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"Growth under difficult conditions" 

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/TL /The 

y^O nian A quarterly, Governors State University, Park Forest South, IL 60466. 

VOL.1, NO. 4, SPRING 1978 

A quarterly published at Governors State University under the auspices of the Provost's Office tyi978, Governors State University and Helen Hughes 


Helen E. Hughes, Editor 

Marian Schuller, Editorial Assistant 

Joan Lewis, Editorial Consultant 

Suzanne Oliver, Graphic Designer 

Helene Guttman 


Marilyn Blitzstein, Subscriptions 

Rev. Ellen Dohner, Religion and Philosophy of Creativity 

Dorothy Freck, Science/ Journalism 

Harriet Gross, Sociology/ Women's Studies 

Helene Guttman , Biological Sciences 

Shirley Katz, Music/ Literature 

Donna Piontek, Social Sciences 

Betye Saar, Fine Arts 

Sara Shumer, Political Theory 

Emily Wasiolek, Literature 

EDITORIAL by Helene N. Guttman 


Some of them were socialized to other 
roles when they were children and their 
contributions forever are lost. Role 
models were lacking; although they had 
all or almost all women teachers, the 
principals and department heads usually 
were men. 

Others lasted through high school where 
a solicitous teacher told her what a 
good assistant she could be to some 
famous scientist and directed her to a 
course for laboratory assistants (and 
perhaps a typing course for just in 
case. . . ). 

A fewer number went to college and 
aspired to premedical, predental or 
research predoctoral courses. Many were 
assaulted by the sneers of their friends 
and relatives and could not stand the 
badgering. (They noted that their bro- 
thers were praised for taking these 
paths.) So they changed direction and 
prepared to teach science and mathema- 
tics in high school or joined the group 
who were forced to other directions 
earlier--and became more highly educat- 
ed laboratory technicians or research 
assistants with bachelors degrees. 
These young women reached the first 
levels of scientific professions and 
the ones who took well-rounded programs 
in their thus-far attenuated profes- 
sions had enough foundation to continue 
on with their intellectual development 
later in life when opportunities im- 

A few reached graduate schools. Not too 
long ago it was next to impossible for a 
woman to become a veterinarian. There 
were only 18 schools of veterinary medi- 
cine and some just didn't admit women. 
Now things have improved. Medical schools 
also severely limited the number of wom- 
en students (see also the review of DOC- 
appears in this issue). However by 1975 
20% of all medical students were women. 
But the role models for the women medi- 
cal students are few. In 1975 there 

were no women Deans or Vice-Presidents 
for Health Affairs and women comprised 
only 1.2% of medical school department 
heads; only 3.5% of the Full Professors; 
5.2% of the Associate Professors and 7.6% 
of Assistant Professors. 

Some women made it all the way through 
graduate and/or professional school . 
Often they did not get the coveted fel- 
lowships and assistantships as did the 
male students, unless they went to 
school during one or the other of the 
episodic wars when women were recruited 
to fill classes. It was the unasual 
case where the woman student was treated 
as protege of her professor and intro- 
duced to all the "right people" who 
later could facilitate her entry into 
the profession and assist her progress 
up the ladder in the way that young men 
professionally benefit from the "old 
boy network." 

Academics usually sneer at jobs in indus- 
try but those women who opted for indus- 
trial careers have started to feel the 
effects of equal opportunities. Some of 
the more enlightened companies informed 
their supervisory personnel that part of 
the supervisor's own evaluation would be 
based upon their ability to recruit wom- 
en and minorities and to groom them for 
advancement (in the ways men have done 
for each other for ages). Almost miracu- 
lously women engineers and scientists 
were found--they were invisible no lon- 
ger—and as stated elsewhere in this 
issue, in the chemical industry, discrep- 
ancies of wages have almost disappeared 
and rate of progress through the ranks 
is improving. 

What is the hope for the future? It de- 
pends upon a combination of good will 
and the realization that this nation can- 
not afford to waste its most precious 
natural resource—the intellectual con- 
tribution of the majority of its citizens 
for indeed women are 52% of the popula- 
tion. And what will this mean for men? 
It will mean that men too are freed of 
sex role stereotyping and they too will 
have greater freedom to express their 
natural talents. 

The Woman Scientist in the 
Twentieth Century 

by Gail Susan Tucker, Ph.D. 
Vn.. TuckzA It, a Tlotlda LLonA R&>o,aAch 
Fellow and a ReAQjVich AAioclate. cut the, 
UnlvoAAlty ofa Miami School oi Mzdiclne., 
Ba&com Valmnh. Eye InA&Mvte.. 

Ida Henrietta Hyde endowed several insti- 
tutions with funds in order to assist 
women in attaining their goals as re- 
search biologists. In 1971, as the re- 
cipient of the Ida Henrietta Hyde Grant- 
in-Aid at the University of Kansas, I 
had my initial contact with IHH history. 
It so impressed me that I wanted to learn 
more about her. In satisfying my curi- 
osity I found someone with whom to com- 
pare my life then as a woman student of 
science and aspiring teacher-researcher. 

Through her early twenties IHH worked as 
a seamstress' apprentice and cared for 
her mother, younger sisters and brother 
when they were left penniless by the 
Chicago Fire of 1871. The opportunity 
for independence from her family respon- 
sibilities came when her brother com- 
pleted his degree in engineering and 
was able to supplant IHH as breadwinner. 
Defying her relatives' advice and her 
mother's wishes she took the examina- 
tions which would admit her to the Col- 
lege Preparatory Course at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois in 1881. She studied 
there for a year but in 1882 she re- 
turned to Chicago to care for her bro- 
ther who had become ill. She taught in 
the Chicago public schools for 7 years 
until she had saved enough money to 
finish her studies at Cornell Univer- 
sity. She completed the four year course 
at Sage College, Cornell after only 
three years, receiving her A.B. in 
zoological sciences in 1891. Soon there- 
after, she was awarded a graduate 
scholarship to Bryn Mawr where she an 
assistant in Biology and worked in the 
laboratories of Jacques Loeb and T.H. 
Morgan. Summer research done in the 
laboratories of the United States Fish 
Commission at Woods Hole, Massachusetts 
in 1893 ended a controversy between the 

famous physiologists Goette (at Strass- 
burg) and Claus (at Vienna). Letters 
of recommendation from T.H. Morgan and 
Jacques Loeb resulted in IHH being 
named European Fellow for 1894 by the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae (now 
the American Association of University 
Women). Having corroborated his work, 
IHH chose to study with Goette at Strass- 
burg even though no woman had ever been 
permitted to do research or matriculate 
there for a degree. However, the situa- 
tion at Strassburg was intractable and 
consequently she petitioned the Prussian 
Board of Education of the Reichstag to 
permit her to matriculate at Heidelberg 
University. She completed the work for 
her Ph.D. at Heidelberg, but the physiol- 
ogist KUhne went to Italy on extended 
leave rather than be present on her exam- 
ining committee. His express purpose was 
to prevent a woman from obtaining the 
coveted Heidelberg Ph.D. With the en- 
couragement of other members of the faculty 
and the assistance of KUhne' s own students 
she eventually was permitted to sit her 
examination, obtaining her Ph.D. with high 
honors in 1896 (KUhne refused to allow the 
designation "with highest honors" to a 
woman). In 1898 she was named Associate 
Professor at the University of Kansas where 
she remained for 26 years, achieving fur- 
ther prominance as a physiologist and 

Her humanitarian interest in public health, 
and in the freedom of women to choice in 
life are well -documented. She helped pave 
the way for women to achieve at levels 
appropriate to their abilities in the 
higher echelons of academic endeavor. By 
constant attention to the financial needs 
of women in science and by encouraging 
young women to strive for success in these 
fields, she built a base for the future. 
Her ability and determination are under- 
scored by the "firsts" she achieved in her 
lifetime: the first woman to matriculate 
for a higher degree in a German university; 
the first American woman to receive the 
Ph.D. from Heidelberg University; the 
first woman to conduct research at Harvard 
Medical School, at the Naples Marine Sta- 
tion, and at the Laboratories of the 
United States Fish Commission in Woods Hole 
the first woman to publish in the American 

Journal of Physiology: she was a member of 
the Sigma Xi and the first woman elected to 
membership in the American Physiological 
Society; she was the first woman elected to 

Dr Hyde in her laboratory 

the Faculty Council at the University of 
Kansas and the first woman to be named 
Professor and Head of a major department 
in a coeducational institutional institu- 

Her administration as foundress of the 
Department of Physiology at the Univer- 
sity of Kansas was filled with difficul- 
ties. Political interactions between 
ambitious members of the Medical School 
faculty, Pharmacy School administrators, 
the Kansas Board of Regents and Chancel- 
lors of the University made her position 
rather desperate at times. She persever- 
ed and largely overcame these difficul- 
ties , successfully directing the pro- 
gram in premedical instruction. IHH's 
salary was never consistent with her 
role as Head of the Department, rather 
it was consistent with the administra- 

tion's poor attitude toward women staff 
members. IHH persistently requested pay 
raises for herself to bring her salary 
in line with those of her (male) col- 
leagues. Thus, salary differences be- 
tween men and women at the University of 
Kansas were pointed out by IHH over 
fifty years before a recent report , 
demonstrated their prevalence there. 

A major theme in her writings and re- 
search was physiology in action. She 
asked, how does the whole organism re- 
spond to physiological stimuli: how . 
does the sensory input effect behavior ; 
how does the cardiovascular system re- 
spond to stress ' ' ; what are the re- 
lationships between diet and health ; 
between cigarette smoking and health?? 
At a time when such things were not 
discussed in polite society, this edu- 
cated Victorian lady lectured on sex 
under the aegis of "Social Hygiene". 
These lectures were presented in Kan- 
sas high schools at the University of 
Kansas and internationally at chap- 
ters of the YWCA. She believed 
firmly in the need for sex education 
for all young people so that they 
might be clearly aware of the anatomi- 
cal differences between men and women, 
of the dangers of venereal disease, the 
need for adequate prenatal care and 
nutrition, the importance of human 
relationships and of sex in human re- 
lationships, and of individual differ- 
ences in sexual behavior. Her notes for 
these lectures are remarkable in their 
detail and candid in their approach to 
sexual activity as a behavior with rami- 
fications in the sphere of public health. 

The suffrage movement alerted Lawrence, 
Kansas and other cities to the need for 
women in jobs traditionally held by men. 
Dr. Hyde was almost solely responsible for 
initiating the hiring of women corrections' 
officers in Lawrence, and janitress 1 at 
the University. As a faculty member at 
the state University, IHH had responsibil- 
ity for "state work" which was fulfilled 
by her hygiene lectures around the state; 
by correspondence course work; by public 
inspection of school children for tuber- 
culosis, influenza and other communicable 
diseases (at a time when it was question- 
ed that such diseases were transmissible 

or had origin in microbes); by vaccinating 
students against smallpox; and by member- 
ship in women's service clubs. She did 
public health work at the Indian School in 
Lawrence which exists today as Haskell 
Indian Junior College. She agitated for 
the establishment of half-way houses for 
runaways and reformed prostitutes and for 
job training for these women and for others 
without steady sources of income. From 
personal letters it is apparent that she 
was active in the war effort (World War I) 
to provide supplies and packages to the 
men on the battlefield and to conduct 
business on the homefront--as usual 9. The 
Kansas Medical Society considered her to 
be an expert in the prevention of infections 
disease, electing her to membership even 
though she was not a practicing physician. 

Her work on the effect of music on the 
cardiovascular system is interesting to 
psychophysi cists and amusing as an his- 
torical record of the people inhabiting 
the University town in the 1900' s. IHH's 
sense of history is also to be found 
throughout her diaries and letters. She 
astutely documents the condition of women 
in the many foreign countries she visited 
over a period of some 40 years of travel. 
Even on her pleasure trips she was deeply 
concerned with the status of women, with 
public health, hygiene, hospital care 
delivery and nutrition. She visited medi- 
cal and academic institutions the world 
over, lecturing on hygiene and the 
importance of educating women. She met 
with heads of state and university ad- 
ministrators to encourage them to allow 
women to matriculate at institutions of 
higher learning. 

In reading the diaries one is struck by 
the outrageously high standards of achieve- 
ment IHH set for herself. Even as an 
elderly woman retired from academic life 
she continued to function actively in 
service groups. Her one failing in life 
was an inability to be satisfied with 
her achievements! She was never content 
with her life, having failed--in her 
view--to contribute some great work for 
the betterment of the world. 

In tracing IHH's career I was struck by 
the points of correspondence between 

our lives--she of course went on to fur- 
ther successes and I have not yet the 
years for a full comparison, yet the 
pattern is the same. We share in our 
great difficulty with scientific writing 
(IHH called it "Mind Fog"), in our dis- 
couragement when experiments or course 
work do not measure up to our self- 
imposed standards, in the fear that our 
superiors may not find our work satis- 
factory—or more importantly--that they 
will not consider it to be excellent; 
in our need for reinforcement and en- 
couragement from students and colleagues. 
From the diaries of Dr. Hyde and my own 
experiences I have found that one cannot 
underestimate the impact of the low 
points in one's professional life, on 
one's self-image. We must cope with 
daily frustrations, and when we leave 
the laboratory we must again become 
spouses, friends, children. Pride in 
our professional lives and a positive 
self-image form a foundation for the 
other relationships in our lives. The 
needs of the professional in science 
are no less than those of the artist in 
terms of recognition and acceptance of 
our work. Many women have not learned 
how to blend this professional public * 
self-- to be both effective in our work 
yet responsive as human beings. My 
early role model s--the women in my 
family--did not face this problem and 
so it was one for which I had not been 
prepared. We were raised to exhibit a 
rather pervasive passivity in the face 

of authority, an unquestioning compliance 
with another's wishes. This reflex re- 
sponse is extremely difficult to overcome 
for the newly independent researcher and 
in consequence many women in science find 
it necessary today to take part in asser- 
tiveness training programs. We must re- 
call that we are women with authority , and 
that it is our responsibility to see to it 
that working conditions are favorable to 
our productivity. We do not need nurturing 
and protection, rather we need occasional 
advice and mutual support from our male 
and female colleagues. IHH found it dif- 
ficult to express herself effectively in 
situations where her rights as a person 
had been infringed upon. She voiced dis- 
may with herself over her inability to 
deal with her male colleagues and techni- 
cal help "like a man." Today we women 

in science frequently respond in our pro- 
fessional lives by a form of collective 
paranoia simply because most of our col- 
leagues and assistants are of the other 
sex. IHH shows that in fear any person 
becomes vulnerable, and so we must over- 
come this fear. IHH never learned to 
make her worth felt and to time her deal- 
ings with administrators to achieve her 
goals. The duties imposed on her were 
heavy—teaching and preparing laboratories 
and lectures for pharmacy, medical and 
other students; administering the Depart- 
ment of Physiology; taking surgery, anat- 
omy and clinical work herself; and being 
"encouraged" to conduct research as well. 
She perceived a lessened requirement for 
work when the individual was male but was 
unable to change the attitudes which pro- 
duced those expectations. Through it all 
she was often pessimistic, she saw how 
things ought to be, and felt terribly 
frustrated and angry when they were not. 
IHH recognized the need for more women to 
succeed before their route to success 
could become based solely on their abili- 
ties. At times her discouragement prompt- 
ed her to consider resigning from K.U., 
but a genuine kinship to other women, a 
sense of responsibility to them, prevent- 
ed her from quitting during these diffi- 
cult periods. 

Like IHH my undergraduate years were 
spent at a college in New York State. 
She and I each worked to finance attain- 
ment or our intellectual goals. We both 
received scholarships as a result of our 
research. Acceptance in graduate programs 
presented difficult problems which had to 
be overcome. Once matriculating for our 
Ph.D. we each faced direct confrontations 
with male professors who disbelieved a 
woman could succeed in science. The 
culmination of our efforts—possession of 
our professional degrees—was soon fol- 
lowed by anxiety and doubt in our abili- 
ties and talents. A male friend told me, 
"Well, you just passed your defense. 
You'll be depressed within six months." 
It took three months. Once the degree was 
obtained, the new pressures involved in 
shifting from the role of student to re- 
searcher were overwhelming. IHH also ex- 
perienced this post-Ph.D. slump. 

The nature of life is such that it reso- 

Dr. Hyde Harvard Faculty Archives , 1897 

lutely follows certain phases. Through 
my study of Ida Hyde I have learned that 
there are few significant differences be- 
tween us and our Victorian sisters. A 
woman colleague recently suggested that 
we all need to compare the experiences of 
others with our own. Perhaps we are 
sometives blind to the fact that our male 
colleagues' experiences are similar. I 
worry about that, yet when I recognize 
specific "old boy club" attitudes in 
these same colleagues I realize how fra- 
gile my own woman's ego and image are. 
It is then that I accept my need for a 
model --and a model who is a woman— with 
whom to compare my life. I do not wish 
to duplicate another's existence, rather 
I seek reassurance about the continuity 
of life's experiences— their universality, 
Always the empiricist, I say "show me" 
how someone else dealt with this situa- 
tion so that I may be confident about my 
own decisions for action. Somewhere in 
the process the need for comparison be- 
comes less demanding and it is then pos- 
sible to stand alone, and to act on one's 

decisions. Each day we in research have 
the good fortune to work with capable, 
responsible adults whose private fascina- 
tion for and public involvement in solv- 
ing interesting questions in science 
results in enhancement of the quality of 
life for numberless people. Pride in our 
profession and our abilities ought to be 
a firm bolster for us when day-to-day 
problems seem to overwhelm us. Others 
who have gone before us have succeeded 
when faced with quite similar difficulties 
and so can we. 


1. She established research funds for 
women at the University of Kansas, 
the American Association of Univer- 
sity Women, Bryn Mawr College, Johns 
Hopkins University, Cornell Univer- 
sity and the University of California. 

2. From 1971 to the present I have studied 
the life of Ida Henrietta Hyde, Ph.D. 

I am indebted to Dr. Arthur Pardee, 
her grandnephew-biochemist, to the 
University of Kansas Faculty Archives, 
to Dr. Marguerite Lehr for her assist- 
ance at Bryn Mawr and to the staff of 
the Library at the Marvin Biological 
Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. 
Dr. Hyde's diaries and personal scrap- 
books are on file at the Archives of 
the American Association of University 
Women in Washington, D.C. Letters and 
class notes are in the Faculty Archives 
at Kenneth Spencer Research Library of 
the University of Kansas and in the 
Chancellor's Files at the institution. 
The Library at the Marine Biological 
Laboratory is in possession of her 
entire reprint collection. What fol- 
lows is a partial discussion of the 
achievements, joys and shortcomings 
of this remarkable yet forgotten 
scientific foremother. 

3. Report of Committee, University of 
Kansas Affirmative Action Committee 
Report, 1972. 

4. Ida H. Hyde. 1924. Effects of Music 
upon electrocardiogram and blood pres- 
sure. Journal of Experimental Psychol - 
og y ,7:213-224. 

5. ToT H.Hyde. 1898. The effect of 

distention of the ventricle on the 
flow of blood through the walls of 






the heart. Amer ican Journal of 

Physiology , l:21b-225. 

Ida H. Hyde. 1900. Collateral circu- 
lation in the cat after ligation of 
the postcava. Kansas University 
Quarterly, 9:1670172. 
Ida H. Hyde. C.B. Root and H. Curl. 
1917. A comparison of the effects of 
breakfast, of no breakfast and of caf- 
feine on work in an athlete and a non- 
athlete. American Journal of Physiology . 

In the same year that IHH first lec- 
tured on social hygiene at the Univer- 
sity of Kansas, letters were exchang- 
ed between the Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity and the Dean of the new Medi- 
cal School on the advisability of 
providing the incoming medical class 
with lectures on human reproduction. 
They determined that three lectures 
were beyond the limits of propriety 
for even the future physicians of the 
state. They concluded that one lec- 
ture on sex would be given to the 
young men entering the medical school 
--on a trial basis! 
In 1918, IHH was named State Chair- 
man of the Kansas Women's Committee 
on Health, Sanitation and National 

Diary entries for 1921. 
Diary entry. 

This paper is excerpted from a full 
biographical treatment of Dr. Hyde, 
which is in preparation for publica- 




Elizabeth Hagens, Professor of Anthropol- 
ogy at Governors State University and 
Editor of Acorn , an environmental news- 
paper, recently addressed the AAAS on the 
implications of the movement for "appro- 
priate technology." In her concluding 
remarks she said, 

"In our own work with Acorn at Gover- 
nors State, we are experimenting with 
an appropriate technology for communi- 
cations. In brief, we have tried to 
remain apolitical and have set our 
sights on an effective public relations 
effort. Just in closing I'd like to 
list the operating axioms we've found to 
work best: 

(1) If you take a hand, you can 
make a difference. 

(2) What is regionally appro- 
priate will depend on a so- 
cial network as well as a 
physical resource network. 

(3) People talking to people as 
friends (Peggy Wi reman refers 
to this as 'intimate secondary 
relationships') across institu- 
tional borders can mutually in- 
fluence the direction of insti- 
tutional development. 

(4) Experts dp_ live within 50 miles 
of any given point. 

(5) Nobody's project is ever as 
good as your own (rephrased, 
'join them--don't ask them to 

join you' ). 

(6) Most people fear a declining 
quality of life and have differ- 
ent ideas about what to do. 
Everybody has some ideas worth 
listening to. 

(7) The only way to really know if 
a project is going to work (be 
appropriate) is to try it and 
work the bugs out. The next 
one will be easier." 

Readers with an interest in alternative 
sources of energy, conservation, planning 
and related fields may subscribe to Acorn 
at this address. 


by Arlene F. Hoffman, Ph.D., D.P.M. 

Vn. Hodman <a> a Podia&uAt at tkn 
Medical Cnnt<iH. PocLia&iic Gfioup ofa 
Augusta, Ghosiqaji. 

As a child, I knew I wanted to be a phy- 
sician. As I grew older, during the 50' s, 
I became socialized into realizing that a 
girl's place was to get married after col- 
lege, to work only to supplement her hus- 
band's income and to have children. I 
realized that I did not want those out- 
comes for myself. I knew, however, that 
medical school was quite costly and that 
I did not have the funds to attend, par- 
ticularly since it was virtually impossi- 
ble for a woman in those years to receive 
any financial assistance. As a result, I 
gave up my dream to become a medical doc- 

During my freshman and sophomore years at 
college, my career goals were related to 
receiving a Master's degree and working 
in the biological sciences. Two profes- 
sors, however, became interested in me 
and encouraged me to go on for the Ph.D. 
degree. I truly needed their encourage- 
ment, because due to my socialization, 
I did not have the independence of 
thought, or the self-concept required 
to pursue a doctoral education. Through- 
out my college years, my family tried to 
discourage me from obtaining a doctoral 
degree, and instead tried to convince me 
to become a science teacher. To allay 
their concerns I became a credentialed 
New York City secondary school science 

My professors, however, kept encouraging 
me to become a research scientist and so 
I began to think it was, indeed, a possi- 
bility. I had always liked to analyze 
how things worked and I was most in- 
trigued with the thyroid gland. As a re- 
sult, I decided to pursue a Ph.D. pro- 
gram in a Department of Physiology where 
I could study thyroid function. 

I was determined to obtain financial in- 
dependence during my graduate years of 
training. I, therefore, applied for 
every type of fellowship and scholarship. 
At that time the government was funding 

many programs, and money was available. 
I won several fellowships and finally 
accepted an NIH predoctoral fellowship in 
the Department of Physiology at Downstate 
Medical Center, State University of New 
York, Brooklyn, New York. 

I was only twenty years old at that time, 
and possessed neither the confidence, the 
maturity nor the support so necessary to 
move away from home to begin an indepen- 
dent life. I did the best I could, which 
meant leaving home and setting up resi- 
dence thirty miles away in Brooklyn. 

My parents, however, did not approve of 
my going to graduate school. The schisms 
between the encouragement I received in 
college and the negativism received both 
at home and from my male friends took its 
toll. Although I was sure of myself 
academically, I became less sure of myself 
socially. Today, I perceive that women 
are not subjected to as much of this type 
of pressure. 

I enjoyed graduate school, and for the 
first two years did little else other 
than to immerse myself in my studies. 
While in my third year of graduate studies, 
I accepted a part-time teaching position 
at City University of New York. I had 
sought this position because I was moti- 
vated to use my time efficiently and be- 
cause I liked teaching and thought it 
would help me to obtain future positions. 
I experienced no discrimination in being 
hired, the reason probably being that I 
was willing to teach entire courses for 
$750. I still have no idea of the fee 
paid to men at that time. 

As I was finishing my thesis, it became 
apparent to me that neither my advisor 
nor other faculty would actively help me 
find postdoctoral positions. (This type 
of assistance is offered regularly to 
male students.) This was no surprise since 
I previously received little assistance 
from my advisor with my research. Perhaps 
the faculty might have located a position 
for me if I had pressed more, but I as- 
sumed that good manners precluded pushiness 
Assertiveness was then an unknown word to 
me. At that point I felt isolated. There 
were no women's networks, and there were 
few women that I spoke with professionally. 


On my own, I located a postdoctoral posi- 
tion in immunophysiology at Stanford 
University School of Medicine. As it 
turned out, the laboratory was working on 
a problem similar to the one I pursued at 
Downstate, so a pairing was quite natural. 
Many people reacted, however, as though I 
had left my discipline. During my pre- 
doctoral training, I believed that one 
should follow all appropriate avenues 
relevant to an understanding of the pro- 
blem. I, therefore, selected courses in 
biochemistry and pharmacology in addition 
to those of my major, physiology. Ob- 
taining post-doctoral training in immu- 
nology at Stanford was thus a consistent 
expression of my multidisciplinary type 
of philosophy. 

My year at Stanford was productive, al- 
though here too it became apparent to 
me that I would receive no faculty assist- 
ance in locating a position. I began to 
utilize the services of the placement 
office at Stanford University. Even 
though most postdoctoral s did not use 
that method (relying instead on the 
"Old Buddy" system) I was not deterred 
by its lack of status. If the placement 
office could help me, I would avail my- 
self of its services. I made sure that 
the placement director got to know me as 
a person. I was in his office almost 
daily, chatting about whatever was 
relevant. As a result, when the place- 
ment office received notification of a 
teaching position at a college of podia- 
tric medicine, I was immediately con- 
tacted by the Director who encouraged me 
to apply. 

As a result, I came to work at the 
California College of Podiatric Medicine. 
In retrospect, I can say that it proba- 
bly was the lack of role models and the 
fact that most women stayed at the Re- 
search Associate level (a job usually 
held by men only for the first few years 
after they acquire their doctorates) 
which discouraged me from continuing in 
research at medical schools. Intuitively, 
I knew that the system would most likely 
prevent me from achieving my goals. 
Both my male and female colleagues at 
Stanford did not understand why I want- 
ed to teach at a podiatry college. In 

retrospect, their thinking was probably 
too narrow. My contention was, and is, 
go where you have the best opportunity to 
achieve what you want and do not restrict 
your options. 

Several month after I began work at the 
College a new and brilliant Dean was 
hired. The Dean, Dr. Leonard Levy, was 
the type that would hire an elephant with 
pink polka dots if he thought it could do 
the job. As a result, I experienced little 
prejudice towards either my youth or my 

I was given numerous administrative and 
teaching responsibilities that technically 
were not part of my position. I did them, 
making sure that the Dean was aware of the 
outcomes. Subsequently I received a 
series of promotions and soon became 
Director of the Department of Basic Sci- 
ences. In addition, I quickly acquired 
expertise in many areas. I found out 
that the quickest way to learn, was to do. 
As a result, I acquired the reputation of 
being able to get things done and became 
knowledgeable in many areas. 

Because of my acquired expertise in cur- 
riculum planning and management, in 1972, 
I was appointed to the position of Asso- 
ciate Dean of Curricular Affairs. It 
had become apparent to me that to do a 
really good job, I would have to have more 
clinical training. I had always felt that 
there was an artificial gap between the 
basic scientists and the clinicians and I 
wanted to bridge that gap and help the 
two groups communicate. In addition, I 
wanted to construct a truly integrated 
curriculum that had clinical validity. 
Again, with the help of a friendly dean, 
I enrolled as a student of Podiatric 

The next several 
were filled with 
chosen to follow 
was both student 

years were 
an individ 
and teache 

the first time that such a 
curred in podiatric medicin 
I was treated as an oddity, 
matters, the good Dean resi 
new Dean was appointed. To 
receiving the D.P.M. degree 

ones which 
Again, I had 
ual path. I 
r. This was 
thing had oc- 
e; and indeed, 
To compound 
gned and a 

I resigned 


both my Directorship in the Department of 
Basic Sciences and the Associate Deanship. 

I received my D.P.M. degree in 1976. By 
that time it was known that I possessed 
both basic and clinical science expertise. 
That, coupled with my prior background in 
administration and medical education, so 
individualized me that my name often was 
suggested when someone was seeking a per- 
son with a multi disciplinary background 
in the health sciences. I strongly advise 
others to individualize their training 
since it facilitates quick identification 
and job advancement. 

After completing my D.P.M. degree, I 
realized that I knew little about the 
realities of practice. I believed this 
to be of importance since I saw health 
care delivery as a major issue in the 
future. As a result, I spent one year 
of postgraduate training learning ap- 
propriate surgical techniques and the 
realities of medical practice in out- 
patient departments of a hospital. My 
second year was spent as an Associate 
with Morton Wittenberg, D.P.M., in 
Augusta, Georgia. This provided me with 
additional podiatric training and an op- 
portunity to learn about the realities 
of private practice. 

These last two years have provided me 
with an independence of spirit that I 
had not previously possessed. I know 
that if I am treated badly in academic 
life, I can get out and practice-- this 
is the same leverage used by males with 
clinical degrees (M.D., D.P.M., D.V.M.). 
Since others know that too, it becomes 
easier to achieve my objectives. I 
surely do not mean to imply that I will 
leave when things get tough. Rather, I 
wish to empahsize that in an organization 
when people know you have other career 
options, they will facilitate your role 
at the institution (that is, assuming 
they wish you to remain). My plans for 
the future are still in the formative 
stages. In all probability I will com- 
bine an academic career and the practice 
of podiatric medicine. I envision that 
the practice will not only provide me 
with positive feed-back but also will 
keep me up-to-date. 

In summary, I have learned several things: 

1) Follow what feels right for you. 

2) Do not disgard options because they 
are not currently fashionable. 

3) Find a mentor from whom you can learn. 

4) Be willing to tackle new jobs. 

5) Individualize your area of expertise. 

6) Establish contacts within networks. 

7) Be prepared to "tough it out," but 
try to have available options. 


"Most doctors are good people . But those 
males are so rigid! If American women want 
home deliveries, they will have to fight 
for them themselves." 

From an interview with Dr. Beatrice Tucker 
who for several decades trained obstetrics 
residents in the techniques of home deliv- 
eries. The Chicago Maternity Center, her 
famous institution, served thousands of 
women in the inner city before it was 



Legislative comment. Responses 
requested from our readers. 

On February 21, 1978 Senator Kennedy 
introduced a bill entitled "Women in 
Science and Technology Equal Opportunity 
Act" (S.2550). The bill intends to re- 
move some of the educational, cultural, 
and institutional barriers which have 
resulted in the serious under representa- 
tion of women in science and technology. 
The bill has been referred to the Sub- 
committee on Health and Scientific Re- 
search which Senator Kennedy chairs. 
Senator Kennedy has requested broad cir- 
culation of the bill's contents and fur- 
ther requested response from the public 
on the bill's contents. 

To the readers of CREATIVE WOMAN: 
The bill is an important step in the 
recognition of an important problem 
which is depriving the nation of the 
intellectual fruits of the brains of the 
female majority of this country. To en- 
sure the success of this bill in sub- 
committee and in congress as a whole -- 
send your comments to Senator Kennedy 
whose address is Room 431 Russell Senate 
Office Building, Washington, D.C. If 
your response is less than 50 words long, 
it is worthwhile sending it at special 
sure your own senators and representative 
get copies of your response so that their 
vote will reflect your opinion. 


This Act establishes a {hjxmewonk to pro- 
mote, the, {uLt uti>e o{ human n.esoun.ces in 
science and technology a compre- 
hensive pKoghjam to maximize the poten- 
tial contribution and advancement o{ 
women in scientific, p>w Sessional and 
technical caxeeKS. It establishes pro- 
grams, and procedures to en- 
hance education {oh. women in science and 
mathematics, to improve training and 
employment opportunities {on. women in 
science and technology, and to prevent 
discrimination against women in scienti- 
fic and technical {ields. 


The Association for Women in Science has 
developed a national computerized regis- 
try of 1,000 women scientists. Today 
there are about 20,000 highly qualified 
women scientists in the U.S. The regis- 
try is attempting to assist women in 
finding employment in the fields of 
psychology, economics, mathematics, 
chemistry, medicine, engineering, and 

Since the registry identifies women 
by specialty, education, experience, 
and geographic location, it also locates 
scientists to fill vacancies on advisory 
committees. Registration costs $10. To 
join the registry, write to: Association 
for Women in Science, Room 1122, 1340 
Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 



by Mimi Kaplan 

Mi. KapZan aj> a l\vil\)Qjii>iX.y Vh.o{<Li>hoh. o& and a Liaison Llbn.aAlan 
at GbvznnohA Statu UntveAAity. 

There is probably no other disease today 
which causes as much emotional as well 
as physical trauma to women as breast 
cancer. Breast cancer means fear of 
mutilating surgery, fear that a husband 
or lover will find her no longer attrac- 
tive and the most horrible fear of all, 

Over 90,000 women in the U.S. this year 
will learn they have breast cancer, and 
32,000 will die of the disease. All 
women from teenagers to the aged must 
be thoroughly informed of matters re- 
lating to breast cancer. 

Magazines and newspapers are filled with 
contradictory reports relating to breast 
cancer. How can a woman help but be 
confused and fearful when a suspicious 
lump is discovered in her breast. 

Her doctor may advise a mammogram 
(breast x-ray) to obtain a clearer pic- 
ture, but the woman has read state- 
ments that mammography can actually 
cause breast cancer and she fears the 
future effects of the x-ray if lump is 
benign. Her doctor then instructs her 
to enter the hospital so he can perform 
a biopsy to learn whether the lump is 
benign or malignant. Again she remem- 
bers reading something about breast 
biopsies that can be done locally as an 
outpatient, but the doctor wants hers 
done under general anesthetic in an 
operating room so she must be admitted 
and stay in the hospital for two or 
three days. 

If the biopsy proves 
woman be awakened and 
discuss alternatives 
the pathologist have 
absolutely sure the i 
of cancer was correct 
known to have a breas 
ately after the preli 
later learn the patho 
three days later was 

malignant, will the 
have the chance to 
of treatment? Will 
three days to be 
mmediate diagnosis 
(women have been 
t removed immedi- 
minary biopsy and 
logist's report 

If malignant, will the woman be given 
all necessary tests including chest 
x-ray, bone and liver scans to ascertain 
whether the cancer cells have already 
spread to other parts of the body before 
a mastectomy is performed? If the cancer 
is widespread, mastectomy is unnecessary 
as other forms of treatment must be ad- 
ministered and the woman would undergo 
traumatizing surgery needlessly. 

If, after tests prove positive and the 
doctor advises a mastectomy, will a modi- 
fied radical or simple mastectomy be done 
or does her doctor still believe that a 
radical mastectomy is the only admissable 
operation and the woman must suffer more 
disfigurement than necessary and a more 
painful recovery because the muscles were 

Does the doctor discuss reconstructive 
surgery with the woman and explain that 
the operation can be done with future 
reconstruction in mind if she so desires, 
or is her doctor unfamiliar with the very 
new, dramatic results plastic surgeons 
are now able to perform on mastectomees? 

After surgery, does the doctor explain 
the importance of exercise and show her 
how so that her arm won't stiffen perma- 
nently? Hopefully, the woman's doctor 
believes in the Reach for Recovery pro- 
gram (some don't) and requests that a 
former mastectomee visit his patient 
while she's still in the hospital. Only 
a woman who herself has experienced the 
psychological trauma of breast cancer 
can help ease the pain, stress and anxi- 
ety of a new mastectomee. Many women 
hesitate to discuss certain intimate 
topics with their doctor, but will open 
up to another woman who has gone through 
the same ordeal . 

What about follow-up care? Does the 
doctor merely tell his patient to return 
for periodic check-ups, or turn her over 
to an oncologist for radiation or chemo- 
therapy treatments but fails to under- 
stand her possible need for self-help 
groups or counseling? Does the doctor 
realize the constant fear women with 
breast cancer live with knowing the first 
two years after surgery are when most 


recurrences take place? Does he under- 
stand what it's like for a woman who had 
breast cancer to live with the knowledge 
that no longer is she considered cured 
if free of the disease after five years, 
but that "cured" is not used with breast 
cancer because doctors realize the dis- 
ease can metastasize to some other part 
of the body ten, fifteen, even twenty 
years later? 

Will nursing their babies help to pre- 
vent breast cancer in future years? 
Does taking birth control pills increase 
their chances for the disease? Should 
women cut down on fat in their diet? 
What effect does estrogen replacement 
durina menoDause have on breast cancer? 

These questions need to be explored. 
Women must know about the pros and cons 
of estrogen, diet, mamography, surgical 
procedures, radiation and chemotherapy 
before a lump is found. When a woman 
does discover a lump, the shock is so 
great that she is in no frame of mind to 
begin reading about the disease or shop- 
ping around for the right doctor. The 
time for information is before the need 
arises. Since only one out of every 
fifteen women will ever have breast can- 
cer, and since 85 per cent of all lumps 
turn out to be benign, a woman need not 
live in constant fear. But like learn- 
ing about birth control methods after 
getting pregnant, learning facts about 
breast cancer after the lump is dis- 
covered doesn't make sense. Educate 
yourself now and continue to seek cur- 
rent information? methods of treatment 
change as research and clinical studies 
(new for breast cancer) continue to im- 
part new data to the medical profession. 

I was lucky ? last year a mammogram 
showed a suspicious mass and my gynecol- 
ogist ordered a biopsy. He referred me 
to a wonderful surgeon who specializes 
in breast cancer. I had a local biopsy 
as an outpatient. My doctor carefully 
explained all the alternatives to me 
and my husband and then told us why he 
believes a modified radical mastectomy 
is best. I had all the tests before 
surgery and when it came time for my 
mastectomy I was psychologically pre- 
pared to lose a breast, grateful the 
tests had proved negative and the cancer 
was not widespread but confined to my 
breast and some axillary nodes. I now 
receive adjuvant chemotherapy and will for 
a total of two years to destroy systemi- 
cally any microscopic cancer cells that 
may have broken away and are traveling 
somewhere else in my body not detected by 
the scans or surgery. I continue to have 
periodic x-rays, scans and physical exam- 
inations and will continue to do so for 
many years.' 

Don't wait to learn about breast cancer. 
Attend workshops, learn how to do breast 
self examination (BSE) and practice it 
regularly. Read Rose Kushner's book Breast 
Cancer (1975) or Oliver Cope's The Breast 
(1977) for current attitudes concerning 
breast cancer. 



PROFESSIONALS by Gena Corea, Morrow 
Publishers, 1977. 

Corea takes a feminist approach to the 
problems of women in the health care 
field. Her purpose is to expose how the 
male-dominated medical profession has 
mistreated women as professionals as 
well as consumers. 

Corea has done an excellent job in re- 
searching the field and has supplied 
ample documentation. Her research in- 
cludes interviews with female physicians 
and patients; extensive reading of the 
literature and hospital records; and 
consultations with other researchers 
and health advocates. 

The book covers women and their rela- 
tionship to the medical profession from 
aarly 1 800' s to the present. Periodi- 
cally, examples from the 1800' s are 
confused with present day occurences 
and could prove to be misleading. Some 
of the topics addressed are venereal 
disease, birth control, male contra- 
ception, and childbirth as well as spe- 
cific diseases of women. The text 
points out that new drugs or devices 
which are marketed with only perfunctory 
testing are primarily for womei3> sug- 
gesting a built-in bias. Any research 
for drugs or devices for male consumers 
proceeds more slowly, presumably to 
allow for sufficient tests. Another 
interpretation also is possible and 
that is that it is the woman's job and 
responsibility to take care of contra- 
ception since she bears the children. 
Corea points out how often the female 
is "brushed-off" simply because of her 
sex since the female, due to her hor- 
monal system, is supposedly emotional 
and highly unpredictable. In order to 
relieve the "anxiety" of uterine cancer 
(as diagnosed by male physicians) many 
unnecessary hysterectomies are performed, 

Gena Corea is a firm advocate of women 
reclaiming their right to make decisions 
on matters affecting their health. She 
believes women can be the agents of 

change especially as physicians, mid- 
wives, and as deliverers of health care 
in women's health clinics. 

I totally agree with Corea when she in- 
dicates that women should take responsi- 
bility for their health, but does this not 
apply to the total population? Corea has 
brought to light many health care pro- 
blems women have suffered in the past. 

This book could have a great impact on 
the trends in health if it is read care- 
fully and its lessons learned by decision 
makers concerned with the nation's health 
care. The book is highly recommended 
reading for all --but especially so for 
women . 

Mary L. Cornesky 

Mi. ConnzAky iA pn.2A2.ntty a Untv2AAAXy Aa6oca.o£p. {oh. Student R2.cA.uJjt- 
mznt R2J2.ntJ.0n at ha State 

Drawings on this page and page 15 

are based on the work of 

Gladys MoHugh 3 Medical Illustrator. 



Mary Roth Walsh, Yale University Press, 
New Haven, 1977. 

Many people think that the entry of women 
into the medical profession is a new 
phenomenon. Not so proves Mary Roth 
Walsh in her easy to read, well documented 
book which should be on your must read 

About 100 years ago physicians learned 
their trade by apprenticing. There were 
women physicians in practice in most 
areas of the country. Late in the nine- 
teenth century medical schools began to 
be organized. These schools were a far 
cry from the ones we have now. Curricu- 
lum was minimal and the course of study 
was short. However the award of a degree 
"M.D." lent status to those who possessed 
it. In the Midwest and West, women at- 
tended medical schools and comprised 
about 15-20% of the student body. 

Dr. Walsh follows the chain of events in 
the Northeast and in particular in the 
Boston area in that then, as now, Harvard, 
one of the nation's oldest universities, 
acted as leader in showing the way for 
other institutions to act towards its 
faculty and students. The conservative 
attitude of "proper Boston" also played 
a role. She outlines the active opposi- 
tion of most of the Boston medical commu- 
nity toward the award of the M.D. degree 
to women and to the admission of women 
physicians to the local medical societies. 
As medicine grew as a powerful profession, 
so did opposition to women as participants 
Gradually, throughout the country, women 
all but disappeared from the student 
bodies of the institutions which had 
accepted them previously, leaving Women's 
Medical College in Philadelphia as the 
prime producer of women physicians. 

Current events leading to increases in 
the numbers of women medical students -- 
and therefore of women physicians -- 
represent the second time that this coun- 
try will have a good number of women 
practicing medicine. Not only must this 
trend be encouraged but all must take 
care that women are represented in the 

power positions in medicine so that they 
have voices in the direction of medicine 
and in the sensitive delivery of appro- 
priate health care to women. These 
power positions include faculty and 
administrative posts in medical schools, 
officers of professional medical socie- 
ties, managerial positions in local and 
state health departments and middle to 
high management positions in the various 
federal agencies which make health 
policy for the nation. 

Dr. Helene Guttman 


From this day on 

I'll be unable 

To bring forth 

The fruit that grows within 

The ability for this 
Is lost to me 
With the flash 
Of a surgeon's knife. 

Necessity is undenied 
But sadness remains 
Like the passing 
Of a lifelong friend. 

- Janet Rohdenburg 



The American Chemical Society (ACS) is 
one of the largest professional societies 
in the United States and one of the old- 
est. (It is just over 100 years old.) 
It is very influential for the profession 
in that it has a huge number of members 
and its activities include accreditation 
of curricula in chemistry and chemical 
engineering at various colleges and 
universities, giving awards which recog- 
nize contributions of scientists in the 
forefront of chemistry, running periodic 
surveys of academia, industry, and the 
government to chart the progress of male 
and female chemists in their profession 
and in doing so provides documentation of 
differential treatment of chemists which 
can be attributed to whether they are 
male or female. 

This year is an auspicious one for the 
ACS: it has its first woman president, 
Dr. Anne J. Harrison, professor of chem- 
istry at Mt. Holyoke College, and its 
first woman Chairman of the Board of 
Directors, Dr. Mary L. Good Boyd, pro- 
fessor of chemistry at the University of 
New Orleans and the 1973 recipient of 
the Garvan Medal, an award initiated by 
the ACS in 1936 to recognize a woman who 
has made outstanding contributions to 
chemistry. Interestingly enough, in the 
100 year history of the ACS, no woman 
has received any of the many other ACS 
awards which, theoretically, are not 
reserved for men. 

The sections which follow contain some 
vignettes from the lives and experiences 
of three recent winners of the Garvan 
Medal and excerpts from a presentation of 
Dr. Anne J. Harrison to young chemists 
in 1972. The information in these sec- 
tions has been collected by Dr. Nina 
Matheny Roscher who is Chairman of the 
Woman Chemists Committee, ACS, and 
Associate Dean for Graduate Affairs and 
Research, The American University, 
Washington, D.C. 

What is the status of women in chemistry 
today? The 1975 survey of the ACS Women 
Chemists Committee of faculties of Ph.D. 
granting institutions in chemistry re- 
vealed only 19 female full professors of 

chemistry in the 189 responding institu- 
tions. Although salaries of women chem- 
ists employed in industry are catching 
up with those of their male colleagues, 
women chemists in academe earn only 
about 70% that of their male peers. 
These data are glaring evaluations of 
the good will and ethical standards of 
academe and of the impotence of various 
agencies supposed to enforce equal 


Dr. Ruth Rogan Benerito, who received 
the Garvan Medal in 1970, was honored 
for her overall contributions to chemis- 
try which include over one hundred 
scientific publications and fifty pat- 
ents primarily for work at the Southern 
Utilization Research and Development 
Division, United States Department of 
Agriculture. She is the head of the 
Physical Investigations group at the 
Research Center and was recognized in 
particular for her work on chemical 
modifications of cotton. From a practi- 
cal point of view, the work has led to 
increased crease resistance of cotton as 
well as oil and water resistance. 

The description of Dr. Benerito' s life 
which follows is taken from a profile in 
the August 1977 issue of the Women Chem- 
ists Committee Newsletter published by 
the Women Chemists Committee of the 
American Chemical Society. 

"Ruth Rogan Benerito, the third of six 
children in a close-knit family, was 
born in New Orleans, Louisiana, where she 
completed her primary and secondary edu- 
cation in the public school system at the 
age of 14. She earned a Bachelor of 
Science degree from H. Sophie Newcomb 
College, with a major in chemistry and 
minors in mathematics and physics while 
also qualifying to teach in secondary 
schools. Because teaching positions and 
scientific positions, especially for 
women, were almost nil, she accepted a 
graduate scholarship to Bryn Mawr 
College in 1935. That was followed by an 
unpaid position as a laboratory techni- 
cian in the Charity Hospital of New 
Orleans and a paid position as a social 
service worker during the Depression 


years. She managed to obtain a teaching 
position in a secondary school only 
after claiming that she could teach 
safety driving as well as all physical 
sciences! While teaching she earned a 
Master of Science degree from Tulane 
University based on research in x-ray 
crystallography. Her college teaching 
career began at Randolph Macon Woman's 
College in Lynchburg, Virginia. She 
returned to teach at Tulane in 1943. 
Because of the shortage of professors of 
physical chemistry during the World War 
II years, teaching schedules at both the 
undergraduate and graduate levels were 
heavy—unbelievably so--as compared to 
acceptable teaching schedules in most 
universities of today. During that time, 
her family moved to Chicago, and she took 
advantage of its great university, its 
unbelievable collection of physical 
scientists, and its quarter system 
during the war years. She managed to 
obtain one semester leave of absence 
from Tulane for study and examinations 
and later one year of leave for re- 
search. She earned the Ph.D. in Physical 
Chemistry from the University of Chicago 
in 1948 after having had the privilege 
of studying under some of the great chem- 
ists and teachers. 

In 1950, she married Frank Henshaw Bene- 
rito, a World War II Navy Veteran and 
life long acquaintance. This was a happy 
union until his sudden and untimely death 
in 1970. He, like her father, believed 
in and encouraged a woman's right to plan 
her life and to be afforded the opportu- 
nity to try to reach whatever goals she 
so desired." 

In 1953, she left the academic world for 
full -time research. However she has con- 
tinued to teach and to serve on research 
committees of candidates for the M.S. and 
Ph.D. degrees at Tulane University. 
Presently, she is Adjunct Professor in the 
Department of Biochemistry in the Tulane 
Medical School and is a member of the 
graduate faculty of Tulane University. 
"She has made significant contributions 
to the scientific literature of physical 
and physical -organic chemistry as well as 
of cellulose chemistry. Her technical 
knowledge, professional imagination, 
grasp of practical problems, ability to 

apply principles of physical and instru- 
mental chemistry to conceive of new 
approaches to solutions of research 
problems, and her ability to communicate 
research findings have inspired colleagues 
under her supervision to higher levels of 
professional achievements." 

She takes an active part in professional 
societies on the local and national levels 
and has been honored many times by pro- 
fessional organizations and the federal 

"Ruth Benerito believes that whatever suc- 
cess she has attained is the result of the 
efforts of many. Her personal successes 
were built on the help and sacrifices of 
members of her family; professional 
accomplishments resulted from efforts of 
early teachers and the cooperativeness 
of colleagues, too many to enumerate. 
She considers herself most fortunate to 
have been given so many opportunities. 


Development of the symbolic addition 
method of determining molecular struc- 
tures directly from x-ray diffraction 
experiments, a major contribution to 
crystallography, was the primary work 
for which Dr. Isabella L. Karle was recog- 
nized by the 1976 Garvan Medal. Dr. 
Karle' s analytical techniques have been 
applied primarily to materials of inter- 
est to organic and biological chemistry. 
While she has applied her techniques in 
her over thirty years at the Naval Re- 
search Laboratories in Washington, D.C., 
where she is head of the x-ray analysis 
section; hundreds of other investigators 
now also use the method and recognize 
her contributions. 

The discussion of Dr. Karle' s personal 
experiences in her private life and her 
scientific career which follows are ex- 
cerpts from her speech at the Women 
Chemists Luncheon at the American Chemi- 
cal Society meeting in April, 1976, 
prior to the presentation of the Garvan 
Medal . 

"Although I was born in Detroit, my 
parents had been recent immigrants from 


Poland and I did not speak any English 
until I was sent to school at the age of 
seven. As you may know, the term 
'reverse Polish' is applied to some of 
the new electronic calculators because of 
the reverse order of operations. This 
term is related to the Polish language in 
which the subject often comes at the very 
end of the sentence after all the quali- 
fying phrases, the descriptive clauses 
and the verb. Apparently this original 
training in the Polish language still 
influences my sentence structure in Eng- 
lish and some of my thinking processes. 
Before I attended public school, my 
mother had already taught me to read and 
write in Polish. I progressed quickly 
through the public school system quite 
oblivious to the fact that I was con- 
sidered 'under privileged' because of my 
foreign background and my family's 
limited economic status. I was also 
quite oblivious to the fact that giHs 
were not expected to study chemistry. My 
first exposure to science was in high 
school when I was required to take one 
science course for a college preparatory 
curriculum. Upon taking the chemistry 
course, I knew immediately that I was 
going to be a chemist. The woman teacher 
was an inspiration. 

Fortunately, I was 
graduate scholarshi 
of Michigan where I 
Bachelor's degree b 
physical chemistry, 
announce that now, 
will be awarded an 
Science degree from 
Michigan at the May 

awarded an under- 
p to the University 

not only earned a 
ut also a Ph.D. in 

I am happy to 
32 years later, I 
Honorary Doctor of 

the University of 

Commencement Exercises 

So far, it sounds as if I had led a 
charmed life and I admit that I must have 
a guardian angel guiding me along the 
proper path. No amount of careful plan- 
ning replaces dumb luck. However, per- 
severance has been a very essential 

I married another chemistry student while 
in graduate school and when my husband 
and I began looking for employment we 
found very soon that both of us could not 
be employed by the same university and 
that I, especially, would have a diffi- 
cult time in obtaining an academic posi- 

tion. We thought that we had make a big 
compromise in accepting jobs at the 
Naval Research Lab in Washington. As it 
turned out, our efforts in basic re- 
search were always supported, if not 
grandly, at least at some minimally 
adequate level, to allow us to develop 
our theories and experiments even in the 
lean years when publications were few. 

Our training in graduate school was in 
the field of electron diffraction by gases 
and naturally our first project at the 
Naval Research Lab was to build such an 
instrument since none were available 
commercially. We designed this instru- 
ment ourselves, wired the electronics and 
assembled it. It had many unique features 
and it is still in use today. 

Enthusiastically, we prepared several 
manuscripts on the theory, experiment 
and results and sent them to the Journal 

of Chemical Physics . However, we were 
not prepared for the negative comments 
of the referees who apparently felt 
threatened by our new developments. It 
was only after great persistence and 
the editor's good will that our papers 
were published. Eventually our pro- 
cedures and theoretical treatments 
were accepted and now form the basic 
principles for all the gas electron 
diffraction experiments in laboratories 
around the world. In fact, graduate 
students in this subject use our first 
three papers as a primer. 

After a number of years passed, it was 
decided that I should learn about x-ray 
crystallography and determine whether 
my husband's and another collaborator's 
theories about direct phase determination 
were useful . I borrowed an x-ray gen- 
erator, x-ray cameras and with a text 
book in one hand and by trial and error, 
I managed to learn about space groups, 
crystal alignment, data collection, 
indexing photographs, estimating inten- 
sities, etc. It was a do-it-yourself 
project. No one around to advise me. 
Using a crystal of a very complicated 
material for that time, I obtained a 
set of diffraction data to which I 
applied the theoretical phase relation- 


In the early and middle 1960's, I began 
publishing structures of substances, 
mostly light atom organic molecules, 
that attracted considerable attention, 
since such structures could not have 
been solved by the established methods. 
In due time, the direct method of 
structure analysis, as it is known now, 
has become the major procedure and has 
been used in thousands of structure 

One of the by-products of this research 
has been the opportunity to travel 
around the world either to present 
lectures on how to solve crystal struc- 
tures or to discuss the structures 

Meanwhile, I was not completely en- 
grossed in science. Our family in- 
cludes three daughters. My two oldest 
daughters have Ph.D.'s and work in 
respectively spectroscopy and natural 
products. My youngest daughter is 
studying geology." 


For her contributions to the fundamental 
understanding of the behavior of inorgan- 
ic flourine compounds and to the synthe- 
sis of new flourochemicals, the 1972 Gar- 
van Medal was presented to Dr. Jean'ne 
M. Shreeve, professor of chemistry at 
the University of Idaho. Dr. Shreeve is 
one of the few women to ever head a 
chemistry department at a Ph.D. granting 

The following excerpts are taken from the 
profile of Dr. Shreeve v s life and career 
in the March, 1977, Women Chemists Com- 
mittee Newsletter of the Women Chemists 
Committee of the American Chemical 

"Dr. Shreeve was born and raised in rural 
Montana. She received her bachelor's 
degree from the University of Montana in 
1953. In 1956, after receiving her mas- 
ter's degree from the University of Min- 
nesota, she returned to her native Mon- 
tana to teach high school. However, she 
quickly discovered that she was not 
suited for high school teaching, and she 

made what she calls the best decision of 
her life--she decided to return to 
graduate school . 

Dr. Shreeve credits her determination to 
her mother, who instilled in her children 
the idea that they could do anything they 
wanted to, and being a girl was not a 

She went to the University of Washington 
for her Ph.D. Following receipt of her 
doctorate in 1961, Dr. Shreeve joined 
the faculty of the University of Idaho 
as an assistant professor of chemistry. 
She was encouraged by her department 
head, Dr. Malcolm Renfrew, to write pro- 
posals, and within two years, had been 
awarded several research grants, and 
was directing a small research group 
and publishing regularly. She attri- 
butes the majority of her success to 
her department chairman, who recognized 
and rewarded hard work and ability, 
whether the person was a man or a woman. 

Promoted to associate professor in 1965 
and to full professor in 1967, in 1973 

she was chosen to head the chemistry 
department. She enjoys the challenges 
and responsibilities of this office, and 
believes the administrative duties are a 
good experience, even though the job has 
limited the time she can spend doing 

The statement of current A.C.S. Presi- 
dent Anne Harrison to young chemists in 
the Women Chemists Newsletter of August, 
1972, is still applicable and is illus- 
trated by the Garvan Medalists discussed 
in this article as well as many of the 
other individuals who have been recog- 
nized by the Medal ! 

"A young woman attracted to the intel- 
lectual structure of chemistry or to 
its problem solving capacity should 
consider an undergraduate major in 
chemistry. Concurrently she should be 
formulating plans for her future and 
continuously adjusting the balance of 
her activities to further these plans. 

The productivity of science and tech- 
nology in recent years has presented 


society with an unprecedented number 
of options. Value judgements made by 
deliberate action and by default deter- 
mine the course of society, The valid- 
ity of many of these decisions depends 
upon the degree the public understands 
the powers and the limitations of 
science and technology to solve problems 
and the degree it understands the cost 
in time and money. Chemical change is 
central to health and welfare. The 
degree chemical change can be controlled 
establishes boundary conditions of 
options but value judgements themselves 
go far beyond scientific knowledge. 
The sciences, the social sciences and 
the humanities, must come together in 
academic programs still to be developed. 
Young women should be encouraged to 
put together programs of their own de- 
sign to prepare them to assume posi- 
tions of leadership in the problem 
solving endeavors and the decision 
making processes. 

The above statements are equally ap- 
plicable to all youth without regard 
to sex. The opportunities open to 
women in our society have expanded 
rapidly and are now without precedent. 
The manner in which women are respond- 
ing is determining the emerging con- 
cept of the role of women." 


Everyone knows of Margaret Mead. 
But other outstanding women who are 
known only within the scientific com- 
munity are as follows: 

Dr. Anne Briscoe, Instructor of 

Anatomy, Physiology and Chemistry, 
Harlem Hospital Center School of 
Nursing; past President of the 
Association of Women in Science. 

Dr. Es telle Ramey, Georgetown Univ.; 
past President of AWIS, Doctor 
of Humane Letters. 

Dr. Vera Kistiakowsky, Professor of 
Physics, MIT. 

Dr. Ruth Hubbard, Professor of Bio- 
logy, Harvard University. 

Dr. Sheila Pfafflin, Supervisor of 
Research, A.T.&T., Basking Ridge, 
N.J.; newly elected AWIS President. 

Dr. Diane Russell, Univ. of Arizona 
Medical Center. 

Dr. Charlotte Friend, Mt. Sinai School 
of Medicine, NYC: first woman 
president of the New York Academy 
of Sciences. 

Dr. Evelyn Witkin, Rutgers University; 
elected last year to the National 
Academy of Sciences. 


Vol.1, No. 3, p. 7. In MARY DALY SPEAKS 
TO ME by Shirley Katz the last paragraph 
should read: 

This "cosmic covenant" of sisterhood has 
the potential to change our environment 
from a culture of objects to be used, of 
rapism, to a culture of reciprocity with 
the physical world. It extends outward 
toward male liberation, towards rela- 
tionships of respect and understanding 
and depth with others. 

The Women & Health /Mental Health col- 
lection of the former Women's History 
Library has been published on microfilm 
by the Women's History Research Center of 
Berkeley, CA. The microfilm is 14 reels 
($32/reel) of materials on women's 
physical and mental health and illnesses, 
sex roles, biology and the life cycle, 
sex and sexuality, birth control, Black 
and other Third World women, and more. 
Recommend this versatile resource for 
your library! For further information, 
contact the Center: 

Women's History Research Center 

2325 Oak Street 

Berkeley, CA 94708 



Marjorie A. Sharp 

Mi. Shcuip -U a cut Govqjivwha 

State, UniveJiAtty . 
The list of prominent contributors to 
scientific research reveals a noticeable 
absence of female names. This is not to 
say that women have not made major contri- 
butions within their disciplines. Rather, 
as Helen Hughes pointed out in the article 
which led to the formation of CREATIVE WO- 
MAN, their discoveries have frequently 
been credited to their male mentors or co- 

The area of Animal Behavior appears to be 
the exception for here women are emerging 
the field. This is parti cu- 
the study of primates in 
habitat. Prior to 1960 
been done in this area, 
two and a half months stu- 

as leaders in 
larly true in 
their natural 
little work had 
W. Nisson spent 

what had hitherto been thought impossible; 
to live intimately with wild primates, ha- 
bituating them to her presence, getting to 
know them as individuals, and studying 
their diet, ranging habits, social beha- 
viors, mating and reproduction processes. 

dying chimpanzees in French Guinea during 
the 1930's. Hardly enough time for a de- 
finitive investigation. Most experts in 
the field felt that the difficulties en- 
countered, including poor visibility and 
the distance from civilization, preclud- 
ed the possibility of any long term study. 

Then, during the late 1950' s, a remarkable 
young Englishwoman traveled to Africa to 
fulfill a childhood dream "to live with 
the wild animals". Her interest in ani- 
mals led her to Dr. L.S. Leakey, the noted 
anthropologist, who, impressed by her ded- 
ication, hired her as one of his assistant 
secretaries. She was later to accompany 
him on one of his many trips to Olduvai 
Gorge. It was during this field expedi- 
tion that Leakey discussed his interest in 
the possibility of doing a research study 
on wild chimpanzees living along the shores 
of Lake Tanganyika. Unbiased by her lack 
of scientific training, impressed by her 
observational abilities, Dr. Leakey sug- 
gested that she tackle this difficult and 
hazardous project. Through his influence 
a small grant was obtained to fund the pro- 
ject. Thus began the lifetime work of Jane 
Van Lawick-Goodall . 

Setting up camp in the dense forests a- 
long the shores of Lake Tanganyika, cut off 
from civilization, Jane attempted to do 



In the early 1960 ' s reports of her work be- 
gan to filter out of the jungle. A young 
woman living in the wilds of Africa had 
succeeded in establishing relationship with 
wild chimpanzees. Months were to pass be- 
fore any major piece of information was to 
emerge. But when it came, it was dynamic. 
Jane Goodall had observed chimpanzees mak- 
ing primitive tools--"not merely using an 
object as a tool, but actually modifying 
an object and thus showing the crude be- 
ginnings of tool making ." (Goodall, 1971) 
By definition humans were the only tool- 
makers. Her discovery caused a redefini- 
tion of what constituted human and was to 
lead to the awarding of additional funding 
from the National Geographic Foundation. 
Eighteen years later, in what is now the 
Gombc Stream Research Center, Jane Goodall 1 : 
work is still in progress, carried on with 
the help of serious students of Animal Be- 
havior. Her successes have encouraged 
others to attempt the study of non-human 
primates in the field. 

Following in Goodall 's footsteps is a for- 
mer occupational therapist from California, 


Reading of Jane's work with the chimpanzees 
Dian Fossey visited the Center and in 1967, 
again with the encouragement of Dr. Leakey, 
began the study of mountain gorillas. 
Working first in the Congo, she was forced 
to leave because of political upheavals. 
Relocating on the slopes of Mt. Visoke in 
Rwanda, she established camp in the midst 
of gorillas who had learned fear of humans 
through continual killing and poaching by 
local natives. She was determined to live 
amongst the gorilla, to become familiar 
with their personalities as individuals. 
To quote Dian: 

"This familiarity was not easily won. The 
textbook instructions for such studies are 
merely to sit and observe. I wasn't satis- 
fied with this approach; I felt that the 
gorillas would be doubly suspicious of any 
alien object that only sat and stared. In- 
stead, I tried to elicit their confidence 
and curiosity by acting like a gorilla. I 
imitated their feeding and grooming and, 
later, when I was surer what they meant, I 
copied their vocalizations, including some 
startling deep belching noises." (1951) 

Van Lawick-Goodall , Jane. In the Shadow 
of Man . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971. 

Suggested Readings 

Altmann, S.A. and 
Ecology . Chicago: 
Press, 1970. 

Altmann, J. Baboon 
University of Chicago 

Jolly, A. Evolution of Primate Behavior . 
New York: Macmillan, 1972. 

Galdikas-Brindamour, B. "Orangutans, Indo- 
nesia's 'People of the Forest'", National 
Geographic , 148, 4, 444-473. 

Both of these women began their work with- 
out formal scientific training and both 

used unusual methods, 
safe confines of the 
studies at the zoo. 
to "sit and observe" 

Not for them the 
laboratory or "field" 
Nor were they content 
as previous research- 

ers have done. Suffering hardships, ill - 
nesses and danger, these intrepid women 
applied what might be called a "feminine" 
approach to the field of animal behavior- 
scientific in scope but supplemented and 
enhanced by qualities sometimes referred 
to as "feminine characteristics". Perhaps 
these are the very qualities needed to 
completely understand and interpret the 
behavior of intelligent, social animal s— 
animals capable of expressing emotions and 
behavior so similar, yet so different, 
from our own. They are unorthodox, they 
anthropomorphize, they break some of the 
rules of conventional scientific research. 
They have created a new approach to the 
philosophy and the methods of scientific 


Fossey, Dian. "Making Friends with Mount- 
ain Gorillas", National Geographic , 137, L 

Reminders abou t submitting material for 
future issues: 

Manuscripts are eagerly solicited from 
you our readers out there! Contributions 
may be sent either to the editorial office 
at Governors State University or directly 
to the editors of special themes as listed 

Summer 1978 
arts, the lives 

Women in Art -- the visual 
and works of women both 
and contemporary, in articles, 
photographs, et cetera; deadline 

June 21 , 1978; Guest Editor: BETYE SAAR, 
8074 Willow Glen, Hollywood, CA 90046. 

Fall 1978: Politics and the Study of 
Rolitics -- women in political theory, 
government, administration, public af- 
fairs; deadline September 21 , 1978; 
Guest Editor: Professor SARA SHUMER, 
Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041. 



About this issue's Guest Editor 

Our column for this issue is devoted to 
biographical information on our dis- 
tinguished Guest Editor, Helene N. 
Guttman, Ph.D. 

She grew up in New York City and attend- 
ed public schools. When she was in the 
first grade, the principal asked all the 
children what they wanted to be when they 
grew up. He thought that her response 
-- an archoologist -- was so peculiar for 
a girl that he called her mother to 
school . 

By the time she was 9, she had decided to 
be a scientist and to be one like the 
Louis Pasteur portrayed in MICROBE HUN- 
TERS who worked on many different things 
and had a strong sense of social respon- 
sibility. People kept on telling her 
that girls don't have careers like that 
but she was a stubborn kid. Although 
she retained interest in many activities 
-- individual and team sports, art, and 
reading and interest in other possible 
career areas such as politics -- she was 
continuously drawn to science in spite 
of concerted efforts to direct her into 
the traditional female careers. 

In college, a perceptive professor ob- 
served that her talent lay in an ability 
to analyze and synthesize information 
from several different areas into a co- 
hesive package. She observed to her 
student that the time is not yet right 
for multi disciplinary types but that 
if Helene could hang in there for some 
years, time might catch up. Helene 
followed her unusual pattern and did 
not specialize in a small area of 
science and blend in with the group. 

After her bachelor's degree she worked 
and went to school simultaneously. Most 
of the time she had more than one job. 
Along the way she acquired two master's 
degrees and a lot of scientific research 
before settling down to get a doctorate 
in microbiology and biochemistry. Her 
opportunity to break new ground scien- 
tifically came shortly after she got her 
bachelor's degree. In an unusual pri- 
vate research laboratory in New York 

City -- where she began as an unpaid re- 
searcher and ended 12 years later as a 
full staff member -- she was allowed to 
proceed as fast as her mind would take 
her. After less than a year she was 
writing papers for professional journals. 
It was OK to be a female kid who did 
good things. No one thought of a young 
woman without a doctorate as a threat, 
that only starts later when you approach 
a seat of power! 

Her first graduate school experience -- 
at Harvard — showed the opinion that 
prestigious institution had of women in 
science: women were not allowed into 
the Chemistry Library! M.I.T. which was 
just down the road had no such fear of 
women in their libraries so she did her 
homework there. 

By the time she had her doctorate, Dr. 
Guttman had more published papers and 
recognition than most men who were 
associate or full professors. However 
she was hired by a major university at 
a salary just a bit lower than a newly 
hatched male Ph.D. who entered her 
department simultaneously. Dr. Guttman 
moved on to the University of Illinois 
at Chicago Circle and its Medical School, 
where she finally rose to be a full pro- 
fessor of Biological Sciences and of 
Microbiology and Associate Director for 
Research in the Urban Systems Laboratory. 
The latter job involved a completely new 
area of expertise. 

In addition to serving on the editorial 
board of CREATIVE WOMAN, she also is on 
the editorial board of the Journal of the 
American Medical Women's Association . 
She is a past member of the editorial 
board of the Journal of Protozoology and 
is presently a committee chairperson for 
the American Institute of Chemists and 
the Federation of Organizations for 
Professional Women. 

Now Dr. Guttman is expressing another fac- 
et of her career in biomedical sciences as 
an administrator in the federal govern- 
ment where she is Research Resources Co- 
ordinator in the Office of Program Plan- 
ning and Evaluation, National Heart, 
Lung, and Blood Institute, N,I,H,, 
Bethesda, Md. 20014. 



Arditti, Rita. "Women in Science: Women 
Drink Water While Men Drink Wine." 
March, 1976. 

American College Testing Program. WOMEN 

Morrow, 1977. 


tory Publications, New York. 

Feminists Northwest. BIOGRAPHIES OF 
WOMEN SCIENTISTS. Feminists North-: 
west, Seattle, Wa. 

Goldman, Roy and Barbara Newlin Hewitt. 
"The Scholastic Aptitude Test 
'Explains' Why College Men Major in 
Science More Often than College 
PSYCHOLOGY, 23:50-4, Jan, 1976. 

in Science: A Man's World," Vol.25, 
No. 2, April-June, 1975. 

Keeves, John and Allison Read. "Sex Dif- 
ferences in Preparing for Scientific 
Occupations." ERIC. 

Kelly, Allison. "Women in Science: a 
Bibliographical Review." DURHAM 
RESEARCH REVIEW, 7:1092-1108, 
Spring, 1976. 

Kreinberg, Nancy. I'M MADLY IN LOVE WITH 
ENGINEERING. University of California, 
Berkeley, 1977. 

Kundsin, Ruth. WOMEN AND SUCCESS. William 
Morrow and Co. , 1974. 

Marcus, Gail H. "The Status of Women in 
Nuclear Industry." BULLETIN ON THE 
ATOMIC SCIENTISTS, 32:43-9, April, 

Mattfeld, Jacquelyn and Carol Van Aken. 
MIT Press, 1965. 

Mozans, H.J. WOMEN IN SCIENCE. MIT Press, 

Press, 1974. 

Psychiatric Annals. WOMEN IN PSYCHIATRY. 
Vol.7, No. 4, April, 1977. 

Res kin, Barbara F. "Sex Differences in 
Status Attainment in Science: the 
Case of the Postdoctoral Fellowship." 
597-612, August, 1976. 

Rossiter, Margaret. "Women Scientists in 
America Before 1920." AMERICAN SCIEN- 
TIST, Vol.62, No.l, May-June, 1974 
pp. 312-323. 

Tibald, Elizabeth and V. Kistiakowsky. 
"Baccalaureate Origins of American 
Scientists and Scholars." SCIENCE, 
193:646-652, August, 1976. 

Vetter, Betty M. "Women in the Natural 

Sciences." SIGNS, Vol.1, No. 3, Spring, 

Walsh, Mary Roth. DOCTORS WANTED: NO 
WOMEN NEED APPLY. Yale University 
Press, New Haven, 1977. 

Woodbury, Martha. DISCOVERY: WOMEN IN- 
Les Femmes Press, Mi 11 brae, California, 

Profiles of Dr. Ruth Rogan Benerito. 
American Chemical Society, August, 1977. 

Women's History Research Center. WOMEN AND 
Berkeley, California. 

Zuckerman, Harriet and Jonathan Cole 

"Women in American Science." MINERVA, 
13:82-102, Spring, 1976. 


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Harriet Gross, Ph.D., Assistant to the Provost at Governors State University, has 
suggested a topic for a special issue in 1979: FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP—AN INTELLECTUAL 

"The whole feminist academic arm of the Woman's Movement," Dr. Gross tells us, "has 
created a paradigm challenge to the way in which androcentric bias has permeated the 
models of virtually all behavioral science and humanities disciplines. Not only the 
substantive content of the arts and sciences, but the very assumptions underlying the 
ways in which knowledge is organized has become the object of feminist criticism." 

She offered as examples of such criticism the section in SIGNS titled, "The New 
Scholarship: Review Essays." There is an awareness in different disciplines that 
what has been accepted as a "true" representation of reality is now suspect. Because 
assumptions about the order of things have not taken into account women's contributions 
and ways in which women's experience organizes the meaning of events, the "reality" 
created by these assumptions is a distorted one. 

A prominent example of this "distortion" is the "man-the-hunter" paradigm of human 
evolution. With this paradigm has gone the assumption that the basic cement of 
human social organization is the male-female bond, that women's and children's 
dependencies required "protection," and that weaponry was the significant tool. Only 
recently have the implications of "woman-the-gatherer" begun to surface as a chal- 
lenge to this paradigm. The recognition of the mother-child bond as central to 
human social organization and the evolutionary significance of adaptations based on 
kin selection, food gathering and storage skills, are part of this challenge. 
The exposure of bias in evolutionary history seen as a generalization of male 
experience is one example of a conceptual "rethink" which feminist scholarship is 

Similar intellectual "corrections" are being generated in all major disciplines 
throughout the behavioral sciences and humanities, such as in religious studies, 
philosophy and analysis of the law. In fact, feminist scholarship, as paradigm 
challenge, represents the "cutting edge" of research and scholarship today. 

For this reason, we are projecting a Special Issue devoted to review articles 
summarizing the feminist critique of scholarship in many fields. SCHOLARS-- 
please send such review articles to: The Editor, Special Issue on Feminist 

For further reading on the subject, see the article by Harriet Gross in 
COMMUNITY, Volume III, April 1976. 



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