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^arbarb CoUege tihravp 













25 AND 29 COR MI ILL. 




Characteristics 5 

Goethe's Portrait 49 

Biography 52 

Eoswell's Life of Johnson 70 

Death of Goethe 145 

Goethe's Works 156 

Corx-Law Rhymes 216 

Ox History again 24 7 

DiDERor 257 

CorxT Caciliostro : 

Fli^'hi First 330 

Fliiiht Last 351 

Death of Edward Irving 402 


I. Xovelle 407 

D. Shilltr, Goethe and Madame de Stael 424 

la The Tale 435 

NifMARY OF Contents 469 




The healthy know not of their health, but only the sick : 
this » the Physician's Aphorism ; and applicable in a far 
vkler sen;*e than he gives it We may say, it holds no less 
in moral intellectual, political, poetical, than in merely cor- 
[<»rpal therapeutics ; that wherever, or in what shape so- 
tver, powers of the sort which can be named vital are at 
*"rk, herein lies the test of their working right or working 

In the Body, for example, as all doctors are agreed, the 
fir?i condition of complete health is, that each organ perform 
ib function unconsciously, unheeded ; let but any organ an- 
aounce its sepjirate existence, were it even boastfully, an<l for 
pl»-a*ure, not for pain, then already has one of those unfortu- 
nate * false centres of sensibility ' establislied itself, already 
i' dtrangement there. The jwrfection of bodily wellbeing is, 
that the collective bodily activities seem one ; and be mani- 

* KriixRrRon Review, Xo. 108. — 1. An Eway on the Oripin ami 
:'r*-:*rt4 of Man. By Thomas Hoi>e. 8 vols. 8vo. London, 1831. 

1. P<i!"4f>phUchr VirrUminffeH^ intlnn*wUrt ubrr Phihtophie dtr Sprmhe 
•tmi'iri M'i.'Ttes. (itsi'krithtn umi rorgftror/en lu Drtflen iin /)?«mAtr 1S28, 
t*i n 'itn erwien Tagtn de* Januarg 1829 (Philosophicnl Lectures, e^pe- 
'ii.v.<i the rhilo«o|)hy of Languaj^c ami the (lift of Speech. Written 
!<] :»-l.\ered at I)rc<*len in December 182H, and the e>irly days of Jan • 
.i-v l*2u). By Friedrich von Schlegel. 8vo. Vienna, 1880. 


fi.'^lci!, moreover, not in Iheniselve?, but in the action they 
(iccomplish. If a Dr. Kitchiner boBst (hat his system is in 
high order. Dietetic Phiiosophy may indeed take credit ; but 
I]k- true Pcplicinn was thai Countryman who answered that, 
'■ Ibr his part, he had no sj-atem." In fact, unity, ftgreement 
U always silent, or soft-voiced ; it is only discord that loudly 
proclaims itself. So long as the several elements of Life, nil 
liilv adjusted, can pour forth their movement like harmonious 
lutii-J strings, it is a meltidy and unison ; Life, from its mys- 
ti'rious fountains, flows out as in celestial music and dia- 
I>asfin, — which also, like that other music of the sphei^s, 
evi'u because it is perennial and complete, without inlemip- 
lion and without imperfection, might be fabled to escape the 
ear. Thus loo, in some languages, is the state of health 
well denoted by a term expressing unity; when we feel our- 
selves as we wish to be, we say that we are whoJf. 

It mortals, it is to be feared, are permmiently blessed 


no irregular ultslrurtimt bad jet broken il into colunis. 
Ttm bciginniiig of Inquiry is Disease : all Science, if vm 
r well, as it must have originAteil in the feeling of 
• being wrong, so it is and uonllnueB to be but 
Dhtinon, Disntembmneni, anil pnrtial healing of the wrong. 
AiB, oa was of old written, liie Tree of Knowledge springs 
from k fnot of evil, and bears frails of good and evil. Had 
Ad«nt nomtned in Puvdise, there hod been no Anatomy 
ami BO UeiapbysicA. 

Bat, ntv, ni the Philosopher dm:hires, ' Life itself is a 

■bteaiei m working incited by suffering :' action from piu- 

Moa! Tbe memory of that flr»t stftte of Freedom and para- 

Jbme UnconfciouRnrss has fnded uwuy into un iduiil poetic 

inam. W« ttaiHl tiere loo conscious of many things: with 

Knowkdg*!, the symptwro of Derangempnl, we must even do 

oar betl to rvstore a little Onler. Lite is, in fi'W instances, 

■nd at rwe intervals, the diapason of a heavenly melody { 

-'icn*« %h» fifrce j«r of disruptions and convuIsioiiB, which, 

■1" wIhU wc will, there is no disregnrding. Nevertheless, 

•urb i> still the wish of Nalnre on our behalf; in all vital 

MXkti, ber manifest purpose and eOiMl U. that we should be 

laMMMcious of iU and. like the peptic Countryman, never 

Ihmt (hnt wit 'have u system.' For indeed vital nction 

' r. ii eniplmtiottlly a means, not an end ; Lift- is not 

r ihc loece sake of Living, but always with an 

-^ rnal ^iny neither is it on the process, on the 

rjiilier on tli« result, that Nature, in any of her 

^ii>nl to enlru't us with insight and volition. 

.1- is the domain of man, it is but a small fmc- 

. .iiion of it tliat h»? rules with Consciousness and. 

' i'leht: what he can contrive, nay what he can 

.iKiw and oumprehend, is essentially the rnechani- 

. I I : ih>! great is ever, in one sense or other, the vital ; 

- i^-sciili«lly the mysterious, and only the surface of it can 

- umlerstrKnL But Nature, il might seem, strives,. like a 

><nd motlirr. to hiik from us even this, that she is a mys- 


tery ; she will have ii3 rest on her beauiifui aiiJ awful boiwin 
as if it were our secure home ; on the bottonileBS bounilli^as 
Deep, whereon all human things fearfully and woiiOerfulIj 
swim, she will have us walk and build, as if the liirn wliidi 
supported us there (which any scratch of a bare bodkin nill 
rend asunder, any apulCer of a pistol-shol insianlaneously 
bum up) were no film, but a solid ro^k-foundation. For- 
ever in Elie neighbourhood of an ineviiuble Death, man can 
forget that he id born to die ; of his Life, which, strictly 
inedilalcd, contains in it an Immensity and an Ecemily, he 
can conceive Ugluly, as of a simple implement wherewith to 
do day-labour and earn wages. So cunningly does Nature, 
the mollier oiljall highest Art, which only apes her from 
afar, ' body forth the Finite from the Infinite ; ' and guide 
man safe on his wondrous path, nol more by endowing him 
wilh vision, than, at the riglil place, wiib blindne^ss ! Under 
all her works, chiefly under her noblest work, Life, lies a 


■ ibe imlj strong tniml, view it m Intellei:!, n^ Mundiiy, 

- Tinder any othiT oapect, I'J nowise ihe mini! ufiuainletl 

' I'll it4 ■iirnpti ; that hpir an before the sign of hoaJtli ia 

< 'iiiriiiuinri}. In uur inward, ae id our outwRrd world, 

' I' Viiinical lira op«n lo usxjuiLwliM ia dynamieal 

.K^IIlJt Or~our~~THinkiug, wb might say, it ia ^ 
' IT'' upper »iirfn<w tliui we ahupe inio articuliiEB 
■ iijdi-. ; — nndf-meath tbe region of argument and con- 
"n diKTHirse, lies die region of ni«ilitaiitiR ; here, in ita 

( myilt^rioas <k-pih% dwells whnt vital force is in us; 

"tr, if aughl is to bo created, and not merely nianufuclured 

nd ooimnunicalpd, niiist the work go on. Maiiurai-Iure ia 

bHfig)bli% bat trivial ; Crpaiion \» gn^'it, an J~ciiniiot ire nn^ 

'i'nii pcU Thun if till" Diibatfr and^emuhstriilur; wLom we 

■■I nmk w ihf lowixt of lru« iliinkers, Icnows what he haa 

r". am] buw he did tl. [lio Ariixt. wh<iiR vie miik as tfau 

L'!.f»t. know* not J most «peak of InapirHlloii. and in one or 

"tluT dialrei, ndl his work tho gift of n divinity. 

ilul m the whole. ■ geniiia is evur n secret lo iUulf ; * of 

- I'ld truth «-« linve. on all fiid&', daily evidenee. The 

' 'k'(-;in: lakes no airs for writing Hiinltt nnd the Trmpett, 

-i.<^<l> not tlial it ta atiyihing surpriBing: ftlilion, ugnin, 

I' wiiiin iif hi* fiiculiy, which aecordingly is an ia- 

■: '•If (Jn ili« Oilier hand, whsL twekling and strutting 

»i ir.i ..ften hear and see, whi^i, in some ilwpe of ae- 

■ -i! nroJusiim, maiden sjwech, review article, this or the 

r -. l-ilrKljred giNMc httj pniiluued its goose-egg, of quite 

i.-.l li' vnhic, worp it the pink of it* whole kind: and 

!-r- V, fiy nil mortnls do not wonder I 

I -j-ji-Ji f:iM>ugk, loo, WHS the College Tnlor's surprise at 

' ' 'H'-r Shandy : how, though unread in Arintotle, he could 

'"Klwlm argue : and not knowing the name of any dialeo 

"»L lumlleil tbetn nil to pertection. Is it lh« itkilfullest 

•iimutt that cnt* the bei^l figure at Sadler's Welln? Or 

" tlw boirr hit Iw-lli-r for knowing ihnt h^ ha» a JUxor 

• ■tvt aid a firt:0T brerttt Bui indeed, ns in the higher 


case of the Poet, so here in tliat of tlic Speiiker mid luquirw, 
the Irue force is an uncuii^ciuu^ one. The heaUliy Unilei^ 
aRni3ingrwe should" Bay7'iS'"ii6t ihe'Xogical, "SrgtimEirtatlve, 
biit the Inhririve ( feF-^^^e-end of UnJerslanding b not to 
prove and finS^rensons, but to know and believe. Of logic, 
and its limits, and uses and al>U)>e!<i lliere were much to be 
said and examined ; one fact, however, which chiefly concerns 
IIS here, has long been familiar : that the man of logic and ihe 
man of insight ; the Rcasoner and the Discoverer, or even 
Knower, are quite separable, — indeed, for most part, quite 
separate characters. In practical matters, for example, has 
it not bexwme almost proverbial that the man of logic cannot 
prosper ? This b he whom business-people call Systematic 
and Theoriser and Word-monger ; his vital intellectual force 
lies dormant or estincl. his whole force is mechanical, con- 
scious : of such a one it is foreseen that, when once confronted 
with the infinite complexities of the real world, his little com- 


^^^U beastifiil liormcopo, nnd fpeak rcA^onalilu lliing^: nev- 
^^^picM jnar Hnlen jewel, wliicli you wuiil^d him tu HiiJ you. 
^^Hl fcrtbcuHiing. Ofien by some winged word, wingi-d us 
pHBfainMkTtioU if, of * Liitiier, a NagioIeoD, 8 Uiietlio, shall 
" «»«ce tli*t dHScdtj i>plil asunder, and its secret kid bnre; 
wtiile ihe Irn'rragalite, wjtli all his logiral tnols, Iii'WB ni ir, 
unl Iwrrn rwind ir, and finds it o» nil hands loo hard tor 

V^in, in the difference between Oratory and Rhetoric, 

^' iaiWil cvcrywhiire in ihiii superiority of what is (.tilled 

I fc Natimil urw ilia Artifiriul. we find a similar ill um rat ion. 

I TW Omtor ptirsuadcs and carries all with him, he knows 

I Mlmri tlu! Rhetorician u»n prove tlint be ought to have 

' T^TKiiMied and earned all with him : the one is in a stale of 

aliby tutcmsciousnrsi, as if he 'had no system;' the other, 

■' lirwe of regimen and dietetic piinetuality, feels at best 

' ji *hH system is in high order.* 80 stands il, in short, 

" ilr all th<- forma of Intellect, whether as directed In the 

! iiajriif I mill, or to [lie fit imi«rting thereof ; to Poetry. 

Ekqnrncr, to depth of Insight, which is the basis of both 

'■•r ; aiways the clianuTteristic of right performance is 

<-<-nain fponiancity, an unconsc!oasnes>4 : 'the healihy 

■ '■* ncii of tlidr health, but only the sick.' So that the 

I I r..;.-tii uf the critic, n& erabbed as it looked to his am- 

i.-r-ijiliT, might coniain in it a most flindaraeniHl 

iijinlii-abtt to ns all, and in much else than Liicra- 

Wd.-iieTer yoii ha*e written any sentence thai looks 

iiIlt:, '■iccllent, be fure «n blot It out." In like 

< .' [, under milder phnisculugT, luid with a mean* 

. im.-j.jurly mnch wider, a living Thinker hn* latighl 

'■■ 'W the Wrong we am always conscious, of the Right 

Bm if lurh is the law with regard to Speculation anil tlie 
'••i-iii! |>ower of man, mnch more is it with regard to 
lu-i, ;ijfl the power, inmiifcjied chirfly therein, which 
Moral. ■ L« not thy left hand know what thy 



rigUt hand JimjiIi:' whUper not to llij- own iicnrt, How 
wunliy ia this action ; for then it is ftli'oady becoming worth- 
less. The good man is he who looris continually in w«U< 
iloing ; to whom welldoing is aa bis natural esistence, 
an'ttkening no astonishment, requiring no L-ommentary ; but 
there, like a thing of course, and ns if it could not but be so> 
Self-TOiitemplalion, on the other hand, ia infallibly the symp- 
tom of disease, be it or be it not llie sign of cure. An un- 
healthy Virtue is one that consumes itself to leanness in 
repenting and anxiety ; or, still worse, that inflates it-telf 
into dropsical bcsslfiilneas and Tain-glory : either way, there 
is a self-seeking; an unprofitable looking behind us to 
niL'Ssure the way we have made : whereas the sole con- 
cern is lo walk continually forward, and make more way. 
If iti any sphere of man's life, then in the Moral sphere^ 
a< the inmost and most vital of all, it is good ihal there be 
wholeness ; thai there be tmconseiousness, which is the evi- 


^^efuainUuicc, iiidicatiiig thai il has readied quite an inli- 

^KpM IbodBj^ bodea ill. Alreud^, to llie popular jutlgmenl, 

^Kwha lallcs niiivh al>oul VtrluQ In llie abstract begins to 

^K'M'iVCti il is shrewill}' guessed ibaC vbere there is 

pBBl iireaebing, there wilt be Mltle almsgiving. Or ngain, 

M m wider ^ale, we can remark that ages of Heroism are 

BM ages of Moral I'hilo«ophy ; Virtue, when it can be phi- 

hiQphlMil of. luLt become awnre of iUflf, is sickly nnd be- 

fuming tn <teeliiic A f^pontaneoud babltuul all-pervading 

^irii «f Chivalrous Valour shrinks logetlier, and perks itself 

u;i into shrivelled Puiniii of Honour t humane Courtesy aiid 

N'oblme-M of mind dwindle into punctilious Politeness, 

'avoiding meaia; ' 'pMyiiig lithe of mint and anise, neglecl- 

I'lz ibr weightier matters of lh« law.' GoodnegA, which 

'J- a ruin lo itself, muat now appeal to Precept, and seek 

'^'O^i fnim Sanctions I tlie Freewill no longer reigns un- 

i,i('->tiuD«td and by divine inght, but like a mere earlbly 

'•u-n-igu, by eipedieney, by Hewardd and Punishments: 

•: nilHT, let u; Niy, liie Freewill, so far as may be, bos 

i-iicatnl and witlidrawn into the dark, and a sptrlrnl nighl- 

''Mrcofa Nec«dsiiy uiiurpA its throne; for now that mys- 

'■■ mill* Sflf-impulse of the whole man, hearen- inspired, and 

all tpuMsi lurtakiug of the Infinite, being captiously ques- 

'I'mI in a finite dialect, and answering, as it needs must, by 

nop. — i* eunct^ivcd la non-extant, and only the outward 

M'-iJiauLTin of it remains acknowledged: of Volition, except 

'■ ihr ■rnotiyin of Desire, we hear nothing ; of ' Motives,' 

■alnui any Mover, mori' than enough. 

^>o ti>i, wlieu tlie gi'iii-rous AJVections have become well- 

ii.-d i=if,ilnic, we Tia«a tht reign of S«utitaeiiiatiiy. The 

!.■ pniHmblennw, at any rate the extremely oma- 

' " of high ftwling. and the luxury of doing good; 

-'. <elf-forgelfulne8)i, devolednes^ and all manner 

."■■tliVc muguanimity, — are erery where insisted on, and 

^--^mgly HicuJeated in ejieeeb and writing, in prone and 

•a*»; Soetninu Preodiero pnwiaim ' Benevolence ' to all 



the four winds, and have Tkuth engraved on their wateh- 
seals: unhappily with litilu or no effect. Were the limits 
in riglit walking oi'der, why so much dumonitraling of mo- 
tion ? The barrenesl of nil moiiaU ia ihe Senlimentalist. 
Granting even that he were sincere, and did not wilfuUj 
deceive us, or witliouC first deceiving himself, what good 
i^ in tiim ? Docs he not lie (here as a perpetual leisan of 
di'spnir, and type of bedrid valetudinarian impotence ? His 
is emphatically a Virtue tliut 1ms heroine, through everj 
lilire. coTiaeiuus of itself; it is all sick, and feels as if it were 
niude of gl^s, and durst not touch or be touched : in the 
i-hape of work, it can do nothing ; at tbe uloiost, by tnc«fi- 
funl nursing and cnudling, keep itself alive. As the lost 
«iage of fill, when Viilue, properly so called, has ceased to 
be practised, and become extinct, and a mere remeubrance, 
we have the era of Sophists, descanting of its existence, prov- 
, denying it, mechanically 'aecoimring " for ii ; — a) 

old Aplio 
ily the sick." 

To undcnlnnil mnn, however, we must look beyond the 

tuBvidual tnnu and hid aciioiu or inlercsu, aii'l view iuta 

io moibinaiion will) \t\a fnUovis. It ig in Sudely that man 

fin* frcU wlial Lr is; first becomes what be can be. In 

'- > leij mo altt^rtbcr new eet of spiritual activities are 

"-J>r4 in bim. and the (ilil immeasurablj' quickened ttnd 

nnphrnod. Stteieiy id the genial element wherein his 

-itiire firat Eve's uuil gruws ; the solilar;r man wera but a 

iiall jionion of himscir, and mum continue forever folded 

'-- duntRl «nil oaly half alive. ' Atrcudy,' says a deep 

'Drinkfr, with more meaning thaii will disL-lose itself at 

VBC^ ■ mjr ofHQion, my conviction, gains infinMy in slrc-ngth "1 

'■ri Mmt«B8, the mucni^nt h »i->cond mind bad udupliHl it.' j 

k-wpD in its fimftli'sl form, is ns^ocialioii ; ko wondrous | 

n of 60ul with soul ns directed to the mere act J 

rtowmg! In other higher acts, the wonder is ^till mort) 

n thai portion of our being which wc name 

lit Morel ; for ]iruperly. indeed, all communion is of a moral 

UR, «bcn<or such intellectual communion (in the act of 

bMrfatfi) M itwif An example. But with regard to Morals 

■trinly *o called. It is iti Society, we might almost My, that 

Mi.nJity lif^n« ; liere at least il takes an aliogeiher new 

'■''tTL am! on every *ide, b$ in living growth, expands ilself, 

l'<i:> ■ <if Man to himself, to what is High<<8t in hitn- 

' but the First Table of the Law: to tli« First 

II « HUpcrndded a Second, with the Duties of Man 

" ".1. -\"i;;iilionr 1 whereby also lh« significance of tlie First 

>•* Miumes Its true importance. Man ha? joined himself 

'nil Buin ; will acts and yv»iM on soul ; a myotic mirncu- 

W vafittlioinnbic Union establishes itself; Life, in all itd 

*»rai»."lHkJ beiVfiiio inttm^ated. consecrated. The lighl- 

-. at Tlinught, genrraled, or say rather heaven- 

1 the ■oliiury miml. awtiken$ it« express UkeneM 


in another min< 
up together in 
mind, fed aIso ^ 
ble new light & 
ed into Action. 
can accumulate, ai 
session ; Literature, i 
of Bards, in Runen e 
in Boohs of written o 
and begins to play iti 
the weak submitting 

; obedience that he may 
rather, in honour of our nature, 
the wi«e ; for so it is in all evi 


, in a thousand other mind^ and all blaze 

::onibined fire ; reverberated from mind u 

ih fresh fuel in each, it acquires incalcula- 

Thought, incalculable new beat as contrert- 

By and by, a common store of Thought 

and be transmitted as an everlasting pos- 

■hether as preserved in the memory 

id Hierogly|)ha engraved on stone, or 

' printed paper, comes into existence, 

wondrous pari. Polities are forme>J ; 

'itling loyalty. 

ceive guidance : 

s ignorant suhroiuing to 

the rudest communiues, 

man never yields himself wholly lo brute Force, but always 

to moral Greatness ; thus the universal title of respect, frani 
? Orienlnl Shn'L, from the Sachem of the Red Indiana, 


>nJ all-embracing Life. 
■a doubly nnd livbly 
in us iKKlies ibtulf 

^^R Sniwjna iurul, ; &» it s 

wlxrejit aur fir«( iniliTidiml Lire bccc 
«li(r, ■□<) wlutirvcr iif InHniluttf! w 
(urtlkwid becomes visibto sn<l aciive. 

To figure Sociciy ns miJowi'd with life is gcarcily n meia- 

|iht)>r: bul intlier tiie flaltinciil ol' « foot by sucli imperfect 

aedwb u Uugnaj^ affuriLi. Lo»k nl it cb^iely, iliai myotic 

Htonon, NRtare'i highasl work witli man, wherein mnn's vuli- 

^^Ha plsy* an in<iia[wn»able yet m subonlinnle a part, and 

^^■B hdaII MechanicAl ^rnvrs m niypicrioii'ily and indismlubly 

I. Ill uf th<- infinite Dynamicul, like Body uut of Spirit, — i« 

<l,v t-iiou^b vital, what we can call vital, and bears the dis- 

^zui^lita^ chanuier of life. In ilit sjime style also, wc can 

" ilial S'jcieiy lia« itn ;>HriMli) of sickness and vigour, of 

uh, oianhood, dccrc[iiiiide. disMluiian and ni'w-biilh ; in 

>!!'' nr (iihrr of which stngfs we may, in all titni^.'S and all 

Vacu wkere ineu Iniiabit, disci;>rn ii ; and do ourHulves. in 

lb time and |>Un-, wltetber aa nriiperaling or as cunicnding, 

• knllky mcnibers or u» diseased one^ to our juy and 

'mvm. funn pan of it. Tbe quonliun, Wbal ia the actual 

r.mliliiiit of Soriely 1' haa in the^e days un)>np[)ily becnni*; 

iiitnriiiiit riiiiuj^V N" """^ ^f u* '» uni'oni'enieil iii lliat; bill for ihc miyoriiy of thinking men a triws an- 

■••T ifl it. aucb b the stale of matters, aii[>ear» almost as llie 

"'' ibing iie«<1ful. Ueauwhilc. wn the true answer, that ia to 

' I*, llw mmpleic and funtlamentnl answer and Belllemcnt, 

ti R- Ir liiu been demanded. U iiowhen^ forthcoming, and 

- <. 'is ill nature in im^Mi^ible, any honest approxiniaiion 

• ■'::. .ii.'b i* nut «'ilk>ut value. The feeblest light, or 

a more jireci^e r«eognitiun of the darknea^ 

k b ibc fini Mcp to aiiaimnmt of light, will be welcoinr. 

lpr>tuoil, lei it not serm idle if wc remark 

luo uur olil A[ihuri>ni buhU i that again in the 

ie, af> in thi* aoinml _t>i>dy, tbi'. i4gn of nght p<:i>- 

I irncumciouMuin. Sudi indiwd is virtually tbe 

( uTlIial v'"^**> "nriilicial slate of nociely,' as con- 



tra.'lcd witli the nntural stale, and indii.'ating sometliing so 
inferior to it. For, iii all vital tbing.s men disliiiguiab aB 
Arliliuial and a Naiurnl ; founding on some dim perception 
or semiment of the very truth we here iusist on : the artifi- 
cial is the eoDSciou!!, mechiitiicHl ; the natural i.i the uncon- 
9ciou«, dynamical. Thus, aa wo have an artificial Poetry, 
and prize only tlie naluml ; so likewise we have an artificial 
Morality, an )U-ti6cial WisiiiMa, an artifidnl Society. The 
iiriiiicinl Society is precisely one that knows iis own strac- 
iiirc, its own internal function:^ ; not in watching, not in 
knowing which, but in working outwardly to the rulfilmeot 
of its aim, does the wellbeing of a Society consist. Every 
Society, every Polity, has a spiritual principle ! is the em- _ 
bodiraent, tentative and more or less complete, of an "Idea ^ 
all its tendencies of endeavour, specialities of custom, iia 
laws, potilioi and whole procedure (as the gluncti of some 
Monle-'quieu, across innumerable superficial en tangle mentf^ 


t^jilly, liki: Putriutigm, of which it is u (oi'fu, 
«M wA pni^txl till it Iwd t>egun U) iludine ; (lie Prrux 
lAimiirra first became rightljr adinimble, whoa 'djrlng for 
iheir V'm^' boil oeoMil to lie u liabil with chevaliers. Fur it' 
tbr mi'Ltii!: Hi-;iiiltcati(ti of (ht^ >StHlt-. let this be whfll it laay, 
dvcUn riully in trvtiry hciin. cnuircles ivcry life ait with n 
»«CDi»l liigtirr lift!, huw »li(mlil it stnnil »*.-lf-t|uest)niiing ? It 
moat n>*fa oDimird, and expreM it8eli' hf woH(». Besidm, 
if jwriiw. il is there ns by nccewity, nnd does not excite 
inquiry : it u iil^o by nnlure iiiRnite, has no limits : ihere- 
CiKt: ran Im< «ircu inscribed by nu coudilioiiR and UefiniiiutiH i 
cinmi bo n-aHim-d gf ; except mtuieaUy, or in the langut^ 
'' Poetry, rniuiut yd au much lu be Bpukfn of. 

In iliote days, Society wa* irliat we name healthy, sound 
■ ; lirnn. Sot indict without suSrring enwigh ; not without 
i-TjilMtiiin, ditlit^uUr on evtry sidu : for such is the appoint- 
null a( man; hin highest and iwle blitssedneM is, ihut he 

iUO, ani know wlmi to toil nt : not in eiue. but in united vie* 
hrigatrhtiour, wWrh Li M uniw wil iiiid ihe viciorj over 
i^iinnfhU Fiw«dom lie. 7(ay. Aflen, lciokin°: no deeper 
dwi MMth «ipcrfi<-iiJ (lerplexitiea of llic early Time, histo- 
IMM hnvF iKught u!i that Ii woit oil one mow of coiitradic- 
lin mhI «)iM>a9t< ; and in the antititiii Republic, or feudiil 
it.qaivliy, lidTC scnn tmly thr eonfuiwd chaotic quarry, nut 
robiul bboarer. or the Ptitit-ly edifice he wa* building of 

t If 8an«iy. in pucIi age», had it* diillcnlty, it had also ii9 

^^^h||th ; if sorrowful mus^-s of r|ibbi»li to encumbered it, 

^^^MM|{b »iiit'M-s to hurl them aside, with indomitable heart, 

^^Hb KM wnntini;. Society went nlong without complaint ; 

^^•Jaul mlop to •crutini.-e itself, to imy, How well I perform, 

Mas, how ill ! Men did not yet fw-i themselves to be 

'i Miry of snrrounding nations:' and were enviable oti 

■ : vrry aeniuni. Society wuh what wo can call wkoh. in 

- I< (Mue* of ihn word. Tbo individiuit miin wna in liim- 

!' * wholr. or cumfilrie union: and c<iutd combine wiih 

'-M.-W. If tl"- living member of a greater whole. For 


alt men, through iheir life, were itniniaCed by one great 
Idea J thus all effbria pointed one way, everywhere there 
wai^ tnhoUnf*!. Opinion and Action had not yet become 
disunilijii ; hut the former could still produce the latter, 
or attempt to produce it ; as Ihe siamp does iis impression 
while the wax is not hardened. Thought, and the voice of 
thought were nl-^i a iiniran ; thu?. instead of Speculation, 
we had Poetry ; Literature, in its rude utterance, was as 3'et 
a heroic Song, perhaps too a devotional Anthem. Reli^n 
was everywhere ; Philosophy lay hid under il, peBccfnlly 
inchided in it. Herein, as in the life-centre of nil. lay Ihe 
true health and oneness. Only at a later era must Religion 
fplit itself into Philowphies ; and thereby, the Tilal union 
of Thought being.lost, disunion and mutual collision in all 
provinces of Speech and Action more and more prevaiL 
For if the Poet, or Priest, or by whatever title the inspired 
r may be named, is the sign of vigour and welllHiing; 



*« toay laj, tJiio(Hi»dou^nK>d bcluiigs to jmrc uumlxed life ; f^ 

C<]nMM>ustM>«s to a diMtased mixture anil coiidici of life and I 

•Icalh : LTnconsciuusnesa is the sign uf creatioti ; Conacioue«' 

utsB. at boL, tfuU of manufacture. Su (1m;[i, in this exist- 

rnpr of aut», id the significance of Mystery. Well might 

UiE Ancients make Silcnoe u god ; for it is the element of 

all iptdboial, infiniluilc, or IraikSceiidcnlnl groatiiess ; at once 

tlie (uurer nnU thu (Mxan wlierein all such begins and ends. 

la tlic Mine spium! too. have Pueb> sung ' Hymns to the 

Nixlti ; * a* if Night voK nobler than Day j as if Day were 

Imi a imuil iDiHU-y-coluurtMl veil spread transiently over ilie 

indniie borom uf N'igbt, and did but deform and bide from 

»• itj purvlr lran$|Mircnl, elemat deejis. So likewise have 

"ti"^ ((luketi and imiig aa if Silence were the grand e))itume 

irij nunplclc sum-loiAl of nil UaJtnony ; and Death, wbst 

I'l'iaU rmU Death, [>rup('rly the beginning of Life. Under 

jcli llgun-4, fince except in figures there is no speaking of 

iIk InTisible, bave men endeavoured to express n great 

IniAi — a Trutli. in our Timus. m nearly as is perhaps 

:, forgotten by ihc most ; wliich neveribe]e7« conlin- 

bfinever ■ru'% tiiruvcr a U-im [tartan t, and will one day, uu- 

V figures, U> agttin brought home lu ibe bosoms uf alL 

H intleed, in a far lower licnee, the rudest mind has still 

•a iif the greatness tliere b in Mystery. If 

V au made a pud of by the Aucienis, he still contin- 

a pa*«nimenl-clcfk among u» Moderns. To all quacks, 

r wliai jort s<iever, tlitt effect of Mystery is well 

i: Iwrv and there »ome Cagliogtru. even in latter day», 

It k> nutiUilc account : the blockhead also, who is ombi- 

■>o talent, finds sometimes in ' the talent of 

t kind of »ucc<rdaneum. Or again, looking on tlie 

? of the matter, do we nut ftx, in tlie cuinmon 

•ding of mankind, a certain distrust, a ct'i'inin con- 

• of wltai is allDgcibcr $tlt^nscious and mechanical ? 

: that is wholly seen through has other than a 

il dMradier ; #0 anytliing prof«s*ing to hv great, and yet 



wliollj lo 'tt llirougli ilself, is uli'paily known to be fiilse, iitxl 
n failure flie ptiI repute your 'thwu'etical men' aiaiiJ in. 
rlip acknowledged ineffieieney of 'paper conslitutions," and 
nil [li)U cla-"i of objects, are icsiancea of lhi9. Exjierience 
(ilien rtpested, and perhaps a certain instinct of something 
far lieeper that lies under such experiences, has taught men 
••o much 1 hey know beforehnnd, thai, the loud is ffenernlly 
tUr ni«ignifiranl, the empty. WhatiMiever can proclaim itself 
fmm the houite-topR may be lit for the hawker, and for tboae 
multitudes that must needs buy of him ; but for any deep«r 
u.e. might a* well continue unproetaimed. Observe loo, how 
the converse of the proposition holds ; how the inisigniljcant, 
the empty, h usually the loud ; and. after the manner of a 
drum, is loud even because of its emptiness. The uses of 
Bome Patent Dinner Calefncior can lie hruited ahmad over 
the whole world in the course of the first winter; those of 
the Prinling Press arc not ^o well seen into for the first three 


ttmte irf ■cir-it^nlirniw. wif-surrey ; llie precursor anil prog- 

Boak dT still «or>e health ? Thai lnliillei.-l du man-h. if 

paMMbl4< nt iloublr-quick lirai^. is sery desirable ; nevertho- 

leaa. why »buul(J she lurn round ai i-vi^ry siride. imd vry: 

St.-« you nhaC a »(riile I have taken ! tiucb a marching of 

InlcUciTl U ilisttnclly »f ihc^ sfiaviiieil kind ; what the Juukeyg 

crU '«11 at^tiuu Hiul no go.' Or at best, if wu exmnine wolL 

il w ihc mnrchiiig of ihat gouty P«iii-nt, whom his Doctor* 

had cUpt iin a melal flour arlilicially healed to the eearin« 

pc»n(, to thai Iw van obliged (o marcii, and did luaroh with a 

^■■ngpaniw — nnwhilhrr. InieJIecl did not awaken tor ibo 

lln>i lixnv ytMtcrday ; but has been uader way from Noah's 

KV«>i dowiinnrtlK ! grraily her best progress, moreover, was 

in ihe old limrs wh«n ahf. tnid noiliing about iL In those 

MSK! 'dark agrs.' Imellod (mftaphoricitlly as well as Uter- 

allf > wuld inicnt giass, whirh now she has enough ado lo 

pind rata tpeeiarltt. Inli?ll«'I built not only Churches, hut 

* (.'liurch, M« C'liureh, based on this Srni Kxrih, yet reauhing 

ufi, and loading up, as higli as {leaven ; and now it \a all sb« 

rait >lu io ketqt lis door« bolted, that there be no tearing of 

'iir Surplices, no robbery of the Alms-box. She buill a 

^'imtv-lmtbie likewise, glorious in its kind ; and now it cu^ls 

I'T I weUnigh tnonnl t-Sbrl to sweep it clear uf rermin, and 

pi the TDof made rain-tiglit. 

I Bm liie truth is. with luiellect, a-> with mo^l other thing:<. 

I wiara now (Musing from iliat Hrst or boastful »tage of Sdf- 

«>ilenee intu the oewnd or painful one : out of tlieite olWn- 

- ''Trivted dtcbntions iliat ' our system i;' in high urdttr.' 

< nane now, by natural se()uenc4-, to llie mehinclioly ron- 

-■■■i»« iliat il is ahogeiher the rmersi^. Thus, for iiistanre, 

" iIm! mattrr of Government, the p«riod of the ' Invaluable 

'-niiiliition' munt be followed hy n Reform Bill: lo Inuda- 

'■7 I>e Lohiit's succaed objurgatory Beiithan)'. At any 

f , what Trriiiises on the Social Oiuirart, on the Elective 

PmefaiH^ the Bights of Man, the Rights of ProiHTty, Codi- 

fcatiuai, iiMilutions, Constitutions, have we not, for loi^ 



Or again, with h wider 
. Man, ThougliU od Man, Inqniriefl 

yeai-s, groaned under ! 
piider those Essays o 

concerning Man ; not to metilion Evidences of the Christian 
Fuilh, Theories of Poetry, Confide rations on the Origin of 
Evil, which during the last century have accumulalvd on us 
1(1 a frightful extent. Never since the beginning of Time was 
there, that we hear or read of, so intensely eeltKxmscious n So- 
ciety. Our whole relations to the Universe nnd to our fellow- 
man have become ait Inquiry, a Doubt ; nothing will go on 
of its own accord, and do h» function <(uietly ; but all things 
must be pi'obed into, the whole working oi' tniin'a world he 
BimiomicBlly studied. Alas, anaiomieallj studied, that it 
may be medieally aided I Till at length indeed, wc have 
come to such a pass, ihut <;xcept in this same medicine, wiili 
its artifices and appMuneeiii, few can so much as imagine any 
strength or hope to remain for us. The whole Life of Soci- 
jst now be carried on by drugs : iloctor after doctor 



bi^iilt- our |nir|K)S4! to inaiat hei%. Tlie»e are di^eiises 

Iw wild runs uwy ri-nd ; and sorrow over, with or 

It liQpr. Wt-nlih )i«" HccmQiilaled iUelf into mas-ie)) | 

Poverty, also in nccoiDulutiun enough, lien impas^iiibly 

[«1 from it ; oppofi^l, unrammunioiLirig, like forces io 

If Mild nrgttlivo jmlo. Tho gads of Ihiit lower world 

glitltiring ihroni:'!', Ii^sa hnppy than Kpicunis'g 

indolent, tut impotent ; whik the boundless liWng 

uf IgnonincK and Hunger welters trrrific, in ita dark 

', utid^r their feeL How mueli among us might be 

wliiti'il SLiHilchre ; outwardly all pomp and 

inwurdly full ul' horror nnd despair nnd d«'fld- 

boaes! Iron M^hwnvi, with their wains Hrewinged, 

■11 e»d« ot' the finn Laud ; qunys and moles, 

Juouitierable ^lately fl«>«t6, lame tlio Oeeaii into 

,rtT of bunlifna ; Liibour'it tliuusand iirms, of 

'«f metal, all-<oui|U(iring erorywhere, from the Io[ib 

'ttit> mmmuin down m ihe depths of tlio mine nnd the eav- 

rtii at the SUM, jiljr unweoriedly for the »erviee of man : yet 

^11 rvoMiiM uiuvrved. He has «ubdaed this Planet, his 

-^''iuuion Mid inlii-ritniiiw i yet reaps no profit from the vie- 

••^. Sad lu look upon: in the highest fitage of oivilixaiion,~^ 

r'-tmih^ of mankind must struggle in tlie lowest battle / 

..r e*en animal iiiiui. ibe battle against Kitiuine. < 

II-..' rich, prosperous in all manner of incPeaw, he- 

.:i.|iU': but the Men of ibu.'ie oounlries are poor, 

ri ••vvr of all auiilenanre oulward and inward ; of 

' Kiuiwlfwlge, of Money, of Food. The rule, Sie 

'i», ni^vpr allogclher to be got rid of in men's In- 

lA )ire«MM with sueh incubii* weight, that Industry 

ili*k« it off, or iiltrrty br strangleil under it ; and. ahts, 

nt bat gasp and rare, and nindetisly elruggle, like one 

fliial d»lirailun. Thii* Change., or tho ineviinhlo ap- 

of Changf, is mwiifrtrt evcrywiiere. In one Country 

V •evn havn-turreiils of f>!V«r-frrnEy envelop all things ; 

■■M'lit HiDcnnl Government, like lh« pbantasma of a 



dying brain. In another Counlry, we can even now see, in 
mnddest aJlerniitiou, tlie PeaaanC governed by such guiiliuiw 
Hi this : To labour earneDtly one monlh in mining wheal, and 
the nest raonlh labour eome^tiy in burning ii. So ibai So- 
ciety, were it not by nRture imniorltil, nnd its death ever a 
new-birth, might appear, as il does in llie eyes of some, lo 
be sick to dissolution, and even now wrilhing in its last 
agony. Sick enough we must admit it to be, with ilisea^ 
enough, a whole nosology of diacaws ; wherein he ]>erha[w 
in ha|i|)iesl that ia not culled lo prescribe aa physician; — 
wherein, however, one small piece of policy, that of sum- 
muuing the Wisest in the Com m on weal I h, by the sole method 
yet known or thought of, to come together and with their 
whole soul consult for it, might, but for late tedious experi- 
ences, have seemed unquestionable enougL 

Hut leaving this, let us rather look within, into the Spirit* 
lal eundilion of Society, iind see wtiut aspects and prospects 



rrbea and their estolilKhmenU we here ^iay nothing ; 

Bor of the nnha|>[>j' ilomaiiu of Unhelief, aad how iniiumer- 

kbl« mm, blinded in their mind::, must ' live without Qud in 

iW world : * but, billing the riiitv^t side of the mntler, we ask, 

Whu H tlw imliire of that Mtme Religion, which !<iill lingeffi 

in (he hfiirta of the few who are cnlli'd, nnd call themeelvM, 

ipBoaUv the Rvl^oua? li it n henltliy religion, vital, un- 

Hiiefama of itiieir; that ithinee fotth »|>oiilaneougly in doing 

«f the Work, or «v«n in prenching of iHk Word ? Unhnp- 

pilj, BOk Jnttead of Iteroiu raurlyr Condui't, and inspired 

ud (oaMnspiring Eloquence, whereby Religion itself wen? 

bruugfal bome lo our living Imkoids, tu live and reign there, 

«« htxt> ' Dioeoiirve.* on the Evidences,' endeavouring, with 

Madlert rv*ult, lo make it protmble that such a thing its Re- 

iptm vxbtft. Tlie niuiit enlha»iaxlic Evangel inilf do not 

pradi A titwpt-l, but keep describing how it should and 

sadii iiE prmched : to awaken the sacred fire of fnith, aa 

' itncred coniagiun, » uoi their endeavour; but, at most. 

:i™mb»! how Faith chowa nnd acts, and scieniilically dis- 

Mi^tiish true Pailh fn>ni fuliie. Religion, like all else, b -' 

"in>nniu of ilwlf, liflens to ii»elf; it tiecomes Ie<3 nnd less 

!''3iive. vital 1 morv and more mechiinical. Considered as 

■ "hole. Ihe Cliri^UiHn Rel!gio[|, of lute ages has been con- 

iillj i!i»i)iBting itaelf into Metapliynrs ; and threatens 

' I ' li-a|ipear, ua Mme riwrs do, in dvserlii of barren 

* ■< Lilrramre, and its deep-seated, wide-^prend tnaladieii, 
' -J *pvaL ? Literature i* biii a branch of Iteligion, and 
■ ii?f participate* in ita character: however, in our time, 
'■ u ihc ontr branch that still shows any greeniieiis ; and, a« 
■rw diicik. mu!it one day beeome the main stem. Now, 
luRfrnm the suhterraiiean and tttrtnrean regions of Liler- 
«^: — latviDg out of view the frigtitful, »caiiilalous j'lalift* 
-• </ Pulflngt tlic myUery of Slander, Falsehood, Hatred 
:'") oUicr ooavulxiiHi'Work of rabid ImbceiUly, and all that 
' 1 rcndervd Llteratiire on lliat side a perfect ' Babylon the 


I of Aboiuiiuilions,' in very deed raukiiig the uorM 

ivilli llie wine of her iniquity ; — tiirgetling all this, 

I loolc oiilj (o tlie regions of the upper air ; lo iiiii:h 

I be said to liave some nttcmpt towards 

lone of niusir^ and if it be not poetical, lo 

[uf llie poeliiml. Among oilier cbiknicterislics, is not 

[lifest enough : that it knows itself? Sj>onliiucoua 

leHs lo the object, being wholly pos»eMi!d by ilic 

what we can cnll Tn<pinition, has wellnigb ceiui^ 

ur in Lileraiure. Which melodious Singer forgeU 

[ he ia singing melodiously? We have not the love of 

aiiiess, but lite love of ihe love of greatness, llcncu 

iiile Alfuciulions, Dt«lraclions ; in every case inevitable 

-or. Con.-ider, for one example, this |iecul!arity of Mod* 

ilemlure, ihe sin that has been named View-hunting. 

r elder wiiiers, there rn-e no [laintings of scenery for 

n ^ake; no euphuislic gallantries with Nature, but m 

it dwelling in comaiuniua 


X«_r. M not the ili^tnM^ self-conscious slale of Literature 

iurhnx^ in this one facl, which \ie^ »o near us here, the 

pn^uU-nn; nT Revit-wing I SlKrne*s wi»h for a lender * llml 

*w«altl ^ive up ihe reins uf his iinftgiiintion into his aullior's 

'huidiS wnl be plcH(«»i he knew not wliy. and cared not 

' wherHon-.' migiit lead him n long journey now. Indeed, 

tir oar b»*l cIrss of readerti, the chief pleasure, a very siinl- 

•4 one. u (bin »itnc knowing of tlir Wliy ; which many 

■ RuBm and BiMfa had been, iiieffectuully enough, endi-av- 

•Drin^ tn tench ns : till at la«t these also have laid down 

tWir tnH* ; and now your Reviewer U a mere Ituttr : who 

lMW«, Mid Ntye, by the evidence of such palaie, »ucli tongue, 

M hr h«s gni, It is good. It is bad. \Va* it thus tlii^l the 

Prnirh carried out certain inferior creatures on their Al^ 

rioe Expedition, to Inslc the well» fur them, and try whcllier 

tVy were jMii^onei) ? Pur lie it from us lo disparuge our 

ep*n <nift, whereby we have our living! Only wo muHt 

' 1" ihew thi(igt) : that Reviewing spreads with strange vtg- 

ir: that such a man u Byron reckons (he Reviewer and 

■ Port H|ual J that at the last Leipzig Fair, there was ad- 

■'nited B Review irf" Reviews. By and by it will be foiand 

'>! ill Lilpraluro lias become one boundless self-devouring 

-I'liew) and ne in Ixindon routs, we have to do notliing, 

■-S only lo we others do nothing. — TIma does Literature 

'l-\ like a wck thing, cupertibundnnily 'listen to itnelf 

No Ini vi this unheulthy r^ymptom maniftal, if we cast a 

- •■'! our I'hilusophy, on the character of our specula' 

1 liTikln^. Nay nlready, ns nbnve hinted, the mere es- 

■ ■ ;u»! neceaMiy of a Philosophy is an evil, Man is 

^^MU linltcr not to qucMion, but to work ; ' the end of man,* 

^^Baw long ago writlrn, ' is on Action, not a ThoughL' In 

^^^■yerfe«t slate, all Thought were bul iho picture and in- 

BHMpr symbol uf Action ; Philosophy, eicepi as Poetry 

' "^ Bdi^on, would have nu being. And yei how, in this 

;-^4cct »ttU«, can it be avoided, can it be dit^pensed with f 

'1 in Mamb u* in the centre of Nature ; his fraction of Tinia 



encircled hy Etemitir, Iiis hund bread tli of S)iHce endrcled by 
Infinitude : how eliall he (brbear asking himself, What am 
I ; and Whence ; and Whitlitr ? How too, except in slight 
partial hints, in kind aaseTerations and a^suroncei). iiueh aa K 
mother quiets her fireifuliy inquisitive child wiih, shall he get 
answer to such inquiries ? 
^ , The dii^ease of ]tl eta physics, accordingly, is a perennial 
one. In all ages, those questions of Death and Immortality, 
Origin of Evil, Freedom and Necessity, must, under new 
formrj, anew make their appenrance; ever, from time to time, 
must the attempt lo shnjie for ourselves some Theorem of 
the Universe be repeated. And ever unsuccessfully : for 
what Theorem of the Infinite can the Finite render com- 
plete ? We, (lie whole species of Mankind, and our whole 
: and history, are but a floating speck in the illim- 
;c-ari of the All } yet in that ocean ; indissoluble por- 
reof; partaking of its infinite tendencies: borne ibis 


Cun-'IruiTfivL- Metupli^vMU 1 ivlicn tlii; d)!))^ coDSlruclivd^ 

«>.I.-ai"nr5 lo scheme wuc. and aa-wit Ibr ilaclf sn actual 

Tlir,irT-ni of ihu Univnvc, Bud iherewith for a lime rest* 

tiri-iieiL T)i« fcecuud or eidc elngo might be called cIihI of 

- ;<ti,-,il or InqiiiNlot7 Mcta(iliygic«; wlitsn ihe mitid liuviiig 

I'd iL< .4|ihcr« of vitioa, the exUling Theorem of the 

»-THi.- tio longer answew the plienDmcnn, no longer yields 

(rntmcni j but must be torn in pieces and certainty anew 

jlu lor in ibe fndle»>s rvulma of denial. All Theologies 

1 -scTvl Co4DM)»u»ie8 b«long. in some nutasurc, to tlie first 

'I :! I'yrrhoni'tTn, from Fyn'ho down tn Hume and the 

' I ' diMTijilce i>f Ilami% we have instances enougli of 

In the former. n> far aa it aflutds !«ii«fnction, a 

"^,-'<.i. • innljiie lo doiibl, an arena for wholewme action, 

itofr may (w niueh good ; indued iu this case, it hold* rather 

••I I'lrtr^' iluut of Mcla|ihy>ics mii;ht be called Inspiration 

>>ilici ttinn S|Hr<<iilnlion. The latter is Melapliy$i<M proper; 

- iiarti. uHinixed. tlH>ugh from time to lime a neces^ry evil. 

Kor truly, if we look into it, tlierc i» no more fruitier 

I tlii!> «nmv, which the Metaphysician proper 

IU L-duce Convidiun out of Negation. Mow, by <■ 

inrting and rej««ting what is nol, shall we ever attain ) 

what is ? Metaphyiiical Speenlulion, as it he- ' 

c-at in Ko or Notbinifiieiwi, so it mii!>i neetlv) end in Nolhing- 

■i; drcolaies and must circulate in eiidle^ vortices: urea- 

'-'-•f, twaDowiog — iuelf. Our being is made up of Light 

t'-i thrkni^A/s the Light reeling on the Darkness, and baJ- 

I'Tinj il ; crerywbi-rc there i« Dtialiani, E<pit[Kiise : a per- 

-^lad Contradietion dwells in us: "where shall I plae« 

i.virf la ftvcapn from my own shadow ? " Consider it well. 

ifc m >hy»ic» is the attempt of the mind to rise above ibu 

fi environ, and shut in, or as we wiy. eompreA^nii ihu 

Hopeless stru^le. for the wise^il. as for the ttxil> 

^; What strength of sinew, or athletic skill, will enable 

Mouie-i athlete lo fold lii-i own IhkIv in hii nrms, atid. by 

:t>f. m up himtttfl The Irish Saint swam the Channel 




'carrying hU hetid in liis teeth;* but llie Teal lins never 
but^n imitaled. 

Thnt this is (lie age of Metnpliysics, in the proper, or 
sceptical Inquisilory sense ; that there was a neeessity for its 
' being fiich an age, we regnrd as our indubiluble misfortune. 
From many causes, ihe arena of free ActJTity has long been 
narrowing, that of scepticiil Inquiry becoming more and 
more universal, more and more perplexing. The Thought 
conducbs not to the Deed; but in boundless chaos, self- 
di'vouring, engenders monstrosiities, fanlasms, fire-brealliing 
chimeras. Profitable Speculation were this : What is to be 
dune ; and How is it to bn done ? But with us not !>o mncb 
ai4 the What can be got si^ht of. For somi; generation^ all 
Philosophy has been n painful, oiptiuun, hostil'? question 
towards everything in the Heaven iibove, and in llVe F-arth 
beneath : Why art thou lliere ? Till at length it has come 
i that the worth and aulhcniii'ily of all things seen)> 


kvhoiild run winr, nnrf the irees bciiil wiih rcaily-bakeii 
; Iiut tl wm H ilivitni inerflv ; on impos^ilile dream. 
1^. ntnirailiciion, urrar, have thfir qiiiie pRreanial, 
ea inilbpcn«able nbodc in thU £«rlli. Is not labour' 
Am ntbnritsncc of man ? And wliat labour for ihe present | 
t* jnvniM, ami not griornus ? Laliour, (^tForl, is the 
ttfTnption of that ease, wliii;)i nmn foolishly enough Ancles 
^n|^ tit* bn]ipincj« : xnd yet witlioul Ixbour llicre were n 
^^pW, no mu M much » conmvable. Tlius Evil, what w 
IJSl Evil, mnat ever exist while man exists : Evil, in tli 
viiteM MfiiM we ran give it, t» precisely Uie darfe, disordered 
nmlvrid out of which man's Freewill has to create wi edifiw 
«f onk-r Anal Good. Ever must Pain ur>re us to Labour : 
^.n'! only in fn^ Effort can any blessedness Iw imagined' 

Hat if I 

. fa&sin All i 

. bad • 

jgh to ( 
t-iliHHJ ngi». been an inward foreu vnucb- 
-'inl Un, whereby the {ireesure of tilings uulward might be 
•olMUod. Ob^nietion abounded ; but Faith al«o was not 
•wiling. Il in by Fnith tliat tnan removes mountains; 
vinle ba hMl Faiili, liis limbs might be wcAried with toiling^ '. 
Mibacit gnlled with bearing; but the heart within him was | 
lanabl* uxl r<-*olvt<d. In the thiekeat gloom there, burnt,' 
h imp to guide him. If be siniggleil and suffered, he felt 
''ui il oTcn should be m>; hnew for what he was Huffering 
lid ttrngglin^. Fnilh gave him en inward Willin<;nes$ ; n. 
*'>iU o( }^ln■ll;.'1ll wlierewith to front a world of DilTieulty, 
Hic mie wrrieliedn><ss lie^ here : that the Difficulty remain 
n>i Ar Sut-nffb Iw ]t»l ; llint rata cannot relieve it^lf in 
'r-T F,(kiH I that we have the Labour, and want the Willing- 
■'•fc Fnilh strenglhenft as enlightens us for all endeavours 
jrxl mduniDcm ; with Faitli we can do all. and dare all, 
.■A hfrr itself hon a IhouMUid times )>cen joyfully given away, 
iiri die *Hm of man'f miwry i« even this, that he le*.'! him- 
- / CTwdind nnilor the Juggr-maul wheeU, and know that 
4 bi no divinity, but a dead moehanical idol. 



Now this is .Epeniiilly ihc? misery which has fallen on man 
in our Era, Belief, Failh has well-nigh vanished from iha 
world. The youlh on aivakening in this wondroiiti Universe, 
no longer finds a compelent Iheory of ii^ wonders. Time 
was when if he nslct^d himself, What is mitn, Whnt ere the 
duties of man F the answer stood ready written fur him. 
But now (he aneieni 'ground-plan of the All' beliea itself 
when hroughi into contact with reality ; Mother Chiireh ha^ 
to ihc roost, become a superannuated Slep-niother, who% 
lesaon' go disregarded : or are spumed at, and Bcornfully 
gainsaid. For Young Valour and thirst of ActioD no ideal 
Cliivalry invites to heroism, prescribes what is heroic: the 
old ideal of Manhood lin.4 grown obsoleti', and the new is still 
invisible to us, and we grope afler it in darkness, one clutch- 
ing this phantom, another thai ; Werterisra, Byronbm, even 
Bniinraeli'=m. each has its day. For ContemplaUon and love 
r Wi-idnni, no Cloister now opi?n* its religious sha<ips ; the 


^HM>oI<s ('■ni IdIo a rvbvl. Ili^rolc Action h pnralyi^ed ; 

^BbwbM woith now rfiinnins unqueMioiiabk' witli him? At - 

BKt fcrriil prriod wli^n his wholct nature cries alouJ for 

^ ikrtiaiL, ihcrt" !• nothing nacrrd under whose biiiiner he can 

Dct; ibf* MKirsc and kind nnd conditions of free Action are 

nil hot ondi'K.'ov^rahlv. Ihmbl slorms-in on him llirougli 

-iPTT MTaiue ; JiKjiiirre^ of thi; dee[>est, painfullest £ort must 

■•ngagwl with ; and the ittvincible energy of youug jeare 

I'lr tUElf in HvepiiaHl, sttieidol cavillings; in pus^ionaie 

lii'-'tiooiogs of Desliny,' whtrclo no answer will be relumed. 

y It Dii-n, in whom iht old pL-rrnnial principle of Hunger 

- it lluagiT of thi- [loor Day-JruUge who stills it with 

- iL'l'lf^iipf-ncc a-ilny, or nf the smbitious Placehiinter wiio 

nemisf. «iitl h wiih »u Ulllt^) suffices to fill up existence, 

CMP 16 bad ; hill no( ihc wont. These men have itn aim, 

h B« h b : and ran sleer towards il, with chagrin enough 

>%; Jet. as their hand<i are kept full, without de-speration. 

t'nbapfiirr are thi^j' tn whom n higher instinct Im^ licen 

pira : who Ktruggk to he |>erwn3. not machines ; to whom 

iW ftiivtrM' M not n warehouse, or at best a fancy-bazaar, 

t«l a ttijttie temple and ball of doom. For i'uch men there 

fc prop«fHy two cour^PB open. The loner, yet still an esti- 

naUr rlaiw, taki? up with wnrn-out SymlioU of the Godlike ; 

•.•'fi triminhig ami inii-kiug heiwei'ii tliesi- and Hypocrisy, 

■ -filiwHy ennngh, rai^erably i-nnijgh. A nuiueroue inler- 

■nlaip c-Jav eiid in IX-ntal : and form a theory that there 

ft tfamry t that nothing is certain in the world, except 

I bet of Plrti^arc iKrtng pleasant ; r) ihey try to realise 

J mo«)icum of Pleasure they can come at. and to 

icMient^l ihrnwiih, winking hard. Of these we i^cuk 

^rn> ; lial only of the acmnd n(>I)l*^r cla>a, who also have 

Id Miy Nou and cannot yet «ay Tea : hut feel that in 

» (hey dwell a* in a Golgoihn, where life enlL'ra not, 

• b not ap|>olut«d ihcm. llard. for most part, i* 

e at surli men ; the harder the nobler they are. In 

p, wreatlea wilhin them tli« ' Divine I 



llip World,' yet will nowhere visibly reveal ilaelf. They 
have to realise a Worship for theniKelveiS, or live unworship- 
piri;^. The Godlike has vanished from ihc world ; and ihej, 
hy ilie strong cry of thuir soul's agony, like true wonder- 
wurkers, must again evoke its presence. This miracle is 
thu'ir apfiointed task; which they must accomplish, or die 
wretchedly: this miracle haa been accomplished by such; 
but not in our iiind ; our land yet knows not of it. Behold 
u UyroD, in melodious tones, ' cursing his day :' he mistakes 
e^iribborn passionate Desire for heaven-inspired Freewill ; 
ti'kbout heavenly loadstar, rushes madly into the dunce of 
meieoric lights thai hover on the mad Mahlatrom ; and goes 
dfivn among its eddies. Hear a Shelley Hlliug the earth 
wiili inariieulate wall; like the iiiRnite, inarticulate grief and 
ivetping of forsaken infanU. A noble Friedrich Schlegel. 
Biupetied in that fearful loneliaes.^ as of a silenced baUle- 
field, flies back to Catholicism ; as a child might to iLi dain 



t twdfUi hour of tho Niglii : birds of darknei>a are on llie 

•pitdrta ujinmr, llic dvail wnitt, the living dream. — 

I, Eivraal Fravi(li:iii.-ts wilt anise the day to dawn I ' * 

) bring tliu condition, ti'mporal and Rpititual, of itie 

r Epoc'li, can wc woiidtr Ihut the world * listi-na 

■ ll»rir,* Mid blruggles and writbes, everywhere externally 

^intcnuUly, likf a thing in jiain ? Nay, is not even this 

y action uf the world's Orgitni^aiiun, if the Aymjilom 

1 diwsiiM. yet hIm the ^yni|j[c»n nnd eole means 

1 cure ? The eflbrt of Nature, exerting 

iliv« furw to cttit out foreign impediments, and 

> become One, become whole ? In Practice, still 

Buww in Opinion, whicli h the prerLirrar nnd prototype of 

P-xtiaf, there tnuM need* b« collision, convulsion ; much 

-• in Iht ground away. Thuiighi iuu<i needs be I>oubt and 

' r jijiiy, before it cnn Bgiiin be Aflirtnnlion nnd Siiered Pi^e- 

.':. Iriiiiunemble * Philusophiefi uf Mho.' contending in 

■!!i.i liohbub, must annihilate each other, before an 

r I I'lie^y luid Faith for Man can fashion itself to- 

Fnan (tiia ttnnning hubliuh, n true Babylonish confusion 

J lonpaes, we Imve here selected two Voices ; less as ob- 

fomf praUe or condemnation, ihnn as signs how far the 

tMfcuon h»« reM-hnl, wlmt prosjiect there is of its abaiiiig. 

Friirfrich Schlegel's Lretitrti. delivered at Dre-iden, and Mr. 

Hc>;r't Bttag, published in London, are tbc latest ulteninueii 

Kun>|N:«n Sjieenlation : far asunder in exienial place, 

-t tUod at a Mill wider di^Ianoi in inward purport ; arc, 

.rtl. ^ opposite nnd yet so ct^nute that they may, in 

<-, represent the two Extremes of our whole 

:< rn of Tltoiight ; nnil be said to include between 

i ir:.- Metaphysieul Philosophies, Mi often alluded tti 

■ . wliidi, of tale times, from Fnince, Germany, EngUuid, 

i^ragiuuod luid nlmost overwhelmed ux. Both in regard 

> Jnn pBurt Uaptrut. VorredB. 


to matter and to form, the rektion of thtae two Works b 
eignificnnt enough. 

Speaking first of their cognate qualitic;, let us rt»nark, 
not without emotion, one quite cxtraaeoiis point of agree- 
ment ; the fact that the Writers of both liave departed from 
this world ; they have now finished their searcli, and had all 
doubts rusolved : while we listen to the voice, the tongiie 
that uttered it has gone silent forever. But the funda- 
mental, all-pervading similarity lies in this cii'cumslaiiee, 
well wortiiy of being noted, that both these Philosophers are 
of the Dogmalii: or Constructive sort : each in its way is a 
kind of GenSiiii^ ; an endeavour lo bring the Fhenomeua of 
man's UniTerae once more under some theoretic Schem« ! 
in both there is a decided principle of unity ; they strive 
after a result which shall be positive ; their aim is not lo 
question, hut to establish. This, e^peeialty if we consider 
with what comprehensive conc/'Uli'aled foi/ie it is here ex- 


Rehle^l hU Plitlusopliiir Sppr'ch L« 
exuLi. tike & proDi|)ily niinUitring gciuuj< ; lii« 
I M rkar, io prL-cise nnd vivid, llint ilicy almcMt 
• (ilii)gi-ihpr) become things for liini: wiili Hope 
no riiilot«phin)l Sperch : but h iiainfiil, conrused 
iggiing after uuuh i or llm tuitgue. as in 
ittith rurp-tfulne^, niuunders lour, long- winded, ami apeak? 
^^M llio wgfd inli^mlnl, but unothrr ; to thni here tlie scitrcKlj' 
^^B|UigiMe, in^ eotUuss convnlutions, bcMiniM ihe wholly 
H^nailiihli- 1 and ofti'n wc could n«k< fi^ that mad pupil did 
"flf hU tiiior tn PliilfMOpliy. " But whi^Ilic-r is ^'irluc n fluid. 
...i. -ir » gi».f" If the fiiirl, ibal Stliti-gel. in the clly of 
!>ivu1i-n. muld find aiidicniv for such hi^b diirour^e, niA}' 
y.nit- iiur riivr; ibis olbi^r fui'l. tlinl ii perKin of s1ron|> 
i-wcn, •killed in EnizlUh Thought nnd master of iu Diit- 
!■ ■■!, unild write ibu Orif/in antt Pmtpeef* of Man, may 
I'lliifolly rroiind u« of ihc rcprnach, that Knglitnd hna now 
Tin laii^uuge for M'.'ditaiiuti: ibul England, ibo nioiit calcula- 
tion b ihr kaM. mcdiiaiiTB, of nil ciTiliscil coiimrirs, 
li b luit our purpose Io offer any criiii-ism of Scbleget's 
wore poiwibli? here, we ohonld dc- 
vf comniuuimiing even tl>e taiote^l iiiuigi; of its signiG- 
To the Riius of refulera, indcod, both among the 
tttKtnitel^ei, and *liU more elsewberr-, it nowise 
itfrlf, and may lie forever scjilcd. We point it out 
mnnrkttblo dixniinent <>f the Time and of eIiu Man ; 
msHtuoend il. inopeoier, to all earnest Tliiiikpw, as a 
(Mrring their Iwst n^rd ; a work full of deep roedi- 
wlwrelii the iufluile mystery of Life, if not rcpn^ 
h docJHivcly recognised. Of Schlcgel himself, nnd 
wid «piriiunl lii«tory, wc eiin profess no thor- 
«i[Eb or Aiml umliTstanding ; yet enough Io make us view 
Ub wilb ndnurutiiin nnd pity, nowise with hur«h conleinplu- 
•wiWMHro; and must say, with clearesl |wnua)'ion, llial the 
tuttrj rf 111* tieiiig 'a rrtnegiule,* and mi forth, h bui likp 
a judgrnenl where there wn» neither 



jury, nor evidence, nor judge. The candid render, in thb 
Book itself, to siij nothing of all the re^^L, will And traces of 
II high, far-seeing, enmest spirit, to whom ' Austrian Pen- 
sions,' Hnd the Kai^r's crown, and Austria altogether, were 
but a light inaltui' lo the finding and vilally appropriating of 
Truth. Let u» respect the sacred mystery of a Person ; 
vmh not irreverently into mnn'^j Holy of Holies I Were ihe 
lost little one, a* we said already, found ' sucking its dead 
mother, on the field of cam^e,' conid it be other than a 
spectacle for tears ? A ^emn mournful feeling comes over 
us when we see thta last Work of Friedrieh Schlegel, the 
unwearied seeker, end abruptly in the middle ; and, as if he 
had Hol yet found, as if emblematically of much, end with 
an 'Aber — ,' with n ' But — !' This was the last word thai 
came I'rom the Pen of Friedrich Schlegel : about eleven at 
night he wrote it down, and there paused sick ; ai one in the 
ing. Time for him had merged, itself in Eternity ; he 



of tmuMul tliioking jnwer, i» M lo fushitin tliem. in liii 
^'4^w'- auil in bin wurlij : nil Uiose thrown into llio crucible, 
■ml if n»t fu^eil, jpl mlJen-il or cungluiinnted with bouniiless 
pabeticc ; ani] naw tumblci) out hprf. Iieterogeneoue^ umor* 
fkom. ttnijieakable, a worlds wunder. Most melancholy 
nmu in nunc the wliolr l>UEim-«i ; full of long-mnlinuud 
ibmt^l, •uniMtii'^iu. Inftiiiuf of luind ; not without glancca 

■mo the Dofp^ul, a constant fearleHH endt-RTOur after truth ; 

■ad iriifa nil iliU nothing nconmpliahcd, but the pu-haps 

'''-urtlril Bouk frritlMi in our iwnturj' by a thinking ninn. 

': •tuiDpfiil Abortion s wliich, however, need not now be 
MitliFrvd or mtingW, for it la atreiul/ dead; onl;r, in our 
IT aail sorrowing reveTKntre for the writer of Anasftiniut, 

toA the htrroic seeker of Light, though not bringer iIhtl-oT, 

ki it be InirtRfl And forgotten. 

For oarrrlrni, thr lond discord which jara iu these two 
Vttki, in iiiMUnifnihle works of the like iInpo^^ and gen- 
nU; in all thv Tliooghl and Action of this period, docs not 
nj longer utlrrij confusn n^. Unhapjiy who, in such ft 
im, fell not, at all conjunctures, toeradicably in his heart 
iW knowledge timt n (iod tnade this Uiiivctse, and a D«raoa 
lU '■ And •hall Evil alwujj ])rtH|>er, then ? Out of all 1^ 
K>tl rome* Good ; and no Good ihat is possible but slinll one 
'^j be nml. Deep and sad as is our feeling ihiU we stand 
'" ia tlie bodeftil Night; Gi|uully deep, indestructible i* our 
MoraiKcr that the Morning also will not fail. Nay alruaily, 

a •* Innk rwtnd, firenka of a. dnyspring are in the east ; it 

ii dawning: when the time shall be fuelled. It will be day. 

TV prognvii of man townrd? higher and nobler develop- 
- M <if wltateTer in highest and noblest in him, lies not 
■U praplmicd to Faith, but now writien to the eye of 
'.'TivrNlion, no that he who runs may reud. 
l>negmit step of progress, for example, we should ^ay, 
.trOMil drcumttnaees, was thi« sapie : the clear aseerialn- 

.-nt Cbai we are Id progress. Ab«nil the grand Coune 



of Frovidence, nnd his final Purpo^iuit with us, we u&ii knoir 
iiolliiiig, or almost nothing : man begins in darkness, enJs in 
diirknius; tayiiery ia cverywliei'e around us and in us, un- 
drT our feet, among our hands. Nererihele^ 90 mucli has 
become evident to every one, that Uiis wondrous Mankind is 
Diivuncing Eomewhittier ; that at least all human things are, 
have been and forever ivill be, in Movement and Change ; 
— US, indeed, for beings that exist in Time, by virtue c^ 
Time, and are made of Time, might have been long since 
understood. In some provinces, it is true, as in Esperi- 
luental Science, tliis discovery ia an old one ; but in most 
otiiers it belongs wliolly to these latter days. How often, in 
former agea, by eternal Creeds, eternal Forme of Govern- 
ment and the like, haB il been attempted, fiercely enough, 
and with destructive violence, to chain the Future under 
the Post; and say to ihc Providence, whose ways with man 
fsterious, and through the great deep : Hitherto sbalt 


I, Tyminy 
e Guv«nuu(nil, 


Jiy, and F.'udalUm lo R«p- 
wliere uUu [lie procvM iloe^ uot 

|ili-tcnc^d of Opin-'k 
cj ; Trotli, ill the ' 
never u, always it 

PcrfveiioD of Fractii 
I nlwayi approaching, HL-viir nrr 
wonli ur Scbilkr, immer wird, hU itC 

Sail, iruly, were our con<tittun did we know but tbb, tbut 

Cbang« 14 anivL>rHl and inevilablo. Lauiicbcd iitio a dark 

ilMrclvM sea of Pyrrhanistn, whttt would remain fur us but 

U> sail aiffilcM, liupelea^ i or make madly raurry, wliile lli« 

iiexaunng XVatb bad nol yei engutfed ua ? As indeed, wo 

hatv Mmi many, and still see nuwy do. NeverUiele^a M 

>and« it not, 'Dit: venerator of liie Fiut (acid to wbai 

['<in^ bmrt i» liie 1'a*t, in lliul ' inuonlighi of muttiory,' oilier 

iMi Mii auti buty ?) surruw^ nut tiver ita departure, as one 

ii'-'riy bcrmved. Tbe Iruo Past departs not, notliing ihaO' 

k ii w£inhy in ibu Past dejiurts i no Truth or Goodness . 

'-ilienl by mau cvlt diea. or can die j but is all still here, 

irrj. rvco|:ni»cc) or nol, lives and works through endless 

'(aiiipM, If all tilings, lo speak in the German dialect, are 

'bicmicd by us, and exist for us, in an element of Time, 

vd dacrdbre of Mortality and Mutability ; yet Time itself 

I Eternity; ibe truly Great and Transcendental 

H il> buia and substance in Gtvmity : stands revealed to 

■ » Eteraity in u veslurc of Time. Thus in all Poetry, 

■fcipk Art. Society, as one form pasees into another, 

* but : it is but the superficial, its it wcro tlie botfy 

I gtvwH obMletc and dies; under the mortal body 

J nliiuli is immoriHl ; which aouw incarnates itself 

ivvclatluo i and the Present is tlic living sum- 

'i>UiI nf Um wbolo i'nsL 

la Quinge, tberelure, tberu is nothing terrible, nothing 

■iKiRiauiral ; on the camrary, it lies in the very essence 

' ' uar kit and life in tliia world. To-day is not yesterday : 

■■ uuTM^lius diange ; liow can our Works and Thoughts, if 

'TV uv olwayn to be Uio fitlcsl, ci 


Change, indeed, is piiinfal ; yet ever needful : and if Mi-iu- 
ory have its force and worth, so also has Ho]h.-. Nay, if 
we look well to it, what is all Deraugemenl, and necessity 
of great Change, in itself such an evil, but the product sim- 
ply of iticrfostd remureet which the old methods can no 
longer udminisler ; of new wealth which the old coffers will 
no longer contain ? What is it, for example, that in our 
own day bursts asunder the bonds of ancient Political Sys- 
, tems, and perplexes all Europe with the fear of Cliange. 
., but even this ; the increase of social resource^ which the 
'i old social metliods will no longer sufficiently administer ? 
The new omni|)otence of the Steam-engine ia hewing asun- 
der quite oilier mountains than the physical. Have not 
our economical distresses, those barnyard Conflagraiioo^ 
themselves, the frighifullest madness of our mad epoch, their 
rise also in what is a real increase : increase of Men ; of 
human Force ; properly, in such a Planet as ours, the most 


ami Iium out tlii.-rcbj' llit' IropunlJes Uml caiisi-d it ; tlieu 
Mffua will lb«re be clearncK. lieallb. The principle of life, 
wiiieh now etruggle« painfully, in the outer, lliin and barren 
iommia iif llie C<>its>:i<His or ]ll(«hniiiuil, inuy iben withdraw 
■no iu inner iiftiictuarie«, iu abj^Mes of nij'stery and miracle; 
tralnlntw JwjHir tJuin ever tnlo ibal domain of the Uncon- 
•vimu, by uaturc iufiiiiie aitd iuexlmusiihle t and creatively 
motk tbrrc. From thai mystic rrgion, and from thai alone, 
kU worttikrs, idl PiH-sics, mid Religions, and Sodul Syitenu 
liav« )>K>cetNlod : the like wonders, and greater and higher, 
lie slumbering ihert^ ; and, Itrooded on by the spirit of the 
italeni, will evulvL< ibetnwilves, and ri»o like exhalatioiw 
(mta ibo I>ce[i. 

Of oor JtludMn SI ctn physics accordbgly, may not tbis 

ttrauly be Miid, lliat if they bave produced no Affirmation, 

dury bave di^iroyed much Negaiiwi? It is a disease ex.- 

Iirlling a di«en»e : llie Are of Doubt, an above hinted, con- 

>itiun^ uway llie DiMiliifuli that so the Certain cotne to 

:.<ii. and a^n Ue visible on ibe surface. English or 

i ■aeii .Mebt{ihy»icii, in reference lo thi» laal stage of the 

' '.rittaiivc procew, are nut wluit wc allude to here: but 

'I; lli^ MelaphyNcs of tbu Gerniuiia. In France or Eng- 

jml. Hncc Uie days of Diderot ami Hume, though all thought 

Iwj been of a »cepiicu-metaphy»eat lexlure, to far as there 

•a> any Thought, ne tiave seen no Metaphysics ; but only 

3v€t ar tviM ineffectual qurstioningi whether such could be. 

!■ 'hr.' I'vnrhoiUBmef Hutue and Ihe Malerialisiu uf Diderot. 

ii >i;. as it were, overshot iLscIf, overset itself. Now, 

1^1 il.t' uildete. to UM uur old ligure, cannot, by much 

< ^, lift up hi* own bo<ly, be may shift it out of a laming 

.---:arp, and get to slund in a free one. Such a service 

He Gt^nuaii MetMphysicM dune for man's mind. The 

'"Tind uukacs« of Speculation has abob&hetl I>oth itself and 

iIm fir»i. Friudrich .Sddegel coniplnins much of tlie fruit- 

ItsMcu. llw tumuli and Irannency of German as of all Melfr 

pLyiiwi Mid with ruason. Tel in titat wide-spreading, deep- 


whirling vortos of Kantistn, so soon metaraorphosej inio 
Fieliteism, Sebellingism, niid then as Hegelism, aod Cous- 
ini^m, pei-linps finally evaporated, is not lliis issue visible 
enough, Tliat Pyrrhonism and Materialism, theniselTcs 
necesaiiry phcDomena in European c^ulturc, have disap- 
peared ; and a Faith in Religion has again become possi- 
ble and inevitable for the scientific raind ; and the word 
-?Vwe-thinker no longer means the Denier or Caviller, but 
the Believer, or the lleady to believe? Nay, in the higher 
of Gennuny, there already li<-s, tor him that can 
a new revelation of the Go.lIike ; 
ised by the mass of the world ; but wailing 
sure lo find it when the fit hour 
coiner. This age nho is not wholly without its Prophets. 

Again, under another aspect, if Utilitarianiatn, or Rudi- 
cnlism, or the Meclianicnl Philosophy, or by whatever iiam« 
it is called, has still its long task lo do ; nevertheless we 

read it, the begi 
as yet u> 
there for 



inifin, but bj- Rt^ligion ; not by Sclf-i rile real, but by 
Zttyaity, ihni m«n are govcmcd or govcmablc. 

ItciiMrliatilt- il is truly, liuvv everywhere (lie eleniiil faot '^ 

t*^iv^ ofraiii to bo ii:iM^ist.-d, timi ihcru U a Godlike in 

banian oBain ; tliol Goil not only made ti-i and beliolils us, 

Uit ia in Us and around tu: ihiit (be Age of Mirscles, as it 

'«cr wr»s now i*- Siwh rwognilion we discern on all liunda 

tail in all cnunlrii'-fl : in cnch country nfter itit oun fa'ibioD. 

la Fraucp, among (lie youtigt^r noblor mindti, etningtrly 

•wiDgb ; wbcrc, in ihtir loud ooiitcnlion witb the Actual 

:-\ Guosrioui, till! Id<!Hl or tJnooiiiH^iuus is, for the time, 

i:'iuti( FX|ionei)( ; wbere Religion means not tb« parent of 

>]iiy. K* of all Ibttl is highest, but of Polity itself; and 

.:• uiil llm oilier earnest man hoe not been wanting, wba 

I'llil aiiilibly wbUper to himself: ** Go to, I wilt make a re- 

.-loo.' In Knglnnil «till more strangely; a^ in ail things, 

>unl>y England will have it» way : by the shrieking of 

J WDmon, coi'ting out of devils, and other ' gi(\a of 

t Jean I'aul say, in Ibis his 

* the living dream ; ' well might 

Meanwhile let us rejoice raiber 

o, were it through never so 

madly di»lorted ; that in all 

I'llnxn, though but I lalf-artieu lately, this high Gospel he- 

in- ui l« prearhiil: Man is still Man. The genius of*^ 

'l--l.nn!Mii. as wus ouee before predicted, will not always 1 

:k' ;i i-boking incubus on uur m>u1 ; but at length when 

I . 'I ntngie Word tile old spt'll is broken, become our 

' Til in fun i I tar-spirit do all our bidding. 'We are 

I 1 a- fling when wo dresro that we dream.' 

U- • , ii boa an eye and u bi-nri can even now say: Why 

. i I lalter? Light has como into the world : lo kucU 

jjt:. I.i^bl. Ki n» Light mii^t lie loved, with a l)oiiiidIess 

' i-^iing. olWnduring love. For the rest, let lliul vain 

ru^le (u read the mystery of the InAnile cease to barass 

It is a myvtery which, through all ogca, we shall onlj ^ 

Ihc Uoly GIhmL' 
tariUi hour of the Niglil, * 
W lay. • the dead wh 
<lu to much has beei 
Wtieiliig media, and t 



> /ruad bere a linp of, iliiire anollier line of. Do we not already 
(jinuw that die name of ihc Infinite is Good, is God ? Here 
on Eartti vre iire m Soldiers, fighting in a foreign land ; thut 
understand not the plan of the ounpnign, and hnvc no need 
to understand it ; seeing well is at our hand to be done. 
Lei us do it like Soldiers, with submission, witli courage, 
with a heroic joy. ' Whatsoever thy hand Undeth to do, 
do it with all thy might.' Behind us, behind each one of 
us, lie Six Tliousund Year^ of human efibn, human con- 
quest : before ns is the boundless Time, with its as yet un- 
created and UDConquered Continents and Eldorado^, which 
we, even we, have to conquer, to create ; and from the 
bosom of Eternity there shine for us celestial guiding stare. 







Reader ! thou here beholdest the Eidolon of Johann 

Wolfgang von Groethe. So looks and lives, now in his 

eighty-third year, afar in the bright little friendly circle of 

Weimar, *the clearest, most universal man of his time/ 

Strange enough is the cunning that resides in the ten fingers, 

especially what they bring to pass by pencil and pen ! Him 

who n*'vcr saw England, England now sees : from Eraser's 

* <jallery ' he looks forth here, wondering, doubtles«», how he 

came into such a ' Lic/itstrasse, lightstreet,' or galaxy ; yet 

with kin<l recognition of all neighbours, even as the moon 

Wks kindly on lesser lights, and, were they but fish-oil cres- 

>"tN or terre>trial Vauxhall stars (of clipped tin), forbids not 

their >hining. — Nay, the very soul of the man thou canst 

likewise h<'hold. T)o but look well in those forty volumes of 

'inu>ical wisdom,* which, under the title of Goethe's Werke, 

Coiia of Tubingen, or Black and Young of Covent Garden, 

-•oniv offer them a trifle of drink-money, — will cheerfully 

Un<l thee : greater sight, or more profit:ible, thou wilt not 

^^*'i with in this generation. The German language, it is 

I^-^umable, thou knowest ; if not, shouhlst thou undertake 

th** study thereof for that sole end, it were well worth thy 


' f'RASKR'g Magazine, Xo. 26. — By Stieler of Munich: the copy in 
f'^'fr"* Mjigjizine prove<l a total failure and involuntary caricature, — 
^**^^!linp, tin wa"* i^aid at the time, a wretched old-clothesman carrying 
^S'nl hU back a hat which he seemed to have stolen. 
^OL m. 4 



Ci-oquls, a mnu otherwise of rather satirical turn, sur- 
pi'Ues us, on this occnsioii, with a fit of enlhusinsm. Ha 
dt'eliires often, thnt here is the finest of all living heads ; 
.'-l)e:iks much of blended passion and repose ; serene depths 
of L'j-ps ; the brow, the temples, royally arched, a very pal- 
»•:■■ of thought;— and so forth. 

The Writer of these Notices is not without decifioii of 
iliiiracter, and can believe what he knows. He answers 
Briifher Croquis, that it is no wonder the head should be i-oyal 
anil a palaee ; for a most royal work was appointed lo bt) 
dune therein. Reader 1 irithin that head the whole world 
lie^ mirrored, in such clear ethereal harmony as it has done 
in none since Shakspeare left us : even Mi's rag-fair of a 
world, wherein thou painfully stnigglest, and (its is like) 
piuinblesl, — all lies transfigured here, and revealed aulhen- 
tically to be still holy, still divine. What alchemy was that : 
., discord, I 


him for the same ; yet, mark the contrast ! Bonaparte 
walked through the war-convulsed world like an all-devour- 
iog earthquake, heaving, thundering, hurling kingdom over 
kingdom ; Goethe was as the mild-shining, inaudible Light, 
which, notwithstanding, can again make that Chaos into a 
creation. Thus, too, we see Napoleon, with his Austerlitze:^, 
Waterioos and Borodinos, is quite gone ; all departed, sunk 
to silence like a tavem-brawL While this other ! — he still 
•hines with his direct radiance; his inspired words are to 
abide in living hearts, as the life and inspiration of thinkers, 
bom and still unborn. Some fiAy years hence, his thinking 
will be found translated, and ground down, even to the ca- 
pactt J of the diurnal press ; acts of parliament will be passed 
in virtue of him : — this man, if we will consider of it, is 
appointed to be ruler of the world. 

Reader I to thee thyself, even now, he has one counsel to 
give, the secret of his whole poetic alchemy : Gedenke zu 
LBBEK. Yes, * think of Hving ! ' Thy life, wert thou the 
* pitifullest of all the sons of earth,* is no idle dream, but a 
solemn reality. It is thy own ; it is all thou hast to front 
eternity with. Work, then, even as he has done, and does 
— * Like a star, unhastino, yet unresting.* — .Sic ra- 




Max's socinlit; of nature evinces iUelf, in spite of all tlint 
can be said, with abunJaiit evidence bj this one fact, were 
there no oilier ; the unspeakable dtligbt bo lakes in Biogm- 
]iby. It is written, ' The proper study of mankind is man ; 
to which study, let ua candiilly admit, he, by true or by false 
Dietliod^ applies himself, nothing loih. ' Mun is perennially 
interesting to man ; nay, if we look strictly to it, there in 
■.-Iso intercflling,' How inexpressibly comfortiibie li 


' WpBlurwl lu lirr. A potik iiiloresi still mure: fur pw- 

'■\j iliu aiune Mruggle of human Freewill 8gain9t material 

'^■■i-rwilr, whii-h erery mun's Lift-, by the mere circutn<tuniM 

i ii ihe nuu) voniinueii alivu, will more or less victoriously 

cilii1>ii, — is ihat wliirh nbove hII else, or rather inclusive of 

•11 rite, tvlU ihr Sym[Ktthy u( murtiil heurta into action ; niiil 

whether mt ttckil, or as rtipre»enlo<l and written of, not only 

■:• Poetry, but is the sok Poetry pOiisible. Borne onwanls 

by whidi iwo nll-einlimring interests, may the ciirneBt Lover 

•i Bi(tgnt{>hy espaiid himself on all sides, and indrfinitely 

' uriefa biniM.-tl^ LiKiking with the eyes of every new iieigh- 

■ur, ht- can iliseem a new world different for i^ach j feeling 

■ rli the heart of every neighbour, he live« with every neigh- 

lurV lifi-, eien a> wiih his own. Of these millions of living 

I'll, cai'h individuaJ is a mirror to us ; a mirror both scien- 

li- an<) [vH-tici or, if you will, boih nniurul and mugtcal; — 

:-Kin which one would so gliutly draw a^ide the gauxe veil; 

wL p«i!rtug therein, diseem the image of his own natural 

Iwe ami iJie suiiematnral secrets lliat prophetically lie under 

IXbctvc. aecuniiiigly, to what extent, in the actual course 
>'' ihiug«, this bu^ine>« of Diograpby ia practised and rel- 
i-linL Di-fine to ihyst^lf, judicious Reader, the real signifi- 
'^ncK of thrM: pheuomeua, named Gossip, Egoism, Personal 
^'l^^ltive (miraculous or not). Scandal, Railleiy, Slandci', 
(nd luch like 1 Ibc^ sum'ioial of which (with some fractional 
'Mition cif ■ hiHii^r itigrediuiit, generally too small to be 
licvHhle) oonMitutc^ thai other grand phenomenon still 
.'un Venn I inn.* Do they not mrjin wholly: IKogra- 
Autolnaffmp^ff f Not oiilj' in the common Speech 
ImH in all All too, which i« or should be the con- 
itrd nnil eonst^nred essence of what men can speak and 
r. Biography U ulmonl the one thing ueedful. 
Evm in the highest works of Art, our iniercsl, aa the 
>i>n oomjiloin, \* I'ki npt to U- flrongly or even uiaiuly of 
IMuSrapliic Mtrt. In the Art, we can iiuwi&e forget the 


Artist : while looking on the Trantjignralion, wliile slud^inj 
llie niad, we ever strive lo figure lo ourselves what apiril 
du'cit in KAphnel ; what a head was ihat of Homer, wliereia 
woven of Elj-sian light and Tnrtarean gloom, that old world 
fashionHl itself together, of which llicse written Greek char- 
acterij arc but a feeble though percnninl copy. The Painl«i 
and the Singer are prerient to ub ; we pariially and for the 
time become the very Painter and the very Singer, while wt 
enjoy the Pieture and the Song. Perhaps loo, let the critic 
fay what he iHU, this i» the highest enjoyment, the clearest 
recognition, we can have of these. Art indeed is Art ; ti;1 
Han sXm) u Man. Had Ihe TraiafiguTatioH been paiiittn] 
without human hand ; had it grown merely on the canvas, 
fay by atmospheric influences, as liclien-pJetureB do on rocLi, 
— it were a grand Picture doubtless ; yet nothing like so 
grand as die Picture, which, on opening our eyes, we every. 
wliere in Heaven and in Kiirth see [tainted ; and everywhera 


MtiL ' h the eswnce of innuineruble Bi(^ra|ihtes.' Sui^b, at 

hut. il (lioultl b« : wliHtiur it is, might admh of question. 

Bat, ui »nf CAse, wluu bo|>e have wu in turning over ihuse 

M itiirrminuJilc Cbrunicli'ii, with their garrulities unil insi- 

jHibiipi ; or ktlll «iur>e, in putieutly lijcaniiniiig ittaw RiMlvm 

NvniiiunM, of the Pliiiuiiu[jhic kind, where ' Phih«a|(h)', 

Iracking bj' EspiTit?ii(%' iuta to sit like owl ou huum^top, 

irn»y nuthin;^, UHiUrttandiitg nothing, littering only, with 

•olnniiiiy enough, hrr pcrprtuol most wuarJMtnc hoo-hoo: — 

what hope buvG wr, except the for luo^t part fnlltieioas 

''■I-: of piiniiig ooiuu acquHintance with our fellow-croaluresi 

' High (lenil anil vsni^hcd, yet Avar to ui ; how they got 

ling in ihraw oltl tJays, euAt-ring luiil duing; to wliat exlcni, 

i 'in-l-r what circumstanci^M, they n^isled the Devil aud 

ni>:ir,j ovrr him, or «trudc their colours to him, and were 

'.!>!! uiidirr fuot by him; huw, in ahort, the perennial 

!lr VM-nt, which mvn immc Ufc, which we also in thcK 

' Li\>. with imlilTercnt furtuue. have to A^'hi. and must 

'.'".lid \'i uiir Kina and gmnd^ms to go en lighiing, — till 

^^li)! hti'-my on" day be quite Taiii|ui&lied and uboliibed, or 

^Hk iba Kreat Night uuk and part the combatanta ; and 

^^Hk diber by lotue Millennium, or some new Noah'^ 

^^PS^ge, iIk) VoluniQ of Universal History wind it»elf u|i ! 

Utlier bupe. in muilying socb Buoki<, we have none; and 

I' -u it la a deceitful liopo, wbo that ha« tried know* not? 

''. final uf widest Biographic insight is spread for ai ; we 

-.:«r AiU tif hungry anijdpations : a1n«, liko »o many otlier 

uta, irhicJi Life inriics ua to, a mure Ossinn's ' ftaisl of 

' 'A*,' — the fiiiid and Iii)uor being all emptied out and clean 

ine, aad only the vacant dinhiM and dcccitl'ul emblems 

'iiraf teftl Your modem Hisioricai Reslaumteui-s ora 

■ \nA Bttl* bell/T iluin liigh-priesta of Kaminci tlint keep 

^-uicat dhiiia dLnueri«ebi, only nu dinner to serve therein. 

Vri wdi is oar Kit^nipliie appctiu-, we run trying froui 

•bnp N> •hofi. with <!vcr new hope i and, unless wc could cut 

'>» wind, Willi exer new di appointment. 


Again, consider llie wliole class of FictUiou* Nairalives ; 
I'rom the highest category of epic or dramatic Poeiry, in 
Shaki^pearQ atid Homer, down to the lowest of frolh Prost, 
in ihc Fashionable Novel. What ara all these but ^ many 
mimiti Biographies? Attenipts, here by an inspired Spealier, 
there by an unin^ipired Babbkr, to deliver himself, more or 
less ineSectualJy, of Ihe gn^nd secret wherewith idl hearts 
labour oppressed : The significance of Man's Life ; — which 
deliverance, even as traced in the unfurnished bead, and 
printed at the Minerva Press, findd readers. For, obi^erve, 
though there ia a greatest Fool, as a superlative in every 
kind ; and tAe most Foolish man in the Earth is now indubi- 
tably living and breathing, and did this moming or lately cat 
breakfast, and is even now digesting the same ; and looks out 
on the world, nith his dim hom-eyes, and inwardly forms 
some unspeakable theory thereof: yet where shall the au- 
iheuiically Existing be personalty met with ! Can ( 


1 ll were a genius tin<l Friar Bacon 'a Oracle. Of no 

pTwi Rook, not orea of h FHsbiunable Novel, ivin you predi- 

nie Willi cnrUiiiiij that its vacuity i» absolute; thtil there 

■rv uoi otber vacuities wliich shall [mrtially repleniitb thcm- 

«tvM thcrrfroiD, anil esteem it a plenum. How knowest 

Juo. may Uie iljstrvssed Novclwrighl eiclaim, that I, here 

wbrr« 1 iil, am ihi* Pooltehest of i.-xisting mortals ; thnt ihia 

my tjang-<»rora Ficliliuua lliugra^hy iihall not finii one and 

rlie ntbrr, into whose siill kingcr cars il may be the means, 

iiii'lrr FrovMencts of iiistilliug soniewhot ? We Bnawer. None 

I^Iww^ ouno am certainly know : iliereforc, write on, worthy 

liruiher, even tu thou canst, even as it has been given thee. 

Ken, however, in nrgni'd to ' Fictitious Biographies,' and 

i.iii'Ji other mailer of like sort, which the greener mind in 

<a>r ilayn indii«tli, we may as well ituiert some singular 

Mti^ncm nn th« imiwrianoe and significance of Reality, m 

'•■ • -fTti'l writlim for us in Professor Gottfried Suuertuig's 

.'.'■,.?,.</..■ S/rrinipourtel 1 n Work, perha^is, as yet new to 

: KiLiilUh ruMiicrs. Thi; Professor und Doctor is not a 

.1^1 »^<>[:i we urn pmlse without rtiscrvation : neither shall 

H' >.^_^ ilint hi« SpringKurxrl (a sort of mngieal picklocks, 

n In nffrx-icdly names thein) are adet^uute to • tiart' every 

k«V tbai locks up an wslbetic mystery ; nevertheless, in his 

I'ltiril. tine-«id<Hl way, he sometimes liiu uusaas of tlie 

liiii. Vif_ endeavour (o trnnslate faithfully, and trust ihe 

>'k-r will find it worth grrioii» peru^ : 

' Tb(! •ignific&nee, even for poetic purposes,' uays Sauer- 

r, • Uuii lira in BKiLiTr is too apt to escape us ; is per- 

'jp* only now beginning to be discerned. When we named 

'.'■MuwiH'f (.hnfruiunt an elegiaco-didactic Poem, we mr^int 

■.iu'TK iluui nil nrnpty ligure of speech; we meant a lusloricn) 

■ iTiiiitic bcl. 

■ FicUon, while the feigner of it knows that he is feigning, 
« ihjin wu gus|>ect. of the naluio of U/ing ; 
■ ever an, in some degree, utiMUisfaclory character, 
t HTthologies were onoe Philosophies; were Miivtd; 


' tlie Epic Poems of old time, so krag m they contiDunl rpie, 
' and had any conijilcle impreswveness, were Hisiorits anil 
' uuderjtood to be uarralive-t o{ facti. In so far as Homer 
' employed hi? gods as mere ornamental fringes, and bad nd 
' himself, or tit least did not expect b'n lieareiv to have, a 
' belief that they were Kal agents in those antique dcMnga ; 
' so far did he fail to be pentn'ne ; m fiir was he a ponially 
' hoUow and fal^ dinger ; and sang to plcast: only a portion 
' of maii'^ mind, not the whole thereof. 

' Imagination is, after all, but a poor matter when it has lo 
' part company with Understanding, and even front it ho*- 
' tilely in flat oontradiclion. Our mbd is divided in twain : 
' there is contest ; whereia that which is weaker mu.-it needs 
' CfNne to the worse. Now of all feelings, stales, principks, 
' call it what you will, in man's mind. \i not Belief the ck«r- 
' e^l, strongest ; against which all others contend in vain ? 
' Belief is, indeed, the beginning and first condition of all 
'spiritual Force wbal:M>ever: only in so far a^ Imagination, 

BrOGBAPnV. 59 

' H'b<'riprtr it lias roitie *o fsr ihnt j'our " MacJiinery " is 

■n«UT Diecliaiiical and nnbnlieveil, — wlial is it cUe, 

' '•f ilarc Icll our»plvra ihe truth, but a miserable, iqchd* 

[ ^Ifw Urcpption, kept up by ol<1 usp and wnnt hIoih" ? If 

'die godt of all //iW nri! lu ns nu longer a till iMilic Shapes 

'uf Terror, bcarl-^tirring, li«art -appall! ug, but only vague- 

'gBaerii>£ Sbailaw.4, — whnl must ilie Head Pagiin gods of 

'm apisoMiad be. ilie di^ad-living Pagan -CliriHtian gods of a 

'iMtiad, ibe concrrlfvntM tract, evangt'lical-metapliyHical gods 

'if a J^araditt Lo*t ? Superann untied lumber ! Cast rai- 

*ihM, al hesi: In wliidi suuit^ [loor mime, sirutling and 

'mggmng, nay or may rtot m4 forth new noble Unman 

'Ftctinp (again n Rralily), and «o serun:, or not secure, 

'«« pardno at sot^li hoydciiijiU masking: for wliit^h, in any 

'am, be fa** a pardon to aib, 

'Tnvt enough, nnrx; hut the rarliirsl Epic Poems can 

liwB ihh diiiiiuTliun of entire crmlibility, of Reality: after 

■n BiaJ, a ShtuUr, a Kiiran, and other the like primitive 

i-rfurataodcs, the riwt seem, by this rule of mine, lo be 

iiu^prtber excluded from the list. Accordingly, what fir* 

L 'ill that n^«t, from Virgil's ^ftnV/ downn-ards, in conipftriwn? 

I 'Fiwy, atlificikl, lipterogrni^nta things : more of gumltowcn 

' 'iJim uf tviit» i ul Ihe bent, of Iho two mixed incoherently to- 

Jollier: lo Mime of which, indeed, it were hard lu deny the 

!-iW rf Piwuw : jet to wo one of which can that title belong 

^ uif H-iuo eren resembling the old high one il. in lIuKe 

1 'iiiv-, conreyiyl, — wbon the epithet " divine " or " sa- 

-' :.' J- ipptind to the ullered Wnnl of man, was not a 

' '11 ri>> ififilitir, a rain sound, but a real nan>e with meaning. 

' ■'". ihr farther we ri'^cdo from those early days, 

I ■ ■ irv, Kt true Poetry is always, wa* Mill sucred or 

■: in*]iir«d (what ours, la great part, only pretends 

- I. — i)k- idptc impossible become; it to produee any. we 

V MM inie Poetry, but lolerable svmblunce of su^h : the 

<iia««r. in partit-ular, grow all manner of Kpira ; till at 

n^h, •)• in this gmerKtion, the v«ry ntuue of Epic sets 


of a new Epic u received 

men a-yewning, the 
as a public ralamily. 

' Bui what if llie impoiftble being once for all qaite dis. 
ciinled, llie probafJt be well adhered lo: how standd il fcitb 
tiction Mm f Why, iheri, 1 would say, the eTil is much 
tiifudt^d, but nowise completely cured. We have ihen, in 
phire of !he wholly dead modem Epic, the partially living 
luoikm Novel ; to which latter it is much ea.«ter to lend ibat 
above-meniioned, so tasential " momentary credence " than 
lo the former : indeed, iafinilely easier ; for the former be- 
ing flatly incredible, no mortal can tor a moment ci'edit it, 
for a moment enjoy iL Thusi, here and there, a Tom Jonet, 
a Matter, a Vnaoe, will yield no little tolacenieiil to the 
minds of men ; though still immeasarubly less than a Rfolity 
would, were the signiGcfwce thereof as impressively unfolded, 
wei-e the geniua that could so unfold it once given us by ilie 
Heaven*. Neither My thou that proper Realities are 

; for Man 

, Life. 1 


BIOiillAl'llV. CI 

' lia^K- tioni vesterdaj ho^ all ilic organs of Body, Soul 

I S|.irii. ami in t^xncily ihc same rombi nation and enlire- 

' -■, iliiii ilie uldoit Pelavgiu Grirck, cir MciHi|Kilaniiaii Pa- 

r. .rdi, or FttUiiT Adam himself i-ould botisl of. Ten fin- 

r.. one bcnrt iviih Trnou* and arlprial blood iherein, »till 

^ iung lu iniui that ■• bora of woman : when did he loser any 

' ' liU cpirilnitl Endowmi-nta eiLhor ; above all, his highest 

-nrituttl Endowmmt. (hot of roveaUng PoBlic Beauty, and 

! ailcquaurlf receiving ihc »ame ? Nol the material, not 

ii" MiKSptibilily is waniingj only the Pool, or long series 

I I'ueik, la work on these. True, ahu Coo true, the Poet u 

:ill ittleriy wanting, or all but utterly; iieverthele«s have 

'-'■ not nMilurie^ enough before us to produce liim in? Him 

^"1 much elw! — I, for the present, will but predict that 

liirHy by working more and more or Rkalitt, and evolv- 

I'lU more ami more wisely itt inexhiuislible meanings ; and, 

::i lirii-f. speaking forth in Hi utleranee whatsoever om- whole 

lul Ulievf4, and ceasing (o speiik forth what thing soever 

■If nliule luul doea not believe, — will litis high emprise be 

' ^'iviinplished, or approiimaled lo.' 

Theie iKilahle, ami nol unfounded, though pariini and daep- 
tinag nuher than iridt-wniug observations on the great im- 
fOR of Rkilitt, Fiinsidercd even ns a poetic materinl, we 
im iaivrtcd llie mure willingly, hei'uu.^e a Erun^ienl feeling 
I* A* nine purpoao may onon have suggested iUelf lo many 
nadenj and, on iJia whole, it is good ihut cverjr reader nod 
*««fy writer understand, with all iiiiensiiyof convielion, what 
^Ae iaSnittt worth lies in TrutA ; how all-pervn<Iing, omnip- 
■ ■M. in ■ mn'a mind, is the thing wc name Belief. For the 
^^ Herr Sauerleig, though one-sided, uii this matter of Re- 
'v. Ttaof lieurlily prrsunrliil, and is not perhaps io igno- 
'1 at be luuks. It caiiiiot Im unknown lo him. fur example, 
e b inodi' about ' luvcniiou ; ' what a supreme rank 
ky y reckoned lu hold in tlie |x*ctie endowment. 
It inly u Inrcmion ; neverlhelcai, that is bm a poor es- 
Mof it wiib wUinU Belief i^ not concerned. 'An Irish- 


man with whisky in hi:^ lieaiV as poor Bjixn) sttiiL will in- 
vent }'ou, in this kind, lill ihtere is enough and lo spare. Nav, 
perliiips, if we consider well, the highest exercise of In- 
vention has, in very deed, nothing to do with Fiction ; hot 
is an invcjilion of new Trutli, what we can call a Rt-vcla- 
tion : which last does undoubtedly transcend all other |Kietic 
efforts, nor can Ilerr Sanerteig be too lond in it^ praiaea. 
But, on the other hand, whether such effort is stilt pobsitde 
for man, Heir Sanerteig and the bulk of the worM are pro)>> 
ably ui issue ; — and will protudily cunlintie so till that ^aine 
' Revcliition,' or new ' Invention of Kenlity,' of the ^ori he 
de.'iide rales, shall itself make its appearance. 

Meanwhile, quitting lhe$e airy regions, let any one bethink 
him how impreK'iTe the smallest historical y<ie( may became, 
as conlra^Ied with the grandest jietitioua event ; what an in- 
calculable force lies for us in this consideration: The Thing 
which I here hold imaged in my mind did actually oocur; 
wn?, in very Inilli, an element iu the system of the All, 

ly, bruuglil Im Majesty ' a piet-e of breuJ antl a gieat 

butlemiilk,' Mining candiilly ihiit '' lie liinisplf lived by 

ly Lilfoiir, anil lliiit wlint In* hail brought him wa>i tlie 

' KDiJ hi* wife had:" on whidi iiuurisbing Jii^t his M^ 

tity. '•laying upon the haymow,' feeds tliankfuUy for two 

day* ; nnd tlicn di-port^, uiulcr new giitdiince, liuving tint 

fhungrd doilie-.dowQ to the very iihirt niid ' old pair of shoes,' 

• n)i hi* landlord; itnd «n, as worfliy Biinynn has it, 'goes on 

' iny. and sve« liim do more.' Singular enough, if we will 

. tik of [t 1 This then was a genuine flesb-and-blood Ruslio 

< iW yrar HiHl : he did actually Rwnllow bix-ad nnd biitter- 

iiIIl (not having ale aud bacon), and do Reld-Uibour : with 

< -^ liubnailcd *«hoo>' lias nprawled through mud-roadi in 

iiut'-r. and, jouund or not, driven hid team a-fleld in summer : 

V made ban^'aiiu ; had cbafTerjiigs and higgling^ now a sore 

l«rt, now It gljid on*! ; was born ; was a son, was a tathnr j 

I'liirt] ill many wuy^. bi*iog forced to it, till the #trengili was 

'■-^. "orn onl of him : and then — lay down ' to real bii* gulled 

I'k.'aod uleep then- till tlip Wg-disiant morning! — How 

'\iaet it, llml he alone of all the lirilish rustics who tilled 

nd lited along wiih him, on whom rbe blesiied sun on ibat 

Mna 'Hfib day of SeiJtember' was shining, should havg 

iftuuwd k> riAe on tjs ; that lliis poor pair of clouted Shoes, 

M oT ifaa million million hides that hare been tanned, and 

OMiBmI won). f>liould still subsiKi, and hang visibly together F 

Te tn htm but for a moment i for one moment, tlie blanket 

f ibe Night is rent asunder, »o that we behold and see, and 

:--ii riair* orer him — forever. 

St Idu. In some liotttttrt Life of Johnton, how indelible^ 

■ ! niavi'-nftT bright, does many a lilile Rrality dwell in our 

. Tii'n.mi'f ! There U no need (hat the per^tinge^ on th« 

1' I- ;i King and Clown ; that the scene bo the Forest 

il.- U.iyaJ Oak, 'on the borders of Staflbrdahire : ' need 

">lv thai the Ecene lie nn lhi!i old finn Earth of ours, 

■h<m we alao have »o siir|iri«iiigly arrived -, that llie per* 

-^«?s be m*H, and tmn with the eyes of a man. Foolish 



enough, how some slight, perhaps mean and eren ugly in- 
ciiJent, if real and well presented, will fix itself io a su*- 
ceptive memory, and Uh pnnobled there ; silvered over with 
the pale cast of thought, with the pathos which belongs only 
to tlie Dead. For the P&st ia all holy Io us ; the Dead 
are all holy, even (hey that were base and wicked while 
alive. Their baseness and wickedness was not TTifi/, was 
but tlie heavy and unmanageable Environment that lay 
round them, with which they fought unprevailing : they (the 
ethereal god-given Force that dwelt in them, and was their 
Self) have now shuffled-off that heavy Environment, and are 
free and pure : their life-long Battle, go how it might, is all 
ended, with many wounds or with fewer ; they have been re- 
called from it, and the once har^h-jarrinn; battle-field has be- 
oome a sileRt awe-inspiring Golgotha, and GoUesacker (Field 
of God) ! — Boswell relates this in iliielf smallest and poorest 
'As we walked along the Strand to-nighl. 

( more dt'qjly limn lliiu meane-il of (lie mean ; and 
I good r«K>n : That $he iseneil from the Mitkcr of 

• wrII wortli the Artist'^ while to examine for himself 
t it in that giv<<§ euck (litiful JDcidenls their intimorable- 
n likcrwidG ii, nbovc all things, to be mfmorable. 
t tbe efi^t. vre already perceive, depen<b on the objet't j 
» being miA on its being really teen. The other half will 
d oo the gbMTvrT ; and the que^^lion iiow is : Uow are 
I ol^ectd (o be M seen j on whut iiuuIiC}' of observing, or 
F<tjlr in describing, does this so intense pictorial power 
d^od? Often a flight circumstance coulribnlea curioui^ly 
la thn result : Mtme little, and perhaps to ap[ieaiiiiii-'e aeei- 
ilrtiial, frjiium ti presented ■, a ligbl-gleam, which inslaniane- 
-Ij f^m'lr* ihe mind, and urges it to complete the picture, 
■:"1 pvotfi- ihc meaning ihiireof for itself. By critics, such 
i'slit-gleains and iJieir almost magical influence have fre- 
.'>iillj been noted : but the power lo produce such, to select 
' irli riniurcs na will produce ihem, is generally treated as a 
«.'i»i4, or irick of the trade, a secret for being 'gmphicj* 
n licn-oii tbcK mflgicnl feats are, in truth, rather inspirations ; 
iiiillbe gift of p4u-forming tbuni, which acts nnconsciousljr, 
■i^iM^i forethoughl. and as if by nature alone, is pnnierly 
■ ■'•nt'uf for drsrriplion. 
r- _Tnid. invaluable secret there is, however, which in- 
.^ - inl ibc rest, and, what is comfortable, lies clearly in 
-}'« power; To hoot an opm hvinif heart, and what 
ir, /'/.m iht potu*tion oftuch ! Truly it has been said, 
i|'. itinillT in tlicae days ought it lobe repeate<l : A loving 
■ be^nning of all Knowledge. This it is that 
e whole tniiid, tpiickcDs every faculty of the intellect 
It work, that of knowing ; and iherefroin, by sure 
i,tj£ viriiilif ntttring-farth. Other scinvt for l>eing 
\ there none, worth having: but this is an all- 
See, for example, what a small Boswell enn 
indeed, la tbe whole man made a living mirror, 



wlierein the wonders of this ever-wonderfiil UiiiversF are, in 
their ti-ue light (which is ever a magical, minkculou^ one) 
represented, und reflected back on us. It has been Miid, ' the 
heart see^ farther ihaa the head:' bat, indeed, without Ihe 
seeing heart, there is no true seeing for the head so much an 
possible ; all is mere overgighl, hallucination and vain sujver- 
licial phanlasmagoria, which can permanently profit no one. 

Here, too, may we not pause for an instant, and make a 
practical retlection ? Considering the multitude of mortals 
that handle the Pen in these days, and can mosllj spell, and 
write without glaring violations of grammar, the question 
naliirally arises : How h it, then, that no Work proceeds 
from them, bearing any alamp of authenticity and ponna- 
nence ; of worth for more than one day? Ship-loads of 
Fashionable Novela, Sentimental Rliymes, Tragedies, Farces, 
Diaries of Travel, Tales by flood and field, are swallowed 
monthly into the bollomless Pool r still does the Press toil ; 


^^^Vlu nuiltles, «n<l ^ruilgiiigf, tmil niV(.-iiou9 Imtiger of nil 
^^Bih baiigfl foTvver piiiniol in {he rrtiiiA of these unt'ortu- 
^^Bk p^i^co* • *■> I'lBE the stnrry All, with whatsoever il em- 
^QBkB*, tloo!! but ap[»ear us noaiv t^xpatiilod umgic-lanlern 
ihaihiw nf ihnt mudu Imsgo, — nnd naiiirslly looks pitiful 

li b Tain for llwse i«rson» lo allege that lliey are naiu- 
'Ht without gift, naliiDill]' stupid iinil sighilcs^ ami so tan 
I vin IH (111 knowleilge of tttiytliing : lliereforf, in writing of 
Miiing, must ncoda write faUehooda of il, there being in It 
' truth for them. Not bi>, good Friends. The ftupitlest 
' ,v>o li>H a 4-«rtBin faculty ; were it but that of articulate 
i-rch {«iy, in the Scottish, the Irish, the Cockney diiilcci, 

I IT Mm in ' fiovcniPMi- English "), nnd of physically diaceni- 
ng what &<» under your nose. The HlupidL-Ht of you would 
pahtft grodgc to Ikj romiMired in fiieuliy with Jutnes Bos- 
•dli yet «» wlwl he has produced! Yoii do not uee your 
(Multy honestly : your heart i» shut up ; full of givedineas, 
u8n, diM»nlmit ; so your intcllccmal senw cnnnot be open. 
Il 1* *»!□ aU) lu urge ihnt Junes Boswell had o[>|Kirt unities i 
'" pva mm and groat things, such as you can ncvf r hope 
iLxik on. Wliat nmkii yv of Parson Wliile in Selborne ? 
!■ )>ad nut o«ly no great men lo look on, but not even men; 
f-ly fparmwf tuid cock-cbaferB : yet has he left us n ftini/' 
.-iyuf llw-se ■ which, under it* title Natural Htitory of Srl- 
' •", tiill rt'tuahM valuable to us j which has copied a Utile 
iit-nre or two faithfuUs from the Inspired Volume of Na- 
". ami 8H U ilMrlf not without inspinttiou. (to ye and do 
^'■W. Swe«p away uilt^rly all fruthincss and fahchood 
m your hwn ; tiniggle iinwcariodly to n«|uire, wimt U 
■ililit for every giwl-i^n-jiled Man. n free, open, humble 
^' ; ifrok aat til off, i'h any iciif. lUl ifoi hnvt: tnmevhal lo 
'>'>*.■ car*? nut for the reieard of your i^ieuking. liut simply 
I «ftk undivided mind for the tnuh of your i<ipi-aking: 
" be pbn^ in section of Space and of Time soever. 
<" lioi open your tye», and tha-y shall netuully tte, and brit^ 


j-oii real htowfedffe, womjrous, wortliy of beliej , and instes 
of onv Boswell mid one White, the world will rejoice in 
thousand. — slalioned on llteir thousnnii several watch-tower 
lu inijlnitt us by indubitable documents, of wbaL-oever in oi 
Eo stupendous World comes to tight and xil O, had II: 
Editor of Ibis Magazine but o. magic rod to turn all thnt ni 
inconsiderable Intellect, which now deluges us with arlificii 
fipiilious soap-latiier, and mere Lying, into the faithful slud 
of Reality, — what knowledge of great, everlasting Nutur 
and of Man'fl ways and doings therein, would not every yei 
bring us in I Can we but change one single eoap-latbcn 
and mountebank Juggler, into a true Thinker and Doer, wl: 
even Iriet honestly to think and do, — great will be our n 

But lo return j or rather from this point lo begin our joui 
ney ! ' If now, what with Herr Sauerleig'a Springtrurxt 
what with so much lucubration of our own, it have Ijoeom 



oome out unflattering to patriotic sentiment, we shall not in- 
termeddie ; but turn rather, with great pleasure, to the fact, 
that one excellent Biography is actually English ; — and 
even now lies, in Five new Volumes, at our hand, soliciting 
ft new consideration from us; such as, age after age (the 
Perennial showing ever new phases as our position alters), it 
may long be profitable to bestow on it ; — to which task we 
iiere, in this position, in this age, gladly address ourselves. 

First, however, let the April-foolday pass by ; and 
our Reader, during these twenty-nine days of uncertain 
wi:ather that will follow, keep pondering, according to con- 
venience, the purport of Bioqrapht in general : then, with 
thv ble:«;sed dew of May-day, and in unlimited convenience 
of space, sliall all that we have written on Johnson and BoS' 
^s Johnson and Croker^s BoswelCs Johnson be faithfully 
laid before him. 




.^aop's Ply, sitting on the axle of the chartol, haii beef 
much laughed at for exclaiming: What n dust t do raise 
Yt^t which of us, in his way, has n6I sometiinca l>e8n guilt} 
of the like ? Nay, so foolish are men. they oflen, sinndino 
at tu'p and as spectators on (he highway, will volunteer t<: 
exehiiiu of the Fly (not being tempted to it, as he waa) ei- 
,■ lo llie same purport: Whiit a dust thou do? 



I ftod of leather} bcrc cliaunting lo-pttam ; iherc 
glianh Ihitndt^r, or vchi^ment $hrewmouse si^ui^iiklete ; 
! |»r-n<-'nil I'Bf is filled, «wd nigli di-aft^neil. Bosvrell'a 
wl a noUdin^ binh, compared with llm Edition of 
n Book. On thu olbur liund, consider with what de- 
r liuuult Parailitf Lvtt and the Iliad w«re Usherud in I 
> swell such clntnour, or prolong it btyond the [imu. 
«eeni9 nowise our vocailioii liHm. At mosi, perlmps, wu are 
buuutl lo inrorm simjile readers, with nil poMible breviljr, 
•hw munnT ijf performiinci! and Edition ihis \i ; especially, 
•ilrthFT, in our pour jiidgtaeiUi it iii worili luj-itig out three 
pounds aierling upon, yea or not. Tlie whole huaincs^ be- 
lungft disiinctlj to the lower ranks of the trivial class. 

hei UN admit, iheti, with great readint^?, tliat as Johnson 
tiiK^t tail], «iid iho Editor repeats, 'all works which describe 
maimer* rpquire tiotts in sixty or seventy years, or lessj* 
'lui. acvorilingly, a new Edition of Boswell wai* desirable; 
ind iluu Mr. Citiker has given one. For ihia la^ik he bad 
' iirioua qiiiilifieHtions : his own voluntary resolution to do it : 
'i:' iiigli plaee iu society, unlocking all manner of archivea 
'" him ; not li«9, prrhapH, a wTiain anccdotico-biogmphic 
iini nf mind, natural or aeiiuired ; we mean, a love for the 
■' 'iitffr erenls of History, and talent for investigating these. 
''1 w admit loo. tliat he hna U-en vrry diligent \ seems to 
-iir tiiadi? inquiries perseveringly far and near; as well as 
Mwn fn-ely from his own ample tilores ; and so tells us, to 
<l';>ran>nrp qititP accurately, muHi that he has not fonml 
11^3 un tbe highways, hut has had to seek and dig for. 
t persons, chiefly of (gunliiy. rise lo view in these 
; when and nlso where they mine into this world, re- 
offiee or promulinn, died and were buried (only what 
h( nxeept digest, remaining oft tn too mysterious). — in 
AUy Miough tet down. Whereby all that their various 
middy-Kcattvml Tombstones could have taught 
fc We presented, at once, in a bound Book. Thus is an 
ilrilable conquest, though a amntl one, gained over our 


grc^at enemy, the ull-dc^troyer Time ; and as such shall have 

Nay, let us »ay Ihat the spirit of Diligence, exhihited in 
ihis departmeni, seems to attend the Editor honestly ihrougb- 
out : he kcep« everywhere a watchful outlook on bis Text; 
reeoticiling the distant with the present, or at least indicHting 
and regretting their irreconcilability ; elucidating, smoothing 
down ; in all wuy^ exercising, according lo ability, a strict 
editorial superintendence. Any little Latin or even Greek 
phrase is rendered into English, in general with perfect accu- 
I'ltcy ; citnlions ore verified, or else carreeled. On all hands, 
moreover, there is a certain spirit of Decency maintained 
and insisted on : if not good morals, yet good manners, are 
rigidly inculcated ; if not Beltgion, and a devout Christian 
heart, yet Orthodoxy, and a cleanly, Shovel-hatted look, — 
which, as compared with flat Nothing, is something very 
considerable. Gmnl !iio, as no contemptible triumph of this 


^^^pa ; iuhI to, in the full sense of the tvvm, uttdsnland him, 

^^buviiig^ Mil] ht% doing*' This was indeed special!; ibe 

^■hNrm whicli a Commtftiiatur and EMilur had to solve : a 

^BkBpleli: soluduti of it -htmid have lain in him, tiis whole 

■iad »bouIiI hav*- Uti) dlK'iJ and |ire|irired with perfect in- 

Mgbt inln it ; ihcn, whrthcr in llitr way of express Disserta- 

bon. of Incidealal Kxpoeiliun and Inilicalion, opportunities 

BMNigh woald hav<^ occurred of bringing out the some : what 

««* daric in the figuru of tht; Pa^l hud ihvrrby been enlighi- 

ntsd ; Bo6well liad, not in sluiw and word only, but in verj- 

&ct. bpcn made ntic again, readable lo us who are divided 

fruD hint even u* hn was lo those elose at hand. Of all 

wbieh very little tins been atleinpim) here : aceumpliabed, we 

itmtd Miy. next lo nothing, or allogeiher nothing. 

ElCOte, uu duubl, is in rvudine^s fur such omiasian ; and, 
i n Ja t d. for innutnirrablc olh«r failings; — oa where, for ex- 
■aple, tbe Editor will punctually explain what is ab«udy 
iMNJrAr ; and thr-u anon, not without I'rankneas. declare fi-e< 
9*iiitly enough that ' the Edilol' liors not understand," that 
'lie Editor eannui gueia," — wliile. for most part, the Eleader 
~i:inot tielp both gui^^ing and seeing. Thus, if Johnson say, 
:< iiu« «<micnc«, ihut ' English munes should not be used in 
Laiiu verkcaj' and iheti, in I lie next senlvnee, speak blam- 
iailyaf 'Cartc^ret being used as a dactyl,' will the gonerulity 
if — toU delect any puxxle tber« ? Or uguin, where [loar 
Bandt writes : ' I always remember a remark made to ni« 
'hj a TiniMi lady, eduiratcd in France : " Mafoi, mojuitur, 
'mtn ionhfur depend tie la/oj-on qu» notn tang eireule ;"' 
— Uxngti the Turkish lady here spcakj English- French, 
iban ia the call for a Note like this : * Mr. Boswell no 
'loabt faocied these words bad some meaning, or he would 
larAy tatve quoted tiwm : hut what that meaning is. ihe 
Uiler aumot guewi * ? The Editor is clearly no witch at 
tridiBe. — For these and all kimlred deficiencies the excuse, 
u ve wd, ia at hand : but tliu fact of their existence is not 
iM IcM nrrtnin and regretable. 


Indeed, it, from a very early «iage of itie bufinesj, be- 
crjnies afflk'tively appareul, how much the Editor, so well 
f'urni^bed with all b'Xti^riinl appliances and means, is from 
u'illiin uiifuniiihed with means for foriaing lo himself anj 
ju-it notion of Johnson, or of Johnson's Life ; and therefore 
of speaking on that subject with much hojw of edifying. 
To«i Hghlly is it from the first taken for grunted ilmt Hunger, 
llii' gr<^at basis of our life, is el^ its apex and ullinmte I>er- 
ffL'tion; that as'Needine^s and Greediness and Vainglory' 
iiiL' the ciiief quaUties of most men, so no man, not even a 
'lolini^on, acts or can think of acting on any oilier principle. 
\Vhutsoever, therefore, cannot be referred to the two former 
ijHiegories (JSeed and Greed), is without scruple ranged 
under the latter. It is hero properly that our Editor be- 
(.'(lines burdensome ; and, to (he weaker sort, even a nuisance. 
'- Wliat good Is it," will such cry, " when He had slill some 
shadow of belief that man was better than a selfish 


Why in ■hon," conlitiiiM ihe t-xuspurulLil Rciiilpr, " slioulit 

Nut» uf iLb nppcifji ntunil aflVoiitliig me. whi'ii i\ivrc miglit 

tMi« Iwrn no Nole at rH?" — Genlle Reudi^r, wu answer, Be 

n-d wrotli. Wlinl oilier roulcl an lione^i ComrnentnUir ilo. llian 

(live tbeo itic b&it ho bad? Such was the pictui'e and lliuo- 

rnn br luid Ik'hionerf for himgell' of llie world niid of mutk'» 

in : iHkc U, and draw w!se itifenni-us fniiti il. 

•sini a L'.'Mder of Public Opinion, and Cliam- 

B «r Onboduxy in tbc Cliun:h of Jesus of Nuxarelh, who 

ikaBMl ibM man's gktry eonsisted iu noi being pour ; and 

■ Sngv, nnd I'm|»but of his linn-, must nev^s hlunh bc- 

B tbe wurlij hud jwid hint ul that easy rnUt of fourpencc- 

tptiaj per dttm, — viati nut the fact of such cxiMence 

I knowing, worth (mnsidrring ? 

^Of a much milder hue. ye[ to us pmcticitlly of an all- 

l, and for llie present enterprise quite ruinous char- 

ai-lrr, — ia un<i)k<-r grund fundaim-nlal failing; the la^t we 

-iuiH feel oiiriielve^ obliged lo lake chu piun of specifying 

lini. It i*, Ihni ifiir Kdiioi' liATi faUlty, und almost surpri^ 

iii^'ly. mutoken the liinitH of an Edilur's function ; and 90| 

liuicad of working im ilio margin with his Fen, lo elucidate 

a> hml might be, ntriki^s lioldly into the buily of the page 

«ilh kb SeiMorK, and there clips at dii-creliun ! Four Etooks 

Jii^ C iuui by liim, wherefrom lo gather light for the flflh, 

itiA ma» Bu^wdl^. What does he do but now, in the 

llMiJBit manner, — I'lit llie whole fiv« into lilips, and »ew 

Ilw9* tc^cthiir inia n trxlum ^d, exncily al his own ennven- 

laiot i giving liuswell the eredit of ihe whole ! By what 

"n-oiiijir, «ur mulers ask, ht» he untied them? l(y the 

■•inplni of all : by Brtwkets. Never before wus tlie full 

^iruK iif ihe Urai^ki:! made manifeal. You begin a wnience 

'fubft IliMwell'it guidance, thinking lo bo cnrrieil hnppily 

ilinm^l] it by iliH KHme : but mn in thn middle, (H-rhnjis 

!ii^ viiiir •cmii^lon, and some con»iequent 'for,' — wiiria 

ii'N'i. .,)' ibc-Mi Itmvkel-liguturcs, uud sCilche« you in from 

■^' u jiago, Ul iwenty or ihirly pages of a Hawkins, Tyers, 



Murphy, Piozzi ; ad that olleii one must make the old 6»d 
reflection, Where we are, we know ; whither we are going, 
no mmi knowetli I It b truly said also, There is much be- 
tween (be cu|) and the Up ; but here the case U still sadder : 
for not till after consideration can you ascertain, now when 
the cup is at the lip, what liquor it h you are imbibing ; 
whether Boswell'e French wine which you began with, or 
some I'iozzi's ginger-beer, or Hawkins's entire, or perbups 
some other great Brewer's periny-swipea or even alegar, 
which had been surreptitiously substituted instead thereof 
A situation almost original ; not to be tried a second time ! 
But, in fine, what ideas Mr. Croker entertains of a literwry 
tofiole and the thing called Book, and how the very Printer's 
Devils did not ri«e in mutiny against such a congloineratiun 
as this, and refuse to print it, — may remain a problem. 
But now hnp[iily our say is said. All faults, the Morali-^is 
E-rlj' shorlcomings ; crimes themselves ai-e 


[ a\rv*dy been mitch comincnled ujioii ; l>ul railiei- i:i ihp 

I viiuperntioD, limn of inie recognition. 

1 (liitl brought liimseir mudi before llic world ; 

I thai he eagerly coveted fame, or if that were not 

iblct noli>rii;tT : ol' which latter m he guineii far more 

I HMEued bis due. tlio [lublic were indtwl, nor only by 

liiral love of Kamlal, but by a spccinl ground of 

> Mty Klmlever ill of him coiilil be »ui(l. Out of the 

B miltiona tliat tbeu liviiil. aud hud bed aiid buun], in the 

I IsIaimI^ ihis man has provided us a greater plfotiire 

t any (illKr iiidividtuil, at whcue L'o^t we now unjoy outv 

j perliaps has done us a greater terfice ihaii can b« 

ailj aitribaied to more chnD two or three : yet, ungraie- 

u written or spoken eulogy of Jame^ Bos- 

I anywhere oii^ls ; hid recompense in solid pudding (so 

'.r 0* on]>yrigbt went) was not excessive; and as for the 

' Mytj praUe, It haa altogether been denied him. Slen are 

Tiwi^r tliaa chiliic*u i they ilo not know the hand that feed* 

ikk-well wa$ a person whose mean or bad (jualitie^ lay 
I'Ui to ihc general eye j visible, palpable to llie duUeei, 
Hi- good qualities, again, belonged not to the Time he lived 
I' , were far from common then ; indeed, in eueh a degree, 
""IT- almost unracampled : not recognti^ble therefore by every 
I"-' i nay, apt even (so strange had ihuy grown) to be cun- 
xvaM with the very vices ihey lay contiguous Ui, and liad 
~ I of. Tluu ho was a wine-bibber and gro^ liver; 

■ly fond of wlmlever would yield him a little solace- 
) il only of a slomachic eharaeter, is undeniabltj 
Tlmt he wad vain, hecdtess, a babbler ; had mueb 
e ajoupbaul. aliernuting witli the braggadocio, curiously 
D with an nil-pervading dash of the coxcomb ; that 
1 much when the Tailor, by a court.suii, bad made 
I of him : that he appeared ut the Shakspcare 
wwitk a ribnnil, imprinied 'CoitsitA Boa wkll,* round 
1 in iiliorf, if yuu will, lived no day of his life 


williout doing and saying more than one pn-tentious inepli- 
iiiJe : all tills UDliappily is evident as the t^un Ht noon. The 
very look of Boawell seems to huve sigDified ro much. In 
tliat cocked nose, uoclted partly in triumph over hig weaker 
li'llow-creaiures, partly to snuff up tlie sroell of coming pIcHs- 
me, iind scent it from &far ; in tliosu bag-cheeka, hnnging 
like liall'-filled wine-skins, still nliic to conlain ntore ; in that 
ciiursely protruded stielf-mouEh, ihiit fat dewlap|>ed chin ; in 
:U1 tills, who Beea not sennuiility, pretension, boisierous imbr- 
<-ility enough ; much that could not have been ornamentHl in 
ilie temper of a grent man's inerfed great mau (wlmt t)ie 
Scotch name flunky), thougli it hod been mora nutuml 
ihei-e ? The. under pan of Boswell's face ia of a low. 
iilmo't brutish character. 

Unfortunately, on the othtr hand, what great and genuine 
pH)d lay in liin) was nowise so self-evidenl. That BoaweU 

s u iiunter after spiritual Notabilities, that he ioTed such. 



(the bosom was not permitted him) of the English Dominie ! 
Your Scottish Laird, sajs an English naturalist of these 
daj9« maj be defined as the hungriest and vainest of all 
bipeds jet known. Boswell too was a Tory ; of quite pecu- 
liarlj feadal, genealogical, pragmatical temper ; had been 
nurtured in an atmosphere of Heraldry, at the feet of a 
Tery Gamaliel in that kind ; within bare walls, adorned only 
with pedigrees, amid serving-men in threadbare livery ; all 
things teaching him, from birth upwards, to remember that 
a Laird was a Laird. Perhaps there was a special vanity in 
bis very blood : old Auchinleck had, if not the gay, tail- 
spreading, peacock vanity of his son, no little of the slow- 
stalking, contentious, hissing vanity of the gander ; a still 
more fatal species. Scottish Advocates will yet tell you how 
the ancient man, having chanced to be the first sheriff ap- 
pointed (after the abolition of ' hereditary jurisdictions *) by 
royal authority, was wont, in dull-snufiling pompous tone, to 
preface many a deliverance from the bench with these words : 
- 1, the first King's Sheriff* in Scotland." 

And now behold the worthy Bozzy, so prepossessed and 
held back by nature and by art, fly nevertheless like iron to 
its magnet, whither his better genius called ! You may sur- 
round the iron and the magnet with what enclosures and 
encumbrances you please, — with wood, with rubbish, with 
brass : it matters not, the two feel each other, they struggle 
restlessly towards each other, they iriil be together. The 
iron may be a Scottish squirelet, full of gulosity and * gig- 
manity ; ' ^ the magnet an English plebeian, and moving 
ng-and-dust mountain, coarse, proud, irascible, imperious : 
nevertheless, behold how they embrace, and inseparably 
deave to one another ! It is one of the strangest phe- 
nomena of the past century, that at a time when the old 

^ 'd What do you mean by " respectable? " — A. He always kept a 
?H5-' {TkurUlti Trial.) — ' Thu««,' it has been said, 'does society natu- 
mOv divide itself into four classes: Noblemen. Gentlemen, Gigmen, and 



rcverent feeling of Discjpleahip (such as brought men frDtn 
fur eounlriiiti, wilh rich gifts, and prostrate soul, to the feet of 
till.' Prophets) tind. passed utterly away fj'oni men's practical 
experieuce, nad nae no longer eurmised lo exi^t (aa it does), 
perennial, indestmtlible, in niFUi'-i inmost heart, — Janiea Bos- 
well should have been the individual, of all olhers, prede.^- 
tiued to recall it, in such singular gui^e. lo the wondering, 
and. for a long while, laughing and unrecognising world. It 
liiis been commonly said, The man's vulgar vanity was all 
ili:it attached him to Johnson ; he delighted to be wien neiu 
liiiii, lo be tliought connected with him. Now let it be at 
oiife granted that no consideration springing out of vulgar 
vuniiy could well be absent frocn the mind of James Bonwell, 
ill this his intercourse with Johnson, or in any considerable 
traru-^action of his life. At the same lime, ask yourself: 
'Wlieiher such vanity, and nothing eUe, actuated him therein: 
:r this W115 the true essence and moving principle oF 



^^Soioriciy, <o ■* m Iw ihc observed of innunaerable oberver.?. 
Tu nil oue i)f wfiom, however, ttioiigh niherwiae n imM 
ililij>eiit nolicilor ami jiurveyor, diil lie to tillucli liimself: 
*aeh nilj^r n>itnicr*)iii)j> with his paid drudgery, or k'isurr 
■inu>«iiH!nt ; tlip «'"rslii[i uf Julmson was lib gmnd, ideal, 
iijliinuuy hueincA'. I>i«» riol ihe froihy-hearted jvt enthu- 
*u>*tK mttn. ildtling Ui^ AdrocsIeVwig, regularly lake pa'h 
aiid btirrv u|) lo lyuudoii, lor lite »Hke of his Soge phiefly*, as 
h> a Fiii«i nf TnlMTimclr', the Snbhnlh of his whole year? 
The pl»lI^-Uckl■^ and wine-bibber divi-s tnio Boll Court, lo sip 
maiJijT nifliri? with a cynieal old man, and a eour-lempered 
hiinil old woman (feeling the ciipii, wbetlicr tbey arc full, 
wnh ber linger) ; and patienlly I'DdurC-S contradiclions without 

Kloo happy so he may but be allowed to listen and live. 
k liurs not apptMir lliat vulgar vanity could ever have 
inncli ilalt<ired by Boswell'i* relation to Johnmn. Mr. 
* fliJDS Johnson was, la llie last, litili- regarded by the 
npU; tnm wliJi-h. for a vulgar vanity, all honour, as 
li.fiMntKin, deseenda. Boxsy, even Hniong JohnsonV 
t tn& special ndniirt^rs, seems rather to have bi-en 
'-rn[rhed lu titan envied i bi« ofllcious. whiiiking, eoncequen- 
>! way*, the diiily rrproofH and rebufTn he underwent, could 
. jn biMu ili« world no golden hut only leaden opinions. Uis 
l-MHN OiM-ipIeship »c<-mcd nothing more than a mean Span- 
Kltlitp. In the generul eye. His mighty ' constellnlion,' or 
-:a, hmumI wliom tie, as «atellit», obiiervanlly gyrated, wns, 
' f ibc iDMAo of mm, but a hugr ill-fliuffcd ullow-lighl, and 
' a WMik night-motli. circling foolir-hly. dangerously aliout 
n-rf knowing wlial he wanted. If bo enjoyed Highland 
iri'1 lotuts, a> henchman lo a new sort of chiettain, 
-l-tiie. in ihe dumesiie ■ Ouler-HouBe,' could hand 
!liri2 "for thr sight of hii" Bear." Doubtless the 
tl 1iimiu.-lf laughed at for 
> grand and mIc a 

I things is that of 
:i living envied 


Dozzj- ; ami of gmxl ihingj {ficqil hiiiiself paid for ibeni) 
ilaTi; wa!j no \'(^tigc in ttiut iu.'qiiaLntaDC<;shi|i. llad iioihmg 
oilier or belter ihun tanily and sensualily been there, .lohn- 
•on and Boswell bad never come togelber, or had aoou and 
tiniilly separated again. 

Ill fiict, the so Fopioua terreslnal dross that welters cbaol- 
Iciilly, aa tht outer sphere of ibis man's character, does but 
render for us men:: remarkable, more touching, the cele^lixl 
.''[lark of gtwdiit!:^^, of light, and Reverence for Wisdom. 
wliicb dwelt in the interior, and could struggle through such 
I'ncujnbrarices, and in tiome degree illuminale and beaulily 
ihem. There i= much lying yet undeveloped in the lore of 
Boswell for ,Johiison. A cheering proof, in a lime which else 
uiiiTly wanted and still wants such, that living Wisdom is 
ijuilti mjtnitelg precious lo man, ii the symbol of the Godlike 
to liini, which even weak eyes may discern ; that Loyally, 
ei]ile-hip, all [hat was e*er meant by Hetv-'wonhip, liviw 


F hlir a wntiiry. amy the medicine also begin lo show 

JaniM IJonnell belong*.-!!, in hia cori'iijilible part. lo 

nml clnsM^ of miinkinil : h foolish, inllAled crfniure, 

It of ^elf-cc 

: but ii 

sive and 

It an iii(xirru|>libl«, all the more im| 
ible for the siraiigR lodging it had taken. 

o. with nbnt force, diligence and vivacity he 
has rendered back all ihii which, in Johnson's neijjhboar- 
JHiud. bl* 'o[ivn (cn^' had so eagerly and freely taken in. 
TIhU loo»e-flowing, careless-looking Work of bis is as a pic- 
ti»rB by cme of Nttliir»-'s own Artistd ; the beat po^ible resem- 
tdUKe uf ft R<^ality i like the very image theKof in a clear 
wrrar. Which indeed it was : let but the mirror be clear, 
taMfe i* the gruat point ; the pictnre mnst and will be genuine. 
^^Bto the babbling Busxy. in^ipired only by love, and the 
^Hfcgnittoa atu) virion which love can lend, epitomises nightly 
^^ft^■WIln!s of Wisdom, tlie deeds and aspects of Wisdom, and 
, by Utile and lillle, unconsciously works logelher for us a 
■.Kiilc Jokuttmiad ; a more free, perfect, sunlit and spirit- 
linking likcne^ than for many ecnturies hod been drawn 
< man of man ! Scarcely since the days of Homer lia» th« 
-<t bren pquallrd; imieed, in many senses, this also \» a 
Hill of Hemic Poem. The Gt Odyuey of our unheroic age 
' .i.'> til be written, not sung ; of a Thinker, not of a FigliEer ; 
:i'f (fur wnni of a Homer) by the first open soul that might 
iV.r. — liwkeil such even through the organs of a Ito^well. 
\V.- 4u the man's intellectual endowment great wrong, if wa 
■ lu^ro h l>y its men; logical outcome; ihough here too, 
rre b Dol wanting a light ingenuiiy, u figunuiveness and 
'.Tidful *|Mirt, wltii glimpses of insight far deeper than ihn 
iiinnHin. But noswell'g grand intelleutnal lalcnl was, n* 
-1^ evrr i^ nn anciiiuriota one, of fur higher reach and $ig- 
e than Logic : and showed It-^elf in the whole, not in 
Here again we have that old saying verified, ' TIh! 
« briber tliiin the lead.' 
« does |KK>r Uuicy stand out to us as an ill-n»9cine<], 


glaring mistiire of ibe bigiiest find llie lowesl. What, in- 
deed, is man's lite generally but a kind of bea^t-godhood ; 
the gixl in lis Irinnipbing more and more over the bejist : 
striving more and more to subdue it unclec his feel F Did 
not the Ancients, in iheir wise, perennially significant way, 
figure Nature itsulf, their sacred All, or Pan, as a porten- 
tous commingling of tliese two discords; as musical, humane, 
oracular in ita upper part, yet ending below in the cloven 
hairy feet of a goat? The unioa of melodious, celestial 
Freewill and Reason with foul Irrationality and X.ust ; in 
which, nevertheless, dwelt a mysterious unspeakable Fear 
and Lalf-mad panic Awe ; as for mortals there well might ! 
And is not man a microcosm, or epitomised mirror of that 
same Universe; or rather, is not tliat Universe even Him- 
self, ibe reflex of his own fearful and wonderful being, 'the 
waste fantasy of bis own dream ? ' No wonder that man, 
that eiicii man, aiid James Boswell like the olheri^ should 


1, tliat ihtre iliouUl bo lenehere in lirni^l, or even leiim- 
a wbutn ibis world-nncicnl tact is sllll problemiiiicitl, 
»i tlvnUbli.- ! Biiswull wrorp a good Book because lie 
u liiMft tuid &n eje to discern Winlam, atul an utter- 
mce lo render it Torib ; because of bis free insigbl, hia lively 
UfauU, «tiovc all, of bis Love and cbildlilce Open-mindeilneas. 
Hk tneaklng nyuopbancies, hid greediness and forwardness, 
lev«r mia bcstinl and esrtliy in him, are ra many blemishes 
whicli slill disturb us in its clearness ; wholly 
ea, not helps. Towards John^n, however, his feel- 
s not Sycophancy, which is ihe lowest, but Reverence, 
li [* the bigbest of human feelings. None but a rtvertiU 
I (which n> iiiispcakably few are) could have found his 
f from UuswcU's environment to Johni^on's : if such wor- 
ibiji for real God-made superiors showeO ii^elf also as wor- 
tiiift for apparent Tailor-made superiors, even »s hollow inler- 
C'lnl innu til- worship for such, — the case, in thi« eomponice 
Itimiau ua[ur« of oun), was not mimculuus, the more was the 
jHty ! Itut for ourselves, let every one of us cling lo ibis last 
uiicki uf Failb, mid know it as the beginning of all knowl- 
iiigc worth the name: That neither James Boswell's good 
Itoiik, nor any other good thing, in any time or in any plaee, 
Hu, is ur call be perfurmed by any man in virtue of his bad- 
ii'M, but alway!) anil solely in spite thereof. 
\, for ihi; Uook iUcIf, questionless the universal favour 
:>i'-rtaioisl (iir it is well mi-rilinl. In worth as a Book we 
He ruled It beyond any other product of the eigbleenih 
-miiry : all JoliiiM>n*s own Wrilings, lulmrious and in their 
'iiij genuine above mosi, stand on a quite inferior level to 
■■■■ . olfeaily, indevd, they are becoming obsolete for this gen- 
-"iiiiua; and for oome future generation muy be valuable 
' ."lly ai ProlegoniBiia imd expository Scholia to this Johnta- 
■■"•dtii BoiwelL Which of us bul remembers, as one of the 
■>iiuiy i|iou in bis existence, the <lny when he opened ibe^s 
^7 volnmt!*, faAcuiatliig him by a true natural mngic I It 
"k> 0* if the curtains of the Fast were drawn a»de, ajid we 


looked mysteriously inio a kindred country, where itweh oor 
Falbers : inexpressibly dear to as. )iut which had seemed 
(brever hidden from oar eyes. For the dead Night had en- 
gulfed il; all »'ns gone, van i^ lied a^ if it had not been. Nev- 
ertheless, wondrously given back to as, there once more it 
lay : all bright, lufid. blooming ; a little island of Creation 
amid the cimimambieni Void. There it still lies; like a 
thing stationary, imperishable, otct which changeful Time 
were now nccnintilaling itself in vain, and oould not. any 
longer, harm it, or hide it 

If we examine by what charm it is that men are siill held 
to this it/V of Jahnton, now when so much else has been 
forgotten, the main part of the answer will perhaps be found 
in that speculation 'on the import of Realitg,' communicated 
to the world, la^l month, in this Magazine. The Johuomiad 
of Bo:^well turns on objects that in very deed existed ; it is 
all fnie. So (iir other in melodiousness of tone, it vies witb 
tli<> (>dysiry, or ^tirpassi^s it, in thi^i one point: to us tli&<e 


at itif isl much on the Poet tliut lit' ehoulil a 

' to faU ildineHtioH : ihul by inlcriBitjf of cod- 

I, hy thai gift of ' tranwendfnial Thought,' wliich is 

d jftniun, and int^pi ration, he should in/arm the 

1 a certain Inflnttuile of sign ill i!uiicu ; or as thejr 

tata say, t-tmable the Actuul into Idiialneia. Tiiey fire 

n their pKct'pt ; ihry mcHn ri;;htlj. But in ensci like 

ilai< of the JiAntoniad, such is ihc dark grandeur of tliiil 

l~Ilnt^>tTlL'meDt,' whenrin mnn's soul here below live* imprii- 

■■•i, — tiie Port'f lavk is, as it wore, done to tiis liand : 

1 1 rnq itwir. which is lh<t outiv \-d1 of Eiemity. investe. of \U 

• ti KFord. with an «uih«ilii-. fell 'intinilude,* whali^oever U 

'■.^'• ODce cmbrao-d in iu inj^turious fold.*. Consider hII that 

• m that one nord. Patl ! What a pnihctic, sacred, in 

:nr aeiue p-tf/rf. meaning is implied in it ; a meaning 

_ ■'wing ••Tcr tlie rli-jirer, iht farther we recede in Time, — 

iiir mart uf tluit suuc Fast wu have to look ihniugh I — On 

khi(4i gKHiiid indeed uiu^E Sauifrteit; Iwvo buil[, and not 

■ iilioui iiUuKibiliiy, in thai «inuige the&is of his: 'That 
' Ili>lM7, after all. is tix- true Poetry ; lliat Reality, if rightlj- 

■ riitt-riireinl. is ^raiider than Fiction : nay thai even in the 
't^>hi inieriirelniioi) of Kenlily and Ilbtory does genuine 
Portry consiaL' 

I'ltiM for Bomeirt lifi of Julmtm hua Time done. i« 
'('Win aiill doing, what no urnanient of Art or Artifice could 
i.iif (lonr for iL Rough Samuel and filcek wheedling JaraBS 
■fm. and are not. Tlieir Lite and whole iH-rsonnl Enriron- 
inmi ha' melted into air. The Mitre Tavern hIIII standi) In 
fleet KtrneJ : but where now is its Hcot-and-lnl pnying, beef- 
Bod-alv loviii;;. coikeil-hBJIcd. pol-lMllied I^andlord ; it* TOsy- 
li«™»l autidiiuiis Landlady, wiih all her shinins! brass-|ian<, 
•axed tahles. well-lilled Unl<T-shelvcM : her nioks, and boot- 
, and erniud-boys, and wiih-ry-moutltL-d biingcrs-oQ ? 
e ! tiooe ! The becking Waller who, with wnwhcd 
• wont to ftpnitul for Samuel anil Boxxy their su|i- 
f i1m godj), bn» lung since pocketed bis last sixpeace ; 


and iani;lit:d, sixpences and all, like a giiost at cock-crowing. 
The Bottles they drunk out of ure all broken, llie Chairs 
they sat en all rotted and burnt ; the very Knives and Forks 
ihey ate with have runted to the heart, and become brown 
oxide of iron, and mingled nith Ihe indiscriminate clay. All, 
all hw vi)ni«lied ; in very de<;d and Irulh, like that buaele^ 
fabric of PTO9|>ero's air-vision. Of the Milre Tavern noth- 
ing but the bare walls remain there : of Londpn, of England, 
of the World, nothing hut ihe bare walU remw'n ; and these 
al'O decaying (were they of adamant), only slower. The 
mysterious River of Existence rushes on ; a new Billow 
thereof has arrived, and lai^hes wildly as ever round the old 
embnnkments ; but the former Billow with tU loud, mad 
eddying*, where is it? — Where! — Now this Book of Bos- 
well's, this is precisely a revocation of the edict of Destiny ; 
so that Time sliall not utterly, not so soon by several centu- 


ine-nllj scnuiilfksl Tor ' (he ibing tlicy calk-il tlie Rudder 
t Go* em men I, but which wa* in realitj- iLe Spigot of 
Thtil debates were held, and infinite jarring 
B JMfgoning took place ; and road-billi! uTid encloau re-bills, 
i gHiu^bilU and India-bills, and Law« which no aiun can 
ch bflppitj' Tew men needed lo trouble their 
with Uejutid the parsing tnomeiiL, were enacted, and 
d hy the King's Siulioner ? That hu who sat in Chan- 
ty, iind rayed out speculation from the Wonlaock, was now 
tiBmii thai B^uinli^, now a man llml did not Mjuinl'' To 
ill'' hungry and Ihiraty tnind all lliis avails next to iiothin^ 
1 .,-4! men and lhe«e things, we indeed know, did »wiin, by 
I'-ngih orbyEpvi'ifit; levity, as applet or a« hor-e-ilung, on ihe 
10)1 of the current : hut Is it by painfully noting tbt; coanes, 
«Uying> Mid bohbings hiiher and thither of such dritt-artidea, 
Ibu ytrn will uufuld to mc the nature of the current itself; 
III ihai mighty- rolling, loud-roaring Lifu-currenl, hotiomlesa 
m the fiiuudatiitna of the llnivcrac, mysierioug us its Autlior? 
TIn! tiling I want to suu if not Rcdbook Li^ls, and Court 
Odmdars, Kiid I'arliamentary Kegist<:r8, but Ibe Lifk op 
HaM in England : what men did, thought, suRisred, enjoyed; 
tki fono, eapfcially ibe spirit, of their terreetriul existence, 
it* udtward vnvimnment, its inward prineiple i how and tehat 
>t iiaei whenee it prucciilud, wliiilier it waa tending. 
Moumfol. in truth, is it to behold whtit the business ealled 
!li>4ory,* in thr$c no enlightened and illuminated titttr«, still 
iriiinuis lo he. Can you gather from it, reail till your 
t -> gik iHii, any dimmest shadow of an an>iwer to ihat 
.■■■M f|iiinition : llow men lived and had ibeir being; were 
iM ii «aNKimi(.-nlly, aa what wages they gul, and what they 
hnghi with these ? Unhappily you cannot. History will 
Ihuw BO light (HI any such mailer. At the point where 
li^DS ni-nMry fail», it b all ihirkness : Mr. Suiiior and Mr. 
Sidirr moet Mill il>-batc tliia simplest of all elements m The 
i> of iJiu Vast : Whether men were beitur off. u) Oielr 
I brden and pantries, or were worse oft than now ! 


History, as it stands all bound up in gilt volume^ ii but » 
sliade more inslruirlive than ihc wooden volumes of a Back- 
gammon-boanl. How my Priniu MiuUter was a))poinie«l it 
of less moment to me than How my House Servant iil< 
liired. In these diiys, ten orilinarj Histories of Kings nnd 
CourticTi^ were well eschaDjs;ed agaiost the tenth pan of one 
gooil Ili^ioiy of Bookiiellers. 

For example, I would fain know the History of Scotland; 
who can tell it me ? " Robertson," say innumerable voii-es; 
" Robertson against the world." I open Robertson ; and 
find there, througli long ages too confused for narraUre, and 
fit only lo be presented in the way of epitome and disiilled 
es.-enct, a cunning answer and hypothesis, not to Ibis ques- 
tion : By wliom, and by what means, when and how, was tbb 
fair broad Scotland, with its Arts and Slanu fact u res, Tem- 
ples. Schools, Institutions, Poetry. Spirit, Naiional Cbaracier. 
cn-ate<l. and made arable, verdant, peculiar, great, here as I 
oui >t.'e some fair section of it lying, kind and strong (like 


Lotd a^nst tbe miglitjr. We ask, with breaUile.-^ tsger- 
D(u» : How wu il ; iiow went it on ? Let ub un<]t<riiUiiil it, 
let a» iKv it. nml know il! — In reply, is htuidud ua a really 
graceful mi<I moat iluinly tittle Si-autlaluii» ClironJL-le (lu for 
"lie Journal of Faihiun) of two persom^ : Mary Sluart, a 
'•' .miy, liul over liglilheadcd ; unil Ilunry Daniley, a Dooby 
I'l liBil tine Irgs. How tliese lir«t courted, billed anJ cooed, 
"rdiri;; lo nature: tlien pouted, fretted, grew utierly en- 
<.->->l. nnJ likw unt^ anotlicr U[> with gunpowder: ibia, and 
"' ilw Hit^ury of Scotland, ii what wc goodnulumdly read. 
N»y, by otiier bunds, iiomeiliiiig like a borae-load of otber 
Baidu bavo b<M!n written to prove that it was the Beauty 
tk> blew up ibc Booby, and tlial it was not sbe. Who or 
wtat it was. tbe ibiiig onire lor all being so efiectuatly done, 
inncnM us lillle. To know Scotland, at that i;reai e|jocli, 
mn ■ valuable increa^ of knowledge : to know poor 
Ihmley. and see him with burning candle, from centre to 
din, wrro no itwreuso of knowledge at all. — Tbus 'n Ilia- 
l«7 .ri.tra. 

Iluncr, indcNid, comes it lliat Hisiory. which should be 
'tbecwcneeaf innumemble Biogrn|ihies,' will tell us, ques- 
lioa it a* we like, less than one genuine Biography may do, 
pitadantly and of lis own accord \ The liiDO is approach- 
':•■• wlicn Iliatory will lie attempted on quite other prlnci- 
I .< 1 wbeu the Court, llie Senate, and the Battle-lield, 
'-'-'linK more and more into the Viackground, the Temple, 
■'■■ Wurkehup atvl Soeial Hearth will advance more and 
■it: into the foreground; and History will not content 
-!t' with (haping some answer to that question : How were 
I' n taxed muI ttpl iputt then ? but will seek to answer this 
T inritiitely wider and liighi-r question: How ami what 
■ -■1 mm tiled ? Not our Government only, or tbe ' Hoiisf 
»U™n our life was led,' but tlie Life itself we led there, 
■in ba inquired into. Of which latter it may be found that 
SnttiMMnt. in any modem »onse of the word, is nOt^r all 
Wl ■ wcondary conilitlon : in the mere seiisa of TaxtUiim 



and Keeping </iiiel. a i^tutill, almoat a piliAil one. — M<»d- 
wUile let us wcluome sucli Boswells, each in bis degree, as 
bring us any gcnuiue uontribution, were it never so ■iuul&- 
quutc, ao inconsidt^rable. 

An exuipiion was early taken aguinst this lA/e of Johi*- 
ton, uud all similar (enterprises, wliicli we liere recommend; 
aiid lias been transmitted from eriiic to crilit, and repeated 
in their several dialects, uninterruptedly, ever since: That 
such juttings-down of careless conversation are an infringe- 
munt of social privacy; a crime against our highest Free- 
dom, the Freedom of man's intercourse with man. To ibii 
accusation, which we have read and heard otiener tlinn 
enough, might it not lie well for once to ofiur the flaiifJt cori- 
ti-ailiclion, and plea of ^ot at all guilty 1 Hot that conver- 
sation is noted down, but lliat conversation should not d» 
serve noting down, is the evil. Doubtless, if conversatitm 
be tklsely recorded, then is it simply a Lie ; and worthy of 
% swept, with all despatch, to the Father <£ Lies. Bui 


CUpniliir. To him tlint will well coiidiilr^r it, idle speaking 

b pTMiuelj tilt) beginning of all UuIluwDese, Halfneiid, fy^- 

Mkf (want of Faitlifulnesn) ; the g*^nia1 almosphcre in 

which rank wcc<U of evcr^ kind ailuiii the niiielery uver 

ootile IVuita in man's litW, sud utterly clioko (bcm gut: one 

uf ilw ■no'^i crjing maladies of these daya, anil to be ivstifivd 

tputuL, mill in nil vfaj» la the utiennoifl witlislood. Wiae, 

'-'' II wiriiMD far btryoud our «baliuw dojitti, was thai old pi'e- 

j<:: Wal<Ji My longue ; out oi' it nre the imucs of Life! 

M.m is properly u» iacamaitd wuril:' ilie leortl thai he 

-iik-i i. the man himself. Were eyes put into our head. 

. '•- :ijiit|)1 tee: or only thai we laight fancy, ami pku- 

1 f!-inl. wt< bad itettf WuB the tongue nuspeudud 

:i , iliiii ii might lell truly wliat we hud seen, and make 

.Mi tliir >oul'«-broiJier uf man: or only iliut il might utter 

1111 MiuntLi, jargou, soul-courufiiiig, and io Jit^de luaii, aa 

' pni-iuuitcil walls of Dnrkncss, from union with man? 

' >uii who wettrwt that cunning, heavcn-mude organ, a 

i '!ieu<\ ihiok well of tfiis. Speak not, I [lassionalely 

limit thcv, till tliy thought huvc silently matured iL»otf, 

<iU Lbou luive other ilmn mad aiid mad-niaking noi««s to 

tnit: ^Jd thy tongut (thou ba^l it a-bolding) till mma 

ttMiuDg lilt behind, lu set it wu}^>ng. Consider tlie sig- 

'^tflraiHW of Silence : it is boimdleHs, nt^ver by meditaUng 

lie cxhrniMied ; unspeakubly profitable lo ihec ! Cease 

I'll chaotii-* hubbub, wherein thy own soul runs lo wnale, to 

iiiifuMn) suicidal dislocation and stupor : out of Silence uomes 

ibj •tmngih. ' Speech is silvern. Silence is golden ; Speech 

» hunuui, Silenwi U divine.' Foolt tliinkesi thou that bo- 

nwe B« Itoew«U is there willi asfr-«kin and hlacklead U> note 

%JU)|DII, h therefore dies and is harmless? Nothing dies, 

Mlklnf out (lie. Ku itlleai word thou epfake«t but is n seed 

(Ml 'mto Tinie. and grows llirough all Eternity 1 The Re- 

^■di^t Angvl, conaidrr it well, is no fable, but the truest of 

QnUtt : Die paper lableta thuu canst bum ; of llic ■ inm leaf 

ikrre '» no baming. — Truly, if no uaii permit God Abnighiy 


lo note tlowu our conver»>ii(Hi, tliinking it good enongh fix 
Him, — ftnj pour Boawell need not scrapie lo work hb will 
of it. 

Leaving now tbia our English Odyitff, with its Singer and 
ScholiafI, lei u» come In lilt (Jlt/i«e$ ; ibat gi^ai Samuel 
Johnson hitn^«df, ihe fiir-expefienc«i. ' miich^enduring mu,' 
whose labours and pilgrimage are here sang. A fnll-lenglJi 
image of his Exi^Ience has been preserved for us : and be, 
perhaps of all living EnglUhmen, was the oiaf wbo beit 
deserved that honour. For if )t is true, and now uhntKl 
prorerb'tal, thai ' the Life of the lowest mortal, if EsitlifuBT 
rvcurded, would be inter&-ling lo the ht^esl ; * boiw much 
more when the mortal in question was already di'slingaished 
in fortune and natural qualiir, M that his thinkiogs and do- 
ingi were not .lignidcant of bim-self only, but of large masMf 
of mankind ! ■ There it not a man wliora I meo4 on the 
streets,' savs one, * but I could like., were il 


leap iw rci'hnning, nnl; ietp in tight of the Unship, — and 

Itb. Hrmii tUe Ci>mtnu(lor(!'s PB^iers (know hii Life) ; and 

mn yoor lover of Uial mreel Biography will hnve learned 

ihc moat of what he Mughi after. 

r>r, the servile imifunry. aixl yei alw a nobler relationship 

1 mjnierioiis union to one anoiher wliith lies in such imi- 

.:i>'j, uf Manltind might be illu^trateil tinder the ditferent 

il*eir nowise original, of a Floek of Sheep. She«p 

ftock> for ihrrH! rvHsons: First, becnuse ihej are of a 

pvgariooA temper, unci love to lie together : Se«)ndly, be- 

of their TOwardice ; tliey are afraid to be led alone : 

r, bec«iife the common nin of them are dull of i^ight, 

iprover^ nud can hare no choiw in roads ; $becp urn in 

•e« nothing 1 in ii cclc«lial Luminary, and a Fieoured 

ir-ii«r Tankard, would discern only that boih dazzled them, 

■1 wer* of unspeakable glory. How like their fellow* 

i'-^iiam of the luman species 1 Men too, aa was from the 

: maintained here, are gregarious; then surely laint- 

■ irtnj cpuugli. trerahling lo be left by tliemselves ; above 

:. 'JuU-sigbicd, down to the verge of utter blindness. Thua 

*» wr iTKtt ever running in torrents, and mubs, if we run at 

>l i and afler what fuulish scoured Tankard*:, mistaking them 

i)t Saos ! Fot)hsh Tnmip-laniems likewise, to all appear- 

""^ ■upcmnluml, keep whole nalians quaking, their hair on 

1. Na-ilher krww we, csccpt by bliud habit, where the 

- "1 jmxiiirKa Ke: solely when the sweet gniss is between 

•r taelb. we know ii, and ehew it ; aira when gnuta iii bitter 

alMani, we know ii, — and bleat and butt: ihr^e last two 

fad* we know uf a truth and in venr' deed. Thus do Men 

■diJhecp play their pans on tliib Ntther Earth ; wandering 

MdoUy nt large masses, they know not whither; for most 

pn, cacli Jbllowiug his neighbour and IiIt* own nose. 

Kntnhehws, not always ; look belter, you sliall find cer- 
^ Ihu tk>, in some amall di-gree. hiow viKithtr. Shf^i-p 
taw llieir Bell-wether; *ome mm of ilip folds, endued with 
■■• Titlour. with clearer viivion than oihor «hcep ; ho Iead4 



tlii^iii llirough ihii wolds, bjr height nnd hollow, lo the nooda 
nnd waler-coursea, for covert or for pleasant provender; 
roil ragcou sly marching, and if ne<?d be leaping, and with hoof 
and horn doing iinttle in the van : liim they couiageougly 
and with assured heart follow. Touching it is, as every 
h>'iil~man will infuna you, vrith what chivalrous devotedne«8 
iht-e woolly Hosts adhere 10 their Wether; and rusb after 
him, through good report and through had report, wer« it 
into liafe shelters and green thyroy nooks, or into asphaltic 
laki-u and the Jaws of devouring lions. Ever also mast we 
re.iiU that fact which we owe Jean Pavl'--' quick eye : ■ If 
' you hold a stick betbre the Wether, so that he, by necewiiy, 
' lenp.J in passing you, and then withdraw your stick, the 
'Flock will aovertheless nil leap as he did; and the thou- 
'simdlh sheep shall be found impetuously vaulting over air, as 
•the first did over an otherwise impassable barrier.' Reader, 
wouldst thou understand Society, ponder well those ovine 
iroL'ei'dlngs ; thou wilt find them all curiously significant. 


ludicrous lo Uie suliliinc and sncird siile of the rantter (»ince 
I trvery mailer lliere nre two sides), Imve not we nlso a 
'tirniKKD, 'if wc mill but hew his voice?' Of llio*o 
:ii|Md mallitudes tliere i^ tiogne but has an immortal Soul 
oiibin him; a reflex nnd living imnge of God's whole Uni- 
vi?rt« ; strangely, from tl!« dim environmeiil, the liglit of tlie 
nigtirM loolu tliroit;;h liitn; — for which reason, ind«;eil, it ia 
lUtt we claim n brothcrliood wiih him, and so lore lo know 
U« HiitDry, and come into dearer mid clearer union with ull 
ihal be feci*, and s»yt, and does. 

floircvcr, ttie uhief thing lo be noted was this ; Amid 

iliiH« dull uillioui!, who, as a dull flm-k. roll hither and 

lliiilirr, nbilher^oerrr ihcy an; led ; and ^eem all ^iglitlosa 

iind slarish, nccHmgilisliin};, nItem)U!ng lillle save wliut the 

iTmal instinct In its somewliat liiglier kind might teaeh, To 

• vp iheni*clvcs and their yoimg one* alive, — are scattered 

'irrp and there superior natures, whose eye is not deslilate 

a( fh!« viaion, nor ihcir heart of free volition. These latter, 

llansforp, examine ami determine, not what others do, but 

«kt it i» right lo do ; towai-ds whieli, and which only, wilj 

fcy. with such force as is given them, resolutely endeavour: 

(r if ihft Machine, living or inanimnie. is merely Jed, or 

Mrca lo be fed, and »o iDortt i the Person can teilt, and 

B A. Tha*c am property onr Men, our Great Men ; the 

pdifetoT the doll host. — wbieU follows ihem as by an irrev 

toMt decree. They are the eiiojcn of the world : ibey 

A tlib rare faculty not only of ' sn{i|K)sing' and 'inclining 

LliUi^* but of tnoieing and helievin^ i the nature of their 

' g WM, ibut tliey lived not liy Hearsay, but by cU^r Vi^ 

L fat wiule <Mb(.Ts hovered and swam along, in the grand 

Tnky-fUr of the 'World, blinded by the mere Shows of 

!*e nw into the Things themselves, and could walk 

If am baring an eierruil loadstar, and with their feet on 

nne |«tlis. Thus was there a BfoHlg in their Misicncv; 

•TOtlhing of A perennial diameter ; in virtue of which io- 

i^ jl i» tiimk Uw nwiBury uf tUem ia pcrenniaL Vfbata 


bt'Iong* only to liis own age, and reverences only it* gilt 
FiipinJHya or sool-sm eared Mumbqj umbos', must needs die 
with it : though lie have been crowned seven tiniMi in tlie 
Ca|iilol, nr seventy trnd seven timeii, nnd Rumour have blown 
his prtkJM^ to all Ihe four winds, deafening every ear there- 
with, — it Rvaik nol ; there was notliing universal, nothing 
elemal in him ; he must fade away, even as the I'opinjay- 
gildings and Scarecrow-apparel, whiuh he could nol see 
through. The great man dc>e», in good truth, belong to bis 
own age ; nny, more so thnn any other man ; being properly 
the eyiiopiiis and epilome of such age with its interests end 
influences : but belongs likewii^e to all ages, otherwise he is 
not great. What was transitory In him passes away ; and 
an immorlnl part remain^ the significance of which is in 
strict speech incKhaustible, — as that of every rrai object if. 
Alofl, conspicuous, on his enduring basis, he stands tluuv. 
serene, unalteriiig ; silently addresses to every new genera* 
mition. Well is his Life worth 


Bttriiin' ihprwif ! bclioH how he can bccwnic llic ' Announce 
of liiniac If and of bis Freedutn : ' and U ever what ih« 
Tliinker Las named liiot, ' tho Meaeias of Knture ! ' " — Tea, 
Rimler, all tiiw rhnt thou hast so often heard nhoui ■ force of 
circuiniUinc<r«.' * lite creature of Ihe time," ' Imlancing of tna- 
tivfv,' lUid who knows whnt melancholy ^lufl* lo iho like pur- 
purl, whc-n'in ihou, as in a nightmare Dream, sitteM pant' 
IjimI, and liasi no forra left. — \taA in vt^ry Irulh, if Johnson 
anit waking men arc 10 be cntdited. little other than a hag- 
nilileii virion of death-fleep ; soma Aalf-fitct, more fiiral at 
llian n whole falsehood. Shake it off: awake : np and 
doing, even an it u given llii.*e I 

Tbe Contradiclion which yawn^ wide enough in every 
'Ufir, whieb it is the meaning nnd task of Life to reeoncilc, 
was In JolmMHi'i^ wider ihaii in must. Seldom, fur any man, 
lut* llic rontrast between (he elii«real heavenward »idc of 
liiin^ Biid the dark lordid eartliwurd, been more glaring : 
"hi'thfTWe look at Nature's work with liim or Furiune'^, 
ii'in lirst to In-il, hctenigeneiiy, us of sunbeams and miry 
i^iv. i. on all hands manifest. Whereby indeed, only ihia 
"ai d<'clBrfd, That mue/i Lift had been gi^en him ; many 
tltiag* In triumph over, a great work lo da. Happily also 
tic Jid h : belter than tlie moM. 

Nalore had given him a liigh, kcen-risioned, almost poetic 
wdi yet withal im|irisuned it in an iiten, nn^ghlly body: 
h« tint toviA never fmI had not limbs that would move with 
Mn. but only roll and waddle : the inward eye, sll-penctmt- 
-z. all-vuibraetng, must look through bodily windows that 
"•» dim. half-blinde^l ; he so loved men, and ' never once 
'><e the hnman face divine 1 ' Not less did he priae Ihe love 
1 wa* eminejitly soeial ; tiitj approbation of Iii« 
dear tii him. * valuable,' aa he owned. ' if from 
of human beingi : ' yet ihe flritt impre^ion ha 
every man wa.'' to be one of aversion, altrKKt 
»f diigaM. By Nature il wai further ordered that the imp<'- 
nm JaliMUii ithould iir liorn poor : the ruh;i>-80ul, strong in 



ii? unlive royalty, generoug, uncontrollable, like ihe Hon of 
tlie woods, wag to be boused, then, in such a dwelling-jilace : 
of DisfiguremenI, Disease, and lastly of a Poverty whicli 
itself made him the servant of servants. Tliiis was the born 
kitig likewise a bom ?lave : the divine spirit of Alu^ie ma^t 
II wake imprisoned amid dull-croaking uuiveisal Discords; 
tlie Ariel finds himself encased in the coarse hulls of a Cal- 
iUin. So is il more or leas, we know (and thou, Rt^ider, 
kiiowest and fcelest even now), with all men : jet with th« 
fewest men in any audi degree as with Johnson. 

Fortune, moreover, which had so managed his &rgt appear- 
Hiice in the world, lets not her band lie idle, or turn (he olJier 
i\ay, hut works unweariedly in the same spirit, while he is 
journeying through the world. What such a mind, slamped 
of Nature's noblest metal, though in so ungainly a die, was 
tliecially and best of all fitted for, might slill be a question. 
To none of the world's few Incorporated Guilds could ho 
i adjusted himself without difficulty, without distortion ; 


H<ipnM bardly ihe smnllest crannj or dogbutch, and mys, not 
wllliout iup^rii; : Then*, that is iliine while thuu can^l keep 
it ; »L-«il« thyself there, anA blu^ Iluiven '. Aim, men must 
fit <lifBit«lve« Into many things : some forty ytare ago, for 
intUncci lb« noblrid and ablest Man in all the British luiiila 
niglil be seea not avuying the royal sL'ejUre, or the ponliff*^ 
i;efi»er, on ihe pinnacle of the Wurlil, btit gauging ale-lubs 
io tlic lililc bux^h uf Dumfries ! Johnson came a littlis 
Bcar«r ihe mark than Burnii: but with him lou, ' LSirengih 
WM mournfully denied its arena j ' he loo had to fight For- 
tunr at iitnuige odds, all his life long. 

JobiuonV disposition fur royally (hud the Fates so ordered 
ii) u trell se«n in early boyhood. ' His favourites,* iv.ya 
Ri)t«rel], 'used to roceivc very Uhfral assistan(^e frora him; 
.ind eu«b was tbc submis.<ion and deference vith nhich he 
oas treated, tliat (hn-c of tho boys, of whom Mr. He<^r 
' <3U somctimi's one, iiaed to conie in the morning as his 
'hacabk attendants and carry liiui lu s<-hooI. One in the 
'niddiv Fioopnl, while he sat ui>on his l)ack, and one on 
'(■di >idi9 HUpiMried him \ and thus wus he borne Iriura- 
'ptiant.' Tho purfly, Hind-blind lubber and blubber, nhh 
tu o[iFn moulh, and face of bruised lioneyconib ; yet already 
■kminant, imperial, irresistible! Noi in the 'King's-chair' 
(of tuuiian arnij), as we see, du his tliree satellites carry 
Uq •long : rather on tint Tyrtmft-taddl^. the baek of his 
feOow-cnslDrr, must he ride prosperous ! — The child is 
Uier of the man. He who had st^en fiAy years into com- 
ia> Time, would hare felt llinl little spectacle of mischievoii!) 
'riuoUwy* to bi! u grrnt one. For us, who look back on it, 
tiki whiU fftllowed it, now from afiir, there arise que>«iiona 
iwu-ti: Koir looked tlicsi^ urchins? Whni j]>cket$ and gnl- 
lvtfkin« tmd they ; felt headgear, or of dogskin leather ? 
What was old Lichfleld doing then i what thinking? — and 
■4 M. tlunugh llie whole series of Corporal Trim's 'auxil- 
«>7 FfrfM,' A pii-lure of it all fitshions iiself togclhor; — 
<aly nnluippily wr havo no brush, and no fingers 


Boyhood is now past ; the ferula of Pedagogtie wave* 
Imrmless, in the distance: Sainitc] has struggled up to un- 
I'liLLili bulk and youllihood, wroslling with Disease and Pov- 
i-i'iv, all ilic wiiy ; which two continue slill his caiD))amons. 
At College we >iee little of him ; yet thiu mudi, that things 
m.'iii not tveli. A rugged wililman of the desert, awakened 
lu t)ie feeling of himself; proud as tlie proudest, poor as the 
piHirej't ; stoically shut up, silently emluring tho incurable: 
w)iul a world of blackest gloom, with sun-gleains and pale 
1i';iL-fiil niQon-glcani-i, and flickeriugs of a celestial and an in- 
I'l'iniil splendour, was this that now ojiened for him ! Bui 
the wealher \a wintry ; and the loc,-^ of the man are looking 
through his shoe^i. His muddy feature-) grow of a purple and 
ar'H-gi'een colour ; a flood of black in<]ignation mantling be- 
neath. A truculent, raw-boned figure! Meat he has prob- 
ably liltle ; hope he has less ; his feel, as we said, have come 
into briHhcrhood with the cold mire. 

Iinll 1 he juiriii:uliir,' inqairci Sir John Hawldm, ' 


liear oar Knight, how he farther discourses. 'Johnson/ 
quoth Sir John, oould ' not at this earlj period of his life 
*■ divest himself of an idea that poverty was disgraceful ; 
^and was verj severe in his censures of that economy in 

* both our Universities, which exacted at meals the attend- 
*ance of poor scholars, under the several denominations of 
' Servitors in the one, and Sizers in the other : he thought 

* that the scholar's, like the Christian life, levelled all dis- 

* tinctions of rank and worldly preeminence ; but in this he 
' was mistaken : civil |x)lity ' &c. &c. — Too true ! It is 
man's lot to err. 

However, Destiny, in all ways, means to prove the mis- 
taken Samuel, and see what stuff is in him. He must leave 
these butteries of Oxford, Want like an armed man com- 
pelling him ; retreat into his father's mean home ; and there 
abandon himself for a season to inaction, disap|K)intment, 
.<liame and nervous melancholy nigh run mad : lie is prob- 
ably the wretchedest man in wide England. In all ways, he 
loo must ' become |>ei'fect through suffering.* — High thoughts • 
lave visited him ; his College Exercises have been praised 
beyond the walls of College ; Pope himself has seen that 
Tran$Uition^ and approved of it : Samuel had whispered to 
himself: I too am * one and somewhat.' False thoughts ; 
that leave only misery behind! The fever-fire of Ambition 
i-s too painfully extinguished (but not cured) in the frost- 
bath of Poverty. Johnson has knocked at the gate, as one 
Having a right ; but there was no o|)ening : the world lies all 
tncircled as with brass ; nowhere can he find or force the 
smallest entrance. An ushership at Market Bosworth, and 
'a disagreement between him and Sir Wolstan Dixie, the 
palroQ of the school,' yields him bread of afiiiction and water 
of affliction ; but so bitter, that unassisted human nature 
cannot swallow them. Young Samson will grind no more 
in the Philistine mill of Bosworlh ; quits hold of Sir Wol- 
stan, and the ' domestic chaplaincy, so Car at lea>t as to 
^y grace at table,' and also to be * treated with what he 


repreienCtJ as inioliarablv Iin.r9]iness ; ' and so, after 'some 
months of such ooiuiiliuaieil misery,' fueling doubllesi tkat 
ibere art w'or9« ibings in the world ihan quiet duih liy 
Fmnine, ' rt'llDquuilies a Ml uiition, which all his life ofter- 
' ward« ht rcculkuicd with ihc etroogesl aversioD, aud even 
* horror.' ilea like Johnsou are properly called the Forlorn 
Uo|ie of ihL- World: jud^ whether bis hope was furiom or 
not, by ihi-i Letter lo a dull oily Printer, wbo called biia- 
^KSff/camu Urban: 

' Sir, — As joti Appear no hst aendble than jour readers at die 
derecl of jour poetical artiL'lp, jou will not be diipleased if (in ordK 
lo the imprareiuenl of it) I comaiunicalc to joa like teDtimeiit* of a 
penon who will underulie. on reaBuoablc lemu, lometimcs to fill a 

' HU npiriiun ii, that tlie publjo vouUt,' &c. &c 

' If tut-li a conTSponJtDLv will U' ajtiveabk- lo Jou, be pleated to 
inlitnii nil' in iwu posU, wlint lliv condilioni ore on which jou ahall 
vxpetl il. Voiir latf ufliT (for ■ PHj* Poem) gitea roe no reason to 
diitrusl your gcneroiilv. If joa eogaijt in any litetary projecu 



i with {"^elt^ club, whose spci^-L no mun knew, uliost! 

look all men botb laughed M and isbudtlered at, should find 

■D)' brave fcmalL- hcurl to tickiiow ledge, at first siglit and 

luiai-iiig of liim, " Tliu is llie most sonEiblc nmu I ever loet 

whh ; " nnd Uitti with generous courage, to take bim to 

itaiAC, luid ^y. Be thou tuine ; be thou warmed bere, and 

wwod to life ! — in all this, in the kiud Widow's love and 

for him, in Johtisou's love and gnilitude, tlicre is 

ter for ridit;ule. Their wedded life, m 

i the common lot, was made up of drizzle luid dry weatb- 

;■« and worth dwelt in it ; and wben death 

hxi ended it, a certain sacreduesa : Johnson's deaihleea 

■Section for liis Teity was always venerable and noble. 

HowcvvT, be lliis as it uiiglil, Jolinson is now minded to 

"tj; and will live by the trade of Pedagogy, for by this 

:-i may life be kept in. Let tlie^world iherelbre take 

-Uwt ; 'Al Ediat nrur Lic/ijidti, in Staforiithire, youug 

i-»dtmei\ an hoardttl, oiul taught the Latin and Gtttk 

iiHguagft, fty — S*JirEL Juhmson.' Had tliis Edial 

';L:>-r|>riBC (irosfiered, bow different might tbe issue have 

'frii! Johnson had live<l a life of unnotiwd nobleness, 

i-wuln inio Mjinu uuiorpbous Di-. Farr, of no avail to 

" : liazzy would have dwindled into ufiicial insigniR- 

OMc, or tWn by somu oilier elevaiiuii ; old Auchinleck 

W never biMtn afHicled witli " unc that koepcd a schule," 

«ol>Sgt<l to viululv tioipiiality by a " Cromwell do 'f God, 

''r, H« gart khip ken tliat there wiw a /ifA in tbeir neck I " 

I'll the ICdial eiit<T|iriM} did not prosper; Destiny had 

liTwork Bppuinli-d for Samuel Johnson ; and young gcn- 

il'iuMi pit board where ihey coidd elsewhere find ii. Tbis 

u» was to become a Twichcr of grown gcndemen, in ihe 

■M Mirpri«ing way ; a Slan of Letters nnd Ruler of the 

Bniirii Natkm for some lime, — not of their bodies merely 

W id their inind<, ikiI mier them but in tliem. 


ir of Lilemture could n 

1 Johnson'* day, any 


Dion: [han now, be said to lie along tiie chores of a Paclolu^ : 
whatever olse might be gathered there, gold-dust nas no- 
wise the cliief produce. The world, from the times of Soc- 
rates, St. Paul, and fnr earlier, lias alwaju had ilji Teach- 
ers ; and always treated them in a peculiar waj-. A shrewd 
Towiiclerk (not of Ephetius), once, in founding a Rurgh- 
Seniiaarif, when the question came, How the Sehoolmasien 
fihuuld be maiDtained ? delivered ihis brief counsel : "^ D — n 
them, keep them poor ! " Considerable wisdom maj lie in 
this ajihori.iQi, At all eventi^ we Bee, the world has ttcled on 
it long, and indeed improved on it, — putting many a School- 
master of its great Uurgh-Semiaary to a deall), which eren 
cost it something. The world, it is true, had for some time 
been loo busy to go out of it^ way, and put any Author to 
death ; however, the old sentenra pronounced agninst them 
was found to be pretw sullicieiil. The first Writers, bciitg _ 
Monk?, were Hworn to a vow of Poverty ; the modem Au- 
thors had no need to swear to it. This was the epodi wkeo 



Acrorjingly we find 
uf London, whfn this 

(iciilion of IlluRiina(iotif) in llie ciiy 

; Kulcr of the British Nnlion ar- 

os lire fireil ; no tlourisli of ilrums 

i trumpcu greeU his appearance on ihe scene. IIci (rnters 

) (|UiM]^, with M>tne <x^pi.-r hnUpenn.' in his pocket ; 

t into lodging in Exi-t<?r Sireet, SiraiiJ ; uniJ liaa n 

Foiiiiff a]«o, iiT not leM peculiar equipment, 

whocR. witfi oil aiibmifsivcnesa, lie miisl wail upon, in hia 

Vniicau uf St. Julio's GhI«. Tills is llie dull oil;- Printer 

»1lud«l to above. 

<ari<'* lumper,' Mjn out Knight lUwkini, 'va* {ihlegnialic : 

M-fh hr U9um»l, u tlle puhlltUvr of thu MnKOzine. the narao of 

-vivuma I'rban. Iiv hail fi'W or thmv quBlllii't llial tonstitutr uriNui- 

' Judge of hi* want uf llirm \iy tliia qurnliuii, wliicli he onue put 

ID BUiiior : " Mr. . 1 hear joa have jiut piihliihcd a pntnphk'l, 

'I im lutil tli«re ii a very iewhI paragraph iit it upon the ■iiliject 
. manic - (lid y»ii write llinl jiiiiriwlf t " Ilia ili>oemiii»lll wm alait 
I'* , Buit •» Iw had ■Ircadf at lii« cmnmancl lome writer* of prow 
-'■■i imv. w)io, in Ihi> btn^NKi- uf Buulcscllera, are iilltJ gooil, lif vai the hai'Lvanler In makinj; ailvaiiix*, or courliug an 
n'.imai;; wttli Joliiuun. UpiHt tho first approach at n (CratiKcr. hii 
inrtkv WW to iHintiiinc titling ; a puoture in which he wa> vver to 
Wftand, Kai tar a firw minutei In continue tilent : if at any time 
Wwa* huitiiKHl tu Ivpn tlic discourse-, it wu grnvrBlly hy pulling 
• iMf df dM &Ug«tine. then in the prvM, into the hand of hit viiltor, 
lid aaUtig Ma ufntiiDn oT it. • • • 

'Be waa lO lnooinp<>tvnl a judge of Julinaim') abiliUee, that mean- 
tal at iHH> tinip lo ilnnlp lilm with the aph-ndaur of aomc of tlinac lu- 
ainvira in lilmlun-. who faronred him witli their corretpomlenee, 
tf MM liini thaiif lu' wniihl,lnlhevvening,twatacerlaia alvhoueein 
Ka Balghtmirhnoil of CIcrhcnwell, be might have a duuice of aenng 
Mr. Btnwnc siul anoihcr or two of thone illuatrlons contribatora : 
tobnann iuii»plnl Ilic initiation ; and being inlroduceil by Cbto. 
'"lard ID a loan! Iionrmani coni, and aiit'h a great bushy wifC a* h« 
I'tintlr won', to ilie aigbi of Mr. Browne, whom he fouml aitting 
'-. 'be nppnr i^d of a long lahle, in a doud of tobocco-tmoke. had hU 
ivMty (n«tifl«rl.' ■ 

In bd, if w« louk seriously into ilie 
I nawklna, pp. 4e-«0. 

mdiiion uf Author- 


shi|i a) that perioJ, we shall find tlint Johnson hud umler- 
taken one of the ruggeJ^st of all possible enterprises ; that 
here as elsewhere Forlune had given him unspeakahle Con- 
tradictiona to reconcile. For a mim of Johnson's slump, iho 
Frohlem was twofold : First, not only aa tlie humble bnt in- 
dii^penaahle coudition of all else, to keep himself, if so might 
be, olive ; but secondly, to ke«p himself alive by speaking 
forih the TVidh that was to him, and iipeaking it tr^ily, that 
is, in the cleareal and fittest utterance the Heavens had ena- 
bled hini to give it, let the Earth say to this what she liked. 
Of which twofold Problem if it be hard to solve either mem- 
ber separately, how incalculably more so to solve i(, when 
both are conjoined, and work wiih endless complicjilion into 
one another ! He that finds himself already kfpi alire can 
sometimes (unhappily not always) speak a lillte truth ; he 
that finds himself able and willing, to all lengths, to gprat lin, 
may, by watching how the wind sits, scrape together a liveli- 
, sometimes of great splendour : he, tigain, who finds 

e bung togetber, and been ibc orgnn nnd sustenance, anil 
OKthml of aclioH. for men iliat rea^anoU and were alive. 
Traiwlale a Fnlichooi] which h wholly false into Praclico, 
tlie riuuU coulee nut 3 

derivi^ from ii. That >n an age, wlien a Nubletuan was Btill 
noUc, *till with hi* wealtli the protector of worthy aud hn- 
nuiw ihinga. and itill vcnerut(.'d us Bucti, a pour Man uf 
Gcniti^ hid hnithtir in laobleneas should, with unfeigned rev- 
CMOM, Bildre«i^ bini and sny : " I have tbiiiid Wisdom here, 
and would feign proelairn it abroad ; wile iliou, of thy ftbun- 
daaer, afford nip the means?" — in all this there was no 
buen«Hi it was wholly an hnneat propoiiul, which a free 
nan might mtUc, mid a free man listen to. So might a Tas- 
t-y. wilk a Gertunlemmr in hiii hand or in bis head, speak to a 
Hribe of Fcrmra : so luigbt a Shukepeare to his Southnmp- 
I. : and Continental Artists generally to their rich Proteo- 
I 1--, — ill tom« ooiiuirie^, down almost to ih&se days. It was 
nnly wlien tbe reverence became /eiffned, that baseness en- 
tirpd mto tli« irAiiaaclion on both »ideB ; and, indeed, flour- 
bhral there with mpid luxuriance, till llist heeanie dbgraeeful 
Itr m Drydvn, whleli a Shaktpeare could once practice wilh- 

Nfither, it is verj- true, was the new way of Bookseller 

U'r^ntualiip worthless i whieb opened itself At this juncture, 

' ' lit* ino*t important of all tmnsporl -trades, now when the 

I way had become too miry atul impassable. Remark, 

i"i>reover. how tbi« second sort of Mecsenanshi]), after cnrry- 

itig u* liirtHigh nearly a century of Literary Time, appears 

na» 10 bav« wellnigb di^hargud lis function also ; nnd to be 

wAiog pT«ity rapidly towards some third melhcMl, the ejact 

rv^diikitu of which are yet nowist! visible. Thus alt things 

^Miie thrir end ; and we should part wilh them all, not in 

"I", but in pr«ce. The Bookseller-System, during its 

i' "ilinr c-uiury, tin- whole of tlie eiglUeenlh, did 0«rry us 

iti'li.milj along; and many good Works il h«s left us, and 

1 1' :■ Liio-i Men il maintained : if it is now expiring by PtrF- 


KUV. as the Ptttronagc-Sj-slem diii by Flattert (for Lying 
is ever ihe forerunner of Dealli, nay 19 itscU' Dealh), let ii» 
not forget ils beneGta ; bow it nursed Literature tbrougli boy- 
hood unJ school-years, as Patronage hud wrapped it in soft 
swaddling-band* ; — till now we see it about (o put on the 
toga virilii, could it but ^nrl any such ! 

Tliere is tolerable travelling on the beaten road, run how 
it may ; only on the new road not yut levelled and pavod,aiul 
on the old road all broken into ruts and quagmires, is the trav- 
elling bad or impracticable. The difficulty lies always in the 
traiisilion from one method to another. In which state it was 
that Jolin^n now found Literature ; and out of which, let U4 
idso say, lie manfully carried it. What remarkable roorUl 
Jint paid copgright in England we hare not ascertained ; 
perhaps lor almost a ctmtury before, some scarce risible or 
ponderable pittance of wage4 had occasionally been yielded 
bj the Selli'r of Books to the Writer of them ; the original 
Cineniint, stipulating to produce Paradite Loil on the one 


poDoted bj sycophancy, before it could come to hand ; the 
Bookseller's was deformed with greedy stupidity, not to say 
entire wooden-headedness and disgust (so that an Osborne 
even required to be knocked down, by an author of spirit), 
tnd could barely keep the thread of life together. The one 
was the wages of suffering and poverty ; the other, unless 
joa gave strict heed to it, the wages of sin. In time, Johnson 
had opportunity of looking into both methods, and ascertain- 
mg what they were ; but found, at first trial, that the former 
would in nowise do for him. Listen, once again, to that far- 
fiuned Blast of Doom, proclaiming into the ear of Lord Ches- 
terfield, and, through him, of the listening world, that patron- 
age should be no more ! 

'Seren years, mj Lord, hare now past, since I waited in your out- 
vard rooms, or was repulsed from your door ; during which time I 
bare been pushing on my Work ^ Uirough difficulties, of which it is 
useless to complain, and have brought it at last to the verge of pub- 
lication, without one act of assistance,^ one word of encouragement, or 
one smile of favour. 

• The Shepherd in Virgil grew at last acquainted with Love, and 
foanil him a native of the rocks. 

' Is not a patron, my Lord, one who looks with unconcern on a 
man struggling for life in the water, and when he has reached ground, 
encumbers him with help 1 The notice which you have been pleased 
to take of my labours, had it been early, had been kind : but it has 
been delayed till I am indifierent and cannot enjoy it; till I am solitary 
tod cannot impart it ; till I am known and do not want it. 1 hope, it 
«• no very cynical asperity, not to confess obligations, where no benefit 
bwbeen received ; or to be unwilling; that the public should consider 
loe u owing that to a patron which Providence has enabled me to 
'Jo for mvself. 

■ Having carried on my Work thus far with so little obli«;ation to 
My fiiTourer of learning ; I shall not be disappointed though I should 
conclude it, if less be possible, with less : for I have long been awak- 
«»«i from that dream of hope, in which I once boasted myself with 
*oiuuch exultation. 

'My Lord, your Ixirdship's most humble, most obedient ser- 

* Sam. Johnson.' 

' The Englitk Dictionary. 

^ Were lime and printer's space of no value, it were easy to wash away 


Anil llnis must llic rebellious ' Sam. Jolinj^uii ' luni hint lo 
ilii- Bookac'Uing guild, and the wondrous chaos of ' Aullior by 
trade;' and, tiaough ushered into it only by that dull oily 
Printer, ' with loose horsetnan'a coat nud suth a great bushy 
' wig as lie (!onslantiy wore,' and only a^ eubaltei-a lo »)ine 
coram uiiding-offlcer ' Browne, sitting amid tobiicoo-sinoke at 
' the head of a long tiible in the alehouse at Clerkenwell,' — 
gii'd himself together for the wurfure ; having no altema- 

Little less ctinlrndiclory wns that other branch of the two- 
fold ProLilem now set before Johnson : the apeaking forth of 
Tntlh, Nay taken by itself, it had in those days become so 
comjilex as to puzzle strongest headn, with nothing else Jni- 
])04ed on llicin for solution ; and even lo turn high liexils of 
that .=ort into mere hollow vhardt, speaking neither truth iior 
faljidiood, nor anything but what the Prompter and Player 
(vTtn/pirw) put into them. Alas! for poor Johnson Con- 
ion abounded; in spirituals and in tenipomls, within 


!■ I )«1«, tnimmemWi.- Jhj-s iilsi, nn<l twiilering S;>iir- 

1 the )iuU40lop, [irclt^ndeil lliey wure rcpcHling her. 

iM wliollj a divideil ngi}, llmt of Johnson ; Unity ex- 

fcl nowhere, in its Heaven, or in its Earth. HocKty, 

"i every fibre, wai ronr asunder: all things i' *"< 

■ bitmming visible, hai poniil not ihcn be undemXood, were 

kig onw)Lr<J«, with an impulse received ages liefow, yel 

r firvt wiih a det-iitive rapidity, lotvard'' lliHt great chaotic 

t'liir. whiire, whether in the shape or French Itcvolutionii, 

RHnrm IlilU, nr wliat shape soever, bloody or bloodless, the 

iteH-Enl and mgiiirm'Tit Hssiime, we now see them weltering 

siut bniltng. Already Cant, as otit-e iH-fon.* hinted. Iiad bt^ 

pin ti> play its wotiJerfuI (lart. for llii^ hokir waa come : two 

■rliuitly Appnritinn', utin-nl timuJmra Ijoth, IlrpncRiST and 

VriiEisH are already, tit silence, parting the world. Opiii- 

■•i nnil Action, whicli »iionld live Injrether ns wedded pair, 

ill'- fle*h.' more properly as .Soul nnd Body, have coin- 

1 iiirMl their npeii qiiarrpi, and are suing for n »cpanitr 

I 111 It-nance. — as if they could exl*l Be[>arati-ly. To the 

I rniHt mind, in any pavilion, firm fouling and a life of Truth 

<w iKwoming daily more difHcnlt : in •Inhnson's position, it 

■M more difficult than in almost any oilier. 

Ka« ior H devout nature wa» inevitablii nnd indii^pensabk, 
'<<' toolled up lo Religion, as lo the |)ok-star uf hi'' voyag«, 
.midy then' was no Jired [Mileslar any longer visible ; but 
'" •lar*. a whole constellation of Mars, each proclairoing 
■ tb« tnie. There was the red portentous eoinel-siar 
irUty: the dim fixed-star, burning ever dimmer, un- 
r whether not an atmospheric meteor, of Ortllo- 
)g: which of the^e to ehoow ? The keener intellects of 
F had, nlniuM without exception, ranged ihemi^lves 
r the former : for some half century, it had l)een ihs 
d rikat of Eumpean spectilatinn la proclaim ihnt De- 
a of Faiaebood was tlie only Truth i daily had Denial 
•»x»d tirwigvr nnd stronger, Belief sunk mure and more 
In Amy. From uur Bolingbrokes and Tolands the seepli- 



cal fever ii;nl pnssed into France, into Seotlaiid ; and alrendy 
it smouldered, far and wide, secrelly eating out ihe bean of 
Englnnd. Bnyle had played his part ; Voltaire, on a wider 
tlicnire, was playing his, — Johnson's senior bj some fifteen 
years: Hume and Johnson were ehildren alinoel of the same 
yi'ar.^ To this keener order of intellects did Johnson's indis- 
putably belong : was he lo join them ; was he to oppose tbem? 
A complicated question : for, alas, the Church itself is no lon- 
ger, cvea to liitn, wholly of true adamant, but of adamant and 
bilked mud conjoined : tbe zealously Devout must find hh 
Cburcb tottering 1 and pause amaEed to see, instead of in- 
spired Priest, many a swine-feeding TruUiber ministering at 
lier altar. It is not the least curious of the incoherences which 
Johnson had to reconcile, that, though by nature contcmptu- 
ouH and ineredulous, he was, at that lime of day, lo find his 
cid'eiy and glory in defending, with his whole might, the tra- 
<)itions of the elders. 



tm it, but hy the euUure anil various 
miiury anil n liitlf. AiiJ nuw, whun 
&U ywppi away, and a uiildi^r trcond [li 
tlio lauiviu of iht: firit, anil l>L-titled 
wbo (toubinl but tbi' uHastruiiliB wan 

experieDcu of anoth(>r 
■ be Kiug-killera were 
iuK was painied over 
Gturious Revolution,' 
over, ibe whole Uiisi- 

finished, nnd Deniocrai'y gone lo its long sleep ? 
ike a Im^iuess QniAlieil and not Hiii.shcd ; 
v«t duult in aII minds : ilie deei>-lylng, resi^tluas Ten- 
whiL-h tutd Hiill la bv rAeged, could no longer be reeog' 
ihtiB was tliere halfiiess, insincerily, uncertainty iu 
menV wnya ; iii^ieail of heroic Puritans and heroic Cavaliers, 
tmmc now a dawdliug set uf ar^inentative Wbigs. and a 
dawdling «*rt of denf-eared Torioit ; each Imlf-foolish, eacti 
luUf-foloe. Tim Whigs were false and withuut basis : ina»- 
mucb as their whole object was Itesintance, Criticism, Demo 
Huun, — Uicy knew not why, or towards what issue. Iu 
WliiggiBm. ever since a Charles and bis .JefTriea had ceased 
I inetldle witli it, and lo have any Russel or Sydney to meA- 
:. Willi, lh<-re could be no diviiiene^s of character ; not till, 
.11 tbfwe laiier days, il took ibe figure of a ihorougb-going, 
allnlofying Rodicnlisni, was there any solid footing for it to 
Mand on. Of the like uncrrtain. lutlf-hollow nature had To- 
ryiuu become, in Johnson's lime ; preaching forth indeeij an 
civrbuniii^ truth, the duty of Loyally : yet now. ever sinog 
tke final i-xpulvion of the Stuarts, having no Pert/m, but only 
An Ofie* 14 be loyal to; no living Sotd to worsbip, but only 
' .I'3k1 velv«i-«ujs)iioned Ckair. Its altitude, therefore, was 
: ilT-m^uil rofu^al lo move ; as ihnt of Whiggixm was clam- 
.miM canuaand Ui move, — let rhyme and reason, ou both 
lni>il% tVf lo il what ihvy might. The eotisequence was ; 
hlituaiiuinlilii tltxids of uonlcnlious JHrguu, tending no- 
•lUlkeri tivls« conviction: falrte resistant^ lo conviction i 
"••^7 (ultintiaiL'ly lo become dcMutse) of wbat^oever was 
■iin- undrrotood by the words. Principle, or Jiou««ly of heart i 
■ ■". kiuder and louiler triumph of Ualfnc&i and FUusibility 
^>Fr mo^cw and Truth ; — at last, this all-uvershadowiog 



rffloresceni-e of QUACKEsr, which we now see, with all its 
denili^tiing and killing fruits, in all itu innumerable branches, 
(luwij lo the lowest. How, between llie?e jarring extreme^ 
wherein the rotten lay ao ineKtricflbly intermingled with the 
tound, and as yet uo eye could see through the ulterior mean- 
ing of the matter, was a faithful and true man to a^iut him- 

That Johnson, in spite of all drawbacks, adopted the Con- 
servative side ; stationed himself as the unyielding opponent 
of Innovation, rci^lule to liold fast the form of sound words, 
conld not but increase, in no small measure, the difficulties 
he had to atrire with. We mean, the moral difScullies ; for 
in economical respects, it might be pretty equally baluiced ; 
the Tory servant of the Public had perhaps about the^arae 
chnnce of promotion as the Whig : and all the promoiioa 
Johni^on aimed at was the privilege to lire. But, for what, 
h unavowed, waa no less indispensable, Ibr his pcaC6 of 
ind the clear ascertoim 


ioswjlll-s life of JuOXSUN. 

lay visible : not uwt/iip, iherefurc, nay, in the strict 
■raw not huiiruhoiie^tf , only &t most lip and band-bonealy, a 
ra^uired uf bim. Wlmt spiritual force is Iii&, he can consci- 
«)lioii»ly employ in tfa« work of cavilling, of pulling down 
what U FuLie. For ilie rest, that tlicre is or can be any 
Trulfa of a lughvr than sensual nniuru, hait not occurri^d to 
him. The utmosl. ibercFore, that be ns man bait to aim at, is 
RksPECTABaiTV. ibe euflmges of hia fellow-men. Sucb 
suffrages he may weigh na well ns count ; or count only : ac- 
cording as he i» A Burki'. or a Wilkes. But beyond lhe»e 
fherf ItM nothing divine for him : lbeir« attained, all i^ a(- 
taibiKl. Thus is his whole world distinct and rounded-in ; a 
clear goal i« set before bim ; a firm patli, rougher or smoother t 
u wmrst a Bitn n;gion wherein to seek a path : let bim gird 
up his loins, and travel on without misgivings! For tbe 
boMvt Coowrvativc, ngnin, nothing is diittinct, nothing round- 
KKftpECTADtLiTT cAn nowise he his highest Godhead ; 
ooe Bim, but two conflicting aimg to be coniinually recoO' 
by Uim, has he to strive after. A dilEcull poiition, aa 
lid} which acoordingly tbe most did, even in tbcHC days, 
defend : by the surrender, namely, of their own too 
AofiM/y, or even undertlmirii'itff ; after which the 
efence wag worth little. Into this difficult pusi- 
lisa Jobiuon, nevtirtheleas, threw hinisrlf: found it indeed 
full cif difficulties: yet held it out manfully, as an bonc^'t- 
hcartnl. apcn.«glited mui, while life was in hint. 

Sudi was that same ■ twofold Problem ' set before Snmuel 

'olinMNt. C^sidcr nil these mornl diHicultics ; and add to 

-oi ibe fuarful aggmvaiiuu, which lay in that otiior eircum- 

— 'F-tt hiT needed a oontiinml appeal to the Public, must 

linxlucc a certain impression and convioiion on 

' : ibat if he did not, ho ceased In have * provision 

:_:, ■\.:y that was passing over him,' he coiiti] not any 

ow a vulgnr character, once launched into 

It; drivrn onward;' by Fear and Famine; 

n than lu clutch what Provender (of Enjoy- 


iiit'Ct in any kind) lie could get, always if possible keepin; 
quilf clear of the Gallows and Pillory, lliat w to say, mind- 
ing heedfully both 'person' and 'character,' — would have 
floHted hither and iliiiher in it ; and contrived to cat some 
three repasts daily and wear some three suits yearly, and 
Ihen 10 depart and disappear, having consumed his last ra- 
tion all this minht bi worth knowing, but were in itself a 
tnvial kno« ledge How a noble man, resolute for the Truth, 
to whom Shams and LiC'i were once for all an abomination, 
was to act m it here lay the mystery. By what methods, 
by what gifb of tt e and hand, does a heroic Samuel Johnson, 
now when cast furlh into that waste Chaos of Authorship, 
maddest of things, a mingled Phlfgethon and Fleet-dilch. 
with il^ floating lumlier, and sea-krakens, and mud-spectres, 
— shape himself a voyage; of the iransient driflwood, and 
the enduring iron, build him a sea-worihy Life-boat, and sail 
■herein, undrowned, unpolluted, through ihe roaring ' mother 
of dead dogij,' onwards to an eternal Landmark, and City 


: I aho am a Man ; even in this unutterahli.- elummit 
Autbor»hi[s I may live as besetms a Mnn ! TIml Wrong 
»l onljr difleriMit from Riglit, but thai it is in strict scien- 
1 lerms infinitdy difiereiil ; even as the guiiiing of the 
Acl against the losing of one's own som\, or {ua 
I hnd it) n llcjirun set against a IIi-ll ; that in all 
i out of lUe Pit uf TopW, wlierein a living Man 
1 or can «iaiK), there ia aelually a Prine of quite 
I value pisceil williin lii^ reach, namely a Duty for 
t du : thi( highest Go°|iel, which forruB ibe UasiH and 
li of all otlicr Gospels whatsoever, liad b<;en revealed to 
Stiiiiuft John^rm 1 and (lie man had believed it, and laid it 
liiiilifully to huarl. Sueh knowledge uf llic Iramrtudenlal, 
iMiincA»iinible character of Duty, ive call the basis of all 
( pii'ipcls, thi; essence of all Religion ; he who with his whole 
<iLil knows not ibis, as yet knows nothing, as yet it properly 

r.i .tiling. 

Thiji. happily tur him, Johnson wus one of those that knew : 
uitJer a cwwin nuilientic Symbol, it sioo<l forever present 10 
liii i^yei ; a Symbol, indeed, waxing ohl as dolh a garment ; 
}■ i which had giiitled forward, as their Banner and celeriUa) 
I'llUr of Pirr, iiinunti^rable suttits and witnesses, the fathers 
■ ■'- uur modern world ; and for him also had still a sacred sig- 
niiirannL It does not appeur that, at any time, Johnson was 
HliMi we call irreligious: but in hi» Mrrowa and isolation, 
a)»-n lto[>c (lied away, and only a long vista of suffering and 
inil lay before him to the eud, then tirst did Religion shine 
I 'iih iu its meek, everlasting clearness; even as the stars do 
i> bhick night, which in the daytime and dusk wore hidden 
< ; inferior li^hia. How a true man, in the midst of errors 
::"1 uncertainties, sliall work out for hioDiclf a sure liter 
-Liih; and adjualiug the transient to Ihc clernni, amid the 
''^iotgil« of ruined Temples build up. with toil and pain. 
■ UiiJo Altar for himjr-tf, ami worship there j how Samuel 
-I iliiuoo, in the era of Voltaire, can purify and forliiy his 
■^^ti, and hold real oommunion wilh the Uigbssl, 'in tlin 


Cliurcli of St. Clement Duiie» : ' this too .-stands nil unfolded 
in his Biography', and is among the most touohing mill 
memorable things there i a thing to be looked at with jiiijt 
ndmii'ation, awe. Johnson's B«ligiuti was aa the light uf Uls 
to him ; without it, liis heart was ult sick, dark and had uo 
guidanc'e leh. 

He ia now enlisted, or impressed, into that un^peakMlile 
shoeblaek-scraph Army of Authors ; but cun feel hereby ih«l 
he lights under a celestial Hug, and will quit him like b nun. 
Tlie lirst grand requisite, an assured iicarl, lie therefore lia*: 
what liis outward equipments and accoutt'emciits are, i* tie 
next (juestion ; an importaul, though inferior one. His in- 
tettectuat stock, intrinsically viewed, is perhaps incoDcidern- 
ble : the furnishings of an EngUsh School and Kngliah Uni- 
versity : good knowledge of the Latin tongue, a more \mixc- 
lain one of Greek : this ia a rather slender stock of Education 
whtri'wiih to front the world. But tlien it is to be remrin- 
bered that liis world was England; that ^ucli waa the euhurc 


li Ik* be i.'ould «urv*y, fonn iteeH', or coiilinually li'iiU lo form 
-if, iDtoa cohffeni AVhole ; on uny an<l on all phases or 
liu-h, iiiii Totv nnd vok-o must l>e well worth lislLHiDg to. 
V- « SpMtker of llie Word, he will speuk real words; nft 
ii' jargon, or liollow iriTiality will is*uo from him. His 
.III tny if clear, aUatnalilc ; that of working for hit icngta : 

I T liim <h thid Iioneatly, and all ols« will follow of its own 

Wild Hudj omen^ iiilo »ui-'li a warfiirt-, iliti .Toluison go 
forth. A rugged hungry Kerne or Gullowglaj^ as we eullcd 
Vim : yet indoinilablc ; in whom Iny the Irue spirit of a 
- lilmr. With giant'* force he toils, since such is Ids ap- 
iiitninit, were it but at htwtng of wood and drawing of 
■ iii-r for old SL-ik-ntary bushy-wigged Cav« ; disliiiguislies 
! riiii^lf by mere quantity, if there is (o be no other distino 
II. lie can write nil things ; froaly Latin verses, if these 
-'-■■■ thir Hili-ahle comiDodiiy ; Book-prefaces, Political Philip- 
[iltei Keview Articles Parlinmenlary Debates: all ttung<! he 
doef rapidly! »lill more surprising, all things he doo« tlior- 
•»gUr and well. How lie sits there, in hia rough-hewn, 
•aorphous bulk, lo that upper-room ut St. John's Gale, and 
Iramllnboft' sliei-l afliir sheet of tliose Seiittie-of-Lillipul De- 
lalei, to tlie clamorous Printer's Devib wailing for them, 
*iA insatiable throat, down stairs : hiinself perhnps /»i- 
fnmtm all tbe while ! Admire a1»o the greatness of Lit- 
■niure : bow a grain of mustard-seed otst into its Nile- 
■Ihtra. shall settle in the teeming mould, and be found, one 
h/f, u a Trpe, In whose branches all the fowls of heaven 
WJ bdga. Viax it not so with lhes« Lilliput Debates ? In 
iW nnall pmjecl and ad l>egan the stupendous FointTH 
' TATB 1 whowi wide worhl-cinbmdng influences whiit eye 
111 like in ; in who*e boughs arc there not already fowls uf 
'inC" fi-aihrT lodged? Such tliiny, and far stranger, were 
ii II, ilini wondrous old Portal, even in latter lime?. And 
' ti M^iir.- Samuel dining 'behind the screen," from a 
I I' lor k-uvurtly handed in to him, at a preconcerted uod 


from tlie 'great busliy wig;' Samuel loo ragged to sbow 
face, yet 'made a happy man of by hearing his praise 
apoken. If to Jolinson himself, then much more to us, may 
that St. John's Gale be a place we can ' never pass wiihmii 

Poverty, Di?lre.'?, and as yet Obscurity, are his cooipnii- 

' All Johlisnn's iilacea of rewrt anil abode are venerable, and now in- 
deed to the ntnny as well as to the few; for hia nnme ha* become gnali 
and, SB we rnu)>t often with a kind of aad admiration recognlK, tlien ie, 
even to t)ie nido^l man, no greatnees no TCnerable na Intelleotaal, as tpitll- 
nnl greatnwi ; nay properly there it no other renerable at all. Ftir oi- 

^nglnnd, lies in tbe word ■ Scholar! ' " Re ia a Scholar: " be ii a dub 
teiitr ihan ve; o( a, wisdom to us boundlrti, inSnite: who >ball ipeak liii 
wiirili ! Such iliingi, we nay, fill ns wilh a certain palheHo Ddmiration rf 
i]<'t':i<'t'il nnii iili-h-wotod yet glorious min; archangel though in ruint,— 
■.•I r:a]>'r. tlniu^'li in rvibUS, or ei)Cumbruico9 and mud-ioc nutation.', 
l^lliL'lL :il-.'i :kri' not To be perpetual. 
Ni'V'.'i-^lii'lid.xx. ill thi4 mad-whirling aU-fbrgettlng London, the iiannti of 
cnlly b« diwof 


ioDs ; M poor is lie that hid Wife must leave liim, niiJ seek 
»bclicr Miiiong oiher relntions ; Johnion'g houaeliold has ac- 
rtKiiuiDilution for one inmnte only. To all his ever-varying, 
eier-nK'nrring troubles, moreover, must he atlded this coD- 
linual one of ill-h<'nlth, and m eoncoraitanl depre^ivenew ; 
t galling louil, wlitvh woulJ hiive cru^hi^ most commoQ 
mortaU inio desperaiion, ia hh appointed bnllant and life- 
I 'iri|«n ; he 'euuld not rememher the day he had posted fret! 
I'll pitin.' Xeverlhele88, Life, as ire said before, is always 
I. Lie : n healiliy soul. iraprisoQ ii an you will, in squalid gnr- 
n.l^ shabby coa[, bodily 9ii:kne3e, or whatever else, will as.Eert 
ill' hraTcn-grniiied indeteaxible Freedom, its right lo conquer 
ililfiL-ullips, lo do work, even (o feel gladness. Johnson does 
^■n whine over his existence, but manfully makm the most 
.'I'l tK«t of iL * lie auid, a man might live in a garret al 
' v'htet-u[fence a-week : few people would inquire where he 
'.'ign\ : and if ihey did, il was ea«y to say, "Sir, I am to 
'-■■ fuutid ai 9Ueh a place," By spending threepence in a 
'■ilce-hou6c, he might be for some hours every day in very 
'imxhI oouipany : he might dine for six [>ence, breakfast on 
* bread-aiHl-milk for a penny, and do without supper. Oo 
'ibmfMrl-Jnjf he went abroad, and paid visits.' Think by 
VlWD. and n( whom tJiis wa« uttered, and ask then, Whether 
fttw I* iDore pathos in it than in a whole circulaiing- 
Sbtarjr of Giaoun and Haruldi, or has pathos? On another 
Waton, * when Dr. Johnson, one <hiy, read his own Satire, 
'n wlueh the life of a scholar is painted, with the various 
iJKtnicltons tlimwn in his way in fortune and to fame, he 
' bunt Into a passion of tears : Mr. Thrale's family and Mr. 
' Smit only wero present, who, in a jocose way. clapped him 
■:i the hack, anil said, " Whsit's all this, my dear sir? Why 
')'■» aiid 1 and iftrciiZfj. you know, were all troubled with 
' laAmtluJ^." We was a very lar^e man, and raado-oul the 
'trimnvirat(> with .lohnson and Hercules comically enough.' 
^tK were sweet tears ; the sweet victorious remembrance 
^1 in thvm of (oils indeed IKghlful. yet never flinched froin. 

12-1 SilSCELLAKlES. 

aiui now IriumpLed over. ' One day it shall delight yon also 
to rcmomber labour done!' — Neither, though Johnsoti is 
obscure and poor, need the highest enjoyment of exisieace, 
that of heart freely communing willi bearl, be denied him. 
Savage and be wander homeless through the streeLs ; wiih- 
oui bed, yet not without friendly converse; such another 
conversation not, it is like, produeible Jn the proudest draw- 
ing-room of London. Nor, under the void Night, u[>on the 
hard pavement, are their own woes the only topic : nowiie ; 
they '■ will atand by theii" country," the two ' Backwoodsmt-n ' 
of the Briek Desert ! 

Of all outward evils Obscurity ig ptirhaps in itself the 
least. To Johnson, as to a healthy-minded man, the fantastic 
article, sold or given under the title of Fame, had little or no 
value but ltd intrinsic one. tie prized it as the mean; of 
getting him employment and good wages ; scarcely as any- 
thing more. His light and guidance came from a loftier 
souree ; of which, in honest aversion to all hypocrisy or pre- 


If any Aullwr can he reviewed lo death, lul it be, with all 
' 'iv^nif-nt dMpMrb, (/on#. Johiiion tli]inkt'ull7 receives any 
-r.l gpiiken in Ilia CuvDUr: it nowbe di^bligei) by a tain- 
'.'>[i, bul will took al il, if poinled out to btm, and «how bow 

jiiigbl hiivfi biH-n done belter: tbe lampoon ilaelf is indeed 

ihing. a. Aoa|>-bubbl(^ that, next inument, will become a drop 
' -'lur find^ i but in tiie mean while, if it do anything, it keejia 
. 411 more in ibe world'i eyv, and tbe next bargain will be all 

' ricben ~Sir, if they ehonlil cease lo tulk of tae, I uiuat 
' iTV^" Sound heart and underetaiiding bend : these fail no 
..All. not cveii a Man of Letters 1 

<.tbwuri(jr, however, was, in Johnson's case, nbelhor a light 
r tirjkv}- evil, Ukelj to be no lasting one. He is animated 
iv ih« sjiirit of a true icttrkman, resolute to do bia work well; 
uii be doei his nurk well ; nil his work, that of writing, that 
tt bring. A niaa uf tbis iitump is unbapiiil/ not so common 
a lite Ulerary or in any other depailmenE of the world, that 
fe aa continue always unnoticed. By slow dcgree^i, John- 
no enuirges : looming, at ftm, huge and dim in (be eye of 
IB obacrvftnl few ; nt laat disclosed, in bis real proportions, to 
(lie tytt uf ibe wliule world, and encircled with a * Ugbt-nira- 
kii' of glory, so that whoso is not blind must and shall 
biJMid him. By slow degrees, wc said ; Ibr this abo is nota- 
bli! ; kIow but ture : ns liitt fame waxes not by exaggerated 
) imonr of what be itmu to be but by belter and bettor in- 

L'lii of wiml be >j, so it will last and stand wearing, being 
:■ iiutn(\ Thus indeed is it alway:^, or nearly always, with 
injc fame. Tbe hcnrenly Luminary risBs amid vapours : 
Kargasers eoougb mutil •can il. with critical telesco[iea ) il 
uke* no blazing, the world can either look at it, or forbear 
loakii^ at it ; not till alter a lime and times, does its celestial 
WntU nainre become indubitabla. 11eii<ant, on the other 
Ind, k the bbuiitg of a Torbarrel ; the crowd donee mer- 
tilf RNind it, with loud hnxxning, universal Ihree-tiraea-tbree, 
niL 1^ Homer's iM^Hsunts, * bless the useful light : ' but un- 
'■•lipily it M HNin cndc in darkncu, foul ctioking smoke ; and 



h kicked into tlie gutters, a nameless imbroglio of elianed 
!-iav<.'S, pitch-uiiiderd and vutnissemeat du diabUJ 

But indeed, from of old, Johnson has enjojcd all or nearly 
all ttiat Fame can yield any man : the res[iect, the obedicniw 
of iho^e that are about him and inferior to him; of ihtMe 
wliose opinion alone ean have any forcible impresaioa on biou 
A liiile circle gathers round the Wise mau ; which gradually 
I'nhtj'ges OS the report thereof spreads, and more can cone to 
?ie, and to believe ; for Wisdom is precious, and of irresL*ti- 
lili^ attraction to all. ' An inapired-idiot,' Goldsmith, hang« 
tti'iingely about him ; though, as Hawkins &ays, ' he loved not 
' Juiuisoii, but rather envied him for his parts ; and once eu- 
■ irt'atcd a friend to desist from praising him, " for in doing 
' Mj," said he, " you harrow up my very soul ! '' ' Yet, on the 
whole, there is tio evil in the 'gooseberry-fool;' but rather 
niui'li good ; of a finer, if of a weaker, sort than Johnson's ; 
:m'\ all the more genuine that he himself could never become 
■ivs of it, — [hough unhappily never cease attempting 


p»pmk of B reverent Bosisy, for wlmt need is Uiere fHrtlH-r? 
— Or of ilie apiritiinl Luiniimnes, with loiigiie oi- [leu, who 
muk llml Kge remurkaljlc : or of Highland Ivitirds drinking, 
in 6*rci." iiM]uebaugh, •' Your liealili, Toclor Slionsoii ! " — 
'^lill Ir3> of man}' sneh as Umt poor ■ Mr. F. Lewis,' uUler in 
m--, of whoDe bin h, deal It and wlwle lerrestriul re* gettie, 
l.i* only, and etnuigi; enougii ihi* aclually, survives ; " Sir, 
I.'- IithI in l^tidon, and hung loose iipoD society ! " Siat 

Id hb fifiy-thini year, he is beneficed, by ihe royal bounty, 
with n Pension u I' ibree-hiindred pounds. Loud clamour is 
iioBvii more or lew insane : but probably ihe ineanusi of all 
liNiit elamoun in Uie eighteeulli century was this lliat was 
rnit^ atniit Jobnwn's Pcn.«k>n. Men seem to be led by tbe«: but in reality, it is by the ears, — as some ancient 
live* were, who had tlieir ears bored; or as soroe modern 
iiinilruprds may be, whose ears are long. Very fabely was 

■itid, ' Names du nut change Things.' Names do change 
i I'ingT ; nay for most part they are the only substance, wbioli 
..tiikiiid nui diseem in Things. Thu whole sum that John- 
■ik, duriug the reuiainiiig tweniy-iwo years of his life, drew 
: i<rn (he public funds of England, would have supported 
"ine Supremo Pritul for about half us many weeks; it 
■I'l'iaaiB Tcry nearly to the revenue of our poorui^t Church- 
I'-.i-rKMU" fijr one twelvemonth. Of secular Administrators 
t I'roviuees, and Horse-subduefB, and Game-destroyers, we 
:.ill not fo much as speak : but who were the Primates of 
Kii^^liuid, and the Friraales of all England, during Johnson's 
'■ iv- > No nian has remembered. Again, b the Primate of 
i)< Rngland something, or is he nothing ? If something, then 
llml but the man who, in tbe supreme degree^ teaches and 
■(liritnalty i-diSes, and leads towards Heaven by guiding 
■ iiHy tbnragh tlie Earth, the living doub tlut inhabit Eng- 
iind ? W<> touch here upon deep wallers ; which but re- 
o'jlply ronceni as, and might lead us into still deeper : clear, 
■■I the mean while, ii is that tbe true Spiritual Edifier and 



Soiil's-Faiher of nil England was and till very lately con- 
liniicd to he, the named Samuel Johnson, — whom this 
seot-nnd-lot-paying world cackled reproachfully to see remo- 
ncrated like a Sui«;rvisor of Excise 1 

If Dc.iliny hail beaten hard on poor Samuel, and did never 
Oi^nsc lo visit him too roughly, yet ihe last section of his Life 
might be pronounced victorioua, and on the whole happy. 
Ho WH» not idle ; but now no longer goaded on by want ; the 
light which had slione irradiating the dark hnuntd of Por- 
eriy, now illuminates the circles of Wealth, of a cerlain cul- 
ture and elegant intelligence ; he who had once been admitted 
In 'peak willi Edmund Cave and Tobacco Browne, now ad- 
mit,'; a Reynolds and a Burke to speak with him. Loving 
frifnds are (here ; Listeners, even Answerers : the fruii of 
hi^ long labours lies round him in lair legible Writings, of 
Philosophy, Eloquence, Morality, Philology ; some esctJIeni, 
all worthy and genuine Works ; for which too, a deep, ear- 
thanks reaches him from all ends of bis 



Br Oi 

la endlen pftlingeneoiti, tirea and wurk«. To Jotin^n's 
Wriiings good and wild, and still profilabte as lliey are, we 
hare ktreadj' raied liia Life and Conversation ag superior. 
By lite one and hj ihe other, who sliatl compute what eflects 
been prodiicod. and are Blill, and into deep Time, pro- 


So much, however, we can already Hec : It is now some 
Ihnc tfo^ncTa of a century that Johnson has been the 
Pn>ptiet uf the En^isfa ; the man by whose light the Eng- 
lish people, in public aud in private, more than by anj other 
inati'ii, have guidi^d thi-ir existence. Higher light than that 
imancdiaielj jtracfieol uuc ; higher virtue than an honest 
PscUENCB, he could not then cominunicute ; nor perhaps 
oDukl ibey have received : such light, such virtue, however, 
be did eMnmunicate. How to thread tbij labyrintliic Time, 
ihn ralleti and falliug Uuin of Times ; to silence vain Scm- 
pWa, hnid finn to die liut the fragments of old Belief, and 
■lib euraiTat eyo alill di^icern some glimpses of a true path, 
umI |[o forward thereon, ' in a world where ihere a much to 
be dnnc, and liule to be known : ' ihi* i» what Samuel John- 
Mi. by iKt aud Word, taught his fixation ; what his Nalkm 
n<rivnd and learned of him, more than of any Other. We 
on view him as the preserver and tmnsmiller of whaii^ever 
*a* genuioe in ilie Spirit of Toryism ; which genuine »|nrit, 
11 1> DOW becoming manifekl, must again embody itself in aQ 
iu<w romu uf Society, Ira what they may, thai are to exist, 
u»I Iwvfi noniiiiuance — elsewhere than on PB[icr. The latt 
in nuuy things, Juhn»in was the last genuine Tory i the last 
dT Hnglisiimen who, with strong voice and wholly-believing 
IwMt, prcadtM the Doctrine of Standing still ; who, without 
idfiihiMHi or nlavUhnetis reverenced the existing Powers, 
■4 imld sMTt the privileges of rank, though himwif poor, 
Sqflected and plebeinn ; who hnd heart-dcvoulne.^ with 
Wi-bau«d of cunt, was orthotlox-rcligious with his eyes 
^V)!) tuA in all things and everywhere spoke out in phun 
^^i g li 'fc. Irain a soid wherein Jesuitism could &id no liarbour, 


L the front and tone not of a diplooiatist, but of > 

This last of the Tories was Johoson : not Burke, as a 
uftm sail!; Burke was esaeaiially a Whig, aad only, on 
reaching the verge of the chasm towards which Whiggiam 
from ihc first was inevitably leading, recoiled ; and, like a 
uiiiii vehiment rather than earnest, a resplendent tar-^gUled 
Rheiorician railier than a deep sure Thinker, recoiled with 
no measure, convulaiTely, and damaging what he drove batk 
with hini. 

In a world whieh exiats by ihe balance of Antagonisms, tha 
reppeclive merit of the Conservator and ihe Innovator mu&t 
ever remain debatable. Great, in the mean while, and un- 
doubted for both sidea, is the merit of him who, in a duy of 
Change, walks wisely, honestly. Johnson's aim was in itself 
un impossible one : this of stemming the cteraal Flood of 
Time ; of clutching all things, and anchoring them down, 

1 saying, Jlove not ! -~- how could it, or should it, ever 


Jobnmn realifed «iich a Life for himself and otlier? ; wtiat 

'Iiinlitv "f characlor ihe mRin pheaompiia of his Life inaj b« 

iniMi uaturully dedixvd front, aod his other qualities most 

iiiiur»lly Eubonlinaied lo. in our O)iic«[iiioa of him, perhaps 

the omwrr were: The qilalily of Courage, of Valourj that 

JiJiiiuin wiui a Brave Man. Tlie Courage that can go forth, 

onrr' ari<i awa}*, (o Chiilk-Fami, and have itself shot, and 

iDBffnl iHii, with <lcft;ncy, is nowise wholly what we mean 

Wr*'. Sueh cmiragv we indeed esteem aji ex[«eding small 

;n»!i(-r; capable of coeuating with a life fall of falsehood, 

',lilvne*d, pultroonery and despicability. Nay oflener it is 

■tarilire rather that producee the reault; for consider, Is 

'.■ Chalk-Farm Pistoleer ioitpired with aay reasonable Be* 

' r anil Drterminnlion i or is he hounded-ou by haggard 

. 1- rmable Fcnr, — how he will be cul at publiu places, and 

i'iiicked geeae of [he neighbourhood ' will wag tbeir tongues 

•1 him a plucked goose F If he go ihcii, and be shot without 

ibidJog or audible uproar, it is well for him : neverthelesa 

Ikare u nolhing amazing in it. Courage to manage all thia 

W not perliapa been denied lo any man or to any woman. 

Ifan, do out recruiting aerg«ants drum through the streets of 

aamfaMaring towns, and oollect ragged IosoIh enough ; every 

•M of whom, if onnt drcased in red, and trained a little, wiU 

ntMTB Are cheerfully for the small sum of one shilling per 

Am, and have the sotil blown out of him at last, with perfect 

tnpriMy. The Courage that dares only die. is on the whole 

*« lublimc affair ; nc<«8sary indeed, yol universal ; pitiful 

'Uri\ it begins tu parade itself. On ibis Globe of ours, theje 

->•■ HHiift ihirty-»iK p<.'rsanB ihul manifedi it, seldom with tba 

4 (iiilun:, during every second of time. Nay look at 

> not the offscourings of Creation, when con- 

d M tlia gallows as if ihey were not men but vermin, 

hSibet with deeency, and even to the sc«wU and bool- 

I^ of Ifaa whole Universe give their stem good-night in 

*^*iai What is lo bn undergone only once, we may un- 

^■p; whu must be, cameu almost of its own accord. Con- 



pidorcd a.= Duellist, whal 8 poor Ggure does the fiercest IrisL 
Wliiskcranilo mnke, compared with any EnglUh Game-oodc, 
such as you may buy for fifteenpence ! 

The Courage we desire and prize is not the Courage 19 
die decently, but to lis-e miinfiiUy. Thi-a, when by God's 
grace it has been given, lies deep in the Boul ; like genikl 
heat, fosters all other virtues and gifts ; without it ihey could 
not live. In spite of our innumerable Waterloos and Peler- 
lou», and Huch campaigning &a there has been, this Coara^ 
we allude to, and call ihe only true one, is perhaps rarer in 
these last ages, than it has been in any other since the Saxoa 
Invasion under Ilengist. Altogether extinct it can never be 
among men ; oiherwisie the species Man were no lunger for 
this world : here and there, in all limes, under various gaise^ 
men are sent hither not only to demonstrate but exhibit il, 
and testify, as from heart to heart, that it is still possible, still 


trjitig, Alia, ihe wine ii red; ihc next Any deploring his 

AomppwwKfi, nighl-sbaded, quite poor e^iai*^ &iid thinking Jt 

ankiiiil tlml tin? whole loovcmcnt of ihe UniviTne should go 

_ ADf while Aij digeBllTe-apparaius had Htupp^d ! Wu reckon 

BdMuMon'g • lalpiit of Alienee ' to be umong his greni and too 

^H^n gil^ Where there is nothing further to tte done, there 

Fifeall nolbing farther b« taid : like his own poor blind WeUb- 

WomaD, be accoutpliiihed eocncwliat, and al»o 'endured tidy 

fear* of wreichedneea with unshaken furliiude-' How griin 

wa* Life to liiin ; a siok Prit)on-hou«e and Duubting-ca^tle J 

* Hia gnat business,' he would jirofess, 'was to ei^ape Irom 

liini>«lC Yet towards all this he has taken his ixi&iiion niiif 

iiamiia it all ' with frigid indifferenee, having 

o hope or to fear.' Friends are stupid, and puxillani- 

I, and pttreimonious i ' wearied of bis stay, yef ofTended 

I, hiA departure:' it is llm manner of tlie world. ■ B j 

r di>lii-)on,' remarks he with a gigantic calmness, *il- 

t nrrilen will riie into renown;* it is portion of ihtt 

y of Eaglish Literature ; a perennial thing, this same 

Inhr delunon ; and will — alter the character of the Lan- 

Ooady connected with ihia quality of Valour, partly aa 
! from it, partly as protected by it, are the more 
> qaalities of Tnitlifulness in word and thought, 
k Bonasly in action. There is a reciprocity of inHueneo 
C; iiir am Ibe realising of TruthfulneM and Honesty is tho 
i great aim of Valour, so without Valour they 
a anywise, be reaHsed, Now, in spite of all pradi- 
eal riiortooiDiRgs, nu one tliat sees into the significance of 
I, will Hiy that his prime object was not Truth. In 
, doubllfu, you inaj obiierre him, on occasion. 
Bgtiting as if for victory; — and must jardon these ebutl- 
ienoea of a can-le» lioar, which were not without templaiion 
ami provocaiion. Il«niark likeirise two things: that surJi 
pri w wtfg n his* were erer on merely superficial debatable 
• ( and then that t)i«y were argued generally by the 

134 mscELLAKres, 

Tair \awi o( lialile mid logic-fence, bj one cunning in iliai 
same. If their purpose was escusable, their eifect was harm- 
less, perhajw beneficial ; ihal of taming noisy metlioerily, and 
showing it another side of a dcbalablc matler ; lo see iioti 
sides of whith was, for the first time, lo see the Truth of it. 
In his Writings themselves are errors enough, crabbe<l ^tn- 
po6sesaion-i enough, jet these also of a quite extraneous and 
accidental nature ; nowhere a wilful shutting of the eye! lu 
the Truth. Nay, is (here not everywhere a heartfelt discern- 
ment, singular, almoM admirable, if we consider ibrough what 
confuted eontlicling lighla and hallucinations it had lo be at- 
tained, of the highest everlasting Truth, and beginning of all 
Truths : this namely, thai man is ever, and even in the age 
of Wilkes and WhiteSeld, a Revelalioa of God to man ; and 
lives, moves and has his being in Truth only ; is either true, 
or, in strict speech, i* not at all ? 

Quite 9])(jtles.a, on the other hand, is Johnson's love of 
Trulli, if we look aL it as expressed in Practice, as wliat we 

BOSWEU/S LlfF, OF J0HS80S. 135 

An he indeed never rnst- ; there wna no iJenl willioiil him 
Avowing iuelf in hU work: ilie nobttr was llmt uiiavowi-d 
idtat which lay within him, mid mmmande'l Mtyin;;, Work 
out thy ArtimnBhip in the spirit of nn Artist ! Tht^y wlia 
talk 1oim)«iI aboiK the digniiv of Art, and fancy that lliey too 
■ID Artirtic ptiiil-breihrpn. and of the Cel^^lials, — In thom 
ccnwder well what manner nf man this was, who felt himself 
(0 be only a hiiW day-labourer. A labourer that was wor- 
thy of his hire : thnl has laboured not a§ an eyc-«ervant, bnt 
u one found failhfull Neither was JohtiJion in llio«e Aaji 
periiapK whnlly a iinique. Time was when, for monry, yon 
miglit have ware : and needed not, in all depnrtmenlj, in that 
of llio Kpic Poeiu, in that of the Illacking-bollle, to rest ron- 
■mt with the mere ptnuatina that you had wnre. It was a 
ijipirr litne:. But as yet the seventh Apocalyptic Rladdcr 
1 PriTKiiT) hail not bpen rent open. — to whirl and grind, 
I- in ■ Wert-Indian Tornado, nil eartiily trades and thing) 
nrr. wrrek, and dust, and consummation, — and regi/neration. 
; ii qaieJily, since it must bo \ — 
Thai Mercy can dwell only with Valour, is an old senti- 
ment or proposition ; which, in Johnson, again receives eoo- 
Itnaiion. Pew nu-n on record hnvc had a more mereiful, 
mdtfrly afTectionaie nature than old Samuel. He was called 
')>'- Bpot ; and did indeed too often look, and roar, like one ; 
- r->^ lotred lo ii in his own defence : yet within that (ihaggy 
■.I'-rior uf his llien; beat a heart warm w a mother's, «o(t as 
itti- rbild'H. Nay generally, his very roarinfi was but the 
• ..'" :itriK'tion : the rage of a Bear, if you will ; but of a 
. ,:■ I.I rr-aved of her whelps. ToiicJi his Religion, glance 
'-' \.K <.'liiirch of Kngland, or the Divine Right : and he was 
upoa yon I These things were his Symbols of all that was 
(Md and precious for men ; his very Ark of the Covenant : 
vkgM laid hand on them lore asunder hi» heart of henrts. 
Kdtooi of hatred in the opponent, but of love to tlie thing 
IflMMili did Johnson grow cruel, fiercely contmdiclory : this 
I* U Impnrtiuit distinction ; never lo be forgotten in our cen- 


£i]t« of hii coarcismioiiMl outrages Bui ob^TT« abo vilh 
kIiai huinaDity, whiU openneM of lov^ he am attadi hioiself 
to rII things : to a blind old wonwii, (o a Docior LeiW, to a 
Cat ' Hodge.' ' His thooghta in the lalier part of Im Gfe 
* were fn^iuently emplojed on hta deceased fnends ; be oHem 
' muttered the«e or such Uke sentences : " Fonr Htan ! and 
'then he died." How he patiently converts bis poor boae 
into a Lazaretto ; endures, fur long jean, the oontisdictMa 
of llie mi^roble and unreasonable ; with him unconnected. 
sa-ye that ihej bad no other to yield tliem refuge ! Gcnerouj 
old man ! Worldly po«.se!<sion he has little ; yet of this he 
gives freely; from his own hard-earned shilling, the half- 
pence lor Uie poor, that * wailed bis coming oiii,' are not u-ith- 
helil ; the pour ' nailed the coming out ' of <me not quite m 
poor! A Sterne can write sentimentalities on Dead A^^es: 
.lohnson has a rough voice ; but he findi Ilie wretched Daugh- 
ter of Vice fallen down in the streets ; carries her home oa 
bi^ otvD shoulders, and like a good Samarilsn gircs help lo 
the help-needing, worlhy or unworthy. Ought not Charhy, 



ably iDoumrul, unspeaknbly ttmdcr. And yet imlm, sublime; 
(br be maal now act, not look : hu venerated Motlier has 
been tnken from Iiim ; but he niuet now write a Ratietat to 
Mt»3 tiiir runeral I Agun in t)iis little incident, recorded in 
Im Book of Deroiion, are not the tones of aacred Sorrow 
and Greatness deeper (ban in many n blank-verse Tragedy; 
— iw. Indeed, ' the flfth act of a Tragedy." though unrbymed, 
iloo* 'lio in every deulh-beil, were it a peaaanlV, and of 

■ Sundajr. Oetober 18, 1T67. Ye«terd«y, at about ten in the raoni- 
112. I louk my Irarv forever of my deiir ulil (Head, Catherine Cliani- 
r->, »ha came lo llic with ray loaiher about 1734. and hu been buc 

itli' pBitixI {rota a> unci!. Stir buriiil my fullier, my brotlicr and 

I ^ 'iiodier. Sh» ii niiw fltty-eight yean old. 
I Ju(in<d all (o withdraw ; then told her tlial wc were to part fbr- 

• ■■t: that M Oirislians, we ahould part with prajer ; and tbat I 

>i>)it. If »lie waa wiUingr. uy a ihon prayer betide her. She ei- 

^niied smtt dnirc to licar mc ; and hi^Id up her poor hand* >« slio 

l(y in bed, Willi grell ferTour, while I prayed kaecling by her. ■ * 

' 1 then kiancd bar. She tohl rac ttiat to part woa the greateil pain 
■h* had err felt, and that the hopi-d wc rhould meet again in a bet- 
tor |ilaoe. I expresanl, (rilli (welled e;e> aud great emotion of Ion- 
tancaa, Ibe nine hope*. We kiated and parted ; 1 humbly hope, M 
■Mt Bcain. and to part no more.' 

Tbats trickling down the granite rock : a soft well of Pity 
friaga wiibin 1 — Slill more tragical is this other scene : 
'■MuMon mentioned that be could not in general accuse bim- 
r of liaving been an unduiiful iioti, **Once. indeed," Baid 
as di.«obed{ent : I rcfii«^l lo attend my fnllier lo 
loxeUsr market Pride wa" the source of thai refusal. 
[ tbc rememhrance of it waa [lainfuh A few years ngo 
Tdeaired lu atone fur tliis fBuli." ' — But by what metliod ? 
—What method wa& now po^Mtile 'i Hear it : the words are 
»pio Riven as bis own, tboiigb here evidently by a less ca- 
• Ttpwter: 

«. I beg your pardon for tlie abruptnei* of niy departure hi 
at> W I waa i»u>peU«d to it by niuadcnee. ^tcy yean 


nBO. MiiJnm, on thU liay, I coramitted a brench of filittl piety. M/ 
falher lind boon in tlic hsbil nf attpading Ultoxeler nmrk^t, and 
oponinjr a ■lall lli?rc fur the ia\e nf his Boolu'. ConSned by indiipo- 
aition, lie deeired me, [hat day, to go and attend tbe stall in hu place. 
My pritte prevented mc ; 1 gave my folher a rvfiisal. — And oow to- 
day I liave butn at UKoxetor; I went into the market, at the lime 
of huninesH, uncovered my lieail, and stood with it bare, for an hour, 
on the spot vherc my Inlher'B itnll ueed to itand. In contrition I 
stood, and I hope tlie ppnancc was expiatory,' 

Wlio does not figiirH to himself this speclaclc, amid the 
■ rniiiy weailiiT, and Ihc- sneers,' or wonder, 'of ihe bj^taod- 
er= ? ' Tlie memory of uld Micltacl John^in, rising from 
tlie tar distance ; snd-beukoiiing in Ihe ' moonlight of mem- 
ory:' how he liad toiled faithfully hither and thitlier; ps- 
liL'nily among the lowest of tbe low ; been buffeted anil 
beaten down, yet ever risen again, ever tried it anew — And 
oh ! when the wearied old man, as Bookseller, or Hawker, or 
Tinker, or whatsoever it was that Fale bad reduced him to, 
begged help of lAet for one day, — how aavoge, diabolic, was 


n-cl^ar intellect, bovercd furuver on Um verge of iiimui- 

^, — must that Mune inuosl tsaeiici! Imva looked forth; 

_ ^isnble to all but Ihe laosl obstrrvant ! Aovoi^ingl/ 

ll irm not recogtiised ; JoliDson piisscil no[ for a fine ualure, 

bat for a dull, almost biutul one. Miglit nul, for cxumpli:, 

the flrsi-fniii of such a Lovjiigne&i, cou[)led with his quick 

Imiigbt, Iwre been expected to be n [>eculinrly courteoui^ de- 

ineaiiotir lu man uiuong men? In Johnson's ' Poll leu es^s' 

Khieh lie oAcn, to the womlcr of some, a-iiwried to be great, 

ilivr« Vina indeed somewhat that needed explanation. Nev- 

> nbete»c. if be iu^uHted xlways on handing lady-vi^itoi^ to 

linr c«rriuge; though with the certainty of collecting a mob 

t guEtr* in Fleet Street, — ad might well be. the beau buv- 

iuf^ uci, by way of court-dress, ' bia rui<ty brown morning suit, 

H*^ pair of old slioe^ for slippers, a liltle ehrivelled wig stick- 

(Hlng on the top of bis hend, and the sleevea of bis shirt and 

k« knees of liis breeches hanging loose ; ' — in all ibis we 

B CM the spirit of tnie Politeness, only shining through a 

["bus again, in bis apartments, at one time, 

e unfortunately no chairs. ' A gentleman who fre- 

itlj visited him whilst writing his /cflen, constantly found 

it bis de»k, sitting on one with lhr«e legs ; and on rising 

I it, he remarked that John^n never forgot its defect ; 

i either bold it in bis hand, or place it with great 

« against some support ; taking no notice of its im- 

I to his visitor,' — who meanwhile, we suppose, sat 

f, or in the sartorial fashion. ' It was remarkable 

Dit,' continues Miss Reynolds (J?«nny ilear), ' that 

I external circuiu.<tances ever prompted him to make nny 

^m even sensible of their exist eiic>.*. 

r this was i)ie effect of pbilo!K>pbic pride, or of some 

n of hi« respecting high-breeding, is doublfuL* 

at, for one thing, the effect of genuine Poh(ene.<s, is 

taii Not of the Pharisaical Brummellean Po- 

b woaM suffer crucifiiioQ rather than ask twice 

r Ih* mM« nirtT«wd PoUl«aen a( * nvi. 



thni knows the difniity of r 
may be seen in (he patria 
cUfm ; such us JohnM>D liii 
(.'hiuice brought hjm inlo d 
wiili our view of tlio nutn, i 

en, and leels b'n own ; such a* 
chal bearing of an Inditui Sa- 
welf exhibileil, when a sudden 
iibgue with his Kiag. To u^ 
appears ' etrange ' that 

h(^ !<houUl iiave boasted himself cunning in the laws of Po- 
Itii-iiess; nor 'stranger slill,' habitually attentive to practue 

More legibly in this ioSuence of the Loving heart to b« 
triiei.-i| in his intellectual cbaracter. What, indeed, id the 
b(.-<;iuning of intellect, the fii'st inducement lo the exerdte 
[hireof, but attraetion towards somewhat, affection for it? 
Tims too, who ever saw, or will see, any true talent, not to 
i\ie-A)L of geniuR, the fuundation of which is not goodness, 
love ? From Johnson's strength of Afi'ection, we deduce 
many of his intellectual peculiarities ; especially thai threat- 
iiing urrny of perversions, known under the name of ' John- 
I PreiudiceM.' Looking 


let oi uiiderrlnnd bow ihej grew out front ihe ynry centre of 
hi* being: nay moreover, how they cnme to wliere In liiin 
wiib (rhiii formed ihe boaineM and worth of bis Life, ihe sum 
of liin wliule Spiritunl Erujtravuur. For it ia on llic fame 
gmuud llat he buoanie ibroughuut an Etlifier and Be|)airer, 
not, M« th« otlict^ of bin raake were, a Piiller-down ; lliat in 
an age of umveruil Si-eplkism, England was slill lo product- 
iu Believer. Mark loo his candour even here ; while n Dr. 
AJanii, witli (ilncid sur)iri»ie, a»k», " Have we nol evidence 
enongli of tlie aoul's imniortalit; ? " Johnson answers, " I 
wUh for more." Bm the truth is, iu Prejudice, a8 in all 
things. J'ihn«on was the pnxluct of England ; one of those 
good yeonieu whose limbs were madn in England : alas, the 
kM of niM Invincible*, their day being now done I Hi* 
culture is wholly English ; that not of a Thinker, bnt of a 
■t>t:bolsr:' bis inleresla are wholly English: he sees and 
know* mithiofi; but England ; be is the John Bull of Spiritual 
Eurv|>e : let him live, love him, aa he was and coultl not Imt 
be! Pitiable it doubt, that a Sainiiel Johnson must 
coafiiie Hume's irreligious Philosophy by some 'story from 
* Clergyman of llic BLsIioprick of Durham;' should see 
nothing in tlie great Frederick but 'Voltaire's lackey;' in 
Voli«ire himwlf but a man aerrrimi infftnii. paa^arttm lit- 
rranan ; in Rous^enu but one worthy lo l>c hanged : and in 
ihe unit-rrsal, long-prepared, inevitable Tendenry of Euro- 
peaa Tbuuglit but a green-»ick milkmaid's eroichet of, for 
Tarii-iyV "akc, 'milking the Bull.' Our good, dear John! 
()b*iTv« loo what it is that he see* in the city of ParU : no 
lR^bl(»t glitu[ae of those D' Aleroberia and Wderol^ or of the 
Btmnix que«doDable work they did ; solely some Benediiv 
tinr Priests, lo talk kilchm.latin with tbem about Riitione* 
I'rimrifet. " ASmtAeer Nongfimgpate f " — Our dear, fooli; 
Jnhn ; yd is there a lion'* heart within him I — Pitiable all 
ihtH! iliingB were, we say; jet nowise inescusabh 
a* baaia or a* foil lo much else that was in .lohnwn. almost 
tenenUe. Onght we nol. indeed, lo honour England, ni>d 



English Instiiutions iind Wny of Life, tliat they oould ^lill 
equip such it man ; could furnish him iti heart and hetid lo 
be a Samuel Johnwn, nnd yet to love them, and unyit'ld- 
iiigly Gght for them ? What trulli aod living vigour must 
fiui:h Instilulions once have had, when, in the middle uf the 
Eighteemh Century, there was still enough left in them fur 

It is worthy of note that, in our little Isle, tiie iwo 
grand Aiilagonisraa of Europe should have stood emlxMiied. 
under their very highest concentration, in two men produceil 
ftiniultuneously among ourselves. Samuel Johnson an J DnviJ 
Hume, as was observed, were children ne-arly of the eaoie 
year : through life they were speelalors of the same Life- 
movement ; often inhabitants of the same city. Greater ron- 
irasl, in all lhing4, between two great men, could not be^ 
Hume, well-born, compietently provided for, whole in body 
and mind, of his own determination forces a way into Liter- 
atures : Johnson, poor, moonstruck, diseased, forlorn, is forced 


I i>iii[uuiin-i!«ith Wars; Johnson to muiiy u dct^p Lyrk- tone 
111 (•liiiiitiveiiesd and impeiuous grat-efiil power, scallereil over 
III- Tugiuve compositions. Boili, rather to the general sur- 
^irif, hail n c<:riuin rugged Humour shining through their 
' uniesluesa : ihe iiiiliciUion, indeed, Uiat thej tcere eBme«t 
'iii-ii, and had tubdutd ihuir wild world into a kind or tempo- 
i.irT homu and ^fe dwelling. Both wen:, by principle and 
tnlol, Stoica: ;ei Johnson with the greater meril. for h« 
tlonv had vrry much to triumph over ; farther, he alone ?n- 
nnblcd his SloioiAm into Devotion. To Johnson Life was as 
1 PriBUu. to be endured with heroic faith : to Hume it was 
iii-- more than a foolish Baitlioloicew-Fair Show-booth, with 
<" foolish crowdings and elbuwings of which it was nut 
iirih while lo quarrel: the whole would break up. and be 
.: libcny, ^ toQii. Both realised the liighest task of Man- 

■ •d. that of hving like men; eavh died not unfitly, in hii« 
iv : Hume a& one, with factitious, half-false gaiety, tak- 
ij Iraic of what was itself wholly but a Lie : Johnson 

■ .rtie. with awe-struck, yet resolute and piongly expeeianl 
-art, taking leave of a Reality, to enter a Eealiiy slill 

lii|;btT. Jvbdson liad the harder problem of it, fn>m lirst 
I* lul i wbelher, with Mme hesitation, we can adaiil that 
Iw wna intrinsically the better-gifted, may remain undo* 

ThMo Vm men now rest ; tlie one in Westminster Abbey 
ii-roi llie other iu the Cidton-Hill Cliurchyard of Edin- 
Mir^ Through Life they did not meet : aa eontrastx, * like 
I"' unlike,' love eacli other ; so might they two have loved, 
'111(1 oommuned kindly. — had not tlie terrestrial droes and 
'l:idtas«k, that was in ihem, withstood ! One day, their spii^ 
'><. what Trulb was in each, will be found working, living in 
'•"mwoy and free union, even here below. They wore the 
I'D hulfmien of ibeir lime : wboM should combine the in- 

"liid Candour and decisive scientific Clearness of Hume, 
'"iiihe Reverence, the Love and devout Uuiuility of John- 

"I. oenr th« whole man of a new time. Till such whol« 



man ari'ive for us, and tlie distracted time admit of such, 
migbt the Heavens but bless poor England with half-rueo 
nonliy tu tic thi: shoe-latcljeis of these, resembling tbcaic even 
from afarl Be both attentively regarded, let the true Elfurt 
of both prosper; — and for the present, both take our aff*o- 
tionate farewell ! 

•• "— 




In the Obituary of these days stands one article of quite 
peculiar import ; the time, the place and particulars of which 
will have to be often repeated and re-written, and continue 
in remembrance many centuries : this, namely, that Johann 
Wolfgang von Groethe died at Weimar, on the 22d March 
1832. It was about eleven in the morning; 'he expired,' 
«ays the record, * without any apparent suffering, having, a 
* few minutes previously, called for paper for the purpose of 
' writing, and expressed his delight at the arrival of spring.* 
A beautiful death ; like that of a soldier found faithful at his 
po^t, and in the cold hand his arms still grasped ! The 
I^oet's last words are a greeting of the new-awakened Earth ; 
lii^ last movement is to work at his appointed task. Beauti- 
ful ; what we might call a Classic sacred-death ; if it were 
JKK rather an Elijah-translation, — in a chariot, not of fire 
•nd terror, but of hope and sofl vernal sunbeams I It was 
w Frankfort on the Mayn, on the 28th of August 1749, that 
*l»Js man entered the world : and now, gently welcoming the 
birthday of his eighty-second spring, he closes his eyes, and 
^e3 farewell. 

So then our Greatest has departed. That melody of life, 
^th its cunning tones, which took captive ear and heart, has 
?Wie silent ; the heavenly force that dwelt here victorious 
^^w 80 much, is here no longer ; thus far, not farther, by 
*P^h and by act, shall the wise man utter himself forth. 

1 Xkw Monthly Magazine, No. 188. 
▼«. m. 10 



Tbc End ! What sok-mn meaoing lies in that tiound. a^ il 
pL'uU mounifully tliruugli the kduI, whea a living friend ha* 
p;i3S(^<l away ! All now is closed, irrevocAble ; the changeful 
lili'-piciure, growing dully into new coherence, under new 
tuuchiis and hues, liaa auddenly become completed and un- 
diangcable; there as it lay, it is dipped, from this moment, 
in the a^tbcr of the heavens, and shines transfigured, lo 
endure even m> — forever. Time and Time's Empire ; stem, 
IV i de-devouring, yet not without their grandeur I The week' 
diij man, who was one of us, lins put on the giinnent of 
Eiernity, and become radiant and triumphant ; the Prejcni 
is iiU at once the Pastj Hope is suddenly cut away, and onlj 
the backward vistas of Memory remain, elione on by a lighl 
that proceeds not from this earthly sun. 

The death of Goethe, even for the many hearts that per- 
foniiUy loved him, ia not a thing to be lamented over ; Is to 
be viewed, in iiis own spirit, as a tiling full of greatness and 
ri-'dne^s. For all men it is appointed once to die. To 


ri-jippr-ared, it will happen ihat we sland to gaae inio ihc still 

wing wesii and tliere rise great pale motiooless clouUs, 

■ '' conlissea or curtaititi, lu clo^u llje tiame-theatre witliin; 

.1 then, in thai deaih-pauite of tlic Day, an unspeakabla 

lifig will eoiiit over ua: il is as if lli« poor sounds of 

I 111'', those hammerings of tired Laimur on his anvils, those 

'!L-Fs of simple men, had bccouiu awfnl and eupemalural; 

at if in liileiiing, wc could hear them ' mingle with the ever- 

[waJing tone nf old Eternity.' In such momcnte the iccrets 

uf Lift lie o|)enur to us; mysterious things flit over (he soul; 

l.ifr itsi-lf seems holier, wonderful antl feacFul. How much 

inrt? when our sunset wns of a living sun ; and il» bright 

ii'itrnance and shining return to us, not on the morrow, but 

■■la more again, at »U, forever ! ' In such it scene, silence, 

■■- 'jv«r (be mysterious great, is for him timt lias soai<: feeling 

I'Tcof (he fille-^l mood. Nevertheless by silence the distant 

a not brought into communion ; the feeling of each is with- 

OU mponfte from the bosom of Ins brother. There are now, 

«laU tome ymrs ago there were not, EnglLih hearts [hat 

Inow something of what (hose three words, ' Death of Goclbe,' 

'"'in : (o suoh men, among their many thoughts on the event, 

■iiii'h are not to be translated into speech, may these few, 

itm ugh that imperfec^t medium, prove ac4:eptable. 

^I^^*'''-' **y* ^'^ Philosopher, 'is a commingling of £ler- 

J whh Time ; in the death of a good man. Eternity is seen 

ing through Time.* With such a sublimity here offered 

'« and heart, it is not unnatural (o look wilb new earnest- 

f and behind, and ask, What space in those years 

I mns of computed Time, this man witJi his activity may 

eaco i what tvlation lo the world of change and mortality, 

1 tbe emrihly nume Life, he who is even now called to 

nmiortals has borne and may bear. 

' GomW, it is commonly said, made a New Era in Litera- 

; a Poetic Era began with him, the end or ulterior teit- 

3c« of which ure yet nowise generally visible. 'Ilii* 

1 nying ifi a true one ; and true with a far deeper 

141* msCKLLANIES. 

nienning than, lo llie most, it conreys. Were t!ie Poet but 
a sweet sound and dinger, solndng (he ear of ibe idle wUii 
plea'am songs ; and the new Poet one who could sing tiia 
idle plensont song lo b new air, — we should account him a 
small matter, and his performance small. But this man, it 
is not unknown lo nian^, was a Poet in such a sense as the 
Inle generations have witnessed no other ; as it is, in lliii 
generation, a kind of di^iinclion (o believe in the csistcfx* 
of, in ihe possibility of. The Inie Poet is ever, as of old, 
the Seer ; who^ eye has been gifted to discern ihe godlike 
Mystery of God's Universe, and decipher some new lines of 
iti celestial writing; we can Etill call him a Valei and Seen 
for he tea into this greatest of secrets, ' Ihe open secret ; ' 
bidden things become clear ; how the Future (both resting 
on Eternity) is but another pha$i$ of the Present : thereby 
are his words in very truth prophetic ; what he has ppokoi 
shall be done. 

Ii l>egins now lo be everywhere surmised that Ihe real 

1>£ATU OF GOETSE. 119 

wtiom ill llie»e days we name Poet. The irue Soven^i^n U 
Lhc Wim: Man. 

Howerer, m ihu Moon, which can heave up the Ailaolic, 
H^ndi nut ill her abedienl billows at once, but graduallj' ; and 
t!ie lldc, wluch &wuU« lo-day on our shoreis and washes every 
i.ri-k. rose in ihc bosom of the great Ocean (aalronomers 
.i.->ure us) eight-und-fort}' houra ago ; and, indeed, all world- 
tooTciiienla, by nature deep, are by nature calm, and flow and 
nrvD onwards willi ft certain majestic abwtieds : su loo with 
tba ImpuUe of a Great Man, and the eflect he Um to niaiii- 
W on other men. To such a one we may grant some gen- 
Radon ur two. liefure the celestial Impulse bo inipresiied on 
ihc world will universally pruclaim itself, and bocouje (like 
ibe wat^cing of the Moon) if still oot iol«Iligible. yet palpable, 
lo all men ; acme genemliou or two more, wherein il ho^ to 
grow, and expand, and envelop all diing«, before it can reach 
iis acme : nnd ihereailer mingling with other movemenu aiid ' 
Dew iuipuW^ at length cea>e lo require a specific obiervation 
or decigmition. Lunger or shorter such period may be. ac- 
onnling tu the nature of the Impute itaelf, and of the 
dnneiiL* it worki in ; according, above all, as the Impulse 
ni intrinaically great and deep-reaching, or only n'ide-«pread> 
_ ■perficial luid tnndenL Thus, if David Hume is ut this 
^^^■•r pontiff of the world, and rulea moat hearts, and guides 
^^■U tongacs (the hearts and tongues oven of iho«e thai in 
^^^^b rebel af^ainst liiin), there are, nevi.>rthele»s, symptoms 
^PHw his ta»k draws towards completion; and now in the 
Y btutee bia bucccssor becomes visible. Un ihe other hand, 
I *■ haw wen a Na|xileon, lika some gunpowder force 
\ («itb which xon, indeed, he chiefly worked), explode hia 
virtue suddenly, and thunder himself out and i^ihinl, 
% *patx of flve-and-lwenly years. White again, for a 
■*» of true greatness, working with spiritual implements, 
^ otninries is no uncommon period i nay, on this Kanli 
V have been men whose ImjiuiHe had not com- 
i % ilawfaittHia t UU «Aw JUteon bundnod ytwn, mhI 


tniglil perliaps lie seen Btill individually suhai^ient nfier two 

But, OS vaa once written, * ihuugh our cipck strikes when 
' there is a change from hour to hour, no hammer in ibe 
' Horologe of Time peals through the Universe to prwiiim 
' that there is a cliange from era to era.' The true Begianing 
is olUii&st unnoticed and unnoticuable. Tbua do men go 
wrong in tlieir reckoning ; and grope hither and thither, not 
knowing where they are, in what coui'se their history runt. 
Within tiiis last cenlurj', for instance, with its wild doings 
and deglroyings, what hope, grounded on miscalculation, end- 
iug in disappointment ! How many world-famouji vicloriej 
were gained and lost, dynasties founded and suhverled, revo- 
lutioiia accooipliBhed, conslilutions sworn to ; and ever the 
'new era' was come, waa coming, yet still it came not, but 
the time continued sick ! Alas, all these wer« hut spasmodic 
convulsions of the death'sick time : the crisis of cure and 
regcnemtion to the time was not there indicated. The rt-al 


icluiled : The irhiilf diilracifd Erialence of man is an age 

tliff. Who«o liven, whoso with earnest miix] studies 

I wisely in that load element, may yet know, per- 

Uto well, what an enlerjirise was here; and for ihe 

e who coulil prevail in it, have the 

sverence, and a gratitude suoh as belongs to tio 

How fiir h« prevailed in it, and by wluit means, with 
•rliai t'flduninw^ and achievements, will iu due season be 
cutimatrtt. Tho^e volumes (»lled Govl/ir'i Works will now 
rvLVtvo nci fitrtlier addition or alteration ; and the recoi'd of 
hL, wbule spiritual Endeavour lies written there, — were the 
nuui or men but ready that could read it rightly 1 A glori- 
om renird ; wherein he who would midei^stand bimeelf and 
lii- euvironmeDt. wlw struggles for escape out of darkne^ 
iriin light as for (he one thing needful, will long thankfully 
^ludy. For the whole ctinotie Time, what it has suffered, 
allained and striven after, stands imaged there ; interpreted, 
oiaoliled into poetic rIenraeAs. From the pas^onale long- 
,nd wailliiffs of BVrfirr, s|)oken a* from the heart of all 
. onwards through ilie wild uneartldy melody of 
t, like the apirit-song of falling worlds: to that serenely 
ing wisdom of MeitUn Lehrjahrt, and the German Hqfir, 
what an interval ; and all enfolded in an ethereal music, 
n ntiknowa spheres, harmoniously uniting all ! A long 
rral i and wide as well as longi for this was a universal 
ni»loi7. Science, Art. human Activity, under every 
h>{tixt : the laws of Light in his Farbrnlfkre ; the laws of 
wild Italian Ijfe in his Bntvenuio Ctltini : — nothing es- 
ra{>ed him i nothing that he did not look into, that he did 
ton see into. Consider too the genuineness of whatsoever 
Iwdiil: his hearty, idiomatic way; simplicity with loAiness, 
«d nobleness and aerial grace 1 Pure works of Art, com- 
plM*d with an antique Grecian polish, as Torqualo Tat' 
-•• V fyhigenu; Proverbs; Xenirn ; Patriarchial Say- 
nip, "hirh, nince the Hebrew Scriptures were cloned, we 


know Dot where to match; in whose homely depths He 
oflen the materials for rolumcd. 

To measure and catimate ult this, as we said, the lime is 
not come ; a ccnmry hence will be the filter time. He wh« 
investigHtuii it beat will lind it« meaning greatest, and be the 
rendieai to acknowledge that it transcends him. Let the 
reader have teen, before he attempts to ovenee. A potn- 
readcr, in the mean while, were he who discerned not here 
ihe authentic rudiment.s of that same New Era, whereof we 
have so often bad false warning. Womlrousljr, the wreckf 
and puUerised rubbiah of ancient tilings, instituiioiLs relig- 
ions, forgotten noblenesses, made alive again by liic breath of 
Genius, lie here in new i-oherence and incipient union, the 
spirit of Art working creative through the mass ; tbal cfuui$, 
iulo whicli the eighleenlh century with its wild war of hypo- 
crites and sceptics had reduced the Past, begins here to b« 
once more a world. — This, ihe highest that can be ^id of 
written Books, is lo be said of these ; ihere is in them a New 



intiing of Knowledge, as fire tB of li^bt; und works nlisu 
naoncr of fire. Ttiat Guetlie was a great 
icltrr of tueo means filreadjr [hat hii was a good man ; 
e liod liimsvlf learned ; in iht; scliool of cxperienci; had 
1 taaA provt-d Tictorious. Tu liuw many hearers, lao- 
ng, nigli dfad, iu the airless dungeon of Unbelief (• 
vacuum and nonentity), has ihe assurance that there 
WM HUcb n DMU), that such a man was still possible, come like 
lidiugs of great yty ! He who would learn to recondle rev- 
rri-ncv with deamesj ; to deny and defy what is False, yet 
It lii^ve and worshi[i nluit is True; amid raging factions, beat 
■'■■\ what U either aliogellicr empty or lius substance in it 
i.lj for n day, which stonnfully convulse and tear hither 
iii'l lliiibera distnicted expiring ^ly^tcm of society, to adjust 
MLiscEfariglil ; and, workiog for thu world and in the worldi 
' 'p himtrif un!>poUed from the world, — let him look here. 
rill? man, we maysuy, U^catne tnumlly givat, by being in bis 
1WI age, what in M>me other ages many might have been, a 
.'.nuine niaii. His grand excellency was this, that he was 
:' riuiite. As his primary fneully, the foundation of all 
ilit-rs, wni Inlellecl, deplli and force of Vision; m) his pri- 
'.>ry virtue was Justice, wa« the oourngo to be just. A 
.Hill's strength we admired in him ; yel, sta'ngth ennobled 
-■-.'•• Mjftest mildness ; even like thai * silent rock-bound 
Trngili of a world,' oti whose bosom, which rests on the 
"limnnt. grow fkiwers. The greatest of hearts wa^ also the 
'MVPHi; fearless, uuwenried, peac«ru]ly invincible. A com- 
''(i.'O niiui : the trembling «etidibility, the wild enthusiasm of 
■■ Mignun can adsort with the ecomfu! woi'ld-mockery of a 
Hv^iutophelc» ; and each side of many-sided life receives its 
|»tinD bim. 

: reckoned Schiller happy that he died young, in 

It foB figuur of bin days ; thai we could - flgure him as a 

^' ' fer.' To himself a different, higher destiny wu 

Tliniiigli all Ihe clianges of man's life, ouwardi 

«me verge be was to go ; and through ihem all 


nobly. In youth, flatlerinp of fortune, uninlorrupled oul- 
ward prosperity cannol corrupt him ; a wise observer ha* to 
remark : ' None but a Goethe, al the Sun of earthly happi- 
ness, can keep Lis Phoenix-wings unsinged.' — Through 
manhood, in the most complex relation, as poet, courtier, 
(Kililician, man of business, man oF gpeculalion ; in the mid- 
dle of revolutions and counter-revolutions, outward and spir- 
itual ; with the ivorld loudly for him, with the world loudly or 
eilently against him ; in all seasons and situatiooti, he bold^ 
equally on hia way. Old nge itself, which is called dark and 
feeble, he was to render lovely : who that looked upon him 
there, venerable in himself, and in the world's reverence ever 
the dearer, (he purer, but could have prayed that he too were 
eudi an old man? And did not the kind Heavens continue 
kind, and grant to a career so glorious the worthiest end ? 

Such v/nn Goethe's Life ; such has his departure been. 
He sleeps now beside his Schiller and his Carl August of 
Weimai' : fo had ihe Prince willed it, that between thes« two 



from the beguming, gives assurance) a something that per- 
tains not to this wild death-element of Time ; that triumphs 
over Time, and u, and will be, when Time shall be no 

And now we turn back into the world, withdrawing from 
thb new-made grave. The man whom we love lies there : 
but glorious, worthy ; and his spirit yet lives in us with an 
authentic life. Could each here vow to do his little task, 
even as the Departed did his great one ; in the manner of a 
time man, not for a Day, but for Eternity ! To live, as he 
counselled and commanded, not commodiously in the Repu- 
table, the Plausible, the Half, but resolutely in the Whole, 
the Good, the True : 

* Jm Gmnen^ Guttn^ Wahren reiohtt tu leben ! * 




It h now four years since we specially invited altcnijoii 
lo tLia Book ; llrsC in an esmj on tlie graceful little fanio^;- 
piece of Helena, then in a more general one on the merits 
and workings of Goethe hiinself: since which lime two im- 
portant iliiogs have happened in reference to it ; for the 
publication, advancing with successful reguloriiy, reached \\6 
fortieth and lust volume in 1830 ; and now, still more eni> 
phaticiilly to conclude both ibis ' completed, final edition,* and 


tiv:tone onward* half tlie arcli rests on invisibility; lliis is 
'r:in»i(ii)n nul of liiilile Tinn" into invisible Eternity. 
since Death, ns llie {>a1^ia.ble revelAtion (oot to be orer* 
■ kci by ihe <Iullc-i) of tlui mysiery of wonder, and depth. 
I 1 fear, wLich eyerywhere from be^nning lo ending through 
- whole oourse nnd morcment lid under Life, is in any 
-'- so grfat, — we find it not unn&turaJ ihal hereby a new 
-ik of ^filnesiii, it new interest should be impressed on 
liiilmeTer bus preceded it stnd led to it; that even towards 
'lie man. whose history did not then first become Bignificani, 
■ world should turn, at hi^ departnre, with a quite peeuliar 
iniestness, und now M^riously nAi itself a i|ue9tion. perhaps 
.11 ver seriously a*ked before, Wiai the purjion and charac- 
iirr of hu [inwence hfre wa« : now when he lins gone hence, 
md b nut presi-nt here, and will remain ab^enr foreveruiore. 
h in the (onelu^ion that crowns the work: innch more the 
ineninible condu^inn wherein all is concluded : thus is there 
no Gfe to raean but a death will make it memorable. 

Kt all lykewakes accordingly, Ihe doings and endurances 
<f the Departed nrr the theme: rude wuls, rude tongues 
t""' «l(iquently bii«y with him : a whole »epluagint of bel- 
t'lfirji are 'tricing tn render, in mjch dialect as tbey have, 
'^•'- nniill bible, or ftpoerypha. of his existence, for Ihe gen- 
'inl |<eru<ui1. The least famous of mnnkiud wil! for once 
^fomf public, and have his name printed, and rend not 
■uboDt iniereM: in the Newspaper Ohituariej>; on some 
M memoria], under which he has crept to sleep. Foolish 
h girU know that there is one method to impress the 
ntf falio Lovelace, and wring his botuim ; the method 
p4rMniing: foolish mined dandies, whom the tailor will no 
'rlTUiI, mod the world turning on lis heel i* about for- 
f. can recaill it to attention by report of pistol ; and so, 
■ wonhlew death, if in a worthless lifv no more, rcnitain 

* "pgalfainl of renown. — for one day. Death is ever a 
*" wly, and Eupemalural wonder, were there no other left : 

* Wt ad dT ■ most stmtige dmioa, whiiA is not dnunHtic, 



lut lifts now be«)me r«>l ; wherein, miraculou^Ij, Furic*. god- 
tnissioDed, have in actual per^oD risen from Ihe abjsis and 
Jo verily dance there in that terror of all terrors, and wave 
their dusky-glaring torches, aod shake their wrpcni-bair ! 
Out of which hearl-lh rilling, so authontieally tnt^c fiOh-«ct 
there goe^ as we ^id, a new meaning over all the other 
four ; making them likewise li^gic and authentic, and (nem- 
orable in some measure, were they fomierly (he aorriet 
picVle-herring farce. 

But nbore all, when a Great Man dies, then has the linie 
come for putting us in mind that he was alive ; biographi«f 
.ind biographic sketches, criticisms, characters, anecdotes, 
reminiscences, issue forth as from opened springing foon- 
tains ; the world, with a passion whetted by impossitnlity, will 
yet awhile retain, yet awhile speak with, (hough only to the 
•ering echoes, what it has loi^t williout remedy : thu^ 
s the last event of life often the loudest ; and real spiritual 


if ul aJI cited iu Eiiglisb literaiun-. liss written a cliup- 

ter, eomtrwhat tn th« nondescript manner of metAphyiiico- 

rlu^tiirtciil, liomilttii^excgctic rbnpdody, on the Grratnru of 

Grrat Mm ; wliicli lopiu we agree with him in n-ckoning 

one nf the most pregnant. The lime, iiiileeil, is come when 

luucli ilml vtMa oiice luund visibly subiieteiit Without must 

&ncw be Muglit for Within ; many a huniiw fi-cling, iude- 

■iraciiblc nnd to man's well-being iDdis|ien«ablc, which once 

imiair«sted itai.-lf in expressive forms to ihti Sense, now lies 

liiddm in tlte /ormieu depths of the Spirit, or at b«jt t-trug- 

^l'--> iMjI obscurely in funng become dupemnimated, altogether 

' tpiTSBive and unrecognisable ; from which paralysed Im- 

, riMMind »t«tc, often the best effort of the thinker is required, 

uhI tnoreuvtir wum well applied, to deliver it. Fur if the 

Pnceiii i« to be the ' hving sum-total of the whole Fajt,' 

Mthing tliHt ever lived in the Fust must be let wholly die ; 

wbiusoever was done, wtiutsoever was said or written afore- 

linui, wad done and written fur our edification. In $uch state 

uf impriMinment, paralysis and unreo^nisabte defacetnent, 

M oomiiared with its oondition in the old nge^, lies this our 

Hing lownrds great men ; wherdn, and in the much else 

UiBi Udongs to it, some of tlie deepot human interfists will be 

fwud tatolved. A few words from Flerr Frofe^or Teufeb- 

, if they help to act ihia preliminary matter in a 

r ligbL may be wortli translating here. Let us first 

. with liiin, however, 'how wonderful iu all CB:«es, 

>r little, is lite importance of man to man : ' 

f K as he will,' says Teufclsdrockh, ' man revereitlly 

I man, and daily by action evidences his belief in the 

M of maiu What a moro than regal mystery en- 

( the poorest of living souls for us ! The highest is 

iluut of him t his jwlfnige has value : could tbe 

tt nwnarch convince himself that the humblest beggar 

9 mind despised him, no serried ranks of bal- 

■ 'ibodWi and bodyguards could shut out some little twinge 

Lrtrf pitii taoQE umamuion from tlic low had pieroed into the 


' bosoni of the higli. Of a truth, men are mjslicallj nniled; 
' a mystic bond of brotherhood nnkes all men one. 

' Thus too has that fierue false hunting afifir Popularity, 
' which jou often wonder al, and laugh at, a basis on »ome- 
' thing true : nay, under Ilie other aspect, what h that non- 
' derful spirit of Interference, were it but maaif^sled as the 
' paltriest scandal and tea-table backbiting, other than in- 
' versety or direclly, a heanfcit indestructible sympaltiy of 
' man with man ? Hatred itself is but an inverse love. 
' The philosopher's wife eomplaiacd to the philo^pher that 
' certain two-legged animals without f<!athers spake evil of 
'him, spitefully criticised bis goings out and comings in; 
' tvlierein she too failed uot of her share : " Light of my 
' life." answered the philosopher, " it is their love of os. un- 
' krown to ihemeelves, and taking a foolish shape ; thank 
' tbt-m for il, and do thou love them more wisely. Were we 
' mere ^team-engines working here under this rooRree, they 
' would scorn to speak of us once in a twelvemonth." The 


and must 90 sec it in any finite thing, once tempt him well 
10 Jix his eyes thereon. Yes, in practice, be it in theory 
or not, we are all Supematuralists ; and have an infinite 
happiness or an infinite woe not only waiting us hereafter, 
but kx>king out on U!« through any pitifullest present good or 
evil ; — as, for example, on a high poetic Byron through his 
lameness ; as on all young souh through their first lovesuit ; 
as on older souls, still more foolishly, through many a law- 
suit, paper-battle, political horse-race or ass-race. Atheism, 
it has been said, is impossible ; and truly, if we will consider 
it, no Atheist denies a Divinity, but only some Name (iVb- 
meHy Numen) of a Divinity : the God is still present there, 
working in that benighted heart, were it only as a god of 
darkness. Thousands of stem Sansculottes, to seek no 
other instance, go chaunting martyr-hymns to their guillo- 
tine : these spurn at the name of a God ; yet worship one 
(as hapless ** Proselytes without the Gate,") under the new 
pseudonym of Freedom. What indeed is all this that is 
called political fanaticism, revolutionary madness, force of 
hatred, force of love and so forth, but merely, under new 
designations, that same wondrous, wonder-working reflex 
from the Infinite, which in all times has given the Finite 
its empyrean or tartarean hue, thereby its blessedness or 
curscMlness, its marketable worth or un worth ? 

* Remark, however, as illustrative of several things, and 
more to the purpose here, that man does in strict speech 
always remain the clearest symlwl of the Divinity to mun. 
Friend Novalis, the devoutest heart I knew, and of purest 
depth, has not scrupled to call man, what the Divine Man 
is called in Scripture, a " Revelation in the Flesli.** "There 
if but one temple in the world,** says he, ^ and that is the 
body of man. Bending before men is a reverence done to 
this revelation in the flesh. We touch heaven when we 
Uiy our hand on a human body.** In which notable wonls, 
a reader that meditates them may find such meaning and 

scientific accuracy as will suq>rise him. 
VOL. m. 11 


' Thf age^ of superstition, it nppear? lo be «tffideM[f 

[iiowit, are behind u». To no man, were he nein' <o 

leroic, are shrines any more buill, and vovs offer^ lUi lo 

me liaving supernatural power. The sphere of ibe TftAif- 

iCE~VDKKTAL cannot now, by ibat avenue of heroic wonli, 

'of eloquent wL^om, or by any other avenue, be so ro^ly 

' ivached. The worth that in these days could Irmuren^ 

iimate or survey, and lead men willingly captive into 

' infiiiile admiration, into worship, is still waited for (with 

; hope) from the unsven lime. All llial can be saiil 

' 10 oSi^r itself iu that kind, at present, is some slight bouse- 

' liolii devotion {Haut-Andaeht). whereby this or the other 

' i^nthusiast, privalely in all quietness, can lore hif hero or 

' without measure, and idealise, and ko, in a sense, 

i^e liim ; — which practice, as man is by nM»ssity an 

noTvhtpper (no offence in him to long as idol meaiis 

iccurati'ly vition, clear tymboT), and all wicked idolaliy a 

more idolairous worship, may bo excusable, in e^i^ 

GO£TH£*S WORKS. 163 

' OQS mixed lingua rusiic€ij more like a jargon than a lan- 
' g^i^'S^ must prevail ; and thus the deepest matters be 

* either barbarously spoken of, or wholly omitted and lost 

* sight of, which were still worse.' But to let the Homily 

* Consider at any rate,' continues he elsewhere, * under 
how many categories, down to the most impertinent, the 
world inquires .concerning Great Men, and never wearies 
striving to represent to itself their whole structure, aspect, 
procedure, outward and inward I Blame not the world 
for such minutest curiosity about its great ones : this comes 
of the world's old-established necessity to worship: and, 
indeed, whom but its great ones, that " like celestial fire- 
pillars go before it on the march," ought it to worship ? 
Blame not even that mistaken worship of sham great ones, 
that are not celestial fire-pillars, but terrestrial glass-lan- 
terns with wick and tallow, under no guidance but a stupid 
fiuuous one ; of which worship the litanies and gossip- 
homilies are, in some quarters of the globe, so inexpressi- 
bly uninteresting. Blame it not ; pity it rather, with a cer- 
tain loving respect 

* Man is never, let me assure thee, altogether a clothes- 
horse : under the clothes there is always a body and a soul. 
The Count von Biigeleisen, so idolised by our fashionable 
classes, is not, as the English Swifl asserts, created wholly 
by the Tailor ; but partially also by the supernatural Pow- 
ers. His beautifully cut apparel, and graceful expensive 
tackle and environment of all kinds, are but the symbols 
of a beauty and gracefulness, supposed to be inherent in 
the Count himself; under which predicament come also our 
reverence for his counthood, and in good part that other 
notable phenomenon of his being worshipped because he 
1$ worshipped, of one idolater, sheep-like, running tdier 
him, because many have already run. Nay, on what other 
principle but this latter hast thou, O n*ader (if thou be not 
one of a thousand), read, for example, thy ffomer, and found 


Mune real joy therein ? AH these Ihing?, I say, the ap- 
parel, the counthooil, the existing popularily nnd what- 
erer else can combine there, are sjmbolB ; — bank notc^ 
which, whelher then: be gold behmd them, or onlj bank- 
ruptcy and empty drawers, pass current for gold. But how, 
now, could they ao pass, if gold itself were not priwd, and 
believed and known to be Mimewhcre extant ? Produce 
the actual gold visibly, and mark how, in these dislnistiiil 
days, your most accredited bank-paper stagnates in the 
market ! No Holy Alliance, though plash and gilding and 
genealogical parchment, to the utmost that the lime yields, 
be hung round it, can gain for it>elf a dominion in the heart 
of any man ; some thirty or forty millions of men's hearts 
being, on the other hand, subdued into loyal reverence by 
a Coraiciui Lieutenant of Artillery. Such is the difier- 
ence between God-creation and Tnilor-crearion. Great is 
the Tailor, but not the greale*!- So, loo, in mailers spir- 
itual, what avail? it that a man be Doctor of the Sorbonne. 

GO£TH£*S WOBKS. 165 

Deep aod yenerable, whether looked at in the Teufelsdrttckh 
manner or otherwise, id this love of men for great men, this 
their exclusive admiration of great men ; a quality of vast 
significance, if we consider it well; for, as in its origin it 
reaches up into the highest and even holiest provinces of 
man's nature, so in his practical history it will be found to 
play the most surprising part Does not, for one example, 
the fact of such a temper indestructibly existing in all men, 
point out man as an essentially governable and teachable 
creature, and forever refute tliat calumny of his being by 
nature insubordinate, prone to rebellion ? Men seldom, or 
rather never for a length of time and deliberately, rebel 
against anything that does not deserve rebelling against. 
Ready, ever zealous is the obedience and devotedness they 
show to the great, to the really high ; prostrating their 
whole possession and self, body, heart, soul and spirit, under 
the feet of whatsoever is authentically above them. Nay, 
in most times, it is rather a slavish devotedness to those 
who only seem and pretend to be above them that consti- 
tutes their fault. 

But why seek special instances ? Is not Love, from of 
old, known to be the beginning of all things ? And what is 
admiration of the great but love of tlie truly lovable ? The 
fir!«t product of love is imitation^ that all-important peculiar 
gift of man, whereby Mankind is not only held socially 
together in the present time, but connected in like union 
with the past and the future ; so that the attainment of the 
innumerable Departed can be conveyiKl down to the Living, 
and transmitted with increase to the Unborn. Now great 
men, in particular spiritually great men (for all men have a 
<\nT\i to guide, though all have not kingdoms to govern and 
battles to fight), are the men universally imitated and learned 
of« the glass in which whole generations survey and shape 

Thus is the Great Man of an age, beyond comparison, the 
most important phenomenon therein ; all other phenomena, 


were they Waterloo Victories, ConittitDtioiis of the Y«ir 
One, glorious revolutions, n^w births of the golden nge in 
what sort you will, are small and trivial. Alas, all lh«« 
pass away, and are left eitinM behind, like ihe tar-borreU 
they were celebrated with ; aud the new-bom golden agt 
proves always to be $till-hom : neilhur i* there, was there or 
will then? be any other golden age possible, save only in this : 
in new itiMease of worth and wisdom ; — that is to say, there- 
fore, in the new nrrivnl among us of wise and worthy meo. 
Such arrivals are the great occurrences, though unnoticed 
one^i; rII else ihnt can occur, in what kind soever, is but the 
road, up-hill or down-hill, rougher or smoother; nowise ihc 
poieer that tviil nerve us for travelling forward thereon. So 
little comparatively can forethought or the cunntngest mechan- 
ical precontrivance do for a nation, for a world ! Ever mui-i 
we wail on the bounty of Time, and see what leader shall 
be l)om for U!^ and whither he will lead. Thus too, in de- 
fect of preal men, noted men become important : the Noted 


these late ages, perhaps more than ever, 80 indispensable is 
now our need of clear reverence, so inexpressibly poor our 
supply. ' Clear reverence I ' it was once respondiid to a 
seeker of light : * all want it, perhaps thou thyself.* What 
wretched idols, of Leeds cloth, stuffed out with bran of one 
kind or other, do men either worship, or being tired of wor- 
shipping (so expensively without fruit), rend in pieces and kick 
out of doors, amid loud shouting and crowing, what they call 

* tremendous cheers,* as if the feat were miraculous ! In 
private life, as in public, delusion in this sort does its work ; 
the blind leading the blind, both fall into tlie ditch. 

* For alas ! ' cries Teufvlsdrikkh on this occasion, * thougli 

* in susceptive hearts it is felt that a great man is unspeaka- 
*bly great, the specific marks of him are mournfully mis- 

* taken : thus must innumerable pilgrims journey, in toil and 

* hope, to shrines where there is no healing. On the fairer 
^ half of tlie creation, above all, such error pres.'^s hsnL 
*' Women are bom worshippers ; in their good little hearts 

* lies the most craving relish for greatness : it is even said, 
' each chooses her husband on the hypothesis of his being a 
*' great man — in his way. The good creatures, yet the fool- 
^ i»h ! For their choices, no insight, or next to none, being 
' vouchsafed them, are unutterable. Yet how touching also 

* to see, for example, Parisian ladies of quality, all rustling in 
^ silks and laches, visit the condemned-cell of a fierce Car- 
*■ touche ; and in silver accents, and with the looks of angels, 

* beg locks of hair from him ; as from the greatest, were it 
' only in the profession of highwaymsn I Still more fatal is 

* tliat other mi^^take, the commonest of all, whereby the devo- 

* tional youth, seeking for a great man to worship, finds such 
^ within his own worthy person, and proceeds with all zeal to 

* worehip there. Unhappy enough : to realise, in an age of 
' liuch gas-light illumination, this basest superstition of the 
*' ages of £g}'|>cian darkness ! 

* Remark, however, not without emotion, that of all rituals, 

* and divine services, and ordinances ever instituted for the 


' warship of any god, thia of Self-wurship is the ritual mo^i 
' fiiitht'ully observed. Ti'ouble enough has the Hindoo devo 
' Use, with his ivashings, and cookings, and perplexi^d fgnuu- 
■ lanes, tying liini up at every function of his existence : bai 
' is it greater trouble than that of his Gi'noan self-worship- 
' ping bi'olher ; is it trouble even by the deroutesl Fakir. « 
' liotieslly undertaken and fulfilled ? 1 answer, No; tor [Le 
' Germun'a heart is in il. The German worshipper, for 
' whom does he work, and seheme, and struggle, oud tigbt, at 
' his rising up and lying down, in all times and places, but fi)r 
' his goil only ? Can h» escape from that divine presence ot' 
'Self; can hix heart waver, or his hand wax faint in ihiu 
'sacred serviee? The Hebrew Jonah, prophet as lie wm, 
' rather than take a message to Nineveh, took ship to Ta^ 
' sliish, hoping to bide (here fittm his Sender ; bul in what 
whale's belly shall the madder German Jonah 


■|!*iiiiut at iulkiiig like a gruat schoolboy, in pet 
■ejr have givi-ti liiin » pluiii bun ttuil nol a spiuetl 
HI* bun was a life-rtnl of God's uiiiverBe. wUli the 
■ tn^k^ ii offirreil, (ind the tools to <io them with ; d priori, one 
'laiglil hitVL' fani-icd it could be put up with for onoc' 

.U)L-r which wondrous glimpseii iiiio the Teufelsdrdckh 
Iluiuily un tliB Gmttnfu of Great Men, it inuy now be high 
iiiiir lo [irov-cod wiih ilie mailer more in hand; and remark 

111 our own much-caltimniated age, bo fruitful in noted mun, 

- aiao nut without its givaL In noted men, undoubtedly 
' uaiigh, we eur|ia>« all ageii tiinoe the ereiilion of the world; 
hihI I'rnm two plain cauMS : Fir^l, ihtil ihere has been a 
French Revoluiiuu, and thai there is now pretty rapidly pro- 
rvmiing n European Revolution ; whereby everything, aa in 
the Temi-tlHy ofit great city, when all raortab are removing, 
kas hc-n, m to epoak, set out into the street ; and many ft 
Ibalii^ «(.i»et of diAlionoiir, unnoticed and worth no notice in 
ii'< own dark corner, ha« l>erorae universnlly recugni^utble 
whca once luounled on the summit of some furuilu re- wagon, 
Biul intttTing there (aa Committee -president, or oiher head- 
Hirwtor), with what is put under it, slowly onwards lo its new 

"!-ing and arntngement, itself, alas, hardly lo get thither 
^.iKnut hreahtje. Secondly, that the Printing Pres», with 

iin-hed and loose leaves, Ims now come into full aciion ; and 
nwltni, n» it were, a soft of universal daylight, for removal 
■ad rvTulutiuii and everything eUe to proceed in, far more 
comoKNlloiiMly, yet al^o far more conspicuously. A complaint 
W aeninlingly been hcanl tltat famous men abound, that w« 
are lytttf. overrun with famous men : however, the remedy 

W in the diiiGafW; Itself; 
tpriuk oliiiTinn. Fit Wftgon after wag 
■Hnu or i» overH-i i and «>, in either 
Innsr, which, at woisi, we miw only i] 
oil) tfltd w no more. 

>f ^rvat men, aiiiiiiig so nmny millii 

already n 

rolls off, wid either 

se, the vessel of di*- 

of noled men, il is 


computed thnt in our time there have been Two ; one in tbe 
praciical, another in the speeulaiive province : Napoleon 
Buonnparte and Johann Woltgiing von Goethe. In which 
dual number, inconsiderable As it i», our time maj perhaps 
gpecially priile itself, and take precedence of man)' others: 
in particnlnr, reckon itself the flower-time of llie wliole last 
century and half. Every age will, no doubt, have its superior 
man or nii-n ; but one go superior aa lo take rank among ihe 
high of nil ages, this h what we call a great man ; Ihi^ rarvl}' 
makes his appearance, such bounty of Nature and Acciduni 
laiihl combine to produce and unfold him. Of Napoleon ami 
his works h11 ends of the world have heard : for tueh a bosl 
marched not in silence through the frighted deep : few headi 
there arc in this Planet which have not formed to themsetve^ 
some featured or featureless image of him ; his history bu 


wiu only of Inte thnt his esistence, as a man Bud not as a 
mere ■ounJ, becnme authonCicHlly known to us; and some 
■hallow of his higb endowoients and endeavours, and of ibe 
Ugb tnmning ibat might lie therein, arose in the general mind 
of Eagbuid. even of intelligent England, Fivo year? ago, to 
rank lum with Napoleon, bke liiro as rising unatiainnble be- 
jond his dase, like him and more than he of quite peculiar 
aMDent lo all Europn, would have seemed a wonderful pro- 
C«cinn;; candour oven, and enlightened liberality, to grant 
him plaee beside this nnil the olher home-ttom ready-writer, 
blc^rtl wiih that special privilege of * English culliration,' 
nod able thereby, lo write novels, heart-captivating, heart- 
reodiog, or of encliaining interest. 

Siorr which time, however, let us say, the progress of 
clearer ajiprebenaion h«s lieen rapid and satisfactory : inn.u- 
Birniblc unmusical voices have 8lrea<ly fallen eileni on tliis 
nuuti^ri f'lr in fowls of every leather, even in the perlest 
(iougbi and thievish magpies, there dwells a singuhir rever- 
ruer of Ibe eagle ; no Uulness is so courageous, but if you 
once *lu>w it any gleam of a heavenly Resplendence, it will, 
u lowest, shut ils eyes and say nothing; So fares it here 
with the old-established British eritic ; who, indeed, in these 
If* of oorsi begins to be strangely situaiMl ; so many new 
lUtip rising on his horimn, black indRHna1)le sbapeii, magical 
trnMi ifaeold briekliuld (where he kneaded insuflident mar- 
btablc Iirick») all stirring iflider his feet; preiematoral, 
tHi«ialung tones in the earth and air: — with all which 
rtat (hatl an old-established liritish critic and bricJimaker 
h, but, «t wisesl, put his hands in his pockets, and, wilh the 
ftn and bean of a British musliff. ibuugb amid dismal 
*wigb (brebodingk see what it will turn to? 

£b Am younger, more hopnful minds, again, in most minds 
tttt Mil be coiHidered ok in a ^ilMle of growth, German liler- 
Hon Is taking its due place : in »uich, and in generations nf 
HWtuch timi are to follow them, some thnnkful apprecia- 
^ ti the grviucst in German literalure cimnot fail ; ni all 


events this feeling liiat he w greal and the greatest, whewfcy 
appreciation, and what alone is of much value, appropriHtioB, 
first becomes rightly possible. To forward such on ih«ir iwj 
towards appi-oi)riating what excellence this man realised and 
ereaied for lliera, somewhat has already been done, yel not 
much ; mueh ?till waits to be done. The field, iodoed, ii 
large : (here are Forty Volurae* of the most signifirant Writ- 
ing that bos been produced for the last two centuries ; there 
is the whole long Life and heroic Character of him who pn>- 
diiced them ; all this to expatiate over and inquire into ; in 
both which depnrtmeiile the deepest thinker, and most if- 
sighted, may find scope enough. 

Nevertheless, in these days of the ten-pound franchiM, 
when all the world (perceiving now, like the Irish inn- 
keeper, that ' death and destruetion are Just coining in ') 


enough, tMthing can be done or sufffred, bul there 19 soiiie- 
ihing to tie *aid, nUelj or unwisely. The departure of our 
Qrt^&ie^i eonlemporai-y Man could not be other than a great 
'111 : fltteil to awaken, in ull wliu with understanding be- 
. 1 it, rn-liii[^ sad, bul high and sacred, of mortality and 
iiii>rtitMiy, nt' mourning and of triumph ; far looking^ into 
luf Past and ittto the Future, — so many changes, fearful 
and wociilcrful, of fleeiitig Time ; glimpi^ea loo of the Eter- 
nity tli«#e rest on, whiL-h knowa no change. At the present 
I and distance, however, all this pertains not to ua -, baa 
I uttenid elsewhere, or may be letl fur utterance there. 
9 M conaider the Exequies a-t pant ; that the high Rugus, 
■ ito awvet-scentcd wood, amid the wail of mu^ic eloquent 
ekl(!M heartj), has flamed alufl, huaven-kiasing, in sight 
1 ibe Gre4-k« ; and that now the a^hes of the Hero are 
their uru, and the hui4t liaii marched onwards 
HI Mw victories and new loilii ; ever to be mindful of the 
ir»A, not to mourn for him any more. The host of the 
Hreeks, in this case, was all thinking; Eurojw : whether ibeir 

' ral games were appropriate and worthy, we slop not to 

inirc ; tiie time, in regard to such things is empty or ill- 
oidpil, and this was what the time could conreniently do. 
^ I canonisation and solemn cremation are gone by ; and as 
: nnihing EuiUiblc, nothing that does not border upon par- 
I . , hu appeared in their room. A Bentham bequeathes his 
niins to be lectured over in a school of nnnlomy ; and per- 
l:i-. rvi-n in tliis way, Dnds. as chief of the tltilitarians, a 
illy nobler funeral than any other, which the prosaic age, 
li only in crapes and hollow scutcheons (of limber as of 
nl)), Muld have afforded him. 

llie roatirr in hand being Goelht'i Worh, and the greatest 
..rli iif every man, or raliier the summary and net amount 
•» Kit his works, bi'ing the Life he has led, we ask, as the 
Ent qncstion : Ilow it went with Goethe in that matter; 
»bti «n« the pratiical basis, i)f want and fulfilment, of joy 
»rf tnrrow, from which hi» spiritual productions grew fnnh ; 


the diameters o? which they must more or le8i< legibly bear? 
la which seuse, those Volumes entitled by him Dichlung mtd 
Wa/irlieit, wlierein his perscinal hi:«tory, wba( he has ihoughl 
lit to make knowD of it, stands delineated, will loog be valu- 
able. A noble commentary, instructive in many way?, lies 
□pen there, and yearly increasing ia worth and inien^t', 
whii:h nil readers, now when the true quahiy of it is iif«er- 
lained, will rejoice that circumstances induced aud allownl 
him to write : for surely if old Cellini's counsel have aoy 
propriety, ii is doubly proper in this case : the autobiographic 
practice he recommends (of which the last century in partic- 
ular has seen so many worthy and worthless examples) *M 
never so much in place oa here. ' All men, of nbat ruik 
' soever,' thus counsels the brave Benvenulo, ' who have »c- 
■ complislied aught vii'tuous or virtuous-like, should, provided 
?ally good purposes, writt^ down their 


coDutuDn.-*. ani) Y*t how in giracrol il couUI content tlie atudifot of 
buniui nature ilihI hi> liciri t such wu the tiling I had to do. 

' In this Mtnao, nuprelendinml/ cnotigli, to a work treated «itli 
•nxi'nu fldi-lit)', I ^ave Ihi- natne WnArheil und DifJitmg (Truth and 
FLtliNi)^ Avvf\j con*!ncud tliat man in imniediate Prewnce, atill 
mnn tu Kcmpmbruiac. flulilon* luid mixleli llie exEernal world ao- 
i.^nliiiK to bi* own licculiar)ti««. 

Th« buitneu, ai, irilh luitorical «tiidj'ing, and otherwiie recalling 
■: |>hicv« and pvraona, I hail much liine to spend on it, buiied ma 
■ )>"TWButTer I went or ntiKid, at home and abroad, to auch a degreo 
thai 107 aL-inal condition became like a secondary matter; though 
again, uti all band*, when loinmoued outwarda by ocuaaion, I with 
bill biKo and aiidivid«d tense proved niyielr present.' ' 

Thciie Volumes, with nliaC oilier stipplcmeDtary iDalter 
kas been atlilect to ibem (the r&iiier as Goethe's nes a life 
of mffiufold relation, of the widest cotioexion with important 
or oleTBimt pcr«oiiii, not to be ciirelesaiy laid iMfore the world, 
and he had the rare guoil furtune of arranging all things that 
ntganU-d i^ren hifl |x>alhiimous conceminenl with the exislittg 
gEarniiun, ai:corditig to \\u own deliberate judgment), are 
pei^p* Xi^vly lo be, for a long time, our only aulhcntiu ref- 
ervnee. By the btat will of ibe dect^aaed, it would seeni, all 
hit papers and effeuta are lo lie exactly as they are, till after 
■Dotber twenty years. 

Looking tiow into these magically-recalled »ceTtea of child- 
IkxkI and manbuod, the student of human nature will under 
«U manner of shapes, from first lo last, nolc one thing : Tho 
tinpilarly tumplex I'us^ibiliiy otfered from without, yet along 
willi it the de*p never-fuiling Force from within, whereby all 
ihu b comiucred and realised. It was as if accident and 
: rimnry nndnwment had conspired to produce a character on 
iiii KKtU ncale ; a will is cast abroad into the widest, wildest 
iDsiit, and giAod alM in an extreme degree to prevail over 
a, to fnsbion this ui its own form : in wbicii subordinating 
i •olf'fiishioning of its eircumslanccs a chnnicler properly 
In external situations, it is true, in occurrences 
1 be recited in the Newspapers, Goethe's ex- 


isLence is not more complex than other men's ; outirarillj 
rather a paciflc pmooih existence : but in his inward spedal- 
tics and licjith of faculty and temper, in his position spiriluni 
and temporal loiviirds the world as it waii, and (he world a 
he could have wished it, the observant eje may discern com- 
plexity, pcrpk-xity enough ; an extent of darn greater, pei^ 
hn[)s, than hnd lain in any life-problem for some centuries. 
And now, as mentioned, the force for solving this was, in 
like manner, granted him in extraordinary measure ; so that 
we must say, hia possibilities were faithfully and with wou- 
derfnl success turned into acquisitions ; and ihi^ man fought 
tlie good fight, not only victorious, as all true rot;n arc. 
but victorious without damage, and witb an ever-incrva-^iag 
Blrengtli for new victory, as only great and happy men are. 
Not wounds and loss (beyond fast-henling, skin-deep wound-) 
has tlie uiieoiiquumhle to sulfer ; only ever-enduring toil; 


pircs N«N^<fiity and Freeirlll. A piam adnge saj^, ■ (he 
bock ii made for the burden ; * we might with no less ti-uth 
Invwt it, and saj-, the bunltin waa mude for iIk- buck, Nny, 
K> perverse is ihc Dnturc of man, it ha» in all times been 
Iwinil t)ini an cxlcmnl ulloinienl ^upi-rior to the caramon was 
mora daiigcrouii itinii one iuferiur ; thus fur a huiidn'd that 
ran bear ndvcfaity, lliere is hardly one that can bear pros- 

or riches ID particular, as of the grossest speelee of pros- 
jierity, tlic perils nn: recorded by all tnorulisl^ ; and ever, as 
of (dd, must the sad observation from time to lime occur: 
KasieT for a camel lo pa^a through the eye of a oeodle I 
Kich«s in a cultured community are the strimgesi of things ; 
a power all-moving, yet which itoy the mo^'t powerleea and 
tkillcM can jfut in motion ; ihuy are ilio r«adiesl of |x>Mi- 
bitSliea : the rcadiesl tu become a great blessing or a great 
curse. 'Beneath gold thrones and mountaiiu,' says Jean 
fmil, ' who knows liow many giant spirits lie entombed I ' 
Thf first fruit of richer, especially for the man bom rich, 
is to leach him faiih in them, and all but hide from him 
that there is any other fuith ; thus is he trained up tn the 
■erable eye-service of what is called Honour, Respecta- 
y i instead of a man we have but a gif/man, — one who 
«ya kept a gig,' two-wheeled or four-wheeled. Consider 
ne glgmanhood i^ues in ; consider tlial first 
f nxMt etupendous of gignien, Phaclnn, the son of Sol, 
h drove the biightcst of all conceivable fpgs, yet with ih« 
killcst rc«ull. Alas, Phaeton wad liis father's heir; 
o attain the highest fortune without earning it : he had 
kn 5a sun-chariot (could not build the simplest whcclbar- 
i«» ). bill cnnld and would insist on driving one ; and *o brwke 
hi> own stiff neck, sent ^g and horses spinning through in- 
Snite sfmcc-, and set the universe on fire ! — Or, lo f|>cBk in 
morr loodett figures. Poverty, we may say, surrounds a man 
«ith rewly-DUule barriers, which, if they mournfully gnll and 
ijinjHT, do at lea*l preicribe for him and forec on him a sort 


ol' uuurso iknil goul ; u isufu und beaten tbougli i 
coursi; ; great purt uf his guiUunce ia secure ngiunst faul 
error, is wiititlrawn from kU control. The ricli, again, hu 
his whole life to guide, without jjaiil or barrier, sare of hi« 
own cLoosing ; acid, Icmpted as vie h;ive eeca, is loo likelj' 
to guide it ill ; ofteii, iDstead of walking struiglit tbrward, 
an he might, does but, like Jeshuruo, wax ful and kick ; in 
which process, it is clear, not the adaoiantine circle of Nec«S' 
.'ity whereon the World is built, but only hU owu limb-boocs 
must go to pieces ! — Truly, in plain prose, if we bethink uj 
ivhal a road many a Byron and Mirabeau, especially in tlie% 
latter generation:-, have gone, it is proof of an uncominoa 
inward wealth in Goclhe, tliat (he outward wcslili, wbetber 
of money or ullmr happiness which Fortune ofiereid him, did 
in no eni^e exceed the power of Nature to appropriate ud 
wllol-^^omely assimilate ; lliat all ontward blessediiesj. t 

ihrjr An tunoag our tnost genuine poetic Idyls. No smnllesl 
[natter h too small for ii», wlicn we Uiink vAo it was that 
did U or iuflVred it The liiilc lung-clolhrd urchin, mercu- 
rial enough with all hte i>tillii«a4, can throw a whole cni^ of 
utw-markctcd crockery, piece by piece, from the bnlcony 
inin the street, wlien once the fi-nl is suggested to bim ; and 
eiMnicAlly »lMllers cheap delf-ware with llie eame right hand 
whicli tragically wrote and buried forth the demoniac «coro 
•if Mepbistopbeles, or as ' right hand ' of Fatisl, ' mmole the 
Mnivcrne to ruins.' Neither «mile more than enough (if thou 
b« m'ae) thai the gray-Lured all-experienced man remem- 
bera bow ibe boy wnlked on the Mayn bridge, and ' liked (o 
look at the bright weather-cnck ' on the liarrier there. That 
foolish piin:e of gilt wouii, there glittering sunlit, with iU 
reflex, wavering in the Mayn waters, ia awakenitig quit« 
uKiilier glitter iu tlie young gifted soul: is not tit'n fooIi»h 
ijiilit splendour also, now when there i» an eye lo behold it, 
II' nf JJaiiiTc'g doings? The eye of the young seer ia h<<re, 
il.mugh tile |ialtri(!St chink, loukiag into ihc infinite Splen- 
doars of Nature, — where, one day, biinaetr 'n to enter and 

GoHbe'd mother appears (o bave been tbe more gifted of 

'i->- p«rrnta: a woman of altogether genial eliaraetor, great 

|. initial laculty and worth ; whom the son, at an after timv, 

111 (Ad family fHeuds iu mind of. It is gnilifying for us that 

1:1- lived to witness his maturity in works and honoiini ; to 

. Tn>w that the little infiuil she hud nursed wn^ grown to be a 

I'^'hiy man, the flr^l man of bis nation and time. In the 

ri>(. ■■" proKperoUi citizen of Frankfon, skilled in many 

::j~. improved by travel, by studies both practkal and 

I i:ii> nr^i) : deeoraled with sonw diplomatic title, but par<i>- 

- ' -i:; tii!> biHiks, paintings, collecliuns and hoiiEchoii) 

-, ^vciul or Inlelleeluul, ^pirituttl or maleriul. a quite 

. iti,- inde|)enileMt life, we heeonic actinninied with a 

, iii>t country- but city -^rn/^-nuin of the ksl century; 

M chaiscier «ear«vly ever fitmtliur in uur Inlands; now per- 



hai>3 )ilmo?[ obsolete among the Germans loo. A positive, 
melliodiiaii miin, sound-headed, honest-heartrf, Kharp-tem- 
periid 1 with an uncommon share of volition, among olliec 
things, so lliiit scai'celj anj obstacle would turn him back, 
but ivhiilsoever he could not mount over he would struggle 
i-ouiid, and in any case be at llie end of liis journey : tnanj 
or all of whose good qualities passed also over by inheri- 
tance ; and, in fiiirctr combination, on nobler objects, to ibe 
wbole world's profit, were seen a second time in action. 

Family incidcnid ; house-buildings, or rebuildings ; airi- 
vali, departures; in any case, newyear's-days and birtli- 
days, are not wanting ; nor city-incidents ; many-coloured 
tumult of Frankfort fairs ; Kaisers' coronations, expected 
and witnessed; or that glorious ceremonial of ibe yearly 
Pfiiffcrgerichl., wherein the grandfather himself plays so iio- 



w Hie (kid inilccJ wu atiU out of m; eight, bul tlic thunder of tlie 
D and the Tolk';i of tlii> small amu could be full? diiccrncd. 
[DC Itoun. we mw [hu Hrst tokea« of llic battle, in a row of 
whcrvoQ wDundrd men, in all sorts ol'n>rrovful diimember- 
atvnt and geituru, verv driven aortl}' past ui to Ihc Ucbflviu'u-Kloi- 
ttt, which luul been cliBDKt.-<l into a lioapilal. Tho conipaiaion of the 
dliuiu lurlliwitl] awoke. Beer, yriav, broad, money wtrc given lo 
■ticb as bid still power of rci-viving. But wlii-n. erelong, wounded 
and mi'tiie Oennsns also were ooliccd in thai train, tliu pily had ni> 
UmlM ; it seemed as if each were bent to iirip himsvlf of wlialcTer 
Butvablo thing be bad, to aid liis cauutryutn tlicrcwiili in their kx- 

^Tlw prisoners, meanwhile, were tlie symptom of a battle unpros- 
• Ibr the AUiei. Mj father, in his partiality, quite certain that 
* would gain, liad the passionate nuhnees to go out 10 meet thn 
on; not reSeciing that the beaten side would in tliat 
R iMrc to run over turn. Uc went drsl into his garden, at tho 
nlbNK Oaie, whvrv be .Gjund all qniet and sulitar; ; then veu- 
1 fivtb to the Bornhclm Heath, where soon, however, various 
d outniuners and ba([gHge-men came i[i sight, who look Ihe 
s tlicy pBSKil, of shooting al tbe boundary 4lonet, and 
M DW tiagur waliilerer tlie reverberated luad ainging about his ears. 
[t wckoned it wiser, therefore, lo come buck ; and learned on some 
tnqiury, wliat llio sound of Ibe firing might already have taught 
bim. that for the French all went well, and no retreat wax thought 
J. Arrittng home M\ of black humour, he quite, at eight of his 
woanili-il and prisoner uiunirymen, kwt all composure. From him 
tUii many a gift went out for the passing wagons, bul only Germans 
cere to loalc of iti which urraogoment, as Fate bad so hnddled 
fti-nrU and foes logcther. could not always be adhered to. 

' Our mother, and we children, who had from the first built upon 
11'' Count's word, and so paswd a lolcretily quiet day. were greatly 
< icilceil, and oar mother doubly comfortvd, as she tlial morning, on 
L.ii'idimilig the oracle of her jewel-boa by the scratch of a needle, 
1 1 obuincd a moit consolatory answer not only for tbe preient but 
r the fiitiirv We wished oar father a similar belief and disposi* 
■:,jii; we flallercd hira what we could, we entreated him to take 
i.,nifr fbod, which lio had forborne all day ; he refined our caressea 
• rvrj eiijoymeut. and retired to his room. Our joy, in tkcmean 
a out duturbed . the business was over: the King's Lieu- 
I, vIm to-day, contrary to custom, bad been on horseback, at 
cd ; hi* presence at home wat more nerdfVd than ever. 
11 to meet him. kissed his hands, Icstifled our joy. It 
d to pltase hlni greatly. " Well ! " said he, with more soltneas 


thui usuhI, "I BID glad loo fur yoar sake, dear ubiidren." Uc 
ordered ue sweeliiioalB, ewtel wine, eferjlhing ihe best, and went 
to hi> cbambor, vhere already a aitaa of imporCunen, Bulicilun, p«- 
tilionen, wcro cru wiled. 

' We held uow a daiatj collation ; deplored our good &ther, who 
could Dol partidpate therein, and preiJbd our motlier to bring biai 
down^ ilie, howeTcr, knew better, and liow uDcbmring luch gifti 
would be to him. Meanwhile she had put some sapper in order, and 
would tvn have lent him up a little la hia room ; but audi irregn- 
larily was K thing he never euSi^red, not in eitremost cuti : lo th(' 
sweet gifts being once put aside, she tet about entreating him la 
come down in liis uiuol way. lie yiflded nt hut, unwillingly, and 
Utile did we know what mischief we were making ready. The stain 
ran free through the whole hoose, past the door of every ante-cham- 
ber. Our fhlher, in descending, lind to pass the Count's apartroenlt. 
His ante'Chambcr wns so 1\ill of people that he bad at length reeolTed 
HJid despatch several at otico ; and this happeiietJ, alaa, 
:r was pasiiog down. The Count st«pi 
cheerfully oul. saluted liim and sftiil : " You will congratulate u 



bti * (fer ihc mrringu loo brt^nks down) • iltrougli rlie IM 

and liimll}' Lct-ome involved in ihi- univi^ival fire-eon- 

I of Na|>uleon, and by ekill der«iitl liiuiEcIt' frum 

( tbaratn ! — 

e tkUier, wilb occasioniLl subsidiary private tutors, is bin 

tft Mhoolmaxiur : a stnii^wbtii pedantic pedagogue, wiili 

amtuliiKi i-noagh and foithrnl g»odwiIl, but more of rigour 

iban uf iiioight i who. Iiowcver, worku on a lulijeul lliat lie 

nfjMot ^poil. Iianguage^ to the number uf six or ccvun, with 

" tiatsotrvcr pertains to them ; historie;), sj'Uabuseiii, knowl- 

l:.-r«-mude-easy ; not (a speak of dnneing, drawing, mustc, 

1, iu due time, riding and fencing: all i* [aken-in with 

i'uiiiidli;>>4 »[>pelili; and npliludi?; nil is hul fuel, injudiciouiJy 

[■ilod and of wet ijualily, yet under whirh works an unqueucb- 

ktik Oreek-fire that will leed irself iberewith, ihat will one 

day inakv il aU clear and gluwJn->;. The juitemal grand- 

moib<'r, reoollccied as a * pale, iliin, ever white and cleAn- 

drcs9e<i tigure,' provides the i-liildren many a aati^fuction ; 

atiil at length, on fomo fct^tive night, the crowning one of a 

: 'j[>j>rl^shuw: wlifreuYKm ensues a long course of thsnirical 

.'> L-ub>tinj;4 and praeti^ings, ^omewbnt as delineated, fer 

M.ihtr party, in ihc first book of Meister't Apprenlimhip : 

' I which Work, iuik-cd, especially in tliK earlier iwrtion of it, 

Jiie shadow of ibe author'^ pergonal experienee and culture 

: morn tlmn once traceable. Thu« Mei'^ter'd desperate bumt- 

'. riii^ 'if lits young ' Poem; on various Occasions,' whs the 

• ^■- "I :i rualily which took place In Leipzig; performed 

iM i!ii. Iv l■nougl^ 'on the kitchen hearth, the thick ^rnoke 

iin H tiidi. flowing through the whole bouav, filled our good 

'iidiady with alsrm.' 

Old I nipt- rial- Fn-e town Fninkfort is not without its noU^ \ 

' '^iiie^. tragic ur comic ; in uny ca^e. impressive and didactic. 

' iir yoDng hr'art i^ filled with Ixiding to lonk into the Jidm- 

'■■-•M (Jew^te), where M]ualid painful Hehrews are ban- 

i-HhI to iicour old clothe.'i, ami in hate, and greed, nnd Old- 

w\ \ 




pi'ophciic exisience, as ' a people terrible from [be begin- 
ning j ' manages, bowevur, to get admitlance to their -syna- 
gogue, and see a wedding and a circumcision. Oq its spike, 
aloft on one of the steeples, grins, for the last tno-Lundreil 
years, llie bleached skull of a malefactor and traitor ; prop- 
erij', indeed, not so much a trmtor, as a Radical whose Re- 
form Bill could not be carried through. The future book- 
writer also, on one occat^ ion, sees the execution of a book; 
boiv tlie huge printed renms rustle in the tlatnes, are slirred- 
up with oven-fark9, and fly half-chari'ed abf), the sport of 
winds ; from which half-chiirred leaves, diligently picked up, 
be pieces himself a copy together, as did many others, ami 
with double earnestness reads it. 

As little is the old Freetown deficient in notable men ; all 
ccssible to a grandson of the Schultheiss,' who besides is a 
> other. Of which originflls, curious t 


«lii-tluT lie i,imld tlHnJ <ach an inconvenicnco tho wliolv wiotcr, He 
uwwcnril like m second Tiiaon, and Heautonlimoramenoa ; " Would 
Id •lui iliti were the worat mjwhief of thoie that plaffue mu I " Kot 
tin lak- wuuM be be perauadt'd to ailniit dsutfliler and pHOdsoQ to bia 
«i]tbl : the laa-ui-kw wa* oeTer more to abow &oe before him. 

' Oa tliia brare and unlbrtunalc man my prettnco had a kind 
cIRk:! : fiir as lie gladlj' apoke with mc. in pnrtictilar Instrneled me 
on political and state concenw, Iw teemed hininclf to feci aaeuaged 
and L'liFcred. Accorlinglj'. the few old Mend» wlio still kept about 
liim, would often make lue of me wbeo the; wiilied to aoolhe bis in* 
■Itgnanl huniuur, and pcniiade bim to any recrealiun. In fact he 
sow mure than once went out with a«, and viewi'd tti« ndghbour- 
bond •ckIo, on which, fat to ninny yean, ho bnd not turnt'd an 
•J*.' • • • 

■ UolHth Huisgen, not a native of Frankfort; of the Refoniied 

nlitflon. itnd thu* Inoipable of public office, of advocacy aaiong the 

mt. which Utter, however, aa a man much tnuted litr jurlslic talent, 

liF. under anothcr'a ligiiaturc, contrivHl quite calmlj to pmctiBe, H 

w«ll in Frankfort aa in the Imperial ConrU, — might be about iixlj> 

■him I happened lo hare writing-leitoiu along witli hia ton, and ao 

aiav into thu boiue. His Sgure was large ; lull without being bony, 

bnoil without corpulency. Hi* hce, deformed not only by iniall-poi, 

Mi wonting one of llie eyea, you could not look un, for the firal time, 

■ ihoul a|iprehenaion. On hla bald bead he wore always a perfectly 

.lie bell-sbaped cap IGloclinmiuir) lied at top wiili a ribbon. Hia 

ii^hlgnwns, ofcaUluKaco or damuk, were always aa if new-wailied. 

He iDl»bit(id a moat cheerful suite of rooms on the ground floor in 

thr AHa, and llie neatueM of cTei^tliiog about bioi corresponded to 

ll TIm Idgh order of hit books, pnpert. maps made a pleasant im- 

maatnn- Ilit eon. Heinrich Sebastian, who afterward* became 

kHrm by rarloni writinga on Art, promised little in his youth. 

Ungd-MUurnl but heavy, not mde yet anieti, and without wish to 

. laattaet hlnuelf, he sought rather to avoid his fatlier, as bom hit 

Mtber be Doold get wliatever be wanted. 1, on the other hand, 

'unctDotcand more Into intimncy with the muter the more I knew 

I him- At he niedilled witli none but important Uw-cases. he bad 

'llie •noBgli tu auiuie and occupy himself with other tbingi. I had 

'••t lung bvcn about him, and listened to bit doctrine, till 1 came to 

'Wtt* lliBt in reapvct of Oa<l and tlie VPorid he tluud on the uppo- 

'ima side. One of bis pet bunks Wat. Agrippa dt Vanilale Sci*«lt» 

nit ; this he partit!ularly reeommendcd mo lo nwd. and did titers 

■>i!i Ml my young hralii. for a while, into considenble tumult. I, 

<> 'U joy of my yonth. was inclined to a tort ot optimism, anil with 

'">! « the Uoda had now tolerably adjiuted myself again ; for, by « 


Bi>rii?s of ycnrs, I lind got to cxpericnLt thnt tlit.>rc i* inanf ■ bahtnn 
BgHiriKt evil, Ihnt misfartuneB art' tlimge one mwen th>m. thai m 
dancers one Snils ileliverani^, and doea not nlwayB break liia Deck. 
On w)iaC men did and tried, Dioreover, I looked with taler&nce, ami 
found luucli praiaewotlhj wliich my old gcatlemaa woulil nowiw br 
content with. Kay, once, as he had been depic;ting me the worM nnl 
a llltl(> on the crabbed Eide, 1 nolicn) in liim tlul lie meant still is 
flniih wilh a trump-canl. He shut, aa in lui'h casea hia wotil mi, 
the iilind left eje dose ; looked with the other broad out ; and uJJ, 
in a HiiutHing voic* : ■' And, i« Golt aliUek.- idt FMrr." 

Of a geiiller character is the reniiniM>ence of the matenul 
graiiilfnthcr, old Schultiieiss Texlor; with \m gift of pro- 
])lii;tic drwiining, ' which endoivment none of his descencjanl! 
inherited;* with hU kind, mild najs ; (here oa he ^\W.s 
about ii) his gurdun, at evening, 'in block velvet cap.' trim- 
ming ' ihe Bner Eort of fruit-trees,' with aid of those antique 

(iT attention ; and bo unfolil^l, (o ixuiftrioeil iUvlf in me the reeling 
of the cqiulh;, if not of all aiea, jet of nil men'* sitiiatioiu ; ciUl- 
FDtv bj 11*1?^ appearing ai the head coaililion, all the rest u iniUflbr- 
eiil ami aL-ciiltnial.' 

AnJ 6(1, amid manifoM jn«iructivc influcncee, bos the bo}r 
gniwn out iif Ixij'tiood ; when now n new &gure i;ntcn on the 
Mviie, hriuijitig fur biglicr revelations : 

' A* at lait Ihu wiiw wni IWillng. one of Ilicm aUlcd the maid; but 
iii>l«>J of tier tliriv caiue ■ uiai'len of on Common, and to Ke her in 
thia cnviraaniiuit, of Incredible beauty. " What ii il 4" aaid ilw, 
aftrr kloilly giTin){ M good-crening : " the moid is ill aud Kutie to 
tied : can I terTe ;au I" — " Qur vine is done," aaid one : " couldil 
thou g^ ui a couple of boltttv orer the wty, it were yrrj good of 
Uiev." — " I)i> it, Gretchrn," Mid anotlier, "it ii but a cat'a'iMp." — 
" Suieij' I " laU *he : look a couple of empty bottle* from the table, 
and baatened out. tier flgnrv, when the turned ava,* fWini jron, waa 
alnoat pn-uivr thau Iwfotv. Tliu lliite cap *ai to neat on tlie little 
hrail. wliicb a ilini neck so glaceftilly united with back atid ihout- 
dn« Kiri-r; thing about her u'cined (elect i and you oould foUov 
lb whole form mnru calmly, ai attention waa nut now attraclcil and 
■rrrMrd by llio true Blill eyes and lovely mauih alone.' 

It i.< nt llui very thrcslioltl of jniilh that this epiBOcIe of 
Grvtdiea (Margareic, (Mnr-g'rel'-k'n) oiTiirs ; the joung 
iiic ot' »lim necks and tnie sitll ovc« ehnll now know some- 
: ling of nnluml niii;rc, and the linportiince of one morI»l to 
jrmibifr : iba wild-liowiug bollomU-s^ m^« of hunmn Passion. 
;li>rion- in uuroral light (which, ala.', may become intbmaJ 
I'd li tiling), unvi-ib itsclt' a tittle to liim. A grateful littk* 
tpisodi? we reckcit) it ; and Grvicbeii better than mo8t first- 
: wholly an innocent, wL^^ dainty mniden ; pure and 
^ who vanishes I'rom us here ; but, we trust, in some 
Mok oF tho Khincland, becaaie wifi.' nnd mother, and 
kibe joy and aorruw ofBomc bruve man's heurl. aeeording 
I a]>pointod. To the boy liiniaelf it ended pnintully, 
K &utly, had not ^ickne^ fnmn to his deliverance ; and 
ka may «X()«rien<« how 'a shadow chaw* us in all 
r of winahine,* and in this What-d-^cdl-il of Es- 


Grc-ichfn, not liiT stoiy, whicit had nothing in it of iliat guili 
and lerror, has bteii made world-famous in the Play of 
Fa-itsl. — 

Leipzig University has the lionour of matriculating hicn. 
The name of his ' propitious mother ' she may boast of, bul 
not of ttic rtaliiy : alas, in these days, the University of llw 
Universe is tlie only propitious mother of such ; ail piher 
propitious mothers uri: but utipn>pitioiis supenmiiuuied dry- 
nurses fallen budrid, from whom the famishetl nursling ba^ to 
steal even bread and water, if be will not die ; whom for miKl 
part he soon takes leave of, giving perhaps (aa in Gibbon's 
case), for farewell ihankg, some rough tweak of the ncue; 
and rushes desperate into the wide world an orphan. The 
lime is advancing, slower or faster, when the bedrid drj- 
nui'se will decease, and he succeeded by n walking and air- 
ring Hct one. Goethe's employments and culture at Leiprig 
a than the academic : he listened to 



9 of Wtnkclmann'g aiisaasi nation Imve 
oomc With tlie anuient Gou»(cLe<l, too, be has on inter- 
view : ^ua, it ia a young Zeus come to delhi'onc old Saturn, 
wdosfi lime in tlie lil«rai'j heaven is nigh run ; for on Olyi 
>ij-- itself, one Demiurgus pas^th away and another comcili. 
i"i[i(»clied had introduced llie reign of waltr, in all shapes 
li'|iii<) and folid, and long gloriouslj presided over the same ; 
IhiI now there is enough of it, and the ' rayless majesty' 
(bad br beon prophetic) here beheld the rajed one, befora 
whom hi! was to melt awsy : 


unounwd ounelvei. The Berraul led ns inlo a large room, 
hit matl«r woiUd come immeiliBte]}'. Wliellier we nii«in- 
he mule 1 cannot say ; at any rote, we lanuk'J he 
had twcknnuil ua lo ailiauue into an adjoining chamber. We did 
aJnuin'. and to a gingnlar twne; for. at tli<.> unie moment. Gott- 
Klinl, Uw huge broHi) fnsaatic man, entered from llie oppoaite door. 
Id gr»en damuk nightgown, lined with Ted taffeta*, but bii enor>- 
Dioua h«i'l wsB bald and without cuTertng. Thia, however, was the 
>cfy want lu l« now «u[ipUed : for the scrrant came springiDg-io at 
Ihr lidc-door, with a fUll-botlamed wig on hii band (the looks fell 
dowa to ilia I'lbow), and held il out, with terrified geslurp, to hi* 
:iiit(er. Gollached, wilhont uttering the imaUeal complaint, litted 
:.'' I>(«d-gear willi his left hand (him the wrTanl'i ann ; and lerj 
■ III/ iwiiiging it up lo ill place on the head, at the game time, with 
J right luuid. gavt the poor man a box on the car, wliich, as i> seen 
I coanxlie*, dashi-d him spinning out or the apartment ; whcrcnpon 
tkr napcvlable-looking I'nlriarch quite gravely desired ua to be 
I. and with proper dignity went tlirough a tolerably long dia- 

h dJKour^. however, it h liltely, little edilication 
a young inquirer could lie. Already by multifarious di»- 
;« and readiogn he has convinced himself, to his dea- 
li of ibe watery condition of tbo Gotlsehedio world ; and 
' *tlwi Noafhiite (Nosheid) of Bodmcr i-i a true symbol of 
UMage thai has iwelled-up round the Gcrmiui Paniajssus,' 
■nd in tilcraturc a» in pliilo«ophy there is neither Inndmni^ 
Mrloadslv. Here, too, he resumes his inquiries about i«lig- 
!■• (alb into * black samples ' about most things i and in ' ih« 


' bald and feeble deliventnces ' proiMunded bim lias sorry com- 
Ibrt. Outward things, moreover, go not as they shuuld : ilie 
copious pbilosopbic tiarleqiiinades of that wag, Bejri»h 'wiih 
' a long nose,' iinsellle rather than »ietlle ; as do, in manj 
ways, other «'i-^e and foolish mortals of both sexes : mallrr: 
grow worse and worse. He fall* siek, becomes wretchfl 
enough ; yet unfolds withal ' an audiicioug humour which 
' feels itself superior to the moment, not only fears no dan- 
' ger, but evea wilfully courts it.' And thus, somewhat id 
a wrecked stute, he quits his propitious mother, and retunu 

Nevertheless let there be no reflections : he must now in 
earnest get forward with his Law, and on to Sirasburg to 
complete himself therein ; so has the paternal judgment ar- 
ranged it. A Lawyer, the thing in these latter days called 
Lawyer, of a man in whom ever-bounteous Nature has seol 
us a. Poet for the World ! blind mortals, blind c 


*ilrc|>««t *jmpnllij. Thu imprcasivc puppet-show Fable of 

' it>c ollter 6uuiiilt(l and liuinmcxl [liruugh me many-luiied 

'piKMigh.* — ■ Lei 119 wilhdraw, liowever,' sulijoiiis be, 'inio 

■lite fre« hit, to tbc liigli bruiul plairurm of tlic Minster; 

'oa if llie titue were Btill liere, wlieo we yuuiig oiiC4 ofloi 

rcniU'.XTUiDictl (hilber l*> italulc, wIlli full ruioDiera, Ilie sink- 

' u'S tun.' Tliey liail good icluscoptM witli them ; ' and om 

1 1 iriid Hller another searcLetl out the spot m the distaticfl 

'' iiieb bnd become the deureat to liim ; neither was I wilb- 

iit a liiUe eye-mark of the like, which, (bough it rose not 

i>ii<piciioit« in ihe landscape, drew me to it beyond all elso 

xiili H kiudljt magic' This alludes, we perceive, lo that 

^i-Atuui \1car of Wakulield. and his daughter tlie fair Fred- 

'.nkc ; eunrrmiiig which matter a word may not be uncleas 

bera. KxcepildU bus been taken by ceriaiii tender souls, of 

ibn all>ror-]uve tori, agninai Goethe's conduct in that busi- 

TT-u. tie flirted with his blooming blue-eyed AUntian, she 

iili hill), innocently enough, thoughtlessly enough, till they 

' U came to love each other : and tlien, when the marrying 

.'ini begun to grow visible lu the disiiuice, he »topt short 

■■A Houhl no lanher. Adieu, he cried, and waved his 

K hand. 'The good Frederike wus weeping; I (no waa 

k <9iuugh at heart.' Whereupon arises ibe question : Is 

"X'tlie a iKid man ; or is he not a bnd man ? Alas, worthy 

iilil ir tliin world were all a wedding dunee, and TTiou- 

■•'U sever nunc into collision with T/ioii-ieik, what a new 

inijMwveiJ time had we of il 1 But it is man's mitierable lot, 

t mrma wliile, to oat and labour as well as wed ; alas, 

qArb, like (^porol Trim, does he spend thu whole 

li^, me moment diiiding tbc world into two halves with 

kii feur Beguine, nest moment remembering that be bus 

I «lf m ktmpMck and lifteen florins to divide with any one 1 

In, you do nol consider ihnt our dear Frederike, whom 

' H M oould weep for if it served, bud a sound Gei-man 

n within her stays : hud funhomiore abundanue of mark 

it, and not even leisure to die of love ; above all, ihm 



el ttiis pi:i-iocl, in the couDtry parts of ALialia, tli<^re iircre 
no cii'culaling-librarj novel*. 

Willi regard to iLe false one's cruelty of lemper. who, if 
we remember, saw a gbost in broad noon ibat day he rode 
aivay from Jier, let us, on tltc other iiiind, bear Jung SdlliDg, 
for he iilso had experience (hereof at ihis very date. Poor 
Jung, It liort of German Dominie Sampson, awkward, hon- 
est, irascibte, ' in old-fashioned clothes and bag-wig,' nba 
had been several things, charcoal-burner, and, in rcpealtxl 
alleriiotion, lailor and school master, was now come lo Stray 
burg to study medicine ; with purse long-necked, yet iritt 
bend that had brains in it, and heart full of trust in God. A 
pious soul, who if he did afterwards write books on iLe Na- 
ture of Departed Spirits, al«t restored to sight (by his skill 
in eye-operalions) above two fhoutand poor blind permm, 
without fee or reward, even supporting many of them in the 
hosjiilnl at his own expense. 



hoDt religion, lie h<-|pin, aiid ■■hiil lilni, WhcUivr Uv rliouglit 
Adim h ruvdiic had worn a acrrilch-ivig ! AU lauglicil lieiinil^, 
ucrpt Snlxman, Qovlha and TroiHl ; tlieie did not laiiKli' In Stil- 
ling onlli rme and burnt, and lie aiiswurpd : " Be uliuiicil iif ihia 
Jm -, lui-li a trivial tiling 1b not wortli laughing at 1 " Out Ooeilie 
•iruch-in aiii] addml ; " Trj ■ ainn flrst vlietlicr Iif dvicTfci mock- 
rty. It ia ilcvil'likr to fall upon an Iionwl'liifarlud pvriiiii who liu 
iiljurpd nobodjf, and make iport of hira 1 " From iliat lime Herr 
(ioplliir liMik U|i Htillintl. vinited liim, liked him, made IViendiliip 
and l>nithcr«bip witli him. and tirove by all opportunitifi to do him 
kindnw*. Vilj' lliat so Tew are aequainted witti ttiji noble mau in 
rHpect of liii liean I ' ■ 

ll<-n-, indeed, inny be the place to mention, ihnt llii^ noble 

mnn, in respect of his lifitrl, and goodnees nnd hudnesg, ia 

not allogelhor eaaj lo ^ot acquaiiiled with; tlial innumera- 

\Ar |H-rsons, of tin- ninn-miljiner, pHrish-rleik nnd cirrulat- 

ing-librnry sort, will liiid liirn a liard nul lo cmck. Hear 

IN wliat quest jonalilt! miinner. m> earljr as the year 1773, be 

r.xprvsiea himself tiiwanlK ilerr Sulxer, whose benuiiful 

Wpuih(£*U, that ' Nature ineanl, by the constant influx of 

'■alisfacllofia Mreaming-in ii|>on lift, to fashion otir iniiii]*, on 

•\\tr whidr, lo sollneiis nnit »etiMbiliiy,' he will not leave a 

It^ to stNiul on. ' On tkc loArjIe.' f^iiyt lit^, ' she does no <uch 

'ihiugi nhe rallier. Cud be thanked, bunlenH her genuine 

'rhildren ngiiiii*! Ih<j |iains nnd evils she tncesMinily pre- 

'parrs for tJiL-m ; to ihat we name him the happiest man 

■ hii is till- !itroiigi-st lo make front agninst evil. lo put it 

'utdp from him, and in dcliant^ of ii go the mnd of hi^' own 

' wilL* ' Mon's art in all Etitualion^ w to fortify kitnself 

'aj^nsl Nature, U> avoid her thouftHndfold ilK and only lo 

■'ijiy hi« mwistire of the good; till m length he munuges 

include the whole circulaliun uf ht^ (rue and fai-litious 

■■mu in a palace, and tix as far as jios.'.ilde nil scattered 

' iLiiy aiid felicity witliin his glass walla, where aceord- 

ii;;Iy he grvws ever the weaker. lakes to "joys of the 

"il." and his powire, rouM'd lo ihdr nntiiml exertion by 

> SuUbit/'t iFinJrTf^tjfl. B«rlln and Leiplig, ITT8. 


'no eon trad id ion, melt away into' — korreseo referem — 
' Virtue, Benevolence, SeDsibilitj ! ' In Goethe's "Wrilings 
too, we all know, the moral lesson is seMom so eu^ily educed 
as one would icish. Ala?, how seldom is he so diivct in 
lendeucy ils lii» own plnin-Epoken moralist at Plunder>- 
weilern ; 

When will ym ceiiee ycnir sinning'? 
Elne CUB ; oiir comrort bs bnt miRtl, 
Good hup tcvoB liBve beflDiiIng; 
Fur Vice i> hurtTUl unto mail, 
lu Virtue lice hi> sunut plimi' 

or, lu give it in the original words, the emphasis of wliich no 
foreign idiom can Imitate ; 


^nlcncil-up Into a round lock, the black cnal nUo dlMoguuhcd hlin , 
lltll RiciTV II ling bluk silk muitle, the end of whitii lie hwl gxUiered 
tofniher uid aluck into hU pocket. Thie in some meature >ur- 
pHiiDK. yvl on the whole gallant and pleasing flgurp, u{ wlium 1 had 
■Irm'ly heard •prak. left me no doubt bul it vat the Ihmed Traveller ; 
and mjr adilrvii loon convinced him thit he was known to me. Bo 
■aknl roy naini', whieti eould not be of any aigniHcanee to him ; hnw- 
etrr my opetitma lecnied to gire plejuiire, for he replied » it in 
Ihendly style, and aa we atept up-slaiTB, forthwith nhowed liilnaelT 
rraJj for a hti-lj' communication. Our vUil also «■■ to 
parly i and brfiirr av|iantlng I begged pcrnilasion to wait npon him- 
•rlf. which he kindly rnough aceorded me. I delayed not to make 
repeated use of thia prefl-ntiFnt; and viw tlie longer tlie more attracted 
tiiwanla him. He bad Minelhing ■otliih in hia manner, which waa 
Di and digniflol. without utrictly being bred. A round face ; a flue 
br-iw : a aomewbat ahiirt blunt noae; a *omewhat projected, jvt 
hitthly chnractcriilio, piciuani, amiable mouth. L'nd^ black eye> 
hruwi'. a p«ir of coaMilnck eyes, which ftiled not of their e^ct, 
though one of them wu wont to be red and inflamed.' 

Willi this giftod man, hy live years his senior, who*e writ- 
in;m )uul alrriidy given htm n natne, and announced the much 
iLat lav in Iiim, die opvn-titraried disciple could manifoldly 
n>inmuuiratp, Itutrtiing and enduring. Erelong, under that 
-''nit's manner.' there discIo»ed itself a ' count erpuUe ' oT 
I'lnidiir, of ungentlt^ almost noisy banter: the blunt iio»e 
" u." loo often eurled in Mn udttiK-o-suspenBive manner. What* 
Merer of self-corn plaeenry, of acqtiirod attachment and in- 
Mgfat. of trlf-^ttflidency well or ill grounded, hiy in the youth, 
m exjKHed, we can fancy, to the (Severest trial. In Herder 
(ooi, ■» in an expressiv^i microcosm, he might see imaged 
Itw whole wild world of Germati litenilure, of European 
TVinght ; it* old woriiings and micworking*, its best recent 
tr-Bdcndi^ und cfliirU ; what itc past and ai.'tual wasleness, 
perfile X it y, confusion worse confounded, was. In all which, 
morrtnrr, the hnnturml, yet imperturhnlily inijuiring bravt* 
yoimg man had qutie ulber than a theoretic interest, being 
hiiRM'lf minded lo dwell there. It in easy lo coiieeive thai 
Itenler'it prvMnce, etirrlng-up in thai faehion ao many new 
SMJ lAA lOMtm, would mightily aggravate ihe fbrmer ' fet^ 


menlHlion ; ' and thereby, it U true, iinintCDlioiuillj or not, 
forward the same lowurds clearness. 

In I'ncI, with ihe haaliest glance over the then po^> 
tion or the world spiritual, we shall find that as Disorder 
i« never wanling {and for the young spiritual hero, who 
is there only to destroy Disorder and make it Order, 
can least of all he wanting), so, at the jiresent juncture, it 
spi?cially abounded. Why dwell on this otien delineated 
E|>ocli ? Over nil Europe the reign of Earnestness had 
flow wholly dwindled into that of Dilellanteif^m. The voice 
of a certain modem ' closet-logic," which called itself, and 
could not but call itself. Philosophy, had gone forth, sayia^. 
Let there be darknesa, and there was dat^ness. No Divin- 
ity nny longer dwelt in the world ; and as men cannot do 
without a Divinity, n wrt of terrestrial upholstery one bad 
been got together, and natned Taste, with medallic virtuosi 
[■lure cognooeenli, and enlightened letter and belles- 

mbkil perliaps with vurious peculiar perplexities. For 

two centuries, GiTniun lileralure Imi] bin in tlic sere leaf. 

TTw Lullier, ' whose words were half lialtles," anil such half 

batiks as oould shake and overset half Eurogie with their 

auHuinodin^. tutd long siiu.« gone to sleep ; and all other 

wonU were but the miserable bickuing of theological camp- 

PUlcra in quarrel over ^e stripping of the (Jaio. Ulrich 

^^^Uten «lept eilent, in tlic little island of llie Zurich Lake ; 

^^^B w«ar7 and heavy-laden had wiped the sweat from his 

^^H^. and laid him down to rest there : the valiant, 6rt^ 

^^^Bpered heai1, with all its woes and loves and loving iiv> 

^^^hMtkin», mouldered, cold, forgotten : wiih «uch a pulse no 

^^■■i heart ruse to heaL The tamer Opiizes and Flemmings 

^^t a soccewlitig era hnd, in like manner, long fallen ob^lete. 

One unhuppj' generation after another of pedants, ' rliizopha* 

gous.' living on roots, Greek or Hebrew ; of farce-writersy 

nt-Tcrsu wrii«r*, joiimulists and other jugglers of non- 

ript Mtrt, wandered in nomadic wi-ie, whither provender 

a be bftd ; among whom, if a jiassionate Gunther go 

wme emphasis to ruin; if an ilhitninaled Thomasius, 

r than the general herd, deny witcheratV we are to 

it a felicily. Thi« too, huwevL-r, has passed ; and 

I manifold enigmatical aign^ a new Time announces 

Well-born Hngedurn^, muiiiHeeiit Gleims have again 

l«red the cbarueter of Author honourable ; the polish 

ct. sMiduous Uabeners and Kamlers have smoothed 

D old impurities ; a pious Klopi^iock, to the general 

ism, rises anew into something of seraphic music, 

I by inelhotls wherein he can have no follower; the 

e ainrit of a Les^ing pierces, in many a life-giving raj', 

|ygh the dark inertiiens : Germany has risen to a level 

b Europe, is henceforth participant of all EurojKuui influ- 

i nay it is now appointed, though not yet ascertwnod, 

liny is Id he the leaiK'r of apiriiuul Europe. A 

I Movement agitates the universal mind of Germany, 

1 yet no one sees towards what iwue; only that 


lieavings and edJyings, confui^ed, conflicting lendpnciea, work 
unquielly everj'where ; the moTement is begun and will not 
ptop, but (he course of it is yet far from a.icerlaine<i. Even 
to the young man now looking-on with such anxious in- 
tensity had ihia very task been allotted: To find it a course, 
and set it flowing thereon. 

Whoever will repreaent ibis confused revolutionflry con- 
dition of all things, has but to fancy how it would act on tbe 
most suiicejitive and comprehensive of living minds ; trhal a 
Chaos he had taken in, and was dimly struggling to body 
forth into a Creation. Add to which, hia so confused, con- 
tradiciory personal condition ; appointed by a positive faiher 
to be practitioner of Law, by a still more positive moiber 
(old Nature herself) to be practitioner of Wisdom, and Cap- 
Iain of spiritual Europe : we have confusion enough for him. 
doubts economic and doubts theologic, doubts moral and a?s- 
ihi-tlctil. a whole world of confusion and doubt. 


"i first liieniry pimluction? Tali in liis lirrniy-tiiir'] jcrar; 

•, ihe most cetehmlcd of tliesc, in his iwcnly-tillh. Of 

ii wondurful Book, and its now ri.-i'Ognbi'd chumiUer as 

c («nil prupheiic) iiiwruncfi of ilie World's Despair, it 

U np«ulicM to repeat what had L'Isewlierd lict^n written. This 

and Goti ran Brrlichingen. which aim. as a poetic looking 

back into the paal, wiw a word for the wi)rld, have produMd 

Jculahlp effects ; — which now indi'tnl, however some de- 

iog echo of tliem may linger in llie wreeke of our own 

•trooper and Salaniu Schools, do at length all happily lie 

1 Ds. Some trifling ineidvnla at Weizlar. and the sni- 

B of an unhappy aeqiiaJnianee, were the raeana of ' cryg- 

biog' 'hat wondrous periloos stuff, wliich the young 

»ively held di^i-iolved in it. into this worlJ-fmnuu". and 

tit proved world-Rietliea^ve Werter. He had gone to 

villi an t'ye still to Law ; whieh now. however, 

I abandoned, never to be resumed. Thus did he loo. 

I^e Saul the non of Rish, gu out to seek his father's asse*, 

f instead thereof And a kingdom.' 

ITHh (lie completion of these two Works (a complftion in 
^, for Uiey were not only emitted, hul speedily also 
JRittrd, and !«en over, and left behind), commences what 
n specially I'all his Life, his activity as Man. Thf oiit- 
J partieulars of it, from this |M>ini where his own Narra- 
'mAs, have been briefly summed up in these, tenns: 

P& ITTfi, the Heir^pparent of Weim>r wu p&stintc through 
' idi oceatiuD. by the intervention of lome triend>, 
wlud upttn Goelhe. The viiit oiuic liare be«D mutnallT Bgree- 
|kt tbr a iliort time aftcrwaids the young author »u in'itcd ID 
i apparently In cniitribule liia atsiiluice in rnriuiu litvrarv in* 
■ and arr*D|[c-mrat* then proceeding or canli'mplatrd ; anJ 
t of ihi* hnnuiiralile cull, he accirrlingly svtUetl at Wei- 
f, wUll tho title of LryitlioiaraiU. and the actual dignity at a placv 
m Caltfimm. or Council. The connexion begun under «uch tWrottr- 
baii«ptoea.Bnd ever afterwania conlinood under the like or belter, 
a prodactlre of iBtporiaui conaequeneei, nut only lo Wehnar 

200 MlSCELLANn':S. 

but to all Gtriiinny. Tlie noble purpose iindtrdikeii by the Dufl>.M 
AniL'lla WH8 zeslouet.r forwarded by tlie yaunn; Duku on liU mtn- 
eiun ; under irhose influence, siipporled ami diruvtcd by hii mo 
Cuundllor, lliis iu(.-oiitiidierable alate liiu gHiinil fur itcelfn birerd'u- 
tiuLliun limn any uT iti larger, ricbep or more warlike ncighbonn. 
By di'ereea M-lmteviT whs brightest in the gpniua of Gcnofinr lixl 
been gnlhered la this little court ; a dsuicsl theatre vna under ihe 
su peri n lend ence of Groethc and Sctiiller ; huTH Widand (aughl and 
Bung ; in tlie pulpit was Herder; and possesaitig audi a four, llie 
hiubII luwn of Weimar, eome flve-and-lweiily yeare a^, luighl eiial- 
longe l)ie proudest capital of Ihe world to mnlcli it in intelUvloiI 
wrullli. Occupied so profltiibly to hia euuntr;', and honourably lo 
himsi'lr, Guethe eontinued rising in favour with hia Prince : by de- 
grees a puhtieal wus added to hi> literary trust; in 1T79 he became 
Privy Coundllor ; President in 17B2 ; and al length after tiii relum 
from Italy, where he had spent two years in varied atudies and obsii^ 
vatioii. he was appointe'l Minister ; a post which he only a few ycnn 
ago resigned, on hie final retiremcnl from pubhc afEoirs.' 

>ugb thut little Weimiir slioutii, in tbi^ parlii-u- 

>ught bnck, as it wetn;, un oltl Italian Common- 

■iiUli into the nineteenth century ! For llie Petrarva? unii 


Imu thing); {nicUeetunl Per-^picacir}-, wilh force uiid lioii- 
of WllL WhiiJl two, do tiiey nol, in their simplest quite 
d form, coDMiluit! the very equipmenl a Man of Busineiu 
_«_ A i ibt! very implviuf nt3 wlierelty aB bui^Jne^ from that 
of t\u> delver and liitch^r lo that of the legislator and impe- 
niur, » aircon)|ilish«il ; as in thc-ir nobl(.-«t roiiceniration they 
ntv Mill ihi' movint; raculty of the Artist and Prophet I 

To (JtK-ihe himself tiiis connexion wilh Weimar opened 
ill-' Imppiti^t course of life which, probikbly, the age tie lived 
in could have yielded him. McMleratioii, yet abundance ; 
i-|pgancc without luxury or sumptuosity : Art enough to 
give a hfuvenly firmament lo his existence; BusineBS enough 
Ti> ip\c ii a solid earth. In Ida multifarious duties he (ximen 
Ti CTintact with all manner of men; gains experience and 
li-rance of all men's ways. A faculty like Ids, whieh could 
L iMer the highest spiritual pmblem.'', and conquer^vil Spii^ 
- m iheir own domain, was not likely to be Ibiled by such 
' Ki-n thry put on the simpler ^hape of material clay. The 
j.iiliMl of Poet.-, is also the skilfullest of Managers: the 
iiile ii'iTvHtrial Weimur intsi committed to him prosper*; 
and one sees with s iwrl of smile, in which may lie a deep 
icriunnnens, bow the Jena Museums, University arrange- 
ments, Weimar Ari.«shibltionJ and Palace-buildings, are 
guided bmoolhly on, by a hand which could have woiiliily 
iwayvd imperial sceptres. The world, coidd it entrust 
iu imperial sceptres to aueh haiids, were blessed : nay to 
tbia man, without the world's consent given or asked, a still 
k^tber fuDctifm liiul been committed. But on the whole, 
w« aamff his exionial life happy, among the happiest, in ihis^ 
iIhi a Dubic princely Courtesy euuld dwell in it, based on 
the worship, by speeeh and pnicliee, of Truth only ifor his 
Ticsory, a* we eiud above, was to complete, as almost to hide 
thai tifin had been a struggle), and the worldly eoutd praise 
hin *s tii« most agreeable of men, and the spiritual as the 
Ugbnt and cl«arc«t ; but happy above all, in this, tlial it 
fonruded hint, as no ollwr ouuld have done, in Ids inward 


lifi', llie good or evil hap of which was alone of permaoeQl 

The iowurd life of GoeLhe, onward from this epoch, liei 
nohly recorded in ihe long series of his Writings, Of these. 
nu'ttnwhile, the great bulk of our Kngli^h world lias notriM 
y«>i got to sucli understanding and iunjl«rj', that we could. 
wiih much hope of profit, go into a critii^ examination of 
their merits and characteristics. Such a tftak can »tand over 
tiil the (lay for it arrive; be it in this generation, or the next, 
or al'ier ihc next. What haj* been elsewhere already sei forth 
eiiffices the present want, or needs only to be repealed and 
enforced ; the expositor of Gt^rman ihin^ mnsl soy. with 
judicious Zanga in the play : " First recover thai, ilien tii»\t 
thou know raore." A glance over (he grand outlines of the 
mikiier, and more especially under (he aspect suitable to (beM 
:.-in alone he in place here. 



of Life, in iW ile|itb, vaiiely anil majesty j as yet no 
I>ivinily reeognwed there. The fjuneii FenenVin Jipiffratiu 
are of the like Old Ethnic lone : musiL-al, Joyfully strung ; 
■rue, yet not the whole tralh, and Mmetimes in their btiint 
mlism jarring on llie eense. As in tliis, oflener cited per- 
haps, by a eertain cUas of wi^e men, than the due propoi^ 
tion detnanded : 

Wby » bnmletli tlic People anil crlolli ? — Woulil Rijd itealf vEotnnl. 

m ton •obU liHje«l, Ibtilim the bailmiiy h» had! 
__ ia thy nntBlkoaki, Trai*ltAr. thii, and at horuo go do likBviea: 

^Fanbar mchsih do nun, mnlis he irhat sireichlni; be will. 

iiow lied pnwirate under foot : 
AA wnrid ia in ash«a ; but (be 

iTefrom a new nobler verdure 
, in the ihinl ur final period, 
Triumphant i a d<'ep ftll-per- 
■, grare as gay, speaks forib 
f, in a Wnt-OnaUhn- Divan; 
and true-hearted little rhyme, 
giregnnncy and gfenial signilU 
Scriptureji, you will nowhere 
almost at a venture ; 

\ Doubt, reduced into Dimial, i 
* fire lias done its work, an ( 
e and the flame are blown 
dcftr over the ruin, to rai^ tbi 
Mid flowerage. Till &[ length, 
nwlodinas Heverenco becomes 
Tiding Faith, with mild ¥oi« 
to U» in B Mtiitm Wtmderjahr. 
in tiuuiy a little Ztihme Xrme, 
■ H liich,' it has been said, ■ for 
i-xncc, «xccpt in the Hebrew 
inaich." As here, striking in 

Uii god-giveii H..1-' 

Or iJus amall Couplet, which the reader, if he will, may sub- 
<lt(itkr for wbole bor»e-loads of Euat/* an tfu Origin of Evil ; 

I Wf *u fSatim, 
Abtr oAfli R«$l, 
l}rtlit tielijidci- 


a spiritual manufuciure wfaich in these eDlightened tiroes oaghl 
ere now lu lius'e gone out of fashion : 

CduIJeE leacb IDE off id; oitii Shadow to ipHng! 

' Btating. KiHeeti EugliehniBn, Biileruiiuin); [bat high cant idersl ion (m ibe 
■ Good fit>othe, wliieb the Inbonra end high deserti of ■ long life uMtnliy 
' employed m richly niarit from all manitiud, have preunled him wllh ■ 
- higldy wrought Seal, an a token of their veneration.' Ws mast pHn o>er 
the description of the gift, for it would Iw too elahurate; snSice it Id uv, 
tlint amid tuiteful fKrvinu and emblemutie Emhosaing anough, stood Ihtrt 
words engmvun uu a gold halt, ou the four sides raspcclively: To lA' Oir- 
win .VaUer: Fnm Friendi i'i> Ersbtml: 28lh Augiul: 1BS1; flnally, IliM 
the imprB'.sion wiu a star encircled with a •erpanl-of-atamily, uid ihiJ 
motto: Ohaf llml Alier Ohm Sntt. 

' The fulloiving la the Letter which nccompnnied it: 

' " Til IAf Poti Ooelhc. m Hut ISA of Ausml 1631. 

' " Sir, — Among the frienda n-bom this so iulerenting AnnirerHirT call> 
' round yon, may we ' Enj-liih friends,' in thought and tymbolically, tlnrt 


Or the pathetic picturesqueness of this : 

A rampart-breach is every Day, 
Which many mortals are storming : 
Fall in the gap who may, 
Of the slain no heap is forming. 

Eine Bruche Utjeder Tag, 
Die vieU Mentchen erstUrmen ; 
Wtr da auckfaUtn mag, 
Die TodUn sick niemaU th&rmen. 

In such spirit, and with an eye that takes in all provinces 
of human Thought, Feeling and Activity, does the Poet 
stand forth as the true prophet of his time ; victorious over 
its contradiction, possessor of its wealth ; embodying the no- 
bleness of the past into a new whole, into a new vital noble- 
ness for the present and the future. Antique nobleness in 
all kinds, yet worn with new clearness; the spirit of it is 
preserved and again revealed in shape, when the former 
shape and vesture had become old (as vestures do), and was 
dead and cast forth ; and we mourned as if the spirit too 
were gone. This, we are aware, is a high saying; applica- 
ble to no other man living, or that has lived for some two 
centuries ; ranks Groethe, not only as the highest man of his 

* paid sQch homage, conid not but be moved at sentiments expressed in 

* inich terms. We hear that he values the token highly, and has conde- 

* Mended to return the following lines for answer: 

** Dkn Funfzriin Engli8CIIkn Frbukden. 

Worte die der Dichttr ttfiricht, 
Treu, in heimischen Bezirken, 
Wirken gUich, dock weis» er nicht 
Ob tie iu die Feme wirktn. 

Britten ! knbt tie aufgefnttt : 

* JTidtigen Sinn, dot Thun gezHgeit ; 

Stetig Strtben ohne Hast ; ' 
\ Und to ttoilt Ihrt denn hetiegeli ! 

I •* Weimar, d. t^en Augutt 1831. GormK." ' 

{Frater^t Magazine, xxW. 447.) 

And thus, as it chanced, was the poet's last birthday celebrated by an 
^tward ceremony of a peculiar kind; wherein too, it is to be hoped, 
■^M lie some inward meaning and sincerity. 


time, but as a. rami of umvertial Time, important for all gen- 
cralions, — one of the landniarks in llie History of &Ien. 

Thus, from uur point of view, does Goeihe rise on us a» 
ttie Uniter, iind victorious Reconciler, of the distracted, clash- 
ing eli;menia of tlie most distracted and divided age tbil 
itie world has witnessed since the Introduction of the Ciin> 
tian R[4igion ; to which old chaotic Era, of world -canfu»on 
and world-refusion, of blackest darkness, succeeded hj « 
diiwii of light and nobler ' da; -spring from on high,' this 
wondrous Era of ours is, indeed, oftenesl likened. To the 
faithful heart let no era be a desperate one ! It is ever the 
nature of Darkness lo he followed by a new nobler Light; 
nay lo produce such. The woes and contradictions of Ui 
Atheistic time; of a world sunk in wickedness and basenew 
and unbelief, wherein abo physical wretchedness, the disor- 
guni.-aiion and broken-heart edness of whole classes struggling 
i and pain will not fail : all ihis, the view of all 




but die clear Star, day'* liarbinger {P/iosjiAaroi, [lie 
bring«r oflig/u), had not yet been r^rogniseil. 

Ttui in Gocltie there lay Forw^ to edure reconciltinum 
out ofiQch niutrailietiun as man is nov born inio, mark* him 
H Ihc Strong One of hia tiini-i the iriic Earl, though now 
«riih quite other weapuna llian those old steel JarU were used 
lot Such reconcilement of conlradktiooB, indeeil, is iht iB«k 
rf erery man: the weakest reconciles HHnewhnti reduces 
old chaotic elemenif into new higher order i ever, according 
la faculty and endeavour, brings good out of evil. Consider 
now what fucnlly and endeavour must belong to the highest 
of Mich IaO>4, which virtually includes all others whatsoever! 
Thi! thing iliat was given this man to reconcile (to begin 
f^conciliiig and teueh ub how to reconcile), was the inward 
i^Mriiual cluuis : the centre of all other confusions, outward 
ami inward ; he was to close the Abyss out of which such 
manifold ilestruc^n, moral, intellectual, social, was proceed- 

Tlie greatness of his EndowraenU manifested in such a 
work, has long been plain lo all men. That it belongs to Che 
highest cluss of human endowments, entitling the wearer 
tliereof. who so nobly used it, lo the appellation, in its strict- 
c*t seHM-, of Great Man, — is aho becoming plain. A giant 
b of Character is to be traced here: mild and kindly 
1 as Birengih ever is. In the midst of so much 
idic Byronistn, bt-llowing till it$ windpijw is cracked, 
rent looks thit symptom of strength : ' He ap> 
n at pu*Jiing away from him everything that 
It hang upon his individual will.' ' In his own im|>er- 
ible ftrmness of cliaracter, he had grown into the bahil 
r eonlradiefing atiy one. On the contrary, he lis- 
h XL friendly air to every one's opinion, and would 
lucidaie and strengthen it by instances and reawns 
1^. All who did not know him fancied that he 
9 they dill ; for he was possessed of a preponder- 
l intallect, and uuuld tnuisport hininelf iulo the ineutal 

208 M1SCF.LI.AX1ES. 

'atiilp of am nun, and imilste hi» manner of conceiving.'' 
Belnv< cl biTlliren who wish to be strong 1 Had Dot tlie man. 
wlio lOiiH lake thia amooth melhod of il more strength in 
liiin than an) leelh-gnmling. glass-eyed ' lone Calojer' you 
have jpi fallcn-in niih? Cousidur jour ways; consider, 
lirat, nhelhir >ou cannot do with being weak I If the an- 
swer s\\\\ pro^c tirgHti\e, consider, secondly, what strength 
actually i*, and h herf you are to try for it. A certain strong 
man, ot formir time, fought stoutly at Lepanto; worked 
<ilonily aa Algeniie --laie, stonily delivered himself froai 
•■uth working with alout cheerfulness endured famine and 
nakedness and the norld'a ingratitude; and, sitting in jail. 
Hilh the one arm hfl hini, wrote our joyfulleHl, and all but 
our deepc-t modem hook, and named it Don Quixftle; thi* 
«a- a genuine strong min A strong man, of recent lime, 
fight-' little for nnj good cauae anywhere; works we*kly » 
111 F ngli-li Irmi weikly delivers himself from such work- 

'flmttgh it; HO ibsl lie winslruciivi-ly eomprelieiids it, can 
iHko it twiinder, anil |)ut i( togi;Chcr again; the thing melts, 
H- it wcrp, intn light umler Uis eye, and anew ereatew it-Jelf 
Indurv hiiu. Thai !» lo eay. Ii^ is a Thinker in ihe highest 
of all fcnsp?: hi' is H Popl For Godthe, as for Shakspeare, 
thr worlil lii-s ull imiisluceiiU Bi\fimUe we might call it, en- 
ith WoKDKiti ihc Natural in reality the Super- 
irat, for to th<; scf-r's eyes borh he(^)ine one. What are 
HamUlB and TempfiU. (he Faum and Mignoni, but 
ipftes accorded ma into this Iran^lucent, wonder-encircied 
worid ; revelniiona of the mystery nf all mysteries, Man's 
Lif« as it actually is? 

Under other secondary »*pecl9, the poetical family of the 
two will still be found cognate. Goethe is full of jfyuiwhW 
ntm ; this grand light-giving Intelieirt, as all much are. is an 
imofpnnlivc one, — ntid in n quite other sen 9c tlmn mo't of our 
unhappy Imaginalives will imagine. Gall the CraiiiulogiBl 
d'^lanxl him to be a bom f'oit»r«rfn(r ((topular orator), both 
by ibp figure of his brow, and what was stilt more decisive, 
because * he could not apeak hnt a figure came.' Gall saw 
high as his ciwn nose reaehed, 

High ■• Ilie ii'iw <l'>tli rvBoh. nil ctrar! 

Whit lilglw Us*. Ihcy wk: Is It here? 

A &r different figunuiTencsa was this of Goethe than pop- 

orntory has work for. In figures of tlie popular-ota- 

kiod, Goethe, throughout his Writing.' at least, is nowise 

cnpious man known to us, though on a stricter 

ly we may find him the richest. Of your ready-made, 

rij-paper mclapbors, sorh as can be sewed or plastered 

ntriace, by way of giving an nrnamental flnish in the 

already woven, we speak noi ; there is not one «uch 

Ascovcred in all his Works. But even in the use of 

meiapfaors, which ar« not liaberdnshery ornament, 

the gmiaini; new vesture of new iliouglit«, he yields to 

(for example to Jean Paul) ; that is in any. in 

fad, lie i« more master uf the eummon language, and can 


■ ifleiier make jV serve him. Goethe'i* figartitivene«s Uee in 
the very eenire of lii» being ; mnnifestg itscir as the construet- 
iiig of [he inward elemeots of a thought, as the vital embod- 
iment of it : 3uch figurefl as those of Goethe you will look 
for through all modem literature, and except here and there 
in Sliakspcare, nowhere Bnd a trace of. Agnin, it b the 
same facultj in higher exercise, that enables the poet lo con- 
struct a Character. Here too Shakiipeare and Goellie, un- 
like innumerable others, are I'lVoI; their construclioD beginti 
at the heart and flows outward as the life-streams do; fash- 
ioniag the surface, as it were, spontaneously. Those Mae- 
beths and Falstaffs, accordingly, these Fuusts and Philinas 
have a verisimilitude and life that separates them from all 
other fictions of late ages. All others, in comparison, hare 
more or less the nature of hollow vizards, constructed froni 
without inwards, painted tihe, and deceptively put in motion. 
Many year? ago on finishing our first perusal of Wilhtlm 


ill I 

'mindfNl, trnr-henrted men: in poelrj', brief, sharp, sim 
' »n>I expreaiivc : in pro^e, pprlmps Mill more plensing; 
' il is at onte concise and AiII, rich, clear, unpretending a 
' mrtodioua ; and the senate, not presented in alternating 
'I1a.<li«»i, piece after piece revealed and wiihilmvtn, rises 
'bi'rora Its as ill continuous dawning, and stands at last s\- 
' multancousljr cotni)leie. and bathed in the mellowest and 
■ruddiiMt sunshine. It brings to mind what the pro»e of 
' Hooker, Bacon, Uillun, Browne, would have been, had 
'ihc; written under the good without the bad influences of 
'ihal French precision, which has polished and altenunted,d 
* Irittinied and ira|iovertahed all modern languages; inadA'J 
'our meaning clear, and too ofl^n shallow as well as clear.' 

Finally, as Shnkspearc is to be considered as the greatcV'9 
luilnre of the two, so on tlie other bund we must admit hiofj 
lo have been Ihe less cultivated, and mnch the more eare>g 
leM. Wluil Bhakspt^re eouid have done we nowhere du* 
ettv*r. A careless mortal, oiteii to Ihe Universe and 
influence*, not caring strenuously to open himself; w 
Prvmetheus-like. will scale (leaven (if it so must be), i 
\i xati^fled if he tberewllb pay the rent of his London Play- 
house ; who, had the Warwickshire Justice let bim hunt 
Jeer unmolested, might, for many years more, have lived 
fjuifl on the green earth willioul sutdi ni-rial journeys; 
iinpamlleled mortal. In the great Goethe, again, we w 
man thnmgh life at his utmost strain ; a man who. as 
lay* liim.setf, ' struggled loughly : ' laid hold of all IhingK, I 
iiniter all napect$i, (icien^flc or poetic ; engaged passionately | 
with the deepest interests of roan's existence, in the most 
cMDplex age of mairs history. What Shakspeare's thnughtii 
on ' Goil, Nature, Art," would have been, esixicially had he 
lircd i€i number fourscore years, were curious to know : 
CJoelhe"*. dellvervj in many-toned melody, as tlie npoca- 
lypM) of our ci«, are hei¥ for us to know. 

s the noble lalt'til cnlni 

ed t 




the noble employment he mAile thereof. We can call him, 
once more, 'a dear and univcr^ mnn;' we can sny thai. 
in hU univer.saiitj', m ihinktr, as singer, as worker, he livt.'d 
a lile of nnlique nobleness under these new conditions ; und. 
in so living, is alone in all Europe; (he. foremost, wlium 
others arc lo leai'n from and follow. In which great net, 
or rather great sum-total of many acl&, who shall compute 
what treasure of new strengthening, of faith become ho|><' 
anil vision, lies secured for all ! The queaiion, Can man 
etill live in rtevoutneaa, yet without blindness or contrac- 
tion ; in unconquerable stedfastncsa for the right, yet with- 
out tumultuous exa-spcration against the wrong; as an an- 
tique worthy, yei with the expansion and increased endow- 
ment of a modern ? is no longer a question, but has become 
a certain ly, and ocularly-visible fact. 

We have looked at Goethe, as we engaged \o do, ' on thii 
niile,' anil wiili the eyes of ' this generation ; ' that is to gaj. 


Listen to the Epigraniinaiisi U 

I iltEby I liken tfai Und, ihe hammer 11* ruler, 
w people that plale, beAteo between them that w 
, Wua tu the plate, when nothing but wiirul hrniiea oa br 
Hit it u nodain ; mill made, cometh iio Kettle to view ! 

;, aHae, whftl is to be done ? 

t Ka ApOTtle-oT-Libert}- macli to m.v henrt ever fbtind 1; 
I LlccDW, eioh lor blmielf, thii wu M botlom their wanl 

LIbentor of many ! Brat dare to be Sertiint of mtia^; 

What a botitieu ia that, woolJat thou kuuw It, go try t 

I ikt! fullowing also be recummenJi-'d 1 

tttip^M-'n of 8epteniiiale, Triennialii, E1e< 

thv ShaniL'ful Pan^ of the Constituiion 

Utile lolorant of his neighbour's ' fi^siix 

lelf found out Freedotn, — a 

I Walb 1 can ua tumbled dourn, wall* I lee al 

L Bern ail primoen. there likewiw do pritoner 

k la the Irurid then ilaalfa huge pr 

b chaini kni! 

ull inordinate woi^ 
'live Franchise, and 
and let t^ach be ii 
n,' Huti rtjoiw- ihHt 
hing much wanted: 

to R-baiUlltg; 
aaly the madman. 

le gracerol ^toon? 

•thtit, for ilie Puet, what remaiita but to leave Conservft- 
I Dealraciive pulling one another'^ looked and ears 
fi tliey will an<I i-nn (the ulterior issue being long since 
bilablt^ enough) ; and for his own pari, slrivc day and 
It lo forward the small auffVring remnani of /Vorfurfiw* ; 
who, in true matiful endeHrour, were it under de*- 
1 or under sani«culottisro, create somewhat, wiih whom 
h in the end, dors the hope of the world lie ? Go ihou 
I do likewiw ! Art tliou eaUed to politics, work iherviti, 
a> tliia man would have done, like a reul and not an imag- 
inary workman. Undert^land well, meanwhile, thai to no 
I his polltirnl roiisliluliun ' n lif<', but only a house 
rein his life U led ; ' and hitst ihuu u nobler task than 
% jkmM-pargeting and smoke-doctoring, and pulling down 
m mt-iuhabited walls, leace sueh to Uic proiier 


craftsman ; lionour the higher Artist, and goud-tiuuioureilly 

eay with him : 

All lliiii ie nelUiec my ooM nor my c&ka, 
Why nil my Imnd with other men') ehargei! 
The finbrs swim At ea»e In the lake, 
And lake no thought of the barges. 

Goelhe'a political practice, or ralher no-practice. exci-|il 
that of aelf-defcnce, is a ]Mirt of h*s coiiJuct quite insepara- 
bl)' cohei'L'tit with the rest ; a thing we coulij recommend 
to universal study, that the spirit of it might be undenlood 
\iy nil men, and liy all men imitated. 

Nevertheless it is nowise alonu un this revolulionarf or 
' progress-of-the-species ' aide tlial Goethe has significance ; 
his Life and Work is no painted chow but n solid renlitj, 
and may be looked at with profit on all sides, fmm all 
iiniiginable [xtints of view. Perennial, sla a possession for- 
ever. Goethe's History and Writings abide there; a tliou- 



old time, had men said to themselves : Come, let us build 
a tower which shall reach to heaven; and by our steam- 
engines, and logic-engines, and skilful mechanism and manip- 
ulation, vanquish not only Physical Nature, but the divine 
Spirit of Nature, and scale the empyrean itself. Where- 
fore they must needs again be stricken with confusion of 
tongues (or of printing-presses) ; and ditpened, — to other 
work ; wherein also, let us hope, their hammers and trowels 
f^hall better avail them. — 

Of Goethe, with a feeling such as can be due to no other 
man, we now take farewell. Vixii, viviL 




Smelpungus Redivivds, throwing down bis critical m- 
>H}'ing balance, soma years ago, and taking leave of ibn 
Bellies- Li? ttrea function, ex[)ressed himself id tlm alirupt 
v/Bkj : ' Tlie end liat'ing come, it Ja fii lliat we end. Po- 
' etry having ceased to be read, or published, or written, 
' how Clin it (MMtinue to be reviewed ? With jour Lake 
' Scliooli, and Bord(?r-Thief Schools, and Cockney and Sa- 


fntclkms of Poetry floating scattered in it, ought still to be 
Det-fidhed, at all events eurveyed and taken note of: the 
surrey of Englbh Metre, at this epoch, perhaps transcends 
the buman faculties ; to hire-out the reading of it, hj esti< 
male, at a remunerative rate per page, would, in few Quar- 
ter:), reduce the cash-box of any extant Review to the verge 
of insolvency.' 

What our distinguished conlemporary has said renuuns 
said. Par be it from us to censure or oounMl any able Edi- 
tor : to draw aside the Editorial veil, and, officiously prying 
into his interior mysteries, impugn the laws he walks byl 
For Editore, as for othera, there are times of perplexity, 
wherein the cunning of the wisest will scantily suffice his 
own wants, to My nothing of his neighbour's. 

To us, on our side, meanwhile, it remains clear that Poe- 
try, or were it hut Metre, should nowise be alti^iher neg- 
lected. Surely it is the Reviewer's trade to sit watching, not 
only ibe tillage, crop-rotation, marketings and good or evil 
bosbandry of the Eoonoroic Earth, but also the weather* 
i^mptanis of tht Literary Heaven, on which iIkwc former so 
marh depend : if any promising or threatening meteoric phe- 
nomenon make its appearance, and he proclaim not tidings 
thereof, it is at his periL Farther, be it considered how, in 
this singular poeiic epoch, a small mailer constiiuien a nov- 
elty. If the whole welkin hang overcast in drizsly dingine^s, 
the feeblei>t light-gleam, or speck of blue, cannot pass un- 

Tbe Works of this Corn-Law Rhymer we might liki-n 
rather to some Utile fraction of a rainbow : hues of joy and 
banaony, painted out of troublous tears. No round full bow, 
indeed ; gloriously spanning the heavens ; shone on by the 
full sun ; and, with seven-striped, gold-crimson border (a' i^ 
in some sort the office of Poetry) dividing Bladt from Hrill- 
ianl : not such ; alas, still far from it ! Yet, in very truth, u 
little prismatic blu^h, glowing gi-iiuine among the w<-i clouds ; 
whtrfa proceeds, if you will, from a sun cloud-hidden, yet in- 


dicates that a sun dcreti shine, and above those vapoDK, % 
wLuk azure vault and celestial firmament stretch seren«. 

Stnuige as it may seem, it ie neverlhele^ true, that here 
we have once more got sight 'of a Book calling itself Poetry, 
yet which actually is a kind at liook, and no empty paiu> 
board Case, and Bimulucrum or ' gbost-defund ' of & ISook, 
such as is too of\ea palmed on the world, and banded onr 
Booksellers' counter^!, with a demand of real money for it, ai 
if it coo were a reality. The speaker here is of that sin^ 
lar class who have MMnelhing lo say ; whereby, though deliv- 
ering himself in verse, and in these days, he does not deliver 
himself wholly in jargon, but articulately, and with a certain 
degree of meaning, that has been bditved, and therefore it 
again believable. 

To some the wonder and interest will be heighlened bv 
another cin^umstaiice : Cliat the speaker in question is no' 
school -I earned, or eveii furnished with pecuniary capital; {$. 



i to;;ether. To which voice, in several rn^pects ugnificaiil 
wigh, let f^xxl car be given. 
K-fieK (oo lie it premiM.i], thnt nuwisH uixler the rntf^ory of 
^MdncHti'xI I'cx^iis' or in nny fu»hion of diletlHnie i>etronAge^ 
Bour $h«:ffielt] friend be produiu^ii. Hit [KwitJon in unsuil- 
I for tbai: »o is ours. Genius, wbicb the French Imly 
I to be of no wx, is mut^li more cvrtninl^ of no rank ; 
tbor when ' the tyark of Nature'^ fira ' \ms been impart- 
It diould KilucHtion lake bigh airs in her artificial light, — 
^'wWch la too often but phwpbure^t^nce ond puire*cence. In 
fact, il now begins to be BUi^|ieciecl here nnd there, that this 
Mtme aH»tocraiic recognition, whieli look* down wiili an oblig- 
ing imile from its throne, of hound Volumes and gold Ingots, 
and adiuits liial it is wonderfully well for one of the uneducat- 
ed CULM'S, may be gelling out of place. There are unhappy 
times in the world's history, when he thiit is ihe li-a-t eda- 
caled will chiefly have lo say that he is the lea^l perverted ; 
and witli the mullilude of lalse eye-glnsse*, eonvex, concave, 
gtvtsn, eiBii yellow, Itas not lost ihe naluml use of hia eyoa. 
JPor a generation ihat read>> Cobbett's Pro^e, and Biirns's Po- 
U^filTi it need be no miracle that here also i« a man who can 
^HlkdJe botl) pen and hammer like a man. 
^^>Iiarcrllieless. this serene-highness atliiuda and temper is 
«u frwiuent. perhaps it were good lo turn the tables for a mo- 
mant, and tm what look il ha« under that reverse a-^pect 
Uow Wen it if we surmised, iliitt for u niim gifted with nai- 
I vigour, with a man's character lo be developed in him, 
iwpecially if in ihe way of Literalure, as Thinker attd 
BT, it is actually, iti these sininge days, no ^peetal mtsfor- 
^ to be trained up nmong ihc Uiifducnicd classes, nnd not 
; the Eduuuled : but rather of two misforlnnes the 

Vor all men doubtless ot^trueiions abound ; spiritual 
Kmwih mu*t be hampered and siunied and has lo slruggl* 
ilicnugh with ditficuliy, if it do not wholly stop. Wc may 

ni too ibal, for a mitdiocre character, the continual tiuin- 


ing and luioring, from language'inasters, dandng-muteK, 
posi lire -mast ere of all sorts, hired and volunU*r, which « 
Ligli rank in any lime and country ngj^ure?, there will be pro- 
dui^t'd a ceriain superioiily, or at worst, air of superioriiy 
over iht carrt? ponding nifiiliopre character of low rank: 
thus we perceive the vulgar Do-DOihing, as contrasted witb 
the vulgar Drudge, is in general a much prettier man ; with 
a wider, perhaps clearer outlook into the distance ; in inna- 
merahle superficial matters, however it may be wlien we go 
deeper, he ha^ a manifest advantage. But with the man oi' 
uncommon cliaractcr, again, in whom a germ of iirepreasibk 
Force has heen implanted, and will unfold itself into some 
sort of freedom, altogether the reverse may hold. For gucli 
germs loo, there is, uiidonbledly enough, a proper soil where 
they will grow best, and an improper one where they wiil 
grow worst. True also, where there is a will, there is a w»j; 
whi'n: a genius has been given, a possibility, i 


[ it nourUliei itsdr, and risu) to he 
roi-n, moreover, will tell you iliat Tut timiiui'i.' is the ruin nl* 
your auk; likewise that the tliinner nnd wilder yuiir soil, tlie 
touglier, more iroD-iextuml is jour limber, — though unhap- 
pily nl»o the smaller. So loo with the tpiiits of men : thi-y 
become purv from their errore, by sutTcring for ibero : lie wlio 
has bauled, were it only wiih Poverty and liard toil, will be 
fouml stronger, more expert, than be who coulil stay al home 
from the Ijttttle, coiiceuleil among the Provision- wagons, or 
(•»en not unwatchfully ' abiding by the stuff.' In which sense, 
KO observer, not wiiliout experience of our time, has said : 
Had I a man of clearly developed character (clear, sincere 
within its limita), of insight, courage and reul applicable 
furve of head and of heart, to search for; and not a man of 
luxiirioiialy distorted character, with haughtiness for courage, 
and fbr insight and applicable force, speculation and plausible 
fthov of force, — it were rather among the lower than among 
the higher rlnssea that I should look for him. 

A hard saying, indeed, seems this same : that he, wlioeo 

whpT Kiuila were all beforehand supplied i to who»e cnpa- 

luliliea uo problem waa presented except even this, How lo 

niltiratc them lo hest advantage, should attain leas real eiil- 

iut« tlian he whose first grand problem and obligation was 

nowiae spiritual culture, but hard labour for his daily bread ! 

8«d enough must the perversion be where preparations of 

ndk magnitude issue in abortion ; and so sumptuous an Art 

wkli aO its appliances can accomplish nothing, not so much 

s Nature would of herself have supplied ! Nuv- 

o pregnant is Life with evil as with good ; to such 

^d^l in Ml) ngr rich, plethorioally overgrown with means, 

^^■hUeMU be aceuinulaieil in the wrong place, and immeas- 

^f^jjr aggravftir wrong tendencies, instead of righting them. 

^^hiakd and strange result may actually turn out to have 

''■■I' realised. 

I^iit whnt. aAer all, is meant by uneduealed, in a time 

'-11 Book* have come into the world ; come to be hou*e- 


hold furniture in every habiUIion of tlie civilised irorM f In 
the pooi'eel coiiiige are Books ; is one FtooK, wherein ftir 
eevernl Ihousands of yenra [he spirit of man has found light, 
and nourishmenl. and an interpreting response to whalerer a 
Deepe.1t in him ; wherein still, to this day, for the eye that 
will look well, the Mystery of Existence reflects itself, if not 
resolved, yet revealed, and prophetically emblemed ; if not tn 
the satisfying of the outward sense, yet to the opening of the 
innard senne, which is the far grander result. ' In Book' 
lie the creative Phcenix-aBhea of the whole Past.' All that 
men have devised, discovered, done, frit or imagined, lies 
recorded in Books ; wherein whoso liaa learned the myslerj' 
of spelling printed letters, may find it, nnd appropriate it. 

Nay, what indeed la all thi«? Aa if it were by nnlver* 
ties and libraries and lecture-rooms, that roan's EdacBiion. 
what we can will Education, were accomplished : solely, or 
mnhily, by instilling the dead letter and record of other nmnV 


Bjuat viskin ki diactrn, with free furcc lo do : tlie 
tlmaalcr is Frai'tiu«> 
', when hnning e.n<\ t 
■UDgviner illlfcivnt worda ; and I 
humttn culiiirt^, lite r<>uiiiialiun-'tc 
itiKTjr riilture, ilial men rauet, befure i 
tntined lu do somewhat, has been, for a 

hHing have become two 

a, ibe first principle of 

' of all but false imag- 

riTj' other thing, be 

9 generations, laid 

quietly on ihe shelf, with aueh result as we nee, — consider 
wbat n(tvunlag« Ibose same uneducated Working classes have 
over the edncnted Unworking classes, in one pAriioulur; here- 
in, nanwly, that limj must wori. To work ! What incaluula- 
hle M>un-e4 of cullivadon He in that procesB, in that attempt ; 
bow It bij'<i hold of the whole man, not of a small theoretical 
calculating fraction of him, but of the whole practical, doing 
and during and enduring man ; ihcrehy to awaken dormant 
ticuliiea. root-out old en'ora, at every step I He that has 
d(»e nothing han known nothing. Vain i.a it to fit scheming 
■od plawibly discoursing : up itnd bt^ doing ! If Iby knowl* 
ttgb be real, put It forth from ihee : grapple- with real Nalurej 
By Ihj ihporics there, and seo how they bold out. Do one 
tliMig, for the fir^t time in thy life do a thing ; a new light 
wiQ roe lo thee on the doing of all things whalAoever. 
TVttlj, a boundlesi significance lies in work : whereby the 
K craftsman comeis to attain much, which is of indis- 
e use, but which he who U of no cratl. were he never 
m high, runs th« risk of missing. Once turn to Practice, 
Error and Truth will no longer consort together: the re- 
■ailt of Error involves yaa in the square-root of a negative 
^OHiiity i try to extract that, lo extract any earthly substance 
er MMenance from fhnt ! The bnnoumble Member can dis- 
rover that ' there h a reaction,' nnd believe it, and weari- 
■ancly ««son on it. in spite of all men, while he so pleases, 
<iir (liU his wine and his oil will not fail him : but the sooty 
Braxicr, who discovered that brasn wa* green-cheese, has la 
■n OB bit diKCUverj- ; finds iherefcin-. thai, singular as it may 
1 cftnnol be masiitaled for dinner, grren-cti 




will not bcal Into fire-proof diolies [ tliat such diocoverj, 
tlierefoii", hns no legs to Klanil on, and must even be let 
fall. Now, take Lliis principle of difference through tlif 
entire lives of two idcd, and calculule whnt il will amount 
to 1 Necessity, moreover, which we here 8ee aa the motliu 
of Accuracy, is well known as the mother of Infention. He 
ivho wants everything, must know many things, do lUAnj 
tilings, to procure even a few : different enough with him, 
whose indispensahle knowledge is ibis only, that k finger 
will pull the hell ! 

So tliat, for nil men who live, we may conclude, this Life 
of Man id a school, wherein the natunilly foolish will con- 
tinue fooliiih though jou bmy him in a morlar, but the natu- 
rally wise will gather wisdom under every disadvantage. 
Wlmt, meanwhile, must be the condition of an Era, «rben 
the highest advantages there become perverted into draw- 
hacks ; when, if you take two men of genius, and put the 

Sal he lias s|ioken ; praitie ur blame cannot make it truer o 

fiilwr than it already is. By ilie grace of God thU 

^itfltoirnl fur liinisrlf ; by lii» skill in raHullurgy, cau beat out 

a iuil-<uiue but a manful living, go huw it may ; lias arriviMl 

loo at thai eln;:ular audacity of believing wliat he knows, and 

nciiii^ va it, or writing on it, ur lliinkitig on it, without Itave 

. Mk«d cif any une : there shall he stand, uiiU work, with bead 

■W with hand, for liiiDMslf and the world ; blown about by 

|b wind of doctrine ; frightened at no Keriewcr's shadow ; 

lariiif!, ill his limci looked gubstaiive^i enough in the faoe, 

and remained unfrighiened. 

What is left, therefore, but to lake what he brings, and as 
be brings it ? Lei ii^ be thankful, were it only for the day 
ot' dniall tilings, Soinetliing it is that we have lived to wel- 
cofoe ofLce more a sweet Singer wearing the likeness of a 
Man. In humble guise, it is Inie, and of stature more or 
)e»>s marred in its development ; yet not without a genial 
nbasIneM, strength and valour built on honesty and love ; 
cm the whole, a genuine man, with somewhni of the eye and 
({leech and l>e«rli]g that beseems a man. To whom all other 
grniiine mm, how diflerent soever in subordinate particular!, 
can gladly liold out the right hand of fellowship. 

Tite great exeellence of our Rhymer, he it understood 

^ApBt vtB btke la consist evtai in this, of^en hinted at already, 

HpBl be is genuine. Here U an earnest, inith-«peaking man i 

JlRi Iheoriwr, son ti mental i«cr, but a practical man of wut^ and 

tudtHtvour, own of suHerance and endurance. The thing that 

be speaks is not a hearsay, but a thing whieh lie has himself 

known, ami by experience become assured of. He has used 

his eye» for seeing ; Uses his tongue lor declaring what he has 

«;en. His voiue, therefore, among the many noises of our 

Plnnvt, will dewrve its plaee better than llie mo^t : will be 

Well Worth some attention. Whom else slwuld we att«ad to 

hni such ? The man who »peuks with some half shadow of 

» Kiilicf, ani] suppo^tes, and inclines to tliink ; and considers 

ilb undivided »oiil, what is true, but only what is plauni- 

m. ts 


ble, and will (Imi] audience and recompense : do we not meet 
him at everj street- 1 umlug, on all highways aud byways ; is 
he not atalc, unprulilabte, ineflectual, wliulty gi-own a weari- 
ness ot the flesh ? So rare is his Dp[>osile in any miik of 
Literature, or of Life, so very rare, tliiit even in the lowe*l 
ha is [irecious. The authentic insight ami experience of hd]' 
human eouI, were it but insight and experience in hewing of 
wood and di-awing of water, ia real knowledge, a renl posse^ 
sion and aciiuircraenl, how small soever : paiabra, again, were 
it a suprfine poiiiiff's, is wind merely, nnd nothing, or lcs« 
than nothing. To a considerable degree, this man, we fay, 
lia.'i woi'ked himself loose from cant, and conjectural half- 
iiess, idle pretences and ball ud nations, into a condition of 
Sincerity. Wherein, perhaps, ai above argued, his hard 
MM'ial environment, and fortune to l>e ' a workman bum,' 
which brought go many other retardations with it, mny have 
for warded and aciv'ierated him. 



8oi>1-|mTcbaMi1 harrcsln un the !ndj)^nt moor I — 

Thu lb* HJaiRid rktor of • bundred Aglits, 

Th« »»rrtur Ship, bowi to* her banner"!! bend, 

When IhroiigEh her pliinkf the teabom iT[it<1i) bit» 

lU duilly way : — nnd alDk* la Ocean'f bed, 

VHiquicb'd by wormt. Wlwl Ihea? The Kormi 

Will not Qnd tmlle thee Mark, tbim wbiMd wall? 

Tta<r Ufa It l*w1eu, and tliy law a lit. 

Or Katum i" ■ dream unnatural: 

Leak on the cknidi, Ihe •trvam*, Iha earth, the ikyi 

La, all i* Interchango aiid hannon; 1 

Wbn« ia the gorgeoua pomp which, yetter mom, 

Curuln'd .von Orb with amber, (Ud <m fotit? 

Behold It ill the Uae of Klvelln, borne 

To feed the all-ffedlng «al The mnlUn gold 

I* flowiii|c pale in Loxley'a wnlrre colil. 

To kindle into b«nDty tree and Sowar, 

And wake to inrdanl life hill, rale and plain. 

Cloud trade* will) riiar, and exchange it powm-i 

But iboulil the claudt, tlia atreanu, the windi diadain 

HarRHUiIoiu intercuurH, nor dew nor rain 

WoDld fiirtitl-crawn Ibe roonnlaiiH: airieu day 

WduM blail on KIndencemt the heathy ^ow; 

Mb ptirply green would meeken into gray 

O'er Don at eta; no aoand of river'* flaw 

Pitbirb the Sepulchre at all below. 

'•.iioTK nnd tlie <luing« of men hnve not pa!!««<1 b}' lliia man 
'ir>lieedml. like lh« erfdless cloud-rack in dull weniher; or 
lightly hwHied, like a ihfjtlric phHnIn<imHgoria ; but earnest!^' 
inquirei) ino. like a thing of reality ; reverently Iwvefl anti 
Kitrf4ii)>pi.'d, as k thing with divine Mgnificance in its reality, 
implies of which tlivincncss be has cuught and Inid lo lipnrt. 
For bis vision, ai was sniil, partnkes of the genuinely Poeti- 
ral ; br is not li Rhymer and -Speaker only, bul, in Mime gen- 
ttbe •«uH\ Mniething of a PoeL 

Fanlirr, we must admit bim. what iiukeil ia alri-ady herein 
adnitii-d, to be, if ricar-sightod, also brave-hearted. A iroub- 
iam •lament la his ; n Life of paiiifulnesj., toil, insecurity, 
Kxrriiy : yrt he fronts it like a man ; yields not to ii, tames 
it inm «ioie suhjoctinn, t>otnc order ; ila wild fcarfiil dinntnjt 
and tuiDuli, as of H devouring Cbnoa, hecomea a aorl of wild 



war-miisii? for liim ; wlierein too are passages of beauty, d 
nieimlious meUing softness, of lightness and briskness, cveu 
of Joy. The slout heari is al«o a warm and kind one ; Aficc- 
lion (Iwellii with Danger, all tlie holier and the lovelitr for 
suoh stern environment. A working man is this ; ycl, a* «e 
i?)iiil, >i miiD : in his sort, a courageous, much-loving, faichfully 
vndiiring and endeavouring man. 

What such a one, so gifted and so placed, sliall say loa 
Time like ours; how lie will fsshion himself into [wace, or 
war, or armed neutrality, with the world and bis fellow-men; i 
and work out his course in joy and grief, in victory and de- 
feat, is a question worth asking : which in these three little 
Vohiines partly receives answer. He has turned, a» all 
thinkers up to a very high and rare order in these days 
niu:4t do, into Politics; is a Reformer, at least a stem Codi- 
lihiiiiiT, Radienl to the core: his poetic melody takes *n I 
■o-1ragic;il character; much of him is converted inlo 




I Time, 

Tar inferior men do. The frighirul condition of a 
wlicn public aiid pHvaEe Prind^ilc, hb tlie 
uii(ler:«lrw<l, liitving gonu out of «iglil, and Self-inleresl being 
ii-a to plot, and i>trugg]e, ajiJ s<-rainlile, a» it coiilil Hiid would, 
Uiflicullie;! Iiuil accumiiltilrd lill ilipy were no longer lo be 
lionie, and the «pirit llint should linve fronted and conquered 
ilirm i^fcmed lo have for^keu iht: world ; — nlien (he Rich. 
a« ibe uimoU ihey oould nisolve on, hud ceasn-d to govern, 
wid the Poor, in their tusl-aecumulaiing numbers, and ever- 
wkleiiing complexities, had cea.-<«d (o be able lo do wilhoul 
)n>Teroing ; and now the plan of' Compelilion 'aud ' Laiuts- 
fairt' was on every side, apprnaching ti« consummalioii ; 
and each, bound-up in the circle of his own wanf^i and [wr- 
il», *iood grimly di^iru^itful of his neighbour, ami tlje dis- 
irm-teii CumnioD-weal was a Common-woe, aud lo all men it 
Urcaine apparent ibat llie emi was drawing nigh: — all this 
■upect uf Ruin aud Dewy, visible eiiou;;!), experi- 
ily known to our SliL-tKeld friend, he calls by the name 
Corn-Law," and c«{ireip m be in good part delivered from, 

lite aeeur^d Dread-tax re|>ealed. 
In lhi4 syiileni uf |)olitieal Doctrine, even as liere tio em- 
plialtcnlly set forth, ihere is not mneh of novelty. Radicals 
we bave uiaity : kiud enough on this and other grievanraa i 
■ lie rrmovul of which is to be lite one thing needftil. The 
ikvp, wide flood of billernesA. and hope becoming hopele««. 
lie* acrid, corrosive in every hoisom ; and flows fiercely 
' iiiuxb ihrough any orilict- Accideiii may open: ihrough 
i iiw-Sfrrorin, T^islative Reform, Pnor-Luwj, want of Pour- 
i^ivit, Trilie-s GamivLaws, or, a* wo see here, Com-Lawe. 
rt iipreby indr>ed only ihts becomes clear, that a deep, wide 
tliHid ol' evil flues exist and corrode ; from which, in all ways, 
)>lindly and seein^ly. men seek deliverance, and cannot rest 
lill iht-y find it; Icnst of nil till ihey know what |iart nnd 
I i"|iortion of ii is lo he found. But with us fixilish ^n» of 
\iiam thif is ever tlie way: some evil lliai liw nearest n-. 
1 rickDCSS, ur but a smoky chimney, b ever the 


acme nnd sum-tolal of all evil ; [he black liyilra that shoM 
us OHl from a Promised Land ; and so, in poor Mr. Shauiiy's 
fasliion, must we 'shift from Irouble lo Irouble, and from side 
'Id side; l)uiion-ii|> one cause of vexation, and unbolioa 
' anolher." 

Tims for our keen-hearleil singer, and sufferer, has ihe 
' Bitail-tnif,' in itself )i considerable but no immeasuralik 
smoke-pilliir, swolii out lo be a world-embracing Dnrkntr^ii, 
that Uarkcns and sufTbcntes the whole earth, anil has blottnl 
out the heavenly Btar;, Into the merit of the Com-L«wj, 
M'hieli has utten been discussed, in fit season, by coropctenl 
jiands, we do not enter hero ; least of all in the way of argu- 
inent, in the way of blame, towards one who, if tie read sui-h 
merit with some emphasis 'on the scantier irenebera of hU 
children,' may well be pardoned. Thai the ' Bread-lax,' 
with various other taxes, may erelong be ultei-ed and ubro- 
giited, unci the Corn-Tnide beeome as free as the poore-i 



pft Godhead, nol with llie lj[)s onlj-, bill apparenlly with 
I hcsri : who, iw \mi been wrillen, and oflen felt, ' reveals 
I Pnrcntjs in nil truv Tpacher^, nnd Rulers,' — u 
« Tedchers and Rulers quii« Aiioiher irniy be revealed 1 
■ Rhymer, it would sci-m, is no Meihodist: far enough 
He inukefi 'ihc Ruoler,' in his hot-hi^uded way, ex< 

Thfl Baudred Popai at Eiigland't .Inultli? ; 

I addB, by way of nole, in hU own person, aoine slill 

: How ' tliM baneful eor[K>ralion, dismal ea 

«ign of Terror h, and long-nnned its Uoly Inquisition, 

I oondesceDd to learn and teach what is useful, or go 

II nuisances go.' As liule perhaps is he a Cburcli- 

* Cudi- Dervish ' seems nowise to his mind. Scarce- 

er, if at all, does be show aversion to the Cbutvh 

3 ; or, noiong his many griefs, touch upon Tillies aa 

[, in any ease, the black colours of Life, even as here 

f^, and bi'ooded over, do not hide from him that a God 

: Author and Sustainer thereof; that God's world, if 

I a House of Imprisonment, can al»o be a House of 

irg wherein for the weary and heavy-laden, pity and 

e an not altogether cut away. 

s chiefly in virtue of this inward temper of heart, with 

r disposition and adjustment which fur all else results 

Dfrom. that our Radical attains to be Poetical i that the 

b grcMUiings, contentions, upbraiding^', of one who unha]H 

I fell wuairained to adopt such mode of utterance, 

1 enoobU-d into something of mneic. If a land of 

s is ttill his Father's land, and the bondage en- 

As worshipper and believer, the captive 

tith seizing eye: the aspect of the Infinite Uni- 

B>fllla him with an liiUniti! feeling ; hia chains, weiv 

it Ibr moments, fall away ( he soars free nlol), and tlie 

f r«gioiu of Poesy and Freedom gleaiu golden afar cm 

I borisoD. Gleamiogs we say, prophetic dawn- 




inga from tho=p far rpgions, spring iip for him ; nay, 'beam? 
of actual raijinnce. In his ruggediiess, nnd dii 
cdness (ntlher of plaue llian of or^an), he is 
touches of a feeling anil virion, which, even in 
dense, is to be named poetical. 

One deeply poetifa! idea, above at! others, seems to hare 
taken liold of him : the idea of Timp.. As was natural (o a 
poetic soul, with few objects of Art in its environment, and 
driven inward, rather than invited outward, for occupation. 
This deep tuyslery of ever-flowing Time ; bringing forth, and 
as the Ancienifl wisely fabled, devouring what it has brought 
forth; rushing on, in us, yet above us, all uncontrollable by 
lis; and under it, diraly visible athwart it, the bottomless 
Eternal; — this is, indeed, what we may call the primaiy 
idea of Poetry ; the first that introduces itself into the poetic 
mind. As here : 



with tbe highest results of new Philosophy, ns of primeval 
Theolo^ : Mill for llie Pwl. in particular, is as ili« lifc- 
element wherein atom? hu con ('P|ii ions can IHke poetir form, 
i tile whole world become miraculous and miigicul. 

Vif art lyrA luff 
A> Uranin* Arc innilr nt: and our lltlJe life 
Iiniumlc»l with a Sleep! 

rp ihnr, belie vp ihni, O Roader; ihi-n E«iy wlnilur the 
iiofi Tale* seem wonderful ! — ' Rcim<li'<i wiih u sleep 
ScUu/tanffebeH)'.' says Jean Paul; "ihese three word« 
led whole volumes in mp.' 
To lum now oii our worthy Rliytncr, who has brought us 
M much, and stingily inaiei on his errors and »hortcuming«, 
wer«! nij honest prowxlure. We had (he whole pueiieul en- 
cyclopa^ia lo draw iipoti, and say commodioufly. Such and 
such mi item is noi here ; of which encyclopiedia the liighcfl 
geniuH i:an 611 but h portion. With much merit, fnr fVom 
rommon in his time, be is not without something of the faults 
of his time. We pntLted him for origitmlity ; yet is there a 
renaiii remainder of imitniion in him ; a tang erf* ibe Circulnl- 
ing Libraries : as in .Sancho's wine, with its key and thong, 
ib«r«i was a lang of iron and leather. To be rcmlndt'd of 
Cmhb«% with his iruthful severity of style, in such a plncc, 
we cannul object; but what if Iliere were a slight bravur* 
dKlt of the fair tuneful Hemans ? Slill more, what have we 
da with Byron, and his fierce vociferous moutlungs. whether 
r not paseionale and only theatricul ? King 
ibyses* vein U. afler all, but a worthless one t no vein for 
wl-e man. Strength, if lliat be the thing aimed at, does 
noC manifest itself in i^pRsms, hut in stout liearinir of biirdms. 
Onr Auibor sayii, ' It is loo bad to exalt inio a hero th*' eos- 
>««nh who would have gone into hysterics if a tailor had 
'Innpbi-d al biin.' Walk not in hi)- foolsl«>pA, then, we My. 
whether a« hero or as sin^r; repent a little, for example, 
uver (iimewliat in ihjil fiiliginou*. blue-flaming, piicb-and- 


aulpbur ' Di'eam of Enoch Wray,' And wrjle the next otbd^ 

We menu no ioiitalbn ia a Lail pnlpable sense ; only ihaX 
there iii a lone of sueh occasionallj audible, which ought to 
be removed; — of which, in any ease, we make not much. 
Imitation i^ a leaning on something foreign; incompklene^j 
of inilividuttl development, defect of free ulteraoce. From 
ibe same Muree spring moat of our Author's faults ; in p«i^ 
liciilar, bis worat, which, after all, is intrinsically a defect of 
manner. He has lilile or no Humour. Without Humoac 
of clifiracier he cannot well he ; but it bad not yet got lo 
Utterance. Thus, where he has mean things lo deal with, be 
knows not bow to deal with them ; oftencst deal« with ibem 
more or le^s meanly. In his vituperative prose Notes, he 
seems embarrassed ; and but ill hides his embarrussnient, 
under an air of predetermined sarcasm, of knowing brisk- 
ness, almost of vulgar pcrlness. He says, be cannot help it; 


brgi^ly ; a« he U not such, we say, Rt^ail still more, mucli 
mom largely. Books enough timtv arc in Eiiglunii, uud of 
fiuiie aiKiihvr weight and worih tijiui ibal drculaiing-lihiary 
liut : may bv procured too, mny be reu<), even by a hanl- 
worked man; fur whui man (either in God's service or tho 
Devil's, »i himself c hi joaes it) is not linril-worked ? But 
here itgaiii, where there U a will thi:^re is a way. True, our 
friend ii no longer in his teens ; yel still, a.i would seem, in 
tbc rigour of his yesr& : we ho|>e too tlittt hie mjnil ig not 
Hiially «liu(-in, but of the improvable and enlargenhle sort. 
If AtHeri (ahto kept busy enough, with hoMe-breaking and 
wluU not) leurned Gre^^k uRer he was &(iy, why h llie Con> 
Law Rhymer too old to learn ? 

However, be in the future what there mny, our Rhymer 
litts already done wlml was much more diffiuuli, anil better 
ihitn resiling printed books i — looked into the greut pro- 
phctic-niuntucript Book of Kx'isteacn, and read little patf* 
MgcK there. Here, for Example, is a sentence tolerably 
^^■> Wlien toUi th« MtUliy koeitiit woods nmbnoFil, 

^^^H linrk, how ths colil >(«(>l loreiuiit In lii<*lnE An ! 

^^K Blind Euocb nnt tbii Grimli^r's whiwi n.i mora, 

^^^r Their buuiy in ttas wMen, era tbej nwr 

^^H Duh'd Id viiltc foam tha tvrtft clroumfareneo o'er. 

^^F Tlicra dnwt the Crlndsrhit Intmrlonx brvMh; 

^^r Tberacoi]|;hinK>''hudewlly tndaheljsodii: 

I lloru lo die young, he tvtn nor nwn nor ilenttij 

Srarnlnjt the fiilura, what ha winie he ipendBi 

T'ebauch ninl liot are hia iKWHn ftieiida. . 

Behotil hb failinga! Hmh h> virtue* too? 

He 1i no I'nujier, bUwkgiinnl thouj^h he be: 

Pull well he know* whel mTnil* enmlilnad ou do, 

PuD well III* lilrthrlKlit ; he t* free, 

And, frown IW frown, iiuUI«n»> niaiiupoly. 

Y-l Ahnh.n> and KI1i»l Imlh in leln 

Hid •eianea on hia rheek pmlont Ihe bloorn ; 

Ha wJffDOt IItc! H«>min* In huie lo gain 

TIm andlilurb'il Mrlum of tba lomb. 

And, old It iBiMUMl-tbiny, meeli hb domn I 


Or iliis, ' of Jem, the rogue avowed,' 

Wbone inula ii Pooohingl Honest Jem works not, 

Begi iiDi, but thrives by plunderlDg begg>n ban. 
Wisf n> a lord, and quite >is !;ood a shot, 

And treda on partridge beciase bread it dear- 
Sire of six sons upprenticed to Ibe jail, 
He prowls in anus, tbe Tory of the nightj 
Willi Ih«in he shares his buttles and his ale, 
Willi liim they feel tbe miyesly of mi^t. 
Nu Despot better ktu>wn that Power is Right. 
Mark bi« unpaidish snerr, bis lordly frowni 
Hark how he calla the beadle and flonky lira; 
See )inw magniBcenlly he brealit down 
His neighbour's f>ince, if so his will requliwt, 
And bow bis strutlie emulntes the ■quire's ! 

.lem riicB with the Moon; but when she sinks, 
Honienard with sack-like pockets, and quick lieets, 
as boroiiirhmonKering g"wl, ' " " ' - 


Ab, na'er caino Sii>>biilh-<l>y l>ut be wu Ihvn I 
La bow. like him, enci and ttrann t^nugh gnj, 
VoD vlIJaKc-tower liino-Ioucti'd to God ippsalal 
Aad twrk! the chlniH of morning illeiwn}': 
Hark I lo thg heart the (ohinin »«eetaeu ttoala. 
Like the he«if < Tolas, anfeic by uoue who feeli 
That God ia Line. Ihat Uau U liTiug Uaitj 
Unfsll hy EWM «hcnu ll« o( brotharhood 
Link to hi* kind; by none who puta bl> Inut 
In nouichi of Earth Ihat hath lurvlvcd the Flood, 
San Ihoao mule charitlH, b; which the good 
SlrcDglhen pouf oomu, and larve thair Maker beet- 
Hail, Sabbath! Day of mercy, peace and rat! 
Thoa o'er load eiliet throw'ic a uolMleia spell; 
Tbe hatnoKr there, the wheel, the «bv nwleat 
Pale Thought no more: o'er Trade'* contentioiu bell 
Ueefc (luiet apnadt her wlngi invisible. 
And tthen Ihun eom'el, Inw silent art the fleldi, 
Tbnnigh whoia twoet patba the loll-Treed towuinaa ft 
To him the very air a banquet yioldi. 
Kariouf be watohai the puiied hawk that wheels 
nil flight on ehalnleu winds. Each cloail rereals 
A paradise of beauty to his eye> 
Kii lUUe Boy* are with him, teeking Dowen, 
Or ahuing tlio lui-icntumua gilded Hy. 
So by the daii;''* eidc h* speniln the hours, 
Bcnewing IKendahlp with the budding bowers: 
And while might, Iwanty, good without alloyi 
JLn miTTor'd in his cbllilnm's happy eyes, — 
In Rb grsal Temple offering tbuiknil joy 
To Kim. the JnHnitely (Inat an<l Wife, 
Wllb soul alluned tn Nalnre'v harmuniee, 
Seivne and cheerful an a tporllng child, — 
His Isorf rtfUscs to believe Ihat man 
Oonld turn hilo a hell Ihe hloominx wild, 
The blinfbl eounlry when hl> ohildbood ran 
A race with iufknC rivers, ere began — 

g-humblin^ " Brend-Mi, ' blind Misrule,' nnd several 
crabbed things 1 

I *o our Com-T.AW Rhymer play« bis part. In ihi:; 
M does be indite and act his Drfima of Life, which for 
n h aU-too DomoBiic-Tragical. Il is said, 'the good 
dor Mon nuikes tia forget ihe bad theaci^, were it but a 

238 MIsc^xLA^^E8. 

'bam; wliili?, Hgain, nolhing renders bo appBrent the Imd- 
' nesa of llie bud nctor ae a Ibeiilre of peculiar excell-'nce.' 
Hon- much more in » llieatre and drama such a^ these o( 
Life ilself! One other item, boweyer, we must note in thMt 
ill-decoraled Sheffield theatre ; the back-scene and IxiHom- 
decorniiori of it itll ; which is no other than a Workhouse. 
Alas, the Workhoutie is the bourne whither all the^e adon 
and workers are bound ; whence none that has one* pati»e<1 
it returns! A bodeful ?ound, like the rustle of approaeh- 
ing ivorld -devouring lomadoes, quivers through their wholi- 
exi-tence ; and the voiee of it is, Pauperism 1 The thanks 
giving lliey offer up lo Heaven is, that they are not yet Pbu- 
pers ; the camesi cry of ihuir prayer is, that 'God would 
>liie!(i Ihem from the bitterness of Parish Pay." 

Mournful enough, that a white European Man must pray 
visifully for what the horse he drives is sure of, — Tint 
ihe -irniin of his whole faeullies may not fail to earn him 

^Ption f<-arlei 

^Aat ilio • 

*diiioii l)iai 

il,.- fart is I 


wilDCiiK, and * rroin llieir own kno< 
rleul/ declaim that ilie lillle i 
lie working niBn generally. 

ledge and observ*. 
iH!>ter-mnDu facturer, 
a muoh worse ron- 
I iwenty-fivc years ago.' UnhappUyi 
) plain ; llie reason anil scicntlHc neees^ily of 

e of Ihinga, every new mfiU 
A new complesiiy i 
! incjitculablo ; the 
take is their life) are ever in- 
world-moTcmenl rolU on : by 

1 1 i* too plain. In tlii» r 
i* a new misforlune ; crrry ne 
the diaplcr of ehaneei grows 
liungry gameiters (whose ( 
creasing in numliers ; the 

what mplhod nhall the weak and help- needing, who I 

none to hpip him, withstand it i Alas, how tnnny hrare 

heartw. ground to pieees in thnl unequal biiille. have already 

fiink ; in every sinking heart, a. Tnigedy. less lamons than 

iliat ol' the Sons of Alreu» ; whtrrin, however, if no ' kingly 

houM-,' yet a manly hou^ went to the du»I, and a whole 

manly linen^ was swept away I Mu-it it grow woree and 

'winui. till the htst hnive heart is broken in England: and 

r)>i>' iamv 'brave Peasantry' has become a kennel of wild- 

Ij'iwling ravenous Paupem ? God be thanked I tliere is 

■tiiito feeble shadow of hope ttiat the change may have be- 

'■iin while it wns yet time. You may lift the pressure (ram 

the frett man's Hlmiihlers, and bid him go forth rejoicing; 

t lift the Blave'H burden, he will only wallow ibe more 

scdly in liis stnth ; a nation of degraded men cannot 

■ ni*e<l up, except by what wo rigliily name a miracle. 

KitJndrr which point of view n]so, these tittle Volumes in- 

; such a chunicter in such n place, are not wiiliont 

Utcsnce. One faint symptom perhaps that clearness will 

t,thu ibcrc is a possibility of il» reliim. It is as if from 

a Ovheona of Manufaeturing Rodimtism, from amid ii« loud 

iring and ruraing. whercliy nothing became feasible, nothing 

wide, except this only, that misery and malady existed 

If. heanl now mme manful lone of reason and determi- 

wherein alone can there Ix- proRl, or promise of deliv- 

In this Coni-Law Rliymer we seem lo Iraoe some- 


thing of the antique spirit ; a spirit which had long beconw 
invisible among our working as among other cIa:^iM» ; whidi 
liere, perhaps almost for the first time, reveals itsi^If id aii 
altogether modern political vesture. ' The Pari&hs of the Isle 
Woe,' uf 03 he possiountel/ named them, are no longer Pari- 
ahs if they luive become Men. Here is one man of their 
tribe ; in sevfral respects a true man ; who hna abjured Hv- 
pocrisj and Servility, y<^t not therewith Iroddeii Heligion ami 
Loyalty umler foot ; not without justness of insight, devool- 
ncss, peuceiible htroiam of resolve ; who, in all cireumsiaDces, 
even in these strange ones, will be found quitting himself 
like a man. One such that haa found a voice : who know« 
how many mule but not inactive brethren he may have, in 
hia own and in all other ranks ? Seven tliousand that have 
not bowed the knee to Haul ! These are tlie men, where- 
soever found, who are lo stand forth in England's evil day, 
on whom the hope of England rest-. For it has been often 


ttty bas not b«en givt-n thee : soMy over one man lher«- 
I thiMi luut a quite ubeolule imcunirollable power ; him 
, him make honest; il will bi; «ouieihing, it will be 
I, nnd ihy life nnil Inbour not in vain. 

i We have given no epiiomi'^-J abiilract of tbc^e little 
bolu, such aa ii lliu Rc-vii;wcr's wont : wc »'oulil gladly 
|>er»uaile many a ivaJi^r. bigb and luw, who takee i 
not in rhj'tne only, but in rrason, and the condition of his 
tV-llow-man, to pmvhafln and peruse them for liimself. It 
U pmof of an innate love of worth, and how willingly 
ihr Public, ilid not tliou sand- voiced I*uRery £o cuiifuse il, 
vould have lo do with sub»lanc«:«, and no) with dpceplive 
shadowit, thai these Volumes ritrry * Third Kdition ' marked 
on ih^m, — on all of them but the newetil, whofe fale with 
ibc raiding world n-e yet know not ; which, however, setuna 
tot wor^o but belti'r than cither of its forerun- 

^Hay. it iip|ieur» to us as if in this humble Chaunt of ibe 
« Pntriarch might bu traced rudimenia of a truly great 
gnrnt though all undeveloped. The Rhapsody of 
b Wray ' is, in its nature and unconscious ictKlency, 
whole world lica (shadowed in iL What we might 
nD on inarticulaie, half-«udible Epic ! Tht^ main figure 
u ■ blind aged man ; him.<elf a ruin, and encircled with the 
nitB of a whole Era. Sad and great does that imrtge of a 
imirrr^l Dissolution hover visible a^ a poetic barkgmund. 
GiKiil old Enoch ! He could do m much ; was so wise, ra 
valiant. No Ilion had he destroyed ; yet soinewbal he had 
bnttt up : where the Mill fland-s noi^y by \U cataract, mak- 
ing cam into bread for men, it was Enoch that reared it. 
and made ibc rude rocks send it water ; where the moun- 
txin Torrent now boils in vain, and is mere passing music 
lo lb« irareller. it was Enoch's cunning that spanned il with 
that Mtmng Arch, grini, time-defying. Where Enoch's hand 
or mind luis been, DiM>rd<T has become Order : Chaos hfti 


recedi^d some Mule hiindbreoJiii, hnd lo give up some iiett 
liandbrcudib of his ancient realm. Enoch too has seen hi» 
follovrera fall round him (by slrtss of burdship, and Ibe ar- 
1-ows of llie gudii}, baa performed funeral games for lUeia. 
and mi^ed i-nndslone memorials, and earved bid Aliiil ad 
Plares Ibereoii, with his own hand. The living chronicle 
and epitome of a whole century ; ivlieii be departs, n whole 
century will become dead, hisioricHL 

Rudiments of nn Epic, we »Hy ; and of the true Epic of 
our Time, — were the genius but arrived that could sing ill 
Nut * Arms mill the Man ; ' ' TooU and the Man,' that irere 
now our Epic. What indeed are Tools, from the Hammer 
and Pluuiruet of Enoch Wray to ibis Pen we now write 
with, bul Arms, wberewilb to do battle against UKKEASO.t 
willioul or within, and smite in pieces not mLterable felhiw- 
men, but ibe Arch-Enemy that miikea u« nil miserable ; 
henceForth the only legilimaliL' Imllle ! 

Book« tu ihese | 
t is to say, tlie I 


t Courtaiiip of the eharp-Iempered, ol\-widowed Alice 
Grfrn may i«s*, i)i)esi tunable, yet wiih a certain air of eoot- 
aiaini-i] genuiiiene&s. Anil ?o has not a Picture, iudeod, yet 
u oort uf gi^iiiul Sludy or Curloun come together for him : 
and may rndure there, alWr some flary oil-il&ubiiigs, which 
wf IrnvL- MN'R rramcd with inlding. and hui)g-up in proud 
(Eallerim, have iMwonie ngi tuul rubbisi 

'I'd one cta^ of readers e*pecially. stieh Bookti 
ought t» b« interesting: lo ih'- highest, ihut i 
ricbact claits. Among our Arixtocracy. there are men. we 
tniit tliert arc many men, who feel that they hIjo are work- 
meii. boni to toil, ever in tlieir great Ta*lt muster's eye, faith- 
fully with heart and head for those that with heart and hand 
ilo, under the same great Taskmasier, toil for them ; — wbo 
have eveu thu noblest and hardest worlt »et before them: 
To deliver out of that Egyptian bondage lo Wretchedness, 
niul Ignorance, and Sin, the hardharided millions ; of whom 
thin banlhunded earnest wiliieNH and writer is herv repre- 
tentittive. To such men his writing will be a^ a Document, 
which they will lovingly interpret : what is dark and exas- 
[Hiraled and acrid, in their humble Brother, they for thefn- 
mItcs will enlighten and sweeten ; taking thankfully what \» 
the renl [lurport of his message, and laying it eameslly to 
heart. Might an iiiMruclive relation and interchange be- 
twnn High am) Low at length ground itself, and more and 
mortt pi-rli^ct iEiielf, — to the unsjieakahle profit of all («r- 
II-'- 1 fur if all jMrties are to love and help one another, 
ii'' first step toward!! this h, that all ihomughly understand 
r.t- another I To such riuli men an uulhentic mesTinge from 
the bi«rt>i of |Mxir men, from the heart of one poor man, will 
he wriftimr. 

To another class uf our Arislwracy. again, who unhap- 

, H^ feel rnilicr thai they are iwt workmen ; and prafe^ not 

k'nuoh to bear any burden, ns to be themselves, with ui- 

N altalnable lieatliiieu, and if [avsible grtm/tdHtu, borne, 

I pht-nomfunn n' this of the Shetli<<ld Corn-Law 



Rliymer, with a Manchesler Delrosier, and much dse, point- 
in'! '1"^ SAme vny, will be quite unwelcome ; indeed, lo llie 
clt^arer-aighied, n^Ionishing and alarming. It indicateB that 
they tind tlicm'elvea, as Napoleon was wont to say, 'in a 
new po^iiion;' — a position wonderful enongh; of extreme 
singularity, to which, in the whole course of History, there 
i* jtcrliaps but one case in some measure parullel. The case 
alluded to stands reixtrded in the Book of Numbert: the cose 
of Balaam the son of Beor. Truly, if we couaider it, there 
ore few passages more notable and pregnant in their way, 
than thia of Balaam. The Midianitiah Soothj>ayei- (Trutb- 
fipeakcr, or as we should now say, Counael-giver and Semi- 
tor) ia journeying fonh, as he ha.^; from of old quite pros- 
perously dune, in tite way of his vocation ; not so much to 
'curse the people of the Lord,' as to earn for bim^lf a 
couifurtnble penny by such means as are po<<sible and eipC' 
something, it is hoped, midway between cnrsing and 

■nd Uint in a reiuoimlile mtuiiier ! VuX not li' 
mg, collapse, aiwl iri'inuiir occupy his joinui ? 
cmwt of RvDpcctAbility liai urucktd atiuiider ; 
l<.'>i« proteniatural Innne yttWDS under bi 


fiice, elongal- 
For the thin 


k long fiircwcU to ull my greatne.'^ i llie »|iirit-dtirriDg 
Vote, ear-pi«ri-iag Hear : ihi; liig Speech itiat makes ambi- 
tion virtue ; soli I'ulni-grcn^ing first uF raptures and Cliuen 
that emulate npLei-e^munie : Bulautn'e yeeit|)o[ ion's gone ! — 

As for our slom Com-Luw Uhyropr, whal can we fay by 

wnj ol' valediction but (his, " Well ilune ; come again, doing 

licrtivrF" Advices enougb there wurei but all lie incladei] 

under one : To keep hh eyes open, and do honestly whalio- 

«v«r bu baail »hall tind to do. We liavu praised him for 

Mrrity : lot him becume more and more iiincere ; culing 

suf Uearaiiy, Imitation, ephemeral Speeulo- 

I rewlutely * eUariuy his mind of Caii(>' Wc advie«d 

r cuu»c of rending : would he forgive uj if we now 

1 the question, Wliether Kliyme is the only dialed 

ktom write in ; whether Kliyme is, after all, the natural or 

"■ ftteat dialeet for bim? lu good I'roee. which differs ineon- 

reivably trum bad Pro^, wbat may hoi be wrillen, what 

may not be read ; fmin a Waverlcy Novel to an Arabic Ko- 

tan, to an Eiiglii^h Bible ! Bhyme hiu phtin advantages i 

^l^cb, however, are oflen purchased too dear. IT the io- 

^■Hd thought can epeitk ilscltj insteiiil of ding itself, let it, 

aipMully in these quire UDmusical days, do the fonner I 

In any com:, if tJie inwnrd Thought do not sing itself, that 

■ii;iMg of the outward Phruse is u timber- toned false matter 

' could well diajHsn^e with. Will our Khymer consider 

luielf, then j anil decide tur wliaJ is actiuilly best. Rhymtr, 

\< to this hour, nuver xeem^ aliogtltier obedient to him ; and 

.Iv^ubcdient Rhyme, — who would ride on it tlial hod once 

rslkin^ ! 

Be takes ami!« that some friends have admonished him to 

r niailei-9, lake sulei 


own Socrales'-Dcmon ; ?iieh aa dwplls in every mortal ; meh 
as he ifl a happy niorlal who can hear ihe Toice of, follow ihe 
behests of, like an iinallemble law. At the same time, we 
couUi truly wish lo see such a mind 35 his enpigeil railier in 
considering what, in hifl own sphere. <»uld bi; dont. Ilian 
what, in his own or other spheres, ought to be detlroyed ; 
rather in producing or preserving the True, than in miin- 
gling and slashing asunder the Fake. Let him be at ease : 
the Faifie j^ already dead, or lives only with a mock life. 
The death-sf:nieiiec of the False was of old, from the fir^i 
beginning of it. written in Hearen ; and is now proclaimed 
in ihp Earth, and read aloud at all market-crosses ; nor are 
innumerable volunteer tipstaves and headsmen wanting, to 
execute the same : for which needful service men inferior to 
him may suffi^'e. Why should the heart of the Cont-Law 
Rhymer lie troubled? Spite of 'Bread-tax,' be and htf 
brave children, who will emulalf their sire, have yet bread: 

ox HISTORV .' 



m following tliiKiiliir FrBEtn*nl m Hulnrf formt pari. ■* miiy ha nscog. 

i. of tho IniDsarnl niitMiurH dilivcred by oat uslddoui ' D. T.' at 

• opening of Ihe Undrig far llir Difumim of Cimmim Himaig. Tbe 

nny creilU tha Homing Popcn, ' toucliod in tlie mtxt 

" ' cKviUr, poetlcntly, alinoat pru|)he>icnltr, on rI) 

inu WM-lil iitirl Iho iiexl, in > ■train of tunliiinril or rather of 

d putlouau eloiiuenl^e nnly wIlnoMsd in l'iirli«nienl or oul 

wm rec«ived with profound tilenco,'— inlw- 

'0 t*U. by anuir-tnkinK. Ae urill bo Hrn, it is our of tl» didw- 

r intnHloce here. The Editor of tlii) Hnpiilne H 

nnlble fbr its ■vcnmeir. end publliiiu. If not with leave given, tbeo * 

■ken O. v.] 

HiBTORT ren)inmends iu<?lf as ibe most profit- 
B of all 8tudie->: uod irulv, Tor Huch a being as Man, who 
im bum. hhiI Iui< to leiirn niiil work, nnd then after a meas- 
ured term of yoan to dejiart, leaving descendants and per- 
lumMnccs, and m>, in nil vin<f», to vindimle him^eir as vital 
|wrltoa of u MaiikiiKl. tio study oould be fitter. History is 
ii>e Letter of I n.ti ructions, which the old generations write 
anil posthumously transmit to the new ; nay it may im called, 
mvr^ geiit^rally elill. the Messttge, verbal or wriiien. which 
all Mankind delivers to every man ; it is the only artiridalf 
HMnmuiiidilioTi (when the inarlicuUttR and mule, intelligible 
- im"^ noti lie round us and in us, so strangely through every 
t of our being, every step of our activity) wliieh the Past 
t have witli the Present, the Dislunt with what is Here. 
1 FaABta'e HitOAxiHa, Xo. 41. 


All B(Klk^, ihcrtfore, were ihey but Song-books or treatus 
on Mniliemalics, are in ihe long-nin historical documents — 
iLs iDi]i.'i.'<l all Speech itself h : thus might w« say. History U 
not only the fittest study, but the only study, and iDcludi^ all 
others whatsoever. The Perfect in History, he who under- 
stooil, and aaw and knew within himself, all [hat the wLule 
Family of Adam had billierto been and bitherto ilone, wck 
perfi'i't in all learning extant or possible ; needed not iheuce- 
forti lo gl idy any more had thenceforth nothing lefl but 10 
be an \ Ka do 'Ktmi.thiug himself, that others might make His- 
tory of It, -uid learn of bim 

Perfect on in any kind is well known not to be the lot of 
man hut of all aupematural perfect -chanicters this of llie 
Peiltci in lliitoiy ( o easily concei\'able too) were perhaps 
the mc t miratulouh Clearly a faultless monater which the 
ttorll ii not lo oee not even on paper. Had the wiindering 
Jiw leed begun to wander at Eden, and with a FoHuob- 
t head Nanac Sbah too, we remeptb«i 


■Ute ! faUifled, blolti^il nut, loni. la-^l and but a alireil of it in 
exiatcncR ; ihii* too no difBculi lo reail or spell. 

Uo-iprakablj {>rucioiia meHnwhilc ia our slirud of ii Letter, 
is oor wrillen or spoken MiMsage, such as we huve iu Only 
he K-lio uii>li.TaiiiD<I« nhat lias lM«n, caa know what xliould 
b« Hoii will \m3. It id uf tlm lost importance lliat llii! Jnilivid' 
onl hItv<^ n^ccrinined hi« relatioa lo the whole ; ' an individual 
btip* aw.' it luk) heun writliii) ; 'only he who unites with 
nuoy al ihu jiroper hour.' How easy, in u senr^, for ygur 
■U-instructed Nunuc to work without waste or force (or whxt 
we call fiiuli) ; and. in practice, act new History, as perfectly 
wv in theory, he knew the old ! Comprehending what thfl 
giTen world was, wbut it luid and what it wnnled. how might 
lri« clear efForl strike-in at the right lime and the right point i 
wbutly increasing the true current and tendency, nowhere 
cwiecUing itself in oppwilioQ thereto ! Unbtipplly, aucb 
(Bnolh-mnning, cver-BcccluraCed course is nowise the one 
ipfioUiIetl Ds ; craw current* we have, perplexed backflooda ; 
iDinnoeniblc efiurts (every iiew mau is a new etTori) consume 
Uwnuwh'M In airaleu eddies : thus is the River of Existence 
« wikl-flowing, wasteful ; and whole multitudes, and whole 
gHMOTUtom, in painful unrensoii, spend and are »pent on what 
aw never proSL Of all which, dues not one-half originate in 
tbii which wc hove named want of Perfection in Ilintory i — 
the other lialf, indeed, in another want still deeper, still more 

- B«f«, however, let us grant that Nature, in rrgnnl in such 
c want, is nowise blaniahle : taking up the other face 
r, let u» rather admire the pains she has been at, 
ilia tnly magnificenl proviaion «he haa mnde^ that this same 
leuf Instruetiuna might reach us in bouiidlcio pleiii- 
fitidowtnents. faculties enough we have: it is her 
will tno thai no faculty imparted to us shall rust 
[he uiirHculous faculty of Speech, once given, 
lore a gift than a neecs-itj ; l\\*- Tongue, witli 
ml much meaning, will keep in motion ; and only ia 



some La Trappp hy un^teaknble self-rL'jtruinI forbear wiijf- 
guy;;. As little cnn ihe fingcrit thiit have learned ihe miracle 
of Writing lie idle. ; if there is a rage of speaking, we know 
Hl-io [here is a rage of writing, perhaps the more furious of 
th« two. It is said, ' so eager are men to speak, they «ill 
not let one another get to speech ; ' but, on the otiier hand, 
writing is n finally transacted in private, and every man hu 
his own desk and inkstand, and ^ils independent and iinre- 
striiinnblu there. Lastly, multiply this power of the Pen 
some t en -Ihon sand fold : that is Id say, invent the Printing- 
Press *"'''' 'f=* Printer's Devils, with its Editors, Contribu- 
lorfi, Bookaollers, Billstickers, and see what it will do! Sui;li 
are the mciins wherewith Nalnre, anil Art the daughter of 
■ ei]uipped their favourite, man, for publishing 

iim*e!f to m 
Consider n 

w two things : first, that one Tongae, of ave^ 
ill publish Ht Ihc rate of a tliiek octavo volumf 



^Bfem nf nUtoiy: — and w the reader PHn judge willi whai 
^BpbanHHnc« (his 1irt>-brtuth of tliu human intellect is furnUliod 
^^B otir (Torld : wht^llier Nature has b(;en stingy to him or 
jnuuificeou Courage, render I Never can the hiAlorical 
imiuirer wnnl pabulum, betlpr or worse : are there not fi>rty- 
t^glit longitudinal leti of smAll-prinlcd History in (hy Daily 
Newspaper ? 

Th* truih Is, if Universal History is sueh a minerablc de- 
fective "shred ■ us we have named it, ihe fimU lies not in our 
historic organs, but wholly in our mi8u<ie of these ) Bay rather, 
in so many wants and otMlruclions, varying with the various 
age. that pervert our right use of them ; especially tnu wanu 
that preas heavily in all agf* : waul of Hoticsiy, want of Un- 
derstanding. If the thing publi.fhed h not true, is only a 
fi up position, or even a wilful inventiuii, what can be done 
with it, except nlM)ti»h it and Brinihllnle il ? But again, 
Truth, says Hume Tooke, meuni iiimply the thing trotned, 
llii- ihing bclif'Ved ; and now, from thin to the thing iUelf, 
what a new fatul deduction have we to suffer] Without Vn- 
'demanding. Belief il$elf will prolit little: and how can your 
^HHMishing avail, when there was no vision in it, but mere 
HBRodneas ? For us in political uppointments, the man you 
I'lHHpoint is not he who was shiest to discharge the duty, but 
only be who wiu uhlut lo be appointed ; so too, in all historic 
etectioni and seleeliona, ihe maddest work goes on. The 
W viMt worthiest to be known is perhaps of all others the least 
^^Mdken of: nay, some xay, it lies in the very nature of 8uch 
^^^■lU* la be so. Thus, in those Mtme forly-eigbt longitudinal 
^^Hfel of Hislorr, or even when ihey have stretched nut into 
fcrty-eight longitudinal miles, of the like quality, there may 
not be lite forty-eighth part of a hairsbrendlh that will torn to 
aaythiiig. Truly, in these times, the quantity of printed 
i'liblieation that will need to be consumed with fire, before 
ibe fimallest permanent advantage ran be drawn from it, 
urifiiit All Mn with asionMhmeni, almost with apprcliension. 
, -■ffbetv, tdoi, is the intrepid Herculean Dr. Wagtail, that will 


redji* hU ilu-si: pnper-moun tains into limler, and extnH 
iherefrain the lliree dropa of Tindc-r- water Elixir ? 

For indeed, looking at the activity of ihe historic Pen and 
Press (hruiigh thi^ last hulf-century, and what bulk uf H»- 
lory it yii'lils for iliat period alone, and how it is henceforth 
like to iiicreii^ in decimal or vigesimal geometric pn)g^e3^ion, 
— one might feel as if a day were not distant, when perceir- 
ing that the whole Earth would not now contain those writ- 
ings of whttt was done in the Earth, the human memory 
must needs sink confounded, and cease reraembering ! — To 
Bujne the reflection may be new and conMlalory, thai ilii^ 
state of ours is nut so unexampled ns it seems ; that with 
memory and things memorable ihe case was always intrinsi- 
cally similar. The Life of Nero occupies some diamond pagu 
of our Tacitus ; but in the parchment and papyrus archives 
of Nero's generation how many did it fill ? The author vf 
the fie lie Se/ieipie, at this dbtance, picking up a few re^dn- 

^ ON' Hri^TORr AGAIN. 

iratcr. and so beating out one we[ minule into seven long 
yeHr«uf sen'ituJe snil hftnliJiip, could fall. The rudeM peas- 
nni liaft his ramplete set of Annual Registers legibly |>i'inleil 
in liif brain : and, niihinit ihe smnllest training in MnemoR- 
ici. the (iruper (lauiies t'ubdivi'^ions and subonlinatiuns of the 
liiilp lo ihc great, all introduced there. Memory and.Oblir- 
■on, like Duy and Night, and indeed like all oilier Contradlc- 
tiuiu in till* strange dualiftlic Life of ours, are necessary for 
each oihcr'a exif lence : Oblivion ia the dnrk pagp, whereon 
2l«mory writes Uer light-beam characters, and makes them 
; it all light, nothing could be read there, any 
e than if it were all darkness. 

1 and these autobiographic Annual-Regiaters 
f bis, CO goes it with Itfankintl and its Univer^ History, 
Icb also is I'fi Autobiography : a like unconscious talent oT 
rabering and of forgetting agnin does llie work here. Thp 
' tmnaai'tiiini) of the Jay, were lliey never so noby, cannot re- 
main hiiid forever ; thn morrow comes with its new niusea. 
churning also to be registered: in the i mm endurable conflict 
. ,^d conuert of this diaos of exiittencc, figure after tigure 
hmWo. m aS that ha^ emerged must one day sink : what can- 
^^^|l be kept in mind will even go onl of mind ; tliatory ram- 
r* mttt it«elf into readable extent; Hnd at last. in the band^ of 
fstoe BoivucI or Milller, ihe whole printed History nf the 
World, from the Creation downwards, has grown shorter 
than ihfti of llie Ward of Port^tken for one solar day. 
^R^bether such contmction and epitome is alvrays wiaely 
, might ailmit of ijuestion ; ur ruther, as we ««y, 
■it* of no quc«tion. Scandalous Cleopfttms itnd Messa- 
k Callgulu ftnil Commoduscs, in unprulitnble proportion, 
f nrritre for memory i while a scientific PanciroUus must 
write liii Book of Arts Lost ; and n moral PanciroIlu«, 
) the vision lent him, might write a Mill nwre moum- 
t of Virtue- Lost s of noble men, iloing and daring 
[. «hos4- heroif life., as n new revelation and de- 
Life itM-lf, were a po^se^ion for all, bu' 


lost utid forgoIteD, Hidtury having otherwise fiUticI her pitgK. 
Ill fact, here as eUewhere, what we call Accident govenu 
mucli ; in any case. History rnu^tl comt together not as it 
should, Imt as it cun and will. 

Kemark nevertheless how, by natural tendency alone, and 
as it were without man's forethought, a certain fitness of m- 
leckioii, and this even lo a high degree, becomes inPTitabk 
Wholly wurlhlu^ the selection TOuld not be, were there do 
better rule than this to guide il: that men permanently speak 
only of what ii extant and actively aliic beside them. Tbus 
do llie things that have produced IVuil, nay whose fruit slill 
givwa, turn out to be the things chosen for record and 
writing of; which things alone were great, and worth reconl- 
ing. Tlie Battle of Chalons, where Hunknd met Rum«, 
wid the Earth was played for, at aword-fence, by two earlli- 
be^triding giants, the sweep of whose swords cut kingdoms in 
pieces. Iioverh dim in the languid remembrance of a few; 



iherour what it may. IIow the ' Torty-eight longiliiditiul 
(cvi ' hnvo shrunk togelhur nfler a ceiicuiy, aIUt len con- 
luriea! Look burk frDiii end to begiimiDg, dvct any Ilis- 
Uirj ; over our own England: haw, iu nipidesi law uf gier- 
»pivtiv(.-, it dwindics from the canvas ! An unhappy Sybar- 
il«, if we itaiiil within iwu i-uutum's of hitn and nnmi' him 
ChariM Second, shall have twelve ljnie« iliu dpacu uf a huroic 
AKKiI; two or three thousand limus,if we name him George 
llif Fourth. The whole Suxon Hiipl4iri.-hy, though evenUi, to 
wbidi Magna Charta, and the world-famous Third Reading, 
ore n» dust in llic balance, took place then, — for did not 
Kiigtand, Co mention noihiug else, get ii«elf. if not represented 
in Pariinmiint, yd convened lo Christianity? — ihc whole 
Stutun UeplMTchy, I say. ia summed up praclieally in that 
one MiDtence of Milton's, the only one succeeding writers 
bav« copied, or readerii remembered, of the * fighting and 
Bucking of kitex and crows.' Neither was that an unimpor- 
uwit wastwil-nighl. when llie two biack-browcJ Brothers, 
-udcd, bi^atUtrong, Hengst and Hursu (^SlitllioH and 
Jtorm), detenniued on a mun-huut in Bntain, the boar-hunt 

bomc having got over-crowded ; and fo, of a tew hungry 
;1«s made an English Nation, and jibntt^d it here, and 
■■^ prodiKcd lAtf O Reader ! Of Heng*t*s whole campnign- 
iiig« «0Mn.i.dy half a page uf good Narrative can nuw be writ- 
ten ; the Lard Mayar't Vi$it to Oxfiinl standing, meanwhile, 
n*o«Jcd lo mankind in a rtvipectable volume. Nay what of 
Does not the Destruction of a Brunswick Theatre 
above a million times a» much telling as the Creation 

ft World ? 

To u^ic a ready-made similitude, we might liken UniTersal 
llcktory to a magic web; and consider with astonishment how, 
by pbilowphic insight and indolent neglect, the ever-growing 
iahric wove itself forward, out of that ravelled immuasnntble 
nuuH of threads and lliruras. whlcli we name Memoiri ; nay. 
«i each new lengihening, at each uew epoch, changed ii> 
wkolo proponions, its hue and sirucluro to the very origin. 

F— PI 



; records of a Tacilus acquire new meaniog, 
n hundred yoar^i, id llie hands of a Sloniesquieu ? 
Nic'buhr must reinterpret for us, at a still greater dislanM, 
the writings of a Tilus Livigs : nay, the religions ardoif 
chronicles of a Ilehrew Prophet and Lawgiver escape do< 
the tike fortune ; and many a [>onderou9 Eichhorn scssj, 
with new-ground philosophic spectacle^ the rovelatioo of a 
MrisiK, and strives to reproduce for this century what, ihirtT 
eeiiluries ago, was of plainly infinite siguificanee to all. Coo- 
siiler History with the beginnings of if stretching dimly into 
the riimote Time ; emerging darkly nut of the myi^terioui 
Etei-nity : the ends of it enveloping 113 at this hour, whereof 
we at this hour, both as actors and relators, fonn [tart ! In 
shape we might mathematically name it IfyperboUc-Atfif- 
lutic ; ever of i-afinite hreadth around us ; i^oon slirinkiBi; 
within niirraw Umits: ever narrowing more and more tuioib'^ 
nite depth behind us. In essence and sign itica Dec it \i»i 




The Acts of the Christian AposUeSy on which, as we maj 
aaj, the world has, now for eighteen centuries, had its foun- 
dation, are written in so small a compass, that they can be 
read in one little hour. The Acts of the French Philosophes, 
the importance of which is already fast exhausting itself, lie 
recorded in whole acres of typography, and would furnish 
reading for a lifetime. Nor is the stock, as we see, yet any- 
wise complete, or within computable distance of completion. 
Here are Four quite new Octavos, recording the labours, 
voyages, victories, amours and indigestions of the Apostle 
Denis : it is but a year or two since a new contribution on 
Vohaire came before us ; since Jean Jacques had a new Life 
written for him ; and then of those FeuilUs de Grimm, what 
incalculable masses may yet lie dormant in the Petersburg 
Library, waiting only to be awakened and let slip ! — Read- 
ing for a lifetime ? Thomas Parr might begin reading in 
long-clothes, and stop in his last hundred and tiftictli year 
without having ended. And then, as to when the process 
of ad<lition will cease, and the Acts and Epistles of the Pa- 
risian Church of Antichrist will have completed themselves ; 

» FoRKiG!! QuARTKRLT Revikw, No. 22. — 1. M^moires, Correspon- 
dance et Ouvragre!} in^diU de Diderut; publics d'apres les manuAcriU con- 
de^, en raoaratit, {>ar Tautcur a Grimm. 4 torn. 8vo. Paris (l*auliii, 
Lihraire-Editeur), 1881. 

2. Gclnvre* de Denis Diderot; prec^dee-* de M^moires hi'^torique* et phi- 
liK«>phii]ue9 »ur »a Vie et se* Ouvrages, par J. A. Nuigeou. 22 tom. 8vo. 
Pari<»(Kriere), 1821. 

vou 111. 17 



exct<pt in fio Tar as ibe (|iiaQti(y of papa 
manufactured, i[i tbose duya, being iinite nnd not inl 
biir>ineȣ onf: day or oilier oiu^t ceu^L-. und the Aiilid 
Canon close for the Iiul time, — we yel know nolhii^ , 

Meanwhile, let m nowLso be uoderstooU as Imni 
stupendous <.-upiou3ne8B, but rather as viewiiij; it k 
with ^Hitience, and indeed with SBtii^lUcIkin. tSta 
long U£ they are true, how stuiiid sovvvt, c 
ac(.-umutatcd in excess. The stupider they are, 1 
simply hti tlic Booner east into the oven ; if true, I 
always instruct more or less, weru it only in the way a 
tirmalion and repetition; and, what is of vast imimei 
do not miVinstnicl. Day afttr day looking at the h\ 
tiniiM which yet await Literature, which Lilemture v 
long address herself with more decisiveness th«n 4 
fnlfil, it grows clearer to us that the proper tiuit of I 
tnri? lii.'s in the domain of Bklikp; within which ' 


Uii HI Hill au near at hand, tlial Eight I't^n ill Ceiiiur^ in 
i':iris prtwenting ilstlf nowjae Ai jHjrtion of the magic web 
I'l' UiiivtTMl MihtoQ'. liut only aa the confused and ravelled 
m:tb. of (hreads and llinima, yelvped Memoirs, in procesi of 
btiny woven into «uch, — imposes n mther complex relation. 
Of which, however, ajt of all Kuch, the It-ading rules may be 
bi^ipily coinpri:iet] in this very plain anc, preicribed by Na- 
(urv h<^r»clf : to March in them, hi far a^ lliey seem worthy, 
for «rhaliio«Ter can ht^lp us forward on our own paih, were 
it in tfic sha[ie of intcUpcIual in^tntclion, of monil ediflca- 
Iton. liny of mere solueement and amuBemeni. The tlour- 
bon^. indeed, took a »lioi-ler melhird (the like of which has 
tivmi often recuinuiended elsewhere): llicy ehul up and hid 
the ^rat-M of the I'hiloeoplies, hoping that their lives and 
writings might likewise thereby go out of sight and out of 
mind ; anil ihus the whole business would be, io to speak, 
"ippTtMtd. Foolish Bourbons ! These things were not 
't-nie in u comer, but on high places, hefore the anxious 
■_Tc» of all mankind: hidden ihey can in nowise be: to 
rnn<|ut-r ihem, Io reaisl them, our first indi-ipensable prclimi- 
tiary !■< IO MM! and comprehend ihcm. To u^ indeed, as their 
iuiioediain succcsNirii, tile right comprehension of them is of 
priinv iiteessity ; for, sent of Goil or of the Devil, they Imve 
plainly enough gone before u^, and Ictl us such and «uch 
k world : it is on ground of ihdr tillage, with the stubble 
nT th>:ir liarresC standing on il. that we now have Io plough. 
TWr<ir<- nil thing)), tJien, let us understand what ground it is ; 
»luH manner of men and husbandmen these were. For 
•itiich reaftuii, be all authentic FhiloHiphe-Memoirs wel<Yiro(i, 
nu-l) in its kind ! For which reHHin, let us now, without 
th>! ■mnlk'-t rehictancci penoirate into this wondrous Gos- 
pel acmi^ing lo I>enis Diderot, and expatiate there, to s«« 
«lKth«r it will yield as aughl. 

Id any phenomenon, out- of tlie mosi iLiiporiaot r 
■Iktiie *Hd. Now thb) epoch of the Eighlvenih or I'hilosuphaii 


ceiiliiry was projiPrly the Ends the end of a Stu-U! Sj^- 
lem whicb fur ubove a thousand years had been buiMiiig 
itself together, und, ilfier thiil, had begun, for some cro- 
turies (h3 humitn things all do), to moulder down. The 
mou Id e ring-down of a Social System is no cheerful bu»ini?>4 
either to form [>Hrt of, or to look at : however, at len^i, in 
tlie course of it, there comes a lime when the mnulderiu^ 
changes into a rushing ; active hands drive-in iheir wedjos 
set-to their crow-bHrs ; there is a comforiiihle Bppeamncr of 
work gohig on. Instead of here and there a stunc fnlliog 
out, here and there a tiandful of du^t, whole iDa»!ica lumbk 
down, whole clouds and whirlwinds of dust ; lorelins icn are 
applied, and the i-olten easily lakes fire : so what with flaine- 
whirlwind, what with dust- whirl wind, and the ervh of fall- 
ing towers, the concern grows eminently interesting ; uid 
our assiduous craftsmen can encourage one anolber witli 
Vivali, and cries of ^etd tht toorh. Add to ibis, ihiil of 
all Ubourcrs, no one can ece such rapid exieiisivt 


the old house most needt be new-built. We behold the bu^iU 
neM of palling down, or at least of assorting the nibbiah, 
Mill go resolulelj on, all over Europe : here and there some 
traces of new foundation, of new building-up, may nuw also, 
to the eye of Hope, disclotie themsvlves. 

To get acquainted with Denis Diderot and his life were to 
aee the signillcant epitome of all thi^, as it works on the 
thinking and acting soul of a man, &shiong for him a singu- 
lar element of existence, givex himself therein a peculiar 
hue and figure. Unhappily, afler all that has been written, 
the matter still is not luminous: to us strangers, much in 
that foreign economy, and method of working and living, 
remains obscure ; much in the man himself, and his inward 
nature and structure. But indeed, it is several years since 
the present Reviewer gave up the idea of what could be 
called vntUrMlanding any man whatever, even himself. 
Every Man, within that inconsiderable figure of his, con- 
tains a whole Spirit-kingdom and Keflex of the All ; and, 
though to the eye but some six standard feet in size, reaches 
downiranb and upwards, unsurveyable, lading into the re- 
gionit of Immensity and of Elemiiy. Life everywhere, as 
woven on that stupendous ever-marvellous ' Loom of Time,* 
may be said to fashion itself of a woof of light, indeed, yet 
<» a warp of mystic darkness : only lie that created it can 
nndeniland it. As to this Diderot, hud we once got so far 
that we could, in the faintest degree. [>ersonnte him ; lake 
opon ourselves his character and his environment of circum- 
stances, and act his Life over again, in that small Private- 
Tbcatre of ours (under our own Hal), with moderate illu- 
aiveneas and histrionic effect, — thai were what, in conformity 
with common speech, we should name undrrttanding hiu), 
and eonld be abundantly content witlu 

In his manner of appearance before the world. Didenit 
ha.4 been, perhaps to an extreme degree, unfortunate. Hi.* 
literary productions were invariably dnshnl-olf in hotie^t 
haste, and lefY generally, on the waste of Accident, with an 


oslricli-like indifference. He Imd lo live, in France, in ibe 
sour dajs of a Jniiraal it Trevoux ; of a eu-<pidou^ decaj- 
itifi Sorbonne. He was too p<Kir (o aet foreign presses, Hi 
Kelil or ekewliere. in motion ; ioo headlong unJ quick of 
temper lo seek help from those that could : thus mast he, 
if Kif pen wns not lo lie idle, write niucb of wbich there 
was no publishing. His Papers accordingly are found flj'ing 
iilmut like Sihyl's leaves, in all eorner.'t of the world: for 
man)- years no tolerable Collection of his Wrilinga wu* at- 
templed ; lo lliis day there ia none thai in any sea.-'e can be 
called jKirfect, Two f^purious, surreplilioiia Amsterdam Edi- 
tions, ' or ralher formless, blundering Agglomerations,' vtn 
iill that the world saw tluring his life. Diderot did aol hew 
(if these for several years, and then only, il is said, ' with 
peals of laughter,' and no other practical step whatever. Of 
the four that have since been printed (or reprinted, for Nai- 
geon'a. of 17914, is the great original), no one so much U 

MDEBOT. 2l>3 

tilt- re£l. lliesc * EditV are polite people : nnil wiili this un> 
'-■rrnintj' (a« to Ihrir being jiersona or things) clearly before 
iln-in, (vtminuu. to all 8|ipeiimnce, in raoderalely good spirits. 
One service 1 hey. or Hrii-ro for them (if, inileei], Bri^re 
i- not himself they, as we SMni'timea suniiisf), have aei-om- 
plished for ns; muglit out niiil printed ttie long-lookeU-for, 
lung-lost Lift of Diderol by NaigBon. The lover* nf biog- 
r»)iliy boil for years sorrowed over this eoneealeil Mano- 
'^'Hjit. with a wi9tfiilniM» from which hope hftil nigh fled. 
A cvrtnin Nntgecin, the )>claveil iliscijilti of Diderot, liad 
(if his own word, in his own ediiorini Prefiice. wjis to be 

1 • dilcd) written a Life of him ; iind, nina ! whiihir wns il 
iinw vnnishcd ? Surely nil tluit vrm durk in Denis the Fir 
Tali-41 had ihere liecn illuroinalei] ; nny, was there not. prob- 
j»bly, n glorious ' Light-Street * carrieH through that whole 
I jtemry Kiglitevnth Century ? Ami wiis not Diderot, long 
'"lauded us *lhe most eney doped ieul head that perhapa 

iiT e»iBtcd,' now to show himself ns Kuch, in — the new 
I'lnctioil EncyelopRdia, philosuphic, enmomic, spi-cnlnttve, 
.iiir,-_siiie, uf Life, in threescore and ten Years, or Volumes? 
IMorot loo W8S knnwn hs the vi\-idesl, noblest talker of hia 
time : eonsideriiig ull that Boswc^ll, with his slender oppor- 
tunities, had niadi* of Johnson, wimt was there we had not 
m righi lo rxpect I 

By Briere's endearour, as we said, the cnnoenled Manu- 
M-ripi of Nnigeon now lies, as puhtir^hed Volume, on this 
(it»k. Alns, n written hj'e, loo like many an acted life, 
wbrrc hope is one thing, fulfilment quite iinoiher! Prr> 
luip*. indeed, of all biographies ever put together by the 
band of man, this of Nnigeon's is the most iminten-ting. 
Foo)i«h Nnigeuu I We wanted to fvr and know hnw it 
Mood with the liodily man, the clothed, ttonrded. bedded, 
working nnd warfaring Denis Diderot, in that Paris of his; 
bow he looked nnd lived, what he did, what lie said : had 
lb» fotiliih Biographer so much as told u' whul colour hi« 
^ttdiingB were ! Of all this, beyond a dale or two, not s 


sj'lliible, not a hint; nothing but a dull, i^ulkj, snuffling, 
druning, interminuble letrure on Alheislic Philosophy; how 
Didfrot cfliiie u{>on Atheism, how he taught it, how true it 
ie, how incxpri'S^ibly important. Singulur enough, the zeiil of 
the deviVg hour^e had e^ten Naigeun up. A man of ccarse, 
tueihanieal, perhaps intrinsicallj' rather feeble ititcllecl ; and 
then, with the vehemeDce of some pulpit-drumming ' Gowk- 
thnipple,' or 'precious Mr. Jabesh Itentuwel,' — oiily that 
hit kirk is of the other complexion! Yet must be too M-e 
liim^i-ir in u wholly backsliding world, where much UieLim and 
uthiir si'aiidtd ^lill rules ; and mnnj times Gowkthmpple Nai- 
g/aan be lenipled to weep by the streams of Babel. Wiihal, 
however, hi: i:< teooiUn ; thoroughly inecliaiiicut, ad if Vaucan- 
inon himself had made him ; and that singularly tempers tii^ 
fury. Let the reader, finally, admire ihe bounteous proJiise 
of this Enrili, and bow one element bears nothing but the 
it : here have we not the truest odium ihroluif- 

DtpEROT. 265 

band. Amid these insipid fluods v( UHilrtut, lentibiUli v\\i 
to forth, vn(iid, like long-d(;cnnie<) suiBll-lietr, mmiy k curi- 
ous biugraphie irait oomea to H^ltl ; indeed, we can hereby 
WW moK-of the indiTidual Diderot, and his environment, and 
method of proenlure tliure. ilinn by n.11 the other books that 
have jvi bc<:n published of him. Forgetting or conquering 
the Kpi'pirs of nntiMa thai such a husine^s, on the first an- 
[KiitnoRHient of it, may occasion, niid in many of the details 
I it cannot but conUrm, the biographic reader will Bnd 
ilii!. well worth looking inlo. Nay, U it not »omelhing, of 
iierir, to Bee thttl Spectacle of ihe Pliilu«ophe in Love, or at 
least teftlously en<IcaTOuring to fancy himself eo? Fur scien- 
tiBc jmrposcs a considunihle tedium, of ' noble soiitimenl,' 
■ml tyno wone things can be undergone. How the most 
encyclopedical head that perhaps ever existed, now on the 
borden of his grand climacteric, and already provided with 
wife and child, comports himself in that trying circumstance 
of prclernuplial (and indeed, at »uch age, and with so many 
' imiigpjtions,' almost preternatural) devotion to the queens 
of ihia earlh, may, by the cutnoua in sdence, who have 
nervps for it, be here seen. There is beside* a livrly Meinoir 
of him hy Madeinolaelle Diderot, tliough loo brief, »nd not 
v<?ry true-looking. Finally, in one large Volume, his Dream 
of itAlrmhrrt, greatly mgretted and commented upon by 
Nnigeon ; which we could have done wiiliouL For its 
bulk, that little Mtmoir by Madentoiselle is th« best of the 
whole, irnfortunutely. indeed, as hintc<I. Mademoiselle, reso- 
iale of all things to be piquantt, writcf^, or rather ihinht, hi a 
nmurl. antithetic manner, nowise the fittest for clearneu or 
< ri'dibility : without suspicion of roluntnry falsehood, there 
- nu appettmnce that litis is a eumem-lucidn picture, or a 
.•'nrait drawn by legitimate rule>i of art. Such rcMilutkiii 
< I W [Htiuanl ia the besetting sin of innumerable persons of 
■ ih *e»es, and wofully mtirs any use there might othtrrwifo 
' in (heir writing or ihcir «|>caking. It is, or was, the fault 
■^wcially imputed to the rreiich : in u woman and Freucti- 


wunmn, who hc.^ldej^ has much to lelt iia, it must even bt 
(joriic wiih. AnJ now, from ihfse diveriie scatlereil maierialii 
k-I lit try how (.-olieretit a figare of Denb Diderot, and hie 
i?iiri!ily I'iljpninagc and Performance, we can piece together. 

Ill llie aiK^ient Town of Langres, in the month of October 
17l<i, it begins. Fancy Langres, alofl on its hi II -top, amid 
lluiriiiii ruins, nigh the sources of she Saoiie and of ihe 
Muriie, with its coarse substantial houses, and fifteen ibuu- 
stind inbubitaiili', ma<i|1y engaged in knifu-grinding; nt>d 
one of the quicliesi, clearest, most volatile and susceptive 
little figures of that centiii-y, just landed in the World there. 
In thid French Sheffield, Diderot's Father wa^ a Culler, 
uiii^tcr of his craft) a much-respected and respect- worth j 
man ; one of those ancient craftsmen (now, alas ! netirlj 
tiepiirh-d from the earth, and sought, with little effect, bj 
\<U Ili-H. among the ' Scottish peasantry ' and eUewliere) 


mon. liul you will nrvcr be your fntlier's equal.' Truly, 
of hI[ the wonderful tlluMrioua p«?r»ons tlint come to view 
ill llii^ biograpliic part of theiie six-anil-twrnty Vohiiuefi, it 
it ■ question whtriher this olil Lnngrcs Culler is nol ihfi 
wonliiesti lo us no other euggesU himself whose worth can 
b« wimillml, wichoiit kmenlable pollutions and defacemenlB 
to be deducted fnm it The Jloiher uImi wha a loving- 
fceaned, just woman : so Diderot might account hiinsolf 
wdUbom i and it i* n credit to the mnn ihnt he always, 
were it in the circle of kings and empresseii. grutelully 
•lid iO. 

The Jesuits were his schoolmasters : at the age of twelve 
<li<! Hicyclopedicul Iintd was 'tonsured.' He was quick in 
-'izing, strong in remembering and arranging ; otherwise 
ili^-hty enough ; fund of ^purl, and from lime to lime getting 
iiii-i trouble. One grand event, ^gnificaut of all this, b« 
ha4 himself commemorated ; bis Daughter records it in 
ib«'»c term* : 

* U< had chanced tu hare « quarrel with hit eommde* : it had bwo 
HTioii* enough 10 liriiiK on hitu a (trnieiiL-e of eicluiion front college 
<M (omv cla; of public cxaiuinatiou uid diitribulion of prixca. Tlie 
iiira uf piiuiiiK tliii iin|iort>nt limu at tiume. and griering lii« |ianrnli, 
•lu inlulerable ; he procenled lo tht college-gate ; the porter t«- 
fuHtl him admittanve ; lie jiretaei in wliile aame crowd is enteting, 
ami eel* >ilT running at full spivd ; the iiortur gel* al liim *llli a aorl 
o( lUkr be outicd. and wnundi Idni in Uie tiilv : the boy will nol bo 
drireD back ; arrive!, lakea llic place that bclnugcd to liim : priw* 
< all inrt*. lilt compocitiun, for memur.v, fur poelry. be oblam> ttiein 
ill Ki> diiubt he had dcsefTed them ; uluce even the reaolution lo 
J iijiich liini could not withitand tlic wnac of juttice in hia (upcrior*. 
»<^trnil tolUDiut, a number uf garland* had fallen lo liii lot : being 
tiai •'••k 10 KaxTj ilieni alt, ho put (he garlands ruuni) bii neck, and 
villi hIa arma ftall of bnoka, returned home. Uis mother waa at the 
door; anil mw him cuniing through tho public square in Ihii equip- 
nrnl. and auTmunilod b; hii tchonlrvlleirs : one Khoilld be a mother 
to oanccirc what ilic mual liarc fell. He «■■ fuaiteil, be waa ca- 
t*«cd : Iml neit Sunday, in drruing him for cliurcli, a contiderabla 
^■■|AinMfMnttBBlHai,C<vbietalwtM>l not 19 moeti aa tboqiht 


■2C8 Ml!>CELLASlES, 

' Oan of iht sweetest inonienti of my life,' writes Diderot liimt^lf, 
iif tliis sum? business, with a. Bli|{Ll vamtiOD, ' wu more tlian tliirCf 
yi'ars ago, and I remeoiber it like yesterday, when my Father nw 
lue coining liome from tlie college, with my arms full of priiea that 
I liad ciiiricd oB] nnil my alioulderi Willi the garlands they hail girvn 
[ill, wliitfli, being tou big for iny brow, had let my head slip Ihroajii 
Mifiu. Xotidng me at a distance, he llirew dowD his wu-k, hatlcocd 
to the door to meet me, and could not help weeping. It b a flnu sight, 
a true man and rigorous failing to weep I ' 

Ma(]ctU(ii»elIi.', iti her qiiick-spnrkling wny, informs us, ner- 
yrtljelu-;*, tljnt the school- victor, gelling lireil of pedagogic 
iuliiioniliotis ami inflictions, whereof there wern many, said 
'one morning' to hid falber, 'that he meant to give up 
school ! ' — " Thou hadst rather be a culler, then ? " — " With 
iill my heart." — They handed liitn an apron, and he plHced 
hiin>clf beside his father. He sjioiled whatever he laid Iwnda 
on, pnknives, whittles, blades of all kind.''. It went on for 
!■ days ; al the end of which he rose, proceeded to 
relumed ti 

^Wbo surely lliere should lie no liindranee lo such stn-ic«, 
bul mtlier n help. Nhj, coulil many a poor DprmiHly. Huk- 
liit. Heron, Derrick unJ nuch like, Imve l>een tmiiiei3 lo he a 
good Jesuit, were il greatly worse ttiiin lo have lived painfuUj' 
m* a tmd NoUiing at-all ? Hut indeed, us was snid, the Jesuits 
urr dissolved : and CoqMrationit of all «orta liavu periohnd 
(I'mm corpuli'iicf.') i and now, instead of the seven corporate 
Rclfijth spirits. Vic Iiiive the four-and-Iwenty millions of dls- 
curporaK! selfish ; and iho rule, Mau, mind ihytelf, makes 
a jumble and a scramble, and crushing press (niih dead- 
prcs^d figures, nud dismembered limbs enough) ; into wlioav 
dark chaotic depths (for human Life Im ever uiiralhomablo) 
one shudders to look. Loneliest of nil. weukest and worsl- 
ii>'>ied, in that world-scituiiblu, is the exiivunlinary figure 
.. riutru in lhes« limes as Mao of Ziellcre ! It appears to be 
LiiilutHtable that this fctale of matters will alter and improve 

pilpalf, — in n cvntury or two. But to return : 

^^r Tb» JetuJti.' iliiis iparkle* MwlemtHtelle. ' empiojrit the Irmpta- 
^Hb, irhii-li U alwajii to xtliicliTO. of trnvellin^ Rnd of tibcrtj' ; Ihcjt 
ptnuxliil Ilip youth lo qait lii* liumc. sad <el Dirlh with a Jeiail, to 
whum liH wu ■iiaclicvl. Uvni* liail ■ fHend, « uou«In uf hie tnrn a^e ; 
Iw rntrustcd hU wcrcl to him. wishing iliai he ihoulil iccfinipaay 
them. Bui tlie wniiin. > tnmer and <li«3*cler pi-rsonagc. lUacoTcrcd 
the wlmle project lo the Ikllier; tlw diijr of ilepurlure. ttie hour, all 
wu bciraycil. My gnndfatlier kept the •Irlcteat litence ; but beforv 
foinf Id >l<-ep he varrUi] olT the keyi «rtlie ilrret-door ; uiil ■> mid- 
Hlgbl, Iwaring hii ion iloccnd, iw! prutenled hinwlf bcfbrc hitn. with 
■ation, " Wiiitlicr bound, at tucli an hour t " " To Parii," r*. 
w ;oun|t man, "where 1 am to jinn the Jetuiti."—" That will 
■ taMilghl ; but yaat desires shall b« rulBllud ; let xa in the Snt 
o lo aleep." 

IK his father eagaged two pisee* in the public cunrej- 

d hiiD to Paris, to the College d'Uarcourt. He lettlcid 

>f bis bitle establiahment. nncl bade bis son tgooi'iije. But 

■n loved his child titn well to leave him witlmui being 

■bout hii situation : he had the conslanry to stay ■ 

I lunger, killing thr time, and dying uf tedium, in an inn. 

ibn sole ulgect he wm ileUyltig for. At the enil, bo 

d to thB CtillcBc 1 and oiy thttacr has ollen told ne that this 


proof of lendtrnt'js wniilil have made liioi go tu the end of the worid, 
if (he Dill uiuD hnd required it. " Friend," laid be, " I am come u 
know if your health keep* good ; if you nre content »itii your mpe- 
riorB, with your diet, with otliers and with yourself. If yuu «rt out 
weH, if you an not happy, we will go back again to your luulher. If 
you Uke better to remain here, I have hut to spcuk a word willi yon, 
to enibrate you, and give you my bleBsing." The yoath ajmied 
liim that he was perfectly content, that he liked hi» new abode ttrj 
much. My grandihthor then took IcaTU of him. and went to tbv 
Frin[3pal, lo know if he was saliBfied with hi» pupil.' 

On wliich side also (he answer proving Tavourable, the 
worth/ fkilier returned homL-. Denis saw liille more of 
liim ; never ugiiia residing under his roofi though for manj 
years, and lo the last, a proper intereourse was kept op ; not, 
as appears, without a visit or two on the son's part, and cot^ 
tainly with llie most unwearied, prudent superintendence and 
a.^sislance on the father's. Indeed, it was a worthy family. 
that uf the Uidei-ola ; and a fair degree of natural afll-clion 


■t by the Denisiun eide nf llie liou^e for this i bul surelj 
witliuut ground : it was his virtue ralhor ; at lowest his de» 
(iny. Tlie true Priest, who could, or should, look peticeabljr 
on ttii Haeyclopedie, is jvX pvrhups waited for in the world t 
and uf ull fiilse things >^ not a false Priest the falsest ? 

Alcunivhilc Denis "t the Ciillt-gt; il'Harcourl, luams addi- 
tional (Ji-eek and Mailiemaiiia, and quite loses taste for the 
J«:<uit rareer. AInd pranks enough he played, vre doubt not ; 
foUuwed by n^primands. He made several friends, however; 
1^1 intimate with the Abb6 Berni», Poet at thai time, aller- 
iranU Cardinal. ' Tliey used to dine together, for dix sous 
' it-picve, at the neighbouring Tralleur's ; and I have often 
' bcatxl hira vaunt tlie gaiety of these repasts.' 

' Hit (tallies bring Hai«1ied,' (.-onliDuei Modem niicllp, ' hia ftthcr 
■rote to M, Cleniciit An His, a Procurt-ur at Pari*, uid hi» [wantry* 
niuit, to lake liim os buarder, tliat he raighl Rludy Jariiprudence ami 
UiB LattB- He uuntinueO lierv two yvtn; but thu builnrM of ocfaa 
and ■nivii'iii'n' liail feur cbarmi Tor him. All tlie lime he euuld Mral 
rroni the nfltce-dcak vu emplny^il in pnuei^uling liiiin and Greek. 
In which he thought himtelf «titl imperTvel i Maihcmatici, which 
be to tlie lail contlaaed paaaionatul/ fund of; IuIikr, Englith, Ac. 
tn the end In Kave lilintrlf up ■□ camplelely to hii ta*le for letter*, 
UuU M. Clement tliuughl it right to infurm liia hlhcr how ill the 
juutli WIS cnijilnying liis time. My grandrathet llieo expresaly cum* 
miMionvd M. Clemeiil to urge and constraia him to nuke choicH of 
■Dou! profeuion, and unce fur all tu lnTviiie Doelor. Hrnearear, or 
Advovsle. Mj fiithcr begged lime lo think of it; tiaie was given. 
At tbv end of H-vernl monihi tliute prupoMl* wvn again laid betbre 
liim : hv anawcred that the pmliMuoii of Dm-bir did nut plMae hint, 
fiir lie cnuld not iliiuk of killing anybody ; tlial tlie rrneareur biui- 
nL-M wBi 1(H) lUfflcult to exeoaie witli delicacy ; Ihnl he would will- 
inely chooixr the prufeaaion of AdTocale, were it not that he felt an 
■ntlnelblv rcpugnaniw lo occupy hitnaclf all hi* lilb with other peo- 
]iU''< Itaaiiicaa- " Bul," aald M, Clement, " wliat KiU yon be tlu-n 
— " On Tiiy wiin), ii'ithing, nothing whatever {ita foi, n'«, nnii r 
I'.i '(M/j. 1 Iqto atudy; I am very happy, very content, and wi 
I t thing clae." ' 

lien- eli-arly ia a yottlh of spirit, delennined to (akp the 
^gOK^ on Ibe broadside, and eat thereof and he tilled. Hn 




(IwMfil lui'n, like ihflt of so many olliera, is for the trade rf 
envcreign prinM, in one shape or other; unhappily, bowtver, 
the eapital and aatSl to set it up Je wanting. Under wbtcfa 
cirriiiiistiiuces, nottiing r^mainj but to int-Irui;t M. Clemenl 
Ur Ri-i thai no board-wages will henceforth be paid, and tb« 
young soi'pri?ign may, at his carlieEl convenience, be tunei 

What Denis, perched aloft in his own hired attic, nwy 
have thought of il now, does not appear. The good old 
I-'iLtlier, in stopping his allowance, luid reasonably enougb 
iii-i-led on one of two things: either that he Kfaould b«ttil» 
him to some intelligible method of existence, wherein all help 
!-houl(l be riirnishtid him ; or eUe return home within the weet 
Ni'ither of whidi could Denis think of doing. A similar de- 
miiMil continued to be reiterated for the next ten years, boi 
iihv.'Ly« irlih the like none-etfect. King Deni;, in bis fop- 
iitiic, with or without money to pny for it, was now 


■ iiicririB ha feeli ati««ll ; tW UndUd.v gires liiro a tittle Imul i<rul 
■• -w, lif ^n«* (■> bed. " Time dny," lie hat often nlil to me, "I 

< 'irc tliBt, if tier I fbioc Iu have iiiylliing, I woulJ never in my 
'I' rcfiiai- > piiiir man lielp. iii'wr coii<li'iiin m^ ttllav-crcalure Iu a 
.Iny M puinful." ' 

'ITini Diiipfot, during «]| this period, escitped ^tnrviiiinn, is 
(iliiin eiioii[;lj )iy (lie rvnull : but hiivi ho sprcinlly aorom- 
|ili»lie(l lIuLl, ntid thp olhfr huainesa or liviiij:, remnin^ mtiAlly 
left Id coiijw-'iure. Mademoiiii'Ilc, ciinfinwi rI nny mte within 
narrow limits, conlinite* as u^unl loo fntenl on sparkling : is 
brUlmtte ntid peltt/anle, rather than lut^eni and illummnttn^. 
How inreiiur, for ireinif mtli, is your brightest train of fire- 
"orks 10 the hiimbleit farthing vondle I Who Diderot's 
"impamati*, friends enemic:", patron* were, what hi* war 
( life »-«% what the Paris he lived in and from his garret 
l.iiked down on wa«, wr lenm only in hinl», di>lortited, eni^- 
■luiiic It is in general lo be iinpresse<l on us lh»t young 
! 'I'fHn, an a sort of spiritiial swashbnekler, who went aboill 
, inqm-rinji Destiny, in light rapier-fenoe, by way of amuse* 
Du-iii ; or ai lo«e-i. in reverses, gmeefidly insulting her with 
mock rfvi'rcnci'n. — lived and acted like no other man j all 
whir.h bi:ing fri-ely Hdmitled, we ask, with small increase of 
kimwledge. How he did act then ? 

Hn (WV.- lesmns in Malhemalies, we find : but with the 
priD(«Iiest indifferent* as to payment ; ' was his scholar 

■ liroly, and prompt of conception, he sat by him teaching Bill 
'Iny: liid he chanc*.' on a blockhead, lie returned not Imck. 

i'liey paid him in book.-s in movables, in linen, in money, nr 
' iKit ai all ; it wa« quite the Mime.' Farther, he made Ser- 
nuNLn. lo order: as the I>evil is ^id to quote Scripture: a 
Musiunary be«[ioke half-a-doxen of him (of Denis, that i^) 
^r ikr Portuguese Colonies, and paid tbr them very hand- 
i.mely at fifty crowns each. Once, a family Tutorship came 

I his way, with tolerable appoinlmentA, but likewise with tn- 
. i-.s!«it doUcs ' at the end of three months, he waits upon 
t abrupt communicaiion : "I an ■ 



ionic, Moii-ii'iir, to request j-ou to seek a new tutor ; I can- 
[iiji I'uinniii willi you atij longer," — " Bui, Moiiskur Diderafc 
wliiil is jour giievance ? Hare jou loo little saUrj ? I wiD 
ilnuble it. Are you ill-lodged? Choose your upartmeDL It 
jour table ill—fived ? Order your own dinner. All will be 
clii'Hp to jiarling with you." — "Monsieur, look at me: i 
eilrou is not so yellow as my face. I am milking men of 
vour diililren ; but every day I ain bewiming a child itilh 
ilu'm. I fcTl u hundred limes loo rich and too well off in your , 
liour-e ; ypl I must leave it : the oliject of my wishej is nol \ 
lo live better, but to keep from dying." \ 

Mademoiiielle grunts that, if aometimea ' drunk with gaielj,' 
he wus often enough plunged in bitterness ; but then a New- 
loniun problem, a line thought, or any small godsend of thai 
-iorl, would instantly cheer him again. The 'gold-mine^' 
li:id not j'ct cotne to light. Meanwhile, between him and , 
stiirviuion we can still discern Laiigres covertly strelchiii| 
s Land. Of any Langres man, coming in his way. 

DIDEHIfT. 275 

In twne of hie fii-lilious writings, n muNt intimute Acquaint- 
anew wlili the nether world of Folis»n«, Escrocs, Fillei do 
Joi*-, lUBTOufles, Maqucrellea, and llieir wajs of doing, «>mee 
to light : uuong other tilings (aa may be teen in Jacjuti le 
f'alattttt, and ekewhei^), a singular ilieorcliv expenncss in 
what is ieclini(!ally nuniud 'miaing the wind;' which miracle, 
indc-ed. Deiili himself is espresslj (in this Memoire) found 
mice performing, and in a st^le lo ret(uin.- Ipgal oogiiisun<«, 
Il-iiI not the worthy t'other * sneered at the dupe, iind paid.' 
The dujw here was u proseljlising Abbe, wliom the ilog 
gluzcd wilii professions of lifi^-wearirieaa and turning monli ; 
which nil evaporated, once the monejr wai in liis hatid)^ On 
other oetMiilotiH, it might lum out otlierwise, and the gudgeon- 
B»ber luiok some shark of p>^7- 

Liieniture, exeepl in llie way of Sermons for the Portu- 
goc8« CViloniei, or other the like small private dealings, had 
not yet i)|iencd her hospitable bosom tu him. Epistles, preca- 
tory and aintilory, fur such as had mure cash than grammar, 
he may have written; Calnlogues rLso, Indexes, Advertise- 
menu. and, in these lulter cases, even seen himself in prinL 
Hut now he ventures forward, with bolder step, towards the 
inttrior myslpries, and begins producing Tmn^hitions fitim 
thi.- English. I^iteraturc, it ts true, whs then, a^ now, the 
universal fVee-hospital and Refuge for the Destitute, when 
all monnb, of what colour and kind M>cver, had liberty %a 
Kre, or al least lo die : neverlhelesa, for an enterpriaog man, 
iw [v^ourccs tU ihai lime were comparatively limited, New*- 
pnjKrs were few ; Reporting existed not, vtill less the inferior 
tinutehM, with tlieir fixed rate per line : Packwood and War- 
nm, Riiici) more Panckouke and Colburn, ba yet slumbered 
(the la»l CMituty iif their slumber) in the womb of Chaoo : 
Fragmeniary Panegyric-literature had not yet come into 
'.'ing. thcmfore could not be paid for. Talent wanted a free 
:;k(>I<> and workslKip. where wages might be certain ; and tnu 
-lien, Itko virtue, was prai»e«l and Ictt (Starving. Lest ibe 
; the munificence of 


in France til tills epocli, Icl ua lead him inlo a entail hi^lorital 
scene, [lint lie niay see with his own eje*. Diderot is lh« 
hi^Iurian ; tlie dale loo is mtmy ;ears later, when times, if 
anything, tvcre mi;ndcd ; 

' I hfld given s poor devil a nmnuBcript to cojiy. Tlie time be )i«d 
proniisei! it at liaving expired, and my mnn nnl appeAriag, 1 gra* 
unuuy ; eet off tu hunt him out, I find hioi in a hole the size ot m] 
luind, almost wilhuut dsj-lighl, nut tlie wreldiedctt latter of aer^ ID 
cover his wnlls ; two eimw-botton clioirs, b flock-bed, the atttnitt 
diiselled wiih wornm, wilhont curtains; a trunk in a comer of tbt 
chimney, nigii of nil Korts hooked above it ; a titllc white-iroo litnp^ 
iMili .1 I". nil- )mi ]n.-'liiLLi*!it to itj on a deal shelf, ■ duien of eicelleal 
1' ;• I '. 'K' <i >i ilIi iiim thref-quarltn of an hour. My gpnlfe- 
jii III " I- I .1.. ■. .1- :i worm ' (iiu eamine un cer: it wo* August) ; 'Ian. 
iliriLiv. ili-i ii 1 -iriiii-, iximplaining iif nothing, eHting his junk <J 
broHil wiili iipivijii.', and from time to time cnresHing his tieloved. vho 
reclined <iii lliRt tniscrable truckle, taking up two-thirda of the nnm 
If 1 hnil not knoH-n that happiness resides in the soul, mj Epii-teRu 
of tlie Rut Hvacimhe might have taught it me.' 


Without rebuke or rettrmiat od her put, perbapi befbre tbe had 
niMd her eye* on dm, J beouoe timid ; more to ttom i*y to day ; 
and won I fell aa little fl-ee lo attempt her virtue u bei life. 

7%c FalAer. And who are thete women ! How do they live 1 

Saiiu-Albiii. Ab 1 if you knew it, unhappy aa they are I Imagine 
thai their toil begini before day, and often they have to continue it 
through the niglit. The mother ipini on the wheel ; hard coarse 
dolh ii be(we«n the aoft imatl flngen of Sophie, and irounda them.' 
Ber eye*, the brlitliteil eyea in thi* world, are worn at the light of a 
tamp. She livei in a garret, within four bare walli; a wooden table, 
a couple of chairs, a truckle-bed, that ii their ftimiturc. Heavens, 
when ye bahioncd such a creature, waa this the lot ye destined her I 

Ttt Fathtr. And how got you acceia ? Speak tue truth. 

Saim-Albin. It U incredible what obstacles I had, what I sur- 
mounted. Though now lodged there, under the same roof. I at first 
did not seek to see them : if we met on the stairs, coming up, going 
down, I aaluted them respectfully. At nighl, when I came home 
(for all day I was supposed to be at my wurk), I wotild go knock 
gently at their door; aik them (or the little services usual among 
npighhours, — as water, Are, light By di-gree* they grew accus- 
tomed to me : rather look to me. I offered to aerve then fn little 
things ; for instance, they disliked going out at night ; I fetched and 
carried (or them.' 

The real truth here i<i, " I onlered a set of shirts from 
them ; Mud I was a Chureh-lit^entinle juxt bound for llie 
Seminarj of St. Nicholm, — and, above nil, had the tongue 
of the old serpent." But to skip much, and hnlsh : 

* Yesterday I came •■ usual : Sophie was alone ; she waa sitting 
with her elbows on tlie table, her head leant on her hand ; her work 
had fallen at her feel. I enien^ without her hearing me : she 
•ilthed. Tears eacaped from between her fingers, and ran along her 
aims. Fur some time, of late, I hail seen her sad. Why was she 
weeping ' What was it that grieved lier ! Want it could no longer 
be ) her labour and my attentions provided against that. TlireatetKd 
by tlie only misfortune lerribte to tne, I did not hesitate : I threw 
myself at her knees. What was her surprise ! Sophie, said 1. you 
weep ; what aits you T Do not hide your trouble from me : speak lo 
ne ; oh apeak to me I She spoke nut. Her tears continued flowing. 

I Tba real trade appears to have been a ' sempstreu one in lace* siid 
linens:' the povert j 1> somewhat exaggerated; olhrrwlM the shadow mnv 
be Ciithfnl Kioagh. 


Her eye», whoro ciilmness no longer dwell, but tpara stid sniirti, 
bvDl toviLrils DIE, then turn^ ■>*>J'i Iti^n turned ■□ me again. 5fa> 
said only, Pimr Scrgi I unhappy Sophie '. — I lisd laid my bee on her 
knufs; I WHS welling her apron with niy tears.' 

Ill a word, tliere is notliing for it but marriage. Old Di- 
derot, joyous IIS lie was to see bis Son once more, Marled 
back ill indigiialion and derision Iroin sucb a proposal ; aod 
yuLiiig Dlilerot liad lo return to I'aris, and be forbid the be- 
lut'ud hou^o, and fall sick, and come to the point of deaili, 
bi'fore llie liiir one's scruples could he Rubdued. MoweTer. 
I'be sent lo get news of him ; ' learnt that his room w&j ■ 
' [lerfect dog-kennel, that he lay wiihoul nourisbmenl, wiiboat 
' uitendanci^, waMed, iwd : thereii])on she took ber resolution ; 
' mounted to him, promi^d lo be bis wife ; and mother end 
' iljiughler now became bia nurses. So soon as be reinjsered. 
' iliey wi.-nt to Saint-Pierre, and were married at midiiigbt 
i).' It oidy remains to add, that if ibe Sophie nbooi 


;o and Imvc liii tup, iti the Cnfi' cli> In Iti^jfence, and tec Ihe 
I'lii-M'pbiving thvK 

' li wu iiuw llini liu tnintlaieil the Hiuari/ of OretttXn three rnl- 
iiiTiii ' lb; the Kngtiah Siunyin) i ■heiolil ittbralmndred crown*. 
This (utn brought It lort or ailppl; intu tliu huiue. • • • 

' M; mothi>t had been brouKlil to bed of a daughter : she iru now 
big > iccond time. In ipitc of \wr prFcaulioiK, «oUMry lifr, nnd the 
|ninu %\m hul lakt-n l» past att her liuibftnd a» her braiher. Iiii ftm- 
iiy. in Ihc welnsion of their prorincc, learnt that he wai IWinK with 
Iwo women. IJircctlj tlie birth, Ibe moiali, th« charactur of mj* 
iiiuther became otyecti uf [he bbiukoil ulumnj'. lie furcMw tliat 
dltciwiiou* by letter would be endttu ; he found it aimjiler to put hia 
wifL' into the itagF-coacb, and send her to his parenU. Bhe liad juit 
b(«n deli*«rvd of a son; he announced Ibia event tu hi* fkthrr, and 
th« departure of mj mollier. '■ She att out jMterdaj." Mid he; 
" abe will be with jou in thrve dajr*. You will u; tu her wliat (IihU 
pUate fou, and tend herbiu:li when yoM are tired uf her." Singular 
■* thi* lort of explanation waa. they rltrlermincd, in any cue, on 
(■■nding my hiher'i sliler lo recciri.' her. Their first weli-iune waa 
nian> than cold : the erening jfrcw len painful lo her : but next mom- 
init betiine* the went In to her father-in-law ; treated hiin ai if he had 
bniD hvr own fiillier; her rei|i«et mid tier eareuei charmed the goo4. 
arniiUo old man. Comiug duvn auir*. she bvgan working : rcfuitil 
ni-lhing ihai could please a faniily whom slii^ wns not afraid uf, and 
utahod tn he loved by. Her conduct wan The onl/ excuse she gavp 
! <r horhuiband'* choii?o: her appearance had prepoucucd thcin in her 
iviiiir ; Iter slinpUcitj'. her xAvty, her tatenis fur huuseholil vcon- 
iiiny aecurod ber their IcDdernea*; the/ pramiied her thai my father'* 
It should be revoked. Tlicy kepi lier Ihrec months ; and 

R ber back loaded with whatever the; could think would be use- 

* tgre«*ble lo her.' 
i bciiutiful, toM with a graceful eimpliciiy ; ihe 

Miiful. rettl-idtul pnwe-idyl of a Litcmry Lifi^ : but, uIh.'^ 

B music tti your prme-idyl there lurks ever an accursed 

Miance (or Ilie players make one) ; where men nre, there 

I be inbclncf. 'This jouniej'',' writes Mndemoi^elle, 'co'>t 

T many tear*.' What will the reader ray, when he 

• tiMt Monsieur Didcrol ha«, in the interim, liiken up with 
I Miuliun)! de Puiaieitx ; and weliMuies liis lirave 

V (worthy lo have l>eeii a irui; mnnN) wrili a henrt and 
henccTonl) Mtranged from her! Miulume Diderot 


■ ui:iiie iwo jonnievs to Langres, and bolh were fatal lo bef 
IK'itcf .' Tliis uSair of llie Pui^eux, for whum he deapicablj 
i-uou^li uul only burned, but toiled and made money, ktft 
liitu Luiv lor souie tt:n jeare ; till a( length, finding ibai ifac 
[ilaytd tulse, hv gar c her up ; and minor miscellaiKotii 
tliriutiuns ^eeul to have succeeded. But, returning from btf 
ttranti joumej, the much-enduring Housemother finds him 
ill mt-ridiau glory with oue Vuland, the un-muiden Daugbler 
of II ■ Finaiioier'i Widow ; ' lo whom we owe this preseM 
[irv-li-rtiuplittl CurrttpoHdoMee ; to whom indeed he mainl/ 
di-viitoil LiuiM.-lf fur the rest of his lile> — ' purtiug hii linK 
In-lwi^vn Ills study and her;' to hi^ own wife and bouitiboU 
pving little »uve the trouble of cooking tiir him, and of pain- 
titlly, with tvprer»«d or irrepressible discontent, keeping up 
Auiie n|>|N^Hraiice ot terms with bint- Alas! alatl and hit 
Pui^iitix :M-ftii9 to have been a hidloiv mercenary (to wbu^ 
-i'jiiiihili<u> ><>ul lie rivkons obsceoest of Books lit nutrimcni) ; 
mill lUv ^~1'li(Iul uii elderly spinster, with eteur teruMf, vctia 


hnvn ovrrtiiken the Euai tur It Mhite et la Vertu, rendcyred 
or reJiictei] out of ShHflviiliiiry'a Vharaeterittiet, In which 
irdttdiun, with its Notps, of anxious Orthodox}', und botromleM 
FnUvhixNl linking ibraugli it, we individually Imve roUDii uotb- 
in;*, Mvi.' a con Urination ofllie old twice-repealed experience. 
That iit Shntle&bury'a famt-d Book there lay, if any mciining, 
M meiuiinguf such long-windedne&s, drcumvobtion and lubri- 
dfy, ihnl. like on eel, it must forever slip through our lingers, 
kitd lenve (Id alone uolung Ihe gravel. One reusuti iniiy part- 
ly be. ihiU Shiiftpgbury was not only a Scepric but an Ama- 
leur Sceptic : which sort a darker, nore enrneitl, huve long 
■im-e iw&llowcd and abolished. The meaning of a delicate, 
p«»fumc<l, genllvmanly individual standing there, in that war 
cif TilaiiH (hill mt^eliiig hill with all ita woud^), and putting 
out hand lo it — wiili a pair of tweezers ? 

However, our Denid luu now emerged from the inlenne- 
(liste Hades of Translators hip into ihc Heaven of perfocteid 
Atnltorship : enipti<^ his coinmonpluce book of Penters Philo- 
tophiqutt (it is Miid iu the space of four daye) ; wriled hia 
UctophysiiM- Baconian phsntasinugorie^ OD the latrrprilatiun 
dr tu y<i/urt (an eiidltus bui-ineiM lo * iiiterpret ') j and ca*Cs 
the moniiy-proiluce of holh inio the lap of his ScarU-t-woinan 
Puisieux. Then forthwith, fur the snine object, in a fhuine- 
I'll l«nni|i:hi, put« together the beastliest of all pai^i, preeeut or 
: luure dull Naveb ; a diffientl feat, unhappily not an iin|M>«- 
-ii.le ouc. If any murial ci-eaiure. even a Reviewer, be 
again eompdlcd to gbuicc inio that IWk, let him balhc him- 
wlf ill running water, put on ehangi? of raiment, and be un- 
dran until the ev^-n. As yet ilie Metaphysico- Atheistic 
LtOra lur Ui Sourdt et Muelt, and Leltre tut let Aitugtet, 
• hich linng> glory and a three-tnonliis lodging iu the Castle 
uf ViiKviincs, arc at year;.' distance in the background. But 
iln'wly by hin gilded totigue, growing repute and saiij^ine 
I mjm-ting tnmper, he luis pereuaded Booksellers lo pay-off 
i.< Abbdi Cun, with his lean Version of CAamberit JJiction- 
■y of Arts, and uraven it into aii Eneydopidie, with him- 


£eir iiiiJ D'Ali^inlici't for Editors: aud h benccforth (Ihiii 
tlie jfar of giiice 17.) 1) a duly dis-indenlured Jifan of LetUn. 
ail ) I id id; III table mid more atid more conspicuous member of 
that surprising guild. 

Lite i-^kt lire, ever iiince iu appearance in our Europsan 
world, especiiillj since it emerged out of Cloistt^i's into ifct 
oppn Market-place, aod endeavoured to make itself nMB, 
and g.iiu a sub^istel1ce there, lias offered the strangest phases 
and or iinironeciously done tlie slrangcst itact. 
Wonderful Ark. of the Deluge, where so much that a pv- 
cious, nay priceless to mankind, floats ciirelessly onwards 
through the Chaoa of distracted Times, — if so be it nw.' 
one diiy find an Ararat ta rest on, and sec tlie waters abate ! 
The Histor)' of LileralurK, especially for the last two centu- 
ries, is our proper Church History; the other Church, during 
that time, having more and more decayed from its old faoc- 
tions iind influence, and ceased to have a history. And no«- 
lo look only at the outside of the matter, think of ihe Tassoi 


llie unuuerkble confusion worse conruunded of oui- jirest^nt 
I'criodiatl exiHieni-K; wliun, among oilier phunoniuna, ft 
toung Fourth Estnle (whom hII the three eliler may Irj if 
ih<'y can liolil) is seen s|iniwtin^ and itMggering tuinullu- 
au»ly tliruugh the world ; an yet but a huge, I'aw-boneKl, leatt 
ra/f'; fust growing, however, lo he a I'hanioh's lean cow, — 
of whom let the tkt kine beware I All this of the mere exte- 
rior, or dwelling-place of Literature, not yet glancing at the 
internal, at the Doctrines emitted or ctriven after, will the 
futun^ Eusebius and Mosheim have to record: and (in »ome 
nidkII degree) explain to us wliat it meikn«. Unfalbomable 
ia its meaning: Lif<P, mankind'^ Life, ever from ilt imfalbotn- 
■ble fountains. ruUtt wondrous on. another though th« i-&me ; 
in Literature too, iho weing eye will di^tingninb Apmtlea 
of the Gentiles, I'rolo- and Deutero-martyrs ; still low will 
I be Simon Magus, or Apolloniua with the golden thigh be 
wanting. But all now i^ on an infinitely trider *eah ; the 
flemcnia of it all swim far-scattered, and still only striving 
lowanli union ; — whereby, indeed, it happenn ihiil to the 

Mt, undiT this new Hgure, they are unreeognisnble. 
biFrciuji Literature, in Diderot's time, presents itself in 
i of culmination, where causes long pri'pared 
I n^iidly becoming elferis : and was doubtleu in on* of 
I notable epoobi. Under the Economic aspect, in 
as in England, this wa'4 ihe Age of Booksellers: 
s a Dodsley and Miller could risk capital in an ^i^- 
I OittioHaiy, a Lebreton and Brinsson could becomr pur- 
1 commi^sariaE-officers for a Frvnch Rnryelitpitlit. 
A forever love^ Knowledge, nnd would part with its 
I sixpence in payment thereof: this your Dodsleys and Lc- 
t.n-Irai" well ,«aw ! moreover iJiey could net on it, for ns yet 
1*1 rFKitr was not, Alasoffenees must eome ; PulTery from 
the llrst wa» inevitable : woe to them, neverthelcM, by whom 
ii dM t-nmR ! Mennwhile, as we said, it ^epl in Chaos ; the 
Word of mim and tmdesraan was still partially credible to 
Bookseller* were therefore a potsible, were ev«n ■ 


necessary cUia^ of mortab, thou^i a siningely aiiomtlo* 
Due ; had Ibe^ k<^pt from lying, or lied wilh aay sort of nw^ 
erelion, ihe anomaly might have lasted dlill longer. Far tl> 
prea^ni, they managt^ to Fari^ m elsewhere : The Tiinber' 
headed could porLvive Uiat fur Thought the world woaU 
give money ; further, by mere ^opkeepcr cunning, that wtt 
Thought, as in the end Bore to be retrognised, and by nature 
infinitely more durable, was better to deal in than folM; 
farther, by credible tradition of public oinsent, that fucli Had 
»uch liad the talent of furnishing true Thought (-lay mlhcr 
truer. a$ the more correct woni) : on this hint ihe TiIabc^ 
headed *pake and bargained. Nay, let us tay he bargajncd, 
and worked, for most part with industrious assiduity, wiib 
patience, suitable prudence ; nay, sometimes wilh touchM «f 
generosity and magnanimity, beautifully Irradiitting the cir- 
cumambient mass of greed and dulness. For the rest. tl« 
two liigh contracting parlies routed it out as they could; 
~^o tljat if Booksellers, in their lutck -parlour Valhalln, dnuit 

;itoT. 28S 

president's tiammer, ba 
bux, piincK-bowl nf «uch PanJemonium have not tiFen | 
pruducutl W the woi'M. The si-cl of Philosophes exi 
SI I'ttrin, bui ait ullier weu du : hi'ld together by looM-sti i 
inrarmni, unrecngnUed lies; wiihiii which every one, 
doatiL. fullowed Iiii4 own nulurul obit-et^, of pnMelyliim, of | 
glor^, of gclliflj; a livelihood. Meanwhile, whether in con- 
sttluied MsodstioQ or not, French PliiloM|ihy resided in ihe 
p«noa<« of the French Ffailo»ophes i and, us a mighty deep- 
struggling Force, wa^ at work there. Deep-struggling, irre- 
pressible ; the subterranean fire, wliieh long heaved un- 
qMtetly, and shook all things wiih nn ominous motion, was 
betv. we «uii say, forming it*p|f u di'i^ided spiracle ; — 
wbicli, bj and \ty, as French Itevuluiiun, became that vol- 
i»no-crater, world-fonious, world-uppnlling, world-maddening; 
tut j'ei very far from closed I Fonteuclle said, he wished li« 
could live sixty years longer, and sue what thai universal 
infidi^lily. depnivjiy and dissolution of all litd would lam to. 
In three-score years Fonlenelle might have seen strange 
tiling* ; but not the end of the phenomenon perhaps in three 
huntlnd. I 

ucb a volcano-crater, what special'- 
ach national character, and polit- 
indiiioii, by virtue whereof French 
I elsewhere, then and not sooner or 
an inquiry that has been often put, 
; the true answer of which might 
imd us far. Still deeper than this Whenee were the ques- 
tion of (TAirier; — with whieh, also, we intermeddle not 
bttre. Enough Ibr us to understand that there verily i 
Scene of Universal History is being enacted, a little living ] 
Tnut-pii-lure in the lH>som of etkknitt ; — and, with the | 
Ruling due in that cas«, in a.'^k not so much Why it ii 
What it is. Leaving priorities and posteriorities aside, and < 
(anH?>iUid-eJet!l to adjust itself elsewhere, conceive so many 
la^riU tfaronii tog«tbt^ into the Europe, into ibe Paris | 

Why France became s 
tw* there were in the Fre 
■ghI. moral, inlellcctual cc 
PliiJo«o|il]y there and no 
ktor. evolved it»eif, — U 
and dieerfullv answered ; 


of LliHi daj*, and ^ee liow thej' dtweftD ihemsdve^ wbal littj 
wurk out uiid utLiiJii there. 

An the mistical enjoyment of an object goes infifltld]' 
I'ltrlher lh>tn llii? inleUectuai, and wu coo /m>£ ax a |HCture 
witli Ui;lig|Jt and proBi, after all thai we can be taught about ii 
i.-^ growu ixwr and wearisome ; so liere, and by far ^irongt* 
reason, these ligbt Letters of Diderot to the Volaiid, again 
unveiling and n/iowiiig FaHsian Life, ure worth more lo u 
than niany a lieiivy tome laboriously iilnif;gling to expUia il- 
True, u'e bave ^en the picture, ibat same Paririian life 
picture, ten times already ; but we can look at it an deTCatli 
time: nay this, as we eaid, is not a canvas-picture, but 1 
iife-picturc, of whose significance Uiere li no end for bs. 
Grud};e not the elderly Spinster her existence then ; s»j 
not she bus lived in vain. For what of History there ia. in 
tbis Fi'eieniuptial Curreapoudenee. should we not endeavuor 
to foi-giv-e and tiirget all else, tbe sentibiUti itself? The eur- 
taiji wl>i<;li liiiil tiillen fur almost a century is again dtawo 


be abulubcd, will not txmtent the fell DenU, u surelj it 
might have done ; the Patriarch must address him a friendljr 
adawnition on hU Atheiam, and make him eat it again. 

D'Alembert too we may consider aa one known ; of all the 
Philosophe fratemitj, him who in speech and condact agrees 
b««t with our Englinh notions : an independent, patient, pru< 
(lent man ; a£ great facullj, especially of great clearness and 
metbod ; lamous in Mathematics ; no less so, to the wonder 
of »ome, in the intellectual provinces of Literature. A fool- 
Lih wonder ; as if the Thinker could think only on one thing, 
and not on any thing he had a call towanU. lyAlemben's 
Melanges, as the imprew of a genuine spirit, in peculiar po«i- 
lion and probation, have still instruction for us, both of head 
and heart. The man lives retired here, in questionable 
seclusion with his Espinasse ; incurs the suspicion of apo^ 
tasy, because in the Eiteyehpidie, he saw no Evangel and 
celestial Revelation, but only a huge Folio Dictionary ; and 
would not venture life and limb on it without a ' considera- 
tion.' Sad was it to Diderot to see bis fellow-voyager make 
for port, and disregard signals, when the sea-krakens rose 
round him ! They did not quarrel ; were always friendly 
when they mer, hut latterly met only at the rate of ' once in 
the two yeara.' D'Alembert died when Diderot was on his 
deathbed : " My friend," said the latter to tbe news-bringer, 
" a great light is gone ouL" 

Hovering in ihe distance, with woe-struck, minatory air, 
stern-beckoning, oomes Rousseau. Poor Jean Jacques I 
Ahemalely deiBed, and cast to the dogs ; a deep-minded, 
bigb-minded, even noble, yet wofully misaminged mortal, 
whh all mivformations of Nature intensated to the verge of 
madness by unfavourable Fortune. A lonely man ; his life 
a kmg soliloquy I The wandering Tiresias of the time ; — 
ia whom, however, did lie prophetic meaning, such a^ none 
of the others offer. Whereby indeed it might partly be 
thai the world went to such extremes about him ; that, long 
■Aer hid departure, we have seen one whole nation worship 


him. jitiil :i Burki?, in llie name of nnollier, clam him 'iib 
llie (iffVcoiiriiin;? of ilio earth. His Ivue character, wiib in 
\tii\y a-'jiirings nnd poor performings ; Hnd how ihe spirit <if 
the man worked so wildly, like celestial fire in a thick iuk 
element of chaos, and shot forth ethereal mdianee, all-pierc- 
ing lightning, yet could not illuminate, was quenched tai 
did not conquer ; this, with what lies in il, tnaj now br 
pretty accurately apprecialed. Lei his history teach all 
whom it concerns, to 'harden ihemsclvea against th« Ub 
which Mother Nature will try them with;' to seek within 
their own foul what the world must forever detiy ibem : mal 
say comjio^eilly to ihe Prince of the Power of ihis lo»cr 
Eiirlh and Air : Oo thou tby way ; I go mine ! 

Ronsjenu and Diderol were early friends : who ha« for 
gotten how Jeiin Jacques walked to the Ca^lle of VinrenD». 
where Denis (fur hereiieal Metaphysics, and irreverence to 
ilie Strnmpetueracy) langniriiies in durance ; and deviwd 
hi- lif-l'nirv'piiriidox on the road ihilher? Tl*ir 

mili'-r; for whu would hv u pipe, wliieli not Fortune only, 
><<ii any Hycopliaul may play tunes on? 

((ftliU sntne Tymnt Grimm, desiring to speait penceably 
^> " -Imll say lUlle. The man lilinnelf is his ri^markablc ihun 

- Toriune. Chutifced times indeed, since ihe (hreadluire 
" rtnan liur^cli ({uttled Rntiebon, with the eound of cntcalls 
'■> )(■« ears, t)ie condemned ■ Tragedy, Awi**,* in hia pocket j 
aii-l fliTd southward, on a thin tmvdling-tulorship ; — since 
RuuMcau met you, Ilerr Grimm, ' a ynung man described 
■ a- Peking a situation, and whose ap[waranee indicated iha 
[ iri-*#ifig Mccfssity he WBB in of soon finding one ! ' Of a 

iiti, you have nourished since then, [lerr Grimm: his in- 

' "luctions of you to Diderot, to Ilolbacli, to the hiack-locked 
: '■ Ilpinny, wliitre not only you are wormed-in, hot he is 

inned-oui. have turned to somewhat ; Uib TlireaObare has 
■ ■me well-nopped, and got ruffles and jewel-rings, and 

iik« abroud in sword and liagwig, and Ineki^ra hia bra^ 
iilenanee with rouge, and bo (as Tryan Ir Bltnie) recom- 

i lids himself to the fnirj and writes Panr^ian Philosophe- 
;„ .->ip to the Hyjwrborean Kings, and his ' Grimtn'a Leavea,' 
i-opied ' to llie number of twenty,' arc bread of life to many ; 
and eringirs here, nnil domineers there ; and live^ at his 
««»r in the Creution, iu un effei^tive tendreue with the 
D'Epinay. hueband or custom of the countiy not objecting I 
— Poor Borne, the new German Flyiiig-Sanseuloiie. feels 
liU mQUih water, at Paris, over tliese llesb-pols of Grimm ; 
nflecting with what heart be too could write ' Leaves' and 
be fed iherchjr. BBrne, my friend, those days are done! 
Mrhile Jiorthern Courts were n ' Lunar Versailles,' it was 
well 10 hove an Uriel stationed in their Sun there j but of 
oQ oputii in this Universe (luirdly excepting Tophel) Paris 
ROW H the one wc nt court could best ditpmu with news 
froas never more, in these centurled. will a Grimm be 
nriMtooed ihilher i never a ' Leaf of Bbme ' be blown court- 
wardit by any wind. As for the Grimm, we can t>ee thai 
he wot a man made to rise in the world : a fair, even band- 


.omi^ oiilflL of V.a.-nt, »Mly marketable ; skill in tiiusic. init 
llti; likp, fiii'jTluiibdical reaJiness in all eptiemeni ; salooo-»il, 
a trbiidmnl, iiii!iesitn.ting heiKl ; above all, a beart ev^r in ihv 
right jilaw, — in the mnrkuc-place, nainclj, and marktrd 'for 
sale to the liighL-Nt Ijidcler.' Runllj* a methodical, adroit, miui- 
agiiig man. Ily ' liero-wor'^hip,' and the cunning appliance of 
alternate sweet and sullen, he has brougbt Diderot to be hi' 
patient milk-cow, whom he can milk an Essay from, a Vol- 
ume from, when be lists. Victorious Giiinm ! He even cs- 
caput} those »anie ' horrors of the French Revolution ' (with 
loss of his niflle^) ; and was seen at the Court of Gotb*, 
sleek and well to live, within the memory of man. 

The world has heard of M. la Chevalier de Saint-Lam- 
ben ; con side fable in Literature, in Love and War, He is 
here ngiiiu, singing the frostiest Pastorals ; happily, howerer, 
only in (lie distance, and the jingle of his wires soon cliej 
away. Of another Chevalier, worthy Jaucourt, be the name 
nienliiiiii-ii, iiiid little more: he digs unweariedly, mole-wi^. 

lUDKROT. 29i 

hired pmchen. Agjtln, the border of hii noalR <•■< Inhahiicd bj ■ 
•vt f}( poor pc«|>lc, olio bad gol hoii Ihcrc ; he )uu cau«<I all the 
hub Ui he iwcpt MWky, Ii U thpae, and auch nets of repvati-d l^raii- 
ny, iliBl have nii>e<l liim eiivuiiva i>rall kind*; and the more inaoli'nt, 
•»y» HiwlHine de Sms, u they lime dist-oum] ilml the «ronb> Phi- 
loKcigilK-r in a cuwani, I wduM niit havv hi> flnv eelate of Vur^ ta a 
|in-MFnt. had I to hre there in llieae perpetual alarnia. What pmfltl 
lie ilniWR rrom that mods at msnagemenl 1 know not : but hv if alune 
tlwre 1 he ii batrd, he U in (via- Ah I how mueh •riaer «n our lad^ 
GvoDVin ; when ipeaking of a Uwauil that tormented her. she laid to 
tne, ■' Uet done with my lawtuii ; lliey want mooey t I have it Give 
ihem ini>iiFy. Wliat toilwr use can I make of my iinwicy than lo huy 
pews vith It 1 " lu IIclteliu«'» place, I wouhl have laid, " Thry kill 
me a few hf^t and rnbUta, let th^m be doing. These puor ireatuTOi 
have no alietlor but uiy fo»>l, let them atay there." 1 ahould hava 
rcoMiticd like M. Fagun, and been adored like him.' 

Alns ! nre not tielvetius's preserver, nt lhi» hour, nil broken 
op. attd Iring dcsccruictl ? NcithtT cun iliu otliers, in wlnil 
InlilHile Olid longitude soever, retnaio eienmUy innnwgnable. 
Hut if n Roue was once saved by gtjeic, need wc tvoodcr 
tliAt wn Englund U loit by purtridgi-s ? We nre sons of Eve, 
wlw 1>nri(?red ParadUe Tor ttn Rpplo. 

Bui to return to Pnri^ and its Philoi'oiilie Church-militant. 
Here iin n Mannonlel. uii nclive Bulmllern lliereuf, wlio Gghu 
in n ^ninll ivn/, through the Mtrcure ; and, in nMe-pink ro- 
iiiiccpictnru:', strirea to celebrate the ' nioml sublhne.' An 
M.W Morollel, busy with the Corn-Laws, walks in al inier- 
1 Ills stooping, sbtnink together, -as if to get n<;nrer faimM-lf, 

Sflre plia prii de hli-mfme.' The rogue Galiaiii aller- 
bcEwecn Naples and t'arU : Galinni, by good lutk, had 
VT Mllrd ihe question of the Corn-Lnw.i : ' nu idle 
otherwise ; a ^piriiuiil La^zurone ; full of frolics waii- 
npa, anti-jeiuii gfUa, and wild Italian humour: the 
of his swart, simrp face is llic signal for Laughter. — 
'ill whicli, indeed, ilie Man himielf luis unhappily evaporated, 
. -iving no nsnil behind him. 
Of ibe Burou d'llolhneh thus much may bi- Miid, that both 

ulval lie gives good dinuers. His lwt» ■ 


tir Thrui! sci.iiv loluines of Atheistic Piiiloiopiiisiii, ivliicii he 
|iiibli»liuil (ill hh own expense), may itow be forgotten and 
even forgiven. A pursQ open and deep, a Lean kindl}'-di^ 
posed, qoiet, soL-iuble, or even friendly ; tliese, with ejtcelleol 
u'iiiea. gitiri liim a litei-ar}' elevation, which no thinking fucult}' 
lie hi(J could have pretended to. An easy, laconic gentlemui; 
of grave politeness ; apt to loae lemper at play ; ycl, on the 
whole, good-hn moored, eupeptic and eiipniciic : there niayhi! 
live, and let live. 

Nor is he».ven'r lust gifl to man wanting here ; the naturnl 
sovereignty of women. Your Chiiieleis, Epinays, Espina&4^ 
Geoffriiis, Deflands, will play their part loo : there ihall, 
ill ul) senses, be not only Philosophers, but Philosophesiev 
Strange enough is the figure these women make ; good iouL\ 
il was n strange world tor ihem. What with metapbysici 
and llirtalion, system of nature, fasliion of dress-caps, vnniiy, 
curio.^ily, jeaiuusy, atheism, rheumatism, traitei, hoult-rimfi, 
iioble->eiilimenls, and rouge-pols, — the vehement female in- 

imiEltOT. 2LI3 

■ Chureli |)ull(«] <Iowii U, ia stugnnnl times, amusing ; nor <li> 
(lie (••■ nerftlily, on either diilc, jcl see whither ulleriorty il is 
Ii'nding. The Reading World, wliicli waa iheii more thnn 
now the inlelligynt, in(|uiring world, reads eagerly (as it will 
i-vcr do) whalsoevur akilful, sprightly, reasonable-looking 
word b written for it ; enjoying, opproprialing the same ; 
[><*rluip!i without fixed judgment, or deep care of any ltind> 
Ciirpftil enough, fiited enough, on tlie oilier hnnd, is the Jesuit 
Hruilicrliuod ; in these Ouys eick unto deulli ; but only ihv 
tiiiterer and angrier for that Dnngrruus are the ileath-con- 
I iiUions of an expiring Sorbonne, ever anil anun filling Purid 
V iih agitation : it beluvea your PhiloMphe to walk warily, 
ikiid. in many a critical ciri'iim^tancc, to weep with llie one 
(.-lirek. and smile with llie oilier. Nor is Literature itself 
wholly I'hilosophe: apart from the Jesuit regulars, in their 
Trcvoux Joumab, Scrnione, Epiempal Charges, and other 
■'iintp or nisemales, a considerable Guerilla or Reviewer 
V'lve (conftisling, as usual, of smugglers, unemployed desti- 
iiie persone, deserters who have been refused promotion, 
:iTi>l othrr the like broken characters) has organised itsclti 
iind maintains a harassing bush-warfare ; of these the ohief- 
taio is Fri'ron, once in tolerable repute with the world, had 
tm not, currying loo high a head, struck hi^ foot on stones, 
stumbled. By the continual depreciating of talent grown 
I length undenialile, he has nunk low enough : Voltaire, in 
I Eeotmite, can bring him on the atnge, and have him 
j by laughter, under the name, sufficiently ri^cugni sable. 
I (in Frcneh, Frehu). Another Empcccdor, still 
! Iiateful, is Palissot, who hns written end got acted a 
y of fjtt PhilotopAti, at which the Parisians, Fpile of 
tnesa.lwve also Inughn]. To laugh at ut, the so mcrito* 
i I Heard mankind ever the like ? For poor Pali^ 
I he fallen into Philosophe hnnds, srrious bodily tnr- 
MiMlhering might have been apprehendc-d : as it was, 
f ilo what the pen, with its gall and copperas, can; in* 
e BtMven and Earth to witness the treatment of divine 


PliilciMijiliv ; — "iili wliich view, in purtieular, friend Diderol 
j^eems to Ijavi.' conniosed his Rameau't Nepktw, wlierein P«- 
lis»it Rnd ullifTs of hia kidney arc {(ip:urativelj Gpeakitig) 
mauled and raaugled, and left nol in dog's likeaos^. So di- 
vided was tlie wofld, Literary, Courtly, Miscellaneous, on iJiii 
matter: it was n eonfused anomalous time. 

Among it." more notable anomalies may be reckoned tbe 
relaliuns of Freiieli Pliilosophisni to Foreign Crowned Ileatk 
In Prussia lliw is a Philosoplie King; in Russian Philo- 
sopln^ Etn|ifL's.-i; the wholu North swanns with kinglets and 
queciilets of i!ie like temper. Nay, as we have i^een, liiej 
nnlerlain their qiei^iul ambaasndoi' in Ptiilosuphedoiu, their 
lion's-providei" to fumish spiritual Pliilosoplie-pro vender; anJ 
pay him wll. The great Fredi;ric, the great Catherine sfe 
as nursing-fallKT and nuraing-mothiir to this new Church of 
Antichrist ; in all slrniU, ready with monej', honourable roynl 
asylum, lirlp of every sort, — which, however, except in iIil' 
nioney—liapc, the wiser of our Philosophes are shy of recrir- 


!lill w umlcL'iilcd ; and the Govemmcnl, wliicli might huvt? 
cndojivuureil lo a<yuM mid |)residi.' ovi^r ihi^s being Iim'II' in 
a HMe of aiiomalv, fIcAlli-lethargy unU doting <ieurc|iitudc ? 
'Vhr inio conduct nnd position for a Fnnch Sovereign low- 
hnU Fn-'Dt!h Literature, in timt country might have hcen, 
lliniigh [)erhap6 of all lliinga the- mo^t importnni, one of ilie 
nio-i ililTiruli to discover aad actwrnpiish. Whul chance wns 
ih'-ni tlial » lliiok-blooiled I>uuii« Qninzo, from his Pure aiix 
' 'rrft, should diicovcr it, should have the fhiniest inkliug of 
11 ? Hi* ' pewL-eabla soul' wa* quite otherwise employed. 
!MiniMrr nfl«r Minister must consult his own several insight, 
111' own whim, above all hi» own ease : and so tin: whole 
liu-tneM, now when we look on it, cornea out one of the modl 
Ixilohi-d, piebald, inmnsistent, Umciiitible and even Imlicrous 
i-bjects in the histot7 of Slaie-craA. Alas, necessity has no 
i'lte: the statesman, without light, perhaps even without 
r\f», whom Dc^^liny nevertheless constrains to ' govern ' 
hi' nation in a lime of World- Down full, what »tiall he do. 
lull if so may be, collect the taxes ; prevent in some degree, 
murder and arson ) and for the rest, wriggle hither and 
iM lher, return upon hia steps, clout Up old rents and open 
^^Blw. — and, on the whole, eat hi» victuals, and let the Devil 
^^wrem itF Of ilie puss to which Statesmanship had come 
^Hpj«spect of Philosophism, lot this one fact be evidence in- 
^^^taad of a thousand. H. de Maleshcrbes writes to warn 
^Iplibrot tliat. next day, ho will give onlers to have all hi? 
"i|>«per« sciied. — Im|)os!>ible ! answers Diderot : jim(c ei'e/.' 
how shall I sort them, where shall I hide them, within fuur- 
anii-lwenly hours? Srnd thtm lo me, answers M. de Male- 
rhcrbcsl Thither accordingly they go. under lock and seal: 

1 the hungry catelipoles find nothing hut empty drawers. 
F*Th0 Raeylopidit was -tet forth lirst ' with approliation and 
TimTJ^ du Hoi ; ' nest, it waa sloppeil by Authority ; next, 
ibn public murmuring, suffered to proceed ; tlien again, posi- 
litrly for tli^ U?t time, stopped, — and. no whit the leas, 
|irinied, and written, and circulated, under thin di^uues, 


ioiuf- liuiiiliL'i! iiiui fifty primers working at il wilh qnm 
liuorii, iill Paris knowing of il, only Authority winking hiuiL 
Clicisc'ul, in lii^ resolute way, hud now shut ilie eyv* of 
Amhiirily, anM bfpt ihi'm shut. Finally, to crown the whulc 
iniilt'T. n cojiy of the proliibited Book lii>^ in the King'* 
priviiti: iibmry : und owes favour, ami » willulniwut of llxr 
pi'ohibition, to the fuolishest accident : 

'llnp n( Louis FiftEcnIh'i dolneitics told me,' anjs Volt&rre.'llut 
nncc, the King hU nmili^r supping, in private cifL-lo {ea priilt ev- 
IHnmir], lit Trianon, the convi-raatian tumeil first on the eheav, ni 
frnni this on gunpowder, Sume one aaltl tliat tlie beat powili-r ku 
innilc uf sulplmr, gallpeire, and ciiitnnal, in eqiud parts. Tlir Due 
in Ik Viillivn.-. willi bellvr knuwl^Ogp, luHintainod tiul for gouil pi>ir> 
dpr tlicrc must V oni> |uirt of gulpbur, one of chanxMl, «itli fl>c aC 
snllp'trr'. "I'll flllrTpil. well evnporslBd, well cryitalliaed. 

■ I: I- I ' -lit' said tlw Due de Nivemoi*, ■■ Uial we who duljr 

., Il, , » nil killing pariridgei in the Park of Vtrsallln, 

■AvA ii^i., - iMili killing niuD, or getting ourselves killed, ou IIm 

In.iuii I -, -iiuiii.l iiiTt know whnl that same work of killing i* Jon* 

UIDERriT. 31)7 

"'H'king* >rc wuccn ; Ihe ttocking-ftame Oescribfd tlitro flH« lier 

' iTh aiiinn-ninit. " Ah, what a glorioDt book I " tried ihc. " Birv. 

I >iiu conHicBie tliU niiyiicino of *U uaeriil thiii(^, thai yau mi^ht 

: ".it whollj' tu ^'oiiraclf, tiita, and be the oau leariieil mm ia jrour 

:ri^-iloni I ■■ Each Ihm* hltnivlf on tlic volunii.'*. like Ibc tlauglilera 

Lyvomcdcs on Ilie jewel* uf Lljasi-* ; «iiuli Tnuiid furlliwiih wlial- 

■ > r liH wait iwi-kinji. Some who had lawtuits were •urprittil in lee 

,. ilecljinn of them there. The Kinn reads ther» ail the righw of 

■ <Town. " Well, in U-utJi (wiu vnuiiieiU\" laid he. " I know not 

111 they laid (U much ill of the book." " Ah, lire," laid the Duo 

:. Niiemoli, "dix's not your Majcity ace," &c- 4u.' 

In such ft eonfii%-il world, unilor such unhearcl-or circum-*. must frifntl Diderot ply his i-dilorinl labouris No 
~ir)i-ciirr i» it] Penelraling iulu ail subjpcts and «ck'iiceSi 
liiing und rumma^ng in all JibrarlM, Inboratnrics ; nay, 
[ many yt^ars. fuBrlc^ly diving into all iimuniT uf woric 
!.i>|u^ uii#>crifwing Mocking-Iooins, and evtn working thereon 
I iliut the dcparltiii'nt of ArU and Trndr* might be [lerfeFt) ] 
tlit^n seeking out cfiiilriliulur:!, and flallLTiug ihetn, quiL-kuning 
ihrir lazidLHa, griling payment for them ; quArrt-lling with 
licKik^llpr and Printer : tw-aring all miM»lculntions, roinrur- 
luncN mL'duings uf »> many fallible men (for there all at 
ksi lando) on hia Mngle back: ^urvly thi^ was enough, with- 
out having farther lo do battle with the betigle? of Officv, 
perilously withstand them, exiiensively sop them, lollsomely 
eluilr ihcni ! Nercrtheleas ho perseveres, and will not but 
perM^rcre i — lesi>, p«r)uipB, with the deliberate courage uf a 
ihtn, who lia» eompared result and outlay, than with th« 
c obstinacy of a Woman who, having tnaile up her 
td, will »hrtnk at no Itidder of ropes, but rido with her 
eft though aJI ihe. four Elements gainsay it. At every 
I from the Power*, he roar* ; say rather, 
, fur there is h female flirillnesH in it ; proclaiming, 
! Kobbery ! Rt)|)c ! invoking men and angels ; mean- 
wUle proeet-dA uiiweariedly with the printing. It U a ho*- 
^ building up, nul of the Holy Temple at Jerusalem, but 
al th« Unlioly one at Pari« : thus must Didvivt, like Ezra, 



come to strange eitremilies ; »nd every workman woriu 
wiili bi^ tmwel in mie haiid, in iKe other his weapon of wir; 
liint <n, in -pile of all Tiglaibs, the work go on, anO ilw io(^ 
Mone of il be brouglil oiil with shouting. 

Sliouiing! Ab. whal faiiK broken quaver ia ih»t in 
shoui : as of u ninn ibai sbouied vriih the Uiront onlj, i 
inwanJIv was bowed down with dispiritment ? Il is Dide- 
rot'- faint brok<.-n quaver: he is sick und heavy of '. 
ScQiulalous enough : ibe Goth Lebrelon, loving, as he s«j», 
lii* head beller even than his prolil. ha* for years gone jiriv- 
ilr at dead of night to the fini5hed Encyclopedic proof-sbwK 
and there with Defarions pen scratched out whatever to Aio 
{■eerapd dangerous ; filling up the gap as A« could, or tnertJj 
leliins it fill itself u).. Heaven and Earth ! Not only « 
the liniT Philosophe sallies mostly eut uut,^ — ^but hereby bM 
lilt work become a sunken, hitching, ungainly mass, lilllt 
bi'MiT ibiin a monstrosity. Goth! Hun! saerilegiou^ AtliU 
of (III' liinik-lnidi' ! Oh, snrelv for Ihiii tre&-^n the hottest of 



«i»lj yfrilce 10 \wr. Ii is in these copious lovo-dv- 

I that Ihc whole mHllcr is so gr8|ihicall]' pniiitcil r 

B oil A-'iuoilcus' view of llie inierior life ihert-, nnd 

I it over again wiih him. The Bnronc&St <" fc^ *■"( lem- 

wilh Miow-white gouzc, U bcaaly and grace iuelf; hnr 

[other id a p«rrM:l romp of Gnoen, or ^eangtii'; the 

K is livvly with company ; the llaron, as we sai'l, speaks 

ihe iiurpoM ; la iceri sometimes wiih his pipe, in 
■ling-gown and red ttippers ; otherwise ihe betl of land- 

ib-raarknble figures drop in : generals di«alileil at 

« i ftuhibuable gerjileiiien rui»iie»iing in the neiglibour- 

1 Abbt'<^, such as Galiaiii, B«jnal, Moa-llct; perhaps 

I and bid Epinay ; other I'hilusophca atid Philwo- 

[8 loo of less dignity, acting rather &» butts 

i: for it ii the part of every one cither to 

h wit, or to be ihe cau^e of having it. 

Biong those Inder, omiuing many, there is one whom, 

intry's snke, we must particularise : nn andcnt [ler- 

JB, named Hoop (Hope), whom tliey called Pire Hoop ; 

1 Srolchinan. Hoop seems to be a sort of fi]t- 
tnre at Gniudvul, not bowman, therefore butt ; and is shot 
at for his lodging. A moal shrivelled, wind-dried, dyspeptic, 
cliill-rJiivering individiiol; Professor of Life- weariness ; sit« 
dozing there, — doxe« there, however, with one eye open. 
Ilo Nubmila to be called Mammy, without a shrug; wwen* 
o*cr lh<t lire, at the warmest romer. Yet is there n eer- 
Uh) sardonic Hubacidity in P^re Hoop ; when lie slowly 
unions his leathern jaw, wo hear bim with a sort of pleas- 
iiiv. Hoop Iws been in various countries and situations ; in 

Ift croaking metallic voice of hi^i, eim tell a distinct story. 

( apprehended he would one day hung hiiiiM-lf : if mi, 

im now hnlds his remains 'i The I'urent Hoops, 

m, still dwelt in tlie city of Edinbui^h ; he, the 

as Bourdcaux Merchant, having helped tliem 

', out of Koine proud Maiiorliouse no longer weniher- 

Cao any aticient person of that city ipve us trace 

31)0 tilSCELLANlES. 

of siich a mail ? It must be inquired inlo, Onr onlj rf 
Faihei- IIuoi>'s reminisceneeB we shall iv£>ort, ns the Ugil 
est instance on record of a nntional virtue ; At the bank* 
Pre^tonpnn^, a kinsman of Hoop's, n gentleman witii pll! 
rings on \m fingers, stands fighting and fencing for I'tfe «i 
a n>ugh Highlander ; the Highlander, by some dever 4tnil 
ivhiskti the jewelled hand dear off, and then — piclu it ^ 
from the ground, slicks it in his sporran for future Irirtit 
and fighls on ! The force of ceiiue ' could no farther go, 
Ii cnniiol he uninleresling lo the general reader to If 
that in the la^^t days of October, in the yt^r of grace ITU 
Denis Diderot over-ute himself (as he was in the li»liit<f 
doing), nt Giundval ; and hud an obstinate ' indigestioa dl 
breail.' He writes tD Grimm thai it is the wont of all h 
digi.'Klions : lo his fair Voland that il lay more than fillM 
hoiirt! on liis stomach, whh a weight like to crush the life w 
of him ; would neither rrmonler nor detcendre ; nor inAvi 

DIIiEllOT. 301 

^biiurliood ho uiaj' have dr.iwn by lol. in llie prcjienl Jay ; 
rcn with any no-noighbourhoot], if Ihat be his sflliclion. 
I gaiety »l Grnndval was of ihe kind Ihnl could not lost. 
I thtil wino BeUef u IcH in Maiikiiiil, how could 
iwrt of emilling Unbelief continue ? On which gi-ound, 
I, Swifi, in his masterly nrgnment ' Against abolishing 
1 Religion,* urges, not without pnihos, ibat in< 
len of wii, enjoying a coinforluble status by tIt- 
( jokes on lilt? Calechisin, would hereby be left without 
, the Maff of life cut away from iheir hand. The 
» wvTv blind lu this consideration ; and joked 
, as if it would last forever. So loo wilh regard to 
G Talk : where were the tnerii of n riotous Moiber-in- 
laj'ing and doiu«. in [lublic, tiivte ncver-iuutgined Scan- 
ia liad not a cnnningly-deviM^ fable of Modesty been set 
iherc not some remnants of Modesty siill ex- 
Lantong (he unplitloeopbic classes? The Samoeids (hc- 
j to Tmveller*) have few double meanings; among 
Emnle the wiity efTect of such is lost ullogeiiier. Be ad' 
', then, Ibolisb old woman! ' IJurn not thy bed)' the 
P uf i( will soon go out, and then ? — Apart from the com- 
i bouschold topics, which the ' daily household epochs ' 
I with them everywhere, two main clement*, we regret 
o light in the oonTerialioii at Grnndval; these, 
I K spicing of Noble-«entimenl, are, unfortunately, Blas- 
■y And Bawdry. Whereby, at this distance, the whole 
r gn>ws io look poor and effete ; and we can hooei'tly 
rrjuitiv that it all ha» been, and need not be again. 

Bui now, iiwstening liack to Pnri», friend Diderot finda 
[iroof-sbccLs enough on his desk, and Dotes, and invitations, 
and upplicntbns from distressed men of letters; nevertheless 
mns over, in the lirsl place, to seek news from the Voland ; 
will tbeD wo what is to be done. He writes much ; talks 
dmI visits much : besides the Savans, Artist^ spiritual Noia- 
bililies. dumeatic or migratory, of the period, he has a liberal 
c of unnolable Associates ; especially a whole bevy 


of j-inmg or uli!i-li, mo=il^ ralher spiteful Women ; in who* 
gos-ip lie i> pi;ifL-i:I. We hear the rustling of their silks '^ 
cliipk of their prellj tongues, tiitle-taltle ■ like their ptuo! 
when they walk ; ' and the sound of il, fresh as yeslenll}^ 
through this long rista of Time, has become siguiliaui^ 
almost proplielie. Life could not liaiig heavy on Didftrfi 
haii(l« r lie is a vivid, open, all-embrucitig creature ; raaU 
liave fonnd occupalioii anywhere ; has occupalion here lomri 
on him, enough and to spare. * He had much to do. and lU 
* much of his own,' says Mademoiselle! 'yet ihree-fourthjof 
'his lifi! were employed in helping whosoever had uc«d of bii 
' purse, of his Inlentd, of his management : bia study, for ik( 
' fire-and-lwenly years 1 knew it, was like a wcll-frequcnld 
' shop, where, a* one customer went, another came.' He i»flU 
not find in bis heart to refuse any one. He has rvcondM 
Hmthers. sought out Tutorages, settled Lawsuits ; solieiteJ 
Pi'ii-ioU'^; advised, and refreshed hungry Authors, inslrudcd 
i;:nt>i'.'iiil oiii'* : he has written advertisements for 

DinHROT. 303 

- ~ It is H liitle in^c: of great induslrj' : it 

.- II IiuIf iu ilie gruunil like ii nv^rsed funnel i covers ihd 

»iU) fine ligitt Muid; ejitices foolish insects to ii; mkes 

r[i. :iuck« th«tii, tiiun sttys to iherD : M. Diderot, I Iiiirc the 

"iiirlo wi-h you good day," My fikther stood Inugtiing 

iif split at ibia advtiilure.' 

I I itir, Ainid liiUiar nnd rccit-'utiuii : i)u<^slioiiablt! Ltli'm[iir«, 

,<ir'4iionublo Lovcn; eating and digesting, lictlcr or wor^; 

L:liiclness nnd vexntion of s|iirit, in luughlor ending in 

, doas Diderut piua hta dayf. lie hns Iweii hard loilcd, 

:li<'n wi.-II flattered, and is nothing of a hypochondriac. 

.i: tillle serricc renown cnn do hint, miiy now be con- 

■ -li a* done: lie is in the centre of the literature, ^euctf, 

•(' his nation ; not numbered among the Academical Forty, 

III his heterodox hcnrt entitled to t>e iihnost proud of the 

'i-ion 1 successful in Criticism, successful in Fhilwophi^im, 

. highest of sublunary glories, successful in the Tliciitrt.- ; 

(v may whisper, if she please, thai, excepting the unai- 

I ihlo Voltaire alone, he is the fir^r^t of Frenchmen. High 

. 1~ iitt! in correspondence with him tlie low-born; from 

11 riue the Empress to Philidor the Chess-plajer, be U 

: miourrd n-hition with all manner of men; with »eicn- 

ItufTouK. Euler;, D'AlcmbcrC^; with artistic Fatconncis 

!•"». Riccobonis, Garricks. lie waa ambitious of being 

ilri»uphe; and now the whole fasl-giowing »ect of Phi- 

• li'H look up to bim as their head and mystagugne. To 

li- Diderot, when he slept out of the Langrcs Diligence 

li'' College d'Flarcouil ; or nrterwanls, when he walked 

I' enblerrunean «hade$ of Rujienldom, with uneasy >teps 

: the burning marie, a much smaller destiny would have 

:ii<'d (lesiriible. Within doors, again, matters stand nither 

ted. a^ iurely they might well do; however, Madame 

rnt is always true and assiduous; if one Daughlcr talk 
i^ta^ilcuUy, and at length (though lier father has written 
/.'fliffitvte) die mad in a convent, the uiher, a quick, in- 
girl, i» waxing into womunhoodi and 

T • \\ :.■•'. . \\.\ :..'. >:■ j- o! Ti 
1'/.. i- :".:.i>:ai'i. S.Mitvrv-i Co 
or inanii>cripu making many 
PhiKisophe has rea( no goldi 
getting old : can live out ot* del 
to settle his daughter in marriaj 
Librarv ; monev is not other vri 
ever, the Northern Cleopatra st« 
chases his Library for it« full v 
pension, as librarian to keep it fc 
over fiftj years thereof by adva 
we call imperial (in a worid so 
the whole munificence did not, 
thousand pounds ; a trifle to the 1 
In fact, it is about the sum your i 
wages, in one day ; who. howevei 
to speak of charitable overplus, 
press, the vivid Philosophe is wy^ 
breaks forth into rather husky i 
htm ? The Northern Cleopatra ( 
regard with other eyes th«n 

.-\ • 

I'l'iin liim with Pclrreburg for datu, anil llint of i 
■-•■»Ur. Tlie Phil(Koj)lie was of open, unheejfiil, free-and' 
• .-(f dU(ionition i Prince ami PoIUboii were singulnrljr ulike 
to him ; il wns " hnil fellow well met,' wilb every Son of 
Adnn). be lii» clothes of one stuff «r the other. Such a man 
conlil lie no court-sycoplmnl, wa.' ill ealculntetl lu suci^eeil at 
raort. We run imn^ne ihtti [he Neva-colic, atiil ihe charac- 
t*'r of the Ncvn-wnter, were not the only things hurtful to 
bis nervM there. For King Denin. who had dietateil sueh 
wonderful anti-rega1ilie» in the AbM Raynars Wirtory;' 
and himself, in n moment of itibyUjm, emitted thut surprising 
nnauuncement, ^ur[)a3«ing all yet uttered or miemble in the 
Tyrt«an way, how 

Stt mtiiu (the fVmmui'al nNniFminU Ui n(nii£M <!■ /tr/f re, 
A* A/iinl ttnn ™n*™, p"itr tiraiighr In niit ; 

fiir snch a one, the climale of the Neva mu4l have had niine- 
liing oppresaive in it. The entraiBt* da prelre were, indeed, 

-h ai Itis serviee here, could he get citilch of ihero ; bui 

rily for muaiml philosophe Bddle-string* ; nowise for a cor- 
<i;H' Nevertheless. Cleopatra is nn iineoramon woman (or 
rathM" an uncommon man). and can put-up with many thing^i 
aod, in a gentle, skilful wny, make the crooked struight. Aj 

L^"8n' "*" *"* •'•''d "^ IhtaT'' wnnW Dldcmt e«eliilm. " I "ill. 
^B^ MCartir nipntxleil th« Abt)<; "do t>ut pnwml." i^A la Mimiirt it 
WH^^^^J^ Mebur.) — Wu ths rollowltii; onit oT th« panugnir 

* Bap^]' Umim ptrverM intlniuliin ' nf Kliip> 'nn chi»liH»l, Hwiwr nr 

'liter, \tf the <nf(>«titU'te nnti eDolampt oF Itiair pnplh. Bipplly, the** 

|iii|>il* too. niiurablv In tlie IxMom of Krindeur. nra tormanlad all thctr 

,<'■ bt ■ ilwp mHn, wtilali Ibey cannot iHimli iVoni Ihnlr pntnem. IInp- 

. \ , lit" ntUnKin* pr^nitlcM, whioh h«vii twen p1iinl«l In lh«ir toul*, 

ili'ia to utTrlichl Itiem. HRppltT, (lie mnnmflil itlancK of llietr 

>i '• tlinn, rrom Mm* to Tlma, Ihn dMp h«ilr«d Ihm \* bonM 

I fWy, the* an loo cowardtf to iteiplM llul hKtml. Happily 

" "' \. eflf r a lira irtiicti tiD mottiil, not even Ilie mamiett at 

i.jv. T., would aotept, if he knew all It* wrelehednew, Ihev 

k lFH|uleiutle. Ii 

>r anil detpair, ualw) on llic pirtnn 

J ■I**!.' — Safely, 'kiniri have poor time* of il 



Iier Pliili.>Mi|>lir [irt-^enD himseir in common apparel, the 
:^entl^ liini ii splciulid coun-.suit ; and a^ he can now eateria 
a (■ivill~('il ui]iiiiii.-r, i^he see^ him often, confers wiih him 
largely : by Iiujipy chuuce, Grimm too hI leii<;th arrires ; tai 
ibe winliT [lassfs wilhout accidenl. Reluming liome in lii- 
umpb, he ttiri expruas himself conlcnled, charmed with hs 
rewpiioii ; his mineral speeiraens, and all manner of hjpn^ 
borenn nii-inuriiiU for friends ; unheard-of things lo tell ; hoa 
he erossed ihe bottoroles.') half-thaweil Dwiua, with the waCtr 
boiling up round his wheels, the ice beniliug like leather, jtt 
crackling like mere ice, — and shuddered, and gol through 
safe : how hi.' n-iis carried, coach and all, into the ferry-Uai 
at Sliilaii, on thirty wild men's backs, who floundered in the 
mini, and iiigU broke his shonlder-blade ; how lie inv.sla- 
gnli-d ItolJand, and had converged with Empresses, and High 
AligU[iiii.'r$<-s. and principalities and powers ; and so seen, ami 
i'ijiii|ii<'i'i'd, fur hi> own spiritual behoof, several of the Sevcu 


chtiritj-sennoning, inimiiculiite Biahop DfigboU lo fomr rude. 
•«l Ml el ping, $)inriMongut?d Ap(»l!« Paul 1 Under which 
virw, inilecil. Seneca (though Biircly erroncouslj-. for ihe 

■ 'Hgin of ihc ihing was ilifTerenl) lus l>een called, in Iliis gen- 
' niTion, * ihc farher of all aacli aa wear shovel-hats.' 

The t'ir de S*net]ue, us we said, wnji Diderot's Inst effort. 
It remains only to be udded of iiini, that he loo died ; a lin- 
^■ring (mt qniei death, which took place on the 30lh of July 
1784. He onee quole.t from Monlnigne the following, tit 
fv^ptie's viaticum: *I plunge stupidly, head foremost, into 
' this dnmb Di-cp, whii^h «wnllow!i me, nnd chokr$ me, in a 

■ tnomeiil, — fill! of insipidity and indolenee. Death, which 

■ is but A qnnrier of an hour's suffering, without consequence 
•■nd without iiyury, does not require peculiar precepts," It 
WW) DiderolV nllottneni to die with all due ' stupidity : ' he 
wa» lejinin^ on his el)>ows; had eatrn an apricot two minutes 
before, and answered his wife'!* renionslrance^t with : " Mat* 
fua Jiahle Jr tool eeiuv/u que crta mt fiute * (How the duiicp 
can ibnt hurl nie ?) " She »i[ioke again, and he answerwl 
nnl. His House, which the curious will visit when ihey go 
tn Paris, was in the Rue Taranne,Rt the ititer>«ection thereof 
with Die Rue Saint- Denott. The du4t that was once his 
Body went to mingle with the common eHrth, in the church 
of Suiol-Ruch 1 his Life, the wondrous manifold Force thai 
■ni* in him. that was He. — returned to Ctkrnitt, and nI 
llwrr, and continues there ! 

Two filings, us we saw, are celebrated of Diilerot. First, 
t]»t lie hail the most encyclopedical heail crrr seen in thia 
woirid : second, that he lulked as never man talked ; — pmp- 
eriy, as never man hw admirers had heard, or as no man 
Ihing in Paris then. That is to say. his was nl onee the 
wWtenl, ftrrliWt, and readiest of minds. 

With regard lo the Eneyclopi'dica] Head, suppose it 

nwan that he was of such vivacity a« to admit, and Umk upon 

^■A tiil«r««t. olmojl nil things uliich the circle of ExisIeneS'i 



I'Uiili! iifTi^i' liiiii; in which sense, this exaggerated laudation, 
of Encyclopedism, is not without its fraclion of meaning. Of 
cjtli-flordiiiary openness and compass we must grant the mini 
(if DiJerol to ho i of a, susceplibilily, quick aclivily; tvei 
natiim!!)' of a Joplh, and in its practical realised shape, of 4 
universiklity, wliich bring it into kindred with the higher 
order of minds. On nil forms of this wondrous Creation be 
eiin look with loving wonder ; whatsoever thing stands there, 
has some broil icrhood with him, some beauty and meaning 
foi' him. Neither is (lie faculty to see and interpret n-aniing; 
as, indeed, this fiicultj- to see is inseparable from that other 
faculty to loot, from that true wish to look i moreover (und« 
another Hiiiire), intellect is not a tool, but a hand that nn 
hiindlc nnv Umh Nay, in Diderot we may discern a ftr 
di'r]iiT i(iii\i i>.;iii(y than that shown, or showabie, in Lebre- 
iiiii'-. h','ri/r/,'/i>-</ii- ; namely, u poetical ; for, in slight gleams, 
ihi- (."I [Nuiiill''!-. itself. A universality less of the head thin 
t>r tin' iliiirai'liT ; snch, we say, is traceable Jn thia min, «1 

DIDKHOT. 3l>9 

<1i.'gret; ihan ibul. Nay, if it be nteunl furllier that in prao 
tii.'e, Hd awruer and liiiuker, lie basiaken-in itie Apj>earanoee 
u( Lite Dnd the World, and images ihem back with sucb free- 
iJLiiii, irliuiriie^ fidelity, as we lisve not many times witnessed 
ciscwiicre, s« we liavii not various limes seen iafinitely sur- 
paaM^d elsuurlicre, — this «ime encyclopediml praise must al- 
together be denied him. Diderot's liubitual world, we must, 
nn the contrary, say, is a half-world, di^toited into looking like 
a whole i it is jiruj>erly, a [Kmr, fr&ctional, insignifieant world ; 
pailial, inaccurate, perverted fcom end lo end. Alas, it was 
tliL* destiny of tile man to live aa a Pulemii!; lo be born also 
in itie moniing-lidc and first splendour of the Mechanictil 
Era ; not to know, with tbe smallest assurance or coniinu- 
nnue, tJiat in ibe Universe other (bun a tnechanicul meaning 
cuuld exist ; wbicli force of destiny acting on him through his 
whole course, we have obtained what now stands before us ; 
no Seer, but only [lO^ibilities of a Seer, transient irradiations 
"f n Seer, looking through the organs of a Philosophr. 

These two considerations, wliich indeed are pniperly bnt 
uae (for a thinker, especially of French birUi, in the Mechan- 
ical Era, could not be other than a Polemic), must never 
for a moment be lefl out of view in judging the works ot' 
Diderot. It ia a great tnilh, one side of a great truth, 
that the Man makes the Circumstances, and spiritually as 
well OS ecouomiually is the artificer of his own fortune. Dut 
there is another side of the same truth, that the man's cir- 
[■umstances are the element he is appointed to live and work 
in i that he by necessity lakes his complexion, vesture, em- 
Ifotimcnt, from lbei<c, and is, in all praviical manifestations, 
iDodificd by tliem almost without limit ; so that in another 
no lotw genuine sense, it can be said Circumstances make the 
Man. Now, if it continually belioves us to insist on the 
I fermer truth towards ourselves, it equally behoves us to bear 
■ mind the latter when we judf^e of other men. The mo«t 
ml, appearing in Frunm in the Eighteenth Ceniory. 
e embody himself in the intelle'clual vestu^^^ 


Atlii'iiinii I'l^iiii, a^i ill the grammatical one ; hie thoughu on 
no more l)e Urufk, than his language can. He thinks of ik 
tilings bt'lunging to the French eighteenth century, and t> 
tlic ilinteL-l he I1118 lenrned there ; in llie light, and under ik 
condiiions prescrihed there. Thu«, as the most Driginal, reiio- 
lule mid jielf-dirccting of all the Moderns hm wriltfn : ' Lei a 
' man be hiil !)orn len years sooner, or ten years later, lu> 
■ whole iL'iH'ct and performance shall be different.' Gnuii, 
doubilens, th:it n eertain perennial Spirit, true for all tJiDci 
nnd all couutriL'.s can and mu^t look through the thiokiog of 
(.'(Tinin mi'n. lie it in what dialect soever : understand aif»o- 
wliiie thaf stricily this holds only of the highest order of nm, 
and eaiiiiot he exacted of inferior orders ; among whom, if 
the moat sedulons. loving inspection disclose iiny even sec- 
ondary syinpioms of such a Spirit, it ought to sceiu enough. 
Let us rememher well that the high-gif)ed, high-striving 
Diderot was born in the point of Time and of Space, when 
<jf ;ill ii.-es )ic coidd turn himself to, of ail dialects speak in. 



<!ii.l i|»! MooAJeur , "it U pri^ily I'liir if jou iiave 

: I ^ [>i_-J-«ut fiflffen at the tirsictut ; anil tlir«e otiiere who know 
li.i nbal lo think of ii." In faci, ilie raise was mmmon : 
^ ijiir Flulo»()|ihe of the tir*l waier huO gniwn lo ret-koii Ailie- 
i-in a neocsMiry acconipli^hmt'nt. (jiowklhnip[ile NttigMiii, 
II- wc !uiiv, hiul niniiL- himself very perfiKt thtretn. 

DidiTol wiw tin Atheist, then ; Bimiiger etill, a pru«el_vtl*- 
iiig Atheiiit, who e?t«eined ihe ci-eed worth earnest reiterated 
iimiehing. uni] enfureemeiit with all vi^uur! The imlmppy 
iDim Iwd 'sailed through the Universi- of Worlds luiii (bund 
■no Maker lliereofi hud degccn(l«l lu llie nhy^^^ses wlii're 
' ittring no longer castd il^ shadow, and felt only the rain-drops 
' irirklc down: nnd sven only the gleaming minbow of 
- Creation, which origiimied from no Sun ; and heanl only 
' the everlasting storm whirh no one govema ; and looked 
' upwurdi for ihe Divink Eric, nnd tiehpld only the hlnck, 
*, glaring Ukatci's KrE-socKcT :' aueh, with all 
III' wide vnyagings, was the philosophic fortune he had 

Sail enough, horrible enough : yet instead of shrieking 
over il. or howling and Emulphus'-uursing over iL lei us as 
the more profitable method, keep onr conipoDurc, and inquire 
a little. What jHMsihty it may mean 't The whole plienume- 
iHin. as hecms to as, will explain iiaelf from (lie faei above 
iiiiUted on, that Diderul was b Polemic of decided character, 
in Ihe Mechanical Age. With great espenditure of wotd» 
nnd froth, in arguments as waste, wild-wellering. delirioiis- 
dinmal as the chuus lliey would denmnKlmle ; which argu- 
menid one now know* not whether to laugh at or to weep ai, 
and almost dui^ huili. — huvo Diderot and hi^ sert {lerhnpd 
nade tliia apparent to all who examine il : That id the French 
&)-Blcm of Thought (>'nlted also the Scotch, and still familiar 
anuugh everywhere, which for want of a better title we 
tutre tuuned ihe Alechonieal), thure i« no room fur a OJviti- 
kyi ihal lo biin, fur whom inttUect, at the (miwit of knowing 
and believing, is stUl syuonyraoua with logic, or the men 


power of nrrnngiiig and fommutiicating, lliere is absolulrlt 
tiu proof di^Mivvnible of a Divinily ; nnd »uch a man lit> 
iiotliitig for it but cither, if he be of half spirit as is the fir- 
(jueiit case, to trim despicably all hia days between two <^ii»- 
ions ; or el-e, if he be of whole spirit, to anchor bim^^plf on 
the rock or quagmire of Atliel.'m. — and farther, ^honld be 
see lit, proclaim to others that there n good riding ihere. !w 
mueli iniiy Diderui have demon nt rated : a conclusion at nbtdi 
we iidwise turn pale. Was it much to know that MetHpbys- 
ical Specutaiion, by nature, whirU round in endless Msbl- 
stmnls, iMilh ' ci-eating and swallowing — itself?' For a) 
wonderful a ?elf-s wallowing product of the Spirit of the Time, 
could liny re^'ull to arrive at be fitter than this of the EtEb- 
NAi. No? We thank Heaven that the result it finally ai^ 
rivi'd M : and so now we can look out for something oifacT 
and fiirllicr. But above all things, joroo/' of a God? A 
]irolirihle (iod ! The smallest of Finites stmggling lo prvn 
III ii~i'1f'. ihiit i;> to say if we will consider it, to piclnre-oot 

IlIDEROT. 313 

ilMiidonct). Of Rnul C4iii!>rs man, by llie naiurK of Uii.' cam, 
ui /mne nulliing; know^ iLi-m, if he know anytbiiig of 
.'"■HI, nul hy gliiiiniering (liiit-Bpjirka of Logic, but by an 
iLtiiiiiicly hjglirr light of intuition; never long, by Htaveo's 
III t-rcy, wholly Hrli|igMl in ibe humun »iul i and (under the 
II utile of Faitli, IS n-gMrils tbis matter) fiimiliar to us now, 
liij^iuriciilly or in cont^ciaus iios^cseion, tur upwards of four 

■ linutand yearu. To all open men it will indi-'ed always be a 
liivuurite contemplnlion, ihut of watching the ways of Beiiigt 
liiiu aiiitiiutt.- adjusts itiuilf tu inanimalB, rational to irrational, 
and this tliat wv numi; Nniiin.' 'a not a di'wilaic plianiaAiu of 
a eluto.4, but a wondrous existence und n'nliiy. If. Rinr«)ver, 
in tlwMe saiae * iiiarksof d<.-sigii,'aii \iv ha«cid!«d theiii, tbc con- 
rr-iiiplaiivc man tind neweviduncir of a designing Maker, bo it 
'M II fur him: meanwhile, surely one would think, llie still 

liurer widened lay nuarcr home. — in the contemplative man's 
.>>Mi bi-nd that tech ntler sui-h ! In which jmint of view our 
extant Natural Theologies, a$ our innumi^ntble Kvidcncea of 
ihir C'hriiiian Religion, and »uch like, may, in refeivnce to 
ibe »tnu)ge 9ea.suii tlii-y appear in, have a certain value, and 
' worth pritiling and rcpnnting ; only let u§ uiiderEland for 
.tiioiii. and lujw, ihey arc vnluiible : and be nowise wroth 
mill the poor Atheist, wlioin they have not convinced, and 
oHilil tiut, and should not convince. 

Tbe lecond mtifeqiicncc seems 10 be, that ihid whole cur^ 
n-nl hy|iolhe»isof llw Univprse being 'a Machine,' and tlien 
of ati Areliitect, who can>lructe<t it, fitting ax it wrre apart, 
and piiding it, and teeiuff it go, — may turn out an inanity 
and nonentity ; not much longer tenable : with which result 
liki^wise we shall, in tht^ quieleitt manner, reconcile our«clv«i. 

■ Think ye.' Biiye Goethe, ' 1 hat God made llic Universe, and 
' iJieii let il run round hi* Rnger {nin Finger hufen h'fttr)?' 
On tlic whole, that Metaphysical burly-hurly, of our poor 
JMring. ntlf-lUtening Time, ought nt h'ngth to compose itself; 
that seeking far a God then, and iiol hrre ; everywherv otit- 
wardly in pbyaiciU Nature, and not inwardly in our own Soul, 



ttbt'i'i; iiloiie He is lo be fouud by ui, — begins tg get wi 
soiiii?. AlKJve nil, thiit 'tainl posnible Theism,' which 
fgrm.-i our coiDmun Etifrlish creetl, cannot be loo soon s*tpi 
out of tlie world. What \a tht: nature of ihni individual, wb 
ivilli lijslericnl viok-nce theoretically asserla a God, perfaip- 
a revc-nlcd Symbol and Worship of God ; und tor (he rcM. is 
thouglit. word niid conduct, meet with him where you will, it 
found living m if his theory wereaome polile figure of spMtL 
ttnd hid iht'oix'tioil God a mere distant Simulacrum, with ttiwa 
he, for his part, hud nothing further lo do? Pool! IV 
Etcio'AL is no Himiilucrum ; God is not only There, bul Hat 
or ntiwhcre, in liiat life-breath of thine, in thai aol aod though 
of Ihinc, — and thou wert wise lo look lo it. If there is BO 
God, us the fool hiilh said in hid heart, then live on with tbf 
dei'1-nt.'ies, U[id li|)-hoinage8, and inward greed, and fitbvbaod, 
and idl the hollow (tuuidngly-deTij^ed halfnesn tbnt rraw 
iiipiid- lUve lo the Miimmon of thia world: if there U a Goi, 
we sitv. U.k ifi il ! liiil ill either caw;, what art thou ? The 


M to tpnak, in our Bleud, m> lliat it need now be iio longer 
liornu by nny oiio 'f 

it lli'ti ramc fur biiu uiiavuiUable circuniaiancc, of ibe nge 
\f lived ill, and Uie «/*tem of lliought universal tlieii, will be 
ii'iirtd ihu kvy to Diilerul'* wliolu spiriluul I'liitruL-tifr aiid fro- 
liirt! ; [!><; excuse lor inui:h in him tlial to u* b fiiliw w«l 
^ '. ri-ert£tl. Beyond ibe roeiigre * meliliglit of eluset-logle,' 
nidfrol rucognUod no guiiiance. Tbol 'tJie IIighi.'»l cnnnoi 
Ik- spoken of in words' *v>>s n truth lie liiul ttoi drcutut of. 
WbHieOHVur tiling be coiintM di;bulu uf, we luiglit uliuosl say 
tneaaarv and weigh, and carry oil' with him to bu euivn and 
enjuyed, it i>iin|ily not ibere Ibi' liim. lie dwelt all tiU day* 
in the * thin rind of tlK Conscious i ' Ibe deep fatliomleM di> 
nmiu of the Unconscious, whereon the other rtMs, and has its 
mtsming, was not, undur any eluijit;, surmiiied by him. Thua 
muit the Sanctuary of Alaii'a Soul aland pi-renniully fehut 
ngniiul tliiii man ( where his blind cunsed lo gni{>c. the World 
«nded : within »ucb strait conditions bad be lo live and la- 
bour. And naluntlly lo distort Mid dixlouate, more or leas, 
all Uiiugs he bbounjd on : tor wbwtui^ver, in one way or «n- 
'li<.-r, recognises not that * Divine Idea of the World, which 
' - at the bottom of Apptwrance^,' can rightly interpret no 
Appearance I and whni.'iocvcr spiritual thing be does, musl 
do it jianially, do it faUely. 

Mournful enough, accotvlingly, U tli« nocount which Di- 
derM bus given liiinself of Man's Kxistencei on the duties, 
relations, poMcuions whereof he had Iteon a sedulous thinker. 
In cvcrjr condusion we have this tact uf bis Mecbatiicnl cul- 
tnns Coupled tun with another fact bonourahle lo him ; that 
ba stuck not ai half measunv* ; but resolutely drove-on to the 
miult, uiid held by it. So tlial we cannot call hint a Seoptic ; 
ha baa merited the tnure deei^ive name of Denier. He 
may bo said to have denied tlial there was any the *mAlb»l 
Sacrednc-'9 in Man, or in the Universe ; and to have both 
speL-ulated and lived on this singular fooling. We behold in 
le exirciiae of a man guiding himself with this 


Irtiil 5(>iri((Mi1 Bt'iief tkat ibinkmg maa perhaps ever bli 
K<'H:.'ii>.-i. ill all rtvu^i^able sba^ and deDse», he Ian dm 
M h:ii iii.iTi tun do lu ckkr-out of him. He believet lli*l 
{>l>'^i7iii\' i-; {ilc.'L.-^il ; that « lie b unbelievable ; and Ihtn ik 
crrdu laruxitmit^ : iwv Sh/ere, what perhaps makes hi« eu 
alniu^ unique, hU veiy fimc^ seeiuj (o fall silent. 

For II n>iisei)ue))t nuin, all possible spiritual perveraM 
are iiicludMl undirr thai grocsse^l one of ' pnt^elj-tisiDg Alltt- 
am ; * tbt' r»l, ol' irhal kind and degree soever, cannoi at^ 
longtrr mtimisli ui. Dideroi has iLeiu of all kinds and d^ 
grvf- : indeed, we might bsf, the Prencli Pltitosuphe (ufcl 
hini at lii^ irvni, tar inwardl; mueh ihal was ttiivign «t- 
Itvrvil li> him, do wluil he could) bus cmitlul a Scheme ti 
the World, lo which all thai Orieiilii) Mullah, Boom « 
T»la|koin Itave done in that kind is poor and feeble. Omit 
ting his whole uupanlleled Cwinogonies and Pbyaiobgidt 
couiiij; lo hU Qiuclt milder Tables of the Moral Law, n 
»hall gbnoe here but al one niiior exiemal it«io, the ick 



Hiiinge ; llie i|UtHltiiii iIk-u ari^ii^, Is it wise in bint la iiim- 
iili.' furtli, In headloiig obodit-ncc lo this lovu of cimnge i 1> 
it H> much n> ptMntibli' ((>r hini ? Amitng thr duiUiiiiiia of 
mnii't vMly duali.fiic nalun.-. this we lutghE fttiicy utu iin 
<<)ivr<rablc one; lliat ^ng wiih liia uncviuing tcndeucy to 
t llllngl^, tliere is a nu Itss iiitrudiunlile t(?uilen(!f lo pencven. 
^V>ro man only hero to cliaiige, lul biiu, far from uiarryln^ 
. ■nsp uvcii lo hcdgciii firJiU, nnil plough (licm i bctbra the 

riumn i-vamn. lie inuj lutve Iwt the whiiu of reaping them. 
;.--i him rrtiirn lo the noiDMlic glate, and tet hi» bouM- oa 
/. lireU: nay there loo n wttuin restraint tnuet curb hk 
iM! of chuigi', or hi» cattle will pvrish by InciMMnl diHv- 
.riij, without grafing in thit inlorvaU. O I>cnis, wluU thing* 
ilioa bikbbliml, in thy olct-p I How, In tills world of |iwpel- 
iiiil Huz, shnll man M-cim' ihn fmollcf'l foiinilitlion, 
f xcept brreby dIodh : lluit he takf prttiMuronoe of liix Faie ; 
that in ihiH and the other high aft of bin life, hb Will, witli 
M inlpmnity, abdientt iu right lo cbiuigi! i voluntarily, Iwconw 
involuiiiary, and aay once for all, Be there tlien no fatUHfr 
dubitalinn on it ! Nay, ih« poor onlieroic crafUman ; that 
very itocking-wejiver, on wlwae loom thuu now tu ainaleur 
weavMt : laust not eien be do n' much, — when ho ftignnl 
biii apptrnticc-inileniurc* ? The Ibol ! who had *iKh a relish 
in hiin>«lf fi>r all thing*, fur kingship and «nipen>ri>liip : ycl 
made a law {under a pen^ty of dcaih by hunger) of eter- 
mJ eonittancy to slocUnj^- weaving. Yet utherwiiie, were no 
driving craftamen pomihle : only bdlchert, bunglers Ininni- 
' mmdrMrriptB ;, tnmlly gallowi-fevding. But, im 

» whole, what feeling it wa< in the nneieitt devout deep 

, which of Marriage made a Sacramtm: thin, of all 

p in the worUl, is what I>cni> will tliink of fiir leoiu, 

t diseoveriii);. Unlea^, perbapa, It were lo tncmue 

* »«slry*r*e* ? 
"Indeed, it mual he granted, nothing yet seen or dreamt 1/ 
\t the liberality of frieiid Denin a> mn^tfr nutnan ; 
9M» 0>U«d Ot^hlltl^qrf 

3ia M1SCELLAN1B9. 

siLi-li Spartan rigour, lo step forth into the puhlir SiMW, 
and cmil his in.'piriling Jfcrfe rirlule! tliere. Wliiilier Irt 
th« curious in su<:h mailers follow him : ne, hftviog irori 
elsewbere, wish him 'gooJ journey,* — or tnther 'safe re- 
turn.' Of Diderot's iudelicacy and indei-eticy there a fbr 
us but liltic lo say. Diderot ii not what we call iodelkair 
and indfv«nt ; he 'a utterly unclean, scandKlou?, shameltsi^ 
san»cuIotlic-sAnio«idic. To declare with lyric fiiry UiM lUt 
is wrung ; or with historic calmiteag, thai a pig nf wndtnRly 
would go distracted did you accuse him of it, may, espednlly 
couutries when; ' indec«nt exposure ' is cogni;«ble at policr> 
offict^, be considered superfluous. The only quealion it ooe 
in Naluntl History : Whence come.t it ? What may n maa, 
not otherwise without eleration ot" mind, of kindly chararicr, 
of immense professed philanthropy, and doiibtle»« of rx- 
traordinnry insight, mean thereby ? To lis it is but another 
illusinkiion of the fearless, all-fur-logic, tliuruughly eansincni. 
Mecliaiiicul Thinker. It coheres well enough with Diderol'f 


Ditjerol, mtiX not io a wrong thing ; could not, williout 
•oiRci qiinlin, «pcak, for example, one Lie, to gain Mahomei** 
Pkradiii! wiili nil iu bouriu.t ? Tliert? is no reMure« for it, 
but lo gel iulo thai intt^rminable ravelm^ni uf Ii«wanl and 
Approvnl, vinuc being its own reward; anil as*en loader 
Hml ioudvr. — contrary' lo tlie stem experience of all men, 
ft<oni tlie Divine Man, expiring with agony of bluody sweat 
nti iti)? nocurwfl Irce, down to us two, O reiuter (if we have 
i"»er donu one Duly), — that Virtue Lt synonymous with 
1'UiB.turc. AlusI was Piiul, an Apostle of the Oonlile^, 
viniioua; and was virtu<! its own mwurd, when hi* approv- 
ing mnscience lold him ihat hi< wa« ■ the cliief of dinner?,' 
awl if bounileil to tliU life alone, ' of all men the nioai mh- 
usble?' Or has thai same so iiublini^ Virtue, at buitum. 
Rule to do with Plvasurc, if with far otht-r things ? Are 
fiuioxia. and Euscbeiit, and Rullinnasia, and all the rest of 
tfaein, of small account lo Eubwia, and Eupepsla; and the 
ptint of any modcmtely-pncetl Cnreer of Vice, Denis him- 
■elf being judge, sa a drop in the bucket to the ■ Career of 
lDdigc»tion« ? ' This is what Denis never in this world will 

Bat what then will he do? One of two things: admit, 
with Griffitn, that there are ' two justiees,' — which may 
he called by many hiunbome naine^, but properly tu'e noth- 
ing but tlie pleasant justice, and the unpleasant ; whereof 
only tli« former is binding 1 Herein, however, Nature tuu 
been unkind to Denis : he is not a literary cunrt-loadcater ; 
Int n Irne, genial, even poetic creature. There remains, 
Ihcrefure, nuihuig but the second expedient : In ' assert 
looder and louder ; ' in other words, to become a Philosophc 
Sentimenlalist. Klost weari^me, accordingly, i^t the ]H:r- 
peiua] clatter kept up here about vtvtu, huimittli. grvndtiir, 
tmtibihti. /imt$-nobleii ; how un»|>enkably good il is to b« 
virtnoui, bow plnn^nt, how sublime: — !u the Devil and 
Im grandmollier's name, tm lirtiiou; : and l>.-t us have an 
In such wrt (we will nevertheless joyfully 


recognise) doe^ grcnt Xalure in s|Hle of all eontradiciiaoL 
declare licr ro/atiy. her ili\-iiieneM ; and, for t)i« poor 3fe~ 
chanical Pliilosophc, has prepared, rince ihe snlotanee if 
bidden from hiiQ, a «hadon wherewith he can be clitwred. 

In fine, to our ill'^larred Mii^anical Phtlosopbo-Smi- 
menialist, with bis loud preacbing and rnilier pottr perform- 
ing, $hall we noi, in various r«»pet.-is * ibaiikfullj fU^A 
out the hand?' In all waya -it was necessary that Ibe kip- 
cal side of things should likewise be mnde avHilable.* On 
the whole, wondrous higher devdopmenls of much, of Mo- 
rality among the rest, are visible in fhe coarse of the woridV 
doing», at this day. A plausible prediction were thai tbc 
Ascetic System is not to regain its exclusive ilomiuancj. 
Ever, indeed, must Stlf-denial, 'AnnMiatum of Srlj,' be lb( 
beginning of all moral action : meanwhile, he iha! look* 
well, may discern filnmenLs of a nobler SyMem, wherriH 
this lies included as one harmoniouj element. Who know!, 
for example, whal new unfolding^ and complex adjustment! 

e; Diilerol 


^^ftia,' III lui^ cue, Diili^rol Hcteil il, anil no 
Iwan it, aiid not we : peaea be with Diderot ! 

Thv other branch of hid ri'iiown is excellenut^ as a Talker. 
Hr. in wider view, lliink Itis ndmirers, lii^ philuMpliy wa« 
I moro Biir|)a§8ing than hln dt-livrry ihereor. What bis 
, I. itosophy amounts to, wr have bei'ii examining: but now, 
<i;it in ihii< other convt^rsational province he wa< eminent, 
: I'nsily believed. A frniik, evcr-hojang, social ciiarocler ) 
L mind full of knowledge, full of fi-Tvour ; of great comiuiM, 
1 RTVAt depth, ever on the alerl : suvh a raan could not havd 
liter ihnji n ' mouth of gold.' It is «li]l plain, whatsoever 
liliig imaged itself before liiui wiis imnged in ihe most 
I ii'-nt Muarne^; was rendert^d back, with light laliour, in 
< 'rrvsjHinding clearness. Whether, at the Eame time, Dide~ 
<i'- convereion, rolaliTely eo superior, deserred the inirineic 
li^iTBcler of supreme, may adroit of question. The worth of 
'. Lirds spoken dcj>ends, nfler all, un the wisdom that resides 
.11 ihum : luid ia Diderot's word^ there wod ottea loo little of 
III-. VivBcity, fur-darting brillioitey, keenness of theoretic 
I -ion. paradosieal ingenuity, gaiety, eren touu lies of humour ; 
,:i this must have been here: whosoever liad preferred sin- 
■ ' riiy, enrneslneia, depth of prHirlicnl i-ather than iht-oretic 
iii-igiit, with not letis of impetnositj, of clearness and sure* 
new. with humour, emphasis, or such other melody or rhythm 
as that utterance demanded, — must have come over to Lon- 
don : AH'], witli forbcarant sulimisaivencss, listened to our 
J<iiu»ou. Hod Me the stronger man, then ? Be it rather, 
u ID lliai duel of C(rur-de-Lion with the light, nimble, yet 
alaa invincible .Saladin, that each nation hod the strength 
vltich miist bofltled it. 

Closely connected with this jwwer of conversation is Dide- 
iDt'a facility of composition. A talent much mdebralcd i 
Dumeruiis really surjirlsing proofs whereof an- on record: 
how he wrote long works within tlio week ; sometimes within 
almiHi the four-nnd-twenly hours. Cnhappily, enough slill 
nmuuii* to make such feats credible. Host of Diderot** 


Wurk* liiiir ill!/ denrest iraces of ext^mporani'oimics! ; 
sluns perJe in itno .' They are nijch liker prinlt^ talk, thu 
Ilic coiiCL-iiIr^Icii WL-ll-coDsidereil uitenuice which, frooi ft mm 
of llml weight, WL' expect Co see set in types. It is Mil, 'be 
wrote good |iagc-', liul could not write a good book.' Subrti- 
tute tlid nut fui- ciiuld not ; and there is tmib in ibe sajing. 
Ck-nme^, as lins heen observed, coinprehendibility U > 
glance, \i the charucler of whatever Diderot wrote : a dew- 
iiesH which, in visuiil objects, rises into the region of lb* 
Artistic, and resembles that of Riehard^u or Defoe. Y**, 
grant thitt lie iiinke^ his meaning clear, what is tbe nanrt 
of tijat mciiniiig itself? Aliu, for Diost part, onlj a kaa^i 
flim^4y, supcrlidul meaning, with gleotns of a deeper viaM 
[leering tlirough. More or less of disorder reigns in iU 
Works thai Diderot wrote ; not order, but the pUiusible np- 
lieamncc of sueli : Ibe true heart of tbe matter is not found ; 
'111' ski|is Uctlly along (he radii, anil skips over the centre. 

DUitROT, 3S3 

It* to little known ; to [lie great m^ority lie is no longer 
I'Bfulily. but a HenrMiy. Such, indeed, partly is iJie nat- 
F Works Polemical, wliicli niraost all Diderol** are, 

e Pulemte anniliiUtles \m opponent ; but in so doing annl- 
I himself too, and both arc swept away to make room 

P touuthing otiicr and farther. Add to this, ihe eligbt' 
lurM traneilory characit-T of Diderot's style ; and the 

II i« well enough explained. Meanwbile, I<'( liiin to vrluim 
■ •ppliea consider it ; him among whose gills it was lo rise 

» the Perennial, and who dwell ratlicr low down in the 
Kpbeiuen], and epheinenilly fought and scratnliled there I 
IHdenH the gntat \ml* contracted into Diderot the ea»lly- 
Bt«i»tirable : so must it be with others of the like. 

In how many sentences con the net-product of all that 
tuinultiKins Atiieism, printed over many volumes, be com- 
prised I Nay, tlie whole Eneyelopidir, lliat world's wonder 
of the eighteenth century, the Belus' Tower of an ago of 
nrfinol Illuminution, what hm it become? Alas, no »tone- 
Inww, that will stand there tm our strenglli and defence 
ihrougli all lime*; but, at Ix'*l, a wooden Htlfjmiis (City- 
Imkirr). wherein stationed, the Philosophui:) Policaster hais 
hamt and battered-down many an old rulnond Sorbonne i 
■Dd wliich now, when that work \a pretty well ovrr, may, 
in tMrn, \>e taken asunder, and used as firewund. The famed 
Kiicyclo[>edieaI Trre itself haw proved an artificial oni*. and 
UiniF no fruit. Wc meun that, in its nature, il ie menhani- 
nl only ; one uf those attempts to parcel-out the invisibls 
nyrtival Soul of Man, with it« infmtuiit of phases and 
(■htuiu^iT, into shop-li^t' of what are called * facultivs.* * mo- 
livea,' and sueh liltL- ; which attempts may indeed be mado 
with all dr^rnr* of inniglit, from that of a Doctor Spurelirim 
to UiftI of Denis Diderot or Jeremy Bentham ; and prove 
UM-ful for a day, but for a day only. 

Nevertheleis tl were bl«e to regard Diilerot as a Meehan- 
bt and uutbiug more i as one working and grindhig blindl/ 
f mechanical Logic, joyHil with his lot ibure. 

ban- 1 

»dl7 J 

to the Poet, to the PropL 
could have revealed the 
consider this one little sei 
of the dying Sanderson : * 
ne sofU peut-etre qu'un poin 
perhaps but a point) ! ' 

So too, in Art, both as a i 
reckoned as one of those who 
of the artificial barren sphere 
one. His Dramas, the FiU 
have indeed ceased to live ; ) 
things visible in them ; the att 
otherwise, and has found, and i 
in his Salons (Judgments of Ai 
for Grimm, and by ill chance 
character, do we find the frees 
cellence ihere is ; nay an impel 
hot even creatively, towards sc 
deed, what with their unrivalle 
tare over again for us, so that 
it ; what with their sunny ferv< 
genius, which wants nothing bi 
few exoenft/***- - 



r that Hgure, otily a liitlf-lrulli, for Art too is Art, na 
rely ■* Nature is Nulure ; whieli Blruggle, meanwliile, 
r as lialf-lmlh or working iUelf into a whole (nilh, may 
I, in cotinlries lliat have ajiy Art, slill forming the 
y of ail artistic endeavour. In which sense, Dide- 
Wt Ettatf oil Painling tiat been JLi<l||ed worth tninslation 
I'ibe ;;ruate^t modern Judge of Art, and grealeot modem 
Jie highest kind of Art ; and may be rend anew, 
I argumenlallve commentary and exposition, in Guethe'i 

w-Htiy, let ui grant, witii pleasure, tlial for I>iderot himself 
) realms of Art wore not wholly unvisited; that he too, 
f heavily imprisoned, stole Promethean fire. Among these 
llitudiuout. moat miscellaneous Writings of his, in great 
inufnctured fitrrRgo of Philosophiim no longer 
table, and now looking mehmcholy enough, — are two 
that we eaii almost call Poems; that have something |>er- 
'niiially [KWlic in tliem : Jarijuei ; U FiUa/iite in a etiU 
liiglier degree, the AVfSK tie Jtameau. The occasional bbu- 
itfMi of both : even tliitl darkest indigo in some parts of the 
former, shall not altogether affrigiii us. As it were, a loose 
straggling sunbeam Hies here over Mau'fi Existence in France, 
nuw nigh a century behind us : ' from the height of luxuri- 
• HM elegance la the depths of sbamelessneBS,* all b here. 
Sladt, cureless seems tlie combination of the picture ; wrig- 
f^ling. difjoinled, like a bundle of flails ; yet strangely united 
in the painter's inward unconscious feeling. Wearisomely 
iTuckling wit gels silent ; a grim, taejluni, dare-devil, almost 
ili>garthian humour, rises in the baukgronnd. Like this 
thore is nothing tluit we know of in the whole range uf 
Freui'li Literature : La Fontaine is shallow in cmuparison ; 
the La Itruycrc wit-species not to be named. It rcsemblea 
Don Quirole, rntlier ; of somewhat simikr slalure ; yet of 
compleKion nllogethcr different ; ilirougb ihe one looks a 
»anny Elysium, through the oilier a vulphurous Erebus : 
jtfllt bold of (he InftnltH. Thid JtKqwt, perbapS) was not 

""> "•••'■^ v^Z y^ ('"'• '■' 

* ^""•geou. ^ ^ '"'^'' « dec 

"' '^'^ ha-- coZ! "" """•« 

«"«ce for ;;!"^ ^"""on ^ut 
. ^* ''f re <'<v>« / , 

.•'Pect, a. 5^,7 """here u.^ 
'"■'•ked, .,,,^ "^'^^h- unired. „ 


l^m him. yvt nlicri^iii lie by HenvcnV grace WkU keeji 
frfiill}' wnrfiiring, jirevailing or not, can derive small wl- 
luit from ihis light, fluclualing, not to say fliiiisj exist- 
I of Diderot : no Gospel in that kind hiw lie left un. 
I, in Ikct, with all liis liigli gift^, had rElhRr a ff amle 
*. SiiM-cptible. sensitive, living by impiiWs, which 
it he hod fathioned into some show of prinoiples ; with 
e enough, with even a female uncontrollabteneu ; 
; of manful slcdfastne^, <toiiRiderateneM, invinei- 
Tliua, loo, we linil him living moi^tly in ihe society 
ir of men who, like women, flatiered him, and 
! life easy for him ; recoiling with horror from un ear- 
ft Jean JacqueA, who utiileroloo<l not the scienco of walking 
n show ; hut imagined, ))oar man, that tntlh was (here 
lliing lo be toltl, lis a thing lo be acted, 
call Diilerot, then, not a coward ; yut not in any wnae 
r man. Neither lownrda him.'wif, nor towards olhcm, 
■wa* he bravo. All ihe vinui-a, says M. dx Meimer, which 
i<'>|itire not *a great milt (scquoncy) of ideas' were his; all 
I hilt da rrqaire such a $uitf were not his. In othi^r words, 
->. Iial dulica wen^ easy for hiiu he did : happily Nature had 
: < iidered »cfcral easy. iUs spiritual aim, moreover, seemed 
i.iit BO mucli la be enforcement, exposition of Duly, as dis- 
(ijvcry of a Duly-made-easy. Natural enough that he should 
etrifce into thai pm\'in<'(t of lentiia*at, eaur-noblt and so forth. 
AW, to declare tltat the beauty of viriuu is beautiful, cosia 
oomparnlivcly tittle : to win it. ami near it, is quite another 
CHIeqirise, — wherein the loud braggart, we know, \s not the 
likeliest IQ succeed. On the whole, peace be with teutiment, 
f'lr dial aUo Ilea behind us! — For the rest, as hinted, what 
diitica were difficult our Diilerot left tmdone. How should 
he, the etrur tttuiUt, front such a monster as Piuii ? And 
_ oow, aiiuw misgivings cannot fail in that course, what is to be 
■up all asperities with Huods of tmiihihli. and so 
flgn raori! or le« Bmoolhly along? E*t-il b<>nf K*t-il 
Uf ii his own accuunt of himself. At all events, he 

j,..v.ii/, lias lie come do 
what can we do but reoci^ 

If now we and our rea 
want that Life and Perfor 
clearer before us, be the 
more wearisome, no profitk 
unite our own brief preset 
pactly with the Past and wi 
what lay at our hand toward 
of the Eighteenth Century 
thread or two thereof nearer 

But finally, if we rise witl 
to do with all matters, into t 
History, and look on it with 
that time, but of Time at largt 
stand here. That intrinsically, 
ooe day when the net-result 
oomes to be summed up, Uiis 
oem of French Philosophism 
of fractions, or vanish into no 
History and Thoughts of thos 
barbaric War-eong of a Debo 
phetic Utterance of an unkem 
est significance, say only these 
has the thrice-resnl****'''*- * ^ 



World's and Man's History,' saja the Thinker of our time, 
whereto ail other themes are subordinated, remains the 
Conflict of Unbelief and Belief. All epochs wherein 
Belief prevails, under what form it may, are splendid, heart- 
elevating, fruitful for contemporaries and posterity. All 
epochs, on the contrary, wherein Unbelief, under what form 
soever, maintains its sorry victory, should they even for a 
moment glitter with a sham splendour, vanish from the eyes 
of posterity; because no one chooses to burden himself 
with study of the unfruitful' 


IX 1 


* The life of every man. 

* the life even of the mean 

* ber, is a Poem ; perfect in 

* sites ; with beginning, mi( 

* and solutions ; with its Wil 
*fare against Fate, its elc 

* marred by crime, everywh* 

* Pity and Fear ; above all 

* enough, — for was not the 
' did he not die^ and miracul 
' The most indubitable Poem 

* name it a Prophecy, or wlu 

* cabulary ; since only in Rea 
' tion of all that was ever fi 
*' babbled by the human speci 

* includes in it all Revelations 

* are, or are to be. Man » t 


* Thus lo my view, is every Life, moru jiropcrly is every 
.Mim thai btu life lo lead, a Bmall srrojjhe. or M-ca^ional 
■i<T«<', rampn«ed by the Superaal Powers! and piibUphed, 
til such type and shape, willi auch vmbetlUhment^ emiile- 
matic head-piec« and tuil-piew a.* Uioa cecst, to tlie thinking 
DT untliinkiiig aniverse. Heroic strophe)' some ftw are ; 
full of force and a »aored tin*, so thai lo latent ages the 
I ' :tri> of tLo«e thai read therein are iiiado to lingle. 
'' ri'iniadj others seem ; mere weeping Inmenl^ harmoni- 
N- i>r diHliamionious RyinoiisirttneeB ugtiiiiiit Destiny j 
whcri'at we too may sometimes profitably weep. Again, 
'have we not lli^sh-and- blood Biropbes of the idyllii; »rt, — 
' iboagh in the«e days mrelyi owing lo Poor- Laws, Game- 
' IiMWM, Populalion-Thixiries and tlie like I Fnnher, of ilie 
' cumic luughler-loviiig sort 1 yet erer with an unfulhamable 
tiani<«Iiie«», as 'u fit, lying tiiidemealh : for, bethink ihee, 
wtiMl is the mirthfullest grinning face of any Grimuldi, ))ut 
m tran*iiory mati: btsliind whii^h quile otherwise grins — the 
most indubilablo lkalh't-Ju<ad! However, I ssy fartlur, 
ttwTU am strophes of the pasloml sort (as in Rttrick, 
'AigtianisUMi, and elsewhere) ; of the fureic-iragie, nteludra- 
'natic,of nil named and a thousand unnftniable sorts there 
>sre poctid strophes, written, as was said, in Hcavi-n, printed 
on EJirib, and publi$lied (bound in woollen cloth, or i^htt) 
' for tlio D«e of the studious. Finally, a sninll numbrr seem 
uti«r Pjuit|uil3, mere ribnld liheU on Humanity : tliese loo, 
i.L.wever, are at times worth reading. 

■ [ '1 this wise." continues our too obscure friend, ' out of all 
.N..i^nable elements, awakening oil imagiiuible tnoods of 
■ DtHirt and soul, " barbaixius enough to cxciie. lender enough 
*(e MMuage," eier conlmdictory yet ever coalescing, is that 
' n^biy wodd-old Rlmpsoillu of Existence page aller page 
> (genenition after geiieratiuu), and chajiter (or epoch) afler 
' ebapli^r, poetically put logeilier ! This is wlrnl some one 
' name* " the grand i^acred Epos, or Bible of World- History ; 
meuniug as ttie Divine Mind it emblems ; where- 

:;'':-. ••-'.eh'; 'r!r"S 

•^•"^'-ns infinite J L """ 
' to be of r, • ' "" ''"" ''■' 

'Posesf, „e,..! "ooMiea, 

' no-- lot ,/".'"""" t'^'K 



iftmcly, a Life to lejiil ? Thus di>c° Ite roo, with l>i.' 
forci^ in his own wny, procinim lliai the woHd-oliJ 
i)i9Mliu of Bxblcnci; u ilivine, ntid nn inspired Ttibte ; 
hiiDMtir a wondrous v&r»e thereiii (l>e it herok, be il 
uillic), elud; Willi his whole muI, as ne said, both tn 
und lo bf WTtHen ' 
Here aUo I will observe, lliat llie manner m which men 
inme Bible i», like all ebe, proiiortioniiie to ihclr 
ilture, to the drcumsiunccs of their Gtivirontncni. 
II, and aniong ihe eanieHt Oiienial nations, it wb$ read 
Sncred Book ; most clearly by the most ear- 
ibtMe wondrous Hi^brew Renders i whose reniling ac- 
inglj wiu iuell' «acred, Iioa nifaniog for all tribes of 
il toun; since ever, to tlie latest generalion ol' the 
'Id, a true utleraDcti froni the hinerniust or man's being 
■peak signifieanlly to man. But, again, in how iliffi.-r- 
R style was that other Oriental nmding of the Mugi ; of 
iusht, or wlioi?ver it wns thai first so ojitned the mailer? 
setni-jcusual Grandeurs and Splenduura: on in- 
ile darknera, brightest-glowing light and fire ; — of which, 
defaeed by Time, and turned mostly into lie$, a quite late 
s. in those j\Tabiun Tales and the like, still leads cap- 
(tvery heart. Look, thirdly, at the earnest Wc^, and 
Consecration of the Fle:>h, which slept forth life-lusiy, 
It. smiling-earueEl, in immorial grace, from under the 
;) and the stylus of old Greece. Here loo was the Infi- 
nite intelligibly prorlnimcd as infinite : and ihe antique man 
walkMl between a Tartarus and an Elysium, hU brilliant 
Paphm-iik-t of Existence etnbraced by boundle^ oceans 
i)f «Hdnes» tmA fateful gloom. — Of which three antique 
iitHnni-rs of reading, our modern manner, you will n-mark, 
liat ht-cn liille more than imitation : for alwnys, indred, the 
West htt't liecn rifur of doers (liun of speakers. Tlie He- 
brrw manner has had its eolio in our Pulpits and choral 
allien ; the Ethnic Greek and Arabian in numberlew nioun- 
Udtia of Fiction, rhymed, rli/meless, published by lubsctip- 

scious ri'cognilion the ** sti 

* may hiivc), we wait, in hop 

* niainuT of anew convincing 

These singular sentences 
wurzel we have thought rig 
way of proem and apology. 
8ome critical account of what 

* flesh-and-blood Poem of the 
words, to examine the biograpl 
drel that in these latter ages ha 
Pasquils too, says Sauerteig, * 
Or quitting that mystic dialect « 
our own way, that the history o\ 
worth knowing? So magnificer 
in a creature of like fashion with 
aU manifestations thereof: what 
a peculiar path of life for himseli 
way, and successfully travelled tli 
inquire. How he travelled ; Wl 
ney ? Though the man were a I 
hinders not the question. How 
Nay it rather encourages such qu 
is wholly desnioi»*»'- 


I llic Plauiiiljlt!. Such a one our Transi^eiiitiinlaU lmv'« 
ita a moral Hybrid and chimera ; tlierefore, under 
the moral point of view, a^ an Impiiadlliility, and men: decitp- 
five Nuut^ntiiy, — put togutlier for cominBrtial purjxwes. Of 
wliicli «orl, ricvertltelesti, how many millions, through all man- 
ner uf grHil)ilion!i, from lliu wii:ldi?r of king^' sueptrea to tlia 
1 i^inlor of brimstone matctii's, al tea-lable«, council-lablv^i 
'"'hind ^bifp-counlen, in priests' pulpits, inctuaiuitly luid 
..■ryurherB, do now. In this world of ours, in this !"'« of 
II-. offer tlienuolvGS lo Ti*w ! From »ucb, at least from 
..L-- iniuleniblL* ov«r>pro|iortion of such, might the merciful 
I'Mvcna one day drliver us. Glorious, heroic, fruitful for 
- ■>wii Tiniu, and lor iiJI Tiine and all Eternity, id the cga- 
iiil 8|H^akL'r and Dour of Truth ! If no such again, in the 
• ■•^Dt generation, b to be Touch^afed us, let us huve ut 
i-t the mviancfaoly pleasure of beholding a decided Liar. 
'Vrctclied mortal, who With a eingle eye lo be 'respectable' 
M'l'er sittest cobbling logeiher two Inconaiatencies, which 
I 'It not for an Lour, but require ever new gluten and ta- 
iiir, — will it, by no length of experience, no bounty of 
1 line or Clmn(«, be revealed to thee that Truth is of Hear- 
II. and Falsehood is of Uell ; that if thou cai«t not from thee 
■.!ir one or the other, thy existence is wholly an Illusion and 
iilitieaj and tactual Phnnta«in ; that properly thou exislest 
not al nil ? Resectable I What, in the Devil's name, is the 
UM uf Re9|>eciability, with never to many gig^ and silver 
-{•uona, if thou inwanlly art the piiifullest of all men? I 
would thou Wert eillier cold or hot. 

Ooe Biich desirable second-best, perhaps the chief of all 
■ Kfh, wc have here Imind in the Count Alessoudro di Cagli- 
..iro. Pupil of ihe Siige Alllmlas, Fo5ler-child of the Sche- 
nf of Mecca, probable Son of the last King of Trebisond ; 
ii:imcd also Achnrai, and unfortiinntc child of Nature; bjr 
n,fea«ioii healer of diseases, aboUsher of wrinkles, friend 
the [loor and impotent, grand-master of the Egyptian 
M4#<Mi<[odgi; of High Science, Spirit^ummoner, Gold-cookt 

836 MiaCELLANIF.3. 

Graad Co|>bta, Prophet, Priest, atid th.iumnturgio mutiiM 
and swindler ; really a Liar of the firat lUQgnitude, tliomi^ 
paced in sll proviiiiiea of lying, wLttt one may call ihe Kiif 
of Liara. JAandf.z. Pinto, Boron MiinchUuseii and ollien vt 
celebrated in tbis art, and not without sotne ntlour of Ju-li«ii 
yet must it in candour renmin doubtful whellmr Moy of ■!«( 
com par.i lively were much more than liars from lUe Ittili » 
wards : a perfect character of the species in ((Ueslion, who M 
not in word only, nor in act and word only, bill conliauallrf 
in thought, word and act ; and, so to speak, lived ivholhr it 
an element of lying, and from liirth to death did nolhinj 
lie, — was still a desideratum. Of which desideraluro Cwrt 
Aies.=ondro offet^a, we say, if not the futfilmeai, periupi ■ 
near an aiiproach to it a^ the limited human facultii^ penu. 
Not in the modern ages, probably not in the ancient (ihoo^ 
these had their Aulolycus, their ApoUonius, and rnougb eJsv). 
did any completer figure of this gort is^ue out of Chamiof 
Old Night ; a i-ubiime kind of figure, presenting himself will 


(Tioiit rommoo seme, or any discernible worth whatever, 
-'imjiioou^lj' supported, for a long iwurjp of jcura, the 
I'l^ and digestion of one of tlie gi'cediesi bodiei^, und one 
I lie grvwiiost mimliit uutwtinlly in bis five senses, in- 
Hy in his ' aixlh sense, that of vnniiy,' notliing straitened. 
ir enough it U, however much may be suppojiliiious, 
I tills jafNinned Cliuriot, rushing through the world, with 
i-i-louda and loud noise, at the speed of four Bwift horses, 
: t'ljiheuvy with laggafifi, has an existence. The six Beef- 
< :'■!■< ton, that ride prosperously heralding h!!> advent, boo- 
iiiirablr t!»<!orting, menially waiting on him, are they not 
raftlilies ? Ever must the purse 0|itii, paying turnpikes, 
tnTcro-bills. drink-moneys, and the thousandfold tear and 
.r of sufh B team ; yet ever, like a liom-of-plenty, does 
'iir; and after brief rest, the chariot ceases not lo roll. 
I reujMHi rather pressingly arW-d the scicntifiu qnestion; 
ii-iK '! Witliin that wonderful miiebinery, of horses wheels, 
tofl-^llggage, bccf-eaters, sila only a grow, [hick^et IndivtduBl, 
erhicing dulnesa enough ; and by his side n Serapliina, with 
■ look of doubtful reputation : how comes il that means still 
ne«i ends, that the whole Engine, lilce a sieam-coacb want- 
ing foci, does not stagnate, go silent, and fall lo pico^s in ihe 
ditch? Sudi question did the scientific curiosity of the 
prrwni writer often pit ; and for many a day in vain. 

Neither, indeed, a» Book-renders know, was he peculiar 
herein. The great Schiller, for exnmpl»», struck both with 
the poetic and the scicnliRc phaM» of the matter, admitted 
the influences of the former (o shajie ihemselvcA anew within 
bitn ; and nirovf witli his usual impetuosity to burst (since 
nnlucking fia inipmsible) the secrets of the latter : and so 
bi» nnHni-hml Novel, the Gritl^irJier, saw the light. Still 
mem rcnowtied is Got'thc's Drama of the Grots-Kuphla ; 
wbkh, an himself informs us, delivered him from n state of 
orind that had become alarming lo certain friends ; so d(«p 
WW ibe bold this busini^, at one of iu epochs, bad taken of 
A dnuiMttc Fiction, that of his, bawd on the itticte^ 


possible hii-lurk'al >lu(l^ and inquiry ; wlit^rcin pvrtutpi ih 
fHithfull^t image of the bisturioil Fact, as yvl exlaul in UJ 
shape, lies in artistic miniature curiously unttilded. S^ 
mere Newspaper-readers, of a, certain age, can bethink tks 
1^ our London Egyptian Lodges of fligh Scienev ; of ik 
Countess Seraphins'a daiKling jewelleries, noclumal bnHiu 
cies, sibyilic ministrations and revelations ; of Mi&! Frj wd 
Milord Scoti, and Me»sre. Priddle and the other itvi 
bailies; and Lord Manstield's judgmeul-M'itl ; th« Conic 
d'Adbemar, the Diamond Necklace, and Lord G<.-orge Gaf 
don. For Cugllosiro, hovering through unknown spnu% Inn 
(perhaps thrice) lighted on our London, und itid bn^incM ii 
the great chaos there. 

Unparalleled Cagliostro I Looking at thy so sftraciitelf 
decorated private theatre, wherein thou ocicd^t mid KredA 
what bitnd hut itches to draw aside itiy cuitnin ; oTCr-luol 
ihy pasteboards, [laint-pota, paper-manlle_s sla^-Iamp^s «■! 
tnmiiig the whole inside out, find tier in the middle thm- 


M-ribi- : Wid, siul lu my, with the most ini|>«'i-f«i't 
!!■: lia^ rntd B^wkn In vurious Inngunges nnd jargonsj 
t>itmil not U> Boil hia flngrr*, hunting through nnrieiit diMiy 
M:igusiii», lo sirkiTH hU heart in any Inhyrinih of iniqui^ 
'"1 imheMHiyi naj he Imd iiol gruOged to dive rvcn into 
I" infrctiout .Wimoirtt lir Catanm-a, for a hlnl or two, — 
Diilit h(^ hnvK found ihut wurk, which, hnwt^Trr, most Brit- 
-ii Libntriniia makp a (xiinl of denying ihHi thi^y [■<»««••• 
\ pninAil »cnrrh, m throttgh some »piriiual pcul-houw ; and 
li"ii with such iwuie! Th*- ijuantitj uf diBPoVfrxblf Prim- 
ing altoui CnKlio»tro (w much being bunil) 18 now not gmt; 
B«^v<>rlhe|p>a iu frightful proportion to thn i|uanti[y «(' infiw^ 
mation girrn. Except vague New^^jixpcr ntmourw ami BDr<- 
mii>M, Ihe thing! fmind written of thia Quni^k are liltln more 
iban tetnporarj Manifcloa, bj himself, by gulled or p^nlltng 
<li*<ipl(v at his : not trui: llirrefon- ; nl brjt only cttrtani 
fraciions of what lie wished or es[>ecied the blinder PiibUo 
lo reckon tmp ; minty, rnibroilpd, for most part highly rtu- 
pidi perpk-xing. even provoking: wliii'h niii only ho bcs- 
Iwved — to be, under such and nuch condilionii, Lie*. Of 
tfji* um i-oiphaticBlly i^ thr Englnh • Li/r of lit Comt 
■ ifflioitro. priee thret- flhillingi and >ix|)«iu^e:' a Bonk 
I !.r>d wiiich wip might hold (ih> fnlonu*, inane in it) to b« 
' inir iiwre dr«ain-rision and unn-al eidolon, did it not now 
! md palpably there, an • Sold by 1'. Ilookhuai, Bund Street, 
iTx?;' and bear to be handled, opunird at ai»d torn into 
fifr malrbe». Some human rrualiin? diiubilnM wa* at tba 
g of il ; but of what klnrl, eoiiniry. trade, eharai^ier or 
uu will in vain itrivc lo fancy. Of like fabnlona 
e the Mfmiiirrt pour It Comtt tfe CagUoOrl), etnil- 
led, with Rnpiitf a joindr*, from the Haj^tille, during thai 
■wmwftil huMneia of tlw Dinmonil Neeklaw. in 17146: mi 
)eai the fMIrt da fomU d* fhgtioitro tm PtupU Anglait, 
viridi follownl ■hnrtly aflcr, at I^mdon; fmni whicb Iwo 
iadac i l. that fatuous inexplicable English lA/r ban pt-rbapf 
taw vamfar i — i mf a u i u r wl . Nut conn iba JUmmrm mm 


private-theatre, or tlie souii 
from the stupid audience ; lu: 
dress-room \vhi(?li we wanted 
half-genuine documents are a 
ostro demasque a Varsovie, 
Volume pur|K>rting to be his 1 
latter we have a French vers 
Vie de Joseph Bidsamo, connn 
ostro, that our main dependent 
Work, meanwhile, whether it i 
the reader may judge by on^ 
through the medium of the J 
proofs to substantiate it lie in tl 
this reporting Familiar of the 1 
something of a Liar ; and he r 
one who was not so much a Lia 
matic duskiness, and thrice-fold 
quiries, does the matter yet ha 
Nevertheless, by dint of medil 
points that stand fixed, and abide 
disclose themselves ; diffusing a f 
wise w^ere dark, so that it is no Ic 
Nay after all, is there not in this 
fitness, of poetic congruity? lA 
eye stands HSo/.— 



D glory, yet united, coalescing willi the region of ever- | 
; Darkness, in miraculous elear-ob^'cui'c, thai be works | 
and ridca. 

' Stt!ni Atrciirucy in ini|uiring, bold Itnaginaiion in ex- I 

■iiiiHing and filling uji ; iliese,' sajs friend Snueru^ig, ' are 

11 two pinion!) on which History soars.' — or tluitcrs nnd 

•lililp*. To wliidi two pinions lei us and iIil' readu» of 

Uiis Mngnzine now daringly commit ourselves. Or chiefly 

indcwl to tbe laUer pinion, of Iniagiiialiun : which, if il 

tl>B larj/ef, will indeed make an unequal lligbt 1 Meanwhile, j 

(lu style at least ^all if possible be e<iuut to tbe subject. 

Know, then, ibal in the year 1743, in (he city of Falenoo, J 
in Sicily, ihe family of Stgnor Pieiro BaUamu, a sliopkeeper, I 
vrcro exhilarated by the birth of a Buy. Such occurrences J 
have DOW become hi frequent that, miraculous aa they are, I 
iht-y occa^-ion little aetonishmeoi : old Ualaamo for a sj>ac«, 
indcml, laid down bis ellwands and iidjuhI balances ; but for 
the rMi, met the event with equanimity. Of tbe possetings, 
jankrting^ go^iping§, and other cei^moniol rcjoidnga. trans- 
kci*d according to the custom of the country, for welcome to ■ 
ti Ni-w-c«mcr, not the faintest Iruditioii ha« survived; enough| I 
thni the »miill New-comer, hitherto a mei« ethnic or heathen, 
is Id a few days mode a Christian of, or as we vulgarly say, 
diriBinnrd ; by (he name Glu^ppe. A fat. red, globular 
kind of fellow, not under nine pounds avoirdupois, (be bold 
Imagination can figure him tu be: if not proofs, tb«nj ar« 
indiciuiuns thnt suffliTicntly betoken as much. 

Of lii« teething and swaddling adventures, of his ecald> 
ings Mjuallingd. pukingti, purging^, the striciesi March into 1 
History cun discover milhing; not f« much m the e|)och f 
when he passeii out of longn-lothea stands noted in the fasti i 
of Sicily. TliHt «ame ' larger piniuu ' of Imagination, n«vor- 
tlieI«M, conducts him from his native blind-alley, into the 
adjaccot street Gitaro ; descries him, with certain con- 
) now unknown, essaying himself in amall gamta 

.-* V III viwuiyttut I 

of speech, the gifts of sinuihitii 
manifest th<'inselves ; Giusepp 
culled, could indeed speak the 
saw his advantage in it. Hun, 
too, probably, often was: a k 
meagre larder within doors; t 
frequently conjoined in this worh 
tions. As to the thing called 
Right and Wrong, it seems pret 
edge, the sad fruit of Man's Fs 
spared him ; if he ever heard the 
not gtealy he most probably could 
could not obey it. For the rest, 
and a ready striker where clear ] 
itself, we fancy him vociferous : 
prone to violence where stratagem 
indeed, had not his many wants 
conquests. Above all things, a b 
itself; the crowning gift of one b< 
word, the fat thickset Beppo, as h 
dering, playing dog's-tricks, with h 
already gains character ; shrill hoi 

hood. vr\^^-"' 


Ffig tiDulileil; oW RaUamo liaJ, during iliese ihing*, bra-.n 
illeti Hwnv on hU long joiirnpy. Poor man! The fuiUK 
■iiineni-e an<l |ire-)-Rimcnte of his l)i.'p|io he forcww nol, 
ur wliBi B worldVwondor he had iliuugUtle^lj' generutiMl ; 
an itideed, which uf us, by tniirh calciiluiing, mn sum up 
ihc m-t-lotal (Ulilily, or Inmilhy) of any hi* most incliffereat 
ud, — a serd cn»t inio ihc «eeilliu1il of Time, to grow then*. 
|>nxlucing fruiL" or potMins, forever I Mtnnwhilir Itr|)pci 
liimi^rlf gSEciI heavily inIo ihe mailer; hung his thick lip)^ 
while he saw hia mother wncping; anil, fur the real, eatiilg 
whal fat or sweet thing he euuld come al. let Dextiny lake 
its, euurse. 

The poor widow, ilt-nanicd Fdicila, spinning iiut n painful 
livelihood hy <uch means ajiouly [lie |KXir and Torsaken kiipw, 
i-r<iilrt not bill many limes cast an impnticnt eye on her bnua- 
(iir.-d, Toracious Iteppo : and ask him. If he neter meant to 
'ijni himself In anything? A mnlcninl unele,of Ihr moneyed 
■rl (for he ha* uncles not without influence), hat already 
I 1. 1 ■'I'd him in the Seminary of Saint Rneh, to gain wme 
iieture of «diouling there : but Bepjxj fei-ls himself mis- 
that sphere i 'more than once runs awayi' U 
, snubbed, tyrannieally checked on nil sides i and 
dlji with eucli slender »tuck of M^hooling as had pleased 
iBer itself returns to the street. The widow, as we said. 
t him, the unclet* urgi^ : Beppo, wilt thou never turn 
msV lo anything i* lleppo, with such ^>eeulntiPD faculty, 
I such low watch-tower, as lie oommand-N is in truth. 
; fixved lo it, from time to time, looking abroad into tlie 
; survr'ying ihe conditions of mniikind, iherewitli con- 
ing his own wishes and capabilities, Alas, his wishes 
f manifold ; a mott hot Hunger (in all kinils). as aUovr 
I ttie other hand, his leading cupabdiiy seemed 
f llie Power lo Eat. What prolession, nr eondilion, then ? 
; for it is time. Of all ihe terreairial professions, that 
•nileouui, it seemed lo Iteppo, had, under ibcse circum- 
n most suited to his feelings : hut then the outfit? 

.^.•cc Uiere. lie has don 
to the keeping of the Coi. 
pots and erueibles lie looks 
uecident that he found liiin; 
it by choice of liis own — n 
design of Destiny, intent on 
in this Cartcgirone Laboratot 
yet he knew it not, life gu 
great want of every genius, 
He himself confesses that he 
calls it, the) * principles of chen 
enough : new books of the Ch 
the Alchemists ; distillations, s 
discussions there were, oral a 
salve-making, treasure-digging, 
tlie alaihest : besides, hud he ii 
acids, Leyden-jars ? Some first 
coDJurorship, so far as phosphon 
ipecacuanha, cantharides tinctu 
were now attainable ; sufficient v 
any average Quack, much more 
here, in this unpromising envir 
peutic, thaumaturcrir* *^^ *' 



;' and, if he will {^luploy hi^ cupaliiiiiy of <Miiiiig or 
lug, aimi first, in Miioe uicuaurf, wurk mid suSi-r. Cou- 
n enough hereupon : but now iliiiily arii^d, or reproduces 
^ tliu quei^tion, Wheiiier ibere were iiol a thorttr road, 
ifittealing? Stealing — under which, gcaericalljr taken, 
wy include ihe whole art of scoundrelism i for what is 
; itst-lf l)ut a Ihtji of niy belief? — btcnting, we suy, is 
^yroiierly llic North-West Passage lo Erijojmuut : while com- 
mon Nuvigutura aail piunfully along torrid »hurei», laboriously 
■iuiibliiig this or ihe utlier Cupe of Hope, your adiv>it Thief- 
1 'jrry, drawn on smooth ilog-sledge», is alivady tlit-re and 
<< k agiiiii. The misfortune is, that stejiling rt^quiitiB a 
li'rii ; and failure in thai Nonh-Weiji voyage is more fatal 
h.m ill uuy other. We Iieur that Btppo was 'often pun- 
1 Ki-J:' (Hiinrul i-s|>friijiices of the fate of genius; for all 
.' iiitij, liy its nature, comes to disturb tomtbody in his ease, 
oiul your ihicf-gi!uiu» more so than most I 

Kt-aders can now fancy ihe seueitive ^kin of Beppo niortj- 

6nl with jirii'kly cilices, weulwi by knotted ihoiigs ; his »oul 

ainictcd by vlgiU uiid foreed fasts; no eye turned kindly on 

111; crerywhere the bent of his genius ruddy contra vented. 

: !'>weter, it is (be first property of genius to grow in spite 

I >.ioniradiction, and ev«n by means thereof; — ad the vital 

Li-rm pu»heis itself through the dull soil, and lives by wliat 

nive (u bury it ! Beppo, wasing into strength of bone and 

Lumeler, sets hii face stiffly agaiii'-l persecution, and 'u not 

»hit disheartened. Ou (ui-A chaaiiseioents aud ohastisera 

I' i-aii look witli a certain genial disdain. Beyond conrcnt- 

..ilU, with their sour stupid shavelings, lies Palermo, lies iho 

wurld ; here loo is he, still aliie, — though wome off than he 

wi>liir<l ; anil recld that the Horld is his oyster, whicli he (by 

ehemiifal »r other in'-ani) will one day open. Nay, wc find 

thetv is a touch of grim Humour unfolds itself in tlie youth ; 

the surest sigti, a* is often said, of a ehameter natunillj 

grrai. Witness, for example, how ho »cU on this to hie 

1 tsuperament M trying occasion. While the monka 

me spur of tlie moment 
Saintv<, all heartily indiffen 
of the most notabh* Palen 
ginning to interest him a lit 
ns the Germans ciill it, lie 
felled him to the earth, anc 
what did it avail? This oi 
and them, that be had nc 
pline ; as the psyche does it 
Giuseppe Balsamo bids fare^ 
a day. 

So now, by consent or n» 
(Friars of Mercy ^ as they w( 
again returned to the maternal 
naturally asked him, What lie 
after stammering and hesitatir 
makes answer: Try Painting, 
gets him colours, brushes, fit t^ 
some space of time to the stud 
Design, Alas, if we consider 
that new senses were unfoldinc 
the exiguous resources of Desij 
quite another il»*or» — 


(■eturv : both on his wants unil hii reeoiirccs. At lo th« 
mL it appoan (u^iig the wooden raun'f phroHoolog^) thnt 
Kkr|it the ' wor^i ciitn)>aDy,' led the ' looHe.'il life ; ' whs 
M-iii-glove wilb all Uie swindlers, gamlikra. idle a|>pren- 
tea, unforlunate-femaleit, of Palermo : in the etudj- and 
pmrlirr of .Scoundrel ism diligent beyond most. The gcnina 
wliich has burst asunder i-oiivetil-wall.s, and oilier rubbinh of 
<<ii;>od)[n«nt«, now flames upward towar^ls its mature cplen- 
I >ur. WlicresoeTcr a Mroke of mischief is to be done, a 
ii-h uf ao-calh^d vieioui enjoyment lo bi' swallowed, there 
III) hand and tbroat t§ Bepjio BaLotmo xeen. He will hn a 
'Lifter, line day, in bi.i proft^sion. Kot imler<l thai be has 
■ i quitted Paliiliiig. or oven purpose:! to mudi : foi' ilje 
[■ri'^enl, ii i» usrful, indispensable, as a stalking-bnrse to 
the luuu-nial unulu and ndgbbour^; nay to bimscir, — lor 
wiib nil ibe ebullient impulses of ^-uuiHlrel-genius nal- 
{<-,([y M-i-rhing in biin, irreprewibly burning through, be haa 
'r< nuhli- uneonscioutness of genius: gue».'cs not, dun; aot 
.ii'.-M, ibat he is a born ecouiiilrel, luuuh less a boru world- 

Bui A* lor the other qu(^<lion, of hi* resource», these we 

perceive were several-fold, and eonlinually extending. Not 

to lueiiliun any jiicturial exiguities, whicb indeed esieied 

ebiefl> in expectance, — there bad almost aecidenially arisen 

for bim. in [lie 6n,i plact', the r^^nree of I'andering. He 

baa a fair raiusin living in the hnuje with bim, and she again 

■ ta* K lover i Bcppo «laitoiifl bim^elf as go-between ; deliven 

^■(BBn i fails nut to drop hints llmt a lady, to be won or kept, 

^^ilM be geiterously treated ; tlutt sueh and such a pair of 

l^a^rlngl^ watch, necklace, or even i^um of money, would 

>*ork wundcri ; wlitcli vnluiibles. adds the wooden Raman 

Kiiigrapher, 'he then apprupntiled furlively.' Like enoii|^! 

Next, liowevrr, as ajiothcr more lasting resource, he forges ; 

at 6r?t in a Bmall way, untl trying his uppreniice-luuid : tickeU 

for the theatre, and ouch trifle*. Erelong, however, wr set 

I fly at higher quarry ; by practice be has acquired fier- 

in it war* spent and safe lon<: 
liio^rapluM* expresses horro. 
forged leav(t-of-absenee for a 
ture of the Superior.' Why 
IS wanted of him : the Lion 
shall he refuse such if they ji 
the indefatigable Beppo has I 
mine ; wherein through his w 
calls, dig, at his convenience, 
tunes and show visions, — by 
This, however, only as a dilettar 
profession of Magician does ni 
Thus perfecting himself in all b 
Balsamo live and grow. Stupi 
and is, there is a vulpine astucitj 
ness, a heartiness, a kind of blut 
&o plausible-looking : give him oi 
to the top of his profession. 

Consistent enough with sue 
Bepi>o is another fact we find i 
time he was found ' in most bi 
tavern. The way of ^'^ • ' 



officers of justice/ and deforce them ; delivering the wretched 
from their talons : was not this, we saj, a kind of dog-faith- 
fulness, and public spirit, either of the mastiff or of the cur 
species ? Perhaps too there was a touch of that old Humour 
and ' world-ironj ' in it. One still more unquestionable feat 
he is recorded (we fear, on imperfect evidence) to have done : 
* assassinated a canon.' 

Remonstrances from growling maternal uncles could not 
iail ; threats, disdains from ill-affected ncighl>ours ; tears from 
an expostulating widowed mother : these he shakes from him 
like dewdrops from the lion's mane. Still less could the Po- 
lice neglect him ; him the visibly rising Professor of Swin- 
dlerj ; the swashbuckler, to boot, and deforcer of bailiffs : he 
has of^en been captured, hnled to their bar ; yet hitherto, by 
defect of evidence, by good luck, intercession of friends, been 
dismisse<l with admonition. Two things, nevertheless, might 
now be growing clear : first, that the die was cast with Beppo, 
and he a scoundrel for life ; second, that such a mixed, com- 
posite, crypto-scoundrel life could not endure, but must unfold 
itself into a pure, declared one. The Tree that is planted 
stands not still ; must pass through all its stages and phases, 
from the state of acorn to that of green leafy oak, of with- 
ered leafless oak ; to the state of felled timlier, finally to that 
of firewood and ashes. Not less (though less visibly to dull 
ejes) the Act that is done, the condition that has realised 
itself; above all things, the Man, with his Fortunes, that has 
been bom. Beppo, everj-way in vigorous vitality, cannot 
continue half-painting half-swindling in Palermo; must de- 
Telop himself into whole swindler ; and, unless hanged there, 
seek his bread elsewhere. What the proximate cause, or 
signal, of sach crisis and development might be, no man 
could say; yet most men would have confidently guesse<l. 
The Police. Nevertheless it proved otherwise ; not by the 
flaming sword of Justice, but by the rusty dirk of a foolish 
private individual, is Bep|)o driven forth. 

Walking one day in the fleltli (as the bold historic Tmng- 

- j^viirious advance or 
gudgfon takes ; ailvanci'N b 
gold Ounces ; ' ^ sees magic 
the full of the moon, blue 
twigs aujspiciously quiver ; ai 
torily that the Treasure be 
ninny Goldsmitli, trembling \ 
ground ; digs, with thick bi 
down, down, Beppo relieving 
when, ah ! at a certain stage 
yells arise, a jingle like the e 
Devils pounce upon the poor si 
almost to mutton ; mercifully 
deed has himself summoned tl 
created them (with goatskins 
though a ninny, now knew how 
he had a stiletto. One of the g 
genius ! You accomplish the Pi 
mentary Quantities, Algebraic 1^ 
fly in your face ! 

Hearing of stilettos, our Algi 
him, and view his empire of Pi 
empire now much exhn"-*-^' 

e> •- - 


Beppo quits Palermo ; and, as it proved, on a long voyage : 
% aa the Inquisition-Biographer has it, * he fled from Pa- 
and overran the whole Earth/ 

Here then ends the First Act of Count Alessandro Cagli- 
^'a Life-drama. Let the curtain drop ; and hang unrent, 
an audience of mixed feeling, till the First of August 


Before entering on the second Section of Count Beppo's 
History, the Editor will indulge in a philosophical reflection. 

This Beppic Hegira, or Flight from Palermo, we have 
now arrived at, brings us down, in European History, to 
MNOoe where about the epoch of the Peace of Paris. Old 
Feudal Europe, while Beppo flies forth into the whole Earth, 
hma just finished the last of her ' tavern-brawls,' or wars ; 
and lain down to doze, and yawn, and disconsolately wear 
off the headaches, bruises, nervous prostration and flaccidity 
consequent thereon : for the brawl had been a long one, Seven 
Tears long ; and there had been many such, begotten, as is 
usual, of intoxication from Pride or other DeviFs-drink, and 
foul humours in the constitution. Alas, it was not so much 
a disconsolate doze, after ebriety and quarrel, that poor old 
Feudal Europe had now to undergo, and then on awakening 
to drink anew, and quarrel anew : old Feudal Europe has 
&Uen a-doanng to die ! Her next awakening will be with no 
tavern-brawl, at the King*8 Head or Prime Minister tavern ; 
but with the stem Avatar of Dekocract, hymning its 
worM-thrilling birth- and battle-song in the distant West ; 
— therefrom to go out conquering and to conquer, till it 
have made the circuit of all the Earth, and old dead Feudal 
fUirope is bom again (after infinite pangs !) into a new In- 
dustrial one. At Beppo's Hegira, as we said, Europe was 

..., .»i«nifr witii our J><'l>l 
gn*(», overran all KuroiM* d 
lialf of last o'Mturv. It w 
purees, swindler^. (louMi*-fr« 
son^ ; quacks simple, qiiacl 
with deceit prepense ; (piac, 
and kinds. How nianv M 
Swedenlwrj^ians, Illuminnti, 
Loudun! To which the Inr^ 
pires, Sylphs, Rosicrucians, 
Consider your Sc.hropfers, Cag 
mains, Dr. Grahams; the CI 
Abhe Paris an<l the Ghost o 
had broken loose ; as if rathei 
hour of the night,' the everln 
and from its still blacker bos 
all manner of shapeless Misbir 
ter there. 

But, indeed, if we consider, 
In that stertorous last fever-sl 
must not Phantasms enough, 1 
are, flit past, in ghastly masqi 
low scarce-audible mr*"** ^' ^ 


a;loiituses with the Golden Thigh, Apollonius' Asses, and False 
.-Christs enough, — before a Redeemer arose I 
t For, in truth, and altogether apart from such half-figura- 
tive language, Putrescence is not more naturally the scene 
'.of unclean creatures in the world physical, than Social Decay 
'is of quacks in the world moral. Nay, look at it with the 
s«ye of the mere Logician, of the Political Economist. In 
•ach periods of Social Decay, what is called an overflowing 
Population, that is a Population which, under the old Cap- 
tains of Industry (named Higher Classes, Ricos Ilombres, 
Aristocracies and the like), can no longer find work and 
wages, increases the number of Un professionals, Lackalls, 
Social Nondescripts; with appetite of utmost keenness, 
which there is no known method of satisfying. Nay more, 
and perversely enough, ever as Population augments, your 
Captains of Industry can and do dwindle more and more into 
Captains of Idleness ; whereby the more and more overflow- 
ing Population is worse and woi*se governed (shown tcluU to 
do, fur that is the only government) : thus is the candle 
lighted at both ends ; and the number of social Nondescripts 
increa.-ies in doubie-quxck ratio. Whoso is alive, it is said, 
* must live ; ' at all events, will live ; a task which daily gets 
harder, reduces to stranger shifts. And now furthermore, 
with general economic distress, in such a Period, there is 
usually conjoined the utmost decay of moral principle : in- 
deed, so universal is this conjunction, many men have seen it 
to be a concatenation and causation ; justly enough, except 
that such have very generally, ever since a certain religious- 
repentant feeling went out of date, committed one sore mis- 
take : what is vulgarly called putting the cart before the 
horse. Politico-economical benefactor of the species ! de- 
ceive not thyself with barren sophisms : National suffering 
?i, if thou wilt understand the words, verily a * judgment of 
Grod ; ' has ever been preceded by national crime. * Be it 
here once more maintained befoi*e the world,' cries Sauer- 

teig, in one of his Springwurzel, * that temporal Distress, 
VOL. in. 28 

..., . jro roininoiuv in re^ 
'ami \\\i\\ Follv : no man c 
' wix'tclirtl, if tluTC i> nut ix 

* \ivs>) within hinvself; neitli 

* never so eupeptic (for he ic 
*ot last of surfeit), be othe 

* unhappy, if he be a Fool.' — 
Sauerteig, yet not the whole 
day*s-work and day's-wages 
a3 thou knowest, is itself quit 
Fancy- Bazaar,' is also a * Mysl 
Thus we have heard of such t 
with adversity, and offering a s 
^ But with a nation,' continues h< 
' chances covers, in great measui 

* it may be said to hold always t 
^ fruit of general Misltehaviour 

* aider it well; had all men st 
' the Evil, when it first ix)se, ha( 
' abolished, not lazily blinked, a 

* sluggard's comfort : " It will 

* sluggard, and even thief {Fa 
' thou not a thief, to iv>'»i- • 



RIiIpm siiutn of an existence, wherein norliing but ihe 
ti WHS retti, will liave cvnparoKHl in the interim ; Jt 
I iHil ihy time : but will it liist tliy Ettmiiyl Or wlial 
\ sboali] not Iwt tliy time (mark tbnl nUu, Tor that elso 
I be ibv filter i)f some bucIi lying sluggHrd) t bill tRke fire, 
exp1oi]<>, mil] fonsumc tliee like ih« iiioili 1 ' 

n of the ranllcr, in nny case, ii, that nnlional Pov- 

Bond national Diahuneiily go togellier ; that continnnlly 

ing tiociul NoailescripU get ever the hiingiier, evt^r the 

Now *fty, ha\-B we not here t\\<- very making of 

EJtery ; niw -in ate rial, pliwtic-energy, both in full action ? 

t^ty the raw-material. Hunger the pUeiic-energy : 

rill not the Iwo realise? Nay ob«ene further how 

nesly ix the raw-malerial not at Quacks only, but also 

It part of Dupos. In Goodness, were it never to rim- 

ircst inslincl for the Good ; the uncaaiest 

iquerable repuliion for the Fiil,«e and Bad. The very 

I Mi^phistophelcs cannot deceive poor guileleii-' Marga- 

J'll nlandi written on his front that he never loved a 

K eoul ! ' The like loo has uiany it human inferior Quark 

blly experienced; the like lies in store for our hero 

But now with such abundant raw-cnateriat not only 

B QuBcki< of. but to feed and oeeupy them on. if the 

=iit*-eoergy of Hunger fail not, what a world shall we 

.' ! The wonder is not that llie eighleentli century had 

i Quacks, but raiher that they were not innu- 

^ that fwmo French Revolution nionf, whieh burnt up so 
I, wlutt unmeasured masses of Quaekisra were set tire to; 
^ w foul mephilic lire-damp in that case, were made to 
flame in a fierce, sublime tplmdour ; corusejiiing. even illu- 
mituuiog I The Count Saint- German, uonie twenty ye*r< 
laier, had fouud a nuilo new element, of Frntrrnisntion. Sa- 
cred right of Fnsurri-i-iion. Oralorship of the Human Species, 
•rberefrxim to body himself fortli ipiite otherwise : Si-hrtSpfer 
1 not now, tiA Ulnckguard nitdeicrrcd, hare wlirmnlf 

^^tiiKU*. Withal t(K) the rea 
fvcrv time*, ai*<' of two sort: 
Uiuh'clanMl, who, if you <jut 
l>oth to others and to himself 
proportions vary with the vo 
Bepix)'s was the age of the D 
Revolutions, we will grant, L 
from ours ; which is it not y 
the age of the Undeclared ? 2 
able age ; — yet now (by God' 
irreversible Enactment, registe 
where thou too, if thou wilt 
That its death-doom shall not 
sure ! — And so herewith were 
on the nature, causes, prevalenc 
porary destruction of Quacker 
Beppic poetic Narrative can o 

Beppo then, like a Noah's R 
waste of dissolute, beduj^ed, dist 
if there is any carrion there. ( 
the wide-weltering * Mother of ( 
to harm; will he no» » 



i imiQediate courdc of uctiaii huiI uJvt^ulure, the 
I Iiiqui&ition-Biogrmphci', it must be owned, shows bim- 
b<)l, jind coQ give us next to no iiutght. Like enough, 
' fled lo Uessiiia ; ' simjily us to l)io nettrest oily, and 
ICTOM to the mainland: but ns to this 'cerlnin Altho* 
bom hn met there, atid vojogeU with In Alexandria in 
t, and how they made hem{) into silk, and rualised much 
r, and eamL- lo Alalia, and siiiili(.-d ici the Laboratory 
b <tud ihvi) tbc certain Altlioliis died, — of all this whiit 
e «aid i The tboli#b Inquii<ilion-Biogra[iber is uncei'- 
jttfaether the citrlain AlUiotoa w&a it Greek or a Spftn- 
it unhappily the prior queslioo is not settled, whether 
( nt itU. SuperlliiiiUd it seems to put down Beppo's 
1 of his procedure ; lie gn^e raultifarioos accoimlK, 
• Ihe esigende:^ iit' the cnse demanded : ihis of the ' certain 
Altholas,' atid bemp made inio {&\fc «iik, is as verisimilar as 
llwt otbf^r of ihc 'sage Allholas' ibe heirship-apparent of 
TrebiMtid, and the Suherif of Mecint*^ " Adieu, unfurtunata 
Child at Nature." Nay the gues?i;« of the ignorant world ; 
bow CiHinl Cagliostro had been tmvelliiig-mior lo a Prine« 
((lamc nut given], whom he murdered and look the nuney 
fivm; with uther« of the like, — were [>erhnps still more ab- 
tiunl. ItepjH), we ean see, was out and away, — the Devil 
knew whilbcr. Far, variegated, painful might his roaming^ 
bts A plausible-looking shadow of him shows itself hover* 
ing over Naples and Calabria ; thither, as to a famed higb- 
scbixil of Ijizint»$ and Scoondieliain, he may likely enongh 
bnvt- gone lu graduule. Of ihe Malta Laboratory, and Al- 
exaodrian hcmp-Hilk, tbe leM we say ihe better. This only 
in clear : Tlint IIcp|>Q (Irve<l deep down into the lugubrious- 
obteunt regioiia of Rascaldoin ; like a Knight to the palace 
of bit Fiiiry ; remained unseen there, and relunicd thence 
anned at all {iuiuli>. 

If we fancy, meianwhile, thai Beppo already medilatenl bo- 
cnmiiig Grand Cophtn, and riding at Stra^burg in ibc Cardi- 
Bfll'a carriage, we mistake much. Gift of Prophecy has be«o 

fV'Lr: *«;-t: ^:r-'^ :»^s:Grrs 
^^ ■ • • • 

1 .-•"TV- — .^ .. «.-j^7* — — -tU. 

nrtir the Trinitv of ih*.- Pilsrn 



: buU-Dcckvd forger of peii-drawiiig^, whose suit too 
» dotibilcsij pressed witli ihe mo^l fluwiiig rheiorio. Sli« 
lf«! herMlf ill iiuuTuige lo liim ; and ilie parenl^ admitled 
B to quarter in iheir house, till it should appeur wliat was 
o be done 

u kitcheii-Sr«», saj-s ihe Proverb, bum not on on« 

nh : here, morravur, might be quite special causes of 

P«n-drBwing, ul best a hungry cunwrn, hna now 

|aiui«d itself, and rou^t be given up ; but Beppo'e house- 

I prospKcu brigbtc^, on tbu olber side ; in the eharms uf 

IrLorenxa be seei>. before him what the French call 'a Fii* 

e ranfuMHl and immcriMt.' Thi; bint wa» given ; and, wiib 

titnce, or witliout rvluetiinee (for ibe evidence leans both 

fi), wa« taken and induced In pmelice : Signor and Sig- 

1 Bnleamu art: forth from tbn ultl Gii-dler'si house, into the 

t world, seohinj; and finding ailvenliirea. 

! fuotish Inqui^ilion-ltiugraplier, willi painful scientific 
racy, furnisher a dei4:riplive catalogue of all the ducou- 
I CuUica (Iisliun Counis, French En\'ay£, Spanish Mar- 
S Dukes HUtt Dmkes) in variuua i]uart«r* of tlie kno¥FD 
rill, whom lhi« accomplished pair look-in ; with the »ums 
I yielded, and tiie melhod* irmployed to licvritch him. 
I which deocriplive catalogue, why elioutd we here so 
a cast a glance ? Cullies, the c««y cushion* on which 
KVea aad knave«ses repose and fatten, liave at all limes 
I, in considernblc profusion : neither can the fact of a 
d aulnitti, Slun)ui4 or oiht-r, hnving acted in that capae- 
i never such lengths entitle him lo mention in lll'^lory. 
I (laas avi-r thiise. Beppo, or ad we must now learn ta 
I biu, the Count, appears at Venice, at MarseiUes, at 
lAnA, Cadiz, LislKin, Rruiisels : makes scienlilic pilgrim- 
) to Quack Saint-Oermain in Westphalia, pellgious-com- 
1 Saint SHint-,Iatncs in Composlelln, lo Our Ijady 
in I»retto : wulh, north, ea^t, west, be showii himself; finds 
cv^rywhi're Lubricity and Stupidity (better or worse pro- 
viJod with ca»li), the two elements on which be ihaumatur- 

grini (lately from foreign | 
that. Count Proteus-Incogn 
Ca;!:liostro.^ Fiiiruro him t^ 
utmost rapidity ; ducking ui 
of Justice make a dart at hi 
shape, at the distance of a tl 
with forged vouchers of respi 
best voucher of respectabilitj 
eaters, and open purse, for Cou 
and pays his way. At some h 
Angel, Gold Lion, or Gi*een G 
in whatever world-famous cap 
have rested ; sleep and food I 
chiefly the pearl and soul there( 
now no longer Dame Lorcnza, 1 
ing seraphic enough ! Moneyec 
vexed Earth there are many 
places, scan and comment on tl 
the fair foreign woman ; who tii 
timidly resi)onds to their reverer 
they obsequiously throw themsel 
moneyed Donothing, from f*^-^ 
belt* ^' • ' 


ct not tlie too KiinguiiiL- rcntltir, munnwliile, fancy lliBt it 
I 11011118; aod lieyduy wiiL hU Lor<lfilii|i. Tbe courau of 
Diln^liBTD, any more ilmn thai of truo love, never did run 
lib. S<ui3ons tlicr? uiay be wlicm Count ProlL'ii»-Incog- 
hiia Ilia cpauletii-s lorn from liia i^iioiilderri ; liis j^arnient- 
8 dipt dose by Hit- bullocks ; and is bid sternly tarry at 
;lui till Ilia bvsnl be grown. Iliirpiivi of Luw dtfile hU 
Hiicmn letuls ; his light bums languid ; tor a »paco ^eemn 
uittfrly snufliHl out, and dead in nialodoruus va[)Dur. Dead 
unly to bhsts up the brighter I Tlieit; is »coundrel-lif« in 
Bcppo Cagliostru ; caat biin among tin; mud, triuul hini oui 
or Mght there, the miadmnla do bui stimulate and refresh 
him, he ri«» sneezing, is lilning and young again. 

Beliold liiiu, for example, again in Palermo, al^er liAving 
•een many ram and many lands ; and how he again e»eApi:« 
rlience. Why did he reluro to Palermo? Periiap* io «#- 
luuinh old friendd by new gruntleur : or Tor teniiiorary -lidter, 
if tlm CoutinenC were getting hot for him; or pi-rbn^w in 
iljf mere way of general inide. He is seised there, and 
clapt ill prison, for ihouc foolieli old businesses of the tren— 
UTfrJiapng Gultlsmilli, of the forgtj WilL 

' Tliw nialiner of hia ncape,' ta;i one. vlitxe lew vnria un Il>i« 
obfuuTP lurtllcr arc mi mxTiy light^int* I6r lu. 'dnervui to be i1^ 
H-riliel. The Son of one of tlic flnt Sidlun Prinwi, tnA gn-nt 
bnleU l'nt[irieiiin (who moreotcr liii'l fllleil imponiuil staiiuna at 
til* Xcaiwlitan Court), vu « pcTtoii tlml unitH with a atrong boilf 
and luiguTi'mable teni|ier all the tyrannical eaprice, whleh tlie rieh 
■ml Kivat. Hiihoul cultiTaliuii, tliink tht^inMtvin I'nlltled to exhibit. 

' l>annii tArcnn harl conlrivnl to gain thl> man ; anil on him Ilw 
ni-iUioul MarclieM Vtllegrini founded hi» iccurily. The I'rinu* 
'. •iiflnl ufvnly lliat lie wai the pruleclor uf Ihla atrangcr piur : bat 
:..a «u liU (iiry when Joecph Bdiamo, at the instance of riiat# he lull elieateil, yraa ea*t Intu iiHson! He tlHeil varioui mnni 
I I ili'tiirr liim ; and aa (hue would not prmpcr. lie publicly, in tlie 
I'nt'uicM'i anlccliambcr, thrmtratil the plaintifle' Advocate with the 
fH|lliIflt)lei>t nliaiuaiic If the «all were not dnipt. and Ualuino furth- 
villi MH at Ubivt;. A* tlic Adviicato dcdincd auub priiiiowd, he 
il bim, boat Uu, threw bia on the floor, irninpled him with 

• """'eriiDes n e ■ 
hinted. ' " G«'n^'-c-hiet 

one hriefesf I.. , Journev 

*«»•'■'•? not n • "'"""•■>-''0"-se o/- 


, Labui'aiory, or |)i!griin>;il lo tlii: Count 

tnl-Gcrmiiin, in Wi'slpbalift, lo no purpose. With loflie^l 

1 he eloops lo impart tiotnewliBl of hU £U]>eniat- 

I spwcis, — for u consiJt-rmion. Ruwlaiul's Knl^<kir is 

: bur whiii lo the Beautifying- water of Counl Al«- 

He tliHl will un<lenuk<^ to fimotilh wrinkli-*, and 

e wiihcrctl grveii jHtrchmetil into a fair cnmatiori nkln, is 

>t onK wlu>n) fiiilcd tlamef of qunUty will dcliglit lo lion- 

Or again, lei lite Btamifjiiig- water siicceeU or not, 

! nolRurh damcti, i( calumny may be in aught Ix'lieved, 

■ want ? This want loo the indefiiti gable Cugliostra 

mipply, — for a conaiOi-raiion. For failed girnilcmen 

lalily the Count likewise baa help. Nut a eluirming 

B alone : but u * Wine of Egypt ' (eHnthnridrs not 

; unknown to him), «o1i) in drops, more precious than 

which wlml fadwl gpnllemnu of quality woulil not 

)vIm^ with anylhing short of life ? Consider now whni 

' hv done with potions, wa<>hei), cliartns, lore-phi llTee, 

Kig A cla!« of mortaL). idle from the molher'a womb ; re- 

; la be taught ihe loniu dnnncs, and meditating of love 

n their tender uaiU ! 

"hiu witxing, waning, hroa<l.«hining, or extinct, an incon- 
nt but unwearied Moon, rides on its course the Cnglio- 
stric plar. Thus are Count and Counter busy in their voo«- 
' uiri ; thu9 do they sprtnd the golden seni«on of their youth, — 
hull w say, 'for tlie Greuie^ HappineiKs of the grealeni 
niimhFr ? " llappy enough, had ihiTw been no 8um|itu«ry or 
kdulliTy or swindlery Lnw-ticti ; no Heaven iibove, no Hell 
bonnnlh : no flighl of Time, anil glctomy land of Eld and 
J i3e*lilatton nnd Ilespemtion, lowanid whldi, by luw of Fate, 
n ihemsrlvcii, at all momentN with fVighlful regularity, 
ibly UriAing. 

The prudent man provides against the inedtable. Al- 
mtdy Count Cngliiistro, with his love-phi Itree, his eanlhnr- 
idie Witie of Egypt ; luiy iar earlier, by h» blue-Bame* nnd 
dtrining-rmi', as wilh the poor aheep Goldsmith of Pulermai 


ami cvL'i' ?inw. liy jiimiy n significaiil hint thrown oiii fbrrr 
ihc i-ci-nc iiiiti'd, — bus dabbled in tlie Supernaiuml. A* 
hiin seraphic Countess give^ signs of withering, and unc lui- 
ut'iaiil hi*uiidj tif industry will die and drop oS*. othi^rs mBii 
l.r' jui~ljv,i inl.. l.udding. Whether it wad in Eiiglaml dutiiig 
uli^ii 111- rail, li hw ' first visit ' in the year 1776 (for iIk^ be 
ll^ii-Jlr-i. Iimi-i— iiiL'uring visit was, rca;wn or none, to guAn 
rioiliina) iliut [u: lirst thought of Prophecy as a trade, i^ m- 
knowli : (.'eriuin i-nuugh, bn bad begun to practise il ihn: 
and (Ilia indeed not without a glimpse of insight into il" 
Eiiglisli nutio[ial character. Various, truly, are the patwiili 
of mankind ; whereon they would fHin, unfolding ihe fulur^ 
lake Destiny by surpriiie ; with un, however, us a natiiM irf 
shojikceper.-', lliey mny be all said to centre in this one, fyi 
nioiiri/ in tliy pune ! O for a Fortuualus'-Pocket, with iH 
uvcr-nt^w voInL'd gold ; — if, indi'i/d, the true prayer wen bh 
nLlhi'L-; O tiir ii Cilu'sus'-Drink, of liquid gold, that to ibe 
might for oiirc hare enough wd 



render is no tloubt curious to itDilcrstanH ell 
Uw AVlint and the Ho*.- of Ciigliostro'* |irooi'dure while Eng- 
litni] «H* llic ficenc. As we [ix> nre, ancJ have l>een ; Lui un- 
lirijipily nil in vnin. To that Riiglii4)i Life cf imc^prluin grinder 
i'iri«, ns was aald. need in their utmost esirrmil^ repair, 
^■luv-ly the tiTj- lodging of Coglioj^tro can l>e B^<^^Inin<^d ; 
\rept ioddotitally llint it was once in Whilt-ombi-' Street; 
'< IT a few dnys, in Warwii'k Court, Holboiti : finally, for rame 
l>mTnin the Riiig'# Bench Jail. Vain were il. meanwhile, 
' !■ any reveraneer of genius to pilgiim Ihilher, xeoking 
r:>''innriHls of n givat man. CaglioMra ie rican gone: on ths 
ii-iciest search, no token never ao fainl di«elo»es ili^elf. He 
vt'-iii. and li'l^ nothing Whind him; — exi'ept [lerhiips n few 
t-n'j-flothf', and other inevitable esuvia*. long since, not in- 
dited annihilnled (lliii° nothing can be), yd beaten into mud, 
and ii|iread as new soil over the general surface of Hiddltisex 
»n>l .Surrey ; floated by the Thames into old Oeenn ; or flil- 
liog. ihi- ga«wios parti of ihem, in the universal Aimc»[ihere, 
1-ome thereby to remotest comer* of the Earth, or beyond 
ilie Limits of the •Solar Sy»'Iem ! .So delating is the track and 
hnhilaiion of man : so Hondroux the Htuff be builds of; his 
bou-e. \nf very hoiito of bouaes (whiit we rail his My), were 
be llie first of geniuses, will evaporate in the strangest man- 
twr, and vanish even whither we have said. 

To us on our side, however, it is cheering to discover, for 
thing, that Caglitt-iro found nutagoni^ts worthy of him i 
bustanl plucking geese, and living on (heir giblels, found 
our whole I^luird [leoplcd with geese, but here and there, 
timvp. hintH, with vultures, with hawks of still sharper 
i|Mllity than hi.*. Priddle, Ayiett, Saunders, O'Reilly: let 
llicwe niand forth as the vindiealon of English naiiouul ehar- 
Mirr. Br whom Cflunt Alessandra Cngliostro. as in dim 
iting oDtline indubitably appears, was bewnlfed. ni^ 
, fleeced. halclielle<l, bewildered, and liedevilled. (ill the 
Jail of King'* Bench seemed a refuge from them. A 
obacnre contest, us was natural ; wherein, however, to 

ana Mies to foreipjii parts. 

One good thing he has cm 
initiation into some primary 
Quack of* Quacks, with his pr 
natural-mystificatory, must Ion 
ry ; which, with its blazonry 
sabres, brothers Terrible, brotl 
imposing by candle-light), offt 
him. All men profit by Unu 
much as another ; nay in these 
alone has he not found a ver} 
determines on l^Iasonship. It w 
Lodge to which he and his Sen 
also was made a Mitson, or Mi 
garter solemnly bound on, with 
night, — was a Lodge of low rar 
bering not a few of the pastry-c< 
To which it could only be re pi 
French ; that a man and niasoi 
was still a man and mason. E 
Recipiendary is i-apidly promote" 
of Apprentice, Companion, Mast 
eas. Tliat of his 1m>i-"- " 


lusion. Five guineas, and isome foolish froth-speeches, de- 
livered over liquor and otherwise, was the cost If you ask 
now, In whai London Lodge was it ? Alas, we know not, 
and bhall never know. Certain only that Count Alessandro 
fif a roaiiter-mason ; that having once crossed the threshold, 
his plastic genius will not stop there. Behold, accordingly, 
he has bought from a * Bookseller ' certain manuscripts be- 
longing to * one George CoAon, a man absolutely unknown 
to him ' and to us, which treat of the * Eg^-ptian ^lasonry ! ' 
In other words, Count Alessandro will blow with his new 
five-guinea bellows ; having always occasion to raise the wind. 

With regard specially to that huge soap-bubble of an 
Egyptian Masonry which he blew, and as conjUror caught 
many flies with, it is our painful duty to say a litth^ ; not 
much. The Inquisition-Biographer, with deadly fear of he- 
retical and democratical and blackmagical Freenmsons before 
his eyes, hoA gone into the matter to boundless depths ; com- 
menting, elucidating, even confuting: a certain expository 
masonic Order-Book of Cagliostro's, which he has laid hand 
on, opens the whole mystery to him. The ideas he declares 
to be Cagliostro's ; the composition all a Disciple's, for the 
Count had no gifl that way. What then does the Discipio 
set forth, — or, at lowest, the Inquisition-Biographer say that 
he sets forth ? Much, much that is not to the point. 

Understand, however, that once inspired, by the ab^lutely 
unknown George Coflon, with the notion of P2g)'ptian Mnsoii- 
r)', wherein as yet lay much *mapc and 8U{)erstition,' Count 
Alessandro resolves to free it of these impious ingredients 
and make it a kind of I^st P2vang«'l, or Renovator of th** 
Universe, — which so needed renovation. * As he did not 
lielieve anything in matter of Faith,' says our woo<len Fa- 
miliar, *' nothing could arrest him.* True enough : how did 
he move along then ; to what length did he go ? 

' In bif lyitem he promises his followers to conduct them to /)^r- 
Jkelkm, by means of a phjf»ical ami monil rrtitnf ration ; to enable Uiem 
by the former (or physical) to find the prime matter, or I*hilo«o|>lier's 

tiu puice in coiiiinon Masonry. 
Cof/ita (so an* tlio llijjli-prk'stj 
si'lt' bv ri'Storini; the Masonry <>: 

With regard to the great 
valuable Pentagon, which ia 
vuu have to choo^ie a solita. 


and build a Pavilion on it t 
>ides, ill every side a window, 
is named Aranit ; and there, 
a window, yourself in the niidc 
speakable formalities, vigils, n 
and hardly get your Pentago 
this gi'eat question and constn 
As little concerning the still gr 
of Physical Regenenuion, or g 
not to be accomplished without 
cine, purgations, sweating-bath» 
botomy, starvation and desi>erai 
nil worth. Leaving these intt 
high monil precepts of union, } 
of immortality and what not, wi 
indifferent glance on certain esol 
£g}'ptian JMil'M^"''" 


' < '-:i8iit> nf IliP CfliTdiilnloi and the gamipnU lliey nre to tiike ; em- 
'nit of tlic McroMDct TTtnil, of the Moon, of the Sun. of i)i« 
' tiipuii, SquHiv, anil a lhaUMiii)-lliouiHn<l oilier iniqultiei and in- 
' I'IiiuiIm. wliiHi irp now irell known In Ihe world.' 

' We above maile mentfon of the Grand Cophia. By tliii title haa 
K't-n d«Bi|{nalcil Ihe fonndrr or reslurcr uf Egyptian Moianrjr. 
( ntclHiMtru raadv no diHlealty In admilling' (to me llie InquiiitDr) 
' that under lueh name lie wa* himielf mi-anl : now in thia tyalein 
ilic Grand Oiiilita in coinparvd to Ihe lli|{he*l : the mott lolemn acta 
iif wonhlp am paid him ; be ha* authority ever the Angeb : lie ia 
iiiTokml (HI all ouraBloni; everything ii ilune in virtue of Ida power; 
» tileh ynu are anured he derivea immediately fhitn God. Nay mote : 
:ii>'in)[ ilie taiioua rliet obierved in thii excrdte of Mmnry, you are 

t< ml to Tvcile llie Vmi CrmUn- tiarllut, tlie Tt Dtam, and tome Pnlma 
I [tatid: laauelian exceu i« Impudenwand audacity unrried, that in 
■,'.~c l'utiiB,Mtmnilo,lJauii'ie,lJaridrl'u*nUmaiituttiuliainjut,elerjr6at 
ilic Dame Darld occun, that of the Grand Coplita ia to be lubatituted 

' So Krliginn li eicliided from the Exypiian Society : the Jew, flie 
ralvlniai. Ihe Lutheran, ean be admitted equally well with the 
Calholie, If so be they admit the exiiteni.'e of Gnd and tliv imninrCal- 
ily of the >nul.' ' The men elevated to the rank of maaler take tile 
namea of tlie iwicienl I'ropliets ; Ihe women those of the Sihyla." 

• • ■ Then llie grand MUtreis lilnwa un the ftee of Uie 
fi'inale Reelpiendar?, all along (Vom brow lo chin, and tayi : " I gire 
>. ■<! iliia lireath, lo cntiae to gcrininntc and hvoome alive in your 

.in the 'J'nilh which we potaeat'. to fortify in you the " ic &c. 
'tiiaHian of tlio new Knowledge which we prepare lo make you 
;i>ttike of, l>y ihe aacred naniea uf /Mini, .Ifenr. T\rnv)nimmiilm." 

■ In tlic £«ii i»r In lUumwit. printed at Paria in 1TH9. 1 read that 
Ihw Uiter word) were tuggealed to CaglioatTO aa Arabic or Sacred 
imrt by a Sleight -of- hand Man, who awd tliiit he woo aulaled bj ■ 
•fitrit. and added that thia vpirit waa Ihe Soul of a Cabaliat Jew. who 
' < arl-maglt.' had killed hia |Hg before the Chrialutn Adrenr' 

• • ■ They lake ■ young lad. or ■ girl who ii in the 
■ i.itp uf innocence, aueh they eall the Pupil or the Calumh; the Ven' 
riMr eoniainnicatca to him the power he would hare had befbre the 
Fall of Man ; whieh power conaiaiH mainly in commanding (he purv 
Splrlta ; iheae SpirlM ire to the unmber of aeven : ii ia aaid th<f 
•uitound Ihe Throne ; and iliai they goTem the Seven Flaneta ; 

t» are AnacI, Michael, Raphael, (iabriel, Uriel, Zobiachel. 


f Or would Ihe rpader wish to spe ihis Calumh in acHon ? 
ael in iwo ways i either t>eliiiMl a curmln, bch 

..^..ooiro acconiinjfiy (it is 
Roy into tlio L<m]jjo ; son of a i 
his knt'os before a table, whereo 
beliintl this some hglited candle 
Buy, put his hand on his head : ; 
their prayers to God for the ha 
Having then bid the child look 
cried that he saw a ganlen. Kno 
liim, C^agliostro took courage, an 
grace to sec the Angel Michael, 
something white ; I know not wha 
stamping like a possessed creature, 
chihl, like myself, that seems to hai 
assembly, and Cagliostro himself, 
tion. ' ♦ * * The 

the hands of the Venerable on his 1 
addressed to Heaven, he looked into 
SistiT at that moment coming down ( 
brothers. That api)cared impossible 
then hundreds of miles oflT: however, 
said, they might send to tlie count 
and sce.'^ 

Wonderful enough. Here, 1 
denly transpires, which, as the 
urges, must serve to undeceive 
at least, call a hlush into thpi 
*GranH r«^ • 


i thai 1)0 hwl alwti)'s Mt the in*nrmounlable8t anlij>- 
Ibjr lo Moses t anil attributes this tialn-il lo hia consiani 
, ihal M<>*e3 Has a thief for haviiig carried off the 
Ij-ptinn vnsMiU ; which njiinion, in ip\1v of ull the lumi- 
> iirgum«iil3 llmt were o|i[>osi.'tl lo liitn lo xhuw how tr- 
W8«, hr. hn* conlinuH lo hold with an invincible 
Atinacy ! * How nMnncile iht-se two incMnt<i9lcn[;i(;s ? Ay, 

Kfint lo Gni«h-off ihia Egyplinn Masonic business, and bring 
a focDa, we nlmll now. Tor tbe Tir^l iind for the la^t 
I. peep one motiicnt through the <ipvj;IajM of Monsieur dc 

jK^ct, in lliui Ettai tur leg flluminti of his. The whole 

Kter being so muL'Ii of u <^hiineni, bow uui it bti painted 
!!< than chimerically ? Of the following passage one 
[rae, that a creature of the sevd of Adiim believe<l it 
(>. List, list, then ; O ! 

'The Kt-djiivnilarj is I*h] by a rlnrkxime path, into nn immean 
liall, tlic cciUag, the wnlli, the Hinr of oliich are cnverad by • bUck 
dutli, ■prinkhil over witli nnl flami-i aai) tncn«diig (crpetili ^ lhrc« 
wpulcliral lampi emit, rmin tiaie to lime, h •tying gUuiiaer ; and tha 
rjc lialf (lisiia^ishef. in Ibis lagubrioua ilea, certain urecka nf dhit- 
talilj' luipriulnl by fuiiiTval crapvs : n licnp of ikpU'lan* form* ia tin! 
ccntic a Mirt of altar ; on Imlh >iile< or it uri' jiilod biiolo ; turiiu con- 
Oua niDiiaBea (iparnt the prijareil : othrra Ihc deadly narmliTe nf 
thu tengvancei wbich tlie Io«1>ibtp ^iiiTil hu eiai.'l«<l ; of Ihe in- 
1>nial rrocBtiDD* tin a long tinw prnnounced in fun. 

' Ei|[hl liiiun I'Inpte- Ttien I'liaiiltitns, tnuliiiK mortuar)' reili, 
rliisly crou the hall, and tiak In caverni, without audible ninMi uf 
miydoor* or of fiitling. Tuu nutki- only lliat they trv gone, by a 
fctht olor f xliaird Ihint lliein. 

■ Tbc Nu>iue remaina fbar-and-lacnty linura in thii gloomy abode, 
in Ihe Riicttl nf a frwxiiig ■Jletvce. A ripnvua laaE lia* alrvady 
weakeUHl hi* thinking Ikcultiea. Liquon, prepared for the purpcae. 
Bnt weary, anil at ti^nglh wear-out lii« fencva. At hi* feci are plaonl 
tiir\« eup*. AUmI with a drink nf gr«uni>li cotiiur. Neceisity ItfU 
tbam lowanl* ht» liiia : InTolimlBry tent ivpeli them. 

' Al lait apticar Iwii uioii ; looked upoa aa iIjc minlaten of death. 
TtieM gird Ihc pale bmw nf tlie Iteripiendary wiUi tn aamral-col- 
oKUvd riliaiid. <Il|il in blood, and full of ■ilvcreil ehimcten iniieil 
b III* dgOTv nf Our I-ndy of l^rvllu. Ilv n't-eivei a copper cruci' 

^..•i iiuiir passes in this painful 
pliiintive cTic> an* laanl ; ihv t 
jKile light; tlio "jjarnu-nts arv tin 
almost tnin>jMin'nt Figuro risos 
sight of it, the tive prostmtfd ni 
to look on : the too faithful imag 
a luortnl, at handgrii»s with a sui 
• Then a trembling voice pierc 
mula of tliose execrable oaths tlu 
I think myself almost guilty to n 

O Luchet, what a taking ! 
thou ? Thy brain is all g( 
seems none, if not in that 1 
ruined : Brandy-and-water ! - 
laugh ; but ought to re(X)]lect 
things were sad realities, — in 

As to the execrable oaths 

* Honour and respect Aqua Tc 

* necessary means of purging tl 

* hebetation of such a<* endear 
'snatch it from our hands/ A 
bathing our jKwr half-dead Re< 
after some genuflexions, in wat 
composed of roots,* — we <^»^'" 


"I-tlnrk; Kircher"* mBgic-lantem, Bekhazzar haod-wril- 

j~. uf [ilub-pliorud : * (ilaintji'e tones,' gong-btntingti ; lioary 
.:il uT a supcmiUural GrAii<l Coiihta emerging from ihe 
-III; — tuid how it acts, nut only indirectly through the 
<:i-h ^^ii^es of met), but directly un (heir ImBginalion; 
irii-i^ling itiicir with Enoch and Eha«, with Phi Lui ill ropy, 
>ii«ir(iility, Elcuthrromnnin, und Adum W«iBshau)jl'it JUu- 

wi^iii, and vu downwurd^ 10 (he infinite Deep: figure all 
<~ : Mid in the centre of it, Mltitig eager and alert, the akil- 
I'T-t Fnnourgos working the mighty chaos, into a creation 
u[' ready-money. In such a wide pittstic o<%aD of sham 

.1 luani hud Ihe Archqiiack now happily begun lo envelop 

Ai-curdiiigly ho goes forth prospering and U) prosper. Ar- 
riieil in any City, he ha« bnt by masonic grip lu aceredit 
himself with the Venerable of the place ; and, not by degrees 
us fumierly, but in a single night, U introduced in Grand 
l»i)g<; to all that is fattest and ruolishcctl far or neari and in 
ifx- litte»t Kn-tm, a gilt-|>asleboitnl Masonic hall. Tliere be- 
■■■'reu the two pillars of Jaehtn and Boaz, can the great 
- .1 ■■pstwikT SCO hia whole flwk of Dupcables assembled in 
' jicnfuli] ; uffe<:lioriaIe]y LIuiunt, iickitig the hand they are 
< lileed by. Victorious Aclmral-Ueppo ! The genius of 
'.aiKxemcnt, moreover, has ikiw shed her glory round him; 
I' nutianl'hended, a supenialural by bis very gait Be- 
'I him everywhere ifelcomed with vivats, or in awestruck 
lux: gilt-p&steboard Freemasons receive him under the 
'1 Arch of crossed sabres ; lie raounis to the Seat of the 
'Mirntblci holds high discourse hours long, on Masonry, 
.^liintlity, Universal Scienee, Divinity, und Things in gen- 
eral, with ■ a sublimity, an emphasis and unciion,' proceeding, 
ii Hp]ieiirs, ■ from the special icispirntion of tlic Holy Ghost.' 
Then there are Egyptian Lodges to be founded, eorresponded 
wlih, — a thing involving expense: elementary fractions of 
miuiy n pricfle>« urcunum, nay if ih<^ pliu-e will stand it, of 
' (.Fenti^oii ildelf, can be given tu lUe purilied in life: ho«r 

- v..,„,e j^odges • I 
^"'«'r: among '„„ 
Jmion-lifce an intr 
Hecate. An.l„.„, 

''"* J>q.nn.K.r-<la„„.. 

Jeven Angels. lv,v| 

""^ eres of all E,, 

»0''ev enough, and 

io us, much nieJi 

J""|gest of all. ho,v 

*;"^«' -Vrch. conW h„h 

;»"?. on Universe,; Sc, 

'"??•"! o,» of d^^: ,J 

"•"1 ;'"'» "^'<' in whole 
«"'W not s,H.-.k. 

^., r ""*''""■ 

H.J Sicilian Italia,, :,„, 

P'''«* 'o no mortal ; .. 

"•"".v .hink him a ki,;., 
f "«Se of G,^.ks, or of 
'nan. once for aJI. |,„. 


wIhH n-^'mblonrc of >h«U£lil bi- Im*, nniiDl ilelivcr itfrlt, cx- 
(■•-|>l ill tpi'ip*. bluati-ring gujiliM. vpa^nuMlic irfluennM, wbicU 
iiiuki.- btul wnrw. Itul>bl(\ bubble, loll and iroiibk; how 

<i )>iib)ili»t, e^olbh ■ Itubbl,v>'ck ! ' Hmr bini onn-. and 

'•II a tirjui-lift onu-luii, tta [1h! Iii<]uUitk>n Guniejr rcpnru it: 

' " I 1IIL-UI Mill I *Ut> Id mi-BD. th*( vven u Ihuw who honinir tbt-lr 

fiitlH-r Biul moUiiT, NKil mini't tli« lUTi-iviga PonlilT, uv lilc«*>r<t of 

God ; i-im HI all tint I diil. I did ll by th< nnkt nf Gnd. irilb tbc 

|K>*i-r •ltii!)i hp vc>ar)i»fnl nic, and to the advanUm^ of Giid atid 

uf lluly C'liandi ; and 1 mean to Kile Ihe )>n>nb uf all llial I hai* 

tintiv and laid. not <m\y phyiiiallT bui luunlly. by Bhowiii||E that aa 1 

lia>r ni-riinl I'linl fnr lliol and by (!i« piiirrr uf lliid, In- ha* giriia OM 

■t laal tlip DoDntvrpnlaan In ninfbund and RHnhnl [IpII : tor I know 

m> oilwr vtwniiva than ihdw that an in Hvll. and If I am vninic. ihr 

ll'dy Patlwr will puulab mr ; ir I am right, ho will rvvard nw; and 

if tin IJoly FaDicr ixinld tcel iiiUi hii lutmli Itvniglil Uifw aniwvn 

uf ratnr. I pnilcl in aU bntlin-n. bi-UcTcn and unLcUcTcre, thai 1 

Urtanlil be at libvrty lu mumw miiminK" Brin|i ilwiml to |^v« 

MIWM jirooft Ihm, he aniiri>r<H| : " 'I'n prorp tliat I liar* lavn chittra 

ptt G*al ai an ainalk- to dctVnd and [>n>|ia|^ti) nliglon. 1 lay that aa 

Hit llid/ Cliurrh ha> intlltutcd i»»ton in drmunntnttir la fiare i>r tb« 

world that ibo la the true Cathcdiu fUth, crcn ao. Iiavins otwntt^ 

wiih ajiiiruhatioi] and by t\u> cnunwt iif |iaatnn iif Ihv Hidy I'liurch, 

1 aiii. ai 1 a«)d. ftilly Juitlflrd In n-gard lu all my opprationi ; and 

n-lllaaf [wilnt* harp aManrd mu thai my ERyt'tian l)nl(-r waa dlvinv. 

d dncrvrd to be funiKHl luto an Urdrr •ancitoncd bj ilic Holy 

r, aa I aaid hi anuthirr ialerrogiitury." 

I Haw Ham, in ibir namf nf wondur, MtiJ w«, could »urh a 

tbiing, bubblinii Turkej'-i'ut.-k i>pcak ' wilh unction ' ? 
, Two ibinip br-rf^ arc to Ixj Inkpn into accnunl. Fini, tha 
renM botweeii ii|wwkinx aiul (lublic vgwakini;: a difTer- 
B allogrtber goiieric. Sowindly. tlie wotidprfiil powrr of 
Uia Budadtj". otlcn nnroMl ijn{iu<lence. Waa it never 
f ban] roriunc, good Rearlor, to attend any M««lin|; ran- 
ned tor I'ubiti- {turpoao* ; aay ltible>Koci''t3r, Itrliirm, Con- 
rvative, Tlialehml-Tavrni. Hn-iig Dinner, or ctlier auch 
ettng? TboM hai^l "ecu wmi- full-ri^i I^ong-^ar bv frrr 
mlnatioti. or on jwwI ii>n>tmint, «lori to bi* leg*, and 
I*. Well awnre wm lliou itwl ihpiv wa* not. liad 

mis seraphic Countess is Gi 
Fciniile Lodges ; has a toiid 
in her : among all tliy intrig 
dymion-like an intrigue with t- 
Hecate ? And thou, O antiqu» 
this Squire-of-dames can, it ap 
Seven Angels, Uriel, Anachiel 
the eyes of all Europe fixed 
money enough, and can secMn 

To us, much meditating on tl 
strangest of all, how Count Ca 
Steel Arch, could hold Discourse 
long, on Universal Science, of su 
to seem inspired by the Holy S 
lugged out of doors directly af\e 
and drowned in whole oceans of 
could not speak ; only hahble 
chaotic circumvolutions tending 
thought for speaking with ; he 
His Sicilian Italian, and Laquais 
with shreds from all European 
gihle to no mortal ; a Tower-of- 
many think him a kind of Jew. 
guage of Greeks, or of Angels, 
man, once for all '»"" 


what rt^emblaiice ofllioiigljl lie 1ms, cannol ilelivtr itself, ex- 
fr\it in ^i^ps, blustering gtisiies, spa^motlii: rcfluence^ which 
nutkp )nicI worsts lIuhMi'^ buhbit;, tiiil and trouble : how 
|0U bubbltui, fbolii'h ' ilubblvjock ! ' Hear him onve. bikI 
|^« dco^itl (Hva»ion, as the Inquisition Guniej' rcportj it : 

nu/an *oi I vIbIi tu meaD, lliat even at tliuac vlio honour their 
and molhrr. and rctpvfl (he lorervi^ I'onlilT', aiv bitmrd of 
vivnoall thm I dill, I did it by the order of tinl. with the 
rcr vhlch he vnuolisarvd niv, and to x3w tuinuitagi; nt (ind and 
(Bol)- Church ; and I nii-an to give the prooft of all that I have 
and taid, not only pliyaioall; but morally, hy ehowioK that a« 1 
■prred God for God and by the poircr of God. he hn» given me 
it tlie cmiBlvrtHiiBiin to oonfijund ami combnl Hell ; fur I know 
I iJian tboie tlial arr in Hell, and if I am wrong, (lie 
ly Fatlier will |ninish mo ; if I am right, he will reward me; and 
if ilw Holy Faiher could gel into hi* handa lo-nlghc these aniven 
iif iiiinp. I preiliol tii all lirrthren, believera and unbelievcrB, tliat I 
-.'loulil be at liberty to-morrow morning." Being deaired to give 
(ln'te pTiKiU then, he aniwured : " To prove that I have been choaon 
of God as an apiMlle to dcltnd and propagate religion, I My that aa 
ilir Holy Chnrch lias Inatituled pnatora to demonatiate in face of the 
'orld tlioi alie ii ilie truu Calholii; faith, even ao, having openiI«d 
Filli aiipTubation and by the counsel of patlors of l)ie Holy Church, 
■a I >aid, fully jualiflct in regard lo all my operatione; and 
pailara have nssuml mo that my Egyptian Onler waa divine, 
ddwrred tu b« formvil into an Order saoutioocd by the HoJy 
aa [ laid in another interrogatory." ' 

Mow then, in ihi? name of wonder, faid ire, could such a 

Imbbliug, bubbling Turke^-covk i\teak * with unclion*? 

^Two things here arc to be lak«ii into aeeounl. First, the 

RireDce beltrecn Bprnking nnd jxibiic Hpenking ; n difTer- 

B allogetlier generie. Secondly, the wonderful [tower of 

I niidacJty, often natned impudonce. W«* it never 

f harti fortune. gwHl Itcuder, tu attend anj Mevling ron- 

d for I'ublii^ purposes; any liible-Socieiy. Rpform, Con- 

miive, Tbntclied-Tavvm, Ilogg Dinner, or ulher euch 

eling? Tliou hast »een u>me full-fed Long-«ar by frrc 

termination, or on swm-I eonslntint, ainrt In hid \t^g*, and 

W«U aware wen thoa thM there waa not, had 



MISCELLAKICS.«tom, (ir Moatb-oT-Gokl, be itie mudem Q<in^ &ia4 
I'inolibvckMlom, or Moutii-of-PinchbL-ck ; in nn Agr d 
Brouze eticb tnelal finds clt^ctive afllnilie^ Oft ilv 
loo. it Is nonb con^dcring nrbai clcmrnt votir (ji»ci i^ 
CLiillj- works in : Uiu elernonl of Wonder l' Th* 
bi; he artist or artisan, woriu m lh« fiiiituilt: of ibe Knoa*; 
the Quack in ibe infinitude of the Unknoivn. 
huw. in rajiideat progression, be glows i 
finn him! Your name k up, says tbe ftdAge; yva najril 
ill bed. A nimbus of reoown and pretemMloiml 
meiit envt'lops Cagliwiro ; encbuQt^ the general ore. Hb 
fi'W reasoning mortaLi scattered here and there vba 
tlirougb bim. deafened in tlie univeKol bubbub, «hai tboi 
tips ill sorron-ful disdain ; confident in tbe grand irmaif. 
Time. The Enchanter mennirhile rolL^ on his wmv; ' 
boundless materiab uf Deoeptibilitv, what greedinos 
ignorance, especiallj* what prurient bnite-mindoilnotv a» 
r Europe in ibis tbe most deoeivable of modern agn,« 
is behoof. He c«re<?f^ oowaniM 



^^^tfere too let as menlion a circumBlann?, not itisigiiiAcnnl, 

. if u-uc, which it may n^dily enough be- In younger year*, 

Bepjw Bul*aino oui^e. it is rt-fortlfHl, look some \miai to pro- 

'-tiri'. •from a country vicar,' under tjuiie fal>e prelencei^, 'a 

[ -A' rollcin jit<»-pod in holy ails.' Wliut could such bit oT 

■Hun s(efp«J in holy oils do for liitn? An Unbeliever from 

• \ l>a«i« of conviction ihe unbclitving Be]ijio could never 

: but Eol^ty from stupidity ntiil bud moral;'. Slight there 

' li«: in t.Jifit chaolio blubbiTy nulure of lii?^ nt the Wtoni 

dl, a rorlnin musk-grain of real So per? I it ion a Belief? 

i>* woniiirfully such h musk-prain of B.-licf will flavour, 

1 impregnate with scilnciive oduur. a whole inward world of 

' i:i<-lcery. so that every Rbre thereof shnll »mell laiut, h well 

own. No Quack can [wr^uade like him who lias liiuisclf 

i:n.- pcr^iuiaion. Nay, so wondrous is the act of Believ- 

,-. Deception and Self-tleception luusi, rigorously speaking 

-'•lidt in all Quacks ; and lie perhaps were definable as 

hen Quuck, in whom the smallest musk-grain of the 

■ r would sufficienLly Unvonr the largest muss of the for- 

liul inileed. as we know otherwise, was there not in Cagli- 

!■> a certain pinchbeck eounlerfeit of all lliat is golden 
< I sao>l in man, of somewhat even that is best ? Cheec, 

) illnminitled hieroglyphs Bnd Uie ravishment of throng- 
j am lie nee-, can make him inaudlini his very wickedness 

[imclice will render him louder in eloquence of ihoorj- ; 

I ■ philanthropy ,' 'divine science,' 'depih of unknown 
'Ms,' 'finw feelings of the henrt.' and such like shall 

■ iw tear* frtmi most asses of sensibility. Neither, indeed, 
ii of moment how few his cleroenlary Commonplaces are, 

II empty tits head h, so he but agitate it well: thus a Icad- 
■ ■y or two, put inio the emptiest drj--hliidder, and jingled 

iind fni, will make noise enough : and even, if skilfully 
ii^-ieil, a kind of martial music, 
"^nch is the Caglioistric palaver, that bewitches all man- 
:i'-r of believing souls. If llie ancient Father « 

now, ill rapidest progress 
!*tart him ! Your name is 
ill hv(\. A nimhiis of re 
nient envelops Cagliostro ; 
few reasoning mortals sei. 
through him, deafened in t 
lips in sorrowful disdain ; < 
Time. The linchanter mej 
boundless materials of Dee 
ignorance, especially what \ 
over Europe in this the most 
stirred up, fermenting in his 
a Comet ; his nucleus, of ])a 
braces, in long radius, what cil 
Ins thinner tail, of wondering 
into remotest lands. Good '. 
Mountains, could say of hira 
^ man such as few are ; in \vl 
*liever. O that he wore simj 
' child ; that he had feeling fo 

* and the majesty of the Lon 

* were so great as he ? Cag 

* true, and promJc" ' 



rjrivlien^ under tliK Slecl Arch, eroking spirits, Irani- 

Itiiig mviHls (lo sudi )u vwiid stand il), llie Aruluitiack bus 

hrereol Susonj ; nt Lcipeig liiu run athwart ihu hBWacr 

■ft bniiiier cfiinck (poor 8clii'upti-r, tiure ei-jirccly rucogiiiaa- 

• Seiefferl'), und wi-etki-d him, Througli Kiisttsni 

tuany. Prussian Poliinit, lie progresses; and so niiw at 

ph, in tlic spring of 178<J, lias arrived Ht Petentburg. 

■ pavilion a crtK;le<l Iteru, his Hug prooperousl; liuiateil : 

n-lcKlges tiavu hag tni-i i he h rlistrihuting, as has now 

; liii> wont, Spagyric Food, meilidiie fur the poor: a 

In-oil Prince. Potemkin or fumetUing tike liim, tor ac- 

(|iibiou», fuels his ebops wat«r over a aeraphii^ 

npbiim: all gocj merry, and promiaea lli« beaL But in 

e despotic comitries, thi- Pulice u so arbitrary ! Cagli- 

> tlinnmniurgy miist be ovi<rhau!e"l by the Eniprwa's 

iciun (Monnccy, n hard Annundale Scot) ; ifi fuund 

naugbi, the Spagyrio Food uiifii for a dug '- and »o, the whole 

parttt-iilitrs of bis LonLihip's conduct being ptit together, tlie 

mult is. timl he must leave Petersburg, in a given brieT 

term of hours. H»ppy for him that it was so brief: ««rcely 

U be gone, till ilie Prussian Anibik>sHdi)r nppeara with a eom- 

plaiiil, that he has fiilsely Hj«^um'-r| ihe Prussian uniform al 

; the Spanish Ambassador with n still graver com- 

Ent. thai he has forged bllU at Cadiz. However, he is 

t over the inarches : let them comphiin llicir fill. 

n Courbind, and in Poland, greut things await him ; yet 

|( unnlloyud by two $inHll reverses The famed Countess 

' B«cke, a bum Fair Saint, what the German* call 

> Stflf, oi yet quite young in heart and ex]tprienr«i 

I' broken down with grief fnr dejianed friends — sevks to 

n the world-fitUKius Spirit-summuner on the secrets of 

k Invisibl« Kingiloras; whither, with fond stmhied ayes, 

t in«ea«aiitly looking. The ffolimalia* of Piiiehbeckoe- 

Boannot im[Kwe on this pure-minded siiaple woman: she 

^inTJ* the Quikek in him, and in a printed Book luakue 

same ; MiphitHo's mortifying csporicnce with 

triumphant, sumpluously fe. 
a clio-sen set of believers, \v 
believing * M/ into the couni 
pare pcrliaps the Pentagon 
leaving Warsaw, 'our dear 
with spirits. Spirit:} ? cries 
ducats : he has a melted mass 
now, by sleight of hand, he 
other, filled, as you all saw, 
down, smelted, set to cool, smu 
and now (look at it, ye asses !) 
among these bushes ! Neither c 
of Life, or whatever it was, pi 
' Master enters into expostulati 
' God, and his honour, that he wi 
^ us happy. He carries his inod( 
' he shall work with chains on hi: 
' his life, by the hands of his 
*of the fourth passage, his wo; 
*' lays his hand on the gmund, ai 
' Heaven, and again takes Goil 
' true ; calls on llim to o^*'- 
ion of th«^ ' 


I.,' balunring U 

runU ihe i)|iposile exlreiue, even 

[far Itotn being modral,' uiya thit Unmaikcr, ' he bragi bej'ond 
I. In antibody'* pret^niv. oipccially in iromen'i, of the 
■1 fluultlM ho paufvuvt. Kvt^r; «oril is an exaggentJnn, or a 
I you tin! to be iniprobnble. Tlie sniaUiist ctinlmdiction 
I Id furj : lii* Tnnitjr breaks throagb on nil liilM ; be tela 
blio ■ rcitiral tliat H'I* the whole i-ily a-talking. Miwl ini- 
Tc *iipple, and cndenTour to gain friendi. Tbi» one, you 
II aay, itudlei to ajipear arroKsnt, to make all men eneml™, by 
■ riuli! iitjurioai fp™*?!"^'. by the iquabhleg and Rrudget he intny- 
m ainnng nieoilt.' ' lie quarrelB with hie coadjutors for trifleai 
« that a simple giving nf the lie will penuade the public that 
■-' ' Sclirifpfirr at Lcipxig was Tnr cicvorer.' 'He 
fold get some venlriloquisl tor HisislHiil : iihniild n-ud ■nini' BiKik* 
Avmistry ; itudy Ihe THcks of Philadelphia and Camus' ■ 

Fair iidvice:<, good *U.;' but do not j-ou yourself Hdmit 
has a * natural genius for deception ; ' abovu uU 
tilings, 'a forehead of brass {front ifairain), which noth- 
ing can diiicoiicerl i ' To aiicli a goiiiuA, and Bui'h a broir, 
Comita niiil Fhilndelphia, and nil ibc v^niriloqnisls in Sa- 
lute, uiii add liltlL', Give the Arcliquack his due. Tli«sc 
arrognnci«'» of his prove only tliHt hi? ii) mounted on his 
bi^ horse, and has now the world under him. 

Such reverses, which will occur in the lot of eveiy msn, 
ara, for our Cagliosiro, bul a^ epeuk^ in the blue of ihe 
nwridian Sun. With unditntncd luslru he is aa heretofore, 
bandt-'d over from this ■ Prince P." lo llml Prince Q. ; among 
which high believing polcnutes, what is an iiiereduloua 
■ Cuunt M. P ' His pockets are di.sicndcd with diicniB and 
diamuudjs : he is ofT to Vienna, lo Fniiikfort, to Siratiburg, 
by esira-po«t j nnd there bIbo will work miracles. ' The 
inun he commonly took with him,' «ays the Inquisitttm- 
Biognipber, ■ coi-responded to llie real; he always Inirelled 
•pfmt, witli a considci-able suite; couriers, lackeys, body-scr*- 
* rants, doiocstics of all Miris, sumptuously dressed, gave an 

I Cigii^ra 

;i. pp. S6«l «4. (I'l 

(, iT*a.t 

' feigned gene^•o^ily likewise 

* he gratuitously doetored th 

* alms.' ^ 

III the inside of all this S] 
economy, are to be seen, as 
ing rouged or unrouged Hgur« 
ess; lolling on tlieir cushions 
kind of aspect ; they eye one 
with a scarce-suppressed indig 
other does not work enough an 
Dame Lorenza followed her p 
with reluctance or with free alac 
Biographers : not so that, with 
quack, she had a sour life of it, a 
we look still farther inwanls, ar 
most self-consciousness, what in ai 
the conscience, of the Archqua 
most uncertain; little or nothing 
lacious haze. Which indeed w 
there. Much in the Count Fron 
yet hardly this : his want of clear 
of all into his own inner man. C 
gree he has ; intellect next to n* 
(couple it with an esurient ch»i 



Wer}* I'l'iil) hiu «oiU(i more or Icjm fiiiut resemblance of r 

Cm- 1 111-'; muit m«ke inwanitj certain auricular confe*- 
liiiu- tiU-iiluiions, [irorefsion.s of fnilli. — wtrc il only that 
r> nul jvl quilL- luullie, anil liu procecil to hang liiai- 
\\'hat ftiich a Porcua tu Caj^lio^lro mighl epeuially 
ml ibink, and be, were diHiuuli in Hny case to tay ; 
1 niori! when cuiitrudiciiuu and uiy«lific»tion, desigued 
rnldflbK »o invoke the mailer. One of Ihtt tnont 
intic ducuuumts prceiirrud uf hiin it liiu Picture uf bid 
An KfflgioA oncD uniTcrntilljr diffused ; in oil- 
, aqiuitint, iiuirbk', »tucc<i, and |x.-rIin|K' gingerbread, 
Ing luilliuns uf apaiimvnld : uf wliiL-h remarkable Ef- 
f popy, ciigrav)^ in lh<; linc-inaniuT, linppily slill 
. Filtt^l uf visages ; wortliy lo be worn by ihe 
I of Quacks ! A most portentous face of icoundrel- 
: K fat, aiub, abominable face ; deW'lappt^l, Hal-nosed, 
}y, full of gri!edine»<, seDauality, oxlike obstiiniiiy i a 
iliirad impudenl, refuung lo be a-haracd ; ;.:.d tht-n two 
t lumvd up iH-rapliically languishing, as in divine cun- 
mplaiiuii and adoration ; a louch of f(uii loo : on ihe whole, 
txvhap ihc most perfect qunelt-faee pnniuccd by llie righ- 
t<,-«;ntli irniury. There he sils, luid (^c-mpliically huigui»h(.-», 
Willi tilt-' cpigifiph : 

IhfAntiikt ffiinoiu r«nwiw»rl If ln,iU : 

Thu ti4jimrt mml miirtiiirt par ilr mmrtaur bittffaiU, 

Itprtinigr ki rii, il itnmrt tiwiigmi ; 

l^ plniMr -tiirt %iilt til irnl m rt.imi/jf me. 

A probable coi^eclure were, lliat this same Theosophy, 
Tl«»pbilaniliropy. Solacvment of ibe Poor, lo whirh our 
Arcliijuack now more and more bclook liiniself, night s»-rve 
nut only la binllirae for cxtenial gaine, but also half-unoon- 
:>cMu»ly a» (uUve for assuaging bU own spiritual tone. Am 
i.x I a charllable man? cuuhl the Arcbquack say: If I 
: life erred myKlf, have I nol, by ilieoM[>hic unctuous difr- 
<>iinr<s reawvnl much cause of error? The lyitipr. tho 
(i.iu-kery, "bat are these but the metlmd of aci-unimodaiing 

jiiy "jriiius, since Ik* was u 
scaiulalous times lie lias not 
liim.>elt* oiH* ? If not by o|'. 
military force, then surely I 
in a private way. Ileal th> 
deeper diseases of the Ignor 
Lodges, and get the means 
soliloquies can Count Front-o 
atnibiliar hours of self-quest 
the rest, such hours are rare : 
and digestion, not of self-quest, 
its abundant task ; there is ii 
the metaphysical sort. 

Be this as it may, the Count 
working higher wonders than 
in the year 1783, occurs his i 
the culmination and Fourth ^ 
was here for a number of montl 
ance, the envy and admiration c 
hospitals, he with o|)en drug- 
Satum,' and even with oj)en 
poor; unfolds himself lamb-lik< 
of the rich classes ; turns a si 
believers, were they of the ricl 
in all times y^^'-- 


The Prince Canlinal de Roimn, Archbishop of Stra>biirg, 
iir9t-claM Peer of France, of the Blood-royal of Brittany, 
intimatCA a wish to see him ; he answers : ** If MonscMgneiir 
the Cardinal is nick, l<*t him come, and I will cure him ; if 
he u well, he has no n<H'd of nic, I none <»f him.** ^ llcavon, 
meanwhile, has sent him a few disciples : hy a nii*c tact, he 
knows his man ; to cme speaks only <»f Spii;ryric Medicine, 
Downfall of Ty ninny, and the Egyptian Ix^dge ; to another, 
of quite high matters, h«*yond this diuninl >phere, of vi^it> 
from the Angel of Light, visits from him i»f Darkness ; pass- 
ing a Statue of C*hri<t, he will paii^i* with a wondnKe^ly 
accented! plaintive " Ha I *' as of recognition, as of thoiisand- 
years n*membrancc ; and when que>ti<med, <.ink into mys- 
terious silence. A he the Wandt*ring Jew, th<Mi ? Heaven 
knows ! At Strashurg, in a word, Fortune n<»t only smile> 
but laughs upon him : as crowning favour, he finds hen* the 
richest, inflammablest, most open-hanthMl I)u|>c ever yet 
Touch'safed liira ; no other than this same many-titled I^uiis 
fie Rohan ; strong in whose favour, he can laugh again at 

I>*t the curious reader look at him, for an instant or two. 
through the fiyc?^ of two eye-witne^se'i : the AhlH.* (Seorgi-l. 
Prince Ix)uis's diplomatic Factotum, an<l Herr Meiners, the 
Gollingen Professtir: 

' Admitto<l at length.* savii our ti>o-profiinff Jemiit AI)Im>', ' to tlit> 
•anctiwry of ihit ^-Kiiciil Aphis, ^rinl^e I^Miin haw, atreiinliiifc to hi* 
own account, in the incoinniiinifntive nian'n pliynioKnoiiiy, Minir- 
tliing M) dijcnifliil, so im(Ni9>inpr, that \iv felt fifnetnitril with a nli^- 
iouaawv. and revvronct* ilietntfil hi* ni.Mn'j«>i. Their interview, whiih 
was brief, ciciteil more* ke«'nly than cvtT his denin' of farlht-r ar- 
qnaintancp. He attain<*«l it at U'lif^th : and the crafty empiric trrail- 
uated so cunningly hit wonln ami pnMftliire, that he iniiiHtl, without 
appearing to court it, tlu* Canlinarii en tin* (luiflilemv, ami the len-at- 
e«t aacendency over hiii will. " Your noul," »ai(l lie f>ne day to thi' 
Prince. " is worthy of mine ; you doMTve to lie inade partii*iiMitfir 
of all my secret*.** Such an avowal eapiivatetl the wholv facultk**. 

I }ftmiHn$ lit r.lAAr Gtvrgtl, \\, 48. 
VOL. III. 25 

piscopal I'alace, when* Tokav 
ostro and his prftetultMl wife, 
Cardinal : liis answer was, '* I 
to commit abuses, if he judge 
no otlier will than Cagliostro's 
that this sham Egyptian, findi 
time, and retire into Switzerla 
despatched his Secretary as well 
tions from liim ; such were tranv 
every point he ueeded to consult « 

' Before ever I arrived in Stn 
Protestant l*rofe8sor), * I knew al. 
not see Count Cagliostro ; at least, 
many i>er8ons I had heard that h 
from curious Travellers, in a state 
being sick, apjK'ared in his audiences 
the brutallest way, as spies.' * * * ^ 
new gwl of Physic near at hand an 
ment as he rolled on in a rapid carr 
acquainted with him than many t! 
months/ ' My unavoidable convi 
from of old. has been more of a ch 
that he continues a cheat to this da^ 

' As to his country I have ascertj 
a SpanianI, others a Jew, or an It 
Arab, who had persno-' • 
travoi '- " 


tad throogfa Cbcte the fiiYour of the Court, to such a degree that his 
•d^enariet cannot ao much at think of oYerthrowing him. With 
th« PnHor and Cardinal he it said to demean himself as with per- 
sons who were under boundless obligation to him, to whom he was 
mder none : the equipage of the Cardinal he seems to use as ftvely 
■a hia own. He pretends that he can recognise Atheists or Blasphem- 
«• bj the smell ; that the Tapour from such throws him into epi* 
liptiG fits; into which sacreti disorder he, like a true juggler, has 
the art of fiUling when he likes. In public he no longer Taunts of 
rale over spirits, or other magical arts ; but I know, even as cer- 
tainlj, that he still pretends to evoke spirits, and by their help and 
apparition to heal diseases, as I know this other fact, that he under- 
•caada do more of the human system, or the nature of its diseases, 
or the use of the commonest therapeutic methods, than any other 

' According to the crediblest accounts of persons who have long 
obsenrvd him, he is a man to an inconci>ivable degree choleric 
{keftiy), heedless. Inconstant ; and therefore doubtless it was the 
lippifst idea he ever in his whole life came upon, tliis of making 
bimself inaccessible ; of raising the most obstinate reserve as a bul- 
wark round him ; without which precaution he must long ago have 
baen caught at fiiult.' 

' For his own labour he takes neither payment nor present : when 
pftaenta are made him of such a sort as cannot without ol^nce be 
reftued, he forthwith returns some counter-pn'sent, of equal or still 
Ufber value. Nay he not only takes nothing from his patients, but 
flraqoently admits them, months long, to his housi* and his table, and 
will not consent to the smallest recompense. With all this disinter- 
catedneas (conspicuous enough, as you may suppone), he lives in an 
•speaalve way, plays deep, loses almost constantly to ladies ; to 
that, according to the very lowest estimate, he must require at least 
MjOOO livres a-year. The darkness which Cagliostro has, on pur- 
paae, spread over the sources of his income and outUy, contribuu>s 
•ven more tlum his munificence and miraculous cures to the notion 
that he is a divine extraordinary man, who lias watchcil Nature in 
bar deepest operations, and among other M.*crets stolen that of (told- 
aaakiagfirom her.' * * * With a mixture nf sorrow and indignation 
over oar age, I have to record that this man has fouml acwptanc4>, 
not only among the great, who from of okl have been tlu* easiest be- 
witched by such, but also witli many of the learned, an<l even phy- 
aiciaiis and naturalists.' > 

Halcyon davi* ; only too ^(mxI to (*oiitiniie ! AH glory nin<« 

* Meinen: Brirfe ithtr tUt Srkictiz (m <]Uote«i in .Ifini&caa). 

jackal could long bo l<»ft 
sharper-toothed she-jackal 
deeper ; stranded whale ar. 
come her prey. A young 
de La Motte-Valois, descend 
line/ without Extract of Sat 
verbal conference with Dark 
to get her finger in the Arcl 
tion, appropriate the golden p 
the crucible. Prince Cardin 
Paris, under her guidance, to 
or Queen's Apparition ; to picl 
of Trianon, dropt by her fair si 
descend rapidly to the Devil, ar 

The intelligent reader obser 
that stupendous business of the 
dark complexities of which we 
glance : who knows but^ next n 
written specially on this subje 
Enough, for the present, if we 
Cardinal, so deep in the n*^— 
diction- *- 


e Qacen't Similitude, ■ would plac« Llai ttt lite bighc«l 
It of' fuTour ; llutt his inDucntH; in the UaveroTneiiC would 
■ beounie paramouut ; tliut be wuuli] ute it for the prop- 
I or giKid princi{j]t^ the glory of lit*.- Supreme Bd- 
ftwid the buppiiies^ of French men.' Tlie Dew Calchu 
ndevd at fault : but liow tould be bu oilierwisu ? Let 
i bigh (joeenVfnvouri, and nil tcrresd-ial sbitlings of thfl 
Win^ turn as they will, hii reign, he can well see, ia appointed 
to be t4<mix)rary ; io ibts mean while, Tokay flows like water t 
ptophtivics of good, not of evil, are the method lu keep it 
flowing. Thus if, for Circe de La Molte-Valoi^ the Kgyf^ 
CUD AIuBonry is but a foolish enchanted cup wherewith to 
tarn h<:r fsl Cardinal into n quadruped, she herself con- 
risnsivwbe, for the Grand Cuphl«, is one who must ever 
Ibdtiur Miid quadruped with Court Hopes, and stall-feed him 
lautn- and fatter, — it ia expeeled, for ibe knife of both pai^ 
tiea. Tbey aro mutually useful ; live in peace, and Tokay 
Intivily, iliough mutually suspicious, mutually («ntempIuous. 
So et«fid niutiere, through the apriiig and suninier months of 
tlie year 1785. 

Bui faney next tluil, — while Tokay is flowing within 
thxtrs, ftnd nbroad Kgypiiun Lodges are getting founded, and 
gold and glory, froui I'aris as from otlier cities, supernatu- 
nUly coming in, — iba latter eiid of August has arrived, and 
wiib it Coinniissary Chesnon, to lodge the whole unholy 
Bnnhcrhood, from Cardinal down to Sliam-queen, in «epa- 
mti- <x\is of till' Bastille I There, for nine long months let 
tbeoi howl and wail, in baas or in treble ; and emit the falsest 
of tal^i^ Jleminret ; aniong which that Alimoi're pour It Comta 
dt Caylioilro. en pritenee de* aatrei Co-Arctuit, with iia 
Trehisoiirl Acbaratsi, Scherifs of Meccn, and Nature's imfor- 
fiuuile Child, all gravely printed with French types in the 
yau- 1781). may well boar the pultn. Fancy that Neckl»c« 
or Diamonds will nowhero unearth them^lvcs; that iha 
Tnilcrics I'aIoco ^iu struck with action ishmeni, and speedi- 

t duigriu ; tliat Pari;-, tliat all Europe, i^ ringing with the 

^-^g me III : and now that 
estates ; ' Countess de Lj 
branded, with red-liot iron, 
and confined for lite to th 
ing uncertain, with diamon 
pire ; that the Sieur de Vil 
is banished forever ; the 
d'Oliva (with her iinfathere 
and Grand Cophta Cagliostn 
and ordered forthwith to tal^ 
illuminate their windows ; bu 
missary Chesnon, Bastille-Gu 
ollect the least particular ol 
gold-rouleaus, repeating watcli 
to Passy that very night ; a 
nothing for it but Boulogne 
miserable pickleherring trage< 
wind itself up, and wind Cagli 

Arrived hen*, and lodged 
Knightsbridge,' by the aid of 
broken Wine-merchant, now A 
introductions^ he cni» ''•••- 



wurlil nut wurtli; uf liim. at \he liauils of Engllsli Lawyers, 
.■-lilli'-tiovtmors French Couiit£, and oiLer$ ; his Leltr* 
■ t Fran^aii, ^inj^ing lo lite same liiiiu, predicting loo, nlwt 
ujnny in»[>ii'ed luJilura had already boded, itiat ' the Bastille 
wU he d(»tr(iyn],' and ' a King would come who should 
1 by Siai^E-Geaenil.' Hut, aUs the shatU of Criii- 
B w buity wilh him ; so initny hoilik: eyed loot luwanjs 
: the world, in short. Is getting loo liot for liim. Murk, 
KrtheleM, bow the brow of braax iiuaJIs not : nay a toueh 
a old poetic Humour, even in lliid txiA erisis, unexpeirt- 
r untold* tiwif. One de Miiratidi', Editor ol* a Courritr 
W£ur<ip» published here at ibat peiiod, ha.4 for some lime 
K it bis diitinrtinn to be the foivrnwit of Caglioslro's cne- 
Cagtio-itro, enduring much in silence, hap|iens onoe, 
Mme * public audience,' lo inuniion a praetiee he )jad wit- 
1 Anihia ih(' .Stony : ttie people there, il seems, are 
ibe habit of fitlleniiig a few pigs anmially, on provender 
'«enic ; whereby the whole pig-carca«s by and 
' becomw, so to fpeaJc, nreenicnl ; (he aracniral pigs are 
I let kioM into tliu woods ; euien by lions leopards and 
Mr feronious creatures; which latter Daliirally all die in 
iijuenoe^ nnd »o the woud^ are cicaml of them. This 
nMl practice the Sivur Morande thought a proper subject 
tiir banter ; and acrorilingly, in Ids Seventeen I Ii and two fol- 
: viing Nuntb«r», made mt-rry enough with il. Whereu|ian 
i xunl FroDi-of-brai^ whose patience liai limits, writes as 
Advertiscracnt (slill lo be read in old filc« of tlie Public Ad- 
■ date September 3, 1786). a P'rench Jitter. 
t without eaiiaiicily and arisloeralie disdain; chnllenging 
F willy Sieur lu brenkfusl wiih him, for the 9th of Novem- 
ber »eil, in the face of the world, on an actual Sucking I'ig. 
faiirn<^ by Caglio^tm, but cooked, curved and selcclod from 
f the Sieur Morande. — under bet of five Thousand Guin- 
rling ihal, ni'xt morning thereafter, he ihe Sieur Mo- 
t almll b« dead, and Count Cagliustro be alive! The 
r Sieur durst not cry. Done : and baoked-out of Uio Inui^ 

ijK T II "^«'J the n- 

»'»^/ -d met?:;;'."-'" 

"ext whether i7 „. 
"'''■'i «ster still' ^'r*^'"^ « «i 

'"'^>- ««« do „:r"'^- *^! 

«§«>•" start, d,7fie„, "^' ""'Z 

"•«•"'' he has been 'm--'^**^'« 
"•'•"-Pens/on be^^'y^ 'o ••"■ 

' So said the f "lo-i. 



» iinj o( htr aprun, lo hitle Ihe loileil ii<l<.> fWiiD ua> Slic joy- 

IwJ my (.tiniliiclur, uid >aid ; " Slganr Oiovanni. ilo jioii 

(i newt I lljtvp you iimde out anything ! " 

■rvil: "III ourattkJr, Dulliiag yet; but here is a Stranger 

briagi ■ ■alulalioD troai your Brother, and uui Ii:U you buw he 

la taliiuition I wju to brinj; arood not in uur agrenDent : mean- 
ly or other, the inlToHuctiaii irw Bccoin|jli»heil. '■ You 
t my Brotliur ! " Imiuired the. — " All Europe knowi him," 
Mwwcrcd 1 ; " aad I ^ded It wouUI gratify you to hear ttiat be ia 
BOW in nruty and well ; u, of bttv, nu itouht you liBve beeu auiioui 
■boDI him." — "Step in," i^il she, ■' I will fhUow you directly;" 
and with tbc Clerli I eaieicd tlic room. 

' It wai large and high ; and niiglil, with us, have puueil fbr a 
■alDun; it ccemed. iiiJe«il. to be almiMl the >ate lodging c^tlie family, 
A BinKle window lighted llic large walla, which hail once lind culuur ; 
uhI on which were black pictures of sudm, in gilt tramct, han)(iii|{ 
nwiMl. Two large beda, without curtains, stood at oiiu wall ; a browa 
fnaa, in thu form ofa writing-desk, at the other. Old ruah-botenineH 
tifuur*. the bai'ki of wliich had once been gilt, stuwl by ; and the 
tUca of tht Huur were Id many plaues worn deep uiw liollowa. For 
the rut. all was cleanly ; and we approached tlie bmily, which sat 
Msaenibled at the one window, in tlic other end of Ihe upartmenL 

' WhlUt my guide wm uijilaining, to Uie old Widow Balaamo, the 
pvipoav of our >uit, and by rvuoa of her deathcii hod to repeat hia 
words MivntI anet aloud, 1 bail time to observe (he cliamber and 
the oilier ifcrwns in it A girl of about sixteen, well formed, wboso 
(walNrua bail become uncertain by smoU-poi. stood at the window ; 
bcaidw bor a young mau, wlioae disagreeabU' hrak, deformed by tlio 
aame itUcBsu. also ilruek me. In an easy-chair, right before the 
wtndciw, tat or rather Lay a tick, much diasbapen person, who appealed 
\a labour nndi;r a sort of lethargy. 

' My guide hariug made biniselT uadersinod. wu were invittHl to 
lake M'ats. The old woman put some questions to me ; which, how- 
encr, I had to get intcrprvled before I could answer them, the Sicilian 
dlali«t not hiiing quite at my command. 

' MoinwhiUi I looked at llie aged widow witli latisCtction, She 
w*a iif middle stature, hni well shaped; over ber regular ttaturea, 
■hUdi age hod not dcfuriui'd, lay thai sun of peace usual wiih (leople 
that bare luat their hearing : the tune of her voice was soft aud 

' t answered her qucstii)ni ; and my antwen also had again to Ik 
bntrtireled fur ber. 

lieu of our conversation gave ale leisure tu mcuure my 

with lior mother, the more str 
figures. A vivacious, lieultliy 
from tlie whole structure of t 
of ahout forty. With brisk I 
yet in her look I could trace n* 
promised more height thaii it 
was determinate, she sat with 
resting on the knees. For tlu 
snubby than the sharp sort, ren 
familiar to us in engravings. S 
journey, my purpose to see S 
back, and celebrate the Feast c 
' As the grandmother, meanwl 
me, and I was busy answering he 
comimnion half-aloud, yet so that 
was. lie answered : Signora ( 
her Brother oweil her fourteen gol 
from Palermo, she had redeemed 
pawn ; but never since that day 
money or any other help, though 
made a princely outlay. Now wo 
return, to remind him, in a hands 
some assistance for her ; nay woi 
at all events get it carried i 1 offi 
lodged, whither she must send thi 
my abode, and offered to call next 
Letter mvself. 


rlMV^ fOcA Wt>fkB Qiuv wanted ; fel lUiiat ai|{!i Terj' «>>n.' uiidur 

ihe liail hug bornu. 

'duiig itfipW niixd in ihe diBlugue, and our conversstion 
w lIleUcT. While ipokinfiwilh the otlifni. 1 could hear thu gooil 
I Mil livr dflugiitcr : If 1 Ix'lon^d, then. U> tlieir I10I7 
I rvunirlii^l alaii thai the dauglilvr sirore, in a prudeal 
roid Nil aiuwiT; ■ignifj'iiig 10 Iiit mulher. k> flu n* I could 
: Tlial tliv Straiitfrr H-emtd to hnvc a kliiil feehng luvnitls 
il thai it irn« luil welUbred to queation toy one ttrai^lway 

V lii-ard tUnt I wai soun tu leavu Paleriuu. thvy bccaiui' 
• pli««liig, and importuDctl me to couip batik ; rspeclallj Taun^ 
« jwnditisc dRVi uf iliu Ho«a1in Fetlival, the like uf which wm ' 
A be Ki^n aod Luie<l in all thu worid, 

J attendant, wliu hwl long been anxiuua to got off. at but put 
d tu lh« inltirvie* \iy hie ip^gturva; and 1 promised lo n-turn on 
row evvuing, and Inlur the Letter My Bllcndjuil cipmacd 
hiul gone ofl' 10 wi'U, and we purled niulualij' con- 

BlToo tnay ttuiey the impreision thia poor and pious, well-disposi* 
i tkmily bail laaile on iiik. Mjp eiirioail; wa* >ati>Hed ; but 
ai and wortlif bearing hod railed on intereal in me, wiiicli 
stion did but inureoDi^. 

Iliwilb, however, lliere arose for me aniietie* about the ful- 
t dty. It wai naliiral thai tiiii appearance of mine, which, at 
rl mnmrnl ha<l taken ihem b; aurpriae, should, after my de- 
t. awaken many rellccltont. By tlie Genealogy 1 knew tbai 
ll otben of llie Biinily were in life : it was natural that thay 
U tiivir fHrnda ingctlier. and in Ihe preaenue of all, get those 
iMed which, tho day before, they had beard ftnni me with 
My objeel wai allaineil ; tliere remained nothing tnoTF 
me good fkrhion, to end the adventure. I nocordinsly i^ 
It day, diivclly after dinner, alune to llieir liouae. Thay 
tilTfhte a* I entered. The Letter woa not ready yet, tlwy 
aome of tlieir relaliona wiihed lo niake my ac^uaintaoM, 
■da night wiiulil be tliere. 

rt«d, diat having to act off to-morrow morning, and viilti 
n pay, ami packing tu trouuut, I luul thuogbt it better to come 
U all. 

Meanwhile the ion entcml, whom ycsierday 1 had not aeni. Ho 

nbled Ilia HKivr in ainu anil flgurv. He brought the l^ti«T they 

» jtl*c HID ; he liad, na i* cflinmi>n in IlioK porti. got it written 

if dwara, by one of their Kotarics that all publicly to do *nch 

TliD young man hail a still, melancholy and modett upcct; 

Kft*Vr««&^Aa •»\f ABBIK^tA^ 

from tlie public, did yet, towui 
it no secret. 

' The sister, who had come 
presence of her brother, porhaj 
day's friend, had got more cour 
grace and liveliness. They beg^ 
to their Uncle, if I wrote to him 
I should have made tliis journe 
and pass the Kosalia Festival wit 

* The mother spoke in accordai; 
she, "though it is not seemly, a 
stranger gentlemen in my house, i 
both danger and evil-speaking, yet 
when you return to this city." 

* " O yes," answered the young o 
all round the Festival ; we will sho 
the scaflblds, where the grand sigl 
say to the great Chariot, and mon 
nation ! " 

' Meanwhile the Grandmother ha 
it. Hearing that I was about to ta 
the folded sheet. " Tell my son," 
nay with a sort of inspiration, " '\ 
have made me, which you brought 
him to my heart" — here she strei 
pressed them again together on hoi 
God and our Holy VircrJ^ *' - ' * 


jiiiiijji-'l W llii" hnk'unir at tUv Itiwlien-wiiiilow, wliieli prqjeclH over 
•':■■ itn-t'li nllnl after mo, thn-w me tnlutvi, ami rppralnl. Ilml I 
t In nowiiw Utruvl lu vumo Iwuk. 1 law th«tn lUll on (he bal- 
my, wlifn 1 tamitl thv conicr*' 

Poor will Pelicilit. tuiJ muvt iliy pious prayer^ thy mntlmrly 
tilf.-viiiis-'. *tvl eo many tears sliod bj- lliu^ old vye^. be iill in 
f.iio I To ihywir, in any case, Ihey were biwscd. — As for 
|iit< Sisnom Citpiluinmbd, with hur three fathurless rhiUIrea, 
ihM w(- iKft hoptt at lea«t, that t1i« foiirlt^en gold Ounoet 
wen pai4, by » mm IiiukI, and so her heavy burden, for 
■ooia »i«e«, lightentil h littlt: ? Alus, no, it would neem; 
owing to nccidonM, not oven ihal ! * 

Count Cnglioslm, nil tlii« while, is rnpidly pruoet-illng with 
liL* Fifth Ai:! ; the nd coppery splendour darken" more 
him! more ittto Hnnl ^Inom. Some boiling miiddlt^headi of a 
(lu|>«al>le Mrt thi^re still im in England : Popish-Riot Lord 
George, for inslance. will wnik wiih him to Count Tinrlh^le- 
tay'f, or d" Adhi'iniir'i' ; nnd, i ri bud French and worsp rhuloric, 
>tiaM the Quruii of Praiivf : but whnl does it profit ? Lord 
George most one day (after noise enough) revisit New- 
gate for it ; and in the mean while, hunl words pay no 
•corc^ A|>olhtfcary Swlnion begins to gel weArisomi^ : 
Frnirh spins look Mninou^ly in : Egyptian Pills are slaifk 
>it'>al(! ; the old vulluroua Attorney-host anew «cents carrion, 
i- bntirrini; it«clf anew : Count Cagliostro. in tlic May of 
1787, rou«t oncp more leave F.ngland. But whither? Ah, 
^■Mther I At Bitle, at iJicnne, over Switzerlnnd, the game is 
^^^£ At Aix in Suvny, there arc Imthii, but no gudgeons in 
^^KlD : at Turin, hi^t Majesty of Sardinia meets you with an 
^^M«r iQ bcgotiu on the instant. A liku fiilu from the Em- 
pi-ntr Jo-eph at Roveredo ; — before liie /.I'fiw memorialit da 
Vaifotlro dum rufi lin&nrrUi coiild extend to tnnny pages! 
juut FrouiH>f-bnt>.s liegiiu confeiising liini»elf lo prirsts ; yet 
|tTr«nt painii* ■ new hieroglyphic Screen,' — touching Inst 
' r of a light tliiit once btimt m high ! Ho pawn» dia- 
■ WMa I itaE»Mt K^ii). kxtID. lis. *n.U. 

^...c, ny nor motluM's h 

any nook, whore so nuich ji 
To the desperate Count Fn 
alike, : urged by temale ba 
why not ? On a May-day 
glorious work liad just beg 
den !)) he enters the Eternal 
that called him thither. On 
Holy Inquisition, long watchl 
some feeble moneyless ghost 
him off,* as the military say, s 
the Castle of St. Angelo : 

LasciaU ogni sptra 

Count Cagliostro did not los 
words will now suffice for him 
pinchbeck and his front of bn 
chimera ; demand religious I 
him) ; demand clean Linen, ai 
(which are refused him) ; asac 
sonry is a divine system, accor 
ble men, which the Holy Fa 
patronise ; anon tin** ** - 


i, w!]l emit confetesion* and rnrc^inll Iter : tliese (lie In- 

i litMi pucbet ami sill (wbcnw t1ii» Lift of Baltamo) ; but 

i <nA lei him oiii. In line, m'tcr *omi' piglitcen moiitlw of 

.' tii.-tiric^l bounding, duulitirig, wurrying, and atamling at 

^y. I IL' lIoliD«w gives winienn? : Tli« ManuscriiH of Kgyp- 

[:iii MKNjnry u In bi' burnt by hund of the common Hung- 

I 111. and all tbat lulermeddle iviili Nuoh M&iionrj' are 

irMTiJi Giiurppc llsLiiuno, jusllj- forfi-iied of life for 

I:.' a Fre«ra»»on, sluill nt!verlliete«s in mt;rey bv Ibr- 

■ II ; instruclMl ill iha duli«^ of [lenileni*. nnd even kepi 
.iV; ilienraforth nnd iill dedtli, — in ward of Holy C'liurch. 
Il-ftarred Aclwrat, must it no end with thee? This wns in 

\['rii i;sii. 

1 1:- •ddrvjtied (Itow vninly !) nn nppenl to the Frencli Con- 

I'-nt A»»embly. Ai wnd »aid, iti Heaven, in Ennh, or in 

1 tljcre was no Aiw-mbly iliat could wt-ll uke his part. 

four years more, sjxfnl one knows not bow, — most 

'iiblj in iha fnror of edneity, with insuffidenl cookery, 

1 liie siiTpor of indigrstion, — t?ie curtiiin lurily fails. 

J ruU»l and guve wuy ilie cordnge of a lougli heart. 

Joe summer morning of the year 1795, ihe Body of Cagli- 

p is still fbutul in the prison of St. Leo ; but Cngliostra'a 

9ttlf bk* KMnped, — whithrr tio man yei known. The brow 

if bnsH, behold how it lias got all iinlnckercd ; ihese pinch> 

Nck li[M tan lie no more : Caglio^tro's work is end«0, and 

x>w only hia aeeount lo presenL A.* ihe Schcrif of Klecnt 

wd, " NniurB'i unlbrtunalo rhild, adieu ! " 

Kufii, ocr^rdiiig to our mmpr«hen'>ioii thereof, in the rise, 
■■■■'irvn. gnmdeur and doi'adnuM! of IIki Qnnc.k of QuHckh i 

■ ■ tlie i-eader ask, What good was in it; Why oceujiy hi« | 
II' nnd hotirs witli the biography of mch a miwrcnnl ? W« 

TMT, !t wa* naled on the vfry threshold of ihis mailer. In' ' 
li<fliecl terms, by Herr Saueneig. that the T.ivp* of all 
liiiMit Pcr«onp. miwnrant or enfant, oughl lo 1» written. 
I lt^ ba* nut tbe very Devi] his Ufe, dcHn-vedly wrilten not 

• .... moral Jo^son ? 
'f '(-"'Irr, in ovorv I?. .• 
"'^"R.-alitvAv/J- '"'' 

"*■« 'n>".o„ such ,.! 
them ' nr , ' "•'''"■•«'' 

have «f# • , ' ^^ ^''^*e Ti 

•^^ 'v no :.;c ,^-«'"- 

T\- » » even ua «l._ 



(bftTing found much fitter machinery), they could run their 
Qoack-career ; and make whole kingdoms, whole continents, 
into one huge E^ptian Lodge, and squeeze supplies of 
■Kmey or of hlood from it at discretion? Also, whether 
ihoa even now knowest not Private Quacks, innumerable 
as the sea-sands, toiling as mere /^{^Cagliostros ; imper- 
fect, hybrid-quacks, of whom Cagliostro is as the unattain- 
tMe ideal and type-specimen ? Such is the world. Under- 
stand it, despise it, love it; cheerfully hold on thy way 
through it, with thy eye on higher loadstars I 

VOL. m. 



Edward Iuving's wa 
yet in invincibility, and fa 
Spirit of the Time, whicli 
must needs, in all ways, fi{ 
has done its part, and he . 
natures ; a man of antiqii 
modern garniture, which he 
di>tracted society, vacant, p 
what these two may breed 
lowed by madder contumel 
These were the conflicting < 
have made out among ther 
thunder,' — with its deep ton 
articulate-speaking ages, nev 
sonances that belong to this i 
and somnambulates, which ca 
gibber, — has gone silent so 
The large heart, with its la 
found solacement, and they tl 
the li<'hf o^ -^ - 


inH it took bpr twelve ypars. He sleeps with hia 
in lluit loved birlh-lnnd : linb^lon willi it8 i]«iif<Miing 
Blty rages on ; bui lo him benverurlb innocuous, unheeded 

r, tJiou ba^t $pen and brnrd tbe man, as who liaa 
Lib wi*e or unwise wonders 'tioii shall not §ee or 
r him again. The work, Ije what it mighl, is donf ; dark 
ink over it. enclose it erer deeper into llie un- 
e: PiuI. Tliiuk, for perhaps ibou art one of a 
>«nd, and worthy m) id think. That here once more was 
^ mnn sent inlu tbis oor nngenuine phnnlaamagory 
I world, which would go to ruin nilbout such; ibat here 
ire. under lliy own eyes, in ibis iast decade, was en- 
p old TrBgetly, and has had xU fifth-act now, of The 
rnffrr of Tnith in the Age of .Siams. — and what rel*- 
iy*f If muyest bare to ihaL Wbeiber any ? Be- 
I question, ihou thyself art fierc ; either a dreamer or 
nnd one day tthtiSt cense to dream. 

nan na^ appointed n Christian Prieiit; and stravo 
wlioie force ibat was in bim to be it. To he it : in 
e uf Tithe Controversy, Eneyclopvdism, Catholic Rent, 
inthropi«m, nnd the Rcvohilion of Tbr<'e Days I Hu 
ni^hl hure been m many tilings : not a i>penker only, hut a 
.'■r 1 the leader of hoais of men. Far hi» bend, when Ibe 
' i-^>ltHbylnn hnil not yet obscured it, wa.^ of strong far- 
' .irching insight I bis very enthusiasm was sanguine, not 
■ nbiliar i he was so loving, full of hope, so Mmple-hearlw!, 
><l mndR nit that npprouebed bim his. A giant force of 
iivity wa:« lu the man ; speculation was aceid'.-ni, not nniure. 
Iiivalry, adventaroua tield-life of the old Border, and a far 
.|j1.t eort than ibai. ran In his blood. There wa" in bim n 
iirnge. daiintle^ not pugnacious, hardly fierce, by no pos- 
<iiliiy ferodouK; a« of thi; generous wnr-hor*B, genlle in its 
: ri-ngtb. yi'l that langb^ at tbe shaking of tlie spear. — But, 
B kll, be what be niighl, to Iw a rtalih/ was iiidl»poniabl« 

■'•ouJ to grow. 

«'-ow nevertJ„.Jess ho ,■ 
g'^- and ripen. What „i 

f J """ '-•« on.,- seen ,] 
one can never know, fio 
-as not, in that November 
a ™nn more full of genJa, , 
"y « fatal chance, Fash 
^me impen«)„ation of N 

^--owded „,„„d j^. ~™ 

''nnoe-^ ; breathed h^r foul 
P«'7'ng. Onema,.^'. 

Pa'hy. of h,s value for the su 
^yron songs, as of a ne,v v" 
-^ and high sons of ;;;i 

"e wa^, to gaze on Eirvotinn 
or what else the». „.l?!'"" 


drauj!;ht, thou poison of Popular Applause ! madness is in 
thee, and death; thj end is Bedlam and the Gnive. For 
the last seven years, Inring, forsaken by the world, strove 
either to recall it, or to forsake it ; shut himself up in a lesser 
world of ideas and persons, and lived isolated there. Neither 
in this was there health : for this man such isolation was not 
fit, such ideas, such persons. 

One light still shone on him ; alas, through a medium 
more and more turbid : the light from Heaven. His Bible 
was there, wherein must lie healing for all sorrows. To the 
Bible he more and more exclusively addressed himself. If 
it is the written Word of God, shall it not be the acted Word 
too ? Is it mere sound, then ; black printer's-ink on white 
rag-paper? A half-man could have passed on without 
answering ; a whole man must answer. Hence Proph(*cies 
of Millenniums, Gifts of Tongues, — whereat Orthodoxy prims 
herself into decent wonder, and waves her, A vaunt ! Irving 
clave to his Belief, as to his souFs soul ; followed it whithfT- 
soever, through earth or air, it might lead him ; toiling as 
never man toiled to spread it, to gain the world's ear for it, — 
in vain. Ever wilder waxed the confusion without and 
within. The misguised noble-minded had now nothing Ict\ 
to do but die. He died the death of the true and brave. 
His last words, they say, were : ^ In life and in death, I am 
the Lord's." — Amen ! Amen ! 

One who knew him well, and may with good cause love 
him. has said : ** But for Irving, I had never known what 
the communion of man with man means His was the freest, 
brotherliest, bravest human soul mine ever came in contact 
with : I call him, on the whole, the best man I have ever, 
after trial enough, found in this world, or now ho|)e to find. 

**The first time I saw Irving was six-and-twenty years 
ago, in his native town, Annan. He was fresh from Edin- 
burgh, with College prizes, high character and promise : he 
had come to see our Schoolmaster, who had also bei'n his. 
We heard of famed Professors, of high matters classical, 

might we meet wh 





The spadons courts of the Prince's Castle were still veiled in 
thick mists of an autumnal morning ; through which veil, mean- 
while, as it melted into clearness, you could more or less discern the 
whole Hunter-company, on horseback and on foot, all busily astir. 
The hasty occupations of the nearest were distinguishable : there 
was lengthening, shortening of stirrup-leathers ; there was handing 
of rifles and shot-pouches, there was putting of game-bags to rights ; 
while the hounds, impatient in their leashes, threatened to drag their 
keepers off with them. Here and there too, a horse showed spirit 
more than enough ; driven-on by its fiery nature, or excited by the 
spur of its rider, who even now in the half-dusk could nut repress a 
certain self-complacent wish to exhibit himself. AU waited, how- 
ever, on the Prince, who, taking leave of his young consort, was 
now delaying too long. 

United a short while ago, they already felt the happiness of con- 
sentaneous dispositions ; both were of active vivid character ; each 
willingly participated in the tastes and endeavours of the other. Tlie 
Prince's father had already, in his time, discerned and improved the 
season when it became evident that all members of the common- 
wealth should pass their days in equal industry ; should all. in 
equal working and producing, each in his kind, first earn and tlien 

How well this had prospered was visible in these very days, when 
the chief market was a-holding, which you might well enough hare 
named a fair. The Prince yestereven had led his Princess on liorse- 

i Fkasxb's Maoasixb, No. 84. 



back tlirougli (lie taniuli of tiii^ linped-np mm ; bbiI loiahil 
to her how. on this >po(, th« MouuUin irgim nM lb* PWa ea» 
try in prcIitaMt^ liarler : he nuilil hnv, witli Ihe olgcM) heltaK Ifa. 
Bwakt'D btr stienlion \o the rancim indiuUy of hi> land, 

IT thu Prince al this time occuincd hUnaelf and hi* semnti alaal 
cxclusireiy wiLh Ihete preMing cuDcemit, mod la particiilar •<riprf 
iocesaaDlljr with hii Ffnanue-miiiiMer, jel would tli» HnnCMMH 
too have hia right ; on wbtxe plcailing, the tenptatioii oontd ant k 
reeiileil to underlBke, id tliia choice aatnnm WMtbn-, a HaM ikM 
bad already been poalponed ; anil lo for Ifae househokl tlaelf. and l> 
(lie DiaDj' stranger vigitKQia, prepare a pecoUai Aad aiDgnbr to- 

The Princess ilaycd behind with reloctuice : bat it w»t p in f l 
to push fiir into the ^lountaini. and slir-up the peaceftble inhablun 
of tlie foreits then' with an unexpected inTaiioo. 

At parting, her lord fluled not to pn^Koe a ride Tor her. with Ttt^ 
rich, the PriDce-Cnclc, a* eacort : " I will luaTi! Ihee." laiil b«, " a«r 
Uonorio too. as Equerry and Page, who will uMtiajp! all," In pw 
auance of which words, he, in deocending, gaTP lo a handaouir joM( 
man the needftil iiijniictioni ; anil hod then«fler diH^p««icd vitt 
guests and train. 

The Princeu. who lind whtcU her httndkcrchief to her buibun) 
i; still down iu tlie (xiurt, now retired lo tbi^ back « 



II. nilril bj hi*nuDl«T, wlio carried a largo tiortrolio uniler 1ii> arm. 
'- >■ ar ('omln," «uil ihe luUe old genllcmitn, " we licre pretenl yaa 

- II tlw Ww> of Ihc Stammburg. uken on vBriciui nidM to shaw 

- llie Bii^lily Pllu, WMrrvd^n and warring, has frum dd time 
Inintcd tlw jrvar anil lu wcathn; liow here and then ili wall had la 
jirU, hcriF and tliera ruali down into waste ruios. However, we 
havo now done much to wake the wild niui acccsiible ; for more 
lliarTv walili nol t') «el everj' tr«veller, evtry Tiaitor, into astuniih- 
nu-nt. into admitntiuii." 

Ah lliF rriooe now [•xhibited the aepHrate iearot. he continued: 
" IKtc wlicrc, odTanuing ui> tbi- hollow-waj. Ihmuijh the outer ring- 
W.I III. you reach the; Kurlrcu |iru|K'r. meg ngainat ua a rock, the flrm- 
-[ iif tlto whole mountain i on tlii* there ttiinili a lower built, — 
' I wlicTv Nature learei ofT. and Art luid nnndieraft begin, no one 
:i 'liilinguiah. Farthvr yuu penvivi', gidewardi. wulls abutting on 
:<iid •linyon* terrate-wiM.' »treli;hing down. But 1 aiwnk wrong; 
' to tbv eye. it i* but a wmid that endrrlcs that old lummit ; theie 
:::<lred atid'tlfl; j-ean noaie hiu aoanded there, and the niBMien 
'< .11* liaToon all aiilei igirung up-, wherever ?ou preis inwardi to 
wall*, the amouth maple, tlie rough osk. the taper piiie. with 
ink and roota ojipme ;ou ; rouod llieie we have to wind, and [uck 
ir ibotatvpa with ikill. Do but look how artfully our Master Iwa 
r. light ilie diaraetcr of il on paper; how the roots and aiem*. the 
>;..-izin of ciicli diatliigiiishable, iwiit ihemtelrea among the matunry, 
anil till' huge bou^lia cami! looping ihraagh Ihe holes. It is k wilder- 
nt^i like DO oilier: an accidentally unique loottlty. where anctcot 
irarea of the long- vanished power of Man, and the urcr-tiving, ever- 
working |io*vr of !i«ture show [henuelrcs in the moat earnest 

Exliibiting ano^ier leaf, he wvnl on : " What say you now to the 
CaatJ<>*'«>urt, which, become iniic<'<«iible by the AUIing'in of Ihe old 
gato^tower, had fbr immemorial time been trodden by no fbot 7 Wa 
■mtghl III m-'t at II by a ride; tiave pierced thtDUgh walls. h1a«l*tl 
Taulta uundcr. and bo provided a convenient but secret way. Inside 
U Mcded no t^Waranee : here stretches a flat nick-iumnilt. atnoolhed 
by Natuni : but yel almng treM have, in apota, found luck and oppor^ 
Inolij for rooting Ihcmaelrcs there ; they have softly but dceidedly 
grown up. anil now stretch ont Iheir boughs into the galleriM whore 
tlw kniglila onw walked to and fro ; nay through Ihe doon and win- 
dows iaiu lb«> vaulteil IwlU ; oul of wliiuh we would not drive them : 
tlwy liBVo even got the movlcry. and may keep tt. Sweeping 
avay iWp simu of Invc*, we haw found Ihc noUble«i pUcc. all 
smoothnl, the like of which vctc perhaps nol to b« met with In the 


" After nil lliia, howprw, it ie still I 
ilMflr veil worth eXHiiining. bow oa the ttept thai lead of mit 
main torer. a raaple hia Btnick root uiil Ikshionvd itadf to « ik« 
tree, ao that jou hanU; can with JilBcuItT ptm* bj it, lo iMoaal te 
balllcmcntt and gn^ over the unboDnded prmpect. Ytt tirtr m. 
yuu linger {lieaned in the shade ; ibr that tree it It •rliich. bigl %nr 
the whole, wondrouilj' liftt itself into the air. 

■' Let us ihaiik the br«»e Artist, Ilien. who » dr-tniBgl.'r a n 
rioun pictures teaches us the whole, even as if ve saw it: W ta 
spent the birest hour* oT the daj and of the temaoa tliensa, mdit 
week« icing kept muvin; about lh«e swnvs. Hetv in this ana* 
luu there been, tor him and tlie wanlcr we gave him, a pleaaant Btti 
dwelling fitted up. You could not tiiinlf, mr Best, whsl a lon^ 
oulliKik into tlie coutitrf , into court and walls, hv has got ihiK 
But now when all is once in onlline. *o pure, » clwnctCTiMir. li 
may flntith it down here at his ease. With tlieae pictarca w« (9 
decorate our gardcn-hiUI ; and uo one shall reiT*«te hii pyv> ant 
our regular pHrterres, our groves and ebad/ walks, wilhont wlA 
ing liiniH'ir up there, lo Tullow. in actual sight of the i>l>l sari tf 
the new. of the rluhbom, inflexihle, indestructible, and af lit 
fVefh. pliant, irtFBistible, wliat refleelioaa and compariions and 


h*rv. <■ luTv MountNln bdiI I'lnlii meet togetlicr, botli bo clcnrly ipesk- 
uui «lia( itii'^ rmuire anil wiali. Fur at tlie higlitaniler on fuliion 
dM< tlnibiT (if Ilia wnida into a hnodn'il shapvi, and mould liii iron 
hr *U nunncr of atc», an th»c ottiers ilrom bctow itrnie tu meet liim 
~~TTti nifnl inuilfuld war», in which often ;oa can hardlj djacoxer 
iiuUrial or rrcngnise the aim." 

I ■□! B«ur." anivvrrd the Prince, " that mj Nephew turo* hit 
: :ii<n| ciuv to Ohwc lliiii|^ ; fof Bpcdallj, on the preient iH.'Uuion, 
1 1.I- ituiln point comei to be coniidercd, that one receive more than 
>,n> RiTDi ouir whieh lo inanaRe is. in tlie long-run, the sum of all 
I'oIiiicaJ KconoiDj', ■* of [he smallett private houst-keeping. Par- 
iliiii mc, tiowcier, mj Beat : 1 never like lo ride tlirough marketa; 
■t rvcrj atcp yav arv hindered and kept bock ; anil then Sames-up in 
mjr inuiKinalJun the monitruu* miacrj' which, ai It were, burnt itielf 
Inu> my rjca. when I wlinuawd one auch world of watei go off in 

Are. I had ieatvcly got to " 

** L<4 ua nut liwu the bright hours." interrupted the Frinceaa ; tot 
tlw wanhy man liad already more than once afflicted Iier with the 
oiinato docrlpUon uf that mischance ; how he, bt-ing on a long jonr- 
■(?. itvllli); in Ilie beat iun, on the market-plaee which wu jual then 
■warming with a tkir, had gone la bed exceedingly btigued ; and in 
tbe nijilil-litnt' bren, by shrieks, and flames rolling up agninat his 
ioiiuing. hideously awakeneil. 

The PrincFsa haalcned to mount her favourite horse: and led, not 
ifaroDKh the backgnlt upwarila, but through the Ibregatr downwards, 
li«r rt^uclanl- willing atleniUnt ; for who but would gladly have rid- 
den hy licr siilc, who hut would gladly have tbilowed after her ' And 
•a Honoriii too had. witliuut regret, stayed back from the otherwise 
so wl*h»d-fi>r Hunt, to be exclusively at her service. 

A* wM to be anticipated, they could only ride through the market 
tlr|> by step : but ilie fliir I,ovely one enlivened every stoppage by 
•onie sprightly remark : " 1 repeat my tesion of ycslemi^cht," said 
sbr. " ainrv Nrvrulty is trying our patience." And in truth, tlia 
whole mass of men so crowded about the riders, that their progreaa 
ni alow. The people ga»-d with joy at the young dome ; and on 
*o many •mlling countenanues might l>e read the pleasure tliey felt 
to arr that the flrat woman in the land waa also tlw &irest and 

|*romlai.-iiDuily mingleil stood, Mountaineers, who had built their 

II dwellinga amid nivk«. Bis and iprucea ; Luwlanders tram hilla, 

Imu I cnftsmen of tlie Ultte towna ; and what else had 

tnbled thcK- ARer a quiet glance, the Princcsi rcmarkpil to 

tMtvmlant, how all these, whencesoever Ihey came, had taken 

I sinir tlian necessary for thi^lr chithes, more cloth and linen. 


iriiiimiiii:. It If as if (he women oould IKK b« YvMij I 
' 'iLtiy ('niiugh, lo pltOM themsclve*. 

Ill iliAl." nnswerei) the Untie : "cpead Utwt 

■M'A, n lumi i* liappy in it ; bajipintvfaah 

^1.1 Au^m liini«.'lf." The fiir damp nodded aoori. 

I •\r^n-e*. got upon > clear »piux, whicb kd oal ■ { 
[1, nt the end of many ranall booiha and irili i 
Kurd; ^howpd itself, which va* BC 
iig bi'lluw Bounded forth frDtn iL ' 
, iliiTi' exhibited, »eemed to h»Te come ; tbe Um . 
< ilc^t-n-Toice be hear) in all rignuT; the fans 

II tur] (0 remark how, in the pe'acefid wayi ad 
■.''V. it.'.l worl.l. the 1tin|r of the wildenieM fo ka- \ 

■ It' roiTiinp neiirer the booth, vow Oovld Mt , 
■ ': ■nkissnl piclurp* rvpretentin^ wiA rial^ 
. 1,1.!, Tiis those foreign beasts; to a sight of wtndi 
"T H-.'ii 1(1 he irrpaialibly enticed. The grim B*- 
poiini-iiiK nn it blackmnixir, on the point of teaiiif 
liitn (too'I enrnett and tnajeetic. ai if be aav no jt^ 
Ihcr wondrout particoloured creaturea. beside ibca 



l^mochitl ■ higlicr ttecr tUtion ; wliicti, un lulling fnim the H-miil, 
')T.-r ■ Rilffuwnt, tbvr tntinnl: and uuuld now deicry. over new 
iiiiiitM nf tTvva, Uie old CMIle, (lit goul uf thiir pilgriiiufce, rising 
I iliv illBtuii:e, a* jiiniucle of tht rock and fiireat. Biu.-kw>rdB, 
. juin, (fur Dcn-r did uiw muaol liiihtr witliout turning round), tliey 
<<iicht, tlinio);)! uKidviiUil openings of the lilgh treee, tlie Prince'* 
' ••lie. on the left, lighlened by the moming lun; the well-builc 
'ii;li(^r ■juArdn' (if the Town, Boftcned under ligtil tmoke-cloudi : uid 
■ <> I'D. rlghtwoTila. tliv uniter Town, the Kirer in tevenl bendinga, 
• rih it! niculuwa uid mill*; un lh« fulhcr aide, nn exti^niivc fertile 

Having aatitflcil tlirmwlvro witli the profp^ot. or nther, aa uanatlj 
hii|i)H-n» when wp look round from ao liigli n stnliun, become dntiblj 
eatpr IW ■ wider, Iras iiniited tii-w, th«j rode on, over a brand atony 
flat. w)i«rp liie mighty Ruin atooci CroDtlng tlirin. m a grccn^tirowncd 
■unimit, a fvw uld irvea far 'lawn about ita foul; they rode aloag; 
uhI ao arrived there, juit at the ateepeal, moat inacceuible aide, 
(irra) riK'ka jutting out from uf old, inaensible of every diauge, flnn, 
nUfuuDdpd. itood clenched Ingether there ; and «o it towered Dp- 
'iinla ; what bad hllrn at intervala lay in huge pUtea and fViginenta 
oririiM'dlv heajied, and aeemed to forbid the boldest any attempt. 
■ I the steep, the predplloui la inviting to youth : to undertake it, 
■ tonn and iiimjiier It. I* for young limba an eojojmcnt. The 
''-TKVa t«tiflcd dealrefor an attempt: Honoiiowaaat her hand: 
III I'rincif-Cnde, If eaai«r to aatiafy, took it chrerfuUy. and would 
K'W thai he too had atreuglh: the horaea were to wait below among 
' . ifiFpa : our olimbcn make for * certain point, where a huge pro- 
I'ling rock aHbrdi alBndiii)|>room, and a proapeet. which indei^ la 
.ilitvdy paning over into the hird'i-eye kind, yet folds itaelf together 
Ilri'rr |nctiireai|Utty enough. 

'Die aun, almoat nt its nicildian, lent the clearcil light; Ilie 
Priticp'a ('utle. with Its coinparlmenla, main buildings, wings, domva 
and lowcn, lay clear and atatelj' ; the iijijier Town in ita whole 
i'iiL-nt : into the lower also you could twnveniently look, nay by tba 
irliwiiINi ilintlnguiah tlw bootlii in the market-place. So furthw- 
-iiiDo an inatrumcnl Himorio would never leave behind ; they looked 
i: 111!' Hiver Upwards and downwardai on this aide, the mountalnout, 
' [iiLoe-llke. inUrruplnl expanae. on Uiai the npawelling, fhiitful 
III, aitrmaling in level ami low liilli place) innumcrabli? : tor it 
JIA" long cuiloniary to diapute liuw many of them were hero to b« 

v liolda Iiur hnialh n 

tn any, I'an i* aalccp. nud 



- It ia nol thp Erat time." Mid the Priucp*t. " lllal 1, no Mint w 
high br-ae^ing spot, hare rcHecled bo« NkIhtv. «I1 rtivr. bak* i 
pure uid phicerul, ind givei j'od the impreMtra u if diov «k 
nothing vontradicloiT in tlie world ; and ;?■ when joa rrton Im 
into the hnlutatioii of man. be it loAy or low, «>]« or nanv*. 4m 
1* ever somcwliBt to conleud with, to battle with, to •mooth mat p 
to rights.-' 

Bonorio, who meanwhile wu lookinf! thtmigh the ^am at d 
Town, exrUinied. " See ! see '. There ie Sre in Ibe aiukrt I " Tit 
louked, and conld ob*erve tome smoke ; the flan 
in the daylight. " The Are Bpreada I " cried he. itill looking dw 
the ghuB : (he mischief indeed now became noiieeable to Ae 
eye« of the Princess ; tVom time to lime yon obsprred a r*<l I 
of flame, the smoke mounted aloft : and Prinee-Cnde ■>](] .- " L 
retuni ; that is not good ; 1 nlwajs ttared I tiboald w« thai IB 
a second time." Tliey descended, got haefc la tlieir horvr*. "K 
said the Princemi to tlie Uncle, " lut, but nol without a f;nH)oi ' I 
ue Honario; we will follow without debtj." The Unclr Mi 
reaMnableDcu, nay necessity of thi» ; and ttarteil alt ilown 
waste stony slope, at the qaickest pace (he ground alkiweO. 
tie Prince*! mounled, Uonorio eaid : ■■ Pleaie your V 
a ride alow I In the Town at in the Castle, tlie Bre-BK>an 
perfect order; llic people, in this nnexpeclcd accident. 


tfamiteWet rouiid aod aloft, — as if bad spirits, in their own element, 
with perpetual change of shape, were in capricious dance, devouring 
fiiie another, and there and ycmder, would dart-up out from their 
fwoal fire. And then, with wild howls, each saved what was at hand : 
••rvants and masters laboured to drag forth bales already seized hy 
the flames \ to snatch away yet somewluit from the burning shclres, 
mod pack it into the chests, which too they must at last leave a prey 
to the hastening flame. IIow many a one could have prayed but for 
A moment's pause to the loud-advancing fire ; as he looked round for 
tfaa poasibility of some device, and was with all his possessions 
already seized ! On the one i«ide, there burnt and glowed already 
what, on the other, still stood in dark night. Obstinate cliaractcrs, 
will-strong men, grimly firontcd the grim foe ; and saved much, with 
of their eyebrows and hair. — Alas, all this waste confUsion now 
anew before the fiiir spirit of the Princess ; the gay morning 
prospect was ail overclouded, and her eyes darkened ; wood and 
HMsadow had put on a look of strangeness, of danger. 

Entering the peaceful vale, heeding little its ref^shing coolness, 
they were but a few steps onwanls fVoni the copious fountain of the 
brook which flowed by them, when the Princess descried, quite down 
in the thickets, something singular, which she soon recognised for 
the tiger : springing on, as she a short while ago had seen him paint- 
mI, he came towards her ; and this image, added to the frighti^il ones 
•be was already busy with, made the strangest impression. " Fly, 
four Grace ! " cried ilonorio, " fly ! *' She turned her horse towards 
the steep hill they had just di^scended. The young man, rushing on 
towards the monster, drew his pistol and fired when he thought him> 
lelf near enough ; but, alas, without effect ; the tiger sprang to a 
lide, tlie home filtered, the pro voiced wild-beast followed his course, 
Bpwanls straight after Uie Princess. She gallope<l, what her horse 
sookl, up the steep stony space ; scarcely appn^hending that so deli- 
sate a creature, unused to such exertion, could not hold out It 
iverdid itself, driven on by the necessitated Princess; it stumbled on 
(be loose gravel of tlie steep, and again stumbled ; and at last fell, 
liter violent efforts, powerless to the ground. The fiur dame, reso- 
Ate and dexterous, failed not instantly to get upon her feet; the 
Mjrae too rose, but the tigiT was approaching ; though not with ve- 
Mment speed ; the uneven ground, the sharp stones seemed to damp 
lit impetuosity ; and only Ilonorio flying after him, riding with 
dwcked speed along witli him, appeared to stimuUte and provoke 
da fierce anew. Both runners, at the same instant, reactie<l the spot 
rhere the I^rincess was standing by her horse : ttio Kniglit bc>nt him- 
lelf, fired, and with Uiis second pistol hit the monster through the 
Mad, so that it rushed down ; and now, stretched out in fUU length. 

and terror whereof onlj th, .^t 
[ sprunjr frocn liis h'>r*c; wu linti; 

:>:\ lian^l. The jroutfa vu bMBtifol: he W 
-IMrt." ut' Llie Unt¥ anil the ring, tte PraeeB 

Kvi-n ao in ibe riding-counc ««d~ ~ 
,1 ilw TurltB-he»d on thp pole, riBta i 
< t< II -o wtiuld hp. lightlj' pranciiiB qt fnd 
t:i1li-ii niaeti, and lift il from tbe iijuimt . 
Ifniiu uid felidtoiu ; both now ilnod his 

Niid llic Princvu: "I fear be wUl bsn f« 
nl'in ! " answifred the jouth : " be b ■! 
M not )iurt tlic akin, which next winlc* 
— ■ Pj-nrt not," aiud the Princ*«« : ■"•*■■ 
y<i-'.h ill the depth of the heart onfolili 
I tiKi," cried Honario, " was Deret 
111 Iliererurv do I think of whal it joy&iUnC 
1 oiilv as il can attend you to do }roa |ik<» 
"t*r rt-mind me," »id she, "of thn feuti 
' nplieii the youth with glowing cliei^ ■"• 
1 when the weapons of glain eni-'mies an m- 
TJi^tur." — " 1 shall bethink me, at lighi ofiL 


n could vUh for, Id Inks 

a youDg n 
•<l wUKhim." 

Tlial. iiHiPul of n j'outhftil joy, a certnin moumfulnesB came otm 
B &cr. Ilie Frinm-t« had nol linii' It> ubn^rre, nor liad he lo Indulge 
il hiulF, lip lli« aletp, cniue a woman, willi a 
f U brr hand, smlglit to the group lo well known lo ua ; nnd 
cvljr liHit Hunoriu, bclliinkinij litrn, Kriecn, wben lliej howling 
3 ahricklng out themielm on the carcais ; bj which action, ne 
>■ by thrir cleanly, decent, yet particoloured and unuaual drcst, 
It bv gadieretl thai It »a> the niistreai of Ihii ilain creature, and 
■ Uaok-rycd, black-lockcd buy, holding a flute in his hand, her nun ; 
iag I'Av hii niotlicr, lt»» violent, hut douiily moved, knwiing 
t her. 

•r came itrong oiitbreakingi of pnasion fWim this woman ; inler- 
J Indvtxl, nnd [lutae-wisp; a ■trvariT of words, leaping like a 
n in goihc* tttna rock ti> rock, A natural language, diort and 
e itnelf impreMJTB aod patlictic : in vun thould 
JtUlMBpt Uanilaling it inin our dialed* ; the approximate purport 
vll we mlul not omil. " They have murdered thee, poor bcait ! 
williout nvvd ! Thna wert tame, and wouldst fain hare 
R down at rear and waited our coming; for thy feul-balU were Bor«, 
f clawa luul no force Ivft. Tlie hot aun to ripen them was vant- 
Hiou won tiie bcAutifUlleat of thy kind : who erer mw a kingljr 
I) glorioiuly sttvlched-ont In sleep, aa Ihou here lieal, deail, 
iii'icr to riae tnorv 'f Wlien tlinu awnkcsi in the early dawn of mom- 
I lt, and npfncdn thy throat, gtretchlng out ihy red tongue, thou 
'• ' ri u if -iniling on iia^ and e«en when bellowing, thou tookest tliy 
■■1 from the hands of a woman, ti'oiii the flngera of a child. How 
I riu hate wc gone with theu on thy journeya ; how long has tlij 
'>rii|iany ht-en naeful anil IVuItfiil lu us I To us, tn iii of a very truth, 
.:i at came from the cater, and iwcetneas out of the ttrong, t^o will 
^1 be DA mow. Woe ! woe ! " 

Stw had not done lamenting, when over tho smoother part of the 
Cattfe Mountain came riders rushing down; soon recognised as the 
Prince's Hanting-train, liimself the foremost. Pnllowing Ihcir sport. 
t" il» backwanl hilU. Ihcy had obiertcd the flir-vapour* ; and bat 
''..-oubIi dale and ravine, aa in flerce cluuc, taken the shortest path 
: onrds this mournful sign. Galloping along the stony vacancy, 
!!ii y slopped and alarvd at sight of the unexpected group, which In 
Lliat empty expanse stood out »o mark-worthy. After the flrel i«oog- 
Dilion, tlicre was aili'nit' ; »ome pause of breatUing-tiinc, and them 
what the view Itself did not impart, was with brief words explained. 
So stood Ihc Prince contemplaling the strange unlie«nl-of incident I 
• iJR-lv round lihii of ridrrv nnit followers that hnd run on fool. 



Wbut tu ilo «iu alill undelcrmjiwd ; the rriuoo inttwt 
LXL-culiiig: irhLB a rnuD piv«>ed forward inlu Uitr dickr^ lv|» rf 
stjtlurc, particotoorcd, vondroiuly ^ipanJIed, like wife anl dAL 
And now the Gunily. in onion, tnlilled Ihw Borrow and mmbA- 
mt^Dt. Tlic man, howeTur, toon reitnuned himwIT; bawcill>»*Wi 
ent diilniiL'e before the Primx, and (aid : " It U not the tinr tm 
taoientiag ; alu, m; lord ami mig^t; hunter, the Liod Inn k> Immj 
hither townnt« llie niDiintainr ■« he gone: bnt spare faim, h«*e minj, 
tlinl lit iwrish not liiie thia good bcML" 
" The Liun ] " said the Prince : ■' Hut Ihott ibe tntx at Urn 

' Yet, Lord ! A peaunl duirn there, who had hredleasly takraiM- 
ler on a tree, ditvuml me fiulher up Uiii war. to tlic left ; but 
Uie crovd of men ami horses lictc ; anxioiu for tidings of aaiii 
I haattned hither." — " So then." oounaandtd the Prinos, ""dlBW^j 
the left. UunlBmen ; yon Kill load your pieoca. go »atUj 
you driTe hiin into the deep wouda, it it no matter -. but 
good man, we shall be obligi^ to IcUl your 
im provident enough lo let tiini looae!" — 
n^pliod lie ; " we kept quiet and attentiTe; 
diilonce from us ; we had wali!r enough for 

if powiler blfw up, and threw the hmnde on to a». an 

ea.Is ; we were too hasly, ami arc now ruinwi people." 

animal i «hjr voe f*K 
"Tlie fire hroka tp«,*. 
it spread tnt, hoi at ^ 
sur defence ; Inita" 



ring out uf it the graccnilleiC toiici, Mcnnwhilt! 
T r iiicT had inquired at llii> wnlclimiui l\nw the linn cnm« up- 
iin- lioilow-««y," Miiwercd he. "wliiuli is wnllcii-in on both 
in-1 wiu fonuiTly thi- only entranw. and i> to be ilie only one 
iia r»iit|i)itli*, nhicli bid in eliuwliem, we litvc au blueked up 
K 'iroycd that do liumon lirlnic. except by that firal nonnw pas- 

I -in rvicli the Mubiu CuiIc whicli niiice Friedricb'* talent and 
• - making of IL" 

.Vfiir a Utile Ihouglit. during which Ilio Prince looked round at the 
y , ■ ho mill coiiliuued aa ff eofily pn.>luding, lie liirnpil to Huoorio, 

I niiii '- Tbou but done mtirh to-day. complete thy tusk. Secure 
J- narrow path ; ki-ep your rifles in readlneia, but do not ahool till 
. iniilure can no oilierwiie lie ilrlvcu buck : In any caie, kindle » 
. , ulilch will iKgtileti him if bu make downwATds. The man nnd 

una take chargH oT the rest." Uunorio rkpiilly beatirred liiiuH'lf 

' ircule ihi'M orden. 

1 In dilld euntinu«d Ilia lunt, which waa no tunc; a seriw of note* 

iliuut law, uihI iKrtiaiw xvon on timl afcount bu heart-touehing ; 

^1 itanden teemed as if enchanted by the mnTcuii'nl of a aong- 

, . iiii'lody, when the liilher with dignified euthusiiim begun to 

I ^i>l luu giTcn the Prince wladom, and al*o knowledge to diicem 

ii ikll Gud'a wucka are wine, euch alter ita kind. Behold llie rock, 

^ ho «tanil* Ikmt and allrs not, duHcs the weather and tlie tunaliiiie ; 

" >ul treca ailom his hcnd, and ao umwuedhe look* abroail ; nei- 

: r a iniua ruali away, will lliig continue what it wn», but fiilU 

ti into many pieces and coven the side of the deaccnt. But 

ii<o ibey will not tarry, capriciooalj they leap tar down, the 

i. ntvivea them, to llic river he bear* them. Kot roibiing, not 

MitiLbiry, augubr ; no, imooth and ronnded they travel now 

:. i.< r on Iheir way, arrive, from river to river. Anally at tlie ocean, 

niiher iDar«h the gianu in hoatt, and in the deptha whereof dwarfa 

• boay- 

"But wlio (lull exalt the )t1ory uf tlie Lord, whom tlieiian praiae 

BID Etvmlty to Glemilyl Why look ye hr into the distance ! 

:i.'iJif here tlio bee : Ute at the end of hnrveat alie allll buaily 

r- \ bnlldK her a houae, light of cumiir, ilniiglit of wall, huraclf 

ir.'tiltrcl and mnaon. ReholJ the nnl : «he knows her way, nnd 

I I not ; ahe piles her a dwelling of (tnua-lialms. eartli-cniniba, 
.•'•Ih'Bor tlieUr^ ahe pllu* it al«n and arcliea it in ; but shehaa 

iix-a lu vain, (at the horse atampa. and acrapei it all in pivoe* : 

,1 haa trodden-duwri liiT beams. and ai-allin'd Iut plnnkc impa- 

iiilv lie an-irts. aiid ntniiot tvst : tor tlie Laid hoa made the horw! 

V of the wind i 

I com pom 

of the 


ii1iithi?r he irills, ind vonuin whither ihc deiircs. Bat in iW Virf 
of I'alain aroae lie, the Lion ; with earaest step limTpnr4 l>* iHi 
noaici 1 there rules he »Ter all crc«turei ; hi* migbl whw ttall *1 
>nn J ^ Vut moD can tame him ; and the flerccst of Kriiif tkn^ I 
rerereDce Tor the image of God. in which loo ttie uigrlt aitBi 
who eerve the Lotd anil his aerrants. For in llie d«i) of Litwm Il» 
iel «iu not afraiii ; he remuned bit anil fiiithful. Bnd the wiU klb«- 
in^ interruplecl not hia »ong of praise." 

Thi« (peech, dvliTered with cxpreMJon of a iwtural cWltwi 
the cliild accompanied here and there with gracelUI looca ; tmt 
the father liaving ended, lie, with dear mclodioua *oIcb Mid d 
jiaataging, struck np hi* warble ; wherviilxin the &lli«r tnok Ac Iri^ 
and gaie note in unison, wliile the diild ung : 

Froin Ilie Dfdi, t. in a dtvper, 
Prophet's tone of pnnt tan hear: 
Angel-bofLt he faath for kr^^pvr, 
Needs the good man there to tt*i 7 

XOV£LLE. 421 

Whetted sword to scabbard cleaving, 
Faith and Hope victorious see ; 
Strong, who, loving and believing. 
Prays, Lord, to thee. 

All were silent, hearing, hearkening ; and only when the tones 
ieased could you remark and distinguish the impression they had 
Dade. All was as if appeased ; eiich affected in his way. The 
Mnoe, as if he now first saw the misery that a little ago had threat- 
med him, looked down on his spouse, who leaning on him forebore 
not to draw out the little embroidered handkerchief, and therewith 
covered her eyes. It was blessedness for her to feel her young 
bosom relieved from the pressure with which the preceding minutes 
had loaded it A perfect silence reigned over the crowd; they 
seemed to have forgotten the dangers : the conflagration below ; and 
above, the rising-up of a dubiously -reposing Lion. 

By a sign to bring the horses, the Prince first restored the group 
to motion ; he turned to the woman and said : " You think then that, 
once find the Lion, you could, by your singing, by the singing of 
this child, with help of these flute-tones, appease him, and carry him 
back to his prison, unhurt and hurting no one ? '' They answered 
Yes, assuring and affirming ; the castellan was given them as guide. 
And now the Prince started off in all speed with a few ; the Prin- 
cess followed slower, with the rest of the train : mother and son, on 
their side, under conduct of the warder, who had got himself a mus- 
ket, mounted up the steeper part of the height. 

Before the entrance of the hollow-way which opened their access 
to the Castle, they found the hunters busy heaping-up dry brush- 
wood, to have, in any case, a large fire ready for kindling. " There 
is no need," said the woman : " it will all go well and peaceably, 
without that" 

Farther on, sitting on a wall, his double-barrel resting in his lap, 
Uonorio appeared; at his post, as if ready for every occurrence. 
However, he seemed hardly to notice our party ; he sat as if sunk iu 
deep thoughts, he looked round like one whose mind was not there. 
The woman addressed him with a prayer not to let the fire be lit ; 
be appeared not to heed her words ; she spoke on with vivacity, and 
cried : " Handsome young man, thou hast killed my tiger, I do not 
curse thee ; spare my lion, good young man, I will bless thee." 

Ilonorio was looking straight out before him, to where the sun on 
his course began to sink. "Thou lookest to the west," cried the 
woman ; ** thou dost well, there is much to do tliere ; hasten, delay 
not, thou wilt conquer. But first conquer thyself." At this he ap- 
peared to give a smile ; tlie woman stept on ; could not, however. 



but Uiolt hiK'k mice more at liim : a ruiltlj* siin was irraJLinng tiii 
I'uL'i; : the tlii>U|.'1iI she had DtTi;r seen ■ liandnomcr j-ouUi. 

'■ If your diilc]," gaid Uie wsrder qow, " wiili hia flutjug loii unf- 
ill);, L':iii, B9 yuu nrc iKraufldeil, entice and pacify thi! Lion, 
suuti t>i.'t muitC'ry uf htm aller, for die crcuture ha* Uin dova 
ijuile close to till.- ptilbrated vnulU through which, u the 
sage was blocked up «itli ruins, ve Imd to bore ourseli 
tmiR'P into the rn^tle-Court If tbe child entice liim into I 
T viiii I'lii'r llie opi'iiingwilh little difficulty ; then the buy. if b* Ek, 
trill L'li'l.' niji liy one of the liltle ipiral iloirt tic irill Atid to the 
lilt' Wi luiisi cuiii^cal oureelros i but 1 shall ao take my pUceiU 
II lidi -tj.ill <:,|]|, lit any moment, help llic poor child in ca 

*■ Ali lliesp preeautiotis are unnecpasarj ; GoJ and ekili, pidj ml 
a hlespiiigi must do the wort." — "May be," replied thi 
■' liowL'Vi r. I know my duties. First, I must lead you, bj- a diffliiJt 
{iiilli. Ill 111!' Iiiji or the wnli, right opposite the Taults aud opcningl 
li,ii r III' iiiiiiiu'il : the child may then go down, as into the artiu a( 
(III -liMii, uiid li'nd nway the animal, if it will follov him." Tliii 
"II- 'loin vviirdiT and mother looked down in concealment, u lit 
L^Liiniini; till' Bcrew.stairs, showed himself in tlie ofnT ^]ta 


Meanwhile the Lion had laid itself down quite close to the child, 
and lifted its hearj right fore-paw into his bosom ; the hoy as he 
sung graoefiiUj stroked it; but was not long in observing tliat a 
sharp thorn had stuck itself between the balls. lie carefully pulled 
it out ; with a smile, took the particoloured silk-handkerchief from 
his neck, and bound up the frightful paw of the monster ; so that his 
mother for joy bent herself back with outstretched arms ; and per- 
haps, according to custom, would have shouted and clapped applause, 
had not a hard hand-gripe of the warder reminded her that the 
danger was not yet over. 

Triumphantly the child sang on, having with a few tones pre- 
luded : 

For th* Eternal rules above us, 
Lands and oceans rules bis will ; 
Lions even as lambs shall love us, 
And the proudest waves be still. 

Whetted sword to scabbard cleaving, 
Faith and Hope victorious see : 
Strong, who, loving and believing, ' 
Prays, Lord, to thee. 

Were it possible to fancy that in the countenance of so grim a 
creature, the tyrant of the woods, the despot of the animal kingdom, 
an expression of friendliness, of thankful contentment could be traced, 
then here was such traceable ; and truly the child, in his illuminated 
look, had the air as of a mighty triumphant victor ; the other figure, 
indee<], not that of one vanquished, for his strength lay concealed in 
him ; but yet of one tamed, of one given up to his own peacei\il will. 
Tlie child fluted and sung on, changing the lines according to his 
wsy, and adding new : 

And so to good children bringeth 
Blessed Angel Iielp in need ; 
Fetters o'er the cniel flingeth, 
Worthy act with wings doth speed. 

So have tamed, and firmly ironM 
To a poor child's feeble knee, 
Him the forest's lordlv t\Tant, 
Pious Thought and Melody. 



In lliis agi-, by some called the LoeoniotiTe, when men tnrei »ib 
nil iniitiniT ut pmiiical, ecicnliflc And uiisdenlilli; purposes j ubb 
Mi'xiumi iiv-fi.T'f, mill convtrt the healhtn ; in itarvh of the piOTr 
i-iqiic, iti '.inrLli r it' til tap Isnil, pood groceries, bibiit^raphj. iriniii 
iiL'H' r'ljriki. rv, .-iiiil. ^I'nenill}', though without eObt'l, in learub ofb^ 
[iliii.^! ; n lull I'vi'ii kiri){», quetni and constitation*, atv «o allm inU 
ou llii.'ir tmit'lA ; nnil what with THilwayB, what with TVrtoluUoH, 
ftbsoluicly nothing will ainy in ii« place, — Hie interest thai onee ^^ 
tftchci] to mere iraYellerB is gone; no Othello could now by nut 
nieniifi win the simplest Desdeinoua. NevertheleH, in Madame da 
SuwVi Travi.'l- \h-.-[<.- is alill something peculiar. Shut out from btf 
l>[]^li' l.iliiifl I'liris, she gyrates round it in a wider or nairont 
I If l< II.iijiii "il IV iih danger. sSlltction, love of knowledge, tai 
.iliiiii' ill! Miili .umfif', she sell forth iti her private carriage on tv« 
iintciiiuifikil vrniiiils : ftral, ' to find nubh 



t AgiUT of (ucJi • llirt« m Goetlic, Si-hillcr and Da SUel, tu 
~7iirUiitl. MUIIcr ooil olher giiinta, miglit be j(rine<i, ritet bnan- 
uur iouigiiiatiai], and lliigw* powder in Uie eye*; and per- 
uivtvl; iKwlJi' purponet. il «en> best if wc Jeft it imeBicd 
>i riMe-caliiiirvit clnud, knd pried iw deeper, fiul Inuliftble 
wily will nuwite let the mailer rest there ; Sciente, aa well aa 
il have ils Mllitiiction. Tlie 'spiriluiJ Aidiuod' wai A 
1 vnman ; llioie philoinphic juuitln)^ und aympoiia were alio 
n our nimniuii clay earth : bcliind iliat gcrgeou* arm, 
wc nut Ihu knutly aide, irtiu knuwa wliat vulnnir, angH- 
d inurtBT lici eoDceoled I In Ihe Sixlli Vulume of th« 
f* htwem SckiUeir and GiMkt, Inti'ly inibllglicd ; »tlll morr. 
y'dr«t Vulumv of Ouethv'a Wnrti, i-vuii nuw puUiBliiiiK, 
t ths title of r<ii- HNiI JiAra-ltifl, it a cunKnualion o( hi« 
r find mme indication* and diidotaiva. ThcM 
h vorlil, for inilKlil into thii mailer, iliali nuw aiio beliold, 
Utapwiliiui, if nut in •.'onibiuation. Of .Mwlnme in London 
* •ki-Eubfa in BjTun'a Letters, but more in the way of 
big than of pninling; done too, not wilh pliildaoplijc pcmianenl- 
», but with mere dandyic ovhre nnd jppan, wliiuli but were but . 
BftVDIly ai^licahU' here. The f»1luwing luv in a more arlittia 

d ma; be relied on aa ainoent and a real likcneas. 
t fire the wholL- icriv* of Sotiui-s, wliicii we hare tran«lsted. 
f uid alion. arranip-il arcarding to the nrd^r of dntci, beginning; 
'• Lib the flnt not* (rf diiunt prepnmtioii. and ending with the l«icit 
:i>iiii*ivniv. Uoelliv ia, liir llip time, at Jena, en)nH!P<l in laborioua 
r'.i lal dulir* of a literary kind, when, on Ihc Mtth of NovembeF 
-'•'■'; Huhilter llnii llnialita a letter to him from Wvtmart 

Madame dc Slafl \» ■ciually in Frankfort, and we may soon look 
: ir tier here. If ihe but understand (Eerman, I iluubl nut we *)iall 
J<> iMit pari J but to prvaeh oiif reliition to her in French [ihriuiet, 
■ihI atandins die brunt of French VDjubJlily. were loo hard a proli- 

' inu. Wc ahuuld not Bet llirou^h (u clifrvrly lut Si'liclllng did with 

' CaiiiDle .lounlnn. Farvwell.' 

Tliu nn 

■ill .' 

'./i~., ISrt IhrroArr IHDI. 

' Il wa> 10 tw IhrrKfxn. Uiat when Mmbiine de Stavl came to Wei- 

'inr, 1 aliould be ealkil thither. 1 liave taken cnuntcl with mytelf. 

11 lit th(> monienl mluht not unrpriM! me. and dotcrmined un utaying 

' iii-ri'. For the Uborlnuii ami diibjoiu )iuaiiii-*> that now lie* on me, 

'vhaturer phyiiual force I have, especially in tliia hnd niunlh. will 

l:i|- APPENDIX, 

>L'iiiilil>' ^utHui:: frum the JDtclIcctual survejBnce down totLcDK- 
lOiuiili/al ijiiu^raiiliii'Fil clepartnient, I need to iuve it all bdonou- 
* " , * * You, my d^ar friend, c«e. not witliout ham, 
K'liat a iiit-e I nni in ; willi Meyer, indeeii, lo comfort mo, yet willi- 
(lilt liL'Iji nr r-iimplcic fellow-feelinB from any ouc : forwhawctii 

><< iiiLi'h :<• \ IMi.'. our pcugile look upon as eaBir. Wlit»«ftR,I 

I iiir'i .[[ > III. i.iki' my plnoe ; guide the whole mailer for the besl, *> 
1. 1 J :i- |i''~.iM< ir Mndnnie dc Slael pleiue lo visit me, the (hiUbe 
"ill 111-, ]!■ I Li't me but know Ibur-nod -twenty houn brfarrhimJ. 
,ijii! |>:lii lit iIk' Liiiler npnrtmcnli ihall be furnished to loilge ber: 
-hi' » ill tijLiI :i l>i]|-<.'lier'B (able, and welcome ; we itiall actually ntnt 
mill >pi',ik iiiLii'lliiT ; shu can stay vlille luch remains bM" pleuon 
WImi 1 hiivc 10 do here ia traneacted iu aepnrate hAlf-hoiin ; tba 
rest uf my time uliall be hcra : but in this weather to go and lo 
come, tn dress, appear at court and in company, is, once for all, in- 
inisgible. a» ilecisiveiy a» ever you, in the like condilJOD. hare pii- 

' All iliU I tomniil to jour friendly guidance, for there it mrthinj 
llint wiiull (smlify me more than to bcc tliis diilinpuiilied lady, and 
iill.v iLiflko noquaiiilancG with hcr^ resUj glad were 1, canU 
nrl ilii'M.' tiio leugiicB of road on me. Wune quarters ibu 


« * * * * * * 

' Fare jou heartily well ; keep sound and cheerful, and deal gently 
' with the Pilgrimess that wends towards you. When I hear more, 
' jou shall learn. ' Schillkb. 

* P. S. The Duke ffiyes me answer that he will write to jou him- 
' self, and speak with me in the Theatre.' 

* WtiuMr, 2l9t Dtcember 1803. 

' The rapid and truly toilsome alternation of productive solitude i 
^ witli formal society , and its altogether heterogeneous dissipations. 
' so fiitigued me last week, that I absolutely could not take the pen, 
' and left it to my wife to give you some picture of us. 

* Madame de Stael you will find quite as you have d priori con- 
' »trued her : she is all of one piece ; there is no adventitious, false, 
' pathological speck in her. Hereby is it that, notwiUistanding the 
' immeasurable diflTerence in temper and way of thought, one is {)er- 

* fecUy at ease with her, can hear all from her, and say all to her. 

* She represents French culture in its purity, and under a most inter- 
' esting aspect. In all that we name philosophy, therefore in all 
' highest and ultimate questions, one is at issue witii her, and re- 
' mains so in spite of all arguing. But her nature, her feeling, is 
' better than her metaphysics ; and her fine understanding rises to 
' the rank of genial. She insists on explaining everything, on seeing 
' into it, measuring it ; she allows nothing dark, inaccessible ; whith- 
' ersoever her torch cannot tiirow its light, there nothing exists for 
' her. Hence follows an aversion, a horror, for the transcendental 
' philosophy, which in her view leads to mysticism and superstition. 
' This is the carbonic gas in which she dies. For what we aUl poetry 
' there is no sense in her : fh)m such works it is only the passionate, 
' the oratorical, the intellectual, that she can appropriate ; yet she 
' will endure no fiilsehooil there, only docs not always recognise the 

' You infer firom these few words that the clearness, decide<lnes!) 

* and rich vivacity of her nature cannot but afll'ct one favourably. 

* Our only grievance is the altogether unprecedented glibness of her 

* tongue : you must make yourself all ear, if you would folh)w her. 

* Nevertheless, as even I, with my small faculty of speaking French, 

* get along quite tolerably with her. you, with your greater practice'. 

* will find comnmnication very easy. 

I Schiller waa now huntiKl with Wtlhelm Tell : on which ImI and freatMt of hix 
this poitkni of tha Corrtspondtnce with Itottke mainlj turns. 

'sn .-Mf --«, will also lie 

* season ,.1 ^^^'"onicnon 
to oppress us. 

' 18 busy wifl, n .'^'■"'eLad 

' most n„n-ee th^ V *^""^*' ««* 

>r"'"''"««pi r7'"- 
* *"Mes forT;;^'."" "" "> a Ui.u,, 


* * * ' Madame de Stael means to stay three weeks yet Spite 

• of ail lier French hurry, she will find, I fear, by her own experience, 
'that we Germans in Weimar arc also a changefiil people, — that 

* ereiy guest should know when to be gone. ♦ ♦ ♦ 



♦ ♦ ♦ * De Stacl I saw yesterday here, and shall see her again 
' to-day with the Duchess's mother. It is the old story with her : 
' one would think of the Dana'ides' sieve, if Oknos ^ with his ass did 
' not rather occur to one. ' Schillsb.' 

ISth January 1804. 

• • ♦ * Be well and happy, and continue by your noble indus- 
' try to give us a fresh interest in life : stand to it tightly in the Hndes 
' of company, and plait your reeds there into a right stiff rope, that 

' there may be something to chew. Greeting and hail ! 

' Goethe.' 

lith January, 
♦ ♦ ♦ * Your Exposition has refreshed me and nourished me. 
' It is highly proper that by such an act, at this time, you express 
' your contradiction of our importunate Visitress ; the case would 
' grow intolerable otherwise. 

' Being sick at present, and gloomy, it seems to me imitossihle that 
' I could ever hold such discourses again. It is positively a sin 
' against the Holy Ghost to 8pi>ak even one word according to her 
' dialect. Had she taken lessons of Jean Paul, she would not have 

* staye<l so long in Weimar : let her try it for other three weeks at 

* her peril. ♦ ♦ ♦ * * Schiller.' 

24th January. 
* To-day, for the first time, I have had a visit fW>m Madame de 

1 Oknoa, a OrMk Kvntleman, ofdat^ unknown, dllifrently plalto a reed rope, which 
UfiaM iM dillgentlj Mto. Thb Oknos in suppoMd to hare h«d an umtkri/iy tci/e. 
Bene* SehlUer'i allosloo. 

s blill lliu mraa feeling : <rith all duntincfi the 
I'l)- riiongh, A3 a Iravellpr to Ilfpcrboresni. whct^ aMe 
ml oak«. wlioac iron and amber, dviljsod people lo 

bring out the old irorn miprti, tj 
lid nuty wenpon* to defend Tamcif 

• ' What are you bu»y with Tor to-dny and to-rowwr' 
priijtcipd French reading nf Madame de Sta^'i Hka | 
iir. Iti-niorroir evening. However, If yon are at boat 
II t)iu Diuod, I liercb; invite nij'iielf, for I long mndl V 
' 8cHlu«t.' 

!■ Scni-I was liero lo^lny with Mailer, and the Pnb 
hereby Uie discourse grew very lively ; anJ i« 


( On, or after, the 21st of Feb.) 

^ * To-night we shall meet at Madame's. Yesterday we 
ou sadly. Many a merry matter turned up, which we will 
by ourselves some day. ' Schiller.' 

(On, or after, the 12<A of March.) 

right comfort to me that you offer to take charge of TeU. 
in any tolerable state, I will certainly come. Since I saw 
time at the rehearsal, I have not been at all well : the 
is not kind to me ; besides, ever since the departure of 
, I have felt no otlierwise than as if I had risen from a 
ckness. ' Schiller.' 

ipping and piecing we hare now done ; but, by way of hem 
;chwork, subjoin the passage from Goethe's Autobiography ^ 
^rred to, which offers us a summary and brief synopsis of 
circumstances, — written long afterwards, in that tone of 
ravity, combining the clearest insight with tolerance and 
mour, to which no reader of his Dichtung und Wahrheit can 

ne de Stael came to Weimar in the beginning of December, 
nras still at Jena busied with the Programme. What Schil- 
* me on the 21st of that niontli served at once to instruct 
ling the relation which her presence would give rise to.*-* 
L'ould not move from Jena till my task were finished, there 
ings and delineations to me of many kinds how the lady 
self and was received ; and I could moderately well pre- 
r myself the ]mrt I had to play : yet it all turned out quite 
e, as in the next year, which we are now approaching, must 

* * * « « 


r had come on ¥rith full violence, the roads were snowed- 
lout strong effort was no travelling. Madame de Stael an- 
herself more and more importunately. My business was 
d, and I resolved for many reasons to return to Weimar ; 
time, also, I felt the unwholesomeness of winter residence in 
le. The so dear-bought experience of 1801 had not made 

kf, b. xxxi. M. 171M5. 

e follows Schiller's LetU.>r, which we hare giren already svb data. 



' me wltcT : 1 n-lamL-(l with a bad ouhl, vhJch, wiiImU h 

' ifvttmt, kppt me iodic day* in bnl, uiil |]i«n wivka liili| <■ Mf 

' rouiD-, on wliidi ■txount. a purl ai Uih dJMJBgnlalwJ Mr'* Mf 

' vu for me hittoriual uiil}. M 1 I««ninl wliiM kapfvaH !■ BHrQ 

' Irnm (lie namtim of ItivntU : and afWrvanb lun c 

' Icrcoune )iHil lo be muui^'d flnl bjr billcti. ihcn bj dialaswa.ail. 

' later siill. in [he tniaJlex cin-lr, — jwrhai* ihv mimi foiminUf ngr 

' both for [eamiiiK wlial waa in hor, ami inipanlng. u (u « 

' uiigbt bv, irliai ww in mc. 

' Wilb di>cuive febemeDiw she fiillowed tu;r purpoa*. la fa 
' ui'quaini«l «i(l> our drcuiu«ian(s«. counlinaiiog and »BbM<fii 
' Ibem lo ber i'lcM ; to inftirm herself as much aa paeaMe vona 
' inilividuol* ; u a voiuan or Ibe worlii. lo gun deitr ricwi rf •■ 
' (iH/ial relations : with licr liet-y female tiHrit to p 
' througb our general luodea of repiBWutiog Man aad KMne, vtal 
' i« called our philotopbj-. Ko«, though I had no cmOM la a~ 
' with tier, u iudiNKl. eren when I let mj'aelf lu*e frv« cm ir ^r. 
' do not always rightly interpret inej fet hctv Ibera waa 
' traueoiu (.'ireuinttanve ai work, that fpt the tnonirnt mule n 
' I FL'CVivHl, jiut aX (hat tiou-. ■ nevly^-pUbliahMl Ftvncli knk. «■■■ 
' laitiing the coirtspondence of Iwo laiUc* w-ltb fi 
lecludod, inacvesftible maa. Ibeie &ir iatni<]eta h»i jla f tiwt u 
iwnright niyaiiflcatioD, — contriving lo bilMvat bim In ■ 


' tU(in|t no Do^on of wh»t Pulj- mentis, nncl in wliat a Bilenl. col- 
I' >-i«d iHMiutv Id; ilial uiiileruk«> \i mutt restrict himscir, sho «m 
M'rmuni for itriking in, fnr fnalanuneouil^ prmlucing an effiicl. 
I II todvty tiicic mutt be conslnnl talking and diicouning. 
' The Weimar pvojitv an- cluubtlets capable of soaie ciitlimiasm, 
I-~rliapa Dccaiionall; or a (kUe enthiiaiacm ; but no French lip- 
iiliiiing «ai to bc^ looked tbrfrom Ihero; least of all at a time when 
ilif Kn-iwli iHilitiunl prciwnderancc tlireatcned all Europe, and mlni- 
iliiokiiig men forrtaw (lie iuuvitable micchief wliiL'h, next yvnr, was 
' t« IvaJ ua to Ibf verge of dotrudioii. 

' Id the wav of public rMKling alBO, and n-citing, did tliia lailj 
' atrite (W laoipla. I excused myaclf fVoiii an evening party wben 
■ -lie rxliibiicd PiMr* in tliii ftahion,' ond where the luodentle Ger- 
man pUuilil* nowise iH>iitrnle<l Iter. 

' To pliiluauphiae in aociel}'. mcana to talk witli vivacit; about in- 
-hIiiMb proUelua. Tliia vrai her peeulinr pleoaure and pa«sion. 
' .Salurallr loo alie Wat wont to carty il, in aiicb apeitking and coun- 
' ii'r-apcaking, up to tbnsc coneema of Ihougbl and eentiment which 
[iniperlj' ahnuld nul be spoken nf eicvpl bolwepn Gwl and the inlll- 
' Ttdual. ilorc, moreover. a> woman and French woman, (he had the 
' balril of allcking faat on main pusitiona, and, u it were, not hearing 
' ri([titlv vliat the oilier aaiil. 

' Br all the>c tiling! the evil genius was awakened in me. so thai I 
' wonM tre&t whatever wna advanced no olherwiie tlmn dialeulivalljr 
' aril tirohlvnulically, *ih1 often, hj itiff-necked L'ontnidiciions. brought 
' bvr to despdr; wherein, truly, she for the first time grew rightly 
' BniiBble, and En tlic most brilliant manner exhibiteil her iHlent of 
' iliinking and rctilying. 

* MoTf tlian once I had regular dialoguet with her, ouraetves two; 
'in whli'h llkewlae, however, she wna buMenanme. according to her 
' teibion : never granting, on the most importnnl topics, a moment of 
' rcfleiiinn. but paasiunalclj' demanding ihal fun shoald despatch the 
* dwl<i«l nmivms. ihe weighlleat ocviirrencea, as lighllf as if ll were 
■a game at ahulllecock. 

' "lie litllc inHlanct', Inslifail of many, may find place here : 

• She aiepped in, one evening before ci>urt-iin)e, and said, ta if for 
' aalnlation. with warm rchemenoe, " I have Imliurtant newa lo tell 
' yo'i • Miirean is ant'strd, witli some others, and accusei) of Ireason 
'agiiinsi tlw Tjrnuil." I had long, a* cTcr; one luid, taken interest 
' in the person of (his nolde individual, and fulluwrd hi* acliom and 
- BttcRiiH*. 1 now silentlr called back the |<aal ; in order, a* my way 
' h, lo uy the present thereby, and deduce, or at leul fuivcasi, th« 

* Such spct'clu'S Were quite 
'excite passion, no matter wl 
' went over all the circunistan 

* and evinced therein great ptM 

* ance M'ith tlie |K)sture of affai 

* Another little story will pn 

* might live with her, so you tc 

* At a numerous supper-par 
' sitting far off her, and chanc 
'rather meditative. My neigh 
' rose a little movement, the ca 
'the higher personages. Mada 

* my 8ilenc*e ; expressed herself 
'added, *' On tlie whole, I never 
*of chaniiMgne." I said half-aloi 
' ** I supfiose then, we have ofte 
'moderate laugh ensued She > 
' could, or would, give a French ' 
' sense ; till at last Beigamin Coi 

* took, as she continuetl asking i 
' some euphonistic phrase, and so 

' But whatever, on reflection, < 
' ceedings, it is ever to be ackm 
' have been of great im|)ortance i 
'many, which owed its origin tt 
' looketl on as a mighty implemer 
'antiquated prejudices which ilJ' 


!■, itianr rpurj iigo, wrote ■ piece numtil Dtt Mihrchm {The 

II whk.K th« iilinlring critlw of G«rjn«iiy cnnlrlrcJ lo criliciw ty « 

k <>r Iha fwu; diKliir'mg tl»l It wn lnile«d T^c T&le, and vorlby U 

w Tkl* of Tatn Ii/u* J/iUrcIn utfn- JMAi'dtcn), — maf Rppear 

tint Kngtitb nailers, Tor Ihey have repealcdly teen u mucli in 

Hina English nnden It ■■■■; appear ceriBin, ninhennore, Ihal 

they pownnlly linow ihi« TuJo of Talet; uid Can oren pronounre It la 

itnMre no moh tpiiliet. uid tUa ■dmlring criiEea of Germuiy to be lltila 

«*b«r rhan bhKkbeaili. 

^HBcsl!*h nuden ! tlie Hn-leortailnlv laBltogetherindubltalilei til 

^^Maty 1> not wml> a n»h. 

^^^hal HDie JMkn:Aiii dil'i'i- jnlrilni jou mar ho with your own eyM| J 
^KMi liolir, iQ the fineeiilb Volume of Gotdif't Wiilir! and uMini ' 
^Marlni^ On the other haad, thai Kngliih ' Tale of Tal»,- pnt f\ 
aanM y*an agn u the Traiiilaliun thereof, by an individual connitctHt wlUi 
Ills Terludleal Preu of London (ht> feriniioal vehicle, If we remember, 
broke devil wnii aflnr, nnil was rebuilt, aiid •lUI rung, nnder the iMnM of 
Cimrl jMnuT),— wu % Trannlal lou, iniMrahle enoaKh, ofa qull« dlB^rent 
tbloFi a thing. niK a mkniitn (Fabulou* Tale) al all, but an ErtAbmg 
or oooimon fletilioui Narrstln: liaTinx no manner of relalton to the rMl 
filHM (bayond tt*nAiog In the same Volnma); not so maeb an HllMii'e 
rafr«rk>n<M of DiTove has 10 hii Alltgrv and Pratmaa! In thja way 
da bidiridoali wmneWed with llie Porioihcal Prese of London play their 
iwrt, Bi»1 commodtonsly befool Ihee, l> Palillc of Knt^b roadet*, and ean 
wrre thae with a maai of roaaled |nu, and name It ilew«d Tcnieoii; and 
will ccnlinna to do no, till thou — open lliy eyes, and from a blind moaater 
bacoma a tociiig one. 

This mltUke we did not pnbliely note at the time of lis occnrrenfe; 
for two (Dod rmi»ons: flr-t, that while mlslakH are IncreasIiiK. like Popa- 
latlon, at the rnle of TweIre Hundn^ k-day. the benefit of feiiins <mt, 
and Ihrotliing it, would l»e parfeclly inccHiHiderable : iwoond, thai wq wara 
not than In avistsnc*. Tlia higlily eoinpoaile, aslinilshlnjr Kntlty, which 
h*r* aa ' O, Y.' addratae* mankind tm a aeaicm, still ■lombarad (bia alt- 
manti Kattered mrer Inflnllude, and working under other ihapas) In tha 
womb of N'oUiInt;! Meditate on as a Utile, O Keador: If Ihoti will eon- 
tidtr who and what wears; what Powera, of Cash. Esorlence. InlelilRSOOC, 
Stupidity and Uyitery ennled n>. and what work we do and will do, than 
■hall b« Di> and to thy amannomit. 

< FaAiai't Mtaima. Xo- M. 

carry mattera witli n higli hnnd, thot 
is probaibly in straits ft)r the uecesi 
date, appeinled minienm* Notes; wl 
more meaning lie** in his Mdhrchen ' t 
tury : * some of these we have retainer 
or exculpatory word of our own; the 
fluoufl and even absurd. Superf1uou8 
take this of us as he likes; we know 
is not in him; believe that he will pr 
At all events, let one of the notablest 
thousand years, be now, through his or 
half-century, have offered themselves), 
We too will premise our conviction t 
tasmagorio Adumbration, pregnant ¥ 
nowise that D. T. has so accuratelv e 
standing to a remark or two, extracted 

* Dull men of this countrv,* savs he, 
' smiled on me when I flr^t asked the mt 
' answered they : " it is a wild arabesqu 
' all, except to dash together, copiously < 
' tion, and see what will come of them.* 
'several heads; which nevertheless wo 
* ered wigblocks.* — Not impossible : t 
Lucifer's, that of Self-conceit. But h 

* The difficulties of interpretation are 
' ourostance, not unusual in other such v 
'this is no Allegory; which, as in the 1 
'once for all to find the key of, and so c 
' ma«orv ro»« — 

>t llBI 

THE TALE. 48f ' 

TTiguialily peering (nrDugh, in Ilie coufnsed wild- 

wlil itoka my whole mwiey-pupiinl »nd lilemry 

.■-mY fcM lofthi more «|«eiiilly n wonderl\il Kmblein of 
irffiil BDiI wohil " Ag« of Traraltlon;" vrhnt men havo been nnd done, 
-'iHt ttin an to bcmtid dii. fa, In tlilt Tolo orTHleii, ixietien-prophelloiilljr 
r< plflvl, In lueh * tlyle of i^ndenr viil MletliKl IrilllHncy uiil life, « 
Ui» WnWTti IimitioBtiDD hiu not alMwhere rmclwd; m onlj' Ihe Orittntal 
' ImaginslhHi, und in ll>« {irimefil *k™< '"*' ""it >" ittlanipt.' — Here 
w>r«)j b ROixl vine, with ■ big buih! StDdy the Tiile iif T>1r>, O reader: 
•ven'ln ih* tiald vaniou vf D. T.. Ibere wlU be incimliiK fuuiid. Ue con- 
tbian In llili irioiophant alyla: 

• Cnit any nortat head (not a wlgblock] doubt ihal the Giant oT ibii 
'PoMR meant Si'i^bbhtios? Thnt the Ferryman has iomeihing to do 
■ with ilie I'HtRn'tiiHiiii hit Hul with tlie Ohurcii? 
■ Acaln. mltht II not be preniined that Ihe Biver wrre Tihh ; and that 
it t)o*(«l (u Time tln«) batwMn two worUty Call the world, or cnnn- 
'ry «ti Ihliiiile, wliere tlie fWir I.ily dwetli, Ihe world of SupiiMATUtuL- 
Mii : Ihe cnuntry im that aide, Natubaluh, the working week-day 
nnr'J wbfr« we all dwelt and loll; whntoever or whatioevcr introdnce* 
t^ir, ■mi acpHn, In Iho firm-earth of human butineu, or bb «b well 
• iT.tntnn JBfo Eiliitan«e, miut proeent /rum Llly'i Bapematnral «mn- 
1TV : whitwierer nf a milerlHl mt de««uea ruid duappaara might be 
' 1 iwcted 10 gu liithtr. Lei Ilie reader conilder this, and note what cnmea 

iid- ^^^ 

■nry I 

Jin- ■ 

- To ml a free wild 
.Ima* RWrr of Time, to that the 
' fiiendllo) nelKbbBurboad and un 
' TnutuigOfic Poem ! I* not >ucb al: 
■ ummaryoT I'nlveml History; 1 
ihlnjc whl«h Hankind [once llic 
TnWly twured) ha» erer ttiirt 

uulcatlon ealabllidird orer thin atuxie woo- 
the Naliiml >nd F-npernnlural may stand in 

1 alio, let me ask Him. the grand action and 
mblem of Hnnuui CultRrei tba 
lily meals of victnal were mod- 
and mntt ever ttrive alter? — 
id nn K m<iM dittnwrnl (inting. 

Id tbink, ar 

Ihe w 

Consider (gain n 
I," and tr« whether 
-Ifrrniatli ne.t. Whn the 
"• Wilt-a-.»I^H. (he Man i 

ceinble, were the Gianrt Shadow, al 
Snahe-brldKD at noon, yai •till oidy a 
isllss*. rotten, revolulionary "nfe oT 

nr ilmniw chararlopi are, llie Snake, 
IF Tjimp? I will answer. In general 
Fy humnn Insight. Cnltiirittlaii. in one 
Dt Other- At Cir tin Snake, I know not well what uame In «all II 
pariiaps, in our seaniy vocabalnrlet. there 1> no nanHi (hr it, 
»t doM not hinder It) being a thing, ^nulne unongh. Medlla- 
ih| Utiderf landing i in tha mwl laxml m> 

liAA nuinod, or nii^ht name. It 
vour si>li(lest Preilicables heel 
C'^Mtcporios into the iiieltiiig-pot ; 
11 t'oniinentator, ftiid for mom 

* The Wni-o'-wi^ps, that Inugh 
eat gold nnd simke it from then 
viewing as some shadow of Ele 
ture: which bv-and-bv became 
French Philosophy, eat Gold (o 
again. In which sense, their con 
man*s (by the Priesthood's) assist 
and then laughing at him, and t 
obliged to stop till they had 8atisfi« 
has its significance. 

* As to the Man with the Lamp, ii 
ing, and otherwise so miraculous 
*' cannot illuminate what is wholly 
you might name the celestial Rka8< 
Understanding, and superordinated 
Faculty; which manifests it«(elf as 
whatever else of highest in the inte 
behold this respectable, venerable 
time of need; directing, accomplish 
victorious; — as, in strict reality, it 
Vision that lies at the bottom of i 
the source ami creative fountain o! 
mystically and miraculously guides 
Be the Man with the Lamn »»•»•• 

THE TALK. 4:»:^ 

hUh liT* oererthelMB in their ** ancient cottnfre,** Mt^r or w.^tr*^, \Y.f 
mof'-tnt of vhich rtill hold* together over them. Ami then lht««« in>< 
chicTout Will-o*>wiftp», who pay thi» oM lidy nuch court, an>1 eat nV. tS*« 
old fold (all that was wise and beautiful ami desimhie) off her w«l!«; 
and show tba old stoiies, quite ugly and bare, as they had not be«m tW 
•Kea! Besides they have killed poor Mops, the plaything, and jov ai.d 
faodling of the bouse; — as has not that same Elegant Culture, t>r French 
Phiiosophj done, wheresoever it has arrivtHlV M:irk, notwirh^tandii.g. 
how the Man with the Lamp puts it all right Hgain, rei^Mioiles ov«t\- 
thlBc« And makes the finest business out of what sivmed the %i«irot. 
' With regard to the Four King<, and the Temple which lii^^ la^li italic i 
aDdergnmnd, please to consider all this a* the Futnrv lying pit>pnn««I aiul 
certain under the Pre«eiit : you obser\-e, not only in^pireil Reamm (nr the 
Man with the Ijimp), but scifn'ifio Thought (or the Snake), can i1i'«cem 
it lying there: neverthele** much work mu«t he done, innumerable iliiTl- 
cutties fronted and conquered, before it can ri«e out of the ilepth« (i»f th« 
FntoreK and realifte itself as the actual wor«hipping-place i>f man, and 
** the most freqnente<l Temple in the whole Earth." 

* As fur the fair I.ilv and her ambulatory nece««iton* Prince, the«e art^ 
<tbject4 that I shall admit myself incapable i>f naming: yet nowi«e atlmit 
myself incapable of attaching meaning to. iNiuAider them as the two 
diAJointed Halven of tlii« singular DualiAtic Being of mir*: a Being, I 
ntinst sav, the mut»t utterly Dualistic; fashioned, t'mm the verv heart of 
it, oat of Positive and Negative (what we happily call Light nnd hark- 
iie^s, NeceMity and Freewill, {umm\ and Evil, and the like\; everj-wherr* 
out of two mortally oppoMnl things which vet must he united in vital 
lore, if there Is to Im» any Ai/V ; — a Being, I re|M»nt, 1)unli«tic l»ey«»nil 
expressing; which will f^plit in two, strike it in niijf direction, on nmyofU* 
Mix sides; and does of {t«elf split in two (into C-ontradiction), every hi»ur 
c»f the day, — were not IJ/f perpetually there, |>er{>etiinlly knitting It to- 
gether again! But as to that cntting-np. and parcelling, and Inhellinflr 
nf the indivisible Human Soul into what are calleil *' Facultie«/' it i« a 
thing I have fnrni of old eschewed, and even hated. A thing which yi>a 
mtut sometimes do (or yr»u cannot ^tenk); yet which is never done with- 
out Error hovering near you; for m<Mt part, without her pouncing on 
you, and qui*e blindfolding you. 

* I^t not Uf, theref«ire, in li>i>king at Lily and her Prince l»e tempteil to 
that practice: why should we try to tt'imr them at all? Etmugh, if wi> 
do feel that man** whole Being i« riven s%uriiler every way (in thi* **tran- 
sitionary age " ), and yawning in ho*tile, irreconcilable contradictii>n with 
ilcelf: what g«»o.| were it to know farther in what dirtrtiim the rift (a» <^ir 
Poet here plea«ed to repre*ent it) ha.l taken effect? Fancy, h-mever. 
tliat thene two Halvks of Man'* S«rtil and Being are aeparateil. in pain 
and enchante*! olxtniction, from one another. The l»etter, fairer Half «its 
in the Supenintiiral country. dendi*niiiK and killing: a'a*. nt»t permitte*! 
to come acro*« into the Nntuml visible c<Hintr>-. nnd tliere make all 
blesse<l and alive 1 The ruggi^l itmnger Half, in »uch •epamtiti i, !• tiuite 

M.m lo r», anfl back a*. 

* anything, except merely wrin«r its 
' injr, lamental)ly iiKjuire: W'hnt sha 

* But Courage! Courage! The '. 

* the Bridge shall arch itself, the d 
' flames do, rushing into one; and a 

* only how, in this inimitable Poem, ' 

* of the Liteniry Society, it is rcprest 

So far D. T.; a commentator who . 
himself: whom we shall only caution 
always that, as he once says, * Phantai 
exists, under our very noses, which hi 
the * River of Time * and so forth mr 
none ; that, in short, there is risk of t 
himself in this matter; being led from 
at last, like a foolish mystified nose- 
he is. 

To the simpler sort of readers we sh 
rather, proffer a petition. It is to fan c} 
Hvered altogether from D. T.'s compan 
it were there only for its own sake, antj 
much blank paper. Let the simpler 
like it! If unhappily, on looking bac 
thought * begin afflicting them, let sncl 
till then, and then also with distrust. 
hast thou not two eyes of thy own ? 

The Commentator himself cannot, it 
exhausted the matter. To decipher b 
traordinary Production, and what was 
ducing it; to w »»'♦*' -*' 

THE TALE. 441 

rale of Tales; or eren to hure hmird, eredentl^*, that such exint: nn omii*- 
in A pro femd TmnnUtor, which he himself mey annwer for. Sec- 
It, that with all bU t>oundleM preludini;, he hA» forgotten to insert the 
'• own prelude; the pa«Mge, namely, by which thi» .l/dArrAefi U 
ipeeiallT vtbered In, and the key-note of it struck by the ComfioMT him- 
wU^ and the tone of the whole prem:ribed! This latter altogether glaring 
BoaiMioa we now charitably supply; and then let 1). T., and his illuMri(*u« 
Orlieliial, and the Readerv of this Magazine take it among them. Turn to 
Um lattar part of the DemltrkeH Au*gtwamlrrtrn (page 208, Volume xv. of 
Iho laat Editioo of Got At* $ \Vtrht)\ it is written there, as we render it: 
* ** The Imagination,** said Karl, *' i« a flne faculty: yet I like not when 

* aba works on what has actually happened: the airy fonn« i»he createt are 

* welcome as things of their own kind; but uniting with Truth f^he pn>- 

* dneea oftenest nothing but monsters ; and seem* to me, in *uch eaM*«. to 

* fly into direct Tariaiice with ReaiK>n and Common Sen«e. She ought, yuu 

* niglit say, to hang upon no object, to force no object on u« ; i»he niu«t, 

* If she is to produce Works of Art, play like a Mrt of mu«ic u|Min u« ; 
*iiiOTe us within ourselves, and this in such a way that we forget there is 

* aaything without us producing the movement.** 

'••Proceed no farther,'* said the old roan, "with your conditionliigft! 

* To enjoy a product of Imagination thi« alM» is a condition, that ^t enj(»y 
•ft nnconditionaliy ; for Imagination herself cannot conditimi and bargain; 

* aba iira«t wait what shall be given her. She fi»nns no plans, preworilie^ 
*lfar herself no path; but is borne and guided by lier own pinions: and 
' hovering hither and thither, marks out the atrangeAt C(tur«e«; >shich in 
•tbair direcfion are ever altering. I^ me but, mi my evening walk, call 

* vp again to life within me, si>me woufln>us flgiire« I wa^ wont to play 
•with in eariier years. This night I promise you a Tale, which ^hall 

* rtnind you of Nothing and of All." * 

And DOW for it. <>. V. 

In hb little Hut, by the great River, which a heavy rain hail swoln 
to overflowing, lay the ancient Ferryman. ask*ep, wearie<l by the toil 
of tlie day. In the middle of the night.* lou«l voie«*« awoke him ; he 
hcArd that it was travellers wishing to lie carried over. 

Stepping out, he saw two large Will-<r-wisps, hov«fring to and fh) 
OQ hia boat, which lay moonnl : they said, they were in violent haste, 
and should have been already on the other si<lr. The old Ftrry- 

I la the BiMdW flf th* niftat trnlj ' In tbi> n%VM\f nf the Dark A|«w. vbni whsC 
«llh ¥ikiiiiikiH (VmqoMls, what with (*hri*tUn rruflailinpi. OMtrartkMia <4 rmi- 
itRSliiiopto. Ols<nTiTiM nf Amrrir«. thii Tint-Rlrrr w IihImnI awnlo tA ofrrflnvinf ; 
•ad th# /fa«J Fntmi {n( KWicant <*ulturp, of IJtrrstunp.) mu«t mmU 1M In liMtr In 
UK «f«r tain BilslrtKV, brlnf marh w«nt«Nl . anil applv tn th^ rrW*th*w^l in^prrt- 
aMip old Ferrraua, roasfd out nf sl«irp tbrrvbr 't. who «illla(lj tnCrodiMwH thMD. 
ongistsfal lops as Uh>j ««rv. — D. T. 


['■■ ]:i\li.Tu\g ; jiusbcd off, Hud iloertnl with hU luuilikSI 

"ii^li llii> filrcnm ; while Ihe two straiigen vliiScd ul 

IT. ill nil unknown very rapid tongue, i<nd CTtrj dw 

I.'' <ii]l in loud laughter, hopping about, St am line <■ 

I M i' "^nt«, at another on Ihe bottom nf the beat. 

I . ' " cried the old man ; " if you doo't be qoec. 

I 1, ^-ondcnum of the wi«p I " 

:■ l.urst into n fit of biUKhter, modieH the nU 

II' iiiMjv inH|iiiL't (Imn ever. He bore their mischief wiA 

sunn rtanlied tlie farllicr iborc. 

iir yniir labour! " cried the Crarellcni, und lu ttwy tbn^ 
I luap of Kiilering gold-piei'es jinglcil ilown iiita ihi' nl 
■ lli'aven's «ake, whttt are Jou sbout * " cried the ltd 
will ruin mo foreverl Had e. eingte pieee of gnM 
ler, Ihe Btreani, which uirniol sufler p>[d, wuold h*ft 
il waves, and swallowed both my skiff and me: andwka 

I iiti),'lit bsve l^rcd with you in that case 1 here, tike 

ulic nothing back, whlob wp have once shaton from ■».' 

II t'ive me Ihc trouble," duiil the old ninn, stootun; iatt 

THK TALK. 1 1.1 

Now, in thi« clinsiii lay tlio fair urotii Snako, wlio was nm«»((l frnm 
•li'C'p by tlio );ol(l c(»ininp: chiiikin]; <lown.* No s(M)i)or did ^1u' ti.\ 
bpT eye on the glitttrint^ (t>in«, than Hho ato thcni uU up, with the 
pvAtest rrlUh, on the t|K>t ; mnil cnrctully pickeil out such pieces a» 

^re ■cAttervd in the chinks of the rock. 

Scarcely had she swaUowctl them, when, with extreme delight, 
began to feel the metal melting in her inwards, and spreadin^^ all 
her body ; and soon, to lier lively joy, she obtterml tlint ^ho 
vas grown transparent and luminous. I^>ng a^o she bad lH-(>n told 
Uuit this was possible : but now being doubtfiil whetlier such n light 
eoald last her curiosity and the desire to be seeun* againKt the fu- 
tmr, drove her from her ceil, that slie miglit bw who it wnit that had 
•haken'in this precious metal. She found no one. The more deliglit- 
M waa it to admin* her own appearancH'. and her grncvfid brightne^s, 
am abe crawled along through roots and bushes, and spn^ail out lier 
light among the grass. Kvery leaf seemeil of emerald, every flow-(>r 
waa dyed with new glory. It was in vain that she cnissed tin* soli- 
tary thickets ; but her hofies rose Ingh, when, on reaching the open 
country, she iiemdved fVom afar a brilliancy resembling her own. 
" Sliall I find my like at last, then ' ** crie<l slie, and hastemt! to the 
tpot. The toil of crawling thmugh )K)g and rre<ls gave her little 
thought : for thougli slie likeil licst to live in dry gni<«y spots of the 
mountains, among the elefti* of nK>ks, and for moi«t fiart fi'd on »picy 
berha. and slaked her thirst with mild dew and fresh spring-water. 
jet for the sake of this dear gold, and in tlie \\o\n.* of this glorious 
light, she would have undertaken anytliing you cfiuM |»n»|Mi»<- to 

At last, with much fatigue, she reaehi>il a wet rushy spot in the 
•wamp, wliere our two Will-4)'-wis|H wen> frisking to and fro. Slie 
•hove«l herself along to thc*m ; saluted them, was happy to meet sueli 
pleasant gentlemen relate<l to her fandly. The I jghts glidetl towanis 
her, skip|M.Hl up over her. and UukIki] in their fa«hion. *' I^<Iy 
Cousin.'* said they, "you an> of the hf>rizi>ntal line, yet what of 
that > It is true we an> ndated only bv the hMik : for obM*rre vnu.'* 
her«' both the Flames, (*onipn-s»iiiir their whoh' bn>adtb, maile thi rn- 
aelves as higli and peakeil as ptissibh*. '* how pn'ltlljk tliiM tninr K ntrtli 
beM*ems us gentlinien of the vertical line ! Take it not anii<>« ot u«. 
gnoil Jjidy ; wlint family (*an btKist of su<>li a thing ' Simi* tlu re 
ever was a Jaek-ii'-Ianteni in the world, no ofu* <if tliem has eitln-r 
aai or hiin." 

The Snake felt exi-ei-dinirly unf*<»mfiirtablc in tlie mmpany of tln'*e 
relations ; for let her hf>ld her h*'ad a« liigli as p(is«ible. she found 

I Tii'iroirr, rni|rr«tan<l<ne. r<>ii*«»l rn>n\ hrr litny ■b>^|, hj %hr flrtl |iroilarr nf 
■ictil^ni Bvllm I^tif*: vhW-li •Ih- «ia*r:> •IrTmir*. - D T. 

8Ky. The Will-o'-wisps laug 
tituile of jf old-pieces came cli 
pushed niuibl}' forwardn to (: 
you, Mibtress," said the dappc 
little more." They sliook tlie 
quickness, so tliat the Snake c 
fast enough. Her splendour vi 
shining beautifully, while the 
rather lean and short of statu 
losing their good-humour. 

" I am obliged to you forev 
wind again after the repast ; *' 
can I will do." 

" Very good ! " cried the Lig 
Lily dwells ? Lead us to the fai 
not lose a moment, we are dyii 

" This service," said the Sna 
do for you. The fair Lily dw< 
water." — " Other side of the wi 
this stormy night I How cruel it 
not be possible to call the old mai 

" It would be useless," said t 
ready on the bank, he would not 
to this side, none to yonder." 

" Here is a pretty kettle of fish 
other means of getting throucrh 



Ar frnin lhi> ; »iih bU hnJv lie hug no power ; bis hiinilB t'finnot lift 
a Mr»v, hi< ilinulilrrs coalc] not bi>Rr n faggot uf twigs ; but witli liie 
■ImiIiiw be hut power over much, imy all.' At ■unriie and eunwt 
WWvfere l.p 1* flrongvut : «o at evening you mereiy pot joursolf 
mfaa thp back of hi* ebnaow. tlie Giant nalke (oftiy to Ibe liRnk, and 
^b* ahaJuw carric* ;'<>u aizmia (lie water. But if you picaae, about 
'4m bour of noon, to be in waiting at that cornor of the wood, where 
4b* Inaahri) <i*ur)iang Ihp hank, I tnyielf will take ynn oTcr and pre- 
■Mtt you to the ftUr Lily : or on llie other hanil, if you dislike the 
asNalMv. you hav« JntI to go at nighUhll to tliat bend uf the rocki, 
Md pay a visit to the Giant ; lie will certaii<ly receive you like a 

With a slight bow, the Flame* went oflT; and the Snake at bottom 
V«* not iliaennicnt^ii to get riil of them ; partly that ahe nitghl eiyay 
lb« brightnc»« of htr own light, partly aalii^ a curiosity with whldi, 
fa- a laag time, ihe liwl been agitated in Ji ilngutnr way, 

^n tiiu eliaum, where slie ufleil erawled hither and thither, she had 

I 1' a ■Irangp HifcoTery. For althongh in creeping up nriil down 

■ .ibyta. (he had never hnd a ray of light, Bhe coulil wpH enough 

Miiiinnie tlia ohjefta in It, by her «en»e of touch. Oenernlly she 

' 'ith nothing but irrcgabtr productions of Nature; at one time 

■ DuliI winil betwtren Ilie teeth of large crystals, at another ihe 

iilil IVel the barlM and hairs of native silver, and now and then 

I out with her to the light some stm^ling jewels.^ But to lier 

-Tiiall wonder, in a ruck which was closed on every side, she had 

.1' 'n (.-PTiain objects which betrayed the shaping hand of man. 

«>lh Willi on wliit^h she could not climb, sliarp regular corner*, 

f'lrmeil pillar* ; and what seemed Blmngest of all, human figures 

li nbe had entwined more than once, and which appeared to her 

.,■ of hmii*, or of llie finest polishe<t marble. All these e»peri- 

• nbc now wislied to combine by the sense of sight, thereby to 

:t!in what u yet she only guessed. She believed slie could illu' 

ristp li.e whole of thm subterranean vault by her own lieht ; and 

. .J.-.! to got aequainied with these cnriou* things at once- She 

'■i.rcned hack; and soon found, by the usual way, llie tlctt by which 

.. iitril to penetrate llie Sanctuary. 

' >ij rrkching the place, she mxed around with eager curiosity; and 
(uli hi-r shining could not enlighti'u every object in the rotunda, 

' |. nst )HiriisnTT<»ii itrwivl ■)»« ItM na Is lowt wtlli lxy|'. [HwhIm^ ■Itli 

(u ^k Bwurlil Ui >i 

grander than gold 1 ** inqui 
Snake. — " What is more 
" Speecli," answered she. 

During tliis conTersation, s 
nearest niche perceived anot 
King in a sitting posture ; his 
was covered with a decorated 
adorned with precious stones : 
countenance ; he seemed aboi 
dimly-coloured over the marble 
diffused a cheerful light througl 
liancy the Snake perceived a tl 
mighty in shape, leaning on his 
and more like a rock than a m 
which was standing at the grei 
opened, while tlie glittering vet 
and disappeared. 

A Man of middle stature, enti 
attention of the Snake. He wai 
in his hand a little Lamp, on wh 
which in a strange manner, with 
the whole dome.^ 

" Why comest thou, since we 
— *' You know that I may not 
my Kingdom end ? '* said the si 
the old Man. 

With a stronger voioo ♦»»« w — 


THE TALE. 447 

— "What will the youngest do > ** inquired the King. — " lie will sit 

' replied the Man. 

*' I am nut tired," cried the fourth King, with a rough Altering 


While thit fpeech was going on, the Snake had glided suftlv round 
tfie Temple, viewing everything ; she was now looking at the fourth 
King close by him. He stood leaning on a pilbir ; his considerable 
Ann was iH^avy rather than beautiful. But what metal it was made 
of couM not be determined. CloM'ly inspiKrtiH]. it seemed a mixture 
of the thn-c metals which its bnithers had bei>n formed of. But in 
fbe fbamling. these materials did not seem to have c«>nibiiR*d ttigether 
ftiUy ; gold am! silver veins ran im>gularly through a brazi*n nia«i!«, 
■od gave the figure an unpleasant a«iM.>ct. 

Meanwhile the gold King was asking of the Man, " How many 
wcrets knowest thou > " — *' Three,'* n*pliiH! the Man. — ** Whieh is 
fbe moat important ? " said the silver King. — " The open one," re- 
plied the other.^ — *' Wilt thou o|)en it to us also »*" said the brass 
Kng. — " When I know the fourth," n^plied the Man. — " What 
I ? " grumbled the composite King, in an under tone. 
I know the fourth.'^ said the Snake ; approacheil the- old 
Man, and hissed somewhat in his ear. " The time is at ham! ! " 
cried the old Man, with a strong voice. The temple reivhoed, the 
metal statutes sounde<I : and that instant tlie old Man sunk away 
to the westward, and the Snake to Uie eastwanl ; and both of 
tbem passed through the clefts of the nx-k, with the greatest 

All the passages, through which the old Man traveller]. fllU><l them- 
•elvea immediately bi*hind him, with gold ; for his I^m|> had the 
•Cnuige property of changing stone into gold, woinI into silver, tleml 
animals into pri'cious stones, and of anniliibiting all metals. But to 
du|>Uy this |>ower. it must shine alone. If another light wen* U>side 
it, the Ijimp only cast fn>m it a pure clear brightness, and all living 
tilings were refresheil by it.* 

Tlie old Man entenil his c«>ttage, which was built on the shvpe of 
the hill. He found his Wife in extreme dintre^s. She was sitting at 
the fire weeping, and refusing to be con««»le«l. *' How unhappy am 

> Gooslifer Cbrse Kln^ an Kfm of Ih^ H'orlil'M Ill«tnr> : nn. nnt m Kf«». Iiut m* 
PHnrlplw whkb Jnlntly or frvi^rallv rule Rrv. Ala*. piMir wr. In llii« rhaotir Mift* 
•oUnvd ' Crsnsltloiiary sue.' are wi unlbnuiiate a* to Utv ua«lrr the Fourth KInff 
— D. T. 

s Reader, haul thoo anr iclimp«e of the ' open f«rret * * I frar. not — 1> T 
Wrller, art thou a gno«e? I fr«r. yen. — O. Y. 

> In ninnilnafeil Aicw. the Af of Mlmrle* It aaM tn reaie: Kut It h ooIt we that 
to Ma It. Ibr we aiv »llll ' rrfrcshe*! by It/ — D. T. 

ei, tliEi 

inquired tlie hui»b«nd. quitv a 

V wort lliou gone," said the, sohbing, " when ttien ami 
I'rsi'tlli'n lo the door : linth ink i ugly I let them in ; Ibtj 
H? n I'oiiplc of genteel, very honourable people : Ihrj rat 
Imui's, ,rua would hare t&ki-n tlieni for Will-a'-wiifw. Bn 
•ri-n.' Ilicy in Ilic house, tlinn tliey begun, likr impudent 
■iiiiijilinifql me,' luid grew so forward thai I feel athunri 

ikl tlie liustmnd w 
iiig lliv ap'. the^ 

I a smile. " the Hentlrmm vm 
ight Imtc held hy genml [ir 

iat age > " cried the Wife : " «ilt ihon alvajs be talUu 

Hkw old ani 1, then ? — Geuenl polilenef* ! Btt 1 

I kmiw. I»ok round there what a hce tlie waltt ban^ 

'I ■: 11. - wliich 1 hare not teen thcie hundred rean^ 

> . tlu'V liekcd away, thou conldat not ibiDk hn 

■ \. i>i Anauring me that it tatle^l fir berond oM- 

' ■!-- . rli, y lind swept the walls, the fellows aeemed tote 

li-. .Mill) truly in that little while tliev had growi 


If mnJe !l the 

:!lt, mnLon of tlic lirnwn anJ lilnck in tliie pfccioiis et 

'■' i-uriou> piece of worlnnHnihip. 

I «kr ilij iNwkrt," >uil tlie Mnn, "and put the onys inlo It ; then 

lb* thrcu CabbatWOi tile llircc Arlicliokcs anrl Ihc^ (hnv OnSonc; 

I ' ttitm mnnd Itllle Miipa, and carry tliem In tlie RiTcr. AI nnon 

STiakr will take tlipc over ; viait thv fhir Lily, give- liirr llic onyx, 

- Ill nink* It «lfTe liy her Much, ai liy her much ehe kills wluil- 

; I* alirc »in»dj. She will have ■ true cnmpuiiun in the little 

■i--i. Toll her not tu muam ; hvr i]eli>vninl» is near; tlie imniteit 

niiiiortuiU' ihc may look upon an the grenlrtt hnppinetaj for the 

riio old Woman Riled lier boakpt, aitd get out na «nnn a* it wai 

' ' Till- riiinjr tun ■hone elrnr ttnm the olher »iilo of the RiTtr, 

I. Ir wa* K'iuvri"? in 1^^ iligliuice : the nhl Woimhii vnlked with 

•' !>lrp«. lor iIh> basket preneil ui>Dn bsr hrad, attd it was not the 

1 ihal to liunh'nul hfr. Wharever lifeli^u thing she might be 

-.' inn. tiw did not frel the weight i»f it ; on the other hiind, in 

■ r ivais ihe huket rue aloft, anti hovered alotig abo>e her liead. 

. lo any any fhiah herbage, or any little llvinK animal, ahe found 

• ■oilingly Uburiotu.' Slie had travelied-on fur mine lime, in a 

lulirn liuinnur, when «hu hailed aiiddcniy in fright, for she bad 

•laniMt trod upon tlie Uluit'* (hodow, whicli vat stretehing tovania 

hrr armu thi< plain. And now, lining up her eyes, she aavr tlip 

BHiiMtpr of a niant himialf, wlio liad been bulbing in Ihc Rirrr. and 

•M Jniil eome onl.* and che knew not how ahe ehonid nvnid him. 

The mcKncnt be |)crcelied her, he be|;an aaluiing her in (port, and 

Om hanila uf his abadow mon caiitcht hold of the basket With dex- 

tiTuiia •••« pltked away ftoni it a Cabbage, an Arllehoke and 

III I 'man, and broaghl them to the QinntV miiuth, who then went 

way ii|i Ibe Hiver, anil let tlie Woman go in peaw. 

-II.' considerrd whether it wnubt not be better to TMDm, and cup- 

I ' tr«m brr ganlrn the pieeea ahe hatl lost ; and amid theae doubts, 

»)••■ (till kept walking on, an that in a iitlte while ahe waa at the bank 

•f the ffirer. She sat long wailing (br the Ferryman, whom ahe 

Ipicviieil at laiit. tteering over with a very Rlngiilar tr«»elleT. A 

'mmmg. nohlr-looldng. handaome man, whom *hv couk) not gate upon 

HfeM. afa-pt out of the boat. 

^^■^b" I* it you bring'" cried the old Man, — "The grretia which 

IV T^nuHFhiail Si^jwTmi 

ueclare yourself its debtor, I m 
some risk in it." — " If I keep in 
the smallest. Put your liand i 
promise tiiat within four-and-twe 

The old Woman did so ; but i 
ing out her hand, she found it bl 
old Ferryman ; declared that ht 
part of her ; that in spite of hei 
trived to keep these noble men 
at the hand with indignation, ai 
*' Worse and worse ! Look, it is 
smaller than the other." ^ 

" For the present it but seems 
not keep your word, however, it r 
will gradually diminish, and at 1« 
you have the use of it as former, 
lie able to iK*rform with it, only nt 
that I could not use it, and no o 
she : '* but what of that, I will kot 
black skin, and all anxieties about 
up her basket, which mounted of 
fh.*e above her in the air, as she 
walking sofYly and thoughtfully dc 
btrange dress had made a deep im 

His breast was covered with a 
wavings might be traced every n 
idioulders hung a purple cloak : i 

mI — » 

THE TALE. 451 

Tbf gnmilous olil Wnnwu tried to lead htm iiKo conTerialion ; bul 
■rith Ilia •hart ftn*w(>n lie give her Mtull eDouurngement or informa- 
iicrti ; fat that in the snd. iiotwilhtlftnding Ihe beauty of his eye«, ihe 
gtrw tinii of ipeaking with liim to nu pur{H»i<, and timk leave i>f 
titin witli ttiete word* : " Yuu wbIIi too «low for me, worth/ air ; I 
niiut not luK ■ tnumeiit, for I have lo pan the River on tlie green 
Sii.iki>. bikI earty llila ttun present from my tiiuband lo tlie fUr Lily," 
Sv eaying ahe atepc fuler forward; but the tiiic YoDth pushed on 
■ilti Miiial HjHwil, and hatlenei] lo keep up with her. "You are 
i:uinf( to the lUr Lil; ! " cried be ; " then our roads arc the same. 
But *liat piT'ent I* this yuu are bringing her ' " 

" Sir," Mid llie VTonian, " it is liardlj fair, atler so briefly diamiu- 
•ng th* ijuestiima I put to ;ou, to inquirv with euth vlTatil; about 
my MH:rat>, But if you lik« to barter, and tell me your adventures, 
i will not conceal from you how it itAnda with me and my pretenta," 
I !>•■* soon niaile a Imrgaiii ; Uie dame disdowd lier circumaioncet lo 
luui ; told the biilor)' of Iha Pug, and let him aee the aingular gift. 

Iltr liltvd this nalunl ouriosltj from the basket, and look Mop*, 

who scvtncd a* if sleeping solUy, into his arms, " Happy beast 1 " 

crird be ; " thou wilt be touched by her hands, thou wilt be made 

i!l •!■ by her ; while the liTing arc obliged lo fly fmta her presence in 

•'-■pi- a moumAil doom. Yet why say I moiimfnl I Is it not ikr 

' >i Ider and more ftiglitfbl lo be injured by her look, than it would hv 

1. dtc by her hand ' Behold me," aaid he to the Woman ; "at my 

iiiaerablv fate have 1 lo unilergo. This mall which I 

c honourably borne in war. tliis purple which I sought to merit by 

D rvign. Destiny has left me ; the one as a useless burden, the 

u empty omamenL Crown, and sceptre, and sword are 

I am OS bare and nt.<vdy as any other son of earth ; for su 

ire her bright eyes, tliat thvy tak« fhira every living urea. 

K Ihay look <in all its Ibrce. and those wliom the touch of her hand 

•e changed to the state aC sliailowa wandering alive." 

la did he continue lo bewail, nowise contenting the old Woman's 

who wished Ibr information not so much of his iutvmal aa 

It csiemal situallmi, Shu learned nwilher the name of hia liuher, 

■ of bla klngdoni- Uo stroked tlie hard Mops, whom the aunbramt 

I 111* buauoi of tlie youth hail wanned as if he liad been living. 

ioqnited narrowly about the Man with the Lamp, about Ihe influ- 

B of the aacreil light, appearing to expect much guud Ihim it in 

I' uwlancboly case. 

Amid aneli conversation, they dcieried froni afar the majvsilc arcit 
^ ~ " ■ which extvndtil from the one l«nk to tlie other, jtlil- 
g with the stnuigcst colours in the splcndourt of Ihu sun. U<>lh 
)di for BBlil BOW flMT lw« B«*a( ana tUa edUm m 

^. .Kiu iiiey reacncd iiic 

to heave an<l stir; in a little while, 
and the green Snake in lier j)roiK' 
derew. They had scarcely thank 
on her back, when they found th 
be other persons in the company, 
They heard a hissing, which the S 
they listened, and at length caught 
about us in the fair Lily's Park,' 
*' and then request you at ni}^htfa 
sentable, to introduce us to this par 
the great Lake you will find us." 
and a hissing sound died away in tl 

Our three travellers now consult 
troduce themselves to the fair Lady 
be in her company, they were obi 
under pain of sufTering very hard se 

The Woman with the mctamorph 
proached the garden, looking round 
difficult to find, being just engaged ii 
tones proceeded from her, first like < 
lake, then like a light breath they sel 
tion. In a green enclosure, under t 
many diverse trees, was she seated 
eyes, the ears and the heart of the 
rapture, and swore within herself thi 
one had grown fain»r than ever. ^ 
tance, she exDrr«a«'»'' »• 

THE TALE. 453 

of your •liiii fiogen ! Thrioe-bappy youth, to whom it were permitted 
•o be there ! " 

80 tpetking the approAched ; the fiur Lily imiied her eyes ; let her 
hAiMU drop from the harp, and answered : " Trouble me not with un- 
Cimely praiie ; I feel my misery but the more deeply. Look here, at 
my feet lies the poor Canary-bird, which used so beautifully to accom- 
pany my tinging ; it would tit upon my harp, and was trained not to 
touch me ; but to-day, while I, refreshed by sleep, was raising a peace- 
Ail morning hymn, and my little singer was pouring forth his bar- 
mooious tone* more gaily than ever, a Hawk darts over my head ; 
the poor little creature, in afiHght, takes refuge in my bosom, and I 
feel Uie last palpitations of its departing life. The plundering Hawk 
indeed was caught by my look, and fluttered fainting down into the 
water ; but what can his punishment avail me ? my darling is dead, 
and his grave will but increase the mournful bushes of my garden." 

*' Take courage, fairest Lily ! " cried the Woman, wiping off a tear, 
which tlie story of the liapless maiden had called into her eyes ; 
*' compose yourself} my old man bids me tell you to moderate your 
lamenting, to look upon the greatest misfortune as a forerunner of 
the greatest happiness, for the time is at hand; and truly," con- 
tinued she, '* the world is going strangely on of late. Do but look at 
my hand, how black it is ! As I live and breathe, it is grown fiur 
•mailer : I must hssten, before it vanish altogether ! Why did I 
engage to do the Will-o'- wisps a service, why did 1 meet the Giant's 
shadow, and dip my hand in the River ? Could you not aflbrd me 
a single cabbage, an artichoke and an onion ? I would give them to 
the River, and my hand wore white as ever, so that I could almost 
•how it with one of yours." 

^ Cabbages and onions thou mayest still find ; but artidiokes thou 
wilt search for in vain. No pUnt in my garden bears either flowers 
or fhiit; but every twig Uiat I break, and plant upon the grave of a 
fiivourite, grows green straightway, and shoots up in lair boughs. All 
these groups, these bushes, these groves my hard destiny has so 
raised around me. These pines stretching out like parasols, these 
obelisks of cypresses, these colossal oaks and beeches, were all little 
twigs planted by my hand, as mournful memorials in a soil that other- 
wise is barren." ' 

To this speech the old Woman had paid little heed ; she was looking 
at her liand, which, in presence of the fair Lily, seemed every moment 
growing blacker and smaller. She was about to snatdi her basket 
ami hasten off, when she noticed that the best part of her errand had 

1 Id 8cpBa5ATVftAU«M, traly. wb«t if Ibtr* «lth«r oC thwm or oC frail * Notb- 
Ib« that will (AltofPtb4>r) contrat tb« fnwdy Tte»-IUv<nr. 8tttpMiiin«t, ftiavrMil 
SMfwl grofw, • io a nil Uut oCbarwlM Is bsirvn ! ' — D. T. 

that breathe soi 
♦'on which makes 
'*•■"<'' dav i, near 

" What 

This" 1 

from I 


's tbert 

Is tlie 

The good oW ,lan„ 
•"■ich the fair 1.1,^. «, 
have charmed anV o 

»hen the arrival oith 
had caught the Ian I 


^ "<? prophecv of tt 

^V a«k this Wrthv d 

°; '■«'-t to pa,s ,bo,„ i 
r.";- .-^'o l-rvi i, .„ : 

1 wish vou joy of . 

^^oa and carria... Z 


t, InlolorBblc putrcDiEtiim will tnaXea dm tlio bapleai bird, 
3 bvr unndcT llic fiiir (iniibtnsliun uf iu farm (onwr. 
TTu) Oltl Winniui laid tbv liiile mrpn!, wnjipcJ in suit leavea, 
her liMckpi, bihI h»(<nicd away. 

" HowvTvr it may W," miiI llie Snake, rei'ommi-iii.'ing llit-ir ii 
nii>ied dialogoe. " Ilie Trmpls i* built." 

" But it it not at tlie River," eoid the ft'u one. 
'■ Ii ia yet rriiing in llie •loptha of the Kanli," Mid tlic Snako ; " I 
hare •rcii th« Kinei uiiil ciinvertorl with ihcni," 
" But wlipit will tliejr ariie 1 " inquired Lily. 
Tlif Snake rp|i)irfl : " I lieitnl ri'ioatiding in ilie Trraple these 
• h ,-p wont*. Thf lim, >> at hiaJ." 

.\ plea«iDg checrfulneaa spread oter thu lair Lily'a ftw : ■■ 'Ti« the 
-. .-<rtu1 time," sail] ahi:, "lliii I liare heard iliesu happy wiirds to- 
[ IV : when will the day eorae for roe to licar llieto thrice!" 

->hc *Ri*e, aud immei I lately lliere iaimi» a lovely luniileD i>um the 
_ anil look away her liarp. Anollier followed her. and fotduJ- 
,[' the fine carrcd ivory stool, on whidi the fiilr one lind bven si(- 
' :i-^, and put the silvery cushion under her snn. A third then 
111 llie her appearanue, with » large parasol worked with pearls i and 
i -,keil nhellier Lily would require lit>r in witlking. These three 
. ,:ii>lviu were beynnd expresiion beautirul : and yet llieir beauty bat 
. '.iltwl Ihai of Lily, for it was plaio to every one that Ihey coulil 
i.iiiir bf mmpared to her. ' 

Hcanwiiile the litir one had been looking, with a satisBed aspevl. 
at ttie stnjiKe onyx Mnp*. She bciit down and loucheil him, and 
that insiant he slarleil up. Gaily he looked around, ran hither and 
thither, ainl al last, in his kindest manner, luislenod In salute his bnn' 
iiKuIms. Slie took him in her arms, and pressed him to lier. " Crid 
at thou art." c.tied she, " and ihongh but a half-liti; worka in Ttm, 
ilnxi art welcnmo Id me ; tenderly will I lovo Ihee, pretlily will I play 
wiih thee, softly caress Ihee, and Itrmly press tlipe to my bosom." 
Sh* llwn im him ko, chased him (mm her, untied him back, and 
played so daintily wiih him, and ran about so gaily and so innocvully 
«{Ui him no the graat, that wllli new rapture ynu vieweil and partiei- 
paml in lier joy, as a little while tgo her somiw had attunnl every 
liMTt tasym|>aihy. 

This ehvcrftilncss. Ihesc graceful sports were interrupted by (he 
*ntnuiLV of the wuf^il Vuulh, He stepped forward, in his fiirmtT 
fPiitB and aspect; unvo tluii the heat of the day appeared to hare 
Csl>inie<1 him still more, and in tlie prcsenco of his miilreas tie grvw 
paUv I'Tury UMiuiot. He burn upon his hand a llawk, whiuli was 
■ Whum (bna Ikm7 rallb, Butnand OhsHlf.ot othniiir Iha) kin ' — D. T- 
-Q. r 

I bird. ^^W 

ling i|uli'l as a ilovc, wilh its boij sliruiik, aad it 


" It is not kind in thee," nied LUyio bim. " to bring that hMfd 

ins iH-fi're my eyes, the monster, which tiMliy lias killeil mj lluk 

III' iiiiliHppy bird I 

lIlVM.lf lillli [liv 

Mi'unu'liilt Mii{ia c:cnek-J not teasing (he fair LjI>' ; and she n^ 
fi liiT transparent I'avourile, wiUi frieodly gestures- She clajipcd kn 
Imnds lu HC-arc liiin ufT; then ran, to enlice him after her. SIk tn4 
to gel liim when he Bill. a[iil slie chased Jiint any when he attraq*- 
td til pn-ge near her. The Youth loolced on in silence, with inoMi- 
in^ Bnger ; but st lotit. wlien she look the odioiu beasi, whitdi ueiwd 
to liim unutltrnbly usly, on her arm, pressed It to her white buea. 
and kiHBi'il ita bluek snout witli licr iicavenlj lipi, fail pati«n»' illv 
getliifr IhilLHl him. and full of desperation he exclaimed : "Mut I. 
who by II baleful fiile exist beside thoe, perhaps lo the end. in W lb- 
sent preaente ; who by thee have lost m.v all. my »ery sell': raoil I 
see before my eyee, tlint so unnatural a moDiter mn cliarm lliee inlo 

THE TAI-K. 4->7 

'■ ly Uii>c uiw of Lil]''i Ciir wtitinK'moiJa aiipvnrvd ; liiuiiglil ilie 
' '- fciUin^-itaal, wul with fticndly beckoning cunitniiniil Ikt ui*- 
• III ml >l<iwn UD it. Soon Bflcrwtnli thi-re uuue ft letuntl ; slie Iimi] 
ij. r IuihI > flrc-colaured vuil, wiili irhich the rallicr ducontcd ihiiu 
K'.-alfil Uie fkir Lily's licud- The [liiitl hundcU liiT Itie Imrji. and 
n-wiy )iw| ihe iJr»*n iJie gntveouit inslnimsnt lowani* licr, and 
iii-k luDw lonvs thiin it* «triog9, when tlic Hrel mniil rctiinieit with 
l> AT niaad aiirror; tunk her •tntioii oppooite the fiiir oiit ; Cftoght 
It-Hiks in the (['"Oi and threw hack lo her the lorelicil image that 
- lu be Aiund in Nature.' Sniroir heightened her liMul)', the veil 
i-1iann4. Ihc )iar|i her grace ; and deeply lut you withed to aee hcf 
Himful Mluation altered, not leu deeply did you wtsli to keep Iier 
DOW lonked, fiirvrer present willi yuu. 
look at ihe mirror, she touched the harpi now nielt- 
wini ft<nn lliB airings, now her pain weiueii to mount, 
V ntufli.' in ttroeg oolr* ref ponded In her woe: looielimcs ■)» 
II King, but her ruiee failed her; and rrc long her 
' Belled into lean, two maidene caught her helpfully in 
na, the harp lank from her bosom, aearccty could tlii.' quiek 
4 aiMldl tht! in»tnuii«nt ami carry it aiide. 

ell lu llio Man with Ihc I.amp. beforv the Sun lel 1 " hiU' 

k», (aintly. but audibly : the ninlda looked at one another, 

teara fell Outer. At this moment came the Woman with 

J!l, panting and alloKeilier breatldeis, "I am lost, and 

~r lifbl" cried die; "ire how my hand ii atmott ran- 

r Ferryman nor Giant would take me over, becaute I 

'» debtor 1 Id >aln did I promise hundredi of cabbage* 

ufoniinui they will take no more tbanUireei and do 

;a it now tu be tbund In all this H]iurter." 

our own cafe," laid the Snake, ■' and try tu bring help 

M it may eomo to youradfalao. Uaite witli your utmost 

t llie Will-<i'-wi«pa ; it Is liio light for you to see Ihem, 

liap* yon will hear tlieiu laughing and hopping to and fro, 

a apevdy, they may itoss upon the Giant's shnduw, and 

Han with tlie Lamp, and send him lo u«." 

n hurrii-d off at her quiekcst pace, and the Snake 
1 oipecling as inipallently m LJIy the relum of Die Flames. 
I ih« beam of the sinking Sun was already gilding only the 
it of the trees In llie Ihivket, and long shailowa »i>n.> 


liiiig liver Inko anil meailriw' ; the Saako liitchpil up bdiI 
ipntly. uni Lilj dixralved In lean. 
lliis dtrvini' need, the Snake kept looking round i>n all 
iL' was nn-iuil ever; moment that the Sun woukl »vi, an 
in i^iiiclnife the magic tirole, aiwl tlie fiur youth 
!i'i .Lu:>y. At IfiKtghp nntii-ed aailinghii^in the air. vithpopb- 
iiiliir-. till' I'rini.'e'a Hswk, whose brpaat was cUching the M 
-• 111 Mil' sliii. Hhu shook hersolf for jo; ai ihii gnai omen: nai 
-111' il.'i'i'ivi'tl ; Tor elionl; anerwiu-ds tlic Man with the Loy 
irii Hljiliiij; Iciwnnis them acToia the Ijikc, Tatt aiul amoochly.* 
}mil lii'in iniveiling on akntea. 

i> i^iiiiki.' 'liil mil diange her pofitutf ; but Lily met and calMla 
" What |.'(ii>il »plHt ^endfl tliee, nt tlie motnent when »r wot 
ng Ihw, milt ni'i'iling thoe, to much 1 " 

111' ppirit or my Lamp." replied the Mnn, " ha» inipcllcd mc.iad 
lank Um i^oniliictei] me. My Lampspurklra when I am iwoM. 
just I'Hik about me in the thy for a algrnal ; some bird or melMC 
J to the quarter towardi which I am to tarn. Be calm, fumt 
til ! Wht-llier I can help, 1 know not; u> indiTiduai helps iral 
p who tiinLbineB lilmself with many at the proper hoor. We wi " 
imi" the tvil, and keep hoping. Hold thy circle flul,'~ 



WIm modroUv rati Jown llicir rjn, twl tLe pmiH- oF tln.'ir beauty 

l»d» dwm n-Kllr bcaullDiL All w«re peaceful and uilm. except Iho 

•ti) Woman, In ifrite of thf Rsiuranre oT her liutbaiitl, lliat her 

haiul ooulil diinlniih no IJtrther, wliiie the Lump ahone on il, slit u- 

1 n«l more tlian oncf. iliat if ihingf went on thus, before midnight 

. ■ aohli> iiipnihrr viitiM Iihtc iillerly vuiiahmt, 

rtiu Miui wlih Ihe Lamp bad liiiened attentirely to the conver»«. 

"I "if Iht- Lights; anil WM gmlifled tlml Lily hnit been fheeivil. in 

iiR in(«>ulv, and amused hr il. And, in truth, midnight had 

-'i<Hl tJiey kn«ir not huw. The old Man looked to the Mora, and 

' :i hcgui (peaking : " We are aiiemhled at Ihe pn^ilioui hour; 

t ■ nrh peiiunn hij taik, let each do hia duty ; and a unireraal hsp- 

iiiH vill *walIow-up our individual lorrowa, as a univenal grief 

ii-umri Individoal joyi," 

Ai thw*!.' wopdi »Kne « wondrouj hnbbnb ; ' for nil the pcnona fn 
. [iMty spoke aloud, cQvh for himielf, declaring wlult they had to 
' tinlr ih» three maidi were silent; one of them had fnllen naleep 
. ii'Ic tlie harp, another near the partuol, the third by tlic slool ; and 
a I'nuld not bliime them much, for It wai lale. The Fiery Ynuibi, 
'-'t'-r ■oinv pauing complimenls which tliey devoted to the vniting- 
laaiila, luul turned their sole attention to tlie PrincFss. as alone worthy 
f^ riduiJve homage. 

■■ Taki- the mirror," »iUd Ihe Mnn to (he Hawk ; "and witli Iho 

!lnt •unlx'Bin lUuminale the tliree sleepere, and awake Ihem, with 

-t'l rrfl<*lt"I from aboire." 

1 hr Siiakii no* began to more ; ahe loo«ene<l her circle, and rolled 

ily, in Ibtih! rinjw ibrward to the River. The two Will-o'-wispa 

'' iirinl with a loli-mn air ^ you would have taken them for (he 

iii'il •rrloui Flame* in Nature. The old Woman and her husband 

•t'trpd till' Raikel. whose mllil light they had tcnrcely obaerred tW 

n<nr ; ilicy UIImI it at both sides, and it grew still larger and more 

Liimiiiou*: they lifted the h'"iy of the Touth into il. laying the 

.nnry-Trinl upon his breasi ; the DaBbel rose into the air imd 

...rHlabflTe the old Woman's head, and she followed the Will -o'- 

■ ]« on f<i«t. Thn fair Lily Unik Mnpa on her arm, ami followed tfa* 

'\ L'liian . the Man with the Iiamp concluded the prncttstion ; and tb« 

Mviu *ai euriontly illuminated hy Iheae many light*. 

tKtt '«1>ti»l Mil) an; (U(UT frnn ■ nil of H^ ; 'Ufa ■ pncMB of tb* (pfrlM,' 

V (Ma lb* IMIb-Lmiih VnfmiOM 

\. H"i- mi rtanirofi" » fcw p— 


ii w^!i with no small vrondi>r tliut tho party mw. whtn ihrf 
rill •\ tlio lijvLT, B gluriont arch mount otet it, by wliirb ib« 
I <ii;iki- HUP atTonling tlieiii a glitlerintt path. If by lUi Okj 
rjiinii lliL' beiiutitul Uaiisparent iirccioue stoiws, ut which IM 
s( I'liiL'J liirmtd ; by aight thej were utonuhMl U il* ^■au- 
llllaiii'y. !)□ the upper tide the clear circht mnrknl ttNlf 
n^njnat (1ii? dark dtf, but below, vivid bi^aiiia irpre dstiofH 
lire, nnd exhibiting the airy Brtnnt^a of ihe wlillt«. Thepi* 
I alowly moved across it ; and the Ferryman, who saw it bum 
I afar oil', cnnaidered vith utloniahnienl the gleaming oide^ 
e «ira[ige UgliCa wliich were paujog over IL* 
elintlcr hail llie; reached the other shore, tliun the arch be^n, 
LihiKil vixy, 10 fyiay up and down, and willi a wavy iiiolioQ H 
.<1l tlu' unler. The Snake then came on land, Iht Batto 

iL-i It i]]ii>ti the ground, and the Snake attain drew hcrdrtlF 
ir. rill, itkl Man atoopcd towanla her, and said : " What liMI 

I -;ii rilli.t' iiivEf If rather than be sacrificed," replied the Snatet 
li-' nil- ihnt thou will leave no (tone on shore." 

iilil ^hui proniiiied ; then addroutng Liljr : "Touch tia 
, '■ Mu[ hi', '• with tlij Icit hand, and [hy lover with (hy ri^l' 



t into tlie 

r M Miin (""rlliwilli tct 

in >liiL-li liU <rit>] MiUteil liim. The^ in 
n flirriiU'd poinl on the bnnk ; «ncl here tlw miio threw 
If lading. luit wiiliinit cmtndictiini rrmi tlic fitir nnv iml liia 
lo *oulil glttdlj- li4TP rctaitied gome pnrt of it, down into ll» 
' Ik* glrimin); twinkling itor* the nlonc* floalei] down wltll 
; mnd ,*i>u coulit not say wholher thi>7 lual Ihemaelvn In 
c», or muik t« llit^ buttom. 

men." wid hr wiih the Ijimp, in ■ ivBpeclfUl tnnc to the 

" t will now >how ynu the way, und open joa the piuiajfe ; 

n will do ua an neoeniiHl Bpr*ice, if yrm jiletac lo unbolt the 

f wbioh the SBnc.-tii*>7 luiut be entered at preient, and which 

»b«t7auc*n unAuten," 

~ E I^A^hU made a stately bnw of aaapnl. nnd kfpt their placo. 
d Man of ili(< Ijunp went forenio«t Into the rook, which opmpd 
pfTM'nee ; the Youth fi^tiiwed him, H* If oiethnnicnlly ; »ileirt 
■tain, I.ily kept Hi Hime diatnnue ftrnn him ; the old Woman 
I bo left, and iirBiclHnl-oiit hrr hand that the light of her 
ixi't I.>ntp might atili OUI upon it. The rear wa» clo»eil by the 
Uo'-«i«p«, who Iwnl the peak* ot their flames toward* one 
', and appeared tn be engaged in conTer«aiion. 

It gone far till the |iroee»sion halted in front of a large 

* door, the Iravei of whicli wer« bolted with a gidden loek. 

tn now railed npon the L)ghi» to adranet ; who requirod 

atmty, and with llicir pointed flames, soon ate both bar 


w*t» gave a Inml elnng, as llie doors sprang snddenly asnn* 
d the stately fl^ilrr* of the Kings appenreil within th* 8«nc- 
le<l by the entering Lights, All bowed before Iheac 
Tia. especially the Planit-a made a protVisinn of llw 

s, thp gold King asktfd : " Whence eome jp 1 " " From 
id Hie old tian, — ' Whiihcr go ye ? " uid the lilirer 
" Into the wortil." repliwl the Man. — '• What would ye with 
" d ilie btawn King. " Aeeompany yon." replied the Man. 
B fmnpoaile King was about tu speak, when tin gold one ad- 
u Lighit, who had got ton near him: " Take yourself** 
me. my mctnl was not made for you." Thereupon they 
I to ilie silver King, and elasped tliemselTss about him; and 
■ ■ gUtlered beautifally In their yellow brightnea*. " You n* 
" Hild he. " liQt I cannot fi.'ocl you ; mtlsfV younelres eUo- 
id bring me your litcht." They reroored ; and gliding paal 
n King, who did not fvvin to notice t)iem, they Bud on the 
nitideil King. " Who will gorern the world * " crieil lie, wHh 


■^ broken voict>. " He who (taiida upon his feet." repbcd dc «U 
Man. -• " I »m lie," saM llii- mixed King. " We shsU we." nffai 
llie M^ii : " tor the time a at liand." 

Tlii- Ihir \Mj ffll upun tJit old Uui'i neck, and kiwed Ibm c«^ 
diAlly, " Iltily Sage ! " crii'd she, "a ihoiuuxl tim«a 1 ibaokthac, 
t'ur i lime lalt'rul H-iinl the third tim<>." Hbv lud KSioij 
>]ii.ik<.n. vhi-n the dasppd llie »ld Man «liU fuiter ; for itw ffMad 
l>i>:'iii 10 inuve beiu-ath Ihcni ; (he Youth and Ihe old Wooiu iln 
lii'lil iiy uin' nni'llii't : Ihe Light* alone did not regard it. 

Vuii o.iiM I'll plaiiilv thai the whole Temple vaa in uotko ^ na 
sliip iIlil siii'tly i^liili'S ansy trom the harbour, when her anjMn an 
lilVi) ; [liL- d>'|iih;t j1' till' Earlli seemed In open for tlie Buiklitlf nit 
Ht'ni aluiii:. U struck un nothiiiij; no rock came in ita way. 

K<ir a K'W iiiilaiits, a imall rain seetned lu drizzle from Ihe miiiMt 
I't ItiL' A'luw, ihe <AA Muu lii-ld the fair Lilj fast, and uid to hn 

\Vl' urc n<iw iK'nealh the lliver; we ehaU aoon be at the iMit.~ 
ICirlong llii')' llidught the Ti'inple made ■ bait ; but Otey wefe ia n 
i-rrur ; it wus mounting upwardg. 

a stron;^ uproar r 

e above their heads. PUnki «i 
low camf pressinif and cnuhing ii 
B v( ilie dome. Lily and the Waoun slnrled toaodf 
1 the Lamp laid bold of the Youth, and kept *""*"[ 
nil.- L'ottagi^ of llie Ferryman, for it was liiit whid lb 

THE TALE. 463 

I, supported by another, who advanced in a white short roW, 
with A silver rudder in his hand ; and was soon recognised as the 
Fcffrynuin, tlie fomer possessor of the cottage. 

The ikir Lily mounted the outer steps, which led from the floor of 
tte Temple to the Altar; but she was still obliged to keep herself 
jput from her Lover. The old Woman, whose hand in the absence 
«f the Lamp had grown still smaller, cried : "Am I tlien to be un- 
happy after all ? Among so many miracles, can there be nothing 
done to save my hand ? " Her liusband pointed to the open door, 
■ad said to her : " See, the day is breaking ; haste, batlie thyself in 
the River." — " What an advice! " cried she; " it will make me all 
UttL'k; it will make me vanish altogether; for my debt is not yet 
paid.*^ — " Go,** said the Man, "and do as I advise thee; all debts 
«e now paid.** 

The old Woman hastened away ; and at that moment appeared the 
rising sun upon the rim of the dome. The old Man 8ti>pt between 
the Virgin and the Youth, and cried with a loud voice : " There are 
three which have rule on Earth ; Wibdom, Appearance and Strength/' 
At tlie first word, the gold King rose ; at the ^pcond, tlie silver one : 
and at the third, the brass King slowly rose, while the mixed King 
oo a sadden very awkwardly plumped down.^ 

Whoever noticed him could scarcely keep from laughing, solemn 
IS ihe moment was ; for he was not sitting, he was not lying, he wan 
■oC leaning, but shapelessly sunk together.''' 

The Lights,' who till now had Ix'en employed upon him, drew to 
Aside; they appeared, although pale in the morning radiance, yet 
once more well*fe«l, and in good burning condition ; with thfir 
peaked tongues, they had dexterously licked-out the gold veins 
of die colossal figure to its very heart. The irregular vacuities 
which this occasioned had continued empty for a time, and the fig 
we luul maintained its standing iH>sture. But when at last the very 
tenderest filaments were eaten out, the image crashed suddenly to- 
irether ; and that, alas, in the very parts which continue unaltered 
when one sits down ; whereas the limbs, which should have bi>nt. 
sprawled themselves out unbowed and stiflT. Whoever coithl nut 

1 IkMt thoa notp thli>, resiler ; ami loi>k bark with new rImmcM on fnrnit>r 
Ihlnir* f A Kold KinfC, a »UTer and a brawn King : Wisi>oic, di|piifl<Hl Appb\r«m<*c. 
0imE«OTB; theM thrrc harmoniouitly nniU>«I bear rule: r/i5harnioniou»lj cobbleil 
Conetber In •ham union (aa in the fitoliiih composite King of our fuolinh * trawtitinn 
efftt'K they, once the gold (or wisdom ) lii all out of thvni, * Terjr awkwardly |iluiiip 
down.'— D. T. 

s As, fbr example, does not CharlM X. (one of the poor fkvtional composite Kmli- 
tim Mnblenied hnvln) rent, eTi*n now, 'iilMpelewly enough vunk together,' at HnU- 
rood, in the city of Edinburgh .' — D. T. 

• Marrh-of-intvUect Ughtii wen; well capable o( luch a thing. — D. T. 

M,m,kM V 

I turn nvay liii cjet ; thU mistnbk rluqr loJ 

1-.' l.i bllinlii. 

. l^iriiv rm» led the luuidsome Tonlh, ■!« hS i' Iiiin. ilixrn from the Altnr. and MnifU ' 
Ai riL.- Kit of thii mighlr I'oleDtue h; ■ 
' nil Till- raung man girt it round him. "Tb« ' 
' riL-'hi five!" cried tlie bniEen Toia. 
I ~.l't'r King: he tvnt liiB soepirv to the 
"'llU hi« ti'tl hand, and llie King jn 4 | 
(if stiii'ii '. " On tnming to [he golden B 
ct of piUemnl ble»sing, aod preasing hi! 
lug niaii'ii head, Hid : " Undertund 

llii« |<rn)^e?», Ihe nid Man had carerully ohaeT''ld <b> 
iHir (iirilintr-on the sword, his bressl aweUcii. bi* at* 
i) hi* I'.ii ln>.i Grmer; wliea he look Ibe scrptie aim 
^tri'n^ili nppt'nred to soften, and by an unipeakable dmm 
fllll nii^n.' ^nlxlumg; but ns llie oaken gxriand eamt tt 
]aTr. hb. ftiiturrt kindled, his cjes gimmed with inofnt- 
, nni) Ti^<' llr»t of hia mouth wai " Liiv I " 
I l.ik : " iTied lie, lioslening np the siUer slain Id ha. 
il viiwi-il his proj:re!» from the pinnacle of tb* Altir: 
l,ily : whiii more precious can a man. equip! wilb M. 



tug likr two ([niinK, on tlicir i^reral tide*, ind neither interrupting 
tbv iitlivr. All ailiuirvd the etilcniluur oni] L-unvenicnuc or tlie •irac- 
inr* , uxl the new King ■nil his Spoute were dL-liglited with the 
mulim aurl luliviljr a[ iJiii gnat people, ta Uiej were Hlrewly liappy 
::i ihvir own raunukt line. 

' Itrtiunnber lli« Simlu' in Itonour," *aid tlw Man witli the Luup, 

I liuu iiwwnt hct tli; life ; thy people owe ber tlie Bridge, by wliicb 
!ii>'M: iH^ighbottrlng biuiki aro now aniniuted and combineil intu one 
laiiil. Thuw (wimming him) shining jewple, the remaine of lier h 
rlHiiMl body, an Ihc pkn of Ihit royal budge ; upon tlieie >he h 
buill and will nninUin licraelt," > 

The pony were about to Hik lOniH ciplanatioo of tliit atningtt 
viKtciy. wlicn llieru vntiTvd Tour luvcly maidens at the poruU uf 
'.'.:■■ 'IVmplc. B; the Harp, tlie Panuol, and tlie Fo1itiug-«lool, it 
r .11 not diOlcult to recogniu the woitiug-maidi of Lily ; but the 

jrtl), mtin.' U'auiinU lliiui any uf tliv mat, wai an unknown IkJr 
II.'. and in siiterly tpnrtAtlnoM ahe luutcned with tliem through Ilie 
I I niplc. and aiounlcd tlu) «ti'p* of tlie Altar.' 

tViJt ihou tiave better trugt in me anotber time, good wife ? " laid 
I'K' iltat Willi the Lamp to the Ikir one: "Well tot Ihee, and erery 
li'ioB thing thai bflihe* thi» morning in the Hirer ! " 

Tbf rcnew<«l and beaotlBed old WoRian, of whooe Ibrnier *hape 
DO trare n-maincil, emin'nwd with young eager iiriD» the Man willi 
tb<- Lainp, who kindly rccciTol hur carvuea, "If I am loo old tor 
Ihre,*' laiil hr, iniiling. " Ihou mnyt'st chootc another husband to- 
■lay -, (Kan this hour no marriage is of force, which ia not contracted 

" iliHl lliim not know, then," answered the, " that tliou loo art 
pown jounp-r) " — "ll dtlight* me if to thy young eyes I leem « 
bunbinnc youtli : 1 take tliy liand anew, and am well content to livn 
wiili till* another thoimnd years.''' 

TliF tjuM-n welounii'd her new friend, and went down with her 
into the iiiterinr of tlii' Allar. while the King ilood between hi* two 
OHn, looking toward* the Bridget "ixl allentiirly contemplating tbv 
tM*y intnnlt of the pe<qile. 

Bat hia laliilkFtlon did not Inai : for ervlong he aaw an ob 
vliiHi vxriled hia diaplcMure. The great Utant. who apgivartvl doI . 

1 llfitmar to twr Iniltr-t ' Th« Mwhuilnt PhlloBophj. IhtiuEli 4lAi4. hM tiol 
wiaimil In ftiit; hn^ hvr wnrita tr* (b«»»: ^npfid th«» tM^' iTnovvKf. a«rburm, ' «»••". -O-T- 

» or a Ha* Sn! 


>.' awuki; c»Qiplviu-l)- fri)ai hU luoming sleep, cmme Mm- 

K i\w [IniJt;i-'i l>r<Hluun|{ groat coufiuioo all aioiiDd him. 

Iio Jjuil ri»i.'ii cluiK'Hvil witb sleep, anil bad m«aiil to kidr 

kHi;wii liay 111' llir ]tivi;r-, inicvad of which be CMindliM 

l'liiii;:t'il u|iiii] till- Urcnul pavi-mirnt of ihe Bfid^e. Ta 

:■ ■ \. I I ILL. iIl.- miilst lit' men uid cattle in tile i liiniiii* 

■ .' at bv all. was felt by naae ; fam a> lla 

■ I ■ '. - ■ M -, HTiJ lit raised hU lianil* to rob tbenslW 

■ I,.- I.. ij-;:.u- fi>is moved lii »iid fro belund bun tA 

mill 11" kwariliL'-st, iliai mvn anil bea^u were iM^ed t»- 

irL'^l tllJl^!l9. atTt' liiiri tjy such rude vootact. and is dis- 

II);, 113 111' 6!in iliU luiSL'liicr, grasped with an inioliialiij 

lit )iL:? l^Hu^d. l)ut lio bt'tliuuglit himself, and loolcfd 

lilj sui'plri', iIa-u at tlie Lain|i and the Itnddet al ba 

" 1 ;:iii.'?a thy tliuu){hli," said the Man witli the Laaf, 

lul uuc gillj un: puwvTleag sgsinsl tliis powerluu luaatlD. 
lie is doing liurt Ibr [he last droe, and happily hia aladm 

lile the Gitint was apprmctiing neirer ; ia axtoDighmnlU 
lu- villi npvn eyi-s, lie had drupt his liauds ; he xa* Ma 
njury, and i:iuiii.- staring and agape into the fbre-ctmrl. 
nnlhiii^- almighl to Ihc door o( the Temple, wheo all tt 

THE TALE. 467 

At thii lulut tbe Hawk with the mim>r taand aloA tbo** Xhv 
dome ; caught ih? light of (he Sun, uxl r»ll«clnl it npoo tbe group. 
vhich »u ituiding on the Altar. The Kiog, th« Queen, and thi-ir 
■ttcndaati, in the duik; concaTO of the Temple, Mcmed illumiiulvd 
b7 a b«BTentj iplendaur, and tlie pc^uple fell upon their &ixt. When 
Ae crowd hail Tccoveivd and ruen, the King with hii MIower* hw) 
deacmded into the Allar. to pniceed hj tecret pajiage* into bil 
palace ; and Ihe tnultiludi' iliiperwd atwut the Ti.mplc to content 
their cuHotitj. The tliree King* that were atanding cn*t tlii>y 
Ticved viih Bituniihment and ivTerence : hut the mure eaicer were 
the7 to iliKOTtr what mau it coulil be that wai hid behind the hang* 
ing*, in tlic fourth niche ; fur by lome hand or another, charitable 
decencj had ipiead orer the niling-pEace of the Ulen King a giir- 
geau ctirtain, which no cf c can prneinte, and no band mav dare tu 
dnw addc. 

The people would ba*c fbund no end to thnr guiBg and tbeir ad- 
miration, uiil the crowding multitude would have eTen •uffiK-ati'il 
ooe another in the Temiilo, had nut their attention been again at. 
traded to the open ipace. 

Uiieipectedlf aome gnlil-piecet, ai if blling from the air, c*tnc 
tInkUng down upon the marblv iUg* ; the paiaers-b; nulled 
thither to pick tliem up ; the wander waa repealed tcTerul tiiun, now 
here, now tliere. It it eaay tu conoeJTc that the ihowcr proceeded 
from our two retiring Ftamei, who wiihed to liaTe a little (purt bvlv 
oDoe more, and wore thui gail; (pending, ere they went aoay, tbe 
(old wbich tliej had Uckcd Ihim tlie tnenibeti of the lunken King. 
The people itill ran eagerly about, preaping and pulling one another, 
creo when the gold had ceaied to &11. At length thej graduallj 
diapened, and went their way ; and to the preaent hour the Hridge 
it awarming with (ra*elk.-ri, and the Temple la the muat frequcnltil 
on tlie whole I-larlh.' 


Thk hmlthy koov Dot of thiir health, onlj th« ijek. I'ntly, itcnc- 
iDCnl, mlwij* ailent or wft-Toic»4: only diMord Dui«ily proclnlni' Irwlf. 
(p. G). — Happy UnccmsciDuanFH of cbildbood : The bt(!lnnln|! of Inquiry 
b [><>MM. Life iuetr ■ dliiMH, ■ working incitnl by •uflerinff. (.'on- 
■ciou* uiJ I'ltcontciout donwlni of bumu actiTily: Jleditnlion. (iciiiu* 
«Tpr ■ Kcr«l to itMlf. The healthy undenlaiiiling. not Iconic*] or nrjpi- 
mentatiTe, bat lulnllire: rncuniu.'lau> SpoDlaneily the chareclerlatic <■( 
•11 right pertunnance. Virtue, irhen il can be pbiloKopfaixd of, or ha* 
beconw aware of itwlf, it fickly aiiJ beginninjt to drcliiiei The barreit- 
r<t of all ■nnrtali, the Senlimentali*!. (61. — In Society man Itnt f«l* 
what he it, Hnt beeomen Kbit be can ba. To (Ignn Sorlely ai endoweil 
with life, the nlBtenwnl of a bet rather than a metaphor. What thr ac. 
toal condition of Society 7 ■ ditlleulty for the iiiw>t. In alt (Itat thinp. 
•O Arliflcial and a Nalnial. Tbo vljtoroui ij^ of a Koman Common- 
waalth, and of oil Commnnwralthii. llan> hifheit and pole bleweilneft 
to toil, and know what to toil at. Healthy Ltlrralure, and unhnltliy: S» 
aooo a* I'niphecy and inipind Piietry ceaw, ArgumentatkHi and jannlini: 
beitin. (It). — Silence and Mytlery: Ilymo* lothe M|tbl: What mnrliil* 
call Death, properly the beiiinnInK of Life. In the rudett mind ■ome In- 
timation irf Ihe (creMneM thera ii in Mnlerr. (M). — SocietT Is oar iUr« 
boastfully and painfully conKiou!! of livlf:' So-ealle<l »an;h nf Intellect. 
Our whole relation* to the I'nivente become an Inquiry, a Ihmbl. Self- 
ean>eioaiueti not the diwaw. but the (ymptom and attempt towanl* cure. 
The onlward or Pbytical diteatei of our Soelrly; s wbola noMlucy ••( 
tb«m. Qor Spiritual condition no lt*a tlrkly than our Thyilcal. Inatead 
of heroic martyr Conduct, wa hare ' PiKoan>c* on tba ETiilence*:' en- 
dear'iorinit lo make it probable ruch a tbinit M BeliRlon eiitt*. Liler- 
atnre bat a branch of Reli|[inn, alwayi panici|>atlntt in It* character : The 
modem >in of View-hantinf[ and •cene-painting. Llteiatutv but ber<iin- 
biK one boondleei wlf-ilevimrinK Review, like a ikk tbim 'llitenintt I" 
lt>«ir.-(n). — I>hilaH>phy. except a< I'oelri' and RellElon. iihouM har- ■•■■ 
beinf. The dlieane of Melaphrtici. Itinibt. the inexhaustible nuti'riiil 
whereon Action worki ; which only earue*! Actiun can fathioo into Cer- 


luiiitT. Hoir. bv merely twting Bod r^Kllue * 

■iinin poufHion of irbiit iit Th« pniSUibIa Si^ 

br donv; and How to do it? Onlir in IW> EAirC cm mj bl 

itn»gmFd for at. Enu of Fmith; nnd our uwn •» ef r « l ft l «ii ii i m Vm 

rio-llike vanubnd from the woHd. To the Ix 

jiiv of Deoiiil hH lanK liace ceaMd. TlteOld kaa plwad BWBj.Mital 

mn in puni-* or tmnll with the !i«v. (tt). — Frlwlfkib SdiiHph 1*^ 

tufti. tu-\ Mr. Hope't £wiy. iTmboli of tbe Km ExBann af •■ rt* 

iiKxlfm -v<li>in of Tliougbl: itJ< tSt!» SpiriliMUHn, M>d dttal A 

linn of MniPiiDliBtic jnrgon. HDrau Pmgtw*: IMntnal In at Clay 

ud QrowUi. This up al« not vboll; withoDt It* Frophfto,. tllSM 

problem} and ruliumi Oiven s norld of Kokrt*. to pn>4aca ■■ Hn 

from ihfir nniwd aclioa. Strange ligfal-gleamf : Agr of Mincing i 

ever «a«, it. and will be. He thM his an etc uid ■ heart caa m 

Mv — Why tbould I biter? Behind and before each co* of w a 

whole Godlike KUmltr, of inheritaooc and cf poufblllry. (STL 

Goethe, a n 
of Tboaglit, 
Fnir of B Korl 

al1-der<Hiring caiiliqDii 

ill worth looking at. Hli kioglj Head a Mrjr ^ 
tt roral wnrk appaialed to tx done tbara. TU* B^ 
nni>agureil, and aolhsalk all; rarwloj lo ha tUD ta^ 

r kiD^dotn: GoMb*. M 


rr Mmn. Not the material, only the Seer and Po<'t wanting. Great \% 
bveiif ion, but that is but a poor sort with which Belief is not concerned : 
111 highe*t exercise, not to invent Fiction; bat to invent or bring forth new 
TViillb. Interest of the smallest historical /act^ as contrasted with the 
gnuidast jCrtj'CioKf event: Momentary glimpse of an actnal, living Pensnnt 
of the vear 1661: The Past all holy to as: The poorest adventare of some 
pooreat Outcast, after seventy years are come and gone, has meaning and 
vofitf homable instruction for us. (57). — Secret for being graphic : An open 
lorinit Heart the beginning of all knowledge. Literary* froth, and literary 
mbetance: The multitudinous men, women and children, that make up the 
mny of British Authors. James IkMwell : White of Selbome. One good 
Biography in England, BotweWt Johnwn. (65). 


Mr. Croker*s editorial pecnliarities and deficiencies, (p. 70). ~ Boswell, 
a man whose bad qualities lay open to the general eye : What great nnd 
genuine good was in him, nowise so self-evident. His true Hero-tnyrfhip 
for poor ru4ty-coated, rough old Samuel Johnsf)n. His uncouth symbolic 
relation to his decrepit, death-sick Era. That loose-flowing, careless-look- 
|a|C Work of his, a picture by one of Nature's own Artijits. His grand in- 
tellectual talent an unconacum* one, of fur higher reach and significance 
tium Logic. Poor B^szy an ill-assorted, glaring mixture of the highest 
and the lowest. Johnson's own Writings stand on a quite inferior level to 
this Joknmmiadof Boswell: It shows us objects that in ver}' deed existed; 
it is all true. (76). — What a pathetic, sacred, in every !»cnse poetic mean- 
ing is implied in that one word. Past! This Book of Boswell's will give u<« 
more real insiglit into the History of England during tho$e days, than any 
book taking upon itself that special aim. Robertson's * History* of Scot- 
land.* How * Histories ' ore written. Boswell's conversational jotting««, no 
infringement of social privacy. Man properly an incarnated Wonl : Out 
of Silence comes strength. Thinkest thou that bei'au^e no Boswell is there 
to note thy jargon, it therefore dies and is hnnnlcss? (87). — Our interest 
In Biography considerably modified by the dull servile imitancy of man- 
kind. Significant resemblances of Men and Sheep. Mystic power of Im- 
itancy and Association. Amid the dull millions are scattered here and 
there leading, original natures; with eye to gee^ and will to th. Such Men 
properly the synopsis and epitome of the age in which they live; who«io 
Biographies are above all things worth having. Of such chosen men, al- 
though of their humbler ranks, was Samuel Johnson; his existence no 
idle Dream, but a Reality which he transacted atcttke. As the highest 
Gospel was a Biography, so is the Life of every good man still an indu- 
bitable Gospel. (94). — The Contradiction of Inward and Outwanl, whioh 
jawn* wide enough in every Life, in Johnson's wider than in most. His 
calling by nature, rather towards Active than Speculative life; as a Doer 
of Work, he had shone even more than ns Speaker of the Wonl. Hi« din- 


.::.. Tr;.> Liieratun. Ql» ktod. una, taw^ 
.-:L:k'meii boinl«.i, and tuieht. Frtniiammi 
tniiwilmi period, frma the prvtcctHBof Pttoa 
uliiuuu the first Aulbar of toy SLgnificwKC sk* 
Jhv-b work of hii rrait: Hi* cturdr nk^ 
■TiruiubnmcM,'(93). — Ji4DiOn"» En Bkca;*- 
.wima nolilf man, resolote fiw the Tniib.iaMI 
.' Siimupl. hIio gaee more gare the votM anr- 
' '[ iin]\- dilTentit trom Bifcht. bat iafiiiiidt St- 
I' Till- IL-hl oC Vitf to him. Bii nggtd liloBT 
i" ikin;: ' PurliiuaenL'irT Debate.' the <n^i<f 
-luie. So poor ii be, hi? Wife mast Icanhia, 
liber ivlaTiant: Coutd not mnonibcr tbe Jij tt 
; Manfull;- makes the best ot hit hard Ia(- Tte 
KiLriic,' of liit]f otliM llian ■ poor to«ike? ralaa. 

■ , re will it and thoQ be in vat Bftj 

.'-'If );ntlien roUDii the n'kc mUL li 
' 1 r'.yalbuiinlT. Eeal Pmmucfll 

--, .I'lhiiMJii was Ih* last genoise Ea^M 

HK'- ""I ll'" County? to die decenlJr, bat toUn 
-m ui" (ilciite: WberE there is DOthiag ftrtlifrla 
ongh Tnithfak»«*,i 

(t epooh In k man'* lire, lul rtlwayi bi> dMihi jrst It U 
t*t mtioMbla. A trunsllloa, out of risible Time Inlu invial- 
fr. IM). — Tb« Greatneu of Onnt Man, ^'o- H'ori^if), tba 
icb ns nBTergmw uLHulela. Man niver tllOEclbsr ■ cIolbM- 
tha okrthM li slwayi » buily iind n Mini. t>iffercncs Intwmi 
iud Tailing nuilioii. Tlie Orant Mmi nf ui agis tliv Dioat 
jMMnoDiia therein. Wuiiieu, boni wDr>hi[>[>er3 uT OreUnuH, 
bypulbelfssL Of n[| rlturdi, llmt of Self-wonlilp tha mual 
iri»d. (U8). — OrantnsB of Bonspone and of Goethe oon- 
^raeiitM7 woulgntliBrIng; Tha gnat dnldsniluin, W pn»- 
|(tnb*n mnli elauiing. llwlera runenl celebntiuni, llul« 
\ftmt piRxlUt. (let), — Th« riDniiiiiry afeub null'* vrorlu. 
Id. Goelbo'* ITnArAal wJ DichUmg. At no periul at tba 
t^ can n giftad mm be born when he will not Qnd auou|[b to 

Knlbr psrplsililsi and viciorlei. Hit riant, joyhil child. 
7 in unay ibdm cuolrcllng lilm: A bcnnlifiil Boyj the 
I larlT jTMn unung uur ini»I gsDulM poetic Idyb. HI* 
i Vielcry al Bargou : Hii Fatliar'a griiii detlaiica and baind 
L HI* Father, wlib occailonal nibtidiary tuMi*. hi> lehogl- 
|;I'™nkft>rt notabUUia: The Jadngam: Von Belneck: 
PHi: WiirkCDM uid workil>a|i>. Beaulinil Gretehni, aad 
ISpariBOM oTnalunil uugio. (IT3]. — Al LeipiiglTnivanity: 
k Oottoebed: Kellgiou) perplexitiea; ticknaMi rvtunw home. 
JRl, deitinad by paternal judgmeui Tor a l*itjVT, To Stnw- 
M Frcdarike: h Goethe ■ bad man, or not a bad man? 
t Intlmany. Hit ' gouduna ' and ' bwlneM ' not qaile eaaily 
; Intdrcnun* wiUi Henlxr. The Gentian intellKtniU CliBo>: 
M Uik tharein. His Hnt lilerary |iraduetioii>.' EtUbliibtd 
lU). — Ttaa Inward life of Uue'tlic nobly recontad in tha 
III* WrlUnK>. Faiut, tha pa«*ioiiata ory of the wortd'i de- 
lloc M amid Ibe wmk of Time.— It i* cndedl WiUitlm 
■blem of witrm, baarty, mnay human Bndeawnri witii m 
Hon of DNuity: In the Wmdtrjaiirt. meloilinaii Ktverenae 
Inora liitimphant; end deep all- pervading ^'lilb both ipeaka 
. nibuU of gralUudo fWim ' Killwii Kn^isbmen.' Goetha 
i viaurion* Reconciler of tlie numt di-tracled ap> »inM the 
t Ohrlaliaiiitr. Whit StranRth actually b. and how to try 
tt, nobla powor of In^hl : For bim. u liir Shaktpeare. ih« 
Hnuuloiimil, aneinled witb Wonder! Hl> AKuratlveneu lln 
1 belB|: Tba mr^etUc Calouaaa of both) perfeot 

ren- Ihe grralei 
*ll,e-s Spiritni 


Eicelltticie* of Goetbe'i ityit K 
he vu kIm> lea coUintel, nd ^ 
>, Iha EdMl ccnblua of aO tw aMt 
roul hclhabiotwd fhc htmirf. mi m 
ind k fHTBd war- GoMba't Pd^ 


« til IM 


?«enl conditiOD of PoehT- : The ■ 

p. aie(. — And yei, if li 

', Van fHblasI iprck of blnF >LJ: 3' 
iiM-lrr.;..!., Th" iV.m-Liw Hhyiiif r, one of lb« finpilar cl««> who [»» 
Tp '"ini-lliiiiz I" -ny ; he hn« iiUttKl, ind thnvfore i« ItniiD beiimMt 
Stieflii'lii \V,.rki>r in tirii" »iiil iroo; bat no ■ Umdnciited Po«,' «k 
liTHnre [jiirri.ii.iKc ielithif to fu'ter. A ]e» iDufoitune, in Otett «!r 
y-. It- lie tmirieil Hmong ihe I'lieJnrBtfd claiiHs, thin niiKHigtlK E^ 
ie.i: Fpk GrfBt Men erer nursod wilh any conicioai eye (o thcii 
timi. In the [\DArFi[ ciltii):^ are Boak», it One BodIi. with m ioler, 
t retpnnw tPTithiiteTer 15 l^eflpvst in mun. Sbakfipntrc'i Ltmntia^ Tli 
iin.l whi—lrnnsliT i' Practice, — Wort. l'n«pc»kBhle adruiuca of B- 
u,-iilf.l WorkinR Cte^e-, nver eilucaled Vnirorkinj. (317). — TT» Cora- 
,»- [:ltyiiier'< >tiir>]r, ilefiant xllltuile: An earnest, mith-<[wakis/E:.^ 



Fra^^ent of an Inaugural Discourse delivered before the * Society for 
e Diffusion of Common Honesty.* (p. 247). — History the most profitable 
all studies: The Message, or Letter of Instructions, which all Mankind 
livers to each man. Immeasurable im{)erfection of our highest His- 
rians: Of the thing now gone silent, called Past, how much do we know? 
iture, however, not blamable: Man*^ plentiful equipment for publishing 
m*€lf, by Tongue, Pen and Printing-Press. His chief wants, want of 
Hiesty and of Understanding: The event worthiest to be known, like- 
*t of all to be least spoken of. (247). — Threatenings of an Historic 
•Inge. H\»U)ry^ before it can become Universal Hiittory, needs of all 
ings to be compressed. Wise Memory and wise Oblivion: Oblivion the 
rk page, whereon Memory writes in characters of Light. Imperfections 
ough in practice : And yet only what bears fruit is at last remember- 
le. Historical perspective. History the true Epic Poem, and universal 
vine Scripture. (252). 


The Acts of the Christian AposileSy and the Acts of the French Philo> 
phes: Difference in quality and in copiou9ne«s. (p. 257). — Even stupid 
smoirs better than mere Novels. The History of the Eighteenth Cen- 
ry of Paris, not yet condensed into intelligibility. Whether sent of God 
o( the Devil, it is on ground of their tillage that we now have to plough 
d sow. (269). — End of a Social System : No one can see such results of 
» labour as the Destroyer: The SikiU de Ijmis Quinze. Denis Diderot 
d his life, the significant epitome of all thlt*. Every man contains in 
mself a whole Spirit-Kingdom, and Reflex of the All; which only He 
at created can rightly understand. Diderot's hasty reckless manner of 
ing and writing. Naigeon's Li/e of Diderot a foolish failure. The zeal 
the Derits house had eaten him up. Imperfect materials for any right 
ography of the Man. (269). — Diderot's birth, parentage and schooling, 
le Jesuits recognise the Boy's capabilities, and entice him to join them: 
leir Devil-serving skill and zeal a melancholy admonition to better men. 
le Diderot family. Young Denis's decided disinclination for any rec- 
nised profession. His dashing, volatile, precarious manner of life: 
ives lessons in Mathematics; makes Sermons to order; but will settle 
nothing. Walks chiefly in the subterranean shades of Rascaldom. A 
tnch poor-devil of a writer. Denis in love: Marriage: His excellent 
ife; and his scoundrel treatment of her. Tran«»lations of English: 
iaftesbury*8 Characteristics : Original authorship. The History of Liter- 
are, especially for the last two centuri<»s, our proper Church History. 
I Diderot's time, the Bookselling interest not yet drownel in the putrid 
tluge of Puffery. French Philosophism and Revolution. Glimpses 


U n: Volt-in; D'A>!i 
re<erve*; Philoaopbs uti : 
9 uul penecutioDs of Divan 
on gn Crowned HatdiT In 
D dcnA'i incrvdibie aa 
Btoo cGuiimuIt- giTbtod ha 
(^ihi al orgiei: UejFdkj of Ui' 
rt>e pe liaDd«d life in Pan 

T% O all littmj DMB D 
1 he p of the NfiTibere Cl« 

D dent had not dnas 

pereunially (but; wkrtn 

notable eilmiM of ■ 



The Ufr of t-nrj man ■ luott [ndnblublc Po«n, «ik1 Bev*I«tton of In- 
BnllT: All named and unnamiblo mi\t, fmn tha highnl hsrolc StroplM, 
to tli« lowMt ribald Paujntl and llb«I on Hamanllr. (p. UO). — The itrand 
Hcred Kpw. or Bible of Worid-Hloton': All working and linawin|!.i faint 
lutcrpntin)! and tbowlng-fbrth of (ha [ntlniti MyHtrj vf Lift. DidiFrant 
aumurr of mdinfc and utterlni;: The Mrneit Hebrew Rpadrn; nhoae 
nailinK Ik (till NKrad, illll (nit; OorKcoai >eml-«aniuBl Graiidenn and 
Splenduun of (he early l>rleii(al Uaf I : Greek Cooiecratlan of tbe Fleth, 
■nd rtrelailon of Ihe Inflnlle. Weariiunm ilentlnn and niterariiin, j[ni«n 
obaoletr. of oar modem leadlnjcu. (SlI). — IHtri the bioxraphy of an u(ter 
Bconndrel at timet worth reading: Tbe only thtng at oace wlndlj' dr«p[- 
oabla and forRetablr, your ha]f-knavr. be whn h neltlwr true nor fatie. If 
we cannot bive a Speaker and Dner of Tni(h. let ui ban ibe melam-holy 
pleaiareof bebnlding a decided Ltar. ra|illn*trD, really ■ Liariif tlir Ant 
maKnitndei lhnnm)chpaced In all proTlnce*, heighia and dapthi of lylnR. 
tki«>(llle Intemt In hi* nuotier of lilV, and ilnpilarly pranperoui career. 
InBecAnlbiltlyoTniuph accurate knowWge: A" In lift, » now In Ilittory, 
Mtoniahmrnt, myitiflcatinn and uncertainty itill encircle the Quack of 
Quack<.(lUI. — Hirtfaand Boyhnnd of Ihe'r^tura Prince of Scoundrel*: 
Poverty. Idleneu and hopeful impudence a( vounK B^po. Sot •eeinghl* 
»ay to be ■ a Kentleman,' he decidea to 1« ' an Eccleiiullc' Intrunted to 
(he kreplnKofa Coimnt-Apntherary : Pint elcmenli of medico^hemlcal 
coTutin>r>hjp. Short rnadn to Knjornient, and eoniwqneni affllrlloni and 
aiwe contradict ion*, A Inuch of (trim Ruronur anrotdi ttnelf In the youth: 
He bad now onipown their inonb-'!i«clpiine, and (|nitii II fnirirer. 041).— 
Brtnim home to Palennn, and Iri^* I'alnlini; and seiieni Scuandrell'TD. 
WherFwerer a >tmke of mischief in to be dune, a .la<h of enjoyment to 
be iwiillowed. there i* he with alt ebalUenl Impulv. ready. a 
pioHtaMe and bi<lin|t rexnurce in K^iriieTy. I>f a brnvtint. eholerie tem- 
per: Vi'ibly ri>in(r In a perfected Pnift«or of Swlndlerr. A Trea«ur»- 
dlnins d'xip-. and It* cataXni.he. The y<«n|: Raren' I* now flr.ljte.1 
for flylnfi. and (nan off. Quit* Palermo, and leeh* hii fortune in the 
■Ida World. (3I«|. 

did Peudal Knmpe fallen a-dmliin to die. tier next awakening, (he 
•tern Anlar .if Itrmnmry. and iiew.bifth into a new Industrial Age- 
([K Ul). — r..nenl.w* eileiil an.1 variety of duackery and Quark* In 
that ti<rtorou« frver.«li»p of our Kunipean w.irid. i'ntre>eewe n-it mmr 
tSe otnw of unclean ere«ture« in the world phyical. than S-Arial lieeay h 
of quark* In (lie wiwl.l m'lrnl. Nnlional •alTrnnii ever p>*re.le.l by na- 
(iooil rrime. Di-hmietly the nir material ml .if (Juark* rinly, hot al— 
of l>upe*. Irri'venilile iteBth-.l<iiiin. <aM).— He|>|>i'> advrnluniu* ha|» 


= iTi llinl llft-in-dcftth- Gift of Fon-kDowl 
yj. Smiill lifRinningt; Far|:e« pen-dr»wing« outorenE""i'P- 
II I'liiiiiiry l'n prone to celibncy, Ihe baatlful LareiiD Tdi- 
\.-'fii- |iriv»iiiin». In tbe chumi of hit Lorenu. '> FotaK 
I'l iir™-u>^o:' They trslBc iceordinglv, with mucb deiteriir. 
iLt )w now Bti'lei himBelT, an his own nds not idle. Pt^ 
iif qunlily, ind Titded itames of ilitlD. Pdionv *iiib». ebmra 
.litres: Tlie Grenteit H«ppineM of th* grolesl nnnilj«. fJMt.— 
iirinnl bmiicli of induilry wlthen ud drop* off. othm mnn En 

I bnil'ling. Cagliwtro lu Eugluid; Baccemet nnd triboliIloB. 
ry; tiruiid-Cophta>h<p; Benoviiior of the Uniterw; Spiril-Ht- 
i Phosphoric Hflnifs^talloiu uiinttenble. Ilie dc« pacluW 

Cicniric difference belween npeaking and publlc-^pnkiiif: 
ijuire Ihe mlrMulon* gift of long-e«rod eloquence. Poew 
lowever inflnlle«imal. The Caglio»tric nitnbuj of Enthu* 

II thf c^cl Tjivnter could not quite 9ee thnni^ bim. (Mil- — 
■I' i - --'■'■ Vl'its Pelemburji. bul qnieUv d«ampt- Slcpb- 

\|>Frieiice with MarKirel renewed for CsfliDUn- 

'■■'•i;v Unimikid! Sncb rererses bal >p«ckt in Ito 

- .11. W hut the brillluit-Iooii log Count ud Cnml- 

■ I- . -, mid lo BRch other: C«gll«tro'» Pormlt: Bii 

m-~m\ , mill ^piritunl Mire for bla own fore*. AX tUtAMf, 




Q of the bright Momingtide of Life: Its joyful duties, and hope- 
KTtt. Openness to all true iufluences of Nature and Art: Matn- 
1 its lessons, (p. 407). — Manifold relationship and significance <^ 
idu!»try and Enterprise. How man delights to excite himself by 
icul Terror. Sunshine and aspiring effort: Noontide peace, and 
f content. (410). — Hypothetical Terror becomes actual Danger. 

of mind, readiness, personal courage: Danger averted by the 
on of what is dangerous. Mystic intimations of deeper, wider 

(413). — How the Dangerous may be tamed into order, and thus 
gher than personal Security. All things obedient to the Higher 
The truest Courage, childlike Trust in God: The only final 
be in the Divine Harmony of his omnipotent Love. (417). 


>comotive Age : The interest, that once attached to mere travel- 
gone. Madame de StaeTs German Tour a notable exception, 
adventures and feats of intellect, (p. 424). — Her jarring inter- 
th Goethe and Schiller, described by themselves. Intellectual 
ibilities, and National dissonances: French glitter and glibness; 
lepth and taciturnity. Goethe's summary of the whole circnm- 
Jid significance of her uncongenial yet profitable visit. (4S5). 


rs and mis-rumours concerning Goethe's Tale of Tales: A gen- 
lish Translation now handed-in for judgment, (p. 486). — Phan* 
y not Allegory. A wonderful Emblem of our wonderful and 
ansition Age. Clue to the significance of the several Figures 
em. Imagination, in her Works of Art, should play like a sort 
upon us: She her»elf cannot condition and bargain; she must 
t shall be given her. (486). Metaphysical Subtilty and An- 
te first flickerings, and audible announcement, of the New Age 

be bom. How they press poor old Spiritual Tradition into 
Mce; and the havoc they make with him: They give him Wis- 
:h he cannot u*e ; but have no power to contribute the least to 
jd Nourishment. (441). — The Wisdom, which toil-worn Tradi- 
d not and dare4 not appropriate, is eagerly devoured by newly- 

1 Specnlative Thought: Glory of comprehending, and of sympa- 
Nature. How Logical Acuteness is apt to despise Experimental 

1 ract.oal i:,„lc.av„„r, tru.l. 
I'.v the Sliadow of „e«lv.r, 
>'Wst8on hi8,|„c,,. I,,,,-,-,, 
)«'• Thei,H,ivid„„,.,.„„. 
, "'■'•'-Stroam of mingld H 

ncss of Uve, whid,, till u 

"over belong to it. ,„„•,„„, 

""' "'"'<=»'<>■ the .\««. a™ a, 
»"<» death: At snch Birth-" 
R«-atest W<.«i„g. (451,. _ ,,,' 

1 n m.,e. Tho richest Kinglv 
of IMincM than the |„„.e,t" 
»aer.fioe |,egi,„: ,„,.,^j ;; 

Rood „.fl„e„ce, combine to . 
wm,thc«.cretoftbeAee S 
order Of the Lay. ,«6,.'!:rv 

sr ;;": r^'-; ""•• "- 

-fi^e 01 I munition pas 

omnipotence of Holv to,; i," , 
not. b„, He who c.„„bi„e, %;