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rheCrcati^eVJoman 




GETTING THERE: WOMEN IN MANAGEMENT 



WINTER 1989 




Volume 9, No. 3 Winter 1S| 



The 
Creatine 
Oman Governors State University, University Park, IL 60466 - 3193 



Published under the auspices of the provosts office, 

© 1989 governors state university and helen hughes issn 0736 - 4733 

STAFF 

Helen E Hushes Editor EDITORIAL BOARD 

c ' »-ir a., n. -i Glenda Baily-Mershon, Illinois NO WINational Organization for Women, Oak Park, IL 
Suzanne Oliver, Art Lhrector ^ _ i ., ' , , » ' ^ 
_, ,. „ „ , Donna Bandstra, Healthgroup International, Sherman Oaks, CA 
Claudia Snow, Development Margaret Brady, Social Sciences, Homewood, IL 

Barbara Conant, Library Resources Rev meR Dohner Livingston, Religion, Unitarian Society of Ponoma Valley, CA 
Lillie Pearson, Editorial Assistant reta Durrant League of American Penwomen, Doylestown, PA 
Marilyn Fischbach, Guest Editor Deborah Garretson, Counseling, Muncie, IN 
Gloria Momingstar, Assistanl Guest Editor Temmie Gilbert, Theatre/ Media, Governors State University 

Linda Grace-Kobas, Journalism, University of Buffalo, N.Y. 
Harriet Gross, Sociology/Women 's Studies, Governors State University 
Helene N. Guttman, Biological Sciences, Bethesda, M.D. 
Bethe Hagens, Anthropolgy, Governors State University 
Barbara Jenkins, Psychology, Governors State University 
Young Kim, Communication Science, Governors State University 
Joan Lewis, Poetry, Barrington, IL 
Betye Saar, Fine Arts, Hollywood, CA 
Terri Schwartz, Psychology, Governors State University 
Sara Shumer, Political Theory, Haverford College, PA 
Lynn Thomas Strauss, Women's Studies/Parenting, Oak Park, IL 
Emily Wasiolek, Literature, Prairie State College, Chicago Heights, IL 


1 
I 


PAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS 


3 Marilyn Fischbach: About the Guest Editor by Claudia Snow 

5 By Way of Introduction by Marilyn Fischbach 

6 Women Managers: Their Own Words by Marilyn Fischbach 

10 Interview With Maggie Stafsnes, "A Painted Lady" by Leslie Shelton 
14 Women and Organizations: The Power of Care by Marilyn Fischbach 
17 Gloria Morningstar: Portrait of a Woman in Management by Claudia Snow 
20 Balancing Family and Career: Reaching Toward a Synthesis by Marsha Katz 

23 Women and Management — A Bibliography by Barbara Conant 

24 Fiction, Sister Dominique by Vanda Wark 

28 Poetry by Marge Piercy, Margaret Brady, Mary Woodward, Rose Rosberg and Virginia Ording 

31 Art, Venus #2 and A Statement by Ruth Aizuss Migdal 

32 Peace Spirits, The Red Poster by Patricia C. Thomas 

34 Review Essay, Making It In a Man's World: The Myth and Reality of Women and Work by Sharon 
Hicks-Bartlett 

39 Book Review, Rating America's Corporate Conscience by Reggie Greenwood 

40 Letters To The Editor 

42 The Creative Woman Foundation 

43 Award of Excellence 

44 Editor's Column 


The Creative Woman is published three times a year by Governors 
State University. We focus on a special topic in each issue, presented 
from a feminist perspective. We celebrate the creative achievements of 
women in many fields and appeal to inquiring minds. We publish 
fiction, poetry, book reviews, articles, photography and original graphics. 




Cover photograph of Gloria Morningstar 
by Eileen Ryan, a freelance photographer 
and installation artist living in Chicago. 





















MARILYN FISCHBACH: 
ABOUT THE GUEST EDITOR 

Claudia Snow 

Native of Denver, Colorado, guest editor Marilyn 
Fischbach holds an undergraduate degree in 
history from Colorado College, Colorado Springs, 
and a masters degree in Higher Education/Ad- 
ministration from the University of Illinois, Cham- 
paign. 

She began her career as a student development 
specialist at the University of Maine in Farmington. 
In her three years there, she managed two halls 
with one hundred students each. She moved to the 
University of California, Irvine, in the early 1970's, 
where she worked for a year in resident hall man- 
agement with three hundred fifty students in seven 
resident halls. "It was a very exciting time," Fisch- 
bach recalls. "The idea was to do more with resi- 
dence halls than just warehousing students. It was 
at a time when all the rules disappeared. We were 
trying to invent a living/ learning concept. Our 
seven halls were called Middle Earth and had 
names like Misty Mountain and Hobbiton. We had 
various professors from different disciplines 
'adopt' a hall, so there was a foreign language hall, 
a humanities hall, etc. We held faculty receptions 
in the halls or encouraged the professors to hold 
their courses in the lobbies of the halls." 



Declaring that the move from Maine to California 
was more than she bargained for, Fischbach moved 
into a two year period of exploring, "trying to 
decide what to do with my life." Enamored of the 
west coast, she selected cities in which she would 
like to live, Eugene, Oregon heading the list. In 
order to discover more about the towns she had 
selected, she picked out one hundred random 
names from telephone books of her first choice 
potential 'home' towns and wrote letters. "You 
don't know me, but. ..can you tell me more about 
your city." During the next two years, she met and 
stayed with some of the people she met through 
the telephone book. 

Finding herself in Minot, North Dakota and out of 
money, she began working as a social worker with 
second grade children. At the same time, she was 
working as a communications consultant with a 
partner who also lived in Minot. The consulting 
team worked up courses in parent and youth 
effectiveness training and in values clarification 
training. 

From 1977 until 1981, Fischbach worked with Boy's 
Town, near Omaha, Nebraska in the field of youth 
and adolescent development research. She got the 
job as a result of writing a proposal for Boy's Town 
to develop a 'continuing learning center.' She 
explains that Boy's Town had been the subject of a 
Pulitzer Prize winning report which discussed the 
financial status of the richly endowed institution. 
Spurred by the need to spend some of their mo- 
nies, Boy's Town got into the field of long-term 




Photograph of Marilyn Fischbach by Eileen Ryan 



research on pre-teens and teenagers. "It was a very 
exciting place to be," Fischbach comments on her 
time with the organization. 

In 1981, the center was closed and Fischbach 
moved from the academic to the 'for-profit' world. 
In July 1981, she took a job as training director for 
a medium sized sheet metal fabrication manufac- 
turer, Lozier Manufacturing. In the one-person 
training department, she designed and taught 
courses to employees on such things as hearing 
protection, based on OSHA regulations; measuring 
skills and blue-print reading; and on-going super- 
visory skills such as communications and manage- 
ment. At the same time, she worked with the 
company's United Way drive and wrote the com- 
pany newsletter. "It was like getting an MBA. I 
learned about all phases of business (marketing, 
production) because I had to develop in order to 
train employees how to do their jobs better." 

Kraft Foods, Inc. in Chicago hired Fischbach in 
1986 to work as a project manager in management 
training. After six months, she interviewed for and 
got her present job as manager of management 
education administration. 

From her perspective of work with student person- 
nel or in the field of training, Fischbach says she is 
"not in the mainstream. I have time to observe 
what works and what doesn't work in organiza- 
tions." 

In her work as guest editor of this issue, Fischbach 
has identified two 'forces' in organizations: the 
power of control and the power of care. "In organi- 
zations, we seem to get better and better at the 
power of control, but the question keeps coming 
up, why don't people feel better and more excited 
about their work?" 

Also involved on the Board of Directors for the 
YWCA in Evanston, Illinois, Fischbach sees that or- 



ganization as a place where the power of care is ir 
place but that those running the organization have 
no understanding of the power of control. "We se< 
that in corporations we have lost our souls and in 
human services, we have lost structure. One with- 
out the other is no good. Structure without care is 
empty. Care without structure is ineffectual." 

For solutions, Fischbach sees understanding the 
power of care and in establishing myths for how t 
live in the culture of the 21st century as promising 
places to start. 

"There is a key in getting management and em- 
ployees to see that their jobs are interrelated, that 
each job impacts another. Somehow, 'care' is 
involved in that process. Power doesn't come fron 
being a manager. We each have the power to be 
authentic, to really care about what we do and to 
find ways to make our work meaningful and valu 
able. Our culture gives us no reward for that, 
instead, we allow ourselves to be devalued and 
ask, 'why should I care when I'm not getting paid 
for that?' It becomes necessary, at some point, for 
people who feel they are in dead-end jobs to stop 
and to say 'What I do DOES matter.' 

"We need new myths, stories which deal with 
single people, people who live in apartments and 
who work with large organizations. The man in trj 
gray flannel suit model no longer works. What 
about women? We need to be told it's OK to wort 
in organizations and to treat work like family. 
Think of all of the people today for whom that is 
true. Those myths are evolving." 

About women in management? Fischbach's advice 
is "If you have the opportunity to be a manager, 
TAKE IT! And for those who aren't yet managers, 
at some point, we have to stop holding ourselves 
back by saying, I don't have a degree or I don't 
have the training. Instead, we need to say, I can d( 
it!" 



BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION 



Marilyn Fischbach 

Most of my professional career has centered 
around organizations. My work most often deals 
with the how of organizations rather than the 
what . This means I believe in organizations. I 
believe that organizations can represent visions 
that let us see beyond ourselves. Organizations are 
more than bureaucracies. They are places where 
the lives of people can be transformed. Places 
where people can find worth. Places where we 
learn how to care for one another. Places where 
we learn and grow. 

This has not always been my understanding of 
organizations. It certainly wasn't over a year ago 
when I volunteered to work with this edition of 
The Creative Woman. At that time I wanted to 
write about the creativity it took to be a manager. 
I wanted to write about people — women, in par- 
ticular, not organizations. I wanted to look at the 
special gift I thought women brought to the job of 
being a manager. The gift was the ability to be 
creative in managing and supervising people. My 
topic was going to be "The Creative Woman 
Manager." 

This topic proved to be more difficult to research 
and write about than I imagined. First there was 
the difficulty of defining who exactly is a manager. 
Was a supervisor a manager? Were women in 
professional fields managers if they didn't have 
people reporting directly to them? Was a college 
professor a manager? Were there significant 
differences between middle managers and execu- 
tives? There did not seem to be an easy way to 
define a group of women. To just look at women 
with the title of supervisor or manager or executive 
seemed too confining. To look at all of them was 
too extensive. I wasn't sure if I needed to first look 
at job level in an organization or to identify man- 
agement skills that cut across levels. 

In the midst of this quandary, there was also the 
difficulty of trying to define a creative manager. 
The more I talked to people, the more elusive the 
concept became. Some people saw it as people 
skills . Creative management for them was the 
ability a manager had to be able to truly listen and 
respond to people. It was the ability to confront 
and challenge a subordinate in a way that allowed 
him or her to walk away from the interaction 
feeling motivated. Other people saw creative man- 
agement in terms of working with groups or teams 
to generate new and innovative ideas. Creative 
managers were able to solve problems and see 



situations from new or different perspectives. 

There did not seem to be a way to understand 
creativity in management by looking only at 
women. Creativity and management happened in 
a context, and that context was the organization 
where the women worked. If I wanted to look 
for the gift women brought to the world of work I 
needed to look at the places they did their work. 
Perhaps creative management wasn't an independ- 
ent variable, and to thoroughly investigate it 
would take more time and resources than I had at 
my disposal. But, I didn't want to abandon the 
idea entirely. Instead of one major article, maybe I 
could come at the concept of creativity and man- 
agement and organizations from three different 
perspectives. So what follows are three articles: 

Article I — Woman Managers: Their Own 
Words 

Article II — Painted Ladies: Managing Your 
Own Business 

Article II I — Women and Organizations: 
The Power of Care 

Article I is an attempt to let women managers 
speak for themselves about some of their thoughts 
about being managers. 

Article II is a profile of a woman entrepreneur 
from San Francisco who created and manages her 
own business. One that is far from the suit and tie 
environment of corporate America. 

Article III is an essay that explores organizations 
and our mental images of them. It begins to define 
a new type of power that is available to women in 
organizations. It is available only if we choose to 
see it and use it. The gift women bring to organi- 
zations isn't creativity in management, it is the 
power to care. 

Writing is a solitary act, but when someone reads 
what is written a bond of understanding can be 
created. I hope when you read the following pages 
you will take time to think about the words and 
think about your own experiences in the world of 
work. Hopefully these words will affirm you, 
help you learn more about your values, and learn 
what it is that you bring to your work that enriches 
you and the people around you. 

This issue also contains a profile of Gloria 
Morningstar, assistant guest editor, by Claudia 
Snow; an article on "Balancing Career and Family" 
by Marsha Katz; a short story by Vanda Wark; 
poems by Marge Piercy, Margaret Brady, Virginia 
Ording, Rose Rosberg and Mary Woodward; art by 
Ruth Aizuss Migdal; book reviews, a bibliography, 
a new feature on peace work, and news about the 
magazine's recent growth. BON APPETIT!! 



WOMEN MANAGERS: 
THEIR OWN WORDS 

Marilyn Fischbach 



Susan DeGrane 

It is estimated that in the next ten years, fifty 
percent of new businesses will be owned and 
operated by women. In 1977, twenty four percent 
of corporate managers were women. By 1987, the 
number grew to thirty seven percent. In 1967, two 
percent of MBA's were women. In 1987, the 
number was thirty three percent. 

Women are in corporate America. We are more 
and more frequently in positions where we are 
bosses, managers, supervisors. We do more than 
just carry out the decisions made by others, usually 
men; we make them. The topic of women in 
management or women as managers is becoming 
more familiar in the press. We find articles like: 
"Beauty and the Managerial Beast (Good Looks 
Seem to Boost a Male's Career But may Hinder a 
Woman's," or "Why Depression Is Different for 
High Achieving Women," or "Fear of Tears: 
Crying at the Office," or "Woman's Role in the 
Workplace." 

We are being written about. We are seen in terms 
of demographic trends. And wondered about as 
we juggle our roles in our families , our personal 
relationships, and our work. We are trail blazers, 
doing work that our mothers or grandmothers 
could never imagine. It is sometimes a lonely 
world we find ourselves in. In our companies and 
organizations, there aren't many women to talk to, 
to share our stories with. 

This article provided a group of women an oppor- 
tunity to talk — well, really write — about how they 
felt about being women working in various organi- 
zations and companies. The women's words that 
follow come from a questionnaire that was mailed 
to some forty women I knew or knew of, who were 
managers and who had at least ten years experi- 
ence working. Each woman was asked to read a 
short scene (printed at the end of this article) and 
then answer a series of questions. Each woman 
was asked to remember what she felt when she 



was first looking for a job. What would she have 
liked to know then, that she didn't know? What 
advice would she give now to a young woman 
starting out in corporate America? What advice d 
they give themselves now? 

This article can be the beginning of a dialogue 
with the readers of this magazine. Read the word 
that follow, the words of the women who re- 
sponded. Listen to the pieces of their stories. 
Then read the scene at the end of the article, pre- 
tend that you are on the plane listening to the 
young woman. Then remember, remember your 
experiences. What was it like when you started 
working? What would you have liked to have 
someone tell you about what it takes to succeed? 
And after you have remembered, if you like, write 
down your answers, your story, and send them to 
me care of The Creative Woman. Maybe we will 
be able to keep this dialogue going — a dialogue 
that will help to make our journey a little less 
lonely. 

Here are the words. Here is what they said about 
advice they would have liked to have had.... 

Don't worry if you don't know everything 
yet. We're interested in your future. We'r 
confident that you are smart enough to 
leam everything you'll need to know. 

Take an accounting course and learn how 
budget funds. 

Let the small stuff roll off, to establish anc 
keep in focus the "Big Picture." Develop 
good coping patterns rather than maladap- 
tive ones from the beginning. When you'r 
young and eager and full of fire, you don't 
realize that you can self-destruct or frizzle 
you don't take care of yourself. 

Trust yourself. Don't worry about making 
mistakes. Realize that there will be disap- : 
pointments, failures, successes and experi- 
ences beyond your control. 

Listen carefully to everyone. Trust your inj 
stincts. Always publicly support your em- 
ployees. 

Here is what they said about the advice they would, 
give a young woman 

Learn everything you can. Learn by water 
ing — watching those who don't do well a 
well as those who do. And learn by doing 
doing and more doing. 

Work hard to develop a reputation for 
being unflappable. 

Be strong and confident but not pushy or 
out to prove anything. Relax and enjoy 
your job. 



Do your best without regard to the fact that 
you are a woman. (The working world of 
this country has learned to include women 
in the work force.) It is now a time to just 
do our best as that is the strongest proof 
that we deserve to be a major part of the 
working world. 

Be prepared to compromise. Allow others 
to learn with and from you. Be secure in 
your knowledge. Be firm in your commit- 
ment. Find a form of relaxation that is as 
intense as your job. 

ere is what they said about the advice they give 
emselves today 

I'm always telling myself to be fair, to 
manage people and situations as I would 
have liked to be managed. That it's ok to 
make mistakes as long as I can learn from 
these same mistakes. 

Breathe through your nose. 

Take long breaths. 

Count to ten. 

All of the above. 

Keep an eye on the long view. When the 
day to day pressures seem overpowering, I 
back up and look at the longer view to 
regain a perspective on where I am going 
and where I am taking the company. 

Don't take yourself too seriously. I have a 
friend who says, "Remember.... it's not 
brain surgery." 

Don't fly off the handle. Don't take things 
personally. 

1. Take it easy. The more you do this, the 
better you'll get. 

2. Life is more than work! Take time to 
smell the flowers. 

ere is what they said were the most important 
lings they've learned about being a manager.... 

People ultimately get what they deserve. It 
isn't up to you as their manager to punish 
for wrong doing. ..someone else will. 

The importance of well developed team 
energy. Putting employees to their best use; 
developing feelings of involvement and 
participation; giving credit where credit is 
due; allowing employees a sense of respon- 
sibility. The personal understanding of 
each task or duty; never ask anyone to do 
what you wouldn't do yourself. 

Be absolutely frank and honest with your 
employees and accept the responsibility for 
decision making. 



Even though you delegate, you usually end 
up having to work on a project. Hiring 
people is exhausting work. 

Put ego — my ego last, if at all possible, but 
at the same time provide leadership and 
vision for the people under me. 

Here's what they said were the rewards and draw- 
backs to a career in management 

Rewards: 

Watching the people you've managed grow 
and lead successful lives. Knowing that 
your decisions are accurate in hiring and 
firing. Helping people to be on the right 
career paths. 

The successful realization of a dream. 

Knowing that your ideas and solutions 
make a difference to the delivery of the 
product and the well being of the employ- 
ees. 

The opportunity to lead — to express my 
creativity through my work. 

Feeling you can accomplish something in a 
bureaucratic environment. 

Seeing your vision realized. 
Drawbacks: 

The loneliness and not everyone is going to 
like you. 

Being the place the buck stops. Holding the 
ultimate responsibility. Being obsessively 
involved. 

You put in long hours. Not having your 
work appreciated because it is not visible. 
You can spend a lot of time in meetings and 
feel like you are wasting a lot of time. 

Stress and the lack of a personal life. 

In public management, a chronic lack of 
sufficient funds and an often indifferent city 
council or city administration. 

So here are the words — the wisdom, the perspec- 
tive. It's just us talking about ourselves and trying 
to find our own sense of meaning. 



THE SCENE 



ME 



It was a long and tiring day, flew in in the morning, had meetings all day. Not easy meetings — 
the project would not succeed without consensus — yet there were five different views. All 
day — the struggle — give and take. I see your point, do you see mine? If we don't take enough 
time to plan it, we might as well scrub the whole deal. Well, we can plan but we don't need to 
move at a snail's pace. Sometimes it's better to just get at it. 

The words played through my mind as I waited to take off. All I wanted was to close my eyes 
and sleep all the way back to Chicago. I'd take up the struggle tomorrow — back at the office. 
At least ten calls to reconfirm the progress we'd made — not to mention getting to the work 
piling up for me. There is always more to do than there is time. My eyes closed and I dozed. 

SHE 

I'm so nervous. I didn't think I was going to be so nervous. I had interviews on campus, but I 
wasn't this nervous. I mean I was nervous on campus — talking about my future and a job. But 
some how that was different. I mean not very real. All my friends were interviewing with the 
same companies and I could talk to them right after the interview. I mean this is real. I'm on an 
airplane flying to a job interview — and I'm not paying for anything. I mean a limousine will 
pick me up at the airport 

ME 

This stream of conscious monologue interrupted my dozing. Opening one eye — slightly — I 
identified the source as a young woman sitting across the aisle from me. She was talking to the 
man sitting in the window seat. I opened both eyes to get a better look — early twenties, light 
gray suit, light blue blouse, high collar — no bow tie. (Our business uniform was changing!!) 
She must have said she was nervous seventeen times, yet she had an air of confidence — no it 
was competence. I couldn't tell what her field was — business, maybe. But she could just as 
easily be a physicist. A glance at her feet — Reeboks. Yes, the world is changing. 

SHE 

What if they offer me a job? Are you supposed to accept the first job you're offered. I mean, 
even if I like the job and everything, should I look around some more? Will they expect me to 
negotiate my salary — fringe benefits. My professor said to ask if they had a fitness center and a 
thrift plan. I don't know how to compare fringe benefits. My God what if they don't offer me a 
job? What if they offer me a job and I don't like it? 

ME 

The monologue continued. I closed my eyes — not to sleep this time, but to remember. Remem- 
ber my first job interview. It wasn't that long ago well, I guess it was. But surely I wasn't 

that young, that eager, that confident. 

What will it be like for her. Her first ten years at work. What does she know now that I never 
knew when I was her age? Have we made any progress for women that will make her experi- 
ences any different. If she were coming to work for me at my company, what would I tell her 
about how it is — really — in the world of work? What would I have wanted a woman to tell 
me? 

With that thought I retreated into my memories of my first interview.. .my first job.. .the people I 
worked for.. ..the people who work for me 



The Questionnaire 

Keeping this scene in mind, please take a few minutes to think about the following 
questions and then write your answers. 



1. What piece of advice would you have liked to have when you began working? 



2. What advice would you give to a young woman just starting into the world of work? 



3. What advice do you give yourself? 



4. What are the two most important things you've learned about being a manager? 



5. What are the greatest rewards and drawbacks to being a manager? 



READERS: SEND YOUR RESPONSES TO MARILYN FISCHBACH, CARE OF THIS MAGAZINE. 



INTERVIEW WITH MAGGIE 
STAFSNES 

"A PAINTED LADY" 
Leslie Shelton 



Maggie has a quote on her desk that serves as a 
reminder on difficult days. It says, "When I 
worked for someone else maybe I wasn't so tired, 
but maybe I wasn't so happy either." Four years 
after starting "The Painted Ladies," her painting 
business, Maggie Stafsnes has no regrets about 
striking out on her own in order to support herself 
and children in expensive Marin County, Califor- 
nia. 

She is one of a growing number of women today 
who are starting their own businesses and success- 
fully crossing the gender lines into predominantly 
male fields. Maggie sees herself as a role model for 
other women interested in taking the leap. Some- 
times the most important step is realizing that it's 
even a possibility. 

"I grew up in a white collar civil service family 
where the women were the bread winners. I al- 
ways knew that I was going to go to college. But 
few fields were open to women in the 60's - mostly 
employment as a teacher or nurse." Maggie gradu- 
ated with a double major in the social sciences and 
went on to teach social studies at the secondary 
level. She left the work world when her children 
were bom so that she could have an active role in 
their development. During that time she channeled 
her organizational skills and social science interests 
into running a political campaign for the state 
legislature and becoming involved in environ- 
mental education activities. Her divorce eight years 
ago forced her return to the working world. This is 
her story. 



Q. Maggie, how did you decide to start your own 
business? 

I spent nearly four years trying to find a way to 
support myself that would be both rewarding and 
pay the bills. I knew that I didn't want to to back 
to teaching, and the entry level jobs that I worked 
in didn't pay well. I wanted something that would 
keep me challenged. I am very self-directed, so I 
was looking for something where I could express 
myself and also be in control of my time. Flexibility 
became very important to me because of my kids. I 
knew that it would be difficult to be a working 
mother and do the kinds of things I was used to 
doing, like being at home when my kids are sick, 
leading field trips, being there when it is important 
to be there for your children. I had a hard time 
coming to grips with the fact that if I went to work 
10 




Maggie Stafsns; 

for a corporation with two weeks vacation and si 
work hours that I would be giving up a lot of 
things that were important to me and my family. 

Q. So how did painting come into the picture? 

Well, I had set aside a year to do a job search. I 
had chosen the environmental field because I 
enjoyed leading wilderness trips. But the jobs the 
paid well were not the kind that come out in the 
newspaper. They're the kind that require a lot of' 
networking. So I did a big mailing and started 
knocking on doors to meet people. But I also had 
to support myself, and I knew that it would be 
difficult to do it by working at Kelly Girls or 
Manpower. So I decided to paint houses. 

I had painted my own house and I'd painted a 
friend's house. People said, "If you ever think of 
going into painting, let me know." After juggling 
interviews and trying to earn enough to live on, 3 
decided to call up a friend and ask if he was still 
serious about having me paint his house. The ne> 
day s t up my schedule so I ould paint and do 
interviews at the same time. One house led to 
another, and in a short time I was supporting 
myself with painting while doing the job search. 
After about six months I was making a name for 






nyself and being offered jobs that paid as much as 
could make in the environmental field. Besides 
hat, I had the flexibility and freedom to set my 
iwn work schedule. So, in my very backward way 
realized that maybe I should work for myself. 

Vhen it came to the point of making a decision, I 
ooked at the options and realized that the flexibil- 
ty that I wanted to lead the environmental trips 
nd be available for my family was not possible if I 
ook an 8 to 5 job. At the same time I was refi- 
nancing the loan to buy our house from my ex- 
lusband. It seemed like a good time to borrow an 
idditional $10,000 so that I could buy a truck, 
lirless sprayer, and other supplies I needed. Things 
ast fell together. In a sense, the situation backed 
ne into it. 



2- At what point did you decide to bring more 
painters on board? 

painted by myself for awhile. But I'm an outgoing 
ind social person, and I missed being around 
>eople. It also wasn't very efficient working by 
nyself. It helped to have another person, especially 
o move things and to keep me moving. I found a 
voman who lived in my neighborhood who had 
lone a lot of painting on her house, and asked if 
he wanted to work on a job with me. She agreed, 
ind "The Painted Ladies" was born. But people 
vant you in and out of their house quickly, and it 
akes a long time to paint a house with just 2 paint- 
:rs, so I took on another person. I've had as many 
is five on the crew, but I think that three works 
>est. I've found that having painters whose work 
>n all aspects of the job is of high quality is more 
mportant to me than managing a larger crew who 
\eed continual supervision and direction. 



Q. So, was it a conscious choice to have two other 
women as painters or did it just happen that 
way? 

It turned into a marketing thing. I started out with 
women. I had more contact with women, and I'm 
sure I felt more comfortable working with women 
to begin with. Here I was in a new field - in a trade 
that was traditionally male. And I thought, "Oh, 
they must know so much more than we do." I'd 
done a lot of painting, but I had the idea that 
contractors knew everything and that I was a 
neophyte. So, I think maybe as a form of protec- 
tion, I began working with people in the same 
situation. 

Besides, I found that people really liked having 
women work on their houses - especially inside. 
They felt comfortable with women in their homes 
and our reputation grew because we are very 
thoughtful when we are there. We have a different 
attitude about how we treat the house and furnish- 
ings, and understand the upheaval caused by 
home improvements. At first, people didn't think 
we could do the work, like moving ladders or 
working on heights, but we did very well and our 
reputation for quality work grew. 

Q. How did you choose the name "The Painted 
Ladies?" 

It was one of those things that just popped into my 
head. I was a history major and knew about the 
painted ladies in the Gold Rush days. I also knew 
of the book called the "Painted Ladies" about the 
beautiful, restored Victorian houses in San Fran- 
cisco. It seemed that painting one of these "lovely 
ladies" would be a supreme accomplishment for a 
painter. The double meaning of the ladies of the 
evening and the Victorian houses entertained my 
sense of humor. And, I like double entendres. It's a 
catchy name and people remember it. 







The painting crew, Kristina Rocksberg, Maggie Stafsnes and Ewa 
Jansson. 



Q. Is it hard to keep an all women crew? 

The problem is that women painters aren't as easy 
to find. You don't have a large labor force to tap. 
Often I've had to turn away work because I didn't 
have the labor available. Of course, I have been 
teased about reverse discrimination by the male 
contractors. But people are more and more inter- 
ested and supportive of women in the trades and 
like the idea of hiring an all-women crew. 

It has worked well. Women working together, 
especially at this stage where we feel like we're in 
a new field, works better because we are comfort- 
able with and supportive of one another. If we 
bring a man in on a job, as I have on occasion, we 
all react somewhat differently. I find we start 
getting into role and ego issues. It creates some 
problems. 

11 



Q. What is it like managing women vs. men? 

Well, I think women are much more willing to 
accept and admire what I'm doing. And they 
accept my leadership and direction much more 
easily. I've had a couple of men working for me 
and there is a definite difference in the way I feel 
about giving them directions and how they take 
them. I feel like I have to think more about what I 
am saying and how I am saying it when I'm deal- 
ing with a man so that he doesn't think I'm a 
pushy, aggressive woman. It's an interesting 
dynamic. It exists, not because I'm a raging femi- 
nist or the men are macho anti-feminists, but be- 
cause of our backgrounds and the roles we've 
grown up with. 

Q. One of the things you have talked about is the 
quality and integrity of your work. Is it hard to 
find other workers with the same values? 

Yes, I border on being a perfectionist. At one time 
people in the trades were craftsmen and took a lot 
of pride in their craft. I feel that a lot of that has 
been lost today. In whatever I do, I strive for 
perfection and can be very compulsive. I have 
brought this personality trait to painting as well. 
People who have painted for other people some- 
times find my expectations difficult to deal with. 
But I have a lot of pride in my work. When I leave 
a job, I enjoy the satisfaction of knowing that I've 
done the best job that I could do for my customers. 
I expect my employees to have the same criteria - 
so I can walk away from the job knowing that the 
work is of the highest quality. I think that the 
women that I've been able to hire have more of an 
eye and appreciation for the detail that is impor- 
tant to me. The word gets around and I am now 
able to be hired and paid for custom painting. My 
entire business is based on referral and repeat 
customers. 

However, once you have a reputation, you have to 
maintain a crew that can produce the work. The 
two women who have been with me the longest 
are great - 1 love they way they'll look at a job as 
we approach completion and see things that could 
use some extra attention. It may mean extra work, 
but they make me feel that their pride in the final 
product is more important than finishing early. 
Their work is not just motivated by the paycheck. 
Their enthusiasm for what we're accomplishing is 
very important to me. This quality is hard to find. 
It's more than just a job, it's a creative experience. 
Seeing the finished product is exciting and satisfy- 
ing, and makes going to the next job much easier. 






Q. There are obvious benefits of working for you 
self. Are there any drawbacks? 

Certainly, but the positives outweigh the negativ 
Mainly, when you own your own business, you 
always working. There aren't paid vacations, anc 
when you're not working you look at your time 
and holidays differently because that is time thai 
you're not earning money. There are many risks. 
You can't slough off and still receive a paycheck': 
spend a lot of evenings and weekends working (' 
paperwork, doing estimates, and meeting with 
customers. In the end you're always responsible, 
you can't escape. But the benefits, like being able 
take off time to take my son's class backpacking 
without asking the boss for permission are great 
can determine where my priorities are. 

Q. So this allows you to do things like lead trip, 
to Nepal? 

Yes, I often say I do painting to feed my stomacl 
which allows me to do the wilderness trips to fe< 
my soul. I can lead backpacking trips, teach tech 
cal rock climbing, and take a group of adventure! 
to Nepal for three weeks by arranging my painti 1 
schedule around these activities. It's very impor- 
tant for me to stay active in teaching in the envi- 
ronmental field, but I can't support myself doing 
this full-time. 



12 




'. What impact has owning your own business 
had on your children? 

think that they feel more of the stress. Because I 
,'ork at home and receive all my phone calls there, 
can't really leave my work at the office. The posi- 
\ve side is that they get a chance to see more of 
'hat goes on in my profession. I'm glad that 
iey' re exposed to seeing someone work in the 
ades and be successful. It gives them an option 
lat I wasn't aware of when I grew up. 

). What has been your greatest challenge on the 
job? 

think my greatest challenge was gaining self- 
onfidence in a new field, and taking the State 
Tontractor's License exam. It took a lot of courage 
o take the exam because painting is traditionally a 
nen's field. There were 2,000 people who took the 
est the day that I did and there were only 4 other 
vomen. Being in the one third who passed the test 
m the first try gave me confidence. I started think- 
ng of myself not so much as a stranger in a 
;trange land, but as someone who belonged in the 
ield. 

also realized that a lot of my transferable skills 
were important in contracting. While studying for 
he exam I learned that there were many skills that 

already had - not just in the trade itself, but also 
n business and personal skills. Passing the exam 
;ave me a great deal of satisfaction and made me 
nore credible with the other contractors, suppliers, 
md customers. 




Q.What advice would you give to another women 
considering owning her own business? 

I would say know that a lot of the things that 
you've done throughout your life have prepared 
you for being in business. Don't sell those skills 
short. Women often aren't given credit for the 
work that they haven't been paid for. When I put 
my talents to work in my own business, I found 
that I had a lot of skills I didn't realize. Don't be 
afraid to ask questions and tackle things you 
haven't done before. I didn't know anything about 
workers' comp and taxes and insurance. I was 
afraid of them because I didn't think I would 
understand them. But I found out that I could 
understand many other unfamiliar facets of the 
business world. 



Q. So thinking that you have to know all these 
things before you go into business can be mis- 
leading? 

Really, women have so many skills. If you're a 
good people person, if you've had other experi- 
ences managing something well, those are all skills 
that you can transfer into business. It's important 
for women to develop a strong sense of self-confi- 
dence and know that they are very capable of 
making it in business. It is important to me to be 
an example for women so that they will consider 
some of the nontraditional fields that can bring 
them satisfaction and a good income. There are 
times when you make take a lot of ribbing, and 
you need a good sense of humor but the rewards 
are there. Women can compete well with men in 
the trades, and they have a lot to offer. We bring 
our own strengths. We bring a certain warmth and 
compassion to the work environment - a more 
personal touch. When I walk in the paint store 
men often share news of a new baby, a problem 
with their toddler or girlfriend, or other things 
about their personal lives that they don't necessar- 
ily share with one another. I think they enjoy 
having me around, and I feel that they respect me 
as an equal. 



Leslie Shelton is both a manager and an entrepreneur. As a 
manager she is the Director of Project Read an adult literacy 
program sponsored by the South San Francisco Public Library. 
As an entrepreneur she is a freelance artist. Most recently she 
has produced a multimedia slide/tape presentation titled 
"Reaching for the Light/' developed as a way to understand 
her father's death. 

Leslie lives in Millbrae, California 



13 



MEN AND ORGANIZATIONS: 

THE POWER OF CARE 

Marilyn Fischbach 

Night after night the news is filled with stories 
about mergers and takeovers and leveraged 
buyouts. State and local governments are reported 
to be endlessly bogged down by meetings that 
accomplish little. We are told that we no longer 
produce quality products or services. We watch 
with a morbid fascination as the Dow Jones aver- 
age moves up and down. 

Wall Street tries to assure us that the market knows 
best. Left on its own, it will self-correct and all will 
be well. But we know that this is not true. We 
know that our organizations, our businesses, our 
corporations are not well. The world doesn't fit 
together the way it used to. As we and our organi- 
zations hurtle headlong into change, we search for 
ways to find meaning. We desperately want to 
understand where we've been and where we are, 
and where we're going. We want to know why 
our organizations, our businesses don't help us feel 
better about ourselves. But as much as we want to 
understand our organizations, as women, we want 
to know what direction our future world is going 
to take us. 

The world is not providing much help in our 
search for meaning. Yet, we will not find meaning 
until we know what happens inside our heads 
when we think about the world of work and what 
happens when we think about women and the 
world of work. 

One way to begin to understand our present 
organizations and businesses is to examine the 
pictures we carry around in our heads about the 
past. Think for just a moment about the words, 
WORLD OF WORK.. You might be seeing an 
image of men in business suits sitting at desks or 
maybe pictures of men working on assembly lines 
or maybe men driving tractors in a farm scene. We 
are used to thinking about men working. Our 
mental pictures not only show us men working, we 
see them being the boss or an executive or an 
owner. Our images may include a skilled crafts- 
man or artists or performers. When we see men 
working, we tend to see them in control and being 
active. 

If we take the same words, WORLD OF WORK, 
and make ourselves think about women, we get 
very different mental pictures. We may see 
women as mothers cleaning house or doing laun- 
dry. We may see historical pictures of women 
working in textile mills or women in typing pools 



14 






or women answering telephones. And if we 
imagine a woman as a boss the picture is not ver 
flattering. She is wearing dark clothes, looks ver 
severe, with her hair pulled back in a bun. She 
always has a dour expression on her face. Her 
employees are afraid of her temper and cutting n I 
marks. We have images of superwomen who try | 
do everything and succeed at nothing. We see 
lonely women who have made work their entire 
lives. Our pictures are pictures of problems, not 
pictures of solutions. 

Our images of organizations or companies are no 
positive either. We have Industrial Revolution 
pictures of smoke- billowing factories with grime 
covered workers. There are the anger and vio- 
lence- filled pictures of labor strikes. Moving to 
today's world, we see office buildings with hun- 
dreds of employees who become nameless cogs ii 
a mindless bureaucracy. 

We have pictures of greedy and grasping compar 
owners. We see heartless companies closing dow 
plants and putting hundreds of people out of 
work. We see huge industrial complexes pouring 
waste and pollution into our rivers and skies. 

These images that we carry around, our pictures 
the past, are what keep us from understanding th 
present. They become an illusion that colors hoy 
we know or experience our organizations today. 
Instead of being groups of people, the organiza- 
tion, the company, the government becomes dark: 
and malevolent. It takes on a life of its own quite 
apart from its employees or managers. The indi- j 
vidual becomes the powerless victim (unless he 
happens to be the boss or manager or owner in 
which case he then becomes the same dark malev ■ 
lent force as the organization). As with any illu- 
sion, our illusion of the male dominated, dehu- 
manizing organization or company carries a bit 
truth. But the illusion is so compelling that it 
prevents us from seeing or understanding organi- 
zations as they really are. More importantly, this 1 
negative illusion is so powerful that it keeps us 
from creating new visions of how our organiza- 
tions can be. We do not see that it is possible to 
create organizations that can nurture us; that mo\ 
us beyond the authoritarian and rigid structures 
that we created a hundred years ago. 

The lack of positive images of organizations or 
businesses is particularly damaging for women. 
We may see ourselves working, but we do not se< 
ourselves creating the environments we work in. 
For most of us, our work environment just exists. 
We come in and do work that has been defined b 
someone else — usually a man — and leave accom- 
plishing the task, but not impacting the work 
environment. We do not see ourselves as builder: 
or controllers. We are the "do-ers" which brings 



vith it a unique helplessness. The power of the 
negative illusion makes us, women, believe that 
here is little hope that we can change an organiza- 
tion. We know what is wrong, but our power 
eems ineffective. 

>imply put, our negative images of organizations 
>r government or companies keep us from moving 
nto the future. We have become so convinced of 
he truth of our negative pictures, our illusion, that 
ve are not able to understand or acknowledge our 
■xperience, even when it is different or more posi- 
ive. We have become trapped by an illusion that 
s based on a reality that is far in the past. 

What our world, the world of the late 1980's and 
990's needs, is a new set of pictures. We need a 
lew set of myths about work. We need a new 
rame of reference that will allow us to see beyond 
he negative illusion. We need to see our organiza- 
ions and businesses from a perspective that allows 
is to see the reality of the structure of our organi- 
sations, but adds a new meaning, an organic 
neaning. We need to be able to see our organiza- 
ion or government or corporation not as empty 
;tructure but rather as a living organism that 
:reates structure to serve a purpose. 

f we can see organizations as organic it means that 
hey can be places that are fluid and allow for 
:hange. It means that an organization or a busi- 
ness is fundamentally its people. The people create 
he structures that form the organization. People 
ire responsible for their work environment. And if 
hey are responsible they can make changes. They 
ire not powerless or nameless. With an organic 
new people endow organizations with healing 
qualities. Organizations can become places where 
people want to work. Where there is joy and 
:elebration and profits and good benefits and fair 
ialaries. 

Psychologists and sociologists are constantly 
irawing pictures and models of groups and or- 
ganizations. It is hoped that a model will help 
provide insight and understanding into what 
makes an organization work or not work. Below is 
i brief model that sets a STRUCTURED view of 
an organization next to an ORGANIC view. 
Books could be written on either of these models. 
What we want to focus on is their very different 
view of power. The STRUCTURED view sees 
power in terms of control. The ORGANIC view 
sees power in terms of care. If we are to create 
arganizations that serve us, it is important to know 
what these two concepts mean and not set them up 
as opposites. 

We seem to intuitively understand the structured 
view. We have experienced it and know how it 
works. In spite of our illusions, this view is not 
automatically a negative. There are many, many 



THE MODEL 


STRUCTURED VIEW 


ORGANIC VIEW 


HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE 


MATRIX STRUCTURE 


AUTHORITARIAN 


PARTICIPATIVE 


BOSS»SUBORDINATE 


COLLEACUES»PEERS 


REWARDS»PUNISHMENTS 


INFLUENCE»CONSEQUENCES 


POWER TO CONTROL 


POWER TO CARE ABOUT 


PEOPLE 


PEOPLE 


MATERIALS 


MATERIALS 


PROCESSES 


PROCESSES 



organizations that are based on this perspective 
and do very well — make a lot of money, treat their 
employees with respect and dignity, and provide 
meaningful work. These organizations exist and 
have always existed. But they can't help us build 
the organizations we will need for the future. 

The organic view is not entirely new or is it neces- 
sarily good or even a more effective way to operate 
a business. There are businesses that are run this 
way that are successful, but again, we do not have 
mental pictures of organizations that have care as a 
central core rather than control. 

We quite probably have as many negative images 
of care as we do control. For example, there are 
people who care too much. Or care that becomes 
soft — not business-like enough. There is the care 
that says that trying hard should be good enough, 
when many times it just isn't. There is the care 
that allows us to make excuses for poor perform- 
ance. These examples are not the type of care that 
this model is referring to. The type of care that 
becomes power could also be called valuing or 
respecting. It is the kind of care a master crafts- 
man uses when he or she creates a product. It is 
the passion we bring to the work we do — to meet a 
customer need, to find new and innovative meth- 
ods, to do our absolute best. Care is 'hard-stuff.' 
It is essential to the well being of organizations. 

What organizations, and therefore the people that 
make organizations, need to do is recognize the 
strength that comes when a structured view and an 
organic view combine. Examples of this strength 
are presented time and time again when Tom 
Peters (In Search of Excellence, Passion for Excel- 
lence ) profiles a successful company. He talks 
about organizations that have found a balance 
between the views. His exemplary companies 
have found a way to do more than business as 
usual. They have found a passion for a product or 
a service or the people who make the products and 
provide the services. They are transformed organi- 



15 



zations and transform the individuals who come in 
contact with them. In many instances this transfor- 
mation happens because the men in charge of these 
anizations are willing to use both their power to 
care and their power to control. 

But where do women fit into this potentially new 
balance of power in organizations? At the mo- 
ment, our role is not very active. In many in- 
stances women come into organizations claiming 
no power at all. Lack of access to management or 
executive positions in organizations makes it 
difficult to claim control power — men are bosses 
and controllers, not women. Given this male 
dominance in our organizations, we take a passive 
role. We move in and out of jobs as "do-ers," not 
creators. We allow ourselves to be acted upon 
rather than act. We contribute our time but not 
our energy. We seem to leave our care power 
outside the door when we walk into work. 

When we do this, we abdicate our power. We 
believe the illusion and thus, we guarantee that the 
future will not be better. What if, instead of walk- 
ing away from the power we know the most 
about — care power, we cajoled and encouraged 
our organizations to focus on it, to learn to use it as 
skillfully as they now know how to use the power 
of control. 

As women, we learn how to care from early child- 
hood on. We learn to care and take care of. We 
are daughters and sisters and wives and mothers. 
We take care of children and husbands and grand- 
parents and other siblings and other family mem- 
bers. We learn to wash and iron and cook and 
take care of countless household routines. We 
learn to care about the feelings of other people. 

We are good at caring and have an almost instinc- 
tive understanding of the concept of care. What 
we need to do is learn how to take these basic 
learnings and bring them into the broad context of 
work. We know how to control people at work, 
but we are not sure how to care for them. Women 
need to begin to create new models for caring for 
and valuing people. People are essential resources 
and yet we know more about preventative mainte- 
nance for machines than we know about how to 
apply on-going maintenance to keep working rela- 
tionships alive and vibrant. 

We understand how to control materials with 
budgets and competitive bids and getting the best 
return for money invested, but we are not sure 
how to bring the care of the artist into working 
with materials and concepts that are not tangible. 
Women need to begin to create models that allow 
us to passionately care about the quality and value 
of our work, no matter what our work is. 

We understand how to control the process of 
working to achieve maximum results and effective- 
ly. 



ness, but we don't understand how to extend thesi 
concepts to working with people. Women need tc 
take the lead in showing how important it is to 
care enough to be able to honestly confront peers 
or subordinates or bosses when effectiveness seemj 
to take a back seat to efficiency. How work gets 
done is as important as the results that are 
achieved. Honestly sharing perceptions is a pow- 
erful way to acknowledge the care and the respeci 
we have for other people and the work they do. 

The role women can play in building the organiza! 1 
tions of today and tomorrow, is to demonstrate, b 1 ! 
the way we work, that care is as effective and 
potent a business tool as is control. When we care! 
about or value the work we do, that very act 
makes us powerful. We are no longer mindless 
cogs. Our work may be routine, yet there are 
times when the reputation of an entire corporation 
rests on one telephone operator or one salesperson 
or one mailroom clerk. 

For the present, there is very little monetary 
reward for learning to use the power of care. To 
move up in a corporation means that we must get 
better and better at using the tools of control. As 
women, the road to control is long and difficult, 
and our pay along the way is not outstanding. So 
we have nothing to lose by learning more and 
more about the tools of caring and everything to 
gain. What we will gain is nothing less than a 
total transformation of the organizations or goverr 
ments or corporations we work in. 

Using the power of care is not magic. Combining 
it with the power of control will not automatically' 
create companies with high quality and high 
profits or branches of government that can move 
out of bureaucracy into creative and meaningful 
policies. What we must do is break the pictures 
and images of the past that trap us in a world of 
limited possibility. We need to unleash the power 
of care, because it is through care that we can find 
new and rewarding visions. As women in organi 
zations we are in the right spot to begin the un- 
leashing process. We do not need to be executive; 
or managers to learn to use the power of care. (It 
certainly wouldn't hurt!) But, it is our day to da) 
actions — the day in and day out caring that will 
begin to make the difference. 

The choice is ours. We can continue to live with 
and in organizations that are only half alive, or w< 
can begin the process of building care back into 
our organizations and governments and corpora- 
tions and thus build excitement and fulfillment 
back into our own lives. 



(LORIA MORNINGSTAR: 
PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN IN 

1TANAGEMENT 

liaudia Snow 



:OMES THE DAWN... 

iter a while you learn the subtle difference between 
Iding a hand and chaining a soul, and you learn that 
ie doesn't mean leaning and company doesn't mean 
zurity, and you begin to learn that kisses aren't 
ntracts and presents aren't promises, and you begin to 
cept your defeats with your head up and your eyes 
f en, with the grace of a woman, not the grief of a child 
\d learn to build all your roads in today because 
morrow's ground is too uncertain for plans, and 
lures have a way of falling down in mid-flight. After a 
hile, you learn that even sunshine burns if you get too 
uch. So you plant your own garden and decorate your 
on soul, instead of waiting for someone to bring you 
iwers...and you learn that you really can endure. ..that 
)u really are strong and you really do have worth. And 
m learn and learn. ..with every goodbye you learn." 



Armed with a paper-stuffed, bulging canvas tote 
and traveling at about the speed of light, Gloria 
Morningstar provides a myriad-faceted subject for 
a portrait of a woman in management. Flipping 
through the notes she has prepared for her inter- 
view with The Creative Woman, she comes across 
pages of quotations which she keeps tucked in her 
wallet or paper clipped to her resume. "I hope you 
can use these in the story about me. I keep them 
because the words are so inspiring. When I need 
to, reading them always gives me a lift." 

A native American of Kickapoo and Sioux lineage, 
Gloria Morningstar was born in Salix, Iowa, a 
small town of three hundred people on the Ne- 
braska/South Dakota border. 

Her grandmother, Elsie Wood, a Kickapoo, was her 
role model. "She did everything! She worked in the 
fields, took care of the hogs, drove a tractor and a 
car. She had to, her husband was blind." There 
seemed to be no 'housewife mentality' around her 
as Gloria grew up. "My mother worked two jobs 
and my father did the housework." Being raised 
with such models, Gloria says, "I thought I had all 
these rights. No one ever told me, girls don't do 





Gloria Morningstar 
Photo by Eileen Ryan 



17 



[ started out early. My mother said she knew 
i was in for trouble when I came home one day 
kindergarten with a petition I had written in 
crayon protesting the fact that we had to take naps! 
We were there to learn, not to sleep!" 

Stricken with polio at age nine and temporarily 
paralyzed form the neck down, Gloria says her 
strength was drawn from that point in her life. "I 
used to lie in bed and think if I could get out of 
this, there can't be anything worse than this.. .being 
completely dependent. I've been down a few times, 
but nothing was ever that bad. I didn't think 
anything could stop me. I just kept thinking, if I 
can get out of here, I'm going to do everything." 

"You have to make your own footprints in the snow." 

It was during that period that Gloria determined 
her life's ambition. "I especially remember wanting 
to have my obituary in Time Magazine.. .like Golda 
Meir or Amelia Earhart or Beryl Markham. I identi- 
fied with them. My father always said, T want you 
to be a lady.' I didn't know then, and I still don't 
know now what it is to be a lady. I paid absolutely 
no attention to him." 

Gloria was the only graduate in her class in high 
school. It was a very small high school and the 
other kids in her class either got pregnant or 
moved away. She was the only student left from 
January til April so she got to graduate early. She 
protested her way through high school. She pro- 
tested the fact that the school didn't have foreign 
languages or physics. After she graduated and 
attended Morningside College, she earned the title 
"Queen of the Editorial Page." 

"We teach others how to treat us." 

Moving to the Chicago area in the 1960's, Gloria 
began her career as a loan officer with Household 
Finance. She then worked for Minerva Press as a 
manager. For eleven years following that job, she 
worked as the office, credit and sales manager for 
the B & R Sugar Service Company. She held the 
distinction of being the first woman to serve on the 
Retail Bakers Association Planning Commission 
and the Allied Advisory Committee of Retail 
Bakers. 

"Whether it's been the committees I've served on 
or on the job, I've been fortunate that males have 
been receptive to ideas I've had. There's always 
been a willingness to give the idea a try and if it 
doesn't work, well, that happens sometimes, and 
you just pick yourself up and go on to the next 
one. I've been lucky in that I've always received 
equal pay for an equal job. I've never been paid 
less because I'm a female and it's given me finan- 
cial security and the freedom to pursue a career. 
The owners of the companies I've worked for have 
always treated me as an equal and share the con- 
cept of new-agers in that they don't pay attention 

18 



to sex or age. If you know your business, work 
hard and accept responsibility, the rewards are 
there." 

"The heights by great women reached and kept, 

Were not attained by sudden flight, 

But they, while their companions slept, 

Were toiling upward in the night." 

Claiming that she is anything but a 'conventional 
mother, Gloria banned TV on Saturdays for her 
daughters, Roxanne and Lisa Kay. "There were n< 
cartoons, no Snow White and no Cinderella. My 
kids say, 'Mother says if you have a dictionary, a 
globe, a Bible and an encyclopedia, that's all you 
need!' I read the girls histories and biographies. I 
never used family responsibilities as an excuse or 
reason for not doing my job. I've never let family 
commitments get in the way of my career, but, I'v 
always found a way to give quality time and I 
think my children have grown up to be more 
independent and self reliant because of it. When 
the girls were little and would play at 'grown-up' 
they would grab my briefcase and go off on their 
trikes." 

"Challenges are gifts." 

After her work with B & R Sugar Service, she 
worked as administrator in TRA Securities. Cur- 
rently, she is employed as Vice President Public 
Relations/ Marketing at Gierczyk Development, a 
well as being an associate with the Real Estate/ 
Investment Division. She is also owner of Eagle 
Auto Brokers, Ltd., a classic and used car dealer- 
ship in Tinley Park, IL. 

"There have been times, not often, but once in a 
while, when men don't take me seriously in the 
business sense, h'z never a problem with the men 
within our company but with those with whom I 
have to deal outside the company. I remain ex- 
tremely firm and it usually goes down alright. 
There are occasions when a man calls and says he 
is looking for a salesman. I say, I'm it. They say 
they're looking for a place to build a hotel. I tell 
them OK and put them in the car and drive arour 
at about 80 mph for a while. It doesn't take long 
before they trust me and listen to me. One of the 
nicest compliments I have had was from an Arab 
who was buying hotels. He told me that I was the 
hardest working most helpful salesperson he'd 
ever dealt with. That was something considering 
the way his culture treats women. He was im- 
pressed with my resources and with the fact that i 
could come up with an answer for every question 
he asked." 

In an interesting observation, Gloria comments th; 
the feminist movement caught up with her. "I 
didn't get into a group, I already was a group. I 
find it unusual, but I have never faced sex dis- 



rimination. I suppose that's not good because if I 
lon't see it I imagine that it doesn't exist. For 
vomen who want to have a successful career, you 
lave to make a decision that you can't have a nine- 
o-five job and make it. You are going to have to 
vork long hours and weekends. More than any- 
hing else, you'd better be flexible. You're never 
joing to make it if you are a spectator." 

'When you cease to make a contribution, you begin to 
lie." Eleanor Roosevelt 

\side from her varied professional activities, 
jloria serves on many boards. She is Chair of the 
'rivate Sector Initiatives Committee or the Private 
ndustry Council of Cook County. She has served 
is National Treasurer and Secretary of Women in 
tvlanagement, and is the current President of the 
South Suburban Chapter. She is a member of the 
South Suburban Network, and South Suburban 
\rcheological Society. Gloria is active with the 
Chamber of Commerce of the South Suburbs, 
serving on many committees including the Small 
3usiness Council, the Ambassadors, Business 
EXPO '88. She was one of the key planners for the 
Chambers Annual Meeting which was a sit-down 
iinner for 750 guests who listened to then Vice- 
President George Bush speak. She was publicity 
:hair for the annual Disability Awareness Day, and 
serves on the Statewide Business Advisory Coun- 
cil. She is a member of the American Indian Center 
and serves as program chair for the Indian Council 
Fire. Gloria was the two time winner of the 



Woman of Achievement Award for Women in 
Management. She was awarded the 1988 Business/ 
Community Advocate award from the Chamber of 
Commerce. Recently, Gloria has led a group of 
South Suburban women in the formation of the 
Creative Woman Foundation, a support group 
devoted to the goal of insuring the continuation of 
the publication of The Creative Woman magazine. 

"People who know me have commented that they 
don't know how I do all of the things I do but I've 
never found that to be a real problem. In fact, I 
seem to thrive on it. I have a real 'up' attitude and 
I tend to be hyper but it's happy hyper. I can find 
amusement in any situation and I firmly believe 
that personality, attitude and luck mean every- 
thing. They're the ingredients that get us through 
life. Anytime I've been appointed or elected to a 
post and know I'm the first woman to be offered 
that post, I always make the time for it. I don't 
want someone further down the road to eliminate 
a woman from consideration because I refused." 

The hour and a half Gloria has allotted for our 
luncheon interview over celery sticks and rye crisp, 
skids to a close. The interviewer is hoarse from lis- 
tening. As Gloria gathers her papers and grabs her 
coat, she says "My epitaph? She made a differ- 
ence!..." Whether or not her obituary will be picked 
up by Time magazine remains to be seen. But for 
all who know her, it is agreed: The Morningstar 
makes a difference! 






19 



CING FAMILY AND CAREER 
Reaching towards a Synthesis 

Marsha Katz 



A major change has occurred in the labor force 
over the last few decades: the number of women in 
the work place has dramatically increased since 
1950. Furthermore, the traditional division of labor 
within the family, with the husband as wage 
earner and the wife as homemaker, has been 
eroding steadily as women have joined the labor 
force. At the beginning of this century, less than 
20% of women were in the labor force; by 1984 
more than 50% of women aged 16 and above were 
in the work force. For men the rate has declined 
slightly. In 1960, it was 84%; in 1982 it was 77%. 
Projections for 1995 have men's participation rates 
at 76%, and women's at 60%. 

The number of women with children in the work 
force has grown as well. In 1960, less then 20% of 
women with children under 6 years old were in the 
labor force; in 1985, it was over 50%. For women 
with children 6-17 years old, it was 39% in 1960; in 
1985 it was 68%. The Wall Street Journal recently 
stated that 50% of women with children under a 
year old were now going back to work. This was 
almost unheard of 20 years ago unless there was 
no other option. 

While we consider our current mode normal, 
previous to our current era men and women 
worked side by side. Families depended upon each 
other for subsistence. Men did the heavy agricul- 
tural work, while women were in charge of the 
kitchen, garden, poultry yard and household. 
Between them, they manufactured most of the 
necessities of life. 

With the rise of the industrial economy and urbani- 
zation, the segregation of sexes occurred during the 
working day. Farmers and small entrepreneurs 
flocked to the cities, and goods that had formerly 
been produced at home were now mass produced 
in factories. 

Thus home became appropriate for women, and 
men worked in the factories. The norm of the 
feminine personality emerged: softness, warmth, 
nurturance and passivity. The norm for men 
became associated with a breadwinner image; 
aggressive, rational, tough minded and active. On 
the job, men were expected to be purely rational, 
having a tough minded approach to problems; 
having the analytic ability to abstract and plan, and 
having a capacity to set aside personal emotional 
considerations in the interests of task accomplish- 
ment. Thus both sexes were cheated. Bright ener- 



getic women could hardly help feeling trapped by 
the limitations of the full time domestic role. And 
the upwardly mobile business executives, the 
obsessed workaholics, could wonder "is this all 
there is?" 

The last two decades have seen women moving 
steadily into the work force, with more varied 
occupations (though still not as many as males). 
This has lead to much controversy and confusion. 

Women's magazines can give us a reflection of 
how people feel about this movement. At one time, 
magazines tended to put women on a pedestal, 
and glorified the nuclear family, with father work- 
ing outside the home and mother staying home 
with the children. 

For a period of about ten years, the media glorified 
the woman who did it all: she worked; she raised 
remarkable children; she cooked; she cleaned 
house and gave up none of her home responsibili- 
ties. We called her Supermom. 

Now, the magazines are starting to glorify the 
woman who worked, but decided that she can't 
continue to deprive her family. She comes home 
again. Betty Freidan has a book about this di- 
lemma. She calls it The Second Stage. Fortune also 
published a few articles on this topic including 
"Why Women are Bailing Out." A book, Women 
Like Us suggests that women, even the cream of 
the crop, Harvard MBA women, can't make it to 
the top. 

These books and articles are responding to our 
society in transition. 

Women have moved into the business world. 
Women have seized 2/3 of the newly created jobs. 
They have been the linchpin in the move toward 
services and away from manufacturing. Yet 
women have not given up their domestic role. 
Changes in society allow and encourage women to 
work, to have careers; however we have not yet 
developed and accepted methods to reduce the 
level of commitments of the average woman to an 
acceptable level. 

Research shows that women work more hours than 
men when you put together both household and 
outside employment, leading to role conflict, some 
of which occurs because of the personality conflict 
that I mentioned before. Women's personality is 
expected to be nurturant, men's to be impersonal. 
The woman may experience a difficulty in adjust- 
ing to a "man's world". The other conflict, even 
more obvious, is simply too much to do and too 
little time. Women have taken on new tasks and 
responsibilities. They have been partially (some- 
times totally) breadwinners. But they have not 
given up domestic responsibilities. The workload is 
heavy, and sometimes leads to what a Canadian 



20 



olleague of mine calls the "Weekend stress syn- 
Irome." 

Obviously, there are advantages or women 
vouldn't be combining career and family. One 
najor advantage is that there is more income. For 
nstance, in my son's class, 2/3 of his classmates 
iad seen the Statue of Liberty; his teacher had not. 
There is more independence in children. They are 
iot as protected and smothered by stay-at-home 
nothers. 

furthermore there is more flexibility for both men 
ind women. In dual earner families, men have less 
pressure on them; they don't need to earn as much 
money to support the family needs. Furthermore, if 
:hey lose their jobs, their spouses still supply some 
income to the family. In fact, some people suggest 
rhat, during these economic turbulent times, 
women's high participation in the work force has 
saved this country from total chaos. In many cases 
both spouses working has become an economic 
necessity. 

Women should not feel pressured to give up. 
However, they and their spouses need to make 
adjustments in order to have the best of both 
worlds. Let me emphasize I stated "they and their 
spouses". It doesn't work well for the career and 
the family unit if the whole family is not involved 
in decision making. 

Research has identified four different methods of 
resolving role conflict between family and career. 
The first and most efficient is Structural Role Re- 
definition . The woman alters the structurally 
imposed expectations held by others regarding 
appropriate behavior. For example the woman 
"shares" household tasks with her husband, chil- 
dren or outsiders; or she ne gotiates with her em- 
ployer concerning work chores. The woman 
changes her belief that only she can do the job. The 
chores get divided among family members in an 
equitable manner or the family may hire household 
help or a nanny. Business trips may have to be 
carefully coordinated. Both partners have to plan 
in advance in regard to both career and family. 

However while Structural Role Redefinition seems 
extremely efficient, some women feel that there are 
cogent reasons for using the next method of cop- 
ing. With Personal Role Redefinition, the woman 
changes her personal concept of role demands. She 
could do this by setting up a priority system that 
ranks which tasks get performed before others e.g., 
the needs of the children come before dusting; or a 
business meeting comes before a social engage- 
ment. This method helps reduce the amount of 
work. However it has some drawbacks. A woman 
may feel she is neglecting part of her role obliga- 
tions. She may feel it is her responsibility to do 



family tasks, and she may feel guilty if it is not 
done. Furthermore she may be concerned that her 
home is not kept up as well as it should be; she 
may feel that she doesn't entertain as frequently or 
as smartly as others; or that her meals are unexcit- 
ing; or that her children are not getting the care 
they need from her. 

Though Personal Role Redefinition is not as time 
efficient as Structural Role Redefinition, it is the 
method most often used. It reduces the number of 
tasks that need to be done. However, not all tasks 
are completed. She decides which task is most 
important. 

The woman who uses the third method of coping, 
Fluid Personal Role, is sometimes referred to as a 
Superwoman or Supermom. She has a tendency to 
try to accomplish everything herself. She tends to 
vacillate in determining which role is most impor- 
tant and feel that everything is her responsibility. 
Thus she does not delegate, negotiate or prioritize. 
However she avoids the criticism leveled at 
women using structural or personal role redefini- 
tion. She can prove that she is still a good wife and 
mother even though she is employed. Obviously 
this method is ineffective for reducing work strain, 
but it does have the advantage that women are 
fulfilling all of their traditional role obligations, 
albeit at a very high cost to themselves. 

Some researchers do not consider the last method 
of coping, Rejection of Role, as an actual coping 
mechanism. They perceive it as giving up. Women 
using this method tend to renounce one of their 
roles. In most cases, the woman who chooses role 
rejection reverts to the traditional role. For ex- 
ample, she may become ill and have to quit work. 
However in some cases she may decide to relin- 
quish her domestic activities and leave home or 
divorce. Rejection of the work role is receiving 
positive play in the media. Rejecting the family role 
is still stigmatized for women. However, it is 
increasing. 

Thus women have the option of these four styles of 
reducing role conflict. Each family has to distribute 
the work load in some manner that seems fair to 
all parties. How willing the family is to let go and 
leave undone some tasks or delegate those tasks to 
others depends on various factors. My research in- 
dicated that for women, early sex role training was 
found to be associated with the type of coping 
style most often used. Women who had a nontradi- 
tional sex role upbringing were more likely to 
choose the more effective strategies of structural or 
personal role redefinition. 

Methods of reducing role conflict can be institu- 
tionalized within the corporate structure. More 
companies are allowing women to resume their old 



21 



jobs after maternity leave; some companies offer 
job sharing, flexible hours, or part-time work at 
reasonable compensation and benefits; some 3,000 
ations nationwide sponsor day care centers 
for their employees, or otherwise assist them in 
finding reliable day care. These options should be 
negotiated before taking maternity leave. 

Some corporations are concerned and willing to 
accommodate women's special needs. Women are 
seen as a vital part of the labor force. Furthermore 
women are making headway to managerial levels. 
More executives are recognizing that good manag- 
ers are people who are more humane and compas- 
sionate, as well as task oriented. These are people 
skills which were once considered purely a 
woman's trait and which are now valued as mana- 
gerial ability. A survey of male CEOs in "FOR- 
TUNE 500" companies found that the attitude to- 
ward women in executive positions was generally 
positive. The CEOs stated that women bring a 
humanizing quality to the corporate world and are 
also improving business. 

The feminization of the labor force is making it 
possible for both men and women to enjoy a 



3 



greater range of options. The work place may 
become a more humane, more livable working 
environment, and allowing for the reintegrating of 
work and home. Both men and women can experi- 
ence these two worlds with a sense of wholeness: 
not as tearing their lives apart, but as weaving 
them together; reuniting two halves. Thus the 
effective combining of home and career means 
involving those in the family as well as finding so- 
lutions in the work place. 



Marsha Katz is a professor in the College of Business and 
Public Administration at Governors State University. Previ- 
ously she was an assistant professor of management at Loyola 
University of Chicago. She is a principal in a consulting firm, 
M & M Associates of Schaumburg, Inc. Her specialty is man- 
agement training and leading seminars on role conflict resolu- 
tion for women. She has published in a variety of professional 
journals, including Academy of Management Review, Organ- 
izational Behavior Teaching Review, College Student Journal, 
Journal of Conflict Resolution, Public Personnel Management, 
Labor Law Journal and Compensation and Benefits Review. 



This article was based upon a speech presented to Women in 
Management, Skokie, Illinois, October 21, 1986 



EMPLOYERS, MERCHANTS, PLEASE NOTE! 

The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs has announced a new Child Day Care In- 
centive Loan Program. The loan program, funded through the Build Illinois Program, is designed for 
Illinois employers to establish new on-site day care centers for their employees. 
Basic provisions of the loan program are as follows: 

1. The limit is $50,000 representing 25% of the total loan package. Of the total amount borrowed, 
only 25% can be used for purchase of equipment, with the bulk of the money being used for 
the site. The amount will be provided at a rate of $6,000 per job created at the day care center. 

2. The loan period is a maximum of three years at five percent (5%) interest with monthly 
repayment. 

3. The applications must meet all other requirements of the Build Illinois Small Business 
Development Program. 

For more information, contact Chris Cochrane, Director of the Small Business Development Center at 
Governors State University. (312)534-3713 



22 



WOMEN AND MANAGEMENT— A BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Barbara M. Conant 



Bennett, Myrtle C. Women In Management: A Selected Bibliography. Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies, 1984. 

Brown, Linda K. The Woman Manager In The United States: A Research Analysis And Bibliography. Washington, DC: Business and 
Professional Women's Foundation, 1981. 

Carr-Ruffino, Norma. The Promotable Woman: Becoming A Successful Manager. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1985. 

Collins, Nancy W. Women Leading. Lexington, MA: S. Greene Press, 1988. 

Devanna, Mary A. Male/female Careers — The First Decade: A Study Of MB As. New York: Columbia University, Graduate School of 

Business, 1984. 
Fernandez, John P. Racism And Sexism In Corporate Life: Changing Values In American Business. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 

1981. 

Fillmore, Mary D. Women MB As: A Foot In The Door. Boston, MA: G.K. Hall, 1987. 

Gallese, Liz R. Women Like Us: What Is Happening 10 The Women Of The Harvard Business School, Class Of '75: The Women Who Had 
The First Chance To Make It To The Top. New York: Morrow, 1985. 

Gilson, Edith. Unnecessary Choices: The Hidden Life Of The Executive Woman. 1st ed. New York: W. Morrow, 1987. 

Halcomb, Ruth. Women Making It: Patterns And Profiles Of Success. New York: Ballantine Books, 1981. 

Hardesty, Sarah. Success And Betrayal: The Crisis Of Women In Corporate America. New York: Watts, 1986. 

Harlan, Anne. Moving Up: Women In Managerial Careers: Final Report. Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College, Center for Research on 
Women, 1981. 

Harriman, Ann. Women/Men/Management. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1985. 

Hart, Annie L. Women In Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Women's Bureau, 1980. 

Hennig, Margaret. The Managerial Woman. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1981. 

Highman, Edith L. The Organization Woman: Building A Career — An Inside Report. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1985. 

Hunsaker, Johanna. Strategies And Skills For Managerial Women. Cincinnati: South-Western Pub. Co., 1986. 

Jacobson, Aileen. Women In Charge: Dilemmas Of Women In Authority. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985. 

Jensen, Marlene. Women Who Want To Be Boss: Business Revelations And Success Strategies From America's Top Female Executives. 1st ed. 
Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1987. 

LaBella, Arleen. Personal Power: The Guide for Today's Working Woman. Boulder, CO: New View Press, 1983. 

LaFrance, Marianne. Women And The Mentoring Process: Problems, Paradoxes and Prospects. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College, 1981. 

Leavitt, Judith A. Women In Administration And Management: An Information Sourcebook. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1988. 

Lee, Nancy. Targeting The Top: Everything A Woman Needs To Know To Develop A Successful Career In Business, Year After Year. 1st ed. 
Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1980. 

Levinson, Nancy S. Business. Minneapolis, MN: Dillon Press, 1981. 

Loden, Marilyn. Feminine Leadership, Or How To Succeed In Business Without Being One of the Boys. New York: Times Books, 1985. 

Marshall, Judi. Women Managers: Travellers In A Male World. New York: Wiley, 1984. 

Missirian, Agnes K. The Corporate Connection: Why Executive Women Need Mentors To Reach The Top. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- 
Hall, 1982. 

Mitchell, Charlene. The Extra Edge: Success Strategies For Women: A Women's Guide To Total Professional Styh. Washington, DC: 
Acropolis Books, 1983. 

Morrison, Ann M. Breaking The Glass Ceiling: Can Women Reach The Top Of America's Largest Corporations? Reading, MA: Addison- 
Wesley Pub. Co., 1987. 

Place, Irene M. G. Women In Management. Skokie, IL: VGM Career Horizons, 1980. 

Rich-McCoy, Lois. Late Bloomers: Profiles Of Women Who Found Their True Calling. New York: Harper & Row, 1980. 

Rossman, Marge. When The Headhunter Calls: A Guide For Women In Management. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1981. 

Rowe, Brenda J. D. The Minority Administrator: Blacks And Women In Public Sector Management. Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies, 

1985. 
Scollard, Jeannette R. No-nonsense Management Tips For Women. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983. 
Senter, Sylvia. Women At Work: A Psychologist's Secrets To Getting Ahead In Business. New York: Putnam, 1983. 
Sterly, Connie. A Woman's Place: Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988. 

Thompson, Ann M. Management Strategies for Women: Or, Now That I'm Boss, How Do I Run This Place? New York: Simon and 
Schuster, 1980. 



23 



SISTER DOMINIQUE 




"Patricia. Meet me at Principal's Office, 
St. Mary's. 3 p.m., May 15. 

Thanks, 
Dominique" 

That was it. Not a wasted word. No newsy little 
note about the ten intervening years. No explana- 
tions. Wasn't her style. Just a command: 'Meet 
me.' Not even an RSVP had been required. Just 
the assumption that I would 'of course' interrupt 
my life and come. Of course, she had been right. 

"Sister Dominique will see you now." 

I felt myself stiffen. I stood like a wooden soldier, 
repeating over and over to myself, Hold on, kid. 
Hold on to your guts. Then I asked myself, Why 
the hell did you come here anyway? Just because 
she beckoned? You're a real grown-up now. 
Christ, you're thirty-five years old. But — but how 
many times through the years have you thought of 
her and wondered and longed. Have to play it out 
and find out where you really are after all. 

So I marched right into the Principal's Office. And 
there she was — for real, not a vague image any- 

24 



more. She just sat there, at her desk, thumbing 
through papers as if I weren't important enough to 
acknowledge. There she sat in her veil and in one 
of those gray tailored suits. All the other nuns 
wore street clothes now, but not Sister Dominique 
She still needed the uniform. And yet — after all 
these years — was it possible that she could look 
even more beautiful than when I last saw her? I 
felt all those long, shallowly buried feelings hop tc 
the edge. Hold on. Hold back, I reminded myself 
a little too desperately. 

Sister Dominique looked up from her papers and 
slowly, deftly with delicately long fingers placed 
her pen on the desk, "Well, Patricia. There you 
are." 

"Uh, yes. Here I am," I said, trying to smile. I'm 
afraid the smile was a weak one. 

She stood slowly, staring at me, as if trying to see 
through me, to peer into my soul. She had always 
done that. It was an unnerving as it had always 
been. I felt sure she could see something there, bu 
I wasn't quite sure she approved of what she saw.! 

She glided toward me with open arms. "Well, 
aren't you going to properly greet your old men- 
tor?" 

I wanted to shout, I can't. I'll lose! Keep the 
distance you're so comfortable with. You've made 
a science of it. Don't go all warm on me now. Noli 
now. 

Instead, I found myself in her arms, feeling the 
movement of the bones of her back. She'd always .{ 
been thin, but it felt like she'd lost quite a bit of 
weight. Despite this, I was beginning to feel I'd 
returned home. I was falling. Falling. Melting 
like a repentant child in a mother's arms. I hung 
on tightly, losing myself in her protection. I 
wanted to proceed head-long wherever she would 
lead/ but I fought to find my equilibrium because I 
knew I wasn't headed for a good place. 

She pulled me back away from her and squeezed 
my shoulders, offering one of her rare smiles. 
"Well, well. You look good. Very good, indeed." 

"You do too, Dommie. Like the years haven't 
touched you." 

She looked sad, turned away, "Oh, they've touched 
me." Then she forced some lightness. "Well, 
you'll come to the house to visit, of course." 

She had said, 'Of course', of course. 

And, of course I would. I had to know why I was 
here. But I couldn't push her for explanations 
now. That would be risking an abrupt dismissal. 
You did it Sister Dominique's way or no way at all. 

"Yes, sure. I'll come. It'll be good to see some of 
the old crowd again." 

"Do you have your car?" 



'No. I took the bus." 

Terfect. You'll drive with me." 

Ate drove the twenty minute trip without saying a 
word to each other. I worried she could hear my 
leart thumping. It sure seemed loud to me. I kept 
-eminding myself that I had a whole, complete life 
low that didn't include Sr. Dominique — that the 
sast was over. Everything was so much better for 
ne now. I couldn't let her swallow me up again. I 
had to hang on. But as she kept her eyes forward, 
is if I weren't in the car, her hands gripping the 
Peering wheel, I became lost in that profile. Her 
face looked as though it had been carved out of 
fine marble. She had these unbelievably long, 
delicate eyelashes that any uncelibate woman 
would have killed for. They shrouded the deep 
iark eyes that an unschooled person might think, 
would reveal her secrets. I knew better. Sitting 
[here was like reliving the first moment she 
stepped into my life and turned it upside down. I 
had never had any intention of becoming a nun. 
['d known since forever that I would be a painter 
intil that September day of my Senior year of high 
school. It was during those days when nuns were 
still wearing full habits. Without a word from her, 
ill chatter and gossiping ceased. She just floated 
:oward her oakwood desk up front. To me, it was 
is if an angel had just drifted among us. She stood 
before us, her hands folded in front of her, the 
fingers delicately intertwined. She commanded 
Dur attention without a word, without even a 
gesture. She stood perfectly immobile. With only 
:he flesh of her hands and her face showing, her 
Dody enmeshed in mysterious folds of perfectly 
zreased cloth, she appeared to me to be like one of 
those statues of the Virgin Mary — the kind that 
:omfort and admonish at the same time. In that 
moment, standing before us, she had me. I told 
myself, then, that I was promising my soul to God, 
but later I knew I had given it to her. 

Sister Dominique turned the car into the circular 
graveled driveway and there it was. The old 
house. I was suddenly flooded with old memories. 
Good ones. Pleasant ones. That surprised me. I 
had shut off so much. But now — there it all was. 
The old porch where we had all sat on special 
summer evenings, work done and the light breeze 
just right for remembering that God was present. 

As I mounted the stoop, I was thrown a little off 
balance from a loose board. "Still haven't gotten 
that step fixed, heh, Dommie?" 

"No," she said, without a touch of humor. 

At the door we were greeted by Sister Martha, 
looking as plump and bright as ever in her flower- 
print house dress. She threw her arms around me. 
"Patricia, how wonderful to see you after such a 
long time." 



As I started to speak to Sister Martha, Sister Dom- 
inique, standing on the bottom steps of the stair- 
case that lead to the upstairs bedrooms, said, 
"Come up to my room, Patricia." 

"I'll be right up," I said, taking my first stand with 
her. "I'd like to make a phone call first." 

Sister Dominique glared at me. She didn't approve 
of my keeping her waiting. I pulled myself up as 
straight as I could, holding my breath, and glared 
back. She continued her walk up the stairs. I had 
won that round. I let the air slowly seep out of 
me, depleted like a deflating balloon. 

Sister Martha said, "Now don't let Dominique 
upset you. You know how she is. She's just 
having one of her moods. The telephone is right in 
the same place. You remember." 

As I walked to the hall telephone, an involuntary 
shiver rippled through me. There was the raw 
wood crucifix hanging on the wall, alone. I 
stopped to stare at it just as I had often seen Dom- 
mie do when she thought no one was looking. 
She'd ever so lightly place a long finger on the feet, 
as it she feared they would be hot to the touch and 
whisper, "I am not worthy." 

Not worthy? What had she meant by that? Who 
could have been more worthy? Who else would 
have hid out those illegal immigrants that came to 
the school, scared, looking for help. She risked her 
reputation, her position to hide them out, to feed 
them, taking food from the convent and the school 
cafeteria until she got them to a Safe House. I 
never would have gotten involved with that if it 
hadn't been for her. How much more worthiness 
could she expect from herself? How much more 
could You expect from her? I mentally yelled at 
the wooden cross. 

It wasn't comfortable standing there — among the 
ashes of a dead past. I quickly made my call and 
started up the stairs. Sister Martha stopped me. 
"Patricia, dear. I just wanted to tell you I'm so 
glad you've come. Dominique just hasn't been 
herself lately." 

"What do you mean?" 

"Oh, she keeps so much to herself. Always alone 
in her room." 

"So what's different?" 

Sister Martha smiled. "She's worse. And you 
were always the only one who could reach her. 
Try to help her." 

I nodded because no words would come out. I 
thought, Me? Help Dommie? I wondered if Sister 
Martha would have been so pleased that I'd come 
if she'd known how I'd reached Dommie. 

I continued my walk up the stairs. Dommie had 
left her door ajar. I slipped into the room. She had 

25 



3ut of her suit and veil and replaced these 
i a simple skirt and blouse. She stood near the 

esser, watching me. Finally, she said, "Please, 
seat, Patricia." She sounded as though we 
■ just about to partake in a British high tea, but 
when I scanned the room there were no chairs. 
Hesitantly, I sat on the bed. 

She sat beside me. "I've missed you, Patricia." 

"I still live in the same town. You could have seen 
me anytime. But that last time you said. . ." 

"Can you forget what I said? And forgive me?" 

I stood, edgy. Sister Dominique was asking my 
forgiveness. What was I supposed to do with that? 

"Please, don't shut me out, Patricia. I need you. 
You. . . "She looked away from me. "You loved 
me once. Could you ever love me again?" 

I said to the wall in front of me, "I never stopped 
loving you. But you're not easy, Dommie. Not 

easy to love." 

"I know." 

"Oh, well, Dommie," I said, trying to smile, half 
looking at her sitting on the bed. "The past's the 
past. Right? We should put it to rest." I fiddled 
with the hair brush on her bureau. "So, uh, fill me 
in on what's been happening with you over the 
years." 

Sister Dominique stood tiredly. She walked with 
her own special grace to the window. I didn't 
want to watch her, but I couldn't contain my awe. 
She was taking on her saintly proportions under 
my vision. Staring out the window, she said, 
softly, "Nothing has happened since you left." 

Forgetting myself, I bounced on to the bed. "Oh, 
come off it, Dommie. Of course, things have 
happened. It's been ten years! Well, for one 
thing — right off I can think of — well you've been 
made Principal of St. Mary's. You always wanted 
that." 

"Yes," she said with tight lips. 

Dommie was depressed, lost. I ran, without think- 
ing, right into my role. "Oh, I know you, Dommie. 
There's been lots of other things. It's just that you 
expect too much from yourself and. . ." 

"Other people?" 

"Well, maybe a little, but. . ." 

Dommie chuckled to herself. "Especially you?" 

"But mostly yourself," I hurried to say, pleading 
inside, Don't do this now, Dommie. 

Dommie leaned back against the window sill to 
face me. "But you are able to dismiss the past so 

easily." 

I looked away from those dark eyes. "No. Not 
easily. I just meant, well, the way things ended — 

26 



we should forget about that." 

"There were good times too. Weren't there?" 

"Of course." 

"Yes," Dommie sighed. 

"And we can remember them, but. . . Well, we jtl 
can't live there anymore." 

"Ah, but that's easy for you to say. You have yo 
painting. Me — well, I did have you — but now? 
Nothing. I became a nun to serve God. That wa 
the original dream, but I've failed, Patricia. Faile 
terribly. I'm made of stone. You know that." 

"Stop it, Dommie!" I said, standing. "You know 
that's not true!" 

"Do I? Aren't you the one who pointed that out; 

"I was mad then. I wanted to hurt you because 
you hurt me so badly, rejecting me totally when ] 
told you about my decision to leave. I'm really 
sorry about that. It isn't true. You're not made c 
stone. Why, what about that time those illegal 
immigrants came knocking at the school. . ." 

Sister Dominique turned on me. "I told you nevt 
to mention that! I broke the law." 

"Laws made by men, yes, but the laws of God? 
Sister, you followed them to the letter from your 
heart. Remember — 'Love your neighbor as your-i 
self.'" 

"I don't need a lesson in scripture from you." 

Subdued, I said, "I was only trying to point out 
one example, among many, when you did serve. 
When you lived and loved the way God would 
want." 

"And our love. What was that? Did God want 
that? Or— did we sin?" 

Flippantly, I said, "Why ask me? You're the nun 

"You accuse me of not being easy. You're not so 
easy yourself." 

"Well, I had an excellent teacher." 

"And have you become embittered because of m< 
Is that what I have accomplished?" 

"No, Dommie. I'm not embittered. Just scared." 

"Scared? You?! I thought nothing scared you." 

"I'm not like you, Dommie. I tried, but. . ." 

"And you think I am immune to fear?" 

I couldn't respond to that without being unkind. 
"So, Dommie, why after all this time did you 
contact me?" 

"I missed you. I guess I just needed to see you. 
You see, Patricia, I am afraid. And you were the 
only one I could. . ." 

"You're afraid. But why? Of what?" I felt a par 
rising. 



'Nothing, really. My failure, I suppose." She 
valked toward me and put her hands on my 
shoulders. 

wanted to run and I wanted to stay, to take care 
)f her again, let her take care of me. I wanted to 
;et the hell out of there because I wanted to stay so 
)adly. 

\s her hands massaged my stiffening shoulders, 
;he said, "It's so good to see you again. Like life 
las returned." She smiled. "I don't want to die 
done." 

'Die? Why are you talking about dying?" 

'It's something we all have to do sometime or 
)ther." 

'Well, sure. But, Dommie, why should you be 
;oncerning yourself with death now? You're only 
: orty-five." 

?he tore her hands from my shoulders. "I'm forty- 
>ix!" I had wounded her. 

'I'm sorry," I said, weakly. "I, uh, gave you an 
?xtra year." 

'Yes," she said, still hurt. There actually seemed to 
?e tears rimming her eyelashes. But, that wasn't 
possible. Not Dommie. It must've been the glare 
■eflecting in through the window. She pulled 
lerself up straight and smiled, "Well, here we are 
igain. Just the two of us. Like old times." 

rhere was that annoying thumping in my chest. 
Told on. You're free now, don't let go of that. 

?he floated toward me again and ran her fingers 
hrough my hair. Pull away, my head told me. Or 
she'll capture you again. But the thumping kept 
ne standing there as she ran a finger over my ear. 
'We really were something together. Weren't 
,ve?" she said. 

IJh, yes, I. . ." 

'Stay tonight." 

'I can't," I whined. 

'Of course, you can. You must." She held me so 
ightly in her arms now that I could barely move. 
\nd wasn't sure I wanted to. 

'No. Really. I can't stay," I pleaded. 

'Of course, you can," she teased. She held my 
land in hers. "You just want to be coaxed." 

'No. No, I don't, Dommie. It's. . ." 

Sister Martha's voice called from downstairs. 
'Patricia, someone's here for you." 

'My husband," I choked out. 

'She dropped my hand. "Your husband?! You 
lever said a word! Not one word!" 

You never asked, Dommie. You just assumed 
hings. But a lot has happened to me over these 



past ten years." 

"Obviously. And you called him to pick you up 
here to hurt me. Right?" 

I backed toward the door. "No, Dommie. I just 
needed him." 

"Well, then go to him. Don't dawdle. Hurry." 

With my hand on the door knob, I said, "Dom- 
mie — please. Let's not end this way. Again." 

She only stared, but her long eyelashes glistened 
with what appeared to be a few drops of wetness. 
Probably, still that light reflecting through the win- 
dow. 

I hurried out the door. From the landing I could 
see Tom. My dear Tom, his clothes beautifully 
mismatched, was talking with Sister Martha. 

I ran down the stairs and threw my arms around 
him with the kind of desperation reserved for new 
lovers who feared they'd never see each other 
again. I held tightly onto my life. Tom laughed, 
"What a greeting! I haven't been gone for a year. I 
saw you at breakfast. Remember?" 

Still hanging onto his neck, I begged, "Kiss me, 
Tom." 

"Now? Here?" 

Sister Martha tactfully left. 

"Yes. Now." 

Tom shrugged his shoulders, having grown used 
to my bouts with dips into insanity. He kissed me 
lightly on the lips, but I held him to me. I kissed 
him with a fervor usually reserved for the bed- 
room. 

I knew, intuitively, that she was watching us from 
the landing. As Tom and I turned to go, hand in 
hand, I looked back. There she stood, her jaw set 
in its expressionless state. The longing and despair 
that I felt was undetectable in her eyes. 

I crushed Tom's hand, trying to reach her with my 
eyes, to let her know things I couldn't say in 
words. And then a miracle happened. She smiled 
and called, "Good luck, Patricia. I hope you find 
the love and peace that you're seeking." 

My lips moved, but no words came out. 

I turned my back and bounced down the steps 
with Tom. He caught me before I went sailing to 
the ground from tripping on that step that would 
never be fixed. We laughed. Tom was so good at 
laughing. 



Vanda Wark writes both fiction and non-fiction. She has 
contributed to a textbook in psychology and won an award 
from the National Writers Club Short Story Contest. She lives 
in New York City. 



11 



THE WHALE WE ARE 

The mind plunges into sleep, lurching down. 
The mind grows huge in the night and sings - - 
too highpitched, too deep for a waking ear. 
Words bob in the shallows but the dreaming mind 

dives past drowning. The mind grows a tail 
broad and strong enough to smack a wave, 
flippers and immense lungs which store air 
like a precious oil to use in droplets. 

The dreaming mind plummets into water dense 
as rock where ancestors forgotten on land 
shine dim as fourth magnitude stars sending 
messages that the mind suddenly decodes. 

We feed there on flesh we would scorn under 
lamps, with dishes and tablecloth and salt 
shaker ready to give that sea taste to our food. 
We battle for mates we would shudder to see. 

We lunge upward, we leap and breach and breathe. 
The farther we traveled undersea, the fresher 
and brighter we waken. We must go down nightly 
sliding past the mincing debris of names, clothing, 

the furniture of the day and dropping our limbs, 
our busy hands, must thrash deep into that sea 
we call alien where for hours the mind chases 
and bolts somber glimmering ancient prey. 

Marge Piercy 



28 



J^> 



ft 




FRIENDS SIP 

We share a love 
of wombs of old: 
we share the warmth 
as loves unfold. 
We sit and sip 
the lore untold, 
and grin at cats 
while catching hats 
flung from beds 
we often slept. 
But haven't kept. 

In August, heal 
apart from zeal: 
no militant act 
will keep intact 
a womb-to-womb 
destructive room. 
Apprised of fact, 
we brew anew 
those men with whom 
love's still at brink. 
Full fragrance, drink 

Virginia Ording 




SNOW VISION 

White blinded, 

skimming across a 

desert of January snow, 

speeding wheels devouring monotonous rails, 

the muffled bump was hardly noticeable. 

We were spared the 

distasteful symphony of 

shattering glass, 

twisting metal, 

and the body, 

a wingless bird in flight, 

thrown hundreds of feet into the frigid air. 

We were spared the vision 
of his graceless landing. 

Our journey had been interrupted, though. 

Glancing out the window, 

I looked down to see our now motionless bird, 

legs awry, 

wind whipping across his bare back, 

through his tousled hair, 

face down in the snow. 

Noses pressed to windowpanes 

we all watched a death that was not our own. 

Looking out train windows now, 

I see my own reflection . . . 

We are all out there, 

face down in the snow, 

the shirts ripped off our backs, 

the wind howling around our ears. 

Margaret Brady 





2 g 





» »»»»»»>»»»»»»»#««««««««««««c«* 



!i,F 



i';in ':'' 'ii" i'Mi: in 



ll!lllll l llllllllllllllllllllllllllllill!llllll li llll 



i|||l" i|||i" i||H" '||H" i||H" 'III'"''!!!'" 'Ill'" 'll' 1 " 'll' 1 " 'III'" 'll' 1 " '||H" "ip 1 " 



FOR MY FATHER 




•.*♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦•*♦■♦ 





Babies like fat magnolia buds 

are sprouting in the park, 

the benches are green with mammas; 

only my father grows backward 

even in the sun, shrinks 

into bark, down into roots in earth. 



^K. 



Rose Rosberg 



V 



FOR MOTHER 

I have been inside you and outside now 
for 27 years 

We have watched each other 
sometimes upside down, inside out. 

I crawl out of my skin and wonder 
how to express what is unspeakable 
I think we have always had rooms 
of one another to explore 
but the house too often remained quiet 

Still I hold you a thought away 

and wonder at the thin skin between us 

stretched with 3000 miles. 

I want to say one thing: 

blue as blue sky; laundry flapping 

between your fingers in the air 

When I phone, listening to the familiar ring, 

for that familiar voice 

and you answer 

the world shifts into 

the most comfortable of places. 

Mary Woodward 




30 




A STATEMENT BY 
RUTH AIZUSS MIGDAL 

I teach art at Harold Washington 
College (Loop College) and love 
teaching, as much as it drains me. 
I consider myself the recipient of at 
least two gifts, that of artist and as 
teacher. I consider teaching not only 
the means that keeps me financially 
independent and therefore with the 
"power" to pursue my muse, no 
matter how long or difficult the 
route — but also my opportunity to 
return to society some of what was 
given to me; an opportunity to find 
the spark in people just as someone 
once saw it in me and fanned it into 
life. 

My work is an exploration of the 
Goddess or Venus in all of us, using 
myself as the personal form in order 
to reach the Universal. I feel that I 
follow in a primordial tradition of 
search through forms for the God- 
dess, and that by being a woman 
making the search, there has to be a 
validity that is different from what 
man finds, as much as I love the 
work of Maillol, Rodin and 
Lachaise. The Hindu Indian sculp- 
tures speak to me and encourage 
me. My work is also about celebra- 
tion — a joyous energy and strength 
and delight in being a full-blooded 
voluptuous alive dancing woman. 
As I write this, I think of a phone 
call from a writer woman friend last 
night who had just watched 
Mamet's "Sexual Perversity in 
Chicago." She was crying because 
he had fully developed his talent 
and hers had so far to go before she 
could have his command. I re- 
minded her that women "serve." 
We take care of our children. (I 
have two wonderful ones.) We 
believe we have to do our "duties" 
first. This slows us down. Men 
assume that their talent comes first. 
They don't have our self-imposed or 
society-imposed hindrances. 



VENUS #1, 1987 45"x 30"x 20" 



31 




'Eizc'E J> (pi niiars 



(Editor's note: Ellen Woodward Moaney's article on action at the Nuclear Test Site in Nevada ("Through the Fence: Trespass for Peace", Spring/ 
Summer 1988) brought much favorable attention. With this vignette by Patricia Thomas we introduce a regular new feature. Watch this page for 
news of what women are doing for peace, in this country and around the world.) 



THE RED POSTER 

Patricia C. Thomas 

"Mom, I told Mr. Hill you'd be glad to be the 
speaker for our mock National Convention at 
school next week." 

I grabbed the edge of the sink with both hands. 
"You did what?" 

"Come on, Mom." The refrigerator door slammed 
shut. "Nobody can find anyone to do the Freeze. 
Derek got Dr. Sorenson to speak against it." 
Oh, great, I thought to myself, one of the most 
articulate political scientists I've ever met. the last 
time he and I discussed national security, it was for 
the Baptist adult forum. He wore kid gloves that 
Sunday morning, and even then had numbed me 
with his rapid-fire technical knowledge. 
"Besides, Mom," by the grin I could tell that Kevin 
suspected he had something irresistible, "you're 
really great at this stuff. You've convinced me!" 
What a con artist, I thought smiling as I wiped my 
hands on the terry cloth apron, but it would be fun 
to see just how many seniors would vote for a 
Nuclear Weapons Freeze plank in their platform. 
And, a debate would at least be an educational 
experience, right? 

"How much time will I have?" I asked, wondering 
how in the world Kevin could eat so much and 
stay so thin. 

"You mean you'll do it? Great!" Carrying milk and 
two sandwiches, he headed for the living room and 
M*A*S*H. "About ten minutes I think," he called 
back over his shoulder, "but, I'll find out for sure." 
During the week I thought about the arms race 
from what I hoped was a 17-year old's perspective. 
Having two teenage sons should have prepared me 
for something . But now I listened to the kids filing 
into the auditorium, the butterfly brigade made its 
headquarters once again in my stomach reminding 
me that another reality had to be faced. 
"This is a conservative, Republican, middle-class 
town," the co-chair of our peace fellowship had 
reminded me last night, "and these are their chil- 
dren. Don't be too surprised if they soundly defeat 
a nuclear freeze proposal." 
So, I paced between the chairs and play scenery 
scattered about back stage, pausing a moment to 
read a piece of red cardboard taped to the 

32 



wall "Aaron, congratulations on making All-State 
Orchestra!" it said in hand-printed letters of bold, 
black magic marker. Hey, that's our Aaron, I real- 
ized grinning, pleased that someone had noted my 
other son's accomplishment, for he had spent the 
weekend rehearsing and performing in Cincinnati. 
My attention returned to the high school as I heard 
the student chairperson finish her opening re- 
marks. 

"Mrs. Thomas is our first speaker today, and she 
will speak in favor of a nuclear freeze. All dele- 
gates will wait to vote until the end of the conven- 
tion. So, please welcome Mrs. Thomas." 
As I walked to the podium trying not to squint and 
be too obvious, I searched for the handful of kids I 
could count on for the vote. "Mother, whatever 
you do, don't wave!" Kevin's horror at the pros- 
pect, expressed this morning at breakfast, made me 
smile. There they were, casually draped in then- 
seats in the back row of the auditorium. 
If you want everyone's immediate undivided 
attention, the ghost of some long-ago English 
teacher seemed to whisper in my ear, then begin 
with a question in a loud, confident voice. I started 
to speak. 

"How many of you right now could gather your 
family together in half an hour?" A few hands 
went up. "How many have brothers or sisters off 
at college?" More hands went up. "How many of 
you have a parent who works in Columbus?" 
Many more hands went up. "Ok, you can put your 
hands down." 

They were all listening. "Many people wonder 
why we should spend time trying to end the arms 
race. One reason I think we must have a nuclear 
freeze is because if the Soviet Union launches a 
missile, you and I will have approximately one half 
hour to gather our families together before it hits. 
Only those of you who put your hands up first 
have a chance of being with your own family when 
war begins." 

The image I'd had back stage of my son Aaron all 
alone in Cincinnati, while the rest of us huddled in 
our basement three hours away, proved too power- 
ful to ignore. I had spoken from my heart, and the 
stillness of the room acknowledged the impact of 
those words. 

I smiled at the faces and began to speak of my 
proposed steps for arriving at that future when the 
arms race is reversed and under control. I con- 
cluded my remarks, leaving all discussion of which 



Duntry had more of this-or-that weapon to my 
Dunterpart. 

Thank you, ladies and gentlemen/' I said, and 
yith those words, the kids leapt to their feet cheer- 
s- 
tunned by their enthusiasm, I headed for my seat 

t the corner of the stage. This is incredible, I 

lought, suddenly a bit misty-eyed, but it sure 

?els mighty good. 

orenson finished his careful presentation of throw 

/eight and missile head counts, and the students 

2sponded with polite applause. Shaking hands, 

/e returned to our respective corners of town. 

How'd it go," the receptionist asked as I climbed 

ne stairs, clutching a stack of mail, my lunch sack 

nd two boxes of office stationary. 

Pretty well, I think," I replied. "We'll see how the 

ote comes out." 

he afternoon dragged on. When I finally got 

tome, it seemed another eternity before Kevin 



clattered in from soccer practice, his cleats making 
funny little dents in my kitchen carpet as he 
headed for the refrigerator. 
"Well?" I asked. 

"Well, what?" He gulped a glass of milk. "I stunk 
in goal today." 
"No, I mean the convention." 
"Oh, yeah." Kevin rubbed a filthy hand across the 
scratch on his forehead, mixing sweat, blood and 
dirt into a dull brown streak. 
I winced. "The vote, Kevin, the vote!" How could 
this kid be so nonchalant! 

"One hundred and twelve to 21." He put a grass- 
stained arm around my shoulders giving me a 
manly squeeze. "Thanks, Mom," he grinned. "I 
knew you could do it." 

Patricia Thomas is a Quaker social activist currently pursuing a 
Master of Ministry degree at the Earlham School of Religion in 
Richmond, Indiana. 




*«*> 



PeacePAC 

For the prevention oe nuclear war 




PeacePAC 
Supporters have a 
National Impact 



This map shows the states where growing numbers of citizens have successfully supported 
candidates calling for an end to the arms race. 



33 



KING IT IN A MAN'S WORLD: 
MYTH AND REALITY OF 
WOMEN AND WORK 

Review Essay 
Sharon Hicks-Bartlett 



The American Woman 1987-88: A Report in Depth. 
Edited by Sara E. Rix. New York: W. W. 
Norton & Company, 1987. 

Women and Home-Based Work: The Unspoken 

Contract. By Kathleen Christensen. New 
York: Henry Holt & Company, 1988. 

The Worth of Women's Work: A Qualitative Synthesis. 
Edited by Anne Statham, Eleanor M. Miller, 
and Hans O. Mauksch. New York: State 
University of New York Press, 1988. 




Much of what we know and believe about work 
and the work place is based on research that 
focuses on men and the male experience. This 
emphasis fails to capture the unique set of dilem- 
mas, challenges and obstacles women encounter in 
the process of doing their work. When women, 
who comprise almost half the entire civilian labor 
force, are examined, research and conventional 
wisdom turn out to be ill-fitting. 

The demand from women for answers on how to 
juggle their many roles is reflected in the numer- 
ous articles, magazines, books, workshops and con- 
ferences devoted to the subject. A recent confer- 
ence in Washington, D.C. called "I'm Not a Femi- 
nist, but . . ." spoke to young women who are 
"alarmed" and worried about how they will deal 
with the "inevitable conflict" between career and 
motherhood. Absent from this conference, and I 
suspect from others as well, are the voices of 
"alarmed" men. As long as traditional sex roles 
are unquestioned, women will continue to feel the 



; 



: 






need to shoulder the responsibility for balancing 
family and work. 

The historical dynamics and experiences of wome 
and work are brought to life in these three books. 
The American Woman 1987-88: A Report in Depth i: 
one of those long-awaited reference guides that 
follow the American woman in her quest for 
equality. It rehashes issues rather than raising an 
new ones; it is, however, a valuable work. Womer^ 
and Home-Based Work: The Unspoken Contract, deal 
intimately with conflicts between work and home; 
The Worth of Women's Work: A Qualitative Synthesii 
examines work by emphasizing the perspective of 
women workers. 

Each offers challenges to commonly held views 
about women and the work they do. The first, Th 
American Woman 1987-88: A Report in Depth is a 
collaborative venture that grew from queries to thJl 
Women's Research and Education Institute, a 
research arm of the Congressional Caucus for 
Women's Issues. 

The book is actually a collection of articles dividec 
into three sections. The first, an analysis of wome 
in the twentieth century, sets the tone for subse- 
quent chapters which examine women in several 
contexts: the family, the economy, and the politic 
arena. These chapters begin with abbreviated tret 
through the history of women and end with the 
latest status report. They open with "highlights" 
that are very effective in condensing the contents 
of the chapters. 

The second section, "Women in Brief" is aptly 
titled. Women are profiled in a number of fields, 
but these articles are too short. Although enough 
information is given to whet the appetite, a less 
cursory treatment would have added to the book, j 

Two disappointing chapters, one on black women 
and one on Latinas, are placed near the end of the 
book. Here the book reads like a rush job with 
women of color added as an afterthought. In then 
notes, the editors make apologetic reference to this, 
and other shortcomings; nonetheless, this neglect i 
inexcusable given the triple jeopardy of race/ 
ethnicity, class, and gender. 

The last section of the book, the "Appendices" 
should not be overlooked. The statistical charts, 
figures, and graphs are clear, readable, and inter- j 
esting. One strength of the appendices is a "Statis 
tical Portrait" which highlights and explains tables 
and figures in narrative form. This reference guid 
is a valuable addition to any shelf and can be used 
as a starting point for further research on women. 

What happens when work and home are com- 
bined? Kathleen Christensen, head of the Nationa 
Project on Home-Based Work, gets behind the 
statistics and explores the lives of women working 



34 



om their homes. Women and Home-Based Work: 
he Unspoken Contract, grew out of a major survey 
: 14,000 women. Featured are two groups of 
omen, one born in the 1920s and 30s; the other, 
le 1940s and 50s. 

hristensen explains that women begin home 
isinesses for a variety of reasons. For some, the 
vision to engage in home-based work is auto- 
[atic. Raising children for them is a mother's 
sponsibility, and they want to stay at home, but 
ie economic reality is that they must work. So, 
3me-based work becomes their only solution, 
hen there are those embroiled in a battle between 
?eds and desires: the need to raise their children 
id the desire to fulfill career aspirations. For 
.em, home-based work seems the best of both 
orlds. Others are already involved in running 
mily operated home-based businesses. For them, 
mily and work are unquestionably intertwined, 
ill others, after having reared children, find upon 
itering or reentering the labor market that their 
ne spent as homemakers is undervalued. Home- 
ised work provides them with the opportunity to 
merate income without compromising their skills 
id desire to perform valuable work. Finally, 
ere are those whose personality and desire for 
dependence and autonomy deter them from 
orking for others. 

iany women engaged in home-based work share 
commitment to an image of the family that spells 
it proper sex roles. In this view, women are seen 
i the primary nurturers and caretakers; men are 
Drtrayed as the "instrumental-providers." The 
Dwer of this ideology is most evident in 
hristensen's book, when many of the women 
niggled, particularly following the birth of a 
lild, to be "good" mothers, which means staying 
}me with their children. 

r omen who prefer to stay home to raise their 
\ildren pose an interesting dilemma. Almost half 
ie civilian labor force is made up of women, 
any of whom work because they must. Women 
ho want to remain home and raise their children 
i e home-based work as the lesser of evils. Major 
ructural and cultural changes have forced men 
id women to expand their sex roles. Today, 
omen who want to stay home cannot because 
ieir husbands are unable to earn enough to allow 
iem to live out their traditional image of the 
mily. 

ome-based work has many advantages: inde- 
?ndence, autonomy, flexibility, control, and 
"oximity to one's children. The media play a role 
this by reinforcing the notion that home-based 
ork is compatible with family life. Such depic- 
5ns are alluring because they feed into female 
lilt and then promise a way out. Paradoxically, 



the advantages of home-based work are also the 
disadvantages. The independence and autonomy 
that attracts, also isolates some women and leaves 
them longing for adult companionship. 

Flexibility and control can become, in reality, an 
eleventh hour nightmare in the rush to complete 
projects. The primacy of family frequently wins 
over work. The push to do work against the pull 
of family responsibilities saps the energy to do 
either. For some, it is an interminable battle to 
keep up traditional role expectations and work at 
home. One woman explains: 

You're juggling so many things, and it's 
constantly there. When you're in an office 
the only thing you really do is work... At 
home I get up to get a soda, and the refrig- 
erator says 'Better clean me.' ...It's always 
there hitting me in the face (p. 27). 

Young children are another challenge. Concentrat- 
ing on a project is difficult when children are near. 
Small children do not understand how mom is "at 
work" when she is physically at home. So, inter- 
ruptions are constant and the issue of childcare, 
which prompted many to work from their home in 
the first place, rears its head again. 

Christensen describes the difficulty some women 
face in getting their work taken seriously. For 
instance, husbands do not understand why meals 
are not prepared on time; why their wives continue 
to work "after hours"; why husbands must care for 
children when they prefer to relax after work. The 
paradox here is that while these husbands under- 
stand the family's need for the additional income, 
they are unable to shake their traditional expecta- 
tions of their wives. 

Space is another issue in home-based work. When 
basements, dining room tables and other make-do 
areas become "office," a sense of legitimacy and 
seriousness about the work is sacrificed. Maintain- 
ing distinctions between the two can reduce con- 
flicts by having clear signals indicating when one 
moves out of one space and into another. For 
example, punching a time clock, leaving a building, 
the ride to and from, are all space markers that 
keep boundaries distinct. Shared space makes it 
hard for some women to ever get a clear sense of 
being on or off duty from either work or home. 

Some women begin their home-based work after 
their children leave home. These "empty-nesters" 
stayed home to raise their children and had hus- 
bands whose economic position enabled them to 
act out traditional sex roles. In this respect, empty- 
nesters differ from their younger counterparts 
today, who want to stay home to raise their chil- 
dren, but cannot. 

Now free of childcare responsibilities, these older 



35 



women are willing to discuss and renegotiate the 

ms of their marriage contract. However, upon 

entering or reentering the labor market they learn 

their skills as homemakers are not valued. 
Rather than compromise their ability and worth, 
they turn to home-based work which provides 
them the opportunity to do meaningful work and 
maintain their self-esteem. 

The problems expressed thus far reflect the experi- 
ences of several types of home-based workers: 
homemakers who need to earn money; career 
women who need to raise their children; home- 
makers and career women in family businesses; 
and, empty-nesters. To varying degrees they 
accept the terms of their unspoken contract. They 
believe in the terms even when it feels wrong. In- 
stead, they rely on models learned in childhood. 
In most cases their husbands do not challenge 
these traditional views either. And when one did, 
his wife was caught off-guard. 

...I know this feeling comes from all the 
conditioning I had... Mothers were always 
the ones who stayed home. When Stewart 
offered to do that, I could not accept the idea 
that he'd be the mom and I'd be the bread- 
winner. I just couldn't reconcile that switch 
within me (p. 41). 

Yet as Christensen reveals this woman "wasn't 
sure she could stay home either" (p. 41). For these 
women, the unspoken contract is not suspected as 
being the source of their woes. In fact, they typi- 
cally blame themselves for not being able to bal- 
ance everything. 

Yet, there are genuine success stories in Women 
and Home-Based Work. These are the "negotia- 
tors." These are women from all walks of life, 
married, single, mothers, and empty-nesters. They 
encounter the same difficulties all home-based 
workers face. The critical difference is how these 
negotiators approach and work out the problems 
inherent in working at home. As Christensen 
points out, the successful home-based operation 
requires a special disposition. A certain self- 
assuredness and drive that combine to enable these 
women to carry out their home and work obliga- 
tions. Obstacles are not seen as crippling — they are 
issues to be negotiated. 

These negotiators bring to their work a personality, 
assertiveness, and independence conducive to 
home-based work. Their reasons for home-based 
work are the same as others. However, these 
women are typically self-reliant and critical think- 
ers. They know what they want and set out to 
accomplish it. Their questioning nature protects 
them from automatically accepting traditional 
gender roles, regardless of models set in childhood. 



il 



1 



!■ 



They do not allow others to pidgeonhole them on | 
any grounds. Their esteem is maintained through 
continual negotiation and renegotiation. Herein 
lies the central message in Christensen's book. In I 
traditional marriages where the terms are implicit 
and unchallenged, home-based work will be diffi- 
cult at best. 

Through hit and miss, negotiators work out the 
agreements by which they will live and work. Not 
fixed agreements, but arrangements that are for- 
ever negotiable. This is the style they bring to theitf 
marriage and to client relations. As Christensen 
points out, these women make the terms of their 
relationships "explicit" and "enforceable." How 
the problems in home-based work are solved 
within marriages depend upon the spoken or 
unspoken terms of that arrangement. 

For instance, in the case of home-based work 
involving children, these negotiators realize the 
inevitable conflict in doing their work while simul 
taneously taking care of their children. They 
steadfastly refuse to be torn between the two. So 
they negotiate on childcare and household respon- 
sibilities. Christensen points out that mothers, in 
almost all successful home-based businesses, rely 
on childcare. These women do not allow chores 
and children to overwhelm or distract them. 
Housecleaning is done at specific times and hus- 
bands and wives share this responsibility. These 
women train themselves not to be bothered by 
disorder in the interim. 

Some husbands are able to alter their traditional 
sex role expectations, especially if they want to 
remain married to these women. Christensen tells 
of a husband, married to a negotiator, who tries to 
weasel out of his share of the housework by point- 
ing out he earns more money and therefore should 
not be expected to do certain things. His wife 
debates with him on the unfair assumptions im- 
plicit in the notion that more money should trans- 
late into more power to do as one pleases. This 
woman did not buy his argument and did not 
allow herself to be victimized by it. 

Through these intimate portraits we learn that 
home-based work can work. The key to its suc- 
cess, whether the woman is married, single, has 
children or is childless, young or old, has to do 
with her willingness to "continually revise and 
maintain the balance between one's work life and 
personal life" (p. 168). 

By omission, Christensen's study raises issues 
important to this general discussion. By focusing 
on white, middle class women involved in clerical, 
technical, and professional work we learn nothing 
of women of color or of women who work in 
sweatshop conditions. 



36 



atham, Miller, and Mauksch's The Worth of 
Jomen's Work: A Qualitative Synthesis, compen- 
ites for the shortcomings in Christensen's re- 
•arch. One of the strengths of this book is its 
eative, fresh approach to the research. For 
istance, the researchers' definition of work is 
"oad and inclusive. Thus, we learn of the world 
: hustlers and policewomen, public school teach- 
s and domestics, the upper class and the under- 
ass. This wide coverage results in a rich, vivid 
ortrayal of working women from all racial, ethnic, 
nd socioeconomic backgrounds. 

his research is guided by three "driving forces": 
> assemble a large number of studies on the work 
<periences of women; to apply qualitative tech- 
iques in the gathering of these data; and, to 
mtribute to social policy (pp. 2-3). This book 
oes this and more. What this research does best 
challenge previous research by presenting the 
iews of working women and questioning the 
^sumptions society has about women, work, and 
\e value of work. In so doing it exposes many of 
\e contradictory features built into jobs that make 
'omen vulnerable to problems in the workplace. 

he Worth of Women's Work is a methodological 
easure. Through in-depth interviews, diaries, 
eldnotes, and participant observation, nineteen re- 
marchers (most of whom are women) present 
lirteen studies on working women. Although the 
udies are linked, each work can stand alone. Yet, 
is when these studies are viewed as pieces of a 
fhole that the strength of "synthesizing" the data 
i most dramatic. 

he researchers spend considerable time defending 
ieir methodology, and carrying further the debate 
etween qualitative and quantitative research. 
Inless you are part of the controversy, this discus- 
ion may be too esoteric. However, their call for 
bridging" the schism between the two is a needed 
ne. 

)ne of the more illuminating studies in this collec- 
on is the work by Anne Statham on women 
tanagers. When women are in positions of power 
rill relations with other women differ from male- 
?male relations in the workplace? How are asym- 
letric relations handled? 

tandard research describes managerial skill in 
?rms compatible with traditional male sex roles, 
according to the stereotype, instrumental, task- 
riented, assertive, and decisive are all descriptive 
f male qualities valued in management. By 
efinition, women will be less effective managers 
ecause they do not fit this male model. If such 
iews guide research, women are doomed from the 
tart. Another body of literature states that women 
annot manage other women, that in fact, such 



relations are "hostile." Statham questions both 
these views by emphasizing the "process" of 
relations rather than the "structure" of relations. 

Women managers receive "unanimous approval" 
from secretaries even though many secretaries had 
initial reservations about working for women. Al- 
though women managers feel the need to maintain 
status distinctions between them and their secretar- 
ies, Statham finds fewer such distinctions between 
women managers and their secretaries, than be- 
tween male managers and their secretaries. Here, 
secretaries describe their female managers as 
considerate, respectful, appreciative, and more 
willing to aid them toward career advancement. 
Relationships between secretaries and male manag- 
ers are described along traditional male-female 
lines. Such men are less likely to show interest in 
the career advancement of their secretaries. 

Male managers are seen as assigning tasks they did 
not want to do; whereas women managers, in 
conjunction with regular tasks, assign jobs that im- 
proved and challenged their secretaries. Challeng- 
ing secretaries did not seem to be part of male 
managers' concern. 

The most critical feature of Statham's study is the 
different management styles of men and women. 
Statham calls the male style of management "im- 
age-engrossed, autonomy-invested." These manag- 
ers delegate tasks and expect the work to be ac- 
complished. The less direct involvement required 
of them, the better the management is assumed to 
be. One male manager put it this way: 

...hire people who take pride in their work 
and get out of their way. ...Back off and let 
them do it (p. 237). 

Women managers have a very different style of 
management. Statham describes theirs as "task- 
engrossed, person-invested." Contrary to the 
research literature these women managers are not 
"primarily" people-oriented. They delegate tasks 
as do men, but unlike men, they add follow-up. 
This is not only because women managers are 
more "invested" in subordinates, it is also because 
this style facilitates task accomplishment. These 
women managers are people-oriented, but they are 
equally task-oriented. As one woman manager 
says: 

I delegate and make them very accountable 
for what they're doing, but I guess the 
people-side of me says, "Make sure you see 
them once in a while; know what they're 
doing (p. 237). 

An important point in these different approaches is 
that neither men nor women like the other's style. 
This is of particular concern to women managers 
whose superiors are mostly male. As Statham 



37 



states: 

To the extent that women are expected to 
focus on their own power in the workplace 
and provide autonomy to subordinates, they 
will be systematically judged inadequate. 
Yet women may not be managing inade- 
quately; they may simply be doing so differ- 
ently. The existence of these alternative ap- 
proaches may represent a strength not a 
weakness, a fact that must be recognized in 
the literature and by those doing the evaluat- 
ing (p. 240). 

These three books question equality in America, 
Land of Equal Opportunity. Anyone with drive, 
tenacity, and perseverance can succeed. 
Rockefeller did. Ford did. So did Andrew Carne- 
gie and Joseph Kennedy. Rags to riches stories 
abound in both fiction and reality. This dominant 
ideology describes America as a country where 
anyone can make it. The sky is the limit. Millions 
of immigrants have come to this land believing the 
streets are paved with gold. And enough people 
succeed to reinforce the belief. 

How then do we explain that women and minori- 
ties do not "make it." According to the ideology, 
those who do not make it have not tried hard 
enough, long enough, not paid their dues, not 
enough schooling.... The ideology explains failure 
by focusing on individual shortcomings. As long 
as individuals are held responsible for their des- 
tiny, government, other individuals, all our major 
institutions are excused from any accountability. 

Yet, women working full-time in the labor force 
make only 60 percent of what full-time men earn. 
By the year 2000 women are expected to make only 
74 cents for every dollar men earn. 

Are women simply not trying hard enough? Well, 
some research suggests that women earn less than 
men because they have family obligations that 
interfere with their earning capacity. Accordingly, 
women have less commitment to the labor force 
because they drop in and out of it to have babies 
and raise children; or, that women prefer the 
familiarity of "women's jobs" as opposed to mak- 
ing it in a man's world. Thus, women get the 
salary they earn. 

This, like the ideology of equality is based on 
myths that justify the status quo. Such views fail 
to explain women who are committed to the labor 
force, women who are single and have no family 
responsibilities, women who, regardless of marital 
status, still earn less than men — even when they do 
the same work. 

The Worth of Women's Work explores in dramatic 
fashion many such working women and shatters 
these myths. Ideologies do not have to be true. 






They just have to be believed — people will act as i 
they are true. As noted sociologist W. I. Thomas 
said more than a hundred years ago: "If people 
define situations as real, they are real in their 
consequences." 

Yet women are concentrated in "pink collar" 
occupations that are low-paying because they are 
female-oriented and devalued. 

Yes, women make less than men. They have less 
success, because they have limited access; they are 
44 percent of the work force, but less than 5 per- 
cent of senior executives; they are 71 percent of 
classroom teachers, but only 2 percent of school 
superintendents — but not by choice. 

The lower-tier of a dual labor market engulfs those 
restricted from the higher paid, upper-tier jobs. 
Those who manage to prick the upper level, hit a 
"glass ceiling" that precludes them from rising 
above a certain point. This is not choice. 

These three books are about social inequality. 
Women (like racial and ethnic minorities) are 
where they are because of it. Behind this inequal- 
ity is a combination of complex ideologies that 
justify its existence, and guarantees its perpetu- 
ation. 

The allegiance to traditional sex roles, the belief 
that women are more naturally suited for matters 
on the domestic front, while men are more fit for 
matters in the public domain still guides attitudes 
and behavior. Only recently have such views beer 
challenged. 

Gender is irrelevant for the performance of most 
jobs. We are in the midst of rapid change — change 
that strikes fear in many. However, reshaping our! 
beliefs about sex roles does not spell an end to 
civilization. The move toward a more egalitarian , 
society means a move toward more egalitarian 
homes and workplaces — which in the long run 
makes everyone better off. 

The Worth of Women's Work is best seen as a chal- 
lenge to previous research and conventional wis- 
dom about women and work. That women from j 
all walks of life are included is a major strength of j 
this book and takes it far beyond the work of 
Christensen's Women and Home-Based Work. How 
women perform their work; how society perceives i 
certain jobs; and, how such perceptions influence 
the value and status of jobs are covered in vivid 
detail. This research is a step in the right direction, 
for it calls into question models based on the 
experiences of men. But it goes beyond this and 
suggests an alternative approach to research on 
women and work. 

Sharon Hicks-Bartlett is a Ph.D. candidate in sociology at the 
University of Chicago. Her dissertation is entitled 'The Ties 
That Bind: Family and Kin in a Low Income Black Suburb." 



38 



ook Review: 
ATING AMERICA'S CORPORATE 
ONSCIENCE 

y Steven D. Lydenberg, Alice Tepper Marlin, 
ean O'Brien Strub, and the Council on Economic 
riorities, Addison Wesley, 1988. 

eviewed by Reggie Greenwood 

i the early 1980s, the media gave national press 
3verage to several university retirement funds 
eciding to sell their stocks in companies which 
ave operations in South Africa. Since then, mil- 
ons of Americans have started investing in stocks 
nd bonds of businesses which exhibit socially 
?sponsible behavior. Rating America's Corporate 
onscience reports that people invested over 100 
illion dollars in 1985 based on evaluations of how 
/ell companies met social objectives in addition to 
eing profitable. To advise these investors, a new 
idustry of socially responsible investment funds 
nd advisors developed in the 1980s led by such 
ompanies as the Calvert Social Investment Fund 
nd Working Assets. 

ilice Tepper Martin, securities analyst at a major 
Vail Street firm, left Wall Street in 1969 to found 
"ie Council on Economic Priorities(CEP), one of 
■\e nations most respected public research organi- 
ations. For fifteen years CEP has collected, ana- 
/zed, and reported on corporations' policies and 
ractices using a yardstick of social responsibility. 
\ating America's Corporate Conscience is the result of 
uich of this work. 

his book seeks to encourage people to not only 
west in companies that exhibit socially respon- 
ible behavior, but also buy the products of these 
rms. To help a purchaser make this decision, the 
ook evaluates major suppliers of consumer prod- 
cts on how well they meet seven social objectives: 
haritable contributions; representation of women 
nd minorities on board of directors and among 
)p corporate officers; disclosure of social informa- 
on; involvement in South Africa; conventional 
weapons-related contracting; and nuclear weapons- 
slated contracting. 

it the beginning of each of four chapters divided 
ito product groupings such as "Food Product 
!ompanies", Rating America's Corporate Conscience 
resents charts that evaluate how well firms suc- 
eed in carrying out these social objectives. The 
ook recommends we buy cosmetics from Avon, 
vens from Whirlpool, and ice cream from 
illsbury. Following the product charts are sum- 
maries of each reviewed business that highlight its 




"The best ^uiclt' to 
eorponite social 
responsibility b\ 
America's leading 

"public interest 

-sesean h organization." 

tester Thurow 



RATING 
AMERICA'S 
CORPORATE 
CONSCIENCE 

A ] >n mx alive yiiiide to the i ompanies In 'hi! id the 
prodm t> you Imi\ evei \ <l.i\ 



MvW/4 



record on socially responsible behavior. I found 
that Amoco is a leader in supporting economic 
development projects in minority neighborhoods, 
but has caused major environmental problems. 

This is a well documented guide, well researched, 
and concisely written so that a purchaser can use it 
to make a more informed buying decision. To help 
keep the evaluations current, the Council on Eco- 
nomic Priorities offers members a newsletter which 
periodically updates the book's findings. 

Rating America's Corporate Conscience also intro- 
duces the recent history of the concept of busi- 
nesses making decisions based on social objectives 
as well as profitability. The book does not, how- 
ever, discuss the fundamental challenge of such 
concepts to our economic theories. Adam Smith 
wrote that a business has an obligation to seek as 
much wealth as possible leaving social objectives to 
the invisible hand of the market. This book is part 
of an economic theory which argues that achieving 
social objectives is not only consistent with profiti- 
bility, but the best strategy for maximizing long 
term profitibility. If you find these ideas interest- 
ing, I would be glad to provide a list of other 
books that develop related ideas in more depth. 

Write to me at the address shown below. 



Reggie Greenwood teaches at Governors State University in 
the College of Business and Public Administration. His special 
interests are managing for quality and innovation and ethics in 
business. 



30 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 





E W 



I S R 



FUND 






Board* Director. 

David Arnow 
President 
New York 

v , ce president 
Los Angeles 
FranWin Fisher 
treasurer 

Sectetary 
Toronto 
Buth J At>iam 
New Vork 
Mim . Alpenn 

New York 
Gerald B.Bubis 

Los Angeles 
Av.ahamBu.g 

Shlomrt Canaan 
Jerusalem 
Leonard Fein 
Boston 
TunakGalnoor 

Jerusalem 

£ d en,am.nGid.on 
^Goodrnan 

L0S Angeles 
MW OP Harris 
ToronIO 
Madeline Lee 

New Vork 

AnnLenway 

r^d** 

STsa^son 
New York 
Vivian Silver 
k,hnu!z Gezer 
Sharon S.wers.e.n 

Wpw VOfk 
Mary Ann S«e,n 

K#SKSS. 

New York 
Ruth ZilHha 
Pans, France 

founders 

Jonathan Jacoby 

ffecutive Director 

Gila SvirskV 

SSsfe- 
SSfe- 



iA 1988 
November i* ' 



_ -Tonkins 

* ve Sfity "»"• IL 6 

University 



D ear Ms- ^«* iI "' Fall l9f ^U^f 
congratulations « % ^ ou off x zl 

crStiye ^ffi|Q^ b |nd i f! e r rY «ort^^ J 

^rST^Weintrauu be very Tsr ael- r 



TYie 



Z— ions . -»» £o|nce c^ , t 
^^f^j/ approach to.« e shalvr^o^ u o»en 



worked in rtance ol a ts of Isra 



both of « ^proach to "f^aivi for wo £--„ 
S-«T.». »«•; ' than , ,ou for your oo^r 



S &« of t^s : ; r ts 

about the hard at worK y necessa rilY 

are sti*~ , roon ey * 
awareness and Qbably awa re. 

as you are P yoU| 

• congratulations and 

once again, cong 

SallY 1 ^Sf-ftate 
NeW -onal Director 
Regional 





1 ' 

< 


! ■ 


T 1 


u 

9 



551 East 148th Street 
Harvey, Illinois 60426 

November 2, 1988 





Dear Friends, 

How excited I was when I received the Spring/ 
Summer 1988 edition of The Creative vVoman. The 
spider cover was so beautiful. I have admired 
spiders for many years, and have kept them as 
house pets for over thirty years. I now have just 
one Mexican Red Leg tarantula, Juanita. I lost the 
male, Jose, just last year after twenty-five years. 
Juanita has given us many hours of interest. She 
has escaped many times, only to be found behind 
the refrigerator or in my daughter's boots. We 
have never found her escape route. 

There are many stories told about spiders in Native 
American circles. A wonderful Navajo story is 
about Spider Woman and how she taught the tribe 
to weave cotton. One of the Ojibwa traditions was 
to hang a dream catcher in their lodges. The 
dream catcher was made of strips of buckskin, 
sinew, plant fibers or sweetgrass. Usually it was 
stretched over a hoop of ash. The dream catcher 
looked like a spider web. They believed that the 
night air was filled with dreams, both good and 
bad. The dream catcher, when hung, moved freely 
in the air as the dream floated by. The good 
dreams knew the way and they slipped through 
the center hole, then slid gently down and fell off. 
They fell so gently that the sleeper didn't know she 
was dreaming. The bad dreams didn't know the 
way, and they got entangled in the webbing and 
perished with the light of day. Small dream catch- 
ers were usually a gift to the new born from 
Grandmother Spider. They were on cradle boards 
so infants could always have good dreams. Many 
homes still have dream catchers. I have several in 
my home. 

Thank you for such a wonderful magazine. I've 
enjoyed many hours of reading pleasure from The 
Creative Woman. Please continue to publish such 
an exciting work of art. 

Sincerely, 

Gloria Morningstar 



41 




The 

Creatine 
\\)oman 
Foundation 



P.O. Box 1694, Homewood, Illinois 60430 




From left, Mary Fischer, Gloria Momingstar, Arlene Kasper 
and standing Lynn Nimtz 

THE CREATIVE WOMAN FOUNDATION, 
NEWLY FORMED TASK FORCE 

Friends of this publication have been meeting for a 
year, organized and coordinated by Claudia Snow, 
discussing how to raise funds for the support and 
advancement of The Creative Woman. On Decem- 
ber 1, 1988 they met, renamed themselves The 
Creative Woman Foundation, elected a Board of 
Directors and officers, approved by-laws, applied 
for tax-exempt status, and set March 7, 1989 for the 



first fund-raising event. March 7 is the eve of 
International Women's Day, celebrated all over thi 
world by women in both developed and develop- 
ing countries. The program will celebrate women 
and commemorate Women's History Month. Marl 
your calendar, (see box this page). 

Drawn from business and professions, the women 
of the Foundation are a dynamic, capable, experi- 
enced and energetic group, dedicated to the idea 
that the magazine will continue, even if and when 
University support is no longer available. 

The officers are President, Gloria Momingstar, Firs 
Vice President, Mary Fischer, Second Vice Presi- 
dent, Claudia Snow, Treasurer, Lynn Nimtz, 
Secretary, Arlene Kasper, and Legal Counsel, Laur 
Devlin. 

Cynthia Ogorek says that "the formation of this 
new force is an example of the 'harmonic conver- 
gence' celebrated last summer, which we have bee 
looking for in our own lives as in the world". For 
further information or to volunteer to help, write 
to: The Creative Woman Foundation, P.O. Box 
1694, Homewood. IL 60430. 



THE PLACE TO BE ON THE EVE OF INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY. 

DONT MISS IT! 

You Are Invited . . . Gala Celebration . • . 

The Creative Woman Foundation Presents 



Surma's Restaurant 

West 175th Street and Dixie Highway, 
Homewood 

March 7, 1989 5:30 to 7:30 

Program in honor of International Women's Day, 

Women's History Month, the creative women of 

the south suburbs and The Creative Woman 

magazine. 

Presented by The Creative Woman Foundation 

Tickets: $10 includes program and refreshments 

To order your tickets, send your check, payable to: 
The Creative Woman Foundation 
P.O. Box 1694 
Homewood, IL 60430 




The 
Creatine 
Ionian 



■12 



The Creative Woman would like to share with its readers our recent award. 




AWARD OF EXCELLENCE 




Relevance to 
Women's Issues: 

General-Interest 
Periodicals 

Honorable Mention 

The Creative Woman 

(Vols. 8-2, 8-3, 8-4) 

Editor: Helen E. Hughes 
Designer/Illustrator: Suzanne Oliver 

Production: Claudia Snow 
Publisher: Governors State University 



4). ^codjU^ 




CHICAGO WOMEN IN PUBLISHING 



43 



EDITOR'S COLUMN 



- 



U 



ROWING AND CHANGING 



Several landmark events have brightened the 
outlook for The Creative Woman in recent months. 
We happily bring to your attention: 

* Chicago Women in Publishing honored this 
magazine with an award for excellence. (See 
page 43.) 

* Literary Magazine Review, of Kansas State 
University, reviewed The Creative Woman as 
one of ten selected magazines edited by or for 
women. Written by Diane Barker who has a 
sharp eye, an appreciative ear and a critical 
mind, this is the kind of careful and responsible 
criticism that we have needed; it is helpful and 
welcome, combining both positive and negative 
commentary. This is the first attention we have 
received from an academic review. 

* A dynamic group of community leaders in 
business and professions have established a 
Foundation for the support and advancement 
of the magazine. (See notice, page 42.) 

* The Chicago Tribune's TempoWoman Section 
published a full page story on the magazine, its 
origin and its editor on October 9, 1988. Based 
on a two-hour interview, Marney Rich Keenan 
composed an article of such power and persua- 
sion that hundreds of women who read her 
article reached for their checkbooks, deluging 
us with letters and new subscriptions (482 at 
last count and still arriving daily). Who are 
these women? They come from ten states and 
from a broad variety of professions and voca- 
tions, deduced from their letterheads. We 
heard from interior decorators, artists (painters 
and sculptors), musicians (vocalist, pianist), 
theatre arts directors, academic women in an- 
thropology and sociology, graphic designers 
and writers (poets, fiction writers), ministers 
and travel agents, doctors and psychothera- 
pists, people who work in printing, public rela- 
tions, construction and accounting; a member 
of the State Board of Education, attorneys and 
stock brokers and a landscape architect. And 
hundreds of women who used their imprinted 
note paper with only the kind of information 
about them that is communicated by style and 
quality and handwriting — an effect that by its 
cumulative power is quite overwhelming. 
Several of them gave permission to quote them 
and here is a sampling of what impelled them 
to subscribe: 

"Couldn't be more perfect for an idealistic, learning to 
fly, graduate student in English Literature, my daugh- 
ter 1 " 

Judith Spitzer 

44 



1 






"I'm an artist and perhaps may someday contribute I 
your magazine." Lois Long 

"The article sparked my interest. ..since I am a freelai 
Director and Educator in the Theatre Arts." 

Marguerite B. Folger 

"I am a sculptor and professor of art. Glad to know 
about you." 

Ruth Aizuss Migdal 

(See her work on page '. 

"I'm intrigued by your quest! Sign me up. I'm a 
journalist and mother, officially, but inside lurks a 
novelist. Motherhood — even wifehood — roles FORC 
creativity!" 

Wynell Prince 

"As a writer and creative person, I was delighted to 
the article about you in TempoWoman. I was inspm 
and touched by your strengths and accomplishments. 

Rosalind Cummings 

"I can't get the article I read about you out of my mi 
I am a writer, a poet, and an artist. I could never gi 
up one or the other. I am 73 years old and four year, 
ago when my husband died I was introduced to sculp 
ing and it too has become part of me." 

Prisrilla Holland 

"What a delightful surprise... the descriptions of your 
metamorphoses through your lifetime came across in 
such a positive and flowing manner." 

Nancy Price 

"Sounds like an interesting magazine . In 1981-2 I vM 
president of the Women's Studies Residential College!* 
Northwestern University, and I would have loved a : 
publication like yours then. ..but send it to me now !" 

Cheryl Clifford 

"J am a wife, mother of three, and an artist working i 
my own home studio. I loved reading the article in tl 
Sunday paper. My husband is involved with theatre 
and all my children are musically, verbally and intern 
tually gifted. (Two are left-handed.) It's a mixed 
blessing. I live in chaos. Please send me your publicl 
Hon. Perhaps it will help me understand the dynamv 
of the driving forces within me and my family." 

Peggy Dee 

"I do believe I need you more than you need my $10., 
Send subscription!" 

Carol M. O'Neal 

"I read the article in the October 9, 1988 Tribune wiia 
sense of personal joy and triumph for Helen, and hop* 
for all women." 

Pat Vaughn 



D lease include me on your subscription list — what a 
eat!" 

Rev. Julia M. Jewett 

/ saw the article in the Tribune and it looks like a 
inner to me. Thank you for your time and effort." 

Therese Van Buskirk 

F am ecstatic that such a thing exists. I hope it might 
11 me about support groups of creative women. ..how 
her women nurture their creative impulses and what 
ovel outlets for them they may have forged. I look 
rward excitedly to receiving my first issue of The 
reative Woman." 

Sandra Linabury 

ft was a fascinating article. Since 1982 I have become 
iterested in women's music. In that year I sang a 
mcert of modern music and was asked to include a 
>ork by Chicago composer Shulamit Ran. I realized at 
le time that in 25 years of piano and voice lessons, and 
tree degrees, including a Ph.D. from the University of 
hicago, I had never performed or studied any music by 
iomen. This fact was staggering! Since then I have 
evoted much of my singing and research to women's 
tusic." 

Ann E. Feldman 

id. note: We hope to publish a review of Ms. Feldman's 
wording of the compositions of Ruth Crawford Seeger in a 
lture issue.) 

I have never considered myself a feminist, but after 
lading your article I think you have hit the nail on the 
ead. It is definitely a matter of how it is stated. For 
ome reason the word feminist had a negative ring to 
...for me and for many woman friends I know. Your 
lagazine appeals to me for many reasons, first and 
wemost because I consider myself to be a creative 
wman. I have written poems, have acted, and am 
urrently writing plays. My livelihood comes from a 
osmetic business. ..as a make-up artist, I enjoy making 
wmen look and feel their best. Looking forward to 
lading your magazine." 

Sandi Caplan 

I have been a fan of the feminist movement for many 
ears. I think it stems from my youth when my father 
vpeatedly told me and my sisters that women should be 
rowned at birth as it is done in China. He thought it 
'as a joke, but on an impressionable child it left a deep 
*w and I still remember how in a family of four girls 
nd one boy — the boy got the best of everything. My 
it's off to you. I hope that my daughter will not have 
lese kinds of memories later. I have tried to raise her 
> be proud of being female. ..and she has turned out to 
i quite a wonderful person. More power to you!" 

Lois E. Robinson 

I read with great interest the article in the Tribune. 
is a woman in the arts and education for many years, I 
mid relate to everything you were saying, and of 



course, any woman who is honest with herself will have 
countless stories or her own to tell. 

What a wonderful idea the magazine is! Sometime ago I 
became obsessed with the realization that all the music 
my colleagues and I were performing and listening to 
was composed by men, all the art we viewed was pre- 
dominantly by men, the buildings we lived and worked 
in were the creations of men, etc. And, to make matters 
worse, in all the classes taught at my university, women 
composers and artists for the most part were ignored 
and yet the student population was three quarters 
women! 

So, as an outgrowth of this deplorable reality, I created a 
group and event called SHE, which addresses itself to 
this very neglect. I had also read the wonderful Tillie 
Olsen's Silences and was touched by her insights and 
revelations and wanted to find a poetic yet powerful way 
to bring the music, art and words of so many forgotten 
women to the public. 

We have performed it at colleges and universities in 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Missouri, and the 
response has been heartening. So we feel, in some small 
way, we are making a contribution. There are so many 
incredibly talented, gifted, courageous women out there 
that we all need to know about. 

I certainly admire your exuberance, courage and intel- 
lectual curiosity and I thank TempoWoman for bringing 
us your story. I'm eagerly looking forward to my first 
issues of The Creative Woman and intend to share it 
with many other sisters and brothers. 

See you in the streets!" 

Barbara Steg, 
Director, SHE 

"Thoroughly enjoyed the Helen Hughes article in 
today's Trib. What I've missed! — needed to know 
about the magazine eleven years ago!" 

Doreen Crewe, 
Board Member, Illinois 
State Board of Education. 



Good idea! 



Helena Z. Lopata 
Loyola University 



So there you have a sampling of reader response, 
letters that gave us encouragement and lifted our 
spirits. But there were some letters that brought 
tears. Here is one from a woman who wishes to 
remain anonymous: 

"What an exciting article! I would like to learn more 
because I'm struggling myself, how to deal with men 
(work and husband) and not just to be passive and 
submissive. The more you become aware, conscious and 
open, the more angry you feel at having been kept igno- 
rant. I would like to survive with creative, positive, 
peaceful self-assertion. Psychologically, I was very 



45 



depressed before I read this article. Then, I jumped for 
joy. I said, Vrn ngi sick . I'm a feminist ] I need, to 
study about self assertion. That's the difference. God 
bless you." 

name withheld 

If we ever doubted the value of the work we do 
here, those doubts have been erased by the spin- 
drift from Marney Rich Keenan's story. Our task is 
clear: to continue to offer to women hope, encour- 
agement and stimulation. There are countless 
souls out there who are hungry and thirsty for 
contact and encouragement, for information, com- 
munication, and inspiration. This door is open. 



WHAT NEXT? 

This surge of growth has brought new staff on 
board: Lillie Pearson is taking over subscription 
management and records. Barbara Conant, who 
has been doing bibliographies for us for several 
issues, now joins the staff as a regular for library 
resources. Mary Laplaca, student in Business 
Management, is our intern during the Winter 1989 
trimester; her task is to organize and computerize 
the accounting records, produce financial state- 
ments and provide information on which to base 
managerial decisions regarding costs, pricing and 
marketing. Claudia Snow is now devoting her 
time primarily to her very effective work in devel- 
opment. We will be acquiring a computer and 
software to implement these new activities and 
goals. Stay tuned for further developments. Re- 
new your subscription and give a gift subscription 
to a friend. The support and enthusiasm of our 
readers has been a continuing, enabling force. 

Happy New Year from all of us at The Creative 



Woman! 



HEH 



For further information: 

* Chicago Women in Publishing, 230 North Michi- 
gan Avenue, Suite 1100, Chicago, IL 60601 

* Literary Magazine Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, Fall 
1988, English Department, Denison Hall, Kansas 
State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 

* The Creative Woman Foundation, P. O. Box 
1694, Homewood, IL 60430 

* Marney Rich Keenan, Chicago Tribune Tempo/ 
Woman, 435 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 
60611 



COMING: 

Women in Photography - Spring/Summer 198< 
Guest editor Patricia Gardner 

Empowering Women of Color - Fall 1989 
Guest editor Loretta J. Ross 

Soviet Women - Winter 1990 
Guest editor Sharon Tennison 

GAIA: Reweaving the Web of Life 
Spring/Summer 1990 

Feminist Literary criticism - Fall 1990 
Guest editor Maggie Berg 

Update on Men Changing - Winter 1991 
Guests editors Art Schmaltz and 
David Matteson 




WRITER'S GUIDELINES 

Please submit your work in double-spacec; 
typescript. Enclose SASE. To submit on 
computer disc, your disc must be 3 1/2" 
hard disc, compatible with Macintosh II. 
Include a printed copy. 

Unsolicited manuscripts will be reviewed 
within six months. 

We welcome your writing. 



46 



OR 

The following are 

Vol. 1, No. 4 
Vol. 2, No. 4 
Vol. 3, No. 2 
Vol. 3, No. 3 
Vol. 4, No. 1 
Vol. 4, No. 2 
Vol. 4, No. 4 
Vol. 5, No. 2 
Vol. 6, No. 2 
Vol. 6, No. 3 
Vol. 6, No. 4 
Vol. 7, No. 1 
Vol. 7, No. 2 
Vol. 7, No. 4 
Vol. 8, No. 1 
Vol. 8, No. 2 
Vol. 8, No. 3 

The following are 

Vol. 8, No. 4 
Vol. 9, No. 1 
Vol. 9, No. 2 

If your check accom 


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available for $2 each: 

Women in Science 


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Year of the Child 


Women Sailing 


Energy in Living Systems 


The Coming of Age 


Women in the Wilderness 


Third World Women 


Women in Law 


Men Changing 


The Goddess 


Poetry 


Performing Arts 


Women of China 


Women as Healers 


Belles Lettres 


American Indian Women 


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New Voices (Susan Griffin) 


Pentimento (Barbara Wallston) 


Women of Israel: lewish and 
Arab / Palestinian 


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