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Full text of "The crimes of Khrushchev"

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THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

PART 4 



CONSULTATIONS WITH 

Dr. ViLis Masens 

Mr. Vaclovas Sidzikauskas 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 




SEPTEMBER 21, 1959 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
4GU7° WASHINGTON : 1959 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 

MORGAN M. MOT'LDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Staff Dhedor 
II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis ^ 

September 21, 1959: Testimony of — 

Dr. Vilis Masens - ^ 

Mr. Vaclovas Sidzikauskas 12 

Index -- * 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congeess 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Pubhc Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

EEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

* Id * * * m )ii 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine ^Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
****** Hf 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by siibcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within tlie United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in anj' necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

IV 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

4i « I)! >K * 4c * 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member, "■ 

******* 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



No state and no forces from outside can or must be per- 
mitted to impose on the peoples of other states their way 
of life, political and social institutions. 

Nikita Khrushchev in an inter- 
view on June 25, 1958. 



VI 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 



SYNOPSIS 



Khrushchev's international Communist conspiracy maintains itself 
in power in the Baltic States only by Soviet bayonets and tanks, two 
former high-ranking Baltic officials state in the accompanying con- 
sultations in which they relate the physical deportations, rehgious 
persecution, economic exploitation, and other inhumanities currently 
being inflicted on the captive people of the Baltic States. 

Dr. Vilis Masens, former top-flight official of the Latvian Govern- 
ment and presently a member of the General Committee of the 
Assembly of Captive European Nations and chairman of the Latvian 
Delegation of that Assembly, stated: 

The aggressive aims and designs, as well as methods of 
fraud and violence, of international communism basically 
have not changed under Khrushchev and are, in fact, as cruel 
as they were under Stalin. 

***** 

There are no political freedoms in Latvia whatsoever, and 
the Latvian people to this day are deprived of the right to 
elect a free government of their own choice; there is no free- 
dom of speech, of press, nor of association; there is no freedom 
of movement within the country, and people cannot change 
their residence without the permission of the police; there is 
no freedom to leave the country and the number of those 
who have been able to leave the country within the last 
15 years is insignificant; there is most certainly present a 
regime of fear — people dare not go to church for fear that 
this may harm their position as far as their jobs, educational 
opportunities, and even their living facilities are concerned. 
People dare not correspond freely for fear of censorship and 
persecution. 

Mass deportations have been replaced by "voluntary" 
compulsory transfer of young Latvians to Khrushchev's 
virgin lands in Kazakhstan. Many thousand young Lat- 
vians have been compelled to go and many more will have 
to follow, not just for a few years, but, as the Communist 
publications in Latvia openly state, "for good, to spend all 
their lives there." 

In spite of Communist assertions to the contrary, Khru- 
shchev's regime in Moscow interferes through its agents in 
every branch of Latvian hfe. They are the so-called deputy 
ministers, of which every minister has one or two; in many 
instances they are Russians sent from Russia, and their names 
do not appear in the official list of members of government 
submitted for formal approval to the Supreme Soviet of 
Latvia, 

1 



2 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

General N. S. Zakharov, who accompanied Khrushchev to the recent 
formal dinner at the White House, had charge of deportations and 
terrorizing from 1947 to 1949 when he was deputy chief of NKVD in 
Latvia, Dr. Masens stated. 

The number of those deported in 1949 had reached almost 200,000 
persons, many of whom had died in Siberian concentration camps and 
many of whom are still in Siberia, Dr. Masens continued. 

Commenting on Khrushchev's assertions that Soviet Russia has 
liquidated its military bases ou territory of other states, Dr. Masens 
stated : 

It is a well-known fact that they maintain military and 
naval bases on the territory of Latvia and in the other Baltic 
States. These bases were established there in 1939 when 
they were forced upon the neutral Baltic States by Moscow, 
and since that time they have been further expanded particu- 
larly by installing large submarine bases and shelters and 
powerful coastal fortifications. These bases constitute a 
threat to the free nations, particularly to the Scandinavian 
countries. Not so long ago the Swedish seismographic sta- 
tions had registered heavy underwater explosions in the Baltic 
Sea which caused in the Scandinavian countries grave con- 
cern. Khrushchev's deeds also in this respect do not corre- 
spond with his propaganda for the Baltic Sea as a "Sea of 
Peace." 

A few years ago in the vicinity of the Latvian coast, near 
Liepaja, an American plane was shot down by the Soviets, 
another American plane was later attacked near Ventspils, 
Latvia. 

Vaclovas Sidzikauskas, former Minister Plenipotentiary of Lith- 
uania, who is presently chairman of the Committee for a Free Lithua- 
nia and chairman of the Lithuanian Delegation to the Assembly of 
Captive European Nations, commenting on the crimes of Khrushchev, 
stated : 

The Lithuanian people consider Khrushchev, who has been 
and is a member of the ruling clique of the Kremlin, as being 
co-responsible for all the crimes committed by the Soviet 
Government against the Lithuanian State and the Lithuan- 
ian people. That means a breach of the Peace Treaty, the 
Non-Aggression Pact, and other legal and political commit- 
ments of the U.S.S.R,.; military invasion and occupation, 
suppression of the independence and freedom, mass murders, 
mass deportations of large portions of the population to 
Siberia, the forced Sovietization of the country, and eco- 
nomic exploitation of the resources and manpower of 
Lithuania. 

At the 20th congress of the Communist Party, Kltrushchev 
implicitly endorsed the crimes of Stalin with regard to 
Lithuania. While denouncing some of Stalin's crimes, 
among them the annihilation of some ethnic groups in Crimea 
and the Caucasus, he was silent about the crimes committed 
by Stalin against the Baltic States. 

Klirushchev continues the policy of the Kremlin inaugu- 
rated in the time of Stalin, which consists in the continuous 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 3 

suppression of political liberty, of independence and freedom 
of Lithuania and other Baltic States. 

Mr, Sidzikauskas stated that the crimes of Khrushchev in the Baltic 
States included not only physical deportations, but also "Khru- 
shchevification" or intellectual decapitation of the nation. 

When asked: "What will be the reaction in your native land 
[Lithuania] when the Communist publications feature these pictures 
of Khrushchev in the White House and Khrushchev meeting the top 
officials in this country?" Mr. Sidzikauskas replied: "The impact 
will be disastrous." 

In regard to Khrushchev's repeated protestations of peaceful intent, 
Mr. Sidzikauskas stated: 

The protestations of peace by Khrushchev remind me of 
the similar protestations of Hitler before the outbreak of 
World W ar IL At each rally he always protested his desire 
for peace. Remember "Peace in Our Time" — paper brought 
to London by ISleville Chamberlain and what happened 
then? 

Protestations of peace are proper to all totalitarians. It 
is the same method that is now used by Khrushchev. 

Russian armed forces stay in the heart of Europe. What 
are their present aims? Peace? 

But what does "peace" mean in Russian terms? It means 
Western acquiescence and acceptance of Soviet conquests. 
Therefore, they oppose the raising of the question of Central 
Eastern Europe, he it in the United Nations or summit con- 
ference or other international negotiations. If this standing 
is accepted by the Vvest, Khrushchev is willing to coexist 
with the West. 

And what does "coexist" mean in Russian terms? 

As Khrushchev interprets it, the present Soviet grip over 
Lithuania and other captive European countries is an in- 
escapable fact of his "history"; therefore, the West has no 
right to touch his colonial empire. As to the free part of 
the world, Khrushchev is against the status quo and is for 
something he calls "ideological competition," meaning free- 
dom for communism to make new conquests by subversion. 



For an account of Communist suppression of the people of Estonia, 
see House Committee on Un-American Activities publication entitled, 
"International Communism (Communist Control of Estonia) Staff 
Consultation with August Rei," May 10, 1957. 



46147'— 59— pt. 4- 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 
(Part 4) 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 21, 1959 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 
consultations 

The following consultations with Dr. Vilis Masens and IVIr. Vaclovas 
Sidzikauskas, respectively, were held at 1:30 p.m., pursuant to call, 
in room 226, House Office Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Francis 
E. Walter, of Pennsylvania, Chairman of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities, presiding. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; George C. 
Williams and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order, and the first 
witness will be sworn. 

Do you. Dr. Masens, solemnly swear that the testimony you are ' 
about to give this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Dr. Masens. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

STATEMENT OF DR. VILIS MASENS 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Dr. Masens. My name is Vilis Masens. I am of Latvian origin, 
and I am a permanent resident of this country since 1950, when I was 
admitted to the United States as a refugee from communism. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us a word about your personal 
background. Dr. Masens? 

Dr. Masens. I was born in Latvia. 

I am a graduate of the Law School of the University of Latvia; I 
possess a Diploma of Diplomatic and International Studies of the 
London School of Economics and Pohtical Science; I obtained my 
doctor's degree (magna cum laude, international law) at the Univer- 
sity of Heidelberg; I have also studied at the Universities of Grenoble 
and Paris and at the Academy of International Law at The Hague. 

As member of the Latvian Foreign Service, I served abroad in 
London, Kaunas, and Paris; at the Latvian Department of State I 
held at different times the posts of Acting Political Director; Du-ector 
of Western Division in charge of relations with the United States and 
other Western nations, as well as with the League of Nations; and 

5 



6 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

that of a Director of the Baltic and Scandinavian Division. As a 
member of Latvian delegations I participated in the work of the League 
of Nations, in the regular conferences of the Baltic Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs, and carried out missions abroad. I also represented 
Latvia in the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris; as a 
regular commentator on international problems, I spoke on the radio 
and contributed articles to the press. 

In recognition of my services, I was awarded nine Latvian and 
foreign decorations. 

During the Soviet and Nazi occupation, I took part in the activities 
of national resistance groups. 

I left Latvia in the fall of 1944, on the eve of the second invasion 
of Latvia by the Communists. 

As a refugee in Germany, I worked for the Latvian Red Cross; 
later for the United Nations International Refugee Organization as 
Area Legal Officer in charge of legal aid and protection to almost 
20,000 refugees of different nationalities in Germany. 

In 1950 I was elected Public Relations Director of the International 
Chamber of Commerce in Paris. 

Ever since I left Latvia, I have been active in Latvian exile political 
organizations. In 1951 I was elected Chairman of the Committee 
for a Free Latvia in New York, an organization working for the 
liberation of Latvia from Soviet domination. I held the above office 
until 1955. 

As one of the founders of the Assembly of Captive European Na- 
tions, I was elected in 1954 as its fii-st chairman and was reelected 
further for three consecutive terms until fall 1958. The Assembly 
of Captive European Nations is an international exile political organ- 
ization working for the liberation from Communist domination of 
nine formerly free and independent nations of Central and Eastern 
Europe. 

At present I am member of its General Committee and the Chair- 
man of the Latvian Delegation in the ACEN. 

I have studied and observed Communist activities during the time 
of my service in Latvia and also while I have been in exile, so that 
what I have to say about the Communist aggression against Latvia 
and what they have done in my country, is based on facts and studies. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have current sources of information respecting 
Communist activity and oppression in the Baltic States? 

Dr. Masens. Yes, and there is nothing very secret about it. Now, 
what are the sources? 

The sources are Communist press — I mean the Latvian Communist 
press — radio broadcasts, escapees from Latvia, of which there are not 
too many, owing to very great difficulties in getting out of the country, 
but nevertheless there are some. 

Mr. Arens. And you have other sources of information which you 
feel would not be prudent to put on the record at this time? 

Dr. Masens. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Doctor, have you in the pursuit of yom- work in these 
various groups traveled over the world? 

Dr. Masens. Yes. Altogether I have visited about forty-two coun- 
tries in Europe, South America, Asia, and the Far and Near East; I 
have been received by several presidents of the free nations and by 
twenty foreign ministers. 



THE CRIMES. OF KHRUSHCHE^V 7 

Mr. Arens. What has been the purpose of your visits to these 
various countries? 

Dr. Masens. I was charged by the Assembly of Captive European 
Nations while I was its chairman to approach the various govern- 
ments of the Iree world for the purpose of obtaining political and 
diplomatic support for the cause of captive nations. 

Practically, it meant our task was, in essence, to try to obtain the 
support of the free governments so that the question of Soviet ar; ;res- 
sion against the nine captive nations of Central Eastern Europe 
would be placed on the agenda of the United Nations or of interna- 
tional conferences. 

Mr. Arens. Although you are of Latvian origin and served in the 
Latvian Government, is it a fact that your sources of infer Aation and 
interest have encompassed all of the Baltic States and their plight 
under communism? 

Dr. Masens. Certainly, I am best informed about the events in 
Latvia. As to Lithuania, my colleague, Mr. Sidzikauskas, can tell 
you about that. 

But I also have a thorough knowledge of a general character about 
all of the captive nations due to my previous and present activities. 

Mr. Arens. Doctor, there appears to be a tendency in certain 
quarters, at least in the free world, to feel that international com- 
munism, under its present leadership of Khrushchev, is taking a 
softer or milder strategy from the strategy under Stalin. Indeed, 
not more than several days ago, we have seen in certain columns in 
the press observations that there are no longer the rigorous cruelties 
inflicted, no longer the regime of fear, and the liive. 

Based upon your current sources of information, do you have any 
comment to make on that issue in regard to the situation in the Baltic 
States? 

Dr. Masens. My answer to the first part of your question is a 
definite "No." The aggressive aims and designs, as well as methods 
of fraud and violence, of international communism basically have not 
changed under Khrushchev and are, in fact, as cruel as they were 
under Stalin. 

What better proof is needed in this respect than the behavior of 
Khrushchev in the United States, where he has never ceased to con- 
duct himself as an aggressive dictator. He talks about peaceful co- 
existence, noninterference, and the right of all nations to decide their 
own fate — the same as Stalin talked before him in the past. Nor is 
there any difference between Khrushchev and Stalin as far as their 
deeds are concerned with regard to other nations— mternational com- 
munism under Khrushchev continues to oppress other nations and to 
interfere in their internal affairs, the same as it did under Stalin. 
During a public appearance here Khrushchev very "generously" de- 
clared that Communists do not force communism on anyone; and yet 
only three years earlier, when the Hungarians decided to rid them- 
selves of the Soviet imposed Communist regime, the same Khrushchev 
did not hesitate to order Russian troops to crush, in the most brutal 
way, the Hungarian revolt. 

In October 1939, Soviet Russia on the basis of the Soviet-Nazi con- 
spiracy imposed on Latvia, under military threats, the so-called 
mutual assistance pact and, in pursuit of its aggressive plans, forced 



^ THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

upon neutral Latvia and other Baltic States Soviet military and naval 
bases. 

A few months later, in June 1940, the Soviet Union, in complete 
disregard of its international obligations and in violation of its treaties 
with Latvia, committed a brutal act of armed aggression against 
Latvia and occupied its territory with its armed forces. 

In July 1940, Moscow arranged in Latvia mock elections carried 
out in the presence of large Soviet troops, followed by an illegal 
imposition of a Communist regime and forcible incorporation of Latvia 
into the Soviet Union. 

Wlien in 1941 the Soviet forces and their agents were driven out of 
Latvia, we were in a position to establish a balance of losses in human 
lives during the one year of Soviet occupation. Thousands of Latvians 
had been persecuted, imprisoned, and murdered for the simple reason 
that they had remained true to their country, had opposed Soviet 
aggression, and had refused to accept the Soviet-imposed Communist 
dictatorship. Further, 35,000 persons had been deported for the same 
political reasons to the Soviet concentration camps in Siberia. 

In 1944-45 Soviets reoccupied Latvia and reintroduced Communist 
regime wliich, to this day, is maintained in power only with the help of 
Khrushchev and his troops in Latvia. 

As to the second part of yoiu: question the facts, as far as Latvia 
is concerned, are as follows: 

There are no political freedoms in Latvia whatsoever, and the 
Latvian people to this day are deprived of the right to elect a free 
government of their own choice; there is no freedom of speech, of 
press, nor of association; there is no freedom of movement within 
the country, and people cannot change their residence without the 
permission of the police; there is no freedom to leave the country and 
the number of those who have been able to leave the country within 
the last fifteen years is insignificant; there is most certamly present a 
regime of fear — people dare not go to church for fear that this may 
harm their position as far as their jobs, educational opportunities, 
and even their living facilities are concerned. People dare not corre- 
spond freely for fear of censorship and persecution. 

Mass deportations have been replaced by "voluntary" compulsory 
transfer of young Latvians to Khrushchev's virgin lands in 
Kazakhstan. Many thousand young Latvians have been compelled 
to go and many more will have to follow, not just for a few years, but, 
as the Communist publications in Latvia openly state, "for good, 
to spend all their lives there." 

In spite of Communist assertions to the contrary, Khrushchev's 
regime hi Moscow interferes through its agents in every branch of 
Latvian life. They are the so-called deputy ministers, of which every 
minister has one or two; in many instances they are Russians sent 
from Russia, and their names do not appear in the official list 
of members of government submitted for formal approval to the 
Supreme Soviet of Latvia. 

Latelj", several Latvian Communist functionaries have fallen in 
disgrace because they had dared to oppose tlie Khrushchev line that 
Latvian interests and Latvian economic resources should be sacrificed 
for the benefit of Russia. 

While the Latvian Communist press and the Riga radio gave only 
a brief notice that Deputy Prime Minister Berklavs had been released 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 9 

from his duties, reasons for his release were disclosed only in the 
Russian press. Berklavs had been accused of having put Latvian 
interests ahead of those of Moscow; according to "Premier" Lacis, 
Berklavs had been striving toward autocracy and nationalistic 
tendencies and had proposed that Latvian products be distributed 
mainly in Latvia instead for Moscow. In the eyes of Lacis, such 
proposals would have brought harm to the general interests of Moscow, 
as well as to the Latvian people. 

Another victim is the so-called chairman of Latvian trade unions 
(there are no trade unions in Latvia of the kind that exist in the free 
world) Pinksis, who had objected against sending of Latvian workers 
to the Soviet Union to work there. 

According to the latest information, also the first secretary and 
many others of the Latvian Komsomol have been released from their 
posts. All these and similar steps prove to what extent the Soviet 
Union, under Khrushchev, is trying to exploit Latvia if even Latvian 
Communists have had to protest. 

All this is happening in Latvia under Khrushchev, and I am asking 
on what facts do the columnists base tlieir statements about the 
alleged improvements. The only improvements of some kind are as 
far as the food and clothing situation is concerned, which, until 
recently, was catastrophic. 

But even these improvements are accessible only to those who are 
in possession of means to buy the commodities available. 

Mr. Arens. Dr. Masens, some few days ago when Khrushchev was 
welcomed to the White House for this formal dinner, he was accom- 
panied by a General Zakharov. Do you have any information 
respecting General Zakharov? 

Dr. Masens. According to newspaper accounts of that event, the 
name of the person you referred to is Maj. Gen. N. S. Zakharov. 
Again according to the press, General Zakharov, a Russian native of 
Novgorod, in Russia, had been Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs 
in Latvia in 1945, and had risen swiftly in the intelligence and security 
police ranks. 

According to the Latvian newspaper "Laiks" in New York, Sep- 
tember 16, 1959, Zakharov is an experienced Chekist who, from 1947 
to 1949, had been deputy chief of NKVD in Latvia. Those famihar 
with Communist tactics in subjugated countries are aware that one 
of the fii'st tasks of Moscow is to send to the newly occupied countries 
their most experienced Chekists as deputy ministers of internal affairs. 
Their task is to organize a well-functioning Cheka for purposes of 
carrying out deportations and of terrorizing the local population. 
Such men had the power over lives and deaths of the people and they 
were usually the most dreaded persons. 

Mr. Arens. Can you kindly tell us, based upon your background 
and experience, what the reaction will be in your native land of 
Latvia when the Communist-controlled presses there feature pictures 
of Khrushchev and General Zakharov being welcomed at the White 
House? 

Dr. Masens. Latvians, the same as all captive people, ever since 
their subjugation by international communism have been looking to 
the United States as their main hope for the restoration of theu' freedom. 



10 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

They follow with due concern international events and react to such 
events according to what extent they are favorahle or unfavorable to 
the cause of their liberation. They wholeheartedly w^elcomed the 
proclamation of the Captive Nations Week in July 1959 in the United 
States, w^hich, owing to violent Communist attacks, became known 
all over the world. 

When, however, they learn that representatives of the alien Com- 
munist regime, whose iron grip they feel every day, have managed to 
obtain prerogatives of privileged guests in the free w^orld, how could 
they feel otherwise but sad, discouraged, and disappointed? They 
know the true face of communism and who is responsible for their 
misery and oppression, as well as for the tension and insecurity in the 
world. They would deeply regret should their Communist masters 
be hailed in the free world as their leaders or peacemakers, none of 
which they are. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat happened in Latvia when General Zakharov 
was Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs? 

Dr. Masens. As I mentioned earlier, in all Soviet subjugated 
countries at that time. Ministries of Internal Affairs issued orders for 
deportations and generally were in charge of all repressive measures 
against the civilian population. According to Latvian press and 
other reliable information at the time when Zakharov was in Latvia, 
there took place large-scale persecutions and deportations — in 1945 
after the reoccupation of Latvia and again in 1949. As is well known, 
in 1949, at the height of the forced collectivization drive ordered by 
Moscow in Latvia, mass deportations and persecutions particularly 
affected farmers and their families, as well as other nationalist circles 
of Latvia. According to some sources, the number of those deported 
in 1949 had reached almost 200,000 persons, many of whom had died 
in Siberian concentration camps and many of whom are still in Siberia. 

Mr. Arens. Khrushchev has frequently protested the missile sites 
which the free world has developed as a shield in various sections of 
the world. Do you have any information respecting the establish- 
ment by the international Communist conspiracy of bases on your 
native soil in Latvia? 

Dr. Masens. Khrushchev's assertions that Soviet Russia has liqui- 
dated its military bases on territory of other states are not true. It 
is a well-known fact that they maintain military and naval bases on 
the territory of Latvia and in the other Baltic States. These bases 
were established there in 1939 when they were forced upon the neutral 
Baltic States by Moscow, and since that time they have been further 
expanded particularly by installing large submarine bases and shelters 
and powerful coastal fortifications. These bases constitute a threat 
to the free nations, particularly to the Scandinavian countries. Not 
so long ago the Swedish seismogi'aphic stations had registered heavy- 
underwater explosions in the Baltic Sea which caused in the Scandi- 
navian countries gi'ave concern. Khrushchev's deeds also in this 
respect do not correspond with his propaganda for the Baltic Sea as 
a "Sea of Peace." 

A few years ago in the vicinity of the Latvian coast, near Liepaja, 
an American plane was shot down by the Soviets, another American 
plane was later attacked near Ventsjjils, Latvia. 

!Mr. Arens. Is there freedom of religion in the Baltic States? 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSIICHEV 11 

Dr. Masens. As far as religion is concerned in Latvia, there was 
lip to quite recently a little more freedom than in the Soviet Union. 
Xow the situation has deteriorated in that respect. 

]Mr. Arens. Under whose regime? 

Dr. Ma SENS. Under Khrushchev. For instance, this year the 
archbishop's cathedral in Riga has been turned into a museum, and 
there are rumors that the same fate is awaiting many other churches. 
The remaining pastors — not a large number any more — are no longer 
permitted to visit other parishes. At the big Catholic festival in 
Aglona attended this year by 20,000 people only two local priests had 
been present. Previously clergy could go and preach in different 
parishes, but now they can do so only in their own parislies. 

The same applies to the choirs. Previously some Baptist parishes 
had very well-known choirs. They are invited to participate in 
religious ceremonies in many parts of the country, but now it is 
forbidden. They can only appear in their own parish. 

Communists are trymg also to abolish in Latvia many religious 
ceremonies, such as funerals, confirmations, weddings, and All Souls 
Day, and have replaced them by some type of civilian ccrem.onies. 
According to Latvian Communist press, particular attention is being 
paid just now to the campaign against the above religious ceremonies 
and against the influence of the church. 

Mr. Arexs. What percentage of the population of Latvia is 
Communist? 

Dr. Masens. In spite of almost twenty years of Soviet domination 
in Latvia, the Communist Party is as unpopular under Khrushchev 
as it was under Stalin. According to Latvian Communist press the 
total membership of Communist Party in Latvia in 1959 amounts to 
61,414 out of which only 18,500, or less than one percent of the total 
population are Latvians. The rest are Russians, members of Soviet 
armed forces stationed in Latvia and all sorts of Russian experts, 
deputies, and advisers sent from Moscow for the pm-pose of super- 
vising the execution of its orders by the local authorities. There are 
districts in Latvia where there are no local Communist Party groups 
at all. If you would add to the number of Latvian Communist 
Party members another 18,500 persons with vested interests in the 
maintenance of the Communist dictatorship that would represent the 
total number of Communist population of Latvia. 

Mr. Arens. If there were free elections in Latvia, would the 
Communists be returned to power? 

Dr. Masens. They wouldn't have the slightest chance in free 
elections. Latvian people, in spite of tremendous pressure on the 
part of Soviets, have conserved their national traits and pride, as 
well as the traditional trend towards the West. They are among the 
best allies of the free world and deserve all the political and diplomatic 
support in their struggle for the restoration of theh freedom and 
independence. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Dr. Masens. 



The Chairman. Call your next witness, please, Mr. Arens. 

Dr. Sidzikauskas, you do solenmly swear that the testimony you 
are about to give this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Sidzikauskas. I do. 



12 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

STATEMENT OF VACLOVAS SIDZIKAUSKAS 

Mr, Arens. Please identify yourself by name. 

Mr. SiDziKAusKAS. My name is Vaclovas Sidzikauskas. 

Mr. Arens. What is your occupation? 

Mr. SiDZiKAUSKAS. Since 1950, I have been a permanent resident 
of the United States. I studied law at the University of Moscow 
during the First World War, then in Bern, and then in Lithuania. 

Most of my life I spent in the diplomatic service of my country. 
I was diplomatic representative of Lithuania in Bern, Switzerland, and 
for ten years Minister Plenipotentiary in Berlin, Germany, and also 
in Vienna and Budapest. 

In 1931 I was transferred to London. I was Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary at the Court of St. James and at the same time I represented my 
country in The Hague. I was the delegate for my country to the 
League of Nations and I also acted as an agent of my government at 
the Permanent Court of International Justice at The Hague in 1931 
and 1932. 

Before World War II, I was in my country, Lithuania, as a manager 
of the Shell Company of Lithuania. I happened to be in Lithuania 
and witnessed the taking over of Lithuania by the Soviet military 
forces in June 1940. Then I was apprehended by the NKVD in 
December of 1940. I hid myself for two months and then I succeeded 
in escapmg at the risk of my life to Germany, which was the only 
possibility. There I was arrested by the Gestapo because they accused 
me of being anti-Nazi and having been "too sharp" at the Inter- 
national Court of The Hague where I defended the rights of my 
country to Klaipeda (Memel) territory. The German Gestapo 
accused me also of having intention to annex Prussian Lithuania 
(Tilsit region) . 

The assistant to Himmler, Heydrich, put me in the concentration 
camp of Auschwitz. I was free from Auschwitz after twenty months 
and then I had to stay in Berlin. It was my assigned residence, and I 
had to report every day to the police. 

In Berlin I established contact with the Lithuanian underground 
in my country. I visited several times and for the last time I was in 
Lithuania in May 1944, just before the arrival of the Soviet troops. 
I became the chairman of the Lithuanian liberation underground 
organization abroad. Then I was chairman of the political committee 
of the Supreme Committee for Liberation of Lithuania. When the 
Russian troops approached Berlin I escaped to Bavaria. There I was 
liberated by the Americans. 

Since that time, I was working with the political committee of the 
Supreme Committee for Liberation of Lithuania and, since April 1947, 
was chairman of its executive council. 

In 1949 I was on a good will mission here in the United States. In 
1950 I emigi'ated to this country. Here I became the cliairman of 
the Committee for a Free Lithuania, and since the establishment of . 
the Assembly of Captive European Nations, I have been chairman [J 
of the Lithuanian Delegation to this body and I was for four years the 
chairman of its political committee. Now I am still chairman of the 
Committee for a Free Lithuania and chairman of the Lithuanian 
Delegation to the Assembly of Captive European Nations. 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 13 

Mr. Arens. Do you, sir, have present sources of information 
pertaining to the current situation in the Baltic States? 

Mr. SiDZiKAUSKAS. Yes, I do. There are some official and public 
sources, and there are also others which I cannot reveal, so that I am 
quite informed about all happenings in Lithuania. 

Mr. Arens. Would you proceed at your own pace to tell us what 
is the situation and what has been the situation in the Baltic States 
Bince Kiirushchev assumed command of the international Communist 
apparatus? 

Mr. SiDZiKAUSKAS. The Lithuanian people consider Khrushchev, 
who has been and is a member of the ruling clique of tlie Kremlin, 
as being co-responsible for all the crimes committed by the Soviet 
Government against the Lithuanian State and the Lithuanian people. 
That means a breach of the Peace Treaty, the Non-Aggression Pact, 
and other legal and political commitments of the U.S.S.R.; military 
invasion and occupation, suppression of the mdependence and freedom, 
mass murders, mass deportations of large portions of the population to 
Siberia, the forced Sovietization of the country, and economic exploi- 
tation of the resources and manpower of Lithuania. 

At the 20th congress of the Communist Party, Khrushchev im- 
plicitly endorsed the crimes of Stalin with regard to Lithuania. 
While denouncing some of Stalin's crimes, among them the annihila- 
tion of some ethnic groups in Crimea and the Caucasus, he was silent 
about the crimes committed by Stalin against the Baltic States. 

Khrushchev continues the policy of the Kremlin inaugurated in the 
time of Stalin, which consists in the continuous suppression of political 
liberty, of independence and freedom of Lithuania and other Baltic 
States. 

Even in the last article published in the Foreign Aifairs magazine 
he still pretends that Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia are integral parts 
of the Soviet Union. 

Khrushchev is continuing to apply measures tending to destruction 
of the national identity of the Lithuanian people. These measures 
are: 

(a) Physical — deportations, though not on mass scale, and not per- 
mitting the people who have been deported by hundreds of thousands 
to Siberia to return (the number of those who were permitted to return, 
is insignificant) ; organizing and practicing of the so-called "voluntary" 
deportations of the Lithuanian youth for the cultivation of virgin lands 
in Kazakhstan — recently particularly young girls are affected by this 
measure; colonization by Russians imported from various regions of 
the Soviet Union, especially of the larger cities of Lithuania. 

All these measures affect and endanger the physical survival of the 
Lithuanian nation. 

{h) Moral — the "Khrushchevification" or intellectual decapitation 
of the nation. I have in mind recent reforms of education which have 
been now introduced in captive Lithuania under Khrushchev, where 
students are exempt from the control of influence of their parents and 
put in special boarding schools and subjugated to intense Communist 
mdoctrination, in accordance with the precept of Lenin who once said: 
"Give me a child of eight years, and he will be made for all his life a 
Communist." 

It is rather a peculiar phenomenon that patriotic feeling is particu- 
larly strong among the younger generation that has grown up in 



14 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

Lithuania under the Communist regime. In order to kill and eradi- 
cate this feeling, Khrushchev introduced drastic educational reform 
in Lithuania and, I think, the same is also true in other Baltic States. 

Then there is the distortion and denigration of history of Lithuania 
and glorification of Russia and of its role in the world. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you a rather cynical question? 

Are Lithuania and the Sovit Union now at peace? 

Mr. SiDziKAUSKAS. No. Lithuania has tried in vain to coexist 
with its Russian neighbor. 

I neglected to say that, while Minister in London in 1933, on July 5 
I personally signed the Pact on Definition of Aggression with Mr. 
Litvinov, Commissar for Foreign Affairs. We did everything to be 
at peace with Russia, to coexist. By entering into the secret deal 
with Hitler in August and September 1939, U.S.S.R. committed an 
act of aggression against Lithuania, and then invaded her by its 
armed forces. Since that time Lithuanian people consider themselves 
being at a state of war with Russia. 

Mr. Arens. Is peaceful coexistence with the Kremlin possible? 

Mr. SiDziKAusKAS. Our experience shows it is not possible. Our 
experience shows it is only possible as long as it suits the interests of 
the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. What wUl be the reaction in your native land when 
the Communist publications feature these pictures of Khrushchev in 
the White House and Khrushchev meeting the top officials in this 
country? 

Mr. SiDZiKAusKAS. The impact will be disastrous, if you consider 
that a quarter of the Lithuanian nation is here in America. About a 
million Lithuanians are citizens of America, and their contact with 
their relatives in captive Lithuania is very close. 

The population of Lithuania is about three million. The hope of 
all Lithuanians, of the younger generation and of all the patriots, is 
that America will help to liberate Lithuania. It is the temper of the 
situation. 

After what happened in Hungary, according to my information 
from the country, there is a great disappointment with the West. 
And when the Voice of America became less effective in combatting 
communism and Soviet imperialism, the belief in the sincerity of 
Western declarations began declining. I feel, therefore, that the fact 
that Khrushchev was received in this country as a guest and was 
honored as a head of the Soviet Union which suppressed the liberty 
of the Lithuanian nation, will have a negative impact on the morale 
of the captive Lithuanian people. 

Mr. Arens. Your people have seen or experienced communism in 
the raw, communism in action. Your people know communism from 
first-hand experience and first-hand suffering. 

Now I should like to ask you a few questions based on that experi- 
ence. 

It is asserted in certain ofRcial quarters in this Nation that Khrush- 
chev's visit here to the United States will be a good thing because 
Khrushchev will look around the country and see our refrigerators 
and see our factories and see a peaceful, happy country, and somehow 
decide that he does not want to pursue the goal of international 
communism and take over the world. 

What is your reaction to that suggestion? 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 15 

Mr. SiDziKAusKAS. I would say communism is a woll-establislied 
doctrine of government and it is mistaken, in my opinion, to think or 
believe that one or other persons, be it Bulganin or Malenkov, would 
change anything. They might change eventually some methods or 
tactical approaches but not the essence which lies in the very nature 
of communism itself. 

There are those who have the illusion that when Khrushchev sees 
the freedom in practice, that will somehow have a positive effect on 
his way of thmldng, but I think that this expectation is totally unreal- 
istic. 

Mr. Arens. In the past few days, Khrushchev has repeatedly, 
almost to the extent of monotony, called for peace and complete 
disarmament in the course of the next four years. Is it not good to 
have these protestations of peace so forcibly annomiced by Mr. 
Klirushchev? 

Mr. SiDZiKAusKAS. The protestations of peace by Khrushchev 
remind me of the similar protestations of Hitler before the outbreak 
of World War II. At each rally he always protested his desire for 
peace. Remember "Peace in Our Time" — paper brought to London 
by Neville Chamberlain and what happened then? 

Protestations of peace are proper to all totalitarians. It is the 
same method that is now used by Khrushchev. 

Russian armed forces stay in the heart of Europe. What are their 
present aims? Peace? 

But what does "peace" mean in Russian terms? It means Western 
acquiescence and acceptance of Soviet conquests. Therefore, they 
oppose the raising of the question of Central Eastern Europe, be it. 
in the United Nations or summit conference or other international 
negotiations. If this standing is accepted by the West, Klirushchev 
is willing to coexist with the West. 

And what does "coexist" mean in Russian terms? 

As Khrushchev interprets it, the present Soviet grip over Lithuania 
and other captive European countries is an inescapable fact of his 
"history" ; therefore, the West has no right to toucli his colonial empire. 
As to the free part of the world, Khrushchev is against the status quo 
and is for something he calls "ideological competition," meaning free- 
dom for communism to make new conquests by subversion. 

These are my remarks on the meaning of Khrushchev's protesta- 
tions of peace and coexistence. Thes6 protestations are destined to 
mislead the world's opinion. 

I submit that the word peace has been too much accentuated and 
misused during Khrushchev's visit in this country. What we and 
the world want and need, is freedom. Let's have freedom, and we 
shall have peace. 

As to the disarmament scream of Khrushchev, there is nothing 
new to it. 

As a delegate of my country to the League of Nations in 1927, 1 was 
present personally at the meeting where the same proposal was made 
by Gromyko's predecessor, M. Litvinov, who screamed: "Let's dis- 
arm completelyl" Yet in the next year's congress of the Comintern 
the Soviet leaders avowed themselves that this was only a tactical 
maneuver in order to create confusion and to mislead the world's 
public opinion. 



16 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

Mr. Arens. May I inquire about the other side of the coin, based 
on your experience of communism in action? 

Certain of the officialdom in this country have repeatedly, with 
great emphasis, announced our peaceful intentions toward Khrushchev 
and his international regime of Communist-controlled satellites over 
the world. 

Isn't that a good thing? 

Mr. SiDziKAUSKAS. We are gratified and it is a great comfort for us 
that the policy of nonrecognition of the status quo created by Soviet 
Union in Central Europe has been reaffirmed, even recently by the 
responsible authorities of this country, and we hope that the question 
of the restoration of the independence and freedom of our nations will 
be raised in the conversations with Khrushchev, because what is at 
stake is the question of the European settlement and, as Khrushchev 
admitted, too, the political liquidation of World War II. But what 
does tJie political liquidation of World War II really mean? 

There are two European problems, the solution of which is long 
overdue. 

One is the problem of Germany — the other the problem of Central 
Eastern Europe. 

Nine European states that had been sovereign and independent 
at the outbreak of World War II have been transformed into Soviet 
colonies. This situation is a permanent threat to peace or, say, one 
of the major causes of international tension. 

Every Eiu-opean settlement must include the problem of the uni- 
fication of Germany, whereby the problem of Berlin will solve itself, 
as well as that of the restoration of the independence and freedom 
of the formerly sovereign states of Central Eastern Em-ope, including 
Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. 

Mr. Arens. What is the situation of Lithuania under Khrushchev's 
regime with reference to the church? 

Mr. SiDZiKAUSKAS. Lithuanians, as you probably know, are pre- 
dominantly Roman Catholic and on the whole very religious people. 
The situation of the chiu-ch today is very difficult. There is no 
religious freedom. Some churches are open, but some were closed 
or turned into storehouses or museums. Thus, for instance, the 
famous Cathedral of Vilnius, capital of Lithuania, has been tm-ned 
into a museum. 

Under Khrushchev, the atheistic Communist propaganda is espe- 
cially accentuated. Officially, Roman Catholic Chm-ch is tolerated, 
but practically its functioning is made as difficult as possible. Theo- 
retically, people are free to attend churches, but in practice church- 
going people are submitted to all kinds of discrimination. Workers, 
employees, or meml^crs of Communist organizations, if they go to 
church, have to watch their step. They will be ridiculed, reprimanded, 
and may even lose their jobs. And losing one's job in Communist 
society means starvation. And yet people dare to defy this pressure 
and practice their religion. 

Recently a young Lithuanian man, member of the Communist 
youth organization of Lithuania, was married in chm'ch. The chair- 
man of his organization attended the wedding as a witness. Great 
was the scandal. The newspapers took it up, widely discussing the 
"crime" and calling the careless man all kinds of names, such as 
"reactionist," "blackguard," etc. 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 17 

The very existence of churches in Soviet-occupied Lithuania is 
extremely difficult because heavy taxes must be paid by the faithful 
for the maintenance of the churches. 

The teaching of religion is excluded from all schools; they are not 
permitted to possess religious books. Under Khi'ushchev's rule, the 
religious persecution has been even more intensified. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any knowledge as to the economic 
exploitation in the Baltic States under Khrushchev? 

Mr. SiDZiKAUSKAS. The economic exploitation is going on. Khru- 
shchev made the "decentralization" of economics; that is what he 
called it, but practically it is merely a deconcentration of economy, 
shifting the responsibility for the execution of the Moscow-prescribed 
economic plan on local occupational authorities. The illusion that 
this measure would take more care of the needs of the local population, 
was soon dissipated. Those in captive Lithuania who tried to prac- 
tice "national communism" in the field of economics were soon dis- 
missed. Even a law has been issued to the effect thafe those who will 
not strictly execute the Moscow-engineered economic plan and would 
disregard the needs of the Soviet Union and the so-called sister 
republics, will be severely punished. All that means that priority 
is to be given to the needs of the Soviet master and the so-called sister 
republics and only what is left is for yom- own country and for your 
own people. 

To give you only some figures. In the seven-year plan announced 
by Khrushchev, the Soviet Union is to take from Lithuania 26,110,- 
000,000 rubles; and from that amount, they will reinvest in Lithuania 
only 12,500,000,000 rubles. That means that in this seven years 
13,610,000,000 rubles are to go for the benefit of the Soviet Union. 
Thus, those who pretend that the situation has improved or changed 
are wrong, because the economic exploitation of Lithuania's resources 
continues to be practiced in captive Lithuania, The so-called govern- 
ment of captive Lithuania is composed of people who were selected 
by Moscow, not because of their qualifications, but rather because of 
their obediency to the Kremhn. They have not changed. They 
had been under Stahn and are still now kept in power under Khru- 
shchev. I am positive that basically similiar situation prevails in 
Estonia and Latvia. The economic misery resulting from the ruth- 
less measures of the occupying power is equally a factor contributing 
to the destruction of the national identity of the Lithuanian people. 

Mr. Arens. If there were free elections in Lithuania tomorrow, 
would a Communist regime be retained in power? 

Mr. SiDZiKAUSKAS. I have no doubt whatsoever that, if there were 
free elections in Lithuania, 98 percent — and maybe more— would vote 
against communism. In 1940, just before the Soviet invasion, the 
Communist Party in Lithuania numbered 1,500 members, and even 
they were chiefly members of minority groups, not Lithuanians. 

Mr. Arens. Out of what population? 

Mr, SiDZiKAUSKAS. Around thi'ce million. 

At the present time, according to recent statistics from Lithuania, 
the Communist Party numbers 49,114 members. In the Central 
Committee of the Lithuanian Communist Party, 20 percent are 
Russians. So the Communist element in Lithuania is insignificant 
in terms of numbers. 



18 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

Because of the rather conservative character of the Lithuanian 
people — the word "conservative" I use in good sense — because of 
traditions of Hberty and long independent statehood, patriotism 
and attachment to religion, the Communists have not succeeded in 
making sensible inroads. Under Khrushchev's rule, as I said, the 
Soviets are attempting to apply new methods which, in the long run, 
if the alien occupation will last, could eventually bring about the 
destruction of national identity of the Lithuanian nation. 

Mr. Arens. Klirushcl'.ev, in his addresses around the country, has 
portrayed his society of communism as a society which can be ac- 
cepted or rejected in a kind of popularity contest with freedom. 

How do the Communists maintain themselves in power in your 
country? 

Mr. SiDziKAusKAS. Only by Soviet bayonets and tanks. All the 
bragging of Khrushchev that, in the Communist system, the people 
are the decisive factor, is a big lie. It is true that the Soviet Con- 
stitution provides for a possibility of secession. But this is only a 
trick ad usum delphini. When one American journalist asked Stalin 
whether the so-called Soviet Republics could secede, his answer was: 
"Let them try, and they will see what will happen to them." Ex- 
ample — Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. Is the free world in a popularity contest with the 
Communist world? 

Mr. SiDziKAusKAS. In my opinion, there is no comparison possible 
of the Communist and free-world systems. The free-world system 
is a free society of men, wliere all stems from the "wdll of the people. 
There, in the Communist world, the ruling clique does not need the 
support of the people; there is no freedom whatsoever; there are no 
elections as the West understands them, and the public opinion has 
no bearing on the rulers. Everything is ordered by dictators. The 
present Communist regime in captive Lithuania has been imposed 
by the Soviet Union and is maintained in power only thanks to the 
protection of the Soviet armed forces. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Sidzikauskas. 

(Thereupon, at 3:05 p.m., Monday, September 21, 1959, the 
consultations were concluded.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Fag« 

Berklavs (Edvards K.) 8,9 

Biilganin (Nikolai) 15 

Chamberlain, Neville 3, 15 

Gromy ko (Andrei) 15 

Heydrich (Reinhard) 12 

Himmler (Heinrich) 12 

Hitler (Adolf) 3, 14, 15 

Khrushchev, Nikita vi, 1-3, 7-11, 13-18 

Lacis(Vilis) 9 

Lenin (V. I.) 13 

Litvinov, Maxim 14, 15 

Malenkov (Georgi) 15 

Masens, Vilis 1, 2, 5-11 (statement) 

Pinksis (I.) 9 

Sidzikauskas, Vaclovas 2, 3, 7, 12-18 (statement) 

Stalin (Josef) 1, 2, 7, 11, 13, 17, 18 

Zakharov, N. S 2, 9, 10 

Organizations 

Assembly of Captive European Nations 1, 6, 7, 12- 

Latvian Delegation 1, 6 

Lithuanian Delegation • 2, 12 

Comintern. {See International, III.) 

Committee for a Free Latvia (New York) 6 

Committee for a Free Lithuania (New York) 2, 12 

Communist Party: 

Latvia H 

Lithuania 17 

Central Committee 17 

Soviet Union, 20th Party Congress, February 1956 2, 13 

International, III (also known as Comintern) Sixth World Congress, July 

17 to September 1, 1928, Moscow 15 

Laiks (newspaper) 9 

Latvian Komsomol (Communist Youth League) 9 

Supreme Committee for Liberation of Lithuania 12 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Government of: 
Secret Police: 

Cheka 9 

NKVD 9 



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