earlier 
minute book tells of a cranberry 



growers' convention at Harwich 
in 1866, 92 years ago, indicating a 
lapse in which the association did 
not function. 

He said that a study of theso 
old minutes revealed that many 
of the problems of the earlier 
growers were still problems of 
growers today. 

The morning was aevoted to 
the bog tours. The meeting 
opened after lunch. President 
Waite called for a minute of pray- 
er in memory of members who 
had died during the past year. 
He mentioned Dr. H. J. Franklin, 
former station director; John C. 
Makepeace, a past president, and 
Walter E. Piper, Massachusetts 
Department of Agriculture, Div- 
ision of Marketing. Invocation 
was by Rev. James P. Wolfe, East 
Wareham. 

Massachusetts Commissioner of 
Agriculture Charles H. McNamara 
made his first appearance before 
the cranberry growers. He told 
the cranberrymen he was a dairy- 
man, and jocosely urged them not 
to become too discouraged with 
the present depressed market con- 
dition and get into dairy farm- 
ing — or they would be even more 
depressed. He urged growers to 
tell him of their problems and 
promised his department would 
do all possible to be of assistance. 
Dale Seiling, dean of the Col- 
lege of Agriculture, University of 
Massachusetts, discussed improve- 
ments iwhich had been made at the 
Cranberry Station in the past 
year, mentioning in particular the 
many new research programs in 
progress. 

Louis Websteri, Massachusetts 
Department of Agriculture, Div- 
ision of Marketing, was another 
speaker. He said he could prom- 
ise the growers one-minute promo- 
tion spots on at least 20 radio sta- 
tions during the coming market- 
ing season. 

Following the report of Secre- 
tary Beaton, Treasurer Ruth Bea- 
ton said the association had 
$3,537.07 cash on hand, and 
§3,859.53 in general bank funds. 
She said membership is 240 with 
two sustaining members: the A. 
D. Makepeace Company of Ware- 
ham and the Charles W. Harris 
Company of North Dighton. 

Reporting for the frost warning 
committee of the association, J. 
Richard Seattle said subscribers 
totalled 186, less than the 200 of 
last season. He said the commit- 

Fifteen 




Officers of the Cape Cod Cranberry Growers' 
Association elected Tuesday Wiere, left to right, 
second vice-president, Philip Gibbs; treasurer, 



Mrs. Ruth Beaton; president, Ferris C. Waite; 
secretary, Gilbert T. Beaton. Ralph Thacher, first 
vice-president is not shown. (Cranberries Photo) 



tee had ended $7.91 "in the black", 
and total expenditures of the 
committee had been $1,673. 

A report on vandalism was giv- 
en by Ralph Thacher, chairman of 
the vandalism committee, the oth- 
er members of vi^hich are Beattie 
and Robert C. Hammond. He said 
only a single case had been re- 
ported in the past three months 
and that was in Middleboro. He 
added that growers complained of 
various troubles but failed to re- 
port them. He said the commit- 
tee had been in conference with 
the area chief of police associa- 
tions, and the police offered cooper- 
ation. They said they could not 
patrol all cranberry bogs, Taut 
would act if reports of law viola- 
tions were made to them. Thacher 
urged growers to report infrac- 
tions to their town chief of police 
if they wanted remedial action. 

Oscar Norton, who had charge 
of the exhibit of the association 
at the Union Fair in Worcester 
last winter, told how the associa- 
tion had taken top honors in its 
field. He said the exhibit was the 
last the fair association was to 
hold due to the usually inclement 
weather. He was pleased that 
the cranberry growers had been 
with the fair organization until 
its ending. Norton was also com- 
mended highly by President 
Waite for planning the luncheon 
for the association the day of the 
meeting. 

At this point Station Director 
Cross took over the meeting and 
called upon various members of 

Sixteen 



his staff. William E. Tomlinson re- 
ported on insects; Beattie on his 
duties as Extension Service cran- 
berry specialist, and explained his 
work was much concerned with an 
educational program. He stated 
that Irving E. Demoranville and 
he would continue marketing sur- 
veys this fall for the fourth con- 
secutive year. This is a program 
for quality control. 

Dr. Bert M. Zuckerman, station 
pathologist, gave a brief report 
(>f his work in fungicides this past 
summer, but said results would 
not be known until harvest or af- 
ter. He introduced his summer- 
time assistant, John Coughlin. 
Zuckerman and Coughlin have be- 
gun studies of nematodes, a micro- 
scopic worm-like creature which 
may be causing hitherfore unsus- 
pected trouble to cranberry grow- 
ers, as it has been found to be do- 
ing to other agriculturists. He 
urged growers to send in samples 
of bog soil, taken from spots 
where vines were thinning out in- 
to barren spots. Following tho 
meeting, he showed a collection of 
the worm-like creatures to inter- 
ested growers. 

Demoranville talked upon weed 
control, telling of new herbicides 
which are better than some of the 
old ones and more economical to 
the grower. He stressed pre- 
emergence control of insects and 
material. Amino Triazole, in post- 
harvest treatment this fall. He 
told growers that the new material 
must be applied each bog between 
seven and ten days following harv- 



est. 

"Getting More Production" was 
the topic of Dr. F. B. Chandler. 
He said growers should strive to 
get between ."^.'SO and 370 uprights 
to the square foot. If there are 
less, fertilizer should be increased; 
if more than 700, he said there 
should be pruning. He urged 
growers to build better soil. 

John "Stan" Norton, engineer- 
ing research member of the staff", 
reported on his work of a little 
more than a year, saying he had 
many projects in mind, but had 
been unable so far to get as many 
of them completed as he had 
hoped. The all-purpose bog ve- 
hicle has not yet been perfected, 
but he had stated work on a new 
type of separator, which did not 
operate on the bruising "bounce" 
principle. This would be tried 
out this fall, along with water 
raking (Wisconsin method) of 
cranberry harvest and also arti- 
ficial drying of berries, and he 
hoped with better success than 
last year. 

Final speaker was Dr. Cross, 
who said it was his job to steer, 
balance and coordinate the work 
of his staff in such a way as to 
best meet the requirements of the 
growers. Much of the station re- 
search is now directed at "funda- 
mental" as well as immediately 
practical projects. 

During the bog tours, much of 
this new research was explained 
to growers. Groups \isited the 
varieties section of Dr. Chandler, 
whei'e he has planted a lai'ge nuni- 




Visiting Cape Cod Cranberry Growers' Associa- 
tion for the first time was Charles H. McNamara, 
Massachusetts Commissioner of Agriculture, (left). 
He is shown with Dale Selling, dean of College of 



Agriculture, University of Massachusetts and Dr. 
C. E. Cross, Cranberry Station director. 



her of new and old varieties of 
cranberries. 

On an irrigated acre, besides 
sprinkler experiments for irriga- 
tion, there have been applications 
of insecticides through the sys- 
tems, which were reported as the 
most successful of all insect con- 
trols, nearly 100 pei-cent perfect. 
This was a statement by Ento- 
mologist Tomlinson. 

In conclusion, Cross pointed out 
a new adverse factor which may 
face cranberry growers in a few 
years. This is that — ^with the 
growth of towns and cities in the 
cranberry area — there is growing 
demand for water resources and 
the cranberry men will almost in- 
evitably not have the amount of 
water for various controls they 
have been accustomed to in the 
past. This is already a factor in 
the New Jersey industry. 

Experiments of Norton in two 
new methods of ditch cleaning 
were explained. In one, a powerful 
jet stream was played into the 
ditch, agitating the muck, which 
was then pumped out by a sludge 
pump to the upland. Another 
was by use of a new type rotary 
weed cutter, which also agitated 
the muck and both were then de- 
posited on the upland by sludge 
pump. The latter method is con- 
sidered as possibly more effective. 



Another interesting experiment 
in drainage by Dr. Chandler was 
the re-Jbuilding of three plots and 
a check. On one, sand and peat 
wex-e removed to a depth of about 
two feet — approximately a foot of 
each — and then mixed and re- 
turned to the plot. 

In the second experiment, the 
sand was removed from the 
top and the bottom peat placed 
on the surface. On the third, the 
surface was merely scalped in the 



(CRANBERRIES Photo) 

conventional fashion. All were 
sanded as usual and replanted 
with vines. 

Growers had perfect weather 
for the meeting. Among those 
attending was a large delegation 
from Wisconsin and others from 
the West Coast and New Jersey. 

As usual, a feature was the 
commercial exhibition of equip- 
ment. Displays included a heli- 
copter from the Wiggins Airways, 



Second Largest Cranberry Crop 
Forecast; Mass. Estimate 570,000 



Preliminary forecast of the 
United States Department of Ag- 
riculture is 1,076,500 barrels. This 
is second largest to the recoi-d 
1,203,000 of 1953. 

Of this total, Massachusetts is 
estimated to have 570,000 barrels 
compared to 563,000 in 1957 and 
560,000 on a ten-year average. 
There have been five crops larger. 
It is approximately average. 

New Jersey is accorded 88,000 
barrels. It had 78,000 in 1957 and 
89,100 on a fen year average. 

The Wisconsin figure is 335,000; 
284,000 in 1957; average 222,500, 
and second largest. 

Washington is estimated at 49, 
500 barrels, approximately half of 



the 84,000 of 1947, the loss being 
due chiefly to a sever frost May 
12; average 47,590. 

Oregon is estimated at 34,000, 
less than the record for that state 
of 41,000 in 1957 but more than 
the ten-year average of 20,300. 

Growing season in Massachu- 
setts was reported as being wet 
and cool, with medium to heavy 
bloom and good set, the best since 
1953. Early Blacks will make up 
60 percent of the crop, Howes 36, 
others the remainder. Fruitwoi'm 
caused less injury than many 
years; there was an ample supply 
of rainfall which prevents a quality 
problem. 

Seventeen 





Ciaii.jt.i.v ijiowers made group tours of tlie researLii , 

State Bog at the annual meeting of Cape Cod Cran- Specialist 

berry Growers' Association to look over new field 



,.uj cts. This group is led by Cranberry 
J. Richard Beattie. 

(CRANBERRIES Photo) 



Norwood; display, Marshfield Air- 
ways, Marshfield; Samson digger 
by E. W. Turgeon Co., North 
Dartmouth; E. C. Goodhue Lum- 
ber Co., East Freetown; Hayden 
Separator with Darlington picker, 
Wareham; Davis Tractor Co., Bos- 
ton; Louis Sherman, Plymouth, 
special spray rig; Brodeur Mach- 
ine Co., New Bedford, pumps. 



Some Notes From 
Washington 

Ralph E. Tidrick, County Ex- 
tension Agent, Pacific County, 
Washington, reports experiments 
are being made in using aromatic 
solvents as weed killers in sub- 
merged ditches. Object is to find 



Cape Cod Cranberry Co-operative, Inc. 



SALES OFFICE 



367 MAIN ST. 



WAREHAM, MASS. 



Tels. 1588 and 970 



an economical and easier way of 
getting rid of water starwort 
(watercress). Two ditches were 
used. 

In a flowing ditch the solvents 
were injected into the water under 
pressure as follows; two and one- 
half gallons of solvent were mixed 
with 25 gallons of water. This was 
fed into the relatively small ditch 
at a rate of one gallon per minute, 
for approximately 30 minutes. A 
fair kill was achieved with the first 
application, however, it was found 
the level of the ditch water was too 
low. Tips of weeds were out and 
were not killed. Seed quickly 
germinated in the muck at bottom 
of the ditch. Ditch was re-treated 
at the same rate with water level 
higher and current faster. Ex- 
cellent kill resulted. 

In another ditch with very little 
flow there was constructed a dam 
bringing the water level to the 
tops of the weeds. Material was 
then injected into the ditch under 
pressure by walking along with 
the nozzle under the surface. An 
excellent kill was obtained but 



Eighte'en 



"fi^iS^^^^'^'^'i&i&'tV* *«>'<,i<9MVf<!S«:fXp.X!SS«S'WK9M^ V ^y^f/'i'M^ /»Ktii;ii;;f^.fiy^.ifiS>^.i^^ 




"Alice in Dairyland" girls recently visited the 
plant of Cranberry Products, Inc. at Eagle River, 
Wisconsin. They are shown wiith President Vernon 
Goldsworthy, and from left to right are: Jane 



Trappe, Green Bay; Carole Calabrese, Milwaukee; 
Goldsworthy; Nancy Trewyn, Princess; Connie 
Lutz, Oconto Falls and Barbara Haslow, Chili. 



more material was required due 
to the abs'Snce of an accurately 
metering pi'ocedure. 

Tidiick also reports more fruit- 
worm than in the past several 
years. He wonders if this insect 
isn't beginning to show resistance 
to present spray program. On 
the other hand the record warm 
and dry season may be respon- 
sible for increased insect activity. 
Localized infestations appeared in 
all areas. Although he points out 
growers in general did a good job 
of worm control, some infestations 
were due to improper timing or 
not spraying at all. 

Red Leaf spot was a problem 
this year, as Tidrick predicted 
earlier, because of excess vine 
growth on many bogs where the 
May 12th frost destroyed the crop. 
Bordeaux on spots heavily infested 
is the surest way of control, he 
says. If left unsprayed, partial 
defoliation results. 

A few Washington gi-owers are 



adopting a page from the weed 
book of Wisconsin. They have 
baen experimenting with Dalapon 
by wiping the concentrated mater- 
ial on the grassy type of weeds. 

Blueberry Price 
Low To Consumer 

An unusually good cultivated 
blueberry crop — good in both 
quantity and quality — is being 
harvested in southeastern Massa- 
chusetts this season. The crop, 
however, is extremely late. Grow- 
ing is delayed about three weeks, 
and picking is not expected to be 
finished until the end of August 
and, for a few late -varieties, the 
first of September. 

With somewhere in the neigh- 
borhood of 300 planted acres, the 
total crop may exceed the normal, 
60,000 pints. With the abundance, 
prices are satisfactory to the con- 
sumer, but not to the grower or 
retailer. Wholesale price is re- 
ported as around 22 cents a pint. 
Growers who are doing best, per- 



haps, are those who sell their own 
fruit in roadside stands or permit 
pickers to come in and hai'vest for 
themselves by the quart. Jersey- 
blues continue to be available in 
quantity and at low prices. 



Fresh From The Fields 

(Continued From Page 6) 
of the College of Agriculture, U. 
of Wis. will be the guest speaker. 

OREGON 

Little Frost 

There has been relatively little 
frost damage to Coos County bogs 
this year, although there was some 
damage last spring on higher ele- 
vation bogs which were not pro- 
tected by sprinklers. There wei'e 
a number of borderline nights 
when growers adequately protec- 
ted themselves. 

Heavy Set 

On most bogs set was heavy and 
crop prospect reported up. 



Nineteen 



f IRVING 



llNSiN 6R0WEiS 



Growers Meet 

Southeastern Oregon Cranberry 
Club held its annual gathering at 
Shore Acres State Park, Charles- 
ton, Sunday, August 3. There was 
a potluck picnic. 

Nova Scotia 

There was a severe frost on the 
island on the morning of June 9. 
Temperatures dropped to 16 de- 
grees on the Oyler bog at Auburn 
and probably lower at other points. 
About the only cranberries which 
escaped were those completely 
flooded or under sprinkler control. 
The damage was not as extensive 
in eastern Nova Scotia where bogs 
are closer to the salt water of 
Northumberland Strait. 

A 50 percent cut in the normal 
total would be a reasonable esti- 
mate according to E. L. Eaton, 
Senior Horticulturist at Kentville, 
Experimental Farm, Department 
of Agriculture. A normal crop 
might be 5,000 barrels. 

Late Massachusetts 

August Weather Better 

August started with the kind of 
weather growers wished had pre- 
vailed during July. In sharp con- 
trast to the humidity, drizzle and 
fog of that month were clear, 
warm days with relatively little 
humidity. Rainfall was on the 
very scant side first part of the 
month, only .21 of an inch. 
Good Rains 

By the 14th three storms had 
brought the total up to 3.20, with 
average for the month 3.60. These 
rains did the crop much good as 
they were well spaced. 
Hot 

Month was continuing consider- 
ably warmer than normal. Total 
excess to the 14th was 34 degrees 
above average. Humidity was not 
as extreme as during July, at least 
during first half of month. 
Insect Loss "Normal" 

Due to new chemicals and alert- 
ness of growers, fruitworm did 
not cause an undue amount of 
damage. Many eggs earlier indi- 
cated a severe year, but injury 

Twenty 



from this pest has not been and 
apparently will not be excessive. 
Blackheaded fireworm was spotty, 
bad on some older bogs and those 
which were not treated. Total 
damage about normal, according to 
Dr. Cross. 

Crop Not Very Late 
With good growing weather, ber- 
ries were sizing up and are ex- 
pected to be of reasonably good 
size. Lateness of the season was 



being overcome, and by mid-Au- 
gust, crop was not more than a 
week late. Picking was expected 
to start early in September, not 
in August as last year, the earliest 
season on record. 



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NATIONAL 

CRANBERRY 

ASSOCIATION 

holds the key 
for selling 
faster, better 



Large-scale advertising of new 
"Natural Mate for Every Meat" campaign 
builds year-round consumption 

Every year cranberry crops continue to increase 
and NCA members continue to sell their total 
\ield — thanks to effective consumer advertising. 

In the years ahead crops are expected to get 
even bigger and bigger. This means more people 
have got to eat more cranberries more often. 
And NCA pledges itself to seeing that they do! 

NCA"s biggest tool is advertising under the 
Ocean Spray brand. And right now wc are in the 
process of educating consumers to eat cranberries 
and cranberry products, not only with chicken 
and turkey around the holidays, but all year long 
with every kind of meat. Also we're 
constantly experimenting with the development 
of new products.. 

All of this means that no matter how big an 
NCA member's crop, he's assured of selling it 
to best advantage. 

The future looks great for NCA... 

and it's great to be part of a great future 



NATIONAL CRANBERRY ASSOCIATION 

Hanson, Mass. • Tel. Bryantville-CYpress 3-6311 




IVING A 520,000,000 A YEAR INUU:>IKY 




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— >n— n-it •■ - CW- 



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Box Corpora 

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Manufacturers 

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WATER WHITE 

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For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STODDARD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

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Tel. 39-R 



CRANBERRY 
GROWERS 

Choose and Use 

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New England Plant and Warehouse 

Ayer, Mass. Tel. Spruce 2-2365 



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Loans on Real Estate 
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^o^ Experiment 
In Michigan 
Peninsula 

An experimental planting of a 
commercial cranberry marsh in 
Upper Peninsula of Michigan; a 
state which now grows no cran- 
berries because of much alkaline 
water has been made South of a 
community named Dollarville. 
Donald Zettle of Marquette, region- 
al forester for the state conserva- 
tion department said land was 
selected close to a highway, where 



interested persons could observe 
the experiment. It was felt cran- 
berry cultivation migiit be an 
economic asset to the Peninsula. 

Donating the vines was Vernon 
Goldsworthy of Eagle River, Wis- 
consin and accompanying him on 
the planting expedition were Ralph 
Sampson and Howard Querry, also 
of Eagle River. All three are 
growers and officers of Cranberry 
Products, Inc. of Eagle River. 
Goldsworthy found the soil and 
location suitable for cranberries 
and that estimated development 
costs were at $3,000 an acre. 



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One 



Jersey Growers 
Met At Toms 
River f Aug, 28 

Hobart R. Gardner of Indian 
Mills, as Vice-President, convened 
the summer meeting of the Amer- 
ican Cranberry Growers' Associa- 
tion on August 28 in the absence 
of President Albert T. Andrews, 
who was away on a trip. 

The guest speaker of the day 
was E. Rowland Major, Local Pro- 
perty Tax State Supervisor. Mr. 
Major concentrated on two main 
questions: (1) what are the causes 
of sharp tax increases and (8) 
does equalization have anything 
to do with increase of taxes? Mr. 
Major pointed out that in addition 
to the "exploding" population of 
Southern New Jersey, which de- 
mands so much more service, 
especially in schooling, tax valu- 
ations have not been increased as 
fast as the cost of providing these 
services. In ten years tax valua- 
tions for the State as a whole have 
only increased fifty per cent while 
local taxes have nearly tripled. 

Unfortunately, x'ising costs and 
taxes have not been paralleled by 
similar improved returns from 
farming. Mr. Major maintained 
that on the whole equalization 
does not increase taxes. However, 
it does hit most rural areas harder 
because they have been generally 
underassessed to save the load on 
the farmer, while city properties 
were kept at higher assessments 
because that helped cities in bor- 
rowing money. In order to help 
.assessors in revaluing properties 
Mr. Major's department organizes 
classes in different parts of the 
State and has provided an apprais- 
al manual. 

Sparganothis 

Philip E. Marucci reviewed the 
situation in regard to Sparganothis 
fruitworm. He pointed out that 
several bogs last year lost 25 per 
cent of the crop by not following 
the regular spray schedule. It is 
very difficult in the spring to find 
the worms of the first generation. 
But since there are two genera- 
tions it is important to spray or 
dust at the proper time, which 
occurs in early June, and some- 
times again in early July. Figures 



were given to show that even on 
a very lightly infested bog a 
Sparganothis spray will pay off. 
The combination of Parathion and 
DDT has continued to be very 
effective against Sparganothis and 
cranberry fruitworms. 

Water Problems 
Vinton N. Thompson, cranberry 
grower and Executive Director of 
the N.J. Rural Advisory Com- 
mittee, spoke on current water 
problems. Mr. Thompson is also 
a member of the N.J. State Water 
Supply and Policy Council. He 
pointed out that there is a possi- 
bility that if certain provisions 
for increased water supply in 
North Jersey are not constructed, 
these communities may find ways 
to take water from South Jersey. 
It is a well known fact that com- 
mon law, dating back to the Ro- 
mans, in regard to a man's right 
and restrictions v^en taking water 
from a stream is very vague and 
can cause serious injustice. Large 
numbers of people have been put- 
ting pressure on the State to clear 
up this matter of law. As a re- 
sult, a committee was appointed to 
prepare the first draft of a bill 
which would permit the State to 
have some control over the fair 
diversion of surface waters for 



private use. Mr. Thompson served 
on this committee and urged the 
Association to appoint persons to 
study the draft in its present stage 
and report on the feeling of the 
cranberry growers. 

DeMarco 

Anthony R. DeMarco, cranberry 
growers and shipper, briefly dis- 
cussed his company's methods in 
growing a crop. In regard to 
sales, Mr. DeMarco feels that more 
care should be taken of the berries 
after they are delivered to the 
trade. The trade, of course, should 
make money on the crop. But a 
product can be priced too hi^h to 
fit into the buyer's budget. If the 
price on cranberries is right for 
the Thanksgiving market, then a 
good fifty percent of the crop will 
be sold in that market. 



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Two 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Notes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 







E. C. St. Jacques 

The cranberry industry has 
again lost one of its able leaders 
in the death of Emile St. Jacques 
of Waraham, Mass. "Doc", as he 
was known to many of his friends, 
was one of our pioneers in the 
manufacturing of cranberry equip- 
ment. His separator, pumps, 
dusting machines and cranberry 
picking machines are in use 
throughout the cranberry growing 
areas of this country and Canada. 
He served with distinction as 
president of the Southeastern 
Cranberry Club, as well as its 
secretary-treasurer, and was active 
in the Cape Cod Cranberry Grow- 
ers' Association. No cranberry 
meeting in Massachusetts was 
complete without his presence. We 
at the Cranberry Station join his 
many friends in extending our 
sympathy to his family. 

Weather Pattern 

We have seen no evidence to 
indicate any change in the weather 
pattern established several months 
ago — namely, excessive rainfall, 
cool temperatures, and cloudy con- 
ditions. The rainfall for the first 
ei^-ht months of 1958 has been re- 
corded at our station, giving a 
total of 47.58 inches, or 3.27 inches 
in excess of our yearly average. 
Rainfall in August measured 9.02 
inches at our station, making it 
the third wettest August in our 
records, topped only in 1922 and 
1927, and then by less than one- 
half inch. Heavy rains that were 
associated with Hurricane Daisy 
in late August flooded the low 
areas of some bogs, but damage 
appears to be negligible. We con- 
sider ourselves most fortunate 
that the hurricane missed our area. 
Berry Growth 

General picking did not get un- 



der way in Massachusetts until 
nearly mid-September — a full two 
weoks later than last year. Irving 
Demoranville has been carefully 
checking samples of berries from 
our State Bog each week since Au- 
gust 25, as a part of his growth 
studies which he began in 1953. 
His purpose is to secure valuable 
information as to the rate of 
growth of "early and late-water" 
fruit in terms of size and weight. 
His records show that "early- 
water" Early Blacks apparently 
reached their peak of growth this 
year by September 15. However, 
"late-water" Early Blacks were 
still increasing in'size 'ahd weight 
on this date. Compared to last year, 
the present "early-water" Early 
Blacks are about the same size 
and weight, while the present "late- 
water" Early Blacks are the larg- 
est and heaviest since his studies 
began. A complete report, includ- 
ing the Howes variety, will be 
available at a later date. 

Labor Adequate 

We have heard of no serious 
labor problem, so apparently the 
Massachusetts Division of Em- 
ployment Security has been able to 
supply the necessary workers. A 
flash card was mailed to growers 
in early September giving the lo- 
cation and telephone numbers of 
their temporary field oflFices. These 
are as follows: Square Deal Gar- 
age, West Wareham, Tel. Ware- 
ham 1298; National Cranberry As- 
sociation, Hanson, Tel. Cypress 
3-7626; and Public Service Build- 
ing, Wareham Street, Middleborp, 
I'el. Middleboro 1210. Their home 



offices 'in Brockton; Hyannis, "J(ew 
Bedford, Plymouth and Taunton 

■are also assisting growerg'^ 'WitTi 

- labor problems^ " ' ' ' ",; 

Water Supplies . 

Water supplies as. of mid-Sep- 
tember appear to be adequate for 
frost, protection unless we encoun- 
ter an unusually active fro.st^ sea- 
son. With supplies available, 
growers are encouraged to flood 
each bog immediately after pick- 
ing. It helps to revive the vines 
and removes much of the harmful 
trash that collects each year. The 
float boat is ideal for this task. 
Before leaving the subject of fro^t, 
tiie below fall radio schedule 
which supplements the telephone 
frost warning service, sponsored 
by the Cape Cod Cranberry Gro>Y- 
ers' Association, is now in effect: 
80% of Crop Machine Picked 

The picking machine sch.ools 
held in August 1957 proved so 
helpful that they were reschedijled 
by popular request in late August 
of this' year. We expect that at 
least 80% of our present crop will 
be picked by machine. Certainly, 
any techniques that could be re- 
layed to 'growers to reduce picking- 
costs are in order. 

Three schools were held for this 
purpose and enabled growers and 
operators to familiarize themselves 
with operational techniques, gen- 
eral maintenance, adjustments, and 
simple repairs. Approximately 150 
growers attended these sessions 
and received one and a half hours 
of instruction per machine. We 
are indebted to Kenneth Beaton 
who did an excellent job as a sub- 
stitute for Robert St. Jacques 
whose father passed away just 
prior to the sch.ools. "Ken" was 
our instructor for the Darlington 
picker. Louis Sherman, as usual, 
handled his assignment as instruc- 
tor for the Western picker in a 
very capable manner. Mimeo- 
graphed outlines of instruction 
were prepared for each machine 
and enabled growers to follow the 
lecture and demonstration at each 



Station 



Place 



WEEI Boston 

WBZ Boston 

WOCB W. Yarmouth 

WBSM N. Bedford 



Dial Afternoon-.^ Evenirtg 

A.M. P.M. 

590 k. 103.3 mg. 2:00 (ex. Sat. -9:00 
1030 k. 92.9 mg. 2:30 9:00 

1240 k;4- 94.3 mg. 3:00 „9:00 

1230 k. 97.3 mg. 3:30- .--#:00 



session. Extra copies are available 
at the Hayden Separator Manu- 
facturing Company, West Ware- 
ham; Louis Sherman's home, Ply- 
mouth; County Extension offices, 
and at the Cranberry Experiment 
Station. 

After Harvest 

Growers are reminded again that 
asters, nutgrass, cutgrass, panic 
grass, and white violets can be 
treated effectively with amino tri- 
azole after harvest. It is suggest- 
ed that this treatment be delayed 
until five days after picking a bog 
in order for the vines to make a 
partial recovery from the harvest- 
ing operation. This is also an ex- 
cellent time of year to fertilize 
the thin or weak areas on bogs that 
show up so clearly during the 
picking season. 

Dapalon Tests 
In Washington 

A few Washington growers have 
tried trial sized patches of Dalapon 
for grass and rush control. A 
concentrated solution of the ma- 
terial was wiped on the weeds with 
a wick-fed boom such as used in 
Wisconsin. Only the weeds are 
contacted with these booms as they 
pass over the top of the cranberry 
vines. The process was reported 
as looking fairly promising on 
grasses and sucii rushes as cotton 
top. 



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FowF 



Issue of September 1958 - Vol. 23 No. 5 

Published monthly at The Courier Print Shop, Main St., Wareham. Massachusetts. Subscription $3.50 per year. 

Entered as second-class matter January 26, 1943, at the post-office at Wareham, Massachusetts, under the Act of March 3, 1871 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

August Adds to 
Excessive Rain of Year 

August was the eighth month of 
1958 with excessive rainfall. The 
total amount of precipitation dur- 
ing the 31 days was 9.02 inches. 
This included the rainfall from the 
hurricane Effie on the night of 
August 31 of which the cranberry 
area received only a token of the 
disturbance which originated in 
the tropics. 

The months during which rain- 
fall was not excessive were March 
and July. 

The total precipitation for the 
first eight months of the year has 
been 47.58 inches. Normal for an 
entire year is figured as 44.31. 

With so much rain a number of 
growers in Plymouth County and 
particularly in Barnstable county 
were obliged to start up pumps or 
to pull planks to get the water off. 
Loss of fruit was probably not 
much. 

August Temperature 
Almost Normal 

Temperatures for the month ran 
about a degree a day above nor- 
mal. 

NEW JERS EY 

For temperatures, July was fair- 
ly close to normal with an average 
temperature 0.7° above the normal 
of 75.6°; August was cool with an 
average temperature 1,2° below the 
normal of 73.6°. 

Excessive Rain 

Rainfall, however, was greatly 
in excess of normal, being 5.82 
inches in July (1.49 inches above 
normal) and 10.80 inches in Au- 
gust (6.12 inches above normal). 



As of August 31, Pemberton re- 
ceived in 1958 a total of 47.89 
inches of rainfall, which is actually 
18.09 inches greater than the aver- 
age rainfall through this date. It 
is also 4.73 inches more than the 
average year's rainfall. 

A number of dams suffered 
washouts and many bogs had 
standing water for a couple of 
days. On some properties stand- 
ing water accumulated several 
times and has destroyed the cran- 
berry crop. Ripening and picking 
will be delayed. 

Blueberries were also hit hard 
by the excessive rains and damp- 
ness which caused molding of fruits 
on the bush, injury to roots by 
flooding which was also serious 
in nurseries of young plants, 
washing off of insecticides, and 

interference with picking. 



WISCONSIN 

August Frosts 

August was slightly below norm- 
al in temperature, with precipita- 
tion above average in northern 
areas, but continued below normal 
rainfall in southern districts. The 
warmest day was 97 degrees on 
the 3rd and coldest was 24 degrees 
on the morning of the 25th. Cold 
spots off the marshes registered 
20 degrees and was the coldest on 
record for that date. Some berries 
were lost to the frost and grow- 
ers with short water supplies were 
unable to effect complete protect- 
ion. Roughly the first half of the 
month was warm, and the last half 
unseasonably cold. This marked 
the continuation of killing frosts 

during each of this year's grow- 




R. F. MORSE & SON 

West Wareham, Mass., Phone 1553-R 

Cranberry Growers Agent For 

Eastern States Farmers' Exchange 

Insecticides - Fertilizers - Fungicides 

Bog Service and Supplies 
Agent for Wiggins Airways 

Helicopter Spray and Dust Service 
DEPENDABLE ECONOMICAL SERVICE 



Five 



ing months. Average rainfall for 
the state is now about 4 inches be- 
low normal and the ground water 
table remains 1.9 feet below nor- 
mal. The extended forecast for 
September is for cooler and wetter 
weather than normal. Normal 
temperature for Sept. is 55.2 de- 
grees and 3.76 inches. 

Hail Loss Heavy 

The big news in Wisconsin the 
past month was the short water 
supplies in the Mather and City 
Point areas, the severe frosts the 
latter part of the month and the 
hail storms at Manitowish Waters 
on the 6th and in the Biron area 
the 29th. This was followed by a 
severe hail storm on the 3rd of 
September near Mather. The 
Mather storm covered about two 
hundred acres, the Biron storm 
about 125 acres and the Manito- 
wish area about 200 acres. Least 
damage was in the Manitowish 
area, in Biron about 25 percent 
of the berries were knocked off 
the vines and in the Mather area 
from 30 to 90 percent. A high 
percentage of the berries remain- 
ing on the vines were scarred bad- 
ly. There was little color on the 
berries and they are small due to 
the late season and cool weather. 
Frost damage to immature berries 
on two frosts the latter part of 
August probably took between 3 
to 4 thousand barrels. Hail loss, 
probably will run close to 10 
thousand bai-rels, depending on 
what can be salvaged. Water sup- 
pliees were im{proving the first 
part of September with southern 
marshes getting heavy showers. 

Probably Short Of Estimate 

Berry size continued to cause 
concern among growers relative to 
their estimates of crop. With the 
frost and hail damage sustained 
in late August and early Septem- 
ber, coupled with small berry size, 
it is extremely doubtful if Wiscon- 
sin will reach the August estimiate 
of 335,000 bbls. Berries are ex- 
pected to color earlier than nor- 
mal and to be of good keeping 
quality. Ample supplies are ex- 
pected to be available the first 
week of October. 



Black Light Traps 

Pruitworm were working Into 
in August, but damage appeared 
light. With the late season and 
cool weather thei-e. was some pos- 
sibility worms would be harvested 
with the berries and taken into 
the warehouses. Weather condi- 
tions the first half of September 
would have considerable bearing 
on this possibility. The writer 
successfully trapped adult fruit- 
worm millers and black headed 
fireworm millers with the new 
black light traps. Two different 
models were used and both work- 
ed equally well. Further study 
will be made to determine if there 
is some possible manner in which 
these machines can be used eco- 
nomically. 

Picking September 22 

Growers with adequate water 
supplies were planning to wait as 
long as possible before startinp; 
harvesting, in an effort to gain 
rs much size and color as possi- 
ble. Most marshes were expected 
to begin operations Sept. 22 and 
the balance Sept_ 29. An excess 
of 90 percent of the crop is ex- 
pected to be both mechanically 



harvested and dried this year 
Over half of the mechanical har- 
vesting will be done with some 
type of boat arrangement. 

Leo A. Sorensen 

NCA Opens At 
IS Per Barrel 



Ocean Spray's opening price on 
fresh cranberries is $4.00 a case 
($16.00 a barrel) for both the 
one-pound sellophane bags and the 
one-pound window boxes, it was 
anounced Sept. 5 by Ambrose E. 
Stevens, general manager and ex- 
ecuti^'e vice-president of National 
Cranberry Association. All prices 
are f. o. b. shipping point in the 
producing area. 

The total cranberry crop is ex- 
pected to run close to the Depart- 
ments of Agriculture's early esti- 
mate of 1,075,500 barrels, depend- 
ing upon weather conditions the 
next two months, but due to heavy 
processed sales of Ocean Spray in 
the spring and summer, the supply 
of fruit will be about 10 percent 
less than last season. 

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Six 



Cranberries In North America 

by 

F. B. Chandler 

Research Proffessor, Cranberry Station 

• East Wareham, Mass. 

Most of the commercial cranberries of the world are grown in North 
America. There have been experimental plantings set in many countries 
in the northern ;Jieniisphere in the past, and recently there have been 
some sent to the" southern hemisphere. England and Holland have 
plantings which may be considered larger than experimental. The 
cranberry of commerce, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., is native to North 
America and is found quite abundantly in Northeastern United States 
and Southeastern Canada. This has often been called the American 
cranberry. Vaccinium Oxycoccos L., the moss cranberry, is found in 
the same region as well as in Europe and parts of Asia, but the fruit 
of this plant is much smaller than that of the American cranberry. 

Start of the reports listed the growers 

The cultivatiion of cranberries and the acreage. Connecticut, 

started about 1820, a little earlier Rhode Island, and Long Island, 



in Massachusetts than in New 
Jersey. The industry spread north 
to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia 
and west, reaching the Pacific 
Coast in the 1880's. During this 
period of development bogs were 
started in many states, some of 
which have little or no acreage 
now, such as Ohio, Iowa, Michigan, 
Minnesota, New Hampshire, and 
North Carolina. Maine has only 
a few acres currently but in the 
period from 1850 to 1900 many 
growers were interested in cran- 
berries and many articles were 
written about the culture of cran- 
berries in Annual Reports of the 
Commissioner of Agriculture. Some 



N.Y., still have commercial acre- 
ages. Cranberry bogs in Canada 
have been developed much more 
slowly than bogs in the States and 
little or none of this acreage has 
been abandoned. 

Producing Areas 

From the beginning of the cran- 
berry industry up to 1900 the 
amount of acreage used to produce 
L !0 crops is not known for all 
sections. As New Jersey led in 
the production up to 1875, it might 
b:- assumed that New Jersey had 
more acres. At the turn of the 
csnlury Massachusetts had 11,300 
acres, New Jersey 9,000, Wiscon- 
sin 1,2C'0, and the industry was 



Cranberry 


Acreage 


at the Time 


of 


the Survey* 








Bearing 


Non-bearing 


Intend 
to build 


Location 




Acres 




Acres 


Acres 


Masachusetts 

New Jersey 

Wisconsin 

Washington 

Oregon 

Nova Scotia 

Other Provinces 




13,466 
3,519** 
3,900 

960 

470 

220 

116 




526 
400 

87 
59 

76 


50 

200' 
315 
181 

100 


Total*** 




22,651 




1,148 


846 



*Apparently questions were not asked where data is missing. Massa- 
chusetts survey was the only one asking for the number of acres' 
to be abandoned in the future. The report was 183 acres. 

**598 acres held late, these had no crop in 1955. 
***There are probably about 200 acres which were not included in these 
surveys, 120 acres in the remainder of New England and 80 acres in 

New York, Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa and North Carolina. There 
are probably 16 gi'owers who are not included. 



so small in other sections that it 
is difficult or impossible to find 
the number of producing acres. 
The acreage increased to a maxi- 
mum of 15,000 in Massachusetts in 
1949. In New Jersey the maxi- 
mum acreage of 11,200 was reached 
thirty years earlier. The acreage 
in all other sections has increased 
continually and the maximum ap- 
parently has not been reached. 

Recent Surveys 

So much for the past. In 1956 
and 1957 surveys were made in 
all of the cranberry areas, the last 
bulletin containing this data was 
published recently and the Canadi-- 
an information will be published 
in a later issue of CRANBERRIES 
The information from these surveys 
will be summarized in this and 
later issues of CRANBERRIES. 
Massachusetts, New Jersey, and 
Wisconsin have had surveys before 
so trends may be shown, but the 
1956-57 surveys were the first in 
other sections. 

The number of growers in Mass- 
achusetts has dropped from 2,148 
in 1924 to 984 in 1956, while in 
New Jersey it has gone from 305 
to 170. Similar information is not 
available from other sections but 
they probably have not shown as 
great a decline and some have 
shown an increase. The 1956, and 
1957 surveys indicate that there 
were 1,686 cranberry growers in 
North. America with bearing bogs 
which were distributed as follows: 
Massachusetts 984, Washington 
237, Wisconsin 148, Oregon 142, 
New Jersey 129, Nova Scotia 29, 
and other Canadian Provinces 1*7. 

When these surveys were made 
there were 22,651 acres in North 
America distributed as follows: 
Massachusetts 13,466, New Jersey 
3,519, Wisconsin 3,900, Washington 
960, Oregon 470, Nova Scotia 220, 
and other Canadian Provinces 116. 

Five sections reported non-bear- 
ing acreage totalling 1148 acres. 
New Jersey reported the largest 
non-bearing acreage of 526 and 
Wisconsin had 400 acres. The West 
Coast, (Oregon, Washington and 
Lulu Island) reported 222 acres. 
Massachusetts and Nova Scotia 
did not report non-bearing acreage. 

Seven 



Intention to build 846 acres was 
reported from five sections; Wash- 
ington 315 acres, Wisconsin 200 
acres, Oregon 181. Lulu Island 
100, Massachusetts 50. If these 
intentions are carried out, there 
will be over 25,000 bearing acres 
of cranberries in North America. 
Information on new acreage was 
not reported for New Jersey or 
the rest of Canada. 

The size of the cranberry bog 
holding is very interesting and 
may be looked at in a number of 
ways. First, consider the change 
in Massachusetts since 1924. At 
that time there were 1,844 grow- 
ers with less than ten acres, while 
in 1956 there were only 718. The 
change in numbers in the other 
groups was rather small. How- 
ever, when these are converted to 
the percentage of growers in each 
size group, we find the less than 
ten-acre group in Massachusetts 
has dropped from 85.8% to 73%, 
while the percentage in all other 
size groups has increased and the 
greatest increase came in the two 
largest groups (25 to 50 acres and 
over 50 acres). The percentage of 
the number of holdings with ten 
acres or less in the recent surveys 
in other sections was New Jersey 
56.6%., Wisconsin 33.8%., Nova 
Scotia 86.2%, other Canadian 
Provinces 88.2%, and it probably 
was over 90%. for Washington, 
and Oregon. Massachusetts leads 
in the group of over 50 acres with 
41 holdings. New Jersey is next 
witli 18, and Wisconsin has 14. 

When these are expressed on a 
percentage basis. New Jersey leads 
with 14 percent of its growers op- 
erating over 50 acres, Wisconsin 
next with 6.9%, and Massachusetts 
has 4.1 percent. When production 
is considered by size groups less 
than 10-acre holdings produced 
only 4.5 percent of the state crop 
in New Jersey, and in Wisconsin 
only 5.6 percent. In New Jersey 
68 percent of the crop was pro- 
duced on holdings of 100 acres or 
more, while this size holding in 
Wisconsin produced 21.5 percent of 
the state crop. The holding 25-50 
acres in Wisconsin produced 37.1 
percent of the crop in 1955 which 
was the largest producing group. 
Massachusetts production data 
was not tabulated by size of hold- 
ing. The average holding per 



grower was 6.5A in 1924, 10.4A in 
1934, 12.3A in 1946, and 13.7A in 
1956. 

A better understanding of the 
cranberry acreage may come from 
a comparison with acreage of other 
crops. Surveys of the apple indus- 
try in Massachusetts showed that 
the number of growers dropped 
from 1576 to 371 during the period 
of 1940 to 1955. The orchard size 
during the same time increased 
from 605 to 929 trees. A compar- 
ison of the area of some other 
fruits harvested in the United 
States is published in Agricultural 
Statistics for 1950, the acreages are 
as follows: apples 833,000, oranges 
566,000, grapefruit 176,000, straw- 
berries 127,000, lemons 58,000, figs 
33,000, cranberries 27,000, olives 
26,000, tangerines 24,000, and limes 
5,000. Agricultural Statistics lists, 
the United States acreage of only 
two fruits for 1955, cranberries 
22,270 acres and strawberries 
108,860 acres. Some crops with 
about the same acreage as cran- 
berries are honeydew melons and 
spearmint, while hops is just a 
little larger, cauliflower has 28,900 
acres and celery is 33,710 acres. 

Summarizing the first install- 
ment of "Cranberries in North 
America," it appears that the 
number of growers and the acre- 
age are decreasing on the Atlan- 
tic Coast, while in Wisconsin and 
the West Coast cranberry acreage 
is increasing. 

Source of Information 

Henry F. Bain. Cranberry In- 
dustry in Wisconsin, Wis. Dept. of 
Agr. Bui. 96, Madison. 1929. 

C. D. Stevens, C E. Cross and 
W. E. Piper. The' Cranberry In- 
dustry in Massachusetts. Bui. 157, 
Mass. Dept. of Agr., Boston 1957. 

Gordon G. Butler. The Blue- 
berry and Cranberry Industry in 
New Jersey. Circular 400, N. J. 
Dept. of Agr., Trenton. 1956. 

Vere E. Bufton. Cranberries of 
Wisconsin. Special Bui. 70, Wis. 
Dept. of Agr., Madison. 1958. 

F. B. Chandler. A survey of 
Oregon's Cranberry Industry. Mis- 
cellaneous Paper 38, Agr. Expt. 
Station, Corvallis. 1957. 

F. B Chandler. Cranberries in 
Washington. A Survey Report, 
1956, Wash. Dept. of Agr., Olym- 
pia. 1956. 

F. B. Chandler. Cranberries in 
Canada. To be published later in 
CRANBERRIES. 

Agricultural Statistics, U.S.D.A. 
1956, 



FOR TOPS 
IN HARVESTING 

THIS FALL — 

AND INCREASING 

CROPS EACH YEAR 

THE IMPROVED 1958 

WESTERN PICKER 

MANUFACTURED IN 
MASSACHUSETTS BY 

J. E. BRALEY & SON 

78 GIBBS AVE. 

WAREHAM, MASS. 

TEL. Wareham 64-W 

STOCKING REPAIR PARTS 



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LOUIS SHERMAN 

7 CUSHMAN ST. 

PLYMOUTH 



Repair Service, Braley's 

and 

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Rocky Meadow Rd. 

RFD No. 2 

Middleboro 



Bob William's 

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Ashley's Garage 
East Freetown 



Contact any of 
above for information 



or 



WESTERN PICKERS 

1172 Hemlock Ave. 
COOS BAY, OREGON 



JEight 



Marcus M, Urann, President Of UCCCC 
Has Known Cranberries All His Life 

This Large Corporation Has Long Been Important 

In Massachusetts Industry — "Markie", Official 
of NCA, Is Also Active In Civic AflFairs. 

by 
Clarence J. Hall 

"We must lower our costs of production and extend our sales," 
That is as concisely as the problem facing Massachusetts especially, 
and other cranberry growers can be expressed. They are the words of 
Marcus M. Urann, 41, president of United Cape Cod Cranberry Com- 
pany of Hanson. 

UCCCC now operates approximately 800 acres, with an average 
production of 50-55 barrels per acre as compared to a 35 bbl. Massa- 
chusetts average. United, a few years ago owned about 1500 acres, 
but a program of contraction and cencentration has brought holdings 
to the present figure. This lowered acreage is still probably second 
in size with the Makepeace interests being the largest. 

"Markie" is the son of Mr. and agree that Marcus is not boasting 



Mrs. Carl B. Urann (the former 
now retired) and nephew of Mar- 
cus L. Urann. As such he has 
been familiar with cranberries all 
his life, and of cranberry problems 
in good times and not so good, as 
now. He knows the cultural, 
canning and marketing sides of 
the industry. Until more recently 
he has been most interested, or at 
least most active, in the growing 
end, rather than marketing. 

However, he served as NCA 
director to his father during 1952, 
and has been a director in his own 
right since the retirement of Carl. 
He is a member of the 7-man ex- 
ecutive committee. Now his posi- 
tion permits him a more active 
role in selling policies. He realizes 
the industry cannot be successful 
without a marketing program 
which gives the grower the re- 
turns he must have. 

Marcus was born (in Braintree) 
while his parents were living in 
Wareham and it was from his 
father that he learned most about 
cranberries. Carl B. Urann was 
always known as one of the bet- 
ter growers; he was much inter- 
ested in inventing and developing 
machinery to nrake various jobs 
of cranberry growing easier and 
economical. "My Dad is a fabu- 
lous man to work with in the 
growing end," Marcus says. Mass- 
achusetts growers who knew Cai'l 
when he was on the bogs will 



unduly of his father's abilities. 
Marcus was graduated from Ware- 
ham schools and then went to 
Bates where he majored in geo- 
logy and economics. He worked 
for United before and while going 
to college, and in 1939 for Na- 
tional. He was sent out to Chi- 
cago in 1940, where he took a 
part in building the North Chicago 
factory of NCA. He had intended 
to stay there only a short time, 



but remained to operate the second 
shift. 

He entered the Army in 1941 
and was one of the first to reach 
Europe. He had expected to be 
placed in combat engineering, be- 
lieving his training best suited 
him for that. Instead he was as- 
signed as a weather man in the 
Air Force and was sent to Biloxi, 
Mississippi. He was stationed at 
Headquarters, 2nd Air Division, 
8th Air Force. His unit consisted 
of 14 officers and 17 enlisted men. 
He had learned sonrething about 
weather in his studies in geology. 
Included in his duties were studies 
of the upper air masses, and this 
weather training in the army has 
since proved of much value to 
him in cranberry growing. 

One of these advantages is the 
recognition of various clouds and 
their movements, as indicative of 
weather to come. He also is 
able to check with military and 
civil airports, through his basic 
knowledge of weather, concerning 
local winds that cannot early be 
forecast. These would be such as 
that at Logan Airport, East Bos- 
ton or the airport at New Bedford. 
This double check may often save 



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a flow, which is of much import- 
ance with such large acreage to 
protect. 

He was sent overseas in 1941 
and assigned to bases in East 
Angelica, east coast of England, 
as' observer in the U. S. Air Force. 
He was station chief, headquar- 
ters 2nd Bombardment Division. 
Until American air forces were 
brought over, he served with the 
■^.AF> and was on sea expeditions 
as an observer on British tor- 
p^edo boats. 

With a touch of embarrasement 
he relates how at times, wearing 
one of the first "Eisenhower 
jackets," he was mistaken for the 
general. A glance at his photo- 
graph (cover) will show he has 
the same facial structure and 
other characteristics. 

He remained in. the army until 
1845 when hje was discharged with 
the rating .of staff sergeant. He 
returned to cranberry -work, and 



as his father's health began to 
decline he became assistant man- 
ager of United, assistant treasurer 
and in 1948 vice president. Mar- 
cus L. Urann is treasurer and has 
been for many years. 

United Cape Cod Cranberry 
Company, Inc. is a sizeable outfit 
to head. There are 70 full-time em- 
ployees, including several foremen, 
harvest crew in the fall runs be- 
tween 300-400. There are some 15 
major buildings, including screen- 
houses, although all screening at 
the moment is done at NCA plants. 
Total property consists of 12- 
15,000 acres of land. 

United, organized by Marcus L. 
Urann in 1907 has a charter suf- 
ficiently broad to take in a num- 
ber of enterprises. The corpora- 
tion owns and operates the can- 
nery at Yarrow, British Columbia, 
property formerly owned by Na- 
tional. This plant both freezes 
and cans. This past season it 
froze 1,309,000 pounds of peas, 400 



tons of strawberries and about 600 
tons of raspberries. Most of 
farming residents of Frazer Val- 
ley, where the plant is located 
work at times for United, by an 
agreement whereby the produce 
of the farmers is bought by United 
and they have a bonus in the 
operation. There is a full-time, 
manager, but Marcus has made 
several trips there. Packing is 
under the Canada Food, Ltd. trade 
brand. Cranberries are processed 
for the account of National. An- 
other product is "Hi-C," an orange 
drink sold extensively in Western 
Canada. 

Marcus is one of those who are 
enthusiastic about the climate and 
beauty of the Pacific Northwest. 
"I think that's the best part of 
the world to live in — next, of 
course, to my own Southeastern 
Massachusetts." This is where 
"Fritz Shaw," James Thomas and 
Norman Holmes, three Carver men 
are settled and operating bog. 



SAMSON 

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From $3,000 
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OFF SWING AND FULL 
SWING MODELS 

CRAWLER MODEL 
COMING SOON 

10 MODELS TO CHOOSE FROf? 

CLAMSHELL 

BACKHOE 

SHOVELFROMT 

FOR ALL 
MODELS 

Photo is of Back Hoe Exhibite'd at 
Cape Growers' Meeting 

ALBERT W. TURGEON 
EQUIPMENT CO. 

Rte. 6 No. Dartmouth, Mass. 
TeL WYman 3-9924 




Ten 



United operates two fish freez- 
ers, at Sandwich and at Barnstable 
on the Cape, where cranberries 
have been frozen and stored, and 
can be, if again necessary. These 
bases are about 24 hours closer to 
the fishing grounds, Grand ' and 
Georges, for the radio-telephone 
equipped fishing fleet than other 
ports. 

Marcus built and owns one of 
! these, a 25-footer, which he has 
named "ScranT," which is approx- 
imately his name spelled back- 
! ward. Fish handled at the freez- 
ers are not "trash" fish, so-called, 
although a major part of the 
frozen fish eventually goes to ani- 
mal consumption. 

At present 18 units of bog are 
operated by United, two of the 
largest being Mancmet, 135 acres 
and Burrage, 109. Bogs are all in 
the towns of Halifax, Hanson, 
Pembroke and Plymouth, all Ply- 
mouth County. Properties form- 
erly extended into Barnstable 
County. 

It is scarcely necessary to say 
that United is about as fully 
mechanized as it is possible to be. 
Depreciated esuipment valuation 
is appioximately $70,000. There 
jire picking machines, both West- 
ern and Darlington. 

"Our salvation (the industry) is 
in irj:chanization," Markie says. 
'That is one way in which our 
production costs may be cut. We 
have about 30 jalopies for sanding 
rnd that seems to be the most 
economical way to sand, so far 
deyeloped. But, there can pro- 
bably be still better methods and 
devices for this costly, necessary 
practice. We like to sand on ice 
when possible. We haven't used 
a wheelbarrow on planks for 
years." 

Better and cheaper ditching 
methods are another major need 
of Massachusetts growers. Mar- 
cus is now experimenting with a 
new ditching device, which is ra- 
ther in the nature of a mud suck- 
er, or hydraulic sand pump. "Our 
bogs need better drainage; im- 
proved drainage means better 
crops, less weed costs." 

United, or more specifically 
Marcus and Superintendent Eddie 
Heleen have been working for 10 



years on a new type of harvesting 
machine. He is careful to give 
full credit to Heleen for the me- 
chanical aspects of this project. 
Picking machines have cut the 
cost of harvest, but it is no seci'et 
that there is room for improve- 
ment and refinement, in this now 
necessary piece of equipment. 

United has always been inter- 
ested in developing labor-saving- 
devices of one kind and another, 
and, as Markie declares, these 
have not been patented, but once 
an improvement has been 
achieved any grower may take 
advantage of it. In the matter 
of the picker an exception has 
been made and this is already 
patented. 

"The ditch cleaner that we now 
use is a drag line type; a pipe 16" 
in diameter is drawn through the 
ditch, jaws open in front like the 
jaws 01 a fish. On the return 
the jaws shut and hold the mud 
until released on the shore or in- 
to a truck. 

"We have a venturi principle 
float-gathering rig that v/oAs off 
our Chrysler irrigation pump. This 
machine will deliver one box of 
clean berries per nvlnute, but we 
have to work to keep loose vines 
away from suction. 

"Sand screens have been de- 
signed in our shops for the sand 
loading machines and also a bin 
with shaker screen to load either 
jalopies, railroad, cr trucks." 



With; Wisconsin having a state 
average of 70 barrels and better, 
and rnany individual marshes much , 
higher, 'increased bai'ralage per 
acre for Massachusetts has become 
a niust, Marcus realizes among 
many; others. He believes this in-, 
creased production can be ob- 
tained. • ■-- 

As an experienced grower he 
suggested the following definite 
steps: • 

1) Better drainage, including 
removal cf frost water 'quickly. 

2) Nutrition of plants in an 
orderly system. 

3) Proper timing of sprays 
and dust, incliiding' checking of 
results. 

4) Keeping up bog as much as 
possible. 

5) Developing berry dryers to 
use all the berries produced. 

6) Experimenting with other 
m'athods of harvesting, i. e., water. 

7) Research «n chemical make- 
up of plants with spectographic 
slides. 

"Our record production was at 
the rate of over 400 barrels to 
the acre, here at United," he says. 
"It is a fact verified by Dr. Berg- 
man. 'Run-of-miir, bog or state 
average must be upped in Massa-' 
chusetts. We know it can be done 
by our own experience. We must 
produce at least 60 barrels to the 
acre in the next five years if we 
are to be in a competitive position 
with Wisconsin. Some bogs will 



Cape Cod Cranberry Co-operative, Inc. 



SALES OFFICE 



367 MAIN ST. 



WAREHAM, MASS. 



Tels. 1588 and 970 



*^p 



Eleven 



i 



he well above that, but I am con- 
vinced we must grow cranberries 
at at least that rate." 

Turning from the cultural as- 
pects of Massachusetts, Markie 
has some thoughts on the econ- 
omic side. He is one of those 
fully aware that Massachusetts 
must do sonrething to improve its 
position with other areas. All 
thinking growers agree on that. 

"The industry is not successful 
without a marketing promotion to 
give the grower the fair returns 
he needs. I feel the future of the 
industry lies mainly in the juice, 
frozen cranberries and our growth 
and orderly growth in canning 
sauce at a price reasonable to the 
consumer." 

He is deeply concerned with 
Massachusetts cranberry bog taxa- 
tion as compared to other grow- 
ing regions. He fears it will be 
difficult for Massachusetts to stay 
in inter-area competition unless 
growers receive relief in the line 
of taxation. He asks, "What other 
business is taxed on its real estate 
10 percent of the total income — 
tax $1.00 per barrel vs. $10.00 
price per barrel?" 

As a director for the Hanson 
district, he has appeared as a 
witness for growers of his dis- 
trict at the Appellate tax court. 

Complicating this tax situation 
in the northern portion of Plym- 
outh County, or the Hanson area, 
is that many who have lived in 
Boston are now moving in con- 
stantly increasing number to this 
commuting area. Halifax, with 
its many bogs, for instance, is 
only 25 miles over good highways, 
constantly being improved. It is 
now possible to "get into Town," 
in less time from some of these 
rural sections than from nearer 
regions. There is a considerable 
amount of commuter buildings in 
Pembroke. 

This trend could influence tax 
rates of cranberry growers who 
own property along and near main 
highways. Markie has a particular 
interest in this problem of taxa- 
tion. He is active as Halifax rep- 
resentative to a recently-formred 
Southeastern Massachusetts Indus- 
trial Develepment Organization, 



which as its name implies, is seek- 
ing new industry for the cran- 
berry portion of the state. 

Concerning the marketing situa- 
tion, Marcus says, "I feel strong- 
ly that no distributor of cranber- 
ries is any asset to the industry, 
who does not try to help the whole 
industry by trying to increase the 
consumption of berries by adver- 
tising promotion and industry co- 
operation. No man can lift himself 
at the expense of others." 

He, like many others does not 
like the idea in theory of seeking 
any government assistance in 
cranberry marketing. 

"If we can't get together by 
ourselves, then it looks as if we 
nrust be made to. We can't get 
along with 'splinter' parties con- 
stantly torpedoing each other. I 
don't see why we can't act like 
men when it comes to selling our 
crop and not like a bunch of boys. 
We should be able to act con- 
structively along logical lines and 
within federal regulations. No- 

ybody would expect a grower of 
any commodity to continue year 
after year to sell his fresh ber- 

-ries at a loss. Why should they 
not be fairly priced and that price 
upheld?" 

He also definitely believes in 
the need of a Cranberry Institute 
and that it should be a strong, 
well-functioning organization to 
which all growers belong. 

He makes one suggestion, a rel- 
rt''vpiv simple one — the Institute 
pbould keep every distributor in- 
"'■'^rmed daily during the market- 
ing season of the conditions and 
s=a'es (including price) of the 
various distributing cities. "We 
k^iow from experience that often 
one market is flooded at a given 
time while another, maybe only 
a short distance away, has no 
cranberries. This glut in some 
markets while others are starving 
raises havoc with prices." He sees 
no reason why it would cost too 
much or inconvenience too much, 
if each distributor at the end of a 
business day wired the Institute 
how many cars he had shipped to 
each market and at what price. 
This accurate summary could be 
wired to each distributor, so that 



the following morning he could 
look at a map and have a com- 
plete picture at a glance. Each 
agent then would be better en- 
abled to judge where to make his 
own shipments that day. 

"We would all know what the 
other fellow is doing, and if a 
dealer or distributor didn't send 
in his report, we could guess 
pretty well why. The Institute 
would be a real clearing house. 
We would have stronger markets." 
This is in line with the "posting" 
argument in favor of a marketing 
order. 

Besides heading up United at 
the end of its first half century, 
Markie is a grower in his own 
right. 

He OMTis a personal bog of 12 
acres, operating as the Robbins 
Pond Produce Company of East 
Bridgewater. He really is keen 
on the actual growing of cran- 
berries and this is his individual 
outlet. At the time he was 
learning the business with his 
father, and while he was going to 
college, he worked two summers 
at the Massachusetts Cranberry 
Experiment Station, East Ware- 
ham. He learned much of cran- 
berry growing then under Dr. H. 
J. Franklin and with Dr. C. E. 
Cross, Dr. H. F. Bergman, "Joe" 
Kelley and Dr. Sawyer. 

He has high ^ hopes of the hy- 
brid program as producing better 
and more fruit, another factor in 
cost cutting. United C^pe Cod is 
participating in this program and 
has a quarter acre set aside for 
testing the new varieties. This 
is newly-built bog on best bottom, 
not a run-out piece. 

He is also an active partner in 
"Three M" cranberry bogs. This 
is a property of 26 acres in East 
Middleboro. He and his two sis- 
ters, Mina and Maxine (now Mrs. 
Karl Manner of Caracas, Vene- 
zuela, and Mrs. John Baldry of 
St. Leonard's-on-the-Sea, Eng- 
land), respectively, make up the 
"Three M", with his mother in- 
cluded. 

Interests of Marcus are, activity 
in a nunrber of civic and other 
organizations. He is treasurer of 
Boy Scout Troop 39 of Halifax; 



Twelve 



Reader of the Explorer Scouts, Hal- 
ifax. Past president of Halifax 
Kiwanis. Member of the Halifax 
school sui'vey and building com- 
mittee. He is chairman of Halifax 
Republican Town Committee, di- 
rector of Tax Payers' Association, 
Div. Fleet captain Coast Guard 
Auxiliary, and Halifax American 

iLegion. 

He is a director of Ocean Spray, 
Ltd., of Canada and director of 
Cascades Foods, Ltd. He is a 
member of Cape C©d Cranberry 
I Growers' Association and of South 
Shore Cranberry Club, and has 
served on various cranberry com- 
mittees. 

He is married to the former 
Nadine Jason of Wareham and 
the couple have two sons, Marcus 
Morton Urann, HI and David Win- 
slow Urann. 

When Markie finds time he likes 
to go fishing boating. Since this 
article was written, he has moved 
to Duxbury. 



Crop Prospects 

September U. S. D. A. crop es- 
timate, released the 10th, was un- 
changed from the August prelim- 
inary. Total remains at 1,076,500 
barrels, divided as follows: Massa- 
chosetts 570,000; New Jersey 88- 
000; Wisconsin 335,000; Washing- 
ton 49,500; Oregon 34,000. 

A release of September 9th, 
quotes Vernon Goldsworthy, of 
Eagle River, Wisconsin, second 
vice president of Cranberry In- 
stitute as estimating the Wiscon- 
sin crop as short by about 35,000 
barrels of estimate. 

"Dry weather and a shortage of 
water are taking a toll," he stated 
"and there was considerable dam- 
age from hail in some areas last 
spring." 

Orrin G. Colley, president of the 
Institute in the same release, ex- 
pects the New Jersey crop to fall 
short of estimate, but that Massa- 
chusetts is expected to fulfill its 
estimate and that Washington and 
Qre^on crops look favorable^ 



Wisconsin Meet 

More than 150 cranberry grow- 
ers and guests attended the 72nd 
summer meeting of the Wiscon- 
sin State Growers' Association 



held at the Cutler Cranberry Co., 
Shennington. Half of the group 
partook of a fine luncheon pre- 
pared by the women of the Dan- 
ish-American Luthern Church of 



FOR SALE 



A going business in Nova Scotia ; 200 acres of land, 
3 homes, all with modern conveniences and bath, out 
building and one garage. 75 acres cleared land, rest 
wooded, 8 acres cranberry bog, and a market for all 
the berries you can grow at good prices. 1 screenhouse 
all complete, with a Hayden Separator. 

1 Canning Plant all equipped. 

2 acres of blueberries, bearing and 4 acres getting 
cleared. 

Trans-Island highway runs within 300 feet in front 
of houses. Ideal place for Motel, or Over-Night Cab- 
ins. None within 30 miles. 

Borders on the Northumberland Strait, with private 
sandy beach, good bathing. 1 duck pond and beaver 
dam. Game in woods, deer, pheasants, Hungarian 
Partridge, rabbits, etc. 
2 trucks and 1 salmon trap. 

WRITE FOR DETAILS AND PICTURES TO 

NORTH SHORE CRANBERRY BOG 

GEORGE W. MASON 
MERIGONISH NOVA SCOTIA 



CORN PRODUCTS REFINING COMPANY 



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Thirte?s 



Shennington. From 10 a.m. to 
noon, growers witnessed various 
demonstrations of cranberry 
equipment put on by the local 
host grower and various exhibit- 
ors. The regular meeting opened 
at 1:30 p.m. and was devoted main- 
ly to technical reports by Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin researchers and 
weathermen. An introduction of 
guests 'preceded the opening of the 
speakers' program. 

President Marvin Hewitt wel- 
comed the group and expressed 
thanks to the Guy Potter family 
for the fine meeting place. He 
also expressed thanks to the var- 
iuos exhibitors. As this was the 
start of Labor Day weekend he 
was extremely appreciative of the 
tui-nout of growers and of the 
speakers appearing on the pro- 



gram. Introducing guest speak- 
er, Dean Froker, Hewitt empha- 
sized here was the man respon- 
sible for the research help the 
growers were receiving from the 
University. 

Dean R. K." Folker 

Dean R. K. Folker extended 
greetings from the College of Ag- 
riculture and the University of 
Wisconsin. He stated the agri- 
cultural school was very much in- 
terested in Wisconsin cranberry 
culture and pointed out that agri- 
cultural extension work was start- 
ed in cranberries in 1903 in Wis- 
consin. In reviewing the first re- 
port made by the extension serv- 
ice in 1905, he remarked how gen- 
eral it was in nature, compared 
to the sperialized reports and 
fields now carried on by depart- 



ment personnel. 

He reported of the formation of 
the cranberry experimental area 
in Cranmoor under a 15 year 
agreement with the Growers' As- 
sociation back in 1905 and told of 
the fine relationship under that 
agreement. He cited numerous 
cultural problems in cranberry 
growing during that period, point- 
ing out that they were basically 
the same today. He enumerated 
the men and departments from 
the college working on cranberry 
problems and remarked of the fine 
relationship they were enjoying 
working with the growers. He 
stated that although Wisconsin 
production had increased mater- 
ially since the end of the war, it 
was not altogether a result of re- 

( Continued On Page 16) 




A crew of six girls will harvest wit:i a 
Western Picker the 50-acre bogs, in Middleboro. 
and Plymouth, Mass. of Harrison Goddard, 
Women have operated mechanical harvesters in 
previous years in limited numbers, but this ys 
probably the largest all-woman crew assembled. 
Goddard has had two women operators the past 
two years. Group is shown at Cranberry Exper- 
iment Station, East Wareham August "27 attend- 
ing the cranberry picking machine school under 

Fourteen 



direction of county agents. Louis Sherman, Ply- 
mouth, left, was the instructor and the girls 
from left 4,\\/a right are Barbara Davis, Bula 
Eresnahan, Jean Richards, Barbara Richmond, 
Edith Cazafoli and Maggi Goddard. Mr. Goddard 
is at the rear. Some growers say women are 
more "conscientious" pickers than men, disliking 
"to' see the waste of berries left on the bog. 

(CRANBERRIES Photo) 



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ISSUE OF SEPTEAABER 1958 
VOL 23 - NO. 5 




Bii^^nn^^Ri^^Bi- 



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THE BATTLE IS ON 

PICKING is in full swing. Despite 
frosts, rainy spells, labor shortages the ber- 
ries will be gotten off the vines and into 
the warehouses. 

The problem of the industry, or more 
specifically that of the distributors is to 
get them marketed at a price with a fair 
measure of profit to the grower. Handling 
about 75 percent of the crop this is mainly 
the job of National Cranberry Association. 
Other co-ops and independents, too, , must 
do their full share in attempting to main- 
tain an orderly market. 

Following the annual meeting of stock- 
holders of NCA we believe there is a feel- 
ing of optimism in the industry. Many 
commented favorably on the hard-hitting 
promotion plans of the new director of 
advertising and public relations, H. Drew 
Flegal. There is newspaper and magazine 
and radio promotion, but the heavy artil- 
lery, as Mr. Flegal said, "lines up on tele- 
vision." 

The 60 and 20 second "spots" with the 
catchy jingles and the apparent common 
sense of the sales messages conveyed could, 
and we hope, do, a great deal to stimulate, 
and quicken sales. Consumer research has 
revealed that cranberries combine well 
with meat favorites, pot roast, pork roast, 
ham, chops, meat loaf (and cold cuts, as 
growers enjoying the buffet lunch at the 
meeting found out.) The popular notion of 
cranberries with turkey and chicken is 
now well established, but will continue to 
be pressed. The new slogan of cranberries 
the "Natural Mate for Every Meat," broad- 
ens the base tremendously. Also cran- 
berry cocktail, fortified with vitamin C, as 
a breakfast juice, if it clicks, against the 
toughest kind of competition, could dis- 
pose of a small mountain of cranberries. 

Behind these plans is the thought of 
building up cranberry sales the year 
around, not just for certain holidays. 

We hope there will be adequate pro- 
motion and real sales effort on the part 
of all distributors in the fresh fruit mar- 
ket. Our eggs are not all in the processed 
fruit basket yet, by any means. It will 
be many a year before they are, and prob- 
ably never entirely. 

And, we must all of us realize fully. 



•nn^— DH^— Hn.»^u«- 



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111^— All— •■■•^■«)» 



Editor and Publisher. 
CLARENCE J. HALL. 



EDITH S. HALL— Associate Editor 
Wareham, Massachusetts 



CORRESPONDENTS— ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 

Cranberry Consultant 

Wisconsin Rapids 

Wisconsin 



Washington — Oregon 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash. 



Massachusetts 

PR. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass. 



New Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 

Pemberton, New Jersey 



that we have the prospect of our second 
largest crop, and not to "look for miracles," 
as General Manager Stevens of NCA has 
pointed at various times. 



WE CALL special attention to the 
series "Cranberries In North America" by 
Dr. F. B. Chandler beginning this month. 
We do not think there has been before 
such a wide-ranging compilation of infor- 
mation and statistics brought up to date by 
the recent area surveys. 

Fifte'en 



WISCONSIN MEET 

(Continued From Page 14) 
search work, but that the growers 
themselves have been responsible 
for much of the increased yields 
along with their fieldmen. He 
commended the growers fer their 
great strides in mechanization. 
With production up and competi- 
tion great, he urged the growers 
to give careful and serious study 
to their marketing problems. 

Stating marketing was his field, 
he urged co-operation among all 
producing areas in the field of 
marketing. Only on an industry 
basis, whereby various segments 
of the industry work together can 
marketing problems be solved and 
handled satisfactorily for grower 
profit, he said. In conclusion, he 
stated he was very happy to be 
present and pledged continued 
support from the university, not 
only in growing but also in market- 
ing research, which he considers 
the number one problem for the 
grower today. 

Dr. R. H. Robei-ts of the Univer- 
sity of Horticultural Dept. was 
next on the program. He men- 
tioned he had not been out on the 
marshes too much the past year as 
he had been busy working with 
plant substances, which inhibit 
tumor growths on animals. He re- 
marked that for 17 years he had 
been working on cranberry weeds, 
with both selective and contact 
type weed killers. During this 
time he stated that selectives were 
not too promising and of the con- 
tact types, solvent gave the best 
general control. He recommended 
low pressure in applying solvent. 
He feels weeds do most damage 
to cranberry production by inter- 
fering with wind pollination of the 
blossoms. He felt that only 10 
percent of the state marshes need 
nitrogen apVHcations, otherwise 
too much vine growth and weed 
growth result, cutting production. 
He said everyone agreed that the 
cleaner and shorter the vine 
growth, the better the set and crop. 

He stated that the best method 
of solvent control was with the 
under vine boom when the weeds to 
be controlled were up to the tips 



of the vines. He m,entioned that 
weeds kill easier at this stage by 
getting at the crowns. As seasons 
vary, he suggested growers not 
go by the calendar in applying 
solvent. He concluded stating 
that he doubted if it were practi- 
cal to clean out all weeds and felt 
that any weed killer that would 
give weed control for three years 
without hurting the crop was 
cheap. He suggested spraying 
wideleaf and bunchgrass with sol- 
vent after harvest as long as the 
plants stay green. 

Dr. M. N. Dana 

Dr. M. N. Dana of the Horticul- 
tural Dept. discussed his experi- 
mental work with selective hebi- 
cides. He stated this was his 4th 
year of experimental work and 
growers were shown some of his 
test plots on the weed tour Aug. 
8th. He remarked that he had 
tried numerous herbicides and that 
this type of work takes time. He 
mentioned that all three systemic 
herbicides he was recommending 
for trial work had not been clear- 
ed for pre-harvest use. As for 
post-harvest applications, he 
doubted if this would be of much 
benefit to Wisconsin, especially on 
broad leaf weeds, due to the early 
hard frosts and plant maturity in 
September. He mentioned possi- 
ble work could be done on anything 
that apeared green after harvest. 

He passed out a summary sheet 
on suggested experimental uses for 
systemic herbicides he had worked 
with, pointing out that use should 
be governed to label restrictions. 
He stated that legal clearance for 
amino triazole was still up in the 
air for pre-harvest use, but re- 
ported American Cyanamid was 
submitting additional samples of 
AT to the Food and Drug Admin- 
istration for analysis. He again 
was hoping for clearance for pre- 
harvest u.se of AT in 1959. He 
also stated that Dow Chemical 
was submitting dalapon i-esidue 
samples in an effort to get clear- 
ance for the use of dalapon in 
swabbing and post-harvest use. 

He continued, reporting malic 
hydrzide samples were sent in, but 
more samples were requested. He 



mentioned New Jersey was inter- 
ested in obtaining clearance for 
MH to use as a vine growing in- 
hibitor. He outlined the work "he 
had done on perennial smartweed 
and sensitive fern using MH. Dis- 
cussing Simizian, he felt any pos- 
sibility of getting clearance on 
this material was at least two 
years away. He concluded stating 
he had some good results using 2 
pounds per acre for pre-emergence 
annual weed control. 

James Georg, meterologist in 
charge of the cranberry frost 
warning service, discussed the 
basic principles of the sling psy- 
chrometer and net rariometer in 
cranberry weather forecasting. 
He opened his talk stating the 
sling psychrometer was used for 
measuring the dew point and had 
been used for many years in wea- 
ther forecasting. He explained 
the working principles, costs and 
time to take readings. He felt ev- 
ery grower could beneficially use 
one of these psychrometers, es- 
pecially in conjunction with the 
net radiometer. Georg explained 
the net radiometer was invented 
by University of Wisconsin meter- 
ologists to measure radiation. 
While radiometers are not new, 
this type was exceptional in that 
it is cheap, accurate, easy to ob- 
tain and easy to use. 

He outlined the experience he 
had with this machine in Floi'ida 
and on Wisconsin marshes. He 
has developed a formula and data 
curves in adapting the readings 
to individual locations. Last year 
one machine was in use in Cran- 
moor and this year three machines 
were out in Wood County marshes. 
He felt the data obtained this year 
would be most beneficial and felt 
other growers could start using 
these instruments next year 
Cost of the machine and blower is 
about S50 in kit form. He contin- 
ued saying that within a short 
period an individual grower using 
these two instruments would be 
able to do an exceptional job in 
forecasting his own minimum tem- 
peratures. He concluded saying 
Wisconsin was in for a cool, wet 
September and hoped the growers 



I 



Sixteen 



harvested good crops and would 
leceive adequate returns. 

Leo A. Sorensen, secretary, gave 
a report of the association's activ- 
ities for the year to date. He sug- 
gested the members give considera- 
tion to setting definite dates for 
the two annual meetings at the 
ounuary meeting. He reported on 
the attempt to receive clearance 
on the use of AT and of the ap- 
pearance made at Madison relative 
to legislation changes in Wiscon- 
sin water laws. He said a contin- 
ued watch would be kept on any 
further hearings or legislation. 
He reported an estimated 250,000 
people visited the Agricultural 
Building, which housed the associ- 
ation's cranberry booth at the State 
Fair, August 16 - 24 and of the 
thousands of recipe folders dis- 
tributed. He stated work was just 
about completed on the new color- 
ed cranberry film being made by 
the University of Wisconsin ex- 
tension service and prints would be 
available early this fall for dis- 
thibution. 

Work was also progressing on 
the cranberry directory in co-op- 
eration with the State Dept. of 
Agriculture and a combined dir- 
ectory with other state associa- 
tions was now planned to be print- 
ed by the first of the year. 

He gave a review of the grow- 
ing season and felt that the pre- 
liminary estimate of 335,000 bbls. 
was too high due to the late sea- 
son and small berry size, plus the 
Icsses to hail and frost. 

The meeting was adjourned at 
4 p. m, 

L. A. Sorensen 

Stanley Benson 
To Ocean Spray 
Fresh Fruit 

Stanley D. Benson of Lakeville, 
Massachusetts, with 17 years' ex- 
perience in the cranberry industry, 
has been added to Ocean Spray's 
fresh cranberry division, accoi-ding 
to an announcement by Larry E. 
Proesch, director of marketing. 

After 10 years with New Eng- 
land Cranberry Sales Company in 
merchandising, promotion and 




grower relations, Mr. Benson trans- 
ferred to Eatmor sales in 1950. 

He began his work with Ocean 
Spray September 1 and will work 
from National Cranberry Associa- 
tion's headquarters in Hanson, 
Massachusetts, as assistant to Gil- 
bert Beaton. 

Moderator of the town of Lake- 
ville, Mr. Benson is active in the 
community, serving as an incor- 
porator of St. Luke's Hospital, in- 
corporator of the Middleboro Sav- 
."ngs Bank, director o± Y.M.C.A. and 
clerk of the Central Congregation- 
al Church in Middleboro. 

His duties at Ocean Spray will 
include sales and traffic, fresh 
fruit. 

LATE MASSACHUSEnS 

Harvesting Begun 

Harvesting generally began 
September 10 - 12. Berries in 
most instances were reported as 
being of good size, good quality, 
but much fruit of light color, even 
on thin vines. Lack of sunshine 
may be the cause of this. More 
than 2,000 acres were given fun- 



gicide treatments to impfoVe the 
quality and this is felt to havei 
definitely been a help. 

Early September Dry 

September up to the 15th had 
been dry, total rainfall to that 
date being .69 inches. This in- 
cluded .45 inches which fell in a 
freakish storm on the 8th. The 
storm brought a waterspout, or 
twister across a portion of Buz- 
zards Bay. Little or no damage 
was caused. Such a thing as a 
waterspout in waters of the South- 
eastern Massachusetts cranberry 
area, seems not to have been re- 
called before, at least not in many 
years. What with hurricanes, ex- 
cessive rains, droughts, frosts, etc. 
it gave present-day growers the 
opportunity to say "We've seen 
about every sort of weather now." 

Temperature 

Temperature to the 15th was a 
minus 8 or practically normal, as 
weather is almost never absolutely 
"normal". 

Shipments 

Up to the 15th probably not 
more than ten cars had been 
shipped from Massachusetts. But 
shipments were speeding up. Top 
prices for "earliest first round" of 
shipments were reported as being 
$4.25 to $4.50 in Boston with $5.50, 
$5.75 in Chicago for a choice, well- 
colored lot. 

More Rain 

Harvesting had proceeded on a 
heavy scale for about four days 
when a northeast rain storm hit 
on the 17th which was causing at 
least a four day loss of picking 
as this issue went to press. The 
rain, mostly heavy, was adding to 
the size of berries and giving 
needed coloring. Color should im- 
prove rapidly from that point on. 

The storm gave growers an op- 
portunity to make any repairs 
necessary to picking machines or 
do other indoor work, but with 
the month so far advanced they 
were anxious to get on with har- 
vesting. 

Up to the 19th there had been 
no frost losses and there was 
certainly an amplitude of water 
for whatever frosts migiit lie 
ahead. 



Seventeen 




Ambrose E. Stevens, general manager and vice-president of NCA 
is shown in this unusual photograph as he delivered his report at the 
annual meeting at Hanson, last month. 



Cooling Fruit 
In Storage 

(Editor's Note:-In view of experi- 
ments to keep cranberries fresh 
longer, the following may be of 
interest.) 

Storage operators who handle 
apples and pears like to "room 
cool" their fruit. When this meth- 
od is properly used, they can keep 
the fruit at a uniform tempera- 
ture with a minimum of handling: 
and expense. 

Fruit that is "room cooled" is 
received, cooled, and stored all in 
one room. In this way, some of 
the problems of precooling are 



eliminated and there is only one 
handling and stacking operation. 

But simple as this sounds, "room 
cooling" can be complicated busi- 
ness. Many factors influence the 
effectiveness of cooling. It's often 
difficult to maintain uniform tem- 
perature throughout storage, and 
different handling procedures pro- 
duce different results. 

AMS handling and facilities 'ex- 
perts have been studying the var- 
ious factors that determine suc- 
cessful cooling of apples and 
pears. As a yardstick, they have 
developed what they call "half- 
pooling time". This is the time it 
takes to reduce the temperatm'e 
of a stored apple or pear halfway 



*5etw66tt its initial temperature and 
he storage air temperature. 

Researchers determined half- 
cooling timesfv for the more com- 
mon containers and stacking ar- 
langements. They were: 6 to 10 
hours for unpacked pears in can- 
nery lugs in individual rows and 
8.6 to 18.4 hours on pallets; 6.9 to 
14 hours for unpacked apples in 
apple boxes in individual rows and 
15.4 to 23.4 hours on pallets; 23 to 
36 hours for packed pears in wood- 
en boxes in individual rows; and 
27 to 50 hours for packed apples 
in wooden boxes in individual rows 
and 45 to 66 hours on pallets. 

The refrigeration capacity must 
be adequate to keep the storage 
room at the lowest temperature 
that can be used safely during 
cooling. If this capacity is pro- 
vided, the three most important 
factors that influence cooling time 
are the method of packing, the di- 
mensions of the packages, and the 
manner of stacking. 

Unpacked fruit cools more rap- 
idly than packed fruit because the 
air can flow more easily through 
the boxes. 

The distance from the center of 
the pile of containers, to the sur- 
face where the heat is removed is 
also important. Packages with 
three or four surfaces exposed to 
the air have a definite advantage 
over those with only one or two 
exposed surfaces. This can be 
seen in the differences in cooling 
fruit in pallet stacks and in indi- 
vidual rows. 

Increased air velocity also has 
some effect in reducing cooling 
time, but as exposure becomes less, 
so does the effectiveness of air 
velocity. 

An ideal storage room should 
hold all fruit in the room at the 
same tempei-ature. AllKough 
this is not possible, it is practical 
to say that the average difference 
between the warmest and coolest 
fruit should not exceed 2° F. 

Improperly adjusted air dis- 
tribution systems are a major 
cause of nonuniform temperatures. 
Heat transmission into packages 
in contact with outside walls or 
groud floors, and valuations due 



Eighteen 



to poor operation of temperature 
control systems also produce non- 
uniform fruit tem,perature. 

Air should flow parallel to the 
stacks to produce the most uniform 
fruit temperatures. 



Emile C, St. Jacques 




Emile C. St. Jacques, 66, own- 
er of the Hayden Separator Com- 
pany, and long active in the cran- 
berry industry, died suddenly at 
his home at 124 High St., Ware- 
ham, Mass., at 2 a.m. Monday, Aug. 

25. For some time Mr. St. Jacques 
had been suffering from a heart 
condition and had been only semi- 
active in his business. 

In 1927 he bought the Hayden 
Separator Company of South Car- 
ver and transferred the office and 
plant to Main St. in Wareham. 
The business was recently moved 
to West Wareham. His son, Rob- 
ert H. St. Jacques, has been asso- 
ciated with him in the business 
for some time. Mr. St. Jacques 
pioneered in cranberry dusters, 
and the firm was the manufactur- 
er and distributor of the Darling- 
ton picker. It supplies many 
items of specialized equipment to 
cranberry growers, not only in 
Massachusetts, but in other cran- 
berry areas. 

For a vv^hile, Mr. St. Jacques 
operated a bog at Crooked River, 
Great Neck, Wareham. 

Mr. St. Jacques was born in 
Marlboro, Mass., the son of Dr. 

and Mrs. Robert St. Jacques. He 
attended public schools in Whitins- 
ville and was graduated from Wor- 
cester Polytechnic Instiute with a 
civil engineering degree in 1915. 

Following his education, he en- 
gaged in construction work, and 



served as an appraiser for the 
American Appraisal Company. 

He was married to Marie R. 
Messier of Pawtucket, R. I., on 
Sept. 20, 1921. 

Mr. St. Jacques was a past pres- 
ident of the Southeastern Cran- 
berry Club meeting at Rochester, 
a member of Cape Cod Cranberry 
Grower's Association, and had 
served on the board of directors. 
He was a past president of the 
former Wareham Rotary Club. For 
about three years he was the ERA 
administrator in Wareham. He 
had also served as Wareham town 
auditor. He had been a member 
of the Plymouth County Agricul- 
tural Council. 

Surviving besides his widow and 
son, are two grandchildren, Ro- 
berta and Elizabeth, and two sis- 
ters, Mrs. Blanche Mayday and 
Mrs. Aline Cotnoir of Leicester, 
Mass. 

High Mass of Requiem was held 
Augugust 27 morning at 9 a.m. 
at St. Patrick's Church, Wareham, 
where he was a communicant. In- 
terment was at St. Patrick's ceme- 
tery, Wareham. 



Cranberries 
In Wisconsin 

There is some variation from 
year to year in the harvesting 
period for cranberries. For the 
state as a whole the normal har- 
vest season begins about Septem- 
ber 17 and is completed by about 
October 13. 

In 1956, the average date har- 
vesting began was September 21 
and the date of completion aver- 
aged October 11. Harvesting 
methods have undergone consider- 
able change during the past de- 
cade. In the 1949 survey, 95 per- 
cent of the growers representing 
96 percent of the avei'age employ- 
ed the flooding and raking method 
in harvesting their berries. Me- 
chanical pickers at that time were 
still in the experimental stage. 

In the 1952-53 survey 25 per- 
cent of the acreage was mechani- 
cally harvested. In the years im- 
mediately following, the mechani- 
cal pickers were improved and 
used more extensively in the har- 
vesting of the fruit. 

In harvesting the 1956 crop, 
growers reported that 66.5 percent 
of the production was mechani- 
cally harvested and about 62 per- 
cent was mechanically dried. All 



but about 2 percent of the bearing 
acreage was harvested on the flood 
in 1956, according to the survey. 

Pollination is one of the import- 
ant factors in producing cranber- 
ries. In addition to the natural 
pollinating media, honey bees play 
an important role. In the 1952- 
53 survey, an average of one colony 
of bees was owned or rented by 
growers for each 4.6 acres of bear- 
ing marsh. About 48 percent of 
the colonies were owned by pro- 
ducers with 52 percent being rent- 
ed. 

The 1957 sui-vey indicated that 
the use of honey bees is not de- 
clining. An average of one colony 
for each 2.8 bearing acres was re- 
ported for the 1956 crop. 

About 30 percent of the colonies 
were owned by the growers report- 
ing and 70 percent were rented. 



Simazin Tests 
n Washington 



Ralph E. Tidrick, County Exten- 
sion Agent for Pacific County, 
Washington writing in his bulle- 
tin to growers, "The Cranberry 
Vine", tells of the experiments of 
Charles E. Doughty, Superinten- 
dent of the Long Beach Experiment 
Station with Simazin for weed 
control on young bogs. He writes 
the tests were at 24 and 16 pounds 
of 5G'7r wettable Simazin per acre 
applied as a ground spray on young 
vines. Doughty's report was that 
weed control was excellent on the 
plots receiving 8 and 16 lbs. of the 
50% material. The control on the 
four pound plots was fair. The 
two pound rate did not appear 
adequate. Doughty has suggested 
eight pounds of the material per 
acre is probably the more econom- 
ical. This year the applications 
were applied April 30. He adds, 
perhaps another year under differ- 
ent weather conditions the results 
might not be the same. 

Trials were put on established 
vines also but with disappointing 
results. Doughty listed several 
reasons why this may have been 
so. They are: (1) this matei'ial 
must reach the ground in order to 
be effective and the material may 
have been held up by dense vines; 



Nineteen 



8VT11 THE 



(2) the material kills only ger- 
minating weeds and it may be that 
earlier treatments would have pro- 
duced better results. Doughty has 
indicated he plans to do additional 
work next season. 

Fertilization In 
Massachusetts 

( From "The Cranberry Industry 
in Massachusetts," Bui. No. 157) 
Data on the usage of fertilizers 
were obtained for 1,158 bogs hav- 
ing a total of 12,149.6 acres. The 
conclusions as to fertilizer prac- 
tices of cranberry growers, there- 
fore, as based on records secured 
by enumerators covering 90 per- 
cent of Massachusetts cranberry 
acreage. Reports relating to 426 
bogs and involving 2,622 acres of 
cranberries show no fertilizer used, 
while 732 reports involving 9,527.6 
acres reported the use of 906.3 
tons of fertilizer. Fertilizer was 
added to 7,776 acres, which is 78 
percent more than in the previous 
sui'vey. Reported acreage includes 
the entire acreage in bogs to which 
fertilizer was applied on a spot 
basis. In 1955, 906 tons of fertili- 
zer was reported used, a 24 per- 
cent increase over the 1946 re- 
port. 

On the basis of reports secured, 
the survey indicates that 70.6 per- 
cent of the cranberry acreage was 
fertilized in 1955. In Barnstable 
nearly 61.4 percent of the cran- 
berry acreage was fertilized while 
in Plymouth County the percent- 
age was 76.0. On the basis of the 
number of bogs reporting, 45.8 
percent of the bogs in Barnstable 
County show fertilizer used; 65.5 
percent in Plymouth County, and 
58.5 percent for the state. 

The 5-10-5, 7-7-7 and 8-16-16 
grades were applied to nearly the 
same number of acres. Each of 
these fertilizers was used on four 
times the acreage of the next 
most-used grade. Of a total ton- 
nage of 906 tons used, 236 tons 
were 5-10-5. Eighty-six percent 
of the tonnage, was complete mix- 



ture, 7'/<- was nitrogen alone and 
I'A carried no nitrogen. 



Try to remember that it is just 
as easy to form good habits that 
will help you, as bad habits that 
hinder. 



READ 

Cranberries 

Magazine 



If all the useless words spoken 
were placed end to end, they would 
reach some man trying his best to 
concentrate. 



.llHill^Biilil 



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INTERESTED 


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THESE ADS ARE DESIGNED TO MOVE 
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"It's the natural mate for every meat!" is the theme of the exciting new ad 
campaign for Ocean Spray. It features eye-catching 4-color ads running in 
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meat — not just chicken and turkey. It makes people more cranberry-con- 
scious . . . helps build sales not only of processed berries, but of fresh berries 
as well! This means increased consumption all the year round. The result? 
Ocean Spray Cranberries will move like never before! 



Your business BROWS when you grow and sell through NCA 

National Cranberry Association, Hanson, Massachusetts. Tel. Bryantville — CYpress 3-6311. 



RViNG A $20,000,000 A YEAR INDUSTRY 




CAPE COD 
NEW JERSEY 
WISCONSIN 
OREGON 
WASHINGTON 
CANADA 



"BOB" PILLSBURY, Massachusetts Cranberry Experiment Sta 
berries on dike. (CRANBERR 



35 Cents 



OCTOBER 1951 



DIRECTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWERS 



Wcrcester Paper 
Box Corporation 

MEDFORD, MASS. 
Tel. MYstic 8-5305 

Manufacturers 

of 
Folding Cartons 

and 

Displays 



WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STODDARD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

Franconia Coal Co. 
— Inc. — 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. 39-R 



CRANBERRY 
GROWERS 

Choose and Use 

Niagara Dusts, Sprays and 

Dusters 




Niagara Chemical 
Division 

Food Machinery and 
Chemical Corporation 

Middleport, New York 

New England Plant and Warehouae 

Ayer, Mass. Tel. Spruce 2-2365 



Wareham Savings 

Bank 
Falmouth Branch 

Welcome Savings Account 

Loans on Real Estate 
Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 

PHONE WAREHAM 82 
FALMOUTH 80 



The National Bank of Wareham 



Conveniently located for Cranberry Men 



Funds always available for sound loans 



Complete Banking Service 



Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. 



The i 

CHARLES W. HARRIS: 
Company 

26 Somerset Ave 
North Dighton, Mass. 

AMES 

Irrigation Systems 

Sprinklers 

Weed killers 

Insecticides 

Fungicides 

from 
Cal. Spray Chemical Company 
Dupont Company 
■ Americ an Cyanimid Company 

EQUIPMENT 

HAYDEN 

- SEPARATOR - 
WAREHAM, MASS. 

Irrigation Systems 
PUMPS 

SEPARATORS - BLOWERS 
SCREENHOUSE EQUIPMENT 

DARLINGTON 
PICKING MACHINES 



Extensive Experience in 
ELECTRICAL WORK 

ALFRED PAPPI 

At Screenhouses, Boms and 
Pumps Means Satisfaction 

WAREHAM. MASS. Tel. es« 



ADVERTISE 

in 

CRANBERRIES 



VARIETIES 

(From the "Cranberry Industry 
in Massachusetts", bulletin No. 57). 

The acreage of Early Blacks has 
continually increased, while all 
other varieties have been decreas- 
ing. Production in 1955 consisted 
of 64 percent Early Blacks, 32 
percent Howes, and 4 percent other 
varieties. 

Through the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture new varieties of 
cranberries have been developed 
and some produce higher yields of 
better quality fruit than Early 
Blacks or Howes. All of the se- 
lections may be observed at the 
State Bog, East Wareham. These 
selections are being tried at six 
or more locations in the State. 

The 1956 acreage of Early Blacks 
was 8,387, Howes, 4,373, McFarlins, 
117; others, 588. 



flliiWlinilHilliailllHIIIIHIIIIIillllBIIIIHiillMllli 



MIDDLEBOROUCH 
TRUST COMPANY 



MIDDLEBORO 
MASS. 



Member of 
The Federal Deposit 

Insurance Corporation 



Send A Copy 

To Your Friends . . . WITHOUT CHARGE 



Please sen 
persons liste'd 

To 


d a free 
below : 


copy of 


CRANBERRIES 
To 


with 


my 


compliments 


to 


the 1 


Address 


Address 












City 


Z . 


..... State 


City ..... 






... Z State 





Sender 
Address 



ELECTRICITY 



Is your good "friend" any 
month in the year. It is 
an especially valuable aid 
in October, when the daylight 
hours are shortening and 
you are busy with your 
screening and shipping. 



Plymouth Counly Electric Co. 



WAREHAM 
TEL. 200 



PLYMOUTH 

TEL. 1300 



YOU 
ARE 



READING 1 
THIS 



AD 



* :ie **:(:* * 



Others Will 
Read Yours 



in 



CRANBERRIES 



•{•311 



1 

III* 



CRANBERRY PICKING 
BOXES 

Shooks, or Nailed 

Let me repair your broken 

boxes — or repair them yourself. 

Stock Always on Hand 

F. H. COLE 

Tel. Union 6-3330 
North Carver, Masi. 



One 




Cranberry Recipe 
Makes Woman A 
Pillshury Finalist 

A cranberry recipe made Mrs. 
Elsie Fraher of Wareham, Mass., 
one of 100 finalists in the national 
Pillsbury Baking Contest at Hotel 
Waldorf-Astoria, New York, Sep- 
tember 22. Before she left for 
New York with her husband, 
Frank, she had already received 
an electric range and a check for 
$100 as a finalist's prize. 

In New York befoi*e the bake- 
off she was a guest at the Waldorf- 
Astoria, treated to a round of 
restaurants and miet movie star 
Ronald Reagan and officials of the 
General Electric Company and 



Pillsbury Company. In addition 
to the prizes, each finalist was 
given an evening bag, French per- 
fume, an overnight bag, an assort- 
ment of spices, a corsage. 

Although Mrs. Fraher was not 
the grand prize winner, her re- 
cipe will be seen by thousands of 
homemakers in a recipe booklet 
being prepared by Pillsbury. 

Mrs. Fi'aher's finalist recipe is: 

CAPE COD RUBY SQUARES 
Filling: 

2 cups cranberries 

IVz cups crushed pineapple 

1 10-oz. pkg. frozen strawberries 
or 2 cups fresh berz-ies 

% cup sugar 

1 tblsp. corn starch 

1 tsp. vanilla 
Pastry: 

1 cup vegetable shortening 

2 cups Pillsbury best all-purpose 



flour 

Vz tsp. baking powder 

% tsp. salt 

Va cup plus two tablespoons 

it comes from the can, and the 
frozen strawberries. Add sugar 
and stir urtil cranberries have 
popped. Ad*^ cornstarch which ha:; 
water 

Wash cranberries and cook to- 
gethei- with pineapple and juice as 
been moistened with V^ cup water 
and coo!: until fruit mixture is a 
c'ear red (about 5 min.) Set aside 
to cool. When partially cooled, 
add 1 tsp. vanilla. 

Add Pillsbury flour, salt and 
baking powder to the 1 cup short- 
ening. Cut shortening in, but 
only until there are no large pieces 
left. It is not necessary to mix 
until the ingredients are like meal, 
but rather until the shortening ir, 
cut into bean-size pieces. Add cofd 
water and mix only until flour is 
mixed in. Roll pastry out to fit 
jelly roll nan approximately 11 x 
H. After rolling pastry quite 
thin, line pan with pastry. Spread 
fruit mixture over the pastry just 
until pastry is covered. Wet edges 
of paltry with one egg which iias 
been beaten with about % cup milk. 
Roll out additional pastry into 
% inch strips and form a top 
crust of lattice work. Paint top 
of crust with egg mixture and bake 
450 degrees (about 20 min.) until 
brown. When cool, cut in squares. 

There should be enough filling 
left to make extra squares or tarts 
if desired. This filling may be pre- 
pared ahead of time and either 
frozen or put up like preserves 
when hot. 

A SALUTE TO 
CANNING INDUSTRY 

America's canning industry was 
saluted during September for the 
vitally important function it per- 
forms in marketing agricultural 
products, "Agricultural Marketing" 
reports. 

All segments of the food market- 
ing business combined in a cele- 
bration of September as "Canned 
Foods Month." It was one of 
those occasions when the spot- 
light was put on an important in- 
dustry serving agriculture and due 
tribute was paid for the day-in, 
day-out, around-the clock contri- 
butions that the industry makes to 
building a better way of life for 
Americans. 

The U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture took a leading part in the 
celebration. 



Two 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Notes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 




Machine Harvest 

The Massachusetts cranberry 
harvest has progressed remarkably 
well considering the late season 
and the frequency of our rains and 
ircsts. Just for the record, meas- 
urable amounts of rain were recor- 
ded on 10 days in September and 8 
frost reports, including the after- 
noon and evening warnings, were 
released during the first 16 days in 
October. If it hadn't been for the 
picking machines, the harvest 
would have been greatly delayed 
under these unfavorable conditions. 
New improvements, good servicing, 
and careful operation of these ma- 
chines have greatly increased their 
effectiveness. We estimate that at 
least 80 percent of the Massachu- 
setts acreage was picked by the 
Darlington and Western machines 
this fall. 

Demoranville Studies 

Irving Demoranville's growth 
studies are providing some very 
useful and interesting information. 
His records this fall show that 
"early water" Early Blacks are 
about average in size and weight 
compared with samples collected 
during the last five years. They 
reached their peak of growth about 
mid-September. However, our 
"late water" Early Blacks are the 
largest and heaviest since he be- 
gan his studies in 1953. One 
sample of "late water" Early 
Blacks showed an unusual cup 
count of 84. They completed their 
growth by the last week in Septem- 
ber. "Early water" Howes, on the 
other hand, are the smallest and 
lightest that Demoranville has re- 
corded in five years. We had no 
"late water" Howes at the State 
Bog this year. A complete report 
of his studies will be available at a 
later date. 



Visitors 

The Cranberry Experiment Sta- 
tion has enjoyed many visitors dur- 
ing the past month. We rather ex- 
pect that the colorful harvest was 
the prime attraction for so many 
visitors whom we always enjoy. 
They include a group of growers, 
extension and research representa- 
tives from Nova Scotia who were 
interested in small fruits, including 
cranberries. J. K. McEwen, from 
the Ontario Department of Lands 
and Forests, was another visitor. 
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence Dana from 
Wisconsin spent a few days in the 
cranberry area while Dana experi- 
mented with water picking under 
Massachusetts conditions, using one 
of his new picking machines. Our 
staff cooperated with these experi- 
ments, including techniques for 
drying the water-picked fruit. We 
were also hosts to an Amherst, 



Massachusetts & Washington, D.C., 
delegation from the Commodity 
Stabilization Program. Guests are 
always welcome at our station. 
Market Report 

The first cranberry market re- 
port for fresh fruit was released 
September 23 from the Agricultur- 
al Marketing News Service under 
the direction of John O'Neil, Bos- 
ton, Mass. This will be the fifth 
season that these weekly reports 
have been prepared for growers 
and shippers. The weekly reports 
include current information on 
movement of cranberries by rail 
and truck, price and terminal mar- 
ket conditions in the leading mar- 
kets in the United States. Anyone 
interested in this type of informa- 
tion may receive it by writing to 
John O'Neil, 408 Atlantic Avenue, 
Room 703, Boston, Mass., and re- 
questing that his name be added 
to the mailing list. 
Zineb 

Our quality control program at 
the station is in operation and in- 
volves a study of the effect of zineb 
on the shelf life of fresh fruit, as 
well as a means of reducing shrink- 
age of fruit held in storage. We 
have a small refrigerated rack and 
a dry rack at the station for con- 
ducting a portion of this work un- 
der what we call controlled condi- 
tions. Two retail stores in the 



Brewer & Lord 

INSURANCE 
40 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. 



ARTHUR K. POPE 
CONVERSE HILL 
WILLIAM B. PLUMER 
ROBERT A. SULLIVAN 



HORACE H. SOULE 
CHARLES M. CUTLER 
EBEN A. THACHER 
HERBERT R. LANE 



EDWARD H. LEARNARD VINCENT M. WILSON 
JOHN B. CECILL, JR. 

Serving the People of New England 

Since 1859 



Three 



cranberry area are cooperating' 
with our study by permitting 
us to place cranberries receiv- 
ing various treatments in their 
stores wliere they are sampled at 
regular intervals. Results of our 
investigations will be presented to 
growers and shippers during the 
winter months. 

There are a few suggestions on 
late fall management that we 
would like to call to the growers' 
attention. This is an excellent time 
of year to fertilize thin areas on 
bogs in order to stimulate vine 
growth without encouraging the 
growth of annual weeds. Woody 
plants, such as hardback, meadow 
sweet, and bayberry should be 
pulled out after harvest, which will 
greatly improve the harvest oper- 
ation next season. This is a good 
time of year to drag a hook 
or potato digger around the shore 
ditches in order to pull out runners, 
small bramble, Virginia creeper, 
and morning glory which may be 
crossing the ditch from the shore 
to anchor themselves on the bog. 
Wherever water supplies are avail- 
able, growers are urged to flood 
their bogs after harvest in order to 
rid them of the harmful trash that 
accumulates each year and revive 
the vines after the rough picking 
operation. The float boat is ideal 
for this task. 



Statement required by the Act of August 
24, 1912, as amended by the acts of 
March 3, 1933, and July 2, 1946 (Title 
39, United States Code, Section 233) 
showing- the ownership, management, and 
circulation of 

CRANBERRIES, The National Cran- 
berry Magazine published monthly at 
Wareham, Massachusetts for October, 
1958. 

1. The name's and addresses of the 
publisher, editor, managing editor, and 
business managers are: 

Publisher — Clarence J. F. Hall, Ware- 
ham Mass. Editor — Clarence* J. F. Hall, 
Wareham, Mass. Managing editor — 
Clarence J. F. Hall, Wareham, Mass. 
Business manager — Clarence J. F. Hall. 
Wareham, Mass. 

2. The owneV is: 

Clarence J. F. Hall, Wareham, Mass. 

3. The known bondholders, mortga- 
gees, and other security holders owning 
or holding 1 perce'nt or more of total 
amount of bonds, mortgages, or other 
securities are: 

None. 

CLARENCE J. H. HALL. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me 
this .30th day of Septe'mber, 1958. 

(Seal) BARTLETT E. CUSHING, 

Notary Public. 

(My commission expires April 5, 1963) 
Four 



Britain Reopens 
Cranberry Imports 

Cranberries have found a re- 
newed market on grocery shelves 
in London, England after being 
absent from that country for 18 
years. 

October 7, 250 cases of Ocean 
Spray fresh cranberries arrived 
in England from the A. D. Make- 
peace Company of Wareham and 
NCA spokesman Stanley D. Benson 
says the firm already has a repeat 
order. 

Benson said the European mar- 
ket might prove a stimulus to the 
cranberry industry. He noted that 
import restrictions placed on cran- 
berries in the past had made ex- 
portation to Britain impi'actical 
since World War II. However, a 
combination of lesser restrictions 
and a demand for the berries has 
made it possible to reopen the 
British market. 

Other outlets, he said, have 
opened in Belgium and Hamburg, 
Germany as shipments of berries 
have also been made to Saudi 
Arabia and Ireland. In all cases, 
fruit is shipped fresh, not canned. 

Benson said that an attempt will 
be made in Arabia to process fresh 
fruit into cranberry sauce prior to 
sale. 

Benson explained that it seemed 
more poultry is being consumed 
in Europe than ever before, open- 
ing the market for cranberries. 



Kickapoo 
Fertilizers 



Kickapoo Fertilizezrs, Stevens 
Point, Wisconsin, states it has the 
newest and most modern plant in 
Wisconsin in the heart of the 
cranberry growing area. There 
are also dealers in the various 
marsh locations. The company 
invites inquiries from Wisconsin 
cranberry growers as to any prob- 
lems which it might help solve. 

Kickapoo reports cranberry 
growers have become more and 
more interested in the quality of 
granulated or pelletized fertilizers 
as many call it. The company 
reports making great strides in 
granulating fertilizer in its year 
and a half of operation of the 
plant at Stevens Point, and has 
had a gratifying acceptance of its 
product. 

Kickapoo, a complete fertilizer 
service, bags, all grades, bulk, 
liquid, special grades, prei^iant 
and side dressing. 



READ 



CRANBERRIES 



C. & L. EQUIPMENT CO. 

191 LEONARD STREET ACUSHNCT, MASS. 

Cranberry Bog Service 

PRUNING FERTILIZING 

RAKING WEED TRIMMING 

Machinery Sales 

PRUNERS POWER WHEELBARROWS 

RAKES WEED TRIMMERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS - Large & Small 



For Further Information Call . . . 



F. P. CRANDON 
Rockwell 3-5526 



H. C. LEONARD 
Wyman 3-4332 



C. J. TRIPP 
Wyman 4-4601 



Issue of October 1958 - Vol. 23 No. 6 

Published monthly at The Courier Print Shop, M«in St.. Wareham, Massachusetts. Subscription $3.60 per year. 

Entered ai second-claiis matter January 26, 194S, at the poit-ofTice at Wareham, Massachusetti, under the Act of March t, IITI 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

Rainfall Affain Excessive 

September ended with an excess 
of rain 4.78 inches as recorded at 
State Bog with the normal 3.56 
inches. This makes the 7th month 
of a heavy surplus of precipitation 
out of the 9 so far of 1958. Boston 
reported this as the rainiest year 
to date, on record. 

Temperatures Slightly Up 

Temperatures ran an excess of 
8 degrees, with several very warm 
days, the 26th reaching a maxi- 
mum of 87 in the shade with 
extremely excessive humidity, as 
was the condition for several days 
around that period. There were 
also a number of beautiful, clear 
days, "shirt-sleeve" weather v^^hich 
did not prevail during July and 
August. Temperatures to October 
first for the year have been a 
minus 40. 

60% Crop In October First 

September, with so much rain 
sized the berries. In spite of so 
much rainfall, many mornings of 
late heavy dew, it was considered 
by Dr. Cross that a fair estimate 
of the crop brought in by Octo- 
ber first would be about 60 percent. 
Machines pick much more rapidly 
than can be done with hand scoop- 
ing. At least 80% was machine 
harvested. With the exception of 
some small acreage all Early 
Blacks were in and Blacks this 
year will make up about 60 percent 
of Massachusetts production. As 
of October first it was estimated 
that harvest was not more than 
two days behind schedule in gen- 
eral, harvest having caught up 
from an estimated two weeks be- 
hind as harvest began. 
No Frost Loss 

Adding to the size of the crop 



was the fact there were no frost 
losses in September. The night of 
September 29 brought some low 
temperatures, down to the high 
20's. No frost v^^arning was put 
out by Cranberry Station, but tele- 
phone calls were made to inland 
bogs, where temperatures were 
lower than in Plymouth and Barn- 
stable counties. There is an am- 
ple water supply for the remainder 
of the frost season. 

Sunshine Deficient 

To October first there had been 
a deficiency in sunshine of between 
40 and 50 hours. This factor 
would indicate a decrease in the 
size of the crop of 1959, but barring 
other factors it would be one of 
better quality. 

"First Round" 

Shipments for the "first round" 
of supplying wholesale outlet's 
were completed about September 
22. At that time warm weatheV 
over much of the country was 
slowing down demand at both the 



market and retail levels. Prices 
were reported as holding fairly 
good up to that time. 

OREGON 

Harvest Early 

Southwestern Oregon Cranberry 
groiwers have started harvest this 
season a few days earlier than 
their usual October 1 starting 
date. Several growers have start- 
ed bringing berries in to the Co- 
quille receiving station for pack- 
aging in order to fulfill the early 
first fruit market demands which, 
are said to be exceptionally good. 
Quality Good 

According to Bill Dufort, Coop 
manager, the fruit this year is of 
very high quality, but it is a little 
early to predict the production 
from the standpoint of quantity. 
Ray Bates made the comment that 
his berries this year are as good 
a quality as any he has ever pro- 
duced. 



Cape Cod Cranberry Co-operative, Inc. 



SALES OFFICE 



367 MAIN ST. 



WAREHAM, MASS. 



Tels. 1588 and 970 



??v§ 



Over-Growth 

According' to some of the grow- 
ei's, there seems to be more over- 
growth than usual this year, v^^hich 
might be attributed to late rains, 
or to excessive fertilization; at 
any rate, the growlers with bogs in 
this condition have a tougher pick- 
ing problem. 

Cranberry Festival 

The people of Bandon are all 
agog over the 1958 Bandon Cran- 
berry Festival, October 10-12. Var- 
ious clubs and organizations are 
sponsoring their favorite beauty 
in a contest for "Queen of the 
Cranberry Festival." 

WASHINGTON 

Long Beach Area 

Cranberry harvest started dur- 
ing the last week of September. 
Guido Funke, Ilwaco was the first 
to start on his Early Blacks. Sev- 
eral growers appear to have g-ood 
yields, these are the growers wh.o 
were not hurt by May 12 freeze. 
E .C. Chabot, Long Beach, probab- 
ly will have the largest crop he 
ever had. Chester Mattson has 
completed his first harvest on his 
young bog. The production was 
about 132 barrels per acre. A 
number of other growers are run- 
ning low because of the freeze. 
Grayland 

Grayland reports that while the 
quality is fairly good, production 
is down considerably from last 
year. This, too, is due to the 
freeze. More deformed berries are 
showing up on some bogs than in 
previous years. 

Weather 

Weather has lent itself well to 
harvesting this fall, although some 
g-rowers in the Long Beach area 
are a little short of water to flood 
with. There were no frosts to 
October 3. The minimum tem- 
perature during September was 37 
degrees with a maximum of 91 
degrees. Sprinkler systems were 
used for heat control on Septem- 
ber 6 and 7, with a maximum of 
91 and 87 degrees respectively. 
The minimum relative humidity 
was 50 percent on September 4, 
6 and 30, which is a little below 
normal. 

Berry Color 

The color of berries is not great- 



ly different than last season. Some 
of the berries which have been 
taken from the heavier vines are 
a little light in color. 

NEW JERS EY 

Rain Fall Under 

September was the first month 
on the dry side in this year's grow- 
ing season since June. Practically 
no rain fell during the first 17 
days, which very much favored the 
cranberry harvesting. The total 
rainfall for September was 3.02 
inches as compared with the norm- 
al of 3.62 inches. 

Ripening, Harvesting Favored 

Many cool nights in September 
also favored the ripening and harv- 
esting of cranberries, especially 
since there were no serious frosts. 
The average temperature for the 
month was 65.4° as compared to 
the normal of 67.5°. 

2 Insects Reduced 

The wet summer had the unde- 
sirable effect of stimulating ex- 
cessive runner growth during Aug- 
ust. On the other hand, the wet 
weather may have been a blessing 
in reducing a very severe Spar- 
ganothis infestation that started 
in June, with the result that Spar- 
ganothis is not a serious matter 
now at the time of harvest. Some 
good dusting on the part of cer- 
tain growers was also helpful. 



WISCONSIN 

Weather 

September was slightly below 
normal in temperature and pi-e- 
cipitation was again above aver- 
age in the north and continued be- 
low normal in the south. This is a 
continuation of the same weather 
pattern for the growing areas for 
the entire season. Warmest day 
was the 14th when the mercury 
rose to 85 degrees and coldest on 
the 30th when eighteen degrees was 
registered in Cranmoor. The month 
was marked with, several cold 
freezing nights and very few warm 
days, consequently the weather 
was not advantageous to good ber- 
ry development. Average rainfall 
for the state is now above normal 
in the north, five inches below nor- 
mal in the south. Ground water 
levels are from one to one half 
feet below normal. 

Small Berries 

Early raking showed small ber- 
ries reducing the crop yields. As 
many as 30 percent pies were coun- 
ted in some areas as compared to 
and average seven to ten percent. 
Small berry size was especially ev- 
ident in the northern marshes. 
Color was very good the last of the 
month and quality appeared above 
average. Late varieties were col- 
oring slowly due to late blooming 
(Continued On Page 16) 




R. F. MORSE & SON 

West Wareham, Mass., Phone 1553-R 

Cranberry Growers Agsnt For 

Eastern States Farmers' Exchange 

Insecticides - Fertilizers - Fungicides 

Bog Service and Supplies 
Agent for Wiggins Airways 

Helicopter Spray and Dust Service 
DEPENDABLE ECONOMICAL SERVICE 



Frosts And Cranberries In Wisconsin 

Most Critical Period For Grower, September Into October. 

by 

Dr. George L. Peltier, Consultant 

Indian Trail, Inc. 

Fortunately the long continuous cold winters in Wisconsin are an 
asset to the successful over-wintering of vines, if they are well protected 
in local areas, no losses from winter killing, desiccation (physiological 
drought), and oxygen deficiency, occur. In general such losses are 
much less frequent and severe, than in other states. For the mos\, 
part, they can be considered of a minor nature within localized areas. 
The widely scattered bogs throughout the northern half of the st^ate 
may contribute to the fact, that winter damages are slight and localized. 
Ordinarily, the winter flood is sufficiently to damage the floral 



removed the latter half of April 
(somewhat later in the North) 
and the beds are exposed to the 
prevailing weather until most of 
the frost in the soil disappears, 
and growth processes of the vines 
has started. This usually occurs, 
depending on a number of inter- 
related factors, about the 10th to 
the 15th of May. 

After growth has started, the 
expanding buds must be protected 
against spring frosts by flooding. 
These frosts vary in numbers and 
intensities from year to year. 
Weather Digest 

A digest of the weather records 
for 27 years (1931-57) obtained 
in the Cranmoor area, show that 
an average of 8.2 frosts can be 
expected during May. The range 
runs from one to as high as 15 for 
the month. The number of light 
frosts averaged 7.1, heavy frosts 
1.6, (8 years, none) and tempera- 
tures below 20° F occurred in 11 
out of the 27 years. The major- 
ity of these temperatures occurred 
before mid-May, at which time 
vine growth has started. This is 
the most crucial period for the 
grower. 

Reflowing usually begins about 
May 10, although, in certain years 
(1957) reflows are put on early 
in May. Too, temperatures of 
below 20° do occur as late as the 
26th of the Month. 

During some years (12 out of 
27) a succession of cold nights, 
from 4 to as high as 11 prevail. 
The usual custom under these con- 
ditions, is to keep a flood on until 
the danger of frost is past. Ap- 
parently when expanding buds are 
subjected to submersion in water 
for some duration, it is inevitable 
that they become water soaked 



structures, resulting in pollen 
sterility and perhaps, other parts 
of the young developing flowers. 
Of course, if the buds are not 
fully protected, temperatures of 
25° or below, can injure the new 
growth. 

May Frost Important 

Thus in normal years, with pro- 
per flooding procedures. May 
frosts cause very little damage. 
When a series of cold nights oc- 
cur and flood waters remain on 
for extended periods, an unknown 
amount of injury can and does oc- 
cur in certain years. Unfortun- 
ately no physiological studies have 
been made to determine, first the 
critical temperatures causing in- 
jury and secondly, the full effects 
of extended periods of complete 
submersion of the growing buds, 



and particularily, the damage to 
the pollen and other floral struc- 
tures. It is my opinion that loss- 
es from these conditions is of more 
importance than is generally rea- 
lized by the grower. My obser- 
vations point to the fact, that 
where sufficient water reserves 
are at hand, it is much better to 
flood nightly, than to hold water 
on the beds for periods of a week 
or longer, especially when tem- 
peratures reach 70° or above dur- 
ing clear, sunny days. The sub- 
ject of reflowing needs consider- 
able study before the proper pro- 
cedures of water management at 
the critical period in mid-May is 
solved. 

In the period under study in only 
3 years was June frost free. 
The number of frosts ranged from 
zero to as high as 9. Most of them 
prevailed during the first two 
weeks. No temperature below 
20° was reported and in only 4 
years did the temperature fall 
below 25°F. So far as my ob- 
sei'vations go, June frosts cause 
little or no loss, if the vines are 
nrotected. 

Summer Frosts 

Temperatures below 32° can oc- 
cur any time during July and Au- 
gust during certain years. No 
frosts were recorded in 15 of the 
27 years in July. In only 2 sea- 



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sons was more than 1 frost re- 
ported. The lowest temperature 
in July was 27°. In August no 
frost occured in 11 out of 27 years, 
and in 7 years both July and Au- 
gust were frost free. Most of 
the frosts in August occur in the 
last half and range from none to 
as high as ten. In five years, 
temperatures of 25°, or lower oc- 
cured. Only in 2 years, did a 
succession of nightly frost pre- 
vail (1950: 4 days; 1934: 10 days). 
Summer frosts, while not unusual, 
must be watched by the grower, 
othei-wise, some damage can oc- 
cur and does if the berries are 
not protected by flooding (August 
5, 1957). 

Fall Critical 

The most critical period for 
the grower is the protection of 
the crop from recurring frosts in 
September and on into October, 
until the harvest has been com- 
pleted. In the days of the hand 
rake, harvest was usually in full 
swing the first week in September 
and at times if water was short, 
harvest of poorly colored berries 
began in late August. 

Within recent years the tend- 
ency has been to wait until the 
berries were fairly well colored, 
thus delaying the harvest. Ma- 
chine raking is usually in full 
swing by the 20<th of September 
and is completed within a month. 
Thus harvest is now extended to 
mid-October or later, depending 
on the acreage, yields and num- 
ber of machines available. The 
postponement of the harvest in 
turn has increased the danger 
from more and intensive freezing 
temperatures. 

The number of September frosts 
varies from 2 to as high as 16, 
with an average for the 27 years 



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of 8.0 per month. Temperatures 
of 25°, or lower occurred once or 
more during 24 years of this per- 
iod. Their number and severity 
increase from week to week. The 
lowest temperature recorded was 
11°F. During some years (12 of 
27) a succession of nightly freezes 
varied from 3 to as high as 12 
days, which meant that water 
protection was necessary for al- 
most 2 weeks. 

With the advent of October 
daily frosts are still more num- 
erous and intense. Unfortunate- 
ly the data for October weather 
is complete only for the first 10 
days of the month. The number 
of frosts for the 10 day period, 
range from 1 to 10, with the low 
est recorded temperature at 10 '. 
Temperatures of 25°, or lower oc- 
cured in 24 of the 27 years. Also 
daily frosts extended from 4 to 
10 days in this interval. 

The longest continued succes- 
sion of below freezing tempera- 



tures in September and October 
was 19 days, in fact in 8 years out 
of 27, frosts occurred on 10 or 
more continuous nights. Thus the 
longer the harvest is delayed, the 
more critical becomes the period 
from freezing temperatures, which 
may become a two-headed dragon, 
in that unless a flood completely 
submerges the berries, the top 
crop may be frozen and in turn 
if the water is left on for extend- 
ed periods the berries may be- 
come scalded, or water soaked. 
The large shrinkage of the 1957 
crop in Wisconsin was largely 
due to these two factors. 

Thus frosts play an exceeding 
important role, both in May when 
vine growth starts, and the buds 
expand and again in the fall be- 
fore and during the harvest. In 
both instances, submergence of 
the vines and fruit for extended 
periods cause untold damage to 
the buds and the immature flower 
structure, modifying to varying 




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extents the percent of pollina- 
tion and set, and in the fall the 
rapid deterioration of the quality 
of the berries and their subse- 
quent loss in storage and poor 
keeping qualities in the packaged 
product. 

Water Management 

Some of these troubles can be 
decreased materially by the pro- 
per management of water, both 
in the spring and fall by more fre- 
quent floods when necessary, 
rather than holding the floods on 
the beds for extended periods of 
a week or more. During harvest 
the less contact the berries have 
with water, the better their 
soundness and quality. Berries 
should not be allowed to become 
watersoaked, by holding water for 
several days, or until the berries 
are completely raked in a section. 

Water is completely essential in 
diverse ways in cranberry cul- 
ture, but sometimes, it's overuse 
can cause injury to the vines and 
fruit in direct proportion to the 
amount and extent of it's im- 
proper usage. 

True the alert grower must be 
continually prepared for frosts 
during the entire growing season 
and protect the vines by rational 
manipulation of the flood waters. 
Also the fact that hai'vest is now 
started later in September and is 
not completed until into October, 
increases the hazards from freez- 
ing temperatures. 

Medical Use 
For Cranberries 

Another use has been found for 
cranberries. The eifectiveness of 
cranberry juice in treatment for 
bladder infections has been proven 
by an eminent Harvard professor, 
Dr. Edwin R. Kass, even where 
"Miracle Drugs, penicillin, auromy- 
cin and Chloromycetin have failed. 
1 In a recently published clinical 
research bulletin by Cambridge Un- 
I iversity he explains that cranber- 
1 ries and cranberry juice is known 
to contain quinic acid, which when 
introduced into the human system 
is converted into hippuric acid of 
a high potency, high enough to 
destroy the most powerful types 
of bacteria found in bladder infec- 
tions. 



Dr. Kass stated in the publica- 
tion that when hippuric acid was 
fed to adults with chronic bladder 
infections "the bacteria were re- 
duced or eliminated even in pa- 
tients whose infections were re- 
sistant to previous antibiotic treat- 
ment." 

This hitherfore unrecognized 
value of the cranberry could add 
to cranberry use. Doctors have 
been prescribing cranberry juice 
in the treatment of bladder infec- 
tions. Dr. Kass concludes con- 
sideration of hippuric acid as an 
antibiotic "also suggests a pathway 
for future investigation of anti- 
bacterial agents." 

NCA Closing 
1957 Pool Early 

A news release of Oct. 7 from 
Amborse E. Stevens, general man- 
ager and executive vice-president 
of National Cranberry Association, 
states that an early settlement of 
the 1957 cranberry pool will be 
made with a 35 percent increase in 
returns to grower-members. 

Processing of the remaining ber- 
ries from that pool was expected 
to be completed by Oct. 11. Final 
payments to growers are sched- 
uled for November indicating that 
all NCA's 1957 berries will be pro- 
cessed and sold before the new 
1958 crop is completely harvested^ 

Stevens said that heavy orders 
for more than 2,500,000 cases of 
Ocean Spray products in August 
ind September cleared the way for 
an early closing of the 1957 pool. 

After allowing for stockholder 



compensation (dividends of 34 
cents per barrel) cash paid to 
grower-patrons should exceed 
$10.00; $8.60 has already been 
advanced. 

"CRANSWEETS" INTRODUCED 
TO STATE HEADS 

"Cransweets" in the form of 
cordial covered chocolate "Cran- 
sweets" were distributed at the 
40th annual convention of the 
State Department of Agriculture 
Convention in Madison, Wisconsin, 
early this month. These were fur- 
nished in the form of "room sur- 
prises" at the Edgewater hotel. 
This was through the courtesy of 
Cranberry Products, Inc. of Eagle 
River, Wisconsin, with President 
Vernon Goldsworthy in attend- 
ance. 

This was the first time many 
of these important agricultural 
off'icials had been introduced to 
cranberries. 

Goldsworthy has received sev- 
eral letters of appreciation for 
furnishing this introduction to 
cranberries. One was from Clyde 
Spry, Secretary of Agriculture 
of the State of Iowa. 

Another was from Phillip Alam- 
pi, Secretary of the State of New 
Jersey Department of Agriculture 
of New Jersey. 

A third was from Marlon Sch- 
wier, in charge of Fruit and Vege- 
table Section of the Department 
of Agriculture, State of Wisconsin. 



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WISCONSIN LEADS THE 



INDUSTRY IN CRANBERRY 



YIELDS PER ACRE 




Beginning a series of five articles sponsored by the Cranberry 
Institute, presenting statistical data about each of the major cranberry- 
producing areas. The first is Wisconsin, with comments by Vernon 
Goldsworthy, Vice President of the Institute and prominent cranberry 
grower and researcher, of Eagle River, Wisconsin 

According to Department of Ag- 
riculture estimates, the 1958 cran- 



berry harvest in Wisconsin will 
equal its 1956 record of 340,000 
barrels and so supply 31% of the 
estimated total U.S. crop of 1,108,- 
500 barrels. If the harvest proves 
out these figures, Wisconsin's 
yield per acre will again reach its 
1956 peak of 91.8 barrels, the high- 
est average ever produced in any 
area. 

Wisconsin's rise to second place 
in cranberry production and to 
first place in yield per acre is the 
outcome of close cooperation among 
Wisconsin growers, a sharing of 
experience and experiments that 
has brought about improvements 
and advances that are state-wide. 

Cranberry yields in Wisconsin 
overtook Massachusetts in the 
1930's, about the time Vernon 
Goldsworthy became interested in 
cranberries. This pioneer of cran- 
berry growing in the northeastern 
territory, through his researching 
of disease control, contributed im- 
measurably to Wisconsin's increase 
in yield. Mr. Goldsworthy says, 
"There are many factors involved 
in Wisconsin's progress to increas- 
ed production and yield. Import- 
ant is, of course, the control of 
weeds, disease and introduction of 
new fertilizers, and the develop- 
ment of the Searles variety with 
its larger berry. Adequate water 
supplies give us protection against 
drouth and freezing, but, so far, 
we have no protection against hail. 
This has taken a serious toll of 
the harvest this year." 

Native to the area, Wisconsin 
ci-anberries can be traced to the 
Indians when Algonquians gave 
them the name of "Atoqua." Wild 



berries were harvested as early 
as 1850, but commercial cultiva- 
tion did not begin until 1900, when 
a crop of 18,000 barrels was raised 
on some 1200 acres, making an 
average yield of 15 barrels per 
acre. The 100,000 barrel mark was 
passed in the 1930's, starting the 
dramatic rise to present eminence. 

The accompanying graph and 
statistics cover the period from 
1930 through. 1957, and it can be 
noted that during that 28-year 
period, when the acreage nearly 
doubled, yield per acre was more 
than quadrupled. 

For purposes of comparison, the 
year 1939 has been used as the 
reference point. The 2,400 acres 
harvested that fall and the yield 
of 45 barrels per acre are each 
considered 100% to provide a basis 
for comparison. Subsequent charts 
for other areas will follow this 
procedure and will use the same 
year, 1939, as the reference point 
of 100%. 

It then follows that the charted 
acreage and yield in the graph in- 
tersect in 1939. The graph points 
up the gradual rise of acreage 
harvested. Though the yield fluc- 
tuates from year to year, it con- 
tinues on an upward climb, and 
in 1957, the 4,000 acres harvested 
is 167% or 67% higher than 1939 
and the 65 barrel yield per acre is 
144% or 44% higher than 1939. 

TTie most important producing 
areas in Wisconsin are in the cen- 
tral part of the state, located in 
the counties of Wood, Munroe, 
Jackson, Juneau and Portage . . . 
Wood, Munroe and Jackson being 
the top three. Burnett, Washburn 
and Sawyer in the northwest and 
Vilas, Oneida and Price in the 



north make up the remaining im- 
portant cranberry-growing counties 
with some aci'eage in Lincoln and 
Rush. 

Besides the Searles which com- 
pose more than half the Wisconsin 
crop, other leading varieties are 
McFarlins, Natives and Howes. 

Water raking did not come in- 
to general harvesting practice until 
World War I. Before that, the 
crop was picked by hand. In recent 
years, mechanical picking has been 
developed and today, as in other 
areas, most of the harvest is being 
brought in by machines. All but 
very small amounts are harvested 
on the flood and most of these are 
mechanically dried. 

About % of the Wisconsin crop 
comes from plantations of from 
25 to 50 acres and another 1/5 of 
the crop is raised on plantations 
of 100 acres or more. This pre- 
valence of large plantations makes 
practical the increased mechani- 
zation of the Wisconsin cranberry 
industry. 

The future looks bright for con- 
tinued advances in production. 
Some 650 acres are expected to 
come into production by 1961 and 
another 200 acres by 1964 with 
probably other new plantings dur- 
ing the next decade. 

Wisconsin growers hope to con- 
tinue to increase their yield along 
with their acreage and so improve 
their economic position. 

(Advt.) 



Growers 
Distributors 
Processors 

SUPPORT YOUR 

Cranberry 
Institute 

AND IT WILL 
SUPPORT YOU 



T«» 



Year 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 
1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 
1951 
1952 
1953 
1954 
1955 
1956 
1957 



WISCONSIN CRANBERRY CROP* 

1939 = 100% 

Actual % Acreage Actual 

Acreage Harvested Yield 
Harvested Per Acre 

2,300 96 15.7 

2,400 100 20.0 

2,300 96 32.6 

2,200 92 19.1 

2,100 87 , 28.1 

2,100 87 36.7 

2,300 96 27.0 

2,400 100 47.9 

2,400 100 26.7 

2,400 100 45.0 

2,500 104 48.4 

2,600 108 38.1 

2,700 112 39.6 

2,700 112 37.8 

2,700 112 42.6 

2,700 112 30.4 

2,700 112 53.7 

2,700 112 59.6 

2,800 117 85.0 

3,100 129 64.5 

3,500 146 63.4 

3,600 150 - 54.4 

3,700 154 54.9 

3,800 158 77.6 

3,900 162 64.1 

4,000 167 78.8 

3,900 162 91.8 

4,000 167 65.0 



^Figures from United States Department of Agriculture 



% Yield 
Per Acre 

35 

44 

72 

42 

62 

82 

60 
106 

59 
100 
108 

85 

88 

84 

95 

68 
119 
132 
189 
143 
141 
121 
121 
172 
142 
175 
204 
144 



% 



230 
220 
210 
200 
190 
IBO 
170 
160 
ISO 

mo 

130 
120 
110 
100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
HO 
30 



WISCONSIN CRANBERRY CROP 
1930 - 1957 
A COMPARISON OF ACREAGE HARVESTED AND YIELD PER ACRE 



^— Acreage Harvested 
•-— Yield Per Acre 




y V 



1 — I — i — I — I — I — I — I — I — r 

L^3l 32 33 3¥ 35 36 37 3? 39 



1930 



n I I I I — I — I — ^ — I — I — I — I — I — I — T" 

, I ^V/ 4^2 ^3 VV ^^ ¥(> 97 'i-T ¥? I 51 52 53 5f 
l<i¥0 1950 



*Figures from United States Department of Agriculture 



n — r" 

55 56 57 



(Advt.) 
El?ve'n 



Bandon Has 12th 
Berry Festival 

Twelfth annual Bandon Cran- 
berry Festival was held in that 
Southwestern Oregon city October 
10, 11, 12. Local people had been 
busy as the proverbial "Cranberry 
Merchant", to plan for parade 
with floats, decorations, cranberry 
fair exhibits, barbecue foods, the 
annual ball, selection and crown- 
ing of the 1958 cranberry queen, 
and other events. 

Chosen queen was Linda Suth- 
erland, president of the student 
body of Bandon High School and 
honor student, and the daughter 
of Football Coach Dick Suther- 
land. She was crowned by Pa- 
tricia Moore, winner of the 1957 
top honor. 

The 1958 queen won over six 
other "princesses", and all dis- 
cussed some phase of the cran- 
berry industry. One of the prin- 
cesses, Peggy Hunt, enlivened her 
remarks by a dialogue with an 
animated cranberry. 

Outstanding school floats domi- 
nated the parade, which many 
called the best yet. News of 
both the parade and a football 
game were broadcast over radio 
station KWRO, Coquille, Oregon. 

Some 250 square dancers and 
spectators attended the Ocean 
Spray Twirlers Cranberry Festi- 
val which concluded the three-day 
celebration Sunday afternoon. 

Cranberry Winners Goal 
Senior Grand Champions 

Fresh Cranberries — Mrs. Marion 
Wilson. 

Culinary— Mrs. H. E. Armstrong. 
Canned— Mrs. E. H. Strain. 
Decorative — Mrs. Howard Wil- 
son. 

Junior Grand Champions 

Culinary — Joanne Gorman. 
Canned — Joanne Gorman. 
Decorative — Jesse Laub. 
Division A — Fresh Cranberries 

Class 1, Stankavich — Blue, Mar- 
ion Wilson, Ray Bates. 

Class 2, McFarlin— Blue, Mar- 
ion Wilson; red, Dave Philpott. 

Class 4, Misc.— red, Ennis Losh- 
baugh. 

Division B— Cranberries, Culinary 

Class 1, Pie— Mrs. Howard Kehl 

Twelve 



(2), Mrs. H. E. Armstrong; red, 
Mrs. Howard Wilson, Mrs. Howard 
Kehl; Jr., Verlene Haga. 

Class 2, Sauce-Cooked sieved — 

Blue, Mrs. Paul Colgrove; Jr., 
Dixie Van Leuven. 

Class 3, Sauce, Cut or whole — 
Blue, Mrs. Joe Turner, Mrs. Hugh 
Stevenson; red, Mrs. E. H. Strain, 
Mrs. N Davidson; White, Jr., Dixie 
Van Leuven. 

Class 4, Relish, Mixed fruit — 
Blue, Jr., Carol Laub; red, Jr., 
Vicki Bowman. 

Class 5, Relish, Mixed fruit — 
Blue. Jr., Kristy Bowman, John 
Van Leuven, Dixie Van Leuven; 
red, Mrs. Hugh. Stevenson, Mrs. E. 
H. Strain; Jr., Sandra Bowrnan, 
Jesse Laub; white, Jr., Merrianne 
Metzger. 

Class 6, Bread — Blue, Jr., Kristy 
Bowman; red, Mrs. E. H. Strain; 
white, Mrs. Howard Wilson. 

Class 7, Quick Bread — Blue, Mrs. 
Hugh Stevenson; Jr., Helen Don- 
ahue, Chestine Anderson; red, Mrs. 
E. H. Strain; white, Jr., Jesse 
Laub, Carol Laub. 

Class 9, Salad, Desserts — Blue, 
Mrs. E. H. Strain, Mrs. Howard 
Kehl; Jr., Joanne Gorman; red, 
Mrs. Hugh Stevenson; Jr., Verlene 
Haga. 

Class 10, Cocktail or Drink — 
Blue, Jr., Darla Bowman; white, 
Jr., Carol Laub. 

Class 11, Candy — Blue, Mrs. Ma- 
bel Phillips. 

Class 12, Cookies — Blue, Jr., 
Jesse Laub, Carol Laub; red, Mrs. 
E. H. Strain, Mrs. Wm. Biggar. 

Class 13, Cakes— Blue, Mrs. E. 
H. Strain, Mrs. Howard Kehl; Jr., 
Carol Laub, Joanne Gorman; red, 
Mrs. H. E. Armstrong. 

Class 14, Unique — Blue, Mrs. E. 
H. Strain; red, Mrs. E. H. Strain; 
Jr, Shirley Davidson. 
Division C — Cranberries, Canned 

Class 1, whole — Blue, Mrs. N. 
Davison, Mrs. E. H. Strain; Ji., 
Claudia Biggar, Joanne Gorman; 
white, Dave Philpott. 

Class 2, Berries, cut — Red, Jr., 
Joanne Gorman; white, Dave Phil- 
pott, Mrs. E. H. Strain. 

Class 3, Canned sieved sauce — 
Blue, Mrs. E. H. Strain; Jr., Jesse 
Laub, Joanne Gorman; red, Mrs. 
N. Davison; Jr., Dixie Van Leuven; 
white, Jr., Verlene Haga. 

Class 4, Canned relish — Blue, 



Mrs. N. Davison; Jr., Divie Van 
Leuven; red, Jr., John Van Leou- 
ven, Helen Donahue. 

Class 5, Marmalade — ^Blue, Mrs. 

E. H. Strain, Mrs. Howard Wilson. 
Class 6, Juice — Blue, Mrs. E. H. 

Strain; Jr., Verlene Haga; red, 
Mrs. N. Davison; Jr., Joanne Gor- 
man. 

Class 7, Jelly — Blue, Jr., Verlene 
Haga, Claudia Biggar, Joanne Gor- 
man; red, Mrs. E. H. Strain, Dave 
Philpott; Jr., Carol Laub. 

Division D — Cranberries 
Decorative 

Class 1, Corsages — Blue, Mrs. 
Howard Kehl, Dave Philpott, Mrs. 

F. C. Sell, Mrs. E. H. Strain; 
Jr., Jesse Laub, Carol Laub; red, 
Jr., Verlene Haga, Claudia Biggar, 
Joanne Gorman. 

Class 2, Table Decorations — ^Blue, 
Mrs. E. H. Strain, Mrs. Howard 
Wilson; red, Mrs. Howard Wilson, 
Mrs. Jesse Laub; white, Mrs. Flora 
Haynes. 

Class 3, Misc.— Blue, Mrs. E. H. 
Strain, Mrs. Howard Wilson. 

Division E — Decorative Cakes 

Blue, Mrs. Joseph Turner, Jr. 

(Editor's Note — condensed from 
"Western World," Bandon, Ore- 
gon.) 

RAILROAD FANS 
AT EDAVILLE 

A special train arrived at Ware- 
ham, Mass., September 28 with 
approximately 300 members and 
guests of the Connecticut Valley 
Historical Chapter of National 
Railway Historical Society to take 
a bus for Edaville. The group 
visited the railway exhibition and 
travelled over the five-mile stretch 
of narrow guage and saw the cran- 
berry bogs. 

SOUTHERN AUDIENCES 
HEAR CRANBERRY TIPS 

Mrs. Janet Taylor, home eco- 
nomics manager. National Cran- 
berry Association, made guest ap- 
pearances on radio and television 
week of Oct. 13 in North Carolina 
and Virginia. 

She was demonstrating ways of 
"mating" cranberries with meat, 
highlighting cranburger and cran- 
furter sauces on WFMY-TV, 
Greenboro, North Carolina; WSJS, 
Winston-Salem, North. Carolina 
and WDBJ-TV, Roanoke, Virginia. 




Dr. Ui of the University (right) was a guest at the Cranberry 
Experiment Station, East Wareham October 22, where he was especially 
interested in the work on nematodes by Dr. Bert M. Zuckerman with 
whom he is shown. (CRANBERRIES Photo) 



"Cranberries" 
Of Wisconsin 

(Reprinted from Special Bulletin 
No. 70) 

Wisconsin cranberries are mar- 
keted over much of the United 
States. The state's fresh cran- 
berries harvested in 1957 were 
sold in the terminal markets of 
Los Angeles and San Francisco 
on the Pacific Coast and in Denver, 
Colorado and Dallas, Texas. Ter- 
minal markets at Atlanta and Bir- 
mingham in the South, receive 
Wisconsin cranberries as do the 
Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Detroit, 
Cleveland, Cincinnatti and Louis- 
ville markets. In general, the mid- 
west is the largest market-con- 
sumption area for Wisconsin cran- 
berries. The terminal markets at 
Chicago, Minneapolis - St. Paul 



Kansas City and St. Louis receive 
large shipments of the berries. 

Trucks are now the major means 
of moving Wisconsin cranberries 
to market. These vehicles carry 
the fruit to many distant market 
areas. Railroad transportation has 
played an important part in the 
movement of the state's cranber- 
ries in the past and is still used 
to some extent particularly on long 
hauls to distant markets. 

Railroad shipments of cranber- 
ries in the United States has shown 
s, downward trend for the past 
several years according to reports 
of the Market News Service. The 
nation's recorded cranberry rail 
shipments declined from 1048 car- 
lots in 1948 to 243 carlots in 1956. 

Rail shipments for each of the 
producing states also show declin- 
ing trends. For example, recorded 



shipments of Massachusetts cran- 
berries, by rail, decreased from 
923 recorded carlots in 1948 to 
209 carlots in 1956. Wisconsin's 
recorded rail shipments of the 
berries declined from 477 carlots 
in 1948 to 33 recorded carlots in 
1956. New Jersey's rail shipments 
since 1949 have steadily declined 
and in 1956 only one carlot was 
lecorded. Wisconsin's rail ship- 
ments in 1956 were reported as 
originating in Wisconsin Rapids, 
Eabcock, Springbrook, Phillips, 
Wyeville, Warrens, Mosinee, Mil- 
Iston and Augusta, all in or near 
producing areas. 

FROZEN FOODS 

(From Agricultural Research) 

A fast-growing frozen food in- 
dustry is developing high-quality 
products with the help of USDA's 
Western Utilization Research and 
Development Division, Albany, 
Calif. 

Results of this 8-year-old study 
are aiding the development of 
industries that process, preserve, 
and market an important share of 
our farm products. The work is 
being done witu wide industrial 
cooperation. 

In the early days of the $2 
billion frozen-food industry, re- 
search and experience established 
0° F. or lower as a practical oper- 
ating temperature. But rapid 
growth of the industry has brought 
to notice a number of questions 
that need to be answered. 

Industry Has New Questions 

For instance, what kinds of 
chemical, physical, and microbial 
changes occur in frozen food be- 
tween 0° F. and higher tempera- 
tures ? How fast does each one of 
these changes proceed under vari- 
ous conditions ? How important 
is each type of change in the total 
quality value of the food? 

This is how ARS research is 
finding the answers to these ques- 
tions: 

Scientists are analyzing the 
quality factors of freshly packed, 
commercially frozen foods. These 
factors include vitamins, flavor, 
color and texture. Then their rates 
of decline under commercial con- 
ditions are measured. 



Thirteen 



■f/xxsa'amai^ff 




Fhoto s:ho\vs harvesting scene at the Arthur Laine bog, East Wareham, with cranberries being 
winnowed by Ray Laine and Arne Checkman. (CRANBERRIES Photo) 



NCA Committees 
Are Appointed 

George C. P. Olsson of Ply- 
mouth, Massachusetts, President 
of National Cranberry Associa- 
tion, announces appointment of 
special committees, and their 
elected chairmen, made up of 
members of the cooperative's 
Board of Directors. 

Shrinkage and plant facilities: 
chairman, Chester W. Robbins, 
Onset, Mass.; secretary, Marcus 
M. Urann, So. Duxbury, Mass.; 
William S. Haines, Chatsworth, 
N. J.; Charles L. Lewis, Shell 
Lake, Wise; Leonard G. Morris, 
Long Beach, Wash., and Elmer E. 
Raymond, Jr., Braintree, Mass. 

Fresh Fruit: chairman, Lev^^is; 
secretary, Urann; Tony Jonjak, 
HayAvard, Wise; Russell Make- 
peace, Marion, Mass.; Morris, and 
Lawrence S. Pink, Middleboro, 
Mass. 

Salary and pension: chairman, 
Richard J. Lawless, Wisconsin 



Rapids, Wise; secretary, Thomas 
B. Darlington, New Lisbon, N. J.; 
Walcott R. Ames, Osterville, 
Mass.; Carroll D. Griffith, So. 
Carver, Mass.; David E. Pryde,, 
Grayland, Wash., and Raymond, 
Jr. 

Marketing agreement: chair- 
man, William E. Crowell, Dennis, 
Mass.; secretary, Bert Leasure, 
Chicago, 111.; Griffith; Lawrence 
S. Cole, No. Carver, Mass.; John 
E. Cutts, Vincentown, N. J., and 
James Olson, Bandon, Ore. 

Fact finding: ciiairman, John M. 
Potter, Port Edwards, Wise; sec- 
retary, Olson; Ames; Alden C. 
Brett, Belmont, Mass.; Frank P. 
Crandon, Acushnet, Mass., and 
Kaines. 

Advertising anu marketing: 
chairman. Miss Ellen Stillman, 
Hanson, Mass.; secretary. Make- 
peace; Crandon; Pink; Leasure 
and Pryde. 

A Board of Directors for Ocean 
Spray of Canada was elected by 



National Cranberry directors at 
their recent meeting in Boston 
with Darlington as president. 

Othei' members of the Canadian i 
board are: Makepeace; Piyde; 
Raymond, Jr.; Urann; Potter, and j 
Norman Holmes, New Westmin- 
ster, B. C, Canada. 



Cranberries 
Top Forecast 



The USDA October estimate of 
the current cranberry crop has 
been increased from a total of the 
original August forecast of 1,076,- 
500 to 1,108,500. There is an in- 
crease in Massachusetts from 
570,000 to 595,000 barrels. 

New Jersey estimate dropped 
from 88,000 to 85,000. Wisconsin 
is up from 335,000 to 340,000. 
Washington is up from 49,500 to 
56,000, Oregon dropped from 
34,000 to 32,500. 



Fourteen 



♦— — —- 



■ ■■ ■■ m\ ttm 



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Blla-^I^^^MMM^HM- 



■* 




IS5UE OF OCTOBER 1958 
VOL. 23 - NO. 6 




;;^^i»oHAiaui«8««,;«^ 



^^ 



IS THE TIDE TURNING? 

LAST month w?. wrote "The Battle Is 
On," meaning that harvesting and market- 
ing of the 1958 crop and the disposal of 
remaining 1957 barrels was in progress. 
Now, it would seem we are at least win- 
ning a skirmish or two this year, and maybe 
the battle to check the decline in cranberry 
prices. 

NCA which is handling about 75 percent 
of the crop has closed the 1957 pool with 
an announced 35 percent increase in re- 
turns to growers. Checks are expected 
to go out in November to growers in an 
amount exceeding $10.00, of which amount 
$8.60 has already been paid. The 1956 
pool paid $8.10 per barrel. 

An independent distributor in Wisconsin 
returned for its growers for last season 
a net return, money which growers could 
actually put in the bank, amounting to 
$10.47 a barrel. 

The market in mid-October seemed to be 
holding well for 1958 fresh fruit. 

Perhaps the upturn is really here, and 
the tide is turning. 

A PRIZE CRANBERRY RECIPE 

A HOUSEWIFE of Wareham, Massa- 
chusetts, the town popularly known as the 
world center of cranberry growing has 
achieved a new distinction for the cran- 
berry. Mrs. Elsie Fraher became one of 
the 100 finalists in the Pillsbury Flour 
national bake-off in New York City, with a 
cranberry tart recipe. 

We tasted one of her products. It was 
excellent. Many women throughout the 
country will read her recipe. A salute to 
Mrs. Fraher for adding to the sales poten- 
tial of fresh cranberries! 

FASTER HARVESTS 

THE picking machines are proving one 
thing, at least this Fall, This is, that they 
are much faster in getting the crop off 
than are hand scoopers. Harvest began 
late in many areas, particularly in Massa- 
chusetts, but it caught up fast. Given any 
kind of favorable weather future harvests 
will be completed in a much shorter time. 
This is progress due to mechanazation. 



'"^^""•^""^^""••^'"i^^iiii-^— ii*"-^— uit^^i M^— uu^^uii^^in f ^nw^— uii— im— — im^^iiii— ^iiu^i^iiii^^iiii— n»*-^tK#» 



CLARENCE J. HALL 
Editor and Publisher 

EDITH S. HALL^Associate Editor 
Wareham, Massachusetts 
SUBSCRIPTIONS, $3.50 Per 
Year, FOREIGN, $4.50 



CORRESPONDENTS— ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 

Cranberry Consultant 

Wisconsin Rapids 

Wisconsin 



Washington 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash. 



Oregon 

GRANT SCOTT 
Coquille, Ore. 



Massachusetts 

DR. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass. 



New Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 

Pemberton, New Jersey 



A PAPER manufacturer (cover stock) 
is now putting out "Cranberry Pink." We 
hope this will make printers think of cran- 
berries. 



Fifteen 



IRVING THE WISi[^l)N41N OROWERI 



[•r^sh Fron The FleSds 

(Continued From Page 6) 
and development. 

Hail Damage 

The marshes damaged by hail 
the first part of the month were 
busy salvaging what berries they 
could. Salvaged berries were be- 
ing shipped directly to the process- 
ors. It is now estimated that at 
least fifty percent of the berries 
will be un-salvageable. Without a 
doubt this past season has been the 
most damaging from hail in grow- 
ers' memory. Marshes that suff'er- 
ed frost damage in late August 
were trying to salvage some of the 
undamaged berries with consider- 
able diff"iculty. Buds from the frost 
areas are being checked to deter- 
mine if they were hurt by the frost. 

Picking Machines 

Weather for the most part was 
good during harvest with only one 
day lost in the southern marshes. 
An estimated one third of the crop 
was harvested by the end of the 
month. If the good weather pre- 
vails, harvest should be completed 
by the middle of October. Harvest 
time on most marshes is being cut 
down annually with the use of ad- 
ditional picking machines. Vine 
condition seems to improve annual- 
ly with the use of mechanical 
pickers and wiregrass stands are 
being cut down from the eff"ects of 
the pickers. A study of production 
records on those marshes which 
have used the pickers longest in 
Wisconsin show crops have increas- 
ed since pickers have been used, al- 
though not necessarily the results 
of the machines. Fall combing has 
now been virtually eliminated with 
the fine combing the machines are 
doing. 

LATE MASSACHUSEnS 

As of the first three weeks of 
October (21st), the crop was about 
95 percent in. Several of the 
larger growers were still picking, 
but probably all smaller ones 
were through. Quality, as ber- 
ries came from the field, was con- 



sidered generally good. 

Frost losses were estimated by 
Cranbei'ry Experiment Station as 
3,000 barrels, this mostly occur- 
ring on the night of the 5th. 
Warnings were sent out also on 
the 6th, 7th and 13th. This fall 
has proven to be not a bad frost 
season. There were also frosts 
on the 18th and 19th, but no gen- 
eral warnings were sent out in 
view of the few berries left on 
the vines. 

The month to the 21st had 
averaged just over two degrees a 
day colder than normal. There 
was, however, a sharp reversal in 
the rainfall pattern. There had 
been only .47 inch to the 21st, with 
precipitation for the month nor- 
mally 4.02. Reservoirs and other 
water supplies were well up and 
no trouble was being anticipated 
at that time for winter flooding. 
Many flooded for after-harvest 
trash cleanup and vine recovery. 

HUMAN FRAILTY 

At one time or another we are 
all convinced that the hardest way 
tomorrow. 



Subscribe to 



Cranberries 
Magazine 



k:«IIIHIIinillHilllH!'IIW!IIHiniHi!!!HllliB'lllB<;!2i 




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262 W. Grand Ave. 

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Sixteen 



SIRVINi THE WISaONSIN 



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INTERESTED 
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CRANBERRY 

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EAGLE RIVER 
WISCONSIN 



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Wis. Rapids Wis. 

MFCS, of: 

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GRASS CUPPERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS 

Gktsinger Retracto tooth 

pickers 

Dryers 

DISTR. of: 

VEE BELTS & PULLEYS 

ROLLER CHAINS 

SPROCKETS & BEARINGS 

CONVEYOR BELTING 

STEEL 



Mr. Grower ! 

Your Foreman 
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Cranberries; too 



Cranberry growers have enjoyed 
two decades of successful use of 

KROP-SAVER 

Insecticides, Fungicides and Herbicides 
Better Chemicals For Agriculture 



Crop-Saver Chemical Company 

Spring Green, Wisconsin 



THE ONLY 

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KICKAPOO 
FERTILIZERS 

Stevens Point 



CORRUGATED 
CULVERT PIPE 

and 

FLOW GATES 

Felker Bros. Mfg. Co. 

MARSHnELD WISCONSIN 
Phone 230 - 231 



THIS SPACE IS COIN' TO WASTE! 



It is available for those who have an advertising 
message to the Wisconsin Industry 



THIS YEAR GIVE 0(^(iftS/^^/& 

NEW CRANBERRY GIFT CARRIER 




Comes filled with . . . 

2 pts. Ocean Spray Cranberry Juice Cocktail 

2 (16 oz.) cans and 2 (7 oz.) cans Ocean Spray 
Cranberry Sauce, plus recipe booklet 

18" long, 12" wide, 4" deep 

Handsome hardwood finish 

The most unique gift a grower can give 



Only ^S5 , 
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If you pick " 

yours up 
at the plant , 



ORDER YOUR SUPPLY TODAY... 
GIVE A CRANBERRY GIFT 
CARRIER TO ALL YOUR FRIENDS 
...TREAT YOURSELF TO ONE, TOO! 



TO: Gift Dept. 

National Cranberry Association. Hanson, Mass. 

Please send me CRANBERRY GIFT CARRIER(S) at $4.95 



each. Enclosed Is- 



- (amount). 



Check □ Money Order □ Cash Q 



NAME 

STREET, 
CITY 



20NL 



-STATE. 



(Checks should be made payable to National Cranberry Association. Hanson, Mass.) 



RVINC A $20,000,000 A YEAR INDUSTRY 




:ape cod 

NEW JERSEY 
WISCONSIN 
OREGON 
WASHINGTON 
CANADA 



THE McLELLANS, Hanson, Massachusetts, Cranberries and the Sea. (Stor 

(CRANBERRIES 



35 Cents 



NOVEMBER 1958 



DIRECTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWERS 



Wcrcester Paper 
Box Corporation 

MEDFORD, MASS. 
Td. MYstic 8-5305 

Manufacturers 

of 
Folding Cartons 

and 

Displays 



WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STODDARD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

Franconia Coal Co. 
— Inc. — 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. 39-R 



CRANBERRY 
GROWERS 

Choose and Use 

Niagara Dusts, Sprays and 

Dusters 

Niagara Chemical 
Division 

Food Machinery and 
Chemical Corporation 

Middieport, New York 

New Ensland Plant and Warehouse 

Ayer, Mass. Tel. Spruce 2-2365 



Wareham Savings 

Bank 
Falmouth Branch 

Welcome Savings Account 

Loans on Real Estate 
Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 

PHONE WAREHAM 82 
FALMOUTH 80 



The National Bank of Wareham 



Conveniently located for Cranberry Men 



Funds always available for sound loans 



Complete Banking Service 



The 
CHARLES W. HARR 
Company 

26 Somerset Ave 
North Dighton, Mass. 

AMES 

Irrigation Systems 

Sprinklers 



Weed killers 

Insecticides 

Fungicides 

from 
Cal. Spray Chemical Com pa y 
Dupont Company 
American Cyanimid Compan,' ^ 



EQUIPMENT 

HAYDEN 

- SEPARATOR - 
WAREHAM, MASS. 

Irrigation Systems 
PUMPS 

SEPARATORS - BLOWERS 
SCREENHOUSE EQUIPMENT 

DARLINGTON 
PICKING MACHINES 



Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. 



Extensive Experience in 
ELECTRICAL WORK 

ALFRED PAPPI 

At Screcnhouses, Boss aacl 
Pumps Mmuu Satisfaction 

WAREHAM, MASS. TeL 626 



ADVERTISE 

in 

CRANBERRIES 



;<^roi^5^«)R- 






FIRE DESTROYS MASS. 
SCREENHOUSE, BERRIES 

Fire destroyed the screenhouse 
of the Goddard Cranberry Com- 
pany in the Manomet section of 
Plymouth, Massachusetts, the 
night of November 3. A passing 
motorist spotted the blaze, but the 
building was virtually leveled be- 
fore firefighters could make the 
long run from Plymouth. 

Ernest Goddard, son of Harri- 
son Goddard of the company, es- 
timated the loss at |13,000. There 
were 300 barrels in storage, loss 
approximately $3,000, and |10,000 
in building and equipment. 

This was the second fire loss for 
the Goddard Company in five 
months, the first being at its Mid- 
dleboro warehouse, which was se- 
verely damaged earlier. 



Northern Wisconsin 

There will be approximately 50 
acres planted in the Eagle River 
section of north-central Wiscon- 
sin. Thunder Lake (Vernon Golds- 
worthy) will put in 10 acres, 
Ralph Sampson 10 acres, Drever 
and Nelson 10 acres and Edward 
Queriy 20. There will also be 
spring planting at Manitowish 

Waters and some planting and ex- 
pansion in the Hayward area, 
northwestern Wisconsin. 

Early November had brought 
snow to the north region but not 
in very large amounts. 



isn't long for this world. 



Send A Copy 

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Plea 
persons 

To 


se sen 
liste'd 


d a free 
below: 


copy of 


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Tn 


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my 


compliments to 


the 1 


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Address 










City 




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Sender 
Address 



E LECTRICITY 

Is your good "friend" any 

month in the year. It is 

an especially valuable aid 

in November, when the daylight 

hours are shortening and 

you are busy with your 

screening and shipping. 

Plymouth County Electric Co. 



WAREHAM 
TEL. 200 



PLYMOUTH 

TEL. 1300 



>giifl^iiil^iill^aiigi<ii;iS.Ji^;il^illiEl:!llgililiBli[||'l* 
I ii.niidillMIIIHIIIHIIIinillBllllii.illHllliailllVilll | 



1 



The man who lives on promises i 



i 



YOU 

ARE 

READING 

THIS 



AD 



^ :)c H< :}: :f: :): :): 



Others Will 
Read Yours 



m 



161 



I 



+3i!r 



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!•& 



CRANBERRY PICKING 
BOXES 

Shocks, or Nailed 

Let me repair your broken 

boxes — or repair them yourself. 

Stock Always on Hand 

F. H. COLE 

Tel. Union 6-3330 
North Carver, Mass. 



One 



Sandi 



ng 



(From The Cranberry Industry in 
Massachusetts, Bulletin No. 157, 
1957.) 

Ninety-five percent of reports 
(of growers) contained sanding in- 
formation on 96 percent of the 
total state acreage. The amount 
of acres sanded during the years 
1953-1955 or 56 percent of the to- 
tal state acreage were 7,552.2, 
56 percent of total. Fifty-five 
percent of the growers sanded 
with wheelbariows, 26 percent 
with jalopies, the rest with rail- 
roads, tractor-trailers, etc. 

However on an acreage basis 
only 46 percent was sanded by 
wheelbarrow, and 42 percent by 
jalopies. 

As compared with ten years ago, 
less sanding was done during the 
period of this survey, partly be- 
cause of economic conditions, part- 
ly because the bogs did not need 
sanding so badly as immediately 
following World War II. Some 
preliminary research has been done 
toward eliminating the apparent 
need for sanding, but without con- 
crete results as yet. 

CRANBERRIES 

is the only 

publication 

of the industry 

which accepts 

advertising 



NATIONAL FARM imt\ 

of Taunton 

FARMERS' PRODiJCTJOH 
CREDIT ASSOCIATION 

of Taunton 
Tel. VAndyke 4-7578 

For The BEST 
In Farm Financing 



CaOPEBOTf FARM^CRIUIT 




C. & L. EQUIPMENT CO. 

191 LEONARD STREET ACUSHMH, MASS. 

Cranberry Bog Service 



PRUNING 
RAKING 

IVlacliinery Safes 

PRUNERS 
RAKES 



FERTILIZING 
WEED TRIMMING 

POWER WHEELBARROWS 
WEED TRIMMERS 



FERTILIZER SPREADERS - Large & Small 

For Further Information Call . . . 

F. P. CRANDON H. C. LEONARD 

Rockwell 3-5526 Wyman 3-433:^ 

C. J. TRIPP 

Wyman 4-4601 




FOR PREFABRICATED FLUMES 

SEE 

RUSSELL A. TRUFANT 

HYDRAULIC CONSULTANT 

PREFABRICATED FLUMES BOG RAILROADS 

UNION 6-3696 North Carvor, Mass. 



Two 



!««»^-a<»« 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Notes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 



-('■"ssiiJr'i*^*^ 



|i 




Extremes of Weather 

The 1958 cranberry season will 
be remembered as another of the 
extremes so often associated with 
New Eng'land. In nlace of hui-ri- 
canes and drouR'ht, this season 
broke- all existing records for rain- 
fall. For the six-month growing 
period from May through October, 
27.69 inclnes of rain was recoi'dsd 
at the Cranberry Experiment Sta- 
tion as compared with 12.90 inches 
measured during the same period 
in 1957 when severe drought condi- 
tions were experienced. The norm- 
al rainfall for the above months is 
20.50 inches. Our weather records 
show that tJe preceding winter 
and spring months follow the same 
soggy pattern. 

Wie have already exceeded our 
yearly average by over 10 inches 
v/ith November and December pre- 
cipitation yet to be recorded or a 
lolal of 51.02 inches from January 
through October. The ysarly aver- 
ig'Z is 44.31 inches. One final com- 
ment on weather, iiours of sunshine 
r.ie definitely less than last years 
record and temperatures are well 
b^low normal. Further reference 
Ij tliese weather facts will provide 
seme interesting comments at a 
later date, narticularly the sharp 
decline of the hours of sunshine 
and their possible effect on the 
1959 crop. 

New Warning Ssystem 

The Massachusetts harvest was 
nearly completed November 1. 
Our new system designed to make 
the frost messages more useful 
met with considerable favor, based 
on reports received from growers. 
We plan to continue the new sys- 
tem next year. Just for the record, 
15 general frost warnings were 
released this fall compared with 
20 in 1957, 20 in 1956, 3 in 1955, 
and o in 1954. These figui-es include 



both afternoon and evening fore- 
casts. Water supplies for frost pro- 
tection were more than ample in 
most instances with the result that 
damage was relatively liglxt — an 
estimated 3000 barrels. The writer 
would like to again commend 
George Rounsville for his splendid 
work as our frost forecaster during 
1958. We are also indebted to the 
U.S. Weather Bureau, our cooper- 
ative weather observers, the tele- 
phone distributors, and the radio 
stations that have cooperated in 
making the frost warning service 
effective. 

Feeling In Trade Improved 
Our quality control studies are 
TiTnoTPSRino' verv nicely. Fresh 
cranberries are being screened, 
p-:kaged r.nd displayed at regular 
intervals, both ■isre at the Cran- 
l3iry Experiment Station and in 
local stores. These test lots include 
z^neb-treated r.nd untreated fruit 
r.nd are being displayed with and 



v/ithont refrigeration. We hope td 
obtain useful infoiuiation on the 
effect of zineb on the shelf life of 
fresh fruit handled under various 
f onditions. As a part of this study, 
the writer visited markets in Bos- 
ton, Cincinnati and Detroit during 
late October and early November 
in order to check the condition of 
cranberries at the terminal market 
and retail level. Chain store buy- 
ers, jobbers, brokers, wholesalers, 
commission men, produce man- 
agers, merchandisers and market 
officials were interviewed. 

Samples of cranberries were 
purchased in approximately 10 
lepresentative stores in each of 
the above cities, and carefully 
examined in terms of condition. 
Detailed results are not available 
at this time, but it can be stated 
that the condition of fresh fruit 
based on this quick sampling 
method was considerably better 
than expected. The feeling in the 
trade is definitely improved over 
the last three years, due primarily 
to the fact that prices have been 
reasonably firm this fall, at least 
to the present (November 13). 
This has resulted in healthier mar- 
kets, improved relations with the 
trade, and we hope better returns 
to growers. 

Market Reports 

The v/eekly cranberry market 
1 sport, prepared for the fresh fruit 



Brewer & Lord 

INSURANCE 
40 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. 



ARTHUR K. POPE 
CONVERSE HILL 
WILLL^M B. PLUMER 
ROBERT A. SULLIVAN 
EDVv^ARD 



HORACE H. SOULE 
CHARLES M. CUTLER 
EBEN A. THACHER 
HERBERT R. LANE 

WILSON 



H. LEARNARD VINCENT M. 
JOHN B. CECILL, JR. 



Serving the People of New England 

Since 1859 



Thre'e 



outlet by John O'Neil's office in 
Boston, is not reaching growers 
in sufficient numbers to warrant 
its continuance. We checked very 
recently with the Market News 
Service of the U.S. Department 
of Agriculture which prepares and 



publishes this useful report and 
learned to our dismay thac of the 
103 individuals requesting this re- 
port, only 28 are growers. If the 
information contained is not serv- 
ing a useful purpose in acquaint- 
ing growers with movement by 



SHARON BOX COMPANY, inc. 

ESTABLISHED 1856 

SHARON, MASSACHUSETTS 

We Will Buy Your White Pine Logs, 

Either Standing or Cut 

* Highest Prices Paid * 

Sawmill located at North Carver, Mass. Stop 
in at North Carver, or Phone Sharon, Sunset 4-2012 




RUP 

FOR CRANBERRY PACKING 

Retains full natural flavor 
without overwhelming sweetness 

(=9) CORN PRODUCTS COMPANY 

17 Battery Place, New York 4, N. Y. 

Manufacturers of fine products for the food industry . . . 
and these popular grocery brands for the consumer: 

MAZOLA® corn oil • KARO® syrups • BOSCO® chocolate flavored syrup 
NIAGARA® instant starch • UNIT® dry and liquid starches • KASCO® dog food 
NUSOFT® fabric softener rinse • ARGO® corn and gloss starches 



TELL YOUR NEIGHBOR ABOUT 
CRANBERRIES MAGAZINE 



rail and truck, price and terminal 
conditions in leading markets in 
United States, plus a comparison 
of movement on a weekly basis 
with a corresponding week the 
year previous, then it should be 
discontinued. Howevex-, growers 
and shipers are reminded that a 
cranberry industry committee sup- 
ported by the Cape Cod Cranberry 
Growers' Association petitioned 
the U.S.D.A. for such a report 
several years ago. The request 
was granted, and this report has 
been issued for at least five years. 
It is available to all who are in- 
terested and may be received by 
merely writing to John O'Neil, 408 
Atlantic Avenue, Room 703, Bos- 
ton, Mass., requesting that his 
name be added to the mailing list. 
In order to keep this mailing list 
up to date, it is necessary each, 
year for those receiving such in- 
formation to request that his name 
be continued on the above list. 
Some may have overlooked this 
important detail. 

Late Fall Suggestions 

Now that the harvest is com- 
pleted and prospects for better re- 
turns to growers seem to be a de- 
finite possibility, we offer a few 
suggestions on late fall manage- 
ment. There is still time to ferti- 
lize the thin areas on bogs or 
areas vi^here the crop was down 
due to the lack of vigor of the 
vines and uprights. Woody plants, 
such as hardback, meadow sweet, 
hayberry, maple and other bnish 
should be pulled or dug out along 
with tussocks of rushes and sedges 
in order to improve the harvest 
operation next season. Ditches 
need to be cleaned on many pro- 
perties to permit better drainage, 
thus discouraging the growth of 
water weeds. The importance of 
the fall cleanup flood should not 
be overlooked, pai-ticularly this 
season where water supplies are 
ample for this important task. 

One final note — no word has 
been received concerning the clear- 
ance for Amino triazole for pre- 
_ bloom use on bogs. However, we 
have been assured that our station 
will be notified prior to the revi- 
sion of the pest control charts as 
to wheather it can be used during 
the pi-e-bloom period. 



Four 




Issue of November 1958 - Vol. 23 No. 7 




e^-'V^o^:^^^ - .I!!5 .— !^ ^^^l^^ .r- ,f-V. -^^.^a-^a-Hu.eU,-^1r^-^ ^rl^. .... 



^ESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



VIASSACHUSETTS 



October Dry 

Dctober rainfall total (Cranber- 
Station) was 2.26 inches, as 
npared to a normal 4.02, re- 
sing the trend of all previous 
nths of the year, with two ex- 
)tions. It was actually a very 
/ month, only .41 inches to the 
5t, A storm on October 27 
mght 1.77 inches. 

Could Affect 1959 Yield 

The amount of rainfall in Oc- 
)er is important in the size of 
i crop for the following year, 
e shortage of rain should indi- 
te a smaller production in 1959, 
t there was a good deal of frost 
oding in October (even though 
jst loss still remained at 3,000 
rrels at end of month), and this 
ly have kept the vines sufficient- 
moist to overcome the drop in 
ecipitation. With plenty of 
iter, most growers who could 
oded bogs after harvest for a 
ash clean-up. It is also felt 
achine picking did less manual 
image to vines, so that lack of 
tober rain may be offset as a 
ctor in the 1959 yield. 

October Chilly 

The month as a whole was more 
lan two degrees a day colder 
lan normal, a minus 70 inches 
ir the 31 days. Much of this 
lilliness took place from the mid- 
e of the month on. The year to 
ovember first has been minus 
LO degrees of normal. 

November Picking 

Less than a handful of growers 
ere still picking as usual into 
arly November. 



WISCONSIN 

October Weather Normal 

October was normal in tempera- 
ture ana precipitation. This was 
the first month of the 1958 season 
when weather conditions were nor- 
mal. The first few days of the 
month were unseasonably cold, 
followed by typical Indian summer 
weather for the balance of the 
month. Precipitation came the 
third week, with some southern 
marshes receiving two and one 
half inches. Adequate water sup- 
plies are now insured for winter 
flooding. Average rainfall for the 
cranberry areas for the year now 
shows a deficiency of 2.75 inches 
and ground water level remains 
1.90 feet below normal. The ex- 
tended forecast for November 
calls for below normal precipita- 
tion and above normal tempera- 
tures. Average temperature being 
32.1 degrees and precipitation 1.99 
inches. 

October Ended Harvest 
With ideal weather conditions 
the majority of the marshes had 
completed harvest by the middle of 
October. A few of the larger 
properties completed harvest the 
latter part of the month. Only a 
few days were lost during harvest 
due to rain and the remarkable 
effect was the absence of any ex- 
tremely cold weather. As most 
marshes had added additional 
picking machines, the elapsed har- 
vesting time per individual marsh 
was cut appreciably. 

Quality Excellent 
Berry size increased consider- 
ably in the southern marshes the 
latter part of September and the 
first two weeks in October. This 



factor helped increase the size of 
the state crop and to bring crops 
up to pre-estimates. Berry size 
in the north continued belew nor- 
mal, due to the late cold growing 
season. Color was excellent and 
quality above average in all areas. 
Several properties in the south av- 
eraged over two hundred barrels 
to the acre and a number of the 
larger marshes had their largest 
crops on record. 

Half Shipped Nov. 1 

It was estimated that half of the 
state crop had been shipped by 
Nov. 1, the bulk going processing. 
Fresh shipments were picking up 
the latter part of October and 
were expected to pick up materially 
the first part of November. The 
fresh fruit market was reported 
holding and growers "were optimis- 
tically looking forward to better 
price returns. 

New Color Film 

The new colored cranberry film 
on the Wisconsin Cranberry In- 
dustry made by the Dept. of Agri- 
culture Journalism of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, in co-operation 
with the Wisconsin State Cran- 
berry Growers Association, was 
completed the last of October. 
The film which is twelve minutes 
in length was prepared especially 
for TV, although prints will be 
circulated throughout the midwest 
area to schools, county agents, 
home agents, etc. Several mark- 
eting agencies in the state are pur- 
chasing copies for distribution in 
the trade. 

NEW JERS EY 

Rain Hampers Harvest 

A continuation of the wet wea- 

pivg 



ther in New Jersey throughout 
October hampered the cranberry 
harvest, which was later than 
usual on most properties. 

Rainfall during the month to- 
talled 5.17 inches, which is almost 
two inches more than normal. This 
brought the total precipitation in 
1958 to 56.08 inches, which is al- 
ready more than has ever been re- 
corded for an entire year in the 
Pemberton area. The previous 
high was 53.64 inches in 1952. 
Other years in which the total ex- 
ceeded 50 inches were 1938 (51.25), 
1940 (51.20) and 1948 (50.24). 

October Temperatures Normal 

In regard to temperature, the 
month averaged out at 54.6 de- 
grees F., just about normal. Ex- 
tremes recorded at the weather 
station at the Laboratory were 
86 degrees on October 10 and 29 
degrees on October 6. There were 
only three frosty nights here on the 
upland, the 6th, 7th and 14th. 

Expect 85,000 Bbls. 

The 1958 harvest had few sur- 
prises. The crop in New Jersey 
is not expected to vary much from 
the 85,000 barrel estimate. A few 
bogs had record crops but this was 
more than offset by frost failures. 
Early Blacks did not have the ex- 
treme rot condition which was 
feared would result from the ex- 



cessive rainfall.. According to 
Walter Fort's observations the ex- 
cellent 1958 Howes crop was the 
ibest he had ever seen in quality. 
The trend toward machme harvest- 
ing continues to be strong in New 
Jersey. Economy and the genei'al 
improvement of bogs are points 
cited in favor of this method. 

WASH5NGT0N 

Yield Is Up 

Cranberry hai*vest in Long Beach 
is finished except for Cranguyma 
Farms and two or three others. 
The yields in the various bogs 
both here and in Grayland varied 
considerably. Some bogs had more 
berries than they had expected 
otliers had less. The yield of the 
two areas in Washing'ton will be 
a little more than was originally 
expected. The estimated yield from 
the Long Beach area is around 15 
thousand barrels. Grayland and 
the North Beach areas will have 
approximately 40 thousand which 
adds up to approximately two 
-Ijlrds the crop which was produced 
in 1957. Clatsop county in Oregon 
has sent in 270 barrels. Practically 
all the crop in Grayland is in so 
tbe above figures are fairly accu- 
rate. 

Fresh Demand Exceeds Supply 

The fresh market demand for 




R. F. MORSE & SON 

West Wareham, Mass., Phone 1553-R 

Cranberry Growers Agent For 

Eastern States Farmers' Exchange 

Insecticides - Fertilizers - Fungicides 

Bog Service and Supplies 
Agent for Wiggins Airways 

Helicopter Spray and Dust Service 
DEPENDABLE ECONOMICAL SERVICE 



West Coast berries is very g'ood 
and more berries could have been 
sold as "fresh pack" if there were 
more available. 

Sprinkler Research 

The bogs which had sprinkler 
systems going- all night during the 
May 12th freeze have produced 
yields in spite of the frost. Those 
bogs which did not have sufficient 
water to sprinkle continuously re- 
ceived damage in varied degrees 
from very severe to moderate. 
This demonstrates the need for 
continuous frost protection during 
periods of low temperature in the 
blossoming season. It seems that 
as long as some water is available 
for freezing the temperature can 
be held at or near 32°. If all the 
water that is on the vines freezes 
then the temperature immediately 
drops quite rapidly. The problem 
now is to determine by investiga- 
tions in plant growth chambers 
just hotw much water is noeded for 
a given length of time and temper- 
ature. The lov.-est temperature at 
which the sprinkler systems will 
furnish protection is not definitely 
known. This also is one of the 
problems which needs to be deter- 
mined. It appears as though the 
the low point was reached during 
this freeze. The low temperature 
at the State bog was 25°. The 
lethal temperature of course 
changes with the blossom develop- 
ment. If the Experiment Station 
obtains all the information it 
should have then the lethal tem- 
perature for each stage of blossom 
bud development will also need to 
be determined. This is a rather 
large order, however, "Chuck" 
Doughty, Director, feels sure that 
he can obtain at least part of it 
in the next year or two. 

The weather has been veiy good 
this fall. There has been compara- 
tively little rain with quite a lot 
of sunshine. Maximum tempera- 
ture for October was 81° on the 
16th. The minimum temperature 
was 29° on the 23rd. There had 
not been a real killing frost up to 
Nov. 11. The minimum relative 
humidity was 38% on the 24th and 
25th. 



READ CRANBERRIES 



Si.\ 



ranberries In North America 

by 

F. B. Chandler 

Research Proffessor, Cranberry Station 

East Wareham Mass. 

.In the Sept. issue the entire article "Cranberries in North America" 
Ivras devoted to acreage as expressed by total acres, size of holding, max- 
mum acreage, and some of the acreage changes that have taken place. 
This month the changes in varieties will be sho'wn, first by states and 
ben the overall picture. To fully develop this picture, the early surveys 
.nd other literature will be used. 

Easl^vood writing in 1860 des- 
ribed three great varieties — Bell, 
Jugle and Cherry. These, of 
ourse, were berry shapes and not 
arieties as we know them today. 

The first survey made in Massa- 
husetts of the cranberry industry 
id not give the acreage by vari- 
ties, but the last survey gives the 
,cres and percentage of total acres 
y varieties for 1934, 1946 and '56. 
?his shows an increase in percent 
f the total for Early Black for 
ach survey up to 62.3 percent. On 
he other hand, Howes show a de- 
rease in each report to 3.25 per- 
ent. McFarlins have also decreas- 
d to 0.8 percent and other varie- 
ies to 4. 4 percent. Of the ether 
ir minor varieties, there are only 
wo which have increased in acre- 
ige, Round Howes and Foxboro 
lowes, yet Dr. Franklin left notes 
ndicating there were a number of 
arieties which yielded better than 
Carly Blacks or Howes. 

In Wisconsin in 1924, 55 percent 
»f the acreage was planted to Na- 
ives; and in 1956, 58 percent was 
)lanted to Searles. In about thirty 
rears Wisconsin made a great 
:hange in the variety of cranber- 
ies grown. The percentage of 
icreage listed in 1924 was Searles 
.0 percent, McFarlin 15 percent, 
Natives 55 percent and others 20 
)ercent. Through a study of the 
iVisconsin State Cranberry Grow- 
rs' Association Reports it is pos- 
sible to read more about the change 
n varieties than in some states. 
Rogers in 1933 wrote "The variety 
)f vine to plant is problematical. 
Searles, Jumbo, McFarlin and Na- 
tives do well." A study of the new 
plantings by varieties shows an in- 
creasing number of acres after 

1933 set to Searles, and a decreas- 



as 
own 



ing number of acres planted to Mc- 
Farlin and other varieties. When 
the varieties set on remade bogs 
are studied, it appears that 1935 
was one of the years when bogs 
were changed from Natives to 
Searles. The last survey from 
Wisconsin lists the intended bear- 
in;? acrearre by varieties up to and 
including 1961. This showed in- 
tentions to increase Searles by 
480 acres from 1956 to 1961. Dur- 
ing the same time, McFarlins 
would increase 110 acres and 
Howes 20 acres, and Natives would 
decrease 20 acres. 

From Bain's survey of the cran- 
berry industry in 1928, we realize 
that the Searles was third in im- 
portanea and apparently had just 
advanced from fourth place. From 
the list of varieties grown at that 
time in Wisconsin, it is evident 



that Wisconsin tried many of the 
then better varieties from the east 
well as selections from their 
state. The opinion of many 
research workers from 1945 on has 
been that Searles was a variety 
better suited to Wisconsin than any 
other variety has been for its sec- 
tion. The data on the change from 
Natives to Searles in Wisconsin 
would substantiate the opinion that 
Searles was well suited to Wiscon- 
sin. The change to Searles has 
been due to its high yield in all lo- 
cations in Wisconsin. 

The percent of acreage set to 
cranberry varieties has shown the 
greatest change in New Jersey. 
The estimate of the acreage in 1924 
was 50 percent for Jerseys 
(Natives), Howes 24 percent. Early 
Blacks 13 percent, and 13 percent 
set to other varieties. In the sur- 
vey of 1933, Jerseys had dropped 
to 34.8 percent, Howes had risen 
to 32 percent and Early B!ack« to 
19.1 percent. The total cranberry 
acreage for New Jersey was about 
the same for both of these surveys 
but was much less for 1955. In the 
latter survey. Early Blacks had 
risen to 72 percent, Howes drop- 
ped to 14.1 percent and Jersey to 
11 percent. A study of the approx- 
imate acres gives a different pict- 



New Acreage in Wisconsin Planted 
to DiflFerent Varieties by Years 











Varieties 




Year 


Searles 


McFarlin 

26 

40 

14 

8 


Natives 


Others* 


1933 
1934 
1935 
1946 


3 5 
25 
30 
36 


7 
5 
2 
5 


12 
23 

Vt. 
3 


*Most of other 


varieties were 


Howes 










Approximate 
Cranberries 


Acreage of New Jersey 
by Varieties and Years 












Year 




Variety 




1924 




1933 


1955 


Early Black 

Howes 

Centennial 

Jersey 

Others 




1,430 
2,640 
330 
5,500 
1,100 




2,281 
3,834 
357 
4,161 
1,311 


2,580 

510 

65 

385 

60 


Total 




11.000 




11,944 


•3,600 



Seyej) 



ure, (see table). Early Blacks have 
shown a slow, steady increase in 
acreage, while Howes showed an 
increase and then a great decrease. 
The greatest decrease is in the 
acreage planted to Jerseys, but 
Centennials and other varieties 
also showed a decrease. The de- 
crease in acreage has been in the 
varieties that ai'e affected most 
with false blossom. 

Brown in 1927 wrote that McFar- 
lin and Howes were the most pop- 
ular varieties in northern Oregon 
(Clatsop County). In southern 
Oregon Searles lead in popularity, 
followed by Bennett and McFar- 
lin. At this time, southern Ore- 
gon (Coos County) had relatively 
small acreage but now it is the 
principal growing section in Ore- 
gon. In 1955, McFarlin variety 
was planted on 77 percent of the 
bearing acreage. Stankavich, an 
Oregon selection made in 1917, 
was second most planted with 9 
percent. Howes, Seai'les, Bennett 
and "Black" are also grown in Ore- 
gon. 

Crowley wrote in 1929 that 
about three-fourths of the crop 
came from McFarlin. Howes rank- 
ed second at that time and a num- 
ber of other varieties were plant- 
ed. By 1955, McFarlin had even 
a greater lead in Washington, 88 
percent of the acreage or 95 per- 
cent of the crop. 

In Canada, the variety varies 
with the location. In Nova Scotia, 
the predominant variety is Natives, 
in Ontario Searles, and in British 
Columbia, McFarlins. 

The maximum yields recorded of 
the principal varieties are all over 



800 barrels per acre. There are a 
few growers in Wisconsin who get 
this amount on a whole section 
with Searles and a few in Oregon 
and Washington who get over 300 
barrels on whole sections from 
McFarlins. These growers do not 
average this every year, but five 
year averages for some growers 
will go over 100 barrels per acre. 
It appears that Searles and McFar- 
lin are the best producers of cran- 
berries in North America at pres- 
ent. Breeding has produced poten- 
tials for new varieties for .ill 
section.'?. 



Sources of Information 

in addition to the literature list- 
ed in the preceding article, the fol- 
lowing were used. 

Brown, W. S.. The Cranberry 
in Oregon. Ore. Agr. Col. Spec. 
Bui. 225. 1927 

Crowley, D J. Cranberry Grow- 
ing in Washington. Wash. Agr. 
Expt. Sta. Bui. 230, 1929. 

Darrow, George M., Henry J. 
Franklin and O. G. Malde. Estab- 
lishing Cranberry Fields. USDA 
Farmers Bui. 1400. 1924. 

Eastwood, B. The Cranberry. 
A. 0. Moore, Agricultural Book 
Publishers, N. J. 1859. 

Subjects to be in later issues un- 
der the title "Cranberries in North 
America": Fertilezer, Frost, Har- 
vest, Insects and Diseases, Soils, 
and Water. 

Most people are anxious to earn 
y.nrsy — others merely anxious to 
pet it. 



Average Yield of Cranberries per Acre 
in Wisconsin by Varieties and Years 



Year 



Variety 



1948 



1952 



1956 



Searles 

McFarlin 

Natives 

Howes 

Berlins 

Bennett 

Prolific 

Others 

Total 



99.4 


66.9 


103.0 


76.3 


41.1 


82.1 


71.1 


37.5 


63.8 


90.2 


50.4 


91.8 


77.3 






77.0 






29.6 






65.2 


39.9 


94.3 


85.0 


54.9 


91.8 



CRANBERRIE 

MAGAZINE 



WILL 



MAKE 



AN EXCELLENT 




GIFT 



fo J\nyone 
Interested 
In 
The Cranberry- 
Industry 

It will remind 

of the giver 

12 months of 

the year, 

with the news 

of what is 

doing in the 

Cranberry 

World. 

$3.50 U.S. $4.50 Foreign 

ADDRESS 

CRANBERRIES 
WAREHAM, MASS. 



Eight 



Three Hanson (Mass.) Brothers Engage In 
Cranberry Growing And Nautical Careers 

The MacLellans In This Respect Remind Of 
Early Cape Sea Captains Who Turned 
To Cranberries — All Are Careful, Competent 
Bog Owners, Archie Long Employee Of NCA 

by 
Clarence J. Hall 

We all recall the old jingle of a century or so ago concerning 
the Cape Cod Sea Captains who one by one "Put by my chart and glass; 
and took to raisin' cranberry sass." 

There is something of a parallel today in the cranberry growing 
of three Massachusetts brothers. However, paradoxically, they do not 
come from the Cape but from inland Hanson. They are the MacLellans, 
one still going to sea, two no longer, but all have bogs, and eventually 
will retire entirely to growing. One already has done so this year. 
Best known in the Massachusetts Norman is the top man on handl- 



cranberry world is James Archie 
MacLellan, who is plant manager 
for National Cranberry Associa- 
tion at Hanson. He is not known 
as James, but universally as 
Archie, and has been with the 
national canning cooperative, now 
of course, handling fresh berries 

.as well, "through all its cycles 
'and phases," as he puts it, since 
1929. He served a four year hitch 
in the U. S. Marines, spent mostly 
in sea duty in the Caribbean area. 
His vacations today, usually after 
harvest and shipping consist of a 
two week voyage on a freighter 
out of Boston to the same general 
region. 

Retired is the elder, Commander 
Norman D. from the U. S. Coast 
Guard after 31 years of duty. Still 
seafaring is Captain Ernest W., 
currently in command of the Grace 
Lines, Inc., passenger-cargo ship, 
Santa Olivier, 450 feet, deadweight 
12,000 tons. 

Produce 2000 Bbls. 
Together they own about 23 
acres and produce approximately 
2000 barrels. This may be ex- 
pected to increase as the bogs are 
relatively new or rebuilt. Not a 
large acreage or large production, 
but the propei'ties are classed 

, among the better managed in 

I Massachusetts. 

All three brothers are 100 per- 
cent members of NCA. Bogs are 
separately owned and managed, but 
there is an atmosphere of the 
"Three Musketeers", of "all for 
one and one for all." They all 
pitch in with various tasks to 
help the others out, for instance 



ing gasoline pumps for bog flow- 
age. Archie, as the pioneer grow- 
er of the brothers, and the man 
who has been ashore all the time, 
has acted as unpaid supervisor and 
advisor for all three properties. 
Norman is now ashore himself, but 
Captain Ernest will still spend 
some years at sea. 
Archie 

Archie first went into cran- 
berries, by building a bog in 1940, 
one of three acres which has now 
been increased to seven. This is 
in Hanson off Main St. It was 
built on 30 foot deep peat, form- 
erly mostly a maple swamp. All 
the MacLellan bogs have a deep 
peat bottom, as many bogs in Han- 
son do have. This is flowed from 
Wampatuck Pond, water pumped 
on by gasoline and returned by 
gravity. Although Archie began 
his work with present NCA in 
1929 he had done cranberry work 
summers while going to school, as 
had also Norman. They were both 
coopers of cranberry barrels as 
was their father Angus. 

As far as he knows Archie be- 
lieves he was the first to drive a 
shovel on a bog with its crane, 
resting on mats to remove stumps, 
instead of using the older method 
of blasting by dynamite. His sec- 
ond property, five acres is in Hali- 
fax. He bought this and rebuilt 
it. 

His vines ars all Early Blacks. 
His top crop was 1200 barrels in 
1957 and his average is approxi- 
mately 85 barrels to the acre. 
These are beautiful, neat pieces of 
property, ditches are sharply clean. 



He does all his own weeding, being 
one of the few of those careful 
growers who go about the bog in 
stocking feet, not to injure vines, 
or trample berries. 

Archie, while not a commercial 
bog builder has the reputation ot 
being a good builder. He bought 
another bog on Indian Head Street, 
Hanson, which is flowed from In- 
dian Head Pond, with an electrical 
pump. This is a bog of three 
acres, on deep peat, set ^/i acre to 
Early Blacks the rest Howes. This 
is now the property which Com- 
mander Norman has retired to, 
and is operating. 

It is an old bog, and it followed 
the contours of the land, and as 
the Commander says, it "has the 
most coastline of any bog" the 
MacLellans own. 

The bog of Captain Ernest is on 
Lakeside Road, Hanson, and is 
flooded from Oldham Pond by gas 
pump. It was the property of the 
late Sam Drake and bought in 
1950, rebuilt and largely managed 
by Archie. This is set to V2 Early 
Blacks and V2 Howes. It has 
averaged 75 barrels to the acre. 

Archie has a Darlington-St. 
Jacques picker and Ernest two 
W'esterns. 

Respect Early Growers 
All three brothers, especially 
Archie, who is admittedly the most 
experienced grower, have a lot of 
respect for the fundamental know- 
ledge of the early Massachusetts 
growers. "You might say we our- 
selves are 'old-style' growers," 
he says. But we believe in adapt- 
ing our practices to modern know- 
ledge as it comes out and seems 
to be practical, to us. Every bog 
is different. 

"We still stick to hand weeding 

OUR COVER 
Archie, Norman and Ernest. 
The MacLellan brothers are stand- 
ing by a huge anchor, which was 
dredged up from Nantucket Sound. 
It is believed to be of German 
make and from a vessel lost in the 
Sound many, many years ago. It 
is on the lawn at the home of Nor- 
man, where it has attracted much 
attention, been photographed for 
newspaper articles and studied by 
authorities on maritime matters. 

Nine 




Showing one ot tne nearly weedless bogs of the MacLeiians. note sharp sided ditch. 

(CRANBERRIES Photo) 



— we think it is best. We clean 
our ditches by hand and we sand, 
using wheelbarrows and manual 
labor in spreading. We fertilize, 
use a lot of 5-10-5. We do not 
have to get vine growth as the 
bottoms are peat and not sand." 

Archie and his brothers agree 
that important in cranbeiTy grow- 
ing is "to do the right thing at 
the right time." That applies to 
weeding, use of chemicals, ferti- 
lizers or anything else. "Timing 
is vital.." 

He continued, "We had rather 
lose sleep any frost night, than 
flow when it is not necessary. We 
have a certain temperature which 
we watch and we don't start put- 
ting the water on until that point 
is reached. We hold off until the 
last possible minute and then if 
conditions are still dangerous we 
do flood. We seldom leave water 
on two or three days. We take 
it off and put it back. We have 
a relatively good water supply at 



all points. We were a little short 
in the drought of 1957, but we 
usually have enough." 

All three were born in Hanson, 
where their father, as well as a 
cooper was retired as chief engi- 
neer of the Hanson plant. Cran- 
berries and cranberry growing 
were nothing unknown to them. 

Ai'chie puts in all his spare 
time, evenings, week-ends, holi- 
days, working on his bogs. He 
has a full-time man, as does Capt. 
Ernest. Nonnan is now doing his 
own work. Archie has always 
lived in Hanson, except when he 
put in the four years in the ma- 
rines, from 1923 to 1927. He was 
attached to the famous old U. S. S. 
Rochester, then based at Balboa 
in Panama. He was on what he 
calls "banana" duty covering much 
of the Caribbean Islands and South 
American ports For a time he 
served as assistant warden at the 
Naval Prison at Brooklyn. 

It was because of this marine 



training that he became acting 
chief and almost complete staff 
of the Hanson police department, 
on a part time basis. This was 
during the war and he said he 
felt it was his patriotic duty to 
help out. He was also the first 
president of Plymouth County Po- 
lice Officers' Association. Then 
he gave up police work entirely, 
it not being as much to his taste 
as cranberry activities. 

He has worked up through all 
the degrees of Masonry to 32nd 
and is a Shriner. His lodge is 
Wampatuck of Hanson. He is a 
charter member of the lodge. He 
is a member of the Hanson Con- 
gregational Church, as are all 
three, Norman now being treas- 
urer. He has been a member of 
the Hanson Finance Committee for 
nine years. 

He belongs to the Cape Cod 
Cranberry Growers' Association 
and is a member of the South 
Shore Cranberry Club, meeting 



Ten 



at Kingston. 

In his duties as plant manager 
of the main Hanson plant, he is 
in charge of shipping- fresh and 
processed berries. In this capacity 
he is the NCA representative with 
whom many of the growers come 
in contact when they come to 
NCA headquarters. 

Norman 

Norman began his career by en- 
tering the maritime service, but 
wound up in the coast guard, jusc 
the opposite from Ernest. For a 
time he was stationed at the Woods 
Hole base on the Cape as com- 
manding officer of the buoy depart- 
ment. He commanded 75-footers 
ana well recalls the days of the 
rum runners. 

He spent about a year in Green- 
land, doing duty on an ice breaker 
and supply ship. "I didn't see any 
cranberries growing there," he 
says, "but there are a surprisingly 
lot of crops grown. It can be 
cold, but I've seen it a lot warmer 
in winter than back home. There 
are the long summers, the long 
days with only an hour or two of 
twilight darkness." 

He was honorably discharged 
from the Coast Guard C. G. C 
Acus'hnet at Portland, Maine this 
year. 

Ernest 

Ernest entered the employ ol 
the Grace Line as an ordinary 
seaman and worked his way up 
to captain. His command, prior 
to the Santa Olivier was the Santa 
Ana, a freighter. The famous line 
covers ports in the Caribbean and 
South America, particularly on the 
S. A. West Coast, as far as Colum- 
bia, Ecuador and Chile. 

He has been with the line 25 
years last summer. One of his 
runs was from New York to Chile 
bringing back bananas. 

During World War II he was tor- 
pedoed three times, his ship sink- 
ing on each occasion. The first 
time he was chief mate on the 
Santa Rita, and that time he spent 
eight days in a life boat. Four 
seamen were lost. This was two 
days out from Philadelphia bound 
for Panama. The second time was 
on the Santa Catalina, a Liberty 
ship and they were in Mona pass 
(called Submarine Alley) between 



Puerto Rico and the island of 
Hispaniola. The third time was 
in the Indian Ocean, near India on 
the Jose Navarro. The crew was 
in lifeboats for 24 hours. "D-Day," 
the invasion, saw him doing service 
from Hull, England. 

All To Retire To 
Cranberry Growing 

When you get all three brothers 
together, which hasn't been too 
often possible, with their nautical 
knowledge and familiarity with 
far-away places, the conversation 
is apt to be an odd combination of 
the maritime and agriculture. But 
on most things they seem to agree. 
One is that they all intend to 
retire to cranberry growing. 
Another is that they do not intend, 
at least under present conditions, 
to expand their holdings any. They 
i'eel thsy have enough, cranberry 
income in retirement— when and 
if cranberry prices increase. They 
will find satisfaction in growing 
cranberries. 

"Perseverance" is the answer 
to growing cranberries says Cap- 
tain Norman. And all have made 
successes in careers, other than 
growing cranberries where this 
trait counted. 

Norman's fifteen year old son 
spent last summer in active cran- 
berry bog work, attested to by 
clean, sharp ditches of the prop- 
erty. 

"Cranberry growing," says Cap- 
tain Ernest," might be described 
this way, a matter of work, worry, 
weather, worms and water." 

Which again smacks of the 
nautical as well as cranberry cul- 
tivation. This "cranberry repor- 
ter" must confess that at times 
during the interview the far-reach- 
ing experiences of these three Han- 
son brothers in trying to set their 
remarks down straight, had him 
"all at sea" himself. 



Cranberries 

Advertising 

Pays Big 

Dividends 



Ocean Spray 

Howes $4.20 A Case 

National Cranberry Association 
r.rinounced its opening price on 
Late Howes November 13, this 
being $4.20 a case or $16.80 a 
barrel. Blacks were opened at $4.00 
or SIS. 00 a barrel, which price in 
the main has been held. 

This is a sm.aller differential be- 
tween Earlies and Lates than it 
was in former years, but still an 
increase. 

Shipments for Thanksgiving 
trade began the week of Novem- 
ber 3rd, increased week of the 10th 
and by the 17th will be in full 
sowing. 

RAINFALL STUDY 

To attempt to find out more 
about how nature makes rain, a 
group of scientists left Woods 
Hole, Massachusetts recently. Pre- 
cipitation of course; is a vital fac- 
tor in any form of agriculture, 
cranberry growers using more 
water than most types of farmers. 
The scientists will concern them- 
selves primarily with the collect- 
ion of sea particles in the air, one 
of several hydroscopic nuclei nec- 
essary for the formation of rain. 
The sea salt nuclei are deposited 
in the air by the action of break- 
ing waves, it is reported. 

The group took off in the Ocean- 
ographic's research aircraft for a 
flight in the tradewind area over 
the Caribbean. The group has also 
done considerable research on the 
subject of artificial rainmaking. 
This study is not concerned with 
artificial precipitation, but is try- 
ing to find out what makes natural 
rain. 

(Agricultui-al Research) 

FOMOLOGIST 
TRANSFERRED 

Professor John John S. Bailey, 
who has been stationed at the 
Massachusetts Cranberry Experi- 
ment Station as pomologist has 
been transferred to the University 
of Massachusetts, Amherst. He 
and Mrs. Bailey were feted before 
leaving by a farewell party at the 
East Wareham Methodist Church. 



Eleven 



Oregon Cranberry Industry 

Shows Greatest Progress 

In Last Decade 




Continuing a series of articles sponsored by the Cranberry In- 
stitute, presenting statistical data about each of the major cran- 
berry-producing areas. The second is Oregon, with comments by 
Jack Dean, prominent Bandon cranberry grower. 

Charles Dexter McFarlin of Massachusetts may not have started 
a "Cranberry Rush" when he first planted Cape Cod cranberry vines 
in Coos County in 1885, but he did develop a cranberry variety that 
is Oregon's favorite and produced in greatest volume. 



For 20 years, McFarlin's oi'igi- 
nal plantation, bearing fruit to 
this day, represented Oregon's 
cranberry industry. It wasn't un- 
til 1906 that other growers follow- 
ed his wake and began testing the 
cranberry productivity of Oregon's 

spagnum moss. Greatest strides 
have been made in the last decade 
with plans for more acreage in the 
near future. 

Because of this late start in 
cranberry cultivation, Oregon's 
cranberry bogs are comparatively 
recent, and by the same token, 
many of its growers are newcom- 
ers to the industry. 

Bandon grower Jack Dean is 
one of these newcomers. Adding 
to his acreage each year, he now 
has 10 producing acres with a 
yield that nas gone over 130 bar- 
rels an acre. Mr. Dean's policy 
has been to build what he can put 
in and take care of himself. "A 
bog," he says, "should be large 
enough to support the necessary 
equipment for efficient operation, 
but small enough to be family op- 
erated." His energetic helpers are 
Mrs. Dean and his father, work- 
ing together as a well-organized 
team, with his only additional help 
at harvest time. 

A former director of National 
Cranben-y Association, Mr. Dean 
was not a candidate in the last 
election because of the demands 
of his expanding cranberry opera- 
tions. By becoming a cranberry 

Twelvp 



grower, full time, Mr. Dean is 
finding results well worth the con- 
centrated effort. 

Most Oregon cranberry grow- 
ers have small holdings, about 4 
acres er less, but although part- 
time growers, their bogs are well 
equipped and their yield per acre 
is high. 

Oregon reached its peak yield 
in 1940 when the average was 
87.9 barrels per acre. This his- 
toric climb from 21.4 barrels in 
1930 can be traced on the chart and 
statistics listed on the opposite 
page. 

It can be noted that the 140 
cultivated acres, which produced 
3,000 barrels in 1930, expanded to 
490 acres in 1957 with a crop of 
41,000 barrels. 

As in the preceding month's 
article on Wisconsin, 1939 is used 
as the reference point for easy 
comparison. The 140 acres har- 
vested that fall and the yield per 
acre of 42.1 barrels are considered 
100%. Although Oregon's yield 
took a turn upward in 1940 to 
reach its highest point of 87.9 
barrels per acre, there was no ap- 
preciable increase in acreage vintil 
1946 when it was 230 acres, 164% 
or 64% higher than 1939. The 
yield in 1946 was 65.7 barrels, 
156% or 56% higher than 1939. 

1957 acreage, the last recorded 
by the Department of Agriculture 
on the chart, was 490 acres which 
is 350%, a 250% increase over 



1939. The 1957 yield was 81.6 
barrels or 194%, a 94% increase 
over 1939. 

November crop figures from the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture 
place the Oregon 1958 harvest at 
31,000 barrels. This is 1500 bar- 
rels lower than the October esti- 
mate and 10,000 barrels lower than 
last year. 

McFarlins compose about 77% 
of the bearing acreage, and Ore- 
gon's other varieties are Stanka- 
vich, Howes, Searls, Bennetts, 
Blacks and Centennials. It is the 
McFarlins that help give Oregon 
its high yield since they are larg- 
er than many other varieties, pro- 
duced in volume, and about the 
same size as the Searls. 

The average freezing point of 
McFarlins is 29° and bogs are 
equipped with alarms to warn 
growers when the temperature is 
reaching the danger point. 

Rain water, held by narrow dikes, 
provide flood water in the winter 
and over 70% of Oregon bogs have 
this flood control. 

Irrigation systems are made 
necessary because of the dry sum- 
mers and growers in-igate 3 or 4 
times a week or when necessary. 
Heavy rains in the fall make water 
harvesting practical and the water 
reel is in general use. Some 3,000 
barrels of berries were dry pick- 
ed this fall for the fresh market 
and these were harvested by 
Western picker, and a few hand 
scooped. Oregon growers de- 
liver to National Cranberi-y As- 
sociation which received the dry 
picked berries in chaff, but the 
water scooped berries are cleaned 
by growers who have devised in- 
genious methods of removing the 
leaves and debris. 

Being a newcomer has not lim- 
ited Oregon's progress. Even 
small bogs are well equipped with 
the necessary machinery for pres- 
ent day production and harvesting. 
Oregon's yield per acre is on a par 
with Washington's and the west 
coast states are second only to 
Wisconsin. 

Oregon's future points to in- 
( Continued on Page 16) 

(ADV.) 



Year 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 
1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 
1951 
1952 
1953 
1954 
1955 
1956 
1957 





OREGON CRANBERRY 




1939 = 100% 


Actual 


% Acreage 


Acreage 


Harvested 


Harvested 




140 


lOo 


140 


lOo 


140 


lOo 


140 


100 


140 


100 


140 


lOo 


140 


100 


140 


100 


140 


100 


140 


10 


140 


10 3 


140 


100 


150 


107 


160 


114 


170 


121 


180 


129 


230 


164 


240 


171 


260 


186 


325 


232 


390 


279 


440 


314 


450 


321 


460 


329 


470 


336 


470 


336 


470 


336 


490 


350 



CROP=* 



Actual 

Yield 

Per Acre 

21.4 
35.7 
16.4 
27.9 
42.9 
32.1 
32.9 
27.1 
53.6 
42.1 
87.9 
72.9 
74.7 
49.4 
74.7 
59.4 
65.7 
59.2 
51.2 
42.5 
37.7 
47.3 
47.8 
70.2 
63.8 
58.1 
85.1 
81.6 



% Yield 
Per Acre 

51 

85 

39 

66 
102 

76 

78 

64 
127 
100 
209 
173 
177 
117 
177 
141 
156 
141 
122 
101 

90 
112 
114 
167 
152 
138 
202 
194 



*Figures from the United States Department of Agriculture 



% 

3S0 ■ 
3f0 • 
330 ■ 
320- 
310 - 
300 ■ 
790 ■ 
2?0 ■ 
270 ■ 
260- 
250 ■ 
2^0 ■ 
230 ■ 
220 ■ 
210 ■ 
200 ■ 
><)0- 

/yo- 
no- 

160 
ISO- 
140- 
130- 
IZO 

no 

I 00 
90- 

go 

70 
60 
SO 
HO 

30 



OREGON CRANBERRY CROP 
1930 - 1957 
A COMPARISON OF ACREAGE HARVESTED AND YIELD PER ACRE 



—^ Acreage Harvested 
■•— Yield Per Acre 



» * t * 



A ' ■ ■ / ' ^ ' 



/ \ f 




_/ 



^•4 

t 

/ 






/ 



/ \; 









/ \ / 
V 



\/ 



— I — I — I — I — I — \ — I — r~T — r 

,J,3I 32 33 3¥ JS 36 37 38- 39 „ 
1930 11 to 



\ — \ — \ — I — \ — \ — \ — \ — \ — \ — \ — \ — \ — \ — I — \ — r^, 

1 ti tz vj •*•*■ ts v6 t7 yy Vf ' Si S2 SS St- SS 56 5/ 



19S0 



''Figures from the United States Department of Agriculture 



(ADV.) 
Thirteen 




NOVEMBER is turkey month. It is also at the 
Thanksgiving dinner that cranberries are most con- 
sumed. This has been so since the time of the 
Pilgrims. While it has not been proven that these 
colonists at Plymouth ate cranberries and turkey 



at the first Thanksgiving dinner this does not 
matter. Certainly for many, many generations tur- 
key and cranberries have been traditional Thanks- 
giving dishes. A salute to this noble bird in Novem- 
ber. (CRANBERRIES Photo) 



Foiirtoen 



« H ri rr ili l H»— l» n i lUr i 



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r MTfc iffigF •- ^- -— — 



JgB^^fH^^BB— ^nn-^nii— ^Md^^nri^^'iH-^iiii. 



ISSUE OF NOVEMBER 1958 
VOL. 23 - NO. 7 




^^^l«HALC««8a«.«,^ 




>lt|i.^»llr> — 



TIDE TURNED— WE DON'T KNOW YET 

"IS THE TIDE TURNING?" we wrote 
as an editorial last month. We meant, of 
course, is the cranberry depression over. 

Now, in mid-November it does seem 
that cranberry matters are definitely look- 
ing up. Prices have been held steadier by 
the majority of shippers. This in spite of 
the fact that the U. S. crop has not de- 
creased in latest USDA estimate. 

The industry may be working iis wa/ 
out of its problems fairly well, and cer- 
tainly the prices of fresh and canned sauce 
as a whole have been more stabilized this 
year than in a number of years and grow- 
ers probably will get returns which will 
be considerably higher. It may be that 
growers from now on can look for better 
prices. 

It seems there is an entirely different 
and better situation developing in the cran- 
berry industry. We hear murmers of en- 
couragement from many. There is no jubil- 
?nce as yet — growers have had false en- 
thusiasm for too many years to be unduly 
optimistic. 

Thanksgiving is the m.ajor market of 
the year, with NCA handling abort 50 
percent of the fresh crop. If prices can 
be made to hold up during this buying per- 
iod Novembei will be a true Thanksgiving 
month for the growers. Ending of fresh 
market is now a rather nip and tuck race. 

'CRANBERRIES IN NORTH AMERICA" 

ONCE AGAIN we call attention to the 
series of articles "Cranberries in North 
America," by F. B. Chandler. We believe 
this to be a remarkably concise study into 
which has gone an immense amount of re- 
search. There are over-all facts which 
have never been brought out before in a 
single series. 

Most growers probably knew that 
more Early Blacks were being planted than 
Howes. Many probably did not know the 
extent to which berries known simply as 
"Natives," were formerly grown and sent 
to the market. Probably very few growers 
knew before the article in this issue that 
the most prolific producers in North Ameri- 
ca at present are the Searles, originating 
in Wisconsin and the McFarlins, origina- 
ting in Massachusetts. 



CLARENCE J. HALL 
Editor and Publisher 

EDITH S. HALL^-Associate Editor 
Wareham, Massachusetts 
SUBSCRIPTIONS, $3.50 Per 
Year, FOREIGN, |4.50 



CORRESPONDENTS— ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 

Cranberry Consultant 

Wisconsin Rapids 

Wisconsin 



Washington 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash. 



Oregon 

GRANT SCOTT 
Coquille, Ore. 

Massachusetts 

PR. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass. 



New Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 

Pemberton, New Jersey 



(For any who missed and desire the 
first of the series, September issue, there is 
a limited number of back copies available.) 



Fiftefen 



IRVINC! IH 



fIN frtPiltl 



O^IESON INDUSTRY 

(Continued From Page 12) 
creased acreage by 1960, which, is 
expected to bring Oregon up to 
Washington. Most of this will be 
an expansion of present holdings 
as Oregon growers join Jack Dean 
and other prominent growers to 
make cranberries a full-time busi- 
ness. 

Source: "A Survey of Oregon's 
Cranberry Industry," April 1957 
by F. B. Chandler. 

Berry Estimate 
Rises Again 

November United States De- 
partment of Agriculture report 
issued yesterday shows a still in- 
creased cranberry crop. Prelim- 
inary estimate was for 1,076,500 
barrels for the United States; 
estimate is now 1,127,000. The fig- 
ure for 1957 was 1,050,000 and the 
five year average was 953,250. 

In this latest estimate, Massa- 
chusetts has gone from 570,000 
original to 610,000. Massachusetts 
average is 550,000. 

New Jersey has remained the 
same with the original estimate 
of 88,000. Wisconsin has increased 
to 340,000 (same as October esti- 
mate) from the original 335,000. 

Washington has gone up from 
49,500 to 58,000. Oregon is the 
only state which has gone down 
with an original estimate of 34,000 
to 31,000, but this is much higher 
than the five year average of 
22,790. 

In Massachusetts this year the 
crop in Barnstable County, or Cape 
Cod proper was up over last year 
and previous seasons adding to the 
increase. 

NEW SCREENING 
SET-UP 

Charles Nelson, Nahcotta, Wash- 
ington, had a couple of Grayland 
folks build him a screening set-up 
for this fall. He dumped into a 
shaker-viner equipped with a 
strong blower. This eliminated 
vines and leaves. 

From there the berries climb by 
elevators to a large storage hopper 
which feeds into the separator. 
From the separator the berries go 
by elevator into a sacking hopper. 
His operation is a three-man one. 
Charlie picks steadily while the 

Sixteen 



vinss are dry. A neighbor, Joe 
Rc'we, transports the berries from 
this field, screens berries and filhs 
sacks. His wife does the sortinp;. 
Hoppers eliminate the necessity 
of having a person on the job 
continually. It appears to be a 
system which makes very efficient 
use of space. His berries go into 
a side door and an "L" and end 
up right at a loading point on 
tvie end of the building. ("The 
Cranberry Vine," South Bend, 
V/ashington.) 

Late Massachusetts 

The first thirteen days of Nov- 
ember were nearly normal in tem- 
perature, but this was due mostly 
to a warm Nov. 12th., otherwise 
month was running chilly. Tem- 
peratures to the 13th were minus 
12. 

Rainfall to that date as meas- 
ured at State Bog was 1.73 inches, 
with the average for the month 
3.46, so first half was about noi*- 
mal. 

Sunshine factor for October was 
a plus 20, which while not too im- 
portant in size of crop of 1959 
will add to the under-normal 
amount for the year as a whole to 



date. NoAember sunshine is an 
important factor in size of crop 
for succeeding year. 

One or two growers still had not 
completed harvest to the 13th. 

Subscribe to 
Cranberries 



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Box Corporation 

' MEDFORD, MASS. 

Tel. MYstic 8-5305 

Manufacturers 

of 
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and 

Displays 



WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STODDARD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

Franconia Coal Co. 
— Inc. — 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. 39-R 



CRANBERRY 
GROWERS 

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Food Machinery and 
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New Enifland Plant and Warehouse 

Ayer, Mass. Tel. Spruce 2-23(;:) 



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Falmouth Branch 

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Loans on Real Estate 
Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 

PHONE WAREHAM 82 
FALMOUTH 80 



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Conveniently located for Cranberry Men 



Funds always available for sound loans 



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26 Somerset Ave 
North Dighton, Mass. 

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British Columbia 
Growers Organize 

still another cranberry assocfe.- 
tion has been formed, this being 
the British Columbia Cranberry 
Growers' Association. It held its 
second monthly meeting in Novem- 
ber and has a dozen members. 

President is Joseph Dawson; 
vice-president, Hines Kennelle; 

secretary-treasurer, Mrs. Phyllis 
Muir. Executive committee con- 
sists of the tt^ree officers and 
Norman V. Holmes. 



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One 



Norman Holmes 
Visits East 

Norman V. Holmes, New West- 
minster, Bi'itish Columbia, former- 
ly of Carver, Massachusetts and 
now growing- cranberries at Lulu 
Island, Vancouver with "Fritz" 
Shaw and James Thomas also 
formerly of Carver was a visitoi- 
in Massachusetts in mid-Novembci-. 
He has recently been named a 
director of Ocean Spray of Canada, 
Limited, a subsiduary of National 
Cranberry Association and was at 
the meetings of directors of both 
cooperations at Boston November' 
20, and 2L 

Holmes says interest in both 
cranberries and blueberries is in- 
creasing in Vancouver Island (Lulu 
Island) and new acreage is going 
in. He flew east from Seattle in 
a trifle under seven hours. While 
East he shot two deer in Maine 
and had recently shot a moose in 
British Columbia. 

He continues to be pleased with 
living conditions and cranberry 
production in the Vancouver region. 

DR. CHANDLER 
PREPARING BULLETIN 

Dr. F. B. Chandler, Mass. Cran- 
berry Experiment Station has 
nearly completed a bulletin to be 
called "Cranberry Varieties of 
North America". It will be sub- 
mitted to the University of Mass- 
achusetts for publication. This, 
as the title indicates is a long and 
comprehensive study of varieties, 
well known and lesser known, and 
their characteristics. 



NATIONAL FARM lOAN 

of Taunton 

FARMERS' PRODUafON 
CREDIT ASSOCIATION 

of Taunton 
Tel. VAndyke 4-7578 

For The BEST 
In Farm Financing 



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Two 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Notes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 




Editor's Note — The following 
article entitled CRANBERRIES 
was prepared by the writer of 
this column for the Outlook Ed- 
ition of Farm Economic Facts 
which will be published by the 
University of Massachusetts in 
early January. Since very few 
growers receive the above publi- 
cation and may be interested in 
the viewpoints expressed, it is pre- 
sented below for their considera- 
tion: 

The 1958 Crop 

Weatherwise, Mass. cranberry 
growers experienced another of the 
extremes so often associated with 
New England. In place of hurri- 
canes and drought, this season 
broke all existing records for 
rainfall. A total of 54.62 inches 
of rain has been measured at the 
Cranberry Experiment Station 
from January through October, 
which already exceeds the yearly 
average of 44.31 inches by over 10 
inches. The number of frost 
wamings released during the 
spring and fall months were sub- 
stantially above normal. However, 
ample water supplies were avail- 
able to protect the bogs by flooding 
so that frost damage was negli- 
gible. 

In spite of these unfavorable 
conditions, Massachusetts grow- 
ers have equalled their second 
crop in history, exceeded only by 
the record production of 1953. 
The New England Crop Reporting 
' Service estimated in November 
that the Massachusetts cranberry 
crop was 610,000 barrels, which 
is 8 percent greater than the 563,- 
000 barrels harvested in 1957, and 
11 percent above the 10-year aver- 
age of 550,500 barrels. "Weather 
conditions retarded coloring of the 



berries and delayed the start of 
the harvest and initial fresh fruit 
shipments by approximately two 
weeks. Berries were above aver- 
age in size and the general keep- 
ing quality by mid-November ex- 
ceeded expectations. 

Trends and Outlook 
Acreage 

The cranberry acreage in Massa- 
chusetts reached its peak in 1948 
and 1949 wTien approximately 
15,000 acres of bog were being 
cultivated in the state. Since that 
time the commercial acreage has 
gradually decreased to 13,000 acres 
according to the latest U.S.D.A. 
figures. It is interesting to note 
that this is the smallest acreage 
reported since 1905. The down- 
ward trend in acreage is ex- 
pected to continue at a declining 
rate as marginal bogs are grad- 



ually abandoned during this pei-iod 
of economic adjustment. 

Size of Bog Holdings 
The number of bog holdings or 
ownerships has declined steadily 
from a peak of 2,148 in 1924 to 
962 in 1956. The average size of 
holdings, on the other hand, lias 
increased steadily from ' 6.5 acres '■ 
in 1924 to 13.7 acres in 1956. The 
trend to larger ownerships is con- 
sistent with other agricultural en- 
terprises within the state and 
country. 

Production 

Cranberry production in the state 
has increased slowly but steadily 
in spite of a decrease in acreage. 
Production in 1905 from 13,000 
acres of bog was 165,000 barrels, 
or an average of 12.7 barrels per 
acre. In 1958, the estimated Mass- 
achusetts crop is 610,000 from es- 
sentially the same acreage, or an 
average of 46.9 barrels per acre. 
Production of 605,000 barrels or 
more was realized for the first 
time in 1948 when a crop of 605,- 
000 barrels was harvested. During 
the last 10 years this figure has 
been exceeded in 1950 with a crop 
of 610,000 barrels, a record of 
690,000 barrels in 1953, and the 
present crop of 610,000 barrels. 
The upward trend in production 



Brewer & Lord 

INSURANCE 
40 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. 



ARTHUR K. POPE 
CONVERSE HILL 
WILLIAM B. PLUMER 
ROBERT A. SULLIVAN 



HORACE H. SOULE 
CHARLES M. CUTLER 
EBEN A. THACHER 
HERBERT R. LANE 



EDWARD H. LEARNARD VINCENT M. WILSON 
JOHN B. CECILL, JR. 



Serving the People of New England 

Since 1859 



Three 



is (expected to continue if re- 
turns to growers show a reason- 
able improvement. 
Labor 

Adequate supplies of seasonal 
as well as full-time workers con- 
tinue to be a problem. Puerto 
Ricans are imported each season 
to help supplement the local har- 
vest labor supplies. Industries 
with hig-her wage scales are at- 
tracting many key workers from 
the bogs. The major alternative 
is greater mechanization of the en- 
tire industry as a means of re- 
ducing the tremendous amount of 
hand labor involved in the product- 
ion, screening, packaging and pro- 
cessing of cranberries. Definite 
progress has been realized in this 
area as evidenced by the increased 
use of low-gallonage ground spray 
rigs operated by one man, aerial 
applications of fertilizer and pesti- 
cide concentrates, increased use 
of picking machines, installation 
of new automatic packing and pro- 
cessing equipment, and the efforts 
of a full-time agricultural engin- 
eer who has recently completed 
his first year of work at the Cran- 
berry Experiment Station. 
Marketing 

There is general agreement 
that the key to the problem of 
correcting the industry's economic 
position rests in the field of mar- 
keting. The returns to growers 
for a number of years have been 
discouragingly low; in fact, be- 
low the cost of production in 
many instances, due primarily to 
burdensome surpluses in freezers. 
Corrective steps, however, are be- 
ing taken to reduce these inven- 
tories which are now at manage- 
able levels. Aggressive market- 
ing, merchandising and promo- 
tional programs have been devel- 
oped and ai-e now in operation 
to move a greater volume of 
cranberries. Special emphasis has 
been devoted to the increased con- 
sumption of a new vitamin C- 
enriched cranben-y juice. Rigid 
quality control programs have 
been developed and are in opera- 
tion for both fresh and processed 
outlets. As a result of these 
prog<rams, surpluses have been 

Four 



reduced as indicated earlier and 
returns to growers for the 1957 
crop are expected to show a sub- 
stantial improvement over 1956 — 
the first in a number of years. 
There is every indication that the 
cranberry industry in Massachu- 
setts is making steady progress 
in its recovery from prolonged 
economic ills. 




S? 



» 



^ 



' 



Dr. Cross Comments 

The following timely weather 
notes were prepared by Dr. C. E. 
Cross and are presented as fol- 
lows: 

"The Weather and the 1959 

Crop Prospect — The 1958 crop is 

in and it looks now as though 

it would be the second largest 

(Continued on page 14) 

a 

I 

K 

a 
a 



Over the river and through tfhe woods ... as 
families everywhere gather in close harmony 
to enjoy this warm and wonderful season, we 
would like to express our wishes for a joyous 
holidav to one and all. 



i BEATON'S DISTRIBUTING AGENCY 



'•MEL" C. BEATON 
Wareham, Mass. 






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SHARON BOX COMPANY, Inc. 

ESTABLISHED 1856 

SHARON, MASSACHUSETTS 

We Will Buy Your White Pine Logs, 

Either Standing or Cut 

* Highest Prices Paid * 

Sawmill located at North Carver, Mass. Stop 
in at North Carver, or Phone Sharon, Sunset 4-2012 







% 



Issue of December 1958 - Vol. 23 No. 8 

Publiihed monthly at The Courier Print Shop, M*in St.. Wareham. Massachusetts. Subscription $3.60 per y«mr. 

Entered ■■ leeond-clMe matter January 26, 1943. at the poet-oflfice at Wareham. Maesachuaetti. under the Act of March S, IMI 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

November turned out to be a 
warmer than normal month, de- 
spite a very cold ending. The first 
portion of the month was warm, 
extending into the mid-part. The 
month ended with a plus of 67 
degrees, (Boston Weather Bureau) 
or daily average of 46.6 degrees, 
slightly more than two a day. 

Last two days brought full win- 
ter cold, with temperatures down 
to around 15, a slight dusting of 
snow on November 30 morning 
A little ice formed on puddles, 
and ponds. There was even a little 
skim on sheltered salt water. 

Mild Winter? 

There was a warm April and 
this with a warmer than average 
November is considered to indi- 
cate a winter milder than usual. 
This is a formula worked out at 
Mass. Cranberry Station and Bos- 
ton Weather Bureau was quoting 
odds 4-1 that winter of '58-'59 will 
be warmer. Boston records show 
that in four years out of five, with 
warmer Novembers, this is so. 

Rainfall Normal 

Rainfall for the month was 
practically normal, 3.38 inches as 
compared to average of 3.40. 
Precipitation was also rather well 
f paced. Few bogs were fooded 
for v/jnter as of December 1st, but 
there will he no trouble in winter 
flowage. 

Fall Worl 

Fall operations were about at 
a normal for recent years in sand- 
ing and other post-harvest work. 
However, for the first time in 
several years growers are talking 
of rebuilding bo^s which had been 



allowed to deterioate. 

State Average Up 

With 610,000 barrels the state 
average for production crept up 
a little. Based on current esti- 
mated production average will be 
neai'ly 47 to the acre. 

Probably about 75 percent of the 
entire fresh crop had been shipped 
by end of the month. Blacks, prac- 
tically all before Thanksgiving 
and some shippers were short by 
the end of the month. 

NEW JERS EY 

November Mostly Mild 

Except for the last week, Nov- 
ember in the cranberry belt of New 
Jersey was quite mild. Only on 
the last day of the month did the 
daily maximum fail to go to at 
least 50 degrees and 14 days were 



in the comfortable sixties. Very 
cold nights from the 23rd through 
the 30th however, brought the av- 
erage temperature down to 46.9° 
for the month, which is only .7° 
above the normal mean for Nov- 
ember. 

About Normal Rain 
The total rainfall during the 
month measured 2.53 inches, which 
is about an inch (.93) less than 
normal. This was only the third 
month of this year during which 
the rainfall has been below normal. 
June and September were the other 
months which also had deficiences. 
The total rainfall for the first 
eleven months of 1958 now amounts 
to 58.61 inches. This is a new an- 
nual record, already exceeding the 
previo.s high of 1952 by 5 inches. 
The normal annual rainfall is 
43.16 inches. 



R. F. MORSE ^ SON 

West Wareham, Mass., Phone 1553-R 




Cranberry Growers Agent For 



Eastern States Farmers' Exchange 

Insecticides - Fertilizers - Fungicides 

Bog Service and Supplies 
Agent for Wiggins Airways 

Helicopter Spray and Dust Service 



DEPENDABLE ECONOMICAL SERVICE 



F?vf 



Growers Meet 
On November 25 a group of 
cranberry and blueberry growers 
attended the Cranberry-Blueberry 
Advisory Committee meeting at 
the New Jersey Experiment Sta- 
tion in New Brunswick. Discus- 
sion of plans for future research 
centered mostly on new cranberry 
varieties, nutritional studies, rot 
control, fundamental studies of 
organisms causing cranberry rot 
and problems connected with de- 
veloping the Switlik Research Bog. 
Blueberry problems were also dis- 
cussed, special consideration be- 
ing given to keeping quality of the 
harvested fruit, the new variety 
program, marketing problems, nu- 
trition, and viruses. Growers at- 
tending the meeting included John 
Bertino, Stanley Coville, Jack 
Cutts, Tony DeMarco, 'Walter 
Fort, Duke Galletta, Fred Genard, 
William S. Haines, Ed Lipman, 
Fred Scammel and Vinton Thomp- 
son. 



OREGON 

Harvesting Ends Mid-November 

Harvesting wound up generally 
in mid-November but with a few 
still picking to nearly Thanks- 
giving. Most of the growers agree 
that the frost damage last spring 
is the main culprit to make pro- 
duction smaller than that of 1957. 
Another cause was that early in 
the picking season along came tem- 
peratures upward of 85 degrees 
and caused scalding conditions 
where sprinklers did not bring 
temperatures down. 

Late Fall Frost 

Conversely, in the latter lays of 
the harvest season Southwestern 
Oregon experienced a sharp change 
in weather. There were two nights 
of wintry conditions which brought 
temperatures down to around 20 
degrees. A few growers had fro- 
zen fruit as a result of the freeze. 
But most of the few berries left 
were to be water picked and were 
already under water so no exten- 
sive damage was done. 

New Acreage 

Several new bogs are being 
planted in the Bandon area this 

Six 



year, Ted Boardman reported as 
being one of those to make addi- 
tions. He has two and one half 
acres of newly planted bog this 
year and is getting another two 
acres ready to plant. 



Experimental Plots 

Experimental plots designed to 
test various weed killing chemi- 
cals on cranberry bogs were put 
on in the Bandon area the first 
(Continued on Page 16) 






» 
§? 



a? 










Merry Christmas 



Let the joyous holiday 
Dells ring out our bright 
and happy Christmas 
greeting to all our won- 
derful friends and pa- 
trons. May this season 
of cheer find you en- 
joying all the health 
and happiness in the 
world. May i^our Merry 
Christmas be rich in all 
the best in life. 



DECAS BROS. 

WAREHAM, MASSACHUSETTS 

GROWER and SHIPPERS of 
CAPE COD CRANBERRIES 



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Our holiday greetings to 
all our grand friends and 
patrons. May the joys and 
good clieer of the s-eason 
be yours to overflowing. 



* ! 



INTERNATIONAL 

Minerals and Chemical Corporation 






WOBURN, MASSACHUSETTS 



I 

fi 

i 
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New NCA Cooler Storage Testing 
Fruit Hold-up And Late Demand 

Pilot Operation At Onset, Mass. Plant 

Has 10,500 Boxes of Assorted Berries — 
"Airborne Cranberries" 



Ah experiment is being carried 
on by NCA at its Onset, Massa- 
chusetts plant that can be watched 
with much interest. This is to 
hold fresh cranberries in cooler 
storage after harvest for a number 
of months. 

The purpose is two-fold; first to 
test the ability of the fruit to re- 
main in good quality into the year 
following picking, and, second, to 
find out if there is a deriiand for 
fresh cranberries in January, Feb- 
ruary, March and April. 

There are now 10,500 harvest 
boxes (one-third barrel capacity) 
or approximately 1500 barrels so 
being held. Two cooler rooms on 
the ground floor of the Onset plant 



have been equipped at a cost of ap- 
proximately $75,000. One room 
is kept at a controlled 50 degrees 
and the other 35; humidity in both 
is 85 percent. 

Berries were iirst brought in 
September 18th. These mciuded 
late and early drawn water fruit, 
some milled and some in the chaff. 
Early Blacks and Howes. There 
are special lots from the Cranberry 
Experiment Station, East Ware- 
ham. 

Tests were conducted to deter- 
mine how long- it took to reduce 
temperatures from field heat to 
cooler temperatures. There are 
weekly tests to determine which 
variety, or berries in chaff or mill- 



ed stand up best. Also there are 
weekly tests to determine percent 
of rot. Another test determines 
loss in berry weight through evap- 
oration. 

These are conducted by Robert 
Pierce, West Wareham, in charge 
of fresh fruit operations at the 
Onset plant and by Arthur L. 
Griffin, Wareham. 

In still another experiment pol- 
eyethelene is spread over some of 
the harvest boxes. 

Detei-mination as the experiment 
progresses is that the fruit has 
kept remarkably well in compari- 
son with ordinary screenhouse 
storage. 

The installation includes pumps 
and compressors similiar to those 
in a modei'n supenmarket or in ap- 
ple coolers. The cooling gas used 
is Freeon which, in case of a line 
break is not poisonous to humans 
or will not contaminate the fruit. 




Showing coolers supplying the chill to storage rooms. Entrance to cooling 
ir90in? is at right. (CRANBERRIES Photo) 

MLS... _. 



Seve'o 



In overall charge of the pilot op- 
eration is Maynard Holmes, Mano- 
inet, who is in charge of product- 
ion for National. 

The entire experiment was first 
brought up by fresh fruit shrink- 
age of NCA fruit, and, of course, 
iill growers and shippers have al- 
ways had this problem. It was 
first brought up by Chester Rob- 
bins, Onset, chairman of NCA's 
ways and means committee, and 
approved by NCA directors and 
Ambrose E. Stevens, general man- 
ager. 

Mr. Robbins says this experiment 
may open up unexpected avenues 
to better storage of fresh cran- 
berries, and lead to entirely new 
lines of thought, even in market- 
ing. 



Nine-Man, Six-Step 
Handling System 

A complex handling procedure, 
using nine men eight hours a day, 
was barely able to move the quan- 
tity of berries needed to keep the 
machines supplied. The six steps 
nreant duplicated handling and 
wasted time and energy: (1) half- 
barrel containers were filled man- 
ually with frozen cranberries in 
the freezer; (2) these containers 
were stacked on 20-box carts; (3) 
the carts were placed on a truck; 



Airborn Cranberries 

A man-hour saving, in cranberry 
storage, which Mr. Stevens says 
is now proving its worth, is an 
air conveyor system for freezer 
berries whidi has been in operation 
at the Onset, Massachusetts plant 
since 1956. A second similiar sys- 
tem installed in freezer storage 
at the North Hai-wich, Massachu- 
setts NCA plant was in use this 
past fall. A description of berries 
are "airborne" at the Onset plant 
is here given. 

The air-conveying system 
has provided a 90% reduction in 
the cost of handling frozen cran- 
berries. The streamlined system, 
which moves the berries from a 
storage freezer to the piant where 
"Ocean Spray" products are made, 
needs only two m'en working half 
time to supply the 1,000-barrel a 
day capacity of the canning ma- 
chines. In addition, berry damage 
formerly caused by the use of 
shovels and hand labor has been 
cut in half. 

The year-'round processing of a 
seasonal product introduces the 
problem of storage. In the case 
of cranberries, this storage had to 
be in a freezer. Construction of 
a 60,000-barrel storage freezer in 
1954 alleviated the heavy cost of 
transportation and away-from- 
the-plant storage, but created new 
in-plant handling difficulties. 



(4) th« truck moved 600 feet from 
the freezer bmlding to the can* 
nery; (6) boxes were unloaded 
from the truck; and (6) the cran- 
berries were emptied from the 
boxes into the pre-process storage 
bin. Furthermore, the empty 
boxes had to be moved, stored and 
maintained. 

A rotation of workers had to be 
aiTanged so that the men would 
not have to remain in the extreme 
cold of the freezer (-15" to -5' F.) 
for more than one-half hour' at a 




Inside a cooler room Arthur L. Griffin, Wareham makes daily check 
heside blower at entrance to room. Note cellophane over boxes 
gt left^ (CRANBERRIES Photo) 



Eight 




and flexible hose in the freezer, 
two men move enough frozen 
cranberries in four hours to sup- 
ply the daily needs and keep the 
200-barrel emergency storage bin 
in the canning building full at all 
times. 

Frozen cranberries are drawn 
into the conveyor through the in- 
take nozzle, guided by one man. 
They are then whisked a distance 
of 40C feet through the conveyor 

pipe to an Airstream Receiver 
which separates the berries from 
conveying air. A rotary feeder 



discharges the berries from the 
receiver into the pre-process stor- 
age bin. From here they are 
cooked, canned, labeled and sold 
either as whole cranberries or 
cranberry sauce. 

The entire Dracco system is 
made of stainless steel, assuring 
freedom from' contamination and 
corrosion at all times. The smooth 
interior of the conveying line min- 
imizes damage to the berries. The 
blast of air keeps the inside of 
the system clean. Restrictions on 
men working in the freezer no 
longer waste man-hours. 



Mario Lince, Plant Manager at 
Onset. 

time. 

New Two-Man, One-Step 
Automatic Handling System 
These problem's have all been 
oolved with the installation of an 
Airstream Conveyor built by Drac- 
co Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Usino- an Airstream intake nozzle 



ELECTRICITY 



Is your good "friend" any 
month in the year. It is 
an especially valuable aid 
when the daylight 
hours are shortening and 
you are busy with your 
screening and shipping. 



Plymouth County Electric Co, 



WAREHAM 
TEL. 200 



PLYMOUTH 

TEL. 1300 




Workman with intake nozzle in freezer. 



Nin« 



Cranberries In North America 

by 

F. B. Chandler 

Research Professor, Cranberry Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 



Last month the entire article 
under the above title was on 
cranberry varieties. Fertilizer, 
sanding, and bees are the topics 
to be discussed this month. 

Fertilizers 

Fertilizer has been used by 



acreage received fertilizer carry- 
ing 10 pounds or less of nitrogen. 
In the Grayland area, about a 
quarter of the fertilized acreage 
received from 10 to 20 pounds of 
nitrogen per acre, and another 
quarter of the fertilized acreage 



cranberry growers for many years received from 20 to 30 pounds 



but information pertaining to its 
use has not been sought in all 
surveys. The survey from Wis- 
consin has an interesting state- 
ment — "The differences in yield 
per acre are not explained by the 
rate of fertilizer applied alone." 



of nitrogen. Some of the Wash- 
ington acreage received over 30 
pounds of nitrogen per acre. 

The Washington sui-vey has a 
table on the ratio of nitrogen to 
phosphorus applied to cranberry 
books. This shows that Grayland 



This statement probably comes as growers use more phosphorus 

a surprise to those who hope that than Long Beach growers do. 

increasing yield is as simple as Some of the fertilizers had three 

buying and applying fertilizer. times as much phosphorus as 

While fertilizers are important nitrogen, some had more phos- 

for maximum yields and good phorus, and about 17 acres were 

guality, unquestionably the prop- fertilized with superphosphate 

er use of water is as important alone. The Oregon survey reported 

as fertilizer. a 6-20-20. Washington reports 23 

From the surveys conducted in percent or 225 acres fertilized 

1956 it appears that from 47 to with nitrogen alone, while Massa- 

85 percent of the growers use chusetts reports only 7 percent or 

fertilizer, and that they apply about 773 acres, 
from 150 to 300 pounds of ferti- Use Tripled 

lizer per acre. This information Massachusetts had a special 

has been arranged in a table. The circular in 1936 which gave the 

Washington survey had a large amount of fertilizer used in 1935 

amount of information. It shows as 295 tons, and the recent survey 

a diflFerence between the Long reported 906 tons cf fertilizer 

Beach and Grayland sections. In used in 1955. In other words, 

Long Beach 37 percent of the fertilizer use has tripled in 20 

acreage was fertilized, while in years. At the same time, the 

Grayland 59 percent was ferti- analysis of the fertilizer has 

lized. In the Long Beach area been increasing from 15 units in 

over half of the fertilized acreage 1935 to 40 units in 1955. This 

received fertilizer supplying from shows an increase in yield at 

10 to 20 pounds of nitrogen. In the same time, but the increase 

Grayland over 40 p'ercent of the may partly be due to better water 



Percent of Growers Applying Fertilizer. Amount of Fertilizer 
applied per acre by growing sections and yield per acre in 1955 and 1956 



Section 



Percent of Approx. lbs. Yield in Yield in 

Growers of fertilizer 1955 1956 

using applied (on bbls./A bbls./A 

Fertilizer bogs using it) (State ave.) (State ave.) 



Oregon 


60 


300 


56 


80 


Wisconsin 


86 


280 


79 


92 


Massachusetts 


71 


191 


41 


34 


Washington 


48 


150 


48 


65 



management. 

The Massachusetts survey re-, 
ported the use of fertilizer by 
grades and counties. The use of 
fertilizer in 1955 showed an in- 
crease over 1946 in all counties 
but Dukes. Some increases were 
slight while others were consider- ' 
able — Plymouth about twice and 
Bristol about six times. When use 
is studied in relation to the fer-' 
tilizer grade or ratio, it shows 
Massachusetts cranberry growers 
are using more fertilizers with' ' 
phosphorus twice as high as nitro- 
gen now than they did in 1946. 
Massachusetts shows an increase 
in nitrogen alone, and this war- 
rants some explanation. In 1946, 
nitrogen alone came mostly from 
nitrate of soda. In 1955, nitrogen 
alone came mostly from urea 
(NuGreen is one source, there 
are others). The urea was used 
with dieldrin to control root grubs 
and stimulate vines at the same 
time. 

British Columbia used about 
4% tons of fertilizer. On bearing 
bogs the growers applied a ferti- 
lizel- high in phosphorus, but on 
new bog they used considerable 
ammonium nitrate. 

Split applications of fertilizer 
were reported in the surveys from 
Wisconsin, Oregon and Washing- 
ton. 

Sanding 

Sanding is a practice which 
varies a great deal from section 
to section. In Massachusetts most 
growers practice it with some 
regularity but some have not 
sanded for 15 years and are pro- 
ducing better than the state 
average crops. In Oregon some 
growers sand rarely while others 
sand regularly. In British Colum- 
bia, most of the acreage is witli- 
out sand as sand encourages weed 
growth. Sanding is a common 
practice in Wisconsin cranberry 
culture and 76 growers sanded 
1300 acres from 1954 through 
1956. Wisconsin also had 425 
acres of new bog sanded. The 
Massachusetts survey reported 
7522 acres sanded, or 56 percent. 
Information on sanding was sup- 
plied by 95 percent of the ^row- 



Ten 



erK. 

Sand is sometimes moved hydrau- 
licly in Long- Beach, Washington. 
The sand may be moved from a 
nearby location which is to be a 
water hole for a sprinkling sys- 
tem, or it may be moved up to 
two miles. The sand in Grayland 
is trucked to the railroad where 
it is loaded on cars. All of the 
sand in Washington may be called 
beach sand and it is very fine. 

In Oregon, sanding was done 
on all sizes of bog operations, 
but more acres were sanded in 
the larg'e holding's. In all groups 
about 11 percent of the bearing 
acreage were sanded. In Oregon, 
two growers sanded by boat. 

Honeybees 

Not all of the surveys gave in- 
formation on honeybees, but what 
was published is interesting. The 
need for bees to pollinate the 
cranberry has been shown by 
Farrar and Bain. Their article is 
very good and a paragraph is 
quoted from it: 

"Certain other assumptions are 
worthy of consideration. Under 
good cranberry culture there may 
be from 13 to 40 million blossoms 
per acre. A full-strength colony 
of 50,000 bees could provide, under 
favorable weather conditions, 500 
million bee visits to flowers dur- 
ing a 3-week blossoming period. 
Under favorable conditions one 
strong colony would seem to suf- 
fice for 1 to 2 acres; under un- 
favorable conditions five to ten such 
colonies per acre might be needed. 
However, many so-called colonies 
of bees are cpable of providing 
not more than one-sixth the num- 
ber of field bees available from a 



full-strength colony." 

Honeybees, as most people know 
them, are not seen much in the 
cranberry section of Washington. 
From the reports in Massachu- 
setts and Oregon the growers 
with the lai'ger holdings are the 
ones that have most of the honey- 
bees. In Oregon the growers that 
had bees used about a hive per 
acre, while in Massachusetts there 
was a hive for each 2.6 acres 
where bees were kept. Most Ore- 
gon growers owned the bees, but 
83 percent were rented in Massa- 
chusetts. 



In addition to literature pre- 
viously cited, the following were 
used: Tomlinson, Bertram and 
Henry J. Franklin. Cranberry 
Fertilizers. Mass .Extension Spe- 
cial Circular 31. June 1936. Far- 
rar, C. L. and Henry F. Bain. 
Honeybees-as pollinators of the 
Cranben-y. Cranberries Vol 11, 
No. 9, p. 6-7, 22-23, January 1947. 

FINE FRESH FRUIT 
CLEAN-UP 

National Cranberry Association 
opened its price on Late Howes 
Now 17 at $4.20 a case and that 
price has held consistent into De- 
cember. Blacks were largely gone 
by that date. There has been what 
amounts to a fine clean-up of the 
fresh crop this season. 

All, or most independents, were 
booked solid for their last fresh 
fruit by week of December 8. 
National was quoting $4.20 on 
Mass. Howes in limited quantity, 
on Wisconsin Howes, and $4.00 on 
Wisconsin Searles and McFarlins. 



Use of Fertilizer by Massachusetts 
Cranberry Growers and Cranberry Production 





Tons of 






, 


Fertilizer 






Year 


Used 


Analysis 


Unit 


1935 


295 


5-6-4 


15 


1946 


728 


(5-8-7 


20 






(7-7-7 


21 


1955 


906 


(7-7-7 


21 






(8-16-16 


40^ 



Bbl./A 



24.2 
37.6 

40.7 



SOME STATISTICS 
ON THE 1958 CROP 

A consideration of the harvest 
statistics of the 1958 crop, (vdth 
final "historic" figures yet to come) 
reveals it turned out to be the 
second largest crop on record with 
estimated 1,127,000 bbls., as com- 
pared to the ten-year average of 
953,790 and the second largest for 
Massachusetts witJi, eiOyOOOt^ as 
against an average of 550,500. 

Massachusetts produced 54 per- 
cent of the total harvest, in spite 
of a late start but with mostly 
favorable picking weather and 
little frost loss. 

Wisconsin produced 340,000 bar- 
rels or 30 percent of total, which 
was 20 percent larger than last 
year and second only to the record 
of 1956 which was 358,000. State 
10 year average is 243,800. 

New Jersey regained third place 
witii 88,000 barrels from Wash- 
ington or 8 percent of total. 

Washington and Oregon fell con- 
siderably below their record crops 
in 1957. Washington is expected 
to have harvested 58,000 barrels 
as compared to the 10 year aver- 
age of 49,860; while Oregon pro- 
duced 31,000 as against 41,000 
last year with an average of 
22,790. Percentages of total for 
those states are, respectively 
5 and 3. 

"CRANBERRY BOULEVARD*' 

There may soon be a "Cranberry 
Boulevard" in Southeastern Mass- 
achusetts. A movement is afoot 
to change the prosaic name of a 
portion of Route 28 from Boston 
to Cape Cod. This is being lead 
by a group of merchants along 
presient State 28. 

A new Route 28 thoroughfare 
is to be built. To avoid confusion 
in the two routes suggestion is 
that present Route 28 from Middle- 
boro to Buttermilk Bay at Buz- 
zards Bay be so named. Bogs lie 
along this route. 

Visitors from North, South or 
West heading for Cape Cod would 
immediately be reminded of cran- 
berries as they travelled along 
Cranberry Boulevard through the 
Southeastern Massachusetts cran- 
berry area. 



Eleven 



Increased Yield Offsets 

New Jersey's Decline In 

Cranberry Acreage 




Continuing a series of articles sponsored by the Cranberry 
Institute presenting statistical data about each of the major 
cranberry-producing areas. The third is New Jersey with comments 
by Enoch F. Bills, cranberry-blueberry grower and historic figure 
in cranberry industry. 

On December 15, the Board of Agriculture of New Jersey's 
Burlington County cited Enoch F. Bills for service to agriculture. 
Manager of National Cranberry's processing plant in Bordentown, 
Mr. Bills is also one of New Jersey's outstanding growers of cran- 
berries and blueberries, and the Bills family have been historic figures 
in New Jersey's cranberry industry since the family bogs were first 
built in 1890. 



Cranberries are native to New 
Jersey and cultivation dates back 
to 1825 when Benjamin Thomas 
built the first bog in the Pemberton 
area. Several large bogs were 
planted in 1850 and the greatest 
expansion followed the Civil War. 

The Bills bogs were started by 
Frank Bills, and Enoch Bills grew 
up in the industry as New Jersey 
crops were reaching their peak. 
They went as high as 200,000 bar- 
rels in 'the early 1920's, but an 
outbreak of fake blossom, insects 
and three successive summer 
droughts in 1929-31 forced a de- 
cline in production. This was 
further magnified by the depres- 
sion years that followed when low- 
yielding acreage was abandoned. 

Since that time there has been 
a slow decrease of acreage har- 
vested but, with recent improve- 
ments in yield per acre. New Jei- 
sey continues to hold its place as 
third ranking state in cranberry 
production. 

The 1958 crop, estimated at 
88,000 barrels, is sizable consider- 
ing weather conditions. Heavy 
rains in the summer caused m.any 
vines to be underwater during 
bloom and a frost on Jun? 6 cut 
back the crop prospects. 

Machine picking hastened the 
harvest this fall which began Sep- 
Twelve 



tember 10 and was completed by 
October 15 with the result that no 
berries were lost to frost. The 
Darlington picker, invented by 
Thomas B. Darlington of New 
Lisbon, is the most widely used 
mechanical picker in New Jersey, 
but probably less than half the 
New Jersey crop was machine 
picked. The Haines and Haines 
Bogs in Chatsworth, largest plan- 
tation in the state and one of 
the largest producing plantations 
in the country, was almost entirely 
hand scooped. 

As late as 1920, nearly half the 
cranberry acreage in New Jersey 
r-onsisted of ^incs originally taken 
from wild swamps, resulting in a 
combination of vai'ieties marketed 
under the name cf Jerseys. 

At the present time, the com- 
mon varieties in New Jersey are 
the Early Blacks and Lute Howes, 
introduced into New Jersey in 
18?0, and the Wi^-ov. B.^ckw't'i 
and Stevens, named by the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture in 1950. 

Burlington is the top cranberry- 
producing county with about 59 '^/'r 
of the total acreage harvested. 
Ocean and Atlantic follow in sec- 
ond and third place, and there arc 
some 1,000 acres scattered in Cam- 
den, Cape May, Cumberland, Glou- 
cester, Middlesex and Monmouth. 



The average New Jersey planta- 
tion has less than 10 acres with 
about 18 growers having 50 acres 
or more. About 20 9^ of the New 
Jersey crop is sold fresh with iUnc 
bulk being processed. 

New Jersey's production record 
in acreage harvested and yield per 
acre can be traced on the opposite 
chart with 1939 as the reference 
point of 100'/. . The drop in acre- 
age harvested from 10,800 acres 
in 1930 to 2,800 acres in 1958 has 
been offset by the increase in yield 
per acre from 13.5 barrels to 27.5 
barrels over the same period to 
produce crops that hold to an 
C5,000 barrel average. 

You will note that acreage has 
declined about 707^ since 1939 but 
yield per acre has increased 164% 
as improved cultural practices and 
controls for frost, insects and 
diseases have been developed. 

New Jersey growers are fortu- 
nate to have the cooperation of 
the Department of Agriculture and 
the New Jersey Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station to help them im- 
prove their methods. New Jersey 
also has a Frost Warning Sei'vice 
to alert growers of pending drops 
in temperature. 

Most bogs are equipped with 
flood ditches for frost protection, 
but few growers have sprinkling 
systems. May, June, September 
and October are the danger months. 
Water supplies are plentiful and 
flooding presents no serious pro- 
blem. 

Although New Jersey cranberry 
growers, like Enoch Bills, combine 
cranberries and blueberries sinco 
both fruits require similar soil con- 
ditions, their interest and enth'i- 
siasm is with cranberries and im- 
proving methods and t'^e quality 
of their fruit. 

Mr. Bills states that the quality 
of New Jersey fruit showed mark- 
ed improvement this season and 
receipts at the Bordentown plant 
were well above receiving stand- 
ards. 



(ADV.) j 



NEW JERSEY CRANBERRY CROP* 
1939 = 100% 



Yeaf 

1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 
1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1948 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 
1951 
1952 
1953 
1954 
1955 
1956 
1957 



% 



Actual 

Acreage 

Harvested 

10,800 
10.700 
10,700 
10,400 
10,100 
9,800 
9,500 
9,200 
8,800 
8.500 
8,200 
8,000 
7,800 
7.700 
7,600 
7,600 
7,700 
7,800 
7,800 
7,500 
7,000 
6,500 
5,800 
5,000 
4.200 
3,600 
3,000 
2,800 



% Acreage 
Harvested 


127 


126 


126 


122 


119 


115 


118 


11 8 


10 4 


100 


97 


94 


92 


91 


90 


90 


91 


92 


92 


38 


82 


76 


68 


59 


49 


42 


35 


32 



Actual 
Yield 
Per Acre 


t^^^ 
**».«•>*.•; 




% Yield 
Per Acre 


13.5 


I^... 


■.it" 


130 


12.3 


f::^^ 


V.S.. 


118 


7.5 


■:fi.*; ■ 


"^"M: 


72 


13.7 


„ . - — 


^l" ' 


132 


7.1 






68 


8.7 






84 


7.9 






76 


19.0 






183 


7.0 






67 


10.4 






100 


11.0 






106 


10.0 






96 


12.2 






117 


8.1 






78 


7.8 






75 


6.4 






62 


13.1 






126 


10.5 






101 


8.8 






85 


8.9 






86 


14.7 






141 


11.7 






112 


17.9 






172 


22.4 






21B 


20.7 






199 


25.0 






240 


24.3 






234 


27.5 






264 



^Figures from the United States Department of Agriculture 



300 
290 
2^0 
770 
260 
250 
2H0 
230 
220 
210 
200 
190 
UO 

no 

160 
JSO- 

120 

no- 

100 

90 
FO 
70 

io- 

HO 

30 



NEW JERSEY CRANBERRY CROP 



1930 - 1957 



A COMPARISON OF ACREAGE HARVESTED AND YIELD PER ACRE 



Acreage Harvested 
Yield Per Acre 




/f30 
^Figures from the United States Department of Agriculture 



56 57 



(ADV.) 



BEAHIE 

(Continued from page 4) 
crop on record. It appears rea- 
sonable that the chief factor be- 
hind this large crop was the ex- 
cessive sunshine of the '57 grow- 
ing season. Late-water bogs did 
particularly well in 1958, and 
even those bogs that were sanded 
in the spring of 1958 produced 
unusual crops. It would appear 
that the reserves of plant food 
built up by the abundant sunshine 
of '57 carried the vines through 
a rigorous winter, counterbalanced 
any harmful effects of the spring- 
time late-holdings, and were still 
capable of nourishing the develop- 
ment of our second-largest crop. 

1959 Prospect 

What is the prospect for '59? 
We have had a dark, wet grow- 
ing season in comparison with 
that of last year. The sunshine 
of 1958 is about 500 hours less 
than that of the year before, and 
presumably the reserves of plant 
food in cranberry vines are pro- 
portionately lower. This would 
indicate that the potential crop 
for 1959 is decidedly down. It 
means, too, that if these reserves 
are tapped to supply oxygen dur- 
ing the period of winter flooding 
or during April and May late- 
holding of 1959, that the crop of 
1959 will be reduced even furth- 
er. In other words, the writer 
feels it is especially importan': 
this winter to expose the cran- 
berry \nnes whenever they do not 
need flood protection against win- 
terkilling. Furthermore, he feel"-. 
that late-water bogs in 1959 will 
be especially likely to produce 
light crops. 

There is one bright spot in this 
picture, despite the cold of early 
December. Dr. Franklin stoutly 
maintained that when both April 
and November are warm, the fol- 
lowing winter is likely to be open. 
Both April and November, 1958, 
were decidedly warmer than nor- 
mal, and according to "Doc" we 
should be looking forward to an 
open winter. If this should hap- 
pen, we can take heart that such 
great crops as those of 1933, 
1937, and especially that of 195:, 
were produced after open winte::: 








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with Buckner's great new Frost Control 
Rainer, the first top aualiry sprinkler designed 
specifically to combat frost damage, give you 
full crop profits. Small nozzles cover extra 
large diameters, up to 120 feet, with a fin» 
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This new Frost Control Rainer has Buckner's 
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DISTRIBUTED BY 



1121 Washington Street 
West Newfon 65, Mass. BI. 4-7900 



DEALER 

ENQUIRIES 

INVITED 



Fourteen 



■'■■— >■ III I M ■■!■ ■ l»i^M« 







ISSUE OF DECEMBER 1958 
VOL. 23 - NO. 8 




■■ ■■■■! ■■ ■!! -nn '- " "- " ""- 



-iin-— ■an^^nn-^^nn— 



REASON FOR A "MERRY CHRISTMAS" 

IN OUR October issue there was an 
editorial saying a skirmish in the battle 
to sell cranberries at a fair price had been 
won — in November we wrote "Is the Tide 
Turning?" Really what we said or thought 
■is of no vital importance. But it is import- 
ant that now, in December, the cran- 
berry industry has started to come back 
as a successful business. 

That is not simply our own opinion, 
but that of many others. We hear it from 
all sides, from growers, from distributors. 

This has been a year of a much more 
stabilized market. NCA, handling about 
50 percent of the fresh fruit crop, has 
consistently held its price, as have inde- 
pendents to a great degree. In most 
recent years everybody has been at times, 
slashing prices. 

The trade, which is a mighty factor 
in successful marketing may again feel 
that cranberries are a commodity worth 
handling — in a stabilized market. With 
confidence restored, future marketing 
should be successful. 

It should be remembered this was ac- 
complished with the second largest crop 
on record. 

It now seems likely that growers can 
move with more confidence, since there 
will again be money in the pocket. Bogs 
can be rebuilt from the state of forced 
neglect too many are in — long-wanted 
equipment bought, which will further in- 
crease efficency. 

We join in wishing Cranberry Grow- 
ers a joyous Christmas, the merriest finan- 
cially and in hope, of recent years. 

INSTITUTE ARTICLES 

WE SHOULD call attention to the 
articles currently running, prepared by the 
Cranberry Institute, this month concern- 
ing New Jersey. This series, like that of 
Dr. Chandler on "Cranberries In North 
America," is factual, instructive and 
well worth studying. We cannot know too 
much about the over-all of our industry. 
To really know the facts from all areas 
helps us to become better growers and with 
more knowledge of what to expect from 
future markets. 

While speaking of the Institute, we 
would put in a heart-felt plug for its sup- 



iB^— nii^— nn— n/—^iiB«^— fg^^ili— M^— ■■— •«— nB-^-«it^— Bii— an^— nu— iiii^— nn— ■■— n«J» 

CLARENCE J. HALL 
Editor and Publisher 

EDITH S. HALL^ Associate Editor 
Wareham, Massachusetts 
SUBSCRIPTIONS, $3.50 Per 
Year, FOREIGN, $4.50 



CORRESPONDENTS— ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 

Cranberry Consultant 
Wisconsin Rapids 

Wisconsin 



Washington 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash. 



Oregon 

GRANT SCOTT 
Coquille, Ore. 

Massachusetts 

PR. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass. 



New Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 

Pemberton, New Jersey 



port. This is the single unit which can 
speak for the entire body of cranberry 
growers. It can be of value to every grow- 
er in a multitude of ways. 

Fifteen 



(Continued from Page 6) 

week in November. Jim Olsen is 
cooperating with Extension Serv- 
ice in releasing a part of one of 
his hogs for this use. 



WISCONSIN 

November Hot, Cold 

November was a month of ex- 
tremes in temperature in the state. 
The first three weeks of the month 
brouht readings ten to fifteen de- 
gi-ees above normal, while the last 
week found temperatures zooming 
to fifteen to twenty degrees be- 
low normal. Strong persistent 
winds accompanied the frigid tem- 
peratures. This was the first out- 
break of Artie air to spread over 
the state since last February. Be- 
low zero readings were register- 
ed the last three days of the month, 
with a minus fifteen in the north 
on the night of Nev. 19th. The 
last time below zero was register- 
ed was on Feb. 19 when minus 8 
degrees was recorded. 

The below zero reading on the 
27th marked the 14th such read- 
ing since the beginning of the year. 
Negative readings were recorded 
nine times in February and four 
times in January. High reading 
for the month was 62 degrees on 
the 14th. In all the temperatures 
for the month averaged normal 
and precipitation was near normal. 
Rain on the 17th brought over 
one inch in some areas. The year 
to December 1st has been minus 
175 degrees of normal and minus 
2.87 inches of precipitation. 
Ground water levels remain minus 
1.80 feet of normal. The out- 
look for December is for below 
normal in temperature and from 
normal to above normal in pre- 
cipitation. Averages for Decem- 
ber are nineteen degrees and 1.15 
inches. 

Prices Holding 

Berries moved rapidly for 
Thanksgiving, with an estimated 
fifteen percent of the states crop 
left to ship as of December one. 
Fresh berry prices were reported 
holding favorably for the holiday 
.Sixteen 



season. Some Searles berries were 
on hand the end of the month with 
most of the tonnage in ware- 
houses being McFarlins and 
Howes. 

Winter Flood Early 

With the quick drop in tem- 
peratures the last of the month 
growers quickly flooded up their 
young plantings and water was 
also put on producing beds. Frost 
was reported in the depth of four 
inches by Nov. 29th and ice quick- 
ly formed to the depth of five 
inches by the first of December. 
This was one of the earliest dates 
in recent years for putting on 
the winter flood. All marshes 
reported sufficient water sup- 
plies for winter flooding. 

Sanding One-Third Acreage 

Most growers were planning on 
doing some sanding this winter. 
An estimated one third of the 
states total acreage is expected 
to be sanded this winter. Consid- 
erable sand is also planned for 
dams, dykes and roads. This large 
amount of work is a reflection of 
better price returns on the 1957 

crop and expected good returns 

on the 1958 crop. 



The winter meeting of the Wit 
State Cranberry Growers As3r 
is tentatively set for Januar 
16th at Wisconsin Rapids. 

Geo. Bennett 

George Bennett, 78, long tim' 
grower at Watermill, near Tomah 

passed away suddenly Novenb 

her 26th. 



I!lll^ 




•*A«V 
Th« 
Grower 

Who 
Relontfa" 



I INDIAN TRAIL Inc 
I 262 W. Grand Avt. 
I Wisconsin Rapids, Wisctntlii 



CONGRATULATIONS 

to 

NATIONAL CRANBERRY ASSCX:iATION; 

iiT sfafcli^imgr the fresh and processed cranberry mar* 
ket nationally. 

Ac competitors in both the fresh and processed field, 
we believe we may be a better judge than many grow- 
ers of the stabilizing influence National Cranberry 
Association had on the market this year, which means 
higher prices to ALL growers, whether they are mem- 
bers of National, or not. 

We predict the cranberry industry will see good 
prices in 1959 and all growers can look to the future 
with optimism. 

Cranberry Products, Inc. 

EAGLE RIVER, WISCONSIN 



•■■•P* 



SERVINg THE WISCONSIN GROWERS 



FOR SALE 

SEARLES JUMBO 
HOWES, McFARLIN 

Vines 
for delivery in 1959 

$125,00 Ton F.O.B. 




Cranberry growers have enjoyed 
two decades of successful use of 

KROP-SAVER 

Insecticides, Fungicides and Herbicides 
Better Chemicals For Agriculture 

€rop4aver Chemical Company 

Spring Green, Wisconsin 


INTERESTED 
IN 

PURCHASING 
WISCONSIN 
CRANBERRY 

PROPERTIES 

Vernon Goldsworthy 

EAGLE RIVER 
WISCONSIN 




THE ONLY 
FERTILIZER . 
FACTORY 

LOCATED IN THE ; 
WISCONSIN 


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and 

FLOW GATES 

Felker Bros. Mfg. Co. 

MARSHRELD WISCONSIN 
Phone 230 - 231 




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Wis. Rapids Wis. 

MFCS, of: 

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GRASS CUPPERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS 

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DISTR. of: 

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ROLLER CHAINS 

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Stevens Point 




THIS SPACE IS G 

It is available for those \ 
message to the Wisconsin 


Oirr TO WASTE! 

vho have an advertising 
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Deserves A 

Subscription to 

Cranberries; too 





NATIONAL 

CRANBERRY 

ASSOCIATION 

holds the key 
for selling 
faster, better 



Large-scale advertising of new 
"Natural Mate for Every Meat" campaign 
builds year-round consumption 

Every year cranberry crops continue to increase 
and NCA members continue to sell their total 
yield — thanks to efTective consumer advertising. 

In the years ahead crops are expected to get 
even bigger and bigger. This means more people 
have got to eat more cranberries more often. 
And NCA pledges itself to seeing that they do! 

NCA's biggest tool is advertising under the 
Ocean Spray brand. And right now we are in the 
process of educating consumers to eat cranberries 
and cranberry products, not only with chicken 
and turkey around the holidays, but all year long 
with every kind of meat. Also we're 
constantly experimenting with the development 
of new products.. 

All of this means that no matter how biiz an 
NCA member's crop, he's assured of selling it 
to best advantage. 

The future looks great for NCA... 

and it's great to be part of a great future 



NATIONAL CRANBERRY ASSOCIATION 

Hanson, Mass. • Tel. Bryantville-CYpress 3-6311 





n II ■rtlllB 



RVING A $20,000,000 A YEAR INDUSTRY 




:ape coo 
new jersey 
wisconsin 

OREGON 

WASHINGTON 
CANADA 



WliMEK of 1958-59 is so far an icy, bitter one in Massachusetts. 
VVeweantic River, Wareham, a number of bogs being flowed from uppe 
this river. (CRANBER 



35 Cents 



JANUARY 



'yi^^aimm'--^''''^' 



DIRECTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWERS' 



Wcrcester Paper 
Box Corporation 

MEDFORD, MASS. 
Td. MYstic 8-5305 

Manufacturers 

of 
Folding Cartons 

and 

Displays 



WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STODDARD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

Franconia Coal Co. 
— Inc. — 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. 39-R 



CRANBERRY 
GROWERS 

Choose and Use 

Niagara Dusts, Sprays and 

Dusters 






Niagara Chemical 
Division 

Food Machinery and 
Chemical Corporation 

Middleport, New York 

New BncUfid PUnt Mid WarahoiM* 

Ayer, Mass. Tel. Spruce 2-2365 



Wareham Savings 

Bank 
Falmouth Branch 

Wekome Savings Account 

Loans on Real Estate 
Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 

PHONE WAREHAM 82 
FALMOUTH 80 



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Conveniently located for Oranberry Men 



Funds always available for sound loans 



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Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. 



i The 

iCEiARLES W. HARRIS 
I Company 

I 26 Somerset Ave 

1 North Dighton, Mass. 

I AMES 

Irrigation Systems 
Sprinklers 

Weed killers 

Insecticides 

Fungicides 

from 

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B Dupont Company _ 

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EQUIPMENT 

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Extensive Experience in 
ELECTRICAL WORK 

ALFRED PAPPI 

At Screenhouses, Boca and 
Pumps Ma«ns Satis factiea 

WAREHAM. MASS. T«L 



ADVERTISE 

in 

CRANBERRIES 



Great Research Worker Retires, 
Henry F. Bain of Wisconsin 



Henry F. Bain was born in 
Knoxville, Tennessee, and received 
an A. B. degree from the Univer- 
sity in that state and an M. S. 
degree from Brown University. 
He served in the army, following' 
which he was an inspector for the 
United States Department of Agri- 
culture, 

His cranberry career began in 
1922 on the west coast where he 
worked on the bogs in Northern 
Oregon and Washington. After 
spending four years on the coast, 
he went to Wisconsin as a cran- 
berry specialist for the State De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

In 1928, he became senior 
pathologist with the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, working in 
Beltsville and New Jersey on 



MIDDLEBOROUCH 
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MASS. 



Member of 

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cranberry breeding. In 1944, he 
returned to Wisconsin as techni- 
cal consultant to some cranberry 
producers. He is now retiring from 
active duty to do some of the 
things he has wanted to do for 
many years. 

During Mr. Bain's studies of 
cranberries he was author or 
senior author of two U. S. D. A. 
bulletins, junior author of a num- 
ber of others, author of three 
Wisconsin bulletins, and published 
a large number of articles in Wis- 
consin State Cranberry Growers 
Association, American Cranberry 
Growers Association, Journal of 
Agricultural Research, Botanical 
Gazette, and American Journal of 
Botany. 

Mr. Bain's researches covered a 
large number of fields. Besides 
pathology, his major fiield, he had 
many publications on blossoming 
and fruiting. These included tem- 
perature studies, weather observa- 
tions (particularly winter condi- 
tions), and studies of cranberry 
uprights. While he was not trained 
as an entomologist, he made many 
observations on insects and wrote 
a bulletin on their control in cran- 
berry bogs. He made many cran- 
berry crosses and produced some 
of the new seedlings. He studied 
mycorrhiza and advantitious 
shoots. He wrote a bulletin on the 
harvesting and handling of cran- 
berries, wrote on water harvesting, 
and probably published the first 
article on storage losses. 



STARTING 1959 ! 

And the time is here to review the past and make 
plans for the future. 

RESOLVE, that ELECTRICITY shall play a larger 
part — in your cranberry work and in your home. 

Plymouth Counfy Electric Co. 



WAREHAM 
TEL. 200 



PLYMOUTH 

TEL 1300 



Mr. Bain has published some 
very valuable surveys of early in- 
formation; namely, "Cranberry 
Culture in the Pacific Northwest," 
1926, "Cranberry Insect Survey 
and Control," 1927, and "Cran- 
berry Industry in Wisconsin," 
1929. These contributions have 
been in addition to those in botany 
and pathology, the field in which 
he was particularly trained and in 
which he has done much work. 

The late L. M. Rogers, a noted 
cranberries researcher said of Mr. 
Bain: "He is one of the very few 
scientific men who have a good 
practical knowledge of cranberry 
culture, and I want to congratu- 
late the Wisonsin Department of 
Agriculture in being able to retain 
him here while working on cran- 
berry problems." Mr. Rogers, al- 
though . originally of Massachu- 
setts, also did work in Wisconsin. 

For these many contributions, 
Mr. Bain, the cranberry growers, 
fellow research workers and other 
friends, thank you and wish you a 
very happy retirement. 

— A Friend 

NCA Employees Get 
Week's Pay Bonus 

NCA has announced in "The 
Scoop" that, in appreciation of 
extra effort of employees in bring- 
ing tbe 1957 pool above expecta- 
tion, Board of Directors voted a 
sum not to exceed three cents per 
barrel to all year-around employees 
who have been in National at least 
six months, with the exception of 
the General Manager, to be distrib- 
uted in accordance with a plan de- 
vised by Mr. Stevens. The extra 
compensataion amounted to about 
one week's salary. 

It was announced this was not 
to set a precedent. 



CRANBERRY PICKING 
BOXES 

Shooks, or Nailed 

Let me repair your br»ktn 

boxes — or repair thsm yourself. 

Stock Always on HaiMi 

F. H. COLE 

Tel. Union 6-3380 
North Carver, Mast. 



One 



MASSACHUSETTS CLUBS 
MEETINGS SCHEDULES 

Massachusetts cranberry clubs 
winter meetings are scheduled as 
follows: 

January 13, with supper at 6 
p. m., meeting- at7, with speakers 
Ambrose E. Stevens, general man- 
ager and executive vice president 
of National and H. Drew Flegal, 
director of advertising and public 
lalations, plus Dr. C. E. Cross, di- 
rector of Massachusetts Cranberry 
Station. This will be at "Wimp- 
les", Osterville, rather than Bri.ce 
Hall, as probably will all the 
Meetings of this group. Same 
Lours v/ill prevail. Lower Cape, 
at the East Ilaiwich Church, the 
14th. Same program. 

January 20t, Southeastern Club, 
Rochester Grange Hall, 2 p. m., 
followed by supper, as is the 
custom. Same evening, South 
Shore at Reed Community Hall, 
Kingston, same program begin- 
ning at 7, with no supper as is 
the custom. 

February 10, Upper Cape and 
Lower Cape; Feb. 11. South Shore 
Feb. 17; Southeastern Feb. 18. 
Same hours, same places 

March 10 and 11, Upper and 
Cape; March 10 and 11 for Upper 
and Lower respectively. March 
17, South Shore and Southeastern 
March 18. Same places, same 
hours. These dates happen to be 
the same as in February. 



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Two 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Notes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 







h 



Two Decembers 

The contrast in weather patterns 
for December 1958 compared with 
December a year ago is rather 
startling. For example, tempera- 
tures averaged 6.3° per day below 
normal this past December com 
pared with a balmy 7.4° per day 
labove normal enjoyed in Decem- 
ber 1957. The lowest temperature 
recorded at the cranberry Experi- 
ment Station was 9° below zero 
this past month compared to a 
15° above zero a year ago. Rain- 
fall was well below the normal of 
3.90 inches with only 1.98 inches 
iieasured at our station, compared 
rt'ith 6.26 inches for December 
1957. Incidentally, the total rain- 
fall for 1958 was 59.98 inches, the 
58cond wettest season in our his- 
:ory, exceeded only by the record 
?stablished in 1953 of 63.22 in- 
I'hes. 

Winterkill? 

Winter killing conditions, as we 
jnderstand them, certainly existed 
lanuary 5-7. Near zero tempera- 
:iires and gale winds were experi- 
enced during this period, and with 
a substantial depth of frost in the 
around — 6 inches on the State 
Bog — it will be surprising if there 
:sn't some damage to exposed 
jogs. Oxygen deficiency conditions, 
on the other hand, had not reached 
the critical stage as of January 
7, but a few more cold nights plus 
snow-storm in the cranberry 
area could change the picture very 
rapidly. 

Marketing Studies 

The last test lot of fresh cran- 
berries was packed and displayed 
December 23rd in local stores and 
on our own racks at the Cranberry 
Experiment Station. All lots in- 
cluded zineb-treated and untreated 
fruit and were displayed with and 

without refrigeration. As pointed 



out earlier in the season, we hope 
to obtain useful information on 
the effect of zineb on the shelf 
life of fresh fruit handled under 
various conditions. As a part of 
our quality control studies, a 
second and final trip was made 
to Cincinnati and Detroit early in 
December in order to check the 
condition of cranberries at the 
terminal market and retail levels. 
The same representatives of the 
trade interviewed in November 
were again visited in December. 
Samples of ci'anberries were pur- 
chased in approximately 10 stores 
in each city and carefully examined 
in terms of condition. We can 
state at this time that the condi- 
tion of fresh cranberries, based 
on this spot sampling technique, 
was much better than expected. 
But more significant was the 
greatly improved relations of our 
industry with the trade substan- 
tiating the observations made by 



the writer after his November 
trip. This was due primarily to 
the fact that prices have been 
reasonably firm this past season 
and the movement and cleanup 
after the holidays have been ex- 
cellent. A complete report of these 
studies will be made at the Feb- 
ruary club meetings. 

1959 Educational Program 

The Cranberry Advisory Com- 
mittee met at the Cranberry Ex- 
periment Station December 3rd to 
assist the Extension Service in the 
preparation and development of 
an education program for 1959. 
There was an excellent represen- 
tation present from the cranberry 
clubs, Cape Cod Cranberry Grow- 
ers Association, Cranberry Insti- 
tute, service organizations. Coun- 
ty Advisory Committees, county 
agricultural agents, University of 
Massachusetts, and the Cranberry 
Experiment Station. 

The discussion this year focused 
on the need for improvement in 
harvesting and screening methods, 
continued efforts to improve the 
quality of our pack, both fresh 
and processed through rigid quali- 
ty control program, and special 
attention to greater mechaniza- 
tion. Progress in these fields was 
noted but considerably more work 
will be required before the solu- 
tion of these problems is realized: 

Growers might be interested in 



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borne of the other points discussed 
and action taken. The group pres- 
ent requested that the picking 
machine schools be held again in 
late August. They also suggested 
that the cranberry clubs include 
in their programs a discussion of 
methods of training bogs for 
machine picking through possibly 
more attention to pruning, sand- 
ing, fertilizing, and drainage 
programs designed to level the 
bog's surface and grow the type 
of vinas or uprights adaptable to 
machine picking. 

It was further pointed out that 
attention should be given to the 
practice of leaving too many vines 
and weeds in the boxes at the 
time of harvest, as well as the 
practice of leaving too little. 
These extremes often result m 
rapid breakdown of the fruit, ac- 
cording to experienced screen- 
house observers. It was suggested 
that the problem be thoroughly 
discussed at the winter meetings 
by those qualified — possibly 
through the medium of a panel 
discussion. The desirability of a 
pesticide mail questionaire to 
determine the effectiveness of the 
station's recommendations met 
with approval. There was agree- 
ment that many more growers 
should subscribe to the fresh fruit 
market reports issued weekly 
during the fall months. Unless 
there is greater intei-est in this 
regard, the group was informed 
that these reports would be dis- 
continued. 

These and a number of other 
important subjects were discussed 
in some detail at the Cranberry 
Advisory Committee meeting. The 
suggestions and advice of this 
committee were most helpful and 
are sincerely appreciated. The 
following members were present: 
Louis Sherman, F. Maynard Gif- 
ford, Arthur Handy, Ferris Waite, 
Ralph Thacher, Robert Hammond, 
Maurice Makepeace, Anthony 
Briggs, Raymond Morse, Robert 
St. Jacques, Darrell Shepherd, 
Robert W. Kleis, Frederick E. 
Cole, Dominic Marini, Oscar John- 
son, Harold Woodward, Chester E. 
Cross, John S. Norton, Joseph 
Kelley and J. Richard Beattie. 
Staff Members Participated 

Dr. Bert Zuckerman attended 



conferences in New York and 
Delaware in December which dealt 
with the development of coopera- 
tive research projects designed to 
further the study of nematodes 
and virus diseases. Dr. Zucker- 
man has already initiated studies 
in these fields and has accumu- 
lated considerable information, 
particularly on nematodes, during 
the past year. 

Dr. Chester Cross participated 
in the Northeastern Weed Control 
Conference held in New York City 
eaily in January, as well as a 
weather conference concerned with 
clirnatoiogy and its relation to 
agriculture held during the same 
period. 

Year- End Crop 
Statistics 

Final United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture estimate of 
the 1958 cranberry crop remains 
the same total for the country, 
1,127,000 barrels. Only changes 
were that Washington dropped 
from 48,000 barrels to 47,000, 
while Oregon gained 1,000 to 
32,000. 

The total production of 1,127, 
000 was seven percent above last 
year and second only to the rec- 



ord of 1953. Massachusetts and 
New Jersey had larger produc- 
tion while Washington and Oregon 
fell off. Massac'-usetts produc- 
tion was eight percent above 1957 
and 11 percent above average . 

Yields per acre per state were 
figured as: 

New Jersey, 35.2 barrels; Massa- 
chusetts, 47.3; Wisconsin, 82.9; 
Washington, 63.3; Oregon, 61.5. 

Acres harvested totalled 20,920. 
New Jersey, 2,500; Massachusetts, 
12,900; Wisconsin, 4,100; Wash- 
ington, 900, and Oregon 520. 

Season average price per barrel 
of the five states was $11.80. The 
highest price per barrel was in 
Washington with $12.20. Lowest 
was Wisconsin with $11.30. New 
Jersey price was S12.00; Oregon, 
$12.00 and Massachusetts, $11.90. 

MEDICAL BENEFITS 
FOR NCA EMPLOYEES 

National Board of Directors has 
approved a plan to provide uniform 
coverage by Blue Cross and Blue 
Shield for year-around employees' 
wherein the employees pay one 
half the cost and NCA the other. 
Plan became effective January 
firs;. Cost to NCA is given as 
about SI 1,000 or one and a third 
cents per barrel. 




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F*«r 





Issue of January 1959 - Vol. 23 No. 9 

Published monthly at The Courier Print Shop. Main St.. Wareham. Mnssachusptts. ^Subscription $3.50 per year. 
Ent.rJdas second class matter January 26, 1943. at the post-office at Wareham,^ Massachusetts, under the Act of M.rch^8^^1«TB 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

December Rugged 

December was one of the 
roughest Decembers in years in 
the Massachusetts cranberry areas 
and for that matter in all New 
England, and much of the coun- 
try. Minus degrees at year end 
totalled more than 200 or approxi- 
mately seven a day below nonnal. 
Lowest recording at State Cran- 
berry Station was 9 below on the 
morning of the 14th and one the 
day before the mercury read 3 
below. There was one recording 
of one above, two of two, many 
others in the single figures and 
many in the low teens. 

Year Rainfall Heavy 

Rainfall for the month was 
light, only 1.98 inches with normal 
being 3.90. Of this 7.45 was snow. 
However, rainfall for the year as 
a whole was quite another story, 
total for the twelve months being 
a whopping 58.98 inches. Normal 
precipitation for the year in the 
cranberry area is 41.31. Rain, 
until September had been the 
most abnormal on record, or at 
least for many years; then the 
trend changed. 

Ice at end of month was 5-6 
inches thick with frost in the 
ground up to 10 inches. Even salt 
water bays and rivers were fro- 
zen thickly. Some growers took 
advantage of the conditions to 
sand on ice, while others spread 
on the vines. Not all bogs were 
flooded even though there was 
ample supply, some of the area 
had a considerable snow cover. To 
the end of December it was esti- 
mated there had been no winter- 
kill. Many bogs which were not 
flooded looked very healthy. Many 



clear, although bitterly cool days, 
kept up a good sunshine factor, 
which of course would add to the 
crop potential for 1959. 



WESCO^SB N 

December Long Cold 

December brought the longest 
cold siege in more than a decade. 
The first three weeks of the month 
were very cold and a slight warm- 
ing trend the last week prevented 
breaking all-time records. Daily 
mean temperatures averaged seven 
to ten degrees below normal. 
From the 5th to the 17th there 
were below zero readings consecu- 
tively in some parts of the state. 
Presipitation was below normal 
in all areas, with light snow on 
the 14th and 24th. The extended 
forecast for January is for near 



normal temperatures and below 
normal precipitation. Normals 
are about fifteen degrees and an 
inch of precipitation. 

Review of Weather of *58 
In reviewing the weather of the 
past season it turned out cold and 
dry. Temperatures averaged the 
coldest in February and Decem- 
ber and warmest in October. Cold- 
est temperature of the year was 
40 below in Douglas County on 
February 16th and warmest 98 
degrees on August 30th in south- 
ern Wisconsin. Precipitation 
was deficient in all areas, with the 
southern area being the driest. 
Deficiences averaged between three 
to six inches in the cranberry 
areas. Ground water levels were 
180 feet below normal at years 
end. A record number of 17 tor- 
nadoes were reported 



F. MORSE & SON 

West Wareham, Mass., Phone 1553-R 

Cranberry Growers Agent For 



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Several damaging hailstorms 
struck during the growing sea- 
son, with the most damaging one 
occurring the night of Sept. 3rd, 
in the Mather-Warrens area. Two 
hard freezes occured in June in 
northern Wisconsin on the nights 
of June 5th and 13th, causing con- 
siderable damage. Frost on the 
_ night of August 24, when the 
^temperature dropped to the middle 
twenties caused damage, especial- 
ly in the Mather area where wateh 
supplies were very short. Other 
weather news was the fast freeze 
up the last of November accompan- 
ied by very strong drying winds. 
Marshes were flooded up and froze 
down the quickest in many years. 
An early spring saw most winter 
floods removed in early April. 
June and July were especially cold. 
Much Sanding 
Sanding operations were pro- 
gressing in all areas by mid-De- 
cember, Severe weather had form- 
ed as much as twenty inches of 
ice on the reservoirs. Frost depth 
in the sand pits was reported at 
24 inches. Deep frost in the pits 
may handicap sanding operation:. 
Robert Rezin, Sr. 
Robert Rezin, Sr., 68, prominent 
grower near Tomah, died Dec. 5ta 
at a LaCrosse, Wis. hospital ,f<.';- 
lowng surgery. A member of p. 
prominent, pioneer cranberi 
growing family, he also served a j 
a director on the NCA board 1954 
through 1957. 

Cranberry Man Sworn In 

Philleo Nash, president of the 
Biron Cranberry Co., Wisconsin 
Rapids, was sworn in as Lt. Gov- 
ernor of the state of Wisconsii;, 
in inaugaration ceremonies at the 
.State Capitol, Madison, Jan. 5th. 
Mr. Nash who served as an ad- 
vsor to Presidents Roosevelt and 
Truman, defeated the incumbent 
candidate Republican W. P. Know- 
les, in last November elections. 
He is the first Wisconsin Rapids 
man to be elected to a major state 
ofi'ice. Mr. Nash's many cranberry 
friends wish him every success 
in his new ofl'ice. 

Fresh Fruit Cleaned Up 

The last of the fresh fruit ber- 
res were shipped the latter part 

Six 



uf December. Very few berries 
were reported in the state after 
mid-December. Prices remained 
good up to cleanup. Overall the 
keeping quality Avas the best in 
many years. Final figures show 
that Wisconsin produced 340,000 
barrels of berries on 4100 produc- 
ing acres, for an average of 82.9 
bbls per acre. The cold weather 
during the entire growing season 
in the north, coupled with the more 
than normal number of hail storms, 
prevented a bumper crop. At 
years-end growers were looking 
foi-ward to 1959 with continued 
optimism. 



OREfiON 

20 New Acres 

At a meeting of the South- 
western Oregon Cranberi-y Club, 
an informal summary was taken 
among the members and it was 
conservatively established that the 
cranberry industry in South- 
western Oregon had increased it- 
self by about 20 acres of newly 
sanded bogs tiiis last year. The 
rew nlantings involved about 8 
rrov/ers. 

^1 E W JERS EY 

December Weather - 1958 

The nnst month was the secoai 
coldest December in the 30-ye:i.v 



weather recording history at th« 
Cranberry and Blueberry Research 
Laboratoi-y. The average tempera 
ture was 28.9° F., which is 7' 
warmer tlian normal and only 0.8 
higher than the record for this 
month, which occurred in 1955 
One unusual feature was the 
string of ten consecutive days 
(Dec. 7 through 16) during which 
the temperature was constantly 
below freezing. There has been 
only one more greatly prolonged 
freezing period in December in the 
past 30 years. Tn 1935 the tempera 
ture did not rise to 32° for the 
last eleven days of the year. 

With respect to precipitation, 
the past mont'i had only 1.40 in 
ches, which is less than half of 
the normal 3.03 inches. Snow 
threatened on four days but only 
slight traces were recorded, as 
only the outside fringes of these 
storms touclied us. 

Annual Weather Review 

The past year was the wettest 
and one of the coolest on record 
here. Excessive rain occurred in 
eight of the months and the year- 
ly total was 60.01 inches, about 17 
inches more than normal. During 
tlie important growing months of 
May, June, July and August thero 
was a total of 24.56 inches, about 
eight inches more than normal. 
This was in contrast to the di'iest 
(Continued on Page 16) 



i F. RUTTER 

INCORPORATED 

19 CONGRESS ST. 

BOSTON, MASS. 

CApital 7-6377 

ENVESTMENT SECURITIES 



We will buy odd lots of the common and preferred stocks of 
The National Cranberry Association 






Harvest Methods, Fungicides 
and Keeping Quality 

by Dr. Bert M. Zuckerman 



Plant Patho'.ogist Cra 
With the advent of machine-pick- 
ing on a large scale, problems 
heretofore unknown to the Massa- 
chusetts cranberry industry have 
appeared some of Avhich affect the 
keeping quality. Two questions 
that have arisen are (1) Do ma- 
chine-picked berries hold up as 
well in storage as scooped berries 
and (2) how do fungicide-treated 
machine-picked berries compare 
with those similarly treated but 
picked by scoop ? Many growers 
and s'.-.ippers have formed opinions 
on this and related questions based 
on their own experience, and 
hence, a pattern of beliefs is tak- 
ing form. 

Over the past two years data 
has been gathered on these subjects 
and an analysis is reported here- 
in. The information is presented 
with a minimum of interpretation, 
for the preliminary nature of these 
studies makes any attempt in this 
direction premature. It is hoped 
that the grower by comparing- 
these results with his own exper- 



NBERRY Experiment Station 

ience, may reach a better under- 
standing of the problems and so 
be in a better position to plan his 
operations. 

Machine-picking vs scooping 
In 1957, 30 lots of berries from 
10 pieces of bog were collected for 
comparative tests of the quality 
of machine-picked vs. scoop-picked 
berries. In each case, samples 
were taken by stopping the ma- 
chine and removing a quart or two 
of berries from the tup of the 
picking box or bag to represent 
the machine-picked sample. The 
scooped sample was then harvested 
from the unpicked area to the 
side of and slightly to the rear of 
the machine. In this manner, 
variations of quality due to diff- 
erences in bog location and con- 
dition were minimized. 

Berry breakdown counts were 
mads a few days after harvest, 
and again at approximately 6 to 
12 weeks following harvest. 
Berries harvested by four types of 
picking* machines were studied, 



but since all the berries harvested 
by machine behaved in approxi- 
mately the same manner, no com- 
parison between machines is re- 
ported in this paper. 

Counts made five days after har- 
vest showed slightly more field 
breakdown in the machine-picked 
samples (3.4'/^ ) than in the scoop- 
ed samples (1.9%). TABLE 1 
gives the figures for breakdown 
in berries held for 6 and 12 weeks 
in common storage. Assuming 
all berry samples comparable, these 
are the figures which indicate the 
effect of picking method on keep- 
ing quality. 

A statistical analysis of the 
figures in Table 1 shows that the 
probability is greater than 99 in 
100 that machine-picked berries 
show more break-down in a 12- 
week storage period than do scoop- 
picked berries. 

It should be noted that in the 
preceding paragraphs reference 
is made to the breakdown of ber- 
ries without characterizing this 
breakdown as due to bruising, to 
rot organisms or to a combination 
of the two. In addition, no con- 
sideration is given here to the 
problem of whether or not bruis- 
ing accelerates the action of de- 



TABLE 1 Comparison of keeping quality of berri es which had been scoop-picked with those that 
had been machine-picked. 



Sample No. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 

12 

13 
14° 
15° 

Ave. 

Breakdown 



Breakdown 


Breakdown 






6 Weeks 


12 Weeks 


Total* 


Machine 


Scooped 


Machine 


Scooped 

15.6 


Machine 


Scooped 


6.1 


1.8 


24.9 


31.0 


17.4 


3.7 


0.4 


20.8 


9.2 


24.5 


9.6 


5.7 


0.9 


38.5 


9.3 


44.0 


10.2 


1.9 


1.0 


23.6 


13.3 


25.5 


14.3 


4.5 


0.3 


22.2 


14.9 


26.7 


15.2 


12.9 


6.2 - 


9.9 


4.2 


22.8 


10.4 


17.1 


5.5 


11.0 


10.7 


28.1 


16.2 


8.4 


3.9 


17.0 


16.2 


25.4 


20.1 


2.8 


3.5 


9.5 


9.8 


12.3 


13.3 


5.4 


3.6 


12.9 


7.3 


18.3 


10.9 


10.7 


5.3 


13.9 


8.4 


24.6 


13.7 


2.0 


1.3 


11.4 


8.9 


13.4 


10.2 


11.7 


8.8 


23.2 


23.9 


34.9 


32.7 


11.7 


7.2 


7.8 


11.0 


19.5 


18.2 


9.1 


3.6 






9.1 


-S.6 


7.6 


4.4 


17.6 


11.4 


24.0 


14.4 



* Does not include field rot which had been removed. 

° Sample 14 which was water-picked and Sampl e 15 which was not counted after 12 weeks in 

storage were not included in the statistical analys is. 



Seven 



cay organisms present in the ber- 
ries at the time of harvest. 

A study made in 1958 sheds 
some light on these questions. In 
this experiment berries treated 
with zineb by ground concentrate 
rig and untreated berries wei-e 
machine and scoop-picked on the 
same section of the State bog. 
Ten scoop-picked samples, each 
about 1000 berries in size, were 
sorted by hand and held in paper 
bags for a storage period of seven 
weeks. Machine-picked berries 
were held in field boxes and shrink- 
age determined on a weight basis 
through screening of three boxes 
in each lot at 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks. 
Field breakdown and losses dur- 
ing the 7-week storage period as 
shown in these two instances are 
compared in FIGURE 1. 

The scooped and macnine- pick- 
ed samples were roughly compar- 
able at the time of harvest. It is 
of interest to compare the loss fig- 
ures 7 weeks after harvest. Here 
it can be noted that only a small 
amount of breakdown occurred in 



scooped berries, whether treated 
or untreated. And there was only 
a slight difference in the break- 
down of treated and untreated 
berries which had been machine- 
picked. 

The amount of breakdown in 
this experiment, as with those re- 
ported in 1957, appears to be re- 
lated to the picking technique. 
Another point to be noted is that 
fungicide treatment apparently did 
not greatly reduce the amount of 
breakdown in machine-picked ber- 
ries. If we assume that the lines 
in FIGURE 1 represent breakdown 
caused by two primary agents — the 
machine and fungi — it apPears ^^s 
though the fungicide treatment 
had the same effect in decreasing 
breakdown of both machine and 
scoop-picked berries; and that this 
effect was on breakdown due pri- 
marily to decay organisms. Ad- 
(■itional work is planned to prove 
or disprove this hypothesis. A 
Ihird point of interest is that fun- 
gicide treatment apparently would 
not have been pre 'i table in thi.'j 



% Loss 




1 2 



-i. c 



ease, if results were judged on a 
single year's basis. 

Conclusion 

This section should be entitled 
"Exclusions", for in it I wish to 
list some possibilities for error 
in the studies reported in this 
paper. 

1. In scooping the samples, we 
are perhaps more gentle: there- 
fore, bruise the berries less than 
would a commercial cranberry 
scooper. 

2 Some of the bogs from which 
data was gathered were being 
picked by machine for the first 
time. 

3 More samples are needed over 
a reriod of years. 

All three of these items may be 
important in the results here re- 
ported. An effort will be made to 
overcome at least the last two 
considerations. Work is planned 
for next year to give additional in- 
formation on this subject. 



CLARIFICATION 

In the Cranberry Institute article 
last month, our attention has 
been called to a statement which 
might lead to confusion. Stat- 
ment was: 

"At the present time, the com- 
mon varieties are the Early 
Blacks and Late Howes introduced 
in New Jersey in 1880, and the 
named by the U. S. Department 
Wilcox, Beckwith and Stevens 
of Agriculture in 1950". 

New Jersey Cranberry and 
Blueberry Laboratory says in re- 
gard to the last three varieties, 
actually these varieties are still 
in the experimental stage and there 
are probably not more than 10 
acres planted to these in the en- 
tire state. 



Fig. 1. A comparison of fungicide treated and untreated Early Blacks, 
machine and scoop-picked. State Bog, 1958. 

= Fungicide treated 

= Untreated 



LUCK A MYTH 

The only man who strikes it 
lucky is the one who strikes out 
for himself. 

LIFETIME DEBT 

Accept a favor from some peo- 
ple and you place a mortgage on 
your peace of mind. 

BACKFIRE 

Knowledge may be power — ^but 
it's amazing how magny unsuc- 
cessful men know it all. 



Sight 



Cranberries In North America 



by F. B. Chandler 



Research Proffessor. Cranberry Station. East Wareham, Mass. 



Fertilizers, sanding- and bees 
were the subjects of the last chap- 
ter of "Cranberries in North Am- 
erica". The section this month 
will be on water, with such sub- 
jects as winter flood, sources, me- 
thods of supplying water, lift, ir- 
rigation, and drainage. 

Winter Flood 

Massachusetts, in all four sur- 
veys, has divided bogs into four 
classes: dry bogs, winter flowage 
only, winter and some frost flow- 
age, and full flowage. The dry 
bog has no winter protection and 
no frost protection. In 1924, 1520 
acres, or 11 percent of the acreage, 
fell in this category but only 459 
acres, or 3.4 percent, fell in this 
category in 1956. The full flow- 
age bogs have full protection for 
winter and for frost. In 1924, 
6300 acres, or 45 percent of the 
Massachusetts bogs, fell in this 
category, and 8340 acres, or 62 
percent, fell in this category in 
1956. In 1956, the acreage under 
permanent sprinklers had increas- 
ed to about 250 acres, or 2 percent. 
Permanent sprinklers may give 
both winter and frost protection. 
While this shows considerable 
improvement in 30 years, it still 
shows that all Massachusetts 'bogs 
are not protected 

Similar information is not avail- 
able for New Jersey. In Wiscon- 
sin, the bogs are all flooded for 
winter. Many growers do not 
flood until the temperature is low 
enough to freeze the vines in ice 
in less than 48 hours after the wa- 
ter is put on. In Oregon, only 276 
acres, or 73 percent of the bogs, 
have marginal dikes; therefore, no 
more can be flooded. Usually wa- 
ter for flooding is an accumulation 
of rain. In Grayland, Washing- 
ton, none of the bogs were flooded, 
while in Long Beach, quite a few 
were flooded but with no regular- 
ity. 

Sources 

In Cranmoor District of Wiscon- 
sin, Bain found in 1928 that there 



were 7 acres of ponds or reservoirs 
per acre of marsh. The 1949 and 
later surveys report as an average 
for the state 17 ^/^ acres of reser- 
voir per acre of marsh. This is 
probably next to the best water 
supply for cranberry growers. 
Many of the Lulu Island growers 
in British Columbia may get wa- 
ter from the Frazier River, an un- 
limitel source. In Wisconsin, be- 
side ponds and reservoirs, creeks, 
rivers and sui^face water were list- 
ed as sources of water. See Table 
I. This table probably lists the 
sources available anywhere ex- 
cept artesian wells of which there 
are a few in Massachusetts. Rain- 
fall is a source in all sections. In 
Grayland, Washington, a water 
district is being formed and this 
will assist with water supply as 
well as drainage. 

Method of Supplying Water 

The method of supplying water 
is summarized in the 1956 Massa- 
chusetts survey by acres for 1946 
and 1956. This reports that over 
half of the Massachusetts bogs re- 
ceive their water by gravity (57 
percent in 1946 and 64 percent in 
1956). About 10 percent of the 
acres had water pumped by elec- 
tricity and about 30 percent of the 
acres were pumped with a gas- 
oline engine. In Oregon and 
Washington, pumping is nearly 
always done with electricity be- 



cause it is inexpensive and avail- 
able. Most of the pumping in 
Wisconsin is done with electric 
pumps. 

Lift 

A paragraph from the Oregon 
survey reports the maximum lift. 
The paragraph follows: "Some 
growers lift water many feet to 
a sump hole. Many growers lift 
water 40 feet, a few 100 feet. 
The greatest lift was 200 feet, and 
it took 2,800 feet of pipe to take 
the water from the stream to the 
sump. As flow in some of these 
streams is low, the pumps may 
operate continually to keep the 
sump filled. When needed, water 
is pumped from the sump to the 
sprinkler system." The 1934, 
1946, and 1956 surveys from Mas- 
sachusetts have a great deal of de- 
tail on the lifts for that state 
The lifts ranged up to 24 feet in 
1934, up to 31 feet in 1946, and up 
to 35 feet in 1956. The number 
of pumping plants reported in these 
surveys was 399, 488, and 458 re- 
spectively. 

Irrigation 

Irrigation means different things 
in different sections. In Massa- 
chusetts, ii'rigation usually means 
filling the dtches. In Wisconsin, 
it means putting water over the 
surface, or flash flooding; while on 
the west coast it means sprink- 
ling. Probably irrigation varies 
more from section to section than 
any othed cultural practice. Three 
of the surveys gave data on irri- 
gation, this information with esti- 
mates for the other sections are 





TABLE 


1 






Sources of Water 


for Wisconsin Cranberry Marshes 






Perc< 


mt of Area Reported in 


Surveys 


Source 


1949 


1952 


1957 


Ponds or reservoirs 




~ 


~ 


44 


Creeks 




44 


40 


23 


Rivers 




23 


15 


9 


Lakes 




14 


15 


9 


Surface water 




~ 


— 


14 


Other 




19 


20 


2 


More than one source 




— 


10 


— 



Nine 



in Table 2. A paper on the "Ef- 
fect of Methods of Irrigating Cran- 
berry Bogs" reports poor lateral 
movement of water from the ditch 
through cranberry soils, and that 
most sprinklers were started on 
the bogs studied with sufficient soil 
moisture six inches below the sur- 
face. 

Drainage 

Very little drainage information 
is reported in the surveys. In gen- 
eral, Washington has poor drain- 
age because the ditches are plug- 
ged with beaver dams. Some 
drainage in all sections is poor be- 
cause cranberry growers do not 
control the outlets. In Oregon, 
about 68 percent of the growers 
kept their ditches dry during the 
growing season, while 11 percent 
held the water in the dtches after 
sprinkling. In Massachusetts, over 
12,000 feet of plastic tubing has 
been used for drainage of cran- 
berry bogs. The type of tube and 
the method of putting it in the 
soil was developed at Iowa State 
College. The importance of good 
drainage was mentioned by White 
nearly ninety years ago. 

A pessimist is a man who resents 
the fact that the world was made 
without seeking his advice. 



In addition to previously cited 
literaure, the followng were used: 
Chandler, F. B. Effect of Meth- 
ods of Irrgating Cranberry Bogs 
on Water Table and Soil Moisture 
Tension. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 
57: 65-72, 1951. 

Schwab, G. O. and Don Kirk- 
ham. The Effect of Circular Per- 
forations on Flow into Subsur- 
face Drain Tubes. Agr. Eng. 32: 
270-274, 1951. 

White, Joseph J. Cranberry 
Culture. Orange Judd Co., N. Y. 
1870. 



N. J. BLUEBERRY 
GROWERS HAVE 27TH 
OPEN HOUSE 

"What Can Be Done to get Bet- 
ter Blueberries in the Market," 
was the main subject of the 27th 
annual Blueberry Open House. 
Meeting was scheduled for the 
Grange hall, Vincentown, January 
8. Meeting was sponsored by tb? 
New Jersey Agricultural Station, 
New Brunswick. 

Speakers were scheduled to in- 
clude; a Welcome by Daniel L. 
Kensler, Burlington Agricultural 
County Agent. Others were David 
J. Burns, Department Agricul- 
tural Economics; Benjamin H. 



TABLE 2 



Percentage of Acreage Irrigated by Different Methods 



State 



Filling Flash Tile or 

Ditches Flooding Sprinkling Tube 



Not 
Irrigated 



Massachusetts 

Wisconsin 

New Jersey 

Oregon 

Washington 

Canada 



70 14 3 

Small large* 

similar to Massachusetts* 

22 73** 

gg*** 

■> :;: :!•. * * * * * 



1/10 



* Author's estimate 
** The Oregon Survey has data on the frequency of irrigation which 
shows that a little over a quarter of the acreage irrigated was 
sprinkled every 3 or 4 days. An equal acreage was sprinkled 
every 7 or eight days. 
*** Grayland 87% and Long Beach 57% in 1955. After the bad frost 
of 1957, more acreage will probably be sprinkled. 
**** In Canada there is little irrigating. In Nova Scotia irrigation is 
similar to Massachusetts, but in Lulu Island sprinklers are being 
planned. 



Davis and Allan W. Stretch, both 
of department of plant pathology; 
Philip E. Marucci and Charles A. 
Doehlert, both of the Cranberry 
Blueberry Research laboratory, 
speaking on "How Can Insect 
Control Improve Quality?" and 
"How Can Pruning and Fertilizing 
Help?" respectively. 

New Jersey State Secretary of 
Agriculture Phillip Alampi spoke 
of the use of fVie "State Seal of 
Quality." 

Eugene H. Varney, department 
of plant pathology discussed 
"Botrytis Disease On Blueberries,*' 
and Lawrence C. Ranters of the 
same department made comments 
on new blueberry viruses. Asso- 
ciate Director Ordway Srarns dis- 
cussed blueberry reseai'ch needs. 
"Blueberry Stunt Inspection," was 
the topic by William Metterhouse 
cf New Jersey Department of 
Agriculture while William S. 
Haines, president of the Blueberry 
Variety Council told of varieties. 

OVERSEAS RESEARCH 
PROGRAM TO BENEFIT 
U. S. AGRICULTURE 

The U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture is embarking on a broad 
new program to obtain agricul- 
tural research in foreign countries. 

The marketing phase of the 
program is expected to benefit U. 
S. producers and processors by 
expanding t^.e mai'kets for their 
products. The research will seek 
new knowledge of quality evalua- 
tion of farm commodities, better 
understanding of the biochemical 
changes that occur in maturing 
fruits and vegetables, and new in- 
formation on market diseases, 
market insect pests, and consu- 
mer habits and preferences in 
foreign countries. 

This overseas research will be 
paid for with foreign currencies 
accruing in the various foreign 
countries to the account of the 
U. S. from sale of surplus agri- 
cultural commodities under Public 
Law 480. 

(Agricultureal Marketing) 






• READ CRANBERRIES 



Tfn 



RESUME OF WISCONSIN 

IN 1958 

By 

DR, GEORGE PELTIER 



WEATHER 



Little Snow — Spring Frosts 

Other than the "big" snow in 
mid-November 1957, little or no 
snow cover prevailed during the 
entire winter. December and Jan- 
uary were mild and dry while Feb- 
ruary was cold and dry, conditions 
favorable for sanding. March and 
April were quite mild, sufficiently 
so that in the southern area the 
winter flood was removed the first 
week in April. By mid-April, with 
temperatures 10 to 14 degrees 
above nonnal, all winter floods 
were removed. 

During the latter part of April 
and the fore part of May, a series 
of almost nightly frosts in the low 
twenties resulted in refloods up to 
mid-May. Some 18 frosts occurred 
during the month. June contin- 
ued cool the entire month with 
a total of 9 frosts in the Cranmoor 
area. Rainfall continued defi- 
cient during June in the southern 
regions, as contrasted with excess 
moisture in the north. The same 
situation carried on into July, de- 
laying full bloom for a week to 
ten days. 

Harvest Weather Good 

August had normal temperatures 
with clear, sunny days and cool 
was near normal for the first time 
in 1958 in the southern areas. Sep- 
tember was an ideal growing 
month. No killing frost occurred. 
Rainfall was aboA-^e normal and 
aided materially in the south in 
that enough water was available 
for harvest. October was a pleas- 
ant month for harvest. Only one 
day was lost due to inclement 
weather. Heat growth units (50 
degrees F.) totalled only 1810 for 
the entire growing season (May 
through September) as contrasted 
to the normal of 2143. 

Sections Vice Versa 

The weather for the 1958 season 
can be characterized as cool and 
dry in the southern areas in con- 
trast to cold and wet conditions in 



the north. For the most part, 
days were sunny and nights cool- 
er than usual. Water remained 
in short supply until harvest in 
the south. Pumpage from the 
Wisconsin River to the Cranmoor 
area was greater than in past 
years. The North, however, was 
plagued with excessive rainfall. 
Violent thunder storms, torna- 
does and hail were much more 
prevalent than usual in the state. 

Insects Light 

Insects reacted to the sub-nor- 
mal temperatures and appeared a 
week to ten days late. Leaf miners 
were observed on several bogs for 
the first time since 1951. Spittle 
bugs also showed up in consider- 
able numbers during June. Fire- 
worms (black-headed) caused 
slight damage. Only two hatches 
of the first brood were seen, ra- 
ther than the usual three. Second 
brood fireworms were scarce and 
no "brown-outs" were noted. On 
the whole, fruitworm infestations 
were light and late, especially the 
first two flights. The third flight 
did not appear until the third week 
in August, resulting in some wormy 
berries in early packs. 

Rot Loss Less 

Due to cool nights with heavy 
dews, black rot appeared in un- 
treated beds and especially in 
those with a heavy cover of weeds 
and grasses. Phomopsis rot, too, 
seemed to be more noticeable in 
bogs subjected to hail. End rot, 
fortunately, has been held to a 
minimum in storage due to a suc- 
cession of cool nights and low 
humidities. Loses from end rot 
will be much less than in former 
years. 

Unfortunately, weed control with 
chemicals was held in abeyance 
during the season because the F. 
D. A. has been extremely slow in 
approving of Dalapon and Amino- 
triazole. 



Good Bud For '59 

Owing to the cool, dry summer 
in the south, berries are somewhat 
smaller than normal, but the qual- 
ity is excellent. In fact, the best 
I have experienced in my 8 sea- 
sons in Wisconsin. Finally, fall 
budding appears to be very good, 
promising a good crop in 1959 
providing all factors are favorable. 

DRAINAGE PROBLEM 
AT GRAYLAND 

Pacific County Drainage Dis- 
trict, No. 1 and Grays Harbor 
District No. 1, both in the Gray- 
land, Washington cranberry area 
have made application for assist- 
ance under the Small Watershed 
Protection Act. Estimated total 
cost of the project was $640,000, 
of which approximately $174,000 
will have to be provided by other 
than Federal funds. Cranberry 
growers in the area have not yet 
voted on the project. 

Project consists in general for 
increasing the capacity of main 
north-south drainage ditches, and 
also provides for east-west lateral 
channels at one-half mile inter- 
vals, plus north-south feeder 
ditches, following the courses of 
present roads as much as possi- 
ble. 

A survey has estimated an an- 
nual damage from flooding and 
poor drainage as $50,000 due to 
fall storms which interfere with 
harvest and actual damage due 
to water-logged soils and the 
spread of weed seed to bogs from 
adjacent areas. 

On the basis of yields experi- 
enced this past year by growers, 
who had full frost protection, the 
loss was approximately 30,000 
barrels to frost. Had it been pos- 
sible to control run-off by control 
structure such as included in the 
plan a good proportion of this 
loss could have been avoided. 



SUBSCRIBE TO 
CRANBERRIES MAGAZINE 



Eleven 



WASHINGTON'S YIELD PER ACRE 
EDGES CLOSE TO WISCONSIN'S 

Continuinir a series of articles sponsored by Ihe Cranberry Institute, presenting 
statistical data about each of the major cranberry-producing areas. This fourth is 
about Washington, with comments by Frank O. Glenn, Jr., owner-manager of 
Cranguyma Farms. 

In 1883, six years before Washington became a state, a French 
gardener named Robert Chabot planted McFarlins, Native Jerseys and 
Cape Cod Beauties in Long Beach to give Washington cranbei'ry pro- 
duction a 2-year start over neighboring Oregon. 75 years later, Chabot's 
original plantings are marked only by overgrown dikes, but cultivated 
cranberry acreage in Washington now extends over 950 acres in the 
Long Beach and Grayland areas. Washington stands fourth place in 
barrels produced and runs a close second to Wisconsin in yield per acre. 
Grayland didn't make its start and the low yield in 1939 of 17.6 



in cranberry cultivation until 1912 
when Ed Benn made a historic 
purchase of 160 acres for $5.00 
an acre. He sold some of these 
cranberry tracts to six Finnish 
settlers and the Finnish influence 
is still very much in evidence on 
Grayland's well-kept plantations. 

Although vine cuttings were 
imported for cranberry cultivation, 
there were also native varieties 
growing wild in Washington, and 
the Long Beach Cranberry-Blue- 
berry Experiment Station has 
seedlings with a high production 
record which are a progeny of 
crosses made by Dr. D. J. Crowley. 

It is said that Lewis and Clark 
found the Indians gathering native 
cranberries and John Peter Paul 
had tried to develop the wild 
vines as early as 1869. 

However, even with this early 
start, cranberry production was 
slow in Washington until a land 
boom early in the 1900's boosted 
cranberry plantations in the Long 
Beach area up to 600 acres and 
Grayland began its development, 
gradually outdistancing Long 
Beach in harvested acreage. 

From the figui'es on the oppo- 
site page, the progress made since 
1950 can be noted. Acreage har- 
vested was expanded from 700 
acres to 950 and yield per acre 
went from a low of 47.1 in 1950 
to a record high of 92.5 in 1953. 
Average for the ten-year period 
is 66.9 barrels per acre, a close 
runner-up to Wisconsin whose 
average was 69.9 for the sams 
decade. 

As in the foregoing articles of 
this series, 1939 has been used as 
the 1007c reference point so that 
700 acres harvested equals 100% 



barrels per acre equals 100%. 
1957, then, shows a 36% increase 
in acres harvested and a 400% 
increase in yield per acre. 

Washington cranberry crops 
averaged 49,860 barrels in the 
period from 1947 to 1956 and 
jum.ped to 84,000 barrels in 1957. 
However, severe frost late last 
spring cut the 1958 crop to 57,000 
barrels. Some growers lost their 
entire crop, but others, who had 
sprinkling systems and used them, 
saved Washington's record with 
yields at high as 150 to 190 bar- 
rels per acre. 

Harvesting methods in Washing- 
ton ' vary from bog to bog with 
water picking predominant in 
Long Beach using the water reel, 
and Grayland picking dry, with 
vacuum and mechanical pickers. 
This last season, the general 
trend, however, has been towards 
mechanical pickers with the West- 
ern Picker in first place, and a 
new Furford Mechanical Picker, 
developed in the last few years, 
is gathering disciples. 

According to Survey of the 
Cranberry Industry in Washington 
in 1956 by F. B. Chandler, Wash- 
ington cranberry bogs are built on 
peat which had developed between 
sand bars or low sand dunes 
paralleling the shore line. Usually 
about 1% inches of this beach sand 
is spread over the graded peat 
before the vines are set and about 
% inch is used for resanding 
Because most of this beach sand 
is fine and packs dovni, drainage 
has been a problem. 

Protection from frost and sum- 
mer drying is accomplished by 
irrigation systems, and sprinklers 
cover about 68.6 per cent of Wash- 



ington's bearing acreage. 

McFarlins are predominant here, 
as in Oregon, with a few other 
varieties in the Long Beach sec- 
tion. 

Leading cranberry farm is 
Cranguyma in Long Beach, owned 
and operiited by Frank 0. Glenn, 
Jr. The plantation was originally 
developed by Guy C. Myers in 
1941 and its total holdings of 1300 
acres now has close to 100 acres 
in bearing. 

Manager Glenn works hand in 
hand with nature and even wel- 
comes stormy weather during har- 
vest time. "The rain helps fliood 
the bogs and the wind helps 
sweep up the berries," be says, 
v/hich can be true when harvest- 
ing is done by water with the 
water reel, or egg beater, to stir 
np the berries. 

But Mr. Glenn aids nature in 
every way and Cranguyma is the 
pride of the West Coast, with its 
narrow gauge railroad to quickly 
transport berries from "shore" to 
dryer. The miniature tracks take 
up little bog space and the vines 
grow right in between the tracks. 
The rolling stock consists of gaso- 
line-powered speeders, assorted 
flat cars and other equipment, and 
rs it moves down the track with 
its precious load of newly harvest- 
ed berries aboard, it leaves a 
spray of flood water in its wake. 

Cranguyma has one of the lar- 
gest sprinkling systems in the 
industry and water needs are tur- 
bine pumped from a 30-acre lake. 

Cranguyma is not a farm alone. 
it integrates all the processes 
necessary to bring cranberries to 
the American dinner table in many 
new and exciting forms. Sorting 
and screening operations are side 
by side with a processing plant 
and Cranguyma leads the industry 
in attractive and varied cranberry 
p,-ift packages. 

Mr. Glenn believes in a bright 
luture for cranberries and he's 
intent on helping them get there. 

ADVT. 

BLIND TO FAULTS 



Real friendship 
two people get so 
see through each 



comes when 
thick they can't 
other. 



Twelvf 



— w Acreage Harvested 



VieUI Per Acre 



250 

325 



WASHINGTON CRANBF.RRV CR.^P 

1030 - 1957 

A Comp::i-ison of Acreage I-ia L-vested 
aiiti "I'U'Id Per Aero 




Year 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 

1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 

1940 
1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 

1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 

1950 
1951 
1952 
1953 
1954 

1955 
1056 
1957 



Actual 

Acreage 

Harvested 

600 
600 
480 
500 
500 

550 
560 
600 
700 
700 

700 
700 
700 
680 
630 

700 
670 
620 
700 
700 

700 
700 
800 
800 
800 

800 
950 
950 



WASHINGTON CRANBERRY CROP 
1939 =: 100% 

% Acreage Actual 

Harvested Yield 

Per Acre 

86 5.8 

86 15.0 

69 15.6 

71 9.6 

71 36.6 

79 30.9 

SO 29.8 

86 30.8 

100 22.4 

100 17.6 

100 36.0 

100 51.4 

100 38.6 

97 35.3 

90 47.6 

100 52.0 

96 62.7 

89 77.4 

100 60.6 

100 57.1 

100 47 1 

100 82.1 

114 37.5 

114 92.5 

114 76.9 

114 59.4 

136 68.1 

136 88.0 



♦Figures from the United States Department of Agriculture 



% Yield 
Per Acre 

33 
85 
89 
55 
208 

176 
169 
175 
127 
100 

205 
292 
219 
201 
271 

296 
3S6 
440 

344 
324 

268 
466 
213 
525 
437 

337 

387 
600 

(ADV.) 

Thirteen 



Two Wisconsin Harvesters Have 
Worked For Fifth Generation 

Walter Beck And John Swetz 

With Bennett Marshes Since 
1907 And 1914 

In Wisconsin two cranberry 
harvesters have worked for five 
generations of Bennett marsh 
owners. One, Walter Beck, now 61 
of Vesper, started as a raker 
with the Bennetts in 1907; the 
other, John Swetz, 66, of Sigel be- 
gan work for the Bennetts in 1914. 
Marsh was being run at that 
time by A. C. Bennett, who had 
founded it in 1877. Both men 
were, obviously, young at the 
time. With a few years off for 
military service they have been 
at the Bennett marsh Rte. 3 out 
of Wisconsin Rapids ever since. 

A. C. was succeeded by his son 
"A. E." "Dad" Bennett, widelj 
known in later years as the "grand 
old man" of the Wisconsin in- 
dustry. "Dad" Bennett passed on 
the operations to his son Erman, 
who turned over the management 
to his two sons, Irving and Brad- 
ley. "Chuck" and "Brad," as they 
are called, have produced another 
generation of Bennetts for the 
marsh. The eldest great, great 

grandson of the founder is Chuck's 

six-year-old son, Michael, a first 
grade pupil at Cranmoor grade 
Echool, to carry on the Bennett 
cranberry traditions. 

Swetz recalls the early cran- 
berry harvests when he would 

come with his grandmother from 

their farm at Vesper by horse 

and wagon and then stay at the 

Bennett place for the rest of the 

harvest season. 

A highlight of the harvest was 

always a dance held each night 

in the warehouse. "We really had 

some hot times," declares Swetz, 

and Beck has added "We always 

vsed to consider cranberry har- 
vest as a vacation." 

Both these long-time workers 

for the Bennetts have farm work 

to do when not harvesting. Beck 

has a 40 acre farm in the town 

of Sigel, while Swetz has 100 

acres near Vesper. 

Although raking for many y»ar« 



both men 


moved into the ware- 


house and 


drying r-T'ew in about 


1935. 





It's no problem at all to find 
Teopls who seem to know every- 
thing not worth knowing. 



OCEAN SPRAY OFFICERS 

Directors of Ocean Spray of 
Canada, Ltd. have chosen officers 
for the year as follows: president, 
Thomas B. Darlington, New Jer- 
sey, vice-president, David E. Pryde, 
Washington, secretary - treasurer, 
Kenneth G. Garside; assistant sec- 
retary, John F. Harriott, and 
comptroller, Edward J. Gaughan, 
all Massachusetts. Garside is also 
general manager. 



The man who's afraid of being 
spoiled by success should get a job 
with the weather bureau. 




I eft to ri.:;lit are Beck, Irving Bennett. Michael, (who at six says he 
intends to continue the Bennett occupation of cranberry growing), 
Bradley Bennett and Beck. (Photo and article courtesy of Wisconsin 
Rapids. Dailey Tribune, Wisconsin Rapids.) 



Fourt««n 



t||i^—n^— •■—••—— n—al 



-H^ 




ISSUE OF JANUARY 1959 
VOL. 23 - NO, 9 






LOOKING TO THE NEW YEAR 

1958 WAS THE BEST YEAR for the 
industry as we all know, in a number of 
years. Most growers are heartened as to 
the outlook for 1959. NCA, which controls 
so much of the total production has an- 
nounced it expects fresh fruit sales will 
return not less than $1.00 per barrel than 
last year. On the other hand NCA has a 
storage of 17 percent more berries to 
dispose of (as of December) than the same 
date a year ago. 

NCA, adds, however, that stocks in 
trade hands, both wholesale and retail will 
be much smaller than the previous year 
as we go into 1959. 

But, one of the most important points, 
we believe and have mentioned before, is 
that apparently confidence in the trade 
has been restored. Distributors want to 
handle cranberries again, with the greatly- 
improved price stabilization (clean up in 
general) for the '58 crop. 

As pleasant as the season was price- 
wise, the number of growers who are 
wildy enthusiastic are small. Most realize 
that one swallow does not make a sum- 
mer. There is hard work ahead to be done. 

There are days to come when good 
headwork, capacity to think clearly and 
look far ahead will be vital. We are defi- 
nitely in the mechanical age now, in cran- 
berry work. The operation of equipment 
will require workmen of more skill than 
formerly. They will be in the class of semi- 
skilled or skilled workers. Cranberry grow- 
ers will be in direct competition with non- 
agricultural industry, for these men. Not 
only in finding able help, but also in wages. 

It seems obvious to anyone that wo 
can expend little lessening in costs on 
everything, including taxes. 

It has been costing money to grow 
cranberries — as in turning out any product. 
It appears the cost of doing business is 
still on the up and up. So savings must be 
in management, in becoming better and 
better growers ; in the new well-understood 
expression "more barrels to the acre." 

The small grower who does most of 
his own work has certain financial advan- 
tages, and presumably the larger opera- 
tions will have advantages in resources 
and ability to hire real cranberry crafts- 
men. We fear it may be the middle fellow 



« nil III! nil m nil rii UH— nil nii^lili m nil nil— on "n n" "« m— "•(» 

CLARENCE J. HALL 
Editor and Publisher 

EDITH S. HALL — Associate Editor 
Wareham, Massachusetts 
SUBSCRIPTIONS, $3.50 Per 
Year, FOREIGN, S4.50 



CORRESPONDENTS— ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 

Cranberry Consultant 

Wisconsin Rapids 

Wisconsin 



Washington 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash. 



Oregon 

GRANT SCOTT 
Coquille, Ore. 

Massachusetts 

]^R. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass. 



Ne^v Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E, MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 
Pemberton, New Jersey 



who must work his brain to the utmost 
advantage to stay in business. At least 
for a few years, until the cranberry indus- 



iry IS oil a really firm foundation agam. 



Fifteen 



Fresh From The Fields 

(Continued from Pag-e 6) 
summer of the previous year, 
when only 6.46 inches of rain feil 
during these four months. 

TLe winter months were severe- 
ly cold and snowy. January and 
March were considerably below 
normal in temperature and Feb- 
ruary and December were the 
second coldest recorded for these 
months. There were destructive 
and paralyzing snowfalls in Feb- 
ruary and March, including a rec- 
ord breaking 16 inches on March 
20 and 21 and 14 inches on Feb- 
ruary 16. The total snowfall for 
the year, 44 inches, was also a 
record iiigh. 

The weather was unusually cool 
throughout most of the year. Ten 
of the months were below normal 
in temperature and only April and 
July were slightly above normal. 
The average annual temperature 
was 51.7° as compared to the nor- 
mal of 54.3° F. 

'58 Brought Damages 

The 1958 weatlier pattern 
brought troubles to the blueberry 
growers. The concentration of 
rainy and cool spells during blos- 
som time caused great damage to 
this important south Jersey crop. 
Fungus diseases of the blossoms 
were induced and reduced activity 
of bees seriously decreased the 
pollenation. Excessive summer 
rains hampered harvesting, caused 
berries to become soft and watery, 
and interfered with important in- 
sect control operations. 

Nor were cranberry growers 
without weather woes. Spring- 
frosts caused appreciable damage 
in some areas and tlie deluges in 
August resulted in flooding of 
bogs which also caused consider- 
able loss. 

Late Massachusetts 

After one of the roughest 
Decembers on record, January 
g'ave a three day respite from 
cold weather and then winter 
began a deep-freeze operation 
with slashing, bitter winds that 
made major headline news for all 
New England. By the 7th and 
8th there were "ideal" winterkill 
conditions. Some had possibly al- 
ready been done a considerable 



amount was possible. 

Total departure from normal to 
that date was only 20 minus, but 
the fact this was not much more 
was due to warmness of the first 
three days. Lows as recorded at 
State Bog were 4 above, 3, 14, and 
18 on the 8th. Other spots report- 
ed much lower. The biting cold 
and gale winds, up to an esti- 
mated 55 miles per hour were re- 
ported at Cape Cod Canal. 

Precipitation to that date had 
been only .78 of an inch of rain or 
light snow before the bitter cold 
struck. 

Ice Sanding 

Frost in thebogs was up to 6 
inches while it was 10 or more on 
uplands. Ice on bogs was six in- 
ches or more. More growers than 
in December were ice sanding. 

Oxygen Deficiency 

No fear of oxygen deficiency 
was felt to the 8th, but should 
ice thicken, there come a snow 
deposit, (no snow remaining at 
that date) or there be cloudy 
weather this too, will become a 
problem. 



INSTITUTE MEETS 

Members of Cranberry Institute 
were scheduled to meet at National 
Cranbeny Association January 
13th with a meeting on the 14th. 
Included in the agenda was the 
annual election of directors. 

NO RUDDER 

People who have no definite 
aim in their life's v/ork are ac- 
tually lost before they start. 



L-^ llli 

i 

i 



m 



ii^ i;iS :i:^:.::i3>:>m:!U ^'53 :;:^ 




IMu' 

(I lower 

Who 

l>t'!(HltJs" 






B 



ADVERTISE M 
CRANBERRIES 



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Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin 



i 



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OUR mmmi 



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Whole Cranberry Sauce 
Spiced Cransweets 
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Cranberry Puree 

Cran-Puri 

Cran-Bake 



Cranberry-Strawberry Preserve Cranberry -Raspberry Preserve 
Cranberry-Cherry Preserve Crnnb?rry-Rhubarb Preserve 

Cranberry -Pineapple Preserve 

Cranberry Products, Inc. 

EAGLE RIVER, WISCONSIN 



Sixteen 



RVINfi THE WrSlOiflPGtirWIRI 



FOR SALE 

SEARLES JUMBO 
HOWES, McFARLIN 

Vines 
for delivery in 1959 

$125,00 Ton F.O.B. 



INTERESTED 

IN 

PURCHASING 

WISCONSIN 

CRANBERRY 

PROPERTIES 

*********** 

Vernon GoMsworthy 

EAGLE RIVER 
WISCONSIN 



"-■■Iff^T" -TT^ 



DANA MACHINE & SUPPLY Co. 
Wis. Rapids Wis. 

MrGS. of: 

SPRAY BOOMS 

GRASS CUPPERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS 

G«tsinger Retracto tooth 

pickers 

Dryers 

DISTR. of: 

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ROLLER CHAINS 

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CONVEYOR BELTING 

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Cranberries; too 



Cranberry growers have enjoyed 
two decades of successful use of 

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Insecticides, Fungicides and Herbicides 
Better Chemicals For Agriculture 

Orop-Saver Chemioai Company 

Spring Green, Wisconsin 



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and 

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Felker Bros. Mfg. Co. 

MARSHFtELD WISCONSIN 
Phone 230 - 231 



THIS SPACE IS GOI^ TO WASTE! 



It is available for those w^ho have an advertising 
message to the Wisconsin Industry 



We're selling cranoerries 




months out of the year! 



These are the ads that do the job! 



* * 

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Month after month we're promoting Ocean Spray Cranberry Sauce as "the 
natural mate for every meat"! Big, 4-color ads in LADIES' HOME JOURNAL, 
BETTER HOMES AND GARDENS, GOOD HOUSEKEEPING, SUNSET . . . 
plus hard-selling TV commercials . . . tell the story. They make people more 
cranberry-conscious . . . help build sales of fresh berries as well as processed 
. . . make cranberries a "natural" all year long! And — coming up — a big, 
special consumer promotion offering the new, free book "How to Save Money 
on Meat". . . plus a great big Easter promotion! As a topper- juice is being 
marketed in new areas through exciting, new ad campaigns! 

Yojr business GROWS when you grow and sell through NCA 

Kational Cranberry Association, Hanson, Massachusetts. Tel. Bryantville — CYpress 3-6311 



INC A $20,000,000 A YEAR INDUSTRY 






PE COD 

■W JERSEY 

nSCONSIN 

OREGON 

WASHINGTON 

CANADA 



"GIBBY" AND RUTH BEATON, Secretary and Treasurer of Cape 
Cranberry Growers Association. (Story page 7) (Florence Young Ph 



35 Cents 



FEBRUARY 19^ 



DIRECTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWERS 



Wcrcester Paper 
Box Corporation 

MEDFORD, MASS. 
Tel. MYstic 8-5305 

Manufacturers 

of 
Folding Cartons 

and 

Displays 



WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STODDARD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

Franconia Coal Co. 
— Inc. — 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. 39-R 



CRANBERRY 
GROWERS 

Choose and Use 

Niagara Dusts, Sprays and 

Dusters 

'^^^^^^'■^■^ 

Niagara Chemicai 
Division 

Food Machinery and 
Chemical Corporation 

Mlddieport, New York 

New England Plant and Warehouse 

Ayer, Mass. Tel. Spruce 2-2365 j 



Wareham Savings 

Bank 
Falmouth Branch 

Welcome Savings Account 

Loans on Real Estate 
Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 

PHONE WAREHAM 82 
KIMBALL 8-3000 



The National Bank of Wareha 



Conveniently located lor ecanberry Men 



m 



■ The ■ 

;CHARLES W. HARRIS! 
I Company i 

I 26 Somerset Ave g 

_ North Dighton, Mass. = 

I AMES I 

I Irrigation Systems | 

I Sprinklers | 
I I 

I \V eed killers = 

= Insecticides B 

I Fungicides ■ 

I from ^ 

^ Cal. Spray Chemical Company B 

i Dupont Company ■ 
* American Cyanimid Company 5 

EQUIPMENT 

HAYDEN 

- SEPARATOR - 
WAREHAM, MASS. 

Irrigation Systems 
PUMPS 

SEPARATORS - BLOWERS 
SCREENHOUSE EQUIPMENT 

DARLINGTON 
PICKING MACHINES 



Funds always available for sound loans 



Complete Banking Service 



Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. 



Extensive Experience in 
ELECTRICAL WORK 

ALFRED I'AFl'I 

At Screenhouses. Boss and 

Pumps Means Satisfaction 

WAREHAM MASS Tel. 626 



ADVERTISE 

in 

CRANBERRIES 



1958 Amazing 
Year In Jersey 

A brief report of the past year 
in New Jersey from Edward V. 
Lipman, area manager for Nation- 
al Cranberry Association, calls 
1958 one of the most amazing of 
seasons all things considered, for 
that state. There was an 88,000 
barrel crop in spite of "quite im- 
possible" conditions during the 
spring, particularly the severe 
frost on the night of June 6. 
This caught many growers un- 
prepared, came at a very inoppor- 
tune time, and was particularly 
unkind to many smaller growers, 
some of whom did not have ade- 
quate water. 

Then there was practically 



continual rain throughout the 
bloom period and in many cases 
the growers could not drain off 
in order to get a proper set. While 
the total crop has been placed at 
88,000, NCA received a total of 
77,000 from its membership in 
Jersey. 

The report is that it seems cer- 
tain New Jersey will be in the 
cranberry business for many years 
although there will be fewer grow- 
ers. Growers' operations and pro- 
duction on some bogs are described 
as "out of this world." 

LONG BEACH RAINFALL 
NEARLY 7 FEET IN '58 

Rainfall during 1958 totalled, 
as measured at Cranguyma Farms, 
Long Beach Washington just 



BEN FRANKLIN 



was one of the most forward-looking men of his day. 

He would be amazed at the progress which has been 
made in the development of - - 

ELECTRICITY 

Make good use of it in your bog work — in your 
home. 



Plymouth County Electric Co. 



WAREHAM 
TEL. 200 



PLYMOUTH 

TEL. 1300 



SHARON BOX COMPANY, Inc. 

ESTABLISHED 1856 

SHARON, MASSACHUSETTS 

We Will Buy Your White Pine Logs, 

Either Standing or Cut 

* Highest Prices Paid * 

Sawmill located at North Carver, Mass. Stop 
in at North Carver, or Phone Sharon, Sunset 4-2012 



short of seven feet, or 82.56 in- 
ches. There was a fall during 
December of 12.02 inches. Rain- 
fall at Seaview, nearby on the 
Peninsula showed 78.36 inches for 
the twelve month and 10.31 for 
December. 

Temperatures for the year 
ranged from a minimum of 24 
degrees on November 16th to a 
maximum of 88 degrees on July 
27 and 28. 

Heaviest month of I'ainfall was 
November with 14.45 seaview. 
Spring and summer months were 
light in precipitation, while these 
were record high months in the 
East. 

Total rainfall during 1957 wa.s 
67.11 inches. 

ANNUAL JERSEY MEETING 
FEBRUARY 5 

American Cranberry Growers 
Association was scheduled to 
meet at Fenwick Hall, Pember- 
ton, New Jersey, Feb. 5. This 
was the annual meeting with 
election of officers. 

Subjects to be discussed in- 
cluded "Status of Some Equip- 
ment Proposed for Mowing of 
Weeds Under Water," "Chemical 
Control in Ditches," "A Review of 
Cranberry Rot Control in 1957- 
1958," "Control of Cranberry In- 
sects," reports of New Jei'sey 
State Agricultural Convention, 
tax committee, Elizabeth C. White 
Research Fund and water and 
forestry committee. 



SUBSCRIBE TO 
CRANBERRIES MAGAZINE 



CRANBERRY PICKING 
BOXES 

Shooks, or Nailed 

Let me repair your broken 

boxes — or repair them ysunetf. 

Stock Always on Hatt4 

F. H. COLE 

Tel. Union 6-33S0 
North Oanrer, Mats, 



One 



Wisconsin Meet 
Discusses Many 
Pertinent Matters 

Albert Amundson Elected 
Pres. of" State Growers 
Association for 1959 

The Toi'd annual meeting of the 
Wisconsin Cranberry Growers 
Ass'n. was held Saturday, Janu- 
ary 31, 1951) in the auditorium 
of the Wood County Courthouse, 
Wisconsin Rapids. 

The meeting was called to order 
at 1:15 P. M. by Pres. Marvin 
Hewitt. He welcomed seventy 
growers and guests and expressed 
appreciation of the turnout in 
view of the very cold weather. 
In his remarks to the group he 
expressed his gratitude for the 
heljD he received from the mem- 
bers in running his office and 
called for the membership to bet- 
ter support their organization 
and to take more interest in its 
work. He asked for better re- 
sponse in paying dues and frosL 
warning assessments. Even 
though he was stepping down he 
pledged he would continue to 
actively take part in Association 
activities. 

Sorensen 

Leo Sorensen, secretary read 
the minutes of the August sum- 
mer meeting and also gave a 
financial report of the Associa- 
tion. He briefly outlined the work 
of the association the past year, re- 
viewed the growing season and 
gave an outlook for the coming- 
year. He reported that he felt 
the two major technical advances 
made in the tield last year were 
the encouraging results and data 
supplied by the use of the net 
ladiometers and the catching of 
fruitworm and tireworm millers in 
the black light traps. 

Wisconsin Film To Paris 

The new colored cranberry film 
on the Wisconsin Cranberry In- 
dustry which was made by the 
Dept. of Agricultural Journalism 
of the University of Wisconsin 
was shown by George Klingbeil, 
Ext. Specialist, Smali Fruits, 
Dept. of Horticulture, University 
of Wisconsin. The film about 
fifteen minutes in length was well 
(Continued on Page IG) 



C. & L. EQUIPMENT CO. 

191 LEONARD STREET ACUSHMET, MASS. 

Cranberry Bog Service 

PRUNING FERTILIZING 

RAKING WEED TRIMMING 

Machinery Sales 

PRUNERS POWER WHEELBARROWS 

RAKES WEED TRIMMERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS - Large & Small 



For Further Enformation Call . . . 

F. P. CRANDON H. C. LEONARD 

Rockwell 3-5526 Wyman 3-4332 

C. J. TRIPP 

Wyman 4-4601 




FOR PREFABRICATED FLUMES 

SEE 

RUSSELL A. TRUFANT 

HYDRAULIC CONSULTANT 

PREFABRICATED FLUMES BOG RAILROADS 

UNION 6-3696 North Carver, Mass. 



Two 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Notes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 




Some Winterkill 

A highly acceptable respite in 
weather conditions was enjoyed 
after the first week in January. 
Temperatures failed to drop be- 
low zero, snowfall has been neg- 
ligible, and while Januaiy was 
a cold month, averaging approxi- 
mately half a degree per day be- 
low normal, it was a far cry from 
the frigid weather experienced 
in December. However, the 
severity of the cold spell en- 
countered January 5-7 will not 
soon be forgotten when temper- 
atures averaged well below freez- 
ing and gale winds lashed the en- 
tire area. George Rounseville 
and "Joe" Kelley have examined 
a number of bogs exposed to these 
winter-killing conditions and re- 
port that there is some damage 
as evidenced by an "off -color" ap- 
pearance of the vines, plus some 
leaf drop. The extent of the 
damage will not be known until 
the vines begin to "green up" this 
spring. The comment has been 
made by some experienced grow- 
ers that if exposed bogs were not 
damaged during the above period, 
the use of water during the winter 
months is highly questionable. 
Time will tell. 

Oxygen Deficiency 

Apparently oxygen deficiency 
conditions have not become crit- 
ical on an extensive acreage. We 
base this point on the numerous 
tests made by Richard Kiernan of 
the A. D. Makepeace Company, 
who has collected considerable in- 
formation on this subject during 
the winter months. He has found 
that the oxygen content on some 
flooded bogs has dropped to a 
critical point but the water was 
immediately removed to correct 
the problem. The acreage in- 
volved has been limited. We ap- 



preciate the information received 
from Mr. Kiernan. 

Vine Pulling 

There is another point regard- 
ing winter difficultie.s that cannot 
be appraised at this time. We 
are referi'ing to "vine-pullinii,'" 
damage that occurs when vines are 
frozen into the ice and the ice 
shifts its position during periods 
of thaws and heavy rains. There 
is some evidence that this type of 
damage has occurred in January 
and early February, but again 
we will have to wait until spring 
to determine the extent of such 
injury. 

Charts in March 

The cranberry insect, disease 
and weed control chai'ts have been 
revised and are now being printed. 
The county agents will mail tho 
new charts to growers in March, 
acompanied by a circular letter 
outlining the major revisions and 
items for study. The experience 
and observations of growers who 
assisted with this work was a tre- 
mendous help as usual. We will 
discuss the major revisions in these 
charts in the March issue of Cran- 
berries. Growers are reminded 
that plans did not call for a re- 
vision of the fertilizer chart, so 
their 1958 copy should be retained 
There is a limited number of fer- 
tilizer charts available at the 
county agents' offices or at the 
Cranberry Experiment Station for 
those who have misplaced their 
copy. 

Amino — No Change 

No approval has been received 
for the use of Amino Triazole 
during the pre-bloom period, which 
of course is a disappointment. 
Should approval be granted, grow- 
ers can be assured that they will 
be immediately notified. 



Important 

A pesticide a^d fertilizer qiie^- 
tionaire has been prepared by the 
writer with the full cooperation 
f 1 the station's staff and has been 
mailed to growers through the 
county agents' offices. We would 
like to have growers evaluate 
their reactions to present recom- 
mendations and learn, for example, 
what insects and weeds gave grow- 
ers particular trouble in 1958. 
It will require only a very few 
minute's time to fill out the ques- 
tionaire and return it in the ad- 
dressed envelope provided for this 
junpose. No postage is required. 
The infoi-mation collected will be 
extremely useful to the station's 
staT, the county agents, and ul- 
timately to growers. We hope to 
have a summary of the results of 
this survey for the March cran- 
berry club meetings. 

Conservation 

Growers are reminded of the 
assistance they may receive under 
the 1959 Agricultural Conservation 
Program. Financial and techni- 
cal assistance is available for the 
construction of ditches, dikes, 
drainage systems, and certain 
forestry practices. The Soil Con- 
servation technicians. Agricultur- 
al Conservation Program field men, 
Forestry Service personnel, Farm 
Credit representatives, and county 
agricultural agents are working as 
a team to help growers in these 
cost sharing programs. The dead- 
line for enrolling is March 1st. 



FOR SALE 

Six Acre Cranberry Bog 

Near Harwich Center 
1958 Crop — 399 Barrels 
Unfailing Water Supply 

Price $14,000 

With the industry on the 
vipswing, bog should pay 
for itself in less than five 
years. 

Write or Phone Owner 



LDEN C. Brett 

96 Fletcher Rd. 

Belmont, Mass. 

iVanhoe 4-5351 



Thre« 




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curtain of water. 

This new Frost Control Rainer has Buckner's 
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DEALER 

INQUIRIES 

INVETED 



We suggest that those interested 
consult their local county conser- 
vation committee or their county 
agricultural agent for further de- 
tails. 

Long Range Planning 

A new approach in program 
planning occurred at the State 
Bog on February 5th when a 
group of growers, marketing 
representatives, county agents, 
and extension specialists met 
with the station staff to discuss 
long-range planning. This was a 
follow-up of the State Cranberry 
Advisory Committee meeting held 
in early December. The discussion 
focussed on these major points; 
namely, what our state's average 
production might be in five years, 
acreage trends, mechanization re- 
quired to achieve this production, 
major changes in bog manage 
ment that should be considered, 
and even returns that growers 
might expect for their efforts. 
The discussion was most stimu ■ 
lating, many viewpoints were 
expressed, and a healthy exchange 
of ideas was manifest. This was 
only a beginning but a step in 
the right direction if our industry 
is to make the necessary adjust- 
ments and continue to prosper in 
the years ahead. 

LATE MASSACHUSETTS 

February started out very cold 
Groundhog Day, February 2, 
brought an even zero at State 
Bog in the shelter. Other home 
thermometers ranged from zero to 
five below. It was called by many, 
with its piercing winds the cold- 
est day of the winter. Certainly 
the hog saw his shadow cast by 
the sun in a cloudless sky and re- 
turned to his hole for four more 
weeks. 

With the exception of two or 
three warm days temperature'^ 
continued low, minus 25 degrees to 
the 12th with a reading of 4 above 
on that day. Departure for the 
year was minus 42. Normal pre- 
cipitation for February is 3.67, 
while records at State Bog 
showed total precipitation of 2.66 
of which 3.50 was snow. 



READ CRANBERRIES 



5*»ur 





Issue of February 1959 - Vol. 23 No.lO 

Publiihed monthly at The Courier Print Shop, Main St., Wareham. Massachusptts. Subscription $3.50 per year. 

Kntared ai ■•cond-clas* matter January 26, 1943, at the poBt-office at Wareham, MaBsachusett*. under the Act of March 3. H7i 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



MASSACHUSETTS 



First of January Bitter 

Following the bitter cold of the 
first week or so of January, after 
a December which has been aptly 
described as "murderous", temper- 
atures continued on the very cold 
side until about the 19th. Minus 
degrees had averaged about two 
a day to that point. There had 
been bitter winds at many times. 
"January Thaw" 
Then began what in the old 
days would be called "January 
thaw". There was practically no 
snow to thaw, but plenty of both 
salt and fresh water ice. A mixed 
storm of rain and snow, but most- 
ly rain from the 20th up to the 
22nd, brought .47th inch but there 
were days of heavy fog, and this 
with "tropical" air brought a high 
of 48 degrees on the 21st and 51 
on the 22nd as recorded at State 
Bog. Frost was coming out of 
the ground and conditions became 
extremely muddy. By the 22nd 
temperature departure was minus 
22 or one a day for month to date. 
Vine Condition 
There was probably no really 
important winter-kill during the 
month, but there was some. How 
much, will be determined when 
the water is off and vines begin 
to green. There has been consid- 
erable vine damage through t? 
pulling and haulings of ice and 
water. 

A great deal of sanding has 
■been accomplished by growers this 
winter, a fair portion on ice. 
Sanding has been more extensive 
than in several years, due probably 
to a revival of interest with the 
'better financial condition of th 
grower, and prospects for the near 
future. 



Bog Buggies 

Probably for the same reason 
there is a flurry of activity of 
growers working on home-made 
bog buggies. These are of various 
types and for a variety of bog 
uses. 

Water Supplies 

There has not been much pre- 
cipitation in the past 3 months 
and this is beginning to cause a 
little fore-looking worry. This 
is, "will there be adequate 
water supplies for the spring frost 
season?" 

January Not Too Tough 

Actually January when it ran 
out was not a cold month as a 
whole, but nearly normal — 17 de- 
grees or less than one degree a 
day colder for the 31 days. Pre- 
cipitation was only 2.13" of which 
three inches was snow. Greater 
part of the month saw no snow 



cover. 
2.95. 



Normal precipitation is 



NEW JERS EY 

New Jersey cranberry bogs are 
being subjected to a very frigid 
winter. Luckily, the severity, 
which produced near critical con- 
ditions with ice as tliick as seven 
inches, has been tempered by oc- 
casional mild periods during which 
a large portion of most bogs have 
opened up. There has been open 
water for three short periods. 
The largest snowfall, 3.5 inches 
on January 26 and 27, fell on bogs 
which were almost completely 
open. Thus no dangerous snow-ice 
conditions have prevailed so far 
this season. 

Jan. Not Cold As Dec. 

January was not as abnormally 
cold as December, but the aver- 




R. F. MORSE & SON 

West Wareham, Mass., Phone 1553-R 

Cranberry Growers Agent For 

Eastern States Farmers' Excliasige 

Insecticides - Fertilizers - Fungicides 

Bog Service and Supplies 
Agent for Wiggins Airways 

Helicopter Spray and Dust Service 
DEPENDABLE ECONOMICAL SERVICE 



Five 



age temperature of 31.6°F. was 
still 2.3 degrees colder than the 
norm. An unusual warm spell on 
January 21 and 22, when the ther- 
mometer soared to 63 and 58 de- 
grees, did much to alleviate con- 
ditions. 

Dry Winter 

It has been quite a dry winter 
with both December and January 
being considerably on the short 
side. January's precipitation to- 
taled only 2.16 inches ( only 4 
inches of snow). This added to 
December's deficit gives a short- 
age of almost 3 inches. 
Indication 

An indication of what might 
have been had it not been for the 
lucky ice break-ups is shown in 
oxygen data taken from two 
sheltered coves. In these two 
small "freak" areas, where the ice 
did not break up, oxygen content 
was 0.96 and 2.40 c.c. per liter on 
January 28 

WISCONSIN 

Real Winter 

The big news in Wisconsin con- 
tinues to be about the real old- 
fashioned winter we ai-e experi- 
encing. During January eighteen 
below zero marks were recorded 
in Wisconsin Rapids, which makes 
a total of 35 below zero mai'ks 
this winter. These marks are 
about twenty five percent above 
the normal count. For the past 
five years the average of below 
zero days in February has been 
ten so with an extended forecast 
for below normal in temperature 
and precipitation for February, a 
continued cold winter can be ex- 
pected. 

January averaged nine degrees 
below normal of 15.1 and only 
.55 inches of precipitation of a 
normal 1.05 inches. The ground 
water table remains 1.80 feet be- 
low normal. February averages 
are 17.1 degrees temperature and 
1.07 inches of precipitation. 
Snow Deep 

Snow has been on the ground 
in the cranberry areas of the 
state since the last week in 
November. At the end of Janu- 
ary the entire state was "now 
covered with the southeastern part 
of the state having the most. In 



that area snow measured from 12- 
16 inches, in the far north 12 
inches and in the central and west 
central from three to five inches. 
Little snow melted during the 
month due to the frigid tempera- 
tures. The mercury climbed to 
just above freezing for very short 
times on Jan. 12, 13 and 14th. The 

coldest temperatures were record- 
ed the night of Jan. 31 when the 
mercury dipped to minus thirty 



six degrees in the north and 
minus 31 at Wisconsin Rapids. 
Total minus degree days approxi- 
mated three hundred in the cran- 
berry areas. 

Deep Frost Hampers Sanding 

Cold weather and deep frost in 
the pits continued to hamper 
sanding operations. Over two feet 
of frost was reported in the pits 
and the depth of ice in the reser- 
( Continued on Page 20) 



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Six 



Teamwork Enables Ruth and *'Gihhy" 
Beaton to Greatly Aid Mass, Industry 

Wareham Couple, are Treasurer and Secretary 

of Cape Cod Cranberry Growers* Association, 
Respectively and also Carry On Many Other 
Duties; Are Amazingly Active In Civic and 
Varied Groups. 

by 
Clarence J. Hall 
Originally this article was to be a feature about Mrs. Ruth Beaton, 
Treasurer of the Cape Cod Cranberry Growers' Association since August 
1951. Then it turned out to be impossible to leave out her husband,. 
Gilbert T. Beaton, Secretary of the Association since 1947. "Gibby" is 
known for his various cranberry activities and as a good grower through- 
out Massachusetts and beyond his native State. 

The wonder is how tJ?is pair manage the time to do so much work 
in cranberries and to take part in so many civic, church and other 
activities. Gibby says, "We work together as a team and we play as 
a team." 



As a team they are doing a fine 
job for the Growers' Association, 
and in other cranberry affairs. A 
glance at past history shows that 
in most state cranberry associa- 
tions, and in many other organiza- 
tions as well, it is the secretary 
and treasurer who keep organiza- 
tions together. The persons occu- 
pying these positions usually serve 
a number of years, while presi- 
dents, vice-presidents and directors 
change frequently. 

Ruth 

Let's consider attractive, dark- 
haired Ruth first. Born in Middle- 
boro (an important cranberry pro- 
ducing town), within sight of a 
large cranberry bog, she screened 
berries when in "aer teens. Follow- 
ing her graduation from Memorial 
High School in Middleboro, she 
was graduated from the Executive 
Secretarial curriculum of Burdett 
College in Boston, which has serv- 
ed her in good stead in her later 
cranberry and other work. 

She was employed by t^e Fred- 
erick S. Weston Insurance office, 
Middleboro, as secretary for sev- 
eral years prior to and following 
her marriage in 1935. Previous to 
her college studies she had worked 
summers while in high school in 
the office of the Middleboro Ga- 
zette, the town weekly. 

She is an active member of the 
Wareham Monday Club serving as 
the present second vice-president 
and program chairman of this ma- 
jor social group. She is a former 
Brownie leader, former member 
pf the Wareham Girl Scout com- 



mittee and its chairman for four 
years. She is also a member of 
the Tobey Hospital Guild and its 
present Civil Defense Chairman. 
Also Housewife 
In addition to all the foregoing 
activities Mrs. Beaton is a touse- 
wife with all that entails. Ruth 
has a valued collection of demi- 
tasse cups, many of them antiques. 



which is her hobby. In their home 
on Marion Road, Ruth and Gibby 
have brought up two daughters: 
Marilyn, who is now attending La- 
sell Junior College in Aubui-ndale, 
Massachusetts; and Donna, a 
Freshman on the honor roll at 
Wareham High School. 

"Gibby" is Secretary of the 
Cape Cod Cranberry Growers' As- 
sociation and Ruth, its Treasurer, 
but often their work intertwines, 
and it is no secret that Ruth ac- 
complishes much of the "paper 
work" for both. She succeeded the 
former Miss Thelma Laukka, sec- 
retary at the Cranberry Experi- 
ment Station. Naturally, as treas- 
urer she keeps the financial re- 
cords. An important item of her 
duties is sending out association 
meeting notices, and more time 
consuming, is the secretarial work 
for the association's frost warning 
service, of which "Dick" Beattie 
is chairman. She does the billings 
and collection of fees for frost 
subscribers, keeps the records, and 
sends information and data to the 
seven distributors throughout 




Mrs. i^eaion is shown at a task in 
out cranberry notes. 



which she spends many hours, typing 

(Young Photo) 



Seven 



southeastern Massachusetts who 
"warn" growers. This is no simple 
task and st^e has frequently been 
given thanks for her efficient work 
by Beattie and the growers. 

The couple are members of West 
Wareham Grange, the First Con- 
gregational Church in Wareham, 
belonging also to the Mr. and Mrs. 
Club, and the Kittansett Club of 
Marion, recognized as one of the 
finest golf courses in the country 
and at which The Walker Cup 
Matches were played in 1953. 

Although they pride themselves 
on their "team" work there is com- 
petition in golfing — but neither 
would admit who was the most 
consistent low scorer. 
Gibby 

Now, as to "Gibby". He was 
born to cranberries and cranberries 
have been his occupation all his 
life. 

"Gibby", one of five children, 
was born actually in Rochester 
township, but in a section most 
commonly known as West Ware- 
ham, a region of many bogs. He 
is the son of Peter G. Beaton, and 
the late Clara Gault Beaton, the 
former a grower for about 58 
years. 



Peter was born in Prince Ed- 
ward Island and left there as a 
young lad and lived in West Ware- 
ham. He graduated from Tabor 
Academy in Marion where he met 
Clara Gault, whom he later mar- 
ried. Mr. Beaton worked for sev- 
eral years at the Tremont Iron 
Works, during which time he was 
building his own bogs, and when 
his holdings reached approximately 
45 acres, he devoted his full time 
to them. 

Sound Early Training 

"Gibby" v/a: president of his 
senior class at Wareham High and 
during three summers he worked 
at tl>.e Massachusetts Experiment 
Station under the supervision of 
the late Dr. Henry J. Franklin. 
There could scarcely be better basic 
training than that. While attend- 
ing high school, he wrote a thesis 
on cranberry bog insects and speci- 
mens were preserved in formalde- 
hyde and others were mounted; 
liese are still on display at the 
Wareham High School chemistry 
lab. After graduating from high 
school he attended the University 
of Massachusetts where he was a 
member of the Student Council. 

His activities outside the world 



of cranberries include currently 
serving as the vice-chairman of 
the Wareham School Committee of 
whic h he has been a member for 
tlie past eight years; and a form- 
er member and chairman of the 
Finance Committee, both civic mat- 
ters of importance in town affairs. 
Gibby was the instigator in the 
formation of the Wareham Little 
League, being elected as its first 
president and serving in that capa- 
city for three years. He is a mem- 
ber of Social Harmony Lodge, A.F. 
& A.M., Wareham, and has attain- 
ed the 32 degree. He is also active 
in the Community Associates, a 
local organization for civic better- 
ment. He lias held the office of 
president of the Southeastern 
Massachusetts Blueberry Growers' 
Association, a group of some 40 
or 50 members. 

Mr. Beaton's interest extends 
beyond cranberries for he has serv- 
ed as a member of the Board of 
Trustees Plymouth County Aid to 
Agriculture, and presently is a 
director of the Plymouth County 
Farm Bureau. 

Cranberry Positions 

To get to his official cranberry 
positions — as well as being secre- 




Photo, taken about 1911 shows Thomas Gault starting for the bog for a day*s picking. Mr. GauU 
is driving, beside liim the small boy is Elliott and the infant is "Gibby." 

Eight 



tary of the Cape Association, he 1b 
secretary and treasurer of the 
Southeastern Massachusetts Cran- 
berry Club, which meets at Ro- 
chester and is the largesft of the 
four state groups. 

The Marketing Committee, of 
which Gibby is also secretary, has 
been active in working to obtain a 
Marketing Order. Several trips 
have been made to Washington, 
where he testified before Congres- 
sional committees in behalf of 
those in the industry w^o desired 
such an order. Mr. Beaton feels 
very confident that with good 
sound marketing the cranberry in- 
dustry will once again be a profi- 
able enterprise to be engaged in. 

Numerous cranberry-grower dis- 
cussion panels have been held lo- 
cally where Mr. Beaton has spoken 
on many subjects pertaining to 
cranberries. His views are always 
listened to with respect. Gibby 
is a man who has tlae knowledge 
of the cultural side of cranberry 
growing as well as the marketing 
end, which enables him to present 
a rounded picture of the cran- 
berry industry. 

Gilbert has now been with Na- 
tional Cranberry Association for 
tile past three years, working at 
the Hanson office, currently his 
. title being assistant sales manager 
fresh fruit. Lester F. Haines is 
Chicago sales manager. For one 
year he was employed as Eastern 
manager for Eatmor Cranberries 
with an office in Plymouth. Pre- 
viously he had been with Beaton's 
Distributing Agency serving as its 
vice-president and the J. J. Beaton 
Company in Wareham for twenty- 
five years as Superintendent of 
bog management and the packing 
plant at South Wareham. He is a 
nephew of the late John J. Beaton, 
recognized as one of the most 
powerful and largest growers in 
Massachusetts. Visits have been 
made to every cranberry-growing 
area, including Nova Scotia, with 
the exception of the West Coast. 
He attended his first fruit grow- 
ers' convention in 1933. 

Grower 

Gibby is a cranberry grower in 
his own right. With Vs practical 
background in the business he 
knows cranberry cultivation from, 
peat in the bog bottom to the vines 



on the top and down to the bottom 
of the ditches, cranberry weather, 
frost and its control, irrigation, 
and the value of many of t^e varie- 
ties. His personal interest in bog 
property are first, the Piney Wood 
bog at the Cai-ver-Plymouth bound- 
ary, which is owned jointly with his 
brother, Elliott, who is the pro- 
prietor of a grocei-y business, and 
his brother, Kennetli, who manages 
a cranberry growers' service busi- 
ness. This growers' service com- 
pany, which, incidently, is a part- 
nership between Kenny and Gibby, 
takes charge of several other grow- 
ers property by sweeping, dusting 
and spraying for insects as well 
as harvesting. The acreage being 
serviced is approximately 1000 
acres. 

Piney Wood property has an ex- 
cellent water supply with a series 
of three reservoirs connected by 
canals witii a pump driven by a 50 
horsepower electric motor enabling 
them to take all of the water that 
is used on the property and pump 
it back into the reservoirs. 
Blueberries 

Second is the K-G (Kenneth and 
Gilbert as might be surmised) lo- 
cated on Route 28, Wareham, orig- 
inally built by the late Norman 
Hudson. Here again, Ruth keeps 
the accounts for tlie two men. Ad- 
joining this bog is a cultivated 
blueberry patch with the three 



main varieties being grown — Rub- 
els, Pioneer and Jerseys. Gibby 
started raising blueberry plants 
from cuttings in 1933 and feels 
very confident that blueberries in 
suitable land adjoining cranberry 
property in Massachusetts would 
be a source of additional revenue 
to the cranberry grower. 

The third property is the "Three 
B" owned by "Kenny", "Gibby" 
and tiaeir father, Peter. This owner- 
ship is situated in both Wareham 
and Falmouth. The Wareham pro- 
perty was formerly owned and 
built before 1900 by their grand- 
father, the late Thomas Gault. The 
varieties grown here are Early 
Blacks and Howes. 

Besides putting in many licks 
at golf wlienever leisure warrants, 
Gibby likes to hunt and fish. He 
is the secretary and treasurer of 
the Red Cedar Fox Club (which 
probably involves more bookkeep- 
ing for Ruth). 

It is amazing how "Gibby" and 
Ruth find the time to engage in 
so many activities of such varied 
nature. 

We've all heard of the saying, 
"Busy as a Cranberry Merchant," 
and that is true of Gibby and 
Ruth. This efficient "team" seems 
also to prove the old adage that 
goes more or less, "that to keep 
youthful and happy is to keep 
busy." 



A Good Flume Is Your Insurance 
For A Good Crop 

USE ALL HEART REDWOOD 

We have a good stock of 
All Heart Timbers 

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Planking - Square Edged or Matched 

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LET US ESTIMATE YOUR FLUME AND 
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MIDDLEBORO ROAD 



EAST FREETOWN, MASS. 



Nine 




At hand picking on the bog: Thomas Gault, Gibb y's grandfather, Alice Crane, Gibby's mother, Clara 
(Gault) Beaton and his grandmother Mrs. Thomas Gault. 



Mass. CJybs G 
Views Of Last 
Year And Of '59 

Both Culture and Marketing 
Angles Are Discussed 

Looking back over 1958 and to 
1959 and the future could prop- 
erly be termed the agenda of Jan- 
uary Massachusetts club meet- 
ings (13th, Upper Cape; 14th, 
Lower Cape; 20th, Southeastern 
and South Shore.) That these 
were largely attended may at- 
test to a revival of industry, hope 
foi- much improved financial re- 
turns in the near future, and more 
than a measure of satisfaction in 
returns that the past year brought. 

Principal speakers were Am- 
brose E. Stevens, general man- 
ager of NCA and its director of 
adivertising and promotion, H. 
Drew Flegal and Dr. C. E. Cro.ss, 
director of Massachusetts Cran- 
berry Experiment Station. 

Dr. Cross' statement, that Mass- 
achusetts crop prospects for 1959 
seemed at the moment reason- 



ably good, and might be expected 
to be about the Massachusetts' 
10-year average of 530,000 bar- 
rels, that he did not believe the 
early January winter-kill condi- 
tions may have been too serious 
and he hoped the remainder of the 
winter might be more moderate 
were reassuring. (The text of 
his address appears elsewhere in 
this issue.) 

Mr. Stevens in a factual talk, 
after saying he now felt more fa- 
miliar with cranberry growers and 
the cranberry industry, made 
some statements which were re- 
assuring; others perhaps less so. 
One of the latter was that the 
1958 pool could probably not be 
closed until about December 1, of 
this year, when the la.st berry was 
.p;one and the total amount per 
banel to growers could be deter- 
mined. This return, it was reas- 
onable to expect would be com- 
parable to the 1957 pool figure, 
he said. 

NCA, he said, from a financial 
angle, is stronger than in a num- 
ber of years. 

NCA management under the 



board of directors is now working 
on a 5-year plan for the utmost 
possible efficiency all along the 
line. 

Improvements, especially in the 
handling of empty boxes should 
be made at both the Hanson and 
Onset plants. A new press is 
needed and needed badly. Addit- 
ional freezing space is also called 
for, also additional warehouse 
space. NCA, it must be noted, is 
handling a currently increasing 
proportion of the crop. Those 
and other improvements could ob- 
viously not all be done at once, 
he said, but it was hoped to make 
Ocean Spray processing operations 
second to no plant doing the 
would decrease costs, 
same type of operations. This 

He said the accounting system 
was now going like "clock-work", 
the machines were being fed ad- 
ditional "copy" and a saving in 
time, thei-efore money, was being 
achieved. 

"In the head of our research, 
"Bill" Hampton, we have a real 
pro. He could be working on 30 
or more projects, but he is being 



Teu 



imited to two or three to which 
le can give undivided attention. 
Ne want to improve our whole 
auce. We now have a business 
pproach to our research." 

Mr. Stevens said NCA as a farm- 
?rs' cooperative, could raise mon- 
ey for increased capacity in only 
one way, that being through the 
retain of its members. The fair- 
est proportion seems to be 50 
cents per barrel. He compliment- 
ed growers in general in consis- 
tently producing more berries 
from less acreage. He said he 
\\:as convinced there was a much 
better feeling in the trade and 
referred to a card sent out Friday 
of each week of the fresh fruit 
season to Ocean Spray brokers, 
and trade, and also to competitive 
jcranberry distributors. This list- 
ed prices, varieties available and 
gave a 10-day guarantee on the 
F. 0. B. price of NCA fruit. 

Flegal 

Mr. Flegal, making his first ap- 
pearance before Massachusetts 
clubs clearly explained the NCA 
advertising plans and what re- 
search has revealed about various 
phases of marketing He told 
how the slogan that cranberries 
are the "natural mate for every 
meat", should be the best adver- 
tising idea to sell more cranberries. 

He pointed out that meat is 
eaten almost every day in the 
year by most people and if they 
are given the idea that cranberries 
add to any meat dish, any day of 
'the year, more cranberries will be 
sold. He said this might be call- 
ed an extension of the idea cran- 
berries "go" with turkeys and 
chicken. Yet, he said, turkey and 
chicken are not bought every day 
in the year as is meat, so that 
the idea of cranberries and meat, 
not just poultry, should be put 
over. 

This thought is being put out by 
I seasonal magazine advertising, 
[newspapers, radio, television and 
j through sales promotions in mar- 
kets. January and February are 
months when the consumption of 
meat falls off due to after-Christ- 
mas, year end bills and other 



factors. A new booklet is now 
available to purchasers of Ocean 
Spray which explains how sav- 
ings may be made in buying cer- 
tain grades of meat, by slicing at 
the table, or other ideas which may 
help increase meat sales and that 
cranberry sauce should go with 
the meats bought. 

Ocean Spray sauce is now avail- 
able in 94 percent of all groceries 
in the country and 99 percent 
of all chains. 

He said that to make the cran- 
berry business a better one is to 
induce more people to eat more 
cranberries throughout the year. 
The idea is simple and "old" but 
difficult to put into effect, and 
that NCA was doing its best 
through professional promotional 
tactics, he added. 

Growers, he said, must not ex- 
pect to have fewer cranberries to 
market each year, but more, as 
cranberries, like practically every 
other agricultural product, are on 
the increase. He said he expected 
to see a national yield of a million 
and a half barrels or even more. 

Mr. Flegal's talk was accomp- 
anied by slides, graphs, advertis- 
ing in color reproduction and 
movies. There followed the new 



excellent color movie of the in- 
dustry in Wisconsin. 

Institute Elects 
1959 Officers 

The Cranberry Institute met at 
Hanson, Massachusetts January 
13 and 14th, holding annual elec- 
tion of officers. Those named were 
Orrin G. Colley, Duxbury, Cape 
Cod Cranberry Cooperative, Inc., 
president; Vernon Goldsvi^orthy, 
Cranberry Products Incorporated, 
Eagle River, Wisconsin; Marcus M. 
Urann, Hanson, vice presidents, 
and Gilbert T. Beaton, Wareham, 
Mass., of NCA, secretary-treas- 
urer. 

Future plans were discussed. 
Officers are also directors. 

EDAVILLE THEFT 

Two men have admitted to 
stealing a safe at cranberry- 
famed Edaville at South Carver. 
Safe reportedly contained $12,000, 
and the break occurred after the 
Christmas holiday. The men were 
given 3-5 year sentences, and the 
safe has been recovered but not 
the money, which included checks. 




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Survey and Outlook for Mass. Growers 

by 
Dr. Chester E. Cross 
Head Massachusetts Cranberry Station 



In 1957, Massachusetts cran- 
berry growers raised a larger than 
average crop of 563,000 ban-els. 
This was the more remarkable be- 
cause it was raised during a season 
of exceptional drought, and the 
crop was further seriously cur- 
tailed by frost (chiefly on May 
17, 1957) with the heaviest losses 
occurring in Barnstable County. 
The chief factor in the weathei 
promoting a good crop in 1957 
was the sunshine of 1956 which 
measured 248 hours above nor- 
mal at Boston. 

Sunshine Build-up 

The 1958 crop in Massachusetts, 
according to the latest U.S.D.A. 
estimates, stands at 610,000 bar- 
rels. This is the second largest 
crop in the history of the state 
and is especially noteworthy be- 
cause it was raised on only an 
estimated 12,900 acres. This 
acreage represents the smallest 
area in cultivation since 1905 and 
is 2109 acres less than was com- 
mercially operated 10 years ago. 
The almost constant sunshine oc 
the drought months of 1957 pro- 
vides the key to the heavy croi. 
For the first time in history ov r 
.SOOO hours of sunshine was record- 
ed in one year at Boston, the ac- 
tual figures showing 3912 horrs 
for 1957 or 456 hours above the 
50-year average. As Dr Franklin 
showed long ago, the sunshine rf 
the previous year is the chief 
weather control of the cranberry 
crop in Massachusetts. The Ion.'- 
drought of 1957, which hurt that 
year's crop by about 40,000 bar- 
rels and which dried and burned 
some cranberry vines so severly 
that growers despaired for the 
next crop as well, actually built 
up the reserves for the second 
largest crop in our history. 

What of the keeping quality of 
these two interesting crops? On 
June 1, 1957, the Cranberry Sta- 
tion issued a keeping quality fore- 
cast for generally poor fruit. 
Only 4 points of a possible 10 



stood in favor of good keeping, 
and the following month of June 
was 4°F. warmer than normal — 
a factor which lost another 2 
points. About 700 acres of bog 
were treated with fungicides in 
1957 — too small an area to have 
any significant eff"ect on the Mass- 
achusetts crop as a whole. One 
further element contributed to the 
picture. Since Dr. Zuckerman 
joined the staff of the Cranberry 
Station about three years ago, he 
has made a serious effort to de- 
termine the relative keeping qual- 
ity of "early-water" and "late- 
water" cranberries. It appears 
from his studies that "late-water" 
fruit is not always superior to 
"early-water", and further, that 
in 1957 there was very little real 
difference in the keeping quality 
of "early-water" and "late-water" 
berries. To summarize: the keep- 
ing quality of the Massachusetts 
crop in 1957 was poor, and shrink- 
age in storage was heavy, because 
'^^eather factors were against it, 
little fungicide spraying was done, 
and the "late-water" fruit failed 
to stand up to expectations. 

Fungicides 

On June 1, 1958, the Cranberry 
'■t-Z'on felt compelled tj issue the 
rame forecast of poor keeping 
quality as had been issi:ed the year 
before. Again there v/ere only 4 
'"oints of a possible 16 favoring 
,'^ood Piality. Growers and ship- 
-ers aMke now know that the 
-TPat crop of 1958 was actually 
fair to good in keeping quality 
rnd that shrinkage losses were 
'ar below those of 1957. Why? 
To begin with, the month of June, 
1958, was over 3°F. below nonnal, 
making the score 6 points out of 
18 in favor of good keeping fi-uit. 
In the second place, about 3000 
acres of Massachusetts bogs were 
sprayed with fungicides in 1958. 
Since growers who were accepting 
the additional cost of this pract- 
ice wanted a maximum return for 
the investment, it is only reason- 



able to suppose that treatments 
were made on the most product- 
ive bogs. So, although only one- 
fourth of the acreage was treated 
with fungicides, probably one-third 
or more of the crop was so treat- 
ed. Finally, 1958 seems to be one 
of those years when "late-water" 
had a distinct keeping quality ad- 
vantage over the "early-water" 
berries. It is generally known that 
ripening was slow for the 1958 
crop, and "late-water" fruit regu- 
larly colors more uniformly than 
"early-water". Herein we may 
have some suggestion of the reas- 
on for "late-water" doing better 
in 1958. 
Congrptulations Due Growers 
In general, then, growers are to 
be congratulated for raising two 
large crops in years of almost 
opposite weather characteristics; 
and the improvement in quality 
of the '58 crop over that of the 
year before is in part at least a 
tribute to their own efforts. 

For the present situation — we 
are having a winter of greater 
severity than we have seen for a 
long time, and much more severe 
than we had anticipated. It re- 
presents the first time we have 
noticed a severe winter following 
a warm April and a warm Novem.- 
ber. December was very cold, but 
what snow fell gave us longer pro- 
tection from winter killing than 
usual. Sub-zero temperatures were 
recorded several times in Decem- 
ber, but winds did not bloAv con- 
sistently and we do not think any 
winter-killing occurred then. 

January is another matter. As 
of the present time, (late in Jan- 
uary) the only dangerous period 
seems to have been January 5, 
6, and 7, when the wind howled 
day and night and the temperature 
remained in the teens during the 
day and the single numbers at 
night. These were surely winter- 
killing conditions. But we usual- 
ly figure that our Aines can stand 
48 to 72 hours of such weather. At 
present, and knowing that large 
areas were exposed to these con- 
ditions, we are inclined to think 
that some vines are winter-killed, 
that our crop potential for 1959 



Twelve 



has been cut by at most 10 perc- 
ent. But it is difficult to ap- 
praise the amount of damage — 
we will know much more at 
"greening--up" time next April. 
But winter-killing occurs slowly 
over a period of days and hours. 
While frost holds the roots in 
check, preventing the replacement 
of water lost from the leaves and 
stems, the danger continues. So, 
if growers can continue from 
time to time to pump sojne' water 
onto their bogs (providing, ' of 
course, that freezing conditions 
persist), they will be helping 
their vines to survival even if it 
remains impossible to get them 
fully under water or ice. 

1958, Wet, But Not Dark 
Most of us will think back to 
1958 as a wet and dark growing 
season. It was, of course, fully 
as wet as 1957 was dry; but it was 
not a dark year. Actuall^,Boston 
measured 79 hours of sunshine 
above average, to give a push, 
albeit a small one in coniparison 
to the last two, to the 1959 cran- 
berry crop. Further, in those 
months When the sunshine counts 
.most toward our crop,' May, Aug- 
' u'st, September and Nbvember of 
1958, the records show 82'' 'Hours 
in excess of normal. While such 
a tally is small when compared to 
the build-up prior fo" the '57 and 
'58 crops, it surely indicates a 
prospect for 1959 that is at 'lig'dst 
average. If this is so, and if 
Vv"int8r-killing- has not damaged 
the prospect seriously, then 
550.000 barrels is not an unreason- 
able figure for the coming crop. 
Sprinkler Control 
There are, barring further cold 
v.eather problems, just two major 
hurdles between Massachusetts 
r rowers and their 1959 crop — frost 
and insects. Such a statement 
. should be regarded with special at- 
tention as coming from a weed 
man. But if we are not mistaken, 
there is more cranberry money 
jingling in growers' pockets .now 
than for several years,, and it 
would seem most appropriate that 
some of this new money should 
go toward solving these two ma- 
jor problems. During the last 
several years, pumps &nd their 



engines have not received more 
than the repairs absolutely neces- 
sary to keep them operative. 

Flumes have been patched on a 
temporary basis, but many are so 
weak that a full head of water 
might wash them out. Perhaps 
you have often dreamed of a 
sprinkler system for Some piece 
of b.og that has too small a water 
supply for rapid frost protection. 
The time. seems at hand to convert 
such drea,ms, into firm plans, an-.l 
as funds are available, purchase 
portions of the desired system. 
It has fairly weir been proved that 
50 gallons per minute per acre is 
sufficient to give frost protection. 
We are in process of demonstrat- 
ing that the low-gallonage sprink- 
ler can do excellent work in con- 
trolling insects, give needed irri- 
gation in summer, and possibly be 
used to spread fungicides. Some 
of your cranberry money should 
be spent on. your water-handlin.o' 
facilities. The 1956 survey show- 
ed that only two-thirds of the 
Massachusetts cranberry acreage 
has full frost protection. Some- 
thing should be done about it, and 
now is the time. 

Prpffessor Tomlinson was asked 
last week if in five years it would 
be possible to recommend a low- 
gallonage, concentrate insecti- 
cide or a pelletized insecticide for 
all the cranberry insects. He said, 
"yes". This would indicate the 
desirability of the grower owning 
some equipment for low-gallonag'^ 
applications. All must have had 
the experience of finding insects on 
the bog and encountering weather 
conditions which kept the aircraft 
grounded. It would be very help- 
ful to be able to treat "hot spots" 
of black-headed fireworms with 
grower-owned equipment — almost 
regardless of weather conditions. 
Some of the new cranberry monev 
should be spent in such a direct- 
ion. 

Harvesting Hurdle 

Now to conclude. If we survive 
the hurdles of frost and insects 
and raise a crop of 550,000 barrels 
or better, let us approach the har- 
vest carefully, like good business- 
men. The frantic efforts of for- 
mer times to obtain scoopers, to 
keep unnecessary personnel on 



the payroll all summer to have 
them available as scoopers in the 
fall is a thing of the past. Ma- 
chines pick faster than scoops and 
are far less tempermental! But 
machines are no better than their 
operators, and there is no longer 
any excuse for careless machine 
operation. Considering that for 
twelve long months growers have 
fought weeds, weather, insects and 
all other hazards to the crop, it 
is often an appalling sight to see 
picking machines at work on the 
bogs before the fruit is ripe for 
harvest, before the dew is off the 
vines in the morning and bouTS 
after scoopers would have aban- 
doned the sticky job in the after- 
noon. The result is badly bruised 
cranberries, often placed with 
damp green weeds into picking 
boxes for storage, and a hasty 
delivery to the shipping agent. 
Growers pick their crop in. 6 
weeks, but it takes about 18 weeks 
to screen and prepare the crop for 
market. Thousands of barrels 
must be stored for months and 
to avoid serious shrinkage must 
be in good condition for this stor- 
age. Racing the machines not 
only batters and bruises the ber- 
ries but causes substantial loss- 
es right on the bog. Furthermore, 
a speeding machine cannot be 
guided on the straight and. narrow 
path, lens-shaped areas of unhar- 
vested vines are left. The care- 
lessness of our harvesting opera- 
tion is completely out of character 
Vv'ith our Yankee tradition and 
throws away the exhausting efforts 
and expense of the rest of the 
year in wanton waste. The mar- 
gin of p r f i t in recent years has 
been narrow, a careful harvest 
could often change the color of 
the ink. 

MASS. CRANBERRY AREA 
GOT MOST 1958 RAIN 

Southeastern Mass., where, of 
course, the bulk of the Massachu- 
setts crop is grown had at least 
8 inches more of rainfall in 1958 
than the rest of the state. This 
has been released by the Mass. 
Water Resources Commission the 
region as a whole was deluged 
with 56.25 inches, 11.33 above 
normal. 

<■ 'J'hirt^efl 



MASSACHUSEHS IS 

BIRTHPLACE OF 

CRANBERRY INDUSTRY 




Concluding a series of articles sponsored by the Cranberry Institute, presenting 
statistical data about each of the major cranberry-producing areas. The fifth ia 
Massachusetts, with comments by Orrin G. Colley, President of the Cranberry 
Institute. 

Massachusetts cranberries were enjoying a lucrative market even 
before 1816 when Henry Hall experimented with cultivation and 
touched off a Cranberry Rush to Cape Cod. 



iSo much has been guessed and 
assumed about the early uses of 
cranberries in Massachusetts that 
it is not always easy to separate 
the facts from the fables, and so 
we turn to "The Cranberry And 
Its Culture" by B. Eastwood in 
1856 for our claims. He wrote, 
"Long years ago (the cranberry) 
was used by the Indians, who in 
their way were extensively 
acquainted with the products of 
the soil; they gathered and roast- 
ed the unripe berries and used 
them as poultices, believing that 
when applied to the wounds made 
by poisoned arrows, they had the 
power of drawing the venom 
forth. Many a squaw of th? 
Pequods on Cape Cod . . . made a 
mess of cranberries to give relish 
to the venison they killed and 
cooked." 

Mr. Eastwood also supplies us 
with some interesting observations 
of cranberry marketing in the 
1850's. In packing cranberries 
"it is usual 'to spread them out 
so that all the dew or moisture 
may evaporate. Then they are 
winnowed or picked over. They 
are packed dry in barrels and thus 
sent off. But in sending them to 
Europe or California, it is deemed 
best to pack them in water. 

"The American cranberry is 
coming into notice in Europe, but 
most especially in England. It is 
sold there in small bottles . . . 
We have seeen 'Cape Cod Bell 
Cranberry' sold at four shillings 
sterling in the Strand, London. 

"Boston is the great market 



the cranberry that growers have 
been visited by city dealers a 
month or six weeks before the 
berry had been ready to pick. 
Even the last season, growers re- 
ceived $10.00 to $15.00 per bar- 
rel." 

With such high prices and trad- 
ing potential, it was not long 
before Cape Cod's wastelands 
Avere turned into "singular-look- 
ing specimens of farming" and 
the Cranberry Rush was on. 

Lands considered worthless and 
rot worth taxing were suddenly 
bring i.i $50 to $100 an acre. 

"Wild catters" who did not give 
proper care to the planting and 
cultivation soon went out of busi- 
ness, but many more diligent 
speculators continued with suc- 
cess and gave Massachusetts a 
1 oad start in canberry acreage. 

By 1900, 11,.SC0 acres were 
planted to cranbeiTy vines and 
cultivated bog land continued to 
increase until 1950 when it reach- 
ed a high of 14;80O acres. Since 
that time, because of economic 
conditions, smaller bogs were let 
go and in 1957 harvested acreage 
v/as down to 13,000. 

Massachusetts cranberry crops 
followed much the same pattern, 
building up from 200,000 barrels 
in 1900 to 610,000 barrels in 1950. 
However, production since 1950 
did not decline with the acreage. 
The state had its largest crop of 
690,000 barrels in 1953, and the 
1958 crop was equal to the 1950 
crop of 610,000 barrels. 

Increased yield per acre offset 



for cranberries. Of such profit is the loss in acreage, and process 



can be traced on the accompany- 
ing chart showing acreage har- 
vested and yield per acre from 
1930 to 1957. The figures show 
that 1953, the year of the record 
crop, was also the year of highest 
yield with an average of 49.6 bar- 
rels per acre. 

As in past articles, 1939 is used 
as the 100% reference point for 
purposes of comparison. In 1957, 
Massachusetts acreage was 6% 
lower than 1939 while yield per 
acre was 28% higher. 

About% of Massachusetts cran- 
beiry acreage is in Plymouth 
County with Barnstable County 
second, and the two counties are 
often referred to as the Cape Cod 
area. Bristol, Nantucket and 
Middlesex are next in that order 
with a few scattered acres in Nor- 
folk and Dukes. 

Cultivated cranberry bogs range 
in size from ^^ acre to 200 acres 
or more and the average size hold- 
in,g, according to a survey made 
in 1966, was 13.7 acres. 

Massachusetts cranberry country 
is fortunate in its water supply 
and Plymouth County has 356 
ponds or lakes within its bound- 
aries. Cranberry bogs, therefore, 
have ample water supplies, and 
629f have full flowage protection. 
They can be flowed when neces- 
sary — fall, winter, spring or sum- 
mer. 

Irrigation is accomplished by 
filling ditches or flash flooding, 
but sprinkler systems are coming 
into use and protect about 1% of 
Massachusetts acreage. 

Massachusetts growers harvest j 
dry and, although the hand scoops 
are still used to some extent, about 
75% of the recent crop was ma- 
chine picked. 

Early Blacks and Howes are th- 
main varieties raised along with 
a few McFarlins and other var- 
ieties. The Cranberry Experiment 
Station in Wareham is developing 
new varieties to produce better 
yield and quality. 

Because Massachusetts is the 
leading cranberry-producing area, 
it headquarters the industry's 
largest cooperati%ie, National Cran- 
berry Association, and is the home 
of several fresh cranberry ship- 
( Continued on Page 16) ADV. 



Fourteen 



MASSACHUSETTS CRANBERRY CROP 
1939 = 100% 



Year 



1930 
1931 
l432 
1933 
1934 

1986 
1936 
1937 
1988 
1939 

1940 
1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 

1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 

1960 
1951 
1962 
1963 
1954 

1966 
1966 
1967 



Actual 
Acreage 
Harvested 

18.800 
13,800 
13.700 
13.700 
13.700 

13.700 
13.700 
18,800 
18,800 
18.800 

13,900 
14.000 
14.100 
14.200 
14.800 

14,600 
14,700 
14.800 
16,000 
16,000 

14,800 
14,600 
14,300 
18,900 
18,600 

13,400 
13,200 
13.000 



% AcreagjB 
Harvested 

99 

99 
99 
99 
99 

99 
99 
99 
99 
100 

100 
101 
101 
102 
103 

104 
106 
107 
108 
108 

107 
106 
108 
100 
98 

96 
94 

94 



Actual 

Yield 

Per Acre 

28.6 
33.3 
30.3 
36.9 
21.2 

24.2 
26.8 
40.9 
23.6 
86.3 

23.2 
86.7 
40.6 
34.6 
11.1 

83.0 
37.6 
32.9 
40.3 
34.7 

41.2 

38.4 
31.1 
49.6 
43.4 

40.7 
34.2 
46.0 



% Yield 
Per Acre 



81 
94 
86 
106 
60 

69 

72 
116 

67 
100 

66 

101 

116 

98 

81 

94 
107 

98 
114 

98 

117 
109 
88 
141 
123 

116 

97 

128 



Figures from the United States Depatrtment of Agriculture 



% 

ISO' 
!H0- 
130 

no 

110 

too- 
90 
?o 
no 

60 

so 

H0-\ 



30 



MASSACHUSETTS CRANBERRY CROP 

1930 - 1957 

A Comparison of Acreage Harvested 
and Yield Per Acre 




iMH Acreage Harvested 
• •■■ Yield Per Acre 



o 



% 



I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I — r 1 r 1 1 r 

.»>/,^' 32 33 3H- 35 36 37 3f 39 J, ^V> ^5 'fS Ht HS ¥6 ¥7 V? Vf I 51 53 53 St 55 56 57 
1930 19W J950 



Fifurae from the United St«te« Department of A|rnenltur^ 



ADV. 



Fifteen 



5plng ftifencies and the Cranberry 
Insstitute. The Institute's mem- 
bership is open to all shippers of 
fresh cranberries. Organized to 
strengthen the fresh cranberry 
market, it has also strengthened 
cooperation among fresh fruit 
shippers to the benefit of the en- 
tire industry. 

Orrin G. Colley was elected 
President of the Institute for z. 
second term recently, and he states 
that the 1958 fresh fruit market 
was more orderly and stable this 
season than it has been for a num- 
ber of years. "Although the vol- 
ume of fresh cranberry sales was 
about the same as last year," be 
t^ays, "the demand stayed brisk 
at improved prices. The quality 
of the fruit was good and com- 
ments from wholesalers have been 
exceptionally favorable." 

Mr. Colley grew up in the cran- 
ben-y business and fresh cran- 
berry marketing is second nature. 
The family bogs are in Pembroke, 
Massachusetts, and he takes an 
active interest in their production. 
His experience in fresh fruit mark- 
eting has been with Colley Cran- 
berry Company in Plymouth, Hills 
Brothers in New York and Eatmor. 
He has been President of the Cape 
Cod Cranberry Cooperative in 
Wareham since 1950. 

He feels that the future of fresh 
cranberries depends, in a large 
part, upon the cooperation of all 
shippers in the business. "We all 
have common goals," he says, "and 
we can obtain them together by 
constantly improving the quality 
of our fruit and marketing con- 
ditions." 

WISCONSIN MEET 

(Continued from Page 2) 
received. Klinbeil reported that 
there were ten copies of the film 
made, with a total of seven pur- 
chased by the Association and 
local shipping agencies. He men- 
tioned the film had shown in a 
number of meetings to date and 
was well received. He mentioned 
that one of the copies was sent 
to Paris to be shown at meeting 
there. 

Herbicides 
Dr. M. N. Dana of the Dept. 
of Hort., University of Wiscon- 



sin, gave a brief report on his 
experimental work using selective 
herbicides. He stated they were 
still working on getting clearance 
on the pre-harvest use of amino 
triazole, but it looked as if it 
would be delayed another year. 
He showed slides on data ob- 
tained in using simizan on annual 
weeds, showing that 2 pounds pei 
acre of the granular type gave 
good control on some annual 
weeds. He cautioned growers to 
expect damage if they used 
heavier amounts. He also showed 
slides on wide-leaf grass control 
using dalapon in the fall. He 
urged growers to try some early 
weed control work on young, non 
cropping beds and to also evaluate 
the fall w o r k they did with 
amino triazole and report any 
interesting results. 

Fertilizers 

Dr. A. R. Albert, Dept. of 
Soils, University of Wisconsin, 
v/ho retired last year reviewed 
the work that had been done in 
Wisconsin on experimental ferti- 
lizer plots. He stated that Malty 
did work in the early nineteen 
hundreds and Mussbach did work 
in the thirties. There was no 
work done in the forties, but in 
the early 50's he started work. He 
outlined the various problems in- 
volved in cranberry soil fertiliza- 
tion pointing out the big differ- 
ences in marshes, in individual 
n^arshes themselves and even diff- 
erences in individual beds. He sug- 
gested ^'owers make soil tests of 
their sections and apply fertilizer 
on that basis. He felt there was a 
definite need for fertilizer m 
most marshes and urged each 
grower to determine the best for 
his own marsh. He pointed out 
that Wisconsin uses the most fer- 
tilizer per grower and mentioned 
that all areas now use fertilizer, 
although each area uses different 
analyses. He said that although 
he was retired he still would be 
interested in cranberries and 
would probably stop around on a 
few of the marshes in the com- 
ing growing season. President 
Hewitt wished Dr. Albert a happy 
retirement and invited back to 
the meetings and thanked him foi 
appearing on the program and 



for the fine talk he gave. 

New Insecticide Law 

Hubert Holliday, Ass't. Statt^ 
Entomologist, spoke to the group 
r.bout the provisions in the new 
pesticide law governing use of 
chemical insecticides on forest 
and non crop lands. He stated 
that if the grower only treated 
his crop lands he was within the 
law as to securing permits. If he 
was going to use poison outside 
his croplands in amounts to ex- 
ceed 1 lb. technical per acre he 
should apply for a permit. 
Fungicides 
Earl Wade, Ext. Specialist, 
Plant Pathology Dept., of the 
University of Wisconsin, outlined 
the preliminary work Dr. D. M. 
Boone had done this summer with 
fungicides on two cranberry test 
areas. He stated that results were 
preliminary and that there would 
be no recommendations for the 
present. The test plots we^e 
located at the Biron Marsh and 
The DuBay Marsh. He felt that 
by the summer meeting, Dr. 
Boone could possible evaluate his 
work a little better. He thanked 
the group for consideration shown 
the personnel and asked for con- 
tinued support in the project. He 
showed slides which listed preli- 
minary results and he further 
discussed the various problems 
they encountered in the setting 
up of the plots and trouble with 
frost and hail on the samples. 
"Old Fashioned" Sauce 
Dr. K. E. Weckel of the Food 
and Dairy Dept. of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin was the prin- 
cipal speaker. Dr. Weckel has 
been experimenting with many 
forms of cranberry processed 
products for the past several 
years. He said there was much 
room for continued experimental 
work with processed forms, as 
basically we are still making 
cranberry sauce by an old fash- 
ioned receipe. He felt that there 
should be a great deal of work 
done with consumer preference 
work with cranberries. He also 
felt that there was plenty of op- 
portunity to develop some new 
products such as powdered for- 
mulations. He stressed quality of 

(Continued on Page 18) 



Hixtaen 



Cranberries !n North America 

By F. B. Chandler 

Research Proffessor, Cranberry Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 



The last issue of Cranberries 
reported the results of the surveys 
on various water subjects. This 
month will include the different 
insect, disease, and weed control 
practices in all cranberry areas 
of the country. 

A 1926 Talk 

As a background, the following 
is quoted from a talk given in 
Wisconsin by Bain about the con- 
ditions on the West Coast prior 
to 1926: 

"The big problem out West 
after the industry was started 
was insect control. In Wisconsin 
and practically all other cran- 
berry sections, most of the bad 
insects are controlled by water. 
They have no water there to con- 
trol insects with. After they had 
teen growing cranberries for a 
few years, in time for the black 
head fire worm to get a good 
start, it broke out throughout all 
their sections and practically 
wiped out the cranberry crops for 
three or four years. They are only 
now recovering from that trouble. 
They had to develop methods of 
control, and it took them four or 
five years to get the method 
developed well enough to handle 



efficiently, so for that period of 
time they had practically no ber- 
ries, and some marshes actually 
failed. At present they spray for 
the worm with very great success. 
It is hardly necessary to explain 
this method, because so far I 
haven't found a marsh in Wis- 
consin supplied with spraying 
facilities, or one that needed 
them. Every marsh of any size on 
the Pacific Coast has equipment 
for spraying. That is an invest- 
ment they must make. Some bogs 
are piped, with a central mixing 
and pumping station. Others use 
wagon sprayers driven on roads. 
All use gasoline outfits of some- 
type for pressure spraying. 
Spraying is not as easily done as 
flooding for control of insects. In 
the first place, where you can put 
on one or two worm floods and 
clean out an infestation for ona 
year, they must spray four or 
five times to do the same thing 
on an equal infestation of worms. 
That necessitates their going 
over the marsh every time they 
spray, dragging rubber hoses 
two or three hundred feet long 
over the vines several times dur- 
ing the growing season. I don't 



Cranberry Bog Weeds Listed by Sections 
(Most serious listed first) 



Massachusetts 



Oregon 



Washington 



rushes 


dandelion (fall) 


horsetail 


ferns 


running tussock* 


sedges 


asters 


yellow weed* 


fall aster 


poison ivy 


horsetail 


rushes 


loosestrife* 


grasses 


yellow weed* 


cutgrass 


asters 


dogwood* 


wild bean 


moss 


false Solomon's Seal 


green scum 


sedges 


grasses 


nut grass 


sorrel 


clover 


brambles 


lousegrass* 


buckbrush* 




golden rod 


alder 




alder 


willow 




ricegrass 


wild parsnip 




break fern 


dandelion 




nutgrass 


golden rod 



Running tussock is a rush, yellow weed and loosestrife are the same, 
dogwood is the same as the bunch berry found in Northern New 
England, buckbrush is spirea, therefor* similar to hardhack, louse- 
grass is a mud rush. 



think the average- Wisconsin- 
cranberry grower would like to 
get on his bog that much, but 
out there it is part of the day's- 
work. In the second place, spray- 
ing has to be done very care- 
fully. The times that they spray- 
are first when the vines start 
growth, again when the buds are 
in the hook stage- and once or 
twice after bloom." 

This describes the beginning of 
the use of insecticides for the 
control of all bog insects on the 
West Coast, and indicates how 
important water was in all other 
sections. 

Recent Surveys 

The recent surveys indicate 
that fireworm is the insect caus- 
ing trouble in all sections. In 
Massachusetts, Oregon and Wash- 
irgton, it is mort important, and 
in Wisconsin second to fruit- 
worm. The next four most 
troublesome insects in Massachu- 
setts are weevil, 1 e a f h o p p e r^ 
(blunt-nosed), spanworm, and' 
cutworms. In Oregon, the next* 
most important ones, in order-, 
are weevil, fruitworm- scale and' 
cutworms. . i -; 

Insecticides '^" ' 

The kinds of insecticides used 
in 1955 in Oregon were DDT and'^ 
Parathion. The Massachusetts 
survey gave a longer list of in- 
secticides used than other statesi,; 
and compared this list with thop6 
reported used in 1946. In 1946, 
the most used insecticide was 
Pryethrum and it was 12th in 
1955. In 1946, DDT was second 
and cryolite was third, with Lead 
Arsenate fourth. In 1955, the 
order was Malathion, DDT, Rote- 
none, Dieldrin, and Parathion. 
Also in Massachusetts, twice as 
many acres were reported spray- . 
ed in 1955 as in 1946. 
Fungicides 

The fungicide situation is some- 
what similar. Bain reported that 
Bordeaux was generally used for ; 
fruit rots on the West Coast 
prior to 1926. However, in recent 
years the fungus problems haVe 
changed. Oregon reports its most 
troublesome disease as twig blight, 
and next as fruit rot. In Wash-, 
ington, in order they are, red leaf 
spot, rose bloom, cotton ball, and 
twig blight. From the surveys it 

Seventeen 



appears that Massachusetts; 
sprayed for disease in 1955 about 
11 times as many acres as in 
1946. However, in 1955 Massachu- 
setts treated on a percentage 
basis less acreage than the other 
states repoi'ting. Massachusetts 
treated 8.8 percent, Oregon 18.5 
percent, and Washington 75.5 
percent. The fungicide used was 
only reported in two surveys — 
Massachusetts, 95 percent ferbam 
and 5 percent Bordeaux; and 
Washington, 74 percent Bordeaux 
and 26 percent other material. 

Weeds 

Weeds are important in ali 
sections- but those causing the 
most trouble vary from section 
to section. See list of weeds by 
sections. The West Coast has 
three iweeds not reported in the 
east, dandelion, dogwood and 
false Solomon's Seal, and many, 
if not all, of their weeds scsm 
to be more difficult to control. 
The two weeds quite common in 
Massachusetts which are not 
found on the West Coast are 
poison ivy and wild bean. The 
surveys shoiwed a petroleum 
product most commonly used as 
a herbicide; on the West Coast it 
■was thinner, and in Massachu- 
setts kerosene. The next most 
used herbicide in Massachusetts 
was iron sulfate, in Oregon and 
Washington it was 2,4-D. The 
third most used herbicide in 
Massachusetts and Oregon was 
copper sulfate, and in Washing- 
ton it was iron sulfate. 

Equipment 

The equipment used to apply 
pesticides varies with the section 
and may be associated with the 
nearness of one bog to another. 
In Wisconsin, the marshes in 
AVood County are concentrated 
and there was greater use of air 
equipment than in other parts of 
Wisconsin. In Massachusetts, 
about 60 percent of the air work 
was done with airplane, and 40 
percent with helicopter. 



Percentage of Acreage Treated 

Irom the Air and from the 

Ground by Sections'' 



Section 



Air 



Ground 



Literature u.sed in addition to 
that already cited, Wisconsin 
State Cranberry Growers' Asso- 
ciation, Fortieth Annual Meeting 
December 192fi 



Massachusetts 56 44 

Wisconsin** 70 20 

West Coast small or none large 

" The percentages may be re- 
lated to the concentration and 
size of bogs. 
■•' Reported in the last survey, 
but data is for 1952. The per- 
centages do not total 100. 

WISCONSIN MEET 

(Continued from Page 16) 
the finished product and urged 
growers to take the best of care 
in handling the raw product, as 
that had a lot to do with the 
quality of the finished product. 
Meetings 
The group went on record to 
sponsor another booth this year 
at the Wisconsin State Fair. It 
also voted to seek extension of 
the frost warning service from 
May 1 to Oct. 15, instead of the 
Oct. 1 deadline and voted to parti- 
cipate in the frost warning serv- 
ice for 1959. In an effort to set 
definite dates for the two meet- 
ings a year, the members voted 
to hold the summer meeting the 
second Saturday in August and 
the winter or annual meeting the 
second Saturday in June. Com- 
mittees were appointed to watch 
for any legislation that might be 
detrimental to the growers, to try 
and secure a full time meterolo- 
gist oflFice to handle agricultural 
forecasting in the state including 
cranberries and a committee to 
draw up some plans for some 
type of recognition to H. F. Bain 
who retired Jan. 1, 1959. 

The group also voted to unana- 
mously oppose a bill authored by 
State Senator W. W. Clark which 
would require all packaged cran- 
berries in the state to show Wis- 
consin Grown on the packages 
and on the containers in letters 
not less than three inches high. 
Officers Elected 
Officers elected to serve in 1959 
were Albert Amundson, pi-esident, 
John Potter, vice president and 
George K 1 i n g b e i 1 , secretary- 
treasurer. 



MASS. FEB. MEETINGS 

February meetings of Massachu- 
setts cranberry clubs were built 
around the theme of quality con- 
trol. There were panel discuss- 
ions led by Plymouth and Barn- 
stable county agents, Don Marino 
and Oscor Johnson, respectively. 

Dr. Bert Zuckerman gave a 
paper on fungicide treatments, 
effects on the crop of last year 
and gave recommendations for 
1959. Dr. F. D. Chandler dis- 
cussed the effect of fertilizers and 
drainage on fruit quality. J. 
Richard Beattie and Irving De- 
moranville gave reports on the 
1958 quality program and Mr. 
Beattie also told of the status of 
the fresh fruit market as he had 
found it in market visits. 

Archie McLellan, Hanson, was a 
panel speaker on Harvesting at 
proper stage of maturity, correct 
handling and orderly delivery to 
the warehouse, at the Plymouth 
County sessions and Arnold Lane 
at the Cape.. Other speakers in- 
cluded Louis Sherman on machine 
operation, and on the Cape Victor 
Adams, and "Link" Thatcher. 
(A more full report will appear 
in the next issue.) 

"CRANBERRY HIGHWAY" 

Activities continue in Massa- 
chusetts to have two main state 
roads in the Southeastern cran- 
berry area bear the names of 
"Cranberry Highway." These 
roads are routes 28 and 6A run- 
ning from Middleboro, where the 
bog region starts and is a junc- 
tion point for west and south 
ti'affic. 

Route 6A would be renamed as 
far as Orleans not far from the 
tip of Cape Cod. To make these 
changes would require state legis- 
lation. Reason for the change is 
the thought that the name "cran- 
berry" might attract tourists, and 
of course, would do the cranberry 
industry no harm either. 



WANTED 
Western Pickers (Used) 

Contact 

Oscar Norton 

Rochester, Mass. 
Tel. Rockwell 3-5385 



'■■^f t^^ll ■■ 




ISSUE OF FEBRUARY 1959 
VOL. 23 - NO. 10 









JUMBLE OF THOUGHTS 

THIS IS a Jiodge podge editorial. In 
jumbling togetner the freak weather of 
1958 and looking to the prospects of 1959 
some degree of a picture begins to emerge. 
In spite of the crazy weather of last year, 
the second largest crop on record was 
produced and the second largest for 
Massachusetts., which will remain the 
major cranberry area for a few years 
more, at least. 

There are indications from several 
directions that the final historical figure 
for this crop may be even higher than the 
present 1,127,000 barrels. The estimate of 
Dr. C. E. Cross is that Massachusetts may 
have no more tnan the last ten-year aver- 
age, 550,000, rather than the 610,000 of 
'58. Wisconsin doesn't seem at present to 
be "talking big" either. But, NCA now 
has a big and worrisome surplus. 

Then tnere is the excellent sugges- 
tion of Cross that with the "riches" now 
jingling in the pocKets of the growers as 
much as possible should be ploughed back 
into the bogs. That this should largely 
concern water facilities (with more 
thought to sprinkler irrigation) was his 
opinion. He also said growers at harvest- 
time should not Pe stampeded into picking 
berries too light, which w^ould aid in the 
quality program. Growers are becoming 
better growers: Prof. "Bill" Tomlinson, 
Massachusetts, has not directly conceded 
the insect proolem has been "licked," but 
growers are gaining mastery. Dr. Bert M. 
Zuckerman seems to be proving growers 
can improve quality through proper use 
of fungicides. 

H. Drevv' f'iegai, advertising director 
for NCA, which hanales such a huge pro- 
portion of the industry crop is sound in 
saying more people must be induced to 
eat more cranoerries more often, and NCA 
program of "cranberries are the mate for 
every meat," couid be a very logical ap- 
proach to increasing consumption. He is 
also right in saying we may expect crops 
of a million and a half and more. 

National's Ambrose E. Stevens is 
right in saying Wisconsin is not the com- 
petitor of Massachusetts or any other 
state against any otner state. Our real 
competitors are the producers of other 
fruits which compete in the market with 
cranberry sales. 



CLARENCE J. HALL 
Editor and Publisher 

EDITH S. HALL— Associate Editor 

Wai-eham, Massachusetts 
SUBSCRIPTIONS, $3.50 Per 

Year, FOREIGN, §4.50 



CORRESPONDENTS— ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 

Cranberry Consultant 
Wisconsin Rapids 

Wisconsin 



Washington 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash. 



Oregon 

GRANT SCOTT 
Coquille, Ore. 

Massachusetts 

DR. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass. 



New Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 

Pemberton, New Jersey 



THE RESIGNATION from active duty 
of Henry F. Bain, now living in Wisconsin 
as announced last month removed from 
active participation in cranberry research 
one more scientist who had the justified 
respect of the industry everywhere. He 
has been one of those workers with a 
practical as well as a scientific approach 
to cranberry cultivation. He has the satis- 
faction of having contributed much of 
lasting benefit to the industry as in other 
fields of research. After so many years of 
service his retirement is, merited, but we 
doubt if his alert mind forgets cranberry 
growing entirely, and we hope he may 
make further contributions. 

Nineteen 



Fresh From The Fields 

(Continued from Page G) 
voirs was reported in excess of 
thirty inches. 

Craig Scott 
Craig' Scott, 48, died suddenly 
January 2o at his home near War- 
rens. He owned and operated the 
Scott marsh between Mather and 
Warrens. He served on the board 
of The American Cranberry Ex- 
change and also held a director- 
ship in the former Wisconsin 
Cranberry Sales Company, Sym- 
pathy is extended to his surviv- 
ing wife and four children. 

WASHINGTON 

'58 Precipitation 82.56 

The 1958 weather picture was 
one of mostly warm days during 
the early xjart of the year and 
during the summer into harvest. 
A maximum temperature of 95° 
(June 21) and a mmimum of 18' 
February 27 and 28th were the 
extremes for the year. May 12th, 
25' and the 13th, 29° freezing 
temperatures were recorded in 
the area which undoubtedly hurt 
the 1958 crop. Humidities ran 
from a maximum of 96% to a 
minimum of 33%. January and 
February were both mild months 
as was the first half of March. 
The last half of March and April 
were wet. November and Decem- 
ber were also rather wet months. 
The latter part of December sav^ 
a downward swing in tempera- 
tures with a low of 36°. Precipi- 



Hume Products Corp. 

Manufacturers of 

Grass Removal 

Equipment and 

Conveyors for 

Cranberry Growers 

For Information Write : 

Hume Products Corp. 

c/o Cranberry Products 
Inc. 

Eagle River, Wisconsin 



tation for 1958 totaled 82.56 in- 
ches. 

Jan. '59 Tough 

The year of 1959 started off 
like a lion in this area. A mini- 
mum of 10° was recorded on the 
2nd of January with a high for 
the first four days of 45°. During 
this time the minimum humidity 
was 4SVt on January 3rd and the 
maximum was 86% on January 
first. January turned out to be a 
wet month with 15.21 inches of 
precipitation recorded. 

Some New Planting 

Some new planting is being 
planned this year. Cranguyma 
farms plans to plant a new sec- 
tion this spring. The Cranberry- 
Blueberi-y Experiment Station is 
planning to plant an additional 
acre of bog this spring. 

OREGON 

Southwestern Oregon cranberiy 
growers report a rather unusual 
winter so far. Only one light 
frost, which had negligible effect, 
and a season of very warm rains 
add up to the mildest winter for 
sometime. 

At this time, (Feb. 5) because 
of this the buds are farther ahead 
this year than can be recalled for 
several years previous. Vine 
growth also is green and full. 
Some of the growers have thib 
question in their minds, "Are the 



early enlarged buds presenting an 
invitation to unusual frost dam- 
age?" There are different theories 
advanced on tliis and the answer 
for Oregon growers will, no doubl, 
be given this year if we have 
severe early frosts. 

At a meeting of the South- 
western Oregon Cranberry Grow- 
ers Club, February 4, the follow- 
ing officers were elected: presi- 
dent, Don Hultin; vice president, 
Clarence Zumwalt; secretary- 
treasurer, Carol Hull. 



^vV^^M 


B a 








"Ask 1 
The 1 


I 1 






(i rower B 

Who 1 

Itelongs" ■ 


INDIAN 


TRAIL Inc. 1 


262 W. 


Grand Ave. | 


Wisconsin Rapids 

■ B ■ ■ ■ ■ 1 


.Wisconsin 1 

1 



To : HENRY F. BAIN 

"Our best wishes to Henry F. Bain on his 
retirement from active cranberry work and hope he 
can now enjoy some of the things which up until 
now he has not had time for. Wisconsin particularly 
and the cranberry industry nationally owes him a debt 
which can never be repaid. Wisconsin's rapid advance 
in the last few years has largely been the result of 
his efforts over a period of years in helping the 
Wisconsin cranberry industry." 

Cranberry Products, Inc. 

EAGLE RIVER, WISCONSIN 



Tv/enty 



mfiU THE WISCONSIN growerI 



FOR SALE 

SEARLES JUMBO 
HOWES, McFARLIN 

Vines 
for delivery in 1959 

$125,00 Ton F.O.B. 


*. 


Cranberry growers have enjoyed 
two decades of successful use of 

KROP-SAVER 

Insecticides, Fungicides and Herbicides 


INTERESTED 

IN 

PURCHASING 

WISCONSIN 

CRANBERRY 

PROPERTIES 

*********** 

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EAGLE RIVER 
WISCONSIN 


Better Chemicals For Agriculture 

Crop-Saver Chemical Company 

Spring Green, Wisconsin 


THE ONLY 1 
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CORRUGATED 
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and 

FLOW GATES 

Felker Bros. Mfg. Co. 

MARSHFIELD WISCONSIN 
Phone 230 - 231 






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Wis, Rapids Wis. 

MF€S. of: 

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GRASS CLIPPERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS 

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DISTR. of: 

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LYING A 520,00U,UUU A TtAK iinuu^ikt 




APE COD 
iEVf JERSEY 
WISCONSIN 
OREGON 

WASHINGTON 

CANADA 



Entrance to Cranberry Boulevard, Manitowish Waters, Wise. 

(CRANBERRIES Photo) 



35 Cents 



MARCH 1959 



■'<* :> :-t''''>^''?*'*^ 



DIRECTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWERS 



Wcrcester Paper 
Box Corporation 

MEDFORD, MASS. 
Tel. MYstic 8-5305 

Manufacturers 

of 
Folding Cartons 

and 
Displays 



WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STODDARD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

Franconia Coal Co. 
— Inc. — 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. 39-R 



CRANBERRY 
GROWERS 

Choose and Use 

Niagara Dusts, Sprays and 

Dusters 




Niagara Chemical 
Division 

Food Macfiinery and 
Chemical Corporation 

Middleport, New York 

New England Plant and Warehoua* 

Ayer, Mass. Tel. Spruce 2-2365 



Wareham Savings 

Bank 
Falmouth Branch 

Welcome Savings Account 

Loans on Real Estate 
Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 

PHONE WAREHAM 82 
KIMBALL 8-3000 



The National Bank of Wareham 



Conveniently located for ©ranberry Men 



Funds always available for sound loans 



Complete Banking Service 



The 

CHARLES W. HARRIS 

Company 

26 Somerset Ave 
North Dighton, Mass. 

AME5> 

Irrigation Systems 
Sprinklers 

Weed killers 

Insecticides 

Funjjicides 

from 
Cal. Spray Chemical Company 

Dupont Company 
Anienean Cyanimid Company 



EQUIPMENT 



HAYDEN 

- SEPARATOR - 
WAREHAM, MASS. 

Irrigation Systems 
PUMPS 

SEPARATORS - BLOWERS 
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DARLINGTON 
PICKING MACHINES 



Extensive Lxperience m 

ELECTRICAL WORK 

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At bcieenhoust.5 Boss and 

Pumps Mean:; Satisfaction 

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in 

CRANBERRIES 



Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. 



Jersey Growers 
Annual Meeting 



Albert T. Andrews, Jr., con- 
vened the annual meeting of the 
American Cranberry Growers' As- 
sociation in Pemberton on Febru- 
ary 5th. 

Philip E. Murucci of the Ex- 
periment Station spoke parti- 
cularly about Sparganothis fruit- 
worm. This worm continues to be 
one of the serious cranberry 



pests and is usually controlled 
with Parathion and DDT. In 
preparation for changing condi- 
tions, Marucci has evidence that 
Diazinon and Endrin are also very 
good control materials. The new 
bacterial spray was tried and 
I'ound to be about 40 percent 
effective. This may well be promis- 
ing for some future development. 
Eugene H. Varney and Law- 
rence C. Raniere of the Depart- 
ment of Plant Pathology reviewed 
rot control for 1957 and 1958 and 






MARCH 1959 



MARCH FORWARD INTO 

ANOTHER SPRING, AND 

ACTIVE SEASON, HAVE — 

ELECTRICITY 



— AT YOUR BECK AND CALL, IN 

YOUR CRANBERRY WORK "- IN 

YOUR HOME. 



Plymouth County Electric Co. 

WAREHAM - PLYMOUTH 
Tel. Wareham 200 Tel. PIlgrim 6-1300 



SHARON BOX COMPANY, Inc. 

ESTABLISHED 1856 

SHARON, MASSACHUSETTS 

We WiSI Buy Your White Pine Logs, 

Either Standing or Cut 

* Highest Prices Paid * 

Sawmill located at North Carver, Mass. Stop 
in at North Carver, or Phone Sharon, Sunset 4-2012 



showed that Maneb and Zineb are 
sufficiently superior to Ferbam to 
justify their additional cost. 

Donald A. Schallock of the De- 
partment of Weed Control recom- 
mended that for the control of 
grass and weeds in canals and 
ditches the choice of two mate- 
rials is available, namely, sodium 
arsenite and Dalapon. Sodium 
arsenite is cheaper than Dalapon 
and will burn off broadleai weeds 
as well as grass. It has the dis- 
advantage of being very poison- 
ous and the carry-over effect in 
the next year will be less than 
for Dalapon. Dalapon will kill 
only grasses. Both materials can 
be effectively rinsed out of the 
sprayer with water. 

Some recent magazine publicity 
has featured a mower adapted for 
cutting weeds under water with 
another device for raking under 
water so that the gathered weeds 
can then be forked out by hand. 
In discussing this equipment 
Thomas B. Darlington felt that 
he would rather drain the bogs, 
mow in the ordinary manner, re- 
move the weeds, then flood again. 

Experience may be a great 
teacher, but even it fails to teach 
some people. 

^a m B.i!Hi!iH>iiHiiiniiiH:ilIBil{|Hl,IIH)i,|l 



WANTED 

GOOD, USED 

Western Picker 

REASONABLE 

S. H. MERRY 

WEST ST. 
DUXBURY, MASS. 

<>;H<'«iniHII'Vlli«!i!Hli'Hiail'lili:Hli 



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F. H. COLE 

Tel. Union 6-3330 
North Carver, Mast. 



One 



Don't Lose On 
Harvest And 
Harvest Handling 

Ho>vr to Conserve Quality 
and Quality at This Point 
Stressed at Massachusetts 
Club Meetings 

Quality conservation was the 
theme of February meetings of 
Massachusetts clubs with good 
attendance at all four meetings. 
Producing good quality fruit was 
only half the story, it was ex- 
plained, and that conserving qual- 
ity all through hai-vesting and 
distribution process is equally 
important, and that careless opera- 




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tions at these points simply will 
nullify effort and expense of grow- 
ing up to that point. 

In harvesting, it was suggested 
that a bog be pruned before pick- 
ing by machine for the first time 
and that the bog floor be made as 
even as possible; that small holes 
be filled in and even large ones 
covering vines completely if neces- 
sary, and that sloping cornei's be 
levelled up. A "picking pattern" 
should be planned before harvest 
starts. 

Louis Sherman, Plymouth, 
speaking at Plymouth County 
clubs declared in operating he had 
an individual "machine picking 
school," before he allowed any 
operators on the bog. He said a 
day before picking was devoted 
to this instruction and then the 
first day of harvest was devoted 
to a picker, "getting the feel of 
the machine." He said the first 
6-8 hours of actual picking is the 
most important day and that by 
training and careful harvesting he 
gets 99 percent of the berries on 
his 50 acres. 

Operating a machine at top 
speed is one of the greatest faults 
in harvesting as it causes bruis- 
ing of berries. Heavy vine growth 
and deep, heavy crop and rough 
ground all call for slow speed 
oneration. 



Archie McLellan, plant superin- 
tendent of NCA, Hanson, said that 
one of the main troubles at the 
plant was the quantity of bruised 
berries. This, he agreed with 
Sherman, was that too many ber- 
ries came in not thoroughly dry, 
and this affected the keeping 
quality. Growers, he said could 
take more care in handling pick- 
ing bags. He said poor operators 
of machines were offenders, and 
these hurt not only berries, but 
vines. 

He spoke about picking too 
early, especially Early Blacks. He 
urged growers not to start too 
early in the day and not to work 
too late at night when vines and 
berries became sticky. He also 
agreed with slower operation of 
machines and he noted an im- 
provement in quality after a bog 
has been machine picked over 
scooping. 

Dr. C. E. Cross, Mass. Cran- 
berry Station said it had been the 
observance over many years that 
Early Blacks could be picked 
when beyond the green stage, even 
though not fully colored. But he 
urged the early picking of Lato 
Howes. 

Dr. F. B. Chandler asserted 
cranberry growing is now definite- 
ly in the age of the machine. He 

(Continued on Page 15) 



W. F. RUTTER 

INCORPORATED 

19 CONGRESS ST. 

BOSTON, MASS. 

CApital 7-6377 

INVESTMENT SECURITIES 



We will buy odd lots of the common and preferred stocks of 
The National Cranberry Association 



Two 



Mass. Cranberry 
$htm and Field Notes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 




The weather in February could 
be classified as cold and wet. No 
records were broken but it defi- 
nitely was a rather g-loomy month. 
Temperatures averaged a little 
better than 2° per day below 
normal, and rainfall as recoi'ded 
at our station was 4.16 inches or 
about one-half inch above normal. 
Total snow accumulation was 4.75 
inches, which is below normal for 
February. 

The effect these conditions may 
have had on our potential crop is 
not known at this time. We do 
know that considerable "snow 
ice" accumulated on flooded bogs, 
cloudy conditions prevailed, and 
unless the water was withdrawn 
it was possible that oxygen defi- 
ciency conditions existed on some 
properties. We base this observa- 
tion on the many tests made by 
Richard Kiernan of the A. D. 
Makepeace Company. He has 
found that the oxygen content on 
some flooded hogs was consider- 
ably reduced in February, but ap- 
parently the acreage involved has 
been limited. Again, we appreci- 
ate the information received from 
Mr. Kiernan. 

There is evidence that some 
winter-killing damage occurred 
this winter, but the extent of 
damage will not be known until 
the vines begin to "green up" this 
spring. A number of growers 
have reported an "off color" ap- 
pearance of the vines, particularly 
where they were "roughed up" by 
the picking, sanding, and pruning 
operations. We will have more 
information on this subject, plus 
ice pulling damage, in the next 
issue of CRANBERRIES. 

It hardly seems possible that 
the spring frost season is only 
a few short weeks away. Plans are 
being made to continue the tele- 



phone frost warning service that 
is sponsored by the Cape Cod 
Cranberry Growers Association. 
Frost applications have been mail- 
ed to growers who have used this 
service during the last several 
years. If there are other growers 
who would like to subscribe please 
contact Mrs. Ruth Beaton, Ware- 
ham, Mass., or the writer. In 
addition to the frost applications, 
growers have also received a 
questionaire designed to furnish 
our frost committee with some 
very useful information. A frank 
appraisal of the present system is 
requested. It will only require a 
few minutes to fill out this ques- 
tionaire along with the frost ap- 
lication and mail to Mrs. Beaton. 
We would greatly appreciate hav- 
ing these two forms returned by 
April 1. Many details are involv- 
ed in arranging the frost warn- 
ing service and the groAvers' coop- 



eration is necessary. 

The 1959 Cranberry Insect, 
Disease and Weed Control charts 
have been printed and mailed to 
growers through the county agents' 
offices. Extra copies are available 
at the county extension offices or 
at the Cranberry Experiment Sta- 
tion. The major revisions and 
items for study in the new insect 
and disease control chart are as 
follows: Growers are urged to 
review the notes found at the top 
of the chart. This important sec- 
tion contains a summary of 
flooding practices, suggestions on 
concentrates, the use of the insect 
net and a new grub control table. 

The first major change in the 
body of the chart came under the 
section on New Growth. New 
treatments were added and includ- 
ed low gallonage ground sprays, 
aircraft applications of parathion 
aircraft applications of parathion 
(4 flowable), and a ground and 
aircraft application of 10% DDT 
plus 2% malathion dust. The 
tipworm was omitted from the 
list of insects controlled at this 
stage because of unsatisfactory 
results. 

In the Rough Neck to Hook 
Stage, the Blunt-nosed leafhopper 
and the Sparganothis fruitworm 
were omitted from the list of 
pests controlled at this stage be- 



Brewer & Lord 

INSURANCE 
40 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. 



ARTHUR K. POPE 
CONVERSE HILL 
WILLIAM B. PLUMER 
ROBERT A. SULLIVAN 



HORACE H. SOULE 
CHARLES M. CUTLER 
EBEN A. THACHER 
HERBERT R. LANE 



EDWARD H. LEARNARD VINCENT M. WILSON 
JOHN B. CECILL, JR. 



Serving the People of New England 

Since 1859 



Three 



cause timing was not suitable for 
best results. A treatment was 
added for the control of girdler 
millers which suggests a 10% 
DDT plus 2% malathion dust at 
the rate of 60 pounds per acre. 
It is necessary to repeat the treat- 
ment for this particular pest. 

Under the 5% Bloom Stage, the 
Blunt-nosed leafhopper was added 
to the list of pests controlled at 
this stage. 

Growers are urged to read and 
observe the Warning outlined in 
red ink at the bottom of the chart. 

The 1959 Weed Chart received 
considerable attention. Shorten- 
ing and simplifying the old chart 
was definitely desirable and this 
was accomplished by grouping the 
weeds under a suitable timing 
schedule. It is suggested that the 
Notes found at the top of the chart 
be reviewed. The success of the 
recommendations depend on a thor- 
ough understanding of these im- 
portant notes. Directly under the 
notes are three important Cautions 
which should be carefully observ- 
ed. 

Under the April to mid-May 
Stage, a small error should be no- 
ted under control for haircap moss. 
20 pounds of iron sulfate per sq. 
rod is the equivalent of one and 
one-quarter ounces per square 
foot rather than the 3 ounce rate 



indicated on the chart. The 3 
ounce rate per square foot applies 
to the next line dealing witl: 
sphagnum moss where iron sulfate 
is used at the rate of 50 pounds per 
square rod. The No. 2 fuel oil 
and water white kerosene mixture 
as outlined in the chart is recom- 
mended for summer grass, poverty 
grass and bayberry, applied as a 
spot treatment. This mixture is 
also effective on other grassy 
weeds growing at this time. 

The section on Mid-May and 
June includes control measures 
or ditch weeds which have been 
divided into two groups Gut ' 
and grassy... Combinations ol 
Amino-triazole and dalapon is re- 
commended for general ditch 
weeds. No. 2 fuel oil is still excel- 
lent for grassy weeds. 

The After Harvest period in- 
cludes a recommendation for the 
control of wild rose using Stoddard 
Solvent. Hardback, cutgrass and 
nutgrass were added to the list of 
weeds controlled with Amino-tria- 
zole... Growers are reminded 
again that no approval has been 
received for the use of Amino- 
triazole except after harvest and 
as outlined in the chart. 

Plans did not call for a revis- 
ion or reprinting of a new fertil- 
izer chart. Growers will recal' 
that they were reminded of this 



A Good Flume Is Your Insurance 
For A Good Crop 

USE ALL HEART REDWOOD 

We have a good stock of 
All Heart Timbers 

6x8 — 6x6 — 4x6 — 4x4 

Planking - Square Edged or Matched 

2x6 — 2x8 — 2x10 — 2x12 

LET US ESTIMATE YOUR FLUME AND 
BUILDING NEEDS 

E. W. Goodhue Lumber Co., \m. 



MIDDLEBORO ROAD 



EAST FREETOWN, MASS. 



fact and urged to retain their 
1958 copies. However, there is 
a limited number available at the 
county agents' offices and at the 
Cranberry Experiment Station for 
those who have misplaced their 
copies. 

The response to our pesticides 
and fertilizer questionaire mailed 
out in February has been reason- 
ably good. We greatly appreciate 
the cooperation received but sin- 
cerely hope that many more grow- 
ers who have not filled out this 
questionaire will do so immediately 
and return it to their county agents 
in the self-addressed, jjostpaid 
envelope provided for this purpose. 
The results of a survey of this 
type, which is designed to check 
the effectiveness of the station's 
pesticide and fertilizer programs, 
will be most helpful to the county 
agents, the men at the station, 
and ultimately to growers them- 
selves. 



Western Pickers 

Parts and Repairs 

Agent for 1959 Model 
ORDER NOW 

J. E. BRALEY & SON 

78 Gibbs Ave. 
Wareham, Mass. 

HAVE YOUR REPAIRS 
DONE NOW 



FOR SALE 

Six Acre Cranberry Bog 

Near Harwich Center 
1958 Crop — 399 Barrel* 
Unfailing Water Supply 

Price $14,000 

With the industry on the 
upswing, bog should pay 
for itself in less than fiv« 
years. 

Write or Phone Owner 

Alden C. Brett 

96 Fletcher Rd. 

Belmont, Mass. 

IVanhoe 4-5351 



F«ttr 



Issue of March 1959 - Vol. 23 No. 11 

Published monthly at The Courier Print Shop, Main St.. Wareham, Massachusetts. Subscription J3.50 per year. 

Entered as second-class matter January 26, 1943, at the post-oflfice at Wareham, Maisachuaatts, under the Act of March S, IIT* 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



N E W J E R S E Y 

Flood water on cranberry bogs 
in New Jersey remained open for 
most of the month of February. 
This condition pertained despite 
the fact that the average tem- 
perature was 0.8 °F. colder than 
normal, which is 34.7°. This low 
average was achieved because of 
several extremely cold nights; 
there were twelve in which the 
temperatures went below 20 °F. 
and five when it dipped to below 
10°. However these cold spells 
were never of long duration, as 
evidenced by the fact that only 
two days in the month had freez- 
ing temperatures all day long. 
The maximum temperature was 
above 50 °F. on eight days and 
above 40°F. on 21 days. 

Despite that there were serious 
floods in the mid-west and in 
nearby Pennsylvania, the cran- 
berry belt of New Jersey has been 
quite dry this winter. February 
marked the fourth consecutive 
month of below normal precipita- 
tion. Only 1.62 inch of rain oc- 
curred during this month, which 
is 1.15 inch below the norm. From 
November 1 through February 28 
the total precipitation has been 
7.71 inches, which is a deficiency 
of almost five inches over the 
four-month period. 

In contrast to last year, snow 
has not been troublesome this 
winter. A total of only 4.90 inches 
has fallen since November. The 
average snowfall here is about 16 
inches per year. 

WISCONSIN 

February was the third consecu- 
tive month with helow normal 



temperatures and precipitation. 
Temperatures averaged five to 
seven degrees below the normal of 
17.1 degrees. So far this winter 
southern Wisconsin has had 30 
below zero readings, central Wis- 
consin 46 below zero readings and 
northern Wisconsin 54 of the same. 
Coldest reading of the month was 
on the second when temperatures 
dropped to minus thirty below in 
most of the cranberry areas of 
the state. Warmest was on the 
22nd when temperatures rose to 
34 in southern Wisconsin. As of 
the end of February there has been 
a -.80 inches of precipitation and 
the ground water level remains at 
minus 1.75 feet below normal. 
The entire state remains snow 
covered at the end of the month. 
Central Wisconsin received an 
additional ten inches of snow on 



the 8th to give this area a foot and 
a half for the most in the state. 
The northern marshes were still 
running below normal in snowfall 
for the winter. Frost continued 
to go down to record depths in 
the north and west where snow 
cover was light or below normal. 
Total number of minus degree 
days since January 1 now exceed 
four hundred in the cranberry 
areas. The extended forecast for 
March is for normal to below 
normal for both temperature and 
precipitation throughout the cran- 
berry growing area. 

Snow and cold weather continues 
to hamper sanding operations in 
the southern areas. Sanding pro- 
gressed favorably in the north as 
snow cover was below normal. 
Growers were still planning on 
continuing sanding operations in 




R. F. MORSE 6? SON 

West Wareham, Mass., Phone 1553-R 

Cranberry Growers Agent For 

Eastern States Farmers' Exchange 

Insecticides - Fertilizers - Fungicides 

Bog Service and Supplies 
Agent for Wiggins Airways 

Helicepter Spray and Dust Service 

DEPENDABLE ECONOMICAL SERVICE 



Fiv« 



the south until breakup. 

It now appears that Wisconsin 
has experienced one of the coldest 
and longest winters in the past 30 
years or more. What makes the 
winter seem so long and severe 
has been the continued snow cover 
over the entire state and consecu- 
tive below normal temperatures 
for the past one hundred days. 
Many old time growers remark 
that this winter was the most 
severe and prolonged in their 
memories. Some growers are re- 
porting frost depths of over five 
feet deep, which is the deepest 
they can ever recall. 

WASHINGTON 

The month of February has 
again been very wet. We have 
had sunshine about 10 days of the 
month so far. It has been rather 
difficult for some of the growers 
to finish pruning the bogs because 
of this. Maximum temperature 
for the month was 57" with a 
minimum of 24° on February 10th. 
Our minimum humidity was .58% 
on February 21st. 

The work progressing at th',) 
present time on the cranberry 
bogs in the Long Beach and 
Grayland areas has consisted main- 
ly of pruning, weeding bogs and 
clearing new ground for plantiniT 
this spring. Judging from the re- 
ports which have come in from 
the two areas a considerable 
acreage will be planted this year. 
The largest new planting will be 
at Oranguyma farms although 
many of the other growers are 
also planting additional bog. Here 
at the Experiment Station we plan 
to plant one additional acre as 
soon as the ground is dry enough. 
Of these plantings all will be of 
the McFarlin variety. 

During the past two years sev- 
eral trial plots of new varieties 
developed here at this station have 
been established. Numerous re- 
quests have been received from 
the growers for cuttings of these 
new varieties, which so far, have 
not been named, but the demand 
exceeds the supply. Included for 
trial have been small plots of the 
Stevens, Wilcox and Beckwith 
varieties. We hope to find new 



varieties that will permit us to 
retain the adaptability of the Mc- 
Farlin to our climatic conditions 
and at the same time permit much 
earlier harvesting. We have of 
the selections, which were made 
three years ago, one which seems 
to fill the requirements. We have 
not been able to obtain sufficient 
vines to make large scale plant- 
ings, however. I hope to do so 
within the next year. 

Our Experiment Station Ad- 
visory Board met on the 18th of 
February to discuss problems 
which face the cranberry industry 
in Washington State. Emphasis 
was placed on a more adequate 
fungicide program, a more thor- 
ough study of frost control with 
sprinkler systems, herbicide stud- 
ies and keeping quality forecast. 
The prospect of the next biennium 
budget was also discussed. Need- 
less to say the problems and re- 
quests brought up exceed our abil- 
ity to carry them all out during 
the next year. Our emphasis 
will be placed mainly on the three 
or four listed above. 

Ralph Tidrick has reported thai 
a number of bogs in the Grayland 
area have been sold. It seems to 
be a move on the part of the bet- 



ter growers to enlarge their 
holdings thereby obtaining a more 
economical unit. It has been ru- 
mored that one large bog in Long 
Beach has been sold too. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

March to date, (the 2.3rd) has 
been fairly favorable to the crop 
prospects for 1959. There has 
been a total precipitation of 4.72 
inches. Of this there was snow 
of 7.9 inches. Normal for March 
is 4.39 inches. This may indicate 
a good buildup of water supplies 
for spring frosts if any occur, 
as they always do. 

The February factor for sun- 
shine was u-n. Indications still 
point to a "^lassac'^usottp cro'n of 
approximately 550,000 barrels. 

March 21 brought a hard rain 
with thunder and lightning. Spring 
weather should be ''just around 
the corner." 



APOLOGY 

If this issue reaches you la^e 
it is because your editor and wife 
have been on a vacation to Cuba 
and Haiti. And it was a rather 
strenuous trip. 

Mr. and Mrs. C. J. Hall 





CORN SYRUP 

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Six 



Manitowish Waters, Wisconsin, Is 
Wilderness Wonder — Still Growing 

A Handful of Growers Around "Little Trout Lake" in 
North-Central Part of State Have Developed a Real 
Cranberry Community — New, Plenty of Water, Good 
Soil, Enthusiam. 

by 
Clarence J. Hall 

Manitowish Waters! The very name is distinctive and tbis is a 
cranberry development unique in the cranberry industry. The develop- 
ment is new — the growers are enthusiastic. Production is described as 
"fabulous" even by growers of other Wisconsin areas. The potential 
in production is really outstanding. 

Manitowish Waters with its seven properties is one of the reasons 
why Wisconsin is making such gains in cranberry growing as a state. 

In community closeness, in tte wilderness and newness of Vilas 
County cranberry growing, this north-central region suggests Gray- 
land in Washington State. But there is this difference. At Grayland 
most of the growers operate on a huge marsh divided into individual 
units. At Manitowish each marsh is separate, even though tbey all 
ring Little Trout Lake. 



Region Rich Peat Around 
"Little Trout Lake" 

All growers pump on their 
water supplies, they return it to 
the lake by gravity. The region is 
rich, peat soil around this lake. 
The area was one of the "finds" 
of Vernon Golds worthy, who 
bought up this entire area, which 
was originally known as Powell's 
Marsh. Already Manitowish 
Waters, on about 250 acres has 
added some 25,000 barrels to the 
total annual Wisconsin output. 
Total investment there is unusual- 
ly heavy — in marsh layouts, equip- 
ment, warehouses, handsome, new 
modern "liomes. A total figure of 
something like three-quarters of a 
million has been mentioned. 

These growers look ahead. Al- 
though there is no or little worry 
about water supply, a cranberry 
water company has been organized 
and water can be carried back 
from the Manitowish River to the 
lake througli a canal a mile and a 
half long. Any surplus goes to the 
Manitowish River and eventually 
into the Wisconsin. 

Area Unspoiled Wilderness 

Little Trout is in the township 
of Manitowish Waters. The area 
is one of the unspoiled sports- 
men's paradises of the North 
Woods. Powell's Marsh was wild- 
erness ten years ago, waste land 
entirely undeveloped. There were 
only foot paths leading into the 
lake. Little Trout is very deep. 



The water is acid, 4.5 Ph. and the 
surrounding peat has been record- 
ed at 3.8 Ph. In building the 
marshes, top cover, mostly brown 
brush was scalped, much of this 
material going into road m.aking. 
As for insects, perhaps fhe most 
troublesome is the black-headed 
fireworm. There were wild cran- 
berries growing there, and this 
insect was there. More were 
probably brought in with import- 
ed vines. 

Each of the properties has its 
own new warehouse, all growers 
own t^eir own equipment. Most of 
the acreage was planted to Searles 
Jumbo, a little to McFarlins. 

Endless Cranberry Land 

One 12-acre strip at one end of 
the lake was scalped by Lt. Col. 
Thurman Doman, who remains in 
service and has not yet carried 
his development further. Next to 
the Doman property there is a 
little rise. From this slight hill, 
it is possible to look out over 
seemingly endless acres of land 
whicia is described as all potential 
cranberry land, suitable in all 
respects and waiting only for 
development. This view is one im- 
pressive proof that there is plenty 
of good cranberry land in Wiscon- 
sin for future building. 

The woods are beautiful, mostly 
poplar and birch, gi'owing for use 
as pulp wood. There are a few 
timber wolves, gray wolves, lots 
of wild cats; black bear come out 



at night and feed at the town 
dump. This is an attraction for 
summer visitors, deer are so tame 
that som^e vacationists have tied 
red ribbons around the necks of 
a few of t'liese particular pets. 

Incidentally it was along one of 
these lonesome trails and in these 
woods that the late John Dillin- 
ger, gangster and his pals hid out 
while the manhunt was on for 
them from Chicago. 

Entrance to this cranberry 
wonderland is impressive and is 
designated by a sign at ihe en- 
trance "Cranberry Boulevard." 
The development now is only a 
short distance in from a main 
east and west highway. 

Let's take up these Manitowish 
Waters properties and growers 
one by one. The writer visited all 
the properties but did not find all 
the growers on their marshes. 

MacFarland Marsh 

A grower who had been with the 
Little Trout development since its 
inception is John MacFariand. Mr. 
MacFarland is a son-in-law of 
Mrs. Guy Potter, wife of the 
prominent Wisconsin Rapids cran- 
berry man so he had a cranberry 
background. 

He began working with Golds- 
worthy when the Manitowish 
Waters project was in the making. 
He dug the first big ditch with 
a power shovel. Starting in Feb- 
ruary 1947 he dug ditches and 
scalped 10 acres, the following 
year doing more. He did some 
work for nearly all the present 
growers, including that for Col. 
Dorman. He rents bees to the 
growers, having some 13 hives. 

For himself he operated 30 
acres all of them being in Searls, 
and plans to put in 5 more. He 
has produced as high as 3100 bar- 
rels but considers his average 2- 
3,000 barrels. He uses a Case 
picker. 

He was born at Rice Lake, 
where were located cranberry 
marshes. 

Howard Folsom 

Another marsh at Manitowish 
is owned and operated by Howard 
Folsom who, incidentally, was a 
classmate of Goldsworthy at the 
University of Wisconsin. He was a 
letterman in track and cross coun- 
try as was "Goldy." 



S^ven 







John MacFarland, Pioneer 



Folsom majored in geology and 
after he was graduated from the 
University in 1930 took graduate 
work in tb.at subject at Stanford 
University. He worked for some 
time in the geology fieM on the 
West Coast. 

In 1946, after five years in the 
Army, he bought his present loca- 
tion in Vilas County and estab- 
lished his marsh. As portions of 
his geology work had been in 
personnel activities, and he pre- 
ferred an out-door life he decided 
to go into cranben-y growing. 

He now has 30 acres set to 
Searls and averages about 150 
barrels per acre. This past sum- 
mer he scalped and put in 10 more 
acres ready to plant in the spring. 
He plans to have 50 acres in vines 
before he considers this marsh 
complete. 

This is one of the earlier marsh- 
es around Little Trout and the 
property includes over a quarter 
mile of shore line on the lake. His 
sections average two acres and 
are laid out in bed approximately 
125 feet wide and 1,000 long. 
Marshes are flooded by water 
taken from the lake by Lawrence 
pumps powered by gasoline en- 



gines which lift the water 2 feer 
into the bogs. 

Mr. Folsom has a new two-story 
warehouse 121 x 40 feet wide, 
which includes a fully-equipped 
sorting room and shipping room. 
This has a high, arched roof for 
ventilation. 

Other bog equipment include a 
dryer, two Getsinger pickers, 
Bean sprayer, Dana Clipper and 
hydraulic lifter and two crawler 
type tractors. Dryer is equipped 
with two fans powered by electric 
motors and bottle gas is used for 
heat. 

Adjacent to the marsh and fac- 
ing the lake is a new ranch-styled 
residence, there Mr. Folsom lives 
with his wife and two sons, aged 
9 and 13. A second modern house 
is used for help. 

The Leasure & Roller Cran- 
berry Company is one of the top 
producers at Manitowish and is 
under competent, progressive man- 
agement. It is owned by Bert 
Leasure who is in the real estate 
business in Chicage and is one of 
the Wisconsin directors of NCA 
and Frank R. Roller, his son-in- 
law. Active marsh management is 
done by his son-in-law, Roller. 



Roller served three yeai's in the 
U. S. Navy, 17 mont'f^s of this 
being overseas, being in the am- 
phibias force making one amphi- 
bian landing at Bouganville in the 
Solomon Islands with the 5th 
Marines. He also served in the 
Armed Guard forces aboard mer- 
chant ships as radio operator. He 
is the holder of the Purple Heart 
and has two battle stars. 

Following his service discharge 
he took three years of cranberry 
training at Wisconsin Rapids in 
the "cranberry school," under the 
GI bill. Also since his return he 
has taken a turn on a merchant 
&■', ip for three months during the 
winter. Although one of the most 
intent of cranberry growers he 
still hopes to be able to put in 
some of his time at sea seeing the 
world. Due to his naval training 
he could serve as radio operator 
or in other capacity. He is an 
active amateur radio "ham' with 
t^:e call letters W9PJB. Also has 
a commericial radio operators li- 
cense. He is president of the 
Headquarters Shrine club, masonic 
organization of the north-central 
Wisconsin region. He is a member 
of the Commandery and Consis- 
tory of the Masonic Order. An 
interest of his is hunting. 

Leasure-Roller have 50 acres 
planted and this will be increased 
to 52 within a few years. Smallest 
production has been 2100 barrels 
and the largest to date 5600. The 
marsh had the highest average in 
the U. S. in 1954, that being 249 
shipped barrels to the acre. The 
marsh is harvested with 2 Case 
machines. 

Keller's Interest Machinery 

One of Roller's chief interests 
is machinery. In the basement of 
a new warehouse is a well-equip- 
ped machine shop where he works 
out many devises and improve- 
ments to existing equipment, such 
as ditch cleaners, lift trucks, 
marsh maintenance pieces. A ware- 
house was built in 1954 but is out- 
grown and the new one is an im- 
pressive structure of two stories, 
50 X 100 feet. There is a model 
milling room with 6 Bailey sepa- 
rators, two packaging machines 
and two heat sealers. 

The building is on the shore of 
Wild Rice Lake, where Mr. Rol- 



Eight 




uowara roisom 



ler IS now building- a new liome 
for himself, wife and ten-year-old 
son. 

Unique Feature 

A feature of the Leasure-Kol- 
ler property, which probably is 
not duplicated in any cranberry 
area, is the fact that the present 
home of Mr. and Mrs. Koller is 
located at one corner of the marsh 
and contains pumping equipment 
for frost and winter flooding in 
the basement. In this respect it 
rather suggested tbe home of a 
miller of ancient times situated 
on a stream which turned the 
wheels for his milling operations. 

The main canal from Little 
Trout Lake, 60 feet wide flows 
directly beneath the house. In the 
pump station are one Bailey pump 
and three Lawi'ences. Taese, 
powered by four diesels, 68.2 
horsepower can move about 80,000 
'•'illons of water a minute. Plans 
are to increase this battery to five 
pumps and five motors providing 



Tank Truck Service & High - Pressure Spraying 



WATER WHITE 
KEROSEIE 



STODDARD 
SOLVENT 




COLEMAN 
HEATING 
AND AIR 

CONDITION- 
ING 



Touraine Paints 



Hardware 



SANDVIK 

SCYTHES 

(ALSO CALLED FINNISH SCYTHES) 

CARVER SUPPLY CO. 

UNION 6-4480 

Carver, Mass. 



100,000 ji-pm. 

"One thing I like about this 
arrangement" says Koller, "is 
that you don't have to worry if 
the pump is still in operation 
while you are away. I can sit in 
my living room and if it misses a 
beat you know it right away and 
fix it." 

Most growers will agree that is 
an ideal arrangement for a frost 
night, almost living room control 
of tU? water. 

Manitowish Waters was one of 
the Wisconsin areas hard hit by 
the ususual hail storms last sum- 
mer, loosing an estimate 5 to 10 
percent of the estimated crop. As 
it was approximately 21,000 bar- 
rels were har\^ested at Manito- 
wish this past fall. Approximately 
25 new acres are going in there 
this year. 

Manitowis'Ii Waters will ap- 
parently thrive and to continue 
increasing in crop potential at a 
rate that many another cranberry 
area may envy. 

(To be Continued) 

THE SHIFT IN 
FRUIT CONSUMPTION 

Data on fruit consumption in 
the past decade has several stor- 
ies to tell and they're all different. 

Fresh and dried fruit, for ex- 
ample, have experienced a sharp 
decrease in per capita consump- 
t'on since 1946. Frozen fruits and 
juices have skyrocketed. Canned 
juices show a slight decline, and 
canned fruits have maintained 
their level of consumption. 

While all this was going on, 
total per capita consumption went 
down between 1946 and 1950, then 
leveled off at about 200 pounds. 
For the past 8 years, there has 
been little change in the per 
capita consumption of fruit. Total 
consumption, therefore, has in- 
creased with the increase in popu- 
lation. 

(Agricultural Marketing) 

CRANBERRIES 

PROVIDES A NEEDED 
MEDIUM OF INFORMATION 
FOR 

ALL GROWERS 



Nine 



Disease Control and Storage Experiments 
In Massachusetts in 1958 

By 
Dr. Bert M. Zuckerman 
Cranberry Experiment Station 

This article presents aspects of disease control. Table 1 shows 



the 1958 reseai'ch program of 
fungicide treatments and storage 
of cranberries. Although 1958 was 
generally a good keeping quality 
year, we were fortunate in having 
experiments on several pieces of 
bog where the quality was poor. 
This facilitated evaluation of the 
various treatments. 
New Chemicals and Combinations 

The result of rot control ex- 
periments with several new chemi- 
cals and chemical combination? 
are given in Table 1. Phaltan per- 
formed extremely well in these 
tests, reducing decay by 75''/r. 
Date of maturity and yield of 
berries on phaltan-treated plots 
were comparable to that of un- 
treated berries at hai-vest. This 
chemical shows promise and will 
be tested on a larger scale next 
year by both the concentrate and 
standard methods of application. 

One application of zineb follow- 
ed by an application of ferbam 
reduced rot by 56^;, as compared 
with a 66 9"^ reduction of rot by 
two applications of zineb on near- 
by plots. These berries colored 
well in storage. At harvest, the 
color of the berries was slightly 
better than that of berries from 
vines treated twice with zineb 
or maneb. 

Nabam performed better than 



that the glyodin-treated berries 
rotted more than did the un- 
treated berries. This was probably 
due to field variation of the plots. 

Chemicals were applied twice, 
the first application at about 59- 
bloom and the second approxi- 
mately 14 days later. Rate of 
application for phaltan, zineb and 
ferbam was 9 lbs. chemical/ 300 
gallons water/acre/ treatment. Th-j 
rate for other chemicals was G 
qts. nabam and 3 lbs. zinc .sul- 
fate/300 gallons water/acre, and 
3 qts. glyodin/300 gallons v/ater/ 
acre /treatment. 

Throughout these tests, and re- 
gardless of fungicide used, stor- 
age losses were uniformly re- 
duced by about two-thirds when 
samples were held in the 40 °F 
storage at Onset as compared 
with those held in common stor- 
age. 

Standard Fungicide Tests 

For the third consecutive year, 
tests were made of high gallon- 
age, fungicide treatments on tht 
permanent plots at the State Bo,.;. 
It is of interest to compare the 
three-year results on the Early 
Black plots (Table 2). Certain 
trends are indicated in this table 
as follows: 

1. The quality of the berries in 
these plots was better in 1956 



glyodin, but neither gave good than in the succeeding two years 

TABLE 1. 

Early water. Early Blacks, treated with new fungicides and fungicide 
combinations, 1958. 



Fungicide* 


Field rot 

% 


Stor.loss(%)-5«/2 wks. 
Common Cold" 


Totalloss (%) 
Common Cold 


Phaltan 


3.1 


2.8 


0.8 


5.9 


3.9 


Zineb and 


Ferbam 5.9 


4.8 


1.4 


10.7 


7.3 


Nabam 


10.4 


6.0 


2.8 


16.4 


13.2 


Glyodin 


19.5 


9.0 


3.0 


28.5 


22.5 


Untreated 


15.6 


8.9 


2.8 


24.5 


18.4 



* Each treatment replicated five times. 
40'F. cold storaire room, NCA Onset plant. 



Ten 



2. Maneb has consistently given 
superior rot control. Ferbam and 
Bordeaux fell down badly in 1957, 
and zineb has given slightly 
poorer control than maneb in each 
of these years. Maneb has not 
been recommended to date because 
of two instances of burning of the 
flowers when concentrates were 
applied in 1955. This burning has 
not been observed in standard 
gallonage applications, and in no 
case has it been observed since 
1955. 

Trends on the Howes plots were 
much the same over the past 
three years, but the degree of con- 
trol was not as good as that ob- 
tained on Early Blacks. Whereas 
maneb gave an overall 75-80% 
reduction in rot on the Early 
Black plots, the best control ob- 
tained on Howes with this chemi- 
cal was 50% in 1958. On Howes, 
zineb gave slightly poorer con- 
trol of rots, and the performance 
of Bordeaux and ferbam was 
erratic. Experiments on other 
bogs in which Howes were treated 
often resulted in better control 
than we have obsei^ved on our 
permanent plots. 

Concentrate Spray 

The area in which the concen- 
trate spray tests were conducted 
in 1958 produced berries of excel- 
lent keeping quality. This was 
most unfortunate from the point 
of view of our experimental re- 
sults. In this test two zineb treat- 
ments were applied at the rate of 
9 lbs. fungicide/ 25-30 gallons of 
water/acre with a ground concen- 
trate rig. After field rot counto 
were made, samples were divided 
into two lots, one of which was 
kept in common storage and the 
other held at approximately 40 °F. 
A summary of the experimental 
results is presented in Table 3. 
Coloring of Fruit 

As reported in 1957, treatment 
with zineb and maneb may delay 
the coloring of berries. We de- 
layed harvest of our plots for 7 
days beyond the normal hai-vest 
time for untreated berries. In 
some cases treated berries were 
lighter at hai-vest than untreated 
ones. A further comparison of the 
berries was made by the staff of 
the Cranberry Station and several 



Table 2. Field and storage rot on Early Black plots treated with 
four fungicides at high gallonage rates, 1956-1958. 



Fungicide* 



, „d I, fii t t . Vt • liV i T i « l 'l •" >f VlWi ' " ~ 







Maneb i 




Zineb 


Bordeaux 




Ferbam 


Untreated 




Year 


F 


S 


T 


F 


S 


T 


F 


S 


T 


F 


S 


T 


F 


S 


T 


1956 
1957 
1958 


2.1 
3.1 
3.2 


2.5 
7.5 
3.9 


4.6 

10.6 

7.1 


2.2 
4.3 
6.8 


4.5 
9.8 
6.0 


6.7 
14.1 
12.8 


1.2 

11.3 

5.8 


3.1 

16.4 

6.1 


4.3 
27.7 
11.9 


2.7 
9.9 
7.6 


5.2 

15.3 

5.5 


7.9 
25.2 
13.1 


5.9 
20.0 
24.9 


5.4 
25.9 
13.3 


11.3 
^5.9 
38.2 



F = Field rot (7,) . S = Storage rot (7.) . T = Total (7.) . 



* Each treatment replicated 5 times. 
TABLE 3. 

Early water, Early Blacks treated with zineb by ground concentrate 
rig, 1958. 



Treatment '•= 

Sprayed 
Untreated 



Field rot 

% 


Stor. rot (7 wks.) 
Common Cold 


Total loss 
Common Cold 


0.7 
1.3 


1.7 
2.5 


1.0 
1.0 


2.4 1.7 
3.8 2.3 



* Each treatment replicated five times. 



growers after the berries had 
been held in common storage for 
6 weeks. They agreed that there 
was no significant difference in 
color between treated and un- 
treated berries harvested as above 
described and stored for 6 week;;. 
This experiment, carried out in 
1957 and repeated in 1958, gave 
similar results both times. 

Retarding of coloration can be 
a serious objection to the use of 
zineb and maneb on cranberries 
if the grower does not take this 
factor into account in his harvest- 
ing procedure. Several courses of 
action may be followed to mini- 
mize difficulties, among them 1) 
plan to allow for a delayed time 
of harvest for treated berries, or 
2) use a schedule in which one 
zineb spray is followed by one 
ferbam spray. These are the pro- 
cedures which currently seem to 
be the most helpful. Several 
growers report, and our experi- 
ments confirm, that zineb-treated 
berries often color as well as un- 
treated ones in the field. 

The search continues for chemi- 
cals which do not have this ob- 



jectionable quality; phaltan show- 
ing the greatest promise to date. 
Slightly reduced dosage of zineb 
and maneb will probably give 
comparable rot control, and may 
not retard berry development as 
much. Work planned for next 
year includes a study of reduced 
dosage rates of zineb and maneb. 
Common Storage Vs. Cold Storage 

A storage in which large quan- 
tities of cranberries could be held 
at controlled temperatures was 
constructed at the NCA Onset 
plant in 1958. During this past 
season, one compartment of this 
storage was held at approximate- 
ly 40° F and some of this space 
was made available for our 
storage tests. 

After taking field rot counts, 
all berry samples collected dur- 
ing the 1958 test series were 
divided into two parts, one part 
of which was held in the common 
storage at the Experiment Sta- 
tion and the other placed in the 
40 °F room at the Onset plant. 
Samples were held for the same 
lengths of time in each storage, 
and then compared. 



Shortly after samples were re- 
moved from the 40° F storage, 
berries became quite wet due to 
the rapid change in environmen- 
tal temperature. The effect of 
this factor on the subsequent 
quality of the berries was not 
evaluated in these tests. 

It is apparent from comparison 
of the common and cold storage 
losses given in Tables 1 and 3 
that berries in cold storage broke 
down to a lesser extent than 
those in common storage. An 
analysis of the figures given in 
Table 1 shows that the probability 
is less than 1 in 100 that this 
reduction in storage losses was 
due to chance alone. The evidence 
of this, and other experiments re- 
ported in the past, leads to the 
conclusion that substantial reduc- 
tion in storage losses can be gained 
through the use of controlled 
low-temperature storage. 



FOR SALE 

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CHRYSLER IRRIGATION 

PUMPS 

Automatic Safety Controls^ 6" 
Flex-o-seal suction pipe and 
discharge fittings for each unit. 

L. C. SPRING 

Indian Brook 
Manomet, Mass. 



EJeveo 



Fresh Fruit Quality Studies 1958 

by 

J. Richard Beattie, Project Leader 

and 

Irving E. Demoranville ^ 

Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Massachusetts 



The term quality has many 
meanings and interpretations as 
it applies to agricultural products. 
To many, quality denotes taste 
or flavor, while to others it has 
reference to texture, size, color 
and degree of maturity. Quality, 
as used in our fresh fruit studies, 
has even another meaning and 
refers to the soundness or shelf 
life of cranberries as measured 
by their freedom from insect, dis- 
ease, frost and mechanical damage. 
With this definition in mind, let 
us review the reasons for devel- 
oping the present study. 

Interest in extending the shelf 
life of fresh crartberries and in 
reducing shrinkage losses so pre- 
valent in 1957 reached tremen- 
dous proportions this past year. 
Conditions were favorable for 
supporting the Station's recom- 
mendations. Shippers and mar- 
keting agents were urging their 
growers to produce sound fruit. 



Large annual crops required that 
as many berries as possible be 
sold through fresh fruit channels, 
which still accounts for approxi- 
mately 45 percent of the United 
States crop. Massachusetts grow- 
ers responded by treating approxi- 
mately 3000 acres of bog, or about 
one-quarter of the state's acreage, 
with suitable fungicides compared 
with only 700 acres treated iif 
1957. This was a tremendous 
accomplishment and growers arc 
to be congratulated. 

In view of this interest to pro- 
duce sound fruit, it was logical 
that some attempt be made to 
determine the value of fungicides 
on the keeping quality of the crop, 
y/ith this objective in mind, a 
control experiment was developed 

■ 1 1958 to determine the effect ox 

■ mgicide (zineb) and refriger.-i- 
r.on on the shelf life of fre?h 
canberries displayed in store ''. 

'revious studies had indicate .1 




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representing 

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General Offices: Waterbury, Conn. 



the desirability of such a project 
and one that could be closely 
supervised. Growers will recall 
that our quality control investi- 
gations began in 1955*. 

Methods 

An "early-water" section of 
the State Bog was selected for 
our purpose and included both 
Early Blacks and Howe?. Its 
past history had indicated that 
fruit rots were common and, 
therefore, Would lend itself to 
shelf life investigations. How- 
ever, for some unexplained rea- 
son, the presence of fruit rots at 
harvest and during storage on the 
untreated area was considerably 
less than expected, which should 
be carefully noted when reviewing 
the results of this particular study. 
One-half of the section was treated 
twice with zineb, using the Sta- 
tion's low-gallonage spray rig. 
The other half was untreated 'ind 
served as the check. Both areas 
were picked by machine in late 
September and the berries were 
stored in the screening room at 
the Station. 

Seven test lots, each consisting 
of the equivalent of six cases of 
packaged cranberries, were screen- 
ed at the Station, then transported 
to the National Cranberry Asso- 
ciation plant in Onset where the 
berries were packaged in cello- 
phane and placed in master 
cartons. The fi^'st l"t wa? sc-eened 
October 1 and the final lot Decem.- 
ber 23. Each lot included three 
cases of treated berries and three 
of untreated fruit. The splendid 
cooperation of Robert Pierce and 
his staff who assisted in the pack- 
ing operation is gratefully ac- 
knowledged. To simulate trans- 
portation conditions, the six cases 
were then driven around the area 
for a day by members of the staff 
during the course of their regular 
bog work. The berries were then 
delivered to tv\^o local stores, and 
one case each of treated and un- 
treated fruit were placed on dis- 
play, which included both a re- 
frigerated and a dry rack in each 
store. We were permitted to ser- 
vice these displays, collect weekly 



*Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. No. 501 
Cranberries, Vol. 22, No. 12, pp 7-10, 
April 1958. 



Tw^ve 



samples and secure detailed in- 
formation on movement. Careful 
records on movement in the two 
stores involved showed that the 
small, family-owned and operated 
stores in the cranberry area move 
less than half a case of fi-esh 
cranberries per week. The only 
exception came during the Thanks- 
giving and Christmas holidays 
when movement was slightly over 
one case per week. The coopera- 
tion of the local merchants waa 
excellent. 

The final two cases were placed 
on display at the Station on a 
small refrigerated rack purchased 
for the study, and on a dry rack 
build for this purpose. The pack- 
ages on display at the Station 
were handled daily to simulate 
store conditions. Samples were 
collected and carefully examined 
from each lot at the time of 
"shipment" and weekly thereafter 
from each store and at the Sta- 
tion. 

Results - 1958 

Seven lots of cranberries con- 
sisting of 4 Early Blacks and S 
Howes were screened and pack- 
aged during the season. Froui 
each lot, 4 to 6 one-pound pack- 
ages of cranberries were analyzed 
immediately after packing. These 
constituted the packing house 
samples. Thirty-six packing house 
samples were analyzed showing 
an average of 3.5 percent un- 
usable berries per sample. 

A total of 452 retail samples 
were analyzed during the period 
from October 10, 1958, to January 
29, 1959. Of these, 259 were Early 
Black and 193 were Howes. The 
average percent of unusable ber- 
ries per retail sample was 26.1 
percent. This figure includes all 
samples regardless of length of 
time stored, whether treated with 
fungicides or untreated, and dis- 
played with or without refrigera- 
tion. 



In Table I, the 452 retail samples 
are broken down into two groups, 
(a) berries treated and untreated 
with fungicide, regardless of the 
temperature at which they were 
displayed, and (b) berries dis- 
played on refrigerated and non- 
refrigerated racks, regardless ex 
whether or not they were treated 
with fungicide. The figures show 
that fungicide treatments reducea 
the average percent of unusable 
berries per sample about 1/5 or 
from 29.0 to 23.2 percent. Re- 
frigeration reduced the average 
percent of unusable berries per 
sample by 55 percent or from 35.9 
to 16.3 percent. 

Table II 





No. 


% Unusable 


(a) Refrig. 






- treated 


114 


15.8 


Refrig. 






- non-treated 


113 


16.8 


(b) Non-refrig, 






- treated 


112 


30.7 


Non-refrig. 






- non-treated 


113 


41.2 



In Table II, the retail samples 
are taken one step further and 
divided into two more specific 
groups: (a) berries treated or 
untreated with fungicide and dis- 
played under refrigeration, and 
(b) berries treated or untreated 
with fungicide and displayed with- 
out refrigeration. The figures 
show that refrigeration reduced 
the average percent of unusable 
berries per sample, regardless of 
whether or not the berries had 
been treated with fungicide. 
Fungicide treatments reduced the 
average percent of unusable 
berries per sample about %, or 
from 41.2 to 30.7 percent when 
the berries were displayed with- 
out refrigeration. 



Table III shows the effect of 
refrigeration and fungicide treat- 
ment on the shelf life of the 
fruit. If we use an abitrary fig- 
ure of 20 percent unusable berries 
per sample as the point above 
which a package of cranberries 
will lose its appeal to the poten- 
tial purchaser, the following in- 
teresting observations can be 
made. Berries displayed with re- 
frigeration, regardless of whether 
or not fungicides were used, had 
a shelf life of slightly more than 
three weeks, while berries dis- 
played without refrigeration had 
a shelf life of slightly more than 
one week. However, we point out 
again the area of bog used in the 
test had reasonably sound fruit 
regardless of treatment. 

Additional information found in 
this year's study included the fact 
that 89 percent of all unusable 
berries were due to fruit rots, sub- 
stantiating previous work. The 
average weight loss per package 
of cranberries was about i/4 ounce 
per week. This varied slightly, 
depending on the temperature at 
which the berries were displayed. 

Marketing Trips 
and Observations 

In the course of this study, two 
trips were made to Cincinnati and 
Detroit to secure additional in- 
formation on the keeping quality 
or shelf life of fresh fruit, as 
well as information on movement, 
retail prices, and observations of 
the trade. 

The first trip was made in early 
November to inspect the condi- 
tion of Early Blacks as they 
neared the end of their normal 
season and when movement is 
customarily slow. Samples were 
purchased in approximately 10 
stores in each city, and were 
carefully examined as to condi- 



Table III* 

Length of Time Displayed 



T{ 


ible I 








Iwk. 


2 wks. 


3 wks. 


4 wks. 


5 wks. 




No. 


% 


Unusable 






Refrig. - treated 
Refrig. - non-treated 


7.0 

8.2 


13.5 
14.1 


18.5 
19.3 


21.6 
22.6 


25.6 


(a) Treated 


226 




23.2 


27.7 


Untreated 


226 




29.0 






















Non-refrig. - treated 


14.6 


27.9 


36.9 


40.8 


44.9 


(b) Refrig. 


227 




16.3 


Non-refrig. - non-treated 


16.2 


35.8 


49.8 


58.5 


63.5 


Non-refrig. 


225 




35.9 


* All figures are percent 


unusable berries oer 


sample. 
























Thirteen 



tion. Oases of fresh fruit were 
also examined at the terminal 
market. These inspections shower! 
a range of unusable fruit from 2 
to 22 percent, or an average of 
about 10 percent, or slightly less 
than previous years' investiga- 
tions. 

The second trip was made to 
the same cities in early Decem- 
ber to secure information on the 
market clean-up after the holiday, 

shell life of Howes, prices and re- 
actions of the trade. Careful 
examinations conducted in the 
same manner showed a range of 
unusable berries from 6 to 31 per- 
cent, or an average of about Ifi 
percent. Most of the samples 
examined on this trip were Howes. 
Again this figure is less than 
those of previous seasons. The 
clean-up was excellent in each 
city, and retail prices averaged 
slightly higher in 1958 than in. 
the last several years. 

Many trade representatives were 
intei-viewed in each city and 
specific comments and observa- 
tions pertaining to quality, mer- 
chandising, price and movement 
of fresh cranberries were noted. 
The most significant point re- 
sulting from these interviews w" ■ 
the definite improvement in ovt 



industry's relations with the 
trade. This was due primarily to 
stabilized market conditions re- 
sulting from a firmer price struc- 
ture and increased confidence be- 
tween shipper and buyer. 

Summary of 1958 Study 

1. Complete refrigeration in 
stores reduced losses by 55 per- 
cent, substantiating previous years' 
observations. 

2. Fungicide treatments re- 
duced losses by 20 percent; the 
reduction being more apparent on 
berries displayed without refrig- 
eration. The value of fungicides 
as a means of extending the shelf 
life of fresh cranberries is based 
on only one year's work. 

3. Berries displayed with re- 
frigeration had a shelf life of 
about three weeks. 

4. Packages of berries lose an 
average of V^ ounce per week, 
depending on the temperature at 
wh:'ch they are displayed. 



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HORTICULTURE MEETINGS 

A "Look" at 1970 

The Northeastern Region Sec- 
tion of the American Society for 
Horticultural Science had its an- 
nual meeting at the Biological 
Laboratories of Harvard Univer- 
sity, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
January 30 and 31. There were 
no papers this year on cranber- 
ries, but there were a number 
which reported research in re- 
lated fields. 

However, the highlight of the 
program was the evening meet- 
ing when a panel presented their 
views of the Northeastern Horti- 
culture in 1970. The moderator 
set the "stage" by giving some 
data on population, the migra- 
tion out of the city, and the loss 
of agricultural land to highways 
and house lots. Following thi? 
introduction seven people, repre- 
senting teaching', research and 
extension, presented some very in- 
teresting and surprisingly unani- 
mous views for the future. A 
brief summary follows: 

Machinery will be developed to 
harvest and grade most or all of 
the crops now harvested and 
graded by hand. Equipment will 
be developed to water and fertil- 
ize greenhouse crops automatical- 
ly in new, large, extensive green- 
houses. Breeding will develop new 
varieties for harvesting machines 
and for long distant shipments. 
It was estimated that the teach- 
ing methods and curricula would 
change. Pi'ocessing will increase- 
one third of the increase will be 
canning and two thirds will be 
freezing. 

The greatest changes were 
forecast for marketing, and 
quality was mentioned by near- 
ly every speaker. One man be- 
lieved we will be able to buy to- 
matos fit to put on the table. Pro 
duce will be sold mostly in super 
roadside markets. Fruits, vege 
tables, and flowers will be ship- 
ped long distances— at present, 
some commodities can be raised 
on the West Coast and shipped to 
Boston for just a little over half 
the cost to produce in New Eng- 
land. Packaging will change great- 
ly. Advertising will be more 
competitive--flowers an(} fruits 



Foiirlfeii 



will compete with a box of candy. 
..More of the markets will be grow- 
er owned and controlled, there- 
fore eliminating the middle-man. 
The consensus of opinion was that 
the farm of 1970 would be much 
larger, and the owner would call 
on companies who had specialists 
to supervise all operations spray- 
ing, fertilizing, etc., —and that 
there would be a decrease in Ex- 
periment Station and Extension 
work. 

F. B Chandler 

Research Professor 

Cranberry Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 



HARVEST HANDLENG 

{Continued From Page 2) 
urged pruning to thin out heavy 
vines, which would let in the sun- 
light and get the uprights into 
better picking condition. A well- 
drained bog made better quality 
fruit. He mentioned that other 
fruit growers pruned heavily; in 
blueberries generally about a 
third of the bush was cut away. 
This lets in more sunlight, aids 
bees in their work and permits 
better penetration of insecticides. 
He said that in big crops on 
properly pruned vines you can 
almost "see through to the bot- 
tom." 

Other speakers were J. Richard 
Beattie and Irving E. Demoranville 
who will have an article e'lsewhere 
in this issue and also Dl*. Bert 
M. Zuckerman on fungicides and 
on nematodes and their effect on 
cranberries. 



BERTRAM TOMLINSON 
RETIRES JULY 31 

Bertram Tomlinson, director of 
the Barnstable County (Mass.) 
Extension Service retires from 
duty July 31, after 35 years' of 
service. Mr. Tomlinson was long 
interested in the cranberry indus- 
try, and gave much valuable help 
to cranberry growing. 

He was a prime mover in organ- 
izing ci-anlberry clubs, which got 
underway in Barnstable County, 
prior to those in Plymouth, and 
proba;bly elsewhere in the country. 



HORTICULTURAL SALES 

35 South Main St. 
West Bridgewater, Mass. 

"Bob Mossman" Prop. 
Tel. JUniper 3-9112 



CRANBERRY GROWERS SUPPLIES 

WEED AND BRUSH KILLERS 

WEEDAZOL (50% AMINO TRIAZOLE) 

Insecticides — Fungicides — Herbicides 
Aerial Spraying and Dusting 




FOR PREFABRICATED FLUiflES 

SEE 

RUSSELL A. TRUFANT 

HYDRAULIC CONSULTANT 

PREFABRICATED FLUMES BOG RAILROADS 

UNION 6-3696 North Carver, Mass. 



Fifteen 



The Cranberry Story 

EARLY HISTORY 




PART ONE 



-^-T By 

Gilbert T. Beaton 
Secretary-Treasurer 
Cranberry Institute 

Beginning a series of 4 articles on the history of the Cranberry industry spon- 
sored by the Cranberry Institute. They will cover: Part I, Eary History; Part II, 
Development; Part III, Fresh Cranberry Marketing; and Part IV, Processed 
Cranberries. 

The first settlers on the North American Continent discovered the 
benefits of the first American fruit, not only for its excellent flavor 
and color, but also its healthful qualities. The Pequod Indians of Cape 
Cod made them into a poultice to treat wounds caused by poison arrows; 
also using the juice to color rugs and blankets. 

The white settlers learned from now known as Searles Jumbo. It 

is told that Ebenezer Childs, a 
New Englander, who moved to 
Green Bay, Wisconsin took eight 
boat loads of cranberries from 
Green Bay to Galena, Illinois in 
1828. The fruit was exchanged 
for provisions to supply a camp 
of Indian shingle makers. 

In 1838 William R. Cairns of 
Boston, who was connected with 
J. W. Gates & Company, a furni- 
ture firm, conceived the idea of 
introducing fresh cranberries in 
the southern market. He sent a 
shipment to New Orleans, Mobile, 
Savannah and Charleston. This 
venture was a great success. In 
1841 and 1842 cranberries brought 
$35.00 per barrel in these markets. 
Faneuil Hafl Market in Boston, 
still in existence, took the lead in 
this early marketing picture. 
Early shippers were J. H. & G. 
Company, Curtis Company, Sands 
& Craft, and John Hill. The Cali- 
fornia trade in cranberries began 
about 1849 from the East Coast 
and San Francisco soon became 
a large market for cranberries, 
these berries being transported 
by ship. 

In Wisconsin and New Jersey, 
the wild fruit in early days were 
protected by laws which provided 
a penalty for the offense of pick- 
ing or having in possession unripe 
cranberries before a certain date 



the Indians how to prepare and 
cook this delicious berry and 
some of the first ships returning 
to England carried cranberries 
shipped in water casks. The 
early whaling ships leaving the 
port of New Bedford and other 
east coast ports, carried cran- 
berries in water casks in their 
holds to prevent scurvy, (vitamin 
"C"), on their two and three year 
trips in search of whales. In the 
middle west where scurvy was a 
pro<blem of the logging camps, 
cranberries were served regularly. 

The first cranbery bog was built 
by Henry Hall at Dennis, Mass. 
in 1816. The early shipments of 
cranberries were from vines grow- 
ing wild in the low lands, as well 
as from cultivated bogs. In 1843, 
Eli Howes developed the Howes 
variety on several bogs. In 1847, 
Cyrus Cahoon began the culture 
of Early Blacks at Pleasant Lake 
on Cape Cod. It was not until 
1875 that Charles Huit McFarlin 
developed McFarlin berries on a 
bog, now a part of the Ellis D. 
Atwood reservoir in South Carver. 

As this new continent was de- 
veloped and the familiar cry was 
"Westward Ho!" so did the cran- 
berry story move westward. Wild 
cranberries found in Wisconsin 
swamps were cultivated by An- 
drew Searles and the variety is 



An area north of Berlin, Wiscon- 
sin was the first in which cran- 
berries were cultivated in Wiscon- 
sin. Edward Sacket, originally of 
Sacket Harbor, New York, came 
to Berlin around 1860 to investi- 
gate the possibilities of some 
land he had purchased through 
agents. He found he had 700 acres 
of "Shaking Bog" on which, among 
other plants, grew quantities of 
cranberry vines. He evidently 
had some knowledge of cranberry 
growing in the East. He had 
dams built and ditches dug so that 
the cranberries coud be kept flood- 
ed until most of the danger of 
early frost was past. 

In 1865, 938 barrels of cran- 
berries were produced on the 
Sacket marsh and were sold in 
Chicago at $4.00 to S16.00 a barrel. 
In 1869 a $70,000.00 crop was 
harvested. 

As on the Cape, the early bogs 
in Wisconsin were wild marshes. 
The first vines for cultivation 
were imported from New Jersey in 
1871. Wisconsin in turn shipped 
vines to Massachusetts in 1895 
and New Jersey in 1909 which 
carried the false blossom disease 
to these areas. Early attempts 
at frost protection were by fire, 
as early as 1877. Some growers 
had placed on their marshes, 
specially constructed large iron 
pans in which to burn tar to pre- 
vent frost injury. The first cran- 
berry frost warnings were sent 
by telegraph from the U. S. Army 
to Berlin in 1885. In Wood county 
area in 1892, a novel warning 
system was instituted with the 
help of the railroads which dis- 
played frost signals from the 
ti'ains as they passed through the 
cranbeiry district. 

Back in the east. New Jersey 
first started planting cranberry 
bogs some time between 1830 and 
1840, but very little was known 
about the industry until 1850. In 
the years between 1850 and 1865, 
the first part of many of the more 
productive bogs in New Jersey 
were planted. 

Following the Civil War there 
was an unwarranted expansion cf 
business and many inexperienced 
people set out bogs. They were 
unable to continue to maintain 



.Sixt.et'n 



them because of their inexperience, 
and were finally forced to give up 
the business of cranberry growing. 
It was about 1890 before the in- 
dustry overcame the setback 
caused by the unwise inflation 
and began a more normal devel- 
opment. 

As one writer so auly puts it, 
"Go West, young man, Go West". 
Let us follow his advice and pick 
Oregon and Washington. The 
diaries of some of the explorers 
of the Lewis and Clark expedition 
noted that cranberries were often 
purchased from the Indians aftei' 
the expedition reached the lower 
part of the Columbia River. The 
early settlers on the Clatsop 
Plains found cranberries growing 
wild in that locality and picked 
them for their own use. They 
also sent them to California in 
the early days of this land settle- 
ment there. 

The first attempt at cultivation 
:i berries in Oregon was made by 
Charles Dexter McFarlin, a Cape 
Cod cranberx'y grower who came 
to Coos County and set out vines 
which he brought from Massachu- 
setts in 1885. In the neighbor- 
hood state of Washington, the first 
plantings were made on the north 
side of the Columbia River near 
its mouth by a French gardener 
by the name of A. Chebot who 
planted 35 acres shortly after Mc- 
Farlin started his plantings in 
Coos County, Oregon. Che/bot 
brought cuttings from bogs of the 
eastern part of the United States, 
but unfortunately brought in some 
of the worst insect pests and plant 
diseases at the same time.. De- 
velopment of the cranberry in the 
Northwest was held in check for 
a number of years by these insect 
pests and diseases. 

The early pioneers in the cran- 
berry industry were interested 
not only in the growing phase, but 
also in marketing, and they were 
cooperative-minded. One of the 
first pioneers was A. D. Makepeace, 
head of a combination whose crop 
in 1887 was 16,000 barrels. A 
cranberry growers' meeting was 
called on Cape Cod on February 
15, 1866. This meeting adjourned 
to March 1st, when the Constitu- 
tion of the Cape Cod Cranberry 



Growers Association was adopted 
with 67 signers. The New Jersey 
Cranberry Growers AssociaLion 
was founded in 1869. Through the 
activities of this body, a study of 
cranberry rots was undertaken 
by the U. S. D. A. in 1874 and 
again in 1901. Cranberry experi- 
mental stations were established 
in Massachusetts in 1906 and in 
New Jersey in 1913. The Wiscon- 
iin State Cranberry Growers As- 
sociation was arganized on Jan- 
uary 4th, 1887. Its first annual 
convention was held August 1887. 
A cranberry branch station was 
jstablished near Long Beach, 
r/ashington around 1922. 

To insure better marketing con- 
dition, in 1895 a number of the 
larger growers of New Jersey and 
P/Iassachusetts organized the 
Growers Cranberry Company, a 
sales organization. In 1906, the 
Wisconsin Cranberry Sales Co. was 
formed, A. U. Chaney and Judge 
Gaynor being largely responsible. 
In 1907 the New England Cran- 
berry Sales Co. of Massachusetts 
was formed and in the same year 
the National Fruit Exchange was 
organized. These two companies 
combined with the New Jersey 
Sales Co. to form the National 
Fruit Exchange. The National 
Fruit Exchange was organized for 
the purpose of uniting the cran- 
berry growers of the country in 
a single method of disposing of 
their cranberry products. 

During the next few years the 
National Fruit Exchange was in 
active competition with the Grow- 
ers Cranberry Company. The 
large crop of 1910, 590,000 barrels, 
together with the losses incident 
to price cutting between two strong 
growers organizations in active 
competition, led to the consolida- 
tion in 1911 of the Growers Cran- 
berry Company with the National 
to form the American Cranberry 
Exchange. This became the main 
stay of the cranberry industry for 
many years. 

As production increased from 
1906 through 1916, the increase in 
supply threatened to demoralize 
selling prices. In 1919 it was 
estimated that the average cost 
of producing a barrel of cranber- 
ries was somewhat more than the 



average selling price for/tHe yeai^ 
1907 through 1917. 

In the face of rising costs in 
1916 the growers, through their 
organization, decided increased 
consumption was the only way out. 
A trial advertising campaign was 
inaugurated in Chicago. $23,000. 
was spent that year. It was noted 
that the Chicago sales for 1916 
showed a decided increase over 
the sales of the previous three 
years, while other markets with 
one exception showed a loss. In 
1918 the first National advertising 
assessment was made and $54,000. 
was spent. Up to and including 
the season 1920-1921, a total of 
$293,434.00 was spent for adver- 
tising purposes. 

In the early 1920's acreage in 
Massachusetts was approximately 
14,000 acres, producing approxi- 
mately 328,000 barrels. In New 
Jersey acreage was 11,000 acres, 
producing approximately 183,000 
barrels and Wisconsin with 2,000 
acres produced approximately 
37,000 barrels. The first report 
on the West Coast in 1924 showed 
570 acres producing 14,000 barrels. 

(ADVT.) 
(To Be Continued ) 



MARKETING RESEARCH 

Marketing research conducted 
by USDA's Agricultural Market- 
ing Service is saving the Ameri- 
can public — ^farmers, handlers of 
farm products, consumers and 
taxpayers generally — many mil- 
lions of dollars each year. 

More than $25,000,000 a year 
in cash savings and benefits of 
new efficiency can be directly 
attributed to several of the majoi* 
research projects of AMS. Exam- 
ple — research to improve packing 
and handling of perishable fruit= 
and vegetables, such as sweet 
cherries, pears, tomatoes, apples, 
plums, watennelons, is bringing 
savings of over $5,000,000 a year. 
(From Agricultural Marketing) 



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Contact 

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Rochester, Mass. 
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Seventeen 



Self Help By 
Growers Urged 
In Wisconsin 



Retiring Pres. Marvin Hewitt 
Says State Funds for Pro- 
motion, Growers Should 
Also Give More Support 
to Cranberry Association 

Self help by growers was urged 
upon those attending the wintc 
meeting of Wisconsin State Cran- 
berry Growers' Association by 
retiring president, Marvin Hewitt. 
Mr. Hewitt declared he had the 
pleasure of a few trips to the 
state capitol at Madison and visit- 
ing the State Agricultural De- 
partment. 

"I was surprised at the amount 
of help there is available to us 
growers through our state organi- 
zation," he said in his address, 
"and, bear in mind that this help 
is forthcoming only through our 
state organization and not through 
any sales agencies. 

"In order to get this help, ,ve 
growers have to give some indi- 
cation that we want to help our- 
selves. This can be done by pay- 
ing our dues on time and paying 
for the frost warning service." 
He added that he was embar- 
rassed to find that many growers 
were not doing these things. 

"If we are to have an active 
organization, we should all make 
up our minds to do our share 
such as they had years ago when 
we were first organized. We can- 
not expect help from the State 
or from any other sources if we 




'■m 



ourselves are reluctant to take an 
active part. 

"A defeatist attitude has never 
made for a successful and vigor- 
ous organization. This past season 
for the first time in 15 years, 
cranberries were on display at 
the State Fair. The space wa? 
free of charge and all selling- 
agencies were asked to partici- 
pate. Three companies were repre- 
sented and a great deal of interest 
was shown and we did find tTiat 
in years to come we should have 
someone at the booth at all times. 
Promotion Funds Available 

"Another thing we found out is 



that there is money available to 
the State Cranberry Growers 
Association for the promotion of 
cranberries. If we as grower.^ 
will set aside a small amount per 
barrel. I am sure that the State 
would be more than willing to 
match it and in this way we could 
start a campaign that would help 
increase the per capita consump- 
tion. Certainly this is most im- 
portant, since according to the 
figures that are available the per 
capita consumption of cranberi'ies 

(Continued on Page 20) 



USE 

AGRICOs ^o* Cranberries 

A QUALITY FERTILIZER FOR A QUALITY CROP 
Most Analyses are in the Granular Form 

The AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL CO. 

North Weymouth, Mass. Telephone Weymouth Edgewater 5-2640 
or Walter B. Moseley. Main St., P. (). Box 4.>6. Marion. Mass. 

Kig3ht<»en 



di«59ials 



ISSUE OF MARCH 1959 
VOL. 23 - NO. 11 



[^ *^HAiau.e««^,«,J^^ 



OVERHEAD IRRIGATION 

WATER SUPPLIES, as is being 
pointed out at cranberry club, association 
meetings and by those most competent 
to know, is becoming, and will become 
more of a problem for the industry. We 
are not alone in this demand for water. 

A couple of statistics. Last year more 
than 170,000,000 Americans were using 
148 gallons per capita per day. In 1900, 
some 78,000,000 were using 90 gallons a 
day per capita, doubling the number of 
people, almost doubling the amount of 
water each. 

American industry at the turn of the 
century used 10 billon each day and now 
is using 110 billion gallons, 11 times as 
much. We needn't worry at present when 
existing sources are gone or utterly inade- 
quate, that is from rainfall accumulated 
and made available in rivers, streams, 
natural lakes, man-made reservoirs and 
subterranean strata tapped by well. 

But, of immediate concern, is the m- 
creasing scramble for water by everybody. 
Answer for the immediate years must lie 
in sprinkler irrigation — it uses so much 
less water than flooding. 



DON'T LOSE ON HARVEST 

QUALITY CONSERVATION of ber- 
ries grown was the theme of Massachu- 
setts Club meetings, and it made good 
sense. That is, that geting the fruit ready 
to pick and then to get it into storage and 
ready for shipment is just as important 
as the growing. In fact in a way more 
so, for much of the money that has been 
spent getting the crop to the harvest 
point — frost flooding, insecticide control, 
other items, represent a cost. Any move 
from that point on which leaves berries 
unharvested, badly bruised or of poor 
keeping quality is so much waste against 
the amount that represents a barrel sold 
of fresh or in processed products. A losb 
which can be avoided! 



ELEVEN-YEAR LOOK AHEAD 

SOME LOOKS into the future, as far 
as 1970 are set forth in this issue at a 
meeting of Northeastern Section of Ameri- 
can Society for Horticulture, and reported 



CLARENCE J. HALL 

Editor and Publisher 

EDITH S. HALL — Associate Editor 

Wareham, Massachusetts 

SUBSCRIPTIONS, $3.50 Per 

Year, FOREIGN, §4.50 



CORRESPONDENTS— ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 

Cranberry Consultant 

Wisconsin Rapids 

Wisconsin 



Washington 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach. Wash. 



Oregon 

GRANT SCOTT 
Coquille, Ore. 

Massachusetts 

PR. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass, 



New Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 

Pemberton, New Jersey 



by Dr. Chandler. These mcluded that 
machinery will be developed to harvest 
and grade, breeding will develop new^ 
varieties for harvesting machines and for 
long distance shipments. It is noteworthy 
that processing will increase, and two- 
thirds of this will be in freezing. Packag- 
ing will change greatly — advertising will 
be more competitive and flowers and fruits 
will compete with candy. We are in a 
period of an ever faster changing world. 
Cranberry growers can't lag behind. 

Nineteen 



SELF HELP URGED 

(Continued From Page 18) 

has decreased rathei- than in- 
creased and it is high time that 
something should be done about 
it. 

"We want to put Wisconsin 
cranberries on the map. Many 
people are not aware that cran- 
berries are grown in our state, 
and with the right fighting spirit 
and good old red-blooded fight we 
can do the job." 

He added the association was 
deeply indebted to many of the 
Agricultural College of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. 

In conclusion he said, "As your 
retiring president I pledge to help 



WISCONSIN 

CRANBERRY GROWIRS 

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For Information Write : 

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in every way possible to malce 
our state organization a stronger 
and more aggressive one in order 
to increase our fields of quality 
cranberries so that the consuming- 
public will buy more of them ar. 
reasonable prices." 

Mr. Hewitt got into the cran 
berry business in 1947 when he 
and Guy Cole went to the town 
of Hiles and bought some land, 
starting a marsh. They planted 
12 acres. In May of 1953 lie 
bought his partner out. In 1955 
he planted eight more acres of 
vines. The marsh is located tv/o 
miles east of City Point. 

He was born in Bellwood, 
Nebraska on August 9, 1902 and 
lived on a farm in the Platte Val- 
ley. He finished high school at 
Ocravia, Nebraska. When 18 he 
moved with his parents to Ogema, 
Wisconsin. He later went to 
Minneapolis and spent a year in 
business college. He was employed 
by the Soo railroad line as c 
utility clerk and assistant cash 
ier. 

After his marriage he went to 
Flint, Michigan and was employed 
by the Fisher Body Corporation 
as inspector of trim material. He 
worked there for five years and 
then because of his health he 
sought a job where he could be 
more in the open. He opened a 



grocery and feed store in Lindscy 
in the early thirties. In 1940 he 
disposed of this and built a locker 
and meat packing plant which his 
son now manages. 

He adds, "I like the outdoor 
work of a cranberry grower and 
am very much interested in the 
growing of cranberries." 



People who are ambitious to 
get in the social sw'rn often find 
themselves in hot water. 

viiMiiinjiB a iS'iM'iiiB ■ a m r^ 




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boxes — or repair them yourself. 

Stock Always on Hand 

F. H. COLE 

Tel. Union 6-3330 
North Carver, Masi. 


P ymouth County E ectric Co. 

WAREHAM - PLYMOUTH 

TEL. 200 TEL 1300 

.... 







One 



VOLTA OIL CO. 

Distributor of the Famou» 

TEXACO 

WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For your Bog 

STODDORD SOLVENT 

Tel. Pilgrim 6-1340 

Plymouth, Mass. 
Rte. 44 Samoset St. 



Attention Growers ! ! 

for 

your Spring 

weed control 

we offer 
water white 

kerosene 
•GRADE A" 

metered trucks 

STODDARD SOLVENT 

SUPERIOR 
FUEL COMPANY 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tei. CY 5-0U93 



J. W. Hurley Co. 

• COAL 

• NEW ENGLAND 
COKE 

• FUEL OIL 

Water White 

-KEROSENE- 

For BOGS 

(METERED TRUCKS) 

24-hour Fuel Oil Service" 

Telephone CY 5-0024 
341 Main St. WAREHAM 



PETER G. BEATON 

Peter G. Beaton, 77, a Ware- 
liam, Massachusetts cranberry 
grower lor many years passed 
away April 7. Born in Prince Ed- 
ward Island, Canada, he was the 
brother of the late John J. Beaton 
who established the Beaton Dis- 
tributing Agency and the J. J. 
Beaton Company with large bog 
holdings, 

Mr. Beaton had lived in Ware 
ham for 65 years and while woriv- 
ing at the Tremont Iron Works 
in West Wareham had built hi. 
own bogs. When his holdings 
leached a considerable size he 
devoted his whole time to cran- 
berry growing. 

He was a charter member of 
Cape Cod Cranberry Growers' 
Association, Southeastern Massa- 
chusetts Cranberry Club, a member 
of National Cranberry Associa- 
tion and the first Congregational 



Church of Wareham. 

Survivers include three sons, 
Elliott, also interested in cran- 
berries, Gilbert T. Grower and 
prominent in the industry 
(CRANBERRIES, Feb. 1959) and 
Kenneth with cranberry inter- 
ests too, three sisters, two daugh- 
ters, 11 grandchildren, five great 
grandchildren. 



ARTICLES TO COME 

The continuation of the article 
upon Manitowish Waters, Wiscon- 
sin, will be omitted this month 
because of lack of space. 

There are also two other Wis- 
consin articles in type waiting 
which we believe of much in- 
terest, these being one on "Hail 
in Wisconsin," based on the un- 
usual hail loss of last year but 
of general interest because of the 
hail study, by Dr. George L. 
Peltier. The other is on Amino 
Triazole by Dr. Malcolm N. Dana, 



Western Pickers 

Parts and Repairs 

Agent for 1959 Model 
ORDER NOW 

J. E. BRALEY & SON 

78 Gibbs Ave. 
Wareham, Mass. 

HAVE YOUR REPAIRS 
DONE NOW 



PELTIER WISCONSIN 
CONSULTING SERVICE 

Dr. George L. Peltier, Wiscon- 
sinsin Rapids, Wisconsin, as of 
April first began a consulting 
service to Wisconsin growlers. He 
has had a career n the field of 
plant pathology and bacteriology 
as an instructor at the Univei'sity 
of Nebraska. He calls his new 
venture "his second retirement," 
by that meaning he retries from 
one definite work to another. 



SHARON BOX COMPANY, Inc. 

ESTABLISHED 1856 

SHARON, MASSACHUSETTS 

We Will Buy Your White Pine Logs, 

Either Standing or Cut 

• Highest Prices Paid • 

Sawmill located at North Carver, Mass. Stop 
in at North Carver, or Phone Sharon, Sunset 4-2012 



Two 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Notes |^« 

- by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 




Peter G. Beaton 

Our cranberry industry lost one 
of its most respected growers in 
the sudden passing of Peter G. 
Beaton of West Wareham in early 
April. Mr, Beaton's devotion to 
his family and his loyalty to 
cranberries were two of his out- 
standing characteristics. He was 
a frequent and a most welcome 
vifito^ to the Cranberry Exper- 
iment Station; in fact, we enjoyed 
a brielf visit with him only a few 
days before his death. Our staff 
joins his many friends in extend- 
ing our deepest sympathy to his 
family. 

Not An Early Spring 
Weather conditions to date 
(April 15) have not favored an 
early spring. Temperatures in 
March averaged .6 degrees per day 
below normal and the first half 
of April was about 2 degrees per 
day above normal. Inland bogs 
(Easton, Sharon, Foxboro and 
Carlisle) were beginning to "green 
up", but bogs near the coast have 
shown little change in color. How- 
ever, a few warm days could alter 
the picture very quickly which 
brings up the subject of frost. 
Frost System 
Arrangements have been com- 
pleted to send out frost reports 
over the telephone and radio. The 
Cape Cod Cranberry Growers 
Association is again sponsoring the 
telephone frost warning service 
which is strongly endorsed by 
growers according to the returns 
received from the frost question- 
aire. It is apparent that the radio 
is considered to be a good supple- 
ment — not an alternative or re- 
placement for the telephone. Re- 
turns have been excellent and a 
summary of this questionaire will 
be prepared at a later date for 
Ci-fiTiberries Magazine. The radio 



schedule for this spring is as 
follows, below: 

Before leaving the subject of 
frost warnings, we have a few 
suggestions. Growers who sub- 
scribe to the telephone service are 
urged to have their frost pads 
and pencils near the telephone so 
that no time will be lost in taking 
down the message. This is a 
courtesy we owe our telephone 
distributors as well as the growers 
who follow us on the frost list. 
Local Balance 

Apparently the term local bal- 
ance, as used in the warning, is 
still not clearly understood. We 
have rewritten the explanation 
which now reads as follows: "If 
the local balance is against us, 
the chances are that temperatures 
will drop to the forecast which 
would be against the growers 
interest. On the other hand, if 
the local balance is in our favor, 
the odds are good that the temp- 
erature will not go to the forecast 
which would favor the grower." 
It is an important part of the 
vv^arning and growers who have 
"sat in" on the frost sessions at 
the station for many years know 
the value that Dr. Franklin placed 
on whether the local balance was 
in our favor or against us. 

Copies of a circular entitled 
Cranberry Frost Tips are avail- 
able at the county agents offices 
or at the Cranberry Station. 
These suggestions were taken 
from Dr. Franklin's weather bul- 
letin and serve as useful guides. 



Finally, if growers would like to 
have their thermometers checked, 
we would be glad to perform this 
service for them. It requires only 
a few minutes and the value is 
obvious. 

Winter Kill 

Winter killing damage is com- 
mon on many bogs but the acreage 
involved appears to be limited at 
this time. This damage is par- 
ticularly noticeable where bogs 
were "roughed up" by the picking, 
sanding and pruning operations. 
Ice damage has been noticed on a 
number of properties but in the 
aggragate appears to be negligible. 
Check List for April to Mid-May 

The following reminders are 
called to the growers' attention: 

1. Now is the time to check 
motors, pumps, pump wells, dikes, 
flumes and spillways in prepara- 
tion for that first frost night. 

2. Treat grubs with chemicals 
as outlined in the new chart. 

3. Spot treat summer grass, 
poverty grass, and grassy weeds 
growing at this time with No. 2 
fuel oil and kerosene as outlined 
in the new chart. Kerosene and 
Stoddard Solvent are excellent 
chemicals for weed control but 
they are expensive and directions 
for their use should be carefully 
followed. 

4.Fertilize bogs that need it, 
using the 1958 fertilizer chart as 
a guide. 

5. Prune those areas that gave 
the picking machine trouble last 
fall. 

6. Many ditches need cleaning 
at this time of year. 



Late Massachusetts 

'April to the 16th had run up 
a plus temperature (Boston) of 
31 degi-ees, or obviously nearly 
two degrees a day above normal. 
Rainfall to the same date (State 
Kog) W8is slightly under two 
inches, or normal. There had been 
no frost warnings sent out. 



Dial 



Station 



Place 



A.M. 



F.M. 



Afternoon Evening 



WEEI 


Boston 590 K. 


103.3 mg. 


2:00 


9:00 


WBZ 


Boston 1030 K. 


92.9 mg. 


2:30 


9:00 


WOCB 


W. Yarmouth 1240 K. 


94.3 mg. 


3:00 


9:30 


WBSM 


N.Bedford 1230 K. 


97.3 mg. 


3:30 


9:00 



Three 



Ocean Spray Sales 
Show Lead In 
First Quarter 

Ocean Spray processed sales 
for the first quarter of 1959 are 
up 31% over the same period in 
1958, "according to an announce- 
ment by Ambrose E. Stevens, 
General Manager of National 
Cranberry Association. Mr. Stev- 
ens reported this increase in 
cranberry sales at a meeting of 
Ocean Spray officials and Sales 
Representatives from U. S. market 
areas, April 11 at the Statler-Hil- 

ton, Boston. 

_» 

The sales meeting touched off 
Ocean Spray's spring and sum- 
mer campaign '"mating" cran- 
berry sauce with barbecue meats, 
scheduled to open in May when 
national media will be sparked 
with a consumer premium offer 
of a special barbecue chef's knife. 

Mr. Stevens' report of National 
cranberry progress was followed 
by a presentation of the sales 
campaign by Larry E. Proesh, 
Director of Marketing; H. Gordon 
Mann, Sales Manager; H. Drew 
Flegal, Director of Advertising 
and Public Relations; William 
Stilwell, Sales Promotion Admin- 
istration; John Ballard, Sales Ad- 
ministrative Assistant; Robert 
Rich, Display Supervisor. 

Sales Representatives from 
area divisions were: Thomas 
Hodgkins, Northeast; Richard 
Jones, Assistant, Northeast; M. S. 
Anderson, Pacific; John Leitch, 
Southeast; Joseph Conley, North 
Central; Frank Moreno, Central; 
Rodney Williams, Jr., Southwest. 



HORSES BEFORE 
CRANBERRIES? 

It was noted in a recent issue 
of the Western World, Bandon. 
Oregon that Coos and Curry coun- 
ties, where cranberries are grown 
in Southeastern Oregon had horse? 
long before they had pioneers. A 
former prospector found an in- 
teresting specimen of a well- 
formed tooth. Oregon State Col- 
lege experts declared it was 
pre-historic, probably six to ten 
thousand years old. 

Tooth measured % inches 
wide by one inch and one-quarter 
inch in thickness with length of 



two and three-quarter inches. It 
was found near Myrtle Point in 
a deposit of blue glacial mud. 



WANTED 

Western Pickers (Used) 

Contact 

Oscar Norton 

Roehester, Mass. 
Tel. RockweU 3-5385 



CRANBERRIES 

PROViDtS A NEEDED 

MEDIUM OF INFORMATION 
FOR 

ALL GROWERS 



Brewer & Lord 

INSURANCE 
40 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. 



ARTHUR K. POPE 
CONVERSE HILL 
WILLIAM B. PLUMER 
ROBERT A. SULLIVAN 



HORACE H. SOULE 
CHARLES M. CUTLER 
EBEN A. THACHER 
HERBERT R. LANE 



EDWARD H. LEARNARD VINCENT M. WILSON 
JOHN B. CECILL, JR. 






Serving the People of New England 

Since 1859 



s^s 



JSmmm 



C. g L. EQUIPMENT CO. 

191 LEONARD STREET ACUSHHCT, MASS. 

Cranberry Bog Service 

PRUNING FERTILIZING 

RAKING WEED TRIMMING 

Machinery Sales 

PRUNERS POWER WHEELBARROWS 

RAKES WEED TRIMMERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS - Larg« & Small 



For Further Information Call . . . 



F. P. CRANDON 
Rockwell 3-5526 



C. J. TRIPP 
Wyman 4-4601 



H. C. LCONARD 
WynM 3-4332 





Issue of April 1959 - Vol. 23 No. 12 




Pubtiihed monthly at The Courier Print Shop, Main St., Wareh.nm. Massachusetts. Subscription $3.56 per year. 

Satared ai iccond-class matter January 26, 11:143, at the post-office at Wareham, Massachusetts, under the Act of March 3. I87t 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

March Slightly Wetter 

Rainfall for the month of March 
as recorded at Cranberry Ex- 
periment Station was 5.87 inches, 
the normal for the month is 4.39. 
March Temperatures 

The March average temperature 
was 37 degrees (Boston) 0.6 under 
normal. The December-March per- 
iod was the longest of consecutive 
colder-than-normal months in 19 
years. 

30-Hour Blizzard 

A 30 hour blizzard starting 
Good Friday and continuing into 
Saturday brought some of the 
most disagreeable weather of the 
winter to Southeastern Massachu- 
setts. The snow, starting wet and 
heavy gradually turned lighter in 
texture. It brought 3.75 inches of 
snow which melted down into a 
total precipitation of .54 inch. 
This was probably Nature's last 
fling of the '58-'59 winter. 

March Sunshine Up 

The sunshine factor for March 
was up — plus 27 hours. This is 
a point in favor of good keeping 
quality. 

April 

By April 10 the winter flood 
was off most bogs, but some still 
were covered. Late water re- 
flood was expected to go on gen- 
erally about the 17th after the 
"breather." There is a great plen- 
ty of water for spring frosts on 
bogs which have frost flowage. 
Winterkill 

Bogs in general were looking 
well as they came out of winter 
flood. There are many spots of 
winterkill on many bogs, the most 
Dr. C. E. Cross says he has noted 
in a number of years. However, 



he does not believe as a whole 
v/interkill took any considerabale 
toll. 



WISCONSIN 

Temperature Lowest in 39 Years 

March was the fourth consecu- 
tive month with below normal 
temperatures and precipitation in 
most of the cranberry producing 
areas of the state. The state 
climatologist, Paul Waite, ranked 
the 1958-59 winter among the 
worst of the 20th century. The 
south and east two-thirds of the 
state had temperatures that 
averaged the lowest in 39 years. 

In northwest Wis. the readings 
were as low as the harsh winter 
of 1935-36. The number of days 
of zero or below were almost 
double the normal in south and 



central counties. 

Water Level Low 

The worst snowstorm in many 
years struck the south and central 
counties in March. Heaviest fall 
was 26 inches in 24 hrs. recorded 
in northern Juneau County on 
March 5-6. The majority of the 
central marshes failed to receive 
any snow on the third storm on 
March 20th. Rainfall total defic- 
iencies for the year now total -.65 
inches and ground watel levels 
minus 1.85 feet. 

Temperatures started moderat- 
ing the last ten days of the 
m.onth, to cause the first general 
thaw of the winter. These warmer 
temperatures held the average 
for the month to only minus two 
to three degrees below the nor- 
mals of 26 to 29. Lowest was 
five below on the 17th and warm- 



A Good Flume Is Your Insurance 
For A Good Crop 

USE ALL HEART REDWOOD 

We have a good stock of 
All Heart Timbers 

6x8 — 6x6 — 4x6 — 4x4 

Planking' - Square Edged or Matched 

2x6 — 2x8 — 2x10 — 2x12 

LET US ESTIMATE YOUR FLUME AND 
BUILDING NEEDS 



lOidliue Lumlisr Co., !nc. 



MIDDLEBORO ROAD 



EAST FREETOWN, MASS. 



Five 



est was 59 above on the 23rd. 
The extended forecast for April 
is for normal to above normal in 
precipitation and from near nor- 
mal to below normal in tempera- 
ture. 

We Have Had It 

Now that winter is officially 
over for 1958-59 about all we can 
say is that we have had it and 
hope it won't be like this again 
for another 39 years or so. 



Sanding: 

The heavy March snows in the 
south ended the sanding opera- 
tions as the north had completed 
sanding work by the end of 
February. Moderating tempera- 
tures would cause road breakups 
further eliminating road and dyke 
hauling. The marshes which 
started work early in the season 
benefited the most. 

Vine Heaving Expected 



W. F. RUTTER 

INCORPORATED 

19 CONGRESS ST. 

BOSTON, MASS. 

CApital 7-6377 

INVESTMENT SECURITIES 

We will buy odd lots of the common and preferred stocks of 
The National Cranberry Association 




R. F. MORSE & SON 

West Wareham, Mass., Phone 1553-R 

Cranberry Growers Agent For 

Eastern States Farmers' Exchange 

Insecticides - Fertilizers - Fungicides 

Bog Service and Supplies 
Agent for Wiggins Airways 

Helicopter Spray and Dust Service 
DEPENDABLE ECONOMICAL SERVICE 



Growers were expressing con- 
cern as the heavy snow cover 
melted in view of possible hi^j^ 
water. However the snow was 
absorbing the early runoff and 
unless additional rain or snow fell 
it seemed flood dangers would be 
very localized. Deep frost pre- 
sented a definite problem as wash- 
outs were being reported and con- 
siderable vine heaving was ex- 
pected. Most growers were 
planning on doing considerable re- 
flovv'ing if deep frost persisted. 
Grower Dies In Accident 

Vincent Zawistowski who oper- 
ated a marsh near Hayward was 
killed in a truck-train crash in 
Illinois last month. Mr. Zawistow- 
ski is survived by his wife and 
three young children. 



NEW JERS EY 

March 

The month of March, as usual, 
fluctuated frequently between 
mild and cold periods. The colder 
spells were a little bit more ex- 
tensive so the month averaged out 
at 40.8°F., 1.2° below normal 
There were nine days above 60'' 
and four above 70°, making It 
the highest temperature for this 
day on record and the warmest 
March day in ten years. These 
frequent warm spells kept the 
flood v.-aters on cranberry bogs 
almost completely open through- 
out the month. 

Alter four successive months of 
below normal rainfall, an excess 
was recorded in March. A total of 
4.77 inches of precipitation oc- 
curred on ten rainy days. This is 
1.C9 inches more than normal. 
During the past five months the 
total rainfall was 12.48 inches be- 
low nomial. 

Light Winter Snow 

In contrast to the record snow- 
fall of the winter of 1957-1958, 
when 56 inches occurred, the 1958- 
1959 snow season was one of the 
lightest on record, with only 5,80 
inches recorded. 



OREGON 

Many northwestern Oregon 
cranberry growers are busily en- 
( CONTINUED ON PAGE 20) 



Six 





ITHANE Z-78 

(ZINEB) 

PROTECTS CRANBERRIES 
FROM FRUIT ROT 

Normal dosage is three pounds of DiTHANE Z-78 per 100 

gallons, using about 300 gallons per acre for good 

coverage. For top-quality fruit, two applications per 

season are suggested. See your Rohm & Haas 

fieldman for more information ... see your 

dealer for DiTHANE Z-78. 



I, 







"•'^^^F'^ 



rj?- 



^i'^f 





Chemicals for Agriculture 

ROHM e HAAS 

COMPANY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE, PHILADELPHIA 5, PA. 



DiTHANE is a trademark, Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. and in principal foreign countries. 



ANE Z-78 



'^ 





As Miss i>tit> Buchan, director of publicity foi- iNationai Cranberry Association holds the seal 
of the Cranberry Highway Association, President Robert Fugere makes a point during a State 
House hearing, Boston, concerning the bill to change the names of routes 28, 6 and 6-A to "Cran- 
berry Highway. (RuppertWunschel Photo) 



Massachusetts Cranberry Area May Have — ''Cranberry Highway'' 



Interest is at high peak in the 
cranberry district of Southeastern 
Massachusetts concerning the 
changing of a major highway 
from Middleboro in Plymouth 
County to Orleans on the Lower 
Cape. Proposed name is tha 
"Cranberry Highway." It would 
extend a distance of 70 miles or 
more. 

Move is sponsored by a recent 
ly-formed group known as the 
Cranberry Highway Association. 
Purpose of the change in name of 
routes 28, 6 and 6-A is to attract 
more tourists from newer super 
highways now built or building. 

Name might do the tricK. Most 
of the group is made up of busi- 
nessmen of one sort of another 
along the proposed "CranbeiTy 
Highway. M 

In order to make the change 
the matter must be acted upon 



favorably by the Massachusetts 
Legislature. A hearing has al- 
ready been held at the State 
House, Boston. Several Southeast- 
ern Massachusetts Legislators 
have expressed themselves as in 
favor of the change. 

As this issue goes to press ac- 
tion has not been taken at the 
State House. But an announce- 
ment that the "Cranberry High- 
way" will become a reality is 
expected shortly. 



Favorable Ee^ort 
On CraEberrv Rdo 

The Legislative committee on 
public Highways has reported fav- 
orably on a bill to rename Route 
28 from Middleboro to Buzzards 
Bay and Route 6A from Sagamore 
to Olreans. Bill now goes to the 



House Ways and Means Com- 
mittee. 

Representatives of Cranberry i 
Highway Associates, seeking the | 
name change, will meet April 22,1 
Wednesday at Tiny Jim's Town | 
Club, Buzzards Bay with repre- 1 
sentatives of the Bay Shores As- | 
sociation to discuss plans for the f 
highway promotion. 

BHHaBBBB ' ■IIIIB 

WANTED 

GOOD, USED 

Western Picker 

REASONABLE 

S. H. MERRY 

WEST ST. 
DUXBURY, MASS. 



Ei^ht 



"1- 



1 :. 



• • .j. t.. v„^aiV...ier 
.xesearc. Professor, Cranberry Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

Insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, and the equipment used to 
apply them, were summarized in the last issue of Cranberries under 
the above title. The frost, harvesting, labor and marketing phases of 
cranberry production will be presented in this issue. 



Frost 

Frost was mentioned in some of 
I the surveys but not in all of them. 
The Massachusetts surveys give 
the minimum temperature and the 
percentage of damage from the 
I frost. However, when the early 
i rei>orts are studied, it becomes evi- 
ident that Dr. Franklin studied 
frost from the first at the State 
Bog. These reports stated or- 
i chard heaters were not satisfac- 
tory and were dangerous, the skin- 
ner type of irrigation was expen- 
sive and the nozzles plugged 
easily, and tobacco cloth raised 
the temperature at the vines 4^° 
F. at a cost of $200 per acre. The 
formulae used to figure the mini- 
mum temperature were published 
in 1920 and the fall of that year 
the telephone frost warning sys- 
tem was started. 

The new Jersey survey did not 
mention frost, but up until re- 
cently they used one of Dr. 
Franklin's formulas and a tele- 
phone system to warn the cran- 
berry growers of the expected 
minimum temperature. 

In Wisconsin, the frost problem 
is greater than any other problem 
and is probably greater than that 
of any other growing section. In 
Massachusetts and New Jersey, 
there are a few dry bogs, but it 
would be impossible to get a crop 
on a dry bog in Wsconsin. Cox, 
of the Chicago Weather Bureau, 
made studies of frost in Wiscon- 
sin and found that sanded marshes 
had higher minimum temperatures 
than marshes which were not 
sanded. In forecasting for Wiscon- 
sin, some of their formulas were 
used and some of Dr. Franklin's. 
The Stevens Point Radio Station 
WLBL broadcast the warnings as 
early as 1928, and possibly earlier 
In the 40's, the cranberry grow- 
ers in Wisconsin had a U. S. 



Weather Bureau forecaster come 
to Wisconsin Rapids for the cran- 
berry growing season to forecast 
particularly for cranberry growers. 
This forecast has been carried as 
AP news and broadcast infrequent- 
ly during the day. 

British Columbia cranberry 
growers have had little or no help 
from the Weather Bureau with 
frost warnings. Oregon growers 
check bog temperatures and call 
one another, and in addition, many 
growers have electric alarms whi:;h 
ring in the house. Oregon prob- 
ably has the best possibility of 
preventing frost as 72.5 percent 
of the bearing acreage has sprink- 
lers. 

In Washington, Crowley made 
many studies of frost injury and 
bog tem!i>eratures and repeated 
some studies which had been made 
in other sections. He repoi-ted a 



relationship between injury from 
frost and dense vines. Dense 
vines prevented the heat of tho 
day from warming the soil, and 
therefore the temperature drop- 
ped lower at night. Also, he re- 
ported an obvious setback of the 
vines without visible injury. Crow- 
ley obtained complete protection of 
blossoms with sprinklers fr'^m 
temperatures as low as 23° F., 
and of berries from tempera- 
tures as low as 20° F. He 
rscommended starting sprinklers 
at 32° F. and continuing until the 
frost was over, as he fe^t groAA'th 
was retarded if the plant was not 
injured in the spring and in the 
fall 28° F. would soften berries 
when nearly mature. It W3uld 
appear that Washington grown 
berries might be more tender than 
those from Massachusetts, as 5 
percent of fruit in Washington 
was injured at 25° F., while Mass- 
achusetts grown fruit is not in- 
jured at 23° F. 

Harvest 

Harvesting has changed mors 
than most people realize. Brown, 
in 1927, reported hand picking in 
Oregon was very common. Crow- 
ley, in 1937, considered only two 
methods of harvesting — by hand 
and by scoop. The vacuum picker. 




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Nine 



which was developed aftei- 1940, 
harvested with very few berries 
dropped, but as it was slow and 
damaged many of the berries it 
has been discarded. In Oregon 
and Washington, the water reel 
has recently come into use for 
water harvesting. However, for 
fresh fruit harvesting must be 
done dry, either with the so-called 
Massachusetts scoop or the Wis- 
consin rake. Bufton in Wiscon- 
sin reports the development of the 
mechanical harvest in that state. 
In 1949, 95 percent of the growers 
representing 96 percent of the 
acreage employed the flooding and 
raking method in harvesting the 
berries. Mechanical pickers at that 




You'll never know 
what a field can 
yield until you use 




You won't ever know what your 
fields can yield until you try 
the remarkable premium ferti- 
lizer. Rainbow Plant Food. 
Rainbow is several cuts above 
anything you've ever vised be- 
fore . . . tailored for our local 
soils and crops, and scientifi- 
cally designed to feed crops all 
season long. 

Put Rainbow on your own 
soil this year. See how much 
more a field can yield . . . when 
fertilized with Rainbow Premi- 
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details. 

Ask Your Local Dealer 

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& CHEMICAL CORP. 

WOBURN, MASS. 



time were still in the experimental 
stage. In the 1952-53 survey, 25 
percent of the acreage was me- 
chanically hai-vested, and in 1956, 
66.5 percent of the crop was har- 
vested by machine. Since 1956, 
even more machines have been 
used. 

Harvest Season* 



Section 


Start 


Finish 


Mass. 


Sept. 5 


Oct. 20 


N. J. 


Sept. 1 


Oct. 15 


Wise. 


Sept. 17 


Oct. 13 


Oregon 


Sept. 10 


Nov. 1 


Wash. 


Oct. 1 


Nov. 1 


Nova Scotia 






Bi-itish 






Columbia 







* There are usually a few that 
harvest too early and some 
that harvest later. On the West 
Coast, sometimes berries are 
harvested after Christmas. 

Labor 
Questions about labor were asked 
in three of the surveys — Massii- 
chusetts, Oregon, and Washington 
— but only Massachusetts was 
summarized. From one of the 
tables in the Massachusetts sur- 
vey, on a per acre basis there are 
about 6 days of family labor, 6 
days of year-round employment, 
and about 12 days of temporary 
employment, or less than 24 days 
per acre to care for an acre of 
bog, protect and harvest the crop. 
On the West Coast, there are a 
number of growers who help one 



another and thereby decrease tiie 
necessity of hiring help. In Wia- 
consin, 60 percent of the growers 
have 25 acres or less, and most 
of these growers do much of their 
own work. In Canada, relatively 
little labor is hired. 

Marketing 

At the time the surveys were 
made, berries were marketed 
through two large cooperatives and 
a few independent cranberry ship- 
pers. Now one cooperative handles 
over three quarters of the crop and 
some of the sales organizations 
have gone out of business. 

All cranberries used to be 
shipped to the fresh market, but 
in 1919, about 2000 barrels, or a 
half of one percent of the crop, 
were processed. The amount pro- 
cessed has increased very rapidly, 
until now over half of the crop 
is canned. In some years a decade 
ago, on a percentage basis, the 
West Coast has put the largest 
amount into processing but now 
they are making an effort to ship 
fresh fruit from Oregon and 
Washington. For more than a 
decade over two-thirds of the New 
Jersey crop has been processed. 
The percentage of the crop canned 
in Massachusetts is about the same 
as the percentage canned in the 
United States, or about half. The 
Wisconsin crop generally is hand- 
led mostly as fresh fruit. The 
Canadian Crop is also sold largely 
as fresh fruit. With increased 
production and decreased per 



Percentage of Acres Harvested by Different Methods 









Method 








Hand 




Water 




Section 




Scoop* 


Machine** 


Reel 


Yacuam 


Mass. 




55 


45 








N. J. *** 




60 


40 








Wise. 




34 


66 





. 


Ore. 




5 


29 


54 


12 


Wash. 












Long 


Beach 





4 


96 





Grayland 





34 


1 


65 



* The scoop in Massachusetts and New Jersey refers to a short-handled 
scoop used dry. In Wisconsin, it refers to a long-handled scoop used 
in water. In Oregon, it means either or both used dry. 

**In Oregon and Washington, the machine refers to a Western; in 
Massachusetts and New Jersey, machine refers to a Western or a 
Darlington; and in Wisconsin, it refers to a Case or a Getsinger 
used in water. 

***Ne\v Jersey percentages estimated, 



Ten 



6apit« eonsumption, in the futur« 
they will probably have greater 
quantities of cranberries processed 
than at the present time. 

Literature used in addition to 
that previously cited: 

Cranberry Station Reports, 1911 
through 1920. 

Crowley, D. J. The Cultivated 
Cranberry in Washington. Wash. 
Agr. Sta. Bui. 349. 1937. 

Crowley, D. J. Cranberry Grow- 
ing in Washington. Wash. Agr. 
Expt. Sta.. Bui. 554, 1954. 



MISS CHANDLER CHOSEN 
FOREIGN EXCHANGE 
STUDENT 

Miss Elizabeth Chandler, daugh- 
ter of Dr. and Mrs. F. B. Chand- 
ler of Front street, Marion, Mass., 
has been named a foreign ex- 
change student by the American 
Field Service. She was notified 
recently by the New York office 
of the AFS. She is a junior at 
Wareham High school. The group 
will study in Europe this summer. 

Dr. Chandler of the Massachu- 
setts Cranberry Experiment Sta- 
tion is of course, widely known 
throughout the cranberry "world". 



NCA Directors 

To New Jersey 

April 24 

Vv''hen National Cranberry Asso- 
ciation's 24-member Board of 
Directors and cooperative officials 
meet at Cherry Hill, Haddonfield, 
April 24, it will be a historic 
''first" meeting in New Jersey 
since the incorporation meetings in 
1930. At that time, a merger 
was made of the canning opera- 
tions of Cranberry Products Com- 
pany of New Egypt, New Jersey, 
and two Massachusetts companies. 
Ocean Spray Preserving Company 
and A. D. Makepeace, to form a 
cranberry growers' cooperative 
under the name of Cranberry 
Canners, Inc. Membership of the 
new cooperative was made up of 
cranberry growers of New Jersey 
and Massachusetts. The late Mrs. 
Elizabeth Lee, owner of the New 
Jersey company, went down in the 
annals of cranberry history as 
the New Jersey founder of the 
present national cooperative that 
nov/ handles 74% of the U. S. 
cranberry crop. 

Expansion of membership to in- 
clude the cranberry-producing 
areas of Wisconsin, Washington 




CROP DUSTS 
For Airoraft Applieation 

are available on the Cape from 
R. C. MOSSMAN 

Horticultural Sales 

30 South Msin Street 

West iridgewater, Massachusetts 

Tel. JUs^iper 3-9112 

representing 

The HUBBARD-HALL CHEMICAL CO. 

Csnera! Offices: Waterbury, Conn. 



jjj.s." !i - ! Ji. i i- i XI- : \. U_ 



and Oregon followed the merg^lf 
and the name Cranberry Canners, 
Inc. was appropriately changed to 
National Cranberry Association in 
1946. 

The New Jersey cranberry-pro- 
cessing plant is in BordentoTSTi 
and has been managed by Enoch 
F. Bills since the 1930 merger. 
Mr. Bills is a well-known cran- 
berry grower and the nephew of 
Elizabeth Lee. 

Cranberries are native to New 
Jersey and cultivation for com- 
mercial use began here as early as 
1835. Mr. Bills' father was one 
of the early pioneers and built his 
first bogs in 1890. 

Enoch Bills has carried on the 
family tradition and was recently 
honored for his contribution to 
Nev/ Jersey agriculture by the 
Board of Agriculture. Burlington 
County. Mr. Bills served on the 
cooperative's Board of Directors 
from 1942 to 1957 and will be 
host to the present Board when 
they visit the Bordentown plant 
on the 23rd to tour the processing 
operations and to meet with New 
Jersey growers. 

Accompanying the Board mem- 
bers will be Ambrose E. Stevens, 
National Cranberry Association's 
general manager, and President 
George C. P. Olsson; and staff 
members, Kenneth G. Garside, 
director of operations; L. E. 
Proesch, director of marketing; 
H. Drew Flegal, director of adver- 
tising and public relations; John 
F. Harriott, assistant treasurer 
and E. J. Gaufrhan, controller. 

New Jersey Directors are: John 
E. Cutts, Vincentown; Thomas B. 
Darlington, New Lisbon; William 
S. Haines, Chatsworth. 



FOR SALE 

3, 6 cyl., 500 g.p.m. 

CHRYSLER IRRIGATION 

PUMPS 

Automatic Safety Controls. 6" 
Flex-o-seal suction pipe and 
discharge fittings for each unit. 

L C SPRING 

Indian Brook 
Manomet, Mass. 



fikv^ft 



Allentown (PaJ Editor Leads Cranberry Crusade, Larger Servinas 

Bulletin — Pennsylvania House page of the Allentown paper. The i-caU-J writer 



of Representatives has under con- 
sideration a bill recommending- that 
restauranteurs, serve larger por- 
tions of cranberries in their res- 
taurants in order to enhance meals 
arid' "to ^satisfy the desire of pa- 
t^^s:_'foi- this desirable delicacy. 

"'i'hV'^bill has been referred to 
the Committee on Rules. 

Bill further points out thul "It 
is of utmost importance that no 
item be overlooked which can 
contribute to the completeness of 
meals seived in home or in res- 
taurants. Cranberries and can- 
berry sauce, long- established foods 
which have been appreciated dur- 
ing the holiday seasons of Christ- 
mas and Thanksgiving can ad- 
mirably make this contribution 
throughout the year." 



For some years John Y. Kohl 
ha^ been smoldering abort the 
small servings of cranberry sauce 
he received in restaurants, and 
occasionally he would air his 
feelings in his v/eekly editorial 
column called "This and That" in 
the Sunday Call-Chronicle Avhich 
he has edited for thirty years. 

By December, his remark? b 
came so saucy that the niivo- ■ 
the city of Allentown wrote a 
proclamation of whereases and 
Be it resolveds making 1958 the 
year of the Cranberry Crusade, 
stafng "and, FURTHER, I hereby 
desi'jnate citizen John Y. Koh^ 
columnist and gourmet, Chairman 
of Said Crusade, and in evidence 
thereof I herewith sign my name 
with a pen of two colors, silver 
and cranberry red, which pen I 
herewith entrust to said John Y. 
Kohl that it might ever remind 
him of the trust imposed upon 
him by Americans the country 
.over who are dedicated to the 
:;cause of MORE CRANBERRY 
;SAUCE WITH TURKEY." 

From that time on the Crusade 
was off to a big start with Mr. 
Kohl editorializing week after 
week and quoting people who 
were staunchly behind the crusade. 
A Queen was chosen, Mrs. Ralph 
C. Swartz, because she made the 
dandiest cranberry chutney and 
her picture and recipe.s covered a 



writer v : 
v.'rote of the cru-sai. . 
that appeared in newspapers froci 
ceast to coast. (Mr. Othman ha. 
since passed away.) 

In Hanson, NCA pi:blicist Bett;/ 



campaign was endorsed by chefb> 
school children, political figures 
and just plain diner-outers. Ai 
lentown restaurants and hotels 
began bringing on cranberry 
sauce in soup dishes, especially Buchan was keeping the mails : 
when campaigner Kohl was dining Allentown bright v/ith cranberr:. 
there. information, and Ocean Spray 

George M. Leader, then Goven- gales in the Allentown area show- 
er of Pennsylvania, wrote, "It gd a decided increase in botl. 
seems tragic that workers who fresh fruit and processed products- 
go into cranberry bogs to pick cranberry sauce of course, 
cranberries can have so little to q^ December 16th she journey- 



show for their etTorts at State 
functions and public banquets, 
am unequivocally in favor of cran- 
berry sauce — in huge quantities — 
I realize that this broad statement 
may be political suicide, but on 
behalf of the cranberry bog work- 
ers and Pennsylvania gourmets, 
1 am willing to stake my political 
future." 



ed to Allentown to pay tribute to 
the crusade and the crusaders at 
a luncheon for loyal followers. 
The menu was cranberry punch, 
ham with cranberry glaze, cran- 
berry jellied salad, vegetables, 
ice cream with cranberry topping, 
and the Cranberry Queen brought 
festive jars of her cranberry chut- 



To the dismay of his followers, ney as gifts. 



(: .^xiior Leader was not re-elect- 
-i but the Cranberry Crusade 
V c it on. 

a November, Mr. Kohl wrote f 
;" tm-e article called "Cranberry 

ice 'All-American' " and syn- 



On a display table was the 

Cranberry Crusade Proclamation, 

the pen that signed it, and other 

mem.ento centered around a small 

paper cup bearing the sign "Hor- 



msmm)NTROL 




qqins ^^Irwaui 

MM NORWOOD. MASS. ' 

DUSTING and SPRAYING 



RAY MORSE, Agent 



TEL. WAREHAM 1553-W 



Twelve 





4 



iif'-^-^''' 




FOR BIGGER CRANBERRY SERVINGS— 
cranberry crusade chairman John Y. Kohl, editor 
of the Sunday Call-Chronicle, and Allentown's 
Mayor Donald V. Hock receive certificates mak- 
ing them Cranberry Merchants from Betty 
Buchan, publicity manager of NCA at a cran- 
berry crusade luncheon at the Lehigh Valley 



Club in Allentown, Pennsylvania. Miss Buchan 
also presented authentic cranberry scoops full of 
Oc^an Spray to the two dignitaries 'who have 
been campaigning all year against the little 
paper cups of cranberry sauce served at many 
restaurants and hotels. 



rible Example of Microscopic 
Cranberry Cup " All of which 
were presented to Miss Buchan to 
be on display at the cranberry 
museum at Onset, Mass. this sum- 
mer. Mayor Hock was the featur- 
ed speaker. 

Newspaper stories, radio inter- 
views and even hotel advertising 
heralded the climax of the cam- 
paign and members of National 
Cranberry Association will be glad 
to know that come spring, cran- 
berry vines from New Jersey will 
be planteci in Allentown's park, 



and John Kohl, who now owns a 
share of preferred stock in Nat- 
ional Cranberry Association, is 
still beating the drums for larg- 
er cranberry servings. 

HERBICIDES AND WATER 

Overhead irrigation proved more 
effective than furrow irrigation 
for weed control in recent USDA- 
State studies using several pre- 
emergence herbicides at Weslaco, 
Tex. 

ARS horticulturist R. M. Men- 
ges reported th^t downward 



movement of herbicides increased 
with overhead inrrigation. Fur- 
row irrigation tended to leave the 
chemicals on soil surface away 
from germinating weed seeds. 

Studies using 4 pounds of either 
CDEC (2-chloToally diethyldithio- 
carbamate) or EPTC (ethyl N,N- 
di-n-propylthiolcarbamate) to 40 
gallons of water, showed 97-per- 
cent weed control with overhead 
irrigation, but 61 percent with 
furrow irrigation. — Agricultural 
Research 



^■ 



A Concentrate 
Sprayer For Bog 
Cranberry Use 

(Editor's Note: The following is 
a talk given at the March meet- 
ings of the Massachusetts Cran- 
berry Clubs). 

by 

Prof. William E. Tomlinson 
Mass. Cran. Expt. Station 

"We have now had two years 
experience with the ground con- 
centrate spray rig on cranberry 
bogs. In general, results have 
been favorable for the application 
of both insecticides and fungicides, 
and it is very probable that certain 
broadcast weedicide applications 
can also be made with this rig. 
We have obtained good commercial 
control of insects, including cran- 
berry fruitworms, and the com- 
mon rot inducing fungi. 

Why this interest in a spray rig 
that runs on the bog and in so 
doing damages the bog and reduces 
the crop ? I feel that the amount 
of injury has been exaggerated in 
many growers' minds and what 
injury may occur is made up for 
by the improved insect and disease 
control that is obtained by better 
timing of applications. It is a rig 
that the small to medium acreage 
grower can afford individually or 
in a group. Weather, short of 
rain, need not upset timing which 



is one of ita most important 
assets. It covers acreage quickly 
as well as effectively. Relatively 
small amounts of water needed. 
No large crew of men necessary 
and it is adaptable to other equip- 
ment used on bogs. Sprays are 
more effective than dusts and are 
cheaper than dusts. 

The disadvantages are in the 
tracking up of bogs and consequent 
loss of crop which, as I said be- 
fore, I feel is exaggerated. We 
have been using a rig made on an 
old cranberry duster at the State 
Bog for two years and I am sure 
that you would have difficulty 
showing any reduction of crops 
from its use. 

Other Rigs 
Louis Sherman has developed a 
rig on the same basic principal 
but with a different method of 
transporting and a much longer 
boom arrangement. J. J. Beaton 
Company used cub tractors for 
transporting their rigs with power 
to pump supplied by power take- 
off. Carleton Barrows has develop- 
ed a very light, self-propelled rig 
for carrying the boom only; the 
; pray being supplied to the boom 
"rrm a rip; on the shore through 
''""U diameter, light-we'Tht hose. 
'^e s"V"'.y is purn"ed thr^- '''' 
. ydr:ai'i'c atomizin;;- iizzii'.zs that 
^e'*ver from 15 to 20 gallons per 



HORTICULTURAL SALE 

35 South Main St. 
West Bridgewater, Mass. 

"Bob Mossman" Prop. 
Tel. JUniper 3-9112 



CRANBERRY GROWERS SUPPLIES 

WEED AND BRUSH KILLERS 

WEEDAZOL (50% AMINO TRIAZOLE) 

Insecticides — Fungicides — Herbicides 
Aerial Spraying and Dusting 



Both fan shapeil and cone shaped 
spray pattern nozzles are avail- 
able, and I can't tell you definitely 
that one is better than the other. 
We have worked with the cone 
pattern because, at least theoretic- 
ally, it should give better cover- 
age and breakup than the fan 
pattern. We have worked in the 
range of 25-30 gallons of spray 
per acre at 60 P.S.I, in most of 
our tests, using about a 4X to a 6X 
concentration with insecticides and 
12X with fungicides. 

In concentrate spraying, it is 
generally agreed that the cov- 
erage must be such that the dis- 
tance between drops deposited will 
not be much more than 1 mm. 
(1/25 inch). Drops 1 mm. apart 
readily coalesce when rain or dew 
occurs. All foliage of course 
should be hit by the spray. Apply- 
ing about 30 gallons per acre at 
60 P.S.I, provides relatively good 
break-up of the spray into small 
droplets, and good depos'tion on 
the plant where the nozzles are 
spaced 20 inches apart on the 
boom and the boom is about 20-22 
inches above the tops of the vines. 
Pumps Most Important 

The most important nart of a 
low gallonage sprayer is the pump. 
Piston pumps will handle any 
material that you can put through 
the sprayer with less wfar and 
consequent longev trouble-fre° 
operation. However, thev are 
heavier and more bulky thin w" 
like, and more expensive to pur- 
chase. 

We have used the nylon roller 
pump. This pump is light, com- 
pact, inexpensive, ideal for liquids, 
and gives reasonably good service 
with wettable powders which are 
somewhat abrasive. Gear pumps 
should be used with liquid only, 
while diaiihram pumps will handle 
both liquids and wettable powders 
without wearing. 

Booms 

The boom should be non-corro- 
sive, aluminum or stainless steel 
pipe or tubing being most satis- 
factory. Galvanized or black iron 
may be used but are likely to cause 
trouble because of rust scale for- 
mation, and they are too heavy in 
long lengths. With proper sup- 
ports, booms up to 30 feet and 



Fourte^en 



longer riay be used. At a forward 

u ^^i^i o^.iity all acre in about 
5% minutes, and in just over 4 
minutes at 5 mph. Of course, you 
can't average any speed lil^e that 
because you have to refill, cross 
iitches and the like, but with the 
proper set-up you should be able 
to do an acre every 10 to 15 min- 
utes. 

The longer the boom, the more 
tendency for the ends to whip, 
Fand if the bog is as uneven as the 
1 State Bog, the sprayer may roll 
so that one end of the boom 
would dig into the vines unless a 
shoe or slide is provided to pre- 
vent this, while the up end would 
be too high for good penetration 
and even coverage by the spray. 
Nozzles 

As I mentioned before, there are 
two basic types of nozzle — the fan 
and the cone type. There are , 
several makes available and all 
work satisfactorily. Get a kind 
that will accommodate different 
types of tips so that you can vary 
your spray pattern and discharge 
rate without having to change the 
whole nozzle, and use tungstan 
cai^bide or hardened stainless steel 
tips and cores for longest wear. 
Such tips and cores cost more 
initially but require less frequent 
replacement and are actually 
cheaper in the long run. Each 
nozzle should discharge at a uni- 
form rate. Any wear to the tip 
will change the delivery rate. This 
is particularly likely with suspen- 
sions such as zineb. 

Nozzle capacities are figured 
with plain water at about 68° F. 
Adding emulsifiable concentrates 
will increase the discharge rate 
albove the nozzle rating, while 
suspended materials, such as zineb, 
will decrease the discharge rate 
some compared to water. 

Oil drums make a satisfactory 
spray tank, but don't plan to use 
them more than one season or you 
will be continually plagued with 
rust scales in the strainers and 
nozzles. 

A pressure regulator is neces- 
sary between the pump and the 
boom to maintain constant pres- 
sure delivery to the boom. A 
pressure guage should be installed 



in the line between the pressure 
_- lalor c>nd tlie boom where it 
can be easily checked by the 
operator while the machine is in 
motion. 

A quick acting shut-off valve 
should be placed in the line be- 
tween the pressure regulator and 
the boom. Three-way valves are 
necessary with sectional booms 
which enable the operator to use 
sections independently of the 
others, or all together, or shut off 
all quickly. 

A suction strainer on the end 
of the suction hose, a line strainer 
in the line, and nozzle strainers 
will reduce trouble from clogged 
nozzles. With low gallonage con- 
centrates you are working with 
small openings that clog easily, 
so strain everything if you would 
save time that you will otherwise 
waste unplugging nozzles. 

Use synthetic rubber or plastic 
hoses that are resistant to oils. 
The suction hose should be rein- 
forced with wire and be at least 
%" inches inside diameter. 

Cluster nozzles or 'boomless 
sprayers will not provide as uni- 
form coverage as a boom and 
nozzles. This is particularly true 
when there is wind. Boomless 
sprayers are not recommended for 
cranberry bog spraying. 

Nozzle manufacturers have 
tables of nozzle capacities that 
will enable you to figure roughly 
how much spray will be applied 
per acre at different speeds and 
pressures. However, the sprayer 
should be calibrated with the ac- 
tual spray mixture at a fixed 
speed as follows: 

1. Set 2 stakes a measured dis- 
tance apart. The greater the dis- 
tance, the more accurate the re- 
sults. 

2. Fill sprayer Avith spray mix- 
ture and run to see that all nozzles 
are functioning properly. Close 



valve to boom. 

3. Refill tank completely. 

4. Set sprayer in motion back 
of stake with throttle in marked 
position and boom valve closed. 

5. Open boom valve as tractor 
passes first stake. 

6. Drive in a steady, straight 
line without changing throttle 
setting. 

7. Shut off boom as sprayer 
passes second stake. 

8. Carefully measure amount of 
water needed to refill tank. 

(SEE TABLE BELOW) 
Thus: 

Apply the recommended amount 
of insecticide in each 24 gallons 
of water. 

Some precautions to observe 
with the concentrate sprayer are: 

1. Don't let spray mixture sitin 
tank and lines during lunch hour 
or overnight, but spray out tankful 
before stopping work. 

2. Rinse thoroughly at end of 
each days operations. 

3. Clean strainers daily or more 
often if you would avoid grief 
from clogged nozzles. 

4. All the usual precautions that 
must be taken when applying 
poisonous substances, such as 
proper clothing and respirators. 

5. Don't dump or rinse sprayer 
near streams or ponds. 



SUBSCRIBE TO 
CRANBERRIES MAGAZINE 



The rate per acre is calculated as follows: 



Gals, used X 43560 ft. 



Distance between stakes X width of swath equals gals./acre 



For Example: 



5 gals. X 4356 2178 
equals equals 24.2 gals./aere 



300 X 30 



90 



Fifteen 



The Cranberry Story 

DEVELOPMENT 




PART TWO 



"^"^ • By i,,,. . . 

Gilbert T. Beaton 

Secretary-Treasurer 

Cranberry Institute 

Sei.und of a series of 4 articles on the history of the Cranberry industry spon- 
sored by the Cranberry Institute. They will cover: Part III, Fresh Cranberry 
Marketing; and Part IV, Processed Cranberries. 

in-^; districts." The early historic 
marshes in the Berlin area have 



The first century in the cran- 
berry industry proved that cran- 
berries were to be accepted and 
used in all parts of this great 
country. Changes in agricultural 
practices were very pronounced 
following World War One. Crop 
reporting service bulletin No. 229, 
states: "It will be noticed that 
the crop is now grown in four 
of Wisconsin's nine crop report- 



Leen abandoned. The Central dis- 
trict which includes Wood County, 
i:i 1948 represented about 47% 
of the total Wisconsin acreage. 
The West Central district includ- 
ing Jackson and Monroe Counties 
represented a little less than 33% 
followed by the North Central 
district 13% and the Northwestern 




In Wisconsin weeds are attacked via the "Brooklyn Bridge" at 
Cutler Cranberry Company and Du-Bay Cranberry Company. 



district 9%. The present acreage 
in Wisconsin is somewhat over 
4,000 acres, showing a 100% in- 
crease since 1925. 

Considerable changes have tak- 
en place in the cranberry in- 
dustry in 25 years. From 1900 — 
1930 the average yield per acre 
was 19.1 compared to 23.1 bar- 
I'els per acre in Massachusetts, 

13.7 barrels per acre in New 
Jersey. Washington and Oregon 
had no official government re- 
porting u..tii the year 1924, so no 
comparison is made here. 

Acreage in Massachusetts in- 
creased in 1925 from 13,900 acres 
to a high of 15,000 in 1949. This 
acreage has since declined to 
approximately 13,000 acres, show- 
ing an actual decline of 900 acres 
since 1925. New Jersey has stead- 
ily declined from a figure of 
10,900 in 1925 to 3,000 acres in 
1957. A considerable amount of 
this acreage was abandoned to 
be planted with a more profitable 
crop, cultivated blueberries. Wash- 
ington and Oregon have increased 
steadily from 1925, starting out 
with 570 acres to their present 
1,420 acres. The average crop 
per acre has shown a steady in- 
crease, since the early 1930's. The 
last 10 year average through the 
year 1957 shows Wisconsin with 

69.8 barrels per acre, Washington 
and Oregon with 64.1 barrels per 
acre, Massachusetts 39.6 barrels 
per acre and New Jersey 18.1. 

iMassashusetts and New Jersey 
should show the largest increase 
in barrels per acre for several 
years due to two main factors. 
P'irst: mechanical picking has be- 
come popular in Massachusetts 
and New Jersey in the last two 
or three years. Last year for the 
first time, approximately 85% of 
the Massachusetts crop was ma- 
chined picked and approximately 
80';^ of the New Jersey crop. The 
second factor has been elimination 
of marginal bogs, allowing the 
growers to concentrate on their 
better producing property. 

In 1927, Dr. Henry J. Franklin 
slated that the false blossom 
disease in Massachusetts may re- 
quire the discovery of a new late 
variety to replace the Howes. 

(ADVT.; 



Sixteen 




rmi" 



Airplane dusting was first tried in 1835, and toda 
from airplanes and helicopters protect cranberry bogs 



This disease, for several years 
now, in Massachusetts and New 
Jersey has been fairly well con- 
trolled. This was broug'ht about 
by Dr. Franklin's research, prov- 
1 ing' the carrier of the false blos- 
som disease was the blunt nose 
leaf hopper. . 

In 1931, Dr. E. A. Richmond who 
who was employed by the Crop 
Protection Institute in coopera- 
tion with the East Wareham Ex- 
perimental Station, conducted 
tests using a mixture of dust to 
control insect infestation. Similar 
dusting experiments were carried 
on as early as 1921 in Massachu- 
setts with horse-drawn vehicles. 
However, at that time it did not 
pi'ove successful. The use of a 
dust mixture, rather than a spray 
insecticid'C control enaibled the 
Massachusetts and New Jersey 
growers to control the blunt nose 
leaf hopper carrying the disease, 
because they were able to dust in 
full bloom, when all of the leaf 
hoppers had hatched. 

In 1935 airplane dusting was 
tested extensively with over 100 



acres of cranberry bogs being 
treated. Today during the grow- 
ing season, helicopters and planes 
are a familiar sight, dusting, 
spraying and fertilizing bogs in 
most areas. 

Also in 1931, Dr. William Sawy- 
er v/as employed, temporarily, on 
funds provided by the Cape Cod 
Cranberry Growers Association, to 
find ways and means of controll- 
ing craniberry bog weeds, using 
chemical weed killers. (Kerosene 
and distillate were used on Wash- 
ington bogs as early as 1926.) He 
carried on this experimental work 
until 1938 Avhen it was taken over 
ty Dr. Chester E. Cross, now in 
charge of the East Wareham Ex- 
pjlimental Station. With more 
acreage being planted in Wiscon- 
sin and the West Coast, increased 
production per acre in Nev/ Jersey 
and Massachusetts, it requires no 
foresight to predict a 1,500,000 
barrel crop in the near future. 

The changes that the cranber- 
ry industry has undergone in re- 
cent years are making it no longer 
feasible to farm much of the 



y, dust sprayed 

against insects. 

^■. - ' "'-.i'i 

marginal land which in the past, ,i 
even at its best, was unable tOvi 
supply the grower witn the bare 
necessities of life. . ■ 

The cranberry grower and Ms ■ 
marketing agent, because of in-^ 
creased competition in all lines 
of food, should give more :; 
thorough consideration ■ to con-^--- 
sumer demand, resulting in a more 
adequate supply of good quality 
cranbei-ry products. - 

(ADVT.) r 



<l~>i 



ERS 



ISTRIBUTORS 
^'ROCESSORS 

SUPPORT YOUR 

Cranberry 

Institute 

AND IT WILL 
SUPPORT YOU 

Seventeen 




A Cape Cod Harvest Scene of a By-Gone Day, N o Mechanization. 



Wareham, England 
Couple To Visit 
Cranberry Highway 

The Town of Wareham, Mass- 
achusetts, and the Cranberry 
Hig-hw'ay Association intend to 
roll out a cranberry-red carpet 
in welcome of a Wareham, Eng- 
land couple in May. The couple 
is Mr. and Mrs. D. R. Gilmore. 

The town clerk of Wareham, 
England has sent a letter to 
Wareham, Massachusetts select- 
men, saying-, "Naturally we shall 
be very interested to hear from 
them an account of your town and 
hope you find it possible to give 
them an opportunity of seeing 
Wareham to the best advantage." 

The two chambers of commerce 
in Wareham, Wareham and Onset, 
a village of Wareham, have been 
notified and the Cranberry High- 
way Association as well. Special 
events are planned in Wareham 
and Onset in honor of the English 
couple. They will be shown the 
high-way from Middleboro to 
Bourne and along the Cape Cod 
Canal via route 6-A to Orleans. 
They will be guests of Cranberry 
Highway motels and restaurants 
and will be taken on special High- 
wmy tours. 




FOR PREFABRICATED FLUMES 

SEE 

RUSSELL A. TRUFANT 



PREFAERKATED R^AU 
UN!ON 6-3696 



lOG RAfLROAE^S 
North Carver, Mass. 



WsHt«*M 



. J 



,dlt^«ls 



ISSUE OF APRIL 1959 
VOL 23 - NO. 12 



\^^^^^'>^tu<i^^^ 



WINTER LINGERED O'ER LONG 

This is April and spring really seems 
to have arrived- Spring to a native Cape 
Codder doesn't arrive until the herring 
(alewives) start running. They are now 
running up the streams and rivers over 
the Southeastern Massachusetts area. 

We hope you v^ill enjoy this April 
issue. We think there is considerable of 
interest. There is the story concerning 
the Allentown Crusade to get bigger cran- 
berry sauce helpings in restaurants. Dr. 
F. B. Chandler has another of his interest- 
ing articles on "Cranberries in North 
America." 

There is also the latest news on the 
campaign in Massachusetts to rename a 
highway from Middleboro, to Orleans on 
the Cape "The Cranberry Highway." 
(Miss Cranberry Highway adorns our 
cover.) This is route 6-A, probably the 
most quaint and certainly one of the most 
historic roads on the Cape. Highway passes 
through Wareham. There is the compar- 
itively new Mid-Cape Highway which has 
taken much of the traffic from 6-A on 
the Cape proper. 

The Cranberry Highway Association 
which has been formed to promote tourism 
along the "Cranberry Highway" believes 
the very name will attract tourists to this 
highway. There are stores where cran- 
berry items may be bought, restaurants 
where cranberries may be had with meals. 

All of this cranberry atmosphere can 
do the cranberry industry considerable 
good. Maybe some of these tourists have 
never heard of cranberries before or eaten 
any. It would seem they would want to 
buy a can of sauce, or a pound of fresh 
when in season. 

There is even some talk of painting 
the Cranberry Highway "cranberry red," 
but we would question this coming to pass. 

Finally we would point out there is 
another of the series of articles prepared 
for the Cranberry Institute by Gilbert T. 
Beaton. We are sure you will want to 
read this. It will remind you that the 
Institute is by no means defunct, but is 
ready to be of use to the industry. 



-W^I1»^BM ■iiigH^^M^^KH—^M-^M i»»«B^—ii» 



-— * 



CLARENCE J. HALL 

Editor and Publisher 

EDITH S. HALL — Associate Editor 

Wareham, Massachusetts 

SUBSCRIPTIONS, $3.50 Per 

Year, FOREIGN, $4.50 



CORRESPONDENTS— ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 

Cranberry Consultant 
Wisconsin Rapids 

Wisconsin 



Washington 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash. 



Oregon 

GRANT SCOTT 
Coquille, Ore. 

Massachusetts 

DR. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass. 



New Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 

Pemberton, New Jersey 



We don't know what kind of a mar- 
keting year we are going to have, but 
there is a U. S. population increase of 
nearly 3,000,000. Some of these may 
turn out to be "Cranberry Eaters." 



Of the late Walter Piper, Massachu- 
setts Dept. of Agriculture who contributed 
much to CRANBERRIES, it was recently 
written in "Food Marketing in New Eng- 
land," that "Walter Piper always saw 
the sun regardless of the weather." 

Nineteen 



WASHINGTON FROST 
SEASON STARTS 

As of mid-April Ralph E. Tid- 
rick, County Extension Agent of 
Pacific County Washington, urged 
growers that the past week of 
warm weather had started berries 
out of dormancy. Many buds were 
on the verge of breaking, he said. 
New uprights were starting from 
runners. Frost, he concluded would 
definitely delay their development. 

He recommended growers begin 
sprinkling. 



GOOD PICKIN' WITH CHICKEN 



idak$4ul 



RANBERRY ORANGE RELISH 
IN THlE FROZEN fOOD^ASE 



Wisconsin Crown 

Working For Growers 

Is A 

PLEASURE 

Merchandizing 

and Marketing 

Your Cranberries 





\ndumjnad 



FROZEN 
FRESH 



WHOLE 



INDIAN TRAIL Inc. 

P.O. Box 710 

Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin 



FIRST MASS FROST 

First general cranberry frost 
warning was sent out evening of 
May 21 from the Cranberry Ex- 
periment Station. Forecast was 
for 16. Lowest bog recorded was 
19, with a number in the low 20's. 

It was the opinion at State Bog 
that little or no damage was done. 
A slight breeze sprung up toward 
morning and there was also a 
little overcast. 

A second wai'ning was sent out 
following night for 17. Lows re- 
ported were 16, 17, 18 and 19. It 
was feared this may have caused 
some damage to colder bogs which 
could not be flooded. 



This is partially possible due to 
winter this year. With no frost in 
i.iaich and predictions of none tj 
follow in April, chances for a big 
crop this year is in evidence per- 
haps. 

Irrigation 

Under a new Agricultural Con- 
servation Pi-actice some of the 
growers are reorganizing existing 
irrigation systems on cranberry 
bogs to conserve water, by the 
installation of permanently lo- 
cated mainlines for sprinkler ir- 
! igation. 



Fresh From The Fields 
OREGON 

(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 6) 

gaged in winter work consisting- 
of digging drainage ditches, con- 
structing new irrigation systems 
and establishing new bogs. 
Mild Winter 



READ 



CRANBERRIES 



Slume Products Corp. 

Manufacturers of 

Grass Removal 

Equipment and 

Conveyors for 

Cranberry Growers 

For Information Write: 

Hume Products Corp. 

c/o Cranberry Products 
Inc. 

Eagle River, Wisconsin 



i 



OUR PRODUCTS 



Strained Cranberry Sauce 

Whole Cranberry Sauce 

Spiced Cransweets 

Cransweets 

Diced Cransweets 

Cranberry Apple Sauce 



Cranberry Orange Relish 

Cran-Vari 

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Cranberry Puree 

Cran-Puri 

Cran-Bake 






Cranberry-Strawberry Preserve Cranberry-Raspberry Preserve 
Cranberry-Cherry Preserve Cranberry-Rhubarb Preserve 

Cranberry-Pineapple Preserve 

Cranberry Products, Inc. 

EAGLE RIVER, WISCONSIN 



wmmm^^mmmi^^^m^mm^m^^mmmi^mm^mm^mmmmmmi^^^m. 



Twenty 



VIN6 TH 






FOR SALE 

SEARLES JUMBO 
HOWES, McFARLIN 

Vines 
for delivery in 1959 

$125,00 Ton FJJ 



INTERESTED 
IN 

PURCHASING 
WISCONSIN 
CRANBERRY 

PROPERTIES 

Vernon Goldsworthy 

EAGLE RIVER 
WISCONSIN 



DANA MACHINE& SUPPLY Co. 
Wis. Rapids Wis. 

MFGS. of: 

SPRAY BOOMS 

GRASS CLIPPERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS 

G«tsinger Retracto tooth 

pickers 

Dryers 

DISTR. of: 

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ROLLER CHAINS 

SPROCKETS & BEARINGS 

CONVEYOR BELTING 

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Your Foreman 

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Subscription to 

Cranberries; too 



Cranberry growers have enjoyed 
two decades of successful use of 

KROP-SAVER 

Insecticides, Fungicides and Herbicides 
Better Chemicals For Agriculture 

Crop-Saver Chemical Company 

Spring Green, Wisconsin 



THE ONLY 

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WISCONSIN 

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and 

FLOW GATES 

Felker Sros. Mfg. Co. 

MARSHFIELD WISCONSIN 
Phone 230 - 231 



THIS SPACE IS COIN' TO WASTE! 



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Here's help with your biggest food expense 





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MAY, and pretty Joyce Westgate, 19, Massachusetts savors a bouqiitl 
Mayflowers. (See page 6) (Cranberries iPho 



35 Cents 



MAY 1959 



^f>*Mfm^-^^^''^'' 



DIR?i:CTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWERS 



Wcrcester Paper 
Box Corporation 

MEDFORD, MASS. 
Tel. MYstic 8-5305 

Manufacturers 

of 
Folding Cartons 

and 

Displays 



WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STODDARD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

Franconia Coal Co. 
— Inc. — 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. CY 5-0039 



CRANBERRY 
GROWERS 

Choose and Use 

Niagara Dusts, Sprays and 

Dusters 

Niagara Chemical 
Division 

Food Machinery and 
Chemical Corporation 

Middleport, New York 

New England Plant and Warehouse 

Ayer, Mass. Tel. Spruce 2-2365 



Wareham Savings 

Bank 
Falmouth Branch 

Welcome Savings Account 

Loans on Real Estate 
Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 

PHONE CYpress 5-3800 
Kimball 8-3000 



The National Bank of Wareham 



Conveniently located for Cranberry Men 



Funds always available for sound loans 



Complete Banking Service 



Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. 



The 

CHARLES W. HARRIS 

Company 

26 Somerset Ave 
North Dighton, Mass. 

AMES 

Irrigation Systems 

Sprinklers 

Weed killers 

Insecticides 

Fungicides 

from 

Cal. Spray Chemical Company 

Dupont Company 



EQUIPMENT 

HAYDEN 

- SEPARATOR - 
WAREHAM, MASS. 

Irrigation Systems 
PUMPS 

SEPARATORS - BLOWERS 
SCREENHOUSE EQUIPMENT 

DARLINGTON 
PICKING MACHINES 



Extensive txperience in 
ELECTRICAL WORK 

ALFRED PAFPI 

.-\t Scieennouses, BoifS and 

Pumps Means Satisfaction 

WAREHAM MAS"^ Tel. CY 5-2000 



ADVERTISE 



in 



CRANBERRIES 



KEEP INFORMED ON CRANBERRY NEWS 
THROUGH CRANBERRIES MAGAZINE 



Tank Truck Service & High - Pressure Spraying 

WATER WHITE STODDARD 

KEROSENE SOLVENT 



TEL. 

'UNiON 6-4545 

BOTTLED 

GAS 
HEATING 

OILS 






COLEMAN 
HEATING 
AND AIR 

CONDITION- 
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Touraine Paints 



Hard 



ware 



SANDVIK 

SCYTHES 

(ALSO CALLED FINNISH SCYTHES) 

CARVER SUPPLY CO. 

UNioN 6-4480 

Carver, Mass. 



TAKE ADVANTAGE 

of the BETTER things of life. 

The efficient USE OF ELECTRICITY is one of 

these better things — efficient use in power for cran- 
berry bog operations, and in the home. 

Plymouth County Electric Co. 

WAREHAM - PLYMOUTH 
CYpress 5-0200 Pilgrim 6-1300 



WATER WHITE 
KEROSENE 

STODDARD SOLVENT 

(METERED TRUCKS) 

Petroleum Sales 
& Service, Inc. 

234 water street 

Plymouth, Mass. 

tel. pilgrim 6-1111 



MIDDLEBOROUCH 
TRUST COMPANY 



MIDDLEBORO 
MASS. 



Member of 

The Federal Deposit 

Insurance Corporation 



CRANBERRY PICKING 
BOXES 

Shooks, or Nailed 

Let me repair your broken 

boxes — or repair them yourself. 

Stock Always on Hand 

F. H. COLE 

Tel. Union 6-3330 
North Carver, Maaa. 



One 



VOLTA OIL CO. 

Distributor of the Famous 

TEXACO 

WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For your Bog 

STODDORD SOLVENT 

Tel. Pilgrim 6-1340 

Plymouth, Mass. 
Rte. 44 Samoset St. 



Attention Growers ! ! 

for 

your Spring 
weed control 

we offer 
water white 

kerosene 
"GRADE A" 

metered trucks 

STODDARD SOLVENT 

SUPERIOR 

FUEL COMPANY 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. CY 5-0093 



J. W. Hurley Co. 

• COAT. 

• NEW ENGLAND 
COKE 

• FUEL OIL 

Water White 

-KEROSENE- 

For BOGS 

(METERED TRUCKS) 

24-hour Fuel Oil Service 

Telephone CY 5-0024 
341 Main St. WAREHAM 



Carver, Mass. Has 
More Bog Acres 
Than People 

Vermont has more cows than 
peoiDle, as has Wisconsin. The 
town of Carver in Massachusetts 
has more acres of bog than people, 
according to the latest census 
figures for both. 



There were 1669 people in 
Carver. There were 2918 acres. 



READ CRANBERRIES 



Western Pickers 

Parts and Repairs 

Agent for 1959 Model 
ORDER NOW 

J. E. BRALEY & SON 

78 Gibbs Ave. 
Wareham, Mass. 

HAVE YOUR REPAIRS 
DONE NOW 



Get the right product 
for every pest problem 



Use 




... the first choice of 

Commercial Growers 
GENERAL CHEMICAL DIVISION 

ALLIED CHEMICAL CORPORATION 
40 Rector Street, New York 6, N. Y. 
58 Weybosset St., Providence, R. I. 



YOUR BEES-NESS 

IS MY BUSINESS 
RENTAL OF BEES 

$6.50 PER COLONY 

John Van de Poele 

West Abington, Mass. 
TRiangle 7-2656-R 



SHARON BOX COMPANY, Inc. 

ESTABLISHED 1856 

SHARON, MASSACHUSETTS 

We Will Buy Your White Pine Logs, 

Either Standing or Cut 

* Highest Prices Paid * 

Sawmill located at North Carver, Mass. Stop 
in at North Carver, or Phone Sharon, Sunset 4-2012 



Two 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Notes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 




Growers who received the ques- 
tionaire will recall that they were 
asked to give a frank appraisal 
of the present system. We have 
received an excellent return and 
the information was most help- 
ful to the frost committee. Results 
have been tabulated and the fol- 
lowing summary prepared: 

Many inquiries have come to 
our attention regarding the winter 
killing and leaf drop damage oc- 



Fungicides on "Soft" Bogs 

Temperatures in April averaged 
1.7° per day above normal — the 
first month since last November 
when temperatures were aibove 
normal. Rainfall was slightly 
above average with 4.09 inches 
recorded at our station compared 
to a mean of 3.85 inches. Incident- 
ally, with temperatures and rain- 
fall above normal, our keeping- 
quality forecast was definitely not 
strengthened. Weather factors to 
date (May 7) strongly indicate 
the need for fungicides on those 
bogs that usually produce weak 
fruit if our marketing agencies 
are to have an adequate supply of 
sound fruit this fall. The month of 
May will have to be cool and dry 
if the Final Keeping Quality 
Forecast is to show any marked 
improvement. 

More on Frost Service List 
The first general frost warning- 
was released Wednesday, April 22, 
and was followed by another the 
next evening. Since that time, no 
general warnings were issued but 
we have been in touch with the 
inland bogs on several nights as 
these bogs tend to advance faster 
and drop to lower temperatures in 
the spring. The lowest tempera- 
ture reported during- this period 
was 16° and occurred at Green, 
R.I., on April 22. The frost warn- 
ing service has functioned smooth- 
ly and we are pleased to report 
that there are 197 subscribers to 
the telephone relay system, which 
is a definite increase over last 
year. 

Frost Questionaire 
Reference has been made in 
this column to a frost questionaire 
that was to be sent to those who 
have subscribed to the telephone 
service sponsored by the Cape Cod 
Cranberry Growers Association. 



SUMMARY OF THE 1959 FROST WARNING QUESTIONAIRE 

Number receiving- the Questionairs 210 

Number of growers returning the Questionaire 143 

Percent returned 68% 

Percentage 
Yes No 

1. Does the frost pad introduced last year for taking down 

the message sei-ve a useful purpose ? 92 8 

2. Is the term Local Balance as used in the warnings under- 
stood ? 92 8 

3. Do you know how your bog temperatures compare 

with the warnings? 96 4 

4. Do the conditional warnings, such as "If winds die out" 

or "If it clears" convey helpful information? 99 1 

5. Do you make use of the radio warnings which supple- 
ment the telephone relay system? 71 29 

6. Do you think the Cranberry Station is taking too many 
chances on near or border line frost nights by not re- 
leasing a warning 19 81 

7. Do you understand that these warnings were developed 

for the cooler than average bogs — not the coldest bog 96 4 

8. Do you check weather conditions and your bog temp- 
erature on those nights when no warnings are released 77 23 

9. Have you been seriously hurt by frost in the last few 
seasons on a night when no frost warning was released 

from the Station 7 93 

10. Where are your thermometers located? Number indicat- 
ing on bog 51, on upland 43, other positions 5 

11. Do you check the accuracy of your thermometers each 

season 74 26 

12. What radio and TV weather programs do you depend on 
for your information? 

Number preferring WBZ - 50, Don Kent - 88, 
WHDH - 23, WEEI - 19, WBSM - 6, WOCB - 5, 
Miscellaneous 4. 

13. Would daily radio weather forecasts dealing primarily 
with expected minimum bog temperatures and beamed 
to cranberry growers during the frost be a suitable 
alternative to our present telephone relay system 36 64 

14. Any suggestions for improving the frost warning service 
would be greatly appreciated. A total of 22 made obser- 
vations or suggestions as follows: 

12 expressed their general satisfaction with present 

system. 
7 wanted earlier report in afternoon and evening. 
1 wanted information on wind velocities. 
1 wanted information on warning trends. 
1 wanted warnings on borderline frost nights. 



Thre'e 



curling- on Massachusetts bogs 
this spring. This type of damage 
is difficult to appraise but, after 
numerous bog visits made by 
various members of our staff, 
there is general agreement that 
the crop may have been reduced 
by as much as 10 percent. Certain- 
ly, there is more of this damage, 
particularly winter killing, than 
we first expected. 

In late April, the writer was 
asked to arrange and appear on 
a cranberry TV show on Channel 
5, Boston, featuring the production 
of Massachusetts' number one 
fruit. A miniature bog built by 
Bob Rich, of the National Cran- 
bex'ry Association was used on the 
show to illustrate certain produc- 
tion practices. We discussed the 
history of our industry, showed 
kodachrome slides of vai'ious bog 
operations and a display of old 
scoops used over 50 years ago. 
Check List for May to Mid-June 

The following reminders are 
called to the growers' attention: 

1. Early spring pests will soon 
be with us. The trusty insect net 
is still the best method of locating 
weevils, false armyworms, blossom 
worms, spanworms, leafhoppers 
and fire worms. Sparganothis 
fruit worms, on the other hand, 
can best be detected by carefully 
examining the webbed tips of 
loosestrife. If these pests are con- 
trolled in May and June, parti- 
cularly those that have a new or 
second brood such as weevils and 
fireworms, they seldom create a 
problem later in the season. 

2. May is a good month to treat 
brush, poison ivy and brambles 
on the uplands, using one of the 
brush killers. This practice will 
prevent the above weeds from 
spreading onto the bog. The low 
volatile esters of brush killers 
are erasonably safe for use on 
shores and uplands of greatly 
diluted — one part in 250 part of 
water. Brush killers should not be 
used with oil on dikes or shores 
next to the bog at this time of 
year because of damage to the 
turf. 

3. The combination of fuel oil 
and kerosene should not be used 
on ''late water" bogs. In fact, this 
combination should not be used 



after mid-May on "early water" 
bogs because of serious damage 
to the vine growth. 

4. Those using Stoddard Solvent 
after "late water'' should com- 
plete such work within 5 days 
after the flood has been withdrawn 
and within 8 days after kerosene 
is to ibe used. 

5. Bogs that suffered winter 



killing damage would benefit 
from a little extra fertilizer at 
this time of year. 



WANTED 

Western Pickers (Used) 
Contact 

Oscar Norton 

Rochester, Mass. 
Tel. Rockwell 3-5385 







- 










Brewer & Lord 






INSURANCE 






40 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. 




ARTHUR K. POPE HORACE H. SOULE 




CONVERSE HILL CHARLES M. CUTLER 






WILLIAM B. PLUMER EBEN A. THACHER 






ROBERT A. SULLIVAN HERBERT R. LANE 






EDWARD H. LEARNARD VINCENT M. WILSON 






JOHN B. CECILL, JR. 




Serving the Peop e of New England 




Since 1859 











C. & L. EQUIPMENT CO. 

191 LEONARD STREET ACUSHNET, MASS. 

Cranberry Bog Service 

PRUNING FERTILIZING 

RAKING WEED TRIMMING 

Machinery Sales 

PRUNERS POWER WHEELBARROWS 

RAKES WEED TRIMMERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS - Large & Small 



For Further Information Call . . . 

F. P. CRANDON H. C. LEONARD 

Rockwell 3-5526 Wyman 3-4332 

C. J. TRIPP 

Wyman 4-4601 



Four 



o ^^'''""'^"'''^^'^^^v^- 



Issue of May 1959 - Vol. 24 No. 1 



Published monthly at The Courier Print Shop, Main St., Wareham. Massachusetts. Subscription $3.50 per year. 

Ertere<l us second-class matter January 26, 1943, at the post-office at Wareham, Massachusetts, under the Act of March 8. lITf 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

April Wetter, Warmer 

April was a slightly wetter and 
slightly warmer month than nor- 
mal. In fact, it was the first 
month since November that was 
not colder than average. 

Precipitation as recorded at 
State Bog was 4.09 inches, normal 
3.85. April mean temperature 
was 45 degrees, approximately two 
degrees above normal. Month 
started dry and colder than nor- 
mal, then became dry and ended 
colder and with five final days of 
rain. Temperatures reached 70 on 
four days and 75 on the 17th. 

Sunshine Factor Down 

The sunshine factor was 59 per- 
cent of a normal of about 66. 
This would not be in favor of the 
crop but would have little effect, 
April not being very important in 
this in Massachusetts. 
Adverse 

The m.ore than warmer average 
temperature and the more than 
normal precipitation tend not to 
make the coming crop of better 
ouality. This combination should 
be added to the lack of sunshine 
as adverse to prospects. 
More Winterkill, 
More Oxygen Deficiency 

More winterkill than anticipated 
is showing up in larger areas and 
on more bogs than anticipated 
earlier, according to Dr. C. E. 
Cross. There is also more leaf- 
drop than normal, indicating that 
bogs which were flowed and 
escaped winterkill suffered from 
oxygen deficiency. 
May 

There was heavy rain on the 
first day of May, vines were a 
bit backward as the month began. 



An "inland" frost warning went 
out on May 4th, but although 
temperatures were low the follow- 
ing night none was sent out. 



WASHINGTON 

"Mixed Weather" 

The months of March and April 
to the 22nd of the latter were a 
period of mixed weather, which 
might be termed about average. 
Rainfall for March was 8.87 inches 
with 2.22 of this falling in a 24- 
hour period ending on the 31st. 
April to above date was normal, 
with rainy periods and periods ol 
rather low humidity and dry con- 
ditions. 
Five April Frost Sprinkler Nights 



Low for March was 26 on the 
first, 27 degrees at Cranberry Ex- 
periment Station April 2 and 18. 
Maximums for March were 65 on 
the 16th 69 on the 7th, 76 and 78 
on April 8 and 9. Minimum rela- 
tive humidity was 12 percent on 
the 9th and 22 on the 8th. There 
were several periods when the day- 
time temperatures would be rela- 
tively high and the nights clear 
and cold; mixed in between periods 
of rain. Sprinkler systems were 
going for frost protection on April 
2, 6, 18, 19 and 20. 

Bogs Showing Growth 

Bogs ,in Long Beach and Gray- 
land areas were showing some 
growth by April 22. One-quarter 
to one-half inches of runner growth 



L I B E RT Y 



CROP DUSTS 
For Aircraft Application 

are available on the Cape from 
R. C. MOSSMAN 

Horticultural Sales 

30 South Main Street 

West Bridgewater, Massachusetts 

Tel. JUniper 3-9112 

representing 

The HUBBARD-HALL CHEMICAL CO. 

General Offices: Waterbury, Conn. 



Five 



were found in some areas. Flower 
•buds were just coming into white 
stage. 

Weeds Vigorous 

Weeds are growing vigorously 
and hei^bicides were being applied. 
Good Crop Prospects at 
Long Beach 

Bogs of the Long Beach area 
have a very good set of flower 
buds. Prospects appear good for 
a good crop this fall. 

Moi^e Sprinklers, More Acres 

A number of growers have been 
installing sprinkler systems. 
Planting of new areas is still 
taking place. 

Dr. Clarke Again Grower 

Dr. J. H. Clarke has purchased 
the Carl Bernhardt bog and once 
again becomes an active grower. 
He now has in addition to cran- 
berries, a nursery of rhododen- 
druns, azaleas, holly and several 
other miscellaneous plants. He is 
chairman of the Western Wash- 
ington Horticultural Board and 
also chairman of the USDA Small 
Fruits and Nuts Advisory Com- 
mittee. 



Our Cover 

Miss Westgate is the daughter of 
Edward Westgate of High Street, 
Wareham, Massachusetts. Her 
father is a foreman for the J. J. 
Beaton Company, Wareham. She 
is employed at the office of Edwin 
K. Greer Lumber Company, Ware- 
ham. 

The mayflower is any of various 
plants that flower in May or early 
spring. It is the trailing arbutus 
in the United States as well as 
Mayflower. In England it is 
known as the hawthorne, cowslip 
and marsh marigold. 

It is the official Massachusetts 
State flower, and of course the 
name of the ship in which 
the Pilgrims crossed the Atlantic 
to land in the New World at 
Provincetown and Plymouth. 
Massachusetts. 



MEW JEIS EY 

April Dry, Warm 

April was a dry, warm month 
with a total rainfall of only 2.29 
inches, or 1.12 inches below nor- 



mal. The avei'age temperature for 
the month was 53.9° F., or 
2° above normal. There were only 
three days when the maximum 
temperature was 50° or less and 
on these days they were 50°, 50° 
and 48°. There were only three 
nights when the upland tempera- 
ture dropped to freezing or below, 
and these temperatures were 30°, 
31° and 32°. 

Expect Winter Injury 



There has been no known serious 
frost injury to cranberries. The 
first report on winter injury has 
come in to the laboratory. There 
will probably be more of this, 
since the extremely cold weather 
in December caught many growers 
unprepared to flood their bogs 
promptly. 

Advanced Season 

The mild April weather has ad- 
( Continued on Page 13) 



A Good Flume Is Your Insurance 
For A Good Crop 

USE ALL HEART REDWOOD 

We have a good stock of 
All Heart Timbers 

6x8 — 6x6 — 4x6 — 4x4 

Planking- - Square Edged or Matched 

2x6 — 2x8 — 2x10 — 2x12 

LET US ESTIMATE YOUR FLUME AND 
BUILDING NEEDS 

E. W. Ooodliue Lumlier Co., Inc. 



MIDDLEBORO ROAD 



EAST FREETOWN, MASS. 




R. F. MORSE & SON 

West Wareham. Mass.. Tel. CY 5-1553 

Cranberry Growers Agent For 

Eastern States Farmers' Exchange 

Insecticides - Fertilizers • Fungicides 

Bog Service and Supplies 
Agent for Wiggins Airways 

Helicopter Spray and Dust Servic* 

DEPENDABLE ECONOMICAL SERVICE 



Six 



Amino Triazole For Cranherrii 
Weed Control In Wjficonfiin 

by 

Dr. Malcolm N. Dana 
University of Wisconsin 



The control of weeds in cran- 
berry bogs is one of the most ser- 
ious cultural problems confronting- 
the Wisconsin grower. The weeds 
not only compete with the cran- 
berry vines for moisture, nutrients 
and sunlight, but also interfere 
with proper pollination, impede 
harvesting operations, and, of 
course, are unsightly. Organic 
herbicides have provided research 
people with new tools to aid in the 
development of better program ^^ 
for weed control. 

The most promising herbicide 
for the control of a wide range 
of weed species common to cran- 
berry bogs is amitrol (8-amino-l. 



2, 4-triazole). It is commercially 
available as a wettable powder 
containing 50' / active ingredient. 
One company is now producing a 
liquid foi'm Illation for experimen- 
tal use. 

A Note of Warning 
Amitrol has not received label 
clearance for use <»n cranberry 
vines during the gro\\ ing season. 
Growers may use the material only 
for post-harvest applications. 

The evaluation of amitrol for 
use in Wisconsin bogs has been 
in progress for four years. During 
this time a considerable amount of 
information has been accumulated 
witli regai-rl to thp use of this 



Table 1 

Rates and dates of amitrol application 

on which successful control of the listed weed species 

has been attained. 



Weed 


Rate (lb/A) 


Time of applicatio 


Bushy horsetail 


4 


Mid-June 


Star grass 


4 


Early June 


Poison Ivy 


2-4 


' ■ 


Alsike Clover 


8-10 


Mid- May 


Aster (one species) 


4 


Knrly June 


Goldenrod 


<3 


Karly -lune 


Short Wire Grass 


6 


4^ 


Ragweed 


4 


Late May 


Sticktites 


4 


.. .1 


Lady's Thumb Smartweed 


4 


*.' 


Arrowhead 





fjate June 


Sickle Grass 


i> 


■ -1 


Slender stovepipe 


1 


Vtid'June 





Table 2 
Yield, fruit size, fruit set. upright growth and fruit bud set or 
cranberry vines treated with I lb/ A <»f amitrol at five date^^ compared 
with untreated plots. 



Time of 


treatment 










Fruit 


Date 


Stage of 


Yield 


Cup count 


P'ruit set 


( ; rowt h 


Biid.s 




growth 


ck. trt. 


ck. trt. 


ck. trt. 


ck. rrt. 


ck. trt. 






bbl/A bbl/A No. No. 


% % 


mm mm 


^v- % 


May 6 


White bud 


99 104 


7.5 7'] 


27 22 


7::! 79 


40 4S 


May 26 


Buds out ^/4 


82 75 


72 72 


21 24 


77 71 


;!7 12 


June 19 


Pink hook 


81 67 


7:^ 74 


2f'. 1 ;• 


7.T 78 


44 42 


July 11 


Late bloom 


82 77 


72 7! 


2o 2fi 


75 70 


34 39 


Aug. 6 


Fruit Buds 
forming. 


84 89 


71. 71 


29 •>" 


"■:> 80 


42 45 



material. Excellent results from 
rhe use of this chemical have been , 
leported by Demoranville and 
Cross (2, 3, 4) in Massachusetts 
and Aldrich (1) in New Jersey. 

Experimental applications were 
made with a bicycle type plot 
sprayer calibrated to deliver 40 : 
gallons per acre of spray solution. 
Fan nozzles were adjusted to pro- 
vide a uniform distribution of 
spray at the top of the vines. 
Nozzle pressure was maintained at 
approximately 30 pounds per sq. 
inch. All rates of chemical appli- 
cation were calculated in pounds 
per acre of actual amitrol. To ob- 
tain the amount of 50% material 
needed per acre one must meirely 
multiply the given rate by two 
(I'ate per acre of actual amitrol 
X 2 equals rate per acre of 50% 
material ) . 

A list of weed species success- 
fully controlled, together with th^'- 
rate and date of application, is 
given in Table I. This list does 
not necessarily include all weeds ' 
that can be controlled with amitrol,' 
but does include those for which 
successful control has been demon- 
.^trated in Wisconsin. 

A number of weeds have shown 
considerable tolerance to amitrol 
applied at rates up to 6 tb/A. 
Among these are St. Johnswort, 
Jiardhack, feather fern, royal 
fern, sensitive fern, brown bUsh, 
hog bean, anemone, tall wiregrass, 
creeping .sedge, three square grass, 
rattlesnake grass, big stoveiaipe, 
wide leaf gTass, loosestrifieV'and 
lound rush. 

Amitrol sprays applied during 
the season of active cranberry 
vine growth have caused the de- 
^■elopment of pink foliage on the 
new growth of the cranberries. 
High rates of amitrol have caused 
the development of intense pink 
color which has persisted for sev- 
eral weeks while low rates of ap- 
plication were followed by slight 
color development which persisted 
for one to two weeks. Applications 
made on producing vines after 
mid-July have not resulted in 
foliage color changes. 

An experiment designed to 
evaluate the effects of amitrol on 
the growth and fruiting of the 
cranberrv was conducted in 1957. 



Seven 



Applications were made at five 
stages of growth at rates of 
0, 1, 2, and 4 lb/A of actual ami- 
trol. Measurements of yield, cup 
counts, fruit set percentages, 
growth, and fruit bud formation 
were obtained and are presented 
in Table 2. Because the low 
rates of application, 1 and 2 lb /A, 
produced no measurable effect on 
cranberry growth and development, 
these data were omitted from 
Table 2. 

The only important difference 
found for the 4 lb /A rate versus 
the untreated, resulted when the 
herbicide was applied at the pink 
hook stage of growth (June 19). 
The data showed a reduction in 
fruit set percentage, 26% vs. 19%, 
and a corresponding decrease in 
yield, 81 bbls. vs. 67 bbls. for the 
4 lb/A and control plots, respece- 
ively. Upright growth, fruit size, 
and fruit bud set were not affected 
by amitrol treatments. These data 
agreed closely with those of De- 
moranville and Cross (2, 3, 4). 

This experiment and other 
studies made over the past four 
years showed that rates up to and 
including 4 lbs/A of amitrol could 
be applied at any stage of growth 
with little danger of serious in- 
jury to the cranberry vines. How- 
ever, 4 lb/A was near the maxi- 
mum amount that may safely he 
used during the critical period of 
blossoming and fruit set. Rates of 
application higher than 4 lb /A 
have been made in early spring 
and late summer with no injury 
to cranberry vines. 

In the course of the work with 
amitrol, a number of limitations 
on its use have been observed. 

a) The application of amitrol, 
when followed within 24 hours by 
rainfall, has resulted in the in- 
ferior degree of weed control. In 
general, it may be said that at 
least 24 hours between application 
and rainfall is necessary for any 
practical degree of effect from 
any given rate of application. 

b) Application of any given 
rate of amitrol to vigorously 
growing, young vines has resulted 
in a greater degree of injury than 
on less vigorous, bearing vines. 

e) Amitrol has little herbicidal 



effect when sprayed on the soil. 
The spray must be applied to the 
foliage of the plant in order to 
attain maximum effectiveness. 

d) In general, actively grow- 
ing weeds are more sensitive to 
amitrol than are dormant or ma- 
ture weeds. Therefore, it may be 
assumed that for many species 
higher rates of amitrol would be 
necessary in the fall than in May 
or June to obtain the same degree 
of control. 

e) In Wisconsin, early and 
severe fall frosts and mechanical 
harvesters reduce the likelihood 
of effective post-harvest amitrol 
applications because they destroy 
much of the weed foliage. It 
seems logical to assume that pre- 
bloom treatments offer the most 
promise for large scale use of this 
herbicide in Wisconsin cranberry 
bogs. 

The experimental work con- 
ducted on tne use of amitrol in 
Wisconsin cranberry bogs has 
shown that a great potential exists 
for its use as an herbicide for 
the control of several species of 
weeds. Undoubtedly, other weeds 
will be added to the list as more 
knowledge concerning its use is 
gained from continued experimen- 
tation. As was previously stated, 
amitrol is an important addition 
to the list of herbicides for com- 
plete weed control in cranberry 
hogs. 

Warning 

Growers are warned that the 
above article contains only re- 
search results, which are not to 
be taken as a recommendation for 
usint; amino triazole. Until label 
clearance from Federal Control 
Agencies is obtained, this material 
may not be used on producing 
vines before hai'vest. 

Literature Cited 

1. Aldrich, R. J. 1956. A pre- 
liminary evaluation of weed 
control in cranberries I*roc. Amer. 
Cranb. Growers Assoc. 86:7-10. 

2. Demoranville, I. E. and C. E. 
Cross 1957. Newest cranberry 
weed killer, alminotriazole. 
Cranberries 21 (12): 16-17. 

3 , 1958. The ef- 
fects of amino triazole sprays on 
cranberry vines and their fruit. 



Cranberries 22 (1):11-12. 

4 , 1958. The effects 

of amino triazole sprays on cran- 
berry vines and their fruit. Cran- 
berries 22 (11):11-12. 



FOR SALE 

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Rainbow is several cuts above 
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Put Rainbow on your own 
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Ask Your Local Dealer 

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WOBURN, MASS. 



mtu 



You can stop fruit rots, 
get higher yields of 
cleaner berries with either 

DuPont 

PARZATE °> FERMATE 

zineb fungicide ferbam fungicide 



Now DuPont offers you two outstanding fungicides for control 
of cranberry fungus diseases. Both "Parzate" and "Fermate" 
give effective protection . . . prevent rot of the fruit on vines 
and greatly reduces rot while in storage. You'll find quality 
improves, yields increase when you use either of these fungi- 
cides. 

"Parzate" and "Fermate" are hard on disease, but mild on 
plants. There's minimum danger of stunting or burning tender 
flowers, leaves or fruit. Both fungicides can be applied by 
conventional or concentrate sprayers, and "Fermate" can also 
be applied as a dust. For most effective spray coverage and 
protection of waxy foliage, Du Pont Spreader-Sticker should be 
added to the mixture. 

ASK YOUR DEALER for full information and supplies of "Par- 
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on both fungicides and on other reliable Du Pont products. 
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On all chemicals, follow label instructions and warnings carefully. 




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zineb fungicide ferbam fungicide 

Better things for better living . . . through chemistry 



Nin« 



The Cranberry Story 

FRESH CRANBERRY 
MARKETING 

PART THREE 

By 

Gilbert T. Beaton 
Secretary -Treasurer 
Cranberry Institute 



-^> 




Third in a series of 4 articles on the 
sored by the Cranberry Institute. Coming 

The marketing of fresh cran- 
berries was recorded as early as 
1650 with the report from an early 
ship log, showing twenty-two 
casks of cranberries being shipped 
back to England with a load of 
ship's masts and spars. Upon 
their arrival in England, these 
cranberries were repacked in 
bottles to be sold. From bulletin 
No. 1109, published by the United 
States Department of Agriculture, 
comes this statement: "The note- 
worthy achievements of the cran- 
berry growers are the outcome of 
evolutionary practices based upon 
years of experience in selling- 
through groiwers' cooperative 
agencies." The result of organ- 
ized efforts in this industry are 
the more remarkable because of 
the unusual difficulties which 
must be overcome in the success- 
ful marketing of cranberries. 

The cranberry growers of the 
United States are widely sep- 
arated; the growing areas, Mass- 
achusetts, New Jersey, Wisconsin, 
Washington and Oregon. Coop- 
erative marketing involves the 
coordination of the grov/ers in 
these widely separated localities 
into one central selling location. 

Marketing risks have been dis- 
tributed equally among all mem- 
bers of the Association by means 
of pooling systems. Pools are. 
in effect, a form of marketing- 
insurance. 

In 1895 a number of the larger 
growers of New Jersey and 
Massachusetts organized and in- 
corporated the Growers' Cranberrv 



history of tht- icianberry industry spon- 
- Part IV, Processed ■ Cranberries. 

Company. This company employed 
the most expert cranberry sales- 
men available at that time ami 
opened an office in Philadelphia. 
The Cape Cod Cranberry Sale.- 
Company, composed of Massachu- 
setts growers, was also organized 
about 1895 along the same gen- 
eral lines as the Growers' Cran- 
berry Company. The Cape Cud 
growers were iioi as fortunate in 
their choice of salesmen a.- were 
the Growers' Cranberry Lompanj. 
As a consequence, their company 
was less successful. At the time 
these two comnanies were operat- 
ing, the greater poi-tion of the 
crop was sold by growers to cash 
buyers who traveled through the 
cranberry districts, conducting sep- 
arate negotiations with each 
rrrower. In 19U2 there were ten 
important car-lot shippers and the 
severe competition among them 
often resulted in ciitthroai prac- 
t'ces. 

Jt was the disastrous year ol 
'906 which actually bi ought about 
the formation of a central cooper- 
ative selling association, the 
National Fruit Exchange. Alliance.- 
among dealers v.'ere formed in 
'"h-'t year for the purpose of at- 
tacking other dealers. Competi- 
tion of a vicious sort was resorted 
to, some buyers offering the grow- 
ers $5.50 a barrel and quoting the 
trade $5.00. On top of the de- 
moralized state of the trade came 
one of the largest crops that had 
been produced up to that time. 
The public was nut ready to con- 
sume .«uch a quantity. 



P'i.-es fell as low as 7Uc per 
barrel and carloads of berries 
weie never shipped because they 
would not bring enough to pay 
freight charges. Notwithstanding 
these adverse conditions, the co- 
operation that existed among the 
members of the Growers' Cran- 
berry Company an6 the established 
leputation of their brands en- 
abled them to sell their 1960 crop 
at fair prices. One member of 
the company received an average 
of S6.51 per barrel net for his 
entire crop, over 8,000 barrels. 

A new epoch in the history of 
i-ooperative marketing among 
V ranberi-y g-rowers began with 
organization and operation of the 
Wisconsin Cranberry Sales Com- 
pany in 1906. Over 90% of the 
growers in the state of Wisconsin 
joined the company. This organi- 
zation proved so successful that 
the selling agent was asked to 
come East and explain to the 
growers of New Jersey and Mass- 
achusetts the plan of organization 
oi the Wisconsin company. As a 
result, the New England Cran- 
iberry S'ales Company and the 
New Jersey Cranberry Sales Com- 
pany were formed in 1907. Ap- 
proximately 35 '7^ of the growers 
in Massachusetts and 30% of the 
growers in New Jersey joined 
the new association. 

The three state companies then 
formed a central selling organiza- 
tion known as the National Fruit 
Exchange. In 1911, the Growers' 
Cranberry Company with the Na- 
tional Fruit Exchange formed 
the American Cranberry Exchange. 
In the early 1920's, this company 
controlled about 75% of the total 
crop in Wisconsin and 65% in 
both Massachusetts and New Jer- 
sey. 

The first shipping containers 
used commercially were the cran- 
berry barrels, starting with the 
Civil War and staying- with us 
through World War I. The U. S. 
standard cranberry barrel, con- 
taining approximately one hun- 
dred pounds net, is the theoretical 
measure for cranberries and the 
United States Department of 
Agriculture still uses the barrel 
as a measure of production in re- 

AVT. 



Ten 



porting- annual crop figures. This 
was followed by the quarter-barrel 
box introduced in 1926. By 1931 the 
quarterJbarrel box was the stand- 
ard shipping container and contin- 
ued through World War II. The 
dimensions are 9%" x 101/2" x 15". 
Each box holds approximately 
twenty-five pounds net. 

Although cranberries had been 
retailed in transparent bags and 
window boxes before World War 
n, it was not until 1948 that a 
vigorous demand developed for 
pre-packaged cranberries. This 
was brought about by the develop- 
ment of large supermarkets and 
self-service stores. By 1949 and 
1950, approximately 75% of the 
fresh cranberries were pre-pack- 
aged. Today it is approximately 
100% in favor of pre-packaging. 

The consuming public looked 
upon the cranberry as a luxury 
rather than a prime necessity and 
generally considered it a holiday 
fruit. Thanksgiving and Christmas 
bring the turkey with its cran- 
berry sauce to the minds of the 
American people, (but Thanksgiv- 
ing and Christmas demands alone 



were not sufficient to suppoii; the 
industry. 

A national advertising fund suf- 
ficient to bring fresh cranberries 
forcefully to the attention of the 
consuming public has been created 
by means of an assessment of 
growers on the number of ban-els 
each produces. By cooperation, the 
cranberry growers are in a posi- 
tion to employ specialized busi- 
nessmen capafble of advising them 
regarding supply and demand 
forces and their probable effect 
on price and market conditions. 
Thus growers put themselves in 
a position to gauge the factors 
which influence the sale of their 
product and are better prepared 
to take advantage of market 
conditions as they find them. In- 
dividually the growers are unable 
to do this. 

Monthly availability expressed 
as percentages of total annual 
supply shows that 16% of the 
crop is marketed in September, 
22% in October, 40% in Novem- 
ber 20% in December, an 1% 
in January, 1% in Febiniary, l^ 
of 1% in March. Marketing of 



fresh cranberries is to be ex- 
tended, as cranberries have come 
into more common use with all 
kinds of meats, for desserts and 
other purposes and not merely 
associated with turkey or chicken 
at Thanksgiving and Christmas. 

Present day distributors of 
Fresh Cranberries include the 
following: Distributors and Brand: 

National Cranberry Association, 
Ocean Spray; Beaton's Distribut- 
ing Agency, Beaton's; Decas 
Cranberry Company, Protection; 
Peter LaSage, Pals; Eric Hukari, 
Jumbo; Growers' Cranberry Com- 
pany, Grocran Co.; Indian Trail, 
Indian Trail; Habelman Bros., 
Habelman; Eagle River, Eagle 
River; Davis Cranberry Company, 
Blue Diamond; Claire Habelman; 
Hotz; -LaRocque; ..Union Cran- 
berry Company; Weatherby Cran- 
berry Company. 



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CRANBERRIES MAGAZINE 




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DITHANE Z-7^ 



FRESH FROM FIELDS 

(Continued from Page 6) 
vanced the season. The heavy 
bloom and good setting of berries 
in the first week of May indicates 
a bumper crop of blueberries. Dry 
weather practically eliminated 
gray mold in the clusters of flow- 
ers. Fields not sprayed for gray 
mold will probably produce as well 
as those sprayed. Mummy berry 
has hit a few plantations hard. On 
some it has done a useful amount 
of thinning of the crop. The use 
of calcium cyanamid on the ground 
to kill mummy cups was very suc- 
cessful, when properly timed. 
Clear, warm weather has been 
favoring pollenation of the blos- 
soms. Some good rains are need- 
ed at the present time (May 7) 
to prevent the development of a 
drought. 



WISCONSIN 

April Near Normal 

April averaged near normal in 
precipitation and temperature for 
the state as a whole. Precipitation 
was deficient in the north and 
west central areas, however. The 
snow cover disappenred the first 
of the month in all areas and the 
ice melted on the beds the second 
week of April. Temperatures were 
unseasonably cool tne first half 
of the month and above normal 
precipitation and near normal to 
above normal temperatures for 
the cranberry areas. 

Winter Heaving 

Winter floods were removed the 
third week of the month or about 
one week later than the normal 
date of April 15th and two weeks 
later than last year. Considerable 
heaving was noted and deep frost 
was still reported in some areas at 
the end of the month. Growers 
were expected to do considerable 
re-flowing to level beds and to 
pull out the deep frost. Most 
marshes waited until they had 
eight to ten inches of frost out of 
the beds before pulling the floods, 
in order to prevent possible fur- 
ther heaving. The heavy snow 
cover in the south melted slowly 
and the ground absorbed most of 
the I'unoff, resulting in little flood 
vv^ater. Reservoir supplies were re- 



ported in good shape in all areas. 
Vines In Good Condition 

Growers were busy the last 
week of the month fertilizing, 
pruning and combing. Preliminary 
inspections showed the vines to 
have come through the winter in 



veiy good condition. 

The 1959 Wis. Cranberry Fro3t 
Warning Service begins operations 
May 1. James Georg re- 



on 



turned to Madison for his sixth 
consecutive season. At the end of 

(Continued on Page 19) 



HORTICULTURAL SALES 

35 South Main St. 
West Bridgewater, Mass. 

"Bob Mossman" Prop. 
Tel. JUniper 3-9112 



CRANBERRY GROWERS SUPPLIES 

WEED AND BRUSH KILLERS 

WEEDAZOL (50% AMINO TRIAZOLE) 

Insecticides — Fungicides — Herbicides 
Aerial Spraying and Dusting 



. 



HEMCGif^Eli PEST CONTROL 




ins 

NORW 



/OOD. MASS. I 



DUSTING and SPRAYING 



RAY MORSE, Agent 



TEL. CYPRESS 5-1553 



Thirteen 



Cranberries In North America 

By F. B. Chandler 
Research Professor, Cranberry Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 



Production and yield of cran- 
berries may be considered sev- 
eral ways, such as the production 
for the state or section, average 
yield per acre, trends per acre 
over a period of years, maximum 
yield per acre, or the percentage 
of the United States crop pro- 
duced by different sections. Any 
one of these alone gives only a 
partial picture. 

The five-year average produc- 
tion of cranberries for the United 
States has risen from 370,600 
barrels in 1900-1904 to 1,043,100 
for the four years 1955-1958. This 
is an increase of nearly three 
times. During the same period, 
the Massachusetts production has 
increased from 240,200 barrels to 
542,800 barrels, or over twice. 
The New Jersey production has 
been quite uniform, showing a 
slight decline from 100,200 to 
82,300 barrels. The Wisconsin 
production has increased ove- 
eleven times, from 28,600 to 
319,800 barrels. Data for Was^-- 
ington and Oregon is only avail- 
able for 35 years (other sections 
59 years) and that s'^ct^o^ '^'i- 
increased the cranberry crop three 
t"mes. from 23,500 to 78,7r0 
barrels. The production data is 
illustrated in a graph. 

When the average yield per 
acre is considered, Massachusetts 
has doubled since the turn of the 
century. New Jersey has near^/ 
tripled, Wisconsin has more th-n 
tripled, an on the West Coast t'^-^ 
yield per acre has nearly doubled. 
These statements do not give a 
true picture of the yield per aero 
because sections did not all start 
at the same yield. New Jersey 
started with about 11 barrels per 
acre, Massachusetts 20 barrels per 
acre, and Wisconsin 22 barrels per 
acre. However, until after 1934 
the Wisconsin yield per acre was 
below that of Massachusetts. 
Wisconsin's average yield per 
acre from 1930 to 1934 was 23.1 
barrels, and 25 years later was 



79.4 barrels. During the same 
time, Massachusetts' yield per 
acre has gone from 30.1 to 41.4 
barrels. The yield per acre started 
high on the West Coast, dropped 
below 20, and has since risen to 
over 70 harries (see graph). 

The maximum yield of cranber- 
ries per acre would be another 
measure of production, but unfor- 
tunately little information is val- 
uable. In Oregon, over 300 bar- 
rels per acre has been reported 
by word of mouth and similar re- 
ports have come from Wisconsin. 
However, Anderson published in 
Cranberries, June 1951, a list of 
25 bogs of known consistent yield 



capacities. This list contained on« 
bog at 300 barrels, one at 275 
barrels, four at 200 barrels, two 
at 180 barrels, one at 175 barrels, 
and two at 150 barrels (the low- 
est was 10 barrels.) The high for 
Massachusetts and New Jersey 
probably is about 225 barrels. 

Another method to study pro- 
duction is to determine the per- 
centage of the United States crop 
produced by diffterent sections. 
Massachusetts has been producing 
50 to 60 percent most of the time 
in this century. New Jersey start- 
ed witlh about 40 percent and has 
dropped to about 10 percent. Wis- 
consin started with a little over 
5 percent and is now producing 
over 30 percent of the United 
States crop. The West Coast has 
also shown quite an increase and 
now produces over 9 percent, (see 
graph). 

The reader who has gone 




/ioO OS /o /^ ZO MS^ 



^6 ^^ ^ SS- /^ 



Fourteen 



through the preceding' four para- 
graphs realizes that the different 
methods of measuring the cran- 
berry crop do not all give the 
same impression. Production alon ' 
shows Massachusetts well above 

the others, New Jersey low but 



quite uniform, and the western 
section very low but has increased 
considerably. The production lines 
on the graph sihow much more 
rise than similar curves for 
acreage (not illustrated). Prob- 
ably the most misleading is yield 



600 

sso 

SCO 

ioo 

3S0 



' I I I I I . . . 





/foo 



I \ I I T . V 

06 /C /6' ZO JiT ^50 SS 



-fO -fS S6 SS/did 



60 
so 

ic 

ss\ 

30 

20 

/Tl 
/O 

S 
o 




rcrce^tese o^ C(,S Crop 

Ayerasc. cf SjfCars 



fis 



V^oshj^^!:^ 



o\ 

/^co OS /o /s zo zs JO ^s^ ^0 is so ss 



per acre. This might be called the 
yield the grower is paid for. In 
the east, many berries are raised 
but not taken (loss with dry 
picking). Then, too, Washington 
had a very damaging frost in 
1958 yet they had 63.3 barrels per 
acre (57,000 barrels on 900 acres) 
because the cranberry growers 
who protected their crop from 
frost had 150 to 190 barrels per 
acre. The yield per acre for a 
growing section is not as im- 
portant as it is to an individual 
because the individual must di- 
vide his fixed per acre cost toy 
the number of barrels to get the 
per barrel cost. This has a great 
bearing on the profit. The percent- 
age of United States data shows 
the trend, and since 1950 or 1955 
there has been a definate trend 
west. 

Possibly in the future more 
valuable data could be obtained by 
getting yield per acre in the sur- 
veys. Such data would give the 
number of people who harvested 
300, 250, 200, 150 or 100 barrels 
per acre. This information would 
be much more valuable than such 
expressions as yield per acre. 

The next chapter of Cranberries 
in North America will be a sum- 
mary of the seven chapters which 
have appeared in Cranberries, 
starting with the September 1958 
issue. 



/$» 



First Quarter 
NCA Sales Up 

Cranberry Juice is gaining in 
popularity as a breakfast fruit 
juice and a refreshing appetizer 
for dinner and through the day, 
according to Ocean Spray sales 
figures. Ambrose C. Stevens, gen- 
eral manager of NCA announced a 
667c increase in national sales of 
cranberry juice in the first quarter 
of 1959. 

Sale of all Ocean Spray pro- 
cessed products was up 31% for 
the first quarter. 

In a Newsletter to National 
Cranberry's, l^r/o gr<>wer-mem^ 
bers, Mr. Stevens said that if 
Ocean Spray continues to fulfill 
its sales quota in the current 
quarter, the next payment to 
growers of $1.00 a barrel will be 
paid in mid-June, 

Fifte'en 



W. F. RUTTER 

INCORPORATED 

19 CONGRESS ST. 

BOSTON, MASS. 

CApital 7-6377 

INVESTMENT SECURITIES 



We will buy odd lots of the common and preferred stocks of 
Tfie National Cranberry Association 




FOR PREFABRICATED FLUMES 

SEE 

RUSSELL A. TRUFANT 

HYDRAULIC CONSULTANT 

PREFABRICATED FLUMES BOG RAILROADS 

UNION 6-3696 North Carver, Mass. 



**Cranberry Crusadi] 
Marches On 

It was meet that the Nation 
Live Stock and Meat Board's Coo' 
ing School in Allentown, Pen 
sylvania should include demonstr 
tion of a cranberry loaf and th; 
the news should reach Cranben 
Crusade Chairman John Y. Kohl 

Ever alert to recruiting ne 
Crusaders, Editor Kohl hurried i 
Lyric Theatre and while Rul 
Hogan was stirring up her era) 
berry bread, Mr. Kohl told hi 
and the 1200 women in attendam 
about the Cranberry Crusade an 
how cranberry sauce goes wit 
any meat. (Mr. Kohl happens t 
have Ocean Spray's new cookin 
guide, ''How To Save Money 
Meat", in his own Kitchen.) 

Mr. Kohl climaxed his talk b 
making Miss Hogan an honorar 
member of the Crusade and rea 
the following citation: 
To Whom It May Concern: 

This is to certify that in vie\ 
of her remarkable culinar; 
achievements with cranberries 
Miss Ruth Hogan, assistant direc 
tor of the Homemakers Servic 
Dept., National Live Stock am 
Meat Board, Chicago, Illinois, has 
been named an Honorary Memibei 
of the famous Cranberry Crusad( 
of the Sunday Call-Chronicle, Al 
lentown, Pennsylvania. 

May she ever carry high th( 
banners of the Cranberry Crusade 

The cranberry-meat intervie^w 
was enthusiastically reported in 
Mr. Kohl's column, "This An( 
That'', in the Sunday Call Chron- 
icle May 3. 

(The story of this campaign for 
larger and more frequent servings 
in public eating places appearec 
in the April Issue.) 



"DICK" BEATTIE ON 
TV CRANBERRY SHOW 

J. Richard Beattie, Cranberry 
Specialist at Massachusetts Ex- 
periment Station v/as principal 
participant on the "Joe Kelley" 
program televised from Boston 
WHDH at noon April 24. This 
was received by many cranberry 
growers with much interest. 



Sixteen 




Kill All Major Cranberry Insects 
with Malathion 

• Helps You Avoid Residue Problems 

• Offers Safety in Use 



\ Five seasons use has proved mal- 

; athion's superiority as a cranberry 

I insecticide. Early spraying or dust- 

! ing with malathion protects the 

1 new crop against damage from 

I black and yellow-headed fireworms, 

I 

false armyworms, blossom worms, 
tipworms, cutworms and blunt- 
nosed leafhoppers. Later in the 
season, malathion controls the 
highly destructive fruitworm. 



OfiFers safety in use 

Malathion is a phosphate insecti- 
cide with loiv toxicity to man and 
animals. Its wide safety margin 
makes it ideal for air application 
. . . especially in and around popu- 
lated areas. 

Avoid residue problems 
Malathion's fast disappearing resi- 
dues allow application on cranber- 
ries up to 72 hours before harvest. 



photo courtesy of the Nntionnl Cranberry Association 



Residues will be well below the 
limits established by law. 

Compatible with other chemieals 

Malathion is compatible with most 
fungicides and other insecticides... 
another reason why so many 
growers are making it the basic 
insecticide in their spray schedules. 
American Cyanamid Company, 
Agricultural Division, New York 
20, New York. 




S«venteen 



H 6 1 p i ii g 
Cranberries 
Grow Better 



ITHO offers a crop protection program 
tailor-made for your area 



Your ORTHO Fieldman knows the particular 
problems of your area wherever you farm. When 
you buy the ORTHO program you get the bene- 
fit of this technical field service, a half century 



of research, and all the scientific experience that 
makes ORTHO America's number one line of 
agricultural chemicals. 



Massachusetts 

Springfield 
Hudson 



There are ORTHO offices to serve you 
in the Nation s Cranberry growing areas 



Uew Jeissy 

Haddonfield 

Moorestown 

Canbury 



Wisconsin 

Janesville 
Sturgeon Bay 



Washington 

Yakima 

Seattle 

Walla Walla 

Wenatchee 



Oregon 
Portland 



ORTHO 



California Spray - Chemical Corp. 

A SUBSIDIARY OF CALIFORNIA CHEMICAL COMPANY 



RICHMOND CALIF 



WASHINGTON D. C. 



Eigrhtficn 



.FRESH FROM FIELDS 

(Continued from Page 13) 

bhe month vines were still quite 
dormant and frost protection was 
not needed unless temperatures 
dropped drastically. 
Planting Searles — Bain McFarlin 

Plans were under way to plant 
over two hundred new aci'es in 
the state, but it was doubtful if 
some of the new area would be 
ready to plant. Most of the plant- 
ing would be Searles followed by 
Bain McFarlins. 



Cranberries In 
Russian Market 
Fifty Years Ago 

(This is from the Wareham 
Courier, Wareham, Massachusetts 
of fifty years ago:) 

0. G. Malde of Wisconsin on 
his way back from Europe noticed . 
some cranberries in a shop in , 
Liverpool. On making inquires he > 
found that they were grown in 
Russia and were about the size 
of what is known as pie berries 
in Wisconsin. They were in poor 
shape being soft and mushy. The 
dealer informed Mr. Malde that 
he had handled American berries 
and there was a good sale for 
them but that he had not been 
able to get them of late. The 
foreign market is being neglected. 
There is an opportunity to sell 
American cranberries abroad if 
anyone would take advantage of 
it 



LARGER SAUCE PACK 
IN '58 THAN '57 

The cranberry sauce pack for 
1958 exceeded that for 1957, ac- 
cording to statistics of National 
Canners Association, Washington, 
D. C. 

The United States total for 1957 
was 5,752,320 cases, while that 
for 1958 was 6,114,624. The re- 
port is a summary of reports from 
all canners known to have packed 
sauce in 1958. 




SUBSCRIBE TO 
CRANBERRIES 




FLOWABLE PARATHION 400 is ideal for 

use on cranberries. It is a modern formulation of 
parathion. . .a water-base emulsion offering all the 
advantages of parathion with these additional 
benefits: Less hazardous to handle. .. and greater 
safety to plants than emulsifiable concentrates. 
It contains no solvents or oils, can be used in all 
types of sprayers, and is compatible with a wide 
range of insecticides and fungicides. 

Flowable Parathion 400 is a 
Stauffer specialty. It's avail- 
able at your dealer. See him now. 



Stauffer Chemical Company 

One East 47th Street 
New York 17, N.Y. 




WMBMm 




SINCE 



Nineteen 






Leasure-Koller 
Photos 

In the first installment of the 
Manitowish Waters story, Mani- 
towish Waters, Wisconsin, was an 
account of the Leasure-Koller 
Cranberry Company, largest hold- 
ing there, :;^artners of which com- 
pany are Bert Leasure of Chicago 
and his son-in-law, Frank R. Rol- 
ler, who does most of the active 
n-.anagement. 

These photos, omitted previously, 
due to lack of space, give a 
graphic account of this progres- 
sive cranberry producing unit and 
£how the high degree of practical 
and modern mechanization which 
the company utilizes. 



Frank R. Roller 



(Cranberries Photo) 



In the next issue the story of 
Manitowish Waters will be con- 
tinued. There will also be a 
timely article upon hail, by Dr. 
George L. Peltier of Wisconsin. 




Home of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Roller, with canai running beneath it. 
quarters above. Unique arrangement of the Cranberry industry. 



Pumps on ground floor, living 
(Cranberries Photo) 



Twenty 









Inside milling room, showing sorting tables and table elevators, etc. Mills are outside in warehouse, 
packing is done outside also, to keep berries out of warm milling room as much as possible. Leasure-KoUer 
Cranberry Co. 




Showing packaging and sealing equipment, Leasure- Keller. 



Twentyone 



Late Massachusetts 

Vine growth conditions changed 
rapidly from late April and the 
first few days of May. Up to the 
14th temperatures had averaged 
about four degrees ahead and this 
pushed growth along I'apidly, 
whereias before this had been 
tardy. 

With such rapid growth this 
could pose a frost problem for 
growers during the rest of May 
and into early June. There is 
plenty of water for bogs with 
frost flow. Frost damage to end 
of first two weeks of May had 
been very slight. 

For best quality results May 
should also have been on the cool 
side, rather than so warm. Sun- 
shine factor was up, a good point 
in favor of the crop of 1960. 

The month was dry except for 
two rains which brought it up 
to about normal. The first was 
on the first day, ,64 indh and .84 
on the 13th. 

As the spring has advanced in 
additions to winter injury on bogs, 
it is developing that throughout 
Massachusetts and most of New 
England the bitter months of the 
winter raised much havoc 
with all sorts of ornamental 
shrubbery and many trees. 



Massachusetts Now 
Has Official 
Cranberry Highway 

Governor Furcolo of Massachu- 
setts has issued a pz'oclamation 
proclaiming the week of May 24 
to May 30 as "Cranberry High- 
way Week". 

Governor Furcolo, it has been 
reported, has signed the bill making 
official the name Cranberry High- 
way along Route 28 from the 
Middleboro traffic circle to Buz- 
zards Bay and along Route 6A 
from Sagamore to Orleans. 

In the proclamation, the Gover- 
nor urges ''The people of Mass- 
achusetts to help and join in its 
observance during that week and 
thereafter, each in his own way 
to join in this effort to tell all 
the Northeast about this magnif- 
icent highway to Cape Cod." 

The proclamation is to be sent 
to all State public buildings, all 
post offices and all public schools. 

The official naming of Cranberry 
Highway culminates some five 
months of work by the Cranberry 

Twentytwo 



Highway Associates. A huge 
dedicatory parade is planned to 
run the entire length of the high- 
way, about 70 miles next month. 
Tentative date for the parade and 
ceremonies is June 7. 



INGREDIENTS 

Success is largely a matter of 
ways and means — winning ways 
and sufficient means. 



CRANBERRIES 

PROVIDES A NEEDED 

MEDIUM OF INFORMATION 

FOR 

ALL GROWERS 




Aerial Spraying and Dusting also Fertilizing 
We Specialize 

In Parathion Applications 

both 
Sprays and Dusts 

MARSHFIELD AIRWAYS, INC. 

Marshfield, Mass. 

Thos. S. Weitbrecht (Whitey) Temple 4-7818 



I 
I 



REA CORN SYRUP 

FOR CRANBERRY PACKING 

Retains full natural flavor 
without overwhelming sweetness 

(^) CORN PRODUCTS COMPANY 

17 Battery Place, New York 4, N. Y. 

Manufacturers of fine products for the food industry . . . 
and these popular grocery brands for the consumer: 

MAZOLA® corn oil • KARO- syrups • BOSCO' chocolate flavored syrop 
NIAGARA* instant starch • LINIT® dry and liquid starches • KASCO ' dog food 
NUSOFT® fabric softener rinse • ARGO' corn and gloss starches 



I 
I 



» ■ - 



^ttaaais 



ISSUE OF 
Vol. 24 



MAY 1959 
- No. 1 



COMMEMORATIVE 
CRANBERRY STAMP ? 

The suggestion of a commemorative 
stamp showing cranberry harvesting, and 
in honor of Thanksgiving has been made 
by Vernon Goldsworthy of Eagle River, 
Wisconsin. The matter has been taken 
up with Wisconsin's Senator Alexander 
Wiley and been forwarded to the United 
States Post Office Department. 

Goldsworthy received a reply in April. 
This was not too encouraging, that such 
a stamp might be issued. L. Robe Walter, 
special assistant to the Postmaster General, 
replied that many requests for commemor- 
ative stamps are received, because of this, 
selection of subjects is a most difficult 
task. He continued there are many such 
stamps the Post Office would like to issue, 
but that "we cannot honor even a small 
fraction of the requests that come to us 
however worthy they may be." 

Letter continued, however, that the 
proposal will be kept on file for consider- 
ation with future stamp programs. 

The issuance of such a stamp would 
probably be of no vital importance to the 
cranberry industry. But we can think of 
no harm it would do and there could be 
benefits. Certainly any stamp collectors 
with interests within the industry would 
appreciate, such a stamp especially and 
so would others. 

This might be something for state 
cranberry growers associations, cranberry 
clubs and/or the Cranberry Institute to 
become interested in and work for. The 
Institute as the over-all-industry unit might 
be the most effective in getting this postal 
recognition. 



STARTING OUR 24TH YEAR 

With this issue we start our 24th year 
of publishing CRANBERRIES. As we 
have said before, on anniversary occasions 

this has involved a lot of hard work and 

also a lot of pleasure. We know we are 




^^H^.w^c««e««,«^ 



-— ■■■^■■^^■■^^M^^M ■ iH^— •■■ -§■■ 



CLARENCE J. HALL 

Editor and Publisher 

EDITH S. HALL — Associate Editor 

Wareham, Massachusetts 

SUBSCRIPTIONS, $3.50 Per 

Year, FOREIGN, $4.50 



CORRESPONDENTS— ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 

Cranberry Consultant 
Wisconsin Rapids 

Wisconsin 



Dr. 



Washington 

CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash. 



Oregon 

GRANT SCOTT 
Coquille, Ore. 

Massachusetts 

PR. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMUNSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass. 



New Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 

Pemberton, New Jersey 



giving a valuable service or you growers 
would not continue to subscribe year after 
year, making publication possible. We 
believe we have served our advertisers 
well, too. 

As we go into our 24th year, it is 
most gratifying to be able to say, as do 
many others, that we firmly believe the 
industry is on its first real upswing in a 
number of years. There are pessimists, 
but the optomists out number. 

Twentythree 



NCA Expects To 
Pay Next Advance 
Of $1.00 In June 

NCA Board of Directors, meet- 
ing at Haddonfield, New Jersey- 
April 24th, voted among other 

matters, that the next advance 
payment on the 1958 pool be |1.00 



^Kai 



'util 



Wisconsin Crown 

MERCHANDISING 

and 

MARKETING, 

MR. GROWER, 

is our 

SPECIALTY 




[iJuuil^aU 



FROZEN 
FRESH 



WHOLE 



chanberries 



CRANBERRY ORANGE RELISH 



IN THE FROZEN FOOD CASE 



INDIAN TRAIL Inc. 
P.O. Box 710 

Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin 




per barrel and be made the middle 
of June. This was if the corpora- 
tion made it's sales quota. About 
150 were on hand to hear talks 
by President George C. P. Olsson, 
General Manager Ambrose E. 
Stevens and Drew Flegan, direc- 
tor of advertising and promotion. 
Meeting lasted two days with a 
tour of Jersey bogs and blueberry 
land under the direction of Edward 
V. Lipman, who commented from 
the front seat of a bus. A visit 



v/as made to the Bordentowi. 
Plant, where the delegation was 
hosted by Enoch Bills. 

A vote was taken to include 
the brand name "Ocean Spray" in 
a change in the corpoi'ate name. 
Selection of a specific recommen- 
dation was deferred until the next 
meeting in Massachusetts June 26. 
New name, when agreed upon, will 
be submitted to stockholders for 
approval at the annual August 
meeting. 



WISCONSIN HEADQUARTERS FOR 

INSECTICIDES FUNGICIDES 

HERBICIDES 

DUSTS - WETTABLE POWDERS EMULSIONS 

Parafhion — Malathion 
Ferbam — Dowpon 
Amino Triazole 

Hopkins Agricultural Chemical Co. 

P.O. BOX 584 MADISON, WIS. 

Phone Alpine 7-1019 



mimfm-ii <■/-' ff -" -< 



> > \-i*^^^ 



OUR PRODUCTS 



I 



Strained Cranberry Sauce 
Whole Cranberry Sauce 
Spiced Cransweets 
Cransweets 
Diced Cransweets 
Cranberry Apple Sauce 



Cranberry Orange Relish 

Cran-Vari 

Cran-Beri 

Cranberry Puree 

Cran-Puri 

Cran-Bake 



Cranberry-Strawberry Preserve Cranberry-Raspberry Preserve 
Cranberry-Cherry Preserve Cranberry-Rhubarb Preserve 

Cranberry-Pineapple Preserve 

Cranberry Products, Inc. 

EAGLE RIVER, WISCONSIN 



Ili'HIi'HIi 



Twentyfour 



WISaONSIN GROW 



FOR SALE 

SEARLES JUMBO 
HOWES, McFARLIN 

Vines 
for delivery in 1959 

$125,00 Ton F.O.B. 



INTERESTED 
IN 

PURCHASING 
WISCONSIN 
CRANBERRY 

PROPERTIES 

Vernon Goldsworthy 

EAGLE RIVER 
WISCONSIN 



DANA MACHINE & SUPPLY Co. 
Wis. Rapids Wis. 

MFCS, of: 

SPRAY BOOMS 

GRASS CLIPPERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS 

Gctsinger Retracto tooth 

pickers 

Dryers 

DISTR. of: 

VEE BELTS & PULLEYS 

ROLLER CHAINS 

SPROCKETS & BEARINGS 

CONVEYOR BELTING 

STEEL 



Your Foreman 

Deserves A 

Subscription to 

Cranberries; too 



Cranberry growers have enjoyed 
two decades of successful use of 

KROP-SAVER 

Insecticides, Fungicides and Herbicides 
Better Chemicals For Agriculture 

Crop-Saver Chemical Company 

Spring Green, Wisconsin 



THE ONLY 

FERTILIZER 

FACTORY 

LOCATED IN THE 

WISCONSIN 

CRANBERRY AREA 



******* 



KICKAPOO 
FERTILIZERS 

Stevens Point 



Hume Products Corp. 

Manufacturers of 

Grass Removal 

Equipment and 

Conveyors for 

Cranberry Growers 

For Information Write : 

Hume Products Corp. 

c/o Cranberry Products 
Inc. 

Eagle River, Wisconsin 



CORRUGATED 
CULVERT PIPE 

and 

FLOW GATES 

Felker Bros. Mfg. Co. 

MARSHFIELD WISCONSIN 
Phone 230 - 231 



YOU 

Are reading this ad. 
Others will read yours in 

CRANBERRIES 

Magazine 



We're selling cranberries 




months out of the year! 



These are the ads that do the job! 




2 



Month after month we're promoting Ocean Spray Cranberry Sauce 
as "the natural mate for every meat"! Big, 4-color ads in LADIES' 
HOME JOURNAL, BETTER HOMES AND GARDENS, GOOD 
HOUSEKEEPING, SUNSET . . . plus hard-selling TV commercials 
. . . tell the story. They make people more cranberry-conscious . . . 
help build sales of fresh berries as well as processed . . . make 
cranberries a "natural" all year long! And — all summer long a big 
special barbecue promotion offering a guaranteed $2.79 value 
barbecue chef knife for only $1.00 and 2 Ocean Spray labels. As a 
topper — juice is being marketed in new areas through exciting, 
new ad campaigns! 



I Your business GROWS when you grow and sell through NCA 

National Cranberry Association, Hanson, Massachusetts. Tel. Bryantville — CYpress 3-6311 



ING A $20,000,000 A YEAR INDUSTRY 




PE COO 

W JERSEY 
WISCONSIN 
OREGON 

WASHINGTON 

CANADA 



JUNE is the month of blossoms. (See Page 9) CC KANBERRIES Pii 



35 Cents 



JUNE 1959 



.i.jiirim?}^iW!m^ 



pn^ECTORY TOR CRANBERRY GROWltRS 



Wcrcester Paper 
Box Corporation 

MEDFORD, MASS. 
Tel. MYstic 8-5305 

Manufacturers 

of 
Folding Cartons 

and 

Displays 



WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STOUDAKD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

Franconia Coal Co. 
— Inc. — 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. CY 5-0039 



CRANBERRV 
GROWERS 

Choose and Use 

Niagara Dusts, Sprays and 

Dusters 

Niagara Chemical 
Division 

Food Machinery and 
Chemical Corporation 

Middleport, New York 

New England Plant and Warehouse 

Ayer, Mass. Tel. Spruce 2-2365 



Wareham Savings 

Bank 
Falmouth Branch 

Welcome Savings Account 

Loans on Real Estate 
Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 

PHONE CYpress 5-3800 
Kimball 8-3000 



The National Bank of Wareham 



Conveniently located for Cranberry Men 



Funds always available lor sound loans 



Complete Banking Service 



The 

CHARLES W. HARRIS 
Company 

26 Somerset Ave 
North Dighton, Mass. 

AMES 

Irrigation Systems 
Sprinklers 

Weed killers 

Insecticides 

Fungicides 

from 

Cal. Spray Chemical Company 

Dupont Company 



EQUIPMENT 

HAYDEN 

- SEPARATOR - 
WAREHAM. MASS. 

Irrigation Systems 
PUMPS 

SEPARATORS - BLOWERS 
SCREENHOUSE EQUIPMENT 

DARLINGTON 
PICKING MACHINES 



Extensive Lxperience in 
ELECTRICAL WORK 

ALFRED FAFFI 

At Scrtenhouse;. boes and 

Pumps Means Satisfaction 

WAREHAM. MA^'^ Tel CY 5-2000 



Member Federal Deposit insurance Corp. 



ADVERTISE 

in 

CRANBERRIES 



PIRf:GTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWERS 



READ CRANBERRIES 



»^^sf" 



BURLAP BAGS 
PICKING MACHINES 

MADE TO ORDER 

WHITMAN BAG CO. 

WHITMAN MASS. 

Peter B. Berman 
Tel. JUniper 3-6466 



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Thorough 

Pollination 

Is Good 

Crop Insurance 

Let Our 

Honey Bees 

Do It For You 

MERRIMACK VALLEY 
APtARIES, INC. 

Formei-ly 

BLUE HILL APL4KIES 

47 Pond Street 

Bilierica, Mass. 

Phone Montrose 3-3079 



TOURAINE PAINTS HARDWARE 

SANDVIK SCYTHES 

. 1 ALSO CALLED FINNISH SCYTHES) 

ALUMINUM SNATHS 

CYCLONE - FERTSLSZERS & SEED SOWERS 
WEEDOZOL 

OPEN SUNDAYS 9 AM. - 1 P.M. 

CARVER SUPPLY CO. 

UNiON 6-4480 

Carver, Mass. 



VOLTA OIL CO. 

Distributor ul the Famous 

TEXACO 

WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For your Bog 

STODDORD SOLVENT 

Tel. PUgriai ti-iy4U 

Plymouth. Mass. 
Kte. 44 Bainoset St. 



JUNE 

la the month of the longest aayhght hours, but — 

ELECTRICITY 

Continues to play an important, time-saving parr 
in cranberry activities. Make the greatest use of ]>' 
every month in the 12. 



Plymouth County Electric Co 



WAREHAM 
Tel. Wareham 200 



PLYMOUTH 
Tel. pilgrim 6-1300 



J. W. Hurley Co. 

• COAL 

• NEW ENGLAND 
COKE 

• FUEL OIL 

Water White 

-KEROSENE- 

For BOGS 

(MKTERKD TRUCKS; 

24-hour Fuel Oil Service 

relephone CY 5-0024 
341 Main St. WAREHAM 



CRANBERRY PICKING 
BOXES 

snooks, or iNaiied 

Let me repair your broken 

boxes — or repair them yotirself. 

Stock Always on Hand 

F. H. COLE 

Tel. ilmon d-3330 
North Carver, Mast. 



Ore 



Washington Station 
Report 1959 

(Editor's Note: the following is 
a summary of the work carried on 
at the Cranberry-Blueberry Ex- 
pei-iment Station at Long- Beach, 
and also Grayland area. It is 
signed by Dr. Charles C. Doughty, 
station director and Dr. Folke 
Johnson and Dr. Maksis Eglitis 



of the Western Washington Ex- 
periment Station.) 



Attention Growers ! ! 

for 
your Spring 
weed control 

we offer 
water white 

kerosene 
"GRADE A" 

metered trucks 
STODDARD SOLVENT 

SUPERIOR 
FUEL COMPANY 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. CY 5-0093 



Western Pickers 

Parts and Repairs 

Agent for 1959 Model 
ORDER NOW 

J. E. BRALEY & SON 

78 Gibbs Ave. 
Wareham, Mass. 

HAVE YOUR REPAIRS 
DONE NOW 



I WEED CONTROL 

During the 1957 season the fol- 
lowing herbicides were tested for 
weed control in bearing cranberry 
wines: Alanap - 3 (207^ granular 
formulation made especially for 
this trial), Vapam (31% emul- 
sion), neburon (18% WP), and 
ATZ (amitrol 50% WP). Only 
amitrol produced sufficient weed 



FOR SALE 

3, 6 cyl., 500 g.p.m. 

CHRYSLER IRRIGATION 

PUMPS 

Automatic Safety Controls, 6" 
Flex-o-seal suction pipe and 
discharge fittings for each unit. 

L C. SPRING 

Indian Brook 
Manomet, Mass. 



Get the right product 
for every pest problem 



Use 



. . . the first choice of 

Commercial Growers 
GENERAL CHEMICAL DIVISION 

ALLIED CHEMICAL CORPORATION 
♦0 Rector Street, New York 6, N. Y. 
58 Weybosset St., Providence, R. I. 




YOUR BEES-NESS 

IS MY BUSINESS 

RENTAL OF BEES 

John Van de Poele 

West Abington, Mass. 
TRiangle 7-2656-R 



control to warrant further test- 
ing-. It was applied at 2, 4, and 8 
pounds of .50';/r WP per acre in 
.300 gallons of water. Four appli- 
cations were made at these rates. ! 
The first on April 25, when the 
weeds were 4 to 8 inches high. 
Other applications were made at 
;] to 4 week intervals as needed 
except during the blossoming- 
period. The last application was 
August 9, 1957. Amitrol provided 
good control over Equisetums 
(horsetails), tideland clover (Tri- 
folium fimhriatum), Sedges (such 
as nutgrass) and Juncus species 
(onion grass). Yellow weed (Lysi- 
machia terrestris and sorrel (Ru- 
mex species) were only partially 
controlled and were somewhat tol- 
erant to amiti'ol. 

In 1958 Vapum, neburon, ami- 
trol (ATZ), and Alanap-20G were 
tested again. In addition simazin 
and a Geigy chemical company 
herbicide No. 444E were tested. 
Again amitrol produced good re- 
sults on the same weeds as in 
1957. Two applications (4 and 8 
lbs. of BO'Tr WP per acre) were 
applied May 5 and again July 8. 
More injury was noted from ATZ 
last year than 1957. This probably 
is due to the drier weather and 
to a lower amount of water per 
aci'e. It appears probable that 
less injuiy to the vines will appear 
if ATZ is applied in 300 gallons 
per acre than in lower amounts. 

Herbicide plots in 1958 on young 
vines where the soil was not com- 
pletely vined over included these 
materials: Geigy 444E at 4, 6, 8 
and 10 lbs. actual per acre, Sim- 
azin 507r WP at 1, 2, 4, and 8 lbs. 
actual per acre and Alanap-,3 at 
8, 16, an-d 24 lbs. actual per acre. 
Simazin at 8 lbs. actual per acre 
provided the best control ovei 
horsetail, onion grass, louse grass, 
and some other Juncus and Sed- 
ges. However, Simazin at 2 and 
4 lbs. actual per acre and Ala- 
nap-3 at 8 and 16 lbs. actual per 
acre provided fairly good control; 
similar to that obtained in 1957. 
There is one effect from Simazin 
which has be evaluated yet. Ex- 
perience with this material on 
strawberries indicates that it has 
a tendency to accumulate in the 
(Continued on Page 4) 



Two 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Notes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 




One of the warmest Mays in 
Weather Bureau history was en- 
joyed in the cranberry area. Temip- 
eratures averaged nearly 5 de- 
grees per day above normal, mak- 
ing the second consecutive month 
this year when temperatures were 
on the balmy side. The result is an 
advanced season — possibly a week 
or so ahead of last year at this 
date (June 10). This has been 
quite a contrast to the cool, wet 
spring experienced a year ago. 
There is one similarity, however, 
and that involves the frequency of 
frost warnings. Thirteen warnings 
have been released this spring as 
of June 10th, compared to 17 dui-- 
ing the same period in 1958, 19 
in '57, and only 6 in 1956. Just 
for the record, 41 warnings were 
issued in the spring of 1949. These 
include, of course, both the after- 
noon and evening forecasts. Frost 
damage at this time appears to 
be negligible; however, "umbrel- 
las" are common on many bogs 
which indicates that if tempera- 
tures had dropped another degree 
or two on these bogs, damage 
could have been rather substan- 
tial. 

Keeping Quality 

While we have enjoyed this 
spring, weather factors since April 
have added only one point to the 
final keeping quality forecast 
which was released June 4th and 
is as follows: "FINAL KEEPING 
QUALITY FORECAST: Examin- 
ation of weather records from 
April through May gave us only 
1 additional point, and when added 
to the 2 points accumulated prior 
to April makes a total of only 
3 out of a possible 16 which favor 
good keeping quality fruit next 
fall. The prospects, therefore, 
are not favorable for the general 
keeping quality of the 1959 Mass- 



achusetts cranberry crop unless 
corrective steps are taken. Proper 
control measures for fruit rot are 
carefully outlined in the new 
charts and fungicide treatments 
will be needed on many "early" 
and "late water" bogs. Growers, 
shippers, the trade, and consumers 
benefit from "sound fruit". It 
should be clearly understood that 
these forecasts serve only as 
guides and to that extent are a 
useful tool as has been demon- 
strated in the majority of years 
that they have been released. 

The county agents arranged six 
field meetings the last of May and 
early June to acquaint growers 
with the latest information on the 
control of insects, diseases, and 
weeds, plus timely information 
on water management and the use 
of fertilizers. These sessions were 
unusually well attended. Live 
material was used to help teach 
the growers the identification of 
early spring insects and weeds. 
This technique has proved to be 
particularly effective. 

Insect Activity 

Insect activity as of June 10 has 
varied considerably this spring. 
Blackhead fireworms and Spar- 
ganothis fruitworms have been 
very active, while weevils and 
green spanworms have not been 
too troublsome except on a few 
properties. Cutworms such as 
false armyworms and blossom 
worms have been about normal. 
Bluntnosed leafhoppers are just 
beginning to make their appear- 
ance as tiny nymphs and no doubt 
will require treatment on many 
bogs. The second brood of fire- 
worms could cause considerable 
trouble on those bogs that were 
treated late for the first brood or 
received no treatment. The millers 



are now plentiful on these bogs, 
indicating the need for careful 
checking for the second brood of 
fireworms in late June or early 
July on "early water" bogs. 

We would like to stress again 
the importance of using the insect 
net as a method of determining 
the types of insects present and 
whether they are numerous, 
enough to warrant treatment. 
Bogs should he "swept" every 4 
or 5 days from mid-May to about 
mid July. The county agents and 
the men at the Cranberry Sta- 
tion are always willing to teach 
or demonstrate the use of the 
insect net. 

Weeds 

Growers attending the May and 
early June clinics were encouraged 
to learn about a new method of 
checking loosestrife. The treat- 
ment is not on the chart because 
further research is needed. How- 
ever, one year's work shows some 
promise in burning down this 
weed for at least one season and 
in giving some degree of con- 
trol. The treatment involves the 
"wiping technique" using 2,4-D — 
2,4,5-Tester brush killer (4 lbs. 
acid equivalent per gallon or 2 
lbs. of 2,4-D plus 2 lbs. 2,4,5-T) 
in kerosene. The suggested dilu- 
tion is one part of the above brush 
killer and 20 parts of kerosene. 
The top of the loosestrife plant 
should be carefully wiped with 
this mixture 2 or 3 times a sea- 
son, using every precaution not to 
touch the cranberry vines. 

iGreater use of weed clippers is 
suggested where grasses, sedges, 
and rushes are a problem and 
chemical weed treatments have had 
to be postponed. One final weed 
note to-date, no tolerance has been 
established for Amino . iTriazole. 
Only after harvest treatments 
have been approved and they are 
outlined on the new weed chart. 

Wise use of fei'tilizerS: will im- 
prove many bogs, including those 
damaged by winter kill and leaf 
drop. The 1958 fertilizer chart 
contains the recommended rates of 
application. Growers are reminded 
that urea can be combined with 
insecticides and fungicides and is 
non-corrosive to equipment. 



Three 



REPORT 1958 

(Continued from Page 2) 
soil and become toxic to the fruit 

plants where it is applied at more 
than one or two lbs. actual per 
acre. Since 1958 was the first year 
this material was tested, this ef- 
fect cannot be evaluated until the 
1959 season. 

In blueberries the combinations 
of ATZ plus dalapon at 4 and 8 
lbs. and 4 and 12 lbs. actual per 
acre and Karmex plus ATZ at 4 
and 4 lbs. actual per acre again 
provided good control over quack- 
grass, velvet grass, sorrel, horse- 
tail, and chickweed. Higher rates 
than these caused some leaf chlo- 
lorsis but it did not appear to re- 
strict fruit bud formation for 
1059 crop. None of these materials 
have heen cleared for use on blue- 
berries. The application of these 
herbicides was as a ground cover 
^ray around the base of the 
blueberry bushes. No spray was 
applied to the foliage of the ber- 
ries. (To Be Continued) 



Cranberry Clinics 
Well Attended 

PMrst of the Massachusetts 
cranberry "clinics" took place 
May 26 with excellent attenden- 
ees, about 65 at NCA plant, Han- 
son at 2 p.m. and nearly as many 
at State Bog at 7 p.m. Dominic 
A. Marini, County Agent Exten- 
sion conducted the sessions. 

It develof)ed that the usual 
amount of spring insects are 
working, span woi-m was espe- 
cially heavy and there were infes- 
tations of cut-worms, spargano- 
this and plenty of blackheaded 
fireworms, against all of which 
control measui"es were being used. 

Other topics concerned weeds, 
identification and control, ferti- 
lizer recommendations, extent of 
winter injury and frost damage 
and other bog management sug- 
gestions. 

Frost losses, despite a number 
of frosts, is called practically nil, 
and Dr. C. E. Cross said the bud 
iooks better than would have 
been expected in view of the 
severe winter conditions. 

Participating in the discussion 
were J. Richard Beattie, cranberry 
specialist, and various members 
of the Experiment Station staff. 

iSimiliar meetings were held 
May 28 at Makepeace screenhouse. 
West Barnstable and NCA at 
North Harwich. 

Four 



WISCONSIN HARVEST 
PLAN 

Report from good authority 
reaches us that a plan for Wis- 
consin harvest is being advanced 
which would reduce the cost of 
harvest, hauling and storage of 
cranberries. The plan would call 
for ventilated storage which will 
keep fruit in much better condi- 



tion. All to be accomplished 
less cost than present methods 
any cranberry growing area, 
is said. 



Subscribe 
To Cranberries 



Brewer & Lord 

INSURANCE 
40 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. 

ARTHUR K. POPE HORACE H. SOULE 

CONVERSE HILL CHARLES M. CUTLER 

WILLIAM B. PLUMER EBEN A. THACHER 
ROBERT A. SULLIVAN HERBERT R. LANE 
EDWARD H. LEARNARD VINCENT M. WILSON 
JOHN B. CECIL.L, JR. 



Serving the People of New England 

Since 1859 



C. & L. EQUIPMENT CO. 

191 LEONARD STREET ACUSHNET, MASS. 

Cranberry Bog Service 



PRUNING 
RAKING 



FERTILIZING 
WEED TRIMMING 



Machinery Sales 



PRUNERS POWER WHEELBARROWS 

RAKES WEED TRIMMERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS - Large & Small 



For Further Information Call . . . 

F. P. CRANDON H. C. LEONARD 

Rockwell 3-5526 Wyman 3-4332 

C. J. TRIPP 

Wyman 4-4601 



Issue of June 1959 - Vol. 24 No. 2 

Publinhed monthly at The Courier Print Shop, Main St., Wareham, Massachusptts. Subscription $3.60 per year, 

interfd as second-class matter January 26, 1943, at the poit-oflfice at Wareham, Madaehxiiettt, under the Act of March 8, lITt 



■RESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



•MASSACHUSETTS 



Frosty Period 

iFrost warnings were issued 
rom Cranberry Station through - 
flay 15 to 18th inclusive, giving 
growers a troublesome, sleepless, 
leriod. The worst night was that 
if the 17th when a warning of 
12-23 degrees was sent out and 
emperatures generally averaged 
ibout that with one 19. There was 
a-obably some slight damage that 
light and perhaps a little on 
)thers, but no general serious 
lurt. Bogs at that point could 
vithstand 26. 

That most flowable bogs were 
inder frost flood continuously in- 
o the fifth day would not be con- 
lusive to crop possibilities. 

May Very Hot 

By end of first three weeks 
jf May temperatures were ap- 
jroximately 95 degrees above the 
lormal, or more than four a day, 
vhile on the 21st there was an 
ill-time record high for the date 
Boston) of 9'3 degrees. 

Except for the last two days 
)f May, heat records would have 
been shattered for the highest 
May average in one hundred and 
twenty years. The record (Bos- 
ton) showed a plus of 149 de- 
grees for the month or nearly five 
a day above the norm. 

Boston is usually a few degrees 
warmer in summer than the Cape 
but heat extended down into the 
Hanson-Carver area in Plymouth 
County. From Falmouth it was 
reported about four degrees a 
day warmer than last year. 

May heat was not desired for 
the coming crop, but dryness was. 
May Drier 

Normal May rainfall for the 



Experiment Station East Ware- 
ham is 3.48 inches. The total re- 
corded for May was 2.47. At Fal- 
mouth it was 3:04, so, over the 
cranberry area in general it was 
a drier month. 

Bud Surprisingly Good 

Bud throughout Massachusetts 
was described as surprisingly 
good in view of the severe winter. 
It was also reported as spotty. At 
end of May there was beginning 
blossom on a number of bogs. 

Frost Damage Almost Nil 

At the end of May frost injury 
had been chalked down at the Sta- 
tion as practically nil. 

There has also been a very con- 
siderable amount of sanding 



which would normally reduce 
prospects. At end of May growers 
were generally talking the crop 
down seemingly certainly not as 
larger than average. 

Sunshine Up 
Sunshine for the month was a 
good 73 percent of possible hours. 
That is a point in favor of the 
size of the 1960 yield. 



NEW JERS EY 

May Dry 

May was another dry month 
(even drier than April) with a 
total rainfall of 1.80 inch, or 1.97 
inch below normal. For cran- 
berries this was important chiefly 
in the way it may affect stream- 



HAIL IS ON THE WAY 

WATCH OUT. MR. GROWER 

PROTECT YOUR PRODUCTION COSTS 

If you had a loan and lost your crop by hail you 
would still have to pay — let Hail Insurance do this 
for you. 

Our new policy protects the berries and vines against 
hail and fire from the time the water is off in the 
Spring until after harvest. 

CRANBERRY RATES ARE LOW 

For further information write or call: 

Alvin R. Raid 

Main Street, Hanson, Mass. 
Cypress 3-6336 Cypress 3-6441 



Fiy« 



flow this summer, since most bogs 
were held "well into the middle 
of May. 

No Serious Frost Injury 

There were only four really 
cold mornings, the worst being 
the 17th. Isaiah Haines reported 
that several bogs had tempera- 
tures as low as 221/2° on the 9th., 
27V2° on the 16th., 24V2° on the 
17th. and 27° on the 25th. Growers 
in general tended to hold their 
water late so that many bogs were 
still flooded on the 17th and the 
rest were generally flowed for 
frost. As of June 1st there seems 
to be no serious amount of 
frost injury. 

It looks like a season favorable 
to the blossom worm. 

May Warm 

May was a .warm month, aver- 
aging 2V2° above normal for both 
days and nights. The general 
average of all temperatures for 
the month was 65.2°, or 2.4° 
above normal. 

Blueberries 

Blueberries were favored more 
by the weather than they were 
hindered. The warm, dry weather 
held botrytis gray mold under 
natural control. In general there 
is a full crop of berries set, al- 
though some fields have apparent- 
ly suffered from the few cold 
nights and show small berries that 
will not mature. On June 1 rain 
was urgently needed. There had 
been no satisfactory rain at New 
Lisbon since the 1.26 inch on the 
13th - 15th. Where weevil and 
curculio sprays or dusts were ap- 
plied on time, the green fruit is 
in good, clean' condition. Where 
calcium cyanamid was used on 
time in April for the control of 
mummy berry, it was unusually 
successful in checking the blight 
of flowers and foliage which was 
severe in many untreated fields. 



WASHINGTON 

The month of May was fairly 
warm with a maximum temper- 
ature of 86° on May 12th and a 
minimum of 29° on May 10th. 
There were several showers along 
with one rainy period from May 
14 to May 17th. The minimum 
relative humidity was 27% on 



May i2th. This past month has 
been about normal for this time 
of year. Sprinkler systems were 
going for frost protection on six 
different occasions. The tempera- 
tures during those periods of 
frost were 31° on May 2nd, 31° 
on May 5th, 32° on the 18th. So 
far no really severe frosts except 

■!<l!B'i|W'inilHilllB:'lW'HE|':|!flN|!Hi| 



on the one night of May 10th. 

Good Bud 

Most of the bogs have good set 
of buds this year so there should 
be a very nice crop. 

Variety in Growth 

The growth on the different 

(Continued on Page 16) 



IIIBIIIIHII 




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Sprays and Dusts 

MARSHFIELD AIRWAYS, INC. 

Marshfield, Mass. 

Thos. S. Weitbrecht (Whitey) 



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Si:c 



'M'-::^ 



DITHANE Z-78 

(ZINEB) 

PROTECTS CRANBERRIES 
FROM FRUIT ROT 

Normal dosage is three pounds of DiTHANE Z-78 per 100 

gallons, using about 300 gallons per acre for good 

coverage. For top-quality fruit, two applications per 

season are suggested. See your Rohm & Haas 

fieldman for more information ... see your 

dealer for DiTHANE Z-78. 



t^i'^y 



mil' 



f-i' 




Chemicals for Agriculture 

ROHM e HAAS 

COMPAMY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE, PHILADELPHIA 5, PA. 



DiTHANE is a trademark, Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. and in principal foreign countries. 

DITHANE Z-78 



"m 




used in Tonstrurtion of a match 
factory was sound after SB 
years, though other softwoods 
and hardwoods in the area werpi 
ravaged. \ 

■ . Koscarch ov Ihe Bureau of; 
Fntomolo'jy, U. R. Dopartment| 
of Agricultu:e, on Rarrn Col tr- 
ade Island, Jamama, where 45 
different kinds of t:^rmile5; ex'^t 
r.how-^d that a redwood huilding 
orrcted in 1927 was free of rot 
and tevmito damarre after ^3 
years' service, when the build- 
was destroyed hy a falling tree. 



Inspecting a lit.n.t' after 20 years of service. 

California Redwood Makes Ideal 
Flumes For Cranberry Growers 



Redwood is one of the few 
woods that nature has endowed 
the heartwood with unusual dur- 
ability, even under conditions fav- 
orable to the growth of fungus, 
decay, and to termite and other 
insect attack. All heart redwood 
has for years been used foir the 
following piirposes, showing- vjry 
little d3"?y after y .us oi;' u~e - 
fence;?, sills, .^■resnhou^'' f^rcs^., 
and many other exterior uses. 
Miles of pipe line up to 16' in di- 
ameter and many miles of sluice 
ways are in operation in the '.Vest, 
moving- millions of gallons of 
water hourly. 

The Forest Products L.^'iora- 
tory, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture at Madison, Wisconsin, has 
available records of the outstand- 
ing results of Redwood. 

Some of the service re'^o^^ds of 
redwood taken from all over the 
world, especially in warm humid 
climates where termite attack and 
decay are the greatest, are fol- 
lowing examples :- 

1. Redwood pipe in Lagun'ia 
Province, Phillippine Islands, 
was still in sei-vice after 20 
years, and I'edwood tanks in- 
stalled by a mining company in 
the Philippines were in use af- 
ter 20 yeai-s while other woods 
had been rapidly attacked. 

2. Redwoon pipe installed by a 



sugar company in Hawaii was 
in perfect condition after more 
than 30 years. 

-. Tests by a commissioner of 
t.he Lands and Forests Depart- 
m'^iit, Freetown, West Africa, 
showed that redwood tested in 
termite-infested ground was 
found "resistant to all insect at- 
t-^ck." 

4. Testimony from Ma^atian, 
Mexico, revealed that redwood 



Redwood has been ussd in in- 
creasing quantities in the cran- 
berry industry the last thirty 
years for flume work with very 
good results. There are manj 
grades of Redwood that may be 
used for flume work, the most im- 
portant thing being all heart, frc? 
fiom white sap wood as sap woor) 
does not have the rot or termitd 

resisting qualities. 

The Goodhue Lumber Company 
of East Freetown has been carry- 
ing increasing quantities of irri 
gation grades All Heart Redwooc 
in recent years, and at the present 
time has an inventory of 70,C0f 
feet which is constantly beinf 
replaced in 2" and thicker stocl* 
in lengths from fi ft. - 20 ft. 



A Good Flume Is Your Insurance 
For A Good Crop 

USE ALL HEART REDWOOD 

We have a good stock of 
All Heart Timbers 

6x8 — 6x6 — 4x6 — 4x4 

Planking- - Square Edged or Matched 

2x6 — 2x8 — 2x10 — 2x12 

LET US ESTIMATE YOUR FLUME AND 
BUILDING NEEDS 

E. VV. Goodhue Lumber Co., Inc. 



MIDDLEBORO ROAD 



EAST FREETOWN, MASg. 



Kitrht 



OUR COVER 



'These June blossoms are shown 
in licit of the Pilgrim fort in 
the rej roduetion of the entire Pil- 
grmi viilag'e from 1620 to 1627. 
This is on Route 3-A south of 
Plymouth Blassachusetts and near 
Chiltonville. 

Blossoms are blooming there as 
eveiy where at this season of the 
year. Already the first half dozen 
of tne 22 structures to be built 
look "rooted.'" 

Cranberry g'lowers should be 
especially interested in this gigan- 
tic pioject, w'ihich in time will hav-» 
the Mayflower II permanently 
anchored adjacent in Eel Rivei. 
Whether it can be historically 
pi'oven the Pilgrims ate cranber- 
ries or not, they have always been 
associated in legend. 

Heading the enterprise oi Pli- 
mouth Plantations, Inc., is Harry 
Hornblower of Boston a cran- 
berry grower and former treas- 
urer of Cape Cod Cranberry 
Growers Association. Other cran- 
berry growers are important in 
the project as well. 



ALASKA LINGENBERRIES 

(European variety of cranberries) 

Lingenberries from Alaska are 
reaching the States today be- 
cause of a challenge to Mrs. 
•Judy McPherson of Fairbanks. 

v,'.. ;.i Mrs. McPheii on, who 
u-scs bushels of lingenberries her- 
seii wondered about raising them 
for export her husband encour- 
aged her to carry out her ambi- 
tion. She is now head of her own 
company Arctic Alaska Berries. 
Native women pick the berries 
which are then packed and 
shipped to the States. 

The lingenberry grows only in 
the northern lands, such as Alas- 
ka and the Scandanavian country 
where it is also popular. It is 
similar to the cranberry but has 
more flavor and color. 

Mrs. McPherson sends recipes 
along with her exported berries. 
The berries may be used for rel- 
ishes and sauce or in salads, pies 
and tarts. (Margilee Watts, in 
American Fruit Grower.) 

(Editors Note — The lingen- 
berry is a variety of cranberries.) 





FLOWABLE PARATHION 400 is ideal for 

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parathion. . . a water-base emulsion offering all the 
advantages of parathion with these additional 
benefits: Less hazardous to handle... and greater 
safety to plants than emulsifiable concentrates. 
It contains no solvents or oils, can be used in all 
types of sprayers, and is compatible with a wide 
range of insecticides and fungicides. 

Flowable Parathion 400 is a 
Stauffer specialty. It's avail- 
able at your dealer. See him now. 



Stauffer Chemical Company 

One East 47th Street 
New York 17, N. Y. 



WMMMm 




SINCE 



Nine 



I 



WISCONSIN'S UNUSUAL HAIL YEAR 
OF 1958 — FACTS ABOUT HAIL 

By 

Dr. George L. Peltier 

A hot, muggy, afternoon or evening, with moisture laden southern 
winds that sap one's energy— shortly dark clouds accumulate and rear 
their ugly heads in the west— soon a thundercloud is in the making 
and the surge of the lower stratum of warm, moist air into the vortex 
of the cold thunderhead congeals the vapor particles— suddenly with a 
roar the storm descends and one of the greatest hazards to the grower 
is upon him, i. e. HAIL. Normally, hail is associated with thunder- 
storms and for the most part are localized within small and definite 
areas. Usually hail appears as the storm breaks and is then foUoiwed 
by rain. The amount of hail is correlated with the amount of rainfall, 
which simply means that more vapor particles are available to form 

hail. 

About Hailstones 

The size of hailstones varies from tiny, mushy pellets to the size 
of marbles and occasionally they are as large as golf balls. Their 
volume depends on the number of layers of ice that develop on the 
surface of the stones as they move downward and reascend in the 
upsurge of the moist air currents, before they are finally released. 
While hailstones are usually round, they can assume diverse shapes 
and become irregular, angular and at times even elongated. 
Duration of Storm noon. 

The duration of a hailstorm As hail is associated with 

varies from a minute or two up- thunderstorms, they occur most 
wards to 30 minutes. The average generally from May into Septeni- 
duration is somewhere between ber. They are most frequent dur- 
10 and 15 minutes. Hail may fall ing July and August with some in 
at any time that conditions are 
favorable for its formation. Al- 
most % of the storms occur 
between 2 and 9 P. M., with the 
greatest number prevailing from 
4 to 7 P. M. Less than 4% appear 
between the hours of 6 A. M. and 



May and September, and oc- 
casionally in April and October. 
Thus, the prevailing weather con- 
ditions favoring the development 
of numerous thunderstorms en- 
hances the number of hailstorms. 
These conditions were available 




R. F. MORSE & SON 

West Wareham, Mass., Tel. CY 5-1553 

Cranberry Growers Agent For 

Eastern States Farmers' Exchange 

Insecticides - Fertilizers - Fungicides 

Bog Service and Supplies 
Agent for Wiggins Airways 

Helicopter Spray and Dust Service 
DEPENDABLE ECONOMICAL SERVICE 



more frequently in 1958, result 
ing in the most severe losses froE 
hail in many years. 

Some hail fell in all cranberrj 
growing areas during the season 
Thus, hail was not only more fre 
quent, but more widespread 
Usually in past years not all area: 
were hit during the season, am 
in the main, losses have been mon 
localized and less destructive, dui 
in part to the isolated bogs am 
their location over a wide area v. 
Central and Northern Wisconsin 
Severe hail losses were reportec 
from the Northeast in June; fron 
the Northwest in June and July 
in Wood County in late Augus 
and in the Warrens area in Sep 
tember and again in early Octo 
ber. 

The writer had an opportunit; 
to study the damage from hail ii 
three cranberry growing areas 
The results of these studies ar' 
herewith presented as a pre 
liminary report. 

1. Wisconsin River area (Biron. 

August 30. Midnight. Th. 
thunderstorm moved from thi 
southwest, with heavy rains am 
winds of gale proportions. Hai 
fell for a period of 10-20 minutes 
The size of the stones varied fron 
small pellets to large, rough one: 
capable of cutting the berries ii 
two or inflicting large deep gashe 
in the fruit. At the time of th« 
storm, depending on the variet] 
and location, some coloring of th 
top crop was present, but th< 
heavy bottom crop was still greei 
and about % full size. 

The results of numerous count: 
in three bogs is ghovvTi in Tablt 
1. The figures were arrived at bj 
using the following formula: Nuni 
ber of berries damaged per sq 
ft. X 43,560 sq. ft. (1 Acre.) Num 
ber of berries injured divided bj 
the average number of berries pe: 
pound, which equals the number o: 
pounds of damaged fruit. 

The berries knocked off th< 
vines in an immature state wer< 
figured as a total loss. All of th« 
bruised berries had deep wound.' 
that extended into the seed loculej 
and thus were subject to physio 
logical breakdown and to rots. Foi 
Continued on Page 12) 



Tpti 



You can stop fruit rots, 
get higher yields of 
cleaner berries with either 

DuPont 

PARZATE °> FERMATE 

zineb fungicide ferbam fungicide 



Now DuPont offers you two outstanding fungicides for control 
of cranberry fungus diseases. Both "Parzate" and "Fermate" 
give effective protection . . . prevent rot of the fruit on vines 
and greatly reduces rot while in storage. You'll find quality 
improves, yields increase w^hen you use either of these fungi- 
cides. 

"Parzate" and "Fermate" are hard on disease, but mild on 
plants. There's minimum danger of stunting or burning tender 
flowers, leaves or fruit. Both fungicides can be applied by 
conventional or concentrate sprayers, and "Fermate" can also 
be applied as a dust. For most effective spray coverage and 
protection of waxy foliage, Du Pont Spreader-Sticker should be 
added to the mixture. 

ASK YOUR DEALER for full information and supplies of "Par- 
zate" and "Fermate". He'll be glad to give you free literature 
on both fungicides and on other reliable Du Pont products. 
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.), Grasselli Chemicals De- 
partment, Wilmington 98, Delaware. 

On all chemicals, follow label instructions and warnings carefully. 




PARZATE "mm^ FERMATE 

zineb fungicide ferbam fungicide 

Better things for better living . . . through chemistry 



Sleven 



(Continued from Page 10) 
immature green berries were con- 
sidered as a total loss. 

: A larg-e percentage of the ber- 
ries dented exhibited an unbroken 
cuticle, which did not otherwise 
interfere with their subsequent 
maturity and coloring. Most of 
these berries were suitable for 
processing and in a few instances 
were packed as fresh fruit, with 
the designation of hail-marked 
berries. 

The center of the storm passed 
over Bog 3, while the other two 
bpgs several miles away were 
n^ar the outer reaches of the 
storm. Thus, a higher total loss 
was accounted for on Bog 3. Bog 
2 was rather grassy and wesdy so 
apparently fewer berries were 
knocked off than on Bog 1, which 
was fairly free of weeds and the 
vines more exposed. The figures 
presented are simply indicative of 
the damage that hail can cause 
and the losses that hail can incur. 

2. Warrens area. 

September 3. 5-7 P. M. Appar- 
ently the cloud formation devel- 
oped over Bear Mound, with indi- 
cations of two small funnels. Hail 
fell for approximately 15 - 20 
minutes, followed by a heavy rain 
(2.85") and accompanied by winds 



of gale proportions. Hail stones 
varied in size, but on the average 
were quite large. Sand patterns 
on the dykes showed complete 
ground coverage with dents about 
the cii'cumference of marbles. The 
storm was quite localized in a 
narrow ba^d and was confined to 
an area south and east of Bear 
Mound. The losses from hail by 
varieties are shown in Table 2. 
While the writer was able to make 
field counts of the berries knocked 
off, only samples from which the 
counts were made gave the per- 
centage of bruised and dented ber- 
ries. 

From a varietal standpoint it is 
interesting to note that the 
Natives showed less total damage 
than either the Searles or Howes. 
The higher percentage of injure."! 
Howe berries was due to the fact 
that they were still quite imma- 
ture. The large share of the ber- 
ries from this bog were shipped 
for processing immediately after 
harvest. 

3. Warrens area. 

October 8. 2-3 A. M. Path of 
the thunderstorm from West, north 
of Bear Mound in the northern 
rait of Knapp township and east" 
to the county line in a rather 
narrow strip. The duration of tho 



Bog 1. 
Bog 2. 
Bog 3. 



TABLE 1 
Pounds per acre of hail damaged berries. 

Knocked off Bruised Dented 

Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. 

1070 802 535 

827 1380 827 

2080 1483 893 



Total 
Lbs. 

2407 
3034 
4456 



TABLE 2 
Pounds per acre of berries knocked off and the percentage of bruised 
and dented berries. 

Variety Knocked off Bruised Dented 

Lbs. % % 

Searles 3000 10.2 22.8 

Natives 2156 10.8 23.3 

Howes 2359 12.0 43.7 

TABLE 3 
Pounds per acre of berries knocked off and the percentage of bruised 
and dented berries. 

Knocked off Bruised and dented 

Lbs, % 

Bog 1. 1381 16.5 

Bog 2. 1252 9.0 

Bog 3, 708 6.0 



hail was 10 - 20 minutes and was 
followed by a heavy rain. As 
usual, the hailstones varied in size 
from pellets to a few as large as 
golf balls. This storm, so far as 
records are available, is the latest 
recorded in the cranberry areas 
in Wisconsin. Fortunately, only a 
few sections remained to be har- 
vested at this late date. While 
counts were made of knocked off 
berries, time did not permit an 
extensive field count of the 
damaged berries since the sec- 
tions were harvested within the 
next two days. However, enough 
samples were collected to arrive 
at a percentage of injured ber- 
ries. The results of these counts 
are presented in Table 3. The 
majority of the damaged berries 
were shipped for processing so 
that from % to % of the crop was 
salvaged. 

Hail Insurance 

It is hoped that this brief ac- 
count of three hailstorms in Wis- 
consin and the losses therefrom 
may be of sufficient interest to 
stimulate further progress in a 
reasonable insurance program 
among cranberry growers. Unfor- 
tunately, only one grower had 
hail insurance so that the losses 
incurred were a direct liability to 
the uninsured. 

Hail, when it strikes, is a 
calamity which is awesome in its 
suddenness, in that the grower is 
completely helpless. 

MAY HAIL 

There was severe hail reported 
in the Black River Falls, Wis. area 
on night of May 10. Some hail- 
stones measured 1% inches in 
diameter with enough falling to 
blanket the ground. 



NEW WISCONSIN 
MARSH 

Report from Wisconsin is that 
a new development of 60 acres 
will be underw^ay near Fiefield 
in the Eagle River area. Plantings 
are planned for 1960. 



SUBSCRIBE TO 
CRANBERRIES MAGAZINE 



Twelve 




photo courtvisy of the National Cranberry Association 



Kill All Major Cranberry Insects 
with Malathion 

• Helps You Avoid Residue Problems 

• Offers Safety in Use 



Five seasons use has proved mal- 
athion's superiority as a cranberry 
insecticide. Early spraying or dust- 
ing with malathion protects the 
new crop against damage from 
black and yellow-headed fireworms, 
false armyworms, blossom worms, 
tipworms, cutworms and blunt- 
nosed leafhoppers. Later in the 
season, malathion controls the 
highly destructive fruitworm. 



Otters safety in use 

Malathion is a phosphate insecti- 
cide with loiv toxicity to man and 
animals. Its wide safety margin 
makes it ideal for air application 
. . . especially in and around popu- 
lated ai'eas. 

Avoid residue problems 
Malathion's fast disappearing resi- 
dues allow application on cranber- 
ries up to 72 hours before harvest. 



Residues will be well below the 
limits established by law. 

Compatible with other chemicals 

Malathion is compatible with most 
fungicides and other insecticides... 
another reason why so many 
growers are making it the basic 
insecticide in their spray schedules. 
American Cyanamid Company, 
Agricultural Division, New York 
20, New York. 




MALATHION 

INSECTICIDES 



'/^,i'A^yM',^//f/>^>/^^SSMjt^^ 




The Cranberry Story 

PROCESSED 
CRANBERRIES 

PART FOUR 

By 

Gilbert T. Beaton 
Secretary-Treasurer 
Cranberry Institute 

Fourth in a series of 4 articles on the history of the cranoerry industry 
sponsored by the Cranberry Institute. 

According to the University of Massachusetts Agricultural Exper- 
ment Station bulletin No. 481, references to the American species of 
cranberry Vaccinium Macrocarpon are relatively few in scientific 
literature, but there are many regarding the European species, Vac- 
cinium Vitis-Ideas, or Preisselbeere and Vaccinium Oxycoccus, or 
Moosbeere. Since the three species have a fairly close botanical 
relationship and since both Preisselbeere and Moorsbeere are usually 
translated as cranberry, the literature referring to the acid content 
of all these species is considered. 



Preservation 

Several years ago in the peat 
bogs of Denmai-k was discovered 
a complete and perfectly pi-e- 
served body of a man stained a 
dark brown by the peat water. 
The samples of the peat formed 
around the body suggested the 
date of death as approximately 
the commencement of the Chris- 
tian Era. After considerable re- 
search, it was discovered that the 
reason that the body was so mar- 
velously preserved was because 
the Spagnun moss of Northern 
Europe is slightly acid in content. 
The body lay, in effect, in a weak 
bath of humic acid and tannic 
acid, the same as a tanning solu- 
tion. A goat skin pouch was fas- 
tened to the side of the body 
and through analysis, it was 
proved that the pouch originally 
contained cranberi-y juice. 

Preser^•ing 

For thousands of years men 
■have been seeking a safe and sim- 
ple method of preserving foods in- 
definitely. It was hard enough the 
way foods spoiled, to keep fresh 
supply in ordinary times, but dur- 
ing great national crises, like 
wars, the need was more urgent. 
Armies on the march had to have 

Fourteen 



good food and plenty of it. Most 
armies existed on salted meat, 
stale bread and the fresh food 
they picked up as they moved 
along. On such a meager diet as 
this, even a great conqueror like 
Napoleon could not prevent the 
oil of heavy losses suffered by 
his army from inadequate food 
: upplies and dietary diseases. Scur- 
vy which comes from an insuffi- 
cient diet, has probably killed 
■nore soldiei'S than ever died in 
battle. While Napoleon wa's win- 
ning- wars and lasting fame, the 
jovernment of France organized a 
society for the encouragement of 
new inventions, offering prizes for 
inventions that would present 
n-esh opportunities to the people. 
Listed among these prizes was an 
award of 12,000 francs for a bet- 
ter method of preserving food. 

Nicholas Appert had great skill 
with foods. He had been at times 
a chef, a brewer, distiller and a 
confectioner. In all this work with 
food he had been interested in 
spoilage problems, so for ten long 
years he toiled in a tiny kitchen 
back of his shop, patiently cook- 
ing and preserving. No one 
thought of using tin cans in those 
days, so Appert worked with 



clumsy glass containers. The pro- 
cess, as he finally developed it, 
involved precooking the food, bot- 
tling it in his own containers, 
wiring corks in place, setting the 
bottles in burlap sacks and lower- 
ing them into a big kettle where 
they cooked a second time. After 
several years of experiments and 
failures, on January 30, 1810, Ap- 
pert compiled his notes and pre- 
sented them to the Government. 
Finally the 12,000 francs were 
awarded to him. Before receiving 
the award, however, he had to 
publish his findings at his own ex- 
pense and send 200 copies of the 
book to the Government. This lit- 
tle book, the book of all house- 
holds on the art of preserving 
animal and vegetable substance, 
marked the beginning of the 
great canning industry. 

As stated previously in "CRAN- 
BERRIES" the original Indian 
method of preserving wdld cran- 
berries was followed extensively 
throughout New England and 
Eastern Canada for both wild and 
cultivated fruit for many years. 
It consisted merely in keeping 
the bei'ries immersed in clean 
cold water in crocks and jars. 
Samples of these raw packed 
cranberries were sufficiently well 
preserved to be palatable even 
after several years. 

From the story of "Nor'west 
John " by George Howe, a story 
of John DeWolfe who sailed from 
Bristol, Rhode Island in August 
1804 to Russian Alaska, tells of 
his stay in a settlement in New 
Archangel where the dessert was 
invariably cranberries preserved 
in candlefish oil. 

As early as 1817, a young Eng- 
lishman, William Underwood, 
landed in New Orleans to start a 
canning business. Failing to get 
support in New Orleans, he 
walked all the way to Boston. 
There he founded the first food 
preserving firm in America. Two 
of his early experiments in the 
processing and canning of food 
was with cranberries and lobsters. 
The canning of cranberries was 
first recorded in a letter dated 
January 10, 1828 by William Un- 
derwood of Boston, addressed to 

ADVT. 



'Captain Stauwood of the "Augois- 
ta". He starts his letter: "Dear 
Sir: Enclosed you have an in- 
voice for pickles, sauces, mus- 
tards, and preserves of first qual- 
ity'' A little later in the letter he 
mentions: "The cranberries in the 
bottles are preserved without 
sugar. I name this because if any 
person should purchase them for 
sweetmeats, they would be dis- 
appointed. They are to be used 
precisely as if purchased fresh 
from the market and will keep 
any length of time before the 
cork is drawn." A little later he 
states: "The cranberry jam is a 
sweetmeat and usually brings a 
high price. I have frequently sold 
it in India for $1.50 per jar." 

The first cranberry preserving 
factory operated on a small com- 
mercial scale, was at Wareham, 
Massachusetts from 1898 to 1901. 
There Mr. R. C. Randall made a 
cranberry syrup called "Ruby 
Phosphate." Several small kitchen 
factories made and sold cranberry 
sauce in Boston and Providence 
before 1907, but it was not until 
1907 that the United Cape Cod 
Cranberry Company was formed 
and interests in canned cranber- 
ries was sustained. 

Cranberry Canning 

Marcus L. Urann, President of 
the United Cape Cod Cranberry 
Company, endeavored to solicit 
the support of other large ship- 
pers in the processing of cran- 
berries. Failing' in this, however, 
in 1912 he formed the Ocean 
Spray Preserving Company. The 
Ocean Spray Preserving Company 
was organized to market canned 
cranheiTy sauce. The first cans of 
Ocean Spray (number 2 size cans 
holding approximately 20 ounces) 
were packed by hand in the brick 
building on Main Street in Han- 
son, nucleus of the present plant. 
Its outlines can still be seen in 
the center of the present plant. 
The first years of selling cranber- 
ry sauce in cans were an uphill 
struggle. Grocers were skeptical, 
consumers were slow to try an 
unknown product, so with cans 
of Ocean Spray Cranberry Sauce 
in his hand, Marcus L, Urann 
went from customer to customer, 
ADVT. 



opening cans, cutting samples and 
using every means of personal 
persuasion to get across the story 
that here was a good product with 
a bright future. 

His first sales were in the Bos- 
ton area, but because he spent 
part of his winters in Florida, 
that became the second state in 
which Ocean Spray Cranberry 
Sauce was introducced. There 
were all kinds of problems in the 
early days. The lining used in 
the tin cans was not adequate for 
cranberry sauce. There were end- 
less experiments until the right 
lining was found. Tripple plate 
enamel stored in a warm place de- 
veloped gas and swelled. These 
had to be taken back, money re- 
funded, and more experiments 
conducted to learn how to elim- 
inate these problems. In 1922, 
Mr. Urann appointed as the first 
sales broker for Ocean Spray, the 
Arthur G. Curren Company of 
Boston, who still represent Ocean 
Spray in that City. 

In the years between 1920 and 
1930, sales of Ocean Spray Cran- 
berries grew from 20,000 cases 
to about 200,000 cases. By this 
time several other companies were 
engfaged in cranberry canning-. 
One of these was the A. D. Make- 
peace Company of Wareham. The 
Cranberry Products Company, 
New Egypt, New Jersey was a 
second. In 1980 these three com- 
panies merg-ed to become a new 
cooperative, Cranberry Canners, 
Inc., with headquarters at Han- 
son. Marcus L. Urann was Presi- 
dent. To Marcus L. Urann, for 
many years both President of the 
United Cape Cod Cranberry Com- 
pany and National Cranberry 
Association, belongs the credit for 
early visualizing possibilities in 
mianufactured cranberry products. 
Thanks to his foresight, perser- 
verance and organization, the 
cranberry industry has developed 
from a little factory at South 
Hanson, Massachusetts, packing 
about 20,000 cases in 1922, to a 
great industry today packing ap- 
proximately 6,500,000 cases a 
year. 

Continous Cooking 

At the present time, approxi- 
mately 56% of the total United 



States Cranberry Crop is sold 
in processed form. Other proces- 
sors who have been processing 
cranberities and expanding! the 
sale of this product are 
Minot Food Packers, Inc., 
Bridgeton, New Jersey. Minot has 
a continous cooking operation 
which streamlines their operation. 
Their continuous cooker furnishes 
cranberry sauce to the latest fill- 
ing, closing and can handling 
equipment, one of the most mod- 
ern and efficient lines in the 
cranberry industry. They have 
just completed their own freez- 
ing plant, contaiiuirig app(ritolxi- 
mately 110,000 cubic feet. This 
freezing plant, in addition to 
maintaining a minus 10° tempera- 
ture, can also freeze 350,000 
pounds of cranberries per week. 
Minot Foods was originally found- 
ed by Mir. Kessler and Mr. Con- 
way. The president is John P. 
Morello. 

Also actively engaged in the 
processing of cranberries are Mor- 
ris April Bros, of Bridgeton, New 
Jersey, packing under April Or- 
chard Brand and Eatmor; Pappas 
Bros, of New Jersey; C. & E. 
Canners of New Jersey; Cran- 
berry Products, Inc., Eagle River, 
Wisconsin. The latter is owned 
and managed by Vernon Golds- 
worthy, and besides cranberry 
sauce, packs wide variety of other 
cranberry products such as Cran- 
Sweets, Cranberry Apple Sauce, 
Cranberry-Orange Relish and 
Cranberry Puree. Stokley-Van 
Camp Company of Indianopolis 
is another cranberry processer, 
and in the West Coast area, Cran- 
guyma Farms of Long Beach, 
Washington has a processing plant 
for specialty cranberry products. 
An article on Cranguyma Farms 
was in Cranberry Magazine a 
short time ago. 

The Natinal Cranberry Asso- 
ciation has plants in Markham, 
Washington; North Chicago, Ill- 
inois; St. Johns, Quebec; Borden- 
town. New Jersey; Onset and 
Hanson, Massachusetts. Besides 
packing strained cranberry sauce 
and whole cranberry sauce, they 
also process cranberry juice 
cocktail, straight cranberry juice, 



fitted 



Oran, cranberry-orange relish, 
frozen cranberries and are also 
actively engaged in the shipment 
of fresh cranberries. The inde- 
pendent processers of cranberry 
sauce receive practically all their 
berries from the independent 
shippers mentioned in last month's 
article, "The Fresh Fault Story." 

Dehydrating 

To complete this article we 
should present a brief resume of 
the dehydrating of cranberries. 
Ci'anberry dehydration and even 
compression was practiced as long 
ago as 1872 as revealed by a 
patent unearthed by John C. 
Makepeace. This was issued on 
March 19, 1872 to Le Grand Knif- 
Cen of Worcester, Massachusetts. 
The following quotations are from 
the specifications of this patent. 
"I have invented a cei'tain new 
and useful improved process of 
preparing cranberries for preser- 
vation and shipment. It is well 
known that the cranberry is a 
very delicious and healthful fruit 
and one which contains elements 
which particularly adapt it for 
use as an accessory to Army and 
shipping supplies, provided it can 
be prepared in such a manner that 
it will retain its quality and flavor 
for an unlimited perid. I have dis- 
covered from experiments that 
when cranberries are sliced or 
carefully cut into small sections 
of pieces, they can be readily 
dried. Hence my process for pre- 
paring them is to slice or cut 
up the ben-ies and after cutting 
them, to thoroughly dry them, 
when they can be packed in tight 
cans for shipment, or if pre- 
ferred, the dried berries can be 
condensed into a solid mass by 
means of properly applying pres- 
sure. One quart of fresh berries 
will, when cut and dried, be re- 
duced to about one fourth of their 
former size and when pressed or 
condensed, to about one third of 
their bulk after being dried". 

On May 27, 1913, United States 
Patent 1062969 was issued to 
Henry H. Harrison of Boston, 
also foir the dehydration of cran- 
berries. The Harrison patent cov- 
ered puncturing the skin of the 
cranberries to facilitate drying. A 
carload of dehydx'ated cranberries 



shipped in 1948, contained $106,- 
444.68 woi-th of dehydrated cran- 
berries. At that time,this was 
the most expensive carload of 
food shipped. Former holder of 
the recoird was a carload of olive 
oil with a value of $35,000.00. 

Improved cultivation is bring- 
ing about larger and larger cran- 
berry crops. To take care of these 
additional supplies, manufacturers 
need to develop new products and 
expand the market for established 
products. 

A consumer demand in balance 
with the cranberry supply is the 
aim of the industry. 



Correction: In last month's ar- 
ticle, with list of fresh fruit dis- 
tributors the name of Cape Cod 
Cranberry Cooperative, Inc., Or- 
rin G. Colley, president, was in- 
advertedly omitted. 



Fresh From The Fields 

(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 6) 

bogs is extremely variable this 

year. iSome of them are near the 
early hook stage (May 25) while 
others hfeve growth only just 
starting. On the bog at the Ex- 
periment Station both conditions 
existing side by side. This will 
make the blossoming season quite 
long although it probably will 
not be as late as it has been in 
some years past. 

August Field Day 

Plans for a field day on August 
8th of this year are proceeding 
nicely and it is hoped to have 
some very interesting things to 
discuss and show the growers of 
this area. No formal program as 
yet but this will be done when the 
time comes. The Station would like 
at this time to extend an invitation 
to all interested people outside 
of the Washington cranberry 
growing area to visit it on this 
day. Especially the growers from 
British Columbia and Oregon. 

Some spring planting is still 
going on. Most of this, however, 
is finished by end of May. 

The blackheaded fireworm is 
just now starting activity in some 
bogs so the summer spray sched- 
ule will be under way very short- 
ly. One insecticide spray has been 
applied previous to this date (May 



25) on most bogs, as well as, 
one and in some cases two fungi- 
cide applications. To this time 
very little twig blight showing. 
It appears therefore that this 
disease is under control. There 
have been a few small spots show- 
ing on one or two bog indicating 
that the fungi are still present 
and will have to be controlled by 
fungicide sprays during the sum- 
mer months. Station main pro- 
gram this year in disease control 
will be aimed at controlling fiTiit 
rot and field lot diseases. There 
has been some injury to the cran- 
berry foliage during the spring 
months from this group of fungi 
An exact control schedule has 
not been worked out as yet but 
the Station hopes to have one 
within the next year or two. 



WISCONSIN 

Severe May Storms 

May averaged unusually warm 
with above normal I'ainfall. Most 
of the state received one to one 
and one half inches more than 
normal rainfall. May was noted 
for numerous severe storms with 
about a dozen tornadoes and as 
many more tornado funnels were 
reported in the central and south- 
west areas. Warmest day was 95 
degrees on the 2nd and coldest 
was 20 degrees on the night of 
the 14th. The outlook for June is 
for above normal temperatures 
and normal precipitation. Normal 
is about 66 degrees and 4.75 inches 
of rain. 

Ground Frost Lasted Late 

Considerable frost remained in 
the deep peat bogs until late May 
and was only removed by re-flow- 
ing for ten days in early May. 
Most marshes re-flowed the end 
of the first week in May and held 
the reflow until mid month, re- 
moving the water following the 
cold night of the 14th. Since that 
time only one slight frost has 
occurred, making this one of the 
most frost free Mays on record. 
Bud dormancy was broken the 
early part of the month or a little 
earlier than normal. During the 
reflow period the weather was 
cool, windy, sunny and the water 
cool, so it is very doubtful if any 



Sixteen 



oxygen defeciency occured. 

Vine Development Pushed 

Vine development was pushed 
by the end of the month due to 
the humid and warm weather. 
There was some evidence of side 
shooting on marshes that were 
not flooded the last week of Nov- 
ember, when the severe cold winds 
persisted. Most of thi.s side 
shooting seems confined to the 
ditch edges and to the area that 
was harvested last and apparently 
was not too dormant. It also 
appears that over developed veg- 
etative buds were the buds most 
generally frozen. The overall loss 
for the state appears negligible. 
Growers Chosen To Posts 

Two cranberry growers who re- 
side in two of the states highest 
producing counties were chosen 
by their fellow town chairmen as 
chairmen of their respective county 
boards. They are Bennett Pottei-. 
Warrens, Chairman of the Jack- 
son County Board and Clarence 
Searles, Cranmoor, Chairman of 
the Wood County Board. 
Tragedy 

Dwight D. Duchart, three year 
old son of Mr. and Mrs. Donald 
D. Duckart Cranmoor accidently 
fell into a flooding ditch r)n the 
home marsh and drowned May 
16, He is survived by his 
parents and two brothers aiul a 
sister. Deepest sympathy is ex- 
tended to the family. 

Prospects Promisin-j 

At the end of the month crop 
prospects look promising in al' 
areas. The northern marshes which 
had very light crops last year 
look exceptionally good this spring 
and bud counts made last fall 
showed a very good fruit bud set. 
Water supplies are adequate in 
all areas and insect populations 
are expected to be down. To date 
there has been only one damaging 
hail storm which occured early 
in May in the Millston area. The 
storm occured at night and large 
hail along with strong winds were 
reported to have hit three prop- 
erties. As new growth was not 
present it was hoped the loss 
would be small, but there was 
apparent damage to the swollen 
buds and to last years upright 
growth. 



HELICOPTER PEST CONTROL 




glJiqqms ^irwaui 

' ' NORWOOD, MASS. m 

DUSTING and SPRAYING 



RAY MORSE, Agent 



TEL. CYPRESS 5-1553 




FOR PREFABRICATED FLUMES 

SEE 

RUSSELL A. TRUFANT 

HYDRAULIC CONSULTANT 
PREFABRICATED FLUMES BOG RAILROADS 

UNION 6-3696 North Carver, Mass. 



Seventeen 



Cranberries In North America 

By F. B. Chandler 
Research Professor, Cranberry Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 



Seven sections or chapters, 
starting- with last September, have 
comibined the results of surveys 
of the cranberry industry in 
North America. This issue will 
contain the highlights of the 
articles which have been published. 

From the surveys it is evident 
that little or no new acreage is 
being developed on the Atlantic 
Coast. Some is being developed 
in Wisconsin, but most of the new 
acreage is being planned for the 
West Coast. On a ipercented basis, 
the intentions to build on the 
Atlantic Coast are 1/3 of one 
percent, in Wisconsin 5 percent, 
and the Pacific Coast 39 percent 
(intended acreage divided by 
present acreage). 

The decrease in the number of 
growers and the increase in the 
size of "Holding" is common and 
is a trend toward efficiency as 
larger units are more economical 
to operate per acre than small 
ones. Recently our Secretary of 
Agriculture, Ezra Taft Benson, in 
a radio talk said this was happen- 
ing in all parts of the United 
States in all types of agriculture. 

In Wisconsin, a change in 
variety seems to be associated 
with increase in yield per acre. 
This is not true on the West 
Coast as McFarlin has been the 
predominant variety since the 
industry started. In New Jersey, 
there has been a change from 13 
percent of the acreage in Early 
Blacks in 1924 to 71 percent Early 
Blacks in 1955. This change has 
been associated with an increase 
in yield, but the increase in yield 
may be due to control of false 
blossom and culture improvements 
more than to a change in variety. 

Fertilizer data alone will not 
explain the differences in yield 
per acre between the different 
growing sections as the West 
Coast bad the smaller percent of 
growers reporting the use of fer- 
tilzer but they average about 70 
barrels per acre. Yet in Massachu- 



setts, yield per acre greatly in- 
creased from 1935 to 1955, and 
this was accompanied by a three- 
fold increase in fertilizer and the 
fertilizer was about double the 
strength. In other words, increas- 
ing the fertilizer about six times 
increased the yield per acre less 
than twice. Therefore, while fer- 
tilizer is important, it may not 
always be the controlling factor. 
The high yielding cranberry sec- 
tions irrigate by applying the 
water over the surface by flood- 
ing or by sprinkler. The common 
method of irrigating in Wisconsin 
is to apply water over the surface 
or flash flood the marsh. Flash 
flooding is used very little in the 
areas with low yield per acre. 
Very little drainage information 
was available from the surveys. 
However, in Oregon 68 percent of 
the growers kept their ditches dry 
during the growing season. In 
some sections the ditches are 
drained by many growers follow- 
ing frost flows. 

The kind of weeds and the 
method of controlling them varies 
from one section to another. On 



the West Coast, some weeds which 
are not known in the east may 
completely crowd out the cran- 
berries. Likewise, the west coast 
has some diseases which severely 
damage the vines. The equipment 
used for disease control varies 
with the growing section. 

The method of frost forecasting 
varies from section to section, and 
the method of warning the grow- 
ers also varies. The "safe" temp- 
erature in some sections appears 
to be higher than in other sec- 
tions. In general, it appears that 
the sections that protect for any 
temperature below 32 degrees in 
the spring have higher yields per 
acre. 

The method and equipment for 
harvesting varies greatly with the 
growing section and the conditions 
there. The newest method, the 
water reel, has reached surprising 
success in two sections. 

The production of cranberries 
in all sections but New Jersey 
has increased since the turn of 
the century, but the production 
increase has not all been the 
same. This is brought out by the 
production figures and by the 
percentage of the United States 
crop. The yield per acre shows 
the greatest spread - in New 
Jersey; it is less than 30, Mass- 
(Continued on Page 25) 



HORTICULTURAL SALES 

35 South Main St. 
West Bridgewater, Mass. 

"Bob Mossman" Prop. 
Tel. JUniper 3-9112 



CRANBERRY GROWERS SUPPLIES 

WEED AND BRUSH KILLERS 

WEEDAZOL (50% AMINO TRIAZOLE) 

Insecticides — Fungicides — Herbicides 
Aerial Spraying and Dusting 



■*s.-«ft%^ ■^■^■■■=•^e• "•«: ^^-'.:^i,v• 




Sign erected near the lighthouses on Route 28 states what is now official. The highway from the 
rotary traffiee circle in Middleboro to Orleans center is now legally the Cranberry Highway. 

CWareham Courier Photo) 

Massachusetts ''Cranberry Highway'' Opens Officially 



At least 10,000 people witnessed 
the opening of the "Cranberry 
Highway'' in Massachusetts Sun- 
day, June 7th. This route from 
Middleboro to Orleans, a distance 
of 63 miles is through the heart 
of cranberryland. 

Exercises were held all along 
the way. There were more than 
100 vehicles in the line of marcli. 
It took approximately 4V2 hours 
to cover the Cranberry Highway. 

The major stops were at Mid- 
dleboro. National Cranberry As- 
sociation at Onset, Buzzards Bay 
and Orleans. 

At Onset, H. Drew Flegal, ad- 
vertising manager and director of 
publicity of N.C.A. addressed the 
audience. So too, did George C. E. 
P. Olsson, president of NCA and 
clerk of Superior Court of Ply- 
mouth. 



Others present were Alton H. 
Worrall of the Massachusets leg- 
islature. Miss Eleanor Strahura of 
Buzzards Bay, "Miss Cranberry 
Highway," and Miss Priscilla 
Howe of Boston, "Miss Ocean 
Spray of 1959." 

This was a gala affair and the 
highway officially and appropri- 
ately named "Cranberry High- 
\7ay" should do much to keep 
cranberries in mind to the tourists 
visiting Cape Cod. President Rob- 
ert S. Fugure of the Cranberry 
Highway Association expects to 
provide other features of inter- 
est during the coming summer. 

Antique cars, pieces of fire ap- 
paratus accompanied the proces- 
sion to the sounds of sirens and 
bells. 

At the New Haven Railroad 
station. Buzzards Bay the Rever- 



and David O'Brien, pastor of St. 
Margarets Church read the bless- 
ing of Cardinal Cushing for the 
Highway which follows: 

"Almighty and most merciful 
God, who hast destined us to live 
in a land rich in beauty and com- 
forting in its variety of natural 
advantage, teach us, we pray 
Thee, to see Thy good and gra- 
cious Providence in the bless- 
ings to which our attention is 
called on this occasion which 
brings us together in Thy Name. 

"Keep us ever mindful of the 
glorious traditions of personal in- 
tegrity and civic pride ■\^hieh have 
grown up within every town and 
hamlet of this rugged strip of 
land, of old the cradle of our na- 
tion's freedom, and in our own 
day a haven of peace and rest 
(Continued on Page 24) 



Nineteen 




Above 

H. Drew Flegal, director of advertising and public relations of National Cranberry Association makes 
•dn address of welcome. At his right is "Miss Cranberry Highway, Barbara Strahura, to his left. Em- 
ma Florindo and Miss Priscilla Howe, "Miss Ocean Spray of 1959." F.cene is at National Onset 
canning plant, where Alton H. Worrall of Wareham, State Representative, and a prime mover in ob- 
taining action to change name of highway was also a speaker. (Cranberries Photo) 

Next Page 

During a major halt in the Cranberry Highway Dedication Parade. June 7 George C. P. Olsson, 
(center) president of National Cranberry Association made a presentation of cranberry gifts to Frank 
Begley, Falmouth, commissioner of Department of Public Works, representing Massachusetts Governor 
Foster Furcolo. At extreme right is Miss Eleanor Strahura, Buzzards Bay. official "Miss Cranberry High- 
way", while in background stands Miss Priscilla Howe, Boston, NCA's "Miss Ocean Spray of 19.59." 

^Cranberries Photo) 



Twenty 



*^SS»fiS!ftSW»S«S>WSMS!^^ 




Twentyone 



Manitowish Waters, Wisconsin, Is 
Wilderness Wonder — Still Growing 

Editor's Note: Continuation and Conclusion 

by 
Clarence J. Hall 



"Weber's Cranberry Acres" 

One of the properties, whicli 
Goldsworthy had planned for him- 
self is now operated as "Weber's 
Cranberry Acres" owned by Clar- 
•ence R. Weber of Shawano. The 
acres make up a marsh of 33, set 
entirely to Searles. M. Weber was 
in the area on vacation as he had 
been for many years when he was 
surprised to learn of cranberry 
growing in fbe region. Goldy of- 
fered him some partly-developed 
property and he bought. 

Mr. Weber, who is in the veneer 
business at Shawano purchased 
with the idea of growing cran- 
berries as a side line, and to main- 
tain it in the future as an interest- 
ing retirement project. Following 
through with tliis thought he built 
a summer home on the property, 
making extensive use of his ply- 
wood products. 

He had been born and raised on 
a dairy farm so had a natural 
agricultural background. The 
proposition seemed to be a natural 
for him. 

Water for the Weber marsh is 
pumped on by four St. .Jacques 
pumps, not from Little Trout it- 
self but from a deep pond known 
as the Ink Pot, w'i^'ch is connected 
with Little Trout. He pumps 
from this small pond instead of 
the lake proper to avoid lake sand 
being drawn into the pumping 
apparatus. He has a large two- 
story warehouse built into a hill- 
side so that trucks would have 
easy access to the second story 
for their loads, whicu is used 
mostly for storage. Sorting and 
packaging of the fruit is done on 
the ground floor. 

Weber production runs around 
3-5,000 barrels and is marketed 
through Cranberry Products, Inc. 
Goldy is retained in an advisory 
capacity and keeps the marsh 
under close supervision, but active 
management is by a resident fore- 
man, Charles Rayola. Mr. Weber, 
■himself, spends as much time as 
•possible up country at the marsh. 



"Alder Lake" 

Herbert Indermulale and son, 
Richard operate their unit at 
Manitowish known as "Aldei 
Lake." The father and son have 
32 acres in vines, all Searles with 
the exception of SVz acres which 
are set to McFarlins. Production 
has consistently averaged bettfv 
than 100 barrels to the acre, wit!, 
more than 200 being reached in 
1956, and some individual beds bet- 
ter than 300. 

Mr. Indermuhle had been in tho 
dairy business until he turned to 
cranberries. This was at Plain- 
field, where, he produced as much 
as 27,000 pounds of milk and was 
reported to be tbe biggest opera- 
tor in dairying in Wisconsin. 
Richard is a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin and was in 
service. 

Regarding the current cran- 
berry marketing situation, Mr. 
Indermuhle Sr. observes, "I've 
been in business all my life and 
I've had worries plenty of times. 



It doesn't bother me. We wi 
make out all right." This was sai 
before the upturn of last fall. 

There is a warehouse at Aldd 
Lake, now several years ol 
which the Indermuhles considi 
only half large enough and pi; 
an addition in the next few yeai 
They have two mills in the sor 
ing room, but need a third. 
Speedee Filler is used in the pack 
ing of fresh fruit. 

As do all growers at Manitcij 
wish they use water from Littl 
Trout, flooding being entirely b; 
pumping and all the water is re 
turned to the lake from the sec 
tion. 

Sanding program is to sprea< 
on ice from January to March de 
pending on weather. Fertilizer i 
applied in the spring as soon a. 
beds have dried out from winte 
flood and early frost floods] 
Several mixtures are used i: 
quantities varying from 300 t<i 
400 pounds per acre. I 

A fungicide spray is appliet 
once or twice a year to contro 
fruit rots and leaf-drop. For tht 
past few years the Indennuhlef 
report, insect control has been 
done with Parathion dust applied 
with a ground duster. Insecticide 
is also mixed with the fungicide 




Herbert Indermuhle and son Richard 



Twenty two 



[spray. 

Father and son are firm be- 
lievers in the value of honey bees 
for pollination and keep their own 
colonies. They have both a Case 
and a Getsinger picker, but it is 
the Case which is used mostly. 

In 1957 seven and a quarter 
acres were scalped, and last 
spring it was possible to get five 
of them ready and planted. Three 
acres were planted to selected 
McFarlins and two set out in 
Searles. This spring it is hoped to 
get the remaining 2% acres 
levelled and planted. 

Hail did considerable damage to 
the Alder Lake marsh as others 
at Manitowish early in the morn- 
ing of August 7th. Many small 
berries were cut off and others 
marked badly. 

They sell through the Golds- 
worthy distributorship. 

Manitowish Cranberry Company 

An early-built marsh at Manito- 
wish Waters is that of the Mani- 
towish Cranberry Company, set ou^" 
in 1948. It was started by Deilbert 
Bartling, who died in 1953 and 
the marsh is now carried on by his 
son, Frederic J. Bartling. 

The marsh was scalped, levelled, 
some acreage planted in peat and 
some in sand. Beds are about SV4. 
acres in size, and all vines are 
Searles. Bartling pumps both in 
and out of Little Trout as the 
marsh is approximately at lake 
level, using Lawrence pumps of 
15,000 and 25,000 gallons per 
minute capacity. 

Marsh has 23% acres Searles, 
3% Bain-McFarland plus more to 
be put in. There is room for an 
expansion of 15 or 20 more. 
Marsh is water-raked. Tt>ere is a 
warehouse 50 x 100 feet and a 
dryer. 

Manitowish Waters Cranberry 
Company markets through Nation- 
al and production has averaged 
about 150 barrels to the acre, with 
largest crop being 220 per acre 
average, with some beds exceed- 
ing 300. 

Young Mr. Bartling has built a 
new home for himseilf on Alder 
Lake which is one of the Manito- 
wish chain. 

Mr. Bartling Sr. formerly 
operated a creamery at Necedah 



before going into cranberries ten 
years ago. Frederic worked with 
his father on the marsh from 1948 
until 1950 when he joined the 
Nevy Air Corps, his father pass- 
ing away a few months before he 
was discharged in 1953. 

Cardinal Cranberry Co. 

Cardinal Cranberry Company at 
Little Trout is operated by Harold 
Gross. Mr. Gross is with the 
United States Department of 
Agriculture. He knew something 
of the cranberry business before 
developing at Manitowish, as he 
is a native of the Mather- Warrens 
cranberry area. 

Harold D. Gross, 7415 North 



Damen avenue, Chicago, who op- 
erates as Cardinal Cranberry 
Company acquired his holdings 
after the other growers had begun 
development, in 1956. A period 
of illness contributed to delay in 
development. A first planting of 
10 acres was not made until ,1952. 

Declares Mr. Gross, ''Duringj. 
this early period much encourage- 
ment, technical advise and finan- 
cial help were received from var- 
ious cranberry growers, wihich I 
really appreciated. This . again 
demonstrates the fact that cran- 
berry growers, generally speak- 
ing, are a fine group of folks, and 
are most willing to lend a hand 




Frederic J. Bartling, operating Alder Lake property. 

(CRANBERRIES) Photo) 

Twentythree 



when needed." 

Since he undertook his develop- 
ment while working in Chicago, 
which is almost 400 miles from 
his Manitowish project, his ob- 
jective could not have been real- 
ized without the loyal and efficient 
help of his foreman, W. J. Mc- 
Clellan, who handled all matters 
pertaining to marsh production 
management. Mr. Gross makes 
this acknowledgement to Mr. 
McClellan. At present the Card- 
inal Cranberry Company has 21 
acres in production, with 6 more 
being planted this spring and he 
plans several more in 1960. 

Mr. Gross works for the Unito'l 
States Department of Agriculture 
as an area classification and or- 
ganization officer in the Person- 
nel Management Branch of the 
Agricultural Marketing Service. 
This involves a jurisdiction of 25 
states, 250 field officers and 
more than 3,000 employees. 

Mr. Gross is a graduate of the 
University of Wisconsin, is a life 
member of the Wisconsin Club of 
Chicago, USDA Club of Chicago 
and Federal Personnel Council. 
He is also a member of Tripo'i 
Shrine Temple of Milwaukee, 
Masonic Lodge and Order of th-; 
Eastern Star of Necedah, Wis- 
consin. 



CRANBERRY HIGHWAY 

Continued from Page 19) 

where free men may still with- 
draw from the tension and tur- 
moil of competitive striving. And 
as we live from day to day in a 
world which advances in scientific 
achievement and becomes more 
efficient in its conquest of the 
forces of nature, let us always re- 
member that only from Thee do 
we possess the means which are 
favorable to our success, and that 
only through Thee do we labor in 
the works by which our happiness 
in association with one another is 
sustained. 

"We rejoice today in the heri- 
tage which is symbolized by this 
road. We have called it 'Cran- 
berry Highway'. Thus do we pro- 
claim our indebtedness to Thee, 
God, for the abundant vegeta- 




New home of Richard Indermuhle at marsh-side. 

. (CRA-NBERRIES Photo) 




Marsh-eye view of the Roller home, beneath which runs flooding canal. 

(CRANBERRIES Photo) 



tion whose luscious fruit has found 
so many uses and brought to us 
such great measure of material 
prosperity. Preserve in us, loving- 
Father of us all, a right intention 
in our every undertaking, and 
shield us from every danger in 
our pursuit of earthly advantage. 
May all who pass over this road 



find Thee ever at their side; and 
may they be lifted up from con- 
templation of its loveliness and its 

historic associations to deep and 

lasting appreciation of Thine own 

infinite beauty and goodness, Who 

livest and reignest forever and 

ever. Amen." 



Twentyfour 



CRANBERRIES IN 
NORTH AMERICA 

(Continued from Page 18) 
achusetts just over 41, the Pacific 
Coast just over 70, and Wisconsin 
just under 80. In Wisconsin's best 
year, 1956, the state average for 
Searles was 103 barrels per acre 
The author has attempted to 
give you information mostly from 
the surveys made in the different 
growing sections. The author 
hopes that this series of articles 
has brought information to you 
and that you can better imder- 
stand the changes which have oc- 
curred in the past and those which 
are to come. There is information 
from experiments, observation, 
and research in other fields which 
were not reported in the surveys 
which will appear in later issues. 



Cranberry Day On 
Nantucket July 15 

In cooperation with Nantucket's 
300th birthday observance this 
summer, National Cranberry As- 
sociation is sponsoring Cranberry 
Day, July 15, at the height of 
blossomtime on the "Big Bog''. 

Activities are being arranged 
in cooperation with the new own- 
ers of Nantucket Cranberry Com- 
pany, considered the biggest cran- 
berry bog in the world. A public 
tour of the big bog is scheduled 
from 9:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. when 
busses will carry passengers from 
Nantucket town through the 
moors to the cranberry bog. Dis- 
plays of cranberry equipment will 
be set up in the screen house and 
Cranberry Juice Cocktail will be 
served. 

A shoi-t tour by surrey from 
the screen house to the pump 
house will show the use of water 
on cranberry bogs and a demon- 
stration of crop dusting is plan 
ned, weather permitting. 

At its peak, the 1,141 acre 
tract had about 235 acres under 
cultivation, but producing acre- 
age has diminished to 90 at the 
present time. Nantucket Cranber- 
ry Company's new management 
plans to improve production on 
the present bearing acreage and 
eventually rebuild the biggest bog 
up to its past glory. 



■Robert C. Congdon is presi- 
dent of the new management and 
associated with him ai-e Albert L. 
Silva, Albert F. Egan, Jr., Rich- 
ard Corkish and Kenneth C. Cof- 
fin, Jr., all businessmen os Nan- 
tucket Island. 



tion as scientific director of the 
Army Quartermaster's Research 
and Scientific Command. Dr. Sell- 
ing was director of the Massachu- 
setts Experiment Station and Ex- 
tension. He will assume his new 
post in July. 



Soaking Mid-June 
Rain In Mass. 

A heavy, but much needed rain- 
fall occured generally over the 
Massachusetts cranberry area, be- 
ginning morning of the 12, and 
continuing until the morning of 
the 15th, with a few scattered 
showers after that. This was a 
really soaking rain depositing 1.77 
inches at Cranberry Station. It 
was welcome as conditions were 
becoming dry. Total normal June 
rainfall is 3.21 for the month. 
Subsequent rains had brought the 
total to 3.93, or more than normal 
total by the 18th. 



Dean Sieling 
Mass, Resigns 

Dale Selling, dean of agri- 
culture at the University of Mass- 
achusetts, well known to Mass- 
achusett cranbei^ry growers 
through his frequent association 
an interest in the industry has 
resigned. He is to assume a pci- 



PROF. TOMLINSON'S 
SON WINS HONORS 

George S. Tomlinson, 17, son 
of professor William E. Tomlinson 
of Massachusetts Cranberry Ex- 
periment Station and Mrs. Tom- 
linson has been accepted at Bos- 
ton University of Liberal Arts 
and will enter in September. 

He is the recipient of a schol- 
arship, and a graduate of Bourne 
High School, living with his par- 
ents at Standish road, Sagamore 
Beach. He has been active in 4-H 
work and was elected to member- 
ship in the National Honor So- 
ciety in his junior high year. 

Prof. Tomlinson, an entomol- 
ogist was stationed in New Jer- 
sey before going to East Ware- 
ham. 



READ 



CRANBERRIES 



SHAWMUT GLASS 
CONTAINERS, Inc. 



REPRESENTING 



KNOX GLASS, Inc. 



29 STILLINCS STREET 
BOSTON, MASS. 



Twentyfive 



Round Up Of 
Crop Prospects 

With reports from the various 
areas, it would appear the total 
U. S. crop will not be abnormally 
large, but plenty can happen be- 
tween now and the time harvest is 
completed. Massachusetts does not 
seem to be headed for an excep- 
tionally large crop. Maybe around 
a normal production which( is 
about 550,000 barrels. Reports 
from Wisconsin indicate that 
there will be a good production 
there, especially in the northern 
sections, which were a bit light 
last year. New Jersey may have 
a somewhat larger crop than the 
average 88,000, possibly 100,000 
barrels. Washington prospects 
would appear rather bright, from 
all over that state, which is now 
in third place in production. 
Oregon may be about normal. 

As of June 12 there was in- 
dication that prospects were a 
trifle brighter in Massachusetts 
than earlier expected. Frost loss 
for the spring was chalked up at 
the Cranberry Station as practic- 
ally nil. Insecticide actively was 
being well controlled, although 
there may be considerable trouble 
from fireworm. 

The whole situation may per- 
haps be summed in with the state- 



ment there will be a sufficiency 
of cranberries in 1959 to meet 
public demand. 



Late Wisconsin 

Dr. George L. Peltier informs 
that up to the middle of June 
good weather conditions had pre- 
vailed in Wisconsin, with no bad 
frosts. Hooking he describes as 
generally good to excellent; a 
few blossoms were opening by 
the 15th with bumble bees work- 
ing on the beds. 

First brood of fireworm, light 
to severe depending on previous 
treatments. Some tipworm; a few 
yellow heads, span worms and 
leafhoppers. If subsequent con- 
ditions are favorable he looks for 
a final crop above average. 

Dr. Peltier also informs us 
that amino triazole will not be 
allowed this year, except for post- 
harvest treatment as last year. 



HOW TO BOIJL A FROG 

The way to boil a frog and have 
him happy and content all through 
the process is to give the heat to 
him a little at a time. If you 
bring your water to a boil and 
pitch your frog into it he'll jump 
out when the heat strikes him, 
that is, if he's an intelligent and 
lively frog. So put him in luke 



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warm water. He'll relax and tak 
a nap . When he wakes up, th( 
water will be warm but not ye 
real hot. Mister Frog yawns am 
goes back to sleep. Then you in 
crease the heat, but always bj 
sharp and sudden changes. Fin 
ally, the temperature is reallj 
hot and you will boil your fro} 
and he won't even know it. 

The amorphous 'process thei 
call inflation seems to us to be 
like that. Little by little, th( 
dollar becomes smaller and smal 
ler. If at one time and sharply 
half the dollars a man had wen 
taken from him, that would caus 
the frog to scream and to jum] 
out of the water, perhaps. Bu 
it all happens so gradually and s 
little-by-little! And our reactio 
to the slow-boil treatment is ver; 
much like the frog's. (Fooi 
Marketing In New England) 



Bandon In 
Oregon Centennial 

Bandon, Oregon, that cranberrj 
growing city in the southwesterr 
coastline is taking its special par 
in the state-wide centennial o; 
Oregon. This began in Juni 
and will continue, with probabl; 
the banner event, "Pioneer Days 
August 1. 



Doehlert Retires 
In New Jersey 

Charles A. Doehlert, who ha; 
headed the Cranberry and Blue 
berry Research Laboratory a 
Pemberton, New Jersey, is t 
retire at the end of this month 
He succeeded the late Charles S 
Beckwith. 

Mr. Doehlert has been at th< 
Laboratory for 28 years and prio 
to that, three years in the Edi 
torial Department at Rutber 
University, New Jersey Agricul 
tural Station. 



WANTED 

Western Pickerg (Uft»d) 

Contact 

Oscar NortoB 

Roeheater, Mam. 

T«l. Reckwell 8-BSU 



Twe'ntvsix 



■ — H^^^W^^M ■■ ^1 — 



iillM^ 



l!bdals 



'^I 



ISSUE OF JUNE 1959 
Vol. 24 - No. 2 



" --■•---- III w 






WISCONSIN NEWSLETTER 

Our congratulations to the Wisconsin 
State Cranberry Growers Association, par- 
ticularly on its monthly ''Wisconsin Cran- 
berry News," a newsletter which began 
volume one, number one in May. This is 
edited by Prof. G. C. Klingbeil, extension 
horticulturalist, department of horticul- 
ture, University of Wisconsin, who is the 
new secretary and treasurer of the group. 

It contained reports on cranberry 
legislative matters, details on frost warn- 
ing service, herbicides, fertilization, special 
weather information, a report, "Around 
the State," and other features. 

In a note in this first issue President 
John M. Potter urges more active partici- 
pation of members, as ''we have a grow- 
ing industry and we need to — plan its 
activities and future development." Com- 
mittees have been appointed to plan 
meetings, to take action on legislation, to 
plan state fair activities, and to obtain 
new members. Present membership is 
95, which is described as by no means 
100 percent. 

From several sources in Wisconsin 
we have heard lately that there is much 
interest in putting new life into the grow- 
ers group. More power to it or any state 
association which puts on new vim and 
vigor. 



CALMING PLANT NERVES 

They were reported to help plants 
withstand the strains of weather, such as 
light frost, dry weather, long heat waves 
and too heavy rain. They reach the plant 
via its leaves; they give heavier yields 
according to preliminary experiments. 
Tranquilizers can be applied in two ways, 
sprayed on at blossom time or by earlier 
spraying. The first method helps blos- 
soms withstand bad growing conditions. 
The latter method seems to help increase 
the number of blossoms. 

Plant regulators are being tried out 
on cranberries at least in the Washington 
State Bog. Results seem possibly 
promising. 



CLARENCE J. HALL 

Editor and Publisher 

EDITH S. HALL^Associate Editor 

Wareham, Massachusetts 

SUBSCRIPTIONS, $3.50 Per 

Year, FOREIGN, $4.50 



CORRESPONDENTS— ADVISORS 



Wisconsin 

LEO A. SORENSON 

Cranberry Consultant 
Wisconsin Rapidi 

Wisconsin 



Washington 

Dr. CHARLES C. DOUGHTY 
Cranberry Specialist 
Long Beach, Wash. 



Oregon 

GRANT SCOTT 
Coquille, Ore. 

Massachusetts 

PR. CHESTER E. CROSS 

Director Mass. Cranberry Experiment Station 

East Wareham, Mass. 

BERTRAM TOMLINSON 

Barnstable County Agricultural Agent 

Barnstable, Mass. 



New Jersey 

CHARLES A. DOEHLERT 

P. E. MARUCCI 

New Jersey Cranberry and Blueberry Station 

Pemberton, New Jeriey 



Before we realize it we will be 
picking — in about ten weeks or so. Har- 
vest is only that far away. 

What are our prospects as to size of 
crop and size of price received. It is far 
too early to make even a rough crop 
estimate, but most growers in Massachu- 
setts are talking "down;" in Wisconsin, 
second producer, bud is reported as spotty 
in the various far-flung areas. Washing- 
ton may be high. This could be a smaller 
year. But, there is the bugaboo of the 
NCA hold-over pool. 

Twentyseveii 



RVIN6 THE WISCONSIN GROWERS 



WISCONSIN HEADQUARTERS FOR 

INSECTICIDES FUNGICIDES 

HERBICIDES 

DUSTS WETTABLE POWDERS EMULSIONS 

Parathion — Malathion 
Ferbam — Dowpon 
Amino Triazole 

Hopkins Agricultural Chemical Co. 

P.O. BOX 584 MADISON, WIS. 

Phone Alpine 7-1019 




IN^iViTHE FROZEN yFOOBflCASE 



MR. GROWER 

Our Job is working for you. 

Merchandising and Marketing 

Wisconsin Grown Cranberries 

Fresl) or Frozen 



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Strained Cranberry Sauce 

Whole Cranberry Sauce 

Spiced Cransweets 

Cransweets 

Cranberry Apple Sauce 



Cranberry Orange Relish 

Cran-Vari 

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Cranberry-Strawberry Preserve 
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Products 

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EAGLE RIVER, WISCONSON 



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S E R V I N 6 T H E W I S 00 M S I N G R W E RS 



FOR SALE 

SEARLES JUMBO 
HOWES, McFARLIN 

Vines 
for delivery in 1959 

$125,00 Ton FJ.B. 



INTERESTED 
IN 

PURCHASING 
WISCONSIN 
CRANBERRY 

PROPERTIES 

V T* "T* *?* T* ^ "I^ ^T* *r T^ ^ 

Vernon Goldsworthy 

EAGLE RIVER 
WISCONSIN 



DANA MACHINE & SUPPLY Co. 
Wis. Rapids Wis. 

MFCiS. of: 

SPRAY BOOMS 

GRASS CLIPPERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS 

Getsinger Retracto toeth 

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Dryers 

DISTR. of: 

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ROLLER CHAINS 

SPROCKETS & BEARINGS 

CONVEYOR BELTING 

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Cranberries: too 



Cranberry growers have enjoyed 
two decades of successful use of 

KROP-SAVER 

Insecticides, Fungicides and Herbicides 
Better Chemicals For Agriculture 

Crop-Saver Chemical Company 

Spring Green, Wisconsin 



THE ONLY 

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Stevens Point 



CORRUGATED 
CULVERT PIPE 

and 

FLOW GATES 

Felker Sros. Mfg. Co. 

MARSHFIELD WISCONSIN 
Phone 230 - 231 



YOU 



Are reading? this ad. 



Others will read yours in 



CRANBERRIES 

Magazine 



all summer long 






barbecue promotion 
backs Ocean Spray's 
year 'round advertising! 






CO 

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with TWO 

CRANBERRY SAUCE lABElS 



OmR EXPIRES DEC. 30. .959 Oceon Sprcy, Box 30, MUMow„,_Newiecs^ 



$2.79 value barbecue 
knife now offered 
nationally for only $1 
and 2 Ocean Spray 
labels 

(Get your barbecue 
knife now ! Send your 
money and 2 labels to 
Box 30, Englishtown, 
New Jersey.) 

12 months out of the year big 4-color 
ads in LADIES' home journal, better 

HOMES AND GARDENS, GOOD HOUSE- 
KEEPING, and SUNSET sell Ocean 
Spray Cranberry Sauce as the natural 
mate for every meat. Hard-selling TV 
commercials tell the same story. Now 
during June, July and August we're 
backing up our regular advertising 
with a special big barbecue promotion 
offering a $2.79 value barbecue chef 
knife for $1.00 and 2 Ocean Spray 
labels . . . plus free matching steak 
knife. To get your barbecue knife set, 
send money and labels to Box 30, 
Englishtown, New Jersey. 



Your business GROWS when you grow and sell through NCA 

NATIONAL CRANBERRY ASSOCIATION, Hanson, Massachusetts • Tel. Bryantville: Cypress 3-6311 



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W JERSEY 

WISCONSIN 

>REGON 

WASHINGTON 
CANADA 




Cranberry Clinic In Massachusetts (See Page 2) 



(Cranberries Ph( 



35 Cents 



JULY 1959 



■Nifin 



rORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWI 



Wcrcester Paper 
Box Corporation 

MEDFORD, MASS. 
Tel. MYstic 8-5305 

Manufacturers 

of 
Folding Cartons 

and 

Displays 



WATER WHITE 

KEROSENE 

For use on Cranberry Bogs 
Also STODDARD SOLVENT 

Prompt Delivery Service 

Francoma Coal Co. 
— Inc. — 

Wareham, Mass. 
Tel. CY 5-0039 



CRANBERRY 
GROWERS 

Choose and Use 

Niagara Dusts, Sprays and 

Dusters 




Niagara Chemical 
Division 

Food Machinery and 
Chemical Corporation 

Middleport, New York 

New England Plant and Warehouse 

Ayer, Mass. Tel. Spruce 2-2365 



Wareham Savings 

Bank 
Falmouth Branch 

Welcome Savings Account 

Loans on Real Estate 
Safe Deposit Boxes to Rent 

PHONE CYpress 5-3800 
Kimball 8-3000 



The National Bank of Wareha 



Conveniently located for Cranberry Men 



m 



Funds always available for sound loans 



Complete Banking Service 




The 

CHARLES W. HARRIS! 
Company 

26 Somerset Ave 
North Dighton, Mass. 

AMES 

Irrigation Systems 
Sprinklers 

Weed killers 

Insecticides 

Fungicides 

from 

Cal. Spray Chemical Company 

Dupont Company 



EQUIPMENT 

HAYDEN 

- SEPARATOR - 
WAREHAM, MASS. 

Irrigation Systems 
PUMPS 

SEPARATORS - BLOWERS 
SCREENHOUSE EQUIPMENT 

DARLINGTON 
PICKING MACHINES 



Extensive Experience in 
ELECTRICAL WORK 

ALFRED hAl^PI 

At Screenhouses. Hosts and 

Pumps Means Satisfaction 

WAREHAM. MAS'^ Tel. CY 5-2000 



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Member Federal Deposit Iniurance Corp. 



:CTORY FOR CRANBERRY GROWERS 



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MIDDLEBOROUCH 
TRUST COMPANY 



MIDDLEBORO 
MASS. 



Member of 

The Federal Deposit 

Insurance Corporation 



Get the right product 
for every pest problem 



Use 



ORCHARD 
I BRAND 




... the first choice of 

Commercial Growers 
GENERAL CHEMICAL DIVISION 

ALLIED CHEMICAL CORPORATION 
40 Rector Street, New York 6, N. Y. 
58 Weybosset St., Providence, R. I. 



TOURAINE PAINTS HARDWARE 

SANDVIK SCYTHES 

(ALSO CALLED FINNISH SCYTHES) 

ALUMINUM SNATHS 

CYCLONE - FERTILIZERS & SEED SOWiiS 
WEEDOZOL 

OPEN SUNDAYS 9 A.M. - 1 P.M. 

CARVER SUPPLY CO. 

UNION 6-4480 

Carver, Mass. 



ELECTRICITY 

Works For You With 
The Throw Of A Switch 

It Is Clean, Efficient - Releases 
Men For Other Bog Work. 

Plymouth County Electric Co. 

WAREHAM - PLYMOUTH 



Tel. Wareham 200 



Tel. PILGRIM 6-1300 



FOR SALE 

3, 6 cyl., 500 g.p.m. 

CHRYSLER IRRIGATION 

PUMPS 

Automatic Safety Controls, 6" 
Flex-o-seal suction pipe and 
discharge fittings for each unit. 

L C. SPRING 

Indian Brook 
Manomet, Mass. 



Western Pickers 

Parts and Repairs 

Agent for 1959 Model 
ORDER NOW 

J. L BRALEY & SON 

78 Gibbs Ave. 
Wareham, Mass. 

HAVE YOUR REPAIRS 
DONE NOW 



NEW 

BURLAP BAGS 

for your 

PICKING flllACHINES 

MADE TO ORDER 

WHITMAN BAG CO. 

WHITMAN, MASS. 

Peter B. Berman 
Tel. JUniper 3-6466 



ljl>|HlWl'»« 



^TTimi^ff 



CRANBERRY PICKING 
BOXES 

Shooks, or Nailed 

Let me repair your broken 

boxes — or repair them yourself. 

Stock Always on Hand 

F. H. COLE 

Tel. Union 6-3330 
North Carver, Mass. 



Ona 



Annual Cape Meet 
Augusl 18th 

Annual meeting of Cape Cod 
Ciynberry Growers' Association 
set for 10 a.m. Massachusett.- 
Cranberry Experiment Station, 
Aug-ust 18 will center around an 
all "cranberry growing" program. 
President Ferris C. Waite wii! 
preside and station experts will 
speak in their various fields. 

At noon there will be a chicken 
and cranberry barbeciue, very po 
ular the past year or so. An in- 
vitation has been sent to officials 
of the Massachusetts Department 
of Agriculture and it is ex- 
pected many of them will attend 
including the commissioner of 
agriculture, Charles H. McNama- 
ra. 

There is much interest this year 
in the equipment display and there 
are a large number of exhibits, in- 
cluding Wiggins helicopter. Crop 
statistician C. D. Stevens will 
give the preliminary forecast and 
officers will be elected. 



OUR COVER 

Growing season clinics are fre- 
quently held in Massachusetts at 
appropriate intervals that Cran- 
berry Station experts may discuss 
and instruct in weed, insect or 
other control matters. They are 
held at convenient locations and 
are largely attended by growers 
wishing up-to-the-minute informa- 
tion. 

Clinic pictured on the cover 
shows part of the gathering at a 
meeting at State Bog, with Prof. 
"Bill" E. Tomlinson, etomologist 
instructing on insect control. 



MEDICAL CRANBERRY 
SEED TO SO. AFRICA 

Vernon Goldsworthy of Cran- 
berry Products, Inc., Eagle River, 
Wisconsin is to send one pound 
of cranberry seed (Vaccinium 
Maai'ocarpon) to South Africa. 
The seed was requested for med- 
ical purposes by Mrs. S. M. Greer, 
Standerton, Ti-ansvaal, South 
Africa. 



SUBSCRIBE TO 
CRANBERRIES MAGAZINE 



WANTED 
Western Pickers (Used) 

Contact 

Oscar Norton 

Rochester, Mass. 
Tel. Rockwell 3-5385 



CRANBERRIES 

PROVIDES A NEEDED 

MEDIUM OF INFORMATION 

FOR 

ALL GROWERS 



Brewer & Lord 

INSURANCE 
40 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. 

ARTHUR K. POPE HORACE H. SOULE 

CONVERSE HILL CHARLES M. CUTLER 

WILLIAM B. PLUMER EBEN A. THACHER 
ROBERT A. SULLIVAN HERBERT R. LANE 
EDWARD H. LEARNARD VINCENT M. WILSON 
JOHN B. CECILL, JR. 



Serving the People of New England 

Since 1859 



C. & L. EQUIPMENT CO. 

191 LEONARD STREET ACUSHNEL MASS. 

Cranberry Bog Service 

PRUNING FERTILIZING 

RAKING WEED TRIMMING 

Machinery Sales 

PRUNERS POWER WHEELBARROWS 

RAKES WEED TRIMMERS 

FERTILIZER SPREADERS - Large & Small 



For Further Information Call . . . 



F. P. CRANDON 
Rockwell 3-5526 



H. C. LEONARD 
Wyman 3-4332 



C. J. TRIPP 
Wyman 4-4601 



Twt) 



Mass. Cranberry 
Station and Field Notes 

by J. RICHARD BEATTIE 
Extension Cranberry Specialist 




Season now Normal 

One of the warmest Mays in 
history was followed by one of 
the cooler and wetter Junes. Temp- 
eratures in June averaged better 
than 3 degrees per day below nor- 
mal and rainfall for the month 
at the Cranberry Station measured 
6.71 inches, or over twice the 
monthly average of 3.21 inches. 
Our season, which was reported 
in June to be a week or so ahead 
of last year, is now (July 13) be- 
lieved to be about normal. We 
have been concerned with the 
cloudy, wet weather experienced 
during the first three weeks of the 
blooming period. However, bees 
appear to have been active between 
showers as the berries are "set- 
ting" nicely on most bogs. Joseph 
Kelley pointed out earlier this 
month the importance of having 
hives of bees around our properties 
as extra insurance for a good set 
of fruit. Unfortunately, the demand 
for bees exceeded the supply due 
to the rather heavy mortality of 
bees during the winter months. 
No June Frosts 

Frost damage this spring ap- 
pears to be negligible; however 
"umbrellas" were common on a 
number of bogs, indicating that 
damage could have been substan- 
tial if temperatures had dropped 
another degree or two on these 
particular bogs. For the first 
time in several years no frost 
warnings were released in June. 
This is a bit unusual as the num- 
ber of June warnings has been 
increasing in recent years. A 
total of 13 warnings were sent out 
this spring compared to 19 last 
year, 19 in 1957, and 9 in 1956. 
George Rounsville handled the 
frost forecast work in his usual 
capable manner. We are also in- 



debted to the weather observers, 
telephone distributors, the four 
radio stations, and the U. S. 
Weather Bureau personnel for the 
important part they played in this 
service. The system for receiving 
the frost messages, including the 
explanation of terms used in the 
warnings, has received favorable 
comment and will be continued. 

Fungicides 

The cool weather experienced in 
June did add two points to our 
final keeping quality forecast, 
making a total of 5 points out of 
a possible 18 which favor good 
keeping quality fruit next fall or 
one point more than in 1958 and 
1957. It is apparent that the odds 
this year do not favor good keep- 
ing quality unless corrective steps 
are taken. We are referring of 
course to the proper use of fung- 
icides. The unusual number of 
rainy days occurring during the 



blooming period made it extremely 
difficult to treat the bogs with 
fungicides at the proper time. 
However, a substantial number of 
acres were sprayed and it will be 
interesting to observe the results. 

Insects 

With the exception of fireworms 
and possibly sparganothis fruit- 
worm, insect activity in general 
has been relatively light, at least 
up to the fruitworm season. Fire- 
worms have been unusually trouble- 
some and have occurred on bogs 
that have been reasonably free 
from this pest for a number of 
years. Considerable second-brood 
activity has been observed on a 
number of bogs which indicates 
that these bogs may require treat- 
ment next spring, since many of 
the eggs of the second brood of 
fireworms do not hatch this year 
but carry over until next spring. 

We want to emphasize again 
the importance of checking bogs 
every 3 or 4 days from about 
mid-May to early August for the 
presence of insects. The hand lens 
and insect net are still standard 
equipment for locating the types 
and numbers of pests present so 
that proper control measures can 
be taken. A little extra effort with 
these tools will enable growers to 
properly time their pesticide treat- 
ments which is the real key to 




R. F. MORSE & SON 

West Wareham, Mass., Tel. CY 5-1553 

Cranberry Growers Agent For 



Eastern States Farmers' Exchange 

Insecticides - Fertilizers - Fungicides 

Bog Service and Supplies 
Agent for Wiggins Airways 

Helicopter Spray and Dust Service 



DEPENDABLE ECONOMICAL SERVICE 



Three 



effective pest control. 

Growers are reminded again to 
heed the warning outlined at the 
bottom of the insect and disease 
control chart. Too many are still 
exposing themselves unnecessarily 
to parathion and related chemicals. 

Ditch weeds are becoming a i-eal 
problem on many bogs. Effective 
chemical treatments have been 
developed, including a new treat- 
ment found in the present weed 
control chart. Reference is made 
to the use of aminu-triazole plus 
dalapon for general weeds and is 
effective even with standing water 
in the ditches. There is no residue 
problem involved with this par- 
ticular treatment because the 
dalapon in the mixture prevents 
berry development. Sodium arsen- 
ite is another effective material 
for general ditch weeds, but is a 
deadly poison and must be used 
with great care. The grassy-type 
ditch weeds can be checked with 
No. 2 Fuel Oil but the ditches 
should be drained for best results. 



There is a definite place for 
greater use of weed clippers on 
many properties as a means of 
reducing the shading effect of 
these weeds over the cranberry 
vines. 

Amino-Triazolc 

One final note on weed control 
is called to the growers' attention — 
a flash card on the use of amino- 
triazole was mailed to growers 
through the county agents' offices 
following the cranberry clinics 
held in early July. It is extremely 
important that every grower re- 
ceive this information and heed 
the warning. For this reason, it 
is repeated again: 

"AMINO-TRIAZOLE - Growers 
attending the recent cranberry 
clinics were told that there was 
no possibility of a tolerance being 
established for the use of amino- 
triazole during the growing sea- 
son. Recent developments in the 
testing of this chemical prompted 
the chemical coinpanies concerned 
to withdraw their applications for 




FOR PREFABRICATED FLUMES 

SEE 

RUSSELL A. TRUFANT 

HYDRAULIC CONSULTANT 

PREFABRICATED FLUMES BOG RAILROADS 

UNION 6-3696 North Carver, Mass. 



a tolerance before the Food and 
Drug Administration denied their 
request. This means very simply 
that we have no approval to use 
amino-triazole during the growing 
season. After harvest treatments 
are still cleared and will remain 
so as long as tests show no resi- 
due. In fact, results have in gen- 
eral been more satisfactory at 
that time of year. 

It should be clearly understood 
that any berries picked from vines 
treated with amino-triazole this 
year contain a residue and there- 
foi'e can be condemned. Any such 
berries found in our screen houses 
could result in the complete loss 
of all berries in that particular i 
screenhouse. Careless or irrespon- I 

sible action on the part of one 

grower could result in perfectly 

innocent growers losing their 

entire crop." 

72nd Annual Meeting I 

The 72nd Annual Meeting of the 
Cape Cod Cranberry Growers 
Association will be held Tuesday, 
August 18, at the Cranberry Ex- 
periment Station beginning at 10 
a.m. Guided tours of the State 
Bog will be held to inspect some 
of the insect, disease and weed 
control work, the seedling planta- 
tion and experiments in water 
management. Equipment displays 
will be another feature. The pop- 
ular chicken-cranberry barbecue i 
will be served at noon. The after- 
noon program will include a re- 
port of station staff members and 
will conclude with a crop report 
by Mr. C. D. Stevens. Incidentally, 
the crop reporting forms will be 
mailed out from Mr. Steven's office 
in late July. An accurate crop 
estimate is vital to the success of 
our marketing programs and we 
know growers will cooperate by 
returning their monthly crop 
estimates. President Ferris Waita 
invites all cranberry growers and 
their families to attend this 
meeting. 



Four 






Issue of July 1959 - Vol. 24 No. 3 



Published monthly at The Courier Print Shop, Main St.. Wareham, Massachusetts. Subscription $3.60 per year. 

8>ter*<l as lecond-claRs matter January 26. 1943, at the post-office at Wareham, Massachusetts, under the Act of March S, ll7t 



FRESH FROM THE FIELDS 



Compiled by C. J. H. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

June, Miserable Weather 

June has been noted by poets 
and others for its perfect days. 
But that wasn't the case in South- 
eastern Massachusetts, this June, 
that is for the residents. It was, 
however, characterized by Dr. 
Cross, Cranberry Experiment Sta- 
tion as "perfect for cranberries." 

It was one of the rainest, g'loom- 
iest, fog'g-iest, dampest and coolest 
of Junes on record. The weather 
'hampered bog work. 

Extremely Wet Month 

Rainfall as measured at the 
State Bog was 6.71 inches or 
slightly double the norm of 3.21. 
There was recordable rain or 
traces on 14 of the 30 days. At 
Boston the percipitation, of 8.63 
inches came within a half inch of 
shattering the 87-year history of 
weather recording and was second 
only to that of 1931. 

Temperatures Very Cool 

The temperature at the end of 
the month was a minus 70, or 
more than two degrees a day 
below average. The final day was 
a perfect summer one, one of 
two or three of the entire month, 
with a maximum temperature of 
92 in the shelter at State Bog, but 
humidity - for a change - relative- 
ly low. 

Adds Points to Quality 

The weather kept the bogs moist, 
it retarded bloom and the work 
of insects. Although June was wet 
it was cool and that added two 
badly-needed points to the keep- 
ing quality score. 

Insects 
About the only insect that was 
extremely active was the black- 



Iieaded fireworm, leafhopper mil- 
lers were flying, as were spar- 
ganothis miller. A good deal of 
air control was practiced, mostly 
with sprays. 

Excellent Bloom 

Bloom as July came was reporr 
ted as excellent, almost every- 
where. Even some of the vines 
which were damaged by the severe 
winter conditions were putting 
out buds and bloom. Perhaps a 
third of the acreage was in flower 
on July first. 

Because of the cold, wet June 
the season was late, possibly a 
week or a little more. So good was 
the bloom, however, it was said 
that if one-quarter set, there were 



indications (quite to the contrary 
of conditions in May) for a good 
size crop, although probably not 
a really "big"' one. A guess might 
be hazarded that production may 
approach the 600,000 mai-k. 



NEW JERS EY 

Extreme weather conditions 
during June kept New Jersey 
cranberry growers more than a 
bit anxious much of the month. 
After a very warm early first 
half of June, during which bog 
temperatures were in the high 
90's and scattered hailstorms 
caused some worry, it suddenly 
turned very cool and there were 



HAIL IS ON THE WAY 

WATCH OUT. MR. OROWEH 

PROTECT YOUR PRODUCTEON COSTS 

If you had a loan and lost your crop by hail you 
would still have to pay — let Hail Insurance do this 
for you. 

Our new policy protects the berries and vines against 
hail and fire from the time the water is off in the 
Spring until after harvest. 

CRANBERRY RATES ARE L