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THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

PART 6 



CONSULTATIONS WITH 
Mr. Rusi Nasar 
Mr. Ergacsh Schermatoglu 
Mr. Constant Mierlak 

Dr. VlTAUT TUMASH 

Mr. Anton Shukeloyts 

COMMITTEE ON W-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 
FIRST SESSION 




DECEMBER 17; 1959 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
48408 • WASHINGTON : 1960 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Staff Director 
U 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 1 

December 17, 1959: Testimony of — • 

Mr. Rusi Nasar 7 

Mr. Ergacsh Schermatoglu 7 

Mr. Constant Mierlak 14 

Dr. Vitaut Tumash _. 18 

Mr. Anton Shukeloyts 24 

Index J 

III 



Public Law COl, TOtii Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, TOth Congress [194G], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of Amefica in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
***** * • 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities, to con.si!!>t of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Tiie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a wliole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) tbe extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (iii) all otlier questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, tlie Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related Igislation as it may be deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

IV 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 
• *«**** 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress. 

iii « * * * * * 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcom- 
mittee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United 
States, (2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-Ameri- 
can propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin 
and attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our 
Constitution, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid 
Congress in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such in- 
vestigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

2G. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and In 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the sub- 
ject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

V 



* * * we say to the gentlemen who are waiting to see 
whether the Soviet Union will change its political pro- 
gram: "Wait for a blue moon I And you know when 
that will be. 

Nikita Khrushchev in a speech at Nov. 24, 1955, 
Indian-Soviet Society reception in Bombay. 



VI 



THE CRI31ES OF KHRUSHCHEV 



SYNOPSIS 



Hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children are being 
forcibly resettled in Siberia and Turkistan from the Baltic States, the 
Ukraine, and Byelorussia (White Russia) under Khrushchev's "Vir- 
gin Land Policy," witnesses stated in the accompanying consultation 
with the Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Eusi Nasar and Ergacsh Schermatoglu, from Turkistan, which 
was forcibly taken over by the Communists and which is located 
within the Asian part of the Soviet Union, described the wholesale 
brutality being inflicted on masses of humanity within the Soviet 
empire in effectuating Khrushchev's policies of forced deportation. 

"After 1953, 1954, when Khrushchev's colonization policy began, 
about 1,500,000 people came to Turkistan from the European part of 
the Soviet Union," ]NIr. Schermatoglu stated. 

Continuing, he said : 

They brought in various peoples : for example, from Rus- 
sia, from the Ukraine, from Byelorussia, from the Baltic 
countries, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and from Moldavia. 

"\Alien Khrushchev was the Communist boss in the LTkraine (from 
1938 to 1949), he deported from the LTkraine into Turkistan nearly 
one million people, Mr. Nasar testified. He continued: 

They were forcibly sent to Turkistan. Here, with one 
stone, Khrushchev beat two of his enemies. First, he sent 
anti-Soviet enemies from the Ukraine. Those people who 
were sent to the other country, not only lost the opportunity 
to resist Soviet oppression in the Ukraine, but when they 
came to Turkistan, a different country with different living 
conditions and a different cultural background, of course they 
were antagonistic. 

Commenting on the comparative brutality of Khrushchev's Virgin 
Land Policy, with the inhumanities in the forcible deportations prac- 
ticed by Stalin, Mr. Schermatoglu testified: 

Brutality has very much increased, even as compared to 
the Stalin regime. Under Khrushchev it has increased 
strongly. 

iti * Mft jf * 

The brutality and cunning efficiency of Khrushchev's 
Virgin Land Policy may be reflected, in a sense, by looking at 
the statistics. Durmg Stalin's regime, notwithstanding the 
unspeakable ruthlessness with which this tyrant promulgated 
Lis policies, there were develoj^ed 174 State-controlled agri- 

1 



2 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

cultural enterprises, which means that there were 174 distinct 
forced labor camps in which the workers were, in effect, 
slaves for the State. Since Khrushchev assumed power, the 
statistics show that this number of forced State-owned agri- 
cultural enterprises has increased to almost 900. 

May I emphasize that these statistics cannot illustrate or 
convey the hmnan suffering, the deprivation of liberty, and 
the inhumanity which is involved in these forced deportations 
and forced resettlements of human beings in our former home- 
land. Remember, the fact is that these resettlements are car- 
ried out at the threat of the lives of the men, women, and 
children who are transported thousands of miles and resettled 
in a strange land, within the shadow of the Soviet military 
force and under the ever watchful eye of the secret police. 

With reference to the number of forced labor camps in the Soviet 
Republic of Turkistan, Mr. Schermatoglu continued : 

The exact number of concentration camps we camiot say, 
because it is a Soviet State secret. But eveiy one of these 
agricultural enterprises has forced labor brigades. In a 
sense, our entire homeland is a forced labor camp, in that it 
is operated under an iron-fisted dictatorship from Moscow. 
Beyond that, however, within the borders of our homeland, 
Turkistan, there operate numerous groups known as labor 
brigades, which are nothing but slave labor groups involving 
hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children who are 
shifted from area to area to perform labor tasks. 

Again I say, Khrushchev and his bloody regime may dis- 
pute the existence of slave labor camps because they are not 
called slave labor camps, but for all intents and purposes 
they have every element of a slave labor camp, including 
starvation, brutalities, the infliction of death upon those who 
do not conform to the rigid discipline, the deprivation of 
human liberty, and all of the other elements which were pres- 
ent in the slave labor camps as they were formerly character- 
ized in the regime of Stalin. 

Constant Mierlak, national president of the Byelorussian- American 
Association, and Dr. Vitaut Tumash, chairman of the Byelorussian 
Institute of Arts and Sciences in the United States, portrayed 
Khrushchev's program for annihilation of the Byelorussian nation 
consisting of non-Russian people in Byelorussia (White Russia). 

Speaking of Khrushchev's plan to annihilate the Byelorussian 
nation, Mr. Mierlak stated : 

* * * The original plan was conceived and carried on by 
Stalin, with terror and physical destruction, by mass shoot- 
ings, deportations to concentration camps, where people died 
from cold, malnutrition, and hardship, and other similar 
means. The same policy is now pursued by Mr. Khrushchev, 
only with different applied methods. 

Mr. Khrushchev does not deport people to concentration 
camps for destruction, but he resettles them in Kazakhstan 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 3 

and in other Siberian lands, thus denationalizing the other 
nations and depopulating Byelorussia. Furthermore, he 
sends Kussians in place of the resettled Byelorussians. 

Mr. Khrushchev, to carry on Russification and assimilation 
in Byelorussia, does not change the Byelorussian grammar 
like Stalin did, but he reduces Byelorussian schools and, at 
the same time, is increasing the Eussian ones. He reduces 
Byelorussian publications, but, at the same time increases the 
Russian ones; and the same pattern is followed in all 
branches of cultural, economical, and social life in Byelo- 
russia. 

The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic delegation to 
the Fourteenth i\.ssenibly of the United Nations consists of 
eight persons, all of them Russians who do not even speak 
Byelorussian, the language of the people whom they sup- 
posedly represent in the United Nations, except one P. U. 
Brovka, who is Byelorussian and chairman of the Committee 
of the Byelorussian Writers Union. 

Dr. Tumash described the grim realities of Khrushchev's forcible 
deportations in the following statement: 

Today we definitely can say that the rate per year of de- 
portations of Byelorussians to distant lands of the Soviet 
Union during the years of Khrushchev's regime is higher 
than during the time of Stalin's dictatorship. 

Mr. Arens. With what facts can you support that state- 
ment, sir ? 

Dr. Tumash. The deportations of the Byelorussian popu- 
lation in recent years have increased to an extent never before 
known in the history of Byelorussia. These people, hundreds 
of thousands yearly, are transported to the far countries of 
Soviet Asia and the northern European Soviet districts. The 
initiative and design of this deportation plan have come 
directly from Khrushchev as first secretary of the Central 
Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 

•P "I» JJS ^ *{• 5j> !p 

Mass deportation from Byelorussia under Khrushchev's 
dictatorship is a permanent activity. 

Comparing the methods of mass deportation followed by Kliru- 
shchev with those followed by his predecessor, Stalin, Dr. Tumash 
continued : 

There are some differences, but really there is no change in 
principles, no change in goals. One of the differences, to take 
an example, was that when Stalin had these mass deporta- 
tions performed from Byelorussia, his aim was mostly to 
destroy these people physically. He arrested them and sent 
them to concentration camps, where they had to endure and 
worii: under inhuman conditions, and perish. It seems that 
Khrushchev's method is, on the other hand, that he does not 
think about killing the population, but he wants to transfer 

48405'— 60— pt. 6 2 



4 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

it to other regions, to Eiissif y it and to use it for colonization 
of other Kepublics of tlie U.S.S.R. His intent does not seem 
to be to destroy them physically, but nationally, and througli 
this action to make Russians stronger in numbers on the one 
hand, and on the other to decrease the population of the non- 
Eussian Republics, in this case, the Byelorussian population. 

Anton Shukeloyts, one-time member of the Commission for the 
Reconstruction of Churches Destroyed by Communists, testified re- 
specting Khrushchev's antireligious terror. 

Mr. Shukeloyts stated : 

We have to take into account that the Byelorussian people 
have confessed the Christian faith for almost a thousand 
years, yet, as a result of the Connnunist antireligious terror 
at the beginning of the Second World War, there was not a 
single church of the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, 
Protestant, or Jewish denomination in the Avhole territory of 
the Byelorussian S.S.R. There was not a single priest of 
these denominations who could legally perform his religious 
duties. As our commission soon found, the same situation 
also existed in Minsk, the capital of Byelorussia: In this 
city with a population of more than 240,000 we found not a 
single open church regardless of religion. The Orthodox 
cathedral was dynamited, and there was a place for a circus 
on its site. The other church, seat of the metropolitan in 
Minsk, also Orthodox, was turned into a museum, and later 
turned into an amusement club for Soviet officers. What had 
been the body of the church Avas turned into a theater hall. 
In reconstructing this house for the Soviet officers, all the 
marble material was taken out of Catholic, Orthodox, and 
JeAvish cemeteries. 

In the Catholic Cathedral of St. Mary, there was con- 
structed a garage for trucks. 

^p ^p ^* T* ^^ 

Under the Khrushchev dictatorship, the Orthodox 
Cathedral of St. Catherine, which is the oldest one of the 
churches in Minsk, and which was, before the Second World 
War, changed into a warehouse and then reverted again to a 
church by the people during the German occupation, has 
now again been converted, this time into the archives of the 
State. 

The Catholic Cathedral of St. Mary, changed first into a 
garage, but reconstructed under the German occupation by 
the people, has now been converted into a sport club. 

The Catholic Church of Sts. Simeon and Helen, popularly 
called the ''Red Cliurch" because of its color, which before 
the Second World War served as a theater for youth, and 
which was reconstructed by the Byelorussian people during 
the time of German occupation, has now, according to the 
sources we have, been converted again, into a warehouse. 

Tlie principal Jewish synagog in Minsk, which before the 
Second World War was converted into a traveling artists' 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

theater, lias now been completely reconstructed and converted 
into a Russian dramatic theater. Through this reconstruc- 
tion, the building is now so changed that it would take an 
expert to find out that it was formerly a synagog. 

The oldest Jewish synagog in Minsk, built in 1633, is now 
changed into a warehouse. 

The principal Protestant church in Minsk has been con- 
verted into a moving picture theater for children. 

Thousands of churches of all denominations in all other 
cities, towns, and villages of Byelorussia are in similar condi- 
tion today. Many of the destroyed churches were priceless 
ancient relics of the architecture and art of Byelorussia. To 
understand the extent of the destruction of religious life in 
Byelorussia brought on by 40 years of this Communist terror, 
we should consider the fact that this country, which before 
World War I, had about 4,500 Orthodox, about 450 Catholic, 
and TOO Jewish churclies, now has religious services per- 
formed only in several hundred of Orthodox, and a few 
Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish churches. 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 
(Part 6) 



THURSDAY, DECEMBER 17, 1959 
United States House of Representatives, 

C03IMITTEE ON Un-x\mERICAN ACTIVITIES, 

Washington, D.O. 

CONSULTATIONS 

The following consultations began at 2 p.m., in room 226, House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C. 

Committee members present: Hon. Francis E. Walter, of Pennsyl- 
vania (chairman), presiding, and Hon. Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff member present : Richard Arens, staff director. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order and the first wit- 
nesses will be sworn. 

Gentlemen, do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Nasar. I do. 

Mr. Sciiermatoglu. I do. 

STATEMENTS OF MR. RTJSI NASAR AND MR. ERGACSH 

SCHERMATOGLU 

Mr. Arens. Will each of you kindly identify yourself by name, resi- 
dence, and occupation ? 

Mr. Nasar, My name is Rusi Nasar. I am residing at 111 North 
Wayne Street, Arlington, Va. I am at prasent a freelance writer. 

Mr. Sciiermatoglu. My name is Ergacsh Sciiermatoglu, and my 
residence is in Arlington, 1301 North Taft Street. I now do research 
work on problems on Turkistan. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Nasar, will you kindly give us a word about your 
personal background ? 

Mr. Nasar. I was born on January 21, 1918, in the city of Margelan 
in Turkistan. At the present time this city belongs to Uzbek, S.S.R. 
I got my education in public school in my home town, and I graduated 
from the Financial Teclmicum at Tashkent in 1934. I graduated from 
the Textile College at the same city in 1940. 

For a short time I was engaged in engineering work. Then, at the 
end of 1940, 1 was drafted by the Soviet Army. I served in the Soviet 
Army until August 1941. Then I became a German prisoner during 
the Second World War, and I joined in Germany the Turkistan 

7 



8 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

Legion. With this legion I fought against the Soviets until the end 
of World War II in May 1945. 

From 1945 until 1951, 1 was a resident of Germany. I was engaged 
in many political activities in Germany. I came to this country in 
November 1951. 

First I worked for the Voice of America under contract as a free- 
lance writer. After the abolishment of the Turkistan desk at the 
Voice of America in September 1953, I worked at different plants, in 
factories, and I was also engaged in teaching. I was a lecturer at 
Columbia University. Since June 1955, until July of this year, I was 
engaged in research work for the Ling-uistic Association, Washing- 
ton, D.C. After completing the projects there, I am now a freelance 
writer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Schermatoglu, would you kindly let us have a word 
about your personal background ? 

Mr. Schermatoglu. Yes. I am from Uzbekistan. My town is 
Andizhan. I studied in the Pedagogical and Juridical College in 
Tashkent, and in Moscow. I finished in 1936. 

Then I worked in Tashkent as a university teacher until 1940. 
In 1941 I was drafted into the Soviet Anny, and in 1941 during the 
war, at the front, I became a war prisoner m Germany. Then, dur- 
ing the war, I worked in Berlin for the Turkistan radio broadcast 
until the end of the war. 

After the war I lived in West Germany. In West Germany, I did 
research work of a scientific nature. I emigrated to America in 
1958, and since then I have been doing research work concerning 
Turkistan, consisting of area studies. 

Mr. Arens. As a point of departure in our consultation today, 
gentlemen, would you kindly give us the elemental information re- 
specting your former countiy, Turkistan ? 

Mr. Nasar. Today you cannot find even on school maps the name 
of Turkistan. Turkistan, which means "Home of the Turkic people," 
was, when the Soviets took it over, divided into five different Soviet 
Eepublics in 1924, of which it consists today: Uzbekistan, Kazakhs- 
tan, Turkmenistan, Kirghizistan and Tadzhikistan. This was for 
the simple reason that the Soviets' colonial policy is to divide and 
rule. 

The people were strongly opposed to Soviet rule in our country. 
This was the reason the Soviets did divide our country in 1924 and 
make five artificial Republics. Our country is an Asian comitry, and 
the native people of Turkistan are a Turkic-Moslem people. We 
have no racial, linguistic, historical, or cultural relationship with the 
Russians or other Slavic peoples. 

Mr. Arens. How many people are there in the area formerly known 
as Turkistan? 

Mr. Schermatoglu. In the Soviet-occupied Turkistan today, the 
native people number almost 18 million. The total population of 
Turkistan today is about 23 million. 

Mr. Arens. Specifically, where is the area formerly known as 
Turkistan? 

Mr. Schermatoglu. The area of Turkistan is within the Asian 
part of the Soviet Union, behind the Caspian Sea, on its borderland. 
Turkistan borders on Persia and Afghanistan in the south and in 
the east with China and on the north with Siberia. 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 9 

Mr. Arexs. Could you give us a word about the size of the area 
formerly known as Turkistan? 

Mr. ScHERMATOGLu. Tliis area comprises almost 4 million square 
kilometers. 

Mr. Arexs. How would it compare in size with one of the States 
in the United States ? 

Mr. ScHERMATOGLU. I think it would be almost five times as big as 
Texas. 

Mr. Arens. How did the Communists come to power in Turkistan, 
and when ? 

Mr. ScHERMATOGLU. Turkistau was non-Communist until 1917, 
when the Socialist revolution took place in Russia. Turkistan was 
not only non-Communist, but had no Communist Party. Among the 
native people of Turkistan, until 1918, there were no members of the 
Communist Party. In Turkistan there was no revolution, no Com- 
munist or Socialist revolution. But in Russia, in Moscow, they es- 
tablished Soviet power, and this Soviet power, with armed might, 
came to Turkistan. They were successful in conquering the country, 
and with the aid of Soviet anns established in Turkistan a Soviet 
government. 

Mr. Nasar. I might say that the revolution took place in the cen- 
tral part of Russia, in Moscow, in Leningrad, formerly known as 
Petrograd. But in Turkistan, on the contrary, the natives did not 
take any part in the Commmiist revolution. Communist power came 
to Turkistan only with the force of arms, and then they were able 
to take over. 

About this matter I would like to quote from the well-known 
Communist, G. Safarov, who said in his book, "Colonial Revolution 
and Its Practice in Turkestan," the following:. 

Some people needed bread and freedom on cost of old towns and kislilaks 
(villages) . For others — 

he means the Turkestani natives — 

national freedom was as necessary as bread. 

Under the cover of "Virgin Land Policy," Khrushchev deports 
hundreds of thousands of people from the European part of the 
Soviet Union to Turkistan, m order to crush the consolidation of the 
anti-Soviet elements and to strengthen its political and economic 
position in Central Asia. 

In spite of this fact, today in all Soviet literature they say the 
Turkistan native people participated in the revolution. But this is not 
true. The truth is that the Soviet power and rule came to Turkistan 
only with the help of guns, of an army, and an occupational force. 

Mr. Arexs. Xow, gentlemen, with reference to the present situa- 
tion in Turkistan, or in the land which was formerly known as 
Turkistan, can joii give us information respecting Khrushchev's 
policy and program there ? 
^ Mr. Nasar. Khrushchev's policy in Turkistan today is the inten- 
sification of colonization by the Soviets. 

Mr. Arens. "What do you mean by colonization by the Soviets? 

Mr. Nasar. We should first state generally what colonization is. 
Colonization is done from the outside, by one group of people coming 
to take the territory of another people. If I go and take another 
country, I colonize it. 



10 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

The Soviets did that, and they are intensifying their colonization 
in Turkistan. Soviet colonization started when the Soviets came to 
power. They started the colonization of onr country, sending other 
ethnic peoples to our country, with the aim of destroying the national 
life of the Turkistani people. 

Mr. Akens. How many people have been resettled in Turkistan or 
in the area formerly known as Turkistan? 

Mr. Nasar. Of the Soviet Republics of Turkistan, in 1939 
Uzbekistan had a population of only 6,330,000. Today, in 1959, it 
has an 8,113,000 population. Kazakhstan in 1939 had a population 
of 6,904,000. In 1959, it is 9,301,000. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately how many of the people presently in 
the area formerly known as Turkistan are persons who have been 
resettled there by the Communists ? 

Mr. ScHERMATOGLU. After 1953, 1954, when Khrushchev's coloni- 
zation policy began, about 1,500,000 people came to Turkistan from 
the European part of the Soviet Union. 

They brought in various peoples : for example, from Russia, from 
the Ukraine, from Byelorussia, from the Baltic countries, Lithuania, 
Latvia, Estonia, and from Moldavia. 

Mr. Arens. What are their occupations? 

Mr. SciiERMATOGLU. Thosc people who were not Russian people, 
who came to Turkistan, were farmers, worked on the land. 

Mr. Arens. They did agricultural work? 

Mr. Schermatoglu. Their occupation was agriculture. The other 
part of the colonists, the Russians, worked in industry and in admin- 
istration. 

Mr. Arens. When did this colonization of Turkistan begin? 

Mr. Nasar. The colonization of Turkistan began since the Russian 
occupation of Turkistan in the last century. But the colonization be- 
fore the Communists was done by the Czar. During the czarist regime 
the colonization was not intensified. It became this way only under 
the Soviet rule, especially since Khrushchev came into power. 

Mr. Arens. Since Stalin's death, what new means and methods 
has Khrushchev used in the field of colonization ? 

Mr. Nasar. Khrushchev is not calling it colonization, but "Virgin 
Land Policy." 

Mr. Arens. Are these people going voluntarily, willingly, or are 
they forced to go to Turkistan ? 

Mr. Nasar. The Soviet press, or the Soviets, claim that this is vol- 
untar}'; this is the official claim. But we have proof, documented 
proof, that shows that those people are not going voluntarily. 

Mr. Arens. How do the natives react to Khrushchev's colonization 
policy? 

Mr. Schermatoglu. The reaction of the natives started at the be- 
ginning of the colonization; the reaction was negative. Then the 
Soviets came to power and all the natives refused to collaborate with 
the Soviets. Then the Soviets for the first time made a tactical ges- 
ture ; they compromised. They said, "We will send no more colonizers, 
settlers." 

The natives believed this at first, and until 1926 the Soviets did 
indeed not send settlers tliere. When the Soviets started again send- 
ing settlers there for colonization, the natives, not all just anti- 
Communist people, but even native Communists, started opposing 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 11 

Soviet colonization. Even the local Communists would not believe 
what the Kussians promised. With sabotage, with uprisings, with 
many writings in the press, with open protests, they started opposing 
the Soviet colonization policy. 

Some local Communists who had formerly believed the Soviet prom- 
ise took part. For example, Hidir Ali-oglu, who was a Communist 
among the natives and who at first believed the promise, when the 
Soviets again started colonization was forced to commit suicide in 
protest. 

Almost all the representatives of the national intelligentsia during 
the Stalin regime were killed, purged, terrorized. They were accused 
by the Soviets of being nationalist and opposers of the settlers, 

" Mr. Arexs. As is known, from 19?.8 until the end of 1949, Khru- 
shchev was the boss of the Ukraine. Did his activities in the Ukraine 
have any relation to the resettlement of people in Turkistan? 

Mr. Nasar. Yes, it did, quite a lot. We know Khrushchev from 
1938 until the end of 1949 was Communist boss in the Ukraine. At 
this time in the Ukraine there were many purges against the Ukraine 
mitionalists. For example, before the war, he sent many Ukrainian 
nationalists to Turkistan. 

Mr. Arens. How many people did Khrushchev cause to be depoi'ted 
f i"om the Ukraine during this period from 1938 to 1949 into Turkistan ? 

Mr. Nasar. Nearly 1 million. 

Mr. Arens. Were they forcibly sent there ? 

Mr. Nasar. They were forcibly sent to Turkistan. Here, with one 
stone, Khrushchev beat two of his enemies. First, he sent anti- 
Soviet enemies from the Ukraine. Those people who were sent to the 
other country, not only lost the opportunity to resist Soviet o])pres- 
sion in the Ukraine, but when they came to Turkistan, a different 
country with different living conditions and a different cultural back- 
ground, of course they were antagonistic. 

]Mr. Arens. What are the relations at the present time between the 
natives of Turkistan and the people who are deported to Turkistan 
from the Soviet empire ? 

Mr. Schermatoglu. The natives have alwa_ys looked at the settlers 
who were deported to Turkistan with antipathy, with hatred. They 
thought all those who came there were Russians, and they opposed 
them all. But as time went on, they realized that not all those people 
were Russians, were not their enemies, but people who had been forced 
to come there. As a result, they now have sympathy for such non- 
Eussians as the Ukrainians, the Latvians, and the Lithuanians. But 
the native people still have verj- much antipathy toward the Russians ; 
thev are very antagonistic. 

Ml'. Arens. Lias the brutality under this so-called Virgin Land 
Policy increased or decreased since Khrushchev assumed power? 

Mr. Schermatoglu. Brutality has very much increased, even as 
compared to the Stalin regime. Under Khrushchev it has increased 
strongly. 

Mr. Arens. What measures has Khrushchev taken to implement his 
Virgin Land Policy, under which he deports people to the Turkistan 
area ? 

Mr. ScKTERiviATOGLu. The brutality and cunning efficiency of Khru- 
ehcliev's Virgin Land Policy may be reflected, in a sense, by looking at 



12 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

the statistics. During Stalin's regime, notwithstanding the un- 
speakable ruthlessness with which this tyrant promulgated his poli- 
cies, there were developed 174 State-controlled agricultural enter- 
prises, which means that there were 174 distinct forced labor canips in 
which the workers were, in effect, slaves for the State. Since 
Khrushchev assumed power, the statistics show that this number of 
forced State-owned agricultural enterprises has increased to almost 
900. 

May I emphasize that these statistics cannot illustrate or convey the 
human suffering, the deprivation of liberty, and the inhumanity 
which is involved in these forced deportations and forced resettle- 
ments of human beings in our former homeland. Remember, the fact 
is that these resettlements are carried out at the threat of the lives of 
the men, women, and children who are transported thousands of miles 
and resettled in a strange land, within the shadow of the Soviet mili- 
tary force and under the everwatchf ul eye of the secret police. 

Mr. Arfns. Gentlemen, a correspondent of the New York Times, 
Harrison Salisbury, recently wrote that there are no more political 
prisoners in the Soviet Union. What is your reaction to this asser- 
tion ? 

JVIr. ScHERMATOOLu. First, may I say with tongue in cheek that 
perhaps Mr. Salisbury's information which he has related in the 
Kew York Times was procured from the high Soviet officials. The 
facts, however, are otherwise. Perhaps the difl'erence between the 
facts and the portrayal of Mr. Salisburj' can be accounted for in 
this manner, namely, that there has been under Khrushchev a relabel- 
ing or recharacterization of the slave labor camps. This, of course, 
is a clever device to fool the free world. The truth is that since 
Khrushchev's rise to power, the number of camps in which human 
beings are deprived of their liberty and at gun's point are forced 
to work has appreciably increased, even though they may now be 
called something other than slave labor camps. I think it was 
Shakespeare who said in one of his plays that a rose by any other 
name smells just as sweet. The facts are that the slave labor camps 
under the new labels are just as bitter, just as destructive to humanity 
as they ever were under the worst periods of Stalin's dictatorship. 

Mr. Arexs. How many forced lahor colonies or slave labor camps, 
by whatever name you call them, are there in the Soviet Eepublic of 
Turkistan? 

Mr. SciiERrMATOGLU. The exact number of concentration camps we 
cannot say, because it is a Soviet State secret. But every one of these 
agricultural enterprises has forced labor brigades. In a sense, our 
entire homeland is a forced labor camp, in that it is operated under 
an iron-fisted dictatorship from Moscow. Beyond that, however, 
wdthin the borders of our homeland, Turkistan, there operate numer- 
ous groups known as labor brigades, which are nothing but slave labor 
groups involving hundreds of thousands of men, women, and chil- 
dren who are shifted from area to area to perform labor tasks. 

Again I say, Khrushchev and his bloody regime may dispute the 
existence of slave labor camps because they are not called slave labor 
camps, but for all intents and purposes they have every element of a 
slave labor camp, including starvation, brutalities, the infliction of 
death upon those who do not conform to the rigid discipline, the 
deprivation of human liberty, and all of the other elements which 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 13 

were present in the slave labor camps as they were formerly char- 
acterized in the regime of Stalin. 

]Mr. Arens. '\Vhat appears to be Khrushchev's objective in his 
Virgin Land Policy ? 

Mr. ScHERMATOGLU. There appear to be several objectives. One 
is to destroy the cultures of the people who are forcibly deported 
from area to area within the Soviet empire. Secondly, the policy is 
obviously designed to dilute and destroy the culture and nationalism 
of the areas in which the deportees are resettled. 

For example, in our homeland of Turkistan, we pride ourselves 
upon our ancient heritage, our customs, and our nationalism. This 
is. of course, being diluted and destroyed by the forcible dilution 
oi our population with people of different cultures and backgrounds. 
Beyond that, Khrushchev has as an objective the obvious, namely, to 
get production wrung from the sweat and toil of the slaves whom he 
rules. 

Mr. Nasar. I think it is supremely important at all times to bear in 
mind the strategic importance of Turkistan to the objectives of the 
international Communist operation to control the world. Turkistan, 
because of its geographical location, is a springboard from which tlie 
Communist empire may penetrate other strategic areas of the world 
in furtherance of the Communist global designs. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Nasar, I understand from our informal discussions 
that over the course of the last few years 3'ou have attended a number 
of sessions over the world which were controlled by the Communists. 
Tell us a word about those sessions, first of all, and then I will have 
a question or two specifically on the Vienna Youth Festival. 

Mr. ISTasar. Yes, I did j^articipate in the Asian-African Confer- 
ence in Bandung in 1955. I was there as an observer. Also I par- 
ticipated in the first Asian-African Solidarity Conference, which 
took place at the end of 1058 at Cairo. The last instance was this year, 
when I was able to go to Vienna to see the World Youth Festival. 

Mr. Arens. Specifically, about the Vienna Youth Festival, did you 
have occasion while you were there to contact any of the young people 
who were in attendance from your former homeland, Turkistan? 

Mr. Nasar. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that, please. 

Mr. Nasar. Among the Soviet delegation were many Turkistanians, 
Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Turkmens, Kirgliizes, Tadzhiks. I met some of 
theni at the Youth Festival which, for the first time, had taken place 
outside the Iron Curtain countries. 

Of course, the Soviets sent so-called devoted and trusted people to 
Vienna, or tried to. In spite of that, I found out our people still had 
a strong nationalistic feeling and pride. The youth were very much 
interested in life in the foreign countries, as to their bad living con- 
ditions, and so forth. They, the Turkistanians, were very much inter- 
ested in how their former compatriots were living on the outside, how 
the people were thinking. 

For example, on many occasions I explained that our main aim 
was the liberation of Turkistan, to fight for liberation. They were 
very proud to hear this, and some young people even went so far as to 
say, "God bless you. We hope that the free world has not forgotten 
our enslaved comitries." 



14 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

Mr. Arens. "What interpretation do you place upon that attitude as 
expressed by these young people ? 

Mr, Nasar. My interpretation is very simple. In spite of all the 
Soviet propaganda and teaching, the people in their real thinking are 
nationalist, and they hope that one day they will become free from 
foreign domination. This is tlie national aspiration of the Turkis- 
tanians. They are awaiting the right opportunity, the time when 
they can regain their national independence. The Soviets have been 
unuble to destroy the nationalistic thinking of the people. It is a 
force which exists and that cannot be killed, with all the might of the 
Soviets. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Nasar, a short time ago Klirushcliev left these 
shores, after having been given tlie red-carpet treatment by the highest 
of our officials. What will be the reaction of the people of your 
former homeland who are enslaved by the Khruslichev regime, when 
they see portrayed in tlie Communist publications the homey reception 
which he was accorded here, at which the highest of our officialdom 
was informing the American people about the home-loving scenes 
with Khrushchev and his family on this soil of a free country? 

JMr. Nasar. I would like to give you an illustration. 

I was in Vienna when I heard about the invitation given to Khrush- 
chev to visit the U.S.A., and I spoke with some young people of Turk- 
istan about this matter. They were incredulous, asking "How can 
it be? On the one hand, the U.S.A. claims to stand for freedom and 
liberty for the peoples ; on the other hand, they invite Khrushchev to 
their country." They asked, "How can you explain that?" 

Of course, this was very difficult to answer. We said it was because 
of a policy of finding a solution to establish a way for world peace. 

I tell you, whoever it was that treated him good or bad, I don't 
care. But this is killing the national aspirations of those subjugated 
people. In the eyes of subjugated people, like my people, the Turk- 
istanians, the treatment of Khrushchev, the very invitation itself, 
and the subsequent red-carpet treatment, are causing these people 
to think, "To whom can we now express our feelings, our aspirations?" 
They are losing hope for the future, hope for their eventual liberation. 

The Chairmax. Thank you very much, gentlemen. 

Mr. Arens. jMr. Chairman, the next three witnesses are Mr. Mier- 
lak. Dr. Tumasli, and Mv. Shukeloyts. 

The Chairman. Do each of you gentlemen solemnly swear that the 
testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. SIierlak. I do. 

Dr. Tumash. I do. 

Mr. Shukeloyts. I do. 

The Chairman. You may proceed, Mr. Arens. 



STATEMENT OF MR. CONSTANT MIEELAK 

Mr. Arexs. JMr. Mierlak, please identify yourself by name, resi- 
dence, and occupation. 

Mr. Mierlak. My name is Constant Mierlak. I reside at 197 Koeb- 
ling Street, Brooklyn, New York. I am an accountant working for 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 15 

the Holland- American Line in New York. I might add that I am 
the national president of the Byelorussian- American Association. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about the Byelorussian- American As- 
sociation. Wliat is that organization ? 

Mr. MiERLAK. The Byelorussian- American Association, at 401 At- 
lantic Avenue, Brooklyn, New York, with its affiliate organizations, is 
the largest one in the United States of Americans of Byelorussian back- 
ground. The membership is made up of approximately 30 different 
civic, religious, social, and other organizations. We claim to represent 
in first and second generations over half a million Americans of Byelo- 
russian origm. 

Many of them had to flee as refugees and escapees. They have come 
to this country and now are respected citizens, and they continue to 
study the problems of communism and, particularly, the Communist 
Russian imperialism and aggression, in order to provide and divulge 
the facts and dangers to the security of this country, and to make un- 
derstood that there will be no peace on earth until all nations are free, 
including Byelorussia. 

Mr. Arens. Where is Byelorussia? 

Mr. MiERLAK. Byelorussia is in eastern Europe, north of the 
Ukraine, west of Poland, south of Lithuania and Latvia, and east of 
Eussia. 

Mr. Arens. How large is Byelorussia ? 

Mr. MiERLAK. At the present time, Byelorussia itself, its ethno- 
graphic territory, occupies about 180,000 square miles; but only a 
portion of it, 80,000 square miles, is incorporated into the present 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. 

Mr. Arens. Is Byelorussia the area of the U.S.S.R. which is fre- 
quently referred to as "White Russia" ? 

Mr. MiERLAK. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What is the population of White Russia, or Byelo- 
russia? 

Mr. MiERLAK. Officially now, at the present time, the population of 
the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic is over 8 million. _ On its 
ethnographic territory, there are about 18 million Byelorussians. 

Mr. Arens. Give uSj if you please, just a word of the historical back- 
ground of White Russia, or Byelorussia. 

Mr. MiERLAK. In the Middle Ages Byelorussia appeared imder the 
name of Kryvia, and later on was known as the Grand Duchy of 
Lithuania. It was the common state of the Byelorussians and Lithu- 
anians. In 1795 Byelorussia was incorj)orated into the Russian em- 
pire under the Czar. 

Then, of course, there were continuous effoi'ts on the part of the 
Byelorussians to regain their independence: in 1812 with the help of 
Napoleon; in 1863 by an armed uprising under the leadership of 
Kastus Kalinovski; and it was only in 1917 that the Byelorussians 
succeeded in establishing a Byelorussian Democratic Republic, by 
means of democratic self-determination. 

The All-Byelorussian Congress, as it was called, consisted of 1,872 
delegates, covering all ethnographic territory. It convened in Minsk 
on December 18, 1917, and became in fact the constituent assembly of 
Byelorussia. The Confess elected a council, called the Rada, and a 
presidium as its executive bodies. On March 25, 1918, the Rada and 
the Executive Council proclaimed the independence of Byelorussia. 



16 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

The Byelorussian Demcwzratic Republic was recognized cle jure by nine 
nations and de facto by five. 

To counteract the Byelorussian Democratic Republic, the Russian 
Communists established their own "independent" Byelorussian Soviet 
Socialist Republic, the creation of which was announced in Smolensk 
on January 1, 1919. An uneven struggle ensued, and the Byelorussian 
people were not able this time to defend their freedom from the aggres- 
sion of Moscow. The B.S.S.R. became a "Union Republic" with its 
puppet government in the structure of the Soviet Union, and this is 
still in existence. 

Mr. Arexs. AVould you kindly give us just a word on your own per- 
sonal life and background ? 

Mr, MiERLAK. I was bom in the western part of Byelorussia in 1919. 
I studied economics in Lublin, Poland; and after World War II, I 
continued my studies in Rome, Italy. In 1947 I emigrated to Argen- 
tina, and from there to the United States in 1951. In Buenos Aires I 
worked also with the Dutch Steamship Company. Besides my pro- 
fessional occupation, I am engaged in civic activities with Byelorus- 
sians in the United States, as I was before in Argentina. 

JNIr. Arexs. Are you a permanent resident of the United States? 

Mr. MiERLAK. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of your contacts in your Byelorussian 
association, do you have sources of information respecting the present 
situation in Byelorussia under Khrushchev's regime? 

]Mr. MiERLAK. Yes, we have. 

Mr. Arexs. Would you kindly proceed at your own pace to supply 
the committee with the information which you have, particularly 
with reference to the Russification of Byelorussia ? 

Mr. MiERLAK. I will. The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, 
juridically speaking, is a state. It has territory, people, and ad- 
ministration, and furthermore is a founding member of the United 
Nations, However, the administration, constitution, and the so-called 
"Soviet system" are imposed forcibly upon the Byelorussian people 
by Moscow. In reality, "Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic" is 
the name covering part of the Byeloinissian geographic territory of 
the Soviet Russian colonial administration. 

The Byelorussian nation, consisting of non-Russian people, is des- 
tined for complete unification and annihiliation in the future by Mos- 
cow. The original plan was conceived and carried on by Stalin, with 
terror and physical destruction, by mass shootings, deportations to 
concentration camps, where people died from cold, malnutrition, and 
hardship, and other similar means. The same policy is now pursued 
by Mr. Khrushchev, only with different applied methods. 

IMr. Arexs. What are those methods? 

Mv. MiERLAK, Mr, Khrushchev does not deport people to concen- 
tration camps for destruction, but he resettles them in Kazakhstan 
and in other Siberian lands, thus denationalizing the other nations and 
depopulating Byelorussia. Furthermore, he sends Russians in place 
of the resettled I3yelorussians. 

JNIr, Khrushchev, to carry on Russification and assimilation in Byelo- 
russia, does not change the Byelorussian grammar like Stalin did, but 
he reduces Byelorussian schools and, at the same time, is increasing the 
Russian ones. He reduces Byelorussian publications, but, at the same 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 17 

time, increases the Russian ones; and tlie same pattern is followed in 
all branches of cultural, economical, and social life in Byelorussia. 

Mr, Arens. Would you give us some details regarding this ? 

Mr. ]\IiERLAK. The ministers in all cabinets of the Byelorussian 
Soviet Socialist Republic government in 40 years of existence were 
exclusively Russians sent to Minsk by Moscow, with one or two excep- 
tions. For instance, the present government of the B.S.S.R., formed 
on April 9, 1959, consists of 22 persons, of whom only 2 or 3 are prob- 
ably Byeloiiissians, and all others are Russians. 

Mr. Arens. What about the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic 
delegation to the Assembly of the United Nations ? 

Mr. ]\iiERLAK. The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic delega- 
tion to the Fourteenth Assembly of the United Nations consistsof 
eight persons, all of them Russians who do not even speak Byelorus- 
sian, the language of the people whom they supposedly represent in 
the United Nations, except one P. U. Brovka, who is Byelorussian and 
chairman of the Committee of the Byelorussian Writers Union. 

Llr. Arens. Is this a general pattern of the Communist regime in 
its domination of Byelorussia ? 

Mr. Mierlak. Yes, it is. This is a permanent Moscow pattern, of 
sending Russians to Byelorussia and setting them in posts in all 
branches of national life. In the administration, starting from the 
ministers and directors of all the administrative branches and govern- 
ment agencies, and going down to the provincial and regional ad- 
ministrations and even the chairmen of the village councils, nearly 
all are Russians. 

It would be proper to emphasize here that the justice, security, and 
police personnel consist exclusively of Russians. In economic life, 
all directors, managers, chiefs of sections, accountants, and cashiers 
of factories, cooperative shops, retail stores, kolkhozs, etc, are Rus- 
sians, or almost entirely so. A similar pattern and similar propor- 
tions are followed in cultural life, entertainment, science, and edu- 
cation. The administration of the Communist Party of Byelorussia 
is exclusively in Russian hands. A Byelorussian, even a Communist, 
cannot be trusted in key posts. 

Mr. Arens. What about the schools and education in Byelorussia ? 

Mr. Mierlak. In general, education in Byelorussia is progressively 
decreasing, according to Kul'turnoe StroiteP Stvo SSSR — Statisti- 
cheskii Sbornik — Moscow 1956." 

Mr. Arens. What is that ? 

Mr. Meerlak. This is a statistical information book. Here it is 
[displaying book]. 

In 1910 there were 1,691,529 pupils studying in the schools in Byelo- 
russia. In 1956 there were 1,218,057 pupils. The total pupils de- 
creased in 16 years by 473,472, or approximately 24.5 percent. At 
the present time there are in Minsk 58 high schools (desiatiletki), 
only 10 of them are Byelorussian and out of 8 teachers only 3 are 
Byelorussian. The analogical situation exists in all cities of Byelo- 
russia. 

INIay I say, in essence, since the promulgation of the present pol- 
icies under Khrushchev, there is a systematic destruction of the Byelo- 
russian culture and education as they have heretofore been known, and 
a systematic reduction in the number of Byelorussian schools, which 



18 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

are regularly being replaced with Russian schools under the direct 
discipline and control of the Communists. 

JMr. Arens. Do you have information respecting the press and books 
publislied in Bj^elorussia ? 

JMr. MiERLAK. Yes. A typical sign of Russian colonial administra- 
tion is that in Minsk are published two major newspapers: Zviazda in 
Byelorussian for the native population, and Sovietskaya Belorussia 
in Russian for Russian nationals employed in administration and ex- 
ploitation of Byelorussia. 

According to the same ''Statisticheskii Sbornik" in 1955 there 
were a total of 670 difl'erent books published, 410 in Russian and 260 
in Byelorussian. The Russian nationals living in Byelorussia, wdio 
represent less than 20 percent of the total population, have 1 to 20.5 
books published for them, whereas the Byelorussians, who represent 
80 percent of the total population, have only 1 to 3.25 books. There 
were published 39 difl'erent magazines and periodicals, only 14 of 
them in Byelorussian. 

IMr. Arens. Do I interpret your testimony propeily to mean that 
notwithstanding the fact that 80 percent of the people in Byelorussia 
are Byelorussians and only 20 percent are Russian and other ethnic 
groups, the overwhelming preponderance of the published work is in 
Russian ? 

JMr. JMiERLAK. That is right. 

JMr. Arens. What conclusion do you, as a student of the social and 
political order within your former country of Byelorussia, reach as 
a result of this information which you have been conveying to the 
committee ? 

JMr. JMiERLAK. These facts clearly demonstrate and convince anyone 
that the Soviet Russian Government, in the past with the indirect 
responsibility of JMr. Khrushchev, and at the present, the government 
headed by JVlr. Khrushchev, have to bear the responsibility of carry- 
ing on a policy of destruction of the Byelorussian nation, and he must 
be judged as a criminal for the following acts: for depriving the Bye- 
lorussian people of human rights and dignity ; for physical and moral 
humiliation inflicted upon the Byelorussians by JMr. Khrushchev's 
colonial administration* for destruction of the Byelorussian culture; 
and for imposing Russification m order to achieve assimilation and 
carry on economic exploitation for the benefit of the Russian people, 
aiming by these and other means to dominate all over the world. 

JMr. Walter. Thank you, sir. 



STATEMENT OF DR. VITAUT TUMASH 

JMr. Arens. Dr. Tumash, please identify yourself by name, resi- 
dence, and occupation. 

Dr. Tumash. JMy name is Vitaut Tumash. I reside at 376 East 
138th Street, The Bronx, New York. I am a medical doctor, born in 
Byelorussia. I studied at the University of Vilna. In 1950 I 
emigrated to the United States, where I have been a citizen since 1956. 
I am chairman of the Byelorussian Institute of Arts and Sciences in 
the United States, an organization of Byelorussian scholars, writers, 
and artists. It is the main aim of the Byelorussian Institute to 
promote scientific research and publications on the land, history, and 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 19 

culture of the Byelorussian people, and to support creative activities 
in Byelorussian literature and the arts. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, sir, have current information respecting mass 
deportations in Byelorussia mider Khrushchev's regime? 

Dr. TuMASH. I do. 

Mr. Aeens. Kindly proceed at your own pace to make that in- 
formation available to the committ'Ce. 

Dr. TuMAsn. On the grounds of the information at my disposition, 
I am in a position to niform the committee of the tragic years oi 
Khrushchev's dictatorship in the U.S.S.R. as it has affected the 
Byelorussian people. 

Mr. Arens. What is the source of your information ? 

Dr. TuMASH. Many of my sources are confidential, as I have ex- 

Elained to you informally off the record before. Others are official 
oviet statistics and publications about the population of Byelorus- 
sian S.S.R. 

Today we definitely can say that the rate per year of deportations of 
Byelorussians to distant lands of the Soviet Union during the years 
of Khrushchev's regime is higher than during the time of Stklin's 
dictatorship. 

Mr. Arens. With what facts can you support that statement, sir? 

Dr. TuMASH. The deportations of the Byelorussian population in 
recent years have increased to an extent never before known in the 
history of Byelorussia. These people, hundreds of thousands yearly, 
are transported to the far countries of Soviet Asia and the northern 
European Soviet districts. The initiative and design of this depor- 
tation plan have come directly from Khrushchev as first secretary 
of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 

The deportations were started in March 1954 under Khrushchev's 
plan of the so-called cultivation of virgin lands. To accomplish this 
plan under the orders of Moscow there was immediately organized 
a central recruiting office under the Council of Ministers of the Byelo- 
russian S.S.R. Besides, in every district and county of Byelorussia, 
there were established offices for recruiting. Through these offices, 
people are recruited under pressure of Communist political propa- 
ganda apparatus and through their fear of the terrorism of the 
M.V.D., the secret police. 

Those deported were both families and single young people. Those 
who tried to avoid deportation or later to escape from the deportation 
areas were publicly persecuted and denounced. 

Mr. Arens From what place ajid to where were the people 
deported ? 

Dr. TuMASH. They were deported en masse from all of Byelorussia 
and directed mostly to the southern regions of Soviet Asia, districts 
several thousand miles from Byelorussia. In the spring 1955 special 
trains were put into regular operation on the Minsk-Pavlodar route to 
carry Byelorussians to the virgin lands in the Kazakh S.S.R. In the 
Tears 1954 and 1955, hundreds of thousands of the Byelorussian popu- 
lation were transported in this way from their home country. Accord- 
ing to Moscow Pravda of ]\Iarch 9, 1954, the deported were directed 
mainly to Krasnoyarsk and Altay lands, to Kazakh S.S.R., to the dis- 
tricts of Chita, Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Kurgansk, Novosibirsk, Omsk, 
Tyumen, Chelyabinsk, Chkalov, and Saratov. 



20 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

Mr. Arens. Were there any other actions of mass deportations from 
Byelorussia besides the forcible resettlement to the virgin lands ? 

Dr. TuMASH. Yes, there were. Mass deportation from Byelorussia 
under Khrushchev's dictatorship is a permanent activity. 

]\Ir. Arens. IIow many people have been forcibly deported from 
your native land, Byelorussia, during Khrushchev's regime? 

Dr. TuMASH. Many hundreds of thousands. That will come at the 
end of my report. I want to give you a more exact figure. 

The deportations for cultivation of virgin lands were not finished 
when, May 19, 195G, there was published a call of the Central Com- 
mittee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Council 
of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. to komsomols and youth of the U.S.S.R. 
This call was mainly directed to the youth of western European Re- 
publics of the Soviet Union. In this appeal, the party and Council of 
Ministers asked for new contingents, but now only of youth, instead of 
both youth and families as before, to resettle the far Asian and Sibe- 
rian lands, and the northern parts of the European Soviet Union, for 
industrial development and for population of these areas. They were 
asking for at least half a million youth ; and a very large part, if not 
most, of this forcibly resettled youth were recruited in the Byelorus- 
sian Soviet Socialist Republic. 

At these times, the youths had to carry on not agricultural work as 
before in the virgin lands action, but had to work very hard in mining, 
in the exploitation of forests, in the building of railroads, in the 
building of hydroelectric power stations and of factories. 

Due to this appeal, the first transportees from Byelorussia were 
taken to these far lands of the Soviet Union on the 13th of June 1956, 
from the capital of the Republic, Minsk. The mass deportations of 
Byelorussian youth continued since through the following years. 
Hundreds of thousands of Byelorussian boys and girls were torn from 
their parents, their families, their homes, and their native country. 
They were sent thousands of miles away for hard slave work, suffering 
from raw climate, chronic lack of sufficient food, clothing, and neces- 
sary housing. 

Gusev, the director of the recruiting office under the Council of 
Ministers of the Byelorussian S.S.R., announced February 27, 1957, 
in the Byelorussian newspaper Zviazda in Minsk, that this time the 
deportees from Byelorussia were directed mainly to Karelian Auton- 
omous S.S.R., to the districts of Vologda, Irkutsk, Molotov, Tomsk, 
Tyumen, and to Sakhalin Island which lies in the Pacific Ocean and 
which was annexed by the Soviet Union from Japan at the end of 
World War II. The same Zviazda of February 21, 1957j reported 
about many new settlements of Byelorussians on Sakhalin Island. 

]\Ir. Arens. Do you have any facts respecting the repercussions of 
these deportations on the economic life of Byelorussia ? 

Dr. TuMASH. Yes, I do. The mass deportation from Byelorussia 
in the time of Khrushchev's dictatorship has caused, through the 
decrease of the labor force in that country, an especially acute prob- 
lem in agriculture. This situation has become in some years, espe- 
cially at harvesting time, a catastrophic thing. 

As an example, in 1957, at the end of August, when normally the 
harvesting in Byelorussia is finished, it had been impossible to reap 
more than about 50 percent of the harvest. At this time Moscow, in 
order to save at least the grain which was to be delivered to the State, 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 21 

had to call a conference of the Central Committee of the Communist 
Party of the Bj^elorrussian Republic, together with the Council of 
Ministers, in a special emergency session, to devise drastic measures 
to save the situation. 

One striking point in the resulting appeal or order issued by this 
emergency session was that all schoolchildren in Byelorussia between 
the ages of 10 and 14, under the leadership of their teachers, had to 
take part in this harvesting operation, throughout the Republic. 
From this you can see how acute the artificially created deficit of 
labor is in Byelorussia now. 

This remarkable document on the compulsory woik of minors on 
the order of the Communist regime w^as published in the newspaper 
Zviazda, in Minsk, August 27, 1957. The acute labor deficit is the 
cause that physical work by schoolchildren in Byelorussia is today a 
permanent condition. The Communist press of the Byelorussian 
S.S.R. in 1955 proudly announced the fact that the schools of the 
Republic had sown 31,000 hectares of corn, harvested 8,000 hectares 
of flax, and 93,000 hectares of potatoes. 

In addition, the situation is made worse because Moscow is taking 
from Byelorussia, as a normal thing, most of the production in agri- 
cultural machinery, trucks, and other necessary equi]:»ment, to send 
them — as the Prime Minister of Byelorussia in 1958 reported — to 
China, Korea, Mongolia, India, Burma, and other countries. So that 
besides having too few people to work in the countrj^, those few very 
often have to work only with their bare hands, because their agricul- 
tural implements are so poor, and they do not have a sufficient supply 
of machines. This is a part of the general catastrophic situation 
caused by Khrushchev's depopulation of B3^elorussia. 

Mass deportations are also paralyzing considerably the industrial- 
ization of the Republic and they are slowing the growth of Byelorus- 
sian cities. According to the Soviet 1959 census the Byelorussian 
S.S.R. has 31 percent of the urban population only, the lowest per- 
centage among all other Republics of the Soviet Union with one excep- 
tion only, Moldavian S.S.R. The average for the entire U.S.S.R. is 
now 48 percent. Khrushchev's Russian Communist regime is trying 
to transform Byelorussia into Moscow's colony for the specific pur- 
pose of being a reservoir of slave labor masses which will supply at 
the will and order of Moscow the people to populate, colonize, and 
industrialize the other areas and lands of the Moscow empire. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vliat percentage of the population of Byelorussia 
has been deported during the Khrushchev regime? 

Dr. TuMASH. Official sources have never published a general ac- 
count of this; but from the census of 1959 which was taken in the 
U.S.S.R., the population for that year was 8,060,000 in Byelorussia, 
compared with 9,300,000 in 1939, in the same territory. 1 ou can see 
from that how large a decrease in population there had been within 
just two decades. It is a decrease of 13 percent. Only one other 
Republic of the Soviet Union, Lithuanian S.S.R., has in the same 
time decreased in population, but to a much smaller extent, 5 percent 
only. All other Republics are showing increases averaging 9.5 per- 
cent for the entire U.S.S.R. This fact shows that Byelorussia at the 
present time is chosen hj Moscow as its main victim in a genocidal 
attempt to erase with time all non-Russian nations from the map 
of the U.S.S.R. 



22 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

But this comparison does not really show the actual deficit, because 
we must take into account that during 20 years in Byelorussia in nor- 
mal times, when there were no wars going on and no Communist mass 
deportations, the normal yearly population increase was 2 percent. 
On this basis, in 20 years, we could expect in this same territory not 
just 8 million but something like 13,800,000 population, which means 
there is actually an overall deficit of 5,800,000, or 42 percent. 

According to tlie statement of Prime Minister Mazurov of the 
Byelorussian S.S.R. in the Moscow Izvestia of February 10, 1955, 
during the last World War the Byelorussian S.S.R. had 1,500,000 war 
casualties. Together with the fall in the natural increase of the popu- 
lation caused by the war, this gives about 2 million war losses for 
Byelorussia. If we subtract these war losses from 5,800,000, we still 
have a deficit of 3,800,000 unexplained by the war. 

This deficit is due partially, in fact, mostly, to the persecutions and 
deportations in Stalin's time under his dictatorship, which accounts 
for 15 years of this 20-year period. But the last 5 years are Khru- 
shchev's responsibility, for this mass depopulation in Byelorussia. 

Mr. Arens. What, besides economic goals, does Khrushchev have 
as an objective for these mass deportations of the population of 
Byelorussia ? 

Dr. TuMASH. I think the economic goals are important, but they 
were not the only goals, and not always decisive. There were several 
others, too. 

For example, at the time of mass deportations to the Kazakh 
S.S.E. — Moscow Pravda of October 21, 1954, published an article 
written according to the information from the Byelorussian Ministry 
of Melioration, stating that the Byelorussian Republic has vast areas, 
around 190,000 hectares — that is about a half million acres — of fertile 
virgin lands in the southern Byelorussian region of Palessie, not culti- 
vated due to the lack of labor. It was land already meliorated; al- 
ready drained, prepared, too. If only it could have been plowed and 
sown, there could haA^e been an additional 10 million poods of grain for 
the Byelorussian people. So stated Pravda. 

This fact was known, certainly not only to Pravda, but also to the 
Central Committee of the Communist Party and Khrushchev, as well. 
But despite these possibilities in these virgin lands in Byelorussia, he 
still took hundreds of thousands of people from there and transported 
them several thousand miles to other parts of the U.S.S.R. 

This means that not only economical considerations were taken 
into account, but there were others, too. Some other considerations 
which I think were very important were : through the mass transpor- 
tation of the population, to decrease the number of Byelorussians in 
Byelorussia, on the one hand; and on the other, to dilute the non- 
Russian Republics in Asia with the population from our country. 
Either way, it is really an intention to commit genocide, in the areas 
where the population is resettled and in the country from which they 
are taken. 

Besides, we must take into account what most of the areas are like 
where the populations were transported: in Asia along the China 
border. I think strategical considerations of the Soviet Union are 
playing a very important part in all this transportation of masses, 
to secure the borders of the Soviet empire against China. The final 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 23 

goal of all Khrushchev's mass resettlements is to raise economic and 
military strength of Russian communism for the future conquest of 
the world. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any differences in the methods of mass de- 
portations followed by Khrushchev from the methods followed by 
his predecessor, Stalin ? 

Dr. TuMASH. There are some differences, but really there is no 
change in principles, no change in goals. One of the differences, to 
take an example, was that when Stalin had these mass deportations 
performed from Byelorussia, his aim was mostly to destroy these 
people physically. He arrested them and sent them to concentration 
camps, where they had to endure and work under inhuman conditions, 
and perish. It seems that Khruslichev's method is, on the other hand, 
that he does not think about killing the population, but he wants to 
transfer it to other regions, to Russify it and to use it for colonization 
of other Republics of the U.S.S.R. His intent does not seem to be to 
destroy them physically, but nationally, and through this action to 
make Russians stronger in numbers on the one hand, and on the other 
to decrease the population of the non-Russian Republics, in this case, 
the Byelorussian population. 

But the practical effect of all this on Byelorussian people and the 
Republic is just about the same, because so or so, it is a mass depopula- 
tion of the country. 

Mr. Arens. What, concretely, is the responsibility of Khrushchev 
for the mass deportations of the Byelorussian people? 

Dr. TuMASH. The action of mass deportation of Byelorussians con- 
nected with the cultivation of virgin lands of Soviet Asia, and mass 
deporations of Byelorussian youth for the purpose of populating 
and industrializing Siberia and other lands of the Soviet empire were 
both initiated and carried out by the order of Khrushchev as first 
secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and as premier 
and unquestionable dictator of the U.S.S.R. For this reason Khru- 
shchev and his regime are definitely responsible for the big deficit in 
the population of Byelorussia, at least for the part which has taken 
place since Stalin's death. I think that I will be very close to the 
truth, if I say that at least 1 million of all the deficit in the population 
of the Byelorussian S.S.R. is a direct or indirect result of Khrushchev's 
recent forcible mass resettlement of Byelorussians. The rest was 
Stalin's work, whose ardent helper Ivhrushchev always was. Khru- 
shchev's deportations in Byelorussia are robbing the Republic of 
nearly all natural increase of the population. 

In the country of their destination Byelorussian deportees are 
deprived of their national organizations and institutions, of Byelorus- 
sian press and Byelorussian schools. Far from their homeland with 
its old national traditions and customs, scattered among alien people, 
they are condemned to rapid denationalization, Russification, and 
national death. 

Through the permanent mass deportations and consequently de- 
population of Byelorussia, Khrushchev and his government are obvi- 
ously violating the Convention of the United Nations of December 9, 
1948, concerning genocide. This convention declares that genocide, 
whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is an interna- 
tional crimes, and defines it as "acts committed with intent to destroj^, 



24 THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, 
as such." Khrushchev is definitely guilty of the violation of this 
convention and especially of tlie violation of point (e) of Article II 
of it, which speaks about "forcibly transferring children of the group 
to another group." 

The Goverment of the Soviet Union ratified the convention on 
genocide in 1954, and they in effect acknowledge the binding validity 
of this convention for the U.S.S.R. Consequently Khrushchev and 
his government have not only moral but also juriciical responsibility 
before the United Nations and all the world for their crime of geno- 
cide committed in continuous attempts to destroy Byelorussian people 
as a nation. 

Mr. Walter. Thank you, Dr. Tumasli. 



STATEMENT OF ANTON SHUKELOYTS 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation, and give us a word of your personal background. 

Mr. SiiUKELOYTS. My name is Anton Shukeloyts. I live at 70 East 
Third Street, New York City. I work at Ohrbach's, Inc. I am taking 
an active part in the civic life of the Byelorussian organizations in 
New York. I Avas born in 1915 from a country family. In 19,59 I 
graduated from the Humanist Faculty in the Vilna University, where 
I had studied ethnography and Slavic languages. 

I worked as a teacher, and in 1941 1 was arrested by the Communists 
and later liberated by the Germans. I worked until 1944 in the Mu- 
seum of Minsk as custodian and was a member of the Commission for 
the Eeconstruction of Churches Destroyed by Communists. 

In 1944 I was in Germany as a worker. Then I became a refugee 
and came to the United States in 1950. 

Mr. Arens. What can you tell us about the churches in Byelorussia, 
having been a member of the Commission for Reconstruction ? 

Mr. Shukeloyts. We have to take into account that the Bj^elorus- 
sian people have confessed the Christian faith for almost a thousand 
years, yet, as a result of the Communist antireligious terror at the be- 
ginning of the Second World War, there was not a single church of 
the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Protestant, or Jewish denom- 
ination in the whole territory of the Byelorussian S.S.R. There was 
not a single priest of these denominations who could legally perform 
his religious duties. As our commission soon found, the same situation 
also existed in Minsk, the capital of Byelorussia: In this city with a 
population of more than 240,000 we found not a single open church 
regardless of religion. The Orthodox cathedral was dynamited, and 
there was a place for a circus on its site. The other church, seat of the 
metropolitan in Minsk, also Orthodox, was turned into a museum, and 
later turned into an amusement club for Soviet officers. What had 
been the body of the church was turned into a theater hall. In recon- 
structing this house for the Soviet officers, all the marble material was 
taken out of Catholic, Orthodox, and Jewish cemeteries. 

In the Catholic Cathedral of St. Mary, there was constructed a 
garage for trucks. 

]\Ir. Arexs. What do you know about the present situation as to the 
churches in JNIinsk under the Khrushchev dictatorship ? 



THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 25 

Mr. Shukeloyts. Under the Khrushchev dictatorship, the Ortho- 
dox Cathedral of St. Catherine, which is the oklest one of the churches 
in Minsk, and which was, before the Second World War, changed into 
a warehouse and then reverted again to a church by the people dur- 
ing the German occupation, has now again been converted, this time 
into the archives of the State. 

The Catholic Cathedral of St. Mary, changed first into a garage, 
but reconstructed under the German occupation by the people, has 
now been converted into a sport club. 

The Catholic Church of Sts. Simeon and Helen, popularly called 
the "Red Church" because of its color, which before the Second World 
War served as a theater for youth, and which was reconstructed by 
the Byelorussian people during the time of German occupation, has 
now, according to the sources we have, been converted again, into a 
warehouse. 

The principal Jewish synagog in Minsk, which before the Second 
World War was converted into a traveling artists' theater, has now 
been completely reconstructed and converted into a Russian dramatic 
theater. Through this reconstruction, the building is now so changed 
that it would take an expert to find out that it was formerly a 
synagog. 

The oldest Jewish synagog in Minsk, built in 1633, is now changed 
into a warehouse. 

The principal Protestant church in Minsk has been converted into a 
moving picture theater for children. 

Thousands of churches of all denominations in all other cities, 
towns, and villages of Byelorussia are in similar condition today.. 
Many of the destroyed churches were priceless ancient relics of the 
architecture and art of Byelorussia. To understand the extent of 
the destruction of religious life in Byelonissia brought on by 40 years 
of this Communist terror, we should consider the fact that this coun- 
try, which before World War I, had about 4,500 Orthodox, about 
450 Catholic, and 700 Jewish churches, now has religious services 
performed only in several hundred of Orthodox, and a few Catholic, 
Protestant, and Jewish churches. 

Tlie independent Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Church, 
which was restored twice, once after World War I and again during 
World War II, was again destroyed by Moscow in 1944 and forcibly 
replaced by the Russian Orthodox Church. The Byelorussian Auto- 
cephalic Orthodox Church exists today only in exile, in the United 
States and several other countries of the free world. 

Basically, the religious life of the Byelorussian people under 
Khrushchev dictatorship differs very little from the life under Stalin's 
terror. Religions and churches of all denominations in Byelorussia 
are still under continuous oppression and persecution. The final 
Khrushchev goal is the total destruction of every faith. 

The Chairmax. Thank you very much, Mr. Shukeloyts. 

(Whereupon, at 4 :40 p.m., the consultation was concluded.) 



INDEX 



Individuals Page 

Ali-oglu, Hidir 11 

Brovka, P. U 3, 17 

Gusev (M. I.) 20 

Kalinovski, Kastvis 35 

Khrushchev (Nikita) 1-A, 9-14, 16-25 

Mazurov (K. T.) 22 

Mierlak, Constant 2,14-18 (statement) 

Nasar, Rusi 1, 7-14 (statement) 

Safarov (Georgii I.) 9 

Salisbury, Harrison (PI) 12 

Schermatoglu, Ergacsh 1, 2, 7-14 (statement) 

Shukeloyts, Anton 4,24—25 (statement) 

Stalin (Josef) 1-3, 10-13. 16, 19, 22, 23, 25 

Tumash, Vitaut 2, 3, 18-24 (statement) 

Organizations 

All-Byelorussian Congress 15 

Executive Council 15 

Rada 15 

Byelorussian-American Association 2, 15 

Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Church 25 

Byelorussian Institute Of Arts and Sciences in the United States 2, 18 

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Government of 17 

Council of Ministers 19,21 

Byelorussian Writers Union, Committee of 3,17 

Commission for the Reconstruction of Churches Destroyed by Communists 

(Minsk) 4, 24 

Committee of Byelorussian Writers Union. {See Byelorussian Writers 
Union, Committee of.) 

Communist Party, Byelorussia 17 

Central Committee 21 

Communist Party, Soviet Union, Central Committee 20 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Government of, Council of Ministers — 20 
United Nations : 

Byelorussian delegation to 3, 17 

Convention on the Prevention and I'unishment of the Crime of 

Genocide, December 9, 1948 23, 24 

World Youth Festival, Seventh ; July 2G to August 4, 1959, Vienna 13 

Publications 

"Colonial Revolution and Its Practice in Turkesbm, The" (book) 9 

Kul'turnoe Stroitel 'Stvo S.S.S.R.— Statisticheskii Sbornik— Moscow, 1956 

(book) 17, 18 

"Sovietskaya Belorussia" (nevpspaper) 18 

Zviazda (newspaper) 18 

i 

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