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Full text of "Crisis"

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Vol. 23-No. 1 NOVEMBER, 1921 


Whole No. 133 




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ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR 

1 


FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY 



Turning Hard Times 
into Prosperous Times 

The year 1921 will ever be remembered as the period of "America's Hardest Times" f 
lowing the World's War. Conditions would be worse than now were it not for the Hercule 
efforts of those determined spirits who are forcing the wheels of progress to continue to r> 
volve. THE SOUTHERN AID SOCIETY OF VA., INC., is proud to be numbered among thos- 
who are trying to keep the Door of Opportunity open. The cut below shows the new 
$200,000.00 four-story and basement modern fireproof building erected by the Society at 7th 
and Tea Streets, N W., Washington, D. C, to help turn Hard Times into Prosperous Times. 




Not only does the Superior Policy of Protection, issued by the Society, keep the wolf 
from the door of all Southern Aid Policyholders but its policy of constructing modern office 
buildings, in the various cities where it operates, makes it possible for our professional and 
business interests to have suitable quarters — like the best had by other races — in which to 
display their talents and wares and to do better business. Therefore by its Insurance Policy 
and, as well, by its Business Policy the Society is daily helping to turn Hard Times into 
Prosperous Times. 

SOUTHERN AID SOCIETY OF VIRGINIA, INC. 

Home Office: 527 N. Second Street, RICHMOND, VA. 

District Offices and Agencies in Virginia and 
the District of Columbia 

Insures Against Sickness, Accidents and Deaths 



J. T. CARTER, PRES. 



E. L. JORDAN, SECTY. 



W. A. JORDAN, ASST. SECTY 







THE CRISIS 

A RECORD OF THE DARKER RACES 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND COPYBIGHTED BY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE, AT 70 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY. CON- 
DUCTED BY W. E. BURGHARDT DU BOIS; JESSIE REDMON FAUSET, LITERARY EDITOR; 
AUGUSTUS GRANVILLE DILL, BUSINESS MANAGER. 

Vol. 23-No. 1 NOVEMBER, 1921 Whole No. 133 

PICTURES Page 

COVER. Figure of Africa typifying "Science" in the Palais Mondial, Brussels, 
where the Second Pan-African Congress was held. The inscription 
reads : "I am the one that was, that is, and that shall be. No mortal may 
unveil my face." 

GENERAL SORELAS 9 

CRESCENT STARS' AMUSEMENT BASEBALL PARK, NEW ORLEANS. . . 19 

MEN OF THE MONTH 27-28 

AMERICAN NEGRO MINISTERS AT THE ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, 

LONDON 33 

ARTICLES 

IMPRESSIONS OF THE SECOND PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS. Jessie 

Fauset 12 

MANIFESTO TO THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS 18 

A NEW ORLEANS BASEBALL PARK 20 

DEPARTMENTS 

OPINION 5 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED 

PEOPLE 21 

MEN OF THE MONTH 26 

THE LOOKING GLASS 29 

THE HORIZON 34 

THE DECEMBER CRISIS 

The December CRISIS will be a Christmas Number and will show by extracts from leading 
journals what Europe thought of the Pan-African Congress. 

FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY; ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR 

FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTIONS TWENTY-FIVE CENTS EXTRA 

RENEWALS: The date of expiration of each subscription is printed on the wrapper. When 
the subscription is due, a blue renewal blank is enclosed. 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: The address of a subscriber can be changed as often as desired. 
In ordering a change of address, both the old and the new address must be given. Two weeks' 
notice is required. 

MANUSCRIPTS and drawings relating to colored people are desired. They must be accom- 
panied by return postage. If found unavailable they will be returned. 

Entered as second class matter November 2, 1910, at the post office at New York, New 
York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



DD175! 



THE CRISIS ADVERTISER 



National Training School 

DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA 

i4 School for the Training of Colored Young 
Men and Women for Service 

Though it is young in history, tne Institution feels a just pride in the work thus 
far accomplished, for its graduates are already filling many responsible positions, 
thus demonstrating the aim of the school to train men and women for useful 
citizenship. 

DEPARTMENTS ALREADY ESTABLISHED 

The Grammar Scheol The Teacher Training Department 

The Academy The Divinity School 

The School of Arts and Sciences The Commercial Department 

The Department of Music The Department of Home Economic! 

The Department of Social Servict 

TERM OPENED SEPTEMBER 21, 1920 

For farther information and Catalog, address 

President James E. Shepard, Durham, North Carolina 



STATE OF NEW JERSEY 

Manual Training & Industrial School 

FOR COLORED YOUTH 

BORPENTOWN, N. J. 

A high Institution for tha training of colored 
youth. Excellent equipment, thorough instruction, 
wholesome surroundings. Academic training for ail 
students. 
Courses in carpentry, agriculture and trades for boyz, 

Including auto repairing. 
Courses in domestio science and domestic art for 

girls. 
A new trades building, thoroughly equipped. 
New girls' dormitory thoroughly and mederniy 

equipped. 
Terms reasonable. 

Fall term opens September IB, 1921. 
For Information address 

W. R. VALENTINE, Principal 



Wiley University 

Marshall, Texas 

Recognized as a college of first class bv 
Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas and Okla- 
homa State Boards of Education. Har- 
vard. Boston University, University of 
Illinois and University of Chicago repre- 
sented or. its faculty. One hundred 
twenty-seven in College Department, ses- 
sion 1919-1920. Several new buildings, 
steam heated and electric lighted. 
M. W. DOGAN, President 



NCOLN UNIVERSITY 

Pioneer in Collegiate and 
Theological Education 

Lincoln Men are Leaders in the various 

professions in Forty States. 

The College is ranked in Class I. by the 
American Medical Association. 

Address : 

John B. Xend&ll, D.B., Lincoln University, 
Chester County, Penna. 



Cheyney Training School For 

Teafgiers 

Cheyney, Pa. 

Made in 1920 an accredited State Normal School, 
offering, in addition to the regular Normal Course of 
two years, professional three year courses in Home 
Economics and Shop Work. A diploma from any of 
these courses makes a graduate eligible to teach in 
the public schools of Pennsylvania. A three-year 
High School Course is offered to all who have com- 
pleted the eighth grammar grade. 

Send application now for fall term opening September 

20r/j. 1921. 
For further particulars and catalog, write 

LESLIE PraCKUTEY HILL, Principal, 
Cheyney, Pa. 

THERE WILL BE NO SUMMER SCHOOL FOR \n\ 



Meation The Ceisis, 



THE CRISIS 



Vol. 23. No. 1 



NOVEMBER, 1921 



Whole No. 133 



[Jipiivioiv 




TO THE WORLD 

(Manifesto of the Second Pan- 
African Congress.) 

HE absolute equality of races, 
— physical, political and so- 
cial — is the founding stone of 
world peace and human ad- 
vancement. No one denies great differ- 
ences of gift, capacity and attain- 
ment among individuals of all races, 
but the voice of science, religion and 
practical politics is one in denying 
the God-appointed existence of su- 
per-races, or of races naturally and 
inevitably and eternally inferior. 

That in the vast range of time, 
one group should in its industrial 
technique, or social organization, or 
spiritual vision, lag a few hundred 
years behind another, or forge fitfully 
ahead, or come to differ decidedly in 
thought, deed and ideal, is proof of 
the essential richness and variety of 
human nature, rather than proof of 
the co-existence of demi-gods and 
apes in human form. The doctrine 
of racial equality does not interfere 
with individual liberty, rather, it ful- 
fils it. And of all the various cri- 
teria by which masses of men have 
in the past been prejudged and class- 
ified, that of the color of the skin 
and texture of the hair, is surely the 
most adventitious and idiotic. 

It is the duty of the world to as- 
sist in every way the advance of the 
backward and suppressed groups of 
mankind. The rise of all men is a 
menace to no one and is the highest 
human ideal; it is not an altruistic 
benevolence, but the one road to 
world salvation. 



For the purpose of raising such 
peoples to intelligence, self-knowl- 
edge and self-control, their intelli- 
gentsia of right ought to be recog- 
nized as the natural leaders of their 
groups. 

The insidious and dishonorable 
propaganda, which, for selfish ends, 
so distorts and denies facts as to rep- 
resent the advancement and devel- 
opment of certain races of men as 
impossible and undesirable, should 
be met with widespread dissemina- 
tion of the truth. The experiment 
of making the Negro slave a free citi- 
zen in the United States is not a fail- 
ure ; the attempts at autonomous gov- 
ernment in Haiti and Liberia are not 
proofs of the impossibility of self- 
government among black men ; the 
experience of Spanish America does 
not prove that mulatto democracy 
will not eventually succeed there ; the 
aspirations of Egypt and India are 
not successfully to be met by sneers 
at the capacity of darker races. 

We who resent the attempt to treat 
civilized men as uncivilized, and who 
bring in our hearts grievance upon 
grievance against those who lynch 
the untried, disfranchise the intelli- 
gent, deny self-government to edu- 
cated men, and insult the helpless, we 
complain ; but not simply or primari- 
ly for ourselves — more especially for 
the millions of our fellows, blood of 
our blood, and flesh of our flesh, who 
have not even what we have — the 
power to complain against monstrous 
wrong, the power to see and to 
know the source of our oppression. 

How far the future advance of 
mankind will depend upon the social 



(5 



THE CRISIS 



contact and physical intermixture of 
the various strains of human blood 
is unknown, but the demand for the 
interpenetration of countries and in- 
termingling of blood has come, in 
modern days, from the white race 
alone, and has been imposed upon 
brown and black folks mainly by 
brute force and fraud. On top of 
this, the resulting people of mixed 
race have had to endure innuendo, 
persecution, and insult, and the pene- 
trated countries have been forced in- 
to semi-slavery. 

If it be proven that absolute world 
segregation by group, color or his- 
toric affinity is best for the future, 
let the white race leave the dark 
world and the darker races will glad- 
ly leave the white. But the proposi- 
tion is absurd. This is a world of 
men, of men whose likenesses far out- 
weigh their differences; who mutual- 
ly need each other in labor and 
thought and dream, but who can suc- 
cessfully have each other only on 
terms of equality, justice and mutual 
respect. They are the real and only 
peacemakers who work sincerely and 
peacefully to this end. 

The beginning of wisdom in inter- 
racial contact is the establishment of 
political institutions among sup- 
pressed peoples. The habit of democ- 
racy must be made to encircle the 
earth. Despite the attempt to prove 
that its practice is the secret and di- 
vine gift of the few, no habit is more 
natural or more widely spread among 
primitive people, or more easily ca- 
pable of development among masses. 
Local self-government with a mini- 
mum of help and oversight can be 
established tomorrow in Asia, in 
Africa, in America and in the Isles 
of the Sea. It will in many instances 
need general control and guidance, 
but it will fail only when that guid- 
ance seeks ignorantly and conscious- 
ly its own selfish ends and not the 
people's liberty and good. 

Surely in the 20th century of the 
Prince of Peace, in the millenium of 



Buddha and Mahmoud, and in the 
mightiest Age of Human Reason, 
there can be found in the civilized 
world enough of altruism, learning 
and benevolence to develop native in- 
stitutions for the native's good, rath- 
er than continue to allow the major- 
ity of mankind to be brutalized and 
enslaved by ignorant and selfish 
agents of commercial institutions, 
whose one aim is profit and power 
for the few. 

And this brings us to the crux of 
the matter: It is the shame of the 
world that today the relation between 
the main groups of mankind and 
their mutual estimate and respect is 
determined chiefly by the degree in 
which one can subject the other to 
its service, enslaving labor, making 
ignorance compulsory, uprooting 
ruthlessly religion and customs, and 
destroying government, so that the 
favored Few may luxuriate in the toil 
of the tortured Many. Science, Reli- 
gion and Philanthropy have thus been 
made the slaves of world commerce 
and industry, and bodies, minds, 
souls of Fiji and Congo, are judged 
almost solely by the quotations on 
the Bourse. 

The day of such world organiza- 
tion is past and whatever excuse be 
made for it in other ages, the 20th 
century must come to judge men as 
men and not as material and labor. 

The great industrial problem 
which has hitherto been regarded as 
the domestic problem of culture 
lands, must be viewed far more 
broadly, if it is ever to reach just 
settlement. Labor and capital in Eng- 
land, France and America can never 
solve their problem as long as a sim- 
ilar and vastly greater problem of 
poverty and injustice marks the re- 
lations of the whiter and darker peo- 
ples. It is shameful, unreligious, un- 
scientific and undemocratic that the 
estimate, which half the peoples of 
earth put on the other half, depends 
mainly on their ability to squeeze 
profit out of them. 



OPINION 



If we are coming to recognize that 
the great modern problem is to correct 
maladjustment in the distribution of 
wealth, it must be remembered that 
the basic maladjustment is in the 
outrageously unjust distribution of 
world income between the dominant 
and suppressed peoples; in the rape 
of land and raw material, and mon- 
opoly of technique and culture. And 
in this crime white labor is particeps 
criminis with white capital. Uncon- 
sciously and consciously, carelessly 
and deliberately, the vast power of 
the white labor vote in modern de- 
mocracies has been cajoled and flat- 
tered into imperialistic schemes to 
enslave and debauch black, brown 
and yellow labor, until with fatal re- 
tribution, they are themselves today 
bound and gagged and rendered im- 
potent by the resulting monopoly of 
the world's raw material in the 
hands of a dominant, cruel and irre- 
sponsible few. 

And, too, just as curiously, the 
educated and cultured of the world, 
the well-born and well-bred, and even 
the deeply pious and philanthropic, 
receive their training and comfort 
and luxury, the ministrations of de- 
licate beauty and sensibility, on con- 
dition that they neither inquire in- 
to the real source of their income 
and the methods of distribution or 
interfere with the legal props which 
rest on a pitiful human foundation 
of writhing white and yellow and 
brown and black bodies. 

We claim no perfectness of our 
own nor do we seek to escape the 
blame which of right falls on the 
backward for failure to advance, but 
noblesse oblige, and we arraign civil- 
ization and more especially the col- 
onial powers for deliberate trans- 
gressions of our just demands and 
their own better conscience. 

England, with her Pax Britannica, 
her courts of justice, established 
commerce and a certain apparent re- 
cognition of native law and customs, 
has nevertheless systematically fos- 



tered ignorance among the natives, 
has enslaved them and is still en- 
slaving . some of them, has usually 
declined even to try to train black 
and brown men in real self-govern- 
ment, to recognize civilized black 
folks as civilized, or to grant to col- 
ored colonies those rights of self- 
government which it freely gives to 
white men. 

Belgium is a nation which has but 
recently assumed responsibility for 
her colonies, and has taken some 
steps to lift them from the worst 
abuses of the autocratic regime ; but 
she has not confirmed to the people 
the possession of their land and la- 
bor, and she shows no disposition to 
allow the natives any voice in their 
own government, or to provide for 
their political future. Her colonial 
policy is still mainly dominated by 
the banks and great corporations. 
But we are glad to learn that the 
present government is considering 
a liberal program of reform for the 
future. 

Portugal and Spain have never 
drawn a legal caste line against per- 
sons of culture who happen to be of 
Negro descent. Portugal has a' hu- 
mane code for the natives and has be- 
gun their education in some regions. 
But, unfortunately, the industrial 
concessions of Portuguese Africa are 
almost wholly in the hands of for- 
eigners whom Portugal cannot or 
will not control, and who are ex- 
ploiting land and re-establishing the 
African slave trade. 

The United States of America af- 
ter brutally enslaving millions of 
black folks suddenly emancipated 
them and began their education ; but 
it acted without system or fore- 
thought, throwing the freed men up- 
on the world penniless and landless, 
educating them without thorough- 
ness and system, and subjecting 
them the while to lynching, lawless- 
ness, discrimination, insult and slan- 
der, such as human beings have sel- 
dom endured and survived. To save 



THE CRISIS 



their own government, they enfran- 
chized the Negro and then when dan- 
ger passed, allowed hundreds of 
thousands of educated and civilized 
black folk to be lawlessly disfran- 
chised and subjected to a caste sys- 
tem; and, at the same time, in 1176, 
1812, 1861, 1897, and 1917, they 
asked and allowed thousands of 
black men to offer up their lives as 
a sacrifice to the country which de- 
spised and despises them. 

France alone of the great colonial 
powers has sought to place her cul- 
tured black citizens on a plane of 
absolute legal and social equality 
with her white and given them rep- 
resentation in her highest legisla- 
ture. In her colonies she has a wide- 
spread but still imperfect system of 
state education. This splendid be- 
ginning must be completed by wi- 
dening the political basis of her na- 
tive government, by restoring to the 
indigenes the ownership of the soil, 
by protecting native labor against 
the aggression of established capital, 
and by asking no man, black or white, 
to be a soldier unless the country 
gives him a voice in his own govern- 
ment. 

The independence of Abyssinia, 
Liberia Haiti and San Domingo, is 
absolutely necessary to any sus- 
tained belief of the black folk in the 
sincerity and honesty of the white. 
These nations have earned the right 
to be free, they deserve the recogni- 
tion of the world ; notwithstanding all 
their faults and mistakes, and the 
fact that they are behind the most 
advanced civilization of the day, nev- 
ertheless they compare favorably 
with the past, and even more recent, 
history of most European nations, 
and it shames civilization that the 
treaty of London practically invited 
Italy to aggression in Abyssinia, and 
that free America has unjustly and 
cruelly seized Haiti, murdered and 
for a time enslaved her workmen, 
overthrown her free institutions by 
force, and has so far failed in re- 



turn to give her a single bit of help, 
aid or sympathy. 

What do those wish who see these 
evils of the color line and racial dis- 
crimination and who believe in the 
divine right of suppressed and back- 
ward peoples to learn and aspire and 
be free? 

The Negro race through its think- 
ing intelligentsia is demanding : 

I — The recognition of civilized 
men as civilized despite their race or 
color 

II — Local self government for 
backward groups, deliberately rising 
as experience and knowledge grow 
to complete self government under 
the limitations of a . self governed 
world 

III — Education in self knowledge, 
in scientific truth and in industrial 
technique, undivorced from the art 
of beauty 

IV — Freedom in their own reli- 
gion and social customs, and with the 
right tc be different and non-con- 
formist 

V — Co-operation with the rest 
of the world in government, indus- 
try and art on the basis of Justice, 
Freedom and Peace 

VI — The ancient common owner- 
ship of the land and its natural 
fruits and defence against the un- 
restrained greed of invested capital 

VII — The establishment under the 
League of Nations of an internation- 
al institution for the study of Negro 
problems 

VIII — The establishment of an in- 
ternational section in the Labor Bur- 
eau of the League of Nations, charged 
with the protection of native labor. 

The world must face two eventu- 
alities : either the complete assimila- 
tion of Africa with two or three of 
the great world states, with political, 
civil and social power and privileges 
absolutely equal for its black and 
white citizens, or the rise of a great 
black African state founded in Peace 
and Good Will, based on popular edu- 
cation, natural art and industry and 



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GENERAL LITIS SOKZLAS 



10 



THE CRISIS 




freedom of trade; autonomous and 
sovereign in its internal policy, but 
from its beginning a part of a great 
society of peoples in which it takes 
its place with others as co-rulers of 
the world. 

In some such words and thoughts 
as these we seek to express our will 
and ideal, and the end of our untir- 
ing effort. To our aid we call all men 
of the Earth who love Justice and 
Mercy. Out of the depths we have 
cried unto the deaf and dumb mas- 
ters of the world. Out of the depths 
we cry to our own sleeping souls. 

The answer is written in the stars. 

ROBERT T. KERLIN 

EADERS of The Crisis will 
remember the appearance a 
year ago of a compilation of 
Negro opinion gathered in a 
volume entitled "The Voice of the 
Negro." Here for the first time we 
had a book bringing to the white as 
well as the colored reader the Ne- 
gro's criticism, through his own 
press, of America's treatment of him 
and his race. The book contained 
an interesting preface by its com- 
piler, Prof. Robert T. Kerlin, profes- 
sor of English at Virginia Military 
Institute, Lexington, Va. Prof. Ker- 
lin followed this by a pamphlet on 
"Contemporary Negro Poetry." He 
might have continued his literary ef- 
forts undisturbed ; but the immediate 
wrongs of the Negro pressed upon 
him, and when he read of the con- 
demnation to death of the six Ne- 
groes in Arkansas concerned in the 
Elaine riots, he used his splendid 
command of English to publish an 
open letter to Thomas C. McRae, 
Governor of Arkansas, entreating 
the Governor to give earnest consid- 
eration to the sentence of the courts 
pronounced upon these Negroes. 
"Not in the history of our Republic," 
Prof. Kerlin said, "has a more tre- 
mendous responsibility before God 
and the civilized world devolved 
upon the shoulders of the chief exec- 



utive of any State than has devolved 
upon yours in re the Negroes of 
Phillips County condemned to death 
in the electric chair and so sentenced 
by the courts of your State. It is a 
deed to be contemplated with extreme 
horror. In the execution of these 
men, a race is suffering crucifixion." 

In his letter, Prof. Kerlin explains 
the iniquities of the peonage system 
and the travesty of trial given the 
Elaine Negroes. The letter received 
much publicity and was so resented 
by the Board of the Virginia Military 
Institute that Prof. Kerlin's resigna- 
tion was called for. Refusing to re- 
sign, he was thereupon dismissed by 
the Board, which stated that "he had 
rendered his further connection with 
the Virginia Military Institute unde- 
sirable." 

We can not express too deeply our 
appreciation of Prof. Kerlin's course 
in sending his letter to the Governor 
of Arkansas, and in standing un- 
swervingly by his convictions in his 
dealings with his Board. Virginia 
Military Institute, designed to pro- 
mote courage and ardour in youth, 
has dismissed from its force a man 
displaying the finest courage the In- 
stitute is ever likely to see. 

Only through self criticism can an 
individual or a nation progress. The 
South steadily suppresses self criti- 
cism and thus yearly retrogrades, 
showing itself more and more and 
more sterile. It cannot suppress a 
man like Mr. Kerlin, but judging 
from its past acts, with the Ku Klux 
spirit, it will drive him beyond its 
borders. Perhaps more than any 
other section of the world, the South 
refuses to listen to the voice that cries 
in the wilderness. 

KU KLUX KLAN 

HE white knights are on the 

run. Their flowing robes no 

longer present the dignified 

appearance made familiar to 

millions of Americans by "The Birth 




OPINION 



11 



of A Nation." Instead they stream in 
ridiculous tatters. Since the New 
York World has described the mis- 
chievous and dangerous plans plot- 
ted behind their masks their power 
is ended. We have learned a great 
deal about their Grand Wizard and 
their Kleagles and we know now that 
the Klan is a money-making affair 
selling stock based on race prejudice. 
Congratulations to the New York 
World for its wonderful exposure. 
The part that the Association took 
in the exposure, the assistance that 
it was able to give, is told in this 
number under National Association 
notes. 

"AMERICA'S MAKING" 

HE part which each group has 
had in the development of 
this land will be clearly shown 
in "America's Making," a 
pageant and exhibit which will show 
three centuries of racial and immi- 
grant contributions to our national 
life. From October 29 to November 
12, through pageants, festivities and 
exhibits, the gift of each race to 
America will be set forth. This dem- 
onstration is under the general su- 
pervision of the State Board of Edu- 
cation and of the City of New York. 




The overhead expense is being cared 
for by the city and state, but each 
racial or national group is expected 
to defray the expenses of its own ex- 
hibit and pageants. 

Negroes have been invited to par- 
ticipate and have had delegates at 
all the conferences at which the 
plans of the enterprise have been 
worked out. The committee on Ne- 
gro exhibit has as its chairman, 
James Weldon Johnson and as its 
secretary, Eugene Kinckle Jones. 

This committee plans to have a 
continuous exhibit showing the con- 
tribution of the Negro in explora- 
tion, literature, art, music, invention 
and labor. On Thursday night, Nov- 
ember 10, "A Festival of Negro Mus- 
ic" will be staged with a chorus of 
several hundred voices and an or- 
chestra of more than fifty pieces. At 
this time a primer of Negro accom- 
plishments will be distributed. Thou- 
sands of people will for the first time 
gain direct information concerning 
the Negro's worth to America. 

The educational value of this exhibit 
cannot be estimated. For a modest 
budget of $3000, it is believed that 
the committee on the Negro exhibit 
can provide a program which will 
favorably compare with any other. 



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X'TJNION CONGOLAISE. BELGIUM 



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IMPRESSIONS OF THE SECOND PAN-AFRICAN 

CONGRESS 



Jessie Fauset 




HPHE dream of a Pan-African Congress 
■*■ had already come true in 1919. Yet it 
was with hearts half-wondering, half fear- 
ful that we ventured to realize it afresh in 
1921. So tenuous, so delicate had been its 
beginnings. Had the black world, although 
once stirred by the terrific rumblings of 
the Great War, relapsed into its lethargy? 
Then out of Africa just before it was time 
to cross the Atlantic came a letter, one of 
many, but this the most appealing word 
from the Egyptian Sudan: "Sir: We can- 
not come but we are sending you this small 
sum ($17.32), to help toward the expenses 
of the Pan-African Congress. Oh Sir, we 
are looking to you for we need help sorely!" 
So with this in mind we crossed the seas 
not knowing just what would be the plan of 
action for the Congress, for would not its 
members come from the four corners of the 
earth and must there not of necessity be 
a diversity of opinion, of thought, of pro- 
ject? But the main thing, the great thing, 
was that Ethiopia's sons through delegates 
were stretching out their hands from all 
over the black and yearning world. 

II 

'TWEEN one day, the 27th of August, we 
■*■ met in London in Central Hall, under 
the shadow of Westminster Abbey. Many 
significant happenings had those cloisters 
looked down on, but surely on none more 
significant than on this group of men and 
women of African descent, so different in 
rearing and tradition and yet so similar 
in purpose. The rod of the common op- 
pressor had made them feel their own com- 
munity of blood, of necessity, of problem. 
Men from strange and diverse lands 
came together. We were all of us foreign- 
ers. South Africa was represented, the 
Gold Coast, Sierra Leone and Lagos, Gren- 
ada, the United States of America, Marti- 
nique, Liberia. No natives of Morocco or 
of East Africa came, yet men who had 
lived there presented and discussed their 
problems, British Guiana and Jamaica 



were there and the men and women of 
African blood who were at that time resi- 
dent in London. 

That was a wonderful meeting. I think 
that at first we did not realize how wonder- 
ful. The first day Dr. Alcindor of London 
and Rev. Jernagin of Washington presided; 
the second day Dr. DuBois and Mr. Arch- 
er, ex-Mayor of Battersea, London. Of 
necessity those first meetings had to be oc- 
casions for getting acquainted, for bestow- 
ing confidences for opening up our 
hearts. Native African and native Ameri- 
can stood side by side and said, "Brother, 
this is my lot; tell me what is yours!" 

Mr. H. A. Hunt of Fort Valley, Ga., Mr. 
R. P. Sims of Bluefield, W. Va., Dr. Wilber- 
force Williams of Chicago, Mrs. Hart Fel- 
ton of Americus, Ga., Professor Hutto of 
Bainbridge, Ga., Rev. W. H. Jernagin of 
Washington, D. C, Dr. H. R. Butler of At- 
lanta, Mr. Nelson of Kentucky, Dr. DuBois, 
Mr. White, Mrs. Kelley and Miss Fauset — 
all these told of America. And in return 
Dr. Olaribigbee and Mr. Thomas of West 
Africa, Mr. Augusto of Lagos, Mrs. Davis 
of South Africa, Mr. Marryshow of Gren- 
ada, Mr. Norman Leys, a white English- 
man who knew East Africa well, Mr. Ar- 
nold, also white, who knew Morocco, Mr. 
Varma and Mr. Satkalavara of India told 
the tale of Africa and of other countries 
of which the Americans knew little or noth- 
ing. 

We listened well. What can be more 
fascinating than learning at first hand that 
the stranger across the seas, however dif- 
ferent in phrase or expression, yet knows 
no difference of heart? We were all one 
family in London. What small divergences 
of opinion, slight suspicions, doubtful 
glances there may have been at first were 
all quickly dissipated. We felt our com- 
mon blood with almost unbelievable una- 
nimity. 

Out of the flood of talk emerged real 
fact and purpose for the American dele- 
gate. First, that West Africa had prac- 
tically no problems concerning the expro- 



12 



SECOND PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS 



13 



priation of land but had imminent some- 
thing else, the problem of political power 
and the heavy and insulting problem of 
segregation. The East African, on the 
other hand, and also the South African had 
no vestige of a vote (save in Natal), had 
been utterly despoiled of the best portions 
of his land, nor could he buy it back. In 
addition to this the East African had to 
consider the influx of the East Indian who 
might prove a friend, or might prove as 
harsh a taskmaster as the European de- 
spoiler. 

Through the inter-play of speech and de- 
scription and idea, two propositions flashed 
out — one, the proposition of Mr. Augusto, 
a splendid, fearless speaker from Lagos, 
that the Pan-African Congress should ac- 
complish something very concrete. He 
urged that we start with the material in 
hand and advance to better things. First 
of all let us begin by financing the Liberian 
loan. Liberia is a Negro Independency al- 
ready founded. "Let us," pleaded Mr. Au- 
gusto, "lend the solid weight of the newly- 
conscious black world toward its develop- 
ment." 

The other proposition was that of Mr. 
Marryshow, of Grenada, and of Professor 
Hutto of Georgia. "We must remember," 
both of them pointed out, "that not words 
but actions are needed. We must be pre- 
pared to put our hands in our pockets; we 
must make sacrifices to help each other. 
"Tell us what to do," said Mr. Hutto, "and 
the Knights of Pythias of Georgia stand 
ready, 80,000 strong, to do their part." 

Those were fine, constructive words. 
Then at the last meeting we listened to 
the resolutions which Dr. DuBois had 
drawn up. Bold and glorious resolutions 
they were, couched in winged, unambigu- 
ous words. Without a single dissenting 
vote the members of the Congress accepted 
them. We clasped hands with our newly 
found brethren and departed, feeling that 
it was good to be alive and most wonder- 
ful to be colored. Not one of us but en- 
visaged in his heart the dawn of a day of 
new and perfect African brotherhood. 

Ill 
1T\ OWN to Dover we flew, up the English 
*-* Channel to Ostend, and thence to 
Brussels. 

Brussels was different. How shall I ex- 
plain it? The city was like most other 

r 



large cities, alive and bustling, with its 
share of noise. All about us were beautiful, 
large buildings and commodious stores, ex- 
cept in the public squares where the an- 
cient structures, the town hall and the like, 
centuries old, recalled the splendor and dig- 
nity of other days. But over Brussels hung 
the shadow of monarchical government. 
True London is the heart of a monarchy, 
too, but the stranger does not feel it unless 
he is passing Buckingham Palace or watch- 
ing the London Horse Guards change. 

At first it was not so noticeable. 

We had been invited by Paul Otlet and 
Senator LaFontaine and had been helped 
greatly by M. Paul Panda, a native of the 
Belgian Congo who had been educated in 
Belgium. The Congress itself was held in 
the marvellous Palais Mondial, the World 
Palace situated in the Cinquantenaire Park. 
We could not have asked for a better set- 
ting. But there was a difference. In the 
first place, there were many more white 
than colored people — there are not many of 
us in Brussells — and it was not long be- 
fore we realized that their interest was 
deeper, more immediately significant than 
that of the white people we had found else- 
where. Many of Belgium's economic and 
material interests centre in Africa in the 
Belgian Congo. Any interference with the 
natives might result in an interference with 
the sources from which so many Belgian 
capitalists drew their prosperity. 

After all, who were these dark strangers 
speaking another tongue and introducing 
Heaven only knew what ideas to be car- 
ried into the Congo? Once when speaking 
of the strides which colored America had 
made in education I suggested to M. Panda 
that perhaps some American colored teach- 
ers might be induced to visit the Congo 
and help with the instruction of the na- 
tives. 

"Oh, no, no, no!" he exclaimed, and add- 
ed the naive explanation, "Belgium would 
never permit that, the colored Americans 
are too malins (clever)." 

After we had visited the Congo Museum 
we were better able to understand the un- 
spoken determination of the Belgians to let 
nothing interfere with their dominion in 
the Congo. Such treasures! Such illimit- 
able riches! What a store-house it must 
plainly be for them. For the first time in 
my life I was able to envisage what Af- 



14 



THE CRISIS 



rica means to Europe, depleted as she has 
become through the ages by war and fam- 
ine and plague. In the museum were the 
seeds of hundreds of edible plants; there 
was wood — great trunks of dense, fine- 
grained mahogany as thick as a man's body 
is wide and as long as half a New York 
block. Elephants' tusks gleamed, white 
and shapely, seven feet long from tip to 
base without allowing for the curve, and as 
broad through as a man's arm. All the 
wealth of the world — skins and furs, gold 
and copper — would seem to center in the 
Congo. 

Nor was this all. Around us in the spa- 
cious rooms were the expression of an 
earlier but well developed art, wood-carv- 
ings showing beyond the shadow of a doubt 
the inherent artistry of the African. Dear- 
est of all, yet somehow least surprising to 
us, was the number of musical instruments. 
There is not a single musical instrument 
in the world, I would venture to say, of 
which the Congo cannot furnish a proto- 
type. 

Native wealth, native art lay about us 
in profusion even in the museum. Small 
wonder that the Belgian men and women 
watched us with careful eyes. 

The program in Brussels was naturally 
different from that in London. We under- 
took to learn something of the culture 
which colored people had achieved in the 
different parts of the world, but we hoped 
also to hear of actual native conditions as 
we had heard of them in the first confer- 
ence. M. Panda spoke of the general de- 
velopment of the Congo, Madame Sarolea 
of the Congolese woman. Miss Fauset told 
of the colored graduates in the United 
States and showed the pictures of the first 
women who had obtained the degree of Doc- 
tor of Philosophy. Bishop Phillips of 
Nashville and Bishop Hurst of Baltimore 
greeted the assembly. Mrs. Curtis told of 
Liberia, the presiding officer of the Con- 
ference, M. Diagne, and his white colleague 
M. Barthelemy from the Pas de Calais, in 
the French Chamber of Deputies, ably as- 
sisted. 

Belgian officialdom was well represent- 
ed. General Sorelas of Spain spoke of the 
problem of the mixed race. Another Gen- 
eral, a Belgian, splendid in ribbons and 
orders, was on the platform, and two mem- 
bers of the Belgian Colonial Office were 
present, "unofficially." 



There was no doubt but that our assem- 
bly was noted. A fine, fresh-faced youth 
from the International University gave us 
a welcome from students of all nations; we 
were invited to a reception at the Hotel de 
Ville (City Hall) in the ancient public 
square, and on the last day General Sorelas 
and his beautiful wife and daughters re- 
ceived us all in their home. 

And yet the shadow of Colonial dominion 
governed. Always the careful Belgian eye 
watched and peered, the Belgian ear lis- 
tened. For three days we listened to pleas- 
ant generalities without a word of criti- 
cism of Colonial Governments, without a 
murmur of complaint of Black Africa, with- 
out a suggestion that this was an interna- 
tional Congress called to define and make 
intelligible the greatest set of wrongs 
against human beings that the modern 
world has known. We realized of course 
how delicate the Belgian situation was and 
how sensitive a conscience the nation had 
because of the atrocities of the Leopold 
regime. We knew the tremendous power 
of capital organized to exploit the Congo; 
but despite this we proposed before the 
Congress was over to voice the wrongs of 
Negroes temperately but clearly. We as- 
sumed of course that this was what Bel- 
gium expected, but we reckoned without 
our hosts in a very literal sense. Indeed 
as we afterward found, we were reckoning 
without our own presiding officer, for with- 
out doubt M. Diagne on account of his 
high position in the French Government 
had undoubtedly felt called on to assure 
the Belgian Government that no "radical" 
step would be taken by the Congress. He 
sponsored therefore a mild resolution sug- 
gested by the secretaries of the Palais 
Mondial stating that Negroes were "sus- 
ceptible" of education and pledging co- 
operation of the Pan-African Congress with 
the international movement in Belgium. 
When the London resolutions (which are 
published this month as our leading edi- 
torial), were read, M. Diagne was greatly 
alarmed, and our Belgian visitors were ex- 
cited. The American delegates were firm 
and for a while it looked as though the 
main session of the Pan-African Congress 
was destined to end in a rather disgraceful 
row. It was here, however, that the Ameri- 
can delegates under the leadership of Dr. 
DuBois, showed themselves the real mas- 
ters of the situation. With only formal 



SECOND PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS 



15 



and dignified protest, they allowed M. 
Diagne to "jam through" his resolutions 
and adjourn the session; but they kept their 
own resolutions in place before the Con- 
gress to come up for final consideration in 
Paris, and they maintained the closing of 
the session in Brussels in order and unity. 
I suppose the white world of Europe has 
never seen a finer example of unity and 
trust on the part of Negroes toward a 
Negro leader. 

But we left Belgium in thoughtful and 
puzzled mood. How great was this smoth- 
ering power which made it impossible for 
men even in a scientific Congress to be 
frank and to express their inmost desires? 
Not one word, for instance, had been said 
during the whole Congress by Belgian 
white or black, or French presiding offi- 
cer which would lead one to suspect that 
Leopold and his tribe had ever been other 
than the Congo's tutelary angels. Appar- 
ently not even an improvement could be 
hinted at. And the few Africans who were 
present said nothing. But at that last 
meeting just before we left, a Congolese 
came forward and fastened the button of 
the Congo Union in Dr. DuBois' coat. 

What lay behind that impassive face? 

IV 

AT last Paris! 
Between Brussels and the queen 
city of the world we saw blasted town, rav- 
aged village and plain, ruined in a war 
whose basic motif had been the rape of 
Africa. What should we learn of the black 
man in France? 

Already we had realized that the black 
colonial's problem while the same intrinsi- 
cally, wore on the face of it a different as- 
pect from that of the black Americans. Or 
was it that we had learned more quickly 
and better than they the value of organi- 
zation, of frankness, of freedom of speech? 
We wondered then and we wonder still 
though Heaven knows in all humility. 

But Paris at last, with its glow and its 
lights and its indefinable attraction! 

We met in the Salle des Ingenieurs (En- 
gineers' Hall) in little Rue Blanche back 
of the Opera. Logan was there, Be.ton 
and Dr. Jackson, men who had worked 
faithfully and well for us even toetfore 
we had come to Paris. And around us were 
more strange faces — new types to us — from 
Senegal, from the French Congo, from 




M. PAUL PANDA 

Madagascar, from Annam. I looked at 
that sea of dark faces and my heart was 
moved within me. However their white 
overlords or their minions might plot and 
plan and thwart, nothing could dislodge 
from the minds of all of them the knowl- 
edge that black was at last stretching out 
to black, hands of hope and the promise of 
unity though seas and armies divided. 

On the platform was, I suppose, the in- 
tellectual efflorescence of the Negro race. 
To American eyes and, according to the pa- 
pers, to many others, Dr. DuBois loomed 
first, for he had first envisaged this move- 
ment and many of us knew how gigantical- 
ly he had toiled. Then there was M. Belle- 



16 



THE CRISIS 



garde, the Haitian minister to France and 
Haitian delegate to the assembly of the 
League of Nations. Beside him sat the 
grave and dignified delegate from the Liga 
Africana of Lisbon, Portugal, and on the 
other side the presiding officer, M. Diagne 
and his colleague, M. Candace, French dep- 
uty from Guadeloupe. A little to one side 
sat the American Rayford Logan, assist- 
ant secretary of the Pan- African Congress 
at Paris and our interpreter. His transla- 
tions, made off-hand without a moment's 
preparation, were a remarkable exhibition. 

In the audience besides those faithful 
American delegates* who had followed us 
from London on, were other friends, Henry 
0. Tanner, Captain and Mrs. Napoleon 
Marshall, who had joined us in Paris, 
Bishop and Mrs. Hurst, who had come back 
from Brussels to Paris with us, Captain 
and Mrs. Arthur Spingarn, white delegates 
from America, who had attended the cos- 
ferences regularly and had laughed and 
worked with us in between whiles. 

The situation in Paris was less tense, 
one felt the difference between monarchy 
and republic. But again the American was 
temporarily puzzled. Even allowing for na- 
tural differences of training and tradition, 
it seemed absurd to have the floor given re- 
peatedly to speakers who dwelt on the 
glories of France and the honor of being 
a black Frenchman, when what we and most 
of those humble delegates wanted to learn 
was about us. 

The contrast between the speakers of the 
Eastern and Western hemispheres with 
but two exceptions was most striking. 
Messieurs Diagne and Candace gave us fine 
oratory, magnificent gestures — but plati- 
tudes. But the speeches of Dr. DuBois, of 
Edward Frazier, of Walter White, of Dr. 
Jackson, of a young and and fiery Jamaican 
and of M. Bellegarde, gave facts and food 
for thought. The exceptions were the 
speeches of M. Challaye, a white member 
of the Society for the Defense of African 
Natives, and those of the grave and courtly 
Portuguese, Messieurs Magalhaens and 
Santos-Pinto. 

But this audience was different from that 
in Brussells. To begin with, its members 
were mainly black and being black, had 
suffered. More than one man to whom the 
unusually autocratic presiding officer had 



*A list of the delegates will be published later. 



not given the right to speak said to me 
after hearing Dr. DuBois' exposition of 
the meaning and purpose of the Pan-Afri- 
can Congress, "Do you think I could get a 
chance to speak to Dr. DuBois? There is 
much I would tell him." 

France is a colonial power but France is 
a republic. And so when our resolutions 
were presented once more to this the final 
session of the Pan-African Congress, that 
audience felt that here at last was the fear- 
less voicing of the long stifled desires of 
their hearts, here was comprehension, here 
was the translation of hitherto unsyllabled, 
unuttered prayers. The few paragraphs 
about capitalism M. Diagne postponed "for 
the consideration of the next Pan-African 
Congress." But the rest that yearning, 
groping audience accepted With their souls. 

The last session of the last day was over. 
It was midnight and spent and happy we 
found our way home through the streets 
of Paris which never sleeps. 



"V7"ET after all the real task was at Gen- 
■*■ eva. The city struck us dumb at first 
with its beauty of sky and water — the blue 
and white of the September heavens above, 
Lake Geneva and the Rhone River gliding 
green and transparent under stone bridges, 
black and white swans, red-beaked, float- 
ing lazily about green baby islands, and 
above and beyond all in the far distance 
Mont Blanc rising hoary, serene and ma- 
jestic. In the sunset it looked like bur- 
nished silver. 

But scant time we had for looking at 
that! The Assembly of the League of Na- 
tions was on. A thousand petitions and 
resolutions were in process of being pre- 
sented. Delegates from many nations were 
here and men of international name and 
fame were presiding. How were we to gain 
audience? 

Fortunately for us Dr. DuBois' name and 
reputation proved the open sesame. He 
had not been in the city two hours before 
invitations and requests for interviews 
poured in. One of our staunchest helpers 
was an English woman, Lady Cecelia, wife 
of that Mr. Roberts who had worked with 
Montague in India. She presided at meals 
at a long table in the dining room of the 
Hotel des Families and here Dr. DuBois 
was made a welcome guest throughout his 
whole stay. Here came to meet and con- 



SECOND PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS 



17 



fer with him on our cause Mr. Roberts 
himself, Mr. Lief-Jones, M.P., Professor 
Gilbert Murray (representing South Afri- 
ca at the Assembly of the League of Na- 
tions), and John H. Harris of the Anti- 
Slavery and Aborigines' Protection Society. 
M. Bellegarde, Haitian Minister to France 
and delegate to the Assembly, was also at 
that hotel and gave us generously of his aid 
and assistance. 

On Monday night, September 13, Dr. Du- 
Bois addressed the English Club of Geneva 
and conveyed to them some idea of what 
the black world was thinking, feeling and 
doing with regard to the Negro problem. 
I am sure that many of that group of peo- 
ple, thinkers and students though they 
were, had never dreamed before that there 
might even be a black point of view. But 
they took their instruction bravely and 
afterwards thanked Dr. DuBois with shin- 
ing eyes and warm hand clasps. 

Besides meeting and conferring with 
these distinguished personages Dr. DuBois 
had luncheon conferences with Rene. Clapa- 
rede of the executive committee of the So- 
ciete Internationale pour la Protection des 
Indigenes and with William Rappard, head 
of the Mandates Commission of the League 
of Nations, a dinner conference with G. 
Spiller, former secretary of the Races Con- 
gress, and an interview with Albert Thomas, 
head of the International Bureau of Labor. 

At the end of a week of steady driving, 
by dint of interviewing, of copying, of 
translating, of recopying, we were ready to 
present and did present to Sir Eric Drum- 
mond, secretary of the League of Nations, 
a copy in French and English of the reso- 
lutions entitled To The World (see page 
5) and of the manifesto (see page 18). 
Mr. Thomas and M. Rappard who both 
heartily endorsed the appointment of a 
"man of Negro descent" to the Mandates 
Commission, Professor Gilbert Murray, 
and IvI. Bellegarde also received copies. 

And between whiles we listened to the 
world striving to right its wrongs at the 
Assembly of the League of Nations. 

Of course we were at a disadvantage be- 
cause America, not being in the League of 
Nations, had no delegate. But Professor 
Murray suggested to M. Bellegarde, the 
Haitian delegate, that he state the second 
resolution (see manifesto) during the de- 
bate on Mandates. This he did, as Pro- 



fessor Murray writes us, with "quite re- 
markable success" and "I think that next 
year it may be quite suitable to put it 
down as a resolution." 



VI 



T* ESULTS are hard to define. But I must 
•**■ strive to point out a few. First then, 
out of these two preliminary conferences of 
1919 and 1921, a definite organization has 
been evolved, to be known as the Pan-Af- 
rican Congress. There will be more of this 
in these pages. Naturally working with 
people from all over the world, with the 
necessity for using at least two languages, 
with the limited detailed knowledge which 
the black foreigner is permitted to get of 
Africa and with the pressure brought to 
bear on many Africans to prevent them 
from frank speech — action must be slow 
and very careful. It will take years for an 
institution of this sort to function. But it 
is on its own feet now and the burden no 
longer is on black America. It must stand 
or fall by its own merits. 

We have gained proof that organization 
on our part arrests the attention of the 
world. We had no need to seek publicity. 
If we had wanted to we could not have es- 
caped it. The press was with us always. 
The white world is feverishly anxious to 
know of our thoughts, our hopes, our 
dreams. Organization is our strongest 
weapon. 

It was especially arresting to notice that 
the Pan-African Congress and the Assem- 
bly of the League of Nations differed not 
a whit in essential methods. Neither at- 
tempted a hard and fast program. Lum- 
bering and slow were the wheels of both 
activities. There had to be much talk, 
many explanations, an infinity of time and 
patience and then talk again. Neither the 
wrongs of Africa nor of the world, can be 
righted in a day nor in a decade. We can 
only make beginnings. 

The most important result was our reali- 
zation that there is an immensity of work 
ahead of all of us. We have got to learn 
everything — facts about Africa, the differ- 
ence between her colonial governments, 
one foreign language at least (French or 
Spanish), new points of view, generosity 
of ideal and of act. All the possibilities of 
all black men are needed to weld together 



18 



THE CRISIS 



the blade men of the world against the day 
when black and white meet to do battle. 
God grant that when that day comes we 



shall be so powerful that the enemy will 
say, "But behold! these men are our broth- 
ers." 



MANIFESTO TO THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS 




r T' , HE second Pan-African Congress which 
■*- met in London, Brussels and Paris, 
August 28, 29 and 31 and September 2, 3, 
5 and 6, represented 26 different groups of 
people of Negro descent: namely, British 
Nigeria, Gold Coast and Sierra Leone; the 
Egyptian Sudan, British East Africa, for- 
mer German East Africa; French Senegal, 
the French Congo and Madagascar; Bel- 
gian Congo; Portuguese St. Thome, Angola 
and Mozambique; Liberia; Abyssinia; 
Haiti; British Jamaica and Grenada; 
French Martinique and Guadeloupe; Brit- 
ish Guiana; the United States of America, 
Negroes resident in England, France, Bel- 
gium and Portugal, and fraternal visitors 
from India, Morocco, the Philippines and 
Annam. 

The Congress adopted two sets of reso- 
lutions differing somewhat in detail but 
essentially identical. The first set of reso- 
lutions (adopted unanimously at London) 
is presented in its original English text; 
the second set (discussed at Brussels and 
adopted unanimously at Paris) is presented 
in its original French text. 

The Congress directed its executive of- 
ficers to approach the League of Nations 
with three earnest requests, believing that 
the greatest international body in the world 
must sooner or later turn its attention to 
the great racial problem as it today affects 
persons of Negro descent. 

First: The second Pan-African Con- 
gress asks that in the International Bureau 
of Labor a section be set aside to deal par- 
ticularly and in detail with the conditions 
and needs of native Negro labor especially 
in Africa and in the Islands of the Sea. 
It is the earnest belief of the Congress 
that the labor problems of the world ean- 
not be understood or properly settled so 
long as colored and especially Negro labor 
is enslaved and neglected, and that a first 
step toward the world emancipation of la- 



bor would be through investigation of na- 
tive labor. 

Secondly: The second Pan- African Con- 
gress wishes to suggest that the spirit of 
the modern world moves toward self-gov- 
ernment as the ultimate aim of all men 
and nations and that consequently the 
mandated areas, being peopled as they are 
so largely by black folk, have a right to 
ask that a man of Negro descent, proper- 
ly fitted in character and training, be ap- 
pointed a member of the Mandates Com- 
mission so soon as a vacancy occurs. 

Thirdly and finally: The second Pan- 
African Congress desires most earnestly 
and emphatically to ask the good offices and 
careful attention of the League of Nations 
to the condition of civilized persons of Ne- 
gro descent throughout the world. Con- 
sciously and unconsciously, there is in the 
world today a widespread and growing 
feeling that it is permissible to treat civ- 
ilized men as uncivilized if they are col- 
ored and more especially of Negro descent. 
The result of this attitude and many conse- 
quent laws, customs and conventions is 
that a bitter feeling of resentment, per- 
sonal insult and despair is widespread in 
the world among those very persons whose 
rise is the hope of the Negro race. 

We are fully aware that the League of 
Nations has little if any direct power to 
adjust these matters, but it has the vast 
moral power of world public opinion and 
of a body conceived to promote peace and 
justice among men. For this reason we 
ask and urge that the League of Nations 
take a firm stand on the absolute equality 
of races and that it suggest to the Colo- 
nial Powers connected with the League of 
Nations the forming of an International 
Institute for the study of the Negro Prob- 
lems, and for the Evolution and Protection 
of the Negro Race. 

W. E. BURGHARDT DUBOIS, 

Geneva, September 15, 1921. Secretary. 




19 



A NEW ORLEANS BASEBALL PARK 





WALLACE C. MARINE 

^"EGROES in New Orleans have de- 
■*■ ~ veloped a liking for picnics, fairs and 
baseball games. For these amusements 
they were compelled to use the Fair 
Grounds, which is owned and controlled by 
white people. The owners charged the col- 
ored people enormous prices for rental, and 
would not permit them to rent the grounds 
on holidays, and seldom on Sundays. 

This state of affairs became aggravated 
when a committee of colored men planned 
an affair for July 4. They succeeded in 
renting the grounds, paying the required 
deposit, and began their advertising. When, 
however, the owners realized that they had 
inadvertently rented the grounds to col- 
ored people for July 4, they revoked the 
privilege, and only through the services of 
a lawyer were the Negroes given satisfac- 
tion. 

Mr. Wallace C. Marine, thereupon, began 



a search for suitable grounds which col- 
ored people could own, control and oper- 
ate. Having succeeded in this step, he ap- 
proached the Honorable 'Mr. Walter L. 
Cohen, a Negro, who assisted not only with 
his broad experience, but also with his 
influence with the city authorities. 

A Board of Directors was formed, con- 
sisting of fourteen men, each of whom 
bought at least $1,000 worth of stock. Mr. 
Wallace C. Marine was elected president; 
Mr. F. V. Fauria, treasurer, and Mr. C. C. 
Dejoie, secretary. Other members of the 
Board of Directors are: Messrs. Walter L. 
Cohen, Dr. P. H. V. Dejoie, Albert Work- 
man, Bernard Delpit, Arthur P. Bedou, A. 
J. Bigard, Joseph W. Elliott, Edward E. 
Woodruff, George Andre, Arnold Dufour- 
chard, Edwin Fauria, Walter Bemiss and 
Dr. F. T. Jones. 

After a capital stock of $25,000 had been 
subscribed by the members of the Board of 
Directors, the common stock was opened to 
the public, and $45,000 was subscribed, the 
shares being $50 each. 

The ground has been named The Crescent 
Stars' Amusement Baseball Park. The site 
is situated in the Seventh Ward, which is 
better known as the downtown or Creole 
District — "Faubourg Treme." It is four 
squares from St. Bernard Boulevard, which 
is one of the prettiest thoroughfares in New 
Orleans. 

The Park was planned and built by Ne- 
groes. It has a baseball diamond, a grand- 
stand, a dancing pavillion and booths for re- 
freshments. The Crescent Stars' Baseball 
Club, of -which Mr. Marine is the Manager, 
is ajgreat attraction. The park has a seat- 
ing capacity of 4,000 and can be rented at 
any time for a nominal sum. 

New Orleans, therefore, can well boast 
of her amusement place which is owned, 
controlled and operated solely by Negroes. 

This enterprise is but one of the many 
indications of the new spirit which is grad- 
ually invading one of the most conserva- 
tive Negro communities of the world. 



20 



National • Ass ociaiion • for • ike • • • 
Advancement o/*- Colored- People. 



mi- of* 



THE 24THlINFANTRYlPRISONERS;i 

ON Wednesday, September 28, a delega- 
tion of 30 leading colored men and 
women, headed by James Weldon Johnson, 
Secretary of the N. A. A. C. P., had an 
audience with President Harding and pre- 
sented a petition, signed by 50,000 persons, 
asking for the pardon of the 01 soldiers of 
the 24th Infantry who are confined in Leav- 
enworth as a result of rioting in Houston, 
Texas, in August, 1917. 

In the delegation with Mr. Johnson, or 
lending their names to it, were the Hon. 
NJMr. Archibald Grimke, president of the 
Washington Branch; Major R. R. Moton, 
principal of Tuskegee Institute; R. S. 
Abbott, editor of the Chicago Defender; 
Emmett J. Scott, special assistant to the 
Secretary of War during the World War; 
Prof. George W. Cook and Kelly Miller, of 
Howard University; Robert R. Church, col- 
ored Republican leader in Tennessee; Dr. 
Charles E. Bentley, of Chicago; Miss Nan- 
nie H. Burroughs; Mrs. Mary B. Talbert, 
honorary president of the National Asso- 
ciation of Colored Women's Clubs; Mrs. 
Mary Church Terrell; Mrs. Alice Dunbar 
Nelson, Harry J L Pace, John Hope, the 
Hon. Mr. J. C. Asbury, , member Pennsylva- 
nia Legislature; Harry E. Davis, member 
of the Ohio Legislature; Drs. William H. 
Washington and W. W. Wolfe, of Newark, 
N. J.; the Rev. Mr. R. H. Singleton, of At- 
lanta, Ga.; James A. Cobb, counsel for the 
N. A. A. C. P., and John R. Hawkins, finan- 
cial secretary of th¥"AT1VTrT^~Church. 

Mr. Johnson in presenting the petition 
said: 

As Secretary of the National Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Colored Peo- 
ple, and spokesman for this delegation, 
composed of persons and representatives 
of bodies deeply concerned for America's 
good name, I have the honor to present a 
petition signed by 50,000 American citi- 
zens, white and black, praying that you 
exercise executive clemency, and pardon 
the 61 members of the 24th U. S. Infantry 
now in the Federal Prison at Leavenworth, 
Kansas, convicted on charges of rioting at 
Houston, Texas, in August, 1917. 



We are a delegation representing the 
50,000 signers of this petition which we 
have the honor to lay before you, and we 
come not only as a representative of those 
who signed tne petition, but we are spokes- 
men of the sentiments of the ten millions 
or more of Negro citizens of the United 
States. 

The petition, you will note, asks for their 
pardon on three grounds: first, the previ- 
ous record for discipline, service and sol- 
dierly conduct of the 24th Infantry; second, 
the provocation of local animosity which 
manifested itself in insults, threats and 
acts of violence against colored soldiers; 
third, the heavy punishment meted out to 
members of the 24th Infantry of whom 19 
were hanged, 13 of them summarily and 
without right of appeal to the Secretary 
of War or to the President, their Com- 
mander-in-Chief. This wholesale, unprece- 
dented and almost clandestine execution 
shocked the entire country and appeared 
to the colored people to savor of vengeance 
rather than justice. Sixty-one members of 
the 24th Infantry are still in prison serv- 
ing life and long time sentences. 

Contrary to all precedent, the provost 
guard of this colored regiment had been 
disarmed in a state and in a city where in- 
sult was the colored United States soldier's 
daily experience. Following a long series 
of humiliating and harassing incidents, one 
soldier was brutally beaten and a well be- 
loved non-commissioned officer of the regi- 
ment was fired upon because they had in- 
tervened in the mistreatment of a colored 
woman by local policemen. The report 
spread among the regiment that their non- 
commissioned officer, Corporal Baltimore, 
had been killed. Whatever acts may have 
been committed by these men were not the 
result of any premeditated design. The 
men were goaded to sudden and frenzied 
action. This is borne out by the long rec- 
ord of orderly and soldierly conduct on the 
part of this regiment throughout its whole 
history up to that time. 

Moreover, although white citizens of 
Houston were involved in these riots and 
the regiment to which these men belonged 
was officered entirely by white men, none 
but Negroes, so far as we have been able 
to learn, have ever been prosecuted or 
punished. In consequence, the wholesale 
punishment meted out to these colored sol- 
diers of their country bore the aspect of a 
visitation upon their color rather than upon 
their crime. The attention of colored peo- 
ple throughout the United States will be 



21 



22 



THE CRISIS 



focussed upon the action which it may 
please you to take. 

In consideration, therefore, of the almost 
five years already served in prison by the 
61 men and of the foregoing facts, and be- 
cause of the long record for bravery, dis- 
cipline and soldierly conduct of this partic- 
ular regiment, and in the name of the stead- 
fast loyalty of the American Negro in every 
crisis of the nation, we bespeak your at- 
tention to the petition which we beg here- 
with to present to you. 

The President promised to review the 
testimony in the cases of the soldiers and to 
take the request made in this important pe- 
tition under advisement. Mr. Johnson also 
made reference to the gratification of the 
colored people that the government through 
two channels was investigating the nefar- 
ious Ku Klux Klan. 

FIGHTING TREASON 

HP HE treason which consists of commer- 
•*• cialized race hatred and masquerades 
as Americanism has found a dangerous an- 
tagonist in the National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People. For more 
than a year the Association has fought the 
Ku Klux Klan with the weapons of pub- 
licity and fact-telling, until such a power- 
ful engine in moulding pubKc opinion as the 
New York World became convinced of the 
necessity of taking up the fight. The ex- 
pose in the World has torn the last rag of 
secrecy off the Klan's mummery and it is 
shown to be the lowest and vilest sort of 
money-making scheme conducted by those 
who are ready to play upon prejudices of 
any and every sort for their own advan- 
tage. This expose travelled the length and 
breadth of the United States, being reprint- 
ed in dozens of powerful newspapers. 

Even before the election of 1920, in which 
the Ku Klux Klan attempted to intimidate 
colored voters, the National Association 
for the Advancement of Colored People 
was endeavoring to obtain facts about these 
bed-sheet heroes. An officer of the Asso- 
ciation discovered, when he was invited to 
join the Klan under the mistaken impres- 
sion that he was a white man, that the 
Klan intended to organize in New York 
City. The attention of the New York Po- 
lice Department, the Mayor and the Dis- 
trict Attorney was at once called to this 
menace and both the Mayor and the Dis- 
trict Attorney assured the people of New 
York that the Klan would not be permitted 
within the city's limits. Subsequently, the 



Association's attention was called to the 
fact that the Klan was using an address 
in New York in an attempt to recruit mem- 
bers. This information was given not only 
to the city officials but to the New York 
World, and the Klan's representative was 
traced to the Army and Navy Club in New 
York. 

Meanwhile, through press stories sent 
broadcast throughout the country, by mass 
meetings and magazine articles, the Asso- 
ciation was making known the true nature 
of the Klan. So well and so thoroughly 
was this work done that the Searchlight, 
published in Atlanta as the organ of the 
Klan, called the National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored People its most 
dangerous foe; and denunciation of the 
Klan began to be heard not only from the 
pulpit but in the editorial columns of the 
most reputable white southern newspapers. 
Among the agencies which denounced the 
Klan in the South were the inter-racial com- 
mittees, churches and the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy in Virginia. 

In September, 1921, the New York World, 
after an exhaustive investigation, began a 
series of twenty articles upon the Ku Klux 
Klan. Not only was it shown that the 
Klan was attempting to suppress the Ne- 
gro, but it was also exposed as spreading 
anti-Catholic propaganda of a most viru- 
lent character, and propaganda creating 
prejudice against Japanese and Jews. The 
Klan was shown to be bound by un-Ameri- 
can oaths of obedience and fealty to an "im- 
perial wizard" and its connection was es- 
tablished with the profitable sale of regalia. 
To the World, the National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored People had 
the privilege of contributing information 
which was publicly acknowledged in the 
World's articles. The National Association 
two months before the articles began to ap- 
pear had placed its Ku Klux Klan files at 
the disposal of a representative of the 
World. Lists of the atrocities attributed 
to the Ku Klux Klan were published in the 
World, and public acknowledgment by the 
Klan of its responsibility in a number of 
cases. 

The personal lives of the leaders of the 
Klan, who pretended to be leading in a cam- 
paign for moral purity, were laid bare and 
the World published the fact that two of 
the leaders of the Klan had been arrested 
in a disorderly house in Atlanta and fined, 



N. A. A. C. P. 



23 



one of those arrested being the chief woman 
in the Klan. 

To such an extent was the National As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Colored 
People useful in exposing the Klan, that 
the Klan actually attempted to employ a 
traitorous colored man to create dissen- 
sion in the Association's ranks. A former 
Klansman, C. Anderson Wright, writing in 
the New York American, of September 16, 
spoke of this dastardly attempt as follows: 

Another subject of serious discussion was 
the realization that the power of the Negro 
society, known as the Society for the Ad- 
vancement of Colored people, was becoming 
a great menace in the expansion of the Ku 
Klux Klan, as it was continually giving to 
the press publicity on the Klan's under- 
handed methods. This society was getting 
active in State Legislative work, having 
already succeeded in having introduced by 
a Negro legislator from Chicago, a bill de- 
nouncing the Klan in the Illinois Legisla- 
ture. This bill was passed. It made an 
appeal to the citizens of Illinois to refrain 
from joining or associating in any manner 
with the Ku Klux Klan. 

This activity on the part of the Negro, 
in the judgment of Clarke, warranted 
prompt action, and it was decided to set up 
a rival organization to the Society for the 
Advancement of Colored People without de- 
lay. Clarke began with a Negro in his own 
employ, a man of unusual intelligence, who 
was in charge of the servants on his farm 
on the outskirts of Atlanta. This servant 
enlisted the services of other Negroes as 
spies, and they attended the meetings of 
the society and reported everything that 
was said and done. Also, these spies sought 
to create dissatisfaction and discord among 
the members of the society. 

It is, therefore, established, practically 
conclusively, that the Klan has actually 
been driven to employ spies to try to cre- 
ate dissension in the National Association 
for the Advancement of Colored People. The 
Association is gratified at the Klan's lack 
of success and feels this attention on the 
part of the Klan to be a tribute to its ef- 
fectiveness in fighting the Ku Klux Klan's 
treason to the principles upon which the 
American State rests. 

Following the exposure of the Ku Klux 
Klan's hypocrisy and treason, the National 
Association appealed to President Harding 
in a telegram urging his endorsement of a 
complete Federal investigation of the 
Klan's activities and Congressional action 
should that prove necessary. At about 
that time, Attorney General Daugherty 
ordered the Department of Justice to make 



a report on the Klan, and William J. Burns, 
head of the Federal secret service, turned 
over such a report to President Harding. 

THE ARKANSAS CASES 

HP HE fight still goes on in the Arkansas 
■*■ cases. The six men condemned to be 
executed in September are still alive. 

An appeal to the Governor for reprieve 
was unsuccessful. Then our attorneys ap- 
plied for a writ of certiorari to act as a 
stay to the execution. On learning that the 
writ of certiorari could not be obtained 
in time to stop the execution, as the judges 
of the Federal Court would not be in Wash- 
ington until after the date of execution, 
application was made for a writ of habeas 
corpus. This was granted and made re- 
turnable Monday, September 26. 

On Tuesday, September 27, a telegram 
was received, stating that the writ was sus- 
tained and that the execution was stayed. 

Evidence is now in hand which should 
have large weight towards securing the 
freedom of the prisoners who are yet to 
come to trial and which will favorably af- 
fect the fate of those already condemned. 
The other cases will be tried in Marianna, 
Ark., in the near future. This will be the 
first opportunity to use the new evidence. 
The Association is leaving no stone un- 
turned in its efforts to secure justice for 
these men. 

We urgently appeal for contributions to 
the Arkansas Defense Fund to meet this 
critical moment in the defense of these in- 
nocent men. 

CERTIFICATE MEMBERSHIP DRIVE 

A T the Atlanta Conference it was voted 
*■*> that an attorney be employed by the 
Association who should give his whole time 
to its work. It was thought that such an 
arrangement, supplementing the voluntary 
service of the Legal Committee of the As- 
sociation, would make very much more ef- 
fective the legal work done by our Asso- 
ciation. 

At the Detroit Conference it was voted 
that as soon as the Association found it- 
self able, it should employ regional secre- 
taries in order that intensive work might 
be done towards organization in all sections 
of the country. 

The Association so far has found itself 
unable to carry out these recommendations 
and also unable to do many other things 



24 



THE CRISIS 



that it would like to enter upon because of 
lack of funds. One dollar from its mem- 
bers will not furnish sufficient revenue to 
do the work which needs to be done. It 
has not been our good fortune to secure 
many bequests from our well-to-do citi- 
zens, but we hope that the habit of remem- 
bering the Association in bequests may 
soon be established. Over 90 percent of 
our support comes from colored people, and 
it is well that this should be so; but most 
of these are One Dollar members. It is 
because One Dollar a year will not furnish 
sufficient means, that the branches are now 
being urged to conduct some time in October 
or November a one-week Certificate Mem- 
bership Drive. In every branch there are 
persons whose means are such that they 
should donate each year to the Association 
$25, $50, $100, or more. Almost every 
member in all our branches can. without 
undue sacrifice, become either a Gold or a 
Blue Certificate member. The Gold Certifi- 
cate at $10 a year means the spending of 
less than 20c per week for the work of se- 
curing justice for our group. The Blue 
Certificate at $5 a year means spending 
less than 10c per week for this end. None 
of our members is so poor that he can- 
not afford, if he would, 20c or 10c a week. 
This is very little to pay for liberty. 

One Dollar members may become Gold 
or Blue Certificate members by paying $9 
or $4, respectively. It is hoped that every 
branch will enter this one-week intensive 
campaign. The pioneer in this idea is our 
branch at Florence, S. C, in which a large 
proportion of the members are certificate 
members. 

The one-week intensive drive is to be con- 
ducted primarily within the branch. Let 
every branch take as its motto: One Hun- 
dred Percent Certificate Membership! 

DRIVE OF THE N. A. A. C. P. 

WE have had many queries concerning 
the final drive report. We are here- 
with printing it. At the same time we wish 
to congratulate the branches on the splen- 
did work they did under the very adverse 
circumstances produced by the economic de- 
pression. 

It will be of interest to review at the 
same time the previous drives of the Asso- 
ciation. 
Moorfield Storey Drive (1918), new 

membership gained . » 26,916 



1919 Drive 22,875 

1920 (no drive held) 

1921 Driver- 
New members gained.. 44,200 
New branches organized 37 
Branches over 1,000 

members now 13 

Branches over 1,000 
members before the 
Drive 3 

Branches over 500 mem- 
bers now 18 

Branches over 500 mem- 
bers before the Drive 7 
Receipts 

Receipts from the Drive $28,243.53 

Disbursements 

Printing $1,668.84 

Buttons 822.92 

Salaries 996.46 

Postage 600.00 

$6,284.11 
Sales of buttons and lit- 
erature 1,360.12 

Net disbursements $ 4,923.99 

Net receipts from the 

Drive $23,319.54 

THE CASE OF HARLEM HOSPITAL 

HARLEM HOSPITAL is one of the 
units under the control of Bellevue 
and Allied Hospitals' Association — the mu- 
nicipal hospital organization of New York 
City. 

Harlem has 150,000 colored people, and 
the hospital from its location is fitted to 
serve their needs. 

But there have been so many rumors 
and statements of alleged graft, mistreat- 
ment and neglect of colored patients in 
Harlem Hospital that the colored residents 
prefer to go to any other hospital in the 
city. It is significant that the 109th Street 
Hospital states that twenty per cent, of 
their total admissions are colored, and that 
eighty per cent, of these are from Harlem. 
The Presbyterian and St. Luke's Hospitals 
also have an unusually large percentage of 
colored admissions. These are all out of 
the colored district. In spite of their de- 
sire to go elsewhere, nearly half of the 
patients of the Harlem Hospital are col- 
ored. 

In January, Mr. Cosmo O'Neil, the Su- 
perintendent of Harlem Hospital, who had 
been notably fair in his attitude towards 
colored people and who had placed colored 
physicians on the hospital staff, was de- 
moted to a clerical position in Bellevue. 



N. A. A. C. P„ 



25 



Alderman George W. Harris, deeming it 
necessary to have a friend of the colored 
people at Bellevue, and feeling that the 
demotion was not the result of any incom- 
petency, took up the matter with Mayor 
Hylan, seeking the reinstatement of Mr. 
O'Neil. At this time, it was thought well 
to bring up the matter of the treatment 
of colored patients at Harlem Hospital and 
to seek a remedy. 

Mr. Harris, Dr. Allen B. Graves, At- 
torney Morton, and Mr. Walter F. White, 
assistant secretary of the N. A. A. C. P., 
formed a committee representing the col- 
ored citizens who sought to reinstate the 
superintendent, but without success. After 
meeting with the Board, who pushed aside 
their requests, the committee then brought 
before the Mayor a mass of data they had 
collected concerning alleged graft, mis- 
treatment and shameless neglect of colored 
patients. 

The Mayor appointed Commissioner of 
Accounts Hirschfield to hear the complaints, 
and the defense. Five hearings in all were 
held. A mass of evidence was produced in 
the form of sworn affidavits and personal 
witnesses, charging the hospital authorities 
with grave offenses against colored pa- 
tients. 

The committee averred that these condi- 
tions only could be remedied by the pres- 
ence of colored members on the Medical 
and Surgical Board of Harlem Hospital, 
and made as its minimum demand that 
there be appointed two such members, and 
that visiting physicians with the full rights 
of the hospital and visiting surgeons with 
full rights to the hospital be appointed. 

Commissioner Hirshfield had the hos- 
pital records of January and February ex- 
amined, and when he learned from them 
that forty-six per cent, of all admissions 
were colored, he stated that it was but fair 
that colored people have representation on 
the Board. 

Much publicity was given the hearings 
through the reports in the New York News, 
the Harlem Home News, and the New York 
Tribune. 

As a result of the pressure occasioned 
by the publicity given to the work of the 



colored committee, the consultants of the 
American Hospital Association are alleged 
to have offered, aftpr the second hearing, 
to secure a $2,000,000 Negro hospital if the 
matter would be dropped. 

The committee is reported to have re- 
plied that they were interested in procuring 
the rights of colored patients, nurses, doc- 
tors and surgeons in a municipal hospital, 
and not in securing a segregated institu- 
tion. During the fight the original com- 
mittee was in close touch with the North 
Harlem Medical Association, the organiza- 
tion of colored doctors, surgeons, dentists 
and pharmacists, who fully endorsed their 
fight and employed a special investigator 
and two attorneys to help in the matter. 
Mr. William N. Colson was employed as in- 
vestigator and Mr. Aiken Pope and Mr. 
Ferdinand Morton as counsellors. All of 
these did excellent work. 

It was made clear that the crux of the 
whole question is the admission of colored 
nurses and internes. The strong objection 
— it is alleged — is based on the necessary 
social intermingling this would entail. 

The entire matter is not yet settled, but 
there have been certain important imme- 
diate results. 

1. Bellevue and Allied Hospital Boards, 
together with the local board of Har- 
lem Hospital, now clearly realize that 
colored physicians are determined to 
fight for their full rights. 

2. Two physicals who were in the Medi- 
cal Out-patient Department have been 

transferred to the Surgical Out-patient 
Department — a promotion. These are 
Dr. Louis T. Wright and Dr. Douglass 
Johnson. Two other physicians have 
been appointed in the Medical Out-pa- 
tient Department — Dr. P. M. Murray 
and Dr. Ralph Young. 

3. Two others have been permitted to work 
in the hospital, Dr. Ernest Alexander 
in the Skin Department and Dr. Vernon 
Ayer in the X-Ray Department. 

4 Colored Red Cross nurses have been per- 
mitted to work. 

5. The hospital also has promised to admit 
colored nurses. 



AVen of (he Month 



ON October 1, 1888, during the adminis- 
tration of Lord Sackville West, Charles 
Fleurence Meline Browne entered the serv- 
ice of the Chancery of the British Embassy. 
He has served as a messenger and clerical 
assistant through the administrations of 
Lord Paunceforte, Sir Michael Herbert, Sir 
Mortimer Durand, Viscount Bryce, Sir 
Cecil A. Spring-Rice, Lord Reading, Sir Ed- 
ward Grey and the present incumbent, Sir 
Auckland Geddes, a period of 33 years. 

The Order of the British Empire was cre- 
ated by King George in 1917 and is one of 
the most popular medals given by the 
Crown. Mr. Browne is the first Negro, and 
one of the few persons in the United States, 
to be awarded this medal. 

Mr. Browne was born in Washington, D. 
C, December 24, 1871. He studied in the 
public schools of the District of Columbia 
and was graduated from the law school of 
Howard University in 1898. 



THE late Dr. Samuel John Ross was 
president of the College of West Africa, 
Liberia. He was born in British Guiana, 
South America, September 19, 1880. In 1902 
he came to the United States and entered 
Lincoln University, where he was given 
the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bache- 
lor of Divinity in 1907. He was president 
and valedictorian of his class and the win- 
ner of three gold medals for oratory. In 
1908 he matriculated at the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons, in Chicago, and was 
graduated in 1912 with honors. 

In 1913 Dr. Ross married Miss Pearl F. 
Thomasson, of Chicago, and during the year 
they sailed for Porto Rico, where Dr. Ross 
did interne work at Yauco. He practiced 
medicine in the United States from 1915-'18; 
then he was appointed Medical Missionary 
to Liberia by the Board of Foreign Missions 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Under 
his administration the College of West Af- 
rica grew from an enrollment of 250 to 
356. In collaboration with Mrs. Ross, a 
Y. W. C. A., a Y. M. C. A., and an athletic 
association were established, being the first 
of their kind in Liberia. 



unteer social service worker in New Jer- 
sey and New York City. Mrs. Gregory was 
born in Washington, D. C, 44 years ago, 
being the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Eugene 
Brooks. She served as a clerk to the super- 
vising principal of the 13th District schools 
and was for several years a supervisor of 
first year work in the public schools of 
Washington. She married Attorney Eugene 
M. Gregory, a graduate of Harvard Uni- 
versity and a member of the Bar of New 
Jersey and New York. 

Among Mrs. Gregory's activities in New 
Jersey were the offices of vice-president of 
the Newark Branch of the National Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Colored Peo- 
ple, and chairman of the executive board of 
the New Jersey Federation of Colored Wom- 
en's Clubs; in New York City she was Su- 
perintendent of the Working Girls' Home 
and the Colored Mission of the Diocesan 
Auxiliary of the Cathedral of St. John the 
Divine, and a director of the Music School 
Settlement. 

A scholarship in memory of Mrs. Greg- 
ory is to be established at the Manual 
Training and Industrial School for Colored 
Youth at Bordentown, N. J., by the Fed- 
eration of Colored Women's Clubs. 



A URELIO EDUARDO BERMUDEZ was 
-*■*- born in the Province of Colon, August 
1, 1893. He joined the police force when 
fourteen years of age, being the youngest 
member of that body, and became attached 
to the Bureau of Investigation. He is 
known as the only finger-print expert in 
Central America. 

In 1912 Mr. Bermudez was appointed 
Chief of the Investigation Bureau of the 
City of Colon, with the rank of Sub-Lieuten- 
ant. Through Colonel Albert Lamb, In- 
spector General of the Police Force, he was 
promoted to the rank of Lieutenant, last 
October. In January of this year he was 
appointed Captain of the Investigation De- 
partment of the Republic, being the first 
and only Negro Captain on the Isthmus. 



'HE late Mrs. Musette Brooks Gregory 
of Newark, N. J., was a prominent vol- 



Tj^IFTY years ago, David Jonathan Phil- 
A lips was born in Jamaica. After a pub- 
lic school education, he studied at Calabar 
College and the Pharmacy School of the 



26 




CHARLES F. M. BROWNE AURELIO E. BERMUDEZ 

DR. DAVID J. PHILLIPS 
THE LATE DR. SAMUEL J. ROSS THE LATE MRS. MUSETTE B. GREGORY 



27 



28 



THE CRISIS 




Dr. Darrington Weaver Dr, Harvey A. Murray Dr. T. E, Stevens 



Dr. Douglas B. Johnson 



Public Hospital, in Kingston, and was ap- 
pointed resident dispenser at the Falmouth 
Public Hospital. After three years he re- 
signed from Government service and estab- 
lished the Midland Dispensary, at Ulster 
Spring. He came to the United States and 
enrolled, in 1894, at the Medical Chirugical 
College of Philadelphia, from which he was 
graduated in 1898, as the winner of the 
Spencer Morris Special Prize of $100 for the 
best examination in medical jurisprudence 
and toxicology. He passed the Pennsylva- 
nia Medical State Board Examination, mak- 
ing the highest average recorded up to that 
time. Then he studied in Canada, where 
he was graduated from the Medical School 
of the University of Bishop's College, tak- 
ing with first honors the degrees of M.D., 
CM. Later, in London, he passed the ex- 
amination of the Royal College of Surgeons 
and Physicians, and was awarded the de- 
grees of M.R.C.S. (England), and L.R.C.P. 
(London). He has served as assistant phy- 
sician at the Royal South London Opthalmic 
Hospital and as an assistant at the Royal 
Victoria Nose and Throat Hospital. In 
1917 he was elected a member of the City 
Council of Kingston. 

While in Philadelphia, Dr. Phillips was 
resident physician at the Frederick Doug- 
lass Memorial Hospital and chairman of 
the Board of Trustees of Zion Baptist 
Church. He was a founder of the Banneker 
Building and Loan Society, and is still its 
president. 



TN St. Louis, Mo., Dr. Darrington Weaver 
* received the appointment of City Post- 
Mortem Physician, at a salary of $5,000 
per year. Dr. Weaver was born in Hearne, 
Texas, December 31, 1889. He was gradu- 
ated from Meharry Medical College in 1914. 



A MEMBER of the Board of Health at 
■^ *- Wilmington, Del., is Dr. Harvey Al- 
len Murray, who is also a member of the 
staff of the Babies' Hospital and Day Nurs- 
ery. Dr. Murray was born in Wilmington, 
November 8, 1891. He is a graduate of the 
Medical School of Howard University, 1913. 



"pvR. T. E. STEVENS was born in Tus- 
*-r kegee, Ala., in 1880. In 1905 he was 
graduated from Meharry Medical College. 
In Tennessee, he has served as a member of 
the Board of Health, at Jellico, and of the 
Board of Aldermen, at Cleveland. 



TN 1914 Dr. Douglas B. Johnson was grad- 
•*• uated from the University of Vermont, 
College of Medicine. He passed the Vir- 
ginia State Board, making the highest aver- 
age among 75 contestants. Dr. Johnson 
was born February 19, 1888, in Petersburg, 
Va., where he was one of the founders of 
the William A. Crowder Memorial Hospi- 
tal. He served as a Lieutenant in the Med- 
ical Corps of the United States Army, both 
in America and abroad. Dr. Johnson is a 
member of the Visiting Staff of the Har- 
lem Hospital Out-Patient Department, in 
New York City. 



^he Lookiiva Glass 



LITERATURE 
My Race 

MY life were lost, if I should keep 
A hope-forlorn and gloomy face, 
And brood upon my ills, and weep 
And mourn the travail of my race. 

Who are my brothers? Only those 
Who were my own complexion swart? 
Ah no, but all through whom there flows 
The blood-stream of a manly art. 

Wherever the light of dreams is shed, 
And faith and love to toil are bound, 
There will I stay to break my bread, 
For there my kinsmen will be found. 

Leslie Pinckney Hill, in his 
"Wings of Oppression." 

* * * 

Lyman Abbott writes in The Independent 
of Booker T. Washington: 

Only once did I ever know him to "let 
himself go." This was at the graduating 
exercises at Hampton Institute. He and I 
spoke on that occasion on the same plat- 
form. The senior class certainly — if my 
memory serves me right, all the Institute 
students — were gathered on this platform, 
wnile the visitors, mostly white, were seat- 
ed upon the floor of the great building. 
The speaker's task was a difficult one. He 
had to stand at one side between the two 
audiences and play the part of Mr. "Facing- 
Both-Ways." Mr. Washington turned first 
toward one, then toward the other, of the 
two audiences as he spoke. He appealed to 
the members of his race to secure the re- 
spect of their white neighbors, not by de- 
manding it, but by deserving it. In an elo- 
quent appeal to their self-respect and an 
eloquent portrait of what the race had done 
since emancipation to justify self-respect 
he swung himself around as on a pivot and, 
speaking with unaccustomed vehemence to 
the white portion of his audience, cried 
out: "I tell you, we are as proud of our 
race as you are of yours." It was like a 
flash from a before silent and supposedly 
unloaded gun. How the Negroes on the 
platform cheered him! 

* * * 

America's Making News tells of the piece 
of art to be exhibited by Meta Warrick Ful- 
ler at the coming exposition, "America's 
Making." 

Mrs. Fuller is now at work on a commis- 
sion given by the Negro Group. She is 
designing a statue which will be in the cen- 
tre of the Negro exhibit, showing a female 
figure emerging from the wrappings of a 



mummy with hands upraised, symbolizing 
the seif-emancipation of that race from 
ignorance into educated, self-reliant citi- 
zens and makers of America. This statue 
is being modelled at the artist's Boston 
studio and will be life size. 

Mrs. Fuller is a pupil of Rodin and 
was educated at the Philadelphia Academy 
of Fine Arts. 

FAR FLUNG PROPAGANDA 

EVEN Denmark has been penetrated by 
anti-American Negro propaganda. The 
"Birth of a Nation" has lifted up its ugly 
lying head in Copenhagen. Fortunately for 
us Edward Franklin Frazier, who is now 
studying at the University of Copenhagen, 
was there to protest and to publish the 
main facts of Reconstruction in the Copen- 
hagen Politiken. The editor says: 

Mr. Frazier protests against the histori- 
cal presentation in Griffith's Film. 

A young American student of Negro de- 
scent, Mr. E. F. Frazier, who holds here a 
fellowship of the American Scandinavian 
Foundation (Niels-Poulsen Foundation), 
has sent us the following: 

I write the following criticism of the 
film, "The Birth of a Nation," merely in the 
defense of truth. The film might be allowed 
to pass as any other piece of fiction lacking 
realism but for its pretense of historical 
substantiation and its veiled attack upon a 
righteous cause and the race that benefitted 
by the triumph of that cause. 

After the recent World War the South, 
fearing that the Negroes because of their 
part in the struggle would thereafter re- 
sist lynching and disfranchisement, at- 
tempted to revive the infamous Ku Klux 
Klan. Even in the Southern States the 
idea of a secret organization dispensing 
justice was opposed by some citizens. In 
the city of New York the police were or- 
dered to treat the members of the Ku Klux 
Klan as other criminals. In spite of this 
opposition an attempt was made to popu- 
larize the Klan through the most powerful 
educative force in America — the moving 
picture. Where the picture was shown, 
riots generally resulted not only because 
of the resentment on the part of Negroes 
but also because of the infuriated ignorant 
whites. The picture is barred from some 
cities while in other cities it is only per- 
mitted to be shown after the more objec- 
tionable parts have been deleted. Wonder- 
ful as a piece of photography but lacking 
real artistic setting, this picture has come 
to Europe to poison the minds of unsus- 
pecting Europeans. 



29 



30 



THE CRISIS 



The most serious indictment against the 
picture is that it falsifies history and glori- 
fies the most notorious band of criminals 
in American history. Congressional inves- 
tigations proved that the Ku Klux Klan was 
a dangerous band of criminals bent on mur- 
dering not only innocent Negroes but also 
conscientious whites, who sought to erect 
political institutions on the ruins of the 
slave oligarchy. Nowhere can one find 
either in written records or tradition the 
crimes charged in the picture against Ne- 
groes during the Reconstruction. Negroes 
never dominated the legislature of any 
state during the Reconstruction Period. 
Only once and then for only two years in 
the Lower House in South Carolina did the 
Negroes outnumber the whites; the ratio 
being 3:2 and not as the picture charges 
more than 5:1. Laws permitting inter- 
marriage could not have been passed by 
Negroes even then, for the whites always 
had an overwhelming majority in the Up- 
per Chamber. The picture does not show 
the fact that Negroes established the first 
free public school system in the South. Nor 
do we find in it the fact that suffrage — re- 
stricted — was not granted the Negroes un- 
til the South passed the infamous Black 
Code which re-enslaved the Negro by such 
subterfuges as: A Negro found without 
suitable employment shall be hired prefer- 
ably to his former master for his board 
and lodging; and a Negro impudent to a 
white by word or gesture is guilty of a 
misdemeanor and shall be returned to his 
master on the same terms. 

Griffith's other play was barred, I under- 
stand, because it gave offense to Germany. 
But, alas! the Negro is the defenseless 
victim of lies and can only appeal to the 
conscience of mankind. I address these re- 
marks to the good people of Copenhagen 
because the world has suffered so much by 
ignoring the mandate of the Man who said 
nearly 2,000 years ago: "Ye shall know the 
truth and the truth shall make you free." 

FROM BRUSSELS 

THE Belgian L'Exportateur Beige writes 
of the sessions of the Pan- African Con- 
gress held in Brussels. Rayford Logan 
translates : 

After contributing with their well-known 
courage and self-sacrifice to the operations 
of war that finally assured once more the 
maintenance of threatened civilization, the 
Negroes, fighting in the ranks of the vari- 
ous allied armies, began to reflect in the 
different parts of Europe where they were 
in contact with a way of living and of or- 
ganizing life totally unfamiliar to them, 
and said to one another, that it would per- 
haps be well to study, in their turn, the 
means of creating a mode of living similar 
to that in Europe and at the same time 
of qualifying themselves to fulfill, like the 
whites, certain functions and to occupy cer- 



tain positions in order to free themselves 
from foreign tutelage. 

Such was the basic idea of a first Pan- 
African Congress held in Paris in 1919 and 
presided over by M. Diagne, the French 
Deputy from Senegal and High Commis- 
sioner of the Black Senegalese Troops. 
There were present at these meetings dele- 
gates from all of the black races scattered 
over the globe. The great majority of the 
delegates came, however, from America 
where there are at present 12 millions of 
Negroes emancipated 60 years ago who, 
aided by the United States, have continued 
to work out their intellectual, economic and 
political emancipation. There are several 
financial institutions in America, founded 
and run by Negroes, and the fortune of the 
blacks in the United States is estimated at 
5 billions. A similar development has taken 
place in the intellectual and educational 
fields. Negroes have created over there, al- 
ways under the aegis of. the state, schools 
and even a university attended only by 
members of their own race so that today 
the American Negroes have really accom- 
plished appreciable progress. 

These colored men, to use a current ex- 
pression, who came from different parts of 
the world, and who found themselves dur- 
ing the war, when all rushed to the defense 
of a sacred cause, finally felt the desire to 
found a native organization — that is to say, 
they asked themselves what, after all, was 
their original country, and if they should 
not lay claim to it and show that by their 
efforts to emancipate themselves, they had 
conquered the right to aspire to the obtain- 
ment of positions and functions which they 
had not been, as it were, "allowed to occu- 
ply up to the present time. 

This original country, according to them, 
is Africa. Hence this Pan-African Con- 
gress which at the time of its first session 
in Paris revealed the means of civilization 
and of emancipation possessed by these col- 
ored men. 

The movement is very interesting to 
study. Those who are engrossed with the 
question of the future and the evolution 
of a race that was formerly rather badly 
treated and — as History tells us — for a 
long time held in the bonds of slavery are 
beginning to have that idea. 

The promoters of the first Congress are 
planning to hold a second session in Brus- 
sels. 

CONCERNING MOB VIOLENCE 

r T , HE Indianapolis News of Indiana tells 
■*■ us: 

One cannot read the papers even in the 
most casual way without being impressed 
and shocked by the growing popularity of 
lynch law in this country. Whether the vic- 
tim is driven from his home, whipped, tarred 
and feathered, burned at the stake or 
hanged, the act is, in essence, lynching— 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



31 



though perhaps not technically so. For it 
is the execution of a sentence passed by 
those who have no right to pass it, and the 
"law" enforced is nothing more than the 
will or whim of those who set themselves 
up as the guardians of what is supposed — 
by the guardians — to be the public welfare. 

* * * 

To which the Rochester, N. Y., Herald 
adds: 

Racial rancor and anciently implanted 
antipathies are not peculiar to any section 
or limited by climatic or political bounda- 
ries, if recent happenings are to be taken 
as evidence. Even the rockribbed conserva- 
tism of New England seems not to be proof 
against the lynching fever when the neces 
sary incentive is applied. 

* * * 

The Buffalo, N. Y., Evening Times gives 
us the following thoughts on mob violence, 
and points out the way to stop it. 

The "authorities" in the various com- 
munities seem to be paralyzed with fright 
or incapacity, and indeed in some instances 
-show a disposition entirely in sympathy 
with the mobs. 

The thing is getting to be a fashion. Cus- 
tom soon becomes law. It is a serious sit- 
uation; but it raises a question still more 
serious, — are we degenerating as a people, 
or are we merely showing ourselves in our 
true colors? The war has torn the masks 
from many nations. Is its influence divest- 
ing us of a masquerade? 

Whether these queries are answered in 
the affirmative or the negative, one thing 
is certain — this wave of lawlessness could, 
and can, be stopped forthwith by those who 
have been sworn to uphold the law. If the 
President of the United States were to is- 
sue a proclamation denouncing "lynch law" 
and directing the Attorney General's De- 
partment to pursue and punish with merci- 
less severity within the Federal jurisdic- 
tion every person convicted of participation 
in such outrages, and if the President would 
further appeal to the Governors of the vari- 
ous States to follow his example with simi- 
lar proclamations and directions to the 
District Attorneys of all counties in the 
different Commonwealths, the cowardly and 
dastardly "lynching parties" would in- 
stantly seek cover after the fashion of such 
gregarious assassins. 

* * * 

Through the Herald, of Erie, Pa., we 
learn : 

Massachusetts and Tennessee, a northern 
and a southern state, have just been fur- 
nishing commendable illustrations of how 
to prevent lynching. They have both dem- 
onstrated that mob violence cannot prevail 
where the constituted authorities are pos- 
sessed of the moral courage and the will to 
suppress it. 

Barnstable and Knoxville were fortunate 
in the possession of resolute officials at a 



time when courage and resolution were 
most needed. In the Massachusetts case 
the mob displayed the usual mob character- 
istics and cowered when it saw itself op- 
posed by armed authority. At Knoxville 
a little blood-letting was found necessary, 
but the mob did not stand for much of it 
and has probably learned its lesson. 

Promptness and energy in the suppres- 
sion of lawlessness is always effective. In- 
decision and a disposition to compromise 
with the mob spirit always encourages vio- 
lence. 

Knoxville and Barnstable have furnished 
two excellent examples of law enforcement 
which will have the unqualified approval 
of all who believe in American ideals. 

* * * 

Further, we read in the Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Commercial Tribune, these encouraging 
words: 

In the matter of lynch law and mob exe- 
cution in protection of women from the 
menace of brutish baseness there has just 
been given an expression by southern wom- 
en that is at once illuminating and inspir- 
ing. The emanation is in form of a state- 
ment issued from a special section of the 
Georgia State Committee on Inter-Racial 
Co-operation. The membership of this sec- 
tion, it is stated, is composed entirely of 
southern women. The statement reads: 

We believe that no falser appeal can be 
made to southern manhood than that mob 
violence is necessary for the protection of 
womanhood, or that the brutal practice of 
lynching and burning human beings is an 
expression of chivalry. We believe that 
these methods are no protection to anything 
or anybody, but that they jeopardize eveiry 
right and every security that we possess. 

That is a preachment in behalf of orderly 
observance of law founded on a principle 
that, adhered to as here set forth, cannot 
but bring about rigorous, righteous enforce- 
ment of law. It is an appeal from lawless- 
ness to law, from the specious argument of 
curing violence by violence of the sound 
argument of insuring immunity under law 
by referring all crimes and misdemeanors 
to adjudication through law. 

This may be womanly intuition of which 
we are wont to prate. It is essentially wo- 
manly intelligence sensing right which 
alone is cure for wrong. 

* * * 

The Brooklyn, N. Y., Eagle, observes: 
It is a pleasure to note that women as 
women, even Georgia women, are tired 
of what has camouflaged the lynching ter- 
ror for half a century. 

Former Governor Hugh Dorsey, whose 
manly attack on Judge Lynch was univer- 
sally applauded by right-thinking persons, 
seemed to have been beaten down by the 
reactionaries when Hardwick became Gov- 
ernor and the executive policy was changed. 
But this new development gives fresh illus- 
tration to the proposition that right conduct 



32 



THE CRISIS 



and true speaking are never without per- 
manent effect, no matter how unpopular 
for the moment. The State of Georgia will 
be brought close to Dorsey's position if 
these energetic women keep up their work. 
And to the material industrial interests of 
Georgia no greater service can be done 
than the establishment of fair play to the 
Negroes, on whose skilled and unskilled 
labor the State must long depend. 

THE VOTE 

TN the Call of New York, we read: 

*• We have had occasion the past year or 
two to call attention to the changing po- 
litical conditions of the South as a result 
of the increasing importance of capitalist 
production in that section. We have point- 
ed out that the Republican party has been 
gradually dumping its Negro traditions to 
win the support of the southern oligarchy. 
Today the views of the party as formulated 
by Lincoln, Sumner and Seward have been 
practically repudiated. If these men were 
to return today they would find a rapidly 
increasing coalition of the Republican party 
with the southern ruling class and that the 
terms of the coalition are the sacrifice of 
the Negro. Over his prostrate body the 
ruling classes of two sections make peace. 

A dispatch to the Evening Post from 
Richmond, Va., shows that the bargain is 
being consummated. It is agreed by the 
Republicans of that state that they are to 
be a "white man's party." More significant 
still is the statement: "It is understood 
that this innovation meets with entire ap- 
proval at Washington." This means that the 
bargain with southern Democrats has the 
approval of the national Republican lead- 
ers. Negro Republicans were barred from 
the Republican Club of Richmond by the 
police when they sought to participate in 
the election of delegates to the state con- 
vention. 

"In exchange for the loss of its Negro 
auxiliaries," we read, "the Republicans in 
Virginia have gained the support of many 
men of influence and wealth." Among 
these are railroad presidents, bankers, cap- 
italists and business men of R : chmond, Nor- 
folk, Lynchburg and other cities. In short, 
the Republican aggregation is admitted to 
be a consolidation of capitalist wealth and 
power. It is to maintain an unwritten 
agreement with the Democratic party for 
the complete exclusion of the Neqro from 
elections. The agreement frees the ruling 
class of Virginia from dependence upon 
one political machine. 

One congressional district has been car- 
ried by the Republicans for a number of 
years and the Republican vote has been 
growinsr in other districts. The Republi- 
can national committee has already taken 
steps to eliminate the Neerro from its coun- 
cils and Republican conventions with the 
expectation that a "lily white" Republican 
party will increase in power in the South. 

All this follows the marked economic 



changes of the last half century which are 
slowly transforming the South into an im- 
age of the capitalist North. It indicates 
the sweep of capitalist production to the 
Gulf. The old political traditions of Lin- 
coln and other early leaders of the Repub- 
lican party are being abandoned and the 
bargain consists of the complete social, eco- 
nomic and political degradation of the Ne- 
gro workers of the South. It also carries 
with it a similar degradation for many 
hundreds of thousands of white workers 
who are excluded from the franchise by 
various exception laws. 

The last semblance of difference between 
both political parties in national politics 
is being wiped out. Capitalism is national 
and its parties at last become national in 
scope. The Negro Republican leaders who 
have led masses of Negroes to their be- 
trayal are themselves being kicked in the 
face for their treachery. A final chapter 
in the orientation of the two-party machine 
of capitalism is being written for the in- 
struction of the working class of all colors 
and degrees of economic servitude. 

THE SOUTH AND "MR." 

T N an article in The Christian States- 
■*• man, the Hon. Bolton Smith of Memphis, 
Tenn., has this to say: 

The white people in every locality of the 
South should get in close touch with the 
conservative local Neerro leaders. They 
should grant all possible requests coming; 
from them for the improvement of the 
schools and living conditions of their peo- 
ple and for their protection in person and 
property. Such leaders should be en- 
couraged to speak with frankness to local 
white leaders of the conditions of which 
their people complain and fault sh •ild not 
readily be found with them for w? it they 
may say to their own people. If v?q think 
them mistaken we should reason with them, 
not threaten them. If they are not avowed 
a certain freedom in their intercourse with 
their people, we cannot expect them to 
have influence with them. We must begi" 
to show, in our address to the Negro lead- 
ers for whom we feel respect, some of that 
respect we should show to the most or- 
dinary members of our own race. A Negro 
leader of standing and character is enti- 
tled to be addressed as Mr., and his wife 
as Mrs., for in our own tongue we have no 
other title of respect. We do it now in cor- 
respondence and I believe we must do it in 
speech. This will be difficult to many of 
us, but I can see no other course if we 
hope to maintain relations of genuine sym- 
pathy with these leaders. This is the only 
civilized country in the world in which all 
Negroes — high and low — are addressed 
alike. In other lands it has been the ef- 
fort to so treat the Negro leader that 
he would side with the white man's gov- 
ernment. The difficulty of our problem has 
been increased by our failure to do this, 




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33 




COMPILED 



ALLISON 



MUSIC AND ART 

STUDENTS of Myrtilla Miner Normal 
School, Washington, D. C, have pre- 
sented a pageant, "The Beckoning Spirit," 
which depicts the history of their school. 
The work was under the direction of J. 
Francis Gregory of the English Depart- 
ment. 

<J Granville L. Stewart, tenor, Louie V. 
Jones, violinist, and William S. Lawrence, 
pianist-accompanist, have been making a 
tour of towns in Nova Scotia. Numbers 
that have particularly pleased their audi- 
ences are "Reflection," taken from Dunbai 
by William S. Lawrence; "Rising Sun," by 
R. Nathaniel Dett; and Negro "Spirituals,' 
by H. T. Burleigh. 

G Elmer C. Bartlett has given an organ 
recital at First A. M. E. Church, Los Ange- 
les, Cal. His program included works o 
Bach, Coleridge-Taylor, Guilmant, Dubois 
and Horatio Parker. 

C Mayor Hylan's Committee on City Mu- 
sic, in New York City, included the Ne- 
gro in its presentations. The 15th Regi- 
ment Band and Revella E. Hughes, soprano, 
rendered numbers, among which were 
Tchaikowsky's "1812," Arditi's "Ah Won- 
drous Morn" and "II Bacio," and Coleridge 
Taylor's "Explanation." 
d Mamie Smith, the colored "jazz" singer 
for phonograph records, has filled a 3-day 
engagement at the Regent Theatre, Balti- 
more, Md., where she was paid $1,000 per 
day. 

EDUCATION 

r T*HE Atlanta School of Social Service is 
■*■ conducting its 2nd session at Morehouse 
College. Courses lead to secretaryships of 
associated charities, anti-tuberculosis asso- 
ciations and Urban Leagues; probation and 
attendance officers; recreation directors and 
welfare workers in churches, Y. M. C. A.'s, 
Y. W. C. A.'s and industries. 
Ct Mildred D. Brown, a colored girl in Jer- 
sey City, N. J., has entered Lincoln High 



School at the age of eleven. 
(I Colored high school students in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., have organized the Alpha Chi 
Sigma Fraternity in the interest of higher 
scholarship. William A. Hunton, Jr., is the 
secretary. 

(I Governor Hyde has released $100,000 for 
the erection of a dormitory at Lincoln 
University, Jefferson City, Mo. 
([ The State Board of Education has voted 
to discontinue secondary work at West Vir- 
ginia Collegiate Institute. Units of work 
now include colleges of education, engineer- 
ing, agriculture, industrial education, arts, 
science, home economics and business ad- 
ministration. Messrs. F. C. Sumner, Ph.D., 
psychology; A. P. Hamblin, B.S., biology; 
and E. L. Kelly, B.S., home economics, have 
been added to the faculty. The president 
is John W. Davis. 

C At the University of Chicago, H. Coun- 
cill Trenholm has been awarded the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Philosophy with hon- 
ors. He is a member of the Alphi Phi 
Alpha Fraternity. Mr. Trenholm will teach 
at the State Normal School in Montgomery, 
Ala., this year. 

G. Meta L. Christy, a colored girl of Koko- 
mo, Ind., has received the degree of Doc- 
tor of Osteopathy from the Philadelphia 
College and Hospital for Osteopathy. 
(I Walter L. Smith has been appointed to 
succeed Garnet G. Wilkinson as principal 
of Dunbar High School in Washington, 
D. C. Mr. Smith is a graduate of Howard 
University. He has been a teacher in 
Washington since 1902. 
([ Prof. Roscoe C. Bruce, formerly Assist- 
ant Superintendent of Colored Schools, in 
Washington, D. C, has accepted the po- 
sition of Rural Supervisor of Schools in 
Huntington, W. Va. His salary is $3,000 
a year. 

(I Fort Dearborn Hospital and Training 
School for Nurses has been opened in Chi- 
cago, 111. Negroes may enter for nurse 
training and interneship. 



34 



THE HORIZON 



35 



C. Since the beginning of the present school 
session, 15 rural school houses have been 
opened for Negroes in Tennessee. Julius 
Rosenwald contributed $50,000 toward fi- 
nancing this work. 

C. The Colored High School at Lynchburg, 
Va., opened this term with a Negro faculty. 
Many former students, who had dropped 
out while white teachers were in charge, 
have re-enrolled. 

d John W. Lee has been awarded a scholar- 
ship at the University of Pennsylvania. 
G. By making Grade A average, Charles 
H. Houston, a Negro law student at Har- 
vard University, has automatically become 
one of the editors of the Harvard Law Re- 
view. His average, 75 percent, is the high- 
est ever made by a colored law student. 
C Estella Lovett has been appointed As- 
sistant Principal at the Booker T. Wash- 
ington School in Kansas City, Mo. Miss 
Lovett was formerly Girls' Work Secretary 
at the Paseo Branch of the Y. W. C. A. 
C In Washington, D. C, the Dunbar High 
School opened this year with an enrollment 
of 1,267 as against 1,120 last year; the 
Armstrong Manual Training School reports 
an enrollment of 731, an increase of 242; 
at the Shaw Junior High School there are 
319 students as compared with 215 on open- 
ing day last year. 

(I Charles Chandler, a Negro student in the 
Yale University Law School, has been ap- 
pointed a contributing editor of the Yale 
Law Journal. 

MEETINGS 

/"VVER 8,000 people were in attendance 
^^ at the National Baptist Convention, 
Inc., which was held in Chicago. Dr. E. C. 
Morris, of Little Rock, Ark., was re-elected 
president. The Rev. Mr. L. G. Jordan re- 
signed the secretaryship, after 26 years' 
service. He was made secretary emeritus 
with a salary of $1,200 per year and a purse 
of $2,500. Dr. J. E. East, a returned mis- 
sionary from Africa, was elected to suc- 
ceed Mr. Jordan. The financial report 
shows $323,860 raised during the year. Dr. 
Morris denounced the plan of northern 
white Baptists to set up regional organiza- 
tions among Negroes. 

C The Lott-Carey Foreign Mission Conven- 
tion and the Women's Auxiliary have been 
held in Newark, N. J. The sum of $38,000 
was raised for work in Africa, South Amer- 
ica and Haiti. Dr. C. S. Brown and Mrs. 



J. H. Randolph, of Richmond, Va., are pres- 
idents of the convention and the auxiliary. 
d More than 300 delegates attended the 
8th triennial convention of St. Joseph's 
Aid Society, which convened in Jersey City, 
N. J. The organization has 100,000 mem- 
bers and property valued at $100,000; its 
cash balance is $50,000. Dr. Thomas H. B. 
Walker, of Jacksonville, Fla., is president. 
C Four thousand people attended the Bap- 
tist Convention, unincorporated, which was 
held in New Orleans, with Dr. E. P. Jones 
presiding. Dr. R. H. Boyd, corresponding 
secretary of the National Baptist Publish- 
ing Board, reported that more than $225,- 
000 had been collected by the Board. With 
the addition of the National Baptist Theo- 
logical Seminary and Training School at 
Nashville, worth $250,000, the publishing 
plant is valued at $750,000. 

INDUSTRY 

f T , HE Square Deal Realty & Loan Com- 
■■■ pany, a Negro enterprise in Kansas 
City, Mo., is conducting departments in real 
estate, insurance, mortgage loans and home 
building. Its capital of $250,000 is fully 
paid and non-assessable. It is paying quar- 
terly dividends of 8 percent. Samuel R. 
Hopkins is president. 

C At Buffalo, N. Y., the Haitian-African 
Coffee Company, a Negro concern, owns a 
4-story building where colored people are 
employed in roasting and blending coffee. 
G Mr. R. S. Cobb, secretary of the Missouri 
Negro Industrial Commission, has published 
a bulletin on housing and health conditions 
in Missouri. 

(I A Negro clerk in the Jersey City, N. J., 
Post Office, Robert Evans, has been pro- 
moted to the position of statistician. 
C Among employees in the Department of 
Finance of Jersey City, N. J., are the fol- 
lowing Negroes: James Tate and Clarence 
Jones, rent inspectors; Gilbert Brown, jit- 
ney inspector, and Louis Faulkner, deputy 
sheriff. 

(I In Akron, Ohio, Norman Kerr is a sten- 
ographer in the Engineer's Office, being the 
first Negro clerk in this office. 
C Zora E. O. Tinsley, a blind Negro in 
Muskogee, Okla., owns 45 miles of tele- 
phone service. He has 49 subscribers who 
pay from $2.50 to $3.50 per month. Mr. 
Tinsley does his own line work, repairs in- 
struments and makes installations. 
(I Fourteen years ago, Charles Copper, a 



36 



THE CRISIS 



Negro, entered the Civil Service of Chicago, 
111., as a junior clerk. He now holds a 
position in the Division of Pipe Yards and 
Stores, with 17 clerks, 13 of whom are 
white, under his charge. 
CI Up to April 30, 1921, the colored Berry 
& Ross Manufacturing Company, in New 
York City, made a net sale of $37,312; it 
paid to its colored workers, $14,560. 
G The report of the Laborers' Penny Sav- 
ings and Loan Company, in Waycross, Ga., 
shows that during the fiscal year ending 
August 31, 1921, the paid-in capital had 
increased from $28,811 to $47,463; deposits, 
from $68,318 to $97,060; total resources, 
from $107,705 to $149,677. The bank owns 
$16,025 worth of real estate, $7,301 in stock 
and Liberty Bonds, and has no bills pay- 
able. A dividend of 8 percent was declared. 
The officers are: Carlton W. Gains, presi- 
dent; Dr. H. C. Scarlett, vice-president; J. 
C. McGraw, treasurer; and O. R. Harper, 
cashier. 

G William A. Cornelius, a Negro in New 
York City, has been appointed to a clerk- 
ship in the Office of the Collector of In- 
ternal Revenue. His salary is $1,600 per 
year. 

G In the City Tax Office in Philadelphia, 
Pa., there are 2 colored deputy delinquent 
tax collectors, 2 deputy collectors, 7 senior 
grade clerks and 2 janitors. 

CRIME 

HP HE following lynchings have taken 
■*■ place since our last record: 

Aiken, S. C, September 8, Mansfield 
Butler, shot; attacking woman. 

Aiken, S. C, September 8, Charlie 
Thompson, shot; attacking woman. 

Columbia, La., September 13, Gilman 
Holmes, burned; attacking ticket agent. 

Pittsboro, N. C, September 18, Ernest 
Daniels, hanged; attacking woman. 

McComb, Miss., September 19, Edward 
McDowell. 

POLITICS 

^"EGROES have for the first time been 
-*-^ appointed to the Hudson County, N. J., 
Board of Election. The appointees are Mrs. 
Florence Jerome, Mrs. Rosa Frazier, Miss 
M. Goldsborough, Mrs. Ella Barksdale 
Brown, Dr. G. Warren Hooper, C. Bion 
Jones and Alderwin Thomas. 
G In the primary election in Baltimore, 
two Negro Republicans won nomination as 



delegates to the Maryland Legislature. The 
nominees are Attorney Arthur E. Briscoe, 
who has served a clerkship in the Legisla- 
ture, and David Robinson, a business man. 
Each candidate was fourth on his district 
list, with 1,148 and 1,700 votes, respec- 
tively. 

G Amos W. Scott, a Negro in Philadelphia, 
won Republican nomination for City Magis- 
trate. 

G In the primary election in New York 
City, two Negro members of the Board of 
Aldermen — Dr. Charles H. Roberts and 
George W. Harris, were re-nominated. 
G Negroes in Louisville, Ky., have organ- 
ized the Lincoln Independent Party. A full 
city and county ticket, with the exception 
of the judiciary, will be put into the field. 

FRATERNITIES 

IN Jacksonville, Fla., the Progressive 
Order of Men and Women has held its 
first Grand Congress. The Order, which 
was organized 10 years ago, has a member- 
ship of 1,500. Dr. H. W. James, Dr. John 
E. Ford and Professor N. W. Collier are 
officials, and the Hon. Mr. George E. Tay- 
lor is general organizer. Among measures 
adopted by the Congress is the erection of 
a $100,000 temple. 

G Masons in Indianapolis, Ind., have laid 
the cornerstone of a $100,000 temple. 
G The mortgage on the Masonic Temple in 
Jacksonville, Fla., has been burned. The 
temple is valued at $500,000. Mr. O. D. 
Powell is Grand Master. 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE 

HPHIRTEEN meetings to promote health 
■*■ educational plans were held last month 
for ministers, physicians and leaders of 
public thought in Chicago by the Chicago 
Urban League. Dr. Ralph B. Stewart, of 
the United States Public Health Service, 
and Franklin O. Nichols, of the American 
Social Hygiene Association, were the speak- 
ers. 

G T. Arnold Hill, Executive Secretary of 
the Chicago Urban League, is serving as a 
member of the Executive Committee of the 
Unemployment Conference formed to han- 
dle unemployment in that city. 
G Through the Armstrong Association of 
Philadelphia, affiliated with the National 
Urban League, an athletic director for girls 
at the Durham Public School has been ap- 
pointed. Besides her athletic work with 



THE HORIZON 



37 



girls during the period allotted for recrea- 
tion, she is developing self-governing clubs. 
C The Home and School Vistors, formerly 
employed by the Armstrong Association as 
a demonstration of the possibilities of 
school visiting, have been taken over by the 
public school system — thus justifying the 
experiment of the Armstrong Association. 
(I In the neighborhood of one public school 
in Philadelphia, which has about 1,400 col- 
ored pupils, the work of a Home and School 
Vistor has resulted in the establishment of 
one of the best equipped day nurseries in 
Philadelphia, the Harrison Day Nursery. 
It has accommodations for 70 children. 
(T The Mayor's Unemployment Committee 
of New York City has as one of its mem- 
bers, James H. Hubert, Executive Secre- 
tary of the New York Urban League. 
C The "Fellows" appointed by the Nation- 
al Urban League for the school year 1921- 
22 are: T. Lloyd Hickman, graduate of 
Denison University, assigned to the New 
York School of Social Work; Miss Kather- 
ine B. Watts, graduate of Fisk University, 
assigned to the New York School of Social 
Work; and Miss Myrtle D. Hull, graduate 
of Spelman Seminary, assigned to the 
School of Economics of the University of 
Pittsburgh. 

C The Annual Conference of the National 
Urban League was held in Chicago, October 
19 to 22. Among subjects discussed were 
unemployment, the Negro migrant, plans 
for recording and interpreting statistics as 
a basis for practical social effort, industrial 
relations and co-operation between the 
races. 

(I The Department of Research and Inves- 
tigations of the National Urban League, 
of which Charles S. Johnson is the director, 
has completed a social survey of the Ne- 
groes in Flushing, L. I., and is now at 
work on a similar study in Hartford, Conn. 
It is working under the immediate auspices 
of the Mayor's Americanization Commit- 
tee. 

(I As a result of the child hygiene work 
which is being done in Newark, N. J., by 
three colored nurses appointed through the 
efforts of the New Jersey Urban League, 
Dr. Julius Levy, Director of the Bureau of 
Child Hygiene, reports that infant mortal- 
ity among colored babies for the first six 
months of 1921 was 106 per 1,000 births, 
while for 1920 it was 173 per 1,000 births, 



and for 1919 it was 171 per 1,000 births. 
This is a reduction in one year of 67 points. 
C Dr. George E. Haynes was appointed a 
member of President Harding's Unemploy- 
ment Conference, following protests of the 
National Urban League and its branches 
against the omission of Negro representa- 
tion. Dr. Haynes was assigned special 
work with the Committee on Community 
Civic and Emergency Measures in dealing 
with unemployment. Col. Arthur Woods, 
of New York, is chairman of this commit- 
tee. 

SOCIAL PROGRESS 

THE Reconnaissance Francaise, a bronze 
medal, has been awarded to Dr. Har- 
riet A. Rice by the French Government for 
services in the French military hospitals 
during the world war. Dr. Rice is a Negro 
graduate of Wellesley College and of the 
Women's Medical College of New York. 
G Victor R. Daly has been appointed to 
the staff of the Journal of Negro History, 
in Washington, D. C, as business manager. 
Mr. Daly is a graduate of Cornell. He 
served as a Lieutenant in the 367 "Buffalo" 
Regiment. 

C Mrs. E. D. Cannaday, a colored woman 
of Portland, Ore., has been admitted to the 
Bar. She recently pleaded a case in Judge 
Morrow's court and won her action. 
C New York City has its first Negro detec- 
tive sergeant, in the person of Wesley Red- 
ding. Mr. Redding has been connected with 
the Police Department 18 months. 
C A tablet in memory of Hayward Shep- 
pard is to be erected in Harper's Ferry, 
W. Va., by the Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy. Mr. Sheppard, a Negro porter, was 
the first person killed in the raid of John 
Brown. 

(I The price of business property which 
Dr. Charles E. Herriot purchased in St. 
Louis, Mo., is $30,000 instead of $80,000. 
C Mr. C. G. Williams, of Booneville, has 
been appointed Inspector of Negro Schools 
in Missouri. 

C The 25th anniversary of the Northeast- 
ern Federation of Colored Women's Clubs 
has been celebrated in Baltimore, Md. 
Miss Elizabeth Carter, of New Bedford, 
Mass., is president. 

(I In the national tennis championship meet, 
Tally Holmes, of Washington, D. C, won 
in men's singles, defeating Dr. O. B. Wil- 
liams, of Chicago. The scores were 6 — 4, 



38 



THE CRISIS 



9 — 7, 6 — 3. In the women's singles, Miss 
Lucy Slowe, of Washington, D. C, defeated 
Miss Isadore Channels, of Chicago. Tally 
Holmes and Sylvester Smith were victors 
in the finals of the men's doubles. The 
mixed doubles championship went to Miss 
Esther Hawkins and Harold Freeman. Ted 
Thompson won the national junior title. 
d Miss Bessie Coleman, a colored woman 
of Chicago, 111., has become a certified avia- 
trix, after a course in aviation at the Con- 
drau School in France. 
(L Charles S. Gilpin, the Negro star in Eu- 
gene O'Neill's "The Emperor Jones," has 
been received in private audience by Presi- 
dent Harding. 

G At its recent session in Milwaukee, Wis., 
the Army and Navy Union elected John E. 
Smith, a Negro of Washington, D. C, as 
national historian. The vote was 149-17. 
C John H. Pride, a Negro in Elizabeth, 
N. J., is the winner of the 50 target mer- 
chandise event of the Duane Gun Club. 
Mr. Pride broke 49 clay birds out of a pos- 
sible 50; he had two competitors trying for 
second honors, with 47. In a 100 target 
match, Mr. Pride broke 97 birds. 
(T Samuel A. Barnett has been awarded a 
verdict of $100 against the Philadelphia 
Confectionery Company of Hackensack, N. 
J., for discrimination. 

C Earl Johnson, a Negro athlete, of Brad- 
dock, Pa., won the Masonic marathon race 
in Detroit. He finished 22% miles in 2 
hours, 17 minutes and one-fifth of a second. 
(I Frank R. Willis, a Negro poultryman, 
won the Grand Championship at the Ken- 
tucky State Fair, defeating 3,850 fowls of 
all breeds for the honor. 
C The "Committee of One Hundred" to en- 
tertain visitors to the conference on the 
Limitation of Armament, to be held in 
Washington, D. C, has the following Ne- 
gro members: Messrs. Emmett J. Scott, 

D. W. Wiseman, W. L. Houston, George 
Cook, Henry Lincoln Johnson, W. A. War- 
field and James A. Cobb. 

C The African Progress Union of London, 
England, gave a public reception to Dr. W. 

E. B. DuBois, September 29, at the Portman 
Rooms, Baker Street. Dr. John Alcindor 
presided. 

C A pageant on the history of the Negro 
race called "The Open Door" will be given 
in New York City, November 22, at Car- 
negie Hall. It is for the benefit of Atlanta 
University. 



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The year 1921 will ever be remembered as the period of "America's Hardest Times" fol- 
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THE CRISIS 

A RECORD OF THE DARKER RAGES 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND COPYRIGHTED BY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOB THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF COLOBED PEOPLE, AT 70 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YOBK CITY. CON- 
DUCTED BY "W. E. BUBGHABDT DU BOIS; JESSIE EEDMON FAUSET, LITEBABY EDITOB; 
AUGUSTUS GBANVILLE DILL, BUSINESS MANAGES. 



Vol. 23— No. 2 



DECEMBER, 1921 



Whole No. 134 



PICTURES Page 

COVER. REPRODUCTION OF THE PLAQUE "THE THREE KINGS." By 
Meta Warrick Fuller. 

CELEBRATING THE BIRTH OF DESS ALINES IN HAITI 61 

MEN OF THE MONTH 79 

ARTICLES 

BUYERS OF DREAMS. A Story. Ethel M. Caution 59 

WHAT EUROPE THOUGHT OF THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS. Jessie 

Fauset 60 

PAN- AFRICAN DELEGATES 68 

THE INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF LABOR OF THE LEAGUE OF NA- 
TIONS 69 

THE ARKANSAS PEONS 72 

KUTTAN, THE SOUL. A Poem. Coralie Howard Haman 76 

THE VIRGIN OF GUADALUPE. Langston Hughes 77 

DEPARTMENTS 

OPINION 53 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED 

PEOPLE 71 

MEN OF THE MONTH 77 

THE HORIZON 80 

THE CRISIS FOR 1922 

We plan striking fiction ot Negro life, stories with pictures of Negro economic development, 
studies of present conditions in America, the West Indies and Africa. 



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50 



THE CRISIS ADVERTISER 



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DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA 

A School for the Training of Colored Young 
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Though it is young in history, the Institution feels a juit pride in the work thus 
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DEPARTMENTS ALREADY ESTABLISHED 

The Grammar School The Teacher Training Department 

The Academy The Divinity School 

The School of Artt andJIciencea The Commercial Department 

The Department of Muiic\ The Department of Home Economic! 

The^Department of Social Service 

TERM OPENED SEPTEMBER 21, 1920 

For farther information and Catalog, address 

President James E. Shepard, Durham, North Carolina 



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Mention Thb Caisis, 



THE CRISIS 



Vol. 23. No. 2 



DECEMBER, 1921 



Whole No. 134 




►uviorv 

Q^\i/-E-&-D\ifboLf 




PRESIDENT HARDING AND SOCIAL 
EQUALITY 

OR fifty years we who, pro 
and con, have discussed the 
Negro Problem, have been 
skulking behind a phrase — 
"Social Equality." Today President 
Harding's speech, like sudden thun- 
der in blue skies, ends the hiding and 
drives us all into the clear light of 
truth. 

We had our excuses perhaps in the 
past: about every problem of human 
relations lurks a penumbra of sha- 
dowing possibilities, which we would 
not discuss. It seems unnecessary, 
inappropriate, beside the point. And 
so defenders of the higher training 
of women have hestitated to explore 
sex freedom for females ; and lovers 
of democracy have declined to con- 
sider the possibility of the masses vot- 
ing their own wages. It is not that 
we have denied the ensuing problems 
that shadow our main object, but we 
have said with a certain truth : suffi- 
cient unto the present tangle is the 
obvious evil thereof. Let us follow 
the clear light and afterward turn to 
other darknesses. 

But sometimes this becomes sud- 
denly impossible. Sometimes the so- 
considered minor problem is so tre- 
mendous and insistent that it leaps 
to the fore and demands examination 
and honest facing. This is particu- 
larly so when we have not simply ig- 
nored the problem but have deliber- 
ately and cynically lied about it, de- 
nied it, and said not that "Social 
Equality" was not a pertinent and 



pressing problem ; but rather that it 
was no problem at all. 

The Birmingham Speech 
A ND now comes President Har- 
^*" ding's Birmingham speech when 
unwittingly or deliberately the Pres- 
ident brings the crisis. We may no 
longer dodge nor hesitate. We must 
all, black or white, Northerner or 
Southerner, stand in the light and 
speak plain words. 

The President must not for a mo- 
ment be blamed because, when invit- 
ed to the semi-centennial of a great 
southern city of industry, he talked 
of the Negro instead of the results 
of profitable mining. There is but 
one subject in the South. The South- 
erners themselves can speak no other, 
think no other, act no other. The 
eternal and inevitable southern topic 
is and has been and will be the Black 
Man. 

Moreover, the President laid down 
three theses with which no American 
can disagree without a degree of self- 
stultification almost inconceivable, 
namely: 

1. The Negro must vote on the 
same terms that white folk vote. 

-2. The Negro must be educated. 

3. The Negro must have economic 
Justice. 

The sensitive may note that the 
President qualified these demands 
somewhat, even dangerously, and yet 
they stand out so clearly in his speech 
that he must be credited with mean- 
ing to give them their real signifi- 
cance. And in this the President 



53 



54 



THE CRISIS 



made a braver, clearer utterance 
than Theodore Roosevelt ever dared 
to make or than William Taft or Wil- 
liam McKinley ever dreamed of. For 
this let us give him every ounce of 
credit he deserves. 

Social Equality 
T> UT President Harding did not 
stop here. Indeed he did not be- 
gin here. Either because he had no 
adequate view of the end of the fatal 
path he was treading or because, in 
his desire to placate the white South, 
he was careless of consequences, he 
put first on his program of racial set- 
tlement a statement which could have 
been understood and was understood 
and we fear was intended to be un- 
derstood to pledge the nation, the 
Negro race and the world to a doc- 
trine so utterly inadmissible in the 
twentieth century, in a Republic of 
free citizens and in an age of Human- 
ity that one stands aghast at the mo- 
tives and the reasons for the pro- 
nouncement. 

It may to some seem that this state- 
ment is overdrawn. Some puzzled 
persons may say: but Negroes them- 
selves have told me that they repudi- 
ate "Social Equality" and amalgama- 
tion of race ; in fact, right there at 
Birmingham, Negro applause of the 
President was audible. 

All this does not minimize — rather 
it emphasizes the grave crisis precipi- 
tated by the President's speech. It 
emphasizes the fact of our mental 
skulking or transparent and deliber- 
ate dishonesty in dealing with the 
Negro. 

Social equality may mean two 
things. The obvious and clear mean- 
ing is the right of a human being to 
accept companionship with his fel- 
low on terms of equal and reciprocal 
courtesy. In this sense the term is 
understood and defended by modern 
men. It has not been denied by any 
civilized man since the French Revo- 
lution. It is the foundation of de- 
mocracy and to bring it into being, 



the world went through revolution, 
war, murder and hell. 

But there is another narrow, stilt- 
ed and unreal meaning, that is some- 
times dragged from these words, 
namely: Social Equality is the right 
to demand private social companion- 
ship with another. 

Or to put it more simply: the real 
meaning of "social equality" is eligi- 
bility to association with men, and 
the forced and illogical meaning is 
the right to demand private asso- 
ciation with any particular person. 
Such a demand as the latter is idiotic 
and was never made by any sane 
person ; while on the contrary, for any 
person to admit that his character is 
such that he is physically and moral- 
ly unfit to talk or travel or eat with 
his fellow-men, or that he has no de- 
sire to associate with decent people, 
would be an admission which none 
but a leper, a criminal or a liar could 
possibly make. It is the very essence 
of self respect and human equality 
and it carries with it no jot of arro- 
gance or assumption — it is simply 
Homo Sum. 

Self -Deception 
T\ ESPITE this, for fifty years the 
Southern white man has said to 
the Negro: Do you mean to say that 
you consider yourself fit to associate 
with white people? And the Negro 
has answered ; but the question which 
he answered was not the one asked, 
but rather the other totally different 
question : Do you mean to say that 
you want to force your friendship 
and company on persons who do not 
want them? The answer to this is 
obviously an emphatic and indignant 
No. But when the Negro said No, 
he knew that he was not answering 
the question the white man intended 
to ask and the white man knew that 
the Negro knew this, and that he him- 
self had purposely asked a question 
of double and irreconcilable meaning, 
when he said, "Do you want Social 
Equality?" 



OPINION 



55 



And so this undeceiving deception 
has gone on for fifty years until the 
President of the United States, 
throwing caution to the winds, has 
either boldly or unwittingly an- 
nounced as a national policy that 
"men of both races may well stand 
uncompromisingly against every sug- 
gestion of Social Equality." 

Or in other words, that no man, no 
matter how civilized, decent or gifted 
he may be, shall be permitted to as- 
sociate with his fellow men on terms 
of equality or want to associate with 
them, if he be a Negro or of Negro 
descent. 

Let us sweep away all quibbling: 
Let us assume that the President 
was sane and serious and could not 
and d ; d not mean by "social equality" 
anything so inconceivable as the right 
of a man to invite himself to an- 
other man's dinner table. No. Mr. 
Harding meant that the American 
Negro must acknowledge that it was 
a wrong and a disgrace for Booker 
T. Washington to dine with Presi- 
dent Roosevelt ! 

The answer to this inconceivably 
dangerous and undemocratic demand 
must come with the unanimous ring 
of 12 million voices, enforced by the 
voice of every American who believes 
in Humanity. 

Let us henceforward frankly ad- 
mit that which we hitherto have al- 
ways known ; that no system of social 
uplift which begins by denying the 
manhood of a man can end by giving 
him a free ballot, a real education 
and a just wage. 

Race Equality 
ET us confess that the pseudo- 
science to which the President 
unhappily referred as authority, and 
the guilty philanthropy which has 
greedily levelled racial barriers and 
now seeks with the bloodstained 
hands of a Lugard to rearrange 
them so that profit may emerge and 
manhood be dammed — let us confess 
that all this is vain, wrong and hypo- 



critical and that every honest soul 
today who seeks peace, disarmament 
and the uplift of all men must say 
with the Pan-African Congress : 

"The absolute equality of races, — 
physical, political and social — is the 
founding stone of world peace and 
human advancement. No one denies 
great differences of gift, capacity and 
attainment among individuals of all 
races, but the voice of science, religion 
and practical politics is one in deny- 
ing the God-appointed existence of 
superior races, or of races naturally 
and inevitably and eternally infer- 
ior." 

To deny this fact is to throw open 
the door of the world to a future of 
hatred, war and murder such as never 
yet has staggered a bowed and cruci- 
fied humanity. How can a man bring 
himself to conceive that the majority 
of mankind — Chinese, Japanese, In- 
dians and Negroes are going to stand 
up and acknowledge to the world that 
they are unfit to be men or to associ- 
ate with men, when they know they 
are men? 

Amalgamation 
L> UT President Harding does not 
stop even here. He declares 
'Racial amalgamation there cannot 
be." 

What does the President mean? 

Does he mean that the White and 
Negro races in this land never have 
mixed? There are by census reports 
over two million acknowledged mu- 
lattoes in the United States today; 
and without doubt there are, in fact, 
no less than four million persons with 
white and. Negro blood. 

Does he mean that there is no amal- 
gamation today? Between 1850 and 
1921 the mulattoes have increased 
over 400 per cent. Does he mean 
there will be no future amalgama- 
tion? How does he know? 

Or does he mean that it would be 
better for Whites and Blacks not to 
amalgamate? If he meant that, why 
did he not say so plainly? And if he 



56 



THE CRISIS 



had said so, 99 per cent of the Ne- 
groes would agree with him. We 
have not asked amalgamation; we 
have resisted it. It has been forced 
on us by brute strength, ignorance, 
poverty, degradation and fraud. It is 
the white race, roaming the world, 
that has left its trail of bastards and 
outraged women and then raised holy 
hands to heaven and deplored "race 
mixture." No, we are not demand- 
ing and do not want amalgamation, 
but the reasons are ours and not 
yours. It is not because we are un- 
worthy of intermarriage — either 
physically or mentally or morally. It 
is not because the mingling of races 
has not and will not bring mighty 
offspring in its Dumas and Pushkin 
and Coleridge-Taylor and Booker 
Washington. It is because no real 
men accept any alliance except on 
terms of absolute equal regard and 
because we are abundantly satisfied 
with our own race and blood. And 
at the same time we say and as free 
men must say that whenever two hu- 
man beings of any nation or race de- 
sire each other in marriage, the de- 
nial of their legal right to marry is 
not simply wrong — ; it is lewd. 

Segregation and Race Pride 

A ND this brings us to the last 
word of President Harding: He 
says in one breath : 



Especially would 
I appeal to the self 
respect of the col- 
ored race. I would 
inculcate in it the 
wish to improve it- 
self as a distinct 
race with a heredity, 
a set of traditions, 
an array of aspira- 
tions all its own. 
Out of such racial 
ambitions and pride 
will come natural 
segregations. 



The one thing we 
must sedulously 
avoid is the devel- 
opment of group and 
class organizations 
in this country. 
There has been a 
time when we heard 
too much about the 
labor vote, the busi- 
ness vote, the Irish 
vote, the Scandinav- 
ian vote, the Italian 
vote, and so on. But 
the demagogues who 
would array class 
against class and 
group against group 
have fortunately 
found little to re- 
ward their efforts. 



Is the President calling himself a 
demagogue? Does he not realize the 
logical contradictions of his thought? 
Can he not see his failure to recog- 
nize the Universal in the Particular, 
the menace of all group exclusiveness 
and segregation in the forced segre- 
gation of American Negroes? Can 
he not in this day of days with for- 
eigners of every race flocking to 
Washington and the eyes of a blood- 
weary world strained after them — 
can he not realize the vast, the 
awful implications of this appeal 
to the Frankenstein of race exclu- 
siveness — that hateful thing which 
has murdered peace and culture and 
nations ? Does he not hear the answer 
that leaps to our lips? For when 
Warren Harding or any white man 
comes to teach Negroes pride of race, 
we answer that our pride is our busi- 
ness and not theirs, and a thing they 
would better fear rather than evoke : 
For the day that Black men love Black 
men simply because they are Black, 
is the day they will hate White men 
simply because they are White. 

And then, God help us all ! 

CHAMOUNIX 

DHAVE seen the League of Na- 
tions, the Federation of the 
World, sitting in a little upper 
room and stared at by report- 
ers, amidst streams of hopes and 
fears and of intrigues. After that I 
came to Chamounix — to cow bells 
and silence and trickle of waters. 
Above this world-on-end, lies the vast 
Thing of Snow, — silent, tremendous, 
a world apart, remembered and for- 
gotten ; a place of lights and shadows, 
unknown to earth. And of mists. I 
think the real marriage of earth and 
stars lies somehow in these mists. 
There is every preparation for it: 
the calm and pretty valley with its 
cows, with its homes, its little in- 
trigues and tragedies, its laughter 
and flowers. Then gradually and 
gravely uplifted, the pointing pines ; 
the fingers of the sullen, steadfast 



OPINION 



57 



pines, pointing, always pointing. 
And then a space of lichen, leaf and 
brown gorse; and then a wide grey 
pause of utter rock, weirdly a waste, 
grim in its sense of age and strength. 
After that the snows, the white and 
blue and golden snows with their 
feet drabbled in the earth. 

What more fitting approach to the 
stars, to the thoughts that lie beyond 
the world, enchained and hallowed? 
One sees this mirage of earth and 
skies as a mist, a grey and white un- 
certainty, where line and point drift, 
merge and dissolve into something 
that is just cloud and sky. 

Last night in the rift of the world 
formed by the serried snow-broider- 
ed edge of the Alps, I saw the moon 
sailing in seas of sounds and tints 
of tawny green and hurrying waters ; 
without the narrow rift, lifted their 
heads, snows of clouds and clouds of 
snows, mountains real and moun- 
tains spiritual, clouds of mountains 
and mountains of clouds, until the 
world, the great soiled world, was a 
thing so beautiful, so rare, so still 
and sweet that life seemed all love 
and wonder. I could almost hear the 
sound of stars raining down upon 
Mont Blanc : the mist of the rain was 
moon shine there on the dim White 
Mountain, and the song of the sound 
of it was as the voice of death calling 
to the victorious. It was like white 
age above the brutal strength of 
youth; it was sweet childhood which 
is always apart and beyond the scar- 
red and moaning world. How singular 
is this ceaseless sound of waters, the 
dripping and dropping of snows, the 
roar of fallen mists, the dashing of 
clouds in the slow, grey and crumpled 
rivers of riven ice. And yet against 
the voice of the waters is the voice 
of the mountain ; it is the mountain 
audible, the song of snows, the color 
of space, the feeling of things with- 
out end. The mountain is unmove- 
able; day and day, night after night 
we have flown and whirled about it, 
changed to city after city and ridden 




over hill and dale, resting and run- 
ning, yet the mountain is always 
there, pale and calm and motionless, 
curiously eternal. 

If I lived here long I should pray 
to Mont Blanc, throwing my hands 
in ecstacy, screaming my tears. I 
should heap fire against it and vow 
gold and jewels. It should be God. 
For what else can God be but a 
Mountain or the Sea? 

In that transforming miracle of 
the mountain and the mist there is 
always sinking to earth some solemn 



58 



THE CRISIS 



singing as of things and of thoughts 
that rise above, beyond and athwart 
the heavy tongued earth and melt to 
something vaster and truer. It is 
midnight in the valley. I cannot 
sleep, for the mountain never sleeps 
and the moon tonight is widely 
awake. I sit and scribble and then 
ever and again creep to my window. 
The marvel of it, the sheer, inhuman 
perfectness of it all, the almost pain 
of its beauty and hurt of its joy! It 
is there still in the morning. The 
White Wraith has melted into the sky, 
throwing earthwards one long pale 
finger. Its feet are at the founding 
stones of the universe and its head 
is lost with the stars. Its thoughts 
are the thoughts of God. The world 
is grey and black with purple inter- 
ludes. The waters wail. At last the 
long shaft dies there from the top- 
most shoulder of the mighty hill and 
with its death the mist drops nearer 
to the black and burning earth. And 
always the pines point upward. 

THE SERMON IN THE CRADLE 

OW when Jesus was born in 

Benin of Nigeria in the days 

of English rule, behold, there 

| came wise men from the 




East to London. 

Saying, Where is he that is born 
King of the Blacks? For we have 
seen his star in the east, and are 
come to worship him. 

When the Prime Minister had 
heard these things, he was troubled, 
and all England with him. 

And when he had gathered all the 
chief priests and scholars of the land 
together, he demanded of them 
where this new Christ should be 
born. 

And they said unto him, in Benin 
of Nigeria: for thus it was written 
by the prophet : 

And thou Benin, in the land of 
Nigeria, art not the least among the 
princes of Africa: for out of thee 
shall come a Governor, that shall 
rule my Negro people. 



Then the Prime Minister, when 
he had privily called the wise men, 
inquired of them diligently what 
time the star appeared. 

And he sent them to Benin, and 
said, "Go and search diligently for 
the young child; and when ye have 
found him, bring me word again, 
that I may come and worship him 
also." 

When they had heard the Premier, 
they departed ; and lo, the star, which 
they saw in the east, went before 
them, till it came and stood over 
where the young child was. 

When they saw the star, they re- 
joiced with exceeding great joy. 

And when they were come into the 
house, they saw the young child with 
Mary his mother, and fell down, and 
worshipped him: and when they had 
opened their treasures, they pre- 
sented unto him gifts : gold and 
medicine and perfume. 

And being warned of God in a 
dream that they should not return 
to England, they departed into their 
own country another way. 

Save one, and he was black. And 
his own country was the country 
where he was; so the black Wise 
Man lingered by the cradle and the 
new-born babe. 

The perfume of his gift rose and 
filled the house until through it and 
afar came the dim form of years and 
multitudes. And the child, seeing 
the multitudes, opened his mouth and 
taught them, saying: 

Blessed are poor folks for they 
shall go to heaven. 

Blessed are sad folks for someone 
will bring them joy. 

Blessed are they that submit to 
hurts for they shall sometime own 
the world. 

Blessed are they that truly want 
to do right for they shall get their 
ivish. 

Blessed are those who do not seek 
revenge for vengeance will not seek 
them. 



BUYERS OF DREAMS 



59 



Blessed are the pure for they shall 
see God. 

Blessed are those who will not 
fight for they are God's children. 

Blessed are those whom people like 
to injure for they shall sometime be 
happy. 

Blessed are you, Black Folk, when 
men make fun of you and mob you 
and lie about you. Never mind and 
be glad for your day will surely 
come. 

Always the world has ridiculed its 
better souls. 

TO THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS 

(Address delivered by M. Jean 
Baugniet, in the name of the Inter- 
national Confederation of Students 
at Brussels, Belgium, Sept. 2, 1921.) 

H I HE International Confedera- 
! tion of Students would not 
want the second Pan-African 
I Congress to close without ex- 
tending fraternal greetings to the 
organizers and members of the Con- 
gress in session here. 



It therefore takes this opportunity 
to express at this meeting its most 
sincere sympathy for the intelli- 
gentsia of the Negro race. At a mo- 
ment, and in a day when millions of 
Negroes are collaborating beyond 
the Atlantic and beyond the Sahara 
on the things of the mind, it is no 
longer possible to ignore them or to 
leave them ignored. We believe that 
one of the most sacred duties of the 
youth of our day is to assemble, re- 
gardless of prejudice of race or color, 
the intellectual forces of all nations 
in the hope of advancing toward a 
better future. 

So it is with hearts of ardent 
hopefulness that we today greet 
Negro students and their leaders 
from across the sea. If their desire 
to know us is as strong as ours to 
know them, we shall assuredly suc- 
ceed in evolving a mutually beneficial 
understanding. Negro brothers, the 
International Confederation of Stu- 
dents extends to you its heartfelt 
sympathy. 



BUYERS OF DREAMS 

A Story 



Ethel M. Caution 



SPRING and Summer had passed with 
their promise and visions of life. Now 
came Autumn — glorious fulfillment. She 
painted her pathway with reds, and golds, 
and browns. Boughs that had once been 
showers of pink petals were now freighted 
with richly tinted fruits. Leaves to whom 
the wind had whispered shy little secrets 
covered the earth with their radiant hues, 
and as one trampled through them, the 
wonder and mystery crept up into one's 
very soul. If with Spring came restlessness 
and yearning, and with Summer thrills of 
experimenting, with Autumn came convic- 
tion and decision. 

At this season of the year the Seller of 
Dreams was always very busy with folks 
wanting various and sundry dreams. So 
today he busied himself polishing his cases 
and placing his wares to the best advantage 
for inspection by Youth, Beauty, and Age 



who would surely visit him. His whole 
shop was radiant and inviting with clean- 
ness. 

And such dreams as he had! — marvelous 
things of costly price and others not so at- 
tractive and therefore to be bought for less. 
And because in the Autumn people usually 
paid highly for their purchases, the less 
expensive, ordinary little dreams were not 
given the place of honor. 

It was early in the morning. The shop had 
scarcely been open when in came a dashing 
young lady needing a dream. She looked 
the wares over very carefully and asked 
prices. One that was all shining and daz- 
zling appealed to her but the price was 
rather more than she had thought of pay- 
ing. 

"Here are some beautiful ones," said the 
shopkeeper. 

"Oh, those!" answered the girl in disgust. 



60 



THE CRISIS 



"Well, of course, they are not as gorgeous 
as the ones you like." 

The girl pondered and pursed her mouth 
and made little mental calculations on her 
fingers. Finally: 

"If you will agree, I will pay you what 
I have with me now and you can put the 
dream aside. I will come with the rest 
later. Will that be all right?" 

"Yes, I shall be glad to oblige you if you 
are sure that is the dream you wish." 

"Oh, but it is! Just see how it shines! 
Everyone will turn to look because it is so 
beautiful." 

She went away with a satisfied smile on 
her face. 

A few hours later another girl came in, 
dignified and impressive in air, and asked 
to see the dreams. 

The shopkeeper showed her the shiny 
beautiful ones; but she wanted something 
out of the ordinary, something that every- 
one didn't have. So he showed her some 
that were very unique, even peculiar. 

"That's what I am looking for. I want 
a dream that will make me stand out as 
one in a thousand. There can be lots of 
gorgeous dreams and many drab ones, but 
very few people would think of taking one 
like I want. That is why I want it." 

She paid for her dream and took it away. 

Then trade lagged until nearly closing 
time, when a very plain little girl came in 
and quietly closed the door. 

"What kind of dream would you like?" 
asked the keeper. 

"Oh, I'll look around and see." 

"I have some very lovely ones, but," eye- 
ing her plain clothes, "they are very expen- 
sive." 

"It won't be a question of money. I have 
been saving and saving so that I would have 
enough for whatever dream I picked out." 

"Do you like this one?" picking out the 
most gaudy one he had. 



"No, no. That isn't a real dream. That 
is only a bubble. It costs a lot, but we 
can't always measure worth by cost. That 
dream is for the society butterfly. It means 
fine clothes, and expensive parties; late 
hours and breakfasts in bed; yachts and 
trips; perfume and paint; and in the end, 
emptiness and dissatisfaction." 

"Then, maybe you would like this one. 
I sold one today." 

"No, that is for the girl who wants a 
career. She wants a dream that means 
bringing the world to her feet for some 
wonderful bit of work she has cornered. 
She doesn't realize the emptiness of mere 
fame and of work done just for personal 
glory." 

The shopkeeper noticed the wistful twist 
in her smile and discovered that when she 
looked him full in the face, there were 
golden lights in her deep brown eyes. 

"I think I like that dream over there," 
she said, indicating a very inconspicuous 
one off in a corner. 

"That looks like a real dream and I am 
glad it is not very expensive, because more 
girls can buy one. Let me show you how 
beautiful it is." 

He handed it out to her and her eyes 
sparkled and there was a lilt in her voice 
as she held it up to the light and said: 

"This dream means comradeship, and 
love, home and happiness. Can you not 
see the beautiful babies in it? See their 
laughing eyes, and the dimples in their 
hands and plump little knees. See them 
wriggle their toes and reach their little 
hands to love and caress your face! I 
wouldn't pay a penny for your flashy 
dreams. A pin prick, and they are no more. 
Neither do I want your dream of a career 
to end my life in loneliness and emptiness 
and bitterness. This is a dream I shall 
buy. Love, babies, life!" 

And the shopkeeper decided that of the 
three, she had made the wisest choice. 



WHAT EUROPE THOUGHT OF THE PAN- 
AFRICAN CONGRESS 



Jessie Fauset 




A CORRESPONDENT of a New York 
"*■ *■ newspaper speaks of the serious con- 
sideration which Europe gave to the sit- 



tings of the Second Pan-African Congress. 
Judging from the amount of publicity re- 
ceived from the leading journals of the 





CELEBRATING THE BIRTH OF DESSALINES IN HAITI 



61 



62 



THE CRISIS 



world, this meeting impressed Europe in 
many ways. The London Christian World 
finds it most impressive in its personnel, its 
eloquence and its frankness: 

"There has been a small, but very sig- 
nificant, group of Africans in London dur- 
ing the week-end. They hailed from Amer- 
ica and Africa, from Guiana and the West 
Indies, etc. They included barristers, jour- 
nalists, medical men, ministers, merchants 
and university students, and their purpose 
was to bring together men of Negro blood 
for mutual acquaintance and counsel with 
a view to envisage the Negro problem of 
the world as a whole, and to lay plans for 
the raising of the African by strictly con- 
stitutional means. 

"Apart from representatives of a few 
missionary societies and other sympathiz- 
ers, it was entirely a colored man's Con- 
gress. Every white man present must have 
been amazed at the revelation of power and 
ability. Of course, there was eloquence; 
that goes without saying when the speakers 
are Negroes. But most Europeans must 
have envied some of the speakers' command 
of lucid English. In certain instances it 
was only eloquence ; but there was substance 
in most of the speeches and constructive 
suggestions in some. One could not fail to 
be impressed with the sense of potency and 
possibility. Friendliness was a marked fea- 
ture. Most of those present had never met 
before, yet one cannot recall a Congress in 
which it was easier for a sheer outsider to 
feel at home. There was courtesy and good- 
fellowship on every hand. 

"The soul of the Congress was Dr. W. E. 
Burghardt DuBois, the author of the pas- 
sionate and amazing book 'Darkwater.' 

"But Dr. DuBois is more than a personal 
force; he is significant of the new Negro. 
He does not tower as an isolated figure 
above his fellows. In the Congress there 
were men of eminence in many walks of 
life; a kind of Negro intelligentsia, all 
eager for the raising of their race. They 
were under no illusions with regard to Ne- 
groes. They freely criticized themselves, 
especially for their lack of cohesion. The 
impression grew on one that they were de- 
termined to make that sneer impossible for 
the future." 

The Aberdeen, Scotland, Free Press 
thinks such a congress inevitable: 

"The Pan-African Congress, which is 



meeting in London this week, is a signifi- 
cant sign of the times. The educated Negro 
has become vocal. He has tasted some of 
the fruit of the tree of knowledge, and has 
been asking himself questions — questions, 
some of which even the white man may find 
it difficult to answer. The upheaval cre- 
ated by the war has been world-wide, and 
the wave of political unrest which swept 
over Europe and led to the downfall of 
ancient dynasties has been threatening the 
framework of African Society as well. The 
black man's mind — like the white man's 
creeds and philosophies — has been sorely 
shaken by the war. As General Smuts 
says, he is losing faith in the white man, 
in the white man's education, and the white 
man's religion. The educated native has 
heard of the principle of "self-determina- 
tion," and he is proceeding to apply it to 
his own case. He has heard of the League 
of Nations, and asks whether the Negro 
race is to be represented at the great San- 
hedrin of the Tribes." 

The Paris Petit Parisien considers it ex- 
tremely fitting that the Congress should be 
held in Rue Blanche (White Street). Pierre 
Bonardi writes: 

"These blacks who were holding their 
meetings in White Street gave the effect 
of a symbolism which was perfectly justified 
since the members of the Congress have 
taken upon themselves as their mission the 
establishment of an equality between the 
black race and the white race, an equality 
if not of color at least of values. This 
concern which they manifest proves, to 
start with, that the desired equality does 
not as yet exist, but the high personages 
who figure in this Congress gave proof by 
their very presence that some Africans have 
on the one hand attained to the very high- 
est degree of civilization, and that they 
would like, on the other hand, to make it 
evident that the Negro race is very near 
the intellectual level of other races." 

According to the Paris Humanite, France 
had not suspected the existence of such a 
group of educated and thoughtful men and 
women of African descent: 

"The black and mulatto intelligentsia 
which the Congress revealed or permitted 
us to know better, showed by its very exist- 
ence that the black race is not naturally 
or essentially an inferior race, and that it 
is not destined to remain so forever. 



PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS 



63 



"How can we consider inferior to white 
men these orators with their clear thought 
and their ready words; these audiences at 
once calm and attentive; these delegates, 
men and women representing strong organi- 
zations of tens, yes hundreds and thousands 
of members; that charming young woman 
who was the first colored aviatrix of Amer- 
ica?" 

No less noted a personage than Sir Harry 
Johnston, African explorer and writer, re- 
marks in the London Observer: 

"There has been meeting in London a 
Pan-African Congress, attended mainly by 
American Negroes or Americans with a 
greater or lesser degree of Negro blood in 
their composition. But there have also par- 
ticipated a few educated African Negroes 
and several men or women wholly of the 
white race. I, myself, had wished to be 
there to take part in one or two of the dis- 
cussions and to meet old friends and ac- 
quaintances from America who were deeply 
interested in the growing, intensifying prob- 
lems of the Negro race in the United States 
and in Africa." 

The London African World shows that 
the spectators must have found the sessions 
well worth attending: 

"Throughout the Pan-African Congress' 
sessions in London it was very wisely 
steered. Its meetings became more inter- 
esting and better attended as they contin- 
ued. All phases of Negro disability in 
Africa — West, East, North, and South — 
were touched. Extremes of speech were 
carefully tempered by succeeding speakers. 
These men all had something to say, and 
said it, for the most part excellently. Ideas 
for the future emerged. But always be- 
hind it all there was the resentment at the 
manner of treatment by the ruling white 
races whatever the Continent to which they 
belonged. 

"The impressions of the Congress that 
remain in one's mind are the intense love 
of country and race, the boundless enthusi- 
asm, easily stirred into emotional display, 
the deep-rooted sense of grievance, the ef- 
fective manner in which many of the speak- 
ers marshalled their arguments, and the 
merriment that so easily bubbled at some 
of the humorous flicks at the ideas of Euro- 
peans." 

Black men have something to contribute 



to the world thinks the London Challenge: 

"The Second Pan-African Congress, 
which has now concluded its sessions, is an 
event of the gravest import. The growth 
of a body of public opinion among peoples 
of Negro descent, broad enough to be called 
Pan-African, is one of the signs of the 
times, and while the leader of the Congress, 
Dr. DuBois, is miles removed from the in- 
flated ambitions and swaggering attitude of 
Mr. Marcus Garvey, he, too, stands for the 
development of a black race-consciousness 
opposing itself in pride and defiance to the 
whites. The National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People, of which 
Dr. DuBois is secretary, is a sane organiza- 
tion which has already gained considerable 
influence and succeeded in defending the 
black man's rights all over the world. The 
Association has a claim upon the sympa- 
thy and help of every Christian, not only in 
view of the terrible recrudescence of lynch- 
ing and forced labor, but because the Afri- 
can race must be helped to make its valu- 
able contribution to the world's life and 
thought." 

It is clear to the London Daily Graphic 
that these black men and women were proud 
of their cause: 

"They were so intensely in earnest, both 
the men and women, so absolutely convinced 
of the justice of their cause, their right to 
a citizen's franchise, to representation in 
the world's councils, to everything, in fact, 
that civilized humanity offers to her sons, 
regardless of race, color and creed." 

The London Public Opinion feels that the 
race has found itself and calls the Con- 
gress : 

"A remarkable exhibition of race-con- 
sciousness and a revelation of the intellec- 
tual and moral development of the Negro." 

The purpose of the Pan-African Congress 
is defined by the Paris edition of the New 
York Herald: 

"The Pan-African Congress is not a 
scheme of migration either to Africa or 
elsewhere. It believes in the equality of 
men and races, but it seeks to realize this 
through education and opportunity and peri- 
odic conference. 

"The question of the status of the Negro 
in modern society, the leaders declare, is 
no longer a domestic problem of the United 
States, or a parochial problem of Jamaica, 



64 



THE CRISIS 



or a Colonial problem. It is rather a great 
world-wide problem to be viewed and con- 
sidered as a whole." 

The Paris Petit Parisien elaborates a lit- 
tle: 

"To bring about the evolution of the 
black race which is scattered throughout 
the entire world, to obtain for it absolute 
equality with the white race from the po- 
litical, social and economic standpoint by 
means of development resulting from the 
education and the instruction which the 
former is to receive from the latter, to 
make it co-operate closely with the white 
race — such are the main ideas of the new 
Pan-African Congress which opened its ses- 
sions yesterday in the Hall of Civil Engi- 
neers and which was presided over by M. 
Diagne, Deputy and High Commissioner of 
black troops in France." 

A note of selfish fear is sounded by the 
Paris Matin: 

"What is the goal of the Pan-African 
movement? 

"The liberation of the blacks. This is 
a legitimate goal and one which will be in- 
evitably attained. It will be attained the 
moment that the .men actually under the 
domination of the superior races will have 
learned how to know and to co-ordinate 
their own forces. 

"We have seen what has been taking 
place in Japan. We shall learn perhaps to- 
morrow of the transforming of China and 
later — it is almost a certainty there will be 
a transformation of Africa. But what we 
want is that this movement which we our- 
selves have helped to create will not turn 
against us. We are willing to help in an 
evolution which we ourselves have prepared, 
but we do not hold with being the victims 
of a revolution. 

"The Congress particularly desires that 
the problems raised by the contact of the 
black and white races be studied and made 
public." 

The Reuter Press Agency reports of the 
last Paris meeting in the Westminster Ga- 
zette: 

"The Congress concluded its sittings yes- 
terday with the adoption of a document ad- 
dressed to the world at large, in which the 
role of each of the colonizing Powers is ex- 
amined. 

"The statement in question particularly 



insists on the necessity of recognizing the 
equality of the races from both the physical, 
political and social points of view, and of 
the constitution, among the colonizing Pow- 
ers, under the aegis of the League of Na- 
tions, of an International Committee 
charged to study the problem raised by 
the evolution and protection of the Negro 
race." 

France at least realizes that black as well 
as white people are divided into groups of 
extremists, of conservatives, of hare- 
brained schemers, of careful thinkers. The 
Paris Temps submits: 

"It is the claims of the wiser group 
which must be studied. As was perfectly 
natural they turned towards the League of 
Nations and asked it to establish in its 
bureau a permanent organization charged 
with working toward the liberation of black 
peoples and founded on the principle of 
equality of races. The League of Nations 
can't do otherwise than give them some 
semblance of satisfaction by establishing a 
commission to which shall be entrusted the 
study of the question. But it will be 
prevented by the prejudices of many 
from proclaiming equality of races as was 
the case at the Peace Conference when 
President Wilson absolutely refused to rec- 
ognize it in the case of Japan. The road 
will be long for Negroes in the League of 
Nations toward the liberation, modest 
though it is, whose program they have elab- 
orated in their Congress. But there is noth- 
ing to keep us French from putting into 
immediate practice in our colonies some 
articles at least of this program to start 
with. There is one to which we certainly 
have no objections since indeed we have 
already adopted it for a good many years 
back, namely 'the recognition of civilized 
men as civilized, regardless of their race 
or color.' 

"In the main the Negroes have asked us 
in their Congress to be treated as brothers, 
backward ones for the most part, to be in- 
structed and to be urged toward a higher 
social level, with good will and with respect 
for their race so far as its natural rights 
and its peculiar characteristics are con- 
cerned. They ask our friendly aid for ad- 
vance along a road to civilization. Such a 
request would never find the soul of our 
France hostile and we are unwilling to 



PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS 



65 



doubt that our Colonial ministers will not 
take time to go to Africa to make some 
inquiries into the best methods of granting 
their requests, for our colonies are not only 
territories for mines, cattle, agricultural 
products, they are, in addition and above 
all, men without whom our colonies would 
soon be sterile wastes, and we must have 
these men not against us but for us, not 
constrained by force but allied by their 
hearts." 

To some the Congress is indicative of 
the approach of black -rule. The English 
Manchester Dispatch observes mournfully: 

"The white races do not naturally look 
forward with joyful emotions to the day 
when a prolific black race will rule. We 
may salve our fears by pinning our faith 
to the mollifying effects of education, reli- 
gion, and civilization, but the time may 
come when we shall have to submit our- 
selves to the tender mercies of our dusky 
conquerors. 

"A black leader observed in a speech the 
other day: 'We solemnly warn America 
that the patience of the colored peoples has 
its limits.' 

"A possible precaution might be found 
in the provision of a black Palestine, a 
home of their own, in one of the more prom- 
ising lands of Africa." 

The members of the Congress had to bat- 
tle with the obstacle common to all inter- 
national organizations — that of merging 
national differences into a racial blend. 
Pierre Bonardi notes in the Paris Petit 
Parisien: 

"Each of these Negroes represents a men- 
tality which is not racial but which belongs 
to the particular milieu where he received 
his education. It will only be by concilia- 
tion and by the effacing of personalities 
that they will arrive at anything. If Ne- 
groes succeed in making one their different 
points of view, in effacing themselves in the 
interest of their brothers despite their 
personal ambitions, we shall have to admit 
that they will have given an unexpected 
example to the whites who even then will 
hardly be able to follow it. 

"The blacks of Africa certainly have 
valuable defenders in their brothers who 
hail from the rest of the world. Every- 
thing that we have heard at these meetings 
proves it." 



But there was unity, and, according to 
the London West Africa, that was the most 
significant feature of the Congress: 

"The fact that so many people could 
gather, at great expense, from remote 
places, and disregarding the point that they 
are nationals of this Power or that, could 
unite on the vital matter of common griev- 
ances alleged to be suffered _ solely on ac- 
count of race, and could speak with such a 
sense of sincerity and responsibility, is a 
fact which cannot lightly be passed over. 
We make no pretense of agreeing with 
everything in the speeches and resolutions. 
Probably no single member of the gather- 
ing differs from us on that point. But, on 
the whole, the speakers impress one with a 
sense of their earnestness, their willingness 
to abide the issue if given equality of op- 
portunity, and their resolve to work for 
civil and political freedom within the limits 
of the Constitutions of their countries." 

In Brussels indeed there was, however, a 
serious clash between American and British 
Negroes on the one hand, and French and 
Belgian Negroes on the other, with regard 
to the adoption of the resolutions which had 
been passed unanimously at London. The 
Americans and British gave in partly be- 
cause there was a chance for the resolutions 
to come up again at the final session in 
Paris, but still more because they realized 
that unity between the different black 
groups was the supreme necessity of the 
organization. But the bad faith of the 
French presiding officer, M. Diagne, did 
not pass unnoticed. Says the London Afri- 
can World: 

"The reason of these strenuous American 
and British efforts to have the London 
declaration endorsed by the Brussels Con- 
gress was, unquestionably, 'the resentment 
at the manner of treatment by the ruling 
white races' — to quote an expression ir. 
your last week's 'Impressions of the Meet- 
ings at Westminster' — a resentment frc 
quently ventilated during the Congress, and 
notably by Mr. DuBois. 

"After some three hours' fierce struggle 
concerning the refusal by Mr. Diagne 
(chairman of the Congress) to submit the 
London declaration to a vote of Congress, 
this distinguished Senegalese proposed the 
vote of the Otlet (Belgian) and of the de 
Magalhaes (Portuguese) motions, motions 



66 



THE CRISIS 



asking the creation in each colonial nation 
of an institution of scientific research, con- 
cerning the development of the Negroes, in- 
stitutes of which the works should be cen- 
tralized by an international body. 

"These motions voted by M. Diagne and 
his supporters were proclaimed by him, 
adopted by the Congress, whilst, in fact, 
this was not the case, the American and 
British Negroes (the majority of the Con- 
gress) not having voted for it." 

Sometimes a note was sounded which 
brought back a protest from white audi- 
tors. Brussels was peculiarly sensitive. 
Says L'Echo de la Bourse: 

"A Negro doctor, former deputy in the 
Portuguese Parliament, declared the policy 
of spoliation and of oppression must give 
way to a policy of co-operation. He de- 
clared also the right of the black race to 
rise as well as the others, a thing more- 
over which it was in process of doing, and, 
he added, since the colonies in the heart of 
Africa are not adapted to white civiliza- 
tion, it is in the interest of the whites to 
have healthy and well instructed workers 
there. It was necessary, he said, that col- 
onization, which up to this time was carried 
on for the profit of the white man, should 
also be made profitable to the black man, 
and 'if you are not willing to co-operate in 
our advance, we shall advance just the 
same without you and in spite of you.' This 
was the one note of violence which was 
heard, but we must take account of the 
circumstances and must remember that the 
Portuguese Congo was one of the main 
countries where slaves were procured and 
that at this very moment they are still 
searching for laborers for San Thome, an 
island, which is a veritable charnel-house 
for Negroes." 

One striking instance of the growing 
feeling of kinship between all the dark 
races was that an East Indian (Mr. 
Varma) spoke in the interest of East 
Africa. The London African World reports : 

"Mr. Varma stated that the Africans of 
East Africa had delegated him to represent 
their grievances before the Colonial Office 
and any societies. On the basis that Euro- 
peans in Kenya had argued that to permit 
Indians to have the vote would be to injure 
the rights of the natives, he said that the 
Likipia reserve transfer, the eighty-four 



days' forced labor — which he called the 'back 
to slavery' policy — the suggested reduction 
of natives' wages from six rupees a month, 
the vote for education for the children of 
3,000,000 natives of one-fifth of the sum 
allocated to the children of 9,000 Euro- 
peans, showed how Europeans safeguarded 
the rights of natives. If the Congress 
wanted to watch the interests of Africans 
in East Africa, he said, now was the time 
to do it." 

The American delegates, according to the 
Scottish Glasgow Herald, did not always 
confine themselves to the sufferings of 
American Negroes — there was also progress 
to be reported: 

"Miss Fauset, of Philadelphia, literary 
editor of The Crisis, spoke on the subject 
of the colored women in America, who, she 
said, had been a great moving force behind 
all the movements for emancipation. Col- 
ored women had taken up social work in 
the great cities of America, and were res- 
cuing many girls who came into the cities 
from other parts, and who, through their 
ignorance, might otherwise be exploited. 
Colored women were everywhere branching 
out into every field of activity in the pro- 
fessions and in business. She asked the 
African delegates to carry a message of 
friendship and encouragement to Africr.n 
women from the colored women of Amer- 
ica." 

The London Times gives a very fair idea 
of the program in Brussels: 

"Mme. Curtis dealt with the state of af- 
fairs in Liberia. The president of the Con- 
gress, M. Diagne, pointed out the signifi- 
cance of the fact that Liberia is included 
among the signatories to the Treaty of Ver- 
sailles. He declared that the Entente had 
specifically recognized the equality of the 
white and colored races by admitting a 
Negro representative to the negotiations. 

"M. Barthelemy, Deputy for Arras, laid 
stress upon the necessity for sending more 
doctors, teachers, and missionaries to the 
colonies, and fewer officials. Miss Fauset 
described the progress made in America by 
the establishment of schools for colored peo- 
ple. M. Panda, a delegate from the Bel- 
gian Congo, protested against the calumnies 
published in the German press concerning 
the black troops belonging to the Army of 
Occupation in Germany. 



PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS 



67 



"After the session had ended an 'African 
Room' for Colonial exhibits was opened in 
the World Palace." 

All the newspapers wrote at length on 
Dr. DuBois, who was generally recognized 
as the moving spirit of the Congress. The 
correspondent of the London Challenge 
writes : 

"The question that was most frequently 
asked by visitors to the Congress was 
whether Dr. DuBois agreed with the flam- 
boyant and threatening 'All-Black' policy 
of Mr. Marcus Garvey. He told me that, 
while he was in accord with Garvey's main 
aspiration, he repudiated his methods, 
which, he thought, were lacking in plain 
sense, and he questioned the soundness of 
his financial enterprises." 

The Belgian Echo de la Bourse thinks 
General Smuts would choose his words care- 
fully in the presence of the American lead- 
er: 

"Dr. DuBois, head of the American dele- 
gation, is an intellectual of mark. He gave 
us an exact account of the lamentable con- 
ditions throughout the world. 

"General Smuts would never dare declare 
in the presence of Dr. DuBois as he did in 
the presence of the London correspondent 
of the Belgian Star and of The Neptune, 
that we would do well to send our colonial 
officials to stay a while in South Africa in 
order to learn how to treat black people. 

"Whether or not you like M. Burghardt 
DuBois, whether or not you agree with his 
program, you have to bow to his brilliant in- 
tellect and his devotion to the black race." 

Speaking of the resolutions drawn up by 
Dr. DuBois and presented at all three sit- 
tings of the Congress, Felicien Challaye, 
delegate from the Bureau International 
pour la Defense des Indigenes, says in Les 
Cahiers : 

"Such is the program developed by M. 
DuBois. It seems to me to take into account 
all the realities and all the possibilities, to 
present that mingling of realism and of 
idealism which characterizes great political 
thought." 

The Belgian Independance Beige apolo- 
gizes for the indifference of the whites to- 
ward the affairs of the black world: 

"The session (of the Pan-African Con- 
gress) has caused no little surprise. It has 
even given rise to some erroneous interpre- 
tations. We know so little of the black 



world outside of that of the African colo- 
nial, in our political preoccupation, it holds 
certainly less place than that of the Mus- 
sulmans who are near at hand or that of 
the more distant Oriental. However 'geo- 
centric' we may be in our conception of the 
physical world, we remain 'white centric' 
with regard to the human societies which 
live on our planet. 

"A parallel between the progress wrought 
since emancipation by the blacks of the 
United States and the serfs of Russia (lib- 
erated two years earlier) points to an ad- 
vance more than twice as great on the part 
of the Negroes from the economic as well 
as the intellectual point of view and what 
has taken place in the United States has 
also taken place in the Antilles and in many 
a South American state." 

Even France, the much-vaunted friend 
of the blacks, is not entirely blameless. M. 
Challaye says frankly in Les Cahiers, which 
is the official organ of the "Societe Des 
Droits de L'Homme," the organization that 
freed Dreyfus: 

"It is true that a black elite is, in France, 
given equal treatment, but the mass of na- 
tives in the colonies of France as well as 
in those of the other powers is too often 
subjected to a regime of tyranny and of 
spoliation. I personally recalled to the 
Pan- African Congress the plight of the na- 
tives of the French Congo ever since the 
time the regime of the great concessionary 
companies had been imposed upon them." 

It is pleasant to realize that these dele- 
gates in the midst of their warfare for 
right and justice took advantage of this oc- 
casion to honor the dead. The London 
African World says of their stay in Paris: 

"Between the afternoon and evening ses- 
sions a wreath was placed by the delegates 
on the grave of the unknown French sol- 
dier buried under the Arch of Triumph — a 
beautiful and impressive ceremony." 

So the Second Pan-African Congress 
came to an impressive end. It made plain 
to the world not only what it thought of 
the members of its own race, but pretty 
plainly what it thought of the members of 
others. The London Punch points it out 
shrewdly : 

" 'no eternally inferior races' 

"Headlines in The Times. 

"No, but in the opinion of our colored 
brothers, some infernally superior ones." 



110 DELEGATES TO THE PAN-AFRICAN 
CONGRESS BY COUNTRIES 



United States of America 
- R. P. Sims, Bluefield, W. Va. 

West Virginia Teachers' Association. 
H. A. Hunt, Fort Valley, Ga., 

Ga. Ass'n Advancement Negro Education. 
G. R. Hutto, Bainbridge, Ga., 

Knights of Pythias. 
Mrs. A. E. Hutto. 
P. F. Haynes, St. Joseph, Mo., 

Odd Fellows. 
Dr. Henry R. Butler, Atlanta, Ga., 

Ancient Free Masons. 
H. R. Butler, Jr., Atlanta, Ga., 
Mrs. Viola Hart Felton, Americus, Ga., 

Eastern Star. 
Lydia G. Brown, Washington, D. C, 

Dunbar High School. 
Florence Kelley, New York City, 

N. A. A. C. P. 
Rev. W. H. Jernagin, Washington, D. C. 

National Race Congress of America. 
Jessie Fauset, New York City, 

Delta Sigma Theta Sorority. 
William S. Nelson, New York City, 

Omega Psi Phi Fraternity. 
Dr. A. Wilberforce Williams, Chicago, 111., 

Chicago Defender Pub. Co. 
Bishop C. H. Phillips, Nashville, Tenn., 

C. M. E. Church. 
Bishop John Hurst, Baltimore, Md., 

A. M. E. Church. 
Mrs. John Hurst. 
Dr. R. T. Brown, Birmingham, Ala., 

C. M. E. Church. 
Dr. C. H. Phillips, Jr., St. Louis, Mo., 

Missouri Negro Republican League Club. 
Mrs. C. H. Phillips, Jr. 
Mrs. H. R. Butler, Atlanta, Ga., 

Colored Parent-Teachers' Association. 
Miss Lavinia Black, New York City. 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Spingarn, 

N. A. A. C. P. 
C. H. Tobias, New York City, 

International Committee, Y. M. C. A. 



Bishop Cary and Mrs. Cary, Chicago, 111. 

A. M. E. Church. 
Mrs. French, St. Louis, Mo. 
R. R. Wright, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa., 

A. M. E. Church. 
Capt. and Mrs. N. B. Marshall, 
Walter F. White, New York City, 

N. A. A. C. P 
Dr. W. E. B. DuBois, New York City, 

N. A. A. C. P. 

England 
Dr. John Alcindor and wife 
Alice Werner 
George Lattimore 
Ruth Fisher 
Dr. F. Hoggan 
Robert Broadhurst 
Mrs. Fisher Unwin 
J. R. Archer, ex-Mayor of Battersea 
Roland Hayes 
Rev. Mr. A. M. Chirgwin 
Rev. Mr. Frank Lenwood 

France 
Deputy Barthelemy 
Felicien Challaye 
Mrs. Ida Gibbs Hunt 
Senateur Aubert 
Dr. George Jackson 
Rayford Logan 
Mme. L. Chapoteau 
Mrs. Charles Young 

Belgium 
Paul Otlet 
General Gillain 
Jean Baugniet 
Senateur La Fontaine 

Belgian Congo 
Paul Panda 

Members of Union Congolaise (18) 
Madame Sorolea 

Sierra Leone 
Mr. Sutton 
Dr. Ojo Olaribigbe 
Rev. Mr. E. G. Granville 




GROUPS REPRESENTED AT THE SECOND PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS 

68 



LEAGUE OF NATIONS 



69 



Gratien Candace 
Isaac Beton 



Dr. Vitellian 



Guadeloupe 

Abyssinia 
India 



Mr. Saklatvala ' 

Mr. Judhava 
I. Ghous 

Portuguese Africa (5 provinces) 
Nicolas de Santos-Pinto, of the Liga Africana. 

Portugal 
Jose de Magalhaes, President of the Liga Africana 

Morocco 
Mr. Arnold 

Spain 
General Luis Sorelas 

Denmark 
Edward F. Frazier 

Madagascar 
Jean Razaief 

Haiti 
Dantes Bellegarde 
Villius Gervais 

Grenada 
Albert Marryshow 

Jamaica 
Nathan S. Russell 



British Guiana 

Mr. Callender 

Southern Nigeria 
Ibidunni Morondipe Obadende 
Dr. Peter Thomas 

South Africa 
Mrs. Davis 
Mr. and Mrs. John L. Dube, representing Natal. 

Senegal 
Blaise Diagne 

Liberia 
Liberian Consul to Brussels 
Mrs. Helen Curtis 

East Africa 
Norman Leys 
Mr. Banda 
V. S. Varma 

Gold Coast 
J. Eldred Taylor 
W. T. Hutchinson 

Nigeria 
Rev. W. B. Mark 



Other persons were present from Swaziland, 
Jamaica, Martinique, French Congo, Trinidad, the 
Philippines and Liberia; and in addition to these tkere 
were at least 1,000 visitors. 



THE INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF LABOR 
OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS 




Sir: 

T HAVE the honor to acknowledge the re- 
■*■ ceipt of a copy of the address to the 
League of Nations, voted for by the Sec- 
ond Pan-African Congress, which met in 
London, Brussels and Paris, the 28th, 29th 
and 31st of August and the 2nd, 3rd, 5th 
and 6th of September, 1921, a copy which 
you were kind enough to send me on the 
15th of last September through the Inter- 
national Bureau for the Defense of Na- 
tives. 

This address contains the following reso- 
lution which is of special interest to the 
International Bureau of Labor. "The sec- 
ond Pan-African Congress asks that in the 
International Bureau of Labor a section 
be set aside to deal particularly and in de- 
tail with the conditions and needs of native 
labor, especially in Africa and elsewhere. 
This Congress earnestly believes that the 
labor problems of the world can never be 
understood or completely solved so long as 
colored, and especially black, labor is en- 
slaved and neglected. The Congress be- 
lieves furthermore that the first step to- 
ward the emancipation of labor through- 
out the world would be the organization 
of a thorough investigation into native la- 
bor." 

1 learned of this resolution with the ut- 
most interest because it set before the In- 



ternational Bureau of Labor the entire 
problem of the protection of native labor- 
ers and especially of Negro laborers. This 
matter of protection indeed has been one 
of the principal preoccupations of this in- 
stitution ever since its inception. 

The International Bureau of Labor has 
always considered it its duty to protect la- 
borers without making any race distinction 
and indeed that its protection ought to ex- 
tend especially to those men who are sub- 
jected to the most inhuman conditions of 
labor, as is the case of a large number of 
native peoples, particularly of black peo- 
ples. The principle of the equality of 
races in the matter of protection which it 
pretends to afford laborers is with the In- 
ternational Bureau of Labor a first princi- 
ple. In proof of this see the preamble and 
article 427 of part 13 of the Peace Treaty. 

Although it is true that in this matter 
as in many others the International Bureau 
of Labor can interfere only with the great- 
est difficulty because of the difficulties pre- 
sented by the very diversity of the govern- 
ing nations, and although, in general, it 
has no other weapon than recourse to public 
opinion, still the International Bureau of 
Labor is not entirely without some means 
of protecting native labor. 

The first of these is revealed in article 



70 



THE CRISIS 



421 of the Peace Treaty, the tenor of which 
is as follows: 

"The members promise to put into prac- 
tice the agreements (covenants, articles, 
etc.) of which they shall have approved, 
conformably to the stipulations of the pres- 
ent part of the present treaty, to those of 
their colonies or possessions, and to those of 
their protectorates which have not com- 
plete self-government, with the following 
reservations : 

1. That the agreement should not be ren- 
dered inapplicable by local conditions. 

2. That the modifications necessary to 
adapt the agreement to local conditions 
shall be introduced into the latter (the 
agreement) . 

Each of the members will have to notify 
the International Bureau of Labor of the 
decision which it proposes to make with re- 
gard to each of its colonies or possessions 
or its protectorates which does not have 
complete self-government." 

On that day six members ratified, com- 
pletely or in part, the Agreements of the 
Washington Conference, namely: Finland, 
Great Britain, Greece, India, Roumania and 
Czecho-Slovakia 

In accordance with article 408 of this 
same Treaty, the International Bureau of 
Labor has sent to the British government 
a formula for an annual report, inviting it 
(the British government) to make known 
the measures taken or envisaged by it for 
putting into execution one of the agree- 
ments which, it had already ratified .... 

But native labor should be protected not 
only in the colonies or protectorates of the 
nations possessing colonies, but also among 
the people who are to comply, according to 
the Peace Treaty, with the regime of the 
Mandates. 

Here again the International Bureau of 
Labor obtained through the organ of the 
International Bureau of Labor, through 
negotiations with the League of Nations 
(an account of which you will find in the 
copy of the Official Bulletin which I am 
sending with this letter), the right to be 
represented by an expert of its choosing in 
the permanent Commission of Mandates es- 
tablished by article 22 in the Peace Treaty. 

Thanks to this representation, the Inter- 
national Bureau of Labor will have also 
under its jurisdiction the whole ensemble 



of the laboring world; and native peoples, 
even those suffering from the most inhuman 
treatment, may have the certainty of being 
protected. 

The resolution which you sent me shows 
that the second Pan-African Congress has 
completely realized that the first step in 
bringing about the gradual emancipation 
of native labor is to keep public opin'on in- 
formed by a meticulous system of presenta- 
tion of the actual conditions which control 
this labor at the present time, not only in 
the colonies and protectorates of the Euro- 
pean nations, but also in the territories 
placed according to the regime of the Man- 
dates under the tutelage of the League of 
Nations. The resolution also points out the 
means of carrying on this inquiry continu- 
ously, namely, the establishment in the In- 
ternational Bureau of Labor of a section 
whose special duty shall be the detailed con- 
sideration of the conditions and needs of 
native laborers in Africa and elsewhere. 

I am dwelling on this interesting sugges- 
tion all the more because for some months 
past I myself have been trying to bring it 
to fruition. I have had to renounce this 
project temporarily for lack of a sufficiently 
large personnel. Today re-established in 
my intention through the resolution of the 
Pan-African Congress, I am going to take 
up the idea again and try in the near fu- 
ture to establish a section of Native Labor. 
Naturally the budget at my disposal is still 
limited and the section cannot have at its 
inception a complete development. Never- 
theless, I am sure that eventually I shall be 
able to extend its limits to meet the really 
considerable task which it will have to han- 
dle. At present an official of the Scientific 
Division is going to be charged with fol- 
lowing up the conditions of native, and 
particularly of Negro labor. I will let you 
know at some future date the name of 
this official who furthermore will be in- 
structed to establish relations between the 
International Bureau of Labor and you on 
the one hand, and with the International 
Bureau for the Defense of Aborigines on 
the other. 

I shall take great pleasure in seeing these 
relations develop into a closely welded, re- 
liable and cordial collaboration and it is in 
that hope that I am extending to you the 
assurance of my complete regard. 

Albert Thomas. 



National * Association • for • (he • - 
Advancement of- Colored.- People 




A FEDERAL ANTI-LYNCHING BILL! 

HPHE ten-year fight of the N. A. A. C. P., 
*• for a Federal Anti-lynching bill, has 
reached its most successful and most critical 
point. On October 20, the Committee on 
the Judiciary of the House of Representa- 
tives reported out favorably the Dyer Anti- 
lynching bill H. R. 13. This action was 
taken after the bill had been amended and 
approved by the Attorney-General, remov- 
ing some of the defects which might have 
caused it to be attacked on constitutional 
grounds after its passage. 

The fight has reached the stage where 
we must bring to bear every possible bit 
of pressure on Congress as a whole and on 
individual Congressmen to force action im- 
mediately and favorably on this necessary 
legislation. The National Office of the 
N. A. A. C. P., through its four hundred 
branches and through other organizations, 
is seeking to have thousands of telegrams 
and letters pour in upon Congress to show 
the nationwide sentiment behind the bill^ 
which is demanding its passage by Congress. 
Every Negro in America and every white 
person who is opposed to the crime of lynch- 
ing should immediately send a telegram to 
his or her representative. Letters are valu- 
able, but telegrams are more impressive. 
We must let Congress know that the failure 
to pass the Dyer bill will be regarded as a 
betrayal. We must let every representative 
in Congress know that a vote against the 
Dyer bill is a vote in favor of lynching. 

Act now! Send a telegram today! Urge 
your friends to do the same! Be sure to 
mention the bill by name and by number! 
With our united strength we can cause the 
Dyer bill to be made a law and thus end 
mob rule in America ! 



As we go to press we hear that Henry 
Lincoln Johnson and Perry W. Howard 
have drafted amendments to the Dyer bill 
which will ruin its effectiveness. Demand 
the unamended Dyer bill. 



ANNUALiMEETING 

HpHE Annual Meeting of the National As- 
-"- sociation for the Advancement of Col- 
ored People will be held in the East Room 
of the Sage Foundation, 130 East Twenty- 
second Street, New York City, on the after- 
noon of Monday, January 2, 1922, at two 
o'clock. There will be reports from officers 
and branches, and the nominations for di- 
rectors will be voted upon. 

The Nominating Committee for members 
of the Board of Directors of the National 
Association for the Advancement of Col- 
ored People reports these nominees for 
terms expiring December 31, 1924: 

E. Burton Ceruti, Esq., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Mr. George W. Crawford, New Haven, 
Conn. 

Bishop John Hurst, Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Paul Kennaday, New York City. 

Mr. Joseph Prince Loud, Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. Ella Rush Murray, Catskill, N. Y. 

Dr. W. A. Sinclair, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Neval H. Thomas, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Charles H. Studin, New York City. 

Rev. G. R. Waller, Springfield, Mass. 

Butler R. Wilson, Esq., Boston, Mass. 
The Nominating Committee: 
Dr. V. Morton Jones, Chairman 
Dr. George E. Cannon. 
Mr. Joel E. Spingarn. 

THE LIBELOUS FILM 

TT will be remembered that Miss Katheryn 
■*■ Johnson, Mesdames Helen Curtis and 
Laura Rollock, and Messrs. Edward Frazier 
and Lleyellyn Rollock were arrested last 
June, for distributing handbills attacking 
the "Birth of a Nation." The N. A. A. C. 
P. undertook their defense. They were 
given suspended sentences in the Magis- 
trate's Court and appealed their cases. 
Judge Talley of the Court of General Ses- 
sions has just reversed their conviction, 
saying: 

"In the opinion of this Court, the defend- 
ants were well within their rights in dis- 
tributing the circulars in question, and the 



71 



72 



THE CRISIS 



complaint against them should have been 
dismissed. I hold that the ordinance in 
question was never intended to prevent the 
lawful distribution of anything other than 
commercial and business advertising mat- 
ter, and the circular in question does not 
come within that category. It would be a 
dangerous and un-American thing to sus- 
tain an interpretation of a city ordinance 
which would prohibit the free distribution 
by a body of citizens of a pamphlet setting 
forth their views against what they be- 
lieved to be a movement subversive of their 
rights as citizens." 

This is not only a victory for the N. A. 
A. C. P., but for freedom of speech as well, 
and it was won by two colored attorneys, 
Aiken A. Pope and James C. Thomas. 

GETHSEMANE AND ARKANSAS 

TN all the disgraceful record of America's 
-*- denial of even simple justice to her col- 
ored citizens, there is no greater example 
than that of Arkansas in her efforts 
to put to death twelve innocent men 
who are accused of participation in the 
Phillips County riots of October, 1919. In 
The Crisis for November was told how 
lawyers employed by the N. A. A. C. P. to 
defend the men had applied for a writ of 
habeas corpus, which was granted by the 
United States District Court of the Eastern 
District of Arkansas, to prevent the execu- 
tion of the six men who were to die on Sep- 
tember 23, 1921. Since that time, a de- 
murrer to that writ was filed, and that de- 
murrer was sustained, automatically dismis- 
sing the writ of habeas corpus, annulling 
the stay of execution. Attorneys for the 
defendants thereupon filed an appeal to the 



United States Supreme Court, basing their 
appeal on an assignment of errors. Honor- 
able John H. Cotteral, United States Dis- 
trict Judge in Arkansas, granted this ap- 
peal, stating in his decision that "the 
. petitioners . . . having filed 
their assignment of errors and the court 
being of the opinion that there exists prob- 
able cause for an appeal in this cause, the 
appeal to the Supreme Court of the United 
States is allowed." 

As a result we have finally reached the 
last court of resort, where we are confident 
of victory. 

The petition for a writ of habeas corpus, 
which includes the errors mentioned above, 
is so illuminating a document and so clear 
a statement of the cases, that we are print- 
ing it in full. Because of its length, one- 
half of it is being given in the present issue 
and the remainder will be printed in the 
January issue of The Crisis. 

The N. A. A. C. P., together with local 
organizations in Arkansas, have been fight- 
ing against the combined strength of forces 
of prejudice in that Southern State. We 
have expended to date $11,249.39. We are 
obligated to pay an additional $2,500. Our 
balance on hand is less than $200 with 
which to meet this account. We sincerely 
urge you to read carefully this amazing 
document which portrays so clearly the 
vicious methods which have been used in 
the attempt to murder these innocent men. 

Having read this document, we urgently 
appeal to you to forward a contribution, 
making it as large as possible, to aid us 
in our efforts to free these men. 




THE ARKANSAS PEONS 

A brief prepared by Scipio Jones review ing the case for 
presentation to the Supreme Court of the United States. 



"V7'OUR petitioners, Frank Moore, Ed. 
■*■ Hicks, J. E. Knox, Ed. Coleman and 
Paul Hall, state that they are citizens and 
residents of the State of Arkansas, and 
are now residing in Little Rock, confined in 
the Arkansas State Penitentiary, in the 
Western Division of the Eastern District 
of Arkansas, within the jurisdiction of this 
court; that the defendant is the keeper of 
the said Arkansas State Penitentiary, and 



as such is unlawfully restraining your peti- 
tioners of their liberty, and will, unless pre- 
vented from so doing by the issuance of the 
writ herein prayed for, deprive them of 
their life on the 23rd day of Sept., 1921, in 
violation of the Constitution and laws of 
the United States, and the Constitution and 
laws of the State of Arkansas. 

Petitioners further say that they are Ne- 
groes, of African descent, black in color, 



ARKANSAS PEONS 



73 



and that prior to the times hereinafter men- 
tioned were citizens and residents of Phil- 
lips County, Arkansas, at Elaine; that on 

the day of October, 1919, they were 

arrested, placed in the Phillips County jail 
and thereafter until their trial were kept in 
close confinement upon an alleged charge of 
murder in the first degree for the killing of 
one Clinton Lee, a white man, said to have 
occurred on the 1st day of October, 1919; 
that said Clinton Lee was killed, as they 
are informed, while a member of a posse 
of white men who were said to be attempt- 
ing to quell a race riot, growing out of the 
killing of W. A. Adkins on the night of 
September 30, 1919, at Hoop Spur in said 
County and State; that said Adkins was 
killed, as they are advised, under these cir- 
cumstances and conditions: Petitioners and 
a large number of the members of their 
race were peaceably and lawfully assembled 
in their church house at or near Hoop Spur, 
with no unlawful purpose in view, and with 
no desire or purpose to injure or do any 
wrong to any one; that while they were 
thus assembled, white persons began firing 
guns or pistols from the outside into and 
through said church house, through the 
windows and shooting the lights out therein, 
causing a great disturbance and stampede 
of those assembled therein; that the white 
persons so firing on said church came there 
in automobiles, of which there were several, 
and came for the purpose of breaking up 
said meeting; that said Adkins was killed 
either by members of his own party or by 
some other persons unknown to your peti- 
tioners; that the white men sent out the 
word to Helena, the county seat, that said 
Adkins had been killed by the Negroes, shot 
down in cold blood while on a peaceable mis- 
sion, by an armed force of Negroes, assem- 
bled at the church, which caused great ex- 
citement all over the City of Helena and 
Phillips County; that the report of said 
killing spread like wild-fire into other coun- 
ties, all over the State of Arkansas, and 
into other States, notably the State of Mis- 
sissippi; that early the next day a large 
number of white men of said County armed 
themselves and rushed to the scene of 'he 
trouble and to adjacent regions, the vicinity 
of Elaine being one of them, and began the 
indiscriminate hunting down, shooting and 
killing of Negroes; that in a short time 
white men from adjoining counties and 



from the State of Mississippi likewise armed 
themselves, rushed to the scene of the 
trouble and began the indiscriminate shoot- 
ing down of Negroes, both men and women, 
particularly the posse from the State of 
Mississippi, who shot down in cold blood 
innocent Negro men and women, many of 
whom were at the time in the fields picking 
cotton; that highly inflammable articles 
were published in the press of Arkansas 
and especially of Helena and throughout 
the United States, in which the trouble was 
variously called a "race riot," "an uprising 
of the Negroes," and a "deliberately planned 
insurrection among the Negroes against the 
whites" of that part of Phillips County; 
that the officers of Phillips County, espe- 
cially the Sheriff, called upon the Governor 
of the State, and the Governor in turn 
called upon the Commanding Officer at 
Camp Pike for a large number of the 
United States soldiers to assist the citizens 
in quelling the so-called "race riot", "upris- 
ing", or "insurrection"; that a company of 
soldiers was dispatched to the scene of the 
trouble who took charge of the situation and 
finally succeeded in stopping the slaughter. 
Your petitioners further say that they, 
together with a large number of their race, 
both men and women, were taken to the 
Phillips County jail, at Helena, incarcerat- 
ed therein and charged with murder; that 
a committee of seven, composed of leading 
Helena business men and officials, to wit: 
Sebastian Straus, Chairman; H. D. Moore, 
County Judge; F. F. Kitchens, Sheriff; J. G. 
Knight, Mayor; E. M. A. Lien, J. E. Hor- 
ner and T. W. Keese, was selected for the 
purpose of probing into the situation and 
picking out those to be condemned to death 
and those to be condemned and sentenced to 
the penitentiary; that said Committee as- 
sumed charge of the matter and proceeded 
to have brought before them a large num- 
ber of those incarcerated in jail and exam- 
ined them regarding their own connection 
and the connection of others charged with 
participation in said trouble; that if evi- 
dence unsatisfactory to said Committee was 
not given they would be sent out and certain 
of their keepers would take them to a room 
in the jail which was immediately adjoin- 
ing, and a part of the Court House building 
where said Committee was sitting, and tor- 
ture them by beating and whipping them 
with leather straps with metal in them, cut- 



74 



THE CRISIS 



ting the blood at every lick until the vic- 
tims would agree to testify to anything 
their torturers demanded of them; that 
there was also provided in said jail, to 
frighten and torture them, an electric chair, 
in which they would be put naked and the 
current turned on to shock and frighten 
them into giving damaging statements 
against themselves and others, also stran- 
gling drugs were put up their noses for 
the same purpose and by these methods and 
means false evidence was extorted from 
Negroes to be used and was used against 
your petitioners. 

Petitioners further say that on every day 
from October 1, until after their trial on 
November 3, 1919, the press of Helena and 
the State of Arkansas carried inflammatory 
articles giving accounts of the trouble, 
which were calculated to arouse and did 
arouse bitter feeling against your petition- 
ers and the other members of their race; 
that shortly after being placed 
in jail, a mob was formed in the City of 
Helena, composed of hundreds of men, who 
marched to the county jail for the purpose 
and with the intent of lynching your peti- 
tioners and others, and would have done so 
but for the interference of United States 
soldiers and the promise of some of said 
Committee and other leading officials that 
if the mob would stay its hand they would 
execute those found guilty in the form of 
law. 

Petitioners further state that prior to 
October 1, 1919, they were farmers and 
share croppers; that nearly all the land in 
Phillips County is owned by white men; 
that some is rented out to share croppers 
to be tilled on shares, one-half to the tenant 
and the other half to the owner; that some 
years past there has grown up a system 
among the land owners of furnishing the 
Negro tenants supplies on which to make 
crops and which is calculated to deprive 
and does deprive the Negro tenants of all 
their interest in the crops produced by 
them; that in pursuance of this system, 
they refused to give the share croppers 
any itemized statement of account of their 
indebtedness for supplies so furnished, re- 
fused to let them move or sell any part of 
their crops, but themselves sell and dispose 
of the same at such prices as they please, 
and then give to the Negroes no account 
thereof, pay them only such amount as 



they wish, and in this way keep them down, 
poverty stricken and effectually under their 
control; that for the purpose of protecting 
themselves, if possible, against the oppres- 
sive and ruinous effects of this system, the 
Negro farmers organized societies, with the 
view of uniting their financial resources in 
moral and legal measures to overcome the 
same, which fact became quickly known to 
the plantation owners; that such owners 
were bitterly opposed to such societies, 
sought to prevent their organization, or- 
dered the members to discontinue their 
meeting and sought by every means they 
could employ to disrupt them; that on the 
30th day of September, 1919, petitioners 
and other members of the Ratio Lodge, near 
Elaine, learned that some, of the Negro 
farmers of a nearby plantation had em- 
ployed U. S. Bratton, an attorney of Little 
Rock, Arkansas, to represent them in effect- 
ing a settlement for them with their land- 
lords, or, if he could not, to institute legal 
proceedings to protect their interests, and 
that either he, or his representative, would 
be there on the following day to meet with 
all parties concerned, perfect the arrange- 
ments, and learn all the facts as far as pos- 
sible, and decided to hold a meeting with 
the view of seeing him while there, and 
engaging him as an attorney to protect 
their interest; that accordingly they met 
that night in the Hoop Spur church, which 
resulted, as hereinbefore set out, in the 
killing of said Adkins and the breaking up 
of said meeting: that on the morning of 
October 1, Mr. 0. S. Bratton, son and agent 
of Attorney U. S. Bratton, arrived in Elaine 
for consultation with those who might desire 
to employ his father, was arrested, hardly 
escaped being mobbed, notwithstanding it 
was well known that he was there 
only for the purpose of advising with 
those Negroes as to their rights, and 
getting from them such facts as would 
enable his father intelligently to prepare 
for their legal rights; that he was carried 
thence to the County jail, thrown into it 
and kept closely confined on a charge of 
murder until the 31st day of the same 
month, when he was indicted on a charge 
of barratry, without any evidence to sus- 
tain the charge; that on that day he was 
told by officials that he would be discharged, 
but not to go on the public streets any- 
where, to keep the matter a secret, to leave 



ARKANSAS PEONS 



75 



secretly in a closed automobile and to go 
to West Helena, four miles away, and there 
take the train, so as to avoid being mobbed; 
that he was told he would be mobbed, or 
would be in great danger of being mobbed 
if his release became known publicly before 
he was out of reach; that the Judge of the 
Circuit Court, the Judge of the same court 
before whom petitioners were tried, facili- 
tated the secret departure and himself went 
to West Helena and there remained until 
he had seen said Bratton safely on the 
train and the train departed. 

Petitioners further say that the Circuit 
Court of Phillips County convened on Octo- 
ber 27, 1919; that a grand jury was organ- 
ized composed wholly of white men, one of 
whom, W. W. Keese, was a member of the 
said Committee of Seven, and many of 
whom were in the posse organized to fight 
the Negroes; that during its sessions, peti- 
tioners and many others of the prisoners 
were frequently carried before it in an 
effort to extract from them false incrimin- 
ating admissions and to testify against each 
other, and that both before and after, they 
were frequently whipped, beaten and tor- 
tured ; that those in charge of them had 
some way of learning when the evidence 
was unsatisfactory to the grand jury, and 
this was always followed by beating and 
whipping; that by these methods, some of 
the Negro prisoners were forced to testify 
against others, two against your petitioners, 
though no one could truthfully testify 
against them; that on October 29, 1919, a 
joint indictment was returned against peti- 
tioners accusing them of the murder of said 
Clinton Lee, a man petitioners did not know 
and had never, to their knowledge, even 
seen; that thereafter on the 3rd day of No- 
vember, 1919, petitioners were taken into 
the court room before the judge told of the 
charge, and were informed that a certain 
lawyer was appointed to defend them; that 
they were given no opportunity to employ 
an attorney of their own choice; that the 
appointed attorney did not consult with 
them, took no steps to prepare for their de- 
fense, asked nothing about their witnesses, 
though there were many who knew that 
petitioners had nothing to do with the kill- 
ing of said Lee; that they were immediately 
placed on joint trial before an exclusively 
white jury and the trial closed so far as 
the evidence was concerned with the State's 



witnesses alone; that after the court's in- 
structions, the jury retired just long enough 
to write a verdict of guilty of murder in 
the first degree, as charged, and returned 
with it into court — not being out exceeding 
two or three minutes, and they were 
promptly sentenced to death by electrocu- 
tion on December 27, 1919. 

Petitioners further say that during the 
course of said trial, which lasted less than 
an hour, that only two witnesses testified 
to anything to connect them in any way with 
the killing of said Clinton Lee; that said 
witnesses were Walter Ward and John Jef- 
ferson, both of whom are Negroes and were 
under indictment at the same time for the 
killing of said Lee; that they were compelled 
to testify against them by the same meth- 
ods and means hereinbefore described ; that 
their testimony was wholly false and that 
they gave such testimony through fear of 
torture and were further told that if they 
refused to testify they would be killed, but 
that if they did so testify, and would plead 
guilty their punishment would be light; 
that they thereafter pleaded guilty to mur- 
der in the second degree and were sen- 
tenced to terms of imprisonment; that they 
attach hereto the affidavits of each of said 
witnesses showing the falsity of their tes- 
timony and the means of its acquisition. 

Petitioners further say that large crowds 
of white people bent on petitioners' con- 
demnation and death thronged the court- 
house and grounds and streets of Helena 
all during the trial of petitioners and the 
other Negro defendants; that on account of 
the great publicity given theirs and the other 
cases, on account of their being charged 
with connection with an insurrection against 
the white people, and that four or five white 
men were killed, on account of the fact that 
they are Negroes, and those who run the 
court, the Judge upon the bench, the Sheriff, 
the Clerk and all the jurors are white 
men, on account of the fact that it was 
stated and widely published that the pur- 
pose of the Negroes was to kill the whites 
and take their property, and on account of 
all the race prejudice which normally ex- 
ists and which was enhanced a thousandfold 
at the time, by bitterness beyond expression, 
it was impossible for them to get a fair 
and impartial trial in said court before a 
jury of white men; that the attorney ap- 
pointed to defend them knew that the preju- 



76 



THE CRISIS 



dice against them was such that they could 
not get a fair and impartial trial before a 
white jury of said county, yet he filed no 
petition for a change of venue, did not ask 
the court for time to prepare for a defense, 
and did nothing to protect their interests; 
that the court did not ask them whether 
they had counsel, or desired to employ coun- 
sel, or were able to do so, but simply said 
a lawyer, whom he named, would defend 
them; that they have, therefore, not had a 
trial, have had no opportunity to make a 
defense but that their case was closed 
against them as virtually and effectually as 
if on a plea of guilty; that if they had been 
given the opportunity they would have em- 
ployed counsel of their own choice and have 
made a defense, their ability to do so having 
been demonstrated since their conviction; 
that the feeling against petitioners was 
such that it overawed the Judge on the 
bench, the jury, the attorney appointed to 
defend them and every one connected with 
said court; that all, Judge, jury and coun- 
sel, were dominated by the mob spirit that 
was universally present in court and out, 
so that if any juror had had the courage 
to investigate said charge with any spirit 
of fairness, and vote for an acquittal, he, 
himself, would have been the victim of the 
mob; that such was the intensity of feel- 
ing against petitioners and the other de- 
fendants, that had counsel for them objected 



to the testimony of the two witnesses 
against them said Wards, Green and Jeffer- 
son, on the ground that it was extorted by 
beating and torture, as they are advised he 
should have done, he himself would have 
been the victim of the mob; that it is pos- 
sible counsel did not know how the evidence 
against them was obtained, and they do not 
desire to appear to criticize him, yet he 
knew that if the evidence against them was 
acquired as before stated, it was incom- 
petent and should have been excluded, a 
fact which petitioners did not know, that 
petitioners were ignorant of their rights, 
had never been in court before, and had 
counsel asked them about this testimony 
they would have told him how it was ob- 
tained, that through fear of the mob spirit 
no witness was called in their behalf and 
they themselves were advised not to take 
the stand on their own behalf; that as a 
result of the mob domination of court, coun- 
sel and jury, the court, although a court of 
original jurisdiction in felony cases, lost its 
jurisdiction by virtue of such mob domina- 
tion and the result was but an empty cere- 
mony, carried through in the apparent form 
of law, and that the verdict of the jury was 
.really a mob verdict, dictated by the spirit 
of the mob and pronounced and returned be- 
cause no other verdict would have been tol- 
erated, and that the judgment against them 
is, therefore, a nullity. 

(To be continued in January) 



KUTTAN, THE SOUL 




Coralie Howard Haman 




I. 

T AM the joyous dancer, the strong leaper, 

I am the Soul; 

I am the perfect Whole. 
Joy-bringer am I and still the body's keeper. 

I live within that prison dark and still, 
But when dawns Death, 
I go upon the breath, 

Like sun and flowing wind on a high hill. 

Through joy and sorrow, ecstasy and pain 

Of every day, 

Through life I go my way — 
From God I come; to God I go again. 



II. 

Like to a bird, a butterfly, a cloud, a smoke, 
a shadow 

Am I, the Soul. 
In dreams, in sleep, I leave the tired body, 
And go forth until the dawn, 

Upon the wind; 
When my body wakes, I come back to it. 

A time will come when my body will not 
wake, 

Then I shall go free 

To dance in sparkling sunbeams in the air, 

And fly among the clouds, 

That surge and tower; 

Leap down into the ocean's deepest water, 

And then whirl up and up and up to high- 
est Heaven and God. 



THE VIRGIN OF GUADALUPE 



Langston Hughes 



A FTER the coming of the Spaniards, 
•*• ^" who brought priests and missionaries, 
as well as soldiers to conquer Mexico, most 
of the subdued Indians were converted to 
the faith of the Catholics. The ancient In- 
dian temples to barbaric gods were torn 
down by the Europeans who built new 
Christian churches in their stead. Thus it 
:ame about that the brown men learned to 
worship the saints and idols brought by the 
invaders and so forgot their old gods. 

One day a pious follower of the Span- 
iards' faith, Juan Diego by name, was re- 
turning from mass across the hill of Gua- 
dalupe, when suddenly a veiled figure, all 
light and beauty, appeared before him. The 
poor Indian was much astonished and filled 
with surprise when the woman spoke to 
him and commanded in a soft voice that he 
go to the bishop and tell His Excellence to 
construct a church on the hill where the 
figure was standing. This Juan did, or 
attempted to do, but the bishop's servants, 
thinking the man a common, ignorant In- 
dian, would not give him admission to the 
house, so Juan Diego went back. 

For a second time the vision appeared 
before him, issuing the same command in 
her beautiful voice, so the Indian returned 
in search of the bishop. Each time, how- 
ever, he was refused an entry but the vision 
told him to persevere. Finally, after many 
days, he was admitted and the old father 
asked him what he wished. When Juan 
Diego told of the beautiful spirit and her 
message, the bishop could not believe such 
a tale and thought perhaps that the poor 
fellow was demented. At last he told the 
Indian that he would have to bring some 
sign or token of proof in support of his 
strange words. 



Once more the man returned to the hill 
and there at its foot the bright vision reap- 
peared. Hearing the message that the 
bishop had sent, she said, "Pluck those 
flowers there at your feet." But Juan 
Diego, standing on the bare and rocky earth, 
asked, "What flowers?" Then suddenly 
looking down he saw the ground covered 
with white blossoms which he began to 
pick and with which he filled his small 
woven tilma or mantle, used to wrap about 
his shoulders on cold mornings. 

Then he went to the bishop and said, 
"Here is your sign." Opening the mantle 
the white flowers rolled out at their feet. 
The bishop looked, but still more marvellous 
than the flowers, the surprised priest saw, 
painted on the mantle where the blossoms 
had been, the figure of the Virgin surround- 
ed by a halo of light. "This," he said, "is 
surely the proof." So they proceeded to 
erect the church on the top of the hill. 
Later a magnificent cathedral was built at 
its foot where the tilma bearing the picture 
of the Virgin is preserved to this day above 
the altar and on the spot where the vision 
first appeared, a spring of water gushed 
forth and is now covered by a pretty shrine 
where people may stop to drink. 

Once a year a great fiesta is held in honor 
of this patron saint of Mexico and many 
people come from far away to visit her. 
Any day when one cares to take a trip out 
to the stately church where she is housed 
near Mexico City, her faithful worshippers 
may be seen going on their knees the long 
distance from the outside door to the high 
altar carrying white candles in their hands, 
crawling up to place them before her — La 
Virgen de Guadalupe — whose name is 
known and loved by all Mexico. 



Aen of (he Aonth . 



'T'HE late Mr. Robert Ambrose Caldwell 
•*• was born in Georgia, in 1843. He was 
taken to Camp County, Texas, where he 
later purchased a 340-acre farm and raised 
cotton, corn, sugar cane, potatoes and fruit. 



He was the prime factor and largest con- 
tributor to the building of West Chapel 
School in 1879. He was elected Magistrate, 
but because he was colored he could not get 
a bondsman. In a county election, however, 



77 



78 



THE CRISIS 



he succeeded in helping to elect a candidate 
for County Judge who promised that, if 
elected, he would appoint a Negro on the 
Board of Examiners for Teachers. Joseph 
W. Anderson of Fisk University was ap- 
pointed to this position, being the first 
Negro to hold such an office in northern 
Texas. Mr. Caldwell served as county and 
district chairman of the Republican party 
and attended every State Convention since 
the days of President Grant, and the Na- 
tional Convention that nominated President 
McKinley. He served on the Federal Grand 
and Petit Juries at Jefferson, Tex. 

Mr. Caldwell leaves a wife and 15 chil- 
dren, most of whom are teachers in Texas. 



pvR. HENRY M. MINTON of Philadel- 
*-** phia was graduated from Phillips Ex- 
eter Academy in 1891, being Class Day 
Orator; in 1895 he was graduated from 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and 
in 1906 the Jefferson Medical College 
awarded him the degree of M.D. He opened 
the first colored drug store in Philadelphia 
and for 7 years he labored 16 hours a day 
compounding prescriptions. Dr. Minton 
took charge of the Tuberculosis Clinic for 
Negroes at the Henry Phipps Institute of 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1915. 
The services of two other physicians and 
3 social service workers have been added, 
and there are as many as 25 patients at 
each clinic. Since 1907 Dr. Minton has 
been a member of the staff of Mercy Hos- 
pital, where he was recently made the Su- 
perintendent. 

Dr. Minton was born December 25, 1871. 
His father was a well-known lawyer and 
his grandfather was one of the most cele- 
brated of the Philadelphia group of colored 
caterers. 



C\ N January 13, 1847, the late Mr. Loyal 
^*T F. Friman was born in Oswego, N. Y. 
He joined the Union Army and was as- 
signed to the First Cavalry, United States 
Colored Volunteers, remaining until honor- 
ably discharged. In 1869 he went to Spring- 
field, Mass., where he accumulated property, 
and conducted one of the best barber shops 
in the city; he also served as a letter car- 
rier. Mr. Friman attained the highest rank 
in the Masonic Order. He was Past Mas- 
ter of Sumner Lodge of Masons and one 
of the organizers of the T. Thomas Chap- 



ter, Royal Arch Masons, and of the Van 
Horn Commandery, Knights Templar. He 
was a veteran of the Civil War and a mem- 
ber of Wilcox Post No. 16, Grand Army of 
the Republic. 



MR. CAL F. JOHNSON was born Octo- 
ber 14, 1844, in Knoxville, Tenn. He 
has accumulated a fortune estimated at 
over one-quarter million dollars and is the 
owner of some of the best brick structures 
in the city and of a race track of almost 
100 acres. The City Commission recently 
purchased a park and playground, paying 
$35,000 for it, and named it "The Cal F. 
Johnson Park." Mr. Johnson is a member 
of the local branch of the N. A. A. C. P. 



^T^HE late Attorney Gustavus W. Wick- 
■*■ liffe was the first Negro lawyer admit- 
ted to practice in the courts of California. 
He was born in Chattanooga, Tenn., in 
1869. He was a graduate of Howard High 
School, Nashville, Tenn., and of the Law 
School of Howard University. In 1889 he 
entered the Federal Service, being employed 
first as a railway mail clerk and later as 
a clerk in the Post Office Department in 
Washington. 

In Los Angeles, in 1901, Governor Gaze 
appointed him Clerk of Wharfingers with 
the State Board of Harbor Commissioners 
and he served here for seven years. 

Attorney Wickliffe held many positions 
of honor and trust in business and frater- 
nal organizations in Los Angeles. He was 
a 33rd degree Mason. Besides his widow, 
he leaves 2 children. 



TUT R. FRANK A. BYRON came to Wash- 
■*■"■■■ ington, D. C, from Chicago, 111., in 
1901, with the Hon. Mr. George Edmund 
Foss, who was Chairman of the Committee 
on Naval Affairs of the House of Represen- 
tatives. He served as messenger to the 
Committee for 16 years and for 15 years 
performed the duties of assistant clerk; at 
the beginning of the 66th Congress he was 
appointed assistant clerk by the Hon. Mr. 
Thomas S. Butler of the 7th Pennsylvania 
District. On July 6 of this year he was 
appointed clerk of the Committee on Naval 
Affairs of the House of Representatives, 
being the first Negro appointee. His sal- 
ary is $2,740 per year. Mr. Byron is a 
graduate of Howard University Law School. 




THE LATE ROBERT A. CALDWELL 

THE LATE LOYAL F. FRIMAN 

FRANK A. BYRON 



THE LATE ATTORNEY G. W. WICKLIFFE 

CAL F. JOHNSON 

DR. HENRY M. MINTON 



79 




COMPILED 



MAOEL ICME 



ALLISON 



MUSIC AND ART 

r I '•HE New York American says: "Helen 
•*• Hagan gave a pleasing demonstration 
in Aeolian Hall of her skill on the piano. 
More than that, Miss Hagan brought gen- 
uine musical feeling to her interpretations 
and considerable emotional warmth." Miss 
Hagan is a graduate of the Yale University 
School of Music, where she was awarded a 
scholarship. 

C. During October, the colored musical com- 
edy "Shuffle Along," playing in New York 
City, reached 175 performances. The pre- 
vious record made by Williams and Walker 
was 98 performances at the Park Theatre 
in 1910. Included in the cast are the com- 
posers, Messrs. Miller and Lyles and Sissle 
and Blake. 

C The faculty of Huntington High School, 
Newport News, Va., has appeared in a mu- 
sicale at First African Baptist Church. 
They were assisted by the High School Or- 
chestra. Numbers included vocal works of 
Burleigh, Schumann, Nevin; organ num- 
bers of Gounod, Galbraith, Rockwell and Le~ 
gure; and piano selections of Scharwenka 
and Chaminade. 

C Fisk University has celebrated the 50th 
anniversary of the Jubilee Singers. Four 
of the original singers — Mable Lewis Imes, 
of Cleveland; Maggie Porter Cole, of De- 
troit; Eliza Walker Crump, of Chicago, and 
Hunter B. Alexander, of Chattanooga, par- 
ticipated. Under the leadership of Prof. 
George L. White, they toured the world 
several times; on their first 3 tours in 
America, they realized $150,000, which was 
used for the building of Jubilee Hall. 
C Musical America of August 20 contains 
an article, "Bridgetower, Mulatto Friend of 
Beethoven," written by Mrs. Maud Cuney 
Hare. The article gives information from 
German sources, including letters of Bee- 
thoven, hitherto unknown to the English- 
speaking public. 

d Louia Jones, violinist, has gone to Paris 
to continue his musical studies. Mr. Jones 



is a graduate of the New England Conserv- 
atory of Music. 

(I H. Coleridge-Taylor, son of the late Sam- 
uel Coleridge-Taylor, has made his debut 
in London as the conductor of an orchestra. 
A London critic says: "His control of his 
forces and sympathetic understanding of 
the music made a favorable impression." 
(I The Choral Club in Atlanta, Ga., has 
given a concert in the City Auditorium. Ne- 
gro melodies and classical selections were 
rendered by the club, which is composed of 
240 voices, and an orchestra of 20 pieces. 
The soloists were Clarence Washington, 
Robert White, D. Crawford, Lilly Carter, 
W. J. Trent; the pianists, Florence Harris 
and Mildred Greenwood; Kemper Harreld 
was the director. There were 500 white and 
2000 colored people in the audience. 
d William Service Bell, baritone, and E. H. 
Margetson, pianist, have given a recital for 
the Y. W. C. A., at Newark, N. J. Includ- 
ed on the program was "Like Stars Which 
Night Hangs in the Purple Skies," by Mr. 
Margetson. 

C Gerald Tyler composed the prologue 
music of Stevens' Centennial drama, which 
was presented at the Coliseum in St. Louis, 
and marked the 100th anniversary of Mis- 
souri's annexation to the Union. Mr. Tyler 
is Supervisor of Music at Sumner High 
School. 

C The Pace Phonograph Company of New 
York is presenting Ethel Waters and the 
Black Swan Troubadours in a coast to 
coast tour. 

EDUCATION 

■pvR. FRANK G. SMITH, of Chicago, has 
'*-^ passed the Illinois State Board of Op- 
tometry by a written examination which 
included 8 subjects. 

d There are 40 Negro students enrolled at 
the University of California. 
(I At Geneva College, Beaver Falls, Pa., 
there are 7 Negro students, an increase of 
5 over the past 2 years. 



80 



THE HORIZON 



81 



C Dr. Gilbert H. Jones, Dean of the Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts of Wilberforce Uni- 
versity, has been asked by authorities of 
Boston University Graduate School for per- 
mission to translate his inaugural disserta- 
tion from German into English, for refer- 
ence use in classes in philosophy. The 
book is titled "Lotz und Bowne, Eine Verg- 
leigung Ihrer Philosophischen Arbeit." Dr. 
Jones received the doctorate in Philosophy 
from the University of Jena, Germany. 
(I In football games, Howard has beaten 
Virginia Theological Seminary by a 19 — 
score; Hampton vs. St. Paul, 25 — 2; Vir- 
ginia State Normal vs. St. Augustine, 7 — 0; 
Hampton vs. Shaw, 7 — 6; Talladega vs. 
Morris Brown, 23 — 13; Lincoln vs. Morgan, 
63 — 3; Howard vs. Virginia State Normal, 
26—0; Howard vs. Shaw, 24—0. 
(I At Lincoln School, Sumter, S. C, there 
are 13 teachers for an enrollment of nearly 
2,000. The Negroes are appealing for re- 
lief measures. 

d Wiley University, Marshall, Tex., has a 
freshman class of 93 and a senior college 
class of 29; there are 7 professors devoting 
full time to college work. Every course for 
which a degree or diploma is given is rec- 
ognized by the Texas State Board of Ex- 
aminers. The School has an enclosed ath- 
letic park with a grandstand seating 1,000. 
(I This year the John F. Slater Fund in- 
creased its aid in the maintenance of county 
training schools for Negroes from 107 to 
142 schools; the salary lists amount to 
$550,000. 

C For the year ending August 31, 1921, 
there was a total circulation of 108,207 
books in the Colored Department of the 
Louisville Free Public Library. Since its 
opening, 11 women have been trained for 
library work. They were sent from libraries 
at Houston, Tex.; Birmingham, Ala.; At- 
lanta, Ga. ; Evansville, Ind.; Knoxville, 
Nashville, Memphis and Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Mr. Thomas F. Blue is head of the Louis- 
ville library. 

(I The sum of $1,000,000 has been appro- 
priated by the General Assembly for the 
support of Negro schools in North Carolina. 
Ct Ground has been broken for an athletic 
field at Hampton Institute. There will be a 
grandstand, a quarter mile track, a 220- 
yard straightaway, a football and a baseball 
field. 

(I Ezekiel H. Miller has been awarded the 
Master's degree at Columbia University. 



Mr. Miller is a Federal Board student who 
has been approved for work leading to the 
degree of Ph.D. He is a graduate of How- 
ard, 1917, and an ex-soldier of the 351st 
Field Artillery. His allotment is $1,200 a 
year. 

(J A secret conference on missionary and 
educational work among Negroes in Africa 
and elsewhere has been held at Lake Mo- 
hawk, N. Y. The Negro race was represent- 
ed by Thomas Jesse Jones and R. R. Moton. 
CI Negro college women in southeast Vir- 
ginia have established Lambda Chapter of 
the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority. Mrs. P. 
S. Puryear, of Virginia Normal and Indus- 
trial Institute, is president. 
(I In Cleveland, Ohio, there are 100 colored 
public school teachers. 

MEETINGS 

T^HE Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity will 
■*■ hold its 14th annual convention in Bal- 
timore, Md., December 27-31. Railroads 
have granted a reduction of one and one- 
half fare on the certificate plan. 
C The Delta Sigma Theta Sorority will hold 
its annual convention in Philadelphia, Pa., 
December 27-29. 

C The Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority will 
convene in Indianapolis, Ind., December 27- 
31. Ten new chapters will be represented. 
(I There were 200 delegates present at the 
meeting of the Pennsylvania State Federa- 
tion of Negro Women's Club, held in Read- 
ing. A protest against the Ku Klux Klan 
was sent to the Governor in the name of the 
14,000 colored club women of Pennsylvania. 
Mrs. Ruth L. Bennett was re-elected presi- 
dent. 

Ct The Michigan State Association of Col- 
ored Women's Clubs has elected Mrs. Ida 
Postles, of Detroit, as president. A special 
feature of the convention was an address 
by Mrs. Mary B. Talbert. 
(I The national conference of the Y. M. 
C. A. will be held in Cincinnati, Ohio, De- 
cember 1-4. 

THE CHURCH 

ST. JAMES Presbyterian Church, in New 
York City, has celebrated the sixth an- 
niversary of the pastorate of Dr. Frank 
M. Hyder. The church has a membership 
of 1,400 of which 1,154 members joined dur- 
ing the past 6 years; over $65,000 has been 
raised. 
d The Men's Club of Dixwell Avenue Con- 



82 



THE CRISIS 




TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE CATAWBA SYNODICAL 



gregational Church, New Haven, Conn., is 
holding its 16th season of "Community Bet- 
terment" series. Among the speakers is 
William Pickens, Field Secretary of the 
N. A. A. C. P. 

C The Protestant Ministerial Association 
of South Bend, Ind., has elected the Rev. 
Mr. B. F. Gordon, a Negro, as secretary- 
treasurer. Mr. Gordon is pastor of the 
Taylor A. M. E. Zion Chapel. He is a grad- 
uate of the University of Chicago, holding 
the Master's degree. 

INDUSTRY 

'T'HE Tupelo, Miss., Oil & Ice Co., is em- 
■*■ ploying John B. Anderson, a Negro, as 
chief refrigerating engineer. Mr. Anderson 
has been an employee for 20 years. The 
operating force of the company is 10 
white and 18 colored men. 
(I Negroes in Dearfield, Colo., are operat- 
ing the Dearfield Packing & Provision Co. 
It has a capacity of 10,000 cans daily. 
([ Madison Simms, a Negro barber in Knox- 
ville, Tenn., has been employed in the es- 
tablishment of Charles Chandler for the 
past 21 years. He has shaved over 60,000 
people. 

C. Mr. C. H. James, a Negro of Charleston, 
W. Va., is head of a $250,000 general prod- 
uce business. 

C The Wage Earners' Savings Bank of 
Savannah, Ga., was organized in 1900 with 
resources of $102; its resources now are 
$1,000,000, with a paid-in capital of $50,- 



000 and a surplus of $25,000; its deposits, 
among 20,000 depositors, amount to $957,- 
498. The institution owns its own banking 
building, which is appraised at $95,000, and 
other real estate amounting to $31,500. The 
officers are L. E. Williams, president; Sol 
C. Johnson, vice-president; R. A. Harper, 
cashier; E. C. Blackshear, assistant cashier. 
d The Columbia Laundry, a Negro enter- 
prise in Norfolk, Va., is employing 14 work- 
ers. Mr. Charles H. Robinson is in charge. 
C A syndicate of Negroes in Los Angeles 
has purchased 21,800 acres in Lower Cali- 
fornia for the establishment of a Negro 
colony. The company has been incorporated 
for $250,000 and is known as the Lower 
California Mexican Land & Development 
Co. Theodore W. Troy is president and 
Attorney Hugh E. McBeth, secretary. 
C The Pace Phonograph Corporation, mak- 
ers of Black Swan Records, has purchased 
a 3-story building in New York City. After 
6-months' business, the company is employ- 
ing 15 people in its office and shipping-room, 
an orchestra of 8 men, 7 district managers 
in the larger cities of the country and 1,000 
dealers and agents; it ships 2,500 records 
every working day. 

C Colored substitute letter 1 carriers in Rich- 
mond, Va., have displaced white special de- 
livery boys. 

(T The Independent Order of St. Luke, in 
Richmond, Va., has been established 54 
years. It has a membership of 67,577 
adults and 15,110 children, and has paid 



THE HORIZON 



83 




SABBATH SCHOOL CONVENTION, CHARLOTTE, N. C. 



),750 in death claims. It edits the St. 
Luke Herald. 

C The colored Berry & Rosis Manufactur- 
ing Company, New York City, has received 
a $10,000 order from agents on the West 
Coast of Africa for colored dolls. 

CRIME 

r PHE following lynchings have taken 
■*■ place since our last record: 

Jones County, N. C, August 14, Jerome 
Whitfield, hanged. 

Allendale, S. C, October 24, Ed. Kirk- 
land, shot; body burned; murder. 

Winneboro, La., October 25, Sam Gordon, 
hanged; murder. 

THE WORLD WAR 

A T the outbreak of the war, 5,571 Ne- 
•*■ ^- groes were serving in the Regular 
Army and 5,300 in the National Guard; dur- 
ing the period of hostilities 5,800 volun- 
teered and 367,710 were inducted into serv- 
ice, making a total of over 384,000 Negroes, 
or about 12% of the total enlisted forces of 
the United States. 

d The personnel of Negroes in the Army 
was distributed as follows: Quartermaster 
Corps, 30.6%; Infantry, 20.7%; Depot Bri- 
gades, 15.6%; 82nd Division, 7.2%.; Engi- 
neers, 5.9%; Development Battalions, 2.2%; 
Cavalry, .9%; Military Aeronautics, .3%; 
Machine Gun Training Center, .2%; Medi- 
cal Department, .2%; Miscellaneous, 16.2%r. 
(I In line organizations 925 Negroes re- 



ceived commissions; in the Medical Corps, 
356; in the Dental Corps, 66; in the Sani- 
tary Corps, 1; there were 60 chaplains. 
C There were 9,558 Negroes who made the 
supreme sacrifice during the world war. 
Of these, 512 were killed in action, 219 
died of wounds received in action, 8,350 died 
of diseases, and 477 died of miscellaneous 
causes. 

POLITICS 

SINCE the suffrage was granted to women 
the enrollment of colored voters in Bal- 
timore, Md., has increased from 16,800 to 
37,475. 

(I New Haven, Conn., has its first Negro 
Alderman, in the person of Attorney H. 
G. Tolliver. 

(I President Harding has sent to the Senate 
the name of the Rev. Solomon Porter Hood, 
of New Jersey, for United States Minister 
to Liberia. Mr. Hood is 68 years of age 
and a graduate of Lincoln. The position 
pays $5,000 per year. 

SOCIAL PROGRESS 

"pvURING the past 8 years, 14 colored 
-*-^Y. M. C. A. buildings were erected at a 
cost of $1,980,000, of which Mr. Julius Ros- 
enwald contributed $350,000. The buildings 
are located in Chicago, New York, Brook- 
lyn, Pittsburgh, Columbus, St. Louis, In- 
dianapolis, Nashville, Cincinnati, Kansas 
City, Baltimore, Washington and Atlanta. 
There are nearly 25,000 paid-up members. 



84 



THE CRISIS 



The Chicago branch, of which Mr. George 
A. Arthur is in charge, had 2,500 members 
last year; its budget for this year is $89,000, 
of which the colored people's share is 83%. 
The 46 colored Y. M. C. A. buildings in the 
United States are worth $2,880,500. 
(I The Cleveland Home for Aged Colored 
People has celebrated its 25th anniversary. 
The work is supported by the community 
fund. 

d Robert Lisby, Jr., has been appointed 
United States Deputy Marshall at the Post 
Office building in Philadelphia. Mr. Lisby 
was formerly a member of the police force. 
(I Ned Gourdin, the Negro athlete of Har- 
vard University, is the winner of the na- 
tional pentathlon championship of the Ama- 
teur Athletic Union. He led a field of 7 
competitors with a score of 12 points. He 
won the running broad jump with 21 feet 
1 inch; the javelin throw with 169 feet 9*4 
inches, and the 200 meter dash in 23 minutes 
and one-fifth second. 

(I Dr. William H. Browning, a graduate of 
Meharry, has been appointed to the Dental 
Staff of the United States Public Health 
Department. Dr. Browning has been prac- 
tising dentistry in Los Angeles for the past 
6 years. 
(I The Salvation Army has opened a build- 



ing in Harlem, the Negro section in New 
York City. It has a seating capacity of 
300 and the work is in charge of Captain 
Olive Gaines, a colored woman. 
(I George Young, a Negro in New York 
City, operates Young's Book Exchange. He 
started 6 years ago with 6 books; his col- 
lection has grown to over 8,000 books by 
and pertaining to the Negro. 
C Chester K. Gillespie, a Negro in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, is attorney for the Department 
of Finance. 

(I William Lillison, a colored patrolman in 
Knoxville, Tenn., has been retired. He will 
receive a pension of $80 a month. 
(T In Greensburg, Pa., Thomas E. Stokes, 
a Negro, has been placed in charge of the 
manufacturing and dispensing department 
of Westmoreland Hospital. He is a gradu- 
ate of the University of Pittsburgh, 1919. 
C The United States Military Hospital for 
Colored Soldiers and Sailors may be erected 
in Tuskegee, Ala. Its cost will be between 
$500,000 and $1,000,000. There is much 
dissatisfaction with this location. 
C Maurice Ray, a Negro in Philadelphia, 
has been appointed to the Prohibition En- 
forcement Squad. 

C The 8th colored Regiment of Chicago, 111., 
has been federalized. It has 1,250 men with 




FIVE GENERATIONS OF THE PARSONS FAMILY AT SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO. 
Mrs. Mary C. Parsons, of the First Generation, Died This Year at the Age of 88. 



THE HORIZON 



85 



Colonel Otis B. Duncan in command. While 
at camp, the regiment won range honors 
and mention for general efficiency. 
ft In Detroit, a Junior Branch of the N. A. 
A. C. P. has been formed. John M. Rag- 
land is chairman of the Junior Committee. 
ft Motion pictures of the Protest Parade 
conducted by the Detroit Branch of the N. 
A. A. C. P., during the Conference last June, 
are being shown at the Baudette Theatre. 
Mr. Dudley, who had them made, intends 
to show the film in other cities. 
ft On a recent visit to Panama, the Rev. 
Matthew Anderson, of Philadelphia, was 
received by President Parros and Governor 
Morrow. 

ft Percentages of illiteracy in New York 
City are: native white, 0.3; foreign born 
white, 13.8; Negro, 2.1. The number of il- 
literate Negroes in New York State is 5,032. 
ft It has been found that the late James 
Milton Turner, who died in 1915, left an 
estate valued at over $300,000. Mr. Turner 
was a former United States Minister to 
Liberia. 

ft Grady Hospital Annex, a hospital-school 
for colored people in Atlanta, Ga., has been 
dedicated. 

CE St. Louis University, a Catholic institu- 
tion, has refused to play a football game 
with the Engineering School of Milwaukee, 
because the latter team has a Negro center 
— McMann. 

ft As the result of protest by Negro citi- 
zens, the Huntington School of the Y. M. 
C. A., in Boston, Mass., has admitted Har- 
vey Shaw, a Negro. 

ft Siki, a Negro of Senegal, is middleweight 
boxing champion of France and of Europe. 
He won the title by defeating Ercole Bal- 
zac, in the second round of a contest in 
Paris. 

ft Ground has been broken for the Colored 
15th Regiment Armory in New York City. 
ft Dr. M. Russell Nelson has been appointed 
an interne in charge of the Gynecological 
Division of Bellevue Hospital, New York 
City. Dr. Nelson is 24 years of age and a 
graduate of the University of Pennsylva- 
nia. 

ft Negroes at Gary, Ind., have 10 grocery 
stores, several barber shops and restaurants, 
2 undertaking establishments, and 1 drug 
store, operated by a woman, Dr. Bagby-Car- 
ter. There are real estate brokers, physi- 
cians, dentists and lawyers; a Justice of the 
Peace, a Deputy Prosecuting Attorney, 



truant officers and 8 policemen. In 1919 the 
Central State Bank was opened and has as- 
sets of $70,000; the National Realty and In- 
vestment Company is a business represent- 
ing $300,000. The Negro population is esti- 
mated at 10,000. 

(I On the Isthmus of Panama there are 5 
colored American citizens serving as Canai 
Clubhouse Secretaries. Their duties cor- 
respond to those of Y. M. C. A. secretaries. 
They are T. B. Nelly, J. O. Collins, J. E. 
Waller, K. C. Manning, W. V. Eagleson. 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE 

AMONG those who participated in the 
National Urban League's Annual Con- 
ference, held in Chicago, were Miss Jane 
Addams, Founder of Hull House; iMiss 
Julia Lathrop, formerly Director of the 
United States Children's Bureau and Presi- 
dent of the National Conference of Social 
Work; Federal Judge E. O. Brown; Miss 
Mary McDowell, Head Worker, University 
Settlement ; Horace J. Bridges, Leader of the 
Ethical Culture Society, and Kelly Miller, 
Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, 
Howard University. 

ft Twenty-five cities were formally repre- 
sented at the conference — some of them 
having as many as 8 delegates. 
ft The Men's City Club, the Women's City 
Club, the Federation of Churches and the 
Woman's Club — all of the city of Chicago, 
have given a dinner at the Men's City Club 
in honor of L. Hollingsworth Wood, Presi- 
dent; Eugene Kinckle Jones, Executive Sec- 
retary, and Charles S. Johnson, Director of 
the Department of Research and Investiga- 
tion of the National Urban League. There 
were 200 guests present, among whom were 
50 personal guests of Mr. and Mrs. Julius 
Rosenwald. Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen, Presi- 
dent of the Woman's City Club Bulletin, was 
Toastmaster. Miss Mary McDowell ar- 
ranged the testimonial. 
ft John C. Dancy, Executive Secretary of 
the Detroit Urban League, has been appoint- 
ed by Mayor Couzens as a member of the 
Mayor's Committee on Unemployment. 
ft Elmer A. Carter, Executive Secretary of 
the Louisville Urban League, has been ap- 
pointed a member of the Mayor's Emergen- 
cy Committee on Unemployment. The com- 
mittee is composed of 15 persons from the 
city at large. This League has appointed a 
colored woman as Travelers' A : d worker to 
protect, inform and direct colored travelers 



86 



THE CRISIS 



at railway stations in the city of Louisville. 
(I The six months' record of the Los An- 
geles Urban League shows that 480 men and 
women were furnished employment at 
monthly wages of more than $21,000; 88 
women and children were given outings. 
The County Probation Department has re- 
ferred cases of colored juvenile offenders 
to Louis S. Tenette, the Associate Execu- 
tive Secretary. 

C The Pittsburgh Urban League has been 
successful in getting colored people for the 
first time, to use free settlement houses 
in outlying districts. 

ft The Frederick Douglass Community Cen- 
ter of Toledo, Ohio, which was responsible 
for the formation of the Toledo Urban 
League, has taken over larger quarters. At 
its formal opening, the Mayor and 3 judges 
of the city attended. Mr. Frank Saunders, 
a member of the Governing Board, donated 
the boys' basketball equipment. 

PERSONAL 

MRS. HARRIET E. LOWE, of Winston- 
Salem, N. C, is 100 years old. She 
is the mother of 4 children, 3 of whom are 
public school teachers. She is the grand- 
mother of 32, the great-grandmother of 46, 
^nd the great-great-grandmother of 2. 
Mrs. Lowe has been a consistent member 
of the Missionary Baptist Church for 55 
years. 

ft W. David Brown, of New York City, is 
dead. Mr. Brown had been in the under- 
taking business 21 years and was a promi- 
nent member of a number of fraternities. 
ft W. Allison Sweeney, a writer, of Chi- 
cago, 111., is dead. 

FOREIGN 

AT a meeting of the Women's Reform 
Club of Pretoria, Mrs. Maxeke, a na- 
tive Bantu, was a speaker. Lady Steel pre- 
sided. Mrs. Maxeke is president of the 
Bantu Women's Association. The meeting 
was called to discuss the existing conditions 
of life of native women in towns, and pro- 
posals for their betterment. The Woman's 
Outlook says: "Mrs. Maxeke spoke fluently, 
clearly and with dignity. As giving the 
views of those most nearly concerned, it 
must be considered as the most important 
speech of the meeting; it was a striking 
comment on the disability of the voteless 
citizen, to whose utterances and wishes so 
little importance is attached, that during 




MRS. HARRIET E. LOWE 

her address the reporters sat back taking 
no notes, and dismissed her really inter- 
esting and able speech without any lines 
in their report." 

ft There are in Manila, P. I., the follow- 
ing colored men who are employed in 
the classified civil service: Robert G. 
Woodo, chief clerk, and W. A. Caldwell, 
chief accountant, Bureau of Constabulary; 
Walter H. Loving, conductor of the Con- 
stabulary Band, with the rank and pay of 
Major; Professor J. H. M. Butler, Division 
Superintendent of Schools, Bureau of Edu- 
cation; and Davis Lockett, chief veterinar- 
ian, Bureau of Agriculture. 
ft The Rhenish Women's League, Berlin- 
Germany, has been denied a permit for a 
public exhibition of "The Black Pest," a mo- 
tion picture dealing with the question of 
colored troops on the Rhine. The denial 
was made on the grounds that the film was 
not only worthless as propaganda but was 
also calculated to injure German prestige 
abroad. 



m 



K 



/ 




1 flnVArU/jMWwH BWTO@ IP S 


1 


I l 


i 1 



Turning Hard Times 
into Prosperous Times 

The year 1921 will ever be remembered as the period of "America's Hardest Times" fol- 
lowing- the World's War. Conditions would be worse than now were it not for the Herculean 
efforts of those determined spirits who are forcing- the wheels of progress to continue to re- 
volve. THE SOUTHERN AID SOCIETY OF VA., INC., is proud to be numbered among those 
who are trying to keep the Door of Opportunity open, The cut below shows the new 
$200,000.00 four-story and basement modern fireproof building erected by the Society at 7th 
and Tea Streets, N W., Washington, D. C, to help turn Hard Times into Prosperous Times. 




Not only does the Superior Policy of Protection, issued by the Society, keep the wolf 
from the door of all Southern Aid Policyholders but its policy of constructing modern office 
buildings, in the various cities where it operates, makes it possible for our professional and 
business interests to have suitable quarters— like the best had by other races — in which to 
display their talents and wares and to do better business. Therefore by its Insurance Policy 
and, as well, by its Business Policy the Society is daily helping- to turn Hard Times into 
Prosperous Times. 

SOUTHERN AID SOCIETY OF VIRGINIA, INC. 

Home Office: 527 N. Second Street, RICHMOND, VA. 

District Offices and Agencies in Virginia and 
the District of Columbia 

Insures Against Sickness, Accidents and Deaths 

J. T. CARTER, PRES. B. L. JORDAN, SECTY. W. A. JORDAN, ASST. SECTTC. 



THE CRISIS 



A RECORD OF THE DARKER RACES 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND COPYRIGHTED BY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE, AT 70 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY. CON- 
DUCTED BY W. E. BURGHARDT DU BOIS; JESSIE REDMON FAUSET, LITERARY EDITOR; 
AUGUSTUS GRANVILLE DILL, BUSINESS MANAGER. 

Vol. 23— No. 3 JANUARY, 1922 Whole No. 135 

Page 
OPINION 

THE WORLD AND US; N. A. A. C. P. AND XMAS; THE HARDING 
POLITICAL PLAN; MR. HOWARD; THE CHURCH; NEGRO ART; CO- 
OPERATION 103 

HAPPY NEW YEAR! 

KELLY MILLER; L. G. JORDAN; C. C. SPAULDING; BISHOP HURST. . 108 

PLACIDO. James Weldon Johnson 109 

A TALE OF THZ NORTH CAROLINA WOODS. Arthur Huff Fauset Ill 

THE NEGRO. A Poem. Langston Hughes . 113 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED 

PEOPLE 114 

THE ARKANSAS PEONS. Conclusion 115 

THE HORIZON. Illustrated 118 

"LOOKING BACKWARD". Jessie Fauset 126 

IN THE FRENCH WEST INDIES. Filogenes Maillard 127 

THE LOOKING GLASS 128 

THE FEBRUARY CRISIS 

Will contain an illustrated article on Howard University by E. C. Williams. 



FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY; ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR 

FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTIONS TWENTY-FIVE CENTS EXTRA 

RENEWALS: The date of expiration of each subscription is printed on the wrapper. When 
the subscription is due, a blue renewal blank is enclosed. 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: The address of a subscriber can be changed as often as desired. 
In ordering a change of address, both the old and the new address must be given. Two weeks' 
notice is required. 

MANUSCRIPTS and drawings relating to colored people are desired. They must be accom- 
panied by return postage. If found unavailable they will be returned. 

Entered as second class matter November 2, 1910, at the pest office at New York, New 
York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



25 



100 



THE CRISIS ADVERTISER 



National Training School 

DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA 

A School for the Training of Colored Young 
Men and Women for Service 

Thougk It is young in kistory, the Institution feels a just pride in the work thus 
far accomplished, for its graduates are already filling many responsible positions, 
thus demonstrating the aim of the school to train men and women for useful 
citizenship. 

DEPARTMENTS ALREADY ESTABLISHED 

The Grammar Ichooi The Teacher Training Department 

The Academy The Divinity School 

The School of Arts and Sciences The Commercial Department 

The Department of Mask The Department of Home Economic! 

The Department of Social Service 

TERM OPENED SEPTEMBER 21, 1920 

For farther information and Catalog, address 

President James E. Shepard, Durham, North Carolina 



STATE OF NEW JERSEY 

Manual Training & Industrial School 

FOR COLORED YOUTH 

BQRRENTOWN, N. J. 

A tilth Institution fcr th» training of colored 
youth. Excellent equipment, thorough instruction, 
wholesome surroundings. Academic training tor all 
students. 
Courses in carpentry, agriculture and trades tor boys. 

Including auto repairing. 
Courses in domestic science and domestic art for 

girls. 
A new trades building, thoroughly equipped. 
New girls' dormitory thoroughly and modernly 

equipped. 
Terms reasonable. 

Fall term opens September 15, 1921. 
For Information address 

W. R. VALENTINE, Principal 



Wiley University 

Marshall, Texas 

Recognized as a college of first class by 
Texas, Louisiana. Arkansas and Okla- 
homa State Boards of Education. Har- 
vard, Boston University, University of 
Illinois and University of Chicago repre- 
sented on its faculty. One hundred 
twenty-seven in College Department, ses- 
sion 1919-1920. Several new buildings, 
steam heated and electric lighted. 
M. W. DOGAN, President 



LINCOLN UNIVERSITY 

Pioneer in Collegiate and 
Theological Education 

Lincoln Men are Leaders in the various 

professions in Forty States. 

The College is ranked in Class I. by the 
American Medical Association. 

Address : 

John B. Kendall, D.D., Lincoln TJhiveraity, 
Chester County, Penna. 



Cheyney Training School For 
Testifiers 

Cheyney, Pa. 

Made in 1980 an accredited State NoHBal School, 
offering, in addition to the regular Normal Course of 
two years, professional three year courses in Home 
Economics and Shop Work. A diploma from any of 
these courses makes a graduate eligible to teach in 
the public schools of Pennsylvania. A three-year 
High School Course is offered to all who have com- 
pleted the eighth grammar grade. 
Send application now for fall term opening September 

20th, 1921. 
For further particulars and catalog, write 

LESLIE PUJCKNEY tttt., PrinelpaJu 
Cheyney, Pa. 

THERE WILL BE NO SUMMER SCHOOL FOR 1921 



Mention The Ceisis. 



THE CRISIS 



Vol. 23. No. 3 



JANUARY, 1922 



Whole No. 135 




►irviorv 

o^WE-b-Dulboi* 



UNEM- 
PLOY- 
MENT 




THE WORLD AND US 

us the great outstand- 
ing fact today is lack 
of work and low wage 
for such as we get. We 
suffer with the world in this after- 
war difficulty, but human misfortune 
beats the more mercilessly upon those 
who are already unfortunate. When 
therefore, we know that between 
three and five million American work- 
ingmen are today unemployed, we 
may shrewdly guess that in their 
ranks are nearly a million colored men 
and women. The black man is the 
first laborer to be discharged, the first 
one to have his wages decreased, the 
last one to be re-hired. 

While we suffer most we are not 
the only ones that suffer. Throughout 
the civilized world is this problem of 
. unemployment, and with it the con- 
tradictory fact that to retrieve the 
losses of the war the world needs 
work as never before to furnish food 
and clothing and shelter. What is 
wrong? 

The answer is War. War past, pres- 
ent and future. War has destroyed 
faith and wealth, and human beings. 
The machinery of industry has broken 
down and until, slowly and painfully, 
it is restored, we must suffer. 



DIS- 
ARMA- 
MENT 




OST of us may think 
that we have little 
personal interest in 
disarmament. We 
have only to remember that in the 
last fifty years, the United States 
Government has spent thirty-four bil- 
lion dollars for war and onlv ten bil- 
lions for everything else. This means 



that every American family contrib- 
utes two hundred and fourteen dollars 
a year to pay the 1921 taxes, where 
the same family paid thirty-three dol- 
lars a year to pay the 1913 taxes. The 
burden of this cost of war has become 
intolerable, and it falls heaviest on the 
poor and the black. 

The world is meeting to try and 
throw it off but no sooner does it meet 
than the race problem appears. We 
can disarm only because of faith in 
each other. The white world is ask- 
ing how much faith they can have in 
Japan; but Japan and India and 
Africa and even the wise ones in 
China, — in fact, the majority of men 
— are asking seriously, in view of the 
past, how much faith we can have in 
the white world. 

Take the matter of China : Who are 
the aggressors upon China ? They are 
Great Britain, France and Japan ; and 
of these three the greatest and most 
persistent aggressor has been Great 
Britain. Yet there is not the slight- 
est chance of Great Britain giving up 
today a single advantage that she has 
in China, while, on the other hand, 
insidiously and carefully prepared 
propaganda, is making the white 
world think that the only enemy of 
China is Japan. 

The whole thing could be easily set- 
tled. There is Australia, a great 
empty continent containing five mil- 
lion people, where it could easily sup- 
port one hundred million. It is being 
held for white settlers who do not 
come, while colored people are being 
kept out. Let Australia open its doors 
to its natural colored settlers; let 
Great Britain give up Tibet, Szechuan, 



10? 



104 



THE CRISIS 



Hong-Kong, Weihaiwei and her eco- 
nomic concessions in the Yangtse val- 
ley; let France surrender Indo-China 
and her industrial domination in 
south China ; let Japan get out of Kiao 
Chow, Mongolia and Manchuria; and 
let the United States cease her frantic 
efforts to force white debt slavery on 
China through a consortium of big 
banks. Then the East could well af- 
ford to give up its armies and navies 
and seek the path of peace. 



STRIKES 




HE strike is a method 
of industrial war- 
fare by means of 
which white laborers 
in the last century have bettered their 
condition. Colored laborers have not 
been able to do so because they have 
been excluded from white unions, and 
have not themselves yet learned, or 
been in a position to learn, the secret 
of organization. They have conse- 
quently been tossed back and forth 
as shuttle-cocks between white em- 
ployer and white union laborer. They 
look, therefore, today, upon the strike 
as either something that does not con- 
cern them or an opportunity to get a 
job which a white man has given up. 
Few of them are in the clothing- 
making industry and are not touched 
by the garment makers' strike. Very 
few of them were threatened by the 
proposed railway strike. Large num- 
bers of them are always involved in 
coal and packing house strikes. But 
whether directly involved or not, they 
must watch this industrial war with 
palpitating interest. Undoubtedly the 
strike as an industrial weapon is too 
costly and is passing, but the union 
organization is still here and the col- 
ored laborer must learn to use it. 



HE real question of 
Ireland today is how 
much of the island is 
going to be allowed 
to govern itself and how much of it 
the industrial interests of Ulster are 



IRELAND 
AND 
INDIA 




going to be able to keep as a part of 
England, and as a center of English 
power. 

The Treaty of Peace brings Irish 
Freedom nearer and increases the 
hope of freedom for all men. 

In India the case is more compli- 
cated. Here are hundreds of millions, 
ignorant and poverty-stricken almost 
beyond belief, and yet upheld by fine 
traditions of family, work and reli- 
gion, who are seeking to gain control 
of their own lands and their own 
souls. 

One party marches toward armed 
resistance with war on the horizon ; 
another party proposes non-resistance 
and refusal to cooperate in any work 
or government with the British mas- 
ters. 

It is a marvellously interesting fight 
and we should watch its every step. 



VISIT- 
ORS 




AILY there come to 
our shores, and late- 
ly in larger numbers 
than usual, men and 
women of other nations to see Amer- 
ica. Very few of them see that tenth 
of America which we represent. They 
may meet us casually on Pullman cars 
or as servants and laborers, but they 
do not know us and do not try to know 
us, because they do not realize that 
there is anything in us worth the 
knowing. On the other hand, by both 
deliberate and accidental propaganda, 
they are told of all the evil concerning 
us which they do not see and they go 
home to spread this knowledge or lack 
of knowledge concerning us. 

Sometimes, to be sure, a Foch may 
see a black regiment or the Disarma- 
ment Conferees may note the power 
and growth of darker Washington, 
but we have yet to solve the problem 
of letting the world really see us. 



a 



N. A. A. C. P. AND XMAS 

N this season of holiday and joy 
have you thought of your 
Christmas gift for Freedom? 
Thinking of what you have 



OPINION 



105 



earned and spent for the year, what 
you have accomplished and enjoyed, 
does it occur to you that you owe 
something, not simply to your race 
and to your country, but to humanity 
— to the upward striving forces of the 
world? Have you paid that debt or 
any part of it? 

If not, consider the claims of the 
National Association for the Advance- 
ment of Colored People. During the 
year 1921 we have 

1. Helped expose the Ku Klux Klan, 

2. Pushed the anti-lynching bill out 
of committee and before the 
House of Representatives, 

3. Saved up to the present time the 
condemned victims of the Arkan- 
sas riots, sentenced to die in 
1919, and have brought their 
cases to the Supreme Court of 
the United States, at an expense 
of $11,299, 

4. Investigated and exposed the 
Tulsa riot and raised and dis- 
bursed a fund of $3,500 for phys- 
ical relief and legal aid, 

5. Promoted a Second Pan-African 
Congress with 110 delegates and 
1,000 visitors from 30 countries 
and 11 states of the United 
States, 

6. Presented a petition to President 
Harding signed by 50,000 per- 
sons asking clemency for the sol- 
diers who were in the Houston 
riot and who are now incarcer- 
ated at Leavenworth, 

7. Continued to push our efforts to 
free Haiti and helped secure a 
Congressional investigating com- 
mittee which is now sitting in 
Haiti, 

8. Published 600,000 copies of The 
Crisis and sold them in every 
corner of the world, 

9. In general made every enemy of 
the Negro fear our power, and 
every black victim trust our aid. 

We have not done everything or 
all we would — but we have done some- 
thing, have we not? 



Moreover this work has not been 
paid for by millionaires. No single 
individual gift to us has exceeded 
$500, and only seven have reached 
that figure. There have been only 17 
gifts of $100. The great mass of gifts 
have come in sums of from $1 to $5 
from poor colored folk. Nine-tenths 
of the funds supporting this organiza- 
tion come from Negroes. This is fair 
and proper. It is our work and we 
must do it. More and more the bur- 
den of this work is going to fall on 
the Negro race ! 

But have you done your share? 
Why not send the N. A. A. C. P. a 
Thanksgiving or Christmas or New 
Year's gift? Why not lift from the 
backs of the officers enough of the 
burden of finance so as to leave them 
strength for investigation, action, re- 
lief, thought and plan ? 

THE HARDING'POLITICAL PLAN 

R. HARDING'S plan for 
settling various problems 
in politics is now in full 
swing and we are not at all 




sure but what it bids fair to be suc- 
cessful beyond his dreams. The 
Harding plan involves (1) White 
leadership for the black South; (2) 
A division of the Negro vote. 

The white leadership of the black 
South has been strikingly illustrated 
in Virginia where the white leader, 
Col. Henry W. Anderson, talked some 
real, plain English. He said, for in- 
stance, at Barton Heights, October 22, 
"Senator Trinkle [his Democratic op- 
ponent] fears the Negro in Virginia 
politics. Our platform has eliminated 
the Negro from Virginia politics. 
Thirty-two Negroes now hold office 
in this State. They were appointed 
by the Democrats. I have asked Sen- 
ator Trinkle to join with me in a 
movement to have these Negro judges 
removed from office. He has never 
replied to me on this matter. 

"If I am elected Governor of Vir- 
ginia, no Negro will ever hold office 
in this State under my administra- 



106 



THE CRISIS 



tion. The white people must rule this 
commonwealth, and they will." 

The result of this clear and concise 
statement, together with the expul- 
sion of all Negro members from the 
party convention, was that 25,000 Ne- 
groes so "divided" their vote that 
Mr. Anderson did not get a single one 
of them and the Republicans received 
their worst defeat in many years. 

In Louisville, Kentucky, the Repub- 
licans so slandered and "Jim-Crowed" 
the Negro that an attempt at a third 
party movement was made by the 
Negroes. The strong-arm methods of 
thugs interfered with its complete 
success, but it registered a clear warn- 
ing. 

On the other hand, in Philadelphia, 
where the Republicans nominated a 
Negro magistrate to the disgust of 
the "Independents" and high-brows, 
the black voters of the Seventh Ward 
swept him into office 5000 votes ahead 
of his independent rivals. 

If the putting of the direction of 
the Republican Party in the South 
into the hands of Slemp and his ilk, 
the driving of the Negro from the 
Republican polls and compelling him 
to vote for black men because they 
are black is what Mr. Harding wishes, 
he is accomplishing it. But his meas- 
ure of success is bringing thought to 
both colored and white folk. 

Thoughtful Negroes do not want 
racial candidates and parties: they 
see the ultimate contradiction and fu- 
tility of this. But what is one to do 
who has to choose between the Demo- 
cratic devil and the Republican deep 
sea? Thoughtful whites are also get- 
ting food for reflection : for what doth 
it profit a politician to get rid of the 
Negro in party counsels if he lose 
the election? And silly as the dilem- 
ma is, we opine that we can stand it 
as long as the other fellow and pos- 
sibly a bit longer. 

Therefore to our muttons, for the 
Congressional elections of 1922 ap- 
proach and we must not hesitate. Let 
every black voter look up the record 
of his particular Congressman. If 



he cannot find it, write us ; and then 
let us make every effort to defeat our 
enemies. If we can encompass their 
defeat by voting for any particular 
party, do it. If we can encompass 
the defeat by voting for a new party 
of our own, do it. Next to defeating 
our enemies, let us rally to the sup- 
port of our friends. And there again, 
whether the friend be labeled Repub- 
lican, Democrat, Socialist or Farmer- 
Labor, vote for him. The roll call on 
the Dyer bill will be a splendid indica- 
tion of how we ought to vote. Those 
who vote against the Dyer bill and 
those who are absent are our enemies. 
Finally, remember what we did in 
New York: Ten years ago there was 
not a single Negro policeman in the 
metropolis of America. Today there 
are twenty or more. The Democrats 
gave them to us. The Democrats 
swept Harlem in the last election. 

MR. HOWARD 

R. PERRY HOWARD com- 
plains because The Crisis 
said concerning his ap- 
pointment to the United 
States Department of Justice: "The 
appointment given Mr. Perry How- 
ard was one that we wish Mr. How- 
ard had been able to refuse, as it is 
too unimportant and inadequate to be 
at all representative." 

Mr. Howard informs us that his 
office is important; that it is not "Jim- 
Crowed" ; that he has charge, as coun- 
sel for the Government, of all rail- 
roads suits brought against it in the 
United States Court of Claims; that 
he has an assistant in the person of 
Captain L. R. Mehlinger, a trained 
young colored attorney ; and that his 
work is that of practitioner and coun- 
sel and has not the least semblance 
of any clerical position. 

We are glad to know of this and 
we congratulate Mr. Howard and the 
Attorney-General. 

And this makes us all the more in- 
sistent that both Mr. Howard and Mr. 
Henry Lincoln Johnson (if the latter 




OPINION 



107 



gets his appointment, as we sincerely 
hope he will), regard themselves as 
American citizens and Government 
officials with serious and important 
work to do, and not as errand boys 
for the Republican politicians. It was 
not the business of these two gentle- 
men to pull the politicians out of a 
hole by urging amendments to the 
Dyer Anti-Lynching bill which would 
emasculate it, and make it meaning- 
less and worthless. It was not the 
business of either of these gentlemen 
to rush into Virginia or elsewhere to 
tell the colored people to vote for the 
Republican politicians who had insult- 
ed and kicked them out of the party. 
It is rather the duty of these men to 
set a new and high standard for the 
Negro office-holder and to let the peo- 
ple of the United States know that 
when they appoint colored men of 
their calibre to office they are not brib- 
ing voters, but rather they are arrang- 
ing to get the Government's work 
done in the best possible manner. 
And too, it is the duty and privilege 
of these officials to teach their own 
race that the best political service 
which any politician can render his 
race is to do his duty like a man and 
to refuse all menial service. 

THE CHURCH 

HERE is perhaps no more in- 
teresting chapter in the his- 
tory of the American Negro 
than the rise and expansion 
of the Negro church. The Crisis, 
therefore, proposes during the year 
1922 to publish a series of articles on 
the "Romance of the Negro Church", 
taking up its chief branches and show- 
ing what their past has been, who 
their leaders are and what they are 
doing today for the advancement of 
the Negro race. 



NEGRO ART 

HE Negro race as an interpre- 
ter of beauty to the world is 
gradually coming to its own. 
Not only are our musicians 






like Burleigh and Dett pursuing their 
high and successful career, but we 
are beginning to be listened to in 
painting and sculpture. Pageantry is 
appearing and the white artist and 
writer is beginning to discover us as 
human beings and not as conven- 
tional lay figures. Recently in New 
York City there was held in the 
branch of the public library which is 
in Harlem, an exhibit of Negro art 
with specimens of the work of H. 0. 
Tanner, Laura Wheeler, W. M. Far- 
row, Richard Lonsdale Brown, W. 
E. Scott, Louise Lattimer, Meta Ful- 
ler and many others. The exhibit 
was a revelation in its accomplish- 
ment and a promise in its originality 
and beauty. 

COOPERATION 

OR several years we have 
sought to interest the colored 
people of the United States in 
cooperative business and we 
have had some beginnings of success. 
But cooperation among us suffers 
just as it does among the whites : not 
everything is "cooperative" that is 
called cooperative and the first desire 
of rascals is to call some scheme of 
doubtful validity "cooperative" so as 
to attract the pennies of the masses. 
Recently we have been told that the 
"Cooperative Society of America" has 
made a gigantic failure, and this must 
have scared and warned many colored 
people. But it is to be hoped that 
their fear was not misplaced, for the 
so called "Cooperative Society of 
America" was not cooperative at all, 
but was a gigantic fraud. Meantime, 
the genuine cooperative movement is 
not only sound but successful. In the 
State of Illinois, where the fraudu- 
lent society failed, there are 200 suc- 
cessful cooperative societies. In Penn- 
sylvania there are 200 cooperative 
stores in the mining regions, and 
throughout Europe the cooperative 
movement is the only economic move- 
ment that has successfully withstood 
the war. 



HAPPY NEW YEAR! 



Greetings to the Negro World. 



r | ""HE World War marks an epochal 
•*■ change in the progress of the race. The 
Negro stands in an equivocal mood of mind 
between the old regime and the new. He 
looks to the past with mingled feelings of 
thanksgiving and regret and faces the fu- 
ture with misgivings and hope. The recent 
reaffirmation of the age-old dogma of the 
"fundamental, eternal, inescapable" differ- 
ence of race, the fountain-head of all our 
woes, typifies the reactionary tendency of 
the time. Religion seems disposed to sur- 
render to race and Christianity to compro- 
mise with color. On the other hand there 
is a growing spirit of race cooperation 
rather than race control as in the past. The 
Negro is rapidly gaining a consciousness of 
his own powers and a determination to give 
these powers efficient expression in con- 
structive endeavor for the reclamation of 
the race. Negro leadership must stand un- 
equivocally for the intellectual, moral and 
spiritual unity of mankind. To quicken and 
inspire the dormant energies which lie 
wrapped up in the ten millions of human 
beings, to formulate an ideal which shall 
be sufficiently tangible and definite to ap- 
peal to the whole race is the immediate 
program not only for the new year but for 
the new day upon which we are entering. 

Kelly Miller. 

PERSONALLY, I am demonstrating the 
-■- optimist — he whom someone defines as 
"one who can scent the harvest while yet 
the snow covers the ground". Therefore, I 
hold that the Negro everywhere, and the 
American Negro in particular, has mani- 
fold reasons for thanksgiving. 

At the brink of a "brand new" year, we 
are thankful for life's possibilities, relig- 
ious, economic, commercial; for the sense 
of Race-Pride, of Race-Consciousness which 
grows continually; for our sane, thought- 
ful, courageous leaders; for peace and the 
efforts being made toward a warless world; 
for the good men and women of our own 
and other races; for our good friends, 
many of them undiscussed, unknown, even, 
yet whose silent influence is of immeasur- 
able benefit to us; thankful above all else, 



for the Good Creator Who has promised 
never to leave nor forsake us. 

What better advice can one give than 
that we think constructively, working and 
praying unceasingly for the freedom which, 
in God's own time, will come to us; that 
we bear in mind our individual responsi- 
bility for doing our best; that in spite of 
all that we have undergone, are undergoing 
still, we shall nevertheless "keep our faces 
towards the East". 

L. G. Jordan, 
Secretary Emeritus of the Foreign Mis- 
sion Board, National Baptist Convention. 

"V/TEN and Women of African descent in 
■*•"-'• America: War and destruction have 
recently visited the world andi wrought sor- 
row in their wake. But to the American 
Negro they have brought unforeseen op- 
portunities; for which, at the dawn of a 
New Year, let us give humble thanks. The 
Great War and the heralded pestilence of 
the boll weevil have freed thousands of 
Negro peons. The former thrust them into 
the industrial world; while the latter re- 
duced the value of cotton-producing land 
to the point where it is being offered to and 
purchased by Negro farm hands. The eco- 
nomic emancipation of the Negro is in 
sight. Wherefore, let us give thanks. 

The novice industrial worker and farm- 
owner should seek, however, to better fit 
himself for the position which he now oc- 
cupies but which he will continue to hold 
only if he makes himself a master work- 
man. Moreover, Negro workers, refuse to 
invest the fruit of your toil in carelessly 
managed and impossible schemes. The 
success of Negro business rests upon your 
judgment in supporting the right kind of 
enterprise. An unforeseen hand has opened 
the door to economic freedom. The en- 
suing years will be crucial tests of our 
ability to make fitting use of this freedom. 
Strive, Negro men and women, to make 
yourselves approved workers and wise in- 
vestors. 

C. C. Spaulding, Sec.-Treas., 
North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Co- 



108 



PLACIDO 



109 



r T , HE New Year is a season of Thanks- 
■*■ giving and resolution — thanksgiving 
for the accomplishments of the past and a 
rededication to the ideals held sacred by 
individuals, nations and races. What, then, 
of the Negro? Wherein lies his accom- 
plishment and what his resolution? Nine- 
teen hundred and twenty-one has surely 
granted him a larger activity in the finan- 
cial world; many are the worthy business 
enterprises he has initiated and would that 
space might permit their mention other 
than in abstract. At times, in scanning the 
press and listening to the spoken word, 
we feel that his friends may have increased, 
few still, to be sure, yet certainly they have 
not abandoned him entirely. But even a 
larger endowment has been his — one that 
is from within and of the spirit rather than 
the flesh: ultimately it will be translated 
into a greater realism than is now evident. 
In short, the Negro is manifesting a tend- 



ency, yes a willingness, for greater racial 
consciousness, to elect his leadership and 
determine the type he will follow. He wel- 
comes friends, but he scans carefully the 
gifts* they bear, realizing that it is better 
to have much less than to be compromised 
by much more. He takes courage in the 
success of allied movements as the Wo- 
man's Party, the Labor Party, the Cause of 
Irish Freedom and the Gandhi Non-Cooper- 
ationist Plan. Those who sat in the Pan- 
-African Conference realized his activity 
in the development of a new inter-nation- 
alism. His resolution is to prosecute more 
vigorously "the cause", to shun alignments 
that weaken, to abhor flattery and cajolery, 
and to win, ultimately, for all Americans 
the right to enjoy "life, liberty and the pur- 
suit of happiness". 

John Hurst, 
Bishop of the A. M. E. Church. 



PLACIDO 



James Weldon Johnson 



[The following article is an excerpt from 
the preface to "The Book of American Ne- 
gro Verse", a new book by James Weldon 
Johnson to be published early in the year by 
Harcourt, Brace & Co.] 

A MONG the greatest poets of Latln- 
■*■ *- America are men of Negro blood. 
There are Placido and Manzano in Cuba; 
Vieux and Durand in Haiti, Machado de 
Assis in Brazil; Leon Laviaux in Marti- 
nique, and others still that might be men- 
tioned. Placido and Machado de Assis rank 
as great in the literatures of their respec- 
tive countries without any qualifications 
whatever. They are world figures in the 
literature of the Latin languages. Ma- 
chado de Assis is somewhat handicapped 
in this respect by having as his tongue and 
medium the lesser known Portuguese, but 
Placido, writing in the language of Spain, 
Mexico, Cuba and of almost the whole of 
South America, is universally known. His 
works have been republished in the origi- 
nal in Spain, Mexico and in most of the 
Latin-American countries; several editions 
have been published in the United States; 



translations of his works have been made 
into French and German. 

Placido is in some respects the great- 




#cc'«^> 



110 



THE CRISIS 



est of all the Cuban poets. In sheer genius 
and the fire of inspiration he surpasses 
even the more finished Heredia. Then, too, 
his birth, his life and his death ideally 
contained the tragic elements that go into 
the making of a halo about a poet's head. 
Placido was born in Habana in 1809. The 
first months of his life were passed in a 
foundling asylum; indeed, his real name, 
Gabriel de la Concepcion Valdes. was in 
honor of its founder. His father took him 
out of the asylum, but shortly afterwards 
went to Mexico and died there. His early 
life was a struggle against poverty; his 
youth and manhood was a struggle for 
Cuban independence. His death placed him 
in the list of Cuban martyrs. On the 27th 
of June, 1844, he was lined up against a 
wall with ten others and shot by order of 
the Spanish authorities on a charge of 
conspiracy. In his short but eventful life 
he turned out work which bulks more than 
six hundred pages. During the few hours 
preceding his execution he wrote three of 
his best known poems, among them his 
famous sonnet, "Mother, Farewell!" 

Placido's sonnet to his mother has been 
translated into every important language — 
William Cullen Bryant didi it in English — 
but in spite of its wide popularity, it is, 
perhaps, outside of Cuba, the least under- 
stood of all Placido's poems. It is curious 
to note how Bryant's translation totally 
misses the intimate sense of the delicate 
subtility of the poem. The American poet 
makes it a tender and loving farewell of a 
son who is about to die to a heart-broken 
mother; but that is not the kind of a fare- 
well that Placido intended to write or did 
write. 

The key to the poem is in the first word, 
and the first word is the Spanish conjunc- 
tion Si (if). The central idea, then, of 
the sonnet is, "If the sad fate- which now 
overwhelms Trie shotdd bring a pang to your 
heart, weep no more, for I die a glorious 
death and sound the last note of my lyre 
to you." Bryant either failed to under- 
istanl or ignored the opening word, "If", 
because he was not familiar with the poet's 
history. 

While Placido's father was a Negro, his 
mother was a Spanish white woman, a 
dancer in one of the Habana theatres. At 
his birth she abandoned him to a found- 
ling asylum, and perhaps never saw him 



again, although it is known that she out- 
lived her son. When the poet came down 
to his last hours he remembered that some- 
where there lived a woman who was his 
mother; that although she had heartless- 
ly abandoned him; that although he owed 
her no filial duty, still she might, perhaps, 
on hearing of his sad end feel some pang 
of grief or sadness; so he tells her in his 
last words that he dies happy and bids 
her not to weep. This he does with no- 
bility and dignity, but absolutely without 
affection. Taking into account these facts, 
and especially their humiliating and em- 
bittering effect upon a soul so sensitive as 
Placido's, this sonnet, in spite of the ob- 
vious weakness of the sestet as compared 
with the octave, is a remarkable piece of 
work. 

In considering the Aframerican poets of 
the Latin languages I am impelled to think 
that, as up to this time the colored poets 
of greater universality have come out of 
the Latin-American countries rather than 
out of the United States, they will continue 
to do so for a good many years. The rea- 
son for this I hinted at in the first part of 
this preface. The colored poet in the 
United States labors within limitations 
which he cannot easily pass over. He is 
always on the defensive or the offensive. 
The pressure upon him to be propagandic 
is "well nigh irresistible. These conditions 
are suffocating to breadth and to real art 
in poetry. In addition he labors under the 
handicap of finding culture not entirely 
colorless in the United States. On the other 
hand, the colored poet of Latin-America 
can voice the national spirit without any 
reservations. And he will be rewarded 
without any reservations, whether it be 
to place him among the great or declare 
him the greatest. 

So I think it probable that the first world- 
acknowledged Aframerican poet will come 
out of Latin-America. Over against this 
probability, of course, is the great advant- 
age possessed by the colored poet in the 
United States of writing in the world-con- 
quering English language. 

[We have added Placido's Despida a Mi 
Madre in the original Spanish with the 
translation by Bryant and a translation by 
Mr. Johnson for the benefit of the interested 
reader. — Lit. Ed.] 



NORTH CAROLINA WOODS 



111 



DESPIDA A MI MADRE 

(En La Capilla) 
Placido 
C I la suerte fatal que me ha 
^ cabido, 

Y el triste fin de mi sangrienta 

historia, 
Al salir de esta vida transitoria 
Deja tu corazon. de muerte herido; 
Baste de llanto : el animo afli- 

gido 
Recobre su quietud; moro en la 

gloria, 

Y mi placida lira a tu memoria 
Lanza en la tumba su postrer 

sonido. 

Sonido dulce, melodioso y santo, 
Glorioso, espiritual, puro y 

divino, 
Inocente, espontaneo como el 

llanto 
Que vertiera al nacer: ya el 

cuello inclino! 
Ya de la religion me cubre el 

manto ! 
Adios, mi madre! adios — El Feli- 

grino. 



FAREWELL TO MY MOTHER 
(In the Chapel) 
William Cullen Bryant 
HP HE appointed lot has come 
* upon me, mother, 

The mournful ending of my years 

of strife, 
This changing world I leave, and 

to another 
In blood and terror goes my 

spirit's life. 
But thou, grief-smitten, cease 

thy mortal weeping 
And let thy soul her wonted peace 

regain ; 
I fall for right, and thoughts of 

thee are sweeping 
Across my lyre to wake its dying 

strain. 
A strain of joy and gladness, 

free, unfailing, 
All glorious and holy, pure, di- 
vine, 
And innocent, unconscious as the 

wailing 
I uttered on my birth; and I 

resign 
Even now, my life; even now de- 
scending slowly, 
Faith's mantle folds me to my 

slumbers holy. 
Mother farewell! God keep thee — 

and forever 1 



PLACIDO'S FAREWELL TO 

HIS MOTHER 
(Written in the chapel of the Hos- 
pital de Santa Cristina on the 
night before his execution.) 
James Weldon Johnson 
TF the unfortunate fate engulf- 
■*■ ing me, 

The ending of my history of 

grief, 
The closing of my span of years 

so brief, 
Mother, should wake a single pang 

in thee, 
Weep not. No saddening thought 

to me devote; 
I calmly go to a death that is 

glory-filled, 
My lyre before it is forever 

stilled 
Breathes out to thee its last and 

dying note. 

A note scarce more than a burden- 
easing sigh, 

Tender and sacred, innocent, sin- 
cere, — 

Spontaneous and instinctive as 
the cry 

I gave at birth — And now the 
hour is here. 

O God, thy mantle of mercy o'er 
my sins! 

Mother, farewell! The pilgrimage 
begins. 



A TALE OF THE NORTH CAROLINA WOODS 




Arthur Huff Fauset 




^"ORTH CAROLINA woods, where the 
■*■ ^ tall, gaunt pines "mosey" upward and 
stretch their towering tops to the blue 
skies, is a certain haven of rest and comfort 
to the sojourner weary of the pele-mele and 
tedium of American city life. Crickets and 
grasshoppers chirp and play at your feet; 
toadstools of enormous size and wonderful 
colors arouse your curiosity and revive the 
drooping spirits which need so much a touch 
of nature's tonic. Here and there, splash- 
ing the verdant earth with colors as numer- 
ous as the rainbow are colonies of wild flow- 
ers — sometimes a lonely daisy, or a gay, 
frisky cowbell looks up from its lowly sta- 
tion, anxious, no doubt, for you to take no- 
tice of the part it plays in this wonderful bit 
of nature's handiwork. 

Any number of beautiful flowers surround 
one, large and small, great and tiny, all of 
them tinted with the most delicate of na- 
ture's pigments, some in a most complex 
manner with an almost inexplicable med- 
ley of color; others, like the dew of the 
morning, simple, plain, refreshing to the 
eye, with a power that braces the heart and 
causes song, even poetry, to burst forth from 
within — tiny creatures ofttimes, but love- 
lier than the loveliest rose of the city's 



floral shop, and primmer than the daintiest 
violet. 

It is so cool and quiet in the North Caro- 
lina woods! 

We used to enjoy the sparkling wafts of 
pine-laden breezes, seated by (or over) a 
little muddy streamlet which coursed its 
way somewhere, nowhere. Such a sluggish 
stream I have never seen in any other place. 
To take a casual look at it you would not 
know it was flowing water. Just when you 
had made up your mind that it was a stag- 
nant pool, you perceived a dim, pluggish, 
almost imperceptible movement of the 
murky water. A tiny pine twig thrown on 
the crest of the stream would gradually 
move down, inch by inch, stopping on its 
tedious journey for half hours and even 
hours, and then slowly moving a few more 
inches. 

The stream was only ten or twelve feet 
wide and scarcely six inches in depth. Oc- 
casionally you could see something dash 
through the muddy water, the distinctness 
of its outline dimmed by the sediment which 
saturated the water everywhere. 

"It's a frog," I would cry. 

"No, it's a water snake," would call an- 
other. 



112 



THE CRISIS 



"You're seeing things/' would be the 
taunt of Allan, who loved to talk but cared 
nothing about watching nature. 

There was a huge tree stretched across 
the stream over which passersby could cross 
from one side to the other. This tree was 
a source of wonder to us because it had 
taken root on one side of the stream and 
then, as though prompted by Mother Na- 
ture herself, had grown straight across to 
the( other side. There it lay, a living 
bridge, having for years served the people 
thereabouts. 

We would often sit and puzzle about that 
bridge. We wondered whether the tree had 
just happened by chance, or whether some 
crafty woodsman, prompted by a deep civic 
spirit, had deliberately coerced nature into 
allowing the tree to assume such a course. 
Seated upon it, over the stream, we would 
speculate about it, until some person would 
come along and make it necessary for us 
to get off for a few moments while he 
crossed over. For a long time it did not oc- 
cur to us that these people who lived in the 
woods might know something about the tree. 
A number of persons passed us regularly 
and we soon knew just who it was who was 
approaching. 

One in particular became a special sub- 
ject of interest. She would have interested 
anybody. She was an old colored woman, 
wild-eyed and fierce in the expression of her 
face, with the appearance of one who was 
half-witted. She always came by about the 
same time each day, near eventide. We 
could tell that she was coming by the songs 
she always sang as she passed through the 
woods. Such songs! And the voice of that 
poor creature! (She seemed happy enough, 
though.) They were old plantation songs, 
doubtless, though none of the more familiar 
ones, which have crept northward, seemed 
to appear among them. 

Her whole appearance was odder than 
anything I have ever seen. She always had 
something balanced on her head, whether 
it was a bundle of clothes or merely an 
old newspaper. Her face was dark brown 
in color, her eyes somewhat slanty, black 
and sparkling, with the fire of a maniac. 
Her clothing, if one may call it such, was 
a patchwork of rags as dirty as they were 
old; and her shoes barely acted as a cov- 
ering for her feet — so ragged and worn 
were they. 



Whenever she passed by us at the bridge 
she would stop her singing, eye us quickly 
and make a peculiar grimace or grin. Then 
as she gaily tripped across the natural 
passageway she would call out: "Good 
evenin' gen'mens." At which we would nod 
and perhaps tender a reply. 

One hot August afternoon we had re- 
treated to the cool of the stream and pines. 
We hardly knew what to do to pass the 
time away. While we were musing on the 
bridge we heard the familiar voice, loud 
and clear, echoing and re-echoing through 
the woods: 

"Don' 'no wen I'se cum-in', 
Don' 'no wen I'se cum-in', 
Sun is still moughty high." 

"Why not ask her about this tree?" sug- 
gested Chalfonte. 

"Good," I replied, and we awaited her as 
she wended her way toward us. 

"Good evenin' gen'mens," came the fa- 
miliar greeting, together with a broad, ex- 
pressive grin. 

"Good evening," replied Chalfonte. "We 
heard you singing through the woods and 
we've been wondering what your name 
might be." 

"Who, me? Don' yuh know me? I'se 
Queen of Sedalia," and then she went off 
into a loud laugh, half hysterical. "Yeh, 
Queen of Sedalia, bin livin' roun' dese parts 
mos' sixty yeahs." 

"Well, well, perhaps you can tell us how 
this bridge came about. Can you?" 

"Kin I? Well, I guess. I'se Queen of 
Sedalia, don' yuh know dat?" 

Later we learned that the district about 
these woods was known locally as Sedalia. 

"Queen, eh," Chalfonte answered. "How 
long have you been queen?" 

The old woman eyed Chalfonte from shoe 
to cap, and then glanced at each one of 
us with suspicion. She must have thought 
we were quizzing her. 

"Come," I said quickly, fearing we might 
lose her. "Could you tell us the story of 
this tree?" 

Her eyes gleamed. Her whole body trem- 
bled with excitement. Then she gave one 
of those hideous hysterical laughs. 

"Who, me? I'se Queen of Sedalia, don' 
yuh know dat? Sho I kin tell yuh! I knows 
all about ut. Does yuh reely want ter heah 
ut?" 

"Do we?" we all cried. Chalfonte jingled 



THE NEGRO 



113 



some coins in his pocket. She never seemed 
to notice this, however. 

"Set down, den, an' I'll tell yuh all." 

We sat down on the grassy bank, lest some 
passerby disturb us as she recounted the 
story. She sat down with us. 

This was the story. In the days when 
Grant was President, this stream was al- 
most twice as wide as it now is, and con- 
siderably deeper. This was caused by the 
amount of rainfall in those days, which 
was greater by far than the amount of rain- 
fall at ' the present time. All the land in 
this region was owned by one Squire Marks 
("Ole Man Marks"), who allowed his neigh- 
bors to take the short cut through his land 
to the little village on the other side of the 
stream, but who steadfastly refused to 
build any sort of bridge across the stream. 

It was necessary for persons who wished 
to cross, to wade over, either in bare feet 
or in rubber boots. Besides the inconvenience 
which this brought about, there was always 
the danger of snakes. The stream and its 
environs were known to be infested by 
moccasins. Still "Ole Man Marks" stead- 
fastly refused to build a bridge. 

Every now and then some child would 
come tearing through the woods yelling that 
a snake had bitten him. However it usually 
proved to be a hallucination on the child's 
part. Either it had pierced its foot with a 
thorn, or in some similar manner had done 
something which would give rise to the no- 
tion that a snake had bitten it. 

One day however, the woods were rent 
with the terrific cries of some one in great 
terror or pain. Several villagers ran to the 
place from whence came the yells, and 



found on the shore of the stream the only 
son of "Ole Man Marks", prostrate, his 
limbs tense, his blue eyes glaring up to the 
burning sun. The "Queen of Sedalia" ar- 
rived just in time to see a friend make a 
deep incision, with some steel instrument, 
in the boy's leg. 

"It was turrible. Blood black ez ink. 
... It flo'd all 'roun. 'Ole Man Marks' 
son, he kep' right still. Purty soon, along 
comes de Ole Man, pale ez a ghost en' shiv- 
erin' all over. . . No use ter weep — 
the boy wuz daid. . . . 

"Ole Man Marks went crazy. . . . 
They did sumpin or other'n for him, killed 
him I guess, nebber see'd him no mo, po' 
ole fool. . . . 

"Eb'rybody 'fraid ub de ribber from den 
on, 'cep me ... I wuzn't 'fraid. Who, 
me? I'se Queen of Sedalia. 

"Eb'ry day I comes to de same spot, jes' 
where dat boy's black blood done all flo'd 
about. I prays dere, ebery day, I does. 
. . . What yuh t'ink? Dis tree start 
sproutin' up. Up, up it shoots. . . . and 
den — when it grows so high (pointing about 
three inches) it starts shootin' dis-away. 
See! . . . Dat's all. De blood ub dat 
boy done made seed fo de good Lawd, and 
dis tree mus' be his body. Yes!" . . . 
and then she gave another of those laughs. 

She wouldn't say another word about the 
tree. She wouldn't take any money. She 
looked at us and grinned. 

"Good evenin' gen'mens," she said, and 
crossed the bridge singing hilariously: 
"Bridge ub Heben — soul en body, 
Pepul's givine to leab yuh now!" 



THE NEGRO 



Langston Hughes 



T AM a Negro: 

■*■ Black as the night is black, 

Black like the depths of my Africa. 



I've been a slave: 

Caesar told me to keep his door-steps 

clean. 
I brushed the boots of Washington. 

I've been a worker: 

Under my hand the pyramids arose. 
I made mortar for the Woolworth Build- 
ing. 



I've been a singer: 

All the way from Africa to Georgia I car- 
ried my sorrow songs. 
I made ragtime. 

I've been a victim : 

The Belgians cut off my hands in the 

Congo. 
They lynch me now in Texas. 

I am a Negro: 

Black as the night is black, 

Black like the depths of my Africa, 



Naiional-AssociaiionforiKe •-- 
Advancement of* Colored/ People. 




THE DYER BILL 

I?N the December issue of the Crisis we 
told of the reporting out favorably of 
the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill by the House 
Committee on the Judiciary. Opponents of 
the bill apparently dared not come out 
openly and fight it and we therefore had 
to contend with a secret opposition in 
Congress on which it was hard to place a 
finger. An attempt was made to recommit 
the bill to the Judiciary Committee but 
that was blocked. Both Mr. Johnson and 
Mr. White have spent much time in Wash- 
ington working on the matter and keeping 
an eye on developments. 

When we found that efforts to change 
the bill were being considered, we renewed 
our efforts to secure the passage of the un- 
amended Dyer Bill. One of the steps 
taken will show clearly how effectively and 
efficiently the machinery which we have 
been eleven years in building, functions. 
On Monday, November 14, at 3.45 P.M., a 
telegram was received at the National Of- 
fice from Mr. Johnson who was then in 
Washington, stating that two influential 
Republican members of the House were 
apathetic in support of the bill and ap- 
apparently were blocking early considera- 
tion and a vote on the bill. By 4 o'clock 
night letter telegrams had been sent to 
15 of our large branches in every section 
of the United States, urging them to send 
and have sent telegrams to these two men 
which would show how public opinion was 
demanding passage of the bill. Within 24 
hours, so we have learned, more than 500 
telegrams had flooded the office of these 
two members of Congress! Both men have 
since assured us of their hearty support. 
That is the sort of effective organization 
that we need — that we must have. To show 
how loyally and ably the branches worked 
we quote one example — that of the Denver 
Branch — which secured telegraphic endorse- 
ment of the bill from Governor Shoup of 
Colorado, Mayor Baily of Denver, Bishop 



Johnson of the Diocese of Colorado of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, the Rt. Rev. 
Ingley, Bishop-Coadjutor, Judge Whitford 
of the Colorado Supreme Court, Republi- 
can National Committeeman Vivian, Mrs. 
Redd, President of the Federation of Col- 
ored Women's Clubs of Colorado and Wy- 
oming, and from many other prominent 
white and colored individuals and organi- 
zations. 

Congress took up the bill on December 15. 

"SHUFFLE ALONG" 

npHE National Office, the Board of Direc- 
-"■ tors and the entire membership of the 
N. A. A. C. P. wish to express their sincere 
appreciation to Messrs. Miller, Lyles, Sissle 
and Blake and to each member of the 
"Shuffle Along" company for the very suc- 
cessful benefit which they gave for the as- 
sociation at the Lafayette Theatre, New 
York, on October 17. Each member of the 
company volunteered his services without 
cost as his contribution towards the work 
of the Association. The net proceeds were 
$1,026. One member of the company who 
was unable to be present on account of ill- 
ness sent one dollar as her part. Every 
seat of the Lafayette Theatre and all stand- 
ing room was taken, while police reserves 
were summoned to handle the overflow 
crowd that almost fought to get into the 
theatre. Hundreds were turned away. 

The phenomenal success of the "Shuffle 
Along" company has been one of the events 
of recent New York theatrical history. The 
foremost dramatic critics of New York have 
united in declaring the show one of the best 
ever seen on Broadway. All of the music 
and words are by colored people and every 
member of the cast is colored. Opening 
on May 23, the production has had an un- 
interrupted run, at the time that this is 
written, of over 200 consecutive perform- 
ances. The production is tuneful, clever 
satire, done with the zest and energy which 
only colored people can achieve. Every 
person who plans to be in New York dur- 



114 



ARKANSAS PEONS 



115 



ing the winter should make it as much his 
business to see "Shuffle Along" as he would 
to see Fifth Avenue or the Woolworth 
Tower. 

The success of this benefit performance 
offers an excellent example in raising funds 
to branches in other cities. Constant ap- 
peals to the public for contributions in time 
grow burdensome. These appeals, of course, 
will be continued, but legitimate entertain- 
ment in the form of theatrical perform- 
ances (either professional or amateur), 
plays, recitals by individual artists or by 
choral societies, all offer a novelty that will 
be refreshing and appreciated by the pub- 
lic at large, as well as by the membership. 



KF 



FIELD WORK 

IELD Secretaries Bagnal and Pickens 
have been doing intensive work during 
the months of October, November and De- 
cember in a number of Southern States, re- 
viving moribund branches, stimulating and 
assisting those that have been working and 
organizing new branches and college chap- 
ters of the N. A. A. C. P. There has been 
a slump in the activities of some of our 
branches due to the threatening of the lives 
of officers and members by the Ku Klux 
Klan and other organizations. It is most 
encouraging that even in small communities 
and isolated sections of the South these ter- 



roristic methods have aided the N. A. A. 
C. P. in large measure by assisting us in 
keeping the need of a militant, aggressive 
and uncompromising organization ever 
fresh in the minds of colored people. En- 
couraging letters have been received tell- 
ing of the splendid spirit, of colored men 
and women in the South, and the high es- 
teem in which they hold the work of the 
Association. Mr. Pickens is covering the 
States of North Carolina, Georgia, Flori- 
da and Tennessee while Mr. Bagnall is visit- 
ing branches in North and South Carolina, 
Georgia, Alabama and Louisiana. Public 
mass meetings, conferences with branch of- 
ficers and executive committees, meetings 
with clubs, and fraternal, social and busi- 
ness organizations, as well as interviews 
with individuals, combined with construc- 
tive work in effecting organization, are 
their methods. 

Mrs. Hunton has been doing similar and 
very effective work in Indianapolis, Dayton, 
Columbus and Louisville, while Mr. White 
has addressed mass meetings in Chicago, 
Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Indianapolis, 
Buffalo, Providence, Washington and New 
York. 



The annual meeting of the N. A. A. C. P. 
takes place January third and not January 
second. 



THE ARKANSAS PEONS 

A brief prepared by Scipio Jones reviewing the case for 
presentation to the Supreme Court of the United States. 



(Concluded from December Crisis) 
T> ETITIONERS further say that the en- 
■*- tire trial, verdict and judgment against 
them was but an empty ceremony ; that their 
real trial and condemnation had already 
taken place before said Committee of Seven ; 
that said Committee, in advance of the cit- 
ing of the court, had sat in judgment upon 
them and all the other cases and had as- 
sumed and exercised the jurisdiction of the 
court by determining their guilt or inno- 
cence of those in jail had acquired the evi- 
dence in the manner herein set out, and 'de- 
cided which of the defendants should be 
electrocuted and which sent to prison and 
the terms to be given them, and which to 
discharge; that when court convened, the 



program laid out by said Committee was 
carried through and the verdict against pe- 
titioners was pronounced and returned, not 
as the independent verdict of an unbiased 
jury, but as a part of the prearranged 
scheme and judgment of said Committee; 
that in doing this the court did not exercise 
the jurisdiction given it by law and wholly 
lost its jurisdiction by substituting for its 
judgment the judgment of condemnation of 
said Committee. 

Petitioners further say that, ever since 
the law of Arkansas for the selection of 
jury commissioners was enacted, all of the 
judges of the courts have been and are now 
white men, and that ever since then said 
judges have appointed, without exception, 



116 



THE CRISIS 



white commissioners to select the jurors, 
both grand and petit, and that such com- 
missioners have uniformly selected only- 
white men on such juries; that all of this 
has been done in discrimination against the 
Negro race, on account of their color; that 
such has been the unbroken practice in Phil- 
lips County for more than thirty years, not- 
withstanding the Negro population in said 
county exceeds the white population by more 
than five to one, and that a large propor- 
tion of them are electors and possess the 
legal, moral and intellectual qualifications 
required or necessary for such jurors; that 
the exclusion of said Negroes from the 
juries was, at all times, intentional and be- 
cause of their color, of their being Negroes ; 
that such was the case on the grand jury 
by which petitioners were indicted, and of 
the petit jury that pronounced them guilty; 
that under the law of Arkansas, as con- 
strued by the Supreme Court of the State, 
an objection to an indictment on the ground 
that it was found by a grand jury com- 
posed only of white men to the exclusion of 
Negroes on account of their color, must be 
made at the impanelling of the grand jury 
and objection to the petit jury must be 
made before a plea is entered to the in- 
dictment; that at the time said indictment 
was found petitioners were confined in jail 
and did not know the grand jury had been 
organized, did not know it was in session, 
did not know they were to be indicted for 
the killing of said Lee or any other person 
and did not know they were charged there- 
with; that it was impossible for them to 
make any objection to the organization 
of said grand jury for the very sim- 
ple reason that they were closely confined, 
had no attorney, and no opportun- 
ity to employ an attorney; that at their 
trial, counsel appointed to defend them 
made no objection to the petit jury or to 
any previous proceeding; that their failure 
to do so was through fear of the mob for 
petitioners and himself, as they believe. 

Petitioners further say that after their 
conviction and sentence to death, their 
friends employed other counsel to represent 
them; that through such counsel they filed 
a motion for a new trial, which was prompt- 
ly overruled and an appeal was taken to 
the Supreme Court of Arkansas, the high- 
est court in said State, where, on the 29th 
day of March, 1920, the judgment of the 



Phillips Circuit Court was affirmed; that 
thereafter they applied to the Supreme 
Court of the United States for a writ of 
certiorari to the Supreme Court of Arkan- 
sas, praying that said court be required to 
send up the record and proceeding in said 
cause for review by the Supreme Court of 
the United States, but that on the 11th day 
of October, 1920, the application for said 
writ was denied; that the Governor of the 

State of Arkansas did on the day of 

August, 1921, issue a proclamation carry- 
ing into effect the judgment and sentence of 
the Phillips Circuit Court against petition- 
ers and in which he fixed Sept. 23, 1921, 
as the date of their execution. 

Petitioners further say that on the 19th 
day of October, 1920, the Richard L. Kit- 
chens Post of the American Legion of He- 
lena, Arkansas, an organization composed 
of approximately three hundred white ex- 
service men living in every part of Phillips 
County, passed a resolution calling on the 
Governor of the State of Arkansas, for the 
execution by death of petitioners and the 
seven other Negroes condemned to death 
by said Circuit Court at the same time and 
under the same circumstances as petitioners, 
and protesting against the commutation of 
the death sentence of any of said Negroes, 
which said Resolution was presented to the 
then Governor of Arkansas ; that at a meet- 
ing of the Rotary Club of Helena, Arkan- 
sas, attended by seventy-five members, rep- 
resenting as many leading industrial and 
commercial enterprises of said city, and of 
the Lion's Club of said city, attended by 
sixty-five members, representing as many 
of the same kind of enterprises of said city 
each adopted a resolution approving the ac- 
tion of the Richard L. Kitchens Post of the 
American Legion in the premises, which 
said resolutions were presented to the then 
Governor of the State of Arkansas; that 
said resolutions further and conclusively 
show the existence of the mob spirit preva- 
lent among all the white people of Phillips 
County at the time petitioners and the other 
defendants were put through the form of 
trials and show that the only reason the 
mob stayed its hand, the only reason they 
were not lynched was that the leading citi- 
zens of the community made a solemn prom- 
ise to the mob that they should be executed 
in the form of law. Petitioners further 
say that to further show the overwhelming 



ARKANSAS PEONS 



117 



existence of the mob spirit and mob dom- 
ination of their and other trials of Negro 
defendants at the October term, 1919, of the 
Phillips Circuit Court, there were six de- 
fendants convicted of murder in the first 
degree, to wit: John Martin, Alf Banks, 
Will Wordlow, Albert Giles, Joe Fox and 
Ed. Ware, whose cases were also appealed 
to the Supreme Court of Arkansas which 
were reversed on account of bad verdicts, 
due to the extreme haste in securing con- 
victions and executions (Banks vs. State, 
143 Ark. 154), and remanded for a new 
trial; that upon a retrial of said cases, de- 
fendants were again reversed (Ware vs. 
State, Vol. 4 Sup. Court Rep. No. 11, Page 
674), and remanded for a new trial on De- 
cember 6, 1920; that said cases were com- 
ing on for trial at the May term of the 
Phillips Circuit Court, which convened May 
2nd, 1921, and it was represented to the 
Governor of the State of Arkansas by the 
white citizens and officials of Phillips 
County that unless a date of execution was 
set for petitioners there was grave danger 
of mob violence to the other six defendants 
whose cases would be called for trial at the 
May term of said Court and that in all 
probability they would be lynched; that in 
order to appease the mob spirit still preva- 
lent in Phillips County and in a measure 
to secure the safety of the six Negroes 
whose cases were to be called for trial and 
were called on May 9th, 1921, the Governor 
issued a proclamation fixing a date of exe- 
cution of Petitioners for June 10, 1921, 
which was stayed by Court Proceedings; 
that these facts conclusively show that mob 
spirit and mob domination are still univer- 
sally present in Phillips County. 

Petitioners further say that on the 8th 
day of June, 1921, they filed a petition in 
the Pulaski Chancery Court for a Writ of 
Habeas Corpus setting out the matters and 
things herein stated, and that on said date 
the Pulaski Chancery Court issued its Writ 
of Habeas Corpus, directed to the defendant, 
E. H. Dempsey, keeper of the Arkansas 
State Penitentiary, commanding him to have 
the bodies of the Petitioners in Court at 
2 o'clock P.M. on the 10th day of June, 1921, 
and then and there state in writing the term 
and cause of their imprisonment; that on 
the 9th day of June, 1921, the Attorney Gen- 
eral for the State of Arkansas filed with 
the Supreme Court of Arkansas a Petition 



for Writ of Prohibition against J. E. Mar- 
tineau, Chancellor of the Pulaski Chancery 
Court, and your petitioners, and that on the 
20th day of June, 1921, the Supreme Court 
of the State of Arkansas issued its Writ 
of Prohibition against the Judge of the Pu- 
laski Chancery Court, prohibiting him from 
hearing the Petitions for Habeas Corpus 
pending in his court and quashed the Writ 
of Habeas Corpus theretofore issued; that 
thereafter, to wit, on the 4th day of August, 
1921, your petitioners made application to 
the Hon. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Associate 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, for a Writ of Error to the Supreme 
Court of the State of Arkansas in the mat- 
ter of said Writ of Prohibition, but same 
was denied. 

Petitioners, therefore, say that by the 
proceedings aforesaid, they were deprived 
of their rights and are about to be deprived 
of their lives in violation of Section 11, of 
the 14th Amendment of the Constitution of 
the United States and the laws of the 
United States enacted in pursuance thereto, 
in that they have been denied the equal pro- 
tection of the law, and have been convicted, 
condemned and are about to be deprived of 
their lives without due process of law; that 
they are now in custody of the defendant, 
E. H. Dempsey, Keeper of the Arkansas 
State Penitentiary, to be electrocuted on 
the 23rd day of September, 1921; that they 
are now detained and held in custody by 
said Keeper and will be electrocuted on 
said date unless prevented from so doing 
by the issuance of a Writ of Habeas Corpus. 

Petitioners therefore pray that a Writ 
of Habeas Corpus be issued to the end that 
they may be discharged from said unlawful 
imprisonment and unlawful judgment and 
sentence to death. 



The writ of Habeas Corpus asked for 
above was granted. Later a demurrer was 
sustained and the writ discharged. There- 
upon the attorneys appealed to the Supreme 
Court of the United States and their appeal 
was allowed in the United States District 
Court. Thus, the greatest case against pe- 
onage and mob-law ever fought in the land 
and involving 12 human lives, comes before 
the highest court. 

Reader, we have already spent $11,299 to 
save these poor victims; we need $5,000 
more. Can you help? 




CO IV» DlL E.D 



M AOEL INE 



ALLISON 



f~\UR readers will perceive that we have 
^S changed the form and content of this 
department. Hitherto we have tried, in a 
mass of succinct news notes, to cover the 
monthly history of the Negro race. This 
was increasingly difficult to do and in- 
creasingly unnecessary as the weekly Ne- 
gro press progressed in efficient news gath- 
ering. We have decided therefore hereafter 
to select a few outstanding events and per- 
sons each month, which seem to us of last- 
ing significance; these tve shall treat a little 
more at length and whenever possible il- 
lustrate them with pictures. We would like 
our readers to send us accounts of events 
with pictures and to let us know how they 
like this new feature as compared with the 
old. 

HPHE President has appointed Solomon 
-*■ P. Hood, of Trenton, N. J., as United 
States minister to Liberia. Mr. Hood was 
born in Pennsylvania in 1S56. He was edu- 
cated at Lincoln University and became a 
Presbyterian minister. He was associated 
as a young man with Henry Highland Gar- 



net and the late J. C. Price, and finally 
joined the A. M. E. Church, becoming mis- 
sionary in Haiti. Lately he has served as 
pastor in New Jersey and was, when ap- 
pointed, field worker of the Organization 
of Teachers of Colored Children in New 
Jersey. Mr. Hood is a widower with one 
daughter. 

(T William H. Hunt is in New York City on 
a two months' leave of absence. During 
the last 15 years he has been United States 
Consul at St. Etienne, France. Mr. Hunt 
was born in Tennessee; educated at Groton 
Academy in Massachusetts and Williams 
College, and was for a while secretary to 
Consul Judge M. W. Gibbs in Madagascar, 
whom he succeeded as consul in 1901. 
(I In Gary, Indiana, Arthur B. Whitlock, 
of Charleston, S. C, was elected council- 
man from the Fifth Ward at the last elec- 
tion and took his seat January 1. He is 
the first colored man to be elected to that 
position. Mr. Whitlock was born in 1886, 
educated at Rust University, Mississippi 
and Tuskegee Institute. He came to Gary 
as motor inspector in 1917. 




Consul Hunt Solomon Porter Hood Arthur B. Whitlock 

118 



A. D. Porter 



THE HORIZON 



119 




Theodore Nash 



J. T. Newsome 



Mrs. Maggie L. "Walker John Mitchell, .Tr. 



AT the regular Republican Convention of 
Virginia three colored delegates whose 
election was not contested were not al- 
lowed to enter the hall. A Negro-hater, 
H. W. Anderson, was nominated for Gov- 
ernor. As this sort of thing had happened 
before, the Negroes determined to call a 
mass convention of all Republicans to meet 
in Richmond, September 5. At that con- 
vention the following colored persons were 
nominated: John Mitchell, Jr., President 
of the Mechanics' Savings Bank, Governor; 
Theodore Nash, manager of the American 
Beneficial Insurance Company, Lieutenant- 
Governor; J. Thomas Newsome, attorney- 
at-law, Attorney-General, and Mrs. Mag- 
gie L. Walker, president of the St. Luke 
Penny Savings Bank, Superintendent of 
Public Instruction. 

A heated campaign ensued. Just on the 
eve of the election the lily-whites paraded 
with a band of music and 800 people. The 
following night the colored people paraded 
with 5 bands and 5,000 people. There are 
about 36,000 colored voters registered in 
Virginia. Six thousand of these failed to 
pay the 1920 taxes and were ineligible. Of 
the remaining 30,000 the Negroes polled 
about 25,000 votes, thus helping to defeat 
the white Republicans and giving the vic- 
tory to the Democrats by approximately 
65,000. The lily-white machine under 
Congressman C. B. Slemp was smashed. 

d In Louisville, Ky., a somewhat similar 
contest took place. The Republican party 



has refused to permit the Negroes to nomi- 
nate one of their own member in the tenth 
ward, where 90 percent of the population 
is colored. This year when a colored man 
qualified as a candidate m the primary he 
was ousted by court proceedings because 
one of the signers of his petition had regis- 
tered as a Socialist! The local Republican 
organization has sponsored "Jim Crow" 
signs in the parks and had introduced a 
"Jim Crow" street car ordinance. As a re- 
sult, the Negroes formed the Lincoln Party 
and nominated A. D. Porter for Mayor and 
a complete ticket of city officials. The party 
was credited with only 274 votes at the 
polls but as they were not represented at 
the counting of the ballots and were beaten 
away from the polls by the police, this 
probably does not represent one-tenth of 
the actual ballots cast. 

d Benjamin Brawley, former dean of 
Morehouse College and a widely known au- 
thor, has settled at Brockton, Massachu- 
setts where he will act as pastor of the 
Messiah Baptist Church and also devote 
time to literary work. He issued last spring 
a short history of the American Drama 
which will be used as a college text book. 
His latest book is a social history of the 
American Negro which he describes as "be- 
ing a history of the Negro problem in the 
United States including a history and study 
of the Republic of Liberia". This book is 
quite different from his Short History of 
the Negro Race which is still widely read. 
A second edition of Mr. Brawley's "Art 



120 



THE CRISIS 




George F. Alberg-u 



Lieut. E. E. Thompson 



C. C. Spaulding 



M. S. Stuart 



and Literature Among American Negroes" 
is also in preparation. 

f^ EORGE F. ALBERGU was born in 
^J Jamaica in 1892. He was educated at 
Monroe College, awarded the Jamaica schol- 
arship of $3,000 and entered McGill Uni- 
versity, Canada, in 1911. Here he gained the 
mathematical prize in 1913 and graduated 
from the engineering course in 1915. He was 
a notable athlete while in college. Since 
graduation he has been chief inspector in 
the Munitions Department of Cement 
County, for three years a member of thn 
Canadian Expeditionary Forces in the Con- 
struction Battalion, for a year in the Chief 
Engineer's Office of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway and at present a member of the 
engineering staff of McGill University. He 
is a junior member of the Engineering In- 
stitute of Canada. Our correspondent is 
impressed "by his modesty and manly 
bearing". 

(I Many of our readers know of the success 
of the colored Syncopated Orchestra in 
London under the management of Mr. 
George Lattimore. Recently after a three 
weeks' successful stay in Glasgow, Scot- 
land, they left to fill an engagement in 
Dublin, Ireland. While on the water their 
ship was sunk by two collisions. As a re- 
sult, William Bates, Vallie Brown, J. Greer, 
A. Jaeger, F. L. Lattes, Frank Lacton, J. 
McDonald, Peter Robinson and Walter B. 
Williams were drowned. There were many 
hair-breadth escapes, some of the survivors 



being in the water three hours before they 
were rescued. Nearly ail the clothing, in- 
struments and personal property of all the 
members of the company were lost. Mr. 
Lattimore hurried back from Dublin by 
special steamer and the survivors were re- 
turned to Glasgow where all the artists 
and actors in the city united in two benefits 
by which over $2,500 was raised and dis- 
tributed among them. The company will 
reorganize and continue its work. 
d One of the heroes of the disaster was 
E. E. Thompson, leader of the orchestra, 
who served in France with the "Buffaloes". 
He dragged men, women and children oui 
of the water on to a life raft. 
(I A federation of Negro insurance asso- 
ciations known as the National Negro In- 
surance Association was formed at Durham 
in October by representatives from Atlanta 
and Augusta, Georgia; Jacksonville, Flori- 
da; Charlotte* Durham, Reidsville, Colum- 
bia and Winston, North Carolina; Memphis, 
Tennessee and Richmond, Virginia, there 
being 13 companies in all. C. C. Spalding, 
of North Carolina, was elected president 
and M. S. Stuart of Mississippi was made 
secretary and T. L. Tate of North Carolina, 
treasurer. The association will recommend 
courses of study in insurance in colored 
colleges, will publish an insurance journal, 
exchange mortality experiences for the pur- 
pose of constructing a Negro mortality 
table, and will seek to induce the companies 
to establish social service and health de- 
partments. 



THE HORIZON 



121 




FRED (DUKE) SLATER 

HPHE particular Negro star during the 
■*■ recent football season was Duke Slater, 
of the State University of Iowa. "All ex- 
perts can see that Slater is the greatest 
tackle who ever trod a Western gridiron." 
Slater has been named on FarrelPs second 
All American Team and on Clark's All 
Western Team which is confessedly "built 
around Iowa's great Negro tackle". 
(I Among colored institutions the results of 
the season have been as follows: 



Lincoln 26 

Lincoln 63 

Lincoln 20 

Lincoln 13 

Lincoln 

Lincoln 13 

Talladega 27 

Talladega 23 

Talladega 39 

Talladega 21 

Talladega 3 

Tuskegee 2 

Tuskegee 13 

Tuskegee 7 

Tuskegee 



Bordentown 

Morgan 

Wilberf orce 6 

Hampton 

Union 1 

Howard 7 

Miles Memorial 

Morris Brown 13 

Tuskegee 7 

State Normal 

Florida A. & M 

Fisk 7 

Atlanta 

Talladega 39 

Florida A. & M 



Tuskegee 21 

Hampton 25 

Hampton 7 

Hampton 

Hampton 

Hampton 3 

W. Va. Institute 73 

W. Va. Institute 40 

W. Va. Institute 

W. Va. Institute 41 

W. Va. Institute 

W. Va. Institute 14 

Morehouse 41 

Morehouse 7 

Morehouse 41 

Morehouse 13 

Morehouse 7 

Morehouse 6 

Howard 19 

Howard 33 

Howard 26 

Howard 3 

Howard 24 



Paine 

St. Paul 2 

Shaw 6 

Lincoln 13 

Howard 34 

Union 14 

Bluefield 

Simmons 

Howard 3 

Ky. Normal 

Va. Theo 3 

Wilberf orce 

Camp Benning 18 

Morris Brown 

Biddle 

Knoxville 

Atlanta 

Fisk 

Virginia Seminary ... 
North Carolina A. & T. 

Virginia N. & 1 

W. Va. Institute 

Shaw 




CAPT. J. H. LAW— HALF-BACK ON LINCOLN 
TEAM 



122 



THE CRISIS 




THE HAMPTON FOOTBALL TEAM 



Howard 34 

Howard 6 

Fisk 7 

Fisk 33 

Fisk 13 

Fisk 14 

Fisk 



Hampton 

Lincoln 13 

Tuskegee 2 

Rust 

Simmons 7 

Wilberforce 

Morehouse 6 



(I The colored school athletic league of 
New Orleans under the leadership of its 
president, 0. C. W. Taylor, has, during the 
past year conducted a successful basket- 



ball series throughout the 16 public schools; 
conducted baseball series between 12 
schools; compiled a physical athletic rec- 
ord of 4,200 boys and girls in the grammar 
grades; staged a track and field meet with 
over 1,700 participants; distributed 1,269 
medals; placed a small amount of athletic 
material in all of the public schools; paid 




TRACK AND FIELD MEET OF 1700 PARTICIPANTS 



THE HORIZON 



123 



all its debts and accomplished this without 
a paid physical director. Our illustration 
shows the second annual track and field 
meet and a part of the boys and girls who 
participated. 

C An unusually large number of Greek let- 
ter sororities among colored college women 
met during the holiday season. In Phila- 
delphia 100 delegates from all over the coun- 
try and as far West as the Pacific Coast 
representing the Delta Sigma Theta Soror- 
ity held their third annual convention at the 
University of Pennsylvania. Fourteen 
chapters were represented. 

The Zeta Phi Beta Sorority met at Mor- 
gan College, Baltimore. 

The Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority has 
established Rho Chapter at the University 
of California. The members consist of 
girls whose grades have averaged above 
80 percent. Mrs. W. E. Green of Chicago 
is national president of this sorority. 

Rho Chapter of the Kappa Alpha Psi 
Sorority has been established at Wash- 
burn College, Topeka, Kan. 
C J. A. Hodge, principal of Sumner High 
School, Kansas City, Kansas, has just 
been elected president of the Administra- 
tive Club, which is composed of the high 
school principals of the city, together with 
five district supervisiors, the special super- 
visors, director of continuation schools and 
the statistical expert. All members are 
white except Mr. Hodge and A. J. Neely, 
supervisor of the colored grade schools. 
(I The colored teachers of Kansas City, 
Kansas, enjoy a complete democracy. They 




RHO CHAPTER, ALPHA KAPPA ALPHA 

are represented on the Teachers' Council 
by two delegates, one of whom served as 
treasurer the past year. They have all 
meetings in common with the whites, as 
well as all classes in extension work. 
C The three white high schools and Sum- 
ner High School are planning a joint con- 
cert for next March, which will be given in 
four sections of the city to raise funds for 
the high school bands. These bands will 
be uniformed alike and are to be called on 
to play occasionally as a unit band. 




NEW ORLEANS COLORED SCHOOL ATHLETIG LEAGUE 



124 



THE CRISIS 




UNCLE SAM IS TREMENDOUSLY INTERESTED IN DISARMAMENT 



r T , HE following lynchings have taken 
■*■ place since our last record: 

November 18, Helena, Ark., Will Turner, 
charged with assault upon a young white 
woman, was taken by a mob from a sher- 
iff's posse while being removed to Mar^an- 
na for safe-keeping. After being shot to 
death his body was brought back to Hejeria 
and burned in the city park. 

G. November 25, Lake Village, Ark., Robert 
Hicks, a young Negro was charged with 
going to the home of a white girl to learn 
why she had not answered a note he had 
written her. A mob of about 30 men hid- 
ing near the front porch seized him, took 
him about a half mile down a road and 
riddled his body with bullets. "Death at 
the hands of unknown persons" was the 
coroner's verdict. 

C November 26, Sour Lake, Texas, Henry 
Cade, lynched by 300 men. He was ac- 
cused of attacking- an eight-year old girl. 
The girl's father wounded the Negro and 
officers who had taken him in charge were 
overpowered by the mob. The Negro was 
hanged. 



C November 30, Ballinger, Texas, Robert 
Murtore, 15 years old, charged with attack- 
ing a nine-year-old white girl, was taken 
from officers and lynched. The sheriff 
tried to escape with the boy, but he was 
overpowered, the boy taken and tied to a 
post and his body riddled with bullets. 



THE PRIZE HORIZON 

771 ACH month events happen which are 
-*■-' significant in the history of the Ne- 
gro race. Sometimes the newspapers hear 
of these things and sometimes they do not. 
In order to encourage the proper record- 
ing of all such events the Crisis offers 
monthly three prizes. 

For the best account, with facts, names, 
dates and so forth, of any event which il- 
lustrates the progress of the Negro race, 
accompanied by a photograph of the event 
or of some participants, we will pay $3 ; for 
the second best account, $2; and for the 
third best, $1. The editors of the Crisis 
will be the judges and the results will be 
announced each month. 



"LOOKING BACKWARD" 




Jessie Fauset 




T7IFTY years from now this agonized 
* world will look back on the doings of 
the Peace Conference and the League of 
Nations, the propositions of the Treaty of 
Versailles and of the Disarmament Confer- 
ence and wonder why there was so much 
pother and ado. By that time issues will 
have become clarified and that generation 
will think it strange that the Tightness of 
the attitude of France as contrasted with 
the attitude of Great Britain should have 
been questioned. Or vice versa. It takes 
time to give perspective. 

Glancing down the perspective of a fifty 
years already gone one comes across an- 
other Reconstruction of a War no less mo- 
mentous for those days. That period is still 
known as "The Reconstruction" for this 
country, and men and women, students of 
human happenings, looking back can see it 
as the single finest instance of the effort 
of a nation to set immediately right an 
ancient wrong. Of course it was an effort 
girt with many an attendant injustice and 
with the bestowal of many unequal privi- 
leges but still more it bespoke the willing- 
ness of erring human nature "to try to be 
good". 

Above all it gave a thwarted and despised 
race a chance to show its mettle. 

Many colored men joined bravely and 
splendidly in that attempt. Both white 
and black Americans have occasion to be 
proud of the statesmanship shown in that 
day by Rainey, DeLarge, Cain and Smalls. 

Out of the swelling list of names which 
occur to me I like most to think of that of 
Robert Brown Elliott who combined in one 
mere frame and brain all our best possi- 
bilities, a sort of precursor of all we may 
hope to be in industry, in honor and in 
statesmanship. 

As a very young man he was a sailor and 
a printer, but his exceptional training ac- 
quired in his native town, Boston, and at 
Eton College in England, fitted him for 
more useful callings than either of those. 
Does a man round out his virtues deliber- 
ately to adopt certain responsibilities or 
do the high gods, realizing that such or 
such an individual will respond best to cer- 



tain stimuli, thrust the responsibilities 
upon him? 

I cannot guess. I only know that Elliott, 
a mere printer in Charleston, S. C, was 
elected on sheer merit to the Constitution- 
al Convention, that in this capacity he 
blocked the passage of a measure engaging 
to reimburse former slave-owners for the 
loss of their "chattels"; that thereafter he 
was elected to the State Legislature, be- 
came its leader, was chairman of the Re- 
publican State Executive Committee and 
following these experiences was quite log- 
ically elected as representative to the 42nd 
and 43rd Congresses. 

In Congress his fame was instant as a 
brilliant speaker, a keen and logical op- 
ponent, a fearless and tireless battler for 
the rights of man. Charles Sumner, the 
author of the Civil Rights Bill, counted on 
Elliott; on his (Sumner's) deathbed he 
besought the colored man, "Don't let my 
Civil Rights Bill die." 

But I do not mean to dwell on the mere 
facts of his career; one can find them easi- 
ly enough in biographies and histories. 
What I want to point out is what he meant 
to us. 

Consider him then as the model, as the 
mould in human form, of the possibilities 
of our race — this by no means especially 
striking black men of undeniably Negroid 
appearance with his finely shaped hands 
and feet, his precise and careful speech 
and his candid gaze. 

What made him great? What outside of 
the secret, inimitable inner force has he 
left for us to emulate? I repeat his indus- 
try, his honor and his statesmanship. 

There is no question as to this first qual- 
ity. He was born in 1842 and we find him 
graduating from Eton, one of the colleges 
of the University of London in 1858! There- 
after he studied law, but see how purpose- 
fully he had already filled the first 16 years 
of his life. And he never gave up his studi- 
ous habits, for throughout the years he 
kept up a practical acquaintance with 
French, German and Spanish; he knew his 
Latin and was unusually conversant with 
the Bible. 



125 



126 



THE CRISIS 



Elliott's sense 
of honor was so 
high that short- 
ly after the 
death of Sumner 
he resigned 
fro mi Congress 
in order to meet 
the opposition 
already starting 
in South Caro- 
lina against the 
Negro in poli- 
ties. Charges of 
corruption were 
coming thick 
and fast not 
only against the 
race but against 
the Republican 
party. No one 
had figured 
more actively in 
Republican poli- 
tics than El- 
liott, yet his integrity was never serious- 
ly questioned. And he employed much of 
his considerable legal and oratorical talent 
in defending not necessarily his political 
friends but his political colleagues. 

As a statesman he had not only the wel- 
fare of his people but that of his country at 
heart. There was never any quibbling and 
no effort at personal advancement. His 
methods were uncompromising and fear- 
less. His attacks on his political opponents 
were launched with "the strength of ten". 
He knew how to tip his shafts with darts 
of homely wit, of telling truths, of historic 
allusions that never failed their mark. At 




ROBERT BROWN ELLIOTT 



the time of the 
fight for the 
Civil Rights Bill 
the opposition 
was headed by 
Alexander H 
Stephens of 
Georgia (even 
then enlisted on 
the side of 
wrong!). He 
was an old man 
and infirm, but 
for all that con- 
sidered by the 
Demo crats as 
their great pro- 
tagonist. Elliott 
said to him 
sternly : 

"The results 
of the war, as 
seen in recon- 
struction, have 
settled forever 
the political status of my race. The passage 
of this bill will determine the civil status, 
not only of the Negro, but of any other 
class of citizens who may feel themselves 
discriminated against." 

Men like Elliott do not die. They live 
on and on in their own people, in the world. 
Yet their memory must be kept green, their 
tale be retold in order that we of a later 
day may take fresh heart. This, then, 
a little tribute not necessary to Robert 
Brown Elliott of imperishable fame, but an 
added spur, a clew, perhaps a draught of 
cold water to our Negro youth which must 
not faint nor flag. 



IN THE FRENCH WEST INDIES 

FlLOGENES MAILLARD 




T N the French West Indies, we Negroes 
■*■ cannot complain, for all males over 21 
years are electors and eligibles ; we are full- 
fledged French citizens. France is the only 
white nation in the world which has made 
the Negro the equal of the white. We elect 
by indirect vote a Senator who sits in the 
Senate in Paris ; Berenger, white, is our 
Senator. We elect by direct popular suf- 
frage two deputies who sit in the Chambre 
des Deputes; the present ones are Candace 
and Boisneuf, both black. Guadeloupe and 



dependencies are comprised] of 36 cantons; 
we elect a Counsellor for each canton who 
sits in the General Council at Basse-Terre, 
chief city and capital of the Colony. In 
the Communes, we elect a Municipal Coun- 
cil composed of 10, 14, 18, 21, 23, or more 
members, depending on population; the Mu- 
nicipal Council elects the Mayor. The Gov- 
ernor, who is generally a European, is 
named by the Minister of Colonies with the 
consent of our three Representatives in 
France. 



jAiq Lookiivcr Glass 



THE PRESIDENT 

COME just concept of the place which the 
^ problem of inter-racial relationship 
holds in the life of the United States may- 
be gained by the importance given Mr. 
Harding's speech in the national press. A 
great many southern newspapers consider 
the President unusually brave and cour- 
ageous in voicing such utterances. Thus 
the Louisville Times declares that "Bravery 
was required for the utterance that 'men 
of both races may well stand uncompromis- 
ingly against every suggestion of social 
equality.' " The Birmingham News feels 
"The South will have no quarrel with Pres- 
ident Harding upon his address," for as 
the Kinston, N. C, Free Press says his 
views "are entertained by the best thought 
in the South." 

But there is some difference of opinion 
too. The Roanoke (Va.), World News, 
states : 

Mr. Harding's speech offers no solution 
for the Negro problem. But it was a cour- 
ageous speech and a helpful speech, and 
will do. infinitely more good than harm. 

The Raleigh News and Observer feels 
likewise but gives a new and unpleasant 
slant to the President's utterance: 

Mr. Harding has not contributed a single 
constructive thought to the solution of the 
race problem, but there is encouragement in 
this statement that the people of other sec- 
tions of the country are coming around to 
the southern view of the matter. 

The approach from this to actual disap- 
proval is easy. Senator Harrison, of Mis- 
sissippi authorized this remark in the New 
York Tribune: 

"The President's speech was unfortunate, 
but to have been made in the heart of the 
South, where in many States the Negro 
population predominates, was unfortunate 
in the extreme. 

"Of course, every rational being desires 
to see the Negro protected in his life, liberty 
and property. I believe in giving him every 
right under the law to which he is entitled, 
but to encourage the Negro, who in some 
states, as in my own, exceeds the white 
population, to strive through every political 
avenue to be placed upon equality with the 
whites, is a blow to the white civilization 
of this country." 

Senator Watson, of Georgia, also took 



issue. Turning again to the New York 
Tribune we read: 

He expressed regret that the President 
made the Birmingham speech, said the Ne- 
gro question was Southern and local and 
similar to the Japanese question which is 
"vexing the Pacific Coast." He thought it 
unfortunate that the President, "who did 
not understand the situation in the South," 
should "lecture" the Southern people about 
treatment of the Negro. He denied there 
was economic discrimination against the 
Negro in the South. 

The Tribune reports a very strong word 
of Senator Spencer, of Missouri, but Re- 
publican, who says: 

"The President, with characteristic force 
and dignity, uttered in the language of the 
statesman what every man who believes in 
the Constitution of the United States ac- 
cepts wholeheartedly. That the right of 
citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United 
States or any state oh account of race, 
color or previous condition of servitude, is 
the fundamental law of the land." 

Northern white opinion on the speech in 
general is likewise divided. Thus we find 
Senator Hitchcock of Nebraska thinking 
the President "right in principle," but de- 
claring that "the race question could not 
be solved by argument and the President's 
speech would not improve the situation." 

But on the other hand Senator Willis 
of Ohio declares: 

"The President's ringing statement in de- 
fense of political and economic equality of 
individual opportunity, with recognition of 
absolute divergence in things social and 
racial, is as courageous as it is true. The 
country will applaud President Harding's 
clearness of statement and patriotism of 
purpose." 

The New Republic (New York), finds 
the President's "scheme for the solution 
of the race problem in the South has much 
to recommend it, so far as its spirit is 
concerned." It is the belief of the San 
Francisco Call that he made a courageous 
speech "not calculated to win any white 
votes for the Republican party, but well 
over on the side of justice to the Negro." 
The editor continues gravely: 

"It is not pleasant for fairminded men to 
admit that any bravery is required for a 
government official to insist on the political 
aiid economic freedom that is guaranteed 



127 



128 



THE CRISIS 



every citizen by the constitution of the Unit- 
ed States. But the fact happens to be true 
in some sections of the country, and most 
flagrantly in the South." 

The colored press runs the gamut of ap- 
probation, antagonism and cynicism. This 
last note is frequently struck. The Okla- 
homa City Black Dispatch opines: "View- 
ing President Harding's speech from the 
angle of the purpose for which it was in- 
tended, it was a pretty good speech." The 
"purpose" this editor goes on to point out 
was, af course, to win over the white 
South. In similarly cynical vein runs this 
comment of the Houston (Tex.) Informer: 

"The President is precisely right in his 
viewpoint, spoken; his actions will be a 
horse of another color. 

"We have heard much of and from Presi- 
dent Harding the "talker;" now let us see 
something tangible, definite and construc- 
tive from President Harding the "doer." 
Amen!" 

The Boston Chronicle expresses the same 
wish. James Weldon Johnson, writing in 
the New York Age, hopes doubtfully that 
the "net result of the President's speech 
will be good, but there is grave danger in 
some of the things he said." 

But there are some surprises. The Nor- 
folk Journal and Guide says amazingly: 

"As a whole President Harding's utter- 
ances were received with enthusiasm in the 
North, East and West, and there is every 
reason to believe that he spoke the senti- 
ments of thousands of white Southerners. 
The South as a whole is not disposed to 
hold any deserving member of the Negro 
race back politically, economically and edu- 
cationally." 

"The speech stands without a parallel 
among the utterances of the chief executives 
of the nation," thinks the Omaha Monitor. 
Less favorable is the criticism of the St. 
Paul Appeal, which considers that his 
speech "displayed remarkable misinforma- 
tion on the subject due to the fact that he 
hals evidently studied from one side only." 
* * * 

POLITICAL EQUALITY 
Thus much for generalities. The purely 
political issues involved bring a different 
kind of comment. Here the colored press 
feels the motives behind the speech are 
at least questionable. The Oklahoma 
Black Dispatch goes into detail : 
• To those of us who have watched the 
present administration get into action, we 
know that it is the desire of the Republican 
Party to break into the solid south. The 



activity of the national committee in the 
Georgia situation, which has well nigh 
shorn Col. Henry Lincoln Johnson of his 
power as National Committeeman, together 
with the other alliances that the Adminis- 
tration has made with lily-whitism through- 
out the South loans color to the thought 
that the President's speech was an attempt 
to step closer to the white South v/ith an 
appeal that could later be construed to mean 
whatever any local condition demanded 
that it mean. 

Of course, it was to be expected that any 
sort of statement that a Republican stand- 
ard bearer would make in the heart of the 
South would be attacked by such cheap 
politicians as Heflin, Pat Harrison, Mc- 
Kellar and Watson. That had to be counted 
on. But the main idea was to precipitate a 
discussion which in the long run would be 
beneficial to the Republican Party from the 
standpoint of votes. The Republican chief- 
tains know that there is no way under hell 
or heaven to convert Hefln and Pat Harri- 
son. They do have hopes, however, of run- 
ning off with their crowd. 

If the above surmise is not correct, we 
have no way to account for the otherwise 
meaningless statement of the President 
about "social equality" to the whites and 
the admonition to his Negro auditors to 
"improve itself as a distinct race, with a 
heredity, ■ a set of traditions, an array of 
aspirations all its own." 

Linking up the President's speech with 
the Democratic victories occurring shortly 
after in Kentucky, Virginia and New York 
City, the Houston Informer says: 

In both Kentucky and Virginia the col- 
ored citizens put out indipendent tickets, not 
that they were confident of winning any 
offices, but to "get the grand old party" 
chieftains told and show them where to 
"head in" in matters political. 

There is a well-defined program, inidi- 
ous and infamous, among the white Repub- 
licans in the South (and Northern Repub- 
licans are apparently winking at the game) 
to oust the colored brother from the affairs 
and councils of the Republican party and 
render and maintain same absolutely "lily- 
white" in every particular. 

The national administration, either con- 
sciously or unconsciously, wilfully or un- 
knowingly, has nodded assent and put its 
stamp of approval upon this unRepublican, 
unAmerican and undemocratic elimination 
policy of the "lily-white" regime, clique and 
coterie. 

The colored voters have tired of such 
treatment, and, since Republican leaders 
have shown the inclination and disposition 
to give the race a "cold shoulder" and 
"double-cross", these colored Americans 
have decided that they have paid the Re- 
publican party about all they owe it and 
what the party owes them, they do not ever 
expect to get. 

Realizing that they are American citizens, 
these black voters perfected organizations 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



129 



to alienate the colored vote from the Repub- 
lican party, thereby showing to the party 
leaders that the "Uncle Tom" type of black 
man is an extinct specimen of humanity. 

"It is our contention," declares the At- 
lanta Independent, "that the Administra- 
tion has turned the [Republican! party's 
affairs into the hands of lily-whites who 
are willing to join the party only on con- 
dition that the Negro is eliminated." To 
substantiate this statement it quotes the 
following from the Athens (Ga.) Evening 
News : 

"Republican party chieftains are laying 
extensive plans to build up a new party or- 
ganization in the South, based on a greater 
white representation, it was learned here 
today. 

"At the congressional elections one year 
hence, this new organzation, they hope, will 
extend the Republican foothold in the 
South which was gained when Presid nt 
Harding broke down the opposition in many 
old line Democratic strongholds last year. 

Of whom does this new organization con- 
sist? Lilywhites, as we save just stated, 
who believe no more in the principles of 
the Republican party than the rankest Dem- 
ocrat, and who are Democrats to all in- 
tents and purposes. They call themselves 
Republicans simply to secure Republican 
jobs, but at base, they are nothing more 
nor less than bourbon Democrats. The 
Athens News says further: 

"The drive is aimed at influential white 
voters of the South and is based on three 
considerations : 

"1 — The tremendous number of southern 
votes received by President Harding last 
November. 

"2— The support National Republican 
policies have received from southern busi- 
ness men. 

"3 — Belief of Republican managers that 
thousands of southern voters will turn Re- 
publican once they are convinced that the 
race question would not be raised by Re- 
publican success. 

"This view is held by his party officials to 
be the greatest obstacle to progress in the 
South and most attention is being direct:d 
at it just now." 

However, the division of colored people 
along political lines is not a bad thing, in- 
deed "it has been the teaching of many 
thoughtful colored Americans for years," 
says the Omaha Monitor. 

It remains for the Kansas City Call to 
present reasons of international purport 
for the real motives underlying the Presi- 
dent's speech, namely to inspire, while the 
Disarmament Conference is going on, more 
faith on the part of the Japanese toward 
us. The editor argues: 

They, [the Japanese] wonder will the 



United States, with its theory and practice 
of "white supremacy," be fair-minded and 
share commercial opportunity and political 
prestige with the yellow man? Will this 
nation be more kindly disposed toward one 
race of color than it has been toward the 
red man and the black man? Is there any 
sense of fair play and common humanity 
in the United States, where it deals with 
a people of color. 

At all costs the Japanese must be led to 
believe that America will be fair to a peo- 
ple of color, and that the subject matter, 
not the race of those interested, will be the 
thing considered. 

Hence the President's Birmingham speech. 
In it we feel sure that he was far more in- 
terested in the persuading the white Amer- 
ican to dealing fair with the black Amer- 
ican, than he was of proving the divergen- 
cies between the races. We believe he wants 
a free ballot and a fair count for Negroes 
more than he wants to maintain social iso- 
lation of the races. The President knows 
that if the American white people are not 
willing to leal justly with those of color 
whom they do know, they will not be be- 
lieved when they claim to be fair-minded 
with another colored race. 

The white press comments on the fact 
that equal political opportunity would 
eventually mean the placing of Negroes 
in high legislative positions. And so re- 
marks the Rochester Herald: 

In spite of President Harding's hope for 
a change, the South will remain solid for 
many years to come. It will remain so be- 
cause it will not tolerate Negro rule. It 
will also remain Democratic, as its white 
voters cannot be convinced that Republican 
local governments can guarantee them the 
safeguards they must have for the protec- 
tion of their property and of their lives. Ap- 
prove of this stand or regret it, as we may, 
no person familiar with southern conditions 
and with the convictions and temperaments 
of southern white men, will deny that the 
South has taken it or that it will adhere 
to it. Nor will the North trouble itself to in- 
terfere with whatever political system the 
South adopts for itself. This is certain, if 
the experience of the past carries any les- 
son. 

It is a possibility that the Negro might 
become even President. The Boston Post 
inquires : 

But is it, under our laws and our spirit 
of liberty, so very appalling? If a Negro 
had the ability and the character, and could 
obtain the nomination and get votes enough 
to win the election, what then? Would the 
country go upon the rocks because, although 
its political laws and customs had been fully 
observed, the successful candidate were to 
have a dark skin? 

The Philadelphia Public Ledger backs 
up this attitude: 

No one will gainsay the truth of the 



ISO 



THE CRISIS 



President's dictum, that only the Negro who 
is fit to vote should be permitted to do so; 
and his further assertion that the same rule 
should apply to the white as well as to the 
black citizen went to the root of the prob- 
lem, so far as concerns its political aspects. 
When this Nation is ready and has the 
courage and honesty to eliminate the unfit 
voter, whether he be white or black, that 
much the nearer will it attain to the ideal 
of democracy. 

But the Pittsburgh Leader observes 
rather cynically that the white Southerner 
will feel that all along he has been doing 
what the President advises as a safe po- 
litical course. 

The purifiers of the South will tell Mr. 
Harding that allowing the Negro citizen to 
vote when fit and preventing the white citi- 
zen from voting when unfit has been their 
unvarying rule of conduct. But — they may 
also tell him what he probably knows, that, 
in their opinion, the Negro citizen is never 
actually fit and the white citizen never is 
actually unfit. Try as they will the whites 
of the South have never been able to dis- 
cover the Negro citizen who is fit to vote. 
And on the other hand their closest scrutiny 
has failed to discover the white man who 
is unfit. . . . 

If there is one thing that is settled in 
the South to stay settled it is that no Negro 
is fit to vote and no white man unfit. Given 
free translation, that means that no Negro 
is ever fit to have anything except what the 
white man permits him to hold. If this is 
democracy the spirit of American institu- 
tions — to leave the law and constitution out 
of all consideration — then the South is the 
hearthstone of democracy and American- 
ism. 

"The President made the mistake," says 
the Brooklyn Citizen, "of trying at one 
and the same time to hold the Negro vote 
for the Republican party, and to capture 
the white vote." 

"The speech was a part of the Republi- 
can campaign," thinks the Springfield Re- 
publican. We read: 

For several months the leaders of the Re- 
publican party have been planning a real 
campaign to break the Democratic hold on 
the "solid South". Some have advocated 
that the way to do it is for some statement 
to be made which would assure the whites 
in the South that they could vote the Re- 
publican ticket without fear of Negro 
domination. This has indeed been advocated 
by those Republicans^ who hailed from the 
South and who knew that some such utter- 
ance was necessary before the whites could 
be persuaded to desert the Democratic 
standard. On the other hand, northern Re- 
publicans who have been helped in recent 
years by the influx of Negroes into their 
congressional districts have feared that 



such a statement would be regarded as hos- 
tile by northern Negroes. 

A unique point of view is voiced by the 
Buffalo Times : 

It is a pity for anybody to put a political 
construction on this Birmingham speech and 
interpret it as an attempt to "split the solid 
South." The Birmingham address was not 
political. It was neither Republican nor 
Democratic. It was a plea for a truly 
American spirit of humanity and co-ordina- 
tion with respect to the Negro question. 

The opinion gleaned from the white 
southern press shows that the President's 
plea for political equality met with little 
sympathy. In the first place the South 
dislikes outside interference. The Wash- 
ington correspondent of the New York 
Tribune quotes Senator Heflin of Alabama: 

"There is no escape from the conclusion 
that absolute political and economic equality 
between the white man and the Negro means 
the wiping out of all color lines in 'partner- 
ships in business and in the election of Ne- 
groes to office over white people. Social 
equality is next door to such a humiliating 
and disgraceful policy. So far as the 
South is concerned we hold to the doctrine 
that God Almighty has fixed the limits and 
boundary lines between the .two races and no 
Republican living can improve upon his 
handiwork." 

Senator McKellar, of Tennessee found 
the President's discussion of "the race ques- 
tion in the very heart of the black belt un- 
fortunate." 

Frank Diedmeyer, of Birmingham, made 
in a letter to the New York Herald, a 
typical southern statement: 

The white people of the South have a 
deep conviction that they understand the 
black man: that they have solved the race 
problem; that both races, but each in its 
destined path, will march on to better and 
higher things, the one helpful to the other. 
All outside atenvpts to settle! the so-called 
race problem will fail. Such attempts tend 
to upset what might be called the Negro 
psychology, and the white man will continue 
to consider it imperative for his social and 
political preservation to remain under the 
standard of that political party which for 
more than a generation has guaranteed to 
him the stability of his institutions, the 
security of his home and of his well being. 

"The speech," writes the editor of the 
Birmingham Post was "a political maneu- 
ver, ... a tactless address and a vio- 
lation of the proprieties of the circum- 
stances of the President's visit' to Birming- 
ham." 

The Baltimore American, however, feels 
that when the President went into the po- 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



131 



litical status of the Negro he talked 
"sense". It is injurious to link the Negro 
always and only with one party. The 
Republican party is already well in- 
trenched; it is the South that needs help, 
not the party. The article continues: 

It does not need to break the Solid South 
in order to carry elections, but the Solid 
South does need to be broken if it is to 
march in step with the rest of the country 
along the road of progress. One-party rule 
in any section is deadening to the political 
energies of a people, and deadened political 
energies make for decay, corruption and 
economic retardment. 

That deadening process is one of the 
major reasons why the South has not kept 
step with the rest of the country in the ac- 
cumulation of wealth. The South has lain 
largely dormant under the somewhat irre- 
sponsible and slothful rule of a party sure 
of its power and immune to rebuke. 
* * * 

SOCIAL EQUALITY 
As might have been expected the point 
in the President's speech which drew the 
most editorial fire from white and black 
press alike was his dictum on social equal- 
ity. North and South realize that there can 
be no real political equality without conse- 
quent social equality. A. T. Hall, Sr., writ- 
ing in the Pittsburgh Dispatch goes right 
to the heart of the matter: 

While the president appropriately voiced 
what has been all along the burden of the 
black man's plea in relation to equality — - 
complete civic, industrial and political op- 
portunity — his references to amalgamation 
and social equality were certainly far- 
fetched and uncalled-for, despite his sugges- 
tion to eliminate all consideration of them, 
unless they were thrown in as a "sop to 
Cerebus" or as a bit of rhetorical sugar to 
offset the other unpalatable facts he was 
trying to cram down the consciousness of his 
southern audience. The social side of man- 
kind is a matter of natural and individual 
selection which no code of laws of human 
origin and construction has ever, or can 
ever, regulate or control. 

This fact is so patent and obvious that it 
makes the continued hullabaloo about race 
purity of professional agitators, or preju- 
diced persons, assume the character of a 
smoke screen, behind which the Negro is 
exploited wantonly, wickedly and in every 
possible manner. 

The San Francisco Calf points out: 
Where the President tried to ride two 
horses, however, was in his limitation of the 
sort of freedom a Negro may expect. Presi- 
dent Harding promised political and eco- 
nomic equality, but definitely said that no 
Negro should aspire to social equality, what- 
ever that is. If it means what most people 
think it does, however, it means that Presi- 
dent Harding, while willing to see the Ne- 



gro elected to congress and becoming the 
owner of a farm or his own home, might 
not go so far as to invite 1 a Booker T. Wash- 
ington to dinner at the White House table. 

"You can't draw a sharp line between 
politics and social life," declares the New 
York New Republic. "That one reference 
to social equality," the New York Nation 
feels, "fell like a lash upon every thought- 
ful Negro and offset much of the good 
Mr. Harding did." 

The Hartford Times thinks white people 
all over the country feel alike about con- 
tact between the races and that Negroes 
feel no differently from the whites: 

Social equality of Negroes and whites is 
no more likely to be recognized in the North 
than it is in the South. There are differences 
among races that are "fundamental, eternal 
and inescapable," as the president said. We 
doubt if the intelligent Negro has any de- 
sire to mingle as a social equal with the 
whites; he undoubtedly prefers to be in the 
upper stratum of his own race. 

Indirectly the Boston Transcript links 
up the Japanese situation with Mr. Hard- 
ing's views : 

In saying that "racial amalgamation can- 
not be," he goes on to associate racial in- 
tegrity with the highest aims of humanity 
as well as with American national safety. 
The race problem, he says, is "becoming 
more and more a problem of the North, more 
and more a problem of Africa, of South 
America, of the Pacific, of the South Seas, 
of the world." If it is a problem of the 
world, those who are seeking to force an 
alien and an Asiatic race upon the Ameri- 
can people may consider themselves rebuked, 
and signally rebuked at the very moment 
when they are preparing to assert their 
claims before the councils of the whole 
world. 

The Negro press throws down the 
gauntlet. Without social equality there 
can be no equality. Dr. DuBois challenges 
in the December Crisis: 

Let us henceforward frankly admit that 
which we hitherto have always known ; that 
no system of social uplift which begins by 
denying the manhood of a man can end by 
giving him a free ballot, a real education 
and a just wage. 

How can a man bring himself to con- 
ceive that the majority of mankind — Chi- 
nese, Japanese, Indians and Negroes are 
going to stand up and acknowledge to the 
world that they are unfit to be men or to as- 
sociate with men, when they know they 
are men? 

Social inequality proclaims inferiority 
of ability. Says the Chicago Whip: 

How can we expect to receive economic 
equality and opportunity when social equal- 



132 



THE CRISIS 



ity is denied? Nobody wants to work side by 
side with his inferior. The white man will 
not allow his black brother to advance be- 
cause of his intrinsic value as long as he 
is regarded as a social inferior. How can 
we expect to become officials in large con- 
cerns when the social intolerance of Amer- 
ica and men like Harding prevent it? 

And the Chicago Enterprise specifies 

just what this race and social separateness 

will mean: 

Complete divergence socially and racially 
means Jim Crow cars, Jim Crow schools, 
and segregated cities. Experience has 
taught us that Jim Crow Schools mean 
poorly equipped and inefficient schools and 
segregated districts are always undesirable 
and neglected districts. How could the idea 
of our oneness as American citizens prevail 
if we insist on complete divergence socially 
and racially? 

The Pittsburg American feels that 
"what the president had to say on the 
question of social equality might better 
have been left unsaid," but that equal po- 
litical and economic opportunities are the 
"only points that vitally concern this great 
group." 

Naturally the southern white papers 
had least to say about social equality since 
the doctrine of political equality had al- 



ready aroused their ire. Still a few editors 
mention it. "A truce to race problem 
talks! There is no race problem in the 
South," declares the Memphis Commercial 
Appeal. "A sensible Negro does not want 
social equality with the white men and 
sane white men know that such a thing is 
impossible." 

We conclude with the Norfolk Virginian 
Pilot which thus sums up the racial diffi- 
culties of the South: 

"In a very real sense social and racial 
segregation carries with it an impairment 
of the equality of opportunity. In a very 
real and troublesome sense equality of op- 
portunity encroaches on social and racial 
separateness. The South's problem is one 
of blending these two sets of principles for 
the good of both races. In its practical as- 
pects the problem begins where the Presi- 
dent leaves off. The promised land where 
the two races will dwell together in peace, 
neither encroaching upon the other, each 
enjoying equality of opportunity and equal- 
ity of reward for achievement, but each 
preserving a dignified racial separateness — 
this Promised Land has already been shown 
to us by many a Moses of our own. The 
President's formula takes us no further 
than Nebo. We have been admiring the view 
from Nebo for a long time now, and it does 
not help much to be told to admire it some 
more." 



PRESIDENT HARDING'S 

Birmingham address challenged by Prof. Kelly Miller, Dean of Howard 
University. 

Have you read President Harding's address? Read it but by all means you 
MUST read what Kelly Miller has to say about President Harding's state- 
ment of the "fundamental inescapable and eternal differences of the Race." 

Read his OPEN LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT. 
Keep abreast of the times. 

In pamphlet form sent to any 
address for 25c. 



Agents Wanted 

Here is your chance to make money, everybody wants a 
copy of this great "challenge." Six copies for $1.00 post- 
paid. Be the first in your territory to handle it. 
WRITE TODAY. Order at least one copy anyway. 

Austin Jenkins Co. 

523 Ninth St. Washington, D. C. 




Prof. Kelly Miller, 
Autkor of "Disgrace of 
Democracy", of which 125,- 
000 copies have been sold. 



fSB 7 1922 



The CRISIS 




FEBRUARY, 1922 



FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY 



Turning Hard Times 
into Prosperous Times 

The year 1921 will ever be remembered as the period of "America's Hardest Times" fol- 
lowing the "World's War. Conditions would be worse than now were it not for the Herculean 
efforts of those determined spirits who are forcing the wheels of progress to continue to re- 
volve. THE SOUTHERN AID SOCIETY OF VA., INC., is proud to be numbered among those 
who are trying to keep the Door of Opportunity open. The cut below shows the new 
$200,000.00 four-story and basement modern fireproof building erected by the Society at 7th 
and Tea Streets, N W., Washington, D. C, to help turn Hard Times into Prosperous Times. 





Not only does the Superior Policy of Protection, issued by the Society, keep the wolf 
from the door of ail Southern Aid Policyholders but its policy of constructing modern office 
buildings, in the various cities where it operates, makes it possible for our professional and 
business interests to have suitable quarters— like the best had by other races — in which to 
display their talents and wares and to do better business. Therefore by its Insurance Policy 
and, as well, by its Business Policy the Society is daily helping to turn Hard Times into 
Prosperous Times. 

SOUTHERN AID SOCIETY OF VIRGINIA, INC. 

Home Office: 527 N. Second Street, RICHMOND, VA. 

District Offices and Agencies in Virginia and 
the District of Columbia 

Insures Against Sickness, Accidents and Deaths 



J. T. CARTER, PRES. 



B. L. JORDAN, SECTY. 



W. A. JORDAN, ASST. SECTY. 



THE CRISIS 

A RECORD OF THE DARKER RAGES 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND COPYRIGHTED BY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE, AT 70 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY. CON- 
DUCTED BY W. E. BURGHARDT DU BOIS; JESSIE REDMON FAUSET, LITERARY EDITOR; 
AUGUSTUS GRANVILLE DILL, BUSINESS MANAGER. 

Vol. 23-No. 4 FEBRUARY, 1922 Whole No. 136 

Page 
COVER 

Drawing by Billie Ellis. 

OPINION 

The World and Us; The Year 1921, In Account With the American 
Negro; The Lynching Bill; Vicious Provisions of a Great Bill; Politics 
and Power; Africa for the Africans; Charles Young 151 

OUR GREATEST FAULT 

Edward H. Morris; Bishop C. H. Phillips; President John Hope 156 

PAINTED POEMS. The Peacock Feather. A Poem 

Mary Effie Lee Newsome 156 

HOWARD UNIVERSITY. E. C. Williams 157 

SUNDAY AFTERNOON. An Essay. Jessie Fauset 162 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED 

PEOPLE 165 

A LYNCHING MAP OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Drawn by 

Madeline G. Allison 166 

THE LINK BETWEEN. The late Natalie Curtis Burlin 170 

THE HORIZON. Illustrated 171 

THE LOOKING GLASS 179 



THE MARCH CRISIS 

The March Crisis will print the Annual Report of the N. A. A. C. P., an article on Gandhi, 
the Indian leader, and our annual book review, including Maran's "Batouala". 



FIFTEEN GENTS A COPY; ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR 

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CHANGE OF ADDRESS: The address of a subscriber can lie changed as often as desired. 
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notice is required. 

MANUSCRIPTS and drawings relating to colored people are desired. They must be accom- 
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Entered as second class matter November 2, 1910, at the post office at New York, New 
York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



148 



THE CRISIS ADVERTISER 



National Training School 

DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA 

A School for the Training of Colored Young 
Men and Women for Service 

Though it 11 young in history, me Institution feci* a ju*t pride in the work thui 
far accomplished, for its graduates are already filling many responsible positions, 
thus demonstrating the aim of the school to train men and women for useful 
citizenship. 

DEPARTMENTS ALREADY ESTABLISHED 

The Grammar Sch©oi The Teacher Training Department 

The Academy The Divinity School 

The School of Arts and Sciences The Commercial Department 

The Department of Music The Department of Home Economics 

The Department of Social Service 

For farther information and Catalog, address 

President James E. Shepard, Durham, North Carolina 



STATE OF NEW JERSEY 

Manual Training & Industrial School 

FOR COLORED YOUTH 

BORDENTOWN, N. J. 

A high Institution for th» training ef colored 
youth. Excellent equipment, thorough Instruction, 
wholesome surroundings. Academic training for all 
students. 
Courses In carpentry, agriculture and trade* for boys, 

including auto repairing. 
Courses In domestic science and domestic art for 

girls. 
A new trades building, thoroughly equipped. 
New girls' dormitory thoroughly and modernly 

equipped. 
Term* reasonable. 

For Information address 
W. R. VALENTINE, Principal 



Wiley University 

Marshall, Texas 

Recognized as a college of first class by 
Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas and Okla- 
homa State Boards of Education. Har- 
vard, Boston University. University of 
Illinois and University of Chicago repre- 
sented on its faculty. One hundred 
twenty-seven in College Department, ses- 
sion 1910-1920. Several new buildings, 
steam heated and electric lighted. 
M. W. DOGAN, President 



LINCOLN UNIVERSITY 

Pioneer in Collegiate and 
Theological Education 

Lincoln Men are Leaders in the various 
professions in Forty States. 

The College is ranked in Class I. by the 
American Medical Association. 

Address: 

John B. Kendall, D.D., Lincoln University, 
Chester County, Penna. 



Cheyney Training School For 
Teachers 

Cheyney, Pa. 

Made in 1930 an accredited State Normal School, 
offering, in addition to the regular Normal Course of 
two years, professional three year courses in Home 
Economics and Shop Work. A diploma from any of 
these courses makes a graduate eligible to teach in 
the public schools of Pennsylvania. A three-year 
High School Course is offered to all who have com- 
pleted the eighth grammar grade. 

For further particulars and catalog, write 

LESLIE pnrCXHZY SILL, Principal, 
Cheyney, Pa. 

THERE WILL BE NO SUMMER SCHOOL FOR 1921 



Mention Tbm Ctifii. 



THE CRISIS 



Vol. 23. No. 4 



FEBRUARY, 1922 



Whole No. 136 




(UVIOIV 



THE WORLD AND US 




STHONIA has nationalized 
the holdings of her great land 
holders and is beginning to 
distribute her farm lands to 
farmers. The United States is in- 
creasing tenancy and land monopoly. 
What with this, and our host of politi- 
cal prisoners, our mobs and lynching, 
our curb of free speech, our color 
caste, our unemployment and mock of 
democracy, we bid fair to lead the 
world — backwards. 



The Disarmament Conference has 
succeeded in limited expenditure for 
big battleships chiefly because these 
ships are of doubtful future efficiency 
and cost more than governments can 
easily raise by taxation. The confer- 
ence has not decreased preparation 
for war, it has not freed China and its 
guarantee of the islands in the Pacific 
is a sleight-of-hand performance to 
conceal the end of a yellow-white alli- 
ance. Thus the color-line is drawn 
stronger and war is no less a prospec- 
tive method of human culture. 



Ireland faces the question : is a half 
loaf better than war? Probably it is, 
but those who stand on principle have 
a right to be heard. Civilization ad- 
vances with half loaves usually, but 
the goal remains the whole loaf. 



Some Republican politicians are 
aghast at the appearance of the bloc 
in Congress — that is, the little group 
which refuses to vote by parties. The 
bloc is the hope of democracy. Fu- 
ture legislatures will more and more 
consist of little coalescing and divid- 



ing groups and not of two or three 
main parties. In the millennium, leg- 
islatures will consist of Individuals. 



Two men sit high before the world 
today — Eugene Debs and Abdul Baha. 
One is free of chains which should 
never have bound him — the other of 
Life which he tried to free of race 
and national prejudice. 

THE YEAR 1921 IN ACCOUNT WITH THE 
AMERICAN NEGRO 

DEBIT 

IFTY-NINE Negroes lynched 
Tulsa 

Jasper County, Ga. 
Helpless Haiti 



Harding at Birmingham 

Few Presidential appointments 

Garvey and the Black Star Line 

Thomas Jesse Jones 

Dismissal of R. T. Kerlin 

Loss of the Pennsylvania Civil 

Rights Bill 

Delay of Liberian Loan 
Apostasy of the Woman's Party 
Death of Dancy, Douglass, Tyree, 

Brown, Chase, Perry and Carr 

CREDIT 

Dyer Bill 

Second Pan-African Congress 

"Emperor Jones" 

Arkansas peons 

Exposure of the Ku Klux 

The Haitian Manifesto 

N.A.A.C.P. drive and 12th annual 
conference 

Atlantis 

The Liberian Commission 

Relief work of the National Urban 
League 

Governor Dorsey 



151 



152 



THE CRISIS 




13 Negro Legislators 

3 colored women as Ph.D. 

461 Bachelors in Arts 

Gourdin, Johnson, Carter and Slater 

Negroes at the Fifth Ecumenical 
Council 

Elections in Virginia, Kentucky, 
Pennsylvania and New York 

Duluth vindication 

Inter-racial committees 

The Howard Players 

"Shuffle Along" 

8th Illinois Regiment nationalized 

Solomon Porter Hood 

A Negro Phonograph Company 

BALANCE ON HAND 

365 days of unflinching courage and 
undimmed ideals. 

THE LYNCHING BILL 

HOSE persons who see techni- 
cal difficulties and constitu- 
tional questions in any effort 
to stop lynching simply do not 
realize the enormity of this evil. 

Lynching is wholesale murder pub- 
licly approved by that section of our 
land where mob rule is an institution. 
It is the negation and failure of law, 
order and government. It is not a 
punishment for one crime or for any 
crime: it is simply and purely blood 
lust unparalleled in the civilized 
world. Not the bull fights of Spain 
nor the gladiatorial battles of Rome 
approach it in indecency, cruelty, 
monstrous sadism and orgies almost 
beyond belief. 

We do not realize the beastliness 
and barbarism of this national habit. 
We are drugged by its frequency and 
by familiarity with its details. But 
the world is not drugged: In Tokio 
and Shanghai, in Calcutta and Cairo, 
in Petrograd and Berlin, in London 
and Paris, they say : "This is the real 
America. This is the civilization of 
a nation that presumes to teach the 
world morals and religion, that poses 
as something neiv and fine and 'ad- 
vanced.' America cannot at one and 
the same time lynch Negroes and lead 
civilization." 



We can stop lynching. Of course it 
is "unconstitutional" now. It was un- 
constitutional to stop secession ; it was 
unconstitutional to take charge of the 
railways; it was unconstitutional to 
do a thousand things that the national 
government has done; we did these 
things because we had to in order to 
survive; because no nation can sur- 
vive which supinely submits to rebel- 
lion, or cannot regulate its traffic, or 
permits systematic and continued mob 
murder as a form of public debauch- 
ery. The man that opposes the Dyer 
bill or a similar enactment is a blind 
fool or worse. Lynching has nothing 
to do with the Race Question as such 
— it is a matter of downright decency 
and civilization. Either the United 
States can and will end lynching or 
lynching will end these United States. 

VICIOUS PROVISIONS OF A GREAT 
BILL 

HE Crisis believes and has al- 
ways believed in national aid 
to common schools, because of 
the shameful fact that the 
South spends only the miserably in- 
adequate sum of $10.32 a head on the 
education of white children and only 
$2.89 for each colored child. 

The Smith-Towner Education bill 
now before Congress seeks to appro- 
priate $7,500,000 annually "to encour- 
age the States to remove illiteracy", 
and for this reason is directly in line 
with our wishes. But on reading the 
bill we learn : "All funds apportioned 
to a State for the removal of illiteracy 
shall be distributed and administered 
in accordance with the laws of said 
State in like manner as the funds pro- 
vided by State and local authorities 
for the same puwose, and the State 
and local educational authorities of 
said State shall determine the courses 
of study, plans, and methods for car- 
rying out the purposes of this section 
within said State in accordance with 
the laws thereof." 

Also the fifty millions appropriated 
for teachers' salaries in rural schools 




OPINION 



153 



"shall be distributed and adminis- 
tered in accordance with the laws of 
said State in like manner as the funds 
provided by State and local authori- 
ties for the same purpose, and the 
State and local educational authorities 
of said State shall determine the 
courses of study, plans and methods 
for carrying out the purposes of this 
section." 

Finally rub your eyes and read this : 
"Apportionment may be made under 
the provisions of this section to a 
State prevented by its constitution 
from full compliance with the fore- 
going conditions if said conditions are 
approximated as nearly as constitu- 
tional limitations will permit." 

Do the supporters of this bill realize 
— can they possibly realize what 
these provisions mean ? Despite every 
effort on the part of the South to con- 
ceal the discrimination which it prac- 
tices against Negro children, the 
truth is easily approximated. We re- 
peat a statement published by the 
United States government and pre- 
pared by the government in co-opera- 
tion with the Phelps-Stokes fund. No 
one could possibly discover Negro- 
phile leanings in figures with such an 
origin. They are as favorable as they 
could be made : 

"In the 15 States and the District 
of Columbia for which salaries by 
race could be obtained, the public 
school teachers received $42,510,703 
in salaries. Of this sum $36,649,827 
was for the teachers of 3,552,431 
white children and $5,860,876 for the 
teachers of 1,852,181 colored chil- 
dren. On a per capita basis, this is 
$10.32 for each white child and $2.89 
for each colored child." 

This is the outrageous situation 
which this bill proposes to perpetu- 
ate. In this form the bill is not a pro- 
posal to decrease illiteracy. It is a 
bill to encourage lynching, peonage 
and ignorance in the South by per- 
petuating the present educational dis- 
crimination against igorant and help- 




less Negroes. Shame on the men, 
women and national organizations 
which have loaned their names and 
influence to this travesty on educa- 
tional justice. 

POLITICS>ND POWER 

OME persons continue to ad- 
monish the Negro that politi- 
cal power is not omnipotent, 
_ and that without it much may 
be done to uplift the people; while 
with it, much may be left undone. 
The real answer to this argument lies 
in the facts, and Mr. S. D. Redmond 
of Jackson, Mississippi, has furnished 
some facts to the editor of the Com- 
mercial Appeal, Memphis, Tenn., 
which the editor did not see fit to 
publish. 

Mr. Redmond points, for instance, 
to the fact that in Mississippi there 
are 525 consolidated rural schools 
combining grammar and high school 
grades, teaching vocal and instrumen- 
tal music, domestic science and man- 
ual training. They have free teach- 
ers' homes and agricultural experi- 
ment plots, and 200 auto cars trans- 
port pupils to these schools at a cost 
of $99,477 a month. And yet, while 
525 of these schools are furnished to 
the 175,000 white school children of 
the state, not a single one is furnished 
to the 200,000 colored children. 

Again there are 400 city high 
schools for whites, but there is not a 
single separate high school for Ne- 
groes. There are four colored city 
schools which have the 9th and 10th 
grades, and one that has 12 grades. 
Again there are 49 agricultural high 
schools for the whites in the State and 
not a single one for Negroes. 

Not only is this true, but the Mis- 
sissippi code of 1917 is so arranged 
that Negroes cannot even tax them- 
selves for schools. The code says that 
whenever the "qualified electors" of a 
school district or county desire a con- 
solidated rural school or high school 
they can, by petitions signed by a 
certain percentage, have an election 



154 



THE CRISIS 



called and issue bonds. Now as Ne- 
groes are seldom permitted to qualify 
as electors they cannot demand a bond 
issue. In only one case in the State, 
that is, the Negro town of Mound 
Bayou, have they been permitted to 
tax themselves and to build a $100,000 
school. 

On the other hand, when the white 
electors vote a bond issue, Negro 
property is taxed exactly the same as 
white property for the support of 
white schools. 

At its last session the Mississippi 
legislature appropriated $3,529,479.64 
for the support of the higher educa- 
tion of the white youth of the State, 
but only $50,000 for Negroes, in a 
single college that can not accommo- 
date more than 350 students. White 
children are furnished institutions for 
the feeble-minded and a reform 
school. Negroes have neither. The 
State pays $32 a month for the educa- 
tion and reformation of an errant 
white youth while the Negro youth is 
sent to the county farm or peniten- 
tiary along, with the most hardened 
criminals. The State provides an in- 
stitution for the white blind but leaves 
blind Negroes to beg on the streets. 

If we turn from the State as a 
whole and confine our attention to 
Jackson, the capital city, where the 
white and Negro population is about 
equal, the whites have eight fine 
schools, one of them a city high school 
which cost nearly $300,000. The Ne- 
groes have two poor schools, one of 
six grades and the other of eight 
grades, no high school whatsoever, 
and white teachers receive more than 
twice the salary paid Negro teachers 
for the same grade work. Yet Mr. 
Redmond, a Negro citizen of Jackson, 
paid $4,000 in taxes last year. 

He calls attention finally to the fact 
that the Negroes have no public lib- 
rary, parks or playgrounds, that the 
streets in their district are unkept, 
not properly lighted and often with- 
out sidewalks and that if the Negroes 




should enter one of the parks for 
which he is taxed he would be ar- 
rested ! 

This is the cost of disfranchisement 
in Mississippi. 

AFRICA FOR THE AFRICANS 

HE Associated Press in a Paris 
dispatch, put into the mouth 
of the editor a statement that 
colored Americans could not 
withstand the African climate, could 
not oust the Europeans, and did not 
desire to do so. 

It ought to go without saying that 
the editor never made any such state- 
ment. The American Negro is just 
as able to withstand the African clim- 
ate as American white men and no 
more able. The climate is severe and 
trying, but a healthy man who fol- 
lows the rules of tropical hygiene can 
live there. There is, therefore, no 
necessary barrier of climate to keep 
American Negroes out of Africa. 

On the other hand, it would be fool- 
ish for colored folk to assume that 
because their great grandfathers were 
Africans that the climate of Africa 
would have no terrors for them. It 
has its terrors for all men and these 
terrors can be overcome. 

The present opportunity for emi- 
gration to Africa is, however, exceed- 
ingly limited. There is absolutely no 
chance for colored laborers. Men 
with capital, education and some tech- 
nical or agricultural skill, who have 
the courage of pioneers, good health, 
and are willing to rough it, can find 
a career in Liberia, in some parts of 
French, Portuguese and Egyptian 
Africa (if they speak the language) , 
and in some parts of British West 
Africa, if they are British subjects. 
They will be objects of suspicion in 
British West Africa and will suffer 
some caste restrictions. 

On the other hand, in the Belgian 
Congo, in British East and South 
Africa and in Rhodesia, an American 
Negro would hardly be allowed to 
enter, much less settle. Black mer- 



OPINION 



155 




chants and traders have chances in 
West Africa but they are at the mercy 
not only of the governments who are 
not eager to help them, but also of 
the great banks, corporations and 
syndicates who are in position to 
skim the cream of all profits. 

Again the editor distinctly believes 
that Africa should be administered 
for the Africans and, as soon as may 
be, by the Africans. He does not 
mean by this that Africa should be 
administered by West Indians or 
American Negroes. They have no 
more right to administer Africa for 
the native Africans than native Afri- 
cans have to administer America. 

CHARLES YOUNG 

HE life of Charles Young was 
a triumph of tragedy. No 
one ever knew the truth about 
the Hell he went through at 
West Point. He seldom even men- 
tioned it. The pain was too great. 
Few knew what faced him always 
in his army life. It was not enough 
for him to do well — he must always 
do better; and so much and so con- 
spicuously better, as to disarm the 
scoundrels that ever trailed him. He 
lived in the army surrounded by in- 
sult and intrigue and yet he set his 
teeth and kept his soul serene and 
triumphed. 

He was one of the few men I know 
who literally turned the other cheek 
with Jesus Christ. He was laughed 
at for it and his own people chided 
him bitterly, yet he persisted. When 
a white Southern pigmy at West 
Point protested at taking food from 
a dish passed first to Young. Young 
passed it to him first and afterward 
to himself. When officers of inferior 
rank refused to salute a "nigger", 
he saluted them. Seldom did he lose 
his temper, seldom complain. 

With his own people he was always 
the genial, hearty, half-boyish friend. 



He kissed the girls, slapped the boys 
on the back, threw his arms about his 
friends, scattered his money in char- 
ity; only now and then behind the 
Veil did his nearest comrades see the 
Hurt and Pain graven on his heart; 
and when it appeared he promptly 
drowned it in his music — his beloved 
music, which always poured from his 
quick, nervous fingers, to caress and 
bathe his soul. 

Steadily, unswervingly he did his 
duty. And Duty to him, as to few 
modern men, was spelled in capitals. 
It was his lode-star, his soul; and 
neither force nor reason swerved him 
from it. His second going to Africa, 
after a terrible attack of black water 
fever, was suicide. He knew it. His 
wife knew it. His friends knew it. 
He had been sent to Africa because 
the Army considered his blood pres- 
sure too high to let him go to Europe! 
They sent him there to die. They 
sent him there because he was one of 
the very best officers in the service 
and if he had gone to Europe he 
could not have been denied the stars 
of a General. They could not stand 
a black American General. There- 
fore they sent him to the fever coast 
of Africa. They ordered him to make 
roads back in the haunted jungle. He 
knew what they wanted and intend- 
ed. He could have escaped it by ac- 
cepting his retirement from active 
service, refusing his call to active 
duty and then he could have lounged 
and lived at leisure on his retirement 
pay. But Africa needed him. He did 
not yell and collect money and ad- 
vertise great schemes and parade in 
crimson — he just went quietly, ig- 
noring appeal and protest. 

He is dead. But the heart of the 
Great Black Race, the Ancient of 
Days — the Undying and Eternal — 
rises and salutes his shining memory : 
Well done! Charles Young, Soldier 
and Man and unswerving Friend. 



OUR GREATEST FAULT 



S 




HP 1 O be learned when we 
-■■ are unlearned; to be 
rich when we are poor; to be great 
while we are small; to know when we don't 
know; to be true when we are false; to have 
when we have not. Pretending to be leaders 
when we are but followers; to be going 
East when we are running West; to stand 
for Right when we are walking hand in 
hand with Wrong; to be brave and out- 
spoken when we are afraid and silent. Pre- 
tending to be iproud of our race when we 
are ashamed of it, — pretending — all the 
while pretending — and all the world knows 
it, but us. 

Edward H. Morris, 
Grand Master, G.U.O. of Odd Fellows. 



Lack of 
Initiative 



I 



VENTURE the conviction 
that the lack of initiative 
is "Our Greatest Fault". 
There is so much involved in this lack and' 
such an interdependence between it and 
other defects that if the former is elimin- 
ated, the latter will disappear like the snow 
before the rays of the sun. One race very 
often patterns after another race, imper- 
sonates its achievements, assumes a resem- 
blance to everything that enobles and dig- 
nifies and becomes influenced by a use of 
power acting from without, though the mo- 
tives may be regarded as forces acting upon 
the will. But this is not the field which 
we must seek to cultivate. We must ex- 
plore, initiate, create and exhibit an ability 
for original conception and independent ac- 
tion. We must blaze our own way, and pro- 
duce forces and agencies that make and 
stimulate civilization and thus prove to man- 
kind that if left to ourselves we could evolve 
a condition of organization and enlighten- 



ment that would demonstrate the interest, 
intrinsic, initiative attributes of the race. 
Fundamental to this idea of "The Lack of 
Initiative" should be the stern, staunch re- 
alization by the race of what great benefits 
would accrue to it when once it learned its 
own inert strength, the power of organiza- 
tion, and the lesson of solidarity. Gripped 
and obsessed by this spirit of oneness the 
race would experience vast potentialities 
and out of its new birth a new place would 
be given the Negro upon the map of the 
world. 

C. H. Phillips, 
Bishop of the Colored M. E. Church. 



/^\UR greatest fault is hard 
^^ to name, but one very 



Thin- 
Skinned 

great fault is that we are thin-skinned. 
Not only do we fail to thicken up suffi- 
ciently to get what has not been granted, 
but we also shrink from asking for what 
is actually allowed us. Now, what I call 
thin-skinned among us happens on closer 
examination really to be culture and Chris- 
tianity. No matter what stratum you ex- 
amine, whether the stiff collar or the over- 
alls, the avenue or the alley, there is found 
the same attitude of our not desiring to 
force from (people what they do not want 
us to have, not going where people do not 
want us to be. It is beautiful, but it is 
not American. The American character- 
istic is to go after things and get what 
you go after. Looked at in one way, our 
great fault is a virtue. Must we then allow 
it further to handicap us while continuing 
to teach a better Americanism? 

John Hope, 
Pres. of Morehouse College, Atlanta, Ga. 



PAINTED POEMS 

THE PEACOCK FEATHER 
Mary Effie Lee Newsome 

HEAV'N'S deepest blue, Are blent together 

Earth's richest green, On this lithe brown feather, 

Minted dust of stars, In a disc of light — 

Molten sunset sheen, Lithe, light! 

156 




THE CHAPEL AT HOWARD UNIVERSITY 

HOWARD UNIVERSITY 




E. C. Williams 



/"\N May 1, 1867, in a rented frame build- 
^-' ing, the Normal and Preparatory De- 
partment of Howard University was opened, 
with five students and without one cent in 
the treasury. In the year 1920-21, just 
ended, the University, housed in fourteen 
buildings, exclusive of Freedmen's Hospi- 
tal, and owning a campus of twenty acres 
on what is indisputably the most splendid 
site in the District of Columbia, ministered 
to 1,730 collegiate and professional students, 
to 50 certificate students in music, and 131 
correspondence students in religion, or a 
grand total, less duplications, of 1,893. In 
the 52 years intervening between the date 
of the opening and that memorable meeting 
in February, 1919, at which the trustees 
voted to uphold the hands of the new ad- 
ministration and close the doors of the sec- 
ondary departments, the institution had 
passed through many changes, but these, 
however interesting, we have not the space 
to record here. Suffice it to say, the changes 
initiated at the meeting of the trustees cited 
above, and at subsequent meetings, have been 
the occasion for much comment and contro- 
versy, and it is the purpose of this brief 
article to set forth as clearly as may be in 
a summary fashion just what those 
changes have been, and what are some, at 



least, of the University's claims as a na- 
tional university for the twelve millions of 
Negroes of the United States. 

Expressed hastily, and in comprehensive 
terms, the most obvious changes are the fol- 
lowing: the elimination of all secondary 
work, and the reorganization of the collegi- 
ate work into a division, of which the 
first two years are called the Junior Col- 
lege, and the two upper years the Senior 
Schools, including the Schools of Liberal 
Arts, Education, Commerce and Finance, 
Applied Sciences, and Music; the addition 
of a Department of Architecture to the 
School of Applied Sciences; the establish- 
ment of a Department of Public Health and 
Hygiene in connection with the School of 
Medicine ; changes in the work of the School 
of Law which move it up several points in 
the classification of the Carnegie Founda- 
tion for the Advancement of Teaching; the 
establishment of a Registrar's Office on the 
most modern lines, where all matters con- 
cerning records and admissions are centered ; 
the centralization in a Secretary-Treasur- 
er's office of all the financial and business 
matters of the University; the creation of a 
Department of Physical Education; the of- 
fering of military courses in connection with 
the work of the Reserve Officers' Training 



157 



158 



THE CRISIS 



Corps; the establishment of University fel- 
lowships for the promotion of graduate 
work; the authorization by the Trustees of 
a journal to promote scholarship and re- 
search among Negroes; the substitution of 
the quarter for the semester system; many 
changes in the curriculum in line with the 
best college standards of today; the ob- 
taining from Congress of an appropriation 
of $201,000 for a Home Economics build- 
ing; increases in teachers' salaries since 
1917-18 amounting to more than $64,000 
annually; and numberless improvements in 
the grounds, buildings, and physical equip- 
ment of the University. 

Since all of these things have been ac- 
complished in the short space of two and 
one-half years, and with the school running 
"full blast," it is no cause for wonder that 
there should be a little confusion, a little 
grumbling, and even some misunderstanding 
and disagreement. In fact, the wonder is 
that there has not been more. Indeed, the 
fact that there was not more may be taken 
as reasonably good evidence that most of the 
changes commended themselves almost im- 
mediately to the good sense of those who 
had to work with them. 

For many years, both to the minds of 
many within the University and to disinter- 
ested schoolmen looking on from without, 
there had been three weak spots in its or- 
ganization, namely, the presence of two sec- 
ondary schools on the same campus with the 
college departments, and in part taught by 
the college instructors; the existence of 
what amounted in reality to two college de- 
partments running on almost parallel lines 
in warm rivalry with each other; and the 
almost autocratic power of the deans within 
their own departments — in other words, a 
decentralization of power, and a consequent 
duplication of work and multiplication of 
standards, out of all proportion to the size 
of the university and the resources at its 
command. And though the fact that these 
conditions should be remedied was recog- 
nized by many of the faculty and adminis- 
trative officers, I presume it is not unnat- 
ural that, when the remedies were actually 
applied by a new administration with a res- 
olute and unflinching hand, the changes 
made and the inevitable readjustments ne- 
cessitated by them should cause momentary 
feeling. 

It was natural, too, that there should be 
some who could not see the necessity of 



this or that change, and who would pre- 
dict the evil consequences to follow. For 
example, it was felt by some that the actual 
elimination of the secondary departments, 
the Academy and Commercial College, which 
had planted their roots so deeply in the life 
of the university, would cause not only a 
direct loss in numbers alone which would 
seriously damage the prestige of the uni- 
versity, but also an indirect loss through 
the destruction of one of the chief feeders 
of the college. But what was the actual re- 
sult? A glance at the figures given below 
will convince the most skeptical that the 
closing of the secondary departments has 
surely worked no injury in the matter of 
reduced numbers. 





College 


Academy 


Grand 


Year 


(exclusive 


and 


Total 




of 


Commercial 


for all 




Music) 


College 


Divisions 


1911-12 


382 


457 


1409 


1912-13 


478 


490 


1453 


1915-16 


500 


369 


1507 


1916-17 


559 


417 


1565 


1917-18 


706 


413 


1583 


1918-19 


541 


282 


1360 


1919-20 


766 


None 


1567 


1920-21 


930 


None 


1893 



The educational life of Washington, as 
far as it concerns the Negro, is unique. 
There is here presented a combination of 
opportunities unequalled elsewhere. Since 
the public schools and Howard University 
are both supported largely by government 
appropriations, they may be regarded, for 
the sake of argument, as parts of a single 
system, beginning at the kindergarten, and 
running the whole gamut — grammar schools, 
vocational schools, atypical schools, outdoor 
schools, academic, technical and commercial 
high schools, city normal school, and col- 
lege and professional schools. And just as 
the colored public school system of Wash- 
ington is without question the best of its 
kind in the world — and this was one very 
good reason for closing the secondary schools 
of the university — so is Howard University, 
the capstone of the local educational struc- 
ture, unique in its field. Let us see how we 
can justify this statement. 

First, it is the only institution in the 
world devoted mainly to the education of 
colored men and women that offers bona fide 
courses in all the more usual branches of 
college and professional work, that is, in 
the liberal arts, education, commerce and 
finance, engineering, architecture, domestic 



HOWARD UNIVERSITY 



159 



science, medicine, dentistry, phar- 
macy, law, religion, and music. 
Second, it offers no work below 
collegiate grade to matriculating 
students, and is the only co-edu- 
cational school for Negro stu- 
dents which does not give work 
below that grade. Third, it has 
the largest body of Negro stu- 
dents of college grade ever as- 
s e m b 1 e d in one institution. 
Fourth, by its very situation in 
the capital of the nation, it is able 
to offer its students, through the 
presence of such agencies as the Bureau of 
Education, the Department of Agriculture, 
the Army Medical Museum, Freedmen's Hos- 
pital, the Bureau of Standards, and the Li- 
brary of Congress, opportunities for the de- 
velopment of scholarship unequalled by any 
other institution for colored youth. Fifth, 
in its organization it follows the standards 
set by the best universities in the country 
concentrating upon higher education, and 
its bachelor's degree is accorded recognition 
toward higher degrees in graduate schools 
of known standing. Sixth, the American 
Medical Association, in its bulletin of ap- 
proved Negro colleges of arts and sciences 
published in the spring of 1920, lists How- 
ard as one of the two colleges in Class I. 
Finally, the University is the first insti- 
tution for colored youth to promote grad- 
uate work by the establishment of fellow- 
ships. 

I wish that space would permit an ex- 
pansion on some of these special advan- 
tages, but one typical illustration must suf- 
fice. Let us take the School of Medicine. 
The National Capital affords unusual facil- 
ities for the study of medicine and allied 
subjects. The finest medical library in this 
country is that of the Surgeon-General's 
Office, which contains more than 200,000 
volumes on medicine and collateral sciences, 
and the Library of Congress contains a 
very fine medical collection. All of these 
books are accessible to our students on the 
same terms as apply to other citizens. The 
Army Medical Museum is the finest of its 
kind in the world, having on display about 
30,000 specimens, and other agencies for 
education are the National Museum, the 
Smithsonian Institution, the Museum of 
Hygiene, and the Patent Office Museum. 
On the square fronting that on which our 
medical buildings stand the government 




PRESIDENT 
STANLEY DTTRKEE 



has erected the magnificent Freed- 
men's Hospital, at a cost of over 
$600,000. This hospital, which 
has the advantage of being de- 
signed primarily for teaching 
purposes, has about 300 beds, 
contains two clinical amphithea- 
tres, a pathological laboratory, 
clinical laboratories, and rooms 
for x-ray diagnostic work and 
x-ray therapy. The medical fa- 
culty of Howard University (prac- 
tically constitutes the hospital 
staff. Special attention is given 
to bedside instruction, and clinics are held 
every day in the year, except Sundays, and 
examinations are made, prescriptions given, 
and surgical operations performed in the 
presence of classes or sections of classes. 
The clinical laboratories are under the direc- 
tion of the departments of internal medicine, 
surgery, gynecology and nervous diseases. 
They are especially equipped for the scien- 
tific study of cases, and are freely used by 
the students. Ward and bedside instruction 
can be carried out more fully and system- 
atically than in many other hospitals avail- 
able for teaching purposes, and the prac- 
tical hospital work which students are able 
to do here is excelled by few medical 
schools. A large number of the cases ad- 
mitted to this hospital are from a dis- 
tance, and are of more than ordinary in- 
terest. Every branch of medicine is repre- 
sented by numerous and instructive cases. 
When such a situation is compared with 
that which confronts most Negro students 
of medicine in northern medical schools in 
connection with their practical work in the 
hospitals, it is not difficult to see why How- 
ard University claims the possession of un- 
usual advantages in this regard. 

What is true of the Medical Department 
is true in a lesser degree of other depart- 
ments. For any work requiring the use of 
books the situation of the university in 
Washington is peculiarly fortunate. Not 
only in the study of medicine, but of law, 
of education, and of countless other sub- 
jects, are the resources of the Library of 
Congress, with its two and a half million 
volumes, the Public Library of the District 
of Columbia, and the special libraries of 
the various bureaus and departments of the 
government, freely at the disposal of the 
students on the most liberal terms. The 
university's own library, too, is admittedly 



160 



THE CRISIS 




CARNEGIE LIBRARY 



the best of any institution for colored 
youth, and includes a special collection of 
Negro- Americana. So that, from the stand- 
point of library facilities, the university 
has absolutely no rival among institutions 
for Negro youth. 

The student body of the university is un- 
usually interesting. The mere assembling 
in one school of over 1,700 young men and 
women of college grade, and of Negro de- 
scent, and drawn from 36 States and more 
than 10 foreign countries, is in itself tre- 
mendously significant. The foreign students 
number over 100, and French and Spanish 
are heard on the campus almost as freely 
as English. It may be remembered that it 
was the boundless energy and intelligent 
effort of this student group, fired by the 
enthusiasm of Major Joel E. Spingarn, 
which, as much as any one factor, made the 
Des Moines training camp for colored offi- 
cers a reality. These students come from 
every class and condition in life, from af- 
fluence to poverty. A very large proportion 
of the male students work for all or part 
of their expenses, and they are, in conse- 
quence, more than ordinarily independent 
and self-reliant. 

As might be expected, the student life at 
Howard is as rich and varied as such life 
can well be. Every form of college activity 
flourishes, and the exuberance of student 
vitality and interest is spent on football, 
baseball, basketball, track athletics, tennis, 
and in debating societies for both men and 



women, literary societies, German and 
French clubs, a dramatic club, two glee 
clubs, a university choir, a very spirited 
band attached to the R. O. T. C, and many 
State and regional clubs, which last are 
very popular at Howard. None of these 
are dead letter organizations, but every de- 
partment of normal college life is vigorous- 
ly represented. The greatest football games 
in the Negro world are staged here, the 
great track meets, and a triangular de- 
bating league is maintained with Lincoln 
and Atlanta universities. 

A unique feature of the work of one de- 
partment is a rather intensive effort to 
develop among the students dramatic art 
and a knowledge of dramatic technique, an 
attempt to stimulate interest in Negro folk- 
lore and history as materials for dramatic 
composition, and to train the students not 
only in the art of acting, but in stage man- 
agement and in the designing and con- 
struction of scenery and costumes. In this 
field the Howard Players represent the 
dramatic interests and efforts of the Uni- 
versity before the public. This organiza- 
tion presents annually a series of plays 
staged entirely by students. During the 
past year performances were given of Dun- 
sany's Tents of the Arabs, Torrence's Simon 
the Cyrenian, O'Neill's Emperor Jones, and 
Percy Mackaye's Canterbury Pilgrims. 
The Emperor Jones was given twice, once 
with Mr. Charles Gilpin in the title role, 
and once with a student in that part. Mr. 



HOWARD UNIVERSITY 



161 



Gilpin has since shown his appreciation of 
the work of the students by offering two 
of them places in his own company. The 
aim of the Department of Dramatic Art 
and Public Speaking is, frankly, to develop 
the dramatic possibilities of the Negro, and 
to be one of the pioneers in a movement for 
the establishment of a national Negro the- 
atre. 

Fraternity life flourishes at Howard. 
There are nine national fraternities with 
chapters on the campus, six for men and 
three for women. Two of the men's fra- 
ternities are professional. Five of the 
fraternities and one of the sororities have 
chapter houses. 

Side by side with the larger problems of 
reorganization has gone the more detailed 
work on the curriculum. A tremendous 
amount of checking up has been accom- 
plished already, and there is still a great 
deal to do. It may be worth noting at 
this point that the work of the School of 
Liberal Arts has just been appraised by 
a commission representing the Association 
of Colleges and Secondary Schools of the 
Middle States and Maryland, and the school 
placed on the "approved" list of that body. 
This action is without prejudice to the other 
senior schools of the University, as this 



commission is at present investigating only 
schools of liberal arts. 

Recognizing the importance of the teach- 
er, as one of the two indispensable compo- 
nents of any school, the administration of 
Howard University has in the past three 
years set about getting into sympathetic 
touch with every outstanding Negro scholar 
who might be available for the work of the 
university, and the faculty has already been 
strengthened by the addition of several 
scholarly, aggressive and forward-looking 
men. Parallel with this effort to add to 
the faculty new strength and vigor from 
without has been the generous policy in 
force toward teachers on the staff who are 
ambitious to pursue further studies. Four 
such teachers have spent the past year on 
leave, engaged in study in the great uni- 
versities of the North and West. It is in- 
teresting to record, in connection with this 
statement about the faculty, that one of 
the first research fellowships granted by 
the National Research Council was given 
to a professor in Howard University. 

No one, more than the writer of these 
lines, would deplore the rejection by all our 
Negro youth of the opportunities open to 
them in the great institutions of the North 
and West, and yet, under existing condi- 




HAXL OF APPLIED SCIENCE AND GYMNASITTM 



162 



THE CRISIS 



tions, there is a tremendous opportunity 
for Negro institutions. Under these con- 
ditions there is one thing that a distinc- 
tively Negro institution can offer to our 
young people which no other type of school 
pretends to offer, and that is, the chance 
to develop all sides of the individual under 
absolutely normal social conditions. This 
includes those transcendently important ele- 
ments, the development under natural con- 
ditions of the capacity for leadership, and 
the development of race- or group-con- 
sciousness. This last, though admittedly 
the father and mother of all wars and of 
nine tenths of .the evils and abuses in the 
world, is at this stage of the Negro's de- 
velopment an absolutely indispensable off- 



set to those forces so persistently working 
to degrade him. 

The new era is upon us. The new spirit 
is nowhere more manifest than in our col- 
lege group. What work could be more 
worth while than the teaching of these 
young men and women, the very flower of 
the race, in the opening years of this new 
age? Howard, like many another univers- 
ity, is unable to satisfy the needs she has 
created. Her usefulness is limited only by 
her equipment and her resources. She 
needs new buildings, a more extensive 
equipment, a better library, and a larger 
teaching force. Every citizen of the United 
States and every friend of education can 
help her get them, for Howard is, in more 
senses than one, a national university. 



SUNDAY AFTERNOON 




Jessie Fauset 




TPO the visual-minded all impressions 
A come in a series of little pictures. To 
myself, for instance, who can remember 
only by opening and closing camera-fashion 
a little inward shutter — all my life stretches 
backward in a group of single detached 
visions. In one of these, more vivid than 
the rest, I see myself a small gloomy child 
sitting dejectedly in my little red chair. 

"What on earth is the matter?" asks a 
merry older sister. "What are you crying 
about?" 

And I answer as my tears break forth 
without reserve, "Today seems like Sun- 
day." 

Always Sunday afternoon has made me 
sad. But it is a sweet sadness. It must 
have been connected at first, I think, with 
the inhibitions which Sunday in a very con- 
servative, not to say very religious house- 
hold, placed! upon the small child. I might 
not sing songs, I might not play, I didn't 
know how to write letters, it was wrong 
to read even fairy-tales. I could not spend 
pennies for candy. And the stretch between 
dinner and supper — one had old-fashioned 
suppers in those days, cold beef and prunes ! 
— the distance between the two meals was 
interminable. Of course, there was Sun- 
day School, but even that, which I truly 
liked, did not remove the feeling of re- 
straint and forlornness which can come to 
a child on a dreary enforced holiday. 



There was a Dante's Inferno in our 
house, I remember, illustrated by Dore. 
That was permissible reading. I could not 
understand the text, but how I pored over 
those gloomy pictures. And there was a 
Family Bible, too, a fat leather-bound vol- 
ume printed on stained brown paper with 
the old-fashioned s and with an Apocrypha. 
I was used to the OMl Testament, so used 
that its queer outlandish names did not 
seem queer to me. But how I thrilled to 
those strange new titles, Esdras, Hola- 
f ernes, Judith, Susanna! Their exotic qual- 
ity remains with me still. 

I can almost taste the atmosphere of those 
far-off times. Myself, with my precious 
book upstairs on the bed or on the floor, 
flat on my stomach, heels up, chin propped 
in my hands, and about me even on bright 
afternoons an indefinable sense of some- 
thing gloomy, dark and melancholy. From 
below floated the sound of my sisters' 
voices chatting with the casual Sunday Call- 
er. Sometimes there was a burst of 
laughter, then presently the welcome clat- 
ter of tea-things. After supper there was 
music — hymns, played on the organ; in 
summer-time a gathering on the front steps, 
a general sense of good-fellowship and re- 
union in which I joined gladly. But before 
that time in the late afternoon, gray or 
golden as the season might bring, — for me 
nothing but aloofness and sadness. 



SUNDAY AFTERNOON 



163 



Later I came to cherish that period, 
came to sense its possibilities. I think I 
recognized it as the period of my greatest 
mental clarity. I seemed to be penetrated 
at such times with a startling realization 
of the value of things. Perhaps in this very 
realization lay sadness. At first I put, hard- 
headedly enough, this clarity, this mental 
keenness to a practical purpose. In col- 
lege I found that notes reread on Sunday 
afternoon istayedJ by me, translations came 
more accurately and yet more delicately 
But I was never satisfied. Underneath 
was a longing to be doing something else, to 
be being, if I may say so, a totally different 
creature. The something else was always 
just beyond my ken. I tried to translate it 
into action. If the chapel-bell rang I 
thought I wanted to go to chapel. But 
when I went I found I was disappointed. If 
I strolled along the path which meant so 
much to me during my busy week, I found 
it meant nothing on Sunday. And always 
there was that sense, of having missed 
something. My precious Sunday afternoon 
had gone and I still had not fathomed its 
meaning. 

Lately I have found out what it means 
to me now. The realization came in 
France, as I sailed — not on a Sunday after- 
noon — on one of those ridiculous little boats 
which (ply up' and down the Seine. I was 
sitting idly apart not talking, not listen- 
ing even to the other members of our little 
party, when over me came creeping that 
familiar Sunday feeling. It was not 
merely the mental clarity, for that comes 
too on a lonely railroad journey and is due, 
I think, to a certain sense of physical de- 
tachment, but there was the old familiar 
sweet, sweet wholly satisfactory melan- 
choly. 

"Doesn't to-day seem like Sunday?" 1 
asked my astonished companions. 

It was in the blessed period before the 
war. Paris was still gay, the Seine was 
alive with small craft, its banks crowded 
with fishing gentry. Nothing could be 
farther from the old-fashioned American 
idea of Sunday. But my heart knew. 

Let me see if I can put it into words. It 
is so nebulous, yet to me so real. I found 
I wanted nothing at those times but the 
Sunday afternoon itself (or the time that 
seemed like that) and the sense of com- 
pleteness which it brings. And perhaps it 



is this sense of wanting nothing beyond, 
which as a child made me so sad. The feel- 
ing which comes to me then is its own ex- 
cuse for being. Am I triste? I would not 
be merry. Do I ipine? The desire is 
sweeter than its satisfaction. Do I dream? 
No dream that has ever come true is 
sweeter than those dreams on Sunday 
afternoons when I brood "on no great 
things done, but great things undone". In 
that sweet do-nothingness of attitude, men- 
tal and physical — everything takes on an 
exquisitely true value which is immediately 
recognizable without any extra adjustment. 
It is as though the picture, the view had 
been focussed just for my special degree 
of short-sightedness. My heart and my 
mind are without strain. 

Just to think, then, becomes for me a 
joy on Sunday afternoons. At first, T 
used to save problems for that happy sea- 
son, but I soon learned better. Now I re- 
lax and let the thoughts come to me. How 
the difficulties resolve themselves. Some- 
times it is a really vexing material puzzle, 
sometimes it is a bit of verse, sometimes a 
situation in a play, an abstruse expression 
that baffles. If my mind reverts to the 
puzzle and! I pick up the book I find myself 
poring oven it with the same intense con- 
centration with which in my childhood I 
pored over Dore or the Apochrypha. And 
like then there is ! no sense of effort. 

If I fail to give an idea of the ineffable 
satisfaction which now I gain on these 
beatific afternoons, I have written vainly. 
Everything is perfect. I would not hurry 
or hold back one moment. I am like the 
gourmet caressing his wine against his 
palate, yet letting it go, knowing he must 
not try too long to hold its flavor. What- 
ever I elect to do in those so brief hours 
is in itself an end. Sometimes I take out 
letters knowing that I shall not answer 
them then. Or I may hunt feverishly among 
a heap of papers for a half finished poem. 
Perhaps I add a line or two, but oftenest 
my content is complete in having unearthed 
it. Rarely I get out my accounts, but I 
believe I have never checked them up. 

What I like most is to sit or lie motion- 
less and let the stray sound or the glimps- 
ing of a picture bring me my thought. 
Churchbells on Sunday afternoon throw me 
into an ecstasy of pleasant feeling — my 
college days drift back to me, and later 



164 



THE CRISIS 



wanderings in Quebec, — fpriests toiling 
laboriously up, those tortuous streets to 
some house of prayer. 

The church-bells remind me, too, of a 
French story, so exquisite, so complete as to 
give one the sensation of assisting at the 
creation, the unfolding of a rare and per- 
fect thing, a flower, a poem, an utterly 
melodious song. In the story the church- 
bells take wing on good Friday and fly to 
Rome, whence they return on Easter Sun- 
day. If one can spy them in their stately 
flight above the clouds, one's dearest wish 
will be granted. It seems to me nothing 
could be more exquisite, more French. I 
know I have found no conceit so restful, 
so pillow-y for the overstrung mind. 

There is a (picture on my wall that in- 
trigues me repeatedly. On Sunday after- 
noons I let its atmosphere envelop me, ab- 
sorb me. It is Rossetti's "Dorigen of Brit- 
tany", a picture none too well-known in 
this country. 

The artist is illustrating a line from that 
much older artist, Chaucer. The picture, a 
soft platinotype, is full of all those har- 
monious unlikely things which the pre- 
Raphaelites insisted on grouping — there is 
a pipe-organ, a winding stair, a missal 
book, and a lady her arms outflung in de- 
spair to the sea just glimpsed through the 
open casement. 

"Is there not any ship on all the seas 
that will bring back to me my dearest lord?" 

Such is her plaint. Poor, mute, sad 
lady! If she only knew, she might be con- 
tent. She has me to suffer vicariously for 
her. I picture the Breton fishing village, 
the angry sea, the tortured hearts of wait- 
ing women and my heart breaks with her 
own. 

Sundays in winter are sweetest. The 
soft, gray closing-in of the afternoons be- 
tween November and March induces a pleas- 
ant, restful melancholy. Whereas the hot 
glare of summer Sundays, in the park, say, 
the gay dresses, the motors, the boats;, the 
very vividness of the trees — all thesei things 
cry for happiness. And if one because of 
some lack either within or without cannot 
achieve it one suffers more by contrast. On 
the other hand Sunday afternoon in a warm 
room with many books and few pictures 
and fewer or no people! Without, a hint of 
snow or the lowering that means rain; 
within, a flash of fire on the walls! Pain 



becomes a pleasure. 

Of late I have spent my afternoons reaid>- 
ing. Always the same thing. The Apology 
for Socrates and Crito — I cannot get away 
from it. And every perusal brings me 
fresh pleasure, a new and growing satis- 
faction. Here, in this old mian's sublime 
and fearless attitude toward death, lies, 
it seems to me, the world's greatest brief 
for personal honor and probity. See him 
a man of seventy, with only a short while 
left. Surely he might be accounted blame- 
less if accepting Crito's offer, he left the 
thankless Athenians and spent his few re- 
maining years in Thessaly. But, listen to 
his noble simplicity, — 

"Not life, Crito," he says, "but living 
well is to be prized." 

Other men perhaps have said the same 
thing, but for me these words are un- 
speakably touching from the lips of this 
grand oidi pagan. All that he says is so 
sane, so balanced, so possible to weave into 
the stuff of one's own life. 

"In all times of peril," he continues, 
"there are ways of escape if one will sub- 
mit to any baseness. Athenians, it is not 
so hard to shun death, but hard indeed to 
shun evil, for that runs more swiftly than 
death. I, you see, an old man and slow of 
gait, have been overtaken by the slower 
runner." 

I find myself transported with his dig- 
nity and sonorousness. 

The years pass and! I with them have 
passed from the childhood of that melan- 
choly little girl to the not unmixed pleas- 
ures of womanhood. Through the bye- 
gone days gleam to my visual mind those 
precious afternoons like little emerald is- 
lands in a vast watery expanse. Not a joy 
but has been made fuller, not a grief but 
has been calmed and soothed by the in- 
fluence of those few hours which induce, 
That sweet mood when pleasant thoughts 
Bring sad thought to the mind. 
The warfare of modern living beats and 
seethes about my consciousness as it does 
about the rest of the world. But on Sun- 
days, I lose some of its overwhelming im- 
pingement. Through the long years to come 
I see stretching before me a vista of 
blessed oases, little havens whither my tired 
heart and mind shall, not vainly, seek re- 
pose. And this vision is not the least of 
my indebtedness to Sunday afternoon. 



National • Associaiion • for • (he • - 
Advancement of Colored.- People. 




LYNCHINGS IN THE UNITED 
STATES 

'T'ABULATED figures as to lynching in 

■*- the United States begin with 1885. 
From January 1, 1885, to January 1, 1922, 

4,015 persons are known to have been 
lynched, as follows: 



1885 


181 


1904 


... 86 


1886 


133 


1905 


... 65 


1887 


123 


1906 


... 68 


1888 


142 


1907 


... 62 


1889 


.... 175 


1908 


... 100 


1890 


91 


1909 


... 89 


1891 


194 


1910 


... 90 


1892 


226 


1911 


... 71 


1893 


153 


1912 


... 64 


1894 


182 


1913 


... 48 


1895 


178 


1914 


. . . • 54 


1896 


125 


1915 


... 96 


1897 


162 


1916 


... 58 


1898 .... 


127 


1917 


. . . . 50 


1899 .... 


.... 109 


1918 


... 67 


1900 .... 


.... 101 


1919 


... 83 


1901 .... 


135 


1920 


... 65 


1902 


94 


1921 ..... 


... 64 


1903 .... 


104 











Total. .. 


...4,015 



Georgia 429 

Mississippi 405 

Texas 354 

Louisiana 326 

Alabama 292 

Arkansas 1 231 

Florida 201 

Tennessee 199 

Kentucky 171 

South Carolina . 128 

Oklahoma 99 

Missouri 85 

Virginia 80 

North Carolina 63 

Wyoming 34 

West Virginia . . 32 

California 29 

Illinois 24 

Kansas 24 

Montana 23 

Colorado 20 

Indiana 19 



Nebraska 18 

Maryland 17 

Washington ... 17 

New Mexico. . . 13 

South Dakota. . 13 

Ohio 13 

Idaho 11 

Arizona 8 

Iowa 8 

Minnesota . 7 

Alaska 4 

Michigan 4 

Nevada 4 

Oregon 4 

Pennsylvania . . 1 

Wisconsin 4 

New York 3 

North Dakota . 2 

Delaware 1 

Maine 1 

New Jersey ... 1 

State unknown. 11 



Total 3,436 

The following states have had no lynch- 
ings: Utah, Vermont, New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut 
and the District of Columbia. 



It 


85 














\h: 




















200 


\ A 


P 


i A 


— ' 










IOO 

o 


y\ 


i— 


^V 


"N 


j- 


x/ 


V-/N 


V 



INCREASE AND DECREASE OF LYNCHING BY YEARS 



The figures for lynching before 1889 
were not kept in enough detail to allow us 
to use more than the totals. The follow- 
ing figures therefore, except where notedi, 
refer to the period from January 1, 1889 
to Jaunary 1, 1922, in which ptriod 3,436 
persons are known to have been lynched. 
These lynchings have been distributed as 
follows by states: 



If we confine ourselves simply to Negroes 
who have been lynched we have the follow- 
ing table, showing a total of 3,038 between 
1885 and 1921: 



1885 


78 


1892 


.... 155 


1886 


.... 71 


1893 


114 


1887 


.... 80 


1894 


128 


1888 


.... 95 


1895 


110 


1889 


95 


1896 


79 


1890 


.... 88 


1897 


124 


1891 


127 


1898 


103 



165 



166 



THE CRISIS 



1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 



87 
89 
108 
84 
87 
79 
60 
64 
59 
92 
75 



1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 



80 
63 
61 

47 
49 
53 
51 

48 
63 

77 
57 
58 



Total 3,038 

For the alleged causes of these lynchings 
of Negroes we must again confine ourselves 
to the years 1889-1921, and to the 2,714 
lynchings of Negroes which took place in 
those years. 

Murder 957—35.3% 

Rape 527—19.4 " 

Attacks upon women 245 — 9.0 " 

Other crimes against the person 276 — 10.2 " 

Crimes against property 214 — 7.9 " 

Miscellaneous crimes 330 — 12.1 " 

Absence of crime 165 — 6.1 " 



N. A. A. C. P. ANNUAL MEETING 
y I ^HE National Association for the Ad- 
A vancement of Colored People held its 
annual meeting in New York on January 3, 
receiving the report of work done during 
1921 at an afternoon session and reporting 
progress on the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill at 
a night mass meeting in the Palace Casino. 
At the afternoon session, Dr. Ernest H. 
Gruening, Managing Editor of the Nation, 
who accompanied the Senate investigating 
committee to Haiti, charged the senators 
with having "whitewashed" the occupation 
of the black republic and with having spent 
insufficient time there to take the necessary 
testimony on atrocities alleged against 
marines. 

The Annual Report of the officers of the 
Association recited the work of the Asso- 
ciation for the year. These reports will be 
published in condensed form in the March 
Crisis and later will be issued in pamphlet 
form. 













7.9J& 
P 


6.1$ 
N 


35. 3# 


19.4$ 


12. 1$ 


10.2$ 


9.0# 


R 






MURDER 


RAPE 


MISC. 


PERSOM 


ASSAULT 


P 
E 
R 
V 
Y 


C 
R 
I 
M 

E 



CAUSES OF THE LYNCHING OF 2,714 NEGROES, 1889-1921 



During 1921, 58 Negroes and 6 white per- 
sons were lynched, making a total of 64. 
Of these, 62 were men and 2 were colored 
women. Of those lynched 32 were hanged, 
17 were shot, 4 were burned, and 2 were 
drowned; in 9 cases the method of lynching 
was not reported. Of the 58 Negroes 
lynched, 21 were accused of rape and at- 
tacks upon women, 16 of murder, 10 of mis- 
cellaneous crimes, 7 of crimes against the 
person (outside of those mentioned), 1 of 
crime against property, and 3 of no crime. 
Georgia led the lynching states with 14 
cases; in Mississippi there were 13 lynch- 
ings ; Texas and Arkansas each had 6 cases ; 
South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida had 
5 cases each; North Carolina 4; Alabama 
2, and 1 each in Kentucky, Missouri, Vir- 
ginia and Tennessee. 



Charles Edward Russell, orator "and 
author, spoke at the night mass meeting of 
the Association, at which there was music 
by the band of the 15th Regiment N. Y. 
N. G., New York's crack colored regiment. 
Mr. Russell welcomed the advent of the 
new Negro who, he declared, was ready to 
stand up for his rights. Mr. Russell ridi- 
culed President Harding's assertion that 
there was an "impassable gulf" between 
white and colored people in the United 
States and advocated that, before attempt- 
ing to lead the world to disarmament, the 
United States disarm the lyncher within 
her own borders. 

Walter F. White, urging continued and 
vigorous support of the Dyer Bill, asserted 
that lynching was one of the means of per- 
petuating peonage and the economic exploi- 



N. A. A. C. P. 



167 



tation of the Negro in the (Tnited States. 

"Lynching protects montj," saidi Mr. 
White, "and money is being sp^nt through- 
out the United States to keep up lynching 
so that the exploitation of the Negro may 
be continued." 

Mordecai W. Johnson spoke also on lynch- 
ing. 

At the meeting telegrams were read from 
Representative Dyer, Representative Mar- 
tin Madden of Illinois and from James Wel- 
don Johnson, Secretary of the Association, 
who had to be in Washington on the night 
of the meeting in order to confer with Re- 
publican leaders on the progress of the 
Dyer Bill. 

In his telegram to the N. A. A. C. P., 
Representative Madden said: "The time has 
arrived when the crime of lynching should 
be recognized by the nation as outlawed and 
all who participate in it as outlaws, I am 
heartily in favor of the anti-lynching bill 
now before Congress." 

Mary White Ovington, chairman of the 
Board of Directors of the N. A. A. C. P., 
presided at both afternoon and evening 
meetings and made a stirring (plea that in 
the coming struggle for passage of the Dyer 
Bill colored Americans continue their efforts 
in its behalf unabated. Secretary John- 
son's telegram reported that Republican 
leaders were confident of the Bill's passage 
but that steady support of the Bill must not 
be slackened. 

At the business meeting of the Associa- 
tion, the following were elected directors to 
serve until 1924: 

E. Burton Ceruti, Los Angeles, Cal. ; 
George W. Crawford, New Haven, Conn.; 
Bishop John Hurst, Baltimore, Md. ; Paul 
Kennaday, New York City; Joseph Prince 
Loud, Boston, Mass.; Mrs. Ella Rush Mur- 
ray, Catskill, N. Y.; Dr. W. A. Sinclair, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Charles H. Studin, New 
York City; Neval H. Thomas, Washington, 
D. C; Rev. G. R. Waller, Springfield, 
Mass.; Butler R. Wilson, Boston, Mass. 

EARLY VOTE EXPECTED ON DYER 
BILL 

A T the time that this is written, Congress 
■*■ ^ has reconvened after the holiday re- 
cess and now has under consideration the 
Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, H. R. 13. South- 
ern Democrats are vigorously opposing the 
bill. James Weldon Johnson is in Washing- 
ton in daily conference with the members 



of Congress who are fighting for the bill, 
and will remain in the capital until a vote 
is taken. 

At this time, the National Association 
for the Advancement of Colored People 
wishes to urge strongly and solemnly every 
colored voter and every right-minded white 
voter to watch how his Congressman votes. 
In November every member of the House 
of Representatives and 32 members of the 
Senate are to come up for re-election. If 
your Congressman votes against the Dyer 
Bill, mark him down as your betrayer in 
the hour of trial and defeat him by every 
legitimate means when he asks your suf- 
frage next fall. In the same way, reward 
those who met the test without flinching. 

HOW LYNCHINGS HAPPEN 

/"\N August 13, about seven o'clock in 
^^ the morning, Miss Jessie Parker, a 
white school teacher, was attacked while on 
her way to school in Inskip, greater Knox- 
ville. Her assailant dragged her from the 
railway, along which she was walking, into 
a cornfield where she was beaten and left 
unconscious. When she recovered con- 
sciousness, Miss Parker found her way to 
the home of a friend to whom she related 
her story. She reported that she had been 
attacked by a Negro who carried a bundle. 
This was all she could remember then about 
her assailant. 

Citizens gathered and went to the scene 
of the attack. From the top of a passing 
freight train, Frank Martin, a colored man, 
was forced at the point of guns; but the 
posse became convinced by physical facts 
that he was not the man. He, however, 
was arrested and taken before the girl, who 
was not positive that he was the man who 
had attacked her. When he was taken be- 
fore her the second time, she said that she 
believed that he was the man but that she 
did not want to harm an innocent man. 
When he was brought before her on the 
next day for the third time, she stated tr--t 
she was positive that he was her assailant. 
Martin was then confined to the county 
jail. 

That night a mob formed near the jail 
for the purpose of lynching Martin; how- 
ever, the sheriff and his deputies dispersed 
the would-be lynchers after wounding more 
than a score of them. 

Frank Martin established his alibi and 
the judge ordered him released. 



— r 
i 
i 

•' i 


i 

V 
\ 


" 


v.'-A 




u 












_.i..r 




A LYNCHING MAP OF THE I 
Drawn hj Ma c 
Each dot on this map represents one of the 3,436 lynchings which took place in the United States between 1889 and 19: 

in the exact localities of the lyi 



168 




ITED STATES OF AMERICA 
le G. Allison 

ji period of 32 years. The dots are all in the states where the lynchings occurred, but naturally they could not he placed 
ngs within the state boundaries. 



169 



THE LINK BETWEEN 




"^T7"HAT gives us hope for the final solu- 
* " tion of this trying race problem is 
the willingness of persons in each encamp- 
ment to link hands occasionally across the 
dividing line. Sometimes the impetus is 
given by common interests in art, in work, 
in religion Sometimes it is stirred by 
sheer human kindness. Whatever the cause 
the phenomenon recurs. 

One such figure, Natalie Curtis Burlin, 
died' last October in France, but not before 
she had devoted years to the work of in- 
terpreting one group to the other. 

Natalie Curtis, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Edward and 
Augusta Stacey Cur- 
tis, was born in New 
York City. 
She was al- 
ways a mu- 
sician 'and 
was fortu- 
nate enough 
to have op- 
portunity to 
cult ivate 
her favorite 
i n t e rest. 
Hers was 
no mean 
training, — 
F r iedheim, 
Dvorak, Gi- 
raudet i n 
Paris, Wolff 
in Bonn, Busoni in 
Berlin and Julius 
Kniese at the Wagner- 



Her methods were practical. She suc- 
ceeded in interesting President Roosevelt 
in her plan to such an extent that he in- 
cluded in his annual message to Congress 
a plea for the preservation of Indian Art. 
She visited the Indian Reservations in an 
attempt to learn, to compare and to 
contrast their distinctive melodies and 
rhythms. It was the task of years to 
work out a comprehensive system of musical 
notation which should adequately transcribe 
the melodies which she had recorded. 
By 1907 the work was completed. She 
had already issued sep- 
arately in 1905 the songs 
sung by the Pueblo 
Indians when grind- 
ing corn. 
These were 
called 
"Songs of 
Ancient 
A m erica". 
The later 
book, being 
natura 1 1 y 
more inclu- 
sive, was 
called "The 
In d i a n s' 
Book" and 
contained a 
collection of 
the songs 
and legends 
of the various tribes. 
It was an instant suc- 
cess both for its accur- 




Schule in Bayreuth were the late natalie curtis burlin acy of transcription and 



her teachers. 

Primitive music attracted her most. 
Bit by bit she became immersed in musi- 
cal myth and folk-lore of primitive peo- 
ples. She sensed so completely the cultural 
and interpretive possibilities of this class of 
music that she determined to turn her in- 
terest to some open manifestation, The In- 
dians and their vanishing tales and music 
claimed he» attention first and she set 
about planning a compilation in which the 
Indians themselves should record their 
native effusions. 



notation, and for the knowledge which it 
gave of primitive man. 

Her success in this field induced friends 
of Hampton Institute to request her to 
record Negro Folk Music of the South. 
This she readily undertook to do and so in 
1919 produced "Songs and Tales from the 
Dark Continent". This book is really of 
surpassing value since she was helped in its 
compilation by Kamba Simango, a Portu- 
guese East African, and Madikane Cele, 
from Zululand. In this work Miss Curtis 
did her best to prove to the world that Af- 



170 



THE HORIZON 



171 



rican and American Negroes are something 
more than a mere "labor supply". 

The fame of this compilation was even 
more instant and more widely spread than 
that brought by her former volume. 

Isn't it a splendid thing that she lived 
and that she did come to know us? Think 
of the entirely new impression of colored 
people which she was able to get and to 
disseminate. And think of the much more 
valuable effect she was able to produce on 
colored people by showing them that here 
was some one willing 1 and eager to learn to 
know them, and to exhibit them at their 
best. 

Although her husband, Paul Burlin, and 
her family must grieve for her sorely, yet 
they may take comfort with us in the 
thought that her comparatively short life 
has left on both races its ineffaceable im- 
print. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MRS. BURLIN'S 
WORKS 

"Dearest Where Thy Shadow Falls", G. 
Schirmer, New York, 1898. 

"Songs from a Child's Garden of Verses", 
G. Schirmer, New York, 1902. 

"Songs of Ancient America", G. Schirmer, 
New York, 1905. 

"The Indians' Book", Harper Brothers, 
New York, 1907. 

"Hymn of Freedom" , G. Schirmer, New 
York, 1918. 

"Negro Folk Songs", G. Schirmer, New 
York, 1919. 

"Mary's Baby", Huntzinger & Dilworth, 
New York, 1919. 

"Dar's a Star in de East", Huntzinger & 
Dilworth, New York, 1919. 

"Songs and Tales from the Dark Conti- 
nent", G. Schirmer, New York, 1920. 

"Victory Song of the Pawnees", G. Schir- 
mer, New York, 1920. 

"A Cow-boy Song", G. Schirmer, New 
York, 1920. 




COMPILED BY MADE 

npHE Railway Men's International Asso- 

■*- ciation will hold a three days' convention 

beginning February 12, in Birmingham, Ala. 

The American Negro Academy has held 
its 25th annual meeting in Washington, 
D. C. The speakers included Prof. Leo 
Wiener of Harvard University, on "The 
Problems of African Civilization"; Duse 
Mahomed of London, on "The Necessity of 
a Chair in Negro History in Our Colleges" ; 
L. M. Hershaw, on "The Growth of Negro 
Population in the United States"; Alain 
Le Roy Locke, on "The Problem of Race and 
Culture"; and Arthur A. Schomburg, pres- 
ident of the organization, on "The Negro 
Soldier in the Civilization of America." 

The Louisiana Federation of Colored 
Women's Clubs held its third annual con- 
vention in Monroe. Reports told of play- 
grounds being established in Lake Charles, 
a Y. W. C. A. in Baton Rouge, and the se- 
curing of lights and night police protection 
for the colored section of Oakdale. 

The State Board of Education has taken 



LIME Q. ALLISON . 

control of Cheyney Training School for 
Teachers, at Cheyney, Pa. The school has 
been a private institution under the direc- 
tion of the Society of Friends. Professor 
Leslie Pinckney Hill is the principal and the 
institution has an enrollment of 106 stu- 
dents. The State obtained the property for 
$75,000; it is estimated to be worth $300,- 
000. 

A teacher of four classes in Freshman 
English at the Parker High School, Dayton, 
Ohio, writes us: "In two of them, the only 
classes in which there were colored children, 
the best work during the past month was 
done by colored children. The highest aver- 
age for the month was secured by Emma 
Buckner and Gwendolen Overly, both col- 
ored — and admirable girls in every particu- 
lar." 

Fisk University at Nashville, Tenn., has 
been admitted as a beneficiary of the Car- 
negie Foundation for the Advancement of 
Teaching. 

An appropriation of $100,000 has bee^ 



172 



THE CRISIS 




Y. W. C. A. TRAINING COURSE AT HAMPTON 



granted by the legislature of North Caro- 
lina for a tuberculosis sanitarium for Ne- 
groes. The institution will be manned by 
Negro 'physicians and nurses. 

A Negro church in Philadelphia, — East 
Calvary, has the largest Methodist congre- 
gation in America; its communicants num- 
ber 3,420. St. Mark's, in New York City, 
has 1,946 members. The strongest white 
congregation, — North Woodward in Detroit, 
has a membership of 3,117. 

M. Albert M. Pourriere, a French West 
African merchant, has been promoted from 
a Chevalier to an Officier de la Legion 
d'Honneur. In recognition of his work, 
pieces of handsome silver-plat were pre- 



sented to him at the Liverpool offices of the 
Compagnie Frangaise de I'Afrique Occiden- 
tale. 

According to Mr. Milne Stewart, Comp- 
troller of Customs in Nigeria, the total vol- 
ume of trade for the year amounted to £42,- 
515,000, being an increase over the 1919 
figures of no less than £15,498,000. There 
was an increase of £13,200,000 in the im- 
port trade and of £2,260,000 in the export 
trade, as compared with 1919. Duties on 
imports amounted to £2,279,000; on exports, 
£838,000. 

The National Board of the Y. W. C. A. 
recently conducted a three weeks' training 
course at Hampton Institute. Eighteen 




THE SECOND PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS IN BRUSSELS 



THE HORIZON 



173 



women, representing 15 states, attended. 
Most of these women have already had ex- 
perience as girls' work, departmental and 
branch secretaries in city organizations. 
They went to Hampton for special training 
in the technique of the organization, in 
order to render more efficient service. The 
instructors were leaders from the National 
Board. 

During the second Pan-African Congress, 
a group of members was photographed in 
the garden of the Palais Mondial in the 
Park Cinquantenaire, Brussels, Belgium. In 
the group are Senator and Mrs. La Fon- 



ored majors, Major W. Hubert Jackson, 
served in the Spanish-American war. Re- 
cently the State and city of New York ap- 
propriated $500,000 for a new armory. The 
ceremony of breaking the ground for the 
armory, which is situated at 142d Street 
and Fifth Avenue, New York City, was 
attended by a parade and speeches. Our 
illustration shows the reviewing stand with 
Mayor Hylan, Colonel Little, Comptroller 
Craig and W. E. B. DuBois, who acted as 
chairman. 

Roland Hayes, the Negro tenor, recently 
sang in Philharmonic Hall, Liverpool; at 




THE MAYOR OF NEW YORK AND PARTY REVIEWING THE 15TH N. Y. N. G. 



taine; Professor and Mrs. Paul Otlet; 
Blaise Diagne, president of the Congress; 
W. E. B. Du Bois, secretary; Paul Panda, 
assistant secretary; groups from America, 
France, the Congo, and other delegates. 

The 15th New York National Guard 
which made such a brilliant record in the 
World War as the 369th Regiment has been 
reorganized. Arthur Little, one of the 
white officers who was with the regiment in 
France, is the colonel and the officers are 
both white and colored. One of the col- 



the concert of the Madrigal Society in Hali- 
fax; and in Mayfair houses where he re- 
ceived very warm congratulations. West 
Africa reports: "On 5 consecutive nights — 
March 27, 28, 29, 30 and 31— he is to sing 
before a society whose subscribing members 
number 12,000. As the hall has only a 
seating capacity for 2,000, there is already 
some speculation locally as to who will be 
unable to secure admission to hear the gifted 
singer." Mr. Hayes has an outstanding 
engagement in the spring in Scotland. 



174 



THE CRISIS 




HOME OFFICE N. C. MUTUAL INSURANCE CO. 

Ten state organizations have been allied 
with the National Colored Women's Legisla- 
tive Bureau of Washington, D. C. The pur- 
pose of this Bureau is to keep colored women 
in touch with all the legislative bodies, and 
to send out from time to time statements as 
to the action that is necessary for therm to 
take along the line of national legislation 
and in the interest of their race. Mrs. 
Mazie Mossell Griffin is national director. 

The opera "Martha" has been successfully 
rendered by a Negro cast in Chicago. Mr. 



James Mundy was general director, and 
Cleo Dickerson musical director. Leading 
roles were sung by Nellie Dobson and Lil- 
lian Hawkins Jones. 

The 43d annual fair of North Carolina 
was held in Raleigh under the presidency 
of Berry 'Kelly. The exhibits were large 
and varied and the fair was visited by the 
Governor and numbers of visitors. 

The new home office of the North Caro- 
lina Mutual Life Insurance Company, in 
Durham, was erected at a cost of $250,000. 
The company has $33,444,396 worth of in- 
surance in force; its bank has assets of $1,- 
115,312; the company employs 1,444 persons 
and operates in Alabama, Arkansas, Flor- 
ida, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, North 
Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Ten- 
nessee, Virginia and the District of Colum- 
bia. The officers and directors are: A. M. 
Moore, president; J. M. Avery, vice-presi- 
dent; C. C. Spaulding, secretary-treasurer; 
C. H. Donnell, medical director; W. J. Ken- 
nedy, director. 

The first Negro agent to do extension 
work among Negro farmers was appointed 
in 1905. In 1908, 7 agents were being em- 
ployed at a cost of $4,184; last year the 
force had increased to 224 agents employed 
at a cost of $302,798. Of these, 157 are 
men and 67 are women. As a result of ex- 
tension work, Negro farmers in 1920 intro- 
duced pure bred live stock as follows: 377 
horses, 1,688 dairy cattle, 149 beef cattle, 
2,848 hogs, and 700 sheep. There were 
68,199 cattle dipped, and 134,799 head of 
live stock were treated for diseases and 



"M 










INTERIOR OF ONE OF THE N. C. MUTUAL OFFICES 



THE HORIZON 



175 



pests. A total of 329 farmers' clubs were 
organized with a membership of 16,960. 

At the George Peabody College for 
Teachers in Nashville, Tenn., a white insti- 
tution, R. H. Levell has been appointed 
Professor of Race. Relations. Mr. Levell, al- 
though a white Texan, is liberal-minded 
and proposes to offer courses which will 
make the teachers trained at that great in- 
stitution "aware of the Negro population 
as a part of the community". 

The Brit'.sh Colonial Office is beginning 
to take some notice of the needs and de 
mands of the crown colonies especially in 
the West Indies where the overwhelming 
majority of the population is of Negro de- 
scent. A deputation is being sent to Grenada 
and other islands to inquire into their re- 
cent demands for representative govern- 
ment, and a West Indian agricultural col- 
lege is to be established probably in Trini- 
dsH; 

The Prix Goncourt is a highly coveted 
French prize. It carries five thousand 
francs in cash, assures a large sale for the 
book that received the prize and means a 
continued market for the future productions 
of the author. This prize for 1921 has been 
awarded to Rene Maran. Maran is a full- 
blooded Negro, born in Martinique. He is 
in the French Colonial Service and is now 
at his post near Lake Tchad in Central 
Africa. It was there that he gathered the 
material for his novel "Batouala," which 
won the prize. Batouala is an African chief 
to whose land the white man has brought 




— Underwood & Underwood 
RENE MARAN 

"their magic, their invention, their evil 
ways." In the preface of his book Maran 
makes a strong defense of the Negro and 
charges the white colonists with much of 
the evil that occurs. On the other hand, 
in the book he has given a real picture, 
with the good and the bad of the native life. 
Howard University conferred the de- 
gree of Doctor of Laws upon Ferdinand 




HOWARD UNIVERSITY CONFERRING A DEGREE ON MARSHAL FOCH 



176 



THE CRISIS 




CARTER, JOHNSTON AND GOURDIN 



Foch, Marshal of France. There is a 
rumor that strenuous effort was made 
by army officials and others in Wash- 
ington to keep Marshal Foch from visiting 
the University, but he came and a demon- 
stration in his honor was held. The choir 
sang the Hallelujah Chorus. President 
Durkee greeted the Marshal and the Mar- 
shal responded. The degree was conferred 
by Justice Peelle, President of the Board 
of Trustees. 

At the track meet of the Y. M. C. A. held 
at the 13th Regiment Armory in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Joseph Carter, Ned Gourdin and 
Earl Johnston outclassed their white rivals. 
Gourdin finished the 100-yard dash in 10 1/5 



seconds; Carter won the 70-yard dash in 
7 3/5 seconds ; in the two-mile handicap 
Johnston won, his time being 9 minutes 
36 4/5 seconds. Joseph Carter is from Bos- 
ton University; Earl Johnston, of Pitts- 
burgh, is national ten-mile champion; Ned 
Gourdin, of Harvard University, is the 
holder of the world's running broad jump 
record. 

Freedmen's Hospital cared for 3,318 pa- 
tients during last year. Of these, 1,833 re- 
covered from their ailments, 1,394 improved, 
215 were unimproved, 12 were not treated 
and 210 died. There were 854 ipay-patients 
whose fees amounted to $24,219. Total re- 
ceipts for the year, including Congressional 
appropriations, were $173,739 ; disburse- 
ments, $173,246. The report says that lim- 
ited funds prevented proper development of 
the professional side of the work, but "in a 
general way the results of the activities at 
the hospital show improvement over the 
preceding year." There are 449 nurses 
holding certificates from Freedmen's. 

Sometime ago wide publicity was given 
to the suit brought against Dr. R. B. Mc- 
Rary, a colored physician of Lexington, N. 
C, by a white man who accused the doctor 
of alienating the affections of the white 
man's wife. Dr. McRary was prominent in 
the city and in the M. E. Church and was 
reputed to be well to do. After long delay, 
the case has been settled and Dr. McRary's 
attorney writes that all charges against him 
have been withdrawn by the accuser and 
settlement made on the basis of Dr. Mc- 
Rary's innocence. 




TWENTIETH NATIONAL CONFEEENGE 



THE HORIZON 



1?? 



In Cincinnati the 20th national confer- 
ence of the colored men's department of the 
Y. M. C. A. was held in the beautiful local 
building. Among the speakers were Dr. 
Mott, President John Hope, Bishop R. E. 
Jones, Dr. R. R. Moton, President J. S. 
Durkee, and others. The conference was 
under the general direction of Mr. J. E. 
Moorland. 

Half a century ago Dr. Barth wrote that 
the province of Katsena in the Sudan, 
Africa, was one of the finest parts of Ne- 
groland. It was situated just at the water 
shed of the Tchad and the Niger, at a gen- 
eral elevation of twelve to fifteen hundred 
feet. It was well watered and well drained 
and its productions were rich and varied. 
Katsena became one of the leading coun- 
tries of Negroland during the 17th and 
18th centuries. In the latter ipart of the 
18th century it was at the height of its 
prosperity. It was important not only in 
commerce and politics, but also in learning 
and literature. After the Moorish con- 
quests and the conquests by the Fula, the 
importance of Katsena declined; but never- 
theless it is today an important country. 
It has a population of 400,000 people and 
an annual revenue from direct taxation of 
$400,000. Recently Mohama Giko, the 'pres- 
ent Emir, visited England. He was re- 
ceived by the King, visited the theatres and 
the stores, was interested in the school of 
tropical medicine, the museums, the banks, 
etc. He remained in England from June 17 
to July 16, when he departed for his country. 

A recent meeting of the New York 




1HE EMIK OF KATSENA 



Cameraderie, affiliated with the League for 
Industrial Democracy, held at the Civic 
Club of New York, was devoted to a presen- 
tation of "Negro Spirituals and Some Mod- 
ern Negro Music". The demonstrating 
artists were Charlotte Wallace Murray, So- 
prano; Garfield Warren Tarrant, Baritone; 
and Hall Johnson, Violinist. In addition to 
examples of the old Spirituals, the program 
included works of Coleridge-Taylor, Dett, 
Burleigh, Johnson and Cook. Augustus 
Granville Dill was the speaker and also the 
accompanist. 

Miss Maria Baldwin, the most distin- 




OF COLOF.ED Y. M. C. ASSOCIATIONS 



178 



THE CRISIS 




The Late Dr, Jackson 



guished public school teacher of the Negro 
race, died suddenly in Boston while lectur- 
ing before the Robert Gould Shaw Society 
at Copley Plaza Hotel. 

Garnet C. Wilkinson, formerly principal 
of Dunbar High School, Washington, has 
been made Assistant Superintendent of 
Schools in succession to R. C. Bruce. Mr. 
Wilkinson was born in South Carolina in 
1879, was educated at Oberlin and has been 
teaching in the Washington schools since 
1902. 

Among graduates from Wilberforce Uni- 
versity who have distinguished themselves 
is the late Dr. Thomas Henry Jackson. Dr. 
Jackson entered Wilberforce at the age of 
14, graduating with the first class, in 1870. 
In 1865, he was converted and entered the 
active ministry of the A. M. E. Church, 
thus serving 56 years. He pastored 
churches in Ohio, Arkansas and South Car- 
olina and was a delegate to every General 
Conference since 1872 and to the Ecumeni- 
cal Conference in London in 1901. As an 
educator he served as a Professor at Wil- 
berforce University; President and Dean 
at Shorter College, Little Rock, Ark., and 
Professor at Payne Seminary, Wilberforce. 
He was also treasurer of Wilberforce Uni- 
versity for the last 5 years. He was born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., March 13, 1844 and 
died in Wilberforce, Ohio, November 24, 
1921. 

There have been few cases where Ameri- 
can Negroes have been appointed to a chair 
in the larger universities. This is chiefly 
because prejudice of race prevents them 
from securing fellowships and instructor- 
ships. In a few cases, however, there have 



E. Davis 



been such appointments. One is the case 
of Mr. L. M. Peace, who is one of the oldest 
teachers in the University of Kansas, at 
Lawrence. Mr. Peace is instructor in the 
Department of Biology. He is a graduate 
of the University, a successful teacher, and 
well-liked. 

Professor George Edward Davis was born 
at Wilmington, N. C, March 24, 1862. In 
1883 he was graduated from Biddle Uni- 
versity with first honor; then he studied 
medicine for 2 years at Howard University. 
He was the first colored teacher appointed 
to Biddle, where he has served 34 years and 
held the chairsi of Latin, Science and Sociol- 
ogy; for 30 years he was secretary of the 
Faculty and for 15 years, Dean. He re- 
signed the Deanship on October 15, 1920, 
to become Rosenwald Building Agent and 
Director of Negro Interest in the Public 
Schools of North Carolina. On September 
16, 1889, Mr. Davis married Miss Mary E. 
Gaston, a public school teacher of Savan- 
nah, Ga. They are the parents of 5 living 
children, 2 of whom are teachers. 

Through Congressman George S. Graham 
of Philadelphia, the Congressional Record 
contains the full text of a report on "a pri- 
vate investigation of discriminations be- 
tween colored and white employees in the 
Panama Canal Zone", by the Rev. Dr. Mat- 
thew Anderson of Philadelphia. 

The editors of The Crisis were so en- 
grossed with the changes in the arrangement 
of the January issue that they failed to give 
the name of the artist who designed the 
cover. We take great pleasure in announc- 
ing it as the work of Miss Hilda Rue Wil- 
kinson. 



J71 



he Lookiiva Glass 



LITERATURE 
'T'HOMAS CURTIS CLARK in Unity. 
In every meanest face I see 
A iperfected humanity; 
All men, though brothers of the clod, 
Bear promise of the sons of Godi. 

No human ore that does not hold 
A precious element of gold; 
No heart so blackened and debased 
But has for Him some treasure chaste. 
* * * 

One of the important literary phenomena 
of the year is the publication of the Revue 
des Coloniaux {Colonial Review) which is 
owned by its editor Isaac Beton. M. Beton 
is a native of Guadeloupe, a man of wide 
classical and literary training and a teacher 
in one of the lycees (institutions of high 
school rank) of Paris. 

The magazine contains articles relative 
to the lives and problems of France's 
colonials. It also attempts to give an inter- 
national review of events to colored people 
all over the world. Thus the volume at 
hand contains not only accounts of the 
sugar industry of Madagascar and of the 
second Pan-African Congress, but of the 
Olympic contests and pictures of black ath- 
letes from all over the world including our 
own Gourdin and Butler. 

The Crisis hopes that the Revue des 
Coloniaux will gain the following which it 
so richly deserves. 

THE DYER BILL 

HPHE Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill is a dras- 
■*■ tic measure but proposes to punish a 
drastic crime, by employing, after all other 
methods have failed, the only ones which 
promise relief. The New York Evening 
Post says;: 

To punish a local official who fails to do 
everything within his power to prevent a 
lynching; to punish anybody who partici- 
pates in a lynching mob, and to make any 
county in which any person is lynched 
liable to the victim's family in the sum of 
$10,000— these are the "teeth" in the Anti- 
Lynching Bill now before Congress. The 
Federal Government bases its right to act 
upon the Fourteenth Amendment, which 
provides that no State shall deny to any 
person the equal protection of the laws. A 



State which does not protect its residents 
against a mob is deemed to have denied 
them the equal protection of the laws. The 
section of the bill holding a county liable 
for damages embodies a principle which 
has already been recognized by statute in 
the South. Gov. Dorsey has recommended 
its extension to Georgia. The Federal Gov- 
ernment cannot be charged with hasty 
action in this matter. Sentiment the coun- 
try over favors more effective measures 
against lynching. The bill should be given 
a trial. 

The passage of this bill will establish a 
precedent for the federal centralization of 
the powers and rights of the various States 
thinks the New York World in a bitter edi- 
torial entitled "Lynching the Constitution": 

If Congress can validly make this kind 
of offending a Federal crime, there is no 
felony or misdemeanor known to the laws 
of any State which cannot be made a Fed- 
eral crime and imposed upon the Federal 
authority for detection, prosecution and 
punishment. . . . 

The Dyer bill is a mischievous and essen- 
tially a lawless measure and every effort 
should be made to prevent its enactment. 

* * * 

The Springfield, Mass., Republican has a 
ready answer for those who feel that this 
bill means the federal usurpation of state 
rights: 

The need of such a law as this has been 
glaringly apparent for a long time. Un- 
der an easy-going theory of state respon- 
sibility for the policing of its own domains 
both the rights guaranteed to citizens by 
the federal constitution for the equal pro- 
tection of the laws and the treaty obliga- 
tions toward alien residents have too long 
been neglected. State responsibility will 
remain if the law is passed, but the ri^ht 
of the state to neglect its responsibility 
will have been effectivelv denied. 

* * * 

A striking feature in the controversy is 
that advocacy for and against the bill 
seems to be based on sectional lines, the 
South of course showing passionate dis- 
favor. The New York Globe points out the 
evil attendant on such a stand, for the Dyer 
Bill no matter how severe is certainly an 
attempt to enforce law r andi order: 

If the white South could bring itself to 
stand as a unit for the enforcement instead 
of the breaking of the law it would gain 



179 



180 



THE CRISIS 



the respect of the world and the co-opera- 
tion of law-abiding southern Negroes. Its 
present attitude naturally wins it the dis- 
trust of the world and the bitterness of its 
colored population. If the Negro is a dan- 
ger in the South, lynching will not make 
him less dangerous. If he is in need of im- 
provement it will not improve him. Bar- 
barity begets barbarity, not civilization. 
This is what Mr. Garrett and the South 
must learn. 

* * * 

The New York Tribune considers such a 
stand only natural in the circumstances: 

Even apart from the international as- 
pect lynching is a disgrace too long endured. 
It is the negation of law and civilized meth- 
ods of justice. It influences savage pas- 
sions. It lowers the morale of a community. 
Since state authority has failed to suppress 
this evil, and Federal intervention is per- 
fectly legitimate, it is only common sense 
for Congress to take a hand in making 
lynching more hazardous and expensive for 
tho?e who countenance it or take part in it. 

* * * 

How can anybody prate of the machinery 
of law when a scene is enacted in Paris, 
Tex., which makes the Rev. L. C. Kirkes of 
that town declare: 

I cannot agree with those who say the 
burning was justifiable, but the dragging 
of the dead bodies over the streets made it 
an act of inhuman cruelty. That does not 
appeal to me. 

After liquid fire has been appliedi to the 
quivering flesh of living men, it is a matter 
of nothing in comparison when their life- 
less bodies are subjected to ghoulish in- 
humanities. 

* * * 

Yet in spite of these horrors the special 
grand jury appointed to investigate the 
condition of that lynching reports: 

We have been in session fourteen days 
and examined 112 witnesses. We have done 
our best in trying to locate the guilty par- 
ties and have worked hard and faithfully. 

After doing all that we could to locate 
the guilty parties we are unable to find out 
whether the parties committing the crime 
lived in this county or came from some 
other locality except the ones we returned 
the bills against. . 

We herewith hand you five bills of indict- 
ment for felonies and ask to be discharged. 

* * * 

If the Dyer Bill passes, the members of 
that Grand Jury will find their wits con- 
siderably sharper. 

NEW POLITICS FOR OLD 

A CORRESPONDENT of a Houston, 
*• ^- Tex., paper writes: 

A Negro candidate for governor of Vir- 
ginia polled 20,000 votes in the recent elec- 
tion. 



There it is, gentlemen. 

It is coming. 

President Harding's pitiful blunder is 
going to precipitate more trouble, more 
bloodshed and discord in the South than 
any utterance that ever came from any 
President save when Lincoln ordered the 
advance of northern troops. 

Negroes buoyed by the President's words 
will seek to secure office, amdi in places 
where there is a preponderance of Negro 
voters will attempt to take charge of 
county and municipal affairs, and you know 
where that will lead to, don't you? 

I am just asking you. 

We may expect a string of saddle-col- 
ored aspirants for office all over the South. 
We may have one or two limelight-iseeking 
Negroes in Houston, but we will have no 
Negro officers, not as long as the Ku Klux 
lives and breathes. 

Boys, we may as well understand this 
thing right now. This country is rapidly 
shaping itself into a condition where it 

cannot do without the Ku Klux Klan. 

* * * 

The Brooklyn Eagle thus characterizes 
the political tactics of the now famous Con- 
gressman Slemp from Virginia: 

Mr. Slemp conceived the idea that if the 
G. O. P. would simply ignore the Negroes, 
ostracize them, rob them of their weight 
in Republican conventions, it could win the 
Commonwealth with white votes, "Lily 
White" votes, alone. The plan was widely 
advertised. Gossip is that it was more than 
half indorsed by President Harding and by 
Will H. Hays as Republican national chair- 
man. It was not openly indorsed. At any 
rate it won a test. 

The blacks were indignant. They formed 
a "Lily Black" party and nominated a can- 
didate. But the Democrats were somewhat 
divided and with an imperfect organiza- 
tion, and Slemp had hopes. His friends 
were claiming the State by 25,000 the day 
before election. The returns show a Demo- 
cratic victory by 60,000. Only abovt 20,000 
votes were polled by the "Lily Blacks." 
The assumption is that a much larger num- 
ber voted the Democratic ucket. 

This may be fa;rly called the fading 
away of the "Lily Whites" in southern poli- 
tics. It is a warning to a Republican Ad- 
ministration that there is no hope in desert- 
ing their Negro allies. 

* * * 

The colored St. Luke's Herald of Rich- 
mond, Va., hopes that the triumph of the 
Democrats will effect a reconciliation be- 
tween white and black Republicans: 

The "Lily Whites" who compassed the 
heavens and the earth in their cock-sure 
campaign "On the Race Question", who 
maintained a whole floor of clerks at the 
Jefferson Hotel, who threw away thousands 
of dollars trying to capture the Governor- 
ship, are now sensible of the futility of their 
ill-advised procedure by whitewashing their 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



181 



party at Norfolk. They have earned the 
full force of the joint-rebuke which the 
Democrats and colored Republicans admin- 
istered. Instead of gaining in-roads on the 
electorate, the "Lily Whites" lost eight dele- 
gates in the Virginia House. Instead of 
twelve delegates which were in the House 
before "The Colonel" ousted the Negroes, 
the Republican party now has only four 
delegates in the 1922 House. This sure 
decline and convincing failure should bring 
about a reconciliation of the two Republi- 
can wings of the party in the State. 
* * * 

James Stemons writes in the Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Public Ledger of the unfairness 
of political parties toward their colored 
constituents. There is a very large group 
of Negro voters in Philadelphia. Yet they 
are rarely recognized and this of course 
leads to their voting along racial lines. Mr. 
Stemons asserts: 

Not more than twice in twenty years 
have the independents sought the confidence 
and co-operation of Negroes by nominating 
one for the most insignificant office. George 
Edward Dickerson, for example, is a col- 
ored lawyer of high standing. For more 
than fifteen years Mr. Dickerson has stood 
squarely behind every independent move- 
ment that this city has had. Yet he in- 
forms me that he has been virtually read 
out of the movement by its present leaders, 
simply because of his modest request for 
some recognition of his race. 

It is such short-sightedness that forces 
the Negro to vote on purely racial lines. 
Personally, I believe it would have been far 
better for the race had some Negro of 
education and recognized abi/ty, preferably 
a man versed in the law, ')een nominated 
and elected as a magistrate instead of Mr. 
Scott. 

Mr. Scott was nominated and elected by 
the political faction to which he adhered. 

Colored people knew that with them it 
was a choice between Scott and no one. 
They are becoming sick and tired of having 
no representation in a government of which 
they form so large an integral part. They 
knew that a movement was under way to 
rob them of this petty recognition by merci- 
lessly cutting Scott (chiefly because of his 
race), and they, to my mind, most wisely 
decided to do a little cutting on their own 
account, thereby teaching politicians of this 
city a lesson in political strategy that they 
will not soon forget. 

IN THE LAND OF THE FREE 

HP HIS is what can happen to colored 
-*- people in America. Vardaman's Weekly 
reports : 

An affair happening in Jackson, or 
rather close to Jackson, Sunday, that has 
attracted some little attention, is the alleged 
taking of Drummond Leonard, a Yazoo City 
Negro, from the Y. and M. V. train by 



white men and the administering to him of 
a rather sound thrashing. 

According to the story, Leonard, a well- 
to-do Yazoo City barber, desired to send 
his two daughters to school at Atlanta. For 
the purpose he wanted sleeping car accom- 
modations and attempted to reserve them 
in Yazoo City where the agent informed 
him he would, if a sleeper was desired, do 
well to engage a drawing room in order 
that the children would not come into con- 
tact with other passengers. 

According to the story, Leonard came to 
Jackson Sunday afternoon and asked for 
his sleeper tickets, which the agent refused 
to sell him. He is said to have then become 
indignant and to have cited the law to the 
effect the agent could not refuse to sell him. 
He later is said to have obtained a drawing 
room and placed his daughters on the A. 
& V. train. 

Leonard took the Y. & M. V. train to 
Yazoo City and when the train reached 
Annie, a short distance from Jackson, he 
is said to have been taken off by some white 
men of this city, carried into the woods 
and thrashed; after the whipping, he was 
told to run and is said made good time 
obeying orders. 

A conversation with a gentleman at 
Yazoo City revealed that Leonard returned 
to his home yesterday morning, that his 
shop had been closed all day and the im- 
pression prevailed he had left the city for 
good. . . . 

White supremacy is going to prevail in 
Mississippi. 

* * * 

The New Orleans Times-Picayune gives 
an account of southern courtesy at Meri- 
dian, Miss: 

Dr. Robinson had driven his car up to a 
local ice plant, and asked the Negro, Ed- 
wards, an employee, who waited on custom- 
ers, to bring him out a piece of ice. The 
Negro complied but the ice he brought 
was white with ammonia, and the physician 
told him to carry it back and bring a better 
piece. Edwards is alleged to have insult- 
ingly replied: 

"You are mighty hard to please." 

Dr. Robinson stepped quickly from his 
car and slapped the Negro, saying that he 
would go and select the kind of ice he 
wanted. He walked towards the salesroom 
and the Negro, who had gone off a short 
distance, opened fire. After emptying his 
pistol, Edwards fled and every effort to 
locate him had failed at a late hour tonight. 
But the hunt had in no way abated and it 
is feared that a lynching is likely should 
the Negro be captured. 

Hopes are held out for the recovery of 
Dr. Robinson, the bullet, according to phy- 
sicians, having glanced downward passing 
into the fleshy part of the neck to the rear, 
but it as yet has not been located. 



182 



THE CRISIS 



A colored student at the 1921 summer- 
school of the University of Pennsylvania 
writes us: 

From the time school opened up to Thurs- 
day, July 21, things went as well as could 
be expected, in a group of this kind. On 
the morning of the above date, Mr. Cromie, 
director of our department, gave out notices 
in class that a Class Picture would be taken 
in the gymnasium on the following Friday. 

Following that, he read out the names of 
the colored students and notified those not 
present to meet him in the office at ten 
o'clock. We reported at said time. 

He opened his remarks by saying that he 
supposed that we knew that social condi- 
tions were quite different in the South from 
what they were here and that colored and 
white people did not mix, etc. He con- 
cluded by saying that there were southern 
students in the school and also southern 
teachers, who were told when they accepted 
their positions that there would be colored 
students who must be treated the same as 
other students. He felt, however, that there 
were some things that were expedient and 
right to do, namely, asking us not to report 
when the class was called for the picture 
and not to attend the Friday dances. 

Personally, he didn't object, but there 
were southern women in the class who ob- 
jected to being photographed with us, and 
as it was purely a social affair, he felt 
that their wishes should be respected. 

He stated further that this is a white 
man's school and the picture will be used 
for advertising purposes, "and we don't 
want an influx of Negroes, although we can 
handle a certain number." 

After he told us how much he thought of 
colored folk, etc., he stated that no differ- 
ence had been shown in classes, although 
there had been much contention about our 
going into the swimming pool, and that no 
darky had ever been mistreated in his 
classes or something similar. 

BITS FROM EVERYWHERE 
TTENRY JOHNS GIBBONS writes in 
■"•-J- the Philadelphia, Pa., Public Ledger: 
Ledger: 

A headline in this morning's issue of the 
Public Ledger reads, "Bandits Ate Marine 
in Haiti, Witness Says," by which I am 
reminded of a bon mot by James WeMon 
Johnson, the brilliant Negro poet. He got 
this off in a discussion of Caribbean Sea 
affairs in New York recently, which I at- 
tended. It was to this effect: "I don't know 
personally about rumored cannibalism in 
Haiti and San Domingo, but you can take 
your choice between eating your human 
flesh without cooking it in that benighted 
island and cooking your human flesh with- 
out eating it in possibly no less benighted 
Mississippi." 

The Bishop of Peterborough said recently 
in an address at Leicester, England: 



"We ought to attempt more than we have 
done to make people realize the danger 
to the future of a colossal world conflict 
between the white and colored races. 

"The world is drifting rapidly to dissen- 
sion in the matter of color division." 

$ $ H* 

Peggy Shippen, a staff writer of the 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, recites two in- 
teresting happenings based on color: 

When at school in Paris about that time 
[1862], I remember two mulatto girls ap- 
pearing one day who were assigned desks 
next to mine in the classroom. My mother 
being a Southerner and the owner of a 
plantation in Louisiana, I had been brought 
uip with unreasonably strong race preju- 
dice, and being only a little girl, I stub- 
bornly declined to sit next to the girls. In 
my country, I stoutly declared, such a thing 
would have been unheard of. It was ex- 
plained to me that these colored girls were 
the daughters of the president of Haiti, Pres- 
ident Geffrard — if I remember right. The 
fact did not interest me. I stuck it out. So 
did the authorities; and I was put in Cov- 
entry. But in the end I won, as they moved 
eventually. Of course, I was wrong and I 
deserved all I got. But it was an ordeal 
and I had to bring to bear upon the ques- 
tion the influence of my guardian in Paris. 

Apropos of the lack of race feeling among 
the French, one of my elders told me that 
she was paying an afternoon visit to a 
friend on her way at home, where among 
others present, was a quiet, good-looking 
woman of the brunette type. The conver- 
sation turned on Alexandre Dumas the 
elder, and one of the guests asked if it were 
true that he was a Negro. After some dis- 
cussion as to the amount of negroid blood 
in the famous novelist's veins, the quietlook- 
ing woman settled the point for the com- 
pany, adding: "I think you may credit my 
statement, as I am Alexandre Dumas' daugh- 
ter!" Tableau! Embarrassed silence! ! ! 

M. Georges Scelle, professor of inter- 
national law of the Faculty of Dijon, writes 
in V Information (Paris) of M. Louis, 
Dantes Bellegarde, Haitian Minister to 
France: 

We knew that French culture was still 
preserved in the largest island of the 
Antilles, but we would have had difficulty 
in imagining that the black republic could 
send us a man of this worth and ability. 
As soon as he began to speak on the ques- 
tion of the organization of intellectual work, 
the Haitian minister made an impression. 
His discourse on the mandates was a mas- 
terpiece of logical construction, of solid 
thought, of measured eloquence. 
When he spoke of the Pan-African Con- 
gress, when he demanded for a colored man 
a position on the Commission of Colonial 
Mandates, M. Bellegarde not only convinced 
but aroused the entire Assembly. 



M\> 



-—___ i- 



•} IfiOO 



The CRISIS 



Vol. 23-No. 5 



MARCH, 1922 



Whole No. 137 | 




ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR 



FIFTEEN GENTS A COPY 



28th Annual Financial Statement 

of the 

Southern Aid Society of Virginia, Inc. 

(Condensed) 

RECEIPTS 1921 

Jan. 1, 1921, Cash Balance Brought Forward $ 98,688.17 

Dec. 31, 1921, Annual Income 781,392.32 



Gross Receipts for 1921 $880,080.49 

DISBURSEMENTS 

Dec. 31, 1921, Total Paid Out (Including investments made during 

the year) $807,957.60 

Cash Balance Dec. 31, 1921 .$72,122.89 

ASSETS LIABILITIES 

Cash Balance Dec. 31, 1921 $72,122.89 Capital Stock $30,000.00 

Real Estate 362,266.71 Bills Payable (Unmatured notes on 

Real Estate Mortgages 86,082.48 Purchase Price of another Company's 

Federal, State and City Bonds 42,258.00 debit) 60,412.2i4 

Bills Receivable 12,774.29 Real Estate Mortgage (Mortgage as- 

Furniture and Fixtures 7,500.00 sumed on recent purchase) 4,000.00 

Inventories of Sundry Accts 5,210.81 Deposits of Employees 17,400.63 

Ledger Accounts 7,510.00 

SURPLUS FUND 468,892.31 



Total $588,215.18 Total $588,215.18 

CAPITAL AND SURPLUS $ 498,892.31 

Total Amount of Claims Paid to Dec. 31, 1921 2,511,894.92 

The unusual business depression of 1921 was a fiery trial to practically all 
businesses. The Industrial Sick Benefit Business was especially adversely affected 
by the lack of employment of thousands of policyholders. Some were forced to 
retire. Most of them experienced a great slump in the year's business. Only a few 
were able to show an increase in business over the former year. The Southern 
Aid Society of Va., Inc., was numbered among the favored few. 

The Society did its largest business during 1921. It served acceptably a 
larger number of people than ever before. It is now better prepared to protect 
its membership — through its New Liberal Policy — which provides for One Small 
Premium, protection against Sickness, Accident and Death. 

District Offices and Agencies located throughout the State of Virginia and the 
District of Columbia. 



Southern Aid Society of Virginia, Inc. 

Home Office : 527 N. Second Street 
RICHMOND, VA. 



THE CRISIS 

A RECORD OF THE DARKER RACES 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND COPYRIGHTED BY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE, AT 70 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY. CON- 
DUCTED BY W. E. BURGHARDT DU BOIS; JESSIE REDMON FAUSET, LITERARY EDITOR; 
AUGUSTUS GRANVILLE DILL, BUSINESS MANAGER. 

Vol. 23-No. 5 MARCH, 1922 Whole No. 137 

Page 
COVER 

Drawing by John Henry Adams 

OPINION 

Boddy, Black France, Homicides, The Woman's National Foundation, 

Mr. Dyer to Mr. Johnson 199 

GANDHI AND INDIA 203 

NO END OF BOOKS. Jessie Fauset 208 

POEMS. Langston Hughes 210 

TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT (Abridged) OF THE NATIONAL ASSO- 
CIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE 211 

MAP OF N. A. A. C. P. BRANCHES 213 

TWELVE PRESIDENTS OF BRANCHES OF THE N. A. A. C. P 215 

THE HORIZON Illustrated 216 

THE RULING PASSION. An Estimate of Joseph C. Price 224 

THE LOOKING GLASS 225 

THE APRIL CRISIS 

The April Crisis will be our Easter Number. It will contain an article on Negro banks and 
a striking story by Robert W. Bagnall. A beautiful cover, of course. 

FIFTEEN GENTS A COPY; ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR 

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In ordering a change of address, both the old and the new address must be given. Two weeks' 
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Entered as second class matter November 2, 1910, at the post office at New York, New 
York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



196 



THE CRISIS ADVERTISER 



National Training School 

DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA 

A School for the Training of Colored Young 
Men and Women for Service 

Though it is young in history, the Institution feels a just pride in the work thus 
far accomplished, for its graduates are already filling many responsible positions, 
thus demonstrating the aim of the school to train men and women for useful 
citizenship. 

DEPARTMENTS ALREADY ESTABLISHED 

The Grammar Schwol The Teacher Training Department 

The Academy The Divinity School 

The School of Arts and Sciences The Commercial Department 

The Department of Music The Department of Home Economics 

The Department of Social Service 

For farther information and Catalog, address 

President James E. Shepard, Durham, North Carolina 



STATE OF NEW JERSEY 

Manual Training & Industrial School 

FOR COLORED YOUTH 

BORDENTOWN, N. J. 

A hlfh Inttltutlen far tha training of wlorw! 
youth. Excellent equlpmtnt, thorough Instruction, 
wholesome surrounding*. Academic training for all 
students. 
Courses In carpentry, agriculture and trades for boys. 

Including auto repairing. 
Courses In domestic solenee and domestic art for 

girls. 
A new trades building, thoroughly equipped. 
New girls' dormitory thoroughly and modernly 

equipped. 
Terms reasonable. 

For Information address 
W. R. VALENTINE, Principal 



Wiley University 

Marshall, Texas 

Recognized as a college of first class by 
Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas and Okla- 
homa State Boards of Education. Har- 
vard, Boston University, University of 
Illinois and University of Chicago repre- 
sented on its faculty. One hundred 
twenty-seven in College Department, ses- 
sion 1910-1920. Several new buildings, 
steam heated and electric lighted. 
M. W. DGGAN, President 



LINCOLN UNIVERSITY 

Pioneer in Collegiate and 
Theological Education 

Lincoln Men are Leaders in the various 
professions in Forty States. 

The College is ranked in Class I. by the 
American Medical Association. 

Address : 

John B. Kendall, D.D., Lincoln University, 
Chester County, Penna. 



Cheyney Training School For 
Teachers 

Cheyney, Pa. 

Made in 1930 an accredited State Normal School, 
offering, in addition to the regular Normal Course of 
two years, professional three year courses in Home 
Economics and Shop Work. A diploma from any of 
these courses makes a graduate eligible to teach in 
the public schools of Pennsylvania. A three-year 
High School Course is offered to all who have com- 
pleted the eighth grammar grade. 
For further particulars and catalog, write 

LESLIE PDrOKDTZY HILL, Principal, 

Cheyney, 7a. 

THERE WILL BE NO SUMMER SCHOOL FOR 1121 



Mention Tn Cusu. 



THE CRISIS 



Vol. 23. No. 5 



MARCH, 1922 



Whole No. 137 




tUvlOIV 




BODDY 

HAT more pathetic, baffling, 
and heartrending case can 
one conceive? Here is a 
boy of nineteen — too young 
even to have begun to live. He is 
comely, straight, quick of brain, and 
with lightning speed of hands. He 
can read and write. He has spent 
two years in the high school. And yet 
he stands today a murderer, frank 
and red-handed. 

He has been in jail; he has been 
in the penitentiary; he has been in 
the army. He has stolen ; he has 
killed. Now society is going to kill 
him. Why? Whose fault is it? Who 
made this boy what he is? 

Society assumes that he is to blame, 
but he is not wholly to blame and it 
is barely possible that he is not a bit 
to blame. How fair a chance to live 
has he had? First, it is a question 
if his own family and companions and 
race have shown any real and con- 
tinued interest in him. They have 
been content to call his energy and 
quickness and revolt against bonds, 
"badness". They have withdrawn 
from him and let him go his way. He 
has figured for years as one of the 
"bad boys" of Harlem, for whose re- 
form his own people have had no ade- 
quate program and for whose type 
they have had no sympathetic under- 
standing. 

His city and his country have 
laughed at him, insulted him, hated 
him, given him few places for play 
or recreation, and filled his ears with 
too true stories of outrage and lynch- 
ing. We can kill this boy, and per- 



haps in the horrible muddle of our 
penal code there is nothing else to do. 

But one or two things must ring 
in our ears forever. He said: "They 
kick and knock you about for two or 
three hours in the station house." 
They do and we know it; it is one of 
the greatest outrages of our present 
police system. It has been said that 
Boddy himself has been beaten by the 
police a dozen times when they could 
prove nothing against him. It is said 
the dead detectives have beaten and 
killed unconvicted Negroes, and 
slapped and insulted black women. 

His mother said, "They taught him 
to shoot in the army." They did. 
Millions of boys have lately been 
taught to shoot in the armies of the 
world, and civilization is to blame for 
the murders which they did in the 
army and for those which they are 
doing outside the army. 

And finally, when this boy is dead, 
remember that the same forces which 
made him what he was are alive and 
powerful arid working to make others 
like him. 

BLACK FRANCE 

a HE article by Norman Angel 1 
in The Freeman reveals an 
astonishing attitude of mind 
in higher quarters than we 
had hitherto looked to see it. To the 
ordinary American or Englishman, 
we have always realized, the race 
question is at bottom simply a matter 
of the ownership of women ; white 
men want the right to own and use 
all women, colored and white, and 
they resent any intrusion of colored 
men into this domain. 



199 



200 



THE CRISIS 



This, as we have said, has long 
been the attitude of the ordinary 
white man, but we had scarcely 
thought to see this attitude illustrat- 
ed in an article by Norman Angell. 

Mr. Angell by way of climax re- 
minds us of the use of white French 
prostitutes for colored soldiers in 
France; and his use of this illustra- 
tion is apparently not to make us hate 
prostitution — for when was there an 
army that did not thrive on prostitu- 
tion and rape — but rather to make his 
readers feel that social equality in 
France on any plane is a menace to 
the modern Anglo-Saxon world! 

Of course Mr. Angell does not 
say this in so many words; how- 
ever, every implication of his ar- 
ticle points this way. The Negroes 
of Anglo-Saxon lands are uniting to 
fight intolerable aggressions; they 
are thinking black in the face of a 
white world. French Negroes, on 
the other hand, (at least the civilized 
and the cultured), are thinking 
French because they have been treat- 
ed as men by Frenchmen. This to 
Mr. Angell's mind constitutes a grave 
danger and that danger is that the 
French policy of treating Negroes 
decently may in the end compel Eng- 
land and America to do the same and 
open parlors and brothels to black 
gentlemen and soldiers. This is what 
he calls the "Negro conquest of 
France", and this is what he fears 
with a perfect Fear! 



HOMICIDES 

HERE is a species of propa- 
ganda going on against the 
Negro which is so subtle that 
most people do not notice it. 




For instance, The Spectator, an in- 
surance magazine periodical, records 
from year to year all homicides, — 
that is all persons killed in the United 
States by criminal violence. It notes 
that for every million of population 



in 31 cities there are 85 homicides 
and that the rate is increasing. 

Then the statement, which is writ- 
ten by Frederick L. Hoffman, goes on 
to say (the italics are ours) : "Fur- 
thermore, it will be noted that the 
cities experiencing the highest rates 
are those having a large colored popu- 
lation." And comparing North and 
South, he says that the homicide rate 
among the whites in the South "is but 
little higher than for the New Eng- 
land and Middle Atlantic States and 
below that for the West. For the col- 
ored race the incidence is shown to be 
four times as frequent as among the 
whites in the South." 

Now what is the inference that any 
number of papers quoting this pass- 
age have made? It is that the Negro 
is a murderer and causes the great 
murder rate in the South. And yet as 
a matter of fact, what is the truth? 
The truth is that the Negro is MUR- 
DERED four times as fast as the 
whites and that the unfortunate pre- 
eminence of the South in murder is 
because there are so many black folk 
there to be killed. 

In other words, a fact which is to 
the shame of the white race and pitia- 
ble for the colored race, is, we had 
almost said, deliberately so stated 
that nine people out of ten in the 
United States have twisted the facts 
to the discredit of the black South. 

The Crisis itself was so puzzled at 
the figures that it wrote Mr. Hoffman 
to be certain, and received from him 
a letter confirming the fact: "The 
term homicide as used in my articles 
... is strictly limited to deaths from 
homicide." He also adds: "I have 
always stood clearly upon the position 
that it was immaterial whether the 
persons killed were white or colored. 
The Negro's life economically as well 
as socially is as valuable and as 
worthy as that of a white man." All 
of which sounds very well and yet 



OPINION 



201 




Mr. Hoffman has allowed an ambigu- 
ous statement to go out under his sig- 
nature, and he may still be counted 
as he was when he published that 
vicious book "Race Traits and Ten- 
dencies of the American Negro", — as 
one of the most persistent and subtle 
enemies of the Negro race. 

THE WOMAN'S NATIONAL 
FOUNDATION 

UR attention has been called 
in two separate instances to 
the Woman's National Foun- 
dation of Washington, D. C. 

It is an imposing organization. It 

calls itself : 

"A nationwide movement to unify the 
woman power of the country along civic, 
welfare and patriotic lines. . . . 

"Great enthusiasm for the movement is 
reported from all sections of the country. 
Although the Foundation is less than six 
months old it has secured thousands of mem- 
bers, acquired a million dollar national site 
in Washington, and is endorsed and backed 
by leading financiers, statesmen, educators 
and officials. 

"The board of governors of the Founda- 
tion includes such nationally known women 
as Mrs. George Barne'ct, wife of a major 
general of the U. S. Marine Corps; Mrs. 
Stephen B. Elkins, widow of former Sena- 
tor Underwood of Alabama; Mrs. Charles 
B. Howry, wife of Judge Howry of the U. 
S. Court of Claims; Miss Janet Richards, 
the noted woman lecturer; Mrs. John Hays 
Hammond, Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, Mrs. 
James McDonald, Mrs. Henry R. Rea of 
Pittsburgh; Mrs. Sidney Ballou, Mrs. Marie 
Moore Forrest, the celebrated pageant writ- 
er; Mrs. James Carroll Frazier, head of the 
Comforts Committee of the Navy League, 
Mrs. Henry D. Flood, wife of Representa- 
tive Flood of Virginia, and Mrs. Maud 
Wood Park, national chairman of the 
League of Women Voters." 

This organization has high ideals. 
Its prospectus issued November 15, 
1921, says: 

"It is the aim of the Foundation to edu- 
cate its members in citizenship and to teach 
the same rights and responsibilities of 
women so that they may thoroughly under- 
stand the duties they owe to their country. 

"Organized womanhood is now recognized 
to be the greatest dynamic force for good 
in the world today. If women are united, 
nothing is now outside of their power." 

It would have been ordinary hon- 
esty for this organization to have said 



that they wished to confine their 
membership to white women, that all 
their great and high aims were to be 
held strictly within the barriers of 
race. But they did not do this, — 
they did not dare do it. They were 
too cowardly to let the world know 
what they really believed, and there- 
by they have made to our knowledge 
two horrible mistakes. 

In the first place, they appointed 
October 21, 1921, Mrs. Ailene Par- 
son of Keystone, W. Va., by unani- 
mous action to their board of gov- 
ernors as organization chairman for 
her city and its environs. They said : 

"You have been selected for this official 
position of the Foundation from a number 
of nominations made by members of the 
Board of Governors of the Foundation, by 
United States Senators and Representatives 
in Congress from your State, as well as by 
nationally prominent club women, and other 
reliable sources who are cognizant of your 
standing and ability." 

Mrs. Parson went to work, organ- 
ized her units and sent in her units' 
checks, whereupon December 12, 
1921, she received from Mrs. Charles 



6 />///// fY///* // . jy^fY///;//,',// 



///'MS/ //J , ///7/7//V// - /f'tf //'/?, 



ffy/fM. 



\T WASHINGTON D1SIRICT OF 



. /f/fj/f .J f/y.j pj/ 

HAS BEEN CHOSEN TO REPRESENT THE FOUNDATION iN T,\\ CITY OP HEX! 
RESIDENCE -AS ORGANIZATION CHAIRMAN WITH ALL POWERS \! PfiEl XATM s 
WHICH ARE CONFERRED UPON THIS OFFICE UNDER THE 1 LAWS AND 
CONSTITUTION OF THE FOUNDATION 

(( '/// A:j////uw// //■/////?/. 

SHE IS HEREBY UlTHORIZED AND REQUESTED To ANNOUNCE THAT UNDER HER 
DIRECTION AT THE HOUR AND PIACE DESIGNATED BY HER' SHE \NTIJ. CALL 
TOGETHER ON THE FOUNDATION'S WORLD ORGANIZATION DAY 

. hr,;/,Av///< /;/////,/// , ffjte/tr* /////<///</ ,//„/ /v, ,/;,/,;/,• 

THE WOMEN OE HER LOCALITY WHO ARE LEADERS IN CHURCH CMC CLUB 
AND WELFARE WORK IN THEIR RESPECTrvF: COMMUNIITES THAT S.tE MAY 
PRFSENT TO THEM THE MESSAGE OF THE FOUNDATION VB JOIN WITH THEM 
IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FOUNDATION CENTERS Oh ACTIVITY IN HEIJ 
TERRITORY 




iM&syfr ' Ahi<J 



*rr& 



//r//W/t> . Iff At //,-.'/ . A',Y,///W//W 

TMr//m r a _/ . '/j ('/////iff// 
A'/v/ .A/ri./- , '< 



202 



THE CRISIS 



B. Howry, financial secretary, a letter 
which stated : 

"We appreciate your interest in so 
promptly forming a unit to carry on our 
work in your locality, but are sorry to say 
that we cannot under our by-laws accept 
your membership as this organization is 
made up entirely of Caucasians. 

"We regret very much that through in- 
advertence this situation was not brought 
to your attention." 

The same thing happened in Wash- 
ington. A prominent colored artist, 
whose color is not entirely visible, 
was importuned by letter to join the 
Foundation. Assuming that they 
must know that she had a great- 
grandfather who was a Negro, she 
went to one of their meetings. She 
was welcomed effusively, she was im- 
portuned to say how she could help 
and what she could do. She told 
them frankly that as a Negro she was 
interested in Negro sculpture. Her 
hostess gasped and fluttered and fin- 
ally with maladroit boorishness told 
her that Negroes were not admitted 
to this organization. 

What does this all mean ? That we 
are losing something by being ex- 
cluded from the Woman's National 
Foundation? Certainly not ! This is 
but a cheap advertisement for social 
climbers. But it does mean that to- 
day movements that are foolish 
enough to try to draw the color line 
have not the courage to say so. They 
sneak down back alleys in order to 
keen the Negro "in his place." 






MR. DYER TO MR. JOHNSON 

WISH to congratulate you, and 
through you, the officers and 
members of your organization, 
for the splendid assistance that 
you have rendered to me in carrying 
on the fight for the enactment into law 
of legislation that will make lynching 
a crime against the United States. 
The Bill has passed the House of Rep- 
resentatives and is now pending in 
the United States Senate. The Sen- 
ate has over a year in which to take 



action upon the Bill that passed the 
House. I feel sure that the United 
States Senate will promptly and fa- 
vorably consider this very important 
legislation. In my opinion, the Con- 
gress has not undertaken more im- 
portant legislation for a long time, 
than the enactment into law of this 
bill. It is to safeguard life from 
mobs. 

The greatest blot upon the other- 
wise proud record of the United 
States of America is the crime of 
lynching, that has been so prevalent 
in so many portions of this country 
for the last 35 to 4Q years. Simple 
justice and our obligations as a Na- 
tion to the people under the Four- 
teenth Amendment to the Constitu- 
tion of the United States demands 
that we act with promptness. We have 
already delayed this matter too long, 
resulting in the sacrificing of lives 
of many innocent people. We must 
end this horrible crime, and this leg- 
islation when enacted into law will 
do it. My best efforts in that direc- 
tion will be continued till this legis- 
lation is put upon the statute books 
and enforced to the letter. 

I trust that you, your organization, 
and all friends of this legislation will 
continue the campaign till same is en- 
acted into the law of the land. We 
are sure to succeed if we work to- 
gether and in earnest. 

The people of the United States 
and the press of the whole country 
are for this legislation. There can be 
and there must be no failure. 

FRED PROCTOR-FRAUD 

OMPLAINTS are coming to 
us from persons who paid 
money for Crisis subscrip- 
tions to one Fred Proctor. 



He is not an agent for The CRISIS. 
If he comes to your community, please 
escort him to the police. The Crisis 
does not employ traveling agents in 
any capacity. 



GANDHI AND INDIA 



TNDIA has been called a land of saints, 
■* the home of religions, and, living up to 
her well earned reputation, she produces 
in our own time a man who from sheer im- 
peccability of character, and extraordinary 
personality, and from loftiness and origi- 
nality of doctrine and ideas, takes rank at 
once among the great men of the world 
whose mark is 
high enough to 
make for them 
a perm a n e n t 
niche in the re- 
pository of the 
benefactors o f 
mankind. 

No man who 
is in the least 
interested in the 
throbbing mass 
of peoples of the 
earth can fail to 
take notice of 
this exceptional 
soul called forth 
by a great need 
and destined to 
make a signifi- 
c a n t contribu- 
tion to the very 
human effort 
which man is 
putting forth to 
get himself out 
of the encircling 
gloom into the 
promised land. I 
say "destined", 
but that is to 
detract from the 
glory which al- 
ready enshrines 
Mohandas Kar- 

amchand Gandhi. I should speak in the pres- 
ent instead of the future tense, for the 
man about whom I write, not only will be 
but is. Indeed he is so vital a factor that 
he is called at once the most dangerous yet 
the most beloved man in India today. 
When Lord Reading, the newly appoint- 



MOHANDAS KARAMCHAND GANDHI 



ed viceroy of India, reached that country, 
one of his first acts was a long heart to 
heart talk with Mr. Gandhi. Writing in 
the London Nation, a member of parlia- 
ment says: 

"The saint, or Mahatma (Gandhi) has 
India at his feet. The 'intellegentsia' dif- 
fer from him sometimes in private, rarely 

in public; prop- 
erty differs from 
him and trem- 
bles ; the gov- 
ernment — a n y 
government dif- 
fers from him 
and thinks it is 
best to — wait." 

To ask who 
this man Gandhi 
is, is to ask 
more than one 
can properly 
answer. To 
many of his In- 
dian countrymen 
he is Mahatma, 
or saint, a hu- 
man being in 
touch with the 
divine, to bring 
relief to the suf- 
fering, food to 
the hungry, and 
satisfaction t o 
the other physi- 
cal wants of In- 
dia; to enthusi- 
astic and ideal- 
i s t i c students 
and members of 
the e d u c a ted 
class, and to 
many leaders in 
political life he 
is the embodi- 
ment of a great challenge, which, if an- 
swered, must lead out into the possession of 
not only that which the body needs and 
must have, but into that indefinable realm 
of the mind and spirit, the imponderable 
kingdom of the soul — a possession which 
may sound very theoretical and impractic- 



203 



204 



THE CRISIS 



able, yet one which is the very stuff that 
life, and living, human well being, and 
achievement are made of. 

Mr. Ben Spoor of the British Labor Party, 
who went to India to represent that organi- 
zation at the Indian National Congress, 
writes : 

"The West has produced a Lenin, strong, 
masterful, relentless alike in logic and 
method. The East has given birth to a 
Gandhi, equally strong, masterful and re- 
lentless. But whilst the former pins his 
faith on force, the latter relies on non-re- 
sistance. One trusts the sword, the other 
the spirit. In an extraordinary manner 
these men appear to incarnate those fund- 
amentally opposing forces that — behind all 
the surface struggle of our day — are striv- 
ing for the mastery." 

A learned man of India writes that no 
one can understand Mr. Gandhi's crusade 
who does not know Mr. Gandhi. Let us 
dispose briefly of the common facts of his 
life and then undertake to see the man as 
he is. 

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born 
of an old Bania family, resident in Kath- 
iawar, India, October 2, 1869. Politics ap- 
pears to be the heritage of his fathers. 
Through business enterprise they had ac- 
cumulated some wealth. His mother, an 
orthodox Hindu lady, rigidly observing re- 
ligious obligations, performing in the high- 
est manner her duties as wife and mother, 
could be expected to demand of her children 
the most desirable qualities of character. 
From the records one reads, young Gandhi 
was no disappointment' to her. Mohandas 
Gandhi received his early training in Kath- 
iawar and his final academic instruction in 
London, where he qualified as a barrister- 
at-law. It is reported of him during his 
stay in London, that he was rich and clever, 
of a cultivated family, gentle and modest 
in manner. He dressed and behaved like 
other people. There was nothing particu- 
lar about him: to show that he had taken 
a Jain vow to abstain from wine, from 
flesh, and from sexual intercourse. He 
took his degree and became a successful 
lawyer in Bombay, but he cared more for 
religion than for law. Gradually his as- 
ceticism began to show itself. He gave away 
all his money to good causes, except the 
most meagre allowance. He took vows of 
poverty. He gradually ceased a large part 
of his practice at law because his religion 



forbade him to take part in a system which 
tried to do right by violence. 

The beginning of Mr. Gandhi's larger life 
was in South Africa, whither he had been 
induced to go in connection with an Indian 
legal case of some difficulty. It is worth 
while to relate his first experience after 
disembarking at the port of Durban in 
Natal. Brought up in the British tradition 
of the equality of all British subjects, an 
honored guest in the capital of the Empire, 
he found that in the colony of Natal he 
was regarded as an outcast. When he ap- 
plied for admission as an advocate of the 
supreme court of Natal, he was opposed by 
the law society on the ground that the law 
did not contemplate that a colored person 
should practice. Fortunately, the supreme 
court viewed the matter in another light 
and granted the application, but Mr. Gandhi 
received sudden warning of what awaited 
him in years to come. 

If this was the test of fire through which 
a great man was to pass, it was certainly 
not a fire which consumed, but rather one 
which kindled all the nobler qualities of 
his soul, and sent him forth purged of 
whatever dross he may have had — Mahat- 
ma Gandhi, both feared and loved. Pro- 
fessor Gilbert Murray, writing in the Hib- 
bert Journal, relates the significant part 
of Mr. Gandhi's South African experience: 

"In South Africa, there are some 150,- 
000 Indians, chiefly in Natal, and the South 
African government, feeling that the color 
question in its territories was quite suf- 
ficiently difficult already, determined to pre- 
vent the immigration of any more Indians 
and if possible to expel those who were al- 
ready there. This could not be done. It 
violated a treaty; it was opposed by Natal, 
where much of the industry depended on 
Indian labor; and it was objected to by 
the Indian government and the home gov- 
ernment. Then began a long struggle. The 
whites of South Africa determined to make 
life in South Africa undesirable, if not for 
all Indians, at least for all Indians above 
the coolie class. Indians were specially 
taxed; were made to register in a degrad- 
ing way; their thumb prints were taken by 
the police as if they were criminals. If, 
owing to the scruples of the government, 
the law was in any case too lenient, patri- 
otic mobs undertook to remedy the defect. 
Quite early in the struggle the Indians in 
South Africa asked Mr. Gandhi to come and 
help them- He came as a barrister in 1893 ; 
he was forbidden to plead; he proved his 
right to plead; he won his case against the 



GANDHI AND INDIA 



205 



Asiatic Exclusion Act on grounds of con- 
stitutional law and returned to India. 

"Gandhi came again in 1895. He was 
amost mobbed and nearly killed at Durban. 
I will not tell in detail how he settled down 
eventually in South Africa as a leader and 
counsellor to his people; how he began a 
settlement in the country outside Durban 
where the workers should live directly on 
the land and be bound by a vow of poverty. 
For many years he was engaged in con- 
stant passive resistance to the government 
and constant efforts to raise and ennoble 
the inward life of the Indian community. 
But he was unlike other strikers or re- 
sisters in this : that mostly the resister 
takes advantage of any difficulty of the 
government in order to press his claim the 
harder. Mr. Gandhi, when the government 
was 1 in any difficulty that he thought seri- 
ous, always relaxed his resistance and of- 
fered help. In 1899 came the Boer War. 
Gandhi immediately organized an Indian 
Red Cross Unit. There arose a popular 
movement for refusing it and treating it 
as seditious. But it was needed. The sol- 
diers wanted it; it served throughout the 
war, and was mentioned in dispatches and 
thanked publicly for its skillful work and 
courage under fire. In 1904 there was an 
outbreak of plague in Johannesburg, and 
Mr. Gandhi had a private hospital opened 
before the government had begun to act. In 
1906 there was a native rebellion in Natal. 
Gandhi raised and personally led a corps 
of stretcher bearers whose work seems to 
have proved particularly dangerous and 
painful- Gandhi was thanked by the gov- 
ernor of Natal ^nd shortly afterward 
thrown in jail in Johannesburg. 

"Lastly, in 1913, when he was being re- 
peatedly thrown into prison among prison- 
ers of the lowest class and his followers in 
jail were to the number of 2,500 ; in the very 
midst of the general strike of Indians in 
the Transvaal and in Natal, there occurred 
the sudden and dangerous strike which en- 
dangered for a time the very existence of 
the organized society in South Africa. From 
the ordinary agitator's point of view, the 
game was in Gandhi's hands. He had only 
to strike his hardest. Instead, he gave or- 
ders for his people to resume work until 
the government should be safe again. I 
cannot say how often he was imprisoned, 
how often mobbed and assaulted, and what 
pains wer^ taken to mortify and humiliate 
him in public. But by 1913 the Indian case 
had been taken up by Lord Hardinge and 
the government of India. An imperial com- 
mission reported in his favor on most of 
the points at issue and an act was passed 
entitled the Indian Relief Act." 

Manifestly, a man of such lofty ideals, 
so perfectly displayed in practice is bound 
to exert no small influence in. a country 
like India at this period of her life. In 
order to understand the man himself in re- 



lation to his country it is perhaps neces- 
sary to observe a few facts of the political 
history of India. 

India was the contemporary of great 
Egypt, ancient Assyria and Persia, but un- 
like her contemporaries of antiquity, she 
lives. They are dead. Through a continu- 
ous period running back to most archaic 
times, she has come with her literature, her 
religions, her customs — in short — with all 
that makes her justly proud today. One 
could go on and state what has become 
the classic theme of the demands of con- 
temporary India. We cannot consider here 
the interesting facts of her kingdoms and 
empires, her wars and warriors, of which 
the Mahabharata so gloriously sings; nor 
of the coming of Islam and the great em- 
pires of the Moguls. It is certainly not 
possible to write here of Indian society — 
of caste; of poverty widespread and dazz- 
ling wealth ; of the depth of illiteracy which 
grips the country octopus-like and a cul- 
ture and education as noted for their lit- 
erary and scholarly achievements as for 
their far reach back into the haze of un- 
historical days; of marriage, home, and the 
family. 

India has for centuries been a land much 
desired by Europe. Every school boy re- 
members that it was this land that Colum- 
bus sought in 1492. The immense wealth 
of that country as it lured on the bold dis- 
coverer of America, in the same way was 
the object of expeditions of the Portuguese, 
Dutch, French, Austrians and Germans. 
The tragic results of their seeking, both to 
themselves and to India, form interesting 
yet harrowing reading. Intrigue, murder, 
robbery — wholesale pillage — all for the 
wealth of the Indies! 

In 1600 Queen Elizabeth granted a char- 
ter to what became known later as the 
East India Company. This company estab- 
lished in India trading-posts and settle- 
ments and built forts to protect its ports and 
settlements. It sent out governors and a 
governor-general and when it applied at 
London for charters and courts of justice, it 
»-ot charters and courts of justice; then fol- 
lows the sordid yet romantic periods of 
Warren Hastings, Lord Clive and others 
(see Macaulay and Burke), until the East 
India Company ceased to exist in the Sepoy 
War of 1857 and the British crown assumed 
the sovereignty of this country and its mil- 



206 



THE CRISIS 



lions in 1858. Upon and out of this more 
than half-century of foreign rule, a rule 
of which one reads great good and much 
evil, comes what is today termed "Indian 
unrest", and upon the very crest of this 
wave Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi occu- 
pies his position. 

These 315,000,000 people, largely poor and 
illiterate, though with a highly cultured and 
educated leadership, what is it they want 
and in what is it that Gandhi is for many 
of them the spokesman? In the past the 
leaders have with their might protested 
against a bureaucratic government vested 
in a foreign civil service. Indian national 
gatherings of the past have recommended 
again and again that "measures be taken 
by government to organize and develop In- 
dian industries", and also "that invidious 
distinctions here and abroad between his 
Majesty's Indian and other subjects be re- 
moved by redeeming pledges of provincial 
autonomy and recognizing India as a com- 
ponent part of a federated empire. At the 
December meeting of the National Liberal 
Federation the Hon. Mr. Srinivasa Sastri 
moved that in the opinion of the Federation, 
the inauguration of the new regime con- 
ferring a measure of self-government on 
the people of India must be signalized by a 
comprehensive measure abolishing all dis- 
tinctions in law based merely on the race 
of an individual, and urged in particular 
that provisions in the criminal law of India 
conferring upon Europeans and Americans 
certain privileges and rights must be re- 
pealed at an early date." 

One could mention an almost unending 
list of complaints, demands, memorials and 
resolutions. Each year it appears the lead- 
ers of the people have become more bold and 
have given increased expression to their 
larger and national aspiration. A demand 
granted has only served to reveal their mis- 
erable weakness and the mighty strength of 
the power that granted it. Thus has a new 
state of mind come upon this country almost 
with the suddenness of the dawn of day 
but with the same surety of travel and 
background as that upon which dawn de- 
pends. Instead of a half loaf, the whole 
is desired. The same sort of patience is no 
longer advocated and a conditional loyalty 
to the British Empire is preached. 

Without doubt the war primarily and 
other subsequent developments have given 



the immediate impetus to the rising tide 
of new and popular thought. But it is pos- 
sible for almost every Indian to name spe- 
cifically definite overt acts and administra- 
tive measures which led an erstwhile pa- 
tient and philosophic people into a state 
which an unfriendly reporter characterizes 
as "an atmosphere surcharged with heat and 
an horizon obscured by smoke screens of 
racial passion". Of the overt acts, the one 
which touched the very quick of the people's 
heart, was the Amritsar massacre whereby 
several hundred Indian men, women and 
children were shot dead under the order of 
a British general and hundreds of others 
were left wounded. And this because these 
unarmed people refused to obey the order 
of the British general to disperse! 

In the second place, the Moslems of In- 
dia are dissatisfied over the turn events 
have taken during the past three years 
which, they claim, humiliate Islam and com- 
pletely subjugates the Mohammedan world 
to the Christian. Their deepest feelings 
are stirred over what is to them a studied 
insult to their religion. The very heart 
of India's racial self-respect is stirred. But 
behind these two questions just referred to 
the New Republic states: "There is a great- 
er and all embracing one, that of national 
wrong and shame of which every Indian is 
sensitive." 

Upon a governmental report on the Am- 
ritsar massacre Mr. Gandhi writes : "The 
condonation of the Punjab atrocities has 
completely shattered my faith in the good 
intentions of the government and the na- 
tion supporting it." Writing on "the situa- 
tion and the remedy", Mr. G. A. Natesan, 
an Indian, finishes with the remark, "The 
people of India have lost faith in British 
justice". 

Thus begins the newer attitude of In- 
dian leaders towards Britain! New terms, 
or rather old terms with new meanings are 
now the order of the day. Swaraj, non- 
cooperation, non-violence, and Gandhism, 
are the terms which have turned the eyes 
of the world upon the man responsible for 
their use, and have won for him the de- 
voted following of great masses of his own 
people. 

At the 35th session of the Indian National 
Congress, held at Nagpur, India, in De- 
cember, 1920, Mr. Gandhi moved in the 
open Congress: "That the object of this 



GANDHI AND INDIA 



207 




THE NON-COOPERATIVE CONGRESS 



Congress is the attainment of Swaraj by all 
legitimate and peaceful ends". The motion 
was opposed, but it was carried with a large 
majority and by its passage it made Mr. 
Gandhi the most powerful man in the Con- 
gress. Mr. Gandhi explains what is meant 
by Sivaraj, or home rule or national rule 
as follows: 

"Swaraj means a state such that we, can 
maintain our separate existence without the 
presence of the English. If it is to be a 
partnership, it must be a partnership at 
will. There can be no Swaraj without our 
feeling and being the equals of Englishmen. 
Today we feel that we are dependent upon 
them for our internal and external secur- 
ity, Ifor our armed peace between Hindus 
and Mussulmans for our education, and for 
the supply of our daily wants. The Rajahs 
are dependent upon the British for their 
power, and the millionaires for their mil- 
lions. The British know our helplessness 
* * * to get Sivaraj then is to get rid 
of our helplessness." 

But how is this great miracle to be 
wrought in India? Non-cooperation is the 
war-cry of Mr. Gandhi's non-violent cru- 
sade. It is his first and most powerful 
weapon. This is the general scheme of the 
principle of non-cooperation as proposed by 
the Indian National Congress: 

1. Giving up of all British titles and hon- 

orary offices 

2. Boycott of all official functions 

3. Withdrawal of all students from all 

government owned or aided schools, 
and the establishment of Indian Na- 
tional schools 



4. Boycott of British courts by Indian law- 

yers and litigants and the establish- 
ment of private courts of arbitration 

5. Refusal of Indians to be candidates for 

the new assemblies and the total ab- 
stinence from all voting 

6. Boycott of English-made goods. 

In commenting on the effectiveness of 
non-cooperation in Mr. Gandhi's program, 
Mr. B. K. Roy, a Hindu, writes in the In- 
dependent : 

"Mr. Gandhi has fired the imaginations 
of the people, and the non-cooperation 
movement is meeting with tremendous suc- 
cess. Many titleholders like Rabindranath 
Tagore have given up their titles. Women 
like Sarajina Neidee and Sarala Devi have 
given back their medals of honor for war- 
service, thousands of students have left 
British colleges and national institutions 
are being established." 

The second outstanding factor in Mr. 
Gandhi's program is the idea and practice 
of non-violence or passive resistance. Like 
the principle of non-cooperation, it kills 
without striking its adversary. More than 
that, it disarms its enemies. 

Behold a man who has ancient and great 
India at his feet; whom a powerful govern- 
ment is afraid to arrest; who causes visit- 
ing members of royalty to be snubbed; who 
threatens as a last resort to lead his peo- 
ple in an anti-tax paying crusade, thus 
striking at the very root of government; a 
man who professes to love his enemies and 
who refuses to take advantage of or em- 
barrass government in a crisis! 



NO END OF BOOKS 



Jessie Fauset 



The Wings of Oppression. By Leslie 
Pinckney Hill. The Stratford Company, 
Boston. 

Batouala. By Rene Mar an. Albin Michel 
Publisher, Paris. 

Unsung tierces. By Elizabeth Ross 
Haynes. DuBois and Dill Publishers, New 
York. 

History of Liberia. By Thomas H. B. 
Walker. The Cornhill Publishing Com- 
pany, Boston. 

Ringworm. By John P. Turner, M.D., F. 
A. Davis Company, Philadelphia. 

The Slaughter of the Jeivs in the Ukraine 
in 1919. By Elias Heifetz. J.U.D. Thomas 
Seltzer Publisher, New York. 

The History of the Negro Church. By 
Carter Godwin Woodson. The Associated 
Publishers, Washington, D. C. 

Fifty Years in the Gospel Ministry. By 
Chaplain T. G. Steward. A. M. E. Book 
Concern, Philadelphia. 

r^pHOSE of us who read Mr. Hill's "Ar- 
•*■ mageddon" a few years ago doubtless 
expected something in a "higher mood" 
than what we find in his present volume. 
For his verse, while very sweet and musi- 
cal, fails with but few exceptions to reach 
great heights. Yet on the other hand an 
attraction persists and finally outweighs 
the sense of disappointment for these poems 
are a manifestation of the reaction which 
so many of us feel, but cannot express, to 
beauty, to truth, to the presence of im- 
ponderable things. So we are grateful to 
Mr. Hill for his sensitiveness of spirit and 
his happy feeling for words which makes the 
expression possible. He makes one think of 
Wordsworth at his best and worst. What 
one does like one likes immensely and won- 
ders how he found just the words to say 
it. And what one does not like, one does 
not like at all. In the "Lines Written In 
The Alps Above Chamounix", Mr. Hill has 
caught the very essence of the feeling which 
comes to one confronted by such a spectacle 
of nature. Life beyond these natural bound- 
aries may seethe and roar. But here is rest. 
As an interpreter of the emotions aroused 
by certain stimuli either of the times or of 



environments Mr. Hill excels. It is only 
when he writes in the vein of the Sunday- 
school teacher that one becomes impatient 
and wishes he would cease to dwarf and 
restrain his fine and decidedly classical 
gift. 



"Batouala" is really what its sub-title in- 
dicates, a story of actual Negro life (verit- 
able roman negre) and because it is it dif- 
fers absolutely from any concept which we 
in this Western World have of life. In 
fact it is extremely probable that this de- 
scription of Negro existence differs from 
its manifestation in other parts of Africa. 
For Maran is writing of the people of the 
equatorial regions whose customs differ 
from those of the people of the coast towns. 
Batouala is an African chief and the novel 
is an account of his life, his love and his 
death. The familiar romantic situation is 
there, the husband Batouala, the wife (one 
of nine), Yassiguindji, and the favored lover 
Bissibingui. But the telling and the setting 
are anything but familiar. Rene Maran, 
though a native of Guadaloupe, has lived 
with these people many years and he tells 
with a wealth of detail and great plainness 
what he has seen. His methods are realistic 
and objective and the result is that we see 
the drowsy African village, its awful pov- 
erty, its lassitude, its domestic life as typi- 
fied by the "mokoundji" (chief) and his 
family, its hunting expeditions, its calls 
on the tom-tom. And last, but not least, 
the orgies of the native feasts and dances. 
These last shock us ; from our point of view 
they are too raw, too unvarnished. Yet 
Maran is never offensive, never suggestive. 
The genius of the French language takes 
care of that. The color problem is only in- 
directly indicated in the story proper, but 
the preface contains a white-hot indictment 
against "civilization, the pride of Europeans 
but the slaughter-house of innocents * * * 
not a torch, but a conflagration which con- 
sumes everything it touches." 

This is really a great novel. It is artistic, 
overwhelming in its almost cinema-like 
sharpness of picturization. And there lies 
its strength. No propaganda, no preach- 



208 



NO END OF BOOKS 



209 



ments, just an actual portrayal of life from 
the moment when Batouala awakes, yawn- 
ing, scratching himself, meditating on the 
relative values of going back to sleep and 
getting up, to the moment when in the 
agony caused by his noisome, festering 
wound he rises in his death jealousy and 
confronts the lovers, aghast, shrinking, al- 
most plastering themselves against the 
wall. 



No one can doubt the value of "Unsung 
Heroes". It is just the sort of book we need 
to offset the tendency of American schools 
to impress upon children of both races that 
the only heroes in the world have been 
white heroes. For "Unsung Heroes" tells 
the story of those black men, Douglass and 
Attucks, Henson and Washington, and 
others, who did their part in adding to the 
glory of American History. It is a book 
that ought to be in every home and a sup- 
plementary text-book at least in every 
school. The influence of the printed word is 
so great that these stories gain greater au- 
thenticity by the mere placing of them 
between the covers of a volume, instead of 
leaving them as we have too long in the 
form of anecdotes and personal recollec- 
tions to be handed down from father to 
son. It is because of this influence that we 
wish Mrs. Haynes had looked more care- 
fully to her diction and to the rounding of 
her periods. Noble subjects are still more 
enhanced by noble treatment. However, the 
stories are there to fulfill the need of our 
children and that is the main thing. A 
pleasing and novel feature of the book is 
its illustrations which also are the work 
of colored artists, Laura Wheeler, Hilda 
Wilkinson, Carlton Thorpe and Marcellus 
Hawkins. 



The "History of Liberia" might also be 
called a "History of Slavery", for almost a 
third of the book is devoted to a study of 
that institution. For the rest it is a work 
of careful though uninspired research and 
the student of Africa who wishes to clear 
up his ideas about the Dark Continent be- 
ginning with Liberia would do well to put 
in two or three hours reading Mr. Walker's 
effort. He would learn that the plant and 
animal life of the little republic are differ- 
ent for some strange reason from the other 
countries of West Africa, that the bulk 



of the population consists of uncivilized na- 
tives constantly seeping in from the hinter- 
land and yet that the governing class is 
composed of some 12,000 American-Liber- 
ians. The country is rich in practically 
untapped supplies of gold, garnets, mica and 
sapphires. The Kru and Vai tribes have 
played a large part in the development of 
Liberia, and France and England have done 
their share toward its retardation. Most 
of us will agree with the author's desire 
that missionaries should no longer try to 
thrust the customs of the white man upon 
the natives. We should like to see Liberia 
while developing creeds and customs which 
will enable her to cope with foreign meth- 
ods, stick to her own system of dress and 
ethics and traditions. 



Dr. Turner's little book is especially val- 
uable to colored people because the ring- 
worm, it has been proved, works more rav- 
ages among Negroes than among whites. 
All phases of this disease are traced, its 
history given, its manifestations differenti- 
ated, a diagnosis and a definite remedy pre- 
sented. Already a bad epidemic of ring- 
worm in one of the Philadelphia public 
schools has been wiped out by Dr. Turner's 
efforts. The book has the endorsement of 
Walter S. Cornell, M.D., Director of Medi- 
cal Inspection in the public schools of Phila- 
delphia. 



Dr. Heifetz's chronicle adds another 
chapter to the history of prejudice. In 182 
pages he gives an account of the cruellest 
and bloodiest butcheries of human beings 
that the world can ever have known. The 
pogroms of the eighties of the 19th century 
were different from those of more recent 
times. They were instituted under the 
czaristic regime to divert the attention of 
the dissatisfied masses from social and 'po- 
litical abuses, but they were aimed at the 
destruction of the possessions of the Jews 
rather than at their lives. Women were 
violated, "men were beaten (but not to 
death)", and property was wantonly and 
completely destroyed. In the later pog- 
roms from 1903 on, cold-blooded murder 
was introduced reaching its culmination in 
1919 in a total of 30,500 people killed in 
the Ukraine alone. All this bloodshed and 
madness arose from the conviction real or 
pretended of Denikin and his associates in 
the Ukraine that the Soviet power was a 



210 



THE CRISIS 



Jewish power and that "the armed fight 
against the Soviet power must be supported 
and strengthened by Jewish pogroms." The 
terrible statements of the text of this book 
are supported by an appendix containing 
signed reports of participants and specta- 
tors. The whole volume is a bloodstained 
commentary on latter-day civilization. 



With his usual scholarly thoroughness Dr. 
Woodson has traced for us the history of 
the church from its slightest manifestations 
in Latin America to the form in which we 
know it today. It makes an attractive and 
interesting narrative much more readable 
than most of its author's former works, 
and by the same token not as good a text 
book, but there can be no question as to its 
authenticity and Dr. Woodson's complete 
acquaintance with his subject. The Angli- 
cans and Quakers were the first to take up 
the work of proselyting Negroes. But the 
ritual of the one and the supreme simplicity 
of the other alike baffled the mentality of 
the ordinary 17th century Negro, who 
turned with better results to the Methodist 
and Baptist sects and in these camps he 
has practically remained ever since. Dr. 
Woodson looks on the latter-day Negro 
Church as a social institution whose role 
is "to keep the fire burning on the altar 
until the day when men again become rev- 
erent". The loss of interest in the church 
which the white world has experienced is 



fittingly stressed as well as the iniquitc 
part played by Thomas Jesse Jones as . 
tool of capitalists to keep the colored Amt 
icans out of Africa. The book contains 
careful index and several instructive ai 
interesting foot-notes and is profusely i 
lustrated. 



The personal note running through Chap- 
lain Steward's narrative frees it from the 
usual dry-as-dust quality of a history. His 
fifty years in the ministry have been spent 
in visiting and meeting many places and 
people and his book is an account of all he 
has seen and done. Secular affairs are in- 
terwoven with his pulpit adventures. He 
has seen the Civil War and the Reconstruc- 
tion, encounters between freedom and ex- 
slave holders, as well as the development of 
the A. M. E. Church. Out of his copious 
notes he gives us selections from sermons 
and addresses and little pictures of his re- 
lationships with men well known to those 
familiar with outstanding figures in Negro 
history. His book is not at any time his- 
torical in the sense of Dr.Woodson's book. 
It is too personal for that. Thus the latter 
third of the narrative is almost entirely 
confined to the account of his life in the 
army and his travels abroad. But it often 
furnishes a good commentary for nearly 
three-quarters of a century on the happen- 
ings among colored people in the United 
States. 



POEMS 



Langston Hughes 



QUESTION 

WHEN the old junk man Death 
Comes to gather up our bodies 
And toss them into the sack of oblivion. 
I wonder if he will find 

The corpse of a white multi-millionaire 
Worth more pennies of eternity, 
Than the black torso of 
A Nesrro cotton-nicker 9 



THE NEW MOON 

f T 1 HERE'S a new, young moon riding the 
-*• hills tonight; 

There's a sprightly, young moon exploring 
the clouds; 

There's a half-shy, young moon veiling her 
face like a virgin, 

Waiting for her lover. 



MEXICAN MARKET WOMAN 

nnHIS ancient hag 
■*■ Who sits upon the ground 
Selling her scanty wares 
Day in, day round, 

Has known high wind-swept mountains; 
And the sun has made 
Her skin so brown. 



r 



iional * Ass ociaiion • for • £ke • - - 
variccmenfo^ Colored.- People. 




-it, 

TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT 
(The full report is in press) 
ATI/" G. SIMMONS, "Imperial Wizard" 
™ * • of the Ku Klux Klan, has called 
the N. A. A. C. P. the chief opponent of 
the Klan. At the trial of John Williams, 
accused of murdering Negro peons, in Jas- 
per County, Ga., a special challenge was 
made of the talesmen to see if they were 
members of the N. A. A. C. P. or if vol- 
untary counsel in the case had received 
any part of their pay from our Associa- 
tion. Such strains indicate our growing 
influence. 

During the last year our chief work has 
been to influence the administration in our 
behalf at Washington, to push the Dyer 
Anti-Lynching Bill, to continue legal de-, 
fense of the Arkansas peons and numbers 
of other victims, to investigate race riots, 
to investigate peonage, to take up cases of 
discrimination, to fight the Ku Klux Klan, 
to promote the Second Pan-African Con- 
gress, to hold the usual Annual Conference, 
and to forward our publicity work, includ- 
ing the publication of The Crisis. 

The membership and contributions re- 
ceived by the N. A. A. C. P. during the last 
four years are as follows : 

1918 — Memberships $24,372.71 

Contributions 5,704.40 



30,077.13 

1919— Memberships 39,576.33 

Contributions 8,398.93 



47,975.26 

1920— Memberships 27,945.99 

Contributions 15,388.00 



43.333.99 

1921— Memberships 42,684.40 

Contributions 18,523.97 



$61,208.37 



In Washington 



/"V N April 4, the secre- 
^-' tary conferred at 
the White House with President Harding. 
He asked the President to include a recom- 
mendation for action against lynching in his 



annual message, to make an investigation 
of peonage, to investigate disfranchisement 
in the South, to appoint a national Inter- 
racial Committee, to investigate the situa- 
tion in Haiti, to appoint colored assistant 
secretaries in the Departments of Labor 
and Agriculture, and to end race segrega- 
tion in the Executive Department. 

Of these recommendations the President 
took note as follows : He said in his 
annual message that Congress ought "to 
wipe out the stain of barbaric lynching 
from the banner of a free and orderly rep- 
resentative democracy." 

Later the secretary headed a delegation 
of 30 leading colored men and women who 
presented a petition to the President for 
the pardon of the soldiers of the 24th In- 
fantry. This petition was signed by 50,000 
persons. 

y I S HE chief work of the year 
Lynching , , , , 

■■■ nas been our endeavor to 

push the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill. This 
bill was introduced in the 67th Congress 
by Kepresentative L. C. Dyer of Missouri, 
April 11, 1921. On July 20, a hearing 
was held before the Committee on the Ju- 
diciary. On October 20 the bill was favor- 
ably reported by the House Committee on 
the Judiciary. Untoward efforts to amend 
the bill were warded off and the favorable 
opinion of the Attorney- General was se- 
cured. After long effort and repeated in- 
terviews with leading members of Congress 
a special rule on the bill was decided upon. 
This special rule came up for action Mon- 
day, December 19, and after considerable 
difficulty, on account of a filibuster by the 
Southern members, the rule was adopted. 
On December 20 the House went into the 
Committee as a whole and the bill was read. 
On Wednesday, January 4, after the recess, 
by a vote of 184 to 86 the Anti-Lynching 
Bill was taken up again. On Tuesday, Jan- 
uary 10, it was again debated. A great vic- 
tory was won on January 27 when the 
House passed the bill by a vote of 230 to 119. 



211 



212 



THE CRISIS 



The Association has kept careful records 
of all lynchings. ' It investigated the 
burning of Henry Lowry in Arkansas 
and published the results; it urged the Gov- 
ernor of South Carolina to bring lynchers 
to trial and to proceed against them under 
the State Constitution. As a result of this 
the widow of Joe Stewart who was hanged 
in April, 1920, has been given a verdict 
of $2,000 against the county. 

Through the activities of the Association, 
bills against lynching have been passed in 
West Virginia and Minnesota. 

SINCE October, 1919, the 
Association has been defend- 
ing the 12 men sentenced to death and the 
67 others sentenced to prison terms in con- 
nection with the so-called "massacre" in 
Phillips County, Ark. These men have re- 
peatedly been saved from execution and the 
cases of 6 of them have finally been brought 
to the Supreme Court of the United States 
by appeal on an assignment of errors. 
The other six are to be tried again in Lee 
County, Ark., at the Spring term of that 
court. To date the Association has expend- 
ed $11,249.39 and is obligated to pay $2,- 
500 more, besides the cost of litigation in 
the Supreme Court. 

With regard to peonage, the Association 
has brought every case reported to it to the 
attention of the Department of Justice. In 
this and other ways it encouraged the De- 
partment to investigate peonage, and thus 
was brought to light the terrible John Wil- 
liams murder case in Jasper County, Ga. 
Williams is now serving a life sentence in 
the Georgia State Penitentiary. 



against Negroes. Their cases have not 



L iOUS 



■the 



Legal 
Defense 



*" I i HE Association has also been 
■*■ interested either through 
its main office or through 
its branches in the following cases: The 
defense of Maurice Mays in Tennessee; un- 
justly charged of murder. The defense of 
13 men accused of rape in Dnluth, Minn., 
after several colored men had been lynched. 
Of the 13, one was acquitted by jury, 5 
were dismissed by order of the court, and 
6 were dismissed at the request of the 
prosecuting attorney. One man was found 
guilty. His case was appealed and is now 
before the Supreme Court of Minnesota. 

A special investigation of the Tulsa riot 
was made and the results widely published. 
Of the 88 indictments returned against al- 
leged participants in the riots, 74 were 



come up. Meantime, we have establic 
and administered a relief and defense'? 

of $3,506.24. ns * 

and 

DURING the year the . 51. 
relation has kept 
its work of seeking to prevent the extradi- 
tion of colored men from Northern to 
Southern States when there is danger of 
their being lynched. In pursuance of this 
policy, Thomas Ray has been saved 
from being extradited from Michigan to 
Georgia. He had killed a white man and 
alleged that it was in self-defense. Gov- 
ernor Sleeper allowed the extradition, but 
the Association kept the matter in the 
courts until the succeeding Governor, Groes- 
beck, refused the extradition. The extra- 
dition of Ed Knox from West Virginia to 
Tennessee has been prevented by the 
Charleston, W. Va. branch. The extradi- 
tion of Will Whitfield from New York to 
North Carolina is being fought in the 
courts. The extradition of a white man, 
H. F. Smiddy, is being opposed. He went 
from Arkansas to Kansas and is willing 
to testify that the whites were the aggres- 
sors in the Arkansas riot. Charles P. 
Smithie has so far been prevented from 
being extradited from Minnesota to Tulsa, 
Okla., where he was indicted as one of the 
rioters. He is now free on bail. Successful 
efforts were made at Kansas City, Mo., to 
prevent the extradition of two colored boys, 
Wilbur and Castoria Styles, to Arkansas, 
on the claim that they owe a white man 
eighty dollars. 



npH ROUGH publicity 

DISCRIMINATION 1 furnighed by ^ N< 

A. A. C. P. and upon request of the Asso- 
ciation of Colored Railway Trainmen, steps 
have been taken to stop the murder and 
maiming of colored trainmen and two white 
men have been arrested in Mississippi on a 
charge of intimidation. 

In the Harlem Hospital, New York City, 
effort has been made by the Association in 
conjunction with other organizations and 
prominent persons to bring about better 
treatment of patients, and representation of 
Negroes on the Board. 

THE Association during 1921 
continued its fight against 
Klan the Ku Klux Klan, mainly 

through the publication of facts which it 




213 



214 



THE CRISIS 



collected and sent to members of Congress 
and also furnished to the New York World, 
and which were part of the proof of the 
expose which the World made of the Klan. 
At last reports the affairs of the Ku Klux 
Klan were involved in litigation. 

HP 1 HE Association continues to 



Special conferences were held with the 
English Labor Party and with the Aborigi- 
nes' Protection Society. The Committee 
also presented a petition to the League of 
Nations and suggestions to the Internation- 
al Labor Bureau. 



fight slanderous moving pic- The Crisis 



Moving 

Pictures tureg _ We picketed « The Birth 

of a Nation" when it recently appeared in 
New Yoi-k and distributed printed matter. 
Our pickets were arrested but we secured 
an opinion of the court which pronounced 
the distribution of printed matter under 
such circumstances legal. Our branches 
stopped this film in the State of California 
and helped induce the Board of Censors to 
refuse permission to exhibit it in Boston. 



r T 1 HE Crisis during the 

•*• years of its publication, 



T 



'HE twelfth annual confer- 
Annual X ence of the Association was 

Conference heW in Detroit> Mick> June 

26 to July 1. The conference was opened 
with an enormous protest parade on Sun- 
day afternoon. There were 4,000 persons 
in line, representing every organization 
among colored people in Detroit. In this 
parade banners were borne protesting 
against injustices perpetrated upon the 
Negro in America. The principal speakers 
at the Conference were Mr. Moorfield 
Storey, Judge John I. W. Jayne, Dr. I. Gar- 
land Penn, Rev. E. W. Daniel, Messrs. B. 
Forrester Washington, John E. Clark, Har- 
ry H. Pace, Sol Plaafje of the South Afri- 
can Native Congress, James H. Maurer, 
President of the Pennsylvania State Feder- 
ation of Labor, Rev. R. L. Bradby; Prof. 
Robert Kerlin, who was dismissed from the 
Lexington, Va., Institute because of his ap- 
pearance here, and M. Stenio Vincent, for- 
mer President of the Haitian Senate. 

The Spingarn Medal was awarded to 
Charles S. Gilpin for his contribution to 
Negro art. 

THE First Pan- 
African Congress 
African Congress wag organized and 

financed by the N. A. A. C. P. in 1919. 
The Second Pan-African Congress was or- 
ganized and financed by the Association in 
the summer of 1921 under Dr. DuBois, who 
acted as secretary. The Congress was held 
in London, Brussels and Paris. It was at- 
tended by 112 accredited delegates from dif- 
ferent countries, and by 1,000 visitors. 



since November, 1910, has distributed 5,- 
259,899 copies. The figures showing its in- 
come, average net paid monthly circulation 
and total circulation follow: 





Circulation 


Total 


Income 




per month 


Circulation 




1910 


1,750 copies 


3,500 copies 


$375 


1911 


9,000 " 


108,000 


n 


6,572 


1912 


22.000 " 


264,000 


« 


13,217 


1913 


27,000 " 


336,000 


<< 


19,739 


1914 


31,450 " 


377,400 


(1 


22,124 


1915 


32,156 " 


385,872 


it 


23,865 


1916 


37,625 " 


451,500 


ti 


28,193 


1917 


41,289 " 


495,477 


« 


32,836 


1918 


75,187 " 


902,250 


M 


57,367 


1919 


94,908 " 


1,138,900 


M 


70,502 


1920 


62,417 " 


749,000 


« 


77,706 


1921 


49,750 " 


597,000 


M 


62,582 



The total income of The Crisis since its 
inception, November, 1910, has been $414,- 
979.75. 

r T 1 WO main tasks were un- 
Publicity A dertaken by the publicity 
department in 1921. One was the complete 
showing up of the Ku Klux Klan, the 
other was to work unceasingly to make the 
Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill a national issue. 
In the regular course of work, some 139 
press stories were sent out as compared 
with 131 in 1920. Of these, 30 were de- 
voted either to the Dyer Anti-Lynching 
Bill or to some aspect of the lynching prob- 
lem. To the Ku Klux Klan, 8 stories were 
devoted and to the Tulsa riot and the Hai- 
tian situation, and the Association's mem- 
bership drive, 7 each. The Association also 
gave first publicity to the dismissal of Rob- 
ert T. Kerlin from Virginia Military Insti- 
tute, and stimulated strongly worded edi- 
torials in the chief New York newspapers, 
including the Times, the Evening Post, and 
several of the liberal weekly magazines. A 
book review service to the colored press was 
also begun. Special acknowledgment must 
be made of the splendid cooperation dur- 
ing the year by colored editors throughout 
the country. 




TWELVE PRESIDENTS OF BRANCHES OF THE N. A. A. C. P. 



DR. C. E. BENTLEY 
Chicago, 111. 



J. C. BANKS 
Los Angles, Cal. 



GEORGE W. GROSS 

Denver, Colo. 



W. H. McKINNEY 
Detroit, Mich. 

A. H. GRIMKE 
Washington, D. C. 

I. N. FITCH 
Winston-Salem, N. C. 



REV. R. H. SINGLETON 
Atlanta, Ga. 



JOHN D. DRAKE 
Oakland, Cal. 



JOHN L. LOVE 
Kansas City, Mo. 



G. W. STEWART 
Newark, N. J. 



DR. B. J. ANDERSON 
Birmingham, Ala. 



ISADORE MARTIN 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



215 




COrvi»lL.£_D B^ MADELINE 



A. l_ LISON 



TUT ERCY Hospital and School for Nurses 
■*-**- was founded in 1907 in a small dwell- 
ing at 17th and Fitzwater Streets, Philadel- 
phia. In 1919 the hospital acquired a beau- 
tiful location consisting of 6 Z A acres of 
ground with four large buildings at 50th 
Street and Woodland Avenue. The new 
Mercy Hospital has had a wonderful growth 
and is endorsed by the State officials. It 
has an organized staff of over 50 members, 
a training school of 37 nurses and 4 grad- 
uate nurses, and 85 beds. Dr. Henry M. 
Minton is superintendent and Fleming B. 
Tucker assistant superintendent. Dr. Hen- 
ry L. Phillips, archdeacon of Pennsylvania, 
a well known colored episcopal clergyman, 
is ^resident of the Board of Directors. 

Nellie Harris, a colored nurse, has won 
admittance to the Post-Graduate course at 
the Woman's Hospital, New York City. 



When authorities at the hospital refused 
Miss Harris on account of her race, she 
brought suit under the Civil Rights Act, 
through Attorney N. B. Marshall. The 
case was settled out of court. 

By the will of the late Mrs. Calista S. 
Mayhew, a white woman of New York, 
four colored schools in the South will re- 
ceive legacies: Atlanta University, Tuske- 
gee Institute, Hampton Institute and Snow 
Hill Normal School, Snow Hill, Alabama. 

Robert G. Doggett is dead in New York 
City as the result of an operation for acute 
appendicitis. He was born in Calvert, 
Texas, 28 years ago and was educated at 
Howard University. For some time he 
was associated with the late J. Leubrie Hill, 
playwright and actor. A lover of the beau- 
tiful in literature and art and himself pos- 
sessed of considerable dramatic ability, Mr. 




MEECY HOSPITAL AND SCHOOL FOR NURSES, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

216 



THE HORIZON 



217 




DR. C. B. POWELL 

Doggett had striven to bring larger oppor- 
tunities to the Negro actor and the Negro 
musician. 

Dr. Clyde B. Powell has been appointed 
to the X-ray staff of the Bellevue Hospital 
in New York City. Objections were made on 
account of his color but the superintendent 
of the hospital refused to consider the 
complaints. 

James E. Harris of Brooklyn, N. Y., head- 
ed the list in an examination of 75 candi- 
dates for license as teacher of English in 
the New York City high schools. There 
were four who passed. Mr. Harris is at 
present a teacher of Civics at Manual 
Training High School, and of English at 
the evening Eastside High School. 



At the senior recital of the Emerson Col- 
lege of Oratory, Boston, Gertrude McBrown, 
a colored literary interpreter, was chosen 
among 5 students to represent the insti- 
tution. Her number "Mother and Daugh- 
ter", by Dickens, was well received by a 
critical audience. Miss McBrown's platform 
deportment was perfect, the interpretations 
of characters and the picturing of scenes 
showed splendid artistry and skilful tech- 
nique; the narrative links in the play dis- 
played the lyrical quality of her voice, while 
the interpretations of characters revealed 
her remarkable dramatic ability. 

The total native Negro population living 
in the United States on January 1, 1920, 
was 10,389,328, including 8,019 Negroes 
born in outlying possessions and 38,575 for 
whom the state of birth was not reported. 

Wesley Barry, "Sunshine Sammy" Mor- 
rison, Frank Morrison and Gordon Griffith 




STARS OF THE MOVIE "WORLD 



218 



THE CRISIS 




(Prize Picture, March, 1922) 

are "stars" of the movie world. They are 
now playing in Marshal Neilan's "Penrod", 
adapted from Booth Tarkington's book. 
"Sunshine Sammy" Morrison (second from 
top) recently signed a five year contract 
calling for $10,000 per year. 

At the fourth annual convention of the 
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, held in In- 
dianapolis, there were more than 100 dek • 
gates and members in attendance, repre- 
senting 18 chapters. Special features of 
the convention were the sending of a tele- 
gram to President Harding, urging the 
support of the administration in O'e passage 
of the Dyer anti-lynching bill, and an in- 
vitation to sororities ar.J fraternities to 
meet with the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority 
in a Pan-Hellenic Conference during 1922, 




MRS. W. E. GREEN 



MITCHELL 



AT THE CONVENTION OF THE ALPHA 

the date and place of meeting to be named 
later. Mrs. Wendell E. Green of Chicago, 
111., is National President; Miss L. Pearl 
Mitchell of Kalamazoo, Mich., is National 
Secretary. 

Many have been the tributes paid to the 
memory of Frederick Douglass, but his re- 
cent post-humous election to Omega Chapter 
of the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity was 
perhaps one of the most touching and im- 
pressive ceremonies ever held in connection 
with the life of the great Douglass. Three 
hundred young college men, assembled in 
the 14th annual convention of their fra- 
ternity, at Baltimore, made a pilgrimage 
to the Douglass Home in Anacostia, D. C, 
on December 28, and there at the shrine 
of their great leader, stood with bared heads 
in solemn silence for one minute. The cere- 
monies were brief but effective. Mrs. L. A. 
Pendleton, on behalf of the committee in 
charge of the home, welcomed the pilgrims. 
Professor George W. Cook of Howard Uni- 
versity delivered the oratorical address, 
which was followed by remarks from Dr. 
George C. Hall of Chicago, and Simeon S. 
Booker, president of the Alpha Phi Alpha 
Fraternity. Oscar C. Brown, of Howard 
University, presided; George B. Kelly, one 
of the founders of the fraternity, made 
the presentation of the shingle bearing 
witness of Douglass' membership in Alpha 
Phi Alpha. To aid with much-needed re- 
pairs and improvements to the home, the 
fraternity presented the Committee of 
Ladies with a check for $100. 

The Federal Council of the Churches of 



THE HORIZON 



219 




PHI ALPHA FRATERNITY, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Christ in America has appointed Dr. George 
E. Haynes to promote the work of its Com- 
mission on the Church and Race Relations. 
Among purposes of this Commission are: 
"To array the sentiment of the Christian 
churches against mob violence and to en- 
list their thorough-going support in a 
special program of education on the sub- 
ject for a period of at least five years; to 
develop a public conscience which will se- 
cure in the Negro equitable provision for 
education, health, housing, recreation and 
all other aspects of community welfare." 

Harry T. Burleigh offers a new art-song, 
"Adoration", and four Negro folk-songs, 
"Oh! Rock Me, Julie", "Scandalize My 
Name", "De Ha'nt" and "Don' Yo' Dream 
of Turnin' Back". Musical America says: 
"In putting forward these Negro folk-songs 
Mr. Burleigh has inaugurated another de- 
partment of activity in his work as a cre- 
ative musician. His success both with his 
art-songs and Negro spirituals has been 
noteworthy and we would predict that he 
will duplicate it with his settings of those 
songs of his race, the texts of which, un- 
like the spirituals, have no religious char- 
acter; it is in this that they differ from 
them." G. Ricordi, New York, is the pub- 
lisher. 

Countee P. Cullen, a Negro senior in De- 
Witt Clinton High School, has become rec- 
ognized as the premier poet of New York's 
high schools. His poem "I Have a Rendez- 
vous With Life" was awarded first prize 
in a contest held under the auspices of the 
Empire Federation of Women's Clubs; m- 



(Article by Victor Daly) 

other, "In Memory of Lincoln", won second 
prize in a contest conducted by the Sorosis 
Club. He has demonstrated his ability as a 
speaker by winning the Douglas Fairbanks 
oratorical contest, and as a journalist by 
working his way to the editorship of the 
Clinton News, the high school weekly. All 
this has earned for him the highest honor 
that Clinton can bestow — the leadership of 
the Arista. He is vice-president of the 
Senior Class, First Lieutenant of the Dotey 
Squad, a member of the Clinton Club and 
of the Inter-High School Poetry Society. 
Mr. Summerson of Darby, Pa., sends us 




THE HOME OF MR. SUMMERSON 



220 



THE CRISIS 




Arthur A. Schomhurg 



Max Yergan 



Edward F. Frazier 



Charles C. Allison, Jr. 



a picture of his comfortable little home. 
This is just one of many such homes. 

Arthur A. Schomburg was born January 
24, 1874. He was educated in public and 
private schools and at the Institute Ensen- 
anza Populair, St. Thomas College, Porto 
Rico. He has held various offices in politi- 
cal, Masonic and historical organizations. 
He is employed by the Bankers' Trust Com- 
pany of New York as head of the Mailing 
Department. Mr. Schomburg, however, pos- 
sesses rare skill as a collector of books, 
prints, engravings, etc. His library, de- 
voted exclusively to books pertaining to the 
Negro race and by persons of Negro de- 
scent, is one of the most remarkable librar- 
ies of its kind in existence. Many of the 
items are exceedingly rare. He is constant- 
ly receiving consignments of books from all 
parts of the world, hence many of his vol- 
umes are in foreign languages, such as 
Portuguese, Spanish, French, Dutch, Ger- 
man, Russian, Latin, Hebrew, Amharic, 
Arabic and various other tongues. His col- 
lection of books by the celebrated Ludolph 
who wrote the history of Ethiopia and the 
Kingdom of Abyssinia, together with the 
books of reference pertaining to that sub- 
ject is of exceeding great value as a source 
of Negro history. The value of Mr. Schom- 
burg's library is attested fully by the fact 
that his home in Brooklyn, N. Y., has be- 
come the Mecca for scholars from all parts 
of the United States and many have come 
from abroad to do research work therein. 
Mr. Schomburg has immortalized himself 
in the great zeal with which he has applied 



himself to the task of preserving the evi- 
dences of Negro culture in all ages. 

After considerable hesitancy and long 
correspondence, Max Yergan has been 
allowed to depart for South Africa to be- 
gin Y. M. C. A. work among the natives. 
This is probably an epoch-making step and 
beginning of a new effort on the part of 
American Negroes to serve their African 
brothers. It has been decided that associa- 
tion work in Africa is in the future to be 
done by Negro Americans and supported 
by the colored Y. M. C. A.'s. 

Mr. Yergan was born July 19, 1892, in 
Raleigh, N. C, where he attended the grade 
and high schools and was graduated from 
Shaw University in 1914 with honors. In 
1916 he enlisted for war service and sailed 
for Africa where he was mentioned in dis- 
patches for "meritorious service on the 
field". He has served the War Work Coun- 
cil as Recruiting Officer for colored work- 
ers for France and as Overseas Field Sec- 
retary; in the United States Army he was a 
Chaplain with the rank of First Lieutenant. 
Mr. Yergan is accompanied by his wife and 
Frederick Max Yergan, aged 5 months. 

Edward Franklin Frazier has a note- 
worthy record for scholarship. He was 
born in Baltimore, Md. When quite young 
he finished the elementary school as vale- 
dictorian; in 1912 he was graduated from 
high school with a scholarship to Howard 
University, from which he was graduated 
in 1916 as a Bachelor of Arts with cum 
laude rank. In 1920, through a scholarship, 
he was graduated from Clark University, 



THE HORIZON 



221 



Worcester, Mass. where he studied sociology 
and was awarded the degree of Master of 
Arts. By competitive examination, in 
which 31 colleges participated, he won a 
fellowship of $850 to the New York School 
of Social Work, 1920-21. Through a fel- 
lowship of $1,000 awarded him by the Amer- 
ican-Scandinavian Foundation, he is now 
studying sociology and economics at the 
University of Copenhagen. Mr. Frazier has 
been a teacher of mathematics, English and 
history in colored schools of the South ; dur- 
ing 1918-19 he taught mathematics and 
French in the Baltimore High School. He 
plans to teach sociology and inaugurate co- 
operative farming among Negro farmers. 
In 1916, Charles C. Allison, Jr., was one 
of 700 men who took the examination for 
Municipal Parole Officer in New York City. 
He was certified as eighth on the list and 
received appointment July 16, 1916, be- 
ing the youngest officer appointed. Mr. Alli- 
son was born in New York City, September 
26, 1889. He attended the High School of 
Commerce and in 1912 took up social service 
work with the National Urban League. 
He has served as the first colored field 
worker in the employ of the Big Brother 
Movement; in 1915 he was among officers 
invited to witness the execution of 5 men at 
Sing Sing, at which time a record was estab- 
lished — the 5 executions being completed in 



65 minutes; in 1916 he was the only colored 
delegate present at the International Con- 
ference of Children's Court Workers, which 
convened in Grand Rapids, Mich. Mr. Alli- 
son's duties as parole officer are to make 
investigations of all men living in the 38th 
Precinct boundaries — the Harlem Negro 
section — who have been released from the 
penitentiary, the city reformatory and 
the work-house. Among probationers as- 
signed to him was Luther Boddy. Mr. Alli- 
son has given supervision to almost 1,000 
men, over 70 percent of whom have "made 
good". 

Lt. E. P. Frierson, U. S. Army, retired, 
has been appointed a clerk in the Mailing 
Division of the Chicago Post Office. In the 
Civil Service examination he made a gen- 
eral average of 98.88 percent. 

During its first 11 months of business the 
Black Swan Phonograph Company had to- 
tal receipts amounting to $104,628; dis- 
bursements, $101,327. Its income is over 
$12,000 per month. Since May 1, it has 
organized a selling force throughout the 
United States through which it supplies 
thousands of agents and dealers with a 
total of 40,000 records per month. It man- 
ufactures and distributes Black Swan rec- 
ords, the Black Swan needle, and Swanola, 
a phonograph. Its shipments are made to 
every part of the United States, Mexico, 



:# 



•3 76,0.5-3 



A* 



\51S,0$b 



Up75,1 



' 3U,J?v 



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/373,35l I 



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DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OF BLACK SWAN PHONOGRAPH RECORDS 
(#=6 agents. + = 5 dealers. J distributors and jobbers. Figures refer to population.) 



222 



THE CRISIS 



1 1 i 



«£ 



;.* .???'«' r 



iT. Mas. ki M. E. Chub. 



THE PROPOSED NEW ST. MARK'S M. E. CHURCH, NEW YORK CITY 



the Virgin Isles, South America, the Philip- 
pines and Hawaii. Recently the company 
purchased its own building at 2289 Seventh 
Avenue, New York City, where it employs 
an executive, clerical and shipping force of 
20 people. Harry H. Pace is president of 
the company. 

The new St. Mark's M. E. Church, New 
York City, will be located between 137 and 
138th Streets, Saint Nicholas and Edge- 
combe Avenues. The entire cost, $400,000, 
has been secured in cash or five-year sub- 
scriptions, and no money is required from 
the Centenary. The $40,000 given by the 
Centenary assisted in paying for the lot. 
The edifice takes the form of a modern aud- 
itorium 124 feet long, 39 feet high and 53 
feet wide, covering 68 percent of the total 
lot area; the remaining 32 percent will be 
utilized for the parish-house and the par- 
sonage. The walls and ceilings will be fin- 
ished in a rough cast plaster of beautiful 
color and texture, simply decorated; the 
woodwork of the chancel and seating will 
be of oak; the floors and aisles will be of 
cork, making them noiseless; the electric 
lighting will be what is known as indirect, 
no fixtures being necessary as the lights are 
placed in reflectors. The heating and ven- 
tilating will consist of intake and exhaust 
fans which will insure warm fresh air in 
winter and thorough ventilation in the sum- 
mer. The Building Committee has "under 
consideration a complete vacuum cleaning 



system. There will be a seating capacity 
for 2,200, and an organ which will cost 
$25,000. Sibley & Featherston of New York 
are the architects. Last October, St. 
Mark's celebrated its 50th anniversary. Dr. 
William H. 1 .rooks is the pastor. 

An African pageant, Asheeko, has been 
successfully presented at the Academy of 
Music, Philadelphia, by Mrs. Casely Hay- 
ford, Miss Kathleen Easmon, Madakane 
Cele, C. Kamba Simango and G. L. Taylor, 
native Africans. They were assisted by a 
generous number of Philadelphia's musical 
and dramatic people. The music of Asheeko 
was written by Mr. Taylor. Chorus sing- 
ers, from the choir of Central Presbyterian 
Church and others, rendered the "Chemale- 
bvu", native song and chant in the Chindau 
dialect; the men sang the Betrothal Song 
"Gogogo" in the Zulu tongue. Admirable 
song talent was shown by Miss Hattie Sa- 
voy, contralto, in the "Chililio" (Chindau), 
and Clarence L. E. Monroe, baritone, in the 
Invocation to the Chief. 

The following lynchings have taken place 
since our last record: 

Williamsburg County, S. C, January 8, 
two unknown men; assaulting white woman 

Eufaula, Ala., January 10, Willie Jen- 
kins; insulting white woman 

Oklahoma City, Okla., January 14, John 
Brooks 

Mayo, Fla., January 17, unknown man; 
shooting white mail carrier 



THE HORIZON 



223 










AT THE CONFERENCE OF THE NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE, HELD IN CHICAGO 



Bollinger, Ala., January 28, Drew Con- 
ner (white), burned; reason unknown 

Pontotoc, Miss., January 29, Will Bell; 
attacking white woman 

Crystal Springs, Miss., February 1, Will 
Thrasher; attacking white teacher 

Malvern, Ark., February 2, Harry Harri- 
son, shot. 

The Conference of the National Urban 
League held in Chicago, brought together a 
group of specialists in the economic and so- 
cial problems of Negroes. Sixty represent- 
atives from 20 States attended. Mr. E. K. 
Jones, summarizing the year's work, stated 
that more than 70,000 Negroes had been 
placed in positions, and over $220,000 spent 
by various organizations of the League. 
"The Health Office of Newark," said Mr. 
Jones, "has announced that as a result of 
Child Hygiene work conducted there at the 
instance of the League and through nurses 
appointed by it and working under its di- 



rection, the mortality among colored babies 
dropped from 173.2 in 1920 to 106.0 in 1921." 
Two new departments have been added to 
the national organization — a Department 
of Research and Investigation and a De- 
partment of Extension. Of the latter de- 
partment Mr. J. R. E. Lee, for 18 years the 
Director of the Academic Department of 
Tuskegee Institute, is in charge. 

The Association of Colleges for Colored 
Youth held its annual meeting at Wilber- 
force University, with the following pres- 
ent: Dean H. M. Tilford, Knoxville Col- 
lege; President John Hope, Morehouse Col- 
lege; Dean M. W. Adams, Atlanta Uni- 
versity; President J. A. Gregg, Wilberforce 
University; Dean J. T. Cater, Talladega 
College; President J. L. Peacock, Shaw Uni- 
versity; President C. H. Maxson, Bishop 
College; President W. J. Clarke, Virginia 
Union University; Dean Gilbert H. Jones, 
Wilberforce University; Dean D. O. W. 
Holmes, Howard University. 




DELEGATES TO CONVENTION OF ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGES FOR COLORED YOUTH 



THE RULING PASSION 




An Estimate of Joseph C. Price 



r T , HOSE years immediately following the 
- 1 - Emancipation Proclamation startle one 
at times with their record of astounding 
achievement on the part of ex-slaves. It is 
only when we stop to realize that they rep- 
resented the first outlet for centuries of the 
stifled desire and ambition of a thwarted 
people that we can understand how inevit- 
ably dynamic they had to be, a sort of meta- 
morphosis of time into action. 

Men were single-minded in those days, 
possessing that attribute which is the first 
ingredient in the mixture of qualities that 
make for an individ- 
ual success. It is 
easy to see how the 
black boy of 70 years 
ago was already be- 
ginning to say 
to himself, "If 
ever I am free, 
there's one thing I 
will do." And then 
when freedom unbe- 
lievably, amazingly 
came he said to him- 
self again: "If Free- 
dom were possible, 
all things are pos- 
sible. I must let 
nothing stand in my 
way." 

The star of 
achievement to which 
Joseph Price, a black 
boy of those days, 
hitched his wagon 
was the founding of 

a school for colored youth, a sort of black 
Harvard. It turned out in the course of his 
career that he was to be offered many prizes 
— a government position, a seat in the Li- 
berian mission, a bishopric, but each of these 
he steadfastly refused in order to pursue 
his cherished dream, the establishment of 
Livingstone College at Salisbury, N. C. 

These were remarkable prizes for those 
days, but Joseph Price would none of them. 
From the day on which in 1862 he entered 
the Sunday School in St. Andrew's Chapel 
in Newbern, N. C, his heart was fixed. He 



THE LATE JOSEPH C. PRICE 



was 8 years old then, small and black and 
barefooted, of "stern but pleasant looks". 
That sternness of expression no doubt was 
due to the singleness, the concentration of 
purpose which was even then beginning to 
show in his face. 

From the beginning he himself must have 
felt that he was destined "to be somebody". 
Else why his eagerness to know all things? 
He beleaguered his teachers with questions. 
He answered those of other people. He 
had to have a mastery of wisdom for some 
day he meant to be a fountain himself for 
thirsty seekers after 
knowledge. 

A good teacher 
makes a good pupil. 
As young as he was 
Price realized this 
for although in 1866 
we find him a stu- 
dent in the St. Cy- 
prian Episcopal 
School, by 1871 at 
the age of 17 he was 
teaching at Wilson, 
N. C. But being a 
teacher he learned 
his own limitations 
and back he went to 
school at Shaw Uni- 
versity (already in 
action for those ea- 
ger freedmen and 
their sons) and then 
on to Lincoln Uni- 
versity at Oxford, 
Pa. 
He had meanwhile become interested in 
religion and had connected himself with 
the A. M. E,. Zion church. After the 
fashion of those days it seemed to him to 
be the thing to combine pedagogy with the- 
ology so during his senior year in college 
he entered the junior theological department 
graduating thence in 1881. 

It was while he was at Lincoln that Con- 
gressman John A. Hyman, of Newbern, of- 
fered him a government position. The of- 
fice paid $1,200 a year, a fortune in those 
days for a black man, but Joseph Price had 




224 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



225 



the artist's sense of values, he knew what 
he wanted and that was not gold. He was 
like the poet preferring to mull over his 
precious verse, starving in an attic rather 
than opulently to finger the tape in a 
broker's office. 

The gods had bestowed on him that not 
infrequent gift of his race, the art of per- 
suasive oratory. He had already distin- 
guished himself along this line in college. 
When he graduated in 1879 he was valedic- 
torian. Before he came out of the theo- 
logical school he was sent as a delegate to 
the A. M. E. Zion general conference in 
Montgomery and because of his gift he 
was ordained elder before even he had ob- 
tained his degree as a minister. After his 
graduation he was sent in 1881 to the Ecu- 
menical Conference which convened in Lon- 
don. 

He directed the golden flow of his gift 
into one channel only, that of interesting 
people in the project of his school. At the 
close of the Ecumenical Conference he re- 
mained abroad to lecture in England, Scot- 
land and Ireland. He returned with $10,- 
000, with which in conjunction with another 
$1,000 given by the white merchants of 
Salisbury, he purchased the site of Living- 
stone College. 

Of course he did other things and met 
with other honors. He became the ac- 
knowledged orator of his day, he was ac- 
claimed a new leader, he was delegate at 
the Centenary of American Methodism in 
Baltimore in 1884. He was chairman of 



the A. M. E. and A. M. E. Zion Church 
Commission held in those days in Washing- 
ton, D. C. He was president of the Afro- 
American League. Preparations were made 
for a Grand Southern Exposition and he 
was appointed Commissioner-General. 

But the outstanding facts of his life are 
these. He was born in slavery and by the 
time he was 28 he had started a great 
school which 14 years after his death in 
1893, at its quarto-centenary, had grown to 
astounding proportions. It had real estate 
valued at $250,000. In the course of its 
existence it had enrolled 6,500 pupils from 
26 states. Its large faculty was comprised 
mainly of graduates from the collegiate, 
theological and normal departments. Among 
its alumni were numbered a bishop, presid- 
ing elders, well-known ministers, successful 
teachers and physicians, and all of these 
arose and called the name of Joseph Price 
blessed. 

We Americans ascribe to Englishmen 
the quality of political diplomacy, to French- 
men that of finesse and to ourselves the 
quality of grit. I like to think of Joseph 
Price, tall, majestic, superb of physique, 
of unmixed African blood as the epitome of 
his country's national characteristic. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The Story of the Negro: Booker T. Wash- 
ington, Dottbleday, Page & Co. 

Men of Mark: William J. Simmons. 

The Negro in American History: John 
Wesley Cromwell. Publications of the 
American Negro Academy. 



Mie Lookiiva Glass 



LITERATURE 

EDMUND VANCE COOK, in "The Un- 
■*-' common Commoner" : 
The North! the South! the West! the East! 
No one the most and none the least. 
Each one a part and none the whole. 
But all together form one soul. 
That soul, Our country at its best, 
No North, no South, no East, No West. 
No yours, no mine, but only Ours, 
Merged in one power, our lesser powers, 
But all for each and each for all! 
* * * 

Rene Maran, whose novel "Batouala" 
brought him the Goncourt prize is, writes 
Alvan F. Sanbourne, in the Boston Evening 
Transcript, "a very close approach to a full- 



blooded Negro." He was born in 1887 at 
Fort-de-France in Martinique, but left there 
at the age of three to accompany his father 
who was in the French Colonial Service, to 
Libreville in Gabon, West Africa. Per- 
sistent ill health made it necessary for him 
to go to France. Mr. Sanborn gives the 
future author's own account of his school- 
days: 

I was sent to the Lycee of Taleuce which 
is an annex of the Lycee of Bordeaux for 
the "petits", in the open country. 

In 1894 a Negro was still a rarity in that 
part of France, and from the day I entered 
the school I was made to realize it. But 
after a little, thanks to my fists, I got my- 
self respected. 



226 



THE CRISIS 



I learned to read in a month, and I was 
almost always near the head of my class. 
I was what, is commonly styled a brilliant 
pupil, but was very capricious. 

We were ten colonials. Each one, in his 
respective class, obtained a prize in French. 
It was a point of honor with us — our re- 
venge for railleries and the petty naggings 
of our schoolmates. 

In the fourth class, I put into modern 
French verse the chanson of Roland and 
attacked that of Guillaume-au-court-Nez 
and that of the Chevalier Griese-Gonelles. 
During nearly all of that year I read thirty- 
two volumes a week on an average. I de- 
voured Lombard, Maupassant and Zola as 
well as Hugo, Lamartine, Gautier and es- 
pecially Alfred de Vigny. In fact, I read 

fantastically. 

* * * 

Dr. E. J. Dillon in his "Mexico" (Doran) 
declares that the United States has treated 
Haiti just as she did Mexico. Haiti was de- 
liberately misrepresented, advantage was 
taken of her financial condition, and treaty 
demands were forced upon her. Her weak- 
ness was the State Department's oppor- 
tunity and the latter's attitude in Dr. Dil- 
lon's opinion was tantamount to saying: 

"We care nothing about your Constitu- 
tion, nor whether your President is or is 
not authorized by it to sign treaties. We 
insist on his signing a treaty and our will 
must be done by hook or by crook". What 
the United States did in Haiti "has burned 
itself into the souls of all Central Ameri- 
cans", declares Dr. Dillon. 

TWO LOSSES 
r I i HE death of Colonel Charles Young in 
■*■ far away Nigeria awakens many mem- 
ories of his famous "Tenth Regiment". The 
New York Sun says: 

He was that rare bird, a Negro graduate 
of West Point, and he was soaked with the 
spirit that has given the Tenth United 
States Cavalry worldwide prestige as a 
crack regiment. 

New Yorkers who saw the Black Tenth 
jingle up Fifth Avenue after their return 
from hard service in the Philippines will 
never forget the storm of joyous admira- 
tion showered upon them by city crowds, 
who were carried away by the matchless 
elan and childlike good nature of those first 
class fighting men. 

In later years, when a detachment of 
the regiment while hunting for Villa in 
Mexico was ambushed at Parral by an out- 
numbering Mexican force, it was Charles 
Young, then Major, who commanded the 
squad that Pershing dispatched to their 
relief. 

Pershing himself had fought Redskins as 
a Lieutenant of the Black Tenth, and like 
every other white officer that ever served 



with it, he holds the regiment in peculiar 
affection and admiration. Its supremely 
soldierly traditions have been accumulating 
for fifty-six years. Its history has been 
written in a book. Its deeds have been 
sung. Its qualities have been praised to 
the skies by European military observers. 

"They grew to be to our army what the 
Numidian horse was to the Roman legions," 
wrote Major Frank Keck, formerly of the 
Seventy-first Regiment, N. G. N. Y., when 
the Black Tenth celebrated its fiftieth anni- 
versary in 1916. "Their life in the long 
reaches of the Western country developed 
courage, initiative and pride. Hunger, 
thirst, exposure, sudden skirmishes with 
foes fighting from ambush made the troop- 
ers of the Tenth not only first class fighting 
men individually, but shaped them into a 
military machine. 

"From post to post the Tenth was trans- 
ferred through the great Western country. 
The Sioux, the Cheyennes and the Apaches 
fled before their intrepid charges. 

"As the need for fighting grew less, the 
Tenth took on more of the function of 
mounted police, and yet, such was the pride 
of tradition, war-service was the ideal al- 
ways uppermost in the mind of every mem- 
ber. Many of the original recruits remained 
as long as the Government would let them, 
for they hated to retire. So it was that the 
Tenth in peace had in reserve its deadly 
efficiency, and it went into the Spanish War 
with veteran officers and many a grizzled 
sergeant who was himself a tower of 
strength. 

"The achievements of the Tenth were 
the admiration of the foreign military ob- 
servers who accompanied our expedition to 
Cuba, and they were impartial witnesses. 
They did not hesitate to assert their belief 
that the dismounted colored troopers were 
the very backbone of the American attack. 
Certain it was that the Tenth got the Rough 
Riders out of a very bad hole at Las Guasi- 
mas. Their timely arrival averted a greater 
disaster to the Rough Riders in the first 
land engagement near Santiago. 

"The charge of the Tenth up the steep 
and tangled slope of San Juan Hill will 
always have a place in the military annals 
of the world. It kept raw troops from fir- 
ing on their comrades in the distance, for 
the Tenth was used to wars of the ambus- 
cade." 

* * * 

Before colored Americans could recover 
from the shock of Colonel Young's death, 
they were stunned afresh by news of the 
passing away of that splendid lady Miss 
Maria Baldwin. She met her death while 
addressing a meeting in behalf of the Rob- 
ert Gould Shaw House at the Copley Plaza 
in Boston. Francis G. Peabody relates the 
sad happening in the Boston Transcript: 

Everything seemed to assure a cheering 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



227 



and profitable gathering. Then Miss Maria 
Baldwin, long the principal of the Agas- 
siz School in Cambridge, and for the last 
six years its master, a colored woman of 
whose distinguished public service all Cam- 
bridge citizens are proud, rose to commend 
the Robert Gould Shaw House, of whose 
council she was a member, and to describe 
its congested conditions, with five hundred 
attendants, crowded classrooms and multi- 
plying needs. Suddenly, when she was con- 
cluding this appeal, the strain of the occa- 
sion overtaxed her enfeebled heart, and 
she sank on the platform, dying almost im- 
mediately. The shock to those present was 
overwhelming, and the audience which had 
gathered to enjoy and encourage quietly dis- 
persed to mourn. . . . 

Hundreds of parents are indebted to her 
for the discerning and discriminating edu- 
cation of their children; hundreds of hear- 
ers have listened with gratitude to her wise 
and brilliant addresses, in which academic 
precision was softened by the mellow accent 
of her own race. Her undisputed position 
as teacher and principal gave to her school 
distinction throughout the country. 

THE REVERSE OF THE MEDAL 

T7RANCE has been pretty generally ac- 
■*• claimed as lacking in color prejudice 
and as therefore treating her black subjects 
just as well as her white. But what is the 
actual case? Norman Angell, in the Free- 
man paints France as a veritable Utopia for 
Negroes : 

Speaking broadly, the Negro living in 
France is all but unaware of the monstrous 
shadow that darkens every hour of the 
Negro's life in Anglo-Saxon communities. 
In France the Negro members of the Cham- 
ber of Deputies, or of the legal profession, 
or of the governmental administration, or 
of the Army and the Church, have not 
merely no official difficulties, they have no 
social difficulties in their relationship with 
their white colleagues. They dine in the 
homes of members of the Cabinet, plead for 
white clients in the Courts, and it would 
never even occur to their French colleagues 
to treat them with any sort of social exclu- 

* * * 

The Negroes described by Mr. Angell 
would all seem to be the members of a black 
elite. But when it comes to the treatment 
of the common black man, in this case the 
native in French Colonial Africa, quite 
another method is employed. Rene Boisneuf, 
black deputy from Guadeloupe, scores 
France heavily in the Chamber of Deputies 
for her injustice to her dependents. Guy 
Hickok reports in the Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Eagle : 

"Everywhere arbitrary force, everywhere 



injustice, [said Deputy Boisneuf], every- 
where blundering, everywhere ruin or the 
peril of ruin, budgets collapsing under the 
cost of government personnel, and nothing 
being done to further social or economic 
progress of the natives." 

He turned from generalizations to the ex- 
posure of abuses in particular colonies re- 
ducing to absurdity the pretension that the 
occupation of semi-civilized countries is for 
the benefit of the population. 

The black deputy revealed that in the 
great colony of Indo-China the colonial ad- 
ministration had forced the sale of opium 
in districts which had hitherto been free 
from the drug. When his statement was 
denied he read both orders and letters 
from the Governor- General directing that 
steps be taken to increase opium sales, and 
showed that opium paid 40 percent of the 
colonial budget. 

He emphasized the inconsistency of rig- 
idly prohibiting the sale of opium in France 
while forcing it on one of the colonies whose 
inhabitants are, according to the French 
political theory, equal to white Frenchmen. 

"You do not admit that the life of an 
Annamite or a Cambodian is worth less than 
that of a Parisian; that the life of a colo- 
nial is worth less than that of a native 
Frenchman. Therefore I cannot see how 
you can reconcile the consumption of opium 
in Indo-China, even for budgetary reasons, 
when it is rigidly prohibited in France. 
What a comedy! What hypocrisy!" . . . 

Boisneuf charged that in his own col- 
ony, Guadaloupe, the white governors main- 
tained a native militai-y force used express- 
ly for the purpose of defrauding the elec- 
tions, and read several orders to the mili- 
tary bolstering up his statement. 

Still more serious, he charged that Af- 
rica had been "decimated" since the French 
regime began there; that epidemics had 
carried off many; that intensive exploita- 
tion by French concession companies of the 
native labor had intensified the mortality 
rate; that in French Congo a great part of 
the native population had fled to neighbor- 
ing colonies to escape the forced labor 
regime of concession companies. 
* * * 

Rene Claparede, president of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Society for the De- 
fence of Aborigines, sends us a list of the 
leagues formed since the days of Wilber- 
force for the protection of black peoples. In 
the lists of wrongs which caused the forma- 
tion of these leagues he does not omit those 
of France. He mentions: 

First the "Congo Reform Association" in 
1903, then the French league in 1908, the 
Swiss in 1908, and the German in 1910, in 
Europe; — one in Sidney, Australia; in Lima, 
South America, and in the United States, 
the National Association for the Advance- 
ment of Colored People (1909). For in the 



228 



THE CRISIS 



United States, in spite of Lincoln's effort 
of reform, "emancipation" was by no means 
worthy of that name. What Channing had 
feared was unfortunately true; the "free" 
Black remained a slave to the domination, 
spirit and haughtiness of the White. 

Leagues for the Defense of Natives must 
actually fight such abuses as these : 

Spoliation of territories (Rhodesia, etc.) 

Torture of Portage (French Congo, etc.) 

Poisoning and depopulation through alco- 
hol (New Hebrides and all colonies in gen- 
eral) 

Driving of the Aborigines back into un- 
productive Reserves (Australia, Rhodesia, 
etc.) 

Forced labor (Kenia Colony, British East 
Africa, Mozambique, etc.) 

Indentured labor (Fiji Islands, etc.) 

Kidnapping (Oceania) 

Condemnation without judgment, and 
death sentence aggravated by tortures 
worthy of Middle Age customs (lynching, 
etc.) 

Unjustifiable scorn of the Whites toward 
the Blacks (color bar in South Africa, 
United States, etc.) 

Slavery for debts or peonage (certain 
South American States) 

Domestic Slavery (Africa, South Ameri- 
ca). 

CONSTITUTIONALITY 

vs. COMMON SENSE 

HHHE enemies of the Dyer Bill base their 
■*■ antagonism on its unconstitutionality. 
"An anti-lynching bill of this kind," cries 
the New World, "will lynch the Constitu- 
tion." "But what of that?" replies the 
Charleston News and Courier. 

All^ this talk about the anti-lyching bill 
lynching the Constitution is nonsense. We 
never heard of anybody being lynched more 
than once and the Constitution was lynched 
long ago. But maybe the constitution has 
as many lives as a cat. 

* * * 
As a matter of fact the Dyer Bill is sim- 
ply a fresh interpretation of the Fourteenth 
Amendment. Representative Fess of Ohio 
gives as his exposition: 

This much I am satisfied with, that while 
the constitutional question will be involved, 
and while I am sensitive as to taking any- 
thing for granted that is extremely in doubt, 
I do not believe there is any serious doubt 
upon the constitutionality of this particular 
legislation. I think the authority is spe- 
cific by the force of the Fourteenth Amend- 
ment to the Constitution. So far as the 
argument on authority is concerned, we can 
build up a body of authority of the highest 
judgment in the world sustaining the basis 
of this legislation as being constitutional. 
Consequently that is not disturbing me very 
much. I think there is no doubt about our 



freedom to do it in view of the specific dele- 
gation of the power therein specified and 
also because of the authority that has been 
announced by men who know the signifi- 
cance of the legislation. 

$ $ sfc 

Posterity a hundred years from now will 
surely be moved either to tears or to laugh- 
ter that a bill to make the Constitution of 
the United States more adequate in bestow- 
ing protection could be thus bitterly de- 
bated. Surely it is only common sense to 
take such measures. If our colored citizens 
could be sure of a fair trial it is probable 
that the flight of Matthew Bullock from 
North Carolina to Canada would never have 
taken place. As it is we read in the Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Dispatch: 

The authorities of Ontario, Can., have 
refused to comply with the requisition de- 
mands of North Carolina for the surrender 
of a young Negro [Matthew Bullock], at 
present a fugitive under arrest at Hamil- 
ton. The Tar Heel officials are pressing 
their demands through conventional legal 
channels against a growing popular sen- 
timent in Ontario that is urging provincial 
action against delivery of the prisoner ex- 
cept under certain conditions. 

With the Dyer anti-lynching bill coming 
to debate in the House this week the refusal 
of a neighboring country to surrender a Ne- 
gro fugitive because of the virtual certain- 
ty that he will be lynched, establishes a co- 
incidence that will not be lost upon the 
American public, perhaps not wasted upon 
Congress. The fact that the Canadian ipris- 
oner's brother has been lynched for his share 
in a brawl between whites and Negroes 
over a trifling business transaction, is the 
principal obstacle to a surrender by the On- 
tario authorities. 

The Canadian officials presume that if 
officers of the law in the North Carolina 
town where the demand for extradition 
originated would not prevent lynching of 
this man's brother there is no reason to 
suppose they would prevent a second mob- 
bing. 

If the Dyer Bill or its equivalent should 
be passed there would be a chance of no 
repetition of the Tulsa Riot, the effects of 
which have been so far reaching. A. J. 
Smitherson, a colored editor of Tulsa, de- 
scribes in the Boston Herald, the riot's ter- 
rible aftermath: 

While some few are rebuilding their 
homes and business places with their own 
money, or money obtained outside of Tulsa 
(because there is a tacit understanding 
among those who control the money in 
Tulsa that no financial assistance will be 
given colored men with which to rebuild 
their property in the business district of the 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



229 



burned area), yet there are thousands who 
are not so fortunate. Hundreds of huts 
now stand where comfortable homes stood 
before June 1, and in these huts thousands 
of women and children "black in color, to 
be sure, but guilty of no other offense", are 
now huddling closely together in an effort 
to protect their scantily garbed and under- 
fed bodies from the ravages of winter, a 
little less tolerable, perhaps, than the cold 
indifference of their white brothers and sis- 
ters, who recently paid the Rev. Billy Sun- 
day $17,000 for preaching their sins away. 

In the wake, above the din of a one-sided 
battle with machine guns and the roar of 
flames, above the cannonading sounds of ex- 
plosives dropped from airplanes, which still 
linger in the minds of many of these poor 
people, come the heart-rending cries of 
suffering women and children begging for 
clothes and food to sustain life through the 
winter — pleading for justice! 

But their cries evidently die in the dis- 
tance before reaching the law-making body 
of our country, where a few days ago the 
solons were debating the constitutionality 
of a bill which, if enacted, would make ef- 
fective the 14th Amendment to the Consti- 
tution of the United States. Surely justice 
sleeps while injustice runs amuck! 



Puzzle: Why is a Constitution? 

AFRICA 

A FRICA remains the riddle of riddles. 
-*•*• Can Europe afford to arm the blacks 
for military service? asks the German edi- 
tor of the Berliner Tageblatt. The Buffalo, 
N. Y., Times translates : 

The Temps of Paris recently published 
figures showing that the French army now 
consists of 665,000 men, of whom 551,000 
were in the French continent and 218,000 
in the North African, Colonial and their 
colored contingents. Eighty-seven thousand 
men are stationed in the Rhineland, but it 
is not mentioned how many of each color. 
Now the length of military service is to be 
shortened from two years to one and one- 
half, and at the same time, in order to make 
up for the decrease in population, the 
number of colored troops will be increased 
to 300,000 and the French army will consist 
of about equal parts of black and white. 
We know very well that white men are often 
anything but virtuous, and that the Euro- 
pean skin often hides barbarian instincts. 
The last years have shown this clearly 
enough. And, after all, who can say if 
there exists no black Plato, or Raffael, or 
Shakespeare in some of the Hottentot vil- 
lages. But is it indifferent to the colonial 
peoples that Africa will soon be overrun by 
native soldiers who have been trained for 
military service in Europe? We hear so 
much of the decline in Eastern lands and it 



is a fact that the East has "cold and shriv- 
elled up ears" and other signs which Hippo- 
crates called signs of death, but in arming 
Africa, France, in order to stuff up a hole 
in the garden wall, is pulling down the dam 
which until now kept the Black Sea within 

its bounds. 

* * * 

The Reuter Press Agency reports that 
antagonism toward the white invader is 
rapidly increasing throughout Africa. The 
account continues : 

Reuter's informant emphasizes the grow- 
ing cohesion of native races throughout the 
continent. He says the strongest factor in 
the development of antagonism to the whites 
is skillful propaganda fostered by an ex- 
treme section of American Negroes. 

Circulars coming from nationalist sources 
in India and Egypt and from Pan-African 
societies in the United States, translated 
into five of the principal African languages, 
are distributed in enormous numbers 
throughout Africa. Booklets of 25 to 30 
pages urge that the time has arrived for 
the black races to assert themselves and 
throw off the white yoke. 

It is only fair to say that these are not 
received with universal sympathy, but the 
very unsettling effect is easily to be ob- 
served. 

It has been met in the Union of South 
Africa. In French equatorial Africa and 
in a lesser degree in Uganda, in Nyasaland, 
Belgian Congo, Abyssinia and Kenia. 

It is wonderful the extent to which the 
war has produced fraternal feelings among 
natives, but in present circumstances they 
tend to become anti-European. The main 
reason is the growth of race consciousness 
through the world. 

If, as seems likely, Africa is destined to 
overrun Europe, the opinion in the London 
Observer of General Mangin, the famous 
French leader of black troops on the West- 
ern Front, must prove a solace to the Ne- 
grophobe : 

Potentially the black race is probably as 
good as the white. Consider for a moment 
of what recent date is our scientific civiliza- 
tion. We have gone ahead, and the records 
of our dealings with the black peoples, 
armed as we were with certain advantages, 
is not flattering to us. We looked upon them 
as slaves, and we continue in some sense to 
regard them as slaves. But what in the 
history of the world is an advance of a few 
hundred years? If one takes a wider view 
than Africa, if one looks at the colored peo- 
ples in general — and I have spent some 
years in the Far East, as well as in Africa 
— one sees that our own civilization has its 
sources in Asia, which is yellow; in India, 
which is bronzed; and in Egypt, which is 
black. Greece and Rome are comparatively 



230 



THE CRISIS ADVERTISER 



late-comers. We owe much to the Arabs. 
Our alphabets come from Asia, and our 
figures from Arabia, and long before Eu- 
rope was settled there existed great civili- 
zations. We, white men, are not the first, 
and we may not be the last, representatives 
of civilization. It is necessary to cultivate 
the world sense and to think in less limited 
periods of time. . . . 

We have to distinguish between moral 
progress and scientific progress. I am con- 
vinced that morally many Africans have 
nothing to learn from us. All that vast zone 
which stretches from Senegal to Abyssinia, 
from Egypt to Morocco, from Algeria to Ni- 
geria, is filled with monuments which testi- 
fy to an immemorial civilization. They are 
states which for centuries have had an ex- 
cellent organization as we understand it — 
with an army, a budget, a political, a re- 
ligious, and an administrative service. There 
are spiritualistic religions which have ex- 
isted for thousands of years, having at their 
base the idea of the unity of God, the im- 
mortality of the soul, and punishment for 
wrong-doing — cults which are free from 
idolatry or any kind of fetichism. The 
Mossi, for example, on the Niger, with 
whom I lived in 1890, have fine civic virtues 
and an admirable social order. 

TAKE YOUR CHOICE 



Art In 
The South 



FIND several Southerners 
whom I have asked about 
Gilpin's probable reception in 
the South almost equally divided in their 
opinions. Those who feel he will get the 
same more or less impartial hearing he has 
had in the North are quite as positive in 
their opinion as those who think he will not 
be tolerated for a moment by white South- 
ern audiences. Exponents of the latter 
view explain that it is not the mere fact of 
a successful Negro actor, to which objection 
will be taken. It is the "glorification" of a 
Negro in the leading and only important 
role of a rday. They assure me that a white 
man blacked up could play the part any- 
where in the South without trouble. — Bruce 
Bliven, in the New York Globe and Com- 
mercial Advertiser. 



A Clever r I ""O most persons baling wire 
jyr AN -i- is simply wire, but to Allen 

Dixon, looking at all the rusty 
wire going to waste from bales of hay 
shipped into Nashville, rusty wire was rat 
traps. He pulled some wire off a bale, ex- 
perimented with it and; — got a patent. 
m Hardy & Hart, No. 100 Fifth Avenue, this 
city, are negotiating for permission to sell 
the patent right. Mr. Hardy admits the 
Negro will probably make a lot of money. 
He is said to have received already an offer 
of $25,000 in cash, or $5,000 down and 5 
cents royalty on every trap sold. — New 
York World, 



The Negro and 
the White 

A Study in Race Relations 

Is there a growing hostility between 
the Negro and White races in the United 
States? Some careful observers think 
so. Do the teachings of Jesus furnish 
principles on which friendship between 
them could be firmly based? 

THE WORLD TOMORROW for 

March will take up these questions. Ar- 
ticles on the contribution of the Negro 
to American life; the economic cause of 
Negro subjugation; the poison of race 
prejudice; the question of racial inferi- 
ority, intermarriage, social equality, etc. 
Reading list and topics' for group dis- 
cussion. 



Each month THE WORLD TOMORROW 
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of social, economic and industrial import- 
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CRISIS 




SPRING 
NUMBER 



APRIL, 1922 

15 CENTS A COPY 



28th Annual Financial Statement 

of the 

Southern Aid Society of Virginia, Inc. 

(Condensed) 

RECEIPTS 1921 

Jan. 1, 1921, Cash Balance Brought Forward $ 98,688.17 

Dec. 31, 1921, Annual Income 781,392.32 

Gross Receipts for 1921 $880,080.49 

DISBURSEMENTS 

Dec. 31, 1921, Total Paid Out (Including investments made during 

the year) $807,957.60 

Cash Balance Dec. 31, 1921 $72,122.89 

ASSETS LIABILITIES 

Cash Balance Dec. 31, 1921 $72,122.89 Capital Stock $30,000.00 

Real Estate 362,266.71 Bills Payable (Unmatured notes on 

Real Estate Mortgages 86,082.48 Purchase Price of another Company's 

Federal, State and City Bonds 42,258.00 debit) 60,412.24 

Bills Receivable 12,774.29 Real Estate Mortgage (Mortgage as- 

Furniture and Fixtures 7,500.00 sumed on recent purchase) 4,000.00 

Inventories of Sundry Accts 5,210.81 Deposits of Employees 17,400.63 

Ledger Accounts 7,510.00 

SURPLUS FUND 468,892.31 



Total $588,215.18 Total $588,215,18 

CAPITAL AND SURPLUS $ 498,892.31 

Total Amount of Claims Paid to Dec. 31, 1921 2,511,894.92 

The unusual business depression of 1921 was a fiery trial to practically all 
businesses. The Industrial Sick Benefit Business was especially adversely affected 
by the lack of employment of thousands of policyholders. Some were forced to 
retire. Most of them experienced a great slump in the year's business. Only a few 
were able to show an increase in business over the former year. The Southern 
Aid Society of Va., Inc., was numbered among the favored few. 

The Society did its largest business during 1921. It served acceptably a 
larger number of people than ever before. It is now better prepared to protect 
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District Offices and Agencies located throughout the State of Virginia and the 
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THE CRISIS 

A RECORD OF THE DARKER RAGES 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND COPYRIGHTED BY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
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DUCTED BY W. E. BURGHARDT DU BOIS; JESSIE REDMON FAUSET, LITERARY EDITOR; 
AUGUSTUS GRANVILLE DILL, BUSINESS MANAGER. 

Vol. 23-No. 6 APRIL, 1922 Whole No. 138 

Page 
COVER 

"Spring." Drawing by Yolande Du Bois. 
OPINION 

The World and Us; The Dyer Bill in the Senate; The Sterling-Towner 
Bill; Maria Baldwin; The Case of Samuel Moore; The Spanish Fandango; 
Show Us, Missouri; Again Africa; The Demagog; Help 247 

THE NEGRO BANK. Illustrated 253 

LEX TALIONIS. A Story. Robert W. Bagnall 254 

THE PORTUGUESE NEGRO. Nicolas Santos-Pinto 259 

BRAWLEY'S "SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN NEGRO" 260 

SONG OF THE SON. A Poem. Jean Toomer 261 

THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED 

PEOPLE 262 

PRIDE. A Poem. Mortimer G. Mitchell 265 

THE HORIZON. Illustrated 266 

THE LOOKING GLASS '. 275 

THE RICH BEGGAR. A Poem. Mary Effie Lee Newsome 280 

THE MAY CRISIS 

The cover will be Albert Smith's fine painting of Rene Maran. The special articles will be on 
the late Bert Williams and on the leaders of Negro fraternities. 

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Entered as second class matter November 2, 1910, at the post office at New York, New 
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244 



THE CRISIS ADVERTISER 



National Training School 

DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA 

A School for the Training of Colored Young 
Men and Women for Service 

Thougk it is young In history, the Institution feels a just pride in the work thus 
far accomplished, for its graduates are already filling many responsible positions, 
thus demonstrating the aim of the school to train men and women for useful 
citizenship. 

DEPARTMENTS ALREADY ESTABLISHED 

The Grammar School The Teacher Training Department 

The Academy The Divinity School 

The School of Arts and Science* The Commercial Department 

The Department of Music The Department of Home Economic! 

The Department of Social Service 

For farther information and Catalog, address 

President James E. Shepard, Durham, North Carolina 



STATE OF NEW JERSEY 

Manual Training & Industrial School 

FOR COLORED YOUTH 

BORDENTOWN, N. J. 

A high Inttltutlsa ftr tha training *f aolorod 
yeuth. Excellent equipment, thorough Instruction. 
wholesome surrounding*. Academic training for all 
students. 
Courses In carpentry, agriculture and trade* tor hoys. 

Including auto repairing. 
Courses In domestic science and domestic art for 

girls. 
A new trade* building, thoroughly equipped. 
New girls' dormitory thoroughly and modernly 

equipped. 
Terms reasonable. 

For Information address 

W. R. VALENTINE, Principal 



Wiley University 

Marshall, Texas 

Recognized as a college of first class by 
Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas and Okla- 
homa State Boards of Education. Har- 
vard, Boston University, University of 
Illinois and University of Chicago repre- 
sented on its faculty. One hundred 
twenty-seven in College Department, ses- 
sion 1919-1920. Several new buildings, 
steam heated and electric lighted. 

M. W. DOGAN, President 



LINCOLN UNIVERSITY 

Pioneer in Collegiate and 
Theological Education 

Lincoln Men are Leaders in the- various 
professions in Forty States. 

The College is ranked in Class I. by the 
American Medical Association. 

Address : 

Jokn 1, Kendall, D.D., Lincoln University, 
Chester County, Fenna. 



The Cheyney Training 
School for Teachers 

Cheyney, Pa. 

A Pennsylvania State Normal School offering, in addition 
to the regular Normal Course of two years, professional 
three year courses in Home Economics and Shop Work. A 
diploma from any of these courses makes a graduate 
eligihle to teach in the public schools of Pennsylvania. 
A three-year High School Course is offered to all who 
have completed the eighth grammer grade. 

Next term begins September 18, 1922. 

For further particulars and catalog, write 

Leslie Pinckney Hill, Principal 

Cheyney, Pa. 

There Will Be No Summer School for 1922 



Mention The Crisis. 



THE CRISIS 



Vol. 23. No. 6 



APRIL, 1922 



Whole No. 138 




Uipuxioiv 




THE WORLD AND US 
APAN won at Washington. 
The Anglo-S axon Entente 
sought to drive a wedge be- 
tween the two great repre- 
sentatives of the yellow race, but 
Japan foiled them. China and Japan 
stand nearer than ever before and 
the day is in sight when they will 
present an unbroken front to the ag- 
gressions of the whites. America 
posed as the friend of China but she 
was simply the friend of exploitation 
in China and she was out-witted both 
by Japan and England. 



The British Empire is yielding to 
the darker races, not because it wants 
to but because it must. The white 
races are split with hatred. The ap- 
proaching entente between England 
and Germany is as yet abortive. 
France is openly catering to the dark- 
er races, both yellow and black. For 
the first time in history England is 
willing to give Egypt with its Ne- 
groid inhabitants the beginnings of 
political autonomy. She has grant- 
ed something to India and must grant 
more. The colored West Indians are 
pounding on her doors. Black West 
Africa cannot long keep still. 



Everywhere effort is being made 
in America to make the wage laborer 
bear most of the burden of reduced 
prices. The coal barons seek to main- 
tain their outrageous profits by the 
starvation of miners. Everywhere 
the pressure goes on and labor is im- 
potent because through the aristo- 



cratic trades unions of the American 
Federation of Labor it has so long 
been exploited itself that it cannot 
now easily accomplish union. 



Russia is the most amazing and 
most hopeful phenomenon of the 
post-war period. She has been mur- 
dered, bullied, lied about and starved 
and yet she maintains her govern- 
ment, possesses her soul and is sim- 
ply compelling the world to recognize 
her right to freedom even if that free- 
dom involves the industrial recon- 
struction of her society. 



France is incurring the condem- 
nation of the world largely because 
of her attitude towards Negroes. She 
paid in blood, destruction and cash 
more than any other people on earth 
in order to smash the German mili- 
tary machine. She is now asked to 
put her trust in England and Amer- 
ica rather than in Africa for regen- 
eration and unless she does she is 
threatened. But threats work two 
ways. 



There is a new pope in Rome, an 
11th Pius, succeeding the war pope 
Benedict XV as the 260th successor 
of St. Peter. He is undoubtedly go- 
ing to come to better understanding 
with Italy. But the question that 
concerns us is whether or not he is 
going to continue the catering of the 
Holy See to the wealth of American 
Catholics ; will he continue to allow 
the American hierarchy, despite some 
of its nobler souls, to refuse to train 
and ordain Negro priests? 



247 



248 



THE CRISIS 




THE DYER BILL IN THE SENATE 

HE Republican Party at its 
last convention advocated 
legislation against lynching 
in its platform. The Presi- 
dent of the United States in his 
message asked for such legislation. 
The Republican Party has a large 
majority in both the House and the 
Senate. The Republican Party is 
therefore responsible absolutely for 
the success or the failure of the Dyer 
Anti-Lynching Bill. 

Moreover among those voting for 
this bill in the House there are 8 
Democrats ! One from Illinois, 1 from 
Kentucky, 1 from Massachusetts, 1 
from New Jersey, 3 from New York, 
and 1 from Pennsylvania. Bourke 
Cockran and Anthony Griffin, Demo- 
crats of New York, and Myer Lon- 
don, a Socialist, spoke in favor of the 
bill. This puts a double responsi- 
bility upon the Republicans because 
the Democratic help of which they 
are sure makes their ability to pass 
the bill beyond any question. 

Nor is there any need to fear a 
filibuster in the Senate. According 
to rule 22, any 16 Senators can de- 
mand a vote on the limitation of de- 
bate, and debate can be definitely lim- 
ited by a two-thirds vote of the Sen- 
ate. The Republicans with Demo- 
cratic support can command a two- 
thirds majority in the Senate for this 
bill. If then the Senate does not pass 
the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, any Ne- 
gro who votes for the Republican 
Party at the next election writes 
himself down as a gullible fool. 

THE STERLING-TOWNER BILL 

E spoke in February of the 
vicious provisions in the 
bill now before Congress 
and designed to furnish na- 
tional aid for common school train- 
ing. By mistake we called this the 
Smith-Towner Bill because we have 
become used to looking to Hoke 




Smith of Georgia for every anti-Ne- 
gro atrocity introduced in Congress. 
This was a mistake because, thank 
God, Hoke Smith is out of Congress, 
as we trust, forever. The bill now 
under consideration is known as the 
Sterling-Towner Bill. But after all, 
what's in a name? The provisions by 
which the South is to be allowed and 
encouraged to make ignorance among 
Negroes permanent, while white 
children are educated from the pro- 
ceeds of taxes paid by Negro citizens, 
is a disgrace so unspeakable that it 
deserves the denunciation of every 
decent American citizen. 

MARIA BALDWIN 



MET Maria Baldwin first in 
1885. She was already a, school 
teacher — already the quiet, al- 
most diffident personality, with 
beautiful brown face and speaking 
eyes and with a low voice full of earn- 
est inquiry. She had a few of us at her 
house of an evening, once a week. It 
was a sort of salon, unnamed, unor- 
ganized, but palpitating with spirit. 
I was then in my hottest, narrowest, 
self-centered, confident period, with 
only faint beginnings of doubts 
and revolt. Most things I knew defi- 
nitely and argued with scathing, un- 
sympathetic finality that scared some 
into silence. But Maria Baldwin was 
always serene, just slightly mocking, 
refusing to be thundered or domi- 
neered into silence and answering al- 
ways in that low, rich voice — with 
questionings, with frank admission 
of uncertainty which seemed to me 
then as exasperatingly weak. 

Yet she grew on us all. Her poise 
commanded greater and greater re- 
spect. Her courage — her splendid, 
quiet courage astonished us, and so 
she came to larger life and accom- 
plishment. She fought domestic 
troubles and the bitter never-ending 
insults of race difference. But s>ie 



OPINION 



249 



emerged always the quiet, well-bred 
lady, the fine and lovely Woman. 

She died a teacher, teaching men, 
women and children ; and how strange 
a mockery of our democracy it is that 
most Americans are chiefly interested 
to know that her pupils, her thou- 
sands of public-school pupils, were 
white Massachusetts school children. 

THE CASE OF SAMUEL MOORE 

AMUEL MOORE, a Negro 
prisoner in the Atlanta Pen- 
itentiary, has recently been 
brought into prominence 




through the friendship of Eugene V. 
Debs. Moore had served 30 years 
for the unintentional killing of Har- 
ry Jandorf when he was 17 years 
old. Out of 48 years he has spent 
less than 11 years in freedom. He 
was in a reformatory between the 
ages of 7 and 11 and was serving a 
year's sentence in the District of Co- 
lumbia jail when Jandorf was killed. 
He was tried by a white jury for kill- 
ing a white man. The trial lasted 
two days and the Prosecuting Attor- 
ney congratulated the jury on "one 
cf the qjuickest convictions ever se- 
cured in the district". The testi- 
mony was conflicting. Moore main- 
tained, and has always maintained, 
that he killed Jandorf in self-defense, 
hitting him with a shovel while Jan- 
dorf was attacking him with a knife. 
He said that Jandorf had threatened 
to kill him and that he had appealed 
without success to the officers on 
guard for protection. 

Moore was sentenced to be hanged 
in 1892 but President Harrison com- 
muted his sentence to life imprison- 
ment "on account of his youth and 
the lack of premeditation of the 
crime". Moore has been at Atlanta 
since 1902 and has been treated with 
such cruelty there and knows so 
much of what has happened that it 
is impossible to get consideration 
for his case. Under the parole law 



he was eligible for parole in 1906 
but his case was not even considered 
until 1913 and was denied then and 
also in 1916, 1919 and 1920. 

In 1921 the case was taken up with 
Attorney General Daugherty and 
the Attorney General promised to 
look into the matter. Utterly base- 
less statements have been made that 
Moore has assaulted his guards and 
other prisoners. There is absolutely 
no record of any such facts. There 
is, however, a statement of his jailer 
that unless he is soon released he will 
go insane. Moore is today the oldest 
prisoner in 'Atlanta. Many people 
of intelligence and integrity speak 
highly of his character. One of the 
deputy wardens, who was in charge 
of him for 10 years, has only good to 
say of him and offers to do anything 
to bring about his release and yet 
he remains in the Atlanta Peniten- 
tiary. He is 48 years old and he has 
been a slave and a prisoner for 37 
years. 

Martha Gruening of New York has 
for years interested herself in this 
pitiful case and has secured thou- 
sands of names to a petition for 
Moore's release. Frank Miller of the 
Mission Inn at Riverside, New York, 
stands ready to take charge of Moore. 

President Harding and Attorney 
General Daugherty are playing golf 
in Florida. 

THE SPANISH FANDANGO 

HE audience was ideal — small, 
rapt and responsive. After- 
ward in the Parish House we 
danced amid fresh young joy. 
Then in an upper room at midnight 
we foregathered : there was Dabney, 
of course, master without ceremony ; 
and Gilpin with his voice — that won- 
derful rolling depth of sounding re- 
verberations, shot with laughter. 
One of us had run for the Legislature 
last year — another handled autos, 
etc. We drank ginger-ale that had a 




250 



THE CRISIS 



reminiscent — slightly suspicious — 
taste. (Gilpin didn't like it — he said 
he didn't want the flavor spoiled with 
ginger-ale!) Then one at the piano 
played an obligato to our talk and 
laughter, low enticing things, yet not 
interrupting. We ate — there were 
biscuits and tender golden chicken 
and more — and talked reminiscently. 
Next Dabney bringing out his banjo 
rollicked Gilpin dancing to his feet. 
Dabney told an inimitable story of an 
Uncle Tom's Cabin Company in old 
Richmond days, all colored: Eliza 
came in from the wrong side and met 
the dogs instead of fleeing from 
them. The dogs got to fighting — the 
audience was entranced, convulsed. 

Then at last— it was 2 A.M.— Dab- 
ney took down the Golden Guitar and 
all was still. He played softly the 
Spanish Fandango. 

Have you ever heard Dabney play 
the Spanish Fandango? Dear God! 

There will be threads of smoke, 
and sprawling, indistinct men ; a tiny 
tuning as of drops of musical rain 
and then a swell of silvery sound 
softening to a wail. The swish and 
swirl of dark and lacy skirts and 
flicker of slim young limbs, all crim- 
son beauty. There are skies and 
trickling waters, lifting and falling 
to music — whispering and crying; 
soft, so soft, that at last they drift 
away to utter music almost soundless, 
pulsing in ecstacy, with now and anon 
the rough whir and roll of the recov- 
ering bass, out of which the silvery 
music emerges — re-born, alive, wail- 
ing, dancing and dying — 

I slept the night fitfully with quiv- 
ering nerves and rose hurriedly — for 
I had a deed. You see I was tired 
from talking into the burning eyes 
of 3,000 school children on yesterday, 
and from the holy revel of the night, 
and I had to get to Huntington. There 
are three lines — two round-about and 
slow; one, the Chesapeake & Ohio, 



direct, but through "Jim Crow" Ken- 
tucky. I hurried to the city ticket of- 
fice. Useless — the clerk lied suavely 
— "the diagram is at the depot — you 
can easily get a seat there." I did 
not try. I knew. I walked straight 
to the Pullman with a porter. The 
conductor was rough and curt. "Go 
to the ticket office — I can't sell you a 
seat." I hesitated. There we stood: 
a depot porter with golden face and 
sombre eyes ; a black inscrutable train 
porter. A big fat angry white con- 
ductor. Then I girded myself for 
War. "You can assign me when the 
diagram comes," I said. "Put the 
bags on." I stumbled on through the 
car aflame and bitter. I sank to an 
empty corner seat. Suppose he con- 
tinued to refuse. The car was filling. 
I would buy the whole drawing-room 
— it was taken, just then. We moved 
across the slimy Ohio to Kentucky. 
Ah! he would have me there — Law 
and Gospel against me. But I stuck, 
grim, with throbbing temples. After 
a thousand years, he slouched in: 
"Pullman ticket!" he growled. 

"I have none — a seat to Hunting- 
ton." 

"$1.20," he mumbled. 

It was over and I had won. I 
leaned back. The thoughtful porter 
brought me a pillow. I closed my 
eyes and listened again to the dim se- 
ductive strains of the Spanish Fan- 
dango. 

SHOW US, MISSOURI 

HE colored people of Missouri 
have takem a tremendous step 
in advance. Throughout the 
Border States and the South 
it has long been the custom to tax 
colored people for State universities 
to which only white students were 
admitted. If an institution for col- 
ored youth was maintained, it was a 
cheap, inferior caricature. Grad- 
ually the colored people of the nation 
are waking up to this unspeakable 




OPINION 



251 



injustice. West Virginia has secured 
a State Negro college with a fair ap- 
propriation. Some improvements in 
higher educational facilities have 
been made in Tennessee, Florida, and 
Louisiana. 

But only in Missouri have any ade- 
quate steps been taken. There a Ne- 
gro university is planned. A board 
of curators consisting of a few prom- 
inent white and colored men and 
women have been appointed. For 
the most part they are educated per- 
sons of experience. The State has 
appropriated $500,000 for new and 
adequate buildings on the site occu- 
pied by the institution known for- 
merly as Lincoln Institute. Here a 
new Lincoln University is to be built. 
This is a splendid beginning. 

Now, Missouri, show us! Estab- 
lish a scale of decent salaries which 
will enable the officers and teachers 
to be self-supporting. Select as pres- 
ident and members of the faculty, 
men of thorough training, well- 
known accomplishment, and dither 
wide experience or unusual promise. 
Do not take old men who have lived 
their lives and fulfilled their prom- 
ise — select young men. You have 
the pick of the black nation to choose 
from. Most colored teachers are to- 
day wretchedly underpaid and out- 
rageously overworked. There is so 
little chance for advancement or re- 
search or decent support of a family 
that our best men are being driven 
out of the profession. Yet we have 
today 15 young men and women with 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 
from the highest institutions of the 
land; scores of students who have 
made the highest record and are men 
and women of character and experi- 
ence. Let Missouri select such a fac- 
ulty that, beginning with that State, 
we can sweep through the South and 
demand and man our schools. 




AGAIN, AFRICA 

HAT we want today is the 
use of every weapon of 
civilization to bring about 
a change of attitude on the 
part of the world toward Africa. To 
this end we have commerce, educa- 
tion, religion and continuous and in- 
telligent propaganda. These we have 
and these are all we have. We have 
neither armies nor navies, nor air- 
ships nor submarines, to apply force 
to the embattled powers of the world, 
whose grip today holds Africa. 

Perhaps it is our greatest opportun- 
ity that we are thus weak in our phys- 
ical demand for justice. With this 
physical weakness and armed with 
the rightfulness of our cause, we have 
a chance to work for a mighty victory 
by industrial, intelligent and moral 
means; and with us are working to- 
day all the forces that stand for peace 
and disarmament, that stand for de- 
mocracy, that stand for human broth- 
erhood. 

These are powerful allies. We may 
fail and they may fail. It may be 
that the appeal to brute force will 
continue to be the last resource of 
the oppressed down into the twenty- 
first and twenty-second centuries ; but 
today and for Africa — no matter what 
may be true for India and Ireland — 
for Africa our program is clear : 

1 . To promote modern education 
of the natives aiming at intelli- 
gence as well as technique, and 
carried out by indigenous 
schools and native students 
trained in culture lands. 

2. To bring together for periodic 
conference and acquaintance- 
ship the leading Negroes of the 
world and their friends. 

3. To promote industry, commerce 
and credit among black groups. 
This does not mean yelling and 
lying and ranting about gigan- 
tic projects that never existed, 
and squandering hard-earned 



252 



THE CRISIS 



wealth in crazy and ill-conceived us" ; "They are copying the white 
schemes. It means small, effi- /man's color line" — he shrieks, as he 
cient, honest enterprises, quietlyTxrtexterously fills his own pockets and 

wastes the pennies of the 




N/ 



and carefully carried on fori 
years, until in fifty years or a 
century we shall have knit the 
Negro world together in thrift. 

After this program has been care- 
fully and devotedly and successfully 
followed, Africa will belong to the 
Africans and no man will dare gain- 
say them — and perhaps no one will 
want to. 

THE DEMAGOG 

ROM now on in our new awak- 
ening, our self-criticism, or 
impatience and passion, we 
must expect the Demagog 
'among Negroes more and more. He 
will come to lead, inflame, lie and 
steal. He will gather large follow- 
Njigs and then burst and disappear. 
Loss and despair will follow his fall 
L^imtil new false prophets arise. This 
is almost inevitable in every grow- 
ing, surging group of low intelli- 
gence and poverty. But it is perma- 
nently dangerous only as the Dema- 
gog finds the cleft between our in- 
cipient social classes wide and grow- 
ing. This, under old economic and 
social conditions, is the day when we 
would naturally breed aristocracies 
of birth, wealth, training and talent, 
and uncared-for masses of brute and 
criminal poor. Our common social 
oppression and serfdom to the white 
world has saved us from these ex- 
tremes and left us with smaller in- 
equalities of wealth and education 
than most groups of 12 millions. 
Nevertheless the ties between our 
privileged and exploited, our edu- 
cated and ignorant, our rich and 
poor, our light and dark, are not what 
they should be and what we can and 
must make them. It is here that the 
New Negro Demagog thrives and 
yells and steals. "They are ashamed 
of their race" ; "They are exploiting 



pennies oi tne poor. 
Now the difficulty is that back of 
his exaggerations and dishonesty lies 
that kernel of truth that gains him 
his following; there are plenty of 
black folk who are bitterly ashamed 
of their color, who shrink with blind 
repulsion from the uglier aspects of 
rheir race's degradation, and who 
willingly batten on the black poor. 
They are few in the aggregate, but 
they exist ; and beside them stand the 
vast number of us who believe in our 
race and seek its weal, and yet make 
no effort to reach down and draw up. 
These latter see no personal duty of 
theirs toward black thieves and pros- 
titutes, no responsibility for black 
poverty. 

For this attitude we must substi- 
tute a feeling of group responsibility, 
realizing that if we do not know and 
befriend our unfortunate, scoundrels 
will use them to their own ends and 
to our undoing. And such demagogs 
will be doubly strong because they 
can count on the applause and back- 
ing of the sinister whites; of those 
who advertise and pat on the back 
every skunk among us who combines 
with his filth sufficient ridicule and 
criticism for our better efforts. 

HELP 




N October 17, 1921, the "Shuf- 
fle Along" Company of New 
York gave a benefit perform- 
ance for the N. A. A. C. P. 
which netted $1,026. On October 21, 
the Ladies' Service Group of Wash- 
ington, D. C, gave a costume assem- 
bly which netted $309. On February 
24, 1922, the Committee of 300 of 
New "York gave a Pre-Lenten Card 
Tournament and Dance which netted 
$2,000.00. Three efforts and $3,335 
for Freedom! Next? 



THE NEGRO BANK 





L E. "Williams, 
Wage Earners', Savannah 



PRESIDENTS OF NEGRO BANKS 
Jesse Binga, J. W. Sanford, 

Binga State, Chicago Solvent, Memphis 



T. E. Erwin, 
Commercial, Richmond 



NEGRO banking may be said to have 
begun with the philanthropic effort 
known as the Freedmen's Savings Bank of 
shameful memory. It was incorporated by 
Congress in March, 1865, as the "Freed- 
men's Savings and Trust Company" and 
among its incorporators were Peter Cooper, 
William Cullen Bryant, John Jay, Edward 
Atkinson, Levy Coffin and many others of 
equal prominence. This bank lived until 
1874 and received in all fifty-five million 
dollars of the poor freedmen's hard earned 
cash. It appears to have been decently 
conducted until 1870 when the charter was 
amended so as to allow investment in real 
estate mortgages. The bank failed in 1874, 
having at the time 32 branches and 61,131 
depositors, whom it owed $3,013,699. A 
part of this was repaid slowly during the 
next 20 years, but somebody still owes the 
defrauded blacks $1,291,121! "Of all dis- 
graceful swindles perpetrated on a strug- 
gling people, the Freedmen's Bank was 
among the worst and the Negro did well 
not to wait for justice but to go to bank- 
ing himself as soon as his ignorance and 
poverty allowed." 

The first Negro bank was the Capitol 
Savings Bank of Washington, D. C, which 
opened in 1888 and lasted 16 years, when it 



failed. This was followed by the Alabama 
Penny Savings Bank in 1890, the Memphis 
Solvent Savings & Trust Company in 1906, 
and three banks in Richmond, Va. — the 
True Reformers, the Mechanics, and the 
St. Luke. Of these the Alabama and the 
True Reformers have gone out of busi- 
ness. The other three still survive. 

The Crisis has secured a list of 49 Negro 
banks. A few of these banks (1 in Georgia, 
1 or 2 in Virginia, and 1 in Florida) have 
recently failed. On the other hand, there 
are a number of small banks from which 
we have not been able to get reports. There 
are then probably about 60 Negro banks in 
the country at present distributed as fol- 
Tows: 

In the South 34: Virginia 14, North Car- 
olina 8, Georgia 6, Texas 2, South Carolina 
2, Alabama 1, Florida 1; in the Border 
States 10: Tennessee 4, District of Colum- 
bia 2, Missouri 2, Kentucky 1, West Virginia 
1 ; in the' North 5 : Pennsylvania 2, Illinois 
2, Ohio 1; and about ten other small ones 
whose exact location we have not learned. 

The laws as to banking and state re- 
quirements differ vastly throughout the 
country. In the South they are .very le- 
nient and the banks are practically private 
institutions with little state supervision ex- 



253 



254 



THE CRISIS 



cept in the case of the larger ones. In 
the North, on the other hand, the state 
supervision is very rigid. 

The largest Negro banks, according to 
their date of establishment, are as follows: 
The Wage Earners' Savings Bank of Sa- 
vannah, Ga., was established in October, 
1900. It had a paid up capital of $50,000 
and resources, September 6, 1921, amount- 
ing to $1,059,046.43. It had on deposit 
$925,773.29. It is regularly examined by 
the state and its president is L. E. Williams. 

The St. Luke Penny Savings Bank of 
Richmond, Va., was established in August, 
1903. It had a paid up capital of $50,000 
and total resources, September 6, 1921, of 
$538,020.81. Its deposits amounted to 
8458,804.69. It is examined regularly by 
the state and its president is a woman, 
Mrs. Maggie L. Walker. 

The Solvent Savings Bank and Trust 
Company of Memphis, Tenn., was estab- 
lished in July, 1906. It has a paid up cap- 
ital of $81,072.28. Its total resources 
amounted, April 28, 1921, to $981,806.75. 
It had deposits of $879,316.77. It is regu- 
larly examined by the state and its presi- 
dent is J. W. Sanford. 

The Binga State Bank of Chicago, 111., 
was established as a private bank in 1908, 
and chartered as a state institution in 
1920. It has a capital stock paid in of 
$100,000. Its total resources, September 
6, 1921, were $425,735.58. Its deposits 
amounted to $299,522.68. It is examined by 
the state. Its president is J. W. Binga. 

The Modern Savings Bank of Pittsburgh, 
Pa., was just opened for business in 1921 
with a paid in capital stock of $125,000. 
Its assets already amount to $188,614.67. 
It has deposits amounting to $46,617.67. 



It is regularly examined by the state and 
its president is Jacob L. Phillips. 

The Metropolitan Bank and Trust Com- 
pany of Norfolk, Va., was established in 
1909. It has a paid in capital of $150,000. 
The total resources are $916,755.22 Its 
deposits, September, 1921, amounted to 
$678,709.70. 

The Tidewater Bank and Trust Company 
of Norfolk, Va., was established in 1919. 
It has a capital stock of $103,700. The total 
resources, June 30, 1921, were $555,774.06. 
Its deposits amounted to $343,859.57. 

Brown and Stevens, Bankers of Philadel- 
phia, Pa., have a private bank which is 
not examined by the state. The capital is 
$100,000. The total resources, September 
8, 1921, were $1,233,031.13. Their deposits 
amounted to $823,356. 

Some of the small banks are as follows: 
The Commercial Bank and Trust Company 
of Richmond, Va., with resources of $132,- 
212; the People's Savings Bank and Trust 
Company of Nashville Tenn., with a capi- 
tal stock of $25,604; the Mutual Savings 
Bank of Charleston, S. C, with a capital 
stock of $22,081, and deposits of $148,053; 
the First Standard of Louisville, Ky., with 
a capital stock of $63,727 ; the Farmers and 
Merchants' Bank of Boley, Okla., with a 
$20,000 capital and total resources of $198,- 
723; the Mutual Savings Bank of Ports- 
mouth, Va., with resources amounting to 
$456,664. It is regularly examined by the 
state. 

Many interesting and growing institu- 
tions have been omitted in this list because 
we ; have not received information zfrom 
them. We hope to hear from such banks 
in the near future and to publish a sup- 
plementary article. 



LEX TALIONIS 

A Story 



Robert W. Bagnall 



TT was good to be home again after twelve 
-"- years' absence in foreign lands. Even 
when business is good and your firm has 
treated you as liberally as mine, you long 
for home and country. 

These thoughts were in my mind as I 
sat in an easy chair in my friend's office, 
awaiting his return from the telephone. 
The wood-fire on the hearth and its glow 
warmed the cockles of one's heart. As I 



puffed my pipe, I thought of the past days 
I had spent with this man who was my best 
friend, days of college life with all of their 
intimate associations. He was a big fellow, 
big in body, mind, and heart. He had gone 
far in his profession. Doctor Townes was 
now recognized as a surgeon of rare ability. 
Mine host came in and we sat on into the 
night, smoking pipe after pipe, talking of 
old times and of old associates. 




SOME NEGRO BANKS 

FIRST STANDARD, Louisville BINGA STATE, Chicago 

BINGA STATE, Chicago WAGE EARNERS', Savannah 

METROPOLITAN, Norfolk FIRST STANDARD, Louisville 



255 



256 



THE CRISIS 



"What became of Langston?" I asked. 
"You remember him, — old Czar Langston, 
the proud Southerner. I think he was from 
this town and came back here to practice 
law." 

My friend sat up straight. "Didn't you 
hear of his strange case?" he asked. 

"No," I answered. "The last I heard of 
him was that he was establishing a practice 
in this city." 

Townes arose and walking over to his 
book shelves, pulled out a scrap-book and 
opened it to a clipping. "Read this," he 
said. 

It was a clipping from a local paper, the 

M Inquirer, dated some eight years 

back. I read: 

"The whole city is stirred over the mys- 
terious disappearance of John Langston, 
one of our prominent attorneys and a mem- 
ber of one of the first families of the South, 
who left his home to see a client five days 
ago and has not since been heard of. Mr. 
Langston was called up by Mr. Ketz, the 
wealthy brewer, whose attorney he is, and 
requested to come over to his residence at 
once as he needed his advice on a matter 
which would not permit delay. Mr. Langs- 
ton left his house as the clock was striking 
ten, his wife testifies, saying that he would 
be home before midnight. He was seen by 
several citizens on the street and when last 
observed was entering a secluded park 
which provides a short cut to Mr. Ketz's 
residence. No one has seen him since. 

"Mr. Ketz states that he did not telephone 
Mr. Langston on the evening in question 
and that some one must have impersonated 
him. The missing attorney's accounts have 
been examined and found to be in excellent 
condition, his health was good, and his 
habits regular. It is feared that he has 
met with foul play. 

"Attorney Langston had no enemies and 
was liked by all except the Negroes, whom 
he profoundly detested. His wife and two 
children are prostrated with worry. 

"A careful search has revealed no trace 
of the missing man." 

"This is strange", I said. "Do you mean 
to tell me that they never found any trace 
of Langston?" 

"From that day to this, the world has 
neither seen nor heard of Langston, so far 
as it knows", answered my friend. 

Something in the voice of my friend as 
he uttered the words — "so far as it knows" 
— startled me. 

"Doc", I said "you know far more about 
this than appears. You have some inside 
knowledge, something that contains a deep- 
er tragedy than even appears on the sur- 



face. Come, tell me, if you can do so, what 
it is." 

Townes paced the floor for several min- 
utes, puffing furiously at his pipe. Finally 
he stopped in front of the fire-place and 
said: "We have shared many confidences, 
Bob, old man, and there is no reason why 
I shouldn't tell you what I know. I know 
you will be as silent about it as if you didn't 
know it. I think I shall feel better when 
I have shared my knowledge with some 
one." He began: 

"Langston, you will remember, always 
hated colored people. You will recall the 
quarrel we had in college over Flournoy, 
the big colored half-back and baseball star. 

"You remember Flournoy, a giant of a 
fellow, a crack athlete, a splendid scholar, 
a gentlemanly chap, jolly but considerate 
and well liked. He was a fine looking fel- 
low whose Negro blood showed only in his 
olive complexion and a slight crinkle in 
his hair. You and I both liked him, you 
will remember, and when he beat me in the 
honors contest I didn't begrudge him the 
place. I knew that the better man had 
won. 

"Langston, you will recall, raved about 
it, saying that such cattle as Flournoy had 
no business in the university and that the 
'nigger-loving' professors had cheated for 
Flournoy. 

"I told Langston that he was a cad and 
a disgrace to the university, and that 
there wasn't a finer gentleman in the en- 
tire university than Flournoy. 

"Well when I came down here to prac- 
tice, Langston hunted me up. I think it 
was largely at the instigation of his wife, 
who came from the same little New Eng- 
land town as myself and whom I had 
known from the days when she was a little 
tot. I used to drop over to his home quite 
frequently at first. He, like most of the 
Southerners, was afflicted with Negro- 
phobia. He couldn't talk an hour without 
referring to the so-called Negro problem. 
He could not tolerate the Negro in any but 
a menial position. He thought it a crime 
for >a Negro to show that he had self-re- 
spect and he always claimed that education 
ruined the Negro. His own Negro servants 
feared and hated him. 

"He tried in vain to bring me to his 
viewpoint and was continually calling me 
to task for calling colored people mister and 



LEX TALIONIS 



257 




FLOURNOY'S SISTER 

madam. He told me that I was ruining 
myself by accepting invitations to their 
meetings and holding conferences with 
them. It was this color matter which final- 
ly estranged us. I found Flournoy settled 
here. He had gone in for chemistry at the 
university and had secured a position here. 
He had inherited a little money and had 
his own little laboratory where he was con- 
stantly making experiments. 

"I hunted him up and had him over often 
for a pipe and a chat and frequently I 
would drop in to see him. Langston, when 
he learned this, remonstrated vehemently 
and when I told him that I reserved to my- 
self the privilege of choosing my own 
friends, gave me to understand that no 
man who took 'a damn nigger' as an inti- 
mate associate could come to his home. 

"Langston and I thus became estranged, 
although we were friendly enough when we 
(passed each other on the street. I noted, 
however, that he was beginning to drink 
considerably and going with a rather gay 
set. Once too when we met on the street 
we were near to quarrelling. 

"It happened that Flournoy had gone to 
New York on a business trip. He had me 
over to his home to tea the night before. 
His mother, who always reminded me of an 
old ivory cameo, acted as hostess, and after- 



wards his little sister, a delicate and pretty 
child of sixteen, who possessed a voice 
which gave great promise of rare sweet- 
ness, sang for us. 

"The next day just as I met Langston 
the sister passed us on the street and 
smiled sweetly. I raised my hat. 

" 'Who's that?' asked Langston, raising 
his hat and at the same time whirling about 
and staring with his usual, frank, South- 
ern interest in women. 

" 'Flournoy's sister', said I a bit ma- 
liciously. He was angry at having mis- 
taken her for white and made a slurring 
remark. I resented it hotly. 

"'Pish!' he retorted, 'they're all alike. 
I'll show you whom she was grinning at', 
and he walked away. 

"How it happened I do not know. Per- 
haps it was an accident. Perhaps he was 
drunk. At any rate the night before Flour- 
noy returned, his sister was found prone in 
the park cruelly assaulted. She died on the 
third day but not before she had told us 
all. Langston had met her again and spok- 
en to her. She recognized him as an ac- 
quaintance of mine and responded. He 
followed her and attempted to take her arm 
as they reached the park. Frightened, she 
cried out and ran. He overtook her, made 
an open proposition and when she recoiled 
in horror, he brutally attacked her. 

"When she died Flournoy sat in silence, 
his head in his hands. A half hour later I 
missed him. I found afterwards that he 
had been to Langston's house but found him 
out of town. Still the gentleman, he said 
nothing to Langston's wife. 

"A month later Flournoy's mother died, 
broken hearted. 

"The world knew nothing of the cause of 
the little girl's death. He commanded me 
to secrecy. The little girl had died of 
brain fever, I reported. When a white man 
is the guilty party the law jests at such 
cases, which are too frequent here in the 
South. 

"Bob, a passion will burn out a man's life 
like a stroke of lightning. Never have I 
before seen a man change as did Flournoy. 
He had been an upstanding giant, with a 
straight back and a light step. He had 
been jolly, enthusiastic, ardent. Now he 
became stoop-shouldered and old. His hair 
grew white and his face became furrowed 
with deep lines. He grew morose and si- 



258 



THE CRISIS 



lent and would brood for hours. He be- 
came careless of bis dress and deserted his 
acquaintances. He gave up his position and 
devoted himself to secret experiments, 
shutting himself up for days in his labora- 
tory, refusing everyone entrance. The old 
woman who kept house for him said that 
at such times he would not even come to 
his meals but ordered her to pass them in 
to him through a crack in the door. 

"He wouldn't come to see me, so I per- 
sistently looked him up. I looked for some- 
thing to happen. Langston had returned 
and had built himself up more and more 
in his profession. He knew that the girl 
had died, but what was the life of a Negro 
girl to him? He seemed more concerned 
because I always refused to speak to him 
than about her death. 

"Why didn't Flournoy kill him, you are 
about to ask? You or I would have done 
so. But, Bob, men of mixed blood are some- 
times different. His first passion over, 
Flournoy did nothing and never spoke of 
the tragedy or of Langston. He was no 
coward, I knew that. He had been a fel- 
low who went in a great deal for religion, 
but now he never went to church and never 
prayed. Sometimes while talking to me 
he would grow silent all at once and turn 
white and shiver as if with the ague, while 
his eyes would glare like those of a mad- 
man. I feared that he was going insane 
under the strain. 

"I remember one night just a week be- 
fore Langston disappeared, I went to see 
Flournoy. His eyes were bright with tri- 
umph and he seemed more like himself of 
old, but suddenly he began to glare and 
shiver and then he burst without apparent 
cause into wild laughter like that of a 
fiend from hell. 

"It caused my blood to curdle. I broke 
out: 'My God, man, if you don't get away 
from here you will go mad!' 

"Instantly he calmed himself and said: 
'I beg your pardon, but I haven't slept for 
four days and nights because of an experi- 
ment. I am not myself.' 

"I left him with my mind very much dis- 
turbed about his state. 

"A week later Langston disappeared. I 
was at first inclined to suspect Flournoy 
but found that he had left the city for At- 
lanta the day before the disappearance and 
did not return until the day after it hap- 



pened. When I learned that I was as much 
at sea as the public. 

"Now comes a queer thing. Read these, 
Bob." 

Townes took out of his scrap-book two 
old newspaper clippings, dated three weeks 
after the disappearance of Langston. One 
was a short clipping. It read: 

Demented Negro Imagines Himself 
Langston 

"A queer incident following the disap- 
pearance three weeks ago of Attorney 
Langston, of whom no trace has been found, 
is the mysterious dementia of a strange Ne- 
gro. This man imagines himself to be the 
missing attorney turned black. He went to 
Langston's office and insisted upon entrance. 
When he was ejected he went up to the 
house and tried to force his way to Mrs. 
Langston and the children, crying out that 
he was their husband and father. The serv- 
ants shut the doors in his face and kept 
him from disturbing Mrs. Langston, who 
has been prostrated since her husband's 
death. Attorney Marsh, the missing man's 
partner, when interviewed, said that the 
strange thing about the Negro who is a 
pure black, is that he somehow reminds him 
of Langston. The police are looking for the 
insane man." 

The second clipping was longer. It had 
big scare-heads of type: 
"Negro Brute Tries to Assault Wife of 
Missing Attorney" 

It told how the insane Negro, who 
thought himself Langston, had gone to the 
Langston home and forced his way through 
a window. He suddenly appeared in Mrs. 
Langston's bedroom when she was prepar- 
ing to retire for the night. She was so 
frightened that at first she was speechless. 
He advanced toward her with outstretched 
arms, crying — "Wife, don't you know me?" 
When he seized her in his arms, the horror- 
stricken woman screamed and Langston's 
uncle, who was in the house, rushed into 
the room and shot the Negro, wounding 
him. A mob of the best citizens soon gath- 
ered and dragged the monster into the pub- 
lic square. There they kindled a fire and 
burned the Negro to death. Until the end, 
the man, moaning and crying and crazed 
with pain, declared that he was Langston. 

The article then entered upon an argu- 
ment that the incident showed the danger 
of educating Negroes, for the creature 
burned was clearly an educated man. 

I felt an uncanny feeling creep over me 
as I finished the article. 



THE PORTUGUESE NEGRO 



259 



"What do you make of it?" asked 
Townes. 

"I didn't know what to make of it," I 
answered. 

"I will continue," said the doctor. "Three 
months ago Flournoy died. He was ter- 
ribly injured by an explosion of chemicals. 
He sent for me and I sat beside him when 
he died. He told me all. 

"Bob, that man they burned alive was 
John Langston!" 

"But the paper says that he was a black 
Negro and had kinky hair!" I objected. 

"Nevertheless he was Langston. It was 
Flournoy's revenge. He had planned it 
during the months of brooding after his 
sister's awful death. 

"It was Flournoy who impersonated the 
brewer whom Langston last left home to 
see. He had left town the day before, 
doubled on his tracks, got off the train five 
miles away and secretly made his way to 
his laboratory. Flournoy met him in the 
deserted park, over-powered him, bound 
and gagged him, and took him to his lab- 
oratory. There for three weeks he kept 
him, treating his entire body with a chemi- 
cal solution he had discovered. With acids 



he so damaged his vocal cords that no one 
would recognize his voice. 

"This was the object of those long, se- 
cret experiments to find something which 
would turn human skin permanently black, 
with the blackness of a Negro; to find some- 
thing else which would turn the hair un- 
alterably kinky. The day Flournoy burst 
into his laugh of triumph, he had at last 
been successful in his experiments. Dur- 
ing those three weeks he pointed out to 
the helpless Langston in full and graphic 
detail what awaited him as a Negro. The 
white man's mind gave way under the strain 
when he finally looked into the glass and 
saw himself black with kinky hair, and 
he became utterly insane. But one lucid 
thought remained — he was Langston! He 
wandered to his office and home with the 
results we have learned. 

"Langston's relatives and friends had 
burned him alive because he dared to take 
his own wife in his arms." 

My friend fell silent. We gazed into the 
fire with horror in our eyes, our pipes cold 
and forgotten. 

Did the world ever parallel such a re- 
venge ? 



THE PORTUGUESE NEGRO 



Nicolas Santos-Pinto 




[A paper read at the Second Pan-African Congress, 
Paris, September, 1921.] 

"1X7 HEN I say we, I mean to speak of 
* * the great association of Portuguese 
Negroes with headquarters at Lisbon which 
is called the Liga Africana — an actual fed- 
eration of all the indigenous associations 
scattered throughout the five provinces of 
Portuguese Africa and representing several 
million individuals. This federation is di- 
rected and presided over by an illustrious 
colleague of African descent, a scientific 
man of clear talent and culture. This Liga 
Africana, which functions at Lisbon in the 
very heart of Portugal so to speak, has a 
commission from all the other native organi- 
zations and knows how to express to the 
government in no ambiguous terms but in a 
highly dignified manner all that should be 
said to avoid injustice or to bring about the 
repeal of harsh laws. That is why the Liga 
Africana of Lisbon is the director of the 
Portuguese African movement, — but only in 
the good sense of the word without making 



any appeal to violence and without leaving 
constitutional limits. To do otherwise would 
be to stir up prejudice against a great un- 
dertaking and to lose all that has been 
gained. 

It has been our dream and ambition to 
make of our Portuguese Africa from the 
moral, intellectual and material point of 
view, a prosperous country, — a dream and 
ambition to whose realization we will never 
refuse any sacrifice, but to which on the 
contrary we will give the very best of our 
intelligence, of our energy, of our minidis 
and of our purse. 

It is indisputable that the different Afri- 
can races which are under the domain of 
the Portuguese state have not yet attained 
the degree of development common among 
white people. I am speaking always of 
the mass of people for we have with us 
Portuguese Negroes and half castes who are 
splendid physicians, inspired poets, engi- 
neers, lawyers, musicians, publicists, paint- 



260 



THE CRISIS 



ers, financiers, in a word a real and numer- 
ous intelligentsia. To attain to a general 
development we must transform these 
groups, we must imbue them with a feeling 
for order, with economic foresight, teach 
them love of work and give them schools, 
many schools, both trade and art schools. 

The thrifty are the strongest. A people 
which does not know how to practice co- 
operation is a people ignorant of the con- 
ditions of life and more than that without 
a right to live for it becomes a trouble- 
some element in the human community. 

Economic action is basic action. This 
sort of conformity in envisaging the prob- 
lem with fundamental principles of con- 



temporary sociological science is the heart 
of all history. To my way of thinking eco- 
nomic action ought to 'precede all political 
action, for without fairly comfortable con- 
ditions of life we risk suffering surprises 
which will retard the future of our race. 
My decided opinion is that when Portu- 
guese Africans know how to get together 
in strong economic organizations as our 
brothers have done in North America, they 
will see their rise as citizens met with 
great respect. Furthermore I hold that we 
ought to start this work immediately in the 
interest of the future of our race which 
needs to overcome its native tendency to- 
ward lack of foresight. 



BRAWLEY'S "SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE 
AMERICAN NEGRO" 



&u 



'T^HE recent awakening on the part of 
■*■ American Negroes to a sense of racial 
consciousness is phenomenal when we real- 
ize that there is nothing in our secular or 
religious life to warrant it. For unlike the 
Jews we have given up our early religious 
beliefs and forms of worship and have taken 
on the religious custom of the country. To 
such a degree indeed that we bade fair for 
a time to out-Christian the Christians. And 
it is hardly necessary for me to point out 
how the secular history of America and in- 
deed of other countries is presented to us 
in school and college with literally no refer- 
ence at all to the deeds and exploits of dis- 
tinguished black men. 

Our race consciousness arose then spon- 
taneously as a result of a vague straining 
after the facts which we dimly felt must 
belong to our racial development. By sheer 
analogy we evolved the idea that if such 
and such conditions were a part of the 
life of other races, they must be a part of 
ours. 

And now comes Benjamin Brawley's* "So- 
cial History of the American Negro", a 
book which substantiates all those vague 
feelings, which by collecting and re-thread- 
ing the scattered beads in the chain of our 
racial existence presents to us our racial 
life as a whole. 
^Here is our pre- American life, our posi- 



tion in colonial days, our priceless gift of 
labor which as Dr. DuBois has so often 
pointed out laid the foundation for the 
country's prosperity. We learn of early 
slave insurrections before the Revolution 
as magnificent even in their futility as the 
revolt of the Colonies! against England. 
We are heartened to learn in detail of the 
very real part which we played in 1776, 
and to see the Revolution in the light of 
what it meant to us. 

This indeed is the chief merit of the book 
in that it presents American history as it 
must have appeared to black men. Through 
the long years Mr. Brawley leads us up to 
the Missouri Compromise when the Negro 
Problem really begins, past Vesey and 
Turner to the Abolitionists, and the cir- 
cumstances presaging the Civil War. A 
special chapter is devoted to Liberia. The 
last five chapters present a review of civic 
and social conditions among Negroes. 

Mr. Brawley's contribution to* the Negro 
problem calls for our gratitude. For the 
first time we are able to grasp as a whole 
our life and its many ramifications in this 
country. When we see the arduous road 
we have followed and realize that always 
the struggle has been upward, we know that 
our hopes for the future are not in vain. 

J. F. 

*The MacMillan Company, New York. 



SONG OF THE SON 261 

*&r nSh fSf iSj iSr tSr <3f *8* t3> iS> iS? «/ tS; ofir tS> *f* lS> <Sr t«? tSr <8> 

I SONG OF THE SON I 

^!T JEAN TOOMER ^ 

IS* iSr 

<sp an tSf 

*3r ^ 

-SB TJOUR, O pour, that parting soul in song, S. 

t& O pour it in the saw-dust glow of night, *8* 

^ Into the velvet pine-smoke air tonight, a 

^2t And let the valley carry it alone, ^ST 

^f And let the valley carry it along. ^{^ 

-SjJ O land and soil, red soil and sweet-gum tree -$j£ 

*8* So scant of grass, so profligate of pines, *S* 

^ Now just before an epoch's sun declines »«, 

*~f Thy son, in time, I have returned to thee, *^ 

-*Jf* Thy son, I have in time returned to thee. -^jf- 

.Jj£ In time, for though the sun is setting on §£ 

t& A. song-lit race of slaves, it has not set; tSr 

^ Though late, O soil it is not too late yet ^ 

' ^kT To catch thy plaintive soul, leaving, soon gone, ^*JT 

-«^ Leaving, to catch thy plaintive soul soon gone. 5r 

O Negro slaves, dark-purple ripened plums, *^£ 

Squeezed, and bursting in the pine-wood air, \& 

Passing, before they stripped the old tree bare ^£ 

One plum was saved for me, one seed becomes "5JT 

An everlasting song, a singing tree, -«jj5r- 

Carrolling softly souls of slavery, *§£ 

All that they were, and that they are to me, — \Zf 

Carrolling softly souls of slavery. ^jjT 

# 

"St? 
i&J *& *8* & &J &> *S* *8> & tt* «J iSf tSf *S* <Br tS* *8* t&r <Sr tS> <•> 

-^J^ '%!>' ^1^ ^l^ ^J*" ' , S^ r " ''S^ *y/*~ '*&*' "*¥*" "•*•* •<!>* '%!>' -^I^ "<I>" -<!>• ^-^ ^i^ '*$/*■ **&*■ "*^ 

*»J"^ /*T^ W^ ^"r*. ^4-»* ^W W-*. <»+^ W-»> W^ *»+»* -^r*. ^f^ *v*. >«-r^ -*+" .-^J^. *■"£*• ^T-^ *•+*. ^+»* 



National • Associaiion • for • {he • - - 
Advancement of Colored- People. 



>j\{-of 



THE DYER BILL 



T70LL0WING our victory when the House 
■*■ of Representatives on January 26 
passed the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill by a 
vote of 230 to 11&, the National Office is 
bending every effort towards prompt and 
favorable action by the Senate. The bill 
is now in the hands of the Senate Commit- 
tee on the Judiciary composed of the fol- 
lowing: 

Knute Nelson, Minnesota, Chairman 
William, P. Dillingham, Vermont 
Frank B. Brandegee, Connecticut 
William E. Borah, Idaho 
Albert B. Cummins, Iowa 
LeBaron B. Colt, Rhode Island 
Thomas Sterling, South Dakota 
George W. N orris, Nebraska 
Richard P. Ernst, Kentucky 
Samuel M. Shortridge, California. 
Charles A. Culberson, Texas 
Lee S. Overman, North Carolina 
James A. Reed, Missouri 
Henry F. Ashurst, Arizona 
John K. Shields, Tennessee 
Thomas J. Walsh, Montana 

The names italicized are Republicans. 
The bill has been referred to a sub-com- 
mittee of the Judiciary Committee com- 
posed of Senator Borah, Chairman, and 
Senators Colt, Dillingham, Overman and 
Shields. Our immediate task is to show 
the sub-committee and the committee as a 
whole that public sentiment throughout the 
country demands early and favorable ac- 
tion on the bill. Every interested person 
is urged to send telegrams or letters to one 
or all of the names above. A few dollars 
spent in this fashion will do almost incon- 
ceivable good. You have often wanted to 
do something tangible against lynching. 
Here is your opportunity! If you cannot 
afford to send each a wire, send as many 
as you can. Or get several friends to join 
you, signing all of your names to the wires. 
This is an old method but it is most ef- 
fective. 

One of the means which the National Of- 
fice has evolved of demonstrating to the 
Senate the public sentiment behind the bill 
is the drafting of a memorial to be signed 



by eminent citizens. This reads: 

"Memorial to the United States Senate 

"The killing and burning alive of hu- 
man beings by mobs in the United States 
is a reproach upon our country through- 
out the civilized world and threatens or- 
ganized government in the nation. 

"Since 1889 there have been 3,443 
known mob murders, 64 of the victims 
being women. In only a few instances 
has prosecution of the lynchers been at- 
tempted. American mobs murdered 64 
persons in 1921, of whom 4 were public- 
ly burned at the stake. 
"The House of Representatives on Jan- 
uary 26, 1922, in response to insistent 
country-wide demand, passed the Dyer 
Anti-Lynching Bill, which invokes the 
power of the Federal government to end 
the infamy of American mob murder. 

"This bill is now in the hands of the 
United States Senate. The undersigned 
United States citizens earnestly urge its 
prompt enactment." 

This appeal was sent to a selected list of 
representative persons in America. It has 
already been signed by 160 individuals, the 
number including 19 state governors, 18 
mayors of large cities, among them the 
mayors of New York City, Boston, Milwau- 
kee, Louisville, Baltimore and Charleston, 
S. C; 87 arch-bishops, bishops and promi- 
nent churchmen — Protestant, Catholic and 
Jewish; 24 college presidents and professors 
in Harvard, Radcliffe, Columbia, Chicago, 
California, Howard, Atlanta, Morehouse, 
Hampton, Pennsylvania, Wellesley, Michi- 
gan and other institutions; 33 newspaper 
and magazine editors, including the New 
York Evening Post, the Chicago Daily 
News, the Nation, the New Republic, the 
Omaha Bee, the Emporia Gazette through 
the famous author and editor, William Al- 
len White, and many other white and col- 
ored journals; 24 eminent jurists and law- 
yers, including George W. Wickersham, 
former Attorney- General of the United 
States, John G. Milburn, president of the 
New York Bar Association, Judge Julian 



262 



N. A. A. C. P. 



263 



W. Mack of Chicago, Judge Edward Osgood 
Brown of Chicago, and Moorfield Storey; 
and 18 other prominent citizens, including 
Edward W. Bok, owner and former editor 
of the Ladies' Home Journal, Samuel S. 
Fels of Philadelphia, L. S. Rowe, president 
of the American Academy of Political and 
Social Science, Talcott Williams, former 
head of the Columbia University School of 



ing the afternoon there was considerable 
discussion in the town and Bullock's "of- 
fense" grew with each telling. Towards 
nightfall threats were made to lynch him. 
That night Bullock's father, a respected 
minister of the town, had the sheriff lock 
up his son over night for safe-keeping. 
A few hours later a mob formed and start- 
ed to the jail. On meeting a crowd of col- 



Journalism, and Louis F. Post of New York J ored men and boys a fight followed, in 
Another step was the impressive mass which several white and colored men were 
meeting held at Town Hall, in New York injured. Later in the night the mob re- 
City, on March 1. At that meeting Con- formed, went to the jail, seized Plummer 
gressman Dyer, Mr. Storey, Dr. Du Bois Bullock and another colored man and 



and Mr. Johnson 
were the principal 
speakers. 

No stone is being 
left unturned. Our 
biggest problem is 
securing funds to 
carry on the fight. 
We urge every per- 
son to contribute as 
liberally as he can, 
whether the amount 
be large or small. If 
you want to do your 
share in this fight, 
act now. The one 
dollar, or five dollars, 
or hundred dollars, 
that you give now 
may he the margin 
between victory and 
defeat! During our 
eleven year fight we 
have expended $35,- 
000. This, however, 

is less than $3,000 a year to end lynching. 
During the next three months "we could 
use legitimately and without extravagance, 
$100,000! America must be aroused! Will 
you help awaken her? 

THE BULLOCK CASE 

TN January, 1921, Plummer Bullock, a 
•*- young colored man, went into a store 
in Norlina, N. C, to purchase some apples. 
After paying for some of the better grade, 
the clerk, a young white youth, attempted 
to give him some rotten ones. Bullock pro- 
tested, and wlhen he stoutly maintained 
that he should receive what he had paid for 
a dispute arose. Bullock left the store 
when threats were made to beat him for 
daring to talk back to a white man. Dur- 




lynched them. The 
mob then set out to 
find and lynch 
Matthew Bullock, a 
brother of Plummer; 
but Matthew Bullock 
escaped and reached 
Buffalo, N. Y., and 
later crossed the bor- 
der into Canada. 

Bullock resided at 
Hamilton, Ontario, 
for some ten months, 
working every day 
and leading an ex- 
emplary life. One 
day he was recog- 
nized by a former 
North Carolinian 
who informed the 
authorities at North 
Carolina, who in 
turn wired the Chief 
of Police in Canada, 
and asked that Bul- 
lock be held "for inciting to riot and shoot- 
ing a white man." The citizens of Norlina 
expressed themselves as being "greatly de- 
lighted" on hearing of Bullock's arrest and 
it is declared that they "eagerly anticipated 
Bullock's return." In this fashion began 
a case which has aroused greater interna- 
tional interest than any case since pre-Civil 
War days when fugitive slaves fled to Can- 
ada for refuge. 

The Buffalo Branch asked Mr. White to 
go to Hamilton, where he spent several 
days assisting Rev. J. D. Howell, who led 
the fight to prevent Bullock's extradition, 
and Treleaven & Treleaven, attorneys em- 
ployed to defend Bullock. The National 
Office was also instrumental in securing 
copies of court records and other necessary 



CONGRESSMAN L. C. DYER 



264 



THE CRISIS 



information from North Carolina. A great 
deal of publicity was gained in the Ameri 
can and Canadian press, presenting the 
facts regarding lynching in the United 
States and proving that Bullock could not 
be given a fair trial if returned to North 
Carolina. 

On January 18, the Canadian Immigra- 
tion Board, sitting at Hamilton, ordered 
Bullock to be deported to the United States 
on the ground that he had not properly re- 
ported to immigration officials when he 
entered Canada. An appeal was immedi- 
ately taken to the Canadian Commissioner 
of Immigration, at Ottawa. On hearing 
the evidence, the Hamilton decision was set 
aside and Bullock was freed. 

Early in February, however, Bullock 
was re-arrested on the demand of the De- 
partment of State at Washington, acting 
at the request of the governor of North 
Carolina, and was held for extradition on 
a charge of attempted murder. On Febru- 
ary 25, a hearing on the extradition de- 
mand was held before Judge Snider at 
Hamilton. Judge Snider demanded that 
the state of North Carolina produce wit- 
nesses to prove that Bullock was guilty of 
the charge of crime against him and to 
disprove that the demand for extradition 
was solely subterfuge to get Bullock back 
where he could be railroaded to jail and 
perhaps lynched, as was generally felt 
throughout Canada. He adjourned the hear- 
ings for one week to allow the producing 
of such witnesses. Judge Snider acted well 
within his legal rights in taking such a 
step. Bullock admitted freely that he 
fired several shots in defense of his life 
when attacked by the mob while the mob 
was on its way to the jail to lynch Plum- 
mer Bullock. Under the provisions of the 
treaty between Canada and the United 
States, shooting in defense of one's life 
is not an extraditable offense, while at- 
tempted murder is. 

Governor Morrison of North Carolina at 
this juncture proved himself either ill-ad- 
vised or ignorant of the law when he re- 
fused to send witnesses to Hamilton. On 
March 3, Judge Snider ordered that Bul- 
lock be released from custody. 

The National Race Congress at Wash- 
ington, of Which Rev. W. H. Jernagin is 
president, was exceedingly active in this 
case and deserves full share of the credit 
for the victory. The Buffalo Branch of 



the N. A. A. C. P. was also active, holding 
three large mass meetings to arouse public 
interest in the Bullock case, raising funds 
to aid the National Office in handling the 
case, and in employing an attorney of Buf- 
falo to defend Bullock in the event that 
he had been deported to the United States. 
To Rev. J. D. Howell, of Hamilton, the 
major portion of the credit should go for 
his splendid efforts in leading the fight for 
Bullock. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR YEAR 1921 

T ACK of space in the March issue of 
•*-' The Crisis, made it necessary for us 
to defer publication of our financial state- 
ment for the year 1921. The report in full, 
is given below: 

TREASURER'S REPORT 
of the 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE 

Year Ending December 31, 1921 
BALANCE SHEET 
Assets 
Cash in banks, Dec. 31, 1921.. $1,992.72 

Value of emblems on hand 127.50 

Furniture and fixtures 3,746.81 

Petty cash fund 100.00 

Tulsa fund 26.37 

Anti-lynching fund 151.25 

$6,144.65 
Liabilities 
Due special funds: — - 

Arkansas defense fund $1,087.23 

Pan-African congress fund . . 60.39 

Maclean memorial fund 69.10 

Special gift fund 27.00 

The Crisis 875.79 

Accounts payable 3,631.48 

$5,751.05 
Net worth 393.60 

$6,144.65 
INCOME AND EXPENSE 
General Fund 
INCOME 

Contributions : — 

Branches $8,4,38.76 

Miscellaneous 10,081.67 

Memberships : — 

Branches 37,395.77 

Members at large 3,166.68 

$59,082.88 

Literature sales $897.50 

Branch card files sold 176.50 

Profit on emblems sold 70.40 

$1,144.40 

$60,227.28 
Net loss 3,438.62 

$63,665.90 

EXPENSE 

Advertising t $186.8(0 

Branch Bulletin 700.82 

Clippings 257.52 

General expense and supplies. 1,886.70 

Appropriations for legal de- 
fense 3U9.55 

Light 184.65 

Meetings 182.00 

Multigraphing 186.85 

Postage 3,900.01 

Printing 3,889.55 



N. A. A. C. P. 



265 



Rent of offices. 
Salaries :- 



1,839.96 





10,407.68 

21,250.00 

5,724.09 

15,154.52 

1,225.00 

3i90'.13 

555.37 

6,877.45 

8. SO 

850.00 

197.20 

1,359.77 

3,631.48 

ID 






























Miscellaneous disbursements . . 

Appropriation towards expenses 

of Pan-African congress. . . . 








SPECIAL FTO 
ANTI-LYNCHING FUND 

Balance in bank, Dec. 31, 192 


$63,665.90 
.$1,556.10 




1,663.89 



Expenses during the year. 



Deficit 

ARKANSAS DEFENSE FUND 

Balance in bank Dec. 31, 1920 

Contributions received during year. 



Expenses during the year. 
Balance Dec. 31, 1921.. 
TULSA RELIEF FUND 
Contributions received 
Expenses 



Deficit 

PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS FUND 

Contributions received 

Expenses 



Balance Dec. 31, 1921. 



$2,221.99 
2,373.24 

$151.35 

$1,214.51 
2,678.34 

$3,892.85 

2,805.62 

$1,087.23 

$3,506.24 
3,532.61 

$26.37 

$2,813.14 

2,752.75 

$60.39 



CRISIS FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

Revenue Dr. Cr. 

Sales $3S,596.75 

Subscriptions $16,047.50 

Less unexpired subs... 6,308.74 9,738.76 

Advertising revenue 14,918.79 

Interest on Liberty Bonds.... 63.75 



Total revenue 

Expenses 

Crisis book accounts $154.75 

Paper purchases 11,727.60 

Printing 13,89i8..31 



$63,318.0." 



Engraving 1,079.65 

General expense 6,105.89 

Salaries 21,780.00 

Postage 4,591.46 

Stationery and supplies 1,172.50 

Bad debts 3,965.58 

Depreciation 201.42 

Total expenses $64,677.16 

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES 
Assets Liabilities 

Cash in bank.. $32.89 Accts. payable: 

Petty cash fund 25.00 (schedule 1) $3,728.67 

Accts. receivable: "History of Ne- 

Advertisers .. 9,300.11 gro in the War" 83.25 

Agents 17,309.20 Reserve for un- 

N. A. A. C. P. 875.79 expired subs. 6,308.74 

Depos. w. P. O. 325.00 Net worth 23,784.31 

Liberty Bonds.. 1,500.00 

Paper inventory 602.12 

Crisis bank ac- 
counts inven. 99.17 

Furn. & fix 3,826.96 

Unexpired insur. 8.73 

$33,904.97 $33,904.97 

A CONTRIBUTING MEMBER 

AN appreciated action was that of the 
Supreme Lodge, Knights of Pythias 
of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, 
at a session recently held in New York 
City, when it voted to take out a contrib- 
uting membership as a body in the National 
Association for the Advancement of Col- 
ored People. 

We should be happy to have other fra- 
ternal organizations of the country follow 
the Pythiahs' example. 

The letter making application for mem- 
bership reads: 

The Supreme Lodge of the Knights of 
Pythias of the Eastern and Western Hemi- 
spheres, at its session recently held in New 
York City, voted to ally itself with your or- 
ganization as a contributing member there- 
of, if such is permissible, and to pay each 
year for said membership the sum of $100. 
(Signed) W. Ashbie Hawkins. 



PRIDE 



Mortimer G. Mitchell 




f\ H! Negro youth, 
V-' Let me say to you 
That pride should swell 
Your heart bands too, 
When e'er you hear 

A national air, 
Or see the flag 

Float free and fair; 
For in the days 
That have gone by, 



Your father's blood 

Has helped to dye 
The glorious hue 

Of every stripe. 
He fought 

To give this country might; 
On many a battlefield 

He's bled, 
And in foreign sod 

He's left his dead. 




COMPILED 



MADEL IME 



ALLISON 



MESSIAH Baptist Church in Yonkers, N. 
Y., and Mt. Olivet Baptist Church, in 
New York City, have appointed women as 
members of the Board of Trustees. The ap- 
pointees are Mrs. Emily Brown at Messiah 
and Mrs. Richetta R. Wallace at Mt. Olivet. 
C Bishop Brooks, formerly of Baltimore, 
Md.» is now Chaplain for the Supreme 
Court of Liberia. 

C A 10 percent dividend has been declared 
by the Sumter Investment Corporation, a 
Negro real estate enterprise in Sumter, 
S. C. Messrs. W. T. Andrews is president; 
R. M. Andrews, vice-president; and H. D. 
McNight, secretary-treasurer. 
(I Anita Patti Brown, the noted Negro 
singer of Chicago, 111., is studying in Eu- 
rope under Herr Victor Beigel. Miss Brown 
is attended by her accompanist, Miss Doxie. 
They will resume recitals in America in the 



fall of 1922. 

C_ Messrs. James B. and Benjamin N. Duke 
have donated $75,000 toward a hospital for 
Negroes in Durham, N. C. A similar sum 
is now to be raised by colored and white 
citizens. The following persons have been 
elected members of the Board of Trustees 
for the hospital: Dr. S. L. Warren, presi- 
dent; W. G. Pearson, vice-president; I. M. 
Avery, treasurer; W. Gomez, secretary. 
C During 1921, over 1,200 homes were con- 
structed in Atlanta, Ga. The Negro race 
built 25 per cent, of thest homes. 
C During the 20th National Conference of 
the Y. M. C. A., the overseas secretaries 
held a reunion. In the picture are Messrs. 
B. F. Lee, Jr.; J. E. Blanton, B. F. Hubert, 
Robert E. Parks, William Stevenson, George 
Thompson, John Hope, A. L. James and 
B. F. Seldon. 




OVERSEAS SECRETARIES OF THE Y. M. C. A. 

266 



THE HORIZON 



267 




REAR VIEW OF VILLA LEWARO, IRVINGTON-ON-THE-HUDSON, NEW YORK 



C Mrs. Lelia Walker-Wilson, daughter of 
the late Madam C. J. Walker, has arrived 
in Cairo, Egypt. This is her first stop en- 
route from Paris to Palestine. Mrs. Wil- 
son recently contributed $1,000 to the Na- 
tional Child Welfare Association to aid in 
its work among the colored children of the 
country. The photograph is a reproduc- 
tion of Villa Lewaro, Mrs. Wilson's man- 
sion at Irvington-on-the-Hudson, New 
York. 

La Tribuna of Rome reported Mrs. Wil- 
son's presence during the papal election as 
follows: "We could not fail to mention in 
our inventory of those present, as most 
prominent among the vast throng, Mrs. 
Lelia Walker Wilson of New York." 

C. Gross receipts of the Southern Aid So- 
ciety of Virginia, Inc., for 1921, amounted 
to $880,080; disbursements, $807,957. Its 
cash balance December 31, 1921, was $72,- 
122, with a capital and surplus of $498,- 



892; its assets are $588,215. During 28 
years of business the company has paid 
claims amounting to $2,511,894. Messrs. 
J. T. Carter is president; B. L. Jordan, sec- 
retary, and W. A. Jordan, assistant secre- 
tary. 

(I R. Augustus Lawson, pianist of Hart- 
ford, Conn., has been heard in pianoforte 
recitals at Fisk University, Talladega Col- 
lege, Spelman Seminary, Tuskegee Insti- 
tute, and in St. Louis, Mo. 
C. In Detroit, Mich., Robert L. Ward, a 
Negro, has been elected a constable. Mr. 
Ward was a former overseas officer. 
<I Millie Nash, of 313 Sprott Alley, Se- 
wickley, Pa., solicits information leading 1 
to the whereabouts of her daughter, Lizzie 
Easton, whose maiden name) was Lizzie 
Law. 

C In November, 1919, John T. Oatneal was 
elected one of two Justices of the Peace 
in Washington Court House, Ohio, for a 
term of 4 years. He is the first colored man 



268 



THE CRISIS 




Join T. Oatneal 



Julius C. Westmoreland 



Robert S. Cobb 



J. Arthur Jackson 



ever elected to office in the County. Mr. 
Oatneal has made a splendid record and 
during the Presidential campaign of Mr. 
Harding, he filled a number of assign- 
ments under the State Speakers' Bureau. 
During the Taft administration he was ex- 
aminer in the United States Pension 
Bureau. He was born in Franklin County, 
January 8, 1868. He received the degrees 
of A. B. from Virginia Normal and Colleg- 
iate Institute in 1890 and LL.B. from Shaw 
University in 1893. 

(I Collector Malcolm H. Nichols in Boston, 
Mass., has appointed Julius C. Westmore- 
land, a Deputy Collector of Internal Reve- 
nue. Mr. Westmoreland was born in At- 
lanta, Ga., January, 1879, being one of 10 
children. He attended Atlanta University 
for 4 years, and went to Boston in 1902, 
where he was employed by Harvey Fisk & 
Sons, a leading investment and banking 
house. After this firm discontinued its Bos- 
ton office, in 1915, Mr. Westmoreland 
opened an office of his own and ac- 
quired several large real estate holdings. 
In 1910 he received a certificate from the 
Lowell Institute Collegiate Courses in co- 
operation with Harvard University; later 
he completed courses at the Suffolk Law 
School in Boston. Mr. Westmoreland is 
married and has one child. 
([ Robert S. Cobb, secretary of the Missouri 
Negro Industrial Commission, enjoys the 
distinction of being the first Negro of Mis- 
souri to have an office and clerical force in 
the State Capitol, at Jefferson City. Mr. 
Jobb was born February 2, 1888, at Cape 



Girardeau, Mo. After graduating from 
Knoxville College he took post-graduate 
work in History and Constitutional Law 
and became a teacher in the public schools 
of Missouri. His father, the late Profes- 
sor J. S. Cobb, served as a public school 
teacher for 38 years. Mr. Cobb was busi- 
ness and religious secretary in the army 
"Y" at Camps Dodge and Dix. In 1911, he 
married Miss Bessie Mae Myers of Clinton, 
Tenn., and is the father of 3 children. The 
Industrial Commission is asking the Legis- 
lature for an appropriation of $25,000 to 
carry out more effectively the educational 
and industrial phases of the Commission's 
work. 

C The position of State Librarian is a new 
achievement among Negroes. Not only does 
the librarian have charge of the copywrit- 
ing and filing of all State documents and 
reports, but he also handles matters such 
as looking up questions of law for judges 
and members of the Bar. J. Arthur Jack- 
son of Charleston, W. Va., was appointed 
Assistant State Librarian by the late S. W. 
Starks, the first colored State Librarian, in 
1901. He served in this capacity until 1917 
when the Supreme Court appointed him 
messenger and librarian. A few months 
ago he was appointed Librarian of the State 
of West Virginia. 

C John W. Lewis, a Republican, has been 
elected a member of the Borough Council 
in Morrisville, Pa. The town has 2,000 
white and 15 colored voters. Among Mr. 
Lewis' opponents was an ex-postmaster. 
In Morrisville, Mr. Lewis is the second larg- 



THE HORIZON 



269 




John W. Lewis 



Amos M. Scott 



The Late Gov. Pinchback The Late Mr. Williams 



est tax payer, a director and vice-ipresident 
of the Chamber of Commerce, a large stock- 
holder in the New Morrisville Trust Com- 
pany, and chairman of the Street Commit- 
tee. Mr. Lewis has done business in coal, 
hay and feed, and real estate insurance and 
general brokerage. He was born in 1866 
in the suburbs of Morrisville, Pa., and edu- 
cated at the local public school. 
d Amos M. Scott was born in Peach Bot- 
tom, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, No- 
vember 21, 1859. He left home when 9 
years old, tramping 95 miles to Philadel- 
phia. His capital was 35 cents. He sold 
newspapers, blacked boots, and worked as 
a teamster. Later he worked for 3 years 
in the United States Mint, after which he 
served a term as Assistant Postmaster of 
the Senate, in Harrisburg, and as Record 
Clerk in the Quarter Sessions Court in 
Philadelphia; then he embarked in hotel 
business, operating Hotel Scott at 12th and 
Pine Streets, Philadelphia. At the fall 
primary in 1919 Mr. Scott was a candidate 
for the office of magistrate. He was de- 
feated; however, in November, 1921, he 
won the election by a majority of 60,000 
votes. The citizens of Philadelphia have 
tendered Mr. Scott a banquet at which more 
than 600 people were present, including 
Judges, Senators and Representatives. In 
1888 Mr. Scott was married to Malvina 
Gurley. They are the parents of 3 daugh- 
ters, the oldest of whom is her father's 
confidential clerk. 
(Tin the death of P. B. S. Pinchback, at 



Washington, D. C, we realize the passing 
of a Negro who from small beginnings rose 
to be Senator and Governor. Mr. Pinch- 
back was the son of Major William Pinch- 
back, a white planter of Mississippi. His 
mother, Eliza Stewart, was a mulatto. Mr. 
Pinchback received his education in Cin- 
cinnati and began life on his own responsi- 
bility as a cabin boy on canal boats. In 
the sixties he enlisted and became a cap- 
tain of volunteers. He entered politics in 
1867. In 1871 he was appointed a school 
director; in 1872 he was Congressman, 
and in 1873 Acting Governor of Lou- 
isiana; and in 1882 Surveyor of the Port 
of New Orleans. He was refused his seat 
as United States Senator, though the in- 
justice of his unseating was so great that 
the salary was appropriated to him. Mr. 
Pinchback was born May 10, 1837. In 1860 
he was married and became the father of 
6 children. He is survived by his widow,' 
3 sons and 1 daughter. 
d The late Samuel Laing Williams was an 
attorney, a civic worker, an author, a pub- 
lic speaker, and Assistant United States 
District Attorney in Chicago during the 
Roosevelt and Taft administrations. Mr. 
Williams was born in Savannah, Ga. At 
the age of 9 he went to Lapeer, Mich., 
where he attended public school and was 
graduated from high school with honors. 
He entered Michigan University and won 
the first degree awarded a colored man in 
that institution; later he was graduated 
from the Columbia College of Law in Wash- 



270 



THE CRISIS 



ington, D. C. For a few years he served as 
a clerk in the Pension Office, and in 1889 
he went to Chicago where he became asso- 
ciated with the firm of Barnett & Wil- 
liams. Mr. Williams is survived by a 
widow, Fannie Barrier Williams. 
C Biddle University at Charlotte, N. C, will 
be known in the future as the Johnson C. 
Smith University, in honor of its largest 
individual donor. In order to perpetuate 
the former name of the school, the Admin- 
istration Building has been named Biddle 
Memorial Hall. Since September, 1921, 
Mrs. Smith has given $115,000 for build- 
ings and a sufficient sum for the erection 
of an arch over the main entrance of the 
campus. Her further benefaction will pro- 
vide a permanent endowment fund for cur- 
rent expenses, enlargement, and upkeep of 
the university. Dr. H. L. McCrory is presi- 
dent. 

C The "Negro Veterans of the World War" 
has been organized with the following of- 
ficers: Dr. T. E. Jones, national chair- 
man; Captain Campbell C. Johnson, vice- 
chairman; Louis R. Mehlinger, secretary; 
Victor R. Daly, national organizer; Elijah 
Reynolds, treasurer; William A. Ryles, di- 
rector of publicity; Captain N. B. Marshall, 
chairman of the New York District. Dr. 
Jones says: "The organization is the inevit- 
able outgrowth of the discrimination that 
has been (practiced everywhere against the 
Negro veteran. Especially has this dis- 
crimination been most rampant in the 
South, in the treatment of suffering and 



disabled men. Our organization means to 
root out these cases and to stir up the 
country to the suffering and dire need of 
these men." 

d Secretary of the Treasury Mellon has ap- 
proved the expenditure of $2,500,000 for a 
Negro veterans' hospital in Tuskegee, Ala. 
Mr. Mellon's approval of the site was made 
over the protest of colored ex-servicemen 
throughout the North who urged that the 
hospital be located at a place where it would 
not be necessary for soldiers and their fam- 
ilies to ride in "Jim-Crow ; ' cars in order to 
reach it. 

C. The colored General Hospital in Kansas 
City, Mo., is the largest municipal hospital 
in the United States. It is rated as "A" 
class according to the standardization of 
the American College of Surgeons, the 
American Medical Association, and the Na- 
tional Medical Association, and its gradu- 
ates are recognized by the State of New 
York. It has a bed capacity of 300. Its 
staff consists of 47 nurses, a superintendent 
of nurses, an assistant superintendent of 
nurses, a supervisor of contagious diseases, 
an assistant supervisor of contagious dis- 
eases, 6 supervisors of departments, a path- 
ologist, an assistant pathologist, a techni- 
cian, a clinic physician, a visiting physician, 
a roentgenologist, and 9 internes, one of 
which is a dental interne. The visiting staff 
consists of 65 physicians. The institution 
has its own laundry, steam heating and 
electric light plants. It is supported by 
the tax payers of Kansas City, and every 



^^ ve*> f£^ v 





STAFF OF GENERAL 



THE HORIZON 



271 



position connected with this hospital is filled 
by a' colored person. The Superintendent is 
Dr. William J. Thompkins. 
C Three white and two Negro members of 
a lynching party have been sentenced to 
life imprisonment at Oklahoma City, Okla., 
for the lynching on January 14 of Jake 
Brooks, a Negro packing-house worker. 
They are Lee Whitley, 29; Charles Polk, 
18; Elmert Yearta, 19; Robert Allen, 27; 
Nathan Butler, 40. The last two are Ne- 
groes. Judge James I. Phelps in pronounc- 
ing sentence told the defendants that their 
conduct warranted the electric chair. 
C The Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity has 
granted two scholarships of $50 each out 
of its Douglass Scholarship Fund. At the 
last convention this fund was reorganized 
and in the future the scholarships will be 
larger. Dr. Thomas W. Turner, of How- 
ard University, is chairman of the fund. 
G Mt. Moriah Baptist Church of Camden, 
S. C, has celebrated its 56th anniversary. 
Judge Mindle L. Smith was the principal 
speaker. The church was established by 
the Rev. Monroe L. Boykin who served un- 
til 1898 and has been made pastor emeri- 
tus. He has been succeeded by his son, 
the Rev. J. W. Boykin. 
G The sum of $30,000 has been given to 
the National Association of Audubon So- 
cieties to aid in the study of wild birds. 
Mr. T. Gilbert Pearson, who is president 
of the organization, at 1924 Broadway, 
New York City, states that teachers who 
form Junior Audubon Clubs will receive 



free material to aid in their work of teach- 
ing bird study. 

C Among those elected to fill vacancies on 
the Board of Trustees at Howard Uni- 
versity, is Dr. M. O. Dumas, a Negro phy- 
sician of Washington. Others are Milton 
E. Ailes, vice-president of the Riggs Na- 
tional Bank of Washington, and General 
John H. Sherburne, who led a colored ar- 
tillery regiment in France during the 
World War. 

C A scholarship of $2,000 is to be estab- 
lished for Harvard University in memory 
of the late Maria L. Baldwin, the Negro 
principal of the Agassiz School in Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

C Edward Jones has been awarded $5 in 
gold for the best design for a letterhead 
to be used by the Musical Art Society of 
Hampton Institute. This society is respon- 
sible for the series of concerts during the 
winter at Hampton. Among attractions 
this year is the Russian Symphony Orches- 
tra. . . 

G The Elbridge L. Adams Prize Debate 
has been held at Hampton Institute. The 
subject was "Resolved, That the United 
States Government Should Own and Con- 
trol Its Mining Industry". The Douglass 
Literary Society presented the negative 
argument and won with the following team 
— John T. Jones, S. Miller Johnson, Harry 
E. Cook. Each one was presented with a 
gold medal. The Dunbar Literary Society 
presented the affirmative side. The Adams 
Prize Essay Medals were awarded as fol- 




HOSPITAL, KANSAS CITY 



272 



THE CRISIS 



lows: W. A. Shields, silver; J. W. Wil- 
liams, bronze. The subject related to gov- 
ernment ownership and control of the min- 
ing industry, with special reference to coal, 
iron and petroleum industries. 
C Abyssinia Baptist Church, in the down- 
town section of New York City, has been 
sold for $190,000 and property has been 
purchased in the Harlem Negro section, 
138th Street and Seventh Avenue, where 
a $335,000 edifice will be erected. This 
church was organized 114 years ago. The 
Rev. A. Clayton Powell has been pastor 
for the past 14 years. The membership is 
4,000. 

G The Florida Sentinel Publishing Com- 
pany at Jacksonville, has declared a divi- 
dend of 5 percent on its stock. The com- 
pany owns and operates a printing plant 
valued at $30,000. The business of the cor- 
poration during last year amounted to $41,- 
000. 

(I The Choral Society of Virginia Normal 
and Industrial Institute recently sang be- 
fore legislators in the hall of the House 
of Delegates, in Richmond. Miss Anna L. 



Lindsay was the musical director and Miss 
Johnnella Frazier, the accompanist. Two 
quartettes were composed of Misses Ac- 
quilla Matthews, Gladys Sears, Beatrice 
Robinson, Ruth Robinson and Messrs. 
Archie Richardson, Clifton Averette, James 
Fuller, Leroy Turner. Professor John M. 
Gandy is principal of the school. 
(I The Radiator, a Negro bi-monthly insur- 
ance magazine, is being published at Dur- 
ham, N. C. Its purpose is to fill a need 
among colored insurance sellers and buy- 
ers for a closer association with each other 
and a greater knowledge of insurance prac- 
tises. It requests every Negro insurance 
company to appoint a contributor to supply 
it with news about his company. The edi- 
tor is Sadie Tanner Mossell. 
C. Among numbers presented at a Cappella 
concert of the Oratorio Society of New 
York, held at Carnegie Hall, was "Music 
in the Mine", by R. Nathaniel Dett, the 
Negro pianist-composer. This number 
was the only one repeated. 
C Three plays for benevolent purposes 
have been presented since 1919 by the 




I. X. L. DRAMATIC CXTJB, MINNEAPOLIS 



THE HORIZON 



273 



•<9k W iik vLis «r» - ' **. .wt, > *^* , 


.- • 
1 

1 











AT THE CONVENTION OF THE DELTA SIGMA THETA SORORITY IN PHILADELPHIA 



I X L Dramatic Club of Minneapolis, Minn. 
The success of the players is due to the in- 
terest and direction of Miss Eva B. Walker. 
Among plays which the club will present in 
the future are works of Albert Hurt, a 
promising young Negro writer of Minneapo- 
lis. Each member of the I X L Dramatic 
Club is also a member of the local branch 
of the N. A. A. C. P. 

d The Delta Sigma Theta Sorority held its 
annual convention at Gamma Chapter, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. The convention 
headquarters were located at Bennett Club 
House, this being the first time that a col- 
ored organization has convened within the 
walls of this institution. A plan was for- 
mulated for the establishment of a National 
Federation Board which shall control cer- 
tain activities and relations between the 
existing colored sororities in the United 
States. The next convention will be held 
December 27 to 29, 1922, at the University 
of Iowa. 

(I Henry O. Tanner, the Negro artist in 
Europe, has been selected among 25 of 
the world's most eminent artists whose 
work will be shown in Pittsburgh, Pa., at 
the 21st International Art Exhibit. Eleven 
of Mr. Tanner's paintings were recently 
on exhibit at the Detroit Institute of Arts. 
Since 1895 Mr. Tanner's work has been 
exhibited annually in the Paris salon. In 
1897 his picture "The Raising of Lazarus" 
won a medal and was purchased by the 
French government for the Luxembourg. 



C After three weeks' operation, the col- 
ored Carnegie Branch Library in Oklahoma 
City, Okla., had issued cards to 206 per- 
sons, with a record of an average daily 
loan of 60 books. 

(I Among the 15,000 waiters, cooks, and 
pantry attendants of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, not a single case of contagious 
or communicable disease was found dur- 
ing two months' examination. 
C. In the Legislature of New Jersey, Dr. 
W. G. Alexander, a Negro, has begun his 
second term of office. 

d The City Council of Philadelphia has 
passed an ordinance appropriating $100,- 
000 for the erection of a recreation center 
to be named in honor of the late Fannie 
Jackson Coppin. Mrs. Coppin was the wife 
of Bishop L. J. Coppin and a well-known 
social worker. 

(I Twelve million dollars worth of insur- 
ance was written during last year by the 
Standard Life Insurance Company of At- 
lanta, Ga. It paid $149,000 in death claims 
among 132 policyholders. It has a total of 
$20,700,000 worth of insurance in force. 
The officers of the company are Messrs. 
Heman E. Perry, president; N. B. Young, 
T. H. Hayes and A. L. Lewis, vice-presi- 
dents; J. A. Robinson, secretary; C. A. 
Shaw and C. E. Arnold, assistant secretar- 
ies; T. J. Ferguson, cashier; R. L. Isaacs, 
treasurer; Dr. C. C. Cater, medical direc- 
tor; W. H. King, director of agencies; 
George D. Eldridge, actuary. 



274 



THE CRISIS 



CE In the high school at Rockford, 111., Ro- 
land Williams finished the 4 year course 
in 3^ years. He had 36 credits, while 
only 32 are required. William Garrett per- 
formed so well as a football player that he 
was picked as an all star man on the cir- 
cuit team. 

C At the first annual meeting of stockhold- 
ers of the People's Ice & Fuel Company, 
Little Rock, Ark., nine-tenths of the stock 
was represented in person or by proxy. 
After 5 months' operation, the management 
reported a net profit of $12,000. 
(I The Progressive Choral Society of Bowl- 
ing Green, Ky., has presented Mme. Flor- 
ence Cole-Talbert, coloratura soprano, in a 
recital at State Street Baptist Church. 
There was a large and appreciative audi- 
ence. Mrs. Talbert was assisted by 
Charles R. Taylor, a student of Howard 
University. Miss R. Lillian Carpenter was 
at the piano. 

(I Daisy Payne, colored, has been elected 
a member of the executive committee of 
students at Indiana University which will 
have general executive supervision of the 
million dollar memorial campaign. Mem- 
bers were chosen on a basis of scholarship 
and prominence in student affairs. 

([ On February 14, in Boston, Mass., Gov- 
ernor Cox and Mayor Curley were speakers 
at the celebration marking the 105th anni- 
versary of the birth of Frederick Doug- 
lass and the 5th anniversary of the dedi- 
cation of Frederick Douglass Square. Flags 
at the City Hall, Faneuil Hall and the 
State House were flown at half mast until 
noon. 

G The Coleridge-Taylor Chorus of Toronto, 
Canada, has given a recital. The aim of 
the group is to become a permanent Ca- 
nadian chorus. Since last April the or- 
ganization has grown from 19 to 50 mem- 



bers, with Messrs. Robert P. Edwards and 
Earnest A. Richardson as conductor and 
associate conductor, respectively. 
(I A new site, which cost $155,000, has been 
purchased for Walden University in Nash- 
ville, Tenn. The old property has been ad- 
joined to Meharry Medical College, for 
which the General Education Board and 
the Carnegie Foundation have appropriated 
a cash endowment of $500,000. 
(I The Board of Education in Washington 
has adopted a resolution which will give 
all persons, regardless of race or creed, ac- 
cess to and use of the branch libraries to 
be established in the District public schools. 
(I The following lynchjngs have taken place 
since our last record: 

Texarkana, Ark., February 11, P. Nor- 
man; threatening a white man. 

Ellaville, Ga., February 13, Will Jones; 
shooting two white farmers. " / 

Indianola, Ga., February 17, John Glover; 
shooting up Negro school-house. : 
(I Virginia D. Suttort, a colored woman of 
Chicago, has won a judgment for $50 
against the Missouri Pacific Railroad. Mrs. 
Sutton purchased a ticket for Little Rock, 
Ark. A conductor required her to ride in 
the Negro smoking-car, as the Negro pass- 
enger coach was filled; when she refused 
to do so, the train was stopped and she was 
put off. 

C Lawrence Warner, for 25 years an em- 
ployee of the City National Bank, New 
York, and for 30 years a resident of Brook- 
lyn, is dead at the age of 68. He was born 
in Alexandria, Va., and is survived by a 
widow, 3 sons, 1 daughter, and 1 brother. 
(I In Little Rock, Ark., a new colored Y. W. 
C. A. building has been erected by the 
National Headquarters at a cost of $40,- 
000. The colored people, themselves, fur- 
nished the building at a cost of $7,000. 




CLAYDA CLUB Y. W. C. A. GIRL RESERVES, 
NORFOLK, VA. 




Y. W. C. A., LITTLE ROCK, ARK. 



jTiiQ Lookiivcf Glass 



LITERATURE 

WHERE the mind is without fear and 
the head is held high; 
Where knowledge is free; 
Where the world has not been broken into 

fragments by narrow domestic walls ; 
Where words come out from the depths of 

truth ; 
Where tireless striving stretches its arms 

toward perfection; 
Where the clear stream of reason has not 

lost its way into the dreary desert 

sand of dead habit; 
Where the mind is led forward by Thee 

into ever-widening thought and ac- 
tion— 
Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, 

let my country wake. 

— Rabindranath Tagore. 

* * * 

The success of New York Negroes on 
the stage has been duplicated recently in 
Los Angeles by the production of "Afri- 
canus", a two-act play by Eloise Bibb 
Thompson. The Los Angeles Record says 
approvingly : 

Working with pliable material sensitive 
to color and rhythm, Olga Grey Zacsek, di- 
rector, produced some interesting results 
with "Africanus". There was nothing stiff 
nor ungraceful about the work of these Ne- 
gro actors and actresses and the lilt of their 
musical voices was pleasing to the ear. . . . 

The play is rich in Negro humor, some 
of it of a delicious order, and the audience 
was kept laughing most of the time. 

The epilogue was unusual in its sensuous 
beauty, no little part of the effect being due 
to the artistic dancing of Anita Thompson. 

In stage settings Miss Zacsek has struck 
a note entirely new to Los Angeles, follow 
ing the lead of Arthur Hopkins and Ed- 
mund Johnson, disciples of Gordon Craig. 
Tracy and Oliver were the artists. 

* * * 

H. W. Hanemann writes in Life of Ach- 
med Abdullah's "Night Drums" (Mc- 
Cann's) : 

The native drums (which go rub-rub- rub- 
rumbeddy-rub and then banng) whisper 
the sinister news of "rinderpest striking 
the long horned cattle of the Massais . . . 
of a M'pongwe medicine-man brewing dead 
mysteries" and of a fast black Master Mind 
plotting to become the 'Imperial Wizard 
of an All-African Ku Klux Klan to over- 
throw the white control, Unfortunately, 
they also whisper a lot of indigenous names 
which might have been made up out of the 



top row of letters on a typewriter keyboard. 
These choice cuts of native dialect stick up 
throughout the book like seven foot fences. 
Just as soon as you are able to take M'yanu 
M'bi-likini without holding on the pommel, 
along comes Rakaiz al-'Utabs and knocks 
you for a row of zaouias. Ai! Likewise, 
gewald! 

Unless you are terribly wrought up over 
African intramural affairs, you'll probably 
fall right off at the first etymological jump. 
* * * 

An exhibit of Negro art was held recent- 
ly in the 135th St. Branch of the New York 
Public Library. Here, through the activity 
of Mr. A. G. Dill, the work of some 38 col- 
ored artists was shown. Worth Tuttle 
commenting on the exhibit in The Freeman, 
asks: 

What does one expect to find in such an 
exhibition of Negro art: the imagination 
and humor of such yarns as Uncle Remus 
used to spin; the unique pathos of the spir- 
ituals; or the depth of tragic feeling which 
Mr. Du Bois and others have revealed in 
Negro literature? One feels, however, that 
it is not quite fair to make such demands 
of a first exhibit of Negro painting. The 
painter, especially the young painter, is 
likely to be unconscious of anything so lim- 
iting as race; and if, in the peculiar case 
of the Negro, he is conscious of it, he is 
likely to be sensitive about revealing it. 
Both his temperament and his training un- 
der white masters, with white models, in 
classes with students of other races incline 
him towards catholic views or a lack of 
interest in racial work. 

Yet in the field of painting and sculpture 
the American Neero has a freedom for self- 
expression that has been denied him in lit- 
erature. For such expression, three sources 
of inspiration and material are open to 
him. There is the history of the race, there 
are the contemporary types of Afro-Amer- 
icans; there is also, as Mr. Benjamin Braw- 
ley remarks in "The Neoro in Literature 
and Art", the racial temperament 

The historical material for the Negro 
artist lies in the story of the pre-dynastic 
empires of Africa and the incidents of 
slave-days in America. It would be ab- 
surd to see anything more than an artificial 
connection between the Ethiopians of an- 
cient Africa and the Negroes of modern 
America. The American Negro today, 
however, reading of the discoveries of the 
remains of early African culture, can ex- 
perience the same thrill of racial and na- 
tional pride which the American Jew ex- 



275 



276 



THE CRISIS 



periences when he thinks of the restoration 
of Jerusalem and the Sinn Feiner feels 
about the Celtic revival. Who knows but 
that the Negro, with all his innate appre- 
ciation of beauty, and fired by the knowl- 
edge of the past glories of his race, may 
develop in the country an art as natively 
expressive as that of Nubia at the height 
of its civilization? It is interesting to note 
as the first utilization of this African ma- 
terial, the symbolic Egyptianesque figure 
of a Negro girl recently presented to the 
New York Public Library by Meta War- 
rick Fuller, the Negro sculptor whom Ro- 
din commended. 

ALL ABOUT THE DYER BILL 

A SUMMARY of press reports on the 
Anti-Lynching Bill follows. First as 
to party feeling: 

The Petersburg Index-Appeal feels that 
"it is a matter of deep regret that the 
democrats in Congress should have lent 
themselves to the republicans for a cheap 
political trick", since, so far as it "can re- 
call the House democrats have not made 
such an issue of any other measure which 
has come up recently". "So bitter has been 
the democratic opposition that the bill may 
be regarded virtually as a party measure", 
states the Pittsburgh Press, which prompts 
its neighbor the Leader, to inquire "What 
can be expected of a non-progressive and 
largely illiterate population, which has been 
virtually standing still since the surrender 
at Appomattox, when 25 per cent of its 
national political representatives in official 
places defend the right to commit capital 
crimes?" The St. Louis Post Dispatch 
thinks that "political cowardice carried the 
measure through the House, and the hope 
that the Senate will kill it is a compliment 
to the judgment and courage of the Sen- 
ate," though the Baltimore Sun feels that 
republican leaders in the House have thus 
"incurred a grave political liability without 
surely paying off a debt" since by this 
"single stroke Mr. Harding's conciliatory 
policy toward the Southern States has been 
killed aborning". 

* * * 

As to the effect of the law, editors differ. 
The Grand Rapids Press says: 

"A jury is a jury, filled with as many 
prejudices in a federal as in a state court", 
and the Minnesota Star feels that even if 
such a law were sustained "one may doubt 
whether it will end lynching", since "be- 
hind the lynching of Negroes is nearly 
three centuries of social injustice which has 
fostered lynch law". The Memphis News- 
Scimitar states that "the passage of the 
law will be equivalent to serving notice 
upon state officials that they have been re 
lieved of responsibility", and the Richmond 
Times Dispatch thinks "the criminal ele- 
ment among the Negroes will be embold- 



ened to commit crimes which inspire lynch 
law, in the belief that they will receive a 
measure of federal protection under the 
act not now enjoyed". "The existing statutes 
of every state afford ample grounds for 
prosecution and punishment of persons 
guilty of the crime of lynching . . . 
Wherein would the offense be heightened 
cr the execution of justice upon the of- 
fender be made more certain by restating 
those statutes in federal terms?" inquires 
the Atlanta Journal. 

But the Springfield Republican cham- 
pions the bill on the ground that "Ameri- 
ca's right to be called a civilized country is 
at stake", and, while admitting the inva- 
sion of local government, concludes that 
"if the states will not or cannot put a stop 
to lynchings, the federal government must 
intervene to the extent of its power". 

* * * 

It means progress: 

The Providence Journal feels the meas- 
ure is a "long step toward wiping out one 
of our worst national disgraces", in agree- 
ment with the New York Globe, which 
thinks that "the prompt passage of the 
bill by the Senate will be a step forward in 
American civilization". 

* * * 

In the present circumstances it is inevit- 
able thinks the Columbia, S. C, State: 

"If states persist in placing lawlessness 
above law, it is certain that the United 
States, soon or late, will intervene and, in 
so doing, have the moral support of the 
great majority of the people except in the 
states at which intervention is aimed." 

* * * 

The Houston Post chimes in: 

We don't want federal laws infringing 
upon every activity of our state govern- 
ment; but we are going to get federal laws 
unless we enforce our state laws. 

The strongest plea for reform in lynch- 
ing comes out of the heart of the South, 
from the Greensboro, N. C, Daily News. 
As everybody knows, Canada has refused 
to turn Matthew Bullock over to the au- 
thorities of his native state. The editor of 
the News replies to Governor Morrison's 
comment : 

The governor might as well face the 
truth now as later. The Canadian authori- 
ties are refusing to extradite Matthew Bul- 
lock simply because they have heard that 
down here in North Carolina where the 
odds in population are two and three to 
one, the wealth and power of the whites 
100 to 1, the laws and the courts are the 
whites' in the ratio of 2,500,000 to 0, whites, 
unwilling to live under the laws of their 
own making, practice murder on corporate 
scale and rarely ever come to account 
for it. 



THE LOOKING CLASS 



277 



What makes Governor Morrison so sure 
that Warren County officials who informed 
him a year ago that there was no danger 
of a "so-called lynching" which took place 
while the assurance was being transmitted 
by telephone, would know any better now 
if another "so-called lynching" were being 
conspired? It lays no great burden on 
one's credulity to believe another lynching 
unlikely; but the faith is prompted by no 
history of the state in dealing with this 
crime. 

Indeed, North Carolina's official attitude 
toward lynching has been except in rare 
instances a record of cowardice and dis- 
grace. Governor Morrison declares that 
"lynchings are never winked at by the au- 
thorities and are always prevented where 
the authorities have any knowledge of the 
approach of danger and an opportunity to 
prevent .it". Often the authorities do not 
take the trouble even to "wink". The his- 
tory of our state is replete with lynchings 
which did not cause our officers even to 
bat an eye. 

* * * 

This honest editor does not stop with the 
bare accusation; he gives page and line: 

But how long has it been since a mob 
in Governor Morrison's town went to a 
hospital, ran over the women nurses, took 
from a ward a wounded Negro and lynched 
him as easily as an undertaker could have 
taken him out and buried bim? What did 
Charlotte do to punish the men who dese- 
crated the soil of the signers? And how 
long before that was it when a Rowan 
County mob broke into jail during a special 
term of court which had been called to try 
a group of prisoners kept many weeks in 
Charlotte jail, lynched three of them while 
13 special deputies and a military company 
looked helplessly on because the sheriff 
openly said he would "shoot no white men 
to save a damned nigger"? And how long 
prior to the visit of that Rowan mob was 
it that the same "people as a whole" could 
not prevent the lynching of two black brats, 
aged 13 and 11? 

How long has it been since Solicitor H. 
E. Norris, perhaps the most powerful prose- 
cutor in North Carolina, conducted three 
futile investigations, filled with perjury, 
into lynchings, one of which occurred in a 
churchyard in Governor Bickett's home 
county, another in Wake after the officers 
had captured the criminal, and a third 
growing out of a Franklin lynching with 
the prisoner safely behind the bars? 
Who has forgotten Lee Robinson's effort to 
convict 25 lynchers in a county 100 per 
cent mum in its attitude? Who doesn't 
recall the Greene County sortie into Lenoir 
to get Old Joe Black who was taken from 
jail and murdered on a 'simple misde- 
meanor? 

* * * 

Why shouldn't mob rule flourish in North 



Carolina? Who prevents it? The editor 
cor eludes : 

Who doesn't recollect Governor Craig's 
call on the resident judge to conduct an in- 
vestigation, the jurist's declination and the 
subsequent inquiry of Solicitor Henry E. 
Shaw ^nd Judge W. M. Bond into that 
community murder? And who can name 
one man in Greene or Lenoir counties who 
lifted up h's voice in support of a solemn 
investigation which Chief Justice Walter 
Clark called 'the Kinston performance"? 
Who will ever forget the Goldsboro mob's 
easy victory over the jailer and the twitting 
of the late Justice Allen by Judge Clark 
because Judge Allen did not prevent mob 
murder in his home town? Omit Golds- 
boro's 1920 resistance and Winston-Salem's 
1918 fight against the mob and North Caro- 
lina's record is shameful, indeed. 

QUESTION AND ANSWER 

HTTHE constant anxiety in the mind of the 
-*■ white man during the World War, es- 
pecially after the introduction of black 
troops into the struggle, was speculation 
as to the ultimate effects on colored popu- 
lations. Alfred L. P. Dennis writes in the 
New York Times: 

Africa and Asia had seen the skeleton 
in the closet of European civilization. 
What would the backward races now think 
of their white lords and masters? Would 
they be lost in wonder and in fear at the 
tragic mysteries of modern warefare? 
Would they bow as heretofore in the pres- 
ence of inventors and captains of aircraft 
and high explosives, of poison gas and 
tanks? Or would they remember that on 
occasion White men had fled before African 
soldiers who had been welcomed by white 
women? Would Asiatic troops recall that 
they had been summoned from their homes 
to aid Europeans in a desperate struggle 
for existence and that at times they had 
been set as guards over white prisoners? 
* * * 

The same speculation, differently direct- 
ed, Mr. Dennis points out, was in the air 
at the time of the Disarmament Confer- 
ence: 

At the recent conference in Washington, 
the exact problem of the use of native Asi- 
atic or African troops in western wars did 
not arise. The entire subject of land arm- 
aments was pigeonholed because there was 
no adequate substitute guarantee for inter- 
national security provided or proposed by 
this conference. Nevertheless, in a larger 
sense the general subject of the relation 
of Asia to America and Europe, whether 
for peace or war, was indeed the main oc- 
casion and material of the' Washington 
Conference. That gathering took its bear- 
ing first of all from the fact that the west- 
ern world had not only engaged in contro- 



278 



THE CRISIS 



versies with Asiatics but also_ had direct 
concern in disputes between Asiatic States. 

* * * 

Just what the material and physical ef- 
fect on the attitude of the black world to 
the white will be, remains to be sem. But 
certainly from the psychological side the 
soundness of the statement, the truth shall 
make you free, has been pro 1 en. A veil 
has been torn from the eyes oi the East and 
Europe suffers from the new vision thus 
turned upon her. In his book the "Scourge 
of Christianity", Paul Richards tells how 
Europe practices Christianity — in Asia. 
And his words have been eagerly heard and 
quoted by Asiatics, in particular the Hin- 
dus, who find in the theme the very essence 
of their own feeling for the mockery of 
white religions. Some passages most 
quoted in Indian papers follow: 

Christians worship one Son of Asia 
. . . at a great cost to the others. 

Europe finds it natural to take one Man 
of Asia as Master, and all his brothers as 
slaves. 

Christians think that since one Asiatic 
alone is the Son of God, the rest can fairly 
be treated as sons of the Devil. 

The Christianity of Christ died when 
Asia ceased to teach it. 

* * * 

When Christ comes again He will have 
to give up being an Asiatic and a Carpen- 
ter if He wishes to be admitted into the 
Christian countries of America and Aus- 
tralia. 

If it pleased the "native" of Judea to 
reappear as a "native of India", how many 
Englishmen would remain Christians? 

If Christ came again, would He not 
choose again to be a son of the enslaved 
people rather than a citizen of the Em- 
pire? 

The Christ, if He comes, will not be of 
the white race; the colored peoples could 
not put their faith in Him. 

If Christ has not changed His ideas, 
Christians will have, when He returns, to 
change their habits. 

* * * 

The Gospel is not only for individuals; 
it is also for the nations. 

The nation too must learn: Thou shalt 
not steal the land of others; thou shalt not 
kill defenseless nationalities; thou shalt 
not commit adultery with colonies and do- 
minions; thou shalt not bear false witness 
against enemy governments. . . . And 
the supreme command: Thou shalt love thy 
neighbor — all peoples whatsoever, black, 
yellow, white, African or Asiatic, strong 
or weak, small or great — thou shalt love 
as thyself. 

It is for the nations that this was writ- 
ten: This is my commandment, that ye 



love one another ... ye are members 
one of another ... do not unto others 
what ye would not, they should do unto you. 
Judge not that ye be not judged. . . . 
Let him who is without sin throw the first 
stone. . . . Remit your debts to one 
another. . . . Forgive your enemies. 

For the nations it is written: Thou 
wicked servant, because thou hast not .for- 
given the debt of another, thou shalt be de- 
livered to the executioner. . . . Agree 
quickly with thine adversary, lest haply 
thine adversary deliver thee to the judge, 
and the judge to the officer and thou be 
cast into prison. Verily, I say unto thee, 
thou shalt by no means come out until thou 
hast paid the last farthing. So shall it 
be done to you, nation! if you forgive 
not everyone your brother nation from your 
heart. 

If thou wouldst be perfect, first go, liber- 
ate all thy colonies, and then come, follow 
me, said Jesus to the rich nation. 

MUSIC HATH CHARMS 
TJENRY NEVINSON, the explorer, pays 
*■ ■*■ a tribute in the Baltimore, Md., Sun, 
to the people who could produce the spirit- 
uals which recently he heard in Lexington, 
Va.: 

Dwellers in the Southern States often bid 
us beware of sentiment in thinking of the 
Negro. Well, without being anything but 
a hardened old cynic who has seen all the 
evils of the world, and feels no surprise at 
them, I certainly find something irresist- 
ably attractive in the humor, the pathos, 
and the music of the Negro people, whether 
dark black or almost pale enough to be 
white. Partly, I suppose, it comes from the 
sight of a people suffering for the sins, not 
of their own race or of their own fathers, 
but of my race and my fathers, whose 
atrocious sins are visited upon the descend- 
ants of victims long ago. 

Southerners (and not Southerners only!) 
tell me that if I lived among "colored'' 
people, I should soon hate or fear or despise 
them just like everyone else. It might be 
so, but I cannot yet believe it. For I have 
known the African in his native forests of 
Central Africa, among the hills of Zulu- 
land, along the shores of Mozambique, and 
among the poisonous swamps of the West 
Coast; and though I have often been in 
danger in Africa, it was never from an 
African that the danger came. I have 
watched their savage rites of fetish and 
magic; have shared their savage games, 
and listened to their wild music of drum 
and ochisangi as they danced all night un- 
der the full moon outside their forest 
kraals. To some extent I have come to 
know their nature, and it is a fine peculiar- 
ity of man that sympathetic knowledge gen- 
erally brings liking. 

In the American "colored" people I seem 
to find much the same old traits that still 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



279 



distinguish the main family of their race — 
the generous good-humor, the irresistible 
laughter, the faithful response to the man 
who keeps his word to them, and above all, 
the delight in music and emotional art. 
Americans tells me I am wrong. They tell 
me it is actually dangerous even to suggest 
decent qualities in a Negro. It may be so; 
my experience in this country is very brief. 
But I have known the Negro at far lower 
levels of what is called civilization than 
here, and even at his lowest levels I have 
found some decent qualities. 

THE GLORY THAT WAS AFRICA 

\ FRICA emerges at the very beginning 
***• of history, says the New York Eve- 
ning Post: 

The view that the Negro's place in his- 
tory and civilization dates from about the 
time a Dutch ship brought the first slaves 
to Virginia is not confined to our South, 
but it is an utterly fantastic view. Not 
merely did the Negro build up powerful 
kingdoms in the Nile Valley. He traded 
with Solomon when Jerusalem was at its 
greatest importance, and sent gold, ivory, 
jewels and cloth to the first Greek and Sem- 
itic colonies in North Africa. When the 
advance of Mohammedanism began Negro 
converts to Islam helped to conquer North- 
ern Africa and Spain. Kingdoms almost 
worthy of comparison with Ethiopia arose 
and sank in various other parts of Africa. 
Archaeology is expected to supply much- 
more information upon the history and cul- 
ture of the Negro in earliest times, and 
will do its part to give the Negro a larger 
background and greater dignity. 
* * * 

One of those wonderful kingdoms was 
and is Abyssinia. The Boston, Mass. 
Transcript tells us: 

Yet here is a land where the reputed 
descendant of King Solomon still sits on a 
golden throne and rules over a Biblical peo- 
ple. . . . The Emperor, or Negus, 
seeks to stand pat on his descent from King 
Solomon, and receives the homage of his 
feudal princes, or rases, until, some day, 
they cease to pay homage, and overthrow 
him for another. From time to time, as 
we have said, Abyssinia is brought to the 
attention of the outside world by some rude 
collision with civilization. British citizens 
are abused by some King Theodore; some 
Sir Robert Napier goes with an army, chas- 
tises him, and returns Lord Napier or Mag- 
dala. Or Italy seeks to add Abyssinia to 
her colonial possessions, and undergoes the 
awful and overwhelming defeat at Adowa 
— a victory of barbarism over civilization 
which has left Abyssinia comparatively un- 
disturbed by European adventurers ever 
since. 

With it all, Abyssinia is a most interest- 
ing country. No country could fail to be 



interesting where the ruling classes, 
though claiming descent from the Jews of 
David's and Solomon's time have been 
Christians since the fourth century; where 
princes still live in castles and pay and ex- 
act feudal tribute; where a strong army 
lives by plunder, and the state bases a most 
singular financial system on a currency 
consisting of bars of rock salt and cart- 
ridges! Abyssinia is one of the most pic- 
turesque of lands, mountainous but not un- 
fruitful. Its farmers, as well as its towns, 
are those of the Old Testament. Its peo- 
ple, though mixed with Negro blood 
through the importation of black women 
as wives, are by the paternal line of an- 
cient Hamitic descent, and if well bred are 
of straight and handsome features, of an 
olive tint or quite fair. Hopelessly me- 
diaeval, "back numbers" to the extent of 
many centuries, they are nevertheless 
brightly intelligent. They are an anomaly 
among the nations. 

* * * 

What does Africa mean today to the 
American Negro? Certainly a dear Fath- 
erland but not, as the Mississippi Legisla- 
ture would seem to indicate, a place of re- 
turn. As the St. Louis, Mo., Globe Demo- 
crat points out: 

Any suggestion that the Negro popula- 
tion in this country can be materially re- 
duced by migration to Africa is fatuous. 
In the days of slavery the wishes of the 
individual counted for little after satisfac- 
tory arrangements had been made with his 
owner. But how could free-born American 
citizens of color be "sent" as the Mississip- 
pi resolutions request, to Africa if they did 
not want to be sent? Obviously the greater 
number would not want to be sent. The 
Negro is here to stay. His presence here 
may long give rise to a race problem, but 
proposed solutions must assume that his 
presence is going to continue. Solutions 
predicted on the possibility that he won't 
be present involve so violent an assumption 
as to be worthless. 

IN PASSING 

To William Edward Burghardt Du Bois: 
Du Bois in f) EA * WILLIAM: As an 

Cleveland ^ au £ h . or ' e l ltor ' scholar 
and public speaker, your con- 
tribution to the advancement of your race 
has been one of the greatest. You are a 
big asset to these United States, and to the 
world at large. — Moses Cleaveland, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Press. 

In /COLORED- kiddies of New- 

\^J ark, N. J., keep the statue 

Memoriam of Lincoln spotlessly clean. 

Each morning from three to five girls and 
boys in this tender and practical way show 
their appreciation of what the emancipator 
did for their race. — Detroit Free Press. 



280 



THE CRISIS 



Youth's ITTLE Sammy Lincoln 

Troubles "^ ^ ee * s J es ^ as ^lack as he 
kin be, an' he is pitchin fer 
our nine 'cause we don't draw no color line. 
Sam's got de coives; he's got de speed dat 
always keeps us in de lead, so we don't 
mind if he is black an' lives down by det 
railroad track. 

Las' week he strikes out fifteen guys, 
an' makes the rest hit pop-up flies. He's 
got a shine-ball dat's immense, an' when he 
t'rows dere ain't no dents put in it we'en 
dey swings dere clubs; Sam makes dem 
look like busher-dubs. 

But dere's de pity of it all — w'en Sammy 
grows up big an' tall, he won't be on no 
big league club, not even on de bench as sub, 
'cause big league players must be white, 
an' Sammy Lee is black as night. 

Las' Sunday, me an' Sammy seen a big 
league battle played between de Panthers 
an' de Kangaroos, an' little Sammy got de 
blues, fer as we watched it from a tree, 
he's puzzled an' he says ter me, "Where is 
de colored players at? I ain't see one go 
up ter bat!" So Billy Briggs an' me jest 
dream an' wonder if dere ain't some scheme 
to change Sam's color, black as tar, an' 
make him white like us kids are. — George 
Moriarty, in Ballads of Baseball. 



The Worm 
Turns 



LOUIS WESLEY, George 
Smith and George Nelson, 
Negroes who compose the board 
of School District No. 61, Nevada County, 
yesterday filed in the Supreme Court their 
appeal from a peremptory mandamus issued 
by Judge Haynie of the Nevada Circuit 
Court requiring them to build and maintain 
a school for white children of the district. 
The mandamus was issued in August, on 
petition of white residents of the districts, 
who declared that the Negro directors had 
made no provision for the white children, 
although they maintained a school for Ne- 
gro children. They testified that there were 
12 white children in the district. 

In their reply the directors said that 



there was no schoolhouse for children, but 
that a Negro school had been operated in 
the district for 38 years. They alleged that 
there were 100 Negro children of school age 
in the district, and that they had no funds 
with which to make provision for the white 
children. — Little Rock, Ark., Gazette. 



Guess The 
Answer 



pROFESSOR 



FLINDERS 
PETRIE says that nearly 
all the people that have been 
poured into America are Europeans, and 
they are all "at the same political and so- 
cial stage, of the same senility of civiliza- 
tion." We need to be mixed, he says, with 
"a race less sensitive in nerves, though not 
less perceptive in thought; and above all, 
it must be a race 'Which commands the re- 
spect and affection of those who have lived 
among it and know it best. I leave the read- 
er to think what cultivated race of the pres- 
ent world would fulfill these conditions." 
What race is it? Is it the Jewish race? 
If so, America must be all right. It cannot 
be the Eskimos; they are not a cultivated 
race. — Boston Transcript. 

Honor ^T^HE Avalanche believes firm- 

In Texas ■=- ly in giving the white folks 
preference every time, but until 

just recently it has been impossible to se- 
cure the help of white people in the homes, 
except at wages that none other than a rich 
man could afford, and to ask a white person 
two months ago to wash, would have been 
considered an insult. To ask a white man 
to sweep the floor of an office or a shop 
would have been considered equally such. 
Things have changed, however, and the 
writer is now employing two colored folks 
and ten to fifteen white people, but if the 
party who wrote this article [applying for 
a job], will apply at our office, we will give 
him or her either positions that these col- 
ored folks occupy, at the same wages, or 
even fifty percent above the wages they are 
drawing, and will do so cheerfully. — Lub- 
bock, Tex., Avalanche. 



THE RICH BEGGAR 

Mary Effie Lee Newsome 
T N jasper and onyx and gold 
- 1 - His city I soon shall behold. 

Paradise! 
Though on earth naught to me has been 

told 
Of jasper, in onyx and gold, 
Yet in spite of what earth may have doled, 
I've Paradise! 








May, 1922 



.X 




n 



tmm 



15 cents a copy 



Another Lighthouse to Help 

Chart Negro Business into 

The Right Channel. 

The Southern Aid Society's 
New Modern 3 story and 
basement building located 
at 106 and 106A South Ave., 
Petersburg, Va. 

Petersburg's first colored 
bank and its leading pro- 
fessional and business in- 
terests now have modern 
quarters within which to 
display their talents and 
wares. The Society's Dis- 
trict Office is located on 3rd 
floor. 

In addition to providing a superior policy of protection to 
its policyholders — the Society renders a threefold service to 
the race: 

It gives employment to hundreds of young women and 
men — It provides ready cash to its policyholders in times of 
sickness, accident and death — It provides, in the largest cities 
in its field of operation, modern office facilities to the colored 
professional and business interests. It is indeed a Servant of 
the People. 

SOUTHERN AID SOCIETY OF VIRGINIA, INC. 

Home Office: 527 N. Second Street, RICHMOND, VA. 

District Offices and Agencies in Virginia and 
the District of Columbia 




J. T. CARTER, Pres. and Gen'l Counsel 

W. A. JORDAN, Asst. Secty. 



B. L, JORDAN, Secty. 



THE CRISIS 

A RECORD OF THE DARKER RAGES 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND COPYRIGHTED BY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE, AT 70 FIFTH AVENUE. NEW YORK CITY. CON- 
DUCTED BY W. E. BURGHARDT DU BOIS; JESSIE REDMON FAUSET, LITERARY EDITOR- 
AUGUSTUS GRANVILLE DILL, BUSINESS MANAGER. 

Vol. 24 -No. 1 MAY, 1922 Whole No. 139 

Page 
COVER 

Painting by Albert Smith. 

OPINION 

The World and Us; Fighters or Cowards; Social Equality; Art for Noth- 
ing; Publicity; The Negro Farmer; Kicking Us Out; Wanted- • 7 

THE SYMBOLISM OF BERT WILLIAMS . Illustrated. Jessie Fauset 12 

THE LIBERIAN EXCURSION. Dr. L. G. Jordan 15 

MAY AGAIN. A Poem. Leslie Pinckney Hill 16 

THE FOOLISH AND THE WISE. A Story.' Leila Amos Pendleton 17 

SOME FRATERNAL ORDERS. Illustrated . ,23 

TO A DEAD FRIEND. A Poem. Langston Hughes 21 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED 

PEOPLE • • 22 

THE HORIZON. Illustrated 26 

MY LOVES. A Poem. Langston Hughes 32 

AN AFRICAN PROGRAM. I. M. Obadende 33 

THE LOOKING GLASS • • 31 

FIFTEEN GENTS A COPY; ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR 

FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTION TWENTY-FINE CENTS EXTRA 

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the subscription is due, a blue renewal blank is enclosed. 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: The address of a subscriber can, be changed as often as desired. 
In ordering a change of address, both the old and the new addres^ must be given. Two weeks' 
notice is required. 

MANUSCRIPTS and drawings relating to colored people are desired. They must be accom- 
panied by return postage. If found unavailable they will be returned. 

Entered as second class matter November 2, 1910, at the post office at New York, New 
York, under the Act of March 3. 1879, 



THE CRISIS ADVERTISER 



National Training School 

DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA 

A School for the Training of Colored Young 
Men and Women for Service 

Thougk it is young in history, the Institution feels a just pride in the work thus 
far accomplished, for its graduates are already filling many responsible positions, 
thus demonstrating the aim of the school to train men and women for useful 
citizenship. 

DEPARTMENTS ALREADY ESTABLISHED 

The Grammar Sckeol The Teacher Training Department 

The Academy The Divinity School 

The School of Arts and Sciences The Commercial Department 

The Department of Music The Department of Home Economics 

The Department of Social Semes 

For farther information and Catalog, address 

President James E« Shepard, Durham, North Carolina 



STATE OF NEW JERSEY 

Manual Training & Industrial School 

FOR COLORED YOUTH 

BORDENTOWN, N. J. 

A high InttltuttoB for th« training ef eolored 
youth. Exeellant equipment, thorough Instruction, 
wholesome surrounding*. Academic training (or all 
students. 
Courses In carpentry, agriculture and trade* for boys, 

Including auto repairing. 
Course* In domestls sclenee and domestle art for 

girls. 
A new trades building, thoroughly equipped. 
New* girls' dormitory thoroughly and ntedernly 

equipped. 
Terms 'easonable. 

For Information address 
W. R. VALENTINE, Principal 



Wiley University 

Marshall, Texas 

Recognized as a college of first class by 
Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas and Okla- 
homa State Boards of Education. Har- 
vard, Boston University, University of 
Illinois and University of Chicago repre- 
sented on its faculty. One hundred 
twenty-seven in College Department, ses- 
sion 1910-1920. Several new buildings, 
steam heated and electric lighted. 

M. W. DOGAN, President 



LINCOLN UNIVERSITY 

Pioneer in Collegiate and 
Theological Education 

Lincoln Men are Leaders in the various 
professions in Forty States. 

The College is ranked in Class I. by the 
American Medical Association. 

Address : 

John S. Senda.ll, D.D., Lincoln University, 
Chester County, Penna. 



The Cheyney Training 
School for Teachers 

Cheyney, Pa. 

A Pennsylvania Stat© Normal School offering, in addition 
to the regular Normal Course of two years, professional 
three year courses in Home Economics and Shop Work. A 
diploma from any of these courses makes a graduate 
eligible to teach in the public schools of Pennsylvania. 
A three-year High School Course is offered to all who 
have completed the eighth grammer grade. 

Next term begins September 18, 1922. 

For further particulars and catalog, write 

Leslie Pinckney Hill, Principal 
Cheyney, Pa. 

There Will Be No Summer S.chool for 1922 



Mention The Cr.sis. 



7-zH- THE CRISIS 



Vol. 24. No. 1 



MAY, 1922 



Whole No. 139 



Llipiivioiv 




THE WORLD AND US 

HERE has been war in South 
Africa. The editor of the 
Times tells us, "It was the 
blacks of the Rand who stood 
by the government best, for among 
the strikers they could not look for 
friends". And there you are again. 
In Chicago, in St. Louis, in New Or- 
leans and Oklahoma, in Liverpool and 
South Africa, it has been the white 
laborer who has driven the black man 
out into the desert and then stands 
stupidly wondering why black folks 
are "scabs" and do not "understand" 
the labor movement. 



White Christianity stood before 
Gandhi the other day and, let us all 
confess, it cut a sorry figure. This 
brown man looked into the eyes of the 
nervous white judge and said calmly, 
"It is your business to enforce the 
law and send me to jail; or if you do 
not believe that the law is right, it 
is your business to resign." Can you 
imagine such a judge resigning? 
Gandhi is in jail. So is English Chris- 
tianity. 



Again there is a King in Egypt. It 
is 6699 years ago since Menes, the so- 
called first king, reigned. Since his 
day many a Pharoah has ruled, black 
and red and white. The land has seen 
conquest and destruction, glory and 
misery; slavery under the Hyksos, 
the Greeks, the Persians, the Arabs, 
the Turks, and the English. It is 
filled today with Arabs, Negroes and 
Negroids, Turks, Jews, Armenians, 



and the mixture called "Egyptians". 
Its partial rebirth brings a new dark 
nation to the world; but England still 
remains its profit-taking master. 



In the Near East trouble still 
broods. The Turks are fighting for 
Constantinople backed by the French, 
against the ambitions of the Greeks 
backed more or less openly by Eng- 
land. Beneath lie the miserable mil- 
lions of the Balkans, crushed and 
raped for a thousand years. 



A bonus for soldiers or for sailors, 
for carpenters or for housewives is 
wrong in principle and illogical in 
practice. It is robbing Peter to pay 
Paul. It is taking from one pocket 
to fill another. It is setting false 
standards of justice and right. But 
the men who are to blame in the 
present demand for a soldiers' bonus 
are not the soldiers. They are the 
suave and lying politicians who prom- 
ised the bonus and anything else, 
easily, during the last campaign. 



There is a singular fight in the 
Methodist Church in which the black 
man is arbiter. The majority of 
white Methodists have realized long 
since that.it is false to say that all 
dancing, all card-playing, all theatre- 
going, and all "worldly amusements" 
are wrong. They wish to change the 
dictum of the church so as to accord 
with universal Christian practice. 
The black wing of the Methodist 
Church has long prevented this 
change. This is not only wrong; it 
is dangerous. 



THE CRISIS 



FIGHTERS OR COWARDS 

EVER has there been a time 
when the National Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of 
Colored People more sorely 
needed undivided support than to- 
day. The American Negro must 
learn, and indeed is learning, that the 
achievement of his aims in this coun- 
try necessitates the possession and 
the use of power. Some few crumbs 
may be thrown to him through phi- 
lanthropy, some few privileges may 
be granted him because of his pray- 
ers and petitions, but the funda- 
mental and enduring rights which he 
seeks can come only through the ex- 
ercise of power, power possessed by 
the Negro and exercised by him. 

For nearly eleven years, against 
what appeared at times to be insur- 
mountable opposition and unmovable 
apathy, in the face of numerous de- 
feats and discouragements, with 
meagre funds at our command, we 
have fought on in our efforts to arouse 
the public conscience of America to 
the dangers of the lynching evil. Our 
most signal victory in this struggle 
thus far was the passage of the Dyer 
Anti-Lynching Bill by the House of 
Representatives in January. 

There are those who feel that the 
fight is over with the gaining of that 
result. Far from it! Our most dif- 
ficult and bitter fight is now upon us ! 
Nearly everything that we have won 
can and will be lost if the Senate does 
not pass the bill ! We have some 
friends in that body but we also have 
many enemies. They are working 
night and day to prevent the bill from 
ever being brought to a vote. 

The N. A. A. C. P. is determined 
that there shall be no defeat — no 
equivocation — no compromise ! To 
that end it is launching its member- 
ship drive that more members, more 
money, more power may see the Dyer 
Bill passed by the Senate, and this 
great step forward taken toward the 



wiping out of mob murder. We urge 
— we plead — we pray that every lib- 
erty loving man and woman in 
America may hear our cry and work 
with us toward the reaching of our 
goal: the end of lynch law in Amer- 
ica! 

R. W. Bagnall. 



SOCIAL EQUAtlTY 

I want Social Equality? 
Certainly I do. Every nor- 
mal decent human being 
wants to associate with his 
fellowmen on terms of equality. We 
like to be invited out. We want peo- 
ple to want us. We are unhappy if 
we are ostracised and ignored and 
despised and forgotten. Booker T. 
Washington wanted social equality 
and got it. R. R. Moton accepts it 
whenever and wherever it is offered. 
I, he, they, everybody wants men to 
want us. 

If they do not want us — if they 
hate and despise us, very well. There 
may be little or nothing which we 
can do to change their attitude. But 
one thing we can do: we can refuse 
to hate and despise them or to say 
that we think hatred and contempi 
are fine human habits. 



We will surely never stultify our 
souls by seeking those who despise 
us, but equally we will refuse to lie 
and say that we ivish to be despised. 

The despising of men, regardle^i 
of gift and character, is a cruel crime. 
It must be abolished with other 
crimes and barbarities. Of course, 
we want it abolished. Of course, we 
want social equality and we know 
that we will never be real men until 
we get it. 

ART FOR NOTHING 

HERE is a deep feeling among 

many people and particularly 

among colored people that Art 

should not be paid for. Tfc? 

feeling is based on an ancient and 




OPINION 



fine idea of human Freedom in the 
quest of Beauty and on a dream that 
the artist rises and should rise above 
paltry consideration of dollars and 
food. 

At the same time everybody knows 
that artists must live if their art is 
to live. Everybody knows that if the 
people who enjoy the artist's work do 
not pay for it, somebody else must 
or his work cannot go on. Despite 
this practical, obvious fact, we are 
united with singular unity to starve 
colored artists. 

Mrs. Meta Warrick Fuller, the 
sculptor, recently did a beautiful piece 
of work for a great social movement. 
She was wretchedly and inadequate- 
ly paid for it; in fact, it would not 
be too much to say that she was not 
paid at all. And the movement con- 
gratulated itself upon its economy. 
Mrs. May Howard Jackson, whose 
portrait busts are a marvelous con- 
tribution to the history of the Negro, 
in years of work has not received a 
month's decent income. Mr. William 
A. Scott, whose painting is one of 
the finest things the Negro race has 
produced in America, has had a des- 
perate struggle to make a living. 
Richard Brown died of privation 
while yet a boy. 

Only in the case of our musicians 
have we been willing to pay anything 
like a return for their services, and 
even in their case we continually 
complain if they do not give their 
services for "charity". We have a 
few men who are trying to entertain 
and instruct the public through the 
writing of books and papers and by 
carefully prepared lectures. Few 
buy their books — they borrow them. 
The men are severely criticized by 
many because they ask pay for lec- 
tures. 

All this is wrong; it is miserably 
wrong; it is warning away exactly 
the type of men who would do more 



than any others to establish the righc 
of the black race to universal recog- 
nition. If work is honorable, then 
pay is honorable, and what we should 
be afraid of is not overpaying the 
artist; it is underpaying and starv- 
ing and killing him. 

PUBLICITY 

E learned during the Great 
War what Publicity could 
do. We saw its good ef- 
fects in bringing the truth 
before the people; we saw its bad 
effects in making millions believe lies. 
We are thinking of these bad effects 
so persistently since the war that 
Propaganda is in bad odor. But let 
us remember that in pitiless Publicity 
we have perhaps the greatest militant 
organ of social reform at our hands. 

In our own problem, the N. A. A. 
C. P. at the very beginning looked 
upon The Crisis as a first and abso- 
lutely necessary step. Until the best 
black and white people realized the 
facts concerning the Negro problem, 
there was no use discussing remedies. 
It is as true today as it was then. 

But further than that, if we want 
the economic conditions upon which 
modern life is based to be changed 
and changed for the better, we need 
first of all Publicity. The mass of men 
do not know the facts and there is 
not today any adequate effort to make 
all these facts known to the public. 
Not only that, but law and custom 
conspire to conceal the truth. 

What is the first knowledge which 
any reformer should have who wishes 
to improve or rebuild modern indus- 
try? It is the facts concerning In- 
come. The income of every human 
being, far from being a closely 
guarded secret, should be the most 
easily ascertainable economic fact. 
Secondly, the basis of that income 
should be known. It should be 
a matter of public knowledge by 
what work each individual gains his 



10 



THE CRISIS 



income and the character and extent 
of this work everybody should know 
or be able to find out. 

If the institution of private prop- 
erty is to persist and if it ought to 
persist, the fundamental fact con- 
cerning it should be easily ascertain- 
able; and that is, its exact and pre- 
cise ownership and whence that own- 
ership came ; and if the property is 
alienated, to whom the ownership is 
transferred. 

If individuals must be called upon 
to support the government, as they 
certainly must, it should be a matter 
of public information as to how much 
each individual contributes toward 
the public support. 

These are all simple fundamental 
facts. Progress, to be sure, has been 
made in the last few years in mak- 
ing these facts known. It is not too 
much to say that economic reform 
has succeeded in so far and only in 
so far as it was based upon the reve- 
lation of such facts. There was a 
time when a man's income was con- 
sidered an absolutely private matter. 
Today it is at least partially public 
through the working of the income 
tax. Tomorrow it will be absolutely 
public. Today it is only with great 
difficulty that we can surmise the 
ownership of anonymous corpora- 
tions. Tomorrow we will allow no 
corporation to exist whose ownership 
and control is not always a matter of 
accessible public record. Today a 
man's occupation is considered his 
own business. Tomorrow it will be 
the business and the prime business 
of each one of his neighbors. 

THE NEGRO FARMER 

N 1920 there were 218,612 
farms owned by Negroes. The 
Negroes owned in 1920, 13,- 
948,512 acres of land. The 
land and buildings were valued at 
$554,158,003. In numbers of owner- 
ships and acreage the Negro farmer 



has apparently just held his own in 
the war decade, but in value his land 
and buildings have increased as fol- 
lows: 

1900 $123,754,396 

1910 275,323,227 

1920 554,158,003 

The figures for 1920 are, of course, 
largely due to the prevailing price in- 
flation. The colored sub-committee 
of the National Agricultural Confer- 
ence have made a report in which 
they say among other things : 

"Due to the fact that slightly more than 
75 per cent of the Negro farmers are in 
the tenant class, we feel that an intensive 
and sympathetic study should be made of 
all conditions peculiar to this form of land 
tenure, to the end that we may be able to 
offer recommendations for the social and 
economic betterment of this class of our 
farming population. 

"As there is great suffering throughout 
the country among Negro farmers on ac- 
count of the lack of ready money, and as 
there are large quantities of farm products 
on hand for which they have not been able 
to find a market, we urge that special at- 
tention be given to the formation of co- 
operative marketing associations among 
this groups and wherever possible these 
farmers be accorded the same advantages 
in existing organizations in their respec- 
tive communities as other subscribing 
members. 

"There is much disisatisf action among 
the rural districts on account of poor school 
facilities which, in many cases, have been 
the cause for a general migration from the 
farms to the cities. Because of this we 
urge a more liberal support from the state 
and local governments. 

"We need a more generous Federal and 
State support of our Negro agricultural 
colleges and a closer supervision of their 
activities, as they constitute the principal 
sources for intelligent agricultural lead- 
ership. 

"There should be a more adequate dis- 
tribution of Federal funds that are allo- 
cated to the different states under the 
Smith-Lever and the Smith-Hughes Acts so 
that Negro farmers may receive a greater 
benefit, to the end that we may have a 
larger number of well-trained men and 
women to advise and to work in the rural 
districts. This is especially necessary be- 
cause of the fact that this class of our 
farming population has had less advantage 
than most of the other farming groups. 

This is, of course, a mild and tem- 
perate statement of the fact that 
there is widespread effort in the 



OPINION 



11 




South to keep Negro farmers ignor- 
ant, to hold them in peonage, and to 
refuse them their share of Federal 
funds. 

KICKING US OUT 

ROM Emancipation in 1863 
up until 1912 Negroes voted 
the Republican ticket as a 
matter of religion. The ef- 
fort of Taft to get rid of his obliga- 
tions to the Negro vote so disgusted 
black men that a concerted effort, led 
by the late Alexander Walters, was 
made to get Negro support for the 
Democrats in 1912. A special sec- 
tion of the National Democratic 
Campaign organization was devoted 
to this work and Candidate Wilson 
promised the Negro "Justice, and not 
mere grudging Justice." He was 
elected and did as near nothing to 
help the Negro as he possibly could. 
Some concessions came by sheer com- 
pulsion and war necessity but the net 
result was that the Democratic party 
said: We do not want Negro votes. 
In 1916 the Negro was between the 
Devil of Wilson and the Deep Sea of 
Taft, while Roosevelt rejected them 
from Bull Moose and catered to 
Louisiana. In 1920 Cox refused even 
to receive a Negro delegation and 
Harding got the Negro vote. Im- 
mediately he went to Texas and Flo- 
rida and consorted with the white 
southern politicians. Since then it 
has been reported again and again 
that he is very desirous of building 
up a white Republican party in the 
South; that he advises the Negro to 
follow white leaders and not aspire 
to lead himself. Finally Mr. Harding 
has openly and authoritatively invited 
at least half the Negroes to leave the 
Republican party. 

To some of our bewildered race 
this may appear not simply as a ca- 
lamity but as the absolute nullification 



of our political power. The Demo- 
crats won't have us and the Republi- 
cans don't want us. Is there any- 
thing to do but impotently wring our 
empty hands? 

There is. This is our opportunity ; 
this spells our political emancipation. 
Mr. Harding's sincere invitation 
should be accepted forthwith, and Mr. 
Cox's rejection should not be forgot- 
ten. We are invited not to support 
either of the old, discredited and 
bankrupt political parties. In other 
words, we are being compelled to do 
what every honest thinking American 
wants to do — namely, support some 
third party which represents char- 
acter, decency and ideals. Just as 
the two old parties have combined 
against us to nullify our power by a 
"gentleman's agreement" of non-re- 
cognition, no matter how we vote — 
in the same way they have agreed to 
nullify the vote of every forward- 
looking, thinking, honest American, 
The revolt against this smug and 
idiotic defiance of the demand for 
advanced legislation and intelligence 
is slowly sweeping the country. 

The longer it is held back by Czar- 
istic methods the more radical and 
bitter will be the eventual recoil. We 
are invited to join this radical re- 
action. We are compelled to join. 
We accept the invitation and rejoice 
in the compulsion. May God write 
us down as asses if ever again we are 
found putting our trust in either 
the Republican or the Democratic 
Parties. 

WANTED 

A YOUNG colored man of educa- 
T - tion and character to become tra- 
velling representative of The Crisis 
throughout the United States and to 
supervise our 800 agents and the re- 
newal of subscriptions. Apply by let- 
ter, giving the facts as to training 
and experience and copies of testi- 
monials. 

W. E. B. Dubois. 



THE SYMBOLISM OF BERT WILLIAMS 



Jessie Fauset 




HPO say that the average Negro is the Ne- 
-*■ gro artist's harshest critic would be un- 
doubtedly to state a truism whose deepest 
meaning would not be immediately appar- 
ent. Thus among many colored theatre- 
goers Charles Gilpin's rendition of The Em- 
peror Jones caused a deep sense of irri- 
tation. They could not distinguish between 
the artistic interpretation of a type and 
the deliberate travestying of a race, and 
so their appreciation was clouded. Our 
great fault is our inability to distinguish 
between a horizontal or class and a vertical 
or racial section of life. I need hardly add 
that the character of Emperor Jones is a 
class type. 





The Man 
EGBERT AUSTIN WILLIAMS 



The Child 

No such irritation bemused our under- 
standing of Bert Williams, for he was to 
us the racial type itself. That is why he is 
symbolic. 

By a, strange and amazing contradiction 
this Comedian symbolized that deep, in- 
eluctable strain of melancholy, which no 
Negro in a mixed civilization ever lacks. 
He was supposed to make the world laugh 
and so he did but not by the welling over 
of his own spontaneous subjective joy, but 
by the humorously objective presentation of 
his personal woes and sorrows. His role 
was always that of the poor, shunted, cheat- 
ed, out-of-luck Negro and he fostered and 
deliberately trained his genius toward the 
delineation of this type because his mental 
as well as his artistic sense told him that 
here was a true racial vein. 

This does not mean that he leaped by in- 
spiration into the portrayal of the black 
roustabout. Mr. Williams first took stock 
of his own limitation®. • He was used to 



12 



BERT WILLIAMS 



13 



considering these as a boy in the High 
School in California whence he had been 
brought some years after leaving his home 
in Nassau in the Bahamas. His first glance 
at those limitations revealed that he could 
not afford to attend Leland Stanford Uni- 
versity as he had dreamed; his second re- 
vealed that though he had a decided liking 
for the stage and even a slight possibility 
of gratifying his liking, color would proba- 
bly keep him from ever making "the legiti- 
mate." 

The field that) lay open to him then and 
in which he started was that of minstrelsy. 
During those first few months with his 
troupe it fell to his lot to brush shoes and 
press dress-suits, to polish the nickel on the 
banjos, to arrange the chairs in a semi- 
circle and finally to take his place in that 
same semi-circle. How his youthful eyes 
would have stared if he could have looked 
forward to the setting of a Ziegfeld pro- 
duction! Could he but have foreseen the 
weariness of the way! 

One day he took in as partner George 
Walker and the two appeared in vaudeville 
at the Midway Plaisance in San Francisco 
where they tasted the beginning of a fame 
destined to spread the world over. At first 
Williams was the clever man and Walker 
the fool, but very shortly they reversed their 
positions: "I'm funnier along this line than 
ycu," Williams said to his partner and so 
he proved himself. From that day on he 
never forsook the character of the sham- 
bling, stupid, wholly pathetic dupe. 

As his success grew, his ambitions soared, 
but always they brought him up against his 
boundaries, the wall of prejudice. Subjec- 
tively his power was limitless ; objectively it 
had to soar up but not outwards. With that 
most fundamental characteristic of true 
genius he took up the task of making the 
most of his restricted opportunities. With- 
out the slightest knowledge of the dialect 
of the American Negro, he set to work to 
acquire it. He watched, he listened, he 
visited various Negro districts North and 
South, he studied phonetics. He could make 
his listener distinguish between variations 
of different localities. He affected, his ad- 
mirers will remember, a shambling, shuf- 
fling gait Which at intervals in his act 
would change into a grotesque sliding and 
gliding— the essence of awkward natural- 
ness. But awkward or graceful, it was not 



natural to him, but simply the evolution of 
a walk and dance which he had worked out 
by long and patient observation of Negro 
prototypes. 

It took him years of practice and constant 
watchfulness to be able to portray to its 
fullest the shiftlessness, the dolefulness, the 
"easiness" of the type of Negro whose per- 
sistent ill-luck somehow endeared him to our 
hearts. He was so real, so simple, so credu- 
lous. His colored auditors laughed but often 
with a touch of rue, — this characterization 
was too near to us; his hardluck was our 
own universal fate. 

Everyone knows of the dramatic triumphs 
of the Williams and Walker troupe, from 
California to Chicago, then to New York 
where they played a thirty weeks' engage- 
ment with Koster and Bials (a record- 
breaker for those days) and finally an ap- 
pearance before King Edward VII at Buck- 
ingham Palace. This triumph would have 
meant to another the zenith of a career, 
not only would he have failed to go beyond, 
he would have thought there was no beyond. 
To Mr. Williams it was only the stepping- 
stone to the attainment of greater perfec- 
tion. While in London he studied with 
Pietro the art of pantomime and from him 
he evolved those curiously short-ranged, 
awkward but sure gestures which supple- 
mented so well the workings of his face. 
That wonderful face mobile and expressive 
even under its black paint! 

Painstakingly, bit by bit, he made himself 
a great artist; what power of mimicry he 
possessed natively he used; what he lacked 
he picked up by careful study until that, 
too, 'Was his own; at last constructively and 
spontaneously he became a great luminary 
in the world of comic art. Ziegfeld realized 
this and after the death of Walker took 
him on in the "Follies" where for a long 
time he struck the truest artistic note in 
that medley of banality, rich costumes and 
shining flesh. His marriage was unusually 
happy, his coffers were sufficiently full, his 
friends were many, his love of books for 
which he possessed an unusually nice appre- 
ciation was gratified. He found pleasure in 
his music. But something irked. 

He could not forget his color and the 
limitations it imposed on him in his chosen 
field. In spite of his greatness he was un- 
usually modest. He did not push himself, 
he was tolerant in the presence of intoler- 



14 



THE CRISIS 



ance, but he simply could not understand 
"what it was all about. I breathe like 
ether people," he said, "I eat like them — put 
me at a dinner and I'll use the right fork. 
I think like other people. In London I am 
presented to the King, in France I have sat 
at dinner with the president of the republic, 
while here in the United States I am often 
treated with an air of personal and social 
condescension by the gentleman who sweeps 
out my dressing room or by the gentleman 
whose duty it is to turn the spotlight on me. 

"And yet it was here in the United 
States that a war was fought in the sixties 
about a certain principle. It seems strange, 
doesn't it?" 

Others of us find it strange, too. 

At last, this very year, he was billed to 
feature in a play written specially for him, 
in which he was the star, in which all the 
action centered about him. "Under the 
Bamboo Tree" was a charming farce and 
admirably suited to the quiet drollery of the 
man whom Al Weeks styled our "gentlest 
comedian". And in the midst of it after 
he had isung for a few nights his song 
called "Puppy Dog" in which he likened his 
own loneliness in the play to that of a 
homeless, friendless mutt to whom he said 
"when you die no one will care because 
they'll say 'only a puppy dog has gone' " — 
after all this he collapsed one night quite 
suddenly in the theatre and came back to 
New York to die. 

But everybody cared! 

The press was instant with expressions of 
sympathy, regret and appreciation. He was 
called our greatest comedian and compared, 
as indeed he deserved to be, with those 
other great wits of the world, Shakespeare 
and Moliere and Mark Twain. In the bitter 
bleakness of a March day fifteen thousand 
people thronged the streets to his funeral; 
there were two services, one at St. Philip's 
in Harlem, another at the Temple of the 
Grand Lodge of the Order of Masons. We 
were all proud to know of his plaudits, we 
knew he merited them, but with our pride 
was mingled a passionate strain of resent- 
ment. If the world knew of his great possi- 
bilities why had it doomed this stalwart, 
handsome creature, to hide his golden skin, 
his silken hair, his beautiful, sensitive hands 
under the hideousness of the eternal black 
make-up. Why should he and we obscure our 



talents forever under the bushel of preju- 
dice, jealousy, stupidity — whatever it is that 
makes the white world say: "No genuine 
colored artist; coons, clowns, end^men, clap- 
trap, but no undisguisedly beautiful presen- 
tation of Negro ability." 

The irony of it has made us all a little 
sadder so much so that when this morning 
I. who unfortunately did not know him, read 
in the Tribune: "Eddie Cantor gets a clean 
face", my eyelids stung with the prick of 
sudden tears. 

That is a fine concept which Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes gave to mankind from his con- 
templation of "The Chambered Nautilus". 
He bids us rear for life one stately mansion 
after another, each embracing and overtow- 
ering the preceding one: 

"Let each new temple nobler than the last 

Shut thee from heaven with a dome more 
vast, 

Till thou at length art free." 

It is pleasant to think of Mr. Williams 
thus building the structures of his life : first 
his little profession of minstrelsy, then his 
partnership and success with Mr. Walker; 
his appearance before nobility and royalty; 
bis entre, as a feature-artist into the Fol- 
lies — an unprecedented stride that for the 
colored man; — and finally his triumphant 
emergence as a star — still in black-face. 
And beyond and around all these structures 
he reared the unfailing quality and preci- 
sion of style which was the impress of his 
art. But greater than any of these tow- 
ered the temple of his character, of that 
disposition which left him for all his great- 
ness gentle, modest, unenvious; which for 
all his heartbreak left him without bitter- 
ness, able to oppose to intolerance a mild 
and thoughtful kindliness, and to offer an 
intense appreciation to those who without 
prejudice recognized and loved him. The 
dome of this temple grew so vast that it 
touched the sky — and he "at length is free." 

His resignation to suffering took the 
sting out of the malevolence of fate. 

I have tried jealously to keep Bert Wil- 
liams with his struggles, his triumphs, his 
heartbreaks and his consolations as the sym- 
bol of our own struggling race. But is not 
the part he played as the helpless creature, 
— always beaten, always conquered,: — sym- 
bolic of all poor human flesh which is ever 



THE LIBERIAN EXCURSION 



15 



Worsted by life or the things of life, by love 
or the lack of love, by poverty or riches, by 
loneliness or a satiety of companionship? 
Yet does not this same poor human flesh 
meet all this with a tear, a sigh, a shrug, 
a brave smile and the realization that this 
is life? All that the most unfortunate can 
do — provided he wills to live — is to buckle 
down to life and try it again. 

In one of the plays which Mr. Williams 
shared with Mr. Walker, the latter in the 
role of the haughty, ungrateful sharper or- 
ders his victim from his doors. Bert can 
not believe that he means this but Walker 
assures him that he does. 

"All right," says Bert sadly, shambling, 
stumbling inimitably across the stage, "I'll 



go." But as he reaches the exit he straightens 
up and thunders in that wonderful voice of 
his: "But I shall return." 

It was pitiful, it was funny, it was life. 

Without hope we could not live. And 
so we hope that Bert has found the answer 
to his song "somewhere the sun is shining — 
but where?" — and that he is basking in the 
warmth and glow of unstinted artistic com- 
radeship and appreciation. But more than 
that we hope that his death and the stream 
of appreciation which it evoked — alas too 
tardily — will teach this silly, suffering old 
world to lay aside its prejudices, its tradi- 
tions, its petty reserves and to bestow honor 
where it is due — when it is due. 

Thus at length shall we all be free. 




'FIFTEEN THOUSAND PEOPLE THRONGED THE STREETS TO HIS FUNERAL' 



THE LIBERIAN EXCURSION 




Dr. L. G. Jordan 




A S to our ship proposition, it temporar- 
■*■*• ily failed. The facts are: 

First: We negotiated with the American 
Travel Club of Baltimore to whom we paid 
$4,000, and on a technicality were thrown 
down by them; and with boldness they are 
attempting to keep our money. We are sue- 
ing them for the $4,000 and damages, and 
a good law firm says we have a fine case. 

Second: We got in touch with Mr. An- 



thony Crawford of the Inter-Colonial 
Steamship & Trading Company, 198 Broad- 
way, New York. We paid him $2,500 on 
the chartering of a ship, at which time he 
authorized us to advertise our cruise to 
sail on December 10. With faith in him 
and a belief that all was well, we proceeded 
to advertise the dedication of our boat and 
the sailing; then finally he told us that 
the company refused at the last minute to 



16 



THE CRISIS 



charter the boat, but would sell for $65,- 
000, allowing us eight months to pay for 
the boat. We were to pay $8,125 down, and 
to give a bonding company's security for 
$57,000. We got this Sum together as re- 
quired; then we were informed that the 
bond must be made by one man, not by the 
company as a whole. We met this demand, 
and were next confronted with the notifica- 
tion that the boat could not be turned over 
to us unless we paid $45,000 cash down; 
there we struck. 

However, the promoters, who are Bishop 
Heard, Dr. Jernigan, Dr. Wright, Jr., Major 
R. R. Wright, Sr., Dr Callis, Major York 
and the undersigned, are in duty bound to 
see that those who secured tickets are re- 
funded their money. Some of these have 
already received theirs, and if the Lord 
spares my life, with the co-operation of 
my colleagues, not one shall lose the money 
he paid for his ticket. 

Because of the slowness of the courts, we 
may be tardy; but I believe all will come 
right. Nine of our party have gone for- 
ward to Africa, one by England, one by 



France, and seven by Spain. Of the amount 
refunded, I have paid $425 personally and 
only one other of my companions has paid 
$30. 

I hope we shall have the brotherly sym- 
pathy of all, since I am reasonably sure 
none of us wishes to do wrong in the mat- 
ter. It has been an honest effort to get our 
people in touch with Africa, the oppressed 
and needy Africa. Her redemption will yet 
come to pass. I believe from the depths of 
my heart that our coming here in 1619 was 
directly providential, in order that a pre- 
pared number should in time return and 
rave the continent from which we were 
stolen. God is just. It will yet come to 
pass. 

Meantime we have made arrangements 
with the American and African Tourist 
Company, a Spanish firm, to act as their 
agents in securing passage for persons wish- 
ing to go to Africa via the Canary Islands 
and Cadiz. First-class passage is $460; 
second, $319; and third, $211. Steerage is 
$155. There is a 10 percent reduction for 
round-trip tickets. 



MAY AGAIN 




Leslie Pinckney Hill 




A GAIN the southern winds at ease 
**■ * Caress the blossom-laden trees, 

While o'er the heavens gay 
Is writ in gold and hues of wine, 
A brightly-blazoned script divine — 
"May comes again, sweet May." 

Again what glories wake the dawn, 
And how old warrior Trouble, wan 

And weak, is driven out; 
With what clear throats the grackles sing, 
How musical the drone bee's wing, 

And how the children shout! 

Four walls are all too narrow now — 
I follow where the sturdy plow 

Has turned the fragrant mead; 
Where growing green things rise in line 
Like soldiers, or where soft-eyed kine 

On new-sprung grasses feed. 

And sweeter than all nature rife 
With song and bloom, that zest of life 

Which fills the spirit up 
With joy new-born of homely food, 



And peace that whispers "God is good," 
And overruns my cup. 

what of the dream that faded fast, 

Or the fickle "gleam" that glanced and 
passed, 
Or the wine that turned to rue! 

1 hold a wand, as May can vow, 
With magic healing, and somehow 

The heavens and earth are new. 

Reborn of hope, in courage clad, 
I am a bold Sir Galahad 

On quests that cannot fail; 
For with new vision now I see 
That One Who daily walks with me 

Holds up the Holy Grail. 

l'envoi 

O wonder love, whose tender might 
Through checkered years of cloud and light 

Has been both balm and goad, 
Be thou my May when winters chill, 
My Sarras set upon a hill, 

The ending of my road! 



THE FOOLISH AND THE WISE 

Sanctum 777 N. S. D. C. 0. U. Meets Cleopatra 




A STORY 

Leila Amos Pendleton 



THE hour for opening had passed but, 
strange to say, Sister Sallie Runner, 
the All Highest Mogul of Sanctum 777, 
"Notable Sons and Daughters of Come On 
Up," had not yet arrived. The members 
stood around in groups and wondered what 
had happened, for Sis Runner was never 
late. True the Vice-All Highest, Sister 
Susan Haslum, was present and technically 
it was her duty to open the meeting; but 
the members of the Sanctum had a very 
poor opinion of her ability. Sally had 
once voiced the general feeling when she 
said to her: 

"Sis Haslum, seems lak to me dat yo 
knowlidge box is alius onjinted an' de 
mentals of yo mind clean upsot. How yo 
spect to rule dis Sanctum wen yo time 
come I cain't tell. Pears lak to me de bes' 
thing we kin do will be to 'lect yo Grand 
Past All Highest an' give yo de grand claps 
now an' be done wid it. Den we won't 
have to worry wid yo settin' in dis cheer 
an' trying to zide." 

The suggestion was not acted upon, but 
as the members waited tonight they wished 
very earnestly it had been; for then Sister 
Tulip Bawler would have been in line to 
preside (as she was Most Mightiest), and 
no one doubted her ability. When the 
thoughts of the members had reached this 
uncertain state, Notable Brother Brown 
spoke up: 

"High Notables, Sons and Daughters, 
Brothers and Sisters, Officers and Mem- 
bers," he said, "I moves dat we close dis 
here Sanctum tonight befo' we opens it an' 
journey 'round to Sis Runner's house to 
see what all's de matter wid her." 

"Sho! Sho! To be certingly," responded 
the Sanctum unanimously, but just as they 
were putting on their wraps, in bustled 
Sallie, breathless but smiling. 

"I knowd it," said she, as soon as she 
could catch her breath, "I jes knowd you 
all would git tired a waitin'. I tole Rev- 
eral Runner so. But dat man is some sick 
an' whut part ain't sick is scared to death ; 
an' no wonder, as much debilmunt as he's 



alius up to. Jes as I were puttin' on my 
hat to come here he dragged in de doe, 
lookin' lak a ghost. 'Brudder Runner', 
says I, 'Is dat yo or yo apparutus?' He 
diden make no answer but jes pinted to his 
chist. Wal, yo orter seen me hop 'round. 
Yo know he already done had newmonny 
twict. I had some creso an' dats good for 
de longs; den I chopped up some Turmooda 
onyuns an' bound him up in dat an' salt. 
When he mence to feel better I turned him 
over to Obellina. She's jes as gooda nuss 
as me an' she are wrapped up in her pa 
cause she ain't on to his curbs. Come on, 
chilluns, less open de lodge. We'll leave 
off de gowns an' crowns an' mit de regular 
openin' cause it's so late, but I gotta fine 
ole anncienty story to tel yo an' dis time 
it's 'bout a cullud lady." 

At this the Sanctum was all excitement 
and officers and members hurriedly took 
their stations. Sallie gave the altar in 
front of her five raps, then said she, "High 
Notibuls, yo kin pass to de .secertary's 
desk one by one an' pay yo dues. Sis 
Dolum an' Sis Spots tend to passin' de 
cookies. Does yo all think you kin do all 
dem things an' lissen to me too?" 

"Oh yas, All Highest," came a number 
of voices. "We's jes crazy to hear yo." 

"Wal," proceeded Sallie, in her stateli- 
est manner, "dis here lady Pse goin' to 
tell 'bout tonight were bornd right spang 
in Egupt an' dats in Afriky. She were a 
sho nuff queen too, wid lords an' ladies an' 
scjers an' servunts. Her name were Clea 
Patrick." 

"All Highest," cautiously inquired Sis- 
ter Ann Tunkett, Vice-Most Mightiest, "is 
yo rale sho she were cullud?" 

"I is," responded Sallie. "Cose, Mis 
Oddry beat me down she warat, but I 
knows better 'cause I were lookin' right at 
her. She were one a dese here high browns 
wid. wavy hair an' rosy cheeks, lookin' jes 
lak dat Donarine Elett whut were runnin' 
arter Reveral Runner dat time. Least he 
'cuse her of runnin' arter him wen dey got 
cot up wid, but I knows who were doin' de 
most runnin'." 



17 



18 



THE CRISIS 



"Is Mis Oddry got Clea Patrick's picter, 
All Highest?" inquired Sis Tunkett. 

"Yas; an' de nex' time yo come 'round 
I'll show it to yo. Clea Patrick were one 
cf dese here long-haided, long-nosed, long- 
eyed, slim gals dat jes nachel come into de 
world to make trubble. An' she sho made 
it. Fust off her King pa died wen she 
were only eighteen years ole an' lef his 
kentry fur her an' her lil brudder Tallmy 
to rule over togedder. But whut should 
Tallmy's gardeens do but grab de whole 
bisn ss an' leave Clea wid nuffin." 

"Now ain't dat jes lak some men!" ex- 
claimed Sis Bawler. "Seem lak de vurry 
idear of Wimmin rulin' anything but de 
cook kitching sets um wild." 

"It's de fack— trufe," replied Sallie. "Yo 
all knows dat as long as I were settin' on 
dis floor Brudder Runner were a jim-dandy 
member of de 'Come On Ups'. Soon as I 
mence to move 'round de cheers, he mence 
to git restless. Den wen yo all 'lect me 
All Highest he jes nachel coulden stan' it. 
So he goes off an' jines dat 'Everlastin' 
Order of Hezzakites' an' he aint been back 
here sence." 

"Dats right, All Highest. Dats jes whut 
he done, but I nuvver seen through it be- 
fo'," said Vice-Most Mightiest Tunkett. 

"Wal I seen through him. He's jes da 
same as a winda-pane to me. But ef I'da 
knowd whut I knows now or ef I'da liss- 
ened to my ma he'd nuwer got me in his 
clinches. Longs as I diden do nuthin but 
work fur him an' be a skillyun he were as 
pleased as punch, but jes as soon as peepul 
act lak dey thot I could do sumpin else 
sides dat he got sore. An' dat was de 
vurry way dem men acted wid Clea Pat- 
rick. But dey diden know her yit! Ha! 
Ha! Dey haden foamed her quaintence. 
She skipped 'round an' got herself a big 
army an' de way she fout um were sumpin 
pretty, 'cause evry one of dem sojers was 
in love wid her. Den right in de middle 
of all dat here come dat Julyus Siezer." 

"Who were he, All Highest?" inquired 
Sis Haslum. 

"Why he were dat great Roaming gin- 
eral sumpin lak Elleckzandry, only he were 
borned a long time arterward. Wal as 
soon as he got in gunshot of her, Clea 
Patrick mence rollin' dem long eyes at him. 
She done a right cute thing doe — she wind 
hersef all up in a big bufull rug an' make 



her servunts carry it to Siezer an' say, 
'Here's a present Queen Clea Patrick 
sont you.' Den wen dey onroll it, out she 
jump an' dat ole jack went crazy over her. 
Now he were ole nuff to be her grandpa 
an' he had a wife at home, sides bein' 
bald-haided, an' dey warn't no scuse fur 
de way he carried on." 

"Wal, All Highest," drawled Most Might- 
iest Bawler, "Yo know whut dey say bout 
a ole fool." 

"Yas," returned Sallie, "an' I aint nuv- 
ver seen dat sayin' fail yit. Dis here 
Siezer were a good zample of it, too. Why 
he took Clea Patrick back to Roam wid 
him an' put her in a fine palace an' was 
gittin' ready to go. fum extreemity to ex- 
tremity. But dem Roamings say, 'Looka 
here, we's tired a dis foolishness. Nuff's 
good as a feast. We all caint die togedder 
— somebuddy is got to die fust an' it 
might's well be yo.' So dey jump on Siezer 
in de State House one day an' fill him fulla 
daggers." 

"Oh! Oh! My! My!" cried the Sanctum. 

"Yas indeedyj" replied Sally nonchalant- 
ly. "Cose when I fust got quainted wid 
dem ole anncienties, dat murdari/n' an' 
momockin' way dey had worried me a lot. 
But Ise usedta it now. Yo know you kin 
git usedta anybuddy dyin' but yosef. Wal 
wen dis here Siezer died, Clea Patrick lit 
out fur home an' took dey lil son Siezeron 
wid her. An' its a good thing dey got 
away so slick 'cause dem Roamings woulda 
finished um bofe. But it do seem lak pee- 
pul nuwer knows whut dey ralely wants. 
When Siezer were daid evrybuddy got sor- 
ry an' when his will were read an' dey 
found out dat he had left a whole lotta 
money to de vurry ones dat had kilt him, 
why dem Roamings rose up an' made dose 
killers fly an' burnt up all dey homes an' 
done um up so bad dey wisht dey nuwer 
hada seen dat Siezer, less mo' kilt him." 

"Wal," Most Mightiest Bawler inter- 
posed, "doesn't yo think dat were fair an' 
square, All Highest?" 

"Oh, I guess so," the All Highest re- 
plied, "but dem ole anncienties done so many 
quare things yo nuwer coud tell whedder 
dey was comin' or goin'. Wal, arter Siezer 
were daid his main frend name Mark an 
Tony took up de battle. Arter fightin' in 
evry derection he wint sailin' down to 
Egupt. When Clea Patrick heerd he were 



THE FOOLISH AND THE WISE 



19 



comin' she diden git into no carpet dis 
time. No indeedy! She puts on her glad- 
des' rags an' jewls an' fumes an' gits in 
her fines' boat all kiwered wid gold an' 
silver, an' has her servunts all decked in 
dey grandes' clothes holdin' parasols over 
her an' wavin' fans at her an' way she 
sail to meet Mark an Tony. She already 
knowd him wen she were in Roam wid dat 
Siezer an' mebbe dey lak one another den, 
yo can't tell. Anyhow dey sho lak each 
udder arter at meetin'. Sho did!" 

"Ef she look anything lak Donarina an' 
was all fixed up lak 3 r ou says, I knows she 
were one uwermo hartbreaker," put in 
Sis Haslum. 

Sallie transfixed her with a look and 
went on. "Mark an Tony furgot all erbout 
Roam an' home an' wife an' everything 
but Clea Patrick. He warnt no ole man 
lak Siezer so dey was mo' on a quality. 
Dey played games togedder an' went a 
huntin' an' a fishin' togedder lak lil boy 
an' gurl. Sides, Clea would sing to Mark 
an' play fur him an' talk to him in seben 
langwitches." 

"It's a wunder Mark's wife haden got 
onto urn," commented Sis Tunkett. 

"She did. She were one of dem strong-arm 
wimmin an' she starts up a great war, 
hopin' dat Mark will come on home an' 
git into it; but he were too busy. He an' 
Clea useter dress up in masks an' servunt's 
clothes at nights an' run up an' down de 
streets an' play Holler Ween pranks on 
peepul when it warnt no Holler Ween. 
Den agin dey would put on dey grandes' 
robes an' crowns an' give de bigges' kinda 
ceptions to dey frends an' eat an' drink tel 
dey coulden see. An' den in the middle of 
dem doins Mark's wife urped an' died." 

"Ah, de pore soul!" sighed Sis Haslum, 
"Dat Clea Patrick orta be shamed a her- 
sef." 

"Wal," resumed the All Highest, "Mark 
went on to meet the yuther great Roaming 
gineral name Tavius an' what should he do 
but make up a match 'tween his sister an' 
Mark." 

"Good gosh!" excaimed Sis Bawler, "an' 
Clea Patrick yit livin'? Now don't you 
know dere's trubble comin' in lobs an' gobs ? 
Diden dat Tavius had gumption nuff to 
know dat a man whut wont be true to one 
wife, won't be true to two?" 

"Wal," Sallie replied, "pears lak of he 



uvver knowd it he furgot it or else he 
were hopin' fur de bes'. Anyhow, fur a 
while Mark kep' rale straight. But arter 
while he hadta leave home to go to de wars 
agin an' when he got not so fur fum Clea 
Patrick — uh! uh! — he sont fur her an' give 
her not rings an' bracelits an' things lak 
dat, but rivers an' mountings an' cities an' 
countries." 

"Jes whut I knowd!" triumphed Sis 
Bawler. "Dese here madeup matches al- 
us scares me. Land knows deres times 
wen its harda nuff to stand a match yo 
done made yosef, less mo 'one dats made 
fur yo." 

"Mark an Tony found dat out aright. 
He done a lil mo' fightin' 'round erbout den 
he hikes hissef spang down to Egupt an' 
dar he stays wid Clea Patrick." 

"Ah ha!" Sis Bawler cried. "Tole yo so! 
Tole yo so!" 

"But," Sallie went on, "clem Roamings 
feel dersef much more degraced by Mark 
an Tony's doins, an' dey is tired a Clea 
Patrick hoodoodlin' dey bes' ginerals so 
dey clar war agin her." 

"Serve her jes right!" Sis Tunkett cried 
indignantly. "Don't care ef she were a 
cullud queen. I don't hole wid no sich 
capers. She orta lef dem wimmins' hus- 
bunds lone." 

"Dats right! Dats right!" chorused the 
Sanctum. 

"Yas," Sallie agreed. "My ole mudder 
alius said dat 'Right wrongs no one.' Wal, 
Mark an Tony an' Clea Patrick gethered 
all dey sojers an' sailurs an' off dey go to 
f.ght de Roamings. Wen de battle got hot, 
Clea got scared an' back home she went 
ascootin. Stidda Mark an Tony stayin' 
dere an' fightin' lak a rale sojer, whut muss 
he do but take a fast boat an' lite out arter 
Clea Patrick. Cose wen de leaders lef, the 
sojers stop fightin' an' de inimy captured 
dem all an' den hiked out arter Clea an' 
Mark." 

"Wal warn't dat sumpin!" exclaimed Sis 
Haslum. 

"Dem two," continued Sallie, "knowd 
evrything were over den, so dey et an' 
drunk an' carried on wusser dan uwer, 
tel dem Roaming^ come clean into de city. 
Den Clea Patrick hide sersef wid her 
maids in a big monimint an' made her ser- 
vunts tell Mark she were daid. I caint 
imagine why she done dat 'cause dat news 



THE CRISIS 



on top a all de res' of his trubbles jes 
nachel broke his heart an' he run his own 
swoad clean fru his body. Den when dey 
come back an' say Clea Patrick warnt daid 
he made dem carry him to her. I reckon 
dey love one another much as dem kinda 
peepul kin, 'cause when she saw him dyin' 
at her feet, she 'cides she diden wanta live 
widout him. So she put a pizenous wiper 



in her breast to sting her an' in a lil while 
she were dead." 

"Poe thing," Sis Haslum sighed. "Poe 
thing. Mebbe ef her ma hada lived she 
woulda been a better gurl." 

"Mebbe so," answered Sallie, "mebbe so. 
High Notabuls, de hour is late. We will 
close by singin' 'Dy soul be on dy gard\ " 



SOME FRATERNAL ORDERS 




FROM an unorganized inchoate group 
which had the church as its sole so- 
cial center, the Negroes of the United 
States have in the last thirty years be- 
come intricately and effectively organized. 
Much of the information concerning these 
organizations is difficult to obtain because 
the written reports have to do with prac- 
tical matters rather than with history and 
development. However, the Crisis is at- 
tempting to gather up some of these most 
interesting facts. 

Next to the church among us come the 
secret and fraternal orders. They date 
back to the 18th century and include not 
only the well known orders current among 
the whites but many new and interesting 
experiments. 

At the session of the white order of the 
Knights of Pythias in 1869, an application 
for a charter for colored citizens of Phila- 
delphia was refused. Thereupon certain 
colored men in Mississippi who had been 
initiated into the order established on 
March 26, 1880, the "Knights of Pythias 
of North America, South America, Europe, 
Asia and Africa." In 1887 the order di- 
vided into two parts, one keeping the old 
name and the other known as the "Knights 
cf Pythias of the Eastern and Western 
Hemispheres." This latter organization 
we shall consider in a future article. 

The original order had 27,212 members 
in 1901; 69,331 in 1905; 126,227 in 1919; 
158,442 in 1921. In 1921 there were 3,723 
lodges. The national, state and local or- 
ganizations have invested $2,321,641 in 
real property and their total resources in- 
cluding this property and funds on hand 



amounted in 1921 to $3,920,818. The order 
cwns a beautiful national temple in New 
Orleans, numbers of other buildings, and has 
established a bathhouse and sanitarium in 
Hot Springs. It has an endowment in- 
surance department with sick and death 
benefits and a department for women 
known as the Order of Calanthe. The Su- 
preme Commander is Mr. S. W. Green, of 
New Orleans. 

The "Independent, Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks of the World" was 
also founded because the white order re- 
fused Negroes. It was organized in 1899. 
For a while it met difficulties and became 
divided into two parts. Finally in 1911 
it was united into one body and the report 
for 1920 shows a total membership of 29,- 
143. It has 209 lodges and owns proper- 
ty worth $216,100, together with cash on 
deposit amounting to $165,239. It pays 
sick and death benefits and does a good deal 
of charitable work. In 1920, $28,813 was 
paid in, in sick benefits and $27,525 for 
deaths; $11,565 was expended in charity. 
Mr. George W. F. McMechen of Baltimore 
is the Grand Exalted Ruler. 

The "Mosaic Templars of America" is 
one of the orders founded by Negroes and 
originating with them. It was organized 
in 1882, being founded by the late Mr. C. 
E. Bush, of Little Rock, Ark. Since 1917 
it has grown steadily and now claims over 
100,000 members. The main office in Lit- 
tle Rock, has a force of 22 clerks and han- 
dles assets of the order amounting in 1921 
to $1,032,981, a large increase over the 
$298,988 income of 1917. It does an in- 
surance business and is regularly examined 
by the insurance commissioners of several 



TO A DEAD FRIEND 



21 






G. "W. F. McMeclien 



S. W. Green 



S. J. Elliot 



states. The order reports 2,115 local or- 
ganizations added since 1917 but makes no 
report of the number before that time, 
which was probably small. Most of these 
organizations are in Arkansas, Louisiana 
and Alabama, and the order is chiefly a 
Southern organization. It has paid $850,- 
043 in death claims since July 1, 1917. It 
owns in real estate, $515,000, of wnich 
$360,000 is in Arkansas, $50,000 in Louisi- 
ana, and $85,000 in Alabama. The Nation- 
al Grand Master is Mr. S. J. Elliott. 

One of the newest organizations is that 
of the "American Woodmen". It was or- 
ganized in the State of Colorado, April 4, 
1921, by white men and patterned after 
similar societies among the whites. It had 
white officers and went on with only fair 
success, until 1910 when the white officers 



resigned and colored ones were appointed 
at the widespread demand of the colored 
members. Mr. C. M. White, of Austin, 
Texas, became the Supreme Commander 
and still holds that position. 

In 1910 the organization had a member- 
ship of 1,846 and in 1920 the membership 
had grown to nearly 60,000. The net 
available funds grew in the same period 
from $7,223 to $621,236. Its total assets 
were estimated at $1,000,000 in 1921, and 
its membership that year was near 70,000. 
It employs over 600 field officers, deputies 
and clerks. Its headquarters, in Denver, 
has 25 employees and a finely equipped and 
modern office. 

In future articles we hope to present facts 
concerning the Masons, the Odd Fellows, 
and other organizations. 



TO A DEAD FRIEND 




Langston Hughes 



'THHE moon still sends its mellow light 
■■" Through the purple blackness of the 

night; 
The .morning star is palely bright 
Before the dawn. 

The sun still shines just as before; 
The rose still grows beside my door, 
But you have gone. 

The sky is blue and the robin sings; 
The butterflies dance on rainbow wings 
Though I am sad. 

In all the earth no joy can be; 
Happiness comes no more to me, 
For you are dead. 



National • Associaiion for • (he • • - 
Advancement of Colored- People. 



ml- of- 



TO THE BRANCHES : GREETING! 

A YEAR ago I was returning from my 
trip across the continent, filled with 
a sense of the extent of the N. A. A. C. P., 
its work, its immense possibilities. There 
were so many new things I had to propose 
to the oi'ganization, so many plans for the 
branches! This year I have not gone 
afield, but I want now, when the member- 
ship drive is beginning, to greet my old 
friends among the branches, and the 
other friends whom I hope sometime to be 
able to see. 

My word of greeting is this : There 
was never a time when we had so excellent 
a chance to do constructive work as now. 
We had to spend many years chiefly in 
propaganda to get our idea before the pub- 
lic. Just as men advertise a new product 
for the market for months before they 
expect sales, so we for a long time had 
to be content with getting our ideas be- 
fore the country. But now we are begin- 
ning to be able to reckon our returns. 
The passage of the anti-lynching bill by 
the House and the favorable position it 
occupies in the Senate mark what I mean. 
The position of the Arkansas cases is an- 
other sign of our advancement. The time 
for constructive work is here. 

If the colonels, the captains, the lieu- 
tenants, the hundreds of workers who will 
go from meeting to meeting and from 
house to house canvassing for membership 
can only sell this idea of constructive work 
the drive must be an enormous success. 
And that means our work must be a suc- 
cess, for the work depends absolutely upon 
the support that the Negroes and their 
sympathizers give to the drive. We can't 
do our work unless you are back of us. 
Every day in our office, with its manifold 
activities, is your day, made possible by 
your support. If you stop, we must stop, 
if you double your energy, if you roll up a 
membership that is really worthy of the 
anti-lynching fight in Congress that your 
secretary has conducted, then we can quad- 
ruple its power. For we are at a point 



where our efficiency would multiply fast 
if we were able to increase our steno- 
graphic force, add a new worker here or 
there. We have not been able to do this. 
Our staff in New York is little if any 
larger than it was three years ago, and see 
our need! 

The stars are on our side in our battle 
today. Oppressed people are rising as 
they have never risen before. Comrades 
in Ireland, in India, in Egypt, hold out 
their hands to us. Every effort the Amer- 
ican Negro makes to better his position 
in the republic is an effort that helps the 
oppressed of the world. 

The National Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Colored People stands for the 
manhood of the Negro race. Every self- 
respecting colored working man and wo- 
man should be in it. It says to the nation 
that Negroes must be treated as men. So 
many white people like to treat them as 
children. Many Negroes, the Southern 
white tells us, want to be treated as chil- 
dren. Do they? Our southern branches 
must give the lie to that. We hold to the 
belief that the black child, quite as truly 
as the white child, is capable of the highest 
development, and is entitled to every oppor- 
tunity offered by the republic. We have 
fought for this for twelve years, and we 
have accomplished much. With a great 
backing behind us we can accomplish im- 
measurably more. 

Workers in the drive, see that this great 
constructive work goes on better than ever 
before. Carry our message to the people 
and in such a way that they must, if they 
are to avoid self-contempt, join in our 
cause. 

Mary White Ovington. 

THE ANTI-LYNCHING MEMBERSHIP 
DRIVE OF 1922 

AFTER eleven years of fight, victory 
against the great lynching evil of 
America seems to be in sight. The anti- 
lynching bill has been passed by the 
House; it is now in the hands of the Sen- 



22 



N. A. A. C. P. 



23 



ate. If it becomes law it will end lynch- 
ing by mobs. But it will become law only 
through the united efforts of our people. 
These efforts must be focussed through a 
central body. They must be wisely and ef- 
ficiently directed by that body. Scattered 
rnd contrary plans will work havoc to our 
cause. The splendid work already done 
by the N. A. A. C. P., through whose ef- 
forts sentiment against lynching has been 
awakened and the forces organized that 
pushed the bill through the House, proves 
that this is the logical central body through 
which the race should work in its fight to 
end lynching. 

But the N. A. A. C. P. must have larger 
numbers and greater funds to help in its 
efforts to get the Senate to pass the anti- 
lynching bill. This is the reason for the 
present Anti-Lynching Membership Drive. 

Never before has the N. A. A. C. P. 
been so highly regarded by the public. 
Every man not blinded by prejudice, ig- 
norant of its accomplishments, or utterly 
indifferent to the advancement of his race, 
realizes that its work must go on and 
should be willing to sacrifice for it. 

Our branches all over the country are 
making preparations for the drive — North 
and South, East and West. Over two hun- 
dred branches have already indicated that 
their drive machinery is ready or nearly 
so. Other branches are sending in mes- 
sages each day stating their preparation. 
The National Office is as busy as a bee 
hive, sending out supplies and answering 
drive queries and appeals. 

The southern branches are regaining 
their aggressiveness in their campaigns 
for membership. Houston, Texas, has of- 
fered to organize the dormant branches 
in that state which became inactive after 
the Shillady assault. Houston, itself, 
shows that it is unafraid by using win- 
dow cards for families that join the asso- 
ciation with this legend: "This Family is 
100 Per Cent Members of the N. A. A. C. 
P. for 1922." 

New Orleans is already in the midst of 
a vigorous campaign for 5,000 members, 
with a splendidly organized canvassing 
team. Shreveport, La., of notorious Ku 
Klux reputation, is actively engaged in a 
membership drive. In the extreme North, 
Portland, Me., and Duluth, Minn., stand 
ready, while in the extreme West, Los 



Angeles and Northern California along 
with many others, are girding up their 
loins for the gaining of great numbers of 
members. Washington, D. C, is out for 
25,000 members and is lining up 2,000 
lieutenants. New York City is determinetl 
to gain at least 10,000 members, and Phila- 
delphia is in the last stages of a campaign 
for 5,000 members. Rochester, N. Y., in- 
tends to win seventy-five per cent of its 
colored population for the Association. 
All this is most encouraging, and we urge 
every branch of the Association to fall in 
line, and to begin the preparation for the 
drive. 

Preparation is the key word. We cannot 
emphasize too much that a successful drive 
is impossible without adequate prepara- 
tion. Many people imagine that they can 
decide tonight to have a drive and start to 
conduct it the day after tomorrow. It just 
can't be done. Preparation is seventy-five 
per cent of the success in a drive. If the 
actual drive is to take two weeks, it will 
normally need from three to five weeks' 
preparation. If proper preparation is 
made — and that includes the obtaining of 
canvassers who will work and the training 
of these, the proper division of responsibil- 
ity and the awakening of the community to 
interest in and enthusiasm for the drive — 
there is no question of success. That they 
make thorough preparation, we strongly 
urge our branches. That they may re- 
ceive the aid and help of the National 
Office in the methods of preparation, 
we urge that they keep in close contact 
with the National Office. We have most 
carefully prepared and are furnishing full 
directions for planning and conducting the 
drive, for the publicity work, the training 
of workers, the management of details, 
and the canvassing campaign. We have 
ajso prepared interesting propaganda lit- 
erature for use in the drive in our pamph- 
let — "Reasons for Joining the N. A. A. 
C. P." 

Again remember — LYNCH LAW MUST 
GO! The anti-lynching bill if it passes 
the Senate and becomes a law will stop 
lynching by mobs. This bill will not pass 
without the work of the N. A. A. C. P. 
Our Association must have more members 
and greater funds to carry on its fight in 
a larger way. The drive will provide this 
for the Association. Will you not then 



24 



THE CRISIS 



enter the Anti- Lynching Membership Drive 
with the determination that nothing shall 
stop your branch from going over the 
top? 

SHIP STEWARDS 

THROUGH the efforts of the National 
Office and the District of Columbia 
Branch a decision has just been secured 
which affects the employment of thousands 
of colored stewards and chief stewards em- 
ployed on ocean-going vessels under the 
control of the United States Shipping 
Board Emergency Fleet Corporation. Dur- 
ing the war there were employed out of 
the port of New York alone approximately 
5,000 colored stewards and chief stewards. 
Since the Armistice, however, active ef- 
forts have been made by certain officials 
at the New York port to eliminate all col- 
ored men. In a number of instances col- 
ored men who have worked as stewards 
for more than twenty years were dis- 
charged and have been out of employment 
for more than a year. When applying for 
assignments they were told bluntly that no 
Negroes would be employed as long as 
white men were available, irrespective of 
length of service or efficiency of the col- 
ored stewards. 

The stewards as a last resort formed an 
organization, The Committee for the Re- 
lief of Unemployed Colored Chief Stew- 
ards, with headquarters at 28 Whitehall 
Street, New York City. In January a com- 
mittee from this organization called at the 
office of the N. A. A. C. P. for a confer- 
ence with Messrs. Johnson and White to 
request that the N. A. A. C. P. aid them 
in their efforts for reinstatement. A plan 
of action was mapped out and the stew- 
ards' committee was requested to secure 
certain information in the form of affi- 
davits proving the charges of discrimina- 
tion. These affidavits, together with copies 
of the records of the various men being 
denied employment were forwarded by 
the National Office to the District of Co- 
lumbia Branch, with the request that an 
appointment be made with the proper of- 
ficial of the United States Shipping Board, 
at which time a demand could be made for 
correction of the conditions complained of. 
On February 17, a conference was held 
with Mr. A. J. Frey, Vice-President in 
Charge of Operation of the United States 



Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corpor- 
ation, at which time a representative of 
the Stewards' Committee, together with 
Mr. Davidson of the District of Columbia 
Branch, presented the complaints of the 
stewards. After examining the official 
correspondence and the affidavits presented 
by our committee, Mr. Frey took action 
as follows: 

First, he stated that R. H. Gregory, 
agent at the New York port, according to 
letters and reports he had received seemed 
to be the chief offender against the col- 
ored stewards and he would be removed 
to a more subordinate position. Second, 
Mr. Frey issued the following order, ef- 
fective upon issuance. 

"United States Shipping Board Emerg- 
ency Fleet Corporation, Washington, 
Operations Order No. 11 
To Managing Agents 

District Directors 

District Managers 

Employees of the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation 

Subject: Employment of Colored Men in 
Commissary Department 

Evidence has been laid before me by the 
National Association for the Advancement 
of Colored People, which indicates that in 
one district at least, there has been dis- 
crimination against American citizens in 
the employment of personnel for the Com- 
missary Department of our vessels; such 
discrimination being purely on account of 
color and without regard to the competency 
of the applicant for a position. Such a 
policy cannot be permitted. 

There are many colored men who have 
spent the greater part of their lives work- 
ing in the Commissary Department of ves- 
sels, and who from long experience have 
become most proficient in the work of that 
department. When positions in the Com- 
missary Department are to be filled, there 
must be no discrimination on account of 
color, and employees must be selected sole- 
ly on the basis of their competency, hon- 
esty and previous good record, but subject 
of course to the provisions of Chairman's 
General Order No. 11 and Operations Or- 
der No. 7, directing that preference be 
given to competent American citizens. 
A. J. Frey, Vice-President 
In Charge of Operation." 

Especial commendation should be given 



N. A. A. C. P. 



25 



to the Stewards' Committee which worked 
unceasingly, and to Mr. Shelby J. David- 
son, of the District of Columbia Branch. 

THE STATUS OF THE DYER BILL 

THE Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill after be- 
ing passed by the House of Representa- 
tives was read in the Senate and referred 
to the Senate Committe on the Judiciary. 
It is. now in the hands of a sub-committee 
consisting of Senator Borah, chairman, 
Senators Dillingham, Sterling, Shields and 
Overman. The first three are Republicans 
and the last two are Democrats. This com- 
mittee has its advantages and its draw- 
backs. On one hand, no stronger man 
could be found in the Senate to champion 
the Bill than Senator Borah and if he can 
be induced to make the sort of fight for the 
Bill that he is capable of making, its pass- 
age may be looked upon as assured. On 
the other hand, not one of the Republican 
members is from a state with a constituency 
that would give him any particular interest 
in colored people. Senator Borah is from 
Idaho, Senator Dillingham is from Ver- 
mont and Senator Sterling is from South 
Dakota. The two Democrats are. the only 
members from states having an appreciable 
colored constituency. However, Senators 
Borah, Dillingham and Sterling have all ex- 
pressed themselves as being in favor of 
Anti-Lynching Legislation and as willing to 
support the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill if the 
committee is satisfied ais to its constitu- 
tionality. 

The steps yet necessary for the enactment 
of the anti-lynching measure into law are 
the following: 

(a) The sub-committee must report the 
Bill favorably to the whole Commit- 
tee. 

(b) The Senate Judiciary Committee must 
report the Bill to the Senate. 

(c) The Senate must pass the Bill. 

A great deal of work yet remains to be 
done in order to accomplish these three 
steps. In order that the question of the 
bill's constitutionality may be adequacy 
established, the National Office is busily en- 
gaged in gathering the most eminent group 
of constitutional lawyers in the country to 
appear before the Senate Sub- Committee. 

It will be good news that Mr. Moorfield 
Storey, our national president and former 



president of the American Bar Associa- 
tion, who fought and won the famous Louis- 
ville Segregation Case in 1917, will per- 
sonally appear before the committee. For- 
mer United States Attorney-General Wade 
H. Ellis will also argue the constitutionality 
of the measure, as will former Assistant 
Attorney of the District of Columbia, James 
A. Cobb. Other prominent lawyers are be- 
ing secured. The marshalling of so impres- 
sive an array of legal talent augurs well for 
favorable action on the bill by the Judiciary 
Committee. 

Every effort must be made to have the 
first two of the above steps taken before 
the summer recess of the Senate which is 
scheduled for June. If all of the steps are 
left for the short session, the chances for 
success will be greatly lessened. We must 
use every effort to bring home to the com- 
mittee in charge of the bill and to the Sen- 
ate as a whole the wide-spread public senti- 
ment which is in favor of the passage of the 
Anti-Lynching Bill. Every person who 
reads these lines should, if he has not al- 
ready done so, send a telegram or letter to 
the members of the Committee on the 
Judiciary and to the Senators from his 
state urging the pasteage of the Dyer Anti- 
Lynching Bill. In addition to that each 
one who reads these lines should make an 
effort to induce other individuals and or- 
ganizations of all kinds, religious, secular, 
fraternal and labor to send letters and tele- 
grams. 

If the Senate fails to pass the present 
bill, we may never again have such a favor- 
able opportunity to secure federal legisla- 
tion against lynching. But they must not 
fail and if we use the power which is at our 
command they will not fail. 

HELPFUL CO-OPERATION 

' I ^HERE has been no more splendid ex- 
-*• ample of co-operation during recent 
years than the work of a number of colored 
women throughout the country in their ef- 
forts to raise funds for the anti-lynching 
fight of the N. A. A. C. P. Some time ago 
Mrs. Hunton wrote to a number of women of 
her acquaintance in all parts of the country 
asking them if they would undertake the 
raising of one hundred dollars each. Twenty- 
five of these letters were sent out. Prac- 
tically every person responded by raising 
more than the amount requested. 





*aw. 



COMPlLtD B V MADELINE Q. ALLISON 




THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLORED BASEBALL CLUBS 



C. Few people realize that in Oklahoma 
there are 23 colored towns where no white 
person lives. These towns are Boley, Ver- 
non, Bookertee, Foreman, Grayson, Lima, 
Langston, Rentisville, Clearview, Tolen, Ran, 
Inconium, Dover, Red Bird, Taft, Tatum, 
Tullahassee, Wybard, Brooksville, New 
Yorkie, Summit, Richardson and Tabor. 
The largest of the towns is Boley, which is 
a well-known and enterprising center. Our 



picture shows the Ft. Smith and Western 
depot in Boley, where E. R. Cavil is ticket 
agent, Eugene Hyder, operator; Herbert 
McCormick, express agent. 
(I The National Association of Colored 
Professional Base-Ball Clubs was organized 
in Kansas City, Mo., February 14, 1920. Its 
second annual convention was held recently 
in Chicago. The president, Andrew Rube 
Foster, in submitting the secretary's report 




IN THE DEPOT, AT BOLEY, OKLAHOMA 

26 



THE HORIZON 



27 



said : Dealing with the 10 leagues and as- 
sociated club presidents, and the 30 club 
officers and managers, together with com- 
munications received from the many play- 
ers, and in getting evidence in many dis- 
puted ca.-;es for submission to the National 
Board, more than 2000 letters have been 
handled, 350 telegrams received and 300 
transmitted; 210 players' contracts were 
recorded and promulgated; 12 releases were 
promulgated; 10 official bulletins were is- 
sued; 20 players were released by purchase 
from one club member of the association 
to another. The record established the first 
year under organized effort was 565,000 
paid admissions. Last year the league 
played within 20 per cent, of this number, 
under the readjustment period, and paid 
in salaries to its players, $166,000. Dave 
Wyatt is publicity agent. 
d The Committee of Three Hundred of New 
York City whose recent entertainment 
netted $2000 for the N. A. A. C. P. is much 
too modest to be photographed. We have, 
however, surreptitiously obtained the pic- 
tures of a few. Mrs. Helen Curtis was 
General-Chairman, Mrs. Owen M. Waller 
was at the head of the committee on prizes 
and Mrs. Nina G. DuBois was assistant- 
treasurer. Mrs. Grace N. Johnson was 
Chairman of the Publicity Committee, Mrs. 
Laura Rollock of the Committee on Tables, 
while Mrs. Bernie Austin and Mrs. Lottie 
Cooper were among the most active of the 
workers. And there were 293 others whose 
pictures we anxiously await. 
C Benjamin Franklin Davis, Post Quarter- 




MESDAMES DIT BOIS, WALLER AND CURTIS 



master Sergeant of the United States Army, 
retired, died November 9, 1921. He was 
born in Chester County, Pa., in 1849, and 
was in the military service of the United 
States for more than 31 years, being a 
veteran of the Civil War. In 1885 he was 
made Post Quartermaster Sergeant and 
was retired in April, 1895. He served in 
Cuba during and after the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War, and the Quartermaster said, "I 
cannot speak too highly of the assistance 
he has rendered me in establishing the 
treasury system of Cuba." He was buried 




Mrs. Cooper 



Mrs. Johnson 



Mrs. Austin 



Mrs. Rollock 



28 



THE CRISIS 




Mr. Davis 



Mr. Samples 



Dr. McClennan 



Mr. Gunner 



with full military honors at the Soldiers' 
Home Cemetery in Washington. A wife, 3 
daughters and 3 grandchildren survive him. 
He was a member of the N. A. A. C. P. 
(I Walter Wentworth Samples, who has 
just died in Springfield, Mass., was a 
worthy citizen, and member of the Repub- 
lican Town Committee. His father was a 
Civil War veteran and served as sailor on 
the famous "Monitor". One grandfather 
served in the war of 1812 and another in 
the Revolutionary War. 

(I Dr. Ridley U. McClennan was the son 
of the noted physician A. C. McClennan of 
Charleston, S. C, and was born in Charles- 
ton in 1887. He was trained at Avery In- 
stitute, Howard University and Clafiin Col- 
lege. He succeeded his father eventually as 
surgeon-in-chief of the local colored hos- 
pital, and had a large practice at the time 



of his sudden death November 29, 1921. 
d The Rev. Byron Gunner was born in 
Alabama in 1858 and recently died at Read- 
ing, Pa., where he was pastor of the col- 
ored Presbyterian Church. He had a 
varied and interesting career, beginning 
his work in Louisiana where he was driven 
out by a mob and his church burned. He 
afterward served in Newport, R. I., and 
Hillburn, N. Y. His last church service 
was devoted to the work of the N. A. A. 
C. P. 

(I St. John's A. M. E. Sunday School in 
Cleveland, Ohio, has an enrollment of 1650 
with an average attendance of 900. There 
are 87 classes and 140 officers and teachers. 
For the past 15 years Mr. Peyton W. Lemon 
has been superintendent of the Sunday 
School. The pastor is the Rev. Edward A. 
Clark. 




ST. JOHN'S A. M. E. SUNDAY 



THE HORIZON 



29 




THE BESMANBOMARA LITERARY SOCIETY 



(I The Besmanbomara Literary Society has 
been organized by colored students at Col- 
gate University, Hamilton, N. Y. Its ob- 
ject is the production of a deeper knowledge 
and appreciation of the achievements of the 
Negro in all the higher pursuits of life. All 
men who fulfill the following requirements 
are eligible for membership: "Sympathy 
with the objects of society and affiliation by 
blood with the darker races." The society 
meets weekly, each meeting being featured 
by a paper on some phase of racial progress. 
It is the hope of the members that each 



paper presented shall show original, con- 
structive research work in some particular 
field. The organization has met with much 
success and is filling an important place 
in the life of Negro students at Colgate by 
giving them a real understanding of the 
geat past and even greater future of the 
Negro race. The officers are: N. M. Smith, 
president; W. S. Ravenell, secretary- treas- 
urer; M. B. Anderson, corresponding secre- 
tary. 

C. The Ladies' Group for Service is one of 
the latest organizations in Washington, D. 




SCHOOL, CLEVELAND, OHIO 



30 



THE CRISIS 




THE WASHINGTON LADIES' GROUP FOR SERVICE 



C. It is composed of the wives of prominent 
professional and business men of the city 
and gives itself to social service. Once a 
month a meeting of one hour and a half is 
devoted to sewing and the articles are dis- 
tributed to needy persons. Last fall the 
Group arranged an entertainment for the 



benefit of the N. A. A. C. P. from which 
there was a substantial donation made to 
both the National and the Home Offices. 
The Washington Group for Service is com- 
posed of Mesdames James C. Dowling, Mil- 
ton A. Francis, B. Price Hurst, John R. 
Francis, Jr., Clifford C. Fry, Robert W. 




Miss Johnson 



Miss Taylor 



Mrs. Bryant-Jones 



Miss Reeves 



THE HORIZON 



31 



Rutherford, N. W. Cuney, W. J. Howard, 
Jr., Roy W. Tibbs, Montgomery Gregory, 
and E. C. Williams. 

When Mildred Bryant Jones, formerly 
of Louisville and now of Chicago, sought to 
take the examination for musical director 
in the high schools of Chicago, every effort 
was made to persuade her not to do so. 
When she finally appeared before the ex- 
aminers they sat fully five minutes quite 
dumb looking at this apparition of a petite 
brown woman. Finally she said, "Is it really 
as bad as all that?" Then someone smiled 
and the examination took place in December, 
1918. At first they Wanted to segregate 
her and have her examined in a room by 
herself without supervision. This she re- 
fused. There was a two days' written ex- 
amination in music, history, harmony, Eng- 
lish and civics; and afterward practical 
tests before five judges in singing, piano 
and sight-reading. Mrs. Bryant-Jones had 
had experience as a teacher for many 
years in Louisville and was certain she 
had passed, but she received no report 
from her examination. Finally she went 
to ask about it and was told that she had 
not passed. She asked to see her papers so 
as to apply for a revision of the examina- 
tion according to the rules, but the papers 
were refused. She then applied to the col- 
ored Assistant Corporation Counsel, E. H. 
Wright, and got an audience with the presi- 
dent of the Board of Education. He sent 
for the southern man who was the ex- 
aminer and ordered him to produce the 
papers. The examiner absented but after 
leaving the president's office calmly told 
Mrs. Jones that the papers had been de- 
stroyed! Mrs. Jones immediately offered to 
take the examination again which she did 



in June, 1919. Thereupon she received a 
notice that she had passed but was not 
told what percentage she had made. She 
was appointed to night work in the Wendell 
Phillips High School in September, 1919, 
and was refused even substitute day work. 
In April, 1920, in spite of the opposition 
of the white principal, Mrs. Jones was 
finally appointed musical director in that 
school, January 31, 1921. Thereupon she 
learned that all the time she had stood 
highest in the examination but that she 
was not appointed because "such matters 
were difficult of adjustment"! 

C Miss Ida L. Taylor is a graduate of the 
Chicago Normal School and of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. Last year she was ap- 
pointed to the Department of English and 
Mathematics in the Wendell Phillips High 
School in Chicago. 

(I Two young women of Boston have re- 
cently gained attention. Leanna S. Johnson 
of Norfolk, Mass., a graduate of Simmons 
College, won some time ago a $200 prize 
offered by Charles Sumner Bird at the Wal- 
pole High School. The authorities were so 
astonished that they refused to offer the 
prize for another year. Miss Johnson stu- 
died law at the Portia Law School in Bos- 
ton and recently passed the Bar examina- 
tion, becoming a full fledged lawyer and 
notary public at the age of 24. She is now 
law clerk in Clark Rudnick's office. 
(I Miss Maryrose Reeves is a student of 
the Sargeant School in Cambridge. At the 
athletic meet in the summer camp she 
gained first place in the running broad 
jump, the high and low hurdles and the 75- 
yard dash, and second place in the high 
jump, the high step and jump and the shot 




COLORED DELEGATES AT THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 



32 



THE CRISIS 



put. In some of these events she broke 
the camp record. She was winner of the 
highest number of points and was given a 
loving-cup and her letter "S". She also 
has the highest "pep" test in the school, 
Which is one of Dr. Sargeant's inventions 
for testing energy. 

G At the National Council of Women, held 
at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel in Phila- 
delphia, there were 4 colored women dele- 
gates, Mrs. Dickerson and Mrs. Bennett of 
Pennsylvania, Mrs. Hunt of Georgia, and 
Mrs. Hunton of New York who was chair- 
man. Others who attended were Mrs. John- 
son, New York; Mrs. Carry, Oklahoma; 
Mrs. Griffin, Mrs. Jackson and Mrs. Wright, 
Pennsylvania. 

(([ Charles Keck has made a statue of 
the late Dr. Booker T. Washington. The 
monument was unveiled at Tuskegee last 
month. 

<[ New York City has a Women's Po- 
lice Reserve of 62 members, some of 
whom were stationed recently to regulate 
traffic in the Negro section. Notable among 
these women are Lt. Rosa Hall, who con- 
ducts a modiste establishment; Sergt. Mary 
Simmons, a notary public and Commissioner 
<of Deeds; Sergt. Mattie B. Taylor, a dress 
designer and Pvt. Ruth Whitehurst, a re- 
porter. The Captain of the unit is Mrs. 
Elizabeth Mayfair. She is also chairman 
of the colored Red Cross center, organizer 
of ushers for the colored churches and the 
highest official in several fraternal and 
political organizations. The women organ- 
ized in 1918 to help the Red Cross during 




BOOKER T. "WASHINGTON MONUMENT 



the influenza epidemic. They are volunteer 

workers. 

(I The Alpha Beta Fraternity of New 

Bedford, Mass., has held a promenade and 

dansante. 



MY LOVES 

Langston Hughes 

T LOVE to see the big white moon, 
-*- A-shining in the sky; 
I love to see the little stars, 
When the shadow clouds go by. 

I love the rain drops falling 
On my roof-top in the night; 

I love the soft wind's sighing, 
Before the dawn's gray light. 



I love the deepness of the blue, 

In my Lord's heaven above; 
But better than all these things I think, 

I love my lady love. 



AN AFRICAN PROGRAM* 




Ibidunni Morondipe Obadende 




TN my opinion, the best way to secure our 
■*■ political emancipation is to try to es- 
tablish in Africa, our native Continent, a 
sort of African National home, where alone 
we can hope to enjoy in full not only all 
the primordial rights of man but also all 
civic rights. Besides, it is a natural and 
legitimate aspiration of every group of 
races to maintain an independent national 
entity, and in our case there is nothing to 
make this impossible. History furnishes 
numerous examples and the recent Zionist 
Movement to re-establish the Jewish Nation 
in Palestine is an object lesson. 

The opportunity and materials to make a 
start are not wanting. The Republic of 
Liberia and the West African Colonies and 
Protectorates as well as the educational 
and financial assets we possess in our 
midst are quite enough to make a start, if 
they are judiciously employed; and in my 
opinion the following methods of procedure 
may be tried with advantage, namely: 

(1) A League, of as many Negroes of 
the world as are willing, can be formed 
with its headquarters in Liberia and 
branches in the various important parts of 
the world where Negroes are. In Liberia 
as well as in the other centres executive 
committees can be" created and funds col- 
lected. 

(2) From the funds collected, loans can 
be given to Liberia to pay her debts and 
develop her natural resources. In the 
work of development the League can help 
through the Committee there. 

(3) In Liberia a University can be estab- 
lished in which all the different branches 
of education and training will be provided : 
in this institution as well as in the col- 
leges and schools in the other places, the 
study of a language, which will, in due 
course, become a sort of Franca Lingua, 
may be made compulsory and the African 
youths from every part of the world should 
be sent to the University, even though thej 
may have to go abroad for further qualifica- 
tions. 

(4) Through the local branches in the 
other places education in every sense can 



*Read at the London session of the Second Pan- 
African Congress by a native student of Lagos, 
Southern Nigeria, British West Africa. 



be encouraged among the people. These 
branches can work in cooperation with the 
respective local governments, and, if need 
be, establish private schools. 

(5) Scholarship systems may be provided 
to afford youths of poor parents the op- 
portunities of attending the University. 

(6) Through the League, immigration 
into Liberia and the other places in West 
Africa of the Africans in America and the 
West Indies can be encouraged and facili- 
tated. This will no doubt lead to increase 
of population and conduce to the develop- 
ment of the places educationally, commer- 
cially and industrially. 

(7) When Liberia has sufficiently devel- 
oped, each of the Colonies or Protectorates 
in due course may enter into federation 
with her, and gradually there can be formed 
a union of all these West African coun- 
tries, extending from Senegal to Portu- 
guese West Africa, including Belgian Congo, 
or as far as possible, under the name of 
The United States of West Africa on the 
basis of alliance with the European Powers 
who have helped in developing those Col- 
onies and Protectorates. 

In my opinion nothing short of an inde- 
pendent national entity can satisfy our 
needs; the possibility of being assimilated 
into any other group of races or nations is 
illusory and even undignified; as long as 
human outlook is limited by geographical, 
historical, and racial consideration, it is 
self-deception to persuade ourselves that we 
can secure real rights of citizenship in case 
of such eventuality for experience has 
clearly shown that (a) good government is 
no substitute for self-government; (b) op- 
portunity of equality is not the same as 
equality of opportunity; and, above all, 
(c) kind and considerate treatment is no 
substitute for "respectful" treatment. 

May the ashes of our fathers and the 
spirit of combination descending from on 
high help us in this noble course. In this 
connection, it will be well if we ponder over 
a Yoruba proverb which, when put into 
English may run as follows: — "He who 
sells his kith and kin for a paltry sum 
will live to regret his inability to redeem 
him, even if he had the whole world to 
offer." 



33 



jrhe Lookiiva Glass 



LITERATURE 

BUILD thee more stately mansions, oh 
my soul, 
While the swift seasons roll! 
Leave thy low- vaulted past! 
Let each new temple, nobler than the last, 
Shut thee from heaven with a dome more 

vast; 
Till thou at length art free! 
Leaving thine out-grown shell by life's un- 
resting sea! 

Oliver Wendell Holmes. 
* * * 
The Macmillan Company issues Dr. Al- 
bert Churchward's The Origin and Evolu- 
tion of the Human Race. Austin Hay says 
in a review in the New York Times: 

From studies made by Dr. Churchward 
during many years, he is fully convinced 
that the hitherto preconceived ideas of 
many scientists regarding the origin of the 
human race, both as to place and date, are 
erroneous. His purpose is to prove that 
the first men were pigmies, evolved from 
the pithecanthropus, or anthropoid ape; 
that the human race did not originate in 
Asia, but in Africa, and that its beginnings 
date back about two million years. The 
region in which the pigmy first made his 
appearance was in the Nile Valley and 
around the lakes at the head of the Nile, 
whence he spread to every quarter of the 
globe. From the pigmy, evolution contin- 
ued through the Masaba Negro and then 
the Nilotic Negro. . . . 

The term "Masaba Negroes" is used to 
denote "those prognathous types of the hu- 
man race which were evolved from the true 
pigmy, and from which we trace the next 
development of the human race, namely, 
the low type of Negro to the northeast and 
the true Negro to the west and southwest 
and which now exist under various names 
in Africa. To the south the Bushman de- 
veloped and from the Bushman the Hotten- 
tot." Then came the Nilotic Negroes, who 
were the founders of ancient Egypt and 
among whom we find for the first time a 
system of totemism, distinguishing human 
groups by natural objects, such as animals 
and plants, with which they are supposed 
to have some intimate connection. "These 
totemic Nilotic Negroes both here in Africa 
and outside Africa — all over the world — 
proved by their traditions that 'their be- 
ginning' is immeasurably earlier than the 
Egyptian tradition preserved in the astro- 
nomical mythology. Their beginning, in 
fact, is with totemism." The Heidelberg 



and Neanderthal types, in Dr. Church- 
ward's opinion, were early Nilotic Negroes, 
probably among the first who migrated 
north from ancient Egypt. They probably 
inhabited most of Europe and Asia, and 
existed for many thousands of years after 
the next exodus from Egypt, before they 
were exterminated by the more highly 
evolved Nilotic Negroes, who later set out 
for the north. 



Rene Maran's prize-winning novel has 
stirred excitement in Unexpected quarters. 
The Paris correspondent of the Brooklyn 
Eagle writes: 

"Batouala", the prize story of the life of 
a Congo chief, written by a coal-black Ne- 
gro from Martinique, has roused a furore 
in France by its criticism of white rule in 
Africa. . . . 

Pierre Mille, on the other hand, writes 
to L'Oeuvre, a Liberal daily, indicating 
that there is some truth in Maran's 
charges : 

"While the regime of the great robber 
concession companies existed in the Congo, 
forced labor was the rule. These companies 
fixed the prices at which they bought their 
rubber, levied their own taxes from the na- 
tives in goods and sold the goods to turn 
them into gold. 

"There were no railroads, no roads, no 
pack animals. Everything was carried on 
the backs of men. ... 

"In French Equatorial Africa the pack- 
man system still exists with disastrous con- 
sequences. The tsetse fly, brought by car- 
riers into regions hitherto free from it, 
continues to destroy the natives." 

Mille declares that the system of white 
rule, depending on pack carriers, has caused 
the death of more than 1,000,000 Negroes, 
and cites the case of one village in which 
the blacks rebelled against the portage 
service, declaring that it was "better to 
die than to be a carrier". According to 
Mille 70 were shot. 

This writer declares that the remedy for 
these abuses is to refuse to renew the con- 
cessions granted to private companies, but 
to introduce free trade as in other colo- 
nies and "to let nature repair the damage 
done by white men." 

James Weldon Johnson's "Book of Amer- 
ican Negro Poetry" Harcourt, Brace & 
Co.) has been issued and will be reviewed 
at length in the June Crisis. In an un- 



34 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



35 



usually well-written and informative pre- 
face the author declares: 

As for ragtime, I go straight to the 
statement that it is the one artistic pro- 
duction by which America is known the 
world over. It has been all-conquering. 
Everywhere it is hailed as "American mu- 
sic." 

For a dozen years or so there has been a 
steady tendency to divorce ragtime from 
the Negro; in fact, to take from him the 
credit of having originated it. Probably the 
younger people of the present generation 
do not know that ragtime is of Negro ori- 
gin. . . . Once the text of all ragtime 
songs was written in Negro dialect, and 
was about Negroes in the cabin or in the 
cotton field or on the levee or at a jubilee 
or on Sixth Avenue or at a ball, and about 
their love affairs. Today, only a small pro- 
portion of ragtime songs relate at all to 
the Negro. The truth is, ragtime is now 
national rather than racial. But that does 
not abolish in any way the claim of the 
American Negro as its originator. 

Ragtime music was originated by colored 
piano players in the questionable resorts 
of St. Louis, Memphis and other Mississip- 
pi River towns. These men did not know 
any more about the theory of music than 
they did about the theory of the universe. 
They were guided by their natural musical 
instinct and talent, but above all by the 
Negro's extraordinary sense of rhythm, 
Any one who is familiar with ragtime may 
note that its chief charm is not in melody, 
but in rhythms. 

* * * 

Survey of periodical literature on the 
Negro for 1921: 

"I'd Like to Show You Harlem", R. L. 
Hartt, Independent, April 2, 1921. 

"Serving New York's Black City", E. 
Rose, Library, March 15, 1921. 

"Fruits of Peonage", Neiv Republic, 
April 20, 1921. 

"Georgia Declares War on Peonage", 
Literary Digest May 14, 1921. 

"Georgia's Indictment", The Survey, 
May 7, 1921. 

"Georgia's Death Farm", Literary Di- 
gest, April 6, 1921. 

"Governor Dorsey Stirs Up Georgia", 
Independent, May 28, 1921. 

"Like a Thief", M. Evans, New Repub- 
lic, August, 1921. 

"Open Letter to Governor of Arkansas", 
R. T. Kerlin, Nation, June, 1921. 

"Peonage and the Republic", H. H. Hart, 
Survey, April, 1921. 

"Slavery in Georgia A. D. 1921", H. J. 
Seligmann, Nation, April, 1921. 

"Southerners Solving the Negro Prob- 



lem", Literary Digest, January, 1921. 

"Traits of My Plantation Negroes", H. 
Snyder, Century, July, 1921. 

"Americanization of the Negro", T. B. 
I\Iaroney, Catholic World, August, 1921. 



E 



A NAVAL APPOINTEE 

MILE TREVILLE HOLLEY, a 17- 
year old colored boy of New York 
City, has been nominated for admission to 
Annapolis by Representative Martin C. 
Ansorge, a Republican of the 21st Con- 
gressional District. Mr. Ansorge dis- 
cusses the nomination in the Boston Eve- 
ning Transcript : 

I have distributed my appointments 
throughout the district. There were four 
principals and twelve alternates to be 
named. I am happy to say that every boy 
in my district who applied received an ap- 
pointment as principal or alternate. In the 
World War just won colored boys enlisted 
or were drafted irrespective of race. There 
were 500,000 colored boys in the Army and 
Navy. As a matter of simple justice and 
in recognition of the valor and American- 
ism of the colored boys in the war I have 
nominated one to the Naval Academy. Three 
colored boys already have graduated from 
West Point. Holley is a fine clean-cut 
young man, is physically and mentally quali- 
fied and was highly recommended by promi- 
nent people of both races. 
* * * 

Henry Suydam, a correspondent of the 
Brooklyn Eagle thinks that hidden forces 




MR. HOLLEY AND FELLOW-STTJDENTS 



36 



THE CRISIS 



will .prevent Holley's entrance into Annap- 
olis: 

The examining officers are carefully sup- 
plied with technicalities with which they 
may trip up undesirable candidates for a 
naval commission, and, while not divulging 
their methods, they display a certain calm- 
ness which leads one to the conviction that 
they are not worrying about a Negro can- 
didate at Annapolis. 

Even if Holley should reach the academy, 
as officers today pointed out he would have 
to face there the overwhelming force of 
precedent. It is held by some that the 
Naval cadets will not hesitate to use "Cov- 
entry" upon the newcomer in an effort to 
sustain the color line within the Navy. 

* * * 

The Boston Post shows more optimism: 
Why should this young man, described as 
a fine fellow, mentally, physically and 
morally — why should he be treated with in- 
solence at Annapolis, simply because of his 
complexion? Thousands of men of his color 
served the United States in the great war, 
and served her well. Is this country, which 
supports the naval academy and all students 
in it, going to permit it to be said that a 
man like Holley cannot go to Annapolis ex- 
cept to endure a life of insult and perse- 
cution? 

We do not conceive that such a thing is 
likely. If Holley passes his examination., 
the over-select young midshipmen from the 
South will be compelled to treat him de- 
cently, or something will happen. 

* * * 

How shameful that such a discussion 
need take place! 

FIRST AID TO DENMARK 

THE Nordic races of whom Mr. Madi- 
son Grant has been writing, are learn- 
ing about us, at least in Denmark. The 
Copenhagen Berlingske Tidende reports: 

A young Negro, Mr. (E) Franklin Fra- 
zier, Who is at present studying at the Uni- 
versity of Copenhagen, delivered a lecture 
last evening in the English Debating Club 
on the Race Problem in America and other 
countries. 

Mr. Frazier, who spoke excellent, clear 
English, impressed one as an intellectual 
young man with a keen sense of humor. 
He began by giving an abundance of sta- 
tistical information on the number of Ne- 
groes in America and their occupations, and 
mentioned among other things that in the 
World War a large number of Negroes, both 
as officers and privates, served on the Amer- 
ican side in France. 

He mentioned distinguished artists and 
scientists which the black race had pro- 
duced, and said that in American universi- 
ties there were many Negro instructors and 
some professors. 

Mr. Frazier spoke next of the relation of 



Negroes to whites and in this connection, 
forcibly attacked the southern states for 
their inhuman treatment of the black race. 
In the southern states Negroes have no 
rights and are constantly treated as beasts, 
being pursued and murdered by the whites 
without cause, the latter going unpunished. 
Negroes are lynched and burned out of pure 
love of killing: indeed, in present times the 
number of Negroes burned nearly averages 
one a month. 

Mr. Frazier justly satirized this type of 
American civilization, though such things 
occur in the southern states, the people in 
the North showing more humanity towards 
colored people. 

Mr. Frazier's well delivered lecture was 
received with warm applause by the mem- 
bers of the English Debating Club, who 
filled every seat in the lecture hall of the 
Kvindelig Laeseforening. 

OPEN CONFESSION 

SOMETIMES the South listens to the 
voice of conscience. Not long ago a 
Negro minister charged with teaching 
Catholicism among Negroes was whipped 
and run out of Barrow County, Ga. The 
Columbus, Ga., Enquirer-Sun opines: 

It will be only a question of time before 
the mob rules completely in Georgia, in- 
stead of constituted authority. Indeed, it 
has almost come to that now. And why 
not? Haven't we permitted the seeds of dis- 
cord and prejudice and mob violence to be 
sown uninterruptedly in this state for 
\ears past? Hasn't the mob spirit been 
glorified in Georgia, year in and year out, 
until the chief exponent of it was finally 
sent to the United States Senate as a re- 
ward for his devilish work? Haven't we 
seen also, this same mob spirit chartered 
and capitalized right here in Georgia, un- 
der the name of Ku Klux, and the right to 
raid and maraud sold by its hired organ- 
izers at ten dollars per head? — with gown 
and mask, in which to conceal one's iden- 
tity, thrown-in for six dollars extra. 

Is it any wonder, then, that a dozen or 
so ignorant men in Barrow County feel 
free to take a Negro Methodist preacher out 
and beat him and drive him out of the coun- 
ty? Or that a similar number of "hill 
billies" in Schley County, only a few weeks 
ago, felt free to murder an excellent and 
thrifty Negro farmer for no reason at all? 

And we could mention hundreds of other 
cases, all occurring right here in Georgia, 
if we but had the time and space. All of 
them the direct outcome of utter disrespect 
for law. Which is to say, also, the direct out- 
come of ignorance. 

But, over and above all this, the direct 
outcome to the teachings of such men as 
Watson and Simmons, who have played 
upon and capitalized this lawless spirit and 
this ignorance for their own devilish ends. 

For months and years past, these men 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



37 



have flooded the mails with their incendiary 
publications — the only kind of literature 
that some of these ignorant people ever 
see — until they have made tens of thou- 
sands of converts, who have no better 
sense than to try to put into effect, every 
now and then, the teachings of these hell- 
inspired leaders of mobocracy. 

For proof positive of this, we need only 
look back a few years to the lynchings that 
Watson openly encouraged and the dip-vat 
outrages that he publicly advocated; as 
well as to the Ku Klux crimes that have 
been perpetrated throughout the South, 
either by Simmons' chartered bands direct, 
or as the result of his infamous teachings 

and example. 

* * * 

The deluge is at hand is this* editor's 
conclusion : 

Things can't go on much farther in Geor- 
gia as they are. The state has failed, and 
continues to fail, to enforce its authority 
and uphold its sovereignty. The mob takes 
possession whenever and wherever it 
pleases. The law is nothing; the whim 
of the mob is everything. Whether its! vic- 
tim be white or black, the mob commits 
its crime, and it is soon forgotten. No- 
body is punished and, soon, nobody cares. 
Knowing this, there is nothing to deter the 

next mob. 

* * * 

The Negro deserves a new abolition 
thinks the New Haven, Conn., Register: 

Not abolition of the old intolerant and 
militant sort, but abolition revised as well 
as revived. But it is something somewhat 
more than a gradual growth. The war has 
done it. The war has opened the eyes of 
some Americans to the fact that he who 
was a slave, whom because of the misfortune 
into which our selfishness and sin cast him 
we regarded as a lower order of creature, 
truly is a man. We found in the war, some 
of us, that he was responsive to the same 
thrills and impulses of patriotism and 
service — and decidedly more effective as a 
fighter, by the way — than most of the 
whites of us. And it dawned on some peo- 
ple, as it dawned on Mrs. Margaret Deland 
on an occasion which she recalls at Brest 
in 1918, that if the American Negro was 
good enough to die for her, he was good 
enough to eat with her. 

Now what is this bondage from which 
deliverance now is needed? It is the bond- 
age of ignorance. The Negro in the South 
ever needs more schools, and better sup- 
port of the schools he has. It is the bond- 
age of class lines. The thinking white 
people of this country need to face as never 
yet they did their fault and its results, and 
get over their notion that this civilization 
can go on with a great wall between the 
races /'any more than this nation could 
exist half slave and half free. Finally, it 
is the bondage of injustice. The Negro 



must have a fair trial by the law, he must 
have the protection for himself and his 
loved ones that the- white man has, he 
must have the same chance in business and 
industry. When these things are accom- 
plished, the new abolition will begin to see 
its fruits. 

THREE MUSICIANS 

TURNER LAYTON has recently made 
an excursion from the field of ragtime 
in which he was so conspicuously success- 
ful into the realm of more serious com- 
position. Two of his songs, "The Little 
Gray Road of Love" and "Thank God the 
Drums Are Silent" have scored a triumph. 
Musical Courier writes: 

Turner Layton has here turned out two 
of the best songs that have come to this 
office in a long time. It is an unusual oc- 
currence that simultaneous publications by 
a single composer are of such equal excel- 
lence. It is not too much to say that they 
are both masterpieces, and it would be diffi- 
cult, if not impossible, to choose between 
them. Both are short, only three pages, and 
both are melodic in the best sense of the 
word. The accompaniments are excellent 
and the harmonies modern and effective. 
The chromatic opening of 'The Little Gray 
Road of Love" (expressive of the Oriental 
suggestions carried in the words "The red 
roads of Rangoon wind through the grand 
bazaar and there are eyes like velvet skies 
to lure a man afar") is of great originality 
and force, and the change into major with 
the change of mood is most skilfully and 
naturally accomplished. The voice part is 
intelligently conceived, admits of clear dic- 
tion and phrasing, and winds up to a fortis- 
simo climax on a high G at the end. This 
is aj love song of the best sort. 

The other is a song of peace, the great 
peace that follows great wars. It is a love 
song too, a song of the love of friends and 
of peoples, the universal love. It is a song 
that is sure to be a favorite with concert 
singers, and, although not, strictly speaking, 
a sacred song, it would seem to be suitable 
to the church. It certainly has a strong- 
spiritual flavor. The accompaniment is in 
march tempo, big, sonorous chords admira- 
bly supporting the voice. The accompani- 
ments to both songs are easy to play and 
will not tax the capabilities of the most 
modest player. They are built to be popular 
favorites and they will be. 
* * * 

Meanwhile Roland Hayes reaps distinc- 
tion abroad. A Paris correspondent tells 
us: 

Hayes is at this moment in Paris having 
a most brilliant time. M. and Mme. Joseph 
Salmon, — the husband a cellist, and in the 
front rank of musicians in Paris, — pre- 
sented him last night to the musical and 
aristocratic people of Paris and Hayes re- 
ceived a tremendous ovation. He was pre- 



38 



THE CRISIS 



sented at their house in their drawing 
room. This has given him a real entre 
into the musical and social life of France 
and already he has been engaged by several 
people to sing here next month. He is sing- 
ing tomorrow for Monsieur Pierne, conduc- 
tor of the "Colonne Orchestra" and he has 
three other professional engagements which 
he is filling on this trip. His work in Eng- 
land is going ahead in leaps and bounds. 
He is quite full of engagements for the 
spring and many for the autumn of next 
year. Some of the people before whom he 
sang in Paris were: Princesse de Caraman 
Chimay, Mme. Michel Ephrussi (Aunt of 
Rothschild), Mme. Alexandre Dumas, Le 
Baron Theodore de Bereheim (Diplomat), 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley-Park (of New York), 
Mr. Bateau, Ministre de l'Institut Inven- 
teur, Mme. Jacques Thibaud, and Prince 
Jovalou Quenum, of Dahomey. 

* * * 

The Diapason writes of a recent com- 
position for organ by Carl Diton: 

His arrangement of the old Negro mel- 
ody, "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" (made 
popular years ago by the Fisk Jubilee 
Singers), is one of the outstanding organ 
compositions of recent years. He has 
taken another Negro melody and treated it 
in much the same way — has written it into 
a most interesting and delightful compo- 
sition for the organ. The piece is misnamed 
"transcription". It is much more than 
that. There is much original matter in it 
and the subject is developed and worked 
out with great variety and skill. We do 
rot believe that "Keep Me From Sinking 
Down" is as good a melody as "Swing Low, 
Sweet Chariot", which is undoubtedly one 
of the most beautiful of all the Afro- Amer- 
ican folk-tunes — is, indeed, one of the love- 
liest folk-melodies of the world. While not 
so distinctive as "Sweet Chariot", "Keep 
Me From Sinking Down" is good material 
for just such a purpose as this. It is not 
obviously Negroid in its style, except for 
the irregular final phrase. It bears a fleet- 
ing resemblance in its opening phrases to 
the hymn tune "Vesper", usually sung to 
the words, "Saviour, Breathe an Evening 
Blessing". 

* * # 

The American Organist adds: 
The piece is interesting and bears a 
stronger resemblance to the typical folk 
tune than to any Negro melodies that could 
be recognized as such by any substantial 
proportion of the hearers. On this account 
it will be the more welcome to audiences. 
It is comparatively easy to play. . . . 
The church organist could use it most ef- 
fectively as a prelude to either morning or 
evening 'service, preferably evening. It 
rises to a stirring climax quite naturally; 
the player's feet will have to be ready and 
willing servants. On the recital program 
it should be used as folk-tune music in the 
latter half of the program in contrast to 



other pieces of entirely different type. 

Photoplayers will find it valuable for pic- 
tures of southern life, or for any drama 
dealing with early America after the Pil- 
grim Father stage. It could well be used 
for home scenes of high character (which 
manifestly does not mean society dramas) 
where the true qualities of home life are 

apparent. 

* * * 

Mr. Diton's composition is published by 

Schirmer; Mr. Layton's by T. B. Harms, 

New York. 

HAITIAN AFFAIRS IN A NUT- 
SHELL 

THE 'Current History Magazine fur- 
nishes this precis of affairs in Haiti: 
Professor Pierre Hudicourt, a member of 
The Hague Court of Arbitration and a na- 
tive of Haiti, told the National Popular 
Government League in Washington on Feb. 
2 how his country is being bled by financial 
sharks and lesser grafters, with very little 
incidental benefit in the way of public im- 
provements. He charged John A. Mc- 
Ilhenny, financial adviser to the Republic 
of Haiti, appointed by President Wilson, 
with being interested in a scheme to force 
upon Haiti a loan of $14,000,000, which the 
people there do not want. He said Mc- 
Ilhenny gets $10,000 a year and $6,000 for 
traveling expenses from the Haitian Gov- 
ernment for doing work which the Haitians 
do not want done. The National City Bank 
of New York, the Haitian-American Sugar 
Corporation and R. E. Forrest, President of 
the West Indies Trading Company, he said, 
were interested in the loan. He continued : 
"The proposition is made to the Haitian 
Government that the National City Bank 
shall loan it $14,000,000, of which the Hai- 
tians would get $12,880,000, for it is to be 
sold at 92. Out of this the railway inter- 
ests represented by Vice President Farn- 
ham of the! National City Bank are to get 
$1,621,500 immediately in payment for a 
railway which the Haitians never bargained 
for. The Americans who have invaded 
Haiti propose to pay off the French debt, of 
$6,668,980 and the $965,000 of internal debt. 
Of the proposed loan there will be left $1,- 
545,800. This, if the plans of the schemers 
go through, is to be devoted to irrigation 
projects and roads, not for the Haitians, 
but for the benefit of the American land- 
grabbers. I am here to protest against a 
treaty imposed by military pressure against 
the wishes of the people." He added: "The 
Haitian, gourde, which was worth $1 in 
American money, Admiral Caperton has 
arbitrarily fixed at 20 cents. The sugar 
and cotton and other interests may pay their 
labor little more than 20 cents a day. By 
the most brutal and arbitrary methods these 
interests, working through the United 
States Government, have forced a new 
treaty, providing complete control of my 
country's finances and a Receiver General, 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



39 



who is a carpet-bagger from Louisiana. The 
country is now in complete vassalage." 
* * * Dr. Hudicourt was summoned before 
the Senate Investigating Committee on Feb. 
8 and repeated his charges substantially as 
given above in his address of Feb. 2. Sen- 
ator King on Feb. 6 introduced a resolution 
calling on the Secretary of State to inform 
tjhle Senate by what authority a loan of 
$14,000,000 was being negotiated in behalf 
of Haiti. * * * Brig. Gen. John H. Rus- 
sell, it was stated on Feb. 8, would go as 
High Commissioner of Haiti to clear up the 
situation involving American occupation. 

* * * 

The appointment of a High Commissioner 
is in itself a most amazing departure. The 
New York Nation comments: 

As the appointment is without precedent 
in American history, both in the creation of 
the office of High Commissioner over a tech- 
nically still free and independent nation 
and in the failure to send the appointment 
to the Senate for confirmation, a resolution 
of inquiry was introduced by Senator Walsh 
of Montana. In reply President Harding- 
sent a copy of Ambassador Russell's com- 
mission, adding "that it would not be com- 
patible with the public interest" to make 
public his instructions. Among them, The 
Nation has good reason to believe, are or- 
ders to put through the loan which the 
State Department and the bankers are try- 
ing to fasten on Haiti — which will serve 
to copper-rivet the Occupation on the Hai- 
tian people for at least forty years — in 
other words in perpetuity. A resolution 
challenging the constitutionality of General 
Russell's appointment was introduced by 
Senator King following the receipt of Presi- 
dent Harding's response, and was referred 
to the Committee on Judiciary. 

* * * 

Evidently the President has forgotten his 
campaign pledges. The Nation reminds 
him: 

On August 28„ 1920, speaking from the 
front porch at Marion, he said: 

So many things have been done by the 
present expiring Administration that no 
power on earth could induce me to do that 
I cannot even recount them. I may remark 
casually, however, that if I should be, as 
I fully expect to be, elected President of this 
just and honorable Republic, I will not em- 
power an Assistant Secretary of Navy to 
draft a constitution for helpless neighbors 
in the West Indies and jam it down their 
throats at the point of bayonets borne by 
the United States marines. We have a 
higher service for our gallant marines than 
that. Nor will I misuse the power of the 
Executive to cover with a veil of secrecy 
repeated acts of unwarranted interference 
in domestic affairs of the little republics 
of the Western Hemisphere, such as in the 
last few years have not only made enemies 
of those who should be our friends, but have 



rightfully discredited our country as their 
trusted neighbor. 

General Russell, dictator of Haiti without 
the consent of the Senate, is the officer 
who jammed down the illegal constitution 
at the point of bayonets borne by United 
States marines. And when the Senate asks 
for light on another act of unwarranted 
. interference in that little republic, the Ex- 
ecutive covers this act "with a veil of 
secrecy." 

BY THE WAY 

a Map HpAKE a school child's outline 
1 map of the United States and 
op place a dot in each state for every 

SORROW lynching that has occurred within 
its bounds in the 32 years that began with 
1889 and ended with the last day of last 
year. 

Six states will stay all white, and of these 
five are in the New England group. Utah 
alone, with the District of Columbia, shares 
the proud distinction that has been earned 
by Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Maine 
has had a single lynching, also New Jersey 
and Delaware. North Dakota has had two 
lynchings. You must give three dots to 
New York, four each to Michigan, Nevada, 
Oregon and Alaska; seven to Minnesota, 
and eight each to Iowa and Arizona. Little 
groups of dots must be placed in several of 
the Mississippi valley states. Washington 
will have 17 and California 29. 

But when you finish the long task of 
dotting the map with the lynching records 
of the states south of the Ohio river and 
study the general effect, all the map will 
look almost white except that southern 
group, and they will look almost black. Here 
is the record: North Carolina will have 63 
dots, Virginia 80, Missouri 85, Oklahoma 99, 
South Carolina 128, Kentucky 171, Tennes- 
see 199, Florida 201, Arkansas 231, Ala- 
bama 292, Louisiana 326, Texas 354, Missis- 
sippi 405 and Georgia 429. — R. L. O'Brien 
in the Boston Herald. 

* * * 
The White \ GAIN we have the white 
„ l\. problem which has grown 

problem Qut of the Negro problem — the 
problem of the great American desert, the 
vast region of spiritual aridity from which 
comes nothing but the southern gentleman. 
As long as the Negro problem persists we 
shall also be confronted with the task of 
conducting a democracy in the face of the 
fact that from one vast bloc of States we 
can seldom expect representation except 
through Bourbons or demagogues. 

The Negro problem concerns the South 
more vitally than any other section of the 
country and unfortunately it has forced 
out of consideration practically every other 
public question. Under this intensive spe- 
cialization the mind of the South has atro- 
phied to such an extent that it is no longer 
competent even to deal with this single 
question which it has called its own. — Hey- 
wood Broun in the N. Y. World. 



40 



frlfe CRISIS ADVERTISER 



VIRGINIA UNION 
UNIVERSITY 

Richmond Virginia 

is offering young men an excellent 
opportunity to secure a liberal edu- 
cation. We are offering work in the 

High School Department 
College of Liberal Arts 
Pre-Medical Scientific Depart- 
ment 
Pedagogical Department 
Theological Department, and in 
the Department of Public Health 
Nursing 

Strong faculty — healthy and attrac- 
tive surroundings. Reasonable rates. 



JOSEPH K. BRICK AGRICULTURAL 
INDUSTRIAL and NORMAL SCHOOL 

BRICKS, N. C. 

This School offers a first-class High School 
Course, including Domestic Science, Domestic 
Art, Agriculture, Work in Wood, Iron and 
Mechanical Drawing, Piano and Vocal Music, 
Night School. 

Teachers and officers, 25; enrollment, 850; 
boarders, 220. Cottage and buildings, 14. 
School farm, .1,12924 acres. Strong athletic, 
literary and Christian associations. School term 
34 weeks. Environment fine. School receives 
four mails a day. Our postoffice handles money 
orders, registered matter and parcel post mail. 
For further information write 
T. S. INBQRDEN, Principal, BRICKS, N. C. 



Wilberforce University 
Summer School 

9th ANNUAL SESSION 

June 19th to July 29th, 1922 

Wonderful natural beauty. Ideal place for health, recrea- 
tion and study. Large faculty. Inspiring lectures, splendid 
educational equipment and excellent cuisine. 
Courses: College, Normal, High School. 
Special Features: Bible School and School of Philanthropy. 

Catalogues sent on application. 
Address all mail to the Director of the Summer School. 

Gilbert H. Jones, Director. 



HAMPTON INSTITUTE 

AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL 

HAMPTON, VIRGINIA 

Opportunity Knocks at the Door of 
the Man Who Knows and Can Do 

If you wish to prepare yourself to fill a re- 
sponsible position of wide usefulness as a 

County or farm-demonstration agent 
Teacher of vocational agriculture 
Rural-school principal 

Hampton Now Offers in Agriculture 

A COLLEGE COURSE 

Leading to the Degree of B.S. in Agricul- 
tural Education With Work in Well- 
Equipped Classrooms, Shops, and Labora- 
tories; With Summer Field Practice; With 
All-Round Training Under High-Grade In- 
structors. 

James E. Gregg, Principal 
Warren K. Blodgett, Director 



St. Philip's 

Normal & Industrial School 

San Antonio, Texas. 

(FOR GIRLS) 

Normal, Academic, Junior and Music Courses, 
Teachers' Training, Domestic Sciences and 
Arts, Dressmaking, Ladies* Tailoring, Short- 
hand, Typewriting, Bookeeping and Spanish. 

Boarding facilities. Ideal location. 
Faculty from leading Universities. 

Write for Bulletin. 
Artemisia Bowden, Principal 



TALLADEGA THEOLOGICAL 

SEMINARY 

TALLADEGA, ALABAMA 

Frederick A. Sumner, President 

Is training men for the Gospel Ministry at 
home and abroad. Students are also being 
trained for work in the fields of 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

THE Y. M. C. A., AND 

THE Y. W. C. A. 
The Seminary has an enviable record of 49 
years of service. For full information ad- 
dress 

JAMES P. O'BRIEN, Dean 
399 W. BATTLE ST., TALLADEGA, AT. A. 



Mention Tup Crisis. 




NE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR 



JUNE, 1922 



FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY 



>* 



Another Lighthouse to Help 

Chart Negro Business into 

The Right Channel. 







The Southern Aid Society's 
New Modern 3 story and 
basement building located 
at 106 and 106A South Ave., 
Petersburg, Va. 

Petersburg's first colored 
bank and its leading pro- 
fessional and business in- 
terests now have modern 
quarters within which to 
display their talents and 
wares. The Society's Dis- 
trict Office is located on 3rd 
floor. 



In addition to providing a superior policy of protection to 
its policyholders — the Society renders a threefold service to 
the race: 

It gives employment to hundreds of young women and 
men — It provides ready cash to its policyholders in times of 
sickness, accident and death — It provides, in the largest cities 
in its field of operation, modern office facilities to the colored 
professional and business interests. It is indeed a Servant of 
the People. 

SOUTHERN AID SOCIETY OF VIRGINIA, INC. 

Home Office: 527 N. Second Street, RICHMOND, VA. 

District Offices and Agencies in Virginia and 
the District of Columbia 



J. T, CARTER, Pres. and Gen'l Counsel 

W. A. JORDAN, Asst. Secty. 



B. L. JORDAN, Secty. 



THE CRISIS 

A RECORD OF THE DARKER RACES 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND COPYRIGHTED BY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE, AT 70 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY. CON- 
DUCTED BY W. E. BURGHARDT DU BOIS; JESSIE REDMON FAUSET, LITERARY EDITOR; 
AUGUSTUS GRANVILLE DILL, BUSINESS MANAGER. 

Vol. 24-No. 2 JUNE, 1922 Whole No. 140 

Page 
COVER 

Drawing by Lucille Rogers. 

OPINION 

The World and Us; White Charity; The Taboo of Methuselah; Can You 
Help? Catholic Priests; An Institute of Negro Literature and Art; 
Sidney; Attention! Aim! Haiti; Self-Help; Patents 55 

THE NEGRO IN DRAMA. Rollin Lynd Hartt 61 

AN ORGANIZER OF OLD. Illustrated 64 

BANKING COAL. A Poem. Jean Toomer 65 

AS TO BOOKS . Illustrated. Jessie Fauset 68 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED 

PEOPLE 69 

TWO POEMS. Langston Hughes 72 

THE HORIZON. Illustrated 73 

THE LOOKING GLASS 80 

THE LOSS OF ASHLEE COTTAGE. Illustrated. Effie Lee Newsome 84 

IF YOU SHOULD GO. A Poem. Countee P. Cullen 85 



FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY; ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR 

FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTION TWENTY-FIVE CENTS EXTRA 

RENEWALS: The data of expiration of each subscription is printed on the wrapper. When 
the subscription is due, a blue renewal blank is enclosed. 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: The address of a subscriber can be changed as often as desired. 
In ordering a change of address, both the old and the new address must be given. Two weeks' 
notice is required. 

MANUSCRIPTS and drawings relating to colored people arc desired. Thev must be accom- 
panied by return postage. If found unavailable they will lie returned. 

Entered as second class matter November 2, 1910, at the post office at New York, New 
York, under the Act of March 3. 1879. 



52 



THE CRISIS ADVERTISER 



National Training S chool 

DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA 

A School for the Training of Colored Young 
Men and Women for Service 

Though it is young in history, the Institution fecli a juit pride in the work thui 
far accomplished, for its graduates are already filling many responsible positions, 
thus demonstrating the aim of the school to train men and women for useful 
citizenship. 

DEPARTMENTS ALREADY ESTABLISHED 

The Grammar Scheol The Teacher Training Department 

The Academy The Divinity School 

The School of Arts and Science! The Commercial Department 

The Department of Mnsic The Department of Home Economics] 

The Department of Social Service 

For farther information and Catalog, address 

President James E. Shepard, Durham, North Carolina 



STATE OF NEW JERSEY 

Manual Training & Industrial School 

FOR COLORED YOUTH 

BORDENTOWN, N. J. 

A high Inttltutloi far the training »f tolored 
yeuth. Excellent equipment, thorough Initruetion, 
wholesome lurroundlng*. Academic training for all 
etudents. 
Courses In carpentry, agriculture and trade* for boy*, 

Including auto repairing. 
Course* In domeetle science and domestic art for 

girls. 
A new trades building, thoroughly equipped. 
New girls' dormitory thoroughly and medernly 

equipped. 
Terms r easonable. 

For Information address 
W. R. VALENTINE, Principal 



Wiley University 

Marshall, Texas 

Recognized as a college of first class by 
Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas and Okla- 
homa State Boards of Education. Har- 
vard, Boston University. University of 
Illinois and University of Chicago repre- 
sented on its faculty. One hundred 
twenty-seven in College Department, ses- 
sion 1910-1920. Several new buildings, 
steam heated and electric lighted. 

M. W. DOGAN, President 



LINCOLN UNIVERSITY 

Pioneer in Collegiate and 
Theological Education 

Lincoln Men are Leaders in the various 
professions in Forty States. 

The College is ranked in Class I. by the 
American Medical Association. 

Address: 

Joan B. Kendall, D.D., Lincoln University, 
Chester County, Penna. 



The Cheyney Training 
School for Teachers 

Cheyney, Pa. 

A Pennsylvania State Normal School offering, in addition 
to the regular Normal Course of two years, professional 
three year courses in Home Economies and Shop Work. A 
diploma from any of these courses makes a graduate 
eligible to teach in the public schools of Pennsylvania. 
A three-year High School Course is offered to all who 
have completed the eighth grammer grade. 

Next term begins September 18, 1922. 

For further particulars and catalog, write 

Leslie Pinckney Hill, Principal 

Cheyney, Pa. 

There Will Be No Summer School for 1922 



Mention The Cr.sis. 



THE CRISIS 



Vol. 24. No. 2 



JUNE, 1922 



Whole No. 140 



uttouxioiv 



?1S 

J 



THE WORLD AND US 

OW Warren Harding, after his 
categorical promise to free 
Haiti, can sit in the White 
House silent and limp while 
Russell and Mcllhenny rape this little 
helpless land for the benefit of the 
National City Bank, passes our com- 
prehension. Can he refuse to listen 
to the call uttered so clearly yester- 
day? 



fall and hope and cry with the weath- 
er. Why should we fear to talk of it? 



Our little brown brothers of the 
Philippines still ask in vain for free- 
dom. One would think that a country 
so bent on racial antipathies and se- 
gregations as we, would hasten to as- 
sure the Darker World that we mean 
what we say, by letting the Philip- 
pines and Haiti and Porto Rico and 
Hawaii go if they want to go, and be 
by themselves and live untouched by 
white prejudice. But no! We wan- 
der the world seeking colored com- 
panions and hugging them to us de- 
spite their struggles. And for that 
reason we who are inside stay here. 
Not because we like it particularly, 
but because it's safer inside a beast 
and next his vitals than outside and 
under his hands and feet. 



Again the never ending miracle of 
the year bursts in pale yellows and 
crimsons and the faint feel of heat. 
But no — I talk of New York. Already 
in New Orleans summer is blushing 
crimson and gold. Already at the 
Cape of Good Hope the cold fall winds 
are blowing, and snow is flying in 
Australia. But everywhere it is 
miraculous, everywhere, men rise and 



Still Ireland bleeds. We afar can 
scarcely discern her green and poig- 
nant beauty beneath the mists and 
fogs of politicians and press report- 
ers. But one thing, which we do not 
need to see, is exemplified in this un- 
happy broil: the deep distrust of 
England by the masses of the hurt 
and disinherited, the world round ; 
the hatred of the Irish for a land that 
has fooled them so long that they fear 
her most bringing gifts ; the mounting 
hatred of the Indians at her persist- 
ent blundering; the smouldering dis- 
trust of Egypt at her double dealing — 

"Milton ! thou shouldst be living at 
this hour : 

"England hath need of thee!" 



Coal — it is not manufactured, it is 
a gift of God. It belongs to the peo- 
ple and it is monopolized by private 
corporations. It is not yet scarce 
but it is made artificially scarce so 
as to raise prices. The price paid 
by the public and the quantity used 
could afford a living wage to miners 
and steady employment to permanent 
and large groups of workers. As it 
is, more mines are opened than are 
needed and in these mines men are 
kept at work on part time, so that 
when the demand for coal is highest 
all may work, and when it is lowest, 
some may starve. And this is done 
to support with high profits the larg- 
est number of coal operators. 



Of all states in the United States. 
West Virginia is the most glaring 



55 



56 



THE CRISIS 



example of the ruthless exploitation 
of a group of people by great and 
soulless corporations. The great coal 
and iron and steel companies center- 
ing in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, 
With their stock owned by good and 
simple Quaker folk who preach sweet- 
ness and light, and their policies dic- 
tated by metal-hearted bandits, own 
West Virginia. They direct its poli- 
tics, divide its income and drive its 
workers, and the only audible protest 
against a state of affairs which is a 
disgrace to civilization is voiced by 
a few miners banded together to es- 
cape compulsory starvation. And we 
still send missionaries to China ! 



The vaster the body the mightier 
the travail of a soul in torment. China 
is still in chains, still in the throes of 
civil murder, still seeking to give birth 
to a great modern free state. Europe 
is lending no effective help but lies 
ready to pounce at any dawning of 
death. The soul of Japan is appar- 
ently incapable or perhaps unable to 
reach across the prejudice of cen- 
turies and heal the wound that divides 
the mightiest of human races. And 
yet where there is Pain there is Life, 
and it is unsatisfied striving that 
keeps evil forever uneasy and inse- 
cure. 



Grant was a failure — the victim of 
thieves, the delight of politicians, the 
despair of statesmen. And yet, with 
all this, we might without Grant have 
had Negro slavery still with us in 
worse form than it still exists. 



Ulysses Simpson Grant, born 100 
years since, was no genius. He was 
a dogged plodder of medium intelli- 
gence and with no particular ideals. 
He won a war methodically, doggedly 
with horrible spilling of blood and 
mangling of flesh, without conception 
of sorrow and pain, and with eye sin- 
gle to victory. He neither liked nor 
despised Negroes and would probably 
have defended slavery as brutally as 
he destroyed it, if he had been in Lee's 
shoes; just as Lee, in his, would have 
fought for freedom. As a President, 



There can be no question but that 
the Russians have made a good ap- 
pearance at Genoa. Their demand 
for recognition as a de jure govern- 
ment was logically inevitable and un- 
answerable. Their initial offer to re- 
duce the military forces so as to les- 
sen France's excuse for a great army 
was not only delicious but fair ; their 
treaty with Germany was reasonable 
within itself and no one's else busi- 
ness; their offer to assume pre-war 
debt incurred by a Czar for the pur- 
pose of enslaving the mass of Rus- 
sians was generous; and their desire 
for a loan parallels the desire of near- 
ly every other nation . The world still 
has a right to doubt the ability of the 
Bolsheviki to conduct, in peace and 
prosperity, industry and government 
by democratic political methods, or 
even by oligarchy for the benefit of 
the masses ; but it has no earthly right 
to question the legality of a govern- 
ment to sequester private property 
and manage commercial enterprises. 
We ourselves are doing business as 
expressmen, farmers, manufacturers, 
bankers, miners and weather proph- 
ets. The Bolsheviki may be dreamers, 
but they are not fools. 



Last night I sat in Utopia and saw 
Egypt and India, Africa and the South 
Seas parade in the sleek sweet splen- 
dor of Parisian finery made and 
planned in High Harlem. It was a 
lovely sight — such a poem as only 
colored New York can do, and do it 
carelessly, laughingly, perfectly, bath- 
ing in light and music. 



OPINION 



67 




WHITE CHARITY 
HROUGHOUT t h e United 
States are numberless charities 
—schools, homes, hospitals and 
orphanages, — supported wholly 
or in part by white donors .for the 
benefit of Negroes. As the Negroes 
have accumulated more means and 
become more self-assertive, the ten- 
dency has been for white givers to 
reduce their gifts or discontinue their 
interest entirely, putting many wor- 
thy and useful, indeed indispensable, 
institutions in grave distress. 

The motives for this withdrawal of 
help are various : many charitable 
folk have been left straitened by 
the war and the new rich have not 
learned charity. Other folks think 
that Negroes are now rich enough to 
help themselves; while not a few 
others resent the Negroes' new tone 
and demands so deeply that they say : 
Very well, help yourselves and make 
no more appeals to us ! 

These last two classes are ill-ad- 
vised. The Negro is still a poor, a 
very poor group and cannot support 
the social reform and eleemosynary 
work which he needs for social uplift. 
Moreover his great bond to the rich 
and powerful has been their charity — • 
if they break this bond they break the 
last tie that holds him in leash. This 
may be best in time, but for them is 
it wise now? Is it wise for white 
folk to forget that no amount of alms- 
giving on their part will half repay 
the 300 years of unpaid toil and the 
fifty years of serfdom by which the 
black man has piled up wealth and 
comfort for white America? 

It would be a wiser and more far- 
sighted attitude today for white 
America to insist on paying back this 
debt which they owe to black America 
as a privilege — as a great peace-of- 
fering for wrong — rather than petu- 
lantly to vent their spleen on the sick. 
the degraded and the young for the 
growing self-assertion of the well, the 
risen and the old. 



On our part the way is clear: the 
sooner we rise above charity, the 
sooner we shall be free. 

THE TABOO OF METHUSELAH 




WO plays have been running in 
New York, widely different 
and yet connected. Shaw's Me- 
thuselah cycle is a bold cri- 
tique of evolution and man : keen, fan- 
tastic, tremendous ; wherein are treat- 
ed the problems of short life, politi- 
cians without principles, the educa- 
tion of children, war and immortality. 
And in the midst of the five parts, in 
part three, there is a picture of the 
year 2170 A.D., with a republic in 
England ruled by Chinese and Ne- 
groes, with a colored woman as Min- 
ister of Health to whom the white 
President, Burge-Lubin, is making 
desperate love. 

And now the Taboo: we have 
searched the reviews of New York 
critics in vain to find the slightest 
allusion to this incident. Mind you, 
the greatest dramatic effort of the 
year with no or almost no allusion to 
the fact that G. B. S. predicts the 
salvation of the world through the 
mulatto ! 

Why this Taboo? Because the 
white world fears discussion ; it fears 
even imagination or fantastic artistry 
on this race problem. For this rea- 
son Mary Hoyt Wiborg's great play 
''Taboo" also spoke to deaf hearts in 
New York. To be sure it was, as 
critics complained, somewhat obscure 
in plot. But to us that sit within the 
veil it was clear. It was a tale of 
some far-off curse of mixed blood, 
descending on a little golden-haired 
Louisiana white child and making 
him abnormal and dumb. But around 
this unpleasant and untrue theme was 
woven a splendid fantasy of witchery 
and dark religious rites, of a great 
dream-Africa clothed in brilliant 
splendor and of the romance and 
tragedy of the old slave South. 



58 



THE CRISIS 



But it all fell on deaf ears. First 
because white and black actors played 
together in it and played exceedingly 
well, and this is "Social Equality". 
But also because the audience had 
been taught to regard Negro witch- 
craft as funny minstrel stuff and not 
as crimson tragedy. They could not 
understand "What it was all about". 
To them the new art was Taboo. 

CAN YOU HELP? 

Aux Cayes, 
' Republique d'Haiti. 

The Editor of The Crisis : 

I?il LEASE for £ ive tne liberty 

j$ jjj which a comparative stranger 

takes in approaching you. I 

am a West Indian from Gra- 



nada, B. W. I. In the summer of 1921 
I, having left my island home with 
the aim of seking employment in 
Cuba to help my poor mother and 
three sisters, my father who was a 
well-to-do man died in 1921, and with 
him his whole belongings. I was 
forced to leave school, aged 18, to 
work and support my mother and sis- 
ters aged from 4 to 12 respectively, 
but being unfortunate never got to 
Cuba. A whole two days' storm off 
the coast of Haiti forced us to ask 
for rescue and on the third day, when 
we expected all was over, we was glad- 
dened by being rescued by a Haitian 
boat and was landed here in the month 
of April last. We was given no help 
by the English Consul and was com- 
pelled to take up the only job that 
the island can give, laboring at one 
gourde per day, value 20 cents Ameri- 
can currency ; with this one must ob- 
tain everything. I was always ex- 
pecting something would turn up, but 
things have gone to worse and noth- 
ing to be got to do. My boots are all 
gone and the hopes of leaving here has 
fled, a storm having passed over 
Granada in September last with the 
result of my mother's house blown 
down and now she is laid down with 




paralysis of one arm and there is none 
to help, I being the oldest, and she is 
every' month expecting something, 
something that wouldn't reach her. 
I was taking a course of lessons with 
the I. C. S. in civil engineering. I 
had to drop it on account of not being 
able to work for enough to help her 
and to pursue my course of lessons. 
While I beg the liberty to await your 
solicited help, I am, sir, obediently, 
John Francique. 
P. s.— There is a Royal Bank of 
Canada here and even a 5-cent stamp 
can be exchanged. 

CATHOLIC PRIESTS 

Dear Sir : 

HE April Crisis has an edito- 
rial which ends by asking 
whether the present Pope will 
see to it that Negro priests are 
cidained. To me this is a tremendous 
question for which I have agitated. 
By what right can Negro priests be 
excluded? Could you not write a per- 
sonal letter to Pius XI? He speaks 
English and French fluently. He does 
not know of this abuse. God bless 
you. 

Raymond Vernicourt, 

Catholic Priest. 
P. S. — Do not drop this great ques- 
tion, be fearless, many priests will be 
with you. 

AN INSTITUTE OF NEGRO LITERATURE 
AND ART 

E need a periodical gather- 
ing of Negro artists and 
writers in some central 
meeting-place. A summer- 
time assembling in or near New York 
might be best. 

Such an annual gathering might: 

1 . Establish personal acquaintance- 

ships 

2 . Study literature and art 

3 . Collect materials 

4 . Study methods 

5. Establish canons of taste 

6. Criticize results 

7. Visit libraries and museums 




OPINION 



59 



All this might be done with a mini- 
mum of organization and with little 
money. Indeed an example of sim- 
plicity, poverty and joy in creation 
and fellowship might be made. 

Those to whom this idea appeals 
are asked to write the editor. 



SIDNEY 

IDNEY De La RUE, a white 
man, filed application for an 
accountant's position in Wash- 
ington saying that he would 




"consider $3,500 or more" as a salary. 
The Commissioner was anxious to 
favor Mr. De La Rue for various rea- 
sons; but insufficiency of experience 
and lack of qualifications compelled 
the Chief Economist, Dr. W. H. S. 
Stevens, to offer Mr. De La Rue only 
a position as junior accountant at 
$1,200-$1,800. This he refused. But— 
The Commissioner recommended 
Mr. De La Rue to the State Depart- 
ment. Mr. Hughes' colleagues sent 
him to Liberia as Agent of the Audi- 
tor of the State Department. We al- 
ways select our best to uplift Africa ! 

ATTENTION! AIM! 



■p^wHIS coming November, thirty- 
wTM I three Senators are to be elect- 
I W ed. So far as we know at 
I^mI present, only one of the Sena- 
tors whose terms expire will not stand 
for re-election. What we must do is 
to bring more pressure, friendly, yet 
firm, on Republican Senators, letting 
them know that they cannot expect 
Negro votes unless they do everything 
in their power to pass the Anti- 
Lynching Bill. Nail them to that one 
issue. 

Send a telegram or letter to your 
Republican Senators calling attention 
to the following facts: 
1. The Republican Party platform, 
adopted June 19, 1920, pledged it- 
self to Congressional action 
against lynching in these words: 
"We urge Congress to consider the 
most effective means to end lynch- 



ing in this country which contin- 
ues to be a terrible blot on Ameri- 
can civilization." 

2 . President Harding in his first mes- 
sage to Congress, on April 12, 
1921, further solemnly pledged the 
Administration to end lynching 
by saying : 

"Congress ought to ivipe the stain 
of barbaric lynching from the ban- 
ners of a free and orderly repre- 
sentative democracy." 

3. The House of Representatives on 
January 26, 1922, passed the Dyer 

Anti-Lynching Bill by a vote of 
230 to *119. 

4 . The Attorney-General of the 
United States, Harry M. Daugher- 
ty. has declared the Dyer Bill con- 
stitutional. 

Emphasize these facts upon both 
Senators, telling them that every col- 
ored voter in the State is looking to 
the Republicans in the Senate to pass 
the Bill, thus carrying out the plat- 
form pledge of the party and acting 
in accordance with the specific re- 
quest of the President, Let them 
know that colored voters can do 
nothing less than hold the Republican 
Party to blame if the bill is not acted 
upon or is defeated. Make your let- 
ters specific. Let the tone be courte- 
ous, but firm and unequivocal. 

Take Michigan, for example : Sena- 
tor Charles E. Townsend is up for 
re-election. He has openly put him- 
self on record as favoring the Dyer 
Anti-Lynching bill. He is opposed by 
Congressman Patrick J. Kelley, the 
only Michigan representative who 
voted against the Dyer Bill. Kelley is 
"progressive," "new thought" and all 
that, but, Michigan Negroes, VOTE 
FOR TOWNSEND! 

Moreover do not forget the Demo- 
cratic Senators, North and South; 
remind them gently but clearly that 
it would be very poor politics to let 
the world assume that the Democratic 
Party is the party of lynchers. Sug- 



60 



THE CRISIS 



gest that the way to split the North- 
ern Negro vote is to pass the Dyer 
Bill with or without their Republican 
colleagues' help. 

When you have done what is out- 
lined above, get other organizations 
and individuals, particularly political 
organizations, to send similar mes- 
sages. The situation is serious ! Act 
now! We have got to put this over 
and we can do it only through united 
effort and acton. 

HAITI 



VER two years ago, James 
Weldon Johnson and Herbert 
J. Seligmann from the execu- 
tive offices of the National As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Col- 
ored People went to Haiti to investi- 
gate American control. They re- 
turned and denounced the situat : on 
there, showing that over three thou- 
sand natives had been killed and that 
the United States had forced its con- 
trol on an independent people against 
their will without adequate cause. 

At first there was vigorous denial, 
then finally most of the facts were 
admitted. Mr. Johnson then went to 
Warren Harding, candidate for the 
Presidency, and secured his interest 
in Haiti. He stated categorically be- 
fore election that he would not be a 
party to "forcing a constitution upon 
a helpless people against their will." 

When the Administration took of- 
fice, the Secretary of the Navy rushed 
to Haiti and after perfunctory inves- 
tigation, practically announced that 
the Republicans proposed to take over 
the work of the Democrats and rule 
the colored republic for the benefit of 
the National City Bank and other 
large corporations. 

Indignation rose high and Haiti 
sent a delegation here which made 
categorical and explicit protests. A 
Senate committee was appointed with 
Medill McCormick at its head. This 




committee has done everything in its 
power to distort ^he truth, whitewash 
the situation and ease it out of public 
notice. // ever a Senator deserved 
defeat for betrayal of the Negro race, 
Medill McCormick is that man. 

Despite his efforts, however, the 
question has pushed itself forward 
again and now twenty-four lawyers 
including some of the greatest names 
of the bar have appealed to Washing- 
ton against the infamy of our pres- 
ence in Haiti and demanded the im- 
mediate abrogation of the so-called 
treaty of 1919, legal elections and a 
new treaty on mutually satisfactory 
lines. 

SELF-HELP 

[E Jews of America were 
asked last September to raise 
$14,000,000 to save their peo- 
ple from starvation in Russia 
and the East. Seven months later 
they had raised $18,000,000 and eight- 
ninths of this was in cash. 

And this was not all the gift of 
the rich either. The pennies of the 
poor swelled these millions and the 
single dollars of the workers. 

This is self-help. This is a lesson 
and a vivid lesson to black folk. 

PATENTS 

[HOSE who would reform eco- 
nomic society should not for- 
get patents. Under our pres- 
ent laws the discoverer may 
die of starvation while the rich mo- 
nopolist who has bought his patent for 
a song bleeds the nation with guar- 
anteed special privilege for 14 years. 
One little law making patent rights 
personal and inalienable might easily 
do more than a whole revolution. 
Who would develop patents under 
such restrictions? Those who are 
willing to pay the patentee decently. 
Surely there are a few such Captains 
of Industry. 




THE NEGRO IN DRAMA 




Rollin Lynde Hartt 



ID ECAUSE she has been an actress and 
is now writing pageants and little plays, 
I asked Mrs. Hartt to share my study of the 
Negro in Drama. So these impressions 
are not a reporter's merely, nor at all a pro- 
fessional critic's; I saw through the eyes of 
an artist, and if an artist may perhaps be 
a trifle too generous when appraising the 
genius of fellow-craftsmen — at the moment, 
that is — pray note that some little time has 
gone by since we saw Gilpin in "The Em- 
peror Jones", and went to an astonishing 
matinee at the Negro theatre in Harlem, 
and chatted with Negro players, Negro 
scenario writers, and Negro moving picture 
producers in their Dressing-Room Club at 
the Harlem Community House established 
by Community Service. Yesterday — calmly 
I think — we reviewed our exploits. 

Every theatre-loving New Yorker — and 
every theatre-loving sojourner in New York 
■ — -knows the "Emperor Jones", black scape- 
grace lording it over a West Indian island 
"not yet self-determined by American ma- 
rines". During the opening scene, revo- 
lution breaks out. From then on, we see 
the Emperor fleeing. Solitary. At night. 
Through the forest. Far away, a tom-tom 
reveals where his enemies are preparing 
the silver bullet which, as he has boasted, 
alone can kill him. He is visited by awful 
"hants". A bravo at first, he becomes 
more and more horror-stricken. Finally, 
he shoots himself. The play is practically 
all Gilpin. Gilpin soliloquizing. On a stage 
nearly dark. 

Mr. Robert Bridges remarked to me th^ 
other day, "I'd hate to see a white raari 
try it. Salvini might have succeeded. No 
living white man could." To the actress, 
Gilpin is amazing: "Never before in my 
whole experience have I seen an actor carry 
so difficult a role. He was forced to people 
the stage with imaginary characters. If 
he had not had an extraordinary imagina- 
tion, you would never have felt the reality 
of the foes who filled him with terror. He 
lived his part, in absolute sincerity; there 
was no trick of technique you ever caught 



him at. And that prayer in the forest — 
that agonized prayer! He put into it the 
complete realization of what he was saying 
as an artist, and as a human being." 

It takes an actress fully to measure the 
triumph. "Soliloquy is the most difficult 
thing a player can handle; every Hamlet 
finds this the great test. Yet Gilpin never 
made you nervous — you never felt that he 
was having a hard time to wade ashore 
with it. And he 'got it over' in the dark — 
a most difficult feat. I doubt if Salvini 
could have played the 'Emperor'! I don't 
know any one but Gilpin who could. Let 
alone other exactions, what a strain on the 
voice! The average actor in the average 
cast feels that strain, though it is shared 
by anywhere from ten to twenty-five people, 
so that each gets time to rest his voice. 
Gilpin has almost none. Yet throughout 
the play it responds to every nuance of his 
thought." 

A modest genius is Gilpin. Invited to the 
actors' banquet, he came with the inten- 
tion of not staying. Interviewed by news- 
paper men, he declared in effect, "Many a 
Negro could play the 'Emperor' ", and later 
on, in the Dressing-Room Club down under 
the establishment, a Negro said to us: "We 
have a lot of Gilpins." But it was in none 
too expectant a mood that we visited the 
Lafayette Theatre in Seventh Avenue near 
131st Street, .Harlem. The more fools we. 
Prepared for crude melodrama, we found — - 
but first to describe the theatre. 

It is a spacious affair, handsome and 
scrupulously cared for. Posters outside an- 
nounced the Lafayette Players (stock com- 
pany, all black) in "The Love of Choo 
Chin". With charming courtesy, a colored 
girl sells tickets. A mannerly girl usher, 
wearing Chinese dress in honor of Choo 
Chin, showed us to our box. The orchestra 
(colored) consisted entirely of young wo- 
men. On the drop curtain, cheerful nymphs 
(colored) disported themselves in a famil- 
iar enough drop-curtain Eclogue. The 
audience (all black) was remarkable chief- 
ly for its air of very pleasing refinement. 



61 



62 



T7JE CRISIS 



What wonder? Among the 150,000 Negroes 
in Harlem, university graduates abound. 

"The Love of Choo Chin" is a play within 
a play. The Prologue introduces a rich 
American just back from China. To an 
old crony of his, he relates his adventures. 
Yes, there was a girl. The drama itself 
tells the story our hero tells his friend — 
how he fell in love with Choo Chin; how 
Choo Chin rejected him in order to marry 
an odious Celestial, who, otherwise, would 
take her father's life; and how the detesta- 
ble alliance was happily forestalled — hap- 
pily indeed, as it turned out that Choo Chin 
was really the daughter of Americans slain 
during the Boxer Uprising. The Epilogue 
resumes the confidences between our hero 
and his friend. Finally enters the girl in 
American dress. So the hero presents his 
bride, and all ends sweetly. 

It is a pretty play. We were told after- 
ward that only the huge popularity of "East 
is West" prevented its becoming a tip-top 
Broadway success. The Lafayette Players 
staged it splendidly, with elaborate scenery, 
correct costuming, careful stage direction, 
and an exercise of fine artistic conscience 
throughout. "I never saw a better perform- 
ance by a stock company anywhere," re- 
marked the lady at my side. "What dig- 
nity and sincerity in the entire cast!" 

However, it was at one point quite up- 
roariously amusing — to us. White folks can 
black up, but black folks can't white up, 
and the rich American traveller was un- 
equivocally a Negro. We could forget that. 
We could not forget, however, that his Eng- 
lish butler, who dropped his h's, was also a 
Negro. Oh, a lovely Negro! Black! This, 
as Hashimura Togo would say, was "very 
tough projectile for white folks to chew", 
though the audience took it beautifully, and 
there is now and then a much more hila- 
rious absurdity on our own stage — to wit, an 
Englishman attempting Negro dialect. 

Except as regards color, that black man 
played the English butler to perfection. 
With your eyes shut, you would have been 
completely deceived, so imitative is the Ne- 
gro voice. To be sure, we noticed once or 
twice on the part of other performers a 
tendency to lapse into Afro-American. Once 
or twice only. Faultless diction was the 
rule. And such deep, rich voices! How 
flexible! How carrying and enduring! Said 



Mrs. Hartt, "If a white player had any one 
of those voices, he'd be made!" 

She was especially delighted with Evelyn 
Ellis, the leading lady, and praised "her 
wide and unusual range of talent, her ability 
to play an emotional role coupled with a 
charming sense of comedy; her absolute 
control of her body; her gesture; her voice, 
in its delicate modulations; her sympathetic 
understanding of the poetic lines of the 
play. Throughout the entire performance 
I failed to detect one instance of false read- 
ing." And before the second act was over, 
she said, "I'm going to write to her". 

"Wouldn't you like to meet her?" I asked. 
"I think it might be managed." 

During an entre-acte, I stepped to the 
rear of the house, and said to one of the 
ushers, "The lady in the box with me was 
formerly Miss Helen Harrington, of the Co- 
burn Players. Could you arrange for her 
to meet Miss Ellis?" 

The little usher went behind the scenes, 
and returned, presently, with word that 
Miss Ellis would come to our box after the 
performance. 

See how bur mood had changed. In a 
Negro theatre, we had no longer a sensa- 
tion of being among people of an alien 
race — perhaps because art knows no color 
line, perhaps also because the audience, 
black outwardly, seemed white inwardly, 
and, without overdoing the matter, respond- 
ed appreciatively to nobility of phrase and 
sentiment, as well as to humor, in a most 
exquisite drama. 

When Miss Ellis came to us, she stood 
at the curtained doorway of our box, and 
consequently the white actress turned her 
back to me while talking with the colored 
actress. I overheard only this — Miss Ellis 
saying, "Oh, you don't know how much 
that means to me!" 

Out in Seventh Avenue, afterward, I 
asked, "What did you say to that colored 
girl?" 

"I said, 'Miss Ellis, you are a very great 
artist.' " 

And so she is. Some day a dramatist 
with enough genius will write a play about 
an octoroon, and a manager with enough 
genius will give Evelyn Ellis the leading 
rote. There'll be a fortune in it. 

On our way home, the white actresis said, 
"I want to cry." It was a mood I could 



THE NEGRO IN DRAMA 



63 



perfectly understand. All that talent, all 
that refinement, all that charm, and — 
colored! I had been in the same mood, once, 
after an hour with Miss Helen Keller; came 
away saying to myself, not, "How mag- 
nificent that a creature born blind and deaf 
has achieved such a triumph!" but instead, 
"How tragical that a splendid, beautiful, 
gifted woman — so radiant and sweet— must 
endure such limitations!" Which was of 
course quite the wrong point of view, as 
regards Miss Keller. By and by, it will be 
the wrong point of view as regards Miss 
Ellis. Shut out from our world, the Ne- 
groes are fast making a world of their own. 
It holds great promise. Who knows but 
that it may one day equal ours? When that 
day arrives, what honor will crown the Ne- 
groes who, despite hardships that would 
break the spirit of a less forgiving race, 
have promoted the growth of artistic sen- 
sibility among their people! 

In the upper Seventh Avenue district, 
Community Service started the Harlem 
Community House to foster Negro jollity 
and Negro genius. Gilpin used to come 
there to hobnob with Negro actors. In the 
Dressing-Room Club, a page about Gilpin 
from a Sunday paper adorned the bulletin 
board, when I was there. A framed photo- 
graph of members of the Drama League at 
their banquet showed Gilpin among them. 
In a kind of an office, Marian S. Nicholas 
was devoting her spare moments to col- 
laborating with Leigh Whipple upon scen- 
arios. Upstairs, P. A. McDougall conducted 
a dramatic school. After an evening in that 
center of creative, as well as interpretative, 
activity, Mrs. Hartt remarked, "Nothing 
in all my life has beei? so interesting as this 
experience of discussing the drama with in- 
tellectual Negroes." And with charmingly 
courteous Negroes, I may add. When we 
entered the Dressing-Room Club, a group of 
Negro actors were seated about a table 
playing cards. Instantly, every man rose. 

There is a lot to talk about in such a 
group. Gilpin is now on the road. Here in 
New York it is reported that his manager 
has in hand a musical comedy, "Nobody 
Knows", with a cast of thirty Negroes, 
among them Creamer and Layton, the song 
writers. Not long ago the Colored Players' 
Guild of New York presented "The Niche", 
by Dora Norman, and "The Pitfalls of Ap- 



pearance", by G. A. Woods. Both writers 
are members of the Guild. "Put and Take", 
a Negro revue, ran for several months in 
New York. "Shuffle Along" still occupies 
the Music Hall on 63rd Street. Negro stu- 
dents at Moorehouse College, Atlanta, re- 
cently presented "Hamlet". And at the 
time we visited the Community House, pupils 
of its dramatic school were rehearsing a 
pageant. We begged to look in on them. 

Having carried the leading role in Percy 
MacKaye's Gloucester pageant, "The Can- 
terbury Pilgrims", and having written pa- 
geants of her own, Mrs. Hartt is a trained 
critic in such matters. As the teacher ex- 
plained his pageant (he had created it, him- 
self) , I wondered what she would say. What 
she did say was, "Excellent! The real 
thing — pure pageantry, conceived with a fine 
handling of symbolism, and a sincere and 
lovely reaching out for beauty." The au- 
thor, by the way, is a devoted student of 
Keats. As for his pupils — young girls from 
fourteen to eighteen years old — they showed 
"an unusual reverence for art. More, in- 
deed, than is common among white students. 
Nobody giggled. On the whole, it was as 
creditable a performance as you will find 
in any dramatic school, and in one respect 
it was exceptional. All had fine voices." 
But I think that the white author of pa- 
geants was especially impressed by our Ne- 
gro writer's method — his adoption of a 
poetic theme and his endeavor to elaborate 
it with scrupulous consistency. The Negro 
mind loves simplicity, directness, the domi- 
nance of one idea. Its aim is purposive — 
even didactic. 

In drama, whether for stage or screen, it 
is not content with mere dramatic genre- 
painting. It burns to say something. Down- 
stairs, Miss Nicholas read us the scenario 
she and Leigh Whipple had written. The 
theme was reincarnation. From beginning 
to end, the story developed that theme. An- 
other photonplay, "The Slacker", written by 
a Negro, and produced by Negroes, with 
Negro actors, for Negro audiences, made 
loyalty its theme. Shown throughout black 
America during the War, it sought to offset 
German propaganda among Negroes. "Why 
fight for a country that oppresses you?" 
cried German agents. Here was black 
America's answer. 

In the Dressing-Room Club we saw a 



64 



THE CRISIS 



gaudy poster advertising that film, and Ne- 
gro actors are prouder of it, even, than of 
the photographic group showing Gilpin at 
the Drama League's banquet. "The Slacker" 
got results — tangible, measurable, and nobly 
patriotic. They glory in it. 

The walls of the Dressing-Room Club 
were covered with photographs. Chrono- 
logically arranged, they would have illus- 
trated the Afro-American's progress from 
mere vaudeville clowning and stage min- 
strelsy upward through silent drama into 
the realm of complete and finished art. The 
Negro was never by nature a buffoon. He 
was never supremely a comedian. White 
folks blacked up are always funnier. It is 
in serious drama that he has come into his 
own. And it is in serious drama, whether 
spoken or silent, that he finds himself a 
power. 

Professor Kerlin, author of that admira- 
ble book, "The Voice of the Negro", de- 
clares that the real leader of the Negro 



race today is the Negro press. It has grown 
enormously. The literate Negro family to- 
day takes from one to five Negro newspa- 
pers. But what of the illiterates? Through- 
out black America, Negro theatres and Ne- 
gro movie houses are rapidly multiplying, 
and Negroes, unable to read, see Negro plays 
performed by Negroes in establishments 
owned and managed by negroes. They see 
Negro films. And a Negro film producer 
said to us in the Dressing-Room Club, "I'm 
working just now on a photoplay called 
'Toussaint L'Ouverture'. It's a sermon. If 
a film isn't a sermon, I don't want anything 
to do with it." Within a very few years, 
the Negro theatre will become as influen- 
tial as the Negro press — more influential, 
possibly. If, as Professor Kerlin declares, 
the Negro has "discovered his Fourth Es- 
tate", he has also discovered his Fifth. It 
is a momentous discovery, coming as it does 
when for the first time in history the Negro 
seems determined to shape his own career. 



AN ORGANIZER OF OLD 




'^TO account of the Grand United Order of 
^ Oddfellows in the United States could 
be complete without a mention of Peter Og- 
den. As it happens no account of Peter 
Ogden would be possible without mention of 
the Grand United Order of Oddfellows for 
unfortunately very little is known of him 
save his connection with that order. But 
that connection was of a nature so far- 
reaching and so important that the telling 
of it makes an interesting story. 

As far back as 1842 a group of colored 
men constituting the Philomathean Literary 
and Musical Society of New York City or- 
ganized a new association whose purpose 
was to gain from the Independent Order of 
Oddfellows a dispensation to form a lodge. 
Ulysses B. Vidal, James Fields and other 
illustrious members of this organization 
waited as a committee on the Grand Mas- 
ter of the Independent Order an'd preferred 
their request. 

They were flatly refused and refused 
without a doubt on account of color. 




Into the midst of these negotiations Peter 
Ogden-;— for all that one is able to learn of 
his early life — dropped like a bolt from the 
blue. He was already at this date a man 
of considerable training, apparently self- 
taught, and he had added to this the experi- 
ence which comes from having frequently 
crossed the seas. But more than that he 
was a man of decided convictions and "noted 
for his earnestness in any cause he under- 
took". In some way ho became acquainted 
with the purpose of the members of the 
Philomathean Institute and from the out- 
set strove to influence them against peti- 
tioning the Independent (American) Order 
of Oddfellows. It was much better, he as- 
sured them, to be connected with England 
and the Grand United Order and to enjoy 
thereby the benefits accruing from associa- 
tion with the fountain-head. He himself al- 
ready belonged to the English Order through 
affiliation with Lodge No. 448 in Liverpool. 



BANKING COAL 



65 



Upon the re- 
fusal of the In- 
dependent Order 
the committee of 
the P h i 1 o ma- 
thean Institute 
deputized Peter 
Ogden to negoti- 
ate with his Liv- 
erpool Lodge for 
a dispensation. 
The Lodge un- 
dertook to se- 
cure this and 
got in touch 
with the Com- 
mittee of Man- 
agement at the 
headquarters in 
Leeds who 
promptly grant- 
ed the required 
d i s p e nsation. 
Thus was es- 
tablished Philomathean Lodge, No. 646, New 
York, March 1, 1843. Furthermore the Com- 
mittee of Management authorized Peter Og- 
den, destined to be Grand Master of tho 
Philomathean Lodge, to act as their repre- 
sentative in America and in this capacity to 
take charge of all matters there pertaining 
to the Grand United Order. 

Peter Ogden undoubtedly had a flair for 
the exercise of administrative power. In 




the ten years 
Which lay be- 
fore him he es- 
tablished a sub- 
c o m m i ttee of 
management, or- 
ganized a Past 
Grand Masters' 
Chapter, re- 
solved difficul- 
ties, soothed con- 
tentions that 
rose among the 
new lodges 
which began to 
spring up every- 
where, and 
crushed the 
doubts and prej- 
udices which the 
Independent Or- 
der of Oddfel- 
lows undertook 
to sow among 
the Grand United Order of England. 

He died in 1852 convinced that he had 
initiated a great progressive movement. 
Not even his splendid vision, I dare say, 
had dreamed of the remarkable growth of 
the Grand United Order of Oddfellows in 
America which boasts 10,000 branches and 
nearly 500,000 members. 

The record of his services is a lesson in 
organization. 



BANKING COAL 



Jean Toomer 



T\7"HOEVER it was who brought the 

* ™ first wood and coal 
To start the fire, did his part well; 
Not all wood takes to fire from a match, 
Nor coal from wood before it's burned to 

charcoal. 
The wood and coal in question caught a 

flame 
And flared up beautifully, touching the air 
That takes a flame from anything. 

Somehow the fire was furnaced, 

And then the time was ripe for some to 

say, 
''Right banking of the furnace saves the 

coal." 
I've seen them set to work, each in his way, 
Though all with shovels and with ashes, 



Never resting till the fire seemed most 

dead; 
Whereupon they'd crawl in hooded night- 
caps 
Contentedly to bed. Sometimes the fire left 

alone 
Would die, but like as not spiced tongues 
Remaining by the hardest on till day would 

flicker up, 
Never strong, to anyone who cared to rake 

for them. 
But roaring fires never have been made 

that way. 
I'd like to tell those folks that one .grand 

flare 
Transferred to memory tissues of the air 
Is worth a life, or, for dull minds that 

turn in gold, 
All money ever saved by banking coal. 



AS TO BOOKS 




Jessie Fauset 




The Book of American Negro Poetry. 
Chosen and edited by James Weldon John- 
son. Harcourt, Brace and Co., New York. 

Harlem Shadows. Claude McKay. Har- 
court, Brace & Co., New York. 

Birthright. T. S. Stribling. The Century 
Co., New York. 

White and Black. H. A. Shands. Har- 
court, Brace & Co., New York. 

Carter and Other People. Don Marquis. 
Appleton and Co., New York. 

Negro Folk Rhymes. Thomas W. Talley. 
Macmillan Co., New York. 

The Negro Problem. Compiled by Julia 
E. Johnsen. H. W. Wilson Co., New York. 

/~\NE of the poets whom James Weldon 
^^ Johnson quotes in his "Book of Ameri- 
can Negro Poetry", himself defines uncon- 
sciously the significance of this collection. 
This poet, Charles Bertram Johnson, after 
noting in the development of Negro Poets 
"the greater growing reach of larger la- 
tent power", declares: 

We wait our Lyric Seer, 

By whom our wills are caught. 

Who makes our cause and wrong 

The motif of his song; 

Who sings our racial good, 

Bestows us honor's place, 

The cosmic brotherhood 

Of genius — not of race. 
Not all of the 32 poets quoted here give 
evidence of this cosmic quality, but there 
is a fair showing, notably Mrs. Georgia 
Douglas Johnson whose power however is 
checked by the narrowness of her medium 
of expression, Claude McKay and Anne 
Spencer. Of Claude McKay I shall speak 
later, but I wonder why we have not heard 
more of Anne Spencer. Her art and its 
expression are true and fine; she blends 
a delicate mysticism with a diamond clear- 
ness of exposition, and her subject matter 
is original. 

This anthology itself has the value of an 
arrow pointing the direction of Negro 



genius, but the author's preface has a more 
immediate worth. It is not only a graceful 
bit of expository writing befitting a col- 
lection of poetry, but it affords a splendid 
compendium of the Negro's artistic con- 
tributions to America. Mr. Johnson feels 
that the Negro is the author of the only 
distinctively American artistic products. 
He lists his gifts as follows: Folk-tales 
such as we find in the Joel Chandler Har- 
ris collection; the Spirituals; the Cakewalk 
and Ragtime. What is still more important 
is the possession on the part of the Negro 
of what Mr. Johnson calls a "transfusive 
quality", that is the ability to adopt the 
original spirit of his milieu into something 
"artistic and original, which yet possesses 
the note of universal appeal". 



The first thought that will flash into the 
mind of the reader of "Harlem Shadows" 
will be: "This is poetry!" No other later 
discovery, a slight unevenness of power, a 
strange rhythm, the fact of the author's 
ancestry, will be able to affect that first 
evaluation. Mr. McKay possesses a deep 
emotionalism, a perception of what is 
fundamentally important to mankind every- 
where — love of kind, love of home, and love 
of race. He is extraordinarily vivid in de- 
picting these last two. "Flameheart" and 
"My Mother" fill even the casual reader 
with a sense of longing for home and the 
first, fine love for parents. The warmth 
and sweetness of those days described in 
the former poem are espcially alluring; 
the mind is caught by the concept of the 
poinsettia's redness as the eye is fixed by 
a flash of color. But Mr. McKay's nobler 
effort has been spent in the poems of which 
"America" (quoted in this issue's Looking 
Glass) is the finest example. He has dwelt 
in fiery, impassioned language on the suf- 
ferings of his race. Yet there is no touch 
of propaganda. This is the truest mark of 
genius. 

Max Eastman prefaces these poems with 
a thoughtful and appreciative foreword. 



66 



AS TO BOOKS 



67 



The 'publishers of "Birthright" could 
hardly have realized how correctly they 
were writing when they spoke of it as an 
"amazing book". Amazing it is in every 
sense of the word and in no way more than 
in its contradictions. The story is that of 
a colored boy, Peter Siner, who after leav- 
ing "Hooker's Bend" for four years of Har- 
vard comes back to his own special "Nigger- 
town" and surrenders to its environment. 
That is his birthright. 

The style of the book is really unusual, 
the author clearly knows how to delineate 
his characters and how to write an absorb- 
ing story. But he dots not care how many 
fallacies he introduces. Here is a boy 
brave and far-visioned enough to pick him- 
self up out of the ruck and mire and to get 
away to the very best of intellectual and 
aesthetic life only to yield on his return 
to the worst features of it. This hardly 
seems likely. But while Mr. Stribling fails 
in depicting his hero, it is probable that he 
has been successful in limning his subordi- 
nate characters. One is struck forcibly by 
the meanness and shallowness of life in 
Hooker's Bend and its menacing "Nigger- 
town", its sordid whites and shiftless Ne- 
groes. One is hard put to it to decide 
which race appeals to him least. "Some- 
thing rotten" indeed has crept into the 
national ideal which permits the existence 
of conditions like these. 

Mr. Shands' "White and Black" leaves 
one not quite so angry as does "Birth- 
right", but infinitely more depressed. Writ- 
ten in an unusually poor style, this story 
lacks the speciousness and sophistication of 
Mr. Stribling's art and for that very reason 
seems somehow more sincere. These white 
and black Texans live a life unspeakably 
revolting, mean, sordid and petty. The one 
redeeming character, "Mr. Will", even at his 
best is patronizing in his dealings with Ne- 
groes; at his worst he is as autocratic 
as a man of fewer altruistic pretentions. 
Over and through every manifestation of 
life in this town seeps the miasma of im- 
morality, of illicit sexual relations. The 
whites do not respect the blacks because 
they are black and nobodies. The blacks 
do not respect the whites because they are 
white and are still nobodies. The colored 
girl Sally, the cleverest person in the book, 
estimates correctly enough the resistance of 




CLAUDE McKAY 



Hugo Gellert 



the white boy who has just joined church 
and that of the Negro who is a minister 
of the gospel, and she acts accordingly. It 
is not surprising that the author intro- 
duces into these surroundings a lynching 
and a procession of the Ku Klux Klan. Such 
surroundings breed such phenomena. 

From a sociological standpoint these two 
books may be viewed as a step forward in 
the relationship of the races. They may 
be cited too as good examples of the real- 
istic school; especially is this true in "White 
and Black" and in the portions of "Birth- 
right" devoted to a description of "Nigger- 
town". Finally as a commentary on the 
uses of American life they are drastic, 
most unpleasant, but valuable. 



Among a number of interesting, well- 
written but pessimistic stories Don Marquis 
introduces one called "Carter", presenting 
an aspect of the Negro problem which I 
confess I never have seen manifested. "Car- 
ter" is a mulatto who can easily be taken 
for white. He comes North to work and 
usually poses as a white man. His blood 
rather than his actual color is his bane 
however. Not content with being seven- 
eighths Caucasian, of having the appear- 



68 



THE CRISIS 



ance of a Caucasian and therefore of enjoy- 
ing the advantages of a Caucasian, his life 
becomes a dreary burden because he is not a 
Caucasian. So deep is his dislike for his black 
blood, that not only is he forced to admit 
his admixture to his white fiancee, but 
when she shows her indifference to this fact, 
"the seven-eighths of blood which was white 
spoke: 'By God! I can't have anything to 
do with a woman who would marry a nig- 
ger!"' 

I told this story to a colored school git!. 
Her reaction to it was hardly what the 
author, I imagine, would have expected. 
She said inimitably: "Gee but don't white 
people just hate themselves!" 



In his carefully compiled volume of "Ne- 
gro Folk Rhymes", Professor Talley gives 
us a new aspect of Negro life which is by 
a strange contradiction both disappointing 
and interesting. It is easy to mark in the 
collection, the finger of the scientific in- 
vestigator rather than that of the poet; for 
viewed from the standpoint of beauty these 
songs fail to satisfy, but from the stand- 
point of sociology they are both valuable 
and enlightening. They show the pathetic 
narrowness and drabness of the slave's out- 
look, his pitiful desire to get the better 
even if only in fancy of his environment 
and of his oppressors, and so he chuckles: 

Dem white folks set up in a Dinin' Room 
An' dey charve dat mutton an' lam'. 
De Nigger, he set 'hind de kitchen door, 
An' he eat up de good sweet ham. 

Dem white folks, dey set up an' look so fine. 
An' dey eats dat old cow meat; 
But de Nigger grin an' he don't say much, 
Still he know how to git what's sweet. 

In seeking compensation for his lot, he 
dwells on other unsuccessful creatures 
whose very failure to measure up to norms 
of beauty marks a kinship of suffering. 
"There are others" he declares: 

Nev' min' if my nose are flat, 
An' my face are black an' sooty; 
De Jaybird hain't so big in song, 
An' de Bullfrog hain't no beauty. 

Certain salient characteristics of the Ne- 
gro are traceable in these songs, his sense 
of humor, his dryness, his tendency to make 
fun of himself and above all his love for 
the sudden climax which Mr. James Weldon 



Johnson mentions in the preface to his 
anthology. This seems to me a perfect ex- 
ample: 

She writ me a letter 

As long as my eye. 

An' she say in dat letter: 

"My Honey !^Good-b ye!" 

Professor Talley seems to have done for 
the Negro Folk Song what Mr. Johnson 
has done for poems by Negro authors, and 
like Mr. Johnson's preface not the least 
valuable part of Professor Talley's service 
lies in the "Study of Negro Folk Rhymes" 
which is appended to his book. Here he 
distinguishes between Rhyme Dance Songs 
and Dance Rhymes; he points out that the 
composition of these songs really served to 
keep the slave mentally fit, and most im- 
portant of all he shows that these effusions 
often formed a sort of cipher language 
perfectly intelligible to the slaves but mean- 
ingless to their masters. Without doubt we 
are indebted to Professor Talley for an ex- 
traordinarily valuable sociological contribu- 
tion. 



In her explanatory note Miss Johnsen 
writes: "Selections have been chosen from 
both white and Negro writers, from op- 
posers and sympathizers of the Negro alike, 
yet with the aim not so much to maintain 
exact balance as to give expression to 
views that reflect representative opinions 
and conditions of race friction, and that 
serve best to indicate the way for construc- 
tive effort." 

This program has been successfully car- 
ried out, with the result that the book shows 
no bias and so should form a valuable com- 
pendium for the student or debater. Al- 
though very nearly every espect of Negro 
life with relation to America has been 
touched upon, latter-day conditions which 
make the present Negro problem are con- 
siderably more emphasized than such re- 
mote subjects as slavery or abolition. This 
seems a wise and sensible procedure. What 
the true student of the problem will most 
treasure is the long and thorough biblio- 
graphy with which Miss Johnsen prefaces 
her selections. This is a gold mine in it- 
self. 



National • Associaiion for • iKe • • - 
Advancement- o/"- Colored- People. 




THE THIRTEENTH ANNUAL 
CONFERENCE 

' I "*HE Thirteenth Annual Conference of 
■*■ the Association opens on Sunday, June 
18, at Newark, N. J., with a great parade 
and mass meeting at which time addresses 
will be made by Moorfield Storey, our na- 
tional president; Governor Edward I. Ed- 
wards of New Jersey; Mayor Frederick C. 
Breidenbach, of Newark; Dr. George E. 
Cannon, of Jersey City, and others. The 
conference will continue through Friday 
evening, June 23, with two business sessions 
each day, morning and afternoon, and a 
large mass meeting each evening, at which 
some of the most eminent citizens of the 
country will speak. No business sessions 
will be held on Thursday as that day will 
be given over to an automobile drive and 
picnic which is being planned by the New- 
ark Branch as one of the many entertain- 
ments for all delegates and members. Every 
session will be chock-full of interest. 

Our conference this year will take on 
somewhat the nature of a great celebration 
and at the same time a girding up of our 
loins for greater effort. Since we met at 
Detroit last June the Dyer Anti-Lynching 
Bill has passed the lower house of Con- 
gress and is now pending in the Senate. 
We will meet to rejoice over the victory and 
we also will show to the Senate the strength 
of the movement which demands early pass- 
age of this legislation. It will be of great 
interest and gratification to know that 
among the speakers at the conference will 
he Congressman Dyer and we want to show 
him how much we appreciate the valiant 
work that he has done. 

The time chosen for the event is especial- 
ly suitable in that it is during the vacation 
period. The National Office takes this 
means of extending to every person, young 
and old, white and colored, who is interest- 
ed in the obtaining of justice for colored 
citizens, a very hearty and cordial invita- 
tion to meet with us at Newark and make 
it the greatest gathering of its kind that has 
ever been held. We need your advice and 



counsel and we want you to come and taka 
an active part in the deliberations. 

Every branch that can possibly do so, i^ 
urged to send one or more delegates. If 
your branch has not elected its representa- 
tives do so at once. All persons who wish 
stopping places reserved for them are urged 
4,0 write as soon as possible to Mr. R. W. 
Stewart, 279 Bank Street, Newark, N. J., 
and request such reservations. Unless you 
do this you may reach Newark and find it 
impossible to secure accommodations as we 
are expecting a tremendous attendance at 
the conference. 

When you purchase ' your railroad ticket 
to Newark be sure to get from the ticket 
agent a certificate. Last year at Detroit 
our efforts to obtain reduced fares were 
unsuccessful because so many of the dele- 
gates and members, in spite of repeated urg- 
ing on our part, forgot to obtain certificates. 
By so doing they not only deprived them- 
selves of the saving of considerable money, 
but they as well deprived those who had not 
been careless or forgetful. 

Start preparing now! Arrange your va- 
cation trip so that you can be at Newark, 
June 18th to 23rd! You cannot afford to 
miss this, the greatest conference of the 
greatest organization ever created for the 
achieving of manhood rights for the col- 
ored citizens of the United States. 

A MEMORIAL 

TO THE SENATE OF THE UNITED 
STATES 

The killing and burning alive of human 
beings by mobs in the United States is a 
reproach upon our country throughout the 
civilized world and threatens organized gov- 
ernment in the nation. 

Since 1889 there have been 3,443 known 
mob murders, 64 of the victims being women. 
In only a few instances has prosecution of 
the lynchers been even attempted. Ameri- 
can mobs murdered 64 persons in 1921, of 
whom 4 were publicly burned at the stake. 

The House of Representatives on January 
26, 1922, in response to insistent country- 
wide demand, passed the Dyer Anti-Lynch- 



69 



70 



THE CRISIS 



ing Bill, which invokes the power of the 
Federal Government to end the infamy of 
American mob murder. 

This bill is now in the hands of the 
United States Senate. The undersigned 
United States citizens earnestly urge its 
prompt enactment. 

GOVERNORS OF STATES 
Hon. Thomas E. Campbell, Arizona 
Hon. O. H. Shoup, Colorado 
Hon. William D. Denney, Delaware 
Hon. Len Small, Illinois 
Hon. Warren T. McCray, Indiana 
Hon. N. E. Kendall, Iowa 
Hon. Henry J. Allen, Kansas 
Hon. Edwin P. Morrow, Kentucky 
Hon. Channing H. Cox, Massachusetts 
Hon. Joseph M. Dixon, Montana 
Hon. Albert O. Brown, New Hampshire 
Hon. Harry L. Davis, Ohio 
Hon. Ben W. Olcott, Oregon 
Hon. William C. Soroul, Pennsylvania. 
Hon. W. H. McMa"ster, South Dakota 
Hon. Charles R. Mabey. Utah 
Hon. John J. Blaine. Wisconsin 

MAYORS 
Hon. William S. Hackett, Albany, N. Y. 
Hon. William F. Broening, Baltimore, Md. 
Hon. James M. Curley, Boston, Mass. 
Hon. Frank X. Schwab, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Hon. Edward W. Quinn, Cambridge, Mass. 
Hon. John P. Grace, Charleston, S. C. 
Hon. Grant P. Hall, Charleston, W. Va. 
Hon. George P. Carrell, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Hon. P. G. Lovenskield, Corpus Christi, Texas 
Hon. Thomas F. Donnelly, Covington, Ky. 
Hon. D. C. Bailey, Denver, Colo. 
Hon. James Couzens, Detroit, Mich . 
Hon. John McNabb, Grand Rapids, Mick. 
Hon. Newton C. Brainard, Hartford, Conn. 
Hon. Frank Hague, Jersey Cty, N. J. 
Hon. Harry B. Burton, Kansas City, Kans. 
Hon. Huston Quin, Louisville, Ky. 
Hon. George E. Cryer, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Hon. Daniel W. Hoan, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Hon. George E. Leach, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Hon. Jeremiah P. Mahoney, Newport, R. I. 
Hon. John F. Hylan, New York City 
Hon. James C. Dahlman, Omaha, Neb. 
Hon. W. A. Magee. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Hon. C. Clarence Neslen, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Hon. O. B. Black, San Antonio, Tex. 
Hon. Chas. T. Bauman, Springfield, 111. 
Hon. Edwin F. Leonard, Springfield, Mass. 
Hon. L. C. Hodgson, St. Paul, Minn. 
Hon. Henry W. Kiel, St. Louis, Mo. 
Hon. Herbert J. Corwine, Topeka, Kan. 
Hon. Frederick W. Donnelly, Trenton, N. J. 
Hon. Fred J. Douglas, Utica, N. Y. 
Hon. LeRoy Harvey, Wilmington, Del. 
Hon. George L. Oles, Youngstown, O. 

ARCHBISHOPS 

The Most Rev. Michael J. Curley, Baltimore, Md. 
The Most Rev. Patrick J. Hayes, New York City 
The Most Rev. Henry Moeller, Cincinnati, Ohio 

BISHOPS AND CHURCHMEN 
W. S. Abernethy, D.D., Washington, D. C. Presi- 
dent American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. 
William F. Anderson, Bishop, M. E. Church, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio 
Samuel Gavitt Babcock, Suffragan Bishop, P. E. 

Church, Massachusetts 
Hugh C. Boyle, Catholic Bishop of Pttsburgk 
Theodore D. Bratton, Epscopal Bshop of Mississippi 
Benjamin Brewster, Episcopal Bishop of Maine 
Chauncey B. Brewster, Episcopal Bishop of Connec- 
ticut 
Ferdinand Brossart, Catholic Biskop of Covington, 

Ky. 
William M. Brown, Bishop, P. E. Church, Galion, 

Ohio 
Frederick Burgess, Episcopal Bishop of Long Island, 

New York 
Hugh L. Burleson, Episcopal Bishop of South Dakota 



C. E. Burton, D.D., General Secretary Congregational 

Home Mission Society. 
J. F. Busck Catholic Bishop of St. Cloud, Minn. 
George L. Cady, D.D., Corresponding Secretary, 

American Missionary Association 
John P. Carrol, Catholic Bishop of Helena, Mont. 
R. A. Carter, Biskop, M. E. Church, Chicago, 111. 
Henry Sloane Coffin, D.D., Madison Avenue Presby- 
terian Church, New York City 
Charles B. Colmore, Episcopal Biskop of Porto Rico. 

E. Cottrell, Bishop, C. M. E. Ckurch, Holly Springs, 
Miss. 

Thomas F. Davies, Episcopal Bishop of Western 
Massachusetts 

Thomas W. Drumm, Catholic Bishop of Des Moines, 

Quincy Ewing, Rector Christ Churck, Napoleonville, 
La. 

William F. Faber, Episcopal Bishop of Montana 

J. S. Flipper, Bishop, A. M. E. Church, Atlanta, Ga. 

Robert Freeman, Pasadena Presbyterian Churck, Pasa- 
dena, Cal. 

Daniel M. Gorman, Catholia Bishop of Boise, Idaho 

F. R. Graves, Bishop, P. E. Church, China 

S. M. Griswold, Suffragan Bishop, P. E. Church, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

George Albert Guertin, Catholic Bishop of Manches- 
ter, N. H. 

Arthur C. A. Hall, Episcopal Bishop of Vermont 

Alfred Harding, Episcopal Bishop of Washington, 
D. C. 

J. C. Hartzell, Bishop, M. E. Church, Cincinnati, O. 

John R. Hawkins, D.D., Secretary of Finance, A. 
M. E. Church 

William H. Heard, Bishop, A. M. E. Churck, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

E. A. Hiller, Secretary Christ Cathedral, Salina, Kan. 

Victor Hoag, Dean of Christ Cathedral, Salina, Kan. 

M. J. Hoban, Catholic Bishop of Scranton, Pa. 

John Haynes Holmes, Community Church, New York 
City 

Frederick B. Howden, Episcopal Bishop of New Mex- 
ico 

Murray Shipley Howland, Lafayette Avenue Presby- 
terian Churck, Buffalo, N. Y. 

John Hurst, Bishop, A. M. E. Church, Baltimore, 
Md. 

Charles E. Jefferson, D.D., Broadway Tabernacle, 
New York City 

E. H. Jenks, D.D., First Presbyterian Church, Omaha, 
Neb. 

Joseph H. Johnson, Episcopal Bishop of Los Angeles 

J. H. Jones, Bishop, A. M. E. Church, Wilberforce, 
Ohio 

William Lawrence, Episcopal Bishop of Massachu- 
setts 

Frederick De Land Leete, Bishop, M. E. Church, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

William A. Leonard, Episcopal Bishop of Ohio 

Harry S. Longley, Episcopal Coadjutor Bishop of 
Iowa 

Samuel Lane Loomis, D.D., Secretary American Mis- 
sionary Association 

William F. McDowell, Bishop, M. E. Church, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

F. A. McElwain, Episcopal Bishop of Minnesota 
Charles S. Macfarland, D.D., General Secretary, Fed- 
eral Council of the Churches of Christ in Amer- 
ica 

Cameran Mann, Episcopal Bishop of Southern Flor- 
ida 

William T. Manning, Episcopal Bishop of New York 

Paul Matthews, Episcopal Bishop of New Jersey 

Charles Bayard Mitchell, Bishop, M. E. Church, St. 
Paul, Minn. 

Robert H. Mize, Episcopal Bishop of Salina, Kan. 

William Hall Moreland, Episcopal Bishop of Sacra- 
mento, Cal. 

E. C. Morris, D.D., President, National Baptist Con- 
vention 

J. D. Morrison, Episcopal Bishop f Duluth, Minn. 

Theodore N. Morrison, Episcopal Bishop of Iowa 

P. J. Muldoon, Catholic Bishop of Rockford, 111. 

William F. Nickels, Episcopal Bishop of California 

D. J. O'Connell, Catkolic Bishop of Richmond, Va. 

Edward J. O'Dea, Catholic Bishop of Seattle, Wash. 

Arthur Lee O'Dell, First Presbyterian Church, Phoe- 
nix, Ariz. 

Charles J. O'Reilly, Catholic Bishop of Lincoln, Neb. 

Edward M. Parker, Episcopal Bishop of New Hamp- 
shire 

C. H. Pkillips, Bishop, C. M. E. Church, Nashville, 
Tenn. 



N. A. A. C. P. 



William A. Quayle, Bishop, M. E. Church, St. Louis, 
Mo. 

Wallace Radcliffe, D.D., New York Avenue Presby- 
terian Church, Washington, D. C. 
Paul P. Rhone, Catholic Bishop of Green Bay, Wis. 
William T. Russell, Catholic Bishop of Charleston, 

. S. C. 
L. C. Sanford, Episcopal Bishop of San Joaquin, Cal. 
Charles H. Sears, Secretary, New York Baptist City 

Mission Society 
William O. Shepard, Bishop, M. E. Church, Portland, 

Ore. 
Eugene Spiess, Vicar General Corpus Christi Diocese, 

Corpus Christi, Texas 
Paul Moore Strayer, D.D., Third Presbyterian Church 

Rochester, N, Y. 
Cortlandt Whitehead, Episcopal Bishop of Pittsburgh, 

Pa. 
R. S. Williams, Bishop, C. M. E. Church, Augusta, 

Ga. 
James R. Winchester, Episcopal Bishop of Arkansas 
James Wise, Episcopal Bishop of Kansas 
"Stephen S. Wise, The Free Synagogue, New York 

City 
Charles E. Woodcock, Episcopal Bishop of Kentucky 

JURISTS AND LAWYERS 

II. J. Bean, Associate Justice, Supreme Court of 
Oregon 

Clayton B. Blakey, City Attorney, Louisville, Ky. 

Edward Osgood Brown, Chicago, 111., former Judge, 

Cook County Circuit Court 

Edward J. Brundage, Attorney General of Illinois 

Orrin N. Carter, Justice, Supreme Court of Illinois 

James A. Cobb, former Assistant Attorney, District 
of Columbia 

William H. DeLacey, Washington, D. C. 

John H. Denison, Associate Justice, Supreme Court 
of Colorado 

Hugh M. Dorsey, Atlanta, Ga., former Governor of 
Georgia 

Edward F. Dunne, Chicago, former Governor of Illi- 
nois 

E. T. England, Attorney-General of West Virginia 

J. E. Frick, Justice, Supreme Court of Utah 

Edwin B. Gager, Judge, Superior Court of Connecti- 
cut 

W. Ashbie Hawkins, Baltimore, Md. 

*0. R. Holcomb, Associate Justice, Supreme Court 
of Washington 

George W. Kirchwey, New York, former Kent Pro- 
fessor of Law, Columbia University 

William P. Lawlor, Associate Justice, Supreme Court 
of California 

William H. Lewis, Boston, Mass., former Assistant 
United States Attorney General 

Robert W. McMurdy, Chicago, former Judge Illinois 
Court of Claims 

Julian W. Mack, Judge, United States Circuit Court, 
Chicago, 111. 

Carrington T. Marshall, Chief Justice, Ohio Supreme 
Court 

John G. Milburn, New York City, former President 
New York State Bar Association 

James F. Minturn, Associate Justice, Court of Errors 
and Appeals, New Jersey 

William J. Morgan, Attorney General of Wisconsin 

A. Mitchell Palmer, Washington, D. C, former Attor- 
ney General of the United States 

Philip G. Peabody, Boston, Mass. 

Albert E. Pillsbury, Boston, Mass., former Attorney- 
General of Massachusetts 

S. C. Polley, Judge, Supreme Court of South Da- 
kota 

Byron W. Preston, Justice, Supreme Court of Iowa 

Tohn G. Price, Attorney General of Ohio 

James E. Robinson, Justice, Supreme Court of North 
Dakota 

Flem D. Sampson, Judge, Court of Appeals of Ken- 
tucky 

Sydney Sanner, Judge, Supreme Court of Montana 

Alex. Simpson, Jr., Justice, Supreme Court of Penn- 
sylvania 

Albert M. Spear, Justice, Supreme Judicial Court of 
Maind 

Arthur B. Spingarn, New York. 

Moorfield_ Storey, Boston, Mass., former President 
American Bar Association 

Charles H. Strong, New York City 

Charles H. Studin, New York City 

Francis J. Swayze, Associate Judge, Court of Error* 
and Appeals, New Jersey 



James H. Teller, Associate Justice Supreme Court of 
Colorado 

Robert H. Terrell, Judge, Municipal Court, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Walter B. Vincent, Judge, Supreme Court of Rhode 
Island 

Charles S. Whitman, New York, former Governor of 
New York 

George W. Wickersham, New York City, former 
United States Attorney General 

Rutler R. Wilson, Boston, Mass. 

L. Hollingsworthj Wood, New York City 

EDITORS 

Daily Newspapers 
Charles H. Dennis, Managing Editor, Chicago Daily 

News 
Victor F. Lawson, Editor and Publisher, Chicago Daily 

News 
Phil. J. Reid, Editor, Detroit Free Press. 
William Allen White, Editor Emporia (Kan.) Gazette 
Edwin F. Gay, Editor, New York Evening Post 
Royal J. Davis, Editorial Writer, New York Evening 

Post 
Louis Wiley, Managing Editor, New York Times 

Weekly Publications 

B. J. Davis, Editor, Atlanta Independent 

John H. Murphy, Editor, Baltimore Afro-American 

Joseph D. Bibb, Editor, Chicago Whip 

Joseph D. D. Rivers, Editor, The Colorado Statesman 

Fred R. Moore, Editor, The New York Age 

Lucien H. White, Managing Editor, The New York 

Age 
James H. Anderson, Editor, New York Amsterdam 

News 
Hamilton Holt, Editor, The Independent 
Oswald Garrison Villard, Editor, The Nation 
Lewis S. Gannett, Associate Editor, The Nation 
Ernest Henry Gruening, Managing Editor, The Na- 
tion 
Alvin Johnson, Editor, The New Republic 
Stoughton Cooley, Editor 
Paul U. Kellogg, Editor, The Survey 
John J. Wallace, Editor, Pittsburgh Christian Ad- 
vocate 

C. A. Rook, Editor, Pittsburgh Dispatch 
John Mitchell, Jr., Editor, Richmond Planet 
Lorenzo H. King, Editor Southwestern Christian Ad- 
vocate 

Nick Chiles, Editor, Topeka Plaindealer 

Monthly Magazines 
Harold S. Buttenheim, Editor, The American City 
Gleen Frank, Editor, The Century 
W. E. B. D'u Bois, Editor, The Crisis 
H. L. Mencken, Editor, The Smart Set 

COLLEGE PRESIDENTS AND PROFESSORS 

William T. Brewster, Professor, Columbia University 
L. B. R. Briggs, President, Radcliffe College 
M. L. Burton, President University of Michigan 
William J. Clark, President, Virginia LJnion University 
George William Cook, Dean of Commerce and Finance, 

Howard University 
J. Stanley Durkee, President, Howard University 
Ernst Freund, Professor, University of Chicago 
James E. Gregg, President, Hampton Institute 
J. Kelly Griffin. President, Knoxville College 
John Grier Hibben, President, Princeton University 
John Hope, President, Morehouse College 
David Starr Jordan, Chancelor Emeritus, Stanford 

University 
Henry C. King, President. Oberlin College 
Howard H. Long, Dean, Paine College 
Kelly Miller; Dean, Howard University 
Eliakin H. Moore, Professor, University of Chicago 
Stephen M. Newman ex-President, Howard University 
James P. O'Brien, Dean, Talladega College 
Ellen F. Pendleton, President, Wellesley College 
Josiah H. Penniman, Vice-Provost, Unversity of Penn- 
sylvania 
Bliss Perry, Professor, Harvard University 
John A. Ryan, Professor, Catholic University of 

America 
Edwin R. A. Seligman, Professor, Columbia Uni- 
versity 
Charles F. Thwing. President,, "Western Reserve Uni- 
versity 



*Signs Memorial with exception of the clause: "and 
threatens organised government in th* nation." 



THE CRISIS 



ward T. Ware, President, Atlanta University 
.idrew F. West, Dean, Graduate School, Princeton 
University 

oenjamin Ide Wheeler, President-Emeritus, Univers- 
ity of California 

Ray Lyman Wilbur, President, Stanford University 
GENERAL 

Jane Addams, Hull House, Chicago, 111. 

Charles E. Bentley, Chicago, 111. 

J. Albert Blake, General Grand King, Royal Arch 
Masons of Massachusetts 

Edward W. Bok, Merion, Pa., former editor, The 
Ladies' Home Journal 

Horace J. Bridges, Chicago; author and lecturer 

Hallie Q. Brown, Wilberforce, Ohio, President, Na- 
tional Association of Colored Women, 

William F. Cochran, Baltimore, Md. 

Edward T. Devine, New York, author and lecturer 

C. S. Dodge, New York City 

Samuel S. Fels, Philadelphia 

Archibald H. Grimke, Washington, D. C. 

Edward Cary Hayes, Urbana, 111., President, Amer- 
ican Sociological Society 

Rev. W. H. Jernagin, D.D., Washington, D. C, Pres- 
dent National Race Congress of America 

James Weldon Johnson, New York 

Robert Underwood Johnson, New York, former United 
States Ambassador to Italy 

Florence Kclley, New York, Secretary National Con- 
sumers' League 

Edward Lasker, New York 

Agnes B. Leach, New York 



Mary E. McDowell, University of Chicago Settlement 

John E. Milholland, New York 

Mary White Ovington, New York 

Geo. N. Plimpton, member New York State Coloniza- 
tion Society 

Louis F. Post, Washington, D. C, former Assistant 
Secretary of Labor 

Mrs. Corinne Roosevelt Robinson, New York 

Victor Rosewater, Omaha, Neb.; former editor, The 

Omaha Bee 

L. S. Rowe, Washington, D. C, President, American 
Academy of Political and Social Science 

Charles Edward Russell, New York, author and jour- 
nalist 

William Jay Schieffelin, New York 

Emmett J. Scott, former Special Assistant to the Sec- 
retary of War 

J. E. Spingarn, New York 

William O. Stoddard, Madison, N. J., author and 
journalist 

Mary B. Talbert, Buffalo, N. Y., Honorary President, 
National Association of Colored Women 

William 'Monroe Trotter, Boston, Mass., President, 
National Equal Rights League 

Henry Van Dyke, Princeton, N. J., author and poet; 
former Minister to the Netherlands 

Lillian D. Wald, Henry Street Settlement, New York 
City 

Talcott Williams, New York, journalist 

Alice Ames (Mrs. Thomas G.) Winter, Indianapolis, 
Ind. ; President, General Federation of Women's 
Clubs 



TWO POEMS 



Langston Hughes 




THE SOUTH 

'HE lazy, laughing South 

With blood on its mouth; 

The sunny-faced South, 
Beast-strong, 
Idiot-brained ; 

The child-minded South 

Scratching in the dead fire's ashes 

For a Negro's bones. 

Cotton and the moon, 
Warmth, earth, warmth, 
The sky, the sun, the stars, 
The magnolia-scented South; 

Beautiful, like a woman, 

Seductive as a dark-eyed whore, 
Passionate, cruel, 
Honey-lipped, syphilitic — 
That is the South. 

And I, who am black, would love her 

But she spits in my face; 

And I, who am black, 

Would give her many rare gifts 

But she turns her back upon me; 
So now I seek the North — 
The cold-faced North, 
For she, they say, 
Is a kinder mistress, 

And in her house my children 

May escape the spell of the South. 



MY PEOPLE 
T"| RE AM-singers, 

*-^ Story-tellers, 

Dancers, 

Loud laughers in the hands of Fate — 

My People. 
Dish-washers, 
Elevator-boys, 
Ladies' maids, 
Crap-shooters, 
Cooks, 
Waiters, 
Jazzers, 

Nurses of babies, 
Loaders of ships, 
Porters, 
Hairdressers, 
Comedians in vaudeville 
And band-men in circuses — 
Dream-singers all, 
Story-tellers all. 
Dancers — 

God ! What dancers ! 
Singers — 

God ! What singers ! 
Singers and dancers, 
Dancers and laughers. 
Laughers? 

Yes, laughers laughers laughers- 

Loud-mouthed laughers in the hands 

Of Fate. 




CO tvl OIL. £D 



BY MADELINE 



ALLISON 



C Despite much discussion we know very 
little about Africa. The death then of J. 
Tengo Jabavu early in the year has not re- 
ceived much attention in the United States. 
Mr. Jabavu was born in the Cape Province 
of South Africa in 1859 and died last Sep- 
tember. He belonged to the great Bantu 
nation and was educated at Lovedale. He 
was the second South African native to 
pass the matriculation examination of Cape 
University and to become a teacher. After- 
ward he founded the Imvo newspaper which 
he edited during the rest of his life. When 
the union of South Africa was founded he 
went to England hoping to induce Parlia- 
ment to give the natives representation in 
the Union Parliament, but in this he was 
disappointed. While in England he joined 
the Friends and on his return to Africa 
was appointed a member of the Provincial 
Education Committee on native education 
together with three other natives who were 
the first in South Africa to be appointed on 
a government commission. Mr. Jabavu was 
one of the founders of the South African 
Native College where his son is now a 



teacher. He died "where his heart was, at 
the native college". 

(T We have had with us in America for 
over a year two splendid specimens of 
African womanhood, Mrs. Casely Hayford 
of Sierra Leone and her niece Miss Kath- 
leen Easmon. Both of these ladies were 
born in West Africa and educated in Eng- 
land and are raising funds for a school for 
young African women. Their culture and 
unselfish devotion to their work have won 
them hosts of friends. Recently they have 
been interested in pageantry and have 
taken part in pageants in Boston and New 
York. 

C St. James First African Male Beneficial 
Society is celebrating its 75th anniversary 
in Baltimore. George B. Murphy is presi- 
dent. 

CE A colored mail clerk, Ernest Thomas, 
was arrested in Louisiana by local authori- 
ties for alleged stealing. Pursuant to im- 
mediate protests of the N. A. A. C. P. the 
two deputy sheriffs and the marshall who 
arrested him were in turn arrested for ob- 
structing United States mail. 
d L. W. Thomas of Mexia, Texas, has pur- 




MISS EASMON 



74 



THE CRISIS 




LINOTYPE ROOM OF THE CHICAGO "DEFENDER' 



chased $60,000 worth of property in South 
Muskogee where he proposes building a col- 
ored town. 

C Representatives of seven Greek letter 
fraternities and sororities met in confer- 
ence in Washington April 17 to 19. 
(I Everybody has heard of the Chicago 
Defender, but few have seen its home or 
know its history. The next time you go to 
Chicago be sure to visit the Defender office. 
It is a striking building on Indiana Avenue, 
well lighted and spacious. It is filled with 
modern appliances — linotypes, a great press, 
a dozen light cozy offices, and thrifty look- 
ing business offices. 

But this is the shell. Within lies the life. 
A black boy from Savannah who had 
learned printing at Hampton started the 
Chicago Defender in 1905. He entered a 
field of journalism when a hundred or more 
weeklies catered to the Negroes of a nation 
but they were having a difficult fight for 
survival. Several of them had a national 
circulation, but in no case did it reach 50, 
000 and in all but one or two cases it was 
below 25,000. Then too Mr. Abbott was a 
sort of outsider, acquainted with few Ne- 
groes of influence, with limited training and 
a worker with his hands. 

Yet he won. He won by sheer pluck and 



endurance, by learning as he grew, by know- 
ing his job from A to Z. Today the De- 
fender circulates in every state and terri- 
tory and sells well over 100,000 copies 
monthly. More than that it is edited and 




ROBERT S. ABBOTT 



THE HORIZON 



76 




THE "DEFENDER" PRESS 



manufactured right in Mr. Abbott's own 
plant. His editorial staff form a group of 
alert young men — college men from Har- 
vard and elsewhere, business men and ex- 
perts. In the great composing room white 
and black mechanics set the type and cast 
the iplates; in the press room they print the 
many paged paper with its colored head 
lines, and mail it to the ends of the earth. 
It is a curiously hopeful and inspiring 
sight. 

(I George Hayes of the Howard High 
School, Wilmington, Del., won second place 
for the state in the National Safety Essay 
Contest. 



d John F. Mathews received his M. A. de- 
gree from Columbia last October for work 
in education and languages. He was born 
in West Virginia in 1887, was graduated 
from Western Reserve in 1910 and has been 
teaching since at the Florida A. & M. Col- 
lege, Tallahassee. 

C William J. H. Booker of Oxford, North 
Carolina was a graduate of Tuskegee and 
the medical department at Shaw. He prac- 
ticed for three years at Oxford, North 
Carolina, and served as first Lieutenant in 
the World War. He died at the age of 39. 
C Dr. James G. Sterrs was born in Ala- 
bama in 1881. He attended the State Nor- 
mal school and the Medical School at the 
University of Michigan. He finally com- 
pleted the medical course at Shaw and be- 
gan practice in Atlanta. He had perhaps 
the largest practice of any colored physi- 
cian in the city, and died recently of apo- 
plexy leaving a widow and three children 
and an estate valued at $100,000. 

([ Dr. Frank G. Smith was born at Selma, 
Alabama, and educated at Fisk University. 
He was one of the first colored teachers 
in the schools of Nashville, Tennessee, and 
for 25 years was principal of the Pearl 
High School. During this service he stu- 
died at summer school at Chicago Uni- 
versity and graduated in both medicine and 
pharmacy at Meharry. Finally he grad- 
uated from the Northern Illinois' College of 
Ophthalmology and passed the state board. 
He began practicing as a specialist on the 
ear and eye in Chicago, having resigned his 
principalship of the Pearl High School. 




DR. SMITH 



MR. MATHEWS 



DR. BOOKER 



DR. STERRS 



?e 



THE CRISIS 




THE PIONEER RADIO SOCIETY 



C The Pioneer Radio Society was organ- 
ized in New York City last December for 
furthering the interest of colored electrical 
and radio amateurs. At present there are 
15 members and the enrollment is growing. 
They have meeting and laboratory rooms 
on 138th Street. Miles Hardy is Presi- 
dent. 

C There have been several intercollegiate 
debates among the colored colleges. Fisk 
von over Knoxville on the question of Com- 
pulsory Unemployment Insurance. Atlanta. 
Lincoln and Union debated together April 
14. South Carolina State, North Carolina 
A. & T. and Virginia Normal debated "Dis- 
armament". Virginia Normal won. 
C Eight colored boys in Des Moines, Iowa, 
are known as the "Dashing Eagles", and 
they are very happy to have received the 
following letter from the Chief of Police: 
"It is a pleasure to me to advise you that 
I have received information to the effect 
that you were one of the boys who helped 
run down the two men who robbed the Re- 
liable Rug Co. pay-roll. 

"It is another evidence that the police 
department is always dependent upon out- 



side help to assist them in being successful. 

"We are very appreciative of your work 
and it would be pleasing to me to have you 
advise the other boys who were with you 
as I do not know their names. 

"Sometime when your father is not busy 
we will be pleased to have you, your father 
and the other boys come down and we will 
show you through the building." 

On the testimony of the boys the bandits 
were indicted before the Grand Jury, but 
they afterward escaped from jail. 




THE "DASHING EAGLES' 



THE HORIZON 



11 



C In Topeka, Kansas, there has just been 
held the first music memory contest. The 
schools of the city for a period of eight 
weeks learned forty phonograph records. A 
preliminary contest was held in each build- 
ing to select a team of five pupils who 
would contend in a final contest for prizes 
of $100, the first prize being $50, the second 
$25, etc. The music club of the city gave 
additional prizes of $10 to each building in 
the preliminary contest. The representa- 
tives of the colored Monroe school, Eliza- 
beth Wilson, Minnie Martin, Altha Hick- 



ing American College and University, held 
their annual "Go to High School, Go to 
College" campaign during the week of May 
8 to 14. 

CE The Binga State Bank of Chicago, March 
10, had total resources of over a half mil- 
lion dollars. The capital and surplus 
amounted to $120,000 and the deposits to 
$380,000. 

(I A colored man, Edward L. Dawkins, has 
Deen appointed a customs agent and as- 
signed to the Appraisers' Warehouse in 
Philadelphia. Mr. Dawkins entered the 




MUSIC MEMORY TEAM OF THE MONROE SCHOOL 



man, and Anita Williams won the first prize 
in the contest with 21 schools. All of them 
made 100%. They received both the $50 
and in addition a gold medal. Both the 
second and third prizes went to colored 
schools. 

C James A. Gardiner of West Chester, 
Pennsylvania, received his B.A. at the Penn- 
sylvania State College January 3, doing 
the work in three and one-half years and 
specializing in mathematics. 
C. The 42 chapters of the Alpha Phi Alpha 
Fraternity, which reaches now every lead- 



customs service in Washington in 1893 as 
a laborer at a salary of $660 a year and 
has been promoted through the grades of 
assistant messenger, clerk and accountant. 
He is now engaged in prevention and de- 
tection of frauds. 

Cl Negro school children have distinguished 
themselves. George Hurst of Detroit, 10 
years of age and in the 6th grade, won sec- 
ond place as champion speller of the city. 
By failing to capitalize "Hawaii" he lost 
first place to a 12 year old, 8th grade, white 
ffirl. 



78 



THE CRISIS 




MRS. WILLIAMS 



MRS. ERUCE 



DR. BROOKS 



MR. BROWN 



d At Harrisburg an automobile recently 
killed a woman of 72, Clara Toop Williams. 
She was the mother of 7 children all of 
whom graduated from the Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania, public schools, 3 of whom be- 
came teachers and one a medical doctor and 
one a business woman. Of the sons one is 
in the civil service, one manager of the 
Country Club and one in the 10th Cav- 
alry. Mrs. Williams herself was formerly 
a member of the faculty of Avery College 
teaching mathematics and music. She was 
volunteer organist at prayer meetings and 
a woman whose influence was felt every- 
where for education and uplift. 
G. Mrs. Mayme R. Bruce was born in 1863 
in Maryland and educated in the public 
schools of Baltimore and Washington. She 
became a public school teacher. She was 
one of the organizers and secretary of the 
well known Empty Stocking Circle which 
purchased a farm in the country for houses 
and gave recreation to the poor children 
of Baltimore. She was also connected with 
other improvement associations and neigh- 
borhood clubs and for thirty years was prin- 
cipal of the Catonsville public school. She 
died in September, 1921. 
C. One of the best known undertakers in 
New York was W. David Brown who was 
born in Delaware in 1862. After common 
school training his mother apprenticed him 
in undertaking but he did not like it and 
left it for hotel and concert business. 
Eventually he came to New York in 1883 
and at first 'earned a living by singing in 
the leading choirs. Finally he reentered 
the undertaking business and became the 



leading colored undertaker in New York 
City. For 33 years he was permanent sec- 
retary of one of the richest lodges of Odd 
Fellows in the city and for 12 years was 
Grand Master of the state. He was also a 
32 degree Mason. He and his wife lived to- 
gether 30 years and when she died in 1921 
he followed within seven months. 
(I The colored ministry corner in for so 
much criticism on all sides that it is pleas- 
ant to be able here and there to bestow 
unstinted praise. Dr. Walter H. Brooks 
is "70 years young". He was born in Rich- 
mond, Virginia, in 1851 as a slave. When 
freed by the war he entered Lincoln Uni- 
versity where he finished the college and 
theological departments. He then served 
as post-office clerk and missionary until he 
entered the Baptist ministry in 1876. Since 
1882 he has been pastor of the 19th Street 
Baptist Church and in the 40 years of that 
service has become one of the best known 
clergymen in the United States. He is a 
man of learning, of strong, fine person- 
ality and wide influence for good. He is 
the father of six children. 
(I The Episcopal Church has appropriated 
$102,000 for five buildings and other equip- 
ment for the Okolona Industrial School in 
Mississippi. Mr. Wallace A. Battle is 
president. 

C The general conference of the C.M.E. 
Church was held in St. Louis in May. The 
Rt. Rev. Robert S. Williams, senior bishop, 
presided. 

C Dr. D. Jonathan Phillips of Kingston, 
Jamaica, B. W. I., has been made a Justice 
of the Peace for the Parish of Kingston. 



THE HORIZON 



79 



<T Another minister whose life reads like a 
romance is the Rev. Charles A. Tindley o^ 
Philadelphia. He was born in Maryland 
during the war and for years was a farmer, 
bricklayer and plasterer. He finally studied 
for the ministry in the Divinity School of 
Philadelphia and afterward preached in 
Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey. He 
came to the East Calvary M. E. Church of 
Philadelphia where he pastors one of the 
largest, if not the largest church in Amer- 
ica, with between 5000 and 6000 members. 
His church which is an imposing structure 
on Broad Street has been turned into a 
great social settlement where relief of all 
sorts is ministered and where buildings 
and equipment to cost $300,000 will event- 
ually be added. Handicrafts are being 
taught to men and women, positions se- 
cured and meals furnished. There are 
moving pictures and concerts, a gymna- 
sium and club rooms and a large staff of 
paid and volunteer workers. 
41 At the corner of 35th Street and Grand 
Boulevard, Chicago, the visitor will notice 
that a large amount of the space of this 
new business block is occupied by the Lib- 
erty Life Insurance Company. This is an 
old line legal reserve life insurance com- 
pany incorporated June 30, 1919, under the 
laws of Illinois and owned and officered en- 
tirely by Negroes. It has $100,000 de- 
posited, with the state and there are over 
a thousand stockholders. The statement of 
December 31, 1921, shows admitted assets 





DR. MAT 



DR. TINDLEY 

of $113,284, and liabilities of $4,483. The 
officers are Frank L. Gillespie, President; 
Oscar De Priest, Treasurer; W. E. Stewart, 
Secretary. The company has written over 
$759,000 worth of insurance. 
C. An effort is being made in Boston to 
provide a scholarship in an American col- 
lege for a young woman of Japanese, East 
Indian or Negro blood each year. Three 
lectures have been delivered on the culture 
of these three peoples for the purpose of 
raising funds. 

C Few people realize the strain through 
which colored physicians are going. We 
continually have to record the death of 
many promising men from sheer over-work. 
James Monroe May, who died recently in 
Jackson, Mississippi, at the age of 54, was 
one of the best known public men in the 
South. He was a school teacher and then 
worked his way through college and grad- 
uated from Meharry in 1892. He practiced 
in various places in Mississippi and in 1910 
opened the May Drug Company in Natchez. 
After six or seven years of strenuous prac- 
tice his health gave way and he died after 
a lingering illness leaving a widow and five 
children. He always gave freely to charity 
and leaves a host of students who will re- 
member him with gratitude. 



JZ\ 



he Lookiiva Glass 



LITERATURE 

AMERICA 

ALTHOUGH she feeds me bread of bit- 
terness, 
And sinks into my throat her tiger's tooth, 
Stealing my breath of life, I will confess 
I love this cultured hell that tests my youth ! 
Her vigor flows like tides into my blood, 
Giving me strength erect against her hate. 
Her bigness sweeps my being like a flood. 
Yet as a rebel fronts a king in state, 
I stand within her walls with not a shred 
Of terror, malice, not a word of jeer. 
Darkly I gaze into the days ahead, 
And see her might and granite wonders 

there, 
Beneath the touch of Time's unerring hand, 
Like priceless treasures sinking in the sand. 
Claude McKay. 



Dr. Carl Kelsey, Professor of Sociology 
at the University of Pennsylvania and Re- 
search Fellow of the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science for 1921, 
spent the past year in Haiti and Santo Do- 
mingo. In his pamphlet "The American 
Intervention in Haiti and the Dominican 
Republic" he concludes: 

Insofar as I can see there are but three 
general policies which might be adopted by 
the United States with reference to Haiti 
and the Dominican Republic: 

(1) Withdraw and refuse to accept any 
responsibility for what happens in either 
country; refuse to intervene again and re- 
fuse also to let any other country intervene. 

(2) Withdraw and refuse to intervene 
again, but let other countries do as they 
please in regard to the collection of debts or 
the establishment of naval bases. 

(3) Continue the intervention, promising 
to withdraw as soon as conditions make 
possible the restoration of autonomy. 



Frederick Starr of Chicago University 
writes of Colonel Young: 

I have lost a valued friend. In my large 
list of acquaintances there are not twelve 
men for whom I had a deeper affection and 
a higher respect. He will be missed by 
many — as a friend, a husband, a father, a 
son, a soldier, an adviser, a man of vision 
and ideals. Liberia has lost a wise coun- 
sellor; the United States has lost a brave 
soldier and a faithful officer; his race has 
lost a trusted leader. 



NOTES ON LYNCHING 

THE New York American favors an 
anti-lynching bill: 

There is a resolution before the Massa 
chusetts Legislature to memorialize Con- 
gress in favor of the passage of the so- 
called Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, which gives 
the Federal Government jurisdiction in cer- 
tain parts of the country over situations in 
which the danger of lynching is involved. 

The humanity and justice of granting 
protection to our Negro citizens and, in fact, 
assuring Constitutional protection of the due 
process of law to all our citizens is too plain 
to need discussion. 

The colored population of the world is 
beginning to come into its own. We heard 
the other day of the Negro regiment from 
Jamaica which refused at the order of the 
British to sail for India, there to help the 
English hold down in their misery and op- 
pression the people of India. 

We are making enemies for ourselves be- 
yond our borders, and enemies which may 
become important enemies, by our practice 
of lynching. Perhaps more important than 
all, we are losing the respect of the thought- 
ful, just and discriminating people of the 
world by this practice of lawlessness and 
brutality. 

* * * 

The Duluth (Minn.) Rip-Saw reprints 
what the Canadian paper "Jack Canuck" 
thinks of our little American ways: 

Canadians, colored and white, are now be- 
ginning to realize just what the much boast- 
ed liberty of the United States amounts to. 
The Matthew Bullock case has brought facts 
to light which many Canadians had never 
before realized. Before the Civil war the 
Southern states made slaves of the colored 
people ; now they lynch them at will, and the 
United States government alloAvs the South- 
erners to get away with it. 

It is not so very long since the self-same 
United States made a terrible outcry against 
the extradition of an Irish rebel who had 
defied the immigration laws and entered 
the U. S. as a stowaway. It was made the 
excuse for some bitter attacks against Eng- 
land by a certain element of the American 
press. We wonder what the said American 
press will have to say at Canada's reluc- 
tance to give up a colored citizen of the U. 
S. who has fled to this country to escape an 
untimely end at the hands of American 
rowdies who would lynch him. In the slavery 
days, members of the colored race would, 
on occasion, escape to Canada to flee from 



80 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



81 



bondage at the hands of American "gentle- 
men". Members of this same race are now 
having to flee to Canada to avoid being 
murdered at the hands of the descendants 
of the same class of "gentlemen". 

After enumerating the thousands of 
lynchings which have taken place in the 
Southern States since 1885, Jack Canuck 
concludes : 

And amid all these lynchings in the South- 
ern States not one lyncher was brought to 
justice! 

Why not give Turkey a mandate to civil- 
ize the Southern States of the U. S. A.? 
There are millions of church members in the 
Southern States and they subscribe millions 
of dollars to convert the heathen of foreign 
lands. Would it not be a good idea if they 
devoted part of this vast sum to the teach- 
ing of Christianity and humanity among 
themselves? 

Walter F. White writes in the New York 
Evening Post of one of the 36 lynchings 
and the 8 race riots which he has personally 
investigated : 

On the morning of my arrival in town 
I casually dropped into the store of one of 
these general merchants who, I had been in- 
formed, was one of the leaders of the mob. 
At the time the store was free of customers. 
After making some small purchase I en- 
gaged him in conversation, gradually win- 
ning his confidence by telling him how much 
I admired the manly spirit of the men of 
that town for teaching those niggers a les- 
son. Mentioning the newspaper accounts of 
the lynching I had read and confessing, 
somewhat shamefacedly, that I had never 
been lucky enough to be in a lynching, I 
led the way up to the recent affair in his 
own town. He opened up almost immediate- 
ly, offered me a box to sit on, and a bottle 
of soft drink, and then gave me a pains- 
takingly minute account of the trouble from 
beginning to end. 

To my inquiries how the colored woman 
had met her death, he slapped his thigh and 
declared it "the best show I ever did see, 
Mister — you oughter seen that nigger wench 
fight and heard her howl when we strung 
her up". When I expressed a desire to meet 
personally and congratulate some of the 
other brave and fearless men who had con- 
quered this fiercely fighting woman, he of- 
fered to have them come to the store that 
afternoon, or, if I didn't want that done, 
he would tell me who they were. 

WITHOUT HONOR 

nnHE peculiar significance of Claude Mc- 

■*- Kay's article on Marcus Garvey in the 

Liberator is that it represents the estimate 

of one compatriot of another. For both 



are Jamaicans. Mr. McKay likens the Gar- 
vey movement to a similar social phenom- 
enon which he had already experienced: 

To those who know Jamaica, the home- 
land of Marcus Garvey, Garveyism inevita- 
bly suggests the name of Bedwardism, . . . 
a religious sect . . . founded by an illiterate 
black giant named Bedward about 25 years 
ago, who claimed medicinal and healing 
properties for a sandy little hole beside a 
quiet river that flowed calmly to the sea 
through the eastern part of Jamaica . . . 
The most recent news of the prophet was 
his arrest by the government for causing 
hundreds of his followers to sell all their 
possessions and come together at his home 
in August Town to witness his annuncia- 
tion; for on a certain day at noon, he had 
said, he would ascend into heaven upon a 
crescent moon. The devout sold and gave 
away all their property and flocked to 
August Town, and the hour of the certain 
day came and passed with Bedward waiting 
in his robes, and days followed and weeks 
after. Then his flock of sheep, now turned 
into a hungry, destitute, despairing mob, 
howled like hyenas and fought each other 
until the Government interfered. 

It may be that the notorious career of 
Bedward, the prophet, worked unconsciously 
upon Marcus Garvey's mind and made him 
work out his plans along similar spectacu- 
lar lines. But between the mentality of 
both men there is no comparison. While 
Bedward was a huge inflated bag of bombast 
loaded with ignorance and superstition, Gar- 
vey's is beyond doubt a very energetic and 
quick-witted mind, barb-wired by the im- 
perial traditions of nineteenth-century Eng- 
land. His spirit is revolutionary, but his 
intellect does not understand the significance 
of modern revolutionary developments. May- 
be he chose not to understand, he may have 
realized that a resolute facing of facts made 
puerile his beautiful schemes for the re- 
demption of the continent of Africa. 
* * * 

Considering Garvey's early background, 
Mr. McKay finds his disregard of the eco- 
nomic problem inexplicable : 

The most puzzling thing about the "Back 
to Africa" propaganda is the leader's repu- 
diation of all the fundamentals of the black 
worker's economic struggle. No intelligent 
Negro dare deny the almost miraculous ef- 
fect and the world-wide breadth and sweep 
of Garvey's propaganda methods. But all 
those who think broadly on social conditions 
are amazed at Garvey's ignorance and his 
intolerance of modern social ideas. To him 
Queen Victoria and Lincoln are the greatest 
figures in history because they both freed 
the slaves, and the Negro race will never 
reach the heights of greatness until it has 
produced such types. He talks of Africa 
as if it were a little island in the Caribbean 
Sea. Ignoring all geographical and politi- 



82 



THE CRISIS 



cal divisions, he gives his followers the idea 
that that vast continent of diverse tribes 
consists of a large homogenous nation of 
natives struggling for freedom and wait- 
ing for the Western Negroes to come and 
help them drive out the European exploiters. 
He has never urged Negroes to organize 
in industrial unions. 

He only exhorted them to get money, buy 
shares in his African steamship line, and 
join his Universal Association. And thou- 
sands of American and West Indian Ne- 
groes responded with eagerness. 

He denounced the Socialists and Bolshe- 
vists for plotting to demoralize the Negro 
workers and bring them under the control 
of white labor. And in the same breath 
he attacked the National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored People, and its 
founder, Dr. DuBois, for including white 
leaders and members. In the face of his 
very capable mulatto and octoroon col- 
leagues, he advocated an all-sable nation of 
Negroes to be governed strictly after the 
English plan with Marcus Garvey as su- 
preme head. 

He organized a Negro Legion and a Ne- 
gro Red Cross in the heart of Harlem. The 
Black Star line consisted of two unseawor- 
thy boats and the Negro Factories Corpora- 
tion was mainly existent on paper. But it 
seems that Garvey's sole satisfaction in his 
business venture was the presenting of 
grandiose visions to his crowd. 



Perhaps after all Garvey was more in- 
terested in histrionics than in social prog- 
ress. Mr. McKay seems to indicate this: 

Garvey's arrest by the Federal authori- 
ties after five years of stupendous vaude- 
ville is a fitting climax. He should feel now 
an ultimate satisfaction in the fact that 
he was a universal advertising manager. 
He was the biggest popularizer of the Ne- 
gro problem, especially among Negroes, 
since "Uncle Tom's Cabin". He attained 
the sublime. During the last days he waxed 
more falsely eloquent in his tall talks on the 
Negro Conquest of Africa, and when the 
clansmen yelled their approval and clamored 
for more, in his gorgeous robes, he lifted 
his hands to the low ceiling in a weird pose, 
his huge ugly bulk cowing the crowd, and 
told how the mysteries of African magic 
had been revealed to him, and how he would 
use them to put the white man to confusion 
and drive him out of Africa. 

THE AFFAIRS OF INDIA 

T%J-R. SYUD HOSSAIN, Indian delegate 
***■ to the Near East Peace Conference of 
1920, has set forth in the New York Times 
India's uncompromising attitude toward 
Great Britain: 

One thing is perfectly certain: India, 



with a population comprising one-fifth of 
the human race, cannot eternally remain the 
"adjunct" — in Wells' phrase — of a little 
island 7,000 miles away from her shores. 
Neither any natural nor any economic ties 
bind her to the British Empire, and she 
can only form part of that system if it 
can be proved that such an arrangement 
would be of definite advantage to her. The 
onus of proof lies on Britain. On the other 
hand, there is every reason in the world 
why India should work out her own destiny, 
unfettered and uncoerced, and make her 
own contribution, as in the past, to the cul- 
ture and civilization of the world. Not 
only India, but the world is the poorer for 
her present compulsory emasculation and 
disorganization. The British have fixed a 
stranglehold on her creative genius and na- 
tional growth. India must be free. . . . 

Mahatma Gandhi launched his "non- 
violent, non-co-operation" movement to se- 
cure three definite things, viz.: (1) the 
righting of the Punjab wrongs; (2) the ful- 
fillment of the British pledges to Moslems, 
and (3) the attainment of Swaraj (self- 
rule). 

It is upon this triple foundation that the 
national movement today rests; Gandhi's 
program having been accepted by the In- 
dian National Congress and endorsed by the 
nation at large. Each one of the three 
items mentioned above is, from the view- 
point of India, fundamental, admitting of 
no compromise. That is a fact which, it 
would seem, has at last begun to dawn 
even upon the British Government, if one 
may judge from the circumstances attend- 
ing the recent resignation of Edwin Samuel 
Montagu, the Secretary of State for India. 
* * * 

England has tried vainly to divert the at- 
tention of the Hindus. Mr. Hossain de- 
clares : 

Reading between the lines of the dispatch 
of the Government of India, for publishing 
which Mr. Montagu was "sacked", it be- 
comes abundantly clear that the British 
Government's attempts to whittle down the 
Indian demands or, alternatively, to break 
down the Hindu-Moslem solidarity which 
sustains them, have failed. Overwhelm- 
ing corroborative testimony on this point is 
also forthcoming from the successive and 
signal failures of the visits of the Duke of 
Connaught and the Prince of Wales. These 
royal visitors were sent to India, one after 
the other, in a frantic but vain effort to 
create a diversion and thus secure a com- 
promise. 

The Duke returned to England with the 
dolefu 1 tale that "the shadow of Amritsar 
has lengthened over the fair face of India". 
The visit of the Prince, just concluded, has 
proved even a more dismal failure. There 
is not the slightest doubt that the Prince 
was sent to India to be an instrument of 



THE LOOKING GLASS 



reconciliation, a mouthpiece for "conces- 
sions". What India was looing for, how- 
ever, were deeds not words; for "specific 
performances" and not more promises. 
Deeds apparently were not forthcoming, 
The Prince was boycotted even more vigor- 
ously than the Duke. In the event his Eoyal 
Highness has left India without even mak- 
ing one of those conventional, picturesque 
pronouncements belauding a fictitious "loy- 
alty" that British imperialism loves to put 
in the mouth of its royalty. 
* * * 

An American, Ralph E. Henderson, con- 
trasts in the Boston Herald the bustle of 
an Indian town a week before the arrival 
of the Prince of Wales with the apathy 
which the boycott produced: 

I was in Calcutta a week before the Prince 
of Wales was due to land. At that time 
our taxi was caught in a traffic jam on 
one of the main thoroughfares and held 
for 15 minutes while the packed stream 
of carts, bullock-drawn, horse-drawn, buffa- 
lo-drawn or mandrawn, strained through 
the crowded street. 

When the prince landed at Calcutta, 
the streets were deserted as those of a 
New England town on an old Puritan Sab- 
bath. Calcutta shops did no business. Ma- 
hatma Gandhi had so commanded. 



India has suffered a great loss in the 
death of the Pundita Ramabai. The Boston 
paper writes: 

Thousands of Bostonians who in years 
past have heard the Pundita Ramabai in 
city pulpits or on city platforms will be 
shocked to know that the remarkable career 
of this consecrated woman has just ended 
in death. Her mission among us was first 
that of pleading the cause of the child 
widows of India; later it broadened out into 
a movement for educational uplift, and with 
such success that, as chief figure of the 
famous Ramabai Association, she was en- 
abled to organize and carry on the Sharada 
Sadana, or "Happy Home," at which an- 
nually from 1500 to 1700 girls and youns; 
women receive their training. Night and 
day, abroad as well as at home, the Pundita 
toiled in the interest of her fellow-country- 
women. Not the least of her services in 
their behalf was a translation of the Chris- 
tian scriptures into one of the native dia- 
lects; one of the most spectacular of them 
was her rescue of 300 girls from starvation 
during the great Indian famine. 

TRIBUTE 
*THHE unveiling of the Booker T. Wash- 
-*• ington monument at Tuskegee brought 
together a throng of educators and philan- 
thropists from all over the country. The 




AT TTJSKEGEE 

New York Times quotes one of the speakers, 
Josephus Daniels, former Secretary of the 
Navy: 

"Because Booker T. Washington sought to 
advance his own race and to preserve friend- 
ship with the white neighbors, it is alto- 
gether fitting that men of both races, from 
the North and from the South, should join in 
the unprecedented event. 

"I am not here to discuss so-called race 
problems. My experience has told me that 
you cannot solve problems of people like you 
do an arithmetic lesson. One reason we 
have made less progress is because men in- 
sist upon a solution of racial differences by 
the rule of three and demand that the des- 
tinies of men be unfolded in their genera- 
tion. I have no patent solvent for the so- 
called race problem. I do know that between 
white people and black people in the South 
there are stronger ties of friendship today 
than formerly and that out of this will grow 
a better understanding and better condi- 
tions." 

* * * 

In Boston a number of white and colored 
people met at the Twentieth Century Club 
to pay honor to the late Maria L. Baldwin. 
They moved to establish a room dedicated 
to her "for the collection and preservation of 
material relating to the history of the Negro, 
and those who have stood for justice for the 

Negro." 

* * * 

According to the Boston Herald, Dr. 
Charles W. Eliot, president emeritus of 
Harvard was present and said: 

"I have known many colored students at 



84 



THE CRISIS 



Harvard who have seemed to me to have 
been imbued with an almost apostolic spirit. 
But the life of Maria Baldwin was unique. 
I know of no other case where a woman 
from an obscure beginning rose to the head 
of the best grammar school in the city sys- 
tem, serving the children of all races. Her 
school was regarded by many of the leading 
white citizens whose children attended it as 
the best in the city. And she kept the re- 
spect of the school committee through all 
the years of her service. All that has been 
said of her poise and charm is true. I re- 
call but two women in all my acquaintance 
who surpassed her in this." 

Mrs. Margaret Deland, whose war ex- 
periences have taught her to see the Negro 
from a different angle, declared: 

"The fortunes of both races are inextric- 
ably bound up, the hope of one race is the 
hope of the other. This -proposed memorial 
room has many values. It will have the 
value of furnishing historical data concen- 
trated under one roof. But its greatest 
value will be as a source of stimulation to 
the colored citizens of Boston. 

"A museum is a source of progress, for 
we do not allow the collection of specimens 
of the past until we have achieved in the 
present. As a record of the long struggle 
of the Negro race to overcome the handicaps 
imposed upon it, this collection of historical 
data will be a constant inspiration to young 
Negro boys and girls." 



AT A GLANCE 

SOMETHING has happened to the so- 
called "colored people" of the United 
States of which their white neighbors do 
not seem generally to be aware. 

In this instance we refer particularly to 
the Negro people. There are other "solored" 
people — the Japanese, Chinese, Hindus and 
others. But it is the Negroes of whom we 
are speaking now — our own American Ne- 
groes. 

And what has happened to them is that 
there are those among them who have ac- 



quired a degree of culture equal to that of 
any race on earth. There is today among 
the Negroes of America a large class that 
has placed itself beyond the sneers of Negro- 
baiters and Negro-haters. For that class 
the "color line" has faded away forever. The 
people of that class can and do look serenely 
down on whoever sets himself up as a 
mental or moral superior. 

For, that's what happens to men and 
women who achieve a high state of mental 
and moral culture— they are beyond the 
power of ignorance to do them harm. You 
can spit upon their bodies. You can sneer 
at them and call them "niggers," but you 
can't spit upon their souls. They can laugh 
at you in sheerest pity — and they do. 

This class of cultured Negroes now num- 
bering thousands of men and Women of the 
race in America is the product of their own 
universities and of white universities, not- 
ably Yale and Harvard. And especially Har- 
vard, which to its everlasting glory be it 
said has never drawn the color line. 

The voice of this cultured Negro class 
speaks eloquently from a page of Burghardt 
DuBois's marvelous book, "The Souls of 
Black Folk." where he says: 

"I sit with Shakespeare and he winces 
not. Across the color line I move arm in 
arm with Balzac and Dumas, where smiling 
men and welcoming women glide in gilded 
halls. From out the caves of evening that 
swing between the strong-limbed earth and 
the tracery of the stars I summon Aristotle 
and Aurelius and what soul I will, and they 
come all graciously with no scorn nor con- 
descension." 

In that high world the Negro is safe. No 
sneer can hurt him there; no jibe can break 
his heart. 

— The Keokuk, la. City. 
* * * 

PESSIMISTS on the Afro-American ques- 
tion may well consider the pure-blooded 
Negro girl, Sarah Rector, of Kansas City, 
aged 20, who proves to a white court that 
she is managing astutely her fortune of 
$750,000, and needs no guardian. Possibly 
the exception only proves the rule. 

— Brooklyn Eagle, 



THE LOSS OF ASHLEE COTTAGE 




nr^HE news of the burning of that stanch 
■*• old colonial building that for years 
had been my home, came as a blow to me, 
so far away. From its windows, since 
earliest childhood, I had looked out upon 
the 'seasons and the birds; the orchard, 
fleeced with white plum blooms; the orchard 
roofed with the blossoms of the peach; the 
orchard, ceiled and hushed with snows. 



By my window on the south side of the 
cottage a poplar tree towered, and bore its 
summit to the third story. And in this 
poplar gathered the birds — birds to mate; 
birds to build; birds to pour out such 
rhapsodies as filled the heart. Aye, even 
the oriole, he swung there! 

And my window looked out upon all of 
this! I watched here the pageant of the 



ASHLEE COTTAGE 



85 



seasons; gazed down upon turquoise-blue 
eggs; saw the eggs' fledglings that wavered 
away to come no more to the bowl-shaped 
nest. Ah, dreams! We learned Locks-ley 
Hall in this very room, my sister Consuelo 
and I. Tennyson's haunting painting of a 
home that held memories infinite makes me 
long for just that skill to paint another 
seat of recollections in Ashlee Place, where- 
in we passed our 
quiet lives with 
books and the study 
of prints from the 
brushes of masters. 

My father, Bishop 
B. F. Lee, of Wil- 
berforce, 0., writes 
thus to us — to me 
and Rev. H. N. New- 
some, his son-in-law. 
He paints from his 
heart what the loss 
of our home meant 
to him when the 
winds and the fire 
claimed it on the 
thirty-first day of 
December, 1921: 

"I have learned 
more of the possible 
force of kindness in 
the great fire lesson, 
more of the hurried 
work and power of 
d e struct i veness 
against the slowness 
o f constructiveness. 
Twenty-three years 

were required in building up a great home- 
stead; but sixty minutes to destroy it, re- 
ducing wood to ashes; iron to crimped, piti- 
less, apologetic and cringing nothing, in the 
main. 

"Every line and point designating place, 
home, security, rest, comfort and the se- 
crets of love and confidence are lost to sight. 
And books, books! — a few in comparison, 
with many companions missing, or marred 




and scorched, and in many cases with ab- 
sent leaves ; bedsteads and stoves that were 
crooking at and kicking, hugging and mock- 
ing one another, hopelessly falling into the 
ash grave, as lost as the loves and hopes, 
tossed by mad winds in charred leaves. 

"Silken and linen clothes, tablecloths, 
sheets and woolen blankets met in the upper 
flights of the maddened gusts, and carried 
hundreds of yards 
away at the altitude 
of half a hundred 
feet. And art patrom 
of departed loved 
ones depicted b y 
love's inspired brush, 
or responding to the 
c a m e r a's unerring 
judgment, alike went 
with 'trash' indis- 
criminately, and 
Ashlee Place mocks 
the hopes and visions 
of years. 

"A blessed fact in 
the whole is found in 
the benevolent spirit 
shown by five hun- 
d r e d Wilberforce 
people amid the 
ruins and mental 
daze. The close of 
the job of reduction 
came at the close of 
the day, the close of 
the year, 1921, and 
a cold day; and the 
inhabitants of Ash- 
lee House were left without the home 
whose faithful shell was now forsaking 
its lovers to the ashbed, red and glaring, 
too hot to be attractive, yet bidding them to 
look back to inquire for the real soul of 
Home, as turning from the debris of cloth- 
ing, furniture and general confusion, they 
found warmth and welcome sleeping quar- 
ters in neighboring houses with Christian 
friends and helpers." 



ASHLEE COTTAGE 



IF YOU SHOULD GO 

COUNTEE P. CULLEN 



[" OVE, leave me like the light, 

■*-"' The gently (passing day; 

We would not know, but for the night 

When it has slipped away. 

Go quietly; a dream 
When done, should leave no trace 
That it has lived, except a gleam 
Across the dreamer's face. 



So many hopes have fled, 

Have left me but the name 

Of what they were. When love is dead, 

Go thou, beloved, the same. 



86 



THE CRISIS ADVERTISER 



VIRGINIA UNION 
UNIVERSITY 

Richmond Virginia 

is offering young men an excellent 
opportunity to secure a liberal edu- 
cation. We are offering work in the 

High School Department 
College of Liberal Arts 
Pre-Medical Scientific Depart- 
ment 
Pedagogical Department 
Theological Department, and in 
the Department of Public Health 
Nursing 

Strong faculty — healthy and attrac- 
tive surroundings. Reasonable rates. 



JOSEPH K. BRICK AGRICULTURAL 
INDUSTRIAL and NORMAL SCHOOL 

BRICKS, N. C. 

This School offers a first-class High School 
Course, including Domestic Science, Domestic 
Art, Agriculture, Work in Wood, Iron and 
Mechanical Drawing, Piano and Vocal Music, 
Night School. 

Teachers and officers, 25; enrollment, 350; 
boarders, 220. Cottage and buildings, 14. 
School farm, 1.129J4 acres. Strong athletic, 
literary and Christian associations. School term 
34 weeks. Environment fine. School receives 
four mails a day. Our postoffice handles money 
orders, registered matter and parcel post mail. 
For further information write 
T. S. INBORDEN, Principal, BRICKS, N. C. 



Wilberforce University 
Summer School 

9th ANNUAL SESSION 

June 19th to July 29th, 1922 

Wonderful natural beauty. Ideal place for health, recrea- 
tion and study. Large faculty. Inspiring lectures, splendid 
educational equipment and excellent cuisine. 
Courses: College, Normal, High School. 
Special Features: Bible School and School ef Philanthropy. 

Catalogues sent on application. 
Address all mall to the Director of the Summer School. 

Gilbert H. Jones, Director. 



HAMPTON INSTITUTE 

AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL 

HAMPTON, VIRGINIA 

Opportunity Knocks at the Door of 
the Man Who Knows and Can Do 

If you wish to prepare yourself to fill a re- 
sponsible position of wide usefulness as a 

County or farm-demonstration agent 
Teacher of vocational agriculture 
Rural-school principal 

Hampton Now Offers in Agriculture 

A COLLEGE COURSE 

Leading to the Degree of B.S. in Agricul- 
tural Education With Work in Well- 
Equipped Classrooms, Shops, and Labora- 
tories; With Summer Field Practice; With 
All- Round Training Under High-Grade In- 
structors. 

James E. Gregg, Principal 
Warren K. Blodgett, Director 



St. Philip's 

Normal & Industrial School 

San Antonio, Texas. 

(FOR GIRLS) 

Normal, Academic, Junior and Music Courses, 
Teachers' Training, Domestic Sciences and 
Arts, Dressmaking, Ladies' Tailoring, Short- 
hand, Typewriting, Bookeeping and Spanish. 

Boarding facilities. Ideal location. 
Faculty from leading Universities. 

Write for Bulletin. 
Artemisia Bowden, Principal 



TALLADEGA THEOLOGICAL 

SEMINARY 

TALLADEGA, ALABAMA 

Frederick A. Sumner, President 

Is training men for the Gospel Ministry at 
home and abroad. Students are also being 
trained for work in the fields of 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

THE Y. M. C. A., AND 

THE Y. W. C. A. 
The Seminary has an enviable record of 49 
years of service. For full information ad- 
dress 

JAMES P. O'BRIEN, Dean 
399 W. BATTLE ST., TALLADEGA, ALA. 



Mention The Caisis. 



H. 



The 





JULY 1922 



FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY 



Another Lighthouse to Help 

Chart Negro Business into 

The Right Channel. 

The Southern Aid Society's 
New Modern 3 story and 
basement building located 
at 106 and 106A South Ave., 
Petersburg, Va. 

Petersburg's first colored 
bank and its leading pro- 
fessional and business in- 
terests now have modern 
quarters within which to 
display their talents and 
wares. The Society's Dis- 
trict Office is located on 3rd 
floor. 

In addition to providing a superior policy of protection to 
its policyholders — the Society renders a threefold service to 
the race: 

It gives employment to hundreds of young women and 
men — It provides ready cash to its policyholders in times of 
sickness, accident and death — It provides, in the largest cities 
in its field of operation, modern office facilities to the colored 
professional and business interests. It is indeed a Servant of 
the People. 

SOUTHERN AID SOCIETY OF VIRGINIA, INC. 

Home Office: 527 N. Second Street, RICHMOND, VA. 

District Offices and Agencies in Virginia and 
the District of Columbia 




J. T. CARTER, Pres. and Gen'l Counsel 

W. A. JORDAN, Asst. Secty. 



B. L. JORDAN, Secty. 



' i- Ji 



THE CRISIS 

A RECORD OF THE DARKER RACES 



PTJBLISHED MONTHLY AND COPYRIGHTED BY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE, AT 70 FIFTH AVENTTE, NEW YORK CITY. CON- 
DUCTED BY W. E. BTJRGHARDT DTJ BOIS; JESSIE REDMON FAUSET, LITERARY EDITOR; 
AUGUSTUS GRANVILLE DILL, BUSINESS MANAGER. 

Vol. 24-No. 3 JULY, 1922 Whole No. 141 



Page 
COVER 

Drawing by Louis Portlock. 

OPINION 

The World and Us; Virginia; Mississippi; Hampton College; The 
Rhodes Scholarships; Haiti; The Army; Fraud; Evil; First Blood; Ten 
Phrases 103 

NEGRO HIGHER EDUCATION IN 1921-22. Illustrated 108 

THE FRENCH COLONIAL EXPOSITION AT MARSEILLES. Illustrated 

William S. Nelson 116 

TREASURE. A Poem. Georgia Douglas Johnson 120 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED 

PEOPLE 121 

LA VIE C'EST LA VIE. A Poem. Jessie Fauset 124 

THE HORIZON. Illustrated 125 

THE LOOKING GLASS 130 



FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY; ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR 

FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTION TWENTY-FIVE CENTS EXTRA 

RENEWALS: The data of expiration of each subscription is printed on the wrapper. When 
the subscription is due, a blue renewal blank is enclosed. 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: The address of a subscriber can be changed as often as desired. 
In ordering a change of address, both the old and the new address must be given. Two weeks' 
Ojatice is required. 

MANUSCRIPTS and drawings relating to colored people are desired. Thev must be accom- 
panied by return postage. If found unavailable they will be returned. 

Entered as second class matter November 2, 1910, at the post office at New York, New 
York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



100 



THE CRISIS ADVERTISER 



National Training School 

DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA 

A School for the Training of Colored Young 
Men and Women for Service 

Though it is young in history, the Institution feels a just pride in the work thus 
far accomplished, for its graduates are already filling many responsible positions, 
thus demonstrating the aim of the school to train men and women for useful 
citizenship. 

DEPARTMENTS ALREADY ESTABLISHED 

The Grammar School The Teacher Training Department 

The Academy The Divinity School 

The School of Arts and Sciencea The Commercial Department 

The Department of Music The Department of Home Economic! 

The Department of Social Service 

For farther information and Catalog, address 

President James E. Shepard, Durham, North Carolina 



STATE OF NEW JERSEY 

Manual Training & Industrial School 

FOR COLORED YOUTH 

BORDENTOWN, N. J. 

A hlih Inttltutlca far the trclnlni «f celercd 
yauth. Excellent equipment, thorough lattniotloa, 
wholesome surrounding*. Academic training Is* all 
students. 
Courses In carpentry, agriculture and trade* for boy*. 

Including auto repairing. 
Course* la domestl* science and domestic art for 

girls. 
A new trade* building, thoroughly equipped. 
New girls' dormitory thoroughly and modernly 

equipped. 
Terms reasonable. 

For Information address 
W. R. VALENTINE, Principal 



Wiley University 

Marshall, Texas 

Recognized as a college of first class by 
Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas and Okla- 
homa State Boards of Education. Har- 
vard, Boston University. University of 
Illinois and University of Chicago repre- 
sented on its faculty. One hundred 
twenty-seven in College Department, ses- 
sion IQIQ-IQ20. Several new buildings, 
steam heated and electric lighted. 
M. W. DOGAN, President 



LINCOLN UNIVERSITY 

Pioneer in Collegiate and 
Theological Education 

Lincoln Men are Leaders in the various 
professions in Forty States. 

The College is ranked in Class I. by the 
American Medical Association. 

Address : 

Joaa B. Kendall, D.D., Lincoln TJilTOrilty, 
Chester County, Fenna. 



The Cheyney Training 
School for Teachers 

Cheyney, Pa. 

A Pennsylvania State Normal School offering, in addition 
to the regular Normal Course of two years, professional 
three year courses in Home Economics and Shop Work. A 
diploma from any of these courses makes a graduate 
eligible to teach in the public schools of Pennsylvania. 
A three-year High School Course Is offered to all who 
have completed the eighth grammer grade. 

Next term begins September 18, 1922. 

For further particulars and catalog, write 

Leslie Pinckney Hill, Principal 

Cheyney, Pa. 

There Will Be No Summer School for 1922 



Mention Thx Crisis. 



THE CRISIS 



Vol. 24. No. 3 



JULY, 1922 



Whole No. 141 



[Jiprjxioiv 



THE WORLD AND US 

HIGH tariff means that every 

laborer pays more in higher 

prices than he receiver in 

higher wages. This is the 

reason big employers love the tariff. 




"Forgive us our debts as we for- 
give our debtors", says Europe to the 
United States, and we, the richest 
country on earth answer never a 
word. And yet we could cancel our 
foreign debts and actually make 
money by the deed. 



Abraham Lincoln was a Southern 
poor white, of illegitimate birth, 
poorly educated and unusually ugly, 
awkward, ill-dressed. He liked smut- 
ty stories and was a politician down 
to his toes. Aristocrats — Jeff Davis, 
Seward and their ilk — despised him, 
and indeed he had little outwardly 
that compelled respect. But in that 
curious human way he was big in- 
side. He had reserves and depths and 
when habit and convention were torn 
away there was something left to Lin- 
coln — nothing to most of his con- 
temners. There was something left, 
so that at the crisis he was big enough 
to be inconsistent — cruel, merciful; 
peace-loving, a fighter; despising Ne- 
groes and letting them fight and 
vote; protecting slavery and freeing 
slaves. He was a man — a big, incon- 
sistent, brave man. 



We have no sympathy for the rail- 
way unions, we black men; because 
they admit only white men and do all 
in their power to lower the wages of 



black porters and laborers. We are 
glad to see them swallow dose after 
dose of their own bad medicine. We 
hope the Railway Labor Board will 
keep up its interesting program of 
robbing Laborer Peter to increase the 
dividends of Railway Executive Paul. 



Congress is in a pretty mess; pot 
calls kettle black, and tells the truth. 
Democrats lynch, and steal Haiti ; Re- 
publicans keep Haiti and let lynchers 
be. Both want to pay the soldiers to 
vote for them, but cannot dig up the 
small change. The while the fall elec- 
tion looms. Watch your Congress- 
man. Forget the President and the 
Minister to Siam, but watch your 
Congressman and knife him if he 
falters. 

VIRGINIA 



ETERMINED effort is being 
made to prove that the 
Southern states are treating 
Negro schools so justly and 
decently that the Nation can afford 
to trust them with fifty million dol- 
lars and more to educate all the peo- 
ple without Federal supervision or 
oversight and without even the legal 
safeguard of declaring that all chil- 
dren must have equal treatment. Is 
this true? 

The Petersburg, Va., Progress, a 
white paper, said October 3, 1921 : 

"The city of Petersburg has many valu- 
able assets. We shall not endeavor to de- 
cide as to which is the most valuable. But 
we believe the vast majority of people will 
agree that none is of greater value than 
its schools, which are sincerely believed to 
be the best in Virginia and the equal of 
those of any city of our size in any State." 



103 



104 



THE CRISIS 




To this the Weekly Review, a col- 
ored paper, replies October 8, 1921 : 

"Within the past ten years the school 
population of both the colored and whites 
of the city, has nearly doubled. To care 
for the increase of the white, several new 
and modernly equipped schools have been 
erected. In figures the city of Petersburg 
has spent close to a million dollars. It is 
still spending it, and as the Progress says, 
there are others in contemplation. In this 
same length of time — with the increase 
about the same — there has been erected for 
the colored children one lone school build- 
ing, which was in no sense an addition. 
This was called upon to accommodate the 
population of all the old schools, as they 
were abandoned on its completion. This 
building is now over-crowded, and in order 
to accommodate all, the training of the 
children must be and is neglected. In other 
words, with a constantly growing popula- 
tion, the colored school accommodation here 
is practically the same that it was ten years 
ago." 

MISSISSIPPI 

HE latest biennial report of 
the State Superintendent of 
Public Education of the State 
of Mississippi has just 
reached us. It covers the scholastic 
years of 1919-20 and 1920-21. First 
of all we note that the compulsory at- 
tendance law was rejected in four 
counties of which Claiborne with 78 
per cent, of non-voting Negroes was 
one. The superintendent adds this 
illuminating statement. "Altogether 
33,186 white children over 7 years of 
age who had never been to school be- 
fore were brought into our schools by 
this law." In other words, as a Miss- 
issippi colored citizen informs us, no 
attempt is made to enforce this law 
so far as colored children are con- 
cerned. 

There are 353 consolidated county 
schools for whites, but none for Ne- 
groes. There are 125 teachers' homes 
for whites and none for Negroes. In 
14 counties one or two extra teachers 
have been added to the colored county 
schools by the Jeanes Fund to teach 
industries. By the help of $52,000 
from Julius Rosenwald and private 
funds raised by colored people, after 
they had received nothing from their 



taxes, $92,000 was spent for Negro 
school houses in 1921. None of the 
money came from the State and if 
any came from the counties it is not 
reported. Forty-nine agricultural 
schools were supported by the State 
and taught 6,000 white boys and girls. 
The State appropriated $550,000 for 
these schools during two years. There 
are no such high schools for Negroes. 
There are 160 accredited high schools 
for whites in the State. There is one 
for Negroes. 

The per capita expense of educat- 
ing each child enrolled for the year 
1920-21, together with the average 
salaries paid white and colored teach- 
ers is as follows for the 20 counties 
of the State in which 70 per cent, or 
more of the population is Negro : 

Aver. Monthly Salary Per Capita Exp. 

County, 1920-21 Paid Teachers for each child enrolled 

White Colored White Colored 

Adams $75.00 $33.00 * * 

Bolivar 78.27 36.35 $24.01 $2.17 

Claiborne 81.85 38.00 3.29 .70 

Coahoma 141.32 42.00 46.06 2.86 

De Soto 78.74 35.10 17.41 2.10 

Grenada 78.54 33.80 3.37 .74 

Hinds 84.00 33.00 15.31 3.00 

Holmes * * * * 

Issaquena 42.00 24.00 37.00 8.00 

Jefferson 59.83 37.30 4.85 .61 

Leflore * * * * 

Lowndes 84.00 29.35 2.83 .46 

Madison 107.33 25.34 34.64 2.03 

Marshall 54.00 33.00 10.20 2.85 

Noxubee 99.73 32.59 47.99 3.26 

Quitman 106.00 38.00 30.92 3.60 

Sharkey 119.54 48.61 35.72 3.46 

Tunica 115.00 53.00 43.87 2.99 

Wilkinson .... 60.00 30.00 21.52 3.32 

Yazoo 67.50 29.50 14.56 1.62 

*No report. 

The advocates of the Sterling- 
Towner bill are asking the nation to 
give Mississippi millions of dollars 
of federal funds "to be distributed 
and administered in accordance with 
the laws of the said State in like man- 
ner as the funds provided by State 
and local authorities for the same 
purpose." 

HAMPTON COLLEGE 

HOSE who take up the 53rd 
and 54th annual catalogs of 
Hampton Institute will rea- 
lize that this institution has 
at last become a college. Last year, 
the agricultural school offered a 




OPINION 



105 



course with the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Agriculture. This year "a 
standard college course of 44 weeks" 
is open for teachers, upon the com- 
pletion of which the degree of B.A. in 
Education will be given. 

This marks the end of a long and 
bitter fight. For years many persons 
in authority at Hampton looked upon 
that school as the bulwark in the 
great battle against higher education 
for Negroes. But despite every ef- 
fort the logic of events forced Hamp- 
ton to do exactly what she had long 
tried not to do. Her graduates with a 
grammar and a high school course 
were unable to meet the demands of 
the very Southern whites who wanted 
to employ them in the school systems ; 
if the Hampton graduate sought ad- 
ditional training he found himself se- 
riously handicapped by the fact that 
the Hampton course was not recog- 
nized by reputable colleges. 

Hampton thus found itself between 
the devil and the deep sea. If it 
wanted to spread the Hampton doc- 
trine it must give its men modern 
training. But what was the Hamp- 
ton doctrine? It was not necessarily 
opposition to higher education as 
General Armstrong himself would 
have said. On the other hand, if 
Hampton transformed herself into a 
college, what was left of that long 
and elaborate argument by which the 
superiority of the Hampton course of 
study over Howard, Fisk, Atlanta 
and Union had been so effectively 
proven? Would not Hampton become 
simply one of many colored colleges, 
efficient because she had excellent" 
teachers and a splendid plant, and not 
because she had discovered a new gos- 
pel of education ? 

It has been this latter alternative 
that Hampton has at last been forced 
to accept and she is to be congratu- 
lated upon the decision. 

Along with Lincoln University in 
Pennsylvania she has one more step 
to take and that is to put colored 




teachers and officers in real places of 
power and influence upon her fac- 
ulty. The time has gone when the 
colored people of the United States 
are going to have the world interpret- 
ed to them solely by white people. 
Not that they are prepared or we 
trust ever will be prepared to have 
their teaching, preaching, healing and 
writing done solely by black folk; — 
they want men and women of the 
best trained mind and heart to guide 
them, and in the choosing of these 
leaders they will brook no color line. 

THE RHODES SCHOLARSHIPS 

HODES scholars are students 
appointed ■ in the United 
States to Oxford University, 
England. They receive at 
present about $1,500 a year for three 
years. 

Two scholarships are assigned to 
each State. Since the scholarship is 
tenable for three years, there will be 
one year out of every three in which 
there will be no election. In each of 
the other two years one scholarship 
will be filled up if a suitable candidate 
offers. 

A candidate to be eligible must — 

(a) Be a citizen of the United 
States, with at least five years' domi- 
cile, and unmarried. 

(b) By the 1st of October of the 
year for which he is elected, have 
passed his nineteenth and not have 
passed his twenty-fifth birthday. 

(c) By the 1st of October of the 
year for which he is elected (i.e., 
1922), have completed at least his 
Sophomore year at some recognized 
degree-granting university or college 
of the United States of America. 

Candidates may apply either for 
the State in which they have their or- 
dinary private domicile, home, or res- 
idence, or for any State in which they 
may have received at least two years 
of their college education before ap- 
plying. 

Institutions should select their rep- 



106 



THE CRISIS 




resentatives on the basis of the quali- 
ties which will be considered by the 
State Committee in making the final 
selection. These are: 

(1) Qualities of manhood, force 
of character, and leadership 

(2) Literary and scholastic abil- 
ity and attainments 

(3) Physical vigor, as shown by 
interest in outdoor sports or in other 
ways. 

HAITI 

«<I5§5s555nE must strictly maintain 
and scrupulously observe, 
in letter and in spirit, the 
mandates of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States. We are 
not doing so now. We are at war, 
not alone technically with Germany, 
but actually with the little, helpless 
republics of our own hemisphere. 
The wars upon our neighbors to the 
south were made and are still being 
waged through the usurpation by the 
Executive of powers not only never 
bestowed upon him, but scrupulously 
withheld by the Constitution. 

"Of the fact there can be no ques- 
tion. Practically all we know now is 
that thousands of native Haitians 
have been killed by American ma- 
rines, and that many of our own gal- 
lant men have sacrificed their lives 
at the behest of an executive depart- 
ment in order to establish laws draft- 
ed by an Assistant Secretary of Uie 
Navy, to secure a vote in the League 
and to continue at the point of the 
bayonet a military domination which 
at this moment requires the presence 
of no less than 3,000 of our armed 
men on that foreign soil." 

— Warren G. Harding, at Marion> 
Ohio, September 17, 1920. 

THE ARMY 

HE Republican administra- 
tion is not only carrying out 
Democratic policies in Haiti 
but also in the army. The 

Secretary of War, in a letter to Dr. 

DeHaven Hinkson of Philadelphia, as- 




serted, first, that Negroes and whites 
are not going to be combined in the 
same organizations. Secondly, that 
the 92nd and 93rd Divisions have 
been disbanded forever. Thirdly, that 
colored organizations are not going 
to be integral parts of state National 
Guard units, but, upon request, may 
be organized into "separate allot- 
ments" ; and that finally the War De- 
partment is going to reserve the right 
"to assign citizens to duty which they 
are most capable of performing" 
meaning, of course, that they propose 
to put Negroes in Labor Battalions 
under white southern slave drivers. 

Finally we note with deep interest 
the following quotation from the 
Army and Navy Register: 

"The retirement of Chaplain Oscar J. W. 
Scott (colored), U. S. Army, on account of 
physical disability incident to the service, 
leaves the 10th cavalry (colored) without 
a chaplain. Under the announced policy of 
the War Department of making no appoint- 
ments of chaplains until the excess occa- 
sioned by the reduction of the Army to 
150,000 is absorbed no colored chaplain will 
..be available to take Chaplain Scott's place. 
This will probably result in a white chap- 
lain being- assigned to duty with the 10th 
cavalry. If this is done, the experiment 
will be watched with interest, for very many 
officers who have served with colored regi- 
ments have expressed the belief that the 
right kind of white chaplain could be emi- 
nently successful in serving Negro troops 
and at the same time could minister to the 
white officers and their families." 

Mr. Harding is certainly piling up 
Negro votes for next November. 

FRAUD 

HERE is a widely prevalent 
method of defrauding people 
by offering to furnish music 
for their "lyrics" and publish 
the same at a little "compensation," 
varying from twenty-five to two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars. Persons con- 
tinually write to us asking for details 
about such offers. Ninety-nine out of 
a hundred of these things are bare- 
faced frauds. If you have a poem 
which is worth setting up to music, 
you can find a composer and a pub- 
lisher who will issue it without charge 
to you. 




OPINION 



107 




EVIL 

E are not the only ones who 
are suffering. In Massa- 
chusetts two Italians have 
been sentenced to death for 
a crime which has never been prop- 
erly proven against them. In Leaven- 
worth prison ninety-six white men 
are serving from five to twenty-year 
terms for no crime but simply be- 
cause they belonged to an organiza- 
tion which some people do not like. 
At the White House, a Children's Cru- 
sade has been inaugurated to plead 
for the release of hundreds of white 
political prisoners. In West Virginia 
80,000 white men, women and chil- 
dren are "gaunt and pallid with hun- 
ger." Here in New York, "mothers, 
wives and children in your own city 
appeal to you for food, shelter, cloth- 
ing and protection. The bread win- 
ner is in prison." Just as black peo- 
ple in Texas were unable to get a 
lawyer who dared to defend Mr. Shit 
lady in the local courts, so in Louisi- 
ana white men cannot get a lawyer 
in a similar case. In Newport, Ken- 
tucky, a strike has been put down by 
tanks and machine guns among white 
men, while among black brick-makers 
in New York, Cossacks have done 
similar work. In Russia the starv- 
ing are eating their own children and 
the melting snows disclose heaps 
of the bodies of the 
Five million people are 
All the evil is not ours, 



upon heaps 
starved dead, 
still starving, 
my brother. 




FIRST BLOOD 

E would respectfully call the 
attention of the cowards in 
Congress and particularly 
in the Senate to the shad- 
ows of certain coming events. First, 
the Attorney-General of Pennsylva- 
nia who helped kill the Civil Rights 
Bill and who publicly opposed the 
Anti-Lynching Bill was defeated for 
the governorship by Gifford Pinchot, 
who has openly stated his advocacy 



of the Anti-Lynching Bill. Second- 
ly, Congressman E. J. Jones of the 
10th Pennsylvania district, who voted 
against the Dyer Bill was defeated 
in the primary. Congressman Wil- 
liam Vare, who was "absent" when 
the Madden "Jim Crow" Bill came 
up two years ago and also when the 
Dyer Bill came up, has had his ma- 
chine so smashed by independent Ne- 
gro voters that his end is in sight. 
In Michigan and New Jersey, Repub- 
lican Congressmen who opposed the 
Dyer Bill were fought bitterly by 
colored voters, with the result, at this 
writing, in doubt. 

And in spite of this, some one ac- 
tually writes us and asks "if" they 
shall oppose Slemp of Virginia, the 
leader of the "Lily Whites" and the 
southern adviser of Mr. Harding. 
If Black Virginia does not oppose him 
by every means in her power, let 
them never look American Negroes 
in the face again ! 



TEN PHRASES 

HE following ten phrases are 
recommended to white stu- 
dents in Southern colleges as 
quite sufficient for all possi- 
discussions of the race problem : 

The Southerner is the Negro's 

Best Friend. 
. Slavery was Beneficial to the 

Negro. 
, The Races will Never Mix. 

All Negro Leaders are Mulat- 

toes. 
, The Place for the Negro is in 

the South. 
, I love My Black Mammy. 
, Do you want your sister to mar- 
ry a Nigger? 

Do not disturb the present 

friendly relations between the 

races. 

The Negro must be kept in his 

place. 

Lynching is the defense of 

Southern womanhood, 




ble 




10 




A CCORDING to our custom we are pre- 
senting names and numbers of persons 
of Negro descent who have received higher 
degrees in colleges and universities. We 
are not attempting this year to 
give complete statistics until later 
as we go to press too soon after 
Commencement to get full returns. 
Also to our great regret we must 
omit high schools. The number of 
high school graduates has become 
so large that it is impossible for 
us to keep track of them within 
reasonable limits. We may be able 
to take some note of them in future 
numbers. 

Professors and Fellows 
The most outstanding occurrence 
of the year is the appointment of 
Julian H. Lewis of Chicago, Illi- 
nois, as assistant professor of pa- 
thology in the University of Chi- 
cago. Dr. Lewis was born in Illi- 
nois in 1891 of parents who were 
both teachers in the public schools. 
He was graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Illinois in 1911, receiving 
his M.A. in physiology in 1912. He 
was a teaching Fellow in the Uni- 
versity of Chicago from 1912 to 

1915, receiving his Ph.D. in pathol- 
ogy and physiology in 1915. In 
1914 he received the Ricketts' prize 
of $250 for "presenting the best re- 
sults in research in pathology or 
bacteriology." In 1917 he received 
the degree of M.D. from the Rush 
Memorial College, together with the 



Benjamin Rush medal valued at $50 which is 
given annually to the member of the grad- 
uating class "who passes the highest exami- 
nation in every department of medicine". 




JULIAN H. LEWIS 



XQ8, 




R. C. JACKSON 

A.B., Indiana 

H. M. SMITH 

A.B., Colgate 

THEODORE B. NIX, JR. 

A.B., Colorado 

ARTHUR F. REDDING 

A.B., N, Y. City 



BEATRICE MORTON 

A.B., Cincinnati 

K. V. LAMBKINS 

A.B., Cincinnati 

LOUISE MASON 

A.B., Hunter 

L. S. HART 

A.B., Williams 



CATHERINE GRIGS3Y 

A.B., Smith 

ALICE I. BROWN 

B.S., N. Y. University 

T. T. RILEY 

A.B., Northwestern 

JAMES A. GARDINER 

B.A., Pa. State 



GEORGE R. DORSEY 

A.B., Michigan 

RUSSELL DAVIS 

B.S., Case School 

STERLING A. BROWN 

A.B., Williams 

R. A. HAREWOOD 

A. B., Illinois 



109 



110 



THE CRISIS 




EDWARD PORTER DAVIS 

From 1917 to 1922 Dr. Lewis was in- 
structor in the Department of Pathology in 
the University of Chicago and member of 
the Sprague Memorial Institute for medical 
research. His publications, which are about 
twenty in number, deal mostly with serol- 
ogy, which is the study of serum injection 
for the prevention of disease. At present 
he is also studying the causes of cancer. 
During the late world war he was first lieu- 
tenant and was assigned to the University 
of Chicago to investigate means of protec- 
tion against poisoning during the manufac- 
ture of munitions. The Sprague Institute 
has granted him a fund for investigation 
on pathology among Negroes in all coun- 
tries. 

Dr. Lewis married Miss Eva Overton of 
Chicago in 1919. He is pathologist of the 
Provident Hospital, a member of the Sigma 
Xi, the honorary national scientific fra- 
ternity, of the Alpha Omega Alpha, the 
honorary national medical fraternity; the 
Illinois Academy of Science; the Chicago 
Pathological Society and the Chicago Medi- 
cal Society; also of the colored fraternities, 
the Alpha Phi Alpha and the Sigma Pi Phi. 
Edward Porter Davis, head of the Depart- 



ment of German in Howard University, has 
been appointed Fellow in German in the 
University of Chicago for 1922-23. Uni- 
versity Fellows are nominated by the Pro- 
fessor of the Department, recommended by 
the President and elected by the trustees 
''The candidate must have attained pro- 
ficiency in some department. In general he 
should have spent at least one year in resi- 
dent study after receiving his Bachelor de- 
gree. In making appointment special 
weight is given to dissertations indicating 
the candidates' ability to conduct original 
investigation." Mr. I Davis was born in 
Charleston, S. C, educated at Avery and 
Howard, and has received his Master's; de- 
gree from Chicago. He has received one 
year's leave of absence from Howard to 
cover the period of his fellowship at the 
University of Chicago. 

Dr. William S. Quinland, assistant in 
Pathology at the Brigham Hospital, Boston, 
and for three years holder of a Rosenwald 
Fellowship in Bacteriology and Pathology 
at Harvard, has been appointed head of the 
department of Pathology at Meharry Medi- 
cal College. 

J. A. Lane was graduated in veterinary 
medicine from Ohio State University in 
1921. He made high grades in the State of 
Ohio Civil Service examinations and has 
been appointed Field Veterinarian for the 
State of Ohio. (Alpha Phi Alpha.) 
Professional Degrees 

Harvard University graduates three men 
in law: Charles H. Houston, Phi Beta Kap- 
pa of Amherst, who was elected in 1921 as 
one of the editors of the Harvard Law Re- 
view, an unprecedented honor. He belongs 
to the Alpha Phi Alpha; Lamar Perkins, a 
graduate of Lincoln and also a member of 
the Alpha Phi Alpha; Jesse S. Heslip, a 
graduate of Howard. 

Yale University graduates two students 
fiom the Law School: Jasper A. Atkins, 
graduate of Fisk and elected to the Board 
oi the Editors of the Yale Law Journal in 
1920, having maintained an average of A 
during his first year. He is Grand Basileas 
of the Omega Psi Phi. John F. Williams. 
Mr. Williams has also been for two years a 
member of the Editorial Board of the Yale 
Law Journal and received the Wayland de- 
bating prize in 1921. 

The Northwestern University School of 




CICERO C. SIMMONS 

A.B., Arizona 

LAMAR PERKINS 

LL.B., Harvard 

CORNELIUS JOHNSON 

S.B., Harvard 

FRANK E. BOWLES 

A.B., Illinois 



R. C. CRTJMI? 

LL.B., St. Paul 

M. E. GOODE 

A.M., Pennsylvania 

JULIA RUMFORD 

A.B., Hunter 

JOHN F. WILLIAMS 

LL.B., Yale 



HARCOURT A. TYNES 

A.B., City of New York 

KATHARINE ROBINSON 

A.B., Wellesley 

WILLA L. HARRISON 

B.S., Cincinnati 

JAMES W. PRYOR 

B.S., Kansas State 

111 



WILLIAM POWELL 

B.S., Illinois 

JASPER ATKINS 

LL.B., Yale 

SIMONE CHAPOTEAU 

B.A., France 

ROBERT W. CHEERS 

S.T.B., Boston 



112 



THE CRISIS 



Law graduates Carter W. Wesley with the 
degree of Juris Doctor. Wesley is from 
Fisk University and since February has 
been connected with the law firm of Stew- 
art and Corbitt of Muskogee, Oklahoma. 

OMo State University has the following- 
professional graduates: N. L. Barnett, 
M.D., J. H. Wilson, M.D., E. E. Simpson, 
LL.B., H. S. Lindsay, Pharmacy; S. M. 
Greene, Pharmacy. Mr. Greene was a 
member of the Pharmaceutical Association 
and the football squad (Kappa Alpha Psi). 

University of Pennsylvania graduates L. 
P. Miller, in Law. 

The University of Minnesota graduates 
P. Eugene Davenport as B.S. 

Boston University gradu- 
ates the f olowing students : 
Irwin Tillman Dorch, LL.B.; 
George Washington Gregory, 
LL.B.; Robert Wesley 
Cheers, S.T.B.; George Ar- 
nett Singleton, S.T.B.; Pey- 
ton Elliott Womack, S.T.B. 
John Herman Bougs, M.D. 
Willis Gittens Price, M.D. 
A. W. Easton, LL.B. 

Tufts College graduates 
C. A. Hays, in medicine. 

New York University g-rad- 
uates Demerald Williams as 
LL.B., and two women, Mrs. 
Anna Jones Robinson and 
Miss Enid Thorpe as Juris 
Doctor. Both these women are graduates 
of Hunter. 

Howard University graduates 22 Doctors 
of Medicine, 27 Dentists, 19 Pharmacists, 56 
Bachelors of Law, 3 Bachelors of Divinity. 

Meharry Medical College graduates 32 
Doctors of Medicine, 43 Doctors of Dental 
Surgery, 42 Pharmacists and 6 trained 
nurses. The names of those graduating in 
Medicine are Garland N. Adamson, Ernest 
F. Alleyne, Oscar L. Barland, Theodore 
Blake, Wilhelmina B. Bowles, Emerson W. 
Brown, Perry M. Brown, Roscoe C. Bryant, 
Herman H. Clay James A. Crooke, Rodman 
F. Doyle, Alfred C. Dungee, Frederick D. 
Funderburg, William B. Glenn, James M. 
Holloway, Richard H. Jackson, James H. 
Lewis, Andrew J. Love, Cassell A. Mott, 
James M. McGriff, Jr., Lee M. Owen, Titus 
M. Perry, Linwood L. Rayford, James W. 
Ross, Braxton R. Selden, Edward C. Smith, 




JAMES H. LEWIS 



William M. Smith, Jackson P. Taylor, Price 
Terrell, Lucilius C. Youngblood, Walter A. 
Zuber. James H. Lewis was the ranking 
scholar of the class. He was educated at 
Wheaton Academy and Wheaton College, 
Illinois. He graduated from Meharry with 
highest honors having made for the four 
years the general average of 93 3/10 per 
cent. He enters the City Hospital No. 2 of 
St. Louis, Missouri, as interne. 

Wilberforce University graduated 5 
Bachelors of Divinity as follows : Gertrude 
Donaway, Robert H. Gross, T. C. Hammons, 
Hardy Haywood, Arthur Morris. 

L. B. Baker was graduated from the Chi- 
cago Medical School. 

R. C. Crump was gradu- 
ated from the St. Paul Col- 
lege of Law. 

A. E. Greene was gradu- 
ated in pharmacy from the 
Massachusetts College of 
Pharmacy. He received high- 
est honors in materia medica 
with distinction in chemistry 
and bacteriology. 

Temple University, Phila- 
delphia, had the following 
graduates: W. M. Bishop, 
M.D.; R. N. Gordon, D.D.S; 
J. R. Hackney, D.D.S. ; E. A. 
Bennett, Ph.G.; W. N. Bow- 
ser, Ph.G; G. L. Brown, 
Ph.G.; M. N. Gibbs,, Ph.G. 
C. L. Holland, Ph.G.; P. L. Martin, Ph.G. 
J. H. Patterson, Ph.G.; S. L. Scott, Ph.G. 
W. H. Wormley, Ph.G. 

Gammon Seminary graduates 3 Bache- 
lors of Divinity, James Edward Car- 
raway, A.B.; Timothy Bertram Echols, 
A.B.; Arthur Buxton Keeling, A.B. Mr. 
Keeling graduated with highest honors from 
Clark in 1920. 

The Virginia Theological Seminary grad- 
uates 3 Bachelors of Divinity and 7 Bache- 
lors of Theology. 

Morehouse College graduated 3 Bachelors 
of Divinity. 

Virginia Union University graduates 2 
Bachelors of Divinity and 8 Bachelors of 
Theology. 

Roger Williams graduates one Bachelor 
of Theology. 

Allen University graduates 2 Bachelors 
of Divinity. 




ARTHUR B. KEELING 

B.D., Gammon 

S. M. JENKINS 

B.S., Paine 

LUCILLE B. HERRON 
B.A., Wisconsin 

ANTONIE E. GREENE 

Ph.B., Mass. Pharmacy 



MARY C. CARROLL 

A.B., Benedict 

VIVIAN F. BELL 

B.S., Knoxville 

BERNICE A. BROWN 

Worcester Art 

DON D. GOODLOE 

M.A., Harvard 



D. M. HENDRICKSON 

M.A., Columbia 

ENID T. THORPE 

J.D., N. Y. University 

ANNA J. ROBINSON 

J.D., N. Y. University 

ARTHUR P. DAVIS 

Hampton 



ALEX. J. BRICKLER 

M.E., Colorado 

L. B. BAKER 

M.D., Chicago Medical 

JOHN H. CALHOUN, JR. 

Hampton 

D. H. WILLIAMS 

LL.B., N. Y. University 



113 



114 



THE CRISIS 



Northern Colleges 

Harvard — S.B., Cornelius L. Johnson, Bi- 
ology (Alpha Phi Alpha). A.M., Don D. 
Goodloe, Philosophy (Howard University 
A.B.) B.S. in Engineering, Raymond Jack- 
son, an A.B. of Western Reserve. A. G. 
Smith, S.B., in Metallography. He is a 
graduate of Talladega and did excellent 
work. 

Columbia. — Robinson M. Haden, Master 
of Arts in Chemistry. He graduated as 
pharmacist in 1919 having received the Las- 
ccff prize which carried with it honorary 
membership in the New York State Phar- 
maceutical Association. He received his 
A.B. from Columbia in 1921. (Kappa Alpha 
Psi.) A.M., L. P. Jackson, in history. A.M., 
Miss D. M. Hendrickson in economics. A.M., 
Miss S. Elizabeth Townsend. B.S., Flor- 
ence Coffer Willis. 

Indiana — A.B., Robert C. Jackson, Eco- 
nomics. 

Michigan — B.A., George R. Dorsey, Edu- 
cational Administration (Kappa Alpha 
Psi). 

Southern California— A.B. , Ruth Prince, 
S. A. Beane. 

Colgate— A.B. , H. M. Smith, completed 
course in three years with A average (Ome- 
ga Psi Phi). 

Nebraska — A.B., William N. Johnson, 
Dorothea M. Nelson, Sirilda B. Spicer; 
B.F.A., Aaron Douglas. 

Wellesley — A.B., Katharine Robinson, 
Margaret Allen. 

Smith — A.B., Catherine V. Grigsby. 

Ohio State — B.A., and B.Sc, Sedonia Ro- 
tan; B.A., Alexander I. McCown; B.Sc, 
Bernice N. Coipeland. 

Pennsylvania — A.M., Mary E. Goode. 

Radcliffe — A.B., Marietta O. Bonner. 

Washington — B.S., Lodie M. Biggs. 

Colorado — M.E., Alexander Brickler. He 
was the star two-mile man on the Univers- 
ity of Colorado track team and won first 
place in the Rocky Mountain News Mara- 
thon this year. This is the fourth year he 
has competed in this race, and he has won a 
place each time. 

Syracuse — B.A., Maeme Moon; B.S., 
Rosamond Alston. 

University of Cincinnati — B.S., Willa L. 
Harrison; A.B., Katherine Lambkins; Grad- 
uate Diploma in Education, Francis Les- 
ley and Helen C. Walker; B.A., Lena B. 
Morton. 



College of the City of New York — B.S., 
Aubre DeLambert Maynard; A.B., Arthur 
F. Redding; A.B., Harcourt Adderly Tynes. 

Hunter College — A.B., Louise Mason, Ju- 
lia Rumford, Lucile Spence. 

Pennsylvania State — B.S., Daniel B. Tay- 
lor; B.A., James A. Gardiner, who finish?.! 
the course in Z l / 2 years. 

New York University — Bachelor of Com- 
mercial Science, Lucius Smith; Master of 
Business Administration, Clarence B. Cur- 
ley, Wilmer F. Lucas; B.S., Alice I. Brown. 

Kansas State Agricultural — B.S., in Me- 
chanical Engineering, James W. Pryor. 

Illinois — A.B., Mary Lorene Barnett, 
English; A.B., Vivian Elizabeth Hicks, 
English; B.S., William Jenifer Powell; 
A.B., Richard Alexander' Harewood; A.B., 
Frank Edward Bowles, Economics and His- 
tory; A.B., Earl Ryder, Chemistry and Bac- 
teriology. 

Williams — A.B. Sterling A. Brown, who 
entered Williams College from Dunbar, 
Washington, D. C, September, 1918; won 
prize in Sophomore year; won prize in 
Latin, and Phi Beta Kappa Key in Junior 
year; won prize in Graves Essay Contest 
Senior year; won $600 Fellowship in Senior 
year awarded on scholarship basis. Antici- 
pates doing graduate work in Harvard Uni- 
versity. A.B., LeRoy Hart. 

Northwestern — A.B., Traqueelia Riley, 
Warren Williams. 

California — A.B., William Alexander 
Johnson, Ida Louise Jackson, Ellis O'Neal 
Knox; A.M., Vivian Costroma Osborne 
Marsh, Anthropology. 

Case School — B.S., in Chemical Engineer- 
ing, R. H. Davis. Mr. Davis received his 
A.B. from Western Reserve in 1920. 

Arizona — A.B., Cicero C. Simmons. 

Colorado College — A.B., Theodore B. Nix, 
Jr. 

Temple — B.S. in Education, William Grif- 
fin. 

The University of Wisconsin graduates 
Miss L. B. Herron as Bachelor of Arts. 

The University of Kansas graduates the 
following Bachelors of Arts: Norval P. 
Barksdale, DeKoven French, Lois .Hill, 
Burt A. Mayberry, Henry N. Stone and 
Helen V. White. Matthew E. Carroll, Jr., 
received the degree of Master of Arts. 

Western Reserve University graduates 



THE CRISIS 



115 



Stanley E. Brown as Bachelor of Arts from 
Adelbert College. 

University of Pittsburgh graduates James 
S. Nicholas as Bachelor of Chemistry; 
James H. Bynoe, Harry Webber, William 
C. Ward and William H. Robinson as Bache- 
lors of Science. 

French Department of Education, Paris, 
France, Mile. Simone Chapoteau, 1921, A.B. 
Colored Colleges 
The following graduated from the college 
department of Fisk University: Richard 
H. Harris, Hattie E. Walker, Robert G. 
Fletcher, Mattie H. Rowan, Mannie L. 
Owen, Miriam Atkins, Mary B. Jackson, 
William M. Jones, Charlotte L. McFall, 
Ulysses G. Gibson, Thomas P. Harris, Jr., 
Hubert E. Mitchell, Alvin K. Smith, James 
G. King, Alma A. Oakes, Ethel S. Robinson, 
Arthurene N. Scott, John D. Whitaker, Jr., 
Eunice G. Brickhouse, Lucile H. Caruthers, 
Verna M. Guinn, Motta L. Sims, Catherine 
J. Watkins, Blanche M. Smith, Nellie S. 
Baker, Samuel J. Flanagan, Charles W. 
Jones, Alvin H. Moss, Joseph J. Blount, 
Elenora Coleman, Gaston T. Cook, Char- 
lotte P. DeBerry, Edmond W. Fortson, 
Anna G. Fraser, Minnie B. Gilbert, Earline 
L. Good, Maude E. Green, Pearl R. Hay- 
man, Horatio W. O'Bannon, Louise W. Ro- 
chelle, Orlando W. Stewart, Hulda B. Ware, 
Robert S. White, Jr. 

Howard University graduates 2 Masters 
of Arts, 42 Bachelors of Arts; 62 Bachel- 
ors of Science and 4 Bachelors of Music. 

The following graduated from the Col- 
lege Department of Wilberforce University: 
George J. Banks B.S., Albert L. Brown, 
A. B.; Theodore I. Brown, B.S.; Bernice M 
Cable, B.S. in Ed.; Gertrude A. Clarke, 
B.S;; Ernest F. Clarkson, B.S.; Anna L. 
Dorsey, A.B.; Grace W. Edwards, B.S.; 
Janie E. Everett, B.S. in Ed.; Alroma M. 
Ford, B.S. in Ed.; Frank L. Flake, B.S. in 
Ed.; Clarence W. Galloway, B.S.; Ralph 
Gayden, B.S.; Prather J. Hauser, A.B.; 
Josephine B. Hill, B.S. in Ed.; William K. 
Hopes, A.B.; H. Hannibal Hull, A.B.; Sam- 
uel B. Hutchinson, B.S.; Pauline K. Johna- 
kins, B.S.; Edna B. Johnson, B.S.; Marie 
J McNeal, A.B.; Alphonso A. McPheeters, 
B.S.; Daniel C. Morrison, B.S.; June E. 
Moss, A.B. in Ed.; Dorsey T. Murray, A.B.; 
Samuel C. Packer, B.S.; C. Milliard Perry, 
B.S.; Eliza A. Robinson, A.B.; Ralph H. 



Scull, B.S.; Alexander M. Shearin, B.S.; 
Ethelyne Smith, A.B. in Ed.; Wallis Towns- 
end, A.B.; Marcella Wallace, B.S. 

Lincoln University graduated 28 Bache- 
lors of Art. Atlanta graduated 15 Bache- 
lors of Art and 23 from the Normal Depart- 
ment which comprises two years of a col- 
lege course. Talladega College graduated 
26 Bachelors of Art. Spelman graduated 
one Bachelor of Art. Virginia Union grad- 
uated 8 Bachelors of Art and 4 Bachelors 
of Science.. Virginia T. S. and College grad- 
uated 2 Bachelors of Art. Tougaloo gradu- 
ated one Bachelor of Art. Knoxville had 
the following college graduates: Inez M. 
Boyd, Ralph W. Bullock, J. Herman Daves, 
Andrew J. Taylor, A.B.; Vivian F. Bell, Ar- 
vella Pickett, B.S. Southern graduated 3 
Bachelors of Art. Clark University, Atlan- 
ta, graduated 6 Bachelors of Art. Shaw 
University had the following graduates : 
A.B., Alma Adams, George F. Allen, Bessie 
Broadnax, Bertha Boaz, William R. Collins, 
Samuel H. Mumford, Sara Wooten. B.S.: 
Fleetwood Bowens, Joseph Cowan, Wiley 
Crump, Henry R. Furlonge, Julius High, 
Royal D. Keene, Clarence Sumner and 
Ezra Turner. Hartshorn graduated 3 
Bachelors of Art and 1 Bachelor of Science. 
New Orleans graduated 3 Bachelors of Ped- 
agogy. Lane College graduated A.B., 
Vashti Barnett, Franklin Myles Dickey, 
Dewey Washington Ragan, Andrew Wash- 
ington Carter, Abraham H. Rice, James 
Adams W. Hutson, Brawlus Benj. F. White. 
Roger Williams graduated 6 Bachelors of 
Art. Edward Waters graduated one Bache- 
lor of Art. Benedict graduated the follow- 
ing: A.B., Rosa L. Brown, Tressie J. Boyd, 
Mary C. Carroll, Robert L. Robinson, Clar- 
ence A. Rubens, Cecil B. Williams. Liv- 
ingstone College graduated A.B., Lucy B. 
Adams, Beresford Cole, Mary Graham, Le- 
roy Hall, Sallie V. Headen, Herman Howell, 
Raymond Jones, Rosalie Massey, John More- 
land. Wiley University's college graduat- 
ing class contained 29; the ranking mem- 
ber was Robert Smith. Morehouse College 
graduated 20 Bachelors of Arts. Florida 
A. and M. College graduates 6 Bachelors of 
Science. Morris Brown University gradu- 
ated 9 Bachelors of Arts, with Walter M. 
Clark as ranking student. Allen University 
graduates 3 Bachelors of Arts. 





THE FRENCH COLONIAL EXPOSITION AT 

MARSEILLES 

William S. Nelson 



U'T'ODAY," declared M. Sarraut, French 
■*■ Minister of the Colonies, upon the 
occasion of the inauguration of the French 
Colonial Exposition in Marseilles, "on the 
soil of France, here where are gathered all 
of her colonies, acknowledged children of 
the mother-land, amid the fascinating deco- 
rations of these palaces, of these temples, 
of these citadels, of these pagodas, of these 
mosques, of these monuments, each of which 
is a true and pure visage of a tradition and 
a race, we behold a striking resume, the im- 
posing recital of the success and the force 
of the French Colonial Empire, attesting 
before the universe to the vigor, the perse- 
verance and the dignity of the national ge- 
nius. Would that France would come here, 
would regard, would meditate!" 

And even before the desire of M. Sarraut 
found echo beyond the exposition walls 
France was coming, was admiring, was 
meditating. Proud fathers pointed out to 



their sons the magnificence of France's pos- 
sessions; stalwart youths dreamed dreams 
before the invitation which read: "The de- 
velopment of the lands of greater France 
offers to the young generation occasion to 
seek a marvelous adventure worthy of their 
curiosity and of their patriotism." Old and 
young- regarded and meditated upon the 
panorama of the fabulous riches, of 
"France's granary." 

And n