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Full text of "A critical and exegetical commentary on the Revelation of St. John, with introduction, notes, and indices, also the Greek text and English translation"

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A CRITICAL AND EXEGETICAL 
COMMENTARY 

ON 

THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN 

BY 

R. H. CHARLES, D.Litt, D.D. 

VOLUME II 



The International Critical Commentary 

A CRITICAL AND EXEGETICAL 
COMMENTARY 

ON 

THE REVELATION OF 
ST. JOHN 

WITH INTRODUCTION, NOTES, AND INDICES 

ALSO 

THE GREEK TEXT AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION 



/ BY 

R. H. CHARLES, D.Litt., D.D. 

ARCHDBACON OP WESTMINSTER 
PELLOVr OF THE BRITISH ACAOEMT 



(IN TWO VOLUMES) 

Vol. II 




NEW YORK 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

1920 



rhe Hights of Translation and of Reproduction are Reserved, 



CONTENTS. 



VOLUME II. 



Addenda 


et 


Corrigenda 


• • • • 


Commentary 


on Chapters xiv. l-il, 14-20 • 


t* 




M 


XV. . . • 


>• 




M 


zvL 1-4, S-21 • • 


M 




M 


xvii. . . . 
Additional Note on xvii. 


*> 




»> 


xviii. 


«( 




t( 


xix. 1-4, xvi. s^-7, xix. 5-20 


>» 




*t 


XX. 1-3 . 


(* 




»• 


XX. 4-xxii. General Introdi 
Reconstruction 


n 




(» 


xxl 9-xxii. 2, 14-15, 17 


ft 




t» 


XX. 4-is 



xxi. 5% 4^ S\ 1-4* 



xxii. 3 



„ Epilogue xxi. 5", e'^-S ; xxii. 6-7, l8» 16, 

10, [II, i8*'-i9], 8-9, 20-21 
The Greek Uncials and Cursives . 
MSS collated for this edition : Versions j Abbreviations 
Greek Text with Apparatus Criticus • . 

English Translation with Critical Notes • • 

Four Papyrus and Vellum Fragments • • 

Additional Note on xiii. 1 1** . • • 

„ „ the Latin Versions • • 

„ „ the Millennial Kingdom • 

Index I. to the Greek words used in the Apocalypse 
„ II. to Hebraisms used in the Apocalypse 
„ III. Passages in our Author based on the O.T. 

epigrapha and the N.T. . . 

^, IV. to the Introduction, Commentary and Notes 



and 



S 

13. 12, 



Pseud 



rxcBS 

vii-viii 
1-26 
26-40 
40-53 
54-75 
76-87 

87-113 

I 13-140 
140-143 

144-154 
154-180 
180-200 
200-211 

211-226 

227-232 

233-235 
236-385 
386-446 
447-451 
452 
453-455 
456-457 

459-473 
473 

474 
474-497 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA, 

VOLUME II. 

Page lo, line i. See Abbott, Notes on N.T. Criticism^ p. 104, 
for passages in Origen and Clement of Alex, in which napOkvoi 
are applied to men, and in Ignatius {Smyrn. 13) to widows. But 
nothing that he says can explain the application of ot /icra 
yvn/aiKUiv ovk ifJioXvvOrjarav tO women. 

Page 27, line 9. For " Only the faithful . . . fifth seal " read 
"The faithful suffer physical martyrdom, but their prayers be- 
come an instrument of wrath in the hands of God." See vol. ii. 
403, note 2. 

Page 49, line 7 ai imo. Transpose the subject-matter of the 
fifth and sixth beatitudes. See vol. ii. 445, note i. 

Page 72, line 3 ab imo. Delete "Again we should expect 
KaOi^tt . . . iii. 21." Our author only uses the participle of 
KaOrjtrdai, but his sources (xvii. 9, 15, xviii. 7) use the pres. ind. 
In the LXX the pres. and imperf. forms of KaOt^o) have dis- 
appeared, their place being taken by KaOrjfiai, iKa6^fj.r]v. See 
Thackeray, Gram. 271 sq. 

Page 75, line 8. After *^ ^rsi" add "either in Dan. iv. 34 
(LXX), 610% T. ^€<i)v KCLL Kvpio<i T. KvpctDV KOI /^aaiXcvs T. (3a(ri\4(i>v, 
or (rather in the pre-Maccabean section of i Enoch — see my 
second edition, p. Iii sq.)." 

Page 90, lines 25-27. Delete '*Kd$r}fiai , , . iii. 21; and." 
See note above on p. 72, 1. 3. 

Page 168. On the twelve precious stones see British 
Museum Guide to . . . Minerals mentioned in the Bible ^ 1911. 

Page 203, line 4 ab imo. The line " [koI X^yei . . . claii'] 
should not be bracketed, but read immediately before xxi, 6**-8. 
See vol. ii. 379, 444, where it is restored to its right place. 



Tin ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA 

Page 2 1 9, line 3 ab imo. After " world " add " of the living." 
Christ judges the living : God Himself judges the dead according 
to our author's view. 

Page 234, line 18. Add " Where no reading of Tyc is quoted, 
Tyc agrees with vg." 

Page 234, line 20. Add "From 20^ to 21^ (nova facio 
omnia) Pr in his comm. has copied verbatim the work of 
Augustine (de Civ. Dei, xx. 7-17), retaining Augustine's Italian 
text. In the App. Crit. these verses are quoted without any 
mark of distinction. 

Page 240, ver. 11, line 2. After 2020: add r}\ov(n}(r 181 : 
„ „ „ II, „ II. T^r post Ouarcip. pon r^a^ tr after 
®vaTiip. Similarly elsewhere. 

Page 256, ver. 7, line 30. Delete ( + Kai ov8«cr avot^ei Or"), and 
Or* in next line. Or" conflates A 025 and 046 here. See vol. i. 
p. clxxvi. 

Page 279, ver. 2, lines 5, 8, 9. Delete et N". Similarly else- 
where. 

Page 288, ver. 12, line 11. Delete Or*. Or" conflates 046 al 
and An 025 : and reads xai to rpa-ov avn/o- fx-q <f>avr] rjfiepa (sc 
046 al) Ktti 7) rifi€pa firj ^avrj to rpiTov (rtrapTov A) avrrja- (sc 

An 025). 



THE REVELATION 

OF ST. JOHN. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Introduction. 
§ I. Character and Object of this Chapter. 

The entire chapter is proleptic in character. That is, the 
orderly development of future events as set forth in the succes- 
sive visions is here, as in two sections heretofore, abandoned, 
and all the coming judgments from xvi. 17 to xx. 7-10, are sum- 
marized in xiv. 6-1 1, 14, 18-20. To this summary is prefixed a 
short description of the blessed (who are identical with the 
144,000 in vii. 4-8) in the Millennial Kingdom established on 
the earth with Mount Zion as its centre, xiv. 1-5. Thus we have 
in this chapter a general introduction to xvi. T7-XX. i-io. It is 
therefore of the nature of an intermezzo. 

The object of xiv. is to encourage the faithful to endurance 
in the face of impending universal martyrdom. Hence in xiv. 1-5 
the veil is lifted for a moment from the future and to the Seer 
is disclosed a vision of the martyrs enjoying the blessedness of 
the Millennial Kingdom on Mount Zion in attendance on their 
Lord. We have here a later stage of their blessedness than that 
depicted in vii. 9-17, where the martyrs are represented as 
having arrived or arriving in heaven straight from the scene of 
martyrdom. See Chapter vii.. Introduction, § 10. 

But the faithful are further encouraged to endurance and 
loyalty by the proclamation of the doom of the proud anti- 
christian power, xiv. 8-1 1, and of all the heathen powers whether 
confederate with it or not, xiv. 14, 18-20. 

This chapter ^ thus contains three visions, which are all pro- 
leptic. 

^ xiv. 12-13 belong to xiii., and are read immediately after xiii. 18 in this 
edition. They are from the hand of our author, 

VOL. II. — I 



2 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. § 1 2. 

1. xiv. 1-5. Vision of the glorified martyrs with the Lamb 
on Mount Zion during the Millennial reign. Cf. xx. 4. The 
greater part of xiv. 4-5 is interpolated. 

2. xiv. 6-1 1. Vision of the judgment on the antichristian 
Roman Empire and its adherents and their everlasting torment. 
Cf. xvi. 17-xviii. 

3. xiv. 14, 18-20. Vision of the judgment executed by the 
Sonof Man on the heathen nations. Cf. xix. 11-21 andxx. 7-io(?). 
The paragraph xiv. 15-17 is an interpolation. See pp. 19-21. 

§ 2. This chapter, with the exception of certain interpolations 
(cf. xiv. 4-5, 15-17), is from the hand of our author; for (i) the 
order of the words is Hebraic : (2) the diction and style are 
decidedly his. 

The first question needs no discussion : the fact is so obvious. 
Hence we shall limit our consideration to (2). 

(2) The diction is that of our author except in xiv. 15-17, 
which in the first place is a doublet of xiv. 14, 18-20 and in the 
next exhibits three constructions, which are against the usage of 
our author (see notes on to! Ka$rjfjLevo) iirl t^s i'€<^eA.7?s in xiv. 15, 
6 Ka^^/A€VOS €7rt T^s V€(^€A.r;s and tfSakev ... iirl rrjv yrjv in xiv. 16). 
Of xiv. 3*^-5 only ol i^yopacr/xeVot oltto twv av6p(0Trwv airap)(y] to) 

6€w' afjiwfxoL elcriv seems to be original. The interpolations in 
those verses are, however, in the style of our author, except, 
perhaps, ottov av vTrayet in xiv. 4, but the thought conveyed is 
wholly against the context. 

I will now enumerate some of the phrases characteristic of our 
author, though not, except in a few cases, peculiar to him. 

1. Kal ctSof Kal iSou. See iv. i, note, yeypa^lli.ivov em rlav 
liCTojTruk' auTwc. See vii. 3, note. 2. ^xufTji' €k toO oupai'oG, x. 4, 8, 
xi. 12, xiv. 13. (OS <j>ci>CT)c uSdroji/ iroXXwi'; cf. i. i5> xix. 6. <|)aji'Y|i' 
KiOapwSwf. Cf xviii. 22. 2-3. In KaQapi'(,6vTU)\' . . . Kal aSouo-ii' 
we haVe the familiar Hebrew idiom reproduced already in i. 5-6, 
ii. 2, 9, etc. (see note in ioc). aSouo-ii/ a>s wStji/ Kaii'iiv ; cf. v. g. 
iviiiTiov Tou Opoi'ou ; cf. iv. 5, 6, etc. 4. The use of a-n-apxy = 
" sacrifice," though not found elsewhere in our author, is in keep- 
ing with his frequent use of Greek words in the same sense as in 
the LXX. 5. The asyndetic addition of the clause afxwfioL etcrtv 
(cf. xvi. 6). 6. ireTofiei'oi' iv (leo-oupai/iifAaTi. Already in viii. 13. 
With cuayY^^iO"'*^'' ^■"■i' """O"? KaroiKoucTas (A., KaOrjjxeVous, XCPQ) ; 
of. X. 7. The enumeration irai' eOcos Kal <f>u\T)i' ktX. (see note 
on V. 9) and the grammatical irregularity Xeywi' in 7 instead of 
Aeyoi'Ta are both characteristic of his style. 7. \iyoiv iv <|)wcfj 
fieydXT). Cf. xiv. 9. iv is used also before (j>wvrj fxey. after /cr/pu- 
o-civ (v. 2), but after /<pa^€iv only in passages from another hand 
(xiv. 15, xviii. 2). On the other hand it is absent after Ae'yeti' in 
this phrase (v. 12, viii. 13), after Kpa'Cuv (vi. 10, vii. 2, 10, x. 3), 



XIV. § 2.] ITS DICTION 3 

after ^wvetv (xiv. 18). Hence our author varies in his use of 
this phrase in connection with Aeyeii/. See note on x. 2. 
4>op-f]Br]Te Toi/ Oeoc. So xv. 4, xix. 5 (cf. xi. j8, ^oySou/xeVous to 
ovofid aov). 86t£ auTw So^ai'. Cf. xvi. 9, xix. 7 — also in the 
incorporated source, xi. 13. riKQcv iq wpa ttjs Kpio-ew?. Cf. similar 

phrases : vi. 17, rjXd(.v 17 r/fxepa . . . t^s opy7^s avraiv; xi. 18, rj\6(v 
. . . o Kaipb<; Tojv ve/cpwi' Kptdrjvai ; xviii. 10, fjXOev rj Kpi'cris crov : 
also in interpolated section, xiv. 15. Trpoo-Kui'iio-aTe, c. dat. of God : 
cf. iv. 10, vii. II, note, xi. 16, xix. 10, xxii. 9, whereas it takes the 
ace. of TO Oqpiov in 9 — in both respects exhibiting our author's 
usage. -miYas uScitwi' : cf. viii. 10, xvi. 4. 

8. oLvoM Tou 0up.oo TT]s Ttopvila^. So xviii. 3. See note in loc. 
9. irpoaKOi'ei to Grjptoi'. See note on 7. Xap.pdf€i \6,po.>i^o,. Cf. 
xiv. II, xix. 20, XX. 4, But we should probably read to )(apayfia. 
See note t'n loc. cirl toO /j,eTcoTrou. We should most probably 
read ItzX to fxeTuyirov, since the context clearly comes from our 
author's hand. See note on vii. 3. x reads the dative, cm ttjk 
Xeipa. Cf. XX. I, 4. See note on xiii. 16. 10. Kal auTos irieTai. 
For the use of /ecu see note on xiv. 10. parra»'ia0i]<T€Tai iv irupi kuI 
6ei(t). (Saa-avL^ui is found four times elsewhere in our author, 
while fSaa-avicrfjios (see next verse), which occurs four times, is not 
attested elsewhere in the N.T. With -n-vpl kuI Oeiw cf. xx. 10, 
xxi. 8, xix. 20. 11. 6 KaTTi^os • . . dva^aivei.. Cf. viii. 4, ix. 2, 
xix. 3. oux cxouaic dvaTravaiv ktX. Already in iv. 8. 01 Trpo<TKu- 
Kourres to Orjpioi'. Characteristic of our author both as to grammar 
and diction. 12. w8e i] utto/xoi'T] ktX. Cf. xiii. 10. rCtv ayiutv . . . 
01 TT]poi5i'T€s Tcis €CToXas. For the phrase cf. xii. 17. The irregu- 
larity is characteristic of our author. 13. Xe'yei to irreOixa. Cf. 
ii. 7, etc., xxii. 17. 14. Kal eiSoc Kal l8ou. See iv. i, note. Im Tr]v 
v€<^€\y\v KaQr\ji.€yov. Characteristic of our author : see note on 
iv. 2, and contrast the non-Johannine constructions of this phrase 
in 15, 16. op.oioK vlbv avQpuitrou. This unique construction is 
found only in our author. It has already occurred in i, 13, and, 
as we have seen in the Additional Note on i. 13, vol. i. p. 36, 
might be regarded as a further development of other linguistic 
constructions, to which attention is called in that note. 

Interpolation — 15-17. In this short section there are four 
constructions which are foreign to our author's use. These are 
given in the note on 15-17, p. 21. Other grounds for regard- 
ing 15-17 as interpolated are given in the note on 14-20, 
p. 18 sq. 

18-20. These verses are in keeping with the diction and 
style of our author. They contain, it is true, several words not 
found elsewhere in our author (fxi^velv, rpvyav, (i6Tpv<;, a/x7reAos, 
aK/i.a^etv, a-Ta<f3v\-q, ;(aAij'os, but these help to delineate his 
subject. 



4 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. § 2-3. 

18. i^tovt]<T€y (^wi'fj (ieydXY). Though (fxavelv is not found else- 
where in our author the construction is always that which he uses 
with Kpd^eLv, and in two cases out of four with Aeyeti'. irefjiij/oi' aou 
TO Spe'iracoi/. The vernacular use of the pronoun here is elsewhere 
in our author not infrequent. 19. t^oKev . . . €is t^i' yTJc. See 
note in loc. \t\vov tou du|i,ou toO 0sou. Cf. xix. 15. ^iraTridrj 6 
Xt)V'<5s. Cf. xix. 15. axpi Tcii' xaXivoij'. a^pt occurs six times in our 
author as a preposition and five times as a conjunction, but not 
once in the other Johannine writings in the N.T. 

§ 3. Interpolated passages, 3*^—4"^ {airo ttJs y^s . . . yjyopdarOq- 
crav), 4^ koX t<5 apviw, and probably 5, Koi iv t<2 arofxaTL aurwv 
ovx ivpedr) i/fcvSos. See the grounds for this conclusion t'n loc. 
15-17. That these verses are an intrusion is manifest on many 
grounds. See the general grounds in the note on 14-20, p. 18 sq., 
and the grammatical grounds in the note on 15-17, p. 21. 

XIV. 1-5. A proleptic vision of the 144,000 with the Lamb 
on Mount Zion — i.e. of the risen martyrs with Christ during the 
Millennial reign. That these are the same as the 144,000 in 
vii. 4-8, i.e. the spiritual Israel, the entire Christian community, 
alike Jewish and Gentile, which were sealed to protect them 
from the demonic woes, that are to follow speedily, we hope to 
prove in the course of our criticism of verses 1-5 (see also vol. i. 
p. 199 sqq.). In vii. 9-17 this same body of the faithful is 
represented as arriving in heaven during the great final tribula- 
tion, or as already assembled there at its close. Here they are 
represented as having at a later stage come down to earth for 
the Millennial reign (cf. xx. 4). The vision is therefore proleptic. 
There is a progressive note in each vision. 

1. Kal elSok' Kal ISou. See note in iv. i. 

TO dpcioi'. The Lamb is here set over against the Beast in 
xiii., and the followers of the Lamb with His name and that of 
His Father over against the followers of the Beast with his mark 
on their forehead. 

From O.T. times Mount Zion was associated in the minds of 
the faithful with divine deliverance. Thus Joel ii. 32 (iii. 5) 
writes : " And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on 
the name of the Lord shall be delivered ; for in Mount Zion and 
Jerusalem shall be those that escape, as the Lord hath said." In 
the 8th cent. B.C. there existed for a time the belief that Jeru- 
salem could not be destroyed. In later times it was held that a 
special blessing attached to residence in Palestine. It alone 
was to escape the woes that would befall the rest of the earth : 
cf. 2 Bar. xxix. 2 (where see my note), xl. 2, Ixxi. i ; 4 Ezra 
xiii. 48, 49, vi. 25. This idea was revived in Talmudic litera- 
ture. 

This appearance of the Messiah with a mighty multitude on 



XIV. 1.] 144)000 HERE— SAME AS 144,000 IN VII. 4-8 5 

Mount Zion was a Jewish expectation, as we see in 4 Ezra xiii. 
35, 39, 40, " But he shall stand upon the summit of Mount 
Zion. . . . And whereas thou didst see that he summoned and 
gathered to himself another multitude which was peaceable, these 
are the ten tribes." In 4 Ezra ii. 42 (Christian or Christian 
recast of Jewish material) we have a close parallel to our text : 
" I Esdras saw upon Mount Zion a great multitude which I could 
not {dst. c, ' no man could ') number, and they all praised the 
Lord with songs. 43. And in the midst of them there was a young 
man of high stature, taller than all the rest, and upon every one 
of their heads he set crowns ... 44. So I asked the angel and 
said: Who are these, my Lord? 45. He answered and said 
unto me : These be they that have put off the mortal clothing and 
put on the immortal, and have confessed the name of God." 

This last work was probably written about 200-250 a.d., and 
therefore forms an early testimony to the right interpretation of 
the 144,000 on Mount Zion in our text ; for it appears to identify 
the multitude described in vii. 9-17 and that in our text. In 
accordance with vii. 9-17 the writer of 4 Ezra ii. 42-47 repre- 
sents them as having confessed and stood out stoutly for the 
name of God, and so as now clad in the garments of immortality, 
and in accordance with xiv. 1-5 of our text they stand on Mount 
Zion with the Messiah. 

Ikotoi' Teao-epdKoi'Ta ktX. The answer to the question as to 
the identity of the 144,000 that accompany the Lamb has in part 
been given in the Introduction to Chap. vii. where we have 
found them to be the same as the 144,000 in vii. 4-8 and the 
great multitude in vii. 9-17. But, though the constituents of 
the multitude are the same, the circumstances are different. In 
the vision before us the scene is upon earth (cf. ver. 2). The 
blessed faithful follow the Lamb on Mount Zion. And yet they 
have already passed through the gates of death, and have been 
presented as an offering (aTrapxi?) to God (xiv. 4). Hence we 
have here a momentary vision of the saints, who have returned 
to earth to share in the Millennial reign. (Cf. xx. 4-6.) 

But the above identification of the 144,000 in vii. 4-8 and 
xiv. 1-5 is apparently rejected by every modern scholar, save 
Alford, who has clung fast to it, although unable to surmount 
the chief difficulty that stands in its way. A minor difficulty, 
i.e. the absence of the defining article to identify these 
144,000 with those spoken of in vii. 4, he treats as negligible on 
the ground that the reader was meant to identify the two hosts, 
seeing that they consist of the same number and are both 
marked on the forehead as God's own possession. 

Alford may be right in ignoring the absence of the article 
(cf. XV. 2, where the expected article is misiUjg, ws OdXaa-a-av 



6 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 1. 

instead of t^v ddXaaaav, and xiv. 9, where to is wanting before 
)(^iipayixa), but the present writer is of opinion that the real 
explanation is that it was excised by the interpolator of the 
introductory sentences in xiv, 4-5, who sought by his manipula- 
tion of the text to destroy the identity of the 144,000 in vii. 4-8 
and the 144,000 in the present passage, and to transform them 
into a body of monkish celibates. Having thus explained the 
absence of the article, there is another and greater difficulty, 
which stands in the way of this identification, and this is that the 
144,000 are described as "first-fruits" to God and to the Lamb. 
If these 144,000, as the present writer holds, are identical with the 
entire body of Christians living in the last days, who have been 
sealed with a view to their protection against the demonic woes, 
how is it that they are designated as " first fruits " ? It is the 
interpretation set on this word dTrap;^^ by all scholars in the past 
that has misled them into differentiating the 144,000 in vii. 4-8 
and in xiv. 1-5. This word has hitherto been taken universally 
to mean "first fruits" in this passage. That in the Pauline 
Epistles and in St. James it bears this meaning is indubitable. 
But this is by no means the case in the LXX, although Grimm's 
Lexicon and Thayer's enlarged edition of Grimm state that 
aTrapxv is generally the equivalent of JT'C^X"). So far is this from 
being the case that it is generally not the equivalent of this word. 
Thus whereas dTrap^'? occurs about 66 times in the LXX, 
it is a rendering of D'K'X") only 19 times. In the remaining 
47 times, it is once a rendering for the Hebrew word for 
"tithe," 4 times of ibn ( = "fat," in which case it means "the 
best of"), and 40 times a rendering of riDTin ( = "offering" 
or " oblation "), and once of nsi^n ( = " offering "). Thus we see 
that in the LXX oftener than twice out of three times it means 
" an offering." In Sirach it occurs four times, but only once 
with the meaning of " first fruits," while in the other three 
passages it signifies either an " offering " or "gift." Hesychius 
also notes that one of its Greek meanings is Trpocr^opd. It is 
clear, then, that in the Greek Bible of Judaism aTrapx^ meant 
"offering," " sacrifice," or "gift " nearly 3 times out of 4.^ Now 

' The above note was written before the publication of Moulton and Milli- 
gan's Vocabulary of the Greek Testatnent. Though these editors have not 
corrected the misstatements in Grimm's and Thayer's lexicons, to which 
they give their imprimatur in their preface, they have shown from the 
Magnesian inscriptions (ed. Kern. 1900), that dTrapx^ is very commonly used 
as = a " gift " to a deity, and that this use occurred as early as the 6th cent. 
B.C. in Athens {Syll. Inscr. Graec."^, Dittenberger, 1S88-1901). They con- 
clude that in the N.T. "we are perhaps at liberty to render 'sacrifice' or 
'gift ' where it improves the sense," though they do not specify any individual 
passage save Rom. viii. 23. The Magnesia above referred to was in the 
neighbourhood of Ephcsus. Hcp.ce the local and Koir^ use of d-rrapxv con- 
firms the conclusions arrived at above. 



XIV. 1-3.] VISION OF 144,000 ON MT. ZION ^ 

it is just this meaning that our text requires. The faithful, 
whether as martyrs or confessors, are sacrifices to God. As such 
they are offered on the heavenly altar, vi. 9, A further sacrificial 
reference is discoverable in the epithet in xiv. 5, where they are 
said to be afiwiioi, that is, " unblemished," sacrificially perfect. 

iyovfJOLi TO o»'0|Jia aurou Kai to ocojjia tou iraTpos auTou ktX. 
With this clause we might compare iii. 12, where a threefold 
inscription on the foreheads of the faithful is mentioned. But, 
if we compare xxii. 4, where the name is simply said to be that 
of Cod, and 4 of the present chapter, where ^ai rw apvCw appears 
to be an interpolation, it is possible that avrov koI to ovofxa is 
also an interpolation. The seal consists in the name of God 
inscribed on the brow. This inscription declares that the person 
so inscribed is God's own possession : it is at the same time 
evidence that his character is such as befits a servant of God. 

2. ^<sivr[v Ik tou oupacou ktX. The singers are the angel 
choirs in heaven and not the 144,000 in Mt. Zion, but the new 
song is intelligible to the 144,000 and to them alone owing to 
their fellowship with Christ. 

Most of the phrases of this verse occur elsewhere in our 
author, see p. 2. 

KiGapwSwi' KiGapi^oi'Twi' ... 3. Kal aSouaif. These words 
should be rendered : " harpers harping . . . and singing." It 
is another instance of the literal reproduction in Greek of a 
familiar Hebrew idiom, which we have found already in i. 5-6, 
ii. 2, 9, 20, vii. 14, XV. 3. Thus the style is very characteristic 
of our author. Here the new song is at first sung not by the 
redeemed (as in xv. 3 ; 4 Ezra ii. 42), but by angelic choirs before 
the throne. 

3. Kal aSouaii' = koX aSovTwv. See preceding note. 
u)S wSTif Kttifr]*'. See note on v. 9. 

eVcimoc tou Gpoi'ou. See Introd. to Chap. xiv. § 2. 

ouSeis eSuVaTo ktX. Only those who are redeemed from the 
earth can learn the song ; for the soul apprehends only that for 
which It has an affinity. Their spiritual experience won through 
travail and tears is the mother of understanding. The song is 
the expression of the inner life, and so in the measure of their 
spiritual growth is likewise the measure of their spiritual appre- 
hension. 

01 Tiyopao-fjieVoi diro ttjs y'HS* The diction and thought here 
have already occurred in v. 9, 10. That passage is of supreme 
importance in dealing with the text immediately before us. 
Now the leading thought in v. 9, 10 is that the faithful are 
bought by Christ for God, and consecrated to His service as 
kings and priests. Here also, whether we retain or omit the 
disturbing clauses airo rr^ y-^s" ovtol tlcrtv ot . . . rjyopdaOijcrai; the 



8 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 3. 

idea is of a like nature. The 144,000 have been bought to 
be an offering or sacrifice (aTrapxy, xiv. 4 : see note on i) unto 
God : cf. vi. 9. 

This verse, with the exception of the words oltto twv avOpwircjv 

airapyy] tw ^ew or rjyopda'6r]<Tav airo tojv avBpiOTrwv atrap-^ tw 6(.Ci, 

seems to be a later addition due to the incorporation of a 
marginal explanatory gloss. In support of the aorist we might 
adduce our author's usage elsewhere : see v. 9, ryyopao-as tw O-.Q 
. . . Ik TracTT^s <fiv\rj<s kt\. If, on the Other hand, we adopt the 

former view, then in ol r^yopaa-fxivoi . . . koI . . . ou;^ evpid-q we 

have, if the latter clause is original, another instance of our 
author's reproduction in Greek of a Hebrew idiom : see ii. 2, 9, 
20, vii. 14, xiv. 2-3. This combination of the perfect and 
aorist is found often in our author: cf. ii. 3, 5, iii. 2, 3, 17, 
xvi. 6. That *cat tw dpvt'o) is an addition appears to be clear from 
the fact that the 144,000 have been bought by the Son for the 
Father; and not by the Son for the Father and for Himself: 
cf. V. 9. The Church is the bride of the Lamb : cf. xix. 7, 8 ; 
Eph. V. 27, not an offering presented to Him. If the above 
clauses are interpolated, the original of 3*^-4 may have run as 
follows : ol rj-yopaafxevoi oltto roiv dvOpiairwy a.Trap)(r] tw $C(2. We 
shall now deal with the clauses, which for the time being we 
have assumed to be interpolations. 

But let us waive for the moment the question of the 
authenticity of these clauses and study them in themselves and 
with regard to their immediate context. Now, fir.-t of all, it is 
admitted, so far as I am aware, on all hands that f/ie 144,000, 
whether identical with the 144,000 in vii. 4-8, or representing 
the elite of the saints composed of Christian ascetics (Bousset, 
Moffatt), must embrace both men and wome?i. That irapOivoL can 
be used of men is of course acknowledged. So far all is clear. 
But when we start from these premises and try to explain ovtol 
ctcrtv 01 yu.€Ta yvvaLKW' ovk ifioXvyOrjaav we are plunged into hope- 
less difficulties. For, if we take these words literally, it is 
obvious that t/iey cannot be used of ivomen. Nor indeed can they be 
applied to women in any intelligible sense, whatever the 7netapho7-ical 
meaning may be that we attach to the words. Had the writer 
wished, he could easily have found a phrase applicable literally 
and metaphorically alike to men and women, such as 01 ev t-^ 
■n-opveia ovk ifioXvvdrjaav. iropveia is used metaphorically in xiv. 
8, xvii. 2, 4, xviii. 3, xix. 2, and Tropv€voi in xvii. 2, xviii. 3, 9 in 
the sense of idolatrous worship. Such a clause could be used 
both of men and women, in a literal or metaphorical sense, and 
the same idea could have been expressed in other ways. Hence 
we conclude either that men alone are referred to in the text, or 
that this passage is interpolated. Since we cannot accept the 



XIV. 3.] I44.000— NOT ASCETICS 9 

former alternative, we are forced to adopt the latter, and the 
task devolves upon us to settle, so far as we may, the ground of 
the interpolation, its extent and meaning. 

Now the chief ground for this interpolation is most naturally 
to be discovered in the misunderstanding of the word airapxi] as 
"first fruits." The monkish interpolator, convinced that the 
highest type of the Christian life was the celibate, naturally 
identified the 144,000, who form the "first fruits" (or best 
portion of the Christian Church), with the celibates. The 
superiority of the celibate life, though un-Jewish and un-Christian, 
was early adopted from the Gnostics and other Christian heretics. 
Thus Saturninus and Basilides declared that "marriage and 
generation are from Satan" (Iren. Adv. Haer. \. 24), while Tatian 
(Eus. H.E. IV. xxix. 3) pronounced marriage to be "corruption 
and fornication." Marcion (Hipp. Phil. vii. 17-19) established 
churches of celibates, while the Encratites claimed a self-restraint 
in advance of that of the Christians. Similarly the religions 
of Isis and Mithra had their celibates throughout the Roman 
Empire, as Buddhism in the far East, certain orders of the 
Aztec priesthood in Mexico, the Vestal Virgins in Rome, and 
the " Virgins of the Sun " in Peru. The pressure of such ideas 
frovi without early made itself felt, not in the N.T. but in early 
Christianity, as we see from Polycarp, Ad Phil. ii. iv. v. ; 
Hermas, Vis. ii. 2, 3, Sim. ix. 11 (see Hastings, Encyc. of Ethics 
and Religion, iii. 271-273, from which the above facts are 
drawn). The interpolation was probably made by John's 
editor. 

It is, of course, possible that the interpolated passage appeared 
first as a marginal gloss on the passage, and that it was subse- 
quently incorporated into the text with a necessary change or two. 

As regards the extent, it appears to begin with airb t^s y^s 
and end with r^yopacrdrjo-av. The repetition of the dyopa^w with 
two different adverbial phrases is remarkable. That ciTro tSv 
avdpoWiiiv is to be preferred to a-n-b rrj^ yrj<; seems clear from v. 9, 
where we have rjyopacras . . . « TracrT/s ^vA^s. 

The meaning of the interpolation we have already gathered 
from the foregoing criticism of the passage. The glosser or 
interpolator, as the case may be, tcok the passage to refer to 
celibates, and, as the peculiar clause ( ot fitra ywaiKwv ovk ifioXvv- 
d-qcrav) proves, made it refer to male celibates. They were the 
"first fruits" of the entire Christian Church (for such, of course, 
he conceived the meaning of airapxrj). 

This word as used by the interpolator carries with it the 
degradation of marriage — an idea inadr.tiissible in the N.T. The 
use of the aorist here shows that their life on earth regarded as 
a discipline belongs to the past. 



lO THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 4-5. 

4. irapBivoi. The word TrapOevos was applied to men also : cf. 
Z.l/e of Asenath^ 3. ecrriv Se oUtos 6 'Iwarnf) dvv//> Btoae^rjs . . , xat 
irapOivos. 6. Siori Kai avTos irapOivo';. In Suidas it is applied to 
Abel : 'A/SIX outos -n-apOevos kol 8t«atos vTrrjp^^e. Cf. also Epiph. i. 
385 C. Trap6€V€vw is used of males in Just. Frag. 1577 A. 

ouToi 01 dKoXouOoui'Tes ktX. These words can hardly fail to 
be an echo of our Lord's: cf. Mk. ii. 14, x. 21 ; Luke ix. 59 ; 
John i. 43, xxi. 19. For another echo cf. i Pet. ii. 21, Iva. ina- 
Ko\ov6rj(Tif]T€ Toits 'i)(t'e(ri,v avrov. In vii. 17 it is said that the Lamb 
will be the shepherd of the blessed described in vii. 14-15. 
This means according to oriental conceptions that the blessed 
follow Him. Thus to follow Christ is characteristic of the 
faithful, whether on earth, on which they were called to follow 
Him even unto death (Matt. x. 38, xvi. 24, 25), or in the 
Millennial kingdom, or in heaven. But it would be possible to 
take oLKoXovdovvTts as referring to the past, and the subsequent 
words as implying that in such following of the Lamb they 
underwent martyrdom. Cf. vii. 14, xii. 11. But the context 
does not favour this interpretation, oirou fie u-n-dyei. ottov else- 
where in the Apocalypse means " where," but with verbs of 
motion it was used as the equivalent of ottoi. Cf. John viii. 21, 
22, xiii. 33, 36. The av in this connection is impossible in 
classical Greek. In viii. i we have orav t]vol$€v, and m Mk. vi. 
56 av occurs after oirov with the past imperfect indicative. The 
construction seems to imply an action of indefinite frequency : 
cf. Robertson, Gram. 958. 

diro TWf dj'Opuirwi'. This phrase summarizes the full enumera- 
tion given in v. 9. dirapxT = " sacrifice " or " offering." See 
note on i. [koI tw dpciw.] An addition. See note on 4. 

5. Kttl iv Tw <rT<5jjiaTi aoroic ou)( cupe'Gt] i{;€u8os. This clause recalls 
most nearly Zeph. iii. 13, koli ov prj tvpedfj iv tw crTo/xaTL avrwv 
yXwcraa SoAta, and Isa. liii. 9. In i Pet. ii. 22 we have the latter 
reproduced : ovSe tvpiOq SoXos ev tw a-TOfiaTL avrov. Cf. John i. 47. 
It must, however, be confessed that this clause follows weakly 
after ot ^yopatr/tevoi . . . airap)(i] Tio Oeo>. 

dfjiufioi €l<T\.y. This sentence introduced asyndetically is in 
the style of our author : cf. xvi. 6. a/tco/xos [ = D^on] describes 
best the character of the aTrapxT^; in the LXX it has three timi s 
out of four a sacrificial reference, and affirms the flawlessness of 
the victim. It is that which is unblemished, sacrificially perfect. 
In I Pet. i. 19 Christ Himself is described as ip.vov afiw/xov, and 
in Heb. ix. 14 as offering Himself as an unblemished sacrifice 
unto God (iavTov TTpoo-r/rcy/cev ap.(jip.ov t<2 deS). In the present 
context the 144,000 who had been offered in sacrifice to God 
{airapyr] tw 6f.(o) are likewise described as apLwpou In the five 
other passages, where it occurs in the Pauline Epistles and Jude, 



XIV. 5.] VARIOUS CRITICISMS OF I-5 II 

the clause has an ethical meaning and connotes "blameless- 
ness." 

Note on xiv. 1-5. — This section has been an occasion of 
great difficulty to scholars. I have sought to show that much 
of this difficulty arose from misconception of the word dTrapx'?'- 
But, as we have seen, there are other difficulties, which cannot be 
got rid of save by the excision of certain clauses. Volter (iv. 
38 sq., 139 sq.) excises xiv. 4-5 and a phrase in xiv. i, and then 
identifies the 144,000 here with the 144,000 in vii. 4-8. 
Weyland excises xiv. i, 4-5, Erbes xiv. 4*'', and a phrase in 4''. 
Spitta is the most drastic of all. He changes to ovoyna . . . 
Trarpos avrov into to ovofia tov 6€ov ^wvtos : excises 2*^-3 and 
reduces 4-5 to the following form : ovtol rjyopdadrjo-av d-rro ruivdvOpti)- 
TTwv d-n-apxr] t(3 6i(a. (See pp. 144 sq., 147 sq., 536.) Wellhausen 
recognizes the fact that the text shows undoubted signs of inter- 
polation. Bousset admits the possibility of a source underlying 
xiv. 1-5, but he thinks it impossible to recover it. He therefore 
takes the text as it stands and interprets the 144,000 to be a 
body of Christian ascetics and, therefore, different from the 
144,000 in vii. 4-8. He thinks, however, that there are signs 
in the Apocalypse that these two bodies were originally identical. 

In the above study of xiv. 1-5 I have attempted to show that 
xiv. 1-3 comes from the hand of our author (see also Introd. 
p. 2) save probably one phrase (to ovopa airov KaC) in xiv. i. 
As regards xiv. 4-5 the case is different. Here the diction is 
not much of a guide to us, but the ideas and the irregularity of 
the order of the sentences are. Thus of the various descriptions 
of the 144,000 in 4-5 it is clear from the earlier chapters that 
the essential one is, without doubt, that which describes them 
as a sacrifice to God. 

At the close of 5 this idea recurs in the words, a/^w/xot eltriv, 
but a purely ethical description intervenes — koI iv tw orTo/xaTi . . . 
i/'tuSos. This appears irregular, but greater difficulties have 
already emerged in connection with 4% where the un-Jewish and 
un-Christian idea is presented, that the very ^lite of the blessed 
consists of ascetics, and that, too, male ascetics. On these and 
other grounds we have excised certain clauses and concluded 
that, before the monkish glosser went to work, our author's text 
read as follows in xiv. 3*^-5, 01 rjyopaa-fjieyoi aTrb Toiv dv^pwTrwv 
d.Trap\7] T(Z6ew' dp.uip.OL doiv. But kol ev tu> (TTopari . . . i/'cCSos may 
be original. To the interpolator of the above clauses we may owe 
also the removal of the article before the 144,000, which identified 
this 144,000 with the 144,000 in vii. 4-8. 

6-11. Vision of the judgment to be executed on the Roman 
Empire and its worshippers, in which three angels make proclama- 
tion. The first proclakned to all men an eternal Gospel, the 



12 THE REVELATION OF ST, JOHN [XIV. 6. 

burden of which was that all men should worship the one God 
who had created heaven and earth, for that the hour of judgment 
had come (6-7). The second announced, as though already ac- 
complished, the fall of Rome, which had made all the nations to 
drink of the wine of her fornication (8). The third proclaimed 
that those who submitted to the mandates of Rome would share 
in the everlasting torment that awaited her (9-1 1). 

6. aWof ayv^^o''- The presence of the aXkov occasions some 
difficulty. It is supported by the best textual authorities. If it 
is original, we might, perhaps, with Diisterdieck explain the 
word as used in contradistinction to the angels that had appeared 
in earlier scenes. He compares x. i where aWov dyyekov has 
already been mentioned, who, as in the present instance, pro- 
claims the impending end of the world. Erbes and J. Weiss 
suppose we have here a reference to viii. 13, where the phrase- 
ology is certainly similar : ei'os outov ireTOfiivov Iv fiea-ovpav-qixaTt 
XcyovTO? <}>(ovf] fieydkr). Bousset suggests that in dWov dyyeXov 
we have a dittography, and J. Weiss that it is a corruption of 
aXkov aicTov. Cf. viii. 1 3. It seems best to explain dXk. ayy. 
as= "another, an angel." See note on 15 below. The difficulty 
recurs in 8, 9. 

■ir€T6|i.€»'oi' iv ^l.i<To^Jpavr\^l.ar^. Cf. viii. 13, xix. 17. In the O.T. 
the angels are not represented with wings save in its latest books : 
cf. Dan. ix. 21. 

€vayyi\iov aldviov. This phrase is found here only in the 
Johannine writings, whereas the cognate verb occurs here and in 
X. 7. €vayyeXLov here is not to be translated as if it were to eiay- 
yfXiov. Its character is defined by its present context and x. 7. 
It is a proclamation of the impending end of the world and of 
the final judgment, which, while it is a message of good tidings to 
the faithful, constitutes for all nations a last summons to repent- 
ance. 

In X. 7 it was made known to His servants the prophets, here 
it is proclaimed te all the world. This gospel is termed auovinv 
because possibly our author wishes to emphasize its unchangeable 
validity for all eternity. 

To6s KaToiKoofxas cm ttjs y^s (^ ^^^ some cursives). nCPQ 
read t. KaOy^fxivovi eTTt T, yrj<i. The textual evidence is here in- 
decisive. Difficulties beset both readings. The second reading 
is against the normal usage of our author. We should expect cttI 
T. y^v = after the Kadtj^ivovs. But eVi t. y^s is the universal con- 
struction in our author after KaTOLKilv. Hence if we could discover 
any good ground for the change of KaroiKowTa? into Kadrjixevovs, 
we shall have little hesitation in recognizing A as right. No*v, 
though the scribes of kCPQ were occasionally doubtful as to 
our author's constructions after 6 Ka^>;/xcvos, tov Ka6rifi.€vov, t<3 



XIV. 6-7.] THE ETERNAL GOSPEL 1 3 

Ka$r)ix€va>, they could have had no doubt as to the meaning of 
the phrase 01 KaToiKovvres crrt t^s y^s (always so except in xiii. 12, 
xvii. I, 2, where these constructions are found in sources) else- 
where in our author, i.e. iii. 10, vi. 10, viii. 13, etc. And since 
this meaning was always bad in all other passages, and since it 
could not bear such a meaning here, some early scribe may 
have been led to substitute KaBrjixivovi for KaToiKovvra^ and thus 
give the phrase the neutral colour it required here. But, if this 
hypothesis of the origin of Kadij/xevovi is right, its presence here 
can only call for condemnation. It is against our author's 
usage wholly in this construction : indeed, according to his usage 
it could only mean " those who sat on the earth." ^ 

If, then, we accept the reading of A, we must in this one 
passage attach a purely neutral or geographical sense to the 
phrase, such as it bears not infrequently in i Enoch (see 
xxxviii. 5, note). See note on xi. 10. 

■nav eOt'os Kal 4>uXt)i' ktX. See note on V. 9. 

Xcywc. The graiumatical irregularity is characteristic of our 
author. See iv. i, xi. i. 

7. \iy(i)v iv <^uivf\ /jLeydXir). See Introduction to this Chapter, 
§ 2 : also note on x. 2. 

4>oPT^0T]Te Tof 0€6i' ktX. This gospel is based on a purely 
tlieistic foundation. But, when the last hour has come, a man's 
chief concern is not dogmatic fullness or correctness of creed, 
but only self-humiliation before and self-surrender to the Lord of 
all. With this announcement we might compare the gospel as 
preached by our Lord in Mark i. 15, fxeTavoelre kol Trto-rcvcTc ev 
tiiayyeXtu). 

But a really excellent parallel is to be found in St. Paul's 
speech at Lystra, Acts xiv. 15 : eiayyeXi^ofievoi vfj.a<; airo . 
TovTwv tCjv ixaraLuiv iTTKTT pi<j)tiv Itti diov t,uiVTa 09 iiroir]a€v tov ovpavov 
Kal T7;v yrjv kol ttjv 6d\acrcrav ktX, On the creation idea, cf. X. 6 
of our text. 

The clause <fio^. t. 6i6v is found in Eccles. xii. 13, and Sore 
avTw S6$av in Josh. vii. 19; i Sam. vi. 5; Isa. xlii. 12; Jer. xiiL 16, 
but they both belong to our author's phraseology : see Introd. 
to Chap, xiv., p. 3. 

r\\Qev ■}] wpa TTJs Kpiaews auToO. The diction and form of this 
sentence are characteristic of our author, but are of still more 
frequent occurrence in the Fourth Gospel. Cf. ii. 4, iv. 21, 23, 

' ol KaroiKoCvTes i-n-l t. yrji is a rendering of Y'^><^ ^V D'ae*', and this is the 
normal rendering of it in the LXX. In a few cases in the LXX of Jeremiah 
only do we find ol Kadi/jfifvoi ^nl r. yrjiOTT. yijv : cf. xxxii. (xxv.) 29, 30. With 
definite localities it occurs more frequently : cf. Dan. ix. 7, where we have 
KadTjfjL^vois if ' lepovjaXi/jij, (LXX KaroiKovcriv iv 'lepo., Theod. (A)). See note 
on this phrase in xiii., Introd. § 4. 



14 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 7-8. 

V. 25, 28, vii. 30, viii. 20, xii. 23, xiii. i, xvi. 2, 4, 21, 25, 32, 
xvii. I. 

irpoaKuvi^o-aTe tu iroiii<Tai'Ti. This is the usage of our 
author : contrast 9 where this verb takes the ace. of to Orjpiov — 
also the usage of our author. See note on vii. 11. 

irpocTKUi'ilo-aTe tw itoi^cravTi tok oupai/oc ktX. Since God has 
created the world, man's allegiance is due to God. The fact of 
God as creator has already been brought forward in iv. 11, x. 6, 
but in both these passages ktL^uv and not Troieiv has been used. 
References to the creative activity of God are rare in the N.T. 
but frequent in the O.T. See note on iv. 11. 

irTjydg oSdrwc. The absence of the article is noteworthy, 
contrast xvi. 4, viii. 10. The phrase is a familiar O.T. one : cf. 
I Kings xviii. 5 ; 2 Kings iii. 19 (D"'0 '•rVD), 25 ; Ex. xv. 27 ; 
Num. xxxiii. 9. 

8. The second angel proclaims the fall of Rome. 

aXXos SeuTcpos ayyeXos. So the best MSS. But we should 
rather expect simply ayyfXo<; Sevrepo-s or a\Aos ayy. SevT. ; for 
when our author uses another adjective in addition to dAAos it is 
added after the noun : cf. vi. 4, x. i, xiv. 9, xv. i : i.e. "another 
angel, a second one." 

e-neaev, imaev Ba^uXtov. These words are already found in 
Isa. xxi. 9. 733 npQJ npDJ, LXX, TrenTWKev TriirroiKiv Ba/3vXu)v. 
Cf. Jer. li. 8. But the two clauses cTrecrev . . . ra eOvrj seem to 
be derived by our author immediately from xviii. 2-3 (a source). 
To Ba/3vA.wv our author always attaches the epithet 17 /xeyoAij, an 
epithet which goes back to Dan. iv. 27 (Nn3"i ^33) ; cf. xvi. 19, 
xvii. 5, xviii. 2, 10, 21. That Babylon was already a synonym 
for Rome in the first century a.d. is clear from 2 Bar. xi. i ; 
Sibyl. Or. v. 143, 159; i Pet. v. 13 (?). Cf. also xvi. 19, xvii. 5, 
xviii. 2, 10, 21. 

r\ cK Tou oit'ou [tou Oup,ou] TTJs TTopceias auTTjs ireTTOTiKcj' TtdyTa 
TO. eQvr]. This very extraordinary form of speech, which recurs 
in xviii. 3, can hardly be original. The text as it stands com- 
bines two wholly disparate ideas. The first is ck tou otvov ttjs 
TTopvcias avTrj<i — a phrase which occurs in xvii. 2 — i.e. " the wine 
of her fornication," which Babylon has made all the nations to 
drink. This wine symbolizes the intoxicating power, the corrupt- 
ing influence of Rome. The second is Ik tov olvov roC Ov/iov (tow 
Oeov) — a phrase which occurs in xiv. 10 — i.e. "the wine of the 
wrath of God," which He will give Babylon to drink. This latter 
phrase recurs in a fuller form in xvi. 19, xix. 15, tov olyov rod 
Ovfjiov T^s opyrj'i avrov. But in the O.T. it is God Himself that 
presents through His prophet this wine of wrath to the nations : 
cf. Jer. XXV. 15, which seems to have been in the mind of our 
author, Aa/Se to TroTrjpi.ov tov olvov tov aKpuTOv tovtov ck ^ctpos fiov 



XIV. 8-9.] DOOM OF WORSHIPPERS OF BEAST I ^ 

KOi TTortcts iravra to. Wvrj. In xxviii. (li.) 7 Babylon is said to be 
a cup in the hand of the Lord whereof the nations have drunk and 
become mad : TroTrjpiov xpvarovv BnfSvXwv cv X^'P' Kvpiov fttdvcTKOv 
vaaav Tr]v y^v. 'Atto tov o?vou aiTrj<: hrioa-av Wvr]. 8ta tovto c<ra- 
k€v6y](rav {'hh'hn''). 

As we study the above facts two ways of dealing with the text 
appear to be open to us. i. Excise tov dv/xov as an interpola- 
tion due to the occurrence of the phrase tou olvov tov Ovixov in 
10. The extraordinary divergence of the MSS in xviii. 3, where 
the phrase recurs, points either to an interpolated or a very 
difficult text. 2. Since our author appears to have had 
Jer. XXV. 15 sq. in his mind, and since the text there has PTl 
nonn ( = "the wine which is wrath," /.<?. wine of wrath), it is 

possible that he took non in the sense of " poison," which it 
sometimes bears (cf. Deut. xxxii. 24, 33 ; Ps. Iviii. 5, cxl. 4). 
The fact that it maddens the nations (Jer. xxv. 16, li. 7 ; 
Hab. ii. 15) might be taken to favour this meaning. If this be 
right, then our text would mean " the wine of the poison of her 
fornication." But it seems best to regard tov Ovixov as an inter- 
polation. The nations, having drunk of the wine of the fornica- 
tion of Babylon, have really therein drunk the wine of the wrath 
of God. 

9. The third angel proclaims a doom of everlasting torment 
for adherents of the Imperial cult. This forms a counter pro- 
clamation to that in xiii. 15, 17. 

iv 4>a)i'fj ficydXTi. See note on x. 2. 

irpoaKucei to 0T)pioi'. See note on 7. 

t Xa|x|3(li'ei xap"^YI^*t- Cf. xii. 11, xix. 20, xx. 4. On 
xdpayfxa, see xiii. 16, note. The absence of the article before x^P«" 
y/i,a is suspicious. The context leads us to expect it. First it 
immediately follows the definite mention of the Beast (to drjpiov), 
whose mark it is. Next this mark has already been twice 
mentioned in xiii. — in the first instance in xiii. 16, without the 
article because mentioned for the first time, and again in xiii. 17 
with the article, Finally the angel would not speak in this in- 
definite way of this brand of hell. Contrast xx. 4. All mankind 
knew "the mark." We must suppose the angel knew so also. 
Hence we should read to yapayfia or excise koL Xafifidvet . . . 
Xctpa auTou as an interpolation. 

t Im ToO fiETiSiTou t- This construction of iirl with /actwitov 
is against our author's usage We should expect i-n-l to /tfVwTrov. 
See notes on vii. 3, xiii. 16. When we combine these two irregu- 
larities just dealt with, we are forced, it seems, to infer either that 
the text is corrupt or that we have in Kai Xap.pa.vu . . . x^'P*^ airrov 
a marginal gloss. The closing words of 1 1 support the former con- 



l6 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 9-10. 

elusion. Hence we should probably read koX Xa/it/Savei to xo-po.yf*-a 
hri TO /tCTWTTOv avrov rj iirl Tr]v X^^P^ avTov. 

10. Kal auris iricTai, " he too (the man who has received the 
mark) shall drink." To Rome herself finally this cup is given in 
xvi. 17. The /cat introduces the apodosis as in x. 17 (iii. 20 nQ). 

Ik toG olfou ToG Oufxou toG 6eou toG KCKcpatrjix^cou dKpdrou iv r& 
TTOTTipiu T7)s ^PY^S- Parallel expressions to iroTypiov rrj^ 6py^ 
avrov are found in Isa. li. 17, 22 ; Jer. xxv. 15, and in xviii. 6 in 
our text. The subject has in part been discussed under ver. 8 
above. The only real difficulty lies in the words tuv o'vov tov 
Ovjiov . . . TOV KiKf.pa(T[xivov aKparov. The source of the expres- 
sion appears to be Ps. Ixxv. 9, oti TroTrjpiov Iv X'^'-P^ kvoiov, olvov 
oLKparov TrA^pes Kcpdo-fxaTos. Here the Mass. has "JDD K>0 iDH p^ 
for the last four words. We should also compare Jer. xxxii. i 
(xxv. 15) to TTOT^piov tov otvov TOV OLKpoLTOv = IM^t^ HDnn pNT D13. 
We have still another parallel in Pss. Sol. viii. 15, Sia toDto 
iKtpaaev auToi? 6 ^cos irvevfjia TrA.ai'T^o'cojs' iTrortcrcv aurous irorrfpLov 
olvov aKparov €« p-Wqv. From the last passage it follows that 
there can be no inconsistency between iK^paaev and aKparov. The 
verb refers to the mingling of this wine with elements (as the 
literal wine with spices) that will not weaken it but render it 
noxious or poisonous, whereas the adjective (aKparov) states that 
it is unmixed with water. For this use of a/cparos cf. 3 Mace. 
V. 2 ; Galen (in WetStein) : oTvov aKparov eTvai Xeyofxev, w fir] 
fiifxLKTai. TO vSojp 7j . . . oXiyov fjiip-iKTaL. In Ps. Ixxv. 9 the same 
explanation of the LXX would hold good, though in that case 
we have to read ~iDn p\ In Jer. xxxii. i (xxv. 15) aKparov 
therefore implies "i»nn p\ and not the Massoretic reading given 
above. On the other hand, it must be stated that modern scholars, 
though they accept ">Dnn as the reading in Jer. xxv. 15, do not 
attribute to it the same meaning either here or in Ps. Ixxv. 9 as 
the LXX. 

From the above authorities we conclude that the passage is 
to be explained " the wine of the wrath of God which is mingled 
sheer in the cup," etc. But for the close parallc-ls given above 
we might accept the proposal of Ewald, Alford and others that 
from the almost universal custom of mixing wine with water the 
common term for preparing wine came to be K(.pa.vvvp.i. Thus 
Eustathius says on Od. v. 93 that in Kipaacrt 8k veKrap epv9p6v 
the verb /cepao-o-e = ivex^i. A further suggestion may be offered. 
Our author, we know, was better acquamted with Hebrew than 
with Greek. It is possible, therefore, that judging from the 
LXX he took aKparos to be a right rendering of non just as the 
author of Pss. Sol. xvi. 11 took oAiyoi/'vxt'a (which really means 
" faintheartedness") to be a right rendering of nn "ivp ( = "im- 
patience "), a misrendering that is also found in the LXX. If 



XIV. 10.] DOOM OF WORSHIPPERS OF BEAST 1 7 

th»s be so, then we might assign to aKparo^ the meaning of 
ion, and render " the wine of the wrath of God which is mingled 
foaming in the cup." The " foaming " or " fermentation " is 
still going on ; for God has just mingled this cup of judgment 
for the nations. 

Pa<Tai'i(r0iia€Tai iv iropi Kai Oeiu. The imagery goes back to 
the torments to be inflicted on Edom : Isa. xxxiv. 8-10. The 
punishment of brimstone and fire appears first in connection 
with Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen. xix. 24). As Anderson Scott 
writes in loc, " it is instructive to trace the development of the 
symbolism springing from the circumstances of an event in 
history, providing the traditional features, first of any great 
judgment, then of the day of the Lord, and, finally, of the judg- 
ment of Christ." Our author uses this symbolism again in 
xix. 20, XX. 10, xxi. 8. 

^fcS-irioc TWK a.^-^ikiiiv. The idea has occurred already in 
I Enoch xlviii. 9 in another form : 

" And I will give them over into the hands of Mine elect : 
As straw in fire, so shall they burn before the face of the 

holy : 
As lead in water, so shall they sink before the face of the 

righteous. 
And no trace of them shall any more be found." 

In I Enoch xxvii. 2, 3, xc. 26, 27, 4 Ezra vii. 36, as in the 
passage before us, the sufferings of the wicked form an ever- 
present spectacle to the righteous ; but not so in the Parables of 
I Enoch. There Gehenna and its victims form only a tempo- 
rary spectacle. Then they vanish from the presence of the 
righteous for ever, as in the later sections of the Apocalypse. 
See I Enoch xlviii. 9, note, Ixii, 12, 13. This is not due to any 
moralisation of the idea but to the conception of a new heaven 
and a new earth, which exclude the possibility of the Gehenna 
conception. In Luke xii. 9 the wicked are to be disowned by 
Christ in the presence of His angels. This idea of Gehenna 
as an ever-present spectacle over against Paradise arose 
through a mistaken etymology of the phrase D^y fi^"'"' in 
Isa. Ixvi. 24 and Dan. xii. 2. In the ist cent. B.C. or as early as 
the close of the 2nd cent. B.C. Jewish scholars regarded PNIT as 
derived from nN"i. Thus the LXX of Isa. Ixvi. 24 renders this 
word tfTovrai €is opatriv. 

Kal ci/cSttiok too dpi^tou. Many critics remove this phrase as a 
gloss owing to the position after tw dyye'Aojv. If it is original 
it is best to render the phrase: "even before the Lamb." 
Bousset suggests that the phrase " before the angels " is a late 
Jewish periphrasis for " before God." Cf. Luke xv. 10, xii. 8, 9 ; 
VOL. II. — 2 



l8 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 10-20. 

and Bousset's Rel. des Judentums, 308, but in the present context 
this is unlikely. 

11. Kal 6 KOTTcos ToG Pao-ai'ia-fjioG aujSiv . . . dva^aivu. Cf. 
xviii. 9, xix. 3, xx. 10 ; Isa. xxxiv. 10, ^orai ^ yrj av-njs ws irCrra-a 
KatOfiivT] vuKTos Koi. rjixipa^, koI ov cr/SecrOria-iTai fh tov alwva )(p6vov, 
Kol ava^rjaerai 6 Kairvbi avrrj'; 5.vui. The word ftaaavKT/JiO^ is used 
here as denoting the condition of those in torment, and similarly 
in xviii. 7, 10, 15, whereas in the gloss (?) in ix. 5 it has an active 
meaning. In Luke xvi. 23, 28 (Wisd. iii. i ; 4 Mace. xiii. 15) 
/Sao-avo? is used to denote passive suffering. 

oux exoucni' Avdirauoriv kt\. Cf. iv. 8, where the same Greek 
clause occurs, but there it means the deliberate and willing 
surrender on the part of the Cherubim of their entire time to the 
praise of God, whereas here it denotes the involuntary endurance 
of ceaseless torment on the part of those who worship the Beast : 
cf. I Enoch Ixiii. 6. 

" And now we long for a little rest but find it not : 
We follow hard upon and obtain it not." 

€1 Tis Xap-Pdvct = 01 Xa/Aj8ai/ovT€s. 

XIV. 12-13. These verses do not belong here but have in 
this edition been restored to their original position after xiii. 15. 
Just as at the close of xiii. 10 our author enforced the need of 
patience and faithfulness under the persecutions described in 
xiii. lo*^'', so after he has foretold universal persecution and 
martyrdom for the saints in xiii. 15, and in xiv. 12 has enforced 
the need of patience on the part of the saints, a voice from 
heaven is heard declaring the blessedness of those who die in 
the Lord. For a full treatment of these verses see the section 
that follows immediately after xiii. 15, vol. i. pp. 368-373. 

14, 18-20. A proleptic vision of the preliminary Messi- 
anic judgment executed by the Son of Man on the heathen 
nations, which is described in detail in xix. 11-16, and further 
apparently in xx. 7-10, and under another form in xvii. 14. 
Although nearly all scholars have taken 14-20 to be the work of 
one hand, it is clear, as Wellhausen has already recognized, that 
in 14-20 there are doublets. Wellhausen takes these to be 
14-16 and 17-20, but a study of the text and context shows that 
this analysis of the passage cannot be sustained. No more can 
that of Bousset, who regards xiv. 14-20 as originally from a 
foreign source, like xi. 1-13, and considers xiv. 17-18 as the 
addition of a reviser. For (i) since in xiv. 15-17 there are 
constructions (see notes on 15-17, p. 21) which are against 
our author's use, we conclude that these verses are an intrusion 
here, and that xiv. 14, 18-20 represent the original text. 
(2) Again the phrase aXA.os ayycXos (15) is noteworthy. It shows 



XIV. 14.] VISION OF MESSIANIC JUDGMENT I9 

that the interpolator failed to recognize the " One like a Son of 
Man " in 14 as Christ, and took Him to be simply an angel, and 
hence assigned a mightier role to this second and unnamed 
angel. But to place beside the Son of Man a second figure, and 
that merely an angelic one as the judge of the earth, is hardly 
intelligible from any point of view. 

(3) When 15-17 are removed, the text describes the 
Son of Man reaping the vintage of the earth just as in xix. 
11-16, where He treads the winepress of the wrath of God. 
This fact is also against Wellhausen's analysis which would 
connect the Son of Man with the harvesting of the earth and 
an angel with the gathering in of the vintage of the earth. 
(4) Again, neither OepiCot (Matt. xxv. 24, etc.) nor any of its 
derivatives (Matt. ix. 37 sq., xiii. 30, xxv. 24; Mark iv. 29; 
John iv. 35 sqq.) is used elsewhere in the Apocalypse in regard 
to divine judgment, whereas in xix. vintage terms are applied 
metaphorically as in xiv, 18-20 to this judgment. (5) Again, 
instead of to SpcTravor <Tov in 15 we should expect crov to 
SpeVavov TO o|v, as rightly in 18, seeing that the Bpenavov is 
already described as 6iv in 14. (6) Finally, when the intrusive 
doublet (15-17) is removed, we understand why it is that the 
angel from the altar conveys the command to the Son of Man to 
gather in the vintage of the earth. The angel of the altar has 
had to do with the souls of those who had been martyred, and 
whose souls had cried in vi. 9 from beneath the altar to God for 
judgment on the inhabitants of the earth. This act of Messianic 
judgment is thus connected with the prayers of the martyrs : cf 
Luke xviii. 7, 8. 

14. There can be no question as to the identity of the divine 
figure seated on the cloud. He is described as " One like a 
Son of Man." The phrase o/xotov vlov dvOpwTrov is a solecism so 
far as regards form, and is found only in our author here and in 
i. 13. The O.T. source of this expression is undoubtedly Dan. 
vii. 13, "I saw in the night visions, and behold, there came with 
the clouds of heaven one hke unto a son of man (LXX, ws mos 
dvOwTTov)." But the expression, though identical in both works, 
so far as language goes, is dissimilar in meaning. According to 
the interpretation of the angel in Dan. vii. 18, 22, 27, the phrase 
denotes the saints of the Most High. But this is not all. In 
apocalyptic visions, where men or bodies of men are symbolized 
by beasts (as in Daniel, i Enoch, Testaments of the XH Patri- 
archs, etc.), angels and supernatural beings are symbolized by 
men. If, therefore, the expression " Son of Man " is to be taken 
strictly in Daniel, it undoubtedly suggests a supernatural being 
or body of such beings — supernatural beings but not angels ; 
for the form of the phrase excludes this possibility. In the 



36 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 14. 

apocalyptic vision an angel is simply designated " a man." Hence 
the words " like a man " = " like an an.^el," i.e. a being who is of 
a supernatural character but not an angel. Thus in Daniel we 
are to infer that the faithful remnant in Israel are to be trans- 
formed into supernatural beings as in i Enoch xc. 38 (161 B.C.). 
That this is the meaning of the text is proved by the adjoining 
clause, "there came with the clouds of heaven." This clause 
implies beyond question supernatural authority. 

Thus in Daniel the phrase is a collective designation of the 
righteous Israelites after they have undergone a heavenly trans- 
formation. 

But a further development was necessary before we arrive at 
the conception conveyed by this phrase in our author, and this 
development was reached first, so far as existing literature goes, 
in I Enoch xxxvii.-lxxi., the author of which interpreted "one 
like a son of man " of an individual, i.e. the Messiah, and by so 
doing rose to the conception of a supernatural Messiah. Thus 
the way was prepared for the N.T. designation " the Son of 
Man " (6 ulos tov dvdp(LTrov) which in the Gospels has thrown off 
its distinctive apocalyptic form — " like unto a Son of Man " (ws 
vlos dvOpuiirov), a form, however, which has been retained in the 
Apocalypse. On this use of is in apocalyptic see additional 
note on i. 10, vol. i. p. 35 sq. For a like transition inside our 
author, cf. xv. 2, where we have first ws ddXaa-crav vclXivtjv and then 
TTjv 6d\a(Tcrav rrfv vakivrjv. 

In 4 Ezra xiii. 3 (before 70 a.d. ?) we find the very same 
expression. The Latin here is wanting, but the Syriac = a)s 
o/Aotwyu-a vlov dvOpwirov, where, however, the Syriac is only a 
paraphrastic rendering of ofi-oiov as in the Peshitto of Ezek. 
i. 5, 22, 26, X. I ; and of Rev. i. 13, xiv. 14. See Gwynn, 
Apocalypse of St. John, i. 13, note. Thus the Syriac of the 
Peshitto in Rev. i. 13, xiv. 14, and 4 Ezra xiii. 3 is exactly the 
same, and both presuppose ofxoiov vlov (i.e. vlw) dvdpwirov. Hence 
4 Ezra xiii. 3 should be rendered as follows : 

" And I beheld and lo ! the wind caused to come up out of 
the heart of the seas one like a son of man. And I beheld and 
lo ! this son of man fiew with the clouds of heaven." The 
Ethiopic version supports this rendering. 

SfAoioi' ul6v. See the last note but one. 

^irl Tf)v »'e«^Ar)»' KafiiijiCKoi'. Cf. Dan. vii. 13. See note on 
i. 7. 

oTc<t>ai'Of xp«<'ou>'- ^6 have here the golden wreath but not 
the SiaS^yxara, which he wears in xix. 12. Even in the Apoca- 
lypse the o-T€<^ai/os has many associations. Probably it carries 
with it here the idea of victory as in ii. 10, iii. 11, vi. 2. 

[15-17. We have seen already in note on p. 18 that these 



XIV. 14-15.] 15-17— AN INTERPOLATION 21 

verses are a doublet of 14, 18-20. We have found that 14, 
18-20 come from the hand of our author and form a uniform 
picture, the unity of which is broken up by the interpolated 
verses 15-17. This doublet was probably suggested by the 
poetic parallelism in Joel iii. 13. 

'* Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe : 
Come, tread ye, for the winepress is full." 

In 15-17 the judgment is represented as a harvesting of the 
earth. This figure is used both in the O.T. and in the Gospels in 
relation to the last judgment : cf. Matt. xiii. 30, 39, but not in 
the Apocalypse, save in the present interpolated passage, where 
the figure is worked out fully and vividly. The interpolator of 
15-17 has, of course, imitated the phrasing and diction of the 
Apocalypse, but he betrays his ignorance in four constructions, 
i.e. in 15, Kpdt,oiv ev (fxDvfj fjLeydXy, whereas our author would have 
written Kpd^wv <f><jivfj fieydXr) (see Introd. to this Chap. § 2) ; t<5 
Ka6r]fx€v<f errt rrj^ ve^ekr]^ (whereas our author would have written 
£7rt ry v€(f)€\r}: see vol. i. p. 112 sq.) : in 16, 6 Ka6r}iJievo<i irrl t^s 
ve<f>€\r]<i (whereas our author would have used iirl ttjv vetfiiXrjv) ; 
and l/JaXev . . . i-rrl r^v yrjv (whereas our author would have 
written e^aXev . . . eis t^v yrjv). 

15. aXXos ayycXos. The attempt to explain the aAAos here as 
looking back to 6 or 9 can hardly be jusiined, since 6-1 1 and 
14-20 are quite distinct visions. Even the use of Kai elSov koI ISov 
in xiv. 14 (see note on iv. i) is sufficient to prove that this is so. 

It is most important to distinguish the different meanings of 
aXXos in xiv. 8, 9, 15, 17, x8. In xiv. 8, 9 there is no difficulty. 
aXAos is used idiomatically as in classical Greek, and the phrase 
= " another, the second angel," etc. But in xiv. 15, 17, 18 
there is this use and another. In 15, 17 we have the ordinary 
use, where the phrase = "another angel." For the interpolator 
of xiv. 15-17 regarded the Son of Man in xiv. 14 merely as an 
angel, since in xiv. 17 he makes an angel hold joint authority 
with Him in the Messianic Judgment and discharge in xiv. 19-20 
the duty assigned to the Messiah in xix. 11-16. Hence in 
xiv. 15 aXXos ayycAos= "another angel." But in xiv. 18 the 
phrase is to be rendered differently. There, on the excision of 
xiv. 15-17 as an interpolation, the aXXos in dXX. dyy. refers back 
indeed to the Son of Man in xiv. 14, but at the same time it 
distinguishes this angel from the Son of Man, as a different kind 
of being ; for nowhere throughout our author is the Son of Man 
conceived of as an angel. Hence aXX. ayy. = " another, an 
angel." Cf. the use of ertpos in Luke xxiii. 32. 

CK Tou Koou. I.e. the heavenly temple. See note in vol. L 
p. Ill sq. 



22 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 15 18. 

Kpdtuv iv ^uvfi ii.iyd\r\. Our author does not insert the iv : 
cf. vi. lo, vii. 2, lo, X. 3, xix. 17, where we have Kpdt,€Lv (f>wvrj 
fiiyaXrj. It is true that in xviii. 2 we have Kpd(eLv iv la-xvpa. 
(ftoyvrj. But this latter passage is from another source. 

Tw Ka0TjfieVu iin -riis fecJjc'XTjs. Here and in the next verse the 
construction is against the usage of our author, though it is the 
more usual in classical Greek. See note on iv. 2. 

In the three lines beginning with Tre/xi/^ov to Spiiravov a-ov we 
have apparently a paraphrase of Joel iv. 13, 7^2 '•3 730 in'ri" 
n^Vp, the first line being an expanded translation of the first two 
words in Joel, and the second and third lines being probably 
duplicate paraphrastic renderings of the last three words, though, 
like the LXX and the Targum, they presuppose a text differing 
from the Massoretic. Thus line two, on ^X6ev rj wpa depiaai, 
presupposes by ^X^ev some Hebrew verb = " has come" as also 
does the LXX by Trapia-TrjKev (cf. Mark iv. 29, dTroo-reAAct to 
SpeVavov, OTt irape(TTr]K€v 6 Oepicrfios) and the Targum by NtDD. 
In line three, on "f i$rjpdv6r} f o ^€pto-/u.6s t^s y^s, i^rjpdvOr] pre- 
supposes ^y. Is this a corruption of 7^2 ? ^patvw is un- 
exampled in the sense of " to ripen," so far as I am aware, but 
might be explained as a rendering of a corrupt text, ^rjpatvu) 
means " to dry up," as in xvi. 1 2, or " to wither " when used of 
plants (cf. Matt. xiii. 6, etc.) or of crops (cf. Joel i. 17, iirjpdvdr] 
o-tTos), but not "to ripen." It will be observed that the writer of 
15-17 uses some form of the Hebrew text and not the LXX. 

TO ^peiravov crou. We should observe two things here. First, 
we should expect the addition of to 6$v here, since the epithet 
is already attached to SpeVavov in 14. In 18, which we hold to 
be the original sequel to 14, we find, as we should expect, Tre/xi/^oi/ 
(Tov TO SpeVavov to o^v. Next, in 1 5 we note the position of the 
aov after its noun, in which case the emphasis is laid on the pro- 
noun, whereas in 18 the o-ou stands before its noun, in which case 
the emphasis is laid on to hpivavov to 6^v — a fact which points to 
the thoroughness with which the vintage is carried out in 19-20. 

<Spa Oepiaai. For the construction cf. v. 5, ix. 10, xi. 6, 
xvi. 9. 

16. This verse is modelled on 19, the judgment being referred 
to under the figure of a harvest instead of a vintage. But, as I 
have already pointed out on 15, the construction 6 Ka(9>;p,£;/os lirl 
Trj'i v€(t>€\T]<s is against the usage of our author, e^akev . . . eVi 
T7)v yrjy is unexampled in our author. In such a construction 
€ts not eirC is always used by him. See note on 19. 

17. Tou Kaou €v Tw oupai/w. See note in vol. i. p. in sq.] 

18. We here resume the original vision into which 15-17 
were interpolated. In this verse aA.Aos ayyeAos is to be rendered 



XIV. 18.] MESSIANIC JUDGMENT 23 

"another, an angel." See note on 15 above. The phrase 
6 e^wv i^ovaLav em rov Trupo's appears to be interpolated. At all 
events it makes no contribution to the context. If it had any 
right to a place in our text it might have been in viii. 3, but 
even there it would have been meaningless. Lists of angels who 
were set over the natural elements will be found in i Enoch 
Ix. 1 1 -21; Jub. ii. 2. See Bousset, Religion des Judentums^^ 
317 ; Encyc. Bib. ii. 1258 sqq. ; Jewish Encyc. i. 589 sqq. 

ayycXos . . . €k tou 0ucriaCTTT]piou. When the disturbing inter- 
polation, 15-17, is removed, the role of the angel, who came forth 
from the altar, is at once intelligible. The number of the 
martyrs is at last complete, and now their prayer (vi. 10) from 
beneath the altar can be fulfilled, and so the angel, who has to 
do with the souls of the martyrs beneath the altar, is entrusted 
by God with the task of carrying to the Son of Man the command 
to undertake the judgment of the earth — to thrust in the sickle 
and reap the vintage and tread the winepress of the wrath of 
God (cf. xix. 15). This judgment is the Messianic judgment 
that precedes the Millennial reign of the Messiah. In xvi. 7 the 
altar itself proclaims the truth and righteousness of God's judg- 
ments. In ix. 13 a voice from the altar commands the letting 
loose of the first demonic woe against those who had not the seal 
of God in their foreheads. On this — the one heavenly altar — 
see note in vol. i. p. 224 sq. Only one angel is mentioned here in 
connection with the righteous martyrs beneath the altar. But in 
contemporary and earlier apocalyptic many angels were said 
to keep guard over the souls of the departed righteous : cf. 
I Enoch c. 5 ; 4 Ezra vii. 85, 95. 

6 ex<«»>' e|ouo-ia»' ktX. See note at the beginning of this verse. 

i^wt\(jf.v <t>(ovTJ fAeydXT). (fmivelv is found only here in our 
author. For the entire phrase cf. Mark i. 26 ; Acts xvi. 28. 

TO Spc'iravoi' to 6^6, i.e. the sharp sickle mentioned in 14. 

irc'fuj/oi' (TOU TO Spe'iTocok'. Here (cf. 15) we have a tristich, of 
which the first and third lines are largely a reproduction of 
Joel iv. 13. The first line consists simply of the words in Joel, 
with the addition of the epithet "sharp," which the context 
requires (cf. 14 ad Jin.), while the third line is in part a transla- 
tion and in part a transformation of the clause in Joel, h^2 "2 
"i^Vp ; for T^Kfxaaav is a good rendering of b^2, whereas at aracfivXal 
avrrj^ is simply substituted instead of ^cptcryxos = TVp. And yet 
this tristich gives the impression of the master hand, and drives 
home in each line with ever-increasing force the thought of the 
Seer, who does not quote but simply transforms an O.T. couplet 
to serve his present purpose. What a contrast it presents to the 
feebleness of the tristich in 15 ! It should perhaps be mentioned 
here that some scholars have taken 15-16 to refer to the ingather- 



24 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 18-20. 

ing of the saints, and 17-20 to the judgnnent that befalls the 
wicked, and thought ihat there is a delicate propriety in the fact 
that the former is assigned to the Son of Man, and the latter to 
a nameless angel. But there is no support for this view in our 
author ; for in xix. 1 1-16 it is this very treading of the winepress 
of the wrath of God that is especially the role of the Son of God. 
Moreover, in the rest of the N.T. the words 6epit,etv and depi(Tfi6<i 
are used of reaping harvests good or bad, alike as regards man 
(cf Matt. XXV. 24, 26; Gal. vi. 7, 8 ; i Cor. ix. 11) and the 
angels, who are termed the OeptaTo.^ (see Matt. xiii. 30, 39 : cf. 
Mark iv. 29). As a man sows good or evil, he reaps accordingly. 
Similarly in the judgment, the angels gather alike the tares and 
the wheat in the last great harvesting (Matt. xiii. 30, 39). The 
word o-iTos, "wheat," as a symbol of the righteous is not found in 
our author. Finally — to resume once more — in xiv. 6-20 we 
have a proleptic summary from the divine standpoint of the 
Messianic judgments which are represented on a larger canvas in 
xvi. i8-xviii. and xix. 11 -21, xx. 7-10. Thus there is no ground 
for the attempt to differentiate and justify the occurrence side by 
side of what are really doublets. 15-17 are, from whatever 
standpoint we regard them, a disturbing element in the text. 

19. ipaXfi' . . . eis ■n]v Yqc. Our author uses either eVl t^s 
y^s> V- 3> lOj 13. vii' i> X. 2, 5, 8, xvi. 18, xviii. 24, or £is t'^v yrjv, 
V. 6, vi. 13, viii. 5, 7, ix. i, 3, xii. 4, 9, 13, xiii. 13, xvi. i, 2. 
iPakev . . . cVi -rqv yxjv is found only in the interpolated passage, 
xiv. 15-17. t^aXev is here another rendering of rb^ in 
Joel iv. 13. 

[6 ayycXos]. An interpolation due to the hand that inserted 
15-18. The Son of Man is never described as an angel. See 
note on 15. 

TTH' \-t\vov . . . Toi' fieyof. This irregularity is probably to be 
explained by the fact that Xy)v6<; in classical Greek is sometimes 
masculine (Winer, § lix. 4, p. 661 ; cf Kautzsch's Gesenius' Heb. 
Gram, for similar anomalies in Heb.: § no /^, 135 0, 144a, 
145/, /, u). Analogous solecisms are characteristic of our author: 

cf. XXi. 14, TO Titx'^'i ' • • ^x*^''* 

\j\v6v Tou 0u|jioJ Tou 0£oC. Here and in xix. 15 only in the 
N.T. The phrase tou &vfiov tov d€ov is rather frequent : cf 
XV. I, 7, xvi. 1, 19, xix. 15. 

20. Though the Messianic judgment as executed by the 
Son of Man is here described in awful terms, it is not the final 
judgment, which is regarded by our author as the prerogative of 
the Father : cf. xx. 1 r sqq. The diction appears to be influenced 
by Isa. Ixiii. 3, where Yahweh declares, *' I have trodden the 
winepress alone," and in i Enoch c. 3, " And the horses shall 
walk up to the breast in the blood of sinners. And the chariot 



XIV. 20.] MESSIANIC JUDGMENT 25 

shall be submerged to its height." This phraseology reappears 
in Talmudic writings in connection with the carnage at Bether in 
the time of Hadrian : see my note in i Enoch c. 3 : also 
4 Ezra XV. 35, erit sanguis a gladio usque ad ventrem equi ; 36, 
et femur hominis et poplites cameli. 

eiojQev TT19 TroXews. There can be no question as to the identity 
of " the city." It is not Rome (for its destruction has already been 
announced in the hearing of the Seer in 9), but Jerusalem. It is, 
moreover, most probably not the earthly Jerusalem but the 
heavenly Jerusalem which is to descend from heaven to be the 
centre of the Kingdom of Christ for the 1000 years. For in. the 
notes on xx. 1-6 we shall see that the heavenly Jerusalem de- 
scribed in xxi. 9-xxii. 2 is in reality the city that is to come down 
from heaven to take the place of the old Jerusalem and become 
the capital of Christ's kingdom for the 1000 years. If xiv. 14, 
18-20 is a proleptic summary of xix. 11-21 only, then the city 
referred to might be the historic Jerusalem, or rather its ruined 
site: but if this is a summary of xix. 11-21 and also xx. 7-10, 
then the city can be none other than the city that came down 
from heaven — the seat of the Messianic Kingdom. 

Jewish tradition had long associated the neighbourhood of 
Jerusalem with the scene of the judgment of the Gentiles. 
According to Joel iii. 2, 12, God was to assemble and judge 
the Gentiles in "the valley of Jehoshaphat," a phrase which 
Theodotion renders by ttjv x'^po-v t^s Kpia-fw^. According to the 
Midrash Mishle, 68"^, God was to judge the whole world in this 
valley. It is referred to in i Enoch liii. i (where see my note). 
Zechariah speaks also of the judgment of the Gentiles, who laid 
Jerusalem desolate, being executed on the Mount of Olives 
(xiv. 2 sqq., 12 sq.). In our author it is all the heathen nations 
that are to be similarly judged. 

€^TiX0€c atfjia ktX. See preceding notes. 

d-iro orraSiwi' ktX. ="to a distance of 1600 furlongs." This 
peculiar use of utto is found also in John xi. 18, xxi. 8 (ciTro 
Trrjx^y StttKoo-tW). Abbott (Gram. p. 227) describes it as " a natural 
transposition arising from the desire to give prominence to the 
notion ' distant,' as in our ' distant two hundred cubits,' and then 
illogically allowing the preposition that signifies distance to 
govern ' cubits.' " Similar transpositions occur in the case of irpo, 
as in John xii. I, Trpo e^ rjfxepuiv tov irdcrxa-; LXX of Amos i. I, 
iv. 7, Hippocrates, Trpb rpidiy i^/AtpoJv Trj<; Te\evTTJ<; (this last is quoted 
from Moulton, Gram. 10 1, note) : and also in the case of /tera : cf. 
Test. Reub. i. 2 ; Test. Zeb. i. i ; Plut. Coriol. 11. These idioms 
are not Latinisms but of Greek origin. 

As regards the number itself various explanations have been 
offered, but none is absolutely convincing. Some have found 



26 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. § 1. 

in 1600 the idea of completeness, and therefore inferred that the 
deluge of blood swept over the whole earth (as Victorinus — per 
omnes mundi quattuor partes), the holy city alone being exempt. 
Others have conceived that Palestine only was designed by the 
number, since according to Jerome (Ep. 129, Ad Dard.) the 
length of Palestine from Dan to Beersheba was 160 miles. But 
160 miles = only 1280 stades. A nearer approach to the number 
in our text is to be found in the Itinerarium of Antoninus, accord- 
ing to which Palestine was said to be 1664 stades from Tyre to 
El-Arish. 

Of the two above interpretations I am inclined to adopt the 
former. The more we study xiv. 14, 18-20 the more clear it 
becomes that it deals with the same subject as xix. 11-21, for 
xiv. 18-19 clearly state that the judgment is of the whole earth. 
Hence it is not merely the heathen nations that had submitted 
to the antichristian empire of Rome that are destroyed in 
xix. 1 1-2 1, but likewise all the remaining heathen nations that 
rebel against the kingdom of Christ (xx. 7-10) after the lapse of 
the 1000 years. Hence the slaughter is commensurate with the 
inhabited world. 

axpt Twi' xa^it'wv' twi/ iTnra)!/. These words apparently refer to 
the heavenly horsemen who are mentioned definitely (xix. 14^) 
in another vision dealing with the same events, i.e. xix. 11-21. 

CHAPTER XV. 

§ I. Character and object of this Chapter. 

The chronological order of events in the Seer's visions of the 
future is here resumed. In other words, this chapter, so far as 
chronological order goes, follows immediately on xiii. ; for, as we 
have seen (see p. i : cf, 32), xiv. broke away from this order and 
was wholly proleptic, passing over as it did the first six Bowls 
and summarizing the divine judgments from the seventh Bowl 
(xvi. 17) to xx. 7-10. In order, therefore, to recognize the con- 
nection between xiii. and the present chapter, we have only to 
remember that in xiii. 15 the second Beast caused all that refused 
to worship the first Beast to be put to death. Thus all the faith- 
ful were put to death and the roll of the martyrs was complete 
with the close of xiii. ; and when we come to xv. we find that 
XV. 2-4 looks upon the destruction of the entire body of the 
faithful as already an event of the past (see note on xv. 2-4), and 
represents the entire martyr host as standing on the sea of glass 
before God and singing a song of praise to the Lord God of 
Hosts. XV. I is an interpolation (see § 7). In xv. 5-xvi. i the 
Seer has a vision of the appointment of seven angels with seven 



XV. § 1-2.] CHARACTER AND OBJECT OF CHAPTER 2/ 

Bowls to execute the last series of cosmic woes upon the earth. 
It is to be observed that in these three series — the Seals, the 
Trumpets, and the Bowls — there is a distinct development and 
not a mere recapitulation as has hitherto either wholly or in 
part been assumed by students of the Apocalypse. This will 
be clear as we advance. 

For to the first four Seals and the sixth all men — saints and 
sinners, Christians and heathen alike — are subject. Only the 
faithful are the victims of the fifth Seal. The sixth Seal de- 
scribes in hyperbolic language the signs which precede the end, 
which, however, is not so near as the unbelievers apprehend. 
But there are worse things to come, the fifth, sixth and seventh, 
or rather the first, second, and third, Trumpets,^ that is, the three 
demonic Woes, viii.-ix., xi. 14'', 15, xii.-xiii. In vii. the faithful 
are sealed in order to secure them from these Woes. Hence these 
Woes did not affect the faithful, but only those that were without the 
seal of God. When we come to the Bowls we have arrived at a 
fresh stage of development. Since the martyrdom of the faithful 
is complete in xiii. and all the martyrs are represented as already 
in heaven in xv. 2-4, it is clear that only the heathen nations, that 
form the Roman Empire or hold aloof from it, survive. 

On this heathen world, limited in the fifth Bowl to the empire 
of the Beast, are pou7-ed down the plagues of the seven Bowls. 
Whilst the Seals and the Trumpets or Woes could be regarded 
as having a disciplining effect on the faithful, however they might 
affect the unbelievers, the Bowls cannot be regarded in any other 
light than that of punishments, though such expressions as those in 
xvi. 9, II, which refer to the refusal of men to repent notwith- 
standing these plagues, point to the fact that repentance was 
still possible for them. That the plagues, which are universal 
and not local (except the fifth), do not annihilate the heathen 
nations is clear from the fact that the eternal gospel (xiv. 6) is to 
be preached to the surviving nations after the close of the seven 
Bowls and the Messianic judgment (xix. 11-21). 

§ 2. Relation of xv. to xiv. and xvi.~xx. In xiv. our 
author has given three proleptic visions — the first portraying the 
blessedness awaiting the martyrs in the Millennial kingdom, 
while the second and third describe the judgments about to be- 
fall Rome and the heathen nations. Thus xiv. summarized the 
outstanding events from the close of the universal martyrdom of 
the faithful to the final judgment. From this prelude the Seer 
now returns to describe in detail the events thus briefly fore- 
shadowed, and first of all the blessedness into which the martyred 
faithful enter immediately on death, xv. 2-4, and the subsequent 

^ We have seen that the first four Trumpets are an interpolation in the 
text (see p. 219 sqq). 



28 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. § 2-4. 

Millennial reign on earth, xx. 4-6 (cf. xiv. 1-5). Next we have 
the vision of the seven last Plagues, which are to descend on the 
heathen world, from which all the faithful had already been 
removed, xv. 5-xviii. (cf. xiv. 6- 11). The doom of antichristian 
Rome, which does not come to pass till the seventh Plague, is 
portrayed with great fullness in xvii.-xviii. On the destruction 
of Rome there follow thanksgivings in heaven, xix. 1-8. The 
next act of judgment is that executed by the Son of Man on the 
heathen nations, xix. 11-21 (cf xiv. 14, 18-20). 

§ 3. This chapter consists of two visions. The first, xv. 2-4, 
deals with the triumphal song sung by the martyrs as they stand 
round the sea of glass in heaven. It is a song of unmixed praise 
and thanksgiving ; for the last martyrdom on earth is over and the 
ranks of the martyrs in heaven are now complete. '1 he second 
vision relates to the Seven Angels who come forth from the 
heavenly Temple and are thereupon furnished with the seven 
Bowls which are full of the wrath of God. 

§ 4. The diction of xv. 2-8 is., except in the case of one 
phrase in 6, that of our author. This will be apparent as we 
proceed. 

1. This verse could be assigned to him in point of diction but 
not the phrase dyyeXous cttto. Ixoi'Tas TrXTjYas eirrd, because of the 
context. As I shall show in § 7 ad fin., our author could not use 
this expression here or in 6. Otherwise the language recalls that 
of our author, but yet in certain respects with a difference. Kai 
ciSoi' is, of course, attested throughout the book, cryjfieioj'. This 
word has already been used in a like (and yet not altogether 
like) connection in xii. i, 3. A perfect parallel to its present 
usage would have led us to expect it in viii. 13. fieya koI 
OaujiaoToi' : cf. xv. 3. dyycXoos cTrrd. This is the right order 
for the numeral in our author, ras eaxdras seems borrowed 
from xxi. 9. on iv aurais creXeVOTi ktX. : cf. 8. But the subject- 
matter is open to objection (see note in loc). 

2. viKStvras ck. A pregnant construction. Though vikcLv is a 
favourite verb with our author the construction here is unique in 
Greek. toG Otjpiou Kal . . . t^s eUot'os aurou Kal . . . tou dpi6p.o0 
T. ofOfiaTos. Cf. xiii. 17, xiv. 11. carwras eirl t. Qd\acr<Tav. Our 
author in x. 5, 8 writes iwi with the gen. in this phrase. But 
his usage is not fixed. See note on xv. 2. Ki6dpa9 tou Geou — 
a Hebraism. 

3. Kttl aSouo-ii'. Here, as in xiv. 3, koI aBova-Lv is to be taken 
as KOL aSoi'Ta?. In fact this is the reading of N Prim. Vg. and 
S^. See note on xiv. 3. Kopte 6 0€os 6 iravToxpdTwp. A familiar 
title of God in our author : cf. i. 8, iv. 8, xi. 1 7, xvi. 7, xix. 6, 
xxi. 22, SiKaiai Kal dXrjGit'ai recurs in converse order in xvi. 7, 
xix. 2. 



XV. § 4-6.] ITS HEBRAIC CHARACTER 29 

4. oo-ios. Used only in xvi. 5, as here of God, but not in 
the rest of the N.T. TrdfTa ri eOfTj . . . trpoaKUfrjaoucrii'. Cf. 
xiv. 7, where all the nations are bidden irpoa-KwijcruTf. tw 
iroirjcravTL. e<)>ai'ep(iS0T]O'ai'. Cf. 111. 1 8. 5. Kai fjiera xaura elSoc. 
A clause used in our author introducing a new vision : cf. iv. i n. 
Hence I cannot be right, since it has already introduced the 
vision, ^yoiyr] 6 faos . . . iv tw oupafw. Cf. xi. 19. 

6. 2x°*'''"^5 ■'■^5 eirra TrXYiyds. This phrase descriptive of the 
seven angels, as also in xv. i, is against the usage of our author 
as well as against the context. See below, § 7. ecScSuji^Koi 
\iQov . . . Kttl irepiEtcucrfxcVoi . . . ^uca; XP"<^^$- Cf. i. 1 3, 
xix. 14. 7. yeii.o6<Ta<i. Cf. iv. 6, 8, etc. too tfCivros cis toOs 
oiwt'as ruy atoit-wc. Cf. iv. 9 «,, x. 6. 8. a^pi TeXcaOuai. 
Cf. xvii. 17, XX. 3, for the same clause. 

§ 5. Strongly Hebraic character of xv. 

This chapter is Hebraic in character, i. The writer trans- 
lates in XV. 4 the Hebrew of Jer. x 7, where the LXX is lacking : 
6 PaaiXcus • . . Tis ou p,T| ()>o|3t)6]^ / Here Theodotion and 
Aquila render rt's ov fx.rj (fio/^rjOrjo-eTai at ySacrtXev twv kdvuiv ; It is 
true that the words tc&vto. to, <LQvr\ . . . ivii)Tti6v croo in 4 agree 
verbatim with the LXX of Ps. Ixxxvi. 9, save that it omits oaa 
€iroir](Ta.% after Idvr). But there is nothing distinctive in the LXX 
rendering. 

2. As regards the order this is also Hebraic. The verb 
nearly always begins the clause or follows immediately on the 
subject as in 4, 7, 8. In 4 the position of i<f)av€pu)6i^(rav serves 
to gives emphasis. 

3. There are some Hebraisms. Thus in 2-3 we have toOs 
j'lKWk'Tas = T. veviKY^KOTa? . . . after the model of the Hebrew par- 
ticiple : effTWTas Kai aSouaii' = eo-Twras . . . Kat aSoi/ras (see in toe): 
and KiOdpas tou 0eou = D'ni'Nn nii3D. Possibly vi/ctovTas c/c may be 
dije to a Hebraism. 

4. In 5, 6 there are two phrases which apparently cannot be 
satisfactorily explained except on the hypothesis that o vaos t^s 
o-KT/v^s TOU fxapTVfjLov lu 5 is a translation from a Hebrew text, 
and that a corrupt one, and that the second phrase in 6 is due 
to the translator taking L"K' to mean Xidov, whereas in this con- 
text it could only = ^wortvoi/. See text in locis. 

% 6. XV. 2-8 appears to be a translation by our author from a 
Hebrew source. 

Since xv. 2-8 is from the hand of our author (§ 4), and since, 
according to § 5, xv. 2-8 is not only strongly Hebraisiic but ap- 
pears to imply a Hebrew source ; and, finally, since in xv. 5, 6 
the text can be best explained on the hypothesis of a corrupt 



30 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. § Q7. 

Hebrew source, this section appears to be a translation by our 
author from a Hebrew source. 

§ 7. XV. I appears to be an interpolation, the chapter having 
originally begun with xv. 2 : further, for 01 k-KTo. ayyeAoi o'l iypvTf.% 
Tas cTTTo, Tr\rjya.<i in 6 we should read simply ayyeAot kma.. (Cf. 
XV. 7, xvi. I.) The question has naturally been asked, how can 
the Seer have seen the angels in xv. i, before they came forth 
from the Temple, which was not opened till xv. 5 ? This fact has 
caused much difficulty, and, as we should expect, a variety of 
explanations has been offered. Volter in his last works assigns 
XV. 5-6 to the Apocalypse of Cerinthus and xv. 1-4, 7 to an 
editor in Trajan's time. Weyland ascribes xv. i, 6-8 to an 
editor and the remaining verses to two different sources. 
Spitta traces xv. i and fragments of 2, 3, 5 and 7 to an editor : 
Erbes, xv. i, 5-8 to an editor of the year 80 a.d., and 
J. Weiss, XV. 1-4, 6-7 to an editor of the year 95 a.d. 

None of these solutions of the difficulty has gained accept- 
ance, and so Bousset thinks there is no need to excise any part 
of the text, and that xv. i is simply to be regarded as a super- 
scription. But this explanation is, if anything, less satisfactory 
than the preceding. For (i) a superscription should not be intro- 
duced by the words xai elSor, but rather be something of the 
nature of y] opao-ts twv Itttci dyyeXoji/ ktA. (2) If it were a super- 
scription it ought to have been inserted immediately after 4 
and not before 2, seeing that 2-4 constitute an independent and 
absolutely different vision. (3) That a new and important 
vision is introduced by xv. 5 is shown by the use of the clause 
yxera ravra etSov. See iv. I n. (4) Again, as I have shown below, 
the Seven Angels are wrongly described in this verse as "seven 
angels having seven plagues — the last." Their right description 
would be "seven angels having seven bowls." (5) The clause 
on kv avrats kr^Xia-Or} 6 6vfxb<; tov Oeov is unjustifiable. The 
wrath of God cannot be conceived as coming to an end till sin 
is at an end or adequately punished. And this does not take 
place till the final judgment. (6) The scene of the Seer's vision 
is wrongly represented as having been experienced on the 
earth — tlSov aAAo cnqixeiov kv rw oi'pavw (cf. xii. I, 3) — whereas it 
was undoubtedly in heaven : cf. xv. 5 sqq. Accordingly there 
appears to be no other way of solving the difficulty than to 
suppose either that xv. i is due to a marginal gloss subsequently 
incorporated in the text, or that it was an early interpolation by 
a scribe. Hence the chapter really begins with the vision of the 
triumphant martyrs in heaven, xv. 2-4, while xv. 5 introduces 
the vision of seven angels coming forth from the Temple in 
heaven. In xv. 6 instead of 01 eTrra ayycXot ol l)(Ovr€<i ras cTTTa 
TrAv/yas we should simply read ayycA-ot k-n-ra. The change was 



XV. 1.] VERSE I— AN INTERPOLATION 3I 

made when xv. i was incorporated in the text. The interpo- 
lator, moreover, made a very inept addition. He did not know 
his text. For, as is clear from xv. 7, the Seven Angels did not 
receive " the bowls full of the wrath of God " till after they had 
left the Temple, whereas in 6 they are represented as having the 
plagues before doing so. Again, these Seven Angels, when they 
are mentioned subsequently, as they are four times, are never 
described as " the seven angels having the seven plagues," 
but simply as "the seven angels," xv. 7, xvi. i, or "the seven 
angels which had the seven bowls," in xvii. i, xxi. 9. Each 
bowl contains a plague, and so the seven plagues, xv. 8, result 
respectively from the pouring forth in succession of the seven 
Bowls. 

1. This verse cannot be original, as we have already seen in 
the Introd. to this Chapter, ^ 7. It is true that the style 
resembles that of our author, but there are strong grounds 
against its being from his hand. The first is that the Seer can- 
not have seen the angels in i, seeing that the Temple is 
closed till 5, and the angels do not emerge from it till then. 
But there are other and more radical grounds for the rejection 
of this verse, (i) First, as we are aware (see note on iv. i) the 
clause Koi fiera ravra eTSov (xv. 5) always introduces a new and 
important section in the Apocalypse ; but, if it had already been 
introduced in xv. i, then this clause would be out of place. 
Moreover, in xv. i the clause Kal eT8ov is used by our Seer to 
introduce the less important sections. The interpolator of xv. i 
does not seem to have been aware of this usage. If we excise 
XV. I and remember that xiv. is wholly proleptic in character, 
referring as it does to events subsequent to xvi. 17 (see p. 2), then 
the blessedness of the martyred faithful is set forth in contrast to 
their terrible plight in xiii. (2) The ex[)ression dyye'Xous cTrra 
exovras TrXrjya.'i kwTo. is not that used by our author elsewhere, save 
in 6 where it appears also to be an interpolation, though it may 
have been suggested by the last clause in xv. 8. For the last 
three words we should have exovras «^taAas Ittto. : cf. xv. 7, 
xvii. I, xxi. 9. See also 8. The phraseology throughout xvi. 
also supports this objection. (3) The words ras eVxaras 
(probably derived from xxi. 9) are generally explained as the 
last plagues in contrast to the plagues mentioned in ix. 20 ; but 
that this is not the meaning of the writer of this verse is clear 
from the clause which follows, with which we shall now deal. 
(4) The clause just referred to — on iv aurais ireXea-Or) 6 6v^o<; 
Toi) deov — cannot be given any satisfactory explanation. It 
manifestly states that the wrath of God will be consummated in 
these seven Bowls, whereas the last and most terrible of the 
divine judgments do not take place till after their close. The 



32 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. 1-2. 

right expression is found in XV. 8, a;i^pi TeXforBuxxtv al iTrra irXrjyai, 

which is probably the source of the interpolUor's phrase. These 
seven Plagues can be described as wholly consummated in 
xvi.-xviii., but not so the wrath of God. 

On the above grounds we cannot but regard xv. i as an 
interpolation. When this interpolation was once effected, ayycAoi 
CTTTtt in 6 was changed into ol i-n-To. dyytXoi ol exovres Tas cTTTa 
7rX.r}yd<; in order to adapt the context to the text thus interpo- 
lated. The incongruity of the addition ol exovT€<; r. (.ttto. TrXyyds 
is very glaring, seeing that the seven angels do not receive 
the plague-bearing Bowls till the next verse. 

Kttl ciSoc. See notes on iv, i. 

Kal ciSoK . . . iv TiJi oupafu. This clause seems to have been 
suggested by xii. i. 

aXXo o'TifAeioi' iv tw oupacw. Cf. xii. i, 3, where this phrase 
implies that the Seer is on earth. But clearly in the vision 
of the Seven Angels he is in heaven : see xv. 5, xvi. i. This fact 
the interpolator failed to recognize. 

ficya Kal Oaop.acrToi'. Suggested (?) by the phrase fJicydXa kol 
davfiaa-rd in 3. dyye^ous itrra . . . toO 9eou. This passage has 
already been dealt with above. See also note on 7. 

2-4. With this vision the march in the development of 
future events is resumed. The line of advance was abandoned 
for the time being in xiv., which, as we have seen, is wholly pro- 
leptic, and summarized all the coming judgments from the 
seventh Bowl to the immediate advent of the final judgment. 
Hence xv. 2-4 is to be taken in close connection with xiii. In 
xiii. 15 the second Beast is represented as exterminating the 
entire body of the faithful, and xv. 2-4 looks upon that exter- 
mination as already an event of the past. The roll of the 
martyrs is at last complete, and no longer are any of the faitliful 
to be found on the earth, but only the heathen nations, which 
are either devoted followers of the Antichrist or occupy a 
neutral position, xv. 2-4 thus forms a companion picture to 
vii. 9-16. In both these the roll of the martyrs has just been 
completed or is on the eve of completion in heaven. The final 
judgment is still in the distance ; for the conversion of the 
nations (cf. the announcement of the glad tidings in xiv. 6) is 
foretold (xv. 4) as an event of the future. In xiv. 1-5 and xx. 4, 
which depict a later stage, the martyrs have descended with 
Christ to the earth to share with Him the Millennial reign. 

2. us (see Additional Note, i. p. 35 sq.) OdXao-aac uaXiVrji' ( = 0^3 
n-niar). This sea has already been referred to in iv. 6. The 
absence of the article is what we expect in this Hebraistic ex- 
pression, which = " the likeness of a sea of glass." 



XV. 2.] THE VICTORIOUS MARTYRS 33 

}t.€ii.iy\i.ivr\v irupi. This description is not attached to the 
heavenly sea when it is mentioned in iv. 6. But the difference 
of context is a sufficient explanation. In iv. 6 the vision is one 
of peace, whereas here it is one of judgment. This phrase, 
therefore, may refer either to the sea as glowing with the wrath 
of God, or as reflecting the lightnings that proceeded from the 
throne of God, though there is here, it is true, no mention of 
these lightnings. In 2 Enoch xxix. 1-2 there is a passage that 
may be quoted, though it does not throw any real light on the 
text. "From the gleam of My eye the lightning received its 
wonderful nature, which is both fire in water, and water in fire." 

Tous t'lKui'Tas cK TOO 6if]pLou. Thls is a very difficult phrase. 
There is no difficulty with the participle. Here vLKwvTa<i = 
veviKrjKora^. The great tribulation is over, and the martyrs have 
triumphed over the Beast by proving faitiiful unto death. As 
our author thinks in Hebrew, his use of the Greek participle 
reflects that of the Hebrew participle, which, as we are aware, 
can = viKoivTas, veviK-QKOTa'i or viK-qdOfj-ivov^ according to the con- 
text. Here viKwvras is to be taken as a perfect participle. The 
roll of the martyrs is at last complete, but it has only just been 
completed. The Antichristian powers have not yet been judged, 
nor has the Millennial Kingdom been as yet established. When 
this kingdom is established the martyrs shall descend and reign 
(v. 10) with Christ for 1000 years (xiv. 1-5, xx. 4), and 
all the nations of the earth, which had not been leagued with 
Rome, shall come and worship before God (xv. 4, xxi. 24-26). 

j'lKwfTas €K. The use of eV after vtKa)i/Ta9 is very difficult. 
Winer (p. 460) quotes this passage in connection with a number 
of other passages where Ik. is found, but not one of them has 
the same source as Ik here. He compares the Latin expression 
" victoriam ferre ex aliquo," Livy, viii. 8, etc. But it would be diffi- 
cult to justify the occurrence of a Latinism in our text. There 
is just the possibility that our author was here reproducing the 
Hebrew idiom n*nn-|D Dn^jn (cf. 2 Sam. i. 23; Ps. Ixv. 3) = 
"those who had been stronger than the beast." But no adequate 
explanation has as yet been offered. 

As Swete {in loc.) has pointed out, the martyrs show them- 
selves as conquerors up to the moment of death : cf. Ep. Sniyrn. 
19, Sia TT\<i VTTO/Aov^s KaTaywvKja/xevos Tov abtKov ap-^ovTa koI owtw? 
rov Tq<i a<f>6ap(Tia<i crric^avov a7ro/\a/3wi/. Passio S. Perpetuae, 18, 
" illuxit dies victoriae illorum, et processerunt de carcere in 
amphitheatrum quasi in caelum, hilares et vultu decori." But 
our Seer follows them into the life beyond and sees the exultant 
host celebrating not their own victory but the praises of God. 

€K TOU 6t]PIOU Kttl CK TTJS ClKOl'OS KtX. Cf. Xlii. I, I4, 1 7, 

xiv. 9, II, xix. 20, XX. 4. 
VOL. II.— 3 



34 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. 2 3. 

^CTTwras €ttI TTjc OdKaacrai'. This phrase could mean "stand- 
ing on" (cf. X. 5, 8, xii. 18, xiv. i) or "standing by" (cf. iii. 20). 
This scene of the victors standing on the heavenly sea with 
harps in their hands and praising God recalls Israel's song of 
triumph over Egypt on the shore of the Red Sea. The phrase- 
ology is unusual. In x. 5, 8 la-Trj/xi is used with ctti riys ^aXao-- 
crr;s. Further, our author prefers generally the phrase eirl rrj^ 
6a\d(r(rr]<; tO cVt rrjv OdXacrcrav : cf. vii. i^, x. 2, 5, 8. But the fact 
that Lo-TTjfjLL liri is in the case of all other nouns followed by the 
accusative (iii. 20, vii. 1% viii. 3, xi. 11, xii. 18, xiv. i) may 
have led to the use of the accusative (instead of the gen.) of 
OaXaa-a-a in the present instance after ia-Tcoras iiri 

KiOdpas ToG 0€ou = " harps belonging to the service of God." 
The omission of the article before Ki6dpas is a Hebraism. On this 
idea cf. v. 8, xiv. 2. With this phrase we might compare i Thess. 
iv. 16, (V o-dXTTiyyt Otov, and I Chron. xvi. 42 ; 2 Chron. vii. 6, 
□''n^xn T":;' "^3 = "instruments to accompany the songs of God." 

3. Kal aSouaii'. These words are to be taken as = kol aSovras 
and the passage to be rendered : " I saw . . . standing on the 
sea . . . and singing." This Hebraism has occurred several 
times already : see note on xiv. 2-3. 

[ttjv (uSt)!' Muuaecus tou SouXou toO Geou Kal] ttji' (o8t)^ tou 
Apviou. Now that the martyr host is completed, and are already 
standing before God, they sing a song of praise to God, but not 
one of triumph over their enemies — a fact which differentiates 
this song from that in Ex. xv. The first words, " the song of 
Moses the servant of God," recall Ex. xiv. 31, xv. i, where 
Moses and the children of Israel sang a song of thanksgiving to 
God, but still more a paean of triumph over the Egyptians and of 
joy at their destruction (Ex. xv. 2-19). 

As that song was sung on earth, on the shore of the Red Sea 
by Israel after the fiesh, so this song is sung in heaven by the 
Sea of Glass before God by the spiritual Israel. 

The expression t^v wSr/v Mwufre'cos . . . kol t. wSt/v tov dpi'iov 
creates insuperable difficulties. To excise (as most editors 
have done) kol t. wS^v toC dpviov as an interpolation would only 
aggravate the difficulty in the present context. For, since it was 
through the Lamb that the Christian martyrs triumphed, if the 
song that followed was associated with any name, that name 
must have been that of the Lamb. Hence the difficulty does 
not originate in connection with this phrase, but rather with 
T. wS^j' Moivcreuis. How then are we to explain the collocation of 
the two phrases? Bousset is of opinion that the repetition of 
the phrase suggests that the victors sang first the old Song of 
Moses (Ex. XV. 2-19) and then a new song — that of the Lamb, 
which is then given. This apparently is the view of Swete. 



XV. 3.] SONG OF THE LAMB 35 

"St. John does not write t. wBy]v Mwvcrews Kat tov dpvLov, for the 
notes are distinct though they form a harmony." This view can 
hardly be regarded as satisfactory. That the old dispensation is 
superseded is the essential belief of our author, and it can no less 
have been his conviction that in heaven the faithful members of 
the old dispensation would accept the teaching of the new. 
Moreover, if our author deliberately omits all reference to the 
Law throughout the Apocalypse, it would be surprising if he 
referred here to its author Moses, and placed him before the 
Lamb. This being so, we can hardly suppose that our author 
implies that the song of Moses, given in Ex. xv. 2-19, was 
actually sung by a body of Christian martyrs before the throne. 
We, therefore, expect that, if the text is original, the song given 
in our text, which makes no definite mention of either Moses or 
of the Lamb, was sung alike by the martyred faithful of Judaism 
and Christianity, and that too led by the Lamb, as the song in 
Ex. XV. was led by Moses. But the form of the text is against 
this conclusion, and implies that the song or songs are led by 
Moses and the Lamb. 

Thus there seems to be no way out of the difficulty save by 
assuming that the words t. iLVqv Majvcrews toC SouAou tov Otov 
originated in a marginal gloss, which was subsequently incor- 
porated in the text. Moreover, the nature of the song supports 
this assumption, since it is not a song of triumph, but simply a 
paean of thanksgiving, which the martyrs sing, when in the first 
perfect unclouded vision of God they wholly forget themselves 
and burst forth into praise of the Lord God of Hosts, who alone 
is holy, whose works are great and marvellous, whose ways are 
righteousness and truth, and to whom all the nations shall do 
homage, because of the coming manifestation of God's righteous 
judgments. 

Not until this stage does the Seer behold the complete 
spiritual transformation of the faithful in heaven. At the same 
time by its mention of divine judgments to come, it prepares the 
way for the advent of the Seven Angels with their plagues. This 
song, therefore, though sung by the victorious Christian host of 
martyrs, could not be more fittingly conceived. Its sole theme is 
God ; for, in the perfect vision of God, self is wholly forgotten, 
and so far as there is a reference to the earth from which they 
have been delivered, it is one of hopefulness : "the nations shall 
come and worship before Thee." 

The gloss T. wS^v Mwwo-ews kt\. in this context is probably due 
to the fact that the triumph of the actual Israel over the Egyptians 
at the Red Sea was certainly regarded by the Christians of the 
first century as prefiguring the triumphs of the spiritual Israel, 
as we see from the Pauline Epistles. 



36 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. 3-4. 

This song of Moses in Ex. xv. had already been incor- 
porated in the Temple Services. Thus it was sung at the evening 
sacrifice on the Sabbath (Edersheim, The Temple, p. i88), and 
in the benediction that followed the Shema there is a reference 
to it : "A new song did they that were delivered sing to Thy 
name by the seashore" {Encyc. Bib. iv. 4954). According 
to Philo {De Vita Contempl. xi.) this song was sung by the 
Therapeutae, the men forming one chorus and the women the 
other, while in the De Agriailtura, xvii., he writes : " the chorus 
of men will have Moses for their leader and that of the women 
will be under the guidance of Miriam. . . . Accordingly all the 
men sing the song on the seashore. . . . Moses being the leader 
of their song ; and the women sing — Miriam being their leader." 
The Martyrs' Song is formed almost wholly of O.T. expres- 
sions. 

ftcyciXa Kal 6au|iaCTTa to, cpya aou. The first epithet as de- 
scrilDing the works of God is found in Ps. xcii. 5, cxi. 2, and the 
second in Ps. xcviii. i, cxxxix. 14; i Chron. xvi. 9. 

Kupie, 6 0eos o iracToicpdTejp. See Amos iv. 13, but the phrase 
occurs several times elsewhere in our text (see note on i. 8). 

SiKaiai Kttl dXrjSij'al ol 6801 aou. Cf. xvi. 7, xix. 2 ; Ps. cxlv. 
1 7, 8i»catos Kv'pios €v irao-ais rais oSois avTov : Deut. xxxii. 4, 
aXridtva. to, f-pyo- avTov. 

6 paaiXeus twi' kQvwv. 4. tis 00 jiTj 4>o^t]0tj. These clauses 
are a rendering of Jer. x. 7, which, though present in Aquila 
and Theodotion, are wanting in the LXX. The title " king of 
the nations " is here peculiarly appropriate, since it is God's deal- 
ings with the nations alike in the way of condemnation and of 
mercy that is the theme of this song and of the chapters that 
follow. 

Kal Soldffei TO ocofxd aou. Cf. Ps. Ixxxvi. 9, So^daovaiv to 
ovoixa aov; see also 12 ; Mai. i. 11, t6 ovoixd crov SeSo^aarai iv 
TOis WvecxLV. p.ofos oaios- Cf. I Sam. ii. 2, oti ovk (.cttlv ayio? 
ws Kvpios. With the expression /xovos oatos cf. Rom. xvi. 27, 
ixovw (ro</)(3. 

oTi TrdvTa toi eQvr] T]|ouaif . . . ivfimov aoo. From Ps. Ixxxvi. 9. 
Toi SiKaiufxaTu kt\. Cf. Ps. xcviii. 2. SiKaico/xaTa here means 
the judicial sentences of God in relation to the nations either 
in the way of mercy or condemnation. On Rome and all the 
adherents of the Empire will be manifested the judgments of 
God; whereas during the Millennial period the rest of the 
nations will experience His mercy. Cf. xiv. 6-7, which refer to 
the Millennial period. On the other hand, some scholars take 
St/caiw/iaTtt in the sense of "righteous deeds" — a meaning 
which it undoubtedly possesses in the gloss in xix. 9 But 

xvi. I, c^tdAas Toii dvfjLOv TOW deov, XVi. 7, St'/catat a'l K-pi'aei? aov, and 



XV. 4-6.] THE SEVEN BOWLS 37 

other analogous expressions are in favour of the interpretation 
given above. 

irivra ra HOvt] T\iou(Tiv ktX. These words point forward to the 
conversion of the nations during the Millennial reign : cf. xxi. 
24 sq., xxii. 2. In xiv, 7 the nations are exhorted to repent and 
worship God. Of course it is only the nations that survive the 
judgments in xvi.-xix. that are so converted. 

oTi . . . ^<j)ai'cp(i6T)(rai'. This clause gives the ground for the 
clause that immediately precedes : " for Thy righteous judgments 
shall have been made manifest." 

XV. 5-XVI. 1. The commission of the Seven Angels with 
the Bowls. 

5. Kai jieTot Taura ciSoi'. As has been shown on iv. i, this 
phrase is never used except at the beginning of an important 
section. Thus the insertion of xv. i, which already deals with 
this subject, is wholly against the usage of our author. See also 
above on i. 

Tit'oiyri 6 KoSs . . . ec tu oupafu. So in xi. 19. 

6 KaoS t TTJS O'KTJl'TJS TOU fJiapTUpiOU f. 

This designation of the heavenly Temple is certainly strange 
— " the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony." It appears 
either to be an interpolation or the rendering of a corrupt Hebrew 
source. If we translate the phrase into Hebrew it is clear that 
vaos must be rendered by ?3Nn, a-Krjvi] generally by Snk (occa- 
sionally by laK'p), and fiafrrvpiov by lj;io (or possibly by 
nny). But it must certainly be confessed that njno ^ns ^TTi is 
an absolutely unexampled designation, and difficult to justify. 

The phrase in the text cannot be a rendering of ?nx pK'D 
nyiD (cf. Ex. xl. 2, 6, 29, since vaos is never used to translate 
pB'D). 

Ziillig thinks that this expression is used in order to recall 
the fact that, when the Tabernacle with all its holy vessels was 
brought up to Jerusalem by the order of Solomon, the Ark 
was removed from it and set up in the most holy place in the 
Temple (2 Chron. v. 5 ; i Kings viii. 4), and that from that time 
forward the temple could also bear the name of the Tabernacle, 
and that in fact it is called mishhkan (pK^) in Ps. Ixxxiv. 2, 
cxxxii. 5, and ohel (7nt<) in Ezek. xli. i. Hence he would, as 
Bousset, render the entire phrase as " the temple, that is, the 
tabernacle of the testimony." The genitive would in this case 
be one of apposition. But against the identification of the vaos and 
(TK-qv^ in our text there is the very great objection, that in Apoca- 
lyptic, from the vision in Isa. vi. to the latest times, it is the 
Tetnple, whether in heaven or on earth, ajid not the Tahernaie, 
that is referred to as the scene of apocalyptic vision. See note 



38 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. 5-6. 

on viii. 3. Hence, since throughout the rest of the Apoca- 
lypse this usage is followed, the natural inference is that it is 
followed here. If this be so, then it is to be concluded that t^s 
(TK-qirijs Tov fxapTvpLov \s an addition. If we might here assume a 
Hebrew original, we could dispose of the difificulty. Thus 6 va6% 
T^<; (TKYjvrj^Tov fiapTVpLov iv Tw ovpavo)=Q^}2Z*2 lyitD pHN ^D^H, which 
might easily be a corruption of DV*tJ'3tt' QMPK ^3^n = 6 vaos tou 
deov 6 iv Tw ovpavw — the very phrase that is found in xi. 19, with 
the same verb in both cases, i.e. rji'OLyq. 

6. 01 Ittto. ayy. 01 ex- t. eirrd irXtjyds. As we have already 
seen on i, we should excise 01 ex- "'"• ^'""''"^ TrXrjyd<; as an addition 
from the hand that added i and read simply ayycXot eTrra. 

€V'8£8u|i€Voi t \iQov t . . . TTepiet,(i}<Tfi.ivoi . . . ^ciras XP"*''°^5' 
See note on the diction in i. 13. 

ci'SeSup.eVoi t \iOov j KaOapoi' Xap.irpdi'. AC, a few Cursives, 
and the MSS of the Vulg. read XiOov for \ivov, which is found in 
the lesser authorities. That kWov would more readily be changed 
into Xlvov and not vice versa is evident in itself. Besides, though 
the best Codd. of the Vulg. have lapide the official text has linteo. 
WH adduce Ezek. xxviii. 13, rravra XiOov XPW^^^ cvSe'Secrai 
in support of XiOov. Further, Atvov ( = flax) is not used as 
the equivalent of Atrow ( = a garment made of /lax) except in 
a few passages throughout Greek literature : cf. Homer, //. ix. 
661, Od. xiii. 73, 118; Aesch. Suppl. 120, 132, Etym. Magn. 
The evidence, therefore, is strongly in favour of XiQov. But, 
notwithstanding the advocacy of WH, XiOov cannot be right. 
We must, therefore, assume either that, despite the very great 
improbability, XiOov is a primitive corruption of the all but 
unexampled word Xivov ( = "linen garment" — a most unusual 
meaning), or that we have here a mistranslation from the 
Hebrew. Ivlelvp-kvoi XlOov ^m^ D^K'u!'. But {TK*, as we know, 
means either ^vVo-tvos, Gen. xli. 42 ; Ex. xxviii. 35 (39X 
or Xt^os (cf. Esth. i. 6) or p.6.pp.a.po% (Cant. v. 15). In fact, 
in later Hebrew it generally means "alabaster" or "marble." 
In the Epistle of Jeremy 71 the same mistranslation, as Ball 
has shown, occurs : " Ye shall know them to be no gods by 
the purple and the marble (t^s p-apfidpov) which rottetb 
upon them." Here [jLdpp.apo'i^^Z', which should have been 
rendered by tov ^va-aivov= " fine linen." " Marble doesn't rot," 
as Ball remarks. Now returning to our text, if we may assume 
a Hebrew original, then instead of h'SeSvp-ivot XiOov KaOapov 
Xafxirpov we should read ct'SeSufi^cot Pu<T<7ii'oi' Ka6apoi' Xap-irpoc. 
To confirm this conclusion we have only to turn to xix. 8, where 
we find TrepL/^dXrjTai (ixxraivov Xa/xTrpov KaOapov, or tO xix. 1 4, 
where we have the clause that should be in our text, ivBeSvfxivot 



XV. 6-8.] THE SEVEN ANGELS 39 

jiva-a-Lvov XivKov KaBapov. Hence we render "clothed in fine 
linen pure bright." On the significance of this expression see 
note on lii. 5. 

TrepielcucTfJicVoi ktX. Cf. 1. 13' 

7. Iv cK Toif Teo-aapui/ ^uuk, i.e. one of the Cherubim. See 
note on iv. 6. The Cherubim in the Apocalyptic of the ist cent. 
A.D. have come to be the chief order of angels. It is fitting 
therefore that one of them should act as an intermediary 
between God and the Seven Angels of the Bowls. Even in 
Ezek. X. 7 it is one of the Cherubim that hands over to one of 
the seven angels of judgment coals of fire to be sprinkled on 
the earth. 

4irTd <f>id\as xp"*'^?- O"^ the position of lirrd. before its noun 
see note on viii. 2. 

({>idXas . . . Y*H'°"°'°^5 ToO 0u|jLou Tou 6eou. It is highly probable 
that the Greek word <^ia.\.y} was adopted into both Hebrew and 
Aramaic as early as the beginning of the Christian era : see 
Levi's two Lexicons in loc. It is noteworthy that it is used in 
connection with the same idea as in our text in the Targum on 
Isa. li. 17, where the Hebrew infDn D13 ( = "the cup of His 
wrath") is explained by XDI^T ND3 '^'3 and in 22 TlDn D13 by 
^nom NDD ^^'''D. Again in the Targum of Jon. on Gen. xl. 12 
we have NTJIT Nb""'S = " the bowl of wrath " {i.e. of the divine 
wrath). The word thus appears to have had the same idea 
associated with it as in our text. With the present passage cf. 
xiv. 8, 10. 

ToC j^uKTos €is Tous alui'as. See note on iv. 9. 

8. ey^P'^^'^'n o vo.h% KaircoC Ik rtjs 86^t|s too 06ou. yifii^w belongs 
to the vocabulary of our author but is not used in this connection 
in the LXX. The first four words recall the statement in Isa. 
vi. 4, where in connection with the great vision of Isaiah it is 
said that "the house (i.e. the Temple) was filled with smoke" 
(6 oTkos iveirX-qadr] Kairvov — LXX). The combined ideas of the 
Temple being filled with smoke and with the glory of the Lord 
are found in Ezek. x. 4, "The house (i.e. the Temple) was filled 
with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the 
Lord's glory": Ex. xl. 35, "Moses was not able to enter into 
the tent of meeting because the cloud abode thereon, and the 
glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle." See also i Kings 
viii. TO. The glory of God is spoken of as filling the temple in 
Ezek. xliv. 4 ; 2 Chron. vii. 2-3. During such manifestations of 
God's presence no one could enter the earthly temple. In all 
the O.T. passages above cited the presence of God is a mark of 
His gracious purposes. Hence the inability of humanity to 
approach God in these passages was due to the infinite transcen- 
dence of God and His unapproachableness by merely finite 



40 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. § 1. 

creatures. But that cannot be the meaning of the clause in our 

text. 

£K TTJs Soi'tifieus- This attribute of God is here set parallel 
with His glory. It is to be manifested in the plagues that 
follow. 

ouScis eSuVaro eiffcXOeii' ktX. As wc have seen in the first note 
on this verse, none could enter the earthly Temple in the O.T. 
during special manifestations of God's presence therein. But, 
since this cannot hold of the heavenly Temple, inasmuch as in 
heaven the heavenly hosts are constantly represented as standing 
in God's immediate presence, it seems necessary to attach a 
figurative meaning to the clause ovSel? iSvvaro elaeXOecy ktA., and 
to interpret these words as meaning that, until the plagues were 
accomplished, none could avert by prayer the doom about to 
befall the earth through these plagues. At the close of these 
judgments God's gracious purposes with regard to the nations 
would take effect: see xiv. 6, xxi. 24, 26. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

§ I. T^e object of this Chapter. 

The object of this chapter is to set forth the last series of 
plagues that are to befall the earth. These plagues are symbol- 
ized under the seven Bowls which are poured forth by Seven 
Angels. 

In these seven Bowls we have no mere repetition of the divine 
visitations in the Seals and Woes. Not only are they different 
in themselves from the Seals and Woes, but they differ further 
in respect of time and the people affected by them. Although 
these facts have been brought forward in the Introduction to 
XV., it is necessary here to emphasize them anew, since the 
prevailing view is that in the Bowls we have not advanced 
chronologically, but that in the Seals, Trumpets (Woes), and 
Bowls the same great principles of God's government are dis- 
played under different aspects. Even scholars, like Bousset, 
who are opposed to the Recapitulati n Theory, are disposed to 
acknowledge in some degree its validity in regard to the Seals, 
Trumpets, and Bowls. Though the reader should consult the 
Introduction to xv., I will here repeat the two chief differe?itiae 
between the Bowls and the Seals and Woes. These are that the 
people affected in each series is different and that their order is 
alike logical and chronological. Under the Seals (save the fifih 
to which only the Christians were subject) Christian and heathen 
alike suffer. Then after the sealing of the faithful takes place, 
all those who had not been so sealed are exposed to the three 



XVI. § 1-3.] DICTION AND IDIOM 4I 

demonic Woes. In the course of the thisd Woe the last of the 
faithful are martyred, and at its close the world is inhabited only 
by the heathen nations. Then follows the last series of cosmic 
and other plagues, which are all embracing in their incidence 
with the exception of the fifth Bowl, which is confined to the 
kingdom of the Beast, just as the fifth Seal affected only the 

faithful. 

§ 2. State of the Text. 

The text of this chapter has suffered much through faulty 
transcription and deliberate alteration, xvi. i has /xcyaA?/? (f>iovy<: 
— an abnormal order of words in our author. Both the context 
and the diction of xvi. 2^, and certain clauses in 13-14 are 
against their authenticity, as is shown in the notes on these 
passaijes. The apparently meaningless interchange of et? and 
cTTi after iKx^u) is strange, xvi. 10 has sustained the loss of 
several clauses, xvi. 5^-7, which belongs to xix., has been 
restored in this edition to its original position after xix. 4 ; 
xvi. 15, which belongs to iii., has been restored after iii. 3*. 

§ 3. Diction and Idiom. 

When the interpolated clauses in xvi. 2, 13-14 are removed, 
the entire phraseology and constructions are those of our author, 
with the exception of xvi, i. There are, as was to be expected, 
phrases not found elsewhere in our author, but these are not 
against any established usage on his part. 

(a) Diction. 

1. •!]Kouo-a . . . <|>(«)cT]s €K : of. iii. 20, xiv. 13, xxi. 3. Else- 
where in our author ^ojvi^v after T]KOV(.iv. tois cTrrd dyyAois : 
cf. XV. 6, 8, xvii. I, xxi. 9. uTrdycTC k. cKxe'cre : cf. x. 8, vTrayc 
Aa/Sc. £Kx«T€ . . . €is : cf. 2, 3, 4, but Ik^. . . . ItcI in 8, 10, 
12, 17. Tou Oufiou TOO 0eou : cf. xiv. 10, 19, xv. 7. 

2. diTT)\0€»' . . . Kttl e^e'xcev : cf. V. 7, T]KOfv xai ei\r)<f)ev : xvii. i, 
xxi. 9 (a Hebraism). Cf. John v. 15, ix. 7, 11, xii. 36. iyevero 
IXkos . . . Iiri. Here only in our author. On the interpolation 
Tous €;(ovTas . . . avrov, see note tn loc. 

5^-7. See Introd. to xvi. 5^-7 on p. 120 sqq. 

9. KaGfi.a : cf. vii. t6. i^o.a^i\^i\ao.v to ocofxa : cf. xiii. 6. 
SoGfai auTw 8o|ai' : cf. iv. 9, xi. 13, xiv. 7, xix. 7. 

10. Toi' 9p<5coi' TOU 0T]piou : cf. xni. 2. eo-KOTCofieVT) : cf. ix. 2, 
where the word refers to the same phenomenon, ck toC -ir^cou : 
cf. II, xxi. 4. Only once elsewhere in N.T., i.e. Col. iv. 13. 

11. Toi/ Geoi' TOO oupafoo : cf. xi. 13 (a source), ofi ^mv^f\aakV 
Ik t. epywK aoTwi' : cf. ii. 21, 22, ix. 20, 21. 

12. eToi|jiacr0f]. A frequent word in our author, dtri drnToXu^' 
iqXiou : cf. vii. 2. 

13. TOO SpdK0»'T0$ . . . TOO dTjpioo : cf. xiii. 4. TOO i)«eo8oirpo- 



42 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. § 3. 

(^r\Tou : cf. xix. 20, XX. 10. Trt'eufiara rpia : such is our author's 
order : see note on viii. 2. 

14. Trjs oiKOU|ieVT]s oXtis : cf. ill 10, xii. 9. aoi/ayayeti' aurous 
els T. iroXejioc : cf. xx. 8, where the same words recur : see also 
xix. 19. rns iifiepas t. (jteydXTis : cf. vi. 17. too OeoC tou irai'TO- 
KpctTopos : cf. i. 8, iv. 8 «., xi. 17, xv. 3, etc. 

15. This verse should be read after iii. 3^ Every phrase of 
it has its parallel in iii. See notes in loc. 

16. Tov KaXoujiefof : cf. i. 9, xi. 8, xii. 9, xix. 11. 'EPpaiVri : 
cf. ix. II. 

17. ^(avr\ . . . CK tou faoo diro tou Opofou : cf. xx. 2, 10 for 
this combination of prepositions. Elsewhere we have ^(mvt] d-n-o t. 
Opovov in xix. 5 and <j). c/c r. dp. in xxi. 3 and e/< r. Op. with other 
nouns iv. 5, xxii. i. y^'y^''^*' • ^^- ^^i* ^• 

18. dCTTpairal Kal (jxovai Kal (SpOKTai : cf. viii. 5, xi. 19. CT€icrp.6s 
. . . fAcyas. Cf. vi. 12, viii. 5, xi. 19, xvi. i8. 

19. TO TroTii]pioi' TOU oikou TOU 6up,ou rr\s opyi^s : cf. xiv. 8, 10, 
xix. 15. 

20. I<j>uyei', Kal . . . oux £upeQr\(Tav : cf. xx. 11, 

21. xa^^lo^ H-eydXt) : cf. xi. 19. £pXaa<|>iifjnf)CTai': see above on 9. 
(d) Idiom. 

1. fieydXr)? <t>o)CT]s : the order of the words in this phrase is 
unique in our author. It is certainly abnormal and is corrected 
in XP into </)wv^s fxeydXr]<;. But there are a few instances where 
the adjective precedes its noun in our author: cf. i. 10, iii. 12 
(in both passages, however, between art. and noun), and oXtyos 
in three cases. 

2. lyeVeTo . . . eiri : unique in our author. 

3. aifjia ws KCKpou,- i.e. alp-a <l)s aXp.a veKpov : see Additional 
Note in vol. i. p. 35. 

8. e860T) aoTw C2im inf. : cf. vi. 4, vii. 2, etc. 

9. Ixoi'Tos Ti\v e^ooCTiai' ctti : cf. note on ii. 26 on this idiomatic 
use of art. with e^ova-iav. ou fxeTecorjaai' . . . Sout'ai : cf. xi. 18, 
y\9€v ... 6 Katpos . . . SovvaL, xvi. 19, ifivqaOr] . . . Sovvat. 

1. p,eydXT)s <|)oji'r]s. In every other instance of this phrase, in 
the Apocalypse, i. 10, v. 2, 12, vi. 10, vii. 2, 10, viii. 13, x. 3, xi. 
12, 15, xii. 10, xiv. 7, 9, 15, 18, xvi. 17, xix. i, X7, xxi. 3, the noun 
cfiwv^ precedes the adjective. This "great voice," as that in 17, 
seems to be that of God Himself and not of an angel. Ac- 
cording to XV. 8 none could enter the Temple till the plagues 
were accomplished. But it is possible that it is the voice of 
the angel of the altar, as in xiv. 18. 

Ikx^ctc Tois liTTa 4>idXas ktX. Cf. Dan. ix. IX, Jer. x. 25, xlii. 
18, xliv. 6, on this Semitic use of the verb 1^2 ovIQ'^. ckx^'w 
occurs repeatedly in this chapter and not elsewhere in the Apoca- 
lypse. 



XVI. 1-3.] FIRST AND SECOND BOWLS 43 

eKx^£T€ (see Winer, § 13, 23. Bias?, p. 41, would read c/cxeart) 
... CIS T. yt)i'. So also in 2. Cf. eiex^ev 6is t. ^aAacro-av in 3, 
and the same verb with ets toijs iroraixovs in 4. On the other 
hand, we have the same verb with iirl r. iroraixov in 12, and with 
CTTi T. rjXiov (8), lirl T. Opovov (10), and ctti t. depa (17). 

T^s iirrb. <j>i(i\as toC 6u|j,ou. On the first four Trumpets, which 
can hardly on any hypothesis be regarded as the work of our 
author, see Introd. to viii., vol. i. p. 219 sq. 

2. This plague recalls the sixth Egyptian plague : Ex. ix. 
lo-ii ; Deut. xxviii. 35. 

lyeVeTo IXkos . . • iroi'tipo;'. The first two words we have in 
Ex. ix. 10, J^nK* ^n^l, and the two latter in Deut. xxviii. 35 and 
Job ii. 7, yi pn^Zi. In the last two passages the LXX renders 

cXkCI TTOVrjpiJj. 

iyiviTo . . . em tous dt'Opojirous. In Ex. ix. 10 we have 
iyeyero . . . iv Tois avOpwvois {i.e. D1S3). Thus Our author is 
independent of the LXX. For the construction, Luke i. 65, 
iii. 2 are generally quoted, (in tovs dv^/owTrovs, " upon men," i.e. 
on all mankind : cf. xvi. 8, 21. 

[t. cxoi'Tas T& x'^P'^YH"** "^^^ 0T)piou Kal Toi*s irpoaKoi'oCvTas ttj 
ciK<ii'i auToG.] Cf. xiii. 17, xiv. 9, 11, xix. 20. 

This clause has been assigned by Spitta (p. 163) to the final 
editor of the Book, though he does not specify the grounds. 
There are, however, good reasons for regarding them as a gloss. 
I. The fourth Plague is universal in its incidence as regards 
the sun, and also the second so far as those on the sea are 
concerned. That the third is so likewise as regards all fresh 
waters is clear. Such also is the sixth and the seventh as 
regards the Euphrates and the air. Hence it is natural to 
expect that the first Plague is of the same character as in the 
second, third, and fourth, i.e. universal in its incidence. 2. The 
construction tows Trpoo-Kwovvras t^ (xkovi avrov is against our 
author's usage. See note on vii. 11. 

If the above conclusion is not valid, then we must assume 
that only the adherents of the Roman Empire, and not the rest 
of the heathen, are affected by the first Plague. In this respect 
the first and fifth Plagues would have the same incidence. But 
not only are the followers of the Beast subject to certain physical 
evils, but they alone are susceptible to the deceitful signs wrought 
by the false prophet (x' :. 20). With this susceptibility to evil 
influence we should contrast the security against demonic influ- 
ences enjoyed by those who were sealed by God in vii. 4-8, ix. 4. 
But all the faithful have already been removed from the earth 
(see Introd. to xv. p. 26). 

8. This Plague recalls the first Egyptian plague, Ex. vii. 17- 
21, though in the latter the Nile alone is smitten. 



44 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. 3-9. 

eyivtTO alfia. Cf. Ex. vii. 19, DT n^H. 

■rrdo-a il/uxT] l<tir\s. (Cf. iTnn K'Q3"P3, Gen. i. 21, or H^H B'DJ, i. 30.) 
tA iv TTJ eaXdo-OT]. In viii. 9 only a third of the things in the sea 
perished. Here the destruction is complete. 

4. els T. TTOTajioils koI t. tttjyAs rw oSdrwi'. See note on viii. 10. 

eY<:i'€To alfia, i.e. the fresh waters became blood. 

5*. [kol TJKOucra tou dyyeXoo tui' iSSdroii' XeYOfTos.] An inter- 
polation to introduce xvi. S^'-y, which originally followed after 
xix. 4, and to which context it is restored in this edition. Cf. 
I Enoch Ixvi. 2. "Those angels were over the powers of the 
waters." In vii. i of our text the angels who had control of the 
winds are referred to, and in xiv. 18 the angel over fire, though 
the latter appears to be a gloss. On the various classes of angels 
see the Index to Charles' The Apocr. and Pseudep. vol. ii. ; 
Bousset, Rel. des Judenthums, 317, also Jewish Encyc, art. 
" Angelology." 

5^-7. This passage has been restored after xix. 4, where the 
grounds are fully stated for this restoration. 

8. The fourth Bowl takes effect on the sun, and causes a 
plague of excessive heat. 

elexcec . . . em tok tiXioc. On the use of ctti here instead of 
£15 as in the preceding verses, see note on i. The construction 
I^oOt] auT<3 is a frequent one in our author : see Introd. to Chap, 
vii., vol. i. p. 191. 

9. €Kau|xaTi(r6T)aak' . . . Kaufjia. (See Blass, Gr. p. 91 sq.) 
Contrast vii. 16, oiSc /at/ TratV?/ Iti (emended) aurous 6 17X105 ouSe 
wav KavfjLa. 

e(3Xacr4>iifiriCTaf to ocojuia tou Oeou. Cf. xiii. 6 ; Isa. Hi. 5 ; Rom. 
ii. 24 ; I Tim. vi. i ; Jas. ii. 7. 

cxoi'Tos TrjK i^oualav. See note on ii, 26 on the significance 
of the article with i^ova-iav. Bousset brackets here with the 
inferior MSS the article. This is strange, since he is aware that 
when i^ovcria is accompanied by the art. it connot' s full 
authority or power, and this is certainly the meaning in the 
present passage. 

ou jm.cTei'OTio-ai'. Cf. ix. 20, 21, xvi. 11. In xi. 13 the Jews 
repent owins< to the earthquake. 

Soui/ai auTw 86§af. Cf. xi. 13, xiv. 7, xix. 7. 

10-11. The fifth Bowl. If we compare this Bowl with the 
first Woe it is clear that they are developments of the same 
tradition, though they refer to different periods, the Christians 
being still upon the earth during the Woes, but not during the 
Bowls. Thus both affect only the adherents of the beast (xvi. 10 : 
cf. ix. 4). In xvi. 10 the kingdom of the beast is darkened ; in 
ix. 2 the sun is darkened by the smoke issuing from the pit, and 
from this smoke issued the demonic locusts. In xvi. lo-ii 



XVI. 10.] THE FIFTH BOWL 45 

men gnawed their tongues through pain and blasphemed the God 
of heaven ; in ix. 5-6 men were tormented by the locusts and 
sought death but could not find it. 

Similarly we shall find that the sixth Bowl agrees closely with 
the second Woe (see note on xvi. 12-16), and the seventh Bowl 
with the third Woe (see note on xvi. 17-21). These facts will 
help us in the elucidation of the difficulties affecting the fifth 
Bowl. 

But there is another point worthy of consideration. If we 
compare the seven Bowls with the Seven Seals, we find that, 
whereas only the faithful were the victims of the fifth Seal, only 
the followers of the beast are affected by the fifth Bowl. 

10. The visitation on the kingdom of the Antichrist. 

Tov Opoi'oi' TOO 6T]piou, t'.e. Rome. Cf. xiii. 2, eSwKcv avT<Z {i.e. 
Tw Brjpiio) 6 SpoLKtav . . . rov Opovov avrov. The first four Bowls 
had affected the world at large ; the fifth assails only the 
kingdom of the Beast. 

T^ paaiXcia aorou eaKOTUfjicnr]. Owing to this clause the fifth 
Plague has been taken to be one of darkness recalling the Egyp- 
tian one, Ex. x. 21 sqq. But this interpretation cannot be up- 
held. A plague of darkness would be wholly insufficient to explain 
the agony experienced by the adherents of the Beast after the 
pouring out of the fifth Bowl. Hence something else than the 
darkness that ensued on the pouring out of the fifth Bowl must 
be presupposed as the cause of this agony. Now, if we turn to 
the first Woe of which the fifth Bowl is in some sense an abbrevia- 
tion, we can explain both these statements. There we find that 
the sun was darkened by the smoke that issued from the pit (ix. 2). 
There is every reason for supposing that we have here the true 
explanation of the darkening of the kingdom of the Beast. 
Further, the cause of the torments endured by the adherents of 
the Beast (xvi. 10, ifiaawPTO ras yAwcrcras avrwv e/c rov ttovov) is tO 
be traced to the demonic locusts which issued from the smoke 
that ascended from the pit. Men were so tortured by the scorpion- 
like stings of these locusts (ix. 10) that they longed for death to 
end their agony (ix. 5-6). Hence we infer that after eo-Korw/xeVr; 
several clauses have been lost, in which the causes of the darkness 
and the sufferings of mankind were given. The hypothesis that 
certain clauses of the naiure suggested originally stood after 
(.(TKQTMjxivf) is established by a clause in 11, i.e. koX ck twj/ i\Kun' 
avTwv. These sores could not have been caused by the darkness. 
Spitta and, so far as I am aware, Spitta alone (p. 171) has 
recognized this fact that the fifth Bowl originally treated of 
demonic locusts as the first Woe does. But he rejects (171, 576) 
Toi' Opovov Tov Orjptov' KOL eytvcTO rj /JacriXcta aiuroS ia-KOTwpiur) as an 
addition from the hand of the final editor on the ground that 



46 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. 10-11. 

the throne of the beast is not to be identified with Rome but 
with the abyss as in ix. ii, and that accordingly the place on 
which the fifth Bowl is to be poured should be named, where the 
plague in question is to be developed, analogously with the rest 
of the plagues (xvi. 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 17). He also excises the 
clause Ktti €K Twv cA-Kcui/ avTihv to the weakening of his own hypo- 
thesis. But I have already shown above that 17 ^aaiXiia avrov 
ia-KOTOifxivr] can be fully justified. Nor can any valid objection 
be taken to tov 6p6vov tov Orjpiov, seeing that already in xiii. 2 the 
Dragon had given his throne to the Beast. Thus it is only neces- 
sary here to suppose a lacuna in the text. 

e|jia<rwcTo ktX. In the LXX only in Job xxx. 5. 

11. Their sufferings drove the followers of the beast to fresh 
blasphemy instead of to repentance. 

Toi' Oeok Tou oupakou. See xi. 13. 

Kai £K Tuiv k\Ku>v (xuTiiiv. Thls phrase proves that the sufferings 
of the subjects of the Beast are not intelligible from the text as 
it stands after the loss of the clauses referred to in the note on 10. 
Some scholars explain it as referring to the phrase cAkos KaKov 
in 2. 

ou |ji€T€i/oT)<raK Ik Taji/ epyui'. So already in ii. 2 1, ix. 20. 

12-16. The sixth Bowl — at all events xvi. 12 — is related to 
the second Woe, ix. 13-21. In the latter passage we have an 
account of the demonic horsemen from the Euphrates, whose 
objective is the heathen unbelieving world. In the present con- 
text the river Euphrates is dried up in order that the way may be 
prepared for the kings coming from the East under Nero redwivus, 
and their objective is Rome, the throne of the Beast. This fore- 
cast reappears in xvii. 12-13, i7> ^6. The powers of the Beast 
are therefore at variance. On the other hand, the gathering 
together of the kings of the earth to Armageddon is a distant 
echo of the onslaught of the forces of Gog in Ezekielon Jerusalem. 
This expectation has undergone many developments in the 
interval, and reappears in a duplicated form under the actual 
designation of Gog and Magog in xx. 7-10, where it represents 
the last uprising of the powers of evil before their final destruc- 
tion by fire from heaven. But the present context (xvi. 13-16) 
reproduces an earlier form of this expectation, and this form of it 
is referred to twice elsewhere in the book — in xiv. 14, 18-20, and 
xix. 1 1-2 1. In these three passages, which refer to a universal 
insurrection of the heathen nations at the instigation of the demons 
and the Beast and the False Prophet, before the Messianic Kingdom, 
the forces of evil are destroyed by the Messiah, and the Beast and 
the False Prophet cast into the lake of fire, whereas in the final 
insurrection of the heathen nations due to the direct instigation 
of Satan at the close of the Afessiafiic Kingdom they are annihilated 



XVI. 12-14.] PARTHIANS AND KINGS OF THE EARTH 47 

by fire from heaven, and Satan himself cast into the lake of fire, 
where already were the Beast and the False Prophet. 

Further, it is to be observed that the uprising of the kings 
of the East against Rome is only the preparatory step to their 
conflict with the Lamb, as we see in xvii. 12-17. Hence their 
combination here (xvi. 12) with the kings of the whole earth 
(xvii. 14) to resist the Lamb. 

12. The march of the kings of the East against Rome, which 
is described more fully in xvii. 12-13, ^7^ ^^• 

Toi' iroTafAoi' . . . Eu<f)p(lTT)K. Cf. ix. 14. 

i^r\pdvQr] to uSwp auTou. For the idea cf. Ex. xiv. 21 ; 
Josh. iii. 13-17 ; Isa. xi. 15 sq., xliv. 27, li. 10 ; Jer. xxviii. (li.) 36 ; 
Zech. X. II ; 4 Ezra xiii. 43-47. 

eTOifxao-0fj. Cf. Isa. xl. 3, croi/xacrarc rrjv 686v. For the use 
of this verb m the second Woe, cf. ix. 15. It is a favourite with 
our author : cf. viii. 6, ix. 7, xii. 6, xix. 7, xxi. 2. 

13, 14^*^, 16. The gathering together of all the kings of the 
earth to war against God and Christ. Cf. Ps. ii. 2. See note 
above on 12-16. 

13. Three unclean spirits from the Dragon (i.e. Satan : cf. 
xii. 3, 9), the Beast, and the False Prophet (i.e. the second Beast) 
go forth to call together the kings of the earth. Cf. i Kings 
xxii. 22. Contrast the three angels in xiv. 6 sqq. 

Tou v|/eo8oTrpo<|>iiTou. Here for the first time the second Beast 
(xiii. II sqq ) is so designated. 

TTi'cufAaTa . . . dKciOapra. Cf. Matt. x. I ; Mark i. 23, etc. 

[«s Parpaxou] First we observe that the construction is 
unique in the Apocalypse. According to the universal usage 
outside the present passage we should here have ws (Sarpaxov^, 
as indeed K* and many cursives actually do read. But the best 
authorities support the abnormal text. However, as we shall see 
on the next verse, the context requires the excision of ws 
fSdrpaxoL . . . a-rj/xela as a marginal gloss subsequently incorpor- 
ated in the text. As regards the use of the phrase, it may be 
observed that frogs were regarded in the Zend religion (see 
S.B.E. iv. 171, note) as the source of plagues and death. In 
Hermas, Vis. iv. i. 6, locusts of a fiery colour are seen by the 
Seer coming forth from the mouth of a great monster : llov 
/SXcTTO) Orjpiov fJieyuTTOv . . . koI €k tov ordyLcaTos avTov dxptSes 
TTvpcvaL i$e7ropivovTo. This conception combines the ideas under- 
lying ix. 3 and xvi. 13. Frogs were regarded as the agents of 
Ahriman: cf. I'/uf. de Iside, 46 (Moffatt). 

14. [citric yap irj'cup.aTa Saipiokicof iroioukTa (TTjjjiera.] There are 
difficulties attaching to this clause, i. It has been taken paren- 
thetically by Bousset and Holtzmann as an explanatory remark of 
our author : " there are, to wit, demonic spirits, sign workers " (as 



48 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVl. 14. 

their masters, xiii. 13, 14). The phrase Trveu/iaTaSai/xoi'iwi/ should 
be rendered " spirits, that is, demons," i.e. " demonic spirits," as in 
Luke iv. 33, Tn/eii/xa SaiiMviov dxa^dipTov = " a spirit, that is, an 
unclean demon." The genitive is one of apposition or defini- 
tion : cf. ii. 10, 6 o-Tc'^avos ttJ? ^to^s. Demons have no spirits, but 
are themselves spirits. According to i Enoch xv. 8, g, 11, 
xvi. I, xix., xcix. 7, the demons were the spirits which went forth 
from the antediluvian giants on their destruction, these giants 
being the children of the fallen angels and the daughters of men 
(cf. Gen. vi. i). These demons were not to incur punishment 
till the final judgment : cf. Matt. viii. 29 ; i Enoch xvi. i ; 
Jubilees x. 5-1 1. They were subject to Satan as in our text: 
cf. Matt. xii. 24-28. 2. Or it may be rendered : " they are, to 
wit, demonic spirits, sign workers." But however we take this 
oiause it is of the nature of a gloss. 

t & cKiropeuerai f. — This — the best attested text — is wholly 
unsatisfactory. K* and several cursives read iKiropeveadat. 
Though this is less unsatisfactory it is against our author's u>age 
as well as against Greek idiom. The context undoubtedly 
requires eKiropevoixeva, since without this participle the construc- 
tion and meaning are both defective. For the preceding words 
elSov €AC Tov (TTo/xaros tov SpoiKovTos . . . TTvevfjiaTu rpia are 
incomplete in both respects without the participle iKTrop€v6/x€va. 
The phrase ex t. (rT6fiaTO<s . . . iKTropevea-dat is of frequent 
occurrence in our text: cf. i. 16, ix. 17, 18, xi. 5, xix. 15, 21. 
Thus we should read el8ov ck t. (rTOfiaTos r. SpaKovros . . . TTViVfiara 
rpia . . . €K-7ropev6fji.eva (cf. i. 16 for the Same separation of ck t. 
a-To/xaro^ and the verb), and translate : " and I saw from the 
mouth of the dragon . . . three unclean spirits going forth." 
The present text elSov ex t. crTo/Aaros . . . nvevp^ara rpia without 
a participle, which at once explains the Ik and completes the 
sentence, is, so far as I am aware, unexampled, and yet it has 
been thoughtlessly accepted by every grammarian and student of 
the Apocalypse, perhaps in many cases from the idea that any 
construction is possible in this Book. 

Hence, since for a e/cTropcverat we must read cKTropeuo/^ei'tt 
and connect it with elSov ck ktX., we conclude that elalv yap . . . 
a-rjixela is a marginal gloss, and likewise w? jSarpa^oL if tliis is the 
earliest form of this phrase. Thus ws /Bdrpaxoi. . . . cnrip,da was 
originally a marginal gloss which on its incorporation into the text 
brought about the change of eKiropevofieva into a eK-Tropeuerai. 

TT]s oiKoujjL^fiis o\t]s. Cf. iii. 10, xii. 9, for the same phrase 
and the same thought connection. 

CTUcayaYeiK auTOus ktX. Cf. xx. 8. 

TT]s i^jji^pas TT]s p.eYd\T)s tou Qeou. This is the great day of 
Yahweh's reckoning with the ungodly nations. Cf. 2 Pet. iii. 12, 



XVI. 14-16.] XVI. 15 TO BE RESTORED BEFORE III. 3' 49 

rjTov deov rj/xepa. See Charles' Eschatology^ (see Index), also the 
authorities quoted in the note of vi. 1 7 of our text. 

ToO 9eo0 Tofi iraiTOKpdlTopos- A divine title frequently found in 
our author: cf. i. 8, iv. 8 (note), xi. 17, xv. 3, xvi. 7, xix. 6, 15, 
xxi. 22. 

15. With Konnecke (Eviendationen zu Stellen NT. 35-37, 
whose work I have not seen ; the reference I owe to 
Moffatt) this verse is to be taken as an intrusion here. 
Originally either it stood between iii. 3* and 3^ where it would 
complete the tSou series of ii. 22, iii. g, 20, or it should with 
Beza be transposed before iii. 18. I therefore bracket it with 
most modern critics in its present context. 

What Konnecke's arguments are I do not know, but the 
cogency of his suggestion manifests itself on a comparison of 
15 with iii. 2-4. To see how fitly it comes in after iii. 3* we 
have only to compare tSov ipxofiai with the series of verbs so 
introduced in ii. 22, iii. 9, 20 : ws KAeTrrT/s' fiaKapios 6 yp-qyopSiv 
Ka\ T-qpuiv TO, rjixoLTLa avrov (xvi. 15*^) with yivov yprjyopwv in iii. 2 and 
iav ovv fir] ypr}yop-qa-r]<;, 17^0) ws /cAc'tttt^s in iii. 3'' (observe also the 
use of TTjpelv though without an expressed object in iii. 3* and 
ovK €fx.6\vvav TO. IfxaTia avrwv in iii. 4) : iva fx-rj yu/xvos TreptTraTrj 
(xvi. 15) with 7re/ot7raT7;(rou(riv fxer ifMov ev AeDJcois in iii. 4, and 
the remaining words Kal ^XeVwcriv t'^v daxrjixoa-vvrjv avrov with Iva 
. . fir] (f)avepw6y t] odaxyvq t^s yv/AvoTT^ros crov, iii. 18. kXcttt?;? 
and yprjyopeLv occur only in xvi. 15 and iii. 2-3 in our author. 

This verse implies that the sixth Bowl will take the world by 
surprise. But it is hard to see how the elaborate preparations 
of the kings of the East followed by those of all the kings of the 
world could do so. Finally, the utter inappropriateness of 15 
in its present context is further evident from the fact that all the 
faithful have already been removed from the earth. 

This verse forms one of the seven beatitudes in the Apoca- 
lypse : i. 3 (iii. 3) (xiv. 13), xix. 9, xx. 6, xxii. 14, 7. When xvi. 15 
is restored to its original context, we find a special appositeness in 
their order : first beatitude (i. 3) deals with those who read the 
prophecy; the second (iii. 3, i.e. xvi. 15) with those who watch 
and keep their garments clean : the third, xiv. 12-13 (^o ^^ read 
after xiii. 15), with those who die in the Lord in the last persecu- 
tion : the fourth, xix. 9, with those who are invited to the marriage 
supper of the Lamb : the fifth, xx. 6, with those who share in the 
fir.st resurrection : the sixth, xxii. 14, with those who had washed 
their garments and had permission to eat of the tree of life 
during the Millennial Kingdom : the seventh, xxii. 7, with those 
who keep the words of this Book. 

16. This verse should follow immediately on 14, and 15 be 
transferred to its original context between iii. 3* and iii. 3^ 

VOL. II. — 4 



50 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. 16. 

o•ol/1^yay£^'. Neuter nouns in the plural are followed either by 
the singular (viii. 3, xiii. 14, xiv. 13, xvi. 14, etc.) or plural verb 
in the Apocalypse, but mostly by the latter. 

t6v KttXoufiei'oi'. Cf. i. 9, xi. 8, xii. 9. 

'Eppaicrri. See ix. ii. 

"Ap MaycSsSi'. No convincing interpretation has as yet 
been given of this phrase, which should probably be trans- 
lated "the mountains of Megiddo." The city Megiddo was 
notable as the scene where Barak and Deborah overthrew the 
forces of Sisera by "the waters of Megiddo " (Judg. v. 19-21), 
and Pharaoh Necho defeated and slew Josiah, i.e., in " the plain 
of Megiddo "(2 Kings xxiii. 29, 30; 2 Chron. xxxv. 22; Herod, 
ii. 159). But the phrase " mountains of Megiddo " is not found 
elsewhere. Owing to this fact it has been proposed by Hilgen- 
feld to take "Ap May€8wv as = n"'i» "ly, where, -iy=-i"'y= "city of 
Megiddo." Volter regards "Ap as = yns, " land." But both these 
conjectures have failed to meet with acceptance. It is best at 
present to regard the first element in the phrase as = 
"mountains"; for the final conflict in Ezek. xxxviii. 8, 21, 
xxxix. 2, 4, 17 — a passage which influenced our author in 
XX. 8-1 1 — was to take place on "the mountains of Israel." In 
Dan. xi. 45 the writer expected that Antiochus would meet his 
end " between the sea and the glorious holy mountain." Since 
Megiddo is not associated with any eschatological expectation, it 
is possible some corruption underlies this word. Hence 
the phrase in Daniel, "glorious holy mountain" ( = Mt. 
Zion), as well as the expression in Ezekiel, " mountains of 
Israel," may give some support to the conjecture cited by Cheyne 
{Encyc. Bib. i. 311) that "Ap May£8wi/ = hjp in, his "fruitful 
mountain." This would associate the battle scene with Jeru- 
salem as in Joel iii. 2 ; Zech. xiv. 2 sqq. ; i Enoch Ivi. 7, 
xc. 13-19. As Rome was to be laid desolate by the kings of the 
East, xvi. 12, xvii. 16-17, so (after the destruction of the kings of 
the East — see xix. 13 «.) the kings of the whole earth were to be 
destroyed in the neighbourhood of Zion. Now, since xvi. 1 4, 1 6 and 
XX. 8-10 are both ultimately derived from Ezek. xxxviii. -xxxxix., 
and since in xx. 8-10 the scene of the last great struggle at the 
close of the Millennial Kingdom is placed in the neighbourhood 
of the Heavenly Jerusalem (which has taken the place of the 
Old), it is possible that *Ap MaycSwv may be a corruption either 
for i'HJp in = " his fruitful mountain," as above suggested, or for 
mpn"iy, " the desirable city " {i.e. Jerusalem : cf. men pK, " the 
desirable land," i.e. Palestine, Jer. iii. 19 ; Zech. vii. 14). The 
latter suggestion derives some countenance from xx. 9, t^v ttoKiv 
riji' YiyaTrrjixivov, which is there surrounded by the hostile armies 



XVI. 16-18.] THE SEVENTH BOWL 5 1 

of Gog and Magog. But everything connected with the text and 
meaning of the phrase is uncertain. Hence Gunkel, followed by 
Cheyneand Bousset, conjectures in his Schopfungund Chaos, 263- 
266, that we have in this mysterious phrase a survival of some 
ancient myth — no longer intelligible to our author — which associ- 
ated the final conflict of the gods with some ancient mountain. 
Hommel's suggestion that the phrase goes back to ny^D in 
(Isa. xiv. 13) = " the mountain in the north where the gods meet," 
springs from the same view of the passage. Hence Bousset con- 
cludes that the context here goes back to an ancient myth which 
described the assault on the holy mountain of the gods by an 
army of demons mustered by certain evil spirits. To this myth 
our author in Bousset's opinion gave an historical character by 
connecting it with the Parthians. See Nestle's art. in Hastings' 
D.B. ii. 304 sq. 

17-21. The seventh Bowl. Just as the fifth and sixth Bowls 
showed undeniable affinities with the first and second Woes, so the 
seventh Bowl appears to be slightly related to the third Woe, xi. 
14-19. In xvi. 17 a voice from heaven declares that the punish- 
ment of the heathen and of the great city of Rome is now com- 
pleted in the pouring out of the seventh Bowl with the results about 
to be recounted. In xi. 18^ it is said that the time has come for 
"destroying those who destroy the earth " : cf. xix. 2. This con- 
nection is indeed slight in itself, but there are others, for the 
"earthquake and great hail" in xi. 19 are described at some 
length in xvi. 18-21. 

^le'xeei' . . . em rhv Ae'pa. On this visitation on the air cf. 
ix. 2. The construction with hci here is extraordinary: see 
note on i. 

^K TOO j'aou diro tou dpofou. A divine voice was heard coming 
from the Temple in xvi. i. Here the place whence it comes is 
more nearly defined. Throughout the Apocalypse the throne is 
connected with the Temple, though at times it is impossible to 
visualize the vision. But, as we have seen in the note on iv. 2, 
the combination of the Temple and throne scenery goes far back 
into Judaism. 

4>wi^ . . . diro TOO 0p<5»'oo. So also in xix. 5. It is note- 
worthy that in exactly a similar connection our author uses 
Ik Tor Qpovov in xxi. 3. 

•^i>(wtv. Cf. xxi. 6. The great voice from the throne, which 
had commanded these plagues, xvi. i, now proclaims that they 
are at an end. 

18. dorpa-irai Kal <^u»'ai xal ^pofTai. See notes on iv. 5, 
viii. 5- 

aeiajxos . . . ptEyas- Cf. viii. 5, xi. 19. 

otos ooK ey^KCTo d^*' oi5 afOpuTroi ^yeVofTo lirl Ttjs Y^5- The 



$2 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. 18-20. 

phraseology is borrowed from Dan. xii. i. Cf. Theod. dXC^i^ 
Ota ov yiyoviv a<f> ^s yiyivrjTai e^i'os cV tyj yy (cVl t^? yi}s, AQ), 
and the LXX ola ovk iya'rjdy] d<^' ov iyevi^dqcrav. Here the €7rt 
T^s y^s is found both in our text and Theod. — a fact which may 
point to the presence of pK3 in the text of Daniel in the 
I St cent. A.D. Our text is clearly an independent rendering of 
Dan. xii. i. Cf. Ass. Mos. viii. i, " ira quae talis non fuit in illis." 

19. [*cal iyevero . . . els Tpia fxeprj] Kal ot iroXeis tw iQy(av 
iitevav. I have bracketed the first clause ; for ets rpta /xep-q is 
against the usage of our author, who would have written cts 
/ie/37/ T/)ia : cf. xvi. 13, xxi. 13 (four times). Moreover, there 
is no hint in xvii.-xviii. that Rome had suffered from a violent 
earthquake. Rome is dealt with in the words which follow — koi 
Ba^vAwv ktX. These words prepare the reader for xvii.-xviii. 

iyiviTo . . . €is. Cf. Acts v. 36. In viii. 11 of our author 
the text is corrupt. 

^ iroXis iq fieydXT). Here as in xiv. 8 (see note) it is Rome, 
not Jerusalem, that is designated as "Babylon the Great." 
Jerusalem had already been in part overthrown by an earth- 
quake in xi. 13 : 7000 of its inhabitants had been thereby 
destroyed and the rest had repented. Here, according to the 
interpolator, it is Rome that is visited by an earthquake, and that 
an earthquake such as had never yet been experienced on earth, 
and yet in xvii. 3-4 Rome appears not to have suffered in this 
earthquake in the least degree. Its final overthrow and destruc- 
tion are yet to come in xvii.-xviii. This judgment and that of 
the great hail do not lead men to repent : rather they blas- 
pheme the more: cf. ver. 21. To identify Babylon here with 
Jerusalem, as is done by J. Weiss, Moffatt, and some other 
scholars, is against the whole context and the right conception of 
xvii.-xviii. 

IfiK^aOt] Soui'ai. The passive use of fxvrja-O^vai is found in 
Ezek. iii. 20 (ov fir] fivrjcrOCjcnv at 8t/catooT;vai avrov), xviii. 22, 24. 
It is found also in Acts x. 31 and elsewhere. As regards the 
construction we should compare xi. 18, rjXOiv 6 Katp6<s . . . 
Sowat, xvi. 9, ov fi€T€v6r](rav Sowat. In Ps. cix. 16 and ciii. 18 we 
find the infinitive in Hebrew after "13T. 

TO ■noTf\pioy Tou oicou TOO 6u,uou TTJs ^pY^S auTou. See notes 
on xiv. 8, 10. The expression tov dv/xov t^<; opyijs recurs in xix. 
15. In Isa. vii. 4; Jer. iv. 26, xxv. 16 (xlix. 37), xxxii. 23 
(xxv, 37); Lam. i, 12, ii. 3, iv. 11 ; Ezek. xxiii. 25 ; Hos. xi. 9; 
Nah. i. 6, we find the combination opyij 6vfxov { = f\ii pin). 
The order Ovfxo^ opyrj^ is infrequent in the LXX but it is found : 
cf. Isa. ix. 18. 

20. TTaaa Ktjaos cc^uyei'. Cf. vi. 1 4, ttolv opo9 Kat v^o-os . . . 
iKivT]Or]<ray. 



XVI. 20-21.] THE SEVENTH BOWL 53 

oox etipeQr](Tav. Cf. v. 4, xii. 8, xiv. 5, xviii. 21, xx. 11 (e^vycv 
rjyrj ... /<ai tottos ovx evpeOrj) — a familiar Hebrew expression 
(IXV03 ab) • cf. Ps. xxxvi. (xxxvii.) 36. 

opT] o6x i6p4Br](rav. This disappearance of the mountains is 
one of the signs of the end of the world : cf. vL 14; also Ass. 
Mos. X. 4, " And the high mountains shall be made low, and 
the hills shall be shaken and fall," also i Enoch i. 6. In 
later Christian Apocalyptic this idea is found not unfrequently : 
cf. Sibyl. Or. viii. 234, 236, vi^too-ei Se 4>dpayya<;, 6\el 8' in/^w^ara 
/Souvwv, vi(/o<i 8* ovKeTL koiTTOV (so Hase) €V avOpMnoKTi cf>av€tTaL. 
Tcra 8' oprj ttcSiois eorai Kal Tracra OdXacrcra ovk€ti ttX-ovv cf ct. 

A Latin translation of viii. 217-250 is given in Augustine, Z>e 
Civitate Dei, xviii. 23 : 

" Dejiciet coUes, valles extoUet ab imo. 
Non erit in rebus hominum sublime vel altum. 
Tarn aequantur campis montes et coerula ponti 
Omnia cessabunt." 

Lactantius, Div. Instit. vii. 16, 11, "Montes quoque altissimi 
decident et planis aequabuntur, mare innavigabile constitue- 
tur." 

The idea underlying these passages is to be carefully dis- 
tinguished from that which appears in the Zend religion to the 
effect that the mountains, being the work of the evil spirit 
Ahriman, would disappear with him, and the new earth would be 
"an iceless, slopeless plain ; even the mountain whose summit is 
the support of the Kinvat bridge they keep down, and it will 
not exist," Bund. xxx. 33 {S.B.E. v. 129 sq.). The object of the 
earth being made a smooth plain was, as Boklen states {Eschat- 
ologie, p. 133), to make intercourse easy for the renewed humanity. 
In this connection, cf. Sib. Or. iii. 776 sqq. 

Yet another idea underlies the use of analogous phrases in 
Isa. xl. 4 ; I Bar. v. 5-9 ; Pss. Sol. xi. 5. 

21. x^^a^a fAcydXt]. So also in xi. 19. Probably the *T13 
133 of Ex. ix. 24 — the seventh of the Egyptian plagues. 

ii% TttXafTiaia. A talent {toXovtov = "133) weighed something 
between 108 and 130 lbs. The word raAavTiaios is found in 
Polybius and Josephus, as Swete points out. 

4p\a<r<()r)fjiT)o-ai' . . . Tof Btiv. As in xvi. 9, n SO here the 
effect of the judgment is only to harden the hearts of the heathen 
nations. This attitude of theirs stands in contrast with that of 
the Jews in xi. 13. 

(r<|>6Spa. Here only in our author. It stands last like nxD 
in Hebrew, not only here but elsewhere in the N.T. Cf. Matt. 
ii. 10, xxvi. 22 ; Mark xvi. 4, etc. But in all such cases acjiuopa 



54 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. § 1. 

follows immediately after the adjective it qualifies, whereas here, 
as occasionally in the case of the Hebrew HNID, the adjective and 
adverb are sundered. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

§ I. Contents and Authorship. 

This chapter begins with a promise on the part of an angel to 
the Seer to show him "the judgment of the Great Harlot," but 
throughout the chapter this subject is not referred to save once 
(in xvii. i6), and alike the vision in xvii. 3''-6 and its interpreta- 
tion by the angel are concerned with the Beast, which according 
to the present form of the text symbolizes the demonic Nero, or 
Nero returning from the abyss to lead the Parthian powers 
against Rome. The judgment of the Great Harlot is given at 
length in xviii. 

But if we are to give the subject the fuller treatment it 
demands, we soon recognize that xvii. cannot be treated apart 
from xviii. Thus in xvii. i an angel summoned the Seer to 
show him "the judgment of the Great Harlot," and transported 
him in the spirit (xvii. 3) to the wilderness, where he had a vision 
of the woman and of the scarlet Beast, whereon she sat, with its 
seven heads and ten horns. Now the woman was magnificently 
arrayed in purple and scarlet and adorned with gold and precious 
stones, and on her forehead she bore the name of Babylon, the 
mother of fornication and abomination, and she was drunken 
with the blood of Christian martyrs (xvii. 4-6). And when the 
Seer was filled with amazement at what he saw, the angel turned 
aside from his original purpose of showing him the judgment of 
the Great Harlot, and proceeded to explain the hidden meaning 
of the woman and the IBeast with the seven heads and ten horns. 
The Beast, said the angel, " was and is not and is about to come 
up out of the abyss and goeth to destruction," and all the faith- 
less upon earth shall marvel at his return after his death (xvii. 
7-8), but they that are wise will not do so ; for they will see that 
the seven heads are seven kings, of whom the sixth is at present 
reigning. This sixth would in due course be succeeded by the 
seventh, who would reign but a short time. And on the death 
of the seventh king would follow an eighth, who was in reality 
the Beast — and yet he would not be the eighth king, since he 
was actually one of the seven (xvii. 9-1 1). (The Beast is clearly 
here the demonic Nero returning to earth from the abyss.) 

So much for the seven heads. As for the ten horns, these 
are ten subordinate kings who will shortly come into their royal 
authority, and with one accord will, through the ordinance of 



XVII. § 1.] CONTENTS AND AUTHORSHIP 55 

God, place all their power at the disposal of the Beast, and the 
Beast and these kings will hate the Harlot, and destroy her by 
fire (xvii. 12-13, i7> ^^)- ^'^"^ having destroyed the Harlot 
they will go to war with the Lamb, but they will be overcome by 
the Lamb and His followers (xvii. 14, a conquest implied by 
xix. 13). Now the Harlot is none other than the city Rome 
(xvii. 18), whose doom is described in the vision that follows. 

So much for the thought of the chapter as it stands. But the 
order of events is strange and unexpected. Though the Seer 
has promised in xvii. i a vision of the judgment of the Great 
Harlot, in all the verses that follow there is not a reference to 
this subject save in xvii. 16. The promise, in fact, is not 
redeemed till xviii., for the single mention of this judgment in 
xvii. 16 cannot be regarded as a fulfilment of it. xviii. is 
necessarily introduced by the technical phrase /ttcra ravra eiSov, 
since other weighty subjects have intervened between xvii. i and 
its fulfilment in xviii. 

The irregular character of this chapter prepares us for the 
conclusion which a detailed study of it makes manifest, i.e. that 
our author is here using sources which for convenience' sake are 
here designated as A and B. A= i''-2, 3*'-6% 7, 18, and some 
clauses in 8-10. B is fragmentary: 11-13, 17, 16 (see § 5). 
The order of the words in A is Semitic, but not in B, and 
whereas the diction and idiom in both show indubitable traces 
of our author's hand, they just as indubitably contain idioms 
which are against his usage (§ 3). Again, though the thought 
underlying the />resenf form of the chapter is that of our author, 
even the most superficial criticism makes it clear that this 
thought is superinduced, and that the meaning of the symbol 
"the Beast" has been transformed by additions to the text. 
Thus in A the Beast symbolized the Roman Empire, a meaning 
which still survives in xvii. 3, whereas in B it symbolized the 
Hving Nero returning from the East at the head of the Parthian 
kings in order to destroy Rome (§ 4). By certain additions in 
xvii. 8, 1 1 the Beast has come to symbolize Nero redivivus or 
the demonic Nero coming up from the abyss — an expectation 
prevalent from 90 a.d. onwards in many Christian communities. 

There are certain dislocations of the text. Thus xvii. 17 
should be transposed before xvii. 16, and xvii. 14 — an addition 
of our author — should be placed after xvii. 16, since it deals 
with the destruction of the Beast and his Parthian allies, who in 
xvii. 17, 16 have already destroyed Rome. There are two 
glosses, one in xvii. 9, which gives an alternative and wrong 
interpretation of the seven heads in xvii. 9, and another in xvii. 
15, which was originally a marginal gloss on litX vZtiTwv in xvii. i 
and has got wrongly thrust into its present position (§ 4). 



56 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. § 2-3. 

In the Introd. to xviii. we shall find' grounds for regarding A 
and xviii. as derived from one and the same source. 

§2. The order of the Words. 

So far as the order of the words goes, this chapter falls into 
two parts, xvii. i-io is Hebraic as to order. Thus the verb 
precedes the object three times in xvii. 7, twice in xvii. 3, and 
once in xvii. i, 6. In xvii. 8 the verb precedes the subject 
twice, and once in xvii. i and 2. In xvii. 4-5 there are only 
substantive sentences. 

In xvii. 1 1-17 the order is decidedly non-Semitic. Only once, 
i.e. in xvii. 17, does the verb precede the subject, whereas the 
object, and also the subject where expressed, precede the verb 
twice in each of the verses xvii. 12, 13, 16 {i.e. six times 
in three verses). Again, in each of xvii. 14, 16, 17 the order 
subj. vb. obj. occurs once, and in each of xvii. 14, 15 the 
order subj. and vb. It is true that in some of these cases the 
order is quite good Semitic, inasmuch as its unusualness serves 
to mark emphasis, opposition, or the like : but in respect of order 
xvii. 11-17 is, as a whole, non-Semitic and differs in this respect 
from xvii. i-io. Such a fact can hardly be accidental, and must 
be accounted for. The linguistic character of xvii. 11-17 is 
almost without parallel in the rest of the book save in xi. T-13, 
which on these and other grounds we were obliged to attribute 
to a Greek or Aramaic source (see i. p. 270 sqq.). Any theory 
as to the authorship of xvii. should account for these facts. So far 
as these facts go we are predisposed to assign xvii. i-io and 
xvii. 11-17 (or the original forms of these; for they exhibit 
undoubted marks of revision, as we shall see presently) to different 
sources, the latter apparently to a Greek source. 

§ 3. The diction and idiom of this Chapter show manifest traces of 
the hand of our author {in the way of revision, as we shall 
see later), but they ate frequently against his usage. 

{a) Traces of the hand of our author, especially in xvii. i-p, 14. 
{which verse is wholly frotn his hand). — kuI r\\Qe.v . . . Sei^w in 
xvii. I, recurs in xxi. 9 : indeed every word and phrase of xvii. i 
are from our author. Thus ets eic is his universal usage. On 
^XiiXtjaeK . . . Xiyoiv and 8ei|u cot see iv. I n. In xvii. 3, &Trf\- 
ccyKCK . . . iv TTt'eufAUTi recurs in xxi. 10. The constructions 
Ka0ir](Ji^fT)s ^irl d^drutv, xvii. I ^ and K.a6it]}j.ivii]v itrl Qr\pioy in xvii. 3 

^ If, as we shall seek to prove, part of xvii. i has come from a source, then 
the form of the phrase Kad-q/xfvr)s iirl vddTwp troWCiv seems to come from our 
author ; for the phrase is clearly derived from Jer. li. (xxviii.) 13, and since 
KuO^Qadat is never used as a translation of j:c which is in the original here, 



XVII. § 3.] DICTION AND IDIOM 57 

are also his idiom (see iv. 2, note). ircpiPcpXiiiJieni c. ace. xvii. 4 
(see iii. 5, note) ; also cm to ficTwirov auTTJs, xvii. 5 (see vii. 3 n.) ; 
also 01 KaroiKouk'Tes eiri ttis yfis, xvii. 8 ^ (see i. p. 336, and con- 
trast 01 KOToiKoui'Tes TTji/ yTJi', xvii. 2) ; also Tji' Kai ouK eaTif Kal 
pAXei di'ttPatj'en' . . . u-n-dyci and on tji' . . . irdpearai in xvii. 8 ; 
JiSe . . . (To^idv (cf. xiii. i8) in xvii. 9 ; S tji' . . . earii' and Kal 
els dircSXeiai' uirdyei in xvii. 11, and oitii'cs ( = 01) in xvii. 12. 
xvii. 14 is wholly from his hand : with outoi . . . vi.K^af.i aoTou's 
cf. xiii. 7, which is his; with icopios . . . ^aaCKiiiiv cf. xix. 16 — 
while mcrr<5s is often used by him. In xvii. 16 we have an instance 
of an idiom used by our author; /.if. T|pT]|xup,£'r»]»' iroi'qaooan' a\>T(\v : 
cf xii. 15, xxi. 5. In xvii. 17 with TcXeaOrjaoiTai cf. x. 7, xv. 8, 
XX. 3, 5, 7. 

(b) Idiom and diction against his usage. — In xvii. 2, ol Karoi- 
KoukT€s r\\v yr\v conflicts with the universal usage of our author : 
see vol. i. p. 336, and note on xi. 10. yi^ovra dfojiara, xvii. 3 (3'') 
— elsewhere c. gen. See n. on xvii. 3. In xvii. 8 •^iypairron iiii 
TO pipxiok is against his usage ; for in this phrase we have always 
ypd(f)i(r6aL iv tw /Sl/SXiio elsewhere : cf. (i. 3) xiii. 8, xx. 12, xxi. 27 
[xxii. 18, 19]. In different phrases ypa^nv liri cum ace. is found : 
cf. il. 17, CTTt TTjv xpTjfjiOv . . . yeypa/x/xivov I iii. 12, ypdyj/o) itr avTov 
TO ovofia: cf. also xix. 16. The order in auTOK Sci is against his 
usage, xvii. 10 — elsewhere Set precedes: cf. x. 11, xx. 3, xi. 5: 
^K rCiv e-nrd, xvii. II — elsewhere in Apoc. always cTsck: cf. v. 5, 
vi. I {h's), vii. 13, ix. 13, xiii. 3, xv. 7, xvii. i, xxi. 9. 

In xvii. 8, which like xiii. 8 is a rendering of the same Hebrew 
source, the split relative is not reproduced in the Greek, though 
it is in xiii. 8. In xvii. 15 o5 is used, though our author uses ottou 
always elsewhere (but this verse is a gloss on xvii. i). ycwfiTj in 
xvii. 13, 1 7 is not found elsewhere in the Apoc, and the form of the 
enumeration in xvii. 15 is not that of our author. Here oxA-ot is 
substituted for Xaoi: see note in loc. Finally, in xvii. 17 axpi is 
followed by the indicative (by the subjunctive in inferior MSS) 
but elsewhere in our author by the subjunctive : see ii. 25, note. 

From ip) we see that this chapter exhibits many constructions, 
which are against our author's usage elsewhere in the Apocalypse. 

On the other hand, {a) just as decidedly exhibits his handi- 
work. Since the thought underlying the present form of the 
text is that of our author, the obvious hypothesis is that he is 
making use of sources, which he revises and recasts to suit his 

Ko.Ta.<rK-t]vo<iat)^ (as in the LXX) would be the natural rendering. But our 
author could not use this latter participle, since it is reserved by him for 
dwellers in heaven ; see note on xvii. i. Hence we have Ka6rifi4v7)s 4irl iiddrui^ 
instead possibly of KaracKrivoiiay)^ iirl iiddruv. 

' Since this verse has been recast by our author, this form of this phrase 
instead of that in xvii. 2 may be due to him. 



58 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. § 3-4. 

own purpose. In other words, the evidence of this section tends to 
prove that not only is xvii. il-iy based on a source, as we inferred 
in § 2, but also xvii. i-io, i8. 

Further research will define more closely the extent and 
character of these sources. But first of all we must show that 
the conclusions provisionally arrived at from the form of the text 
are confirmed by the subject-matter. Hence we shall now 
proceed to prove that the chapter as it stands is of a composite 
nature. 

§ 4. The text is deranged and composite — being based on two 
Sources. 

The text is deranged, however we may account for it. For 
whereas in xvii 7 the angel promises to disclose the mystery of 
the woman and the Beast (which the Seer had already seen in 
xvii. 3) and in this order, he at once proceeds to tell the mystery 
of the Beast, and there is no mention of the woman till xvii. 18. 
Hence the natural position of xvii. 18 is immediately after 
xvii. 7. Again, xvii. 17, which gives the explanation of xvii. 13, 
can hardly have been read unless in immediate connection with 
xvii. 13: i.e. 13, "These have one mind, and they give their 
power and authority unto the beast. 17. For God did put into 
their hearts to do His mind [and to come to one mind], and to 
give their kingdom unto the beast," etc. 

The chapter is also composite. We have already seen in 
§ 3 that whereas certain parts of the chapter show clear traces 
of the hand of John, the phraseology of certain other parts is 
decidedly against his usage. We have also seen in § 2 that the 
order of the words in xvii. i-io is Semitic, whereas that in 
xvii. H-17 is not so. Now, if with these facts we combine the 
further one that, whereas xvii. i-io culminates in a prediction 
of the death of Titus (xvii. 10), the other (xvii. 11-17) culminates 
in a prediction of the destruction of the Harlot City (xvii. 16), 
we can hardly evade the conclusion that behind these two 
sections there were two independent sources.^ But there is 
another indication of the independence of these two sections. 
In xvii. 3, 7 the Beast can only be the Roman Empire, whereas 
originally in xvii. 11-13, 17, 16 the Beast was not the Roman 
Empire (as originally in xvii. 3-10), but the living Nero 
returning from the East at the head of the Parthian kings. 

That our author, therefore, has laid two sources under 
contribution is to be concluded from the above phenomena, 
in the first of which the Beast represented the Roman Empire, 

' I have thus on largely independent grounds arrived at the same con- 
clusions as Wellhausen (Analyse, 26-29) on the original sources of this 
chapter. 



XVII. § 4-5.J THE TWO SOURCES A AND B 59 

whereas in the second it represented the living Nero returning 
from the East at the head of the Parthian hosts (cf. xvi. 12). 

To the above evidence of the compositeness of this chapter 
we might add the twofold explanation of the seven heads in 
xvii. 9-10 as symbohzing seven hills and seven kings : the 
glaring contradiction between xvii. 16, where the ten horns are 
represented as God's agents in destroying Rome, although they 
had themselves been already destroyed by the Lamb and His 
followers in xvii. 14,^ and the belated gloss in xvii. 15, which 
has no raison d'etre in its present position but was obviously 
added by a stupid scribe originally in the margin opposite xvii. i 
as an explanation of t>5s tto/ovtjs . . . t^s Kadrjfievrjs i-rrl vSdrwv. 

§ 5. The two Sources A and B, and their dates. 

In the determination of these two sources I agree on the 
whole with Wellhausen.^ A consists, according to this scholar, 
of 3 (with the exception of the phrase "and ten horns ")-4, 6^-7 
(with the exception of "and the ten horns"), 9 (excluding all 
but the words "the seven heads"), 10 (omitting the initial 
"and"). He thinks that 18 may have originally stood after 7 
but was omitted by the redactor, who, however, out of a feeling 
of conscientiousness added it at the close of B ! B consists, he 
holds, of 11-13, 16 (omitting "and the ten horns which thou 
sawest and the beast"), 17. A and B were bound together by a 
redactor and revised. In A, 6 is a Christian addition, and in 
B 14. xvii. 1-3 may, with the exception of xvii. i', have 
belonged either to A or B. 

1 am unable to accept Wellhausen's hypothesis in all its 
details, but, as we have already seen (§§ 2, 3), the evidence of 
the order of the words and to some extent the idioms point to 
two sources, and these, like Wellhausen, I designate as A and B. 

(a) A consisted originally of 1*= (beginning with to Kpi/xa t^s 

TTOpVT/S . . •)-2, 3^ {koX €l8ov . . .)-6 (om. Kal €K. . . . '\r](TOv), 

7, 18, 8 (om. ^v KoX ovK . . . vwdyei which addition has dis- 
placed a clause : om. also on rjv . . . ■n-apco-Tat), 9 (om. wSc . . . 
crof^iav and eTrra . . . avroiv), lo (om. the first koi). 

In this oracle the beast is the Roman Empire, its seven 
heads are the Roman emperors, five of whom belong to the 
past, one is, i.e., Vespasian, whereas the seventh, Titus, as the 

^ This, however, is no doubt due to an accidental displacement. When 
it is read after 11-13, 17, 16 this contradiction disappears. In the text as it 
stands the demonic Nero returning from the abyss is the Antichrist, and there- 
fore must be destroyed by the Christ. 

^ Bousset regards xvii. 1-7, 9-1 1, 15-18 as an original Jewish source of 
Vespasian's time, while he assigns xvii. 8, 12-14 *nd certain clauses in 6, 9, 
1 1 to the last editor of the Apocalypse. 



60 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. ,^5-6. 

destroyer of Jerusalem, would speedily perish. The date is thus 
fixed and the authorship may have been Jewish Christian. 

(d) B = 1 1 (om. o ^v Kol OVK eoTiv Ktti and kuI eis (XTrwAciav vTrayti), 
12-13, 17, 16. In this second oracle the Beast is Nero returning 
from the East, and not the Roman Empire as in A. The order 
of the words, as we have shown (§ 2), differs in B from that in A. 
This source is fragmentary. Preceding ver. 11 there must have 
been some account of the seven heads, but not that in A, sinc^^ 
it identified the Beast with the Roman Empire and not with 
Nero.^ Since the eighth is spoken of, i.e. Nero returning from 
the East, we may conclude with great probability that it was 
written during the reign of Titus. The oracle may be regarded 
as written by a Jew; for whereas the hatred of the Jews was 
fierce against Rome in the time of Vespasian and Titus, it was 
not so on the part of the Christians. The Christians, moreover, 
could not have had any sympathy with Nero. Their expectation 
is best expressed in the addition of John, i.e. ver. 14, where 
Nero and his allies attack the Lamb. 

We have already observed that 15 was originally a marginal 
gloss on ver. i, ttjs Tropvrjs . . . cttI vSttTwv. Ver. 14 is clearly 
from the hand of John, 16 manifestly stood originally after 17. 

§ 6. Our author's editing of A and B and the new meaning 
given thereby to the whole. 

Now that we have determined the extent of A and B, we 
have next to show the use our author made of them. First of 
all, the introductory words in xvii. i, koX y]kB(.v cIs Ik . . . Aevpo 
Sci'lo) o-ot, are clearly from his hand. Then follow the words 
from A, TO Kp'uKo. . . , TT\<i Tropv€La<: avrrj^, which form the title of 
xviii. But though 7rdpvj/s is preceded by the article — another 
fact pointing to a source — the Harlot has not been mentioned as 
yet. The original vision of the Harlot consisted of the source A, 
in which the Beast was the Roman Empire on which the woman 
(Rome) was seated. This source our author introduces by 3** 
Kttt a-Tri^veyKtv fxe €is cprj/xov iv Trvev/xari. In 3—7 he makes no 
change save by the insertion (?) of koI Kepara ScKa in 3, in order 
to prepare for B (i.e. 11-13, 17, 16), and by the addition of the 
clause 6^ /cat €k tov ai/Aaros . . . 'Irjcrov. In 8-10 he has recast 
the text. For the original form of 8 sec the note in loc. (p. 67 sq.). 
His additions, ^v koX ovk ecrnv . . . VTrdyti and oTt ^v . . . 
irdpea-TaL, transform the meaning of the verse, which, though it 
originally identified the Beast with the Roman Empire, signifies 
in its present form the demonic Nero returning from the abyss, 

' The Beast is the supporter of the woman, i.e. Rome (xvii. 3), in A, 
whereas in B the Beast is the destroyer of Rome, xvii. 12, 16. 



2tVII. § 6-8.] CHANGED MEANING OF A AND B 6l 

In 9, u)Se 6 i/ov? . . . o-o^iav is from his hand, while cTrra oprj . . . 
eTT* avTwv Kttt is clearly the gloss of an ignorant scribe. Ver. i8, 
which originally stood in A after 7, was transposed to its present 
position in order to introduce the great chapter xviii. on the 
doom of Rome. 

Having utilized A our author now proceeds to incorporate B 
of which only 11-13, 17, 16 survives in our author's work. The 
introduction, as we have already pointed out (§ 5 (<5)), has been 
omitted and its place is now taken by 10, which belongs to A. 
Two clauses have been introduced by our author into 11, i.e. 
o j/v Kal ovK t(TTiv and Koi CIS ttTTtuAetav vvdyei. By their intro- 
duction the expectation of a living Nero returning from the East 
at the head of the Parthians is transformed into an expectation 
of a demonic Nero, as in xvii, 8. 12-13 ^^e apparently as they 
stood in the original oracle, but 14-15 had no place there. 15 
is, as we have elsewhere observed, a gloss, which stood originally 
in the margin opposite ver. i (t^s Tropv^s . . . iwl iSdrm'), while 
14 comes from our author's hand ; but, since it could only 
properly follow 16, as it deals with the destruction of the Beast 
and his Parthian allies, who in 16 destroy Rome, it has most 
probably got displaced. Thus 11-17 should be read in the 
following order : 11-13, 17, 16, 14. 

Thus by his editorial changes and additions our author has 
transformed the original meaning of his sources except in ver. 3, 
where the Beast is still the Roman Empire. Throughout the 
rest of the chapter, however, the Beast has become none other 
than the demonic Nero. 

% J. A ( = xvii. i''-2, 3''-6*, 7, 18, and certain clauses in 8-10) 
was probably derived from the same source as xviii. 

See Introd. to xviii. § 7. 

§ 8. ^, though found by our author in a Greek fornix was most 
probably translated from a Hebrew source. 

In §§ 6, 3 I have shown that, although there are indubitable 
signs of our author's revision of A, yet some idioms and con- 
structions survive, which are contrary to his usage — such as ol 
KaTotKOWT€s Tqv yy]v (xvii. 2), ■yi.\x.ovra. ovo^juara. (xvii. 3), -yiypaiTTai 
eirl TO fii^Xiov (xvii. 8). It thus appears that the Greek form of 
A is not due to our author. 

But, further, there are signs that A was originally written in 
Hebrew. Thus, if rropvwv is the original text in xvii. 5, the 
context (^BeXvyfiaToiv) suggests that we should here have not 
" harlots " but " harlotry." This, as I have shown in the note 



62 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 1. 

in loc.^ could have arisen from a misreading of ni3T ( = harlotry) 

as ni:f = " harlots." 

But the strongest evidence is that found in ver. 8, which is a 
doublet of xiii. 3*^, 8. These two passages cannot, so far as I 
can discover, be explained except as independent Greek render- 
ings of one and the same Hebrew original, the Greek rendering 
of xiii. 3*^, 8 being that of our author and the Greek of xviii. 8 
being that of some unknown scholar. This question is fully 
dealt with in the Introd. to xiii. § 4, vol. i. p. 337. 

1. Kai TJXflej' cts CK tS>v cirrd ayyiXav jQiv exok'Twj' ras ^irra 
4)idXas, Kal e\(i\T)(T£i' {jlct' cfiou \iyiiiv' Aeupo, Sci^u aoi to Kpip,a 
TT]S iropinrjs ttJs |i,CYaXTjs ttjs xaOrjp.^i'T]? cm uSdrwc ttoXXwc, 

2. p,e0' ^s e-iropfeuaaf 01 |3ao-i,X£is tt]s Y'H^' ^^"^^ cfxcOuadirjaak ol 
KaToiKoucTcs TTji' YTji* cK ToC oii'ou T^s TTopceias aUTT]S. 

1. els . . . dyYeXuK. One of the angels of the Bowls acts as 
the angel of interpretation. The words koi rjXOev els . . . Sci^w 
<TOL recur in xxi. 9. On i\dkr](r€ fier ifiov Xeytov see iv. i «. 
SfC^u) o-oi has already occurred in iv. i ; Sevpo, as we have seen, 
recurs in xxi. 9. 

ri> Kpifjia TT]s iTopnfis . . . iropkcias outtjs. These words form 
the title that should be prefixed to chap, xviii. They prepare us 
for a vision of the judgment of the Great Harlot, but there is none 
such in xvii. 3-18: only a prediction of it in xvii. 16. But in 
xviii. we have an elaborate vision of this judgment, and it 
is therefore to this chapter that these words form a title. And 
lest there should be any doubt on this head we find that the 
greater part of the title xvii. 2 is repeated in xviii. 3, though the 
order of the clauses is reversed and the diction slightly changed, 
and that the words to KpC/xa reappear as ■^ KpCa-Ls in reference to 
her in xviii. 10. Cf. also xviii. 8, 20. But since the Great Harlot 
has not hitherto been mentioned, another vision is necessary to 
her identification. In this vision (xvii. 3-6) she appears riding 
the Beast with seven heads and ten horns — elements which are 
duly interpreted in xvii. 9, 12. 

TO Kptfjia TTJs rcopvt]^. The Harlot is the city of Rome. This 
word is applied to Nineveh by Nahum (iii. 4), and to Tyre by 
Isaiah (xxiii. 16, 17). In 5 it is named Babylon. The doom of 
Babylon has already been pronounced twice, xiv. 8, xvi. 19. 
Rome is already known by this name in i Pet. v. 13; 2 Bar. 
Ixvii. 7, " The King of Babylon will arise who has now destroyed 
Zion"; and the Sibylline Oracles, v. 143, 159. 

TT]s Ka0Tifi^>'T)s ^irl 68dTu»' iroXXwj'. This is an independent trans- 
lation of Jer. li. (LXX— xxviii.) 13, D'ai W^ bv ^nJDti'. The 
LXX has here KaTaa-KrjvowTa^ (KaTaa-KTjvovaa, Q) e0' vSacri iroXAot?. 
Karacriirjvoiiy or (tktjvovv is the natural rendering of ptJ' here, but our 
author reserves this word for dwellers in heaven : cf. vii. 15, xii. 12, 



XVII. 1-3.] VISION OF THE GREAT HARLOT 6t, 

xiii. 6. Rome cannot be rightly described as " sitting on many 
waters," but the description of Babylon, which stood for the 
personification of wickedness in the O.T., is here simply taken 
over. The idea of security may underlie the phrase : Babylon 
felt safe owing to the many waters on which it was situated — the 
Euphrates which fiowed through it and the morasses and canals 
by which it was surrounded (see Cornill on Jer. li. 13). Yet 
this fact that Rome did not sit on many waters was a difficulty 
to a later writer and led to the gloss in xvii. 15, that the many 
waters are many peoples. Bousset thinks that a still older tradi- 
tion lies behind this figure of a woman seated on many waters, 
and compares Sibyll. Or. iii. 75-77, v. 18, viii. 200. Gunkel 
{Schopfung, 361) finds in the "many waters" a reference to the 
abyss which was the dwelling of Tiamat. But, however this may 
be, there was no consciousness of the Babylonian myth in the 
mind of the writer. 

2. cTTcSpceucrai' 01 jSao-iXcis ttjs yfjs. Cf. xviii, 3, 9 for the 
recurrence of this diction. The iropvda of which the kings of the 
earth are guilty is set down to the account of all the nations in 
xiv, 8. They have all shared in the vices and idolatries of 
Rome. With €)X€0u'a6if](ra»' cf. Jer. xxviii. (li.) 7, ttottJplov xpvrrovv 
Ba^uAwv iv x^'-P'- K'>^P^ov, (iSvctkov iracrav ttjv yrjv. It points to 
the result of ttcttotikcv in xiv. 8 : cf. also xviii. 3. 01 KaroiKoun-cs 
TTJV Y^''- O" this construction, found here only, see note on 
xi. 10, and § 4 of the Introd. to xiii., vol. i. p. 336. On oXvou 
iropveias cf. xiv. 8, xviii. 3. We should observe that the relative 
construction is broken off in the sentence, Kal ifxeOvcrOrjcrav . . . 
avT^s. This is good Hebrew. It is also good Greek : see W.-M. 
sect. xxii. p. 186. 

It is noteworthy that in the two clauses fieO' ^s (iropvevaav . . . 
yrj<; and koi ifxeOvcrdrjo-av . . . aur^s of this verse and in xviii. 3, 
the same thought and largely the same language recur, but in the 
reverse order. 

3. Kttl a,Trf]veyKiv jic €is cpT)p,0K iv Trvcufiari. Kal elSoi' yu^'aiKa 
Ka6r]fi€\'r]v cm GTjpioc KOKKifOf, ycfxoiTO ovojiara pXaa({>T]|xias, Ix'^" 
K£(|>a\ds eirra Kal K^para ScKa. 

This clause introduces a new vision. See note on iv. 2. 
The Seer has the vision of Babylon in the wilderness : of the 
Heavenly Jerusalem from a lofty mountain top, xxi. 10, where see 
note. The contrast is significant. Many scholars think that the 
wilderness as the scene of the vision was suggested by Isa. xxi. i, 
where to the vision of the fall of Babylon is affixed the heading, 
"The oracle of the wilderness of the sea " (D^"131D Kfe'O). Here 
the LXX has simply to opafxa t^s Iprjixov. 

YUfaiKa . . . i-nX Qr\p[ov k6kkwov. The omission of the article 
before d-qpiov points to an independent vision here. The Beast 



64 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 3-4. 

is undoubtedly the Roman Empire. On its power the Harlot 
reposes. I'he scarlet colour indicates the luxury and ostentatious 
magnificence of the empire, and refers probably not to the Beast 
itself but to its covering. Swete quotes Juv. iii. 283 sq., " Cavet 
hunc, quern coccina laena Vitari iubet et comitum longissimus 
ordo." The word is a rendering in the LXX of y^in, ny'pin, '2Z', 
b'ois, "2^ nyijin or nyhn ^asi'. 

In this vision of the Harlot we may have an indirect contrast 
to the woman clothed with the sun in xii. 1-6. There is no real 
contradiction between the description of the woman in i as 
sitting on many waters and here sitting on the beast. The 
former is a traditional epithet of Babylon used descriptively by 
the angel, the latter represents the actual appearance in the 
vision. 

Y^jAorra 6v6^iara p\a<r(|>T]fii(is. The construction is Kara 
(Tvvca-Lv. In xiii. i names of blasphemy are only on the seven 
heads, i.e. the seven deified emperors. Here they cover the 
entire body, and may refer to the mnumerable deities of her own 
and subject countries which Rome recognized, ye/xctv c. ace. 
once in xvii. 4*^, but always elsewhere in Apoc. c. gen. iv. 6, 8, 
V. 8, XV. 7, xvii. 4^*, xxi. 9. 

€x«f Ke<j>aXas iirrd. Probably the original text. On the 
K€<^aAas cTTTa see note on xiii. i. 

4. ireptPepXTjp.cVT) . . . jiapyapiTats. Almost the same phrase 
recurs in xviii. 16. 

irop<|>upoui' Kal kokkikoi'. " Purple and scarlet." These 
colours symbolize the luxury and splendour of imperial Rome. 
The two colours are nearly allied, for the x^°^l^^^°- kokklvtjv of 
Matt, xxvii. 28 is called Trop^i'ptt in Mark xv. 17, 20, and lyuanov 
iropffyvpovv in John xix. 2, 5. But the colours are distinct. See 
Ex. XXV. 4, XX vi. I. 

KC)(^pu(T(iilj.€\'r\ \pu<Tiio Kttl Xi6<j> Tijjiiw. XtOio TLfuw Is generally 
said to depend on Ke^vcruy/j-eirj by a zeugma, "from which the 
reader must mentally supply some such participle as KCKocr/xT^/zev?/ " 
(Swete). But xp^^ovv appears to be used in a loose way m the 
LXX as = "to cover or adorn"; for xp^o-ovv xP^^-iw (2 Chron. 
iii. 10), Karaxpvcrovv ;^pvo-ta) (Ex. XXV. 11, 13; 2 Chron. iii. 4, 
ix. 17), irepixpvo'ovv XP^^'V (i Kings x. 18) are renderings of nsv 
( = to overlay) when followed by 3nT. Similarly xP'^^ovv xP^o^'V 
of nsn followed by 3nT in 2 Chron. iii. 7, 8. When followed 
by riKTij it is actually rendered KaraxaAKw/xsVa x^-^io^ in 2 Chron. 
iv. 9, and when followed immediately by mp'' ps in 2 Chron. iii 
6, by Koa-fidv. Hence we should render Kcxpi'crw/xeVi/ here by 
"covered." 

Xpuaiu . . . Kal fjiapyapiTais. Cf. T. Jud. xiii. 5, /cat tVocr 



XVII. 4-6.] VISION OF THE GREAT HARLOT 65 

firfatv avTr]v iv xpvcriii} KaX /iapyapirat?. These words are said of 
the father of Bathshua who so adorned her in order to seduce 
Judah. 

Ixouaa TTOTripioi' yjpwro^v iv Tjj x^'^P'' O'^ttj?. These words are 
modelled on Jer. xxviii. (li.) 7, irorqfjLov xpuo-ow Ba^vXwv ^v x*'pi 
Kvpiov, fieOva-KOV Tracrav t^v yrjv' Sltto tov olvov avrrj^ iiriodav Wvij. 

yifLOv pSeXoYfidTwv Kal to, dKdOapra. Here kol to. aKadapra 
is either to be taken with R. V. as " even the unclean things of 
her fornication,'' or as governed by (.xova-a, just as the words 
that follow — Kai cTTi TO ixerwirov — are dependent on this participle. 
Cf. Cebes, T'ad, v., opas ovy irapa Tqv irvXrjv 6p6vov tlvol Keifievov 
Kara tov tottov . . . i<fi ov KaOrjrai yvvrj, TreTrXaafxevr) tw rjOu koX 
irtdavr] (ftaLVOfievr], rj iv ttj X^Lpl f.\€L TrOTi'jpLOV Tt ; opw, dWa rt? iaTiv 
avrq; £<^ryv' Kirar-q KaXiZrai, <j>i](Ttv, rj TravTas tous dvOpwirovi 
Tr\avwcra, ciTa Tt TrpdrTU avrrj ; tovs eiCTTTopcvo/xci'Ovs ets tov yStov 
TTOTi^ci T^v iavTrj<i Svvafiiv. tovto 8e ti co-ti to ttotov ; ttXcivos, «0>/, 
Kal dyvoia (from Jerram's text). 

5. Kal i-nl to (i^TwiroK auTTjs ovofi.a yiypap-iiivov. Roman 
harlots wore a label with their names on their brows : cf. Seneca, 
Controv. i. 2 (quoted by Wetstein), "Stetisti puella in lupanari 
. . . stetisti cum meretricibus . . . nomen tuum pependit a 
fronte"; Juv. vi. 122 sq., "Tunc nuda papillis Constitit auratis 
titulum mentita Lyciscae." 

(iuonipioK. This word indicates that the following name is 
not to be taken literally, but to be interpreted Trvcv/xaTtKws (xi. 8). 
This can be done only by the initiated. Babylon is the mystical 
name for Rome. Many scholars take it as part of the 
inscription. 

r\ ftiiTTjp Twi' t iropi'wi' f. As we see from the critical note, the 
Vg. and Prim, read Tropvtoir, i.e. Tropvtiwv. This is not improb- 
ably the original reading. At all events it forms an excellent 
parallel to I^BeXvyp-drwy. If the text is derived from a Hebrew 
source, then Tropvwv = nijf, which is a wrong punctuation for nwt 
= 7ropveias.^ Thus Rome is the mother of harlotry and the 
world's idolatries. With this statement we might compare 
Tacitus, Ann. xv. 44, where he speaks of Rome as the city " quo 
cuncta undique atrocia aut pudenda confluunt celebranturque." 

6. Kal ethov ttji* yu^aiKa fi^Quouvav ck toO aifxaros twi' dyiuf 
Kal CK Tou aip,aTos tuk p.apTupuf 'lT]aou. 

The text refers to the Neronic persecution described so vividly 
by Tac. Ann. xv. 44, " Igitur primum correpti qui fatebantur, 
deinde indicio eorum multitudo ingens baud perinde in crimine 
incendii quam odio humani generis convicti sunt. Et pereun- 
tibus addita ludibria, ut ferarum tergis contecti laniatu canum 

' It is noteworthy that Wellhausen mistranslates iropvQv as "harlotries." 
It was a right instinct, however, that led him to this mistranslation. 
VOL. II. — 5 



66 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 6-7. 

interirent aut crucibus afifixi, aut flammandi, atque ubi defecisset 
dies, in usum nocturni luminis urerentur." This verse, either in 
part or as a whole, is from the hand of our author, who thus 
gives a Christian character to an originally Jewish source and 
transforms an oracle of Vespasian's date into a prophecy of the 
destruction of Rome in the last days (see Introd. § 5). 

ficOuouffai' Ik toG ai|i.aT09. This conception of a nation drunk, 
not with wine but with blood, was familiar to the literature of 
the ancient world. Thus Josephus (Beil. v. 8. 2) writes of his 
infatuated countrymen besieged by the Romans : In yap Trap^v 
ia-duLV £K Tciiv 8r]fxo(Tiwv KaKwv KOI TO rJJs TToXtws alfxa TTiveiv. The 
metaphor is also found in a fragment of Euripides preserved in 
Philo, Z^C"- Alleg. iii. 71, l\ifK\y]<TQr]Ti fiov \ irtvovcra KeXaivov alfxa: 
in Cic. P//i7. ii. 29, " gustaras civilem sanguinem vel potius exsor- 
bueras"; Suet. Tth 59, "Fastidit vinum quia jam sitit iste cruorem : 
Tarn bibit nunc avide quam bibit ante merum," and in a form 
more closely related to our text in Plin. ZT.A^. xiv. 22, 28, 
"(Antonius) ebrius jam sanguine civium." But in the LXX we 
find the best analogies : cf. Isa. xxxiv. 5, ifieOva-Oi} . . . rj fidxaipd 
fiov, xxxiv. 7, /xeOvadrjaeTai rj yrj aTvo tov at/^aros : also li. 21 ; Jer. 
xxvi. (xlvi.) 10. 

Kal cK ToG ai|xaTos twc fiapTupcji/ 'Iy]<tou. This clause is regarded 
by the majority of critics as an addition to the original Jewish 
source. If it is from the hand of our author, his intention seems 
to have been to give his source a Christian character, though 
this was hardly necessary when once the source was incorpo- 
rated in his work. If the ayioi are Christian saints, the two 
clauses are tautologous. The ayios who is martyred is of 
necessity a ixdpTv<;. On this word see note on ii. 13. It is 
possible, but improbable, that the dyioi represent the Jewish 
martyrs who fell in the war of 66-70. This was the meaning of 
the clause in the original source. 

7. Kal e6aufJia<Ta i8wi' auTi]V 6aGp,a fie'ya. Kal etircV fioi 6 
ayyeXos Aia Ti cOau/xao-as ; iyoi cpw <roi to fAuaTTjpioc tt)S yui'aiKos 
Kal TOO 0T]piou Tou PaaTcil^oi'Tos aurrji/, toO €x°'''''os tois ciTTa Ke^aXds 
Kal Ttt ScKa Ke'paTa. The Seer is naturally astonished at the 
fearful vision he has just seen, just as the inhabitants of the 
earth will be astonished when they see the reality, xvii. 8. In 
xvii. 1-2 he was promised a vision of the judgment of the Great 
Harlot. This vision is given in xviii., but since the Great Harlot 
had not heretofore been mentioned, the mystery of the Great 
Harlot is beheld by the Seer in a vision, xvii. 3-6, and inter- 
preted in xvii. 18, which originally followed on xvii. 7. See Introd. 
to this Chap. § 6. 

For a linguistic parallel to to fxva-T-qpiov t^s ywatKos cf. i. 20 ; 
and for a like dialogue between the angel and the Seer, cf viL 



XVII. 7-8.] INTERPRETATION OF THIS VISION 6"] 

13-14. We should observe here that the angel promises an 
interpretation of the woman and the Beast with seven heads and 
ten horns, and in this order. But the mystery of the woman is 
not explained till xvii. 18, and the angel at once proceeds to 
set forth the meaning of the Beast. Our author is here using 
sources, and has freely recast them to suit his own purpose. In 
our text the Beast is Nero redivivus, but in the sources used by 
our author we have seen that this was not so (see Introd. § 4). 
In the source behind xvii. 3-10 the Beast was originally the 
Roman Empire, as it still is in xvii. 3 (see note in loc). In the 
second source, xvii. 11-17, the Beast was obviously Nero return- 
ing from the East at the head of the Parthian kings in order to 
destroy Rome. But our text as it stands represents the expecta- 
tion of Nero returning as a demonic king from the abyss. This 
interpretation is indubitably set forth in xvii. 8, which is a recast 
of the older tradition identifying the Beast with the Empire, and 
in xvii. 14 which comes directly from our author. 

8-18. An interpretation of the vision, in the course of which 
the older materials of the source are recast with additions in 
order to depict the expectation of the Neronic Antichrist who 
was to come up from the abyss. 

8. TO On^pioi' o elSes ^v Kal ouk co'ti;' Kai fieWci dca^aiccic Ik ■xx\% 
d^uaaou, Kal eis dTToSXeiai' uiraYei.' Kal 0aufjiaa9iiCTocTai ol kutoi- 
KOui'Tes cttI tt]S YT5, ^v ou YeypaTTTai to ocojxa em to ^1^X101/ ttjs 
I^ut)$ diro KaTa(3o\fjs Koapou, pXeirokTwi' to dTjpioc oti \v Kal ouk 
eoTii' Kal TrdpecTTai. 

Thus the verse ran originally : to Orjpiov o cTScs . . . (original 
lost) KOL OavftaaOrjcrovTai 01 KaroiKOWTCs €7rt Trj<; yrj<;, wj/ ou ycy- 
parrrai to ovofxa cttI to ;St/3Aiov tj^s ^w^s airo KaraySoX^s koct/xov, 
(SXiTTovTiDv TO 6r]pLov. lu thc Original form of this verse the Beast 
symbolized the Empire, as it still does in xvii. 3, and in xiii. 3-10 
originally. But here our author has omitted the description of 
the Beast which came after e'Ses, and substituted rjv koI ovk Iotiv 
. . . vTrayet, and again after fiX^irovToiv to drjpLov added oTt rjv . . . 
irdpecrraL in the place of quite a different clause that stood in the 
source, as we shall see presently. 

But not only has some description of the Beast at the begin- 
ning of this verse been displaced by the additions of our author, 
but something has also been lost or displaced at the close of 
the verse by another of his additions. For, as it stands, 8 
simply states that the faithless inhabitants of the earth shall 
marvel when they behold the Beast. But there is nothing 
surprising in this fact ; for the Seer marvels in the preceding 
verse. Hence, since the context implies that they will do some- 
thing which would be the natural outcome of their ungodliness, 
we conclude that a clause to the effect that they would worship 



68 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 8-9. 

him has been dislodged by the addition " which was and is not 
and shall come." Now, if we turn to xiii. 3*^, 8 we find the very 
clause we are in search of, koI vpocrKwi^crovcnv avrov iravrc?. 
When this clause is restored, the mystery of the beast in the 
source is sufificiently disclosed. The Beast is clearly the Roman 
Empire. It is on the Beast, i.e. the Empire, that the woman, i.e. 
Rome, is seated. But the changes introduced by our author 
have transformed the significance of the Beast. The Beast now 
means the demonic Nero returning from the abyss, and it is 
clearly the intention of our author that 11 should be taken in 
this sense. 

The Beast is now the Neronic Antichrist coming up from the 
abyss, as in xiii. 3, 12, 14. In these passages he is represented 
as the hellish antitype of Christ. In on ijv koI ovk co-tiv koI 
Tra/jeo-Ttti there is a parody of the divine name 6 otv koI 6 ^v kuI 6 
ipx6fji.ii'o<i in i. 4, 8, iv. 8, while the ovk corrtv and the parallel 
descriptions, ws lcr^ayp.evrfv eis Odvarov, xiii. 3, and os ex^' Tr}v 
Trkrjyrjv T17S /u,a;^aipas, xiii. 14, are intended to allude to the death 
of Christ. 

In the Introd. to xiii., vol. i. p. 337, I have, I think, proved 
that this verse is a doublet of xiii. 3*^, 8 — and that both are Greek 
versions of the same Hebrew original. Since xvii. 8 in some 
form belonged to xvii. 3-10, it is from this Hebrew source that 
xiii. 3*^, 8 is derived. When our author incorporated his Greek 
version of this source in xiii. 3'', 8 he added tov apvCov tov 
iacfyay/jiivov. Bousset is of opinion that a redactor in close 
dependence on xiii. 8, or the same writer who wrote xiii. (in the 
opinion of Bousset our author), composed xvii. 8 ; but all the 
evidence when closely examined points in a different direction. 

p\cir6j'T<i)f where we expect ^XeVovrcs may be due to wv, or 
to a not unnatural rendering of DHN^B. 

9-10. wSe 6 w)us 6 iywv <ro<^ia>'* al lirra Kc^aXal ctttA [opv) 
€i<nV, oTToo 1^ yorT) KaOtjTai cir' auTuc 10. Kal] ^acriXeis [lirrd] 
ciaic oi iret'TC eirecra*', 6 cts i<m.v, 6 aXXos outtu fiXOei', Kal orat' 
cXOtj 6\iyov airhv Sei fieivai. 

9. JiSc 6 k'oOs ktX. = " here is needed the intelligence which 
is wisdom." It relates to what follows, as in xiii. 18, and comes 
from the hand of our author. 

oprj . . . auTwi' KOI. This is an obvious addition to the 
text, but it appears to be a very ancient one and may have gone 
back to the Johannine school, as its Hebraic character shows : 
i.e. Sttov . . . aurwv. Bousset (p. 416) suggests that our author 
himself made this addition, when he found that he could discover 
no historical interpretation of xvii. lo-ii. This addition, how- 
ever, is wholly unsuitable ; for the seven heads do not belong to 
the woman (i.e. Rome) but to the Beast. But the gloss interprets 



XVII. 9-10.] THE SEVEN EMPERORS OF ROME 6g 

the heads as if they were an adjunct of the woman, whereas they 
belong to the Beast. This absolute misconception of the text is 
fatal to the genuineness of these words. Again our author in 
the genuine sections uses KaOrjaOai only in the participle (see note 
on ill. 2i) and KaOl^dv in the finite tenses and infinitive. But 
there is another objection ; for it is clear that, of the two con- 
flicting explanations given in immediate connection, only one 
can stand — in this case the latter. The idea conveyed of the 
gloss was a familiar one. "The city of seven hills" was a 
familiar expression in classical writers : cf. Horace, Carm. Sec. 7, 
"Di, quibus septem placuere colles"; Virg. Aen. vi. 782, 
"Septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces," Georg. ii. 534; 
Martial, iv. 64, "septem dominos monies"; Cicero, Ad Att. vi. 5, 
c^ acTTco? cTTTaXo^ou: Propertius, iii. 10. See Wetstein in loc. 

10. paaiXcIs [^Tird ^] ktX. For /Sao-iXets as applied to Roman 
emperors see i Pet. ii. 13, 17; i Tim. ii. 2. We have here 
a very clear intimation of the date of this source. Five 
emperors have already fallen, one is, and another is yet to come. 
This source was probably written, therefore, under the sixth 
emperor. Before we can ascertain who this emperor was, we 
must decide whether we shall include or exclude in our 
reckoning Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, and with what emperor we 
shall begin. First of all we may safely exclude the above three 
emperors from our consideration. Suetonius {Vesp. i.) describes 
their reigns as "rebellio trium principum." Next, though Sue- 
tonius, Josephus, and 4 Ezra xi. 12, 13, xii. 14, 15 (see Box, p. 
262 sq.), begin with Caesar, it seems clear here that our text begins 
with Augustus, as does Tacitus. The first five emperors are 
Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero. The emperor 
who "is" is Vespasian, 69-79 a.d., and the one who "is not yet 
come," Titus, 79-81. Titus thus fulfilled the prediction, orav 
2X^77 oXtyov ktX. 

Srof eX0T| dXiyoi' ktX. The ground for this expectation is 
most probably that assigned by Wellhausen (^Analyse, 28). 
" Titus is assumed to be the coming seventh and last : he as 
the destroyer of Jerusalem will be overtaken by vengeance after 
a short reign." ^ 

But what are we to make of this reckoning in its present 

' On the order of the numerals see note on viii. 2. When the gloss Spij 
. . . eir' ixiirCiv Kai was incorporated in the text, iirrd, was of necessity added 
after /SairiXers 

^ Another explanation of this prophecy is that the writer of this source 
knew of the hopeless condition of Titus' health : cf. Suetonius, Titus, 7 ; 
Dio Cas Jlis, Ixvi. 26. 2 ; Plutarch, De iuenda sanitate praecepta, c. 3, 
p. 123 D (quoted from Bousset). Another is that there was a traditional 
view that the empire must have seven emperors before its destruclion. As 
the sixth was now living, the Seer necessarily predicts a seventh. 



70 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 10-11. 

context? Our author has taken over this source and that which 
follows, but he is writing in the reign of Domitian. If he took 
xvii. lo seriously, Domitian must have been for him the sixth 
emperor, and he could only have justified this view, as Bousset 
points out (p. 416), by a very artificial method of reckoning, i.e. 
by beginning with Galba, the successor of Nero : Galba, Otho, 
Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian. But we may safely reject 
this reckoning as impossible, and assume that here, as frequently 
elsewhere, our author has taken over material that in some one 
or more respects served his purpose, though in others it was 
unsuitable. Owing to its unintelligibleness from the historic 
point of view, some scribe added a geographical explanation in 
xvii. 9. 

11-17. On the source behind these verses see Introd. § 5. 

11. Kal TO 0T]pioK, 6 r\v Kai ouk eo-rii', Kai auros oySoos itniv Kal 
CK Tcii' CTTTCi ifXTiv, Kal CIS dTrcoXciac uirciYei. 

This verse presents some difficulty. We have already sought 
to show (Introd. § 4-5) that xvii. 11-17 is a new source used by 
our author, referring to the return of Nero from the East at the 
head of the Parthian kings. Only the latter part of this source 
is preserved in our text, and this is edited and brought up to 
date by the addition of o rjv koI ovk ecmv and /cat cis dTrwAtiai' 
virdyei in xvii. II (see similar addition in xvii. 8), and other 
changes subsequently. In the original source the Beast was the 
living Nero returning from the East : in our text the Beast has 
become Nero redivivus, as in xvii. 8. This is the view accepted 
by such scholars as Ewald, De Wette, Hilgenfeld, Vischer, 
Volter, Spitta, Holtzmann, Weizsacker, Bousset. On the 
other hand, it has been maintained recently by J. Weiss and 
Swete and Moffatt that the Beast is to be identified with 
Domitian. Moffatt regards this verse as "a parenthesis added 
by John to bring the source up to date . . . since the death uf 
Titus had not been followed by the appearance of the Nero- 
antichrist" . . . "Domitian, the eighth emperor, under whom he 
writes, is identified with the true Neronic genius of the empire." 
(Cf. Eus. H.E. iii. 20; Tert. ApoL 5: "portio Neronis de 
crudelitate." De PalHo, 4, Subneronem. To these we might add 
Juv. iv. 37 sq., "Calvo serviret Roma Neroni"; Mart. xi. 33, etc. 
Moffatt seeks to explain the words Ik twv iTrra by showing that 
Domitian was closely associated with the imperial power already 
(Tac. Hist iii. 84, iv, 2, 3 ; cf. Jos. Bell. iv. 11. 4, etc.), and points 
out that whereas it was said of the Neronic Antichrist in xvii. 8, 
dva(3aLveiv ck Trj<; d/3i'cro-ou, no such expression is used here. 
Thus Moffatt recognizes the true Nero redivivus in xvii. 8, 14, 
and a second Nero in the person of Domitian in xvii. it, and 
maintains that they are not to be identified. That the juxta- 



XVII. 11-12.] TEN HORNS = THE PARTHIAN KINGS 7 1 

position of Domitian as a second Nero and Nero redivivus is 
awkward, Moffatt admits, but says it is "inevitable under the 
circumstances." But his arguments are unconvincing. The 
6 rjv KoX ovK ea-Tiv taken together with €k twv iTrrd admits of only 
one interpretation. The person so described " was and is not " 
(^v Kol OVK io-Tiv). But Domitian eortv. Of him our author 
cannot say ovk ecrrtv. Moreover, the pre-existence ascribed to 
Doiiitian in o ^v is also inexplicable. Nor can he in any 
intelligible sense be described as « twv eVra. Finally, if we 
interpret xvii. 12-17 of the Parthian invasion, there is no ground 
in comparative religion or history for representing Domitian as 
in any sense its leader. The addition of kol fxiXXet dvaftaiveiv e/c 
T^s d^v(T(rov is here wholly unnecessary. 6 rjv kol ovk Icttiv has 
the same force as the like expressions in xiii. 3, 12, 14. 

CIS dirwXeiai' uTrdyei. The issue of the impending conflict is 
certain. The Antichrist, though he thinks he is accomplishing 
his own purposes, is accomplishing the purposes of God, and is 
all the time marching to his own destruction, which is also the 
purpose of God. 

12-13, 17-16, 14. The destruction of Rome by Nero 
redivivus and his Parthian allies (12-13, 17, 16), and the 
destruction of the latter by the Lamb (14). 

12. Kal TO, ScKtt Ke'para d €i8es ScVa PacriXeis elo-if, oiTii'c? 
PaaiXeiaf outtw cXajBoi', dXXd e|ouCTtac ws pacnXeis ^\.o.v <3pa»' 
XapiPdi'ouaii' |i,eTd tou Orjpiou. 

The kings are symbolized by the horns, and are thus differ- 
entiated from the emperors who are symbolized by the heads of 
the Beast. Who are these kings ? Various answers have been 
given. I. They are said to be unknown powers belonging to 
the future which as confederates of the returning emperor 
will arise and overthrow Rome (Weizsacker and Holtzmann). 
Swete's interpretation belongs partly to this class. "The ten 
kings . . . represent forces which arising out of the empire itself 
. . . would turn their arms against Rome and bring about her 
downfall." 2. The governors of the senatorial provinces who held 
office for a year (/xiW wpac). So Ewald, Volkmar, Hilgenfeld, 
Hausrath, Mommsen, B. Weiss, Briggs, Selwyn. Bousset states 
that the expressions t^v Swa/xtv kox tyjv iiovaiav auTwv Tw 6r)pLu) 
SiSoacrtv, xvii. 13, and the parallels in xvii. 17 are against this 
view ; but this is not necessarily so. These governors possessed 
a certain delegated authority (w? ySao-tXet?), and only for a year 
(ixiav utpav). But again this interpretation has not the support 
of xvi. 12 or of the universal expectation that was then current 
in the East and in the Roman Empire. The phrase Sowai t^v 
(SaaiXeiav auTcoi' t<L drjpiio shows that these have actual kingdoms, 
and so the text could not apply to Roman officials. 3. The 



72 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 12-13, 16. 

Parthian satraps (Eichhorn, De Wette, Bleek, Bousset, J. Weiss, 
Wellhaus( n, Scott, Moffatt). According to xvi. 12, the Parthians 
had several kings or satraps. It is stated that there were as 
many as fourteen, but the number ten here is not to be pressed. 
According to the current belief of the generation that followed 
the death of Nero, it was held that Nero had escaped to the 
East, and that he would return against Rome at the head of the 
Parthian hosts. That this belief was taken seriously is proved 
by the fact that three pretenders appeared between 69-88 a.d. 
under Nero's name as claimants of the imperial throne. For 
the evidence see App. to this chapter (p. 80). Since this 
belief had firmly established itself both in the Gentile and 
Hellenistic Jewish worlds within the first decade after Nero's 
death, since, further, it is attested actually in our text in xvi. 12, 
there can be little doubt that the source in xvii. 12-17 is to be 
explained thereby. But in the present context, in which Nero 
is a demon from the abyss, it is possible that these kings 
are, as Bousset suggests, regarded by our Seer as demonic 
powers. 

ScKa patriXcis. Cf. Dan. vii. 24, /cat to. SeKa Kcpara avrov Se^a 
^ao-tXet? dracTTT/crovTai (Theod.). 

pao-iXciai' ouTTw cXaPoi'. These words referring to the Par- 
thian satraps are intelligible from the standpoint of the world 
empire oi Rome. They hold a quasi-kingly power (ws /SacriXtis) 
for a brief span (yxt'ai' wpav), since the Antichrist's power will 
speedily be brought to an end. 

13. oStoi }iiav yv(i)fJir]v cxoucriv', Kal Tr\v Sucafxif Kal ^|ouaiaf 
aoTui' Tw 8r)piu) SiSoao-tc. The Greek structure of this verse is 
still more manifest than that which precedes. 

\iiav yvu)fi.ir\v ex^"'^'''' — ^ good Greek idiom. Cf. Thuc. ii. 86, 
yvwfirjv e;(OVT€s . . . fJ.-q iKkLtrelv, Herod, i. 207 ; ii. 56, etc. 

The unanimity of the Parthian kings is explained in xvii. 17. 

15. [koI eiirei' |ioi Ta uSara d cIScs, 00 ■f\ iropvi] K(i0T]Tai, Xaol Kal 
©xXoi eia\v Kal IOj'tj Kal yXoJCTCTai.] 

This is a gldss explanatory of xvii. i, where the Harlot City is 
said to sit i-n-l uSarcov ttoXAGv. But since it was not Rome but 
the literal Babylon that was so situated, the glosser, after the 
analogy of Isa. viii. 7, Jer. xlvii. 2, interprets the many waters 
here as referring to the peoples over which Rome ruled. In 
xvii. I the phrase i-n-l v^drwy iroWiov is simply taken over from 
Jer. See note in loc. The style is not that of our author. He 
never uses ov but ottov : cf. ii. 13 {bis)^ xi. 8, xii. 6, 14, xx. 10. 
Nor is the enumeration Xaol ktX. that of our author. See note on 
v. 9. He uses cfivXai instead of o^Aoi. Again we should expect 
Ka6i(€i in our author and not KdOrjTai. See note on 9 and on 
iii. 21. 



XVII. 17, 16.] ROME TO BE DESTROYED BY FIRE 73 

17. 6 yap Ocos l8(i)K€»' €is Tcts KapSias aujui' iroiTjaai ttic 
vi/wfjiTjv auToG, [Kal iroiTJaai fiia>' yi'Wfirjt'] Kal Soucai Tr\v ^aaiKtiav 
auTuc Tw Qr\pii>), a)(pi TeXeffOi^CTOfTai 01 X^yoi tou GcoO. 

This verse explains the remarkable unanimity of these kings. 
It was due to God, not to any mere earthly policy, and it would 
last till the oracles of the prophets regarding Rome were accom- 
plished, and the Antichrist and the kings met in the last great 
battle with the Lamb, xvii. 14. Even the wrath of men is made 
to praise Him. There is no real dualism in the universe. The 
very powers of evil ultimately subserve the purposes of God and 
are then destroyed. (Cf. xvii. 14.) Since the Beast, which in 
the source meant the living Nero returning from the East at 
the head of the Parthians, has become in our author the demonic 
Nero, it is probable that his attendant hosts are also to be re- 
garded as of demonic origin. 

eSuKo/ els TOLs KapStas auTmy. For this Hebraism ( = }nj 
33b"i5X) cf. Neh. vii. 5. There is a closely related idiom in 
Jer. xxxi. (xxxviii.) 33 ; i Thess. iv. 8; Heb. viii. 10. 

[koI iroiTio-ai fiiai/ yi'w/iTji'.] I have, with Alford, bracketed this 
clause as an early gloss from xvii. 13. It is superfluous after 
TTOLrja-aL ttjv yvo)[j.r]v avTov, which is really explained by koI SoOvat 
ktA. 

TcXeaGiiaoi'Tai 01 Xoyoi too 6eoo. In their present context these 
prophecies must relate not only to the destruction of Rome by 
Nero and the Parthians as in the source, but to the overthrow 
of the power of the Beast and his Parthian allies. 

16. Ktti TO. ScKa Kcpara S. elScs Kal to Orjpio^, ouroi ftiai^CTOuaii' 
TT)!' TTopi'Tjv, Kal TJpT]p,a)|xeVT]i' TTOiiiaouaii' auTT)i/ Kal y^J^lvr^y, Kal rds 
aapKOS auTT]s 4>dyoia"ai, Kal aurr)*' KaraKauaouaii' iv Tropt. 

I have restored this verse to the place which it had originally 
in the source and in our author, i.e. after xvii. 17, which in its turn 
followed immediately on xvii. 13. The Harlot City was to be 
destroyed by the forces of evil themselves. As the Beast is 
demonic and the horns are conceived as part of him, these kings 
appear also to have a demonic character in their present con- 
text. 

The author of this source must have had Ezek. xxiii. 25-29 
before him, but not the LXX. He reproduces the thought but 
not the form of the Hebrew. Thus ^icnjo-ovcrtv rrjv -iropvrjv is a 
free rendering of xxiii. 29, nNJE^a iniS iSJ'yi, which the LXX 
translates literally. Next with rjprfixoifx^vrjv Tron^a-ova-iv avrrfv kol 
yv/xvi^v cf. xxiii. 26, "J^njS'nX 'l'lD''tJ'Dni (tKSucrovcriV crc tov 
t;MaTio-/xov o-ov, and xxiii. 29, Diy ll^Tyi nv^y v3 inp?l). With aut'^v 
KaTaKavaovaii' iy irvpi cf. xxiii. 25, V^l 73X0. All these State- 
ments are made by Ezekiel with regard to Jerusalem, which at 
one moment is spoken of as a woman stripped of her garments 



74 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 16, 14. 

and left naked, and at another as a city burnt with fire. The 
writer here uses the same figures of Rome. 

T]pr]p,(i»(j,eVTji' TToiiiaouan'. For construction, see Introd. § 3, p. 

Tas adpKas aoTtis ^dyovrai : cf. xix. 18, Ps. xxvii. 2, tov e^ayeii/ 
ras (TapKas fiov. Mic. iii. 3, Kariffjayov ras crdpKa<; tov Xaoi) [xov : 
2 Kings ix. 36, Kara<^ayovTai 01 /ciVtS Tas adpKa<; le^a^eA* cra.pKi<; 

denotes the fleshy parts of the body. 

naraKauaouo-n' iv irupi : cf. xviii. 8; Jer. vii. 31 ; Nah. iii. 15. 
These words can only refer to the city whom the woman repre- 
sents. Death by fire was not the punishment of the harlot, 
unless she were a priest's daughter : cf. Lev. xxi. 9. 

14. ouToi fiCTa Tou apviou Tro\e|jiTiCTOuaii', 
Kal TO apvioy ^iki^ctci aurous, 
OTi Kupios Kupiwc iarXv Kal pacriXeus jSacrtXewt', 
Kal ol jiCT* auTou kXtjtoI Kal ckXcktoI Kal tticttoi. 

This verse is manifestly added by our author to the source 
he is using. But this verse could not have been inserted in its 
present position by our author ; for it treats of the destruction of 
the forces appointed by God for Rome's destruction, which they 
effect in 16. In xvii. 17, 16, according to the MSS text, the ten 
horns and the Beast are represented as executing a divine judg- 
ment on the Harlot City and as destroying Rome after they had 
already themselves been destroyed (xvii. 14). Hence this verse 
belongs rightly after 16. I have restored it accordingly. With 
fxera. tov dpviov TroXepLrjaovdiv . . . viKt^cret avTov^ compare xui. 7, 
which is from his hand. For Kvpios . . . PacriXiwv cf. xix. 16. 
The subject of this vision, i.e. the Parthian kings and their destruc- 
tion (12-13, 17, 16, 14), has been in part referred to in xvi. 12, 
and is regarded as already accomplished in xix. 13, where the 
words 7r€pi/?c/3Xr;/A€vos t/Aariov (Se/SafXfxevov aipaTL speak of the 
vesture of the Divine Warrior as already dipped in blood (/.<?. 
in that of the Parthian kings) before the Messianic campaign 
against the kings of the earth in xix. 11-21. 

The concluding line describes the armies who followed 
the Lamb, i.e. " the called, elect, and faithful." That these 
should crush hostile nations we learn from ii. 26, 27, and their 
descent from heaven to do so is seen in a vision in xix. 14. 
Hence they are a martyr host of warriors. It was a well-known 
Jewish expectation that the righteous would take part in the 
destruction of the wicked : cf. i Enoch xxxviii. 5, xc. 19, xci. 12 
for the period of the sword, when the wicked are given into the 
hands of the righteous, o/>. at. xcv. 7, xcvi. i, xcviii. 12, xcix. 
4, 6 ; Wisd. iii. 8. The martyrs are not here engaged on a 
mission of revenge, but in the fulfilment of a righteous retribution. 



XVII. 14, 18.j THE LAMB CONQUERS THE PARTHIANS 75 

In XV. 4 the vision — which is in reality a prophecy — shows that 
the thought of revenge has wholly passed from the minds of the 
glorified martyrs. But the nations there referred to are those 
that are contemporary with the Millennial Reign. See the third 
note further on. 

Kupios Kvpibiv . . . ^a<TiKi<ov. This title recurs in xix. i6. 
In both instances it is used of the Son. The combination of 
these titles as applied to God is found first in i Enoch ix. 4, 6 6e6<s 
Twv 6e(j}v Koi (6) KvpLO^ Twv Kvpiuiv KOI o /JacrtAeis twv (3a(ri\€V0VT(DV. 
(So the two Greek versions in Syncellus, whereas the Ethiopia 
implies /SaacXewv for ySao-tXcuovrwv.) It is worth observing that 
I Tim. vi. 15 has /Sao-iXevs twv (Saa-iXevovTOiv. These titles occur 
often separately as applied to God, Kvpios tZv KvpCwv, Deut. x. 17 ; 
6 /JacriXeus Twv ySao-tXewi' : I Enoch Ixiii. 4, Ixxxiv. 2 ; 2 Mace. xiii. 4. 
See Bousset's Hel. d. Judenthums, 306. 

The use of such titles in reference to Marduk in Babylonian 
literature is noted by Zimmern, K.A.T.^ 373 sq., 390. Marduk 
is actually named " Lord of Lords, King of Kings." " King of 
Kings" was a designation of the Babylonian and Persian kings : 
cf. Ezek. xxvi. 7 ; Ezra vii. 12 ; Dan. ii. 37 : of the Egyptian kings, 
Diod. Sic. i. 55. 7, /Sao-iXevs /Saa-iXlwy koi BecriroTrj^ SiaTrorwv 
2«o-ococns. But this title is far outbid by those given to Dom- 
itian : " Dominus et deus noster." Suet. Domit. 13: cf. Mart. 
V. 8. 

01 (ier' auToG kXihtoI ktX. KK-qroi and €/cA,€KTOt' occur only 
here in the Apocalypse. We are to understand TroXc/iTyo-ovo-tv and 
viKr]<jovcnv from what precedes. The followers of the Lamb who 
have been called and chosen will manifest their loyalty and share 
in the Lamb's victory (cf. xii. 11). According to this context 
those who answer the call are elected and prove their loyalty : 
cf. 2 Pet. i. 10, (TTTOvSatraTC /St/Saiav vfxwv rrjv KXrjaiv koI cxXoy^i/ 
TToulaOai. But these loyal followers of the Lamb belong already 
to the heavenly hosts ; for they accompany Him from heaven : 
cf. xix. 14. They are called ttio-toi as their Leader is called 
iriaTOS (i. 5). 

18. Kttl 1^ yui'Tj r\v cIScs tanv i] iroXis r) fieydXif) r] iXP^^^- 
^aaiXciac cm t&v ^aaiXcuc tt^s y^'- 

Our author knows at last the interpretation of the chief figure 
in the vision. The woman is the city Rome, the empress of the 
entire world. 

This verse belonged to the source A : see Introd. to Chap., 
§ 5, and had its place immediately after xvii. 7, but was trans- 
ferred to its present position in order to introduce the great 
chapter of the downfall of Rome. 

On the phrase 17 tto'Xis 17 fieydX-q, see note on xi. 8. 



y6 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 



Additional Note: on xvii. 

The Antichrist, Beliar^ and Neronic Myths, and their 
ultimate Fusion in early Christian Literature. 

This question bristles with problems. Many of these, it is 
true, have been solved and others are on the way to solution. 
Nevertheless, many lie still in the background and have not as 
yet yielded up their secret to research. The chief workers in this 
field have been Gunkel and Bousset. While the services of the 
former have been at times brilliant, they have at the same time 
showed a lack of sound judgment. In the latter respect Bousset 
in his Antichrist Legend (translated from the German, 1896) and 
in the Offenbarung Johannis^, 1906, has made an admirable con- 
tribution, and proved that outside Daniel and Revelation there 
was an independent tradition of the Antichrist myth coming 
down from ancient times and diffused through many lands. A 
study of such articles as Creation, Dragon, Leviathan, Serpent in 
the Encyc. Biblica will show that the Creation Story passed 
through a long development within the domain of Hebrew and 
Jewish thought, and further study proves that such an expression 
as "the great dragon, the ancient serpent, who is called the 
Devil and Satan " (Rev. xii. 9), finds one of its sources ultimately 
in the myth that underlies the Creation story. But the present 
study cannot take account of the manifold traces of this develop- 
ment discoverable in the O.T. (see Gunkel, Schopfung und 
Chaos — a book full of suggestion, but in many of its conclusions, 
especially as regards Revelation, demonstrably wrong). It must 
be strictly limited to the ideas of the Antichrist and kindred 
conceptions that prevailed within Judaism and Christianity from 
200 B.C. to 100 A.D. or thereabouts. 

In a study of the present subject in 1900 (see Ascension 
of Isaiah, pp. li-lxxiii) I pointed out that, whilst Bousset's and 
Gunkel's works (above cited) were most helpful and stimulating in 
many directions, they did not deal satisfactorily with the relations 
of Beliar and the Antichrist, and that their account of the fusion 
of the latter with the Neronic legend was wanting in lucidity and 
consistency. This defect Bousset has from his own standpoint 
partially remedied in Rel. d. Judentums im Neutest. Zeitalter^, 
1906, and his article on "Antichrist" in Hastings' Encyc. of 
Religion and Ethics, i. 578 sqq. Here he has vastly improved on 
his earlier studies, and removed many of the defects to which 
I took objection in 1900. But, notwithstanding these advances on 
Bousset's part, I feel constrained to republish here the main part 

1 This is the form that Belial takes in Jubilees, Testaments XH Patriarchs, 
the SibyUine Oracles, Martyrdom of Isaiah. 



XVIL] ADDITIONAL NOTE ON XVII. -^"J 

of my study of 1900 with such additions and improvements as 
the worlc of the intervening years has naturally brought with 
them. 

If we can succeed in establishing with approximate accuracy 
the dates when the Antichrist, Beliar, and Neronic myths origin- 
ated and became fused together, we acquire means for determin- 
ing the dates of the fragments of such myths as have secured an 
entrance into the work of our author. 

The aim, therefore, of the present note is to touch briefly 
on the history of the Antichrist, Beliar, and Neronic myths, 
before the fusion of any one of them with another, or of 
each with all : and next to give the passages from Jewish 
and Christian literature where such fusion is attested and their 
approximate dates. Thus I shall deal with — 

I. The indepetident development of the Antichrist, Beliar, 

and Neroriic myths. 
II. The fusion oj the Antichrist myth with that of Beliar, 
and subsequently and independently with the 
Neronic myth. 
III. The fusion of all these myths together. 

I. The independent developfnent of the Antichrist, Beliar, and 
Neronic myths. 

i. The Antichrist myth. — The term " Antichrist " is compara- 
tively late though the idea signified by it is early. Thus it is not 
attested till far on in the first century of our era; for it is found 
in the N.T. only in the Johannine Epistles — i John ii. 18, 22, 
iv. 3 ; 2 John 7. The idea, however, can be traced back to the 
second century B.C., and appears first in the Book of Daniel. 
This conception takes two forms : (a) the individual Antichrist, 
and {b) the collective Antichrist. 

(a) A God-opposing individual. — In Daniel we find the indi- 
vidual Antichrist (the king of the North, xi. 40) appearing at the 
head of mighty armies, with which he crushes certain nations and 
preserves others, persecutes the saints (vii. 25), putting numbers 
of them to death (viii. 10), sets up in the Temple "the abomina- 
tion that maketh desolate " {i.e. the heathen altar over the altar of 
burnt-offering, viii. 13, ix. 27, xi. 31, xii. 11), "magnifies himself 
above every god" (xi. 36 : cf. 2 I'hess. ii. 4), and after a reign of 
three and a half years (vii. 25 sq.) meets his end (xi. 45). The 
historical figure here referred to was Antiochus iv. Epiphanes 
{i.e. (God) made manifest). The idea, which may in part have 
existed already and which became impersonated in Antiochus 
disassociated itself from the historical figure of Antiochus, and 
through its enlargement and enrichment in the Book of Daniel 
established itself as a permanent expectation in Judaism. In the 



78 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 

earliest literature, therefore, where the idea appears, it implies a 
being of human origin (though claiming divine prerogatives), 
whereas Beliar, who came subsequently to be identified with the 
Antichrist, was originally a superhuman or Satatiic being. 

The next historical character to whom epithets belonging to 
the Antichrist are applied, is Pompey the Great, who committed 
the unpardonable act of profaning the Temple by entering the 
Holy of Holies after his conquest of Jerusalem. Thus in the 
Pss. of Solomon (70-40 B.C.), Pompey is called " the Dragon " 
(o SpotKwv, ii. 29). There may be here an unconscious allusion 
to the Dragon myth (see Cheyne's art. " Dragon " in the Encyc. 
Bib. i.). He is described as " the sinner," ii. i (6 d^apTwAo?), the 
personification of sin (cf. 2 Thess. ii. 3, 6 avOpoiiro'i t^? d/xaprtas 
— so the inferior Uncials) : " the lawless one," xvii. 13 (6 dvofjio';), 
an attribute of Beliar (cf. 2 Thess. ii. 3, 6 dvOpmTro'i T17S dvo/xias, 
nB). But since his soldiers are designated " the lawless ones " 
(xvii. 20, 01 dyofxoi), the epithet may mean no more than heathen, 
as in I Cor. ix. 21 ; 2 Cor. vi. 14; Acts ii. 23. The epithet 
" lawless," if technically used, is proper to the Beliar myth. 

This expectation may have been influenced by the action of 
the emperor Caligula (37-41 a.d.), when he ordered the governor 
Petronius to erect his statue in the Temple. If he had persisted 
in this act of profanation, the Jews would undoubtedly have 
regarded it as a fulfilment of the prediction of the setting up 
01*' the abomination of desolation " in the Temple. This phrase 
was, as we are aware, first applied to the heathen altar set up 
by Antiochus in the Temple (i Mace. i. 54), and probably also 
to the image of Olympian Zeus beside it (cf. Taanith iv. 6). 
Bousset suggests that " the ever recurring expectation of later 
times, that Antichrist would take his place in the Temple of 
Jerusalem, dates . . . from this period." 

The next reference to the Antichrist is to be found in 
2 Bar. xxxvi. 5, xxxix. 3, xl. i, 2, according to which the head 
of the Roman Empire was to be brought before the Messiah and 
destroyed, and still another in 4 Ezra v. 6, where the reign of the 
Antichrist is foretold : " Et regnabit quern non sperant, qui 
inhabitant super terram." 

(b) A God-opposing power, or the collective Antichrist. — So far 
we have cited our authorities as testifying to a single individual 
Antichrist. But with the expectation of an individual Antichrist 
that of a collective Antichrist, (a) secular, or (/?) religious, is often 
involved. 

(a) Thus in Dan. vii. 7 sqq., 19 sqq. the Fourth Empire 
{i.e. the Greek or Macedonian) is the collective Anti- 
christ. The identity of the Seleucidae or Greek rulers of Syria 
with the Fourth Kingdom appears in the Sibylline Oracles, 



XVII.] ADDITIONAL NOTE ON XVII. 79 

iii. 388-400 (before 140 B.C.). But at the close of the first 
cent. B.C. or the beginning of the first cent. a.d. the prophecy 
of Daniel was reinterpreted, and, since Syria had now ceased 
to be a world power, the Fourth Empire was identified with 
the new world power Rome. This is first seen in the Assump- 
tion of Moses (7-30 A.D.), where the overthrow of Rome by 
Israel is predicted : 

X. 8. " Then thou, O Israel, shalt be happy, 

And thou shalt go up against the eagle. 
And its neck and wings shall be destroyed."^ 

Lest his contemporaries should misunderstand Dan. vii. 17-19, 
23 sqq. as referring to the Greek Empire, the Seer in 4 Ezra 
xii. 11-12 expressly states that this passage refers to the Roman 
Empire. This is the universal view of the first century a.d. Cf. 
2 Bar. xxxvi.-xl. ; 4 Ezra v. 3-4, xi. 40 sqq. It is attested in 
the N.T. : see the Little Jewish Apocalypse incorporated in 
Mark xiii. (especially 14 = Matt. xxiv. 15 = Luke xxi. 20), and in 
the sources behind xiii. i-io (see § 8 in the Introd. to xiii.), 
xvii. 3-10, where it is symbolized by the Beast in our Apocalypse. 
But in our text the meaning of the symbol has been 
changed : it stands only in part for the Roman Empire, but mainly 
for Nero redivivus, the demonic Antichrist coming up from the 
abyss, in xiii. 3 and similarly in xvii. i-io; but the original 
meaning of the symbol still survives in xiii. 1-2, xvii. 3. In the 
Ep. Barn. iv. 4-5 (100-120 a.d.) the Fourth Kingdom is Rome: 
so also in Hippolytus (220 a.d.), and in the Talmud — Aboda 
Zara, \°. 

(/8) The collective Antichrist of a religious origin. In 
the Johannine Epistles of the N.T. (i John ii. 18, 22, iv. 3; 
2 John 7) the Antichrist is the collective name for the false 
teachers who have gone forth from the bosom of the Church as 
deceivers (ttXcivoi). This conception is not to be confounded 
with that of pseudo-Christ (i/'eu8d;(pio-Tos) of Matt. xxiv. 24 ; 
Mark xiii. 22. The individual Antichrist of the religious type is 
probably referred to in John v. 43, " If another shall come in his 
own name, him ye will receive." 

Again the original source lying behind xiii. 11-14, 16-17 

* Here the words " its neck and wings " have been transposed from line 2. 
The transmitted text runs : 

" And thou shalt go up against (i.e. Sy n''?i*i) the necks and wings of the 
eagle, 
And they shall be destroyed " 

(where " implebuntur " of the MS =:<rui/T€Xe(rfli}(roj'Tat, which should have been 
rendered "delebuntur" here). We have here an early form of the Eagle 
Vision such as we find in 4 Ezra xi. 



80 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 

was a Jewish Apocalypse directed against the individual Anti- 
christ in the form of the False Prophet (see Introd. to Chap. xiii. 
§ 8, vol. i. pp. 342-344). In our text it has been transformed into 
a collective Antichrist, i.e. the heathen imperial priesthood, and 
designated the second Beast in subordination to the first in 
xiii. I- 10. Originally this Antichrist was conceived as inde- 
pendent and without any Antichrist beside him, 

ii. In the O.T. Beliar does not appear as a proper name 
(see " Beliar " in the Bible Dictionaries). Beliar first attains to 
personality in the second century B.C. Thus, according to the 
Test. XII Patriarchs, Beliar rules over souls that are constantly 
disturbed (T. Dan iv. 7), or which yield to the evil inclina- 
tions (T. Ash. i. 8), but flees from those that keep the law 
(T. Dan v. i). The Messiah will make war on Beliar and 
take from him the souls he had led captive (T. Dan v. 10), and 
Beliar will be bound (T. Levi xviii. 12), and cast into the fire 
(T. Jud. XXV. 3), and the spirits subject to him will be punished 
(T. Levi iii. 3). This conception is very like that of Satan — a 
fact which becomes clearer still in Jubilees i. 20, where Beliar 
(like Satan : cf. i Chron. xxi. i ; i Enoch xl. 7 ; Rev. xii. 10) is 
said to be the accuser of the faithful before God. This identifi- 
cation of Beliar and Satan appears in the Christian pseudepi- 
graph, The Questions of Bartholomew (ed. Bonwetsch, 1897), 
iv. 25. In 2 Cor. vi. 15, Beliar seems a synonym for Satan. 
Hence we may conclude that towards the close of the second 
century B.C. Beliar was regarded as a Satanic spirit, and as 
naught else, until the Beliar myth coalesced with that of the 
Antichrist. 

iii. The Neronic myth in its earliest form. — Here our task is 
simply to show that soon after the death of Nero the myth 
became current that {a) Nero had not really died, but was still 
living ; and {b) that he would soon return from this far East to 
take vengeance on Rome. 

(a) When Nero with the help of a freedman committed 
suicide and was cremated (Suet. Nrro, 49), so great was the 
public joy that the people thronged the streets in holiday attire 
{op. cit. 57). All, however, did not share in the belief of Nero's 
death. Thus Tacitus {Hist. ii. 8) writes that there were many 
who pretended and believed that he was still alive ; and 
Suetonius {Nero, 57) declares that edicts were issued in his name 
as though he were still alive and would return speedily to 
destroy his enemies. As early as 69 a.d. an impostor appeared 
under his name and headed a rebellion against Rome (Tac. Hist. 
ii. 8, 9). 

{li) That Nero had taken refuge in the East probably formed 
a constituent of the myth from the outset — a point on which 



XVII.] ADDITIONAL NOTE ON XVII. 8l 

evidence will be furnished later. Predictions had been made 
during Nero's lifetime that the East would be the scene of his 
future greatness : some of these represented Jerusalem as the 
seat of his empire ; others promised him the sovereignty of the 
world (Suet. Nero^ 40). Probably such vaticinations as these, 
combined with the fact that Nero had already established friendly 
relations with the Parthian king Vologeses i. (Suet. Nero^ 57), led 
Nero, as the end drew nigh, to think of fleeing to the Parthians 
{op. cit. 47). 

In conformity with this expectation we find that a second 
pseudo-Nero appeared under Titus on the Euphrates, about 
80 A.D., and was recognized by the Parthian king Artabanus 
(Zonaras, xi. 18). Finally, about 88 a.d. a third pretender came 
forward among the Parthians and all but succeeded in hurling 
Parthia against Rome (Tac. Hist. i. 2; Suet. Nero^ 57). This 
Nero myth, thus firmly rooted in the Gentile world, passed over 
to the Jewish. The Jewish source, lying behind Rev. xvii. 12-17 
{i.e. xvii. 11% 12-13, i7> i'^) and written probably in the reign of 
Titus, embodies this expectation and predicts the destruction of 
Rome by the Parthians under the leadership of Nero, who is 
there called "the beast." This expectation of a Parthian 
invasion of the West is explicitly stated in xvi. 12. With these 
passages Rev. ix. 13-21 should be compared, though here we 
have a demonic form of the myth. The Sibylline Oracles, 
V. 143-148 (71-74 A.D. — so Zahn and Bousset), prove that this 
myth had established itself in the eschatology of Hellenistic 
Judaism. According to the passage just referred to, the flight of 
Nero from Rome to the Parthians is mentioned, and in v. 361-364 
his return to destroy Rome. Early in the next decade we find 
other testimonies to the prevalence of this myth : see Sibyll. Or. 
iv. 1 19-122, where Nero is described as a fugitive to Parthia, and 
iv. 137-139, where he is described as returning to assail the 
West at the head of a vast host. 

It is possible that the statement in the Talmud {Yoma, 10*), 
to the effect that Rome would be destroyed by the Persians, is 
an echo of this early expectation. 

II. The fusion of the Antichrist myth (i.) with that of Beliar 
before ^o a.d. ; and (ii.) independently with that of Nero redivivus, 
88-100 A.D. 

i. As a result of this fusion the Antichrist is regarded as {a) 
a God-opposing man armed with miraculous powers — this appears 
to have been effected on Christian soil before 50 a.d. ; {b) a 
purely Satanic power before 70 a.d, 

{a) 2 Thess. ii. 1-12, according to the usual interpretation, 
presents an indubitable instance of this fusion. Thus, on 
the one hand, we have Beliar. "The man of lawlessness" 
VOL. II. — 6 



82 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 

(o av9poyiro<; rrj'i di/o/Aias) is all but certainly a translation of Beliar ; 
for avofxrjixa is the LXX rendering of it in Deut. xv. 9, and 
avofita in 2 Kings xxii. 5, and 7rapdi/o/i,os is frequently found as 
its equivalent, when it is used as an epithet: Deut. xiii. 13; 
Judg. xix. 22, XX. 13; 2 Kings xvi. 7, etc. 

In the next place it is Beliar appearing as the Antichrist; for 
the words '* he that opposeth himself . . . against all that is 
called God " (6 avrtKCt/ACVOs . . . iTfl irdvTa Aeyd/Atvov deov) form 
an excellent definition of the Antichrist. Since 2 Thess. is now 
generally (and certainly by the present writer) regarded as an 
authentic writing of St. Paul, we have here the earliest evidence 
for the fusion of these ideas (arc. 50 a.d.), and also for tAe 
humanization of the Beliar myth through its fusioft with that of 
the Antichrist; for hitherto Beliar had been conceived as a 
Satanic or superhuman being. The Antichrist thus comes to 
be conceived as a God-opposi?ig man armed with Satanic powers. 

We should next observe that in 2 Thess. ii. 1-12 the myth 
appears to have a purely religious significance and not di political 
one, as in Rev. xiii. i-io, xvii. Thus in 2 Thess. ii. 6, 7 the 
Roman Empire is referred to as the power which checks the 
manifestation of the Antichrist, whereas in Rev. xiii. i-io it is 
the Roman Empire that stood originally in the source of this 
passage and that still stands in the background as the Antichrist, 
while the demonic Nero stands in the foreground as this being. 
In no case could 2 Thess. ii. 1-12 have been written after 70 a.d. 
This section is a Christian transformation of a current Judaistic 
myth. 

Another phase of this expectation appears in Rev. xiii. 11-17. 
In the source of this passage the Antichrist was conceived 
similarly to that in 2 Thess. ii. But by our author this concep- 
tion was recast and interpreted of the priesthood, which was 
attached to the cultus of the Caesars, and had the chief seat of 
its activities in the province of Asia. This Antichrist — in our 
author symbolized by the second Beast — is a false teacher and 
prophet. Hence this conception is akin to that which prevails 
in the Johannine Epistles: i John ii. 18, 22, iv. 3; 2 John 7. 
Though both in the Epistles and Rev. xiii. 11-17 the Antichrist 
is human, in the latter passage he is armed with Satanic powers 
and " deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by reason of the 
signs which it was given him to do in the sight of the beast" 
(xiii. 14). His task is to make the inhabitants of the earth 
worship the first Beast {i.e. the Beliar Nero), whose death-stroke 
had been healed (xiii. 12). This subordinate Antichrist is 
designated as "the false prophet" in xvi. 13, xix. 20, xx. 10. 
Thus a conception which had originally grown up in Jewish and 
Christian circles, and, referring to a Jewish Antichrist, had a 



XVII.] ADDITIONAL NOTE ON XVII. 83 

purely religious significance, was recast by our author and 
reinterpreted of a heathen corporation, the Imperial priesthood, 
which was in part religious and in part political in its aims. 

Sibylline Or. ii. 167 sq. {circ. 200 a.d.) should probably be 
cited under this head, where it is said that Beliar will come and 
work many portents before men. 

(^) The Beliar Antichrist = a purely Satanic power before yo 
A.D. {or 30 A.D.). 

This stage of the myth is attested in Rev. xi. 7, where as the 
Beast from the abyss he makes war with and kills the witnesses. 
The Antichrist in this passage makes his advent in Jerusale7n 
(xi. 8), and therefore before 70 a.d. This phase of the myth 
was originally independent of that which appears in Rev. xiii. 
and xvii., where it has been fused together with the Neronic 
myth. But in its present context in xi. it is treated as identical 
with the conception in xiii. and xvii. and is used proleptically in 
reference to it. 

We should probably not be wrong in recognizing in the 
Assumption of Moses x. i, 2 an instance of this compound 
conception. 

1. "And then His kingdom shall appear throughout all His 

creation. 
And then Satan shall be no more, 
And sorrow shall depart with him. 

2. Then the hands of the angel shall be filled 
Who has been appointed chief. 

And he shall forthwith avenge them of their adversaries." 

If this passage comes rightly under this head, then the fusion 
of the ideas of Beliar and Antichrist must be anterior to 30 a.d. 

ii. Fusion of the Antichrist myth with that of the Nero 
redivivus. — This fusion could not have taken place before the 
first half of Domitian's reign, when the last Neronic pretender 
appeared. As soon, however, as the hope of the return of the 
living Nero could no longer be entertained, the way was pre- 
pared for this transformation of the myth. The living Nero was 
no longer expected, but Nero restored to life from the abyss. 
This expectation appears in Rev. xiii., xvii. But it is question- 
able if this classification is right, and the very much conflated 
conceptions of the Antichrist in these chapters had best been 
reckoned under III. The simple Neronic myth needs some 
infusion of the Beliar myth in order to develop the expectation 
of Nero redivivus, or Nero as a demonic power. 

III. Fusion of the Antichrist, Beliar, atid Nerotiic myths in 
various degrees and forms. 

From this fusion the myth emerges in three forms, which 



84 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 

owe their diversity in the main to the three variations of the 
Neronic myth which enter into and affect the combination. 
These are : (i.) Incarnation of Beliar as the Antichrist in Nero 
still conceived as alive. The Antichrist has here a pohtical 
significance, and is human, (ii.) Incarnation of Beliar in the 
form of the dead Nero. The Antichrist is here a Satanic being, 
(iii.) Incarnation of Beliar as the Antichrist in Nero redivivus. 

(i.) Incarnation of Beliar as the Antichrist in Nero still con- 
ceived as living — before 90 a.d. — We have seen above from 
documentary evidence that before 80 a.d. the myth had gained 
wide circulation both among Gentiles and Jews, that Nero was 
still living in the East, and would speedily return to avenge 
himself on Rome. We have further seen that long before 80 
A.D. the minds of both Jews and Christians were familiar with 
the expectation of the Antichrist pure and simple, and of the 
Antichrist possessing the attributes of Beliar or Satan, and so 
denoting a God-opposing man armed with miraculous powers, or 
a truly Satanic being. So strong was the tendency of such 
mythical currents to merge in a common stream that it is not 
surprising to find this coalescence achieved in Sibyll. Or. iii. 63- 
74. This passage is unhappily of uncertain date, though no 
doubt before 90 a.d., since Nero is still regarded as alive. Its 
significance, however, cannot be mistaken. Beliar comes as 
Antichrist and is descended from Augustus {Ik 2€^a<rr7/vcov). 
That this descendant of Augustus is Nero there seems no room 
for doubt. The lines are : 

Ik 8c "SitftacTTrjvlov rj^ei BeXi'ap fUTOTrLcrdtv 
KoX t o^Tijo-Ci t opioiv vij/os, (TTT^crci 8k 6d\acr(Tav . . . 
Koi v€Kvas (TTTjcrii KoX (TrjixaTa 7ro\A.a TroLrjaei . . . 
dX\' oiroTov fieyd^oto Oeov TrcXdawcnv aTreiXai, 
Koi. Swa/its (f>Xoyeov(ra Bi 018/i.aTOS cts yatai' ij^ei, 
Koi BeAia/3 (fiXe^ei koi VTrep<f)ia.Xov<; avOpwrrovi 
iravTa-i, ocrot tovtw ttlcttlv evCTTOii^cravTO. 

It is possible, however, that the ^fjSaa-TrjvoC are the inhabit- 
ants of ^ifiaarr], i.e. Samaria. In that case the text would come 
under II. i. {l>). 

ii. Incarnation of Beliar as Antichrist in the form of the dead 
Nero. — In due time the belief that Nero was still alive in the 
East began to die. The time of its extinction must naturally 
have varied according to temperament and locality. It is 
accordingly difficult to assign definite dates. Since, however, 
the latest pretender to the Neronic role came forward in 88 a.d., 
we may not unreasonably infer that from that year the belief 
began to lose its grip on the common folk, and to decline 
steadily till it finally disappeared. No doubt during the next 



XVII.] ADDITIONAL NOTE ON XVII. 85 

twenty years or more it crops up sporadically, but even during 
that period its place has been taken by two rival and stronger 
forms of the same myth. 

These new forms may have already been evolved in the later 
years of Vespasian. At all events they are not later than 90- 
100 A.D. Now that the belief that Nero was still alive had 
already been abandoned, there were two courses of development 
open for this myth, in case the Neronic element was still to be 
retained. Either Beliar must come in the form of the dead 
Nero, or Nero must be recalled to life by a Satanic miracle as in 
(iii.). The first course is adopted by the writer of the Ascension 
of Isaiah, the second by our author in xiii., xvii. The passage 
in the Ascension, iv. 2-4, is as follows : 

" And after (the age) is fulfilled, Beliar, the great ruler, the 
king of this world, will descend, who hath ruled it since it came 
into being ; yea he will descend from his firmament in the like- 
ness of a man, a lawless king, the slayer of his mother, who 
himself (even) this king 3. Will persecute the plant which the 
Twelve Apostles of the Beloved have planted. Of the Twelve 
one will be delivered into his hand. 4. This ruler in the form 
of that king will come, and there will come with him all the 
powers of this world," etc. 

(iii.) Incarnation of Beliar as the Antichrist in Nero redivivus. 
— The chief authority attesting this expectation is Rev. xiii., xvii. 
in their present form as they left our author's hand. But we 
shall first deal shortly with others in the Sibylline Oracles. In 
Sibyll. Or. v. 28-34 (written in the reign of Hadrian) the descrip- 
tion of the Antichrist involves all the above elements. Thus it 
is Nero redivivus that is described ; for the author of the lines 
is writing two generations after Nero's death. In the next place 
he is called in semi-mythological language " the serpent " (herein 
we have the Beliar element), and finally he makes himself equal 
to God. The lines bearing on our subject are v. 28-29, 33~34- 

TrtvTrjKOVTa 8' oris Ktpaiiqv A,a;^€, Koipapos eorai, 
Scivos 6cf)l<S . . . 

aXX torac kol ai'crTOS oAoi'tos' cTra dvaKafMij/ei, 
i<ra.^(i>v 6e<a airov. 

V. 214-227 belongs more clearly to this division. According to 
this passage, Nero is to return aloft, upborne by the Fates. His 
achievements are portrayed in 219-225. In Book viii., of which 
lines 4-429 belong to the close of the second century, the 
various myths have so thoroughly coalesced that Nero is no 
longer regarded as a man but as a Satanic monster. He has 
become the Dragon (viii. 88, ■irop<f>vpe6<i re Spdicwv), and assumed 
the monster's form (157, Orjpa /leyav). 



86 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN fXVII. 

It is needless here to pursue the ramifications of this myth 
further in this and later literature than to state, that so 
thoroughly did the Neronic element in the composite Antichrist 
conception gain the upper hand in the East, that in Armenian 
the word Nero became and remains the equivalent for Anti- 
christ. 

We shall now return to the most important testimonies of 
this subject, i.e. in Rev. xiii., xvii. We need not here deal with 
them in detail, since they are fully discussed already. Here 
we have the most vigorous and illuminating conception of 
the Antichrist in all literature, although, as we have seen in 
our study of these chapters, our author was to a considerable 
extent indebted to existing sources in their composition. But 
though the elements of the Antichrist were drawn for the most 
part from disparate sources, the result is no mere mosaic, no 
laboured syncretism of conflicting traits, but a marvellous 
portrait of the great God-opposing power that should hereafter 
arise, who was to exalt might above right, and attempt, success- 
fully or unsuccessfully for the time, to seize the sovereignty of the 
world, backed by hosts of intellectual workers,^ who would 
uphold his pretensions, justify all his actions, and enforce his 
political aims by an economic warfare,^ which menaced with 
destruction all that did not bow down to his arrogant and 
godless claims. And though the justness of this forecast is 
clear to the student who approaches the subject with some 
insight, and to all students who approach it with the experience 
of the present world war, we find that as late as 1908, Bousset 
in his article on the "Antichrist" in Hastings' Encyclopcedia 
of Religion and Ethics, writes as follows: "The interest in 
the (Antichrist) legend ... is now to be found only among 
the lower classes of the Christian community, among sects, 
eccentric individuals, and fanatics." 

No great prophecy receives its full and final fulfilment in 
any single event or series of events. In fact, it may not be 
fulfilled at all in regard to the object against which it was 
primarily delivered by the prophet or Seer. But, if it is the 
expression of a great moral and spiritual truth, it will of a 
surety be fulfilled at sundry times and in divers manners and in 
varying degrees of completeness. The present attitude of the 
Central Powers of Europe on this question of might against right, 
of Csesarism against religion, of the state against God, is the 
greatest fulfilment that the Johannine prophecy in xiii. has as 
yet received. Even the very indefiniteness regarding the chief 
Antichrist in xiii. is reproduced in the present upheaval of 

^ This is the second Beast in xiii. — the false prophet. 
2 The measures described in xiii. 16-17. 



XVIII. § 1.] CONTENTS, ETC., OF CHAPTER 87 

evil powers. In xiii. the Antichrist is conceived as a single 
individual, i.e. the demonic Nero ; but, even so, behind him 
stands the Roman Empire, which is one with him in character 
and purpose, and is itself the Fourth Kingdom or the Kingdom 
of the Antichrist — in fact, the Antichrist itself. So in regard to 
the present war, it is difficult to determine whether the Kaiser 
or his people can advance the best claims to the title of a 
modern Antichrist. If he is a present-day representative of the 
Antichrist, so just as surely is the empire behind him, for it is 
one in spirit and purpose with its leader — whether regarded 
from its military side, its intellectual, or its industrial. They are 
in a degree far transcending that of ancient Rome " those who 
are destroying the earth" (Rev. xi. 18). 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

§ I. The Contents and Character of this Chapter, 

This chapter, which deals with the doom of Rome, opens 
with a prophetic prelude, in which the Seer looks far forward 
and sees the destruction of Rome as already accomplished, and 
the earth's proud capital as the haunt of every unclean thing — 
both demonic and belonging to this world. ^ This prelude, 
described as an angelic utterance from heaven (1-3), is proleptic, 
since in the rest of the chapter various stages in the actual 
destruction are described. 

In 4-8 there follows another voice addressed to the faithful ^ 
(4-5), and to the ministers of God's wrath,^ who were assembled 
for the destruction of Rome. 

We now come to the three threnodies pronounced respec- 
tively over burning Rome by the kings (9-10), by the merchant 
princes of the earth (11-13, 15-16), and by the shipowners and 
sailors of all the world (17-19). Each in turn bewail the doom 
of the great city in whose wantonness and luxury and wealth 
they had all shared. 

The chapter closes with a song of doom preluded by a 
symbolic action on the part of a strong angel. This dirge is 
uttered by the Seer who wrote the Oracle, which John has 
utilized here for his own purposes. At its close he has added 
20, 23-24, in which he appeals to heaven and to the martyrs, 

^ As John had not the opportunity of revising his great Apocalyse, several 
traces of the expectations belonging to the Vespanianic period survive in this 
Jewish source. According to John's own view, the smoke of Rome was to go 
up till the world's end (xix. 3), but not so in this source (xviii. 2). 

^ Another element testifying to the origin of the source in Vespanian's 
time. The faithful had all been removed from the earth at the close of xiii. 

^ In the original source — Nero and the Parthians. 



88 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. § 1-2. 

apostles and prophets already there, to rejoice over the destruc- 
tion of Rome. This appeal is answered in xix. This last part 
of the chapter was evidently found by our author in a very 
confused condition. It should be read as follows (as we have 
shown in § 6): 21, 14, 22*""^^ 23'=^ 22"'«^ 23^^ 20, 23^, 24. 

As we have already stated, John has here used a source 
belonging to the Vespasianic period, and written soon after the 
destruction of Jerusalem. It was apparently written originally 
in Hebrew, and found by John in a Greek translation. The 
grounds for these statements are given in the sections that 
follow. To the same Vespasianic source xvii. i*'-7, 18, 8-10 
(in part) originally belonged. 

§ 2. The Diction., Idiom, and Style of xviii, 2-23 is not 
that of our author. 

The style of this chapter has none of our author's character- 
istic abnormal constructions (see 2). It has, on the other hand, 
constructions which are wholly against his usage (see 3). This 
chapter contains a great many airal Acyo/Acva so far as the rest of 
the N.T. is concerned (see footnote on i), and also peculiar 
usages of certain words (see 5) not only unknown in the rest of 
the N.T. and the LXX, but almost unknown elsewhere. The 
style is most carefully elaborated, and in this respect different 
from that of our author. Our author is, of course, a stylist, but 
with him style is a wholly secondary consideration. His theme 
had wholly gained possession of him, and being the greatest of 
all themes it naturally expresses itself in great and noble words. 
But the writer of xviii. 2-23 is no less conscious of. the claims 
of form than he is of the subject-matter of his vision. He is 
a conscious stylist. Moreover, the order of his words is less 
Semitic than that of any other chapter in the Apocalypse from 
our author's hand. Thus the verb frequently follows after the 
subject or the object, or both combined: cf. 3, 7, 8, 11, 14, 
15, 17. In xvii. i''-2, 3^-7, 8-10, the earlier part of this source, 
the order is Semitic, but this seems owing to the revision it has 
undergone at the hands of our author before he incorporated it 
in his text. 

Finally, this source has influenced our author (see 7). 

I. Diction. — The source begins with 2. It is introduced by 
I, every phrase of which is from our author. Thus fjurh. raDra 
etSov is a characteristic phrase : ilZov aXXov ayycAov KarafiatvovTa 
Ik tov ovpavov is found in x. i and again in xx. i. On ex^vra 
i^ovaiav cf. ix. 3, xvi. 9, XX. 6 ; and on i<f>wTia6r] ck t^? So^t/? 
auTov, cf. xxi. 23, Tj yap 8o^a tov Ofov i<f>ii)TL(rev avTi'jv. The Style 
of 2-23 is not that of our author, nor the diction nor the idiom. 



XVIII. § 2.] DICTION AND IDIOM 89 

The diction is in the main different. I have added a list of phrases 
and clauses common to xviii. and the rest of the book. Now 
from this hst must be withdrawn those given under 20, 23, 24, 
since either originally or in their present form they are from our 
author's hand. Next, those given under 3^ 10, 16 are repeated 
from the earlier part of the same source, xvii. i-io, but not found 
elsewhere in the Book. Again, this old Vespasianic source has 
not unnaturally influenced our author's diction : hence the 
clauses given in 2*, 3^ are the source of xiv. 8, and the rare use 
oi ^vdcrivov in 12 appears to be the source of our author's use 
of it in xix. 8, 14. Thus the clauses with a diction akin to that 
in our author are those given under 4 (8), 9, 21 (below). But 
the clauses which in these verses are common to this source and 
our author are not distinctive. On the other hand, xviii. has a 
large number of aira^ Xiyofxeva, so far as the rest of our author 
and the N.T. are concerned.^ 

2. eireo-ci', circaei' BapoXwi' r\ (jLeydiXT) : cf. xiv. 8, which, how- 
ever, appears to be borrowed from this source. 

3. CK ToO oit'ou [toG Oufiou] Ttjs TTopfcias auTTis ireiroTiKCK itdvTa 
rd f.Qvt\ — the source of xiv. 8*^. 01 ^ao-iXeis ttjs y'^s Hct' aujTJs 
ciropi'euCTav : cf. 9, xvii. 2, where the clause has already occurred. 

4. r]Kooo-a aXXif]>' 4)UI't)»' Ik too oupafoG Xe'YOoorai' : cf. X. 4, 8, 
xi. 12, xiv. 2, etc. 

8. StdTouTo: cf. vii. i5,xii. 12. ei'iropiKaTaKauOiiaeTai: cf.xvii. 16. 

9. KO'i/ovTa.i. ctt' auTJj : cf. 1. 7- 

10. T TToXis iq jiCYdXT) : cf. 16, 19, xvii. 18 — all belonging to 
the same source. 

12. jSucrait'ou : cf. 16, xix. 8, 14, where this use of ^xxrawov 
as a noun appears derived from the use in this source. 

16. 1^ TTcpiPepXTjfAeVr] . . . fiapYapiTY] : repeated with slight 
variations from xvii. 4 — both belonging to the same source. 

17. e(rn\(jav. Our author would have used coraOifjo-ai' or 
MT-t]Kei<ja.v. See vol. i. p. 272. 

20. 6U(|>paifou : cf. xii. 12. oupac^. Our author uses this 
word in the sing. 01 aYioi k. ol diroaToXoi Kal oi iTpo<}>'f]Tai. The 
order is unusual: contrast xi. 18, xviii. 24. cKpii/ec: cf. xvi. 6. 

21. cts (cf. viii. 13, xix. 17) aYY^^os ictX"Pos : cf. v. 2, x. i. 
t^a\f.v eis : very frequent, ou |x^ cupeSr] cti : cf. 22, 24, xii. 8, 
xiv. 5. 

28. ^TrXan]6T)(ra>' Trdrra to. c0ct] : cf. XX. 3, 8, xii. 9, xiii. 14. 

^ Thus we have <pv\aK-f] in xviii. 2 : arp-^vovs in xviii. 3 (cf. aTp-ijvidu in 
7, 9, also &ir. \ey. ), dnrXwcrare, and SiirXd ami SiirXoui' as nouns in 6, aipiKOV, 
Ovivov, i\€<f)6.vrivov, fj.ap/j.a.pou in 12, and in the same verse kokkIvov as a noun 
(cf. 16, xvii. 4), Kipvafiio/xov, iifj.wiJ.ov, aefj-ibakiv [peSwv, cru/j-ariov in this sense] 
in 13, 6iru)pa, Xnrapd in 14, Trop<pvpovv as a noun in 16 (xvii. 4), iprya^ovTai 
(in this sense) in 17, tijxi6ti]to's in 19, pivKivov, 6pfj.rifj.aTi in 21, fioViJiKQ>v, 
aaXiTKTTwi' in 22. 



90 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. § 2. 

24. Trpo<|)iiToii' Kal ayiotv : cf. xi. 1 8. i(T^ay\Liv(>)v : cf. V. 6, 9, 
12, vi. 9, xiii. 8. 

2. The style of xviii. 2-23 exhibits none of the abnormal 
constructions^ so frequent in our author, is far more normal 
than that of our author, and is comparatively good Greek. In 
fact the writer of this source was a conscious stylist. 

3. Whilst this source has none of our author's characteristic 
abnormal constructions, it contains constructions which are wholly 
against his usage. Thus ovai cum nom. in 10, 16, 19, whereas it 
appears in our author only cum ace. iv laxvpa. (fxDvrj in 2 is both 
as regards the epithet and the order in this phrase unexampled 
in our author (see note in he). avTrj<; al dixaprCai in 5 is an 
example of the unemphatic position of airos not elsewhere in our 
author save in one Uncial (A) in xxi. 3 (see vol. ii. p. 208, foot- 
note). Kpd^eiv iv . . . (jiwvrj in 2 is against our author's usage, 
who never inserts the iv here: cf. vi. 10, vii. 2, 10, x. 3, xix. 17. 
In xviii. 4 the order €« twv TrXrjywv avTrjs iva 1X7] Xd^r]T€ (nACQ) 
is unparalleled in our author. Hence some later authorities 
transpose iK t. irX-qyljiv avTrj<; after \dj3r]T€. Again, 17 fi^ydXr] TToAts 
in 21 is unparalleled in our author in this phrase (see note in loc). 
The attraction of the relative in xviii. 6, noTrjptio w iKepacrev, is 
against his usage : cf. i. 20. Even the title of Babylon in 
xviii. 10, 17 TToAis rj laxvpd, is against our author's use, who calls it 
rj fjL€yd\r) in xiv. 8, xvi. 19, a title which appears also in this source 
in xvii. 5, xviii. 2, 10, 21. Finally, in xviii. 7 we find KdOrj/xaL 
where our author would have used KadiCa: see note on iii. 21 ; 
and ov fxrj, xviii. 14, with evprjo-ova-iv, where he would use eupwo-iv. 

4. The accumulation of participles is a frequent character- 
istic of this source — without any real parallel in the rest of the 
Book. Thus in xviii. 9-10 we have ol . . . Tropvewavres koX 
(rTpr]VLd(TavTe<i orav /?A£7ra)o"iv . . . aTro fiaKp66ev k(Try]KOT€^ . . . 
XeyovT£s, all dependent on the subject of the principal verb. 
In 15, ol TrXouTT^aavrcs . . . KAatovres /cat Trev^owres, Aeyovres, 
similarly dependent on the subject of the principal verb : in 
18, /8A€7rovT€S . . . Aeyoi'Tcs : in 19, KAat'ovres Koi irevOovi'Tt';, 
Acyovres. The same accumulation of participles is to be found 
in the earlier fragment of this source, i.e. xvii. i''-2, 3^-7, 18, 
8-10. Thus in xvii. 3 we have yi;varKa Kadr/fxevrjv €7rt 9-qpiov . . . 
yifxovTa . . . e_;(a)v : in 4, TrepL/^e/^X.rjfi^vr] . . . /cat Ki^pva-wfjiivr] 
. . . exovaa : in 7, tov (3a(TTd^oi'To<;, toB Ix^vtos : in 8, 01 /carot- 
KoCi'Tes . . . /SAeTTOvTcoi'. 

5. The use of neuter adjectives in the sing, as nouns is 

' Thus the syntax is carefully observed as regards gender and number. 
Even X^yuv {\^yoi>Tes, etc.) always agrees with the noun on which it depends ; 
contrast our author's use: i. II, iv. I, v. 12, 13, ix. 14, x, 8 {its), xi. I, 15, 
xiv, 7, xix. I, 6. 



XVni. § 2-3.J A HEBREW SOURCE 9I 

characteristic of this source : i.e. ^va(Tivov= "fine linen " in xviii. 
12, 16. This usage occurs only once in the LXX in Dan. x. 5*^. 
Occasionally ra ^va-a-tva is used in this sense in the LXX. 
Similarly Trop<^vpovv in xvii. 4, xviii. 16, kokklvov in xvii. 4, 
xviii. 12, 16, (TipiKov, xviii. 12, and StirAow in xviii. 6, are used 
as nouns, although, save in the case of cnpiKov and SittAow, such 
a use of these words in the sing, seems unattested elsewhere. 
(TipiKov is found in Arrian and Strabo as a noun, and hnrXovv 
appears to be used similarly in the LXX in Ex. xxii. 7, 9. 
For certain adjectives employed in this way in the rest of the 
N.T. see Robertson, Grain. 653 sq., who, however, as the rest 
of the N.T. grammarians, fails to notice most of the above 
words. 

6. The order of this source is less Semitic than that of our 
author : see above. 

7. This source appears to have influenced our author. — As 
regards xviii. 2-23, it has become clear that it is not our author's 
production, as we have found also with regard to xvii. 1*^-2, 
3''-7, 18, 8-10. Now this source, dating from the time of 
Vespasian, had been in our author's hands and was apparently 
laid under contribution by him. Thus xiv. 8 is composed simply 
of xviii. 2^, 3* put together. Again our author's peculiar use of 
fiva-crivov in xix. 8, 14 as a noun appears due to this same use in 
xviii. 12, 16 (see 5. above). The fact that this use of jSvaa-tvov 
is characteristic of this source and borrowed by our author gains 
support by its use of -n-opffyvpovv (xvii. 4, xviii. 16), kokkivov (xvii. 4, 
xviii. 12, 16), a-LpLKov (xviii. 12), and SnrXovv (xviii. 6) as nouns, 
although, save in the case of the cripiKov and SittAow, such a use 
seems unattested elsewhere. SittAS and to. KOKKua are found 
elsewhere. Since, therefore, our author appears to have been 
influenced by this source in the above respects, it is possible that 
he may have been also influenced by it in his use of io-xvpos, 
which occurs 4 times in xviii. and 5 times in the rest of our 
author. Three of these five times it occurs in the phrase ayycAo5 
lo-x^pos found also in xviii. 21. But ovk . . . ht, which is 6 
times in xviii., occurs 9 times in the rest of our author and belongs 
to his vocabulary. His use of 8ta tovto, vii. 15, xii. 12, is not to 
be traced to xviii. 8, seeing that it is a very common phrase, being 
found 15 times in the Johannine Gospel and 3 times in the 
Epistles. 

§ 3. The Greek appears to be a translation from a Hebrew 
source. 

The evidence for the hypothesis is not conclusive. It will be 
found in the notes on 8, 19, 22 in connection with the words 
and phrases -rrevOos, ck t^s TLfi.i6Tr)To<i, and /xovaiKiov. The use of 
Bvvdfjii(o<; in 3 may suggest 7^1 = "wealth." 



92 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. § 4, 

§ 4. The text has suffered great dislocations — in some degree 
comparable to those in xxii. Translation of xviii. 2 1-24 in its 
reconstructed order. 

One of these dislocations — that of 14 — was observed by early 
scholars like Beza and Vitringa, which they restore after 23^ 
But the present writer thinks that 14 should be read immediately 
after 21 : 20 he finds is also out of place. It should be replaced 
after 23*''. The various elements of 22-23 have been disarranged, 
as is shown in the notes. 

21-24 should be read in the following order : 21, 14, 2 2*-'', 23'''', 

2 2e-h 23ab 20, 23^ 24. 

21. And a strong angel took up a stone as it were a great 
millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying : 

"Thus with violence shall be cast down, 
Babylon the great city, 
And shall no more be found. 

(The Seer's dirge over Babylon.) 

14. And the fruits which thy soul lusted after 

Are gone from thee : 
And all the dainties and the splendours 

Are perished from thee. 
[And men shall find them no more at all]. 

22*"**. And the voice of the harpers and singers 
< Shall be heard no more in thee > , 
And <the voice > of the fiuteplayers and trumpeters 
Shall be heard no more in thee. 

23*"*. And the voice of the bridegroom and the bride 

Shall be heard no more in thee : 
2 2®^. And no craftsman of whatsoever craft 

Shall be found any more in thee : 

2 2k'». And the voice of the millstone 

Shall be heard no more in thee : 
23*^ And the light of the lamp 

Shall shine no more in thee. 

(The Seer's appeal to heaven and its inhabitants to rejoice 
over the doom of Rome.) 

20. Rejoice over her, thou heaven, 

And ye saints and ye apostles and ye prophets ; 
For God hath judged your judgment upon her; 



XVIII. § 4-6.] OF THE TIME OF VESPASIAN 93 

23^. For with her sorcery had all the nations been deceived : 
24. And in her was found the blood of the prophets and 
saints 
And of all that had been slain upon the earth." 

§ 5. xviii. was written in the time of Vespasian} 

This statement can be proved by means of 2, 4, 6-8. 

{a) For first of all 2 presupposes the fires of Rome to have 
been long extinct, and its ruins to have become the abode of 
every unclean spirit, bird, and beast. Now such a supposition 
even in a vision was not possible for the Seer writing in 95 a.d. 
He was then looking forward to the destruction of Rome as one 
of the last great acts in the judgment of the world. Moreover, the 
fires which should consume Rome, xviii. 9, 15, 18, were never, so 
long as the earth lasted, to be exti?iguished, xix. 3. Hence, however 
we explain xviii. 2, it was written at an earher date than the 
Apocalypse as a whole. But, whereas the prophecy in 2 is 
merely proleptic and therefore not at variance with xviii. 8, 15, 
18, it is really irreconcilable with xix. 3, which declares that the 
smoke of Rome's ruins will go up till the world's end. The 
former gives the expectation of a Jewish Seer in Vespasian's 
time, the latter that of our author John in 95 a.d. 

{b) In the note on 4 I have shown that the presupposition 
underlying it runs counter to the expectation of our Seer, that 
after chap. xiii. all the faithful had been put to death. But in 
this verse a considerable body of the faithful is presumed to be 
actually present in Rome. Such a presumption would be justifi- 
able in Vespasian's time after the fall of Jerusalem, to which period 
xviii. can most reasonably be assigned. 

{c) In 6-8 the same Vespasianic standpoint is transparent. 
We have such an expectation here as would be naturally enter- 
tained by a zealous Jew after the destruction of Jerusalem. 

§ 6. xviii. preserved in a corrupt condition and adapted by our 
author to his own purpose. 

The dislocation of 14 and 20 and of several clauses in 21-24 
from their original contexts shows how profoundly the original 
source has suffered (see § 4). There is no reason to suppose 
that these dislocations were due to our author. Either they 
were already present in his source, or they are due to accidental 
disarrangement subsequently. It should be borne in mind that, 
if the present writer's hypothesis is sound as to the death of John 
when he had completed xx. 3, we are to regard i.-xx. 3 as never 
having undergone a final revision at his hands. In fact we have 
in i.-xx. 3, the first sketch of a great work, portions of which 

' On a variety of grounds Sabatier, Rauch, Spitta, Weyland, Bousset, 
J. Weiss, Wellhausen, and Moffatt accept the Vespasianic date of xviii. 



94 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. ^ 6-7. 

have been most carefully worked out from the visions of many 
years, while others show not a few inequalities and inconsistencies 
that a final revision would have removed. 

As regards the corruptions in the text we have already (§ 3) 
sought to explain those in 8, 19, 22 by means of a Hebrew back- 
ground. The ungrammatical clause (koI LTnrwv kt\.) in 13 is 
merely a gloss. 23% if it belonged to the original source, is at 
all events in its wrong context where it stands. 24 is from the 
hand of John as well as the phrase /cat 01 diroa-ToXoL in 20. 

§ 7. xv/i'i. and xvii. i''-2, 3^-7, 18, 8-10 are a Greek 
translation of one and the same Hebrew source. 

We have already come to the conclusion that xvii. 1*^-2, s**-?, 18, 
8-10, and xviii. 2-24 are of a Vespasianic date, and that the Greek 
of these sections is apparently a translation (not made but revised 
by John) from a Hebrew original. Since xvii. i'=-2, 3^-7, 18, 
8-10, and xviii. 2-23, which are closely connected by their peculiar 
and in some respects unique diction, deal with the same subject 
and belong to the same date, we conclude that they are from the 
same hand. The former served as an introduction to the latter, 
xvii. I gives the title of xviii. to KpL/xa t^s -n-opvrjs t^s /AeyaAT/s t^s 
Ka6r]fxivr)<i ctti vSarwv ttoXXwv. Next, xvii. 2 {fx.iff rj<; i-rropvevo-av 
01 /JacnXcis t^s yrj<;, koL ep.f.Ov(rdrja-av 61 xaTOiKOvvTcs t^v yrfv in tov 
olvov T^s TTo/jvetas avTTj^) is repeated in substance and in part 
verbally in xviii. 3, ck tov olvov toS dvjxov t^s iropveia^ avTrj<; 
TreTTOTLKev rravra to. eOvrj, and 23, iv rfj (fyapp-aKia <rov i-rrXavrjOrfcrav 
TravTa to. Wvrj. Next, clauses from xvii. 4 (Trcpt^e/SXT/yaeVr; irop- 

<fiOpOVV ^ Koi KOKKIVOV, KOL K€-)(pV(Tii>fJbivq )(pV(TL(^ KOL Xt^O) TLfJilW KOI 

/xapyaptVats) are repeated almost word for word in xviii. 16, xjirf-pi- 
{3e/3Xy]p.€i'7] . . . 7rop(f>vpovv koi kokkivov kol Ki^vcnjifxivq . . . Xt^o) 
Tt/Atoj Ktti fxapyapLTy. Again, iroTypLOv . . . iv rfj x^V^ avTrj<; ye'/xov 
/?8fXvy/u,aTtov in xvii. 4 is recalled by iv t<3 TroTi/piw w iKepaaev 
in xviii. 6 ; BafivXwv rj fxeydXr) in xvii. 5 by a kindred clause in 
xviii. 10 ; and rj ttoXis tj p.eydXr] in xvii. 18 by the same phrase in 
xviii. 10, 16, 19. 

Hence xvii. i"'-2, 3''-7, 18, 8-10, and xviii. appear to be 
derived from one and the same Hebrew source.^ With this he 
has combined another source, xvii. 11-13, 17, 16, which foretold 
the destruction of Rome by Nero and the Parthians. xvii. 2 gives 
the title of the Vision in xviii., i.e. the Doom of Rome ; this judg- 
ment is preceded by a vision of Rome before its overthrow m 

' It is important to observe that Trop<pvpovv used as a noun seems to occur 
only in xvii. 4 and xviii. 16, that k6kklvov is used as a noun in the sing, in 
xvii. 4'', xviii. 12, i6~a most rare use, though it is found in the LXX and 
elsewhere as a noun in the plural. See § 2. 5 above. 

" The order of the words in xviii. while in the main Semitic, is not as 
decidedly so as in xvii. r-a, S*"-?, 18, 8-10. The latter has been thoroughly 
revised by our author. 



XVIII. 1-2.] DOOM OF BABYLON 95 

xvii. 3-7, 18, 8-10, and by a prophecy of the coming destruction 
of Rome by fire at the hands of Nero and the Parthians, i.e, 
xvii. 12-13, ^7) '^^^ ^^ ^^ "O*^ ^^'^ ^® come to xviii. that the 
promise of the Angel of the Bowls in xvii. i, Sct'^w o-oi to Kpi/ia 
T^s TTopvTjs, is fulfilled, xviii. is a vision of Rome's doom, which 
[?, foretold in xvii. 16. 

1-3. The proclamation of the doom of Babylon by the first 
angel. This proclamation is proleptic. The angel's words 
regard Rome's doom as already accomplished far in the past. 

From 2"^^ it appears that the fires that consumed it have 
long since been quenched, and that it has become the abode of 
unclean birds and demons. See the note on these clauses below. 

1. ahXov ayYcXo*'. This angel is distinguished from the angel 
mentioned in xvii. i, 7, who is the angelus interpres. 

r\ yfj €(J>wTia9r] Ik t-^s 86|t)s auTou. This is a direct rendering 
of Ezek. xliii. 2, 11330 nv^n pxn, where the LXX has rj yrj 
e^e'Xa/ATrev ws cf>€yyo<; diro rrjs 80^775. Here the Targum has i^yiN 
n^ip' VfD mnj. Thus the brightness of God's glory is here 
attributed to an angel. See further on this " brightness " in 
note on xxi. 23. On this use of €K = "by reason of," cf. viii. 13, 
xvi. II. 

2. €Kpa|ei' iv i<tx"P? <t>w>'^- The diction in this phrase is 
unexampled in our author : the order is most exceptional. See 
note on x. 3. 

cireaei/ cttcctck Ba^uXwi' i^ fxeydXT]. This clause has already 
occurred in xiv. 8 (see note). The Greek here, with the exception 
of the epithet, is an independent rendering of Isa. xxi. 9. 

gcde^ 'X'hgse three clauses are to be taken proleptically in 
reference to 9, 15, 18 : otherwise they occasion difficulty ; for in 
9, 15, 18, Rome is seen in the Seer's vision to be consumed by 
fire : whereas these clauses presuppose the fires of Rome to have 
been long extinct, and the ruins to have become the hold of 
unclean birds and demons, xiv. 1 1 refers not to the city Rome, 
but to the eternal torment of the worshippers of the Beast in the 
next world. On the other hand it is impossible to reconcile 2"'^° 
with xix. 3, which represents the smoke of her burning as going 
up for ever and ever, i.e. to the end of the world. This last is 
our author's own expectation. Here that of his source conflicts 
with it : see Introd. to this Chap., § 5. 

iyivtro KaroiKTjTiipioi' Saifiofiwc . . . fJtefj.iffTifjiej'ou : cf. Isa. xiii. 
21-22 (Sat/Aovta cKfi opx^6'7ycrovTai) ; Jer. li. 31, "Babylon shall 
become . . . a dwelling for jackals"; i Bar. iv. 35, KarotKrjdi]- 
crerat vtto Saifjioviw. In Isa. xxxiv. 1 1, 13^, 14-15, Jer. 1. 39, there 
is a list of unclean birds and beasts that are to inhabit Edom or 
Babylon given : cf. Zepli. ii. 14. The Sai/jiovia are the 0""% or 
more probably the Dn^yii' (Isa. xiii. 21, xxxiv. 14). 



96 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 2-4. 

dpi/e'ou dKa0(£pToo : cf. Deut. xiv. 12-19. 

3. The nations as a whole, the rulers of the earth and its 
merchants, were involved in the sin of Rome. 

^K ToO oiwu [tou OufioG] TT]s TTopi^ios auTT]?. I havc here with 
much hesitation bracketed rov Ovftov, although it has the support 
of the best MSS. But the extraordinary diversity among the 
authorities points to some corruption in the above text. See 
notes on xiv. 8, xvii. 2. In the latter passage we have an exact 
parallel to xviii. 3''''; for 3^ (cf. 23'' on iv rf} KfiapfxaKia aov iTrXavrj- 
drja-av Travra to, lOvrj) corresponds to ificOvcrdrjcrav 01 KarotKoOi/TCS 
T. yrjv Ik tov olvov t^<; Tropvctas awT^s. 3^^ corresponds almost 
verbatim with xvii. 2^, fJnO^ rj-; eiropvevarav ol fSacriXels ti}? y^s. 

ot paaiXcis TTis yf\s. Their lamentation over Rome is given 
in 9-20, as that of the merchants in 11-13, 15-16. 

ireiroTiKei/. This reading, supported by a few cursives, appears 
to be the true one, though in the cursives only a happy conjecture. 
It explains the impossible readings of xACQ. It is also required 
by the context : otherwise Rome is represented only as passively 
evil. TTCTTTw/cav though originating in a scribal error seemed to 
derive support from iTrecreu. As Babylon fell, so did the nations. 

ol cfiTTopoi TTis yr\<i. This phrase, which is peculiar to this 
chapter in the N.T. (cf. 11, 15, 23), is significant. All the 
merchants of the world are involved in the overthrow of Rome. 
The long list of merchants who traded with Tyre, according to 
Ezek. xxvii. 9-25, was in the mind of our author. 

CK . . . auTTJs eirXouTTjaaj' : cf. 1 5. 

Ttjs Sumjieus = " wealth " — a meaning which is found also iri 
the LXX of Deut. viii. 17, Ruth iv. 11, where 8wa/*is is a render- 
ing of ^Tl. In Isa. Ixi. 6 it is rendered by io-xi^'s= "wealth." 
This meaning is to be found in Xen. Cyr. vii. 4. 34, etc., 2 Cor. 
viii. 3, and the Papyri. 

TOO o-Tp^fous auTTis = "of her wantonness." Here and in 
2 Kings xix. 28. Cf. crTprjviav in 9, and Karaa-Tprjv lav toC Xpiorov, 
" to wax wanton against the restrictions prescribed by Christ," in 
I Tim. v. II. 

4-8. The second voice, which comes from heaven itself. 
4-5 are addressed to the faithful, and 6-8 to the ministers of God's 
wrath who were seen by the Seer to be assembling for the work 
of destruction. 

4. No justifiable meaning can be attached to this verse as it 
stands. As we have repeatedly seen heretofore (cf. also ver. 20), 
the presupposition of the Seer is that after xiii. all the faithful had 
been put to death. In xv. 2-4 the army of martyrs is seen in its 
completeness in a vision before the throne of God, while the 
Seven Bowls are poured down on a wholly heathen world. In 
the present verse, therefore, indeed in the present chapter, we 



XVIII. 4-5.] EXHORTATION TO THE FAITHFUL 97 

have a document that belongs, as a large body of modern scholars 
have recognized, to the time of Vespasian. This oracle dealt 
with the destruction of Rome. Volter {Offenbarung Johannis, 
1904), J. Weiss and Erbes ascribe this oracle to a Christian 
source written respectively about 60, 70 and 80 a.d. On the 
other hand, Vischer, Schoen, Weyland, Spitta trace it, and 
rightly in the opinion of the present writer, to a Jewish source. 
Whether Jewish or Christian originally, it is partially adapted to 
its present context by the mention of the "apostles" in 20, and 
by the addition of 24. 

oXXtjc ^(»vf\v. The words that follow — 6 Aao's fiov — seem to 
suggest that it is God that speaks. But 5 is against this con- 
clusion. Cf. xvi. I for a like difficulty. It may, however, be 
Christ that speaks. 

elcXSare e^ auTT]s 6 Xaos fiou. These words appear to be a 
reproduction of Jer. li. (xxviii.) 45, Mliy riDinp ISV. Since they 
are not found in nABQ* of the LXX and in Q™e are 
rendered by iiiXOere c/c fiiaov airrj^ Aaos /x-ov, this clause seems 
to have been translated directly from the Hebrew, and inde- 
pendently of the LXX. 

There are, it is true, many parallels in the O.T. to the above 
clause in our text. Cf. Jer. xxvii. (1.) 8, aTraWoTpuodrjTe ck fxia-ov 
Ba^vXwvos . . . Kal i^eXOarc : xxviii. (li.) 6, <^€i'y€Te ck yaecrov Ba/3x>- 
Awros, Koi dvacrto^€Te l^cacrros t^v i/'ux^^' '^^''"oiJ xal /xr/ airopK^rjre. iv rrj 
a^LKLo. avTrjs : Isa. xlviii. 20, IfcA^e €K BaySrAwvos : Hi. II, aTroa-TrjTe, 
aTrdo-TTjTe, i$eX6aTe cKeWev . . . l^iXOart Ik fxicrov avTrj<; : cf. also 
2 Bar. ii. i, "Retire from this city" ; Matt. xxiv. 16, totc ot iv rfj 
'lovSat'a <f>€vy€TU)crav iirl to. op-q. The last quotation belongs to 
the Little Apocalypse, and refers, of course, to Jerusalem. 

o-ucKoiv(i)i''r]o-TjTe rats i^fiaprias : cf. Eph. V. II, firj crvvKoiv- 
(DveLTe T. epyoi? . . . t. (Tkotov; : I Tim. V. 22, /XT^Se Kotvwvct 
a.fjuLpTLaL<; dAAorpiui?. These words deal with the guilt of sharing 
in the sin of Rome, as the words that follow deal with the 
punishment that such guilt must entail. 

CK Twc ttXtjywi' auT^s, "some of her plagues." 

5. iKo\\r\Qr]crav . . . axpi t. oupacoC. These words are, 
apparently, a reminiscence of Jer. li. 9, nLiStJ'O D'OCJTI bn. y33. 
If so, then iKoXX'^Orjcrav is simply to be rendered (as in the 
A.V. and R.V. and the Vulg., pervenerunt) "have reached." 
This rendering of V33 is very rare, — see Lam. ii. 2 and 
Zech. xiv. 5, ivKoWrjOrja-tTaL (y^jl^) (fidpay^ bpiuiv €<os *Iao-os, 
— but the meaning belonging to this Hebrew verb is clearly 
the one required by our context. We might also compare with 
our text I Esdr. viii. 72, ai Se ayvoiai. rjfxwi' vTrep-qreyKav €W9 toS 
ovpavov : cf. Ezra ix. 6 ; also 4 Ezra xi. 43, " Et ascendit con- 
tumelia tua ad altissimum et superbia tua ad fortem." If this 
VOL. II. — 7 



98 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 5-6. 

rendering is right, then we are not to attempt to render 
lKoX\r)6y](Tav kt\. as "have grown together into such a mass as to 
reach the heaven." It would be extraordinary if God was not 
mindful of the sins of Rome (5^) till they pressed in a mass 
against the roof of heaven. To such an extravagant conception 
the parallelism Kai i/j.vrjfiovevcriv 6 debs to. dSiKi^/jLara avTrj^ would 
form a singular anticlimax — a piece of sheer bathos. Hence we 
infer that iKoW-qOrjcrav is here = lyjn, and that the rendering is 
independent of the LXX in Jer. li. (xxviii.) 9, ^yyiKcv eis ovpavov 
TO Kpifia avTrj<;. The rendering of the two Syriac Versions here 
is very infelicitous, t'.e. "have cleaved to." This rendering of 
KoXX-aa-Sai is found once more in the Syriac Versions, namely, in 
Luke X. II, but there it is very felicitous. 

On the other hand, it must be conceded that KoXXa(r$ai is the 
general rendering of p3T in the LXX. If it presupposes this 
Hebrew word here, then our text is not a reminiscence of Jer. 
li 9. But even so, the context is against the meaning belonging 
to p21. Such a passage as i Bar. i. 20, iKoXX-qOrj eis rnjia<; to, 
KttKtt Koi T] dpd, does not support our text in the sense of " cleave 
unto." Even in this passage of Baruch iKo\X-q9r] probably pre- 
supposes a corrupt Hebrew text. See Whitehouse in Charles, 
T/te Apoc. a7td Pseud, i. 578, and Kneucker in loc. The Syriac 
Version of Baruch = snjT) ( = et pervenerunt), while the Greek = 
panni. Dan. ix. II, with which i Bar. i. 15-ii. 17 is closely 
related, supports the former. 

auTTjs al d/j,apTiai. On this vernacular use of the genitive of 
avTo's see notes on ii. 2, 19, and in vol. ii. 208, footnote. 

efJH'T]fx6i'cuo-ei' 6 0e6s kt\. Cf. xvi. 19, BaySuAwv y) ficydXr] 
ifivrjcrdr] ivwTTiov tov $€ov. 

6. In its present context this verse is to be taken as addressed 
to Nero redivivus and the hosts that followed him : cf. 
xvii. 11--17. But it is not to be forgotten that already Rome has 
for the most part been destroyed in xvi. 19 by a great earthquake, 
and its entire destruction by fire foretold in xvii. 16. The 
present chapter, taken by itself, shows no consciousness of the 
first of these judgments. But the destruction of Rome by fire is 
proclaimed in xviii. 8, 9, 15. Hence the description of the final 
overthrow of Rome in xviii. 21 must be taken as purely figurative. 

dir68oTc auTTJ 6s Kal aurtj direScuKci' kt\., i.e. deal out to her the 
same measure that she dealt to others. Cf. Jer. xxvii. (1.) 29, avra- 
TToSore o-VTr] Kara. to. epya avT^s" Kara Travra ocra iiroirjaev Troti^craTe 
avTT] : 15. €kBik€It€ eTT avTijv' Ka6w<i iTToCqcrei', iroirjaaTe avrfj : Ps. 
cxxxvi. 8, fxaKdpLO<i OS dj/TaTToSoicret croi to di'TaTroBo/xd aov o dvra- 
TTc'ScoKas rjfuv. On this principle of /ex talionis see the notes in 
my edition qS. Jubilees on iv. 31, xlviii. 14. 

SiTrXuaare SnrXa : cf. Isa. xl. 2, e'Sc^aTo Ik p^etpos Kvpiov 



XVIII. 6-8. J COMMAND TO MINISTERS OF DOOM 99 

SiTrXa Tot afiapr-qfiara avr^s : Jer. xvi, 18, avraTroSajcra) . . . 
SittASs Tas KaKLas avrdv. hiirXovv SittXS is an extraordinary ex- 
pression. Cf. Aesch. Agamem. 537, SittAS 8' trtcrav UpLa/xiSaL 
dafidpTia. 

But in Aeschylus the SittAoCs is used purely as an adjective, 
whereas in our text it is a noun. For this use cf. Ex. xxii. 
3, 6, 8. In the first passage we have SittAS in the LXX 
(D^Jt"), in the second to (?) SlttXovv, and in the third SLirXovv, 
i.e. aTTOTiaet SlttXovv tw TrAv/trtoi/. Cf. also Zech. ix. 12, SiirXu 
dvTaTToSojcrw. 

if Tw TTOTTjpiw ktX. : cf. xiv. 8, xvii. 4. This cup is the cup 
of the wrath of Clod. Cf. 2 Bar. xiii. 8, in which the Romans 
also are addressed. 

" Ye who have drunken the strained wine 
Drink ye also of its dregs, 
The judgment of the Lofty One 
Who has no respect of persons." 

7. In this verse it is a question whether the speaker is a 
heavenly being or the Seer who wrote this vision. 

oo-a . . . ToaouTOK. The torment and grief (or " misfortune ") 
of Rome are to be proportionate to her self-glorification and 
wantonness. Cf. Isa. iii. 16, 17, ai'O' wv iupwOrja-av at ^uyare/oes 
'X^Lon- . . , Kttt TaTreLvwaeL 6 ^eos ap)(^ov(ras dvyarepa^ Seiwv : 
Prov. xxix. 23, vf3pL? avSpa TaTTctvot : Luke xiv. 11, etc. 
On the probability that TreV^os, which occurs twice in this verse, is 
to be rendered " misfortune " or " calamity," or that it is a trans- 
lation of a corrupt form in the Hebrew original, see note on ver. 8. 

oTi iv TTJ KapSia aoTr^s Xe'yst . . . i8w. These lines repro- 
duce freely Isa. xlvii. 7, 8, . . . mnj n\-iN obivb nj^Nni 
iji3C^ via i6) rtioha 3K'N i6 . . . nnab n-iDkn. But ' the 

T : T 

LXX is not followed, which here gives eiTras Ets tov atoJva Icro/xai 

apxovcra ... 17 \4yovcra ip rfj KapSCa avTrj<s . . . ov KaOiui X^pa ovhf. 
yvuiorofxai opcfiaveLav. We should observe that for Ka^r/yuai we 

should expect KaOiCw (see note on iii. 21) if this chapter were from 
the hand of our author. As a parallel to our text, the boast of 
Tyre in Ezek. xxviii. 2 should be compared and also the self- 
glorification attributed to Rome in 2 Bar. xii. 3. 

8. Because of (on . . . Sia touto) Rome's pride and self- 
confidence she shall be overthrown suddenly. 

Iv fiia r\iiipa. TJIooaii'. Isa. xlvii. still influences our writer; for 
these words are derived from the Massoretic ver. 9, where 
the LXX (B) renders ^|ci . . . cttI ak iv rfj <^app.aKLa aov. But NA 
etc. agree with Mass. It is noteworthy that el? is postpositive in 
ix. 12, 13, but prepositive in viii. 13, xvii. 12, 13, 17, xviii. 8, 10, 
16, 19, xix. 17. 



lOO THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 8-9. 

t Gamros Kal ir^i'Sos Kal XificJs t- We might compare vi. 8. 
It must be confessed that -n-evOos (" mourning ') cannot with any 
justice be reckoned under the category of plagues. But first of all 
the presence of At/xd? suggests that Odvaro^ here as in vi. 8 and 
frequently in the O.T. =131, " pestilence." In that case the natural 
order would be Ai/tos k. 6dvaTo<; k. ttcV^os. Now returning to 
Trivdos, it is possible that it should be rendered here according to 
a rare meaning by "calamity," "misfortune" (cf. Pindar, /jrM. 
vi. (vii.) 51, €TAav hi irivOo'i ov (jtaTov : Herod, iii. 14). If SO, we 
should translate "famine and pestilence and misfortune^" But 
the error may be due to a corruption in the Semitic original. 
Thus TreV^os = ^3N, corrupt for 7!in. If this is right, we obtain an 
excellent sense — "famine and pestilence and destruction." 
The approach of the Parthians from the East under Nero would 
cut off food supplies from Rome and lead to famine, in the 
train of which pestilence would soon follow. The third plague 
would then prepare for the destruction of Rome by fire. Or, 
since the writer has, as has been shown on 7, borrowed 
freely from Isa. xlvii. 7, 8, it is possible that 73X ( = 7rev^os) 
may be a corruption of ^OK^ in Isa. xlvii. 8 — " famine and 
pestilence and loss of children." But the former restoration is 
to be preferred. 

ef iropl KaxttKauOiiaeTai. The judgment of Rome by fire, 
which according to xvii. 16 is to be executed by Nero and the 
Parthian kings, is here declared to come from God in the first 
instance. On the judgment by fire cf. Jer. 1. 32, li. 25, 30, 32, 

58. 

iCTj^upos 6 Geos 6 KpiMas aKiTx\v. The translator of this 
chapter is fond of the word icrx^pos = cf. 2, 10, 21. Outside 
this chapter it occurs only five times in the Apocalypse : cf. Jer. 
xxvii. (!.) 34, 6 AuTpoujU-evos avrovs Icryvpo's . . . Kpia-iv Kpivel 
Trpos Toiis dvTtStKovs avTov. This Kptvas points to the fact that the 
decree of judgment has already been passed on Rome. 

9-19. The dirge chanted over the conflagration of Rome by 
the kings, 9-10, by the merchant princes of the earth, 11-16, and 
the shipowners and sailors of the world, 17-19. The author is 
influenced by the doom song pronounced by Ezekiel over Tyre, 
Ezek. xxvi.-xxviii. 

9-10. Cf. Ezek. xxvi. 16-17, where the princes of the sea 
mourn over Tyre. 

/cXauaorrai kui K^vj/ovrai cm aurf] : cf. 2 Sam. i. 1 2, iKOif/avro 
. . . Kal iKkavaav . . . iiri Hence our text = " shall weep and 
mourn over" {^7V nSD^i 13Tl). See also 11, 15, 19. 

ol Pa(Ti\ci9 TTJs Y*i'^- cf- vi- ^5 (see note), xvii. 2, 18, 
xviii. 3. These kings are the heads of the heathen nations. 
Foremost amongst them are princes subject to or in alliance with 



XVIII. 9-11.] DIRGE OF KINGS AND MERCHANTS lOI 

Rome ; for, as the next clause shows, they have been deeply 
affected by her influence. They are distinct from the Parthian 
kings who destroy Rome, xvii. i6. 

oi p-ct' aoTtis ■jropceucrai'Tes : cf. xvii. 2, xviii. 3. ffxpTji/niff aires. 
They too had lived wantonly like Rome : cf. 3. 

oToi' p\i-iT(i)(Tiv . . . aiirfi<s. This clause recurs in 18. 

TT]s TTupcicrcws. The prophecy of Rome's destruction by fire is 
dwelt on again and again : cf. xvii. 16, xviii. 8, 18. 

10. dird iioKpiQiv: cf. 15 (see note), 17 ; Matt. xxvi. 58 ; Mark 
V. 6, viii. 3, etc. 

SiotToi' <j>6Poc . . . auri^s. This phrase recurs in 15. 

oual ooal r\ ttoXis ktX. This construction is not found in the 
N.T. except in Luke vi. 25'' ; but it occurs frequently in the LXX : 
cf. Isa. V. 8, II, 20, 21, 22; Hab. ii. 6, 12, 19; Zeph. ii. 5; 
Amos V. 18, where the R.V. rightly renders : " woe unto." Hence 
the rendering here, as in these passages, should be, " Woe, woe 
to the great city." The construction suggests the writer's 
acquaintance with the LXX. Our author's construction is oval 
with the dat. : cf. viii. 13. 

fiia upa : cf. 8, 16, 19. 

11-16, The merchants of the earth take up their dirge over 
Rome. 

11. 01 IfXTTopoi TTJs Y'HS- In Ezek. xxvii. 12-24 the various 
nations that had commercial relations with Tyre are enumerated. 

KXaiouCTif Kttl irevQoutnv cir' auTtj : cf. 9, 15, 19 j Mark xvi. 10 j 
Luke vi. 25; Jas. iv. 9. This combination is found in Neh. 

^- 4- . . 

yofiov — ship's freight or cargo : cf. Acts xxi. 3. The vastness 
of the commerce of Rome may be inferred from the following 
passages, which are all taken from Wetstein ; Galen, £>e Afitidot, 
i. 4, lav iv 'VwfJLr) KaToiKwfiev, €ts rjv i^ aTravrwr rdv iOvwv Ka6' 
€Ka(TTOV ivLavTov i^LKvovvraL irdixTroWa . . . cts yv tol Travra^oOcv 
^Ke KoXa 8ia TravTos Itous : Pliny, H.N. vi. 26, " Minima computa- 
tione millies centena millia sestertium annis omnibus India et 
Seres peninsulaque ilia imperio nostro adimunt " : Aristides, In 
Rom.^ p. 200, ayerat 8c Ik Trdar]<; yrj<; Koi 6a\dTTr]<;, oaa wpai (fivovai, 
Kol \(t)pai eKaarai (jiepovai, Kai TTora/xoL, Kai Ai/xvai, /cat Te)(yai 
'EXXtjvwv Koi j3apfidp<i)v' wcrrc et T19 ravra Trdvra iTrSeiy fiovkoiro, 
8«r auTOv r) irdcrav ticreX^ovra t^v olKovjxivrjv ovtw Ofdaacrdai, rj iv 
TT^Sc rfi TToXci y€vo^€vov . . . rocravrai he dcfyiKVovvTaL Sevpo Ko/xt'- 
^orcrai irapa Travrwv oXKaSes, dvd Trdaav fxiv wpav, Tracrav Sc (f)6iv6- 
TTwpov TrepiTpoTrrjv, uxtt ioiKivai rrjv ttoXiv koivw tivl Trj<; yrj^ 
ipyaa-TTjpiw. <f)6pTOV<i fikv dw' 'IvSwv, el (So'vXei. 81 koI twv evSai/xoi'wv 
'Apd^wv TocrovTOv; opav Iotlv, uicrre eiKd^eiv yvfiva to Xoittoi' rots 
eKtL X€\€i<f>6ai TO. SevSpa. . . . 'Ea^^ras 8' ai Ba/3uXojvta?, koi tovs eK 
T^s e7reK€ii/a /^apjSdpov Koafiovi. . . . Hdvra cVrav^a <rvfnrLWT€i, 



I02 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 11-13. 

efXTTopiai, vavraXiai, yetopyiat, ytxcraWtov KaOapcris, T€)(yai oirocrai. ^Icri 
TC Koi yeykvrjVTai, Travra ocra yivvaTai Koi cfiverai. o ti 8' av fii] 
ivravda iSot tis, ovk ecrri twc yevo/xevwv rj yLyvo/Jievwv. In the 
Talmud, Qi'dd. 49^ it is stated that "Ten measures of wealth 
came down into the world : Rome received nine, and all the 
world one." 

Since 23® cannot stand in its present context, it may 
originally have stood after 11% and so this verse may have run 
as follows : 

1 1* " And the merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, 
23^ For thy merchants were the princes of the earth, 
11'' For no man buyeth their merchandise any more." 

12-13. These two verses give a list of the articles imported 
by Rome from all quarters of the world. Holtzmann has 
recognized that the first four articles mentioned {i.e. precious 
stones) harmonize rhythmically with the next four, consisting of 
costly garments. But further examination of the passage shows 
that it consists, according to the present text, of nine lines. That 
the first four of these consist of two couplets there can be no 
doubt, but great difficulty attaches to the method of dealing 
with the remaining five lines. If they are to be retained as 
they stand, it might be best to regard them as consisting of a 
tristich and a distich : 

" And cinnamon and spice and incense. 
And ointment and frankincense and wine, 
And oil and fine flour and wheat : 
And beasts and sheep [and horses 
And chariots and slaves] and souls of men." 

But it is probable that the words I have bracketed are an inter- 
polation ] for (i) their syntax — genitives where there ought to be 
accusatives — is wholly anomalous. It is without a real parallel 
in the abnormal style of our author, and is still more at variance 
with the much more grammatical style of this chapter, which, as 
we have elsewhere seen, comes from an independent source. 
(2) The same ideas are repeated in immediate proximity under 
dilferent forms ; for " slaves " and " souls of men " are here 
synonymous. 

KTrjcT], as is shown in the notes on 13 = draught cattle, i.e. 
horses, asses, etc., and thus the mention of horses separately, as 
in the present text, is wholly gratuitous. Now, if we excise as a 
gloss, which has crept in from the margin, the words "and 
horses and chariots and slaves," we get rid of the anomalous 
syntax, and of the meaningless repetitions in the last line, and 



XVIII. 12-13.] DIRGE OF THE MERCHANTS I03 

recover the original text of 12-13, consisting of four stanzas of 
two lines each. The last stanza then would be : 

" And oil and fine flour and wheat, 
And beasts and sheep and souls of men." 

The dramatic forcibleness of what seems at first a purely prosaic 
list of imports is in the highest degree impressive, closing as it 
does in the climax — 

" And beasts and sheep and souls of men." 

12. On the various articles mentioned in 12-13 the Bible 
Dictionaries should be consulted. Most of them are to be found 
in the imports of Tyre : Ezek. xxvii. 1 2-24, i.e. gold, silver, 
precious stones, fine linen, purple, brass, iron, all spices, oil, 
wheat, cattle, sheep, horses, and the souls of men. 

Poao-ii'ou : cf. xix. 8. 

cripiKoo (so the uncials. The usual form is a-qpLKov). This 
word ( = "silk") is a oEtt. Aey. in Biblical Greek, but it was used 
frequently by Greek writers after Alexander's time. How 
commonly it was used in Rome about 70 a.d. may be inferred 
from the words of Josephus (B./. vii. 5. 4), who describes the 
triumphant army of Vespasian and Titus as being clothed iv 
iadrjcnv arjptKoi^, icrTifftai'uyfxevoL Bd(f)vai<;. 

Kal Trai/ ^o\of 0o'ii'o>'. The construction here changes and 
$vXov is governed directly by dyopa^ct. This change may be due 
not to a slip on the part of the translator, but to a right rendering 
of his text. The ovSets ayopd^ei is to be taken closely with ttSv 
ivXov ( = }^y-^3 . , , tr'^X mp"" X^) = "no one buyeth any thyine 
wood." Hence koL ttSlv $vXov dmvov should be rendered " or 
any thyine wood " and not as in the A.V. and R. V. " and all 
thyine wood." Of course it is possible that the translator ought 
to have rendered TravTos ^v\ov, but, so far as the Hebrew before 
him went, the ace. was not only a possible but probably the right 
rendering. 

^uivov. This wood most probably came from Thuia arti- 
culata, a tree which grew in N. Africa. It was known to the 
Greeks as 6va, 6vov, or OvCa, to the Romans as citrus. It was 
much used in the making of costly tables: cf. Martial, xiv. 87, 
"Mensa citrea." Seneca (quoted by Swete from Mayor on Juv, 
i. 137) had (according to Dio, Ixi. 10. 3) 300 such tables with 
ivory feet. 

^Xettxin-icoc. Ivory was largely used, as Swete states, by 
wealthy Romans in the decoration of furniture, quoting Juv. 
xi. 120 sqq. 

13. KU'kdfAwjxoi'. In the O.T. cinnamon appears thrice 
among aromatic spices. It is the Cassia lignea and was 



I04 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 13. 

imported, as it still is, from China. It was much used in Rome, 
as we can infer from Plautus, Propertius, Lucan, Martial. 

afj,(i))jioi/. This perfumed unguent was derived from a shrub 
of Eastern origin (Virg. Eel. iv. 25, "Assyrium vulgo nascetur 
amomum"). It was well known at Rome: Mart. viii. 77: "Si 
sapis, Assyrio semper tibi crinis amomo splendeat " : Statius Silv. 
i. 1 13 : " Nee pingui crinem deducere amomo cessavit " (quoted by 
Wetstein). Theophrastus, ix. 7, is uncertain whether it was 
derived from Media or India. Pliny, H.N. xii. 28, mentions this 
costly unguent for the hair. 

0up,id)xaTa. See V. 8, Xi'pafos : cf. viii. 3. 

acjAiSaXii' ( = npb). This word, meaning fine flour, is not 
found elsewhere in the N.T. though frequent in the LXX. 
Pliny, H.N. xiii. 21, refers to it: "Similago ex tritico fit lauda- 
tissimo." 

fjXjw. Egypt was the granary of Rome. 

KTi\vx\. This word generally means flocks and herds, but it 
can also mean draught cattle or beasts for riding : hence horses 
or asses : cf. Luke x. 34 ; Acts xxiii. 24. That Kxijios could 
mean "a horse" is to be inferred also from Gen. viii. 19, where 
the Hebrew is SJ'lO'i, which clearly the Greek translators read 
as K'ST ( = "horse"), and from Num. xvi. 32, where the trans- 
lators again read K^3"i instead of B'^ai ( = " substance "). From 
these facts we conclude that ktt/vt; means all kinds of cattle for 
draught or ridmg. Hence there is no real need for the word 
iTrTrwi/ which follows, as it is already included in KTrjvr]. Horses 
are mentioned among the imports of Tyre in Ezek. xxvii. 13 sq. 

[Kal Xiriroiv . . . o-wfiaTwi'.] I have already given in the 
introductory note on 12-13 ^he grounds on which these words 
are to be excised as an interpolation. The absolutely anomalous 
genitive here is, so far as I am aware, universally explained by 
inserting yo/xov before it. Thus Holtzmann and Bousset remark 
here that as in 12 the gen. passes over into the ace, so here the 
ace. returns again into the gen. But, as I have shown on 12, 
the ace. can not only be accounted for, but probably justified : 
whereas nothing can justify the present genitives between a series 
of accusatives preceding and an ace. following. They are there- 
fore to be regarded as an interpolation. 

peZutv. The piS-q came, according to Quintilian (i. 5. 5), from 
Gaul and was a vehicle with four wheels (Isid. Etym. xx. 12). 
Cicero used it, and apparently it became fashionable at Rome. 

CTWjiaTa. This word is used to translate nit^'DJ ("souls") in 
the LXX of Gen. xxxvi. 6. It is also used elsewhere in the LXX 
in the sense of "slaves " : cf. Gen. xxxiv. 29 ; Tob. x. 11 {crwfjiaTa 
Koi KT-qvij) ; Bel 32 (Theod.), 8wo o-uJ/Aaru koI hvo vpufiuTa : 2 Macc. 



XVIII. 13-17.] DIRGE OF THE SEAFOLK IO5 

viii. II. This non-Attic usage of the word arose apparently in 
Egypt, as the Papyri show, and later established itself in Greek 
generally. Hence a slave dealer is called a awfjLaT€fxTropo<; and 
a slave house (ru)fj.aToTpo4>eiov. 

<|/uxas div6p(t)Tt<av. This phrase is borrowed from Ezek. 
xxvii. 13, ovTOL ive-TTopevovTo <roi iv il/vxat<; diOpwTrwv (DTN C'Si2). 
The phrase occurs also in i Chron. v. 21, but there it does not 
mean slaves as here. 

14. This verse, as Vitringa, and in modern times Ewald (2nd 
ed.), Volkmar, B. Weiss, and Moffatt have recognized, is here 
out of place. These scholars have restored it after 23^', but the 
present writer is of opinion that it originally stood after 21, 
where he has restored it in this edition. 

15. This verse resumes the dirge of the merchants over 
Rome, from which the writer had turned aside to describe the 
nature and extent of their commerce with Rome. 

ot epiropoi TooTojc — i.e. the merchants who dealt in the 
merchandise mentioned in 12-13 : ^^' 23- This phrase in itself, 
as B. Weiss observes, unconditionally excludes the presence of 
14 where it stands in the text. 

01 irXouTrjcrarres dir' auTTjs : cf. 3, 19. 

diTO fiaKpoGei' (mjcroi'Tai : cf. 10, oltto /laKpoOtv cctti^/cotc? : 17, 
aTTo fxaKpoOiv ecTTrja-av. 

8id TOk 4)6poi' TOO ^aaai'Krfji.ou aoTtjs. This phrase has already 
occurred in 10. 

KXaion-es k. irecOoCt'Tes : cf. 9, li, 19. 

16. On this construction of ouai see note on 10. rj ircJXis r\ 
fAeytiXT) : cf. 10, 19, xvii. 18. i^ 'n-cpi^epXrip.cVT] ^rop4>upou^' Kai 
k6kkii'oi'. Repeated from xvii. 4. K€xpuCTwp.£Vr] xP'^^^^'i? * • • 
liapyapiTTj, Repeated from xvii. 4. jxid (3pa r\prnt.u)Qr\. Repeated 
in 19. A corresponding clause in the dirge of the kings is found 
in 10. 

17-19. Dirge of the seafolk. Cf. Ezek. xxvii. 28-29 on Tyre. 

17. icupep»'TiTT)s. This word means "shipmaster" or captain 
as distinct from vai;KX'>/pos= "shipowner." In Acts xxvii. 11 we 
have TO) Kv^epvqTT] KOL Tw vavKXrjpco — " the Captain and the ship- 
owner." Cf. Plutarch, Moralia, 807 B, varVas p-kv c/cXeyerai 
Kv/?€/)v^T7/s Kol Kvfiipv^Trjv vavK\rjpo<i '. Artemidorus, i. 37, OLp)(iL Se 
. . . TTptopecDS 6 Kv(if.pvrjr-q<;, Kv^tpvrjTOv h\ 6 vavK\i]po<i. The word 
Kvl^tpvYirrj-i is a rendering of ?3n in Ezek. xxvii. 8, 27, 28, where 
it means "pilots." In Jon. i. 6 it means "a sailor," for the 
captain is called h2r\T\ ni, or " chief of the sailors." 

6 em Toiro»' TrXe'ui' = " Every one that saileth any whither " 
(R.V.). Cf. Acts xxvii. 2, irX^tv ei? toii? Kara rrjv 'Acriav tottovs. 
But the expression is a strange one, and there is much to be 
said for Neslle's i^Textual Criticism of the A'.T., p. 168) correction 



I06 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 17-19. 

of TOTTov into iroTov, i.e. ttovtov. At all events Primasius supports 
this emendation : " omnis super mare navigans." 

ocroi TTji' QoKaacrav epyd^oi'Tai, "gain their living by the sea" 
(R.V.), lit. " work the sea." This is good classical Greek. Thus 
Hesiod {Theog. 440) has 01 yAauKT/v SiKrTrc/A^eA.ov epya^ovrat : 
Dion. Hal. A. iii. 46, r-i\v avrrjv elpyd^ero . . . ddXacraav : 
Appian, Pun., p. 2, t^v ^aXao-o-av . . . ipya^o/JuvoL. For 
abundant illustrations of this idiom, see Wetstein m loc. What 
the Hebrew equivalent of the clause is is uncertain : possibly 
n^riTiN Q"'"}nbn = "who trade on the sea" : cf. Gen. xxxiv. 10, 21, 
xlii. 34. The corresponding phrase ipya^eadai rryv yrjv is also 
good Greek and likewise good Hebrew : cf. Gen. ii. 5, 15, iii. 23, 
iv. 2 ; but the verb used in this connection lay would not serve 
for the clause in our text. 

diro fiaKpoQev effTTjo-ac. Cf. 10, IS- 
IS. pXeirocTCS t6»' Kairi'Of ttjs irupuaEus aoxTjs. This is the 
exact equivalent of the orav . . . avTrj<; clause in 9. 

18-19. The last clause of 18 and the first clause of 19 are 
dependent on Ezek. xxvii. 30-32. Thus rt's o/jLoia rrj ttoAci t^ 
P-eydkr] recalls Ezekiel's words with regard to Tyre, xxvii. 32, 
"who is like unto Tyre?" Here ~\))i:i ''p is rendered in the 
LXX by Tt9 wcnrep Tvpo^ ; Next, e(3a\ov ;^ow iirl ras /f€</)aAa? 
auTwv is from xxvii. 30, " They shall cast up dust upon their 
heads " (Dn''i:;;sy^J? "iDy i^y.)- Here the LXX presupposes quite 
a different and corrupt text (cTrt^j^trovo-tv i-Trl ttjv K€(f>aXr]v avruiv 
yriv /cat ctttoSoi/ (rTpuxrovTai). The same Hebrew clause is found 
in Josh. vii. 6 and Lam. ii. 10. In the former passage the LXX 
renders it almost as in our text. Even iKpa$av (cXatWrts kuI 
TTci/^owres seems to be suggested by Ezek. xxvii. 30, 31, "they 
shall cry" (LXX Kc/cpd^ovrai) . . . "they shall weep" (LXX 
— A only — Kkava-ovrai). But the combination Kkaiovre^ kol 
TTcv^owre? has already occurred in the text in 11, 15. 

oual T TToXis. See note on 10. 

€ir\ooTT]CTai'. Cf. 3, 15- 

t Ik TTis ti|jii6tt]tos auTt]s on fiia Spa T|pT]fX(66T] f. The text is 
here corrupt. This becomes apparent, if we compare the corre- 
sponding clauses in the woes pronounced by the kings in 10, 
oTi fjLLo. u)pa r^XOev rj KpicTLs aov, and by the merchants in 16, on 
fiia u)pa ■^prjp.wOr] 6 rocrovros ttXovtos. These parallel clauses lead 
us to expect a definite subject to be added after rjprjfjiojOr] in 19 
as there is after the verbs in 10, 16. Now we discover in the 
corrupt phrase €k rr}? ti/xiotvjtos air^?, the subject needed for 
■fjprjixwOrj, I.e. r) Tt/Ator/js avTr}<;. Thus the final clause of the text 
should run : on /xm w/>a yjpyjfjioidr} rj TifjuoTYj'i avTTJ'i. Thus this 
clause is brought into line with the corresponding clauses in 10, 



XVIII. 19-21.] SEER'S SONG OF DOOM IO7 

16, and the woe pronounced by the seafolk falls naturally into 
three lines as the woe of the kings in 10. 

" Woe, woe unto the great city, 
Wherein were made rich all that had their ships at sea; 
For in one hour are her precious things laid waste." 

The corruption can be explained best through the Hebrew. 
The original = njin 05^3 nns nv^2 "'D. The corruption could 
have arisen through an accidental doubling of the D (hence 
n^in^) and the subsequent transposition of nJino before *3 in 

order to give some intelligible sense to the passage. Hence 
DC'J nni« nytJ^a ""a nDino the source of our corrupt text. 

21-24. This section, embracing as it does 14 and 20, 
consists of a song of doom preluded by a symbolic action, the 
original idea of which is derived from Jer. li. 63, 64. This 
dirge is not put in the mouth of some particular class. The 
speaker is the Seer who wrote the original oracle, which has 
been utilized here by our author. Some attempts here have 
been made to adapt it to its new context. Thus the insertion 
of the phrase koI ol aTroa-ToXoi in 20 is due to our author, and 
most probably the last clause of 23 and the whole of 24. The 
penultimate clause of 23 is either a gloss or should probably be 
restored after the first clause in 11. A line has probably been 
lost in 22. 

21. KOI r^p€y eis ayyeXos itrxupos ktX. Here as in V. 2, X. I 
we have the phrase ayy. taxvpo<i. The writer had Jer. li. 63, 64 
in his mind : "And it shall be, when thou hast made an end of 
reading this book, that thou shalt bind a stone to it, and cast it 
into the midst of the Euphrates : and thou shalt say. Thus shall 
Babylon sink and shall not rise again." There may also be a 
reminiscence of Ezekiel's words with regard to Tyre, xxvi. 21. 
Cf. also Or. Sib. v. 158 sqq., on the destruction of Babylon by a 
great star. 

XiOoi' ws fj.uXii'oi' fAeyai/. The particle ws shows that it is not a 
millstone that is referred to here, but that what the Seer saw in 
the vision recalled the idea of such a stone. The stone was 
probably the /xv'Xos oi^tKos, seeing it is defined as /Acyas. To turn 
such a stone an ass was needed. 

ooTus opfirj/jiaTi pXif]0tio-€Tat. It is not quite clear what 
opfiTJfjLaTL means here. It is rendered by Weizsacker and Swete 
" with a rush " : cf. Deut. (LXX) xxviii. 49 ; i Mace. vi. 33. 
This rendering is in keeping with the symbol of the boulder 
hurled down into the sea, but it is not in keeping with the thing 
symbolized — the destruction of Rome by fire by Nero and the 
Parthians. The rendering of the A.V. and Holtzmann, "with 
violence," suits the figure, but how it can be justified is not clear. 



I08 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 21-23 

Perhaps op/xr)fia has here the meaning which belongs to it in the 
LXX in Hos. v. lo (also in Symm.), Amos i. ii, Hah. iii. 8, 
i.e. " indignation " = may. This would suit the attitude alike of 
heaven and the Parthian hosts towards Rome. But the matter 
is uncertain. 

1^ fjLeydXT] ir^Xis- The Order of the words as regards this 
particular adjective is not that of our author (see note on xvi. i) 
nor of the rest of the source here used by him. 

oo fj,^ €upe0fj cTt. Cf. Ezek. xxvi. 2 1 in reference to Tyre. 

14. This verse forms the opening stanza of the Seer's dirge 
over Rome. It consists of four stanzas of four lines each. These 
four stanzas are followed by two stanzas of three lines each. 
The text has suffered owing to one or perhaps two disturbing 
glosses and the loss of a line in the second stanza. 

oTTwpa — ripe fruit. This word, like the Hebrew pp, means 
first late summer or autumn, and next the fruits that then ripen. 
Cf. Jer. xl. lo, 12. The phrase <too ttjs eiri0ufj,ias tt^s «|'oxt]S is a 
literal rendering of ^K'W rijiK (cf. Deut. xii. 15, 20, 21, xiv. 26, 
Hebrew and LXX). The unemphatic or vernacular use of aov 
here should be observed. That aov is unemphatic is shown 
independently by its absence from the parallel verse. aov 
follows il/vxrj'i in the LXX. 

Toi Xiirapd. This phrase denotes the things that belong to a 
rich and sumptuous mode of life. Possibly food is specially 
referred to here. At all events A.t7rapos is, in the few cases 
where it occurs in the LXX, a rendering of fpti*, which primarily 
and generally means oil or fat. It is used in Ezek. xvi. 13, 
Prov. xxi. 17, as a sign of luxury, and refers undoubtedly to rich 
food. Cf. also Isa. xxx. 23. 

Tci Xafxirpd. It is difficult to assign a definite meaning to 
this phrase. Probably it indicates the well-ordered magnificence 
in which the "pride of life" exhibits itself. Perhaps we might 
render " the splendours." 

Kai ouK^Ti . . . cupT]0'ouaii'. There can hardly be a doubt as 
to this clause being a gloss. Without it the stanza consists of 
four lines, as do the three succeeding stanzas. See Introd. to 
this Chap., § 4. We should observe that our author uses ov fxrj 
with the aorist subjunctive. 

22-23. These verses have suffered severely in the course 
of transmission. We have already seen that 20 (see p. 92) 
should be restored after 23^ After a dirge of four stanzas of 
four lines each (= 14, 22, 23"'-'*) the Seer in the original source 
calls upon heaven and the saints on earth to rejoice over the 
doom of Rome. But this is not all. In 22 there has been 
a loss of some words, while in 23 there is an addition to the 



XVm. 22.] SEER'S SONG OF DOOM I09 

text which is not only meaningless but is also against the 
structure of the stanza. 

22. This verse consists of two stanzas of four lines each. 
But the second line of the first stanza and one of the words of 
the third line have been lost. These losses can, however, easily 
be restored. It is obvious, from a comparison of the remaining 

stanzas, that <f)uivy] KL6apwOu}i> koi fjiOvaiKwy KOL avXr]Twv koL 

aa\iTL(TTCiv is too long : in fact these words are but the relics 
of three lines, and the whole stanza is to be read as follows : 

Kai ^(tivr\ KiOapcoSui/ Kal p.ou(7iKa)V 

< ou fjii] aKOuaGrj ec orol ert' > 
Kai<<|)c>>>'T) >auXT]Tu)>' Kal aoXitiaritiv 

ou p,r| dKOuadt] iv aol en. 

The omission may have been due to a lazy scribe, who failed 
to see that he was transcribing verse, and thought that the sense 
was not affected by his compression of the text. The student of 
MSS is not unacquainted with such arbitrary proceedings. 

4)(ovT) KiOapwEwc Kttl t fiouaiKwi' f ~ " the voice of the harpers 
and singers." The writer had Ezekiel's words against Tyre 
(xxvi. 13) in his mind: 

" I will cause the noise of the songs to cease 
And the sound of thy harps shall be no more heard." 

He adopted the words "shall be no more heard," and instead 
of speaking of " harps " changes this word into " harpers " and 
"songs" into "singers," though as we shall see presently the 
text used by the Greek translator may have been corrupt here. 
Thus the first two Unes would be somewhat as follows : 

while the next two lines would speak similarly of the fluteplayers 
and trumpeters. 

But to return to (xovo-lkwv, it will be seen that I have 
rendered it " singers " on the strength of the context (i.e. that we 
must here have a specific and not a generic term) and of Ezek. 
xxvi. 13 (quoted above). Now in classical Greek /mouo-iko? 
never appears to mean "a singer," nor in later Greek, unless 
it is a translation from the Hebrew It has been thought 
by some scholars that in i Mace, ix. 39, 41, 6 vi;/ji<^tos 
i$rj^.6ev Kai 01 (f>iXoL avTOv . . . fiera. TVfxiravoiv koX fjLovaiKuiV Kal 
ottXwv TToXXuiv . . . Kai [Xf.Ti(TTpa<jirj . . . i^wvr] /xovfriKwv ai'roJv 
€t? Opyji'ov, the word /aovo-ikwv may mean " singers " ; but the fact 
that it stands between TVfjLirdvwv and ottXojv does not favour this 



no THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 22-23. 

view. Cf. Gen. xxxi. 27, /acto, ixovctlkwv ( = D''"1''K') /cat Tv/j-irdvoiv. 
In I Esdr. iv. 63 the meaning is uncertain : iK(i}6oivtt,ovTo fx-era 
fiovatKwv ( = "songs" or "musical instruments") koI x°-P^^'- 
But cf. V. 2, 59, Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15, where it= "musical 
instruments," or " music." However, if it be conceded that 
the word in some of these passages means "singers," then 
this otherwise unattested meaning, appearing as it does in 
translations from the Hebrew, is in some way due to the 
Hebrew text. Only in one case does /aovctikos appear as 
= " a smger," in a passage which none of the commentators 
has noticed, i.e. T. Jud. xxiii. 2, ra? 6vyaTtpa<i vfji.(ov /aouo-ikcis 
Ktti 8r]fjLoaia<; TroLrjcreTe. Here the Greek is a translation 
from the Hebrew, and even here the rendering " minstrels " 
would accord better alike with the context and the etymology 
than "singers."^ In other passages in the LXX /xova-iKa^ 
"songs." Cf. Gen. xxxi. 27; Ezek. xxvi. 13; Sir. xxii. 6, xxxv. 
3, 5, 6, xliv. 5, xlix. I. From this examination of the word it 
follows that fiovaiKOiv means either "song " or " music," but never 
save in T. Jud. xxiii. 2 does it mean " singer " or rather " minstrel." 
And yet our text makes the meaning of " singers " indispensable. 
Hence we conclude either that /Aouo-iKwv here = " singers," — 
a meaning difficult to justify, — or that it is an error due to a 
corruption in the source. That is, jjlovo-lkwv = D"'"i"'L*', corrupt for 
2^^^ = " singers." The rendering "minstrels" (R.V.) is here 
inadmissible ; for we cannot have a generic term such as 
"minstrel" occurring in the midst of a list of specific terms. 

au\T)Twv. The fluteplayer (tibicen) was in much request on 
the Roman stage, and at Roman festivities as well as at funerals. 

o-aXmoTwi'. The trumpeter (tubicen) had his part in the 
Roman games, in the theatre and at funerals. 

22^-'^-23. The order of these verses seems to be wrong. We 
should expect that the dirge, having begun with the luxuries of 
life and dwelt on their being brought to an end, would proceed 
in due gradation to the destruction of the barest necessities of 
life. And this expectation is confirmed by Jer. xxv. 10, which 
the Seer had in his mind : " I will take from them the voice of 
mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom 
and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones and the 
light of the candle." If this view is right, as the present writer 
believes, we should rearrange as follows : 

23'='^. And the voice of the bridegroom and the bride 
Shall be heard no more in thee : 

^ Observe that in Eccles. ii. 8 r\r\is\ DnB" is rendered by the LXX q.hovra.% 
KoX ^tSoi^cras, and not by ^lovaiKovs /cat yotoyfftKds, which would mean "male 
and female minstrels." 



XVIII. 22-23, 20.] SEER'S SONG OF DOOM III 

22^"''. And no craftsman of whatsoever craft 
Shall be found any more in thee. 

And the voice of the millstone 
Shall be heard no more in thee : 
as*''. And the light of the lamp 

Shall shine no more in thee. 

Thus the rejoicings attendant on marriage would no more be 
known ; the arts of civilized life would come to an end ; the 
familiar sounds of the household mill to be heard in every 
hamlet would be no more heard, and the light of every lamp 
would be extinguished. It will be observed that by this 
rearrangement our text reproduces the order in Jer. xxv. lo. 

23^^. <j>a)i'T) »'UfA<J)iou Kal i'u'fji,<j)Tjs. See the quotation from 
Jer. xxv. lo given above. Cf. also vii. 34, xvi. 9, xxxiii. 11. 

22®'^. Tex^iT^s ktX. This line would embrace skilled workers 
in every kind of material. 

<|)0)i'T| jjiuXou ( = D'nn >ip, Jer. xxv. 10). It will be observed 
that for (jioivr] fxvXov the LXX reads oa-fxrjv fxvpov, presupposing 

23^^. <|>ais Xux^'o" ( = "'!! ""^^j Jer- XXV. 10). At this stage the 
Seer is not thinking of the brilliant lights and torches borne by 
slaves as they escorted the wealthy Romans to their homes, but 
simply anticipating the hour when all lights — even the meanest — 
will be extinguished for ever. 

20. Restored to its rightful place at the close of the writer's 
dirge over Rome, this appeal to heaven and the saints to rejoice 
over its destruction is most appropriate, and forms a fitting 
introduction to xix., which contains the heavenly response, 
whereas this apostrophe, standing as it does in the MSS, comes 
in most awkwardly between two descriptive passages as Moffatt 
has already recognized. The whole verse is to be ascribed to 
John : Moffatt assigns it to the hand of a Christian editor. 

There are, it is true, some difficulties in the style. Thus from 

xi. 18, xviii. 24, we should expect 01 7rpo<firJTaL . . . Kal ol ayioi. 
But the fuller phrase here, ot aytoi k. oi a-n-oaToXoi k. ol Trpo^T/rai, 
may account for the difference of order. Again, Kptfia seems here 
to have the sense of lawsuit or case — a meaning not found else- 
where in our author: cf. xvii. i, xix. 2, where it = sentence, judg- 
ment. But even here it can bear the latter meaning : " God hath 
judged your judgment (t'.e. the judgment due to you) upon her." 
On the other hand, eu^patVecr^ai belongs to the diction of our 
author : cf. xii. 1 2, and the use of the singular otipavos is char- 
acteristically that of John. Hence 20 is from the hand of 
John : likewise 23^-24. 



112 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [X VIII. 20, 24. 

This call of the Seer to heaven and its inhabitants to rejoice 
over the accomplished doom of Rome is formed of two tristichs : 
2o, 23*^-24. , , 

€u4>pati'oo. Modelled apparently on Jer. li. 48 (733 7]) ija*!"! 

D'^Ki^), which is not found in the LXX. 

ol ayioi Kal ol diroo-ToXoi Kal 01 Trpo<|>TjTai : cf. xvi. 6. These 
must be the blessed in heaven — martyrs, apostles, and prophets : 
cf. xii. 12, where those addressed are the angelic hosts. 

^Kpivev — TO Kptfia ufiSiv ii &utt]s = " hath judged your case 
against her" (lit. "at her cost"). This phrase is found in 
Lam. iii. 59, '•DB'^O nesK'^ "judge Thou my cause." With the 
idiom ii aur^s Vf. Ps. cxix. 84 (LXX), but here the present 
Hebrew text has B and not ]D. Or, as is suggested above, 
Kpt/xa ii avrrj's may here be taken in the sense of judgment. 
i^ avT^s is probably to be taken as the equivalent of HTrp : 

cf. xix. 2 ; 2 Kings ix. 7. 

23^ [on ol cfiiropoi (rou TJaaf ol fAcyKTTai'cs ti]s Y^?] ^^^is 
line, which is based on Isa. xxiii. 8, p«-"'"n3D3 . . . nnij' nnnb 
where the LXX has 01 e/A7ropoi avr^s . . . dpxovT€<; t^s yrjs. But 
in its present context there is no place for this line, being against 
the parallelism. It is also meaningless. There is no ground for 
saying that God destroyed Rome because its merchants were the 
great ones of the earth. The real reason is given by the next 
oTt clause. It is possible that this line may be a fragmentary 
survival of the original ending of the source used by our author. 
Perhaps it should be read immediately after the first clause in 11, 
" and the merchants of the earth — for thy merchants were the 
princes of the earth — weep," etc. This would be analogous to 
the descriptive clause added in 9 after the phrase " the kings of 
the earth." 

23^-24, This stanza, consisting of three lines, gives the grounds 
for the destruction of Rome : her leading astray of the nations 
by her sorcery, and her bloodguiltiness in respect of the prophets 
and saints and of all the righteous, who had been slain by her 
throughout the world. 

23^. oTi €f tt} ^apiiaKla t tov f €-n-\avT]6T]o-ai/ -navTa to. eOvr] : 
cf. 3^ The a-ov is here corrupt for avrrj's. The corruption can 
be explained by the dislocation of the text and the influence of 
the preceding occurrences of the second personal pronoun, iv rfj 
<|)apfjiaKio ktX. Cf. Nah. iii. 4, where Nineveh is called "the 
mistress of witchcrafts (rjyovfxivq ^a/a/AaKwv), that selleth nations 
through her whoredoms and families throuQ;h her witchcrafts." 
Cf. also Isa. xlvii. 12, where analogous charges are brought 
against Babylon. 

24. While there is some doubt as to the provenance of 23' 



XIX. §1.] ITS IMPORT 113 

{i.e. the first line of the closing stanza), there can be none as to 
that of the last two lines. The irpo(f)rJTat koI dyioi are the Chris- 
tian prophets and saints, and the subject of the last line is the 
universal martyrdom of the Christians apprehended by our author 
and regarded as accomplished at the close of xiii. 

Trpo<j>T]Ta)i' Ktti ayioiv. See note on xvi. 6, xviii. 20. 

aiiJia ■irpo<}>TiTw>' ktX. : cf. Ezek. xxiv. 6, w ttoAis ai/xarwc : Jer. li. 
(LXX, xxviii.) 35, to aifxd fiov i-n-l tovs Karoi/covi'Tas XaXSaiovs, cpet 
'Upova-aXrjfx. In Matt. xxii. 35 a like charge is brought against 
Jerusalem : ottws IX^r/ €<^' v/^as ttcLv ai/xa StKaiov iK)(yvv6fxevov ctti 
T^s yrj<s. The Seer here is not thinking only of the martyrs 
under the Neronian persecution, nor yet of such as had already 
fallen under Domitian (see Hst of passages referring to this 
persecution in Lightfoot, £j>. Clem. i. 104-115) at the time of 
writing; he is rather from the standpoint of the Seer looking 
back on the universal martyrdom of the Christian Church as a 
fact already accomplished. The diction used — TravTwv twi/ 
€<r<f)ayfiev<j}v eVt ttJs yijs — shows that it is of the martyrs that our 
author is thinking ; for cre^a^w has this connotation in our author's 
language: cf. v. 6, 9, 12, vi. 9, xiii. 8. xiii. 3 is no exception, 
for the Beast is therein caricaturing the Lamb. On the other 
hand, in vi. 4 o-<^a^w is used in a more special sense. 



CHAPTER XIX. 
§ I. lis Import. 

No real difificulty emerges in this chapter either as regards its 
authorship or its relation to the chapters that precede and follow 
it. There can be no question as to the Johannine authorship of 
xix. 1-8% 9% 1 1-2 1 from the standpoint of its style and diction 
(§ 2), and there can be no doubt as to the relevancy and indis- 
pensableness of its subject-matter (§ 4). Alike from its form 
and substance it receives unequivocal attestation. 

The chapter opens with the response (1-3) that the heavenly 
hosts make to the appeal of the Seer'vcs. xviii. 20, who thunder forth 
as with the mighty voice of a great multitude their exultation 
over the destruction of the Harlot City and God's avenging of 
the saints which she had slain. The theme is taken up afresh 
by the Elders and the Living Creatures and by the angel of the 
altar of incense, 4, xvi. ^-l- The echoes of the closing words 
of this anthem have hardly ceased to reverberate, when at the 
summons of a voice from the throne (5) the glorified host of 
martyrs burst forth with, as it were, the voice of many waters and 
the voice of mighty thunderings into glad thanksgivings (6-7), 
VOL. II. — 8 



114 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. § 1-2. 

for that now at length the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth upon 
the earth and the advent of the kingdom of Christ is at hand. 
Thus, whereas the angels rejoice over the vindication of divine 
justice, the martyred host rejoice in that the kingdom of Christ is 
at hand with fresh stores of mercy and salvation for the sons of 
men (of. xv, 4). 

At this stage we should have expected a vision bearing on the 
destruction of the Parthian kings, mention of which was made 
proleptically in xvii. 14 (see § 4 ad fin.) ; but this vision may have 
been displaced by the interpolation 9^-10 (see § i)} 

Now that the Harlot City (and the Parthian kings) have 
been destroyed, there remains only the execution of judgment on 
the kings of the earth who had shared in the spiritual fornication 
and abominations of Rome (11-21). These are slain with the 
sword that proceeded out of the mouth of the Word of God, and 
the Beast and the False Prophet that deceived them were cast 
into the lake of fire. 

§ 2. The Diction and Idiom. 

There can be no doubt whatever that xix. 1-8*, 11-21 comes 
from the hand of our author. Alike {a) the diction and {b) the 
idioms are his, as is shown fully in the notes on the various verses, 
but it will not be unhelpful to show in the case of a few verses 
how intimately every verse is bound up with what precedes. 

{a) Diction. — 1. fieri xauTa TjKooo-a. Frequent in our author. 

(I»S ^iavr^v fieydXt]!': cf. i. 15, vi. I, 6, ix. 9, etc. /xeyas is the 
adjective generally connected with (fiwvq: see xvi. i, note. 

oxXou TToXXou . . . Xcyoi'Twi' : cf. vii. 9. o;(Xos ttoXws . . . 
eo-TwTcs. Observe the same construction Kara a-vvecrtv. r\ o-wriipia 
KOI 1^ S6|a Kal iq Sui'afi.is toG Qeou iqjAwj' : cf. iv. ii, V. 12, vii. 10, 
xii. 10. 

2. dXr]6n'ai Kal SiKaiai ai Kpiacis aorou : cf. xv. 3. 

oTi cKpii'ev T^v Tr<5pi'T)i' T^i' iicy'^^'T' • cf. xvii. i ; also 5, 16. 
•^Tis £<}>9€ip€i' TTjv yfJK : cf. xl. 1 8. iv TT] TTopi'cia auTT]9 : cf xiv. 8, 
xvii. 2, xviii. 3. cIcSiktjctcc to alfjia . . . cic : cf. vi. 10. 

3. Kal 6 Kairi'os auTTJs ava^aivti ktX. : cf. xiv. 11 (xviii. 9, 18). 

4. €TT€<Tav 01 irpeVPuTcpoi 01 eiK. Tc'cro-apes : cf. iv. 10, V. 8, xi. 16. 
eirecraK 01 irpcaPuTcpoi . . . Kal ■npoatKuvqo'av : cf. xi. 16. t. Ka6T](j.eVa) 
^ttI t. 9p6v<a : see note on iv. 2. 

XVI. 5^-7. See notes on p. 120 sqq. 

XIX. 5. <j)a»i'T) diro tou Opot'ou e|iiX0ej' : cf. xvi. 17 for the 
more usual order. 01 SouXoi aurou . . . /icydXci : almost a verbal 
reproduction of xi. 18, though with a limitation of meaning. 

^ 8'' is a gloss and 9''- 10 an interpolation (see notes in loc), which may 
have displaced a vision of the destruction of the Parthian kings and their hosis 
by the Lamb and the glorified martyrs. See § 4, ad finem. 



XIX. § 2.] DICTION AND IDIOM II5 

6. <t»s <|><i»»^i' ©xXoo iroXXou : see note on i. is ^u>vi]v uSdruf 
TToXXwc : cf. i. 15, xiv. 2. us (^wv^v PpocTuc: cf. vi. i. c^aai- 
Xcuorec Kupios 6 0€os, 6 TracTOKpaxup : cf. xi. 1 7, €V)(api(rTovfiev eroi, 
Kvpie, 6 6f6^, 6 iravTOKpaTuyp . . . on . . . cySacriXevcra?. 

7. SuaofjicK TT)v Solaf : see note on xi. 13. ?^\Qtv 6 ydfios : cf. 
xi. 18 for same use of verb. i^roijiao-cK eau-nii' : cf. xxi. 2, ^01- 
fxa(TfJLevr)v ws vvfx(f)7p', also ix. 7, 15, xvi. 12. 

8. TrepipdXrjTai ^vacrivov : cf. for construction vii. 9, 13, x. I. 
9''-10. See notes in loc. 

11. irioTos K. dXr^OiKos : cf. xxii. 6. iroXejjLcc : only used out- 
side our author once in the N.T., whereas he uses it six times. 

12. 01 Be o4>6aXfxol aurou ws <}>X6| irupos •' repeated from i. 14 : 
IxuK . . . auTos — a gloss, though the diction is Johannine. 

14. TO, oTpoTeojxaTa : cf. ix. 16. ek'SeSup.ei'oi pjaaiKOc :^ cf. i. 13, 
XV. 6. 

15. eic TOO OTOfiaros cKiropeyeTai po[i,4*^ia d|cia : cf. 21, i. 16, 
ii. 12. iroifiai'ci auTOus iv pd^Su aiSr^pS : cf. ii. 27, xii. 5. Trarct 
T. Xtjcoi' toO oikou T. 9up,oG ktX. : cf. xiv. 19-20, t. Ar;vov t. 6vfj.ov 
T. deov . . . Ka\ liraTrjOy] 17 Xrfvos. 

16. PacriXeus PaaiXeoji' ktX, : cf. xvii. 14. 

17. €Kpa|ei' (fxdi'TJ jicydXt) : see note on xiv. 1 5. irero^cf ois 
CI' fiecToopanifiaTi : cf. viii. 1 3, xJv. 6. 

18. yfCk\.6.pY^iav : cf. vi. 15. i\e\>Qip(av . . . p,eYdX«K : cf. xiii. 16. 

19. T. paaiXcis T. YT)s : cf, vi. 15 (xvi. 14), xxi. 24. vwriyfiiva 
TTOiTJo-ai T. TToXcfiof /xexd : cf. xvi. 14, 16, xx. 8. 

20. 6 «|/eu8oTrpo<|)iiTT)s : cf. xvi. 13, xx. 10. 6 iroiiiaas to, 
aT]fi€ra : cf. xiii. 13, 14. cirXdi/riaeK ktX. : cf. xiii. 14, xx. 3, etc. 
\a^6vra<s T. x<ipoiYI^^ '■'• O^ipio" : cf. xiv. 11, xx. 4 (xvi. 2, note). 
irpoo-Kui'oGrras t. eiKoi'a : cf. xiii. 14, xiv. 9; see note on vii. 11. 
ip\r]Qr]<Tav . . . cts T. Xip.i'Tii' t. irupos . • . 6€i(i» : cf. xx. 10, xxi. 8. 

21. TTJ pop,<|>aia . . . cIcXOouat] ck t. orofiaTOs ootoO : see on 
15- 

(d) Idiom. — There are no idoms against our author's usage, 
while those that follow are characteristic of him. 

1. (is ^v>vr\v : cf. passim. oxXou . . . XeyoKTuc : cf. vii. 9. 

2. TiTis = ^ in 2 : cf. i. 12, xii. 13, xvii. 12. e^eSiKTjCTCK t6 aijio 
. . . €K : cf. vi. 10. 

^ ^vcra-Lvov is used as a noun only once in the LXX in the sing., Dan. x. 5" ; 
in the plural in the LXX in Dan. x. s^, xii. 6, 7 ; Isa. iii. 23 : but in our 
author only in sing. ; cf. xix. S^**, 14, xviii. 12, 16. This use of adjectives 
as nouns in the sing, is characteristic of the writer of xviii. Thus he uses 

^vacTivov as a noun in 12, 16, ■Kop<f>vpovv as a noun in 16, and in xvii. 4 

which is from the same source, whereas the Fourth Gospel uses it as an 
adj. (cf. xix. 2, 5), k6kkivov as a noun (rare except in plural) in 12, 16 and 
in xvii. 4, but as an adj. in xvii. 3. I do not know of any other instances of 
irop<pvpovu as a noun. criptKdv in 12 ; here only in Biblical Greek, though used 
by Plutarch, Strabo, etc. 



Il6 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. § 2-4. 

4. rrpoo-cKucTjaai' tw 6ew : see note on vii. 1 1. 

Tw KaStifxeVo) €irl tw Opocw : see note on iv. 2. ol {jiiKpol Kal 
01 ixeyciXoi : cf. xi. 18. 

5. aii'eiTe tw flew : a Hebraism ; see note in loc. 

6. a»s <^oji/t)i' ox^ou . . . Xeyoi'TCi)!' : see note on i. 
8. cSoSt] auTTJ ii'a : cf. ix. 5. 

11. 6 KaOriixecos eir' auroc : see note On iv. 2. 

12. cm T. Ke<t>a\T)i' auTou : cf. x. I, xiv. 14 (see Introd. to 
xiv. § 3). . . , 

13. iTepiPep\Ti)jieVos — a participle used as a finite verb : see 
note on iv. 7, vol. i. p. 104. 

14. auTw €<!>' iiTTTots. The dat. after IttL here seems due to 
auTu) : cf. our author's usage where KaQ-qy^kvov is followed by gen. 
in 18, 19, 21, and where KaOrjixivw is followed by dat. : iv. 9, 
v. 13, vii. 10, etc. 

15. Troi/iai'er : here used as equivalent to " will break " : see 
note on ii. 27. 

16. eirl TOK jx-qpoi* . . . yeypafni-ivov : cf. iii. 12, ypaif/u) eir 
airov to ovofia. 

18. KaBr]]iivoiv ctt' aurdv : cf. 19, 21 : see note on iv. 2. 
20. TrpoCTKoi'oui'Tas t. eiKoi^a : see note on vii. 1 1. 

§ 3. xix. g''-io an Interpolation. 
See note in loc. 

§ 4. The Structure of the Book requires xix. 1-4, xvi. J"*-/, 
xix. 5-<?, p", 1 1 -2 1. 

xix. 1-4, xvi. 5^-7, xix. 5-8 is the heavenly response to the 
Seer's appeal in xviii. 20. 9* contains the fourth of the seven 
beatitudes. The contents of xix. 11-21, which have already 
been proleptically described in xiv. 14, 18-20, xvi. 14, 16, are 
here seen in their due chronological connection, as the necessary 
prelude to xx.-xxii. Tne kings of the earth, who had shared in 
the idolatries and abominations of Rome, here meet with just 
doom, while the Beast and the False Prophet are cast down into 
the lake of fire. Only one more event must intervene before the 
advent of the heavenly Jerusalem, and this — the chaining of 
Satan — is witnessed in xx. 1-3. 

There appears, however, to be a lacuna in this chapter. 
Where the interpolation (9^-10) stands we should expect a 
vision relating to the destruction of the Parthian kings. In xviii. 
we have the vision of the destruction of the Harlot City which 
had in an earlier chapter been spoken of proleptically as though 
already accomplished: cf. xiv. 8. In xix. 11-21 we have a 
vision of the destruction of the kings of the earth and the final 



XIX. § 4-5.] OUR AUTHOR'S METHOD II7 

doom of the Beast and the False Pi'bphet in their due chrono- 
logical sequence, save in one respect, and this is, that after the 
destruction of Rome and before the destruction of the kings of 
the earth there ought to be a vision of the destruction of the 
Parthian kings — a destruction that has already been referred to 
proleptically in xvii. 14 (see 12-13, 17, 16, 14). A short vision 
to this effect may have been displaced by the interpolation xix. 
9^-10. 

§ 5. The Method of our author elsewhere in this Book is 
observed here. 

In xix. 1-8 our author pursues the method already familiar 
to us in preceding chapters, in accordance with which over 
against a vision of the tribulation of the faithful is set one of 
their deliverance and triumph, or over against a vision of coming 
judgment on the enemies of Christ is set one of the ultimate 
blessedness of the redeemed. 

Thus xix. 1-4, xvi. s'^-y, xix. 5-8, which sets forth the joy 
of the angels on the dooms just executed on Rome and the joy 
of the glorified martyrs on the impending advent of the kingdom, 
is not only a heavenly response to the appeal of the Seer in 
xviii. 20, but the counterpart we expect of the dread judgments 
culminating in xvii.-xviii. With this notable contrast we might 
compare earlier analogous contrasts on this Book. Thus xv. 
2-3, which comes in reality immediately after xiii. (since xiv. is 
entirely proleptic), brings out the glaring contrast between the 
universal martyrdom of the faithful in xiii. and the blessed 
inheritance on which they entered forthwith in heaven itself. 
Also in xiv. 1-5 we have a parallel to xv. 2-3 in contrast to xiii., 
where the visions were of such a nature as to daunt the faith- 
fullest heart, as they foretold the destruction of all God's 
servants. In like manner xi. 14-18 comes in as a contrast to 
the tribulations depicted in xi. 1-13 and the still darker visions 
that follow in xii.-xiii., claiming as it does that already, however 
great may appear the triumph of the Antichrist, it is but a pass- 
ing one, and that the issues of the strife are already made known 
to the hosts of heaven. Once more, after the account of the 
Seals is placed the vision of the great multitude in heaven, vii. 
9-17. 

On every ground, therefore, whether we regard the diction, 
the idioms, the due development of events in the Book, or the 
method pursued in this chapter, we conclude that it is the 
undoubted product of his pen. 

1-8. Thanksgivings in heaven. The closing appeal in xviii. 
20 to heaven to rejoice in that God had judged the great Harlot 



Il8 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 1. 

City is answered by an exultant anthem voiced by a great 
multitude of angels (1-3) which is closed by the four and twenty 
Elders and the Cherubim with the response, "Amen, alleluia" 
(4-5). They had already voiced their thanksgivings in two 
anthems on the same subjects in xi. 15-18. Hence here they 
simply give utterance to their approval of the theme of the 
angels' song. And whereas a voice from earth summoned the 
heavenly hosts to the duty of thanksgiving in that the doom of 
the Harlot City is already accomplished in 1-5, now in 6-8 a 
voice from the throne summons the glorified martyrs in heaven 
to the glad service of thanksgiving, whereupon there arose as it 
were the voice of a great multitude and of many waters and of 
mighty thunderings proclaiming that the Lord God Omnipotent 
had become King, and that the advent of the heavenly Jerusalem 
was at hand. It is fitting that the last song in the Apocalypse 
should come from the lips of the martyrs. 

1. The thanksgiving in this verse has been explained by some 
interpreters as coming from the glorified martyrs, as in : i. 10-12 ; 
but the context and our author's usage is against this interpreta- 
tion. The context is against it ; for the faithful, who appear to 
embrace only the glorified martyrs, do not offer their thanks- 
giving till 6-8. Further, our author's usage is against it. In 
such a series of thanksgivings those of the angels could not be 
omitted, and, if the alleluia in i is ascribed to the glorified 
martyrs, then we have such an omission, while in 6-8 there 
would then be a duplication of the praises of the martyrs. 
Furthermore (see notes on iv. 4, v. 11), if any reference to the 
angels' thanksgiving is made in our text, it nmst come in i ; for 
the mention of the Elders and the Living Creatures {and in this 
order) in 4 shows that the Seer is beginning his description with 
the outer ranks of the heavenly beings and proceeding inwards 
towards the throne. Thus, as in vii. 11, we have first angels, 
then the Elders, then the Living Creatures. 

If the same order were observed as in vii. 9-1 1, we should 
have 6-8 before 1-5 : in other words, the thanksgivings of men, 
then of angels, then of the Elders, and finally of the Living 
Creatures. But the order is otherwise here, and the change is 
instructive. Whereas in an earlier chapter, vi. 10, the cry of the 
faithful was for vengeance on their persecutors, here (cf. xv. 4) 
their sole theme of thanksgiving is that now at last " the Lord 
God Omnipotent reigneth," and that " the marriage of the Lamb 
is come." This prepares the reader for what is to follow in the 
speedy removal (in xix. 11-21) of all that prevents the advent of 
the heavenly Jerusalem. Hence 6-8 comes rightly at the close 
of 1-5. On the other hand, it is noteworthy that in 1-5 the 
theme of the angels' song is one of profound thanksgiving for 



XIX. 1-2.] THANKSGIVING IN HEAVEN Up 

God's righteous judgment of Rome and His avenging of the 
blood of the martyrs. This thanksgiving follows naturally and 
immediately in response to the appeal in xviii. 20. 

d»s 4><avi]v (leydXr)!'. With u)S <^a)V7;v cf. i. 15 (v. Il), vi. I, 6, 
ix. 9, xiv. 2, xix. 6. fieydXrj is the usual adjective our author 
connects with <fim'y (see xvi. i, note). With Sx^ov iroWov, cf. 
vii. 9. Xcyorrwi'. A construction Kara crvv€(riv with oxXov 
exactly as we find it in vii. 9 — o^Aos . . . co-Twres. 'AXXtjXooid. 
As this word is a transliteration of n^wn, the rj, where we 
should have e, is strange. The same irregularity is to be found 
in TeOa-rjixavu, which according to Dalman {Gram. p. 152, note 3), 
Delitzsch, and others is derived from \3DK* na. This translitera- 
tion came into use before the Christian era amongst Hellenistic 
Jews, as Swete remarks, since it is found in 3 Mace. vii. 13 ; Tob. 
xiii. 18. In the LXX it is found frequently at the beginning 
and end of certain Pss. : see Swete, Intr. to O.T. in Greek, 
P- 250. 

1^ auTi]pia Kal 1^ So|a Kal tj SufUfxis tou 6cou i\\iCiv. In xii. lo 
we find 17 (xuiT-qpia and 17 8wa/xts conjoined, and in iv. 11, vii. 12, 
77 So^a and 17 8wa/xts (also in v. 1 2, but in the reverse order) : in 
vii. 10, 17 crwTrjpia alone. This construction 17 cnoTrjpia . . . tov 
6eov rjixCiv has already occurred in xii. 10, the more usual being 
that which is found in i. 6 (avruJ 17 So'^a), vii. 10. 

2. dXT)Oi^al Kal SiKaiai ai xpiacis aurou. This clause has, it 
we have concluded rightly, been reproduced in xvi. 7, which 
belongs to a dislocated passage, i.e. xvi. 5-7. A distant parallel 
occurs in xv. 3, SUaiaL koI d\r]6ival al oSot (rov. These words 
define the reason for this hymn of praise — the righteousness of 
God's judgments as exemplified in the destruction of the Harlot 
City. 

oTi €Kpivev TT)c Tropi'T|i' TTjc fieydXif]!'. This clause is a justifica- 
tion of the preceding ort clause. It recalls xvii. i, to Kpi/xa rrji 
TTopvT/? T^s /xeydXrj<;. On CKpLvev cf. xviii. 8, 20, and on T'g? 
iropvrj'i t. /AcyaAT^? cf. Xvii. I, 5, 15, 16. 

•^Tis c<j)0€ip£f TT)!/ yfjj' : cf. xi. 18, 8ia(t>6ilpai Tov<: SiatjiOcipovra^ 
TTjv yrjv, and the note thereon. The pronoun ^ts appears here 
to be simply the equivalent of ^. It definitely determines who 
the Harlot is. For this usage of ocms see note on xi. 8. iv rfj 
iropi/eia ainr\s. This is the first charge brought against Rome. 
It has corrupted the whole earth, cf. xiv. 8, xvii. 2, xviii. 3. The 
second charge is that stated in the words ^^cSiKijacj' to atjia twk 
SouXwk ktX. These words recall the complaint of the martyrs in 
VI. 10, ov . . . ckSikcis to aXfia rjfiCiv ck twv KaTOiKovvTu>v cttI t^s 
y^s, and now recognize the consummation of divine justice : cf. 
xi. 18. The idiom itself is found in 2 Kings ix. 7, cKSiKrjcreis 

(TIDpJl) TO. aifiuTa twv SoiJAwj/ p.ov . . . (k ;^£i/30? (T'lO) 'le^aySeA. 



I20 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 2-4. 

Cf. also Deut. xxxii. 43. twc SouXwi' auroC recalls xviii. 24 — the 
prophets and saints. 

8. Kttl SeuTcpoi/ ciprjKai'. "And a second time they say." 
The second utterance or antistrophe from the lips of the same 
multitude consists not only of the word aXXrjXovid, but also of 
the words that follow Kal 6 Kairvb? . . . attovtov. These words 
correspond to the tetrastich that follows the first aWrjXovid in 
1-2. 

Kal 6 KUTrcos auTTJs ktX. This clause recalls xviii. 8 (iv irvpl 
KaTaKavd-qa^TCLi) and xviii. 9, 18 (tov Kairvov riys Trvpwcrtoi)? 
avrrjSi). Cf. also xiv. II, KoX 6 KttTrvos rov /iaaravia-fxov avrcov et? 
atwvas aitovtov dya/3aLvei. The /cat' is not to be taken here as a 
mere conjunction. We can only secure the right meaning of 
the clause that follows if Kal is taken as a Hebraism : i.e. 
" Hallelujah ; for the smoke thereof goeth up for ever and ever." 
This clause therefore is a circumstantial clause introduced by 
Kttt ( = 1) and gives a statement of the concomitant conditions, 
which justify the action denoted by the principal verb (n^n^^Jn). 
See Oxford Hebrew Did. p. 253. 

els Tous oiwrns Twr qtioji'ui'. This expression is equivalent here 
to 1000 years. For, since the advent of the Millennial Kingdom 
is already at hand, and since the earth is to be destroyed at its 
close, it follows that even the smoking ruins of Rome will cease 
to exist at that date. Contrast this meaning with that which it 
bears in xxii. 5, where it denotes eternity. 

4. Now that the angelic hosts have sung their two paeans of 
triumph, the Elders and the Living Creatures too take their 
share in the praises of heaven with the words, 'A/aiJv, 'AAXt^Xovici, 
followed by xvi. ^-1, which belongs here. 

In iv. 8, II, xi. 15-18 the Cherubim and the Elders offer 
their praises independently; in v. 9 together, as in the verse 
before us; in v. 14 the Cherubim pronounce the "amen" at 
the close of the doxology of all creation. In the present text 
both orders unite together (as in v. 9) in singing the antistrophe 
(consisting like the strophe 1^-2 of two stanzas of three lines 
each), 3^ xvi. 5'^-;. 

Trpocr6KuVT]aai' tw 0ew. Our author uses the dative when 
speaking of the highest form of worship : see note on vii. 1 1. tw 
Ka0. €itI tw 0p6fw — also a characteristic usage of our author : see 
note on iv. 2. 

'AfA^i', dX\T|Xouid. These words form the close of Ps. cvi. 48, 
n"'"^^bn ps, where they are rendered in the LXX by yecotro, 
yeVoiTo. Cf. also Neh. v. 13. 

XVI. 5''-7. These verses, which in the MSS follow after 
xvi. 5% do not belong to xvi., but have in this edition been 
restored to their original context after xix. 4. Either what 



XVI. 5-7.] XVI. 5^-7 RESTORED HERE I2I 

originally followed was lost (li. loss in xvi. lo), or else it was 
deliberately removed by the Johannine editor and these verses 
substituted in their stead. 

(i) The first ground for regarding these verses as an inter- 
polation in their present context is that they limit the incidence 
of the Third Plague and probably that of the Second to the 
adherents of the Roman Empire. But, if the Second and Third 
Plagues are studied apart from these verses, the fact that their 
incidence is universal for sea and land cannot be questioned 
any more than that of the Fourth Plague, the Sixth, and the 
Seventh. We have already seen that the First also affects all the 
earth. Hence all the Bowls are universal in their incidence save 
the Fifth, just as all the Seals are likewise universal save the 
Fifth. 

(2) The main point of these verses was not understood by 
the Johannine editor. Rightly understood they mean : God is 
righteous, inasmuch as He has made those who shed the blood of 
the prophets and saints to shed each other's blood (al/xa aurots 
SeSwKtts TTttv, xvi. 6^) and stirred up the kings of the East against 
the great Harlot City Rome to destroy it, and eat her flesh 
(ras o-ap/cas avTrj<i t^dyovrai, xvii. 1 6). Now this judgment of 
Rome is not referred to till we come to the vision in xvii. 
12-13, i7j 16: hence xvi. 5''-7 cannot rightly occur till after 
xvii., nor in fact till after xviii., which describes the destruction 
of Rome. 

(3) Since xvi. 5^-7 does not belong to xvi. and cannot justly 
be used till after xviii., we have two further points to determine : 
i.e. (a) Are these verses from our author ; and, if so, (d) what was 
their original context ? 

(a) The passage is genuine. In xvi. 5 on 6 w Koi 6 rjv cf. 
xi. 17 («.) : on oo-tos as applied to God cf. xv. 4, on ixovos oo-ios: 
on TttCra €Kptvas cf. vi. 10, xix. 2. 6. On aTfia dyiwv k. Trpo^rjTwv 
cf. xi. 18, xviii. 24, xix. 2 : on afiot daiv cf. iii. 4 and xiv. 5 for 
exactly the same asyndetic construction. 7. On Kvpif. 6 ^eos, 
6 iravroKpariiip cf. i. 8, iv. 8, xi. 17, XV. 3, xix. 6, xxi. 22. Here 
we should observe that the divine title in 5 and this title in 7 
are already conjoined in xi. 17 : on aXriOLvaX k. SUaiaL al K/atcreis 
aov cf. xix. 2 where the words recur exactly as here ; also in xv. 3 
(in reverse order). 

Thus the passage is undoubtedly Johannine. 

(^) All the evidence is in favour of restoring it immediately 
after aWrjXovid in xix. 4. Thus we have : first two stanzas of 
three lines each, xix. i*'-2, followed by one of two in xix. 3, and 
parallel with these two other stanzas of three lines each in 
xix. 4*=, xvi. 5''-6 followed by another of two in xvi. j^. The 
structure is thus perfectly symmetrical. 



122 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. 5-7. 

The Song of the Angels. 

XIX. 1^ 'AXXriXooid- 

'H auTTfpia Kal t\ 86$a Kal \\ %Kivo.^\,% toC OeoC 

2. On dXTjdifal Kal SiKUiai at xpiacis auToC* 

On CKpii'ev t\v i:(>^vt\v ttji* fitydXTji', 
Hns e4)0eip6»' x^i' y^** ^•' Tfj iropt'eia auTtjs, 
Kai cleSiKTjacK to alfia TWk SouXuf auToG ^k x^^P^S 
auTTJ9. 

8. Kal ScoTcpoK eipT]Ka»'' 
'AXXifjXooid* 
Kal 6 Kair^os auTTJs dfaPaicei 6i$ toAs aiuKas twc 
aicocwi'. 

7%(f »S(?«^ of the Elders and the Cherubim. 

At'. 'A|ii]»', aXXr^Xouid* 
XVI. 5^. AiKaios et, 6 tiv Kal 6 ^f, 
"Oaios on raura EKpii/a$. 

6. 'On atfjia dyiwc Kal 7rpo(|>T]Tui' e|^)(caK, 
Kal atfia aurois ScSuKas ireik* 

"Alioi ciaii'. 

7. Kal T]K0uaa tou Ouo-iaori^piou XEyofTOS 

Nai, Kupic, 6 deos 6 -iravTOKpdTup, 
'AXTjdical Kal SiKaiai ai Kpiacis aou. 

At first sight it might appear an objection that this doxology 
is addressed directly to God, whereas the doxology in xix. \^-2 
is not so directed, but God is spoken of in the third person. 
But this objection is groundless ; for in iv. 8 the doxology speaks 
of God in the third person, whereas that which follows in iv. 1 1 
is addressed directly to God. The same change of persons is 
found in the two thanksgivings in connection with the Lamb in 
V. 9-10 and V. 12. Here also the Elders and the Cherubim 
join together, as in v. 9, in this great anthem of praise. Again 
it is noteworthy that the doxologies of the twenty-four Elders are 
always elsewhere in our author (cf. iv. 11, v. 9, xi. 17) addressed 
directly to God, just as they are above in xix. 4*^, xvi. 5*'-6. 
Thus what at first sight appears to be an objection turns out to 
he evidence in favour of the above restoration. 

(4) The reader will recognize at a glance the similarity of 
construction between the doxology in xix. 1-2 and that of the 
Elders and Living Creatures in xix. 4*^, xvi. 5'*-6, both of which 
consist of two stanzas of three lines each, and that in each case 



XVI. 5-7.] SONG OF ELDERS AND CHERUBIM 1 23 

these stanzas are followed by one of two lines. They both also 
deal with the same subject — thanksgiving over the fall of Rome. 

XVI. 5^ 6 i)v Kal 6 r\v. See note on i. 4. 

oCTios. Cf. XV. 5. So the best authorities: "holy" — in 
apposition to StKaio<:. If with nP we read 6 00-105 the phrase is 
to be taken as a vocative, "Thou Holy One." It represents 
God as faithful in His relation to men. See Trench {Synon.^ 
p. 316) on the relation of StKaios and oo-tos in Classical Greek. 
On this attribute of God cf. i Enoch i. 2, 3, x. i, xiv. i, xxv. 3, 
xxxvii. 2, cxxxiv. i, xcii. 2, xciii. 11, xcviii. 6, civ. 9. 

6. at/ia . . . iUx'^av. Cf. Ps. Ixxix. 3. 

dyiwi' Kai iTpo(|>T]Twf. We should expect the reverse order : 
cf. xviii. 24, xxii. 9. 

atfia auToTs Sc'SwKas "ireii'. This expression has a technical sense 
in the O.T. and later books. Thus in Isa. xlix. 26 we have = "I 
will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh, and they 
shall be drunken with their own blood." In that time "no man 
spareth his own brother " (Isa. ix. 19). This is the so-called Period 
of the Sword : cf. Ezek. xxxviii. 2 1, " I will call for a sword against 
him . . . every man's sword shall be against his brother " ; Hag. 
ii. 22, "I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms . . . every- 
one by the sword of his brother"; Zech. xiv. 13; i Enoch 
xxxviii. 5, xcviii. 12, xcix. 4, 6; Jub. xxiii. 19; 2 Bar. xlviii. 32, 
Ixx. 6-7 ; Mark xiii. 8. Thus the meaning of the clause in our text 
is that God would cause internecine war to arise amongst the 
Antichristian nations, i.e. between Rome and the nations of the 
East; for the latter, as the Seer has already testified in xvii. 12- 
13, 17, 16, would invade the West and destroy Rome. But the 
Johannine editor was wholly ignorant of the force of these words 
and took them in a literal and material sense : As Rome had shed 
the blood of the saints, so it should drink actual blood ! whereas 
they mean that the doom pronounced by God on those who had 
martyred the prophets and the saints would be that they should 
fall by each other's hands, and thus they should eat each other's 
flesh (xvii. 16) and drink each other's blood (xvi. 6). We should 
observe that the two ideas in Isa. xlix. 26 are thus adopted by our 
author, irctv = Trictv : cf. Blass, Gram. 23. 

afioi eiCTiv. Contrast the use of this phrase in iii. 4, and for 
the absence of the copula xiv. 5. 

7. 'i]Kouaa toO Ouatacrnipiou \cyoia-os. This clause must be 
taken in connection with the statements made in reference to this 
altar, i.e. the altar of incense in the preceding chapters. In 
vi. 10 the souls of the martyrs are represented as beneath this 
altar, and from thence their prayers go forth to God. In 
viii. 3-4 the prayers of all the saints that are still upon earth are 
offered up upon it. In ix. 13 this altar first appears in con- 



124 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN fXIX. 5. 

nection with judgment, where it is conceived as initiating tlic 
second Woe by ordering the four angels of punisl^ment to he 
let loose. In xiv. i8, which represents a period chronologically 
later, i.e. when the roll of the martyrs is complete, an angel goes 
forth from this altar and delivers to the Son of Man the divine 
command to undertake the judgment of the earth. In the 
present passage the altar confirms the doxologies just uttered 
(vai), and declares that in the destruction of Rome the truth and 
righteousness of God are vindicated. Thus at last the prayers of 
the martyrs and of the saints are fulfilled. 

XIX. 5. ^uiv^ diro toG 6p6fou. This voice directed to God's 
servants in heaven {i.e. the martyrs) seems to be that of one of 
the Cherubim or of the Elders, and not of an angel, since the two 
first orders were the nearest to the throne. In no case should 
the voice be ascribed to Christ, as in that case we should have 
not Tu 6e(S ^7/10)1/ in the words that follow, but tw ^ew /aov, as in 
iii. 12. 

aicciTc Tw 6ew ^y.fav ( = imbs? Vc'l')- oXvCiv takes the ace. 
elsewhere in the N.T. and all but universally in the LXX. In the 
half-dozen or more of cases where aivetv takes the dative in the 
LXX, we can explain it in i Chron. xvi. 36, xxiii. 5, 2 Chron. xx. 
19 as a reproduction of the Hebrew idiom mn''^ ^r\ or rwrxh min. 
Still more remarkable is the careful following of the text in Ezra 
iii. 10, where alvfiv takes the ace. as ^T\ does in the Hebrew, and 
in iii 11, where alvCiv tw Kvp'na is a rendering of XW^^h T>^- In 
2 Chron. V. 13, aXvUv tw k. is a translation of "v min ; also in 
vii. 3. Hence it is not improbable that this Hebrew idiom was 
in the mind of our author when he wrote, aivetTc tw ^cw ■^/liiTii'. 
The dative is also found in Pss. Sol. v. i, aiveVw tw ovo/iaTi 
<rou. 

aicciTc . . . ■k6.vj^% 01 SoGXoi aurou, Kal 01 4>oPou|iji.e»'oi ahiov, ol 
fjiiKpol Kal ol prCydXci. Cf xi. 1 8, TOts 8ouXoi5 crov Kat tous 
(f>oftovfierov<s to ovofxa. aov, tous fti/cpous koI tovs /AcyaXovs. First 
of all, our text is influenced by Ps. cxxxv. i, nin^ ''12V • • • nn^^n 
(LXX, alveire . . . SovAot Kvpiov), and 20, illH^ 'N"l' (LXX, 01 
<fiol3ovfi€voi Tov Kvpiov). In the usage of our author the phrase 
SouAot {rov 6eov) represents the most notable servants of God — 
the Christian prophets (cf. i. i, x. 7, xi. 18, xxii. 6) and martyrs 
(cf. vii. 3, xix. 2), and the servants of God generally in ii. 20, 
xxii. 3. The context therefore must decide its special signifi- 
cance in each case. 

We have next to discover who these servants of God are. 
They can hardly be said to compose the Church universal ; for 
(i) the presupposition of xviii. 20, €u<^paiVou . . . ovpavi, is that 
only those who are in heaven should take part in the thanks- 
givings over the fall of Rome. (2) The words, further, ^wvii avo 



XIX. 6-6.] RESPONSE OF THE MARTYRS 12$ 

Tov dpovov, have the same implication. They are addressed to 
those in heaven. If the voice were addressed to those on earth 
we shall expect <^(ov^ Ik tov ovpavov: cf. x. 4, 8, xi. 12, xiv. 2, 13, 
xviii. 4. In xxi. 3 God tabernacles with men = hence this phrase 
has not the same significance there that it has in the earlier 
chapters. (3) We have found that all the faithful had been 
removed from the earth after chap. xiii. 

Thus since the divine command is issued only to the servants 
(SovAoi) of God in heaven, these can only be the glorified martyrs, 
who have already been described as "a mighty multitude which 
no man could number" in vii. 9. The martyrs have already 
been so designated in vii. 3, xix. 2. It is used elsewhere also of 
the Christian prophets, and also of God's servants generally (see 
above). 

So much then appears clear. The anthems of thanksgiving 
in xix. 1-8 are sung only by those actually in heaven — angels 
and glorified martyrs. We have now to deal with the further 
description of the latter, which is given in the next line. 

Kal 01 ^to^oujiccoi auTOf, ol |xiKpol Kal ol fieyt^^oi'- If we 
accept the xat (with AQ min°'"" vg. syr.^' ^ Pnm,) ^e must render 
it as " even " ; for there is no question here of two distinct 
classes of the faithful in heaven : there are only the martyrs. 
The martyrs are described here as ol hovXoi avrov, as in the angels' 
song in 2. This being so, the phrase koL ol <f)o(3ovfiivoi avrov is 
not a strong one as descriptive of the martyrs. kuI ol <f>o^. avrov 
. . . yxeyaAoi appears to be derived from Ps. cxiv. 13 (cxiii. 21) 
originally. The phrase ol <^o/?ov/i,€voi to ovofid <rov bears another 
meaning in xi. 18. There the whole body of the faithful are 
referred to; xi. i8^"S refers to the events subsequent to the final 
judgment, and to all the orders of the faithful who then enter 
into the everlasting Kingdom of God. Hence Kal ol (f>ol3ov- 
fxevoi TO ovofjid <rov denotes a class of the faithful quite distinct 
from the other classes there enumerated. But in the present 
context only one class is mentioned, i.e. that of the martyrs. 

6. Response of the martyr host to the divine command. 

6s ^(i>vr]y o)(\ou iroWou. See note on ver. i. ws <j>u)>'i]j' 
uSaTWk TToXXoif : cf. 1. 15, xiv. 2. <t»s <^ut'T)i' Ppoi/Tui' i(r)(tjp(i)v : 
cf. vi. I (x. 3). Xeyorrwi'. This is the best attested reading 
(AP and many cursives). Presumably our author took it in 
immediate connection with jSpovrdv. Cf. like irregularities in 
iv. I, <l>(i>v7] . . . Xeycov : in ix. 13, tfxDvrjv . . . AeyovTO. AeyovT£S 
(Q and many cursives) is, though parallels in our author's use 
(cf. V. II, xiv. 6-7) could be adduced, probably a correction. 

oTi i^a<Tl\€u<T€v . . . \aip<afi€y Kal dYaXXiuiiec. For the same 
connection of ideas cf. Ps. xcvii. i Y')i<r{ bin ']b^ nin> (xcvi. i, 
o Kvpios eySao-tXevo-fv, dyaXXiao-erai rj y^). With i/SaariKevatv : cf. 



126 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 6-7. 

xi. 15, 17. With the destruction of Rome the reign of God is 
established on earth. Cf. Pss. Sol. ii. 34, 36, v. 21, 22, xvii. 
i> 4) 38, 51, where the Hke thought of the kingship of God 
prevails. This is the second great stage in the destruction of 
evil in the universe. The first was achieved when Satan was 
cast down from heaven (chap. xii.). 

Kupios 6 Geos 6 irakTOKpdTup. A favourite designation of God 
in our author. Cf. i. 8, iv. 8, xi. 17, xv. 3, xvi. 7, xxi. 22. 
Against (A i, 49, 95 al. me. arm.) other authorities add rj/xiov 
after ^eos owing to the influence of 1,5. But this is against the 
usage of our author in this phrase, and the context itself is 
against its insertion. When 6 TravTOKparwp does not immediately 
follow, as in iv. 11, we have 6 Kvptos Kal 6 ^eos ■^/i.cov, where Dr. 
D'Arcy suggests there may be a reference to the blasphemous 
title assumed by Domitian, " Dominus et Deus noster." 

7. xaipuni-ev Kal dYaXXia)p.eK. For the same combination cf. 
Matt. V. 12, xacpere xai dya\Aiao-^c. dyaXXiav is found in the 
N.T. only here and in Luke i. 47. Elsewhere in the N.T. and 
in the LXX the middle form is used. The classical form is 
ayaXXofiai. 

8<i(To/ici' TT^v loiav. See note on xi. 13. 

r^KQiv 6 ydfi.0^ too dpi'iou. rj\$ev is used prolep' 'cally in xi. 
18, but not to the same extent here; for Rome is already 
overthrown : the impenitent nations, the Beast and the False 
Prophet are on the eve of being cast into the lake of fire, the 
Millennial Kingdom on the eve of being set up, and the heavenly 
Jerusalem — the bride — of coming down from heaven. In fact, 
rjXOev refers here to the time just preceding the advent of the 
Millennial Kingdom, whereas in xi. 18 to the period that follows 
on its close. Cf. xiv. 7, 15, where it also occurs. 

6 ydfios Tou dpfiou. As God in the O.T. is the Bridegroom 
of Israel (cf. Hos. ii. 16 ; Isa. liv. 6 ; Ezek. xvi. 7 sq.), in the N.T. 
this symbolism is transferred to Christ and the Church, which 
in our author is symbolized by the heavenly and the New 
Jerusalem: cf. xxi. 9-10, xxii. 17, xxi. 2. This figure of 
marriage denotes f/ie intimate and indissohible communiofi of 
Christ with the community, which He has purchased with His 
own blood (v. 6, 9, vii. 17, xiv. i). This communion is reached 
first in its fulness by the martyrs, who reign with Christ for 
1000 years in the Holy City, which comes down from heaven, 
and are yet in a mysterious way identified with the Holy City 
xxi. 9, xxii. 17, i.e. the Church, the Bride of Christ. The 
Gentiles converted during these 1000 years belong also to the 
Church. When the New (KaLvrj) Jerusalem descends in xxi. 2 
after the final judgment and the creation of a new heaven and a 
new earth, // has become a symbol for the Church Universal. 



XIX. 7-8.] MARRIAGE FEAST OF THE LAMB 1 27 

It is worth observing that the heavenly (or New?) Jerusalem 
is symbolized by a woman in 4 Ezra ix. 38 sqq., x. 25-50. 

But to return to the term ya/txos, we meet with the above 
symbolism in other parts of the N.T. Thus the marriage feast 
(yd/xoi) is made by the king for His Son in Matt. xxii. 2 sqq. ; 
the bride chamber is mentioned Matt. xxii. 10 (wixtfiiav), and the 
wedding garment (evSv/xa ydfiov), xxii. 1 1 ; the sons of the bride- 
chamber, Mark ii. 19; the bridegroom (w/A^tos), Mark ii. 19, 
Matt. xxv. I ; and his friends (John iii. 29) and the bride {vvfi^ri) 
in Matt. xxv. i (D). In 2 Cor. xi. 2 the same symbolism occurs, 
rjpfxoardfji-qv yap v/ias ivl dvSpt -rrapdevov ayvrjv Trapaar^crat tcS 
X/otoTw : Eph. V. 25, 32, otavSpcs, dyaTrarc ras yvvoLKa's, KaOii)^ kol 
6 XpicTTOs rjya.Trr](T€v ttjv iKKXrjCTLav ... to /JLvaTrjpiov tovto /leya 
ia-TLv, eyo) 8e Acyw cis Xptcrrov koI ets t^I' iKKXrjcriav. 

•q yuv^ auToC. Here rj yvvrj is used as equivalent to 17 fiffivrj- 
crj€Vfi€vrj ( = nt^"iXO), as in Deut. xxii. 23; Matt. i. 20. In xxi. 9 
of our text the t^v ywatKa appears to be a gloss. 

T^Toifxatrci' ia\irr\v. A favourite word in our author (ix. 7, 15, 
xii. 6, xvi. 12, xxi. 2 (viii. 6)). Only the destruction of the Anti- 
christian kings and nations, the casting of the Beast and the 
False Prophet into the lake of fire (xix. 11-21), and the chaining 
of Satan in the abyss (xx. 1-3), must intervene before the actual 
bridal, before the full spiritual communion of Christ and His 
Church is accomplished in the descent of the Holy City in 
xxi. 9 sqq. 

8. Kal eSodr] aurjj Xva ircpiPdiXTjTat ^uvaivov = " And it had been 
given unto her that she should array herself in fine linen." 
This privilege was already accorded to the martyr Church in 
vi. II. 7r£pi/3dXX€cr^at ^va-aiiov, i/idrta, oToXd? are favourite 
expressions in our author: cf. iii. 18, vii. 9, 13, x. i, xviii. 16, 
etc. Our author uses also the phrase ivSveaOai Pvaaivov : cf. 14, 
XV. 6 (?). In the words ihoOrj avT-fj Iva vept^dXrjTai ktX., and in 
the preceding clause ■^TOL/xaaev eavnyv, we have presented God's 
part and man's part in the work of redemption : cf. Phil. ii. 
12-13, '''W ^avToiv (TWTTjpiav Karepyd^ccr^c, ^€os ydp eoriv 6 ivepywv 
iv vfuv KOI TO deXeiv kol to ivepyeiv. The WOrds Kal iSoOrj . . . 
KaOapov could be taken as part of the martyrs' song. But both 
the context and the parallelism are in favour of regarding them 
as a remark of the Seer. 

PuWu'ow: cf. 14, xviii. 12. Here used as a noun, as in 
Dan. (LXX) x. 5. On the meaning of this "fine linen" see 
note on iii. 5, vi. 11, vol. i. p. 184 sq. 

XafjiTrpoj' KoflapoK: cf. XV. 6. The vesture of the saints 
stands out in strong contrast with that of the Harlot in xvii. 4, 
xviii. 16. 

[to yolp PuaaifOf to SiKaicSpaTa tuk dyiui' ccttii'.] This is 



128 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 8-10. 

regarded by some scholars as the close of the anthem : if so, it 
is a prosai ; one. Of course it might be urged that it does not 
come from the heavenly choir, but is an explanation of the Seer 
himself, as the preceouig clause itself appears to be. But this 
can hardly be maintained. As we have seen in the note on 
xiv. 13, the righteous acts (so SLKacwfiara : cf. xv. 4; Rom. v. 18; 
I Bar. ii. 19) of the saints are regarded by our author as the 
manifestation of the inner life and as practically identical with 
character — the character a man takes with him when he leaves 
this life. Neither his righteous acts nor his character are to be 
regarded as the garment of the soul of the martyrs ; for, though 
they had already this character they are described as without 
such garments for a time, even in heaven : see vi. 11. As a 
fitting clothing of the souls of the martyrs, God assigns them 
spiritual bodies, vi. 1 1 (see note), which in iii. 5 (see note) and 
here are described as white garments or shining pure garments. 
The individuals also who compose the Church or Bride at this 
period are the martyrs. If this view is right, then 8^ is a gloss. 
In a limited sense it is a correct gloss, since the spiritual bodies 
will be in keeping with the character or righteous acts of the 
saints. 

Alford regards the entire verse as an explanation of the Seer. 
But the objections to 8** hold nevertheless. 

9''-10. This passage, which is in part a doublet of xxii. 8-9 
but rewritten and given quite a different meaning, is bracketed 
as an interpolation. 

1. The clause oSrot oi Aoyoi ol aXrjOivol Tov Oeov claiv (9) is 
rather inept here, seeing that the words referred to are fke 
triumphant songs of the angels and martyrs in heaven. In xxii. 6, 
on the other hand, they are full of significance, coming in as 
they do at the close of the Book and giving it a solemn attesta- 
tion. In xxi. 5 the authenticity of the phrase can hardly be 
maintained. 

2. xix. 10 is in part a doublet of xxii. 8-9. This fact in 
itself is only of importance when combined with others. 

3. xix. 10 is rewritten from xxii. 8-9 by the editor and given 
a less general meaning. In xxii. 8-9 the angel is a fellow- 
servant of the prophets and of all Christians. In xix. 10 he is a 
fellow-servant only of the prophets and those endowed with the 
prophetic spirit. 

4. If xix. 10 were original, the action of the Seer in xxii. 8-9, 
in again prostrating himself before the angel, would be incom- 
prehensible. But if xix. 10 is an interpolation, then xxii. 8-9 is 
intelligible and in its right context at the close of the Book. 

5. TTpoa-Kvi'Tjaai avrw (10) is not used elsewhere in our author 
of simple homage or even of a Op-qa-Kda Twr dyycAwv (Col. ii. 18), 



XIX. 9.] THE SUPPER OF THE LAMB I29 

but only of divine worship (see note on vii. 11). We should, if 
this phrase were from our author's hand, have Trpoa-Kwrfaai avroV. 
In xxii. 8 no such brtach of our author's usage is committed. 

The above difficulties are against the dirt ct authorship of the 
Seer. The most natural hypothesis as to their insertion here is 
that they were inserted by the disciple who edited the whole 
work, who, though he repeats some clauses from John's own 
hand, supplements them with others from his own. This hypo- 
thesis would explain the misuse of the phrase Trpoa-Kwrjcrai auTw 
in this context, and the addition of the final clause rj yhp /xaprvpia 
'Irjaov icTTiv to irv(.vp.a t^s ■7rpocf)r)T€ia<;. For this clause gives the 
preceding one, twf i-)^6vTwv t-^i' fj^aprvpiav 'It/ctov, a new meaning. 
In itself the latter means the whole body of believers generally, 
but when the last clause of 10 is added it means the limited 
body of Christian prophets. By this gloss the exact parallelism 
of xix. 9-10 with xxii. 8-g is destroyed, for there the angel 
represents himself as the servant of the prophets and the whole 
Christian community. 

9^. Kal Xe'yei fioi Vp&^ov MaKtipioi 01 els to Sciin'ot' tou y6,\i.o\} 

ToO dpi'lOO KeKXT]ji.€»'Ot. 

This beatitude is the fourth of our author's seven beatitudes. 
But there is a difificulty in K€K\r]p.ivoi; for throughout the 
Millennial Reign all men alike are "called" to share in the 
kingdom: cf. xiv. 7, xv. 4, xxii. 17. There is no blessedness 
in being called (cf. Luke xiv. 24, ovSei? . . . t. Kf.K\-qjxevwv 
y€v(r€TaL /jlov tov Scittvov), unless a man accepts the call and is 
found faithful — is "chosen" ckAcktos and found faithful TricrTos 
(cf. xvii. 14). The words of our Lord can hardly have been 
unknown to our Seer ; ttoAXoI yap tio-iv kXtjtol, oAt'yot 8k (KXeKToi 
(Matt. XX. 16, xxii. 14). But KeKXrj/xivot has not this technical 
meaning here, but simply that of " invited." Here, as in Matt, 
xxii. 2 sq., the guests and the Bride are one and the same. But, 
though the guests or the faithful might (as Israel in the O.T. in 
relation to Yahweh) be rightly designated the Bride, as, for 
example, in xxi. g (cf. Eph. v. 27), at the beginning of the 
Millennial Kingdom, since the words Bridegroom and Bride 
symbolize the close relation between Christ and the Church at 
all times, yet the realization of the things so symbolized is 
always partial and imperfect till the number of the saints is 
complete. Hence not till then has the time come for the 
Wedding Feast and for the Bride to become the Wife of the 
Lamb. It is to this feast, therefore, that the faithful are "in- 
vited " ; and all such as are then invited naturally accept, for 
they are all saints. So the writer of 4 E^zra ii. 38-41 rightly 
connects the Marriage Supper and the completion of the roll 
of the saints : " Videte numerum signatorum in convivio Domini. 

VOL. II. Q 



I30 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 9-10. 

Qui se de umbra saeculi transtulerunt, splendidas tunicas a 
Domino acceperunt. Recipe, Sion, numerum tuum . . . Filiorum 
tuorum . . . planus est numerus . . . populus tuus, qui vocatus 
est ab initio." As Dalman ( Words of Jesus, ii8 sq.) points out, 
kckAtj/xcVoi = CirsTlD : cf. Babba Bathra, 75^: "those who are 
invited go up to the Jerusalem of the age to come"; Midr. 
Tehill. 14'^, where Jacob is "invited to the heavenly banquet" 
(miyB^ t??^)- With the beatitude in our text cf. yu-aKapios oaris 
<j>ay€TaL aprov iv rrj /JacriXcta tov deov (Luke xiv. 1 5). 

KCKXt]fjicVoi. KttXeiv always means " to name " in our author 
except here and in xvii. 14, where the meaning our author 
attaches to kXtjtoi is seen from its context : KXrjToi /cat iKXeKTol 
Kol TTLo-ToL Here these three epithets refer to the same persons. 

ouToi ot Xoyot 01 dXif|6ii'oi too 0eoG etcii'. See i in the note on 
9^-10. 

10. Iireo-a cfAirpoaOec tC)V irohStv auroo : cf. xxii. 8. irtTTTCtv 
followed immediately by such phrases as Trpos t. irdSas, i. 17, 
ivoiinov, iv. 10, V. 8, vii. 11, tVi to, Trpoo-wTra, xi. 16, is used of the 
divine worship of God or the Lamb. Hence in eirecra €fnrpo<T$cv 
T. TToSwv avTov the same worship seems implied. It is strange 
that the phrase Trpoa-Kwelv efiTrpocrOev is used simply of homage. 
See note on xxii. 8. 

irpoaKui'fJCTai aurw. On this usage (contrary to that of our 
author) see 5 in the note on 9^-10 and vii. 11 note. 

opa fATJ . . . d8€X<t)a)i' aou. See xxii. 9, where these words 
occur in their right context. 

rS>v exok'Twi' ttji' fxapTupiar 'Itjctoo. This phiase is found 
already in xii. 17. It is certainly in the phraseology of our 
author. Cf. vi. 9, rrjv fjiaprvptav rjv f.T)(ov, and i. 2, 9, xx. 4, where 
we have the phrase rj fxapTvpla ^\r](Tov. In r-qv jxapTvpiav ^Irjcrov 
the question arises whether we have in ^l-r^a-ov the subjective or 
objective genitive, i.e. the testimony borne by Jesus, or the 
testimony which men bear to Jesus. The former, according to 
i. 2, xii. 17, means the sum of the revelation made by him, and 
should naturally be the meaning of the phrase here. But the 
words that follow, t) yap p-aprvpia 'Irja-ov ktX., require us to make 
them mean "the witness to Jesus." Hence it follows that the 
yap is here to be taken in an explanatory sense : " now the 
witness to Jesus is the spirit of prophecy." Thus the angel 
declares that he is the fellow-servant of John, and of those who 
share with him the prophetic spirit. This is not the meaning of 
the parallel passage in xxii. 10. 

There is, however, the possibility that 17 yap p-aprvpia . . . 
7rpo(f>r)T€M^ may have been a marginal gloss on rrjv papTvpiav 
'Irjorov, which was subsequently incorporated in the text. It 
certainly comes in very awkwardly after tw ^€<3 Trpoo-KvvTjarov. 



XIX. 10-ll.J MESSIANIC JUDGMENT I3I 

It should have preceded it. If this clause was a gloss, then the 
words (TVv8ovX6'i (tov elfiL /cat Twr a8eX<l>wv . . . 'Irjaov and xxii. 9*^ 
would be practically equivalent in meaning. Even so, many of 
the objections to the originality of xix. g^'-io still remain. 

11-21. Cf. xiv. 14, 18-20, and xvi. 13-16 for proleptic 
accounts of this destruction of the kings and the nations by 
Christ and His angels. See note on 14. 11-21 deals with the 
victory of Christ and His angels over the Beast, the False 
Prophet, and the kings of the earth. With this victory of the 
Messiah cf. i Enoch Ixii. 2 ; 2 Bar. xxxix.-xl, Ixxii. ; 4 Ezra 
xii. 32, xiii. 38. This destruction of the remaining active foes of 
the Messianic Kingdom comes in here of necessity after that 
judgment has been executed on Rome and before the inaugura- 
tion of the Millennial reign. This corresponds to the judgment 
of the Sword at the beginning of the Messianic Kingdom in 
I Enoch 1. 2, xc. 19, xci. 12, xcv. 7, xcvi. i, xcviii. 12. Though 
the destruction of the Parthian kings is foretold proleptically in 
xvii. 14, it is nowhere subsequently described. 

11. ctSoi' TOf oupakok' y]ve(!fy}j.evov : cf. Ezek. i. I, koX avew)(j9rjcrav 
oiovpavoLi 2 Bar. xxii. i ; 3 Mace. vi. 18; Matt. iii. 16; John 
i. 51, oipiade TOV oipavov dvewyora. 

As we learn from what follows, it is only the nations that are 
hostile to Christ that are to be destroyed. For the attitude of 
Judaism to the Gentiles in the O.T. and Apocryphal and 
Apocalyptic literature, see my Eschatology^, 165, 246, 296, 297, 
332, 361, also Sibyll. Or. iii. 740; Tob. xiii. 11, xiv. 6 sq. ; Test. 
XII. Patr. (see Index, p. 242, in my edition), and Volz, Judische 
Escha to logic, 322-325. 

iTTTTos XeuKos Kttl 6 KaflTj'fjLccos ctt' auToi' : repeated from vi. 2, 
but the two riders are quite distinct. Here there is no question 
as to the personality of the present Rider. He is the Messiah — 
" the Word of God." The very epithets that are applied to Him 
have occurred before in the same connection : cf. iii. 14, 6 fj.aprv's 
6 TTtcTTos KOI aXT]6Lv6<;. See also i. 5, iii. 7. This same combina- 
tion of epithets is used by Christ (the Logos) in xxii. 6, ovtol ol 
\6yoi TTicTTot /cat aXr]di.voi. For this combination of epithets cf. 
also 3 Mace. ii. 11. The Messiah as a man of war appears in 
Pss. Sol. xvii. 23-27 ; Philo, De Praetn. et Poena, 16, a-TparapxC^v 
Koi TToAeyncov ^6vr] . . . ;^€ipaicrerat. 

iy SiKaioaucT) Kpivei kuI iroXefiei. This description of the 
righteousness of the Messiah is brought forward very distinctively 
in Isa. xi. 3 sq. : " He shall not judge after the sight of his eyes . . . 
4. but with righteousness shall he judge (pnX3 tiSK'l) the poor, and 
reprove with equity the meek of the earth. 5. And righteousness 
shall be the girdle of his loins and faithfulness the girdle of his 
reins." In i Enoch he is designated as " the Righteous One " 



132 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 12. 

(xxxviii. 2), "the Righteous and Elect One" (Hii. 6), "the Elect 
One of righteousness and faith " (xxxix. 6). Cf. also Pss. Sol. xvii. 
31, Kpivf.1 . . . idvr] iv (ro<f>ia. SiKaio(Tvvr]<; avrov: also in 35 he is 
described as a /SatrtXciis StVaios kol SiSa^Tos inro 6eov : cf. also 36, 
41 : Ps. xcvi. 13 ; Acts xvii. 31. 

12. 01 Se 6<{>6aX|xoi aurou is <{>X^^ irupo;. Repeated from i. 14 : 
cf. ii. 18. 

cTTi T. Ke<j)a\^K auTOu SiaSiffxara iroXXd. Here as always, 
except in xii. i, our author uses cttI t. Ke<^aX7;v and not cttI t. 
Ke<f>aXr]<:. See note on Introd. to xii., vol. i. p. 300 sq. As King 
of kings (16) the Messiah wears many diadems. The Dragon 
(xii. 3) and the Beast (xiii. i) wear respectively seven and ten. 
According to i Mace. xi. 13, Ptolemy wore two diadems on 
entering Antioch — one for Egypt and one for Asia. 

12". [ex**^ ocojjia y^YP'^H'M'^*'**'' ° ouScls oiSei' el p,^ auT<5s.] 
Though the diction is Johannine (on ^x*^^ • • • yeypaft/aeVov cf. 16, 
and with o ouScls oTSev cf. ii. 17) this clause appears to be inter- 
polated. The objections are three. First, there is a break in 
the thought. We should not expect a reference to the name 
here in the midst of a description of the person and dress. 
Moreover, the statement that no one knows His name save Him- 
self is flatly contradicted in the next verse (13''), where the words 
Kol Kc/cX>;Tai to ovofxa avrov 'O Aoyos tov Oeov cannot be explained 
away (see note in loc). Finally, by the omission of this clause 
the parallelism is restored. 

12. 01 8e 6(^9aXfjioi aurou us <|>Xo| TrupcSs, 

Ktti em XT)!' Ke<t>aXf]f adrou SiaSi^fjiaTa TroXXd, 

18. Kal 7repi,pepXT]p.eVos i\i.a.Tiov ^ejSap.p.eVoi' aifiari, 
Kal K€KXif]Tai TO oco|xa auToC 'O Aoyos tou deoC. 

The interpolated line may have originated in a marginal 
gloss. We have now to inquire what meaning can be attached 
to this gloss. Some interpreters have thought the unknown 
designation to be 6 kv/jios, Phil. ii. 11; others (as Ewald and 
Volkmar) have taken it to be the tetragrammaton ; others a 
really mysterious name known only to Christ Himself, comparing 
ii. 17, ovojxa Kaivhv yeypafjifxevov o ovSeis olSev el /jljj 6 Xa/a^avav, and 
iii. 12. As regards this last interpretation scholars are again 
divided. Swete is of opinion that all created beings are excluded 
from the knowledge of this name. Alford thinks that the know- 
ledge of this name is withheld till the final and complete union 
of Christ and His Church. In favour of this view we might 
compare Asc. Isa. ix. 5 : "This is . . . the Lord Christ, who will 
be called Jesus in the world, but His name thou canst not hear 
till thou hast ascended out of thy body." Others, as Bousset, that 
this knowledge is withheld because of the power that attaches to 
such knowledge. The Messiah alone has a name which carries 



XIX. 12-13.] VESTURE DIPT IN BLOOD OF SLAIN 1 33 

with it power over heaven and earth, and as no one knows this 
name but Him, so He is the sole possessor of the power bound 
up with the name. This last interpretation belongs undoubtedly 
to the reign of magic, and is found among the Gnostics. This 
idea underlies Gen. xxxii. 29 and Judg. xiii. 17 sq. It was a 
very widespread idea among many ancient nations that the man 
who knew the name of a god or a demon possessed certain 
powers over him. Hence the name was concealed : cf. Heit- 
miiller, Im Namen Jesu, 162 sqq. ; Giesebrecht, Gottesname, 23, 
45, 100 (the last reference is from Gunkel's Genesis^, p. 362; 
Jevons, Introd. Hist. Religion^ p. 361). 

8 ouScis kt\. : cf. ii. 17, iii. 12. 

13. Kal -irEpiPepXTjficVos IfidTioc Pe^ap.p.cfOf aijiaTi. This clause 
has created no little difficulty. But, if we hold fast to the follow- 
ing facts, the difficulty can be surmounted. The first is that in 
the leader of the heavenly hosts we have to do — not with the 
Slain One, but the Slayer. The Word of God has come to 
execute divine judgment. Hence the idea that the blood on 
His Vesture is His own (cf. i. 5, v. 9, vii. 14, xii. 11) cannot be 
entertained. When our author wishes to express a thought of 
this nature, he speaks of the apvtov . , . ws ecrc^ay/xcVov (v. 6). 
Now this being so, how are we to explain the IfxaTiov /Sc/Sa/x/AtVov 
ai/jLaTL ? In whose blood is the vesture of the Divine Warrior 
dipped ? If it is not His Own, no more is it that of the kings of 
the earth and their armies (15, 18); for the judgment of the 
sword as regards these has not yet begun, and the garments of 
the heavenly armies are still white and pure (14). A comparison 
with Isa. Ixiii. 1-3 — which passage is in the mind of our author — 
confirms this conclusion : " Who is this that cometh from Edom, 
with red garments from Bozrah ? . . . 2. Wherefore art thou 
red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in 
the winefat ? 3. I have trodden the winepress alone . . . yea, 
I trod them in my anger . . . and their lifeblood is sprinkled 
upon my garments." Here the redness of the garments is due 
to the blood of those who have already been slain, exactly as in 
our text. Since, therefore, the redness of the vesture in 13 is 
not due to the warfare in 11-21, there remains only one other 
possible explanation, and this is that the blood on His vesture is 
that of the Parthian kings and their armies, whom He had 
already destroyed, and whose destruction had already been pro- 
leptically prophesied in xvii. 14. In this strife He was supported 
by the glorified martyrs (ot ftcr avrov KktfToi koI cKXeKToi kt\.). 

ifidriov ^€fiafj.\i4vov atp,aTi. These words are freely based on 
Isa. Ixiii. 3, nn-bv Dn^f: V^ ( = " and their blood is sprinkled on 
my garments "). Here fie^afifievov (AQ, etc.) is to be accepted 
and not pepavrccrfievov, ippafififvov, or the Other variants from 



134 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 13-14. 

patVw and pavri^o) ; for, whereas both these latter verbs are used 
in the LXX to render nT3 (the Hebrew verb in Isa. Ixiii. 3), and 
whereas Aquila and Symmachus do render it by pavrt^co in Isa. 
Ixiii. 3, but no translator ever renders it by /Solttto), it follows 
that, though there were possible grounds for changing l3e/3afjiii€vov 
into ippa[jifj.evov, there were none for changing Ippaiijxivov intd 
f3efiaiJifi€vov from the standpoint of Isa. Ixiii. 3, whence the idea 
was derived. Our author thus deals freely with Isa. Ixiii. 3. 
That such a free reproduction was not unknown in Judaism we 
might infer from the late Palestinian Targum on Gen. xlix. 11, 
which recounts the victory of the Messiah over His enemies : 
" How beauteous is the king Messiah, who is about to arise from 
the house of Judah. He hath bound his loins and gone forth to 
war against those that hate him : kings and princes shall be 
slain : he will make red the rivers with the blood of their slain . . . 
his garments will be dipped in blood (nDHNa YWV^ 'iKnn^)." 

Kai K^KXrirai to oi/op.a auroG 'O Aoyos tou 0€ou. This line has 
been taken by Volter, Spitta, Hilgenfeld, Bousset, and others to 
be the addition of a scribe or reviser. Now it is manifest that 
either 12*^ i^X"*^ ovofxa . . .0 ovSets oTSci/ ktX.) or the present clause 
must be of this nature. But, whereas we found that 12*= was 
open to serious objections on various contextual grounds, no 
objection of such a nature can be brought against the present 
clause, which accordingly comes from the hand of our author. 
We have here another of the numerous instances of community 
of diction between the Apocalypse and the Fourth Gospel, in 
many of which there is no community of meaning. For the 
Logos here is a Warrior, and our text reminds us of Wisd. 
xviii. 4-25, especially of xviii. 15, 6 Trai/roSuia/xos crov Xoyos o-tt 
ovpavijiv Ik dpovotv fSacriXiLotv aTroTO/xos TroAcytitcrr^^s eis fxea-ov rrjs 
oXc^ptas ^Aaro yrj^ ^L<f)0^ 6$v rrjv di/V7roKp6Toi/ cTrirayT^v aov (ftepoyv. 
We might compare also the later Jewish conception, "CNO and 
6 Xoyos Tov 6f.ov in Heb. iv. 12. Although the ideas underlying 
the words are different, in the latter passage this word is said to 
be "sharper than any two-edged sword." 

14. Kal TO. oTTpaTeufiaTa ktX. To 14* conjoined with 16'' we 
have remarkable parallels in xvii. 14, but there the enemies of the 
Lamb are the Parthian kings, who are also referred to in.xvi. 12. 
Here we have a conflict on a larger scale, as in xiv. 14, 18-20, 
xvi. 13-16. See notes on xiv. 14, 18-20, xvi. 12-16, xvii. 14. 

A study of the chief passages (ii. 26-27, ^iv. 14, 18-20, 
xvi. 12-16, xvii. 14, xviii., xix. 11-21) dealing with the destruc- 
tion of the world powers helps us to understand the expectations 
of the Seer as to {a) the order in which the world powers were to 
be destroyed before the Millennium, and {b) the nature of the 
heavenly armies which destroyed these powers. 



XIX. 14.] ARMIES OF HEAVEN 1 35 

(a) The destruction of Rome was to come first, next that of 
the Parthians, and finally that of the remaining hostile powers. 
— In xiv. 8-1 1 the destruction of Rome is foretold, followed 
immediately (for xiv. 12-13 belongs after xiii. 15 or 18) by that 
of the hostile nations, xiv. 14, 18-20. The same sequence of 
events is found in xviii. (the destruction of Rome) and xix. 11-21 
(that of the hostile nations). But the sequence of events can be 
determined more definitely. Thus in xvi. 1 2 the forces led by 
the Parthian kings are clearly distinguished from those of the 
remaining hostile nations in xvi. 13-16; and that these two 
divisions of the hostile heathen world, which survived the 
destruction of Rome, were to be separately destroyed, we infer 
from xvii. 14, according to which, immediately after the destruc- 
tion of Rome, Christ and His armies would destroy its destroyers, 
i.e. the Parthians. 

(b) The heavenly armies were to be composed of angels and [in 
certain cases if not in all) of the glorified martyrs. — The armies of 
the Word of God are described in xix. 14 (to. a-TpaTevixara to. iv 
Tw ovpavi^ . . . €(^' tTTTrots A-evKots). In xiv. 14, 18-20 the presence 
of these heavenly horsemen is presupposed in xiv, 20 (o-xpi- rwv 
XolXlvwv t. iTrrrcov). So far as these passages go, we should con- 
clude that the heavenly armies were composed of angels only. 
But this is not so. Quite clearly in xvii. 14 it is stated that the 
armies of the Lamb will be "the called and elect and faithful," a 
description which cannot be applied to angels. Now since this 
war of the Lamb on the Parthians is subsequent to the destruction 
of Rome, and therefore to the universal martyrdom of the faith- 
ful, it follows that this army is composed of the glorified martyrs, 
who had come down from heaven with Christ for that purpose. 
That they should share in this task we have already learnt from 
ii. 27, where of the individual martyr (6 vi/cwv) it is stated 
TTot/jLaveL avTovs tV pd(38(o aiSrjpa, the very words, which in xix. 15 
are used of Christ Himself. That the martyrs take part in the 
judgment of all the hostile nations cannot be affirmed in so 
many words, though the comparison of 7rotju,av€t kt\. in both 
ii. 27 and xix. 15 points probably to this conclusion. Moreover, 
the comparison of xvii. 14 (where Christ is called xupios Kvpiwv 
KOL /Sao-iAtiis ySacriXeW, and His army is composed of glorified 
martyrs) and of xix. 14% where His followers are the armies of 
heaven and His name is ;8ao-iAei)s /JacriXeW k. Kvpio^ Kvpioiv (16*^), 
may point in the same direction. 

Some of the chief expectations of our Seer relative to the 
judgment of the hostile nations may be briefly summarized as 
follows. 

The Parthian kings are referred to in xvi. 12, xvii. 12-13, n> 
16, and their destruction by the Lamb and the glorified martyrs 



136 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 14-15. 

in xvii. 14*'*'. The other hostile kings of the world are men- 
tioned : their gathering to Armageddon in xvi. 13-16, and their 
destruction by One like a son of man, xiv. 14, 18-20, by the 
Word of God with the armies of heaven in xix. 1 1-2 1. In these last 
two passages the Divine Leader is said to tread the winepress 
of the wrath of God (xiv. 19, xix. 15). Finally, at the close of 
the Millennial Kingdom there is the destruction of the unre- 
pentant nations by fire sent down from heaven, xx. 7-10. 

For the idea of armies in heaven cf. Test. Levi iii. 3 ; 2 Enoch 
xvii. l 2 Esdr. xix. 6, cot TrpoaKWovaiv ai cTTpaTtLai tcuv ovpavStv 
(where the armies are the stars) ; Matt. xxvi. 53. 

The heavenly armies, which are not definitely mentioned in 
the parallel account (xiv. 14, 18-20) but are implied in the words 
axpi- Tu)v xa^u'wv twv tTrTrwv, have descended with Christ from 
heaven. In ii. 27 (see note), xvii. 14 (see notes) they appear to 
be the faithful: in ii. 27 the foes they destroy are the hostile 
nations generally: in xvii. 14 the Parthian kings. 

ei'SeSuii.^i'oi, Puo-CTH'oj' XcuKoi/. For the phrase cf. i. 13, xv. 6. 

15. In 15*'*'^ are combined thoughts and words which are 
drawn from Isa. xi. 4 and Ps. ii. 9. But this combination is 
already found in Pss. Sol. 

xvii. 26. €KTpLif/ai iir€pr]<fiavLav dpaprtoXuiv ws (TKivrj Kepa[j.e(i)<;, 
iv pd/38<o criOTjpa crvvTpL<J/aL Tracrav VTrocrTacrLV avTwv' 

27. oXoOpevaraL Wviq irapavop.a iv X6y<a (TTop-aTO^ avTOv. 

39. Trard^ei yap yrjv t<5 Aoya> tov o"To/i.aT09 avrov, 

Kal eK Tou aTOjxaTos auToG cKiropeuETai pofji(}>aia d^cia : cf. I. 16, 
ii. 12. 

iVa iv aoTTJ iraTd^T) ra tQvi]. From Isa. xi. 4, koi irardiei yrjv 
Tw Aoyo) TOV cTTo/i-aTos avTOv, Kol iv TTvev/JiaTi 8ta )^uXe(j}v dvtXet 
da-efSrj, cf. Pss. Sol. xvii. 26-27, 39 (quoted above). Wisd. xviii. 
22, ivLKqae tov o;^Aov ovk l<T)(yi tov o'w/xaTos ov)( ottAcuv ivepyuq. 
ctAAa Adyo) tov KoAa^ovTa VTreVafev : I Enoch Ixii. 2, " The word 
of his mouth slays all the sinners." All these passages imply that 
the sword that proceeds out of the mouth of the Messiah is 
simply a figure for forensic or judicial condemnation. 

Kttt auTos TTOip.ai'er aureus iv pdjSSw cti8t)p^ : cf. ii. 27 (see 
note), xii. 5. From Ps. ii. 9. The auros in this and the next 
clause is emphatic. Neither here nor in ii. 27, xii. 5 has ttoi- 
[xaLveiy a favourable meaning. 

In these three passages it connotes punishment and destruc- 
tion. Contrast, on the other hand, its meaning in vii. 17. See 
note on ii. 27. Hence render "break them with an iron rod." 

Kal afiros iraTei t^v \y\vov ktX. Here, though accompanied by 
hosts of angelic warriors, the action of the Messiah alone is dwelt 
upon, just as in xiv. 19 sq. and in similar words. Only here and 
in xiv. 19-20 is the Aiyvos of divine judgment spoken of in our 



XIX. 16.] MESSIANIC TITLE INSCRIBED I37 

author. The two ideas of the winepress (xiv. 19) and the cup of 
wrath (xiv. i o) are here combined, and mean that from the wine- 
press trodden by Christ flows the wine of the wrath of God, of 
which his enemies are to be made to drink. It is a case of 
mixed metaphors. 

16. [cirl TO 'nidTiov teal] cm rot' p.iqpoi' aurou kt\. Of this text 
there is no satisfactory explanation. Diisterdieck, B. Weiss, and 
Holtzmann think that the title is inscribed on the girdle ; Swete, 
that "it is displayed on His habit where it falls over the thigh " ; 
Grotius imagines a sword on the hilt of which the name was 
inscribed. Wellhausen, recognizing the unintelligibleness of the 
text, proposes tinrov instead of Ifxanov and makes the airov refer 
to the iTTTrov. Horscs were branded on the thigh amongst the 
Greeks : see VVetstein in loc. But the idea of such an inscription 
on a horse cannot be entertained. If, therefore, we are to gain 
any satisfactory meaning here, we can only do so by following 
our chief Uncial A, Cassiodorus, and some Ethiop. MSS, which 
omit the words I have bracketed above. If A is right, the chief 
Syriac Version (s^) would probably be the first stage in the 
interpolation of the text ; for s^ here places the two phrases eVi 
TO i/x,aTojv avTov and eirt t. /irjpbv avTov side by side without the 
connecting kuL Thus the first phrase would appear to have 
originated in a marginal gloss owing to 13* (7repi/?f/3A.i;/i£vos 
l/jLaTLov ktA.). The final stage in the corruption of the text is that 
which all the remaining authorities attest. At this stage the first 
avTov is omitted and the km inserted. 

Our text now runs i-n-l t. /xTjpov airov. For the occasional 
appearance of names and inscriptions on the thighs of statues we 
have evidence in Greek and Roman authors (see Wetstein from 
whom these quotations are derived). Thus in Cicero, Verr. 
iv. 43, we find : " Signum ApoUinis pulcherrimum, cujus in femore 
literulis minutis argenteis nomen Myronis erat inscriptum." 
Also in Pausanias, Eliac, extr., to dvdOrjfia . . . dvSpos cIkwv 
, . . cAcyeiov 8e iir avro yf.y pa fJLjxivov ItrX tov firjpov : " Justinus 
(4 cent. A.D. ?), XV. 4, 5 : Figura anchorae, quae in femore Seleuci 
nata cum ipso parvulo fuit. 9. Originis ejus argumentum etiam 
in posteris mansit, siquidem filii nepotesque ejus anchoram in 
femore veluti notam generis naturalem habuere." 

The Seer sees in the vision the Divine Warrior and His 
heavenly horsemen — not halting but sweeping downward from 
heaven and onward against the serried armies of the Beast, False 
Prophet, and the kings of the earth, and, as they thunder along, their 
garments stream behind them, and so on the thigh of the Leader 
is disclosed the name : " King of kings and Lord of lords." 

PaaiXeu9 ^aaCKifav ktX. See note OH xvii. 14. 

17-21. An angelic summons to all the birds of prey to 



138 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 17-19. 

hasten to the scene of slaughter of all the mighty of the earth. 
The overthrow and final doom of the Beast and the False 
Prophet. 

17. iva (cf. viii. 13) aYYcXoc caTwra iv tw i^Xto). What was 
the original idea underlying this phrase is unknown. It is 
generally explained that the angel took this central position in 
mid heaven in order to deliver from thence his message of 
victory and his summons to the birds of prey. 

Kal €Kpa|et' <\>(jivf[ fieydXT). See note on xiv. 15. 

X^ywi' irdcri tois opi'cois tois irerofJieVois iv jJieaoupao'ifJiaTi (cf. 
viii. 13, xiv. 6) Acute (TvvdxQi]^^ €iS to ScItti'OJ' . . . toG Oeoo. 18. 
iVa (jxiynre adpKa; jSao-tXe'wc . . . Kal o-ctpKas io-x^P'i^''- This 
passage is clearly based on Ezek. xxxix. 17, where the LXX reads 

CtTTOV TTaVTl Opi'tlO TTCTtlVW . . . ^VVa.\dr]T€ Kal €p)^€ade . . . £771 

TTjv Ovcriav jjlov . . . Koi cjxiyearOt. 18. Kpea ytydvTwt' . . . Kal 
aL/xa dp)(6vT(x}i'. 20. Kal . . . lttttov Kai dvafSaryp'. It is obvious, 
however, that our author is giving an independent rendering of 
the Hebrew : observe Sevrc arwdxOrjTe ^spxri 1N3) with a-wd-^OriTe 

KoX tpxeaOe, and iaxvptov in our text with yLyavTiDV, and tinriav 
K. Toiv Kad-qfJiivuiv iir avrwv with lttttov Kal dva/SoiTrjv in Ezek. 
xxxix. 20. 

Our author here borrows his imagery from the slaughter 
wrought by God in Ezek. xxxix., and yet the final overthrow of 
Gog and Magog in our author is adjourned to the close of the 
Millennial reign in our author. 

TO SeiTTj'Of TO p,€Ya TOO 0eou. See Gressmann, Ursprung der 
Israelii. Jiid. Eschatologie, 1 36-141. 

18. Tajf Kadrip.^i'OJi' eir' auTuc. Here the reading airw (PQ 
jjjjj^fere omn^ jg jq ]^q foUowed. A with two cursives and S read 
respectively alrovs and airois — which are both corrupt. Cf. 19, 
21. cXeuOepwc tc Kal SouXcuf. See note on xiii. 16. p.iKput' Kal 
fieydXiov. See note on xiii. 16. 

19-21. The Beast, the False Prophet, and the kings of the 
earth overthrown and cast into the lake of fire. 

19. TO dr]piov — I.e. Nero-antichrist. See xi. 7 (note), xiii. 3 
(note on various stages of the Neronic myth). 

Tous PaaiXeis ttjs y^s • cf. xiv. 14, 18-20 (though not here 
specifically mentioned), xvi. 14 (note), xvii. 2, 18, xviii. 3. These 
are to be carefully distinguished from the Parthian kings, xvi. 12, 
xvii. 12-13, i7i ^6, who are destroyed by the Lamb (and the 
glorified martyrs). See also note on 14 above. 

rd (7TpaT€up.aTa auTwc. For avrdv A and a few cursives read 
avTov. This is perhaps right. Though they are the subjects of 
the kings, they are the armies of the Beast. 

CTUfTJYfitVa TToifjaai T^f iroXep.oi'. For the diction cf. xvi. 14, 16, 
XX. 8. 



XIX. 20.] DOOM OF BE^ST AND FALSE PROPHET 1 39 

Tou ffTparctjfiaTos auTou. Though the heavenly army is 
described in the plural as (rTparevfi-aTa, it is here very significantly 
described as a single host. While the opposing hosts of evil are 
moved by a variety of conflicting aims, the heavenly host is 
actuated by one only. 

20. With the Beast and the False Prophet we might compare 
Ahriman and Azi-Dahaka in the Zend religion, which influenced 
Judaism from the East. Cf. De la Saussaye, Lehrb. d. Religions- 
geuhichic^, ii. 206 (ii. 226 in 3rd ed.) : " Zuletzt bleibt noch der 
Kampf zwischen himmlischen und hollischen Geistern iibrig. 
AUe Ameshas Spentas ringen da mit ihren teuflischen Gegen- 
geschopfen und vernichten sie ganzlich : Ahriman selbst und die 
Schlange Azhi zu bandigen, wird die Sache Mazda's und Sraosha's 
sein. Als Priester erheben sich die beiden Gotter, mit Gebet 
und Gebetschnur iiberwaltigen sie die Bosen und stiirzen sie 
und ihr Versteck in den gliihenden Strom. Dann ist die WeH 
voUkomrnen rein, das Universum nur von Mazda's Wesen erfiillt, 
und alles, was lebt, geht in die Unsterblichkeit und himmlische 
Vollkommenheit ein (Bahman Yasht, 43 ; Bundehesh, 30)." See 
also Boklen, Die Vei-wandschaft d. jud.-christichen mit der 
parsischen Eschaiologie, 127 sqq. 

€Trid(T0Ti. The Attic form of this verb is Trte'^w, but in late 
Attic TTta^w is also found. The classical meaning was to press, 
weigh down, stifle, etc. But its later meaning, as here, is to seize, 
lay hold of. Trta^w, which occurs only here in our author, is a 
favourite word in the Fourth Gospel, being found there eight 
times and only four times throughout the rest of the N.T. (one 
of these being in Luke vi. 38, where it retains the ancient 
classical form and meaning). 

6 »J/eu8oTrpo(j>riTTjs. See xiii. 11 sqq. notes, xvi. 13, xx. 10. 
The False Prophet represented the priesthood of the Imperial 
cult, which practised all kinds of magic and imposture to beguile 
men to worship the Beast. 

iji\a.vr\fje.v toos XaP(5v'Tas to -^por^^a. ktX. Only those who 
had received this mark were an easy prey to the False Prophet. 
On the TO xapay/xa see note on xiii. 16 : cf. xiv. 9 sqq., xvi. 2 
(note), XX. 4. 

irpoCTKut'ouiTas tt)c eiKoca aoToC. Though weakly attested 
S* 28, 39), this seems to be the right reading : see note on 
vii. II. Possibly the dative is right. In that case the text 
would mean that divine worship was actually off'ered to the image. 

TT)!' \\.^vr\y TOU TTopos : cf. XX. ID, xxi. 8. On this final abode 
of punishment for Satan, the Beast, the False Prophet, and 
wicked men, see note on ix. i. 

TT^s Kaiop,eVTjs iv Oeiw. The genitive here can only be explained 
as a slip on the part of the writer. Contrast xxi. 8 — r^ Xi/xvj; r^ 



140 THE JiEVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. § 1-2 

KaLofj.ivT]. On iv detw in this conjunction cf. xiv. lo, xx. lo, 
xxi. 8. 

21. ol Xoiiroi diT€KTtii'9iiio-ai' ktX., i.e. the kings of the earth 
and their armies. These kings and their armies had been affected 
by the Caesar-worship : cf. xiv. 9 sq. They were not, hke the 
Beast and the False Prophet, cast forthwith into Gehenna. Their 
physical life was destroyed by the sword, i.e. by the sword of the 
Word of God (cf. ver. 15), and their spirits no doubt consigned tc 
Hades. In the judgment all the dead are raised (xx. 12), and 
then death and Hades and all the wicked are cast into the lake 
of fire (xx. 14-15). In the Test, of Hezekiah — a work incor- 
porated in the Ascension of Isaiah, t'.e. iii. i3''-iv. 18, and written 
before 100 a.d. — a different sequence is anticipated : Asc. Isa. 
iv. 14, "The Lord will come with His angels and with the armies 
of the holy ones from the seventh heaven . . . and He will 
drag Beliar (t'.e. the Antichrist) into Gehenna and also his armies." 

iTcii'Ta TCL opcea iyfipj6,iT9ii\'ijav ktX. Cf. 1 7 sq. ; also I Enoch 
xlvi. 4-6. 

CHAPTER XX. 1-3. 
Introduction. 

§ I. Contents. — Now that Rome has fallen (xviii.), the hostile 
nations been destroyed, and the two Beasts cast into the lake of 
fire (xix. 19-20), there remains no obstacle to the manifestation 
of the kingdom save the presence of Satan still on earth. Hence to 
his activities an end is put by his being cast down into the abyss 
and chained there for 1000 years (xx. 1-3). The destinies of 
Satan are determined by the chief events in the life of Christ. 
In xii. Satan's expulsion from heaven is connected with the birth 
and ascension of Christ. On the earth, as he had only a short 
time, he raged furiously against Christ's followers, but on Christ's 
Second Advent and His overthrow of Satan's agents, Satan too 
is cast down from the earth into the abyss and the Millennial 
Kingdom established. At the close of this kingdom Satan is 
loosed from the abyss and finally conquered and cast into the 
lake of fire, and the new heaven and the new earth appear, 
wherein is the joint throne of God and the Lamb. 

That XX. 1-3 comes from our author's hand there can be no 
doubt, as the diction and idiom prove. 

§ 2. Dictioti and idiom. 

1. eiSoc ayycXoi' KaraPaii'OJ'Ta ck tou oupacou. The whole 
clause has already occurred in x. i, xviii. i, and the last four 
words also in iii. 12, xvi. 21, xxi. 2, 10. 

Tfjf Kkelv TYjs d|3u(T(Too : cf. ix. I. 



XX. 1-2.] DRAGON BOUND FOR lOOO YEARS I4I 

2. rbv SpdKoi'Ta 6 o4)is 6 dpxaios. The same words in the 
same characteristic and anomalous construction have already 
occurred in xii. g. Ss ianv AidpoXos Kal 6 larafas. Cf. xii. g, 
6 KaXovfJievo^ Aia/3oXos /<at 6 SaToras. 

cSrjact' aiiToy. Cf. ix. [4, ^eSe/xeVovs. 

3. c'PaXei' aiirov cis ttjj' a|3uaaoi'. For this use of fidWeiv 
of. ii. 10, viii. 5, 7, 8, xii. 9, xix. 20, etc. 

iKXcio-ec: cf iii. 7, 8, xi. 6, xxi. 25. €a<|>p(£YiCT€i' — seven 
times elsewhere in our author, iirdvu : cf. vi. 8. IVa /a^ 
irXai'riaT] In to, tQyx] : cf. xiii. 14, xii. 9. axpt ^um subj. — a rare 
use: cf. 5, vii. 3, xv. 8. TcXeaSr] : cf. 5, 7, x. 7, xv. i, 8. 

§ 3. Order of wo7-ds. — Wholly Semitic. 

1-3. The binding of the Dragon in the abyss for 1000 years. 

1. Kal cISoi/. — See note on iv. i. 

Ti\v kK^iv tt)s dpucro-ou. See notes on i. 18, ix. i. The abyss 
is regarded only as a temporary abode of punishment. Satan is 
finally cast into the lake of fire, xx. 10. 

aXua-ic fieydXT)!'. aAwcrt? seems to be used here to denote a 
chain or bond by which the body is bound. In Mark v. 4 and 
frequently elsewhere it signifies hand fetters as opposed to Trc'Sat. 
See note of Lightfoot on Phil., p. 8. 

cm TTjt' x^ip"^- It is hard to explain the use of kici here. The 
best parallel is to be found in v. i, liii rrjv 8e$Lav . . . ^l^Xlov. 
But in this latter case the idea implied is that the book is lying 
on the palm of the hand. It is perhaps best to regard the 
present instance as a loose use of cVt, which does not admit of 
any exact explanation. It is practically here equivalent to cv (cf. 
i. 16 with i. 20), and indeed iv is read here by N 38 syr. ^' 2. 
Another difficult use of eVi, but with the dative, occurs in xxii. 16, 
where, however, the best authorities have iv. 

2. Tov SpaKocra, 6 o<|)is 6 dpxaios. For a like anacolouthon 
cf. i. 5. See note on xii. 9 on the identification of the old 
serpent and the devil. Gunkel on Gen.^ iii. i maintains that the 
text there implies that originally the serpent was an evil demon 
hostile to God and man and possessing a snakelike form. He 
further points out in support of this view that in 2 Kings xviii. 4 
divine worship is offered to a snakelike form by the faithless 
Israelites, and that heathen gods and demons were frequently so 
conceived in the ancient world. 

eS'paci' auTok \i\ia Irt]. This idea of binding the powers of 
evil in prison for an undefined period is already found in 
Isa. xxiv. 22, and of their final judgment in xxiv. 23. These powers 
consist of the host of heaven and the kings of the earth This 
idea of the angels and the kings of the earth being judged 
together reappears in i Enoch liii, 4-liv. 5, and the idea of the 
binding of the fallen angels in a place of temporary punishment 



142 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 2. 

till the day of the final judgment is found in i Enoch xviii. 12-16, 
xix. 1-2, xxi. 1-6, from which the final place of their punishment 
— an abyss of fire — is carefully distinguished, x. 13-15, xviii, 11, 
xxi. 7-10, liv. 6, xc. 24-25. Their leader Azazel is bound in a 
place by himself (x. 4-5) as a preliminary punishment, but at the 
final judgment is to be cast into a place of everlasting punish- 
ment (x. 6). In nearly all cases the evil spirits are spoken of in 
I Enoch as being " bound " in a preliminary place of punish- 
ment, just as in Isa. xxiv. 22 and in our text. 

In the Zend religion the same idea is found. According to 
the Bundehesh iii. 26 (cf. xiii. 77) the evil serpent Azi-Dahaka 
was smitten by Thraetaona and fettered in the mountain Dama- 
vand for 9000 years, S.B.E. iv. 9 (note), 226, 245 sq., v. 234, 397, 
xviii. no, 201, etc. He was released by Ahriman, S.B.E. 
V. 233-235, and reigned for 1000 years, v. 150, xxiv. 103, but was 
slain by Sam or Keresasp, v. 235. After the renovation of the 
world there would be no Azi-Dahaka, xviii. 118. But, since these 
Iranic myths belong to various periods before and after the 
Christian era, there is no ground for tracing any direct connec- 
tion. 

xiXia £TT). Before the year 100 B.C. it was generally believed 
in Judaism that the Messianic Kingdom would \2i%\. for ever on the 
present earth. Sometimes the conception was universalistic in 
character, especially in the greater prophets of the O.T., as 
Jeremiah, the Second Isaiah, Jonah, Malachi; but in others, as in 
Ezekiel, Haggai, Zechariah, Joel, it was particularistic. The idea 
of the everlastingness of this kingdom on earth persisted, as we 
have above said, till about 100 B.C. For such it appears to be 
in I Enoch Ixxxiii.-xc, vi.-xxxvi., but by the date just mentioned 
the earth had come to be regarded in Judaism as wholly unfit 
for the manifestation of this kingdom except in a temporary 
character. The dualism which had begun to affect the religious 
forecasts of religious thinkers in the 2nd cent. B.C. succeeded in 
leavening wholly their expectations in the ist. As a consequence 
of this breach between the things of earth and the things of 
heaven, the writers of this century were forced to entertain new 
conceptions of the kingdom. Hence in 1 Enoch xci.-civ., Pss. 
Sol. i.-xvi., the Messianic Kingdom is declared to be of 
temporary duration on the present earth, and the goal of the 
risen righteous to be not this transitory kingdom, but heaven 
itself after the final judgment, which from this period forwards 
was conceived of as taking place not at the beginning, but at the 
close of the Messianic Kingdom. Thus it is that the Millen- 
nium in our text, as in 2 Baruch and 4 Ezra, is really a late and 
attenuated form of the old Jewish expectation of an eternal 
Messianic Kingdom on the present earth. For a fuller treat- 



XX. 2-3.] IN THE ABYSS I43 

ment of this question the reader can consult my Eschat- 
ology^, pp. 103, 106-108, no sq., 113-116, 219 sq., 223, 248, 
250 sq. 

We have next to consider the duration of this kingdom. 
Apparently nowhere in earlier or contemporary literature is the 
duration of 1000 years assigned to the Messianic Kingdom save 
here. Its duration is not defined in i Enoch xci.-civ. ; Pss. Sol. 
xi. I sqq. ; Sibyll. Or. iii. 1-62; Jubilees xxiii. 27-29; 
Assumption of Moses x. 7 ; 2 Bar. xxix. 4-xxx. i, xxxix. 7, xl. 3, 
Ixxii. 2-4; 4 Ezra xiii. 32, 36. In 4 Ezra vii. 28 it is 
definitely said to last 400 years. 

3. IpaXei' auToi' els t. aPuCTorof Kal cKXciacK. On the aj3v<rao? 
see ix. i, note. 

eKXetack' Kal iv^pdyitriv iiravw auToC, i.e. closed the abyss and 
sealed it over him. Our text recalls the Prayer of Manasseh, 2-4, 
and the two passages are distantly connected, though our Seer 
has no thought of this passage nor of the myth that it pre- 
supposes. 

For, whereas it is a literal Satan overcome by an angel that 
is presupposed in our text, it is a mythological monster that 
is overcome by God in the Prayer of Manasseh. What was 
originally a mythological idea concerning the uprising of the 
Chaos monster (i.e. the sea) against God at the world's begin- 
ning, had long ere our Seer's time been transformed into an 
eschatological expectation, i.e. the rebellion of Satan against God 
at the world's close, and his being cast into the abyss. The 
mythological idea is quite clearly set forth in the above-mentioned 

Prayer of Manasseh : 6 Troirjcras t6v oifiavov /cat rrjv yrjv (Tvv Travrl 
T<3 KOCTfua avTOv, 6 7reoi](ras rrji' odXaaaav tw Xoyw tov TrpocrTay^aTos 
(Tov, 6 KXciVas TTjv afiva-crov Kai o"^payio-a/Aevos avTijv tw (f>o(3ep(i) 
Kal iv86^<j) ovo/xaTL crov, 

irXarqo-Y) €Tt to. tOcrj. As he had done before : cf. xiii. 14, 
xvi. 13. See also xii. 9. As these words point to the future, 
they imply that there would still be heathen nations after the 
Messianic judgment executed in xix. 19-21. Now that Satan's 
chief agents, the Beast and the False Prophet, were cast into the 
lake of fire and Satan himself bound in the abyss, the time for 
the Millennial reign has arrived and for the evangelization of 
the surviving heathen nations : see xiv. 7, xv. 4, xxii. 17. The 
astonishing part in our Seer's forecast is that the preaching of the 
Gospel during the Millennium will only in part be successful, 
though the active impersonations of evil have been wholly 
removed from the earth for this period. The implication is that 
each man carries in his own bosom the possibilities of his own 
heaven and his own hell. 

$61 : cf. i. I, iv. I, 



144 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 4-XXII. 



XX. 4-XXII. THE TEXT INCOHERENT AND 
SELF-CONTRADIOTOB.Y AS IT STANDa 

XX. 4-XXII. These chapters have hitherto been a constant 
source of insurmountable difficulty to the exegete. They are 
full of confusion and contradiction if the text is honestly dealt 
with. And yet the Apocalypse exhibits, except in a few 
passages, and especially in chap, xviii., a structural unity and a 
steady development of thought from the first chapter to the 
close of XX. 3. Now this is just what we should expect in an 
Apocalypse which is designed to be a philosophy of history and 
religion from the standpoint of the author. It was a combina- 
tion of vision and reflection. Though the book of a prophet did 
not necessarily show any structural unity or steady development 
of thought, it was far otherwise with the apocalyptist, in whose 
writings such characteristics were indispensable. While the 
ordinary man saw only the outside of things in all their in- 
coherence and isolation, the apocalyptist sought to get behind 
the surface and penetrate to the essence of events, the spiritual 
motives and purposes that underlay and gave them their real 
significance — in fact, to lay bare their origin, course, and con- 
summation. It was thus, in short, a Semitic philosophy of 
religion, and as such it was ever asking Whence? Wherefore? 
Whither? Apocalyptic, and not prophecy, was the first to grasp 
the great idea that all history, alike human, cosmological, and 
spiritual, is a unity — a unity following naturally as a corollary of 
the unity of God preached by the prophets. 

I have emphasized these two points — structural unity and 
orderly development of thought to the final consummation of all 
things — as pre-eminently the characteristics of apocalyptic and 
not of prophecy or of any other form of writing in the Bible. 
This being so, we are all the more astonished that the three 
closing chapters of the Apocalypse are all but wholly wanting in 
these characteristics, and — so far from advancing steadily to the 
consummation that all the preceding chapters postulate — exhibit 
many incoherencies and self-contradictory elements. 

To some of these I drew attention in my first edition of the 
Book of Enoch in 1893, where on p. 45 I wrote as follows: 
"We have here {i.e. Rev. xxi. i, 2) a new heaven and a new 
earth, and a New Jerusalem coming down from heaven : yet in 
xxii. 15 all classes of sinners are said to be without the gates of 
the city. But if there were a new earth this would be im- 
possible." This is only one of the many difficulties that 
confront the serious student of these chapters. Now to make 
the problem before us clear it will be best to deal shortly with a 



XX. 4-XXII.J THE TEXT AS IT STANDS I45 

few of the passages which make it impossible for us to accept 
the text as it stands. 

1. In XX. 7-10, after the close of the Millennial Kingdom, 
Satan is loosed, and the heathen nations (Gog and Magog), 
which have refused to accept the Christian faith, march against 
Jerusalem and the camp of the saints, but are destroyed by fire 
from heaven. Satan also is cast finally into the lake of fire and 
brimstone, to be tormented there for ever and ever. Thus the 
prime source of evil and his deluded followers {Gog and Magog) 
are removed final y from the world, and their power to influence 
the world for evil nadc impossible for ever. 

2. In XX. 11-15 the old earth and the old heaven are given 
over to annihilation. Then the final judgment takes place, and 
all the dead are judged according to their works, and death and 
Hades are cast into the lake of fire, together with all those 
whose names are not found written in the book of life. At this 
stage we have arrived at the final condemnation and destruction of 
all evil, together with the destruction of death itself 

3. Now that all evil and death itself are cast into the lake of 
fire, the new heaven and the new earth come into being, and 
the New Jerusalem comes down from heaven, and God Himself 
dwells with men (xxi. 1-4). 

It is clear from this passage that we have arrived at the closing 
scene of the great world struggle between good and evil, and that 
henceforth there can be neither sin, nor crying, nor pain, nor death 
any more. In fact, there can be no place at all for these in the 
universe of God — the new heaven and the new earth, and the Neiv 
Jerusalem that cometh down from God to the neiv earth. 

The conclusion just arrived at is inevitable, if there is a 
steady development in the visions of the Seer. Now since 
such a development is manifest in chaps, i.-xx. 3, when certain 
verses and glosses are excised and a few disarrangements of the 
text set right — expecially in xviii. — we naturally conclude that 
our author will not lightly fall into contradictions, even of a 
minor sort, in the last three chapters. But unhappily this is not 
our experience as we study them ; and at last we stand aghast 
at the hopeless mental confusion which dominates the present 
structure of these chapters, and are compelled to ask if they can 
possibly come from his hand, and, in case they do, to ask 
further, if they have been preserved as they left his hand. But 
we must first justify the above statement, though we shall 
adduce here only the main contradictions in these chapters. 

I. Inasmuch as according to our text the New Jerusalem does 

not come down from heaven till Satan is bound for ever in the 

lake of fire, and all sin and death itself are at an end, and the 

place of the old world has been taken by a new and glorious 

VOL. II. — 10 



146 THE REVELATION OP^ ST. JOHN [XX. 4-XXII. 

world, wherein there is neither spot nor blemish nor any such 
thing, how is ft that we are told that, outside the gates of the 
Holy City which has come down from God to the new earth, 
there are " the dogs and the sorcerers, and the fornicators, and 
the murderers, and the idolaters, and every one that loveth and 
maketh a lie" (xxii. 15)? A greater contradiction in thought 
and statement is hardly conceivable. But, if this statement were 
made in connection with the Millennial Kingdom which was to 
be established before the Final Judgment, everything would be 
intelligible. 

2. Again, since the new earth is inhabited only by the blessed, 
on whom the second death could have no effect, and since these 
are all righteous, and God Himself tabernacles among them, 
how is it that in xxii. 2 the leaves of the tree of life are said to 
be for the healing of the nations? This statement can have no 
meaning unless it applies to the period of the Millennial 
Kingdom. During Christ's reign of 1000 years the surviving 
nations have still a further period of grace accorded to them. 
This evangelizing of the nations during this period has already 
been proclaimed in xiv. 6-7, xv. 4. It is thrice elsewhere 
referred to in the last two chapters, i.e. xxi. 24, xxii. 14, 17. 

3. Only on the supposition that the Millennial Kingdom is 
still in existence can we explain xxi. 24-27 : 

"And the nations shall walk by the light thereof: 
And the kings of the earth do bring their glory into it. 
And the gates thereof shall not be shut day or nighi.'^ 

And they shall bring the glory and the honour of the nations 

into it : , 
And there shall not enter into it anything unclean, or he 

that maketh an abomination or a lie ; 
But only they which are written in the book of life of the Lamb." 

Now from the above contradictions — the solution of which is in 
part already suggested — it follows either that {a) a considerable 
part of xx.-xxii. is not from the hand of our author, or that, {b) 
if it is from his hand, it is disarranged. 

Now the first solution {a) is that adopted by most of the 
leading German scholars of the past thirty years. Thus while 
Volter {Die Offenbarung Johannis, 1904), Weyland {Offiver kings- 
en Coinpilatie-Hypothesen toegepast op de Apocalypse van Johannes, 
1908), and J.. Weiss {Die Offenb. ties Johannes, 1908) assume 
that xx.-xxii. is derived from three different sources, and Spitta 
{Die Offenb. des Johannes, 1889) finds traces of four authors, 

^ A necessary emendation. The corruption in the text arose from the 
present disorder, and the influence of xxii. 5, "and there shall be no more 
night," where this clause is wholly justifiable. 



XX. 4- XXII.] FROM JOHN'S HAND BUT IN DISORDER I47 

Erbes {Die Offenb. Jokannis, 1891) and, on the whole, Bousset 
(1906), are content with two. Bousset, in fact, regards xx.-xxii. 
as the work of our author, with the exception of the fragment 
xxi. 9-xxii. 5. 

But, even though for the time being we accepted as a 
working hypothesis any one of the theories of these scholars 
based on a plurality of authorship, we have still two insuperable 
difficulties to face, (a) The first of these is that the more closely 
we study i.-xx. J, the more convinced we become of the structural 
unity of these chapters — a fact which does not exclude the 
occasional use and adaptation of sources— fl«<i the clear and 
masterly developme?it in thought^ working up steadily to a climax. 
This being so, how is it that xx.-xxii. shows no such orderly 
development, but rather a chaos of conflictitig conceptiotis 1 (/?) 
But the second difticulty is still greater. The hypotheses of the 
above scholars, with the partial exception of Bousset, break 
down hopelessly in the face of the general linguistic unity of 
xx.-xxii. In fact, these scholars had failed to make a thorough 
study of the style, vocabulary, and grammar of the Apocalyi)se. 
Bousset, it is true, has done much to compensate for the 
deficiencies of his predecessors in this field, but a deeper study 
of his materials would have precluded his assuming the existence 
of xxi. 9-xxii. 5 as an independent source, seeing that it is 
internally self-contradictory and that yet lifiguistically it is from 
the hand of our author. To the conclusion, in fact, that, with 
the exception of a few verses, chaps, xx.-xxii. are from the 
same hand to which we owe the bulk of the preceding chapters, 
a close and prolonged study has slowly but irresistibly brought 
me. If, then, this is so, we must conclude that the text in xx.- 
xxii. is disarranged in an astonishing degree and does not at present 
stand in the orderly sequence originally designed by our author. 

To what cause, we must now ask, is this almost incredible 
disorder due? It cannot be accounted for by accidental trans- 
positions of the text in the MSS — a phenomenon with which 
the students of MSS in every ancient language are familiar. 
For no accident could explain the intolerable confusion of the 
text in XX. 4-xxii., and apparently the only hypothesis that can 
account for it is that which a comprehensive study of the facts 
forced upon me in the beginning of 19 14, and this is \\\dXjohn 
died either as a martyr or by a natural death, ivhen he had 
completed i.-xx. J of his work, and that the materials for its 
completion, which were for the most part ready in a series of 
independent documents, were put together by a faithful but un- 
intelligent disciple in the order which he thought right. 

This hypothesis we shall now proceed to establish by 
adequate proofs. 



148 tHE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 4-XXII, 

1. First of all it is a matter beyond dispute that xxii. 15, 
xxi. 27, which state that outside the gates of the Heavenly 
Jerusalem evil in every form exists, but that it can in no wise 
pass within the gates of the Holy City, prove that the Heavenly 
Jerusalem here referred to was to descend before the disappearance 
of the first earth and the first heaven and the final judgment 
described in xx. 11-15. A kindred expectation is found in 
4 Ezra vii. 26-28, where the Heavenly Jerusalem,^ the Messiah, 
and those who had been translated to heaven without seeing 
death, are to be manifested together on the earth for 400 years. 
The same view appears in the same work in xiii. 32-36. In this 
latter passage evil in every form exists outside the Heavenly 
City. 

From later Jewish sources we are familiar with the connection 
of the rebuilt Jerusalem and the temporary reign of the Messiah. 
The advent of the Messiah determines the hour when the 
Temple and therefore Jerusalem should be rebuilt (Shemoth 
rab. c. 31). According to the Targum on Isa. liii. 5 (cf. 
Bammidbar rab. c. 13) the Messiah Himself was to build it. 

From the above facts we conclude that in our author the 
account of the Heavenly Jerusalem (xxi. 9-xxii. 2, 14-15, 17) 
should have followed immediately on xx. 3 as the seat of the 
Messiah's Kingdom. 

2. Verses xxi. 24-26, xxii. 2, 14-15, 17 assume that the 
nations are still upon earth, that the gospel is preached to them 
afresh from the Heavenly Jerusalem, that they are healed 
thereby of their spiritual evils, their sins washed away, that they 
can enter the Heavenly City and eat of the tree of life which 
was therein. And to this salvation they are bidden of the Spirit 
and the Heavenly Jerusalem {i.e. the bride, xxii. 17). 

Now this expectation is derived from the Old Testament. 
In Zech. xiv. 16 sqq., when the blessed era sets in, the nations 
are to go up yearly to keep the Feast of Tabernacles at 
Jerusalem. In Tob. xiv. 6 the conversion of the Gentiles is to 
synchronize with the rebuilding of Jerusalem in a fashion far 
transcending all that Seer or prophet had hitherto dreamt of — 
when its gates should be " builded with sapphire and emerald," 
and all its walls "with precious stones," and its streets "paved 
with carbuncle and stones of Ophir" (xiii. 16-17). Similarly in 
I Enoch (161 B.C.) we find it prophesied that the conversion of 
the surviving Gentiles would follow on the setting up of the 
Holy City, which was to be done by none other than God 
Himself. Next, in the Test. XII Patriarchs the conversion of 

* Box, it is true, regards vii. 26, which tells of the manifestation of the 
Heavenly Jerusalem, as an interpolation ; but the evidence of our text and 
later Judaism supports the connection of the Messiah and the Holy City. 



XX. 4-XXII.] GROUNDS FOR THIS CONCLUSION I49 

the Gentiles is associated with the advent of the Messiah, 
T. Levi xviii. 9, T. Jud. xxiv. 5, and that of the New Jerusalem 
in T. Dan v. 12. Like expectations are expressed in the Sibyll. 
Or. iii. 751-59, 767-95 ; i Enoch xlviii. 4 (where the Messiah is 
described as the light of the Gentiles); Pss. Sol. xvii. 27, 32. 

Thus in many books in Judaism the hope is entertained, as 
in our text, that the Gentiles would turn to the worship of the 
true God, when either the earthly Jerusalem was rebuilt or a 
Heavenly Jerusalem set up on earth, or when the Messiah 
established His Kingdom upon the earth. It is true that 
Judaism associated this expectation with the First Advent of 
the Messiah ; for it looked for no second. But in Christianity 
it was different. What had not been realized on the First 
Advent of Christ is, according to many a Christian prophet and 
Seer, as also to our author, to be realized in a far higher degree 
when Christ came the second time in glory. 

That the conversion of the heathen nations in our text, 
therefore, was to be accomplished in connection with the 
Heavenly City, which as the seat of the Millennial Kingdom 
was to descend on the earth before the Final Judgment, needs 
no further demonstration. 

3. The facts just stated in the preceding paragraph, that the 
Gentiles shall still be upon the earth on the advent of the 
Heavenly City, and have a right to enter therein, are already 
postulated in the earlier chapters of the Apocalypse. Thus in 
XV. 4 we read in the song sung by the triumphant martyrs before 
the throne of God — 

" Who shall not fear, O Lord, 
And glorify Thy name ? 
For Thou alone art holy ; 
For all the nations shall come 
And worship before Thee ; 
For Thy righteous acts shall have been made manifest." 

Again, in xiv. 6-7 the Seer recounts a vision in which he 
hears an angel proclaiming the coming evangelization of the 
nations of the world : ^ " And I saw another angel flying in mid 
heaven, having an eternal gospel to proclaim unto them that 
dwell on the earth, and unto every nation and tribe and tongue 
and people, saying with a great voice, 

' A somewhat analogous expectation is found in I Cor. xv. 23-28, where 
we have an account of the Messianic Kingdom. This kingdom is heralded 
by the resurrection of Christ : it is apparently established on Christ's (second) 
Advent with the risen righteous (23). Then follows the reign of Christ, in 
the course of which every evil power is overthrown (24'>-28). Then comes 
the end (the general resurrection, final judgment, the destruction of the old 
world and the creation of the new). 



150 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 4-XXII. 

Fear God and give Him glory ; 

For the hour of His judgment is come : 

And worship Him that made the heaven and the earth 

And the sea and fountains of waters." 

Now, according to the praent form of the text of the last three 
chapters of our book, these prophecies, which definitely foretell the 
evangelization of the nations of the world and their acceptance 
of the Gospel preached, remain wholly unfulfilled. In fact, 
according to the present text, the nations are simply annihilated 
before the advent of the Heavenly City. On the other hand, if 
the account of the Heavenly Jerusalem as given in xxi. 9 to xxii. 
2, 14-15, 17 is restored immediately after xx. 3, then these 
prophecies are fulfilled ; for the nations, according to this 
account, walk by the light thereof, and the kings of the earth 
do bring their glory into it, and yet outside its gates there is 
still evil of every kind. 

4. Again, in xi. 15 we read — 

" The Kingdom of the world is become the Kingdom of our 
Lord and of His Christ, 
And He shall reign for ever and ever." 

These words quite clearly assume that the rule of God and 
Christ will be extended over the whole world of the nations. 
But, as the text at present stands, not a single nation is men- 
tioned as being brought beneath its sway, while in the verses 
(xx. 9-10) that precede the description of the Final Judgment 
(kx. 11-15) we are led to infer that they are wholly destroyed 
by fire from heaven. That is one way of establishing authority 
over the neutral or hostile nations, but it is not God's way. We 
have only to read chaps, xxi. -xxii., which deal ostensibly with 
events occurring only after the absolute destruction of all the 
nations and of the first heaven and the first earth, when we 
discover the nations, that had presumably passed out of exist- 
ence, going up in pilgrimage to the Heavenly Jerusalem, each 
under its own king, passing within its blessed portals, bringing 
their glory and honour into it, receiving spiritual healing in the 
Holy City, and assimilating the divine truths that make them 
heirs to immortality, that is, eating of the tree of life. That all 
the nations do not avail themselves of these privileges is plainly 
asserted in the text j for outside the gates are sorcerers and whore- 
mongers and idolaters and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie. 

On this ground again we must transpose the description of 
the Holy City before the Final Judgment, and regard it as the 
seat of the Millennial Kingdom. 

5. The city that is spiritually designated Sodom and Egypt 
(xi. 8) cannot be called " the beloved city " as in xx. 9, nor can 



XX. 4-XXiI.] GROUNDS FOR THIS CONCLUSION 15I 

it become the seat of the Millennial Kingdom. Much less can 
the ruins of such a polluted city become the abode of Christ and 
of the risen martyrs come down from heaven to reign with Him 
for a thousand years. 

6. Again, as we study xxi.-xxii. we discover that there are in 
reality two descriptions of the Heavenly City, and not one, as has 
hitherto been universally assumed. The Seer has two distinct 
visions, and they deal not with one and the same city, but with 
two quite distinct cities. The first (xxi. 9 to xxii. 2, 14-15, 17) 
presupposes the existence of the present earth. I'hus the Seer 
tells how the angel, that had showed him the destruction of the 
great world-capital Rome in xvii., came again to him and carried 
him off to a great high mountain to show him the Heavenly City 
that was to take the place of Rome as the metropolis of the 
world. The very first words of the vision presuppose the co- 
existence of the Heavenly Jerusalem and the present earth. 
This city the Seer beheld coming down from heaven to earth 
{i.e. the first heaven and the first earth). It becomes the great 
spiritual centre of the world. The nations flock up to it from 
every side to share in its spiritual blessings, its gates are open 
day and night, and yet none of the evil individuals or nations 
that are without may enter into it (xxi. 24-27). 

It is manifest that since sin, and therefore death, prevail out- 
side the gates of the Heavenly City, the present order of things 
still prevails, the first heaven and the first earth are still in being. 

But there is another Heavenly City (xxi. 1-4% xxii. 3-5) 
described by our author, quite distinct from that just dealt with. 
The angel in xxi. 9 has apparently had no direct part in 
mediating this new vision. The vision, just as those in xx. 1-3, 
11-15, xxi. I, seems to be independent of any angelic agency. 
With regard to this Heavenly City there can be no question as 
to the hour of its manifestation. The very first words of the 
text imply that the vision of the Seer has outleapt the bounds of 
time, when the former heaven and earth have vanished for ever. 
This second Heavenly City does not appear //// the first heaven 
and the first earth have vanished and their place been taken by the 
new heaven and the new earth. Hence as distinguished from the 
first Heavenly City, it is designated '* new," i.e. naivy], that is, of 
a new sort or quality as distinct from the first, just as the second 
heaven and the second earth are themselves described as " new " 
(koivos and ko.ivt]). This epithet is never applied to the Heavenly 
City described at such length in xxi. 9-xxii. 2, 14-15, 17. Sin, 
of course, no longer exists in this new world. Hence there is 
no more crying, nor mourning, nor pain, nor curse, nor death 
(xxi. 4^'>'=, xxii. 3*), though round about the first Heavenly City 
— close even to its very gates — sin in every form and death did 



152 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 4-XXII. 

exist, and even within its stately walls sorrow for sin and repent- 
ance were never absent, for the nations of the earth flocked to it 
from every side to be healed of their spiritual ills and infirmities 
(xxi. 24-26, xxii. 2). 

7. It is finally to be observed that, since the earthly 
Jerusalem was in ruins, and never in the opinion of the Seer to 
be rebuilt, a new city was of necessity to take its place as the 
seat of Christ's Kingdom and the abode of the blessed martyrs, 
who were to come down from heaven to reign for a thousand 
years with Him. Since this new city was to be the abode of 
Christ on His Second Advent from heaven, and of the martyrs 
coming down from heaven with Him in their glorified bodies, it 
follows that the new city must be from heaven also, if it was to 
be a fit abode for its inhabitants from heaven. Even as early as 
161 B.C. (as we have already mentioned above), we have a like 
expectation in i Enoch xc. 28-38, where it is said in the vision 
that God Himself set up the New Jerusalem, to be the abode of 
the Messiah and the transformed and glorified Israel. A like 
expectation is attested in a work almost contemporary with our 
author, i.e. 4 Ezra, as we have already shown. 

8. To the revision of John's literary executor we may prob- 
ably ascribe the non-Johannine combinations t. KaS-f]ix.(.vov it? 
auTou in XX. 11, where, though only A and some cursives attest 
this reading, they are to be followed ; 6 Ka^»//xevos eVl t. Opovov in 
xxi. 5, where, since every MS is wrong, the error must go back 
to the editor ; twv TmreKeKtcrixiywv . . . koI otrtvcs ov TrpocrtKvvr)a-av 
in XX. 4, where the omvcs is thrust in against John's usage (see 
i. 5, note). Possibly the normal construction t. Xifxvrj rrj Kaiofxivrf 
TTvpl Koi 6ei(D in xxi. 8 may be due to him : contrast that in xix. 
20. Again in xxi. 6 instead of tw 8h{/!j>vti Scoo-cu the Johannine 
idiom is tw Slij/ojvti Swcrw auTw (see note in ioc). 

From the above facts the conclusion is inevitable that after 
XX. 3 our author had intended to add a description of the Heavenly 
Jerusalem that was to come down from heaven to earth and be the 
habitation of Christ and the martyrs that accompanied Him from 
heaven in their glorified bodies : and also that this very description 
has been preserved in certain sections of xxi.-xxii. 

We have next to determine the extent of this description. 
Now even the cursory reader will observe that there are two 
accounts of the Heavenly Jerusalem in these chapters, which have 
been rudely thrust together by the Seer's literary executor.^ A 

' We might compare 2 Corinthians, which is now recognized by the 
learned world as consisting of two mutilated Epistles of St. Paul edited 
together as one, the last four chapters belonging to the earlier Epistle. In 
Cicero's letters Professor Purser shows that in several cases exactly the same 
phenomenon may be found. 



XX. 4-XXII.] RECONSTRUCTED TEXT 1 53 

close study of these chapters will show that the section xxi. 9- 
xxii. 2 constitutes a unity, though incomplete in itself, as we 
shall see presently, and gives a description of the Heavenly 
Jerusalem that was to be the centre of the Millennial Kingdom. 
Two further fragments of this description are to be found in 
xxii. 14-15 and 17. This description fits in perfectly with the 
conditions of the Millennial reign of Christ and the martyrs for 
a thousand years. It is conceived of as a period of beneficent 
rule and evangelizing effort in regard to the surviving nations 
who visit the Heavenly Jerusalem and bring all their glory and 
honour into it. Wickedness, of course, still exists without it, 
but nothing that is unclean, nor any liar or abominable person, 
is permitted to enter into it (xxii. 15, xxi. 27). 

So far the first description. But what are we to make of 
the second, which begins with xxi. i ? Only the disjecta membra 
of this description remain. Two fragments of it are recoverable 
in xxi. 1-4*= and xxii. 3-5. These should be read together, as 
the first clause of xxii. 3 forms the fourth line of the stanza, the 
first three lines of which are preserved in xxi. 4***°. In this 
second description the former heaven and earth have passed 
away for ever, with all the sin and sorrow and pain that prevailed 
on the former earth. Death itself shall be no more throughout 
the new heaven and the new earth and the New Jerusalem 
(xxi. 4). And whereas in the Heavenly Jerusalem that came 
down from God for the Millennial Kingdom the saints who had 
been martyred reigned only a thousand years, in the later New 
Jerusalem they are to reign for ever and ever (xxii. 5). It is 
noteworthy that even the very diction of xxi. 1-4^^'' and of 
xxii. 3-5 testifies to the fact that they form part of one and the 
same poem. Thus ovk lo-rai In, which occurs three times in 
xxi. i*^ 4^*=, recurs twice in xxii. 3* 5* (contrast xxi. 26) and not 
elsewhere throughout our author, ovk . . . In occurs nine 
times in connection with other verbs. Thus while ovk ccrrat in 
is confined to xxi. 1-4'*^'^, xxii. 3-5, it is to be observed that 
OVK . . . €Ti is characteristic of our author in the N.T., since 
outside our author it occurs in the N.T. only six times and 
twice of these in quotations. 

We have now dealt with the chief difficulties in xx.-xxii. 
There are, of course, many of a subordinate nature affecting the 
original order of the text in xxii., but they are treated shortly in 
the introductions to the various sections of the rearranged trans- 
lation that follows. Chaps, xx.-xxii. should provisionally be 
read in the following order : 

XX. 1-3. Vision of the chaining of Satan for a thousand 
years. 

xxi. 9-xxii. 2, 14-15, 17. Vision of the Heavenly Jerusalem 



154 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 9-XXII. 2. 

which comes down to be the abode of Christ and the glorified 
martyrs, and the centre of a new evangelization of the nations 
for a thousand years. 

XX. 4-6. Vision of the glorified martyrs who reign with 
Christ for a thousand years. 

XX. 7-10. Vision of the loosing of Satan, and the attack of 
Gog and Magog on the Beloved City ; of the destruction of Gog 
and Magog, and the casting of Satan into the lake of fire. 

XX. 11-15. Vision of the great white throne ; of the vanishing 
of the former heaven and earth ; of the judgment of the dead, 
and of the casting of death and Hades into the lake of fire. 

xxi. 5% 4*^, 5**, 1-4'*'"^, xxii. 3-5. The outworn world has 
vanished : God creates a new world. Vision of the new heaven 
and the new earth : of the New Jerusalem descending from 
God to the new earth, in which the saints are to reign for 
ever. 

xxi. 5" 6^-8. Admonition of God conveyed through the Seer 
to his contemporaries. 

xxii. 6-7, 18*, 16, 13, 12, 10. Declaration of Christ as to 
the truth of the words of the Seer; His assurance of His 
almighty power and His speedy advent ; and His command to 
the Seer to publish the prophecy : for the time is at hand. 

xxii. 8-9, 20. John's testimony and closing words regarding 
Christ.i 

xxii. 21. The closing benediction. 

VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM. 

XXI. 9-XXII. 2, 14-15, 17 : Vision of the Heavenly Jerusalevi 
coming down frotn heaven to be the abode of Christ and of the 
glorified martyrs, who are to reign with Him for 1 000 years, and 
to be the centre of a new evangelization of the nations. 

This vision forms (1.) an integral part of the Book, and (H.) is 
from the hand of the Seer. Since the question has already been 
discussed (see pp. 144-154) we shall sum up shortly the evidence 
for the above statements. 

I. The vision forms an integral part of the Book. 

1. There must be a fitting seat on earth for the kingdom of 
Christ during the Millennial reign with the glorified martyrs in 
their heavenly bodies. This city while obviously supramundane, 
as befitting Christ and the glorified saints, must yet be accessible 
to the actual dwellers on the earth, as in fact it is : cf. xxi. 24-27, 
xxii. 14-15. 17- 

2. Such a kingdom or centre of the evangelization of the 
heathen nations is clearly foretold in xv. 3-4, and implied in v. 10, 

^ xxii. II, iS^-ig are most probably later additions. 



XXI. 9-XXII. 2.J VISION OF HEAVENLY JERUSALEM I 55 

xiv. 7. Without such a kingdom there would be a lacuna in the 
Book. 

3. As one of the angels of the Seven Bowls showed the 
doomed city of the Antichrist to the Seer (xvii.-xviii.), so the same 
angel, or one of the same Seven, shows him the blessed city of 
the Christ (xxi. 9). 

Thus so far as the subject-matter goes, the presence of this 
vision is indispensable. 

II. It is from the hand of the Seer. Full evidence of this 
statement is given in the notes, but sufficient evidence will here 
be adduced to establish this point. 

1. First, as to diction. 

XXI. 9. Kal TJXGev . . . Sei^u ctoi agrees exactly with xvii. i. 
With (|>i(i\as Twc ycjioi'Tui' Ttav cTTTa ttXtjywi' cf. XV. 7. t. i'ujji<|>^i' 
T. yuvaiKa tou dpvi'ou is prepared for in xix. 7-8. 

10. dirrifeYKei' . . . Trceufiari. So also in xvii. 3. tt|i' iroXii' 
T. dyiai' 'l6puCTa\i](j. : C^. Xxi. 2. KaxaPatcouo-ai' ck t. oupacoG diro 
T. 0eou : cf. iii. 12, x. i, xxi. 2, etc. Ixouaai' t. %{i%a.v tou 6coG 
(also in 23) : cf. xv. 8. 

11. W9 Xiflw ido"iri8i : cf. iv. 3, o/AOtos . . . Xc^o) lao-TriSi. 
Now we know (see vol. i. p. 36) that our author several times uses 
o/xotos as the equivalent of ws. Kpuo-raXXi^i'Ti : cf. iv. 6, 6/Aoia 

13. dTTo dmToXrjs : cf. vii. 2, xvi. 12. 
15. 6 XaXcov |X€t' 6JX0O : cf. xvii. i. 

18. odXo) (mAos, 21) : cf. m\ii/os, iv. 6, xv. 2. 

22. Observe the divine title so frequent in our Book. 

23. ouxpeittf ex^i: cf. iii. 17, xxii. 5. ^oxviaQiv : cf. i. 16, viii. 12. 

24. irepiira-nio-ouaii' : cf. ii. I, iii. 4, xvi. 15. 

26. T(\v %o%a.v KaiT. T\.^i\v : cf. iv. 9, IT, V. 12, 13. 

27. Y€Ypa|j,|xeVoi iv t. ^i|3Xi(t) ttjs S«ot]s : cf. xx. 12, 15. iroiuj' 
pSeXuYfia (cf. xxi. 8) Kal liieuSos: cf. xxii. 15. 

XXII. 1. XttfAirpoi' : cf. xv. 6, xix. 8. TroTaf^oc ... As Kpua- 
xaXXoi/ : cf. iv. 6, ^aXacrcra . . . 6/Aoia Kpuo-raXXw, and see above 
on xxi. 10. €KTropeu6p,€voi/ ck t. flpofou : cf. iv. 5. 

14. irXui'oi'Tcs T. o-ToXds auTwi/. So vii. 14. c^ouo-ia — a favourite 
Johannine word though here used with a slightly different meaning. 

15. <t)apfiaKol . . . eiSuXoXdrpai. For the same list of four 
see xxi. 8, though in a different order. 

17. fu|ji,(j>Ti : cf. xxi. 2, 9. epxoo : cf. vi. i. Snl/wfTi : cf. xxi. 
6. oSup twfjs Supedv : cf. xxi. 6. 

2. Technical use of idioms. 

(a) Anomalous constructions : cf. xxi. 9, <()idXas tuk ye/jK^KTwi'. 
14. TO Teixos . . . ex^''- ('^) Participle = finite verb, h^uiv^ 
exei, xxi. 12, 14: cf. iv. i, etc. (c) Delicate distinction of our 
author preserved between oSwp ^wt]? and lu'Xoi' ^wfjs in xxii. 14, 



156 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 9-10. 

17. This distinction is not made, so far as I am aware, in any 
other book before 100 a.d. : cf. vii. 17, xxi. 6 on vSwp ^w^s, 
and ii. 7 (note) on $vXov ^wi}?. (d) Observe how the difficult 
phrase 6 (fxuaTrip auTTJs ofjioios . . . Xi0u» IdaTriSi (xxi. 1 1 ) is 
explained by the clause in iv. 3, 6 Ka6-t]/xevo<i o/aoio? . . . XiOo) 
Ida-TTcSi, (see note on xxi. 11). (e) The use of ws and ofjioios as 
equivalents : cf. xxi. 11, 18, where ofxoios is used in this sense, and 
xxi. II, 21, xxii. I, where a)s is so used. Observe also that 
whereas we have u8«p |«tjs 8<oped>' in xxii. 17, we find toG uSaros 
TTJs tonii Swpedi' in xxi. 6 — a fact which points to xxi. 6 having 
been written subsequently to xxii. 17. (/) The order observed 
by our author as to numerals but nowhere else rigidly observed, 
is attested in every instance in this vision. Thus our author 
also places ScoSe/ca after its noun when the noun is otherwise un- 
qualified : so also in xxi. 12 (dis), TTDXairas SwSiKa, ayyeXovs SoSSe/ca, 
and Kapirovi SajSexa, xxii. 2 ; but before it when the noun has a 
dependent genitive : so also in xxi. 12, SwScKa ovo/xaxtt twv SwScKa 
airoa-ToXwv. Finally, when the subject of a clause consists of 
SwScKtt preceded by the article and followed by a noun, and the 
same numeral recurs in the predicate with a noun, the SwSe/ca 
precedes the noun. So also in xxi. 21, 01 8co8c/ca ttuAwi/cs SwBcKa 
fxapyapLTai. See note on viii. 2. 

XXI. 9-21. An angel of the Seven Bowls shows to the Seer 
the Heavenly Jerusalem which is to be the seat of the Millennial 
Kingdom. 

9. Kai ^XOcf . . . <}>i<i\as. Repeated from xvii. i. <j)iaXas 
TUif yefiovTuv. This is certainly an extraordinary construction 
even in our author. It is best, perhaps, to explain it as an over- 
sight. Kttl i\a,\i](Tev. . . Sci^ci) o-oi. Repeated from xvii. i. 

TTji' vop,<|>T)i' [tt]*' yufttiKa] Tou dpfiou. The phrase in brackets 
is with Bousset to be excised. It can be explained as a marginal 
gloss on T. vvfKJirjv based on xix. 7. The great variation in the 
MSS points to this phrase being an intrusion. 

10. Kttl dTrrii/eyKeV pe iv in'cupaTi. This clause has already 
occurred in xvii. 3, and the phrase that follows here, errl 6pos 
/xe'ya, suggests the present earth just as explicitly as does ek 
eprjfjLov in xvii. 3. The implication is that the present earth and 
the Heavenly Jerusalem would coexist. But there is no such 
implication in regard to the New Jerusalem. The former heaven 
and earth have already vanished (xxi. i). Ezek. xl. appears to 
have been in the mind of our author when he committed this 
vision to writing. 10^ is practically an echo of Ezek. xl. 2, "In 
the visions of God brought he me . . . and set me down upon 
a very high mountain." Here, as the LXX renders rjyayev pa Iv 
opacrei Oeov . . . koX eOrjKa' pa iir' 6po<; vij/r}\ov (r<f)68pa, our author 
has thought of the Hebrew only. On this very high mountain 



XXI. 10.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 1 57 

(cf. Ezek. xvii. 22 ; Isa. ii. 2) stood what appeared to be the 
structure of a city. 

There he met a man with a measuring line (Ezek. xL 3) where- 
with he measured the Temple. 

CTTL opos li-^yo- <oX uvj/Tj\6i'. Paradlsc and a lofty mountain are 
associated together in i Enoch xxiv. sq., and again in Ixxxvii. 3, 
and probably in Jub. iv. 26. But this association may go back 
to primitive times, when the mountain of God (Ezek. xxviii. 14, 
Ps. xlviii. 2) was associated with the glorified Jerusalem (Isa. ii. 2) ; 
see Oesterley, Evolutioit of Mess. Idea, p. 129 sqq. 

T(\v iroXii' T^c dyiai' 'lepoucraXi^ix. If we compare this phrase 
with that in xxi. 2, which refers to the New Jerusalem which 
descends after the Judgment and the creation of the new heaven 
and the new earth, we observe that it is word for word the same 
save that the latter adds the significant word Ko.wr]v. This seems 
to imply that the Heavenly City is itself renewed or replaced 
by another. 

But there are other questions which call for discussion in 
connection with this conception. We have four titles of this 
future abode of the blessed in our author: i. ^ ttoAis tou ^eov 
/xou (iii. 12). 2. 17 TToAts 17 ayta 'lepouo-aXr;//, Kaivr] (xxi. 2.), or 7) 
KULvr] 'ItpovaraXi^fj. (iii. 12). 3. 17 ttoXisi^ dyia 'lepova-akrjfj. (xxi. lo). 
4. o irapaSiLcros tov deov fiov (ii. 7). This list we can at once 
reduce to three by referring to iii. 12, where i and 2 are identified. 
Next, by comparing xxi. 10 and ii. 7, we are enabled to identify 
3 and 4 ; for both these are the seat of the ^vXov ^00^9 (cf. xxii. 2). 
We have now to consider in what relation does (a) rj TrdXts 17 ayia 
'lep. ( = o TrapaScicros tov Oiov /xov) Stand tO (/?) 17 ttoAis rj dyia 
'lep. KaivT^ ( = V TToXts TOV deov /xov). Are they really different 
or are they identical? They are closely related in the mind of 
our author, but ^Aey are not identical. 

(a) The first, i.e. -fj ttoAis 17 ayia 'Iepor(roXi//M, is the seat of the 
Millennial Kingdom. It contains the tree of life (ii. 7, xxii. 2). 
At the close of the Millennial Kingdom and before the Final 
Judgment, when both the heaven and the earth vanish, its removal 
from the earth is presupposed together with Christ and the 
glorified martyrs. This removal from the earth is not expressly 
stated, but it is undoubtedly presupposed. There are analogous 
expectations in contemporary Judaism. Thus in 2 Bar. vi. 
6-10 it is said that even the sacred vessels of the Holy of Holies 
were removed by angels before the destruction of Jerusalem in 
70 A.D. For an analogous account see 2 Mace. ii. 4-8. In 4 
Ezra vi. 2-3, iii. 6, moreover, where the main source ( = S : see Box) 
identifies the heavenly and earthly Paradises, Paradise, which 
had been prepared by God before the creation of the world, was 
placed afterwards on the earth as Adam's abode, iii. 6, but with- 



158 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 10. 

drawn after Adam's fall (see Box on 4 Ezra, p. 197). Hence we 
might reasonably conclude that it is the same city — the Holy 
City, Jerusalem — that is spoken of in xxi. 10 sqq. and in xxi, 2, 
but that it has been transformed {Kaiv-q) in order to adapt 
it to the new heaven and the new earth. Further, in this 
connection we might remark that just as the Heavenly Jerusalem 
is associated with the manifestation of Christ on earth in our 
text, so also we find the same association in 4 Ezra vii. 26, 
xiii. 36. It is true that Box rejects both these passages as inter- 
polations. But if it was believed that the heavenly Paradise had 
come down to earth to be Adam's abode, there could be no 
objection to the hope that the Heavenly City should come down 
to be the abode of the Messiah. 

(/3) But, though the Holy City, Jerusalem, has been removed 
from the earth before the Final Judgment, when the former heaven 
and earth vanish into nothingness, this city is not to be absolutely 
identified with " the Holy City, New Jerusalem," which comes 
down from the new heaven to the new earth to be the everlasting 
abode of the blessed. This new city is either wholly new in 
every respect, or it is the former city transformed. It belongs to 
the new creation, xxi. 5^ As opposed to the former Holy City, 
this Holy City is " new " {Kaivr]) ; that is, it is here contemplated 
not under aspects of time but of quality : it is new as set over 
against that which is in some respects materialistic, or outworn, 
or marred, or unfit. 

In 13, as we have already remarked, there is an identification 
of rj KaLvrj 'lepovaaXyfj. (iii. 1 2) and rj ttoXis tou Oeov. It seems as 
if p is distinguished also in another respect from a. There is no 
mention of the presence of the tree of life in fi, though this is a 
characteristic feature of a. But the tree of life is unnecessary in y8, 
since death itself is wholly at an end, xxi. 4^, and the blessed live 
in the light of God's presence and reign for ever and ever, xxii. 5. 

In the conception of the New Jerusalem our author has fused 
together i and 2 and discarded 4 (see above). But these ideas 
were originally very different, as the following notes will show. 

I. The city of God. — The idea of the heavenly city or the city 
of the gods, found in many nations of the ancient world, was taken 
over by Judaism. 

The city of the gods was originally suggested by the heaven 
with the sun and moon and the twelve signs of the Zodiac and 
the twelve gates through which they were conceived to pass, on 
the north three gates, on the east three gates, on the south three 
gates, and on the west three gates. There was also the great 
Milky Way, which was conceived as the great street of the 
heavenly city. 

It has been said that our author had before him the descrip- 



XXI. 10.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 159 

tion of Ezekiel's city (Ezek. xlviii. 31 sqq.) with its twelve gates, 
three in each of the four walls, and that this description with the 
enumeration of the twelve precious stones in the high priest's 
breastplate (Ex. xxviii. 17 sqq., xxxix. 10 sqq.) was all that our 
author drew upon in the ideas and facts of the past for his own 
description of the Heavenly City. But our text itself refutes 
such a view. For the fact that in this city are twelve gates,^ 
which are respectively composed of the twelve precious stones, 
sh ws that some of the ideas in our text go back ultimately to 
the heavenly city itself. There is some hint of this connection in 
I Enoch Ixxii. 2 sqq., Ixxv. 6, Ixxxii. 4 sqq., where there are said 
to be twelve portals in the heaven through which the sun, moon, 
and stars go forth at different seasons. The connection is here 
very slight, but the connection between these gates and the 
precious stones mentioned in our text recalls the fact that Philo 
{De Monarchia, ii. 5 : cf. Vita Mos. iii. 14) and Josephus i^Ant. 
iii. 7. 7) interpret the twelve precious stones on the breastplate of 
the high priest of the signs of the Zodiac ; and Kircher {Oedipus 
Aegyptiacus, 1653, '^- 'i- ^77 ^<5-) ^^^ shown that according to 
Egyptian and Arabian monuments these stones correspond to 
these signs. 

The peculiar shape of the city, that it is equally long, broad, 
and high, may possibly be explained from this standpoint ; for to 
the human vision the heaven appears to be of this character. 
We might here compare the Holy of Holies in Solomon's Temple, 
which was a cube, being 20 cubits each way : cf. i Kings vi. 20. 

But our author disassociates (see p. 167 sq.) the Heavenly 
Jerusalem from this ethnic conception of the city of the gods, which 
had impressed itself slowly, and perhaps for the most part imper- 
ceptibly, on the Judaism of the past. As the stars were naturally 
compared with precious stones, and as we have just seen that a 
clear association between the signs of the Zodiac and certain 
precious stones was established before the Christian era, it is not 
improbable that in Isa. liv. 11-12, where the earthly Zion is 
referred to, we have traces of the heavenly city : 

"Behold I will set thy bases in rubies, 
And thy foundations in sapphires. 
And I will make of jasper thy pinnacles, 
And thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy border of jewels" 

(Box's translation); and also in Tob. xiii. 16-18, 

" And the gates of Jerusalem shall be builded with sapphire 
and emerald, 

^ The Babylonians were already familiar with the idea of heavenly gates ; 
see Zimmern, KAT^, p. 619. 



l60 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 10. 

And all thy walls with precious stones. 
The towers of Jerusalem shall be builded with gold, 

And their battlements with pure gold. 
The streets of Jerusalem shall be paved 

With carbuncle and stones of Ophir, 
And the gates of Jerusalem shall utter hymns of gladness, 

And all her houses shall say, Hallelujah." 

In a much later work, Sibyll. Or. v. 420 sq., we find 

Kol ttoXlv r)v liroOrjCTi 6iO<;, ravrrjv liroLrjirfv 
^atSpoTcpav acrrpoiv re Kal rjXiov tJSc (reXiqvr)^. 

Now from the contents of these passages it appears clear that we 
have to do not with the heavenly city of God, but with the 
earthly Jerusalem, and yet the descriptions reflect the character- 
istics of the heavenly city.^ 

2. Paradise. — Paradise ^ is very variously conceived at 
different times and in different writings. First of all the term 
is used of the Garden of Eden in Gen. ii.-iii. In the 2nd cent. 
B.C. it has become the abode of the righteous and elect after this 
life, and is called the Garden of Righteousness, or of the Righteous, 
or the Garden of Life, i Enoch Ix. 8, 23, Ixi. 12, and is situ:ited at 
the ends of the earth, Ixv. 2, cvi. 8 (Ixxxix. 52), or on the N.W., 
Ixx. 3, Ixxvii. 3, or to the east of the seven great mountains, 
xxxii. 1-2, xxiv. 1-4 sqq. In Test. Levi xviii. 10, 2 Bar. li. to- 
II, 2 Enoch ix. i sqq., xlii. 2-4, Paradise does not become the 
abode of the righteous till the Advent of the Messiah or the last 
judgment, i Enoch xxii. In nearly all these passages it is the 
heavenly and not the earthly Paradise that is meant, or rather 
the earthly Paradise has assumed a heavenly character. In 
2 Enoch viii. 1-6 the heavenly and earthly Paradises are 
mentioned in succession. The earthly Paradise was created on 
the third day, Jub. ii. 7, 2 Enoch xxx. i, whereas according to 
later Judaism the heavenly Paradise is described as existing 
before the world either actually or in the thought of God, Pesach. 
54»; Ned. 39^ 

In 4 Ezra (source S) the heavenly and the earthly Paradises 
are identified. This Paradise was prepared by God before the 
Creation as Adam's first abode, iii. 6 (cf. 2 Bar. iv. 3), but after- 
wards withdrawn from the earth and reserved for the righteous 
after the final Judgment. In this author Paradise has become 
identical with heaven and is set over against Gehenna, 4 Ezra 

^ See Zimmern, KAT^, p. 619; Gunkel, Zrtrn Verstdndniss des NT., p. 
48 sqq. ; Bousset ht he. ; Jeremias, Babylonisches int NT., p. 68. 

^ The Talmudists are almost unanimous in maintaining that there was 
both a heavenly and an earthly Paradise. The Rabbis distinguish between 
Clan and Eden. Thus Samuel bar Naliman declares that Adam dwelt only 
in the Gan, whereas no mortal eye had ever seen Eden (Ber. 34''). 



XXI. 10-11.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM l6l 

vii. 36-38, 123. See Box, ^ Ezra, 195 sqq. But in 2 Bar. iv. 3 
the two Paradises are distinguished apparently ; for Adam did 
not Hve in the heavenly Paradise, but only enjoyed the vision of 
it before his fall. 

3. The New Jerusalem. — In the O.T. such passages as Isa. 
liv. II sq., Ix. 10-14, Hag. ii. 7-9, Zech. ii. 1-5, refer only to 
the earthly Jerusalem, though in Isa. liv. this conception has 
been influenced by the conception of the city of God. In Tob. 
xiii. 16-18 this influence is still clearer, while in 2 Bar. iv. 2-4 
the heavenly Jerusalem is definitely affirmed and distinguished 
from the earthly and likewise from Paradise. But it is an error 
to suppose, as some do, that it was only after the destruction of 
the earthly Jerusalem that the idea of the heavenly was evolved, 
for we find it clearly stated early in the second century B.C. in 
I Enoch xc. 29, where God Himself builds what is symbolically 
called " the New House " on the site of the earthly Jerusalem, 
which He had removed. In 2 Bar. iv. 3 the manifestation of 
this city is connected with the manifestation of God, just as in 
4 Ezra vii. 26, xiii. 36 the heavenly Zion is to appear along with 
the Messiah, and in our own text the Holy City, Jerusalem, with 
Christ and the glorified martyrs. If the heavenly Paradise could 
appear on earth for Adam, it was only natural that the heavenly 
Jerusalem should appear on earth for Christ — the Second and 
greater Adam. Finally, we should observe that the transference 
of the tree of life from Paradise to Jerusalem, i Enoch xxv. 4-5, 
implies the identification even at this early date of Paradise and 
Jerusalem : also in Test. Dan v. 12, 

" And the saints shall rest in Eden {i.e. Paradise), 
And in the New Jerusalem shall the righteous rejoice." 

KaraPaivouo'ai' . . . toO 0€ou. For parallel phrases in our 
author see above, p. 155. 

TTji/ So^af TOO 0€oG. See note on 23, xviii. i. 

11. 6 4>a)aTT)p auTTjs = " the light thereof." This phrase is 
practically equivalent to that which immediately precedes, i.e. 
exovaav rrjv So^av tov Oiov. The city is lighted up by the glory of 
God Himself, and this light was "like a most precious stone as it 
were a jasper (o/jtotos XiOta Ti/AiojTara), ws At^w tao-TriSi). 6 rf)McrTr)p 
auT^s does not mean "the luminary thereof" and is not equiva- 
lent to 6 Xv^vos avT^? in 23, but is to be rendered as given above. 
This is clear when the words that follow o/Aotos XiOw . . . ws 
Xi6(o lacTTTtSt are compared with iv. 3, where " He that sat on the 
throne" is described as being "to look upon like a jasper stone" 
{6fxoLo<s \l6w tao-TTtSi). Thus the light that pervades the Holy 
City is in colour like to that which flashes through the nimbus 
that surrounded the throne of God (iv. 3). Moreover, we are 

VOL. II. — II 



162 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 11-14. 

told that it is the glory of God that gives light to the city (xxi. 
23, f) yap So^a tov deov i<fiU)TL(r€u auTT/v). This use o( ffxacTTr^p — 
light, is very rare. Cf. i Esdr. viii. 79. Thayer quotes Anthol. 
II. 359 as another instance of this use. 

12. hfKiVQo. = Ix'^i. See p. 155 ad fin. The second exovaa is 
an ordinary participle. 

Tcixos. Cf. 2 Enoch Ixv. 10, "And there shall be to them a 
great wall that cannot be broken down." 

TruXwvas ScoSeKa. Twelve gates, as in the city of Ezekiel ; cf. 
Ezek. xlviii. 30 sqq., corresponding to the Twelve Tribes. In 
I Enoch xxxiii.-xxxv. there is a similar distribution of the gates 
of heaven whence the stars issue. In Classical Greek ttuXwv 
meant a gatehouse, gatetower, or porch, and was, therefore, 
distinct from TrvXr). It has this meaning in Acts xii. 13, ryv 
dvpav TOV Trv\o)vo<;: cf. t'h'd. xii. 14 ; Matt. xxvi. 71. But it came 
in late Greek (see the LXX) to mean simply a large gate : cf. 
Luke xvi. 20; Acts x. 17, xiv. 13. It is in this sense that it 
appears to be used by our author — in all eleven times. This is 
clear from xxi. 21, 01 8wSe/<a TrvXwvcs SwSeKa p.apyapZrai. He 
does not use irv^.-q. In the LXX ttvXuiv is often used as a 
rendering of nri3 and sometimes of "lyi", while irvky] very often 
renders lyK' and sometimes nns. Hence it is no guide here. 
It is noteworthy that whereas the Fourth Gospel does not use 
TTuXwi/ or TTvXri, it employs 6vpa many times in the sauie sense (x. 
I, 2, 7, 9, xviii. 16, XX. 19), as does our author (lii. 8, 20, iv. i). 

o.yy/iKou'i SciScKa. Ct. Isa. Ixii. 6, " I have set watchmen 
upon thy walls, O Jerusalem." 

oi/ofxaTa eTriYCYpafA/xeVa kt\. The twelve gates are entrusted 
respectively to the Twelve Tribes, and the names of the latter 
inscribed respectively on these gates, as in Ezek. xlviii. 31, "The 
gates of the city (LXX, TrvXai t^s TroAews) shall be after the names 
of the tribes of Israel." If the gates bear the names of the 
Twelve Tribes, the names of the Twelve Apostles (14) are 
engraven on the foundations. Thereby the Seer maintains the 
continuity of the O.T. and the Christian Church. 

13. The order of the points of the compass in this verse are 
E.N.S.W., whereas in Num. ii. 3 sqq. it is E.S.W.N. and in 
Ezek. xlviii. N.E.S.W. How the gates were respectively 
inscribed we have no means of determining. 

14. Tcixos . • • cxajf. See above, p. 155 ad fin. 
©cfjicXious SoJScKa. Since there are twelve gates, the wall 

surrounding the City is divided into twelve sections, each section 
of which rests upon a single foundation stone. These twelve 
foundation stones consist of twelve precious stones, which are 
enumerated in 19 sq., and form apparently an unbroken and 
continuous basement. 



XXI. 14-16.J VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 1 63 

eir' auT<t)v SuScKa dfofxara t. SuSc/ca diro(TT(5X(i)i'. Elsewhere in 
the N.T. we have a similar combination of the Christian and 
Jewish Churches. In Matt. xix. 28, KaO-jcreade koI uyxets cVt 
SwSe/ca dpovovs Kpivovres ra^ SwSeKa (ftvXas rov 'l(rpai]X, which may 
contain a reminiscence of T. Jud. xxv. i. A remote parallel is 

to be found in Eph. ii. 20, i-n-OLKoSofjirjOevTiS ctti tw Oe/jieXiw Twv 
aTTOCTToXoiv *cai TrpocfirjTwv, oi'Tos aKpoyoiViaLOV avrov XptoToi; 'Irjcrov, 
In Eph. the whole spiritual Church is the theme of St. Paul : 
here it is only the foundations of the wall that encircles the 
Holy Cily. We have really a nearer parallel in Heb. xi. 10, i$eS€- 
X^'''o yttp TTjv Tovs defieXiovi e^^oucrav ttoXlv, rj^ T€^vtT?/s . . . o ^cd?. 
rCjy SuScKa dirocrT<5\wi'. The Twelve are here referred to as a 
corporate body, and there is no hint as to its exact composition. 
"The absence of Paul's name," as Moffatt remarks, "is no more 
significant than the failure to emphasize that of Peter." 

15. This and some of the verses that follow have been 
suggested by Ezek. xl. 3 sqq. The measuring in each case has 
to do with the respective ideal cities of the O.T. prophet and 
the N.T. Seer, and not as in xi. 2, where the actual Jerusalem is 
referred to. The act of measuring here has none of the meanings 
given in the note on xi. i. The measures are given to the Seer 
in order to elucidate the vision. 

16. r\ TToXis TeTpdywkos. Babylon, according to Herodotus 
(i. 178), was a square (Terpciyajvos), each side of the square being 
120 stades. The Greeks regarded the square as a symbol for 
perfection : cf. Simonides in Plato's Frof. 344 A, avSp' ayadov, 
^epcrt T€ Kai ttocti Kai vow Terpayoivov, avev ij/oyov TCTvy/xevov, 
■^aXiTTOV dAa^e'ios : Aristotle, Rhet. iii. 1 1. 2, tov dya^oj' avSpa <f>dvai 
T€Tpdyu)vov : cf. £t/l. Nlc. i. 10, 11, dya^os a.XriOSy<; /cat TCT/adytuvos 
dvev ij/6yov. KcrTai = "stood." Cf. iv. 2; Jer. xxiv. i, Si'o 
KaXdOovs . . . Kti/Liei'ovs (D'^nyiD) : John ii. 6, xix. 29. 

eirl araSious SwSeKa x^XidSwi'. This reading, which is that of 
AQ and most of the cursives, is very difficult. €7ri o-raSibv? is in 
itself the usual classical construct i(>n, but the genitive (so nP) 
also is found : see Thuc. ii. 90 ; Xen. Cvr. ii. 4. 2, iycvovro to 
/u.€T<u7rov CTTt TptaKOdLiav . . . TO 81 ^d6o<i i(f>' CKaTOv. But how, 
if we adopt the o-raStVis, are we to explain SwSeKa ;!^tAid8aji' ? 
Winer (p. 244 n.) describes it as a genitive of quality and com- 
pares TTT/xwv (see Blass, p. 99, n. i) in the next line. But the cases 
are not analogous. If it is original, it is perhaps to be rendered 
"to the length of furlongs of the amount of 12,000." Possibly, 
however, orraStovs is a primitive error and nP have rightly 
emended the text : iirl crTaStW 8. x- = "at 12,000 furlongs." Cf. 
xiv. 20, diro oraStwi/ ^iXitov i^aKOcriwv. 

SwScKa xiXdSwc. 12,000 stades = nearly 1500 miles. This is 
either the length of one side of the square or of the four sides 



1 64 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 16-18, 

combined, but the words that follow are in favour of the former 
view. These huge figures are not, of course, to be taken literally. 
Our Seer is using the language of symbolism. When dealing 
with the subject of Paradise later Jewish writers make statements 
of a kindred nature. Amongst the more moderate computations 
is that found in Sibyll. Or. v. 251 (88-130 a.d.) : 

a;)(pi Se koi 'Io7rr;s TCtxos fieya KVK\u)(ravTe<i 
v^ocr aeipovrai a.)(pi koX ve<f>€<jiv ipefievvZv. 

Here the circumference of the city would be about 280 miles. 

A larger estimate (quoted from Wetstein) appears in the 
Shir R. vii. 5, where it is said that Jerusalem would be enlarged 
till it reached the gates of Damascus, and exalted till it reached 
the throne of God (ix. i). In the Baba Bathra, 75^ its height is 
defined as twelve miles. But the imagination is wholly baffled 
by the amazing figures in Taanith, io% where the whole world is 
declared to be the sixtieth part of the Garden, and the Garden 
the sixtieth part of Eden. 

17. cKaroi' T€CT(repdtcoi'Ta revadputv TTTjxwf. This wall of 144 
cubits is wholly out of proportion in view of the gigantic magni- 
tude of the City. It cannot rightly be described as fjiiya kuI 
vij/^Xov in connection with the City, and so it may be either a 
fragmentary and now unintelligible survival of some archaic 
element, or else merely a poetical detail, and without symbolic 
significance. But if we might take the wall as an outer line of 
defence distinct from the City,, then it could well serve as a 
defence against the entrance of the wicked and unclean (xxi. 27, 
xxii. 15). 

ueTpoi' di/9pwirou o ivTiv &Y^{Kov. The measures used by the 
angel are those in common use amongst mankind. This is not 
unreasonable, since both angels and men are fellow-servants of 
God (xix. ID, xxii. 9). 

18-XXII. 2. This section is in verse, and deals with the 
appearance and character of the City. 

18-21. The materials of which the city is constructed. 

18. r\ li'SwjjiTjCTis . . . laams. eV8w/AT/crts found only here and 
in Joseph. Ant. xv. 9. 6 (17 Se cvSo/Aiyo-ts oa-ov rjv ifidXXtTo Kara t^s 
OaXda-arj'i StaKoo-toirs 7rd8as), and in a pre-Christian inscription, ttjv 
evSw/AT^o-tv Tov Tc/AcVovs (Dittcnberger's Sylloge Inscript. Graec? 
583, 31, quoted from Moffatt), appears to mean materials or 
fabric. Thus not only was the radiance that came forth from 
Him that sat on the throne (iv. 3) of a jasper hue, and like- 
wise that of the whole atmosphere of the Holy City (xxi. 1 1), but 
the wall itself was constructed of jasper. This structure^ of 
jasper was based on twelve precious stones, each of which 
formed one-twelfth of the entire foundation (cf. 12, 19). 



XXI. 18-19.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 1 65 

■q iroXis xpuo'io" Ka0ap<5c ktX. The city itself was composed of 
transparent gold. 

19. The twelve precious stones which compose the twelve 
foundations of the wall correspond on the whole to those that were 
set in gold on the high priest's breastplate in Ex. xxviii. 17-20, 
xxxix. 10-13 (cf- also Ezek. xxviii. 13 on the dress of the King 
of Tyre, where, however, in the Hebrew only nine stones are 
mentioned though twelve are given in the LXX). 

Whereas, according to Ex. xxviii. 17 sqq., the names of the 
Twelve Tribes were written on the twelve stones on the high 
priest's breastplate, in our text the names of the Twelve Tribes 
are written, as in Ezek. xlviii. 31, on the twelve gates; but it is 
the names of the Twelve Apostles that are written on the twelve 
precious stones which form the foundations of the wall of the 
City. By means of xxi. 13, where the order in which the angel 
measured the four sides of the city (i.e. E.N.S.W.), and xxi. 19-20, 
where the twelve stones are enumerated, we are able to discover 
the probable order in which these foundations were laid. This 
order has nothing whatever to do with the order given in Ex. 
xxviii. 17 sqq., as Myers, Encyc. Bib. iv. 481 1, and Bousset, follow- 
ing the same principle in his commentary, assume ; nor is it to be 
explained from any accidental inversion or misreading of the twelve 
stones arranged in four lines, each line containing three stones. 
Bousset's explanation is as follows. Our author read the second 
three stones in Ex. xxviii. 17 sq. before the first three, and the 
fourth three before the third three, and thus arrived at the 
following order : 

I. avOpa^ adir(f)€ipo^ taairis 

II. crapSiov TOTrd^iov (TfidpaySos 

III. )^v(r6\i6os /SrjpvXXiov 6i>v)(lov 

IV. Xiyvpiov d^^aTrjs dp^idvaro^. 

Next, he or his source had read the stones in I. and II. from 
right to left, and in III. and IV. from left to right. Now, only 
in the last resort could such a complicated hypothesis — in itself 
a confession of failure — be accepted. 

While rejecting such an hypothesis, it is advisable to state 
the actual relations between our text and Ex. xxviii. 17-20. 
I. Our author has not followed the LXX of Ex. xxviii. 17 sqq., 
seeing that his list differs in the renderings of four of the 
Hebrew words. 2. Our author's list presupposes a transposition 
of the sixth and twelfth stones, i.e. the th^\ ( = T07ra^iov) and 
nBty^ ( = ra(r7rts). This was probably the original Hebrew order 
(see Encyc. Bib. iv. 4810). 3. It is not credible that, using as 
he did the Hebrew text first hand, he should accidentally invert 
the order of the first and second rows and of the third and fourth, 



1 66 



THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 19. 



and in addition read the first pair of rows from right to left and 
the second pair from left to right. In short, the order of the 
stones in our text cannot be explained from the order in Ex. 
xxviii. iy-20. We have now to discover the grounds which gave 
rise to the difference in order between our text and Ex. 
xxviii. 17-20. First of all let us arrange the list of stones in 
19-20 in conjunction with the sides of the city as they were 
measured by the angel. 

Now whereas in Num. ii. the tribes are arranged in a square, 
the sides of which look E.S.W.N., and the gates of the Holy City 
in Ezek. xlviii. which bear the names of the Tribes are enumer- 
ated in the order N.E.S.W., we are tempted to ask why does the 
angel adopt an apparently capricious order and measure the 
sides of the Holy City E.N.S.W. ? I know of no certain ex- 
planation, but it is possible that we may discover some ground 
for it, if we take the reconstructed list of the Tribes in vii. 5-8 
and combine it with xxi. 13. As a result of this combination we 
have the following result : 



Zebulun. 



Issachar. 



Levi. 



Manasseh. — 



Naphtali. — 



Assher. 




— Simeon. 



-Reuben. 



— ^Judah. 



Gad. 



Benjamin. Joseph. 



In this diagram we see that the six sons of Leah, i.e. Judah, 
Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Issachar, Zebulun (see vol. i. p. 208), 
are arranged along the E. and N. Immediately adjoining the 
children of Leah come the children of Rachel in our author's 
list, Joseph and Benjamin (see i. 208), and since the S. was 
preferred to the W. among the Jews, and the angel measures the 
city in the order E.N.S.W. (xxi. 13), these two must be arranged 
along the S. Next (see i. 208) come the sons of Leah's hand- 
maid, i.e. Gad and Assher. These take the next position of 
honour, i.e. S.W.S. and VV.S.W. 



XXI. 19.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 1 6/ 

This solution of the difficulties of vii. 5-8, xxi. 13, 19-20 has 
this recommendation, that it explains all three passages as part of 
one coherent conception. If it is rejected, some other explana- 
tion must be discovered, else the direction pursued by the angel 
in measuring the walls — E.N.S.VV. — is highly capricious. 

The angel measures the walls in the order E.N.S.W. Now, 
let us take the twelve stones enumerated in 19-20 and beginning 
with the S.E. corner place the first three on E., which the angel 
measured first, the second three on N., which the angel measured 
next, the third three on S., which the angel measured next, and the 
fourth three on VV., as is done below. But it is not till we com- 
bine these data with the following fact that we arrive at the 
solution of the problem. This fact is that, according to Kircher's 
Oedipus Aegyptiacus, 11. ii. 177 sq. (1653), each of the twelve 
precious stones ^ in our text is connected respectively with one 
of the twelve signs of the Zodiac on Egyptian and Arabian monu- 
ments. That this connection was already recognized by the Jews 
we learn from the express statements of Philo and Josephus (see 
references in note, p. 159). The following table (from Kircher) 
gives the connections between the signs and the precious stones : 

1. The Ram — the amethyst. 

2. The Bull — the hyacinth. 

3. The Twins — the chrysoprase. 

4. The Crab — the topaz. 

5. The Lion — the beryl. 

6. The Virgin — the chrysolite. 

7. The Balance — the sardius. 

8. The Scorpion — the sardonyx. 

9. The Archer — the smaragdus. 

10. The Goat — the chalcedon. 

11. The Water-carrier — the sapphire. 

12. The Fishes — the jasper. 

In the diagram that follows I have placed the precious stones 
in the order suggested by our text in 13, 19-20 and added the 
signs of the Zodiac with which they were respectively connected. 
Now, if we read the signs of the Zodiac as there given in the 
order prescribed in 19-20 we arrive at the following result. 
The signs or constellatio?is are given in a certain order, and that 
exactly the reverse order of the actual path of the sun th-ough the 
signs. Thus we have the Fishes, Water-carrier, Goat, Archer, 
Scorpion, Balance, Virgin, Lion, Crab, Twins, Bull, Ram ; for the 
order to be followed is that given in xxi. 13, i.e. E.N.S.W. 
But in the apparent movement of the sun, the sun is said when 

' In Pliny's H.N. xxxiii. the definite number twelve is connected with 
precious stones. 



iG8 



THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 19. 



crossing the equator towards the north to be at the first point of 
the Ram, thirty days later it enters the Bull, and so on through the 
Twins, Crab, Lion, etc., till it reaches the Fishes. Now this 
cannot be an accident. The conclusion that our author is ac- 
quainted with these current beliefs as to the connection of the 
twelve precious stones with the signs of the Zodiac, and the 
sun's progress through the signs of the Zodiac cannot in the face 
of the above facts be questioned, while the further fact that he 
gives the stones in exactly the reverse order to that required by 
astronomical science, shows that he regards the Holy -City which 
he describes as having nothing to do with the ethnic speculations 
of his own and past ages regarding the city of the gods. Thus he 
deliberately disconnects the Holy City with the city of the gods, 
in which the twelve gates were connected with the twelve precious 
stones and the signs of the Zodiac, (i) by connecting the gates 
of the Holy City with the names of the Twelve Tribes, and by 
representing each gate as composed of a single pearl, and (2) by 
using the twelve precious stones in an ornamental sense and de- 
scribing them as engraved with the names of the Twelve Apostles. 



Table giving the stones of the foundations in their probable order and their 
probable equivalents in Ex. xxviii. iy-20. 

ffdpSiov ffapSovv^ {TOird^iov fffidpaydoi 

(=D'nK), inLXX = n^p9), (=ni5i9), 

Balance. Scorpion. Archer. 

I I 



( = nn^ox), Ram 



.}- 



Mkiv6os (dx<iTi;s1 
in LXX = uif'), V— 
Bull. J 



Xpvadirpaffos (X'V 
6pioy in LXX 
Dif')), Twins. 



■f 




XaXKHjSd)!' (ivBpa^ 
in LXX =1191), 
Guat. 



f ffdir<p€ipos ( = T9D), 
\ Water-carrier. 



\ Fishes. 



Toirdl^i.oi>{ = 6i'0xi-ov jSi^puWos 
inLXX = D'?n:), {=ari)v), 
Crab. Lion. 



Xpva6\i$oi 
Virgin. 



XXI. 19-20.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 1 69 

In the above diagram it will be observed that our author has 
rendered the Hebrew words 123, mt2S, DK'?, and )2^ respectively 
by x^^'^V^^^y (japSovv^, )(pva6Trpa(Tos, and va.KLvOo';, whereas the 
LXX in Ex. xxviii. 17-20 renders them respectively by dvBpa^, 
TOTTci^tov, Xiyvpiov, axdrr]?. Of the twelve stones enumerattd 
in our text ^ three have already been mentioned, the lao-Tri?, 
a-fidpaySos, and crapStov in iv. 3, while vaKivOo? is implied in ix. 17. 
lacTTTis. This was probably of a green or emerald coloui. 
See iv. 3. 

CTdTT4)€ipos This stone "is identified (Theophr. 37; cf. 55, 
Kvavo<; (7Kv67]<;, and Pliny, I/.JV. xxxvii. 120) with the opaque blue 
'lapis hizuli ' of Turkestan " (JZncyc. Bib. iv. 4805). 

xaXK'qSoji'. This word occurs only here in Biblical Greek. 
This gem is taken to be of a green colour ( = a copper silicate), 
and as we have seen already is substituted for av6pai (a red 
garnet) in the LXX. 

CTfxdpaYSos. See note on iv. 3. 

20. CTap86k'u| ( = the miOD). If we may identify this stone 
with the topaz, it was, according to Strabo (770), translucent and 
golden coloured (xpvaoetSh aTroariXfiov <^iyyo<i) or yellow green ; 
according to Pliny {H.N. xxxvii. 8), yellow green (e virenti genere). 
The LXX renders mL^D by roTrd^tov in Ex. xxviii. 17-20. But 
the crapSdj'i'^ was properly a variety of the ow^ in which the white 
background was variegated by layers of red or brown (Pliny, H.N. 
xxxvii. 23). But what is the Hebrew? 
o-dpSioi/. See iv. 3 («.). 

XpuaoXiGos ( = K''''i:nn). This gold stone is hard to identify : it 
may be golden yellow and opaque — i.e. yellow jasper or yellow 
serpentine : or it may be golden yellow and translucent (see 
Encyc. Bib. iv. 4807). These stones are described by Pliny, H.N. 
xxxvii. 42, as "aureo fulgore translucentes." 

pVipuXXos ( = onCJ*). This is thought to be the malachite by 
Myres in the Encyc. Bib. iv. 4808, "with its wavy . . . bands 
and cloudy patches of light vivid and dark green." In Ex. 
xxvii. 20, xxxix. 13, DHB' is rendered by bvvx^ov. 

1 The identification of the Greek with the Hebrew names for these precious 
stones is in several cases purely hypothetical. This is in part due to the 
confusion of the order in the Massoretic. Although the same order in the 
four rows on the high priest's breastplate is given in Ex. xxviii. 17-20 and 
xxxix. 10-13 both in the Massoretic and the LXX resp)ectively, yet the LXX 
implies a transposition of nss'' and dS.t. But the confusion is further aggra- 
vated by the two accounts in Josephus, Ant. iii. 7. 5 and Bell. v. 5, 7, which 
differ from each other as to the order of the stones in the third and fourth 
rows, and while the first account gives for the first stone in the first row 
aaphbvv^, the second gives aapdiov. Since Josephus states (Ant. iii. 7. 5) 
that the names of the Twelve Tribes were engraven on the stones, each stone 
having the honour of a name in the order in which they were born, this con- 
fusion is all the more disturbing. 



lyo THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 20-22. 

Toirdl^iov. See under crap'^ovu^ above. 

XpuCTOTT-paffos. This word, which does not occur in the LXX, 
which has Atyuptov, is the Greek equivalent of DCi'?. It was prob- 
ably of a greenish yellow colour. According to Pliny, H.JV. 
xxxvii. 20, it was like the beryl but paler : " vicinum genus huic 
(beryllo) est pallidius, et a quibusdani proprii generis existimatur 
vocaturque chrysoprasus." 

udKicOos {i.e. UC', where LXX has d;(arj/s). According to 
Pliny, H.N. xxxvii. 41, it was of a violet colour, resembling the 
amethyst but less bright : " ille emicans in amethysto fulgor 
violaceus dilutus est in hyacintho." 

dp,e9oo-Tos {i.e. no^nx) — a transparent purple quartz. 

21. 01 SuScKa TTuXwj'es • • • iiapyapiTai. Cf. Sanh. loo'^ : 
" Rabbi Jochanan sat one day and preached : One day will the 
Holy One — blessed be He — bring precious stones and pearls 
thirty cubits long by thirty cubits broad and excavate (openings) 
in them of ten cubits (in breadth and) twenty cubits in height, 
and they shall stand in the gates of Jerusalem " : cf. also Baba 
Bathra 75^ d^oi ets iKaaros. This is a " barbaric " construction : 
cf. Matt. xxvi. 22, etc. For this distributive use of avd. cf iv. 8, 
John ii. 6 ; but the avd is here an adverb, not a preposition. In 
Kaff £15 in Mark xiv. 19, Rom. xii. 5 the Kara, is an adverb also 
(Robertson, pp. 460, 555). A somewhat parallel construction 
is found in Eph. v. 33, Kaff Iva l/cao-Tos (Blass, p. 179). 
r\ irXaTeia. Probably to be taken generically " the streets," as 
^vXov ((Dr]<; in xxii. 2. xp"'''^°'' taGapoi'. The whole city is 
described as "pure gold" in ver. 18. is uaXos SiaoyTjs. This 
may be rendered either " transparent as glass " or " as it were 
transparent glass." The latter is decidedly weak, but either is 
admissible: cf. i. 14, iv. 6, ix. 9, xv. 2, xxii. i. StauyT^s is found 
only here in the N.T. and not at all in the LXX. It occurs in 
Philo, Lucian, Plutarch, ApoUonius Rhodius. 

22. In the Holy City there would be no temple (see note on 
vii. 15), nor ark of the covenant — the restoration of which was 
so eagerly looked for by the Jews ; for that the Lord God would 
be the Temple thereof and the Lamb the Ark of the Covenant 
thereof. The absolute destruction of the earthly temple was 
foretold by our Lord, Mark xiii. 2; John iv. 21 ; but even the 
heavenly temple so often referred to in the earlier chapters 
would have no place as the Heavenly Jerusalem. This verse 
like those which precede and follow it was originally a tristich, 
but some words have been lost after koI to dpvt'ov. Not improb- 
ably the missing words are to be recovered from xi. 19, and thus 
the last two lines may have run 

o yap Kupios, o 6t6<i 6 TravroKpaTiop, vaos auT^s eo'TtJ', 

KUt TO dpVLOV q Kl(3<JJT0<i T^S Sia^T^KT^S avTTJ^. 



XXI. 22-23.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 171 

The temple that was in the first heaven will disappear (cf. 
vii. 15, xi. 19). God Himself is henceforth the only Temple, and 
Christ the Ark of the Covenant. By this restoration the complete 
parallelism between 22 and 23 is restored. In vii. 9-16 the 
vision is concerned with the martyr host before the throne of 
God in heaven, still incomplete and still growing with fresh 
accessions from the great tribulation on the earth. This host 
serve God day and night in the temple in heaven, but this temple 
has no part in the Heavenly Jerusalem : still less in the New • 
for it belongs to the former things that have passed away (xxi. 4*^). 
See note on xxi. 3. In the Ep. Barn. xvi. the idea of anything 
but a spiritual temple is looked upon with disfavour. Man, 
when redeemed, forms the habitation of God — " a spiritual 
temple built up to the Lord " (Tn/cu^artKos vaos oi/coSoyuot'/xcro? TO) 

KVpLw). 

Our restoration of the missing words r/ ki^wto? rfys SiaOrJKr}'; 
avTrj<; is confirmed by Jer. iii. 16, where it is prophesied that on 
the advent of the kingdom of God "the ark of the covenant of 
the Lord " (nin^ nna inx) should no longer be thought of nor 
needed nor restored. That the Jews of the century before the 
Christian era expected the restoration of the ark on the advent 
of the kingdom is clear from 2 Mace. ii. 4 sqq., where it is told 
that the ark had not been destroyed but had been hidden by 
Jeremiah on Mount Nebo with a view to its safe keeping. That 
this belief was current in the first century a.d. is to be inferred 
from 2 Bar. vi. 7-9, where the ark and certain other holy things 
belonging to the first temple are said to have been hidden by 
angels in the earth till the Messianic kingdom was established. 
That this expectation persisted long afterwards in Judaism we 
learn from Bammidbar rabba 1 5. For another kindred legend see 
Yoma, 54^ Against such materialistic expectations our author 
declares boldly that there will be no restoration of the ark of the 
covenant, for that its place was taken by the Lamb.^ 

23. With the whole verse cf. Isa. Ix. 19 sqq., koI ovk eo-rai o-oi 
iTi 6 rj\io<i €ts ^ws rjfiipa<;, ouSe avaroXr] (rcA-T^irys cjxtiTui croi ttji' 
vvKTa dX\ ecrrai aoL Kvptos (^ws atwviov . . . ov yap bvaerai 6 ^'Atos 
croi, Kai rj creXrivr} aoi ovk eKXeiipei, ecrrai yap Ki'pto? aroi <^a>s aiwviov. 
As in Isaiah the sun and moon do not cease to exist : their 
splendour is simply put to shame by the glory of God Himself: 
cf. Isa. xxiv. 23. Our author does not seem to have used the 
LXX here. 

ou xpcia>' ^X^^ ''"°" il^iou ou8e ttjs o-eXTJKT]? . . . aurifj : cf. xxii. 5 ; 
Isa. Ix. 19 sq. Here the glory of God — see 11, ^xova-av W/i/ 86$av 

' The ark was at all events a symbol of the divine presence. To the 
popular mind, however, it was more ; it was conceived as the actual abode of 
Jahveh : cf. Num. x. 35, 36 ; 2 Sam. xv. 25. 



172 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN |XXI, 23-24. 

Tov Oeov (note) — lights up the Heavenly City, and not the sun 
and moon as we see from the next clause, though these still give 
light to the world outside the City. Cf. Midrash Tillin, xxxvi. 2, 
" Neque in mundo futuro necesse habebunt lumen solis interdiu, 
aut lunae noctu " (Wetstein). 

1^ So^a Tou 0COU i^ioTicrev aiTr]v : cf. 1 1, xviii. i. The " glory " of 
God manifests itself in light. This 86^a is probably the Vf or bright- 
ness which went forth from the Shekinah or the glory (K~ip^) of 
God : cf. Targ. Jer. i on Ex. xxxiii. 1 1, pSX VT, and Jarg. Jon. on 
Ezek. xliii. 2, where we have " the brightness of His glory " (v? 
XiiT). The brightness of Moses' face ("•ISDN! pJli^x Vl), according 
to Jarg. Jer. i on Ex. xxxiv. 29, was derived from the brightness 
of the glory of the Shekinah of Yahveh (^n Nn:"'3B' -i|TN VT \D). 
This last expression will explain xviii. i, where it is said of an 
angel, fj yrj icfiMTLO-Orj sk t^s 80^17? avrov : cf. xxi. 3, note. 

Kal 6 Xuxi'os auTTis to dpi'ioc. Here o Au;(vos avTrj<; is the 
predicate and corresponds to icfxLTLcrev ainrjv in the preceding 
line, just as to apviov is the parallel to 17 ho^a tov Oeov. There 
is no comparison here with the sun and moon as Bousset 
suggests. 

24-27. The necessity of interpreting these verses with regard 
to the present earth and the nations surviving the advent of 
the Millennium has already been pointed out (see p. 146 sqq.). 
The evangelizing of the nations is already foretold in xiv. 7 by 
an angel flying in the midst of heaven, and the going up of the 
nations to worship God is proclaimed as an event of the future 
by the glorified martyrs in heaven (xv. 4). The Seer at last 
beholds in vision the fulfilment of these prophecies. Unless 
we explain xxi. 9-xxii. 2, 14-15, 17 as the Heavenly City 
which was to come down from heaven to be the seat of the 
Millennial reign, then the prophecies in xiv. 7, xv. 3 remain 
unfulfilled. 

The conversion of the Gentiles to Judaism was looked for by 
Zechariah, ii. 1 1, viii. 23, and the writer of Isa. Ixv.-lxvi. ; Dan. vii. 
14; Tob. xiii. 11, xiv. 6 ; i Enoch x. 21, xc. 32 sqq.; Test. Levi 
xviii. 9 ; Test. Jud. xxv. 5 ; Test. Asher vii. 3 ; Test. Naph. viii. 4 ; 
Pss. Sol. xvii. 32 ; 4 Ezra xi. 46, amongst other Jewish writers. 
This expectation became a central truth of Christianity, but the 
conversion of the heathen nations is to be due, not to Judaism, 
but to Christianity. 

24. This verse consists of a stanza of three lines, the second 
line of which is corrupt. The whole stanza is based on Isa. Ix. 3, 
II — not on the LXX of these verses, which runs as follows : 

3. Kal TropeuCTOV'Tai |3aaiXets tw <|>a)Ti aoo, 
Kal eOi'T) TTJ Ka/XTrpoTrjTL aov. 



XXI. 24-27.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM I73 

II. /cat dvoixfi'^o-oi/TaL at iruXai crov Sta iravros, 
T]fxepas Kol ►'OKTos ou KXei(r0r](7oi'Tai 
claayaYf i»' irpos ere 8wa//,iv iQvCtv, 
Ktti PaotXeis avTUiv dyofjuevov?. 

The words in heavy type have their equivalents in our text, 
in 24-25, but our author has here rendered the Hebrew inde- 
pendently of the LXX. We might compare Pss. Sol. xvii. 34-35. 

Sid Tou <|)ojt6s. Here Sta may be rendered " amidst " or 
" by." 

26. ffiiipa<s t vi)^ yap ouk ^arai Ik€i f. The obelized clause 
was probably a marginal gloss originally, based on xxii. 5, which 
subsequently displaced the true text, /cat vuktos. In xxii. 5 the 
definite statement is made that there shall be no longer any 
night at all. That is what we should expect in the New Jerusalem 
and the new heaven and the new earth. But there are the 
following objections to this clause in its present context, i. We 
should expect ^/x€pa<; koI wkto's as in Isa. Ix. 11, on which the text 
is confessedly based. 2. The parallelism is against it. 24-25 
form a tristich occurring in the midst of a succession of tristichs, 
and the last line of this tristich is formed of 25. Hence instead 
of ^ 

KOL ol irvXwvcs avTrji ov fxr) KXct(r^ai(riv ^ju,ejoas, viii yap ovk 
ecTTttt e/cet 

we should read 

KOL ol TTvXwVfS aUT^S OV [Xlj KXeLO-OwCTlV r}/X€pa^ KOL VUKTOS. 

3. We should then have the familiar phraseology of our 
author: cf. iv. 8, vii. 15, xx. 10. 

It might, of course, be urged that the adverb exet justifies the 
clause in the present context by limiting the statement to the 
city itself. But this emphatic use of cKet implies clearly that day 
and night alternate as usual outside the City. What meaning is 
then to be attached to rjixipa'? ? Does this word denote the un- 
broken day that prevails within the City, or the usual period of 
light without it ? The obelized clause introduces hopeless 
confusion into the context. 

26. Based on Isa. Ix. 1 1. See on 24 : cf. also Ix. 5, " the 
wealth of the nations shall come unto thee." Here the LXX 
differs ; on /Aera^aAet eis <j\ ttXovtos 6oX6.(j(Tr\<i kox i6vu)v /cat Aaiov. 
/cat Tj^ovdiv crot dyiXai, 

27. The unclean and the abominable and the liars are still 
on the earth, but, though the gates are open day and night, they 
cannot enter. 

ofi fXT) ei(7€X0T) . . , Ttav KOiriSi': cf. LXX of Isa. Hi. i, ovKin 
vpoaTiOriaeTat Sie\6elv Stu <rov dir€pLTp.rfro<i /cat aKadapro^ ; XXXV 8 



174 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII, 1. 

ov /xrj TrapiXBrj eK€t d/ca^apros : also Ezek. xliv. 9. That our 
author is using the Hebrew text and not the LXX is evident 
here ; for though dKa^apros has already occurred four times, he 
does not use it here but koii/os. But there seems to be some 
primitive error in the text. Ahke the passages in the O.T., of 
which our text is a reminiscence, and the following phrase Troiwv 
^SeXvyfia lead us to expect iras Kotvos instead of ttSv kolvov. 
Moreover, the final clause €t fxr] oi y^ypafifxivoi presupposes only 
persons to be mentioned here. If this is right, then we should 
render: "and there shall in no wise enter into it any that is un- 
clean or that maketh an abomination or a lie." NipD'fjS could 
represent ttS? /cotvo? or wav kolvov. 

■noiSiv pSeXoyfjia. Contrast Babylon (xvii. 4) which was full 
of (BSeXvyfiaTa : cf. xxi. 8. iroiav . . . «|'cu8os : and xxii. 15, ttS? 
(jiiXwv Koi TTOitov i^ewoos. 

el jXT) oi yeypaii-ixivoi ( = Q''3"in3n"Dy ''3). This construction, as 
I have pointed out above, implies that only persons should be 
mentioned in the two preceding lines : i.e., ov firj elaeXOr) d<; avrrjv 

TTttS KOivos Ktti ttolCjv (36eXvyfxa. 

Tw PipXiw TTJs liwTJs Tou apvlov. Scc notes on iii. 5, xiii. 8. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

1-2. The description of the Heavenly City that descends 
from heaven for the Millennial reign is continued in these verses. 
The Kttt eSeiiev fioi points back to xxi. 9, 10, where the same 
phrase occurs. In this vision the spirit of the Seer is actually 
translated (cf. xvii. 3) to the Heavenly City, which is shown to 
him by an angel (cf. xvii. i). There is no such translation of 
the Seer's spirit in the vision of the New Jerusalem that is to 
descend from heaven after the Judgment and the creation of the 
new heaven and the new earth (xxi. 5% 4'', 5'', 6^*, 1-4'^", xxii. 3-5). 
This latter vision is part and parcel of the vision of the Judg- 
ment : cf. Koi ti8ov in xxi. i, 2 with the same phrase in xx. 11, 
12. In this vision there is no angelic intermediary. The Seer 
sees the great white throne and Him that sat thereon (xx. 11, 12) : 
he hears God proclaiming the end of the old world and the 
creation of the new (xxi. 5% 4^, 5b) : he sees the new heaven and 
the new earth and the descent of the New Jerusalem, and hears 
a great voice from the throne declaring that God Himself will 
henceforth abide with men (xxi. 1-3). 

1. Kal cSeil^f fxoi : cf. i. i, iv. i, and the preceding note. 

iroTttfioi' uSaros ^w^s- Has " the river of the water of life " 
the same spiritual significance as "the fountains (or 'fountain') 



XXII. 1-2.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 175 

of the waters (or 'water') of life" in vii. 17, xxi. 6 and "the 
water of life" in xxii. 17? It is probable, since the river goes 
forth from the throne of God, and " the fountains of the waters 
of life " may be conceived as forming the source of this river in 
the throne of God. But it is noteworthy that no spiritual signi- 
ficance is attached to this river here, whereas the tree of life 
(xxii. 2) is full of significance in this respect. 

Whatever the relation of "the river of life" and "the 
fountains of the waters of life " may be in our author, their origin 
and meaning were originally different. The idea of the river in 
the Heavenly City springs ultimately from the river in the Garden 
of Eden (Gen. ii. 10). The object of the river in Eden was 
simply to supply the garden richly with water. When, however, 
we come down to Ezekiel, we find that the river which flowed 
forth from beneath the Temple in the coming Kingdom of God was 
possessed of healing powers as regards the natural products of 
the earth (Ezek. xlvii. 8-1 1). Zechariah (xiv. 8) speaks of these 
waters as issuing forth from Jerusalem eastward and westward, 
but attributes no transforming influence to them. Perhaps 
Ps. xlvi. 5 might be cited here, but both the text and its meaning 
are uncertain. Lastly, in 2 Enoch viii. 5 it is stated that the 
river in Paradise in the third heaven flows from beneath the tree 
of life and divides into four streams of honey and milk and oil and 
wine. Thus so far as the O.T. and Judaistic literature down to 
100 A.D. are concerned, this river in Paradise was not associated 
with any powers of spiritual transformation such as we find 
frequently with the phrase " fountain of life " or " water of life." 

So far for "the river of the water of life." Turning now to 
the phrase "fountain of life," we find that this and analogous 
phrases had in Jewish literature a spiritual significance — cf. Jer. 
ii. 13; Prov. X. II, xiii. 14, xiv. 27, xvi. 22; Ps. xxxvi. 10; 
I Enoch xcvi. 6 — just as they have in our author. 

XajXTrpoi' (US KpuCTTaXXoi'. For Aa/A7rpos cf. xv. 6, xix. 8, xxii. 
16, and with ws KpycrraWov cf. iv. 6, ofioia . . . Kpva-TdXXd) — the 
two phrases being exact equivalents (see vol. i. p. 36). 

2. CKTropeuojxci'oi' : cf. Ezek. xlvii, i, /cat ISov luSwp e^crropeucTo 
v7roKa.TO)9ev tov aWpiov kot avaTo\d<; : also 8 ; Zech. xiv. 8. 

Tou 9p6fou Tou 0eoo KOI ToG dpfiou. There is no difificulty in 
this conception nor is there any ground for regarding koi tov 
apvLov with the most recent German critics as an addition. This 
idea with regard to the Messiah is pre-Christian : cf. i Enoch 
Ii. 3, "And the Elect One shall in those days sit on My throne." 
Likewise the Elect One is described as sitting on " the throne of 
glory, xiv. 3, Iv. 4, and as sitting on the throne of His (i.e. God's) 
glory," Ixii. 3, 5 (cf. Ii. 3). Similarly the Lord of Spirits places 
the Elect One " on the throne of glory " (Ixi. 8), " on the throne 



176 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 2. 

of His glory," Ixii. 2. This throne is called the Son of Man's 
throne, Ixix. 27, 29. Finally, it is to be observed that though 
the Lord of Spirits places the Elect One on the throne of glory in 
Ixi. 8, and he judges all men, yet in Ixi. 9, the praises of all are 
directed to the Lord of Spirits. On the other hand, in xxii. 3 of 
our text the phrase koI tov Slpviov may be an addition, though 
there is no conclusive evidence for so regarding it. 

iv p.e'ira) TTJs TrXareias aorfjs. This phrase can be taken either 
with what precedes or with what follows, i. In the former case 
we are to translate as in the R. V. " he shewed me a river . . . 
in the midst of the street thereof." The next sentence then pro- 
ceeds : "And on this side of the river and on that." Here 
ivTev9€v Kai iKeWev have a prepositional force as in Dan. xii. 5 
(Theod.), ets ivTcvOiv TOV x^CXovs TOV TroTa/xov ("IN'TI nsb*? "^Sn) : 
cf. €v6ev Koi ev6ev TT75 ki(3o)tov, }i"lNP Hitpi n?0, in Jos. viii. 33. 
According to this view the river runs down the midst of the great 
heavenly way, and is flanked on either side by the trees of life. 
2. But it is possible to take the passage differently and connect 
the words €V jue'crw Trj<; TrAarcta? avrrjs with what follows, and 
treat evTevdev Koi iKeldev as genuine adverbs (cf. Ezek. xlvii. 7, 
Sei'Spa TToXXa (T<f>68pa evOev koI 'ivB^v (nTDi nto), and John xix. 18, 
IvTivOev KoX ivTtvOey). The resulting construction is quite 
grammatical but the sense is unsatisfactory : " Between the street 
of the City and the river on either side of it was there the tree of 
life." These words presuppose that there was a space between 
the street and the river, and suggest that they ran side by side. 
There are two possible ways of conceiving the arrangement of the 
trees of life. Either these trees are arranged in two rows, one on 
either bank of the river (one row thus coming between the street 
and the river), or they are placed on either side of the space that 
lies between the street and the river. The unsymmetrical char- 
acter of 2. is certainly against it. 

lu'Xoi' £(«)T]s. See note on xxii. 14. This expression is used 
here collectively. In Gen. i. 11 sq. YV. ^^ used collectively. 
Hence our author departs here from the conception of a single 
tree of life as in Gen. ii. 9, iii. 22 ; i Enoch xxiv. 4, xxv. 4-6 — 
perhaps under the influence of Ezek. xlvii. 7, Kai iSov eVt tov 
)^€lXov^ tov TtOTafj-ov hivhpa. ttoXXo. (3"1 }^y) <T<ji68pa evOev kol evdev, 
and 12, CTTi TOV ;^6tXoiJS avTov evdey /cat h'&€v' vav $vXov 
fipuxTLp-ov . . . Koi Icrrat o KopTTO? avTwv ei9 fBpwa-iv /cai 17 avaf^acris 
avTo}v €ts vyUiav. 

iroioui' Kapiroos ScSScKa. This is suggested by Ezek. xlvii. 12, 
which speaks of fresh fruit being produced every month. 

Kara \i.9\va. iKaoroi' diroSiSoui' Tok Kapirok auToo. This is a free 
rendering of Ezek. xlvii. 1 2, 132"'. VC'in^, where the LXX (AQ, 



XXII. 2, 14-16.] VISION OF HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 177 

Other uncials omitting) has r^s Kaii/OTTyros avrov irpuiTO^oXrjaeL — a 
fact which proves our author's independent use of the Hebrew 
text. The greater part of this verse is based on Ezek. xlvii. 12. 

tA <|>uX\a ToO ^uXou €1$ 0<paTreLai' twv iQvdv. Here again our 
author draws directly from Ezek. xlvii. 1 2, nsnnb ^n?y, which the 
LXX has rendered di/aySao-is airwv { = cnb'V (?) : cf. Ezek. xl. 6) 
£is vyUiav. The nations here are those that have survived the 
visitations in chap. xix. and are evangelized by the inhabitants of 
the Heavenly City. 

14-15. This is the next fragment of the description of the 
Heavenly City which is to be the seat of the Millennial Kingdom. 
The persons referred to here are the nations who are contempo- 
raries of this kingdom. 

14. 01 irXui'oi'Tes Tois cttoXos auToik'. See additional note on 
vi. II, vol. i. p. 187 sq. 

The phrase is the equivalent spiritually of 01 vikwi/t€s. Each 
class alike has endured and overcome, and as access to the tree 
of life is here promised to those who have cleansed their robes, 
so in ii. 7 the right to eat of the tree of life is given to those who 
have overcome. 

Iva lorai . . . Kal . . . eiae'XGiuan'. On this combination of 
the future and subjunctive cf. iii. 9. iva is frequently followed 
by the future in our author: cf. vi. 4, 11, viii. 3, ix. 5, xii. 6, 
xiii. 12, xiv. 13. 

The Kai here = " and so " ; for the faithful must first enter the 
City before they can eat of the tree of life : " that they may have 
the right to the tree of hfe and so may enter, etc." To tva 
ea-rat r] l^ovtria avrwv ctti to $v\ov Trj<; (oirj^ we have a remarkable 
parallel in l Enoch XXV. 4, oiSe/xia a-ap$ liovcrCav €;^€i a.\f/acr6aL 
avTOv p.^XP'- '^'* H-^y<^^V'' '<P'0'«ws. 

TO luXoK TT]s £wTJs. See note on ii. 7. 

15. e|w. There can be no question as to the meaning of this 
term here. Our author clearly states that outside the City or 
the gates of the City are all classes of sinners. We might 
compare Ps. ci. 7, " He that worketh deceit shall not dwell 
within my house." In the Pss. of Solomon xvii. 29 the writer 
declares of the Messiah : 

" And he shall not suffer unrighteousness to lodge in their 
midst, 
Nor shall there dwell with them any that knoweth wicked- 
ness." 

Nay, more, like Joel iii. 17 (uAXoyevtis ov SteAewVovTat St' auT^s 
ovk€tl) the writer of this Psalm maintains the exclusion of the 
Gentiles in 31, "And the sojourner and the alien shall dwell with 
them no more." But in our author race distinctions are taken no 
VOL. II. — 12 



178 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 15, 17. 

account of. Character alone is decisive of a man's fitness or 
unfitness. 

oi Koi'€s. If we compare this verse with xxi. 8 we observe 
that they are practically doublets. Thus the ol <f>apfxaKol koI oi 
iropvoi KOI 01 <f>ov(t<; Koi oi ctScoXoXarpai as well as Tras iroilav 
i/rtvSos are repeated almost verbally in xxi. 8. To tois StiAot? koI 
Arrto-Tots in xxi. 8 there is no equivalent, but we may reasonably 
infer with Swete that the Kwes of the verse before us denote the 
same persons as the c/JSeXvy/AcVois in xxi. 8. In other words, the 
persons referred to were either heathens or Jews stained with the 
abominable vice which excluded them from the Heavenly 
Jerusalem, the Spiritual Israel. Anciently the word was used to 
denounce the moral impurities of heathen worship : cf. Deut. 
xxiii. 1 8, "Thou shalt not bring the hire of a whore or the wages 
of a dog unto the house of the Lord thy God." Here " dog " is 
the technical term for a trnj?, or male prostitute, according to the 
inscription in the temple of Astarte at Larnaka. It was likewise 
employed by the Jews of the ist century a.d. to designate the 
heathen : cf. Matt. xv. 22 sq. In Phil. iii. 2 St. Paul applies the 
term to the Judaizing faction in the Christian Church (/JXeVcTe 
Toiis Kwas). See Lightfoot, who well paraphrases iii. 2-3 : " JVe 
are the children, for we banquet on the spiritual feast which 
God has spread before us : tAey are the dogs, for they greedily 
devour the garbage of carnal ordinances, the very refuse of God's 
table." 

On 01 «j>apfiaKol . . . Kal ol ciSuXoXdrpai see xxi. 8 (notes). 

ttSs <^tXwi' Kal Troiuv \J/eu8os. Cf. xxi. 8, Trao't rots if/evSicnv. 
Unless we attach to ttoiwv here the sense of doing with regard to 
a certain object or end, we should have an anticlimax in the 
phrase before us. The meaning then would be : " every one that 
loveth and maketh falsehood his systematic object." In this 
case 6 ttoiwv i/-. would differ from 6 irpda-a-wv if/. The latter 
would mean simply "one who tells lies," "one who practises 
lying," whereas the former would mean rather "one who lies 
deliberately with an object" (see Plato, Charmides^ 162^, on this 
meaning of iroiilv as distinguished from Trpda-aeiv). The (fnXwv 
\j/€v8o^ denotes one who loves lying for its own sake. Here we 
might compare Rom. i. 32, oi fiovov aira ttolovctiv dWa ko) 
avvevSoKOvariv tois TrpaacrovaLV. 

17. This is the last verse belonging to the description of the 
Heavenly Jerusalem, xxi. 9-xxii. 2, 14-15, 17. It cannot 
belong to any other section of the work. It deals with the 
evangelization of the heathen nations as foretold in xiv. 7, xv. 4, 
and implied in xi. 15. 

This expectation is in harmony with most O.T. prophecies — 
as in the Second Isaiah, Haggai, Zechariah, Daniel, and also in 



XXII. 17.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 1 79 

the Apocryphal literature — in Sirach, i Enoch, Testaments XII 
Patriarchs. See my Eschatology, and Wicks, The Doctrine of God 
(in the indexes of both). 

TO TTfcupa. TTViviha has many different meanings in our 
author, i. Either alone, as in xiii. 15, or with ^w^s appended, 
xii. 1 1, it simply means " life." 2. It means personalized living 
beings either {a) as angels, rh. nvevfxaTa tov 6eov, iii. i, iv. 5, v. 6 : 
(d) as men, though in the passages that follow it is the spiritual 
element that is alone emphasized, iv irvev/xaTi, i. 10, iv. 2, xvii. 3, 
xxi. 10, 6 6eos tCiv Trvevfxa.T(i)v twv TTpocfirjToiy, xxii. 6 : (c) as un- 
clean spirits or demons, Tn/evfrnra aKaOapra, xvi. 13, xviii. 2, ttv. 
haifLovLiiiv, xvi. 14. 3. It means the Spirit of Christ. Thus in to 
TTvtvjxa Xiyu, ii. 7, II, 17, 29, iii. 6, 13, 22, xiv. 13*= (where vai, 
Xcyei TO irv(.vfx.a — the Utterance of the Seer — answers like an echo 
the voice from heaven in xiv. 13'''') it is the Spirit of Christ 
speaking through the Seer. For in all the Seven Letters the 
Speaker is Christ: cf. ii. i, 8, 12, etc. Similarly in the present 
passage, xxii. 17, it is the Spirit of Christ that is speaking through 
John. Thus the entire phrase to irvevixa koX rj vvfj.(f)rj means con- 
cretely " Christ and the Church in the Heavenly Jerusalem " — 
that is the Church after the Second Advent, not before it : see 
next note. In such expressions of the prophet the human inter- 
mediary is wholly overlooked, and his utterance assigned directly 
to the Spirit, just as in the O.T. the prophet introduced his 
message with the words : " Thus saith the Lord." We might 
compare i Tim. iv. i, where to TrvcC/Aa prjrws Aeyei means in con- 
crete language: "a certain prophet says expressly": cf. 
Acts xxi. II. 

1^ i'ufji<|»T). In xxi. 9 at the beginning of the description of 
the Heavenly Jerusalem this City is called rj vvjjif^rj : cf. xxi. 2. 
Thus the term has a double meaning : it can denote either the 
Heavenly Jerusalem or its inhabitants, i.e. the Spiritual Israel, 
which is to be the Bride of Christ, just as Israel in the O.T. was 
conceived of as the Bride of Yahweh. It is as the Spiritual 
Israel, as the Church triumphant in the Heavenly Jerusalem, that 
the Bride evangelizes the earth afresh — an evangelization which 
was promised in xiv. 7, xv. 4, and which, when it is accomplished, 
will make true in fact what was already declared as accomplished 
in the counsels of heaven in xi. 15, iyevcro rj /Sao-iAc/a toS koo-ixov 
TOV Kvpiov yjfiCiv kol tov Xptcrrov auTov. England can mean either 
a certain geographical expanse of country or the people who live 
in it. See xix. 9% p. 129. 

epxou. Cf. vi. I. This word seems to be taken universally 
as the reply of the Church to the voice of Jesus in ver. 12. Bu^ 
as we have seen above, the Bride is the Heavenly Jerusalem or 
its blessed inhabitants in the Millennial Kingdom and not the 



l80 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. § 1. 

Church before the Advent. Thus Christ has already come in 
this vision. Further, in line 17^ there can be no question that 
ipX^o-Oo) refers to the coming of him that is athirst to Christ. It 
is, therefore, only natural, apart wholly from the force of the 
term ^ vvfiffir], to take epxov in 1 7*^ in the same sense : i.e. 
as the invitation of the Spirit of Christ, of the Heavenly 
Jerusalem, and of those who accepted the message, to the world 
of men that were still thirsting for life and truth or were willing 
to accept them. Cf. John vi. 35, 6 ipxofievo^ Trpos ifxe ou firj 
■7reLvda~rj, Kat 6 TricrTcvtav eh ifjie ov jxtj Snf/r]crei tt^ttotc : vii. 37, edv 
Tts Sixj/a, ipx^crOo} Trpos ;ue kol Trtvcrw. Cf. the Didache, X. 6, in 
the post-Communion prayer of the Church. 

" Let grace come (iXOeTw) 
And let this world go. 
Hosanna to the Son of David, 
If any one is holy, let him come (ipx^o-do)) : 
If any one is riot, let him repent. 
Come, Lord (t'.e. fiapavadd)." 

We have here a spiritual adaptation of certain parts of our text. 
Here, since the Second Advent of Christ is still in the distance, 
the prayer " Come, Lord " can be taken eschatologically as well 
as spiritually. 

Kal 6 dKou'wi' kt\. The call was to be taken up by such as 
heard it and repented. The hearer is to be regarded as one who 
heard and accepted. 6 8i\|;oii' epxeorOw. Cf. Isa. Iv. i (KD^"^3 
W^u? )y?) ', John vii. 37, idv rts Biij/a, ipxea-Ooi Trpos )U.e koI Trivcrw. 
Cf. also xxi. 6 of our text. 

u8(i>p j^wtJs hiapidv. The phrase recurs in xxi. 6 where it 
rightly has the article tov ^Saros t^s t*^rj<s Swpedv — a fact which 
points to xxi. 6 as really coming later in the text. 



CHAPTER XX. 4-15. 

§ I. Consents. 

This section follows naturally on the elaborate descrip- 
tion of the Heavenly Jerusalem, which had come down 
from heaven to be the abode of Christ and the glorified martyrs. 
After this vision we have another vision of the glorified martyrs 
who alone had part in the first resurrection (xx. 4-6). Then, at 
the close of the Millennial Kingdom, Satan is loosed and leads 
Gog and Magog to the assault of the Beloved City, whereupon 
follows their destruction by fire from heaven, and Satan is cast 
into the lake of fire (7-10). This section closes with a vision of 



aCX. § 1-8.] DICTION AND IDIOMS l8l 

the great white throne, before whose presence the former heaven 
and earth had vanished, of the raising of the righteous and 
wicked from the " treasuries " and from Sheol to be judged, and 
the casting of death and Hades into the lake of fire (11-15). 

This section has suffered from a transposition of the text 
in 4, Most probaby 13 stood originally before 12. Glosses have 
been added at the close of 12 and 14, and the text tampered 
with in 13 on dogmatical grounds. 13* is meaningless as it 
stands. 4-15 with the above exceptions comes from the hand of 
John as we shall now show alike by its diction and idiom. That 
it forms an organic and indispensable element of the Book is 
obvious. 

§ 2. Diction. 

4. 81& T. fiapTupiaf *It]ctoo Kal SiA t. Xoyoi' t. OeoO : cf. i. 2, 9, 
VI. 9, xii. II. ou . . . TO 6r]piov ooSe t. ctKoca auTou : cf. xiv. 9. 
TO >n6i.^o.>{^o. cTrl T. (A^TUTTOi' Kal cm T. x^ipa : cf. xiii. 16. E^aa-i- 
Xeuaaf kt\. : cf. v. 10. 

5. etil<^ci»' = " came to life": cf. ii. 8 (xiii. 14). axpi TeXeaGfj : 
cf. XV. 8, xvii. 17, XX. 3. 

6. 6 ScuTcpos 0<i>'aTO9 : cf. ii. 1 1, xxi. 8, UpeTs . . paaiX- 
cuaouoric : cf. i. 6, v. 10. 

7. Ik Tt]s <|)u\aKT]s : cf. ii. 10 for phrase. 

8. irXarfjaai to, %.^v<t\ : cf. xii. 9, xiii. 14 (xviii. 23), xix. 20, 
XX. 3, 10. iv Tais TeWapcri yt^^iaiS tt]S y^S • ^^' ^^i* ' for the 
phrase, aomyoyeii' outous els t. iroXcfioi': cf. xvi. 14 for the 
phrase. 

10. 6 Sid^oXo; 6 irXai'oii' : cf. xii. 9, o 2arai/as 6 irXavwi/. 
epXi^Grj CIS T. Xi/ifYji' ToCirupds: cf. xix. 20, xx. 14, 15. ottoo Kai : 
cf. xi. 8. Pa<TaviCT0i]aoin-ai : cf. ix. 5, xiv. 10. i^jiepas Kal 
KUKTcJs: cf. iv. 8, vii. 15, etc. cis t. aiuvas t. oXwv>v: cf. i. 6, 18, 
iv. 9, etc. 

11. e4»oyei' . . . koI , . . oux cupe'dir) : cf. Xvi. 20, €<j>vyev kol 
. . . ovx evpeOrja-av. tottos ou^ eupe0T] auTots : cf. xii. 8. 

12. caTaJTas ivoitnov t. 0p6you : cf. vii. 9, ccttwtcs iviLviov t. 
$p6vov, viii. 2, etc. ycypafxixeVojc iv tois j3ipXiois : cf. i. 3. ev 
avTjj yeypaixfjieva : xiii. 8, XX. 15, xxi. 27. 

13. cKpiOrjaai' exao-Tos KaTa toi cpya auTwf. For cKaoros with 
plural verb cf. v. 8 (cf. John xvi. 32), and for jcaTa rot Ipya, 
ii. ^3- ^ ^ ^ 

14. cj3XTi0T](rai' eis t. Xtp,n]»' tou Trvp6^ : cf. 10, 15, xix. 20. 

15. eup^0Ti . . . yeypafxficVos : cf iii. 2 for construction, iv 
T. ^i^Xu)TT)9 ^wTJs: cf. iii. 5, xxi. 27. 

§ 3. Idionis, 
4. irpo<reKu»ni]aai' t6 9t)pioi' : see note on vii. 1 1, 



1 82 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 4. 

iirX TO jieTUTTOj' Kal cm t. x'^P** • see note on xiii. i6, vii. 3. 

6. axpi with subj, : cf. ii. 25, note, vii. 4, xv. 8, etc. 

6. em TouTWK . . . ouk exei iiowiav : cf. ii. 26. 

8. wi' . . . auTwi' : cf. iii. 8, vii. 2, 9, ix. 11, etc. 

18. ?8a»K€i' = " gave up" — a Hebraism in this sense = }n3. 

In two cases the text abandons our author's idiom owing to 
the ignorance of the editor. 

4. Abandonment of the author's idiom by insertion of oiTives 
by editor in tu>v imrfXtKUTfih/iav . . . koI otrivcs oi TrpoaeKVprja-av. 
See note on i. 5. 

11, Tov Kadriii€vov cttI avrov : see note on iv. 2. Our author 
wrote cTTt avTov, but of our author's unique treatment of this 
phrase the editor of xxi. 4-xxii. was ignorant. 

4-6. Vision of the glorified martyrs who reign with Christ 
for a thousand years. 

4. The construction of this verse is difficult. Thus we have 
two clauses, xal cKa^io'av €7r avrous, koX Kpi/xa iSoOrj avTois, inter- 
vening between elSov and its accusative ras ij/vxds. But not 
only is the construction irregular, but the sense is hopelessly 
uncertain from the standpoint of our author. For if we ask 
who are those who seat themselves on the thrones, no satis- 
factory answer can be given. It is not the glorified martyrs; 
for they are first referred to in the words rets i/^vxas twv ttcttc- 
XeKior/AcVwi/. And yet from iii. 21, where it is said that the 
martyrs are to share the throne of Christ, we should expect 
them to be referred to here and to sit on the thrones as Christ's 
assessors. Somewhat in favour of this view is Christ's promise 
to His Apostles in Matt. xix. 28, KaOrja-icrOe koI v/xeh £7rt SwScKtt 
6p6vov<;. Likewise in Dan. vii. 9 (LXX Theod.), eOewpow Iws ore 
(oTov, Theod.) OpovoL iT^Orja-av, and vii. 26 (Theod.), to KpiTrjpiov 
iKaOto-ev (LXX, rj Kpicri<; KaOtaf-Tai), and vii. 22 (Theod.), Ka\ to 
Kpifxa (LXX, t^v KpifTLv) eSwKcv ( + TOis, LXX) ayi'ots ( + tou, LXX), 
v\pi(TTov, we have passages which not only speak of the function 
of judgment as assigned by the Most High to the saints, but 
appear to have suggested the clauses in our text. Cf. i Cor. 
vi. 2 sq., ovK oiSttTc oTi 01 dytoi tov Koafiov xpivovcriv . . . oti 
dyycXovs KpLvov/xev. 

Thus owing both to the ungrammatical structure of the text 
and its unintelligibleness it is not improbable that 6p6vov<;, Kal 
eKaOicrav ctt' avTovs Koi Kpip-a eSoOrj avTols koi was Originally a 
marginal gloss based on Daniel, or rather that this passage has 
got displaced and should be restored after koI iirl tt/v x^P'* 
avTwv. By adopting the latter alternative, as the present editor 
has done, we restore sanity to the text by making it at once 
grammatical and intelligible, and recovering the lost parallelism 
of the passage : i.e. 



XX. 4.] VISION OF THE GLORIFIED MARTYRS 1 83 

Kal etSof T. <|»uxcis t. •ir€'ireXeKi<T(ieVa>i' 8ia t. fiaprupiac iTjaoG 

Kol 8ia T. Xoyoc tou 0eoO, 
Kal [oiTii/€s] ou iTpoaeKui'Y]aai' to 6i]piov 

ouSc T. eiKOfa auTou, 
Kal ouK cXaPoK to \dpayfia eirl to ixeTuirof 

Kol cm T. X^^P'^ auTWK 
-^Kal ciSok^^ 6pokou9 Kal CKdOicac cir* auTOUS 

Kal Kpijjia cSoOt] auTOis. 

This signifies that authority is now vested in the hands of the 
righteous, and not in those of the oppressors of the Church as 
aforetime. 

Twc TTcireXeKiaiieVuv, i.e. beheaded by the ttcXckus — the instru- 
ment of capital punishment in republican Rome. Cf Diod. Sir. 
xix. lOI, pa^Sto-as eTreXeKicrc Kara to irarpLov e6o<;. Joseph. Ant. 
xiv. 7. 4, SkittiW 8e, €Vio"T€iAavTOS avrw HofXTrrjiov diroKTelvai 
'AXc^avSpov Tov ApiaTofSovKov, atrtacra/xcvos tov veavt'cr/cov cttI Tots 
TO TrpcoTOV CIS 'Pco/Atttous i$rjfJiapTr]fxevoL<; tw TreXcKet Si€)(pr]craTO. In 
vi. 9, xviii. 24 we find i<T(j>ayix€viav, the word used in connection 
with the Lamb that was sacrificed, v. 6, 9, 12, xiii. 8. 

8id T. fxaprupiaf 'Irjaou Kal 8id t. Xoyoi' t. fleou. These phrases 
are found in the opposite order in i. 2, 9, vi. 9. Cf. xii. 11. 

[oiTii'es] ou ■npoaeKuvr](Tay ktX. These had all suffered martyr- 
dom according to xiii. 15. The clause gives a further definition 
of those who had been faithful unto death. To regard these as 
forming a second class of the faithful, i.e. the surviving faithful, is 
against the actual statement in xiii. 15, and the presuppositions that 
underlie xiv.-xix. (see pp. 4, 26, 40, 96 ad Jin.) and also against 
the immediate context ; for in that case we should have to attach 
two conflicting meanings to e^rjaav which immediately follows : 
I.e. " lived again " and " continued to live " according as we 
connect it with the first class, the actual martyrs, or the second 
class, the confessors. Moreover, the opening words of 5, 01 
AotTTot Tu)v v€Kpwv, clcaHy imply that the persons referred to in 
4 were among the veKpoi according to the usual phraseology. 

[oiTifes]. This is probably an addition made by the disciple 
who edited these last chapters. See note on i. 5^-6. By its 
omission we should recover our author's normal resolution of 
the participle into a finite verb, i.e. t. TreTreX^Ktcrfxivoyv . . . /cat 
ov TTpoaeKvvrjaav = " who had been beheaded and had not wor- 
shipped." 

-n'poacKu»'T]0'ai' t^ 6T]piof ktX. See vii. 11 n. 

TO xiipayp.a. ittl r. p.4TUTtoy Kal ^m t. x.itpa,. See xiii. 16 («.), 
vii. 3 («.). 

ej^rjoac, i.e. "came to life" (cf ii. 8, xiii. 14; Rom. xiv. 9) in 
human parlance, though in their life in heaven they had been 



1 84 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 4-5. 

more truly alive than when they had been on earth. With this 
first resurrection or manifestation of the glorified martyrs in the 
Millennial Kingdom we should compare that of all the departed 
saints with Christ in i Thess. iv. 14-17, and that of certain 
saints who had been taken up alive into heaven in 4 Ezra vii. 28 
(cf. vi. 26). This line resumes briefly the preceding eight lines. 

epaaiXcuaai' fAexd toG Xpioroo x^^'^'"' "^- Cf. v. 10. The 
earliest authorities for the belief in a temporary kingdom of the 
Messiah are i Enoch xci.-civ. (xciii. 1-14, xci. 12-19), P^s. Sol. 
xi., xvii. ; Sibyll. Or. iii. 1-62; Jub. xxiii. 27-29, 31, 11 ; 2 Bar. 
XXX., xl. 3, Ixxiv. 2, xii. 34 ; i Cor. xv, 23-28. The limits 
assigned to its duration are various. In 4 Ezra vii. 28 sq. this 
kingdom is to endure for four hundred years, and to come to 
a close with the death of the Messiah and all His companions, 
and the world is to return to primeval silence — a statement 
apparently without parallel for its explicitness in Jewish litera- 
ture. In 2 Bar. xxx., on the other hand, Christ returns in glory 
to heaven at the close of the Messianic reign. In 2 Enoch 
xxxii. 2-xxxiii. 2 there is a reference to a period of Sabbatic rest 
of a thousand years after the close of six thousand years of the 
world's history. Barnabas, Ep. xv. 2-8, accepts this view, and 
adds that the Son of God will appear at the close of the six 
thousand years to put an end to the reign of the Lawless one, 
to judge the wicked and to change the sun, moon, and stars. 
At the close of the Millennial period there will be the beginning 
of another world (aXKov Koa-fiov apx^")* ^^^ '^y Eschatology^^ 
pp. 248, 250 sq., 270 sq., 301 sq., 330, etc. Weber^, 373. The 
reckoning of a thousand years was based on a combination of 
Gen. i. 2 and Ps. xc. 4 = 2 Pet. iii. 8. From this it was concluded 
that as each day of creation stood for a world-day of a thousand 
years, so the history of the world would embrace a world-week of 
seven thousand years, six thousand years till the final judgment 
and a thousand years of blessedness and rest. 

5. 01 Xotirol Twi' vi-K^w ouK 2£r]o-ai'. Therefore not even the 
righteous, who had died a peaceful death, have part in this first 
resurrection. We should observe that John, who must have 
been well acquainted with the traditional and current belief, 
that the righteous survivors would be blessed on the advent of 
the kingdom, deliberately ignores it. This can only mean, as 
has been frequently shown in the preceding pages (see p. 183), 
that John held that there would be no righteous survivors on 
the advent of the kingdom. The traditional belief is attested in 
Dan. xii. 12; Pss. Sol. xvii. 50; Sibyll. Or. iii. 371; i Thess. 
iv. 17 ; I Cor. xv. 51-52 ; Asa Isa. iv. 15. 

a^TTj T^ di-icrTaais tj irpwTTj. This must not be construed in a 
purely spiritual sense and taken to mean a death to sin and a 



XX. 5-6.] THE FIRST RESURRECTION 18$ 

new birth unto righteousness, i. The earliest expounders of the 
Apocalypse, such as Justin Martyr, TertuUian, Irenaeus, Hippo- 
lytus, and Victorinus, quite rightly take the words in a literal 
sense of an actual reign of Christ with the glorified martyrs on 
earth. The spiritualizing method which emanated from Alex- 
andria put an end to all trustworthy exegesis of the Apocalypse, 
when adopted in its entirety with reference to the Apocalypse. 
The meaning assigned by the votaries of this method became 
wholly arbitrary, and every student found in the Apocalypse what 
he wished to find (see my Studies in the Apocalypse, 8, 9, 10, 
12, 13, 14, 28, 30, 36, 38, 48, etc.). The earliest expounders 
were right, as they were in close touch with the apostolic time. 

2. Moreover, the Talmud, and other Jewish writings, and 
specially the Jewish Apocalypses, attest a literal reign — and no 
other — of the Messiah, so far as they deal with the question. 

3. The context itself is wholly against taking the words in a 
spiritual sense ; for (a) this resurrection is obviously the guerdon 
of martyrdom, and begins not with the beginning of the Christian 
life but after its earthly close, (b) As Alford rightly urges : " no 
legitimate treatment of it (i.e. the text itself) will extort what is 
known as the spiritual interpretation now in fashion. If, in a 
passage where two resurrections are mentioned, where certain 
\\iv\aX (.t,y](Tav at the first, and the rest of the ve/cpoi elrjo-av only 
at the end of a specified period after the first, — if in such a 
passage the first resurrection may be understood to mean 
spiritual rising with Christ, while the second means literal rising 
from the grave ; — then there is an end of all significance in 
language, and Scripture is wiped out as a definite testimony to 
anything." Hence attempts to revive the spiritualizing inter- 
pretation of the Millennial Kingdom are to be deplored from 
every standpoint. 

But since the first resurrection embraces only the glorified 
martyrs, who return to earth to share the Millennial Kingdom 
with Christ in the Jerusalem which comes down from heaven, it 
is different in character from the second. For only the faithful 
who had undergone martyrdom have part in it, whereas at the 
second resurrection the rest of the faithful and all the unfaithful 
rise to judgment. As we shall see on xx. 12, these two classes 
appear before the great white throne, the former, as we must 
conclude, in their glorified spiritual bodies, and the latter simply 
as disembodied souls — i.e. naked. 

6. By meeting martyrdom on behalf of their faith the 
martyrs are admitted to share in the Millennial Kingdom, are 
not subject to the second death, and accordingly are exempt 
from the Judgment that is to follow on the close of the kingdom. 
Moreover, their priestly character in bringing the knowledge of 



1 86 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 6. 

God and Christ to the nations during the Millennial Kingdom 
appears to be referred to in the expression Upels tov $€ov koL tov 
XpuTTov (see below). 

/iaKdpios Kal ayios. Ma/capios is used seven times — in each 
case in connection with a beatitude — of. i. 3, xiv. 13, xvi. 15, 
xix. 9, XX. 6, xxii. 7, 14. ayios though of frequent occurrence is 
not used in this connection elsewhere in our author. Hence it 
is possible, as Wetstein suggests, that aytos refers to the blessed 
in their priestly capacity (tepcis tov deov) and /xaKapios in their 
kingly (jSao-iAcvcrovcriv). The combination "blessed and holy" 
is found in Jub. ii. 23. 

6 ^)(U)y |X€pos iV' Cf. John xiii. 8, ovk ex^'^ /xe'pos /Atr' ifxov : 
also in xxi. 8 in a different form, to fxepos avrSiv, and xxii. 19. 

€irl TouTO)!'. For eVt in this sense with the genitive cf. ii. 26 
[xi. 6], [xiv. 18]. 

6 Seurepos Odi/aros. This death is defined in xxi. 8 (cf. Matt, 
x. 28). It is mentioned already in ii. 11 as a punishment, from 
which those, who are faithful to the end, are exempt. In xx. 14 
it is clearly an interpolation. 

ouK ex^t e|ouaiai'. Cf. ii. 26, vi. 8, ix. 3, etc. 

iEpci$ ToC 0eoG Kttl ToO Xpio-JoO. Cf. i. 6, lepets tw ^€(3. Now 
it is to be observed that in i. 6 (see note in loc.\ v. 10, and here 
the priesthood and the kingship of those whom John addressed 
are conjoined (in i Pet. ii. 9 they are combined in one expres- 
sion, ^aa-iXeiov Updrcv/xa). But it is further noteworthy that 
V. 10 (iiroirjcras a^TOus • • . ySacriXciav koI lepcts Kal fiacnkevovaiv 
iirl T7J<: y^s) and the present passage connect the priesthood with a 
special period of kingships i.e. that which they are to exercise in 
the Millennial Kingdom, and share with Christ (xx. 6) on the 
earth (v. 10). These facts suggest that the priestly offices of the 
blessed in the Millennial Kingdom have to do with the nations, who 
are to be evangelized during this period (xiv. 6-7, xv. 4), and 
this suggestion receives some support from xxii. 5 where, when 
the eternal reign of all the saints after the Judgment is men- 
tioned ()8ao-i\evo-oucriv ets t. atwi'as t. atwvcov), there is not the 
remotest reference to any special or other priesthood of the 
faithful. 

PaCTiXeuCTouCTiv (ler' aurou. The scene of this reign is given in 
the proleptic vision, v. 10, as cVt t^s y^s. 

7-10. Close of the Millennial Kingdom and of its evange- 
lizing activities. Theretipon follow the loosing of Satan, the march 
of Gog and Magog — all the faithless upon the earth — against 
the Beloved City, their destruction by supernatural tneans, and 
the casting of Satan into the lake of fire. The Seer does not 
say what became of the Heavenly Jerusalem, but its withdrawal 
from the earth with Christ and the glorified martyrs before the 



XX. 7.] LOOSING OF SATAN 1 87 

Judgment is presupposed, while its return to the new earth in a 
renewed form is definitely stated in xxi. 2. Since "the Beloved 
City " in xx. 9 is the Heavenly Jerusalem, the saints referred to 
in the same verse include the risen martyrs and the converts 
from among the nations. 

The same order of events appears in Sibyll. Or. iiL 662-701, 
i.e. the advent of the Messiah, the establishment of His kingdom, 
the attack of the nations on Jerusalem, and the destruction of 
the invading hosts by God. In certain sections (A^ A^, A^) of 
2 Baruch (ist century a.d. ; see my edition, pp. liii. sqq.) the writers 
look forward to a temporary Messianic kingdom preceded by the 
Messianic woes, a beneficent domination of the world by the 
Messiah preceded by the destruction of the antichristian 
powers, and of such heathen powers as had been in any way 
associated with them. In the Son of Man Vision in 4 Ezra xiii. 
the Messianic woes come first (xiii. 30-31), then the manifesta- 
tion of the Messiah (xiii. 32), the assault of the heathen nations 
on the Messiah, and their destruction by Him, xiii. 33-34, and 
the manifestation of the Heavenly Jerusalem, xiii. 36. For yet 
another scheme of the last things see 4 Ezra iv. 56-v. 13% 
vi. 11-28, vii. 26-44 (Box's edition, p. iii). According to a 
contemporary of our author, R. Eliezer ben Hyrkanos or R. 
Eliezer the Great, the woes of the Messiah were to come first, 
then the day of Gog and Magog, and then the Judgment. If we 
pass on to the Coptic Apocalypse of Elias (a Jewish work edited 
by a Christian, 2nd century a.d.) we find the order of events as 
follows : the destruction of Antichrist and his adherents, the 
advent of Christ with His saints, the creation of the new heaven 
and the new earth and the Millennial Kingdom ! In the 
Hebrew Apocalypse of Elijah (3rd century a.d.) Gog and Magog 
appear after a Messianic reign of forty years. On their annihila- 
tion follow the Judgment and the descent of Jerusalem from 
heaven. 

It will be observed that, though each of the works above 
cited differs in some respect from our text, in some respects they 
all agree with it. 

It is obvious at a glance that our author here forsakes the 
apocalyptic style and adopts the prophetic. But he has already 
done so in 6'"*, and in 9-10 he reverts to his apocalyptic style. 
Further, there are no grounds in this section itself for assuming 
a source, since there is not a single construction at variance with 
our author's style, though there are new phrases as might be 
expected in describing new events. 

7. XuSriaeTat. Cf. Xvdrjvai in 3 and the same verb in ix. 
14 used in the same sense. Ik t. <f>ifXaKT]s outoO. Cf. ii. 10 
[xviii. 2] for the word ^vXaKiq. 



1 88 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 8. 

8. ^IcXcuaerai (cf. iii. I2, vi. 2, 4, ix. 3, etc.) ■irXai'Tjaai to. €0Mrj. 
In 3 Satan was cast into the abyss, iva fxi} ■nXavrjarj hi to. (.Ovyj. 

iv Tois Wfforopai Ycuriais ttjs yr\%. Cf. vii. I where this phrase 
has already occurred. 

■rhv riiy Kai HaytLy. Three matters call for consideration here : 
I. The names. 2. The duplication of the invasion by and the 
judgment of the heathen nations, i.e. before and after the setting 
up of the Messianic Kingdom. 3, The comprehension of these 
terms in our text. i. Magog first appears in Gen. x. 2 as a son 
of Japheth, but in the Mass. of Ezek. xxxviii. 2 Magog is repre- 
sented as the land from which Gog came : i.e. " Gog of the land 
of Magog." The LXX (eVi Vu>y koX rrjv yrjv rov Maywy) and 
Peshitto, however, have "toward Gog and ( + 'toward,' Pesh.) 
the land of Magog," a reading which prepares the way for the 
later view current in Judaism, which conceived Gog and Magog 
to be two different leaders. In Ezek. xxxix. 6 Magog seems to 
be the name of a people. Gog is the foe whose invasion from 
the north had been prophesied by Jeremiah (iii.-vi.) and by 
Zephaniah (i. 7), but whose coming had hitherto been looked 
for in vain. The name Gog is undoubtedly ancient ; for it is 
found in the Tel Amarna letters (1400 B.C.) in the form Gagaja 
as a designation of the northern nations. In Jubilees viii. 25 
the land of Gog is mentioned. Gog is identified with the 
Scythians by Josephus (Anf. i. 6. i) and by the Chronicles of 
Jerachmeel (xxxi. 4). In Jub. vii. 19, ix. 8, Magog appears as 
a son of Japheth, as in Gen. x. 2. The same idea that underlies 
the LXX of Ezek. xxxviii. 2 is definitely set forth in Sibyll. Or. 
iii. 512, 519: 

atat croi, Fwy kol Tracnv iffit^ijs a/ia Mayciy . . , 
Yi/'to-TOs Seivrjv iTrnrifiij/ci e$v€(ri TrXrjyi^v. 

and 319 sq. : 

aiat (TOi, X'^P'^ Tcay rj8k Mayojy fxi(TOv ovaa 

By the second century B.C. this invasion of Palestine by the two 
peoples Gog and Magog was clearly expected. 

2. The duplication of the attack on Jerusalem (see p. 46), i.e. 
before and after the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom and 
of the judgment on the heathen nations. The first attestation 
of this conception is, of course, in Ezek. xxxvii. 21 -xxxix. In 
xxxvii. 21-28 the kingdom with the Messiah, the son of David, 
is established after the Captivity. Thereupon follows the final 
attack of the heathen nations upon it in xxxviii. -ix. In the 
fragment, i Enoch Ivi. 5-8, we have a description of such an 
attack. In 4 Ezra xiii. 5, 8-9, 28-35 there is another account 



XX. 8-9.] GOG AND MAGOG 1 89 

of this final assault of the heathen nations on the Messiah and 
on Mount Zion, or the Heavenly City, xiii. 35-36 (cf. 6), just as 
in our text. 

In many of the authorities it is only the hostile heathen hosts 
that are destroyed: cf. Pss. Sol. xvii. 32; 2 Bar. Ixxii. 4; Tobit 
xiii. II, xiv. 6 sq. ; Sanh. 105a; but in most Jewish writings 
after 100 a.d. a harsher view prevails as to the future destiny 
of all the Gentiles. 

Gog and Magog are frequently mentioned in Rabbinic works. 
These nations march against God and the Messiah, Aboda-zara, 
3^ This war and the last judgment were to last twelve months 
according to the Rabbi Aqiba, Edujoth, ii. lo. Other references 
to Gog and Magog will be found in Ber. 7^ and also in the Targ. 
Jer. on Num. xi. 26, where it is recorded that Medad prophesied : 
" In fine extremitatis dierum Gog et Magog et exercitus ejus 
ascendent contra Jerusalem, et per manus regis Messiae cadent, 
et septem annis integris ignem accendent filii Israel ex eorum 
instrumentis bellicis " (cf. also Targ. Jon. in loc). In the Targ. 
Jon. on Ex. xl. 11, Num. xxiv. 17, Gog's armies are mentioned, 
and in the Targ. Jer. on Deut. xxxii. 39 and on Isa. xxxiii. 22. 
See Weber, Bousset, and Volz in loc. 

3. The terms " Gog and Magog " comprehend all the faith- 
less upon the earth. These are all destroyed by fire from heaven 
in 9. Hence the earth is left without inhabitant at the close of the 
Millennial Kingdom. Since the faithful at the close of the 
thousand years withdraw from the earth along with the Heavenly 
Jerusalem, there is no longer upon the earth any in whom is the 
breath of human life. At this point our Apocalypse agrees with 
4 Ezravii. 29-30, which declares that the world will revert "into 
the primeval silence . . . like as in the first beginnings, so that 
no man is left " : cf. 2 Bar. iii. 7, " Shall the world return to its 
nature (of aforetime) and the age revert to primeval silence ? " 

o-ucayaYeii' auTou; eis toi' iroXefioj'. This phrase has already 
occurred in xvi. 14. 

we 6 apiOfjLos auTwc a»s ktX. On the Hebraism iii. 8, xiii. 8, 
12, etc. On the metaphor w? 17 a/A/nos T7S ^aAao-cnys, cf. Gen. 
xxii. 17 ; Jos. xi. 4 ; Judg. vii. 12, etc. The phrase t] afxfj.o^ Trj<; 
6a\d(r<rr]<i has already occurred in a literal sense in xii. 18. 

0. &yi^f](Tay. Cf. I Enoch Ivi. 6 sq. where the Parthians and 
Medes are mentioned : 

" And they shall go up and tread under foot the land of His 
elect ones . . . 
But the city of My righteous shall be a hindrance to their 
horses." 

Also Zech. xii. 3. dvaySaiW is the word always used in connec- 



190 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 9. 

tion with the pilgrims going up to Jerusalem. We might 
compare the " Songs of the Ascents " — the title of certain of the 
later Psalms sung by the pilgrims as they approached the Holy 
City. Cf. Ezek. xxxviii. 9, ir, 16 of the going up of Gog to 
Jerusalem. Bousset and Gunkel explain the avefSqaav of the 
march of Gog and Magog from the outlying periphery of the 
earth to the mountain of God lying in the centre of the earth. 

em TO irXdros ttjs y^s- There are two ways of rendering these 
words. I. "Through the breadth of the earth." This phrase is 
found in the LXX of Hab. i. 6 (in connection with the march of 
the Chaldean army against Jerusalem) where it is a translation 
of pS ''arjICip. 2. It is suggested that this phrase describes the 
goal, towards which Gog and Magog were marching, i.e. 
Jerusalem, which in Ezek. xxxviii. 12 is called the centre or 
navel of the earth. Wellhausen suggests that the Greek phrase 
before us = nips px (Ezek. xxxviii. 11) and is actually identical 
with Ymr\ -lULD = OjU,<j()aXos T^s yrjs (xxxviii. 12). 

eKuKXeoaac. Here and in John x. 24 only in the N.T. 

tV TrapefiPoXV tC}v dYiMK. i.e. the same as the Heavenly 
City. If the heathen nations had the daring to attack the 
supernatural Messiah and His elect (xvii. 14) it is not surprising 
that they should assault His city. 

TTji' TToXii' TTjc T|Yairrjfi,enfj»'. The "Holy City" is rightly here 
designated " the beloved." For a thousand years it has been the 
seat of Christ's Kingdom and the centre of the evangelizing efforts 
of the Church. Thus its record stands out in strong contrast with 
that of the earthly Jerusalem, which according to our author " is 
called spiritually Sodom and Egypt " (xi. 8). As such it rightly 
perished at the hands of the antichristian power of Rome. But 
far other is the destiny of "the beloved city." When Gog and 
Magog have been destroyed by fire and Satan cast down into 
the lake of fire, the Holy City, which had come down from 
heaven, is presupposed to be withdrawn from the sphere of the 
former heaven and the former earth, and after that it has itself 
been renewed (observe xxi. 2, rijv ttoAii/ t-qv ayCav 'lepovaaXrjfji. 
KaiKTji') to return from heaven from God to the new earth. 

That an assault on Christ and the Holy City should be 
deemed an inconceivable event by a few scholars can only be 
due to their want of acquaintance not only with Jewish and 
Christian Apocalyptic but even with the text of our author. For 
in our author we find the Parthian kings making war upon the 
Lamb and the elect (xvii. 14), while in xix. 19 the kings of the 
earth and their armies levy war on Christ and His hosts from 
heaven (xix. 14). These passages refer to events at the initiation 
of the Millennial Kingdom. In 4 Ezra xiii., as in our text, the 
heathen nations (xiii. 5, ;^^, 34) assail the Messiah, who came 



XX. 9-11.] THE GREAT WHITE THRONE I91 

flying with the clouds of heaven (xiii. 3) and brought with Him 
the Heavenly Jerusalem (xiii. 6, 35, 36), but with a flaming 
breath from His lips He burnt them all up so that there was 
nothing more to be seen of them "save only dust of ashes and 
smell of smoke" (xiii. lo-ii, 38). We have here almost a 
perfect parallel to the account in our text from what was 
practically a contemporary Jewish source. For we have a 
supernatural Messiah, a Heavenly Jerusalem established on 
Mount Zion, an assault of the heathen nations, and their 
destruction by fire. There is, of course, one outstanding differ- 
ence between the two accounts, i.e. that whereas these events are 
connected with the first advent of the Messiah in the Jewish 
document, they are incidents belonging to the second advent of 
Christ in the Christian Apocalypse. 

Likewise in 4 Ezra xii. 32-34 we have a description of the 
Messiah destroying the heathen nations — especially Rome. 
Similarly in 2 Bar. xl. i sq., Ixxii. 2 sqq. That He is a super- 
natural Messiah whom the nations have attacked is to be inferred 
from the description in 4 Ezra xiii. 3**, 26, xiv. 9, and 2 Bar. 
XXX. I. We have already become familiar with this conception 
of the Messiah in i Enoch xxxvii.-lxxi. 

KaTcJST] TTUp €K ToO OUpat'oO. Cf. Ezck. XXXVlli. 22, TTVp KoX ^ClOV 

(Spi^io irr' aTUTOf (tov Twy) Koi ctti Travras tov? fxer avTov : xxxix. 6, 
a.Tro(TT€\w TTvp cTTi Fwy, and the references given in the preceding 
note from 4 Ezra in exactly analogous circumstances : 2 Thess. 
i. 8, ii. 8 ; Asc. Is. iv. 18. So far as words go, a perfect parallel 
to KaTe/^T) . . . avTov<i is found in 2 Kings i. 10. 

KaTe'<|>aY€i' outou?. All the hosts of Gog and Magog are 
burnt up — that is all the faithless upon the earth (see note 3 on 
8 above). At the close of 10 we are left to infer that the Holy 
City has withdrawn with all the faithful from the earth. There- 
upon follows the Judgment of tAe risen dead by God Himself, 
from whose presence the former outworn heaven and earth 
vanish into nothingness. 

10. 6 Sid|3o\o$ 6 TrXai'wc. Cf. xii. 9, 6 Saravas 6 TrkavZiv : 
[xiii. 14] xix. 20. epXi^OT] els t^v \\.^v(\v ktX. Cf. xix. 20. oirou 
Ktti. Cf. xi. 8 : also (for ottov without xai) ii. 13, ottou . . . excT, 
xii. 6, 14. Cf. xvii. 9. j3ao-ai'io-0riaoia-ai (cf. ix. 5, xiv. 10). 
y\Y.ipo.% Kal i'uktos (cf. iv. 8, vii. 15, xii. 10, xiv. 11). els tous alGfas 
TWK aXiiivuiv (i. 6, 18, iv. 9, 10, V. 13, vii. 12, x. 6, xi. 15, etc.). 

11-16. Vision of the great white throne and of Him who 
sat thereon. Disappearance of the former heaven and earth. 
Judg7nent of the dead. Death and hell cast into the lake of fire. 
This vision consists of four stanzas of three lines each. This 
vision has suffered at the hands of interpolators. 

11. eiSoK Opowf fji^af. As distinct from those mentioned in 



192 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 11. 

iv. 4, XX. 4, this throne is designated ixiyav. Moreover, whereas 
God has assessors seated on adjoining thrones in Dan. vii. 9, 
here He judges alone. With this line and the text which refers 
to God we might compare Isa. vL i, "I saw the Lord sitting 
upon a throne . . . and His train filled the temple." In our 
text there is not the same explicitness. God is referred to 
indeed under the unmistakable designation 6 Ka$i^[xevo<; iirl tov 
Opovov, but the place of the judgment is not specified. The latter 
is only natural; for before the judgment has taken place (12-15) 
the former heaven and earth have vanished into nothingness (11''°). 
Hence the great white throne is conceived as the only thing 
(save the Heavenly Jerusalem which was to be renewed) that 
survives the annihilation of all that belongs to the first heaven 
and the first earth, and as situated somewhere in illimitable 
space. It is before this great white throne that the risen souls 
clothed in spiritual bodies and unclothed, i.e. those of the 
righteous and of the wicked, appear. Since this throne was 
created before the world (Berisheth rab. i.), as the eternal place 
of God, it could well be conceived as surviving the world's 
annihilation. According to 4 Ezra vii. 33 also, " the Most High 
shall be revealed upon the throne of judgment" after the first 
world has disappeared (vii. 31; see p. 198). It was different, 
however, in earlier Apocalypses, where the Messianic King- 
dom was everlasting on the present earth and was of necessity 
preceded by the Final Judgment. In such cases the Final Judg- 
ment took place upon the earth, and the throne of judgment was 
set up in Palestine, i Enoch xc. 20. In Joel iii. 2, 12, 14-16 
and I Enoch liii. i the valley of Jehoshaphat is the scene of this 
judgment and the agents are the angels (Joel iii. 13). 

The Final Judgment is reserved in our text for God Himself; 
but this Judgment has to do only with the dead, or rather those 
risen from the dead, both good and bad, whereas the judgment of the 
living m xiv. 14, 18-20, xvii. 14, xix. 11-21, xx. 7-10 is committed 
wholly to Christ. In assigning the Final Judgment exclusively 
to the Father even in this limited form (see, however, xxii. 13, 12) 
our author stands apart from the doctrine presented in John 
v. 22, ovSc yap 6 Trarrjp Kpivu ov8iva, dWa t^v Kpicnv iraa-av 
ScSwKci/ Tw Di(S, and Matt. vii. 22, 23, xvi. 27, xxv. 31-46; Acts 
xvii. 31; 2 Cor. v. 10. Cf. i Enoch xlv. 3, Ixix. 27; 2 Bar. 
Ixxii. 2-6. On the other hand, God alone is mentioned in this 
relation in Matt. vi. 4, 6, 14, 15, 18, xviii. 35, while St. Paul 
sometimes ascribes the Final Judgment to God, Rom. xiv. 10, 
and sometimes to Christ, 2 Cor. v. 10. 

XeoKoi/. This epithet may point to the absolute equity of the 
Judgment. Or since according to our text and 4 Ezra vii. 31 
the first world and all that belongs to it have vanished, and 



XX. 11-12.] RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD I93 

according to 4 Ezra vii. 41-42, "there is neither sun nor moon 
nor stars . . . neither shining nor brightness nor Hght, but only 
the splendour of the glory of the Most High " ( = p^^y nna VT), the 
throne of God is Hghted up with the splendour of the Shekinah, 
and hence it is the centre of light in the illimitable vastness of 
space. Whether this is so or not, it is the glory of God alone 
that lights up the universe. See note on t. loiav tov ^cov, 
xxi. 10; also xxi. 23, note. 

oiS diro TOO irpoo-uirou €<|)UY€v r\ yf) koI 6 oupafos. Cf. xvi. 20. 
When we take this line in connection with that which follows, it 
is clear that there is here taught the literal vanishing of the 
former heaven and earth into nothingness. As I have shown in 
my Eschatology^, 127-128, the older doctrine in the O.T. was the 
eternity of the present order of things. This was the received 
view down to the 2nd century b.c. From the ist century B.C. 
onward in Judaism and Christianity, the transitoriness of the 
present heaven and earth was universally accepted. Cf. Mark 
xiii. 31,6 ovpavos Koi rj yij TrapeXeva-ovTai. 

From the words before us we must conclude that before the 
Judgment began both heaven and earth had vanished into 
nothingness. This conclusion is of great importance when we 
come to deal with 13. That this was a contemporary Jewish 
doctrine we find from 2 Enoch Ixv. 6, " when all creation visible 
and invisible . . . shall end, then every man goes to the great 
judgment." See also 4 Ezra vii. 31-36 (in the note on 13 below) 
where the same view is taught. 

Kai TOTTos oox eup^Oi] auTois. See xii. 8 n. 

12. Since the verses that precede and follow 12 consist each 
of three lines, we naturally expect that 12 originally consisted 
of three lines also. When we examine the text we discover one 
or two disturbing glosses. When these are excised this verse is 
parallel in structure to that which precedes and that which 
follows it. But this verse should be transposed after 13, since 
it presupposes it. 

Toos K€Kpous, i.e. the rest of the dead who had no share in the 
first resurrection. Only the dead appear before the great white 
throne. As Christ had judged the quick in a series of judgments 
(see note on 11), so God Himself judges all the dead save those 
who had part in the first resurrection. From 1 1 taken in con- 
junction with 13 it is to be concluded that our author has no 
thought here of a bodily resurrection — save in the case of the 
righteous dead, who would naturally as in i Cor. xv. appear in 
their spiritual bodies. As regards the wicked, however, the 
case is different These would appear simply as disembodied 
souls — "naked" — in a spiritual environment without a body — 
without the capacity for communication with or means of expres- 
voL. II. — 13 



194 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 12-13. 

sion in that environment. Every wicked soul, therefore, would 
be thus shut up within itself and form its own hell even before 
it was cast into the lake of fire. 

[tous ficyciXous koI tous /iiKpou?.] Elsewhere our author 
writes tous fiiKpovs Kal tovs /AeyaAovs : cf. xi. i8, xiii. i6, xix. 5, 
18 (the usual order in the O.T.). But he may have here deliber- 
ately changed the order to emphasize the judgment which awaits 
the great ones of the earth, and which they so often escaped on 
earth. In the O.T. the order t. /xey. koI t. fiiKpov<; is found in 
Jonah iii. 5, but in i Sam. v. 9; Jer. vi. 13, xxxi. 34; Ps. cxv, 
13 we have the usual order tovs /xixpous kol tov<s [McyaXov^. 

Kal Pi.p\ta T\\'oix'^r]<Tav. These books contain a record of all 
that men have done: cf. Dan. vii. 10, (^l/SXol rjvotxOrjcrav : 
I Enoch^ xc. 20, " The other took the sealed books and opened 
those books before the Lord of the Sheep " ; 4 Ezra vi. 20, "The 
books shall be opened before the face of the firmament " ; 2 Bar. 
xxiv. I, "Behold the days come and the books shall be opened 
in which are written the sins of all who have sinned " ; Asc. 
Isa. ix. 22. On these books see my note on i Enoch^ xlvii. 3, 
which deals with three distinct classes of heavenly books, two of 
which are mentioned in our text. 

Kal aXXo PipXioj* i\voiyQii] o icrnv ttjs ^ut];. This book is the 
register of the righteous. Cf. i Enoch xlvii. 3, " The books of 
the living were opened before Him " (see note in loc. ; also on 
iii. 5 of the present text). The explanatory clause looks like a 
gloss. Seeing that this book has already been mentioned with 
the article in iii. 5, xiii. 8, xvii. 8, such a clause is needless at all 
events. The relation of the book of life and the books is well 
stated by Alford. These " books and the book of life bore 
independent witness to the fact of men being or not being among 
the saved : the one by inference from the works recorded : the 
other by inscription or non-inscription of the name in the list. 
So the books could be as the ' vouchers ' for the book of life." 

[Kara ra epya auToii'], This phrase is a mere tautology here. 
It is interpolated from 13, where it rightly occurs. If the dead 
are judged, €k twv yeypafxixivuiv iv tois /?t/3Aiois, that is the same 
thing as saying kKpid-qcrav €KacrTO<; Kara to. tpya avrSv (13). 

13. This verse should be transferred before 12. 

Kal ISuKCK t '•1 6aXaCT<ra f tous fCKpous tous iv t dUTtjt, 

Kal 6 OoraTOS Kal 6 a8T]s cSuKai' tous f€Kpous tous iv aurois, 

Kul iKpLQiqa-av iKaoros kotoI to epY<i auTou. 

This stanza betrays in its present form a hopeless confusion of 
thought, which can only be due to deliberate change of the text. 
The context cannot admit of a resurrection of the physical body 
from the sea — seeing that the sea and everything pertaining to it 



XX. 13.] THE RIGHTEOUS WITH SPIRITUAL BODIES I95 

had vanished. And yet this is the only natural meaning of 13*. 
Hence, if 13* is original and we hold fast to the natural sense, ii^ 
cannot be original. But the originality of 11'' cannot be ques- 
tioned, for xxi. 4*^, 5 presuppose it. Accordingly we must either 
interpret 13" in a wholly non-natural sense as defining not the 
place of departed souls but the means by which certain men 
perished, i.e. the sea, and 13^ as giving the intermediate abode 
of all souls, which had died on sea or land, save only those of 
the martyrs. The general sense then would be : all souls together 
with their bodies — even those lost at sea (13^^) — are given up by 
Hades for judgment before the great white throne. 

But it is only by a quite illegitimate tour de force that such a 
meaning can be wrested from the words. 13" clearly presup- 
poses the sea at once as existing and delivering up the bodies 
that had been engulfed in it, at the same time that Hades 
is represented as delivering up the souls that were in it. Body 
and soul would thus be reunited. The only natural meaning, then, 
of 13^*" is in conflict with the unmistakable statement in ii** that 
sea is now non-existent, and with the presupposition that underlies 
the entire book, i.e. that the wicked rise as disembodied souls 
(see additional note on vi. 1 1).^ Only the righteous are to possess 

^ The doctrine of a bodily resurrection is consistently taught in i Enoch 
xxxvii.-Ixxi. There the general resurrection takes place before the Judgment, 
while the former heaven and the former earth still subsist. In Ixi. 5 we find 
an account of the resurrection of 

" Those who had been destroyed by the desert, 
And those who had been devoured by the beasts, 
And those who had been devoured by the fish of the sea." 

Here quite distinctly a physical resurrection is described. Further in the 
same work in li. i the body and soul are raised separately and reunited at the 
Final Judgment. In the case of the righteous a transformation of the physical 
body into a spiritual is presupposed in the rest of this section (Ixii. 15, 16). 

"And in those days shall the earth also give back that which was 
entrusted to it, 
And Sheol also shall give back that which it has received, 
And hell ( = Abaddon) shall give back that which it owes." 

Cf. also Ps.-Philo, de Biblic. Antiquiiatibus, ill. 10 : 

" Reddet infernus ( = Hades) debitum suum, 
Et perditio ( = Abaddon) restituet paratecen suam, 
Ut reddam unicuique secundum opera sua." 

There is a remarkable parallelism here with our text (13). The doctrine 
of a physical resurrection is enforced dogmatically in 2 Bar. xlix.-li. and 
Sanh. 91*. This was the orthodox Rabbinic belief, and it is expressed in the 
ancient Benediction (Ber. 60'') still recited by the pious Jew every morning : 
"O my God, the soul which Thou gavest me is pure : Thou didst create it 
. . . and Thou wilt take it from me, but wilt restore it unto me hereafter . . . 
Blessed art Thou, O Lord, who restores^ souls to dead bodies" (see Singer, 
Atithorised Daily Prayer Book — Hebrew and English, p. 5). 

hut this crass materialistic doctrine does not belong to the N.T. Such a 



196 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 13. 

bodies, i.e. spiritual bodies. Finally, Sheol in our author is the 
abode, not of righteous but of wicked or indifferent souls. 
As we shall see presently, righteous souls (save those of the 
martyrs) were preserved in " the treasuries." 

Hence we conclude that in 17 0a\ao-o-a tous vcKpows rors cv 
auT^ there is a deliberate change of to, ra/itta into 17 ddXaa-ara in 
order to introduce the idea of a physical resurrection. These 
Ta/xtia (or " treasuries ") contained the souls of the righteous 
(with the exception of the martyrs who were already in heaven), 
whereas ^8r]<i was the abode of the wicked souls. Thus we 
should have : 

•' And the treasuries gave up the dead that were in them, 
And death and Hades gave up the dead that were in 

them. 
And they were judged every man according to their works." 

Our text thus, like the Pauline Epistles, teaches a resurrec- 
tion of persons ("the dead" so called), not a resurrection of 
dead bodies even though in company with souls. The person- 
ality of the righteous is complete — the soul clothed with a spiritual 
body : the personality of the unrighteous is incomplete — the soul 
is without a body — without the power of expressing itself or 
receiving impressions from without. Sin is ultimately self- 
destructive. 

That such deliberate perversions of the text took place early 
— probably in the 2nd century a.d. — I shall show presently. 
In the meantime it is our task to prove that in apocalyptic circles, 
to which our author belonged, it was tke accepted belief that the 
souls of the righteous were preserved in certain " treasuries." 
The word " treasuries " (in the Latin of 4 Ezra promptuaria, and 

in the Syriac of 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch IH^I) clearly goes back 

to the Hebrew D^iXIS, which is used also in the Talmud occasion- 
ally in this sense, and which in the Midr. rabba on Ecclesiastes 
iii. 21 (Weber^, 338) is said to be placed in the heavenly height. 
These treasuries are first referred to in i Enoch c. 5, though not 
by name : 

"And over all the righteous and holy He will appoint 

guardians from among the holy angels, 
To guard them as the apple of an eye, 

doctrine has no part in the Pauline Epistles, Hebrews, or in the Fourth 
Evangelist, nor does it find any countenance in our author, though it was 
enforced by many of the Fathers in the Christian Church from the 3rd century 
onward in opposition to Gnosticism, and other more legitimate doctrines 
within the Church on this question. 



XX. 13.] THE WICKED— DISEMBODIED SOULS I97 

Until He makes an end of all wickedness and all sin, 
And though the righteous sleep a long sleep, they have 
nought to fear." 

To these treasuries only the souls of the righteous were 
admitted. From this passage in i Enoch (early in the ist 
century b.c.) we come down to two Jewish works practically 
contemporary with our author, i.e. 2 Bar. and 4 Ezra. In 
2 Bar. xxi. 23, we have a remarkable confirmation of the 
above emendation of 13*; for in xxi. 23 the angel of death is 
mentioned, then Sheol as the intermediate abode of wicked souls, 
and then the treasuries of the souls of the righteous. These 
treasuries are to be opened after the close of the Messianic 
Kingdom, 2 Bar. xxx. 2, and the souls of the righteous to come 
forth at the Final Judgment. In 4 Ezra iv. 41-42 we find a 
second confirmation of the above restoration of 13*. 

" And he said unto me : Sheol and the treasuries of souls are 
like the womb : 42, For just as she who is in travail makes haste 
to escape the anguish of the travail ; even so do these places 
hasten to deliver what has been entrusted to them from the 
beginning." Here as Sheol (cf. viii. 53) is the abode of unright- 
eous souls, so the treasuries are the abode of righteous souls (cf. 
iv. 35, vii. 80). These treasuries were to restore the souls of the 
righteous at the Final Judgment, vii. 32, 95. These treasuries are 
likewise designated " habitations " (habitacula : cf. " mansions " 
or "abiding places," fiovai, John xiv. 2) in vii. 85, loi, 121. 

We have thus proved that towards the close of the ist century 
A.D. as well as earlier and later the souls of the righteous were 
conceived of as being guarded and at rest (cf. i Enoch c. 5 ; 
4 Ezra vii. 95) in certain places called "treasuries," and that 
from these the souls of the righteous came forth at the Final 
Judgment. 

Such a conception as the above would suit our text perfectly ; 
for the Final Judgment has come, and since it is a Judgment both 
of the righteous and the wicked, we expect some reference to the former 
in our text. By the proposed restoration we recover this reference. 

But the evidence in favour of this restoration is not yet 
complete. For an examination of our author's use of the word 
o.l-t]% shows that he uses it in a bad sense as the temporary abode 
of wicked souls. This is evident from the next verse (xx. 14), 
where it is said that death and Hades are cast down into the 
lake of fire. Hence aSiys bears no neutral complexion in our 
author. Had it done so, it would simply have vanished into 
nothingness like the earth (11''), but it is hurled into the abyss 
where Satan and his servants are tormented for ever and ever. 

Thus, unless the text is restored as above suggested, there 



198 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 13. 

would only be a judgment of wicked souls, but by the above 
restoration we have a General Judgment of the righteous and the 
wicked. 

It is significant that in 4 Ezra vii. 31-36 we find an analogous 
depravation of the text with a like object, that is, to introduce 
the idea of a physical resurrection. As might be expected, the 
thought of the text is thereby hopelessly confused. In vii. 31-36 
we have a description in couplets of the new heaven and the 
new earth taking the place of the old which as corruptible had 
passed away, 

31. *' And it shall be that after seven days the Age, 
which is not yet awake, shall be aroused, 
And that which is corruptible shall perish." ^ 



32" 



32". And the treasuries shall restore those that were committed 
unto them. 

33. And the Most High shall be revealed upon the throne 

of judgment.2 
And compassion shall pass away 
And longsuffering shall disappear.^ 

34. But judgment alone shall remain, 

Truth shall stand and faithfulness flourish. 

35. And recompense shall follow, 

And the reward be made manifest." 

Box, following Kabisch, has through a strange misconception 
obelized 32" as an interpolation. But manifestly 32*^ is the 
intruder. 

ISwKci/ . . eSuKtti'. Here ^ihovai is used absolutely like ins = 

' Here a couplet has been displaced and another interpolated to introduce 
the idea of a physical resurrection. 

32*. " And the earth shall restore those that sleep in her, 
*•. And the dust those that are at rest therein." 

Seeing that the new world has already displaced the old in 31 this couplet 
is wholly at variance with the context. Its aim is to assert the resurrection of 
the body, to rejoin the souls which come forth from the treasuries, 32"=. But 
since the treasuries are prepared for righteous souls only (cf. iv. 35, vii. So, 
95 ; 2 Bar. xxi. 23, xxx. 2 ; i Enoch c. 5) the text would then teach only a 
resurrection of the righteous. But every couplet that follows proves that we 
have here a general resu7-?-ection. The lost couplet clearly spoke of Sheol 
giving up the souls of the wicked for judgment, as the treasuries in 32^^ yield 
up the souls of the righteous. 

* The Syriac here interpolates "And then cometh the end " against all the 
other versions. 

' The Syriac adds "And pity shall be afar ofif" against the Latin and the 
first Arabic versions. The Syr. is supported by the Eth. and Arab^. The 
line appears to be a doublet. 



2CX. 13-15.J THE SECOND DEATH 199 

" to give up." It is not a classical use, nor so far as I am aware 
a Hellenistic one. 

6 Odmros Kal 6 aSrjs. As pointed out in the preceding note, 
aBris can be here only the abode of unrighteous souls (as in 
I Enoch Ixiii. lo xcix. ii, ciii. 7 ; Pss. Sol. xiv. 6, xv. 11), seeing 
that in the next verse it is cast into the lake of fire. Death and 
Hades have already been found together in i. 18 («.), vi. 8 : also 
in Ps.-Philo, De Bibl. Antiqnitatibus. In the latter work the 
destruction of death and Hades are followed as in our text by 
the creation of a new heaven and a new earth. 

" Et extinguetur mors, 
Et infernus ( = Hades) claudet os suum . . . 
Et erit terra alia et caelum aliud." 

The alia and aliud here obviously go back to Itcjoos which as 
distinguished from aAXo? involves a distinction in kind. While 
aAXos simply asserts the negation of identity, ercpos asserts the 
negation of likeness in kind. In 2 Bar. xxi. 23, when Sheol 
and the treasuries have yielded up the souls in them, the new 
world promised by God was to be manifested, xxi. 25. This 
accords with the order of events in our text, xx. 13, xxi. i. 
In 2 Enoch Ixv. 10 it is said that "all corruptible things shall 
pass away, and there shall be eternal life." 

€Kpi9T](Tai' iKao-Tos Kara to, epya auTui'. Cf. ii. 23 ; Ps. xxviii. 4, 
Ixii. 13 ; Jer. xvii. 10 ; Matt. x. 32, 33. 

14-15. These two verses originally formed the concluding 
stanza of this section. The text as it stands is impossible. 
The statement oStos 6 ^avaros Sevre/aos co-Tiv, y] XI/mvi] tov ttv/jos 
can only be made in reference to human beings, who have 
undergone the first death, z'.e. the physical one. Hence, if it 
belongs to the text, it does not do so in its present position. 
Here, though a number of cursives, the Sahidic Version and 
Primasius omit this line, the grounds for its rejection in its 
present position are not to be sought in textual evidence, since 
its intrusion is anterior to all such evidence. The real grounds 
for its rejection are that the statement is absolutely devoid of 
meaning. Even if death and Hades be regarded as persons, we 
cannot conceive (cf. Haussleiter, Z)ie Lateinische Apocalypse, 213) 
how the words 6 6avaTo<s 6 ScvVepos can be applied to them. 
Moffatt suggests that this line was displaced from its original posi- 
tion after 15. There are, in fact, only these two alternatives. Either 
( I ) the line is to be rejected as a gloss, and we must read as follows : 

Kal 6 Qdvaros Kal 6 u8t)9 

€J3Xr|6rio-a»' eis Tr\v \iii.vr]y toC irupiSs, 

Kal 6t Tis oux eupedr) iv rfj ^i^Xu Tijs ^WTJS yeypaii-fKivo^ 

£p\l]01l] £tS Tl]!/ XllXKTJf TOO ITUpOS. 



200 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. § 1. 

Or (2) what appears here as the first and second lines must be 
read as the first, and what appears here as the third and fourth 
Hnes must be read as the second, and ovtos 6 ^avaros 6 ScuVepo's 
ecTTtv, 17 XifjLvrj Tov irvpos be read as the third. This latter arrange- 
ment is not free from serious objections. These are two. 
First, there does not appear any reasonable ground for the 
misplacement of the clause. In the next place, the clause in 
itself is an unmeaning mis-statement. The lake of fire is not 
the second death, but the second death is the lot of those who 
are cast into the lake of fire. The right definition of the second 
death is given in xxi. 8. The present writer, therefore, regards 
the clause as originally a marginal gloss drawn from xxi. 8 and 
subsequently incorporated into the text. 

14. ejSXi^Orjo-av eis ttji' \ifivr\v tou Trup<5s. Cf. 10, xix. 20; Petr. 
Apoc. 8, XifJiVT] Tts r]v fj.eyd\7] Tmrkrjpwfiivr] (3opf36pov ^A-tyo/aeVoi; 
iv <o rjaav avOpinTroi rtvcs aTrocTTpecjioVTi^ t^v 8tKaLocrvvr]v. 

[ouTos 6 Sdmros ktX.] See note above and cf. xxi. 8. 

15. Cf T^ PipXw TTJs £wT]s ktX. Cf. xxi. 27, iii. 5, note, ttji' 
Xip,vnf)f TOU TTupis. See note on ix. i on the significance of this 
phrase. 

CHAPTER XXI. 5», 4*, 5^ 6% 1-4"^ XXII. 3-5. 

Introduction. 

Tke New Heaven^ the New Earth, and the New Jerusalem, 
with its blest inhabitants. 

§ I. Now that all evil has been destroyed for ever, and all 
evil agents have been cast into the lake of fire, that the former 
heaven and earth have vanished, the final judgment brought 
to a close, and death and Hades destroyed, God creates a new 
heaven and a new earth, and summons into being the New 
Jerusalem. In this city, which would never know tears, nor 
grief, nor crying, nor any pain nor curse, God will dwell with 
men, and His throne, which is also that of the Lamb, will be 
in it, and His servants, whose character, as God's own possession, 
shall henceforth be blazoned on their brows, shall serve Him and 
they shall see His Face. And God will cause the light of 
His Face to shine upon them in perpetual benediction, and 
they shall reign for ever and ever. 

That this section was written by our author is undeniable. 
It forms the natural climax and the fitting close to all that has 
gone before, and the nature of the blessedness of the new 
heaven and the new earth and the new city is in keeping with 
all that is foreshadowed in the earlier visions of the Seer. The 
diction and the idiom are our author's. 



XXI. § 2.] DECLARATION OF GOD 20I 

§ 2. Diction. 

XXI. 4^. Ta irpiTO dTrriXdai' : for this USe of aTrcX^eiv cf. 
ix. 12, xi. 14, xxi. I. irapeKdeiv is used in this connection 
in Synoptics and St. Paul: cf. Mark xiii. 31 = Matt, xxiv. 35 = 

Luke xxi. 33 ; 2 Cor. v. 17, ra ap^ata iraprjXOov. 

5\ Kai^A iroiw irdrra. These words summarize the action of 
God on the world. The faithful receive a new name, ii. 17, 
iii. 12 ; they sing a new song, v. 9, xiv. 3; and a new heaven, 
earth, and a new city are created to be their habitation, 
xxi. I, 2. 

6\ Y^Y°*''**'* ^^' ^^^' ^7' 'i^^^V • • • Xcyouo-a rc'yovci'. 

1. 6 irpwTos oupak^s- For this position of TrpaJTo? cf. ii. 5. 
diTTjXOai'. See note on xxi. 4** above. 

2. TTH' TT^Xii' T. dyiaf : cf. xxi. 10. McpouaaX^fi Kain^c : cf. 
iii. 12. KaraPaifouo-ac ck t. oupafou diro tou 6eou : cf. iii. 12, 
xxi. 10. i^TOifxaap.eVTii' us »'u)x<j>T)i' : cf. xix. 7. 

3. ({wukTJs p,€YdXif)s CK TOU Qp6you : cf. xvi. 17, xix. 5. aKT]K(jS(Tei : 
cf. vii. 15, xii. 12, xiii. 6. aurol Xaol auroS lo-OKxai Kai auro; 
lorai 6cos auTUf : cf xxi. 7K 

4*^^. e^aXciv|»ci ktX. : cf. vii. 1 7. ouk carat 2ti : cf. xxii. 3, 5. 
TToi'os : cf. xvi. 10, II. 

XXII. 3. OUK co-Ttti €Ti : cf. xxi. 4^ 6 Opofos tou 6cou Kal tou 
dpf lou : cf. xxii. i. ol SouXoi aurou XaTpeuaouaiv : cf. vii. 15. 

5. ouK €)(ouo-n' \piiav (|>ut6$ Xu^i'ou ktX. : cf. xxi. 23. ^aaiXcu- 
(Tovcriv €ts T. aiufas t. aiucwK : cf. xx. 4. 

Idiom. 

Johannine : XXII. 4. to ocofjia aurou ^tti TtSf p.eTcSTrwj' : see 
notes on vii. 3, xiii. 16. 

5. ou)( cxouCTir xP^^*'*' • • • ^^'i iiXiou : cf. iii. 17 for this 
extraordinary construction. «l>uTia€i eir* auTous : a pure 
Hebraism : see note in loc. Contrast construction in xviii. i, 
xxi. 23. 

Non-Johamiine : XXI. 5. 6 KaOi^/icKos cirl tw Opoi'u : see note 
on iv. 2. 

God will Create the World afresh — Heaven^ Earth, and the 
Holy City. This New Jerusalem — which is not created till after 
the Millennial Kingdom — is always spoken of as belonging to 
the future (i.e. every verb is in the future) : whereas the Jerusalem 
described in xxi. 9-xxii. 2, 14-15, 17 is described as already 
existing, though as yet in heaven. 

acXI. 5% 4*^, 5^ God's Declaration at the close of the Final 
fudgment. 

" The former things have passed away : 
Behold I make all things newP 

We have already (see pp. 151-153) shown that xxi. 1-4" and 



202 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 5, 4. 

xxii. 3-5 belong together and form a description by the Seer of 
the New Jerusalem which is to be the eternal abode of the 
blessed. This poem consists of six stanzas, the first two of 
three lines each and the remaining four of four lines each. 
Next, since it is obvious that xxi. 4^ 5^^ do not really belong to 
what follows nor yet to what precedes in the present text, these 
dislocated lines, as representing the words of Him, from whose 
presence the former heaven and earth had vanished into nothing- 
ness, who has just judged the world (xx. 11-15), and who has 
cast all wickedness into the lake of fire, at once claim their 
rightful position as forming the close of the first creation and 
the beginning of the new. 

5^ Kal el-n^v 6 KaQr]fi.€vo<i iiri f tw 0p<$fu t» 
4**. Ttt TTpolTa dirfjXOai', 
5**. *l8oo Kaifd TTOiw irdvTa. 

This restoration of the order of the text is supported by the 
remarkable parallel in 2 Cor. v. 17, €t ns iv Xpio-rw, Katvr; ktio-is" 
Toi ap^aia TraprjXOev, i8ov yiyoiiv /caiva, St. Paul here, it is true, 
refers to the new or spiritual creation of the individual. But in 
this respect man is a microcosm — an epitome of the universe or 
the macrocosm. 

5*. Kttl etircc. The Speaker here as in i. 8, xvi. i, 17, is 
God Himself, and He speaks, not to the Seer — hence no /aoi is 
added as generally elsewhere in our author: cf. vii. 14, xvii. 7, 
xxi. 6, xxii. 6 — but to the entire world of the blessed. The words 
are most probably conceived as pronounced from the great white 
throne at the close of the Final Judgment. 

t Eiri TW Opokw f. We have an error here traceable probably 
to the disciple of the Seer who edited xx. 4-xxii. When he 
makes an addition, he generally makes a mistake. Cf. xix. 10, 
TrpocTKw^crat aurw, which should be avTov. We should, of course, 
have cTTt Tov Opovov : see iv. 2, note. 

The words 6 Ka6rjfj.ivo^ i-n-l T. Opovov go back to xx. 11, where 
God is so described at the beginning of the Final Judgment. 
Now that character has attained finality and all men have 
entered on the issues of their conduct, and death and Hades 
have come to an end. He that sitteth on the throne makes the 
solemn pronouncement with regard to all that the past : to. 
TrpcoTtt a7rr]X.9av. The first world and all that essentially belongs 
to it as distinct from the second and spiritual world have 
vanished for ever. 

4**. Tcl irpwTa d.TrtjXGai'. With ra Trpwra cf. xxi. I, o yap irpuiro? 
ovpavos Kal yj Trpwrrj yrj a.TrrjXOav. ^V'ith d7rrj\6av cf. ix. 1 2, 
xi. 14, xxi. I. That to. Trpwra airrjXdav is to be taken im- 
mediately in connection with 'iSoii Kaiva Trofw TrdvTa is obvious 



XXI. 5.] THE NEW CREATION 203 

in itself. But there is some external evidence that confirms the 
combination of 4^ and 5"; for, while it is recognized on all 
hands that Isa. xliii. 18, 19 was in the mind of our author here, 
we find on turning to this passage that the two main ideas in 
4* and 5" are already brought together (though in a more 
primitive and limited form), and set forth as a divine utterance 
as here : 

18. jxri fivrjfxoveveTe to. irpGira 

Kol TO. ap)^aLa fir] avWoyl^ecrOe' 

19. 'I80V eyo) TTOiw Kaiva. 

The two ideas are also brought together in 2 Cor. v. 17, ra 
ctp^ata iraprjXOev, ISov yeyovev Katvd. 

5^. 'iSou Kan'o. iroiw irdrra. On the idea of a new heaven and 
a new earth cf Isa. Ixv. 17, Ixvi. 22 ; Ps. cii. 25-26 : see note on 
xxii. I of our text. But in the current Apocalypses this idea 
was a familiar one. Thus in i Enoch xci. 16 (before 170 B.C. ?) 
we find : 

" The first heaven shall depart and pass away, 
And a new heaven shall appear " ; 

in Ixxii. i (before no B.C.): "Till the new creation is accom- 
plished which dureth till eternity "j in xlv. 4 (94-64 B.C.) : 

" And I will transform the heaven and make it an eternal 
blessing and light, 
And I will transform the earth and make it a blessing " ; 

Jub. i. 29 (before 107 a.d.) : "From the day of the creation till 
the heavens and the earth are renewed"; also in 2 Bar. Ivii. 2 
(before 70 a.d.) : 

" And belief in the coming judgment was then generated, 
And hope of the world that was to be renewed was then 

built up. 
And the promise of the life that should come hereafter was 
implanted " ; 

xliv. 12 (after 70 a.d.): "And the new world which does not 
turn to corruption those who depart to its blessedness " ; xxxii. 6 : 
" When the Mighty One will renew His creation " ; 4 Ezra vii. 
75: "Until those times come in which Thou shalt renew Thy 
creation." In the N.T. cf. Matt. xix. 28 ; Acts iii. 21 ; 2 Pet. iii. 
13. The passage in Barnabas vi. 13 (\eyei Se Kvptos 'l8ov ttolw ra 
lo-xaTtt oj? TO. TrpCiTo) has nothing in common with our text. 

5''. [koI \i.yei' rpd^ov Sxi outoi ol Xoyot ttiotoI koi dXrjOiTOt 
eiffii']. As these words cannot be assigned to God, they are 
assigned to an angel. But if we accept this explanation we 
should here have an instance of bathos — an error in style of 



204 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 5-6, 1. 

which our author is never guilty. When God Himself declares 
in the hearing of the Seer that He recreates the world, His 
words do not require to be confirmed either directly or indirectly 
by any angel or archangel. The clause ovtol oi Xoyoi . . . 
aXriOivoC is repeated from xxii. 6, where it is full of significance 
in the mouth of Christ, on may (i) introduce a statement or 
(2) give a reason. But it is not used in the first sense elsewhere 
in our author after ypai/^oi/, cf. ii. i, 8, 12, 18, iii. i, 7, 14, 
xiv, 13. Even if we take it in the second sense ("because") 
the bathos of the statement still remains unrelieved. Hence 5*^ 
appears to be an interpolation. That Christ should solemnly 
authenticate the truth of these visions in xxii. 6 is wholly fitting. 

[6\ Kai tlitiv fioi reyofaf.] Cf. xvi. 17. See note on xxi. s** 
(English translation : see vol. ii. 443, note 3). An interpolation ? 
If original, the words come from God or from the angelns interpres. 
The Seer hears God's first declaration : " Behold I make all things 
new," and following immediately thereupon the words : " They 
have become (new)," After this the Seer sees the new heaven 
and the new earth and the New Jerusalem (xxi. 1-4^^"=, xxii. 3-5). 
On the form yeyovav see Blass, Gram. p. 46. 

XXI. 1-4""°, XXH. 3-5. The vision of the new heaven and 
the new earth and the descent of the New Je7-usalem adorned as a 
bride for her husband. God is to tabernacle with men, and never 
more is there to be grief or pain or tears or death, and all the 
faithful are to reign for ever and ever. 

1. ctSoK oupaeof Kaifoc koi y^f ^o.\.vi\v. On the meaning of 
Ka.iv6% as distinguished from ve'o? see iii. 12, note. On the new 
heaven and the new earth see the note on xxi. 4** above, p. 203. 
In Isa. Ixv. 17 the actual phrase used by our author is found: 
" For behold I create a new heaven and a new earth " 
(HK^nn pKI D-C'nn D'-Otr NIU ^33n-''3) where the LXX has eWai 
yap 6 ovpav6<; Kaivos kol t] y^ Kaivr;. Wetstein quotes the 
Debarim rab. S. xi. : " Cum Moses ante obitum oraret, coelum 
et terra et omnis ordo creaturarum commotus est. Tunc 
dixerunt : Fortasse adest tempus a Deo praestitutum, quo 
renovandus est orbis universus ("lO^y Dti tjnni?). Exivit autem 
vox dicens illud tempus nondum advenisse." See Volz, 296 sqq. ; 
Bousset, J?el. d. Jiidenth. 268 sq. 

6 yoip irpuTos oupai'os Kal kt\. This disappearance of the 
first heaven and the first earth has already been referred to: 
cf. XX. I i''. 

Kol r\ OdXcuro-a ouk eoTii' In. The earliest parallel to this 
statement is found in Test. Levi (109-106 B.C.), iv. i : "Now 
know that the Lord shall execute judgment upon the sons of 
men. Because when the rocks are being rent . . . and the 
waters dried up." Next in the Assumption of Moses, x. 6 : 



XXI. 1-8.] VISION OF THE NEW JERUSALEM 20$ 

" And the sea shall retire into its abyss, 
And the fountains of waters shall fail, 
And the rivers shall dry up." 

Also in Sibyll. Or. v. 159, 160, 447, earai 8* vcrrarita Koxpw ^p6% 
TTore TTOVTos : viii. 236, Tracra daXaaaa ovk€ti ttXovv Ifei. All these 
passages point not wholly to any Semitic horror of the sea in 
itself, but in some degree perhaps unconsciously to its mytho- 
logical connection with the Babylonian myth of the Creation, 
in which the sea is the water monster Tiamat, the special 
opponent of the gods. The omission of the sea by John may 
thus be owing to its evil associations, many traces of which 
survive in the O.T. See articles Dragon, Leviathan, Rahab, 
Serpent, in the Encyc. Biblica. A remarkable parallel in 
Plutarch's De Iside et Osiride 7 should be observed. ,There the 
sea is regarded as an alien element in nature, fraught with 
destruction and disease : oXws 8c Kat t^v BaXarrav Ik Trvpo': 
r/yowrai koi Trapu)pt,(rfi.ivqv, ovBi /JL€po<; ovSe cttoi^ciov dAA. aWolov 

2. Tr\v TToXif TT)v ayiaf MepoocraXTjn Kaifiiii'. This city is either 
wholly distinct from that described in xxi. 9-xxii. 2 — the seat of 
the Millennial Kingdom — or it is that city wholly transformed 
and hence described KaicT]!' : see xxi. 10, note. Since God 
re-creates all things, xxi. 5", the Holy City is either transformed 
or created afresh as are the heaven and the earth. This city is 
clearly distinguished from that in xxi. 9-xxii. 2. In the latter 
the saints reign for a thousand years, and the tree of life stands in 
the street thereof in order that all who were worthy might eat 
thereof, that is, attain to immortality. But in this city there is 
no mention of the tree of life : it is not needed ; for all its 
inhabitants are immortal (xxi. 4'') and reign with God for ever 
and ever (xxii. 5). With this New Jerusalem we might compare 
Heb. xii. 22, ^lepovaaXrjp. iirovpavtw : Gal. iv. 26, 17 Se avoi 'lepov- 
aaXrjfx. : and Phil. iii. 20, rfp-mv yap to TroXtVcv/xa ev oupavots 
VTrdp^ei. 

KaraPaiJ'ouCTai' ck too oupacou dTro tou 9eou. Cf. iii. 12, xxi. 10. 

i^Toi|jiao-fi^»'T]»' us i'o/x<j>TjK. Cf. xxi. 9; Isa. xlix. 18, Ixi. 10. 

Tw dkSpl auTt]s. Cf. 2 Cor. xi. 2 ; Eph. v. 23. 

8. 4)wt^s fieydXiis en too 9p6vou. The throne is that in xix. 11. 
The speaker is probably one of the Cherubim. 

'1800 If) aKT]*'^ TOU 0eou )jictA twc dcOpcairwi', 
Kal aKTjfuaei ^ct' auTCtv. 

The word a-Krjvr] here has nothing to do with the Ta:bernacle 
(pK'D). For in Jewish writings there is no expectation of the 
restoration of the Tabernacle in the Heavenly Jerusalem. Its 



206 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 3. 

place is always taken by the Temple (cf. Weber^, 375-77). But, 
since our author expressly states (xxi. 22) that there will be no 
Temple in the Holy City, that is to be the seat of the Millennial 
Kingdom, it follows that he could not have looked for a restored 
Tabernacle in the New Jerusalem which was to be the everlast- 
ing abode of the blessed. The word crKrjvrj has already occurred 
twice. In xiii. 6 it means God's dwelling, t'.e. heaven, or 
rather (?) " His Shekinah " (see note in loc). In xv. 5, where it is 
found a second time, we have seen that the text is either corrupt 
or interpolated ; for o vaos t^s o-kt^v^s toS fxaprvpiov iv tw oipavio 
is an intolerable, because an unintelligible, expression. 

What, then, is the meaning of o-ktjv^ here? The context 
appears certainly to favour the interpretation suggested by Dr. 
Taylor {Firke Aboth^, p. 44). "The two ('Shekinah' and 
' Memra ') are brought together by St. John . . . o Aoyos o-a/a^ 
eyevcTO, kox co-KiJvwcrev Iv r/fjuv (John i. 14). The word (TKrivq and 
its derivatives are chosen on account of their assonance with the 
Hebrew to express the Shekinah and its dwelling with men — 
compare especially Rev. xxi, 3 : 'iSou r/ a-Krjvr) tov deov /jlcto. twp 
avdpwTToiv Koi (TKrjvwarei. /act* auroiv." Even in xiii. 6, where our 
author is adapting to a new situation an earlier source, the 
probabiUty is that he gives a new meaning to the phrase rrjv 
aK-qvrjv avrov, t'.e. " His Shekinah." 

Moreover, in Lev. xxvi. 11 we have a confirmation of the 
above view. Here the Targum regards the Tabernacle simply 
as the manifestation of the divine presence. The Hebrew (^nnji 
D33n3 ""iarD) " I will set my tabernacle among them " — LXX 
Koi OiqcTdi r-qv hLaBrjKrjv (F, (TKiqvrjv) fxov iv vfxlv — is paraphrased by 
the Targ. Jon. jn^aa ■''\[)'' nrSK' IJT'NI, " I will set the Shekinah 
of My glory among you." In the next verse we have " the 
glory of My Shekinah." The word Shekinah which is used as 
a periphrasis for the divine name is closely associated with the 
conception of the divine glory (N"ip% ip''^, Heb. ip*) as we see 
from the last two passages and throughout the Targums. Cf. 
also Targ. Jon. on Gen. xlix. i, "the glory of the Shekinah of 
Yahweh " : or simply " the glory of God " as in Onk. on Gen. 
xviii. 33. It is employed also as a rendering of "face "when 
used of God: cf. Deut. xxxi. 18, where '3Q TriDX ("I will hide 
my face ") is rendered TUSC p'pon, " I will remove my Shekinah " : 
and of " name " in the same connection : cf. Targums of Onk. 
and Jon. on Ex. xx. 24. 

In the Mishnah and Talmud the Shekinah is the mediator 
of God's presence and activity in the world. Wherever ten 
persons pray together, the Shekinah is in the midst of them 
(Pirke Aboth iii. 9 (150-200 a.d.); Berach. 6"): also where 
three are gathered together to administer justice or where two 



XXI. 3.] GOD DWELLETH WITH MEN 207 

meet to study the Law (Pirke Aboth iii. 9). Where a man and 
his wife lead a pious Hfe the Shekinah is present. Before Israel 
sinned the Shekinah dwelt in each individual (Sota, 3") : and this 
relation was possible afterwards : cf. Pirke Aboth iii. 9. 

From the Shekinah proceeded a brilliancy or splendour {i.e. 
VT). In this the blessed were to share in the next word : cf. 
Berach. 17*, "They delighted themselves in the brightness of 
the Shekinah (ns^DK^n VTO D^ana). On this " brightness," which is 
apparently rendered by our author by So^a, see note on xxi. 23. 

As our author thought in Hebrew, this line and the next 
would probably have run in his mind as 

DiNH ^33 Dy D\nf'K nrstj^ nan 

CTKTjcuo-ci ficr' auTwi' kt\. On o-ktjvovv used of the inhabitants 
of heaven, cf. xii. 12, xiii. 6 : see also vii. 15. With the thought 
compare Lev. xxvi. 11, koI Ot^cto) rrjv SiaOrJKrjv (F, o-ktjv^v: so 
Mass. ''33K'D) fJ-ov iv vfuv . . . 12 . . . Koi eao/xai ifxiv ^eo5 *cai 
v/xcis €(r€<T6e /xov Xa6<s. Ezek. xxxvii. 27, Kal lorai 17 Karacr/ciJ- 
vw(TL<; fiov iv avTois koi ^aofiai avroi? ^£os koI avToi fxov ecrovrai 
Aaos : xliii. 7; Zech. ii. 14 (10), viii. 3, KaraaK-qvoxrw ev fiiaio 
'l€pov(ra\r]fi. 

Xaol auToC. If this reading is original the idea appears to be 
the same as that underlying John x, 16, where though there is 
but one flock {iroi^vri) and one Shepherd, there are many folds 
(avAat). Each Xa6<i forms a fold in the flock, of which God is the 
Shepherd. Possibly, however, XaoC may simply mean as in the 
vernacular " people." But John does not so use Xaoi, and \aos 
seems to be the original reading. See crit. note on Greek text 
in loc. 

Kal auTos t ^ ®*os (act* outwi' corai auTUK 0e(5s f. 

The above text appears in three forms in the MSS, and none 
of them is satisfactory, i. That which is preserved in t<Q and 
many cursives and omits auruiv Qi6% can hardly be original, 
independently of its weak attestation ; for not only is the 
parallelism against it (cf. also xxi. 7), but without avroiv Btcxi the 
line becomes an otiose repetition of the idea in the first two 
lines. The preceding line, koi avTol Xaol avrov eorovrai, requires 
some such parallelism as 6e6<; avrwv. 

2. Since, then, the shortened form of the text in xQ cannot 
be accepted, we have next to consider that attested by A, vg, s^- ^ 
— Ktti avTOS 6 ^£os fiiT avTwv ecrrat awraiv ^€09. Although the line 
is rather full, the sense is not unsatisfactory = " And He — God 
with them — shall be their God," or " God Himself shall be with 
them — their God." But this unemphatic position of avrtov before 
^cos {j.e. the vernacular use of the possessive pronoun — see 



208 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 3-4. 

Abbott, Gram. p. 419 sqq.) is against our author's usage and is 
not what we expect here.^ Since in the preceding line the avrov 
in Xaoi avTov has its normal possessive force in this position, we 
should expect ^€os aurwv in the present line. As " they shall be 
His peoples," so He shall be " their God." 

3. Instead of afruiv 6€6<:, which is against our author's usage 
and also against the context, which here requires a real possessive, 
P and some cursives read ^cos avrwv. This is the reading the 
context leads us to expect, but its attestation is of the poorest 
character. It can only, therefore, be regarded in the light of a 
scribal emendation. 

From the above examination of the MSS it follows that the 
original text has not been preserved in any MS. The corrupt 
readings appear to be due to the incorporation of what was really 
a marginal gloss on xxi. 3*^", i.e. 6 6eo<; fier avTuyv. The original 
may have been (a) xat avros auTwj/ ^eos eo-rai, where the auroiv 
would be emphatic owing to its proximity to auros (see Abbott, 
Gram. p. 421, note i), or ((^) Kat auros lo-Tat ^cos auTw. In any 
case the sense would be : " And He will be their God." The 
usage • of our author would certainly be in favour of {b) : cf. 
xxi. 7. 

4. Ktti e|aX6i\|/ei ktX. See note on vii. 17. Kal 6 ©di^aTos ouk 
larai In. The idea of this line — but not the diction — is suggested 
by Isa. XXV. 8*, " He hath annihilated death for ever " (niDH ^1 
n^3^), which section of Isaiah possibly belongs to the 2nd century 
B.C. Cf. I Cor. XV. 54, Ka.T€Tr66r] 6 Odvaro^ ci? vikos. It will be 
observed that, whereas Aquila and Theodotion incorrectly render 
n^3^ as an Aramaic phrase by cis laxos and the LXX by 
ttrxvVas, our author gives the right sense in a paraphrastic form. 
For first century a.d. testimonies to the belief in the coming 
destruction of death, cf. 2 Enoch Ixv. 10, "All corruptible things 
shall vanish and there shall be eternal life," and 4 Ezra viii. 53 ; 
2 Bar. xxi. 23. See also Moed Qaton, iii. 9, where it cites Isa. 
XXV. 8. 

Since death is destroyed (cf. xx. 14), there is no longer any 
need of the tree of life. All the faithful have won everlasting 
life. There can be no more death, there can be only " more 
life and fuller." 

oure rtiyOo^ outc Kpauyt) outc ■jro»'os ouk eorat In. Cf. Isa. 
XXXV. 10, li. II, "and sorrow and sighing (nnjNl py) shall flee 

1 avTup though occurring very frequently in our author is never elsewhere 
found in this unemphatic position in our text ; nor is avroO. avrijs is found 
once in xviii. 5, but there in a source used by our author, aov is found 
several times in this position : see ii. 2, 19, notes. This unemphatic use of the 
genitive of aurdi, though very frequent in the Fourth Gospel, does not belong 
to our author. 



XXII. 3-4.] BLESSED IMMORTALITY 209 

away." In our text the subject consists of three elements, and 
so also does the LXX of Isa. xxxv. 10 and li. ii, but the words 
of the LXX differ from those in our text, aTrc'Spa 68vvt] koL XvTrrj 
Koi (TT€vayix6<s. See also Isa. Ixv. 19''; i Enoch x. 22, xxv. 6; 
2 Enoch Ixv. 8-9 (A), "They will live eternally, and then, 
too, there will be amongst them neither labour nor sickness nor 
humiliation nor anxiety nor need." 

XXII. 8*. Kttl irac KOTciOefJia ouk cCTxai 2ti. This verse forms 
the fourth line of the stanza, the first three lines of which — xxi. 
^abc — ^g ^ave just dealt with. That this verse belongs to that 
stanza, not only the subject matter, but the very diction is 
evidence. Thus ovk eo-rai ert, which is not found in our author 
outside the description of the New Jerusalem (xxi. 1-4*'"', xxii. 
3-5), has already occurred twice in this stanza, i.e. xxi. 4K The 
words themselves are based on Zech. xiv. 11 (Tiy nNn^-x!> Dim) 
but not on the LXX. The word KaTdde/xa (syncopated from 
KaTavdOcfia) means here, as the context shows, a curse, i.e. an 
accursed thing, and not an accursed person. In itself KardOefxa 
could mean the latter, as avdO^fia ( = Din) can : cf. Gal. i. 8 ; 

I Cor. xvi. 22 ; Rom. ix. 3. 

Kal 6 Op^fos ToO Gcou Kal toG dpfiou ktX. On this conception 
of " the throne of God and of the Lamb," see note on xxii. i. 
Owing to the fact that in the next line only God the Father is 
spoken of, critics have inferred that Kal tov dpviov is here an 
intrusion. But, as I have shown in the note on xxii. i, we find 
in I Enoch Ixi. 8, 9 an excellent parallel ; for, though the Elect 
One {i.e. the Messiah) is seated on God's throne as Judge in 
Ixi. 8, in Ixi. 9 the praises of all present are addressed to God 
and not to the Elect One. Moreover, in our text, xx. 6®, the 
avTov refers to only one of the two Divine Beings in 6^. Cf. 
iii. 21, which speaks of Christ as seated on God's throne, while 
in iii. 19 the O.T. words of Yahweh are used by Christ as His 
own. 01 800X01 auTou XarpeuCTOuo-ii' ktX. Cf. vii. 15, note. 

4. oijforrai to irpoawiroi' aoTou. Cf. Matt. V. 8; Heb. xii. 14. 
This vision of God, which was withheld from Moses (Ex. 
xxxiii. 20, 23), is promised to the faithful in Messianic times in 
Jerusalem in T. Zeb. ix. 8, oif/eaBe avrov iv ^lipova-aXrjfx — a 
promise which appears also in Ps. Ixxxiv. 7 (LXX and Vulg.) 
6<f>6i^(r€Tai o ^£os Ttav Bcdv cv 2i(uv. But this is not the vision 
face to face that is designed in our text and also in 4 Ezra 
vii. 98. In the latter passage the vision of God constitutes the 
seventh and supreme bliss of the righteous. 

"They shall rejoice with boldness, 
Be confident without confusion, 
Be glad without fear; 
VOL. II. — 14 



210 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 4-5. 

For they are hastening to behold the face of Him whom in 

life they served, 
And from whom they are destined to receive their reward in 

glory." 

The capacity for such vision involves likeness of character : of. 
I John iii. 2. Moffatt aptly compares Plutarch {De hide, 79), 
who writes that the souls of men after death "migrate to the 
unseen " and " hang as it were upon Him (God), and gaze with- 
out ever wearying, and yearn for that unspeakable, indescribable 
beauty." 

Kttl TO ofofia auTou ^m tuk fiCTUTrui' aurou. See notes on vii. 3, 
xiii. 16, xiv. I. Cf. also iii. 12. 

6. Kal Kul ouK larat In. Darkness is at an end for ever. 
This clause appears to be the source of the corruption in xxi. 25. 
The expectation here expressed is not found in the O.T. but as 
regards heaven at all events is definitely taught in Philo, De 
Josepho, 24 : ct yovv fiovX-qOur] SLaKvirreiv etaw Tt5 twv Trpay/iarwv, 
ivprjcrtL Tov ovpavov rjfj^epav aliavLov, vvktos Kat iracry]^ (T/ciSs 
d/A€To;(ov, are irepiXafJiTrofievov da-fSea-TOi^ Kot dxiypaTots dStaoraros 
(peyyea-Lv. Cf. also 2 Bar. xlviii. 50. But the conception in our 
text is infinitely finer. The light of the New Jerusalem is not 
due as in Philo to a multitude of unextinguishable and unadulter- 
ated lights, but to the light of God's own presence — always and 
everywhere present. The conception could be deduced from 
Isa. Ix. 19, "The sun shall be no more thy light by day; neither 
for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee ; but the Lord 
shall be unto thee an everlasting light." 

Kal oux iiovtnv xpeiav ^taros Xux^'O" tai <j>ws i^Xioo. Cf. 
xxi. 23*. The future Uovo-lv (A vg. s^- ^, Tic.) is to be preferred 
to €xov(nv. All the verbs in this description of the New Jerusalem 
(xxi. 1-4*^°, xxii. ^"5) are futures. As contra-distinguished from the 
heavenly Jerusalem, that was already in being and was to come 
down from heaven for the Millennial Kingdom, the New Jeru- 
salem, which is not created till after its close, is not yet in being. 
As regards the former, observe the occasional present and past 
verbs in xxi. 9-xxii. 2. The phrase cf>w'; r}\iov (AP : i^toros K 
me s^' 2) had best be regarded as dependent on xp^mv. Such an 
irregularity is not unfamiliar in our author. In fact we have 
Xpe'iav ex^Lv with an ace. in iii. 17 and with a genitive in xxi. 23. 

Kupio; 6 0COS 4>(i)Tiaei ctt* aorous. The construction here 
(<f>wTL(TiL eV, xA, etc.) differs from that in xxi. 23, 17 So^a tov 6€ov 
i<f)<oTL(r€v avrrjv, and in xviii. i, and the sense differs Hkewise. In 
xxi. 23 the meaning is clear : not the physical luminaries, the sun 
and moon, but "the glory of God did lighten" the Heavenly 
Jerusalem (cf. also xviii. i). But here the Greek cfxnTio-ei irr 



XXII. 5.] EPILOGUE OF THE APOCALYPSE 211 

avTovs differs from that in xviii. i, xxi. 23 alike in construction 
and meaning. First, as regards the construction, it must at once 
be conceded that it is peculiar. If our author had wished to 
express the thought "shall shine upon them," "give them 
light," he would have said <fiavu aurots : cf. xxi. 23. Hence 
later MSS omitted the ivt, and herein they are followed by 
WH, Bousset and others. Other editors, such as Alford, Swete, 
and Moffatt, rightly follow XA here, but do not explain the 
anomaly. We can get a good sense, if we explain it as a 
Hebraism. When regarded from this standpoint we next re- 
cognize that KvpLo<; 6 Oeb^ (ftdiTicrei iir avrovs is a rendering 
of Ps. cxviii. 27, 13? "IX>1 ''•' 7H, where for 1X^1 our author found 
TX' or "("xn, which latter he changed into "i'X\ Here the 
Aramaic Targum and the Syriac, Ethiopic, and Arabic Ver- 
sions similarly transform the two clauses into one and pre- 
suppose the text to have been "i^xn and not "ixji. Here, there- 
fore, the i-TTL reproduces p.^ Having discovered the source of 
our author's words the discovery of their meaning ceases to 
be difficult. In Ps. cxviii. 27 the words are a shortened form of 
the priest's blessing in Num. vi. 25 by the omission of V3S (see 
Oxford Hebrew Lexicon, p. 21^), which in its fuller form recurs 
several times as the footnote shows. Hence we should here 
render " The Lord God shall cause His face to shine upon them." 
Here there is 2, personal relation indicated between God and the 
blessed individually. In xxi. 23, on the other hand, no such 
personal relation is indicated. The Holy City is lighted up as a 
whole by the glory of God instead of by the sun and moon. 
Thus the Face which the saints will see in xxii. 4 will shine 
upon them in eternal benediction (xxii. 5). 

(BacriXeuCTouo'ii' cis tous diwi'as twi' aiwfui'. This everlasting 
reign of the saints in the New Jerusalem stands out in strong 
contrast with the Millennial reign in the City which came down 
from heaven before the Final Judgment, xx. 4. 

The Epilogue. 
xxi. 6^-8, xxii. 6-7, i8% 16, 13, 12, 10, 8-9, 20-21. 

Introduction. 

§ I. On this epilogue, which contains the declarations of God, 
of Jesus, and of John, see p. 154. That they come from our 
author cannot be contested, though they have been transmitted 

' In Num. vi. 25 we have Vn (LXX ^tti), in Ps. xxxi. 17 ; Dan. ix. 17 
Vv, and 9 in Ps. cxix. 135, and "nht in Ps. Ixvii. 2. In all cases the LXX 
renders by ivi. But the LXX does not use <p(arl^€iv in these passages but 
iTn<j>a.ivet,v, 



212 REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. Gt^-S, XXII. 6-7, &c. 

in the utmost disorder, and no doubt defectively. The recon- 
struction here given is, of course, tentative. First of all, xxi. 6^-8, 
as containing a declaration of God, singles itself out for con- 
sideration. It cannot possibly belong to the period after the 
Final Judgment; for hope is still held out to the repentant, and 
the doom of the second death has not yet been pronounced 
against the finally impenitent. It must, therefore, belong either 
to the period of the Millennial Kingdom or to that of our 
author. The thought and language are in favour of the latter 
hypothesis. Thus 6 viKthv in xxii. 7 brings vividly before us the 
experiences — actual and apprehended — of the faithful in the 
years 90-96 a.d. : he is the warrior faithful unto death, to whom 
promise after promise is held out, as in ii. 7, 11, 17, 26, iii. 5, 
12, 21, xii. II, XV. 2. Again, xxi. 6'*, cyw t<3 Sti/^tuvTi Scoo-w ck t^s 
Trrjyrjs tov vSaros rrjs C^^s Swpeav, clearly presupposes xxii. 1 7 as 
having preceded it ; for there we have the divine gift described 
without the article : 6 ^eXoov Xa/Siruy vSuip ^w^s Sw/acai/. But for the 
recurrence of the Swpeav here we might have explained the 
articles in xxi. 6*^ from vii. 17. As regards the sorcerers, fornica- 
tors, murderers, and idolaters we are told (xxii. 15) that in the 
Millennial Kingdom they will be excluded from the Heavenly 
Jerusalem : here they are adjudged to be cast into the lake of 
fire (xxi. 8). 

Hence xxi. 6''-8 is to be taken as the divine authentication of 
the Apocalypse as a whole, which God had given to Jesus Christ 
to make known to His servants (as stated in i. i). This declara- 
tion of God is then followed by the declaration of Jesus that He 
had sent His angels to testify these things to the Churches in 
xxii. 6-7, i8% 16, 13, 12, 10, and the Book closes with the testi- 
mony of John, xxii. 8-9, 20-21 (see note on i. 1-3). In 
xxii. 6-21 more than anywhere else in chapters xx.-xxii. we have 
the disjecta membra of the Poet-Seer. We have already assigned 
xxii. 14-15, 17 to the section dealing with the Heavenly Jeru- 
salem which comes down to earth during the Millennial 
Kingdom. The re-arrangement of xxii. 6—22 just given is sug- 
gested by the text itself and confirmed by i. 1-2 (see note in vol. 
i. p. 5 sq.), and is therefore not improbably the order intended 
by the Seer. It is, of course, fragmentary. With a view to its 
arrangement, we observe first of all that Jesus is the speaker in 
12-13, 16, and likewise in 6-7 ; for in these last two verses the 
speaker is distinguished from the angel who showed the Seer the 
things which must shortly come to pass, and the words " behold I 
come quickly " in 7 are naturally spoken by Christ. Moreover, 
as Konnecke and Moffatt have recognized, 12-13, 16 can be 
restored to their original order by reading them as follows : 
16, 13, 12. Thus this section is to be read as follows: 



XXI. 6^S, XXII. 6-7, &c.] DICTION 213 

6-7, 16, 13, 12. Verse 10 — still the words of Christ — comes 
next, "And He saith unto me, Seal not up the words of the 
prophecy of this book ; for the time is at hand." 

I have bracketed 1 1 as conflicting with xxi. 6''-8, which appar- 
ently refer to evangelistic appeals during the Seer's lifetime, 
xxii. 18% as coming from Christ, gives His imprimatur to the 
book. xxii. 8-9 as describing the action of the Seer in relation 
to the angel at its close, and xxii. 20-21 as giving the Seer's final 
testimony form the natural close of the Apocalypse. 

Traces of the hand of the editor are to be found in two pas- 
sages : see § 3 ad fin. Cf. § 3 in Introduction to xx. 4-15 (p. 182). 

§ 2. Diction. 

XXI. 6. t6"aX<|)0 (tal T^'n. Cf. i. 8, xxii. 13. t] Apx^ Kal to 
tA.os : cf. xxii. 13. tw Siv|/cji'ti (cf. vii. 16) Suacu ck ttjs "mjyiis tou 
uSaros TTJS £(i)t)s Swpedc : cf. xxii. 17, vii. 17. 

7. 6 v\.*Mv : see under § i. co-ofiai outw 6eos : cf. xxi. 3. 

8. Tois • • • ^ofEuo-i Kal iTiSpkois Kal 4>apjxaK0is Kal ciSuXo- 
Xdrpais: cf. xxii. 15. t^ ^ip-Hl "ni Kaiop,^*'^ : cf. xix. 20, xx. 10, 
etc. 

6 ddcaros 6 86UT€po$: cf. ii. 11. 

XXH. 6. dWo'TciXci' t. SYycXof auroC : cf. i. I, d'Troo-TeiXas 8ta 
T. oyy. avTov. 

Scilai T. SouXois auTou . . . kv Tdxei : a verbal repetition from 
i. I. 

7. 1806 ?pxop,ai Taxo : cf. ii. 16, iii. 11, xvi. 15, xxii. 12. 
fiUKapios 6 TTjpaii' t. Xoyous T. -n'po(|>T]T€ias t. ^i^Xiou tootou : a 
summary of i. 3 (and the last of the seven beatitudes in this 
Book), xxii. 10, 18. 

18*. fiapTupu : cf. i. 2. r. Xoyous t. 7rpo<|>T)Tcias ktX. : see on 
7 above. 

16. ^yw . . . Iirc^vj^a ktX. : cf. i. I. cyw eijii 1^ pij^a . . . AauciS : 
repeated from v. 5. 6 daTi^p ... 6 -n-puii/os : already in ii. 28. 

13. eyo) to *AX<}>a Kal to 'Q : cf. i. 8, xxi. 6. 6 irpuros Kal 
6 loxciTos : cf. i. 17, ii. 8. x\ dpx^ Kal to tcXos : cf. xxi. 6. 

12. 180O cpxofiai Taxu- See on 7 above. diroSoufai cKdo-Tb) 
<&S t6 cpyof eaTlf auTou: cf. ii. 23, Swcro) . . . cKaarw fcara ra tpya 
vpwv, XX. 13. 

10. X^y€t p,oi: cf. V. 5, vii. 13, x. 9. ji^ a(|>payiarT]s : of. X. 4. 
T. X<Jyous T. ■irpo«(>TiTeia5 t. Pi^X. toutou : see on 7 above. 

6 Kaipos ydp lyyus : cf. i. 3. 

8. Kdyo) 'Iwdi'nfjs : cf. i. I, 4, 9. Iircaa irpoo-KuiTJo-ai ejiirpoaOev 
Tuv iroScli' : cf xix. 10, which, however, is a doublet of this 
passage. Elsewhere John uses irpoa-Kwelv ivwrrtov : cf. iii. 9, 
XV. 4 where this phrase expresses simply homage. toO SeiKcuocros : 
cf. i. I, iv. I, xvii. i, xxi. 9, 10, xxii. i, 6. 



214 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 6*^-8, &c. 

9. tS>v Ty\povvT(t)v r. Xoyoos t. ^i^X. toutou : cf. i. 3, iii. 8, 10, 
xii. 17, xiv. 12. Tw Gew TrpoCTKUKifjaoj' : see note on vii. 11. 

20. fiapTupuK: see 18* above, vai: see i. 7 (note), cpxojiai 
Taxo : see on 7 above. 

'AiJ.r\v : see i. 7 (note). 

§ 3. Idioms. — The constructions are almost wholly normal. 
Here as elsewhere in xx. 4-xxii. the text has apparently been 
normalized by the editor of this section. 

Johannine xxi. 6. Scotu Ik : for this partitive use of Ik after 
StSdvai cf. iii. 9. Not elsewhere in N.T. save in i John iv. 13. 

8. Tois 8e SeiXots . . . t6 fjiepos aoTwi' : a pure Hebraism : see 
note in loc. 

XXII. 8. 6 dKou'o)!': used here as an aorist or perfect as 
elsewhere the participle is used in our author : cf. Scikvuovtos, 
similarly used at the close of this verse. 

Non-Johannine xxi. 6. tu 8n|/wm BoSo-u. According to our 
author's universal usage elsewhere we should expect avrw after 
8d)o-w in this connection: cf. ii. 7, 17, 26, iii. 21. Here appar- 
ently the editor has omitted it and so normalized the text. 

XXI. 8. TT] Xipi'T] Tt] Kaiofi^t'T) may be another such instance : 
cf. xix. 20. 

The Epilogue of the Apocalypse consisting of (/) the declara- 
tion of God, xxi. 6''-8 : (2) the testimony of Jesus, xxii. 6-j, 1 8", 16, 
13, 12, 10 [//], [/4'*-/p].- (j) and that of John, xxii. 8-g, 20-21. 

Here more than anywhere else in chapters xx.-xxii. have we 
the disjecta membra of the Poet-Seer. These fragments clearly 
form the Epilogue of the Book, and a study of these fragments 
leads us to recognize them as coming from three distinct 
speakers — God, Jesus, and John. In xxi. 6^-8 God is clearly the 
speaker. In xxii. 12-13, 16, and likewise 6-7, 10, i8% Jesus 
is the speaker, for in 6-7 the speaker is distinguished from 
the angel who showed the Seer the things that must shortly 
come to pass, and the words "behold I come quickly" 
in 7 are most naturally spoken by Christ, and likewise 
TO, 18*. Moreover, as Konnecke (followed by Moffatt) has 
recognized, 12-13, ^^ should be read as follows: 16, 13, 12. 
Thus the original order of the testimony and declaration of 
Christ was most probably: 6-7, 16, 13, 12, 10 [11], 18** [18*'- 19]. 
The book then closes with the testimony of John xxii. 8-9, 
20-21. xxii. II, i8*'-i9 appear to be interpolations. 

This order, which is suggested by a study of xxii. 6-22, in 
itself harmonizes with that given in the first two verses of the 
Apocalypse, where we are told that (i) God has given to Christ 
this revelation to show unto His servants: (2) that Christ has 
sent and signified it by His angel to His servant John : (3) that 



XXL 6*^-8.] DECLARATION OF GOD 21 5 

John has borne witness of the word of God and of the testimony 
of Christ. 

XXI. 6^-8. The declaration of God as to His own Beings His 
willingness to be gracious to the repentant, His promise of being a 
Father to him that overcometh, and His denunciation of the craven- 
hearted, the unbelieving and impure as destined to be cast into the 
lake that burneth with fire and brimstone — the second death. 

6^. eycJ eijxi T6''A\<})a xal to'O. Here as in i. 8 (where see note) 
these epithets belong to the Eternal Father, whereas in xxii. 13 
they are used by Christ of Himself. 

1^ dpxT) Ktti TO T^Xos. Cf. xxii. 13, see note on i. 8. 

cyu) Tw 8i\|/(ii>'Ti Suacj Ik ttjs irt]YY]s ktX. Based on Isa. Iv. i. 
See note on vii. 17. 

Tou uSaTos Ttjs £wfjs Bupedj'. Observe the articles. We have 
rSwp ^co^s ^inp^av in xxii. 1 7 — which is explicable if xxii. 1 7 pre- 
cedes, but not so if the MSS order of the text were correct. 
On the distinction between rSwp ^w^s and ^Aov ^w^s see ii. 7, 
note. 

7. 6 v\.*Mv KXTjpoi/ofii^orci TaOxo. The victor is here contrasted 
with the cravenhearted in 8. The ravra here refers to the 
Millennial blessedness, the new heaven, the new earth, and the 
New Jerusalem (xxi. 1-4*^", xx. 3-5). Of these " he who 
conquers" is "the heir" ((cXT^poi/ofios). The collocation of 
KkT]povo/jLT^(r€i in this line and auros earai. /xoi vios in the next but 
one shows, as Swete remarks, the close affinity in this respect 
between our author and St. Paul : cf. Rom. viii. 1 7, el Sc re'/cva, 
Koi KkrjpovoixoL ; Gal. iv. 7, ci 8c wios, kol KXr]pov6fio<; 8ia Oeov. 

KQi eaofiai auTw Oeos. This promise was made frequently in 
the O.T. : first to the founder of the nation. Gen. xvii. 7, 8, 
while that in the next line, »cai avros eo-rai /tot utos, is first made in 
reference to Solomon as a representative of the nation, 2 Sam. 
vii. 14, and in Ps. Ixxxix. 26, 27 in reference to David. Nowhere 
in the O.T. can the individual as such claim God as Father. 
This claim is first found in Sir. xxiii. i : later in Wisdom ii. 16 
(see note on Jub. i. 24 of my edition). But in the N.T. the 
normal attitude of the faithful individual to God is that of a 
son to his heavenly Father. Here only in our author is this 
conception brought forward. This sonship is realized in some 
true degree in the present life just as surely as the thirst for 
righteousness (tw Sii/^wvTt) is in some true measure satisfied 
here. 

8. We have here the list of those who have disfranchised 
themselves from the Kingdom of God and gone over into the 
Kingdom of outer darkness. Of these there are mentioned eight 
classes, which fall into three divisions, the first division com- 
prising three classes, the second three, and the third two. 



2l6 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXL 8. 

First division — rots Se SeiXot? ^ koI dirio-Tois kol c/SSeXuy/utevois. 
The SeiXot are not "the fearful" as in the A.V. and R.V. but 
"the cowardly" or "the cravenhearted," who in the struggle with 
the Beast have played the coward, denied the faith, and rendered 
worship to Caesar. SciAi'a has always a bad meaning, and St. Paul 
declares, 2 Tim. i. 7 : ou yap ISwkci' yjixIv o 0e6<s TT-vcv/ta SetXias. 
A man may fear and yet not be SeiAos. In fact the most 
courageous man is he who, notwithstanding his fear of the real 
dangers that beset his advance, goes sturdily onwards. But this 
fear in the N.T. is either <^o^os — a middle term capable of a 
good or of a bad interpretation according to the context — or 
€v\d(3eia. Cf. Phil. ii. 12, fiera <f>o/Sov koX rpo/iov rijv cairrwv 
(Twrrjpiav Karepya^ecrOe. 

Tois . . . diriCTTois. In our author aTrio-Tos means primarily 
" faithless," " untrustworthy." This is to be inferred from the 
use of TTtCTTOS : cf. i. 5, diro 'Irjarov XptcrroC o p,dpTv<; 6 ttiottos ', 
ii. 10, ycvov TTicTTos a-xpL davdrov; ii. 13, iii. 14, xvii. 14.^ Thus 
the aTTio-Tos is closely allied to the SciXds that precedes. As such 
the oLTncTTOL are not coextensive with the SeiAot, for there are 
other grounds than cowardice for such disloyalty. But the 
airicTToi owing to the c/38e\uy/i,eVoi that follows immediately may 
suggest the idea of immorality : cf. Tit. i. 15, rots 8e /xc/xta/i/ievois 
Kol dTTtcTTois ... 16. , . • /38eX.vKTol oi'Tcs Koi aTret^fts. Further- 
more, the aTTtcTToi appear to embrace not only the Christian who 
denies his faith, but also the pagan who rejects it. 

Tois . . . IpScXuYiAeVois. These are those who are defiled 
with the abominations referred to in xvii. 4, 5, connected with 
the worship of the Beast and generally with the impurities of the 
pagan cults, including unnatural vice. Cf. Hos. ix. 10; 2 Enoch 
X. 4, 5, "This place is prepared for . . . those who on earth 
practise sin against nature, which is child corruption after the 
Sodomitic fashion, magic-making, enchantments, and devilish 
witchcraft . . . lies . . . fornication, murder": Apoc. Pet. 17, 
ovTOi Se ^(Tuv ol fiidyavres to. craj/xara cairrcov ws ywatKCS dva<TTpe(f)6- 
fievoi' al 8k /xer avVtov ywatxes . . . ai orvyKOi/jirjdelcraL dXXr^ats a)S 

^ In Toh S^ SeiXotj . , . rb /i^pos aiircov we have a Hebraism where h is 
used in introducing a new subject : see Oxford Hebrew Lexicon, p. 514'' = 
Di5^n ... 3^ ^Th- Cf. I Chron. xxiv. i, Dmp^nD pnj<'J3'?i = " And as for the 
sons of Aaron their courses were" : also vii, i, xxvi. I, 31 (where the LXX 
reproduces by the dat. ); 2 Chron. vii. 21 ; Eccles. ix. 4. In Ezra x. 14 
the LXX has this construction, though it is not found in the Hebrew, where 
possibly the S has been lost : Tracnv roTs iv irbXeaiv TjfiQv . . . iXdirojcyav, 
K3' . . . unv3 -WH '73<'?>. The more usual construction in Hebrew would 
be a nominativus pendens resumed by op'^n. 

* This meaning of Trio-ris, i.e. "faithful," "loyal," is also found in 2 Bar. 
liv. 21 (where see my note), though elsewhere (except possibly in liv. 16) in 
that book it means "believing": cf. xlii. 2, liv. 5, Ivii. 2, lix. 2, Ixxxiii. 8. 
On 4 Ezra in this respect see Box, pp. 67, 143. 



XXI. 8, XXII. 6.] TESTIMONY OF JESUS 217 

av dvY/p Trpos ywaiKa. This class must obviously comprise all 
the pagan world that is so defiled. We thus observe that, 
whereas the first three classes are closely associated in point of 
character, their comprehensiveness steadily widens from faithless 
Christians to the whole body of the impure whether Christian or 

Kal ^ovevcri Kat Tropi'ois Kai <|>ap)iaKois. In xxu. 15 these 
words are found in the reverse order. These sins have already 
been referred to in ix. 21, c/c twv (fiovoiv airSiv ovre ck twv (ftapfxaKUiv 
avTwv 0UT6 €K r^s ■n-o/3V€tas avTwv (see note). See also Gal. v. 
19-21, where Tropvda, cftapfiaKia and «^ovoi (in some MSS) appear 
amongst many other vices. In i Tim. i. 9 we have av8po4>6voL'i, 
7ropvot9, and in Jas. ii. 1 1 <f)6vos and ftoixeta are combined. The 
(jiap/xaKot^ are " sorcerers," as their association with the ciSwAu- 
Aarpats in the next line shows: cf. ix. 20, 21, where they are 
similarly associated. 

clSuXoXdrpais ical irdo-i toTs iJjcuS^ctii'. Cf. ix. 20, xxii. 15. 
Idolatry is the cardinal sin against which our author warns his 
readers. Hence the primary reference is here to Christians. 
As the idols are lies so all the idolaters are liars. The insincerities 
of heathenism, the frauds of its priests as well as all the falsities 
of Christians are here referred to (cf. xiv. 5). Lying and 
duplicity are denounced in the O.T, but in far stronger terms in 
the N.T. 

TO /i^pos ooTui'. The avTwv resumes the eight classes 
mentioned in the preceding datives. On these datives see foot- 
note, p. 216. TTJ Xip.i''n Tjj xaiop,€i/Tj ktX. : cf. xix. 20, XX. 10, 14, 15 
and note on ix. i : 2 Enoch x. 2, " And there were all manner of 
tortures in this place ... 4. This place, O Enoch, is prepared 
for those who dishonour God, etc." 6 Bdvaros 6 Seu'repos. See 
note on ii. 11. 

T^ Testimony of Jesus ^ xxii. 6-7, 16, 13, 12, 10 [11], 18* 

[iS^-ig]. 

XXII. 6-7. That these are the words of Christ is to be con- 
cluded from the declaration in 7, kox tSoii lp^oiLa.i Tayy. Moreover, 
there is a special fitness that He, who is designated ttio-tos Kal 
aK-i]Qiv6% in iii. 14, xix. 11, should authenticate the words of the 
prophecy of this book as ttkttoX kox 6X-t]0ivoi (6). 

6. OoToi oi XcSyoi morol Kai dXT]0ti'oi. Christ here authen- 
ticates the words of the prophecy of this book and as o ttio-tos 
Ktti oAt^^ivo? there is a special appropriateness in His so doing. 
Besides He is therein fulfilling the very task given to Him by 
God in i. i, where we are told that God gave Him this revelation 
in order that He might make it known — ^v {i.e. rrjv diro/caAui/'iv) 
ISwKcv avTw (i.e. 'lr](rov Xpio-TuJ) 6 ^cos Set^ai rots SovAois avrov. 
Cf. 4 Ezra xv. i, 2, *' Ecce loquere in aures plebis meae sermones 



2l8 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 6-7, 18^ 

prophetiae, quos immisero in os tuum, dicit Dominus. 2. Et 
fac ut in charta scribantur, quoniam fideles et veri sunt." 

6 Kupios 6 Geos Toil/ iri'cu/i.dTwi' rlov xpo(t>i]Tb>i'. This is certainly 
a strange expression. Some scholars (Bousset, Moffatt) regard 
the plural as an archaistic detail (cf. i. 4), according to which 
there are a variety of angelic spirits that inspire the prophets. If 
we take this in the sense that various angels were sent at various 
times to instruct the prophets, it is quite unobjectionable, ttvcv- 
/xara is used of the archangels in our author: cf. iii. i, iv. 5, etc. 
But though the sense is unobjectionable, the words themselves can 
hardly bear this meaning. The Trvev/xara are best taken with 
Swete to be the prophets' own spirits filled by the One Spirit 
mentioned in ii. 7, xiv. 13, xxii. 17. When the prophet spake as 
a prophet, it was his spirit that was active (i. 10, xvii. 3, xxi. 10). 
Hence it seems that the text should here be interpreted as a 
similar expression in i Cor. xiv. 32, Trvtv/Aara Trpo^T^Tcov 7rpo<f>i^ai<i 
iiroTOia-a-eTai, where it is the prophets' own spirits that are 
referred to. The divine title in our text has no connection of 
any kind with the very frequent designation of God in i Enoch 
xxxvii.-lxxi. ; 2 Mace. iii. 24, i.e. " Lord of Spirits." In Num. 
xvi. 22, xxvii. 16 the divine title "the God of the spirits of all 
flesh " (^^2'b^^ nnnn ""n^K) has only a general reference to man- 
kind as a whole and not as in our text to the special class of men. 
Twi' ■irpo4>r]Tuii'. As in X. 7, xi. 18, xxii. 9, John associates him- 
self here with the Christian prophets. 

Toi' ayyeXo*' auTou. Here Christ speaks of the angel of xvii. i, 
xxi. 9 as God's angel, and yet in i. i, xxii. 16 he is described as 
Christ's angel. The statements are not incompatible. Seilai 
Tois SouXois . . . iv Tdtxci. This clause is repeated from i. i. 
In fact the words direa-TeiXev T. ayycXov avTOV Set^at t. SovAots avToS 
a Bel y€V(<x6aL iv Ta;^et combine Sei^ai t. SovAots avTov, a Sel 
yevea-9ai iv Td)(^et and airocrTeiXas 8ta tov ayyiXov avrov in i. I. 

7. Kal 180U Ipxofiai raxu. Cf. xxii. 12, where as here it is from 
the lips of Christ; also ii. 5, 16, iii. 11, and xvi. 15, which as we 
have already seen should be restored after iii. 3*. 

p,aKdpio9 6 TTjpwf Tous Xoyous ktX. This is the last of the 
seven beatitudes of the book (see note on i. 3). It is a short 
summary of i. 3, and thus the Book ends as it began in declaring 
the blessedness of those who have kept the words of the 
prophecy; but, whereas it is John that pronounces the first 
beatitude (i. 3), it is Christ that pronounces the last. 

18*. fiapTupu iyu) irdrri tw dKouom tous Xoyous ktX. Here 
the speaker is, as Swete urges, still Christ, who gives His solemn 
imprimatur to the Book. Moreover, as in 16 — fiaprvprja-ai i/uv 
TttCra — the Tovs Xoyous is to be taken as the accusative after 
(/.apTvprjarai and not after d/coJovn, as is usually done : " to every- 



XXII. IffS 16, 13.] CLAIMS OF CHRIST 219 

one that heareth I bear witness to the words of the prophecy of 
this book." As in 7, 10, Christ uses the same phraseology, t. 
\6yovs T. 7rpo(f)r]T€ia^ t. ^l/3Xiov tovtov. 

16. *Eyu 'Itjo-ous iirefi^a toi* a,yye\6v (iou. These words recall 
i. I, KOI ia"^fiavev airoa-TfiXas 8ia tov ayyiXov avTov, and xxii. 6, 
o ^€os . . . dTreo-TciXe tov ayyikov avTov. According to Westcott 
(Add. Note on John xx. 21) a-rroa-TiWw "conveys the accessory 
notions of a special commission and so far of a delegated 
authority in the person sent." It is strange that Abbott {Johan- 
ninc Vocabulary, p. 227) ascribes to these verbs almost the 
contrary meaning : " We are perhaps justified in thinking that 
diroo-TcXXw means ' sending away into the world at large,' but 
irifiTTO} ' sending on a special errand.' " Our author, at any rate, 
appears to use them as synonyms. 

uii.iv : cf. also xxii. 6. The angel of Christ attests the contents 
of this book (ravTa) to the members of the Asian Churches. 
Others think the ifiiv refers to the body of prophets in the 
Johannine school. 

iy<o eijJii 1^ pi^a Kal to yivo<s AaueiS : cf. V. 5> o Xitov 6 Ik rrjs 
(f>vXrjs 'lovSa, 17 pit,a AaveiS : Isa. xi. i, And there shall come forth 
a shoot out of the stock of Jesse and a branch out of his roots 
shall bear fruit; xi. 10; Test. Jud. xxiv. 5. 

"Then shall the sceptre of my kingdom shine forth, 
And from your root shall arise a stem." 

In His own person Christ is at once the root, and the stem and 
branches that spring from the root, and thus combines all the 
Messianic claims of the Davidic family. Thus He forms the climax 
of Jewish Messianic expectation. Our author lays more stress on 
the Davidic descent than Christ did Himself: cf. Matt. xxii. 42-45. 

6 daTTjp 6 Xajiirpo?, 6 irpuii'os. Here Christ is Himself the 
morning star, which in ii. 28 is promised to the faithful. The 
idea is ultimately derived from Num. xxiv. 17, "There shall 
come forth a star out of Jacob," but in the Test. Lev. xviii. 3, 
and probably in Test. Jud. xxiv. i, this passage has been 
definitely associated with the hope of a Messiah from Levi — an 
expectation that was abandoned early in the first century B.C. 
As Christ is the realization of all that Israel hoped for in the 
past (17 pt^a ktA..), He contains in Himself the promise (cf. Luke 
i. 78) of all that is to come (6 aa-Trjp ... 6 Trpwtvos) as " the 
Light of the world," John viii. 12. 

13. In this verse the Son claims all the attributes of the Father. 
In the next verse (i.e. 12) it follows naturally that He designates 
Himself as the Judge of all the world. 

iyu Th ''AX<|>a ktX. : cf. i. 8 (note), xxi. 6, where it is the title 
used by God of Himself. 



220 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 13. 

6 -irpuTos Kttl 6 coxttTos. See note on i. 17, ii. 8 — in both 
cases of Christ. 

^ Apx*| Kol TO W\o$. This title is used by God of Himself 
in xxi. 6. 

The phrase fj apxt] koi to tcXos is an abbreviated form of an 
ancient Orphic saying, which is first recorded in Plato, Leg. iv. 7, 
6 fxiv Bij 6eos ((ScTTTcp koi 6 7ra\aios Xoyov) apx^" ''"* '^°^' reXcvrrfv kol 
/xetra twv ovt<i>v airavrtav l;(0)v. Thus Plato in the 4th century B.C. 
speaks of this saying as even then an ancient one. A scholion 
on this passage gives the original form of it and an explanation : 
6e6v fxkv Tov SrjfjLLOvpyov <ra^ws, 7raA.atov 8e \6yov Aeyei tov 'Opc^iKOV, 
OS iaTiv ouTOS* Zeus o.px/lt Zeus fxea-cra, Atos 8' eK iravra rervKTai, 
Zeus Trvdfx.r]v yaiT^s re koi ovpavov dcrrcpocvTos' kol apxv f^^v outos 
a>s TTOLrjTiKov atriov, TeXevrr] 8k d)s tcXikov, fiicrcra Se ws i^Lcrov ttScti 
Trapaiv. We might Compare the Pauline statement, Rom. xi. 
36, i$ avTOV Koi 81' auTOu koX £is avrov to. Travra, i.e. God is 
the initial cause, the sustaining cause, and the final cause of all 
things. 

This Orphic logion was well known in the ancient world. In 
the first century a.d. it was familiar to the Palestinian Jews, as we 
know from Josephus who quotes it in c. Ap. ii. 22, o ^€os . . . 
auTOS lavToI koi ttSo-iv avrdpKT]^, ap^r] koI /xeaa koi tcAos ovtos tQiv 
TravTcjv. In his Ant. viii. 11. 2 it appears in almost the same 
abbreviated form as in our text : koi tov tStov Oebv . . . os . . . 
ap)(Tj Kol Tekos tS>v aTrdvTwv. In later times it was adopted by the 
Talmudists and given a Jewish turn in the third century a.d. 
by Simon ben Lakish, who strove to derive this ancient Greek 
Orphic saying from the Hebrew word nox (Jer. Jeb. xii. 13*; 
Gen. R. Ixxxi.) ; " for . . . H is the first, O the middle, and n the 
last letter of the alphabet — this being the name of God according 
to Isa. xliv. 6, explained Jer. Sanh. i. 18% 'I am the first <having 
had none from whom to receive the kingdom > ; I am the 
middle, there being none who shares the kingdom with me; 
<and I am the last>there being none to whom I shall hand 
the kingdom of the world ' " (quoted from Jewish Encyc. i. 439). 
It is hardly needful to draw attention to the forced nature of this 
explanation or to point out that O is not the middle letter of the 
Hebrew alphabet — being the 13th from the beginning and the 
loth from the end. 

Turning now from Jewish to Christian writings, we find that 
the early Christian writers were well acquainted with this ancient 
Greek saying. This phrase lies behind the text of the K-^pvyfia 
Hirpov : €is ^eos eo^rtv, os 0Lp)(r]v ttolvtidv hroLrjaev kol tcAoks i^ovaiav 
Ixct. Justin Martyr (^Cohort, ad Gent, xxv.) quotes the saying 
from Plato but ascribes it to the Law of Moses. Irenaeus {Haer. 
iii. 25. 5, " Et Deus quidem, quemadmodum et vetus sermo 



XXII. 12, 10-11.] CHRIST'S COMMAND 221 

est, initium et finem et medietates omnium quae sunt habens " j 
Hippolytus, Refut. omn. Haer. i. 19 ; Clem, Alex, Protrepb. 
vi. 69, Strom, ii. 22. § 132; Origen, c. Cels. vi, 13; Eusebius, 
Praepar. Evang. xi. 13, ap\r]v awros l^wv koX filaa-arov rfii. 

12, 1S06 cpx^f^QL Ta^U' Cf. iii. li, xxii, 7, 20. Kal 6 p,ia06s 
(iou fiex' e'fiou. Cf. xi, 18"^. 6 /itcr^os /u,ov is here " the reward 
which I give," Cf. Isa, xl, 10, Ihov 6 fiia-6o^ airov fier avTOV : 
Ixii. II ; Wisd. v. 15, Kal iv Kvpito 6 fii(r$6<; avrwv. 

diroSoufai iKaaxw a»s to Ipyok itnlv auToG. Cf. ii. 23, xx. I3 ; 
Rom, ii. 6; Prov. xxiv. 12'' (LXX, os dTroStSwcriv cKaorw Kara ra 
€pya avTOv) ; Jar. xvii, 10; Ps. Ixi. 13, 6tl av aTroSwcrcis iKafTTia 
Kara ra Ipya. avrov. Our text seems to have been before i Clem, 
xxxiv, 3. 

10. Here also Christ appears to speak, as Bousset recognizes. 
There is force in His command to issue the Book immediately ; 
" for the time is at hand," As contrasted with Jewish Apoca- 
lypses, such as Daniel (cf. viii, 26, xii. 4, 9) ; i Enoch i, 2, xciii. 
10, civ. 12 ; 2 Enoch xxxiii, 9-1 1, xxxv. 3, etc, which were not 
to be divulged till distant generations, our Apocalypse is to be 
made known by the Seer to his contemporaries. The older 
Apocalypses were referred to as sealed (cf, Dan. viii, 26, in order 
to explain the withholding of their publication till the actual time 
of their author, 

ToOs Xoyous T. irpo((>T)T6ias ktX. Cf. xxii, 7, 1 8. In all three 
cases these are the words of Christ : cf. also i. 3. 6 xaipos y^^P 
cyyos. This clause and the preceding are combined by our 
author in i. 3. The same idea underlies the clause €pxop.ai ra^Qj, 
ii. 16, iii. II, xxii. 7, 12, 20, which is only used by Christ. 

[11. These words can refer only to the contemporaries of the 
Seer. But, since xxi. 6-8 refer also to his contemporaries and 
still proclaim the possibility of free and full forgiveness, this verse 
appears to be a later addition. In xxi. 6^ those who thirst after 
a new life are promised satisfaction, whereas here the door of 
hope is closed absolutely and finally against every class of sinners, 
Ver. 1 1 assumes that finality in character is already arrived at, 
and an unswerving persistence in good or evil, though there is 
still some interval between the vision and the Second Advent ; 
for the circulation of the Book among the Churches (ii,-iii.) and 
the faithful observance of its teaching (xxi. 7, xxii. 7) postulates 
some such interval. And yet the interval is not expected to be 
long; "for the time is at hand" (i. 3, xxii, 10), In Dan. xiL 
10, II no such consideration for the sinner is shown. Besides in 
our author the whole body of the neutral nations have to be 

* Cf. the Egyptian prayer quoted by Reitzenstein [Poimandre!, p. 277) : 



222 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 11, 18^ 

evangelized on the Second Advent when the Millennial Kingdom 
is established : cf. xiv. 6-7, xv. 4, xxii, 2, 17, xxi. 24-26. In the 
face of such an expectation 1 1 is an impossibility. 

& dSlKUC dSlKT](7(lT(ll In, 

Kol 6 puTrap^s puiracOi^Tw 2ti. 

Kal 6 SiKaios SiKaioCTui'Tji' Troirjadra) ?Ti, 

Kai 6 ayios dyiao-Oi^Ta) en. 

We have already on the ground of their contents rejected these 
lines. As regards their form and diction there are further 
objections, though these are not unanswerable in themselves. 
First, as regards their form, it will be observed that, whereas 
universally in our author the second line is parallel with, i.e. 
reproduces the first not in identical but in similar terms, or more 
rarely the second and third lines (as in xxii, 13, 12) reproduce 
the first, in 11, however, it is the third line that is parallel anti- 
thetically to the first and the fourth that is similarly parallel to the 
second. This form of parallelism is not found in our author, though 
there are approaches to it. It is, however, possible to regard the 
first and second lines, and the third and fourth as respectively 
instances of synonymous parallelism. But the antitheses between 
the 6 dSiKoiv and the 6 SiKatos and between the o pvirapo? and the 
6 ayios and between dSiKT^o-aro) and Si/caioo-wTjv Troir]cra.T<a are in 
favour of our taking the stanza as we have done above. Next 
the diction is remarkable. Thus dSixciv, which occurs twice in 
this stanza, means here " to act unjustly," " to sin," whereas in 
the nine cases where it occurs previously in our author it means 
"to hurt," "to damage." Next pwapo^ (cf. oTroOefievoL Trao-a;/ 
pvirapiav in Jas. i. 2 1 in like sense) occurs only here in the N.T. 
in the sense of internal defilement (cf. Job xiv. 4, ns yap Ka6ap6<i 
eoTai diro pxnrov; once of external defilement in Jas. ii. 2), 
pvTravdrjvai here only in N.T., and dytao-^^vat, " to purify oneself 
internally " here only in our author.] 

[18''-19. As Porter {Messages of the Books, p. 293) remarks, 
these words form " an unfortunate ending of a book whose value 
consists in the spirit that breathes in it, the bold faith and con- 
fident hope which it inspires, rather than in the literalness and 
finality of its disclosures." But these clauses, to which there are 
abundant parallels in other books, as we shall see presently, are 
not in the opinion of the present editor from the hand of John. 
For (i) these words presuppose that John looked forward to a long 
period elapsing before the Second Advent, during which the 
Book would be exposed not to the errors incidental to trans- 
mission but to the deliberate perversion of his message both in 
the way of additions and omissions. 

But we know that John looked for the speedy Advent of 



XXII. isMq.] interpolated passage 223 

Christ and the Millennial Kingdom — an expectation which is 
expressed repeatedly in the words epxa/xai Taxv, iii. 11, xxii. 7, 
12, 20. 2. The style is unlike that of John. Thus we have tmv 
XdyoDV Tov ^i^Xlov t^s 7rpo<^7;T€ias Tai;rr;s in 1 9, whereas, as in xxii. 7, 
10, 18, we should expect t. Xoywv t. Trpo(f>r]Teia<; t. /3i/3\iov tovtov. 
Next after tous Aoyoi;s in 18* we shall expect, not cV avrd, but 
€ir' avTOUs. Again, instead of dc^eAci ... to /xepo's avrov diro tov 
$vXov T77S C<j)r]<; we should expect dc^eXci ... to fxepo^ avTOV iv 
TiS ^vX(i) T^s C^^ijs : cf. XX. 6, xxi. 8, or t^v l^ovcriav avrov lirl to 
|vXov t^s Cw^5 : cf. xxii. 14. 3. The nature of the penalty is not 
what we should expect. The extreme penalty that can befall the 
evildoer in this Book is not the plagues singly or collectively, but 
the being cast into the lake of fire. The plagues are concerned 
with temporal punishments, not with eternal. Exclusion from 
the tree of life is mentioned, it is true, in 19. 4. 18^-19 intro- 
duce a wrong note in these last verses. 

On the above grounds I have bracketed these clauses as an 
interpolation. 

Next, the custom of appending such warnings claims our 
attention. We first find them in Deut. iv. 2, ov irpoa-Orja-ca-Of. 
Trpos TO prip.a o iyw ivrfWofxaL vfxiv, koI ovk ctc^eAeiTe ciTr' 
avTov: xii. 32: I Enoch civ. 10, "And now I know this 
mystery, that sinners will alter and pervert the words of 
righteousness in many ways, and will speak wicked words." As 
opposed to this, Enoch requires that they should "not change or 
minish aught from my words" (civ. 11). In the Letter of 
Aristeas (33-41 a.d. ?) 310-311, it is said that, when the Greek 
translation of the O.T. was completed, "they bade them 
pronounce a curse in accordance with their custom upon any 
who should make any alteration either by adding anything or 
changing in any way whatever any of the words which had been 
written or making an omission. This was a very wise precaution 
to ensure that the book might be preserved for all the future 
time unchanged." A terrible judgment is foretold (2 Enoch 
xlviii. 7-8) for those who tamper with the words of this book. 
In Josephus (c. Ap. i. 8) the writer claims a most faithful trans- 
mission of the ancient books of the O.T. Sv^Aov 8' eortv Ipyw, ttws 
Tj/tets irp6<si\x.i^v Tol'i tSt'ots ypdixfxacn' Toaovrov yap atwros -^Sr} 
Trapw)(y]K0T0^ ovre irpoaOtivai tl<; ov^kv ovSe dc^cAeu' avrwv ovre 
iniradiivai TeToXfxrjKev. It was not unusual for writers, Christian 
and Jewish, to attempt to secure a faithful transmission of their 
works by appending solemn adjurations that the scribes should 
in no wise change or tamper with the text. Cf. Irenaeus in 
Eusebius, H.E. v. 20. 2 : opKi'^w o-c tov fX€Taypaif/6/xevov TO /SljSXlov 
TOVTO . . . iva di'Tt^aAjjs b fieTeypanj/co Kal KaTop9(n<Tr]<i auro Trpos to 
dvTiypac^ov toSto . . . Kal tov opKov 6fxoiw<: fxeTaypdij/ns : and Rabbi 



224 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 8-9. 

Meir in Sota 20% " My son, be careful ; for it is a divine work : 

if thou writest, were it but a letter more or less, it is as if thou 

wert destroying a world." 

ri> (i^pos afirou dirS Tou ^oXou ktX. The Holy City mentioned 

here is that which is associated with the Millennial Kingdom. 

The tree of life was in this city (xxii. 2).] 

8-9, 20-21. Johjis testimony and closing words, 

8-9. Of these verses we have already found a doublet in 

xix. 9-10 (see notes), which was probably from the hand of the 

disciple that edited the Book after John's death. 

8. Kayo) ^W&.vvx\% 6 cIkouuv Kat pXcTrwi'. Cf. 2 Cor. xii. 4, 
^Kovo-ev apprira, Dan. xii. 5, "And I Daniel saw." At the close 
of his words the author gives his name as at the beginning (i. i). 
Observe the participles are in our author's usage equal to aorists 
or perfects. 

Iircaa irpoaKui'TJo-ai cfjiirpoaflci' twc ttoSui' tou dyyt'Xou. See note 
on xix. 10. Worship in the sense of prostration is here involved, 
though not divine worship : cf. irpoaKWiLv ivw-n-Lov in iii. 9, xv. 4 
of simple homage. Yet even such homage is refused by the 
angel. The phrase may be equivalent to irpoa-Kvi'^crai avrov (see 
notes on xix. 9-10 (5°), vii. 11). 

TOU 8eiKi'uon-6s |Jioi TauTa. Cf. i. I, iv. I, xvii. i, xxi. 9, 10, 
xxii. I, 6. Here the participle ^ Set^avTos. 

9. Spa \t,r\' (TuvSouXos crou clp.i ktX. Our text appears to be 
the source of Asc. Isa. vii. 21, " And I fell on my face to worship 
him, but the angel who conducted me (or rather 'showed to 
me ' i.e. os eSci^e /aoi : for the Ethiopic is capable of this meaning 
and the Latin and Slavonic Versions = ' instructed me ') did not 
permit me but said unto me : ' Worship neither throne nor 
angel': and viii. 4-5, 'What is this which I see, my lord?' 
5. And he said : *I am not thy lord but thy fellowservant.' " The 
Apocryphal Gospel of Matthew iii. 3 (Tischendorf, p. 59) seems 
also to show signs of the influence of our text : " Benedic me 
servum tuum. Et dixit ei angelus : Noli te dicere servum, sed 
conservum meum ; unius enim domini servi sumus." Our text 
is a strong prohibition of angel worship (dprjo-Kiia twv dyycAwv, 
Col. ii. 18). That this was practised by the Jews before the 
Christian era is to be inferred from Tob. xii. 15, "I am Raphael, 
one of the seven angels : 12. When thou didst pray ... I brought 
the memorial of your prayer before the glory of the Lord : " Jub. 
XXX. 20 : Test. Dan vi. 2, " Draw near to God and to the angel 
that intercedeth for you; for he is a mediator between God 
and man : " ^ Test. Lev. v. 5, where Levi prays to the angel who 
conducts him to make known to him his name that he might 

^ This idea of an angelic mediator is found already in Job v. I, xxxiii. 
23 sq. ; Zech. i. 12. 



XXII. 9, 20.] YEA, I COME QUICKLY 22$ 

call upon him in the day of tribulation, and the angel replies : 
" I {i.e. Michael) am the angel who intercedeth for the nation of 
Israel":^ i Enoch Ixxxix. 76.^ The fact that frequent admoni- 
tions against the worship of angels are to be found in Jewish 
writings confirms the view that this cult did prevail in Judaism. 
Cf. Mechilta Sect. "nn% Parash. 10, where R. Ismael ben Elisha 
(fior. 100 A.D.) forbids the worship of any kind of angels (quoted 
from Lueken, p. 6) : Jer. Berach. ix. 13% where men in necessity 
are bidden to pray to God and not to Michael or Gabriel : 
Aboda Zara, 42'', where offerings to Michael are denounced as 
offerings to the dead. In Shabbath 12*^ men are commanded 
by R. Jehuda (4th century a.d.) not to pray in Aramaic since the 
angels did not understand Aramaic. On the other hand, in the 
Jer. Qiddushim at its close (Lueken) permission is given to ask 
the angels for their intercession. For other proofs that, notwith- 
standing strong prohibitions against the cult of angels, this cult 
did survive in Judaism, see Lueken, Alichael, 6—12. 

From Christian sources we know of the prevalence of angel- 
olatry among the Jews: cf. Preaching of Peter (Clem. Alex. 
Strom, vi. 5), /t-irjSe Kara 'louSatous (rcySecr^e, koX yap iKclvoL . . . 
ovK cTTicrravTat XarpevovTcs ayycA-ots : Celsus in Origen, C. Cels. 
v. 6, irpwTOV ovv Twv 'lovSaiuiV 6avfid^€i.v a$Lov, €i . . . tovs . . . 
dy-ycXovs a-e/Sovcn. 

That this superstition passed from the Jews to the Christians 
our text is sufficient evidence: cf. also Col. ii. 18 ; Asc. Isa. vii. 
21, viii. 4, 5; Justin Martyr, Aj>o/. i. 6, dA.X' eKcivov re, koI tov 
Trap' avTOv vlou iXOovra . . . Kal tov ruyv dAXwv CTroyLtevwv Kai 
i^ofjioiovfiivtov ayadtav dyycAwv arpaTov, Trvev/xd re to Trpotft-qriKov 
<r€^6fjLc6a Kal Trpoa-Kwov/jiev : Athenagoras, Suppl. x., xxiv. : Clem. 
Horn. iii. 36. 

Tui' irpo4>T)Tui' Kal TWf Tt\^w\rnav rous \6yous ktX. Here, as we 
have shown in the notes on xix. 9-10, the prophets and the 
ordinary Christians are practically placed on the same level, 
whereas in xix. 9-10 the prophets are exalted far above the 
ordinary Christians, no mention of whom is made. 

Tw Tt]poun-(i)i' reus Xoyous. Cf. i. 3, iii. 8, 10, xii. 17, xiv. 12, 
xxii. 7. 

ToG PipXiou TouTou. Cf. xxii. 7, 10 [18, 19]. ru 0eu irpoa- 
K\i\rr\vw. See note on vii. 11. 

20. X^Y^'' ° p.apTopwi' raura. Christ is again the Speaker. 
The 6 fjLaprvpwv goes back to xxii. 18, where Christ solemnly 
attests the truth of the words of the prophecy of this book. 

^ Cf. Asc. Isa. ix. 23, " Iste est magnus angelus Michael deprecans semper 
pro humanitate." 

2 The four chief angels are spoken of as intercessors in I Enoch ix. 1, 3, 
the Watchers in xv. 2. 

VOL. II. — 15 



226 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 20-21. 

Noi" Ipxofiai xaxu. Here for the third time in this chapter 
(see 7, 12) our Lord declares that He is coming speedily. On 
vai, see note on i. 7. 

'A/i^i'* ^pxowj Kupie 'Itjoou. On this, the initial and primitive use 
of oLfi^v, which solemnly assents to the utterance of a preceding 
speaker, cf. v. 14, note, vii. 12, xix. 4. ^pxov Kvpi€ is the Greek 
equivalent of the Aramaic Nfi «3"iO ( = " our Lord, come ").^ 
See Encyc. Bib. and Hastings' B.D. on "Maranatha." The 
Aramaic is actually found transliterated in i Cor. xvi. 22, 
and in the Didache, x. 6 : 

61 Tts ayios ioTiv, €p\€(TO(a' 
€1 Tts ovK eoTi, fieravoeiTia' 
fiapavaOd. 'A/xi^v. 

Kupi€ 'Iyjo-oo. This designation is found only here and in the 
next verse in our author. 

21. T] X^P'^S """"^ Kopiou 'Itjitou p,eT& iravTOJc tS>v ayiwv. This 
benediction, which is unusual in Apocalypses, is an indication 
that the Book was intended to be read in the Church services. 
In the Pauline Epistles 01 ayioi includes the whole body of the 
baptized. But in our author it appears to embrace only the 
faithful members of the Church. Cf. v. 8, viii. 3, 4, xi. 18, xiii. 
7, 10, xiv. 12, xvi. 6, xvii. 6, xviii. 20, xix. 8, xx. 6, 9. It is not 
used at all in the Johannine Epistles. 

^ This explanation of Dalman, Wellhausen, etc., is preferable to that 
which is generally accepted in the Church Fathers, i.e. /xapai/otfd = ktik jtd, 
"our Lord has come." 



I. THE TEXT. 

The Greek Manuscripts of the Apocalypse. 

Uncial MSS containing tlie Greek Text of the Apocalypse or 
part of it. The enumeration is that of Gregory, except in the 
case of kAC. 

K (iv). Petrograd. Sd. S 2. N* signifies the original text, 
where the original scribe or a later one has intro- 
duced an emendation. N'' n'' X'" K*^'' etc. are 
various correctors of the MS.^ 
A (v). London. Sd. 8 4. A* signifies as K* above. A** 

corrector. 2 
C (v). Paris. Sd. 8 3. Contains 1^-3^^ 5'*-7^S 7^^-8^ 
9I6-10I0, ii3-i6i3, 182-195. 
025 (ix). Petrograd. Formerly P. Sd. a 3. Contains 1^-16^2, 

17^-1921, 20^-22^. 
046 (x). Rome. Formerly Q or Bg. Sd. a 1070. 
051 (ix-x). Athos, Pantokrator 44. Contains 11 ^5_j2i, 123-22^, 
2215-21 ^vith a commentary of Andreas in cursive. 
Photographed for Prof. Swete. 
052 (x). Athos, Panteleemon. Formerly r 183. Contains 
7I6-812. 

Greek Cursives of the Apocalypse.^ 

I (xii-xiii cent.). Maihingen. Formerly r i. Sd. Av^*. 
18 (1364 A.D.). Paris. Formerly r 51. Sd. 8 411. 
35 (xi). Paris. Formerly r 17. Sd. 8 309. 
42 (xi). Frankfurt a. O. Formerly r 13. Sd. a 107. 

60 (x). Cambridge. Formerly r 10. Sd. c 132 1. 

61 (xvi). DubUn. Formerly r 92. Sd. 8 603. 
69 (xv). Leicester. Formerly r 14. Sd. S 505. 
82 (x). Paris. Formerly r 2. Sd. O^. 

^ The photographic facsimile edited by Professor Lake for the Clarendon 
Press has been used for this edition. 

^ The photographic facsimile edited by Sir Frederic G. Kenyon (1909) has 
been used for this edition. 

^ Gregory's enumeration of the MSS is adopted in this edition, but for the 
convenience of those who use Von Soden's text I have added the latter's 
enumeration. 

337 



228 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN 



88 

91 

93 

94 

104 

no 

141 

149 

172 

175 
177 
180 
181 
201 
203 
205 
209 
218 
241 
242 
250 

254 
256 
296 
314 
325 
336 
337 
339 
367 
368 

385 
386 

424 
432 
452 
456 
459 
467 
468 
469 
498 
506 

517 
522 
582 



xii ?). Naples. Formerly r 99. Sd. a 200. 

xi). Paris. Formerly r 4. Sd. O^*. 

x). Paris. Formerly r 19. Sd. a 51. 

xiii). Paris. Formerly r 18. Sd. O^^ 

xi). London. Formerly r 7. Sd. a 103. 

xii). London. Formerly r 8. Sd. a 204. 

xiii-xiv). Rome. Formerly r 40. Sd. 8 408. 

xv). Rome. Formerly r 25. Sd. 8 503. 

xiv-xv). Berlin. Formerly r 87. Sd. a 404. 

x-xi). Rome. Formerly r 20. Sd. 8 95. 

xi). Munich. Formerly r 82. Sd. a 106. 

xiv). Rome. Formerly r 44. Sd. c 1498. 

xi). Rome. Formerly r 12. Sd. a loi. 

1357 A.D.). London. Formerly r 94. Sd. 8 403. 

mi A.D.). London. Formerly r 181. Sd. a 203. 

xv). Venice. Formerly r 88. Sd. 8 500. 

xiv ?). Venice. Formerly r 46. Sd. a 1581. 

xiii). Vienna. Formerly r 33. Sd. 8 300. 

xi). Dresden. Formerly r 47. Sd. 8 507. 

xii). Moscow. Formerly r 48. Sd. 8 206. 

xi). Paris. Formerly r 121. Sd. O^". 

xiv). Athens. Formerly r 122. Sd. O®*-. 

xi). Paris. Formerly r 102. Sd. a 216. 

xvi). Paris. Formerly r 57. Sd. 8 600. 

xi). Oxford. Formerly r 6. Sd. O^^ 

xi). Oxford. Formerly r 9. Sd. a in. 

xv). Hamburg Formerly r 16. Sd. a 500. 

xii). Paris. Formerly r 52. Sd. a 205. 

xiii). Turin. Formerly r 83. Sd. 8 303. 

1 33 1 A.D.). Florence. Formerly r 23 Sd. 8 400. 

xv). Florence. Formerly r 84. Sd. a 1501. 

xv). London. Formerly r 29. Sd. a 506 

xiv). Rome. Formerly r 70. Sd. 8 401. 

xi). Vienna. Formerly r 34. Sd. O^^. 

xv). Rome. Formerly r 37. Sd. a 501. 

xii). Rome. Formerly r 42. Sd. a 206. 

x). Florence. Formerly r 75. Sd. 052. 

1092 A.D.). Florence. Formerly r 45. Sd. a 104. 

xv). Paris. Formerly r 53. Sd. a 502. 

xiii). Paris. Formerly r 55. Sd. O^. 

xiii-xiv). Paris. Formerly r 56. Sd. a 306. 

xiv). London. Formerly r 97. Sd. 8 402. 

xi-xii). Oxford. Formerly r 26. Sd. 8 loi. 

xi-xii). Oxford. Formerly r 27. Sd. a 214. 

15 1 5 A.D.). Oxford. Formerly r 98. Sd. 8 602. 

1334 A.D.). Ferron. Formerly r 103. Sd. 8 410, 



CURSIVES 229 

616 (1434 A.D.). Milan. Formerly r 156. Sd. a 503. 

617 (xi). Venice. Formerly r 74. Sd. O^^. 

620 (xii). Florence. Formerly r 180. Sd. a 207. 

627 (x-xi). Rome. Formerly r 24. Sd. a 53. 

628 (xiv). Rome. Formerly r 69. Sd. a 400. 
632 (xiv). Rome. Formerly r 22. Sd. a 201. 
664 (xv). Zittau. Formerly r 106. Sd. 8 502. 

680 (xi). Cheltenham. Formerly r 107. Sd. 8 103. 
699 (xi). London. Formerly r 108. Sd. S 104. 
743 (xiv). Paris. Formerly r 123. Sd. Av'*^. 
757 (xiii-xiv). Athens. Formerly r no. Sd. 8 304. 
792 (xiii). Athens. Formerly r in. Sd. e 585. 
808 (xii). Athens. Formerly r 112. Sd. 8 203. 
824 (xiv). Grottaferrata. Formerly r 113. Sd. 8 404. 
866 (xiv). Rome. Formerly r 114. Sd. a 1375. 
886 (1454 A.D.). Rome. Formerly r 115. Sd. A'^p^". 

919 (xi). Escurial. Formerly r 125. Sd. a 113. 

920 (x). Escurial. Formerly r 126. Sd. a 55. 

922 (11 16 A.D.). Athos. Formerly r 116. Sd. 8 200. 

935 Athos. Sd. 8 361. 

986 (xiv). Athos. Formerly r 117. Sd. 8 508. 
1006 Athos. Sd. a 1 1 74. 

1064 Athos. 

1072 (xiv). Athos. Formerly r 118. Sd. 8 406. 

1075 (xiv). Athos. Formerly r 119. Sd. 8 407. 

1094 (xiv). Athos. Formerly r 120. Sd. 8 307. 

1277 (xi-xii). Cambridge. Formerly r 185. Sd. a 194. 
1328 Jerusalem. Sd. a 1470. 

1352 Jerusalem. Sd. 8 396. 

1384 Andros. Sd. 8 100. 

1424 Kosinitza. Sd. 8 30. 

1503 Athos. 

1 55 1 Athos. 

1597 Athos. 

161 1 (xii). Athens. Formerly r 105. Sd, a 208, 
161 7 Athos. 

1626 Athos. 

1652 Athos. 

1668 Athos. 

1678 Athos. 

1685 Serres. 

1704 Athos. 

1 7 19 Athos. 

1728 Athos. 

1732 Athos. 

1733 Athos. 



230 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN 

1734 Athos. 

1740 Athos. 

1745 Athos. 

1 746 Athos. 
1757 Lesbos. 
1760 Serres. 
1 77 1 Athos. 

1773 Athos. 

1774 Athos. 

1775 Athos. 

1776 Athos. 
1778 Saloniki. 

1785 Kosinitza. Sd. 8 405. 

1795 Kosinitza. Sd. a 215. 

1806 Trapezunt. Sd. a 1472. 

1824 Rome. Sd. O^^i. 

1828 (xii). Athens. Formerly r 124. Sd. a 202. 
1 84 1 (ix-x). Lesbos. Formerly r 127. Sd. a 47. 
1849 (1069 A.D.). Venice. Formerly r 128. Sd. a no. 
1852 (x-xi). Upsala. Formerly r 129. Sd. a 114. 
1854 (xi). Athos. Formerly r 130. Sd. a 115. 
1857 (xiii). Athos. Formerly r 131. Sd. a 1587. 
1859 Athos. Formerly r 371. Sd. a 402. 

1862 (ix). Athos. Formerly r 132. Sd. O^^. 

1864 Athos. Formerly r 327. 

1865 Athos. Formerly r 380. 

1870 (x). Chalkis. Formerly r 133. Sd. a 54. 
1872 (xii). Chalkis. Formerly r 134. Sd. a 209. 
1876 (xv). Sinai. Formerly r 135. Sd. a 504. 
1888 Jerusalem. Formerly r 495. Sd. a 118. 

1893 Jerusalem. Formerly r 500. Sd. a 117. 

1894 Jerusalem. Formerly r 501. Sd. a 1670. 
1903 Athos. Formerly r 513. 
1918 

1934 
1948 

I9S5 
1957 
2004 

2014 
2015 
2016 
2017 
2018 
2019 
2020 



xiv). Rome. Formerly r 39. Sd. a 403. 
xi). Paris. Formerly r. 64. Sd. O^^ 
xv). Rome. Formerly r 78. Sd. a 505. 
xi). London. Formerly r 93. Sd. a 119. 
xv). Rome. Formerly r 91. Sd. a 1574. 
x). Escurial. Formerly r 142. Sd. a 56. 
xv). Rome. Formerly r 21. Sd. Av^^, 
xv). Oxford. Formerly r 28. Sd. a 1580. 
xv). London. Formerly r 31. Sd. a 1579. 
xv). Dresden. Formerly r 32. Sd. a 1582. 
xiv). Vienna. Formerly r. 35. Sd. Av*^. 
xiii). Vienna. Formerly r 36. Sd. Av^". 
xv). Rome. Formerly r 38. Sd. a 1573. 



CURSIVES 231 

xv). Rome. Formerly r 41. Sd. a 1572. 

xiv). Rome. Formerly r 43. Sd. Av*^^. 

xv). Moscow. Formerly r 49. Sd. Av^. 

xv). Moscow. Formerly r 50. Sd. a 1584. 

xv-xvi). Paris. Formerly r 58. Sd. a 1592. 

xv-xvi). Paris. Formerly r 59. Sd. Av^*^^. 

xiii-xiv). Paris. Formerly r 61. Sd. a 1374. 

1422 A.D.). Paris. Formerly r 62. Sd. AvH 

xvi). Paris. Formerly r 63. Sd. Av^^. 

xii). Moscow. Formerly r 65. Sd. a 1272. 

1301 A.D.). Rome. Formerly r 67. Sd. Av'*^ 

xi-xii). Rome. Formerly r 68. Sd. Av^^. 

xvi). Rome. Formerly r 72. Sd. Av"''. 

xv). Rome. Formerly r 73. Sd. Av'^^. 

xvi). Florence. Formerly r 77. Sd. Av^***. 

xiv). Rome. Formerly r 79. Sd. Av*". 

xiv). Munich. Formerly r 80. Sd. Av'*^ 

xvi). Munich. Formerly r 81. Sd. Av^^^*. 

xii). Dresden. Formerly r 90. Sd. a 1271. 

xi-xii). Parham (Curzon). Formerly r 95. Sd. Ap^^. 

xiv). Parham (Curzon). Formerly r 96. Sd. a 1475. 

xiv-xv). Naples. Formerly r 100. Sd. Av'^*^". 

xv). Petrograd. Formerly r 101. Sd. Av*". 

1507 A.D.). Vienna. Formerly r 136. Sd. Av^**^. 

xv). Vienna. Formerly r 137. Sd. Av^^. 

xvj. Vienna. Formerly r 138. Sd. Av^^ 

1543 A.D.). Paris. Formerly r 139. Sd. Av^'^. 

xi-xii). Paris. Formerly r 140. Sd. a 1172. 

xvi). Athens. Formerly r 141. Sd. a 1684. 

1 107 A.D.). Escurial. Formerly r 143. Sd. a 1273. 

xvi). Madrid. Formerly r 144. Sd. Ac***. 

xvi). Florence. Formerly r 145. Sd. Av^*. 

xiii). Messina. Formerly r 146. Sd. 0*^\ 

xv-xvi). Modena. Formerly r 147. Sd. Av^w 

xv). Modena. Formerly r 148. Sd. Av^^. 

xiv-xv). Rome. Formerly r 149. Sd. Av**. 

xv). Rome. Formerly r 150. Sd. a 1576. 

xiv). Rome. Formerly r 151. Sd. O"**'. 

xi). Rome. Formerly r 152. Sd. Av^". 

1331 A.D.). Rome. Formerly r 153. Sd. Av**. 

xv-xvi). Rome. Formerly r 154. Sd. a 1588. 

xiii). Rome. Formerly r 155. Sd. O"^^. 

xvi). Rome. Formerly r 157. Sd. Av^^. 

xvi). Rome. Formerly r 158. Sd. Av^^. 

xv). Rome. Formerly r 159. Sd. Av^*^^. 

1574 A.D.). Rome. Formerly r 160. Sd. Av**. 



232 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN 



2067 
2068 
2069 
2070 
2071 
2072 
2073 
2074 
2075 
2076 
2077 
2078 
2079 
2080 
2081 
2082 
208? 



xv). Rome. Formerly r 161. Sd. Av^^^ 

xvi). Venice. Formerly r 162. Sd. Av^^ 

xv-xvi). Venice. Formerly r 163. Sd. Av**. 

1356 A.D.). Athos. Formerly r 164. Sd. Av*^^. 

1622 A.D.). Athos. Formerly r 167. Sd. Av'^''. 

1798 A.D.). Athos. Formerly r 168. Sd. Av^". 

xiv). Athos. Formerly r 169. Sd. Av^"^. 

x). Athos. Formerly r 170. Sd. Av^. 

xiv). Athos. Formerly r 171. Sd. Av*^. 

xvii). Athos. Formerly r 172. Sd. a 1570. 

1685 A.D.). Athos. Formerly r 174. Sd. Av'^^. 

xvi). Athos. Formerly r 176. Sd. a 1686. 

xiii). Athos. Formerly r 177. Sd. a 1373. 

xiv). Patmos. Formerly r 178. 

xii). Patmos. Formerly r 179. Sd. Av^i. 

xvi). Dresden. Formerly r 182. Sd. a 1682. 

1560 A.D.). T.eyden. Formerly r 184. Sd. Av^*'^, 
2084 Constantinople. Formerly r 506. Sd. 01586. 

2087 Basel. 

2091 Athens. Formerly r 511. Sd. Av^'*'^. 

2 1 16 Athens. Sd. Ap^o. 

2136 Moscow. Sd. £ 700. 

2138 Moscow. Sd. a 116. 

2186 Athos. Sd. A./23. 

2195 Athos. Sd. a 508. 

2196 Athos. Sd. a 1687. 
2254 Athos. Sd. Av^o*. 
2256 Athos. Sd. a 1577. 

2258 Athos. Sd. ai77o. 

2259 Athos. Sd. Av'^^. 
2286 Athos. Sd. Av22. 

There are thus 223 Cursives according to the above 
enumeration, which is based on Gregory's list, Griechischen 
Handschriften des NT. (pp. 48-122).! 

* In his list of MSS of the Apocalypse on pp. 360-361 there are six 
omissions and two or more wrong insertions. Von Soden {Schriften des NT. 
I. i. 289) reckons the number of Cursives as 222. Thus with the seven 
Uncials there are altogether 230 (or 229) Greek MSS of the Apocalypse. 



II. THE TEXT. 

The MSS and Versions collated for this Edition: 
Abbreviations : Symbols : Itacisms. 

Uncials. — Of the Uncials A and N have been collated afresh from 
photographs of these MSS published by Kenyon and Lake 
respectively. For the readings of C, 025, 046 the editor is 
dependent on Tischendorf, and for 051 on the readings 
given in Swete's edition under the number 186. 

Cursives. — The following 22 Cursives have been specially photo- 
graphed for this edition: 18, 35, 149, 175, 205, 325, 337, 
386, 456, 468, 617, 620, 632, 866, 919, 920, 1849, 1934, 
2004, 2020, 2040, 2050. Of these the following are 
defective; 205, 337, 468, 866, 919, 920, 2040, 2050. 
205. Defective: xviii. i4d7n}A^€i dTro crov . . . xx. 9 ttjv Trapifj.- 
fioXrjv T. dytwv, t'.e. one page lost through carelessness of 
the photographer. 
337. Defective : x. 4-xi. i and xxii. 17 Xcyoucra to end wanting. 
468. Defective: xix. 18 Kal crdpKa^ laxvpwv . . . xxii. 17 eiTrdTw 

epxov wanting. 
866. Defective : contains only vi. 1 7 rifxipa t. o/)y^? . . . xiii. 
12 Tov OyjpLOv ira(Tav. 

919. Ends with xix. 6 uSdrtov ttoAAwv koL ws. 

920. Ends with xxii. i koX eSci^e. 

2040. Ends with the words koX tottos, xx. 11, Photographs 

incomplete. 
2050. Defective. Omits vi. i #cai eiSov . . . xix. 21 Ik tSv 
aapKOiv avrStv, 

These 22 Cursives are generally quoted as 22, or 21, 20, 19, 
accordingly as one or more are defective. See under " Abbrevia- 
tions " below. 

For the readings of most of the remaining Cursives cited in 
this edition the author is indebted to Tischendorfs JVT. Graece 
(ed. oct. 1872) and to Hoskier's Concerning the Date of the 
Bohairic Version (191 1) for select readings from the following 
26 Cursives: 180, 181, 256, 337, 367, 368, 467, 582, 664, 680, 
743. 1075. '948, 2014, 2025, 2026, 2028, 2029, 2030, 2031, 
2032, 2033, 2034, 2037, 2038, 2043. Where readings from 
the Cursives cited by Tischendorf are not to be found in 
Tischendorf, they are derived from Hoskier. 

333 



234 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN 

Corrections on the MSS — 

A* = original text. A** = correction and similarly in the 
Cursives. 

S* = original text. The lead of Tischendorf has been 
followed in distinguishing the different hands 
engaged in correcting K. On these different correc- 
tors (as many as fifteen ranging from the iv to the 
xii Century) and their dates see Lake, Codex 
Sinatticus, pp. xvii-xxiv. Lake differs from 
Tischendorf in differentiating certain of the correc- 
tors. Into this vexed question it is not necessary 
to enter here. 

Versions. — For a short description of these Versions see the 
Introduction to vol. i. 
Latin. 
Tyc = " Tyconius' Text of the Apocalypse, a partial 
restoration," published by Prof. Souter in the 
J.T.S., April 19 1 3. 
Pr = Text of Primasius in Die lateinische Apocalypse, edited 
by Haussleiter, 1891. 
fl = Palimpsestus floriacensis in Haussleiter's volume 
just mentioned, 
gig = Codex Gigas. A fresh collation made by Dr. 
Karlsson in 1891 for Bp. John Wordsworth of 
Salisbury, and put at my service by his collabor- 
ator — Professor White. 
vg = Vulgate (editio minor), edited by H. J. White, 
1911. 
Syriac. 

s^ = Philoxenian Version, edited by John Gwynn, 1897. 
s^ = Harkleian or Syriac Vulgate. 
s sometimes is used to indicate the consensus of s^ 
and s^. 
Armenian. 

armi-2-3.4=:01d Armenian MSS edited by F. C. 

Conybeare, 1907. 
arm* = Armenian Vulgate. 
Egyptian. 

bo = Bohairic Version of the New Testament, vol. iv., 

edited by G. Horner, 1905. 
sa = Sahidic Version. Partial collation furnished to 
the editor by G. Horner. 
Ethiopic. 

eth = Ethiopic Version, edited by J. P. Piatt (new edition). 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS 235 

Abbreviations and Symbols — 

Or^ = the Greek text, which accompanies the recently dis- 
covered Scholia of Origen on the Apocalypse, i.e. in 
Harnack's edition, Der Scholien-Kommentar des Origenes 
zur Apokalypse/ohannis, 191 1. This text is not Origen's, 
though the Scholia probably are. It should be numbered 
as Cursive 2293 (x cent.). 
QjMt. iv. 3u = Origen's text of the Apoc. in his Commentary 
on Matthew, vol. iv. p. 314, in Lommatzsch's edition. 
Similarly Or*^^' ""• "^ means Origen's text of the Apoc. in 
Contra Celsum, vol. xx. p. 117, of Lommatzsch's edition. 
Origen's works are occasionally quoted to show that Or" 
cannot be his text. 
■■ "* Words so enclosed are taken by the Editor to 

have greater claims to be the original than the 
alternative printed in the margin. 
t t Words so enclosed are corrupt. The Editor's 

restoration is occasionally given in the margin. 
Words so enclosed are restored by the Editor. 
Words so enclosed are interpolated. 
= add 
= omit. 
= transpose. 
= prefix. 

= the 22 Cursive MSS collated for this edition 
less by the two MSS 18. 35. Where certain 
of these MSS are defective the symbol may be 
21 or 20 or 19 or 18 or even 17. 

Words in heavy type in the text are restorations of the original 
text as in 3^- ^- ^*. 

Itacisms. — Itacisms are not recorded in the case of the Cursives 
nor yet of the Uncials excepting A and t<, and not even the 
itacisms of these in such common instances as t for ct {Ihov 
for etSov). Such itacisms as « for at or vice versa in these 
two MSS are recorded, since this itacism has in one case 
led to a corruption of the text. Thus Gwynn and Swete 
have rightly recognized that -n-ia-rj cVt in 7^^ is corrupt for 
iraiarj ert, the corruption being due originally to the mis- 
writing of Traiarj as Treo"?;. In 9^ AX write ttcotj; for Traia-r] — 
a fact unrecorded by Tischendorf. In fact A writes ttcct- 
twice for Trato-- out of the five times where it occurs in the 
N.T. and K three times. Other common unrecorded 
itacisms are t for rj and o for w, or vice versa. 



< 




> 


[ 


> 

'V. 


] 


22 {- 


-18. 


35) 



III. THE TEXT AND APPARATUS CRITICUS. 

Chapter I. 

AnOKAAY*I2 inANNOY. 

I. * A7roKa\vif/t^ 'It/ctov Xpiorov ^v eSoiKcv avrw 6 ^co? Sci^at rots 
8ouXois avTOV, a Set yevecOai iv ra^ei, koi icm^fiavev ciTroo'TetXas 8ta 
Tov dyycXov avTov t<3 SovA-w airov 'loidwy, 2. os i/J-afyrvprjcrev tov 
Xoyov TOV deov /cai t^v fjiaprvpCav ^Irjaov X-picrroVf ocra e^ev. 

Title. 

airoKaXvif/L^ Iwavi'ou (Iwavov X) XC>A 205. 2004 | Icoavvou 
airoKakv\f/L<i 175. 337. 920. 2040 | rj airoK. tov ayiov Iwai'vov bo 
aTTOK. Iwar. tov deoXoyov { + r]i' ^v TlaTfiuy tt; VLcr<a eOtaa-aTO 620) 
325. 620 : airoK. tov ay. Iwav. tov OeoXoyov 18. 35. 386. 456. 
468. 2020 Or^ I Iwav. tov OcoX. kul rjyairrj/jLcvov a-jroK. 1934 | airoK. 
( + Tou ay tov 919) Iwav. tov OeoX. Kat evayycXnTTov 046. 919 | 
aTTOK. rj ey€V€TO cis tov (4-ayiov S^) Iwav. tov cvayy. ( +U7ro tov 6eov 
S^) €1/ nar/Aft) tt; vrjaroi €t? r/v (jSXrjOrj vtto ^r)pwvo<: Kat<rapos S^* ^ 
I 7] aTTOK. TOV aTTOCTToXov I(oai' ( + Kat cvayycXto-Tov 025) 025 vg | 
aTTOK. TOV ay. aTrocTT. Iwav. tov $€oX. 632 | ottok. tov ay. Iwav. tov 
atroaT. k. cvayy. tov 6eoX. r}v tSev (v TraTfio) T-q vrjaw Kvpie evXoy. 2050. 

1. airoK. • . . tth' fiapT. I. X.] aTTOKaXvi/^ts Iomvvov tov evayyc- 
Ato-Tov arm* : aTroK. Iwawov Ka^ws etSev I. X. eth | rjv cSwKcr 
. . . OCT CfiapTvprjcrev^ tt/s yeva/xevrj? ets c/ac IcoavvT^v tov aTTOo-ToAoi- 
tov Ktjpviai 2050 I r]v] Si 775 arm^-^*** | avTw] avrrj 046 | SovXois] 
ayiois N* | k. cot^/u..] significans Tyc : k. eTre/xxj/ev eth ( aTroo-TetXa?] 
nuntianda Pr fl : >eth : +avTa bo | tov >88. 2015 | tw SovAw 
avT. > 1854 Or* : tov SovAov avT. A | IwavtL N* |. 

2. ver. 2 >'arm^ | otr cjiapT. t. X.] fjcaprvptav tov Aoyov arm^ 
I TOV 6eov >Pr I Xpto-Tov >i8i [ oo-a >2040 : +Te 1 : rjv arm* ] 
ctSei/j + Kat aTiva «o-t Kat aTiva (or a: >62o) XPV yevco-^ot fjnTa 
TavTa I. 88. 104. 181. 205. 209. 432. 468. 620. 632**. 1957. 2015. 
2020. 2023. 2024. 2037. 2041. 2067 al : +Kai aTiva etcrtv 42: |. 

336 



I. 3-6.] AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY 237 

3. Ma/capios 6 dvayivwaKfov 

Koi ol OLKOiovTis Tovs Xoyous T^S Trpo<f)r)T(La<i 
Koi rrjpowTis tcl ev avTrj yey pafifieva, 
6 yap Kaipos iyyv^. 

4. 'I<aawr)<i rais cttto, eKKXr/triais rais iv T-g 'Acrta' 

Xapis vfjuv Koi eip-qvr) cltto 6 uiv koi 6 rfv koX 6 c/a^o/xcvos, (a) 

5. Ktti aTTO 'Iiycrov ILpiarTOv 6 ^apTvi 6 TrtcrTos, 

6 TTptoTOTOKOs Twv v€Kpwv Ktti 6 oipx'^v Twv /SacriXewv T^s y^s. 

T(3 dyaTToivTt :7/xas Kac Avtrai'Tt 17/Aas €k twv afiapridv rffiwy fv 
T«3 atfjiOTi avTov, 

(a) The MSS add here an early interpolation : Kal dirb rQv iirrd. Vfev- 
ft,dTwf tQ)v ivijjinov toO $p6vov avrov. See vol. i. II-13. 

8. p,aKapio$] pr Kat eth : + ei 2050 : fiaKapcoL arm* bo | o avayiv. 
Ktti >-arm* : 01 avayivwa-Kovrts bo | o aKovwv gig arm^* ^' ^* | t. Aoy. 
T. 7rpo<ti. K. o aKovwv arm^ * | t. Xoy. t. irpocji, >arm* | rova A.oy.] 
+ TOUTOVS C : Tov Aoyov N 046. 2042 | Trpocfajria'S NC 93. 104. 
314 : +Tai;T7;s 104. 336. 468**. 620 gig vg s^-2 arm^* bo : + 

TOVTOV T. ^l/SXlOV eth I Kttl^] + OL 2O4O | TT/pOWTeO"] 7rOlOVVT€<T HTm* 

: TTjpwv gig arm^-^-^" | ev avrrj >fl : ctt auri/o- 2050 bo | o yap 
K. cyy. >arm^-^ | Kaip. eyy. >2050 |. 

4. l«a>'>'T]s] ItoavT^or N : pr a eypaxj/e eth : +scribens haec Tyc 
I Taicr^j + ovaaKT 2050 | €ipr/v7/] + multiplicetur Tyc I ttTTo . . . 
epxofi.] a deo patre Tyc | airo o oiv AxC 025. i. 60. 82. 88. 104. 
181. 314. 336. 424. 432. 620. 628. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2023. 

2036. 2037. 2041. 2050. 2067 : ttTTO TOU O (OV 61. "^S 429. 617. 

1934 : ab eo qui est fl gig vg s^- ^ bo : aTro 6eov o wv 046. 21 
( — 432. 620. 628. 632**. 2020. 2050) al™*^ Or* : aTro Kvpiov o 
oiv 2016 I o^ >205o I epxoAt-j + omnipotens Pr | kul* >s^ | twv^ 
Ah 88. 241. 2036 : a C 046. 21 ( - 205. 620. 2020) alP™ Or* 
s^- 2 arm^ : a eariv 025. i. 205. 620. 2020. 2023 al arm^" : 
a fta-iv 2019 arm* | avrov >-20t8 bo : rov 6eov 88. 2015. 2036 
Pr fl : lr](rov XpicTov eth | 

6. Kai OTTO I. X.] et a filio hominis Tyc : >-eth | ocr /na/orv? 
TTio-rocr tcTTiv 172. 2018 Pr gig vg arm* eth | o Trpwror.] "who 
is eldest" arm^-^a ; +ck i. 1957. 2041 al | twv vcKpoiv] "among 
the dead" arm^-^-^* | apx<uiv] fmprvcr 2050 : +TravTa)v bo | ftacrt- 
/Veitoi/ K* (corr. by scribe himself to ySacrtAcwv) arm^-^-^* Or* | tw 
(>N*) ayaTTtovTi AnC 046. 21 ( - 205) aP^ Or* arm* : tw ayaTrrjcravrt 
025. I. 61. ™K 88. 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 
2067 : GO- T)yairrj<r(.v 172. 2018 fl gig vg arm^-^-Sa ^q | ■q^aa^'^ 
>2050 : u/i.as eth | Xvo-avn AkC I. 88. (104). l8l*. 314. (620). 
628. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2050 Or* Pr fl s^-2 arm : XovaavTL 
025. 046. 21 (-620. 2020. 2050) alP* gig vg eth : cAouo-ci' 172. 



238 AnOKAAY>I>l2 inANNOY [I. 6-8. 

6. KOI tTTOLrjcrev r]fj.a<; /Jao-iXctav, tcpcts to) dew koI varpl avrov, 
auTw 7; Sd|a KoX to Kpa.TO<i tts tous aiwvas twv aicivwV afjirjv. 

7. 'l8oi) ep^crai /Aero, twv vcf^cXwv, 

Ktti ot/'eTat avrov ttSs o(^^aX/i.os Kai omvcs auTOV i^cKcvTrjcrav, 
Koi KOiJ/ovTai cV avTov iravai aX <^v\a\ T17S y^s. vai, d/A7jv.(a) 

(a) The MSS add here an early interpolation. 8. 'E^ti ei^ut rb 'A\(pa 
Kol ri *i2, X^7ei KOpios 6 5e65, 6 &v Kal 6 'qv nai 6 ipxilJ-evos, 6 iravTOKpdTup. 
See vol. ii. Eng. trans., footnote, zn loc. 

2018 bo : XucravTi K. Twv rr^o" a/Aapriacr kiXiSojv Xovo"avTi tt; 
€KYVO"C6 Tov tfaoTTOiov aifiaTO(T K. vSarocT K. TTOiT/o'avTt r]fxaa ^acnXeiov 
ttpareu/xa k. Xoi^o-ai'Ti rjixaa a-jro rtov ajxapriuyv ev t. at/xart avTou. Kai 
€iroir](T€i' rffxaar ^ao-iXctav lepeicr ktX. 104. 620. (336. 459 628) | 
Tj/Atto-^ >N* : v/Aaseth | ck AkC i. 61. "^ 88. 181. 2015*. 2019. 
2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 : a-TTo 025. 046. 21 ( — 620. 
2020. 2050) 250 alP' Or* Pr fl gig vg bo? | t. a/xapr.] peccato 
Pr I rjfjLOJv] vfKov eth : >A i. 181. 336. (620). 2067 Pr | tv t. at/n. 
avT. >-arm^- ^* |. 

6. iTroii](T€v AkC 025. 21 ( - 386. 456. 468. 866) 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 Or* s^- '^ bo eth : Trotr/o-avrt 046. 42. 69. 104. 
325-'°'" 336. 367- 385- 456. 459- 468. (620). 2019 I vt^aa X 025. 
046 alP' Pr gig vg*^ (s^-^) arm : yfj-tv A 42. 325**. 367. 456. 
468. 517. 2016. 2020 : rjfjioiv C: vp.as eth : regnum nostrum fl : 
nostrum regnum vg("^): >325* | ySao-iXetai' tcpeta AK*C 21 (-325. 
456. 468. 2050) 250 alP'" fl vg^"'^); /SacriXeiav kul tepeio" n" 
88 Pr gig vg"^ : "worthy of his kingdom and priests" 
arm^' ^- * : (Saa-iXeiav lepaTiK-qv s^' ^ : ^acriXeiav ayiav eth : 
(SacnXeLov tepctcr 046. 2050: /SacrtXctcr Kat upeia 025. I. 2015. 
2019. 2036. 2038. 2067 al arm^-^*** : /iaaiketov uparev/xa 42. 
61*. 69. (325). 367. 456. 468. 517. (620). 1854 Or* bo'^l 
Kai^ > arm^- ■* bo | avrov > fl arm^ | avrw . . . a/xrjv > Pr arm^ 
1 K. TO KpaTo<i . . . afJLTjv > arm* | t. atwvas] tov atcova N* | 
Twv aiwvwv «C 046 alP' Or* fl gig vg s^-^ arm^-s* ; >A 025. 
88. 325. 456. 468*. 498. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2050 bo I afirjv 
>2l8|. 

7. liera] ETTt C sa eth | tojv>25o. 2018. 2038 | v€(f>€\wv] + ap-riv 
35: +coen gig arm^-2-3* | oi/^cTat] AC 025. 046 alP^ Or"'-'''-^'* 
Pr fl gig vg eth : oif/opTai N i. 181. 2038. 2067 Or* s^- ^ arm bo 
I avTov^ > I. 205. 209 arm^- 2 | Tracr] Travrecr S^- ^ arm : +0 172 
: TravTfcr, iracr bo | o^6a.\fj.o(T Kat >-arm^ | ocftOaXfioi s^" ^ arm^- ^' * * 
I avTov^ >N* I Koif/ovTai] oij/ovTai (-erai Pr) Pr fl bo arm^-(^*^ : 
oxf/ovTai Kai Koipovrai eth | ctt avTOV >■ I. 241* arm^ : ctt >-N* 2050 
Or* Pr fl bo I Trao-ai . . . yrjir] omnis terra Pr | vai] + Kai s^ | 
vai a/xrjv >• fl arm^ : vat >■ bo | a^T^v] + Kai Xeyti arm^ |. 

8. TO aX<|)a AnC 025. 046. 21 (-620. 632. 2020) al 



I. 9-11.] AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY 239 

9. 'Eyw 'Iwavvr/s, 6 d8eA<^6s vfxCjv Koi avvKoivwvo'i iv ttj OXnff€i 

/cat /SacriXei'^i Kal VTrojJLOi'rj tV '\i]aov, iyerojxyjv eV rfj vt]CTw Trj 

KaXovfJiivr] TldT/no 8ta tov Xoyov tov Oiov Kal t7jv ftaprvpiav h/aov. 

10. iyivojx-qv iv TT-vcv/xart iv rfj KvpiaKrj rjfxepa, koi T^KOvtra ^(ftuivrjv dniffcj p.ov 

fxtydXriv ottlg-Ocv fiov^ ws (TaATTtyyos XeyovuT]^ <t>u}v^v 

»n„ o\' I, > n Q\' neydXvv 

II. t) pA.€7ret9 ypdnj/ov eis pipAiov, 

Kal TTiflXJ/OV Tats CTTTCt iKKXrjCTiaL^, 

gig arm^-*» bo : to a i. 88. 241. 385. 620. 632. 2020. 2023. 

2037. 2038. 2039. 2042. 2067 al Or^ Pr fl vg : -|-»cat cyw N* 
I TO^j I am arm^- ^ | a)] + (7;) apxrj Kai (to) reXocr X* i. 61.™^ (88). 
172. 205. 250. 1854. (2015). 2018. (2019. 2023. 2036. 2037). 

2038. 2050 Or"'"^'^ Or^ gig vg bo | Xeyei Kiiptos o ^eos > 
2050 I Xeyei >88 | o Oeocr >-arm^ : + Kai 620 arm^- ^" | kul o rjv 
> arm'* : "and who is" arm^-^": "unto aeons" arm^ | o* > 
1934 I fpxofJi.] + KaL 386 : + Kvpioa- arm^-^" | o* > 046. 2015. 
2036 |. 

9. ey^l "^ ^'■P-'- ^^ '• '^°-'- ^7^ ^^^ I ^^^^^V^ ^* I crvvKoivwvoa- XC 
025. 2036 al : avyKOLv. A 046. 205. 250. 468. 2020. 2037. 2038. 
2050. 2067 al s^ : KOLvwvocr 21 (-205. 468. 2020. 2050) al™" s^ : 
+ vpioiv s^- 2 eth I KOI ^acriXfia AxC 046 al^' Or* Pr fl gig vg 

arfni.2. 3 a . ^ jy ^jj ySacriX. ( + v/i.(ov eth) 025. i. 104. 205. 620. 
2023. 2038. 2067 al eth : ttjct /3acnXeiacr arm* : ort r] fSacrcXfia 
bo : >>S^*^ I Kai vTTOfx. fv. Irjcr. > arm^** | Kat^] + ev ttj s^ | vtto/u..] 
+ tt; s^* ^ : + (TOV rjaav bo : + Sia rrjv virofxovrjv vfj.o)v eth | ev Itjctov 
N* C 025. 2020. 2050 Or*"''''* gig vg s^ bo : ev Xpia-Tw A : €v 
Irja. Xptar. X"' '^ Pr vg*^ S^ eth : Irjcrov XpiCTTov I. 205. 1854. 
2015. 2036 : €v Xpto-TO) Irjcrov 046. 21 (-205. 2020. 2050) alP' 
Or^ fl arm^"(^)" | KaXov/xevr] >■ I : eTriKaXovfievr] 2050 : Xeyofxcvrj 
141 : I 8ta(^)] Kai C | 6eov^ Kvpiov 620 | Kai ttjv fxapr. AC I. 9 1. 
172. 242. 325*. 424. 432. 1934. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2020. 2036 
Pr gig vg arm^-** bo : Kai Sia t. jxapr. X 025. 046. 21 (-325*. 
1934. 2020) al"' Or* fl s^- 2 arm^- ^ eth ] Irjaov AX*C 025. 181. 
2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2050 fl gig vg arm*: Xpitrrov arm^ : 
\rj(Tov XpKTTov X'"' *^ 046. 21 (-2020. 2050) alP' Or* Pr s^* ^ 
arm^- ^ « bo |. 

10. eyei'. €v iri-cufi.] "and (>-a) there was in me the spirit 
(holy i)" arm^-^-^'* : pr eyw A : pr eyw loiaw-qcr gig : pr Kai 

S^ I CV TTVCV/AttTl €V TTj > 2O5O | (fiUiV. fl€y. OTTiaOiV (336. 2020 

oTTKTio) fiov A 336. 2020. 2067 arm^ eth : oviao) fiov <fi(av. 
( + o-aXTTiyyos 2015) ftty. XC 025. 205. (2015). 2037 al 
Pr fl gig vg s^-2 arm^" bo : (ftwr. oir. fxov fieyaX. 046. 2040 aP' 
Or* : (f}U)vri<T ott, Xeyovcrrja fxoi oxr (raATriyyocr fx^yaX-qtr 2050 : 
(^(DVi^o- ftey. 336. (2050). 2067 I oiTia-Qiv />iov>arm'* | o-aATriyyoo-] 
pr <^(sivr) arm^- ^- * eth \. 

11. Xeyooo-Tjs] Xtyova-av N*^" '^ Pr fl s^- ^ arm* : XaXov<Tri(r 920. 



240 AnOKAAYvMS mANNOY fl. 12-13. 

CIS E<^€(Toi' Kttt €is %fivpvav Kat CIS Ilcpya/xov Kat cts 

©vdreipav 
Koi CIS SapScis Kai eis ^L\aBt\<f>Lav Koi cis AaoSiKiai/. 

12. Kai CTTCo'Tpci/'a /SActtcii/ t^v (fiwvrjv t^tis cXtiAci /xct c/xoC, 
Kttt cTTto'Tpci/'as cTSoi/ Itttoi Av;^i/tas ^pvtras, 

13. Ktti ^v fx.€croi rwv \v)(yi!iiv ofioiov vlov dvOpwirov, 
ivSeSv/xevov iroSiqpr] kol Trtpu^uxTfiivov wpos rots fia(rTOL<i 

^ttivrjv ;(pv(r5v* 

2039. 2040 : <j)tj)vovar]a- 2020 :>■ 104 : +/A01 1854. (2050) arm^*' 
bo eth : -i-cya) aX<^a k. to <o 'jrpwToa k. o eo';(aTocr (jcai) (025. 
104) 620 : + cyo) cijLti TO a k. to w (o) irpiMToa k. (o) co^^^aToo" (/cai) 
I. 61*. 336. 628. 2019. 2020. 2023 I oyQAcTT. >N* I o] a 172. 424. 
2018. 2020 Pr S^ bo I ySXcTTCio-] /BXeirrjcr 2040 : aKouo-ci bo | 

£ior] + To K I Kat Trep-if/ov >arm* : et mittem fl | /cati>{<* bo | 
€K*cA,r/criato-] + Tato- ev ttj acria bo : + Tato" (oucrato-) arm | fv Yi(f>€<r<t} 
. . . tv ^fivpva ktX.. arm | cio-^ • • • ^ > bo : cior^- -^ > 
arm^ | Kai^ • • • * > Pr : /cai^ >.i49. 201. 2015. 2042. 2067 | xat 
ctcr %fivpv. post ©uaTctp. pon X | "^fJLvpvav C 025. 046. 21 
( - 205. 620. 2040) al s^ : Smyrnam fl : Smirnam Pr gig : 
p.vpvav A I. 177. 205. 620. 628. 920. 2017. 2018. 2024. 
2040** : fxvpav 104*. 2040* : Zfivpvav X vg s^ : Zfivpva arm 
I YlepKafiov 2050 : | cio- ©uarcipav (-Ttpav AC : -T-qpav 046. 
2050) (AC 046) 69. no. 172. 314. 424. 1854. 1957. 2018. 
2020. (2050) : Tyatyram fl : Tyathiram gig : Thyatiram vg : ckt 
©uoTCtpao- I. 2038 : cio" 0uaT£^pa (-rrjpa 620. 632) X 21 (-205 
2020. 2050) 250. 2037. 2067 al : cv ©uttTcipoio- 025. 205. 
209. 2019 : Tiatirae Pr : Thyatera bo | Kat^] + *cai 2040 | *c. 
tier Saps. >N* : post AaoS. pon S" | 2ap8.] apScto- 620 : | <E>i\a- 
8cX<^iav AkC 025. 046. 104. 205. 456. 522. 620. 919. 920. 
1849. 1955. 2004. 2015. 2017. 2039. 2042. 2050 bo : $iXa8cX- 
<f)€Lav 21 (-205. 456. 620. 919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2050) alP' : 
"Phrygia" arm'^ | AaoSiKiav AxC no*. 205. 2015. 2042. 2050 
al bo : Aao8i/c€tav 025. 046. 21 (-205. 2050) alP' : Laudatiae 
Prj. 

12. Kai] AnC 025. 205. 632**. 2020. 2050 Pr fl gig Cyp vg 
s^' 2 bo : €K« 2016 : koi ckci 046. 21 ( - 205. 632**. 2020. 2050) 
alP' I cTTto-Tp. ySXcTT. . . . Kttt cTTtcTT. ctSov] convcrsus respexi ut 
viderem . . . et vidi Pr fl : cTrco-Tpct/'a cySXci/'a bo j /SXeir.] 
iSeiv 2050 (s^) j T. <f>iav , . . €/Aou] toi' AaXouvTa /xoi 2050 | 
eXaXci nC 046 alPi Pr fl gig vg (s^) arm^-s-* : XaXci A 
arm^ : cXaXi/o-c 025. i. 104*. 620. al s^ | /act ejiov] fioi arm^ 
I t-nKTrp^ypacr > 2050. (Pr fl) arm^ | Xv)(y. cirr. XP^""- 2050 : > 



arm 



13. Kat^ >arm^ | e/ifx-ea-w AC 2004 : /jlco-ov X | twv AC 025. i. 



I. 14-15.] AnOKAAY*l2 ICANNOY 241 

14. 17 8e Kf<f>aXr] avTov koi at rpi^es XevKal ws epiov \€VK6v,(a) 
Koi 01 OffiOaXfiol avTOv w? <f)Xo^ Trvpo's, 

15. Kai ot TToScs avToC Sfwtoi \aXKoXi(3dvu} ws ^v Ka/i,iv<{» f ttctt- 

vpwiJ.ivri<: t, 
Ktti ^ <f)0)vr] avTOV ws (fxuvrj vSaroi/ TroAXoii'. 

(a) MSS add a gloss «$ x"^''- See vol. i. 28. 

181. 205. 459. 2015. 2020, 2037. 2038. 2042. 2050. 2067 Tyc 
Pr fl S arm^- 2- ** bo : tu>v CTrra N 046. 21 (-205. 2020. 2050) 
aipi Or® gig vg arm^ | Xvxv.]+twv xp^"^^^ 172. 250. 424. 2018. 
2023 gig vgS* ^ arm* | o/i.otoj'] 0/u.otw/i.a A s^ ( = <»)o- o/xoiwyaa) bo sa : 

O/XOlOOr 1854 I TOU VIOU TOV ttV^p. S^ | VLOl' N O46. I. 35. 6 1 *. 69. 

104. no. 172. 175. 177. 201. 250. 325. 337. 386. 456. 617. 
620. 1934. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2021. 2042. 2050 al : uto) AC 025. 
18. 205.468. 632. 919. 920. 1849. 1854. 2004. 2020. 2037. 2038. 
2040. 2067 alP' Or^ Pr Cyp fl gig vg arm | av6p(»7rov] + Kat. s^ | 
cvStSv/icvoo' . . . irepi.€^wa-fji€i'Ocr 1854 | TroS-qprj nC 025. 046 
min fere omn : TroBrjprjv A (2050) | irpoa-] ev 172. 2018. 2020: 
cTTi Pr fl bo : inter Tyc | /xao-roio- C 025. 046. 250. 2037. ™k alP' : 
(la^oia- A 35. 60.432. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037*. 2038. 2041. 
2067 : ^ao-<^oicr X 104. 205. 209. 385. 498. 620. 632. 2042. 2050: 
+ avTov s^' 2 bo eth I xpvaav AN*C : XP^^'-^ 620 : xfi'^^W ^"^ 025. 
046 min omn^^ |. 

14. T] 8c Ke<}>. . . . xpix-] " but the hair of his head " arm* | 
rpixfcr] TpLxo-L(T 2050 : + avrov s^ arm^ | X^vkui > Pr fl arm^- ^•^'^sa. 
I ota^ An 35. 175. 386. 617. 620. 632. 920. 1934. 2020. 
2040 al*"" Or* : wcrtL C 025. i. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2041. 2042. 2050. 2067 al : w(nrep 205. 209. 242 : kul 
(Mr 046. 18. 250. 325. 337. 456. 468. 919. 1849. 2004 al 
] <t)cr eptov . . . oc}>0. awr. >arm^ | eptov] + /cat no s^ | XevKov] 
Kadapov arm* : > no Pr fl Cyp s^ : 4- koi 2019. 2050 
gig vg s^ arm^** « eth | wo- x'*"" > arm^- 2. 3.* 4 | ^^^i^]^ ^^^^^ 
(2019). 2020. 2042 : Ktti bo : aut (corrupt for ut) Tyc. | Kat^ > Pr 

I «o^>5i7i- 

16. icai > 104. 620 Pr I o/xoioi] ofioKDor 920 | ;^aXKoAi/S.] ;(aXK(i) 
AtySavw 025. 104. 175. 620. 2017. 2042. 2050 : aurichalco (auri- 
calco Pr) Libani Tyc Pr : aurocalco fl : auricalco gig : orichalco 
vg : "burnished brass" bo : + Kai gig | <do- . , . Treirvp. >498. 
armi'3*-4 | wo- >s^ arm^-^^a | ^^j ^^ pj. fl j TrcTrvpto/xevT/o- AC 
Cyp Pr fl : TrcTrupto/xeKu N 205. 209. 336. 620. 628. 2050 gig 
vg s^'2 : TTfTTuptufttvoi 025. 046. 21 (-205. 620. 2050). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP' Or* : ignitos velut in fornace ignis Tyc : 
" refined amidst a furnace fiery " arm^- s** » | k. 77 ^wv. . . . 
i'8. noXX. >» arm* | vSarwv ttoXAwv] TrXrjdovcr Xaov 2050 (cf. 
Dan. io«) 1. 

VOL. II. — 16 



242 AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY [I. 16-18. 

1 6. Koi €)^o)V ii' rfj Se^ia X^'P^ avrov dorepas cTrra, 

KOL €K TOti OTTO/AaTOS aVTOV pOfJLfjiaia ^l(TTOjjLO<i 6^€ia €Kiro- 
p€VOfJb€Vrjf 

KOI r] ot/'ts avrov d>5 o ^Aios <f>aLV€i Iv rfj Swdfiei avrov. 

17. Kai 5tc ctSov auTor, hreca Trpos rous iroSas a^ov is V€Kp6i' 

Kttl i6r]K€V TTjV Sc^l^V OVTOl} CTT* t/tt€ Xeyo)!/ 

M^ (f)oPov' iyo) elfii 6 Trpwros xai 6 ccrxaTOS, 

18. Kttt 6 ^wv Koi iyivofxrjv vc/cpos, 

Kai 180V ^u>v ci/xi cts Tous atajvas twv aiwvojv, 
Kttt e^w Tots xXets Tov Oavdrov Kai tov aSov. 

16. Ktti^ > 1854 bo sa I tx^v X'^C 025. 046. 21 ( - 2050) 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP' Or^ s^-2 : tix^v K* 172 250. 424. 2018. 2019 : 
habebat Pr fl gig vg arm : >A 2021. 2050 | cv t. 8. x- a^^T- 

>arm* | tv >205o | 8e$. x"pi- avr. AsC 025. 35. 61. 69. 172. 
175, iSi. 205. 209. 242. 250. 432. 617. 1934. 1957. 2016. 2017. 
2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 alP : Se^ta avr. X^'-P'- 
21 ( - 35. 175. 205. 617. 920. 1934. 2040. 2050) alP' Or" : xftpt > 
60. 920. 2015. 2040. 2050 Tyc Pr fl gig vg arm^ : x«'pt a^""- 
tt; Sc^ta 046 I aa-Ttpta- A 1 934. 2021 | pop.(b. Sicrr.] Trvevfxa s^ | 
of«a> 205. 209. 242. 2050 arm^-^-* (bo) | eKiroptvofx..] pendentem 
Tyc I ^aiv€i WOT o 17X100- X Pr Cyp fl arm* bo : " like the sun 
flashing appeared" arm^- 2- 3 a [ o>2o5. 209. 241. 432. 498. 628. 
632. 2020. 2042 I </>atvci] <f>aLvwv 2067 : " was flashing" arm* [ €v 
TTj Svv. avT. >arm {. 

17. €ir€aa AnC 025. 046. 35. 205. 325. 337. 456. 620. 632. 
2020. 2050 : €7reo-oj/ 18. 175. 386. 617. 919. 920. 1849. 1934. 
2004. 2037. 2040 al I TTpocr] €i<T a 42 : ctti 2033 s^ | wtr] wcri X* : 
o)trct K'= arm : koi omt Or" bo | eOrjKev AC 025. 046. 21 ( - 35. 
205. 2050) alP' Or' : posuit Pr gig vg : eireOrjKev N i. 35. ei.'"^ 205. 
2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 : inposuit fl Cyp | Se^. 
avT. An*C 025. 046. 21 (-35. 205) alP' Pr fl gig vg arm eth 

+ x"pa ^"•'^ I- 35- 6i- 205. 1957. 2015. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 
s^- 2 I Xeywv] + /x,oi I aP arm^- ^-^ \ firj <f>o^ > X* : + Icoawe Pr | 

7rpa>T.] o TrpwTOTOKoo- A : "beginning" arm^-^ | o €<rx.] o> 
2050 |. 

18. K. o iw >Pr gig : "I am life" armi-2-3« | /cai^ >X* bo 
arm | eytv. veKp.] : "lam ( + same ^) who died " arm*- '-'• ^ " : + Kai 
enrev /xoi eth | iSov >arm3 | Ttoj/ atwvwv >2020 | aiojvwv Ax* C 
025. 2019. 2050. 2067 Pr Cyp fl gig vg bo arm^-^" : +afiriv 
X*^ 046. 21 (- 2020. 2050) 250. 2037. 2038 al Or' s^- ^ arm^ : > 2020 

1 Tr]v KXciSa S^ I kX.€1(t AXC 025. 35. 205. 250. 325. 456. 468. 620. 
632. 2020. 2037. 2038 al. : KXeiSao- 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 325. 456. 



L 19-20.] AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY 243 

19. ypax^/ov ovv a ciSes 

KCLl a tl<TLV 

Kot a fieXXa yive<r6ai fiera. ravra. 

20. TO fjLVfXTrjpiov Twv ktTTa acrT€p(t)v ov<; eiScs cjri t^s Sc^ia; fiov 
Kai ras ctttoi Xvxt'tcLS to,? )^pv(Ta^' ol eTrra. darcpes ayycXoi rwv iirra 
eKKX-qatwv elaiv, kol al Xv^^i'iai ai Ittto. [eTrraJ iKK\r}<TLaL tlaiv. 

468. 620. 632. 2020) al"*" Or' I Tov Bav. K. T. aS. AkC 025. 046. 
21 alP' Tyc Pr fl gig vg s'- ^ (bo) arm eth : tov a8. k. t. dav. 1. 
2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 al |. 

19, o\iv >i. 498. 620. 2020. 2050 arm^'^-s* | a] o s^- ^ | 
ctSeo-] oi/'Ci bo : opaa- arm'*^*^* | /cat a eicriv >-arm^- ^ bo | /cai^ > 
arm2*« | a2>2050 | /cat2>bo | a^ > s^ | jweXXet] Set 2050 : hci 
yacAAciv K* : 8ei /icAAet C : Set 2050 | yivarOaL AX'' 21 ( - 35. 386. 
468. 617. 632. 2050). 250 alP' Or^ : yevea-f^at N*C 025. 046. 35. 
61. 69. 314. 386. 468. 617. 632. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 

2037. 2038. 2041. 2042. 2050. 2067 |. 

20. ooo- AsC 025. I, no. 181. 205. 209. 2037'**. 2038. 
2050 : iov 046. 21 ( - 205. 2050). 250. 2037*. 2067 alP' Or* | €i8«r] 
opaa- arm^ | ctti tt^o" Sc^. NC 025. 046. 250. 2037. 2067 min 
omn" Or* s^ arm* bo : tv tij 8e|ia A 2038 Pr fl gig vg s^-^ 
arm^-s* eth : cv ttj xtipi arm^ | k. twv cTrra Au^vtov 498 Pr fl 
arm^ | Ta(r^>i8. 385. 429*. 522. 919. 920. 1849. 1955. 2004. 
2039. 2040. 2042 I Ta<r ;(pv(racr >498 s^ : tcov xpvaroiv Pr arm^* : 
+ ravra tortv 20I : + ravra ctcriv 93. 386 | acTTepicrlj + cTrra 
bo I ayy. . . . eitrtv] ayy. eia-iv t<i}v cttt. ckkX. 498 Pr fl gig Vg : 
T<av £7rr. ckkXtjcthdv €t(rtv 01 ayytAot arm^ * | eitrtv^ > K* | /cat at 
Au;^v. ai CTrra. . . . etcriv ^632* ( ai Au^^v. ai eirTa AC 025. 046 
alpl gig vg s^'2 eth : ai Avxv. tTrra 218. 429. 2018. 2019 : CTrra 
Av^v. K* I. 61.°'^ 367. 2038 : at €7rra Xv\v. N° 35. 205. 250. 
632**. 1854. 1957. 2020. 2037. 2050. 2067 al Or* I ai €7rra] + ao- 
eiSeo- 025. I. (35). (6l.'"g). Sg.'^S (205). 1955. (1957)- 2036. 2037. 

2038. 2067 bo : +at ■)(pvaaL 2050 : -\-ai ^(^pvcrat, aa eiSea S^ : 4-ai 
172. 241. 250. 424. 2020 arm | cTrra^ >io4. 498 Pr fl (arm*?). 
Only these authorities attest the original text (see vol. i. 34-35 ; 
vol. ii., Eng. trans., footnote, in loc). The aX cTrrd belongs to 

£KKAl^O"tat. 



^44 AnOKAAY*l2 in ANNOY [II. 1. 



Chapter II. 

I. Tw diyycXo) tw iv Et^fcrw c/cxXijo'tas ypa\f/ov 

TaSc Aeyet 6 Kpardv tov<; CTrra do-repas ev ry Sc^t^ avTOV, 
b irfpnraTOJV iy fxcaio twv lirra \v)(yilJi)V twv )(pv(rwv, 

1. Tw ayYcXw tw ci* E^tccru cKKXTjcrioa] Since John's usage 
elsewhere attests the originality of this unique grammatical con- 
struction (see Gram, in vol. i.), I add here a summary of the 
documentary evidence for it in 2^ and in the six other passages 
where it originally occurred, 2^- ^2> is ^\. 7. i4_ i^^jg evidence is 
sufficient to establish the originality of tw ayycXw tw in all seven 
passages : when reinforced by the evidence of John's usage else- 
where, it is irresistible. I have accordingly restored the original 
reading in 3^- '''• ^* where the Greek MSS fail us. 

2^ T. ayy. tw] AC (2019) s^ arm* Pr (though he reads: 
angelo ecclesiae Ephesi). In the note Pr. refers to the 
peculiar construction in the text : Dativo hie casu ecclesiae 
posuit, non genetivo ; ac si diceret Scribe angelo, huic 
ecclesiae, ut non tam angelum et ecclesiam separatim vide- 
atur dixisse, quam qui sit angelus exponere voluisse, unam 
videlicet faciens angeli ecclesiaeque personam. 2^ t. ayy. 
Tw] A (2040 T. ayy. tt^ct o) arm**. 2^^ t. ayy. tw] 2050 
s^ arm* » sa. 2^* t. ayy. tw] A Epiph^'* Pr s^- 2 arm*(^- y\ 
C >Tw2 but does not replace it by ttjo-. 3^ t. ayy. tw] Pr 
s^- 2 arm*. 3^ t. ayy. tw] Pr arm*. 3^* t. ayy. tw] arm*. 
The difficulty of the reading led to the occasional omission 

of €KK\r}(Tiaa- in 2^* (A), 3^* (919. 920. 2040), 3^ (s^), 3^ 

(arm*). It is interesting to observe how the evidence for 

the original reading grows weaker as the text advances. 

The assurance of the scribes grows as they write. On the 

individual passages the chief variants are given below. 

t« ayy.] rota ayyeAoio" arm^- ^ : pr kou Pr fi gig : bo sa eth 

begin 2^***^2'^® 3^*''^' ^* with /cat (>-bo sa) ypaij/ov \ tw ev E«/)«o-w 

€KKXr)crtacr AC : tw rr](r €v E«^. ckkA. 2019 : tw ev E<^£crw cv rq €k- 

K\r](TLa arm* : tw €v €KK\r](ria Ec^ccrov s^ : rqcr ev Ec^etrw ckkX, 

X 025. 046 min fere omn Or^: Ephesi ecclesiae gig vg : ecclesiae 

Ephesi Pr bo : rrja- Ec^etrtwv €KK\r]cnacr I. 2020 fi arm^**-^* 

I Xtyci] + Kvptoa- 172. 250. 424. 522. 20l8. 2039 | /cpaTwi/] -J- TravTa 

KUL s^ I Sc^ta] ;(«ipi Tyc s^ : Sc^ta x"P' ^7^- 250. 2018 arm^- '• * 

bo sa I a^^Tov] + X^'P' ^* I O^] '<'*' arm^* 2. S a j ^^ p.ecr.^ €/i/x€crw 

AC : cTTi I I cTTTa >498. 620. 628. 2020 Tyc s^ arm^'^ : ~t. X. r. 

CTrra XP^^- 2042 | xp^^*^^ ^ 025. 046 min fere omn : x/>vo-cwv AC : 

Xpvcriwv 2050 |. 



II. 2-6.] AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY 245 

2. 0?8a Tot epyo- <tov, Kai rov kottov Kai ttjv iwo/xovrjv <rov, 

Kal OTi or Svvr] ySatrTacrat KaKOvs, 
Kol cn-eipacas tov^ Xcyovras cavTOus aTrooToXovs kcu ovk flfriv, 
Kal eCpc? auTovs i/^ewSets* 

3. Kal virofLOvrjv ex*'' 

Kal IjSacrTacra^ hik to ovofid fiov 

Kal OV K€KOirUlK€<!. 

4. dXX* c^w Kara <rou on t^v aydirrjv trov rrjv vputrrfv a(f>rJKa%. 

5. fLVrifJi6v€V€ OVV TToBfV TTCTTTCDKaS, 

Kal fjL€Ta}'6r)crov Kal to. irpuyra €pya iroi-qcrov' 

€1 Sc {irj, €p)(OfJ.aL (TOL 

Koi Kivrjcrw ttjv X.v)(ytav <Tov €k tov tottov avTrj^.(a) 
(a) MSS add gloss iky fiij fieravo-^ffrit. 

2. oiSa] C180V 337 eth I K. T. KOTT. >385. 429. 522 | K. T. VTTO/X. 

CrOV K. T. KOTT. (TOV 632 | TOV KOTTOV AC O25. 35. 60. 181. 2O5. 
209. 432. 1957. 2015. 2019, 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2042 

Pr gig vg s^ : touo- kottovct arm^ * : toi' kottov crov N 046. 21 
(-35. 205). 250. 2067 Or* s^ : Tova- kottovct crov arm^' ^- * bo 
crov^ >Pr arm^- ^ " | koi^ >-A bo : + otSa arm^ | ov Swrj /3aa-T. 
ov ySacrra^cio- arm^- ^ | 8vvrj(TT] 2042 : Svvei 620. 2050 j ySaora^ai 
025. I. 2020. 2038 I KaKov bo I /cat*] ova arm^ I eavTova- >l8l. 
2067 : +ctvat vg*^- ^ arm* | aTroo-ToA., AK*C 025. 94. 337. 2038 vg 
a, ml- 2. 3. 4 . + ^^yat x'^- " 046. 21 ( - 337) aP"** Or* Pr gig vg' s^- 2 1 
Kai evp. avT. \f/.^ k. ivpedrjcrav t/'cvSaTTooToXot bo |. 

3. Kai uirojx. €\. >2i8. 424. 2018 ( vtto/x. e^- { + k. OXupicr Traaaa- 
N*) K. efiaa-T. AnC 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 620. 2020). 250 al"*" 
Qj.s yg gi. 2 arm* : et habuisti patientiam et tolerasti Pr : efSaa-r. 
((^aTTTia-acr 1. 61. ™s 2037) k. vtto/jl. c^. (l) 35. (61. "^2). 1957. 2015. 
2020. 2023. 2036. (2037). 2038. 2067 al : €f3a(TT. fie k. vtto/x. e^. 
025. 104. 205. 209. 336. 459. 620 : vTTOfx. (X- '^- ef3a(TT. avrova- gig 
bo I €X*'^] habuisti Pr j k. c^ao-r. ^432 | 8ia >3i4. 2016 | Kai 
ov KCKOTTiaKear AC (s^* ^) : k. ovk. eKOTTiacrao- X 025. 046. 21 ( — 620. 
2020). 250. 2037 alP^ Or^ : et non (nee Pr) defecisti Pr gig vg : 
fcai KtKOTTiaKafT 336. 432. 628. 2020 arm^ " : KatKOTTiUKacr I : Kai 
KCKOTTiaorao- 620 |. 

4. aXX AC 025. I. 385. 620. 2015. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2042. 
2050. 2067 Or* : aAA,a N 046. 21 ( — 205. 620. 2020. 2050). 
250 al : Kai 205 I €x^ Kara aou] + oXiya gig | tt/v TTpiorrfv (tov 
ayaTTtjv A j atfirjKacr AK^'- "^ 025. 046 al omn'"^ : a(f>T]K€(T N*C |. 

6. fxnr)fioi'cu(roi' 1854. 2020 | ovi/>Pr s^ arm^-^-** eth | tto^cv] 
odev 386 : TTwcr bo | TreTrrwKao- { - €cr H) AnC 046. 21 ( - 35, 205. 
620). 250 al™" Or^ Pr Cyp S^ : cK-TrcTrrwKao- 025. I. 35. 104. 
205. 620. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 
gig Vg S^ I K. fjiiTav. > S^ arm^ | k. t, Trp. epy. TTOirjcrov >-bo 



246 AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY [II. 6-9, 

6. dXXa TovTo iX^i OTi fiKTiis Ttt £/3ya Ttui/ NiKoAaiVoij/, a Kayu) 
fiKTOi. 7. 'O f.\iiOV ovs oLKovcTaTw Ti TO TTvev/xa Aeyet rats CKKXr^criat?. 
T<S viKoii/Ti Swo-ti) avTw <f>aytiv Ik tov ^vXov t^<; ^to^s o co-rtv ei^ to) 
TrapaScicro) tou 6eov. 

8. Kai T<S dyytA-o) tw cv 2fi.vpvj7 iKK\r}<TLa^ ypdn]/ov 
TaSe Aeyci 6 irpwros Koi 6 e(r)(aTOi, 

o? eyevero vcKpos Kai i^rjcrev' 

9. 0?8d (TOW T^v OXiipiv Kai rrjv 7rTU);(«'av, 
ctXXa ttAovctios et, 

Kat T^v (3\a(T(f>rifxiav eK twv XcyovTwv louSatous ttfai caurou? 
Kat ouK cio-tV, dXXa (rvvaytoyrj tov Sarava. 

eth I epya] + (rov gig arm I o-oi AsC 025. '2050 gig vg s^ bo 
sa : > 181. 2041 arm^- 2 » : + Taxv 046. 21 (-2050). 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or' Pr s^ arm" : +Ta;(et i | KLvqa-o)] -\- 
Kara aov 325. 456 | ck t. tott. avr. ^s^ | cav] ei 35 | /xerai/OTyo-etcr 
(-atcr l) 35. 104. 498. 620. 2050 : /xcravorja 205 : fterat'or/o-y; Tyc |. 

6. cxcif] + ayaOov Pr | on /xicr.] on fncrr)<T 2040 | a > A arm^ : 
sicut Pr I Kayw] eycj s^ arm^- 2- s » eth |. 

7. ouct] (DTtt s^- 2 : + aKoveiv bo eth : aures audiendi Pr arm^- ^- * 
I a/coucrw 617 | Trrev/ua] + aycov arm^- 2' * eth | rater] + CTrra A ] 

€KKX.]+TatO- CTTTtt C : + Kttt S^ | aVTW AC O25. O46. 21 ( — 35" 

205) Or^ Pr Cyp vg s^ arm eth : >N 35. 60. 205. 209. 1957. 
2023. 2041 Tyc gig vg*"'' s^ I ev no rrapaS. AN*C 046. 21 ( - 35. 
205) al™'* Tyc Pr Cyp vg s^* ^ arm^* ^^ ^- * : cv /teo-w tw TrapaStiaw 
J?"" '^ 025 : ev fieau) tov irapaSeicrov I. 35. 61.™^ 205. (e/xeo-o) 
205). 250. 1957. 2015. 2018, 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 gig arm* bo | tou Oeov AxC 025. i. 6i.™s 205. 
2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 s^ arm" : + fiov 046. 21 
(-205) al"'" Qj^^.ix.r3f> Or" Tyc Pr gig Cyp vg s'^ armi-2-3. 4 
bo eth |, 

8. TO) ei*] See note on 2^. tw A arm* : tyjct sC 025. 046. 
21 min'*" Or^ eth : Trja + o 2040 | ev ^/Mvpyrjcr eKKXrjo-Lacr A : 
Smirnae ecclesiae gig (vg) bo : ecclesiae Smirnae Pr s^ : ev 
Zp.vpvrj €KKXr)(na(r K : cv %fjivpvr) ckkX. C 025. 046. 21. 250. 2038. 
2067 al™" s^ arm* (Z/x.) : T-qa ckkX. tov ^fxvpvaLov arm^-^" : 
€KKXr)(TLa(T ixvpvaio)v I : ^fjLvpvaiuiV €KKXr](ruicr 2015. 2036. 2037 : 
2/xvp. AC 025. 046 min°'"°"<^ gig s^ arm^-^-^a \^q . Zi^vp. N vg 
s^ arm* | Trptoroo-] vpiDTOTOKocr A|o2>-20i6. 2020. 2041 |o 
ecrx-] "without end" arm^ : +0 irpwToa- tuiv veKprnv 69 | ocr ANC 
025. 046. 35. 205. 468**. 620. 632. 2020. 2050 Pr gig vg s^- 2 
aimi, 2. 4a bo : >i8. 175. 325. 337. 386. 456. 468*. 617. 919. 
920, 1849. 1934- 2004. 2040 al™" I f^i;o-€v] vivit gig vg : 
revixit Pr |. 

0. aoo AC 025. 93. 241. 250'^''™ Pr gig vg s^ bo sa eth : 
+ Ta epya Kai K 046. 21. 2 50. 2037. 2038. 2067 Or^ Tyc S^ 



II. 10 12.] AnOKAAY*l2 inANNOY 247 

I o. fir) (fio^ov a /AcWcis iracrxeiv. 

iSov /xiXXfi /3aX\civ o 8idf3oXo<; ei vfitLv els <f>vXaKrjv, 
Lva TTiipaaO^Ti KoX €X>]Te OXiij/iv rjfjiipwv SiKa. 

yivov TTio-TOS o^XP' QavaTOV, 

KoX Swcro) cot Tov aTe<f)avov t^s ^orjs. 

11. 'O ex<^v oSs aKOixrciTw Tt' to Trvfv/Jia Xe'yei rais CKKXT^o-t'ats. O 

flKtOV OV /A^ a.8lK7}6y €K TOV daVOLTOV TOV SiVTepOV. 

12. Kat Tw dyye'Xw to) iv Jlepyafjiw iKKXr]crtas ypaif/ov 
TaSe Xcyei 6 c^wv t^v pofX(f>aLav tt/j/ Biarofx-ov rrjv o^eiav 

arm : +Ta €/oya k. tt^v vTrofxov-qv arm* | Trrw^ftav 025. 046. 21 
(-620) Or* : TTTcoxiav AnC i. 498. 620 : +aov gig vg s^ bo 
eth I TTjv fSXacrcfi.] +T7/V X s^' ^ : racr (3Xa(Tcf>r]fiia(r arm'- 2-3" : blas- 
phemaris Pr gig vg : " I found not one " bo | ck AxC 046. 21 
(-35- 205) al°>" Pr gig vg s^- 2 bo : >o25. x. 35. 205. 1957. 

2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 Or* I eavT. 
louS. 2015. 2036 (s^) I lovSaitov X*C 2050 arm* | eavTova- eivai 
2019 I €ivai > 468** S^ I cairr. >• 336. 620. 628 : avTova- 314. 

2016. 2019 I K. ovK eia-Lv > arm^ I aaTava] + eiaiv K<=- •=• Pr gig 
vg arm^- ^- ^ |. 

10. fiT) AC 046. 2020. 2023. 2050. 2067 bo : ixrjSev N 025. 
21 ( — 2020. 2050) Or* Pr gig vg s^- ^ eth | a] o)v 35 | /xcXXeicr] 
^eXcio- arm" | 7rao-x«iv AkC 025. I. 35. 104. 172, 205. 468* 
(7rao-x€t 620). 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2041 : TTtt^etv 
046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 468*. 620). 2067 al™" Or* I iSov AsC 025. 
I. 18. 61. 69. 104. 250. 620. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038 

^jmU Pj. gig yg gl 2J.p-, \yQ . _^_^yj Q^5_ 22 (—18. 205. 620. 2020. 

2050). 2067 Or* S^ : +yap 2050 eth : + kul 205 | o SiayS. /8aX. 
920. 2020. 2040 s^- 2 eth I /SaXXciv Ax'^C 025. 18. 35. 205. 250. 
919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2020 al : (3aX(iv 046. 175. 325. 337. 386. 
456. 468. 617. 620. 632. 1934. 2037. 2040. 2050. 2067 al Or* : 
^aXXetv y3aXiv N* | €$ vfi. o 8ia/?. N i, 2037. 2067 al gig | €$] a<^ 
1854 I iva TTCipao"^.] iva TreipaOrjTe i : tva TreipaaOr] 920 | k. e^. OXnlf. 
>gig I cx'7'''* -^ 1854. 2019. 2038 Pr (bo) : «x*'''^ C 025. i. 181. 
2050 : €$riT€ no : c^erc N 046. 21 (-2050) Or* Tyc vg S^- ^ I 
BXuf/.^ + fieyaXrjv 2050 | Se/c. r}fi. Tyc gig | rjftfpwv AsC 025. I. 35. 
104. 172. 205. 250. 620. 1957. 2015. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 al : 
dierum Pr : rjfitpaa- 046. 21 ( — 35. 205. 620. 2050) al™" Or* 
Tyc s^' 2 : diebus gig vg | ytvou >'K* | ytvccr^e . . . Trio-roi . . . 
v/JLiv s^ I axpei 2050 I p-^xpi- 632. 2020 |. 

11. ooct] wTtt s^-2 arm^-* : +aKoveiv bo eth : +audiendi Pr 
arm^-*" | to] +ayiov arm^- ^ eth | t. ckkX. > arm ^ | o vikwv] 
o yap vLKiiiv bo |. 

12. TU QyY-] TOtcr ayyeXoio- arm^* ^'^ \ Tot «v 11. ckkX. 2050 
(save that it reads YlepKafna) : see note on 2^ : tw cv cKKXiycrta 



248 AnOKAAY^a lOANNOY [II. 13-14. 

13, OTSa irov KaTOi/cets, 

OTTOV 6 6p6vo<; Tov Saravo, 

Kol KpttTClS TO OVOfia fJLOV, 

KOL ovK rfpvrj(T<a ttjv Trtcmv fiov 

KoX Iv Tttis rifj.(pai<s J ' AvTiVas, t o fiaprv^ fioVf 
6 TritTTos /j,ov, OS aTreKTavOrj -Trap Vfilv 
OTTOV 6 SiTttvas KaroiKel. 

14. dXA* €;(a> Kara aov oXiya, 

OTi ex*'^ ^''*'' 'fpttTOUj/ras t^v SiSa^^v BaXaa/u, 

09 eSiSaa-Kev tw BaAax ySaXeiv o"/cav8a\ov cvwttiov twv vtiLj' 

*I<rpa7;A, 
<f>ay€LV el8<a\66vTa Kat TropveCcrat, 

Ilcpya/iou s^ : TO) cv rr/ Ilepyap.ov €KK\r)(Tia ? arm* • : Tto «v r. ejc/cX. 
n. sa : TTjtr ev ITepya/xw CKKXTjcriuo- all Greek MSS ( — 2050) Or^ : 
Ttjcr HepyafxaLwv (Ilepyaiwv^) eKKXrjcriacr arm^- ^ : Pergami ecclesiae 
gig vg s^ bo : eccles. Perg. Pr eth | Xcyet] + Kvpioa- 205 | t. o^. t. 
SicTT. si- 2 eth |. 

13. 0180 AnC 025. 2020. 2050 Tyc Pr gig vg s' arm^-^-* 
bo sa eth : -{-Ta epya crov Kat 046. 21 ( — 2020. 2050 [crov ra epya 
/cat 325. 456]) alP' Or* s^ arni^* | ttov] Kai on arm" | KpaTcio-] 
eKparrja-acr bo : Kparova-iv arm^- *" | /lcou^] aov K* | r]pvr](r<D] + 
nomen meum et gig | ttjv ttio-t.] tov ttio-tov arm^ | Kai^ AC 
1957. 2050 gig vg s^ bo eth : > K 025. 046. 21 (-2050) al^' 
Pr arm^- 3- 4 a | £„ rato-] avTaio- 325* : in ill is Pr | T/yacpato- AC 
vg S^ : +TavToto- arm^- ^ : + tv raicr K* : +aio- 046. 21 (-35. 
205. 620. 2040. 2050) al Or" (arm^«) : +tv aio- N'' 025. i. 35. 
104. 205. 250. 620. 1957. 2018. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 
2067 (s^) (arm'*) : +in quibus fuit gig : +€/xaio- i. 61. "s : + p.ov 
(cv) aicr 2040. (2050) I AvTiTrao- N*C 025. 046. 21 ( - 325. 337. 
456. 2050) al™" vg : Antiphas Pr : Anthipas arm^" * : Antipax 
gig : AvTciTrao- AX'=- •= 42. 82. 93. 325. 337. 367. 452. 456. 
498. 2021. 2024**. 2050 Or' : avTuiraa s^- ^ arm* bo : >eth | 
o/iapT.] »<at oyitapTucr 172. 2032 S^ : Tracr/AapTuorarm^^l) | yu.ou^>i8T. 
2019 arm^ bo : + xai Pr | o Trto-Tocr] -{■ oti iraa fiaprva- {+fiov s^) 
7no-T00-2O59 s^ : ort/iapTuo-yu,ou7ri(rTOcr(>-y)7rao'0 7ricrT«v<Jvarm^-T-* | 
fiov^ AC 61. 69. 2050 Or* $2 : >N 025. 046. 21 (-2050) Pr 
gig vg (arm) bo | ocr av eKTavOrj 2050 : o aTrtKTavdrj 205 : ov 
aTre/cTCivav bo eth | ocr > 172. 314. 2016 | Trap v/iiv] Trap vfiotv 
920. 2040 s^ arm^***" : e$ vp-mv arm* : -^ iKti 632 | ottov o 2aT. 

KttTOtK. >2020 s^ ]. 

14. aXX. AxC 025. 35. 205. 620. 2020. 2050 al Or* : oAXa 
046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 620. 2020. 2050) 250. 2038. 2067 al I Kara 
orou>j<* : 4-Xey€tv Pr arm^* | oAtya >armi' ^- ^* eth \ ori . . . 
KpoT.] ovop.a.Ta KparovvTa bo | OTi>C Pr vg S^ | fXii<r\ c^*' 



II. 15-17.] AnOKAAY*I2 mANNOY 249 

15. ovTOJS ex^is KOL (TV KpaTovvTas TTjv SiSa)(r]v NtKoAaiTwy 

O/XOtOJS. 

16. fieravorjcrov ovv' 

Kol iro\ep,rj(T<M fjLfT auTwi/ iv Tjj pofi<f}aia tov OTO/iaros fiov. 

17. O e^oiv ovs aKoucraTO) 

Ti TO TTvevfia Ac'yei rais iKKkyjaLais. 

T<3 vtKcuvTi owcru) avrw toO /xdwa tov K€Kpvu.iJLevoVf 

Koi ooxru} avrcu \f/rjcf>ov XtvKrjv, 

/cat eVt Tr]y if/rj(f>ov oi'o/xa Kaivov ytypafxfxfvov 

o ov^€l<; oTSev €t fx-q 6 \ap.l3a.y<av. 

A I SiSa^i^v] -I- TOV 42. 468. 2019. 2020 I cStSao-Kcy AkC 025. I. 
2015. 2036. 2037. 2050. 2067 al Pr gig vg : cSiSafcv 046. 
21 (-2050) al'"" Or« s'-2 armi-2-3a bo : StSao-Kct arm'' | tw 
BaA. AC 104 : €v tw BoA. i. 94 : tov BoA. N*^ 21 ( — 35*). 250. 

2037. 2038 Or* : €v TO) BoAaa/x, toi/ BaA. 025. 35*. 2067 et 
comm. in 250. 2037. 2067 : BaA. 046 : >K* | Ba\a»c AN" 
025. 21 (-386. 620. 1849. 2040**. 2050) Or^ : Balac gig 
vg arm : BoAaaK C 046. 620. 1849. 1854. 2040**. 2050 : 
Balaac Pr : BaAaa/i 386 | ySaAciv] /SaAAciv N*' : ep-^aXeiv 2050 : 
jSacrtAei A | Ttoi/] tc 2050 | (f>ay€iv AxC 025. I. 35. 205. 522. 
632*. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2050 Or*^"™^-^*'' Pr 
gig vg s^ arm : tou <^ay. 42. 325. 336. 367. 456. 468. 620. 628 : 

Kai <f)ay. 046. 18. 175. 250. 337. 386. 617. 632**. 919. 920. 

1849. 1934. 2004. 2040. 2067 al Or* (s^) I €i8u}\oO. >vg arm^ : 
ciSwAo^DTov 1854 : de sacrificiis Pr |. 

15. (TV KpaT.] o KpaT(tiv 2050 I icpaTOWTacr] KpaTOvvra bo : > 
Sirm^.2.3a. I Ni/coA. AC 046. 18. 175. 325, 386. 456. 468. 617. 
919. 1849. 2004 al : Twv Ni/coA. N 025. i. 35. 104. 205. 337. 620. 
632. 920. 1934. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2040. 2050 al (arm** bo) : 
"of Nicolaus" arm^-2-3 | o/aoiwo- AnC 046. 21 ( — 35. 468. 2020) 
Or* Pr gig vg s^-2 (arm*) : o /xiorw i. 61. ™s ; yjv fii(r(a 2037 arm" : 
o/Aoiwo- o (<o 468 : rjv 2067) pna-oi 025. 35*. 42. 181. 468. 2038. 
2067 : >-202o arm^-2-^ bo sa eth |. 

16. ouK AC 046. 21 ( -35) al*"" arm^* bo eth : fiovov arm^ : 
>X 025. I. 35. 61. 69. 1957. 2015, 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 

2038. 2041 Or* Pr gig vg s^-^ arm^ | « 8c firj] xai bo | <xoi >6i. 
69. 181. 2020. arm^-2-3ogth : (ru X* | xoAc/x.] iKiro\tp.-q(T(i> 205 | 
auTwi'] aov 2050 Pr : avTOV arm^* ^ | cv^Tyc | tou (tto/jl /mov 
>-arm^ : +Kai ev tt] aTreiAiy -q (f>i.Xav$p(j)7na 104. 336. 459. 620. 628 
(from the Comm. of Andreas) |. 

17. oua] ojTtt s^- 2 : +aKov€iv bo eth : aures audiendi Pr 
arm^' ^- * | 7rv«u/xa] +ayio>' arm^- ^ eth | ockAt/o-.J + otc bo | tw 



250 AnOKAAYvI'n IfiANNOY [II. 18-19. 

1 8. Kai Tw ayye'Xo) tw cv ©uarctpois eKfcXijcnas ypdij/ov 
TdSe Xe'yci 6 vtos row ^eov, 
6 l;((uv Tous 6<f>6aXixovii w? <f>koya irvpo^, 
Koi 01 TToScs aurov ofiOLOi ^aXKoXi^dvu), 

ig. Ot8a crov ra epya, 

Ktti r^v aya.Trr)v koI rrjv rricrTLV Koi ttjv SiaKOvi'av Koi rrjv 

VTTOfjLovrjv crov, 
Kttl TO. tpya CTov TO. €(r)(aTa nXeiova tcuv TrpcoTwv. 

viKwvTi S 025. 046. 21 ( - 620. 2050) alP^ : tw vlkowtl AC : 
I avro) AC 025. 046 minf'*>^^<"^ Or« : > N 61*^* Tyc gig vg<i- '^ 
s^ : +<jiay£Lv 025. I. 35. 61. ""S 104. 205. 468. 620. 632. 1957. 
2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 Or^ Tyc gig arm** : 

+ TOV (fiayeLV 42. 69 : + " food " arm'- 2- ^ | tov fxavva AC 21 
( - 35. 205. 468. 620, 632. 2050) al Or^ : iiavva 69 : to fxavva 
046 gig vg arm^- ^ : €k tov fxavva X 468*. 1957. 2019. (2050) 
Tyc Pr s'-^arm'** bo : aTro tov fxawa i. 35. 61.'"^ 104. 205. 
468**. 620. 632. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 : 
OTTO TOV ^vXov 025 ; ttTTO TOV ^vXov Tr/o" ^wi^o" arm^ : +^ayetv 172. 
250. 2018. 2050 1 TOV K^Kp.^ TO KeKpyp-fx. vov 2050 gig vg I Swaru) 
avTw^>-K 2020 arm* | XevK. k. ein t. il/r](f).^s^ \ if/r](f>.^'\ ij/rjixov 
C I Ktttvov] Kcvov C 175. 2040 I yeypa/ijU,.] eyyeypafxix^vov 919 : > 
Pr : + «7r axrrrfv bo | o ovSeto" . . . XapifS. > I | o >■ S* | oiSev] €i8ev 
205. 209 bo : 4- auTw 2050 |. 

18. TO) CI* ©uaxcipoia CKKXTjaioa] See note on 2^. Ttu cv ®var. 
A : cv ©vttT. iKKX-qa-Laa C : tw ayy. tijct ckkA.. tco cv Ovax. Epiph''^^ : 
ecclesiae qui est Tyatirae Pr : tw cv cKK\?^o-ia tt; cv ®vaT. s' : tw 
TT^o- £KKXr](Ttaa- ttjct cv ©vttT. s^ : qui in Theatrea ecclesia arm* ^- y^ : 
Tq<T cv ©vaT. eKKXrjo: K 025. 046 min omn*'** Or^ : Tyatirae 
ecclesie gig : Thyatirae ecclesiae vg : ecclesiae Thyaterae bo : 
Twv ©vaTipatcjv arm^' ^ : rrjcr ©vaTcipwv ckkXt^o". 2020 (arm^) | 
©vaTctpoio- N I. 18. 35. 175. 205. 250. 386. 468. 617. 919. 920. 
1934. 2004. 2037. 2040. 2067 : ©vaTipoLcr AC : ©vaTrjpour 025. 
149. 201. 632. 1849. 1955- 2036. 2050 : ©vttTcipwv 2020 : ©vaTTjpr] 
046. 620 : ®vaT€Lpr] 69. 93. 104. no. 177. 325. 337. 456. 498. 
2021 : Thyatirae vg : Tyatire gig | cK/cXr^o-iao- > A arm^ | tovo- 
ocfiOaXfi. A 2019. 2020 Pr gig vg (arm2-S-4) : tov ocfiBaXfxov s^ : 
+ avTov kC 025.046. 21 ( — 2020). 250. 2037. 2038 alP' Or* s^ 
(arni^ *) | <^Xoya] ^Xo^ K Pr : Xa/jL-rraSaa 1854 | ;(aXKw Xi/3avw 
025. 104. 175. 620. 2050 : auricalco Pr : eramento thurino gig : 
orichalco vg : " unto brass of Libanan " s^ arm^- 2- 3* * : " unto brass 
smelted" arm^**" : "burnished brass" {xaXKoXifSavoa-) bo eth |. 

19. ra cpy. Kai>-i8l | ti;v (>202o) ttictt. k. t. ayair. k. t. 
SiaK. x8. 242. 2040 : T7;v ayaTr. k. t. Siuk. k. t. ttio-t. I | k. t. 
ayaTT.] + aov S^ bo eth | T-qv^^C 2020 | ttictt. ] + o-ov s^ bo eth 
I jqv SittKOvittK Kai'^V^'' I ti^v^>>2020 j SiuKoviav] + orov S^ bo 



11.20-22.] AnOKAAYvI'12 lOANNOY 251 

20. dAXa £^0) Kara (rov 

OTi d0ets T^v yvvaiKa 'Ic^d^cX, rj Xe'youcra iavrrjv irpo(f>r]Tiv, 
Koi SiSd(rK€L Kal irXava tovs ifiov<i SovXov^ 
TTopvevaaL koi (^ayetv elSwXodvra. 

21. Kal ISwKtt avrrj )^6vov iva /AcravoT^o^, 

Kal oiiK rjOtXrja-ev fj.€Tavorj<TaL iK rrjs Tropfcios avr^s. 

22. iBov (3a.X\<j) airrjv ct? kXivtjv, 

Kal Tovs fJi.oi)(fvovTa<% fier avrrji €is 6Xi\]/ii' fjL€ydXr]i/,(a) 

(a) Interpolation follows here : ^d^ /jltj fxeravoyjaovffiv iK twu ipyuu oiJttJs. 
See Eiig. trans, vol. ii. footnote, in loc. ikv p.i\ is not followed by the 
indicative in our author. 

eth I Tr?v*>A 2019 I o-ou2>K 2023 Pr | (rou^j + xac I | TrXciova] 
X€ipom 175. 617*. 1934 |. 

20. aXXa A 046 min mult : aXX kC 025. 35. 6g. 104. 175. 
205. 314. 385. 617. 620. 1934. T957- 2015. 2016. 2020. 2037. 
2038. 2050. 2067 al Or^ I €;(w] Xeyo) arm^' 2- 3 a | ^a_Ta_ (j-^y AC 
025. 046. 21 (-35*. 632*. 2050). 250 al™" Tyc vg s^ bo eth : 
(rot arm^' 2' ^ * : +7roXu N 35*. 181. 632*. 2019. 2022. 2038. 2050 
gig s^ arm** : +7roXXa 2015. 2036 Pr Cyp : +oXtya i | a(i>€icr 
An*C 025. 046. 21 ( - 2020. 2040. 2050). 2037. 2038. 
al™" Pr Cyp gig vg : a(f>r]Kaa- N° 506. 2019. 2050. 2067 Tyc 
s^'2 arm bo eth : a<f>ir](r 241. 250. 424. 2018. 2040 : ttoOuot 
2020 I yvvaiKa XC 025. I. 104. 205. 468*. 620. 2019. 2020. 
2038. 2050 Tyc gig vg arm'^-^"bo eth : +crov A 046. 21 
(-205. 468*. 620. 2020. 2050) al™" Or« Pr Cyp s^-^ arm^-*! 
Trjv U^a^iX A : laCa/SfX n* : Zezabel Pr Cyp arm^- 2- ■* « | >y 
Xcyouo-a As*C : yj X«yei 046. 21 ( — 35*. 205. 2020. 2050). 
al'"" Or* gig vg bo eth : r-qv Xeyovcrav a'^ 025. I. 35*. 205. 
1854. 2019. 2020. 2038. 2050 : "who declared" arm^- ^- * « | 
€avTr}v AC 025. 21 ( — 620) : avTrjv ^5 046. 104. 141. 336. 620. 
628 i Trpo(f>rjTtv AX*"C 21 ( - 620. 9 1 9. 2004. 2040. 2050) al™" 
Or' : prophetissam gig : irpo(f)rjT€Lav X* : Trpo(f>y]Tr]v 025. 046. 104. 
172. 620. 919. 2004. 2019. 2038. 2040. 2041*. 2050 : prophcten 
Tyc Pr Cyp vg : +«vat x 2050 s^ arm* | k. StSaa-Kei] StSao-Kcti/ 
Pr Cyp vg : xai SiSao-KaXov? bo I TrXava] TrXavav Pr Cyp Vg 

I uSwXoO. (ftay. I. 2019 I ciSwXo^.] to eiSwXo^Tov? arm^"^-** : 
de idolothytis vg (bo) : de sacrificiis ( - ficio gig) Pr Cyp gig : 
>arm2 |, 

21. V. 21 > 205 I Ktti^ >Pr arm^- * | avrrj] avTr}v 2040 | /xerav.] 
fieravorja-ei 620. 2050 | k. ov deX. /xerav. >-X* (arm") : k ct p.€v 
OeXei /Lierav. 2020 : k. ov p-erevorjcrev (post avrrjcr) I arm^' ^- ^ | 
r)$€Xr](Tev A Pr Cyp eth : OeXu K*C 025. 046 min"™" Or^ gig 
vg S^"2 I iropv€ia(T C 025. 046. 21 : iropvcaa- AX | avrrjcr] Tavrrja X : 
RUTwi' K. ov p-CTevorjcrav arm" {. 

22. iSou] eiS' ov 2020 : +€yo) I | ;8aXXo) AC 21 (-325. 



252 AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY [II. 23-25. 

23. Koi Toi TCKva avTrj<; ciTroKTCvai ev davario. 

Koi yvwcrovTOU iraaai at iKK\r]<nai 

OTt iyw €tju,i 6 ipavvHv v€(f)povs kol KapSia^ 

Kal 8w<rw vfuv cfcacrTo) Kara ra tpya vfiwv. 

24. vfiiv Bk Xe'yo) tois Xoittois toIs €v 0uaT«'pois, 
0(70i ovK cxov(riv Tr)v SiBaxrjv ravrrjv, 

otTtves ovK iyvuxrav Ta ^aOea tov Sarai/a, o)? Xcyoucrii/, 

ou ^dWo} i<fi vynas aA\o /?apos' 

25. irX^v o €;^€r€ KpaTqaaTf. OL\pi ov &v ^fw. 

456. 468*. 632. 2020. 2050). I. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 Pr Cyp 
vg arm : /?a\aj K° 025. 046. 325. 456. 468*. 632. 2020. 2050 Or^ 
gig bo eth : xaXw N* | kXii/t;i'] <f)v\aKr]v A : Kajxivov arm^- 2. 3 a . 
luctum cod. ap. Pr : "pains of a couch "arm* | /xotxeuo-ai rao- 61. 
69 Pr Cyp I /ACT auTT/o-] aur>;v 2050 | /xeyaX. >arm^ : maximam Pr 
Cyp vg arm* | /xeTavorjcrovcrtv AN : fitTavorjo-Mo-iv C 025. 046. 21 
( — 2050) alP' Or* : fxeTavor/a-n 2050 : fxeTavorjcrrj 469 Pr Cyp bo 
sa eth I €K. T. €py. avT. >>bo sa | avrrjcr NC 025. 046. 21 ( - 35*. 
205. 468. 632) al'°" Or^ Pr Cyp gig vg s^ arm'* eth : avrwv A i. 
(35*). 61. ™s 181. 205. 468. 632. 2019. 2023*. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2067 vg**- * s^ arm^- 2- 3 a |_ 

23. KOi^ > A 620 arm^ bo sa | avrrjali avrwi/ 205. 209 
arm^**' ^ * | ev] cwtr 468* | ^av.] Ovfxu) 2019 | tpavrtav AC : epevvwv 
N 025. 046 min omn^-'* : scrutator Cyp Pr | vc<^. k. Kap8.] Kap8. k. 
ve<j). arm^- (2)- ^- * bo eth : renis et cordis Pr | KapSiav s^ (arm'^) | 
airoSuxrw 2050 | v/iiv > arm^- 2- ^ bo | xara >arm^- 2- ^ | ra cpya] 
€pya C : tt^v KapSiav 2050 | vfiiov AS'^C 025. 21 ( - 2020. 2050) 
Pr gig vg s^' 2 arm* eth : avrov 046. 2020. 2050 vg''- ^ arm^- ^- ^ bo 
sa : avrwv arm" : >N* |. 

24. 8e>-468 s^ I TOIO- XotTT.] tokt €V XotTTOio- N* I Toto-^ > 
82 94. 2041 I TOKT ev TOitr ®vaT. Xolttolct 2050 | Toicr ev ©uar.] 
Twv ©uaripatoDv arm^- 2- ^ | TOt(r2>205 arm* | ©vareipoia- a* ^^'^-'^ 
21 ( - 149. 620. 632. 2050) : ®vaTipoia AC : ®vaTr}poL<T 025. 
620. 632. 2050 : &vaTr]pioi.(T 149 : ©varrjpaLcr 046 : ®vaT€ipai(T 
61. 69 : ©vareipr? N"^ : Thyatirae vg : Tyatirae Pr : Tyatire gig | 
ocrot] OTi 205 : octtio" gig | ovk^>^* \ €)(ov(tlv] €X« gig : efiadere 
^j-j^i.2. 3 I oLTLVfo- ouk] ou8e Tyc ( ou/c2>arm^ | cyvwo-av] eyvwre 
Tyc arm^" I ySa^ca AC 046. 21 (-205. 2050). 250. 2067 
al™" : jSaOr] N 025. i. 205. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050 : 
(to) jBa9o(T bo : altitudinem Tyc Pr : altitudines gig vg ( wo- 
Aey. >arm* | wcr] a arm^-2-8« | ySaWw AC 025. 21 (-337. 632. 
2050) al™"* Tyc gig arm* : |Ba\^a X 046. i. 6i. 69. 177. 337. 632. 
1957. 2023. 2050 Oi® Pr vg arm^-^-^* bo eth |. 

25. irXTjf o] o ovv s^ : " more than what " arm^- '^- ^ | KpaTi/craTe] 
"and is with you" arm^-^-^ | axpi NC 69. 177. 2087 : axpia 



n. 26-in. 1.] AnOKAAY^TS IfiANNOY ^53 

26. Kai o vLKwv Koi 6 T7]pu)v a.)(pL TcXoiJS Ttt cpya /AOV, 
8o)cro) avTw c^ovcrtav ctti twv idvStv, 

27. 'ftti TTOf/Aavei avTOus ev pafSou} criorjpa 
<i)S TO, (tkcv't; Ta KfpafiiKa avvTpL^iTai, 
w? Ka.yo> €i\r](f>a irapa tov Trarpos yiiov, 

28. Ktti Scoo-o) avTw TOV aarepa tov TTpwivov. 

29. O l;((ov ovi oLKovcraTu} 

Tt TO TTVcv/Aa Ac'yct tois iKK\r](riai^. 

025. 046. 21 alP' : ou >2050 : coya- A 241 | av r]i<a AsC 025. 35. 
205. 468. 620. 632. 2020. 2050 Tyc Pr gig vg s^-^ bo : avoi^w 
046. 18. 175. 325. 337. 386. 456. 617. 919. 920. 1849. 1934. 
2004. 2040 alP' |. 

26. Kai^>io4. 336. 522. 620. 628, 2020 arm^-2-3| o^ > 
2020 I TTjpwv^ KpaTojv 468* I axpi- TfX. !> S^ I Ta cpya fiov a.\p€i 
reKova- 2050 eth | e$. ctti t. c^v.] €iri>N* : ra eOvrj Tyc |. 

27. K. iroiji.] TTOi/iaivciv (1854) s* : et reget gig vg : k. rroifxa- 
vovaiv arm^* ^" ^ | ai;Toiio-] avrov arm^ | aiSTjpaj + kul <rvvTpi\f/€i 
avTovcT 2050 : + xai Tyc arm^* ^ | wcr crKevocr KepapuKOv arm^ * bo I 
o-wTpi^cTttt AsC I. 104. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2050 alP. Possibly 
a slip of the author for a-wTpt^ovTai or rather awrpiPrjcrovTai : 
a-vvrpi^-qcrtTai 025. 046. 21 ( - 2020. 2050) al°^" Or* : confrin- 
gentur Pr vg (s^) : comminuentur Tyc : a-wTpiil/ere s^ (an itacism 
for a-vvrpixl/eTat) : confringet eas (placed before wo-^) gig : 
(TvvTpix^u (-ovariv arni^- ^- ^) aw'ouo" (avrov arm^) arm bo eth | axj-^J 
ovTOJO- yap s^ | Kayw] cyw arm^" ^* ^ • j. 

28. auTu] auToio- arm^- ^ | irpwivov xC 025 al omn fere : Trpoivov 
A 046. 2038 |. 

29. V. 29 > Pr I ovarl^ wra s^- ^ : + ukovclv bo eth : aures 
audiendi arm^- ^- * | irvev/xa] + ayiov arm*' ^ eth |. 



Chapter III. 

I. Kat T(3 dyycXtj) rw ei' StxpSeo^tv iKK\rjcria<; ypdxlfov 
Tao€ Ae-yet 6 l;^oji' xa cTrra vrviVjxaTa tov 6iOV 
Kal Tovs kiTTO. aarepas, 
OiSd (TOV Ta ^pya, 
OTL ovo/ia t\€L<; oTi ^17? Koi vcxpo; et, 

1. KOI* >• Pr I Tw ayy.] toio" ayycAoicr arm^* 2' '• | t<d 6V 2. 
€KK.]. See note on 2^. ecclesiae qui est Sardis Pr : tw cv tj; </c- 
Kkrja-ta SapSewv S^ : tod ev ^ap8. s^ : tw cv (rato") 2ap87;o-ia c/cKXijo-iato- 
arm* : tt/o- ev 2. ckk. AN 025. 046 min""^" Or» : ecclesiae Sardis 
(Sard. eccl. gig) gig vg bo eth : tt^o- 2ap8iKwv (2apSatwv 2. a) 
€kk\. arm*-^'*" : ttjot ev 2ap8. fKKXrjaiaia- C | «7rTa >■ 18 r. 



254 AnOKAAY^lS IfJANNOY [in. S-3. 

a. ytvov yprjyopwv, *cai cm^picrov ra XotTra a €yu,«XAov aTro^avetj', 
t4 ^/>7a ov yap evprjKd aov ^epya^ ireirXrjpioixiva cvcottiov tov Otov fxov. 

3** . fivrj/i,6v€V( ovv irw<i ciAi7</>as koi ^^Kovcras, 
Ktti TrjpiL KoX fi€Tav6rjcrov. 

Xvi. 1 5' 'iSou epxOfjLai u)S kAcVtt^S. 

/xaKapLos o ypnrjyopwv koi rrjpwv to. IfioLTia avTOV, 

tva /A^ yVjOtvos irtpLTraTrj, 

KOL /iX.e7rw<riv Ttjv a(r)(rjfio<Tvvrjv avTOV. 

2015 I Tou ^eov>386 I cpya] + kui Pr s^ | ovo^a] + " of the 
health" bo | on t,-qcr AxC 025. 35. 205, 250. 620. 2020. 
2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 al™** Or* Tyc Pr gig vg s^ arm^-2-3. 4 
bo : Kai ^r/a- 046. 21 (-35. 205. 620. 632. 2020. 2050) al* : 
Ktti OTL t,r]cr 632 S^ : ^(ovTocr arm* | jcai^] + on S^ |. 

2. yifou] Kai yivov S^ : yevou 1854 | yp7;yop.] (yprjyopuyv H* : 
vigilans et stabilis Pr | a-r-qpicrov AC 025. 35. 175. 337. 468**. 
617. 919. 920. 1849. ^934- 2004. 2020. 2040 al Or* : crT-qpi^ov ^ 
046. I. 18. 205. 250. 632. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 al Tyc Pr 
gig vg s^ bo eth : o-rr/pi^wv 620 : T-qprjcrov 42. 141. 201. 325. 
385. 386. 429. 456. 468*. 522. 2015. 2019. 2036 S^ : irXrjpioaov 
arm^' ^-^ \ ra AotTra > Tyc eth : rover Xonrovar (ot) s^ j a] 01 S^ : 
on arm* : et 8e fir}? bo \ €/x,e\Xov ANC 025. 172. 181. 250. 424. 
468. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 Or' 
Tyc Pr gig vg s^ arm* : t(or r))iJLi\K€v i.™s 104. 336. 620 : 
■^(or £)/x.€/\A€(j 046. 21 ( — 468. 620. 2020. 2050). 93. 201. 498 al 
S^ : /xeXXcior arm" bo | aTro^avfiv AxC 025. i.™^ 620. 919*. 2020. 
2050 al""* Or* {aTroOrrjaK€tv 468. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037) Tyc 
Pr gig vg s^- 2 arm** bo : airo^aXXeiv 046. 21 (-35. 468. 

620. 919*. 2020. 2050) : airof^aXiLV 35. 1957. 2023 | evprjKo] 
€vpr]Kav 046 : invenio vg : +orc on S^ | TreirXrjp. t. (py. aov 141 
S^ I fpya AC l.™s : ra epya N 025. 046. 21 aP^ Or* | imrXri- 
po)/A€Vtt> 201. 386 I evtuTTiov] + Kxjpiou 35. 205 | yu,ov > 1 . 205.2038. 
2067 aJP Pr s^ arm^-^» |. 

3*-^, /xcTjfioi'cue] pr Kat eth | odi'>N 69 Pr gig s^ arm^- 2- ^' * 
eth I ijK. K. iiXrjcjiacr 2050 s^ | k. rfKovd. k. Trjpci AXC 025. I. 35- 
104. 172. 250. 468. 620. 1957. 20zo. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2050. 
2067 gig vg S^ arm^- * bo : k. rjKova-aa- rrjpei s^ : rjKova-acr T7]p(i 
arm" : et audita custodi Pr ; >o46. 21 ( — 35. 468. 620. 2020. 
2050) al™" I (cai T7yp€t>arm2 eth |. 

xvi. 15. i8ou] OCT Pr arm^ | ep^op-at] cpx«Tai X* (sed corr. 
prmi. man.) 241. 2020 Pr s^ arm^ : + e$ai(j)vr)<: eth | KAe7rT7?o-] + 
Ta;^v 2019 : + kul 205 | o] ore N* | rr/pcoj/] n/xwv 1849 | Trept- 
TTttTti 104. 522. 2015 : TrfpLirarricry] 2020 : TrepiTrarryo-et 2019 | 
fiXe-TTOvai I. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2038 : videat Pr | /SXeir. t. aio-;^. 
avT.] " their shame appear " arm^* ■■^' ^ * ). 



III. 3-5.] AnOKAAY*l2 Ii2 ANNOY 255 

3". iav ovv fxy] yprjyopijcry^ 

Kal ov /MY} r-yvws' ♦ ypwffTj 

TTOi'ai/ (Dpav ^^0) eiri crc* 

4. dXXa €xei^ oXiya ovofiara iv "SidpSta-tv 
& ovK ifioXwav TO. l/iaTia avrwv, 

Kal 7r€pnraTT^<rov(riv fier ifiov cv Atu/cots, 

OTL a$ioi ClO'tV. 

5. O VLKwv ovTws 7rcpt)8aA.€tTat iv iyu.aTiots XcuKots, 

Koi ov fjir) i^aXtiif/o) to ovofxa airov €« t^s (BifiXov t^s C^<»^?i 
Ktti oyiAoXoyT^O'co TO ovofia avrov Ivuiinov tov Trarpos //.ov 
/cat ivwTnov rwv dyyc'Xwi' avTOv. 

S*'. GUI' > 620 I ypTjyop. As** etc. : ypr]yopr](r€i(r 104. 620 : 
fj.iTavor)rry](r N* Pr : /icTavor/cn/c /a7;8c (koi bo) ypr]yopicrei(r 2050 bo 
I r;^w^] pr. veniam et subitabo adventum meum ad te Pr | rjiia 
AC 025. I. 35*. 181. 468**. 2015. 2037. 2038. 2067 vg'^-'^-^-s 
arm* bo : + ctti ac X 046. 21 (-35*. 468**) al gig vg*- '^ 
s^-2 arm^ eth | yvwcr AC 025. i. 35. 175. 205.468**. 617. 1934. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al : yvoio-r) N 046. 21 (-35. 175. 205. 468**. 
617. 620. 1934. 2050) Or* : yv(i}(T€t 104, 620. 459. 2050 : nescies 
gig vg : non scies Pr | rroiav wp. 7/^.] " my coming " arm* | Troiav 
(opav] oiav (upav (X*) : TTOta wpa 18 1. 367. 632. 2050 [. 

4. aXXa AkC 69. 468. 2020 Or^ : aXX 025. 046 min pi : > 
35*. 205 arm* | cxcio-] cxw s^ arm* bo | ^x- °^- ovofx. AnC 025. 
I. 35. 205. 2015. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2050 al Or^ (Pr) vg s'-^ 
eth : ^X-o^- O'^- gig • oXiy. €;(. ovofx. 046. 21 (-35. 175. 205. 2020. 
2050) al : oXty. ovoix. c^- 61. 69. 175. 314. 522. 2016 : + Kat i ] 
a AxC 025. 046. 21 (-35. 205. 468. 2020) al Or^ gig : 01 
I. 35. 205. 209. 432. 468. 2015. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 
Pr vg : at 522 | to Lfiariov Pr | ain-.] eavrtav C : + fiera yvvaiKocr 
bo eth I TTcptTraTT/o-.] TrepnraTrja-ov A : ireptTraTova-Lv 620. 2050 
vga. f. T gi arm*: ambulaverunt Pr vg^ arm^ j fi^r €|Liou>arm** 
: evwTTLov fiov s^ | ori] Kai s^ | oti . . . €io-iv] eth om. here and 
trans, after XtvKoio- in ver. 5 | eio-tv] + xat avairavariv ovk ex'^'^^'-v 
. . . K. o (pxop-cvoa- (from 4^) 35* |. 

5. ouTuo- Ak*C 18. 35. 456. 920. 1849. 2004 al Or* Pr gig 
vg s^-2 arm** bo : ovrw 325 : ovroa- N'' 025. 046. 21 (-18. 
35. 325. 456. 920. 1849. 2004. 2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 : 
auToo- 2050 : ovToa- ovtwct 467 | 7rf/)iy8aX.] Trcpi/JaXXcTat C S^' ^ : 
TTtpi/Sff^X-qraL 2050 : Trepif^aXovcriv avrov? bo : .^-eth j e^aXeixf/oi] 
airaXct\j/w 2020 : tfaXcii/'oucrtv bo sa | to ovo/x. auT. . . . o/xoXoyTjcraj 
>I. 2015 I auTovl-2-] avTwv S^ arm bo | ck t. /Si^X.] (V ^i^Xu) 
2040 I t. ^oiTjcr] Ttov ^ojVTtov 920. 2040 I TO OV. avT.2] avTOv gig J 
cvcDTT.^j cfi7rpo(r6ev X | k. cvwtt. t. ayy. avT. >>325. 456 |, 



256 AnOKAAY^HS IfiANNOY [HI. 6-7. 

6. O €)^o)v 0V5 aKovaaTw 

Ti TO TTvtvfjia Xeyei rats CK»cA.T7(naiS. 

7. Kai Tw dyytXtt) t^ ev $iXa8eX<^iigt cxxAi^iriias ypa\[/ov 
TcfSe Xry« 6 5yios, 6 dXi^^iftJ?, 

6 l;^on' r^ kXciv Aau€t8, 
6 dvot'ywv Kttl ouSeis KXtt'o'ei 
Kttl KAet'wv Kttl ovScis dvoty«, 

6. V. 6 > Pr I ovo-] wTtt s^' 2 : + aKoveiv bo eth : aures 
audiendi arm^- ^- * [ Trvevfia] + ayiov arm^- ^ eth |. 

7. Kai^>Pr I TO) ayy.] Toicr ayycAotcr arm^ [ rto cv $iX. ckkX.] 
See note on 2^ : ecclesiae qui est Filadelphiae Pr : rw ev $iXa- 
SeXc^ta arm* : tt/o- €v <I>tX. ckkX. all Greek MSS Oi^ : Philadelphiae 
ecclesiae (gig) vg S^ bo : T-qa ^tXaStX^wv {-<f>Lwv 3) fKKkrja-iaa- 
af.,^jl. 2. 3o j ^iXa8eX<f>ia XC 025. 046. 205. 325. 386. 456. 
919. 920. 1849. 1934. 2004 al"'" : <I>iXa8€X</»tao- A 620. 2050 : 
^L\aheX<f>eia 18. 35. 175. 337. 468. 617, 632. 2020. 2040 al™" | 
(KK\r](nai(r S | XcyciJ + Kvpiocr 172. 20l8|o ayiocr o aXrjO, C 
025. 046. 21 (-2050). 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or™' 3* sl-2 
arm** bo eth : o ayioo- Kai akr^O. 172. 2018 : sanctus et verus 
Tyc Pr gig vg arm^* ^-^ : o a\r]6. o ayiocr AN : o aXr]9. > 2050 : o 
ayyeXoo" aX7y6'tvoo- Or^ | o^>337 | T7;j'>X* | kXciv ANC 025. 046. 
21 (-35. 205. 468** 617. 620. 2050). 250 al"^^*^ Or™'- *' Or^: 
xXctSa I. 35. 69. 172. 205. 468**. 617. 620. 2015. 2019. 2036. 

2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 Or^*"" 3* : ( + omnes eth) claves Pr s^ 
arm eth | AdS A 2020 : tov AdS (AalS 632) X 21 (-620. 2020. 
2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP^ : Tov oLKov (from Is. 22^^) 
Tov Aau€i8 bo eth : tou a8ov 104*. 218. 336. 459. 620. 2050 
^j-ml- 2- 3 I o avotycov] Kat avvywv X | Kai^'^ho \ kXcktci AxC 025. 
046. 21 (- 205. 620. 632*) alP' Or™' ** Or^ arm* bo : kXcio-t? 104. 
385 : kXh€i I. 61.""^ 205. 314. 632*. 2016. 2019. 2023. 2037. 

2038. 2067 Tyc Pr gig vg s^'^ : KXeioiv 2015. 2036 (arm*) ] 
kXci. (sine add) AxC 025. (35*). 205. 468**. 632*. 2020. 2050 
^l Or™'- 36. Po xi. 37- Tyc Pr gig vg s^-^ arm*"^ bo : +avTr]v 046. 
21 (-35* 205. 468**. 632*. 2020. 2050) al'"" Or^ arm^-2-3 
I /cai (>A : +0 2015. 2036) kXckov AX 025. I. (35*). 172. 205. 
250. 314. 468. (2015). 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. (2036). 2037, 
2038. 2050. 2067 Or™'-'^Or« (si-2) (bo) : /cai kXcici C 6i."8 
2016 al gig arm** : et qui claudit Pr arm^-^- : kXcici Tyc vg 
: €1 /XT/ o avoiyo>v ( + /cat ovSeicr ajoi^ci Or^) 046. 21 ( — 35*. 205. 
468. 620. 2020. 2050) al Or^ : €i /x-q o avoiywv kul /cXttwv 42. 
104. 432. 459. 620 I /cat*] quod Pr | ai/otyet AC 025. 61. ™s 205. 
2019. 2037. 2038. 2067 Or* Tyc Pr gig vg s^- ^ arm* : ai'otywi' 
468 (arm«) : avotfei {-v^ei X) X 046. 21 (-205. 468. 620). 
250 ai°»'^ Or''""-^* : avoi^r] 104. 385. 620 |. 



111.8-10] AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY 257 

8. 0?8a (Tov TO, epya 

— iSov SeSwKa ivwviov aov $vpav ayfi^yfitirqVf 
fjv ouScis Swarai KXei(r(u avri^v — 

OTi fiiKpav ^x*''^ SvvafiiVf 
Koi iriqprja-di fxov tov koyov, 
Koi OVK rjpvr}a<Ji to ovo/xa jjlov. 

9. Ihov ZiZCi €K T7/S crwaywy^s tov Sarava, 

Toiv XeyovTOiv cavrovs 'louSat'ous cTvai Kal ovk elcrlv 
dAAa ij/evoovTai — 

iSov TTOi-qao) auTOvs tva ijiovaiv 

Koi TrpO(TKVV'l](TOVCnV iv'jJTTlOV TWV TToScOV (TOV, 

Kal yvCxTLV OTI iyu) r]ya.Trrj(Ta. (T€. 

10. oTi eT-qprjoras tov Aoyov t^s VTrofiovrjs /xov, 
Kaytii ae TrjpT^crw €k tt}? wpas tov w^ipacTfiov 
Trj<; fX(\Xova-7]% €p)(€crBai Itti t^? olKovfxivr)<: o\7/5, 
ireipa.o'ai Toii^ xaTOi/covvTas ctti t^s y^s. 

8. 018. <r. t. epy. > Pr | t. epy. crou X S^ | cpya] + Kai tt^v Tricmv 
(TOV bo : + Kot s^' 2 eth | ^up. cvwir. (rov avewy/x.. 920. 2040 | 
av€(oy/i. AC 046. 21 (-205. 2020. 2050) al Or^ : Tyvewy/x. X 025. 
172. 205. 2016. 2018. 2020. 2050 I 7;v] Kai I. 61. ™K 2037. 
2067 eth : >bo : otl arm^ | avT-qv^H (35*) 2023. 2038 Pr gig 
vg arm*" | oti1 + ou 2020. 2036. 2037 | fxiKp. . . . 8vv.] pusillas 
. . . vires Pr f cxetcr] e^" I- I957- 2037 | t. Aoy.] Ta epya 920. 
2040 : Tovo- Xoyovo- arm^- 3 * |. 

9. iSou] Kttt iSou s^ I SiSo) AC : StSwKtt x : StSw^i 025. 046. 21 
( - 205. 620. 2050) alP' Or^ gig : StSw /loi 205 : SlSo/xi 620. 
2050 : Swo-w Pr vg bo eth | 2aTava] + €K Pr s^-^ | twv Aey.] 
Touo- Xeyovracr bo | aX\a>>eth | iSov^] xat i. 181. 2023. 2037. 
2038. 2067 I yjiova-iv AxC 025. 69. 82. 201. 218. 314. 386. 
632. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2050 arm : rj^waLv 046. 
21 ( - 386. 632. 2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al°^" Or* : 
rj$(a I I 180V , . . rj^ovaiv > eth | »cai-] + TrotTycrw avrouo- wa bo | 
7rpoa-Kvvrjcrov(Tiv AxC 025. I. 42. 82. 149. 201. 2016. 2036. 2050 
arm : irpoa-Kwrja-wariv 046. 21 (-149. 2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 
2067 al Or* : +cre (o-oi) Kai Trco-owTai bo ( 7/f. cvojtt. t. -jtoS. 
(TOV K. Trpoa-Kvv. Pr I »ca t^] + Tra VTCO- bo | yvcocriv AC 025. 046. 21 
(-2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 gig s^ arm^"* : yvwcron-ai 2019. 
2050. 2087 vg s^ *'"^ : yvwo-dJVTai 2023 : yvwcrrj X 69 Pr arm* 
: yvojo-ft Or* I €y<D AxC 025. 205. 250. 468. 620. 2020. 2037. 
2038. 2050. 2067 Or* gig vg s^'2 bo eth : >046. 21 (-205. 
468. 620. 2020. 2050) al™" Pr I rjyaTnaa 149. 2040 | at] 
+ Kat 2020 |. 

10. on] Kai A arm* * | tov Aoyov p.ov Kat ttjv virofx. bo eth | 
VOL. II. — 17 



258 AnOKAAY»I'l2 lOANNOY [ill. 11-14. 



f> » 



1 1 . ep^o/xat raxv ' Kparei o ex^'^ 

iva /iJ^Scis Xd^ji Tov (rT€<fiavov <tov. 

I 2. 'O VIK(J)U TTOll^O-M avTOV (TTvkoV iv TW VttW TOU ^€0U ^OV, 

Kal €^0) ou /at) i$€X6rj In, 

KoX ypdij/oi Itt avTOV to ovofxa tov Oeov fiov, 

Kal TO ovo/j-a tiJ? TroXecos tov Oeov fiov, 

T^s Katvrj<i 'Icpovo-aXr/^A, rj KaTafiaivovcra €K tov ovpavov iirb 
tov Oeov fiov, 

Kal TO ovo/xd fxov to Kaivov. 
1 7. 'O l^wv ov<i aKovaaTO) 

Ti TO TTvevyU-a Xcyci Tais cVKXT/trtais. 
14. Kal Tw dyyeXw tu €V AaoSiKia eKKXiyo'ias ypdif/ov 

TaSe A.€yet 6 'A/btT;v, 

6 IxdpTVi 6 TTtCTTOS Kttl dA.7^^tI/0S, 
^ apX^ ''^^ KTlVcWS ToC ^€o£», 

Kayo)] Ktti Sia touto xayo) eth | Trjp-qao) >»K : tT-qpyja-a arm^ eth | 
TTjo" wpaa- T. ■jrapao-fx. Trja > 2050 : Tr^cr <opa(r>s' bo | Trcipao-ai] + 
iravTaa- arm^- 2- 3 a ^q | KaroiKOi^vTao- > bo j. 

11. cpx-] iSov epxo/jiai 468**. 2015. 2019. 2036 al vg**- ^- ^ arm^ 
: Ktti 180U tpx- Gth I p,7]8ei(T Aa^r;] yu,r/ Xa^r/ Ttcr Tax^ 104. 336. 
459. 620 I fxrjSeLor] (ne) quis alius Pr : (ne) alius Cyp | Xa/??;] 
XaySor 2050 (arm^ '^- ^- *) [ aov] +Kai s^ arm^ eth |. 

12. O klKUc] TOV VlKiDVTO. arm" I ODTOv] aVTO) N* 92O Of' | €V 

>N* arm | t. vaw] tw ovofiari 920. 2040 | /lou^ >• 385. 2019 

Or* S^ I Kttl €^0) . . . Tr^O" TToXeoJO- TOU ^€0V /XOV >>2050 I ETl >>-X 

arm^ | ctt avrov > C 2015 '• ^tt avrat 61*. 2019. 2036. 2037 : 
super illud Tyc : +to ovop-a p,ov Kai 2020 | t. 0. /a. k. to ovop.. 

^046 I K. T. OV. TT^O" TToX. T. 6eOV pOV >I. l8l S^ : Kttl SwO^W 

auroto- TOV oiKov p.ov arm^ | tou Oeov p.ov^ >S^ eth : tou iraTpocr 
p.ov bo I Tqa Kaivrjcr ttoXccoo' tou iraTpocr pov bo | 17 KaTa/3aivovaa 
AN*C 025. I. 141. 181. 205. 432. 459. 1854. 2015. 2050. 2087 : 
7] KaTaftevvovaa 025 : ttjo- KaTa^atvova"q(T X^ : f} KaTa/3aivei 046. 21 

( - 205. 2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 Or^ I €K. T. ovp. >■ s^ 

arm! sa | €k AnC 025. 046. i. 35. 205. 325. 337. 456.468. 2020. 
2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 al Tyc Pr gig vg bo : utto 18. 175. 
386. 617. 620. 632. 919. 920. 1849. 1934. 2004. 2040 al I Tou* 
> 632 I ttTTo > 386. 620 arm^-^-*" | p.ov^ AnC 025. 35. 205. 
468. 632. 2050 al Or* Tyc Pr gig vg s^- ^ arm^- * bo : >o46 
21 (-35. 205. 468. 620. 632. 2050) al™" arm^ : auTou arm^"" | 

Kaivov] + KUL s^ |. 

13. V. 13 >• Pr I ova] wTa s^' * : +aKov€iv bo eth : aures 
audiendi arm^-^-^** | ti to ttv. . . . cKKXT/o-taio- > arm* | irvcu/na] 
+ ayiov arm^' ^ eth |. 

14. tw ayy.] toco- ayycXoio" arm^- ^ | tw ev AaoS. ckk.] See 
note on 2^. tw ev Aao?). ev €KK, arm* : Trja- ev AaoS. ckk. AnC 



III. 15-17.J AnOKAAY^IS IfiANNOY 259 

15. OTBd aov TO. epya, 

OTl OVT€ xfrVXpOS €t OVTC ^€CrT09, 

6(f>e\ov il/v)(pb<i ^s T/ ^ccTos. 

16. OVTO)?, OTt ^AiapOS €1 

KOL ovre ^ij/v)(po<; ovrt ^ccrros , fetrrbs 

fieWo) (re e/AcVai eK tov o"TO//,aTO? /x,ov. *''^^' r^ 

17. OTl Xe'yets on ITA.ovo'ios elfxi ^ 
Ktti 7r€7rAot;T?7Ka koI owSev )(peLav e)(<j}, 

Koi ovK oioas oTt o'i' ti 6 TaAatTroDpos Kai o cXeivos 
KOL TrTw^6<i /cat TV(/)Aos Ktti yvyu,vos, 

025. 046 min^®"^® °™° : TTja- ev AaoS. (AaoSt/cetao- 919) 919. 920. 
2040 : tt; ev AaoS. eKKXrjo-iao- 18 : Laodiciae ecclesiae gig vg : 
ecclesiae Laudatiae Pr : T-qtr eKKXrjcriacr AaoSi/cciaor (-Ktao- 
bo) s^ arm» bo : rrja eKKXrja-iaa- AaoSi/cewv i arm^- ^ | AaoSiKta 
AnC 104. 149. 201. 620 : AawStKta 2050 : AaoStKcia 025. 
046. 21 ( - 149. 620. 2050) : Laudatiae Pr : Lavodike 
arm* | o afx-qv^ + Kat. N* | Kat^ A 025. 046. 21 (-620. 2050). 
250. 2038. 2067 s^ arm : o 69. 104. 459. 620. 2015. 2036. 
2037. 2050 : Kai o XC 82 bo I aXrjdLvoa-] + Kai H s^ arm^- 2- ^- « 
eth I 7] apxvl aTTap)(Ti^ 2015. 2036. 2037 : aTr ap)(r)ar arm* : 
+ Tr](r apX']'^ arm* : o a7r OLp)(r](r eth | rrja- ktio".] tt/o" eKKXrjaLaa- 
N : T7/0- KTr]a€(j}(r 1849 : tt/o" Trio-Tecocr 20 1. 386 | tou ^cov]+/iou 

gig I- 

15. OTl > s^ I ^to-Too- . . . xpvxpoa- 205. 209 arm^- 2- 3 

€1 >X* 1 o<l>f.Xov ipvxp. y}(T V iicrroa- > A i. 241 arm'- 2- 3 | o^eAov' 
w^tXov 025. 046. 205. 522 : +t; s^ I 170-] €to- 046. 336. 620. 
2017 |. 

16. ouTUCT . . . »(»u)(poo' >»arm- | orrtocr oti] oti outuct X bo : 
oTi 1854. 2019 : sed quia (quoniam Pr) Pr gig vg : Kai s^ | i/'uxP- 
ovTe t,e.(TT. A 025. 205. (2050) al vg s' : ^earoa ovre ipv^fioa- (t<)C 
046. 21 ( - 205. 2050). I al""^ s^ arm^ bo : k. ovTt ^ea-roa- ovre 
^^XP- ^ ^° P'" g'g arm^- 2- 4. a | ^^l ovre . . . o-To/xaToa- fxav >• eth | 
ovTc' AnC 025. 046. 205. 617. 632. 2020. 2050 vg arm^ : ov 
21 (-205. 617. 632. 2020. 2050) al Or* (s^' "^) I ^co-toct] +« 
N"^ I ^XP'^^1 '^^'^ ^* 2050 I fjieXXu) (Te efxeaaL €k t. o-to/x. /xou] 
jravae tou aTOfjiarocr crov N* | €/teo-ai] c/A/x€(rai 046. 617. 9 1 9. 
1934 : efjLiv K° : at/xco-ai 2050 : "judge" arm^- 2- s ; +Kai 
eXeyxin o"€ 250. 2020 | tou o-to/oi.] rrja KapSiacr bo | fiou] (tov N* 
armi- 2- s ], 

17. OTl] Ti 18 : Kat eth | oti^ AC i. 35*. 172. 175. 205. 242. 
250. 314. 617. 1934. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2020. 2036. 2037. 
2040. 2050 al gig vg s^- 2 bo : >N 025. 046. 21 (-35*. 175. 
205. 617. 1934. 2020. 2040. 2050). 2038. 2067 al Or" Cyp | 
ct/xi] ei s' I K. ireTrXovT >bo sa | ovSev AC 181. 2038 : ovSej/oo" K 
025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2067 Or^ I ex*^] ^X"^ ^^o | av';>ti* | 



260 AnOKAAY^MS Ifi ANNOY [ill. 18-19. 

1 8. (TVfifSovXevw orot ayopdaai Trap i/xov \pvcrlov ireTTVpiafjiivov 

€K TTUpOS Iva TrXoDTT/CTT/S, 

Koi i/xotTia XiVKOL iva TrepifidXr} 

Kal fjiT] ^avcpoD^g 17 al(r\vvr] ttJs yvp.voTtiTO'i (tov, 

Koi KoXKovpiov iy)(picrai rovs 6(f>6aXfiovs (tov iva /SXcttj^?. 

19. cyo) ocrovs eav <f)i\u} iXiyxu} koI TratScuw' 
^r;X€V€ oi'i/ Kat fLeravorjaov. 

q\ ~^ j^* 2019. 2050 I TaX. ct K* 2050 I o ToA. , . . cXeivocr] 
" weak and miserable " bo : eXeivoa- > eth | o^ A 046. 21 (-18 
205. 632. 920. 2004. 2040. 2050). 250 al Or* : > aC 025 
I. 18. 61. 69. 205. 241. 632. 920. 2004. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037 
2038. 2039. 2040. 2050 I eXeivoo- AC 104. 620 : cXeeivotr X 025 
046. 21 ( — 620) aP^ : aXrjdLvoa- 1854 | k. yvfivocr k. tu</)Aoo- 104, 
110. 336. 620. 632. 2050 gig arm^- » eth | k. Tv<f>X. > s^ |. 

18. aufip.] o-uya^ovXeucro) 2015 arm^C^-sXa : consule Tyc | <rot] 
-\-ovv 2020 arm" bo eth : +Xa;8c arm^- 2* 2- * | ayopao-ai] ayo- 
paa-ov 2020 (Tyc) arm^-2-^« : XaySeiv eth | Trap e/uou >I72. 250. 
424. 498. 2016. 2018. 2038 I Trap ffi. XP^o"- AnC 025. I. 35. 
205. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2050. 2067 al Or* Tyc 
Cyp gig vg si- 2 arm : xp^a: Trap c/i. 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 2050) 
al bo sa : + €fiov eth | ck Trvpoa\ €v Trvpt bo eth : ck Trvpacr 
046 I 7rXour>;(r€io- 620. 2050 | Lfiariov Xeuxov Pr Cyp | Xevxa] 
XafJLTTpa bo : TL/iia arm^ | iva 7r€pt/3aX.] Trept/SaXecrOaL S^' ^ | iva^ 
>Pr gig vg bo eth | irepi/JaXX?; 046. 61. 69. 172. 205. 617. 
1934. 2015. 2036*. 2037 : Trept^aXtt 104. 2050 | (fiaveputOt]] 
(ftavT) 69 Or* : +€v a-oi Pr | aiaxwrf] aa-xvtJ^oa-wr] 025. 35*. 104. 
205. 620. 2019 I KoXXovpiov A 025. 35. 61. ™S 205. 522. 632. 920. 
1849. 1957. 2004. 2019. 2023. 2038. 2040. 2050 al Or* : kovX- 
XovpLov I. 18. 919. 2037 : KovXovpiov 385. 2015. 2036 : KoXXvpLOv 
sC 175. 250. 325. 337. 386. 456. 468. 617. 620. 1934. 2020. 
2067 al : KoXvpLov 046 : collirio Pr gig : coUyrio Tyc Cyp vg | 
eyxp(.(rai {evx- N 2050 : €X- 620) AkC 94. (104). 336. 459. 468**. 
620. (2015). 2019. 2037. 2050 : lyxpicrai 104. 2015. s^- ^ : 
€yxpia-ov 025. I. 35. Sl.'^S 1854. 1957. 2023. 2036. 2038. 2041. 
2067 eth : inunge Tyc gig vg : ungue Pr Cyp : "give to " bo : 
*' lay " arm^' ^' * : cyxpicr?; 2020 : iva tyxpio-ci 046 : iva cyxpicn^ 
21 (-35. 205. 468**. 620. 2020. 2050) Or* : ira eyxpicn^o- 205 : 

+ C7ri 60. 432. 1957. 2041 arm | t. o<f>d. a-ov >s^ \ ^XeTreio- 104. 
2050 : pXeij/eia- 620 arm* |. 

19. cyw] oTi eyo} arm^*' bo sa | cav] av N 2019. 2050 | ^i/Xeue 
AC 046. 21 (-35. 205. 468** 617. 620. 2020). 250 al""" : 
^rjXov 314. 617. 2016 : Cv^oio-ov X 025. i. 35. 205. 468**. 620. 
2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al : ^T/Ti^QTov 1957 : rede Pr | oi;v >-io4. 
181. 336. 620. 2015 arm^- ^' ^ | Kai^ >arm^ | k. /xeTavorjaov^ titr 
^eravoiav eth {. 



in. 20-IV. l.J AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY 26l 

20. 'I80U itrryjKa iirl rrfv Ovpav koi Kpovw' 

idv Tis oLKOva-y rrj^ <f}(avrj<; fiov Koi avoL^jj rrjv Ovpav, 
Kol ilaeXfvaofiaL vpo^ avTov koL SenrvTjanD fi€T avrov 
Koi aVT^S fl€T ifiov. 

31. 6 vcKoiv Stixrui avTw Ka6i<rai fier i/xov hf toJ Opovtf fJMV, 

0)5 Kayo) lvLKr](ra koI €Ka.6i(ra fxera rov varpoi fiov iv T(^ 
6p6v(i) avTOv. 

32. 'O l)(wv oii aKovcaTO) 

Ti TO TTVivfia Xcyei rais €KK\r](rCai9. 

20. iSoo] + €ya) Or'''' "• ^' : ori iSov bo : xai i8ov eth | €7ri] ante Pr I 
aKovarj] avoiiei 2050 | aKovcnj . . . fx-ov km ;> Or"'"' "■ 3^' and else- 
where I avot^w N : avoi^ei 18. 2050 s^ : +/u,ot Or''"- *'■ 3^' Pr bo eth 
I KaL^ {< 046. 21 (-205. 468. 620. 632*. 2020. 2050) al™" Or* 
Pr s^ arm* : >A 025. i. 104. 205. 468. 620. 632*. 2015. 2019. 
2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 Or''""^*' gig vg s'^ 
arm^-2*^-* bo eth | irpocr avrov >S^ | Bfiirvrjo-o)] "will dwell" 
arm^ : " will rest " eth | e/xov] + in trono meo Pr : + " in my 
kingdom " arm^- ^- ^ |. 

21. o I'lKUJ'] pr KaL S^- 2 eth | xayw] eyw S^ bo eth |. 

22. V. 22 >gig I ova] (lira Pr s^- ^ : +aKov«v bo eth : aures 
audiendi arm^* ^- * | Trvcu/xa] + ayioi' arm^ eth |. 



Chapter IV. 

I. McToi ravra etSov, koi l8ov dvpa ■^vewy/j.evr) ev tw ovpavw, 
KOI 17 (fxavrj 17 TrpwTT) ^v i^Kovaa ws o-aA.7rtyyos XaXova-rjs /act' ifjiov, 
Xiydiv 'Avdfia uyBe Kal Sct'^oj (rot a Sei ycveV^ai fxera ravra. 

1. fiera] pr Kai arm^- 2- 3- a (bo) eth | Kai^ > Pr bo sa eth | 
180V >-eth I Ovpav 620. 2050 eth | rjveoiyfxevr] AK 025. I. 2016. 
2020. 2038. 2067 : r]V€o)yfX€vrjv 2050 : avcuiyiievT] 046. 21 
(-2020. 2050). 250. 2037 al Or® : rjvoixOrj arm^ Tyc : >arm* 
I Kttt^] +180U 8< Pr I y >498. 1957. 2020 I i^wvyj] 4- -q Xakovcra 
fi€T ifxov bo I rj Trpwrr} >s* | rjv] r/cr 205 : >eth | tocr] + (fxxivrj bo 
eth I craA.7rtyya Pr gig s^- ^ | kaXova-Tjcr] XaXovcrav K Pr gig : 
XaXovcra 522 : Xeyovtnjcr 141. 2 1 8. 1 849. 1955 : eXaXija-€v S^ 
arm^" | Xeywv AS* 046. 21 (-35. 205. 468. 620. 632. 2020). 
250 al™" Or* : Xtyova-a K'^ 025. I. 35. 6i.™8 205. 468. 632. 
1854. 1957. 2020. 2023 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 : (cat Xeyova-a 
fioL 2019 : /cat Xiyova-rja 104. 336. 620 : /<ai Xeyouo-aj/ gig : Kat 
eXeyev S^ eth | ava/?a] ava firjOi A \ croi] cr€ 2 05. 386 | a] ocra 
A I Set] Sr] 2050 |. 



262 AnOKAAY^U lOANNOY [IV. 2-4. 

2. cu^cw? iyevofirjv iv Trveu/ian' 

Koi i8ov 6p6vo<; Ikcito iv toJ ovpavoi, 

KOL eTTl TOV OpOVOV KaO-^/XiVO'i, 

3. KOL 6 Ka6rifx.€vo^ o/xotos opdaei X.t6<v ta(r7ri8i kol (xapSitf, 
Koi i.pts kvkXoOcv TOV Opovov o/xoio; opatrei afiapaySivw. 

4. Ktti KVKXodfv TOV Opovov 6p6vov<i €tKo(Ti TeVtTapes, 

ftKOffi ''<*' ^''■'' Tous '^povous €?KO(n T£cr(rapas^ Trpco-ySvTc'pous Ka6r]- 

Te(T(rapai fx.€vovs 

0p6vovi 

2. cuOewa Ax* 046. 21 (-35. 205. 620. 632. 2020) al Or' 
Pr gig vg s^ : cu^cwo- Se K'' : Kai cv^ewo- 025. i. 35. 104. 205. 
620. 632. 1854. 2020 al s^ arm(^-2-**) eth : kul arm^ bo | tSou] 
€l8ov arm^*^"^ : ctSov iSov bo : iSou ctSov Pr | €kuto >205o bo : 
positum Pr (artn^-^-^) | ev t. ovp. ckcito 468 eth | cf t. ovp. > 
632 I TOV Opovov Ax 046. 21 (-35. 205. 632) al™" Or^ : tov 
Opovov 025. I. 35. 205. 632. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 |. 

3. K. o KadTifiCfoo- An 025. 046. 42. 61. 93. 104. 337. 452. 
468. 506. 2019. 2021. 2050 Or^ Tyc gig vg s^- ^ : et his qui 
sedebat Pr : > 21 (-337. 468. 2050) aF" armi-2-3.4 bo 
eth I opacri 205 : opacricr 2050 | XiOo)] \iO(dv 2020 artn^- " : XiOov 
Tyc vg S^-2 : >arm^ bo | taa-ir. k. a-apS. XiOit) Pr | tao-TriSt] 
ao-TTtSi 920 : lyacTTTtSi 2050 : +(r/xapay8(o 337 : + xai cr/xapaySw 
046. 42. 180. 452. 468. 506. 1854. 2021 I *cai2 >i854 arm^ I 
o-apSto) Ax 046. 21 (-325. 337. 456. 468). 250. 2037. 2067 
3^|mu QfS . sardi Tyc : sardo Pr : a-apSivoy 025. i. 632*. 2019. 
2038 al gig bo sa eth : sardinis vg^ ; sardini vg : sardion s^ 
aj-m2-3. 4. a ; sardon s^ : >i854 | ipio- 025. 21 al^' Or^ Pr gig 
vg bo eth : ipcicr X'' 046 : lepeto- AN* 2015. 2036 arm^- 2- 3- » | 
KVKXoOev^ kvkXoOc 920 : kvkXu)0€v 18. 104. 201*. 205. 336. 620. 
632. 2017. 2024. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2039. 2050 : kvkXw 241. 
2019. 2020 I Opovov^ +avTov 2020 : +et ipsa sedes gig | ofxoioa^ 
A 025. I. 35*. 104. 181. 314. 429. 632*. 2019. 2036. 2037*. 
2038 Pr vg s^-2 : ofjioioL 2015 arm^-2-3. « . o/xoiov 205 : o/xota 
35**. 241**. 468***. 620. 632**. 1957. 2016. 2023. 2037**. 
2041. 2050. 2067 : o/ioitoo- N° 046. 21 (-35. 205. 468**. 620. 
632. 2050) al Or* I ofji. op. a-fj,. K. KVK. T- Op. > N* I opaarcL 
crp-apaySivo) AN*^ 025. 35. 205. 250. 468**. 620. 2037. 2067 al 
Pr gig vg : opao-ci fxiaySivu> 2050 : opacret cr/xapayScuv (a/xapaySov 
arm) S^- ^ arm^- 2. 3. a . opaa-eia- a-ixapaySmv 69 : opacncr a/xapaySiviuv 
046. 21 ( — 35. 205. 468**. 620. 632. 2020. 2050) al Or^ : wo- 
(>632*) opacria (Tfj.apay8ov 241. 632**. 2020 : opacrewo- cr/xapa/c8ou 
(arm^) bo |. 

4. Kat^ An'' 025. I. 35. 205. 468. 620. 632. 2020. 2050 al 
Or" Pr gig vg s^ urm^-^-^-" bo eth : >o46. 21 (-35. 205. 



IV. 5-6.] AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY 263 

Ktti CTTi Ttts Kee^aXas atrwv (rT€<^avous ^^puaoi;?. 

5. Kai €K rov Bpovov iKiroptvovTai dcTTpaTral koI ^(ovat Ktti ^povrai' 
Kal eTTTo. Xa/btTraSes Trvpos Kaiofxevai ivwiriov tov 6p6vov,(a) 

6. Kat evcoTTiov tov dpovov u)s ^aXatrcra vaXivr; 6/j.oLa KpvtrTaXXo), 
Kat (^) kvkXo) toC Opovov riaaapa ^<i>a yf/xovra 6(f>6(iX/ji!ii)v 

ifjLTrpoa-Oev kol oirLcrdtv ' 

(a) A gloss is added here : & icFTiv to, eirra wvevft-aTa rod deov. See vol. 
i. 117. 

{d} A gloss added here : iv fi4ff<p tov 6p6vov Kal. See vol. i. 1 18. 

468. 620. 632. 2020. 2050) s^ arm^ | kvkXo6€ 920 : ku/cXw 2015. 
2019. 2036. 2037. 2067 : kvkXwOcv 18. 104. 205. 336. 620. 2017. 
2039. 2050 I 6povov] + eiSov Tyc arm* | dpovova-^ AN 250. 424. 
2018 Tyc : QpovoL 025. 046. 21 al^^ Or^ s^- ^ bo | ctKocrii] +Kai 
104 al I T€(r(rap€cr A 025 min pi : Ticra-apia- 2020. 2oqo | 
Koi^ >2oi7 arm^ | ctti t. €lk. t. ^pov >X 2017 Tyc arm^ \ €Tn 
T. 6pov. €iK. Tco-cr. 025. 35. 632* s^-2 arm^-S-i-a 5o eth : eirt r. 
6pov. Tova- €iK. T€crcr. 046 min pi Or* : super thronos viginti 
quattuor vg (gig) : in quibus seniores sedentes erant xxiiii. Pr : 

CTTl T. CtK. T€Cr<T. 6pOV. (>920. 2O40) A 93. 94. 92O. 2O4O. 2O5O I 

I €tK. T€o-o-2 >2020 arm^ | rea-a-apacr] Tecrcrapia- 2050 | Opovovcr^ 
>-920. 2040 : +C180V 1957. 2023. 2041 al'"^ I KaO. 7rpco-/8. 2020 : 
Ka6rifj.€voi Trpecr/^VTcpoi Pr (arm^- 2- *• *) | TrepL/Si^X-qfievoLcr 1934 : 
TrepL/Se/SXrjfxevoL Pr | 7repi/3ey8X. A 025. 35. 2015. 2036. 2037 Pr 
Vg gig : +€v N 046. 21 (-35). 250. 2038. 2067 (s^-'^) Or^ | 
ifjiario) XiVKU) Pr gig : ifxaTioia >-N 2050 arm* | aurcuv] e^^oi'Tecr 
gig : + etxov arm^- ^ | ^^va-eova N |. 

5. TOO Opoi'.] Twv Opovoiv s^ I eKTTopevovTai] e^CTTopcuovTo 104. 
620 vg*^ arm bo eth (?) | ao-Tp. k. <f>oiv. k. jSpovr. AN 025. 046. 
21 ( - 2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or* Pr gig vg s^ 
arm^'^-** bo : aorTp. k. ^povr. k. (fujiv. i. 385. 2020 : (Spovr. k. 
ao-Tp. K. <j>wv. S^ I Kaiofx. irvpocr 920. 2040 | irvpoa > vg S^ 
arm* | /caio/xevai >• bo | Opovov^ AN 025. I. 632*. 2019. 2020. 
2038. 2050. 2067 Pr gig vg arm bo eth : +avTou 046. 21 
( — 456. 632*. 2020. 2050) aP" Or* S^ I a €io-iv . . . TOV Bpovov 
>N* 456 I a €o-Tiv] Kat 61*. 69 Or* | a AN° 025. I. 20I. 386. 
2019. 2038. 2050 vg8* s2 : at 046. 21 (-386. 456. 2050). 
250. 2037. 2067 al Pr gig vg s^ | eo-Ttv A : ucriv N*^ 025. 046 

alfere omn | ^^ ^^c Q25. I. 61. 69. 468. 632. I957. 2OI5. 

2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 arm^- * bo : >>o46. 21 
(-456. 468. 632. 2020. 2050). 250 al™" (s^-2) arm^-2-4 j ^^ ^^^^ 
TTi'cvp.aTtt] TO ay tov irvivfjia eth | irvivfxaToj " powers (parts 4) of 
the spirit holy (>3*) " arm^- 2-3.4 |. 

6. dpofou] +avTov 104. 141. 205. 209. 620 I uxr AN 025. 
046. 21 (-386. 632*). 250. 2038 ali^' Or" s2 bo : >i. 201. 386. 



264 AnOKAAY^a IfiANNOY [IV. 7-8. 

7. Kttl TO ^(Soj/ TO irpUiTOV O/jtOlOV ACOVTI, 
Kttl TO SeuTCpOV ^tpOV OfXOLOV fx6(T\(a, 

Koi TO rpiTOV ^(SoV €^(UV TO Trpdo'WTTOV 0)5 avBpwTTOV, 

KOI TO rerapTov ^wov ofJLOLOv deTui Trerofievw. 

8. Ka6 TOL TcVcrcpa ^wa, cv Ka^' €v avTwj' e^^wv dvo, Tcripvya^ l^,(a) 
Ktti dvotTravo-tv ouk e^ouonv rjjxepas kol vwktos AcyovTCS 

Ayios aytos aytos Kl'p^os, 6 6eds 6 iravTOKpaTwp, 
o T^v Kai o (i)v Kttt 6 ipxofjievo^. 

{a) The following clause is interpolated here : kvk\60€v kuI iawdev 
yi/xovcnv dtpOaXfiuv. 

632* Tyc Pr arm s^ | OaXaa-crav 620. 2050 : +wo- eth | vaXLvt] An 
025. 046. 21 (-205. 325. 456. 468. 632. 2020. 2040. 2050) 
vaXLvtjv 2050 : va.\rfvrj 2040 : viXivr] 60. 205. 241. 325. 456. 468. 
498. 632. 2018. 2020. 2022. 2023 I o/tia 205 : o/MOiav 2050 | Kpv- 
o-TttAXw] KpvcrraXu} 632. 2020 : ftrjpvXXw arm* : "the whiteness of 
crystal" arm^- 2- 3. o | ^fx/xeo-w A 1854 : "at the side of" (?) eth | 
Opovov^^ + p-ov 2020 I K. kvkX. t. 6pov. >385. 429. 522. 2015. 
2050 Tyc arml'2-3 \)q g^ eth | kukAw] KVKXoidev no | rea-crapa 
N 025. 046. 21 : recrcrepa A | ocftBaXfiova- 336. 620. 2015. 2019 
I efjLTrpoo-dev A min'^^'''°'°" : efxirpoa-di 920 : ivirpocrOev N 025. 046 
: ante se Pr | oiricrOe 920 |. 

7. Kai^ >2050 Pr S^ | to irpwrov to ^ojov 386 | ^wov^ >• 
arm^ | Kat^ >Pr | cx^v • • . avOp.] ofioiov avOponrw gig arm* : 
OfXOLOV 7rpo(TO}Tr(o (cos Trpo(TiiiTrov eth) viov avOpoitvov bo eth | <;^a»v 
t. Trpoa . . . T€T. ^ojov >325. 456 I ixiiiv A 046. 104. 620. 919. 
920*. 1849. 2015. 2019 Or^ : €;(ov N 025. 21 ( — 325. 456. 
620. 919. 920*. 1849. 2050) al : €t;)(€v arm''^- * : -qv zxm^ : >205o 
arm^ | to^ An 025. i. 35. 61*. 205. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2050 al Or* : >046. 21 (-35. 205. 2020. 
2050) al'"" 1 WO" avOpoiTTov A 42. 2019 vg s^ : quasi humanam 
Pr : (DOT avOpuiiroa 025. i. 35. 61*. 104. 205. 620. 1957. 2015. 
2020. 2023. 2036. 2037 2038. 2041. 2050 S^ : av6p(arrov 046. 
21 ( — 35. 205. 325. 456. 620. 2020. 2050). 250. 2067 Or* 
arm^" ^' ^* " : op.oLov avOpoirrov 2018 : oxr opoiov av6p<x>ir(ji N | xai* 
>Pr I To^ >205 I ^wov* An 025. 35. 468**. 620. 632. 1849. 
2020. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 al Or* Pr gig vg s^-^ : >o46. 21 
( - 35. 468**. 620. 632. 1849. 2020, 2050). 250 al eth (which 
om. \oiov thrice before) |. 

8. Ta Tcaor. ^<oa >bo | to AN 025. 18. 35. 205. 620. 632. 
919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2040. 2050 al""" Or* : >o46. 175. 325. 
337. 386, 456. 468. 617. 1934. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al I f.v 
KaO ev avTwv A 025. 35. 104. 172. 181. 205. 250. 620. 2015. 20l8. 
2036. 2038. 2067 al : singula eorum Tyc gig vg : cv cxao-Tov 
avTiou N 2020 s^ bo eth : ev Kad eavTo I. 61."^ : Kad cavrotv 2050 
: €y Ka.6 tv 046. 21 (-35. 205. 620. 2020. 2050) al Or* : singula 



IV. 9-10.] AnOKAAY'I'lS IQANNOY 265 

9. Kat oTav Suxrovcriv to. ^(3a So^av Kal rifirjv koI eixapicrriav 
Tw KaOrjfJLevw iTrl rw dpovw, 
T<3 l^uiVTi eis Tous aiuiva<i twv aluivwv, 
10. ir€(TOvvTai ol ciKoai Tt'crcrapcs 7rp€cr/3vT€poi h/wrmov tov KaOrj- 
fiivov eTTi TOV Opovov, 
KoX TrpocKwrjcrovcnv roi ^wvTi cis Toil's alwvas twv aiuivoov, 
Kat /3aXov(Tiv Tovs <rT€(f>avov^ avTcoi/ ivwTrwv tov Opovov, Xeyovrcs 

Pr : +€o-T(i)cr 250. 424. 2018 s^ I ixuiv A i. 42. 61*. 82. 104. 
172. 336. 429. 522. 620. 919. 1849. 1918. 1955. 2017. 2019 
: €;(ov 046. 21 (-205. 620, 919. 1849. 2020. 2050). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al Or^ : c^'^vra 025. 2020. 2024. 2050 : t^ii 2015 
: eix'^v 205 : €t;i(oj/ N 61.™^ Tyc Pr gig vg arm* | ava imp. €$ 
. . , o<f}6a\fx.<j)v^ kvk\o6€v utto twv owx<^v ((r(ii$€v, yep-ovTa o<j>OaXfj.o}v 

bo : + ttTTO T(OV OVVXHiV Kttl CTTaVO), TTTCp. €$ KVKkoOev' KUl (.CTwOev 

yefiovo'LV o<f>6aXfiwv S^ | TTTcpvywv 046 | kvkXoO^v^ + Kat e^wSev 
046 aP : +($u}6ev 61*. 69 | k. ccrw^ev] iaoiOev Kai eiwOfv Or* : > 
218. 522. 2015. 2018. 2020 arm« | eawOev] ciwOev 1957. 2050 : 
ante se et retro Pr | yeynovTa i. 2020 : c^ovTa 2037 | o(f>$aXiJ.ovcr 
620. 2036. 2037 I Ktti^] quae Pr | ovk ex^'"^'-^] o^X ^^oa-av N* : 
non habebant Tyc Pr gig vg"- *^ arm* | -qp.. k. wkt.] aXXa ttovtotc 

2050 I 7^/x6pacr] + T€ 632 I A«yovT€cr AK 025. 046. 21 aP' Or* : 

dicentes Pr gig : AeyovTa no. 385. 1955. 2023**. 2041 : dicentia 
vg : +T0 2050 I aytocr ter AN*^ 025. 205. 386. 617. 620. 
632. 920 2004. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2050. 2067 al Pr gig vg 
s^- 2 arm^-2-* bo eth ; semel Or* : bis 18. 181 : sexies 141. 2020 
: octies N* : novies 046. 35. 175. 250. 325. 337. 456. 468. 919. 
1849. 1934 aP'"^ arm^- " | Kvpioa] + a-afiawd 205 1 o^ >X* j o ^eoor 
>2050 Or* arm^- * | o deoa- o ttovt.] o-a/Jaw^ o iravTO. 35*. 104. 
620. 1918. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037 I o TravT.] T<i>v OetDV eth | o- >• 
X 2019 \ o wv K. o r)v 35. 201. 205. 250. 386. 2016. 2019. 2020. 
2023**. 2067 (arm) bo sa | k. o oiv >620 | kul o epx- >eth |. 

9. Swo-ooo-if A 025. I. 632. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 
2050. 2067 al : 8a)cra)(n(v) N 046. 61. 69. 104. 181. 205. 620. 
1854. 1918. 2017. 2038 Or* : 8ajcri(v) 21 (-205. 456. 468* 
620. 632. 2020. 2050) 250 al : Swcrei 42. 141. 517 : Sw 325**. 
456 : dederunt gig s^ arm : dederant Pr | Swcr. t. ^toa] ^wa 
Swcrovo-tv 2050 I So^av>K* arm^- " I Kat2>2050 arm^- "^ | cv^a- 
picTTCiao- A arm^*" ^' * : tvxo-pio'Teiav 2015. 2017. 2040 : >2050 
1 TO) dpovui An 2050 : (in) trono Pr : tou Opovov 025. 046, 21 
(-2050) al Or* : +KaL 7rpo(rKvvj](TOV(riv (-crtocrtv 2040). 920. 
2040 : + Kai s^ I tu) ^(jiVTL . . . (TTL TOV Opovov > gig. 1849. 2004 
I Tto ^tovTt . . . aia)vwv>vg^ ] Totv aiwvcov > 1854 arm* : -J-a/xT/v 
( + Kai «) N 2017. 2040* Or* s* arm^- " : + i-vOtmcr Pr |. 

10. TTCiTOUj'Tai . . . T. atw>'w>'>l75 arm^ " j irtfrovvTaL . . . 
KaL TipoaKWi^aovaiv^ koX irpoaKvvrjtxovcnv eKwxrtoi' t. KaO. ... 01 



266 AnOKAAY*lS IfiANNOY [IV. 11. 

I I. "AflOS €*, O KVpiOS Kttl O ^£05 rjfjLWV, 

Xa^civ T^v Sd^av koi Tr)v rifirjv koX rrjv Svya/iiv, 

OTi (TV eKTio'as TO. TravTa, 

Kat 8ia TO 6f\r]fj.d aov ^crav kox CKTiV^T/crav. 

ctK. T. TTpfo-fi. eth I TTco-oDVTai] TTtTTTovo-iv vg^ (procedunt corrupt 
forprocid.) : cttitttov Pr vg*-*^- " (procedebant corrupt for procid.) 
: tireaov arm^ I €t/c] + Kttt min** s^ (arni^) | Tco-o-apco-] Teaaapia- 
2020. 2050 : Tca(Tap(icr 620 | evtoTriov . . . 6povov^ho | tuv 
Kad. C7rt>Pr gig arm | irpotTKvvqanjicrLv 18. 2004 : irpoiTKViovai. 
61.'"^ : TTpo(Tf.Kvvovv vg"*' '^- <*• ^- " ; adorabuiit (corrupt for adoratwnt) 
Pr I cto" T. attov. Twv. aitov. tw ^wvti s^ | to ^wj'Ti>arni^ | eicr roucr 
atujvacr > arm^ I aiwvwv] + a/xT^v X 205. 2017 S^ arm^ | kul fiaXov- 
a-iv An''(?) 025. 21 (-620). 250. 2067 al Or^ gig vg'^^ "• f- s s^- 2 
arm* : k. ^aXXova-iv a* 046. i. 61. '"s 172. 181. 429. 620. 1854. 
2015. 2017. 2019. 2023*. 2036. 2037. 2038 bo : K. e/SaWov 
ygd. V . mittentes Tyc Pr arm" | avTov 205 | (vidtt. t. 6pov. >92o. 
2040 {. 

11. et] ea-TLv arm^ : + KvpLc H \ o Kvpioa- AN 046. 21 
(-35*. 205. 620. 2020). 250. 2067 al""* Or® s^-2 arm^-^-* bo 
: Kvpu 025. I. 35*. 69. 104. 205. 241. 336, 620. 1854. 1918. 2015. 
2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038 Pr gig vg arm^- " : +r]p.(av s^ | 
K. o Ocoa- r/zi, > I I kul^^oi^. 35*. 69. 104. 205. 241. 336. 620. 
1854. 1918. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 Pr gig 
Vg arm^- ^- °- bo sa eth | o2>N 468. 2050 Or^ | rjixujv Ax 025. 104. 
205. 620. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2050 al Pr gig vg s^ arm bo eth 
: +0 ovpaviocr 172 : +0 ayiocr 046. 21 (-205. 620. 2020. 
2050). 250. 2067 al"^" Or* S^ I hvvap.Lv . . . So^av . . . TLp.r]v 
620 I TT/v^^X I Tr/v^>A I 8vvap.Lv^ + KaL 69 | ra AX 025. I. 35. 
205. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038 2050 al : > 
046. 21 (-35. 205. 2020. 2050). 250. 2067 al Or* I TravTtt] 
+ Ktti Sia (Tov eL(TLV S^ I Sta > bo | 8ta 6i\r]p.aTL aov A : Sia rov 
6(.\7)p.aToa- aov 617 (s^) : ex voluntate tua (tua potestate Pr) 
Tyc Pr I -qa-av k. cktiot^.] haec sunt constituta Pr | rjo-av /cai> 
2019 I rjaav AX 21 (-18. 35. 468. 620. 2020. 2050) Or* 
Tyc gig vg s^' ^- arm* : ovk -qaav 046. 18. 69. 2020 : cio-t 025. 
I. 35. 104. 172. 250. 468. 620. 1854. 1957. 2018. 2023. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2050. (2067) : cyev'CTo bo : +7ravTa eth | (KTia$. k. 
cio-i 2067 I K. €KTi.a-6r}a-av > A : "and Stand sure" arm^---^« : a 
tKTia-d-qa-av eth. j. 



eiTL 



V. 1-4.] AnOKAAY*I2 inANNOY 267 



Chapter V. 

I. Kai €?8ov CTTi rrjv ht^iav rov KaOrjfievov cttI tov Opovov /3i/5Xtov 
yeypafXfJLevov ecoiOev Kai ^oTricrOev^, KaTta-^payLo-fjiivov a<f>payL(Ti.v i^wBev 
kirra. 2. koI eiSov ayyiXov Icrxvpov Kr]pv<j(TovTa iv cfiiov^ fieydXy 
Ti's a^t05 avoi^ai to (3i/3\lov /cat Awcrat ras (r(fipay2Sas airov ; 3. Kai 
ovScis iSvvaTO iv tw ovpavw ^ovSk ivl rrjs yrj^ ovSk^ woKctTw t^s ovre 
y^s avot^nt to ^i^ktov ovSe (SkeTreiv airo. 4. Kai tKAaiov nokv on '^V^ 70^ 
ovSci? a^ios evpeOrj dvoi$aL to ySiySXiov owtc fiXeireiv avro. ^^' 

1. KOl] +/i.£Ta TOUTO Cth | T. St^.] -\- Kai CV fl€(r<J} Or* : +TOU 

dfov Pr Cyp I ;Si/?A. yfypafip.. >N* |. €o-(D^€v] A 025. 046 min"™"* 
Tyc Pr gig vg Cyp Or^^ "' s?-' ^"''- =''"• '«^' '"'"'• "^^^ 3* Or« bo eth : c/xTrpoo- 
^cj- N OrJ°- ' '^' ^''" "^- ^ sa I oTTio-^ci/ A« I. 69 al Ot^°- '■ '^- ^"''''- "'"• "'• 
Phil. XXV. 36. 46 Cyps2 : c^ev 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. (2038). 2067 alP^ 
Or' s^ arm bo eth : a foris gig : foris Tyc Pr vg : + Kai o-n-iadev km 
ep-Trpoadev 35 : + Kai ottio-^cv 2038 : + Kai N*^ 42. 337. 468 arm^- 2-3 
I KaT€o-<^pay.] €a(f}payt(rfxivov 337 : KaTto-<^ty/x€vov 920. 2040 |. 

2. ciSoi'] rjKovaa gig : +aAAov 172. 250. 2018. 2050 s^ I 
Krjpva-a: ia-)(ypov x | K7;puo-o-ovTa] + Kai Acyoi'Ta eth | cv AN 046. 
21 (-35. 2020). 250. 2067 al™" Or^ : >025. i. 35. 172. 
1854. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 
OrPa.xi.37^.pwi-xxv.36 | fj^^yakyj > 1S54 : + KOI AcyovTa (Pr) armi- 2- « 
( Tier] + to-Tii' I vg 1 a^ioo- AS 025. 35. 205. 2020. 2038. 2050. 
alP Or* s^ : +co-tiv 046. 21 (-35. 205. 2020. 2050), 250. 2037. 
2067 al Tyc Pr gig Cyp s^ |. 

3. cSomTo X 21 ( — 205. 2040. 2050). 250. 2037. 2038 al : 
■j^SwaTo A 025. 046. I. 61.69. ^04' 2023**. 2036. 2040. 2050. 2067 
al Or^ : SwaTat 205 : +ouTe 2050 Tyc Pr Cyp (arm) | ovpavw 
An 025. I. 35. 172. 205. 241. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al Or™''"''*^ Tyc Pr Cyp gig vg s^ arm bo 
eth : -\-avw 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 632**. 2050). 250 al Or* s^ | 
ovhf^ Ao2^. 1.35. 104. 205. 620. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2023. 2036. 
2037. 2038 al : ovre x 046. 21 (-35. 205. 620. 2020). 250. 
2067 al*"" Or* I «7ri T. yr/o-] tv rrj y-q s^ : -^ KaTw 386 | ovSe 
UTTOK. T, yT^o- >N 181. 201. 386. 1854. 2023* arm^ eth : post 
atrro pon I. 2037 | ovh^^ A 025. I. 35. 104. 314. 620. 1957. 
2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038 : owTc 046. 21 (-35. 386. 
620). 250. 2067 al™" Or* I /8i/3Aiov] +Kai Xuo-ai too- o-«/)payiSao- 
avTov s^ I ouSt^ 025. I. 35. 104. 314. 1957. 2015, 2023. 2036. 
2037. 2038 : ovT€ An 046. 21 ( — 35. 205). 250. 2067 al 
Or* : Ktti 205 s^ arm^' 2. a . ^y y^p arm^ : sed neque Pr Cyp 
I /SAeireiv] eftXeirov arm^ |. 

4. V. 4 >A 522. 2050 I Ktti N 025. I. 181. 2015**. 2019. 



268 AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY [V. 5-6. 

5. >cai €is €K Twv Trpt<r/3vT€pwv Xcyct fioi Mrj kXolc ' iSov 

lviK-qcT€v o Xiiiiv 6 €K Ti}? <^uX^? 'louStt, Tj f)L^a AauttS, di'Ot^at to 

)8t/8Aioj' /cai Tas CTTTOi a<f>payl8a^ airov. 6, Kai ciSov ev fiecrw tov 

Opovov Koi Twv Ttcraapwv ^cocov xai ci/ p.€(r<o rwv Trpe<r/3vT€p(i>v apvtov 

iffTfiKdi ^ea-T-qKOS^ ws £(r0ay/i,cvov, e;!(wv Kcpara eTrra xat 64>9akfiov<; CTTTa, 

ciTreffraX- 01 citrtv ra Itttoi TrvevfixiTa tov 6iov, aTrccrraXytACi/oi^ cis 7rao-av r^i/ 

2038 gig s^' ^ arm^-** : +€y(D 046. 21 (-2050). 250. 

2037. (2067) Or^"''''*' .7« (>ps. xi. 37^) Or« Tyc Pr Cyp vg armi-^ ] 
€KX.aav a* : e/fXcov K'" | ttoAv] ttoAui/ 046 : ttoXXoi I arm* eth : TroXXa 
205 : 7ravT£0- bo : > Qr™'' ""■ ^® j evpedrj] eupeOrju 2020 : €vpi6r]cr€Tai 
a* I avoi^ai] + Kai avayvtuvat I. 35. 205. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2037. 

2038. 2067 arm" | to jSi^X.] ttjv or^paytSa arm^ : Kai Xucrat arm"^- ^ 
I ^XtTTtiv avTo\ Xvaai raa (r^paytSacr avTov Pr S^ |. 

5. Kai^] + air€Kpi6rj 2050 : + lSov Tyc : + r}X$€v fioi bo | 
Xcyci] ctTTcv Cyp vg* s^ bo I fioL >205 gig arm" | iSov] +yap 
2050 I o2 >X 69. 2015** s^ bo sa : +wv i. 2067 | rj pi^a] ck 
piCrjcr arm bo eth : +tou 35. 205. 2023 | avot^ai AX 025. i. 35. 
104. 205. 468**. 620. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2050. 2067 Or^"- ^'- 3'^- ^"^ '^'"'- 3« Pr gig Cyp vg arm bo eth : 
avoi^ei S^' ^ : o avoi^aa 18. 2039 : o avoiyoiv 046. 21 (—18. 
35. 205. 468**. 620. 2020. 2050). 250 aP"" Or^ I Kttt^] +Xvo-ai 
t< 2067 arm(^)- ^' ^ \ errTu > s^ arm^- ^- ^ bo eth | o-^paytSao-] 
+ 81 2040 l. 

6. eiSoi'] tSov Ktti A : ttSov xai tSou 172. 2018 Tyc vg | ev 
fieao} . . . ^(owv ( + /cai 620) >620 s^ | cv fiicru) tov Opovov^ 6povoi 
Tyc I e/u,ju,ccrw^ A 2050 | Kot^] + ev fAeao) Pr arm | twv Tea-a: 
^cDwv] (ra) recrcrapa ^wa Tyc | ev fieaa)'^ >■ Pr s^ arm*- * : €fjLfj.€(ro} 
A I 7rp£(j/8.] +o>o- arm^- * j icrrqKoa- A 025. 046. 21 (—149*. 
620. 2004. 2050) al™*^ Or^ : ea-T-qKuxr N I. 1 04. 149*. 172. 2004. 
2015. 2017. 2019 : €(TTLKu><T 620. 2050 : > 2038 arm^- 2 | a)o->> 18. 
632*. 920. 2016. 2024. 2040. 205oarmbosa | €o-^ayjU,.]€cr<^payio-- 
^€vov 104. {920*). 2016. 2017. 2020. 2038. 2067 arm*" | ex^^v 
As 046. 104. 429. 620. 919. 2015. 2017. 2019. 2050 Or^ : 
€xov 025. 21 (-620. 919. 2020) al""" I K. ocf>$aX. €7rTa>»2050 
I 01 Ax I. 172. 205. 2020. 2038. 2067 : a 046. 21 ( — 205. 
2020). 250. 2037 alP' : ariva 241. 498 | ra > 250. 2037. 
2067 I e-TTTa^ X 046. 21 ( — 205. 2050) al'"'* Tyc Pr gig Cyp 
vga". c. vgi. 2 arm bo : >A i. 181, 205. 2038. 2050 vg^- ^- s- ^ eth | 
TTvevfiaTo] TTvev/jia eth : powers arm^ : powers of the spirit arm^- ^ : 
(parts of the seven) graces of the spirit arm* | tov Oeov irviv^aTa 
I : TOV 6eov ^arm^ | ^eov] +Ta i. 42. 104. 1 10. 205. 336. 620. 
2036. 2037. 2038 (s^- 2) arm^- 2- ^- * bo | aTreo-raXp.ci'oi A : airecr- 
TaXfieva X I. 205. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050 (s^) : 
"sent down" bo : airoa-TiXXofieva 046. 21 ( — 205. 2020. 2050). 
250. 2067 aP"" Or'' s^ arm^- 2. 3. « . >arm* |. 



V. 7-9.] AnOKAAY^IS IQANNOY 269 

yrjv. 7. KoX rjXOcv koX n\r]<j>iv Ik ttJs Sff las tov Kadrjfxivov Itu rov 
Bpovov. 8. Kai ore tXajitv to (3i/3Xiov, ra recrcrfpa ^wa koI 61 eiKOcri 
reacrapcs Trp€(r/3vT€poL cTrecrav h/wmov tov apviov, «;(Ovtcs Ikoo'tos 
Kiddpav Ktti (ftidXas p^pucras yc/xovcras 6vfXLaf/.a.TU}v {a) 
9. Kttl aSovcrtv wS^^v Kaiyrjv XeyovTCS 

"A^ios cT Xa^elv TO /3i/3Xt'ov 

Kai dvot^ai ras cri^payiSas auTov, 

OTt icr<f)aiyT]^, 

KOI Tjyopacra? t<2 Oew iv t<3 aifxaTi crov 

Ik TTo.a-rj'i (f>vXrj^ koI yAwtrcn^s /cai A.aov /cai tdvov^, 

(a) MSS add gloss : at ei'crtj' ai Tr/socreuxat rdv aylwv. 

7. Kai^ >bo [ €iXr](f>€v] +TO ^ifiXiov 1**. 104. 205. 620. 2019. 
2050 Pr gig Cyp vg-'*- ^- *=• ^- s** s^ bo sa : + avTo eth | ck] + ttjo- 
Xfi-poa- 620 arm^- 2- ^- " | Sc^tao-] x^tpoo- s^ : +tov 6f.ov Pr Cyp | 
TOV Ka6.'\ TTjo- Ka6r]fJi(vov (sic) N* | ^poi'ov] +to /3i(3Xiov 250**. 
2020. 2037. 2067 Tyc vg |. 

8. cXa^ci'] aperuisset vg | jSt^Xiov] + Kai arm^ | rco-o-epa AK 
2020 : T€a-crapa 025. 046 al^^' : 01 et/c. retro-, irpea^. Kai t. Tta-a. ^wa 
eth I T€crcrap€L(r 620 : Tfcraapicr 2050 | evojTr. t. apv. CTrco-ov 205 | 
CTreo-av AK I. 104. 325*. 337. 452. 456. 506. 517. 620. 2023. 
2050 Or^ : €7r£o-oi/ 046. 21 (-325*. 337. 456. 620. 2050). 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al™" I CKao-Too- €;(ovTco- N | €xovT€(r^ Kttt et;(ov 
arm^- 2. 3. a | ^KacrToa^ + avTtov S^- ^ | /ci^apav] KiBapaa- I. 104. 205. 
385. 468. 617. 620. 1957. 20ig. 2023. 2037*. 2038. 2041. 2067 
Tyc Pr gig Cyp vg | ^taXao-] (jivaXaa- 2050 : cftiaXrjv s^ arm^- 2- 3. a | 
Xpva-aa] \pv(T€a(T x : XP^^V^ ^^ arm^- 2- 3. a | yifxovaacr^ /lAcorao- 620 
bo sa : ytfiovaav s^ arm^- 2. 3. a | Ovfjua/xaTuyv] + supplicationum 
Pr Cyp I at A 025. 21 (-2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' 
5I. 2 Qj-s . ^ j^ Q^5 2019. 2050 I eio-t] 770-01/ arm^ : eo-riv arm^- * | 
at TT/ooo-evxat A N*^ 025. 046. I. 35. 205. 241. 250**. 468. 620. 
632**. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 
2050. 2067 Or''"- "'^^ "^^ s^- 2 arm bo eth : Trpoa-tvxcn- K* 18. 6i. 
69. 172. 201. 218. 386. 424. 632*. 920. 1849. 2040 al™" Or* : 
irpoarevxoiv 82. 93. 104. IIO. 1 75. 1 77. 242. 325. 337. 385. 452. 
456. 517 617. 919. 1934. 1955. 2004. 2021. 2024 I Twv ayiwv] 
ovTwv aytwv Or^ |. 

9. icai^ >s^ I aSouo-tv] aSwo-iv A : aSovreo- Pr s^ : cantabant 
Tyc arm (bo) : cantaverunt Cyp : -f wo- Tyc | Kaivqv uiB-qv Pr 
Cyp vg I Kaivrjv] + KQL s^ arm | ct] + Kvpie gig vg^ : + Kvpu o 6io<r 
rj/xoiv arm2 | avot^ai] Avo-at s^ : resignare gig j eo-^ayT^o-] eo-^ayeto- 
620. 2050 : f]yop. Tw 6€<i) A (eth see below) : +-qp.aa- x 025. 
046. 21 (-205. 620. 2040*. 2050). 2037. 2067 alP' Or^ s^- 2 
(arm) bo sa : yjyop, rj/xaa- tco ^«<o 172, 250. 336. 424. 620. 19 18. 



270 AnOKAAY*I2 IQANNOY [V. 10-13. 

lO. jcat cVotTytras uvtov^ T(3 ^ew ^fiwv ftacnXtiav koX 'up€i$, 
^atriXei- kol ^ (SaaiXtvovaiv^ iirX rrj^ y^S. 

ffovffip J J i^fjl jJSoi/ KOL TjKovara tfxavrjv ayyiXoiv ttoXXidv kvk\<i) tov 

6p6vov,(a) KOL rjv 6 apL6fj.o<; avTwv /AuptaScs fivpidSiov Koi p^iXiaScs 
^^iXidSwy, 1 2. X€yovT€s <fiO)vrj fxtydXrj 
^^'"^ ^"A^LOv^ ecTTtv TO dpvLov TO €(T (f> ay fxevov XafieLV txjv hvvafXLV 

KOL irXovTov Koi aocfttav kol Ict^v 
Kol TLfXTjv KOL ho^ov KoX cvXoyiav. 
13. KOL ttSv KTia-fia o iv tw ovpav<2 koI ctti t^s yrj<i kol vttokcitw 
(a) MSS add a gloss here : kuI tuv ^(^wv /cot Twf Tpea^vripuv, 

2016. 2018. 2038. 2050 Pr gig Cyp Vg : rjyop. tw dew Tjfuov 180. 
205. 2040* sa : r)yop. rjfxaar (>eth) cv t. ai/A. crov t. ^ecu s^- ^ eth : 
cv TO) aifxaTL <tov >632 | atjiiaTi] ovofiaTt 2040* | Trairuv <f>vXwv 
K. yXoicraroiv k. Xaiav k. eBvwv arm^- ^- * | /cat yXojcraryjcr > s^ arm^ j . 
10. aoToua] rj/xaa- Pr gig vg*^- ^- " arm^- ^-^ : ex lis eth | tw 
^co> yj/xayv >A | (iaaiXiLav AN 2050 Pr gig Cyp Vg (s^) arm* 
bo : in regnum dei eth : /SaanXeia- 046. 21 ( - 2050). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP' Or^ S^ I icpeicr] lepareLav X : + Kai /QacrtAcicr S^ eth | 
Kttt^ >eth I ^aariXevova-iv A 046. 18. 325. 386. 456. 617. 919. 920. 
1849. 2004. 2020. 2037. 2040 al s^ : l3aa-iXeva-ov(TLv H 025. i. 
35.82. 91. no. 172. 175. 177. 205. 250. 314. 337.429. 468. 
620. 632. 1934. 2038. 2050. 2067 Or^ al gig Cyp vg s^ arm* 
bo : >eth : ySacriXcuo-o/Acv Pr vg arm^- ^- ^ |. 

11. Kai ciSoi' >sa eth | <l>uivr]v A 025. 046*. I. 69. 205. 2023. 
2036. 2038 alP Or^ Tyc Pr gig vg arm^- ^- °- bo eth : wo- <^wv7jv 
N 046**. 21 ( - 205. 337). 250. 2037. 2067 aP"" s^- ^ arm* sa : 
wo- <f)iovr] 337 I TToXXuiv ayycAcov 920. 2040 Pr | iroXXoiv >620 
arm^ | kukAw] KVKXodev l : KVKXwOev 468** | Kai^] + kvkXu} Pr 
arm^^)- ^- ^^^- " | /cat twv irpio-p. > I arm^ | Kai rjv o apiOfx. auT. 
>-arm^ | /AupiaSco- yxvpiaS. Kttt >■ Pr gig vg | fxvpiaB. ftvptaS.] 
fxvpLacr fjivpia(r arm : p-vpiaa- fivpiaSoiv s^- ^ | Kai ;^iAta8, ^j^tXtaSwv 
r>l854 I ;^iXtaS€o-] ;^i\iao- S^- ^ | ^''A.taSwv] arm^- ^ : + koi s^ |. 

12. XcyoKTCtr] Xtyovrwv 498. 920. 2020. 2040. 2050 Pr Vg : 
Kpa^ovTea- arm^ I aiiov a 046. 21 min omn^'** Or^ : a^too- A (s^) | 
co-Tif] £1 S^ I ea-(f>ay/x. f(T<f>payi(rfJi€vov 2020 | ttjv > 2019 arm^ j 
Swafxiv . . . €vXoyiav " praise and riches and honour and glory" 
arm^ | 8vv. kui ^arm*-* | xaJ >-92o. 2020. 2040 | ttXovtov Ax 
025. I. 35. 205. 2020. 2037. 2050. 2067 al arm eth : tov 
ttXovtov 046. 21 (-35. 205. 920. 2020. 2040. 2050). 250. 2038 
^jmu Qjs . ^^y ^aaiXtLav bo : divinitatem vg : p.fyaXoTrp€iruav 
arm* : > 920. 2040 | xai^] -\- Tr}v 386 bo ) /<at laxyv > bo 
arm^- ^ : + kui /SacriXetav eth | Kat*- ^- ^] + Trjv bo j /cat ivXoyiav 
>-arm^- ^ |. 

13. o A 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 468**. 620) al Or^ gig s^ bo eth : 
TO N : >620 : +co-Tt»' 025. i. 35. 172. 205. 250. 241. 468**. 2015. 



V. 14.] AnOKAAY*I2 inANNOY 27 1 

Trj<; yrjs Koi ctti t^s daXdxTtrr}^ icrrtv, Kat to iv auTOis navra, T}KOV(Ta 
rXc'yovras'' \iyovra 

T<p Kadrjfievw iiri tw Opovto koI to) dpvKf) 

17 euXoyi'a koi 17 ti/a^ Kal 17 8d^a 

Kttt TO Kpo-TOi €15 Tovs aiwvas Twv aiojvwv. 
14. Kol TO. reacrepa ^wa cXcyov 'Afi-qv, Koi 01 TrpccrySuVepoi €7r€(rav 
Ktti irpo(r€Kvv'>](Tav. 

2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2050. 2067 al Pr 

vg s2 (arm) | ctti T7;o- yr;o-] €v rrj yq l. 2037 Pr S^ : ctti yi;<r 336. 
2015. 2036 I K. viroK. T. yxjcr A 025. 046. 21 (-920. 2040. 
2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al Pr gig vg^-'^s"-'' s^- 2 arm* 
eth : >K 69. 181. 218. 241. 920. 2040. 2050 vg^'-^-s' armi-2-2.a 
bo I Kai*] 4-Ta N (bo) eth : 4-quae sunt vg | ctti r-qa- OaXacr- 
arja (r-qv 6aXa(rcrav 2020) 241. 2015. (2020). 2036. 2037 (cv 
T-q Oakaa-a-T] K Pr gig Vg (s^- 2) arm bo eth) : + e(TTL{v) A 21 
(-35. 205. 2020. 2050) al : +a, (CTTLv 025. 046. I. 35. 205. 
429**. 1957. 2023. 2038. 2041. 2050. 2067 al : +ocra co-tlv 172. 
250. 424. 2018 Or^ : +0 e(TTLv s^ 1 Kai ra >2oi9 : et quae- 
cumque sunt Pr | cv^] err 2020 | avrotcr] ea vg*- ^- &*'^ : eo vg*'-s'* : 
+ sunt gig : + xat 42. 61. 69. 241. 632. 2015. 2037 | iravTa 
■qKOVcra Xeyovracr 025. 18. 314. 2017. 2039. 2050 aP Or^ : Travxa 
■qK. A-cyorTa A I. 69. 181. 2 03 8 : iravra kul -qK. Aeyovracr K 424. 
429, 2019 gig S^ (t>o) : TravTtt K. rjK. Xeyovrwv 250. 2018 : iravra 
K. TjK. Xeyovra S^ : Travracr r]K. Xeyovraa 21 ( — 18. 35*- 2050). 
2037 al™** Tyc Pr vg : Travrao- Kat rjK. Xeyovraa ( — twv 1 72). 
(172). 522 : TravTtt k. rravracr tjk, Xeyovracr 046 : iravra k. tjk. TraXtv 
AeyovTtt 35* : iravra Acyovra eth | to) KaO-qp..^ rov Ka6qp.€vov S^ : o 
Ka6i]p.evo(r arm | tw ^povw A 046. 18. 175. 250. 325. 337. 456. 
617. 620. 919. 1849. 1934. 2004. 2050 al : (in) throno Tyc Pr 
vg : 6povoi 141 : rov Bpovov K 025. i. 35. 205. 241. 386. 468. 
632. 920. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 al™" Or^ : (supra) sedem gig | Kat^>Aj<'^ s^ arm^-^ | «at tw 
apvLOi > bo I TO) apvuo] ro apviov arm^- ^- ^- f^ : +rj gig \ rj evXoy. . . . 
Kparoo-] " blessed exalted (> 2) and glorified ( + and almighty 3) " 
arm^' 2' ^ | ■q^'^02^ \ rf '^gig* \ ^ai to Kparocr] TravTOxpaTopotr N* 
(of arm^) : >arm^-2*- * | twv atcovwi/ ^arm^ Tyc | aitovwv As 
025. 104. 172. 201. 205. 250. 2018. 2050 alP Or^ Pr gig vg s^-^ 
arm^-^* : +ap.-qv 046. 21 (- 205. 2050). 2037. 2038. 2067 al""'* 
arm^ eth \. 

14. K. T. TCff<r. ^ua cXcy. ajiTjK >920. 2040 | Ta >205. 620 | 
T€o-cr€pa A 2020 : T£o-o-apa }< 025. 046 min^' Or** I tXtyov AN 025. 
I. 35*. 104. 205. 620. 632. 919. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023**. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 al Or** Pr gig vg s^ arm : cAcycv 
172. 250 : Xeyovra 046. 18. 35** 175. 325, 337. 386. 456. 



2/2 AnOKAAY*I2 IfiANNOY [VI. 1-2. 



Chapter VI. 

1. Kai eiSoi' OTC rjvoi^ev to apvlov fxiav ck twv Ittto <T<f>payi8<av, 
Kttt TjKOvaa cvos ck tuji/ Ttcrcrdpwv ^woiv \eyovTO% wj <f><ovi] /SpovTrjs 
"Epxov. 

2, Koi eiSov Kal iSov iTTiros Xcvkos, 

Kai 6 Ka$rjp.€vo<i eir aurov «;(ti)v to^ov, 

KoX i866r) avTw (TT€cf>avos, 

KOI iirjXdev vlkC)V koL tva vlkt^ctj]. 

468. 617. 1849. 1934. 2004 S^ (bo) I afirjv An 025. I. 35*. 69. 
314. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 Or^ bo 
sa : TO afxrjv 046. 21 ( — 35*. 920. 2020. 2040. 2050). 250 al™" I 
Kai^ >>arm | ot] +€i/coo-i rcoro-apccr Pr vg^ | iTreaav AN 025. i. 
104. no. 172. 250. 337. 429. 468. 620. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2050. 
2067 al Or^ : cttco-ov 046. 21 (-337. 468. 620. 2050). 2037. 
2038 al*"" : +€V(OTnov avrov arm^- 2. 3. a | jTrcorav /cat >eth | Trpocrc- 
KvvTjo-av] + viventem in saecula saeculorum Pr vg** : + avrov arm^ |. 

1. Kai] fj.€Ta ravra bo | clSov > Pr eth | ot€ AnC 025. I. 
104. 205. 314. 620. 1957. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037 al Pr gig 
s arm* bo : oti 046. 20 ( - 205. 620. 2020). 250. 2067 alP™ Or* 
vg arm : >2038 | rjvoL^tv^ -qw^ev N | fxiav >► I | ck twv CTrra 
AxC 046. 20 (-205. 325. 456). 250. 2037. 2067 alP°* Or^ 
Pr gig vg s arm^- 3. 4 eth : f7rTa>o25. i. 205. 314. 325. 456. 
2015. 2016. 2023. 2038 al arm^ bo sa | o-<^payt8a)v > N* (suppl. 
N*^) I Ktti > 620 bo sa I (.vo(T €K>-I957 : €j/ocr> 920. 2040 : 
6^ €vo(T arm» : tx > N* 468 | XcyovToo-] A-eyovTwv N : > arm | 
oKT ^(ovr; ySpoj'T7^(r> Pr eth | ^lavr] AC 046. 20 ( — 468. 919. 920. 
1849). 250. 2037 alP™ Or^ bo : (fxjjvrjv N 506. 919, 1957 gig vg 
arm : tfnovqcr 025. i. 314. 2016. 2038. 2067 : (fjwvfj 104. 172. 
468. 920. 1849. 1955 I ftpovrrja-^ (SpovTMv s^ : +X€yoi/Too- A : 

+ X.eyov(rav arm | cp^ov AC 025. i. 35. 60. 82. 94. 241. 432. 
1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2041 Or^ vg^-'=-8' bo 
sa : €px°^ ante wcr (f>wv. jSpovr. 2036 : €p;^oyj,at arm^* 2- 3. a . ep)^ov xai 
i8e N 046. 20 (-35. 2020). 61. 104. no. 172. 201. 250. 314, 
385. 498. 522. 1955. 2016. 2018. 2067 Pr gig vg'^- ^- g"- ^ s eth |. 

2. KOI ei8oi'>o46. 20 (-35. 205. 468. 620). 250 al"" Or* 
Tyc Pr Vg*^- ^- S** : pr xat rjKOvcra s^ | Kai^ > bo | €7r avTov] eir 
airriD I. 61 (?). 2037* | cxwi'] habebat vg arm : tenebat Pr | ro^ov] 
sagittam Pr | i^rjkOev] eTrrjXOev Or^ : > arm^ | vikwv kul ivo 
viK-qa-rj'] ut vinceret et victor exiit Pr | vikwv] pr o A arni^-* 
I Kai iva viKYjarr]^ Kai tvtKrjcrev N bo sa : k. iva viKrjaru I. 2023. 
2038 : K. iva vLKrjcrr) (-ati 2019) Kai iVLKrj(T(.v 2017. 2019 : k. 
iviK-qcTiv K. IVO viKTjcrr) s^ : viKwv Kai > eth I Kat^>5o6 vg gig s^ 
arm 1. 



VI. 3-6.] AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY 2/3 

3. Kai oT€ T^voi^tv TTjv (T<f)payiSa rrjv Bevrepav, ijKOvcra rov 
ievrepov ^wov Xcyorro? Ep;^ov. 

4. Ka'i i^rjXdfv oAXos ittttos Truppos, 

Kal Tu> Kadr]ixfV(o iir f clvtov f 'i866r) airu) ' Xa/Sctv rrjv flp'^vrjv Hi^rj 

[(k] t^s yrj<;, 
Kol ii/a dXAT^Xovs (T<f)d^ovcnv, 
Koi (SoOrj avrio pd^aipa fieydXrj. 

5. Kai ore ^voi$fv rrjv crtftpaytSa Tr]V TpiTijv, ijKovcra tov rpirov 
^(oov Xc'yovTos "Ep^ov. 

Koi cTSov, Kal i8ov ittttos /xcAas, 

Koi 6 Ka6rjfJL€VO<; lir avTOV €)(<j)V ^vyov iv rrj X^'-P'' avTOU, 

3. Tjcoilcf] rjvv^ev N | Tr}v cr<^paytSa rrjv Scvrcpav ANC 025. I. 
172. 205. 250. 314. 424. 2018. 2023. 2038 Tyc Pr gig vg arm 
: TTjv Bevrepav (r<f)payi8a 046. 20 ( — 205). 2037. 2067 al^' Or^ | 
tpxov AC 025. 046. 20 (-205. 386. 468). I. 61. 69. 82. 104. 
no- 3M- 33^- 385- 498- 522. 1955- i957- 2015. 2016. 2019. 
2023. 2037. 2038. 2041 al"^"^ Or* vg s bo sa : tp^o/Aat arm : 
€pxov Kai iSf a. 141. 172. 201. 205. 250. 386. 424. 468. 1918. 
2018. 2022. 2067 Tyc Pr gig vg^-^-' eth |. 

4. Kai €^T)X0ei'] Ktti (€)iSov Kai iSov (k. iSov > bo sa) €^7]X0. a 
250. 424. 2018. 2067 bo sa I aXXoo->«Tyc s^ arm^ bo sa I 
irvppocr NC 35. 175. 201**. 241. 242. 325. 429. 456. 468. 498. 

617. 1849. 1934. 1955. 1957. 2023**. 2024. 2037. 2041. 2067 
alniu Yyj, Pr gig vg s arm^- « : irvpoa- A 025. 046. i. 18. 61. 
69. 104. no. 172. 201*. 205. 250. 314. 337. 385. 386. 620. 
632. 919. 920. 2004. 2020. 2038. 2040 Or^ I TO) Ka6r]p.tviji\ 
pr €1' A I €7r avTov AkC 025. 046. 20 ( - 18). 250. 2037**. 
2038 alP™ Or* : ctt airrw I. 18. 172. 2015. 2037*. 2067 alP : 
super eum Tyc Pr : super ilium gig vg | ain-w N*C 025. 046. 
21 Or* vg s arm bo sa eth. The avrw should stand in the 
text : cf. 2^- 1^-2'' 2^2.21^ jt should be restored (?) in 21^ : > 
An*' 20t6 Tyc Pr gig | Xa^Seiv > arm^- * [ ^k rrja- yrja- nC 025. 
046. 20 (—205. 620). 250. 2037. 2067 alP™ Or^ Tyc Pr gig vg 
s eth : >s'' : €k>A 104. 205. 209. 336. 620. 1918. 2038 : airo 
Ttja- yr}(r i. 2019 al^ | Kai iva AnC 025. i. 35*. 172. 205. 250. 
2018. 2019. 2020. 2038 al Or® Tyc Pr gig vg s'^ : Kai>o46. 
20 ( - 35*. 205. 2020), 2037. 2067 alP"' s^ bo I (r<paiov(TLv AC 
1849. 2019 : o-<^a^wcri(v) N 025. 046. 20 ( — 1849). I. 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP^ Or* I fta;!(aipa /LteyaX?;] ~ A bo sa eth |. 

5. i(]t'Oi|e»'] r)w$ev N : r}voiyq S^ j Tiyv o■«/)pay^8a ttjv rpiTT]v\ rrjv 
rpiT. (r<f)pay. I. 2019. 2020 al : rj a-(f>payi<T 7) TpiTt] s^ | TyKoucra] ctSov 
bo I ipxov AC 025. I. 35. 60. 91. 104. 241. 336. 432. 620. 
1918. 1957. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038 Or* gig vg**- ^- s* s^ 
bo : +Ka( t8t N 046. 20 (-35. (620). 2020). 61. 69. no. 172. 
181. 201. 250. 314. 385. 498. 522. 1955. 2016. 2018. 2067 Pr 

VOL. II. — 18 



2/4 AnOKAAY*I2 IfiANNOY [VI. 6-8. 

6. Kttt ^Kovcra <I)s tfnovrjv iv fieaw twv Tfaadpwv ^wwv Xcyovtrav 
Xoivi^ (TLTov Srjvapiov, 

Ktti Tpeis )^OLViKt<; KpiOuiv Srjvapiov, 

KOI TO eXatov Koi rov oTvov fir] aSLKrj(rr)^' 

7. Kat OT€ ^vot^ev Ti}v affipaylSa Tr]v TfrdprrjVy ijKovaa <f}(avrjv rov 
TcrdpTov ^wou XeyovTOS Ep;^ou. 

8. Kai £iSov Koi iSov ittttos ^Xwpos, 

Ktti 6 Ka$rjjXivo<i iTrdvo) avrov ovofia avrw 6 ^avaTOS.(a) 
Kat iSoOr] auToi i^ovcria ivrl to reVaprov t^s y^s.(<5) 

(a) Here follows an interpolation : Kai 6 ^dr]s ijKoXovdeL fier' airroO. 
(d) Here follows an interpolation : diroKre'ivai iv pofi<paL<f. Kal iv Xi/x(p Kai 
iv Oavartfi Kai vvhrCov drjpiwv ttjs yrjs. 

vgc. d. g". T s2 . + jSj eth I Kai ctSo*- >o46. 20 ( - 35. 205. 468**. 
620). 61. 69. no. 172. 181. 201. 314. 498. 506. 517. 522. 
1955. 2016. alP Or« gig vg"- '*•&•*• ^ si eth | /cat iSov >Pr armi 
eth : Kai > bo | mtttoo-] pr aAAoo- arm^ : pr Kai eirjXdev eth | 
fjLeXaa-] /Atyacr 919. 2020* | ctt aurov] ctt aTrro) I. 2037. 2067 al^ 
I ex^^] habebat Tyc Pr vg arm |. 

6. (OCT ^(x>vr]v AxC 025. 35*. 181. 314. 2038 Or* gig vg : 
coo- > 046. 20 (-35*). 250. 2037. 2067 alP' Pr s arm bo 
sa eth I ev /ico-w] ep-fiea-o) AC : ck pecrov s^ : p.t(rov 35. 205 | 
Tco-o-apo)!'] 8' 35 : >sl arm^ | ^cowv] + wcr (fxavrjv acrou bo eth 
I Xcyoucrav] Xeyovrwv gig vg**- ^* S arm | ;(oivi^] <rxoivi^ 920 | 
8r]vaptov^] + tvoa- Pr gig Vg"^ | KpiOwv AnC 025. I. 181. 205. 
2036. 2038. 2067 S^ : KpiOrjo- 046. 21 (-205). 250. 2037. 
alpi Or* s^ I Srjvapiov^] pr tov A : +£i/ocr Pr vg"^ : >6g. 181 | 
Kai] TO St bo sa I Kai TO cXaior koi tov oivov] — 2019 Tyc Pr 
vg S^ eth I aSiKT^crr/o-] aSiK7;o-icr 025 : ahiKr]6rj(T0VTai, arm^ |. 

7. Ti\v Q^pa>{i%a T^v rcTapTTjc] T-qv TeTapTrjv (r(j>payi8a 2020. 
2038 : Tfjv (T(f>pay. T. 8 35 I 7;Kouya] pr Kai 325. 456 | <f>wvt]v 
An I. 35. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038 alP Or* 
vg s^ eth : pr tyjv 205 : (fxavrjcr 2067 : >C 025. 046. 20 
(-35. 205). 250 alP™ Pr gig s2 arm bo sa | tou T€TapTou 
^wov] TO T€TapTov ^coov C : TeTapTov>>si [ tpxov AC 025. I. 
104. 620. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038 alP Or* vg*-^-s s^ bo sa arm* : +Kai iSc n 046. 20 
(-620. 632**. 2020). 250. 2067 alP™ Pr gig vg*^-'^-^ s2 : + iSe 
eth : €pxop.at arm |. 

8. Kai €1801/ > 046. 20 (-35. 205. 386. 468**. 620, 632**). 
69. 250. 314 al™" Or* gig vg*^-'' arm^ eth [ Kat t8ou>Pr s^ 
eth : Kat >bo : tSov >-arm2 | iTTTrocr] pr kqi c^t/X^cv eth | ittttoo- 
X^wpoa^ iTTTToi' x\u>pov Pr s^ | ;(X(i>poo-] Xcukoo- 920. 2040 : pallidas 
Tyc gig vg (Pr) : " reddish " arm^ | o KaOrjptyoa-] o > C | crravo) 
avTOv^ avTov>-C 025. I. 181. 205 | avTw] + r)v Tyc Pr : avTov 
S^ j o Oavaroa- 025. 046. 20 ( — 35- 920. 2040). 250. 2037. 2038, 



VI. 9-10.] AnOKAAYvI'a IfiANNOV 2^5 

9. Kat 0T€ T^voiiev rrjv Tre/MTTTrjv a(f>pay'L8a, etSov vTroKaro) rov 
6vcna<TTr]piov rots i{/v)(^a^ Ttov iatfiayfiivuiv 8ia toi* Xoyov tou Oeov Kai 
8ta W;v fiapTvpiav rjv €i;^ov. 

10. KOI tKpa^av <f>o)vrj fi^yaXr] Xcyovrc? 

'Ews TTore, 6 SecriroTi^s 6 ayios xai dXT/^ivos, 

OU KptVciS Kttl CkSiKCIS TO ttl/Att TJfJiWV 

« Tuiv KaroiKovvTwv «7ri t^s y^s; 

2067 alP' Or"^"- '"• '*' Or^ : o>nC 35. 336*. 432. 920. 2023. 2040. 
2041 : o aOavaroa- A | o uSt/ct] infemus Tyc Pr vg**- *^- *' : inferus 
vga. eg . jj^ll Amenti" bo | qKoXovOfi HC 025. 046. 20 (-35). 
250. 2067 aP'" Or^ Tyc Pr gig vg arm^- 2. 4. a . a/coAov^ci i. 35. 
1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 s I /xer avTov AC 
025. I. 35. 104. 498*. 620. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038 : 
fi€T avTov s2 : avTu) K 046. 20 ( - 35. 620) aP'" Or^ Tyc Pr gig 
vg s^ : avTOLo- (also tlo-lv) Or"^'' '"■ '^' | eSoSri avrw 046. 20 ( - 35. 
468*). 250 alP'" Or^ Pr gig vg s^- ^ arm bo sa eth : eSoOrj avroicr 
AxC 025. I. 35. 468*. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP I 
TO TcrapTov] 4- /Mcpoo- 452. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037 : quattuor 
partes vg | ev Bavarw] cv>325 : €v ttj 6\nj/€i bo | utto twv ^r/piwv] 

TO T€TapTOV TtiiV Orjpiwv A |. 

9. rr\f Tr€fx,iTTT]i' a4>paYiSa] AC 025. 046 al : rrjv o-<^pay. rrjv e, 
N* Tyc Vg*^ : ttjv c crc^pay. N'' 35 : rrjv o-<^pay. t. TrefXTTTrjv 61. 6g 
S^' 2 arm^-^" | rov ^uo-cao-TTjptou] + tov Oeov Tyc Pr Cyp | t<ov 
ca-<}>ayfji.evwv AC 046. 20 (-35. 205. 920). 250. 2037 al?' Tyc Pr 
gig Cyp vg s^ eth : pr tcov avOpwvwv N 025. i. 35. 60. 181. 
205. 209. 432. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2038. 2041. 2067 bo sa : 
Tao- ea(f>ayfxevaa s^ : twv €(r<f>paytcrp.evwv 104. 2 18. 336*. 920 Or' | 
Sta tov Xoyop] pr 8ia tov 6eov Kat arm^ | Sia^ >A Pr gig Cyp 
bo sa I p-apTvpiav AxC 025. I. 241. 632**, 2015. 2019. 2036. 
2037. 2038 Pr gig Cyp vg bo : (KKX-fjo-iav 2020 : +tou apviov 
046. 20 (-632**. 2020). 2067 alP™ Or^ s^ : +1t}(tov s^ : + Ijycrou 
Xpio-Tou 172. 250. 424. 2018 : + avTov Pr Cyp arm^*^*^ eth | tjv 

10. €Kpa|ai' AxC 046. 20 ( - 35*. 205. 632**. 2020). 250 
,ilpm pf (^yp i-,Q . f^pa^ov 02c;. I. 35*. 205. 632**. 2016. 2019. 
2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 Or^ gig vg s : €i;rov arm^- 2- ^- * | (fnavrj 
fjLiyakrj ASC 025. I. 35. 104. 205. 385. 620. 632**. 202O. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al"'" Or* Pr gig vg Cyp s (arm) bo : (fxovrjv 
fi€ya\rjv 046. 20 (-35. 205. 620. 632**. 2020). 250 al"'" 
I aXrjOLroa-^ pr o I. 172. 429**. 468. 620. (2018). 2037. 2067 | 
CKStKCio-] €K8iKr}cr€ia K | c/c twv AxC 046. 20 ( — 35*. 205. 468. 620. 
2020). 250 aP"" Or* : otto ruiv 025. i. 35*. 104. 205. 468. 620. 
2015. 2018. 2023. 2037. 2038, 2067 alP : Kttt Tuiv 2020 I tin njcr 
yrja] in terris Pr Cyp]. 



276 AnOKAAY*l2 in ANNOY [VI. 11-12. 

1 1 . Kol iSoOrj aurots iKacrrw (ttoXt/ X€VKr], 

Kol ippiOi] awrois iva avaTravaovrai tri ^ovov fxiKpov, 

cws TrXiipiDi'waiv kui oX itvvoovXol avTOiv kol 01 d8eX<^oi avTutv 

ol /jteAAoi'Tes a7roKT€vv€cr6ai ws kul avroi. 

12. Kat elSov ore iji/ot^cv t^v (rtftpaylBa t^v Ikti/v* 

Kai cr€to-/xos /xe'ya? eyevcTO, 

Ktti 6 ^Ato? eye'i €T0 /tcXas ws craK/cos Tpi\ivo<i, 

KoX Tj creXrjvrj o\i] iyevero w<; ai/na* 

11. cSo6t] . . . cttoXt) XcoKt)] ihodfjcrav . . . aroXai XcvKai Pr vg 
(Cyp) arm^ | avTota- cKacrro) AxC 025. 35. 61. 69. 104. 205. 250. 
468. 620. 632**. 1957. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2067 alP 
arm* bo : eis singulis Pr gig Cyp : illis singulae vg : avroia- >82. 
91. 93. 181 : €/ca(rTo> > 046. 20 (-35. 205. 468. 620. 632**. 
2020) al™'* Or* arm^- 2- 3. a . e^aoTo) avrwv (-^2037) 2015. 2037 s 
eth I eppeOrf] epedrj N 35. 241. 522. 620. 632 : eppvOr} 1 72. 242. 
250. 1957. 2018. 2024. 2039 : eSoOr] 2038 | auroio->>s^ | avaTrau- 
o-ovrai A 025. 046. I. 104. 1 10. 522. 620. 2015. 2019. 2036. 
2038 aP : avairava-tavTaL SC 20 (-620). 250. 2037. 2067 aP' 
: avaTTVivcTiDVTai 69** : aiaTrauo-ao-^ai Or^ | €Tt (tTTt n) ;^pov. fxtK. 
XC 025. I. 18. 205. 632**. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 vg s2 
bo sa : ;^povoi' en jxiKpov A : en xpovov 046. 20 ( - 18 205. 325. 
456. 632**. 2020). 250 aP"' : cTi TLva )^ov. puK. 2020 : en fxiK. 
Xpov. 241. 2019 eth : €w<r Kaipov XP°^- t*-'-'^- ^^ '• xpovov 325. 456 : 
fjLiKpov Or* : €Ti fjiiKpov gig : /xlk. en xpov. Cyp : XP'^''- /^"^- ^J"'" 
|eajcr]+ou I. 18. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2041. 2067 aP I 7rXrjpui6(D(riv AC 385 gig vg s arm bo eth 
: TrXrjpwa<jicn{y) X 025. 046. 20 ( - 620. 632. 2040). I. 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP' Or* : irX-qpoiaova-i 620. 632. 2015. 2016. 2019. 
2036. 2040 : impleatur numerus Cyp | Kat 01 crwSovXoi > 
2019 : Kat > 046 Cyp vg bo | xai ot aSeXc^ot] /cat > 386 | 
ot /xcXXovreo- AnC 025. 35. 205. 620 Or* Vg s^- '^ bo : pr kui 
046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 620). 2037 al™" (Cyp) I 01 /AcXX. aTroKTcw.] 
qui occidentur gig [ airoKTewio-dai AnC 35. 82. 93. 94. 175. 
205. 241. 250. 325. 337. 456. 617. 919. 920. 1955. 2004. 
2018. 2024 : +V7r ai^TOJi/ X* (del. N*^) : aTroKxevecr^at 18. 42. 91. 
104. no. 172. 242. 385. 386. 468. 506. 620. 632. 1849. 1934. 
2015. 2016. 2017. 2019. 2023. 2024. 2036. 2039. 2040. 2041 : 
airoKTCivtaOaL 025. 046. I. 61. 69. 336. 429. 498 Or* (vel— T€vea6ai) 
: airoOavciv arm | mcr Kat aurot] Kat > 385. 2020 : exemplo 
ipsorum Cyp |. 

12. €i8o»'>i8. 94. 141. 385. • 429. 522. 1849. 1955. 2039. 

2040 Tyc eth | ore T/vot^cv] ot€ evv^ev x* {r)vv$ev H"^) : pr Kat 025. 
I- 35**- 42- 61. 69. 181. 205. 209. 432. 468. 1957. 2019. 2023. 

2041 Pr I Trjy a(fipayi8a tyjv eKxrjv^ rrjv (kt. tr^pay. Pr Tyc | 
trctcr/xoo-] pr iSou A Vg^ : (}>wcr S^ ( fityacr cytvero XC 025. 046. 



VI. 13-15.] AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY 277 

13. Koi ol dcTTcpcs Tov ovpavov lirecrav €is Tr]v yyjv, 
is crvKrj /SdWei tovs oXvvdov^ avTrj<; 

VTTo ave/xov /xeydXov creio/xiVT]' 

14. Kol 6 ovpavov a.7r()(wpi(rdrj 

0)5 Pi(3\iov ^f iXitrcrofxevov t\ At<r(r6/x- 

Kai irav opos Kal vrjcros €k twv tottwi' avrHiV ^KivrjOrjcrav. fj-evo^ 

1 5. Kai 01 /SacriXcis t^s y^s xai 01 //,eyi(TTai/£S Kai 01 ;^i\tap;(ot xai 
01 ttAovctioi Kai 01 icrxvpol kol Tras SoGAos Kat cAcij^epos €Kpv\J/av 
iavTOvs eis to, (TTr7;A.ata /cai cis ras Trerpas twi' opewv. 

20. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP^ Or* Pr arm^ : -^ A 2016 Tyc 
gig vg arm^ | eytvero /AcXacr AC 025. I. 35. 205. 2015. 20ig. 
2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 Tyc Pr gig vg arm* : ^ S 046. 
20 ( — 35. 205. 2020). 61. 69. 104. 1 10. 172. 201. 250. 314. 498. 
522. 1955. 1957- 2016. 2018. 2023. 2041 alP Or^ I ojor . . . 
Tpt^Lvoa >eth | caKKocr] acTKOC S^ | rj (reXrjvr) oXrj AnC 046. 20 
( - 35. 205). 2067 alP™ Or^ Tyc (gig) vg s^- ^ bo eth : " the moon 
wholly" arm^- 2- ^- * : oXr; > 02 5. i. 35. 172. 205. 250. 1957. 
2018. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 Pr sa I wo- at/Att] €L(r aifia 
1934 : wo->Pr gig arm |. 

13. TOO oopai'oo] TOV Oeov A : >Tyc Pr vg''- ^ : de coelo (post 
€Trea-av pon gig bo eth) gig arm bo eth [ emaav AxC 025. i. 
104. 337. 429. 2015 alP Or* : CTreaov 046. 20 (-337). 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al"^" arm* : " were shaken down " arm^- ^- ^- " | etcr 
rrjv yrjv] €7rt rrjv yqv X 241. 468**. 2038 S^ : super terram Vg 
arm* (bo) : >gig | o-ukt/] + o-«o/i,€v?y (Tyc) | ^aXXci AC 025. 046. 
35. 61. 69. 2019. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2067 T)C Pr gig vg 
arm* : aTro^aAAct 2015. 2036 : ^aAct I : /SaAAovcra X 18. 172. 
205. 250. 336. 429. 468. 498. 620. 1918. 2039 Or^ s : fiaXova-a 
20 ( — 18. 35. 205. 468. 620. 2020). 42. 93. 94. 141. 201. 209. 
218. 241. 242. 385. 424. 452. 506. 517. 522. 1955. 2016. 2017. 
2021 alP : airofiaXovo-a 2020 | vtto] airo N 69. 2016** | ave/xov 
fjityaXov AxC 046. 20 (-35. 205). 250 al'"" Or^ Pr gig vg 
: ~ 025. I. 35. 2015. 2037. 2038. 2067 : /i€yaAou>Tyc : viro 
/xcy. aruofiivr) ave/xov 205 | crcio/Aevr;] craAevo/ACvv; A 18 1 : (T^lo- 
fifvov 456 |. 

14. o > I I a7re;(cjptcr^>;] >arm^- ^- ^- « bo : eraKi; s^ arm* : €i- 
Ai;^^77 eth I war fSi/SXiov] Kai o)(T fti/iXia s^ \ cAto-o-o/xtvoi' AC 046. 35. 
69. 82. 104. 250. 337. 468. 2023*. 2040 aP"" Or^ Tyc Pr gig vg 
s^ bo eth : eiXiaao/xeiov 025. i. 2019. 2023**. 2036. 2037. 2038 : 
eAto-cro/xevotr X 20 (-35. 337. 468. 632. 2040). no. 314. 1957. 
2016. 2067 alP : etAtcrcro/xevocr 632 : tAicraoiTai s^ : eiXi^^^dT] arm 
bo I K>7o-ocr] vrjcraoa- C 046 : ySowocr N : insulae Tyc Pr vg : pr 
Tracra s^ bo sa | avTwv>X | €KLvrjOr]crav N*C 025. 046 min^' : 
eKivTjcray X* : air€K€ivr]aav A : eaaXevOrju-ai' 920. 2040 1. 

15. Kai^>-A I xiXLap^oi, . . . ttAouctioi] •^ i . 2019. 2020. 2038 



278 AnOKAAY>^lS m ANNOY [VI. 16-VII. 1. 

1 6. Kttt Xcyovcriv TOis opfcriv koX rats Trerpai^ 

HeaaTe iff) r}fia<; koL Kpvij/are r}ixa<; oltto irpoawTTOV tov KaOrj- 

fiivov i-rri tov Opovov 
Kol OLTTO Trj<; 6pyrj<i tov apviov, 

17. OTi 7j\6tv r] rjfiipa r) fjutydXr] t^s opy^s airov, 
Koi Ti's SvvaTaL (TTaOrjvai ; 

alP I Kai 01 LO-xvpoi'^l. 181. 2019. 2038 : oi>-X 2024. 2040 I 
Kai cXivdepoa- AC 046. 20 (-35. 205. 2020). 250 aP™ Or^ Pr 
gig vg s : Kai Traa eXevOepoa- H'^ 025. I. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 
2020. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 : >X* arm* : >cai Travrta- ot 
iXevdepoi arm'' bo | Trer/oao'] OTracr arm bo |. 

16. KOI Xcyouaii'] dicentes Pr : xat cittoi/ arm^- 2. 3. a | 7-010- 
opeaiv Kai Tai<j Trcrpaio-] ~ bo arm* : >Tyc : Kai raicr mTpaKr > 
arm^- * | Treo-are A 025. 104. 2015. 2036 Or® : Treo-ere C 046. 20 
I. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' : TTtcrerai K | Kpui/'arc] K/jvi/^erat X 
: Kpvxj/iTe 385* I airo irpoa-oiTTOv . . . tov apviov^a.rm'^ \ tov kq^t; 
pifvov . . . Tfjor opy-qcr^S^ \ ctti tov Opovov AC 025. I. 35. 69*. 
104. 205. 241. 468. 632. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2067 aP"" Or® : ctti tw 6povw X 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 
468. 632. 2020). 250 al'"" : supra sedem gig : super thronum 
(Pr) vg I a7ro2 N''] ctti K* |. 

17. OTi>Or®. Tj t)fX€pa t] \ieya\r] ttjct opyt\<T auroo] rj fjieyaXij 
TTja opyqa avTOv rj/jiepa 18 | 7;^ > 2004. 2020 | r] /AtyoAi/ > 69. 325. 
456. 517 I avTov A 025. 046. 20 ( - 2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 
g^jpi QfS p,. arm^- ^- 3- " bo : avTaiv xC 2020 gig vg s^- ^ arm'* sa | 
a-Tadrjvai] crutdrjvai 141. 242. 617. 1934 : (TTTjvai 250. 429. 2018. 
2019 : +ante ilium Pr arm^- ^ bo \. 



Chapter VII. 

Kai fLera I. "^Mcra^ tovto £iSov reo-o'apa? ayyeXovs corwras ctti ras rcV- 

aapas ywvtas t^s y^s, KparoCi'Tas tov? Tecra-apas avifjiovs t^9 y^s, 
iva /u,^ Ti/c'r; avc/xos cttI t^s y^s /t^TC ctti t^s OaXanrcrrj'i fjLiQTe ctti 

1. fiexa AC Or® Pr gig vg sa : pr /cat K 025. 046. 21. 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 alP^ s arm^ (bo) eth | touto AxC 046. 21 
(-205. 468. 920. 2040). 250 al^"* Or® s arm eth : ravra 025. 
I. 61. 205. 241. 468. 920. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 Pr gig vg bo I Tetra-apaar^ C 025. 046. 21 ( — 35- 866) 
Or® : Tca-aapea- A : 8' H 35. 866 | etti] per Pr | Tecraapacr'^ AnC 
046. 21 ( - 35) Or® : Tccro-apeo- 025 : S' 35 | KpaTovvTaa-] pr kqi 
337 S arm^- "^ | KpaTovvTaa- . . . ave/jiova- t. yrjcr >-eth | Tecra-apaa-^ 
aC 025. 046. 21 ( — 35) Or® : Tcaa-apea- A ; 8' 35 | rrja- yrja > 2020. 
2037 s^ bo sa I TTv^r]] TTViva-rj K 172. 205. 250 : rri/eci 2019. 



Vll. 2-4.] AnOKAAY*T2 IfiANNOY 279 

^jtP Sei'Spov f. 2. /cat etSox/ aWov ayyeXov dva/3aivovTa airo iroLv 
^ a.vaToXrj<i^ yjXlov, t^^ovra (T(f>payi8a 6eov ^wvtos, koI '^iKoa^eu^ dvaToXwv 
<f>wvr} fieydXrj rots Tia-crapaiv dyye'Aois ols IhoOr) avTols dSiK^crai tijv ^'^P"'^^" 
yrjv Koi ttjv ddXaa-(Tav, 3. Xiyiav M^ d^LKrjarjrt Tr,v yrjv ^ ij.y'jTf? tijv Kal 
OdXaaaav /m>;t€ to. SevSpa, a;^pt a<f)payi(rwfjiiv tovs SovXous tov Oeov 

TJflSiV €Trl TWV /A£T(07rWV aVTMV. 

4. Kat ^Kouo-a tov dpiOfibv twv i<T<^payuTp.iviJiv' c/carov Tccrcra- 
paKovTa TcVcrapes ;^iAid8€S iatppayLa-jxh'OL €/< Tracri^s cf>vXrjs vlS)v 
la-paiijX. 

(Or^) : 7r£o-i7 920. 2040 : flarent Pr vg*"- ^ bo | avc/xoo-] pr o C 61. 
69. 506. 522. 632*. 919. 920. 1955. 2040 : >Pr vg''-'' arm2 : 
ot avc/xot bo I em rrja yrja- > A : in terris Pr | ctti Trjcr daXaacrrjcr] 
TTja >-A : + ixrjTe ctti twv Trorapnav bo | ctti tl Ztvhpov C 046. 21 
(-35. 205). 250 alP™ Or^ (Pr gig vg) : iirt irav hev^pov X 025. 
I- 35- 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 si : 
€7ri 8ei/S/jou A : tTrt (to) ScvSpa s^* arm bo eth |. 

2. aXXoj' ayyeXoi'] '>-'42. 325. 456. 468. 620. 866. 1934. 1957. 

2036 : oAAov ^Pr | aAAov . . . ara/5aivoi'Ta] Kat ave/3r] aXXocr 
ayyeXocr eth | ava^SatvovTa] ava^avra i bo | avaroX-qa NC 025. 
046. 21 (- 18). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or« s2 : avaroAwv A 
18. 2039 (s^) I (r(f)payiSa et N"^] cr<)!>ayt8a N* | 6(ov] pr tov 325. 
456. 468. 620. 866 I ^wi'Too-] pr TOV 468 I €Kpaiiv nC 046. 21. 
250. 2037. 2038 aP' Or^ Tyc Pr gig vg s arm bo : (KpaCev 
A 025. 2067 I (fiwvr] fieyaXr)] (jusiviqv fxiyaXyj 866 | Teara-apaiv et 
N<=] Tco-o-apecr N* : 8' 35 | ayyeAotcr] ^ojoto" arm* | otcr cSo^t;] eo 
quod datum esset Pr | arToto->35. 336. 337. 2015. 2023. 2036. 

2037 gig vg I aStKTjtrat] aTroAecrat arm^- ^- " |. 

3. Xeyuf] + avTota- Pr bo eth | aStK-T^cn^rc] aStKi^o-erai X : 
+ fJLr]T€ Or'" '^ I fJi.rjT€ Trjv 6aXa(rcrav C 025. 046. 21 (-866. 
2020). 250. 2037. 2067 alP' Or-'°-'* : fiijSe ttjv d. N 866. 2038 : 
Kai T-qv B. A 432. 452. 2020. 2021 Or« bo sa | /xt^tc^] ^t^Sc ^ 866 
! axpi (-0-N) AnC 025. I. 35. r8i. 2038 OrJ"'^ : a^picr ov 
046. 21 ( — 35). 250. 2067 alP' Or^ : axpta- av 94. 2015. 2036. 
2037 : tva arm^ | o-^paytorco/ifv] a(j>payiaop.€v 337- 2016. 2020. 
: " I shall have sealed " arm^ : a(j>pa.yLarjTe bo : a^payiaOuicri eth 

i 7//AWV >24i. 2015. 2039. 2040 Tyc s^ bo sa eth |. 

4. Kat TjKouaa . . . €o-(^payio'p,e>/u>' ^A | tov apidp-ov >»920. 
2040 I €o-</)payi(r/*€va)v] + ctti tov /xctcottov avTiav bo I c/carov . . . 
ea(j>payi(rp.€voL >i8. 141. 385. 429. 919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2039. 
2040. 2067 I CKOTOv Ttara. T€(r(Tapf(r 025. 205. 386. 620. 866. 
1934 : fKaTov Kai Tca-a: Teaa-apea- C 82. 104. 172. 175. 250.314. 
325- 337- 456- 468. 617. 632. 1957. 2018. 2041 : (eKOTOv) e/caTov /cat 
TC(r<r. Kat Tco-crapco- 498 (2020) : ckotov tco-ct. /cat Tco-crapctr 69 : 
p p. o 046. I. 35 al"*" : €KaTov TeaaepoKovTu [reacrapaKovTa A) 
A*N : e/c. Tco-tr. S' A** | eacfepayiapnoi AnC 025. i. 35. 



28o AnOKAAY*I2 IfiANNOY [VII. 5-8. 

5*^. €K <f>vXrj<; 'lovSa Su)8eKa ^(iXtaSes ccr^paywr/xccot, 
tK (j)vXrj<; 'Vov[iy]v SwScKa ^(iXiaSes, (a) 

7. CK <l>vXrjs ^Vfjuewu ScoScKa j^iXiaScs, 
CK (ftvXrj<; Aeui SwScKa ;^iXtaS€s, 

c/c (f)vXrj<i 'laa-a)(ap SwStKa ;^iXia8«s, 

8. CK (fivXrj^ ZaftovXwv StoScKa ^(iXiaScs, 
CK <fivXrj^ 'l(o<T7](f> owSc/ca i^iXtaScs, 

€< <f)vXrj'i B€?'(a/xeiv SwStKa ^^iXtaSes i(r<f}payi(Tfi(voi, 
5" €K ^uXt/s TaS 8coSe/ca ^iXiaSes, 

6. €K </)vX^s 'Acrrjp SwSe/ca ;^tXia8c?, 

eK ifivXrj'i Ne^6'aXi/A StoSeKa ;^iXiaSes 
eK <f>vXrj<; M.avaar(rrj SwSe/ca ^(iXiaSe?. 

(a) On the restoration of the original order of the text, see vol. i. 207 sqq. 

205. 632*. 2020. 2037. 2038 al""" Qr^o.3S<i.(seme\) -py^, p^ gjg ^g 

S^ bo : ca-fppayiar/jifvwv 046. 21 ( — 35. 205. 632*. 2020). 69. 82. 
104. 201. 250. 314. 498. 2016. 2017. 2018. 2036 alP Or^ : >si 
sa : + €7rt T. /xeTWTTWv avTwv bo I VLtDV lo-paTjX] uiwv >arm^- * eth : 
Icr/aaijXtTwi' S^ |. 

5^- ^ €a<|>paYicrp.ci'oi AxC 025. 35. 468. 632. 2020 Or* Pr gig 
vg s^ : -/xci'at 046. 21 (-35. 468. 632. 2020). 82. 201. 314. 
385. 498. 1955. 2016. 2017 alP : -fjievwv 69. 104. 522 : >s^ 
arm^- ■* bo eth | Fov^rjv AxC 025. 046. 175 Or* : Puv^iv 61. 69 
104. 201. 337. 498. 617. 919. 1955. 2004. 2015 : Vovfiifj. I. iS 
35. 93. 386. 456. 468. 620**. 632. 920. 1849. 2017. 2019. 2020 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 : 'PovfSeifx 60. 91. 172. 205. 385 
1934. 2018. 2023. 2041 : Pou^fiv 250. 2016 : Pov/?7//A 314. 325 
506. 517. 620*. 866. 2024 : Ruben Pr gig vg : Rouben bo |. 

7. CK <}>oX. lufji. 8(1)8. x'^' >^ 172 I Aem] Aevu H : Atut et 
lo-u^ap '^ s' I lacraxap AS 025. 61. 104. 385. 522. 919. 1955. 
2017 aP Or'* vg arni^- 2- 3. a . io-a;^ap C 046. 21 ( - 919) s^ arm* 
bo : Isachar Pr : Ysacar gig |. 

8. CK <|>uX. Zap. 8w8. x'''^' > 1S49 I Za^ouXcuv . . . loxrrjff)] 
-^1934 I linarjcf) . . . B€;'ia;U,€iv] -^ N 2015 | BeviayMCii/ A 025. 920. 
2038 : Bcvta/Aiv nC 046. 21 (-456. 620. 866. 920) alP^ Or* Pr 
gig vg s bo : Bevta/AT/v 242. 456. 620. 866. 2017 | ea(f>payi<T- 
fjLivoL AnC 025. 35. 205. 468. 632. 2020 Or^ gig vg s^ bo : 
-/Atvai 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 468. 632. 920. 2020. 2040) al"'" : 
>920. 2040 Pr s^ |. 

5*=. cic <^uX. TaS. 8w8. \i\. > N | FaS] Aai/ 42. 325 (pr man. 
scripsit in marg.) 336. 456. 620. 866 : AaS i : Gath Pr |. 

6. CK 4)uX. Acttjp 8ai8. xiX. > Or" | Ne<^^aXiyLt A 046. 6 1 **. 69**. 
175- 314- 325- 429- 456- 617. 620. 866. 919. 920. 1849. 1955- 
2004 al vg : Nephtalim arm^- 2. s. a . Neptalim Pr gig : Ne«^^aXi 
N S : NecfiOaXiv C : N«jiOaX7jfjL 69*. 201. 386. 517. 522 : Eph 
thalim bo : Ne^^aXei/x 025. i. 18. 35. 61*. 104. 172. 205. 241. 



VII. 9-10.] AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY 281 

9. Mcra Tavra eiSov, 

(cat I80V oi^Xos TToXvs, ov apiOfirjcraL avTov ouS«i5 eSvvarOf 
€K TravTos t^vovs KOLi <f>vX<Ji)v Koi Aaa»v koI yXwcrtroiv, 

CCTTWTCS tl^WTTlOV TOV 6p6l'OV KOt iyiDTTLOV TOV apvLOV, 

t Trcpi/SeySXT/ytAeVous f (TToXas Aer/cas, Kai <^oiViKts cv rais 
\ip(TLV avTwv' 
10. Kai Kpd^ova-iv <f)wvy /xeydXr) Xiyovre^ 
H (TUiTTjpia Tw ^£<5 rjjxwv 
Tw Ka6r]p.iv(o Ittl tw Opovta 
/cai Toj dpvtu). 

242. 250. 337. 385. 468. 498. 632. 1934. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2017. 
2018. 2019. 2020, 2023. 2024. 2037. 2038. 2039. 2040. 2041. 
2067 al'"" Or« I €K cjivX. Mav. 8w8. x'^- > 620* 866 | Mavaaaq 
a 025. 21 (-175. 205. 620*. 866). I. 250. 2067 aP^ Or* Pr gig 
Vg arm : Mavaa-a-qv C : Mai/vacrcrTy A : Mavaa-rj 046. 175, 205. 

2037. 2038 s : Dan bo |. 

9. fiera] pr /cai s^ arm^ bo eth | xai iSov K 025. 046. 21. 
250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or^ Tyc gig s^ : >A Pr Cyp vg 
s^ bo sa : tSov >-C | oxXoa- ttoXvct SC 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 

2038. 2067 alP^ Tyc gig s^ : ttoXvct >>0r* : o^Aov iroXvv A Pr 
Cyp vg s^ bo I ov et N'=] oa- N* : /cat A | avTov AnC 025. i. 61. 
69. 205. 2019 alP Or* s bo : >046. 21 (-205). 104. 172. 201. 
241. 242. 250. 314. 385. 429. 498. 522. 1955. 1957, 2015. 2016. 
2017. 2018. 2023. 2024. 2037. 2038. 2039. 2041. 2067 alP Tyc 
Pr gig Cyp vg | tSumro AxC 046. 21 (—205. 2040) aP' : 
T]8vvaTO 025. I. 61. 69, 172. 205. 241. 250. 2015. 2023**. 2037. 
2040. 2067 al™** Or* : Swarai 2038 arm* | ck Travroa- eOfocr'] ck 
iravTwv e6v<jiv Tyc gig vg arm^- *■ * | ^vXwv] <f>vXr](r s^ Pr Cyp | 
Kttt Xatuv «at yXwaaoiv >eth | ccrrwrto" AN 025. i. 35. 205. 1957. 
2004. 2019. 2023. 2024. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP S : ea-Twraar 046. 
21 ( - 35. 205. 2004. 2020). 250 al"^'* Or* : caTwrwi/ C 2020 : 
eo-Twra 93. 1955 : stantes Pr gig Cyp vg | ej/wTrtov^] ein A \ 
Tr€/3t/Se/3Xr//xei'oucr AN*C 046. 21 ( — 35. 205. 2040). 250 alP™ 
gig : 7r€/3i/?e/5XT]yu.€vao- 242. 2040 : Trepi/Se/SXrjixevoL N*^ 025. I. 35. 
205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2037, 2038. 2067 alP Or* Tyc vg : 
Km irepL(^elSXr]/xivoL s^ : et erant amicti Pr Cyp | <^oivik€o- Ax^C 
025. I. 35. 104. 172. 205. 250. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2037. 2038. 
2067 alP gig vg arm : palmae fuerunt Pr Cyp : <f>oLviKa(r N* 
046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 2020). 61. 69. 201. 241. 242. 314. 385, 429. 
498. 522. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2017. 2023. 2024. 2039. 2041 al™" 
Or* : KiOapai bo | «v rato- ^f/'O""] pr '>?crav Pr gig Cyp |. 

10. Kat^>i. 2067 bo. Kpa^ouaif] Kpat^ovrta i. 2067 bo s^ : 
£K/3a^o»' Pr gig Cyp vg arm j Xcyovrecr] pr /cat 2067 S^ : eXcyoj/ 
arm^ : Kat tXe^av arm^- s. 4. a | J^^ Q^^^'\^ ^oy Q^^y ^ ^jj^ maig.) bo : 

diUi I. 2037 (post TOJ Kad. fTTl TW OpOV.) | TOD KudrjfltVUi > K* 



282 AnOKAAY>]>l2 LQANNOY [VII. 11-14. 

1 1 . Ktti 7rai'T€s ol ayyeXoL tcrryKcicrar kvkXo) tov Opovov koi twv 
Trpea^vTeptDV koi rCyv Teaadpiov ^wu)V, Kai CTrecrav ivcjiriov tov 6p6vov 
CTTi TO. TrpoaiDTTa avTcov Kai Trpocr€Kvv>](Tav tw Bew, i 2. Xcyovres 

'A/xrjv' r} eiXoyia Kat 17 Sd^a Kai rj cro<fiia 

Ktti 17 iv\api(JTia Koi rj ri/xr] Kai ■^ 8vi'a/Ais 

Ktti 17 t(r;^vs Tw ^ew r}fjiu)u eis tovs atoivas Toiv aicuvtoi' [*d/i^v]. 

13. Kat OLveKpLOr) cIs e/< tcov Trpccr/JvTe'poJv Xe'ywv /x.01 Ouroi ot 
TTipipi^X-qfiivoL Ttts (TToAas Tas XeuKas rtves etcrtJ' Kai Trd^ev ^X^ov; 

14. Kai eiprjKa avrw Kv/3t€ /iov, (tu oi8a5. Kat ciTreV fxoi 

OvTot ctcrtv 01 ipxa/xevoL €K t^s OXiij/eu)<i t^5 fJitydX.r]<i, 

Kai €7rA.uvai/ ras CTToAas avriov, 

Kat cAcvKavav auras tv tcS ai/xari toS dpviov. 

(suppl. S'') : pr Kat s^ I €7ri tw ^povw Ax*C 025. 21 ( - 205. 468. 
632**. 2020). 250. 2067 al"'" : €7rt Tou dporov X*^ 046. i. 104. 
205. 468. 632**. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038 aX^^ Or^s^ : super 
thronum Pr Cyp vg : supra sedem gig | tw apviw] tov apviou 
N*' : + «to- Tovcr atwvaa" twv attovtov afx-qv N* (del. S*^). 

11. 01 > N* (suppl. N") I lo-TT/Kcio-av An ( - Kia-av X) 025 : 
ecTTrjKLcrav C : eicrTrjKrjaav 046. 104**. 919. 2017. 2018. 2036 : 
ctcTT^Kcio-av 21 (-205. 919). 250. 2037. 2067 aP' Or* : eia-rr] 
Kfo-av I. 205 : stabant Tyc Pr gig vg arm bo | kukXkj] (vidttiov 
bo I €7rco-av AnC 025. 42. 181. 325*. 337. 468. 517. 620. 866 
alP Or* : cTrto-ov 046. 21 ( - 325*. 337. 468. 620. 866). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al'^' I evuiTTiov . . . TrpocuiTTov aDTwv] eTTi T. Trpoa: 
avTwv evoiTTLOV T. dpov. bo sa eth I TOV dpovov AXC 025. 35. 205. 
920. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al Or* Pr gig vg s^ 
arm^- ^- * bo : +avTov 046. 21 (-35. 205. 920. 2020. 2040). 250 
al S^ I CTTi ra TrpocrajTra] ctti irpoa-wTTOV l. 2038. 2067 bo : > 
arm^ | Kai Trpocr^Kwqaav Tto ^ew >S^ | Kat tTrco-av . . . XtyovTccr] 
Trpo(r€Kvvrj(Tav €7rt t. Trpoauyira avTOiv evwrnov t. dpovov tov deov 
AcyovTCO" eth j. 

12. ap-ilf] pr ayioa ayioa ayiocr 205 | €uAoyta . . . So^a] •— s^ 
eth j Kat rj ao(f>La > A arm* : ante 77 Sofa pon 506 : post rj ti/jlt) 
K. 7} cv;(a|Oio-Tta pon 2067 | rj iv)(apio-TLa >?; N* (suppl. N*^) | Kat 
Tj Ti/xrj >eth I Kttt 7] laxva- >bo : Kat rj x^P'*'' arm^- 2- *• " : Kat 
rj €$ovaia arm^ | tw ^eco] tou Oeov bo : tcd KvpL<a arm^ : Kvpiix) 
Tw 6€w arm* | afirjv >C 2015. 2019 Pr |. 

13. aireKpi0T)] + p-oi Tyc gig : Acyct fioi arm^- 2- 3. a gth | ck > 
N 1957 I Aeyiuv jxoi > gig arm^- 2. 3. a g^^ : /tot >Tyc arm* | 
Tao" crroXttcr racr XevKoa] rao" XeuKao" aToXaa 2015. 2036 | racr^ 
>-C I Tij'co- cio-tv Kat > eth : eto-tv >!. 181. 2038 | >;X^ov] veniunt 
vg''- s arm^- 2- s- a |, 

14. Kai >bo sa I eiprjKa AxC 025. I. 205. 2015. 2019. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP Or* : (lvov 046. 21 ( - 205). 250. 
alP™ : dixi Pr gig Cyp vg : Xeytu arm^ | Kvpie jxov xC 025. 046. 



VIL 15-17.] AnOKAAYI'12 Ifi ANNOY 283 

15. Ota TovTo eicriv Ivwinov rov Opovov tov 9(.o\\ 

KaL XarpeiovaiV avTW rjfx.epa<s Kai vdktos iu tw I'aul avTOV, 
Koi 6 KaOrjp.evo'i iirl froi) Opovov^ aKrjViO(T(L iir auTOUS. 

16. 01' TTctvacrovcrtv crt ovSt 8nj/i]aovcni' en, 

ov8f fjLT] TraiCTT) 2ti avTovs 6 ^Aios oiSl ttolv Kavfia, 

17. OTi TO apvLov TO dva fxeaov tov Opovov iroifjiavel avTovs, 
Koi 68r]yi](TeL avrov^ iirl ^w^s Tri]ya<i vSurcui/' 

KOL €^aX€Ll}/€L 6 OeoS TTciv SoLKpVOV €K TU)V 6(fi6a\fl(OV auTtov. 

21 (-205). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP™ Or^ vg s arm^- 3- * bo : 
fjiov >A I. 205 Pr gig Cyp arni^- * | cittcv] Xeyct gig armi | ot 
ip^ofievoi] qui venerunt Tyc Pr Cyp eth : qui veniunt gig vg 
arm bo | €k ttjct OXuf/ewa- Trja- /Ji€ya\rj(r^ airo OXixj/ewcr fieyaX-qa 
A I €irXvvav Ax 046. 18. 35. 175. 205. 468**. 617. 620. 
632**. 1934. 2020 Or^ Tyc gig vg Cyp s arm bo : eirXaTwav 
42*. 82. 201. 325. 337. 385. 386. 429. 452. 456. 468*. 498. 522. 
632*. 919. 920. 1849. 1955. 2004. 2021. 2024. 2040 : €7rAaT€ii/av 
I : eXiVKavav 2015 : > Pr | /cat cAcvxavav avTaa >Tyc : "made 
them glorious" bo | Kat* >62o. 866 | avraa- Ax 025. i. 35. 60. 
93. 181. 205. 209. 432. 468. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2038. 2041. 
2067 gig vg Cyp s arm* bo : avTovcr 2037 : >o46. 21 (-35. 
205. 468). 250 al™'^ Or« Pr arm<^ [. 

15. 8ia TOUTo] pr nai 046*. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2067 | cto-iv] 
TjXdov eth I XaTpcrovo-tv] So^a^ouo-u' eth | o Ka$r]fi€i'oa^ his qjui 
sedet Pr Cyp | cttl tov Bpovov AX i. 61. 172. 205. 250. 385. 
2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023**. 2037. 2038. 2067 al°'" Or* 
s^ : cTTi To> Opovui 025. 046. 21 ( - 205. 2020) al""" : supra sedem 
gig : in throno Tyc Pr vg Cyp | o-Kr/vwcret ctt avrouo-] X*^- "^ 
yivuiVKii avTOva- X* : yLvuxrKfi, ctt avTovar X*^ : habitavit supra 
illos gig : inhabitavit super eos Cyp : habitat super eos Tyc 
inhabitavit in eis Pr : " dwelleth in them " arm^- 2- (3)- « j, 

16. €Ti^ A 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or' gig 
>X 2019 Pr vg Cyp s arm^- *• « bo sa | ouSc] + fir] A 61. 69 
Or* I Snj/r)aov(nv^ SLif/aaovaiv X 385 : hi\prjcr(ji(nv 025. 69. 2038 | cti^ 
Ax 046. 21 ( - 205. 2020). 2067 al^i Or* vg s^ arm^ bo : umquam 
PrCyp : >o25. i. 141. 172. 205. 250. 424. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2037. 
2038 gig s^ armi- 3- 4. a . _|. " neither shall they toil " bo | fx-q Traia-r} 
€Ti] an emendation of Gvvynn and Swete of firj irear] em Ax 025. 
1. 35. 69. 2015, 2019. 2036 alP : ov p.r) TreoT] CTrt 046. 21 (-35. 
2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP™ Or* : ov p.y) irea-qrai e-m 2020 \ 
o r/Xiocr] o >202o. 2037 : " cold" arm^- 2- 3 ; "shadow" bo | irav 
>Tyc arm : to 314. 2016 | /cav/xa] +patientur Pr Cyp [. 

17. aj-a jxecroc] ei'WTrioi' bo eth | irotpavei AX 025. 046. I. 35. 
(n. 69. 104. 205. 314. 429. 46S*. 620. 866. 2015. 2019. 2020. 
2023**. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041*. 2067. s arm sa : reget gig 
vg Cyp : TToifiaiveL 21 ( - 35. 205. 468*. 620. 866. 2020). 42. 82. 



284 AnOKAAY*l2 lOANl^OY [VIII. 1-4. 



Chapter VIII. 

I. Kai orav ^i/oi^cv r^ cri^payiSa rqv ifiSofxrjv, iycvero (riyr] Iv 

r<S ovpavw ws r]p'Mp(iv.{a) 3. koX f aAAo? f (<5) ayycAos rjXdtv koX 

rod OwTiOiff- luraOrj Ittl ^to OvcnaaTrjpiov^ ?;(aji' Xi^aviDTOv )(pv(rovv, koI iSoOr] 

rrjplov avTW $v/MidfiaTa iroXXd, tva Scocrct rals wpoaevxo-^'i twv ayiuiv irdvTwv 

ivl TO OvfTLaar-qpiov to -)^vcrovv to h/ui-rriov tov Bpovov. 4. Kai avcfSr] 

{a) Verse 2 is restored in what appears to have been its original form after 
8*. See vol. i. 218-222, 224. 
{d) Read els. 

91. 141. 172. 201. 218. 241. 242. 250. 385. 424. 432. 498. 522. 
1955. 1957. 2016. 2017. 2018. 2021. 2023*. 2024. 2039. 2041** 
Or* : regit Pr : TrcptTraTei /hct avrotv bo | oSrjyrja-ei An 025. 046. 
I. 35. 61. 69. 205. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 
alP Or^ Tyc gig Cyp vg s arm bo : o^T^yct 21 (-35. 205. 
2020). 42. 82. 91. 104. 250. 385. 429. 2016. 2017 al™" Pr I 
^wT/o-] ^waao" I. 2020, 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 : ^wrjv /cat eiri s^ j 
Trrjyatr] fontem Pr arm* bo ( Kai cfaXcu/zei . . . o<f>6a\fi(i)v 
avTO)V >-2020 I €$a\€Li(/ii] c^cXci 35 I o ^€ocr > s^ arm^- * I Trai/ 
8aKpvov^ irav SpaKUOv N* : iravra ra SaKpva 69 arm : SaKpvov eth [ 
€K Twv of^OaXfJuav AC 025, 046. 21 (-325. 456. 468*. 620. 866. 
920. 2040). 250. 2038 alP™ Pr gig Cyp vg s : aTro twv o(f>6aX.- 
fxuiv a 61. 104. 241. 325. 456. 468*. 620. 866. 920. 2015. 2023. 
2024. 2036. 2037. 2040. 2067 alP Or* vg**-' j. 

1. Kat>Tyc I orav AC : oTt X 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP^ Or* I o-iyr;] (ftwvrj bo | rj/jLuopov AC 337. 498. 
1957 : rjfjLLOipLov (ci/x- a) X 025. 046. 21 (-337. 866). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP^ Or* s : semihora Pr gig : media hora Tyc vg 
: (upav bo |. 

3. ayyeXoo- > s^ | i^XOev] e^rjXOiv 69 : before aXXocr arm^* '^ 
I €7ri TO BvaiatTTTqptov A 025. I. 35. 205. 2019. 2023 al'"*^ : ctti tov 
6v(Tia(rrqpiov N 046. 21 (-35. 205). 6g. 104. 250. 314. 385. 
2015. 2016. 2018. 2037. 2067 al"'" Or* : €7rt tou Ova-iaa-Trjpioy C : 
ante altare Tyc gig vg arm^ eth : super altarium Dei Pr : 
" at the altar " arm^- 3. 4. o | e^cov] Kai €lx€v arm^- ^- * eth : eix^y 
arm^ | Ai/JavwTov] Xifiavov to C | ^v/Aia/^tara] supplicamenta Pr 
I Lva 8o)(r€t>S^ I 8a)o-£i AsC I. 35. HO. 172. 201. 250*. 337. 
386. 632. 2015. 2037. 2038. 2040 alP : Swo-t; 025. 046. 21 ( - 35. 
325. 337. 386. 456. 632. 2040). 250**. 2067 al'"'^ Or* : 8oj 69. 
314. 325. 456. 2019 I Tttio- 7rpoo-ei;;(aio-] Tao" evxp-cr 205 : orationes 
gig arm^- ^^■<^ ; de orationibus vg*^- '^ : " along with the prayers " 
bo I ^i;crtao-T>7ptoi'] + tov Oeov Pr | to ercuTrtot'] to >S arni^- ^- ^- « |. 

4. aj'eP'T] o Kairfoa] N'^ : avafirj Kairvoa K* : o > 506 : apefi-q > 
arm^ | rwi' Ov/jiiafiaTUiv^ supplicationum Pr | toio- 7rpo(T-eu;^aio-] 



VIII. 5-6.] AnOKAAY*l2 IflANNOY 285 

6 Kavrvos Twv 6v^Lap.a.TU)v rats 7rpocr€v;(ats twv dytwv « Xiipo% tou 
dyye'Aou evwTrtov tov ^€ov. 5. kclL il\i]<^^i' 6 dyyeXos roc Xi^avfDTOv, 
Koi iyifjLtatv avrov eV to5 irvpos rov 6v(TiacxTr]ptov, kol ej8aA.€v cis ttji/ 
y^i/, Koi iyivovTO f fipovTaX koi aarpairai koX (fnovai. J kol o-eicr/ios. 

2. Kat eiSoi' t Tovs iirra J (a) ayyiXovs {b) kol ^ i^odria-av^ aurois mO-q 
t CTTTa t ((z) o-dATTiyyes. 6. Kat 01 f CTrrd f («) dyyeXot 01 l;>^ovT€S 
Tois t (.TTTa t (a) o-aATTiyyas fjTOifxaa-av avTov^ Iva a-akirio'wcru 

(a) Read r/jets in the first two cases after the noun but without change of 
order in the next two. See vol. i. 218-223. 

(i>) The interpolator of viii. 7-12, to whom the changes in the text are 
due, added here ot ivdnriov rod deov iaT-^Kaffiv. This termination — aai,v — of 
the perfect does not occur elsewhere in our author, who uses -ai>. 

orationum Pr s^ arm* bo : de orationibus gig vg : arvv t. 
7r/3o<r€u;^atcr eth | x^'po""] X^'^P'^^ arm^- 2- 3. a j ^^^ ayycAov] tov > 
498. 2020 : Tojv ayyeXojv 69*. 205 arm-- * : tov apxayyfXov a.TVa} 
I £va)7riov >>arm^ : pr tov bo j tou Oeov >• arm^* * [. 

5. etXT)<j>€v] eyefxiaev arm^- 2- 3. a j ^Qy Ai^avwTov] to Xijiavoyrov 
104. 141. 205. 218. 424. 2019. 2024 I Kai eyc/x. auTOi/>-eth ( 
avrov] aVTO 104. 205. 2 1 8. 424 | tov ^vtriao-TTypiov] + tov 0(.ov Pr 
: pr TOV cTTi s^ : " of Gehenna " arm^ | eJSaXev N 046. 21 Or* 
Pr gig vg s arm bo eth : e/SaXXev 025 : eXa/Sov A \ (SpovraL 
K. ao-Tpa-Trat k, t^ojvat A 336. 2020 s^('^-'P) : (SpovTat k. ^ojvai k. 
ao-TpaTrai N 046. 21 ( — 35. 2020). 69. IIO. 172. 250. 314. 385. 
2016. 2018 alP Or^ Pr gig vg s^ bo eth : ^wvat k. /Spovrai 
K. aa-TpaTTai 025. I. 35. 2037. 2067 al"'" Tyc arm* : <^ojvat k. 
aaTpairai k. ySpovrai 104. 2038 : The Order of all the MSS is 
corrupt. We should expect ao-TpaTrai first, since not only in 
point of fact the lightning is seen before the thunder is heard, 
but also because this order is preserved always elsewhere in our 
author: cf. 4^ 11^^ 16^^. St. John is an observer of nature, and 
was not guilty of this blunder. It is due to the interpolator of 
37-12 The original order was ao-Tp. Kai <^wvai Kai jSpovTai as in 
45 1 1 19 16^8. 'I'he hopeless order of A — fipovT. k. aarp. k. ^wv. — is 
most probably due to the interpolator. The readings of X 046 
Pr vg s^, of 025 Tyc, are obvious attempts at correction. | Kat 
o-eKT/Aocr > 242. 617. 1934 : o-eitr/iot 209 Or* arm^ ^ : + /xeyaa- 
vg" arm^- " : + eyevcTO /xeyao- vgS |. 

2. Toua cirTa>i. 506 : tovo->205 ( tov ^€ov>-arm^ : tov 
Opovov 620. 866 arm* j ea-TTjKaa-iv AkC 025. 046. 21 (-35. 325. 
456. 468. 2020) Or* : €toT7;Keio-a»' 35. 468. 2020 s : ia-TTjKiaav 
42. 314. 325. 456. 517 : stabant gig : stant Tyc eth : stantes 
Pr vg bo I (^oBqa-av XC 025. 046. 21 (-18. 919. 920. 1849. 
2004. 2040) Or* Pr gig vg s bo : e^oBr) A 18. 172. 919. 920. 
1849. 1955. 2004. 2018. 2040. 2041 arm : qui acceperunt Tyc 
I cra/Wtyyeor] -(- iva craX7rtcr(oo-t 920. 2040 : tubas Tyc |. 

6. 01 iy^pvTf.a A 025. 046. 21 ( - 468*. 620. 866). 250. 2037. 



286 ATlOKAAY^&lS IfiANNOY [VIlI. 13, 7-8. 

13. KOI iiSov KoX ^Kovcra €vos oLiTOv Tr€TOfi€vov iv fjLea-ovpavrjfjLaTt 
XcyovTos <f)0)i'rj jxeydXy Ovai ovaL ouai rots KaroiKovcnv ctti t'^s yi}'; 

€K TWl' [XoiTTWv] (fxiiVUiV T^S (TCtXTTiyyOS TWV TptWV dyytKwV tS>V flfX- 

\6vTiiiV (TaXint^eiv. 

[7. Kai 6 TrpwTos ccraXTTio'e;'' 

Kol €y€V€TO i^aXa^a Kai ttCjO fiefiiyfJifva iv aifiariy 
Koi i^Xrjdr) eis T-qv yrjv. 

KOL TO T/31T0V T^S y^S KaT€KOLrj, 

KOL TO TpLTOV TW SevSptJV KaTfKOirj, 

Koi Tras ^^opros )^Xwpbs KareKa-q. 
8. Kal 6 ScvTcpos ayyeXos laaXTna-iv' 

2067 aP' s armi-2-3. a bo eth : 01 > K 468*. 620. 866. 2019. 
2038 Or® arm* | Tao >arm<' | auroi^o- Ax* : eavTouo- K*^ 025. 
046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or* s^- 2 bo : €7r avrova 69 
I (raXTTitrwo'i] 4- touct o"aX7riyyaor arni^- ^ : + touct iirra craXTrtyyao" 
arm^ |. 

13. KOI 6180C >s^ eth I 7}Kov(Ta\-\- (jxiiv-qv Tyc vg arm^- 2- " ] 
€voa- >K 025 arm bo sa | aeTou Ax 046. 21 ( - 205. 468. 620. 632. 
866). 250 al"'* Or* Tyc gig fl s arm^- ^- ^- * bo eth : ut aquilam 
Pr : ayyeXou 025. I. 104. 205. 241. 468. 620. 632. 866. 2015. 
2019. 2036. 2037. 2038, 2067 arm" | TreTO/xevow > bo | cv 
/Accroupavi^n^aTi] cj/ fxea-ovpavLcrfiaTi I : in medio caeli et terrae 
eth I XeyovToo"] et dicentem Tyc eth | (fx^v-q pi€yaXrf\ + TpLa 
104. 432. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2041 : </)cov>7 Tpior 35. 2019 : 
<fi(i}v. fiey. before XcyovTocr gig fl : >Tyc s^ | ovaij twice only i. 
2038 eth I Toio- KaroiKOvcTLV A 025. I. 35. 104. 205. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al™** : Touo- KaToi/cowTtto- X 046. 21 (-35. 205). 61. 
69. no. 172. 242. 250. 314. 385. 2016. 2018 al™" Or* | c/c rwv 
XotTTWv <l)wvwv Trj<r o"aX7riyyocrJ ck Tqa (fiwvTjcr tojv (raXTriyywi/ S^ : ck 
T. <^oivr](T T. XoiTTWv (TaXTTLyyoiv s^ : (f><jivu)v TTja (TaXiTLyyoa > Pr |. 

7. o irpuToa AX 025. 046. 21 ( - 2020) al^™ Or* s arm* : + 
ayycXoo- I. 250. 522. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 
Tyc Pr gig vg arm^- 2- ^- * bo eth I xat^ >Tyc | fxefxiyfieva A 
046. 21 ( — 205. 2020). 250. 2037 aP^ Or* Pr gig vg s : fitfJi-i-y- 
fxevov X 025. 181. 205. 209. 432. 2020. 2038. 2067 Tyc I ev 
aifjiUTL] €v>i. 2038 alP : uSaTi 205 S^* ^ : €icr at/ia Pr gig | 
e(3Xr)$r]] e/^XfjOrjaav 172. 250. 424. 2018 S^' ^ | Kai to rpiTOV rrja 
y-qar /caTCKa?; > I. 2018 arm^- * | TptTov^] SenTcpov arm^- ^ | xaTC- 
Karj ^- 2- 3J KaTf.Kava-av fl : KaTtKava-iv arm^- ^- " | Kat to TpiTOV rmv 
SevSpwi/ KaTc/cai; > 046*. 175. 456 aP gig arm^- * : Kai Karf-Ka-q 
irav ScvSpov eth | rpirov ^] Sevrepov arm ^ | KanKar] ^ > Tyc 
arm^- ^ bo | Kat iraa- ^oprocr xXojpocr KareKar) >■ arm* | \opTO(r 
-)(X(iipocr\ o xopT. o )(X(j}pucr 104. 201. 386 : iravra )(opTov ^Xotpov 
arm'- ^^ * bo | x^ojpoo-] t7;o- yqtr s' | KarcKa-q ^ > eth |. 

8. aYYc^o<7 >X s' I CUO-] pr eyeviro 920. 2040 s' j Trvpi AX 



VIII. 9-11.] AnOKAAY*l2 IflANNOY 287 

Koi 0)5 opo<; fiiya irvpl Kaiofievov i(3\i-]6r] cis Trjv $dXa(Tcrav, 
Kol cyeVero to rpirov t^s 6a\acr<T'q<i at/xa, 
g. KoX airWaviv to rpiTov Tciv KTicrfiaTtDV twv iv ry daXdcrcrr] to. 
e^ovTtt ij/v)(a^, 
Kal to rpiTOv twv irXoitav SufftOdprjcrav. 

10. Kai 6 TpLTos ayyeXos co-aATrco-cv ' 

*cat e7r£(r£i/ ck tou ovpavov darrjp /Acyas Kato/zcros ws Xa/i,7ras, 
Kttt eTreirev eVi to rpirov rdv irora/xwv koL f ctti tols TTT/yas f 
Tw^ iSdrutv, 

11, [koi to ovofia rov d(Tripo<; XeycTat 6 "Ai/'iv^os] 

/cai iyeviro to rpirov rwv iSdriDV ws dij/LvOoSf 

KOL TToXXoi rwv avOpu)Tr<j>v aTre^avov c/c Twv vSotTWi/ OTt 

025. I. 35*. 205. 250. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al""* Or^ Tyc Pr 
gig fl vg s^ arm^- * : -Kvpoa- bo : >o46. 21 (-35*. 205. 2020) 
alP'" S^ arm^- ^- " | c/SXrjOrj^ cirea-ev s^ arm | wo- opoo- fieya irvpi] irvp 
/xeya wcr opocr eth | cyevero^ tyivrjOrj N | TpiTOv] ScuTepov arm^ | 
at/ita] in sanguinem Pr |. 

9. TO TpiTOf^] + /tepoo- K 172. 250. 424. 2018. 2019 Pr gig fl 
vg bo sa eth : ro Bcvrcpov arm^- 3 | tq,v KTto-p-aTwi'] piscium 
Pr : animalium fl arm* : creaturae vg : pr iravroiv s^- ^ bo | 
r(i)v €v rrj 6aXaa-a-q AX 025. 205. 250. 2020. 2037 al™" Or^ fl s 
bo eth :>i. 181 Pr vg : Ta)v>046. 21 ( — 205. 2020). 2038. 
2067 al™" : eorum quae in mari creata sunt gig | ra €;(ovra 
i//u;(ao-] ra ^xovra \pv-)(riv ( + ^cotjo" bo sa eth) N bo sa eth : 
TO e^ovTa ra<T i/'v;(acr 42. 242. 468 : twi' (.)(0VT(av racr \l/v)^a.cr 35* : 
TO e-^ov ^vxQv s^ : habentium animas Tyc : >Pr fl | 8Lecf)0apr](rav 
Mi 025. (i). 35. 42. 60. 181. 432. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 
2037**. 2041 $2 arm^- 2 : Su^Oaprj 046. 21 (-35. 205). 250. 
2038. 2067 alP' Or^ s^ arm^- * : scfiOapr/ 205 : corruperunt Tyc : 
periit Pr : interiit gig fl vg |. 

10. aYY^Xocr >s^ | XafXTraa-] irvp eth : + irvpoa bo | Km eTrecrcv^ 
>-Pr fl ] TptTov] + p-epocr 2019 Pr fl vg bo sa eth | kul itn ra<r 
7rr)ya(T roiv vSaruyv >A : vSaToo" bo sa |. 

11. TOO acTTepoa] + tovtou Tyc | XcycTat] cXeycTO 104 arm* | 
o Aif/Lveoa- A 025. 046. 21 (-2020). 250 alP°^ Or« s : o > «*•'=• 
I. 69. 104. 2019. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP I ai(/Lv6ocr] X*' : 
a{{/LvOLov N* ( + Kai Xcyerai H* del H'') bo : ai/^tv^wcr 2067 : absintium 
Tyc : absintus Pr : absinthius gig vg'^- ^- " : absentius vg^ : absin- 
thus vgs : habsintus vg*^ : absentium fl : " bitterness" arm^-^-^- o . 
" wormwood " arm* | TpiTov] + juepoo- Or* Pr fl gig vg bo eth | 
eycvcro] yivtrai I. 2019. 2038 al'' | cjo- aij/ivOoa- {-ov Or*) 2038 
Or* : sicut absintium (alloc bo) Pr gig vg s^ bo sa : quasi 
absentium fl : eia- aij/LvOov A 025. 046. 21 (-620. 866. 1934). 
250. 2067 alP' s^ : €tcr ai/^tv^ioc X 104. no. 336. 620. 866. 1934. 
2015. 2023. 2036. 2037 gig vg : "bitter" arm^ : "into blood 



288 AnOKAAY^lS lOANNOY [VIII. 12-IX. 1. 

12. Kai 6 TcVapros ayycXos irrdXTria-ev' 
Koi. i-rrXrjyq to rpirov tov rjXiov 

Koi TO TpiTOv TTjs <r€Xr]vr]<: koL to rpirov rutv dartpwv, 
tva crKorifrOri rh rpirov c ' rutv 

Koi t 17 mie'pa firi <f><ivr) rb rpirov auT^s koi tj vv^ f 
6/xoitos.J 

into wormwood" arm'* ] ck twv vSotodv oti eTriKpavOrjcrav] (ab) 
amaritudine aquarum (Pr) fl arm^* ^- * eth : oTt (TriKpavOrja-av ra 
vSara s^ | ck twv] ctti twv A |. 

12. aYYeXoCT>S^ | CTrXT^yr;] cirXr;^€ arm^- ^* ^- " : + xai co-KOTicr^r; 
eth I TO rpirov Tov rjXiov Kai > 1934 | TpiTOv] + /-ttpocr (thrice in this 
verse) Pr fl gig Vg bo sa eth | /cat to rpirov rrja- a-eXTjvqcr >• fl I ira 
(TKOTKrOr} TO rpirov airrcDv] + Kai icrKorKxO'qa-av s^ : /cat eaKoriadrj 
( — drjcrav S^) to rpirov avrwv 172. 250. 2018 s^ arm^* 3. 4. o . ^^j^ ea-Ko- 
Ti<r6r] arm^ : tva o-KOTtcr^wo-t bo : ut minus lucerent Pr : tva o-kot. t. 
rpiTov avro)v /cat > eth | tj rjfxfpa . , . vu^] text corrupt : bo alone (/cat 
TO rp. avrotv fir] cftavr) rjfiipaa- Kai o/iotwo" vvkto(t) either preserves 
or recovers original sense. Pr fl and eth attempt to recover it. 
See below. Evidence as follows, t} rjfiepa /xi] <f)avr] to rpirov 
(reraprov A) avrrjcr AX 025. 35. 2037. 2038. 2067 al™" Or^ : /cat 
TO TpiTOv avr-qcT fir/ tftavr) r]{^04.6. 522) rjfiepa 046. 175- 325. 337- 
456. 468. 617. 620. 866. 1934 alP"* ; (avrotv for avrrja- 18. 69. 
141. 385. 429. 522. 632. 919. 1849. 1955. 2004. 2015. 2024 : 
avToio- for avrrjcr 386 : avTrjcr > 920. 2040 : to rpirov avrrjcr 
>-202o) : et dies eandem partem amitteret Pr fl : et dies non 
luceat terciam partem gig : et diei non luceret pars tertia vg : 
Kai T) rjfJLipa ovk etftaive to rpirov avrrjcr s^ : /cat r) rj/xepa 
ovK f(f>avr] Kai ro rpirov arm^ : "and the third part of them had 
not light and day " arm^ : firj (ftaivtaaiv Kai ro rpirov rj/itpacr Kai 
vvKToa eth I rj vv$] nocte vg^- ' : noctis vg*^ bo eth | . 



Chapter IX. 

<irpS- I. Kai 6 t Trc/ATTTOS f ayyeXos icrdXiricrev' 

Tos > Kat ctSov dcrripa Ik tov ovpavov TreirrwKora eh rrjv yrjv, 

Kai iB66r] airw r] /cXct? tot) <^peaTos T^? d^vcraov' 

1. Kai . . . €CTo\7rior6i' > 1 849 I Kttt €tSov >• eth I acrrtpa . . . 
TreTTTco/coTa] N*^ : acrrepacr . . . TrcTrTw/coTao- X* | acrnpa t/c tou 
ovpavov TTCTTTto/coTa] acrrepa ttctttwk. €k tov ovp. 920. 2040 arm* : 
€K TOV ovp. acTT. TTCTTT. gig | CIO" T»;v yT^v] cTTt Tr}(r yrjcT 498. 2020 s^ 
bo sa : Trpoo- rrjv yrjv 385 | cSo^t;] cSwKav bo | 77 cXcto"] Tao" KXeihacr 
bo eth j TOV (jipeaToo-] Ttov ^pcaTwv s^ | rrjcr afivcraov ^gig |. 



IX. 2-4] AnOKAAY*I2 IfiANNOY 289 

2. Koi ^voL^fv TO (fipeap t^s dftvcrtrov, 
Kol av€/3ri Karri OS (k tov (ppiaro^ 
w? KaTTi/os Kafiivov fjL(yd\r]<;, 

Koi i(TKOTU)$r] 6 ^Xios KOI 6 arjp Ik tow Kawov tov t^piaTO%. 

3. KoX Ik tov Ka-rrvov iirj\6ov aKpiScs tts t^v y^i/, 

Ktti iSodr] avrats cfovcrta ws Ixovo'H' iiovcriav 01 (TKopTrioi Trj% 

4. Kttt ippeOrj aurats iva /x,^ dSiKT^froucriv tov ^oprov t^s y^s 
ouSc ttSv )^\(i)pbv ov8e irav SevSpov, el fXYj tovs dr^pwTrous 
oiTives ouK €;!^ou(Ttv Trjv o'<f)payi8a tov deov iirl twv fxcTutTruv. 

2. Kai r]i'Oi|€i' TO (t>peap ttjo- aPuaaou A 025. i. 35. 104. 172. 
241. 250. 620. 632. 866. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 

2037. 2041. 2067 alP Or^ Tyc Pr gig fl vg s^ arm^- ■* : >So46. 21 
( — 35. 620. 632. 866. 2020). 2038 al°'" vg*'- ** s^ arm2-3- « bo eth | 
Kai ave/ir]] de quo ascend it Pr | Kanvocr €k tov <f>pi.aToa- too- > I. 
172. 325. 456. 2018. 2021 I €k] X" : €7ri X* I Tov ^pcaroo-] twv 
t^piaTUiv s^ I cucr /caTri'oo"] wo" > A : uxr €/c Pr fl | Kairvoir] N*^ : 
Kafxivocr S* | p-eyaXria- Ax 025. I. 35. 205. 2015, 2036. 2037. 

2038. 2067 al™" Tyc Pr vg fl arm^- 2- 3. « ^q eth : Kaiojxevqa- 046. 
21 ( — 35. 205. 2020). 250 al™" Or' S^ : /AcyaXT/o- Kato/ievT/o- 141. 
432. 452. 2019. 2020 {fxeyaXov). 2021 gig s^ arm* | xai^] oa- Pr 
fl I €a-K0T(i}6r) A 61. 69. 181. 2038 : eaKOTiaBrj X 025. 046. 21. 
250. 2037. 2067 alP^ Or^ : tenebris obscuravit Pr fl | 077^] ao-xT^p 
205 I €K TOV Katrvov TOV <jipeaToa- Kai > X* (but not X') Pr fl 
arm'* ^- * | tou <^peaToo-] twv (^peaxwv s^ : t7;o- Kafxirov arm^ |. 

3. KaTTKOu] + Tou (ftpeaTorr Tyc vg^- ^ : <f)peaT0(r arm^- « | cto"] 
cTTi arm bo | avTato- A 025. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or^ : 

auTOio- X 046. 104 I efoiKTia] + Kai ra Kevrpa at'rwv arm^ | 
(DO- ix^vcrtv c^oDo-iav] similis eam quae habent fl : rjv €;(oi;o-ii' s^ : 
(o(r K€VTpa (TKopTTiov arm'' 2" " : ii^a ye^oji/rat wo" eth | tt^o" y^O"] pr ctti 
s2 arm^ bo eth : >arm'- -• « |. 

4. cppeOrj Ax 025.21 (-35*). 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or*: 
epprjdrj 046. 172. 250. 2018. 2024 : epeOr] 35* | aurato- A 025. 
21(— 18. 919. 2004). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or'' : avToio- X 
046. 18. 61. 69. 172. 919. 2004. 2039 I ahiKyjaovcTLV A 20ig : 

aSiKT/crtoo-iv X 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP' Or® Tyc 
Pr gig fl vg I ovSc Trav )(\uipov\ >X* (s*^ wrote yXm above 
Sei'Spov) Tyc arm : /xt/Sc Trai/ ;;^Awpov 2020 : Kai irav yXuypov 
S^ I y(\uipov . . . Sci'Spov] ~ bo I Trav Stj/Spov] SevSpa s' : Trav > arm' : 
iravTa SevSpa arm^*^'*"* [ ei /xr] tovo" av^pwTrovo-] + fxovova 1957. 
2023. 2041 alP : nisi tantum homines vg arm | a4>payi8a] 
o-^payiSav X 82. 866 | tov Oeov^ > I. 35. 181. 241. 2015. 2036. 
2037. 2067 : TOV Xpio-Tov arm' | /^leTWTrwv AX 025. i. 181. 2015. 
2036. 2037. 2038 gig vg'^-*^-^ : +OVTWV 046. 21. 250. 2067 alP' 
Pr vg. fl s arm'- 2- 4 eth |. 
VOL. II. — 19 



290 AnOKAAY^IS IfiANNOY [IX. 5-7. 

C. Kal eSo^r; avrais iva fir] aTroKTeivoxTLV avTOv^, 

dAX' u/a fSarravKrO-qcrovTai fjrji'as TrfVre.fa) 
6. /cat iv TOLS rjfilpai<; CKCtVais ^r}Tr](rov<Tiv ot avdpwtroi. TOi/ 
^ai'ttTOv 
(vprj<TovffiP KOi ov fir] '^evpoiO'tv^ avrov, 

Koi €TrL6vfirj(TOvaLV airodav^lv 
KOL <f)€vy€L o Odvaros air avTdiV. 
ofj-oioi 7. Ktti Ta ofiouofiaTa Ttuv dxptSwi' '^o/AOta^ iTTTrots r}Toifia(Tfi€i/ois 

CtS TToXiflOV, 

KoX iirl Ttts K€<f>aXas auTwv ws o"T€<^ai'oi ofioioi )(pv<7<S, 
Koi TO. 7rp6(ru>ira avTwv u)S irpo<ro)7ra avOpioiroiv. 

{a) Text adds gloss : *fai 6 ^a<xavi<x/j.6s avrCsv ws ^acravifffib^ (TKOpirlov Srav 
iralcrri EvOpojirov. 

6. Kai c8o0Tj] et dictum est Pr eth : dictum est fl | avraicr 
025. 046. 21 (-2004). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or^ : avToia- 
An I. 104. 181. 2004 I aiTOKT€LV<ji(TLv\ aSiKrjo-uiaiv g20. 2040 | ii'a^ 
>»s^ I ftaaavia-OrfCTovTat AX 025. i. 35. 181. 2019. 2020. 2038 : 
(SaoravLadoiu-L 046. 21 (-35. 202o). 250. 2037. 2067 alP' Or^ : 
cruciarentur Pr (gig) vg fl : cruciarent Tyc arm bo eth | avTMv 
wo- l^aa-avtaixoa- > 149 | Trai(rr] 21 ( - 149. 468*. 620. 866. 920. 
2020) Or^ Tyc gig fl vg s^ arm : rrecrr] AN 025. 046. 104. 149. 
172. 620. 866. 920. 2020. 2038 al'"" : necrr] ctt. s^ : irXrj^r] 60. 
432. 452. 506. 2021. 2022. 2023. 2041** : SttKr/ 367. 468* bo sa 
eth |. 

6. CI' Taitr TjfJtepaKT €K€ii'ai<r > Tyc : €v Trj r]fi€pa ix^Lvr] arm^ | 
^T/TTjo-ouo-iv] (rjTova-LV 60. 82. 93. 1 10. 175. 325. 452. 456. 468 
517. 1957. 2024. 2041 I ot avOpoiTTOt, > Pr I evpoicriv A 025. 35 
172. 181. 205. 209. 250. 424. 2015. 2018. 2023. 2036. 2037 
€vpr](Tov(rLv H 046. 21 (-35. 205. 325. 337. 456. 468. 620. 866 
1849). 104. iio. 201. 241. 242. 314. 385. 429. 498. 522. 1957 
2017. 2019. 2024. 2041. 2067 al'"" Or^ gig fl vg : evprjawaiv i. 61 
69. 82. 325. 337. 456. 468. 5T7. 620. 866. 1849 : fvpova-iv 2038 
inveniunt Pr | a-TroOai^uv] tov SavaTov 104 | ^euyci A 025. I. 35 
181. 2019. 2020. 2067 : 4^vyr] N : <f>€v^€Tai 046. 21 (-35. 2020) 
250. 2037. 2067 alP^ Or^ Pr gig fl vg s arm bo eth | o Oavarotr 

ttTT avTiiiv An 025. I. 35. 205. 2015 (>a7r). 2019. 2020. 2036. 
2037. 2067 al™" Pr gig fl vg s arm'* : a7r auTwr o davaTocr 046. 21 
(-35. 205. 2020). 250. 2038 al"'^ Or^ arml-2-3-o ; o Oavaroa- > 

104 l. 

7. Ttt o)xoi(«)fi.aTa] to ofiotwfxa gig s arm^* 2* ^- * bo | ofioia 025. 
046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP' Pr vg : ofioioi a (s) : o/xotw- 
fiara A : ofioiwfia Or" arm^- ^- °- : ofioiov arm^ : similes erant fl 
arm'* | avrov] + o/xotw/xa Or'* | oyitoiot xpi^'0"w AN 025. I. 35. 172. 
205. 250. 429. ™s 2015. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al'' 



IX. 8-11.] AnOKAAY^IS IQANNOY 29I 

8. Ktti «t;^av Tpi)(a<; <I)9 rpt^a? ywat/cwv, 
Kat 01 oSorres avT^v us Xcotrtov rjcrav, 

g. Kttl 'x"''' OwpaKas ws 6u)paKa^ (TiSrjpovs, 

Kol rj <f>o)vr] Twv TTTepvywv auraiv ws (fxavrj dp/xaTOiVf 

tTTTTtOV TToXAwV Tpf^^'''''*^'' ^t? TToAcylAOV. 

10. xai i)(ovaiv ovpas o/xotas aKopiTLOLs /cat /cevrpo, 
Kttt ev rais ovpals avrwv r) i^ovcria airiov 
dSiKiJcrat TOi'S avOpuiirov; fj.r]va<; ttcVtc. 

1 1 . I^*'^''''*' ^'''" o-VTwv /SaaiXta tov dyyeXov rrjs d^vcrcrov, 
ovofxa avTw 'E/Spaio-ri 'A/Sa8Sdjv.(rt) 

(a) Text adds gloss : Kai iv rrj 'EXKtjviktj 6vofxa ^x" ' AiroWvwv . 
Observe below how Pr fl vg add et Latine habet nomen Exterminans — a 
fact which shows how glosses arise. 

Or^ Tyc Pr gig fl vg s (arm) : " of colour of gold " bo : xpucroi 046. 
21 ( — 35- 205) aP™ I /cat ra TrpocrtoTra . . . avdpaiiruiv > arm^ |. 

8. e.i)(jxv Ax : (.ixov 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2067 alP^ Or^ : 
€xovT€cr 2038 Pr fl : >► arm'* 2- 3. a j Tptxcto-^] /cat at Tpt^fcr anrcov 
(> arm") arm^- 2. 3. a | ^ptxacr^ > 2020 fl : rpt^ecr arm^- 2. 3. a | 
yuvai/cwv] ywat/cocr arm^- 2- 3. a . yj: mulieres fl | 0)0-2] 4- oSoi'Tcor fl 
Vg*^ I A.eovrwv] Aeoi'Too- arm^- 2- » | rjcrav >-fl s^ arm |. 

9. Kai eixai' . . . aiStjpoua > 920. 2040 j OwpuKaa^ > 2020 : 
pectora Pr | wo- OoypaKaa > 18. 919. 1849. 2004 gig I (fidivrj^ 
>Pr fl arm2 | tTTTrwv] pr Kat 337. 468 : >325. 456. 620, 866 | 
TToXAwv >-bo I TpexovTijJv^ rjTOLfxaa- ixivuiv bo |. 

10. Ktti cxoucrif] Kat ttxav 2020. 2067 Tyc Pr Vg arm^* 2- 3. 4 . 
>fl I ovpaa oyu-otao-j ovpai o/xotai fl : o/xotwp,a arm"* | o/xoiacr 025. 
046. 21 (-35. 617). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or^ Tyc Pr gig 
vg s arm^- 2. 3 50 : opLOLaicr 617 : ojxololo- AX 69 : ofLotuxr 35 1 
o-KopTTtotcr] (TKopirnxi s^ arm^- 2. 3. a . a-KopiTHDV Vg : (TKopinijiv rja-av fl 
K€VTpa /cat ev AN 025. 046. 21 ( - 18. 205. 2020) al''™ Or** $2 arm^- * 
bo : KtvTpoLCT Kat £v Pr fl : Kivrpa rjv cv vg^- ^ : Kivrpa (8e) ev s^ : /cai 
>i. 18. 61. 104. 141. 172. 205. 209. 241. 250. 424. 2015. 2018. 
2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2039. 2067 Tyc gig vg eth : Kat 
€v > arm^ : Kcvrpov (Kat arm2) ev arm2- <* | tj e^ovcna auTojv AN 025. 
35. 172. 205. 209. 250. 424. 2018 alP gig vg bo : pr Kat i. 2019. 
2038. 2067 Or^ (Pr fl) vg*^ S^ : c|ouo-tav e^ovo-tv 046. 21 ( ~ 18. 35. 
205). 69. no. 20I. 242. 314. 385. 429. 498. 522. 1955. 1957. 
2015. 2016. 2017. 2023. 2024. 2037 al™** s2 (pr Kat 241. 2036) : 
(Kat) e^ouo-tav ct^ov arm^* ("^ : c^ouo-tav e^ouo-at 18. 61. 2039 : > 104 
eth I aStKT/o-at An 025. I. 35. "J 72. 175. 205. 242. 250. 314. 617. 
1934. 2015. 2017. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al^' Or^ : pr 
TOV 046. 21 ( - 35. 175. 205. 617. 1934) al"" I Trevre] sex Pr [. 

11. exoufftv An 205. 314 : pr Kat 025. i. 250. 2037. 2038 al 
Or^ gig s : Kat et^ov 2067 Pr fl vg arm*- <• : e^ovo-at 046. 21 ( - 205) 



292 AnOKAAY4'l2 ID ANNOY [IX. 12. 

12. 'H oval 7] fita aTr^A^ev* i8ov epxerai Irt 8vo oval fiera Taura. 

j^]mu 'pyc I fjj. avT<i)V (Saa-iXea A 025. (025* adds in mg. but 
writes avrov). i. 35. 61. 69. 205. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067. 
Tyc Pr gig vg s^ : ctt avrwv /3acriAei(r 2019 : eauTOJv tov /SacriXca X 
arm* : /SacriAea eir avriav 046. 21 ( - 35. 205). 250 al™" Or* s^ arm* 
: /SttoriAca £7r arrov 18. 1 7 2. 452 (ctt awroucr 104 : vtt avrwv 336) : 
I ;8ao-tAco] + TOV apxovra A : > fl j tov ayycAov rrjar a^va-arov] rrja- 
a^vacTOV TOV ayycAov A | tov ayycAov A{< 025. I. 35. 69. 104. 
205. 632**. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al'"" Or* 
arm" bo: TOV > 046. 21 (-35. 205. 632**. 2020). 25031"^" | ovofta 
avTw] pr w N : 0) ovo/xa 94 Tyc Pr fl ( + est) vg : ovo/xa avTov 2067 
I afSaSSuiv An 025 aJP Tyc vg S^ : a^ySaaSSwv 046. 325. 429. 456. 
468. 517. 620. 632. 919. 1849. 1955. 2004 : aySySuaSwv 172. 250. 
920. 2018. 2040 : a(3aa88(DV 42. 82. 93. IIO. 337- 452. 506. 2020. 
2021. 2024 alP : a$j3a8wv I. 18. 35. 60. 91. 175. 181. 201. 314. 
386. 617. 1934. 2015. 2016. 2023. 2036, 2037. 2038. 2067 Or^ 
gig arm^ : a/3/8aS8a)v 2019. 2041 : a/3Aa88wv 61. 69 : armageddon 
Pr ; ababdon fl : albagos arm^- (-) : nabathdon arm* : magedon 
bo I Kai €v Tr; As 025. i. 35. 205. 314. 2019. 2038 alP gig s^ : 
€v Se Tt] 046. 21 (-35- 205. 325. 456. 468*. 620. 866. 920). 
250. 2037. 2067 alP™ Or^ s^ : cv rrj cAAt^vikt/ Be 325. 456. 468*. 
620. 866 : cv TT) Be rrj 920 : graece autem Tyc vg : graeca autem 
lingua Pr : graeca lingua fl : " who is called in " arm^- ^- ^ | 
cAAijvtKT/] eWrjvLBt X 205 : + prja-ei 2020. 2067 : avpiuKT) s^ : 
"Armenian" arm^-^ | ovop-a €;)(€i]'~X 2019 gig : ovo/xa ix<iiv 522 : 
" is called " arm^- 2- 3 ; > Pr vg arm*- " eth | aTroAAuwv] pr o 2038 
bo : aTToAuwv 522. 2023* : apolion Tyc : apollion Pr : perdens gig : 
apollyon fl arm^* * : " destruction " arm^- ^ : " destroyer " arm* 
: + latine perdens Tyc : + et latina lingua nomen habens exter- 
minans Pr fl (vg) : + " who is called destruction in Armenian " 
armi- 2. 3 |. 

12. •») ouai Tj fAia] ovat pna X* : ovai rj p.ia X'' : pr iSov arm [ 
aiT-qXdev] Trapr]\6iv 2015. 2036. 2037 arm^-^-^-a | iBov] pr /cat Tyc 
Pr fl vg'=- e- ^ : > arm^- ^- ^- » eth | epx^raL As* 21 ( - 632**. 2020). 
69. 104. no. 385. 429. 2016. 2023* al'"" Or* s^ arm^ bo : 
epxovrai S*' 025. 046. i. 172. 250. 632**. 2015. 2017. 2018. 2019. 
2020. 2036. 2037, 2038. 2067 vg s^ : secuntur Pr : venient Tyc | 
cTt] ai 432. 2019. 2037. 2038 : €Ti fcai at 241 : alii Pr : alia gig : >■ 
I. 104. 498. 2023. 2067 Tyc fl bo eth | Bvo] Bevrtpa 104 : secun- 
dum fl arm'-* bo | p.(Ta ravra. kul A 025. I. 35. 172. 205. 250. 
632**. 2015. 2020. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2067 al"" Or* gig vg s^ : 
also Pr eth but >/u.€Ta TavTu : /cat p.eTa ravra 046. 69 Tyc : /actu 
ravra icat (>Kai X 469 s' bo sa) are joined to ver. 13 by X 21 
(-35. 205. 632**. 2020). no. 241. 242. 385. 469. 2016. 2024. 
2039 al""" s' bo sa j. 



IX. 18-16.] AnOKAAY*l2 IDANNOY 293 

13. Kat 6 t C'^TOs t ayyeAos e(ra/\7rt(r€v' <5ei'T€ 

poj> 
KOL T^KOvara <f}uivT]v fiiav Ik rdv KeparoiV tov Bvcna(TTrjpi.ov tow 
j(pV(rov TOV Ivwiriov tov Oeov, 

14. X^ovTa TO) t l/cTO) t AyyeAo), 6 i\wv rrjv traXTnyya <S(VTt- 
Avtrov TOV5 T€crarapa<; dyyc'Aovs tous ScSe/xcVous e^ri tw TroTa/xw P'*'> 

T(p fifydkw Y>v(f)pdTy. 

15. Kttl eXt'^T^o-av ot TcVo'apcs dyyeXoi 

01 rjTOLfiaarpiivoi cis t^v <5pai/ jcai yjpipav Kat fi^va Kat 

iviavTov, 
Tva airoKTeLvoycrLV to Tpirov twv av6p(jiTr(i)V. 

16. Kat 6 apiOfjios Tail' (rTpaTev/JLaTOiv tov iTTTrtKOi) 8is ftupiaScs 

/xuptaSwv. 

13. KOI >N (see above) | (f^wvrjv fiiav]~6g Or^ : (fxauTja- fiiaa- 
X'' 2067 : /Lttav >-K* 2020 arm^-2-^*» bo : ^iwvrjv payaX-qv 1 72. 250. 
424. 2018 : vocem, unum vg : unum Tyc Pr gig Cyp | p.ia.v €k 
Twv K€paTwv >-N* {p-iacr €k twv Keparoyv X'^) | Keparwv AX*' 20 1 5. 
2036 gig vg s^ bo sa eth : pr Tco-o-apwv 025. 046. 21. 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or* Tyc Pr (Cyp) s^ arm : ^cowv 
arm^' * | ^uo-iacrTT/ptou] + dei Pr : arcae Cyp | evuTrtov] + tou Opovov 
bo eth |. 

14. Xeyorra AX* Tyc Pr gig vg Cyp : XcyovTOO" 046. 21 ( — 35. 
205. 468. 2020) al™'* Or* : Xeyovo-av 025. i. 35. 104. 172, 205. 
468. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036 alP : Xcyouo-T^o- X° 
2067 : Xeywv 141 ( e/cT(o>A2038 | o€Xix>v^T(j}€)(ovTi.X']2. 2^0. ^2/^. 
2018 I Ttcrcrapao-] Teacrapea- X 172 | Toro- 8eSep.fi/ouo- . . . ayycXoi 
(ver. 15) >bo, but not sa eth | ctti] ev 93. 104. 432 | tw iroTa/iw> 
1849 I TO) p,€yaXtD] + 7roTap,a) 025 : > arm^- 2- *• * | evcfyparr)^ efftparrj 
046 : pr TO) 468 : eufraten Tyc Pr gig Cyp : Al Frat sa |. 

15. €Xu6T)<rai'] eXvrrrjOrjfTav A | ot ijToipao-p.ei'ot] ot >»X 18. 522. 
2021. 2039 : ot TrporjTotpaa-fiivoL 2015. 2036 | Kat r]p.€pav A 025. 
35, 205. 2037. 2038. 2067 al'"" Tyc Pr gig vg Cyp : Kat eta- 
TTjv -qpLipav 046. 21 ( — 35. 205. 2020). 250 al™" Or^ S eth : Kat T-qv 
rj/xepav 1957. 2015. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2041 bo sa : >-X I 1 iva] 
+ fi7/X I TptTov] + jittpoo- 432. 2015. 2036. 2037 Pr Cyp gig vg bo 
sa eth |. 

16. TOU tinriKoo AX 025. 046. I. 35. 61. 69. 104. 205. 2015. 
2019. 2019. 2020. 2023."'° 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067. alP Or* : tov 
iTTTTOv 21 (-35. 205. 386. 2020). 42. 82. no. 336. 38c;. 1957. 

2018. 2023* al""' : TWV LTTTTOiV 386 | SlO" pVpiaScO" . . . aplOfJiOV > 

arm^ | 8to- p-vpiaSea- pvptaStov A 025. I*. 205. 2016. 2019. 2038 
Or* (Cyp) : Svo pvpiaSwi' iJivpLaSa(r X : pvpiaSeo" pvptaSwv 046. 21 
( — 205). 250. 2037. 2067 alP"* : myriadis myriadum Tyc : octo- 
ginta mUia Pr : vicies milies dena milia gig vg j avTO)v] + ut 



294 AnOKAAY'^12 IQANNOY [IX. 17-19. 

17. T]KOV(Ta Tov apiOfxov avrlhv. koI outo)S €l8ov tovs ittttov^ Iv 

Trj bpd(TU (a) 
Kol TOV? KaOr)fjiivovi ctt' f auTuii/ f c^ovras OwpaKa^ wpCvovs 

KOL vaKLvdivov; koX ^ciojScis, 
KOI ai K«(^aXai twv iTTTrtov ws Ki(paXal A-coi/tcov, 

Kttl €K TWV CrTOfxdTWV ttUTtOJ/ (.KTTOpiViTaL TTVp KOI KaTTVO^ KOI 

Otlov. 

18. ttTTo Twi/ Tpimv irXrjywv rovTutv d7reKTav6r](Tav to rpirov t'ov 

avOpwirwv, 

Ik TOU TTUpOS Kttl TOU KaTTVOU Kttt TOV OuOV TOV iKITOpiVOpAvOV 
€K TWV O'TO/XttTWV aVToiv. 

19. 17 yap c^oucna twv ittttcov cv tw CToyxaTi avTwi/ co"Tiv (^) Kat 
<ai5rorj> cv f avTais f dSiKovaiv. 

(a) The text is corrupt and defective : iJKOvffa t. dpidfxbv avrQv may be an 
intrusion. After opdcrei we should restore Kal rovs Kadrifiivovs iw' avrovs, 
which has been lost through hmt. Next, for Kai r. KadTj/jiivovs iir tauTcDft 
^Xovrai above read Kal oi KaO'OfJ.evoi irr ai/rovs e'xocres. 

(d) Text adds an interpolation here : Kal iv rah ovpats avrCiv, at yap ovpal 
aiiTwv o/j-oiai otpecnv, ^x°*"^'^'- K€<f>a\ds, See vol. i. p. 253 sq. 

occiderent tertiam partem hominum Pr | rjKovcra . . . avTOJv > 
eth. After fj.vpi.a8wv two lines appear to have been lost. 

17. Kai ouTwo- . . . opacrci >s^ | ovroicr >2020 Tyc Pr 
arm^"^'^*"^ | ittttouo"] ittttikovo" 046. 69 Or^ I €7r] e-n-avto H | €X0VTa<r^ 
■7reptPe^X.r)fX€vova bo | vaKiv6ivova- Kat ^ttwScKr] Kap)(r)Sova ^etou s^ 
I vaKivOivovo'^ oiaKivOivov(r 325. 456 : laKti/^ti/ouo" 620. 866 : 
hyacinthinas Tyc : hyacintinas vg : iacintinas Cyp gig : spineas 
Pr I Kai $ei(ahu(T > eth | ^etwSeto-] ^uwSeio- K* : ^tcoSeto- X'^ : 
"god-like" arm* | twv a-TOfjiarwv] tov aTo/jiaToa- 35 Tyc Pr gig 
vg Cyp s^ arm^-2*^* | e/cTropevcTai] €$€iropiV€To 2020. 2067 | irvp 
, . . KaTTi/oor] — Tyc I KaiTVOa . . . ^€tov] •^ S^ |. 

18. aire] pr Kat s^- ^ arm bo : vtto i | twv Tpitov TrXrjyoiv TouTwr] 
Twv >C : Tpiwi' >K Or^ arm^- 2. 3. « . TrXrjyuiv > i. 2038 : twv Tptwc 
TOVTwv TrXrjywv 205 | aireKTavOrjrrav^ arreKTavOrj 468. 498. 2019. 2020 
gig Vg Cyp I TptTov] + /xcpocr gig vg bo sa eth | ck tov irvpoa- AxC 
025. I. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038 
Or* Vg Cyp : airo tov irvpoa- 046. 21 ( — 35. 205. 2020). 69. 1 04. 250. 
2067 alP™ : pr Kat s^ arm* | tov Karrvov AN 046. 21 ( - 35*. 866). 
69. 104. no. 250. 385. 2004. 2036. 2067 alP"" Or* vg Cyp bo sa 
eth : pr CK C 025. i. 35*. 314. 2016. 2037. 2038 aP gig s : pr airo 
866 : >armi | tov ^ctov AxC 046. 21 (-35*). 250. 2067 al?™ 
Or* vg bo sa eth : pr ck 025. 1. 35*. 314. 2016. 2036. 2037. 2038 
alP gig s I tov CKTropcvo/xcj/ov] €K7roptvo/A€vov] >I04 : Tmv eKTropevo- 

fieVWV 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2067 bo I CK TWV (TTOfXaTOiV^ 

CK TOV o-TOfxaToa- 205. 920. 1957. 2040 gig vg Cyp s^ arm^- ^- ^- * '. 

19. nriTwi'] TOTTiDv A j cf xto (TTOfiaTt auT«ov co'Tti' Kat €v Tatcr 



IX. 20-21.] AnOKAAY*l5 mANNOY 295 

20. /cat ol XoLTTol Twv dvOpiDTTdiV, ot ovK aTTCKTavOrjtrav iv rals 

irX.r]yai<; raurai?, 
'^ouSe^ fj.eTiv6-)](jav t/c tu)V tpyoiv Toii' )^€Lp(i)v avTUiv, o^^c v. oi> 

iva fir] TTpo(TKVvrj<Tov(nv to. Saifiovia kol to. eioojAa 
Toi )(pv(7a Koi TO. dpyvpa Kal to, ^^oAkci Kai ra Xi^tva Kai ra 

^vAiva, 

a OVT€ fiXilTttV Sviai'Tttt OVTt aKOVilV OVT€ irepiTTaTitv, 

21. Kai ov p.eTei'uijcrav €k twv <f)6v(t)v aiTwj/ oi're eK toiv cfta pfjLaKtwv 

awToJv 
0UT£ €/c T^s iropveias avTtov oiJtc ck twv KXefx/xaTwv avrCJv. 

ovpaia avTOJv] evraicr ovpaur Kai ev tw cxTOfxari avTwv t^i' 2020. 2037 r 
in ore et caudis eorum erat Pr | Kai tv raio- ovpaia- ain-wv > i. 

2019. 2038 I avTwv] Tcov tTTTTwv 385 I + ccTTtv s'^ | ai yap ovpai . . . 
aSiKovaiv > s^ I ofxoLai] > C* : ofioLOL 2023 : erant similes Pr 
armi-2. 3. 4 I o</)eo-tv AnC 025. I. 35. 61. 69. 1957. 2015, 2019. 

2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038*. 2041. 2067 alP Or^ Tyc Pr gig 
vg Cyp s^ arm^- ^- * bo : o<^et arm^ : otpewv 046. 21 (-35. 2020). 
250 al'"" : ojxOLai Tojv o(fi€(j}v 2038. ™S I e^ovcrai] €)^ova-acr K* : 
€)^ovaaLa- H^ 025. 2019 : €)^ovcriv C* 2038. 2067 | Kte^aXacr] + 
draconum Pr | aStKovo-tv] -qSLKovaav 2020 : tjBikovv Pr arm^- 3. *• « 
bo eth : aSiKrjaovcnv arm^ : + avdpoiirova- Trevre /iT/vacr bo eth |. 

20. oi->gig arm^- ■* bo | TrAr/yato-] + aurwv X | ovSe . , . 
;(etpaji' aurwv >9I9 | ouSe X 046. 6r. 69. 2020 : ovre A 025. I. 
35. 205. 429**. 632**. 2019. 2037. 2038 alP Pr gig vg Cyp bo : 
ouC21(-35. 205. 632**. 919). 104. no. 172. 241. 242. 250. 
314. 385. 429*. 1955. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2017. 2018. 2023. 2024. 
2036. 2067 al Or^ I TOJV epyojv] rov epyov S^ | 7rpo(rKVvr](Tov<XLv AxC 
104*. 452. 2019 : Trpo(TKVvy](TO)a-Lv 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 
2067 alP^ Or^ : adorarent Pr vg*^- **• ^- ^- : adorent gig vg'-s Cyp | 
ra Sai/iovia koi] tw Saip-ovt. -q 2020 : > ami^ | €iSwAa] + id est 
simulacra Cyp : + avroiv arm^- 2- 3. a j i^puo-aj )(pv(rata N : ^pvaia 
Or^ I Kat Ttt x^-^x"^ (xaAKca X) AxC 025. 046. 35. 468**. 2020. 
Or* Pr gig vg Cyp. s arm bo eth : >21 (- 35. 205. 468**. 2020). 
42. 82. 104. no. 20X. 218. 241. 242. 314. 336. 385. 429. 498. 
522. 1955. 2016. 2019. 2024. 2039 ^^^ I ^'^"'ci . . . ^vAti'a]~K 
743. 1075 S^ bo eth I Swavrai AnC 025. 046*. 18. 35. 104. 149*. 
205. 241. 250. 468**. 632. 2004. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 
2024. 2036. 2037. 2067 Or^ : SvvaraL 046**. 21 (-i8. 35. 149*. 
205. 468**. 632. 2004. 2020). 2038 aP' : > s^ I uKovcLv . . . 
TTt/oiTraTtiv] ^-arm^ | ovre aKovetv > Cyp |. 

21. fiCTe^OTjo-af] + ck toutwi/ ovre 2020 | ^ovtuv] (ftwvoiv gig : 
(f><jivr](T arm^ | odtc €k tojv (f>app.aKUuv avruiv > Cyp arm^ | <f>apfjiaKiwv 
A 025. 046. 104. 2038 al** Or^ : (^app-aKinv XC 21 (-35. 205. 
468**. 632**. 2020). 250 al"'" : (jyapixuKenDV I 35. 205. 46S**. 

532**. 2Q20. 2037. 203S**, 2067 al : "sorcery" arm^- ^- " : 



296 AnOKAAY*a IQANNOY [X. 1-3. 



Chapter X. 

I. Kai cTSov aWov ayyeXov laxvpov KarajSaivovTa « rov 
ovpavov, Trepi/3€/3Xr)/x€vov vi<l>i\r]v, koL rj Tpis liri Tqv K€(f)aXr]v 
avTOv, KOI TO Trpoa-iDTTOv avTov <Ls 6 ^A.ios Kai ol ttoScs avTov a>9 
(TTvXoL TTupos, 2. KOI e^cov iv TTJ x^'-R'- c-^TOv )8ty3Aapi8tov rjV€<i)yp.iyov. 
Koi Wr]K€v rov ttoSo avrov tov Sc^iov ctti t^s ^aXacrcrjys, rov Sk 
(vwvvixov €7ri T^s y^?, 3« Koi (.Kpa^ev ^uivfj fieydky uxnrep \(wv 
/xvKarai. Kai ore CKpa^ev, ikdXrjcrav at CTTTa PpovToX ra? kavj!iiv 
<f>wvdi<;. 

''divination" arm* | Tropvciaor] irovrjpiacr Ak* : Tropvtaa- K'= 025. 
866 I ovTi €K Twv KkefXfxaTtjiV auT(DV > Pr S^ sa I /cAeyLi/xartov] 
factorum Cyp |. 

1. Kat ciSoi' . , . KaTa^aiforra] kui jxera ravra aXXoo- ayy. KarefSr] 
eth I aWov ayyfkov AxC 172. 205. 250. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2038. 
2067 Or* Tyc gig vg s arm^- 24. a . ^ jq^ 236. (620. 866 aXov) Pr 
: aWov > 025. 046. 21 ( — 205. 620. 866. 2020). i. 2037 al^"* ' 
Krxvpov >- S^ arm^- ^ | c/c] anro 337 | Kai rj Lpicr CTrt tt)v KetftaXrjv 
auTou] >arm^ : Kat tj ipLcr >arm* | r) (>K'^) tptcr A (-etcr) N*^ C 
046. 21 ( - 205. 2020). 250 alP'" Or* arm^- 2- » bo : r; 6pt$ N* : 7/ > 
025. I. 104. 205. 522. 2017. 2019. 2020. 2037*. 2067 alP : Lpiv 
2036. 2037** : iprjv 2038 : epiv 2015 | evrt ttjv K€(f>aX7)v AC 181 : 
CTTt T7/cr KCcjiaXrja- X 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al^^ Or* | 
TO TrpocTioTrov auToii] +7/v Vg | o t^Xioct] o >2020 I OTuXoi] (TTvXoa- 
205. 2020 Tyc vg ( — vg'=) s^ arm |. 

2. Kat >2020 I cxoiv AXC 025. 046. 21 ( — 35. 205. 468**. 
632**. 2020). 250 al'"" Or* : Karexi^v 2020 : ^x^v I. 104. 205. 
241. 468**. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2041. 2067 alP Pr gig vg arm : ex^t 35 | /8t/3Xa/3i8tov An* 
C** 025. I. 2067 alP Or* s : /Si;8Xt8aptoi/ N<^C* 35. 60. 61. 69. 104. 
205. 241. 432. 468**. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 : yStySXtov 046. 21 ( — 35. 205. 468**. 
632**. 2020). 250 al""" Pr gig : libellum vg | r/veuyyiMtvov {<C 
025. 104. 172. 205. 218. 250. 424. 2016. 2018. 2038. 2067 : r}v€uiy- 
fievoiv I : aveoyy/Mevov 046. 21 ( — 205). 2037 alP' Or* : >A bo | 
TOV Se^tov >C I TTja OaXacrarjo] Tqv daXacraav I. 2037. 2038 alP | 
To>/ Se tvuivv/Mov CTTt TTjcT yrjCT >S66 I TT^o" y»?o"] TTfv yr\v I. 201. 
386 1. 

3. waTTcp] pr Kat Tyc arm^- ^- » : wo- ore vg | /xvKarat] rugiens 
Pr bo I €Kpa^ej'2] +0JO- N* (del fi'^) : + fiiyaXy (fiwvr] arm" | at 
cTrra ySpoKraiJ X*^ : CTrra ^wiut N* : at >-l. 91. 94. 104. 866. 
2067 arm | Tacr tavrwv </)a)vao-] rato- iavTU)V (fiujvaia- N 104 gig 
S' arm^*" *•":>> Pr | raa eavrmv (fiUivaa . . . (ver. 4) ypa<f>eiv > 



X. 4-7.] AnOKAAY*I2 IQANNOY 297 

4. Kal ore iXaXTjcrav 01 iirra ^povrai, TjfitWov ypd(fieiv ' koi 
QKOvaa <f><jivr]v tK tov ovpavov Xeyowrav %(f)payicrov a iXdXrjaav at 
CTTTCi Ppovrai, koX fxi} avra ypai/'ps. 

5. KOI 6 ayycXos 6v ctSov ecrTtoTa «irl t^s 6aXd(r(Tr]% Koi iirl t^s 

^p£v T^v X'^P*"^ auTOV TTjv Sc^tav cts Toi/ ovpavov, 

6. Kai wfjiO(rev cv toJ ^wvti cis tovs atcivas twv alwvwv, 

OS cKTiacv Tov ovpavov koI to, €v avT<p, Kat t^v yiyv Kai ra cv 

airfj, 
Kal Tr/v OdXaaarav Kal ra cv CLvrrj, on )(p6vo<; ov/ccrt co-rai. 

7. dAA' cv Tals T7/A£pais t^s (fiwvrj^ tov f e^So/xov f dyycAov, orav <TplTov~, 
fiiXXy craXm^civ, kuI iT^Xiadrj to fJLV(rrrjpLov tov 6cov, ws cvT/yycAtcrev 

arm^' 2 | too- cavTwv c^wvao- . . (ver. 4) fipovrai} >-386. 620. 
866 |. 

4. OT ] ocra N 432. 2036. 2037 Pr gig | ^/jovTai^] + VOCes 
suas vg' I rjfjiiXXov AC 046. 61. 69. 82. 181. 201. 218. 386. 452. 
498. 920. 2020. 2024. 2038 Or* : c/xcAAov K 025. 20 (-386. 
920. 2020). I. 104. no. 250. 314. 385. 2015. 2037. 2067 aP' I 
Kat oT€ . , . ypa^ctv] "And I heard the things which the seven 
thunders said : I was about to write them also." bo | €k tov 
ovpai'ov] + TOV eftSo/xov S^ | o-^payicrov] nota tibi Pr | a] ocra N 94 : 
o s^ I cTTTtt >C gig arm^ | Kat^ >Tyc vg bo [ /jlt] avra AnC 025. 
046. 20 ( - 35). 250 alP'" Or« Tyc Pr gig vg s2 armi- 2- 3. 4 . ^vra 
> arm" : p-r] avro s^ : /xcTa TavTa i. 35. 60. 18 r. 432. 1957. 2023. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 I ypaxl/fjo-^ ypacf)rj(r 205 Or* : 
ypa<f)(ia- I. 35. 60. 432. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041 : ypa\p(.i(T 104. 522. 2015 : ypa\f/ov 2067 |. 

5. o ayycXoa] tov ayytXav Pr yg^-'^-i-S | co-TtoTa >429. 498. 
522. 2016*. 2020 gig j lypcv] pr o<r s^ I tj;v 8c|iav >>A i. 35. 
2019. 2038 vg s^ I CIO- TOV ovpavov] in caelo gig |. 

6. Kai wfJLOffCJ'] + o ayycAoo- Tyc | cv tw ^ojvti . . . cv avT-q^ 
>Tyc I cv TO) ^wvTt An'' 025. I. 35. 104. 175. 205. 314. 617. 

1957. 2015. 2016. 2017. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 ^i^ 

: per viventem Pr gig vg : cv >N* 046. 20 ( — 35. 175. 205. 617). 
250 alP'" Or^ I Twv aiwvwv] >i. 181. 241. 632**. 2038. 2067 : + 
a/x-qv 336. 620. 866. 2019 I Kai Ta cv avTw >-arm^ bo | Kai ttjv yrjv 
Ktti Ta cv avTT; >A I. l8l | Kai Ta cv avT?;^ >256 arm^ bo | cv 
avTTj^J cv avroto- 2015. 2036. 2037 | Kai ti^v ^aAao-crav Kai Ta cv avrrj 
N'C 025. 046. 20 ( - 205. 2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP"" Or* 
Vg s2 arm(^)- 2- 3 : >An* 141. 205. 429. 522. 2016. 2017. 2020. 
2023 Tyc Pr gig vg s^ arm^- " | cv avTi72] cv avToia- arm^ | ovkcti 

eCTTai] OVKCTt COTTl N* 141 : OVK CO-Tai CTl I. 2036. 2037 : CTl OVK 

eorai s' |. 

7. aX.\ >gig bo : ovk s^ | ti^o- (faavrja- >Tyc s^ arm2 | row 



298 AnOKAAY*I2 lOANNOY [X. 8-9. 

TOWS eavTOv SouXous tous Trpoc^T^ras. 8. Kai r) (fxavrj ^v ^Kovaa €k 
Tou ovpavov TraXiv J XaXovaav /1€T ifxov Kai Xeyoucrav J Yyraye X-a/Se 
TO fiiftXiov TO rjV€(ayfX€vov to iv X^'-P'- ''"^^ ayyeXov tow ecTTwros ctti 
T^s OaXdaa-rj^ koI iirl ttJs yi}s. 9. Kai diTn/A^a irpbs tou dyyeXov 
Xcytov aur<3 Sovvai fioi to fSifSXaptSLOv. Kai Acyci /tot AdjSe Koi 
KUTacjiaye avTO, koI inKpavit (Tov ttjv KoiXiav, dXK iv tw (TTO/xaTL 
(Tov £0"Tai yXwKU ws fxiXt. 

e^Sofiov ayycXow] tow ayycXov tow e/SBofiov H : tov >-C | fieXXrj^ 
fieXXei 18. 104. 172. 429. 522. 1849. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2018. 
2019. 2036 I KQi AnC 025. 046. 20 (-35**. 386. 468**). I. 
250. 2037. 2038 alP' Or* yg^-s s^-2 eth :>35**. 60. 201. 386. 
432. 468**. 1957. 2023. 2041. 2067 Pr gig vg*^-*^-^ bo arm : tunc 
vg** I cTcXeo-^T/ AsC 025. 20 (-35**. 205. 468*). 250. 2038 alP™ 
s: +yap ho : TeXeadr} i. 35**. 205. 468*. 1957. 2015. 2019. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2041. 2067 Or^ : TcXto-^ci 046. 104 : TeXea-drj- 
vai 35* : finietur Pr (gig vg arm) | wo-] o 60. 432. 1957. 2015. 
2023. 2036. 2037, 2038. 2041. 2067 S^ arm^-2-4. a : oo- 35 j eur;y- 
ycXtaev] ewT^yycXio-aTo 35. 60. 93. 181. 432. 506. 1957. 2015. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2041 Or^ I Towo- eawTow SowXowcr AnC 025. 35. 
205. 2020. 2038 : TOWO" SouXowoT cawrow Or* : towo" SowXouo" awrov 
046. 20 ( — 35. 205. 2020). 250 al™" s^ : towo- awTOw SowXouo- 69. 
2019 : TOio- cawTOU SowXoio- I. 2037. 2067 alP : Toio- awTOW SowXoto- 
2015. 2036 : Toto- SowXoto- awTow 498 gig arm^- 2- 4 ; per profetas 
servos sues Pr : per servos suos vg arm^- °- bo | towo- Trpoc^i^Tao-] 
pr Ktti K eth : toio- TrpocjiTjTaia- I. 498. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2067 |. 

8. Kat r\ ^^^)^>T^ r\v tjKOUffa] Kat rjKovaa (jiu>vrjv 104 Pr (gig) Vg** 
S^ arm* | XaXowo-av . . . Xeyowo-av AnC 025. 046. 61. 69. 104. 
1957. 2019 ( + fioi). 2038 (Pr) gig vg s^ arm* : XaXowo-a . . . 
Xcyowo-a 20. I. 250. 2037. 2067 al^"" Or* | Kat Xcyowo-av >Pr : 

+ /iot arm^ | vTraye] 4- Kat 91. 175. 242. 314. 617. 1934. 2016. 
2017 Pr vg** arm^- ^ | yStySXtov AC 69. 314 Pr gig vg : /3t/8Xapi- 
Stov N 025. I. 2038. 2067 alP Or* s : y8i/8XtSaptov 046. 20. 250. 
2037 aP"" I r;v£a)y/A€vov AXC 025. I. 61. 172. 250. 2018. 2019. 
2038. 2067 al : avewy/xevov 046. 20. 2037 al™" Or* : >s^ | cv x^pi] 
>C arm^ : er >3i4- 2016 : ck x'^^P^^ 2019 Pr gig vg | ^oXao-- 
criQcr . . . yrjcr] ~ S^ |. 

9. Kat ainf)\0a . . . Xa^c > S^ | airrjXda A 336. 498. 517. 620. 
866. 2024 Or* : aTnjXOov xC 025. 046. 20 ( - 620. 866). 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 alP' I Xiywv axrrui] >Tyc : awTto >Pr | Soui'at 
AXC 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 468**. 2020). 250 alP"" Or* Tyc Pr gig 
vg s2 arm'* : Soa 025. i. 35. 205. 468**. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 bo I /JtySXapiSiov A**C 025. 
I. 2038. 2067 alP Or' : ySt/JXapiov A* : fti^Xiov H aP (Pr gig vg) : 
jSiftXiSapLov 046. 20. 250. 2037 alP'" I Xa/3e koi /caTu^aye awroj 
XaySe awTO Kat Karacftaye N* : Xa(3e avTO Kat Karacfiayt avTO N*^ eth 



X. 10-XI. 1.] AnOKAAY*n lOANNOY 299 

10. Koi tXafiov TO )8t/8XaptStov €k t^s \(tp6^ tov ayyeXov kol 
Karecpayov avro, koi rjv iv t<3 (rTO/ytart /xov yXvKv to? /u,eAi' Kai ore 
€(f>ayov avTO, iiriKpdvdr] rj Koi\ia fiov. II. Kai Xeyovcriu /xoi Act are 
TraXtv Trpo<j>r]Ttv<TaL iirl Xaols xai ^dvecriv koi yXwccrats Kai 3a(ri\ev(riv 
iroAAots. 

arm" : accipe librum et devora ilium vg : Aa/Se avro o-ot bo | crov] 

(TOl S^ I TTJV KOlXiav] TT/l' KUpSlttV A Of" : + (TOV S^ I €1/ TJ; KOlXltt 

arm'* 2- 3. « | co-rat yXuxv] ~Pr : yXvKv >-s' |. 

10. Kai] -l-OT€ Pr [ /cat €\a(3ov . . . Kar^c^ayov avro >gig | 
/SifiXapt^Lov AC 025. r. 2038. 2067 alP Or* s : /^l^Xlov H 046. 20 
( - 35. 205). 250 al™'' (vg) : (StfiXtSapLov 35. 60. 69. no. 205. 432. 
1957. 2015. 2017. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2041 : libellum Pr | 
Kat -qv . . . e<f>ayov avro >-Pr arm' | yXvKv wa- fxeXi A 046. 2019 
arm' : wo- /AtXi yXvKv kC 025. 20. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or^ 
gig vg S arm* : yXvKV >arm^'* : wcr /leXi >eth | ore ecfyayov avro 
>25o. 424. 2018 arm^ | cirLKpavOrf] eyc/xia-Or) X Pr gig arm'- 2- * I 
KoiXia] /capSta Or* (but writes kolXm above) | /xou] +xiKptacr N° 
gig arm'-(^)- * |. 

11. Xcyouffti' AK 046. 20 (-35. 205. 468**. 632**. 2020). 
250 al™" Or* vg"*- *=• K sa : Xeyet 025. i. 35. 104. 205. 241. 468**. 
632**. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 
2067 alP Tyc Pr gig vg***- ^-^-^ s arm bo"^ eth | TraXtv irpo^rf- 
T£U(rat] -^ 2020 : TraXtv > arm^ | Xaoio- . . . c^vccrtj -^ s | CTrt 
Xaoio-] CTTt Xaov 6 1 7. 920. 2040 S^ : CTTt Xaovo- 1 72 : in populos 
Pr : populis gig vg | e^vco-tv AN 025. i. 35. 205. 241. 468*. 2016. 
2019. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP Or* gig vg bo : pr cTrt 046. 20 
( - 35. 205. 468*. 2020). 250 al""* S I «at yXojcrcrato- . . . TroXXoto" 
> arm' | yXwo-o-aia] pr €7rt arm^- ^- *• » |. 



Chapter XI. 

I. Kat iSoOrj fioi KaXa/AOS ojJioio<i pdfiSw Xeywv "Eyetpe koi 
fi€Tpr}(rov TOV vabv tov 6(ov koX to OvcriaaT^piov koI tov<; irpotr- 

1. Kat cSoOt] /jLoi] dedit mihi Pr : e.hu>Kav p.01 bo | KaXapLoo" 
ofioioa- paySSo)] Aaron virt^ae similis Tyc : harundinem auream 
similem virgae Pr bo (m sp') eth | o/xotoo- pa^Sto] wo- pa^Socr 2020 | 
Xcywv AX*^ 025. 20. I. 2038 alP" Tyc Pr gig vg : +/xot 743. 1075. 
2067 arm'- ^- •* bo eth : Xeyet N* : Kat (fxavrj Xeyovaa 2015. 2036. 
2037 : pr Kat 6tcrTr/KCt [eaTrjKeL N'"* *^ : KTTrjKei 046) o ayycXoo" 
a'^- ^ 046. 60. 61. 69. 104. 172. 250. 424. 432. 1957. 2or8. 2023. 
2041 Or* s'* ^* arm : pr Kat o ayycXoo- eurTrjKei 2019 | cyctpc AX 
025. 046. 175. 325. 456. 620. (866). 920. 1849. 2004. 2037* al 



300 AnOKAAYvi'12 IfiANNOY [XI. 2-4. 

KVVovvTa^ (V avTto). 2. KOI Trjv avXrjv rrjv t^wOcv tov vaov tKySaAc 
i$u)6(v Koi fir] awT^v /u,CTpi;o"T/s, ort IhoOtj Tois iOvecriv, kol t^i/ 7roA.11/ 
T^ dytav ■7raTi]<TOV(rLV firjva^ TfcrcrepaiKovTa Kal 8wo. 

3. Kal Suxrio Tol<s Svcrlv ixaprvcriv fiov, koi Trpo(f)ijT€v(Tovcnv rifitpa<; 
;(iAias SiaKOcria^ i^rjKOvra f 7repi/?€^X^/i,evovs f o-axKovs. 4. OuToi 
f.i(Tiv ai hvo cXatai koi ai 8vo Xii;)(vt'ai ai ei/WTrtov tov Kvpiov ttJs y*)? 

Or^ : eycipov 60. 94. 205. 2038 : eyetpai 20 ( - 175. 325. 456. 620. 
866. 920. 1849. 2004). r. 250. 2067 al | Kat^ > 104 Tyc bo [ 
fifTprjaov^ fieTpY](rai 104. 920. 2040 | tov 6eov > arm^- •^ | to 
^vo-iao-Tiypiov] + tov ^eov Tyc Pr : + avTov eth | €v avTw] illud gig 
arm* |. 

2. Ktti TT]*' aoXrjf . . . fieTpr^o'Tjtr >■ gig | tt/v avXrjv tt/v] K*^ : 
TYja- avXrjar rrja- H* : atrium autem (Tyc) vg : ara autem Pr | clw- 
6ev^ A 025. 046. 21. 2067 alP' Or® Tyc Pr vg s^ arm^-2-3. * bo : 
eaitiOev N i. 172. 181. 250. 2018. 2037. 2038 s^ | i^aov] K'= : Xaov 
S* I eK(3ake €$(o6€v Kai > Pr arm* | c/c^SaXc] a" : pr Kai N* : CK^aWe 
2037 I tiwOcv^ AK*' I. 35. 61. 69. 172. 181. 250. 424. 432. 506. 
1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 Or® s : 
ea-wOev 025 : eo-o) N* arm^" : c^w 046. 21 ( - 35). 2067 al^^ 
arm^*' ^ bo : foras Tyc vg : > arm^- » eth | /u-cTpr/o-T/o-] fxerprjo-ia- 
1 : /xcTprjareicr 104. 2036 | Tottr fOveaiv^ H'^ : pr Kat N* | rrfv ttoKiv 
rrjv ayiav] r] ttoXkt rj ayta arm^ bo | r-qv ayiav >• Pr | 7raT7;o-ovo-iv] 
fi€Tpr]<rov(ri.v A : + €v avTr; bo : " that they shall trample under 
foot" arm^ | TecrcrtpaKovTa AX : rea-crapaKovTa 025. 21 ( — 35) al^' 
Or® : fji 046. I. 35 I KaL Svo A 046 (/S'). 21 ( - 35. 205. 617. 919. 
2020). 429. 2067 alP s arm : xat > N 025. 69. 205. 250. 617. 
919. 2018. 2020. 2023. 2037 Or® Tyc Pr gig vg bo : yS' i. 35 
al°"' j. 

3. Kai Trpo<|)r]Tcuo-ouaii'] ut profetent Pr eth : Trpo^^-qTtvcrai 
S^ : Kai > bo I SiaKoo-tao- > 69 | €^r]KOVTa\ + TrevTC t<*'" "^ 69 
afUjl. 2. 3 I -jrepiPeftXrjfJievovo- AN* 025. 046. 35*, 91. 104. 242. 920. 
1934. 2015. 2036. 2041 : -fievoi a'^ C 21 (-35*. 920. 1934). i. 
250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or® Tyc Pr vg : amictis gig | o-okkovo-] 
saccis Tyc Pr gig vg^ |. 

4. ai Sue cXaiai icai > i* 2038 | ai^] N'^ : 01 N* : >205 s^-^O 
I cXaiat] avXatai A : aXaiai C | at 8vo^ AN*^ C 025. 046. 21 ( - 205. 
620. 866). 250. 2037. 2067 alP™ Or® arm : c Bvo 620 : 8vo N* 205. 
866 alP s'-2(-) ) ai cvwTTiov AC 025. 046. 21 ( - 35. 175. 205. 386. 
1934. 2040). I. 250. 2037. 2067 alP^ bo : 01 evcDTTiov 201. 386 : 
ai >« 35. 61. 69. 104. 172. 175. 205. 241. 242. 314. 424. 1934. 
2016. 2017. 2018. 2038. 2040 Or® : in conspectu Tyc vg : sub 
conspectu Pr : coram gig j tov Kvpiov nC 025. 21 ( - 35. 205). 250. 
2067 aP'" Or® Tyc Pr gig vg s arm^- * bo : tov > A 046 : tov deov 
I. 35. 205. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 alP arm" : "the lord 
God " arm^- ^ | rrja- yrjcr] pr iraar^fT s^ arm^' ' : super terram gig : 



XI. 6-6.] AnOKAAY*l2 IQ ANNOY 30I 

t e(7T(t)T£S f. 5. Koi €1 Tts auT0vs^«A.€t dSiKiJcTai, TTvp CK7rop«ueT<u 
€K Tov o-TO/xaros auTwi' fcai KartcrOia tous i)^Opov^ avTwi'.(a) 6. 
ouTOt exoucriv Tr;v c^ouo-tav »cA€io-at tov ovpavov, iva fir] veTO<; ^p^XO 
Tois r)fiepa<: rrjs irpo(f)y]Teia<; avrtor, Kai e^ovatav l^ouo-iv ctti twi' 
vSartov (TTp€<f>€iv avTo. eis aT/xa koL iraTa^ai rrjv yrjv iv trdar] TrXrjyy 
6o"ci/cis cav 6i\rj<T(Dcriv. 

(a) Text adds a gloss here : Kai et rts deXriffy avroiis ddiKrjcrai, ovtus dei 
avrdv airoKravdrivai. 

> bo I coTTWTco- AK*C 046. 21 (-35. 205. 337. 468. 617. 
632**. 866. 920. 2020. 2040). 250 al'"" Or^ s : co-Twrato- 866 : 

to-Two-ai k"^ 025. I. 35. 104. 205. 241. 337. 385. 468. 617. (620). 
632**. 920. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 

2040. 2067 alP : stantes Tyc vg : consistentia Pr |. 

5. Kai ei Ti<T auToucT SeXei aSiKi^crai] /cai ct ti dfXovcri avro 
Troi-qarova-L bo ? : " and they (he arm^- ^- ^) shall desire (desire 
arm*) to hurt them " arm | awovo- OeXei AC 025. 046. 21 
(-468*). 2037. 2067 al"^" Or* Tyc Pr vg s2 : ~ K 172. 250. 
468*. 2018 gig : OeXei (aSi/cT^o-at) avTovcr 69 s^ | ^eA.ei] deXr} 104. 
2038 : 6eXr](T€i. Pr arm^' 2- 3- » : voluerit gig vg | a8tK7;o-oi] + sive 
OCcidere Tyc | nvp CKTropeverat . . . aSiKYjcrai !>205 | eKVopeverai] 
iKTTopf.wTf.tai 61. 69 Or* arm^-2-3-a ; exeat Pr : exiet gig vg | Kai 

> bo I KaT£o-^ut] devorabit gig vg arm^- 2- 3. a . comburens Pr | 
ct Tier] N'^ : -q Tier X* C I : octtio- 2020 s^ arm [ 6e\r]cn} AH. : OeXrjcrei 
2020 Or* arm^-2-3-o ; 0{Xu C 025. 046. 21 (-2020). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP^ Pr s arm^ : voluerit gig vg ] deX-qa-rj avrova- AC 
025. 046. 21 ( - 468*'). 250. 2037 all' Or* gig vg : ^ i. 468*. 
2019. 2023. 2038. 2067 al™" Pr s^ : OeX-qaq (aBiKrjaai) avrova H 
(s^) I aSiK-qarai] aTroKTCivat 432. 2015. 20iy. 2022. 2036. 2037. 
2067 I ovTwcr] > A : ovto) 18. 205. 617. 632. 919. 920. 1849. 
1934. 2004. 2040 I avTov] pr /cat Pr : avrova 620. 866 s^ arm* | 
airoKTav6r]vai] aSiK-qOqiaL arm* |. 

6. ooTOi] prxai s^ : on bo eth | tjjv ($ovaiav AC 025 Or^ : rrjv 
>-N 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP^ I «|ovo-iai' KAcio-ai tov 
oupavov AkC 025. I. 35. 205. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al""" Tyc Pr gig (vg) s : + Kai after c^ovo-tav Or* : tov 
oupavov t^ovo-tav KXeiaaL 046. 21 ( — 35. 205. 2020). 250 al™" : 
e^ovo-tav tov oupavov KXnaai 69. 498. 2020 [ KA€to"at] fX€Tpr]aai 
arm* | dctoo- /8p€X^]~' ^- 2037. 2067 al^ : vctovo- (Spe^rj 498 : vcrova 
l^pi-iq 2020 : veroa /iptx^i- 429. 522. 2015. 2017. 2019. 2021 : 
KarajSaivq veroa s^ arm* : pluat Tyc Vg : imbrem pluat Pr : 
pluat pluvia gig : " they rain " arm^ : + ctti tt/v yrjv bo eth | raa 
77p.epacr] cv Tato- rj/xepaia I. 2037 Tyc Pr (vg) S^ arm* : pr Traaaxr 
bo I T?;o- Trpo<f»r}T€iaa ain-wv 025. 21 ( — 617. 920. 2040). 250. 2038. 
2067 al""" Or* Tyc Pr gig vg s^* 2 arm : rrja irpocji-qTiaa avrmv 
ANC 046 : auTOiv Ti;cr vpotprjTuaa I. 617. 920, 2037. 2040 al^' | 



302 AnOKAAY*I2 IfiANNOY [XI. 7-9. 

7. Kai orav TcXtcrwtrti' t^v fiaprvpiav avrwv, to Q-qpiov to 
avaj^aivov €/c t^s afivixcrov TrotTycrei /u.€t avTwf TroAe/ioi' Kai vtKrJcrct 
avTous Kttt ctTroKTevcT atirous. 8. Kai to TTToJ/xa awTtov ctti t^s 7r\aT€ias 
T^S TToAcws T'^; fjieyu.\r]<s, ^Tts KaXeiTai Tri'cu/AaTiKws SoSo^a Kai 
AiyvTTTOS, OTTOu Kat 6 Kvpios auTwv iaTavpu>6rj. 9. /cat ^AeTroucriv 
CK Toiv Xawv Kttt <j>vXwv Koi yXwcrawv Kai idiwv to irTfa/xa avTu>v 

fin Twv vSaTwj' CT/ae^etv auTa] crrpetfxtv ra vSara s^ | ctti Ttoi' vSotwv] 
omnium aquarum Pr | eicr ai/xa] in sanguine gig | kui] K" : >K* | 
ev Tracrr) irXrjyr] oaaKicr tav BeXrjfTiatTLV AnC 025. I. 35. 205. 2015. 

2019. 2020. 2023, 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP Or^ Pr gig vg 
s arm^- ^- *• " eth : tv Traa-q TrXr/yi; after deX-qa-uiaLv 046. 21 ( - 35. 
205. 617. 920. 2020. 2040). 250 al™*^ I cv Tracrr; TrXrjyr) AnC 025. 
21 (-617. 920. 2040). I. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2067 alP"" Or^ Pr s (arm^- ") : €v >046 aP vg (arm^-^) : ev iracrrj 
>gig : >-6i7. 920. 2040 I cav] av C 2020 | 6€\r](Twcnv\ d^Xrja-ov- 
aiv C : OfXincTLv 69. 498. 2019. 2038 : ^cAono-tv t8i |. 

7. Kat oTai' reXcawaii/ >6i7* (but not 617**). 920. 2040 Or* 
(through homoeotel.) arm^- ^ | tcAco-coo-u'] TtkiaovuL i. 2037. 2067 | 
auTwv] Tr^o" (auTwv Kat Tiyv eth) rrpo<f>rjT (laa {-av eth) auTcuv bo eth J 
to 6r]pLOv^ + TO Teraprov A ( to aia^atvov] N*^ : totc avafiaivov X* : 
TO avafiaivoiv A : quae descendit Tyc j a^vcro-ov] OaXaa-a-rjo- S^ 1 
/u.£T auTwv TToAc/Aov AxC 025. 046. 21 ( - 205). 250 al"^" Or^ Tyc 
Pr (gig vg) S : iroXcfiov iter avnav i. 205. 2019. 2037. 2038. 2067 
alP I viKri(T€L\ veLKfjcrrj C : vLKrja-r] 104 : vicit Tyc | Kai aTroKTCvei 
auTouo- > I. 172. 181. 498. 2019. 2021. 2038 I Kai >• bo | 
avroKTei/ci] occidit Tyc |. 

8. TO TrTW|jia AC 046. 21 ( — 35. 205. 2020) al™" Or^ Tyc arm^- * 
bo : Ta TTTw/AttTa N 025. i. 35. 172. 205. 250 1957. 2018. 2019. 

2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP Pr gig vg s arm*- 2- "• | 
€7ri Tfja- TrAaTciao-] ctti TOiv irXaTtioiv s^ : in plateis Tyc Vg arm* : 
in platea gig : in medio Pr : " in the midst of their street " 
arm^- ^•(^)- " : pr ecrTai H'^- "^ bo sa : pr cao-ei 432. 2015. 2022. 2036. 
2037 : pr proicitur Tyc : pr ponet Pr : pr jacebunt gig vg*^- ' arm* 
: pr posuit eth | tt^o- TrAaTciao- >eth | ttoAcwo- ttqct p.eyaXr](r^ tt/O" 
ficyaX-qa TroAecucr 205 : ej/ rr) ttoAci tt; fieyaXr] arm^* ^ : + pii/'ei 94 : + 
aracfia 2015. 2036. 2037 : + jacebunt vg^*'- "^ | "XoSofxa] + Kat 
cyyucr o irora/xoa N'' : Segor arm^" * : + koi Ba/?vAa)v arm* | xat 
AiyuTTToo"] >Pr : Kai Tofxoppa 2019 : + Kai Ba;8vAiov arm'* ^ : "of 
Khemi" bo | ottou koi] Kai > K*' i, 61. 69. 104. 172. 181. 250. 
424. 919. 2018. 2019. 2038. 2067. s^ bo eth I avTOiv] N*^ : > N* : 
■qfiwv I |. 

9. pXcTTouCTii'] /3Aci/fovo-iv Pr gig vg arm^- 2- 3- » bo eth | Xawv 
. . . </)dXwv] -^ N s^ bo I ^uXwv] pr Twv 046 I KOI c^i'wv] >• I Tyc 
arm^ : + "they shall look upon " bo | to TTTWfxa . . . rj/j-iav >Pr | 
TO TTTtDfxa AnC 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 2020. 2040). 250 alP"* Or* 



XL 10-11.] AnOKAAY^I'12 lOANNOY 303 

17/xe'pa? rpfis Ktti rjjXKTV, Ktti TO TrrMfiara avTwv ovk a(f)iov(TLV reO^vai 
CIS fivrifxa. 10. Kol ol KaroiKOvvTfs (ttI ttjs yrj'; \ai.pov(riv in auTots 
Koi fvffypaivovTai koI Swpa Tri flip over lv dAAryAoi?, on ovToi ol ovo 
Trpocf)rjTaL i/SacrdvKrav tov<; KaroLKovvTas ivL t^s -y^s. 

1 1. Kai /xfTO. ras rpfts rjixipa^ Kat yjfxurv irvivfia ^oj?}s ek toi) ^coS 
€io"^X^£v £V aurois, Kai ttxTrjaav iirl tovs Trdoas avrwv, Kol (f>6/3o^ 

Tyc arm^- -• ^- * : ra TTTw/Aara 025. i. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 
2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 gig vg s arm* 
bo I Ktti rjfjLLo-v AnC 025. 35. 429*. 432. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2040 
alP Or^ Tyc gig vg s arm* : Kai > 046. 21 (^ 35. 2040). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 aU'™ I Ta TTToi/xaTa] ra aiDfiaTa 2037 arm^ : to crw/ia 
69 : "their bones" arm'-'^-'^ | a(f)LovcrLv AxC 025. i. 181. 2015. 

2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 Tyc vg : a^T^croi^o-tf 046. 21 ( — 2040). 
250. 2067 alP^ gig s arm bo : a^caori 2040 : at^L-qcnv Or^ | p.vqixa 
(A) K* 025. 046. 21 ( - 205). I. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP™ Or^ 
Tyc gig arm^- 2- "^ bo : fivrjpAiov C 2019 : fivrjfjLara H"^ 205. 522 al^ 
Pr vg s arm^- * |. 

10. 01 KaToiKoui'Tco-] pr -Traprea- bo | €7rt Tfja yrja-^ (ttl T-qv yrjv 
172. 314 : €7rt >20I5. 2036 I )(aipov(nv^ xap-qaovrai 2020. 2067 
Pr gig vg s arm* bo | ctt avroicr] ev avroicr 2015. 2020. 2036 | 
ev(f>paivovTai AnC 025. i. 35*. 181. 205. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2040 Or^ arm^- 2- 3. a . epulantur Tyc : ev(f)pavdr]crovTai 046. 
21 (-35*. 205. 2040). 69. 104. 110. 250. 314. 2067 Pr gig vg s 
bo I Kai ev(f)paiv. >eth | Tre/xi/zovo-ii/ AN'^C I. 35. 205. 2037**. 2040 
al™" Or^ Pr gig vg s bo eth : 7rep.TrovaLv a 025. 2015. 2019. 2036. 
2037*. 2038 Tyc arm^- 3- * (sa ?) : Swcrovo-iv 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 
2040). 250. 2067 al™" I aXAiyXoicr] aAAT^Aouo" C 517 | ovrot >s^ | 
01 8vo 7r/3o<^r7Tai] ol irpof^-qrai ol 8vo H : irpocfyrjTaL > Pr | tov(T Karoi- 
Kovvracr ctti ttjct yrja] eos per plagas Tyc j. 

11. Taa Tpcio- AC 046. 21 ( - 35. 468 1849. 2020). 2037. 2067 
ajpi Or^ s^ : Tao->- K 025. i. 35. 69. 141. 250. 432. 468. 1849. 
1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2038. 2041 s^ arm^-3-**" 
bo : > arm^ | rffiepacr Kai r)jj.i(rv] rj/iepao- after r]fi.icrv 69. 2015. 

2020. 2036. 2037. 2067 : Kai > 69. 2020 : Kai 7;/xio-u >> arm^* ^ | 
rjixitrv] r]fjiL(rov AN* : to rjfiLav C | Cw'^o'] ^wi' s^ arm^- " : > bo 
I €K Tou 6eov] > 468*. 617. 632* : €k > arm^- 2- * bo | ck tov Oeov 
€ia"r]\6€v] (LcrrjXOev €k tou O^ov C | eL(rr]\6ev^ eio-eAeuo-CTai bo eth | 
€v avTOLcr A 94. 2015**. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2040 Or^ : £v >• C 
025. I. 35. 104. 181. 2020. 2038 : €L(r avTova- N 046. 21 (-35. 
2020. 2040). 250. 2067 al""" Tyc Pr gig vg arm bo sa eth : ctt 
auTOVO- 1957. 2023. 2041 : S^"2 = tv auTotcr or tio" auTOVO" | ecrrrjcrav^ 
aTfjaovrai 2020 bo eth | auTwv] + Kai irvivfxa ^oyrja- CTrecrcv ctt avTouo' 
S^ I €7r£7rtcr«v AC 025. 35. 325. 337. 456. 468. 620. 632*''^. 866. 
920. 2037. 2038 alP Or^ : cTriTrto-eiTai 2020 arm^' '^- ^* bo : cttco-cv 
N 046. 21 (-35. 325. 337. 456. 468. 620. 632**. 866. 920), 250. 



304 AnOKAAY*I2 Ifi ANNOY [XI. 12-14. 

(pibvrji /Jttyas iiriireaev ctti tov<; ^ewpowTas avTOvs. 1 2. Koi ^Kovaav ^cf>wv7]f 

fieyd\T]i fieydKrjv^ eK tov oipavov ^Xtyovcrav^ auTOts 'Avd/San wSf Kai ave- 
\(yo6ffiis (3r]<Tav cis tov ovpavov iv rrj V€(ji€\r}, koi iOtiLprjcrav avTov% ol i\$poi 

avT(i)V. 

13. Kat iv iKeivji rrj Stpq, iyevero (rcicr/Aos /icya?, koI to StKarov 
r^<s TToXcw? €Tr€(rev, kui dircKTavarjaav ev tw o-etor/xo) orofxara avOpit)- 
TTWi' ;^tXia8€S CTTTot, Kai ot XoiTTOt £/x0oy8oi eyci/ovTo Kal eScoKttv So^av 
Toi ^€(1) TOV ovpavov. 

14. 'H ouai 17 Scvrepa aTr^A^ei/" iBov rj ovaX rj rptrrj £p;^«rai Ta^u. 

2067 alP eth : cycvcTO S'' | touo- ^cwpowTao-] t<i)v ^cwpowTtov C 025. 

35* I- 

12. > Pr I TiKOoorai' AxC 025. 429** al^ vg s : rjKova-a 046. 

21 (-2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP™ Or* Tyc gig arm bo 
sa : aKOvaovraL 2020 | <j>wvr]v fieyaXrjv €k tov ovpavov^ de caelo 
VOCem magnam Tyc | <^<ovryv jx^yaX-qv . . . Xeyouo-av (A.€yowcra 
046**) A 046*. 21 (-35. 205. 2040). 250 alP" Or" : <j>u)vr](T 
fxeyaXrjcr . . . Xeyovcrrja- KC 025. I. 35. 60. 181. 205. 432. 1957. 
2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 I auTOio-] 
>• A 2015 Tyc gig : avroucr 2016* | avaf^art AkC 025. 325. 452. 
456. 506. 2019 Or^ : ava^r]T€ 046. 21 ( — 325. 456. 620. 866). 
250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP^ : ava/Seire 620. 866 : ascende Tyc : 
"rise ye up and come up" arm^-^" | ^Oewprjcrav] tdeiDpow 498. 
2020 s^ : "shall see" bo | avTovo-] "their going up" arm^'^ | 01 
€x0poL] pr Travrecr arm^* ^ |. 

13. Kai €v AxC 025. I. 35. 205. 250. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 
^|mu Qjfl Pj. gig yg g arm^-2-« bo eth : Kat> 046. 21 ( — 35. 205. 
2040) al™" Tyc arm^** | lapa AxC 025. i. 205. 2019. 2037. 2040 
alP Or* Tyc Pr vg s arm^-^-^-a bo eth : rjfiepa 046. 21 (-205. 
2040). 250. 2038. 2067 alP"" gig arm* | eyevtro] earai arm^ bo I 
Kttt to] (ootc to C ] ScKaTov] y 046 bo : StoStxaTov 175. 20 1 7 : + 
/jtcpoor bo eth I eireaev] eireaav s^ : " was swallowed up " arm^- 2- 3. o 
I ovo/AttTa avOpwTTiav xiAtaSeo" cTTTal numero LXX milia hominum 
Pr : pr Kai s^ | ovop-ara av^pcoTrtuvJ > arm^ : ovofiara aiOpoiiroi s^ : 
av$pwwoi arm | 01 Xoittoi] -I- avOpwTrwv arm* : " after that " arm^- ^- ^- * 
I efj.<}>o^ot cycvovTo] €V(f)o^oi eyev. C : €i/ (fyo^u) ey€v. N 69 Or* Pr 
(sunt missi) s^ : in timorem sunt missi vg : " fear ( + great arm^* *) 
was (shall be arm^) in all " arm^* 2. 3. a . «« were astounded " arm* ( 
cycvovTO Ktti] y€i/o/x€voi 2015. 2036. 2037 I Tou oupavou] >-Tyc S^ : 

4- at terrae Pr : tw tv tw ovpavw s^ : " heavenly " arm^- ^- ^- * |. 

14. tj ouai Tj Seurepa] r)^ > N'^ i. 172 : pr /cai 386 : pr iSov 
arm^' 2. *• a • jgpy ai.ouai at 8vo s^ I a7r>^X^€v] Trap-qXOcv N 2015. 2036. 
2037 : a.Trr}X6ov s^ | i8ov] pr Kai vg'' s^ arm* bo : > 104. 205. 209. 
218. 314. 2018 arm^ eth : Kai arm^-^-ieth | iSov 7; ovai rj rpiTrj 
cpxfTai AC 025. I. 35. 2019. 2020. 2038 aP Or^ Pr (vg) s (bo) : 
180V rj rpLTt] ovai epx^Tai 2015. 2036. 2037 : tSou ouai rj Tpirr] ep;(€Tai 



XI. 15-16.] AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY 305 

15. Kai 6 t €/38o/xos t ayycAo? iaaXina-ev' kol iyivovro ^wvaX <TplTos>^ 
fLtyaXai iv tcI) ovpai'w Xcyovres 

Eyc'i'CTo 17 ySacrtXeta tov Kotr/iov tov Kvplov TjfiSiV Ktu Tou 

XpiCTTOV avTov, 
KoX /3a<TiX.€vaeL els tov': aiwvas Twi/ alwvwv. 

1 6. Kai 01 ciKoo-i ri(T<jap(.<; irpicrfivTepoi ol ivwinov tov Oeov Kadrj- 
fi€Vot tTTL TOWS Opovovs avTwv CTTccTav eVt TO. TrpocrajTra aurwv Kat 
7rpo<r€Kwrj(Tav tw ^€(S Xcyovrcs 

2040 : 1; ovai rj rpirrj (Ta)(y) epx^rai 205 : iSov (p^iTai t} ovai r] rpiTrj 
N 2019 gig : rj ovat 77 rpiTi; i8ou ep^erai 046. 21 ( — 3c. 205. 2020. 
2040). 250. 2067 al™" I epxerai] veniet vg {a.rm^- ^•^- <^) : eXrjXvde 
s^ : tr. alter Ta;^i; 205 |. 

15. Kai] + 0T€ arm'-^-^** | o efSSop-oa ayyeXoa- €<Ta\irL<T€v\ ot 
67rTa ayytXot eaaXTricrav arm^ j o >► A | kul^ > arm^' 2- 4. a | fyjy. 
ovTo] X° : £y€i'€To X* arm^' 2. 3. o j ^<j,,ai ^cyaAai] (fxovrj fjicyaXr] arm^' ' 
eth : <^wvq arm" | €i' tw ovpavw] €k tov ovpavov arm^' ^ bo eth | Acyoi'- 
T£cr A 046. 18. 61. 69. 82. 93. 1 10. 314. 325. 336. 429. 432. 452. 456. 
506. 517. 522. 617. 620. 866. 919. 920. 1849. 1955- 2004. 2021. 
2039 Or^ : XeyovaaL nC 025. 21 ( - 18. 325. 456. 617. 620. 866. 
919. 920. 1849. 2004). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' I cyevfTO rj 
/SacriAcia] eytvovTO at /Saa-iXeiaL I. 104. 205. 2038 | 77 ^aaiXeia] pr 
•jracra arm^- 2- » | tov koct/xov] huius mundi gig vg : >• 2015. 2037 Pr 
arm^' * j tov Kvpiov t/^lhov] pr Kat, 1934 : tov Oeov rjfjioiv 2015. 2020. 
Pr : Kai tov $€0v rjfxtov S^ : tov Kvpiov tov 6eov rjfjLwv bo | Kai 
TOV XptcTov avTOv] l7;<jov XpicTTOv 205. 1934. 2015 (pr tov). 2036. 
2037 arm^- 2 : Kai>arm^ | ySao-iXevo-ci] fiaaiXevei 69. 172. 325. 
336. 456. 517. 620. 866. 2015. 2018. 2036. 2037* : regnavit gig 
S^ I Tovo- aitofaa] + Kai na tovct aiwvao- arm* : tov aiwva bo | twv 
aL(Dvwv] + a/xY)i' H 94. 141. 181. 2020 vg'^ arm^ boP' |. 

16. 01^ >> N* A bo I eiKoo^i T€a-(rap€(r AsC 025. 18. 175. 205. 
250. 386. 617. 920. 1849. 1934. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al'"" 
Or^ : kS' 046. 21 (-18. 175. 205. 386. 617. 920. 1849. 1934. 
2020). I. 104 alP : eiKocTL Kai Tecrcrapea 429 al^ | 01 (.vutiriov XC 
025. 21 (-35*. 205. 2040). 250. 2037. 2067 alP' Or* s arm^-2-4-« 
bo : qui in conspectu dei sedent Pr (gig) vg : oi> A 046. i. 35*. 
61. 69. 104. 181. 205. 209. 2038. 2040 Cyp arm^ | tov Beov AsC 
025. I. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 
2067 alP Pr gig fl vg s^ arm^- 2- *. o . pj. ^^^ Opovov 046. 21 ( - 35. 
205. 2040). 250 alP™ Or^ s2 arm-^ | KaOrj/xivoi A 025. i. 35. 104. 
632**. 1957. 2019. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP Pr gig vg Cyp (s) 
arm bo eth : pr 01 61. 69. 205 Or'' : KaO-qvTai X*" C 82. 2040 : 01 
KaOrjVTai X* 046. 21 ( — 35. 205. 632**. 2020. 2040). 250 al^™ | 
€7rt TOVO- ^poi'ovo-] CTTi Opovov arm^ I €7reo-ai' . . . tw diw > arm^ 
I £Tr€(rav . . . avTwi' >> arm* | avTtDv ]> bo | £7rco-av A(X)C 025. I. 
104. 1 10. 337. 429. 620. 866. 2016. 2023* 2067 aP Or^ : eireaov 

VOL. II. — 20 



306 AnOKAAY*a IfiANNOY [XI. 17-18. 

1 7. FivxapicTTov/xev (roi, Kvpic 6 ^tos 6 iravroKpaTOip, 

o wv Kai 6 -qv, 

oTi eiXr}(f>a<; t^i' Svya/iLV (rov Tr)v fKydXrjv 

KOI ifiacri\(V(Ta%. 
iSa. Kal TO. Wvi] wpyta-drjaav, 
b. Kox -qXOiv 7] opyrj o"ov, 

h. Kol <6 Kaip6s> SiacfiBitpai tovs 8ia<f)9€ipovTas Ttjv y^v, 
C. Kol b Kaip6<; Twv vtKpuiv Kpidrjvaiy 
g. Tovs fiiKpoi"; KOX Tovs /LteyaXous, 
d. KOL SovvaL Tov fiifrOov Tots SouXots (TOW, 
^. TOis 7rpocfir]Tai<; Kai toi? aytois 

f. Kttl TOIS ^ojioVfxivOlS TO OVOfJid (TOV. 

046. 21 ( - 337. 620. 866). 250. 2037. 2038. (2040) al'"'^ : pr Kai 

K 2040 I Ttt TrpOa-WTTo] TO TrpOO-tOTTOV fl bo I Kai^ > bo Sa I TO) ^€(1)] 

> gig : "the Lord God" arm^-^-* | XcyovTco-] tXeyov arm^ : /cai 
cXeyor arm^- « |. 

17. (Toi] o-€ 046 I Kvptc] K.vpio(T X 2038 I o ^€00'] + r;/xwi/ 2015. 

2036. 2037 gig vgs arm^ | o^] N*^ : > s* | wv . . . ■»?i']~gig eth | 
orjv^ + Kai o €pxofJi€i'0(r 051. 35. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 

2037. 2040. 2041 alP (bo) I oTi] pr Kat X*C : Kai arm'^ : oo- 
arm^- " | eiAr;c^acr] eL\r](fi€(r C | (Tov ttjv fxcyaXrjv^ arm^ bo |. 

18. upyiaOifjo-ai'] N'' : wpyia-Orj N* : opyicrOrjirav 149. 201. 2015. 
2017 alP I Kai^] OTI bo I o-ou] + CTT auTOVO- 2020 I Kat 8ta<^^eipat] Kai 
>• A arm^ : quique exterminandi sunt Pr : et conrumpantur fl : 
hiaf^Oepucr bo | Siacf>9€LpovTaa- AN 046. 21 ( - 35. 468**). 2037 alP' 
Or' arm bo eth : 8i.a(j)$€LpavTaar C 35. 60. 104. 172. 241. 242. 
250. 468**. 1957. 2018. 2023. 2041 Pr gig fl vg Cyp s : (jidei- 
povraa 025. I. 2038. 2067 | Kaipoo'] KXrjpoa C : +Tr;o' KpLo-fota- bo 
I Twv vcKpcov] Twv cOviov 6 1 7. 920. 2020 '. TovcT veKpova bo I 
Kpi^T^vai] > Pr : Kpiveia arm^ : Kpivai bo | touo- puKpova Kai tov(t 
fieyaXovtr AX*C Or® : toio- (pr Kat 2020 gig) fiLKpoia Kai toio' 
fieyaXoLO- N"- " 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Pr gig fl 
vg Cyp S^ arm : toio- p-iKpota fxera twv /teyaXcov S^. It is possible 
to explain the variation of tenses as due to the dislocation of 
lines A and g. Thus Ax*C preserve the ace. (rova- /xiKpovcr in 
apposition to the subject of KpiOrjvai) even after the transposition 
of the line after Kat toio- <f>o/3. <tov. Next comes the corrector's 
stage : the ace. is changed into a dat. to agree with toio- <^oyS. 
Possibly the original order was a, b, h, g, c, d, e,/. The rova- 
fjLiKpov<r ktX. would then qualify tovo- Siat^deipovraa- ktX. In any 
case the order in the MSS is wrong. | Sowai] + avToio- bo | Kat 
Toicr aytoio'> Pr gig | TOto" ayioia koi toio" (> X) ^o^ov/xcvoio-] 
Toi^fr ayiouo- Kat rover (fiof3ovfji(vov(T A (a correction ?) : tokt ayiour 
Kat>o5i : Kat > 35*. 205. 20T5. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 alP 

2j-ff|l. 2. o I ayiotO"] + o-ou 617. 920. 2020 |, 



XI. 19-XII. 1-2.] AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY 36^ 

19. KOI TjvoLyr] 6 vaos tov Oeov 6 iv tw oipavw, Kai w(f>6r} ^ 
Ki/3(DT05 T^s 8ia0rJKr]s avTOv iv Tw va(5 avTov, Kal iyivovro acrrpairaL 
Koi (fxDvai /cat PpovToi Kal crcicr^os Kai )^a\a^a fXiyaXrj. 

19. TH'OiyTi An (rjvvyr)) C 025. I. 35. 61. 69. 104. 172. 205. 
250. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 
alP Or^ eth : rjvoixOr) 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 2040) al™" | o ei/ tw AC 
61. 69. 172. 250. 2018. 2020. 2040 Or* gig fl arm bo eth : o>{< 
025. 046. 21 ( - 2020. 2040). 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Tyc vg s J 
oupavo)] + avw N* (del. H^) \ uytfiOrj^ eSodrj C | rrja- SiaOrjKrja- avrovj 
TOV dtov arm* | avrov^ AC 025. i. 35*. 172. 205. 250. 2015. 2018. 

2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 SiiP gig vg s arm^-^-^-* : tou Kvpiov 
21 (-18. 35*. 205. 386. 2040). 2067 aP' Or^ : Kvpiov 046. 18. 
104. 1957. 2039 : TOV Oeov X 201. 386 fl eth : > Tyc bo | ev tw vaw] 
>• arm^ : pr " which is " arm^- ^ eth | avrov^ > s^ bo | eyevovTo] H" : 
cyevcTO K* | xaL (fioyvaL kui (SpovTaL AnC 025. 046. 21 (—2020) 
Or* Pr arm(^- 2)- 3- "^ sa eth : ^tovai . . . (SpovTai'^Gg. 172. 250. 
498. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037 gig fl s (arm*) bo : Kai (ftoivai. 
> 314. 2016 Tyc : Kai /Jpovrai > vg | Kat (T(.t.a-p.O(T AnC 025. I. 
35*. 205. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2040. 2067 alP Or* Tyc 
Pr gig fl vg s arm^- *• " eth : Kai o aeiap-ocr 181 : Kai (reicr/Aoi 172. 
250. 424. 2018. 2037. 2038 arm^ bo sa : > 046. 21 (-35*. 205. 

2020. 2040) al™" arm^ | xat ;(aAa^a /Lt€yaXiy>- Tyc |. 



Chapter XII. 

I. Kai (TTQfxeiov fic'ya a)<f>6rf ev T<3 ovpavw, yvvr] Trepi/StfiXrjfjitvr) 
TOV ^Xiov, Ktti rj (TfXrivr] viroKaTii) tcuv ttoSwv auT^9, Kai ctti r^s 
K€<{)a\rj<; avT^s o-T£<^aj/o? aaTtpwv SwStKa. 2. Kai ev yacxTpX ^l^ovaa, ix^^vaa 

1. KUt] > Pr : 4- L^ov bo | ■mpi^iPXrjfj.f.vrj^ TripLftXeTrofievr] A 
I 7} areXrjyrj^ N*^ : ttjv aeXqyrjv N* : •>; > I. 175. 498 : +7]v 2020 | 
acrrcptoj/] aKav^wv s^ | SwSeKa AxC 025. 046. 21 ( — 35. 337) Or* : 
ScKa 8vo I. 181. 2037. 2067 : lyS' 35. 337. 2015. 2017 al^ : xxii. 

g'g I- 

2. €v yao^Tpi cxo"*"*] ^""^^ praegnans ventre Pr : m utero 
habebat fl : " she was with child " arm^- ^■^•<^ \ Kai Kpa^ti a 2040 
vgi^-K : Kai > A 025. I. 35. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 : Kat 
£Kpu^ev C Pr fl vg'-' : CKpa^cv 21 (-35*. 1849. 2040). i. 104. 
no. 172. 250. 2016. 2067 al"" Or^ vg** s^ : cKpa^cv 046. 1849 aP 
arm* : eKpaKcv 35 ? : Kai tKpa^ev gig arni^--- °- : " who cried out" 
arm^* : et damans vg* s^ : Kpa^ovo-a bo | wSivovo-a] pr Kai A s 
eth I KOI yQao-avi^o/ievT;] Kai > bo : et cruciabatur Pr fl : " and in 
many pains she was nigh " arm^ | tckciv] pr tov 468**. 2040 |. 



30^ ATTOKAAYvI/TS Ifi ANNOY [XII. 3-5. 

KaV Kpa^€i tiSi'vovtra kol ^aaavi^Ofiivr} T(Kelv. 3. koL bi(f>6rf a\Xo 
TTvppbs (Trjfifiov iv T(3 ovpavw, /cat 1801; SpaKoiv '^/xeyas Truppos', e^tov K((f>aXas 

M-eyat eTTToi kol Ktpara StKa, Kai ivl rots K€<;^a\as aurou (TTTa BiaSijfjLaTa. 

4. Koi rj ovpa. avTov cripeL to rpiTov toii/ d<rT€po)i/ tou ovpavov, Kai 

€/3aXfv avTovs eis 'n]v yrjv. koX o SpaKiov iCTTrjKCV cvcottiov t^s 

ywaiKos T^s fjLeX\ov<Tr)<i tc/cciv, iva orav t«J7 to tckvov auTi;; 

KaTat^ay?;. 

5. Kai £TfK€v uto;', apaev, os fteXAci Troifxaiveiv TravTa tol l^viy tv 

f>d/38(i} aLStjpa' KOL rjpTrdaOr] to tIkvov avrrj^ Trpos Tov ^eov /cat Trpos 

Tov dpovov avToC. 

3. |i€Yaor Trup(p)o<r A 025. 051. I. 35. 172. 205. 1957. 2015. 
2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041 alP Tyc vg s^ sa eth : 
~nC 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 2040). 250. 2067 al°^" Or^ Pr gig fl s2 
arm^* ^' ^- " (bo) | /xeyao-] + " exceedingly " arm^ : *' it is very 
great" bo | Trvppoo- As 025. 051. 21 (-18. 205. 337. 386. 617. 
919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2040). 2037. 2038. 2067 al™" Or^ : rufus 
Tyc Pr gig fl vg eth : Trvpocr C 046. i. 18. 205. 250. 337. 386. 617. 
919. 920. 1849. 2040 s : "fiery" arm^-^-s-a ; "of colour of 
fire " bo : > arm* : + ofjLOtoa- irvpi eth | ctti Tao- /cec^aAaa] ctti r-qa- 
K€cf>a\r](T 205 (arm^* ^) : ctti Tacr CTTTa /ce^oAacr arm* | airrov] auTwi' 

A 172 I CTTTO^ >I. 181. 2038 |. 

4. Tj oupa aoTou] >■ gig : avTou > i | crvpet] trahebat Tyc Pr 
fl vg I Ttov aarepoiv^ X*^ : +to rpirov N* ! tou ovpavou] > i. 2067 : 
Twv €v TO) ovpavw S^ I auToucr] + c/c tov ovpavov arni^' * | ucr rrjv yrjv 
>aTm* I €crTr;/c€i'] €(rTrjK€L C s : eart} 61. 69 | Tr}& fX(XXov(rr)a 
T€K€tv] > bo eth : " who wished to bear " arm^- 2- ^ sa | t€k«v] 

TlKT€tV 051. 35.432. 1957. 2023. 2041 I TfKY]] + 7; yWT; arm^' 2- 3. a j 

to TeKvov avTT/o- >arm* I T€Kvov] TraiSiov 2020 : filium gig Vg bo : 
natum Pr fl | avr-qa > bo | Karaf^ayri] + avTo{v) arm^ : + avTo{y) 
o 8pa/cwv arm^" ^' °- \ tva . . . KaTa(j>ayri\ iva cav TtKrj to t€kvov o 
SpaKiav KaTa<f>ayrj avro bo : iva OTav tc/ct; /caTa«/>ay7/ to tc/cvov avrrjcr 
eth|. 

5. cTCKe^] + f] yvvrj Tyc arm^- 2. 3. a | y^^jy --> Tyc pj- arm" | 

apaev AC : apo-eva 025. 2038. 204O : appeva X 21 ( - 2040). I. 
250. 2037. 2067 al^' Or^ : apeva 046 | fieXXa Trot^atvetv] "shall 
shepherd " arm^- 2- 3 : recturus est Pr gig fl vg | TrarTa Ta 
cOvrj'] Ttt edvT) 205. bo : "his people" arm^- 2 | ev pa/SSw AxC 
046. 21 (-35*. 205. 2040). 250. alP' Or" Pr gig fl vg s 
(bo) : ev > 025. 051. i. 35*. 181. 205. 498. 2015. 2037. 
2038. 2040. 2067 I Kai2 > Pr I TjpTraa-dr] AC 025. 21 ( - 386. 
2040). I. 69. 104. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or* : r]pirax6r) 
046 : rjpTrayT} X 60. 241. 385. 386. 432 1957. 2016. 2023. 2040. 
2041 I Tt/ci'ov] TratStov 2020 | avrrja- > bo [ 7rpoo-2 > i. 205. 2019. 
2037. 2038 aP J. 



Xn. 6-8.] AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY 309 

6. Kol rj ywi] €cf>vyev tU rrjv eprjfiov, ottov t^et ckci tottov 
fjToiiJiaafitvov avo tov ^€Ov, tva €K€i 'rpifftovatv avTtjv T^/icpas ^iXc'as Tp^(pu(riv 
SiaKoaCa^ €$7}K0VTa. 

J. Kai iy€V€TO ttoAc/xos cv tw ovpavw, 

6 Mi;(a^X Ktti 01 dyycA.01 avTou tov TroXe/i^trai fitra tov 

SpClKOVTOS, 

Kai 6 SpaKOiv iiroXefirjrrev Kai oi ayyeXoi avTov, 8. Kat ovk 
ovSe TOTTOS evpi$7] t auTtiiv t €Ti €1/ TW ovpavw. 

6. tj^ >205 I OTTOV c^et . . . ttTTo TOV ^cov] " wHcrc was her 
place (a place for her arm^- «) prepared of God " arm ^•^•<^ : 
"which hath there a place prepared of God" arnr* : Kai (>bo) 
cto- TOV TOTTOV ov rjTOi/j.a(r€v avTr] o deoa bo sa eth | €X*'] ^'■X' 2020 fl 
vg"* s I £K€i^ Ax 025. 046. 21 ( - 2020). 250. 2067. alP'" Or' s* 
arm^* * : tr after tottov 205. 241. 632** gig : >C 051. i. 69. 2019. 
2020. 2037. 2038 alP Pr fl vg s^ arm^- ^- * | T]Toifjia(Tp.ivov\ pr 
airrr; arm^- « : +avTr; arm^ | aTro tov deov AkC 025. i. 35. 1957. 
2023. 2037*. 2038. 2040. 2041 : aTTo >205 : vtto tov ^cov 046. 21 
( — 35. 205. 468*. 620. 866. 2040). 250. 2037**. 2067 al™" Or* 

: VTTO $€ov 468*. 620. 866 I tKci^] tr after avTrjv 468 Pr fl : >o5i 
S^ I Tp€<^wcrtv A 025. I. 18. 205. 250. 617. 2020. 2037. 2040, 2067 
al™" Or^ : tKTpe^wo-iv 046. 21 ( - 18. 205. 617. 2020 2040) al™" 
: Tpc^ovo-iv nC 051. 2019. 2038 : CKTpc<^ovo-u' 429. 522 : "she may 
be fed" arm^*« | avT-qv] a'^ : avrov H* : > 69 arm^-" | xtXtao- 
SiaKOO-iao- €^KOvTa AX 025. 21 Or^ (arm^"- ") : -\- invTe N" 
(arm'- ^- ^*-'*) : xtXtao- SiaKoo-iao- i' 046 : a(T$' 2015 : aw^' 69 : x'X. 
Kai 8iaK. Kai c^k. s : mille ducentis quadraginta gig : " a thousand 
two hundred and ninety " bo |. 

7. TToXcfioor] + fxcyaa- gig bo | o] o tc A s^ | tov TroXffxrjo-ai AC 
025. 35. 432. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2040. 2041 alP : > Or® : tov 
>K 046. 21 (-35. 2040). T. 69. 104. no. 250. 314. 385. 429. 
2015. 2016. 2017. 2037. 2038. 2067 al'"" s^ : ut pugnarent Pr 
fl : pugnabant Tyc (gig vg) arm'- 2- ^- * : iroXefxawTto- s' arm* | 
fi€Ta] KaTa i. 20 1. 386 aP | Kat o SpaKwv . . . atrrov] Kai o SpaKwv 
Ktti 01 a-yycAoi airrov €TroX€fiy](rav 205 s^^^- ^ | Kai o SpaKwv] tov 
ScvTcpov s' |. 

8. Koi] sed fl arm^- » : >arm* | lo-xvorev A 21 ( - 35. 205. 337. 
1849 (2020). 2040). 250 al™" (bo) eth : laxva-av ( + Trpoo" avTov X) XC 
025. I. 35. 205. 337. 1849. 2015. 2019. (2020). 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2040. 2067 al'°" Or* Tyc Pr gig fl vg s (arm) : ktxvov 046. 69 : + 
TToXifiuiv fj.€T avTwv bo | ovSc AsC 046. 21 ( - 35. 205). 250. 
2067 al™" : ovT€ 025. I. 35. 205. 2019. 2037. 2038 alP Or* | 
Toiroo- evpeOrj avTiDv^ totc €vpe6r) K* : tottoct > 69 | (vpedrj 
avTiov AC 025. 046. I. 69. 2020. (2040) al"*" Or* gig vg : ~20i5. 
2036. 2037. 2067 Tyc (Pr) fl $2 : ivp^d-q avroio- X*^- *'• 35. 1849*. 



3IO AIIOKAAY^IS m ANNOY [XII. 9-11. 

9. Kttt i(3X.r]6r] 6 8poiK(i)v 6 /xe'yas, 6 oc^is 6 ap^aios, 
6 KaXov/xfvos Aia^oXos xai 6 SaTavas, 
6 TrXavwi' Trjv oiKOVfxivqv oXrjv — 
i^XrjOrf CIS rr}v y^v, 

Kttt ol ayyeXot avrov fier avrov ifiX-qOrja-av. 
10. Ktti r]KOV(Ta cf)(ovr]v fXiyaXrjv iv rw oipavw Xeyovcrav 
"ApTL iyev€To rj (TWTrjpta kol rj 8vva/xis 
Kai 7] ISaa-iXeia tow deov -qfiiav Kai rj i^ovala rov Xpio"Toi) 

avrov, 
OTi ifiXrjOr} 6 Karijywp Tmv aSeXtftuyv i^/xwv, 
6 Karrjyoplov aurous ivwiriov rov deov rjfiwv r}fiepa<; kol 

VVKTOS. 

1 1. Kai avTol iviKT/jaav avrov Sia to ai/xa rov apvLov, 
Kai Slo. rov Xoyov rrj^ fiaprvpia^ avruiv, 
Kai ovK rjyaTrrjaav rrjv ipv^-qv airoiv aXP' Oo-vdrov. 

2019 S^ arm : evpeOrj avru) 21 ( — 35. 1849*. 2020. 2040). 104. 
1 10. 250. 314. ( — ^385) al™" I roiroa- avruyv en cv tw ovpavw ivpedrj 
Pr I €Ti >N'^-'^ T04. 2015. 2036 s arm |. 

9. o ii.eya(T o o<j)ior] o fj-eyacr Offyio" X !• 2067 : o o(f>L(T o fxtyacr 
617. 920. 2040 Pr bo : /xeyacr ocf>ia- 2038 | o o<^tcr] pr /cat arm^ | 
o A.ia/3. Kai >eth I Kttt o ^aravaa- AC 025. I. 35*. 2038. 2040. 
2067 alP Or^ s : xat > K bo : o > 046. 21 ( - 35*. 2040). 250. 
2037 alP'" I o TrXavwv . . . yrjv >Tyc 
Pr (bo) eth : qui seducet fl | e^Xrjdr) 
eirea-ev arm* : " the lion fell " arm^- 2 

506. 2015. 2036. 2037 : /ACT avTov > 051. i. 35*. 2038 : f/SXrj- 
6-qcrav > Tyc arm^ | c^Ar/^j^o-av] tirtcrav arm^- * : €7reo-£v arm^ |. 

10. tjKOUffa] T]Kov(rav 2037. 2040 | (fxavrjv /xcyaAr/v . . . Xeyov- 
<rav] (f>(j)vr](T fxeyaXrja- . . . Xeyova-rja 2 06 7 | fteyaXrjv ^^arm* | ev 
Tw ovpavu)] €K rov ovpavov 205. 2040 Tyc Pr gig s^ arm^- *• " : after 
Xcyovcrav I. 2037 alP : > 452. 2021 | apTi > Pr : 180U S^ I Kttt 
t] /Saa-iXeia >-fl | Kai rj c^oncria rov XpifTTou avrov > Tyc S^ | 
Xpio-Tou] KvpiovC I efiXrjOr}^ Kare/SXijOr) i. 35. 2023. 2038. 2067 alP 
: exclusus est Tyc : " hath fallen " arm | Karrjywp A : Karrjyopoa- 
NC 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or^ : "the betrayer" 
arm* | twv aSiX(j>(i>v rj/xoiv > s^ I o Karr]yop<j)v] qui accusabat Pr 
vg s^ : "who was betraying" arm* ( avrovar A 025. i. 205. 2015. 
2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 : avroiv HC 046. 21 (-205). 250. 
alP' Or^ : > bo I ^cou] + Kai rov Kvpiov (Irjaov Xpcarov) arm^- (^^ | 
Tjfjiwv^ >i. 61. 69. 522. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2039. 2067 arm^*2-a 
bo eth |. 

11. Koi^] on bo : >arm^ [ airroi] ovroi N : >-Pr | €viK?;o"av] 
superatus est Pr | auTov] ab ipsis Pr : >s^ | Sia to aifxa] Sia rov 
aifiaroa 69. 2019 arm^" ^" ^' " : ev tcu aifxan s^ : 8ta to ovofjia 2015. 
2036. 2037 I Tou apnou] +rov Biov arm^" ^ | rov Aoyoi/] >C arm* : 



o TrA-avwi/] qui seducebat 
pr Kttt gig fl s^- (2^ : KOI 
fxir avrov ePXrjOr^a-av^ > 



XII. 12-14.] AnOKAAY*I2 in ANNOY 3II 

12. 8ia TovTO €{i(f)paiv€a6i 01 ovpavoX KaX 01 iv aurois crK>;i'oi}vTCS* 
oval Tr]v yrjv Kal rrjv 6dXa<T(rav, 

OTL KaT€/3y] 6 Sia^oXos irpos vftas, ex<iiv Ovfiov /ityav, 
etSws OTi oXiyov Kaipov ^X*'' 

13. Kat ore elSev 6 SpaKwv OTt i/SXrjOr] €is tyjv yrjv, tStw^ev t^v 
yvvatKa -^tis Itckcv tov dpcreva. 14. kqi c8o^r;o-av t^ -yui/atKi at 
Svo ■JTTepvye'i tov cictov tov fxeydXov, ij/a itiTijTaL cis t^i' €pr]fj.ov 
eis TOV TOTTOv avT^s, OTTOV Tpe<f>€Tai eKel Kaipov Kal Kaipovs kol 

TOV Aoyou arm^' 2. 3. a . ^q ai/i.a bo I Tj;o- fiaprvpcaa-] rrjv fiaprvpiav 
C : Twv ixapTvpLwv arm"* | avTwv] avTOv 172. 205. 241. 632. 2022 
arm | /cai^] oTt bo | ovk] ov^ A | rrjv </'vx>?>'] Tuo- ^v^^aa 1 7 2. 2 50. 
424. 2018 vg'^-'''^-'' arm* | avTwv] tauTwv K'' ] a^pi] p-^XP'- 4^8. 
620. 632*. 866 |. 

12. 8ia] pr Kttt 205 eth | ol oupavot A 051. I. 35. 241. 429**. 
632. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 aP 
Or^ arm^-" bo eth : ot >kC 025. 046. 21 (-35. 632. 2040). 
250 al™" s : o ovpavocr arm^" ^ : ovpavoa arm* | cv avroio- o-KT/i^ovvTecr 
A 025. 046. 21 ( — 920) Or* S : ev avroicr KaracrKr^vovvTia C : 
KaroiKowTco- «v auToio" K (Pr fl vg bo sa eth) : "all (>arm3 : 
*ye' arm*) who are dwelling ('the dwellers' arm^) in them 
('it' arm^-*-*)" arm : «v avroia- KaroiKowTecr 385. 429. 506. 522. 
920. 2016. 2037 (gig) I TJ/v yrjv Kat Trjv OaXacraav C 025. 35*. 
2015. 2036. 2038. 2040 : pr €icr K : pr toict KaToi/covo-t i. 
2037 : TTjv ayaTTj^v Kai ttjv daXacraav A : T-q y-q Kat ty] OaXaacr-q 046. 
21 ( — 35*. 2040). 250. 2067 alP"^ Or^ : vae terrae et mari gig fl vg s 
arm bo eth : vae vobis (tibi Tyc) terra et mare I'yc Pr | /caTc/Jiy] 
KaTa^aiv€i s^- (2) : '« is fallen " arm^- 2- s. » | ^^apoXoa-] " dragon " 
arm^- 2- 3*. 4 ; <« adversary " arm^"- * | u/aoct] avrovo- s^ «X*^''] P'^ ° 
I. 2037 arm^* | €\(jiv dvp.ov /xeyav] /x,€yai/>-N arm^ : /Acyav i)(iav 
6vp.ov 2067 : €xwv 6vp.ov p.eya 2020 : cum ira ingenti Pr |. 

13. o SpaKui' OTi cPXtjOt)] S* : oti e/SXrjdr] o SpaKwv X'^ | e^X-qdrj^ 
"fell" armi-2-3.a gth but both = c^Xr^^T? | tSiwfcv] eScuKtv K* : 
e^fStco^cv N*^ : eStwKcv gig | apa-eva HC 025. 35. 61. 69. 2040 Or* : 
apaevav A : appiva 21 (-35. 2040). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP^ 
apeva 046. 2015 : vtov s2 : "child" arm^ : "male" arm* : "male 
child " arm2- 3- » : tov viov (tov) appcva 506. 680 bo sa eth |. 

14. cSoGrjaai'] tSoOr] H^ 205 S^ arm I Ti] yvvaiKt] avrr; bo | at 
8vo TTTepvyto"] irrtpvyea- Svo 468* ] at Svo AC 025. 35*. 104. 181. 
517*. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2038. 2040. 2067 (s2) : >arm^-2-3 ; m^ 
K 046. 21 ( — 35*. 2040). 2037 al^^' Or^ s^ arm*- » bo eth | TTTcpuyeo-] 
+ (at) /xcyaXai bo | tov a€TOv] tou > X arm bo : pr too- Pr bo I TOV 

p.€yaXov >arm^ bo | ireTT^Tat] TrcTaTat 046*. I. 919. 2015. 2020. 
2036 : TTCo-T^Tai 386 : +17 yvv?; bo | eio" rrjv ep'qp.ov >> i. 181. 2037 | 
cio-2 >-Tyc arm^- 2- ^ j avrijcr >-bo eth | ottov Tpt<t>€Tai AxC 025. 
I. 35*. 201. 314. 386. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 al* 



312 AnOKAAY*U IfiANNOY [XII. 16-18. 

rjfiKTV Kaipov OLTTO TrpocrutTTOv Tov o<^ea)S. 15. Kai tfiaXfV 6 6(fiLS ck 
Tov (TTO/JLaTos auTou OTTLcroi T^s yuvaiKos vScup <Ls TTorafiov, iva avTtjv 
■7roTafio(ji6pr}TOV TTOir/crjj. 16. Koi i(3ot]6r]crev r) yrj ry yvvaiKL, koX 
yjvoi^iv 7} yrj to crro/xa avTrj<i koi KareTritf tov woTa/jLOv ov ifSaXcv 
6 BpaKiDV CK ToC (TTOfjLaro^ avTov. 17. KOL uipytadr) 6 SpaKiDV ctti 
TTJ yvvaiKi, Kal dvrjXdfV Trotrjaai iroXtfxov ficTO. t<1>v Xolttiov tov 
cnripfJiaTO<i avTrj<;, twv TTjpovvTtav ras evToXas tov dfov koX ixovTUiv 
Ti]v fiapTvpCav 'lr)(rov. 

18. Kal iaTaOrf ctti ttjv oififiov t^s BaXdatrqs. 

Tyc Pr gig fl vg s^ : pr tva Or^ : ottou rpci^T^rai 506. 517. 2017 : 
oTTOia Tpe4>r]TaL 046. 21 (-35*. 386. 2040). 250. 2067 al""" sH 
cKEt] ^Tyc Pr fl vg bo eth : before ottou gig | Kaipov kul KaipoucrJ 
Kaipovcr /cat Kaipov arm^ : Kaipov Kai Kaipov arm^ : Kaipov arm^ | 
Kaipov] > N* : Kai Kaipov K° | Kai Kaipouo"] Kai > 456 S^ | Kai 
T]fjiiarv Kaipov > C I rjfxiav^ K*^ : r]/jii(Tov X* |. 

15. e^aXcf] eXafSev A* : vTrepe/SaXev 104 | €k tou (TTOfiaToa 
avTou] tr. after tt/o" ywaiKocr i | ottictim t. yui'aiKOtr after iroTap-ov 
bo sa I rScop] >385. 429. 522 : "venom" arm^ | wo- Trora/iov] 
CIO- iroTafxov 1 8 : >arm* | iva . . . Troirjcrr] >bo | avTrjv Trora/xo- 
(ftoprjTov TTOirjar]^ Troirja-rj avTr/v TroTap.o<l>opr)Tov C | avTrjv AnC 
046. 21 ( - 35. 205). 250. 2037 alP™ Or^ Pr gig vg s : ravTrjv 025. 
I. 35. 104. 205. 2038. 2067 aP I TTOTa/JiOffioprjTOv TTOtr^o-T/] iroTafjio- 
(fioprjTov iroirjo-ei 104. 2019. 2038 : perderet Pr : faceret trahi a 
flumine vg : faceret ictu fiuminis trahi ad se gig |. 

16. Kai ePoTjOTjo-er . . . y"»'Q'K"' > t)0 | Kai^] sed Pr | T7;yuvaiKi 
• • ' V yV >337 I V yV^ > ^4^- 250. 424. 452. 2018. 2019. 2021 
Pr gig arm^- ^ | to o-Top,a] tou a-Top-aToa i8 | Kai KaTtTriev . . . 
(TTOfxaToa avTov > S^ (codd.) j ^^^3 ■--> Jjq j ^^y ■jroTap.ov ov] to rSwp o 
A arm^- "^ : tov iroTa/xov o 456 : tov iroTa/xov vBaroa- bo | €^aA.€v^ 
cve^aAev 046 Or* : avtAa/8«v 6 1. 69 (69 after yvvaiKi ver. 17 repeats 
Kai Tjvoiiev . . . aveXa/Sev) : " poured out " arm^- 2. 3. a | ^^ ^^^^ 
(jTOfxa TOO- ai^rou] " upon the woman " arm* : ottio-w tt^o- ywaiKoo- 
bo : >arm» j. 

17. xai wpyio-Or] . . . yufaiKi > arm^- * | topyio-^?;] opyiadrj 
046. 104. 2019. 2038 : iratus Pr | o SpaKwv > Pr | ctti > C Pr j 
woirja-ai ttoAc/xov] — X | fifTo] pr Kai 2040 | twv Xoittwv] tcov ctti- 
AoiTTwv N : T-qcr yvvaiKoa- Kai arm^ : > arm^- ^ | tov crTrep/x-aTocr] 
de semine Tyc Pr vg | aurr/o-] T-qa- yvvaiKoa bo | Tao- evToXao-] 
T17V cvtoXt^v Pr arm^ | Irjcrov An"C 025. 046*. 21. 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP Or* gig vg s arm^- "*• * bo : pr tou 046**. i. 104. 
1 10 : Tou 6eov X* : dtov 522 : Jesu Christ i Pr vg° arm^* ^ eth |. 

18. ver. i8>Prarm2 | eo-Ta^v; A^«C 61. 172. (205) al* Or* Tyc. 
gig vg^ "i- f- " s2 arm*- ^ eth : coTadrjv 025. 046. 31 ( - 205). 250, 
2037. 2038. 2067 alP' vg'^- 8 s* arm*- •* bo j. 



XIII. 1-8.] AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY 313 



Chapter XIII. 

1. Kal etSov ck t^s 6a\aL<T(xr}^ OrjpLOv avajBaivov, 
€X°^ Kcpara SeVa koi KC<f)aXa<; iirrd, (a) 

KOL eTTL TttS KetftaXas avrov ^ ovofiaTa' (3Xa.(r(f>r]fMia^, tvofM 

2. KoX TO drjpiov o cT8ov rjv ofioiov TrapSdXei, 
KOL OL TTode? avTOV a)s apKOV, 

Kal TO aTOfia avrov ws arofxa XcovTO^. 

Kal (.SioKfv avT<2 6 opoLKwv ry^v ovvafiiv avrov 
Kal rov 6p6vov avrov Kal e^ovaiav fiiydXrjv, 

3. Kal fxiav Ik rwv K€(f>a\C}v avrov ws i(T(j>ayfjL€vr]v €ts OdvaroVf 
Kol rf Tr\r]yr} rov Oavdrov avrov idepaTrevdrj. 

Kal iOavfidcrOr] oX-q fj yrj \ OTTLcro) rov drjpLov f, 

(a) MSS add a gloss to prepare the way for xvii. 12 : xal iirl rdv Kepdruv 
aiiTov 5^Ka Biadrj/jLara. See vol. ii. English transl., footnote in loc. 

1. Kai ciSoK CK rrya 0a\a(TcrT)(T >■ 205 | (.k rrja OaXaa-a-qa . . . 
ai'a^atvov] ck rrja 6aXaa<Trjcr after ava/3aivov (Tyc) Pr S^ arm eth I 
Orjpiov avaySaivov] ~ Tyc : + P-^y<^ arm^ I ex^*'] ^X'"'' *• ^°4- IIO- 
429. 522. 2016. 2017 I Kcpara oe/ca Kat Kec^aAao" cirra] Kfpara 
ScKtt Kai i> I : Kcpara ScKa . . . K€(jiaXacr firra — vg arm^- ^- " : 
Kfpara SeKa ^-^ 468 | raa Kce^aAao"] rr)v K€<f>aXT}v arm | avrouj 
auTwv (025) I ovofxara A 046. 21 ( - 2040) al^"' Or® vg s^ : ovo/ta 
nC 025. I. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 Pr gig s^ arm bo eth | 
ftXaa(f)rj[j.Laa^ yeypa/xfifvov bo |. 

2. TO Gtjpiok] bestiam Pr gig : bestia vg I rjv o/xoiov] ~ 172. 
2015. 2018 Tyc Pr vg | ■i]v > i. 181. 209. 2038. 2067*^"™ gig 
arm^- * | auTou^ >Tyc | wo-^] similes gig | apKov AnC 025. 046. 21 
(-35. 632. 2040). I. 250, 2037*. 2038 al™" Or^ : apKrov 35. 61. 
172*. 201**. 241. 385. 429**. 522. 632. 1957. 2037**. 2039. 
2040. 2041. 2067 aP I o-To/Att^ >202o s^ arm^- 2- 'I [ Acovtoct AC 
025. 046. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Tyc Pr gig vg arm bo sa 
eth : XeovTiov H 61. 69 Or^ s | avrw] avrov 866 | o > X* | rrjv 
^vfafjLiv avrov Kai rov Opovov avrov kul > arm^ | Kai rov Opovov 
auToi;>2037 I Ktti e^oucriav /X€yaA7;v] > 385. 429. 522. 919. 1849. 
1955. 2004. 2024 : Ktti >I04. 2038 : +£8coK€v avna A** |. 

3. icai^] + €i8ov 2040. 2067 Tyc vg'*- *^^ *' j /xiav] /xia arm^- * : 
unum caput Pr : irX-qyqv (?) bo | ck] >o46. i. 205. 2019. 2037. 
2038. 2067 : eTTt bo I ai^Tou] cttto Pr ( wcr AxC 025. i. 35*. 205. 
385. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 20 j8 alP Or* : wo-ci 046. 
21 (-35*. 205. 2020). 250. 2067 al""' : rjv arm^- » : > arm^^ I 



314 AnOKAAYMS IfiANNOY [XIII. 4-6. 

4. KoX vpo(reKvv7](rav tw S/dcikovti 
oTt eSwKc;/ T^v i^ovaiav to! Orjpua, 

ryj ^Tjp/y Ktti TTpocrf.KvvrjcTav ^to Orjpiov^ Xtyovrts 

T19 O/AOIOS Tw Orjpiw, 
Kal Ti's Sui'ttTai TToXc/A^o-at /act aurov ; 

5*. Kal iSodrj atiTu) arojxa XaAow p-eydXa kol ftXa(T(fir]fjLia<;, (a) 

(a) On the restoration of 5** to its original place before 7, see vol. ii., 
English transl., footnote />! loc. 

tcr<^ay/A€V7/v] €(r(jipayLa-fjL€vr]v 386. 1957. 2037. 2067 : €a<f)ay[xevrj (?) 
arm^ : o-^ayijo- bo : occisum fuerit Pr | avrov'^] > 046. 205 : tov 
davarov H* (corr. first hand) | eOavfMaa-dr) A 051. I. 181. 2015. 
2019. 2036. 2037. 2067 gig (s) : e6avfjiacrT(i)6r] C : eOavfiaatv N 
025. 046. 21. 250 alP' Or^ bo : admiratae sunt Pr | 0A17 rj yr]] 
cv oXt] tt} yt] 051. I. 181. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2067 : in terra gig : 
gentes inhabitantes terram Pr : + Kai rjKoXovO-qaev eth | ottlctw tov 
Srjpiov] oTTiaOe tov Oqpiov 2020 : post bestiam illam gig : ad bestiam 

Pr I oTTto-w TOV ^i7/3iou = n'nn nnsc, corrupt for n'nn nnN")3. 
See vol. i. 337, 351 |. 

4. Tw SpaKovTi . . . irpocrcKui'ifjorai'^ > I. 385. arm^ bo | 
SpaxovTi] Orjptoi arm^ | otl eSw/ce . . . OrjpuM^ >• bo | otl eSojKee 
AnC 025. 172. 181. 205. 209. 250. 424. 2015 (ore). 2018. 2019. 
2036. 2037. 2038, 2040. 2067 Or^ Tyc Pr vg s arm* : +0 
SpaKwv arm^ : tw ScScokoti 046. 21 ( — 205. 2040) al^"" : toj Sovrt 
61. 69 : qui dedit gig arm^- * | T-qv e^ouo-tav] Tr]v > Or^ : +avTov 
arm^- '^- * : omnem potestatem suam Pr | tw 6rjpLu^'\ tw Brjpiov 
920 : avTii) arm^ | Xtyovrea- . . . Orjpiuy >S^ | Kai TrpoaeKwrjcrav to 
Bqpiov > 051. 181. 205. 2038. 2067 arm^- *• " | to dy^piov A 2036. 
2037 alP : TO) dy)pL<M nC 025. 046. 21 ( - 920). 250 alP™ Or* : t<u 
d-qpLov 920 I Tto-^] ovSctcr arm^ | rw ^r/ptco] + tovtco s^- ^ bo eth : 
illae bestiae Pr | Kat^ A^Q 025. 046. i. 35. 60. 61. 69. 172. 181. 
205. 241. 250. 432. 452*. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 Or^ Pr gig vg s bo eth : 
■q Tyc arm : >21 ( - 35. 205. 632**. 2020. 2040). 104. 1 10. 314. 
385. 2016 alP I Swarat AsC 025. I. 35*. 172. 205. 250. 498. 
920. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 : hvvaToa- 046. 21 ( - 35*. 205. 920. 2020. 2040) al^"^ Or* |. 

5\ Kai c8o9if] . . . pXaCT4>T]/iia<T > i. 2016. 2017. 2038 Pr | 
aTOfxa >► arm^ | XaAouv] XaXovvTocr 205 : AaXetv arm^- ^- ^- " bo 
eth : loquendi gig | (3Xaa-(f>rjiJiLa(T nC 201. 386, 2020. 2040 al^ 
yg(;i). d g(2) ^Q arm^- ^ : (3Xacr(f)7]fjiiai 620. 866 vg'"- ^- ^- " : fSXaa-cf>i]ixa 
A 172. i8i. 241. 250. 424. 632**. 2015. 2018. 2036. 2037. 2067 : 
(^XnacfjqfMLav 025. 046. 21 (-386. 620. 632**. 866 (920). 2020. 
2040) ai'""' Or** s^ arm^- W- <« ; blasphemare gig : +y€v€a-Oai arm* |. 



XIII. 6-8.] AnOKAAY^IS lOANNOY 315 

6. KOi ^voii(v TO (TTO/xa avTOv tU p\a(T(^r]iiia<i ■rrpo'i ^ov Oiov, 
fiXa(r<f>r]fxr]<raL to ovo/Jia avrov Kai ttjv cTKrjvrjv avrov, 

'^KOt TOliS^ CV T(S OvpaVW (TK7]V0VVTaS. ToilS 

5^. Koi (.hoOrj avTw i^ovcria irotrjarai firjva^ TCcrtrcpaKoi'Ta Koi Svo, 

7. Kol ebodr) avTw Troi^crai Trokffxov fMcra twv dyiwv koI viKrj(rai 

auTOv?, 
KOL i866r] avT(p i^ovaia kin vaa'av ^vXrjv koi Xaov *cai 
yXoyacrav koi Wvos. 

8. Kai Trpo(rKVvricrov(riv avrov Travres ol KaTOLKovvT€<; irrl Trj<; y^?, 

^ov^ ov yeypaTTTai to ovo/ia ^avTov^ iv tw /8t/3Xia» tv'? I'jjrjs we . . 
Tov apvLOV TOi) ia-(f)ayp.€VOV aTro KaTa/SoXrj? Koa-p-oo. avruif 

6. Kai^] deinde Tyc | to^ > 175. 337. 617, 1849 | eur 
/3\a(T(fiT]pLacr AnC I. 94. 172. 250. 424. 2018. 20 1 9. 2040 vg : ctcr 
jSXatTf^rjpiav 025. 046. 21 ( — 2040). 2037. 2038. 2067 al^' Or' 
Tyc gig s^ : in blasphemia Pr arm^- 2. 4. a . pXao-rftrjp^iv s^ arm^ bo 
eth I jSXacrtftrjprjcraL] pr /cat bo eth : /cat €^Xa(T(jir]p.r]cr€v arm^- 2- " : 
iva fSXaa<f)r}p.r](Tr] s^ | avroi^^J ^c . a^j^ov N* | koi tt^i/ a-K-qvrjv avTov 
>-C I Ktti Tovtr ev T. ovp. (TKirjvovvTacr K*^ 025. 046*. i. 205. 
632**. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al™ vg bo arm* : tovo- ev t. ovp. 
a-K-qv. An*C 046**. 21 (- 205. 632**. 2020). 250 al"' Or« Tyc s^ : 
tov CV T. ovp. (TKrjvovvToa- (> eth) Pr gig eth : tcov ci' t. ou/). orKrjvovvTOiv 
S^ : tt;v €v t. oup. arm^" ^ | o-/<77]'owra(r] trKr^vowreo- X : oiKovvTacr 
386. 20ig : KaroiKovvTaa- 149. 201 : cr/ciyviyv arni^**- » : ckXcktovo" 
arm^' : >arm^- ^ |. 

S^ Kai cSoQt] . . . iroiTjaai > arm*- * | c|ouo-ia> N* | Troirja-ai 
AC 025. I. 94. 181. 632**. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 Tyc Pr gig vg s eth : +0 OiXu N : pr -iroX^p.ov 046 21 
( - 632**. 2040). 250 alP' : +Ttt Tcpara a iOeXr/o-e eth : TroX^pL-qaai 
61. 69 Or* bo sa : Troir^crai rroXefirja-ai (iroXep-ov arm^) xara twi/ 
ayitoi' Kttt viKrjaai avTova Kai eSoBr) ( + aurwv arm^ : + f^ovcria arm") 
vtKi7(i'tK7;o-atarm2)arm^- 2 : >arm'*« | /x>7ra(r>arm2 | rea-a-epaKOVTa 
AnC : T€o-o-apa/foi'Ta 025. 21 (-35). 250. 2037. 2067 alP' Or* | 
TCO-0-. Kai Svo A 336. 620. 866 2040 Tyc gig s : Kai > xC 025. 21 
( - 35)- 250. 2037. 2067 alP' Or* Pr vg : p.^' 046. 35. 2015. 2019. 
2036. 2038 alP : (koi) Svo >arm2 |. 

7. avTdi^] + e^ovaia 386. 920. 2020 | Troirjcrai . . . avTW^ >AC 
025. I*. 61. 69. 181. 2038. 2067 arm"' sa | tr 7* after 7^* s^ : after 5* 
arm^- 2- 3 j arm^- ^- ^ \ iroirjaaL TroAe/Aov X 046. 21. 2037 al™ Pr gig 
si- 2 : ^i".mg j^2. 250. 2018 alP Or* Tyc vg | /xera twv aytw 
>Tyc I VLKTrja-ai] vicit Pr | c^ovcna] X*" : eiovaiar H* \ Traarav (fivXrjv] 
Tracrao- racr <f>vXaa- bo eth j Kai Aaov] kul Xaova- C arm* : > OCI. 
^- 35- 1957- 2019. 2023. 2038. 2067 Tyc arm^- 2 bo |. 

8. TrpoaKui'TjcrouCTiv] Trpocr€Kvvr](rav Pr vg^ arm2- 3 eth | avTov 
AC 046. 21 (-35. 205. 468. 2020. 2040). 250. 2037 al""" Or* : 



3l6 AnOKAAY*l2 inANNOY [XIII. 9-10. 

g. El Tis e'x*' "'^^ (XKOUcraTW. 
lO. €t Tis €1? ai;^/iaXa)(nac, 
CIS ai)(fjiaX(i)aLav virdyei' 
€1 TIS tv fjia)(aipr] aTroKTavOrjvai, 
<a^ris> t avTov t ev fia^aipy] a.TroKTai/6^vai. 

nSc eo"Tiv 17 virofiovrj Koi rj ttiVtcs ruif aytiwi/. 

awTO) S 025. 051. I. 35. 104. 172. 205. 468. 1957. 2020. 2023. 
2038. 2040. 2067 alP : > Tyc | Travrecr . . . yrjcr] '"'"■'^o- V yv 
arm^ | ctti >-920. 2040 | t. yrjcr] tyjv yrjv 920 \ ov ov C Pr : ovai. 
A : 01 ov s^ : (OV ov S*^ (but H* om. ov) 025. 35. 175. 205. 250. 
386. 617. 632**. 919. 1934. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 alP^ Or** 
Tyc gig vg s'^ arm bo eth : wv ovrc 046. 21 ( - 35. 175. 205. 386. 
617.- 632**. 919. 1934. 2020. 2040). 385 alP : CO ovT€ no I 
ycypaTTTat] ytypafxfievoi S^ | to ovofta AC 046. 21 ( — 35*. 2040). 
250. 2038. 2067 aP^ Or^ Tyc Pr S^ bo : ra ovofiara X 025. I. 
35*. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2040 gig vg arm eth : > s^ | avrov AC : 
avToiv X* 2040 s^ arm : >X'' 025. 046. 21 ( - 2040). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP^ Or^ Tyc Pr gig vg s^ | tv] ctti 046 bo | tw ySi^Atw] 
Tw > C : ^t/5Aa> X* : tw /3t^Aw X'^ : rrj /3t/?Aa> i alP | ^wrja] + tw 
S^ I ccr<^ayyu.€i/ou] ccr^paytcr/Aevov I. 242. 336. 2020 Tyc | otto] tt/oo 
s^ : pr TOW Pr eth J. 

9. €1 no- €xet oo-tio- c;(€t arm^ : o €)(u)v arm^- * : 01 c^^ovTea 
arm^- » | ouo-] wTa s Pr arm : +audiendi arm bo eth |. 

10. ci<T aixfiaXwo-tat'^ AxC 025. 046. 35*. 205. 2015. 2020. 

2036. 2038. 2040 vg'^- "^^ ^- s arm : +a7rayt(, 250 Or* gig vg*^- " s : 
+ CTTayet 2018 : +U7rayei bo : ai)(ixa\(Da-Lav airayci 424 : at^/xaX- 
(oo-iav I. 61. 69. 241. 632**. 2017. 2037 : ^X*'' o.i-XfJ'-o.X.ioarLav 051. 
21 ( — 35*. 205. 632**. 2020. 2040). no. 201. 314. 385. 498. 
522. 1955. 1957- 2016. 2041. 2067 ^1 • atX/^aAoDTi^et {-Trja-ii 
2019). 104. 2019 : captivum duxerit Pr | eia- aixfj-aXwa-iav^ A 218. 
2018 Or^gig vgs : >XC 025. 046. 21. i. 61. 69. 104. no. 201. 241. 
314.385. 498. 522. 1955. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2017. 2019. 2036. 

2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 arm bo | vTrayci] a-vrayei I. 2037 : vadet 
vg*^ : et ipse capietur Pr | fiaxo-i-pr)^- ^ AC Or^ : /xa^aipa X 025. 
046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' I aTTOKTavOrjvai^ A : On 
this Hebrew idiom see vol. i. 355 sq. : airoKTeiveL X 632**. 2015. 
2036 (gig S^' ^) : a-TTOKTaivei 051 : airoKTcvrci 250. 2018. 2040 Or^ : 
aTTOKTfuet. C 025. 046. I. 35. 104. 172. 205. 506. 620. 866. 1957. 
2019. 2020. 2023. 2037. 2041. 2067 aP arm* bo eth : occiderit 
Pr vg : >21 (-35. 205. 620. 632**. 866. 2020. 2040). 69. 82. 
no. 314. 385. 429. 2016. 2017. 2038 alP arm^ | auTov] pr Set xC 
025. 046 al"^" Pr vg S^ I (v fxaxaipr]^ AC 025. 046 Or* : ev p-axai^pfi 
X 35. 205. 620. 866. 2040 s arm* bo : > 21 (-35. 205. 620. 
866. 204 ). 69. 82. no. 241. 314. 385. 4:9. 2016. 2017 alP I 
airoKTavdrjvai^^ aTTOKTavdijaerai gig s^ sa eth : airoKrevovcriv avroi^ 



XIII. 11-13.] AnOKAAY*l5 IfiANNOY ^i; 

11. Kai €l8ov aWo drjptov avafSalvov Ik ttJs y^s, 
Kai €(;^€v Kepara 8vo ofx.oia dpvio), 

KOI J cAaXct t u)S SpaKUiv. 

12. Ktti Tr]v i^ovcriav tov nputTov Orjpiov iracrav iroiei ivioiriov 

avTov, 
Koi. iroiei rrjv y^v Kai tovs iv avrrj KttTOiKOVVTas iva tt/joct- 

Kvr'r](TOV(TLV TO Q-qpiov to TrpSiTov, 
ov idtpairevdrj tj TrKrjyr] tov Oavdrov avTOv, 

13. Kul TTOul (Trifxua. /icyaAa, Xva koX trvp TToifl tK tov ovpavov 

bo sa I viropLovr} . . . TricrTior] — s^ | utto/aovt/] sapientia gig I 
TTtcTTtcrJ dXixpLO- 498. 2020 | aytojv] + ftOKapco? €(rTi bo : + fiaKapicr- 
/U.OS Kai ov dav/xacret Sarai/ eth |. 

11. C1801/] l8ov 617 I OrjpLov >Tyc I ava^atrov] ava/3aivvov C : 
ava(3aLV(iiv 104 | 8uo] tr after apvioi 2020 : 8cKa ovo 181 ; > 21 
(-18. 35. 468. 620. 866. 2020. 2040). 42. 82, no. 314. 385. 
2016. 2017 aP arm^ | o/zota] ovofia C : o/xotov bo : xat o/xotov >/»' s^ | 
apj'toi] pr TO) 620. 866 arm^- *• « : apviov Pr vg s^ | eXaXei] On the 
corruption of the Hebrew source here, see vol. i. 358 sq. : AaXct 
gig : kaXovv bo I SpoKwv] pr o arm |. 

12. Tou -rrpuTou 6T]piou] tov d-qpiov tov TrpoiTov 69 | iraaav >• 
Pr arm* ] ttoui^] €7rotei 2020 Or^ Pr vg s^ arm bo : irot-qa-u 172. 
250. 424. 2018 : Lva TTOiTjcrei s^^) : TTOietrat 051. 35* | tvininov avTov 
Kai>Pr arm^ | irout^ AxC 025. i. 205. 620. 632**. 2015. 2019. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 al™" Tyc gig : ttoitjctci 172. 250. 424. 
2018 s^ : cTToiei 046. 20 ( — 205. 620. 632**. 2040). 69. 104. no. 
314. 385. 2016. 2023. 2067 al Or^ s2 : fecit vg arm bo : evri Pr 
arm^' | rr^v yr/v Kai] ivminov 025 | /cai^ > Pr | tov(t €i' avTi; Karot- 
KowTttor] tr €v avTTj after KaToiKowTaa- C 61. 69 gig vg eth : 
inhabitantes terram Pr : eos qui in ea sunt Tyc | iva trpoa-Kwr]- 

<TOV(TLV AC 69. 104. 429*, 522. 2019. 2038 : Kttl irpoaKvvTf- 
(Tovcriv S^ : Lva Trpoo-Kwrjo-wcriv 025. 046. 20. 250. 2037. 2067 al^' 
Or^ : ut adorent Tyc gig arm : ut adorarent Pr : -n-poaKwiv N : 
adorare vg | to O-qpiov to TrpwTOv] tw Or^pua tw tt^wtw 172. 314*. 
452. 468. 2018. 2021. 2040 : bestiam priorem Tyc (Pr) | tov 

OavaTOV >A I avTov^ >025. 6 1. 69. 632* Pr Vg j. 

13. iroi€i] TToiqcxiL 172. 250. 2018 Tyc s^ arm* bo : «7rot€i 
2016 : fecit Pr gig vg arm^-^-^-* | a-qpiua /xeyaAa] ~ 172. 250. 
2018 I Lva Kai TTup AnC 025. I. 172. 250. 632**. 2018. 2020. 
2038. 2040. 2067 aP gig Vg s^ : ita ut ignem Pr : Kai > 205 Tyc 
S^ arm* bo eth : iva cv nXavr] ttolt] (ttoici 2015) Trvp 20 1 5. 2036. 
2037 : Kai irvp iva 046. 20 ( - 205. 632**. 2020. 2040) al™" Or* : 
TTvp iva 6x. 69 I TTOii; (ttoici 2015 : TroL7]a-r) 250. 2018 Pr gig Vg) €k 
TOV ovpavov KaTaySaiveiv (KaTa^aivviv C : KaTajSrjvai 172. 250. 



3lS AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY [xill. 14-15. 

KaTa/3aiv(Lv «is t^v y^i' ei'WTriov twv avOpcoirwv. 14. Kai TrXava tov(; 
KaT0iK0vvTa<i eVi t^s y^s 810. to. crrjfiua a e866rj aurw Trot^crot 
ivoiTTLov Tov Orjpiov, Xeywv Tois KaroiKova-iv ctti t^s y^s Troirjaai 
ciKova Tw 6y]piw, os l;;(€t rrjv TrXrfyrjv t^s fia^aipr]? koI e^rjo-ev. 15. 
aurcp Kttl iooOr] J airy f 8oi)t/ai 7rv€V/Aa Tjj cIkovl tov drjpiov, Lva koI 

\aXrjo~p r} eiKwv tov Orjpiov, kol Troirjcrrj iva ocroi iav /xt] irpoaKvv- 
rjaoicrw t^v elKova tov drjpiov aTroKTav6wcnv. 

2018 : discendentem Pr) AC 172. 250. 424. 2015. 2018. 2020. 
2036. 2037. 2067 Tyc Pr vg arm^- 2- 3. a . ^g qq\q faceret 
descendere gig : iroir] (ttoici 025. 2040) Kara^Saij'tti' €/c tov ovpavov 
K 025. I. 2038. 2040 alP S arm* bo eth : (k tov ovpavov KUTa^aivrj 
(-vet 104. 314. 429. 522. 2019) 046. 20 (-205. 2020. 2040). 
104. 314. 429. 522. 2019 al™" Or^ : KaTa^aivr] (k tov ovpavov 205 | 
cto- T?7v yrjv AnC 025. I. 205. 250. 2037. 2038 al'"" Or* gig Vg : 
«rt TTjv yrjv 046. 20 ( — 35. 205. 2040). 61. 82. 104. 1 10. 314. 385. 
1957. 2016. 2067 s arm ^- 2- 3. a j^q . ^^^ ^^g. y^^ 5^ . >.32. 2040 
Pr arm* (. 

14. irXafa] irXavrjcrei s bo : seduxit Pr : TrAavav arm^ | rover 
KaToiKOvi'Taa- AnC 025. 046. 205. 468**. 620. 632**. 920. 2020. 
2040 Or^ Pr gig vg s arm bo eth : pr rova e/xova- 051. 20 ( - 205. 
468**. 620. 632**. 920. (1849). 2020. 2040). 82. no. 314. 385. 
429. 2016. 2017. 2023 al I eiri TTjar y^cr] terram Pr vg : Trja yr)a 
arm^- ^ | Sta ra crr]fj.€ia . . . eiri ttjo- yrja^ >046* s^ j ra crrj/xeia^ 
TO a-rjfjL€Lov arm* I Aeyojv] Aeyov 046**. i. 61. 69. 201. 386. 620. 
2040 : AcyovToo^ 046. ™e : et dicit Pr | 7rot>;o-ai] pr xat N | eiKova] 
eiKovav A 2038 I o(T AC 025. 046. 61. 172. 218. 250. 424. 2015. 
2018. 2019. 2036. 2038 Pr gig : o X 20. i. 2037. 2067 al^^ vg s^ : 
uicr Or* I €)(€L AxC 025. I. 250. 2020. 2038 al"'" Pr gig vg s^ 
arm* bo : «ix^ 046- 20 ( - 2020). 2037. 2067 al""" Or* s^ | rr/v 
■7rXr)yr]v AC 025. 35. 205. 250. 620. 632**. 2020. 2037. 2038. 
2040. 2067 alP' Or* : irXyyija- N : TV7V >o46. 20 (-35. 205. 
620. 632**. 2020. 2040). 42. 61. 69. 82. no. 141. 2or. 
3M- 385- 429- 452- 498. 506. 517. 522. 1955. 2016. 2017. 
2021 bo I TYjo- fxaxoLprja- (pr aTTO 61. 69 Pr) /cat c^T^crei/ {tpqa-tTat 

arm^-2-3) AnC 025. 35. 61. 69. 250. 632**. 2020. 2037. 2038. 
2040. 2067 al™" Pr gig vg s arm bo : Kat itprjo-tv ano { + Trj<r 
vXr]yr)(r 336. 620. 1918) Trja fxa-^aipaa- 046. 20 ( — 35. 205. 
632**. 2020. 2040) al*"" Or* : tt^o- fia^- «. e^rjcrev airo t. 
TrXrjy. t. /xa^. 205 | /xaxaiprja- AxC Or* : /xa;(atpacr 025. 046. 
20 aJP' |. 

15. auTT] AC 025*. (The feminine may be due to the 
gender of the Hebrew word nTi ; but the late emendation in N 
025**. 046 must be adopted) : avTw N 025**. 046. 20. 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP' I Sovvat >C arm^ | Sowai irvevfia An 025. I. (35). 
205. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al™" Pr gig vg s : — 046. 20 ( - (35). 



XIII. 16.] AnOKAAY*l2 mANNOY 319 

16. Kat TTOUi Travras, tovs fxiKpovs kol tovs //.cyaXou?, xai tous 
TrXovctous Kal tous tttw^ov?, Kal tov<; IXevOepovi kol tov<; Soi'Xows, 
iva Swaiv avTots \apayixa cttI t^s ;(€ip6s avrwv t^s Sc^tas ij ctti to 

205. 2040). 250 al""" Or* I iva Kat XaXrjcrr] rj UKUiv tov Qr^piov 
>C 69. 336. 468*. 617. 620*. 2015. 2036 s^- (2) arm* bo (but not 
sa eth) I iva Kai] ~ Pr arm^- » : Kai > 104. 205. 2020. 2037. 2040 
gigarm^ : on arm^ | XaX7;o-r;] XaX'>;o-€t 104. 522. 620**. 2040 : tXaXei 
arm^ Kat TroL-rjcrrj . . . Orjpiov^ >C 20 15 | Kai troi-qar} . . . anoKTav- 
6(ii(TLV Kat airoKTeivaL ocroL cav fir] TrpocrKvvr](rov(rLV t. 6r]piov /cai t. 
€iKova avTov bo | Trotrjcn] (on this Hebraism ( = Trot^o-at) see vol. i. 
Introd. ; Gram. % 10. i. (d)) A 025. 046. 20 (-468. 617. 620. 
2004. 2040). I. 2037. 2067 ^1^^ O'^'* ^r g'g vg : Trotrjcru X 61. 69. 

250. 468. 522. 617. 620. 2004. 2019. 2036. 2038. 2040 S : CTTOICI 

arm^ eth | iva A 025. 104. 506. 2019. 2037. 2040 Pr gig vg s arm : 
>X 046.20 (-2040). 61. 69. 172. 201. 250. 314. 385. 498. 
522. 1955. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2036. 2038. 2067 alP Or^ vg''- ^ I 
cav] av N I. 205. 2037. 2038 al™" : >20i6. 2040 | irpocTKVvrj- 
(Tuicrtv A 025. 046. 20. 250. 2037. 2067 alP' Or^ : •7rpoa-Kvvrj(Tovcnv 
N 051.69. 104*. 452. 2016. 2019. 2038 arm^- 2- * : adoraverunt 
Tyc : adoraret Pr : adoraverit gig vg : adorabant arm^ ] rrjv 
eiKova A I. 2037. 2067 alP : rr) cikovl H 025. 046. 20, 250. 2038 
alP™ Or® I TTjv (LKOva TOV 6r)piov] to Orjpiov Kat tt^v ci/cova avTOV 
Tyc bo I Tou ^7;pioD^] + iva 051. I. 35. 632**. 1957. 2023 al^ : 
+ neque acceperunt inscriptionem in fronte aut in manu sua 
Tyc I aTTOKTav^wcrtv] aTroKravd-qvai 61. 69 Or^ : aTroxrctvat bo : 
occidatur vg''* ^- ^- ^ |. 

16. TToict] iroL-qa-iL N*' vg s arm^- ^- 3- " bo : fecit Pr | fXLKpova- 
. . . /LteyaXouo-] ~ Pr arm* | touo-^ > N | Kat^ > s^ | ttXouo-iodo- • . . 
TTTOj^^ouo-] '~ N 2036 I Kat Tovo" 7rTco;^ovo- Kat tovo" cXev^cpoucr] > Pr : 
TrT0))(OVcr . . . cXeii^tpoDO- -^ arm" | eXcvOepova . . . SovXouo-] ^^ 62 O. 
191 8. 2019 eth I Kat Touo- cXcD^cpovo-] > 205. 2038 : Kat tovo" 
Seo-TTOTao- S^ I iva > bo | Swo-iv (Sioo-i K') AnC 025. 046. 35. 42. 
60. 61. 69. 172. 181. 250. 314. 432. 468. 1957. 2018. 2019. 2020. 
2023. 2037. 2038. 2041 al Or^ : Swcrct i bo : Swo-i; 051 arm : 
8(1)0- wo-tv 82. 104. 175. 205. 336. 429. 498. 522. 617. 620.919. 
920. 1849. 1955. 2004. 2015. 2017. 2036 alP' : Swo-oDo-iv 18. 91. 
94. 141. 201. 209. 325**. 337. 385. 386. 456. 632. 1934. 2016. 
2067 al : 8o6rj s : Xa/SwcrL 506. 2040 : habere Pr vg | avToio-] X*' 
avTio N* : aXXi7Xoio- gig : >5o6. 2040 Pr vg | )(apayfia At^C 025. 
I. 172. 205. 241. 250. 498. 522. 632**. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP Tyc Pr gig vg s arm" s. 4. o . ^apayp-ara 
046. 20 ( — 205. 632**. 2020. 2040) aP"' Or^ : to ■^(a.payp.a avrov 
506. 2040 arm^ | tt/o- ^^ci/aoo- . . . tt/o- Se^iaa] tojv ;(Ctpa>v . . . Twv 
Sclttovs I T7/o-^ >20 (- 35. 205. 2040). 42. 82. 110.201.314.385. 
429. 498. 517. 522. 1955. 2015. 2016. 2017 al I 7]] Ktti l8r. 2020, 



320 AnOKAAY'I'IS !« ANNOY [XIII. 17-18. 

fierwirov aurtoi', 1 7. koI Iva fi-q Tis SvvrjTai ayopdcrai ^ 7ra)A.^crai ei 
/A^ 6 €x.wv TO )(^apayfia, to 01/0/xa tou Orjpiov -q tov aptdixov tov 
ovd/u,aTos avTOV. 18. '^OSt ^ (TO(f)ta icrriv' 6 e;(wv 1/01)1/ {j/y^fjuadrm 
rov apiOfwv TOV 6r]ptov, dpt^/AOS yap di'^pwTrou ewTiv* Kat 6 apt6/x6i 
avTov l^aKOdLOi k^-qKovra €$. 

2038 arm2-3-4- bo | to /actcottoi/ As 025. 20 ( -35. 205. 468**. 
920. 2020). 250 al™" Or^ Tyc arm" (bo) eth : pr avro 2020 : 
tov fXfToiirov C : TtDV /ieTWTrwv 046. 05 1. I. 35. 205. 468**. 
920. 2015. 2037. 2038. 2067 Pr gig vg arm^-''^'^* | auTwi/^ > 
2015 Pr |, 

17. Kai^ Ax'' 025. 046. 20. 250. 2038. 2067 alP' Or^ gig vg 
arm^- 2- 3. a . >x*C 314. 2015. 2017. 2036. 2037. 2041. Pr s arm^ 
bo : sic ergo facient Tyc | firj no-] /xT/Seta 172. 250. 2018 | Swr^Tai 
AxC 18. 35. no. 141. 172. 205. 241. 250. 385. 429. 432. 468. 
632. 1849. 1955. 1957- 2004. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2040 al™" 
Or^ Tyc Pr gig vg s^ : hwarai 025. 046. 051. 20 ( - 18. 35. 205. 
468. 632. 1849. 2004. 2020. 2040). I. 61. 69. 104. 201. 314. 

2015. 2016. 2017. 2024. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP arm^*^: 
SvuijaeTaL arm^- *• " bo : >S^ | ayopaaai . . . TrwXv^o-at] ~ 172. 250. 
2018 I 7) TTwXTjo-ai] >> Tyc : Kat TrwXT^crai arm^- * : +£ti 172. 250. 
2018 s^ I firj] fjirjT C I o ex^ov^ o>C : 17 exfuv i : i^V arm^* ^- * : 
ot c;(0VT€(r Tyc | to ovofia tov Oqpiov A 025. 046. 20 ( — 2020). i. 61. 
69. 104. 172. 201. 250. 314. 385. 498. 522. 1955. 1957. 2015. 

2016. 2018. 2023. 2036. 2041. 2067 al Or^ vgS : tov ovofxaToa- tov 
Orjpiov C 2037. 2038 Pr vg°- ^- ^- ^ s^- 2 arm^ eth : tov drjpiov 17 (/cat 
2019) to ovofjia avTov N 2019. 2020 bo : pr 7; Tyc gig arm^ : + 
7} TOV apiOfJiov TOV Orjpiov 046 | yj\ kul Pr arm^- 2- 3. a | ^^y aptOfiov^ 
T0i> apiOfiov eth |. 

18. Tj <To<j>ia] sapientiae Tyc | co-Ttv] cxci Or* : tr before yj 
(ro<f)ia gig : -f Kat s^ I vovv^ pr tov I. 172 : ovo- N* 325*. 
620 : ovv 69 : vouo- 19 18 : <TO(f>tav arm^- ^ | tov aptd/xov^ 
to ovofia 61. 69. 2019 I avdp<j}Trov £0"rivj -^ 205 1 Kat o api6p.o<r 
avTOV >S S^ I Kat AC 025. 046. I. 35. 60. 94. 205. 432 
632**. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 
2041. 2067 al""" Pr gig vg s^ arm^-^-*. <x bo eth : >20 (-35 
205. 632**. 2020. 2040). 61. 69. 104. no. 172. 250. 314. 385 
498. 522. 2016. 2018 alP Or^ Tyc | avrov] +£o-Ttv C 025. i. 35 
60. 94. 205. 432. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 
2041. 2067 Tyc gig vg(''') s^ arm^-2-» bo ] c^aKoo-toi (-at X : -a 
025. 104. 336. 385. 620. 1934. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067). c^rjKovTa 
( + Kai 2037 s) e$ An 025. 104. 149. 336. 385. 620. 1934. 2037. 
2038 2040. 2067 Prgig Vg s bo : ;(^or' 046. 20 ( - 149. 620. 1934. 
2040). I. 69. 250. 3x4. 429. 498. 1957. 2017. 2018. 2019. 2023. 
20 ;6. 2041 al'"" : x^tr' 2015 : cluKoo-ta Scko e^ C : arm* Iren. v. 30. 
I { DCXC Tyc |. 



XIV. 12-13.] AnOKAAY*I2 Ifi ANNOY 32 1 

xiv. 12. Q8( rj VTTOfiovrj twv dytojv ccttiV, ot T-qpovvra to.? cvToXas 
Tov Otov Kat TTjv vtariv Irjcrov. 13. Koi -^Kovaa <f)wi'rj^ €k tov 
ovpavov XcyovcTT^s Tpcuj/ov MaKctpiot 01 veKpol 01 iv Kvpluy olttoOvt^- 
(TKOvre^ air apri. vai, Aryci to irvevfJLa, iia ivavaijaovTai (k toji/ KOiru)V 
auTwv, Ta yap cpya avTwv aKoAou^ci /act avTciv. 

xiv. 12-13. On the restoration of these verses to their original context, 
see vol. i. 368-369. 

xiv. 12. (iiSc T) OTTOfiOKt)] o Sc vTro/nei/wi/ pcra bo : r/Se 8c 17 vttojxovt) 

eth I cd8c>69 I 7; > 1934 I ccTTii/j + coSe i. 35. 69. 104. 205. 620. 
1957. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al : tr before ?/ vTvop-ovrj Pr 
gig I ot TV7poui'T€(r] rwi' TT/povvTtui' N 2004**. 2019. 2020. 2040 | rov 
diov >• I. 2067 I iricTTtv] + Tou 35. 432. 1957. 2023. 2041 I Ifja-ov] 
+ XpicTTov 582. 1948. 2014. 2015. 2034. 2036. 2037. 2042 arm^- 2 
bo : •{■ "^apy^dovTai 35* |. 

13. <|)0[)j'Tj<r . . . XcyouaTjo-] cfnavrjv . . . Acyouo-av 386 [ (^covt^ct] 
+ aWrjcT /x€yaXr](T bo | ck tou ovpavov AcyovcTT^o"] Xeyovarjo" ( + p,oi 
2020) €K TOV ovpavov a 2020. 2037 I Acyovcn/crJ + p.01 051. I. 35. 
205. 468. 632**. 1957. 20T5. 2019. (2020). 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2041. 2067 Pr gig vg** armi-2-3. o | ypaif/ov >bo | 01 vcKpoi, 
>-eth I cv Kvpnu Ax 046. 20. aP' Pr gig vg arm bo : +^p,(ov s^ : 
XPio-Tw C 025 : (tw) Oeu) s^ | aTro6vr]<rKovT€cr] "should they rise" 
bo I air apTL joined with what precedes P 35. 205. (337). 468**. 
498. (632**). 1957. 2004**. 2040. 2041 al s arm bo : joined 
with what follows 046. 20 (-35. 175. 205. (337). 468**. (632**). 
2004**. 2040) al™" Pr gig vg : without punctuation AnC 051. 
175 I vai, Xcyct AN^C 025. 632**. 2004**. 2020. 2040 al Pr gig 
vg s arm^-^-'*-" : koi Acyci 205. 2018. 2019. 2041 arm^ : ~o46. 
20 (-632**. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 69. 104. no. 314. 2023 al""" 
: vat>N* 620 bo I irv€Vfia^ + T0 ayiov 2004**. 2040 arm^' 2' ^ eth 
I avaira-qcTOvrai AxC '• avairavcovrai 046. I. 620. 2038 aP arm^*^'* 
: avanavo-tDVTaL 025. 20 ( - 620). 250. 2037. 2067 aP™ : avairavoiv- 
Tai 05 1 : avaTrauovTai arm^- » : requiescant Pr gig vg : + air apn bo | 
ck] airo6i. 69 I KOTTwv] cpycov 6 1. 69 | rtav kottoiv avroiv ra yap cpya 
auTwv aKo\ov6ei\ twv koitwv twv epytav avTwv <[a> aKoXovOYjcei 
bo I Ttt yap cpya . . . fxer avnov^s^ \ ra yap AxC 025. 336. 506. 
2004**. 2020. 2040 Pr gig vg s2 arm^ : ra Se 046. 20 ( - 2004**. 
2020. 2040). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' arm^-2-^-* eth | avrtov] + 
Kai o8riyr)(r€C avrovcr eia ^<iyr](r irrjyrjv vBaroiv bo ^^'"^^ 1. 



VOL. II. — 21 



322 AnOKAAYvI'12 mANNOY [XIV. 1-2. 

Chapter XIV. 

1. Kat €l^OV Koi l8oV TO dpVLOV CCTTOS iirl to OpOS 2lO)V, 

Koi /Jter' avTov (.Karov TecrcrtpaKovTa T£(T(rapcs X'^'<^S^5, 
fvoucrai to ovofxa. avrov Kai to oj/op-a tou rrarpos auTov ycypa^- 

fieVOV CTTl TWV p,«T0J7ra)V aWTWl/. 

2. Ktti ^/<ouo"a <l)U)vr]V Ik tou oupai/ou 

«I)S (fiOiVrjV {iSttTWV TToWwv 

Kai <i)S (f>(j)V7]v ^povrrjs fJbeydXrjs. 

Kat 17 (fiwvrj rjv ^KOV(ra <t)9 KL$ap(aowv 

KiOapL^ovTiDV ev Tats Ki^otpais auTwi/, 3. Kai aSovo'iv o)S wS^v 
Katv^v 

Cl/WTTIOV TOr ^pOVOV Kttl iviDTTLOV TiJiV r€(T(rap(OV ^WOJV Kttl TWV 

7rpeo-/8uT€p(uv" 

1. KOI eiSoi' Kttt iSou] et ecce vidi Pr : Kat p.€Ta TavTa eth | 
Kat^ > gig I Kat tSou > gig Cyp bo (cf. eth) | to apviov . . . 2twv] 
supra montem Syon agnum stantem gig | to apviov AsC 046. 
20 ( - 35. 205. 468**) s arm^- * bo eth : to > 025. i. 35. 205. 250. 
468**. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 
aP arm^- 2- * | cottoot AxC 025. 2036 : cotojo- 046, i. 205. 250. 
2020. 2037. 2038. 2040 alP : eaTrjKoa- 20 ( - 205. 2004. 2020. 
2040) 2067 al™" : €(TTrjK(0(T 104. 172. 2004 : stans Tyc : stantem 
Pr gig Cyp : Stabat vg | cTrt to opoo- Sttjv] ctti opoo- C | fier avrov 
AxC 025. 35. 205. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al Tyc Pr gig 
vg Cyp s^ arm bo eth : + apidp.oa- 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 2020. 2040). 
250 al'"^ S^ I CKaTOv T€o-o-£paKOVTa T€cro-apia- AnC : CKarov recraapa- 
Koi'Ttt Tco-o-apco" 025. 250. 386. (620). 1934. 2020. 2037. 2040. 
2067 alP™ : €i<aTov T€craapaKovT€crcrap€cr 149 : pp-S' 046. 20 (— 149. 
386. (620). 1934. 2020. 2040). I. 2038 alP'° I €;^oi'o-at] pr at 69 : 
€;^ovT€o- gig vg : habebant Pr Cyp | avrov Kat to ovo/xa > 025. i | 
TO oi'op,a2 >I04. 336. 522. 620 I avTov^ > 385 | yeypap./ACVov] pr 
TO A s^ : eyyeypap-e^oi' 385 : Kato/xcvov I |. 

2. (J>wi/T]i/^" ^' ^] (jxDVYja 2067 I (f)U)vrjv^ >920 | €k tov ovpavov 
<i)(T (fxiivrjv > 620* I <f>u)vr]V vSarwv ttoWiov Kai ws (jxsivrjv > bo 
I (f)(Dvr]v^ >Tyc I Kat coo- (fxovrjv ^povrrjcr fX€ya\r]cr >20I5. 2036 | 
o)(T^] aut Pr : >-arm2- a | (jfjcoj/T^v^ >Tyc Pr | fSpovr-qa- //.cyaXi/o-] N*^ 
: fjL€yaXr](T > X* : ^ — ^ Pr : (Spovrrjv p.^yaX-qv Tyc bo | Kat 17 cfxjivr) r)v 
TjKOvaa AnC 046. 20. 250 al^' Pr S^ bo : Kat > S^ : Kat (fxavrjv {-rjcr 
2067) rjKovcra 025. I. 1957. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 arm^ : 
et vocem quam audivi Tyc gig vg : Kat rjKova-a wo- (fifavi^v arm^- " 
toor^l > I. 1957. 2038. 2067 : -t-</)an'77>/arm'* | KLOapwSwv KiOapL^ovruiv 
Kt^apwSoi' Ki6apit,ovTa s^ : KtdapwSovd bo | €v Tata KiOapaicr avTwv 
avTtiiv > C : €v T. K. avrov s^ : > Pr bo |. 

3. Kai aSouaii'] koi (> bo) aSoi'Teo- 743. 1075 S^- ^ bo eth : et 



XIV. 3 -4. J AnOKAAY^IS Ifi ANNOY 323 

^b. c. i^^\ ouScJ? iBvvaTO fxaOelv rrjv wS-qv, 

ct fxr] ai eKarov TicrcTepaKovra T€(rcrape<; )^i\id8t^ (a)' 
4''* orroi ol a.KoXov6ovvTe<i T<3 apvi(a ottov av VTrdyti. 

^^' ovToi rjyopdaBrjaav diro twv avOpwirwv anap^^rj t(S 6f<2 (^), 

(a) Text adds following interpolation : 3*^. oi r}-yopa.<T ixivoi a/ir6 t^i 7^r 
4^*", o^Tol eiaiv ol /xerd yvvaiKwv ovk i/xoXwOrjcrav trapOivoi yap eiaiv, 
{b) Text adds gloss : Kai rt^ apvltfi. 

cantabant Pr gig vg arm | wo- wSt/i/ AC i. 35*. 2015. 2019. 2036. 

2037. 2038. 2040 all* vg s^ sa : wo- > K 025. 046. 20 (-35*. 
2040). 250. 2067 al^'" Pr gig s'^ arm bo eth : ev wSt; {naiv-q) 
bo I toSr/i/ Kaivrjv] ~ 1934 | Katvi^v] + Kai r]v S {rjv above the line) 
: pr KOI arm^ | evwmov tov ^poj^oi;] > 42. 498. 19 18. 2020 : 
+ TOU 6iov gig arm^- ^ | Kai^ >► 42. 498. 1918. 2020 | reo-o-apcov 
> 205 I /cat Tcov Trpea/SvTepoiv > C arni^- ^ | kui^] + tvoyrrLov 
N gig s^ arm^- *• ** | ouStto-] ovSe cto- 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 620. 

1934. 2020. 2040). no. 201. 385. 429. 1955. 2016. 2017 -.OVK 

arm* | eSwaro AxC 20 ( — 386. 617. 2040) al : rjBvvaTO 025. 
046. 250. 386. 617. 2037. 2040. 2067 aP' : ov Suvarai 2038 
(arm^- «) : 7]8vvaixr]v arm* | fxadeiv] dicere Pr gig vg i-s** ^'^<:^^<') . " to 
know" arm" bo eth | ec /t^T^J/cais^ | at > X*^ 104. 620. 1849. 1955. 
2004. 2015. 2017* I €KaTov TecraepaKovTa T€(T<Tap€cr Aii'^(C) '■ (KaTov 
T€(T(TepaKOVTa fiiav N* : Tecraapecr > C : ccarov Tto-o-apaKovra rtcr- 
crapea- 025. 386. (620). 1934. 2040 : c/carov fx8' I : pp.S' 046, 20 
(-386. 620. 1934. 2040) al"'" I x^'^'aSeo- >Pr I 01 r)yopaa-p.«.voL 
airo TTjar yrja] quae empta erant de terris Pr |. 

4. ouToi . , . av oiraYCi] ovtol cionv ot a/co\ou^ouvT«o- . . . vTrayrj 
01 jU,eTa yvvaLK<jiv . . . yap etcriv 205 | ouTOt eio-tv >A (205) | 
ep.okvvdrj(rav] €fjio\vvav ra ifxarta avTOiv bo | cio-iv^] permanserunt 
Pr Cyp I ovTOL^ AxC 025. i. 2015. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040 gig 
vga- 6 s^ (arm^- 2- ^- ") : +ctcrtv 046. 20 (-(205). 2020. 2040). 
250. 2067 Or* Tyc Pr vg*^-^ Cyp s^* arm* bo | ot^ >x | aKoXov- 
dovvTior^ aKoXov67](TavT€cr 920 s | ottov av AnC 025. I. 35. 172. 
205. 250. 314. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 

2038. 2040. 2067 al'"" : av > 1849 : ottov eav 046, 20 ( - 35. 205. 
1849. 2020. 2040). 61. 69. 104. no. 201. 241. 242. 385. 429. 
1955. 2016. 2017. 2024 al™ Or^ I vTrayet AC 104. 172. 336. 620. 
2015. 2019. 2038 S^ : vadit Pr : virayr} X 025. 046. 21 { — 620). 
250. 2037. 2067 aP^ Or* s^ : ierit Tyc (gig vg) : "shall go" arm | 
riyopaadrja-av AxC 025. I. 172. 250. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 alP Pr gig vg s^ (arm*) bo eth : pr vtto 
I?;o-ov 046. 051. 20 (- 2040). 69. 104. no. 314. 385. 2016 al""" 
Or* S^ I ttTTO Twv avdpoiirwv > C ( airapxq AC 025. 046. 20 
( — 620). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Or* gig vg s arm* bo : 
aTT apxw K 336. 620. 1918 : ab exordio Pr (placed after rat 
apvLdj) : >eth I TUi a/Dvtoj] pr ev H* : tov apviov arm |. 



324 AnOKAAY*I5 inANNOY [XIV. 5-7. 

uffiv 5' f*^"^ *" ■''*? o"TO/AaTt avriov ov\ evpeOrj if/ivSo^' 

afX(jyfJiOL ^ydp iarnv^. 

6. Kai flSov aXXov dyycXov Treroftevov iv ficcrovpav^fiaTi, 
<a$riiJ,ivovs Ivovra dayyeXiov alu>viov evayytXicrai eirt Toiis ^ KaroiKovvras 

iirl T^s yrj'i kol eirl irav (dvo<i kol (f>vkrjv Kol y\iji<T<Tav Kai 
Aoov, \ey(t}v iv <f>*tiv^ fieydXy 

7. <I>o)8^^rjT€ Tov ^eov Koi Sore avrto Sofav, 
OTi ^A,^ev rj wpa t^s Kpicrctos auTOv, 

/cai TTpocrKwiqaaTe tuI 7roiT^<ravTi tov ovpavov 
Kai T^i' y^v /cat ^aAatrcrav /cat irT^yas vSarwi'. 

5. Kai] OTt s^ : > Pr | ev tu> arofxarL avrtov ou;( evpedrj AxC 025. 
I. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2041. 2067 al Or" Tyc gig vg s : in quorum ore non est Pr : 
ovx ivpeOr] ev tu) crTOfxaTi. avTiav 046. 20 ( — 35. 205. 2040). 69. 
82. 104. no. 250. 314. 385. 429. 2016. 2017. 2018 al (bo) eth | 
ev TO) (TTOfiaTi] ev tolct (TTOfxacn 3™!"* bo | if/ev8o(r'\ -SoXoa- I. 2037 
alP arm^ | a/xw/xot yap ctcrtv N 046. 20 (-35). 250. 2037. 2038. 
2067 aP^ Or* vg""*- ^-"^ s arm(^- ^- ^'>-* bo sa eth : on afjuopLOL ctcrtv 
051. 35 : yap > AC 025. 181 Tyc gig vg^-s-^. v . gj. inventi sunt 
sine reprehensione Pr | ayu,o)/Aot] afiMfx-qToi 104 | naiv^ + ovroi 
etcrtv ot a/coXou^ovvTccr Ttu apvim 218. 242. 250. 617. 1934 : + 
"before God"arm2 |, 

6. aXXok ayyeXoi/ AN*- '^ 025. 35. 1957. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2040 al™" Pr gig vg Cyp s arm bo eth : ~ 218. 250. 2018 : aXXov 
>i<* 046. 20 ( — 35. 2040). 2038. 2067 alP™ sa : ayyeXov >Tyc | 
7rero/x£vov AC 051. 20 (- 61 7. 919). 69. 250. 385. 1957. 2016. 
2018. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al : 7r€Tu)/i,evov 025. 046. i. 617. 
919 al : TTcra/ACvov N | tv > 35 | /ACcroupavT^yMart] N'^ : /tAco-o) ovpavrj/JiaTi 
a* : fj.€(Tovpavi(T fiari I : ovpavta aifxaTi S^ | €;^ovTa] + ctt avTO) s^ | 
cvayyeXto-at AC 025. 046. 20. 2038. 2067 al^' : trayycXtaao-^ai 
(^5) 60. 218. 250 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036, 2037. 2041 : 
pr ep^ofxevov 2015. 2036. 2037 : euayyeXt^ovra bo | ctti^ AxC 025. 
218. 250. 2018 s^ : >o46. 20. 498. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP' | tov<t 
KaroLKovvTaar A 051. 35*. 61. 69. 2015. 2036. 2037 aP s^ Tyc : 
Tovcr Kadr)ix€Vov<T HC 025. 046. 20 ( - 35*. 2020). 250. 2067 al^™ 
S^ Pr gig vg : touct KaOrjfievovcr ( + Kat 2019) tovc /carot/cowracr i. 
205. 2019. 2038 : Toto- Ka6r)fX€vot(r 498. 2020 : > Cyp arm^- 2. 3. a | 
«7rt TTjcr yrfo- >• arm^- ^- " | /cat e-rn irav . . . Xaov >Tyc | eiri^ > 
I. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 I c^vXt/v /cat yXucrcrav /cat Xaov] 
XaoDcr K. (f>vkacr k, yXwcro-av S^ ; Tratrav </)i>X. k. iravra Xaov k. 
iracrav yXwcrcrav bo |. 

7. Xeywi'] >N : tr after fieyaXr] 104. 620 : Xcyovra 051. i. 
35 Pr Cyp I fv <^<ov7; fityaXij] ev >A : magna voce vg : >Tyc | 



XIV. 8-9.] AnOKAAYM'12 mANNOY 325 

8. Koi aWos ocuTcpos ayycXos "^KoXovOijarev Acytov 

Erreafv trrecrev BaySvXwv rj fxeydXr), 

rj fK Tov OLvov [toC 6vfiov^ Trjs ■tropvua<i avTrj% revoTiKtv 
iravra to Wvr). 

9, Kai aXXos ayycXos TpiTO<; ■^Ko\ov6r](rev avTois Xeytov iv (fxovfj 

fieydXr) 
Et Tt? irpncrKVvei to Orjpiov Koi rrfv eiKova avrov, 
KOI Xafi^a.v€i '^TO ^apayfia} ctti f tov fi€Tu>Trov J avrov ■q iirl X°-P°-yi^" 

rrjv x^^p I avrov, 

fftofirjOrjTe] metuite potius Pr Cyp | tov Oeov AnC 025. i. 35. 205. 
250. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 alP 
Pr vg Cyp s arm^- 2- 4- « bo : tov Kvptov 046. 20 ( — 35. 205. 2040) 
alpm jy(, gig arm^ | aurw Sofav] ~ 2015. 2020 | avTov >i. 104 | 
TO) TTOirja-ax'TL AnC 025. I. 35. 205. 250. 1957. 2018. 20ig. 2023. 

2036. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 : pr avTtii 94. 104. 336. 620. 1918. 
2020 : avTov 7rotr]cravTa 046* : avTov tov iroLTjaavTa 046**. 20 
(-35. 205. 468. 620. 2020. 2040). 2037 al™" : avT<D ToviroLrjaavTa 
468 : deum qui fecit gig arm^ | koi BaXaaa-av AC 025. 314. 2040 : 
Kat 6aXa(T(ra<T i : koi T-qv 6aXa(T(rav N 046. 051. 21 ( — 2040). 250. 

2037. 2038. 2067 alP"" bo : Kttt >2oi9 Pr vg^ ^ Cyp arm^- ^ | 
TTTjyaa- vSarwv] ratr injyacr twv v^twv 61. 69 : ra vSara bo : omnia 
quae in eis sunt Cyp arm^- ^* |. 

8. aXXoo- SEUTcpoo' aYyeXotr A 046. 20 (—18. 35. 205. 2040). 
I. 250. 2037 al™"^ Pr armi-2-3-* bo : ^^vT^pocr >69 Tyc vg eth : 
ayyeXotr >X* 2040 S^ : aXXocr ayyeXocr Seirrepov C : aXXotr ayycXoo" 
Seirrepoo" K'= 025. 18. 35. 60. 94. 104. 141. 205. 209. 314. 432. 
1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. (2038). 2041. 2067 s- arm* : aXXoa- > 
2019 gig I -qKoXovO-qa-iv^ r/XOev 205 : T]KoXov6e(. S^ : + avTotcr 468*. 
620 : +avT(i) Pr s arm^- ^- " bo eth | Xeywv . . . rjKoXovOrjaev (ver. 9) 
>X* (suppl. N*=) 325. 456 I Xcya)v] + €v (fxovq p^yaXrj 205. 620** | 

€7r€0-€I' €Tr€(T€V A O25. I. 35. 24I. 432. 632**. I957. 2OI5. 2OI9. 

2023. 2036. 2037. 2040. 2067 alP Tyc Pr gig vg s arm^- '' : " is 
fallen, is lost" arm* : cttcctcv K*^ C 046. 20 ( - 35. 325. 456. 632**. 
2040). 250. 2038 al™" arm^ bo eth : tTreaev e-n-ea-ev ema-ev arm^ | 
7} €K TOV AC 218. 250. 424. 506. 2018. 2020. 2039. 2040 Tyc vg 
s : t; > S° 025. 046. 20 ( -325. 456. 2020. 2040) al°»^ Pr gig 
arm* bo : on c/c tou i. 2019. 2037. 2067 | tov Ovfiov -n/cr Tropvctacr] 
Tr](r iropvfiacr tov dvfiov 920 | tov Ovpov >• I. 2037. 2041 | tt/o" 
Tropvfiacr] ttjct tropviacr K'^C 046 : >arm* | avTqa-^ TavT-qa 046. 82. 

104. 175. 337. 385. 617. 620. 919. 920. 1849. 1934 al** I Tr€7rOTlK€V 

A 025. 046 min'*""""* Tyc vg eth : 7r«7rTw/cav N*-' 181 {-Kfv). Pr 
arm* bo sa : Tj-enoLrjKev 919 : biberunt gig j. 

0. Kai > 386 I aXXoo- ayyeXoo- TptTocr AC 02 5. 046. 20 ( — 325. 
456. 1849). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP"" gig vg s arm^-* : ayycXoo- 



326 AnOKAAY*l2 in ANNOY [XIV. 10-11. 

lO. Ktti avTos TTieraL Ik tov olvov tou Ovfiov tov Oeov 

Tov K(K€paa/xevov aKparov ei' tw ttotyjplio t^s opyrjs avTov, 
Kal /?acravio"^7^0'CTai iv Trvpl /<at Oeiw 
ivwTTiov tC)v ayytXiDV koI cvwttiov tov dpvLOv. 

XI. Kai o Kairvos Toi) (SacravLapiOv avTuiv cis atoii/as aiwi/wv 
dx/a/SaiVci, 
Kai ovK e)(ovcnv draTraufrtv rjp.€pas Kai vvkto<;, 

ol 7rpO(TKVVOVl'T€^ TO 6r]pL0V Kttt T^V CtKOPtt aVTOX), 

Kal €1 Tis Xafji/3dv€i TO )^dpayfia tov ovofiaros avrov. (a) 
(a) Vers. 12-13 have been restored to their original context after xiii. 18. 

aXXocr rpiToa 1849 • ''^^oc ayy^Xocr rjKoXovOrjcrev t/oitoo" X'' : aXXocr 
rpiToa- ayyeXoa- arm^- 2- * bo : tertius angelus Pr eth : rpiTocr > i. 
61. 69 : ayyeXocr 181 | auToicr] airrw A Pr arm^- 2- ^ | ev <fi(Dvrj 
fieyaXr)^ €i/ > 617 : voce magna Pr gig vg : > bo | irpoa-Kw^i] 
irpoarKwrjo-ei 2020 arm^ bo : adoraverit vg : "hath worshipped" 
arm*'' "^ | to drjpiov^ t<d drjpun C 468. 2040 : to dvcrLaa-Trjpiov A : 
TO TTOTrjpiov 69 : tr TO Srjpiov before irpoa-Kwn i | Trjv €iKOva] rrj 
tiKOVL 104. 468. 620. 19 1 8. 2040 I avTOv] avTdiv C I Kai^ >C 69 | 

Xap.(iave.i\ ATji/^cTai arm^ bo : " hath received " arm^- ^^ « | to 

Xapayfia 250. 432. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2040 arm^- 2- 3- a gl- 2(?) . 

Xapay/xa Ax 025. 046 minP^. to is here necessary. Its absence 
is due either to a slip of the author or to a primitive corruption. | 
)(apayiJ.a] nomen Pr : + auTou s^- ^ arm (^- ^- ^- «) | tov fxeTunrov] to 
fX€T<t>7rw a I rj em tyjv X^V" clvtov >S^ arm^ | auTov^ >6i. 69 [. 

10. »cai^>boeth I oivou]7roTi7/3touarm^'^-^'* | tou ^cov] tou Kupiou 
S^ : avrov 61. 69 : >arm^ | aKparov >-Pr Cyp | €v tw iroTrjpLw] ck 
TOV rrorrjpLov A 104. 336. 620. 1918 | tt^o" opyT^o"] tyjv opyqv A \ 
avTov >Pr arm^" ^^ * | Paa-avKrOrja-^Tai^ ^acravLaOqaovTat A 61. 69. 
IIO. 2004**. 2019. 2040 bo I TOJi/ ayyeX<Du A 506 bo : t. ayy. avTov 
eth : ayyeXwv aytwi/ N" 025. 35. 61. 2004**. 2020. 2040 gig vg 
S sa : ayycXwi/ Kat ayuav 2038 : ayiwi/ ayycAo)!/ 69 ( + ayioji' 20 1 9) : 
Twv ayiwi/ ayycXwv 046. 20 ( - 35. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 250. 2037. 

2067 alP' Pr Cyp arm^^- ^- '■^'>- * : " God " arm" | apvLov] Opovov s^ j. 

11. Tou ^aaafiaiJiou] tormentorum vg arm^- * : de tormentis Pr 
Cyp : >arm^'2* | avTwv] avTov 104. 205. 336. 452. 1918. 2021. 
2023 arm^- * | cio- atwi/aa . . . avafiaiviL > 620 | €i(r aiwvacr 
( + TWV X) auavQiv AN 046. 20 ( - 205. 468*. 920. 1934. 2004**). 
250. 2038 alP^ Pr gig vg Cyp S arm : etcr aiwva anovua- C 205. 
2015. 2036 : €to- atcui/a aiwvwv 025. 051. i. 61. 69. 104. 468*. 
920. 1849. 1934' 2037. 2067 : €to- atcovwv 2004** : "for ever" 
bo I ava;8aij/€i] ascendet gig vg*=- ^- ^- ^ Cyp arm bo : tr before eto- 
aniivacr twv aioivtav Pr arm* bo sa (eth) ( f.)(ov(nv^^ habebunt Pr Cyp j 
ava7ravo"tv] tr after vvKTOfT 35*. 2020 | to Orjpiov Kai Tr]v eifcova] 



XIV. 14.] AnOKAAYMS Ifi ANNOY 327 

14. Kai eiSov, Koi iSov v€(j>i\r] XevKi^, 

Koi £7ri r^v v€<f)eXif]v J Kadrjfievov Ojxoiov f vlov avOpwirov, 
t)(ii}v €7ri Tip' Kecfjukyju avTov crT€<^avov )^pv(rovv 
Koi. ev Trj X^^P'^ avTOV Speiravov 6$v, {a) 
(a) Text adds here a doublet of xiv. 18-20 from another hand. See vol. 
ii. 3, 18 (ad Jin.), 21 sq. : 15. Kat aWos ikyyeXo^ i^rjXdev iK rod paov, Kpd^uu iv 
(puvy neydXri tQ KadTj/xifLj €Tri rrjs ve<p(\T]i 

Ild/jL\f/ov rb dpitravov crov kolI dipiaov, 

Sri. rfKdev i] iopa depiffat, 

6ti it,ripd.vdri 6 depicr/xbs rijs yrjs. 

l6. Kal^^aKev 6 Kadrj/xevoi eirl tjjs vecpiXyjs rb Spiiravov avTOv iirl t^v yrjy, 

T(0 6r]pLW KUL TT] ilKOVL 468. 2OI9. 2O4O I T^ €lKOVr] IO4 | TO^ 
>I. 205. 2037* |. 

14. Ktti eiSoi' > N S^ eth I Kat i8ov > bo eth | vcc^eX?; XevKij] 
nubem albam Tyc Pr : nubem candidam vg bo | ctti rrjv 
ve^eXr/v KaOrj/xevov^ supersedentem Tyc | rrjv vc^cAt/v] tt) I'ecfieXr] 
2004** I KaBrjfxevov oixoiov] KaBrjfjiivoa- o/xotoa I. 104. 205. 620. 
632. 1957. 2023. 2037. 2067 al I ofjLOLov >■ Tyc eth | vlov AH 
046. 42. 61. 69. 82, no. 201. 218. 325. 337. 386. 429. 452. 
456. 517. 522. 919. 920. 2016. 2017. 2021. 2024. 2036 Tyc: 
VLU)V 2015 : vLoa i : viov 025. 506 : ma> C 051. 20 (-325. 337* 
386. 456. 919. 920). 104. 250. 314. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP" Pr 
gig vg s^ : TO) VLw s^ I avdpMTTOv^ pr Tov S^ : avBpuiTTio 620. 2020 I 
€xwv A 025. 046. 20 ( — 325. 456. 468. 2004**. 2020. 2040). I. 
314. 2037, 2038. 2067 Tyc : pr o 2041 : €x°^ ^"C : €;^ovTa N* 
42. 325. 385. 452**. 456-468. 506. 517. 2004**. 2015. 2036. 
2040 Pr vg : e^oi'Tt 2020 gig | ctti rrjv Kt<fiaXrjv A 18. IIO. 141. 
201. 385. 386. 429. 522. 632. 919. 1849. 1955. 2015. 2020. 2036 
: eirt ttjo- Ki<i>aXy]a- nC 025. 046. 20 ( — 18. 386. 632. 919. 1849. 
2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al°'" : in capite Tyc gig vg : super 
caput Pr I €v rr] x« vj ^'''^ '''V^ X^'-P^ ^^ 1 o'-'^tov^] + habens Tyc : + 
" he had " arm^- ^■^- °- \ o$v] XevKov s^ |. 

15. aXXoor ayveXoa] ~ 20l6. 202o|ck tov vaov^ tr. after 
Kpa^div A : >Pr | vaov] + avTov S : ovpavov 051. I. 35. 104. 181. 
205. 336. 632**. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP 
arm^- *• <* | €v (J3wvr] ixeyaXrj] + Xcywv bo eth : (arm^- ^- ") : ev 
jxeyaXr] ty} <fi(Dvr) i : > Pr | ne/xij/ov . . . rrjcr yrjcr > S^^^ | Kat 
depiarov >arm'^ | 7/X^ev] 4- o-ou 051. i. 35*. 181. 2019. 2037. 2038 
:+(roi 104*. 620 alP | Oepicrai AC 025. 046. 20(-l8. 468**. 
632. 919. 1849. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 
al™" : pr tov 18. 385. 468**. 632. 919. 1849. 1955. 1957. 
2004**. 2023. 2040. 2041 aP : TOV OepLo-fjiov H 2020 : "of (the) 
reaping of the earth" bo | otl €$r]pav6r] . . . yj/cr >s^-(^^ bo | 
e$ripa} Or]] " is arrived " arm^- ^- ^- " |. 

16. ver. 16 >arm* | o Kady/xevocr . . . vetfifX-qa- >S^ | «7ri T-q(T 
V€<j>. . . . avTOV > I I Tfja- v^cfteXqa AN 241. 336*. 498. 20 1 9. 



328 AHOKAAY^IS IQANNOY [XIV. 18 19. 

1 8. Kat aAXos dyyeXo9 i$rj\6€V £k tov OvaiacTT'qpiov (a), koI 

i(f)0}i'r}(rev <f>wvfj /xeyaXry tw I^^ovti to hpiiravov to o^v Xc'ycov 

Tlefi\{/ov (TOV TO Spiiravov to 6$v , 

Kai Tpvyrjaov tovs ySoTpuas t^s afiiriXov t^s yrji, 
OTt rjKfjiacrav ai (TTacfivXaL avTrj<i. 

19. Kai cySaAev (^) to Speiravov avTov eis t^v yyjv, 
Kai iTpvyrjaev ttjv dfnrcXov t^s yv^s, 

Ktti eySaXcv ei? t^i' krjvbv tov OvfjLov toS ^eov tov /Acyav. 

/cai iOepiadi} t) yrj. 17. Kat dXXos (i77e\os i^iiXOev iK tov faov tov iv T<fj 
ovpavi^, ^xwv Kai avrds Spiiravov 6^v. 

(a) Text adds a gloss : 6 ^xw** e^ouor^ai' ^7ri roO irvpds. 

(l>) 6 fi77e\o5 is here added by the interpolator of 15-17. 

2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 : TTjv v€(fi€kr}v C 025. 35. 175. 205. 250. 
468. 617. 620. 1934. 2004**. 2040 aP"" : T-q ve(j>€\ri 046. 20 ( - 35. 
175. 205. 468. 617. 620. 1934. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 42. 61. 69. 
104. no. 201. 1955 I KO-i- iOtptaOrj rj y>^] /cat ideptatv ttjv yrjv 
vg^- " : demessus est terram fl : > bo |. 

17. ver. I7>69. 2039 | €$r)\(^€v^rjX6tv 046 | yaov. . . ovpavt3i] 
ovpavov bo I tov ev tw ovpavoij tov > 104. 14 1. 620. 1849 : tw 
>»C : pr Tou 6eov arm'* : auTou ev tw ovpavo} 205 | »cat auroa > bo 
sa I SpcTTttvov o^v] pop.(f3aLav ofeiav bo (also in ver. 18) |. 

18. elrjXOec] 5>A 2038 Pr : tr after OvaiacrTrjpiov 35 | c/c tov 
^vo-iao-Tr;piov] > Pr : de ara dei fl | o tx^^ AC s gig vg (arm) 
eth : o >N 025. 046. 20 al"™" fl bo | €^uii'r]a-ev] + €v20 (-35. 
205- 325. 337. 456. 468. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 69. 104. no. 
250. 314 aP I €(fiwyr}<Tiv] €Kpa$ev S | (ftuivrj AH 046. 337. 920. 
2004**. 2016. 2020. 2040 fl gig vg s^ arm^'^-^-" eth ; Kpavyy C 
025. 20 ( - 337. 920. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 250. 2037. 2038. 
2067 alP* $2 bo : "tongue" arm* | Xcywi'] x*^ : Aeyw N* : >s^ | 
Trefji.il/ov . . . o$v Kat] >>arm^- 2. a . <« come thou " arm^ | ttc/xi/^ov] + 
(TV s^ j (TOV TO S/3€7ravov] + aov 385 : to Speiravov aov S | /SoTpvao"] 
ySoravao- 201. 386 : ^oTpva 2015, 2036. 2038 | ti70- a/x7rcXov] vine- 
arum fl : > l arm^ | oti rjKfiaa-av . . . avT-rja- > bo | rjKfiao-av (rj^- 
A : T?y- 620) ai aTa<}iv\at AxC 025. I. 35. 104. 205. 468**. 620. 
632**. 2004**. 2015. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 
al gig vg (fl) S^^)- '^ : rjKpiaa-tv 17 o-Ta^vXrj 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 
468**. 620. 632**. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 250 al™^ arm^- ^- ■*• " I 
avTYja- AxC 025. I. 35. 205. 468**. 632**. 2004**. 2015. 2020. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 al""" gig vg fl s^ arm^- 2- "* eth : ev 
avTi7 arm* : tt^o- yrjcr 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 468**. 632**. 2004**. 
2020. 2040). 104. 250 al'"" s^ |. 

19. e^aXek AxC 025. 046. 35. 205. 620. 632**. 2004**. 2020. 
2040 : misit gig vg fl : e$e/3a\ev 20 ( - 35. 205. 620. 632**. 2004**. 
2020. 2040). 82. 104. 1 10. 172. 250. 385 al'' I eis T-qv yrfv AC 



XIV. 20-XV. 2.] AnOKAAY^IS Ifi ANNOY 329 

20. Koi iiraTrjOr] r/ Xt^vos i^aiOtv t^? TroXews, 

Kot i^rjXOev at/xa ck rrj^ Xrjvov a)(pi twi' ^aXivcuv Tciv Mnriov 
aTTO oraStajv ^^tXiW i^aKO<TC(ov. 

025. 046. 20 (-2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP' gig vg fl s* 
bo : €7ri rrja- yqa X 498. 2020 s^ arm^- 3- 4. « | fto- -j-fji, Xrjvov . . , 
Tov fifyav A(C) 025. 046. 20 ( - 205. 386. 620. 632**. 2004**. 
2040). 61. 69. no. 141. 242. 314. 385. 452. 2016. 2017. 2021. 
2022. 2023*. 2024. 2039. 2041 aF s^ : TOV fjLiyav >i8i. 424 : 
€icr TOV Xrjyov . . . tov fityav I. 201. 386. 498. 522. 1957. 2038 
al : citr tt/i' Xtjvov . . . Trjv fieyaXrjv K 104. 205. 250. 620. 
632**. 2004**. 2015. 2018. 2036. 2037. 2040. 2067 s^ : in 
torculari (-ar fl) . . . magnum Tyc Pr fl : in lacum . . . 
magnum (-am gig) gig vg | Xt^vov] aXwvav C : + tov otvou 2020 | 
Tou OvfjLov] TOV Ovfjiov 386 : >337. 620. 2004** arm^'2- s. a |_ 

20. c-n-aTTjOt)] e7raTr;o-cv (-av eth) arm^- 2 bo eth : €tiOt] i | rj 
Xi^voo-] o Xryvocr 205. 336. 498. 522. 1957. 2004**. 2019. 2020 : 
Tr]v Xrjvov bo : in torcolari Pr fl arm^- 2- 3 j ^^oiOcv AC 025. 046. 
20 (-35. 205. 2020). 250 aP"" : e^u) K i. 35. 205. 2015. 2020. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 : extra Tyc Pr vg fl : a foris extra gig 
I Ti/cr^] Tou 452. 522 I aTTO o-TttSttov] €7ri (TTaSuDV s^ : per stadia Tyc 
vg : per stadios Pr (fl) | ;^tXicov c^a/coo-iwv An'^C 025. 35. 386. 
(620). 632. 1934. 2004**. 2040 Pr fl gig vg bo sa : ^iXtcov 
SiaKocrnov X* 506. 680 : a^' 20 ( — 35. 386. 620. 632. 1934. 
2004**. 2040). 61. 69. no. 314. 498. 2015 al : x*-^- ^i^^f^- «^. 
2037 : ax?' 2036 : ScKo Ktti e$ eth : mille quingentis gig |. 



Chapter XV. 

2. (a) Kai ttSov ws OdXacraav vaXivrjv fitfiiyfxevrjv irvpi, koI tovs 
viKoivTas €K TOV 6rjpiov /cat €k t^s ctKOvos avToC fcal ck tot; dpidixov 
TOV ovofiaTOS avTOv eo-TuJTas ctti t^v ^aXao^o"av t^v vaXLvrjv, IvovTas 

(a) XV. I. is an interpolation : Kai etSov SXKo aajfieiov iv rif ovpavi^ fxiya 
Kol dav/xacrTov, iyy^Xovs ewTO. ix°^''''^^ irXtjyas iirra rds ^trxdras, drt iv aurals 
ireXiadri 6 dv/x6s tou 8eov. The subject of xv. I. is not touched upon till xv. 
5, where the phrase Kai fiera raOra eloov shows that a new section and a new 
subject begin. See vol. i. 106 and footnote ; vol. ii. 30. 

1. OaofJiaoTOi'] davfxaa-Lov 61. 69 | ayycXov?] angelos Stantes 
fl I :rX7/ya(r fTTTaJ ~' 920. 2015. 20l6. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2067 : 
tTTTa >>20I9 I (V avTato-] ev Tavrais 35. 205. 2015. 2036. 2037. 
2038 : in his Tyc |. 

2. uaXik-iic] vitreum perlucidum Tyc | Kai tovo- vik . , . tcrTwToo- 
cTTi TT/f ^aXacro-ai'] et super mare stantes uidi eos qui . . . uictoriam 
ferent fl : at superstantes uidi eos qui . . . uictoriam ferent Pr I 



330 AnOKAAYM5 IQANNOY [XV. 3 4. 

KtBdpa^ Tov OeoVf 3. kol aSovaiv (a) t^ w8r]v tov apviov 
XeyovT€s 

MeyaXa kol 6av}ia<TTa to. cpya <rou, 

KVpie, 6 ^€0S O TraVTOKpOLTWp' 

alidvuv SiKaiat Koi d\7j^ivai at bhoi o'ov, 

6 /SacriAcus TOJV '^c^vwv '. 

4. Tis ou p,r] <f)ofir]d'^, KvpLe, 

Kol Bo$da€t TO OVO/JLO. (TOV, 

OTi fxovos ocrios; 

OTt TraVTtt Ttt £^V»7 l]$OVCrLV 

KOL Trpoa-Kwyjaovaiv iruyrriov crov, 
OTi Ta StKatw/xara (tou i(f}av€po)6rj<Tav. 

(a) Text adds a gloss: rrjv tpdrji' Mwixr^ws toC SoAoi; rod 9eov Kat. 

yiKtovracr] vi/couvrao- C | «k tou ^7/p. Kat e/c tt^ct et/covoo- aurou AC 
025. 18. 35. 205. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al s arm^' 2- * ; « 
T. 6. Kat TT^o- etK. auTou N 104. 336. 620. 1918. 2020 Pr fl : CK 
Tiys ctK. Ktti €K (>-522) TOV dr}p. avTOv (>204o) 046. 20 (- 18. 
35. 205. 620. 632**. 2020). 61. 69. 522 al : €K TOV 6r]p. 
avTov 632** : bestiam et imaginem illius gig vg bo sa eth : 
bestiae Tyc | Kat ck tov apiOp-ov AnC 025. 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 
468. 620) al s armi-2-(*)* : et numerum gig vg bo : Kat €k tow 
)(apayfjLaToa- avTOV Kat (>-20l8. 2019. 2036) €k tou api9p.ov 051. I. 
35. 205. 250. 468. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2067 I Kat eK T. apt^. 
. . . avTov >620 Tyc Pr fl | to-Twracr > Tyc arnil | t. vaXcr-qv 
>fl Pr eth I Kidapao- AnC 025. 35. 632**. 920. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 alP' bo sa : Tao- KiSapacr 046. 20 (-35. 632**. 920. 2040). 
82. 104. no. 172. 201. 250. 385. 498. 2018. 2022 al arm^' *• * I 
TOV ^eou] pr Kvpiov N : >fl L 

3. Kai ah. . . . TOU Ocou > C | Kat^ > bo | aSouatv] aSovTacr N 
743. 1075. 2067 Tyc Pr fl vg s^- 2 bo | t77v^>92o | Mwuo-ewcr AN 
046. I alP' : McDcrccoo- 025 al" | tov SovXov AN 025. i. 35. 205. 250. 
632**. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 ^1 • ^ov\ov 
046. 20 (-35. 205. 632**. 2020). aP' I fiiyaXa kul 6avp.aa-Ta Ta 
epya aov] magna et mirabilia operati sunt Tyc [ o ^too- o > 620 | 
I StKaiai ... at oSot aov^ StKOta Kat aXrjOiva Ta epya crov s^ arm^- * 
I o ^aa-iXivar^ (SacriXcvcr N'^ 429. 632 : /JacrtAev N* 18. 94. 241. 
385. 522. 919. 1849. 2004. 2039 : pr tu es fl I twv edvoiv AS*' 
025. 046. 051. 20 (-2040). I. 69. 104. no. 250. 314. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al gig Cyp arm* bo : omnium gentium Pr fl arra^ eth 
: Tcui' aLwfwy N*C 94. 2040 Tyc vg s : "of aeons and king of 
all Gentiles" arm^-'' |. 

4. Tta] pr Kat 2019 arm" | ov fxr)] ae ov N 2040 | ffto/STjOr] AnC 
025. 046. r. 61. 69. 181. 205. 241. 632**. 2019, 2022. 2040. 



XV. 6-6.] AnOKAAY*l2 m ANNOY 331 

5. Kai /xera ravra eiSov, koI rjvoCyt] 6 vaos f t^S a-Krjvrj^ tov 
fjiaprvpiov f (a) iv rw ovpavw, 6. koI i$rj\6av f 01 ctttoi nyytXoi f (d) 
[01 ^xovT€i ras iirra TrXr)ya<;'\ Ik tov vaov, ivSeSvfiivoi f XtOov f (<r) 
KaOapov XafiTTpov koX irepie^wcrfi^voi rrepl to. (TTrjdr] ^tova? )(pv(ra^. 

(a) For the probable origin of this corrupt phrase, see vol. ii. 37 sq. 
(d) Here the hand that inserted xv. i changed AyyeXoi. iirrd into ol ivrh 
wyy. and added oi Ix*"''''** '''^^ ivra vXrjyds. 
{c) See vol. ii. 38. 

2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 Pr fl gig arm bo : +a€ 051. 20 ( - 205. 
632**. 2040). 104. no. 250. 314. 385 alP' vgs eth | Kupt£>6i. 69 
Pr gig arm eth | 8o|acr€t AC 025. 046. 18. 175. 325. 456. 617. 632. 
920. 1934 al : Tis ov 8o$acrtt 2040 : Soiaa-r] H i. 35. 104. no. 
250- 337- 385. 386. 468. 919. 1849, 2004. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 
alP' : 8o$acroL 205. 620 I fiovocr] pr o 35 : pr av ci 468 s^ : tu solus 
Pr gig arm | oo-iocr AnC 025. i. 205. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2038 
al s^ : pius Pr. vg**-^-& : ci oo-io<r 632**. 2020 : oo-loct ci 2019 al 
: pius es vg^"'*-^-^ : aytoo- 046. 20 (-205. 632**. 2020. 2040). 
104. no. 250. 314 alP' : aytoo- ti 2040. 2067 al : sanctus es gig 
arm* : sanctus et pius es (es et dignus arm^- 2- «) fl arm^- 2- «■ : 
oa-tocr €1 Kat StKatocr S^ | -iravra to tOvr] AnC 025. i. 35. 205. 386. 
2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al Pr fl gig vg s arm bo : iravTa 2040 : 
iravTecr 046. 20 ( — 35. 205. 386. 2020. 2040). 69. 104. 250. 314. 
385. 2022 alP^ I cvwTTiov (rov] + Kvpu A 205. 2040 arm" : to ovop-a 
(TOV bo I Ttt 81K. (TOV (ifiavtpwOrjaav^ 8ik. evwinov aov ttfyav. N : 
(SiKaioor) ei s^ I €<^av€pa)^7;o-av] magnificata sunt vg*^' ^ |. 

6. Ktti^ > Pr fl I p-era ravra] p.(T avra C | KaL^]-^iSov Tyc 
Pr vg arm* : i8ov bo | -qvoiyrj > arm* | o vaoo-] + rov 6iov 620 ; > 
Tyc I rr;s (tk7]vt](t\ +Tr}(r ayiaa gig : 17 (tkt/vt; Tyc | cv rw ovp.] pr 

s^ arm" eth |. 

6. c|tjX9o»' a** K 025. 046 al omn'i : eirjXOav C : eirjXdtv A* "^ 

1 01 €7rra ayycXot] 01 ayycXoi 01 (Trra 325. 456. 468 | 01 €_)(ovr€cr 
AC 20. 250. 2037 al s (arm) bo : ot > N 025. 046. i. 242. 
2036. 2038. 2067 al : habentes gig fl vg : cum (vii plagis) Pr | €k 
TOV vaov AxC 025. I. 35. 104. 205. 241. 385. 620. 632**. 2015. 
2019. 2022. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al gig fl vg s : tr 
before ot^ 201. 386 s^ (bo) : €« tov ovpavov 60. 1957. 2023. 
2041 : >o46. 20 (-35. 205. 386. 620. 632**. 2040). 250 al Pr 
arm^'2 | cvSeSv/ievoi AnC 025. i. 35*. 2040 al Tyc Pr gig fl vg s^ 
arm* bo : pr 01 T^o-av 046. 20 ( - 35*. 2040). 250 alP' (s^) arm^- * I 
Xl6ov KaOapov AC 242. 202o™8. 2039 : lapide mundo vg^"*) : Xlvov 
KaOapov 025. 051. 20 ( — 2020™S). 104. 250. 2037, 2038. 2067 
aP' s arm : Xivow KaOapov 046. 61. 69. 94. 498. 2019 : linteamine 
mundo vg*^ : lintheamen mundum gig : lino mundo Tyc : linea 
munda Pr : linteamina Candida fl : KaOapov; Xivov^ K : "with 
garments of linen" bo | Xap.7rpov] Xap.7rpova- N (bo) : Kai Xapu- 



332 AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY [XV. 7-XVI. 1. 

7. Kal tv €K Twv T€0"(rap<ov ^too)v cScoKCv Tois CTTTa dyye'Xois eTrra 
<^uiAa; \pv(ra'i y€fiovaa<: tov Ovfiov tov Otov rov ^cjvtos cis tovs 
aioivas TtDV atwvtov. 8. xai iytfiiadr] 6 vaos KaTTfot) ck t^s So^t/s tov 
0COV Kal €K T^s Swd/xcws avTov, xal ov5ci9 iSvvaro eia-(\6(lv eis tov 
vaov a)(pi TiXta-dSxTiv ai CTrra 7rX7/yai Toiv Ittto, dyycXwv. 

Trpoi' 2017** Tyc gig s^ arm^-2* : et Candida Pr (arm*) : 
candido vg : >386 fl | Kai^ > i. 205 bo | nepi] > i. rSi. 2016. 
2037. 2067 : €irt 2015. 2036 Tyc s^ bo sa eth |. 

7. €v > K* I. 104. 181. 336. 620. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2039. 
2067 arm* : unus gig fl vg | ck > 205 | eTrra^ > N | xpvo-ao- > Pr 
S^ arm^" * | ytfiovara<r > 325. 456 | touct atwi'ao- Ttov attovo)!/] tov 
ai<i)va TOV atwvoo- 367. 468 : + afj.rjv N 181. 205. 209. 2015 S^ 

bo|. 

8. o faoa] o>i934 : +tou Oiov gig arm* | Kairvov kAC 025. 
I. 35. 205. 620. 632**. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al : pr TOV 
386 : fumo Pr fl gig vg arm : pr c« tov 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 386. 
620. 632**. 2020. 2040). 250 al s bo I €K^ > 468* s^ arm2-3**-a 
bo I €*c2 >Pr arm^-* | eSw. AC 20 (-2040) al^' : -qhw. s i. 250. 
2037. 2040. 2067 al™" I etcrcX^eiv] tr after vaov K : (.XBnv 620 | 
a;(/3i] a^puT ov C | ai tirra irX-qyat^ septem (>-bo) plagae iUae 
Pr bo : septae illae plagae fl | tirra^ > 025. 051. i. 35. 60. 
94. 181. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 
gigl- 



Chapter XVI. 

I. Kat YiKovtra fieydXrj^ <f>wvrj^ €k tov vaov Xtyova-r]^ Tots €7rTa 
dyyeXois "YTrdycTt Kai ck^^cctc tols iirra <fitaX.as tov dvfiov tov 6eov tis 

1. jicyoXTia <^(UKt]iT AC 046. 42. 61. 69. no. 175. 325. 337. 
386. 456. 468. 920. 1934. 2016. 2022. 2040 al bo sa : ~X 025, 
I. 18. 35. 205. 250. 617. 620. 632. 919. 1849, 2004. 2020. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP' Pr gig vg I (fxovrjal + CK t. ovpavoueth | e»c tov vaov 
At<C 025. I. 35. 205. 250. 632**. 2020. 2040. 2067 al s arm* : 
tr after Acyovo-7;tr 2037. 2038 : ck tov ovpavov 42. 367. 468 arm* bo 
sa eth : >-o46. 20 ( -35. 205, 468. 632*. 2020. 2040) alP' arm^ j 
KUL^ > I. 104. 181. 205. 337. 620. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037 
al gig arm^ bo | CK^eeTe AkC 025. i. 181 : f/c;)(eaTe 046. 051. 

20. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al''^ : €K/C€;(€T€ (cf- 61) 61 69 I CTTTtt^ 

>-025. I. 35. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 fl bo 
eth I <f>ia\acr] + quas accepistis Pr ( «s tyjv yqv] «iri tt;v yrjv s^ : 
Karu) bo : eia- t. Trao-av yi;v eth : > fl arm* I. 



XVI. 2-4.] AnOKAAY*I2 IQANNOY 333 

T^v yrjv. 2. Kat airrjXOiv o TrptoTos Kai i$€)^€fv t^v (f>i.d\rjv avTOV cis 
Tr]v yrjv Kai iytviTO cXkos kukov Kai Trovrjpov irrl rot'S a.v6p<ji>Trov^.(a) 
3. Kai 6 StvTtpos i^e)(i€v tyjv <f}LdX7]v avrov els ttjv ddXacrarav' Koi 
iyevtTo aifia ws vtKpov, koi Tracra i/'u;(t/ ^<^V'* oiTreOaveVy to. iv t^ 
daXdo'crj]. 4. Kai 6 TpLTO<i €^€)(£€y r^v ff)LdX.r]v avrov «is Tous Trora/iovs 
Kai Tas iTT/yas Taiv iSarwv kol iyivovro alfia.{b) 

(a) Text adds the gloss : toi)s ^x'"'''''*^ '''^ x^P^-ll^^ '''ov dripiov /cot toi>j 
irpfxr/cwoOi'Taj t^ eiKdvi aiirov. See vol. ii. 43. 

(d) Text adds an interpolation ^^ : /cat iJKovcra tou dyy^Xov tQv vddruy 
\4yovros, in order to introduce 5''-7. These clauses 5''-7 originally followed 
after xix. 4, to which context they are restored in this edition. See vol. ii. 
122 sq., 116 sq. 

2. KOI airT)X6. . . . eio- ttji' yrji' >>X* | Trpwroa] + ayycXocr 1 7 2. 
181. 218. 250. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037 arm^-^-* bo eth 
I etcr] cTTi I. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 
2067 S^ I Tr)v yr)v] T7}(r yr/cr 2038 j eXKOcr kukov Kai Trovrjpov^ 
cXkov {-Koa H°) TTOvqpov Kai KaKOV N* : KaKov > A 1849 • i^o-kov 
Kai >2o67 bo eth : vulnus pessimum magnum Pr : ulcus saevum 
et malum fl : vulnus magnum (saevum vg) et pessimum gig vg | 
cTTi] €ia I. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 
2067 al : in gig vg bo | to \apayii.a\ tr after Brjpiov 620 : -f nominis 
Pr I Kai^ >fl I Tova-^ > 104. 385. 620. 1918. 2015. 2036. 2037 ( 
Trpoo-Kw.] tr after eiKova I. 2037 I TT) eiKovi] ttijv €iKOva S i. 35. 

2036. 2037. 2067 : >> arm^ | 

3. Kai oSeuT. e^ex^^*' > *** I Seurcpoo- AK*^C 025. 94. 2040 Pr 
fl gig vg arm* eth : +ayyeA.ocr 046. 20 (-2040). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP' s armi-2-3i bo | cyci/eroj + i; BaXaara-a fi gig s^ 
eth I ai;u,a oxr v€/cpov] tucr ai/xa vCKpov 104. 181. 205. 620. I918. 
2038 : velut mortuis sanguis fl | oxr vcKpov >Pr ( wo-] oxri K : > 
I. 209. 468** I ilfvxv] ^'^XVf^ A I ^wrjcr AC 2040 eth : ^wo-a N 025. 
046. 051. I. 35. 104. 205. 620. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 Tyc gig vg s^-2 arm" bo sa : quae erant viventes fl : 
>20 ( — 35. 205. 620. 2020. 2040). 69. 110. 250. 314 al Pr arm^- ^ 
I Ta AC 2038 s^ : Twv 2040 : > N 025. 046. 20 ( - 2040). 250. 

2037. 2067 al Tyc Pr fl gig vg s^ bo | aireOavtv] tr after daXaararj 
1948. 2014. 2015. 2034. 2042 arm^-2-3.a | ^y ^^ daXj\ tin rrja- 
6aXacr(Ty)(T N |. 

4. Tp iTo<r] + ayy eXoo" 051. I. 35. 172. 205. 250. 1957. 2018. 

2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 s arm^- 2- * bo | 

€icr\ fTTi ^i 051. 94. 2ot6 Pr vg bo sa | ran- AxC 025. 35. 60. 1957. 

2022. 2023. 2036. 2038. 2040. 2041 Pr fl gig arm bo : pr eis 046. 

20 (-35. 2040). I. 250. 2037. 2067 al s : pr em 94. 2016 vg | 

eycvovTo A 2019. 2040 Pr fl gig s arm^ bo sa eth : cycvero 

SC 025. 046. 20 ( - 2040). I. 350. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP* vg 
armi-3.4.»i 



334 AnOKAAY*I2 IfiANNOY [XVI. 8-12. 

8. Kai 6 TcVapTOS iiexitv rrjv (fiLaXrjv avTOv etrl rov ^Xiov' Koi 
ihodrj auTw KavfiaricraL tous avOpuyirovi iv irvpi' 9. koX iKavfiaTic- 
Orjirav 01 avOpoyiroi Kavfxa yueya, xat ip\aa<f)i^fJi.r}<Tav to ovofia tov 6eov 
Tov £^o^TO? Tr]v i^ova-Lav iirl ras 7rAr;yas TaiJras, koi ov fJi€T€v6r](Tav 
Sovvai avTu) So^av. 

10. Kai 6 TreyLtTTTOS i^ixitv rrjv (fudXrjv avTov ctti tov 6p6vov tov 
Brjpiov' KoX £yev€TO 17 (SacnXiia avTOV ecTKOTwyLtevrj (a) . . . koX ep.a- 
(rwvTO Tas yXo>cro"as avToiv e/c tov irovov, 1 1 . Kai i^\a(r<f>r]fxr]aay 

TOV 6€0V TOV OVpaVOV €K TWV TTOViJiV aVTWV KoX €K TWV IAkuiV aVTuiv, 

Ktti ou fji(T(v6r](rav ck Ttiiv epywv auTtlij'. 12. Kat o Iktos ($exf€v 
{a) Several clauses lost here : see vol. ii. 45 sq, 

5^. Tou oyycXou] angelos Pr | tcov vSaTcDv] pr tov ctti 2040 : tr 
after XcyovToo- 205 : quartum gig |. 

8. TtTopToo- AC 025. 046. 175. 325. 337. 468. 617. 620. 632*. 
920. 1849. 1934- 2004. 2040 al gig vg("''> s^ arm^-* : +ayy£A,oo- K 
051. I. 18. 35. 205. 250. 314. 386. 456. 632**. 919. 1957. 2015. 
2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 al"* Tyc 
Pr vg*^ s^ arm^- 2- » bo sa eth | ctti] in gig vg | Kavp.a.Tia-ai tov<t 
avdp. ev (>K 2038) Trvpt AH 025. 35. 205. 2020. 2038. 2040 
gig s(^)- 2 : aestu afficere horn, et igni vg : Kuvp.. €v irvpL t. av6p. 046. 
20 ( - 35. 205. 2020. 2040). 250 alP' : ignem et aestum inicere 
hominibus Pr | ev Trvpij KavfxaTL fJieyaXw bo |. 

9. Kaup,a p.€yci] Kavfian /leyaAw 94. 2015. 2036. 2037 :>bo | 
epXa(T(f)r]fx,r]<Tav AnC 025. I. 205. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2040. 2067 al Tyc Pr gig vg s^ arm^- ^- *• " bo : +01 avOpwiroi. 046. 
20 ( - 205. 2020. 2040). 250 alP^ S^ arm^ | to ovoyu,a] evwTrtov A : 
KttTa TOV ovofiaTocr 2040 : cio" to ovofia 20 15 : >■ arm" | ttjv AK 
025. 35. 60. 181. 205. 432. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2038. 2041. 
2067 : > C 046. 20 ( — 35. 205). I. 250. 2037 alP' arm bo | ov] 
ov;(i C |. 

10. Trep,irToa AnC 025. 046. 20 ( - 35. 205) gig vg^"*^) s^ arm^- * 
sa eth al : +ayyc\oo- 051. 35. 172. 205. 250. 1957. 2018. 2019. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 al Tyc Pr vg** s^ arm^- 2- * bo 
: ayycXoo" I | tov Opovov^ tov dpovov 2020 | tcTKOTw/xevr] AK*C 025. 
20 (-456) : ca-KOTLO-fJiivrj ii.'^- ^ 046. 456. 385. 2015. 2037. 
2067 I cfxaawvTO AnC 025 al™** : e/xaa-a: 046 al""^ | €*c] airo S 051. 
35 Tyc bo sa | tov -n-ovov] doloribus suis Tyc |. 

11. ver. 1 1 > Pr | tov Oeov t. ovp.] to ovofia tov $tov ( + tov ovp. 
S^) 1957 S^ I Kat £K Ttov cXkwv avT.] >N 172. 2022. 2031 arm* : Kat 
€K. T. epy<jiv avTcov bo | ek^ >'025. 205. 2020. 2038. 2067 | eAkidv] 

«A,KOVO-(DV 2020 I /A£T€V07yO"€v] tr aftCr aVTWv' 468 | £K TU)V. Cpy. OVTWV 

>• N gig arm^- ^ |. 

12. EKToa] + ayyfXoo- 051. 35. 172. 205. 250. 620. 632**. 1957. 
2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 Tyc Pr 



XVI. 13-14.] AnOKAAY»I'l2 lOANNOY 335 

T^v «f>id\r]v avTOV evl tov irorafiov tov /i4yau rov ^FiV(}>pdTr]v^' Ev4>p6.Trjv 

KOI iir}pdv6r] to vSwp avrov, iva iToifiaadrj rj 686s rail' ^acriXctov 

Twv aTTO '^dvttToA.^S^ yjXiov. 1 3. koX iihov ck tov (TTOfiaro^ rov ivaroKwi' 

SpaKOVTOS Koi €K TOV (TTO/iaTOS TOV OrjpiOV KOI fK TOl) (TTOfiaTO^ 

Tou il/evSovpo<f>i^TOV TTVivp-aTa Tpia a,Kd$apTa.(a) 14. fa iKiropev- 

cTot t {b) €Tr\ Tovs fSaa-iXeLS ttJs olKovfiivrjs oAtjs, crwayayeiv auTous €is 

TOV TToX-Cfiov Trj<s ^■fjfj.epa's t^s /icyaXT/s^ toO 6iov tov TravTOKpa.Topo%.{c) fKyd\7]s 

Tj/iipas 

(a) Text adds gloss : ws ^drpaxoi' 1 4. etVij' yap irvevfiara Saifiouluv 
iroiovvra ffrifiela. 

{d) t^ 051 change 3. eKiropeverat into eKiropeieadai. Corrupt for iKiropevS- 
fieva — the change being made by the interpolator of the preceding words. 
See vol. ii. 48. Pr (see below), recognising the need of this participle, inserts 
it after rpla, and some Gk. MSS insert iKiropevdiura after ^drpaxoi. 

(c) MSS insert here as xvi. 15 a verse which originally stood after iii. 3* 
and where it is restored in this edition. 

gig vg*^ s^ arm^- 2- 4- a bo | aurov placed after <f)iaXr]v AnC 046 a.V"^ 
: tr before t. cfyiaX. 20 ( - 18. 35. 205. 632. 919. 920. 1849. 2004. 
2040). 42. 61. 69. 104. 201. 314. 452. 498. 517. 2017 : > 920 I 
cTTi] in gig vg : per Tyc j t. ttot, t. p-ty.] tov p.eyav iroTap.ov 051 
I Tov^ AC I. 69. 172. 250. 2015. 2018. 2036. 2037. 2040. 2067 
bo sa : >N 025. 046. 20 (-2040). 42. 82. 104. 201. 314. 385. 
429. 432. 498. 522. 1955. 1957. 2016. 2017. 2019. 2022. 2023. 
2038. 2041 alP' I €v<^/3.] (.4>p. 046 I €^7}pav6rf\ siccavit gig vg | avrov^ 
> I. 181. 205. 2019. 2038 bo I Twv ;Sao-6Xe(t)v] venienti regi Pr : 
regi venienti gig : regis arm : > Tyc | twv^ > s^ | avaroXwv A 
051. I. 35. 314. 468. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2041 
S^ bo : avaToX-qcr XC 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 468. 202o). 250. 2038. 
2067 al s^ |. 

13. €i8o»'] eSoOrj H \ «k tov a-TopL. t. 8. . . . t. Orjp. k. > X* | €k 

T. (TTOp. T. SpaK. K. >» C 325. 337. 517. I918 I €K TOV (TTOp.. T, 6r)p. 

»(ai>2019 arm^ | Tpia aKaOap, AnC I. 35. I04. 205. 620. 1957. 

2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 al°^^ Tyc Vg 
s^ arm^- 2. 4- a . ^ 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 620. 2020. 2040). 250 alP' arm' 
: cu<a^. >92o : Tpia>gig : tres exeuntes inmundos Pr | wo- ;8aT- 
pa;(ot] ia<T (wcrct N*) ^aTpa)^ov(r H* 94. 498. 2019. 2020. 2023 : 
wa-ei PaTpa)(pi N*^ 2067 : + CKTroptv^evTa 241. 20 1 5. 2036. 2037 

: >i* |. 

14. SaifiOfiuc] + aKadapTO)v 2040 : 8ai/i,ov(ov 051. I. 35. 205. 
2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al I a( + Kat 2015) 
€K7rop€V€Tat A 20 (-205. 620. 2040). 69. no. 250. 314. 385. 
429. 498. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2017. 2018. 2023. 2039 alP' Tyc : 
a €K7rop€vovTat 046. 104. 336. 620. 1918. 20 19 : CKTTopcvecr^at K* 
051. I*. 2022. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 : a CKwopivcaOai i** : 
iKiroptvovTai N*^ : eKTroptvcTai 205 : et exeunt (procedunt gig vg) 
Pr gig vg arm* eth : >bo | ctti] ua N | tt^o- oik.] t. yi^o- Kai (> 2037) 
T. OLK. I**. 2037 : T. yj^o- bo j 0X170- > I* s^ arm^ bo | tov > 051. i. 



33^ AnOKAAY^^n lOANNOY [XVI. 16-18. 

1 6. Ktti arvvT^yayev auroiis €is rbv tottoi' tov KaXovfXfvov 'E^Spaiort 
*Ap MayeSwv. 

17. Kal 6 I^So/i.os i^€\(fv TTfv <f>id\r]v avrov itrl rov aipa Koi 

i^Xdev (fxovrj fieydXrj Ik tov I'aov aTro tou Opovov Xc'youcra reyovtv* 

18. Ktti iyevovTO A<rTpairai kol tfxavai koI fipovrai, koi trtUTfioi 

iv9p(Droi iy€V€To /x,€yas, otos ouk iyevero a<f} ov ^3.v0p(O7ro% cyeVero^ IttI t^s y^s 

205. 2019. 2022. 2038. 2067 al I TTja- rjfi. T. fi€y. K 61. 69. 2020 : 
ad diem magnum vg : diei magni Tyc gig : rrja- pny. rjfx. A 2040 
bo : Ttja- rjfi. €K€Lvr]<T t. ficy. 046. 051. 20 (-205. 2020. 2040). 
I. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al Pr S : rrjcr rjfjb. CKfivrjcr 205 | tow 6fov] 
domini Tyc arm^ |. 

16. o-UKTiYaycK] crvvrjyayov K S^ : (rwa^ci Vg*^- 2 s^ arm^* ^ | avTOvcr 
>s^ I Tov^ >K 61. 69 arm bo | tottov] TroTajxov A \ tov' >6i. 69 
bo I TOV Ka\. (.jipa. >Tyc | ap /laycSwv AX 051. I. 35. 104. 172. 
205. 241. 250. 468. 620. 632. 1957. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 

2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 s^ arm*-* : hermagedon vg : 
ermagedo gig : ermagedon Tyc : armageddon Pr : ermakedon 
bo : fxaySwv 20 ( - 35. 205. 468. 620. 632. 2020. 2040) al S^ 
arm^ : /oiaycSSwv 046 : /naKcSSwv 61. 69 |. 

17. KOI o epS.] Ktti OTC N* (wai o ^' S'') : +ayye\o<r \fp- ^ 051. I. 
35. 172. 205. 250. 468. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 

2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 al Pr gig vg*^ s^ arm^-^-*-* bo | t-m t. 
aepa] cio" t. aepa 051. i. 35. 61. 69. 205. 1957. 2015. 2016. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 al s^ : in aere (-a gig : -em 
vg) ^^ 8'S ^S I H-^yo-^V > A I. 181. 205. 209. 2038 I CK An I. 
94. 181. 205. 209. 617. 2019. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 : 
ttTTO 046. 20 (-205. 617. 2020. 2040). 250 aP' I vaov An 60. 
61. 69. 2040 Pr vg s arm^ bo sa : +tou ovpavou 046. 20 ( - 468. 
2040). 250. 2067 alP^ : ovpavou I. 94. 181. 241. 2015. 2019. 

2036. 2037. 2038 gig arm^- *• * : { + ovp. tov 468) vaov koi 468 

eth I ttTTO TOV Opovov^ tov OiOV N : Kttl (>20l) aTTO T. 6pOV. TOV 

Oeov 201. 386 : >o5l* gig !• 

18. itai] + evOeoxr 386 | aorpaTr. k. ^wv. k. jSpovT. A 42. 82. 
141. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2040 al Pr gig vg arm^ bo sa eth : /SpovT. 

K. OO-Tp. K. <^<rtV. K. ySpOVT. X* : ttO-Tp. K. (fxDV. O46 : /SpOVT. K, ttCTTp. K. 

<f>(i)v. K" 920 : tto-Tp. K. ySpovT. 205. 181. 2038. 2067 Tyc s^ arm* : 
<f>o}V. K. )3. Ktti tto-Tp. I. 2037 al : ttorp. k. ^povr. k. <f>(ov. 051. 20 
(-205. 920. 2040). 61. 69. 104. no. 141. 172. 201. 250. 314. 
385. 432. 1918. 1955. 1957- 2016. 2018. 2022. 2023 al s' I 
eyevcTO^ AK i. 35. 61. 69. 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 

2037. 2038. 2040. ,2041 al Tyc gig vg s arm^^-^)- 4. («) ^q . >o46. 
20 (-35. 205. 2040). 250. 2067 alP' Pr sa | oioo- ovk cytv. . . . 
ovTO) fifyaa] et signa magna Pr | oioo- ovk cycvtTo] ottr ovk 
rycvovTo N* : oioo- ov yeyovcv 920 | a<^ ov] ex qua die gig \ 
av6p(airo<T cyev€To A bo :'^2020 arm^- * : av^pwTToi cycvovTO N 046. 



XVI. 19-21.] AnOKAAY*l2 inANNOY 337 

TTjXiKovTO^ trci(r/ios ovTw fifya^. 1 9. Kal(a) at ttoXcis twv iOvSyv 
iirecrav' Koi BajSvXtiiV rj fieydXr] i/jivrja-Br] ivwmov tov Beov SoCvat 
avT^ TO iroT-^pLov Toi) olvov Tov Ovfiov T^9 opy^s avToi)' 20. xai 
Tracra v^tros £<^vycv, Kai op?; oii;( (vp(6rj(Tav. 21. Kai ;^a\a{a 
fi€yaXr} ws TaA.avTiaia Kara/SatVci ^k tou ovpavov €7ri tovs ivdpw- 
TToW Kai i/SXaatft-q/XTjcrav 01 avOpiHTroi toi/ ^coi/ ck t^s TrXTjy^S t^s 
;(aXa^7ys, ot6 fieydXr] icrrlv rj vX-qyrj avTrjs acfioSpa. 

{a) MSS insert before Kal the words : Kai i-^ivero 17 ir6Xtj i] fieydXr) els rpla 
nipfii. See vol. ii. 52. 

35. 61. 69. 181. 2019. 2036. 2038. 2040 : OL avOpwnoL (ovpavoi 506) 
iyevovTO (!>I957 • yiyova<rt.v 337 : eyevovTo ol avBp. 205) 051. 20 
( — 35. 2020. 2040). I. 104. no. 250. 2037. 2067 alP^ Tyc gig vg 
S arm^* * sa | ctti tt/o- yrja- >• 69. 104 I TT/AiKOVToo- aeicTfioa- oirrw 
fieyaa] !>bo : tr after eyevtro^ arm^ I OT;Ta>] ovTws I. 498. 2015. 
2018. 2020. 2037. 2033. 2040 al |. 

19. at TToXcta] 7; ttoXio- K* s^ | at >>20I5. 2036. 2038 | €Tr€<rav 
AK^ 046. 051. 35. 104. no. 337. 452. 468. 498. 620. 2015. 
2020. 2023. 2038. 2041** : CTTto-ov 20 ( — 35. 337. 468. 620. 
919. 2020). I. 69. 250. 314. 2037. 2067 alP^ : €7r€o-cv N* S^ | 

Sowat] pr TOV N 632**. 2015. 2036. 2037 I TO TTOT.] €K Vt | TO 

>K 2040 I Tov^ > K bo I T. Ovfi.] tr before t. oivov 468 eth : 
tr after opyrja Pr : +Kai s^ : >■ Tyc | t. opy. >6i. 69 gig arm* | 
avTou]>X bo : TOV Oeov 2019 eth |. 

20. Kttt^ >> I I iraa-a vrjaoa- e<^uy«'] omnes insulae fugierunt 
Pr arm bo eth | opr]] pr omnes Pr : + Kai. 2015. 2036. 2037 | 
€vp€6r)(Tavj 4-TOTC 01 airo avaToXtov <f)€v$orTai ctti Svafiaa Kai 01 airo 
Sva-fLOiv ci<T avaToXao" co-tci yap dXix^icr fityaXrj oia ov yeyovcv aTTO 
KaTa^oXrja Koafiov ovS ov firj ytvrjTai. 468. 

21. fxcyaXt)] jSiaia 920 I too- TaXavT.] tr after Kara/SaLvei 920 | 
too- > 2022 Pr I KaTa^aivei] xaTC/S?/ S^ arm bo I TOV ^€Ov>386 I 
<k] cjTt 205 I -rrXrjyrja- . . . X'^^«^'/o-]'^920 | €o-Tiv] tycvcTo Pr Vg 
i rj irX. avT. >vg | avr»;o-] > 046 arm^- ^- « : tr before rj irXrjyr] 205 : 
avT77 18. 69. 104. 175. 250. 325. 386. 456. 617. 620. 920. 2015. 
2016. 2020. 2037 al : avTov 181. 385 : a grandine Pr |. 



VOL. II. — 22 



338 AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY [XVII. 1-3. 



Chapter XVII. 

1. Kat ^\dev €15 CK twv Ittto, iyyiXoiV twv €)(6vTtdV ras cTrra 
ffyiaXa^, Kai iX.d\r)(T€v /xct ifiov Xeyiav Acv/oo, Sfi^w (toi 

TO Kpifx.a rrj^ iropv-q^ t^s fi€yd\r]<; 
T^s Kadrjfiivrfs €Ti vSarwv TroWoij', 

2. /jtc^' ^S i-rropvevcrav oi /Sao-iXcts r^s y^S, 

Ktti ifX(dv(r6r)(Tav ol KaTOiKovvT€<; Tr}v y^v €K tov otvov 
T^S TTO/JVCtaS auT^s. 

3. Kai aTTT^vcyKev ftc cts eprjfiov iv irvcv/xart. koI elSov ywaiKa 
KaOrjfxevqv liri drjpiov kokkivov ye/xoi/ra ovo/iara fikacrtfirjfxia^, ^€)(wv^ 

1. T|X0€i'] €$r]\9ev A I cto-] Tier 104 arm^- * | c/c > N 2015. 
2040 I ayyeX. . . . <f)LaXaar >Tyc | t. €)(ovTiov] qui habebat gig I 
€XaAr;o-€v] dixit Tyc 1 fiiT e/x. Xcy. >»Tyc I Xcywi/] + fxoi I. 205. 
2015. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 I T. fx.€y. > s^ I v8aT. TToXX. AK 
025. I. 172. 181. 205. 218. 250. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2040. 2067 bo : Twv v8aT. Tdiv TToXA. 046. 20 ( — 205. 
2040) alP' arm |. 

2. (160 T)o-] +" sinned and" bo I eTropvevarav] eiroirjcrev iropviav 
X bo sa I Kai . . . avTija- >Tyc Pr ) e/jLcdva-drjo-av] CfieOva-av 205 | 
01 Kar. T. y.] tr after avrrja- I | €k] airo 920 | oivov] oikov X* ? 
I TTopvciacr] TropvrjcT 205 (. 

3. airrji'CYKei'] avr]veyK€v 920 : duxit Pr ; tulit Tyc gig | fie] 
fiOL 386 I €pr}fx,ov +TOTrov 2040 I €v Ax 025. 046. 35. 175. 205. 
325**. 468. 617. 620. 632**. 1934. 2020. 2040 Tyc Pr gig Cyp 
vg bo (arm) : >i8. 82. 93. 141. 201. 218. 325*. 337. 385. 386. 
429. 456. 498. 506. 522. 632*. 919. 920. 1849. 1955- 2004- 
2024*. 2039 al I ctSov] iSa A I 67ri] +TO 920 | 6-qpLOv AX 35. 1 75. 
205. 617. 620. 632**. 1934. 2020. 2040 : +TO 18. 325. 337. 

386. 456. 468. 632*. 919. 920. 1849. 2004 ( KOKK.] KOyK. 046 I 

yc/i.. . . . (ver. 4) Kai^ >468* | yeiiovra AX* 025 (s^) : yefxov X 
046. 051. 20 ( — 468*). I. 61. 69™^. 1 10. 172. 201. 241, 250. 314 
385. 498. 522. 1955. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2019. 2022. 2023 
2024. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2039. 2041. 2067 (s^) : ye/xa)i/ 104. 429 
2017 1 ovo/tara AX 025. 046. 20 (-35. 175. 205. 617. 1934) 
61. 69. 104. no. 201. 241. 385. 429. 498. 522. 1955. 1957 
2017, 2022. 2024. 2039 : ovo/xariov I. 35. 61™^. 172. 175. 205 
250. 314. 617. 1934. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036 

2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 I c^wv A 104. 201. 429. 919. 2017 
c^ovra X 025 : exov 046. 051. 20 (-468*. 919). I. 250. 2037. 

2038. 2067 alP' I K€(f>. CUT. Acai > I I ScKo] Ktti 7] yvvr) . . . Trj(r 
yrja- (ver. 18) 025. 2020. (On this addition see Tischendorf, 
crit, note in loc.) |. 



XVII. 4-6.] AnOKAAY*I2 IQANNOY 339 

KC(fia\a<; CTrra. /cai Kepara BtKa. 4. kol rj yvvr] rjv TreptfSePXrjfiivr] 

TrOp(f)VpOVV Kol KOKKIVOV, KOL Kt)(pV(riDfJi€V7] ^)(pV(TL(0^ KOi Xl6<^ TlfJLiU) XP^'^V 

Kal fJiapyapLTai<;, e;(OVO"a Tron/ptov )(pvcrovv cv ry X^ipl avTrjs ^yefiov^ y4fi.(i)v 
/38(\vyfidT(i}v KOL TO. aKadapra ttJs iropvfias avTrj<;. 5. koX ctti to 
fiiTtoTTov avTTJs ovofia ytypafip.€vov, fx.vo'TiQpLov, 

BABYAON H MEFAAH, 
H MHTHP TON f nOPNON t(fl) 
KAI TON BAEAYPMATON TH2 PHS. 

6. KoX €iSa T^v yvvoLKa fieOvovcrav in tov atjuaTO? twv ayiwv koi 
CK TOV aLfxaTOi Twv /lapTvptiiv 'Irjcrov. 

{a) Tyc Pr vg arm^=iro^>'iwv, which the parallelism in the next line 
requires. See vol. ii. 65. 

4. i]v] 7} I I TTO/o^upovv] TToptfivpav 051. I. 35, 175. 181. 205. 
250. 314. 617. 1934. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 alP : Trop<f)vpa. S^ | Kai^ >I957 | kul^ AN i. 104, 250. 
424. (620). 2018. 2019. 2020. 2022. 2037 al Tyc Pr gig vg s^ 
arm^- *• * bo : > 025. 046. 20 ( - 620. 2020). 2038. 2067 al""" s^ 
arm^ | Ke;^pvo-a)fi€K>/] Tr(pLK€Xpva-w/j.evr) 250. 424. 2018 : Kexpva-oj/jLeva 
s^ : "gildings embroidered" arm^ | xpvcrno A 046. 20 (-35. 205. 
2020. 2040). 250. 2067 al°^" : XP""^*^ ^ 025. I. 35. 205. 1957. 
2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041 I Ai^. 
Tifi. . . . jxapy.^ — arm** | \l6. ti/x..] Ai^ovcr TifiLova s^ : Xi^oio- 
TLfiioiar S^ arm | /Aopy.] fxapyapiraa- S^ : " pearl " arm | c;(Ovcra . . . 
T. iropv. avTTja >• 025 | €;^ovo-o] pr kui Tyc s^ : et habebat Pr I 
iroT. xp^c-^ — !• 205. 1957. 2015. 2019, 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 al : tr XP^^' after avTT^o-^ 920 | cv] tin s^ | ye/tov AX*^ 
046. 20. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' : ye/Atov N* 104. 201. 429. 
2017 : pr Ktti s^ arm^-*-* | /SScA.. . . . ra aKaO.] ~sl | ySScA..] 
ySSeXvy/xaroo- s^ arm* (bo) : abominatione vg^* (-nem*) | Kat^ 
>'bo I Ttt aKtt^.] T. aKaOapfxara 2039 : inmunditia vg'''- '^- f- s-^f ; 
-tiae Pr vg*** (s^) : -tiarum Tyc vg^ (bo) | r. iropv. >gig | arrT/o-^ 
A I. 35. 104. 172. 205. 241. 250. 468*. 632**. 1957. 2015. 
2016*. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 
2067 al Tyc vg s^ arm^ eth : tj/ct yrjo- 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 468*. 
632**. 2020. 2040) al™" gig arm^ : totius terrae Pr Cyp : avrrjo- 
Ktti TTjcr yrjo- X S^ : avrrja p-tra rqcr yqtr oXrjcr bo : >arm*' " 1. 

6. ofo|i.a] ovop.aTa 18. 919. 2004 : >-s^ arm^ eth | /MvcrTrjpiov 
sacramenti Pr : cv p.vaTrjpi<i} arm^- * | t. iropv. k. >-gig | iropvinv 
fornicationum Tyc Pr vg (arm^) ] t. yijcr] totius terrae Pr [. 

6. eiSa (tSa A) Ak : ttSov (iSov) 025. 046. 051 min^' | €k^ A 
I. 35. 104. 172. 205. 241. 429. 468**. 632**. 2015. 2016. 
2017**, 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al""" Pr gig 
vg s : >s 025. 046. 20 (-35. 205. 468**. 632**. 2020. 2040). 
69. 82. no. 250. 314. 385 al""" I t. at/x.] tw aifiari N* 2020 ; 



340 AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY [XVII. 7-8. 

Kal i$avfj.acra tSwv avrrjv Oavfia fxiya. 7. »cai etTrcV /aoi o 
ayycAos Aia rt k6avfia(Ta<: ; '^tyw epw croi^ to (JbvcrTT^piov ttjs yuvaiKos 
xal Tov Orjpiov tov /Soora^ovTos avTTyv, tou €_;^ovtos tols CTrra K£<^aXas 
Ktti Ttt S(Ka Kc'para. 8. to drjpiov o ciScs ^v Kat ovk €(ttlv, kol 
fitWti ava^aiveLV c/c t^s d/3v(r<rou, Kai et? aTrwXctav '^vwdyti^ • koi 
OavfiacrdrjaovTai 01 KaroiKovvTe^ ctti t^s y^s, wv ou yeypaTrrai to 
ovofia iirl to (^l^XCov t>)s ^w^? (xtto Kara/ioXrjs Koa-fiov, ^kiirovrmv to 
Brjpiov o Ti ^v *cal ovk tcrriv kol Trapearai. 

sanguine Tyc arm | xai^ As 025. 35. 205. 468. 632**. 2020. 
2040 al"'" Tyc Pr gig vg s arm bo : > 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 468. 
632**. 2020. 2040). 82. no. 250. 385 al I €K T. at/1.2] f^ >-3i4, 
2016. 2041 al : sanguine Tyc arm | fta/>T.] fiapTvptiav A : pr ayitoi' 
325. 468. 620 I l-qcTov] pr TOV 2040 : +Christi Pr : >i. 2019. 
2067 arm" | iS. avT. Oav/x. fjny. >bo I tr tSwv avT. after /".cya K 
2020 s^ I avT?;v >>6i. 69 |. 

7. epw act A 046. 20 (-35. 205). 250 al""" gig s eth :~N 
025. I. 35. 61. 69. 1957. 2019. 2022. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 aP vg : tibi ostendam Pr bo | to > arm | t. yw.] 
huius mulieris Pr | tov^^ /cat 2020 : pr xai i. 2036. 2037 | too- > 
205 arm2- * | cttt. k£(^.] ~ Pr vg | Sck. Ktp.] ~Pr vg |. 

8. TO 6t)pioi'] pr Kttt Tyc arm* eth | o ctSeo- >Tyc [ rjv] rj A : 
pr o arm | xat^] sed Pr : > s^ bo | aTrwAeiav] + irae Tyc | vrrayct 
A 181. 468*. 2037 : vadit Pr s^ (eth) : vr-aytcv N 025. 046. 20 
(-468*). 250. 2037. 2038 alP' s^ arm (bo) : ibit Tyc gig vg | 
davixaa-drjcTovTaL A 025 S : davfiaa-ovrai N 046. 20. 250. 2037. 2038. 
2067 min""^ : mirabantur vg"- ^- ^* arm* | ot kotoik.] pr Travrta- Pr 
arm^-^'* bo | ctti tt/o- yrja- AS 025. I. 35. 175. 205. 250. 617. 
1934. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 alP gig s arm^- *• * bo : ttjv yrjv 
046. 20 (-35. 175- 205. 617. 1934. 2040) alP™ Pr vg : Tr;o- yrja 
arm^ | ov ytypoTTT.] ovk (yeypaTrraL A | to ovo/xa A 046. 20 ( — 35. 
175. 205. 468. 617. 1934). 69. no. 385 al™** s2 arm* bo : to 
ovo/iaTtt N 025. I. 35. 175. 205. 250. 468. 617. 1934. 2037. 2038. 
2067 aP Pr gig vg s^ arm^- * eth : +ain-a)i' arm* | ctti^] ev 2036. 

2040 Pr gig vg s^ arm | to /3i/8Xiov An 025. 051. i. 35. 175. 205. 
250. 314. 617. 1934. 1957- 2016. 2019. 2023. 2037. 2038 al : 
TOV /SiySXiov 046. 20 (-35. 175. 205. 337. 617. 1934. 2040). 69. 
82. 104 al"*" : TO) )8t/3Atu) 337. 2040 Pr gig vg s^ : /St/SAw 2036 
(arm) | /8A«7rovT<D»'] /SAcTrovTeo- i. 35. 1957. 2019. 2022. 2023. 

2041 Pr gig vg I T. Orip. (oTi) rjv AK 025. I. 35. 205. 2020. 2037. 
2038. 2040. 2067 alP Pr gig s arm bo : oti rjv t. drjp. 046, 20 
( - 35. 205. 2020. 2040). 250 al I o Ti SO apparently Pr vg*^- '' 
arm2 : oti 046 min"***** gig vg**- '■''■«• ^ bo arm^*-* : AN 025. s 
would support either reading | co-tiv] to-Tat 386. 920 | KaiP] + 
TToAtv X* I naptarai AN* 025. 046. 05 1. 20 (-632**). 69. 
104. 250. 314. 2067 aP*** Pr arm* : -n-apea-Tiv N*^ i. 181. 



XVII. 9-13.] AHOKAAY^'IS IDANNOY 34I 

9. 'fiSc 6 voOs 6 e^wv <TO(f>iav' al ctttci K€(f>a\al c7rTa(fl) lO. 
^Sao-iXtis (d) ciVtV* ol TTCVTC iTTiaav, 6 (U co-tiv, 6 oAXos ovirw 
^\d€y, Koi orav (Xd-Q oXiyov airov Sec /xtlvai. 1 1 . kol to drjpiov, o 

^V KOI OVK ioTTLV, KOL aVTOS OySoOS eCTTlV, KOL €K TWV fTTTtt icTTlV, 

Koi tis dTrwXeiav VTrdyci. 12. Kot Toi Scko Ktpara Sl cfocs oeKa 
f3a(nX.€is eitrtV, otni/fs /SatrtXctav outtw iXa^ov, dAAa i^ov(riav 0)5 
/Jao-iXets /itai/ wpai' Xafxftdvovcnv fiera tov drjpiov. 13. ovToi /Aiav 

(a) Here follows a gloss giving a second explanation : 6p»; ctViv, 6wov ^ 
yvfi] KiOTjrai iir avrwu. Kal. 
(6) The same gloss adds iirrd. 

241. 336. 632**. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 gig s arm* : cttco-ci/ 
bo : >vg |. 

9. (oSc o vou<T €X' <^o<j).] joined with what precedes 046. 18. 
69. 201. 337. 385. 386. 456. 498. 522. 919. 920. 1849. 1955 al : 
"he who hath heart with (and eth) wisdom let him under- 
stand " bo eth^ I coSc] pr et Pr : > 046 | o e^fov] tw c^"*'" 
s I at] Kai 2040 : >o5i I cTTTtt] >6i. 69 : tr after eia-tv i | ctt] 
cTrai'w 61. 69 I oTTou . . . «r arrwi/] ubi . . . supra illos gig s : 
super quos Pr vg bo eth |. 

10. KaJ >• 620 I /iacr. cttt. cktiv A 025. I. 35. 205. 241. 
632**. 1957. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 
al Pr gig vg s (arm^- *• '^) : cttt. /Sao-, cto-iv X bo sa eth : ftacr. eicrtv 
€7rT. 046. 20 ( — 35. 205. 632**. 2020. 2040). 250 al™^ (arm^) I 
CTreo-av] cttco-ov 20 ( — 35. 337. 468. 920). 42. 69. 82. 104. 250. 
2067 al I o^] pr Kai I s^ arm bo : +S« 2041 Pr eth^ | tariv] pr ovk 
bo : superest Pr | o^] pr xat vg arm bo eth | avr. Sei fiavai A 025. 
I. 35. 69. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al : avr. fiive ^ci (Sei N*^) N* : 
Sa avT. /xctvat 046. 20 ( — 35. 2040). 250 al™** (Pr) gig (vg) |. 

11. Kai^ > 468*. 2040 I Kai^ > N I auToo- A 025. i. 35. 175. 
205. 250. 617. 632. 1934. 2037. 2038. 2067 al Pr gig vg (s^) bo : 
ovToa- S 046. 20 ( - 35. 175. 205. 617. 632. 1934) al (s^) I oy8oo(r] 
pr o X 452. 2017. 2021 : octavo loco Pr | k. ck. t. cttt. co-tii/J 
cum sit ex vii Pr | uTrayci] vadet vg : ibit Pr (arm^- ^- «) |. 

12^ oiTifeo-] hii Pr | ^aaiXeiav >» bo | ovtto)] ovk A : ovtw N* ) 
aXXa An 69. 2040 : aXX 025. 046 min^^ : > bo arm* | <aa- 
^aa-iXeicr] regni Pr | fjnav wpav] una hora Pr gig vg | Xa/x/S. . . . 
6r]pLov] "having followed the wild beast" bo | XafifSavovcriv] pr 
ov 620 : accipient gig vg"^-'^-' : tr after Orjpiov 920 | fiera tov 
Orjpiov] post bestiam vg \. 

13. ouToi] + omnes Pr | yvw/xrjv €xovcnv AN 025. i. 35. 205. 
2037. 2038. 2040 alP Tyc (Pr) gig vg (arm) : ~ 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 
2040). 250 al™" sa I cxovoTLv] habebunt Pr | ti^v > 61, 69. 2038 
arm2- 3- «■ | e^ovanav A 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 386. 468. 920). 250 al™" 
arm2- 3- « : pr tt^v N 025. i. 35. 172. 201. 205. 385. 386. 468. 498. 
920. 1957. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 al I 



342 AnOKAAY'I'12 IfiANNOY [XVII. 17, 16, 14. 

yv(i)fji.i]v €)^ovaiv, kol t^v Svvafiiv xal iiovcriav ahrtav tw drjpiu) 
StSdacrti' (a). 17. o yap 6ib<s cSojKfv th Ta<; KapSta^ avrwv Troi^crai 
T^v yvwfir]v avTOv,{d) koI Sovrai t^v /JacriAei'av avTwv tw OrjpLio, 
S.)(pt TcXccr^T^crovTai 01 Aoyoi tow 6eov. 

16. KOI TO. Se/ca Ktpara H ctScs Kai to 6r]pioVf 

ovTOL jiun^crovarLV rrjv rropvqv, 

Koi rjprjfiwfievrjv iroirjfTova^tv avr-qv koi yvfivrjVf 

Kol Ta<; (TdpKa<: avri]^ (fxiyovrai, 

KOI auT^i' KaraKavaovcnv ^iv irvpO, 

14. OVTOL fX€Ta Tov apvLov iroX.€fii]aovcnv, 

Koi TO apvLOv viK-i]a-€i ai)Tovs, 
OTi KvpLOS Kvpimv ccttIv Ktti f3acn\(v<; jSatTiXeoiV, 

KOL ol /ACT aVTOV kAt^TOI KOL CkAe/CToI, KOL TTKTToL {c) 

(a) Text of xvii. 14-17 dislocated and glossed. On the restoration of the 
original order, see vol. ii. 61, 71 sq. 

{b) A doublet here follows *cai iroLrjaai fiiav yvw/j.T)v : see crit. notes below, 
and cf. xvii. 13. 

(c) What was originally a marginal gloss on xvii. i text adds here : 15. 
Kal eliriu fioi To. i/Sara d efSes, 0^ tj w6pv7] Kd6r]Tai, \aoi Kal 6x^oi ficrlv Kai 
10VT] Kal yXucrcrai. 

avTuiv^ €avTwv I (s) : >• arni^- 3- » | tw Orjp.] diabolo Tyc | BtSoaa-iv] 
8u)(Tov(nv 94. 2036. 2037 Tyc bo : BiaSwcrovcn 218 : tradent Pr vg |. 

17. Geocr] Kvpioa 61. 69 | eScDKei/ >-Tyc | avrwv^] avTov H* | t. 
yv. avT. K. iroirja-ai > 94. 620. 19 1 8 arm^- ^- * eth | avTou] avrwv N'' | 
K. iroLrja-aL pnav yvoj/iTjv] >A 2036. 2037 Tyc gig vg : et esse illos 
in ( + uno arm^- 3- a ^q sa eth) consensu ( + et metu Pr) Pr 
gj.[j^2. 3. o bo sa eth | xai •n-oir^o-at ]> N*' | p.i.av yvtufjuqv X 025. I. 
35. 2019. 2022. 2037. (2040). 2067 al : ~ 046. 20 ( - 35. 2040). 
250 al"" : fJLLav > 172. 2018 : +avTa)i/ 2040 S^ | /cai >gig vg bo | 
hovvat] dabunt Tyc : ut dent gig vg | T-qv^ > bo sa | avrwi'^] avTM 
A : avTov 046. 61. 69 : >2036 Pr arm^- ^' " bo sa | reXicrdrjo-ovTai 
Ax 025. 051. I. 35. 181. 205. 209. 432. 1957. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2041. 2067 : TeXeaOoiOTLv 046. 20 (-35. 205). 69. 104. 
no. 250. 385. 2016 alP' |. 

16. a ei8c(7] tr after drjpwv 205 eth | k. to O-qpwv tw Orjpio) s^ 
arm^ : tov drjpiov arm-'- * : + o ctSco- (Pr) : ^Tyc arm* ] /xiarjcrovaii'] 
odio habent Tyc | iroirja-ova-t.v (-rroiova-iv Tyc) auTT^v k. yvp.vr]v AX 
025. I. 205. 632**. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2040 al Tyc gig vg s^ arm^ 
sa : iroirja-ovcnv avrt^v Kai (>■ bo) yvfivrjv Troirja-ova-iv {-awcrtv 617) 
avTTjv 046^^^"^ 20 ( - 205. 632**. 919*. 920. 2020. 2040). 250 al 
bo eth : Kai. yv/xvrjv ttoltjo-ovo-iv avrqv 424. Pr s^ arm* : k. yvp-vrjy 
>046*. I. 82. 141. 218. 498. 919*. 920. 2016. 2019 I atnr. ^ay. 
-^632 I <^ayovTai] <fiaywvTai 18. 632 : edunt Tyc | KaTaKava-ovaiv 
Kavcrovcnv 1. 181. 205. 2019. 2020 | cv A 20 ( - 920). 2037. 2038. 
2067 alPi bo sa : > N 025. 046. 172. 250. 920. 2018 Pr gig vg j. 

14. Tro\ep.T](Tou<nc] TroAe/ioucrii/ Tyc arm-- 2- » | 01 p.€T avrov] 



XVII. 18 XVIII. 2,] AnOKAAY>I'I2 IfiANNOY 343 

18. KaL 1] yvvr) yv etScs Ictiv tj ttoXis t] fnydXr] yj tj^ouaa 
(SacriXeiav inl twv ^acnXimv t^s y^s. 

quicumque cum eo erunt Pr | kAi^t. . . . cxX. . . . ttio-t.] €kX. 
. . . TTio-T. . . . kXt;t. Pr I kXtjtol kul >gig I Ktti*] ^vg***^'^ *'-'^ : 
OTi I. 2037 I €kX€ktol KttL >> 1 10. 2020 | ckX. . . . TritrT.] -^ 172. 
2018. 2036. 2037 : 01 cKXeKToi . . . ot -ma-Toi bo | Kai** >• 205. 
2067 1- 

15. iiTKv A Tyc Pr vg s arm* bo sa : Xeyci K 025. 046 min°™" 
gig arm^- « : > eth | fj.01] + angelus Tyc | ra uSaraJ ravra N* : 
Tttirra ra vSara N*^ | ciSecr J otSaa 1 04 : vides Tyc : + /cai rj yvvrj 
175. 617. 1934 I ov] super quas Pr Cyp s^ | >; > K'' | Tropvrj] 
mulier Tyc bo | Xaoi] pr xai N | Kai oxXoi > vg | oxXoi . . . 
yXwo-crai] ~' 920 | o;^X. ctcriv k. idvq k. yXwcro-.] turbae ( + et 
gentes Cyp) ethnicorum et linguae sunt (sunt et linguae Cyp) 
Pr Cyp : " multitudes of nations" bo |. 

18. CCTTif > Pr S^ I r; /Aey.] tou 6(.ov 920 !?;*>« 18. 20I. 386. 
2039. 2040 I T. ^acriXeoJv] t. (SacnXcKav X arm^- ^- <* bo eth : > 
arm* : +twi/ 336. 620. 1918 | rrja- yrja AN 025. 18. 35. 175. 205. 
468. 617. 632**. 1934. 2020. 2040 Tyc gig vg s arm bo eth : 
terrarum Pr : pr em (046). 325. (336). 337. 386. 456. (620). 632*. 
919. 920. 1849. (191^)' 2004 al™" |. 



Chapter XVIII. 

1. McTci ravTa eiSov aXXov dyytXov KarafSaivovTa c/c tov ovpavov, 
t^ovTa i^ovcrCav fiiydXrjv, kol rj yrj i<f)u)TC(Tdr] ex t^s So^vjs avTOv. 

2. Koi l/cpa^cv iv layypa (fxovrj XiytDV 

E7r£0"£j', eirecei' Ba/SuXojv rj fjLcydXrf, 
Koi iy€VfTO KaroLKrjTrjpLov Saifioviutv, 
Kal (f>vXaKr] Travros irvcu/xaro? ^aKaOdprov Kai p-ffLi- aKaddprov 

a-qp.ivov^, 
Kol (fivXaKT) TravTOS 6pv60v aKaddipTOv koX fi(fiia"rj- 

fiivov (a). 

{a) Text of these last two lines is uncertain Possibly we should read 
drfplov for TTvei'/yitaros (cf. Jer. 1. 39), cf. A 250. 424 Pr gig s* below : or else, 
with 250. 424 Pr gig s*, read an additional line : Kai <pu\aKr) -irdvTos drjpLov 
aKaddprov. 

1. (iCTa Taura] pr koi 051. i. 35. 104. 205. 250. 468. 2020. 
2037. 2038 al gig vg eth : et Pr | aXX. ayy] ~ 35. 175. 242. 250. 
617. 920. 1934. (1957). 2016, 2017. 2023 I aXXov] inpov 1957 : 
>• I. 61. 69 arm* | e-)(pvTa\ pr /cat 205 eth | //.ey. !>gig arm^ [ ck^] 
OTTO 386 : + TOV Trpocrtjvrov aurov Kai bo eth |. 

2. CKpa^ei'] e/c€/<pa^€v A j ev A 025. 35. 432. 452. 1957. 



344 AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY [XVIII. 3. 

3. OTi CK Tov o'ivov [tov 6vfiov] Trjs TTopviias avTrj<; ^ ■jrerroTi.Kfv^ 
TTiivTa TO. (.Ovrj, 
KoX 01 /3acnA.ets rrjs y^ /i«t* aur^s «7ropv€uo"av, 
Kat ol tfXTTopoi T^5 y^s tK ttjs 8vva/i,£U)s TOV orpi^vovs OVT^S 
CTrXovTiyo-av. 

2019. 2023. 2036. 2038. 2040. 2041 Tyc vg (bo) : >N 046. 20 
(-35- 2040). I. 141. 181. 241. 250. 336. 385. 429. 522. 1918. 
1955. 2037. 2067 Pr gig I Laxvpo- 0wvr/ { + /xeya\rj i. 181. 2067 : 
+ KaL /teyaA.7/ 205. 2019 ) AX 025. 046. 20 ( - 18. 620. 632. 919. 
1849. 2004). I. 181. 250. 432. 452. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2041, 2067 vg S'^ (arm* eth) : L(T)(ypav ifnovrjv 18. 141. 
241- 336- 385- 429- 522. 620. 632. 919. 1849. 1918. 1955. 2004 : 
<f)<»vr} fi.tya\r} ( + koi icrxypa Pr) Pr gig s^ arm^- " (bo) : fortitudine 
Tyc I Xeyoiv > 025 bo I tTrea-fv^ A I. 35. 104. 172. 205. 468**. 
632**. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2040. 2041. 2067 Tyc Pr 
gig vg s arm^- * : > X 046. 20 ( — 35. 205. 468**. 632**. 2040). 
250. 2038 al™" arm^-" bo sa eth : +€Tre<r€v 025 | BayS.] pr rj 046. 
61. 69. 2067 : +7} TToKicr bo sa eth | KaroiK.] habitatio et refugium 
Pr I SaifiovKjjv Ax 046. 2040 Tyc Pr gig vg : Saifiovinv 025. 20 
(-2040). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al I (f>v\aK7}^-^ >Pr I iravToar^ 
. . . fiffiiarjfjifvov^] omnis immunditiae et iniquitatis Tyc | 
TravTOfT^ . . . <f)vXaKr}^ > 18. 205 | Tri'tu/xaTOO'] + 8aip.oviov 620 | 
UKad.^ . . . opv€Ov >025. I, 61. 69. 104. 181. 242. 617. 919*. 
1934. 2016. 2019. 2020. 2036, 2037. 2038. 2067 s^ arm^ | k. 
fiffiiarjfjLtvov^ A 336. 620 gig arm* : > X 025. 046 min^®""* °"^ 
(Pr) vg s2 bo sa eth ; + et omnis bestiae immundae Pr | «^vA,. 
iravT.^ >456. 632** I opvfov] drjpiov A | aKad.^ >920 | k. /xc/ai- 
arj/xfvov^] k, fxefjiLaafJievov 18 : >6l. 69. vg ( - vg*^) : pr Kai (f>v\aKr] 
iravTocr drjpiov aKaOaprov 2 50. 424 : + et career omnis bestiae 
immundae et odibilis gig s^ |. 

3. T. oil'. T. flop,. X 046. 20 ( - 35. 205). 250 alP' Tyc s^ : t, 
6vfi. T. otv. 025. 051. 1. 35. 172. 205. 241. 432, 1957. 2018 
2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 gig arm^- *• (") eth : r 
otv. >AC vg : T. Ovfi. >Pr S^ | t. 6v[x. t. Tropv.] t. iropv. t. dv/x 

C I T. TTOpV. > 2 1 8 S^ I TTCTT. TTaVT. T. cd. > Pr | TTeTTOTLKeV 94 

432. 2019. 2036 (s^) : TTtiroKfy (ttcttw- 35. 2037). 025. i 
35. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2041 : TTCTToiKao-t (ireTTO- 242. 498 
617. 2020). 051. no. 175. (241). 250. 337. 468**. 522. 617 
632. (1918). 1934. 1957. 2016. 2017. 2020. 2024. 2039. 2067 
aP Tyc gig vg s^ arm^-^-" : TreTrrwKav AC : ir€7rTw/cao-t(v) X 
046. 20 ( — 35. 175. 337. 468**. 617. 632. 2020). 61. 69. 104 
alP arm* bo eth | fier avr. CTropc] 01 fJL(T auT. TTopvtvaavTecr 256. 
336. (620). 628 Tyc arm^- ^- » : fier avrrjcr > Pr j t. yya-'^] avTtja- 
I. 920 I T. Svv. >• bo I aTprjvovcT^ OTpr/vov C 149. 201. 241. 
2037. 2067 ). 



XVIII. 4-6.] AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY 345 

4. Kai ^Kovaa dXXrjv <f>(jivr]v Ik toC ovpavov Xiyovaav 

'E^eX^are '^c^ aur^s 6 Xaos jxav^, 6 Xa<5j ^lov 

Iva fXT] (TVVKOivoiVT^crrjTe rais d/xaprtats avTrj<s, ** ai/r^s 

KOI in Twv TrXr^yuiv avT^s iva fjit] XafirjTt' 

5. oTt iKoXkrf6ri(Tav avr^s at afiapriai a.)(pt tov ovpavov, 
Koi i/xi'rjfjioviva-cv b ^cos to. aSiKT^fiara avT^s. 

6. (XTToSoTC aVTT7 0)S Kttt ttVT'^ aTTcStUKCV, 

Kai 8i7rAtocraT« SiTrXa Kara ra epya avT^5* 

€»' Tw TTonqpiia oj €K£pa(rev KepdaaTC avTrj SlttXovv' 

4. aXXt]*' <|><i>fT]t'] a\\r]cr (fioivrja- C 2067 : '~ 2020 : oAA. > 
arm^-*-* bo | Aeyovo-av] -ctt/o- 2067 | e$cX9aTt AK 2036. 2038 : 
c^cX^CTc 025. 051. I. 35. 205. 1957. 2017. 2023. 2037. 2040. 
2041. 2067 Tyc gig vg s arm bo : e^eXOe C 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 
2040). 250 alP^ Pr I e$ avrrjcr] ir after fiov xC 025. 2020. (2067) 
eth : >l. no. 181. 2038 | e^] air 2067 I o >205. 2038. 2067 
I iva>-386 I awKoiv. AnC : (XvyKOLv. 025. 046 min**™^ j Kai^ >s^ [ 
K. €K T. ttX. avT. >025. 051. 35*- 2038 | T, TrXr]y<jiv^ rrja TrXrjyr]^ 
gig S^ I Xa^rjTe] Xad-qri 386 : ^XafBriTe 051. 2036, 2037 (Tyc Pr) |. 

5. auTT]a^] avrrj s^ (bo) : avTwv arm^ : >'920 I a;(pi] ewor 025 : 
fx^xpt 2037 I tp.vqp.ov.'] +avT-q<r 18. 35. 82. no. 172. 337. 385. 
456. 632. 919. 920. 1849. 1955. 2004. 2018. 2022. 2023 alP : + 
avTOKT 386 eth I d^oa] dominus vg : dominus deus Pr | avri^o-^] 
avToiv Tyc arm^ |. 

6. aTToSoTc . . . auTTja] et (>Cyp) ideo reddidit ei duplicia 
(dupla Cyp) Pr Cyp | aTroSore] aTroStSwo-iv arm^- 3- a | ^^i -^ yg 
( — vg*) I aircSwKev] +vpv 051. i. 35. 175. 205. 468. 617. 632**. 
1934. 1957. 2016. 2037. 2038. 2041 gig vg' arm(2)-4 . 4-7//ixiv 2067 
arm^- ' | nav^ >N eth | SiTrAcDO-are (StTrXao-are 18. 2004) AnC 046. 
20 (-35. 175. 205. 617. 620. 632**. 1934.2020). 61.69.82.93. 
no. 385. 2022. 2024. 2039 al™" Tyc gig vg : + avrrj 025. 051. 
I. 35. 104. 175. 250. 617. 620. 632**. 1934. 1957. 2016. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al s arm^ bo : + avrrjv 205 : + aura 2020 ( 
BnrXa A 025. 046. 051. I. 35. 104. 175. 205. 250. 617. 620. 
632**. 1934. 2016. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 : pr ra NC 18. 
61. 69. no. 325. 337. 385. 386. 456. 468. (632*). 919. 920. 1849. 
2004. 2022 I (ra) SiTrAa AXC 025. 35. 175. 617. 620. 632**. 
1934. 2020. 2040 Tyc Pr gig vg s arm bo eth : +wo- Kai av-rq 
(avTOi 69) Kai (>6l. 69) 046. 20 (-35. 175. 617. 620. 632**. 
1934. 2020. 2040). 61. 69. 82. no al™^ I ra > 149 | cv tw 
iroTTjpiui] in calicem gig | -rrorrjpKD AC 025. I. 35. 175. 250. 325. 
617. 1934. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 Tyc Pr (gig) vg s arm eth : 
>620 : +avT7jo- X 046. 20 ( — 35. 175. 325. 617. 1934. 2040). 
69. 104. no. 385 bo 1 to] too- 172. 2020 bo I (KepaatvJ + vfiiv 



346 AHOKAAY^IS IfiANNOY [XVIII. 7-9. 

7. oca tSo^afffv avrrjv kol €(TTpr)VLa(r€V, 
TOcrovTov Sore avr-g (3acravLafiov koL Trev^os. 

oTi iv ri) KapSta avTrj<i X^yei ot4 
KddrjfiaL /3acn'Xicrcra 

Kal X''?P<^ o^** ^^/*'» 
Koi Trev^os ov /x-i) iScd* 

8. Sia Tovro ei' fita rjfxepa ^^ovcriv ai irXi/yai avr^5, 
t 6dvaTO<; koL -rrivOo^ kol Ai/xos,t(a) 

KOL iv TTupi KaTaKav9rjar€Tai, 

OTL tcrx^pos o ^€os 6 /cpivas avTrjv. 
.\„/^n„-T,» Q. Kai rKXavo-ovrat"^ Kat Kotiovrai ctt' TauT^T ol ^ao-iXei? t^s y^s, 

aur^v. ol /act' avT'^s 7ropj'€i;o-avT€S KQt o-Tpr;)'tao-ai'T€s, orav pAfTTwonv tok 

(a) On this line see vol. ii. lOO. 

632** 1 Kepaa-aT^] remixtum est Cyp Pr : " shall be mingled " 
arm^ | avrr/^] avTTfjv 046. 620 |. 

7. oaa] pr /cai Pr artn^- 3- <i | avTrfv AN*C 025. 046. 20 
(-35**. 175. 205. 632**. 1934. 2020. 2040) al : eavTr]v ii" I. 

35**. 69. no. 175. 205. 250. 632**. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 alP^ I Tocroi'T. SoTc] Kepaaare i j Sort] 8(jdt€ 025 : datur Pr 
Cyp (arm^) | Sore avr. >S^ I avTT} >gig | k. wevO.] >05l. I. 35. 
60. 181. 432. 1957. 2023. 2041. 2067 : +populo suo Tyc | oti^] 
Ktti I ; StoTi 2036. 2037 : + /cat 205 : >-05i. 2038 | Xeyei] + 
Babylonia Tyc | 071"^] + eyw 172. 250. 2018 : >i. 620. 2067 | 
Kadrjfxai AhC 02^. 35. 175. 617. 620. 632**. 1934. 2020. 2040 
gig vg s arm^- *• " : KaOiw 046. 6x. 69 arm^ bo : Kadwa- 18. 82. 
ixo. 325. 337. 385. 429. 456. 522. (632*). 919. 920. 1849. 1955- 
2004. 2022. 2024. 2039 alP : + Kadma 468 : + wcr 205 : ei/xi 
Kadoio- 201. 386 : sum Pr Cyp | ySao-tXicro-a] fSacriXevova-a C | ovk 
ci/At] non possum esse (esse non possum Cyp) Pr Cyp |. 

8. T)|ji€pa] (Dpa 61. 69 Pr eth | avTrjcr] pr ctt s^ (arm^- 3- *) | 
OavaToa] Oavarov 046 arm^ | Kai^ AH 025. 35. 205. 620. 920. 
2040 Tyc Pr gig vg s^^^- ^ arm^-*-" bo : > 046. 20 ( -35. 205. 
620. 920. 2040). 82. no. 172. 201. 250. 314. 385. 429*. 498. 
522. 1955. 2018 al arm^ | kul^ >i8 | ev Trupt] tr after KaruKavO. 
(arm^) bo eth | KaTaKavdrja-erai] KaTaKavdrjaovTat, Tyc : Kav6rj<T€Tai. 
337 I o ^coo- A 2040 Vg eth : o Oiocr o Kvpioa N* : Kvptoa- o ^eocr 
a'C 025. 046. 20 (-175. 617. 920. 1934. 2020. 2040). 250. 
2037. 2067 al Tyc Cyp gig s^ arm^- *• * bo : Kvpioa 141. 175. 242. 
314. 617. 1934- 2016. 2020. 2041 Pr s^ arm^ : Kvp. o Oeocr o 
Trai'TOKparoip 2036 : Kvpiocr o Travro/cpaTwp 2037 | Kpiva(r\ Kpivtav X*^ 
1. 175. 250. 314. 617. 1934. 2016. 2036. 2037 : (qui) iudicabit 
Tyc vg |. 

9. icXaufforrai AS i. 18. 205. 2019. 2004. 2038. 2067 al* : 



XVIII. 10-11.] AnOKAAY^a IfiANNOY 347 

Kairvov T^s TTupwcrews avrrjs, lO. oltto /xaKpoOev iarrfKore^ Sta tov 
<f>6l3ov TOV fiaaavLcrixov avriy?, Acyovrcs 

Ovai, oval rj ttoXis 17 fxeydXTj, 
BaySuXwv ^ TToAts 17 l(r)(vpd, 
OTi fJiia. wpq. TjXBev Tj Kpicrts <tov. 
1 1*. KoX 01 tfiTTopoL T^s y^s KXaLovoriv KOI 7r€v6ov<riv irr' avTrjv, 
2 3*. [oTi ol €fXTropoL t aov t ^(rav ot ^eyto-rai/ts tt}s y^s] (a) 
11''. OTI TOV yofjLOv avrwv ovSci? ayopd^ei ovkIti, 

(a) This line is provisionally restored here: see vol. ii. 102, 112. But 
it is best to take it as a gloss on 1 1». 

K\.avcrov<jiv C 025. 046. 20 (—18. 205. 2004). 250. 2037 alP' ) 
K\av(TOVTaL (-o-ovo-iv)] -{-avT-qv 02 5. I. 35. 205. 2036. 2037. 

2067 S^ : +TaVT-qV 2019. 2038 I Kttl KOXp. >920 I fCai^ >bO I CTT 

avnq >6l. 69 Pr | avr-q A I. 205. 498. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2040 : avT-qv nC 025. 046. 20 ( — 205. 2020. 2040). 250 
al : avT-qa- 2067 : avrwv 620 [ 01^ >l8 | k. aTpr]i'.'\ >N* 456 : 4- 
Kai (rT€vaiw(TLV K''* "^ | /JActtoxtiv] tSoicnv N : fSX^irovdiv 05 1. 522. 
2017. 2038 I TTvpwcrcwcr] TrTwcrcoja- X* |. 

10. airo] pr Kai Pr arm^ | eorTT/KOTCo-] eo-TWTco- 2040 : crTrjKovTea- 

2036. 2037 : (TTrja-ovTai arm^- * bo | t. (f)0J3. >l849 I '''o^ ySacrav- 
icTfjiov] TOV ^aa-avia-fxoi' 1 849 (arm*) : tormentorum gig : >-arm''-« 
I AeyovTco-] koi Af^ovcrtv S^ arm^- ^- " : >>arm* | ovat^] + ovai 172. 
250. 2018 s^ : >i4r. 2019. 2038 I 7)^ > 1934 I 7] pey. >Pr 
/?a/?vAo)v] pri; 172. 250. 2018. 2023 I L(rxvpa] o)(ypa 2036. 2037 
p.ia wpa] p.Lav wpar A 2040 : pr ev i. 2020. 2037. 2067 | rjXOev > 
A I o-ou] eius gig j. 

IP. Ttjo- ytict] (TOV 456 : +crov N : terrarum Pr ] /cAatoucriv k. 
7r€i'6ova-Lv AnC 025. I. 35. 205. 1957. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 (Pr) gig : KXava-ovai (-(TovraL 2036) k. Trevd-qaovo-i {-Oovaiv 
314) 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 2040). 250. (314). (336). (1918). (2036) 
vg s^- (2) arm^- *• * (bo) : kX. Km > s^ : Kai irevB. >336. 620. 19 18. 
2036 : Ktti^ >bo : flent plangentes Pr | ctt avT.] tr after KXaiovaiv 
2020 I cTr] €v A I. 2036 : €<^ 051. 181. 2019. 2037. 2038. 
2067 : pr €<^ cauTODor 468 : > Pr | avr-qv NC 025. 94. 336**. 
620. 1918. 2017 gig vg (Pr) : avT-q A 20 (-620). 104. 250. 
314. 1957. 2022. 2023 al*"" : avT>70- 61. 172. 2018 : avrova- 
046 : eavToucr 051. 181. 2038 : cavToto- I. 2019. 2036. 2037. 
2067 |. 

23®. OTI AnC 025. 046. I. 35. 175. 250. 617. 620. 1934. 

2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 Tyc Pr gig vg s arm^- * eth : >19 ( — 35. 
175. 617. 620. 632. 1934. 2040). 82. 201. 385. 429. 498. 522. 
1955 bo I ot^ > A 2040 I o-ou > 325. 2019. 2036 I -qa-av > 
386 |. 

11''. auTWi'] avTTjcr 172. 2016. 2020 | ovk€tl (/cai ovk^tl 620. 
1918 : ovK fo-Tiv 456 : iam Pr : > arm bo eth) joined with what 



348 AnOKAAY>I'l2 lOANNOY [XVIII. 12-13. 

12. yofiov )(pv(rov kol apyvpov Kai XiOov Tifxiov koi p,apyapiT(i)V, 
KOL f3v(T(rivov Kai irop<^vpa% Kai cripiKov Kai kokkivov, 

Koi irav ^v\ov Omvov Kai irav (tkcvos ikecfxivTivov koi irav 

cTKcDos cx '^^vX.ov^ TifiioyraTov, 
Kol )(aXKov Koi (Tihi^pov KOI napfidpov, 

13. KOI Kivvd/Jiwfjiov Koi 3.fi<j)fiov KOL Ovfiid/xaTa, 
Kol fjLvpov Koi Xijiavov koX oTvov, 

precedes 025. 1957. 2023. 2036. 2037 Pr gig vg s^ : joined with 
what follows AC 046, 19 alP^ s^ : without punctuation K |. 

12. xp"'''®"] ^^f^ovv C 025. 620. 19 1 8 : ^(^pvcnov 94. 2019 | 
apyvpov\ apyvpovv C 025 : apyvpiov 94. 181. 201. 386 | Xl6. ti/a.] 
XtOovcr TLfJLLOVcr C 025 (bo) : XtOwv rifiuav Pr S arm^ | jxapyapiTdiv 
K 172. 2018. 2040 Pr gig S arm^- 3- « ; fiapyapiTaa- (-raicr A) AC 
025 bo : ixapyapiTov 046. 20. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al^' vg 
fiva-fr. . . . kokkivov] sirici et purporae et coccineae vestis Pr 
fiva-OTLVov AC 025. 046. 20 (-35. 205) alP' gig : (3vcra-Lvwv K : 
^va-a-ov 051. I. 35. 205. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041 vg I K. Trop<f>. > A I ■irop<fiVpaa- SC 025. 104. 205. 620. 
632**. 2018. 2037**. 2040 : Tropcf>vpov 046. 051. 20 ( - 205. 620. 
632**. 2040). I. 69. no. 314. 385. 2037*. 2067 I K. a-ipLK. >i. 
920 I cnpiKov AsC 025. 046. 051. 104. 620. 1849. 2017 al : 
a-qpiKOv 20 (-386. 620. 1849) alP' : irvpLKov 172. 386. 2016. 
2018. 2019 I rrav ^Xov . . . Ti/Atwrarou] omne lignum incensi et 
omne vas ligneum et omne vas eburneum preciosum gig | k. Trav 
ivX. BvLv.] et omnis ligni citrei Pr : tr after np.. bo | ^vXov] 
(rK€vocr A : ivXivov 025 | cX€<^. k. tt. crKtvoa >arm^ | k. Trav ctk. ck 
$vX. > gig I Trav (TKevoa-^ >■ Pr | ck > C 94 | $vXov XC 025. 046. 
20 ( - 2040) al^'^'® """^ Pr s (arm) (bo) : Xi6ov A 2040 vg eth ] 

Tt/xicoTttTOv] TLfiiov S^ | ^^^'^o^ • • • OTLSrjpov . . . /xap/xapou] ^uXkov 
. . . (TtSrjpov . . . p.app,apov S^ bo | ;(aXKov] kuXkov C* | k, triS. 
>■ arm^ | k. p^app.. >X i |. 

13. KH'mfi- AxC 025. 046**. 19 (-35**. 205. 620. 919. 
1934. 2020). 104. 250. 2038 aJP (Pr) vg : KLvap.- 046*. i. 35**. 
69. 172. 205. 314. 620. 1934. 2020. 2022. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2067 
al™" gig bo I Kti'va/xw/MOV (Kivap.tiip.ov) AC 025. I. 250. 2037. 
2038. 2040. 2067 al™" vg gig s arm (bo) : Kivvap.oip.ov (Kivap.oip.ov) 
N 046. 19 ( - 35. 2040) al™" : cinnamum Pr j k. ap.oip.ov An*C 
025. 35*. 93. 172. 181. 218. 250. 314. 2016. 2018. 2019. gig vg 
s^ :>K''o46. 20 (-35*)- I. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Pr s^ arm 
bo I dvptap.ara'l 6vp.tap.a I. 2037. 2040. 2067 Pr gig arm^ bo : 
-paroa- 046. 61. 69 : -p.aToiV 201. 386. 620 vg | k. pvpov > C | 
p.vpov] p.vpoiv 386 (arm^) : p.vpov vg s^ : o-p.vpvav 2036. 2037 | 
A.i/3avov] XifSavov Vg | otvov . . . cXaiov] ~ 175. 2i8. 242. 250. 
314. 617 1934. 2016. 2017 I K. oivov AXC 025. 35. (175). 205. 



XVIII. 15-16.] AnOKAAY*I2 IfiANNOY 349 

Koi IXatov Kai cre/xiSaXtv Koi (tItov, 

Koi KTTjvrj Kox TTpo/SaTtt {a) KoX ^vya% avdpijiirdiv. (b) 

15. 01 tfjitropOL TouVwv, ol 7rX.ovTt]aavT€<; an avrrji, airo fiaKpoaev 
(TT-qcrovTai 8ia tov <^6(iov rov fiaaavLcrfJiov airrjs KXaiovTcv xai 
TTcv^owTCS, 16. Xe'yoi'Tcs 

OvaL, oval rj 7roXi<; rj fxeyaXr), 

■^ Tr€pi/3e(3Xrjixivr] Pvcraivov /cat iropcfivpovv kol KOKKtvoVf 
Ktti K€)^pv(r(t}fJiivrj xpv(7i(a Kal Xidta Tt/xt'o) Kai fiapydpirtj, 
OTL fJLia. dipa. r]p7j[xu)$r] 6 ToorovTO<s ttXovtos. 

(a) Here follows an interpolation : Kal iirirwv /cat pedQv Kal ffw/udrw^. See 
vol. ii. 102. 

{6) Verse 14 is restored after 21 : see vol. ii. 105. 108. 

(617). 632**. (1934). 2020. 2040 al Prgig s arm bo sa eth : >o46. 
20 (~35- 175- 632**. 205. 617. 1934. 2020. 2040) al™" : k. oivov 
Vg I eXaiov] cXaiou Vg | k. crc/i.. >• Pr [ crefxiS. . . . *^x°-^. 
<T€fjii8aX€w(r . . . aiTOv . . . Krrjvwv . . . irpofiaToyv . . . ipv^'jiv Vg 

K. (TLT. K. KT. > S^ | Kal? > bo | (TtTOv] CTITOV 62O bO | KTT/VT; K. 

Trpofiara AnC 025. 35. 205. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al Pr gig 
(vg) s2 arm^-*-* bo sa : ~ 046. 20 (-35. 205. 2040). 250 al™" 
arm^ : k. irpo^. >42. 1957 ] nnru>i'] nnrova- 2040 s arm^ : equi Pr | 
pcSoiv AnC 025. 046. I. 18. 205. 632. 919. 1849. 2004. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al™" : paiSuiv 051. 20 (-18. 205. 632. 919. 1849. 
2004). 82. 104. 250. 314. 2016 al™" : peBtwv 61. 69. 2022 : ptSaa- 
Pr s arm^**-* ] peSojv xai >arm2 bo | a-oi/x. kul >337- 386 arm^ | 
troj/iartov] awfiara s : crw/xa bo : i]/vx(dv 61. 69 : mancipia (-orum 
vg) Pr vg : porcorurn Tyc : mulorum et camelorum sa | k. i{/vx- 
avdp.] et diversi generis animal ia Pr : k. ^vx-qv avSpwrrov bo eth : 
>Tyc ]. 

15. TOUTWi'] avTTja Pr : aov bo [ avrrja^^ crov bo | o-Tijo-ovraiJ 
stabant Tyc | S. t. <^o/3. t. ft. avr. >Tyc | KXaiovrea- (KXavaovaLv 
s^ arm2 bo eth) AnC 025. i. 18. 35. 175. 250. 617. 632**. 1849. 
1934. 2004. 2037. 2038. 2040 Tyc Pr gig vg s^ arm^-** (bo) 
sa : pr Kai 046. 325. 337. 386. 456. 468. 620. 632. 919. 920 al s^ 
arm^ eth | koi > bo | irevOovvTca^ mvBri(Tova-Lv S^ arm^ bo eth |. 

16. Xeyoi'Teo- (Xeyovo-iv 046. 522 : epovtriv arm^' * eth) AkC 
(046). 175. 325. 337. 386. 456. (522). 617 al™" Tyc gig s2 (arm 3- a) 
bo sa (eth) : pr Kato25. 051. 19 ( - 175. 325. 337. 456. 617. 620), 
250. 2037. 2067 Prvgs^ arm'* (eth) | ova i^ ] + croi bo | ovai2AsCo25. 
35. 175. 250. 617. 1934. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040 al Tyc Pr gig vgs 
arm (bo)saeth : +ovai 172.2018 : +o-oibo : >o46. 19 ( - 35. 175. 
617. 1934. 2020. 2040) al™" I 77 TToX. 7} /Acy ] If] fieyaXq ttoXkt 2020 
bo I rj /ley. rj Trepi^e/JX. >X* | i?^ > A | 77 Trepi^eftX.] quae vastata 
est gig I pv(Tcr. . . . Kexpva-wfxevr] !> 325 ] ftvaar. . . . ko/ck.] *« A | 
jSvaa: . . . 7rop</).] ~ Pr | (iv<Tcnvov {jSva-ivov 025. fiva-a-vvov l) 



3SO AnOKAAY^n IfiANNOY [XVIII. 17-19. 

17, Kai ttSs Kv^cpvT^rjs /cat ttSs 6 ctti tottov ttXcwk, /cai vailrat 

Kai o(roi T^r ^aXacro-ai/ ipyd^ovrai, oltto fjLaKpodev iarrjaav 18. Koi 

€Kpa^av /SA.€7rovTes TOf KaTrvw T^s Trupwcrews aur^s, XeyovTCS Tts 

iiripaXov bjxoia ry iroXei rfj fjueydXr] ; 19. Kai ^e/3aXov^ X'°^^ ^'"''^ '''°'5 K«<^aA.as 

avTtov, Kai eKpa$av KXaiovre^ Kai TrevOovvre^f Xcyovres 

Ovai, ovai 17 TToAis ^ fXiydXrj, 

AkC I. 35- 175. 250. 617. 620. 2037. 2038 al Tyc (Pr) gig 
yga. c. f. g. h . j^ycrcrov 046. 18. 337. 386. 456. 468. 632. 919. 920. 
1849. 2004. 2067 al vg*^- " I iropipvpovv AnC 046. 19 ( — 325. 386). 
2037. 2038 alf' : TTopffivpav 025. 94. 141. 172. 201. 241. 250. 

2018. 2019. 2067 I Kai^ >-025. 175. 242. 617. 1934 I KOKKLVOv] 

KOKKtva s^ I Kai^] > 051. I. 2036. 2038 arm'* : r} eth | Ke^pva-.] 
K€)(^pv<j(i>^t.vov N : K^-^pvcroifjiiva s^ (bo) : >arm* | -^^pva^toi AC 025. 
046. 19 ( - 35). 250 alP' : )(fiv<T<ji N 051. i. 35. 61. 69. 1957. 2019. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al : auro Pr gig vg : pr €v nC i. 
35. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 I Ai^. Ti/i.] Xi^oicr 
TifiLOicr s^^)-^ arm^- ^- » | Tt/u.iw > 046 sa | /xapyapiriy AnC 025. 
2040 Pr arm'* bo (sa) : fxapyapnaia- {-racr s) 046. 19 ( — 2040). 
250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al^''''® "'"^ Tyc gig vg s arm^- ^- <* | yu,iaj in 
hac gig I r)pr]fj-w6r]^ €pT]fjiw$T] 051. I. 2036. 2038 | o >025. 2040 |. 

17. o >025. I. 314. 1957. 2016. 2017. 2036. 2037. 2038 al I 

CTTi TOTTOV TrAewi/] pr €7ri Twv ttXolwv S^ : €7ri Twv 7rXoi(i)v ( + 01) 0/AlAoO" 
I. 2037 : TrAewj/ ctti tcov ttAoiwv 2016 : super mare navigans Pr 
(bo sa) : (qui) manibus navigat Tyc | tottov (pr tov S 046. 468 : 
pr ilium gig) AnC 046. 19 (-35. 175. 617. 1934) al'"" gig vg 
s^ arm : tcov ttAoiwv 025. 35. 181. 250. 314. 617. 1934. i957- 
2017. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2038. 2067 I ttAcwv] navigabat (-avit 
Vg*^) gig vg*^ I K. vavT. . . . tpya^ovTat > bo | oo-oi t. ^aA. 
cpya^ovTai] quotquot mare operatur Tyc | t. ^aA.] ev tyj OaXaa-a-q 
Pr gig vg'' arm^ : maria (mari vg*^- ^) vg''- *=••*• ^' ^ | epya^ovTai] 
morantur Pr | eo-Tr/crav] stabunt Pr arm |. 

18. Kai CKpa^ac > 2020 Pr | Kai > 2067 arm* | CKpa^av AC 
025. 172. 2018. 2038. 2040 Tyc gig vg s^ : eKpa^ov X 046. 051. 
19 ( — 325. 468*. 920. 2040). I. 250. 2037. 2067 : 6KAaiov 920 : 
CKAavo^av avTrjv S^ : (Kpavya^ov 42. 325. 468*. 517 : Kpa^ovcriv 
arm | ySAeTrovTco-J opwvTCo- i | kuttvov XC 025. 046. 19 al^**'® ""^ 
Pr Tyc gig s arm bo sa : tottov A 60 vg | tio- > C | ttoAci] + 
Taur»7 C gig vg arm bo |. 

19. cpaXof (-av C) SC 046. 19 (-325. 617. 2040) alf«'^'"»°° 
vg s (bo) : cjSaXXov 025. 051. 325. 385. 617 gig : iire^aXov 
{(TTtfiaXXov 2040) A 2040 : mittentes Pr | x^w >62o | t. Ke<^.] 
TTycr KecfiaXrjcr X 2026 bo | avTwv^ eavrwv C | Kai^ > arm^' * bo | 
fKpafav (+<^wv7; fXiyaXq arm*) AC 20l8 Vg s arm* : tKpa^ov N 
025. 046. 19. 250. 2037. 2067 alP' gig : clamabunt Pr : Trevdowna- 
arm^' " : >• arm^ | kAoiovtcct k. 7tcv^ouvt6o-] > A i : pr koi 325. 



XVIII. 21, 14.J AnOKAAY^'a inANNOY 351 

€1/ y €Tr\ovTr)<rav ttcivtcs 01 i^ovres to. irXola ev Tjj OaXdcrtrr], 
t e/f T^s TiixioTTjTOs ttuT^s OTi /i.1^ wpoi rjpr]fjiu)9r]. f (a) 

21. Kai ^pev cI? ayycAos itrx^^pos Xi^oi/ ws /ivAtvov fityav, Kat 
l/8aA.€v €ts TT/i/ OdXaaa-av Acyov 

OuTtos opixriixaTi ft\r}6y](r€Tai 
BaySvAwv 17 fKydXr] ttoAis, 
Kai ou /A^ evpedrj en. 

14. fcai 17 OTTwpa (Tov t^s cTri^u/itas t^s »/'UX^S (^) 

ttTT^A^cv aTTo o-oC, 
Kai TTavra ra Xnrapa Kai to. Xafx-Trpa 

aTTwAcTO OLTTO CTOV, {c) 

{a) Text corrupt. We should read : 6ti fiigi Sipq, ■^prjfiuOrj ij ti/hiStiis 
avT^s : cf. vers. 10, 16, and see vol. ii. 106 sq. Ver. 20 is restored to its 
original context after 23*' ''. See vol. ii. 92 sq. 

(i) On the restoration of the order of the text, see vol. ii. 92, 105, 108. 

(c) Here follows a gloss : Kai ovKen ov fiT] avra evp-qffovaiv. On a possible 
explanation of it in connexion with the loss of 22*" which I have restored, 
see vol. ii. 92, 109, and footnote in loc. of English transl. 

468* arm^- « : ~ 325. 468* : tr after AcyovTccr 325. 468*. 517 | 
A€yoi/T€cr ( + voce magna Pr) AxC i. 172. 2018. 2040 Pr vg'"- s 
(arm^- ^- «) bo : pr Kai 025. 046. 19 (-325. 468. 2040). 250. 
2038. 2067 alP' gig vg^-«=-^ s arm* : >468** vg<^ | ovai^ AC 025, 
046. 19 ( - 337. 468*. 2040) Tyc Pr gig vg s arm sa eth : +ouai 
172. 250. 2019 : >X 141. 337. 432. 452. 468*. 506. 2019. 2021. 
2040 bo I T] TToA. T] ftcy.] t] jxtyaX-q ttoXut 1849 | ra > i. 35. 172. 
175. 617. 1934. 2018. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al I €v T. ^aA. . . . 
aivrvycr] de mari et de pretiis eius gig | €k t. tl/x. avr. > Tyc | 

r]prj/xu)6r}] eprjiMwOrj I. 2036. 2038 |. 

21. KOi^] pr Kttt €Kpa$€v cf)(Dvr]v bo I K. rjpev] tr after Lcrxvpo<r 
bo I €10- ayycAoo- icrxvpoa- At^.] cio- a . . . Ai^. A. The letters 
between a and A are not visible, but the space is only enough for 
five or six. | eto-] + €^ auTwv 337 I ayy. icr;^.] (k twv ayycAwv twv 
laxvpaiv s^ I icrxvpocr] icrxvpov (tr after At^ov S*) N* 141. 149 : 
>(A) Tyc s- I At^ov WO-] >bo : Ai^oi' >2oi9 : ojcr >arm2 | wo-] 
(oo-ci 2036. 2037 : ad magnitudinem Pr | p.vXivov {[jlvXlkov C) 
AC : molarem vg (bo) : p-vXav 025. 046. 19. 205. 2037. 2038. 
(2067) : molam (-ae Pr) Tyc Pr gig s(i)- 2 arm : Ai^ov N (2019) | 
p,€yav] fteya 20 19. 2020 : tr before wo" 2067 | ovTwcr] pr ori K 
620 : hoc Pr vg arm^ | /Saf^vXwv] pr ilia Tyc ( fityaXr] ttoAio-] 
/AeyaAoTToAto- 2067 | TroAtcr >Pr | £Tt] + €v avrr] K 046. 61. 69 |. 

14. T) oTrwpa] pomorum (-a vg) Pr vg : hora gig (arm"*) : > 
arm'- •'^- " | 7? >C | o-oui placed after oTrwpa AnC 025. 2040 (Pr) 

yga. c. f. g. h. V . tj. g^ffgf ij/vx-qa- 046. 19. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 gig 

Vg"* $2 arm : in both places 172. 2018 s^ : >bo | rrja- eTridvfjuacr] 



352 AnOKAAY*l2 IOAN«NOY [XVIII. 22. 

22* • Ktti (f}wvr] Ki$ap(Dh(x)V Koi f fjiovaiKtov f 
<C ov /at; OLKOVdOfi iv croi €tl' > (a) 
Kai •< <f)(i}vr] > (fl) auA-T^TWi/ *cai {raX7ri<rT(i»v 
ov firj AkovctOj) iv croi Irt. 

23"" ". Ktti <f)wvy} vv/Ji(f>iov Koi vvfi<f)i}^ 
ov fxr] aKOvcrdrj iv trot ?Tt' 

OU /A^ CVpeOfj iv (TOt €Tt. 

Kat ifxavT) iJLvXov 
ov /Mt] aKOVdOfi iv croi en' 

(a) Necessarily restored, yet found in eth : see below, 

1; €viOvfjiLa Pr s^ I a7rT;X^cv] discendent vg** arm^ | ra^ >6i. 69 | 
XiTrapa] pttrapa N* : +<rov 2040 | ra^ A 025. 046. 19 al^"'"® °™'' : 
>KC 2036. 2067 I aTTwXcTO AC 025. 046. 19 (-35. 620). 250 
alP^ arm^- * eth : aTrwAovro K 35. 104. no. 172. 336. 432. 620. 
191 8. 1957. 2018. 2023. 2041 gig vg bo sa ; perient Pr : aTrcuxero 
2067 : air-qXOev 051. i. 2036. 2037 s^ arm^- » | ovkcti] + aura 
(3X€{j/fL<T Kai s^ I ov fjLT) avTa An 2018. 2020. 2040 : avra ov fxrj C 
025. 046. 19 ( - 35. 175. 617. 1934. 2020. 2040) al gig vg : tr avra 
after evp. 1. 35. 175. 250. 617. 1934. 2037. 2038 (arm) | fvprj- 
a-ovcTLV AxC 025. 18. 172. 250. 424. 2018. 2019. 2039 vg s 
(arm^) bo : cvprja- (-eta- 104. 620). 046. 19 ( - 18. 35). 2037. 2067 : 
cvprja-eia- {-rjcr 051). 051. I. 35. 432. 1957. 2023. 2038. 2041 Pr 
gig arm^' *• " : + OVTC if/vxa(r avOpwTroiv tov Xolttov e/xiropevcrrj 24 1. 
314. 2016 I K. ovKfTt . . . €vprjcrovo-Lv] joined with ver. 15 by 172. 
2018. 2019 s bo eth |. 

22*'^. Kai ^(ovT) . . . aoXTTiaTwi'] Kai ov fi-ri aKovaOrj cv avrrj 
<f>o}vr} fiovaLKOv Kai KiQapacr Kai avXov Kai (fxovrj (raXiriyyoa ov 
firj aKovadr} ev avrr] eth. Here observe that the Ethiopia has 
already restored the missing words in 22^- ^- | Kai^] >N i Tyc : 
ouSc bo eth I Ki^apwSwv] Kidapaa- s^ arm^ bo eth | (jlovo-ik. . . . 
o'aX7r.]~»s^ I avXTjTdiv^ avXia-Twv 620 : sinfoniacorum Pr | avX. Kai 
> bo I (raXTTio-Twv AC 025. 046. 19 al^'''® "™" gig : o-aXTriyywv 
(oa- s^ arm^) 8< 172. 2018 s arm^-* : aaX-jriyi vg bo : fistularum 
Tyc : tibicinum Pr : +Kai 2020 | <rot] avr-q gig vg'^**^ eth |. 

23"- ^. <|>wi/T]] ^wvrjv N* bo | vvfx^jirja] pr <fiwvr) C 920 S^ eth |. 

22®'^. K. irao-Tcx*'' • • • cti] >6i. 69 s^ arm : tr. after ev croi 
cTi^ 104. 620 I TTacT Te)(yiTr)(T >i9i8 | TracrrjcT Te)(yr}a- C 025. 046. 
19. 250. 2038. 2067 Pr gig vg s^ : > AN bo : + eTrivoia 1918 | 
o-oi^] avT?; vg''- ^^ eth I K. 4>o)vr} fivXov . . . eri^ AC 025. 046. 19 
( — 18. 919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 Pr 
gig vg arm^ bo : >N 18. 141. 172. 385. 522. 919. 920. 1849. 
1955. 2004. 2020 s arm^- "*• * eth j fivXov] fxvOov C ] aKova-drj] 



XVIII. 23-XIX. 1.] AnOKAAY^I'12 lOANNOY 353 

23** ^. Koi <f)m Xvx^ov 

ov fir] (f>dvr] iv trot en. 

20. ^iffipaLvov iir avTjj, ovpave, 

Koi ol ayiot koi 01 AttocttoXoi koi ol vpocf)^Tat, 

OTl €KpiV€V 6 0(O<; TO KpLfia VflOiV C^ ttVT^S. 

23'. OTl €V T^ <f)apfxaKia. f (tou t(a) £7rXai'ry^7;crai/ 7rai/Ta Ta Wvijf 
24. >«it ev avTjj uLfxa TrpofprfTuiv Kai aytwv €vpe6r] 

Koi. iravroiv Tuiv €a-<f)ay/x€vwv eVl t^s y^s. 

(a) Read avr^s. 

(vp(6r) 046 : <^ai/7; 91. 175. 250. 314. 617. 1934. 20l6 | (roi] avT?/ 

Vgc.f.v|. 

23*- ^ Kttt <j)wo- ... cTi nC 025. 046. 19 aK^''^ o™"^ Pr gig vg 
s arm^'*'* bo : >A 506 arm^ | kul >o46 | Au;)(vov] +Kai <f)wvr) 
fivXov arm^- * | c^avt;] aKOvaOr] 620 ] ev > C Pr gig vg s^ | CTt 

>S2 |. 

20. eo<|>paii'ou] exultate Pr s arm^- « : ev<f>paiv€TO) {-eTwcrav 
arm"^) arm^ eth | ctt avxT; ovpave] ~Tyc bo | ctt] ev A 522 | avT-q 
AnC 046. 19 (—18. 35. 617. 2004). 250. 522 gig : avTT^v 025. 
051. I. 18. 35. 617. 2004. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 
al Tyc Pr vg | *cai oi^ Ax 025. 046. 19 (-35). 250. 2037. 2067 
aP' Tyc Pr yga-- f- s- i^- ^ s arm^ bo : >C 051. i. 35. 2038 al? gig 
ygc. d arm^- *• « (eth) | aTroo-ToXot . . . -n-poffirjTaL] ~ eth |. 

23^. <|>app.aKia AxC 025. 104. 172. 2019. 2038. 2067 : 
<f>apfjiaK€La 046. 19 al^' : (xaio-) (ftap/xaKLaia- Tyc gig vg s^ bo : 
maleficiis Pr | crou] avT-qcr arm^ : aurwv eth | e7rAavr;^7;o-av] crrXav- 
r;o-ao- 172 S^ eth |. 

24. €1' auTT]] >Tyc : in te Pr eth | ai/xa AnC 025. i. 2020. 
2036. 2037 alP : aifxara 046. 051. 19 (-2020). 250. 2038. 2067 
alP' I evpe^T/] €vp€$r]aai' 69. 104. 620. 1918 | k. rravT. >s^ | Kai^ 
>Tyc I €cr<^ay)u.ev(ji)v] co-^paytcr/AevcDV 2020 (arm^- ^* ") : pr a te 
Tyc : + aytwv 468 j. 



Chapter XIX. 

I. MeTa TttUTa T^KOvora ws (fxovrjv fxeydXrjv ox^ov iroXXov iv t<3 
ovpaviS AeyovTWV 

'A\X.r]\ovLoi' 
■^ {Tun-qpia Ka\ t) Sd^a koX yj 8wa/iis tou Otov fjfifav^ 

1. fiera rauTO . . . (ver. 6'^) Kai TjKOuora wo- > 632* | ficra 

AxC 025. 046. 19 (-35. 468. 2020). 250 alP' Pr gig vg s^ bo : 

pr Kai 051. I. 35. 468. 1957. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 

2038. 2041. 2067 s^ arm eth | wo- AxC 025. 046. 19 (-620. 

VOL. II. — 23 



354 AnOKAAY^lS in ANNOY [XIX. 2-4. 

2. oTi aXr]9i,val Koi StVaiai ai Kpitrcts avTov' 

OTi iKptvev TTfv TTopvrjv T^v fxtydXrjv, 

rjTi^ €<l)6(tptv rrjv yr^v iv rrj iropveLa avri/s, 

Koi i^eSUrjafv to alfia twv SouAwi/ aurou ex X''P°5 auri;?. 

3. Ktti ScuTcpov €Lpr)Kav 

' AWrjXovid' 
Kol 6 KaTTVos aiiTi}? ava^aivu cts tows ataivas twj/ aioii/wv. 

4. Kai €Tr€(Tav ot ctKocri T€(r<rap(cr irptcr^vTepot kol to. TCO'O-cpa 
^<3a, Kttt irpoaeKvvrjaav tu> ^€<3 t<3 KaOr^p-ivta iiri tw 6pov(o kiyovT€<i 

'Afxrjv, 'AXXrjkovid' 

632**. 2020). 250. 2037** alvg bo : tr after /mcyaXi/v 2019 eth : 
>i. 104. 181. 241. 336. 620. 632**. 2020. 2038. 2067 Tyc Pr 
gig s arm | /x.cyaA.7jv] fjityaXov 337. 632** : tr after ttoXXov 1957. 
2023. 2041 al : > I. 141. 2036. 2038. 2067 Pr arm* | oxAou 
TToAXov] oxXwi' TToXAwv Pr vg^- B s^ : tubarum multarum vg-'- *^- " 
arm^ : aquarum multarum vg** | ttoAAot;] > arm^- « : +clamantium 
voce magna Pr | AeyovTwv] dicentis gig : Acyouo-av no : +to i. 

2037 I o-toT. . . . 8o|a] — eth I (TWT-qpia] lausvg^S-^ I rj 8o$a ( + koi 

r/Tiixr) 632** arm^- <» bo sa) k. 77 Sw. An'^C 025. 35. (632**). 2019. 
2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 Tyc vg s^ arm^- " bo sa eth : r; 

8VV. K. 7] 8o$a ( + K. 7) TlfJiTj S^) O46. 19 ( - 35- 632**. 2020. 2O40). 

250 alP' gig s^ arm^ : k. rj Svi\ >-S* Pr arm* | t. Oeov rj/xtov >■ 
2067 I Tou Oeov AnC 025. 046. 19 (-632**). 250. 2038 alP' gig 
bo sa : tw dew 241. 632**. 2019 Tyc Pr vg s arm : Kvpua too Oeto 
I. 2037 I T7/A(ov] +est vg j. 

2. oXTjGii'ai] cKpivev aXrjOrj 468 | oTi^] qui vg : + sic Pr I 

TTOpVfjv] TToXlV 69. 94. 209. 241. 632**. 2023 I rjTLO- . . . TTOpViia 

avrrja- >bo | t/tio" . . . yrjv >2026. 2031. 2037 arm^- " ] ecjiOeipev 
kC 025. I. 172. 632**. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2040 al : 8u<f)0€Lp€v 
046. 19 ( — 632**. 2040). 250. 2067 al : iKpivev A | iropvua C 
025. 046. 19 alP^ : TTopvia AS | /cat] + ko- 2040 | avTou^] avTrja X* | 
CK x«i/30(r AkC 025. 046. 19 ( - 35*. 620. 632**. 920). 250 al : 

€K TTja- X'^I'POO- I. 35*. 620. 632**. 920. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037. 

2038. 2067 al : de manu Tyc gig s^ sa eth : ck (twv) xeipwv Pr vg 
s^ arm^- *■ * : x^ 'poo- > arm^ bo |. 

3. Kai^ > S^ I (iprjKav Ah 025. I. 35. 172. 2018. 2036. 2037. 

2038 : eiprjKacrtv 61. 69. 201. 250. 386. 2040 2067 al : enrav {-ov 
2020) C 2020 : dixerunt ( = eiprjKav or (lttov) Tyc Pr gig vg s 
arm(2- 3)- * sa eth : eiprjKev 046. 19 ( — 35. 386. 2020. 2040) al bo I 
o >386 I avTT^o-] avTwv Tyc : de ilia Pr : > i. 241. 632**. 

2067 I avajSatvet] avej3aivev 1 7 2. 2018. 2020 S^ : ave^r] 2036. 
2037 S^ arm : ava/3rfcreTaL bo |. 

4. iireaav AkC 025. 046"=. I. 325. 337. 498 620. 2023. 2036. 



XVI. 6-7.] AnOKAAY*I2 IflANNOY 355 

xvi. s**. AiKaios €1^ 6 wv Koi 6 ^v,(a) 

Ocnos OTi TavTa cKpivas* 

6. OTt alfia ayiwv koI irpo(f>r]Twv e^c;(eav, 

Koi at/xa avrots ^^Se'ScoKas^ ireiV Ww/coj 

7. Kai T^KOwa tov 6v<naaT7]pLov Xeyovros 

Nai, KV/31C, 6 ^«os o TravTOKpdiTwp, 
aXfjOival Kol SiKaiai at Kptireis crov. 

(a) On the restoration of xvi, 5''-7 to their original context, see vol. ii. 1 16, 
120-124. 

2038. 2041 : CTrccrov 046**. 19 ( — 325. 337. 620). 250. 2037. 
2067 : tr after Trpco-/?. 620 | 01 (>»69) eiKoat reacr. irpecr/S. A 046. 
18. 61. 69. 201. 337. 386. 920. 1957. 2004. 2019. 2036. 2037. 

2039. 2067 Pr gig (s^) arm : 01 Trpecr/?. ol eiKocrt recra: NC 025. 19 
( — 18.337. 386. 620. 920. 2004). I. 250. 2038 alP' vg s^ I £i/c. 
T€o-(r.] kS' 046. I. 35. 337. 468. 919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2038. 2040 
al I Tco-o-epa AnC : reaaapa (8' 35. 456. 2040 al™") 025. 046. minP' | 
C<oa >N* I Tw (>9I9) Opovw AxC 046. 19 (-35. 386. 468. 620. 
632**. 920. 2020). 250 alP' : Twv 6pov(xiv 025 : tov (>'2037) dpovov 
I. 35. 386. 468. 498. 620. 632**. 920. 1957. 2019. 2020. 2023. 
2036. (2037). 2038. 2041. 2067 al I a/Ai;j/ aXAr/X.] ~ 35 : >-arm* | 
afiffv >337 I aXX-qX. >Pr |. 

xvi. 5^ SiKaioo-] +domine vg^ eth | et > 104 arm^- 2- 3. o | (,2 
AnC 025. 20 ( -337. 617. 632*. 919. 920. 1849. 1934) al : oo- 
046. 61. 69. 82. no. 141. 337. 385. 429. 452. 522. 617.919. 
920. 1849. ^934 ^^^'' • > arm^-" | -qv] "is" arm^-^-a | oct^oq- aC 
046. 175. 250. 325. 337. 456. 468. 617. 620. 919. 1849. 1934. 
2004. 2020 al*"*^ arm^ : o ocrioo- N 025. 051. 35. 94. 181. 201. 
205. 314. 386. 517. 632. 920. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2023. 
2036. 2038. 2041. 2067 al (arm*) : sanctus vg : Kai ocriocr 2040 s : 
et sanctus gig arm^-^" sa eth : /cat o ocnoa i. 18. 424. 2019. 
2037 : et qui as pius Pr : >bo |. 

6. atfiia^] aifiara N 620. 19 18. 2019 [ ayto?/ . . . irpo- 
(prjToyv] ~2o6. 2017 s^ arm^ | aytwv] /xapTvpwv bo | /cat^] ideoque 
Pr arm^* 2* * : >bo | at/u,a avroicr SeSw/cao- (eSwKaa) AC 025. 046. 
20 sd^^^^ ""^ vg s^ : aifia e8(OKa<r avrour K gig s^ : cSwKacr auroto" 
at^a 61. 69 Pr (arm*) sa (eth ?) : cSiuxacr aifxa avToia- bo : avTOtcr 
>arm2 | ScSw/cao- AC arm^-* : cSw/cao- X 025. 046. 20 al"""" | -rrtiv 
(TTiv C) A(C) : -n-Letv K 025. 046. 20 al^^^-^ o""" | a^tot] pr oirep N : 
pr oTi 336. 620. 628. 1918 Pr (gig) $2 bo (sa) eth : pr ut 

Vga.g.r|, 

7. Tou Qua. Xeyoi'Toa AxC 025, 20. 250. 2038 al^' vg'-» s 
arm* bo : pr ck 046. i. 2037. 2067 vg*^- •*•(*) arm^- 2- 3 : (fiwvrjv c/c 



356 AnOKAAY*I2 Ifi ANNOY [XIX. 6-7. 

xix. 5. Kat <j>(i)vrj (XTTo Tov dpovov l^\6ev Xeyovcra 
Ah'elre tw ^ew rj^utv, 7ravTf9 01 hovXoi avrov 
KaL 01 (f>oPovfi€voi avTOv, 01 fiiKpol Kal 01 fnyaXoi. 

6. Kal rjKovaa <os <fiwvr]v oxXov noWov koI <i)S <f>(t}vr]v iSdroiv 
iroWwv Kal <i)s fftwyrfv ^povrlav La")(vpu)V, XeyovTwv 

* AXXriXovLo.' 

OTt ljia(TlX€V(TiV KVpiO^, 6 ^«0S 6 TTaVTOKpOLTiap. 

7. •^ipoip.€v Kal dyaXA.iwynej', 

KOI S(i)ao/xfv TTjv 86$av airw, 
OTi ^Xdcv 6 ya.p.o<i tov apviov, 

Kal ■^ ywTj avTOv -^Toifjiaaev iavri^y, 

(>arm«) t. Ova: Xeyova-av 2019 arm" : alterum (aliam vocem Pr) 
dicentem (-ens vg*) Pr gig vg* : ab altari dicens vg'' | aX-qOiyaL . . . 
SiKatai] ~ arm^- ^^^- * (bo) eth | Stxaiat] o Slkuioct bo | kul^ > bo |. 
xix. 5. 4>un) . . . 6|t|X0€I' . . . Xeyouaa] AN'' 025. 046 : 
<f>wvai . . . e^rjXdov . . . XfyovaaL N* : > arm^- * | aTro AC 046. 
19 (-35- 175- 617- 632**. 1934). 250 al">".: £k N 025. i. 35. 
175. 241. 242. 617.632**. 1934. 1955. 1957- 2016. 2017. 2019. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 al'"^ I 6povov AnC 025. 19 
gig vg s arm'** bo : ovpavov 046 61. 69 Pr | e^rjXOev] tr before 
a-rro t. 6pov. N : > S^ | tod dew AnC 025. 046. 325 aP : tov 6eov 19 
(-325). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' I 7//u,a)v] vjxwv Pr : +aiv€iTe 
2040 : > 18 arm* | xat^ A 046. 19 al"""^ Pr gig vg s arm'- ■*• « bo 
eth : >»nC 025 1 avTov] dominum Pr : to ovofxa avrov s^ | fiiKpoi 
. . , /xcyaXot] — Pr I 01 /AtKpot] pr Kai I. 2023. 2037 al arm* : pr 
iravTea- S^ | 01' >• 175 | k. 01 ftey.] fieTa twv fxfyaXwv S^ bo | 01* >- 
18 1. 

6. wa^ An 025. 046. 19 vg $2 bo : tr after (fnov-qv 2019 s^ 
arm*eth:>i*. no. 172. 181. 2016. 2018. 2037. 2038. 2067 
Tyc Pr gig arm'- " | o^A. ttoXX.] oxXiov ttoAXcov s^ : tubarum (-ae 
vg) magnarum (-ae vg) Pr vg"^- •=- ^-^-^ \ wo-2 N 025. 046. 19 ( ~ 386) 
Pr gig vg s arm'-*- " bo eth : >A 181. 201. 314. 386 Tyc | vSar. 
TToAA. . . . /3povT. icr;^.] — Pr I ^povT.^ + TroXXuiv Kai 468 | tcr^^v/owv] 
magnorum vg | AeyovTwv (-ovcrwj/ N : -ovarrjo- 2067) A(n) 025. 
172. 314. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2040. (2067) al Pr gig 
vg : AtyovTCtr (-too- 620). 046. 18 ( - 35. 2020. 2040) al™" : 
XeyovTao- 05 1. I. 35 al : dicentes Tyc | Kvpioa- o 6eoar AN" 025. 
046. 18 Tyc gig vg s^ arm bo sa : o deoa o Kvpioa- N* : o Ocoa o 
6€ocr 2038 : o 6eo<r 051. I. no. 181. 2019. 2067 : Kvpiocr Pr s^ | 
o deoa- A I. 2023. 2040 Cyp s^ arm*-* bo sa eth : +r]ixwv a 025. 
046. 18 ( — 2040). 250. 2037. 2038 2067 alP^ Tyc Pr gig vg s* 
arm'- » | o 7ravTO»cp. >-gig |. 

7. x'^ip'^t*^*'] x<ii^pop-^ (*<«' xaLpop.€v arm*) s^ arm | ayaXXunficv 
An 025. I. 94. 172. 181. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 : -w/jifOa 046. 18 ( — 2040). 250 alP' I Kat* >s^ | Swo". r. S. 



XIX. 8-10.] AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY 357 

8. Koi eSodr] avT'^ iva Tript/SaXrjTai, 

fivcrcTLVov XafiTTpov KaOapov. (a) 
g. Kai Xcyei fiOL Fpaxj/ov MaKapLoi oi cis to Seivvov tov ydfiov 
Tov Apviov KeK\r]fX€vou{d) 

(a) An incorrect gloss follows in the text : rb yhp ^itraivov tA S(Kat(6/iara 
tQ}V iyUav iffrlv. See vol. ii. 127 sq. 

[b) Text adds a doublet of xxii. 6*. 8-9 : kclI \iyei /loi OCtoi ol \6yot ol 
d\i]dtvolrov deoO el<riv. 10. Kal iirecra (fiirpoadev tGiv iroSdjv aiirov irpwrKwrjaai. 
avrip. Kai \iyfi fiot, "Opa fi-q' ff^vSov\6s <toij eifii Kal tCov d8€\(pC>u ffov tCiv 
iX^vT<j)v rrjp ftapTvpiav 'It]<tov' rip deifi Trpo(rKiJi>7]ffoV i] yap fiaprvpla 'Iijffov iffTiv 
t6 vvevfia t^J vpoiprjreias. See vol. ii. 1 28- 1 29. 

auT.] glorificemus nomen eius Tyc arm^ | Swaofifv Ax" Pr gig vg 
arm* : Swo-w/xci/ (Socrw/xcv 2019) 025. 2019. 2036 : 8w/x€j/ K* 046. 
051. 18. I. 61. 69. 104. 241. 242. 250. 314. 1957. 2018. 2023. 
2024. 2037. 2039 al™" : "we give " arm^- ^- » : Soiaawficv 2067 cf. 
Tyc arm^ | t. So^. avr, AK'= 025. 046 minP^ gig s eth : avruiT. So^. 



Pr Cyp vg I avro) 
2017. 2038 I yvvr] 



avTwv a* : avTOV I. 175. 181. 250. 617. I934. 

. . vv)u,<^r/ N*^- " : sponsa gig : + -q vvp-cftr] arm^- *• * J 
avTov] avTio arm^ bo : > i. 104. 181. 336. 620. 1918 | eavTrjv] 
avrr/v 18. 2037 |. 

8. KOi] -I- Kai 1934 I 7r€pi/3aA,7;Tat] ireptlSaXrjTe A : Trept^aXXi^Tai 
69. no. 172. 522. 2023**. 2037 : 7r€/3t/3€^A.7/Tai 175 | Aa/t7r. Kad. 
Ak 025. 104. 620. 1957. 2040 Tyc Pr gig vg*- <=• ^- s- ^- ^ arm^ bo 
eth : ~ 051. 35. 2036. 2038 : XafXTr. km KaO. 046. 18 ( - 35. 620. 
2040). 250 alP' vg*^ s^ : KaO. Ktti Xa/tTT. I, 2019. 2037. 2067 s^ : 
ktVKov Aa/XTT. (ayaOov sa) Ka6. (Kad. Kai kafxir. arm^- «) arm^- *• * sa | 
/SvcraLvov^] + mundum Pr : + XevKov arm^ | t. ayiwv] tr after eo-Ttv 
I al gig vg si |. 

9. Xeyei fioi >arm2 | Xcyei] enrev S^ bo : enrov s^ : + eto" (ck) 
Twv Trpctr/Sin-epcov arm^- * | ypaij/ov^ 7raA.1v S^ : >i. 2037. 2038 | 
CIO- > 149 I TO AK 025. 18 (-386. 468. 620. 2020) alP' : tov 
046. 172. 336. 386. 468. 498. 522. 620. 2020 I tou ya/Ltou AK*' 046. 

18 ( - 620). 250. 2067 alP' Pr vg s(i)- 2 arm^- 3- ». ga eth : >K* 025. 
I, 336. 620. 1918. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 gig arm* bo | apvtou] 
+ €t(n S^ I K€K\r}fji€voi] + Kai Srjye Kai aTriovTeo- (acr Set (from the 
comm. of Aretas) 314. 2016 | k. Xeyet^ . . . €io-tv >arm3-* | 
K. Xey. fjioi^ AN'= 025. 046. 18 ( - 2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 
alpi (Pr) gig vg (s) arm^-* (bo) sa : > N* 314. 522. 2019. 2020 
eth I Kai^] + iterum Pr | Xeyct^j enrev S bo | Xoyoi] + fiov N* S^ | 
oi3 A 91. 242. 1934 (si) : >K 025. 046. 18 ( - 1934). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 alP^ arm* sa | aXr)6ivoi] vera et iusta Pr arm^ | aXrjd, 
TOV 6eov cto-iv A 025. 046. 18 (-35. 2020. 2040). 250 al^^ gig 
yga. c. d. f. h. V g . a\r}d. eicriv r. 6iov K* 051. I. 35. 1957. 2020. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 (Pr) arm^^)- * : tou dtov aX-qO. «o-iv 
K*^ 522. 2040 VgS |. 

10. eireaa AK 025. 35. 325. 337. 386. 456. 620 al""** : cttco-ov 



358 AnOKAAY*l2 in ANNOY [XIX. 11-12. 

1 1. Kat ciSov Tov ovpavov ^vewyftcvov, 

KOI ISoV ITTTTOS XcUKOS, 

Ktti 6 Ka6rniivo% in avrov [koA.ov/u.ci'os] ttiotos koi aXijBivo'i, 
Kox iv 8iKaio(Tvvr] Kpivei koi iroXefiei. 

12. oi 8e 6<l>6a\fiol avTOV ws <^Xo^ irvpos, 

Koi CTTi Tr]v Ke^aXrjv avrov SiaSTy/y.ara iroWd' (a) 

(a) Here follows an interpolation : e'x'^'' ^"OM* yeypafifiivov 8 oiSeU ailSeu ei 
firj a.vr6s, 

046. 18. 175. 468. 617. 632. 920. 1849. 1934- 2004. 2040 al™" I 

c/XTrpotr^ev] cvcottiov 046 | t. ttoS. > 620 | airrou] tov ayyeXou 620. 
19 18. 2040 I TrpocTKvi'rjcrai avT(o (avrov 046) AN 046. 18 Pr gig vg 
S^ arm^ : /cat (>bo sa) irpoa-eKwrjo-a avrw 025. 2036. 2037. 2038 
S^ arm^- *• " bo sa eth | Xeyei] uwev s bo | fioi >arm* | opa fJ.r]] + 
TToiTjcrrja- 2017. 2040 : vide ne feceris Pr gig vg : pr fxr] Trpoa-Kwei 
468'"^ eth : " obey (see thou art evil, and he said to me arm^). 
Fall thou (>arm2) not down before me " anii^- 3. « | opa >s^ bo | 
<rvv8ov\o(T] pr on Pr bo eth : +yap gig arm^- ^-^ | crov^] >N 314 : 
+ KaL I. 181. 2038 I Itjo-ov^] pr rov 241. 429** : +xpto"Tou Pr 
arm* : (tcj) KvpLw arm^ | irpoa-Kxrvr]<Tov\+ fiaXXov S^ I 7] yap fxapr. 
Lfjo-ov^ sanctificatio enim testificationis Pr | ro irv. rrjcr irpo^.] 
spiritus est et prophetiae gig : " the spirit holy which is in 
the prophets" arm^ | Ir/o-ou^ AN 025. 046. i. 35. 61. 69. 181. 
336. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 : pr rov 18 ( - 35. 
1934. 2040). 250. 314. 2018 alP' : rov viov 242. 1934 | Trpotprj. 
Tciao-] aXrjdiiaa 2037* bo |. 

11. Kai^] Kat (>bo) /A€Ta ravra bo eth : >Pr | qveoiy fxevov AH 
025. 432**. 2067 : aveoiyfxevov 046. 18. 250. 2037. 2038 aP' | k. tSou 
iTTTT. XevK. >632* I KaX. TTio-r. K. aX-qO. 046. 18 ( — 175. 617. 1934)- 
250 alP' s bo sa eth : vocatur (vocabatur Pr Cyp vg arm^) fidelis 
et varus (verax gig : + vocatur vg**- *=• ^- ''• s- ^) Tyc Pr Cyp gig vg 
arm^^)- ^ : ttictt. KaX. k. oXtjO. N : KaXovp-tvocr >>A 025. 051. i. 
(35* f*)- 91- 175- 181. 242. 314. 617. 1934. 2016. 2017. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2067 arm^- " | k. tv 8ik. Kpiveij > Tyc : aequum 
iustumque iudicat Pr | k. ttoA,. >Tyc bo |. 

12. 01 SeJ + oi N : Kai 01 Tyc bo | coo- A 172. 250. 1957. 

2018. 2019. 2040 al Tyc Pr gig vg s arm^- * bo sa eth : >N 025. 
046. 18 ( - 2040). I. 2037. 2038. 2067 al arm^- * | ctti. t. ke^.] 
cv TT] Ke(f>aXr] 6 1. 69 : in capite gig vg | ex^v] et habebat (habens 
Pr : portabat Cyp) Pr Cyp arm"^ | ovofia ( + fieya Pr) yeypap-neyov 
A 025. I. 35*. 104. 175. 241. 242. 617. 632**, 1934. 2016. 

2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 al Tyc (Pr) Cyp gig vg s^ arm* bo sa : 
ovofiara ( + 7roAAa arm^) y^ypa/jifxera N" 42. 325. 336. 468**. 517. 
620. 19 18 arin(-)' ^ : ovo/xara yeypafifjLeva (~' 920) Kat ovopa 
y€ypajXfjL€vov (ra ovofxara yeypafi/ieva arm^) 046. 18 (-35*. 175. 



XIX. 13-15.] AHOKAAY^IS IfiANNOY 359 

13. KOL TrtpifitfiXrffiivo'i IfxaTLOV ^fiefiafXfiivov'^ at/iari, f>€pavriff- 
Kal K€KXr]Tai to ovofw. avTov 'O Aoyos tov deov. ^ "^^ 

14. KOLi TO. arTpaTevfxaTa rot iv tw ovpavw ^KoXovoei auT<3 €(f> 

nrTrois XevKols, 
ivSeSvfievoi ^ (ivaaivov XiVKOV^ Ka$ap6v. XeuKo^i^a- 

ffivov 

15. KOL CK rov o-TO/AaTOS auToB €K7ropev€Tai poju.<^aia o^cia> 

iva £1/ avTT7 TraTd^rj to. tdvrj, 
KoX avTos Troifiavel avTOvs iv pdfiBia crtSr^pa, 
Ktti avTos TraT€L tt/v Xrjvov rov olvov Tov dvfiov t^s o/oy^5 row 
Oiov TOV TravTOKpa.Topo<i, 

325. 468**. 617. 632** 1934). 250. 2067 al™'* s2 arm^ | yey/o. 
o ou8. >N* I o > arm^ | avroo-] qui accipit gig : + ju,ovo(r 2026 bo 
eth |. 

13. irepiPepXTip.ei'oa] circumdatus est Tyc arm^- ^ : vestitus 
erat vg : erat coopertus Pr | /SefSafXfievov A 046. 051. 18 ( - 2040). 
I. 2037. 2038. 2067 (s^) arm sa : TrepLpepafi/xcvov N* : treptpepavTia-- 
fievov N*'-" : pepavTLO-fxivov 025. 2019 : €ppavTtcrfji€vov 172. 250, 
2017. 2018. 2040. Similarly Tyc Pr gig Cyp vg s^ arm^ bo eth 
at/MttTt] pr €1/ 175. 218. 242. 250. 314. 617. 1934. 2016. 2017 
K€KXr]TaL AS'^ 025. 046. 18 ( -35. 175. 617. 620. 1934) alPi vgf- ^ 
arin2. 3. o (sa) : xcxXr; (to ovofxa) N* : xaActTai i. 35. 175. 242. 
250. 617. 620. 1934. 1957. 2016. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2067 al Tyc Pr gig vg*- •=• ^ s- ^ s^ arm* : KaXovp.evoa- (s^) bo | to 
ov. avT.] avT. to ov. 69 : >bo |. 

14. Ktti^ >Tyc I Ttt o-T/aaT.] to aTpanvfia gig bo | to} >6l. 
69. 2038 I Ta2 025. 051. 18 (-325. 468. 617. 620. 920. 2020). 
241. 242. 250. 429. 1957. 2023. 2024 al Tyc Pr vg s^ sa : aurou 
2017 : >Ax 046. I. 61. 69. 94. 104. 172. 181. 314. 325. 336. 
468*. 498. 517. 617. 620. 920. 2016. 2018. 2020. 2036. 2037. 
2038 gig s^ (arm) bo eth | cv r. ovp.] tov ovpavov (twv ovpavmv 
468** s^) 468**. 920 s^ (arm) eth : to >204o : > bo : tr after 
avTOi gig I 7]KoXov6iL\ rjKoXovOovv 051. I. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2039 I 

€(f> ITTTTOIO- (CVC^ITTTTOIO- 620) XcVKOtO" AX O25. I. IO4. 62O. 2OI9. 2020. 

2037. 2040. 2067 aP : €7r(. tTTTToio- XevKOLo- 046. 18 ( — 35*' 620. 

2020. 2040). 250 aP' : CC^tTTTTOl TToXAot 051. 35*. 181. 2O36. 2O38 | 

(vSeSvfievoi] ivSeSv/JuvoLo- K* : cvSeSu/Acva 632 : evSeSvfievov 920 : 
pr Kai S^ I (ivacTLVov X(.vkov (Xap-Trpov 94. 2037 bo) N 025. 046. 
18 (-2040). (i). (94). 250. (2037). 2038 alPi Pr Tyc (gig) (si) 
arm* (bo) (sa) : X(vkov /Svo-o-lvov (Acuko/Suo-o-ivov 2040) A 2040 : 
+ Kai N I. 456. gig s^ sa : XevKov >arm^- ^ | XtvK. ko£] ~ 104 s'^ : 
KoO. KOL XevK. arm* : <fi(jiToa XevKOv (corrupt) eth | /ca^apov] 
purpureum gig : >bo |. 

15. auTooJ avTU)v s^ arm^ bo | tKTropeverai] exiebat Pr arm | 
o^£ia An 025. I, 35*. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038 al gig vg s^ 



360 AnOKAAY*I2 mANNOY [XIX. 16-18. 

1 6. KoX €)(€L (a) iirl Tov firjpbv auTou ovofia yeypa/x/xcVov, 

BACIAEYC BACIAEHN KAI KYPIOC KYPinN- 

17. Kai €idov iva ayyeXov coTwra iv tw yjXioi, koi €Kpa^tv 
(fiwvfj /xeyaXrj Aeywv 7rao"i TOis opvcois rots TrcTO/xeVois iv fjitcrov- 
pavrjfxaTL AcCtc (Tvva.)(9-qTi tts to SetTTi'ov to /iteya tov 6(.ov, 18. tva 
<f>d.yr]Tf <rdpKas ySao-tXewv Kai crdpKa's ;(iXtap;^a)v xat o-apKos lo-x^puiv 
Kai (rapxas ittttoov »cat Twr Kadrj/xevcov ctt avrwv, Koi (rdpKa^ TrdvTwv 

{a) Text adds : ^7ri t6 lfx,d.Tiov Kai. See vol. ii. 137. 

arm bo sa eth : pr Sto-To/ioo- 046. 18 ( - 35*. 2020). 250. 2067 
aP' Tyc Pr S^ | €v avrr]] (V avTta 2020 S^ : ex CO Pr I Trarairj] 
irara^u N 104. 385. 620 : TraTa^wo-ii/ s^ : Trapara^r} 325. 517 | tu 
€^V7/] pr iravra 498. 2020 gig sa | kul^ >-Tyc | TraTct] TraTrjcrci Pr | 
t. otv. T. ^u/x. >s^ I t. dvfxov ( + Kai I. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2067 alP arm^) placed after otvou A 025. 046. 18 ( - 2040) aP' 
Tyc vg s^ arm eth : tr after opyrja- N sa : tr before tov otvou 
2040 : >Pr gig bo | rrja- opyrja] pr xai 2040 : >s2 arm*- * : + 
avTov 620 I Oeov] + magni Pr |. 

16. Kai^] avToo- Tyc | exei A : +C7ri (> Tyc) to Lp-ariov (Ta 
t/taTia auTov S^ : to fierwirov 2040 : +avTou 920 bo sa eth) xat 
(>si) S 025. 046. 18 alo™" Tyc Pr gig vg s^^-^ arm (bo sa eth) 
€7ri >>X bo sa I TOV pLYjpov] Tovcr ixrjpovcr S^ arm^*^ | avrou >■ 920 
ovofxa ytypa/x/A. >arm* | ovo/xa] pr to i. 2037 : >gig vg |. 

17. em A 025. i. 35. 104. 241. 632**. 1957. 2020. 2023. 
2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 al Pr gig vg eth : aWov X 2019 s^ arm*- * 
bo sa : + aAAov 172. 250. 2018 : > 046. 18 (-35. 632**. 2020. 
2040). 2037 alP^ Tyc s^ arm^ | cKpaicv A^? 025. 18 ( - 18. 2040) 
aP' Tyc Pr gig vg s arm : cKpa^cv 046. 18. 181. 2040 : Kpa^wv 
bo I ^wvrj A 02^. 35. 175. 250. 468**. 617. 620. 632**. 1934. 

2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 alP' Pr gig vg : pr ev K 046. 18. 
61. 82. 104. 325. 336. 337. 386. 456. 468*. 632*. 920. 1849. 
2004 al Tyc arm*- » bo sa | Xeywv >35*. 617 | -jraa-i tolo- opv.] 
iravra ra opvea arm^ bo | Tracrt > 2040 S^ | t. -jreT. ev fiear.] caeli 
Pr I TTCTo/A. Ax 046. 18 (-456) aP^ : TrcTcap,. 025. 456 al | 
<Tvva)^6r)Te >> 051. i. 2037. 2038 Pr | to {tov 91. 1 10. 385. 452. 

2021. 2041) SeLTTVov to jxeya (tr after Oeov 920) AX 025. 046. 35. 
(91. no). 325. 337. (452). 456. 632. (920). 1849. 2004. (2021). 
2040. (2041). 2067 al : tov SeLTTv. tov fxeyav 18. 172. 175. 201. 
242. 250. 314. 336. 386. 468. 617. 620. 1918. 1934. 2016. 2017. 
2018. 2020 I TO fieya tov 6.] tov yueyaAov deov 05 1. I. 2019. 2023. 
2036. 2037. 2038 arm^- « eth | to p.eya >gig |. 

18. Kai aapK. \i\, > i. 2023 arm" | aapKaa-^ > Tyc | k. t. 
Ka6. . . . -iravTOiv >6i7 | avrwv 025. 046. 17 (-617). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 aP' : auToio" X : avTOvcr A 61. 69 | o-apKao-^] pr Tao- 18. 
632. 1849 I Trai/Twi ] ttTravrtuv 046* : +Ta>v 1934 : >i. 2067 s^ bo I 
Tc>l. 314. 2067 j KaJ Ax 025. 17 (-632**. 1849. 2020) aP' 



XIX. 19-21.] AnOKAAY*I2 IfiANNOY 361 

i\(v6ep(iiv T£ KOL SovXwv Kttt fiiKpwv Kol fieyd\(i)v. 19. koL tiSov to 
drjpiov Koi Tous /SatriXets Trj<; y^s Acai ra {TTpanvfiaTa avrwv arvvrjy- 
fiiva TTOt^trai rov iroXffJLOV fifra tov KaOrjixivov ctti toC iTTTrou xai 
/xcTo. TOV a-TparevfiaTO^ avrov. 20. Kai CTriao-^r; to drjpiov, koX 
^ fi(.T avTOV^ 6 i/'erSoTTpoc^ryTT/s 6 TrotT^cras to. arjfieia ivwiriov avruT, 6 fier 
iv ois €7rXav7;<rtv tovs \a/36vTa<; to )(dpayfxa tov OrjpCov Koi toi s avrov 
7rpo(TKVVovvTas Tt^v (LKOva^ avTOV' ^a»vT€S IfiX-rjOiqcrav ol hvo ets Tiyv tt? etVcii't 
Xifivrjv TOV TTH/aos t^s /cato/icviys cv ^etiw. 21. Kai 01 XoiiroX aTrtKTdv- 
Brjcrav iv T-p pofx<f)aLa tov KaOrj/xevov ctti tov ittttov, ttj i^eXdovarj Ik 
TOV cTTo/taTos avTov, Koi irdvTa to, opvea ixopTaadi^crav ck twv 
arapKutv avTu^v. 

Tyc Pr gig vg s bo : >o46. 61. 69. 241. 429. 522. 632**. 1849. 

2020 I fXlKpWV AK 025, I. 172. 175. 242. 250. 617. 1934. 2018. 

2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al*"" : +T€ 046. 17 ( - 175. 
617. 1934. 2040) al™" I fxeyaXwv] pr Ttov N 2040 |. 

19. OrjpiOJ'] + *cai Ta crTpaT£u;u,aTa auTOv s^ | k. t. ^a<r.] tr after 
yrja- 920 | yr](r] oiKOvpLevrja 620 | k. Ta (rrpaT.^ kutu Ta TpaT. (sic) 
K* I auTwv X 025. 046. 17 (-456?. 620?. 920?. 2040?). 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 alP' Tyc Pr gig vg s arm^- *■ «■ bo : avrou A 314. 
2016 arm^ sa | (TwrjyfjLcva] tr after ttoXc/iov 2040 | tov An 046. 
17 (-35. 175- 386. 617. 2020. 2040) alP' : > 025. i. 35. 175. 
250. 314. 386. 617. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP I iTriroii] + (Tor) 
XfVKov Pr arm bo sa eth | fiera^ > bo sa eth | tov o-TpaT.] twv 
arpaTiv/xaTOiV S arm |. 

20. itai^ >Pr I /xcT avrou (/tera toi;tou i. 2023*. 2037. 2038) 
o X (i)- 35- 69. 432. 1957. 2020. 2023**, 2036. (2037. 2038). 
2041. 2067 (Pr) vg s^ arm2-4 : 01 (o 025 arm^) (x^t avTov {-{■ kui 
bo) o A (025). 2021 (arm^ bo) : 01 /act avTov 01 (>424) 424 
arm^ : o /act awou 046. 17 (-35. 2020). 250 al^^ gig s^ | i(/€v8.) 
i(/ivSoTrpo<f}r)Tai 424 arm^ I ev oia tirXav. . . . t. cik. auT.l quibus 
signis seducti erant adorare imaginem bestiae at qui acceperant 
caragma illius Pr | Xa/SovTao-] irXavwvTaa- 177. 180. 337 I TO ;^apay/xa] 
Ta ;(apay/xaTa456 | tovo" 7rpoo-/cw.] 01 Trpo<rKvvovvT€cr gig : TwvTrpoo-- 
KVVovvTUiv S^ I T-qv eiKova N* 920. 1918. 2020 : tt; cikovi AH" 025. 
17 (-920. 2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP^ : TO xapay/xa 046 | 
^wvTco-J Kai KaTefirjo-av xai S^ : pr Kat s^ : tov ^wvtoo- arm^- ^- * : 
^(DVTaa bo : >Pr I efiXr]$r]crav^ ^XrjOrja-ovTat i. 2019. 2020. 2038. 
2067 : c^aXov arm bo sa | 01 Svo] tr after Ocuo 920 : avrovor 
arm^- 2-* : tovo- 8vo bo sa eth : >456 gig arm* | t. Trvp. t. Kaio/i.] 
T-qv KaiofjL. irvpi Kai bo | TTja Kaiofxevrja- AN 025 Pr vg : n/v 
KaiofX€vqv 046. 17 al°""' gig bo I cv Oeiw] cv tcd ^ctw i. 172. 175. 
617. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038 al : et in sulphur gig : 
Kai Ociov ?} : igne et sulphore Pr (cf bo) |. 

21. pop,4iaia] + avTov 2040 | tTTTrov] + (tov) Acv/cov Pr eth I ckH 

UTTO 920 I 0/JVCa] CpTTCTtt 6 1 7 |. 



362 AnOKAAY*l5 IfiANNOY [XX. 1-3. 

RESTORED ORDER OF THE TEXT 
Chapters XX. 1-3, XXI. 9-XXIL 2, XXII. 14. 15. 17. 

XX. I. Kai cTSov ayyeXov Kara^aivovTa c/c tov oipavov, 
€)(OVTa TTjv kX€lv Trj<i a/3vcra-ov 
(V rg x«^'p£ '^°'^ aXva-iv fxeydX-qv Uirl ttjv X^^P"-^ avTOV. 

2. Ktti iKpoiTrja-iv tov SpaKOVTa, o ot^ts 6 apxaio^^ 
OS ecTTiv 8LOi/3o\os KOL o SaTavus, 

Koi e8r](T€v avrov )(fS.ia erq, 

3. Ktti ifiaXcv avTov eh ttjv afivcrcroVf 

KOI £K\€i(r£v KOL e(r<j)pdyLcrev cTravo) avrov, 
Iva 1X7] irXaviqcry in to. idvrj, 
axpi reXeaOrj to. ;(iAta err]' 

fitTO. Tuvra Set XvOrjvat avrbv fxiKpov ^povov. 

XX. 1. aYYc^o"] pr aXXov «•= 2017. 2050 Tyc s^ arm^- 2- « sa eth : 
+ aX\ov 336. 620. 1918 I €K T. ovp. > N* I kXciv] KXfiSa {-av 
620). I. 104. 620. 2037. 2067 al I aXva-Lv /xey.J aXvcrea-iv /xey. N* : 
aXvcrts p-eyaXr) Tyc : ~ bo sa eth ] fiey. >Pr | ctti t. x«'P«i A 046. 
18 ( — 2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP' : cv rr) ;^€ipi ^< 2020 Tyc 
Pr gig vg s arm bo sa eth |. 

2. o o((>i<T o apxaiocr A (s ?) : tov ocftiv tov ap^aiov X 046. 18 
j^jomn . serpentem (pr ilium Pr : anguem Tyc) antiquum Tyc Pr 
gig vg : TOV apxa-Lov 2036 | oa A 046. 18 al°™'' : o X 2050 | cottiv] 
cognominatus est Pr | Sta^oXoo- A 046. 18 (-2020. 2050). 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 arm^ : pr o K 69. 498. 2020. 2036. 2050 arm» 
bo sa 1 K. o o-ttT. > 2050 I Kai2 >bo sa eth | o^ Ak 046. 35. 
175- 250. 325. 337. 456. 617. 1934. 2020 al'"" : >o5i. i. 18. 
386. 620. 632. 920. 1849. 2004. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al I (o) 
a-aravacr AN I. 175. 617. 632**. 2016. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
(2050) Tyc Pr gig vg s^ arm bo : 4-o TrXavcov TT7V oLKovfxevrjv oXrjv 
(>6i. 385) 046. 051. 18 (-175. 617. 632**. 2040. 2050). 250. 
2067 alP^ S^ I ^lA. CTry K. €J3aX. avrov >ii\. 

3. Kai . . . apuaaof >arm* eth | ckXcio-cv] eSrja-ev ( + auTOv i) 
1. 181. 2036. 2037. 2038 : iSrjcrev Kat ckA.cio-£v arm* : +to arop-a 
avTr)(T bo sa 1 €cr</)pa-yio-€v] + cr<^payi8t eth | evavoi auTOu] c/a/acvwo- 
avrov A I TrXavrjari {-aei X) AX I. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 al : 
TrAuva (-7; 2050) 046. 18 (-2040). 250. 2067 al^' | «Tt] tr after 
€6vr] s^ : >l. 69. 141 Tyc bo eth | Ta^] >35 : pr Travra s^ | a^pi 
. . . ctt; ]> S^ I a;(pt] axpio- av 2050 | TeXea0r]j TeXeaOoiO-i 141. 
241. 386. 2067 I Ta^ > 051. I. 181. 2036. 2067 I /iA£Ta Ax 046. 



XXI. 9-11.] AnOKAAY*I2 lOANNOY 363 

xxi. 9. Kat ^Xdev cIs ck twv eTrra ayycXwv twv i)(6i'Twv ras 
€7rTa ^laXas, t twv yc/AOVTwv f Twi' ctttci TrXrjjMV tmv €cr;^ar<DV, Kai 
«A.aA,T/(r€V /xct' c/aou Aeytov AcCpo, Sci^w trot ttjv vvfi(f>r]v [ttjv ywaiKa] 
Tov apvLOV. 10. Kttt ciTnyvcyKei' //.€ cv Trvcu'/tart eVi opo? //.eya koi 
xnlnjXov, Koi ISci^cv /xot t^v ttoAiv t^i' dyi'av 'lepovcraXrjfji Kara- 
Paivovcrav (k tov ovpavov airo tov Oeov, II. €)^ova-av ttji' So^av tov 
deov' 6 <f><t)crTr]p avTrj<; o/iotos Xt^w TifiWDTaTO), d)S Xi'^w iao-7rt8t 

18 (-35- 175- 617- 1934- 2050) al"« Tyc Pr gig vg(-'') s^ : pr Kai 
I. 35. 175. 617. 1934. 2050 al vg'' arm bo eth : +Sc 385. 429 s^ ] 
Set Xv^. avT.^ \v6ri<rf.Tai s^ : Xvcrct {(Xvcrav arm^) avT. arm^- ^ | Xd^. 
auT. A 046. 18 (-35. 175. 617. 2020) al™" : -— K I. 35, 175. 
250. 617. 1957. 2016. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 
Pr gig Vg I Xu^T^vat] Xixrai Tyc S^ | puKpov xpo*'-] ~ 2050 : pr crt 
bo sa |. 

xxi. 9. eiff] o TrpoiToa 172. 2018. 2020 | ck >> i. 172. 205. 

2018. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 I CTTTtt^ > gig vg I TWK 

y€/xovTO)v As* 025. 181. 2036. 2038. 2050 : twv ye/xovawv N^ : rao- 
ytfiovcraa- I. 104. 2037 (s) : ye/xovaaa- 046. 18 ( — 2050). 61. no. 
385. 1957. 2016. 2023. 2037. 2067 al™" : plenas Pr gig vg : 
^xovaaa- 2018 | twv'' AN 025. I. 35. 104. 172. 205. 632**. 2018. 
2023. 2037. 2050. 2067 al s arm* bo : > 046. 18 ( - 35. 205. 
632**. 2050). 250. 2038 al™" I Kai2 > bo sa j Sevpo] +Kai vgs 
arm^'* : + ira bo sa | ttjv ywaiKa (pr Kat arm^- 2- « : + /cai 42. 2017) 
placed after wp-cfi-qv An 025. 35. 172. 218. 250. 2018. 2020 
Tyc Pr gig vg s (arm^- 2- «■) bo sa eth : tr after apvtov 051. i. 205. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al : tr before tyjv wp.(i>. 046. 18 ( — 35. 
205. 2020). (42). 104. no. 385. 2016. (2017). 2023 alP' arm* |. 

10. airnj'eYKei'] yjv^yKev 2050 : duxit Pr : tulit gig : sustulit vg 
cv TTvevp,. > Pr I €7ri An 172. 2018. 2050 : ctt 025. 046. 18 aP' 
opo(r] opova- 2020 | Kat^ > 205 bo | Kat^ >■ arm^ bo sa j /xoi] pe 
149. 325. 620. 1934 I TToXiv An 025. 046. 18 (-35. 175. 205. 
617) alP' TycPrgigvgs arm^-^. 45Q g^j, ■. + Tr]v p.€yaXr)v o^i. i. 
35- 175- 205. 250. 617. 1957. 2016. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 alarm* | tyjv^] kul 051. i. 35, 175. 205. 250. 617. 
2016. 2036. 2037. 2038 arm" | ck t. ovp. AN 025. 046. 18 ( - 18. 
175. 617. 2004) Tyc Pr gig vg s arm bo eth : aTro t. ovp. 18. 175. 
218. 250, 617. 2004. 2016. 2017. 2018. 2039 I ttTTo T. 6. An 025. 
I. 35. 104. 205. 241. 632**. 1957. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2050. 2067 al Tyc Pr gig vg s^ arm bo eth : ck t. $. 046, 18 
(-35. 205. 386. 632**. 2020. 2050). 250 alP' : >6i. 201. 386 |. 

11. Exouaak . . . 0cou] >A 522 : Trjv <f>wTL^ov<Tay avTrjv 2050 : 
7} co-Tiv ayia rj ye/i.ci 8o$rjcr bo | t. So^av] + otto N gig : lumen 
claritatis Pr | t. d€ov] + KaL i. 104. 205 Pr s^armi-" (bo) : +€v 
■q rj ywq tov apviov rj avta lepova-aXrjp vm 6€ov Koa-p.r)6r]a-€Tai Kat 
8oiacr6rj(T€TaL 743. 1075. 2067 : > arm* | o <f>wa-Tr)p avr.] bxr 



364 AnOKAAY*l2 lOANNOY [XXI. 12-13. 

Kpv<rTa\\it,ovTi, I2. ^xovcra Tfi^os fi€ya kol vif/rj\6v, €)(ovcra 
TTvXojvas ScoScKtt, Koi tTTi TOts TrvXoxTLv dyyeAous 8w8«Ka, Koi ovofxara 
ejriyeypa/A/itVa, a iartv to. ovoftara rwv SwSoca f^vXwv viuiv ^l<Tpar)\' 
13. ctTTo avaToXrj^ Trv\(i)V€<: rpels, xai diTro fSoppa ttvXcui/cs rpcis, xat 

<^a)(r TTja- avyr)a S^ : ei' avrr) (rja- to arm* : + tjv arm^) (^wo- 
arm | o/ioioo-J + eo-nv Pr : >bo arm^ | Xi6. n/*.] Xi^ou (-wi' arm^) 
Tifiiov (-(Dv arm^) arm^ bo : ki6oi<r n/xioto- arm^- « : > arm* | 
TLfjLLWTaTw] TLfino gig vg s^ | WO" Xi^.] tr aftcr lacTTTiSi arm* : >o5i. 
I. 35*. 94. 104. 181. 205. 241. 632**. 2020. 2038. 2050. 2067 
arm^ : wo- <^a>cr bo | Kpva-TakXi^ovTL AH 18 (-18. 337. 617. 
632*. 1934. 2020. 2050) : KpucTToAi^ovrt 025. 046. i. 18. no. 172. 
337. 385. 498. 522. 617. 632*. 1934. 2018. 2020. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2050 : sicut crystallum (cristallo gig) gig vg : refulgenti 
in modum cristalli Pr : "crystal-seeming (-gleaming arm^ : >arm*) 
and (> arm*) luminous (living arm^- «) " arm ]. 

12. cxouaa^] €x.ovtl N : e^ovcrav 172. 2018 Tyc : +t€ I. 2037. 
2067 : et habebat (-et Pr) Pr vg | vif/rjXov] latum Pr | (xovcra^] 
e^ova-av 104. 172. 2018. 2050 al Tyc : cxoi-Tao- X* : pr »cai 2036, 
2037 : Kat 2067 bo : o c;(€i Pr : Kai «;(€ arm^- ^- « eth | SwScKa^] t^' 

046. 35. 205. 337 I K. ein T. vvX. ayy. 8(o8(Ka^A 2050 Vg^ arm* | 
€7ri Toicr TTvXwaiv 025. 046. 18 aX^^^^ ""^ : ctti tovct TrvXwvaa- ti 94 : 
in portas (-l-habens gig) Pr gig | ayy.] angulous Pr vg*"-» : pr 
rover bo I SwScKa^ 175. 617. 1934. 2020 : SckuSvo 18 ( — 35. 175. 
205. 617. 1934. 2020). 104. no. 172. 201. 498. 522. 2018. 2023. 
2024 : 1/3' N 046. 35. 205 I ovo/Aara^] + avTwv S S^ | €7riyeypa/i,yu,€va] 
yeypa/i./x€va N gig vg''- ^- ^- "^ S^ : cyyeypa/xyncva (evy- 2050) 94. 2050. 
cf. inscripta vg''- ^ | a ecrrtv . . . la-parjX > arm* I a iCTTiv > Pr 
arm^ | ra ovofj-ara A s : tr after la-parjX 2050 : oro/xara (ovofia bo) 
046. 18 ( — 35. 205. 2050) al">" gig vg arm* bo : >N 025. i. 35. 
205. 241. 432. 1918. 1957. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 
Pr arm^ | SwScKa^] i/3' K 046. 35. 205 | vlwv An 046. 18 ( - 35. 205. 
386. 920. 2050). 250. 2038 al™" : pr twv 025. 051. i. 35. 104. 
1957. 2023. 2041. 2050 al arm* : >i8i. 201. 241. 386. 517. 
920. 2017. 2036. 2037. 2067 s^ arm^- 2- * | la-parjX] pr rov 201. 
205. 386. 2017. 2036. 2067 ]. 

13. at'OToXria AN 025. i. 205. 2017. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2050. 
2067 S : avaroXtDV 046. 18 ( - 205. 2020. 2050). 250 al | Acai^- 2- 3 
> 051. I. 205 arm^-*-<» Tyc Pr | Kat^-^ > 2037. 2038. 2067 I 
Poppa {-pa<x 2050 : /3opa 920) . . . votov . . . Sv<rfi(av N'^ 025. 
046. 18 (-386), 250. (2037). 2038. (2067) al''«''« *""" Tyc Pr gig 
vg s arm*" * : fioppa. . . . fioppa . . . votov N* : /Soppa . . . 
8vcrfnov . . . voTou (p.€crr)fx(3pLa(r I ) A I : 8vcrfx<i>v . , . /3oppa . . . 
voTov 386. 1957 arm^'^-* : votov . . . fioppa . . . Sva-puDv 522 : 
VOTOV . . . Svcr/xwv . . . /Soppa (bo) : + Kai awo fieorrjuf^piaa- ttvXco- 
V£o- Tpeto- 2037. 2067 I Tpeto-l-2-3] y' 046. 35. 337 |. 



XXL 14-17.] AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY 365 

airo voTov ttvAwvcs rpets, kol dirb 8vcrfiCi>v irvKwves rpets. 14' '^°-'- "^^ 

ovo/iara twi/ SoiiScKa aTrocrToXwi' tov apviov. 15- Kai o A,a\wv /x,£T 
c/ioO €r;(cv fiirpov KoXafxov xpi^couv, ti'a fi^rp-qcrri ti)v ttoXiv Kat rows 
irvAwvas avrrj^ Koi to tcixos avr^s. 16. Kal f] ttoXls Tcrpaycovos 
KfLTai, Kol TO ftrJKO<i avT^s oo-ov /cai to TrXotTOS. Kal ificTprjacv rrjv 
TToXiv T<3 KaXot/AO) €7rt '^(TTaSious^ SoiSc/ca ;^i\iaSo)v' to fj.rJKO<i koi to ffradiuv 
ttAcitos Ktti to vi/^os avT^s lo-a eo-TtV. 1 7. Kal ifxeTprjcrev to t€lxos 

14i TO xeixoa] muri Pr arm^ | c^tov A 025. 046. i. 104. 498. 
522. 1849. 2017. 2038 : €xov ti'' 051. 18 (-1849. 2020. 2050). 
250. 2037. 2067 alP' : habens gig vg : etx* 2020 arm* : habent Pr : 
>{<* 2050 arm^- 2-4 | 0(/x(X. SouSc/ca] ~ 149. 1948 bo eth : rptifjLe- 
Xiova TptuT 2050 I SwSe/ca^J i/3' N 046. 35. 205. 337 | k. ctt. uvt > 
I*. 104 I CTT auTwv] in ipso gig : pr ytypaiifx^va (-ov bo) bo eth I 
Sa)8£Ka ovoiJi. . . . apvLOv >2050 | StoScKa^] t,^ (pr tov 35*) 046. 
35**. 205. 337 : Se/caSuo 93. 94 : >• i*. 104 Pr bo | ovo/x,aTa] 
ovoixa bo I SwSe/ca^] ifi' K 046. 35. 325. 337 : >Tyc s^ arm^- ^ | tov 
apviov\ pr (cai Tyc Pr : tou uiou s^ |. 

15. KCL\} > 2050 arm* | li-erpov KaXap.ov AK* 025. 046. 18 
( - 2050). 250. 2067 alP' Tyc gig s^ arm* : harundinem (auream) 
ad mensurarn Pr : fitrpov KaXap.ov H'^ 517. 2016. 205ocfmen- 
suram harundineam vg : furpov KaXa/xov s^ : furpov > i. 2036. 

2037. 2038 arm"^- " bo eth : KaXap.ov >-arm^ | fiiTprja-rj^ ixiTpr}<Tti 
046. 104. (2050). 2067 I K. T. irvX. avTTicr >s^ arm^ | k. to riL\ofr 
(tu Tcix^ Pr arm bo eth) avTTja- (>vg) An 025. 175. 205. 617. 
632. 1934. 2020. 2050 Pr gig vg s arm bo eth : >o46. 051. 18. 
35- 325- 337- 386. 456. 620. 920. 1849. 2004 alP' J. 

16. OUTTJO-] tr before TCTpaywvoo- k : >arm^ [ Kai? A 2050 Pr 
vg s^ arm^-^'-bo eth : >N 025. 046. 18 (-2050). 250. 2037. 
2067 alP^ gig S^ arm^ | TrXaToo-] + avrrja s^ arm | tw KaXafim An 
046. 18 (-35. 175. 205. 617) : pr cv 025. i. 35 175. 181. 205. 
250. 617. 2016. 2017. 2036. 2037**. 2038. 2067 : harundine 
(pr de vg) Pr gig vg sa : > bo arm | ctti] per gig vg : ab Pr ] 
o-ToSiovo- (-0U N*^) A (N'^) 046. 18 (-205). 250 alP^ : o-TaStwv N* 
025. I. 205. 2018. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 I SwSeKtt An 025. 
2050 : i^ 046. I. 35. 205. 632**. 2018. 2038 : SexaSvo 18 ( - 35. 
205. 632**. 2050). no, 201. 385. 498. 522. 2016 al'"° I yiXiahoiv 
An 025. 35*. 632**. 2020. 2050 Pr gig vg s^ bo : pr /cat 046 : 
+ S(oSeKa {i^ 046. 35**). 046. 18 ( — 35*. 632**. 2020. 2050). 
250 al™" (s^) : >arm^ ] to /at^koct] fir^Kova bo sa : pr xat 2020 s^ : 
+ avTj;o- s^ arm | TrAaToo-] +avTr]a 2050 s^ arm^' *• * bo sa eth | k. 

T. v\po(T >arm2 | avrrjar^ >205. 2050 Pr gig arm |. 

17. cfiCTpTjacc {-rptafv 620. 2050) AN 025. 35. 620. 2037. 

2038. 2050. 2067 alP Pr vg'=- "^ ^ s arm : e/xeTprjOrj gig vg*^- ^- 8^ bo : > 
046. 18 ( — 35. 620. 2050). 250 al™" I T€L\o(r] xlXoo- N : muros 



366 AnOKAAY^PIS in ANNOY [XXI. 18-19. 

avTrj<; eKarov Tt(r(T€pdKOVTa recradpoiv Trr])(i!iVf /itrpov dv6p(DTrov, o 
ecTTiv dyyiXov. 

1 8. KOi 7) ivBwfxrjiris tov t(i)(Ovs avTrj<; tacnris, 

Kai 7] TToXis )^v(TLov KaOapov ofioLOv vdXu) Ka6ap(a' 
" "^ 19. [ot] OefieX-LOL TOV t«';(oi»s t^s ttoXcws ttovti \l6<d Tifii<a 

K€KO(rfJbr]fi.€VOL' 

6 ^£/i,eAtos 6 TrpwTos latrTris, o Sevrepos adir<^f.ipo<iy o t/sitos 
^akKrfid>Vy 

ygc. d. V I ^nfiTQy T€(rcrepaK. T€cr(r.] 8 Kai CKarov rcaatpaKOVTa A : 
ejcarov fiB' N : pp.S' 046. i. 18. 35. 104. 325. 337. 456. 632, 920. 
2004. 2020 : nonaginto OCtO gig | TcacrepaK.] recrcrapaKovTa 025. 
175. 205. 386. 617. 620. 1934 : (TepaKovTa (aapaKovra 2050) 
1849. 2050 I Tiorcrapoiv^ TeacrapLcr ^(iXiaSeo" 2050 | Trrj^tDv^ irrj^eoiv 
a : (TTaSiiDv arm'' : > Pr bo | p-cTpov] /xcrpw s^ : ixcrpa (placed before 
'jrrjx<^y S^) S^ bo I avOpiDTTOv] ovpavov 2050 |. 

18. K. T) ei'Swfi,. Tou Tcix-] in structura murus gig | r;^ AX'' 025 
Tyc s arm^- ^- * : r]v a* : rjv rj 046. 18. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP' 
Pr vg bo I €vSiap.i]cn(r AN*^ 498. 2020 : cv Sw/Aacri N* cf gig : 
evBwa-ia- 2050 : evBofxtjcncr 025. 046. 051. 18 ( — 2020. 2050) al^^ | 
avTYjcr > 175. 2050 Tyc arm* | tacnrur] ex lapide iaspidi Pr vg 
(arm^-*) : pr wo- bo : > Tyc j XP^^- x*^^-] xpvfTna KaOapu) 2014. 
2034. 2036. 2042 vg : xp^fiou (pr €K Pr) Kadapov Pr s arm^* ^- * | 
ofxoiov^ op,OLa 051. I. 35. 205. 2036. 2038 Pr : pr xai gig | vaXo) 
An 025. 046. 18. 175. 337. 456, 617. 920. 1934 : veX.0) (veAAto 
385- 498) 35- 205. 325. 386. 620. 632. 1849. 2004. 2020. 2050 
aP^ I KaOapui >o25 I Tf] TToXtcr xp'^o'i-ov . . . /ca^apw] civitas aurum 
mundum (purum gig) simile ( + et gig) vitro mundo (puro gig) 
Tyc gig : ipsa vero civitas ex (>vg) auro mundo similis vitreo 
(simile vitro vg) mundo Pr vg : 77 ttoAict ( + o\r] arm*) XP'"^'-^^ 
Kadapov op.oiov (or op.oia) vaXw Kadapw s arm^- 2- *• a . «' the city 
was wrought of gold pure like glass pure " bo : o^toia rj iroAtcr wcr 
Tjcr 7] TroirjdLa ccrri £V ^pvcrtoj Kadapw eth |. 

19. 01 eejjieXioi An*" 025. 046. 18 ( - 35). 250 al™'' Tyc vg sa : 
pr Kai X* I. 35. 104. 2018. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 s arm 
bo eth : pr ubi gig : + autem Pr | Ti]cr TroAewcr] + o/aoiw 2050 : > 
Pr I 7rai/Ti At^. ti/a.] omnia ex (ex omni Pr) lapide pretioso Tyc 
Pr : Ai^otcr TLfjuoia s^ : Travroiv Xidoiv Tt/Atwv arm | np-LOi KCKOcr/xrj- 
fxevoi] "^205 I K€/coo-/ir//x€voi] -p.€voi 1849. 2004 : >6i. 2050 Tyc 
Pr gig arm | o dep.. . . . laa-incr > arm* | o ^e/AcAtocr] pr /cat s^ 
arm'^ eth : +tov tuxovct arm^- ^•» : >gig | Trpwrocr] eio- N | o^] pr 
Kai ^? Tyc S^ arm^ eth | o-a7r</)£t/30(r] arap.TrcfiUpo<T 201 7 : -ripoa 05 1. 
2020. 2050 : -Lpoa- 025. 046. 2004 Pr vg gig bo ; saffyrus Tyc | o*] 
pr Kai N s^ arm^ eth. (Also before o^ and ver. 20 o^-^ N arm^ 
eth add Kai : s^ except ver. 20 o^- ^) | T/airocr] y a (also 8' «' . . . 



XXI. 20-22.J AnOKAAY*l2 IfiANNOY 367 

20. 6 TcVapTos (TfidpaySos, 6 7r€/x,7rT05 crapSovu^, 6 ckto5 capotoi/, 
6 €ft8o/xo<; xpvaoXiOo'S, 6 oySoo? ^■qpvXXo<;, 6 ^varo^ tottol^iov, 
6 Se/caTos f^pvaoTTpaaro^, 6 ci/Sckutos volkivOos, 6 8o)8eKaT05 

d/i-c'^uo-TOS* 

21. Ktti 01 ScoScKa TTuXwi'cs SwSiKa [xapyapZraif 

dva tts €»<a(rTos twv ttvXwvoji' ^v c^ cvos fiapyapiTOV' 

KOt rj TrXarela t^s ttoAcws xpvcriov KaOapov ws vaAos Siauyi;?. 

22. /<ai vaoi' ovk cTSov €v OLVTrj, 

6 yap Kvpios, 6 ^€05 6 TravTOKpdrwp, 6 vaos avr?;? eoriv, 

Koi TO dpVtOV •< 17 Kt/SwTOS T>}s SlU^T^KT^S aVT^S>.(a) 

(a) Lacuna restored by means of xi. 19. See vol. ii. 170 sq. 

lyS^ I X'^^^'^^^^"] X**^*^'" (X"''^'^'' 2020) 046 min""" vg'*- <= : xapx- 2018. 
2050 vg^- ^- "^ s^ bo : KoXiZuyv s^ : sardonius (-icus vg**) Tyc vg*^ |. 

20. fffJiapapSotr] aafiap- 2050 | o-apSovv^] (Tap8(Dvv$ 149. 1934 
alP : aaXBovvi 2024 : crapSiovv$ (-Slvv$ 2050) A 2050 | o-apSiov] 
o-apSioo- I. 35. 104. 205. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP Pr vg" : 
sardinus (-onium Tyc : -inon bo) Tyc vg^ bo : aapiSov (a-apSov s^) 
s I ^rjpvXXoa- H minP^ vg s : /SrjpiXXocr A 385 (Tyc) Pr gig : fBrjpvX- 
Xloo- {-lov 025 : fiipvXX- 046 : fSrjpiXX- i) 025. 046. 051. i. 61. 104. 
175. 617. 2016. 2036. 2037. 2038** : ftrjpvXXrjo- 2050 : (SvprjXXoa- 
(0vpi\X- 2023 bo) 149. 2023 bo I evaroo- A 046 minP^ : evvaroar 
025. 051. 35*. 205. 241. 242. 385. 522. 632. 2016. 2023. 2037. 
2038. 2050. 2067 al""" : €^' X I TOTra^iov] ronaSiov N* (s^) : tottov- 
^lov (tottovSiov s^) 025 s^ : Tra^Lov 456 : topaxinos Pr : dopation 
bo I )(pvcroTrpa(TO(r^ ov A : -tocr N'' : -aaroa- 104 Pr vg*^- ^ ; -ivocr 42. 
325. 517. 620. 1918 Tyc : iraaocr (-Traaaoa 498 : TratrToar 61. 141. 
2024). 61. 82. 141. 337. 385. 429*. 456. 498. 522. 1849. 2024 : 
chrysoliprassus vg*^- ^ | vaKtvOoa] vaKLvBivov Tyc (bo) : iacinctus 
gig I ap.€$va-Toa A 025. 046. no. 175. 325. 456. 617. 620. 2004. 
2038* al""^ : -ivoo-N* : afieOva-oa- H" 051. 18 ( - 175. 325. 456. 617. 
2004). I. 104 alP^ : apivOea-oa- s^ j. 

21. 01 SuScKtt TruXwfeo-] duodecim portas Pr : ideo Tyc | SwS. 
fiapy. >Pr | SwScKa^ >X* 2030 bo | ftapyaptrai] + eicnvVg \ ava] 
iva A 2018 : pr Kai 456 : pr eto- s^ | €to-] + Km 025 Tyc vg s^ : > 
205 I Tdiv TTvX. . . . fiapyapnov > bo | t. ttvX. 77V >-Pr | ttuXwvwv] 
wvXuiv 498. 2020 : +WV N* I cl^] pr wcr 025. 046. 61. 2036 | TrXar. 
T. Tro\.\ plateas eius Pr | XP^<^- k^-^-] ex auro limpido (puro s^ 
arm^- ^- *) Pr s^ arm^-^- « | wo-] /cai 051 Tyc | raXoo- {-ov 205) AX 
025. 046, 175. 205. 456. 617 : veXocT {viXX- 385. 498. 2020) 
minP' I hiavyr]cr\ Siavy ecr 205 '. 

22. caoi' ouK €i8of] ovk €i8oi' vaov bo sa eth | €v aim;] cv avrw 
149 : >eth I o yap] OTt o a* : o yap o X^ | Kvpiocr o (>X"^) ^eocr 
An 025. 046 minP' Tyc Pr gig vg s^ arm^- *• » bo sa : d^oa- 337. 
1934 eth : Kvpioa 920 s^ arm^ j o* A s^ : auroo- s^ : >N 025. 046 



368 AnOKAAY*I2 lOANNOY [XXI. 23-26. 

23. Koi rj TToXis ov )^€Lav €\€i Tov rjXiov ovSc T^s (Tf Xr}vr]% tj'a 

rf yap 8o^a tov 6(ov icfxaTicrev airrjv, 
Kal 6 Xv)(vo% ai)Ti}s to apviov. 

24. Kol ir€pnTaT-q<rov(riv to. lOvrj hih tov </)(otos auT^s, 

Kal 01 ^Sao^iXcis T^s yijs <^ipov<TLV t^v Sd^av auTwv €is avT*;!/, 

25. Kai 01 TTuXoii'es avT^? ov /i,^ K\ii(T6<i)(TLV T^/Acpas t vv^ yap 

ouK eo'Tai cKci f. (a) 

26. Kai otVovcrtv t^v Sd^av koX T-qv Tifxrjv twv iOvStv €is avTi;i', 

(a) Read koi tukt^s. See vol. ii. 173. 

min"™" I o vaoo- avT. eo-Tiv] tr after apviov Pr | «o-Ttv > 104 I TO > 
2050 I apviov] +"the only begotten son (>2) of God ( + is 2) 
altar of holiness " arm^- ^ | «. to apviov] joined with what follows 
046 s^ |. 

23. ttoXict] +avT7; 498. 2020 | ^X^i] €ix< arm bo | ovSc] ovtc 
2050 : Kai arm^'^-" | iva] et Tyc | ^aivojo-ic] <^aivovo-iv 051. 2050 : 
<f>ai.i/r] Pr I avT?; An* 025. 046. 18 ( — 35) aP' Pr gig s eth : pr 
cv N*^ 051. 35. 1957. 2023. 2037. 2041 alP Vg bo sa : avT7;v 2018. 
2036. 2067 alP (arm^- ^' *) | avr^" r;yap AS 025. 35. 175. 205. 617. 
2020. 2050 al Pr gig vg s arm^- * bo eth : avr^ yap rj 046. 18 ( - 35. 
175. 205. 617. 2020. 2050) al™" arm* | ^«ov] Kvpiov Pr | ci^wTio^cv] 
^(ort^€i Pr eth : ^wtio-£i Tyc vg^-s-^ arm* | avrrja-] avrov /cat 2037 
: +Kai 2036 : +CO-TIV 2021 Tyc gig vg s^ : +r]v arm^-^-* |. 

24. c6n]] +T<i)v o-w^o/jIcvwv i | Sia t. (fiUiToa^ tv tcj ^wti 2050 
Tyc vg'^ I Kai 01 > 2050 I (f)€pov(TLv (afferent gig vg bo : con- 
ferent Pr) An 025. 35. 2020. 2050 Tyc Pr gig vg s arm* bo : + 
auTU) {avrr} 205) 046. 18 ( - 35. 2020. 2050) alP' | t»;v AN 025. 35. 
632**. 2020. 2050 : >o46. 18 (-35. 632**. 2020. 2050) alP' | 
So^av AK 025. I. 35. 60. 94. 241. 632**. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2050. 2067