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fttfcntaftcmd Critical Cftmmentarg 

on % |)oti) Scriptures of % dMo anb 
Jieto Testaments. 



Regius Professor of Hebrew, Oxford; 


Late Master of University College, Durham; 



Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symbolic*, 
Union Theological Seminary, Ntw York. 






The Rights of Translation and of Reproductiov are Reserved 

The International Critical Commentary 









First Edition . 

. 1907 

Second Edition 

. 1907 

Third Edition . 

. 1912 

Reprinted . 

. 1922 

Reprinted . 

. . 1947 

Reprinted . 

. 1951 

Reprinted . 

. . 1957 

WAY 16 1964 


Contents .... 
Preface to Third Edition 
Preface .... 
The Sources of the Gospel 

A. S. Mark . 









Changes in order 
Abbreviation . 

(a) condensation of phrase . 

(6) omission of details 

(<:) omission of sayings 

(d) abbreviation of narratives 

4. Expansion of discourses . 

5. Linguistic changes . 

(a) particles 

(6) tense and voice 

(c) avoidance of repetition . 

(1) in tautologous phrases. 

(2) in negatives. 

(3) in compound verbs with a preposition 

(d) in vocabulary ..... 

(e) in syntax ...... 

(/) in prepositions and adverbs . 

{g) in conjunctions ....... 

(A) to assimilate to another passage of the Gospel 

(z) to heighten an antithesis ..... 

6. Changes with respect to the Person and Miracles of 

Christ ......... xxxi-xxxiii 

7. Changes with reference to the Apostles . . . xxxiii-xxxiv 

8. Changes to emphasise fulfilment of prophecy . . . xxxiv 

9. Qualifications and explanations .... xxxiv-xxxv 

10. Changes for the sake of accuracy ..... xxxv 

11. Some alterations in fact ....... xxxv 

Similar treatment of the Second Gospel by S. Luke xxxv-xxxviii 
These agreements due in part to independent revision of 

Mk. by Mt. and Lk. ..... xxxviii-xxxix 

Mt. and Lk. had no second source containing matter 

parallel to the whole of Mk. xxxix 

Probable explanations of the agreement of Mt. and Lk. 

against Mk xxxix-xl 

Lk. may have seen Mt , . . xl 


. xxvii 






B. Matter common to Mt. and Lk 

The common sayings . 
Theories to account for agreement of Mt. and Lk. in 
sayings ..... 

1. Theory of a common written source 

2. Oral tradition .... 

3. Independent written sources 

4. Lk. had read Mt. 
The common narratives 

C. Matter found only in Mt 

(a) Editorial passages .... 

(b) Sayings inserted into Mk.'s narratives 

(c ) Sayings grouped in long discourses . 

(d) other sayings ..... 

(e) Incidents ..... 
(/) Quotations from the Old Testament 

Characteristics of the sayings . 

Their probable source is the Matthaean Logia 

Consideration of the narratives 

The quotations 
Plan and Characteristics of the Gospel 
The Theology of the Gospel 

A. Christology 

B. The Kingdom of the Heavens 

C. The Son of Man 

D. The Church . 

E. Jewish-Christian Character of the Logia and of the Gospel 
The Author .... 
The Gospel according to the Hebrews 
The Date .... 
The Style and Language 

The Text 

List of Authorities 
Abbreviations .... 


a * 


Note on the historical value of the 
Additional Notes . 

Appendix A. . . . . 
Appendix B. . 

I. General .... 
II. Modern Authors . 

III. References to the Bible and to Jewish and 

Literature . 

IV. Greek Words. 
V. Hebrew and Aramaic Words 

. . 








. xlix-1 

. 1-liv 








. Ivii-lx 

. lx-lxi 









. Ixxix-lxxxi 





. lxxxix-xciv 

. xcv-xcvi 

. r-308 


other Ancient 




SINCE the first publication of this book two important 
Commentaries have appeared, viz. Dr. Plummer's 
valuable Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel of St. 
Matthezv, London, 1909, and Klostermann's most useful 
Commentary in the Handbuch zum Neuen Testament 
Tubingen, 1909. In this third edition of my Commentary 
no attempt has been made to revise the whole work. A 
number of corrections, for which I have to thank many 
kind friends, has been made in the text, some additional 
notes and references are appended, and two supplementary 
notes on the subjects of Divorce, and of the Date of the 
Gospel, are printed at the end by kind permission of the 
Editor of The Expository Times. By way of supplement 
to what I have said on pp. Ivii-lix as to the Matthean 
Logia, may I refer to an Essay on " The Book of Sayings 
used by the Editor of the First Gospel " in Studies in the 
Synoptic Problem^ Clarendon Press, 1901. 


Perhaps no one, especially during the last thirty years, 
has undertaken to write a Commentary on one of the 
Canonical Gospels, without experiencing again and again, 
during the process of production, that he had undertaken 
a task which was beyond both his strength and his equip- 
ment. That has certainly been my own experience in 
writing this Commentary on the First Gospel. For a 
commentator upon this book, who is to do his work 
efficiently, should have many qualifications. He should 
be a competent Greek scholar, versed in the Hellenistic 
Greek literature, and acquainted with the bearing of modern 
archaeological discovery upon the history of the language. 
He should be acquainted also with the Hebrew of the Old 
Testament, with the various Aramaic dialects, and with 
the later dialects of the Talmuds and Midrashim. If the 
writings of Deissmann on the one hand, and of Wellhausen 
and Dalman on the other, have shown what new light can 
be thrown upon the New Testament by experts in their 
own department, they have also illustrated the defective 
character of a one-sided knowledge, and have given indica- 
tions of the sort of work that may be done by a scholar of 
the future, who shall be at the same time a Grecian and an 
Orientalist. The commentator should further be a master 
of the material for the textual criticism of the Gospel, 
which is in itself the study of a lifetime. He should have 
a thorough knowledge of the literature dealing with the 
so-called Synoptic Problem, and should have formed a 


judgement based upon independent investigation as to the 
literary relationship between the Canonical Gospels and 
the sources which lie behind them. He should have 
studied the growth of theological conceptions as illustrated 
in the Old Testament, and in the apocryphal and apoca- 
lyptic literature up to and during the period in which our 
Gospels were written. And he should have mastered the 
Talmudic and Midrashic theology at least sufficiently to 
be able to form an independent judgement as to the 
possibility of using it for the purpose of illustrating 
theological conceptions and religious institutions in the 
first century A.D. I can lay claim to no such qualifications 
as these. Nevertheless, within the limits to be mentioned 
presently, I venture to hope that the present volume will 
give some help to those who desire to find out what this 
Gospel meant to the Evangelist as he wrote it. How 
much may here be done Dalman has shown us, but much 
still remains to be done ; and it is probably the case that, 
in some measure, the secret of the Gospels will never 
altogether disclose itself to those who cannot approach 
them from the Jewish-Oriental view of life, as well as 
from other aspects. In view of what has been said, it will 
be understood that the following Commentary has been, 
of necessity and intentionally, made one-sided in its method 
and aim, and it will be desirable to try and explain the 
principles upon which it has been written. 

There are, I think, roughly speaking, two methods of 
commenting upon one of the Synoptic Gospels. One, and 
that the traditional and familiar one, is based upon the 
two assumptions, j£r.s7, that all three Gospels are sources 
for the life of Christ of equal value ; and, second, that the 
commentator is in direct contact with the words of Christ 
as He uttered them (due allowance being made for trans- 
lation from Aramaic into Greek). From this point of 
view the commentator will always be mindful that it is 
his duty to elucidate and explain the words of the Gospel 
upon which he is at work, in such a way as to enable the 


reader to reconstruct for himself as nearly as possible the 
life of Christ ; to see before him the scenes being once 
again enacted ; to hear, and to understand as he hears, the 
words flowing from Christ's lips. From this standpoint 
that which is common to all the Gospels will be all- 
important. The special features of each, in so far as they 
cannot be easily harmonised with the other Gospels, will 
be treated as a difficulty to be explained away. Where 
two Gospels differ in detail, the commentator upon one of 
them will feel it to be his duty to account for the difference, 
and to try and ascertain what the actual historical fact 
was which underlies, and accounts for, the two divergent 
records. The atmosphere in which the commentator works 
will be one of effort to harmonise apparent discrepancies, 
and, so far as possible, to represent the Gospels as in 
essential agreement. 

The very important element in the Gospels which 
such a treatment of them overlooks, or minimises, is the 
individuality of the respective Evangelists. It leaves no 
room for the obvious fact that, as they penned their 
Gospels, these writers selected, arranged, compiled, redacted, 
with the intention of trying to set before their readers the 
conception of the Christ as they themselves conceived Him. 
In its haste to arrive at the actual facts of Christ's life, 
it tends to obliterate individual characteristics of each 
separate Gospel, and to lose sight of the contribution to a 
complete impression of the Christ which is made by each 
individual Evangelist. 

Further, the assumptions by which this method seeks 
to justify itself are thoroughly artificial and mechanical. 
The Gospels, of course, are not all, and, in their every 
component part, of exactly equal historical weight and 
value. For practical purposes, the ordinary Christian may 
safely regard them as such, and he will not be far wrong. 
But it is impossible for the student of life to allow such 
rough generalisations to keep him from studying the 
Gospels in the best and latest method that the science of 


history can suggest to him ; and historical method is always 
improving year by year. Precious stones, e.g., have a 
value for their beauty and brilliance to the ordinary public. 
But such wide generalisations as that " diamonds are 
beautiful " cannot deter the student of life from endeavour- 
ing to investigate the life-history of diamonds, and to 
discover the cause of their radiance by scientific analysis. 
And the results of his investigation, that a diamond consists 
of such and such chemical elements, does nothing what- 
soever to destroy the value which diamonds have for the 
unscientific purchaser ; nay, rather would a thousand times 
enhance their value and interest, if he understood but a 
thousandth part of the extraordinary process which has 
gone to produce the stone which he buys. 

The method of dealing with the Gospels upon the 
basis of these artificial assumptions seems to the modern 
student of life to cast an atmosphere of unreality round 
them, and to lead to results which are of the nature of 
theories without foundation in actual fact. Of course, it 
may ultimately prove to be the truth that these assump- 
tions are in reality intuitions of facts of first-rate importance. 
And that is, indeed, my own belief. The Synoptic Gospels 
are, I think, historical sources for Christ's life of nearly 
equal value, and the reader is, I believe, in large measure 
in immediate touch with the acts and words of the historical 
Christ. The impression which he obtains of the Person of 
the Lord from one Gospel is, with very slight reservation, 
the same as that which is given him by another. In all 
of them it is the same Christ who acts and speaks. But 
these impressions or intuitions become vicious when they 
are used as grounds for treating the Gospels in a quite 
artificial and mechanical way. So far from being, from 
the point of view of the student of history, axioms with 
which he starts, they themselves need to be proved and 
justified by historical investigation. 

The fact that the study of the Gospels is in such a 
chaotic condition, is partly due to this radically false 


method of studying them. On the one hand, traditional 
commentators have used these assumptions as a ground 
for treating the Gospels in a wholly artificial manner. By 
force of reaction the modern critic has often not only (and 
quite rightly) insisted on studying the Gospels on historical 
methods, but has also too often, and with fatal effect, 
refused to see that these assumptions are of the nature of 
brilliant intuition of elements in the Gospel, which are in 
part outside the range and scope of his scientific analysis, 
but which in some measure his analysis should have 
discovered, if he had not been wilfully blind to them. 

When, if ever, the irritating and provocative influence 
of false and artificial methods of dealing with the Gospels 
ceases to create an equally false opposition method of 
studying them, it will, I believe, be found that the scientific 
investigation of the Gospels, upon the best historical 
methods that the future can ever give us, will lead to 
results which will in large part coincide with the old 
conservative and traditional intuitions. On the one hand, 
it will be found that the sources of our Gospels are early 
in date, and that, with some slight reservations, they 
describe for us the historical life of the Saviour of Mankind. 
It will be seen that the personality of the Evangelists plays 
a relatively very small part in their records, whilst these 
agree in an astonishing degree in giving to us an harmoni- 
ous and consistent account of a unique Personality. 

No real student of life will ask, " Why then all this 
critical investigation of the Gospels, if it is simply to give 
us the old results ? " and if the simple-minded should ask 
this, it is to be feared that no answers which could be 
given would satisfy him. But two obvious reasons are 
these. First, that false and antiquated methods of exegesis 
do incalculable harm to the young and simple, and to 
the coming generation of men. The science of history 
has within the last century undergone a revolution. It 
has adopted new methods of research, which are every day 
being improved and perfected. Nothing is more calculated 


to shake the faith of the men of the new age in the 
historical character of the Gospels, than to find that the 
Christian commentator still interprets the Gospels on the 
basis of purely a priori assumptions which should them- 
selves be first proved, and by methods which are outworn 
and unlike the methods used by students in every other 
department of history. On the other hand, nothing will 
so reassure the faith of the younger generation of thoughtful 
men as the discovery that the Gospels, when studied and 
interpreted along the lines of ordinary historical research, 
still present to our love and adoration the figure of the 
Divine Saviour, and that the efforts to prove the Gospels 
to be late and legendary growths are in large measure a 
failure, because they start from unscientific presuppositions, 
and employ unscientific methods of historical inquiry. 

And, secondly, the consideration of value must, of course, 
always be kept out of sight by the student. A very large 
part of historical and scientific research will always seem 
to the practical man to be of little immediate value. But 
the student will care nothing for that. He investigates 
because he must. And the Gospels cannot, any more 
than any other element in life, be hidden away from the 
curious search and restless probing of the human intellect. 

It will hardly be necessary to add now that I have 
deliberately set aside the methods which I have just tried 
to describe. I have not employed the other Gospels in 
order to weaken impressions left by the words of the First 
Gospel, nor have I allowed myself to approach it as an 
exact representation of Christ's sayings and words. 

It remains, therefore, to describe the method which I 
have adopted. 

In accordance with this method, the work of a com- 
mentator upon a Gospel should form only one stage in a 
complicated process of historical investigation and inquiry. 
The first stages of this process should belong to the textual 
critic, and to the scholar whom, in default of a better 
name, we may term the literary critic. The former should 


give us a Greek text of the Gospel upon which to work ; 
the latter should have decided for us such questions as the 
relationship of the Gospels one to another, and to any 
source or sources which have been embodied in them. 
Properly speaking, this first stage of textual and literary 
criticism should have been completed before the com- 
mentator begins his work. But, unfortunately, the day is 
not yet when we can believe that we have a final Greek 
text of the Gospels, and the work of literary analysis is 
probably much nearer its beginning than its end. I have, 
however, reduced to as small an amount as possible the 
textual critical element in this Commentary. Handbooks 
to textual criticism, and editions of the text with full 
critical apparatus, are now easily accessible. On the other 
hand, whilst assuming what I believe to be the one solid 
result of literary criticism, viz. the priority of the Second 
to the other two Synoptic Gospels, I have thought it 
desirable to try and prove, by a detailed and full com- 
parison of the first two Gospels, that, so far as they are 
concerned, this assumption everywhere justifies itself as an 
explanation of the relationship between them. This will 
explain the large part which S. Mark's Gospel plays in the 
following pages. S. Luke's narrative, in so far as it is 
parallel with the Second Gospel, lies, of course, on this 
assumption, outside the range of a commentator on the 
First Gospel. 

The second stage in the process should be the work 
of the commentator on the text of each separate Gospel. 
Starting with the results given to him by the literary 
critic, and equipped with the Greek text supplied by the 
textual critic, the commentator will approach each separate 
Gospel with the purpose of ascertaining what were the 
conceptions of the life and Person of Christ which governed 
and directed the Evangelist in his work. From this point 
of view the main interest of the commentator will lie 
rather in what is characteristic of, and peculiar to, each 
Gospel, than in what is common to them all. He will 


refuse to try and harmonise discrepant details or diver- 
gent conceptions. Rather he will emphasise these as 
important, because they enable him to reconstruct the 
life of Christ as it presented itself to the minds of the 
Evangelist and of his readers. He will always be mindful 
of the fact that he is immediately concerned, not with the 
actual facts of the life of Christ or with His doctrine, but 
rather with these as mirrored in the mind of the particular 
Evangelist with whom he is dealing. 

The third stage in the process belongs to the historian. 
Just as the commentator is obliged to rely very largely 
upon the work already done by the literary critic, so the 
historian must depend for his material to a great extent 
upon the work of the commentator and of the critic alike. 
He will have as his material the Gospels as analysed into 
their sources by the critic, and the mass of not always 
harmonious impressions of the life of Christ, as given to 
him by the commentators upon the separate Gospels. 
With this material at his disposal, it will be his duty to 
attempt to recover the historical facts of Christ's life, to 
ascertain as far as possible the exact words which He 
spoke, and to determine the meaning which these words 
originally carried with them. 

In accordance with what has been said, I have felt it 
to be my duty to begin my work equipped with some 
acquaintance with the results of the literary criticism of 
the Gospels. If I have found it necessary partly to 
assume the results of such labour, and partly to work out 
a view of my own as to the sources of the Gospel, that 
is only because the work of the critic and of the com- 
mentator cannot in the present conditions of knowledge 
be quite kept apart. On the other hand, I have done 
my best not to encroach upon the sphere of the historian. 
Here and there I may have been tempted to express some 
view as to the historical character of some incident or 
saying, as apart from the general credibility of the source 
of which it forms a part, but generally speaking it has 


been my aim to consider the contents of the Gospel always 
in the first place from the standpoint of their meaning 
for the editor of the Gospel, and only secondarily from 
the point of view of their relation to the historical Christ. 

This explains, of course, in large measure, the limita- 
tions of the Commentary which follows. Considerations 
as to the historical character of the incidents which the 
Gospel records, have for the most part been carefully 
avoided ; and no attempt has been made to discuss the 
question whether the teaching here put into the mouth 
of Christ was as a matter of fact taught by Him. These 
are questions which should be left to the historian who 
is dealing with all the sources which are available for the 
reconstruction of the life of Christ, and should not be 
approached by the commentator who is dealing with only 
one Gospel. 

This limitation carries with it the omission of reference 
to much literature, ancient and modern. If the commen- 
tator is engaged in explaining the meaning of a single 
Gospel from the standpoint of the Evangelist, he clearly 
need not discuss those ancient and modern conceptions 
of the historical Christ with which an historian of Christ's 
life must grapple. Consequently purely controversial dis- 
cussion of modern critical views has been purposely avoided 
in the following pages. 

Of course, I am aware that in practice the several 
stages in the process which I have described cannot 
be kept rigidly apart. The commentator must to some 
extent exercise his independent judgement in revising 
the work of the literary critic, and the historian will 
always find it necessary to test the work of both critic 
and commentator. But the range of subjects and acti- 
vities connected with the work of using the Gospels as 
historical sources is so vast, that it is probable that in the 
future as, and in so far as, scientific method is improved, 
the commentator on the Gospels will not be expected to 
cover more than a part of the ground. He will, e.g., to 


a greater extent than is at present possible, be able to 
accept a Greek text from the hands of the textual critics, and 
so relieve his Commentary of any textual critical apparatus. 
He will be able also, with more justification than he can 
at present, to adopt the results of the labours of the 
literary critics, and so omit from his Commentary a good 
deal of critical analysis that is at present indispensable. 
This will leave him free for the more important work of 
endeavouring to ascertain the meaning of the contents of 
the Gospel to its writer and first readers, by the methods 
of investigation into the philological meaning of the words 
of the Gospel, and of illustration of its ideas from con- 
temporary sources. 

But within narrower limits the absence from these 
pages of continual reference to the vast literature dealing 
with the Gospel requires some apology. It would have 
been easy to double the size of this book if constant refer- 
ence had been made to the interpretation of single passages 
by previous commentators. The limitation that I have 
imposed upon myself of stating simply the meaning that, 
as it seemed to me, a particular passage had to the mind 
of the Evangelist as he wrote it, without giving also the 
several or many other interpretations which have been 
given of such a passage by ancient and modern writers, 
requires some defence, and is, I feel, open to criticism. 

I have adopted this course on the following grounds : 
(i) the purpose of this Commentary, to attempt to make 
clear the conception of the Evangelist, made it desirable 
to omit the interpretations of many writers who have 
commented on the book, with the quite different object 
of ascertaining the meaning of the sayings here recorded 
as they were spoken by Christ Himself. If, e.g., in deal- 
ing with i6 17-19 I had given in detail, and with some dis- 
cussion, all the views that have ever been taken of these 
much debated verses, I should have required many pages ; 
but the reader's attention would only have been distracted 
from the end which I had in view, viz., to set before him 


as clearly as possible the meaning which these words had 
in the mind of the Evangelist when he placed them in 
their present position in his Gospel. 

(2) In writing the following pages, I have always had 
chiefly in view the needs, not of the preacher nor of the 
general reading public, but of the student who desires to 
have some understanding of the growth and development 
of the Gospel literature in the first century A.D., and of 
the meaning which this particular Gospel had for the 
Evangelist and his first readers. Now a Commentary which 
is also a catalogue of all possible interpretations which 
have ever been read into the Gospel, and at the same time 
an Encyclopaedia of information upon all subjects directly 
or indirectly connected with the subject-matter, is no doubt 
a very useful book, but Commentaries of this nature already 
exist, and they are very tedious to read. The student 
who wishes for information of this kind knows that on 
the one hand he can turn to the Commentaries of Meyer 
or Alford, and on the other to such indispensable works 
of reference as Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, and 
Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels, or the Encyclopedia 
Biblica. I have myself often felt the need of a Commen- 
tary on this Gospel which would tell me, not all that 
can be known about every subject mentioned in it, nor 
every view that has ever been held about its sayings ; 
but, what the words of the Gospel meant to the Evangelist, 
that I might form my own conclusion as to the value of 
that meaning; and I have purposely avoided filling these 
pages with, what seemed to me to be, needless iteration 
of information, which is easily accessible to every student. 

Anyone who turns over the following pages will 
realise how impossible it is for me to express adequately 
my obligations to others. I have added to the Intro- 
duction a list of the writers to whom I have referred by 
name in the Commentary, but I owe an equal and in some 
cases a much greater debt to many others whose names 
will not be found there. I am particularly indebted to the 


editions of Meyer's Commentary edited by Dr. B. Weiss, 
to Zahn's admirable Commentary on St. Matthew, to 
Wellhausen's brilliant notes on the first three Gospels, to 
the English Commentaries of Dr. Plummer on S. Luke, 
Dr. Swete on S. Mark, and Dr. Gould on S. Mark, and 
to Dr. A. Wright for his excellent Synopsis. To the 
members of the class which has met at Dr. Sanday's 
house for some years to study the Synoptic Problem I 
owe much, and especially to Mr. C. Badcock, the Rev. 
V. Bartlet, the Rev. B. W. Streeter, and the Rev. Sir 
John Hawkins, whose Horcs Synopticce is the invaluable 
companion of every student of the Gospels. Sir John 
Hawkins was so kind as to read the proofs of the Intro- 
duction of this book, and it owes much to his correction 
and addition. Lastly, Dr. Plummer, as supervising editor, 
has very kindly made many most valuable suggestions 
and corrections. 

Of my obligations to Dr. Sanday I cannot write ade- 
quately. He is in no sense directly responsible for anything 
that these pages contain, but if there be any sound element 
in method or in tone in what I have written, it is probably 
ultimately traceable to his influence and to that of his 

Finally : I think that no scholar will mistake the 
character and purpose of my translation of the texts of 
the First and Second Gospels. It aims neither at elegance 
of diction nor at correctness of English idiom. On the 
contrary, I have not hesitated to sacrifice idiom and 
correctness alike, in order to give a literal and bald ren- 
dering which should, so far as is possible, represent in 
English the differences in tense, in syntax, and in vocabu- 
lary between the Greek of the Second and that of the 
First Gospel. 



A. S. MARK. 

1. Almost the entire substance of the second Gospel has been 
transferred to the first. The only omissions of any length are the 
following : 

(a) Mk i 2328 Healing of a demoniac. 

(b) J35-39 Preaching in the synagogues of Galilee. 

(c) 420-29 p ar able of the seed growing secretly. 

(d) 732-37 Healing of a deaf man. 

(e) 822-26 Healing of a blind man. 
(/) 938-40 The exorcist. 

(g) 1 2 41 " 44 The widow and her alms. 

2. But in 3-1 3 58 the editor makes a good deal of alteration in 
the order of Mk.'s sections. The following table will exhibit this. 
Passages enclosed in square brackets are interpolations into Mk.'s 
narrative : 

\A. Birth and Infancy of the Messiah. 1. 2.] 

B. Preparation for His ministry. 

(1) 3 1 - 12 = Mk 1 1-8. 

[7-10. 121 

(2) 3 13 - 17 = Mk . 9 " n . 


(3) 4 1 - 11 - Mk 1 12 - 13 . 


C. First period of work in Galilee. 

(i) 4 12-17 = Mk I 14 ' 15 . 


(2) 4 18 - 22 = Mk i 16 " 20 . 

(3) (a) 4 23 " 25 substituted for Mk 1 21 . 

7* 8 -2» « Mk I 22 , 

omits Mk r-3-28 




(c) 8*-*- 

16 [17] 


8 18S4 

(4) 9 





IO 1 





[ 10b ] 

11-14 expansion of 

["-ll 1 ] 

(5) E 112 ' 30 ] 



(6) (a) 

[5-7. 11-12. 17-211 

22-23 substituted for 


T27-28. 30. 32-45"] 



T16-17. 24-30. 33. 35-521 

[omits Mk 4 

j ,53-58 

21-24. 26-29 


Mk 1 29 - 31 . 







x 32-34_ 
j 35-39 # 
j 40-45 
2 l-22 # ' 

2 23_,12 

4 1 " 34 . 
35 r 20 

Mk 4 35 - 5 

Mk 5 21 - 43 . 

Mk 6™\ 
Mk 6 6b . 
Mk 6 7 . 

Mk 6 8 " 9 . 
Mk 6 10 " 11 . 
Mk 6 12 " 13 

Mk 3 


The alteration of order here shown is not arbitrary nor without 
reason, but is due to the scheme upon which the editor is building 
up this first part of his Gospel 

In 3 x -4 17 he has matter parallel to Mk i 1 ' 16 with considerable 
additions. It may be doubted whether he is here borrowing 
from another source, or whether he is borrowing from Mk. and 
expanding his narrative by additions, either from oral tradition, or 
from a second written source. 


comes from 

Mk i 16 " 20 . 


The editor then comes to Mk i 21 . 

He has already (4 13 ) anticipated the mention of Capharnaum, 1 and 
can therefore omit Mk i 21a . Mk i 21b speaks of teaching in the 
synagogue. Here, therefore, is an opportunity of inserting an 
illustration of Christ's teaching, which is to be followed by an 
illustrative group of His miracles. As an introduction to these 
two sections of illustration, the editor substitutes for Mk i 21 a 
general sketch of Christ's activity (4 23 " 25 ), using for this purpose 
phraseology borrowed from various parts of the second Gospel 
The reason why he places his illustration of Christ's teaching 
before that of His miracles is no doubt to be found in Mk i 22 , 
which describes the effect produced by that teaching on the people. 
The editor therefore inserts the Sermon on the Mount between 
Mk i 21 and 2 -, and closes it with this latter verse. Thus : 
4 23-25 are substituted for Mk i 21 . 

5-7 27 are inserted. 

7 28-29 _ j22 t 

The editor now proposes to give illustrations of Christ's 
miracles. The next five sections in Mk. are : 

! 23-28 Thg demoniac. 

! 29-31 Peter's wife's mother 

i 32 " 34 Healing the sick. 

i 35 " 39 Retirement and tour. 

! 40-45 Healing of a leper. 
We therefore expect the editor to begin his series of illustrations 
with the narrative of the demoniac, but he omits this altogether, 
and, passing over Mk 1 32 - 39 , continues with Mk 1 40 - 45 the healing 
of the leper : 

gl-4 = Mk I 40 "* 5 . 

It is not easy to account for the omission of Mk i 23 - 28 , and for 
the transposition of 40 " 45 . The following reasons may have co- 
operated to produce them : 

(a) Mt. has omitted the reference to Capharnaum (Mk i 21 ), 
and has adapted Mk 1 22 to an entirely different situation. But 
still he might have inserted a statement of an entry into Caphar- 
naum to form a link between the Sermon and the healing of the 

(6) The incident of the leper is recorded by Mk. without any 
detail of time or place, after a verse which states that Christ 
" came preaching in their synagogues throughout the whole of 
Galilee." It is therefore not unnatural to place the healing of 
the leper after the Sermon, which may be taken as illustrative of 
this synagogue preaching. 

(c) Leprosy was perhaps the most dreaded of all bodily 

1 The KaryK-qaev of 4 13 implies that Capharnaum will henceforth be the 
headquarters of Christ's ministry. 


ailments in Palestine, and its cure forms a fatting introduction to 
a series of three healings of disease. 

(d) The reason why, after inserting the healing of the leper, 
the editor did not continue with that of the demoniac, may have 
been that he wished to form a series of three healings of disease, 
and that in the Church tradition the healing of the centurion's 
servant was closely connected with the Sermon. Lk. has the 
same connection. 

(<?) Moreover, there were features in the story of the demoniac 
which did not recommend it to the editor, features which Lk. 
found it desirable to modify. See below, p. xxxiii. 

After inserting Mk i 40 " 45 and omitting 23_28 , the editor inserts 
the healing of the centurion's servant, 8 5 " 13 , and can then continue 
with Mk 1 29 - 31 , thus forming a series of three healings of disease—- 
leprosy, paralysis, fever. He closes the series with words borrowed 
from the succeeding verses of Mk 32-34 , adding a quotation from 
Isaiah. Thus : 

8 1 " 4 - Mk i 40 " 45 . 

g5-i3 are inserted. 

gl4-15 — I 29 " 31 . 

gl6 = ! 32-34. 

8 17 is inserted. 
The next section in Mk. is 1 35 - 39 . This would be out of place 
in a series of miracles, and is therefore omitted. Mk i 40 " 45 has 
been already inserted. The editor, therefore, comes to Mk 2 1 ' 22 . 
This he postpones, perhaps because it occurred on a visit to 
Capharnaum different to that just described. By recording it here 
the editor would confuse the two visits. Mk 2 23 ~3 6 he reserves 
for a controversial section. 3 7 " 35 contain no miracle. 4 1 " 34 he 
reserves for his chapter of parables. He therefore comes to 4 s5 . 
Here Christ is surrounded by a crowd. The editor adapts this to 
his context : 

8 18 = Mk 4 35 , 

inserts 8 19 " 22 , 
and then takes over Mk 4 36 -5 20 with considerable omissions : 

S 23-34 = Mk 4 36_ 5 20. 

In Mk 5 21 Christ returns to the western side of the lake. Mt. 
adds to this, that " He came to His own city " : 

Mt q 1 = Mk 5 21ft , 

and can then go back and borrow Mk 2 1 " 12 with its sequel 13 ' 23 : 

Mt 9 2 - 17 = Mk 2 1 - 22 , 

thus completing a second series of three miracles which illustrate 
Christ's power over natural forces (8 23-27 ), over the hostility of demons 
( 28 " 34 ), and in the spiritual sphere (the forgiveness of sins, 9 1 " 8 ). 

The editor now postpones Mk 2 23 -4 34 for the same reasons as 
before. He comes therefore to s 22 " 43 . This he abbreviates, and 


adds two other miracles, thus forming a third series of three 
miracles illustrating Christ's power to restore life, sight, and speech : 

9 lS-26 = Mk 5 22-43. 

9 27 " 31 inserted. 

n 32-34 

y >' 

Having thus given illustrations of Christ's teaching and miracles, 
the editor now proposes to show how this ministry found extension 
in the work of the disciples. He therefore postpones Mk 6 1_tia , 
and expands 6b into an introduction to this mission modelled on 
the similar introduction 4* 3 - 25 ; 

9 35 - Mk 6 6b . 

9 36 " 38 inserted. 
Chapter io 1 continues with Mk 6~ ; but the editor here inserts 
Mk 3 16 " 19 , which he had passed over. The rest of io-ii 1 is an 
amplification of Mk 6 8 " 11 : 

io 1 = Mk 6 7 . 

IO 2 -!! 1 = 6 8 " 11 . 

1 1 2 " 30 inserted. 
There now follows a series of incidents illustrating the growth 
of hostility to Christ on the part of the Pharisees. For these the 
editor now goes back to Mk 2 23 " 28tf * : 

I2 l-8 = Mk 2 23-28, 

I2 9-14 = 3 l-6. 

I2 i5-i6 summarises 3 7 " 12 - 

12 17 ' 21 inserted. 
Having already borrowed Mk 313-193 ^ e now comes to 19 ''" 21 
and 22 " 30 . For this he substitutes a similar but longer discourse 
introduced by another miracle : 

I2 22-45 enlarged from Mk ^-^ t 

and continues with the next section in Mk. 

I2 4t3-5U _ ,31-35^ 

This brings him to Mk 4, which is a chapter of parables. The 
editor borrows this and adds other parables : 

I3 l-52 = Mk 4 l-34. 

As he has already inserted Mk 4 35 ~5 43 he now comes to Mk 6 1_6a : 

I3 53-58 = M k 61^ 

From this point the editor follows the order of Mk.'s sections. 

3. The editor not infrequently abbreviates Mk.'s record. 

(a) Some examples of abbreviation in expression arc given 
below on p. xxiv. 

(b) In other cases details are dropped from the narrative. 
E.g. Mk i 13 " He was with the wild beasts." 

i 20 "with the hired servants." 
i 29 "with James and John." 
2 26 "in the days of Abiathar the high priest." 


Mk 2 27 " The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for 
the Sabbath." 
3 17c Boanerges. 
4 38 " upon the cushion." 
5 13 " about two thousand." 
6 12 the mission of the Twelve. 
6 37 " two hundred pennyworth." 
539-40 « D y companies — green — in ranks, by hundreds and 

by fifties." 
7 3 " 4 the explanation of " unwashen hands." 
9 s "so as no fuller on earth can whiten them." 
14 5 " three hundred pence." 
14 51 the young man who fled naked. 
15 21 "the father of Alexander and Rufus." 
15 44 Pilate's inquiry about the death of Christ. 
Especially statements of the thronging of the multitudes and the 
inconvenience caused by it. 

E.g. Mk i 33 "and the whole city was gathered together at the 
j 45 << so th a t jje would no longer enter into a citv." 
2 2. 4 « y\ nc [ man y were gathered together, so that there 
was no longer room for them, no, not even 
about the door. . . . And when they could 
not come nigh unto Him for the crowd." 
3* " And He spake to His disciples, that a little boat 
should wait upon Him because of the crowd, 
lest they should throng Him." 
3 10 "pressed upon Him." 

3 20 "so that they could not so much as eat bread." 
6 31 "they had no leisure to eat." 

(c) Not infrequently sayings are omitted from a discourse. But, 
for the most part, such sayings have already been inserted in an earlier 
part of the Gospel. The left-hand column shows where the saying 
has been omitted, the right-hand column where it has been inserted. 

Mt 13 23 - 24 

j .,23-24 
j .,23-24 
j ,23-24 

l8 5 
l8 5 
1 8° 
2 I 22 

24 s 

(d) In other cases a whole narrative or section is given in a 
much abbreviated form. 

E.g. Mk 3 7 " 12 is compressed into two verses in 12 15 " 16 . The 

k 4 21 

Mt 5 15 . 

4 22 

10 20 . 

4 24a 

7 2 - 

4 24b 

i3 12 - 

9 37b 

IO 40 . 

9 41 

IO 42 . 

9 50 

5 13 - 

II 2 * 

6 14 . 

j ,9b. 11-13 

Io 17-20 

larrative or 


is gi\ 


reason is obvious. The editor is collecting illustrations of the 
controversies between Christ and the Pharisees. Having just 
borrowed Mk 2 23 -3 1 " 6 , which is suited to his purpose, he comes to 
3 7 " 12 , which has nothing bearing upon the subject. He might well 
have omitted it, just as he omitted 1 35 - 39 . But the thought of 
Christ's ministry of healing, Mk 3 10 , suggested to him a contrast 
between the Lord's quiet work of love with its shrinking from 
publicity, Mk 3 12 , and the hostile clamour of the Pharisees. He 
therefore shortened Mk 3 7 - 12 and added a quotation from Isaiah 
to emphasise this contrast. 

Mk 5 1 ' 43 is much shortened in Mt 8' 28 " 34 9 18 - 26 . See notes on 

g28 ^ 

Mk 6 14 " 29 is abbreviated in Mt 14 1 - 12 . 

Mk 9 14 - 29 appears in a shorter form in Mi T7 14-20 . See note on 
17 18 . 

4. Contrasted with this shortening of narrative sections is the 
amplification of discourses. 

E.g. Mk i 7 " 8 , the preaching of the Baptist is expanded into 

Mt 3 7 - 12 . 
Mk 3 22 " 26 , the refutation of the charge of diabolical agency is 

expanded into Mt 12 24 " 45 . 
Mk 4, the chapter of parables is considerably lengthened in 

Mt 13. 
Mk 6 8 ' 11 , the charge to the Twelve is expanded into Mt io 5 " 42 . 
Mk 9 35 - 50 , teaching about greatness is expanded into Mt 18 2 ' 35 . 
Mk i2 37b " 40 , denunciation of the Pharisees forms the nucleus 

of a whole chapter in Mt 23. 
Mk 13, the discourse on the last things is expanded in Mt 

24-25 into double the length. 
Four of these bodies of discourse, formed by interweaving 
some other source or sources with the shorter discourses found in 
Mk., viz. chs. 10. 13. 18. 24-25, are closed by a formula : ko.1 lyivzTo 
ore creAetrev 6 'Irjcrovs Siard&croiv tois SwSckci fjLaByjTaus avTov, 1 1 1 J 
/cai cyevero ore ireXecrev 6 Irjcrovs ra<s 7rapa/?oAas Tavras, 1 3 s3 ; kcu 
iyevero ore ereAccrev 6 Irjcrovs rovs Xoyovs tovtous, 1 9 1 ', kcu eyevero 
ore ercAccrev 6 Ir^croCs TravTas tous Aoyous tovtovs, 26 1 . These to- 
gether with the Sermon on the Mount, chs. 5-7, which closes with 
a similar formula 7 28 , cf. Lk 7 1 , form one of the most striking 
features of this Gospel. 

5. In linguistic detail there are a certain number of character- 
istic changes made in Mk.'s language. 

(a) Mk.'s characteristic words kcu fiOvs, irdkiv, the adverbial 
7roAAa, and on after verbs of saying, are frequently omitted, and S« 
is repeatedly substituted for kclC. 


€v$v<s or Kal evOvs occurs in Mk. about 41 times, in Mt. about 
7 times only, all borrowed from Mk. 

7raA.11/ occurs in Mk. about 26 times, in Mt. about 16, only 4 of 
these coming from Mk. 

The Aramaising adverbial 7roAAa occurs in Mk. about 13 times, 
in Mt. 4 times. 

otl after verbs of saying occurs about 50 times in Mk. Of these 
about 42 are omitted by Mt. It occurs in Mt. some 38 times, 8 
of these being from Mk. Of the others, about 20 occur in the 
formula, " I say unto you that." In a few instances it is inserted 
in Marcan passages where Mk. omits it, e.g. 13 11 2I 23 

Mt. substitutes Se for Mk.'s kcu about 60 times. On kcu in 
Mk., see Hor. Syn. p. 120. 

{b) Mk.'s historic presents and imperfects are frequently sup- 
planted by aorists, and his r/piaro with an infinitive is generally 
avoided. So also clvai with a participle, and changes are made in 
the voices of verbs. 

Sir John Hawkins 1 reckons 151 historic presents in Mk., of 
which Mt. retains only 21. Mt. has about 93 such presents, 21 
of them being from Mk. About 66 are cases of Ae'yei or Aeyouo-iv, 
about 1 1 of them being from Mk. Nine of the historic presents 
retained from Mk. occur in Mk i4 27 " 41 = Mt 26 31 " 45 . It seems clear, 
therefore, that Mt. generally avoided the historic present when 
reproducing Mk., and some of the 21 cases where he retains it 
may be due to assimilation. In reproducing other sources he 
seems also to have avoided the present, except in the case of Ae'yci 
and Xiyova-Lv. The small number of other exceptions occur in 
parables (but in the nature of things the Logia would not have 
many such presents), and in chs. 2-4 11 . The presence of some 9 
presents not including Ae'yci in this section is very curious, and 
would be naturally explained by the theory that this section was 
drawn from a source in which such presents were a marked 
feature, if there were sufficient corroborative evidence. See below, 
p. lx. 

Mt. substitutes aorists for imperfects in the following cases : 

Mk I 32 ecpcpov. Mt 8 16 irpocrijveyKav. 

3 6 iSiSovv, B L ; eVoi'ovv, 

I2 14 IAa/3ov. 

A al ; cVou/crav 


3 12 eTreTL/xa. 

I2 1D tTT€Tifj.r]crev. 

4 2 i8i8a<TK€v. 

13 3 cAaA^crev. 

4 33 e'AaAei. 

I3 84 ,„ 

5 C7TV iy OVTO. 

8 32 a.Tri6avov. 

5 17 iraptKaXovv, D. 

8 34 TrapeKaXecrav. 

6 7 eSi'Sov. 

lO 1 eSco/cev. 

6 20 icpOpUTO. 

14 6 l<po(Br)6i). 

1 Hor. 

Syn. pp. 

1 14 fF. 



Mk 6 41 c'StSov. 

6 56 £Cra>£oj/TO. 
9 11 iirr]pwT<j)V. 
9 13 rjOeXov. 

IO 13 7TpO(T€<f>€pOV. 

io 13 cVeTi/xcov, A D al. latt. 

IO M CTreTifjUDV. 

IO 48 eVpa£ev. 

IO 52 rjKo\ov9ei. 

11 8 eo-rpwvwov, D curss. S 1 . 

II 19 e^eTropevovTO. 

I2 17 c^c^auyua^ov. 

I2 10 €Tn]ptl)T(OV. 

I2 34 iroXfia. 

OK * 

14" £7r«rT€v. 

I4 JJ r]VpL(TKOV. 

14 65 eKo\d<pi£oi', D a c k. 

I 4'° rjpV€LTO. 

14' 2 €/<Aai€V. 

in ' ' 
*5 €ytvcocr«ev. 

15 23 i8i8ow. 

I5 41 ^KoA.OV#OUV. 

Mt 14 19 e8a)/<ev. 

14 36 Stecrco^r/orav. 
I 7 1U €Trr]pwT7]<Ta.v. 
1 7 12 rjOtkyjcrav. 
19 13 7rpoar]v€)^6r]aax'. 
19 13 €TT€Tifxr](rav. 






20 34 TjKoXovOrjcrav. 
2 1 8 ccrrpwcrav. 
2 1 17 i$7J\6ev. 
22 22 ZdavpLacrav. 
2 2" eTvqpwTrjcrai'. 
2 2 46 eToXfirj&ev. 
26 39 67T€(rev. 
26 60 evpov. 
26 67 €KoXdtpi(rav. 

26 ' 2 rjpvrjcraTO. 
26 75 e/<Aai>crev. 
27 18 178a. 

27 s4 eSu/cav. 

27 s5 rjKoXovQrjcrav. 

To these may be added about 10 cases where el^y (ov) is sub- 
stituted for IXcyev (ov). In about 187 other cases the imperfect is 
avoided by omission or by paraphrase. 

•f/pfaro (avTo) with infinitive : 
Mk i 45 Tjp^aro KTjpvao-av. Mt. omits the verse. 

2 23 rjp^avro 6obv -rroieiv TiX- Mt 1 2 1 iqp^avTO tlXXziv. 


4 1 f)p£a.TO 8i8d<TKeiv. 
5 17 rjptjavTO irapaKaXetv. 

irapeKixXovv, D. 
5 20 T/p^aro Kiqpvcrcruv. 
6 2 7)p£a.T0 SiSaaxciv. 
6 7 rfp^aro awoo-TiXXfiv. 
6 34 r^p^ttTO StSacr/cetf. 
6 55 rjp^avTO — TrepL<pep€iv. 
8 11 T/p£avro crw^r/retv. 

8 31 T/pfaro SiSacrKeiv. 

8 32 r)p£a.TO lirnLfxav. 
io 28 fjp£a.TO Xiyuv. 



13 1 iKaOrjTO. 
8 84 7rapeKaA.€crav. 

Mt. omits the verse. 
Mt 13 54 cStSao-Kev. 

I o 5 dTreoretXeK. 

14 14 omits clause. 

14 35 7rpoo"Tjv€yKav. 

16 1 omits. 

16 21 iqp£a.TO BeiKvveiv. 

16 22 fjp£a.TO iTTLTLfXaV. 

19^' SLirev. 


IO 41 r/p$avTO ayava.KT€LV. 
IO 47 T/p£a.TO Kpd^eiv. 
II 15 rjp^aro €K/3aAAeiv. 
I2 1 ?Jp£aTO — AaAeZv. 


20" TfyavaKTrjcrav. 
20 30 l/cpa^av. 
21 12 i&fiaXcv. 
2 1 33 omits. 



Mk 13 5 r}p£a.TO Aeyeiv 
* 19 rjp^avro — Ac- 


I4 1 



■%p$aro CK^a/x/Jeior^at. 
rjp^avro — ifXTTTveiv. 
rfp^aro Aeyeiv. 
14 71 rjp$aro 

Mt 2 4 4 

26 s2 r/p^avTO — Aeyeiv. 

26 37 fjp^aro XvTreio-6ai. 

26 67 tvtTTTvcrav. 

26 71 Ae'yei. 

26 74 rjp^aro KaTaOe/xaTi^uv. 

27 16 omits verse. 

2 7 29 paraphrases. 
Mt. omits the verse. 
„ section. 
Mt 2 6 75 eVAawev. 

T)p£aTO aiTeicr#ai. 
15 18 -qp^avTO do"7ra£eo"#ai. 
5 18 rjp^aTO irapaKaXelv, D latt. 
8 25 r/p^aro dvafiXtyai, D latt. 
14 72 r/p^aro /cAaieiv, D. 
It will be seen that Mt. retains the construction six out of 
twenty-six times. He has it also in 4 17 n 7 - 20 148° 18 24 24 49 . 
eirat with a participle. 
(a) Imperfect. 
Mk I 6 r/v — eVSeSu/xeVos. 
I 33 tjv — €TTL(rvvqyfj.ivrj. 
2" T)<xav — KaOrjfJ-ti'Oi. 
2 10 fjcrav — VT/o-revovTes. 
4 38 tjv — Ka8cv8<i)v. 
5 5 7]V Kpd£wv. 
6 52 t]v — 7reir<x)pu)p.i\>r]. 
9 4 Tjcrav cruvAaAovvres. 

Mt 3 4 

u\ev to evovfia 


8 16 


9 3 


9 u 


8 24 


8 28 


I 4 33 


I7 3 

omit rjcrav. 

I o 32 rjaav — dvafiaivovTcs. 
IO " fjv irpoayoiv. 
14 4 rjcrav — dyava/CToGrrcs. 
14 49 rjfXrjV 

14 54 rjv crvvKadrjficvos. 


I5 26 rjV 

20 17 paraphrases. 
20 17 omits. 

26 s yyavaKT-quav. 

26 s5 €Ka6e^6fxr]v SiSdcrKtov 

26 58 iKaQ-qro. 

26 16 omits. 

27 s7 paraphrases. 

27 ^o"av e/<ei — vewpovcrai. 

2 7 57 paraphrases. 

27 60 iXarofj-rjcrev. 


77V — SeSe/xeyos. 

iinyey pa/j.p.a'rj. 
15 40 ^crav — Oeupovcrai. 
15 43 77 v 7rpocrS€^Oyaevos. 
15 46 rjv XeXaTOixTjfxei'ov. 

Mt. has the construction four times from Mk., viz. 7 29 8 80 19 
26 43 . Besides only twice, 9 s6 12 4 . 

{b) Future. 

This occurs only once in Mk. (i3 13 = Mt io 22 24°). Mt. has 
it besides four times in the saying about binding and loosing, 

X 619(2) !81 8 (2). 

Perhaps we might place under this head : 

Mk I* eyeveTO — Krjpva&mv. 

9* eyeve-ro — e7ricr/ad£oiJcra. 

9 3 eyeVeTO (TTiXfiovra Aeuxd. 
Cf. 4 22 eyeVeTO diroKpvcpov. 

Mt 3 1 irapayiverai — Krjpvcrcrwv. 
17 5 i-rrecTKiaaev. 
17 2 eveve-ro Xevxd. 

For iyevero in these cases as equivalent to f/v, cf. Dn i 16 fy 



avaipovp.evo<;, LXX = ty€VCTO avaipovp.evo<;, Th.; Dn 2 35 Ac7rrd eytVtTo. 
LXX = i\en-rvv6r]crav, Th.; La I 16 iyevovTO — r)(pavicrp.evou 

Changes of voice. 

Passive for Active or Middle : 

Mt 4 1 avqxH Mk I 12 eV/SdAAei. 

8 15 r)yep$7]. 

1 01 r)y€ipev. 

9 25 i$€(3\rj6ri. 

5 40 ixftaXwv. 

14 11 rjvixOrj. 

6 28 r^ey/cev. 

14 11 18667). 

6 28 e8o)«ev. 

15 17 iKfSdXXerau 

7 19 £K7TOpei'€Tat. 

l6 26 il)(peX7]6y']creTaL. 

8 36 ctyeAeu 

1 8 8 fikridrjvai. 

9 43 airiXOtiv. 

19 13 Trpoa"qvi)(6 r l <jav ' 

IO 13 7rpocre<p€pov. 

24 22 iKoXofiwOrjaav. 

13 20 iKoXofiaxrev. 

24 22 KoXofiuiOrjaovTau 


1 » 

26 57 (TWT^^T/crav. 

14 53 (TUktp^OVTat. 

27 s8 OTaupowrai. 

15 27 o-Tavpovaiv. 

Active for Middle : 

19 20 icf>vXa£a. 

IO 20 e<pvXa£dp.r)v. 

2 6 23 ip-fidij/as. 

14 20 ifx.j3a7rTop.evos. 

26 51 d7reo"7racrev. 

14 47 cnrao-dp.€vos. 

Middle for Active : 

14' alTrj(ry]Tau 

6 23 atTT^crps. 

Active for Passive : 

27 60 iXaropirjcrtv. 

15 46 ^v XfXarop.rjp.evov, 

A parallel to this substitution of aorists or perfects for presents 
or imperfects, of imperfects for ^v with participles, and of passives 
for actives, may be found in the two Greek versions of Daniel. 




1 2 31 ewpaKas. 

2 s4 KaTTjXecrev. 



2 45 o-vvr/Xorjo-ev. 


3 4 €K7]pV$€V. 


3 7 ^Kovcrav. 


3 7 7rpoo-€KVi'rjaav. 


3 8 SiefiaXov. 


5 6 eypai//av. 


6 24 e#Aacrav. 


y 2 Iviirto'ov. 


7° €i7rev. 


8 17 e7recra. 


8 18 iKoip.7]6rjv. 


9 6 eAdA^crav. 


KO 7 a7re8pao-av. 


6 10 £7rt7TT€V. 

7?V Kdp.7TT(l}V. 


LXX. Theodotion. 

Dll 6 10 liroUl. 7}V TTOLOiV. 

8 5 Sievoou/«7V. r )f JL V v o"wi<ov. 

3 94 o~vvrj\6rjo-av. trvvayovrai. 

I 18 zlo-f)x6r]cra.v elarjyayev. 

2 13 i^rjrrjOr]. lt,rjTr](jav. 

4 10 aTrf.o-ra.Xtf. Karifirj. 

6 17 rjvexOr]. T/veyxav. 

6 17 IriOt], evefiaXov. 

8 10 Ippd^Orj. e-Trecrev. 

8 10 KaTCiraTrjOrj. crvv€7rdrr)crav. 

(c) The repetition and redundancy which are such striking 
features of Mk.'s style are avoided. In the following list, words in 
brackets are omitted by Mt. because they are verbally or in 
substance repeated in an adjacent clause • 

(i) I 16 \TrnrXrjpuiTat 6 Kaipos Kat] fjyyiKtv rj fiacnXzia tov 6(ov 
fxeravoelre [kcu 7rtOTeueT€ ev T(5 evayyeAt'w]. 
I 16 St'pwvos, Mt. avrov. 

I s2 oi^tas Se yevo/xivrj's [otc ISucrev 6 77/Uos]. 
I 42 kcu. evOvs [aTrrj\6ev <X7r'] avrov rj AeVpa [kcu] iKaOepLcrOrf. 

2 15 [770-av yap 7ro\Aot /cat tjkoXovOovv aural]. 

2 16 tSovres [on IcrdUi /xera twv a/Aapra>Aa>v Kat tcAon'oiv]. 

2 19 [ocrov ^pdvov l^ovcriv rov vuu<piov fxer avraiv ou Suvavra< 


2 20 totc — [ev eKeivr] rrj ^uepa]. 

2 25 ore [^petav eo-^ev Kat] e7retvao"ev. 
2 Z0 I aurosj Kat 01 per avrov. 

4 1 7rpos t^v £7ri r>)s y^s. Mt. e7rt tov atytaAov. 

4 2 xai iBlSao'Kev . . . Kat eAeyev aurots ev rfj StSa^ aurou. 
Mt. Kat eAaA^crev aurots. 

17 eV rtvi avrrjv irapafioXyj #a>p.ev]. 
drav o~Trapfj~\. 

TOJV €7Tt Tt}s y^?]. 

Kat cKoVao-ev 6 aveuos] Kat eyevero yaA^vi; peyaA^. 

tva eis aurous elo~eX6wp.ev]. 

Iva o-(i)6ff\ Kal £170-77. 

woej 7rpo? ?)pas. 

Kal ev rots auyyevevcriv aurou] Kat ev rrj oIkio. avrov. 
6 18 ri)v yvvaina rov a8eX(pov crou. Mt. avrrjv. 
6 28 \ro Kopacrtov], 

6 35 rj8r) aipas 7roAAr}s — 77S77 aipa 7roAA>;. Mt. avoids the 

^18 T yj 7rapa8ocr€t upa>v [77 7rapeoajKaTe]. 
7 21 [ara^ey] yap ck rr)s KapStas. 

8 la Mt. omits because it is substantially repeated in the 
next verse. 

4 3i 
4 31 

4 39 

5 12 

5 23 

6 3 
6 4 


8 12 rfj yevea ravry. Mt. avrrj. 
8 17 oviro) voeire [ouSe crwiVrc]. 
" 2 KaT iStav [/xovovs]. 

IO 2 ' dAA' ov rrapa #ew], 
IO 46 

II 28 

I2 14 
I2 27 

I 4 68 

I5 16 
I5 32 

Kal ep^ovrai €is 'Iepei^wJ. 
Iva ravra 71-01775]. 
Sw/jiev rj fii] SuJ/xev]. 
7roXv 7rXavaa0e\, cf. V. 24 . 

13 19 a7r' ap\r)<; KTccrews [r/v eKTiaev 6 #eos]. 

13 20 tovs e/cAeKTOus [oij? i£e\£$a.To]. 
13 33 fiXeireTe ay pvn-v tire. Mt. ypi]yop^irt. 

I4 3 p.vpOV [ydpSoV TTLCTTLKrjs]- 

14° [a^)€Te avrr/v]. 

I4 3 " [crrj/xepovj ravrr] rrj vvktl. 

14 35 [tVa ct Swardv ccrriv TrapiXorj air avrov r) wpaj. 

14 44 xparrjcrare avrov [/cat. a7rayeTe dcrc^aAcusJ. 

14 45 [eA#wv] evOvs -rrpocreXOwv. 
I4 64 ecus [otw 6ts] tt)v auAr;v. 
I4 * €<ria)7ra [/<ai ouk airtKpivaro ovoev], 
I4" 1 I e7rrjpu)ra avrov Kail Aeyei airru>. 
I4 68 ovt€ otSa [oure e7rio-rap.a(.]. 

e£a>] eis to TrpoavXiov. 

ecra) riys avXrjs o] ccttiv Trpaircapioy. 

iScopev] /cal 7TtorT£i;o - a)yu.€i'. 

(2) Double negatives. 

The words bracketed are omitted by Mt. 
Mk I 44 /xtiScvi [/xriSev]. 

3 27 ov Svvarai ouSei's, Mt. 7rcos SuvaTat tis. 
9 8 [ouKeri] ouSeva. 
1 1 14 p.rjKin — /XTiSeis. Mt. ou fxrjKCTi. 

12 34 orSet? [oukc'ti]. Mt. transfers ovKen to the next 

14^° OVK€TL OV p.7) 7TIO). Mt. OV p.7] 7TIU> air apTL. 

14 61 ovk aTrcKpLiaro ouSe'v. Omitted in Mt 26 63 ; cf. Mt 
27 12 ovSev aireKpivaro. 
But Mt. retains the double negative in the parallels to : 
Mk 1 2 14 ov /xeAei ctol 7repi ovSevos. 

1 2 34 ouSets ovksti iroXp.a. Mt. oi8e iroXp-rjaev tis — ovkcti. 
15 5 ovxeri oiSev diteKpiOr]. Mt. ovk a-Ki.KpiOii — izpo<; ouSe 
%v prj/jia. 

(3) Mk. is fond of using a compound verb followed by the same 
preposition. Mt. not infrequently omits the compounded preposi- 
tion, or substitutes another verb, e.g. : 

Mk I 16 Trapdyu>v irapd. Mt 4 18 ir€pnrar<jiV irapd. 

l il €to"7ropeuovTat €ts. 4 1 * 5 iMtav — eis. 

2 1 elo-eX6H>v— eis. 9 1 ^Aflcr ets. 


Mk 3 1 ela^XOev— cis. Mt 1 2 9 rjXQev th. 

5 13 el<rfj\6ov €ts. 8 32 a-rrrj^Oav eis. 

5 17 a7T€/\^eiv airo. 8 34 fj.eTa.f3fj a.7rd. 

6 1 i$yj\0ev £kc20€v. 

13 53 /x€TTJpev iKeiOev. 

6 10 i£e\6r)T€ iKelOev. 

IO 11 i£e\6r]TC. 

7 31 c'£c\0a>v 6/C. 

15 29 /xeTa/3as iKeWev. 

9 2 5 #&0 e l£ 

Cf. 1 7 18 e£JX0ev dtTro. 

9 42 TrepiKeiTCLi — 7rfpu 

18 6 Kpejxa<r8rj — ireatl 

IO 25 Sta — 8icA^€tv. 

19 24 Sta — £io-eA.#eiv. 

io 25 €t? — elcrekdeiv. 

19 24 Omit elcreXOeiv. 

13 1 ixiropevofxevov — ex. 

24 1 e^eA^wv — a7ro. 

in Mk 2 26 3 27 6 10 - 11 7 15 < 2 >- 

18.20.21 g43. 45 io 28 jjll.16 j 2 8 j -12 

Mt. retains the double preposition. Other cases in Mk. are 

j 29. 45 c2. 8. 12 554 7 19. 24. 25. 26. 29 323.26 q25. 28 IQ 15. 24 It 2. 16 jg5 w here 

Mt. omits the whole paragraph or clause. 

That Mt. has less liking than Mk. for these redundant phrases 
may be seen from the following, the relative length of the two 
Gospels being borne in mind. I quote from the Concordance of 
Moulton and Geden : 

€urepxecr6a.t ets — Mt. 27, Mk. 24. 

Of Mt.'s 27 all but 5 are in sayings. Of the 5, 2 (2i 10 - 12 ) are 
from Mk., and another (8 5 ) probably a reminiscence of Mk. The 
reading in 2 21 is doubtful. This leaves one (27 s3 ) to the credit of 
the editor. 

On the other hand, of Mk.'s 24, 10 occur in narrative. 

i£epxe<r0ai i< — Mt. II, Mk. 13. 

Of Mt's 11, 2 only are in narrative, 15 21 21 17 , and both are 
from Mk. Of Mk.'s 13,7 are in narrative. 

elo-TTopevto-Bai ets — Mt. i in a saying, Mk. 4 in sayings, 2 in 

tKTTopzvtaOai in — Mt. 2 in sayings, Mk. 3 in sayings, 2 in 

8iepxe<rda Sta — Mt. 2 (19 s4 ') in sayings, Mk. 2 in sayings. 

Sia-n-opevco-Oai Sia — Mt. o, Mk. i in narrative. 

irapdyetv irapd. — Mt. o, Mk. 1 in narrative. 

ircpiK€i.cr6ai irepL — Mt. o, Mk. 1 in a saying. 

a-vva-Tavpovo-dai crvv — Mt. i in narrative, from Mk., Mk. I. 

In other words, these iterated prepositions are common in both 
Gospels in sayings. In narrative there are about 24 cases in Mk. 
and about 8 in Mt, of which 6 come from Mk. 

Once in a saying Mt. has cio-e'X^-e £ts (26 41 ) where Mk. (14 98 ) 
has Z\6r]T<i cts, X* B ; but ciWX^tc, N c A C D L al. 

(d) Not infrequently a commonplace word is substituted for an 
uncommon or unusual one; e.g. : 

Mk I 10 crx^op.€vovs. Mt 3 16 r)vewx@V crav ' 

I 12 iKfidAXcu 4 1 avrJxQ 7 }' 


xxvi 1 

Mk I 16 afJL(f>i{3d\\ovTas. 

Mt 4 18 

/3dAAoiTas a.fx<pLJ3\r]aTpov. 

2 11 Kpa.f3a.TTOV. 

9 « 


2 il c7ripa7TTei. 

g 16 


3 28 tchs utots twv av6p( 

TOts di'#p<i)7roiS. 

9 3 <TTtA/?OVTa. 

17 2 

<Ls to <£u>s. 

IO 25 TpiyiaAtas. 

19 24 


II 8 OTt/3dSas. 

21 8 


14 68 7rpoai>Aiov. 

26 71 


14 72 iTn(3a\o)v. 

26 75 

c^eA^wv e£a)?. 

15 11 dvecretcrav. 

2? 20 


(tf) Mt. often corrects 

the harshness of Mk.'s syntax ; cf. 

pecially the notes 


Io 10 I3 8. 23.32, 

(/) Prepositions 

and adverbs. 

airo and ex : 

Mt 3 16 dmJ 


Mk i 10 Ik. 

16 1 €K 


8 U dTTO. 

17 18 diro 


9 25 €K. 

24 1 a.7r<$ 


X3 1 « 

24 29 „ 


I3 25 CK. 

2 6 47 „ 


14 43 irapa. 

In 3 16 the change is perhaps intentional. See note. 

In 16 1 24 19 26 47 the changes seem without significance, but in 

17 18 24 1 the substitution of 6.tt6 avoids Mk.'s iteration : e£< 
rropevo/xevov — «k. 

\v and hrl: 

=- Mk I 8 vSan. 


€ e£, ex- 

eis and ev 

and hrt: 

Mt 3 11 

ev voari 

3 16 

> 1 i / 

€7T avTOV 

4 18 


9 15 

> 1 » 9 

€({> 0(TOV 

I2 1 


I3 7 

> / 


I3 8 



€7T aVTT^V 

I5 33 



IO 42 


I 9 15 

e7riTi0eis — auTOis 

2I 8 


22 16 

iv aXrjOtia. 

24 3 


IO 17 



2 4 1 8 



24 S0 

» / 


2 6 4 


26 5 

ev t<3 Aato 



26 13 


i iu 

eis avToy. 

i 16 


2 19 

» * 

ev w. 

2 23 


4 7 


4 8 

5 23 

8 4 




9 41 


IO 10 ric/eis e7r — aura 

11 8 eis. 

I2 14 eV aXrjOtias. 

13 3 ets. 

13 9 ets. 

T3 16 ets. 

I 3 26 ev. 

14 1 

I4 Z 
14 6 
I4 9 

iv doXo). 
toi) Aaou. 


Mt26»€V = Mkl 4 20 € Js. 

2 6 34 iv = 14 30 omit. 

26 50 €tti rbv 'Irjcrovv = 14 46 avVw. 

26 64 ori = 1462 perd. 

8 28 Sai/i-ovi^o/xevoi = 5 2 iv ■kvzvlko.ti aKaddprw. 

9-™ aifxoppoova-a = 5^° ovcra €v pvcei ai^iaros. 

In 3 16 the change of bri for cts is probably intentional. See 
note. In 4 18 eis is perhaps more natural than iv after /3aA.Xovxas. 
In I3 7,8 c7ri is also more natural after the verb tvuktziv than ets. 
In 9 18 and 26 50 Mt. substitutes «ri with accusative for the dative 
after iirniBto-Qo.i tt)v x&pa.; but he has the dative in 19 16 where 
Mk. has the accusative with «rt, so that the change is without 
significance. In 15 33 iv is perhaps easier than eVi. In io 42 Mt. 
has €i? ovop.a for iv 6v6p.aTL ; but the succeeding words are different, 
and the passages are not really parallel. For ets ovofia, cf. Mt 
io 41 ^ 2 ) 18 20 28 19 . In 2 1 8 iv is easier than eU, and this is the case 
with €7u, 24 s , and eV, io 17 24 18 . The substitution of eVt for iv, 24 30 , 
and for fierd, 26 s4 , is due to desire to assimilate to Dn 7 18 (LXX). 
And the participles in 8 28 9 20 avoid Mk.'s curious use of iv. 
itri with different cases : 

Mt 9 16 eVl i/xan'o) = Mk 2 22 iiri i/xdriov. 

13 2 eVi tov alyiaXov = 4 1 iirl tyjs yrjs. 

I4 1 * C7T aVTOl5 = O 6 * €7T dUTOU?. 

I4 li ' e7Tt TOV \OpTOV = 0a €7Tl TO) )(OpTa>. 

14 25 «ri ttjv ^aAacrcrav = 6 48 iiii tt)s daXdara-rf;. 

I5 00 €7Tt TT)V y^V = O d €7Tl n;? yTys. 

IO 18 eVi rjye/Aovas = 13 9 eVi ^ye/Aovcov. 

Cf. 2 1 7 €7r* avraiv = II 7 avrw. 

2 1 7 iiravm avrCiv = II 7 eV' auToV. 

9 xo 67T avrrjv = 5" auT77. 

I9 10 avTots = io 10 £7r avrau 

26 50 eVi tov lrjaovv = 14 46 avT<£. 

In 9 16 the dative is perhaps more natural after the weakened 
sense of cVi/?aAA«v, which Mt. substitutes for Mk.'s iinpdirTeiv, 
than the accusative. 

In 13 2 cf. for the accusative after io-t^/xi, Rev 12 18 14 1 15 2 ; but 
the genitive is found in Lk 6 17 , Ac 21 40 , Rev io 5 - 8 . 

im with the dative after cnrXayxyi&o-O ai is found in Mt 14 14 
and Lk 7 13 . Mk (6 34 8 2 and 9 22 ) has the accusative, and so Mt 15 32 . 
In 14 19 the verb is dvaxXiQrjvai. After the similar verbs 
Ka6rja6ai and KaOtfjiv, eVi frequently takes genitive or accusative. 
The dative only occurs in Rev 7 10 19 4 21 5 . Mt.'s substitution of 
genitive for dative is, therefore, not unnatural. Cf. his substitution 
of KaOy/xivov 8e avrov irrl tov *Opov$, 24 s , for Mk.'s /ecu KaOrj/xivov 
avrov eis to "0/309, 13 3 . For the latter, cf. 2 Th 2 4 ware avrov eis tov 
vabv tov 6tov Ka&io~ai. 


In 14 25 Mt. substitutes the accusative for Mk.'s genitive and 
has the accusative in v. 29 , but in v. 26 he retains Mk.'s genitive. 1 
Jn 6 19 has the genitive. The change of accusative for genitive in 
10 18 is conditioned by the change of verb, dx^creo-^e for o-raOrjo-eo-Oe. 

In 2 1 7 Mt. has tV airwv for Mk.'s simple dative, but he has 
changed the verb from eVi/3aAAeiv to kmrlOeaOai. After this verb 
the usual constructions are the simple dative or cVt with accusative, 
but Mt. has the genitive again in 2 7 29 . In the same verse Mt. has 
eVdvw avTwv for eV airwv. eVdvco occurs 8 times in Mt, only once, 
i4 5 = " more than," in Mk. 

7T/30S : 

Mt 8 16 dative - Mk i 82 tt/dos. 

9 2 n = 2 3 » 

r-17 = Q 19 

1 / )> y »> 

2 1 23 = n 27 

22 23 „ = I2 18 

27 58 u = I5 43 


In 8 16 and 9 2 Mt. substitutes irpoo-tpipew for Mk.'s <f>epetv. 
Trpocr<f>epeiv is a favourite word with him, and he always uses the 
simple dative of a person after it. In 17 17 the verb is <f>epet.v in 
Mt. and Mk. Mt. has the dative again in 14 18 . Mk. uses the 
dative 7 32 8 22 , or xpo's i 32 2 3 q 19 - 20 ii 7 . In 21 23 22 23 and 27 s8 . 
Mt. substitutes his favourite word irpoaepxeo-Oai for epxecrQeu, Mk 
n 27 12 18 , and ela-epxecrOaL, 15 43 . The substitution of the dative for 
wpos is a natural consequence. 

Other changes : 

Mt I2 4 per airov = Mk 2 26 crvv airw. 

12 25 KaO' eavTjj'i = 3 24 i(f> eavTTjV. 

I2 25 

3 25 
26 . 


4 15 

ets glvtovs. 

6 11 


I3 16 

cis to. 07rtcrct), 

But Mt. retains i<f> kavrov in v. 

13 19 eV rf) Kaphia airwv = 
io 14 omit = 

24 10 07T6(TU) = 

14 25 dative = 6 48 irepi with accusative. 

I4 27 „ = 6 50 per a airwv. 

XaXeiv pcrd occurs only here in the Synoptic Gospels, 4 
times in Jn., 6 in Rev. But cf. Mt 17 3 <rvv\a\ovvTis 
per' airov = Mk y 4 the dative. 

I5 29 rrapd = Mk 7 31 eU. 

16 7 iv cavrois = 8 16 7rpos dXX^Aous. 

16 21 dative = 8 31 perd with accusative. 

T7 23 _ Q 31 

1 See Abbott {Johannine Grammar, 2342), who urges that Mk.'s irepnrarww 
f>2 rrjs 6a\&<?<rr)s is ambiguous, and might mean "walking about on the edge 
of the sea. " 


= Mk ro 34 fjLerd with accusative. 

= II 1 7TpOS TO Op09. 

= II 31 7rpos iavrovs. 

20 19 


2I 1 

€19 TO OpOS 

2 I 25 

ev eavTOis 

2 I 38 


2 628 


26 34 



eX&ovTes eis 

2? 46 


I2 7 

14 24 
i 4 30 



I5 22 
I5 34 



I5 46 

eVt with accusative 

27 60 dative — 

Many of these changes are without significance, but those in 
3 16 24 30 26 04 are probably intentional, whilst those in 24 1 137.8.19 
15 33 2 1 8 24 s io 17 24 18 8 28 9 20 9 10 14 19 ease the construction. Those 
in 8 16 9 2 17 17 2 1 23 22 23 and 2 7 58 are to conform to Mt's usage else- 

(g) Conjunctions. 

Mk. three times has oVav with the indicative, viz. 3 11 n 19 - 25 . 
Mt. avoids this construction. Cf. Mk 6 56 ottov av elo-rropeveTo, which 

Mt. OmitS. Cf. Rev 14 4 ottov av vrrdyeL (A C). 

el in a statement meaning " that not," Mk 8 12 , Mt. substitutes oi. 

(h) Changes made in Mk.'s language are sometimes due to the 

fact that the editor has inserted similar sayings from another 

source in another part of his Gospel, and assimilates Mk.'s 

language to these similar passages. 

E.g. Mk 4 25 = Mt 13 12 ; but Mt adds koI irepLo-o-ev8i]o-eTai, to 
assimilate to 25 s9 . 
Mk 8 12 has n i) yevea. av-rt] t,rjTel 0-rjp.elov ; dfxr]v \eyu> ifiiv el 

8o9ijcr€Tai Trj yevea. ravrrj arjfxetov ; but 
Mt 16* has yevca iTovqpd kcu /xot^aAts cn]fielov eTTL^rjTet kou 
crrjfiaov oi SoOrjcreTai airy el fxrj to 0-qp.elov 'Iwva, to 
assimilate to 12 39 . 
Mk 8 35 has owei; but Mt 16 25 has evp-qa-ei, to assimilate 

to io 39 . 
Mk 9 43 has edv o-Kav8aXicrr] — diroKoipov — ere — to rrvp to 
do-(3ecrTov ; but Mt 18 8 has el o-KavSaAi'£« — tKKOipov — croi, 
and adds koX (3d\e d™ aov, to assimilate to 5 30 , and 
has to Trvp to alwviov, to assimilate to 25 41 . 
Mk 9 42 has kclXov cVtiv el; but Mt 18 6 has o-v[x<pepei — iva, 

to assimilate to 5 30 . 
Mk 9 47 has iav— a-KavSaKl^f— ec0aXe— ve; but Mt 18 9 has 
el — ovcavSaAi'^et — e£eXe — 0-01', and adds /cat /3d\e d-rro crov, 
to assimilate to 5 29 , and tov 71-vpos, to assimilate to 5 22 . 
Mk io u = Mt 19 9 . Mt. adds (el) /xt) eirl iropveta, to as- 
similate to Mt 5 s2 TrapeKTos Xoyov Tropveias. 
Mk 1 1 23 = Mt 2 1 21 . Mt. adds edv exrp-e ttlo-tlv, to assimilate 

to 17 20 . 
In 1533-39 Mt. assimilates the language to 14 19 " 31 . 


(i) A few changes seem to be due to the desire to emphasise 
an antithesis, e.g. : 

Mt I5 2 \ Sia Tt 01 fiaB-qrai crov TrapajSaivovcnv. 
I5 3 / 

i5 4 | oya 
15 5 / vp.e2 
I9 8 \ Man* 

I9 9 / Xeyu) 

Sta ti /cat v/acls Trapa/3aLV£T€. 

yap Oebs €i7rev Ttyaa. 
v/i.€is Be Xeyere — ou mt) rip-rjaeu 
Man/crijs — e.Trerpe\pev. 

6. More important, however, than changes in language, are 
alterations which seem due to an increasing feeling of reverence 
for the person of Christ. The second Evangelist had not scrupled 
to attribute to Him human emotion, and to describe Him as asking 
questions. Such statements are almost uniformly omitted by the 
editor of this Gospel. 

E.g. he omits the following : 

Mk 3 5 irepifi\e\pdp.evo<; clvtovs opyrjs avv\v7rovp.evo?. Cf. 
the way in which Mt 12 49 avoids Tvepi(i\e\pdp.evo<; of 
Mk 3 34 . 
I 41 <nr\ayxy<-o-6eis ; but Daff 2 have dpytcrOeis. 1 
I 43 ep.fipip.rjo-ap.evo'i. 

3 21 l^ifXTT). 

6 6 iOavfiacra', 

8 12 dvao-Teiaf as t<3 wct/witi. S 1 has : " He was excited in 
spirit " ; Arm. " He was angry in His spirit." Cf. 
Mt.'s omission of t<3 irvevp-art. airov from Mk 2 8 . 
IO 14 rjyavaKTrjcrev. 

IO 21 ep.(3\eif/a<; air<2 rjydirrjcrev airov. 
14 33 Mt has Av7mcr0ai for eK$ap./3e1a9ai. 
He omits also clauses which seem to ascribe inability to 
Christ, or desire which was not fulfilled. 

E.g. I 45 umttc p,7)k£ti airbv SvvaaOai — elaeXdetv. 

6 6 ovk e8vvaro e/cet iroirjcrai oiSep.iav Svvap.iv. Mt 13 58 

Substitutes ovk erroL'qo'ev €K€l 8vvdp.ei<; 7roAAas. 
6 48 rjdeXev irapeXOelv airov?. Mt. omits. 
7 24 oiSeva fjOeXev yvwvaL /cat oi< rjSvvdaOr) Xa6elv. Mt. 

9 30 /cat oii< r/OeXev Iva ris yvol. Mt. omits. 
14 58 KaraXvo-a}. Mt 26 91 Svvapiai KaraXwrau 
In 11 13 Mk. describes the Lord as coming to a fig tree [el Spa 
tl evprjcrei iv airfj /cat e\6wv~\ eir airrjv oiSev evpev el p,i] (pvXXa \6 yap 
/catpos oix rjv ovkwv]. Mt. omits the bracketed clauses, which 
might give rise to the question why Christ expected to find figs 
which did not exist, and that out of season. 

1 See note on 8 s . Mt. uses crirXayxvi^eadai of Christ four times (9 s6 14" 
15° 20 s4 ), and probably read 6p-yi<rdels in Mk I* 1 . 


The same feeling of reverence may have caused the following 
changes : 

Mk 6 3 6 T€KTU)V. Mt I3 55 6 TOV T6KTOVOS VIOS. 

I o 18 ti fj.€ A«y€t? ayaOov ; Mt. 1 9 17 Tl p,e epwras Trepl tov ayaOov ; 
13 32 oiSt 6 mos. Mt 24 s6 omits. 
He omits also the following questions which Mk. places in the 
mouth of the Lord : 

Mk 5 9 ti (tol ovofia; 

5 30 Tt's p.ov r)\pa.TO t£)V i/xa.Ti<ov ; 

6 38 Troaovs e^6Te aprovs ; 

8 12 ti fj ycvea avrr] t,yjTtt crrj/xeiov ; 

8 23 €1 Tl /?Ae7T€l5 ; 

9 12 7rais yiypaTrrai «ri tov ut6v toS avOpwrrov ; 
9 16 Tt (TvtflTtiTe. 7rpos avTou? ; 
9 21 7rooros xpovos ecrTtv d)S touto ycyovcv avT<2 ; 
9 33 ti cv T-fi 68(3 SteXoyt^ecr^e ; 

IO S Tl V/AIV €V€T£lA.aTO McUUCTlJs , - 

14 14 ttov iarlv to KaraXvp-d p.ov ; 

Due to the same causes are, no doubt, changes made in regard 
to the miracles. 

There is a tendency to emphasise the immediacy of a miracle ; 
cf. the insertion of ci7ro -n}? w/xxs e/ceiv?/?, Mt 9 22 15 28 17 18 . A more 
striking case of this occurs in the parable of the Fig Tree. In Mk. 
an interval of a day is placed between the denunciation of it by 
the Lord and the observation of the disciples that it had withered 
in the meantime. But Mt. draws together the two sections of the 
narrative, states that the tree withered immediately upon Christ's 
word, and that the disciples were astonished at this immediate 
fulfilment of the Lord's word (2 1 21 ). There is a similar heightening 
in the universal scope of Christ's healings. Mk i 32 - 33 records that 
"all" who were sick were brought to Christ, and that He healed 
" many." Mt. reverses the adjectives — " many " were brought, and 
"all" were healed (8 16 ). There is a similar alteration in Mt 12 16 
as compared with Mk 3 7 - 10 . Here, too, may be noticed the 
heightening in number in the two miracles of feeding by the 
insertion of the phrase x w P' s ywaiKwv /cat 7raiSt'cov, 14 21 15 38 . 

Noticeable also is the omission of the two miracles, Mk 7 81ff - 
8 22ff -, in which the cure is effected by physical means : " He put 
His fingers into his ears, and spat, and touched his tongue," 7 s3 ; 
" He spat on his eyes," 8 23 . Moreover, in the latter incident the 
cure is a gradual one, necessitating a twofold laying on of hands. 
Contrast the emphasis laid by Mt. in two cases on Christ as 
healing "with a word," 8 8 - 16 . Another noticeable change of 
this sort is found in Mt 17 17 - 18 . Mk 9 20 - 26 describes how the 
spirit tare the sufferer as he was brought to Christ, so that he fell 
on the ground and wallowed foaming. The Lord presently bade 


the spirit come forth ; whereupon, " having cried out and rent him 
sore, he came out. And he became as one dead, so that many 
said that he had died." Mt. omits all these details, simply saying 
that " the demon came forth from him." St. Luke retains much 
of this description, but omits all traces of physical suffering after 
Christ's command. A similar desire to avoid descriptions of bodily 
anguish after Christ's healing word may have co-operated with 
other motives in causing the omission of Mk 1 23 - 28 . Mk. records 
that after Christ's word " the unclean spirit rent him, and cried 
with a loud voice." Here again a similar motive has influenced 
St. Luke, who states indeed that " the demon threw him down in 
the midst," but adds, " came out from him, having done him no 
hurt," 4 35 . 

In view of the facts recorded above, it may perhaps be not too 
fanciful to see a striving after a reverential attitude in the following 
changes. In Mk 4 38 the disciples ask the half-reproachful question, 
" Is it not a care to Thee that we perish ? " Mt 8 25 substitutes 
" save, we perish." In Mk 6 37 they ask a question which might be 
interpreted in an ironical sense : " Are we to go away and buy two 
hundred pennyworth of bread?" Mt 14 17 omits. 1 Does Mt. omit 
Mk i 45 because, side by side with the statement that Christ was 
unable to do something, it records an act of direct disobedience 
to Christ's express command ? Lastly, Mt. has substituted for 
Mk 12 28 - 34 a narrative of very different tone. Did he find the 
approbation of Christ's teaching expressed by the scribe too 
patronising? See note on 22 s4 . For the relation of Mt. to Mk. in 
the account of Christ's use of the parabolic method in teaching, 
see on Mt 13 10 - 12 . 

7. Side by side with these changes in expressions dealing 
with the person of the Lord runs a series of somewhat similar 
alterations in favour of the disciples. 

E.g., in Mk 4 13 there is a rebuke addressed to the disciples, 
" Do ye not know this parable, and how shall ye appreciate 
all the parables?" In Mt it,™' 17 this rebuke is omitted, 
and there is inserted instead a blessing, " Blessed are your 
eyes," etc. 
In Mk 4 40 oviro} ex€T€ ttlcttiv becomes oXiyoTTLo-roi in Mt 8 26 . 
Mk 6 52 ov yap avvyjKav Itvl tois aprots aXX r\v avrwv f] KapSi'a 
Tre-n-wpw/xevr], is omitted from Mt 14 33 . 

Mk 8 17 7r€7rw pui/xtvrjv £X €T€ T V V Ka P& a v vp.u)V ; 6cp6a\[XOvs e^ovTes 
ov ftXtTrere Kal <Lra c^oires ovk Slkov€T€, is omitted at Mt 16 9 , 
and in v. 12 a statement is inserted to the effect that the 
disciples did understand. 
At Mk 8 29 Mt. inserts the eulogy of St. Peter, "Blessed art 
thou, Simon Barjona," etc., 16 17 " 19 . 
1 Cf. also the omission of the question Mk 5 31 from the parallel in ML 


At Mk 9 13 another clause is inserted to emphasise the fact that 

the disciples understood Christ's teaching (Mt 17 13 ). 
From Mk 9 s , Mt 1 7 4 omits the statement that St. Peter " knew 

not what to answer. 
Mk 9 10 , which records that the disciples disputed about the 

rising from the dead, is omitted at Mt 1 7 9 . 
For Mk 9 82 "And they understood not the saying, and were 

afraid to ask Him," there is substituted in Mt 17 23 the 

harmless words, " And they were very grieved." 
From Mk 9 s3 - 34 Mt. omits the statements that the disciples had 

disputed who was the greater among them, 18 1 . 
In Mk to 35 an ambitious request is ascribed to James and 

John. In Mt 20 20 this request is transferred to the mother 

of the two Apostles. 
In Mk 4 10-13 the Twelve are represented as ignorant of the 

meaning of Christ's parables. Mt. avoids this. 
From Mk 14 40 the words, "and they knew not what to answer 

Him," are omitted by Mt 2 6 43 . 
Compare also the omission of ol oe paOyrai iOap-fSovvro er-1 tois 

Aoyois avrov (Mk io 24 ) in Mt 19 23 , and the omission of 

/cai i9afx/3ovvTo (Mk io 32 ) in Mt 20 17 . 

8. The following alterations are due to a desire to emphasise 
a fulfilment of prophecy in an incident recorded by Mk. : 

Mk II 2 7roJXov oeoep-ivov. Mt 21 2 ovov 8e8ep.evr]v kcu 7ra>A.ov /act 

avTfjs. The citation from Zee 9 9 follows in v. 5 . 
Mk 14 11 lirrjyyuXavTO avrw apyvpiov oovvai. Mt 26 15 earyirav 

clvtw TpLaKovTa apyvpia. Both ^cmjcrav and rptaKovTa 

occur in Zee n 12 , and are here inserted to prepare the way 

for the quotation of Zee 1 1 13 in 27 s - 10 . 
Mk 15 23 ka-p.vpvicrp.ivov oXvov. Mt 27 s4 oivov p.£Ta ^oAr}? 

p.ap.iyp.£vov, with probable reference to Ps 69 22 . 

0. The following changes or brief insertions are made by Mt. 
to qualify or explain a statement of the second Evangelist : 

Mk 8 U = Mt 16 4 . Mt. adds d /a?/ to o~qp.dov 'Iwj/a, remembering 
that in 1 2 40 he has already represented Christ as making 
this qualification of His words. 
8 15 = Mt 1 6 6 . Mt. substitutes ko\ SaSSou/ouW for nal t^s 
£,vp.r]<; 'Hpipoov to prepare the way for his explanation in 
v. 12 that " leaven " meant " teaching." 
8 29 = Mt 16 16 . Mt. adds 6 vtos rod 6zov toD £wvtos. 
IO 11 = Mt 19 9 . Mt. adds (d) p.rj eirl 7ropv€ia. 
io 34 = Mt 20 19 . Mt. substitutes aravpunjai for aTTOKTevovcriv. 
i4 66 = Mt 26 s7 . Mt. adds rts eo-riv 6 7raio-as o-£ to explain 



i5 M = Mt 2 7 49 . Mt. has ol 8e XolttoI €i7rav for Mk.'s 
ambiguous Aeywv. 
Lastly, the substitution of oStos Io-tlv in Mt 3 17 for 2t> e*in Mk i 11 
may be due to a desire to make it clear that the divine 
voice was heard not by Christ alone, but by others also. 
It was a public announcement of His divinity. 

10. Under the head of changes made for the sake of greater 
accuracy may be noted the following : 

Mk 2 26 eVi 'AfiidOap dpx'e/3«os- MtX2 4 omits. 

5 22 els twi' apxio-vvaywycuv. Mt 9 18 dp^wv efs ; cf. SchUrer, 

11. ii. 65. 
6 14 fiao-iXevs. Mt 14 1 Terpaap)(y}<s. 
6 22 rrj<s 6vyaTph<s avrov (avT^js) 'HpwSiaSos. Mt T4 6 17 Ovydrrjp 

T?ys 'HpwStaSos. 
331 ^31 io 34 ^ eT a T pa S T/^epas. Mt 16 21 17 23 20 19 rf) rpLTrj 

9 5 'HAei'as o~vv Mtovtrci. Mt 17 3 Mwucr^s ko.1 'HAei'as. 
14 1 to irda^a. kol to. d£u/xa. Mt 2 6 2 omits xat to. d^v/xa 
14 12 rrj 7rpwTrj rj/xepa twv d£u/xwv ore to irda)(a ZOvov. Mt 

26 1 ' omits ore to Trdc^a Wvov. 
15 21 ipxofievov air dypov = " coming from work." Mt 27 s2 

omits. See note. 
15 46 dyopdo-as crivSoVa. Mt 27 s9 omits. See note. 

11. Some noticeable changes in point of fact are : 

Mk 2 14 Aeuetv tov tou AA.<£ouou. Mt 9 9 dvOpuiTroi — Ma^^atov 

5 1 Tepao-qvwv. Mt 8 28 TaSaprjvwv. 

5 2 dvOpioiros. Mt 8 28 hvo. 

8 10 AaA/Aavor^d. Mt 15 39 Mayaoav. 

IO 46 6 vtos Tipai'ou Bapri/xatos tv<j>\os irpocra.LTr)<;. Mt 20 30 
Suo TvcpXoi. 

I 4 57 Tives. Mt26 60 Svo. 
It is hoped that the facts collected above will be sufficient to 
convince the reader that of the two Gospels, that of S. Mark 
is primary, that of S. Matthew secondary. They seem to point 
all in the same direction. That is to say, whilst it is not 
inconceivable that such changes should have been made by a later 
writer in the text of S. Mark, it is extremely improbable that the 
author of the second Gospel should have been dependent on the 
first, and have made the changes in the reverse direction. From 
every point of view, whether it be of linguistic style, of reverence 
for Christ, of esteem for His Apostles, or of consideration for the 
reader, the alterations made by Mt. give the impression of be- 
longing to a later stage of evangelic tradition as compared with 


that represented by Mk. Isolated cases may seem open to 
question, but anyone who reads through the first Gospel with 
Mk. before him, asking himself why it is that Mt. differs from the 
second Gospel, will, I believe, be led to the conclusion that, taken 
as a whole, his deviations from Mk.'s text can only be explained 
as due to motives which interpenetrate every part of his work. 

This subject, however, must not be left without some con- 
sideration of the fact that Mt.'s treatment of Mk. often finds a 
parallel in Lk. In other words, Mt. and Lk. often agree against 
Mk. in omission and in substitution of a word or phrase, and 
(rarely) in an insertion. This fact has led to the suggestion that 
in addition to Mk., Mt. and Lk. had a second source containing 
parallel matter, and that they not infrequently agree in preferring 
the language of this second source to that of Mk. This second 
source might, of course, be either a document already used by 
Mk., or a document independent of Mk., but containing many 
parallel sections. 

The following facts are worthy of consideration : 
Lk. like Mt. omits many details from Mk.'s narrative. 
E.g. Mk i 13 the wild beasts. 
i 29 James and John. 
2 26 Abiathar. 
3 17c Boanerges. 
4 38 the cushion. 
5 13 " about two thousand." 
6 37 " two hundred pennyworth." 
539 "green"; Lk. also omits "grass." 
6 40 " in ranks **— " by hundreds." 
9 3 the fuller. 
14 51 the young man. 
15 21 the father of Alexander and Rufus. 
15 44 Pilate's question about Christ's death. 
Especially the statements about the thronging of the multitudes : 

j 33. 45 2 2 -,9.10.20 £31 # 

Lk. like Mt. frequently omits Mk.'s characteristic words and 
phrases, koX eiOvs, 7raAtv, 7roXXa, otl after verbs of saying ; and 
substitutes 8e for koll. 

icai ei>9v<; occurs only once in Lk. in a non-Marcan passage, 6 49 . occurs 3 times in Lk., once, 23 20 , from Mk. 

TroXXd (adverbial) occurs in Lk. twice, both from Mk., q 22 17 25 . 

on after verbs of saying is omitted by Lk. from Marcan 
passages 14 times. 

Se is substituted for /cat by Mt. and Lk. 26 times. See Hor. 
Syn. p. 120. 

Like Mt., Lk. avoids Mk.'s historic presents. There is but 
one instance in Lk., viz. 8 49 =Mk 5 s5 . See Hor. Syn. p. 119. 


Like Mt., Lk. substitutes aorists for imperfects, e.g. in Mk i 82 
^2 5I3. 17 6 7 12 18 14 72 . But Mt. is much more consistent than 
Lk. in this change. 

Like Mt., Lk. omits tyta.To-a.vro, from Mk 5 17 - 20 6 34 8 31 io 28 - 32 - 47 
13 5 14 69 ; but Lk. has this construction 27 times. 

Like Mt., Lk. sometimes avoids Mk.'s redundant phrases. 
Clauses bracketed in the following are omitted by Lk. : 

Mk I 32 oi/aas Se yevofxivrfi]. 

KCU €Ka.6tpi(T9r]\. 

r/aav yap iroAAoij. 

t8oi/T£S OTl £0~BUl /A€TO. TWV dfXapTO)\<i)V kcu T€X.<ovu>v\ 
oaov — vrj(TTevtLv]. 
XpzLCtv eo-^ev]. 

5 12 Lk. abbreviates. 
5 19 [777309 tovs crous]. 
6 35 Lk. abbreviates. 

i 42 

2 15 

2 16 
2 19 

2 25 

IO 27 
IO 46 
II 28 

I2 14 

dAA' ov 7rapa #eu)J. 

/<ai iKiropevojxlvov — 'Icpct^wJ. 
fya TaSra 7701775]. 

Lk. sometimes agrees with Mt. in the substitution of one word 
for another, generally a common word for a rare one, e.g. : 

Mk I 10 cr;(i£o;U.€Vovs ; Mt. Lk. r]ve(a^6r]o-av, di'€w^6rjvau 
I 12 ck/3 aAAei ; Mt. dvrJx^V > Lk. ^ycro. 
2 11 Kpdj3aTTOv ; Mt. kXCvtjv ; Lk. kAivi'Siov. 
2 21 €7rtjoa7TTet ; Mt. Lk. €7ri/3aAAei. 
6 14 j3acri\ev<; ; Mt. Lk. Terpadp^r]^. 
I O 25 TpvfxaXid^ ; Mt. Lk. Tprjfj.a.TO<;. 
14 47 €7raicrev ; Mt. ?raTa£as ; Lk. eiraTa£ev. 
14 72 iiripaXwv; Mt. Lk. #eA.0iv l£a>? 
15 46 iveiX-qo-ev ; Mt. Lk. eVervAt^ev. 
Lk. agrees with Mt. in nearly all the changes mentioned on 
pp. xxxi ff. with reference to the person of the Lord, omitting either 
the words in question or the whole paragraph. Exceptions are 
that Lk. retains the questions in Mk 5 9,30 and 14 14 , and tl p.e Ae'yeig 
dyaOov in io 18 . He omits the entire incident of the cursing of the 
fig tree which Mt. has modified, and avoids the direct statement 
of disobedience to Christ's command in i 45 , which Mt. omitted. 

In the following changes of the same kind he has not the 
support of Mt. 

Mk i 38 l£q\6ov ; Lk. aTrtvTdXrjv, to make it clear that the 
coming forth from God is intended. 

Lk. omits the agony in the garden, Mk 14 33 " 34 (Lk 22 43 " 44 , which 
is not in Mk., is omitted by N a A B R T S 1 ) ; the mockery by the 
soldiers, Mk 1516-20*. tne spitting, Mk 14 65 ; the feeling of desertion 
by God, Mk 15 34 ; the rebuke of Christ by St Peter, Mk 8 32 . 


Lk. also agrees with Mt. in some of the changes with reference 
to the disciples. 

Mk 4 13 Lk. omits. 

4*" OVTTO) €^€T€ 7ri<TTlV ,' LiK. TTOV 7] 7TKTTI? VfXiMV ; 

6 52 Lk. omits the whole section. 
8 17 Lk. omits the whole section. 
9 10 Lk. omits the whole section. 

9 32 Lk. adds a clause to explain that the ignorance of the 
disciples was due to the fact that the matter was 
hidden from them (by God?) ; cf. Lk 18 34 24 16 . 
io 24 Lk. omits. 
io 32 Lk. omits. 

io 35 " 45 Lk. omits the whole section. 
14 40 Lk. omits the paragraph. 
In the following changes of the same kind Lk. has not the 
support of Mt. : 

8 33 the rebuke of St. Peter. Lk. omits the paragraph. 
14 50 the flight of the disciples. Lk. omits. 
(1) Of these changes many of the more important might well 
be due to independent revision of Mk. by Mt. and Lk., especially 
those relating to Christ and His Apostles. It is evident that 
contemplation of the life of the Lord, and reflection upon His 
Person and work, and all that it meant for human life ; and the 
deepening reverence that springs spontaneously from the life of 
meditation upon His words, and from spiritual communion with 
Him, and from worship of God in His name, was gradually leading 
Christian writers partly to refine and purify, partly to make careful 
choice of the language in which they described His life. In 
connection with His Sacred Person the choicest words only must 
be used, choicest not for splendour or beauty of sound or of 
suggestion, but as conveying in the simplest and most direct way 
the greatest amount of truth about Him with the least admixture 
of wrong emphasis. In this respect the Synoptic Gospels present 
in miniature the same process that afterwards took place on a 
larger scale in the history of the creeds. Already the Gospel 
writers found themselves committed to the task of describing the 
life of One whom they knew to have been a truly human Person, 
whom yet they believed to have been an incarnation of the Eternal. 
This task, in which it could never be possible to attain more than 
a relative amount of success, was increased by the fact that the 
books to be written were intended not for Christians with years of 
Christian thought and instruction to soften apparent inconsistencies, 
nor for men trained in the art of so softening the intellectual 
paradoxes of life as to escape from mental paralysis, but for the 
average member of the Christian congregation, simple-minded and 
matter-of-fact, to whom the narrative of the Lord's life with its 


double-sidedness would repeatedly suggest hard questions, until 
use and custom blunted their edge. How could the Lord, if He 
was divine, ask for information? How could He wish or will 
things that did not happen ? How could it be said that He could 
not do this or that ? Did God really forsake Him in the garden ? 
Could it be that He had prayed a prayer which was unfulfilled ? 
Was it possible that S. Peter had rebuked Him ? Why was He 
baptized if baptism implied repentance and forgiveness of sin ? 
The first and third Gospels prove themselves to be later than 
the second by the consideration which they show for the simple- 
minded reader in questions like this, and it is quite possible that 
Mt. and Lk. may often have agreed in a quite independent revision 
of Mk. in these respects. A good many of the verbal agreements, 
e.g. the grammatical changes, such as the substitution of aorists for 
historic presents, or the correction of an awkward turn of phrase in 
Mk., might also be due to independent revision. But no doubt 
this explanation will not account for all the agreements between 
Mt. and Lk. taken in their entirety, and we must look for other 
more comprehensive or supplementary explanations. 

(2) The theory that Mt. and Lk. had in addition to Mk. a 
second source, containing parallel matter to almost the whole of 
Mk., is very unsatisfactory. Here and there it seems to promise 
a solution. But the attempt to make it explain all the agreements 
in question ends in the reconstruction of a lost Gospel, almost 
identical with our S. Mark, save for the points of agreement 
between Mt. and Lk. which are in question. Is it in the least 
likely that there should have existed a second Gospel so similar 
to that of S. Mark? And granting this, is it probable that two 
later writers would have independently turned from S. Mark to pick 
out words and phrases from this Mark's " double " ? See, further, 
Abbott, Corrections of Mark, 319. Here and there, however, the 
principle which underlies this explanation will be of service. Mt. 
and Lk., e.g., agree, against Mk., in certain words of the parable 
of the Mustard Seed. It is possible that Mt. turned here from 
Mk. to the Logia (see p. lvi), whilst Lk.'s account of the parable, 
which does not stand in his Gospel in the place where Mk 480-32 
should occur, but later, was taken from some source where it 
occurred in a form like that of the Logia. This would account 
for agreements between Mt. and Lk. 

Along these lines, that the agreements in question are sometimes 
due to the fact that Mt. and Lk. independently agree in re-editing 
Mk., and they are sometimes due to the fact that Mt. and Lk. 
sometimes substitute for Mk. a second tradition which they drew 
immediately from different sources, much may be explained. 

But three other factors must probably be taken into account. 

(3) Some of the agreements in question are probably due to 


the fact that the copy of Mk. used by Mt. and Lk. had already 
undergone textual correction from the original form of the Gospel. 
That is to say, the text of Mk. used by Mt. and Lk. mav be called 
a recension of the original Mk., whilst the text of Mark as we 
have it is another recension. E.g. Mk i 41 has <nr\a.yxyio-6d<;, but 
Mt. and Lk. both omit the word. It is quite possible that their copy 
of Mk. had 6pyi<r6d<;, which is read by Daff 2 . The omission of 
Mt. and Lk. would then be parallel to other changes made by 
them in Mk.'s text. 

In Mk ii 8 the majority of MSS. have ea-rpoyaav, but D S 1 curss. 
have the imperf. io-Tpwvvvov, which has the advantage of being in 
Mk.'s style and is probably original. Now Mt. probably read the 
imperfect in Mk. He alters it in accordance with his custom into 
the aorist in 21 8 , but he shows his knowledge of it by repeating 
the verb in the imperfect. And Lk. also read the imperfect in Mk. 

(4) Some of the agreements in question are probably due to 
the fact that the texts of the first and third Gospels have been 

E.g. Mt. in 22 34 - 40 and Lk in io 25 " 27 have a narrative similar 
to Mk 12 28 - 84 , in which they have several agreements against Mk. 
One of the most important of these is the word vo/*ikos, by which 
they describe the questioner. But vo/ukos is omitted from Mt. by 
1. S 1 Arm. Orig., and may be due to assimilation to Lk. 

In Mt 2 1 44 the majority of MSS. have a verse which is not 
found in the section in Mk., but which is also inserted in the 
corresponding section in Lk. But in Mt. the verse is omitted by 
D 33abeff l12 S 1 , and may be due to assimilation to Lk. ; or, as 
suggested in the commentary, it may be a gloss which came into 
the first Gospel, and was incorporated into the third by the same 
or by a later copyist. 

If we could recover the text of our two Gospels as they left 
the hands of the Evangelists, it is quite possible that the number 
of their agreements would be largely diminished. 

(5) Lastly, amongst his many sources (Lk i 1 ) Lk. may have 
seen and read Mt., though his use of it is so slight that he cannot 
have had it constantly before him. This can nowhere be proved, 
but would obviously explain many agreements, both in matter parallel 
to Mk. and in non-Marcan material. I am inclined to believe that 
Lk 17 1 ' 4 is due to abbreviation of Mt 18 6 ' 21 (see notes), and the 
agreement of Mt. and Lk. in substituting ivervXi^ev for the 
eVciX^o-ev of Mk 15 46 seems to me to be most naturally explained by 
the theory that Lk. had read Mt. and was here influenced by reminis- 
cence of his language. Of course, if a reasonable case could be 
made out for Lk.'s dependence upon Mt. in any one case, then a 
large number of agreements between the two Gospels would be at 
once more easily explained by this fact than by any other theory. 



3 M2 

= Lk 3 7 - 17 . 

See note 

on Mt 3 7 - 12 . 



borrowed from a 

common written 



= Lk 4 2 - 13 . 

See note 

on Mt 

4 2 - 



borrowed from a 

common written 


5 1-12 


«= Lk 6 17 - 20 " 23 . 

r39b 40. 42 


g29. 30^ 

5 42b 


g34. 35 

5 44 


g27a. 28b_ 

5 45 


6 35b . 

5 46 


6 32 . 

5 47 


6 33 . 

s 48 


6 36 . 

7 1 


6 37a . 

7 2 


6 38b . 



6 41 - 42 . 

7 12 


6 31 . 



6 44 . 



6 43 . 

7 21 


6 46? . 



6 47-49. 

These parallels suggest that Mt. 

and Lk. had before 

them different recensions of the Sermon on the Mount. 

See p. 


5 13a 


= Lk i 4 34 - 3 5. 

5 15 


11 33 . 

5 18 


16 17 . 

e25. 26 


12 57 - 59 . 

5 32 


16 18 . 

6 8 



12 30 . 

6 9-13 


11 1 - 4 . 



j 2 33. 34_ 

g22. 23 


Ix 34. 35 # 



16 13 . 



I 2 22 " 31 . 



II 9 - 13 . 



I 3 24 . 

-22. 23 


I -2 25 -27. 

It will be seen that Mt. has in close connection sayings 

which in Lk. appear in different contexts. There is 

also a good deal of divergence in language. The 

former fact makes it unlikely that these sayings were 

1 Cf. Mk 9 80 . 


drawn from a common written source unless it were a 
document containing detached sayings and groups of 
sayings. The latter fact suggests diversity of source. 
Mt 8 11 " 12 East and West. =Lki3 2S " 30 . 

8 5 " 13 Centurion. 7 1 " 10 . 

Not from a common source, but either from oral 
tradition or from independent written sources. See 
note on Mt 8 5 " 13 . 
gi9-22 Two aspirants. 9 57 " 60 . 

Not from a common source. See note on Mt 8 19 . 

Lk n 14? . 
io 2 . 
•elve. i o 7b . 

io 5 - 6 . 
io 12 . 

IO 3 . 

q32-34 1 


q3( . 38 

Labourers few. 

Io 10b 


to the 

io 12.13 


IO 15 


IQ 16a 


io 24.25 


io 26-33 


io 34-36 


io 37. 38 


IO 39 


6 40 . 

I2 2 " 9 . 
I2 51 " 53 . 
I 4 26. 27, 

I7 33 . 

Not from a common written source, but from oral 
tradition or from different written sources. Or Lk. 
has been influenced by Mt. See the commentary. 
1 1 2- 3 The Baptist 7 18 " 21 - ' 

ii*-" „ 7 22 " 28 . 

U12.13 >9 ^le. 

j j 16-19 -31-35, 

„ 21-23. " io 13-15 

II 24 „ IO 12 . 

IX 25-27 m io 21 - 22 . 

Not from a common written source, but from independent 
written sources. See the commentary. 
12 11 Lost sheep. 14 5 . 

Not from a common written source. 
I2 22.23 Beelzeboul. n 14 . 

The similarity here may be accidental. See note on. 
I2 27.28 Beelzeboul. ' n 1 *". 

12 30 „ it 23 . 

12 32 „ 12 10 . 


33-35 6 43 ~ 45 . 

12 38 Sign. ii 16 . 

! 2 39. 40 m H29.30. 

12 41 „ II 32 - 

12 42 „ II 31 - 
I2 43-45 II 24 " 26 . 


From independent written sources. See note on Mt 12 22 . 

Mt i3 16 - 17 Blessed are your eyes. Lk io 23 - 24 . 
From independent sources. 

13 33 Leaven. 13 s0 - 21 . 

From a common written source. Or Luke has been 
influenced by Matthew. 

15 14 Blind leading blind. 6 89 . 

Independent fragments. 

l6 2-3t i 2 54-56'. 

17 20 ' Grain of mustard seed. 17°'. 

18 12 - 14 Lost sheep. 15 4 - 7 . 

Independent versions of the parable. See the commentary. 
18 7 Offences. 17 1 . 

18 15 Forgiveness. 17 3 . 

i8 21 - 22 „ 17 4 . 

Independent written sources. Or Luke may have been 
influenced by Matthew. See note on Mt 18 15 . 

2I 82» -29.30. 


2I 44 ' 20 18 '. 

But the verse is probably spurious in Mt. See note. 
22 35-40i The Great Commandment. io 25 " 27 . 

23 4 Denunciation of Pharisees. n 46b . 

23 12 „ 14 11 i8 u . 

2 3 23 ,, ii 42 - 

25. 26 T T 39-41 


I I' 


23 27 ' 28 „ II 44 . 

23 29-31 |f II 47 -^ 

23 34-36 m II 49 -51. 

23 37-S9 ff ! 334.35. 

Not from a common written source. See note on Mt 23 1 . 

24 23. 26-28 End f world> ! y 2S. 24. 37. 

24 37-39 f} j ? 26. 27.30 

24 40.41 f) I7 34. 36. 

From independent sources. 
24 43-5i End of world. 12 39 - 46 . 

Perhaps from a common written source. 
25 i4-30 Talents. ig 11 " 28 . 

Independent versions of the parable. 
It will be seen that the material tabulated above falls into two 
groups. A. A few narrative sections : 

Mt 8 5 " 13 = Lk 7 1 - 10 The Centurion. 

8 19 " 22 = 9 57 ' 60 The two aspirants. 

I2 22 - 23 , cf. p 32 - 33 = n 14 The dumb devil. 
1 Cf. Mk I2 28 " 84 . 


Mt i2 38 = Lk ii 16 Request for a sign. 

22 35-40 = 10 25 - 27 The great commandment 
To which may be added — 

Mt 3 7 - 12 = Lk 3 7 - 17 John's preaching. 

42-11 = 4.2-13 ^he temptation. 

B. Sayings of Christ. 

Some of these are isolated sayings or small groups of sayings 
which occur in different contexts in the two Gospels ; e.g. : 
* Mt 5 13 


5 15 

5 18 
c 25-26 
5 32 

6 8 



6 9-18 






6 24 





* 7-11 





io 24-25 


j Q 26-33 


j Q 34-36 




io 39 


I2 11 



j ^16-17 
2I 32T 


2I 44T 




23 12 
2 <j37-39 


2 5 14-30 


Lk i 4 m. 

1 1 33. 

I6 17 . 

T 2 57-59 

l6 18 . 

I2 30 . 


I2 33-34. 

, j 34-35. 

l6 13 . 

I2 22-31. 

1 1 9-13. 

I 3 2 *. 
I 3 26-27. 
! -28-30. 

6 40 . 

I2 2 -9. 

I2 51-58. 

I4 26 " 27 .' 


14 . 

IO 23 ^. 


,29. 30 » 
20 18T . 

I 4 n I8 1 *. 

j ,34-35. 
I 2 39-46. 

I9 ll-28. 

In the passages marked * there is, besides the difference of 
setting, considerable verbal variation. Note, however, in Mt 6 9 " 13 
= Lk ii 1 " 4 the remarkable agreement in einov<rios. In the passages 
marked f there is very close verbal agreement, with occasional 

So far as these passages go, the divergence in setting, combined 
with the differences of language, are adverse to the theory of a 
common Greek source, unless that were a collection of detached 
sayings or groups of sayings. The few passages marked t might 


be explained by the view that Luke was acquainted with Matthew, 
and was sometimes influenced by his language, or by the view that 
the different sources used by the two Evangelists contained these 
sections, the agreement in language being due to derivation from 
a document lying behind the sources of our two Gospels. 

Other passages, however, present more difficulty, since the 
agreement is greater in extent ; e.g. : 

(i) The Sermon on the Mount, Mt 5-7 = Lk 6. 

(2) The charge to the Twelve, 10 = 9. 10. 

(3) The discourse about the Baptist, 11 = 7. 10. 

(4) The discourse about Beelzeboul, 12 = n. 

(5) The denunciation of the Pharisees, 23 = n. 

(6) The discourse about the last things, 24 = 17. 

In the Sermon on the Mount there is very substantial agree- 
ment combined with, as, e.g., in the Beatitudes, remarkable diverg- 
ence. The charge to the Twelve is remarkable, because Mt. 
has expanded and enlarged Mk.'s short charge. Lk. in the parallel 
to Mt. borrows Mk., but has one or two agreements with Mt. 
against Mk. But in the next chapter he gives a charge to the 
Seventy which agrees in many respects with Mt.'s expansion of 

In the discourse about the Baptist there is great verbal agree- 
ment. In the sayings of denunciation of the Pharisees the context 
is different, but there is great verbal agreement. The discourse 
about Beelzeboul has remarkable features. If Lk. were non- 
existent, it might be supposed that Mt. had expanded Mk., adding 
a further section dealing with the request for a sign. But Lk., 
who omits Mk.'s discourse from its proper place in his Gospel, 
inserts later a discourse similar to that of Mt.'s, but places at the 
beginning of it both the charge of casting out devils by the aid 
of Beelzeboul and the request for a sign, thus weaving Mt.'s two 
consecutive discourses into one. The discourse about the last 
things in Mt 24 contains several sayings which Lk. has in a 
different context but in similar language in ch. 17. 

We may now take into consideration the whole of the sayings 
common to the two Gospels. 

The following theories have been put forward to account for 
their agreement : 

(1) "Both Evangelists drew from a common written source." 
This is a natural way of explaining the fact that the two Gospels 
have so many sayings in common ; and if they contained these 
sayings and no others, the conclusion that they drew from a 
common written source would be almost irresistible. But the 
fact that in both Gospels there are found many sayings not pre- 
served elsewhere, considerably weakens the argument. For the 
fact that they both record many similar or identical sayings may be 


equally well explained by the probability that these were the best 
known and most widely current sayings of Christ in the early Church. 
Against this theory of a common written source may be urged 
the following objections : 

(a) It is almost impossible to reconstruct any sort of written 
document out of the common material unless indeed it were a 
series of isolated and detached sayings, or short groups of sayings. 
If the two Evangelists had before them a common written source 
containing discourses and parables connected with incidents, how 
is it that they differ so widely in the general order in which they 
record these sayings, and very often in the context or occasion to 
which they assign them ? In following S. Mark the editor of the 
first Gospel rarely transfers sayings from one context to another. 

(b) If, however, it be supposed that the alleged source was a 
collection of detached sayings, the variation in language is still to 
be accounted for. However, it is true that in following S. Mark 
the editor of the first Gospel not infrequently alters the words of 
Christ's sayings. Cf. e.g. : 

Mt 8 4 to oCjpov. Mk I 44 7repl tov Ka6a.picrp.ov o~ov. 

9 4 evOv/xilo-de. 2 8 SiaA.oyi'£eo~#€. 

9 6 kX[v7]V. 2 11 Kpa.f3a.TTOV. 

9 15 irevOelv. 2 19 vrjo-Tevetv. 

9 16 e7ri/3aAAei. 2 21 €7ripa7rrei. 

13 32 iv tois k\o.8ol<; auTOU. 4 32 vtto ttji' ctklclv avTov. 

And it might be urged that he (and perhaps S. Luke also) has 
sometimes departed from the phraseology of the alleged source. 
But, taken as a whole, the variation in language in these sayings 
common to Mt. and Lk. suggests rather independent sources than 
revision of a common source, and in some cases the former 
alternative is necessary if Wellhausen l is right in explaining the 
variations which occur in them as due to translation from an 
Aramaic original. For his suggestion that the two Evangelists 
had access not only to a Greek translation of the supposed 
common written source, but also to the Aramaic original, is a 
clumsy theory. It is simpler to suppose that the two Evangelists 
drew from different Greek sources. 2 

(2) "Both Evangelists drew from oral tradition." There is a 
great deal to be said in favour of this, for it will be remembered that 
we are dealing with groups of sayings, parables, or discourses which 
would be easily retained in the memory. And amongst the Jews, 
as to-day amongst the Chinese, the current educational methods 

1 Einleitung, p. 36. 

2 I welcome a tendency in Germany to speak doubtfully about the material 
to be assigned to the alleged common source. Cf. Harnack : "ich zweifle 
nicht das Manches, was Matth. und Luk. gemeinsam ist und daher aus dieser 
Quelle stammen konnte, nicht auf sie zuriickgeht, sondern einen anderen 
Ursprung hat," Lukas der Arzt, p. 108, Anm. 1. 


trained the memory to retain masses of teaching. When Josephus 
(c. Apion. ii. 19) says that "if anybody ask any one of our people 
about our laws, he will more readily tell them all than he will tell 
his own name," he may have generalised too far, but there is 
every probability that Christian converts in the early Church knew 
by heart sayings and parables which had been taught to them as 
traditional sayings of the Master. 

However, there is little need to force the oral tradition theory 
to cover all the facts presented by the agreement between Mt. and 
Lk., because there is reason to think that both writers used written 

(3) "The two Evangelists drew from independent written 
sources." It is quite unlikely that when these editors drew up their 
Gospels, S. Mark's writing was the only written source before them. 
So far as S. Luke is concerned, he distinctly implies that there were 
many evangelic writings. And, indeed, nothing is in itself more 
probable than that sayings, parables, and discourses of Christ 
should have been committed to writing at a very early period. 
Not, of course, necessarily for wide publication, but for private use, 
or for communication by letter, or for the use of Christian teachers 
and preachers. The assertions frequently made, that the Christian 
eschatological doctrine would have acted as a prejudice against 
writing down the words of Christ, and that the Jewish scruple 
about committing the oral law or the t.irgums to writing would 
have transferred itself to the early Christian community and the 
teaching of their Master, are purely conjectural, and without founda- 
tion. We are dealing with a society in which, as the letters of the 
New Testament show, writing was well known and in common use. 1 
In every Christian community there would probably be found 
individuals who possessed in writing some of the words of Christ. 

(4) S. Luke was acquainted with the first Gospel. This is at 
present a view very much out of favour amongst critical writers, 
But there is much to be said for it. S. Luke may well have read 
the first Gospel and been influenced by its phraseology, and here 
and there by its arrangement of sayings. On the other hand, its 
Jewish-Christian colouring, its anti-Jewish polemic, its artificial 
grouping of Christ's sayings, may well have seemed to S. Luke to 
be features in it which it was undesirable to imitate. The popular 
supposition, that if he had been acquainted with it he could not 
have omitted from his Gospel anything that the editor of the first 
Gospel had recorded, is an entirely conjectural and unnecessary 
fiction. There is no reason to suppose that he intended, any 
more than the author of the Fourth Gospel, to record everything 
that tradition handed down of the sayings and acts of Christ. On 

1 In Oxyrhynclms Papyri, 1-4, there are about twenty-eight private letters of 
the first cent. ; in FayAm Towns about twenty. 


the other hand, the fact that he had read the first Gospel amongst 
many other evangelic writings would sometimes explain agree- 
ments in language and arrangement between the two Gospels in 
matter common to them. It would also explain another feature. 
In matter parallel to S. Mark, where they are presumably copying 
the second Gospel, they often agree in omission or in alteration of 
a word or phrase against S. Mark. For this there are probably 
several co-operating causes. In part, they may independently agree 
in revising the second Gospel. Again, the copies of S. Mark 
which lay before them may have been recensions 1 of the second 
Gospel differing from that which has come down to us, but 
agreeing in some of those points in which Mt. and Lk. agree 
against Mk. Further, the second Gospel may have undergone 
revision since its use by the first and third Evangelists, or the agree- 
ments of Mt. and Lk. against Mk. may in part be due to textual 
assimilation of one of these Gospels to the other. But, lastly, 
some of these agreements may be due to the fact that Lk. has 
read the first Gospel, and was influenced by its phraseology even 
where he had Mk. before him, and was reproducing it. 

If, now, we ask how far these hypotheses can be applied to the 
matter tabulated above, we shall find the theory of a single written 
source unsatisfactory. Variation in order, in setting, and in 
language all alike are evidence against the use of such a source. 
And what can be more uncritical than to heap together in one 
amorphous and conjectural document a number of sayings simply 
because they occur in two Gospels ? Is there any more reason 
for supposing that they come from one document than for assigning 
them to a number of sources ? It is urged that, whereas other 
written sources are entirely conjectural, we do know of one 
source the writing of which 2 Papias speaks. But not only does an 
earlier writer than Papias speak of many who had undertaken to 
draw up evangelical records (Luke i 1 ), but the reconstruction 
of the Aramaic document mentioned by Papias out of the material 
common to Mt. and Lk. is an impossible task. Let us assume 
that the two writers had before them the same translation. Why 
then do they present its contents in such different methods ? 
Why does Mt. mass together in the Sermon on the Mount sayings 
which Lk. distributes over chs. 11-16? Why does Mt. give us 
nine beatitudes, whilst Lk. has four blessings, counterbalanced by 
four woes ? Why does Mt. place the Lord's Prayer in the Sermon, 
whilst Lk. records it in quite a different connection, and in a 
shorter form ? Or, allowing that in spite of this arbitrary treat- 
ment of their source, such a document can be reconstructed, why 
then do they so wilfully alter its phraseology ? Upon what sort of 
principle did Mt. alter irpaKropi into v-n-rjpeTrj (Mt 5 25 , Lk 12 58 ), or 

1 Translations of the second Gospel if based on an Aramaic original. 

J See p. lxxviii. 


Xeirrov into KoSpdvrrjv (Mt 5 26 , Lk I2 59 ), or oiKTip/AOvcs into rikeioi 
(Mt 5 48 , Lk 6 3li ), or /cdpa/cas into TrereLvd tov ovpavov (Mt 6 26 , 
Lk i2 24 ), or Trvcv/xa aytov into dya6d (Mt 7 11 , Lk 11 13 ), and the 
like ; or for what reason did Lk. make the reverse changes ? What 
is needed to explain the variations in order, in context, and in 
language between these sayings as they appear in the two Gospels, 
is not a single source, but a multiplicity of sources. And if 
Wellhausen is right in saying, e.g., that KaOdpta-ov, Mt 23 s6 , and 
So't€ i\€7]p.o(ruvr]v, Lk 1 1 41 , are derived from an Aramaic original, 
how is it possible that in this and similar cases Mt. and Lk. had 
before them a Greek document as the source of this and all the 
other sayings which they record in common ? 

Shall we say, then, that the two writers drew these common 
sayings from oral tradition? The counter argument, that they 
agree in phraseology to a very remarkable extent, is no good reason 
against oral tradition as a source. For there is every probability 
that sayings and discourses would be handed down in oral tradition 
with just that predominant uniformity of language, varied with 
occasional divergence, which the Gospels present to us. Nothing, 
e.g., is more likely than that there might be in different parts of the 
Christian Church traditional forms of the Sermon on the Mount 
the same in general outline but differing in length and varying 
very often in expression. If there were any good reason for 
denying the existence of a multiplicity of written sources, the con- 
ception of oral tradition as a source for these sayings would be less 
artificial and more agreeable to the data than the hypothesis of a 
single written source. 

In view, however, of the facts that Mt. demonstrably used one 
written source, viz. the second Gospel, and that Lk. professes that 
he was acquainted with many, out of which he certainly used one, 
viz. S. Mark ; in view, further, of the great probability that 
collections of the Lord's words were committed to writing at a 
very early date, and of the fact that Papias speaks of one such 
collection as made by Matthew the Apostle, it would be arbitrary 
to assign all the sayings common to Mt. and Lk. to oral tradition. 
Wherever verbal agreement extends over several verses, it may 
reasonably be supposed either that Lk. had seen Mt., or that both 
writers had before them written sources containing, not, indeed, 
identical, but similar sayings. That amongst these written sources 
one or more may have been used by both Evangelists is, of course, 
possible, but can nowhere be proved with certainty so long as the 
possibility remains that the literary link consists in the dependence 
of Lk. upon Mt. 

If we turn now to the common narrative sections tabulated 
on p. xliii f., it may be at once admitted that there are two possible 
solutions. Either the verbal agreement is due to the fact that Lk. 


has been influenced by Mt, or both Evangelists drew from 
common sources. The agreement in language in the case of " the 
centurion's servant " and of " the two aspirants " is very close. 
And this is also the case in the narratives containing the Baptist's 
preaching and the Temptation. The incident of "the great 
commandment " is still more remarkable. Mt.'s account of it 
differs considerably from Mk 12 28 " 34 . Lk. has omitted Mk 12 28 " 34 , 
but has placed earlier in his Gospel a narrative which has some 
points of agreement with Mt., where Mt. differs from Mk. In 
all these cases it is a plausible view that the two Evangelists 
were using common sources. Is it possible to combine these 
narratives with the discourses specified on p. xlv, and possibly 
with all the sayings common to the two Gospels, and to reconstruct 
a Gospel used by both writers ? Hardly, because the few narrative 
sections with which we are dealing, combined with six discourses 
and a large number of detached sayings or groups of sayings, seem 
insufficient material wherewith to construct a Gospel. And even if 
it were done, the question why did the two Evangelists dismember 
this document and change the form of the Lord's words, raises 
itself again as an insoluble problem. Nor, indeed, is there any real 
need for this heaping together into one document a few narratives 
and discourses and many sayings, because there is more probability 
that Lk., if not Mt., was acquainted with several non-Marcan 
documents than there is that he knew of only one writing containing 
Gospel material. The Sermon on the Mount is really the crucial 
case. Both Evangelists had before them a Sermon, but not 
identically the same Sermon ; that is, they were borrowing from 
different sources. In the same way it may be supposed that their 
sources contained the other sayings, discourses, and narratives 
which are substantially common to them both, in forms varying 
from close agreement to very considerable variation. 

I. 2. 

3 14 - 15 An insertion in Mk.'s narrative. Editorial. 
4 is-i6 Quotation. 

423-25 Description of Christ's ministry. Editorial. 
5 1 - 2 - 4 Sermon on the Mount. Vv. 1 - 2 editorial. 

5 5 
5 7 
5 8 
5 9 
5 10 

»> >i 

»» ») 

5 13a „ „ Editorial. 


14 „ „ V. 14a editorial 

S I6 



5 17 Sermon on the Mount. 

e 19. 20 

)) 5> 

5 21-24 

r27. 28 

5 31 

5 32 7rapeK'ros \6yov Tropveias. 

5 33 " 37 Sermon on the Mount. V. 83 editorial t. 


>> >> 

i> m 

>> IJ 

II >> 

)) )> 

>) )) 

>> Jf 

)J II 


3) )l 


5 41 

5 43 

6 l-7. 8 
510b. 13b 
6 34 
-6. 12b 

7 15 

7 19. 20-22 || n cf . Lk6 46 I3 S6.fT. 

7 28a „ „ Editorial. 

8 1 - 54 „ „ Editorial 

8 17 Quotation. 

9 13a An insertion in Mk.'s narrative. 

9 26 Editorial. 

q2?-31 Healing of two blind men. Editorial. 

9 32 " 34 Cf. Lkn 14 . Healing of a deaf demoniac. Editorial. 

9 s5 - 36 A description of Christ's ministry. Editorial. 

io 2a Editorial. 

io 5b " 8 Charge to the Twelve. 




,25b. 36 

IO 23 

11 n 

11 II 

1U >) II 

11 1 Editorial. 

ii 14 Elias. Editorial. 

ii 20 Editorial. 

n 28-30 Come unto Me. 

12 5 " 7 An insertion in Mk.'s narrative. 

i2 n - 12a „ „ butcf. Lk 14*. 

I2 i--2i Quotation. 

I2 22. 23 Cf. Lkn 14 . Healing of a blind demoniac. Editorial. 

I2 36. 37 Every idle word. 

j 2 45 end 

i3 14 - 16 Quotation. Editorial. 

13 18 Editorial, cf. Lk 8 U . 

13 24 " 30 The Tares. 

13 35 Quotation. 

1 3 36 " 43 Explanation of the Tares. V. 96a editorial. 



l 3 


45. 46 





I5 12.13 
j c 23-25 
j r 30-31 
l6 2b.3 
! glib. 12 
l6 17-19 

l6 22b 







j n 24-27 

i8 3 - 4 

18 10 

18 14 

l8 16-20 
l8 23-35 








15b. 16 

19 end 










-■> ->l-3 


23 s 


2 3 


The Hid Treasure. 

The Precious Pearl. 

The Draw Net. 

Every scribe instructed. 


S. Peter on the water. An insertion in Mk.'s 

An insertion in Mk.'s narrative. 

„ „ Editorial. 

Taking the place of Mk 7 31ff \ Editorial. 
An insertion in Mk.'s narrative. Editorial (if genuine). 
S. Peter and the keys. An insertion in Mk.'s 


An insertion in Mk.'s narrative, cf. Lk 17 6 . 

The Stater in the fish's mouth. 

As a little child. 

An insertion in Mk.'s narrative. 

One of these little ones. 

The Church. 

The two debtors. 


(ei) fj.r] hn Tropreta. 

Eunuch. Vv. 10 " 11 editorial. 

An insertion in Mk.'s narrative. <"f. Lk 22 28 " 30 . 

The Labourers in the Vineyard. V. 16 editorial 


An insertion in Mk.'s narrative. 

„ ,, Editorial. 

irapaxprifjia.. Editorial. 

The Two Sons, cf. Lk 7 29 - 30 . 


Editorial if genuine, cf. Lk 20 18 . 

The Marriage Feast. 


Denunciation of Pharisees. V. 1 editorial. 






2^32.33 Denunciation o: Pharisees. 
24 10 " 12 False prophet-. 

24 20 fj.q?A o-a/jod-w. 

2 _^30a ; _ ;1 f tne g on ot - _\{ aa Editorial. 

2: 1 - 13 'J he Ten Virgins. 

25- C£ Lk 19 11 - 28 . 

2 -ai-w The Sheep and the Goats, 

26 1 EditoriaL 


26 50 

26=2-54 ^ n insertion in Mk.'s narrative. EditoriaL 

2-3-10 Judas and the blood money. 

2-?. 10 Quotation. 

27 19 Pilate's wife. 

2 -24.25 PiLate washes his hands. 

2 j 36 Editorial. 

2 7. 43 

2 -oib-53 Th e resurrection of the dead Saints. 

2 --:2-€« -phe sealing of the Tomb. 

2 8i-4M Editorial. 

2 gu-i5 j^g bribing of the guard, 

28 16 - 20 Christ's last worc- 

This may be classified as follows : 

(a) Editorial i 1 " 17 3 14 - : - _- -' 5 141 ^^» j** &-*• j*.*r-*v 

82-34. 35-36 IQ 2a j jla. 12-14. M [ 2 SX ~* 3 1 -^"15. 18. 36a. 53 j -23-25. 30-31 j g2b-3, 

(if genuine) llb - 12 - 22: i ; " « i9 la - 10 - u 20 15 2i 14 - i9 e = d ^. 44 (y genuine) 

2 2 33. 34 ,,1 24 30a -,,51.44.52-04 2 -3-. 43 2 gl ^ajp^u, T , jV ra6ov.'--\ 

i 1 " 17 is a compilation of the editor, and 4 23 * 25 and 9 s5 - M G) are 
from his hand. 3 :4 - 15 is inserted by him into a section from Mk.. 
but may, of course, rest on tradition. 5 1 - 2 are probably due to him. 
For ^iw. 14a. 33 see ^e notes. ; 2Si and the similar formulas n ta 
j^53 X gia an( j 26 1 are probably from his hand. S 1 and perhaps ■*, 
see p. 73, are editorial connecting links. 9 26 and 31 are due to the 
editor, and g'-=-30. 32-34 ma y be his work. ic 2a is an editorial link. 
So is 11 20 probably, n 12 " 14 is probably due to the editor, but 
13-14 embody traditional logia. 12 s "* 3 may be the editor's work. 
13 14 ' 15 are from his hand, and so is 13 18 , and probably 36A . 15- 
may be his work, or may rest upon a non-Maican source. 1530-31 
are due to him. i6 2: ~ 3 and 21 44 are from his hand it" they are 
genuine. i6 llb " 13 are his work, and so is 16**. 17-'" 7 are due to 
revision of Mk. 19 10 is probably editorial, and so less probably 
is v. 11 . 20 15 is an editorial repetition of 19 s0 . 21 14 is due to 
editorial revision of Mk. 2 1 15 **" 1 * may be due to tradition. ;i : - J 
Kal i6rjpd.\6rj -apa^prjua v) crvKTj, is editorial, and so is v. 43 . 2 3 a is 
due to the editor. So probably are 24 s03 26 44 - 52 ' 54 . 2 7 43 is in- 
serted bv him. and 2S liZZ to 4 are due to revision of Mk. 


(b) Sayings inserted into a section borrowed from Mk. : 

,14-15 ql3a I2 5-7. ll-12a j ,-12-13. 23-25 ^2-3.17-19 ^20 jg4. 16 
jqlO-12. 28 2I 15b-16. 43 2 ^10-12. 30a 2 £52-54?. 

(c) Sayings peculiar to this Gospel in one of the great dis- 
courses formed by the editor on the basis of short discourses 
recorded by Mk., or in the Sermon on the Mount, or in chs. n 
or 23. 

P 4. 5. 7. 8. 9. 10. 14. 16. 17. 19-20. 21-24. 27-28. 31. 33-37. 38-39a. 41. 43 


5I-7. 8. 10b. 13b. 1G-18. 34. 

-6. 12b. 15. 19. 20-22. 

IQ 5b-8. 10b. 16b. 23. 25b. 36. 41. 

j j 14. 28-30. 

I2 36-37. 

j ,2^-30. 36-43. 44. 45-46. 47-50. 51-58^ 

jg3. 4. 10. 14. 16-20. 23-35. 

2 ,1-3. 5. fb-11. 15-22. 24. 28. 32-33. 

2 rl-13. 14-30. 31-46. 

(d) Other sayings : 

2Q 1-16 2 1 28-32 22 1-14 

(e) Incidents : 

jl8-25 2 . I4 28-31 j -24-27 2I 10 - 11 2 6 52 " 54 ' 27 3 " 10 - 19 - 24 " 25, 51a 53 " 
62-66 2 S 9 " 10 - n ' 15 - 16 " 20 . 

(/) Quotations from the Old Testament : 

j23 2 15. 18. 23 4I3-I6 gl7 I2 17-21 1 ^ 2 i 4 - 5 2 7 9 . 

It will be noticed that the great majority of the sayings tabu- 
lated under b and c have a common character. They are {a) 
parabolic, or (b) anti-Pharisaic, or (c) strongly Jewish-Christian, or 
(d) couched in Jewish phraseology. 

Thus (a) Parables : 

x -24-30. 36-43. 44. 45-46. 47-50 x g23-35 20 1-16 22 1 " 14 2 K 1 ' 13 ' 14 " 30 . If We 

count 25 1 ' 30 as one section, all these parables are introduced by 
similar formulas of a type which finds parallels in the Rabbinical 
literature. 13 24 'Ci/xoiwOr), ^ ot ' a € VriV, 18 23 (hfioiwdrj, 20 1 
6/Aot'a i<rTLv, 22 1 oi/xoLo'iOr], 25 1 t6t€ ofAOLwOrjo-eTcu.. In all except the 
last the subject is 17 y3a.o-iA.eia tSv oipavwv. 

(b) Anti-Pharisaic : 
5 20 " except your ' righteousness ' surpass that of the 

scribes and Pharisees." 
61-8.16-18 By the " hypocrites " of this section the Pharisees are 

no doubt intended. 
qi3a "mercy and not sacrifice," cf. v. 11 . 
IQ 25b It was the Pharisees (12 24 ) who called the master oi 

the house Beelzeboul. 
X2 5 ' 7 occur in an anti-Pharisaic context, cf. 12 2 . 


I2 n-i2a a i so m an anti-Pharisaic context. 

1 5 12 " 13 the Pharisees are blind guides. 

2 1 43 "the kingdom shall be taken from you." Cf. v. 45 

"the chief priests and the Pharisees." 
23 i-3. 5. 7b-n. 15-22. 24. 28. 32-33 are directly anti-Pharisaic. 

(c) Jewish-Christian : 

5 n. i9. 21-22. 27-28. si. 33-37. 38-39a. 43, The Mosaic law to be " ful- 
filled," not destroyed. 

^ 23-24 TO QvcriacrTrjpiov. 

5 32 7rape/<Tos Adyov 7ropveias represents Christ as reaffirm- 

ing the Mosaic law. 

giob « -phy will be done," a Jewish prayer. 

7 6 " swine " = the Gentiles?. 

7 12b Emphasis on the law and the prophets. 

7 15 " false prophets." 

7 22 "prophesied." 

IQ 5b-8. 23 g ee n0 |- e on io 5 # 

io 41 "a prophet." 

13 52 "every scribe." 

^ 23-24 << J was not sen t but to the lost sheep of the house of 

18 16 "two witnesses" to conform to the law. 

19 9 (ei) fxrj eiri iropvua represents Christ as reaffirming 

the Mosaic law. 
19 28 "judging the twelve tribes of Israel." 

24 20 /x^Se o-a/?/3a-r<j>. The Mosaic law is to be observed. 1 

(d) Coloured by Jewish phraseology:' 

5 4 See note. 

5 5 = Ps 3 6"(LXX). 
5 7 - 8 - 9 - See notes. 

5 10 77 /JacriAeia twv ovpavwv. 

5 1D tov irarepa vp.wv tov ev tois oupavon. 

7 6 TOtS KVCTt — TWV -)(Oip(siV. 

j j 28-30 g ee notes. 

I2 36-37 ev ^nepa Kptcrews. 

j 617-10 aap$ kcu alpa — 6 irar-qp 6 lv tois ovpavois — irvXai aSou 
— Trjs ^SacrtAetas twv ovpavwv — Sr;o~Tis — Auctti?, and 
the contrast «rt tt/s yrj<; — ev tois oupavois. 

l8 3, 4 iv rrj ySacrtAeia twv ovpavwv. 

18 10 tou 7rarpds p.ov tov ev oupavots. 

18 14 6£\r]p.a lp.7rpoo"#ev tov 7raTpos p-ov tov ev ovpavois. 

1 The editor probably inserted fnj8t <ra$8<£T^ into Mk 13 18 because he found 
a saying with this addition in the Logia. In the same way he has inserted (el) 
/xt) iirl iropveiq., 19 9 , into Mk io 11 , because a parallel saying which he has in- 
serted in 5 32 was to be found in the Logia with a similar limitation. 


jgie-20 "Two witnesses," "binding and loosing," "earth and 

heaven," "My Father who is in heaven." 
I g^° tv rr] iraALyyeveaLa orav Kauto-r) o vios tov avdpwrrov €7ri 

dpovov 80^7/5 avrov. 
To these may be added 8 11 " 12 , which is Jewish-Christian (" with 
Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob"), and anti-Pharisaic ("the sons of 
the kingdom ") in character, and which seems to have been inserted 
by the editor into its present context. 

The following phrases are characteristic of these passages : 

(i) r) /SatriAeia TWV ovpavwv, 5IO.IIK2). 20 gll IQ 7 x 3 24. 44. 45. 47. 52 l6 19 

j g3. 4. 23 j^i2 20 i 22 2 2 jji \y e might on that account add to our 
list 5 3 , which differs in language from Lk 6 20 ; 7 21 , which differs from 
Lk 6 46 ; 11 12 , which differs from Lk 16 16 ; and 23 13 , which differs from 
Lk ii 62 . The phrase occurs in these passages 23 times, and else- 
where in the Gospel 9 times, viz. 3 2 4 17 n 11 1311-31.33 x gi 
i9 14 - 23 . In 3 2 4 17 13H.8U jgi Ig i4.23 t he editor has inserted the 
phrase into Marcan passages. The two remaining verses, n 11 and 
13 33 , might, with some probability, be added to our list. 

(2) ira.T7]p 6 iv (tois) ovpavols : 

5 16 6 1 l6 17 I gl0.14.19 

We might on this account add to our list 5 45 (which differs from 
Lk 6 35 ) 6 9 7 n - 2 i io 32 - 33 . The phrase only occurs besides in i2 50 , 
where it is substituted for Mk.'s tov 6eov. 

(3) irar-qp 6 olpdvios : 

15 13 l8 35 23» 
We might on this account add to the list 5 48 (which differs from 
Lk 6 36 ) 6 14 - 26 - 32 . The phrase occurs nowhere else. 

(4) iraTrjp rj/xwv, ifxwv, <rov, clvtwv : 

el6 51. 4. 6(2). 8. 18(2) j -43 2 ~9^ 

We might on this account add 5 45 - 48 6 9 - 14 - 15 - 26 - 32 7" and id 29 , 
which differs from Lk 12 6 . 

It is not unreasonable to suppose that these verses, character- 
ised as they are for the most part by special features, and dis- 
tinguished by the use of two or three striking Jewish phrases, 
came as a whole, or in large part, from a single source. 1 And 
here, if anywhere, the information of Papias can assist us. He 
speaks of a compilation put together in Hebrew or Aramaic by 
Matthew containing ra Xoyia. On the other hand, we find in our 
Gospel a number of sayings of marked Palestinian characteristics 
and phraseology. If the editor of the Gospel borrowed these 
from the Matthsean document, whether it lay before him in its 
original form or in a Greek translation, we have at once an 
explanation of the reason why the name Matthew attached itself 

1 Cf. E. De Witt Burton, Principles of Literary Criticism and the Synoptii 
Problem, p. 41. I have been much indebted to this book. 


to the first Gospel, of which these sayings form a substantial 
proportion. Of course, if there be sufficient reason for supposing 
that the editor used this Matthsean source, it will then be probable 
that he borrowed from it some of the sayings which he has in 
common with Lk., but in a different form and context. Whilst he 
drew them from a Greek translation of the Logia, Lk. will have 
drawn them from other sources into which they had passed from 
the Matthsean collection. The following would be not out of 
harmony with the tenor of many of the Logian sayings : 

5 18 "not a jot or tittle to pass from the law." Cf. Lk 16 17 . 
5 32 Cf. Lk 16 18 , who has not the limitation 7rap6KTos Ao'yov 

69-13 t h e Level's Prayer. The prayer as found in a different 
context in Lk u 1 "*, has lost some of its Jewish 
13 16 " 17 Trpo<f>rJTai /ecu Soccuoi is Jewish. The verses occur 
in a different context in Lk io 23 " 24 with /3ao-tXets for 

23 4. 23. 25-26. 27. 29-31. 34-36. All anti-Pharisaic. Cf. Lk n 39 " 52 in 
a different context. 
5 12 Anti-Pharisaic : " they persecuted the prophets." Cf. 23 32-33 . 
I venture, therefore, to assign the following to the Matthaean 
Logia : 

* 5 13 " 16 Probably not in Sermon. 

* t-17-20 # 

* e 21-24 

,-25-26 p ro bably not in Sermon. 

* r27-28 

5 29 - 30 Probably not in Sermon. 

* c 31-32 

* r 33-37 


* c 38-42 


* c 43-48 





6 1 " 4 . 
6 5 - 6 . 
57-15 Perhaps not in Sermon. 


519-33 Probably not in Sermon. 



7 6 Probably not in Sermon. 
77-11 Probably not in Sermon. 

713-14 p ro bably not in Sermon. 

7 15-23. 
7 24-27.' 


* 8 11 - 12 . 


* gl3a 

9 C 

* I o 5b " 8 . 

* IO 23 . 

* io 24 " 25 Not in this connection. 
io 26 " 33 Not in this connection. 
io 34 " 41 Not in this connection. 
ii 2 " 30 Not necessarily in this order. 

* 12 5 - 7 . 

* I2 11 " 12 . 

I2 25-45 N ot necessarily in this order. 
1 ^ 16 ' 17 . 

* j 3 24-30. 
I3 33! 

* T ^31-43 # 

* t-,44 

l 3 ' 

* x ,45-46 # 

* T .,47-50 

* I^51-52 # 

* I5 12 " 1 *.' 

I5 24 



* I 7 20. 


1 88-*. 

i8 10 . 

18 12 - 18 . 
18 14 . 

l8 15-20 # 
l8 21-22 # 
j 8 23-35 # 

* I9IO-I2! 

* 19 28 . 

* 20 H8 . 
2 I 16 . 

* 21 28 - 32 . 

* 2 I 43 . 

* 2 2 1 " 14 . 
22 35-40 

23 Not necessarily in this ordej. 



* 24 10 " 12 




24 30a 


24 43 - 51 . 
25 1-13 


♦ ~ C 14-S0 

2 5 

2 e 31-46 1 

♦ 2 £52-54 » 

Of course, much that is here assigned to the Logia may have 
come from other sources. The passages marked with an asterisk 
are in the main peculiar to Mt., and have the Palestinian character- 
istics referred to above. These may be assigned to the Logia with 
much probability. The remaining passages are for the most part 
found also in Lk. But his variations in setting and language 
make it probable that he drew them from other sources than the 
Logia. And, to some extent, he may have been influenced by 
reminiscence of the first Gospel. 

We must, therefore, think of the Matthaean Logia as a collection 
of Christ's sayings containing isolated sayings, sayings grouped into 
discourses, and parables. If there was any particular arrangement 
or order observed, it is, of course, not possible now to rediscover 
it. One of the longer discourses was probably the Sermon on the 
Mount ; but as this now stands in the first Gospel, it has been 
enlarged by the editor, who has inserted into it sayings from other 
parts of the Logia. There were also in all probability a group of 
eschatological sayings, and groups of parables. The original 
language was either Hebrew or Aramaic. Papias calls it 'Eygpa'/'Si 
SiaXcKTa) ; Irenaeus, rfj iSia avrwv (ol 'E/3paioi) SiaAeKTw ; Eusebius, 
7rarp«p yXwTTrj ; and Origen speaks of the Gospel as ypa.fifj.acnv 
'E/3paiKots o-vvTeTay/xivov. On historical as well as philological 
grounds it is probable that the language was rather Aramaic than 
Hebrew. When the editor of the first Gospel used it, it had 
already been translated into Greek. The fact that he was using 
a Greek rendering of S. Mark's (probably originally Aramaic) 
Gospel does not, of course, preclude the possibility that he may 
have had the Aramaic Logia before him, but suggests that this was 
not the case. A stronger argument is the fact that some of the 
many sayings which Mt. and Lk. have in common agree very 
closely in language. This is not best accounted for by the theory 
that both Mt. and Lk. used a common Greek translation of the 
Logia, nor by the view that Lk. is dependent on Mt. Rather, the 
editor of the first Gospel used a Greek translation of the Logia. 
Then other translations were made, and from these excerpts and 
groups of sayings passed into the " many " evangelic writings with 
which Lk. was acquainted. This accounts for the fact that Lk. 
had before him, or was acquainted with, sources containing sayings 
and groups of sayings which are often nearly identical with sayings 
contained in the first Gospel, and yet frequently differ from them. 
The Logian sayings must have passed through several stages of 
transmission before they reached Lk., whilst Mt. drew from a 
translation of the original collection. Wellhausen has rightly seen 


that some features in sayings common to Mt. and Lk. cannot be 
explained without reference to an Aramaic original {Einleitung, 
p. 36). Since, however, he clings to the theory that the verbal 
agreement in many of these sayings forces us to suppose that 
they used a common Greek source, he is obliged to hazard the 
complicated and unnecessary conjecture that the two Evangelists 
sometimes altered their Greek original and sometimes substituted 
for it a new translation from the original Aramaic (p. 68). But, as 
I have already shown, the great amount of disagreement in sub- 
stance, in setting, in order, and in language between Mt. and Lk. in 
these sayings is only explicable if they were not directly using a 
common source. Mt. drew directly from a Greek translation of 
the Logia. Other translations were also made, and from these the 
Logian sayings passed in a form substantially agreeing, whilst 
often slightly differing in language, into the evangelic writings of 
the Church. 

Hence, when Lk. wrote his Gospel, he found these sayings 
dispersed in many quarters. Some of them, e.g. the Beatitudes 
and the Lord's Prayer, had passed through many stages since they 
were first extracted from the Logia. Others had suffered but little 
change. If at times the agreement in language between Mt. and 
Lk. seems remarkably close, it must be borne in mind that Lk. 
may well have read the first Gospel, and have been sometimes 
influenced by it. 

The narrative sections tabulated above under (<?) call for special 
consideration, since it is unlikely that they came from the same 
source as the sayings just discussed. The narratives contained in 

: 18-25 2 1-12. 13-23 x ^28-31 j ~ 24-27 2I 10 " 11 27 3 " 10 ' 19 - 24 " 25, 51a " 53 - 62 " 66 28 11 * 15 all 

look very much like Palestinian traditions. Judgment upon their 
date and value must be almost wholly subjective, but to the present 
writer they seem to be early in date, or, to say the least, there seem to 
be no cogent reasons for placing them late. For ijii-z! as written 
before the fall of Jerusalem, see Wellhausen, in loc. Whether 
they came to the editor in written form, or whether he had himself 
collected them in Palestine, it is impossible to conjecture. Some 
little evidence might be adduced to show that i 18 -4 ir came from 
a special source which in 3 x -4 17 overlapped with Mk i 1-15 . E.g. : 
(a) The editor of the Gospel shows a distinct tendency to remove 
historic presents from a source before him (p. xx). In Mk. there 
are 151 such tenses. Of these, 72 are cases of Aeyei or Xeyovmv. 
Of the remaining 79 the editor of the first Gospel omits or alters 
69, retaining only 10. Yet in 3 x -4 17 there are 7 such tenses, 1 
viz. 31-13. 15 4 5. 8(2). n_ This would be explicable if the editor 
were following a source of which the use of the historic present 
was a marked feature. 

1 Cf. (palverai, 2 18 (but B has iQavt)) and 2 19 . 


(l>) There are some words and phrases which occur only or 
chiefly in this part of the Gospel ; e.g. : 

XdOpa, i 19 2 7 . 

'IcpocroXv/xa, fem. sing., 2 3 3 5t . 

TrapayiyveaOai, 2 1 3** 13 . 

TrvvOdveaOai, 2 4 . 

kclt ovap, i 20 2 12 - 13 - 19 - 22 . Besides only 27 19 . 

TrapaXap.j5d.vetv, 8 times. Besides from Mk 17 1 20 17 2 6 37 . 
Elsewhere, 12 45 18 16 24 40 - 41 2 7 2T . 

dvax<i>peiv, 5 times. Elsewhere, 9 24 12 15 14 13 15 21 17 5 . 

KaTOLKelv, twice. Elsewhere, 12 25 23 21 . 

The construction ava^wpTjadvTwv o"e avTwv l8ov, I 20 2 1, 13 - 19 . 
Elsewhere, 9 s2 28 11 . 

But this evidence is insufficient to prove the existence of a 
special written source for this part of the Gospel ; and the fact 
that the Old Testament quotations in i 18 -2 and in 2 7 9 - 10 have 
probably been introduced by the editor into originally independent 
narratives, rather suggests that all the narratives above mentioned 
came to the editor as independent traditions, and not from a 
document into which they had been collected. 2 6 52 " 54 and 3 14 " 15 
may belong to the same cycle of traditions. 28 16 " 20 is probably 
based on the lost ending of Mk. I have thought it advisable not 
to confuse these narratives peculiar to Mt. with the few narrative 
sections (see p. xliii) common to Mt. and Lk. The former are 
marked in the commentary by P ( = Palestinian), the latter by 
X ( = unknown source). 

The quotations in i 22 " 23 2 5 - 6 - 15 - 17 " 18 - 23 4 14 - 16 8 17 12 17 - 21 13 35 21 4 - 5 
27 s present peculiar difficulties. 

(1) Five of them, viz. 4 14 - 16 8 17 12 17 - 21 13 35 21 4 - 5 , seem to have 
been inserted into or appended to a section of Mk. by the 

(2) Six of them, viz. 1 23 2 6 - 15 - 17 " 18 - 23 27 s , might seem to be an 
integral part of the narrative in which they stand. 

(3) One of them, 2 23 , cannot be verified. 

(4) All of them are introduced by a striking formula : 

I 22 tovto Se oA.ov yeyovev tva irX-qpoiOrj to prjOkv vtto tov Kvptov 
Sia tov Trpo<prjTOV AeyovTO?. 

2° ovto)? yap yiypaTTTai ota tov TTpocpTqTov. 

2 15 fva 7rXr}po)8fj, k.t.X. 

2 17 Tore £7rXr]pii)6r) to p-q6\v Sia 'lepffxlov tov TrpotprjTov 

2 23 07rws irXr)p<x>6rj to pr}Blv 81a. twv Trpo<f>r]T<x)V. 

4 14 tva TrXrjpwOfj to prjOev Sia. 'Ho"aiov tov 7rpo<py')Tov Xeyovros. 

8 17 O7rtos TrXyjpoyOf) to prjOkv 01a Ho"atou tov Trpofpijrov AeyovTOS. 
I2 17 The same. 
13 35 The same, with the omission of 'Ho-atov. 


2 1 4 tovto Se yiyovev iva Tr\r)pu>6f) to prjOiv Siu tou Trpocprfrov 

27 s tot£ €Tr\r] pwdrj to pr)9\v ota lepepiov tov irpo^rjTov XiyovTos. 

(5) 1 23 agrees in the main with the LXX; 2 6 seems to be an 

independent rendering of the Hebrew ; 2 15 is also a rendering of 

the Hebrew; 2 18 is apparently quoted from the LXX, with 

reminiscence of the Hebrew in to. Texva avTrjs; 2 23 cannot be 

traced ; 4 15 " 16 is from a Greek Vs, but not from the LXX (see 

note, in loc.) ; 8 17 is an independent translation from the Hebrew ; 

I2 i7-2i i s f rom ji ie Hebrew, with reminiscence of the LXX in the 

last clause, or more probably from a current Greek version, which 

is already implied in Mk i 11 ; 13 35 seems to be an independent 

translation from the Hebrew, with reminiscence of the LXX in the 

first clause; 21 5 agrees partly with the Hebrew, partly with the 

LXX; 27 s appears to be a free translation, with reminiscence of 

the LXX. Further, 2 6 seems to come in the main from Mic 5 1 " 4 , 

with assimilation of the last clause to 2 S 5 2 ; i2 18 from Is 42 1 " 4 , 

with assimilation of the last clause to Hab i 4 (Heb.) ; Mt 21 5 is a 

conflation of Is 62 11 and Zee 9°; 27 9 " 10 comes from Zee n 13 , but 

has probably been influenced by Jer 32 6 * 9 . 

With these quotations might be compared n 10 , which occurs 

also in Mk i 2 , and which therefore seems to have been current in 

Christian circles in a form slightly differing from the LXX. Here, 

too, there seems to have been a slight assimilation to Ex 23 20 . 

It will be seen that there is a good deal of agreement with 

the Hebrew against the LXX. This makes it very unlikely that 

these quotations are due to the editor. For (a) in the quotations 

borrowed by him from Mk. the editor shows a tendency to 

assimilate the language more closely to the LXX. The single 

exception of change in favour of the Hebrew is Mk i2 30 = Mt 22 s7 . 

For such assimilation, see Mt 13 15 ko.1 clvtovs for Mk.'s 

koI acpeOfj auTois ; Mt 15 8 6 Xaos outos for Mk.'s ovtos 6 Aaos ; Mt 

19 5 adds fcai {Trpoa^KoWrjOrjo-tTai ryj yvvaiKi avrov ; Mt 22 32 adds 

€i/xi; Mt 26 31 adds -n/s ttoi/h^s. So LXX A. Mt 27" Iva tC for 
> / 

CIS Tt. 

(b) In nine quotations not borrowed from Mk., viz. 4*- 7 - 10 
2 21. 27. 38. 43a gi3_ I2 7 2 \ X6 , there is a general agreement with the 
LXX, except in ko\ ov, 9 13 =i2 7 , which agrees with Heb. and 
LXX A Q against LXX B. 

It seems, therefore, probable that the eleven quotations intro- 
duced by a formula, and also 1 1 10 , were already current when the 
editor compiled his work in a Greek form. They may come from 
a collection of Old Testament passages regarded as prophecies of 
events in the life of the Messiah. In this connection 2 23 is very 
important, because it must have originated in Jewish Christian, i.e. 
probably in Palestinian, circles. 



In making the second Gospel the framework of his own, the 
editor has adopted the general outline and plan of that Gospel, 
which is as follows : 

A. Mk i 1 " 13 Introductory. The Messiah had been heralded 
by the Baptist, had been declared to be the Son of God at His 
baptism, and had been prepared for His ministry by temptation. 

B. i 15 -7 23 Ministry in Galilee. 

C. 7 24 -9 Ministry in the surrounding districts. 

This period is marked by the confession of S. Peter, and by 
teaching as to Christ's death and resurrection. 

JD. io 1-52 The Journey through Persea to Jerusalem. 

E. n-16 8 The last days of the Messiah's life. 

To this general framework the editor prefixes two chapters- 
dealing with the genealogy, birth, and three incidents of the 
Messiah's childhood. 1 

[A. 1. 2 Birth and Infancy of the Messiah.] 

He then inserts Mk.'s introductory section with considerable 

B. s l -4 u Preparation for His ministry, [z 7 ' 10 - 12 - 14 " 15 4 3 " 11 ]. 
Passing to Mk.'s section B, the editor makes considerable 

alterations in the order of Mk i 15 -6 13 . For a detailed examination 
of these alterations, see pp. xiii-xvii. 
The result is as follows : 

C. 4 12 -i5 20 Ministry in Galilee: 

(1) Public appearance as a teacher, 4 12 - 17 [ 13 - 16 ]. 

(2) First disciples, 4 18 " 22 . 

(3) Illustrations of His teaching and work : 

(a) Preliminary, [4 23 ' 25 1. 

(d) His teaching, $ l -f 9 [s l -y 27 ]. 

(c) His work, S 1 -^ 4 [8 5 " 13 - 19 " 22 9 2 "" 31 - 32 - 34 ]. 

(4) Extension of His mission in the work of the Twelve, 

q35_ ii 1 ("„35b-38 I0 5b-8. 10b. 15-16. 23_j jl" 

[(5) Survey of His ministry, XI 2-so" 

(6) Illustrations of His controversies with the Pharisee?, 

j 2 l-45 ("5-7. 17-21. 22-23. 27-28. 30. 32-451 

(7) His relations seek Him, I2 46-5o - 

(8) Illustrations of His teaching in parables, 13 [ 16 - 17 

24-30. S3. 35-52] 

From this point the editor is entirely guided by the order of 

sections as they stand in Mk. [14 s8 - 31 and i5 12 " 14 are not found 
in Mk.]. 

(9) Various incidents, i3 53 -i5 20 . 

1 Passages enclosed in square brackets are interpolations into Mk.'s narrative. 


In the next sections he follows the order of incidents in Mk.'s 
section C. Thus : 

D. i5 21 -i8 35 Ministry in the neighbourhood of Galilee, 

r j -23-24 j 52-3. 17-19 j-24b-27 ^3-4.7.10-35"! 

E. 1 9 x -2o 34 Journey to Jerusalem, [ig 11 " 12 - 28 20 1 - 15 ]. 

R The last days of the Messiah's life, 21 28 [>i 4 - 5 - 10 " n - 14 " 16 

22 28-32. 43-45 22 i-i4 2 ^ (very greatly enlarged from Mk 

I2 37M0\ 2 .26-28 2 r 2 525.52-54 2 *3-10. 19. 24-25. 43. 52-53. 62-66 
2 89-10. 11-22], 

The life of Christ as thur> presented in the Gospel is framed in 
an Old Testament setting. 

He was the Jewish Messiah descended from Abraham, the 
father of the Jewish nation (i 1 , cf. 3 9 ), and within narrower limits 
from David (i 1 - 20 12 23 2i 9 - 15 22 42 ). In particular, he was the 
Messianic King (2 2 21 5 2 7 11 - 29 - 37 - 42 ), the Messianic Son of God 
(3 17 4 6 n 27 14 33 16 16 17 5 27 s4 ), and the Messianic Son of Man. 
See pp. lxxi ff. 

Many of the incidents of His life had been foretold by the 
prophets. His birth (i 2 2-23) by l sa iah, at Bethlehem (2 6 ) by Micah, 
Herod's massacre of the children (2 17-18 ) by Jeremiah, Christ's 
return from Egypt (2 15 ) by Hosea, the settlement of His parents 
at Nazara by the prophets, the coming of His herald (3 s ) by 
Isaiah, His own mission in Galilee (4 14 " 16 ) by Isaiah, His work 
of mercy in healing the sick (8 17 ) by Isaiah, His avoidance of 
publicity (12 17 - 21 ) by Isaiah, His preaching in parables (13 35 ) by 
the Psalmist, and the inability of the people to understand them 
(13 14 - 15 ) by Isaiah; His entry as king into Jerusalem (21 4 " 5 ) by 
Zechariah, and the use to which the price of His life was put 
(27 9 - 10 ) by "Jeremiah." His betrayal (26 s4 - 54 - 56 ), His desertion 
(26 31 ), and many of the incidents of His death and burial had 
been foretold in Scripture (27 s4 - 35 - 39 - 43 - 57 ). And of His three 
days' sojourn in the tomb Jonah was a type, 12 40 . 

Three features of the Gospel are prominent as characteristic of 
the editor's method : 

(a) the grouping of material in 4 23 -i3 into sections illustrative 
of different aspects of Christ's ministry. 

(b) the massing of sayings into long discourses. 

(1) the Sermon on the Mount (s-7 27 ), which seems to 

be an expansion of a shorter Sermon found in the 

(2) the charge to the Twelve (10). 

(3) the chapter of parables (13). 

(4) the discourse about greatness and forgiveness (18). 

(5) the discourse about the last things (24-25). 
These are all ended by a special formula. 


We might add : 

(6) the discourse about the Baptist (n). 

(7) the denunciation of the Pharisees (23). 

(8) the parables of warning, 2i 28 -22 14 . 

(c) the arrangement of incidents or sayings into numerical 

e.g. three, five, and seven : 

three divisions in the genealogy, i 17 . 

three incidents of childhood, 2. 

three incidents prior to His ministry, 3 a -4 11 . 

three temptations, 4 1 " 11 . 

three illustrations of righteousness, 6 1 " 18 . 

three prohibitions, 6 19 ~7 6 . 

three commands, 7 7 " 20 . 

three miracles of healing, 8 1 " 15 . 

three miracles of power, 8 23 -q 8 . 

three miracles of restoration, 9 18 - 34 . 

threefold " fear not," io 26 - 28 - 31 . 

threefold answer to question about 

fasting, 9 14 ' 1T . 

three complaints of the Pharisees, 9 1 " 17 . 

three ovk tariv fiov a£ios, io 37 " 38 . 

three parables of sowing, I3 1 ' 32 - 

three sayings about " little ones," i8 6 - 10 - 14 . 

three prophetical parables, 2i 28 -2 2 14 . 

three questions, 2 2 15-40 . 

three parables of warning, 24 43 -25 30 . 

three prayers at Gethsemane, 26 s9 " 44 . 

three denials of S. Peter, 26 69 " 75 . 

three questions of Pilate, 2 7 17 - 2L 22 - 23 . 

three incidents which vexed the Pharisees, 12 1 - 24 . 

three petitions in the Lord's Prayer, 6 11 " 13 . 

three aspirations in the Lord's Prayer, 6 :o . 

five great discourses, 5~7 27 IO - T 3« J 8. 24-25. 

ended with a formula. 

five illustrations of the fulfilment of the law, 5 21-48 . 

seven woes, 23. 

Cf. also 12 45 seven demons, 18 21 ' 22 forgiveness seven times, 
2 2 25 seven brethren, 15 34 seven loaves, 37 seven baskets. 

Many commentators reckon seven beatitudes in the Sermon 
on the Mount, and seven petitions in the Lord's Prayer, and Sir 
John Hawkins x reckons ten miracles in S 1 ^ 34 . 

For two, cf. the two demoniacs, 8 28 ; two blind men, 20 30 ; two 
false witnesses, 26 60 ; two blind men, 9 s7 . 

1 Hor. Syn. p. 134. 




Jesus was the Messiah of the Old Testament (i 1 ), and was 
therefore descended from David and from Abraham (i 1 ). His 
ancestral line rose to monarchical power in the person of David 
(i 6 ), lost its royal dignity at the time of the Captivity (i u ), but 
recovered it in the person of Jesus, the anointed Messiah (i 16 ). 
Jesus was therefore born as King of the Jews (2 2 ), entered 
Jerusalem as its king (21 4 " 5 ), and died as a claimant to royal 
power ( 2 7 11,29 - 37,42 ). He was born of a virgin, as the Prophet 
Isaiah had foretold (1 22 ), by conception of the Holy Spirit (i 20 ), 
so that He could be called God-with-us (i 23 ), or Son of God 
(2 15 3 17 4 3 - 6 8 29 14 33 17 5 26 63 27 40 - 43 - 54 ). At His baptism the 
Spirit of God came down upon Him ; and here, as at the Trans- 
figuration, He was proclaimed by God to be His Son, the Beloved, 
divinely elected (3 17 17 6 ). He therefore spoke of Himself as 
"Son," and of God as "Father" in a unique sense 1 (n 27 24 s6 ). 2 As 
Messiah, He fulfilled the prophecies of the Old Testament. His 
supernatural birth (i 22 ), several incidents of His early years 
(2 5 - 15 - 17 - 23 ), His public ministry in Galilee (4 14 ), His ministry of 
healing (8 17 ), His avoidance of publicity (12 17 ), the misunderstand- 
ing of His hearers (13 14 ), His use of parables (i3 35 ), the manner of 
His entry into Jerusalem (21 4 ), His betrayal (26 24 ), His desertion 
(26 31 ), His arrest (26 s4 - 56 ), and the use to which the money given 
for His betrayal was put (2 7 9 ), had all been foretold in the Old 
Testament. As Son of God, He cast out demons by the Spirit of 
God (12 28 ). He preached the near advent of the kingdom of 
heaven (see below). He performed miracles, chiefly of healing, 
but He also cast out demons, raised dead persons to life, walked 
on the water on one occasion, and twice fed multitudes with a few 
loaves and fishes. He foretold His death and resurrection, and 
promised that He would come again in the near future (see below) 
to inaugurate the kingdom. He spoke of Himself as the " Son of 
Man." As such He had angels at His command (13 41 24 31 ), and 

1 The distinction is also implied in the fact that Christ is represented as 
speaking of " My Father," but not of "our Father," except in 6*, where the 
phrase is put into the mouths of the disciples. Schmidt {The rrophet of 
Nazareth, p. 154) argues that "Jesus said neither 'My Father' nor 'your 
Father,' but 'the Father who is in heaven.'" But whilst it is true that Christ 
may have used Abba ( = the Father) in the sense of " My Father," cf. Mk 14 36 
and Dalm. Words, 192, the evidence of the first Gospel, that He spoke of 
" your Father" and " their Father," must not be set aside, since it is supported 
by the usage of the Jewish literature. Cf. the instances cited on p. 44. 
Consequently the absence from the Gospel of "our Father," except i'i 6 9 , is 
very significant ; cf. Dalm. Words, 190. 

8 But see note on 24?" 


would come again in glory with angels (16 27 24 s0 ), and sit on the 
throne of His glory (19 28 25 31 ). 

Thus three aspects of the Messiah's work are represented in 
the Gospel : (1) The work of healing and preaching, which formed 
a sort of preparation for the coming kingdom; (2) the reappear- 
ance at the end of the age, when He would come again to 
inaugurate the kingdom ; (3) His death. This was, from one 
point of view, a necessary stage in the development of the divine 
purpose. If the Son of Man was to appear on the clouds of 
heaven in His kingdom, He must first return to the Father in 
heaven to be invested with the divine glory. Thus the Son of 
Man " must " suffer (16 21 ). This was a part of the divine scheme 
(16 23 ). It had been foretold in prophecy (26 24 - 54 ). 

But it was something more than a necessary link in a divinely 
foreseen chain of events. It had in itself a redemptive aspect. 
His blood was " shed for many," that their sins might be forgiven 
(26 28 ). This bloodshedding signified the ratification of a covenant 
between God and man (26 28 ). The idea presumably is that the 
death could be regarded as a sacrifice which once and for all 
propitiated God, brought men into a right relation to God, in 
virtue of which men could approach Him and be received by Him 
without further sacrifices. Hence it can be said that He came for 
this very purpose to "give His life a ransom for many" (20 28 from 
Mk io 45 ). 


This phrase occurs in the Gospel 32 times, viz. 3 2 4 17 5 s - 

10. 19 (2). 20 y21 3II IQ 7 ! j 11. 12 j,ll. 24. 31. 44. 45. 47. 52 ^19 jgl. 3. 4. 23 

1 9 «. u.s8.a4(z I33 I24 I57 s 1 S 2 abce, but X Bal tov 6<lov) 20 1 
2 2 2 23 14 25 1 . We find also 17 /?acriA.«a tov 6eov in 12 28 19 24 
(K B al) 2i 31 - 48 and 6 33 (E a/latt S 2 , but N Bg*k omit tov 6eov). 
This phrase occurs in Mk. 14 times; Mt. 5 times substitutes 
17 /SaoxXeia twv oipavwv, and 8 times omits or paraphrases. In the 
remaining case, Mk io 25 = Mt 19 24 , both readings are found in 
Mt. ; but, in spite of the fact that twv oipavwv is not so well attested 
as tov deov, there is a strong presumption against the latter, from 
the fact that in the 1 3 other cases the editor omits, paraphrases, 
or substitutes tcuv oipavwv for tov Oeov. In any case, it is clear 
that in 12 28 21 31 and 43 there must be special reasons for the 
occurrence of 17 fiaartXeia tov 6eov. In 12 28 , which finds a parallel 
in Lk 11 20 , the phrase probably occurred in the source used by 
the Evangelist. He would, no doubt, have substituted twv oipavwv 
if the context had admitted it. But, as will be shown below, he 
everywhere uses 17 (3ao~iX.cia twv oipavwv of the kingdom which 
Christ announced as at hand, to be inaugurated when the Son of 
Man came on the clouds of heaven. In 12 28 the editor found in 


his source the words, " But if I by the spirit of God cast out devils, 
then the kingdom of God came upon you." Whatever " the 
kingdom of God " means here, it clearly has not quite the same 
significance as "the kingdom of the heavens " in such passages as 
8 n 13 45 . The editor therefore retains rot) 6eov to mark the contrast 
between " the kingdom of God " as used here, and " the kingdom 
of the heavens" as used elsewhere in the Gospel. In 21 31 
17 fiacriXaa tow 6cov is again probably due to the source used. And 
here we might have expected the editor to substitute iw ovpavuv 
with a future verb. " Will go before you into the kingdom of the 
heavens " would have given a very good sense. But he is faithful 
to his source, which had a present tense, " go before you into the 
kingdom of God." It was clear to him that, whatever the phrase 
meant, the kingdom here was not quite the same as " the kingdom 
of the heavens " as used by him elsewhere in the Gospel, and he 
recorded his sense of the difference of meaning by retaining rov 
6eov. In 2 1 43 , on the other hand, 17 (SacrCkua. tov Oeov is probably 
editorial (see the notes). Why, then, does not the editor use rav 
ovpavdv ? Because he wished to explain the taking away of the 
vineyard, and the giving it to others ( 41 ). And there was no 
phrase which would so well correspond to the vineyard as "the 
kingdom of God." " The kingdom " alone would have been too 
suggestive of merely earthly political power. " The kingdom of 
the heavens," as elsewhere used in the Gospel, had never been, 
like the vineyard, entrusted to the Jewish nation. But " the 
kingdom of God " might well be used to sum up that whole 
revelation of God to the Jewish people which was to be transferred 
to others. 

We find, further, the simple 17 /3axri\e!a in 4 23 8 12 9 s5 13 19 , 
and the following : " His kingdom," 6 33 13 41 16 28 ; " Thy kingdom," 
510 20 2i. «« t he kingdom of their Father," 13 43 ; "the kingdom of 
My Father," 26 29 . For the idea of " the kingdom of heaven" in 
Jewish literature, see Dalman, Words, pp. 91 ff. ; Bousset, Rel. 
Jud. 199 ff. Dalman has shown that in Jewish writings "JTi:6d," 
when applied to God, means always the " kingly rule," never 
the " kingdom." In other words, it should be translated by 
"sovereignty" rather than "kingdom." The "kingly rule" of 
God was His divine sovereignty, which governed all things in 
heaven and in earth; cf. Ps 103 19 " His ' sovereignty' ruleth over 
all," Dn 4 34 " His dominion is an everlasting dominion, and His 
sovereignty from generation to generation," Enoch 842 " Thy 
power, and kingship, and greatness abide for ever and ever." 
Hence men, in devoting themselves to the service of God, can be 
said to choose or accept His sovereignty, cf. Jubilees 12 19 "Thee 
and Thy dominion have I chosen"; Mechilta (Ugol.) 384: 
" They joyfully agreed to receive ' the sovereignty ' " ; and the 


service thus accepted is called a "yoke"; cf. Siphri (Ugol.) 916: 
" Take upon you the yoke of the sovereignty of heaven." 

But the conception of God's sovereignty is an ideal one, and 
there is much in life which seems inconsistent with it. The future 
would see a universal recognition of it. Hence the idea easily 
becomes an eschatological one, and blends with the conception 
of the coming Messiah as king. Cf. Dn 7 14 , Sib. Or 3 45 - 46 rare 
8r) /?ao~iAeia fxeyLarr) fiao-i\r)os £7r* dv6pu)Trotcn cfraveirai, 
767 Kal rote or) efeycpei (3ao-t\r]iov ets ataivas 7ravTas £7r' avOpilyrrovs ; 
Assumption of Moses io 1 "Then will His kingdom appear through- 
out all His creation"; Mechilta (Friedmann) 56 s "Then shall God 
alone be absolute in all the world, and His sovereignty shall 
endure for ever." 1 It is in this eschatological sense that the phrase 
is used in this Gospel. Jesus was of the royal line (i 1 " 16 ). In 
Him the Davidic family recovered once again its lost Sovereignty ; 
but more than recovered it, for Jesus was the anointed Messiah 
(i 16 ). He was born "King of the Jews" (2 2 ). As "king" He 
entered Jerusalem (21 5 ), and as king He suffered (2 7 11 - 29 - 37 - 42 ). 
As king He would sit upon the throne of His glory to judge all 
nations (25 s4 - 40 ), cf. Orac. Sib 3 49 - 50 r}£a K ayvos ava£ 7ra<r?7s y^s 
o-KrJ7rrpa Kparrjaiov eis cuwvas a7ravTas €Treiyop.evoio xpovuio. The 
announcement of the coming kingdom was frequently the subject 
of His preaching. 

He proclaimed its near advent. It was at hand (4 17 ), and 
He bade His disciples make the same proclamation (io 7 ). This 
preaching was an evangel, i.e. good news (4 23 g 85 ). The disciples 
were to pray for the coming of the kingdom (6 10 ). It would, 
however, not come in the lifetime of the Messiah, but after His 
death, when He would come as Son of Man (16 28 , cf. 21 ). This 
coming would usher in the end of this dispensation (24 s ). It 
would take place immediately after the great tribulation (24 29 ) 
which would accompany the fall of Jerusalem (24 15 - 16 ), i.e. within 
the lifetime of that generation (24 s4 , cf. 16 28 io 23 ). But God alone 
knew the exact day and hour (24 36 ), and the good news must be 
preached first to all nations (24 14 , cf. 28 19 ). It seems clear that 
the Evangelist saw no obstacle to this preaching being effected 
within a very short period (io 23 ). The inauguration of the 
kingdom is called the new birth (19 28 ). Then the Apostles would 
sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. They 
who should find a place in it were "the pure in heart" (5 s ), those 
who were " persecuted in the cause of righteousness " (5 10 ). Those 
who broke the Mosaic law and taught others to do so would be 
called least in it (5 19 ). They alone whose righteousness exceeded 
that of the scribes and Pharisees would enter into it (5 20 ). Rich 
people would hardly find entrance (19 23 " 24 ). But they should 
1 Quoted by Dalman, Words, p. 99. 


obtain admission who did the will of God (7 21 ), and who were of 
childlike character (18 3 19 14 ). On the other hand, the chief priests 
and elders, the representatives of the Jewish nation, would have 
the kingdom which should have been theirs taken from them 
(2 1 43 , cf. 8 12 ). Publicans and harlots would enter in before them 
(2 1 31 ). 

Christ's disciples were to give up all earthly possessions for the 
sake of the kingdom (19 29 ), even life itself (16 24 " 26 ). Some of 
them would renounce marriage (19 12 ). They were to strive after 
the kingdom first (6 33 ). 

In ch. 13 we have a series of illustrations intended to throw 
light upon the nature of the kingdom. But it is clear that no 
definition of the kingdom can be deduced with certainty from 
them. They can only be used as illustrations of a conception 
which is already clearly denned. In some of these parables the 
kingdom might seem to denote an abstract principle, the divine 
sovereignty, so that " the kingdom of heaven " would be equivalent 
to the "will of God." In others it lends itself easily to definition 
as the Church, the Christian Society in which the principle of 
recognition of the divine sovereignty finds expression. But without 
inquiring into the ideas involved in the phrase as used by Christ 
Himself, it seems probable that so far as the editor of this Gospel 
is concerned we should give to the phrase in these parables the 
meaning which it seems to bear elsewhere in the Gospel, i.e. the 
meaning of the coming kingdom to be inaugurated at the end of 
the age. 

Thus in 1324-30.86-43^ a parable from the Matthasan Logia, the 
story deals with the period of preparation for the kingdom which 
is to be set up at the end of the age ( 43 ). The world during this 
period is compared to a field. Christ the Son of Man ( 37 ) has 
sown in it the good seed of the knowledge of the true nature and 
near approach (cf. 4 17 ) of the coming kingdom. But in the 
meantime the Devil also sows tares, i.e. false teaching. The good 
seed ripens to maturity in the " sons of the kingdom," i.e. those 
who are destined to enter into it (cf. the same phrase of the Jews 
in 8 12 ). The tare seed develops into unbelievers, i.e. sons of the 
evil one ( 38 ), i.e. those who partake of his nature, and who will be 
excluded from the kingdom. The end of this period of preparation 
is likened to a harvest ( 39 ). Then the Son of Man will come and 
inaugurate the kingdom (cf. 16 28 "coming in His kingdom"). 
From it will be excluded the wicked, whilst the righteous will shine 
forth in it as the sun ( 43 ). 

The teaching of the parable of the Sower (13 3 " 23 ) seems to be 
to the same effect. The seed is " the word of the kingdom " ( 19 ), 
i.e. the doctrine of its near advent, and of the requirements of 
entry into it. This must fall into receptive hearts if it is to develop 


into the righteousness which qualifies for admission into the 

The short parables of the Mustard Seed (13 31 " 32 ) and of the 
Leaven (i3 33 ), another parable from the Logia, seem to illustrate 
the quick spreading and deeply penetrating influence of the 
doctrine of the kingdom. 

Two other Logian parables, "the Hid Treasure" (13 44 ) and 
"the Goodly Pearl" (13 45 " 46 ), teach the lesson that a man must 
strain every nerve and give up all else that he may acquire the 
right to enter into the kingdom. 

Lastly, the parable of the Drag Net (13 47 " 50 ) describes the 
doctrine of the kingdom as a truth which attracts disciples of 
different qualities, some good, some bad. At the end of the age, 
when the kingdom is inaugurated, there will be a separation. 

Besides these parables in ch. 13, there are seven others bearing 
upon the kingdom. x 323-35 (Logia) teaches the necessity of a 
forgiving spirit as a qualification of a disciple preparing for the 
kingdom (cf. 18 3 "Shall not enter"). 20 1 " 16 (Logia) seems to 
teach that in discipleship of the kingdom priority in date of 
admission to discipleship did not necessarily carry with it special 
privileges. All alike would receive eternal life when the kingdom 

On the three parables, 21 28 - 32 (Logia) 21 33 " 44 and 22 1 - 14 (Logia), 
see the notes. 

It has been noticed above that the phrase 17 fiacnXtia twv 
ovpavwv occurs 17 times in passages which are peculiar to this 
Gospel, and which probably come from the Logia, viz. 510.19(2). 20 

I3 l6 19 lS 3. 4.23 IQ 12 2Q 1 22 2 2 gl I t QCCUrS, besides, 

8 times in sayings which are paralleled in Lk., but which may 
also come from the Logia, viz. 5 3 7 21 io 7 ii 11,ia 13 33 18 3 23 13 . 

In passages of the first class we find also 8 12 13 38 01 viol 1-775 
/?ao-iAeuis, 13 41 tt)<s /Jacri/Veias avTov, 13 43 t^s /SacrtXcias tov Trarpos 
avrCyv, 2 1 31 rrji' (SaatXeiav tov Oeov, 2 1 43 rj j3acriX€ta tov Oeov, 25 s4 ttjv 
rjTOLfxao-fxivqv v/xlv (3ao-LXetav ; and in passages of the second class, 
6 33 Ttjv fiao-iXeLav avTov. It seems not improbable, therefore, that 
this Jewish phrase was characteristic of the Matthasan Logia, and 
that the editor of the Gospel was strongly influenced by it. He has 
inserted it into matter parallel to Mk. in 3 2 18 1 , and has substituted 
it in 4 17 i^ii- 3 ! igi4. 23 f or Mk.'s 17 ySao-<Aeia tov Oeov. 


Mk. has this phrase 14 times. Mt. retains it in all these cases. 
8 31 is not an exception ; for though Mt. in the parallel to that verse, 
16 21 , has avTov for tov vl6v tov avdpunrov, he has already inserted 
the latter phrase by anticipation in 16 13 . Mt. has the phrase in 


addition 19 times. The editor seems to have seen in the phrase 
two lines of signification. On the one hand, the phrase had 
previously been used in Messianic connections. The writer of 
Daniel had foretold the coming of " one like a Man or Son of 
Man," 7 13 . And whatever may have been the precise meaning 
of the original writer, his phrase was soon taken up and used with 
Messianic significance. The Messiah regarded as " Son of Man " 
or " Man " was of mysterious origin. Already in the Book of 
Daniel the "one like to a Man or Son of Man" comes "with 
(Heb.) or upon (LXX) the clouds of heaven" (cf. Sib. Or 3 4950 
quoted on p. lxix and 652f * : 

kolL tot oltt rjeXioio 6cos Tre/xif/ec fiaonXrja 
os iraa-av yalav Travcrei iroXijxoio /ca/coto), 
and the phrase "Son of Man" is adopted by the writer of one 
section of the Book of Enoch to designate the supernatural Messiah ; 
cf. 46 2 " 4 48 s 62. In the same way the writer of 2 Es 13 describes 
the Messiah as coming from the midst of the sea "in the likeness 
of a man," v. 3 ; cf. v. 12 "the same man," v. 25 "a man coming up 
from the midst of the sea," v. 61 "the man coming up from the 
midst of the sea." The motive power that gave rise to these 
conceptions was probably the desire to represent the coming 
Messiah as of divine origin. And yet, to fulfil His functions, He 
must be also man, or at least in the guise of man. 

The editor of our Gospel clearly saw in the phrase thus put 
into the mouth of Christ in the sources which he was using, a 
proof that Christ would fulfil this anticipation of a supernatural 
Messiah. He was to come as Son of Man (io 23 ) in the glory of 
His Father (16 27 ) upon the clouds of heaven (24 30 ). He would 
then send forth His angels and gather the elect (24 31 ; cf. i3 41 ), 
and sit upon the throne of His glory (19 28 25 31 ). Then He would 
render to every man according to his deed (16 27 ), and all nations 
would be gathered before Him (25 31 ). For "upon the clouds 
of heaven," cf. Dn 7 13 ; for " render to every man according to his 
deed," cf. Enoch 45 s " On that day Mine Elect One will sit on 
the throne of glory, and make choice among their deeds"; 61 8 
" He will weigh their deeds in the balance " ; for the gathering the 
elect, cf. Enoch 51 2 "He will choose the righteous and holy 
from amongst them " ; for the gathering of all nations before the 
throne of glory, cf. Enoch 62 s "There will stand up in that day all 
the kings, and the mighty, and the exalted, and those who hold 
the earth, and they will see and recognise Him, how He sits on the 
throne of His glory." 

But, secondly, if Christ had used the phrase " Son of Man " of 
Himself with reference to His future coming, He had also used 
the phrase in non-eschatological contexts. He was to come as 
Son of Man, but He also was the Son of Man during His life 


This Sonship was not a prerogative to be bestowed upon Him in 
the future. It was a present possession. Of course, we might 
suppose that the editor thought that Christ had often used the 
phrase of Himself in an anticipatory sense. But there are features 
in the Gospel which make it rather probable that he believed 
Christ to be by nature "the Son of Man," and regarded the phrase 
as illustrative of the mysteriousness of His person. 

Christ was born of a virgin (i 18-25 ). He was in an unique sense 
Son of God (n 27 2 2 41 - 46 ). He had been chosen by God (3 17 ). 
What better phrase could be found to express the mysterious 
nature of such a personality than the " Son of Man," which was 
already in use to designate the supernatural Messiah ? It empha- 
sised His real humanity, it hinted at the mysterious nature of His 
birth, it drew attention to His Messianic office and functions, and 
it heralded His future glory. 

It does not lie within the scope of this Introduction to raise 
the question whether Christ did or did not use this phrase of 
Himself, or in the latter case why the Evangelists have attributed 
it to Him. Only two facts need here be noticed. First: the 
editor found the phrase so applied in both his main sources, Mk. 
and the Logia. It has therefore as much attestation as any phrase 
attributed to Christ. Second: the argument that the phrase "Son 
of Man" as a title is linguistically impossible in Aramaic, is 
unwarranted. "Son of Man" having already been used by the 
author of Daniel and converted into a semi-technical term by the 
writer of Enoch, it must have been as possible in Aramaic as in 
any other language to refer to it, and to say " the Son of Man," or 
"the 'man,'" or "the whatever else may be the right equivalent of 
BOX 13 in Daniel." 

t v: 

In order to make the matter clearer, it may be well to add a 
few words on the origin of the phrase and its meaning. That 
"Son of Man" is a semi-technical description of the supernatural 
Messiah in Enoch and in 2 Esdras is clear. But whence did they 
derive it? Almost certainly from the K>3X 12 of Dn 7 13 . Dalman 
is inclined to the view that £»3K 13 was not in common use in 
early Palestinian Aramaic. &WX was employed to denote "a man," 
HW:H *33 to denote "men." EOS 13, on the other hand, was a 
literary phrase formed by imitation of the rare and poetic D1K p, 
and means " one of the human species," " one who had in himself 
the nature of a human being." But in the later Jewish Galilean 
dialects it came to be used in the sense of "a human being," 
"anyone." If it were desired to express in Aramaic the £>3X 13, 
this phrase would become HC':H ID. This was the original of 
6 vlbs tov a.vOpu>TTov, and was the phrase used by Christ. The 
Greek expression is an intentionally over-literal translation, because 
the more idiomatic rendering 6 avOpu>Tro<i would have introduced 


inexplicable confusion into the Gospel narrative. From this point 
of view Christ borrowed the title from the Book of Daniel, and its 
use by Him was quite distinctive, since K>3N "13 was not at that 
time in use to denote " anyone." 

On the other hand, it is urged by Wellhausen that N'^X "13 and 
C3N "13 can mean nothing but "man"; not an individual man, but 
man in general. Already in Daniel B>:x 12 means a man, a 
member of the human race. Hence it is impossible to express 
in Aramaic the Son of Man, because " son of Man " in that idiom 
means simply "man" collectively. Christ, therefore, could not 
have used the phrase "the Son of Man." And 6 vios tov av6pd>irov 
was created by the Evangelists. For a discussion of the linguistic 
point, see Driver, DB iv. 579 ff. So far as I can judge, the follow- 
ing points seem to be clear. (1) It has not yet been shown that 
NEWN ">3 was in use in Aramaic of the first century to mean " man." 
It is still, therefore, possible that Dalman is right in supposing that 
this phrase was used by Christ in the sense of the " Son of Man " 
of Daniel. (2) CWK "13 in Daniel means " a man," i.e. " a member 
of the human race." The subsequent use of " Son of Man" in 
Enoch, of " man " in 2 Esdras, and of the phrase underlying 6 vlos 
tov av9p<I>irov in the New Testament, is due to reminiscence of 
Daniel. The later writers would have been linguistically more 
correct if they had spoken of the " man " of Daniel ; but their exact 
translation " Son of Man " seemed more appropriate, as retaining 
the outward form of the phrase to which they were referring, and 
as less likely to introduce confusion than the more accurate trans- 
lation the " man." (3) Christ adopted the semi-technical term 
already in use to designate the supernatural Messiah, and spoke 
of Himself as the "Son of Man," i.e. the "Son of Man" of whom 
Daniel and Enoch had spoken. That there was some way of 
giving expression to such a designation in the Aramaic which He 
spoke, cannot be doubted in the face of the evidence of the 

But this, of course, only carries us back to the Book of Daniel. 
It is often supposed that GWN 133 = like a man, simply describes 
the Jewish nation as humane in comparison with the four empires 
which had preceded it in the sovereignty of the world. But it is 
doubtful whether such an interpretation really satisfies the terms 
of the vision. Rather those writers are moving in the right direc- 
tion who see in the phrase as used in Daniel the adaptation to 
the Jewish Messiah of a term " man," borrowed from an earlier 
eschatological tradition of " the man " who should form the meet- 
ing point between heaven and earth when the final act in the 
drama of the world's history was being played. The primitive 
unfallen Man of God's original creation should once again appear. 
(See Gressmann, Israelitisch-judischen Eschatologie, 334 ff. ; Volz, 


Jud. Eschat. p. 215; Gunkel, ZWT, 1890, 582-590.) If this be 
the case, then the conception of the " ideal " man had been for 
long a part of the pre-Christian Jewish Messianic theology. When 
the Lord used the term "the Son of Man" = //k "Man," as a title 
for Himself, He thereby claimed for His own person such qualities 
as pre-existence (cf. Enoch 48 s ), uniqueness as contrasted with 
other men, yet real humanity, and such prerogatives as election 
by God to fulfil Messianic functions and to receive Messianic 

Parallel to this conception of the Messiah as "the Man," runs 
the more fragmentarily illustrated conception of the Messiah as 
mysteriously born of the woman (cf. Is 7 14 , and Gressmann, pp. 
270 ff.) The fact that we get the two side by side in the first 
Gospel throws light upon the Evangelist's conception of the Person 
of Christ. He was born of a virgin (i 18 " 25 ). He was therefore 
God's Son (3 17 ). He had been elected to Messianic functions 
(3 17 ), and was the King Messiah, the Beloved (3 17 ). He was 
also "the Man," the meeting-point between the divine and the 
human, who should come, as Daniel had said, on the clouds of 
heaven to inaugurate the kingdom of heaven. 

Cf. Driver, DB iv. 579 ff. ; Dalman, Words, pp. 234 ff. ; Well- 
hausen, Skizzen u. Vorarbeiten, vi. 200 f., Einleitung, pp. 39 f. ; 
Drummond, JThS, April, July 1 901; Lietzmann, Der Menschen- 
sohn, Leipzig, 1896; Gunkel, ZWT vii. ; Volz, Jud. Eschat. pp. 
2 141".; Fiebig, Der Menschensohn, 1901 ; Gressmann, Isr. Jiid. 
Eschat. pp. 334 ff. ; and the references in Driver's article. 


The Messiah had come. He had preached the coming of the 
kingdom. He had been put to death. He would come at the 
end of the age on the clouds of heaven. In the meantime His 
disciples were to preach the doctrine of the kingdom, and make 
disciples by baptism into the name of the Father, and the Son, and 
the Holy Ghost (28 19 ). The disciples constituted an ecclesia (16 18 
18 17 ). They were to cultivate such qualities as humility (5 5 18 3 - 4 ), 
mercy (5 7 ), forgiveness (6 14 - 15 i8 15 - 21 " 35 ), love (5 44 ) ; and to practise 
almsgiving (6 2 ), prayer (6 5 " 13 7 7-11 ), and obedience to Christ's com- 
mands (7 24 " 27 )- They were to be prepared to give up all things for 
Christ's sake, e.g. marriage (19 12 ), property (19 29 ), earthly relation- 
ships (19 29 io 37 ), even life itself (io 39 16 25 - 26 ). They were to rely 
upon God's providence, and to avoid the accumulation of riches 
(6 1( '" 34 ). Wealth was a hindrance to admission into the kingdom 
(20 23 ). Marriage was an ordinance of God (19 4 " 6 ); but divorce, 
except for -n-opveta (5 32 19 9 ), was an accommodation to human 
weakness (19 8 ). 


The righteousness to be aimed at by them was to be based on 
right motive rather than observance of rules, upon the spirit rather 
than the letter of the law (5 21 - 48 is 1-20 ). 

All the disciples were brethren, having one Father, God, and 
one Master and teacher, Christ (23 8 " 10 ). As such they constituted 
the ecclesia (18 17 ), and possessed common authority to legislate 
for the Church's needs (18 18 ). Wherever two or three met for 
prayer, Christ would be with them (18 19 ). (Cf. 28 20 .) 

As in the Jewish Church so in the Christian, there would 
be prophets (io 41 23 s4 ), wise men (23 s4 ), and scribes (13 52 

2 3 34 )- 

But from among the disciples twelve in particular were com- 
missioned to preach and to baptize (io 5 28 19 ). Amongst these 
Peter was pre-eminent (cf. io 2 7t/dwtos) It was he to whom first 
was revealed the true nature of the Christ which was to be the 
foundation rock of the Church (16 17 ). He was to have adminis- 
trative and legislative power within the kingdom (i6 18-19 ). But in 
that kingdom all twelve would sit on thrones, judging the twelve 
tribes of Israel (19 28 ). 


The probability that these sayings were collected and preserved 
by the early Church in Palestine is suggested by the following 
considerations : 

(a) The title and conception of the kingdom of the heavens 
as found in these sayings is Jewish in character. See above. 

{b) The interest shown in S. Peter, and the prominent position 
attributed to him, points in the same direction. 

(c) The mission of the Messiah and of His Apostles is limited 
to the Jewish nation. 

Cf. 15 24 "I was not sent save to the lost sheep of the house 
of Israel." 
io 6 " Go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel." 
io 23 "Ye shall not exhaust the cities of Israel till the Son 

of Man come." 
19 28 "Ye shall sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve 
tribes of Israel." 
7 6 See note. 
(8 n> 12 , though in its present position it seems to express a 
forecast of the admission of Gentiles into the kingdom, would not 
necessarily convey this meaning to a Jewish Christian society. 
Nor need the parables 2 1 28 " 32 - 33 " 46 22 1 ' 14 have seemed to such a 
community to bear this meaning.) 

The editor of the Gospel has preserved these sayings in spite 
of the fact that he himself clearly believed that the good news of 


the kingdom was intended for Gentiles. For he inserts 8 5 " 13 , 
adding to it from the Logia vv. 11 * 12 , the result being that the 
admission of Gentiles is clearly alluded to. And the three parables 
2i 28 -22 u in their present position in the Gospel seem to suggest 
the same lesson. Compare also his insertion of 25 31 " 46 , possibly a 
Christian homily, of 24 14 from Mk. ; and of 28 16 " 20 , especially v. 19 , 
which is probably also derived from Mk.'s lost ending. 

There is, however, nothing in these passages as recorded by 
Mt. which takes us outside the Jewish Christian point of view of 
ihe early Church at Jerusalem as described in Ac 1— 15. In that 
Church reluctance to the admission of the Gentiles into the 
Church was at length so far worn down, that it was admitted that 
the Gospel should be preached to the Gentiles. But the stand- 
point adopted was somewhat similar to that of the canonical 
prophets, who advocated the view that the Jewish religion was 
destined to attract to itself all nations, but who never seem to 
have doubted that the result would be the submission of the 
Gentiles to the privileges of Judaism rather than the complete 
supersession of Judaism by a new religion. In the same way 
there is nothing in the first Gospel which is not consistent with 
a conception of Christianity as a purified Judaism which was 
destined to absorb within itself disciples (proselytes) from all 

Of course, Christ's sayings contain within themselves a wider 
and freer spirit than this, but the Jewish Christian Church of 
Palestine may well have failed to see the ultimate goal of 
universalism towards which this teaching inevitably tended. 

(d) The insistence on the permanent validity of the Mosaic 

Cf. 5 17 " 20 18 16 23 s - 23 ravra Se eSa 7roir}crau Cf. 7 12b , and especi- 
ally the law of divorce for unchastity, 5 32 . 

This has so far influenced the editor, that he inserts a similar 
saying into Mk.'s narrative io 2_12 = Mt 19 3 ' 10 , where it is certainly 
out of place. See notes on Mt 19. Cf. also the insertion of the 
words /xrj&e o-a/3/3aTu> in 24 20 , the omission of Mk 2 27a , and the 
emphasis on the fulfilment of prophecy. 

(e) The Jewish phraseology of the saying*. 
Cf. especially : 

17 y6a(riAei'a twv ovpavwv. 

6 7ra.T7]p 6 iv (tois) ovpavois. 

o Tra.Ti]p o ovpai'ios. 

■n-aryp u/xaiv, y/xwv, <rov, avrcov, 

ou which see above. And 

5 10 uitra. €v rj paa /cepaiu. 

-22 * ' 

5" pana. 

6 23 irovrjpos. See note. 


13 25 £i£avia. 

13 38 01 viol Trjs ySacriXeias. 

13 40 rrvvreXua. tov alwvos. 

13 52 ypafifxarev 1 ;. 

16 17 crap$ kcu aijxa. 

16 18 -rrvXai aSou. 

16 19 "bind" and "loose." 
18 18 

19 28 TraXiyy zvzaia — Opovov 86£r]<;. 
Cf. also the word-play in Na£w/jcuo9, 2-'', and in BeeA^/Jov'A, 
12 24 . 

(/) Anti-Pharisaic polemic : 

3 9 - 

c 20 

6 2 . 
6 6 . 
6 16 . 

I5 2-14. 

Cf. 8 11 13 38 . 

Of course, this anti-Pharisaic attitude is observable also in a 
less degree in the editor's other source, viz. the second Gospel, 
where the Pharisees are represented as finding fault with Christ's 
teaching, 2 6 , or conduct, 2 16 3 2 - 22 , or with the conduct of His 
disciples, 2 18 - 24 7 6 . They combine against Him with the 
Herodians, 3 6 12 13 . They ask Him for a sign, 8 11 , and question 
Him about divorce, 10 2 (but see note on 19 3 ). They question 
Him about His right to teach, n 27 . Christ bids His disciples 
beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, 8 15 , and beware of the 
scribes, 12 38 . They plot to kill Him, 14 1 . The Pharisees are 
mentioned by name in nine of the above cases, viz. 2 10, 18> 24 3 6 7 5 
gn. 15 io 2 I2 i3 j n th e others, viz. 2 6 3 22 14 1 , it is the scribes 
who are mentioned, and it is scribes who with other members of 
the Sanhedrin effect the arrest of Christ, 14 43 , and His condemna- 
tion, 14 53 15 1 . 

But the editor of the first Gospel extends the anti-Pharisaism 
of his sources. He not only borrows the polemical sayings from 
the Logia and the polemical incidents from S. Mark, but so 
arranges and adds to them as to give a very dark picture of the 
Pharisees. To them and to the Sadducees the Baptist spoke his 
words of denunciation and warning, 3 7 - 12 . Against their teaching 
was directed a considerable section of the Sermon on the Mount, 
5 20 6 1 " 18 . His teaching was, says S. Mark, " not as the scribes," 
not, adds S. Matthew, as the scribes and Pharisees. 1 The editor 

also alters Mk.'s ot ypa/x/Aarci? twv <£>api<Ta.Lwv (2 16 ) into ot •I'apto-tttoi, 

and Mk.'s ot ypap.p.ard<; (3 22 ) into ot $apto-atot (12 24 , cf. 9 s4 ). The 

1 Their scribes N B : their scribes and the Pharisees Iatt S 2 . 


same change occurs in Mk i2 85 =Mt 22 41 , and in Mk i2 28 = 
Mt 2 2 34 . See also critical note on 19 3 . 

Mk.'s short denunciation of the teaching of the scribes, 1 2 37b ~ 40 , 
is lengthened into a long and severe denunciation of the scribes 
and Pharisees, ch. 23. The parable, Mk 12 142 , is there, as in 
Mt 2 1 23-44 , addressed to the chief priests and elders ; but in Mt 21 45 
it is the chief priests and the Pharisees who recognise that it was 
aimed against them. Indeed, the whole section, 2i 23 -2 2 46 , seems 
to be directed against the Pharisees; cf. 21 45 22 15 - 34 - 41 . This 
polemical motive probably explains the fact that in 2i 31 - 41 22 20 the 
opponents are made to utter their own condemnation (Xeyovcriv). 
The whole section seems to develop towards the terrific condemna- 
tion of ch. 23. Lastly, in 2 7 62 it is the chief priests and the 
Pharisees who effect the sealing of the tomb and the placing of 
the guard before it. It is perhaps due to the same anti-Jewish 
motive that we owe the insertion of the incident of Pilate's hand- 
washing (2 7 24 " 25 ). 


1. Papias apud Eusebius, H. E. iii. 39 : 

MaT0atos pcv ovv 'EfSpatSt SiaXeKTw to. Xoyta crvieypdij/aTO.* 
Hp/ATjvevcre 8 avTa. a>s rjv Suva-ros 2 Ikucttos. 

2. Irenseus, iii. 1. 1 apud Eusebius, H. E. v. S. 2 : 

6 pev St) MaT#cuos iv rots 'E/3patots tq toYa. airwv SiaXe/cru) /cat 
ypa<pr]v e^vey/cev EuayyeXtou, tov Tiirpov /cat tov llavXov ev 'Pu^ty 
evayycXt^opevtov /cat 6€fj.eXiovvTu>v tijv eKK/\r;<rtav. 

3. Origen apud Eusebius, H. E. vi. 25 : 

on irpaJrov yiypairrai to Kara, tov itotc TeXiavrjv, rcrrepov 
Se OLTrocrToXov 'irjaov Xpiorov MaT^atoi', f/cSeSw/coVa avro tois diro 
lovSa'icrfiov Tno-Tivaacn, ypdppacrtv 'E/3pai/cots o~vvTi.Tayp.ivov. 

4. Eusebius, H. E. iii. 24. 6 : 

Ma.T#aios yap Trportpov 'E/Jpat'ots Krjpv^as, w? TypcXXci/ /cat i<f> 
erepous levai, 7rarpta) yXwTTy ypcupr) TrapaSovs to kolt avTuv*EvayyeXtov, 
to XeiTrov ttj avTov 7rapovcrta tovtois dtp tuv eoTe'AAeTo, 01a tt}s ypcupfjs 

5. Eusebius, H. E. v. 10. 3 : 

6 PlavTatvos /cat €t§ I^Sous £X6eiv Xeyerat, iv6a Xoyos evpe'iv aiTov 
TrpocpOdo-av tt]v ai'Tov irapovaiav to /cara. Mar^atov evayyeXtov irapd 
tictlv clvtoOi tov Xptcrrov oreyvcu/cocriv, ots Bap#oXopatoj' TtOV diTOo-ToXujv 
eva Krjpv^ai aurots tc 'EySpatwv ypdfj.ix.aat Ti)v tov MaT0ai'ou /caraXcti/zai 
ypa<prjv, r/v /cat crw£(o~6ai eis Toy S^Aoi'pei/ov ^povoi/. 

If we interpret ra Xoyta in No. 1 as equivalent to " the 
Gospel," i.e. "the Gospel which bears his name," we seem to 
have a uniform second century tradition (Papias, Irenseus) 

1 v.L aw(Ta.i.a.TQ. i v. I. rthxiwro. 


repeated in the third (Origen) and in the fourth (Eusebius), to 
the effect that the first Gospel was written by Matthew, the toll 
gatherer and Apostle, in Hebrew. The necessary inference 
must be that our canonical Gospel is a translation of the 
original Apostolic work. 

This tradition (and inference) is, however, directly con- 
tradicted by the testimony of the first Gospel itself, for that 
work clearly shows itself to be a compilation by someone who 
has interwoven material from another source or other sources 
into the framework of the second Gospel. This renders it difficult 
to suppose that the book in its present form is the work of the 
Apostle Matthew. It is indeed not impossible, but it is very 
improbable, that an Apostle should rely upon the work of another 
for the entire framework of his narrative. If he did so, he certainly 
composed his work in Greek, not in Hebrew, for the first Gospel 
has largely embodied the Greek phraseology of the second GospeL 
It is inconceivable that the compiler should have rendered Mk.'s 
Greek into Hebrew, and that this should have afterwards been 
retranslated into Greek so closely resembling its Marcan original. 

It would therefore seem that if the five passages quoted above 
represent a uniform tradition, the only course open to us is to 
assert that tradition has here gone astray. Our first Gospel was 
not originally written in Hebrew, nor is it likely that in its present 
form it is the work of an Apostle. But such a direct negative only 
forces us to examine more closely the facts at issue. The main 
points are these : 

(i) From the end of the second century it has been believed 
that our first Gospel was the work of the Apostle Matthew, who 
wrote it in " Hebrew." How did it come to bear his name? 

(2) According to the tradition represented by Papias, Matthew 
composed ra Ao'yia in " Hebrew." 

In the first place, it is clear that whilst the description rot 
Aoyia need not necessarily exclude narrative material, it is admir- 
ably qualified to describe a book containing sayings, discourses, 
and parables. If there is corroborative evidence, we may 
reasonably suppose that S. Matthew's Hebrew work was of 
this description. 

Secondly, our first Gospel contains some 411 verses, being 
about two-fifths of the whole book, which consists of sayings, 
some of them in small groups, others forming part of long 
discourses or of parables. These sayings are in large part 
characterised by common features. See above, p. liv f. 

Now, if we assume that the compiler of the first Gospel 
drew these sayings from the Apostolic work or from a Greek 
translation of it, we have at once an explanation of the following 
facts : 


(i) That our first Gospel has been ascribed to Matthew from 
the end of the second century. On the one hand, an anonymous 
Gospel based on S. Mark's Gospel and on the Matthsean Logia 
was in use in the Church. It might, of course, have been called 
after its compiler. But there would be an irresistible tendency 
to find for it Apostolic sanction ; and the tradition as represented 
by Papias, that the Logia, which formed so large a part of it, were 
drawn from a work of the Apostle Matthew, would naturally suggest 
the name of that Apostle as a sanction for the importance ascribed 
to the first Gospel. To have called it after its other and chief 
source, S. Mark's Gospel, would have led to confusion, since the 
second Gospel was also in common use. 

(2) That the Church writers from the second century onwards 
speak of the first Gospel as having been written in " Hebrew." 
This is quite simply explained as an after consequence of the 
transference of the name Matthew from the original Apostolic 
work to the canonical Gospel. It was traditional knowledge that 
Matthew had written an Evangelic work in Hebrew, and this 
statement easily became attached to the first Gospel. If there 
seems to be a measure of unreality about such a statement as 
applied to the first Gospel, the fault must lie at the door of those 
who first transferred the name Matthew from the primary to the 
secondary work. Yet what could they do ? They wanted a name 
for the first Gospel. The compiler was either unknown, or, if 
known, a man of second rank in the Church. The book embodied 
much of the Apostle's work, and it would be a pity to allow his 
name as an authority for the Church's records to pass into oblivion. 
And so the first Gospel became the work of the Apostle. But S. 
Matthew, as all men knew, had written in " Hebrew." And so 
wherever the first Gospel became known as his work, the state- 
ment that he had written in Hebrew followed his name, and was 
attached to the Gospel. 

The canonical Gospel was not the only work ascribed to the 
Apostle Matthew in the second century. The Jewish Christian 
sect of the Nazarenes possessed a Gospel, which is referred to by 
second and third century writers as the Gospel according to the 
Hebrews. I give below some of the references to it. Lists of quota- 
tions from it may be seen in Preuschen's Afitilegomena, or Nestle's 
Novi Testamenti Supplementum, or (in German) in Hennecke's 
Neutestamentliche Apokryphen. For critical discussions of the 
questions connected with the Gospel, see Zahn, Gesch. des Kanons, 
ii. 642 ff., or Adeney in the Hibbert Journal, Oct. 1904. 

1. Ignatius (Hieronymus, De Vir. Illus. 16): 

Ignatius — scripsit — ad Smyrnaeos — in qua et de evangelio, quod 
nuperame translatum est, super persona Christi ponit testimonium 
dicens " Ego vero et post resurrectionem in came eum vidi et credo 



quia sit ; et quando venit ad Petrum et ad eos qui cum Petro erant 
dixit eis : Ecce palpate me et videte, qui non sum daemonium in- 
corporate. Et statim tetigerunt eum et crediderunt." Cf. Ignatius, 
Ad Smyrn. iii. i. 2. Jerome himself ascribes the expression "in- 
corporale daemonium " to the Gospel " quod Hebraeorum lectitant 
Nazaraei," Comm. in Isaiah, pref. to Bk xviii. Origen, De Princip. 1, 
prooem. 8, says that the expression " non sum daemonium incor- 
poreum " came from the book called Petri Doctrina. 

2. Hegesippus (Eusebius, H. E. iv. 22) : 

ck re tov Ka$ y 'E/3paiovs cuayyeAiov nai tov 2vpta\ou kou iStws e/c 
Trj<S 'E/?pat8os 8ia\eKTOv Tiva tl$7]ctlv. 

3. Papias (Eusebius, H. E. iii. 39) : 

CKre^eiTai Bk kcu aWrjv laropiav irtpi ywcu/cos £7ri 7roAAcus d/xap- 
riais Si.af3Xr]8eLcrr)<i iirl tov Kvpiov, rjv to ko.6' E/?pat'ous ciayyeXiov 

Eusebius does not here assert that Papias quoted from the 
Gospel according to the Hebrews. 

4. Irenaeus, Adv. Hczr. i. 26. 2 : 

Solo autem eo quod est secundum Matthaeum evangelio 
utuntur (Ebionaei), et apostolum Paulum recusant, apostatem eum 
legis dicentes. 

5. (a) Origen, Comment, injoh. vol. ii. 6 (Paris, 1759, vol. iv. 63). 
lay Se rrpoo-Urai tis to ko.0 'Efipatovs cvayyeXiov. 

(b) Origen, Comment, in Alt. vol. xv. 14 (Paris, 1740, vol. iii. 671). 

Scriptum est in evangelio quodam, quod dicitur secundum 
Hebraeos, si tamen placet alicui suscipere illud, non ad auctoritatem, 
sed ad manifestationem propositae quasstionis. 

6. Clement Alex., Stromata, ii. 9 : 

■fl kolv tu kcl6' E/?pcuous euayycAico — ytypairTau 

7. (a) Eusebius, H. E. iii. 25 : 

"HS77 8' ev tovtois Ttves kcu to ko.6' 'E/^paious tvayyiXiov KaTeA.e£ai', 
<S fxaXicrTa 'Efipaiwv ol toj/ XpiCH-ov 7rapa()€£ap.€voi xaipovo~i. 

(b) Eusebius, H. E. iii. 27 : 

evayyeXta) Se /xova) tw ko.6' 'E/Jpaious Aeyo/xeVw xpw/xtvoi, tu>v XolttCjv 
o-fiu<p6v Iitolovvto Xoyov. 

8. (a) Jerome, De Vir. lllus. 3 : 

Porro ipsum Hebraicum habetur usque hodie in Caesariensi 
bibliotheca, quam Pamphilus martyr studiosissime confecit. Mihi 
quoque a Nazareis, qui in Bercea urbe Syriae hoc volumine utuntur, 
describendi facultas fuit. 

(b) Jerome, Contra Pelag. iii. 2 : 

In Evangelio juxta Hebraeos, quod Chaldaico quidem Syroque 
Sermone, sed Hebraicis Uteris scriptum est, quo utuntur usque 
hodie Nazaraeni, secundum apostolos sive, ut plerique autumant, 
juxta Matthasum, quod et in Caesariensi habetur bibliotheca, narrat 
historia, etc. 

THE AUTHOR lxxxiii 

(c) Jerome, Comment, in Is n 2 : 

Evangelium quod Hebraeo sermone conscriptum legunt 

(d) Jerome, Comment, in Mic 7 7 : 

Evangelium "quod secundum Hebraeos editum nuper trans- 

(e) Jerome, Comment, in Is 40 9 : 

Evangelium "quod juxta Hebraeos scriptum Nazaraei lecti- 

(/) Jerome, Comment, in Ezech 16 13 : 

" In evangelio quoque Hebraeorum, quod lectitant Nazaraei/' 

(g) Jerome, Comment, in Mt 12 13 : 

In evangelio quo utuntur Nazaraeni et Ebionitae, quod nuper 
in Graecum de Hebraeo sermone transtulimus, et quod vocatur a 
plerisque Matthaei authenticum, etc. 

{h) Jerome, Ep. 20. 5 : 

Denique Matthaeus, qui evangelium Hebraeo sermone con- 
scripsit, ita posuit : Osatina barrama. 

(i) Jerome, Comment, in Mt 23 s5 : 

In evangelio quo utuntur Nazaraeni, etc. 

U) Jerome, I)e Vir. Illus. 2 : 

" Evangelium quoque, quod appellatur Secundum Hebraeos et 
a me nuper in Graecum Latinumque sermonem translatum est, quo 
et Origenes saepe utitur," etc. 

It will have been seen that Papias and the Gospel had a narra- 
tive in common ; but it does not, of course, follow that Papias had 
seen the Gospel. Ignatius has a saying which was also contained 
in the Gospel. Hegesippus quoted from it. Irenaeus speaks of it 
as in use among the Ebionites; but he probably uses Ebionites 
loosely as a general term for the Jewish Christians of Palestine. 
It was, as Jerome many times states, the Gospel of the Nazarenes, 
whilst the Ebionites had another Gospel (Epiphanius, Hceres. xxx. 
3. 13). Jerome saw the Gospel at Beroea, and says that there was 
a copy in the library at Caesarea. He translated it into Latin and 
into Greek, and not infrequently (some eighteen times) quotes from 
it in his writings. The extant fragments of it are too scanty to 
admit of positive judgements, but it is unlikely that there was any 
dependence of our canonical Gospel upon the Gospel according 
to the Hebrews, or vice versa. All that can be said is, that from 
the beginning of the second century the Jewish Christian Nazarenes 
had a Gospel which they ascribed to Matthew, and which was 
written in the Aramaic language and in Hebrew letters. It may 
have been ascribed to Matthew for the same reason that caused 
his name to be connected with our canonical Gospel, viz., the 
fact that one main source for its material was that Apostle's col- 
lection of sayings of Christ. 



The data furnished by the Gospel itself seem best satisfied if 
we suppose that its author compiled it within a period of a few 
years before or after the fall of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. An earlier 
date does not seem possible, in view of the fact that the compiler 
had S. Mark's Gospel before him. 

The writer's forecast of history is clear and unmistakable. 
The coming of the Son of Man, whom he clearly identifies with 
the crucified Christ, would be the first stage in a series of events, 
comprising the gathering of the elect and the final judgement, 
which together would form a terminus to the present dispensation 
of the world's history. Compare the following : 

24 s " What is the sign of Thy coming, and of the consumma- 
tion of the age ? " 

24 30 " They shall see the Son of Man coming upon the clouds 
of heaven," etc. 

2 5 31 "When the Son of Man shall come in His glory, then 
shall He sit on the throne of His glory, and all nations shall be 
gathered before Him." 

This coming and the consummation of the age lay in the near 
future. Compare the following : 

io 23 "Ye shall not finish the cities of Israel, till the Son of 
Man be come." 

16 28 "There are some of those who stand here, who shall not 
taste of death, until they see the Son of Man coming in His 

24 34 "This generation shall not pass away, until all these things 
come to pass." 

But it could be still further defined, for it was to take place 
" immediately after the tribulation of those days," 24 29 ; and this 
tribulation is clearly to the writer the distress which would accom- 
pany the downfall of Jerusalem ; cf. 24 s - 8 " There shall not be left a 
stone upon a stone. — When shall these things be, and what shall be 
the sign of Thy coming, and of the consummation of the age?" 

It is true that the writer anticipates a previous preaching of 
the goodness of the kingdom in all the world to all nations, 24 14 ; 
but he makes it clear that in his opinion this could be accom- 
plished before the great tribulation of the final overthrow of the 
Jewish nation ; cf. 24 14ff - " then shall come the end. When, there- 
fore, ye see (the approaching fall of the city)," etc. It is probable 
that he saw in the apostolic preaching in the West, culminating 
in the arrival of S. Paul at Rome, an ample fulfilment of this 
"preaching in all the world (oiKov/xivrj) for a testimony to all 


It seems impossible to suppose that a Gospel in which Christ's 
sayings are so arranged as to give this quite definite impression 
that He had foretold His coming as Son of Man, and the con- 
summation of the age, in close connection with the events of the 
year 70 a.d., could have been written more than a very few years 
after that date. 

Nor does the Gospel contain anything that decisively conflicts 
with such a date. 

Certainly not the narratives of chs. 1. 2. Whatever the amount 
of historical fact here recorded may be, there is no reason why these 
traditions should not have been recorded before the year 75 A.D., 
this date being chosen as the latest probable limit. See note on 
chs. 1. 2. It is only the narrow and undiscerning logic of modern 
criticism which finds it necessary to detect earlier and later stages 
of thought in these chapters, on the ground that one and the 
same writer could not have recorded the story of the supernatural 
birth, and, at the same time, have compiled as an introduction to 
it a genealogy professedly designed to emphasise the fact that 
Joseph was in a real sense the father of Jesus. I have en- 
deavoured to prove in the commentary that the Gospel as it now 
stands is an indivisible unity ; and that the only stages required are 
an early cycle of Palestinian traditions, and a compiler who placed 
them at the beginning of his Gospel, and compiled as an intro- 
duction to them a genealogy of the main figure in his Gospel 
narrative. The traditions may well have been current in Palestine 
before the year 70 a.d., and the compiler need not have done his 
work much later, if at all later, than this. 

Nor need such sayings as i6 17vl9 18 16 " 20 reflect a late period of 
Church history. The "Church" may well be the Palestinian com- 
munity of Jewish-Christian disciples of Jesus in the middle of 
the century, and the prominence given to S. Peter probably 
reflects his position in the Palestinian Church during that period. 
If we regard the writer of the Gospel as a Jewish Christian, and 
do not read into his record of Christ's words ideas which the 
later Church quite naturally found there in the light of the develop- 
ment of Christianity, there seems no reason to suppose that he 
may not have written his book within the period 65-75 a.d. 
And his arrangement of Christ's eschatological sayings almost 
conclusively points to that period. 


The Greek of the Gospel is not so full of Aramaisms and of 
harsh constructions due to translation from Aramaic as is the 
Greek of the second Gospel. Nor, on the other hand, has it the 


Septuagintal and, so, Hebraic ring of the language of the third 
Gospel. It has rather the lack of distinction which characterises 
any narrative compiled from previous sources by an editor who 
contents himself with dovetailing together rather than rewriting 
the sources before him. 

The following phrases are strikingly characteristic of the 
Gospel : 

Tore. This occurs in narrative at the beginning of a new para- 
graph, 1 3 13 4 1 9 14 n 20 i2 22 - 38 13 36 15 1 18 21 19 13 20 20 22 15 23 1 2 6 14 - 31 - 36 
2 7 3 - 27 , or in the course of a section, 2 7 - 16 - 17 3 s - 15 4 5 - 10 - n 8 26 g 6 - 29 - 37 

j 2 13 j r 12. 28 j 512. 20. 24 j /, 13. 19 j g27 2 j 1 2 2 21 2 6 3, 38# 45, 50, 52 * 56, 65, 67, 74 

2 ^9.i3.i6.26.38.58 2 gio # Frequently also in sayings and parables, 5 24 

~5. 23 q15 j 2 29. 44. 45 j ,26. 43 j £27 jg32 22 8. 13 2 .9. 10. 14. 16. 21. 23. 30 (2). 40 
2 rl. 7. 31.34. 37. 41. 44. 45 

iSou. 2 This occurs in narrative, either alone, i 20 2 1, 13 - 19 9 18 - 32 - 46 
2 6 47 , or with *<u prefixed, 4 16 - 17 8 2 - 24 - 29 - 32 - 34 I2 io I5 22 
T y3. 5 jgi6 2O 30 2551 2 y5i 28 9 ; in sayings and parables, either alone, 

U8.10.19 I2 2.47 I3 3 I9 27 2Q 18 22 4 24 23. 25. 26 26 46 2 §7 } Qr Wlt h Ka C } 

y 4 2 8 7 - 20 . 

6Va>s, 17 times. 

dva^oypeh', IO times. 

Trpo<rep)(€<r6ai, 52 times. 

TrpocrKvveLV) 13 times. 

irpoacpepuv, 14 times. 

crvvdyeiv, 24 times. 

oxA-oi. Mk. has oxA.05 37 times, o^Xoi once, ch. 10 (but 
D S x abcffikq o^A-os). On the other hand, Mt. has oxAoi 30 
*imes, o^A-os 17. 

For other phrases, see Hora Syn. pp. 4-7, 25-27, and above, 
p. lv f. 

Another characteristic of the editor's style is a tendency to 
repeat a phrase or construction two or three times at short 
intervals. This is particularly noticeable at the beginning or close 
of a section. 

Cf. the following : 

(i) rov Se 'Irjcov ytvi'TjOivTos — l8ov, 2 1 . 
ava)(U>pr)crdvT(t>v ok avrwv — loov, 2 13 . 
T(XevT-qcravTO<s 8e tov 'Hpw8ov IBov, 2 1 *. 

(2) TrapayLverai, 3 1 . 


(3) aKOvcra<i 8e, 4 12 . 
7r€pi7raTcov Se, 4 18 . 
iSwv 8e, 5 1 . 

1 As arranged in the text of Westcott and Hort. 

2 This word is characteristic of Mt. only as contrasted with Mk. It is 
common in Lk. 

THE TEXT lxxxvii 

(4) KaraBdvTL (os) S« avTw (ov), 8\ 
elai\(J6vTO<; (t) 8k avrov (w), 8 5 . 

(5) kcu ip.j3dvTL olvtu, 8 23 . 
Kai cA^oim aura), 8 . 

(6) kou ififids, 9 1 . 
Kat Trapdyuiv, g 9 . 

(7) ets cA?/y t?)j/ yr^v ii<tiir)v, O 28 . 
ci/ 0A.77 tt} y^ iK€LV7], 9 31 . 

(8) CV €K£LV(ti Tto Kaip<3, II 25 I2 1 . 

(9) 01 §€ evOetDs a<f>£vT€<;, 4 20 - 22 . 
(10) ev#vs Sc, 14 27 . 

£u#ea>s Se, 14 31 . 
(il) Kai. i£e\9wv eKeWev, 15 21 . 
/cat /xera/Sds eKeWev t 15 29 . 

(12) t^f fiaaiktiav tov 6eov, 21 31 . 
rj fiacriXtia tov 9eov, 2 I 43 . 

(13) Kai KaTaficuvovTwv avrwv — evereiAaro av-rois, 1 7*. 
Kai eA6*di'Twv — TrpocrrjXOev avrw, 17 14 . 

(14) di'aarpecf>op,€Vwv Se auraJv, 1 7 s2 . 
eA^oVraJV Se avrwv, 17 24 . 

(15) aAA^i' 7rapa/?oA.7yv 7rapiOr]K€v avrols Ae'ywi', I^ 24-31 . 
aAArp' Trapa/3o\r]v eAaA^crev avrots, 13 33 . 

(16) 6/AOt'a ((ttiv, 13 44 . 

7rdAiv 6/u.oia ecrrti', 1 3 45- 47 . 


The task of an editor of the first Gospel is complicated by the 
fact that he not only has to decide questions bearing on the text 
of the first Gospel, but also to investigate the text of S. Mark. 
I am unable to assume that the edition of Westcott and Hort gives 
us a final text in either Gospel. In particular, I am inclined 
to believe that the second century readings, attested by the 
ecclesiastical writers of that century, and by the Syriac and Latin 
versions, are often deserving of preference. I have made no 
special study of the Latin versions, but some investigation of the 
Syriac versions has long convinced me that the Curetonian may 
be regarded as a revision of the text presented by the Sinaitic 
version ; and that whilst the former, when it differs from the 
Sinaitic, rarely retains an original reading, the latter is often of 
great importance. On the other hand, I cannot subscribe to the 
exaggerated estimate of the value of the Sinaitic versions taken by 
Dr. A. Merx. 1 For the early Syriac versions, the student should 
study the admirable edition of Mr. Burkitt. 

1 Pte Vier Canon'schen Evangelien. 


I have used the ordinary symbols for the Greek and Latin 
MSS. To those usually quoted add 

Ox = A papyrus fragment, containing Mt i 1 ' 9, 12, 14 " 20 , published 

in Oxyrhynchus Papyri, i. 
The Syriac versions are quoted thus : 

5 1 = the Sinaitic MS. 

5 2 = the Curetonian. 

5 3 = the Peshitta. 

5 4 = the Harclean. 

5 5 = the Jerusalem Lectionary. 

The Old Latin (pre-Vulgate) MSS. are quoted under the 
ordinary letters (a b c, etc.), or in cases where several agree as 

No attempt has been made to give the whole of the evidence 
for textual readings. The syllable al means " with other uncial 
MSS.," e.g. E F al means that a reading is attested by E F and 
other uncials. 


Abbott, E. A., The Corrections of Mark. London, 1901. 
Joha7inine Vocabulary. London, 1905. 
Johannine Grammar. London, 1906. 
Abraham, Die Apokalypse Abrahams. Herausgegeben von C. N. 

Bonwetsch. Leipzig, 1897. 
Adeney, W. F., The Gospel according to the Hebrews (Hibbert 

Journal, Oct. 1904). 
Ascension of Isaiah. See Charles. 
Assumption of Moses. See Charles. 

Bacher, W., Die Agada der Tannaiten. Strassburg, 1 884-1 902. 
Die Exegetische Termitiologie der Judischen Traditions- 
literatur. Leipzig, 1905. 
Bacon, B. W., Jesus' Voice from Heaven (American Journal of 

Theology, ix. 458). 
Baruch. See Charles. 
Bigg, C, The Church's Task under the Roman Empire. Oxford, 

Bischoff, JL.,Jesu und die Rabbinen. Leipzig, 1905. 
Blass, F., Textkritische Bemerkiuigen zu Matthdus. Giitersloh, 
Grammar of New Testament Greek. Translated by H. St. 
John Thackeray. London, 1898. 
Bcusset, W., Die Religion des Judentums. Berlin, 1903. 
Box, G. H., The Gospel Narratives of the Nativity and the alleged 

Influence of Heathen Ideas (Interpreter, Jan. 1906). 
Briggs, C. A., Messianic Prophecy. Edinburgh, 1886. 
The Messiah of the Gospels. Edinburgh, 1894. 
New Light on the Life of Jesus. Edinburgh, 1904. 
Criticism and the Dogma of the Virgin-Birth (North 
American Review, June 1906). 
Burkitt, F. C, Evangelion Da-Mepharreshe. Cambridge, 1904. 

The Gospel History and its Transmission. Edinburgh, 1906. 
Burton, E. De Witt, Principles of Literary Criticism and the 
Synoptic Problem. Chicago, 1 904. 



Charles, R H.. Th .'• k. Oxford, i- - 

The Book of the Secrets of Enoch* l 96. 

7>'. A. Lood .6. 


The Ascension of Isaiah. I>ori' 

ZZ- Ix>ndon. 

•. . //• irew [ricish and Chris:: ;•:. I,ondon, 1899. 
The Testaments of th- t Joun 

Ch ■ • md 

The LonTt Comt irnal of Theological 

( 'hk\ nk, 1 . K 
1 -. I ».. Aj> . 

.rift fur und V 

b and R . ^ 

>'A ami iin- 

in the - ll'tssen- 

ff . 


DaLI ' .ion by 



translation by A 

J. Hasl rgh, 

. H ' 
i '.. 1. Ed in bur] 
Dn , G., -iae, 

Dittmar, W., Vetus Testan Gottingen, 1 ,-1903. 

Pkivi k, S. K.. A < •! £fc* ' 
Kdinhurgh, 1S95. 

T Daniel (Camb. Bib.). Cambridge. 1900. 


Driver, S. R., Son of Man (Dictionary of the Bible, iv. 579 ff.). 

Poor (1)k tionary of the Bible, iv. 19 ff.). 
Drumm m>, J., The Use and Meaning of the Phrase "Son 0/ 
Man " in the Synoptic Gospels (Journal of Theological 

Studies, April, July 1901 ). 

A. J., Buddhist and Christian Gospels. Tokyo, 1905. 

ne and Black). London, 1899-1903. 

In BIO, 1'.. Usche Gleichnisse. Tubingen, 1904. 

FRIED! '• . M.. Die / . m Innerhalb desjuden- 

turns im Zeita ,. Berlin, [905. 

Got" 1 D, I.- P., A < 'ritual and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel 

.'. Mark. Edinburgh, 1S96. 
( 'iki nh ! ! and Huh ft. 

Grxssmann, 11., Der Ursprung der Israeli tisch-jiidischen Eschato- 

' • !9°5' 

•«kh, H., Zum i ■ -eSihichtlichen I'erstandnis des Neuen 

Testaments. (iottingen, 1903. 

HaRNACE, A., Luhoi der Arzt. I. : /.ig, 1906. 

HARRIS, J. ReNDEL, Fragments of the Commentary of p.phrem. 

im bridge. 
Hatzidakis, G. N . Einieitung in die Neugriechische Grammatih. 

. 190a. 
Hawkins Rev. Sir J. C, Bart., M.A., Horcz Synoptica. Oxford, 

HeitmUller, \\'., Im Namenjesu. Gottingen, 1903. 
Hennkckr, 1.. Weuttstamentliche Apohryphen. Tubingen, 1904. 

HSREORD, R. T., Christianity in Talmud and Midrash. London, 

EixRWi i den, Lexi n Grtecum Suppletorium et Dialecticum, Com- 

uit H« van Herwerden. Lugduni Batavorum, 1902. 
HlLGENFBLD, A., /xitschrift /ur W'issenschaftliche Theologie, xxxviii. 

447 ^ 

JerEMIAS, A., Babylonisches Im Neuen Testament. Leipzig, 1905. 
Johns, The Oldest Code of Laws in the World. Edinburgh, 1903. 
JOSEPH] Opera. Ed B. Niese. Berolini, 1887-1895. 
Jubilees. See Charles. 

Kaibkl, G., Epigrammata Graca. Berolini, 1878. 
KENNEDY, II. A. A., Sources of New Testament Greek. Edin- 
burgh, 1895. 


Krauss, S., Das Leben Jesu nach Jiidischen Quellen. Berlin, 1902. 

Laible, H., Jesus Christ u s im Thatmud. Leipzig, 1900. 

Lake, K., The Influence of Textual Criticism on the Exegesis of the 

New Teslamentt. Oxford, 1904. 
Lendrum, W. T., "Moth" and "Rust" (Classical Review, July 

Letronne, Recueil des Inscriptions Grecques et latines de rEgypte. 
Levy, J., Neuhebrdisches und Chalddisches Worterbuch. Leipzig, 

Lietzmann, H., Der Menschensohn. Leipzig, 1896. 
Lightfoot, J., Horce HebraiccB et Talmudicce. Lipsis, 1575. 
Lightfoot, J. B., Saint Paul's Epistle to the Philippians. London, 

AOriA IHCOY, Sayings of our Lord. Frotn an Early Greek 

Papyrus. London, 1897. 
New Sayings of Jesus and Eragment of a Lost Gospel. 

London, 1904. 

Mechilta in Ugolini Thesaurus, xiv. Venice, 1752. 

Merx, A., Das Evangelium Matthdus. Berlin, 1902. 

Die Evangelien des Markus und Lukas. Berlin, 1905. 

Midrashim, German translation, by A. Wiinsche. Leipzig, 1880- 

Moulton, J. H., A Grammar of New Testament Greek, vol. i., 
Prolegomena. Edinburgh, 1906. 

Moulton, W. F., and Geden, A., Concordance to the Greek Testa- 
ment. Edinburgh, 1897. 

Nestle, E., Novi Testamenti Supplementum. Lipsiae, 1896. 

"Anise" and" Rue" (Expository Times, Aug. 1904, p. 

Oracula Sibyliina. Ed. J. Geffcken. Leipzig, 1902. 

Pape, W., Worterbuch der Griechischen Eigennamen. Braunsch- 
weig, 1884. 
Papyri, Oxyrhynchus Papyri, i.-iv. Edited by B. P. Grenfell and 
A. S. Hunt. London, 1898- 1904. 
Fayum Tow?is and their Papyri. Edited by B. P. Grenfell, 

A. S. Hunt, and D. G. Hogarth. London, 1900. 
Tebtunis Papyri. Edited by B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, 

and J. G. Smyly. London, 1902. 
Amherst Papyri, i. Edited by B. P. Grenfell and A. S. 
Hunt. London, 1900. 
Pauli Acta, Herausgegeben von C. Schmidt. Leipzig, 1905. 


Plummer, A., A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel 
according to St. Luke. Edinburgh, 1896. 

Preuschen, E., Antilegomena. Giessen, 1901. 

Psalms of Solomon. Edited by A. E. Ryle and M. R. James. 
Cambridge, 1891. 

Resch, A., Aussercanonische Paralleltexte zu den Evangelien, ii. 

Leipzig, 1894. 
Riggenbach, E., Der Trinitarische Taufbefehl. Giitersloh, 1903. 
Robinson, J. Armitage, The Study of the Gospels. London, 1902. 
The Epistle to the Ephesians. London, 1904. 
Isaiah, Ascension ^/"(Dictionary of the Bible, iii. 499 ff.). 
Euthaliana (Texts and Studies, vol. iii.). 
Rordam, T. Skat, What was the Lost End of Mark's Gospel? 
(Hibbert Journal, July 1905). 

Sanday, W., Sacred Sites of the Gospels. Oxford, 1903. 
Schlatter, A., Die Sprache und Heimat des Vierten Eva?igeliums. 

Giitersloh, 1902. 
Schmidt, N., The Prophet of Nazareth. New York, 1905. 
Schoettgen, C., Hor<z Hebraica et Talmudica. Dresdse, 1733- 

Schurer, E., History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus 

Christ. Translated by J. Macpherson. Edinburgh, 

Siphra in Ugolini Thesaurus, xiv. Venice, 1752. 
Siphri in Ugolini Thesaurus, xv. Venice, 1753. 
Smith, G. A., Historical Geography of the Holy Land. London, 

Stephanus, H., Thesaurus Gr<zcce Linguce. Parisiis, 1831- 

Swete, H. B., The Gospel according to St. Mark. London, 


Talmud, Der Babylonische Talmud. Herausgegeben von Lazarus 

Goldschmidt. Berlin, 1897. 
Taylor, C, The Oxyrhynchus Logia. Oxford, 1899. 
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs in Grabe's Specilegium SS. 

Patrum ut et Hcereticorum. Oxoniae, 1698. 
Thompson, R. C., The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. 

London : vol. i., 1903. 

Usener, H., Nativity (Encyclopaedia Biblica, iii. 3340 ff.). 

Volz, V.,Judische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba. Tubingen, 


Von Oefele, F., Die Angabeti der Berliner Planatentafel, p. 8279. 

Berlin, 1903. 
Votaw, C. W., Sermon on the Mount (Dictionary of the Bible, 

Extra Volume, 1 ff.). 

Weber, Jiidische Theologie. Leipzig, 1897. 
Wellhausen, J., Das Evangelium Marci, 1903. 
Das Evangelium Matthcei, 1 904. 
Das Evangelium Lucce, 1904. 
Einleitung in Die Drei Ersten Evangelien, 1905. Berlin : 

G. Reimer, 1905. 
Skizzen und Vorarbeiten. Berlin, 1899. 
Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in the Original Greek. 

Introduction. London, 1896. 
Winer-Schmiedel, Grammatik des Neutestamentlichen Sprach- 

idioms. Gottingen, 1894. 
Wright, A., Synopsis of the Gospels in Greek. London, 1903. 

Zahn, T., Forschungen fiir Geschichte des Neutestamentlichen 
Kanons. Erlangen, 1 881-1903. 
Geschichte des Neutestamentlichen Kanons. Erlangen, 1888- 

Einleitung in das Neue Testament. Leipzig, 189 7-1 899. 
Das Evangelium des Matthiius. Leipzig, 1903. 


{See also p. lxxxviii.) 

^sch. . 

. iEschylus. 

Am. Pap. 

Amherst Papyri. 

Anth. P. . 

Anthologia Palatina. 



Apoll. R. 

. Apollonius Rhodius. 


. Aquila. 


. Aristotle. 


. Aristophanes. 

Asc. Is. . 

Ascension of Isaiah. 

Ass. Mos. 

. Assumption of Moses. 

B. . 

Babylonian Talmud. 


>) 11 


. Aegyptische Urkunden aus den Koenig 

lichen Museum zu Berlin, 1892 ff. 


. Burkitt. 

Class. Rev. 

Classical Review. 

Clem. Alex. 

. Clement of Alexandria. 

Dalm. . 



. Dictionary of the Bible (Hastings). 

DCG. . 

Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels. 

Deissm. . 





. Diatessaron of Tatian. 

Diod. . 

. Diodorus. 

Dion. H. 

Dionysius Halicarnassus. 

Ditt. Syll. 

Dittenberger Sylloge. 

Encycl. Bib. 

. Encyclopedia Biblica. 


Ephrem Syrus. 

Epict. . 




Ev. Pet. . 

Evangelium Petri. 

Exp. Times 

Expository Times. 





Hor. Heb 

. Horce Hebraiaz (Lightfoot). 

Hor. Syn 

. Horce Synopticce (Hawkins). 




. Jerusalem Talmud. 


. Josephus. 

JThS. . 

. Journal of Theological Studies. 


. Jubilees. 

Just. Mai 

t. , Justin Martyr. 


. Manuscripts of the Old Latin Version. 

LXX . 

. The Septuagint Version. 




. The Targum of Onkelos. 

Or. Sib. 

Sibylline Oracles. 

Ox. Pap. 

Oxyrhynchus Papyri. 


. Plutarch. 

Polyb. . 

. Polybius. 

Ps.-Sol. . 

The Psalms of Solomon. 

Sib. Or. 

Sibylline Oracles. 


. Symmachus. 


. Targum. 


. Tatian. 

Teb. Pap. 

. Tebtunis Papyri. 


. Tertullian. 


. Theodotion. 

Wellh. . 

. Wellhausen. 


. Westcott and Hort. 


m. . Winer-Schmiedel. 


. Xenophon. 

The letters in the margin of the Commentary denote tht 
sources from which the words are drawn : 

E = editorial passages. 

L = the Matthaean Logia. 

M = the Second Gospel. 

O = quotations from the Old Testament borrowed from a 

collection of Messianic prophecies. See pp. lxi f. 
P = Palestinian traditions. 
X = passages in which Mt. and Lk. agree closely, 

borrowed from an unknown source or sources. 



I. 1-17. His Genealogy. 

I. 1. Book of the generation of Jesus Christ, Son of David, Son E 
of Abraham.} fii(3\o<; yeie'crews is clearly borrowed from Gn 2 4a 
LXX. So far as the Hebrew of that passage is concerned, 
"These are the generations," etc., would seem to close the pre- 
ceding section. But it is probable that the LXX translator 
connected it rather with 2 4b ~4 26 . This section contains J's narra- 
tives of the creation of man, of the garden, of the Fall, of the 
birth of Cain and Abel, and of the descendants of Cain down to 
Lamech ; ending with the births of Seth and of his son. yc'vco-is 
here, therefore, covers the genealogy of mankind from Adam to 
Seth, and includes a good deal of narrative-matter relating to this 
period. In Gn 5 1 fitfiXos yevecrews occurs again, and here covers 
the genealogy of Adam as far as Japheth (5 s2 ), with an appended 
history containing an account of the wickedness of men in the 
days of Noah (6 1 " 8 ). In 6 9 occurs the shorter superscription ami 
Se at yeveo-as Nwe, introducing the account of the Flood, 6 9 -9 29 . 
In io 1 avTai 8e at ycve'creis rwv vlwv Nwe introduces a list of the 
descendants of Noah, with an appended narrative of the tower of 
Babel (n 1 " 9 ). In n 10 avrat at yeveo-ets 2t//a introduces a list of 
the descendants of that patriarch to Terah; and in n 27 a similar 
formula ushers in the descendants of Terah. It is therefore 
clear that to a Jewish Christian writer acquainted with the LXX, 
17 /3t/SAos yevetrews, or avrat at yevecrei?, was a biblical phrase which 
might be used to describe a narrative containing, as in the case of 
Noah, a list of descendants, and some account of the life of the 
person named. In strict analogy we should expect /8i'/8Xos ycvccrttos 
'A/Spad/x. But, since for the editor the main interest centred in 
the person of Christ rather than of Abraham, it was not unnatural 
for him to depart from literary usage in this respect. It seems 


probable that the title should be taken as covering not the whole 
Gospel, but only that portion of it which gives Christ's ancestry 
and the circumstances of His birth and childhood. 

'lrjcrov XpLcrrov.] This collocation is rare in the Synoptic 
Gospels. It occurs here, i 18? i6 21T Mk i 1 only. Also in Jn i 17 
17 3 Xpiaros has become a proper name, and lost its adjectival 
force. For the history of Xpio-To-; as a Messianic title, see Dalm. 
Words, 289 ff. — vlov Aavct'8] For "Son of David" as a title 
of the Messiah, see Dalm. Words, 319 ff. — vlov 'Afipadfx] Cf. 
He 2 16 crirepfxaTos 'A/Spadp. eiri.\ap.fidveTa.i. The descent of the 
Messiah from Abraham is emphasised in Test. Levi 8. Cf. Volz, 
Jud. Eschat. 216. 

The genealogy which follows was probably compiled by the 
editor for the purpose of his Gospel, (a) In accordance with this 
purpose he carries back the genealogy to Abraham, the first 
founder of the Jewish race. (&) He inserts details which are out 
of place in a strict genealogy, but which are in harmony with the 
theme of his Gospel, e.g. ck t^s ®dp.ap, v. 8 ; i< rijs 'Paxd/3, v. 4 ; 
Ik rrj<; 'PovO, v. 6 ; €K 1-775 tov Ovptov, v. 6 . These names are prob- 
ably introduced as those of women, in whose case circum- 
stances were overruled by the divine providence which, as it might 
have seemed, should have excluded them from a place in the 
ancestral line of the Messiah. They were in a sense forerunners 
of the Virgin Mary, (c) The division into three groups of fourteen 
names also has its purpose. In David the family rose to royal 
power (Aau€t8 tov /?ao-iAea, v. 6 ). At the Captivity it lost it again. 
In the Christ it regained it. 

For the names in the genealogy the compiler naturally had 
recourse to the Old Testament so far as that availed him. He 
appears to have used the LXX text. 

V. 2 comes from 1 Ch i 34 2 1 , v. 3 from 1 Ch 2 4 - 6 - 9 , vv. 4 " 6a 
from 1 Ch 2 10 " 13 , w. 6 ^ 11 from 1 Ch 3 s - 10 - 15 , vv. 12 - 13 to Zopo- 
fidfitX from 1 Ch 3 17 " 19 . The names in vv. 13 ' 16 come from an 
unknown source, probably from information received from Christ's 
E 2. Abraham begat Isaac ; and Isaac begat Jacob ; and Jacob 
begat Judah and his brethren.} 'Afipadp. eycvvT/cre tov 'Icraa/c, from 
I Ch I 34 /cat £yevv>]0-ev 'Afipaap. tov 'laaaK. In the next clause 

'IaKw/3 comes from 1 Ch i 34 , where the Heb. has "Israel." This 
is at the outset a hint that the compiler is using the LXX rather 
than the Hebrew. — 'Iov'Sav kcu tovs dSeXcpot"; avTov] The compiler 
borrows 'IouSa from 1 Ch 2 1 , and then summarises the brethren 
whose names are there given as to£>9 dbeXcpovs avrov. The fact 
that he mentions the brethren at all suggests that he has this 
verse in Chronicles before him. 
E 3. And Judah begat Phares and Zara from Tamar ; and Phares 
begat Esrom ; and Esrom begat Aram.'] Clause a is from 1 Ch 2 4 <ca« 


®apap r) vvp.<pr) avrov ZrtKev auTu> tov <£apes kcu tov Zapa. The fact 
that the compiler adds xai tov Zapa ck rrj<; ®apap, which is quite 
superfluous in a genealogy proper, shows that he had 1 Ch 2 4 
before him. Zapa is the Septuagintal form of rni. On the 
editor's special reason for mentioning Tamar, see above. — 'Eo-pwp] 
In 1 Ch 2 9 B has 'Eo-cpwv, A Luc. 'Eo-pwp;- In 1 Ch 2 5 B has 
'Apow, B a ' b ' 'Eo-pwv, A Luc. 'Ecrpw/A. Elsewhere 'Eo-pwp, is 
peculiar to A Luc, never appearing in B. Its use in Mt. shows 
that the compiler was using Septuagintal forms, and not trans- 
literating the Hebrew. — 'Apa'p] In 1 Ch 2 9 'Apa'p. appears as a 
son of 'Ecrpojp.. 

4. And Aram begat Aminadab ; and Aminadab begat Naasson ; E 
and Naasson begat Salmon.~\ — 'Apa'p] In 1 Ch 2 10 B has 'Appav, 
but A Luc. 'Apa'p. — 'ApivaSa'/?] In 1 Ch 2 10 B has 'ApeivaSa'/?, 
but A Luc. 'ApivaSa/?. Naacro-wv and SaXpw come from 1 Ch 
2 10 - n . They are the Septuagintal forms of |iB>nj and KoSfe'. 

5. And Naasson begat Boes from Rahab ; and Boes begat Iobed E 
from Ruth ; and Iobed begat Jessai.] — Boo£] In 1 Ch 2 11, 12 B 
has Boos, but A Luc. /3o'o£. — Ik t?}? 'Paxap] For the insertion, 
see on v. 1 . 'Pa^a/3 is not a Septuagintal form. This version 
uniformly has 'Fad/3. However, Josephus has 17 'Paxdfirj or 
'Yadfir), Ant. v. 8, 11, 15. The editor adopts here a form which 
represents the Hebrew more nearly than 'Paa/?. 'Iw/?^8 and 
'Ico-o-at are the Septuagintal forms of 13iy and ^ or '•fcrN. They 
come from 1 Ch 2 12 , where B has 'Q/3r/<5 and A 'Iw/^S. 

6. And Jessai begat David the king.] The insertion of "theE 
king," which was perhaps suggested by ifiaaiXevaev, 1 Ch 3* 
or by Ru 4 22 LXX A, marks the close of the first division of the 
genealogy. At this point the family obtained royal power. 
Aat>€i8 is the Septuagintal form. For tov fiao-ikta, cf. also Jos. 
Ant. v. ix. 4 : — " From Obed came Jessai, and from him David 
the king (6 /3ao-iAeuo-as), and left the sovereignly to his sons 
for twenty-one generations. I thought it necessary to recount 
the history of Ruth, because I wished to show the power of 
God, that He can advance even the ignoble to splendid dignity ; 
such as that to which He brought David, though born of such 

6, 7. And David begat Solomon from the wife of Uriah ; and 
Solomon begat Roboam.] 1 Ch 3 5 - 10 . — 2oA.opwva] The LXX A B 
has SaAwpwv, Luc. 2aXop.wv, Josephus SoXopwi'. 'Po/Soa'p, is the 
Septuagintal form. — «k t^s tov OvpeCov] Perhaps suggested to 
the editor by 1 Ch 3 5 . For the insertion of a woman's name, see 
on v. 1 . Oipeiov is the Septuagintal form. 

7, 8. And Roboam begat Abia ; and Abia begat Asaph ; and E 
Asaph be^at Joshaphat ; and Joshaphat begat Jo ram.] Cf. 1 Ch 
3 io. u_/a/3«£] LXX A B has 'Afieid, Luc. 'A/?m. Josephus 



'A/3t'as. — *Ao-a$] In i Ch. LXX A B Luc. has "Ao-a, Josephus 
"Ao-avos. But 'Ao-acp is a Septuagintal form. See Burkitt, Evan- 
gelion Da-Mepharreshe, 203. 'IwcracpaT and 'Iwpa'p. are Septuagintal 
forms. Josephus has 'IwcrcupaTos and 'Iwpapos. 

E 8, 9. And Joram begat Ozias ; and Ozias begat Joatham ; and 
Joatham begat Ahaz ; and Ahaz begat HezekiasP\ Cf. 1 Ch 3 11 ' 12 . 
Joram begat Ozias. Commentators usually note that Mt. has 
here omitted three kings, Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah. But this 
is not the case. 1 Ch 3 11 records that '0£aa was the son of 
Joram. That is to say, Mt. follows the LXX of the Chronicles. 
Mt. continues : '0£ctas <$e iyivvqaz rov 'Iu)d$afx. The Chronicler 
LXX has Icoas V109 avrov, Apao"ias vlos avrov, A£apia vlbs airov, 
'IwaOdv ulos avrov. That is to say, Mt. has omitted not Ahaziah 
= '0£etas, Joash, and Amaziah, but Joash, Amaziah, and Azariah 
= Uzziah. The reason must be sought in 1 Ch 3 11 LXX. The 
son of Joram is there called 'O^ia. Now for Ahaziah the LXX 
generally has 'O^o^et'a?, whilst '0£cia is generally the equivalent of 
Uzziah, e.g. 2 Ch 26 3ff \ 'O^eta in 1 Ch 3 11 is possibly a mistake. 
Mt. as he copied it seems naturally enough to have connected it 
with Uzziah, and so to have passed on to this king's son, Jotham, 
thus omitting unconsciously the three intervening kings. Or the 
copy of the LXX which he followed may have made the omission 
for the same reason. — '0£etas] The Septuagintal forms are 'O^cia, 
B; 'O&a?, A Luc— 'Iwa^a'/xj The LXX A B has 'Icoatfa./, but 
Luc. 'lwOdu. — *Axa£] The LXX A B has "A^as, but Luc. *A-x a £- 
'E£e/aas is the LXX form. 

JE 10. And Hezekiah begat Manasseh ; and Manassek begat 
Amos; and Amos begat Josiah.~\ — Mavacro-yjs] So LXX, Josephus. 
— 'Iaxj-aa?] LXX A B has 'Iwcreia, but Luc. 'Iaxrias ; SO Josephus. 
— 'A/acjs] LXX B has 'Afuw, A 1? B ab 'A/aws. Josephus, "Ajuwo-os 
or A/x/xwv. 

E 11. And Josiah begat Jechoniah and his brethren, at the time 
of the captivity into Babylon.\ xat tov% d8e\<f>ovs avrov is inserted 
because in 1 Ch 3 1S the names of the brethren of Jehoiakim are 
recorded just as the same words occur in v. 2 , because the brethren 
of Judah are registered in 1 Ch 2 1 . 

The verse as it stands gives rise to great difficulties, because 
Jehoiakim has been omitted. But the text must be corrupt. As 
it stands there are only thirteen names in the third division, 
beginning with Salathiel. And this is impossible in view of v. 17 . 
If we suppose that 'Uxoviav in v. 11 is a corruption for 'Iwa/cet/A, 
everything is plain. 1 The /cat rovs dSeA.</>ous is then due to 1 Ch 

1 In 1 Esd I 82 reference is made to rbv , \exovla.v vlbv lajvetov. Here 

Tehoahaz is meant. We might suppose that Mt. also meant Jehoahaz by rbr 

lexovlav, and that his Kal toi)s &Se\<pous avrov was a summary way of describing 

Jehoiakim ; Jehoiachin and Zedekiah, of whom the first and third were brothers 

of Jehoahaz, whilst the second was his nephew, if it were not for the fact that 


3 15 , where the names of Jehoiakim's brethren are given. — eVi ttJs 
jLteroiKco-tas] /xeTotKccrta, a rare word. It occurs ten times in the 
LXX, besides only Anth. P. 7. 731. The mention of the Captivity 
closes the second division of the genealogy. In the generation of 
Jechoniah the family lost the royal power to which it had risen in 
the person of David. 

12. And after the captivity into Babylon, Jechoniah begat Sala- E 
thiel.] From r Ch 3 17 . 

12, 13. And Salathiel begat Zorobabel ; and Zorobabel begat E 
Abind ; and Abhid begat Eliahim.] In 1 Ch 3 19 the Hebrew 
represents Zerubbabel as the son of Pedaiah. But the LXX B A 
gives Kal viol ^aXadtrjX Zopo/3d'/8eA, k.t.X. The editor is therefore 
clearly using the LXX. It seems clear that up to this point the 
editor has been using the LXX of 1 Ch 1-3. For (1) the names 
are given in the forms of the LXX. The only apparent exceptions 
are 'Ao-a'0 and 'Paxd-fi. The latter does not occur in 1 Ch 1-3, 
and the editor substitutes a traditional form for the 'Pad/3 of the 
LXX. (2) Several of the details in Mt. are explained by his use 
of the LXX of 1 Ch., e.g. (a) 'la™/?, v. 2 . So LXX 1 Ch i 84 , 
Heb. tonfc* (b) 'Iwpdp. Sc lyivvqae tov *0£i'av (v. 9 ). So LXX 

I Ch 3 11 . {c) 2aAa#ir/A. Se lyivvrjcre tov Zopo/3dj3e\ (v. 13 ). So 
LXX 1 Ch 3 19 . Other details in the genealogy point to a use 
of 1 Ch. but not necessarily of the LXX version, e.g. (a) Kdl tov? 
dSeX^oL's avrov (v. 2 ), is explained by 1 Ch 2 1, 2 ; (b) Kal tov Zapa 
ix tt}s ®d/j.ap (v. 3 ), by reference to 1 Ch 2 4 ; (c) /ecu tovs d8eX(povs 
avrov (v. 11 ), by reference to 1 Ch 3 15 . 

For the names which follow, the editor is dependent on other 

13, 14. And Eliakim begat Azor ; and Azor begat Sadok ; and E 
Sadok begat Acheim ; and Acheim begat Eliud.] 

15. And Eliud begat Eleazar ; and Eleazar begat Matthan;"E 
and Mat than begat Jacob. \ 

16. And Jacob begat Joseph. Joseph, to whom was espoused E 
Mary a virgin, begat Jesus, who is called Christ.] Thus ends 
the third division of the genealogy. The family now regained in 
the Christ, the anointed King, the sovereignty which it had won 
in David and lost at the Captivity. There is no sufficient ground 
for supposing that the genealogy ever existed apart from the 
Gospel. The references to Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, Bathsheba, can 
only be explained as due to the editor of the Gospel, who saw in 
the life histories of these women a divine overruling of history 
from which a right understanding of Mary's virginity might be 
drawn. Of course these references might have been inserted by 
the editor of the Gospel in a genealogy which he found ready 
made to his hand. But the artificial arrangement into three 

in v.| 2 'lexovias is clearly Jehoiachin. For confusion between Jehoiakim and 
Jehoiachin cf. I Esd i 41 , where the latter is called 'luaKtljj.. 


groups of fourteen names reminds us of the not infrequent pre- 
dilection for arrangements in three whicn runs through the entire 
work. Cf. the following : three incidents of Christ's childhood, 
ch. 2 ; three incidents prior to His ministry, 3-4 11 ; three tempta- 
tions, 4 1 ' 11 ; threefold interpretation of " do not commit murder," 
v. 22 ; three illustrations of " righteousness," 6 1 " 18 ; three prohibi- 
tions, 6 19 -7 6 ; three injunctions, 7 7 ' 27 ; three miracles of healing, 
gi-15 . three miracles of power, 8 23 -o 8 ; three complaints of His 
adversaries, 9 1 ' 17 ; threefold answer to question about fasting, 
9 14 " 17 ; three incidents illustrating the hostility of the Pharisees, 12 ; 
three parables of sowing, 13 1 " 32 ; three sayings about "little ones," 
ch. 18; three parables of prophecy, 2i 28 -22 14 ; three parables of 
warning, 24 32 -25 30 . There is, further, no ground for the wide- 
spread belief that the genealogy is in itself a proof of a belief that 
Christ was the natural son of Joseph and Mary. This particular 
genealogy contains the condemnation of such a belief. The man 
who could compile it and place immediately after it i 18 " 25 , clearly 
did not believe that Christ was the son of Joseph. He inserted 
in the genealogy the references to the women and the relative 
clause " to whom was betrothed Mary a virgin," in order to antici- 
pate vv. 18 ' 25 . In other words, iyewrjo-e throughout the genealogy 
denotes legal, not physical descent. He had before him two 
traditional facts — (a) that Christ was born of a Virgin in a super- 
natural manner, (b) that He was the Messiah, i.e. the Son of 
David. How could a Jewish Christian, indeed how could anyone, 
reconcile these facts otherwise than by supposing that Mary's 
husband was the legal father of Christ ? So non-natural a sense of 
fatherhood may seem strange to us, but the fact of the super- 
natural birth which gave rise to it is stranger. Whatever we may 
think of it, this was the belief of the editor of the Gospel ; so that 
there is no ground for the widespread opinion that the existence 
of a genealogy of Christ is proof of an underlying belief that He 
was the natural son of Joseph and Mary. If the editor simply 
tried to give expression to the two facts which had come down to 
him by tradition — the fact -of Christ's supernatural birth, and the 
fact that He was the Davidic Messiah, and did not attempt a 
logical synthesis of them, who shall blame him ? 
E 17. Therefore all the generations from Abraam to David 
are fourteen generations ; and from David to the Captivity into 
Babylon are fourteen generations ; and from the Captivity into 
Babylon to the Christ are fourteen generations.] The artificial 
character of the genealogy is obvious from this verse. The 
arrangement into three will be found to be characteristic of this 
Gospel. The grouping into three fourteens may be due to the 
fact that in the Hebrew name David = Tfi, there are three letters, 
and that the numerical value of these letters is 4 + 6 + 4.= 14. 



" By this means the genealogy was invested with the character 
of a sort of numerical acrostic on the name David " (G. H. Box, 
Interpreter, Jan. 1906, p. 199). 

The genealogy thus constructed is no mere antiquarian attempt 
to discover genealogical facts. The writer is interested in the 
question whether Jesus was legally descended from David, and 
believes that this was the case. But his interest in this point 
arises from some other than a purely antiquarian motive. The 
clue to this motive is furnished by the insertion of the women. 
Why did the compiler think it necessary to safeguard in this 
manner the fact of the supernatural birth and of Mary's innocence. 
The reason can hardly be any other than that these things were 
already the ground of anti-Christian polemic on the part of the 
Jews. Celsus, c. a.d. 170-180, is already acquainted with the 
Jewish slander that Jesus was born out of wedlock ; cf. Orig. 
Contra Celsum, i. 28, 32, 33, 39. And we may be sure that the 
Christian tradition of the supernatural birth which lies behind the 
first and third Gospels evoked Jewish slander as soon as it became 
known to the Jews. For the later Jewish forms of this slander 
cf. Laible, Jesus Christus im Talmud; Herford, Christianity in 
Talmud and Midrash ; Krauss, Das Leben Jesu nach Jiidischen 

1. 1. AavdS] So 8ABCD at. The LXX has AavelS or Aavld ; 
Josephus Aavldys or Aa^Ldrjs. — 'A/3/>ad/t] So LXX. Josephus has "Afipafios, 
Appals (once), 'Afipadp. rarely. 

2. 'Itrad/c] So LXX. Josephus "Ivclkos. — 'Iaicw/S] So LXX. Josephus 
I&kw[3os. — 'I<rad/c 6V] Om. oV here and throughout S 12 . 

3. 'lovdas] LXX has 'lovdds or 'lovdd. In I Ch 2 1 'Ioi>5d, B ; 'Iot55as, 
Luc; 'Ioi>5as, Josephus. — Zapd] B OxZapt, LXX Zapd, Josephus Zdpacros or 
'EfeXods.— <£a/^s] So LXX ; Josephus <i>d/>eo-os. — 'Eapup.] LXX has 'Eapwp. 
(not B), 'Ecrep&v, 'EapJiv, 'E^piJov, Apadiv. In I Ch 2 s 'Apcrwv, B ; 'Ecrpwv, 
B a?btmg. 'E(rpd}fi, A Luc. In 1 Ch 2 9 'Eaep&v, B; 'Eapdjv, B ab ; 'Eapdi/x, 
A Luc. — 'Apdp.] In 1 Ch 2 9 LXX B has 'Apd/j.; in v. 10 'Appdv, but A Luc. 

4. 'A/xivaddp, KC at; 'Ap.eiva.ddp, B A. In I Ch 2 10 LXX B has 
'ApeivaSafi, A Luc. 'Ap.iva.5dp, Josephus 'Ap.ivd5aPos. — Naacro-iii'] So LXX. 
— ZaX/xciv] In 1 Ch 2 11 Heb. has nd^ 1 , LXX B Luc. 2a\p.d>v, A ZaXp.dv. 

5. Bo<f<r] X B Ox k ; Bo6s, C 33 ; Bodf, E K at; LXX has Booj, Bodf. 
In I Chr 2 11 - 12 B Boos, A Luc. Bodf, Tosephus Bo'afoj, Bowfrs. — 'Paxd/3] 
LXX 'Pad/3. Josephus 'Padp V , 'Pa X dPv.— 'Iw/3tJ5] N B Ox ; 'tip^o, E K at ; 
LXX has '(iffiS, ^Ia.y3T75 (A). In 1 Ch 2 12 - 13 B Luc. 'OjSija, A 'Iw/Si)8, 
Josephus 'fi/3ij5i79.— ' P066] So LXX ; Josephus 'Povdij.— 'Ucrcral] So LXX ; 
Josephus 'lecrcralos. 

6. 2oXo/xu>i/a] LXX has 'ZaXupdv, 'SaXop.div, 'Za.Xwp.w, 'ZoXop.wv (A). In 
I Ch 3 5 1,aXwpuv, Luc. 'ZaXopwv, Josephus "EoXo/xuiv. — Ovpeiov] B Ox. 

7. 'Popodp.] So LXX; Josephus 'Po^da/xos.— 'A/3id] LXX 'A/3etd, 'A/3id ; 
Tosephus 'Apias.— 'Acdcp] X B C D luo Ox. i. 209, 543, 700, k at. LXX has 
Ao-d, Josephus "Aaavos. 

8. 'IwcraQdr] LXX 'Iwcracpdr, 'Iw<ra<pd9. In I Ch 3 10 'Iwcra^dr, Josephus 
'Iajcrd^aroj. — 'Iupdp.~\ So LXX ; Josephus'Iaipa^os. — 'Ofei'aj'] S 2 has "Ahazia : 
Ahazia begat Joash ; Joash begat Amozia." So Aphr. 


9. 'Ofe/as] N* B* ; LXX has '0£«<£, 'Ofti, 'Ofe&w, Offcw. In I Ch 

3 U 'Ofe/a, B ; '0^<£s, A Luc. ; Josephus '0#as.— Twa0d,u] So LXX ; Josephus 
'Iwd0a/*os, 'Iw9d/j.T]s, 'luvddTjs. — "A^af] LXX has "Axctf, "A%as. In I Ch 
3 13 "Axas, AB'Axaf, Luc. Josephus "A^a^os. — 'Efe/a'as] So LXX, Josephus. 

10. 'Awbs, NHCD luc Ox ; I.XX 'Ap.v&v, 'A/xfiuv, 'Apubs. In i Ch 
3 14 B has 'Afivdiv, B ab A" vel ' orte a 'A/ubs, Luc. 'A/ufo, Josephus 'Afipubv, 


11. Tawefas] X B D luc ; LXX has 'luxrelas, Tw<r/as ; Josephus Taw/as.— 
t6v 'Iex<"'^ a ''] We must read here rd? 'Iwa/ce2/u. /cai tovs d5eX0oi>s ai/roC. 
'Iwa/cet/i 5£ iyivvt)(Te rbv 'lexoviav ^7ri ttJs fieroiKealas Ba/3iAcDi'os. So sub- 
stantially M U al S 4 S 5 with asterisk. 

12. SaXatfcijX] So LXX ; Josephus ZaXaMjXoy.— Zopo/Sd/SeX] So LXX ; 
Josephus Zo/3o/3d/3?jXor. 

16. On the text, see the admirable note of Mr. Burkitt, Evangelion da 
Mepharreshe, ii. 258 ff. The reading of N B a/ is : 'Ia/cw/3 $£ iyivv-rjae rbv 
'Iw<rr)<p rbv &udpa ~M.aplas ii- i^s iyevvrjOr] 'I-qaovs 6 Xe7<5 i uei'os Xpicrrbs. Besides 
this there is a second reading : 'laKilifi Si iyivv-qae rbv 'Iwcrrjfi $ nv-qorevdelaa 
irapdivos iyivvrjcre 'It]<xovv rbv \ey6fievov Xpivrbv. This is the reading 
of the Ferrar group, 346, 556, 826, 828. So S 2 Jacob begat Joseph, him to 
■whom was betrothed Mary the Virgin, she who bare Jesus the Messiah. So, 
too, the old latt a b c d g k q. So, too, the text which underlies the Armenian ; 
cf. Robinson, Euthaliana, p. 82. Besides these two readings, S 1 has a third : 
" Jacob begat Joseph. Joseph, to whom was betrothed Mary the Virgin, 
begat Jesus, called the Messiah." Burkitt believes this to be a paraphrase of 
the reading of the Ferrar group, and thinks that S 2 is derived from it. In 
this last point he is no doubt right. S 2 is, as a whole, dependent on S 1 , and 
it is therefore probable that S 1 has the earlier reading here. But it is 
questionable whether S 1 does not represent a Greek text found nowhere else 
(not in the Dialogue of Timothy and Aquila ; see Burkitt, p. 265), namely, 
'IaKw/3 Sh iyivvqae rbv 'Iwo - ^. '\waT)(f> Si if /xvijcrrevde'iiTa fji> Ma/nd,u irapdtvos 
iytvvriae 'Irjcrovv rbv \ey6fxevov Xpi<TT6i>. Burkitt objects that " the practice 
of the writer is to interpose no words between the name and the verb iytvvi)<je, 
so that the clause <J> fivrjo-Tevdelo-a irapd. M. ought to follow the first mention 
of Joseph, not the second." But the relative clause is clearly required in 
close connection with iyivv^ae in order to qualify it, meaning "begat," but 
"from a virgin," i.e. not "literally," but "legally." It seems probable, 
therefore, that the text underlying S 1 is the nearest approach now extant to 
the original Greek, and it must remain possible that even here the relative 
clause is an insertion. This earliest Greek form was gradually altered from 
a desire to avoid words which, though in the intention of the writer they 
expressed legal parentage, not paternity, in fact, might be misunderstood by 
thoughtless readers. The first step was perhaps the insertion of the relative 
clause. The second, the insertion as in S 2 of a second relative, "she who," 
as a subject to iyivvrjcre. The third, the substitution of rbv dvSpa Map/as for 
$ pLvrjarevdeica M. wapOtvos by assimilation to v. 19 6 dvrip avTijs, dvrip being 
used as there in the sense of "betrothed husband," and the substitution of 
the passive for the active in the following clause. 

I. 18-25. His Supernatural Birth. 

P I. 18-25. And the birth oj the Christ was in this manner : His 
mother Mary being betrothed to Joseph, bejore that they came 
together, she was Jound with child of the Holy Spirit.'] ye'veo-ts 
here means birth, begetting, as in Gn 31 13 , Ru 2 11 , Lk i 14 ; cf. also 


Hdt. i 204 6 69 . Since yc'vco-is has been used in i 1 in a different sense, 
and since yewr/cns is the common term for birth, we should expect 
the latter here. — /xvr/'ri^] Betrothal according to Jewish 
marriage law constituted a legal relationship which could only be 
dissolved by legal means. See Merx, Die vier Evangelien, ii. 1, 9 ff. 
The narrative in this respect rests on an accurate knowledge of 
Jewish civil law. — irv€vp.aro<; ayiov] For the omission of the 
article, cf. Blass, p. 149. — -n-piv fj] cf. Blass, p. 229. 

19. And Joseph her husband, being a righteous man, and {yet) p 
not wishi?ig to disgrace her, was minded to put her away secretly.] 
— 6 avyjp avrrj<;] According to Jewish law, a betrothed woman 
was already the wife of her betrothed husband ; cf. Merx, op. cit. 
p. 10. — St/caios] i.e. God-fearing, and a keeper of the law. Mary's 
condition seemed to make the fulfilment of their contract of 
marriage impossible for a religious man. — /xrj 6cXwv Sety/xartVat] 
On the other hand, he did not wish to expose her to shame. 
BeiyixaTtcrat occurs besides only Col 2 15 , Asc. Is. in Am. Pap. 

i. I. viii. 21. 8uy/xaria-/x6% occurs on the Rosetta Stone. — XdOpa 
aTroXvo-at] Appeal to the courts for a divorce would expose Mary 
to public ignominy, and make her liable to severe penalties. 
Refusal to carry out the contract of marriage would leave her and 
her child in disgrace in the house of her parents. The latter 
seemed the more merciful course, and Joseph determined, there- 
fore, to repudiate her by private arrangement. 

20. And whilst he purposed this, behold, an angel of the Lord p 
appeared to him in a dream, saying, Joseph, son of David, fear 
not to take Mary thy wife : for that which is begotten in her is of 
the Holy Spirit, ,] — l8ov] Exclusive of quotations, l8ov occurs 
30 times in Mt., 29 in Lk., 7 in Mk. ; kcu I86v, 28 in Mt., 26 in 
Lk., o in Mk. — Kar ovap] 6 times in Mt., not elsewhere in NT ; 
cf. Ditt. Syll. 780. 5, 781. 4, 782. 4. — 7rapa\af3elv] According to 
Jewish law, marriage begun in the betrothal, was completed in the 

" taking " of the bride to the house of her husband ; cf. Merx, op. 
cit. p. 11. 

21. And she shall bear a son, and thou shall call His name p 
fesus : for He shall save His people from their sins.] 'I170-0C? is the 
Greek form of JW'iiT or jftB^ " Jehovah is salvation " ; cf. Philo, 

De Mut. Nom. i. 597 : Iijcrovs 8e awrr/pia Kvpiov, l£eo)s ovo/xa r^s 
api(nr}<i. — avros yap aCxrei tov Xaov avrov airb twv a/xapTiiov avraiv] 
cf. Ps 129° /cat auro? XvTpiocrtTai tov Icrpa^A e/c Tracrwv tu>v dvopulLv 
avrov. For Teferai 81 vlov *ai /caAecrcts to ovo/xa avrov, cf. Gn 17 9 
T€£€rai crot vlov Kal KaAccrei? to ovo/xa avrov. 

22. And all this has come to pass, in order that it might be fulfilled 
which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying.] The 
formula Iva (oVgjs) TrXr/pioOr} ro pr/div recurs 2 15 - 23 4 14 8 17 12 17 13 35 

2 1 4 , cf. 26 56 . totc iTrXr/pwdrf to p-qdcv occurs 2 17 27 s . The quota- 


tions thus introduced are for the most part free renderings of 
the Hebrew. They are sometimes composite in character. The 
formula occurs in Jewish writings. Cf. Bacher, Exeget. Terminol. 
der Jiid. Traditions literatur, i. 171. ylyove here and 21 4 26 56 
is used from the writer's standpoint. Contrast Jn 19 36 . 

23. Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and 
they shall call His name Immanuel, which is being interpreted, 
With us is God.] The quotation comes from Is 7 14 , and is 
given according to the rendering of the LXX, with the exception 
that KaAe'o-eis of the LXX (o-ei n, -o-cTc Q*), which would not suit 
this context, is altered into KaXitrovo-tv. For ?£ei (LXX N A Q), 
krjfuf/eTai is read by LXX B. There are signs that the view that 
Isaiah was using current mythological terms, and intended his 
no^yn to carry with it the sense of supernatural birth, is rightly 
regaining ground. Cf. Jeremias, Babylonisches im Neuen Testa- 
ment, p. 47 ; and Gressmann, Der Ursprwig der Israelitisch- 
jiidischen Eschatologie, p. 270 ff. In any case, the LXX translators 
already interpreted the passage in this sense, and the fact that the 
later Greek translators substituted vcSvis for Trapdevos, and that 
there are no traces of the supernatural birth of the Messiah in the 
later Jewish literature, is due to anti-Christian polemic. Cf. Just. 
Mart. Trypho, xliii., lxvii. It is probable that the editor is here, 
as elsewhere, adapting words of the O.T. to a tradition which he 
had before him. 1 

P 24, 25. And Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of 
the Lord commanded him, and took his wife: and knew her not 
until she bore a son : and he called His name Jesus, .] 

For the redundant and Semitic use of ZyepOeis see Dalman, 
Words of Jesus, 23, 36. The imperfect eyiVwo-Kev is against the 
tradition of perpetual virginity. 

18. Xpiarod] So a b c d S 1 S 2 ; Irenaeus, III. xi. 8, xvi. 2 ; Tert. de Came 
Christi, xxii. This Western reading is probably right. Nowhere in the N.T. 
is the article used before 'Ir)<r. Xp. B has 'Xpiarov 'Itjctov, an assimilation to 
the later usage of S. Paul. KCa/ Ox have rod S£ 'IrjaoO Xp. The variation 
in the position of 'l-qaov is against its originality. 

yiveais] So N B C al Ox. yiveais here means begetting (see above), 
whilst in I 1 it has another meaning. The early translators differ in their 
treatment of the word. The latins render by generatio in both verses. The 
Syriac S 1 S 2 render in v. 1 by "generation," in this verse rightly by "birth." 
But yivvijais was more common in the latter sense, and is therefore substituted 
here by E K L al. — fii>7)o-TevdeLcrris] Add ydp E K L al. Omit, X B C* Z Ox, 
latt S 1 S 2 . 

19. 6 avi)p aiVijs] Om. S a . — deiyfj-arlcrai] So WBZOx; Eus. Qutzst. i. 3. 
The word is very rare. It occurs in Col 2 15 and in Asc. Is. in Am. Pap. 
I. i. viii. 21. Here it presumably means to expose to open and notorious 
disgrace. 8eiyna.Tt.(r,u6s on the Rosetta Stone means "inspection." Cf. 
Herwerden, Lex. Grcec. Suppl. p. 190. N* C E K L al substitute the more 
common napadety/xaTLacu, which occurs in the LXX 5 times, Nu 25*, Es 4 17 , 
Jer 13 22 , Ezk 28", Dn 2 5 ; Ps-Sol 2 14 , in Polyb. and Plut. 

1 See Briggs, "Criticism and the Dogma of the Virgin-Birth," in A/'orth 
Atner. Rev., June 1906. 


20. ti> -ywaiKd <tov] S s has " thy betrothed." Cf. the omission of b iv^p 
a#T??s, v. 19 . 

21. \abv avrov] S J has " the world."— /carets] S 2 "shall be called." 

22. S\ov] Om. S 1 S 2 . 

24. tt\v yvva'iKa avrov] S 2 substitutes " Mary." 

25. ovk tylvwuKev air-qv] S 2 has " purely was dwelling with her." S 1 k 
omit ovk iylvwvKcv avrriv efws ov. — vlbv] So X B Z S 1 S 2 k. rbv vlbv avrrjs rbv 
vpwTOTOKov is substituted by C D al by assimilation to Lk 2 7 . — ttcdXecrev] S 2 has 
" she called." On the Syriac VSS in these verses, see Burkitt, op. cit. p. 261 ff. 

II. Incidents of His Childhood. 

1. Noiv when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaia in the P 
days of Herod the king, behold, Magi from the east came to 
Jerusalem^ saying.] — rrj<; 'IouSatas] 'Iouoaia in this Gospel always 
signifies the southern division of Palestine. It is here specified to 
emphasise the fact that Jesus as the Messiah was born in the 
territory of the tribe of Judah ; cf. Test. Judah 24; He 7 14 ; 
Rev 5 5 . — iv rj/j-epais] For the omission of the article, cf. Blass, 
p. 151. — iSovj See on i 20 . For the construction Tov 8e 'I^o-oS 

yewqeevros . . . iSou, cf. I 20 2 13 - 19 Q 18 - 32 I2 46 17 5 26 47 28 11 .— 

/xayot] For the presence of Magi in the west, cf. Pliny, Nat. 
Hist. xxx. 16: "Magus ad eum (i.e. Nero) Tiridates advenerat 
. . . magos secum adduxerat." The same account is told by 
Dio Cassius, lxiii. 1-7; Suetonius, Fit. Nero, xiii. That Messianic 
hopes were widespread at this period seems clear; cf. Virgil, 
Eclogue iv. Messianic language is used of Augustus in the 
inscriptions from Priene and Halicarnassus. He is o-wnjpa tov 
kolvov toiv avOpwiroiv yivovs. Since his birth elp-qvevovaL fj.ev yap 
yrj kcu 06.Xa.TTa. If the hope of finding the world's Saviour drew 
Tiridates and his Magi to Naples, it is quite probable that other 
Magi may have come to the metropolis of Palestine on a like 
errand. They came probably from Babylon. Astrologers there 
had at a very early period busied themselves with astrological 
observations which portended good or evil for the " Westland," 
i.e. Canaan. Cf. Jeremias, op. cit. 50 f. ; von Oefele, Die Angaben 
der Berliner Planatentafel, P. 8279, p. 9 ; Campbell Thompson, 
Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon, vol. ii. No. 
234 : "When a star stands at its (Virgo) left horn, there will be an 
eclipse of the ring of Aharru " (= Phoenicia and Palestine). 
222 : "When Leo is dark, the traffic of Aharru will be hindered." 
211: "When Venus appears in Virgo, the crops of Aharru will 
prosper." 192: "When Jupiter enters the midst of the moon, 
there will be want in Aharru." 167: "When Saturn the star of 
Aharru grows dim, it is evil for Aharru ; there will be a hostile 
attack on Aharru." Now that the whole world was expecting the 
Saviour King (cf. Bousset, Bel. Jud. p. 212), the attention of these 


heaven-searchers directed itself towards portents of the coming 

irapayLvecrdai occurs only here and in 3 1 - 13 in Mt. ; in Mk. 
once, 14 43 . 'Iepoo-6Xv/j.a. occurs 10 times in Mt. as a neuter plural; 
once, 2 3 , as a feminine singular. It is used by Mark 10 times, 
by Luke 4, by John 12, frequently in the Acts, and by S. Paul 3 
times in Galatians. Mt. once (23 37 ) has 'UpovcraXrjp.. This form 
is common in Lk., Acts, S. Paul, and occurs in He 12 22 , 
Rev 3 12 2 1 2 - 10 . It is the form used in the LXX, except in 2, 3, 4 
Mac. and Tobit. 

P 2. Where is He who has been born King of the Jews 1 for we 
saw His star at (its) rising, and are come to worship Him.] The 
widespread expectation of the birth of a great monarch in the 
west led the Magi to connect some particular star, or conjunction 
of heavenly bodies, with His birth. Just so on the birth-night of 
Alexander, Magi prophesied from a brilliant constellation that the 
destroyer of Asia was born. Cf. Cicero, De Divinatione, i. 47. 
— avTov rbv do-rcpa] On the position of the pronoun, cf. Blass, 
p. 168. dorepa, i.e. the star with which their astronomical 
calculations had led them to connect the birth of the expected 
monarch, iv rfj avaToXrj might mean " in the east," cf. Nu 3 38 B, 
Jos i8 7 B, Jer 31 40 , Rev 21 13 ; but it is unlikely that the Magi should 
say "in the east" instead of "in our native country"; and it is 
improbable that the editor should use plural and singular in two 
successive verses in the same sense. It is difficult not to suppose 
that dvaroX.i] here is a technical astronomical expression denoting 
the beginning of the particular phenomenon expressed here by 
aa-r^p. We should certainly expect airov ; and it is probable that 
the editor has omitted "his" from his source, or that airov 
dropped out at an early stage in the transmission of the text of 
the Gospel, because avaToX-q was misunderstood and interpreted 
as = " east." — TrpocrKwrjo-at] The word is a favourite one in this 
Gospel. Mt. 13 times, Mk. 2, Lk. 3. Mt. alone uses the dative 
with reference to Christ. The one exception is Mk 15 19 of mock 
homage. See Abbott, Johannine Vocabulary, 1644. 

P 3. And Herod the king having heard it, was troubled, and all 
Jerusalem with him.] — irao-a 'IcpocroAv/xa] see on v. 1 . For the 
feminine, cf. To 14 4 . 

P 4. And gathering together all the chief priests and scribes of the 
people, he tried to learn from them where the Messiah is being born.] 
TTvv6avco-6ai only here in this Gospel. 

P 5, 6. And they said, In Bethlehem of Judoza : for so it is written 
through the prophet, And thou Bethlehem, land of Judah, art in no 
wise least amongst the rulers of Judah : for from thee shall come 
forth a ruler, who shall shepherd My people Israel.] 

•n}s 'IovSatas] cf. on v. 1 . For the official expectation of the 


Messiah from Bethlehem, cf. Jn 7 41ff -, and the Targ. on Mic 5 1 . 
Also Jer. Berach. v. a, quoted by Lightfoot on Mt 2 1 . The 
quotation comes from Mic 5 1 - 3 , with an assimilation of the last 
clause to 2 S 5 2 . The LXX text is not followed here, though 
it seems to have been in the mind of the editor ; for oo-tis -KoipavH 
tov Aaov /xov tov 'Icrpa-qX, which reminds US of 2 S 5 a o~v Tvoip.avu<i 
tov \aov /xov tov 'Io-pa^A, seems to have been suggested by 'lo-parjk 
jind 7roi^avei of Mic 5 1 - 3 LXX. The rest of the quotation 
appears to be an independent rendering of the Hebrew text, kcu 
<tv BrjOXdy. corresponds to Dr&IW nnxi. yrj Tou'Sa is substituted 
for nrfiDX by assimilation to vv. 1 - 6 . ovSa/xdis eXa^tor^ ct (LXX : 
6Xiyoo-Tos €? tov €?vai) seems to represent a Hebrew original &6 
■)iyV rV\"| (M.T. nvn? "VJJV). iv toi9 ^ye/Aoonv 'iovSa (LXX : iv ^iXtao-tv 
'Iov'Sa) corresponds to mirr '•fitaa, '•sta being read as ^Bltaj cf. 
Gn 36 15 , Ex 15 15 . Ik a-ov ="jotD. yap is inserted as a necessary 
connecting link. c^eXcvo-eTai = X¥\ So LXX. "b is omitted. 
oo-tis iroip.avd tov Xaov {jlov tov 'Icrpar/X represents ?B>1D b&O^, the 
Greek words being assimilated to 2 S 5 2 . yiypairrai means "it 
stands written," the inspired text runs. It corresponds to 3in3 
or nTD of the Jewish literature. Cf. Bacher, ii. 90. 

7. Then Herod having secretly called the Magi, made accurate P 
inquiry of them as to the time of the appearing star.] to'tc is a 
favourite word in this Gospel. Mt. 90 times, Mk. 6, Lk. 15. 
tov xpovov tov <pa.ivop.ivov a.o-T€po<s, i.e. the period since the star first 
appeared to them at (its) rising. 

8. And having sent them to Bethlehem, said, Go, accurately P 
inquire concerning the child. And when you find, report to me, that 

I may come and worship Him.] 

9. And they, having heard the king, went ; and, lo, the star, P 
which they saw at (its) rising, went before them, until it came and 
stood still above (the place) where the child was.] — /cat ISov] see 
on i 20 . 

10. And when they saw the star, they rejoiced exceedingly with P 
great joy.] — o-cpoSpa] Mt. 7 times, Mk. 1, Lk. 1. 

11. And when they had come into the house, they saw the child P 
with Mary His mother, and having fallen down, they worshipped 
Him : and having opened their treasures, they brought to Him gifts ; 
gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.] For gold and frankincense 
as costly offerings, cf. Is 60 6 r}£ovo~iv <f>epovTe<; xp v<t ^ ov K0 " 
At'/3avov oto-ovo-iv, Ps 72 10 - 11 - 16 . For frankincense and myrrh, cf. 

Ca 3 6 . 

12. And having been divinely warned in a dream not to return P 
to Herod, they departed to their own country by another way.] — 
Xpy]p.aTio-6(vT(.<;] The verb in the passive means to be instructed, 
admonished ; cf. Lk 2 26 , He 8 5 ; Fayum Towns (Grenfell and 


Hunt), 137. 2; Ditt. Syll. 738. 8, 807. 1, 7, 11, 15. — kolt ovap] 
cf. on i 20 . — 8l oAAt/s 6Sou] The same feature occurs in the story 
of Tiridates' visit to Nero, Dio Cassius, lxiii. 7. avaxuptiv occurs 
in Mt. 10 times, Mk. 1, Lk. o. 

The main outline of the story of the Magi is in many respects 
noteworthy for its historical probability. The expectation of a 
world's Redeemer, or in Palestine of a Jewish Messiah ; the interest 
of Eastern Magi in these questions ; their presence in the west to 
do homage to the supposed Saviour ; the inference from Mic 5 1 
that Bethlehem was to be His birthplace : all this violates no canon 
of historical probability. The only detail that has a legendary 
atmosphere about it is the statement that the star moved before 
the Magi as they went to Bethlehem, until it stayed over the house 
where the child lay. This may be due to the Jewish narrator 
poetically accounting for the fact that the Magi were successful 
in their search for the child. It is extremely unlikely that he in- 
tended it to be taken as a bald statement of fact, literally describing 
how the star in some strange manner enabled the searchers without 
other aid to identify the particular house in Bethlehem in which 
the holy family were dwelling. In view of the editor's interest in 
the fulfilment of prophecy, it is very strange that he does not 
cite Nu 24 17 for the star, or Is 60 6 , Ps 72 10 - 11 - 15 , for the bringing 
of gifts. But it is difficult to think that the two last passages 
were not in his mind, and that they may account for the speci- 
fication of two of the gifts as gold and frankincense. On the 
other hand, such gifts would be natural enough as the offerings 
of Magi who came to search for a world's Redeemer. The 
modern theory, that the story is a literary fiction, based only upon 
legendary motives and folklore analogies, violates every proba- 
bility. In view of the matter of fact character of the editor of 
this Gospel, it is almost certain that he believed that he was 
transmitting matters of actual fact. And it is in every respect 
probable that he was not altogether mistaken. If we suppose 
that astrologers in Babylon were acquainted with current expecta- 
tion of the birth of a universal King, that they inferred from some 
unique astral phenomenon that He had been born in the west, i.e. 
in Palestine ; that some of them came to Jerusalem in search of 
Him ; that their errand came to the ears of Herod, and that the 
Jewish authorities suggested Bethlehem as the right place in which 
to expect the birth of the Messiah ; that the Magi went there and 
found the newborn babe, whether by popular rumour that Mary, 
wife of Joseph ben David, had given birth to a child under 
strange circumstances, or by inference from the position of the 
heavenly bodies ; that they did homage to the child, and, thinking 
it best not to trust Herod, left secretly on their journey home- 
wards : we need not press every detail of the narrative. De- 


scriptive detail may in some small measure have crept into it from 
the Old Testament or from analogous literary or folklore stories, 
just as they have certainly been used to embellish the story in its 
later history in the Church (cf. Zahn, in loc). But these, if they 
exist at all in Mt.'s account, are mere literary embellishments of 
a story which in outline is intrinsically probable in view of the 
atmosphere of thought of the period described. 

1. 'lovdaias] ff i g 2 S 2 have Judah. S 1 is ambiguous. The translator 
renders 'lovdas and 'lovdaia alike by |500T-j in the early part of Mt. In 
19 1 he began to render 'lovSaia by 50O"L», and continues this throughout 
the Gospels, retaining |>00"l_i for ''lovdas. So Lk 3 s3 . S 2 has }00"L* for 
'lovdaia, and |500"L-» for 'lovdas. 

5. 'lovdaias] ff 1 g 1 k* S 2 have Judah. 

6. 777] Om. S 1 S 2 . — 'lovda] Dacfg'q have rrjs 'lovdaias. 

13. And when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord P 
appeareth in a dream to Joseph, saying, Arise, take the child and 
His mother, and flee into Egypt, and be there until I tell thee. For 
Herod is about to seek the child to destroy Him.~\\oipr}(r6.vTwv Be avrwv — iSov] For the construction, see on 
v. 1 . On iSov and kclt ovap, see note on i 20 . For the redundant 
iyepOus, see on i 24 . — p.£\\ei. — (rjreiv] For the pres. inf., see Blass, 
p. 197. — tov a-n-oXia-aC] For the construction, cf. Blass, p. 235. 
It occurs 6 times in Mt., never in Mk. The aorist signifies a single 
definite action. So in 3 13 . Contrast 13 3 . 

14. And he arose, and took the child and His mother by night, P 
and departed into Egypt.~\ 

15. And was there until the death of Herod : that it might be P 
fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, 
Out of Egypt L called My Son.] Herod died shortly before 
Passover B.C. 4. See Schiirer, i. 464 ff. — Iva irXrjpwOfj] On the 
formula, see on i 22 . The quotation is from Hos n 1 . The 
LXX rendering here is c£ Aiyv7rroi; /xeTeKaXecra. Ta reKva clvtov, 
which is not suitable for the editor's purpose. He therefore 
makes an independent translation of the Hebrew, or more prob- 
ably cites from a current Greek translation. Cf. Introduction, 

p. lxii. 

16. Then Herod, seeing that he was mocked by the Magi, was p 
very wroth, and sent, and slew all the male children in Bethlehem, 
and in all its borders, from two years old and under, according to 
the period which he inquired from the Magi.] — cltto oWovs] If the 
star or constellation when first seen "at (its) rising" signified 
the conception of the child, it would have been sufficient to kill 
children in their first year. But Herod may have thought it best 
to reckon on the possibility that the phenomenon denoted the 


actual birth, in which case the child would now be in His second 
year. See Von Oefele, p. 14. 
P O 17, 18. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken through Jeremiah 
the prophet, saying, A voice was heard in Rama, weeping, and much 
lamentation, Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be 
comforted, because they are not.] 

Tore iTrXrjpwOr)] For the formula, see on i 22 . The quotation 
comes from Jer 31 (LXX 38) 15 . It appears to be a citation 
from memory of the LXX text : <j>wvr] eV 'Papa rjKovo-Qr] = LXX. 
KkavOfAos Kal oSvpfids 7roA.vs represents the LXX Qpr\vov Kal KXav6p,ov 
Kal oSvp/xov. 'Pa^A. KXaiovaa paraphrases the LXX 'Pa^A curo- 
KXaio/xevr) (-77s, X A Q). ra TCKva avrrjs inserts from the Heb. a 
clause which the LXX omitted, but A Q have C7ri twv vlwv avTrj<;. 
— Kal ovk fjOeXtv TrapaKXrjdrjvai] So LXX. Kal (N A Q) ovk rjOeXtv 
7rapaKXr)6fjvai (B a b m S A, but B iravaacrOai). Here " for her 
children " of M.T. and LXX B is omitted, with LXX A Q.— on 
ovk €icrtV] So LXX. 

P 19. And when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord 
appeareth in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, saying.] For the con- 
struction see on 2 1 . — Kar ovap] see on i 20 . 

P 20. Arise, take the child and His mother, and go into the land 
of Israel : for " they are dead who seek the life'''' of the child.] For 
the redundant eycpfleis, see On I 24 . rt6vr)Kao-LV yap 01 ^towtcs T7/v 
ifrvxrjv is a reminiscence of Ex 4 19 . Throughout this section the 
editor seems to have had the story of Moses in mind, and to have 
borrowed phrases from it. Cf. v. 18 /i.e'XXei — fyriuv — tov diroXco-ai, 
and 15 dyciAe, with Ex 2 16 ttfjru aveXciv ; V. 14 dvex^prjcr^t w i^ 
Ex 2 15 dv€\iLpr]o-ev. 

P 21. And he arose, and took the child and His mother, and came 
into the land of Israel.] 

p 22. And having heard that Archelaus is reigning over Judcea 
in the place of Herod his father, he feared to go there. But being 
divinely instructed in a dream, he departed into the regions of Galilee.] 
For xp^aTtor^eis, see on v. 12 ; for Kar map, on i 20 . 
P O 23. And came and settled in a city called Nazara : that it 
might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophets, that He 
shall be called a Nazarene.] This verse contains a still unexplained 
difficulty. It is clear that Jesus was popularly known as 6 Na^wpcuos, 
Mt 2 23 26 71 , Lk 18 37 , Jn i8 5 - 7 19 9 , Acts 7 times; or 6 Na^aprpds, 
Mk 4 times, Lk twice ; and it seems obvious to suppose that these 
adjectives are equivalent to 6 curb Na£ape'0, Mt 21 11 , Jn i 45 - 46 , Ac 
io 38 . The town is written Na^apa, Na(apW, or Na£apeV, represent- 
ing m¥3, rnV3 (cf. Dalm. Gram. p. 152). Na£wpcuos presupposes 
a form "niV3 from mW3=mW (Dalm. Gram. p. 178). Others, 
however, would connect the two adjectives with Nesar in Genne- 
sareth ; cf. Wellhausen on Mt 26 69 ; and it must remain doubtful 


whether Na£wpatos at least had any original connection with 
Na£apa. But in any case the editor clearly wished to find such a 
connection. Jesus was 6 Na£wpcuos because lie had dwelt at 
Nazara. And this name of Nazorean had been foreshadowed 
by the prophets. The use of the plural tw 7rpo<pr]Twv suggests 
that the editor had no single passage in mind. But it is not easy 
to find any references in the Old Testament which could furnish 
a basis for the application of 6 Na£wpatos to the Messiah. The 
attempt to connect the word with the Heb. TM = a Nazirite, has 
little in its favour. More plausible is the supposition that the 
writer is playing on the Hebrew words "ISJ and riDS. In Is n 1 
the "I3H = branch, from the roots of Jesse, is interpreted as the 
Messiah in the Targum. In Jer 2^ 5 37, 15 a branch = n»v, is to be 
raised up to David. The editor may have seen in the prophecies 
of a "fiM and nctt a sort of foreshadowing of the fact that Jesus was 
popularly known as the Nazorean or man of Nazara. The on 
introduces the clause which summarises the content of the pro- 
phecies. Cf. 4 6 , where on introduces a direct quotation, and 26 54 
where it introduces another summary of the contents of Scripture. 
Na£copatos K\r]6y]creTai summarises the prophecies referred to. 
Is 11 1 had called the Messiah (so Targ.) TO = branch ; Jer 23 s 
33 15 had called Him nDV = branch, and Is 4 2 had spoken of Him 
also as nȴ (Targ. has Messiah). His parents settled at Nazara ; 
and He was popularly known as the Nazorean, that these pro- 
phecies might be fulfilled. Zahn, who thinks this explanation too 
artificial, points out three peculiarities of the introductory formula l 
— (a) 077-tos instead of Iva; (p) twv Trpo^rjTwv instead of the singular: 
(c) the absence of XeyoWcov. He thinks that the Evangelist saw in 
the settlement at Nazara, and in the fact that Christ's early 
years were spent in this obscure village of ill fame, a fulfilment of 
the general tenor of Old Testament prophecy, that the Messiah 
should be rejected by His own people, on is therefore equivalent 
not to "that," and does not introduce the contents of the pro- 
phecies referred to, but = " because," and introduces an epexegetical 
remark of the Evangelist. Christ lived at Nazara, and so fulfilled 
the prophecies that He should be despised and rejected of men, 
because He was to be known as the Nazorean. But it is very 
questionable whether on — KXrjO^a-erai. can be so translated. Zahn 
himself remarks that we should expect Z/xeWe — K\r]6rjvai. If the 
play on the words "VSl = branch, and rmfl = Nazara, be thought too 
artificial for the Evangelist, his statement that the prophets had 
foretold that Christ should be called a Nazorean must remain 
unexplained. We might, of course, conjecture that on — KXrjOrjcreTai 
is a copyist's gloss. In that case the clause will end with TrpcxprjTwv ; 
cf. 26 56 , and the reference in oVws Tr\r)pw6fj — ttoo^twv may be to 
1 As compared with the formulas in I 23 2 1S . Elsewhere bvws occurs 8 17 15 88 . 


the settlement in Galilee as contrasted with Judaea. In this case 
the editor probably had in mind the passage of Isaiah which he 
reserves for insertion at 4 14 " 16 . Or the reference in the mind of 
the compiler may be to the whole of vv. 19 " 22 . Jesus came up 
from Egypt when Herod was dead, and settled in Galilee in order 
that He might begin there His Messianic work. The return from 
a strange country when a persecutor was dead had been fore- 
shadowed in the history of Moses (Ex 4 19 ) ; the settlement in 
Galilee had been foretold by Isaiah. 

13. avaxupya'd-i'Twv Si at/rw] S 1 S 2 have "and after them." B adds 
ets ttjv x&po-v avrQu from v. 12 . — (patuerai] XCDa/. B has i(f>&vr] as in I 20 . 
15. irpo<pr]Tov] S 1 prefixes " Isaiah." 
18. K\av8fi6s] CDa/S 1 S 2 prefix dpyi/os ical to assimilate to O.T. 

Just as in ch. 1 there is an undercurrent of apology against 
Jewish polemic, so too in this chapter. The fact which underlies 
it is the sojourn of Jesus in Egypt. Celsus is already acquainted 
with Jewish tradition that Christ worked as a labourer in Egypt, 
learned magical arts there, and made use of them when He 
returned to Palestine in order to support His claim to divinity 
(Contra Ce/sum, i. 28, 38). For the later forms of this tradition, 
see Krauss, p. 256, who emphasises the fact that the Talmudic 
tradition is not dependent on the first Gospel ; Laible, pp. 44-48 ; 
Zahn, p. 104, Anm. 4. To rebut such misrepresentations of the 
influence of His sojourn in Egypt on the character of Jesus, the 
editor states the simple facts. Jesus had, indeed, gone down into 
Egypt, but as an infant, to escape from the wrath of a king. In 
all the circumstances of the visit to Egypt there had been un- 
mistakable evidence of divine guidance. Just as of old the 
Israelite nation, Jehovah's firstborn (Ex 4 22 ), had been called out of 
Egypt to be the chosen people ; so Jesus the Son of God by super- 
natural conception was called out of Egypt to save His people. 
Just as Moses fled from Egypt to escape the wrath of Pharaoh, 
and returned there when his persecutor was dead (Ex 4 19 ), to be the 
deliverer of his people ; so Jesus was taken into Egypt to escape the 
wrath of Herod, and returned to Palestine when Herod was dead, to 
deliver His people from their sins. See the admirable commentary 
of Zahn ; and cf. G. H. Box, Interpreter, January 1906, p. 201. 

The Origin and Date of the Narratives in Chs. I II. 

1. The opinion of Usener (Encycl. Bib. iii. 3350), that in the 
narrative of the supernatural birth " <ve unquestionably enter the 
circle of pagan ideas," and that " the idea is quite foreign to Juda- 
ism," is to be decisively rejected if it be intended to carry with it the 
inference that this idea had not already been used in the interests 
of Jewish Messianic speculation before the Christian era. It is 


probably to be found in Is 7 14 and Mic 5 3 , and certainly in the 
Alexandrian Jewish interpretation of Is 7 14 as represented in the 
LXX. Cf. also Enoch 62 s " Son of the Woman," all MSS. except 
G ; 6g 29 " Son of the Woman," G, and Rev 1 2 1 - 5 . See Gunkel, pp. 
68-69 ; Jeremias, pp. 47-49 ; and for Is 7, Gressmann, pp. 2708". 

2. The accumulation of heathen parallels is therefore only valu- 
able as proving that the conception of the supernatural origin of the 
world's Saviour was very widespread. It is found in Assyria and in 
Egypt, in Parseism and in Buddhism, and had been used with refer- 
ence to the birth of heroes in the Greek and Roman mythologies. 

3. The stories of the supernatural birth might therefore very 
well have originated in Palestine 1 in the first half of the first century 
A.D. ; the idea of the authors being to explain the divine nature of 
the Messiah in terms of physical Sonship without any conscious 
borrowing from non-Jewish sources of speculation. The universal 
belief in the supernatural birth of gods and heroes, as represented 
in Judaism by, e.g., Is 7 14 LXX, would have been quite sufficient to 
supply the central idea, without any recourse to non-Jewish forms 
of this speculation. 

4. But, on the other hand, the fact that the conception of 
supernatural birth was widespread in the ancient world, and had 
already been used in pre-Christian speculation on the person of 
the Messiah, is not in itself an argument against the historical 
accuracy of the tradition that the Messiah was born in a super- 
natural manner. If that were so, we should be reduced to the 
unphilosophic position that the Jewish anticipation of a Messiah 
could never be fulfilled in any of its developments, because the 
supposed realisation of these anticipations would always be regarded 
with suspicion on the ground that anticipation and fulfilment were 
too closely in agreement. On these lines the only possible Messiah 
would be one who contradicted in every respect the ideas which 
previous generations had formed of Him. 

The truth, no doubt, is that the idea of supernatural birth was 
one of the many grooves in the mould in which the conception of 
the Messianic King had been shaped, and that the fulfilment did 
not prove the anticipation to have been altogether false. 

5. Assuming, then, that the tradition of the supernatural birth 
might have arisen on Palestinian soil in the first century a.d., is 
it possible to define more closely the period of their publication ? 

6. In favour of as early a date as possible, is the fact that the 
agreement of Mt 1 and Lk 1 as to the central fact of super- 
natural birth presupposes the existence of the tradition for some 
years prior to the publication of these Gospels. It is here assumed 

1 Cf. Harnack, "die Legende von der Jungfrauen-geburt, die Matthaus 
zuerst fur uns bezeugt, auf judenchristlichem, naher jerusalemischem Boden 
entstanden ist," Lukas der Arzt, 118, Anm. 1. 


that Lk i 34 - 35 form an integral part of Lk.'s narrative. See Gunkel, 
p. 67; Interpreter, February 1905, pp. n6ff. 

7. The silence of S. Paul seems adverse to an early date. 1 
Whether this Apostle was or was not acquainted with the tradition, 
it is clear that he did not make any extended use of it as a basis 
of Christological doctrine in his extant letters. 

But, on the other hand, it is in every way probable that even 
if the Apostle had received this tradition, he would not have em- 
ployed it as an argument for Christianity in his preaching to the 
Gentiles. To him the resurrection of Christ was the conclusive 
proof of His divinity (cf. Ro i 2 ). The supernatural birth neither 
enhanced nor diminished that proof. And, on the other hand, 
there was every reason for keeping in the background a tradition 
which in the early stages of Church development would probably 
have proved a great stumbling-block to the progress of Christianity, 
and a continual source of wounded feeling for the reverence of 
Christians for the Person of their Master. On the one hand, the 
proclamation of the supernatural birth amongst the pagan peoples 
of Asia Minor and Greece and Italy would no doubt have seemed 
to lower Christianity in this respect to the level of the heathen 
mythologies. Nothing could be more disastrous, and S. Paul 
was no doubt far-sighted enough to see it, than quite unnecessarily 
to give pagan hearers facts which would encourage many of them 
to think of Christ as they thought of the deities and heroes of 
their mythologies. When the risen Christ had been revealed in 
them as in S. Paul, the tradition of His supernatural birth would 
come to them safeguarded by their belief in Him as the only- 
begotten Son of God. The silence of S. Paul is analogous to 
the silence of the author of the Fourth Gospel. This writer almost 
undeniably wrote at a period when the tradition of the super- 
natural birth was current. Yet he does not put it forward as a 
main argument for Christianity. On the other hand, he certainly 
does not wish to deny its historical character nor to depreciate its 
value. But he seems to assume it as a part of the Christian faith 
just as he does the tradition of the Ascension, and to use it as 
an analogy of the spiritual birth of the Christian believer, i 14 . 
See Interpreter, Oct. 1905, pp. 51 ff. 

And again, if the proclamation of the supernatural birth would 
have lowered Christian doctrine in the eyes of the pagan world, so 
it would have led to debate which would have been distasteful and 
painful to Christian reverence. At a very early period Jewish cari- 
catures of the story of the supernatural birth were current. They 
may already underlie Mk 6 3 , and more probably are reflected in Mt 
i 18-25 . And wherever Christianity spread, Jewish misrepresentation 
followed it. If the proclamation of the supernatural birth would 
1 Cf., however, Gal 4*. I Ti 2 1 *. 


have encouraged on the one hand semi-pagan conception of the 
Messiah, so on the other it would have provoked Jewish slander 
of a most offensive kind. The silence of S. Paul may well be 
due partly to his common sense, which enabled him to see that 
there are wise ways and unwise ways of presenting the facts of 
Christianity to the world (pearls were not to be cast before swine), 
and partly to that highly developed Christian reverence and modesty 
which also marks the narratives of the Gospels. 

The alleged silence of S. Paul seems, therefore, to be no 
sufficient argument against the existence of the tradition of the 
supernatural birth in Palestine during his lifetime. 

8. In favour of the early date of the narrative as it now stands 
in the Gospel, is the prosaic matter of fact style, and the absence 
of ornamental detail. There is nothing in the narrative itself 
which forbids our supposing that it formed one of a series of tradi- 
tions preserved in the Christian Church in Palestine in the middle 
of the first century a.d., and there is nothing in the narrative, 
except a supposed impossibility of the central fact recorded, which 
prevents our supposing that this particular tradition originated with 
the family concerned in it. 

9. As regards the incidents of ch. 2, the Palestinian atmosphere 
of literary style and religious belief is very strongly marked. See Box. 1 

The narratives certainly received their present form at the 
hands of Jewish Christians. If we allow for a certain element of 
poetic looseness, and do not examine every phrase by a rigid 
standard of photographic accuracy which is quite foreign to Ori- 
ental standards of historical narrative, there is nothing to prevent 
our supposing that these traditions were current in the Palestinian 
Church in the middle of the century, and that they represent in 
the main events of history. That Babylonian astrologers should 
have sought for the expected king in Jerusalem ; that the Jewish 
authorities should have referred them to Bethlehem ; that Herod 
should have killed the infants of that village ; that Joseph and Mary 
should have sought refuge in Egypt, and have eventually settled in 
Galilee, — all this is entirely within the limits of probability, due 
account being taken of the circumstances of the age and the 
political condition of Palestine. 

10. Something should be said in conclusion as to a recent 
attempt to show that the story of the Magi was added to the 
Gospel as late as 119 a.d. 2 The alleged evidence is a Syrian 
document 3 which states that Balaam prophesied the destruction 

1 Interpreter, January 1906, pp. 195 ff. 

8 Conybeare, Guardian, April 29, 1903. Cf. also Nestle, Zeitsch. f. 
Wissensch. Litt. xxxvi. 435-438 ; Hilgenfeld, id. xxxviii. 447-451. 

3 Published by W. Wright in the Journal of Sacred Literature, New Series, 
vols. ix. x., April and October 1866. 


of the Assyrians by the Greeks, and the rise of the star in Israel. 
This was recorded in a letter written by Balak to the Assyrian 
monarch. It was laid up in the Assyrian archives, and handed 
down from king to king. At last, in the reign of Pir Shabour, the 
star appeared, and the Magi were sent. The colophon at the end 
states that "in the year 430 (=118-119 a.d.), in the reign of 
Hadrianus Caesar, in the consulship of Severus and Fulgus, and 
the episcopacy of Xystus, Bishop of Rome . . . this concern 
arose in the minds of men who were acquainted with the Holy 
Books, and through the pains of the great men in various places 
this history was sought for, and found, and written in the tongue 
of those who took this care." 

Mr. Conybeare argues that the " Holy Books " are the books 
of the Old Testament, and seems to imply that "this history" 
was Mt 2 1-16 . He further argues that the story of the Magi 
thus elaborated was "an echo of the story as told by Dio and 
Pliny of the visit of the Magi to Nero, and of their worshipping 
him in Rome." But there seems to be no reason why we should 
not rather agree with Zahn (Em/, ii. 266 f.), who sees in the " Holy 
Books" the New Testament, including Mt 2, which was already, 
therefore, an integral part of the Gospel in 119 a.d.; and in the 
question with which men at that time busied themselves, the 
question as to the year in which the Magi came to Bethlehem, or 
the problem of the harmonisation of the infancy narratives of Mt. 
and Lk. The history which they wrote will therefore be not Mt 2, 
but the legend about the preservation of Balak's letter, and the 
coming of the Magi to Bethlehem in the reign of Pir Shabour. 


( 1 ) III. 1-12. He was heralded by the Baptist. 

1-12. The editor now begins to copy Mk. But he consider- 
ably paraphrases and expands Mk i 1 " 8 . 

M 1. And in those days cometh John the Baptist, preaching in the 
wilderness of Judcea.~] Mk. has, v. 4 "John the Baptizer was in the 
wilderness preaching." 

cv Se Tats rj/xtpais exetVais] is a loose connecting link (cf. Ex 2 11 ) 
anticipated from Mk v. 9 . Between chs. 2 and 3 is a gap of some 
thirty years. — 7rapayiWai] occurs once in Mk. (14 43 ), where Mt. 
substitutes as usual an aorist. The present here is unexpected. — 6 
/?a7rno-T^s] Mk. has 6 /3a7n-i£<ov. For the same change, cf. Mk 6 14 = 
Mt 14 2 . — iv rfj lpr]fxu>\ the editor adds the explanatory r^s 'lovSaias. 

M 2. Saying, Repent ; for the kingdom of the heavens is at hand.'] 
Mk has : " preaching a baptism of repentance unto remission of 
sins." The editor omits the last clause in view of the fact that Christ 


came to be baptized. — /AeravoeiTe] On repentance as necessary for 
the coming of the Messianic period, see Vo\z,Jud. Eschat. 112 f. ; 
and for fierdvota in Alexandrine Jewish Philosophy, see Philo, De 
Pcenit. ii. 405; Be Pram, et Pozn. ii. 410. For sayings about 
repentance in the Talmud, see Joma 86 b . It brings healing to 
the world, reaches to the throne of glory, cancels a prohibition in 
the Torah, brings salvation, and lengthens the life of men. 

/3ao-iXeta iw otpavuv] See Introduction, p. lxvii. The concep- 
tion here involved is obviously one of warning and judgement : 
"Repent: for the kingdom is near"; that is to say, the coming of 
the kingdom will involve judgement upon the unrepentant. 

3. For this is he that was spoken of through Isaiah the prophet, u 
saying, A voice of a crier in the wilderness, Prepare the way of the 
Lord, make straight His paths. ~\ Mk vv. 1 - 2 has : "As it is written 

in Isaiah the prophet, Behold, I send My messenger before Thy 
face, who shall prepare Thy way. A voice of a crier in the wilder- 
ness," etc. Mt. omits the citation from Malachi as irrelevant after 
the express reference to Isaiah, but he has inserted it later at 
nio # — ovTo<i yap io-Tcv] The sanction of the Baptist's message lay 
in his personality. He was the " voice " spoken of by Isaiah. The 
quotation is from Is 40 8 . It was clearly taken by Mk. from the 
LXX, in which iv rfj Iprjp.^ is connected with fiouvros, whereas the 
Hebrew connects it with the following imperative. Mk.'s context 
demanded the LXX order. — Sta "Ho-acov] Mk. has cv t<3 'Hoxup. 
Mt. 13 times uses Sia in this sense; cf. i 22 . 

4. Now he, John, had his raiment {made) ofcamePs hair, and a ]\t 
leathern girdle about his loins. 1 And his food was locusts and wild 
honey.'] Mk. has : " And John was clothed with camel's hair, and a 
leathern girdle about his loins, and (was) eating locusts and wild 
honey." — auros Be] For clvt6<; before the proper name, cf. Mk 6 17 . 

" Nach aramaischer Weise," Wellhausen. But cf. Moulton, p. 91. — 
e'xev] Mt. avoids Mk.'s harsh construction ^v evSeSiy^eVos Tpi'^as xa^- 
Xov kcu Idn'-qv. — 17 Be rpo^r] t)v clvtov] Mt. thus avoids Mk.'s loosely 
connected participle kol ea-6<ov. — dxptSes] Vegetarian tendencies in 
the early Church led to the alteration of locusts into " milk " (so 
Tatian ; see Harris, Fragments of the Commentary of Ephrem, p. 17) 
or "cakes" (so the Ebionites, according to Epiph. Hcer. 30. 13). 

5. Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judcca, and all the M 
district of the Jordan.] Mk. has : "And there went out to him all 
the country of Judsea, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem." The 
7reptxw/)os tov 'lopSdvov, cf. Gn I3 10 - 11 , is found also in Lk 3 s . For 
roTe, see on 2 1 . 

6. And were being baptized in the river Jordan by hi?n, confessing M 
their sins.] Mk. has: "And were being baptized by him in the 
river Jordan," etc. Mk. has the description of the Baptist and the 
thronging to him of the people in the reverse order. Mt.'s change 

1 {wvrjr — avroO. Cf. 2 K I 8 . 


is due to a sense of literary fitness. The description of the Baptist 
comes more appropriately after the statement of his appearance 
as a preacher, than it does after the account of the effect of his 
preaching upon the people. There is no reason to suppose that 
Mt. had any other source than Mk. for these six verses, unless 
TrapayiveTOLt. is a hint of such a source (cf. Introduction, p. lx). In 
Mk. they stand at the beginning of the Gospel, and are written in 
Mk.'s abrupt style. The construction of Mk vv. 1-4 is not altogether 
clear (see Swete, in loc), and v. 7 is awkward. Mt. rewrites the 
passage in a smoother and more connected style. 

3. 8i&] So N B C D i 13 33 124 157 209 latt ; i/H, E K al.—fywv^ 
/SocDjtos 4v rfj ip^fitfi] Om. S 1 . — eudelas irotetre rds rplfiovs avrou] Om. S 1 k. 
aiiTov is substituted by Mk. and Mt. for the LXX rod Oeov tj/jluiv ; b S a 
assimilate to the LXX. 

4. kclI ftbvrjv — 6<r<pbv avrov is omitted in Mk. by D a b ft 3 . 

fj.i\t dypiov] S : has "honey of the hills," S 2 " honey of the waste." 

7. The next two verses in Mk. contain a summary of the 
Baptist's preaching. Mk. had selected from Peter's account of the 
Baptist's preaching a few words which suited his introductory 
section (i 1 " 11 ), because they represented the Baptist as looking 
forward to the coming of Christ. John contrasts the work of the 
coming Messiah with his own as being not merely symbolical 
" with water," nor merely preparatory " of repentance," but spiritual 
and final " with the Holy Spirit." Mt. takes these words, and, 
combining with them other sayings traditionally attributed to the 
Baptist, frames a discourse of which the keynote is "judgement." 
He represents it as addressed to the Pharisees and Sadducees, and 
indeed it is very unlikely that the Baptist should have spoken 
words like these to the common people who crowded to his baptism. 
If the first two chapters have been apologetic, rebutting Jewish 
calumnies, this speech of the Baptist's is marked by the tendency 
to anti-Jewish polemic which runs through the whole Gospel. The 
authorities and representatives of the Jewish nation had been fore- 
warned, even so far back as the days of John's preaching, of the 
fatal results of their short-sighted policy towards the Messiah and 
His teaching. 
X 7. And seeing many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his 
baptism, he said to them, O offspring of vipers, who bade you to flee 
from the coming wrath ?] Lk. has : " He said, therefore, to the 
multitudes who went out to be baptized by him," etc. Both Tt's 
and vfj.?v are emphatic, and the tone is one of ironical surprise. 
"Can it actually be the case that you have been persuaded to 
believe that the divine judgement is near, and stirred to endeavour 
to escape from it ? " For the divine wrath, cf. Enoch 90 18 " the 
staff of His wrath"; 91 7 "the holy Lord will come forth with 
wrath " ; Wis 5 20 " He shall sharpen stern wrath for a sword " ; 


fub 24 s0 " the day of wrath " ; Secrets of Enoch 5o 6 a " lest the 
wrath of God come upon you"; Ro i 18 "the wrath of God is 
revealed"; 1 Th 1 10 "the coming wrath"; Ro 2 6 "the day of 
wrath " ; Rev 6 16 etc. 

8. Bring forth therefore fruit worthy of repentance.} So Lk. with X 
"fruits " for " fruit." If you are really alive to the necessity of escape 
from the divine wrath, take the only possible way : repent, and act 
as only men who have repented can act. For the connection be- 
tween repentance and good works, cf. Rabbi Elearer ben Jacob 1 (Ab 
4 13 ), " Repentance and good works are a shield against punishment." 

9. And think not to say in yourselves, We have Abraham as X 
{our) father : for I say to you, that God is able of these stones to raise 
up children to Abraham.} Lk. has : " And do not begin to say," 
etc Do not suppose that you can substitute for repentance and 
good works the plea of descent from Abraham. The divine wrath 

is about to break in judgement. The Jew will not escape by virtue 
of his nationality. For a commentary on the idea that member- 
ship of the Jewish polity could save from judgement, cf. Ro 2 17 - 29 . 

10. And already the axe is laid at the root of the trees. Every X 
tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit is cut down, and 
cast into the fire.} So Lk. Moreover, delay will be fatal. Already 
the judgement is beginning. 

11. I indeed baptize you with water to repentance. But He who M 
comes after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to 
carry. He shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit, and with fire.} 
Mk. has these four clauses in the order 2. 3. 1. 4. Lk. agrees with 
Mt. — eya) fxlv v/xa<; /?a7TTi£u>] Mk. has the aor. eftd-H-Tiaa, which is 
due to Semitic influence. — h roan] For the instrumental eV, cf. 
Blass, 1 16 f. Mk. has the simple dative. — cts ^Tavoiav} with a view 
to repentance, i.e. the baptism denoted that those who submitted 

to it repented of their sins and wished to be cleansed from 
them. It symbolised both a present and future state of repent- 
ance. Mt. adds these words by way of compensation for the 
(SaTTTia-fxa //.eTavotas which he has omitted from Mk v. 4 . For the 
prepositional use of omcro), cf. Blass, p. 129. — tol iVoS^/xara 
ySaoracrat] Mk. has Kvij/as \v<rai tov Ifxavra twv V7ro8rjfxd.TO}v 
airov. To carry the sandals after his master is the duty of a 
slave. — airos] Cf. Blass, p. 164: iv irvevfjiaTi aytw. Baptism with 
water and baptism with the Holy Spirit need not be regarded as 
antithetical and exclusive. The former symbolised repentance. 
But repentance anticipates the gift of righteousness. Baptism 
with the Holy Spirit conveys this righteousness. The former is 
preparatory, the latter final. The Messiah was Himself to be en- 
dowed with the Spirit; cf. Is n 2 , Enoch 49 s 62 s , Ps-Sol 17 42 6 #eos 
Kareipyao-aTO auTov Svvarbv ev irvevfJMTi. ayta>, and SO able to transmit 
1 A disciple of Akiba. See Bacher, Die Agada der Tannaiten, ii. 283. 


it to other people. Cf. Test. Levi 18, Juda 24. But if His work 
should in one direction be a work of transmission of righteous- 
ness, in another it would be one of judgement. He should baptize 
with fire koX irvpi Not in Mk. The words are interpreted in the 
next verse. The fire is that of judgment upon sinners. 
X 12. Whose fan is in His hand, and He will purge His threshing- 
floor, and will gather His wheat into the granary ; but the chaff He 
will burn with fire unquenchable.'] So Lk. with infinitives for the 
future tenses. These words furnish a commentary on *cal rrvpi of 
the last verse. The Messiah will separate between the repentant 
and the unrepentant. The former He will baptize with the Holy 
Spirit, and gather them like wheat into a granary {i.e. into His 
kingdom). The latter He will exclude from His kingdom, and 
commit them to fire to be burned like chaff. For the work of the 
Messiah in destroying sinners, cf. Enoch 69 s7 " He caused the 
sinners and those who have led the world astray to pass away and 
be destroyed from off the face of the earth " ; 62 s "And the word 
of His mouth slew all the sinners, and all the unrighteous were 
destroyed before His face." The unrighteous descend, 63 10 " into 
the flame of the pain of Sheol." 

7. p&TrTKrfia avrov] Om. avrov, K* B. 

8. L U a/a g 2 S 1 S 2 have " fruits," assimilating to Lk. 

11. irveiixarc ayltp Kal irvpl] S 1 has "with fire and with the Holy Spirit." 
Om. Kal irvpl, E S V al. But the words are essential to the context. 

7-12. In place of Mk vv. 7, 8 , both Mt. and Lk. have a longer 
discourse, Mt 7 " 12 , Lk 3 7 " 17 , which embodies Mk.'s two verses. In 
the parallels to Mk 7 - 8 , Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the fol- 
lowing respects. Both arrange the four clauses in the order 3. 1. 
2. 4 as against Mk.'s 1. 2. 3. 4. Both have fiev after eyw, and 
fiaTTTL^w for i/3a.TTTi(ra. Both have ev before Trvev/xarL, and Kal 
irvpL at the end. In the remaining verses there is very great verbal 
agreement. The only divergences in the words of the Baptist are 
Mt 9 fai S6ir]T€ = Lk 8 fiij apirja-de, Mt 12 the ind., Lk 17 the inf. 
It seems possible, therefore, that the two Evangelists had before 
them a second source, containing words ascribed to the Baptist. 
It is not, however, likely that in this source the sayings were set 
in any historical connection ; for whilst Mt. makes of them a dis- 
course of warning to the Pharisees and Sadducees, Lk. divides 
them into short addresses to the multitude, viz. 7 ' 9 16 - 17 separated 
by other sayings to the multitudes, to toll-gatherers, and to soldiers. 
The source, therefore, seems to have contained sayings only without 
historical incident. Again, it is possible that the two Evangelists 
drew these verses from oral tradition or from different Greek 
sources. Such short summaries of sayings may well have been 
preserved orally, and would tend to become stereotyped in language 
during the process of transmission and use in the services of the 


Christian Churches and in the discourses of preachers. Or, lastly, 
Lk. may have read the first Gospel and been influenced by its 
phraseology. Against the theory of one common source may be 
urged (a) the different descriptions of the audience ; (b) the ab- 
sence of Lk vv. 10 " 14 from Mt. ; (c) the variations in language. Mt 
3 9 86£r]Te = Lk f a P £r)<Tde ; Mt 3 lla eis ^Tavoiav ; Lk. omits j Mt 
3 llb to, VTroSrjfJLaTa (3a<TTo.(rai = Lk 3 16b Avcrai rbv Ifidvra twv vtto- 
Stj/xdroiv avTOv ; Mt 3 12 kcu SiaKaflapiet, kcu crwa^ei = Lk 3 17 Sia«a- 
6dpai, Kal o-wayayetv. On the other hand, the otherwise close and 
minute agreement in language may be urged in its favour. But 
we are possibly dealing with fragments of four (three) and two 
verses in length. There seems to be no reason why such scraps 
should not have been stereotyped in language and widely known. 
It is a matter of indifference whether the Evangelists borrowed them 
from oral tradition or from independent written sources. But ad- 
mitting that close verbal identity does not necessarily presuppose 
direct and immediate community of source, the variations in Mt 9 
= Lk 8 , Mt 12 = Lk 17 , combined with the differences of setting, are 
clearly adverse to a common written source. It must remain 
probable that Mt. drew the words from an unknown source, whilst 
Lk. also had them in an independent source. 

(2) 13-17. At His Baptism He received the Holy Spirit, and ivas 
super?iaturally proclaimed to be the Son of God, the Beloved 
whom God has chosen = Mk i 9 " 11 . 

13. Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to the Jordan unto John, to be M 
baptized by him.] Mk. has: "And it came to pass in those days, 
that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized in the 
Jordan by John." Mt. substitutes Tore (see on 2 1 ) for koX eyeWo. 
The latter connecting formula is common in Lk. Mk. has it 
rarely — i 9 2 15 (/cat yiWai) 2 23 4 4 g r ? Mt. retains it only in q 10 = 
Mk 2 15 . Elsewhere he has it five times in the formula ko.1 lyevtro 
OT6 cTe'Accrev 6 'I770-OUS, 7 28 II 1 I3 53 19 1 26 1 . ev eKttVats Tats 
■fjixipaK; he omits here, having anticipated it in 3 1 . For Mk.'s 
rjXOev he has irapaytvirai to assimilate to 3 1 . d-rrb NatapeV he omits 
as needless after 2 23 . For the substitution of " to be baptized " for 

" and was baptized," cf. the similar change in 4 1 " to be tempted " 
for Mk i 13 "and He was — tempted." The editor has in mind the 
fulfilment of the divine purpose in the life of the Messiah. For tov 
with the inf. (7 times in Mt.) expressing purpose, cf. Blass, p. 235 
and 2 13 . The aorist implies a definite and completed action. 

14, 15. And John tried to forbid Him, saying, I have need to be E 
baptized by Thee, and dost Thou come to me ? And Jesus answer- 
ing said to him, Suffer it now : for so it is fitting for us to fulfil 
all righteousness. Then he suffers Him.] These verses are not 


found in Mk., and appear to be an attempt to explain why the 
Messiah submitted to John's baptism. TrXrjpwo-ai irao-av Slkolio- 
avvrjv apparently means " to leave nothing undone that had been 
revealed as the righteous will of God." John's baptism had the 
divine sanction, and the Messiah therefore must submit to it. 
In Mk.'s Gospel the baptism of Christ would seem to be recorded 
as the period when He received His Messianic authority. Then 
the Spirit came down into Him, and the divine voice declared 
Him to be the beloved Son. But when Mt. prefixed the narra- 
tive of the supernatural birth, the question was at once raised, 
How could one who was conceived of the Holy Spirit need to 
be baptized in order to receive Him ? Mt. leaves the question 
unsolved, but attempts a partial solution by suggesting that the 
baptism was not necessary to the Messiahship of Christ. The 
Spirit, indeed, then came down upon Him, but He was not then 
constituted the Son of God. This He had been from His birth. 
The divine voice only ratified and publicly proclaimed an already 
existing Sonship. With this insertion and its attempt to explain 
why Christ was baptized, cf. the omission of Mk.'s statement that 
John's baptism was ets a</>£cnv dfiapriwy. A somewhat parallel 
account is quoted by Jerome, Contra Pelag. iii. 2 from the 
Gospel according to the Hebrews : " Ecce mater domini et fratres 
ejus dicebant ei : 'Joannes baptista baptizat in remissionem 
peccatorum ; eamus et baptizemur ab eo.' Dixit autem eis ' Quid 
peccavi ut vadam et baptizer ab eo ? nisi forte hoc ipsum quod 
dixi ignorantia est.'" Here the point seized for explanation is 
the sinlessness of Christ. How could one who was sinless submit 
to a baptism "of repentance unto remission of sins," Mk i 4 ? 
The editor of the first Gospel has also felt the difficulty, and 
partially removed it, by omitting cts acpeo-iv a/xapTiwv. See on v. 2 . 
But since he has prefixed to the account of the baptism the narra- 
tive of the supernatural birth and the words of the Baptist, " He 
shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire," the question 
was raised in a new form, How could one who was begotten of 
the Holy Spirit (i 20 ) receive the Holy Spirit at baptism? And 
how could one who was Himself to baptize with the Holy Spirit 
come to John for baptism ? I have marked the insertion vv. 14-15 
as editorial, but of course the editor may be borrowing from a 
source known to him. — rore] see on 2 1 . — d^i^o-iv] For the historic 
present, cf. Introduction, p. lx. 
M 16. And Jesus, having been baptized, went up straightway from the 
water : and, behold, the heavens were opened to Him, and He saw 
the Spirit of God coming down as a dove, and coming upon Him.] 
Mk. has : " And straightway going up out of the water, He saw 
the heavens being rent, and the Spirit as a dove coming down into 


Mt. by substituting airo for i< and avoiding eis in the previous 
rerse, suggests that the "baptism" did not necessarily involve 
complete immersion. 

After the insertion of w. 14, 16 he adds /3a7rTio-0eis 8e 6 'Itjo-ovs as 
a connecting link = Mk.'s kcu. He then retains Mk.'s tiOvs, which 
he elsewhere generally omits, kol eidvs is characteristic of Mk., 
and seems to be used by him without any emphasis on the idea of 
immediacy, but rather as a mere connecting link. Mt. prefers 
Tore; Lk. /ecu iyevero. — koll ISov] See on I 20 . — avew^Orjo-av] a 
commonplace word for Mk.'s graphic o-xiCo/xeVovs, which is not 
used elsewhere in this sense. Cf. Is 64 1 " O that thou wouldest 
rend the heavens," where the LXX has eav avoids rbv ovpavov. 
Ezk I 1 kcu r}V0L^6r)crav ol ovpavoi, koll etcW. — kcu ctScv to irvevfrn 6eov 
Kara/ScuVov wcrct ircpiaTepav ipxop.evov in avToV] Mk. has : " the 
Spirit as a dove coming down into Him." The uWei Trepio-rephv 
must mean like a dove in appearance. Lk. so interpreted it and 
explained it. Philo describes Wisdom as a dove, Quis Rer. Div. 
Her. i. 491. Mk.'s " coming down as a dove into Him " is rather 
harsh. Mt. expands to smooth the construction : " coming down 
as a dove and coming upon Him." The editor may have felt that 
" coming down into " seemed to suggest too forcibly that up to this 
time Jesus had been without the Spirit. The to — 6eov — ear may 
be due also to Is 42 1 to pov Itt olvtov. 

17. And behold a voice from the heavens, saying, This is My Son, M 
the Beloved, in whom I was well pleased.'] Mk. has : "And there 
came a voice from the heavens, Thou art My Son, the Beloved, in 
whom I was well pleased." — nal iSou <pwvrj] Mk. has ical <pwvrj 
eyeWo. For /ecu l8ov, see on i 20 . In Mk. it would seem that the 
voice was heard by Jesus alone. Mt. alters o-v ct into oin-ds eo-nv 
to make it clear that the proclamation was a public one. The 
passage is modelled on Is 42 1 as quoted in Mt 12 18 - 21 'ISou, 6 irats 
p.ov, ov ypeTLaa' 6 ay<nrr]T6<i p.ov, ov evSoKrjaev rj if/vx*] f-ov' #770-0) to 
rrvevp.d p\ov eV avTov. The Messiah is in a higher sense than Israel 
the Son and the Beloved of God. The aor. evSoKrjo-a is modelled 
on the aorists of the LXX in this passage, which were probably 
interpreted as implying the divine election of Israel, and so here 
the divine election of the Messiah. Cf. the aorist i866rj, 28 18 ; 
Trapeo'oOr], ii 26 . 6 dya7rT?To's is not an attribute of 6 vlos p.ov, 
but an independent title = " the Beloved " = the Messiah. Cf. 
Armitage Robinson, Ephesians, pp. 229 ff. ; Diet. Bib. art. "Isaiah, 
Ascension of." 

15, 16. roVe &<plr}<rtP ainbv fSairriaOeU 8t 6 'I-qaovs] S 1 has : "Then he 
suffered Him to be baptized. And when He was baptized." S 2 " Then He 
suffered Him to be baptized. And Jesus had been baptized ; and when 
He was baptized." a g^have : "et cum baptizaretur (Jesus) lumen ingens 
(magnum) circumfulsit (fulgebat) de aqua ita ut timerent omnes qui advenerunt 


(congregati erant)." For the light, cf. the Ebionite Gospel as quoted by 
Epiphanius, xxx. 13 : Kal eiidvs (after the voice) irepii\afj.\f/e rbv t6ttov <pw$ 
frfya ; and Just. Dial, lxxxviii. : KareKObvros tov 'I?;ctoO ivl rb iiSup Kal vvp 
avijipdri iv rip 'lopddvj/. 

Wellhausen and Blass both note that the text presents difficulties, and 
both come to the conclusion that Kal j3airTicr0els — vbaros is an interpolation 
from Mk. But the difficulties are due to the work of the editor in dove- 
tailing his insertion vv. 14, 1B into the text of Mk. After the insertion he 
comes to Mk.'s words : Kal evdvs dvaflaivwv iK tov vdaros elSev. As he has 
previously changed Mk.'s Kal i^airrladr] els rbv 'lopbdvijv virb 'ludvov into irrl 
rbv 'lopddvrjv irpbs rbv 'Idjdvrjv tov fiaicTLodrivai inr' avrov, he feels it necessary 
to take up the thread of the narrative, and to state the fact of the baptism by 
inserting fiairrio-Qeh 8e 6 'Itjo-ovs. This carries with it the change of Mk.'s 
evdvs avafialvwv into evdvs dvifit}. The subject of eldev is as in Mk. Tr/croOs. 
Contrast Jn i 3a . We might have expected Mt. to make the publicity of the 
whole scene more emphatic by introducing John or others as the subject of 
etdev. But he has followed Mk. in this particular, contenting himself with 
suggesting the publicity of the divine proclamation by changing Si> el into 
ovrbs i<rriv. S^ S 2 add "to be baptized" in order to relieve the ambiguity 
of a<pl-r}Ttv and its Syriac equivalent. Both might mean "leaves Him." S 2 
adds also: "And Jesus had been baptized," from an over-scrupulous desire 
to have the fact of baptism explicitly stated. 

17. 0vt6s io-Tiv] D a S 1 S 2 Iren. have <ri) el as in Mk I 11 . The fact that 
Mt. in 1 7 s assimilates to 3 17 by adding l5ov, Xtyovaa, and iv <p evSoKTjaa, makes 
it probable that ovtos iaTiv of 17 5 occurred also in 3 17 . If o~v el had stood 
there, we should probably also have found it in 17 5 . 

6 vlos /j.ov b ayawriTos] S 1 S 2 have " My Son and My beloved." 

13-17. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following : rjveu- 
xOrja-av, Mt 16 = aveo))(6r)vai, Lk 21 for cr^i^o/xei'ous, Mk 10 ; or' avrov, 
Mt 16 , Lk 22 for as avroV, Mk 10 . 

(3) IV. 1-11. He was prepared for His ministry by temptation. 
An expansion of Mk i 12 - 1 ^ 

M 1. Then was Jesus led into the wilderness by the Spirit to be 
tempted by the devil.] Mk. has: "And straightway the spirit 
driveth Him into the wilderness. And He was in the wilderness 
forty days, being tempted by Satan." — totc] For Mk.'s Kal evOvs, 
see on 3 16 . — 6 'lrjo-ovs avr/xOy — two f°£ irvevfjLaTO';] For Mk.'s harsh 
to Trvev/jLo. avrov eKfiaWei, thus avoiding e/c/?aAA«v, a harsh word 
in this context, Lk. also has Mt. substitutes a passive 
for Mk.'s active voice in g 25 14 11 16 26 18 8 19 13 24 22 < 2 > 26 57 27 s8 
28 6 . — TreLpao-Orjvai] for Mt.'s emphasis on the divine purpose, 
see on 3 13 . For the final infinitive, see Blass, p. 223. Mt. 
avoids Mk.'s repetition of " the wilderness." — vtto tov 8ta/3dAou] 

M 2. And having fasted forty days and forty nights, He was after- 
wards hungry.] Mk. has only the "forty days," omitting the 
fasting and the hunger (which Lk. also has). But he has the 
obscure, "And he was with the wild beasts," which Mt. omits. 
The verse reminds us of the fasting of Moses, Ex 34 28 . For the 


form eWvao-a, see Blass, pp. 40, 47. Lk. has: "And He ate 
nothing in those days ; and when they were accomplished He was 
hungry." Vv. 3 " 10 are not in Mk. Lk. has a parallel narrative, but 
the temptations are in a different order, and the descriptive verses 
differ in phraseology. There is also less verbal agreement here in 
the dialogue than there is in 3 M2 = Lk 3 7 - 17 . As in that case the 
two Evangelists may have drawn from independent written or oral 

3. And the tempter came and said to Him, If thou art God's X 
Son, say that these stones become loaves.'] Lk. has : " And the 
devil said to Him, If thou art God's Son, say to this stone that 

it become a loaf." — koX TrpoaeXdwv — e?7rev] Lk. has ei7rev 8e. 71-pocr- 
ipXtcrOai is a favourite word in Mt. It occurs 52 times: in Mk. 
6, in Lk. 10. — 6 7rapa£wv] a reminiscence of Mk.'s Treipa£6p.evos. 
— mos tov 8eov] Cf. Dalm. Words, 27 4 ff. — 01 Xfflot] Lk. has the 
singular. For Mt.'s predilection for plurals, see on 8' 28 . 

4. And He answered and said, It is written, Not upon breads 
alone shall man live, but upon every uttera?ice that proceedeth through 
the mouth of God.] Lk. has: "And Jesus answered him, It is 
written that, Not upon bread alone shall man live." The quota- 
tion is from Dt 8 3 in the language of the LXX. B has to before 
€K7ropero/Aei'o), but A F Luc omit. In Deuteronomy the writer 
describes how the Israelites in their wanderings learned that 
natural products do not always suffice to support life. They were 
thus led to live in dependence on the creative word of God. 
Christ restates this principle as valid for Himself. He will rely 
upon God's will for the necessities of life. The tempter implied 
that Sonship involved power to perform miracles. Christ neither 
affirms nor denies this, but replies that God, if it be His will, can 
provide food for His needs. Cf. Jn 4 34 . For an earlier application 
of Dt 8 3 , cf. Wisd. 16 26 . 

5. Then the devil taketh Him into the holy city, and placed Him X 
upon the wing of the temple.] Lk. has: "And he led Him to 
Jerusalem, and placed Him upon the wing of the temple." — t^v 
dytav tto'Aiv] Cf. 2 7 53 , Rev n 2 2 1 2 - 10 22 19 , Dn o 24 , To 13 9 .— 
7TTepvyiov] For the diminutive form, see Blass, p. 63. — TrapaXap.- 
/?avei] The historic presents here and in the succeeding verses are 
striking; see Introduction, p. lx. 

6. And he saith to Him, If Thou art God's Son, cast Thyself down : X 
for it is written, that His angels He charges concerting Thee : and 
upon {their) hands they shall bear Thee, lest Thou strike against a 
stone Thy foot.] Lk. has : " And he said to Him, If Thou art God's 
Son, cast Thyself hence down. For it is written, that His angels 
He charges concerning Thee, to guard Thee; and that upon 
(their) hands they shall bear Thee, lest Thou dash against a 
stone Thy foot." The quotation is from Ps go 11 - 12 . Mt omits tov 


8La<f>v\d£cu <r£ ev (7ra(rais) rats oSois (rov, and Lk. omits iv (77-acrais) Tais 
68ots a-ov, which would not have been suitable to this context. 

X 7. Jesus said to him, Again it is written, Thou shalt not tempt 
the Lord thy God.] Lk. has : " And Jesus answered and said to 
him that, It has been said," etc. The quotation is from Dt 6 16 in 
the words of the LXX. 

X 8. Again the devil taketh Him unto an exceeding high mountain, 
and showeth Him all the kingdoms of the ivorld and their glory .] 
Lk. has : " And taking Him up, he showed Him all the kingdoms 
of the inhabited world in a moment of time." Lk.'s dvayaytav is 
ambiguous, " into the air " ? For Mt.'s mountain, cf. the mountain 
of the Sermon, 5 1 ; the mountain of Transfiguration, 17 1 ; and the 
mountain of Ascension, 28 16 . 

X 9. And said to Him, All these things will I give Thee, if Thou 
wilt fall down and worship me.] Lk. has : " And the devil said to 
Him, To Thee I will give all this authority and their glory : because 
to me it has been delivered ; and to whomsoever I will, I give it. 
Thou, therefore, if Thou wilt worship before me, all shall be Thine." 

X 10. Then saith Jesus to him, Away, Satan : for it is written, The 
Lord thy God shalt thou worship, and Him alone shalt thou serve.] 
Lk. has : " And Jesus answered and said to him, It is written," 
etc. The quotation comes from Dt 6 13 . B has there cpofi-qO-qoy], 
and omits //.ova>. But A has Trpoo-Kwrj(rei<; and fxovto. 1 — 7rpoo-Kweiv] 
a favourite word with Mt., generally takes a dative ; cf. 2 2 - 8 * u 4 9 8 2 

9 18 I4 33 I5 25 l8 26 2 g9 t 

X 11. Then the devil leaveth Him.] Lk. has : " And having 

accomplished every temptation, the devil departed from Him for 

a time." Mt. now returns to Mk i i2 . 
M And, behold, angels came and were ministering to Him.] Mk. 

has : " And the angels were ministering to Him." For totc, see 

on 2 7 ; for feat iSov, i 20 ; and for irpocrf)\8ov, v. 3 . 

6. irepl gov] S 1 adds : "that they should keep thee," assimilating to Lk. 

8. rov KSfffiov] S 1 "of this world." 
Kal ttjv 56^av avrQiv'] Omit S 1 . 

9. S 1 has: "And said to Him, These kingdoms and their glory Thou 
hast seen. To Thee will I give them, if," etc. 

10. CTraye] So NBC*a/lfk. Add 6irl<rw p.ov C 2 D al S 2 . S 1 has 

11. di&poKos] S 1 S 2 add " for a time," assimilating to Lk. 

The three temptations are clearly symbolical. That is 
suggested at the outset by " was led by the Spirit," an external 
representation of an inward experience. The first temptation was 
to put to the test His own consciousness of divine "Sonship." 
The "Son of God" could change stones into loaves when 

1 The editor (or his source) either had Tpotncvvifiveis (rather than (po^-qd-qcnn 
= Heb. nth) in his copy of the LXX, or has substituted it for (pofi-qd-qari to 
emphasize the antithesis with vpoaKvy^ys of v.*. Cf. Introduction, p. xxxi. 


necessity arose. In answer, Christ refuses thus to test His own 
convictions. He would act only as God willed. The second 
was a temptation to put God to the test. If the " Son of God " 
were in danger, God would protect Him. In answer, Christ 
appeals to Scripture for proof that such testing was forbidden. 
The third was a temptation to grasp at once and by one act 
the Messianic sovereignty of the world, which His consciousness 
of Messiahship led Him to expect in the future. For answer, 
Christ finally dismisses (viraye SaravS) the tempter. The service 
of God to which He was pledged forbade the premature hastening 
of events by methods which involved rebellion against God's will. 
Lk. has the last two temptations in the reverse order, and con- 
sequently no viraye Sarava. His arrangement avoids the double 
change of scene which is found in Mt. — desert to Jerusalem, 
Jerusalem to a high mountain. On the other hand, Mt.'s 
arrangement is probably due to his belief that the offer of 
universal monarchy formed the fitting climax to the series. By 
inserting the mountain, the editor may have intended to draw a 
contrast between the mountain upon which Christ refused 
Messianic power with that other mountain (28 16 ) upon which at 
a later period He told His disciples that all power was given to 
Him in heaven and upon earth. It seems probable that the 
three temptations are artificially connected with Mk.'s brief 
statement (i 12 - 13 ), where the whole scene takes place in the 
wilderness. " He was in the wilderness forty days, being tempted." 
There He was with the beasts, and there presumably angels 
ministered to Him. But in Mt., after the first temptation, we 
leave the wilderness, and the ministration of angels presumably 
took place on the high mountain. 

C— IV. 12-XV. 20. MINISTRY IN GALILEE = Mk i 14 -7 23 . 

(1) 12-17. Appearance in Galilee. From Mk i 14 - 15 . 

12, 13. And when He heard that John was delivered up, He M 
departed into Galilee. And having left JVazara, He came and 
settled at Capharnaum, which is on the lake, in the districts of Zabulon 
and Naphtali.\ Mk. has : " And after that John was delivered up, 
Jesus came into Galilee." For aKoucras, cf. 14 13 , a second occasion 
on which Christ's movements were conditioned by tidings of the 
Baptist. — dve^w/)r;(r€v] See on 2 12 . — i\6o)v KaTwKrjatv eis Ka^apvaov/t] 
The editor anticipates the arrival at Capharnaum from Mk i 23 , 
because he wishes to make it the subject of a fulfilment of 
prophecy. — ttjv TrapaOaXaa-crtav] Capharnaum, whether identified 
with Tell Hum or Khan Minyeh (see Sanday, Sacred Sites, 36 ff.), 
being on the shore of the lake. — & opiois ZaftovXav ko.1 Ne<£0aA£<y*,] 


This geographical note is necessary to explain the bearing of the 
following quotation : 

O 14. In order that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through 
Isaiah the prophet, saying.] For the formula, see on i 22 . The 
quotation comes from Is 9 1 - 2 . 

15. Land of Zebulon, land of Naphtali, way of the sea, ovet 
Jordan, Galilee of the nations.] 

O 16. The people which (was) sitting in darkness saw a great 
light. And for those sitting in a region and shadow of death, light 
rose for them..] The editor seems to be quoting a Greek version, 
otherwise he would hardly have rendered "pi by the accusative 
6Sov. In the original it is the object of a verb ; but Mt, who 
wrests the words from the context and omits the verbs, would, if 
translating from the Hebrew, have rendered 68os just as he has 
given us yrj, not yrjv. 686v can only be due to careless copying 
from a version before him. This version was not the LXX, which 
differs a good deal from Mt.'s rendering. B of the LXX has not 
686v OaXao-o-qs, but these words stand in LXX N c a A Q, and were 
found in Aquila and Theodotion. Mt. presumably had before 
him a Greek version which was either different from the LXX, or 
was an early form of the LXX, containing 6Sov tfaAacro-iys. In the 
latter case he has adapted the verbs to suit his context. We need 
not inquire as to the exact signification of the geographical terms 
in the original. The editor tears the words from their context, 
because he saw in them a prophecy of the fact that Christ went 
to Galilee to begin His ministry, and settled for that purpose at 
Capharnaum, which became from henceforth His headquarters. 
Isaiah had spoken of Galilee (TaXtXaLa t5>v kOv&v). He had also 
spoken of 686v OaXdcrcrr)';, and Capharnaum was TrapadaXacrcria. 
Isaiah had spoken also of Zebulon and Naphtali, and Capharnaum 
was in the territory of these tribes. The prophet had said of 
these places that their inhabitants should see a great light. When 
Christ began His work amongst them this was fulfilled. Whatever, 
therefore, may have been the original signification of D\T "pi, or 
of its Greek equivalent 6Sbv OaXdcrarjs, it is hardly possible to 
doubt that Mt. had in mind when he copied the words the lake 
of Galilee, and described Capharnaum as rrjv TrapaOaXacraUv to 
make his meaning clear. 

Trj ZafiovXwv K.a.1 yrj N ecpdaXeifji.] LXX has X^P a Za/5ouXwv 17 yrj 
Ne<£#aAetju.. — 686v 6aXd<T(rr]<;] See above. — Trepav Tov'IopSdvov] So 
LXX, the usual equivalent of pTTi ~ay. — TaXiXaca twv Wvwv] So 
LXX. — 6 Xaos 6 KaOrj/xevos iv o-kotu] LXX B has iropiv6jjLCvo<; after 
the Heb., but A Ka9rjfX€vo<;. — etSe 0ws /ie'yaj LXX iSer* B, aSere N* V, 
eTSe X c . — kcu tocs Ka9rip.ivoi<i] LXX 01 KaTOt/covvres. — iv X^PV KC " 
(TKia] So LXX (om. Ktu B N*). — </>ais dveVfiAei/ avToi?] 
LXX : cpws Xdfjnp(.L f(f> vjias. 


17. From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent : M 
for the kingdom of the heavens is at hand.~\ Mk. has Krjpvo-o~<i>v to 
etayye'Aiov tov Oeov, ko.1 \iywv on Il€7rA?7pcoTGU 6 /catpo? kcu rjyyiKtv rj 
/SaaiAeia tov Oeov MeTa^oeiTC Kai iricrreveTe ev toj cvayyeAiw. — airo 
Tore] The editor contrasts this early period of the preaching of 
the kingdom with a later preaching of His death and resurrection ; 
cf. i6 21 , and abbreviates the statement of the contents of Christ's 
preaching. For his habit of retaining only one of Mk.'s many 
double expressions of an idea or fact, see Introduction, p. xxiv. 
He has already assimilated the statement of the contents of the 
Baptist's preaching to this verse, cf. 3 2 . 

13. Katpapvaotn] So K B D Z 33 latt.— Nafapd] X b B* X Z 33 k Orig. 
Naf a/>e'0, N* D at. 

16. iv x^PQ xa-l ffxiq.] S 1 has : "in sorrow and in the shadow of death " ; 
S 2 "in the shadows of death." 

17. fjLeravoeiTf'] Om. S 1 S 2 k Blass. 

(2) 18-22. The calling of four disciples. From Mk i 16 " 20 . 

18. And walking by the sea of Galilee, He saw two brethren, M 
Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the 
sea : for they were fishermen.'] Mk. has : " And passing by the sea 
of Galilee, He saw Simon and Andrew the brother of Simon casting 

in the sea : for they were fishermen." 

7repi7ra-rw Si] for Mk.'s /ecu Trapdywv, Mt. prefers the construction 
with Se'.and avoids Mk.'s iteration of the same pronoun irapaywv irapa, 
cf. 1 7 18 24 1 . He inserts Svo a.Se\<povs and t6v Aeycymw Hirpov, and 
substitutes avTov for the tautologous 'Sifxwvos. 'S.ip.wv is a Greek 
name substituted for the Hebrew Symeon. It occurs in Ecclus 50 1 , 
Josephus, and the N.T., and is a common Greek name ; see Pape, 
Wbrterb. der griech. Eigennamen ; and Deissm. Bib. Stud. p. 315. 

'AvSpcas] is a not uncommon Greek name. It occurs of a Jew 
in an Olympian inscription of B.C. 169, Ditt. Syll. 301. 5. Mt. 
substitutes /3oAAovt<zs afxcpi/SX-rja-Tpov for Mk.'s vaguer>ij3a\\ovTa<;, 
which is used absolutely here only. The subst. d//.<£i/3oAet's = a 
fisherman, occurs in Is 19 8 . — rjo~av yap dAiets] For the occurrence 
of this clause in Mt. and Mk. as a proof of dependence of one 
Gospel on the other, see Hor. Syn. p. 43. dAtevs occurs from 
Homer downwards. For the first cent, a.d., cf. Ox. Pap. 11. cexciv. 6. 

19. And He saith to them, Come after Me, and I will make you M 
fishers of men.] Mk. has : "And Jesus said to them, Come after 
Me, and I will make you to become fishers of men." Mt. omits 
yeviaOat as superfluous. For cWcro) as a preposition, see Blass, 

p. 129. — SevTe cWcro)] is Semitic. 

20. And they immediately left the nets and followed Him.] Mk. M 
has: "And immediately they left the nets and followed Him." 
Mt. substitutes ol Si for Mk.'s kqi. See on v. 18 , and Introduction, p. xx. 


M 21. And going forward thence, He saw two other brethren, James 
the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the boat with Zebedee their 
father, mending their nets. And He called them.] Mk. has : " And 
going forward a little, He saw James the son of Zebedee, and John 
his brother, these also in the boat mending the nets." Mt. inserts 
iKeWev, which occurs 12 times in this Gospel, 5 in Mk., 3 in Lk., 
2 in Jn. He inserts also aAAous Svo dSeXcpovs, as in v. 18 , and omits 
Mk.'s Semitic /cat avrovs. He adds " with Zebedee their father " by 
anticipation from the next verse of Mk., and "their" after " nets." 

M 22. And they immediately left the boat and their father, and 

followed Him.'] Mk. has : " And they left their father Zebedee 

in the boat with the hired servants, and went after Him." Mt. 

substitutes 01 Se for /cat as in V. 20 , and rjKoXovd-qcrav avrw for aTrrjXOov 

6ttlo~u> avrov. 

(3) Illustrations of His teaching and work, 4 23 -9 34 
(a) Anticipatory sketch, 4 23 - 25 . 

23-25. The editor now comes to Mk i 21 - 22 . He has already 
(4 13 ) spoken of the entry into Capharnaum, and therefore omit6 
it here. Mk i 21b speaks of teaching in the synagogue. But 
here the editor wishes to develop his scheme of giving illustrations 
of Christ's teaching and work in successive sections. He therefore 
inserts at this point an introductory sketch of Christ's activity 
in these two respects, 4 23-25 . The teaching in the synagogue at 
Capharnaum becomes a synagogal teaching throughout the country, 
and a summary of Christ's work of healing is added. 
E And Jesus passed through the whole of Galilee, teaching in their 
synagogues, and preaching the good news of the kingdom, and healing 
every sickness and every disease among the people. And the rumour 
about Him we?it into all Syria : and they brought to Him all who 
were in evil plight, holden with manifold sicknesses and torments, 
demoniacs, and lunatics, and paralytics ; and He healed them. And 
there followed Him many multitudes from Galilee, and Decapolis, 
and Jerusalem, and beyond Jordan.] 

The phraseology of this editorial summary is largely borrowed 
from Mk. 

For /cat irepirjyev — SiSdV/cwv, cf. Mk 6 6 /cat irepirjye — SiSacr/cwv ; 
for iv oXrj rfj TaXtAata, Mk I 39 eis oXrjv ttjv TaXiXaiav ; for Krjpvcrcriov 
to evayyeXiov, Mk I 14 ; for dirrjXOev r) d/cor) avrov eis oXrjv ttjv 
Supiav, Mk I 28 £$r]X6e 8e rj olkotj airov eidvs iravra-^ov €65 oAtjv ttjv 
TTcpi^uipov ; for Trpoo-qveyKav aurw 7ravTas tovs KaKtus ex 0VTas > Mk I 32 
ecpepov irpbs avrov 7ravras tovs /ca/cws e^ovTas j for 7roi/aAais vocrots — 
Kal idepdirevo-ev avrou's, Mk I 84 /cat iOepdirtvcrev — 7roi/ctAais vocrots ', 
for haLfxovit,ojX€vov<i, Mk l 32 ; for rjKoXovOrjcrav awT<5 o^Aot 7roAAoi, 
Mk 5 24 tjkoXovOu avrw o^Aos ttoAvs, cf. Mk 3 7 ; for Ae/<a7roAis, 


Mk 5 20 7 31 ; for 'IepocroXvp.wv kcu 'IovSat'as kol irepav tov 'lopSdvov, 
Mk 3 8 . 

23. to evayyiXiov Trjs /WiAei'as] i.e. the good news that the E 
kingdom was near, cf. v. 17 . evayyiXiov in CI. Gk. is the reward 
given to a bearer of good news. So in 2 Sam 4 10 . In later writers 

it means, as here, the good news itself. So in Lucian, Plutarch. — 
fiaXaKia] only in Mt. amongst New Testament writers, cf. 9 35 io 1 . 
— o-waywyats] For the history of the synagogues, see Schiirer, II. 
ii. 52m 

24. Suota] never occurs in Mk. — oW^o/i-ai] in this sense only E 
here and in Lk. and Acts amongst the New Testament writers. 
— jSao-avos] of disease only here. — /3acravois o-vvexopevos] occurs in a 
different sense in 4 Mac 15 32 . — &aip.ovi(eo-6ai] in this sense only in 
late writers. — 7rapaAuTiKo's] a New Testament word, Mt. and Mk. 
Lk. (5 18 - 24 ) and twice in Acts has 7rapaXeXvp.evos. — o-eXr)via£op.evo<;] 
t.e, epileptic, again in 17 15 ; a late and rare word. — *a\ eOepdvevo-ev 
avrovi\ D a b C g 1 h have kcu Trdvras eOepd-n-evcrev. Cf. 8 16 1 2 15 14 36 . 

25. oxXol ttoXXoC] the plural is characteristic of Mt. He has E 
the plural o^A-cu about 30 times, the singular 16 times. Mk. has 
the singular about 37 times, the plural once. 1 In Lk. the numbers 
are more equally balanced. 

Ae/ca7roXews] occurs twice in Mk. For its history, see Schiirer, 
11. i. 94 ; DB, art. " Decapolis." 

'lepoo-oXvp.wv] is here treated as a neuter plural. In 2 8 it is fern. 
sing. The aspirated form is apparently due to association with Upos. 
Cf. West, and Hort, Introduction 2 , p. 313; Blass, p. 31. Mk. and Mt. 
(except in 2 3 s7 ) always have this form. Cf. Blass, p. 31. — irepav tov 
'lopSdvov] is the JT£n I3y of the Mishna, and the Persea of Josephus. 

For its extent, see Schiirer, 11. i. 3, 4 ; DB, art. " Peraea." 

The reason why the editor now gives his illustration of Christ's 
teaching before that of His work is probably to be found in the 
next verse of Mk., viz. i 22 , which describes the effect of Christ's 
preaching. He therefore here inserts the Sermon on the mountain, 
5~7 27 , and closes it with this verse from Mk i 22 = Mt 7 27 - 28 . 

(b) V.--VII. Illustration of the Messiah's teaching. 
From the Logia. 2 
Analysis — 

A. Nine Beatitudes, 5 3 " 12 . 

B. Two metaphors of discipleship, 5 13 - 16 . 

C. Relation of the Christian character to the Law, 5 17 - 48 

The Christian character is not released from the obli- 

1 io 1 , but D S 1 latt have the singular also here. 

2 On the Sermon on the Mount, see especially the article of Votaw in DB, 
Extra Volume, pp. 1 ff. 


gations of the Law. It is under still heavier re- 

Christian "righteousness" is to be not less than that 
of the scribes, but greater, 17_2 °. 

Five illustrations of the permanence of the Law and 
of this greater righteousness. 

(i) Threefold interpretation of "do not kill," 21 - 22 . 
Twofold application, 23 " 26 . 

(2) Interpretation of "do not commit adultery," 27 " 28 . 
Twofold application, 29 - 80 . 

Application of this to divorce, 31 " 32 . 

(3) Interpretation of "do not swear falsely," 33 - 84a 
Fourfold application, 34b - 37 . 

(4) Interpretation of the lex talionis, 38 " 39a . 
Fourfold application, 89b - 42 . 

(5) Interpretation of "love thy neighbour," 43_45 . 
Twofold illustration, 46 ' 48 . 

D. Three illustrations of the way in which the Christian 

" righteousness " is to exceed that of the Pharisees, 
6 1 - 18 . 

(1) Alms, 2 - 4 . 

(2) Prayer, 5 " 16 . 

(3) Fasting, 16 ' 18 . 

E. Three Prohibitions, 6 19 -7 8 . 

(i) fir] OrjcravpL^Te, 19 - 3 *. 

(2) fxr] Kpivere, 7 1 " 5 . 

(3) M <^ T6 > 6 - 

F. Three Commands, 7 ' 2S . 




(2) dcriXdaTt, """. 

(3) Trpoo-e'xeTe, 15 - 28 . 

G. Concluding Parable, 24 " 27 . 

E 1. And seeing the multitudes, He went up into the mountain : 
and having sat down, His disciples came to Him.] Lk 6 17 has : 
" And He came down with them, and stood upon a level place." 

to opos] Cf. 14 23 15 29 . The article is less natural here than 
in these two places, where it may not unnaturally designate the hill 
country adjoining the lake. It suggests that the Sermon had long 
been traditionally connected with a mountain, and seems to mean 
the mountain upon which the Sermon was delivered. 

Ka6'i(ravTo<s airov vpocrqXOov avrai] For the unclassical construc- 
tion, see Blass, p. 251. 

irpooijXOov is a favourite word with Mt. It occurs 52 times, 6 in 
Mk., 10 in Lk., 1 in Jn. 

01 /xaOrjTal clvtov] Since nothing has been told us apart from 


4 i8-22 f any di sc iples, their sudden appearance here is a hint that 
the Sermon is anticipated here from a later period. 

2. And He opened His mouth and taught them, saying.] Lk. E 
has : " And He lifted up His eyes upon His disciples, and said." 

dvot£as to o-To/xa. avrov] Again of Philip, Ac 8 35 ; Peter, Ac io 34 ; 
Paul, Ac i8 14 ; cf. Lk i C4 . It is a somewhat formal introductory 
clause ; cf. Job 3 1 . 

3. Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of~L 
the heavens.] Lk. has : " Blessed are ye poor : for yours is the 
kingdom of God." /za/ca/Hos in the LXX is equivalent to *}B>K. 
It describes a state not of inner feeling on the part of those^ to 
whom it is applied, but of blessedness from an ideal point of view 
in the judgement of others. 

01 7TTwx ot T( ? ttv€ J/xart] Cf. Ka.6a.pol rrj KapSia, V. 8 ; Ta7reivovs 
tu5 TTvevfiaTi, Ps 33 19 ; £cW T(3 irvevfiaTL, Ac 1 8 25 ; dy/a T(S TrvevfiaTL, 
1 Co 7 s4 . By analogy with these parallels the clause must mean 
" those whose spirit is poor." The idea of poverty intended can 
best be reached through the corresponding Hebrew word ^y, 
for which tttwxos stands in the LXX 38 times. The '•jy is the 
man who is poor in the sense of being needy. But the word fre- 
quently denotes the poor man who is oppressed by the rich and 
powerful. The word then attracts to itself the sense of poor, 
pious, religious people who are oppressed by the ungodly. They 
are therefore the objects of God's favour. He does not forget 
them, Ps 9 13 , but delivers them, Ps 34 10 , and has compassion on 
them, Is 49 13 . On these lines irT^xoi here will mean those who, 
because they endeavour to lead pious lives of obedience to God, 
are " poor," i.e. are oppressed and downtrodden by ungodly people. 
They are "poor" as needing God's help. The tu> 7rv€v'piTi serves 
to spiritualise the sense, and to lay the emphasis rather on the 
religious and moral than on the social condition of those referred 
to. Their spirit is " poor," because they feel their need of God's 
help, and are aware that it can come from Him alone. In their 
inner spiritual life they realise their need of God, and this con- 
scious spiritual poverty constitutes their claim to the blessings 
promised in the next clause. The t<3 irvtvp-an here suggests that 
tttwxol in Lk 6 20 should be interpreted in the same sense and not 
of literal poverty. The editor of the First Gospel probably felt 
quite rightly that the simple 7rrcoxoi would be misinterpreted by 
Greek readers unacquainted with Semitic idiom. It compressed a 
complicated Hebrew train of thought in a Greek word which would 
be misunderstood if literally interpreted. See Zahn's admirable 
note on the passage. 

For theirs is the kingdom of the heavens!] On the meaning of 
this phrase, see Introduction, p. lxvii. It is clear that the meaning 
must be determined from a general survey of the sense which the 


phrase has throughout the Gospel. The io-nv probably was not 
represented in the Semitic original, and cannot be pressed. If 
the " kingdom " be a state or condition which is necessarily future, 
the ia-TLv must naturally be equivalent to lo-Tat. " The kingdom 
is theirs, i.e. will belong to them when it comes or is realised." 
Or, " they will enter into it when it comes " ; or, " the kingdom will 
consist of such as these." The future tenses in the following 
verses suggest that the whole emphasis of the blessings lies upon a 
future condition which shall compensate for the unsatisfying present 
4, 5. The order of these two verses is uncertain. The arrange- 
ment TrevOovvres — 7rpaets is found in N B C and most una, in 
most curss. in S 1 S 3 S 4 S 5 b f q, Tert. Orig. 1 On the other hand, the 
order Trpaals — 7rev0owres occurs in D 33 a c ff 1 g 1 h k S 2 Tat. 2 That 
is to say, both arrangements were known in the second century. 
Zahn is probably right in saying that if vv. 3, 5 had originally stood 
together with their rhetorical antithesis of heaven and earth, it is 
unlikely that any copyist would have thrust v. 4 in between them. 
On the other hand, the Western scribes, who represent the order 
5 - 4 , may have preferred this arrangement because it heightened 
the antithesis, or to draw together the closely allied 7ttwxoi and 
7rpaeis. Wellhausen, observing that the clause about the 7rpaets is 
directly quoted from Ps 36 11 , and that its position in this chapter 
varies in the manuscripts, condemns it as an interpolation. If 
tttwxoI to Truevfj-aTL in v. 3 , and not rather ttt^xol simply ( = D^JJJ), 
were original, there would be something to be said for this on the 
ground that tttw^oi t<3 and irpatis are practically syn- 
onymous terms, tttwxol, as we have seen, corresponds in the LXX 
to D^jy, and implies not poverty alone or in the literal sense, but 
misery suffered at the hands of others because of godliness. TrpaeU, 
on the other hand, corresponds to D^uy (8 times). This word 
emphasises not the social condition implied in D"jy, but humble- 
ness of mind. (See Driver, art. "Poor," DB.) But by adding 
t(3 7rv€vfxaTL the editor has obliterated the distinctive meaning of 
7rra>x(H as = D 1 ' , 3y, and made it practically equivalent to 7rpaei<; = 
D^y. But this identity belongs to the Greek forms of the sayings, 
not to their Semitic original. There the distinction would have 
been clear. The Lord singled out for His approval both the godly 
oppressed and the godly humble-minded. Of the former, He 
declared that when the kingdom came, they and, by implication, 
not their ungodly oppressors, should enter into it. Of the latter, 
He affirms that because they humbly submit themselves to God's 
will, and look for His help, they shall, as the Psalmist said, "inherit 
the earth," which, purged of the ungodly, will be coextensive with 
the kingdom. It seems best, therefore, to retain the usual order of 

1 iii. 780 on Mt 17 8 , but in iii. 740 on 16 18 the other order is given. 

2 See Zahn, Forschungen, i. 


verses, on the grounds (a) that it is best supported ; (b) that it was 
more likely to be reversed than the rival order, which would at 
once suggest itself to scribes who would like to bring -mux™ an0 ^ 
Trpaets into close connection, and to emphasise by close contact 
the antithesis between " heaven " and " earth." 

4. Blessed are those who mourn : because they shall be comforted '.] L 
Cf. Is 6 1 2 TrapaKaXiaai u-ai/ras tovs TrevOovvTas. The thought is of 
those who mourn for the sin in Israel, which checks and thwarts God's 
purposes for His people, and delays the coming of the kingdom. 

5. Blessed are "the humble-minded" : because "they shall in-I* 
herit the earth."] Quoted from Ps 36 11 . See above. 

6. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness : L 
because they shall be filled.] Lk has : "Blessed are ye who mourn 
now : for ye shall be filled." Cf. Jer 38 25 (LXX) on IjxWvara irdo-av 
x ! ru Xy v ^ii/'wcrav /cat 7ra<rav i/^X^" Treivwcrav iveTrXrjcra. ; Is 55 1 , Ps 106 9 
(LXX) ort i)(6pTacrev \j/v)(y]v kcvtjv kclI if/V)(7]v 7retvcocrav iveTrXrjo-cv dyaBwv. 

The thought is of those who spend their lives in endeavours to 
fulfil the requirements of the law, and to obtain the "righteous- 
ness " which God demands. Such whole-hearted search will not fail. 

XopTacrdrja-ovrai] A coarse word softened down in Comedy and 
in colloquial use. Common in the LXX and N.T. in the sense to 
feed. See Kennedy, Sources, 82. 

7. Blessed are the merciful: because they shall obtain mercy.] L 
i.e. in the day of judgement. 

8. Blessed are the pure in heart : because they shall see God.] L 
KaOapol rrj KapSia] Cf. Ps 23*. — oif/ovrai] Cf. Ps IO 7 . For the 

vision of God as the aim of the religious life, cf. Philo, De Vit. 
Contempt, ii. 473 : The Therapeutae aim at vision tov "Ovtos. 
They persevere pe'xpts °- v T0 7ro8ovp.evov iSwo-iv. Leg. Alleg. i. 
115: the wise man is dewpia iw Oeiwv Tp€c/>o/xevos. De Vit. 
Mos. ii. 106 : Moses by his ascetic life entered into the darkness 
where God was, to. ddiara cpva-ei Ovrj-rfj Karavowv. Cf. Fried- 
lander, Die Relig. Beweg. pp. 258 ff., from whom these references 
are taken. Cf. also Rev 2 2 4 , 1 Jn 3 2 oij/o/xiOa alrov ko.6o><; ianv, and 
Philo, de Abr. ii. IO : oto> Se t^cyc'vero /xr] p.6vov to. SXka ocra Iv rfj 
(pv&ei 8l lin(TTrjp.y]s KOTaXafifidveiv, dAAd /cat tov iraTtpa kcu iroirjTrjv 
tS>v o~vp.TrdvTij)v bpdv, lir aKpov ev8ai p.ovia.% terra) TrpozXrjXvOio 1 ;. 

9. Blessed are the peacemakers : for they shall be called sons oft* 
God.] Cf. Secrets of Enoch 52 11 "Blessed is he who establishes 
peace and love"; Aboth i 12 "Hillel said, Be ye of the disciples 
of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace"; Ps-Sol 17 30 yvwo-eTcu 
ydp avTovs otl 7rdvT£s viol 6eov avTaiv ctcrt ; Aboth 3 18 " The Israelites 
are beloved, for they are called children of God." Cf. Dt 14 1 . 

10. Blessed are they who have suffered persecution for righteous- 
ness" sake ; because theirs is the kingdom of the heavens.] 

The preceding eight blessings seem to form a complete para- 


graph, begun and ended with the same promise, "because theirs 
is the kingdom of the heavens." It is clear that this phrase contains 
in itself all the blessings promised in the six intermediate clauses. 
It seems clear also that the kingdom is regarded as a condition of 
things still in the future. When it comes, those whose spirit is 
poor, i.e. those who humbly rely upon God, or, as originally spoken 
without t<3 TTvevfjLaTi, those who are poor, i.e. the oppressed godly 
people, will be its citizens. Then those who mourn for the sin 
which now delays its coming, will receive consolation when they 
see righteousness triumphant. Then, too, the humble minded, i.e. 
those who feel their need of God, will inherit the earth. It seems 
best to suppose that this clause should be understood literally in 
spite of the fact that it is a quotation from the Psalter. The earth 
purified from sin and purged of the ungodly, who now oppress the 
" poor " and meek godly people, will then be coextensive with the 
kingdom. Then, too, those who hunger and thirst after the divine 
righteousness, will be satisfied when they find it to be the ruling 
principle in their own lives and in those of other people. The 
merciful, i.e. those who show mercy and compassion to be the 
ruling principle of their lives, will obtain mercy at the great day of 
judgement, which divides the present age from the establishment 
of the kingdom. The pure in heart will then see God. The 
peacemakers will be openly proclaimed as God's sons. Those 
who have been persecuted for their devotion to religion will 
become its citizens. 
L 11, 12. In the ninth blessing Christ addresses Himself directly 
to the disciples. S. Luke has the second person throughout. 

Blessed are ye when they shall reproach you and persecute you, and 
speak all manner of evil against you for My sake. Rejoice and exult, 
Because your reward is great in the heavens. For so did they per- 
secute the prophets who were before you.] Lk. has : " Blessed are ye 
when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you, and 
reproach you, and cast out your name as evil for the sake of the 
Son of Man. Rejoice in that day and leap : for, behold, your 
reward is great in heaven. For likewise did their fathers treat the 

/*io-0os] The later Jewish theology is much coloured by 
ideas of reward and punishment. In Wis 2 22 we read of the 
"reward of holiness" /i.icr#os — oo-iot^tos. Cf. Wis 5 15 , 2 Es 7 35 - 
83.98 g33. 39 I ^56 > Occasionally, however, we find a protest against 
the idea of reward for goodness. "Be not," saith Antigonus 
of Socho, "as slaves who minister to the Lord in order to 
receive recompense," Aboth i 3 . Here the thought is not that of 
reward for piety, but of future recompense for a present condition 
of persecution and reproach. The number of the Beatitudes is 
much disputed. They can be reckoned as seven by disconnecting 


11-12 f rom ^e preceding verses and uniting 8 and 10 as one (so 
Meyer), or by regarding v. 5 as a marginal gloss (so Bacon, Well- 
hausen) ; or they may be reckoned as eight by treating 10 ' 12 as one 
beatitude (so Votaw), or by disconnecting n * 12 from the preceding 
(so Zahn). But it seems better to treat them as nine in number 
in spite of the fact that n " 12 only repeat and apply v. 10 to the 
disciples. In the Secrets of Enoch, two groups of Blessings occur, 
one (42 6 " 14 ) of nine, the other (52) of seven Beatitudes. 

11. KO.Q' v/j-Qv] Add ypevS6fifvoi, l> B at. Om. D k S 1 . The word seems 
to have been added to limit a wide generalisation ; cf. v. 22 . 

13-16. Not in Lk.'s sermon. 

13. Ye are the salt of the earth : but if the salt have become E L 
insipid, wherewith shall it be salted ? it is no longer of any use, ex- 
cept to be cast out, and trodden underfoot oftnen.] Cf. Lk i4 34,35 . 

The idea underlying " salt " here is probably its use as a pre- 
servative. The disciples are the element in the world which keeps 
it wholesome, and delays the day of decay and of consequent judg- 
ment. But since salt may become useless for household purposes, 
and be thrown out of doors, so the disciples should beware lest they 
lose their essentially Christian character. The saying is probably 
proverbial, and it is needless to object that, properly speaking, salt 
cannot change its nature. It may become so soiled or mixed with 
dirt and other extraneous substances as to become practically useless. 

14. Ye are the light of the world. A city set upon a hill cannot E L 
be hid.] 

If salt designates the disciples as an element in the world, 
so light describes their attitude to it as one of aloofness and 
separation. But though separated from it they cannot but exer- 
cise an influence upon it, just as a city built on a hill is too 
conspicuous to remain unnoticed. For the light, cf. Test. Levi 14 3 
"Ye are the lights of Israel"; 2 Es 12 42 "Thou only art left . . . 
as a lamp in a dark place " ; Phil 2 16 . For Kei/teV?? of a city, cf. 
2 Mac 4 33 . For the city, ci. Logia Jesu 7 : iroAis wKohop.-qp.ivq 
Itt aKpov opov; v\pr)\ov koll i&Trjpiyfievi] ovre 7recrtiv SvvaraL ovre 
Kpvfirjvai. For the combination of " light " and " city," cf. Cicero, 
Catilin. iv. 6 : " Videor enim mihi hanc urbem videre, lucem orbis 
terrarum atque arcem omnium gentium." 

15. Neither do they light a lamp, and place it under the bushel, L 
but on the lampstand ; and it lightens all who are in the house.] Cf. 
Lk 8 16 11 33 , Mk 4 21 . 

16. So let your light shine before men, that they may see your L 
good works, and glorify your Father who is in the heavens.] 

Xvxyia] a word of the later Greek writers for the Attic Xvxvlov. 
It is used in the LXX, Joseph., Luc, Philo, Galen, but was an old 
vernacular word. Cf. Kennedy, Sources, 40. 


16. tov TroLTepa vfiuv tov ev tois oupavois] The phrase is 
characteristic of Mt. See Introduction, p. lvi. It occurs besides 
only in Mk n 25 , cf. Lk u 13 . As early as the books of Wisdom 
and Ecclesiasticus we find Israelites addressing God as " Father " ; 
cf. Wis 2 16 14 3 , Ecclus 23 1 " 4 "O Lord, Father and Master of my 
life" ; and the idea of God as Father of the nation had been familiar 
from very primitive times. For examples from the later literature, 
cf. To 13 4 "our Father," Jub i 24 " their Father," 3 Mac 5 7 "their 
merciful God and Father." The term " Father in heaven " is not 
infrequent in the Rabbinical literature; cf. Mechilta (Ugol.) 397 : 
"my Father who is in heaven"; 331: "their Father who is in 
heaven"; Siphri (Ugol.) 871: "his Father who is in heaven"; 
Aboth 5 22 "Jehuda ben Tema said, Be . . . strong as a lion to 
do the will of thy Father who is in heaven " ; Sotah, ix. 1 5 (49 b ) : 
" Upon whom shall we lean ? Upon our Father who is in heaven " ; 
Rosh ha-Shana, iii. 8 (29*) : "As often as the Israelites directed their 
heart towards their Father who is in heaven they were strong " ; 
Shabbath n6 a , Joma, viii. 9 (85 b ), Pesikta (Wunsche), pp. 228, 
238 ; Vayyikra R. (Wunsche), p. 222 ; Siphri (Ugol.) 593. These 
examples carry us back to the beginning of the second cent, a.d., for 
the speaker in the last case is Simeon ben Jochai, who lived c. 130 
a.d. 1 Cf. Bacher, Ag. d. Tann. ii. 70 ff. For the phrase in Jewish 
literature, see Dalm. Words, pp. 184 ff. Bousset, Rel. Jud. p. 357, 
sees in the phrase a possible influence of Christianity upon Judaism; 
cf. Bischo ff,fesu und die Rabbinen, p. 74. But it is not improbable 
that the phrase was already current in Palestine at the time of 

13-16. Two of the verses in this section find parallels in Lk. 
V. 13 occurs in Lk 1434.35 j n a somewhat different form, akin partly 
to Mt., partly to Mk 9 50 , where Lk. in his parallel passage omits it. 
Mt. also omits it in the parallel to Mk. V. 15 finds a parallel in 
Lk 8 16 =Mk 4 21 , where Mt. omits it, and again in Lk n 33 . It is 
therefore probable that Lk. had not this section in his Sermon, and 
that the editor of Mt. has inserted it here ; because it is more likely 
that Mt. should have inserted, in accordance with his general 
tendency to enlarge discourses, than that Lk should have omitted. 
The setting of these sayings in Lk 14 34 and n 33 is not internally 
probable, and it seems very unlikely that he would have omitted 
them from the Sermon in order to place them afterwards in such 
artificial connections. The clauses v/xeis io-re to aXas tJJs y^s, v/acis 
co-tc to <£ws tov Kocrjxov are very probably editorial additions to link 
together detached sayings. 
L 17-20. Think not that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. 
I came not to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say to you, Till 
heaven and earth pass away, one yod or one tittle shall not pass 

1 He was a disciple of Akiba. 


from the law, till all things come to pass. Whosoever therefore 
shall weaken one of these commandments {even) the least, and 
shall teach men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of the 
heavens : but whosoever shall do and teach {them), he shall be 
called great in the kingdom of the heavens. For I say to you, 
That except your righteousness shall exceed {that) of the scribes 
and Pharisees, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of the heavens.] 
The meaning of the words is clear. Christ did not come to over- 
throw the authority of the Mosaic law, which was to be eternally 
binding upon the hearts and consciences of men. So long as the 
world lasted its authority was to be permanent. If any of His 
disciples taught men to disobey any of its commandments, he 
would be placed in an inferior position in the coming Kingdom. 
If he was a faithful servant of the law, and upheld its authority 
before men, he would receive high rank in the Kingdom. 

Commentators have exhausted their ingenuity in attempts to 
explain away this passage, but its meaning is too clear to be mis- 
understood. Christ is here represented as speaking in the spirit 
of Alexandrine and Rabbinical Judaism. 

Cf. Philo, Vita Mos. ii. 136 : " (The Laws of Moses) will, it may be hoped, 
remain to all eternity immortal so long as sun and moon and the whole heaven 
and world last." Ass. Mos I 12 "He has created the world for the sake of His 
law " (reading legem for plebem. See Bousset, Ret. fed. p. 90). 2 Es 9 s7 "The 
law perisheth not, but abideth in its honour." Joseph. Contra Apion. ii. 277 : 
"Our law remains immortal." Bereshith R. x. I (Wtinsche, 39): "Every- 
thing has its end, the heaven and the earth have their end, only one thing is 
excepted which has no end, and that is the law." Shemoth R. 6 (Wunsche, 
67): " Not a letter shall be abolished from the law for ever"; Midrash Koh 
71 4 "The law shall remain in perpetuity for ever" j 1 Aboth I 2 "Upon three 
things is the world supported : on the Thorah," etc. Shemoth R. 33 
(Wunsche, 261): "(The law) is an everlasting inheritance for Israel." 
Vayyikra R. 19 (Wunsche, 123) : " If all the peoples of the world came 
together to rend a single word from the law, they could not do it." 

The attitude to the law here described is inconsistent with 
the general tenor of the Sermon Vv. 21 " 48 are clearly intended to 
explain and illustrate the way in which Christ fulfilled the law. 
But they describe a fulfilment which consists in a penetrating 
insight into the true moral principles underlying the enactments 
of the Mosaic Code, and vv. 34 - 39 directly traverse two propositions 
of the law. Fulfilment in this sense is something very different 
from the fulfilment which rests upon the idea of the permanent 
authority of the least commandment of the law (cf. v. 19 ). It seems 
probable, therefore, that vv. 18 - 19 did not originally belong to the 
Sermon, but have been placed here by the editor, who has thus 
given to ir\t)pZi<ja.i ( = to bring into clear light the true scope and 
meaning) a sense (viz. to reaffirm and carry out in detail) which is 

1 Cited by Schoettgen, in toe. 


foreign to the general tenor of the Sermon. V. 18 finds a parallel in 
an artificial context in Lk i6 17 . It is therefore a well-authenticated 
traditional utterance of Christ. Both it and v. 19 may well have 
been spoken by Him on different occasions, and under circumstances 
which made His meaning clear, as hyperbolical expressions of respect 
for the authority of the general tenor and purport of the law. 

17. For KaraXveiv of overthrowing or destroying the authority 
of the law, cf. 2 Mac 2 s2 4 11 , 4 Mac 5 s3 17 9 . — tov vofxov y tovs 
7T/)o^>7/ras] The reference to the prophets seems out of place. It 
is the law alone which is taken into consideration in the rest of the 
chapter. The editor has probably added r/ tovs rc-po^ras in view 
of the fact that, according to Christ's teaching elsewhere, Prophets 
and Law alike (i.e. the whole O.T.) found their fulfilment in Him. 

TrXrjpwarai] See above. The sentence finds a distorted remini- 
scence in the Bab. Tal. Shabb. 1 i6 b "I gospel came not to diminish 
the law of Moses, but to add to the law of Moses did I come." 

The verse as originally followed by v. 20 meant : " I did not 
come, as you might think, to overthrow the authority of the law 
of Moses. In its general scope and purport its authority as an 
expression of the divine will is permanent. I came to fulfil it by 
emphasising its true meaning, and as being the Messiah whom 
it dimly foreshadowed. So far from depreciating it, I tell you 
that your 'righteousness' must be more fundamental than the 
'righteousness' of the scribes and Pharisees, based not upon 
external adherence to the letter of the law, but upon insight into 
the principles which underlie it." 

If Christ was from this point of view the fulfiller of the law, 
He was from another its "end"; cf. Ro io 4 . 

As here expounded by the editor, the passage means : " I came 
to reaffirm the authority of the law of Moses, not to overthrow it. 
No particle of it shall lose its validity so long as the world lasts. 
Anyone who weakens the hold which the smallest commandment 
has over the minds of men will receive an inferior position in the 
coming Kingdom. He who obeys its precepts and teaches others 
to do so, will be ranked high in the Kingdom. For your ' right- 
eousness ' is to be not less, but more exacting than that of the 
scribes and Pharisees." 

rj\6ov] (cf. 9 13 io 40 11 10 15 24 ) has behind it the thought of the 
divine sending. 

1 18. Cf. Lk 16 17 . — d/xrjv] For this word as characteristic of 
Christ's diction, cf. Dalman, Words, 226 ff. — ?ws av irapikOrj 6 
oipavbs kcu 17 yrj] a hyperbolical expression signifying " never " ; cf. 
the passages from Philo and Bereshith R. quoted on v. 17 ; cf. also 
24 s5 . — twra] Yod = y, is the smallest letter in the Hebrew Square 
Alphabet. Bab. Sank. 107* "If the yod which I took from 
Sarai (in changing it to Sarah) stood and complained many years 


until Joshua came and I added it to him," etc. xcpata] The 
Kepaiai are presumably the small strokes that distinguish from one 
another otherwise similar letters of the Hebrew Alphabet. For 
examples of similar letters which may be confused and pervert 
the sense of a passage, see Vayyikra R. 19 (Wunsche, 124). — oi 
fj.rj Trape\6rj] For the construction, see Moulton, pp. 190-92. 
It is rare in the N.T. (except in words of Christ) and in the 

ecus av 7ravTa yeV^Tai] (1) Until all things (in the law) happen, 
i.e. receive their fulfilment " ; (2) parallel to and synonymous with 
Iws av TrapiXOr], k.t.X., " until the end of the world." The similarity 
to Philo, Vit. Mos. ii. 1 36 : Icos av 77X10? kou o-tXrjvyj kolI 6 (rvp.Tra.% 
ovpavos re kcu koct/xos t}, rather favours this meaning. 

21-26. First illustration of the fulfilment of the law. 

21. Ye heard that it was said to the ancients, Thou shalt not L 
commit murder ; and whosoever commits murder is liable to the 

rjKovo-are on ippiOrj rots dp^atots] We might have expected, 
"It is written in the law," or "Ye have read in the law"; cf. 12 5 
2I i6. 42 22 3i. but nere t h e audience presupposed is one of un- 
learned people (cf. 7 28 ). For the "hearing," compare the saying of 
the multitude in Jn 1 2 34 ^ovVa/xev ex tov vo/j.ov. Moreover, each 
word in the sentence is chosen in order to form a direct antithesis 
to e'yw Se Aeyw ipuv. This partly accounts for TjKovo-are. rather 
than aveyvo)T€, and for ippWrj rather than yiypa-n-Tai. Further, " it 
was said," is the most frequent form of biblical citation in the 
Rabbinical writings ; cf. Bacher, i. 6. For antithesis in this Gospel, 
cf. i5 2 - 3 and 4,5 . tois apxaiois is difficult to parallel; but desire 
for antithesis to " I say," having produced " Ye heard that it was 
said," it is not easy to see what other phrase could have been 
found as a contrast to vplv. For the use of ap\aioi as the men of a 
past age, cf. Aristoph. Eq. 507; Arist. Metaphys. xi. 1. 2, p. 240 ; and 
the phrases Kai-a tovs ap^movs or k<lt ap^aiovs quoted by Steph. 
Thes. 1. ii. 2098. — ov cpovevo-ets;] is quoted from Ex 20 15 , Dt 5 18 
(LXX). The following words are not a direct quotation, but a 
summary of the teaching of the law; cf. Ex 21 12 . For rfj Kpto-€L = 
the verdict of the judges, cf. Dt 1 7 8 iv Kptcrei ava aip.a. aip.aro<; 
koX di/a /xeVov Kpum /cpicrcws. — evo^os] is here apparently equivalent 
to the Rabbinic 2 s n = condemned, guilty, evoxos ttj Kpio-u means 

guilty, and so condemned by the properly constituted authority. 
The phrase is therefore equivalent to " shall be put to death " ; cf. 
2 6 66 evo^os 6ava.Tov= He is guilty (and worthy) of death. 

22. But I say to you, That every one who is angry with his brother £ 
shall be liable to the judgement. And whosoever shall say to his 33 p 
brother, Raca, shall be liable to the Sanhedrin. And whosoever 
shall say, Thou fool, shall be liable to the Gehenna of fire i\ 


Not only will the external act receive due punishment at human 
tribunals, but the inner feeling that prompts it is liable to the 
verdict of condemnation which will be pronounced by God. In 
other words, both prohibition and penalty must be interpreted 
spiritually as well as literally. The addition of the last two clauses 
is unexpected and difficult. Nothing further seems wanted. The 
law said that murder should be punished by the proper authority. 
Christ says that the feeling of anger which prompts the crime will 
meet with the divine condemnation. In this way He fulfilled the law 
by drawing out the moral principles which underlay the enactment. 
But the next two clauses seem to create an artificial distinction 
between different grades of enmity and between the penalties to 
be assigned to them. ™ crweSpiw, the Sanhedrin, i.e. the Supreme 
Court in Jerusalem, seems to presuppose the interpretation of 177 
KpiW as equivalent to " the local district court." Thus we have 
a climax : the local court, the Sanhedrin, the final judgement of 
God. The corresponding sins are anger, contempt, and abuse. 
But, of course, only the last two of these would, in fact, lead to 
trial either before a local court or the Sanhedrin. Nor is there 
any distinction between them to justify the increasing severity of 

Zahn thinks that Christ is here satirising by imitation the 
Scribal methods of exegesis ; showing their futility by a rednctio ad 
absurdum which at the same time serves to emphasise his main 
point, that sins of the inner life are as culpable as those of the 
external act. Others would reconstruct the passage. Prof. 
Richards suggests that 22b and c should follow v. 21 . The three 
clauses would then form a Rabbinical comment and explanation of 
the text "Thou shalt not commit murder," followed by Christ's 
simple antithesis, " Whosoever is angry " is liable to the judgement. 
But in this case rfj /cpurei = the local court, must be understood in 
a sense different from that of 177 KpiW in Christ's answer where 
it = the judgement of God. For another rearrangement of the 
verses, see DB, art. "Sermon on the Mount," 26. The fact that 
as the passage stands Kplcrei of v. 21 and #cp«m of v. 22 must be taken 
in two different senses, suggests that 22b and ° do not originally 
belong here. They may be duplicate versions of a saying which 
originally stood in some context similar to this, where a distinction 
was being drawn by Christ between moral disorder and external 
action. Or they may be current Scribal precepts added here by the 
editor in a manner which has led to their being understood as part 
of Christ's words : " And (it was also said by the Scribes) whoso- 
ever," etc. For parallels, cf. Kiddushin 28* " He that calleth his 
neighbour a slave, let him be excommunicated ; he that calleth him 
a bastard, let him be punished with forty stripes " ; Bab. Mez. 58 b . 
Vv. 21 and 22 will then mean : " It was said in the law that the 


murderer should be subjected to the judgement of death. 1 say 
that anger is equally deserving of judgement." 

'Pa/«x] seems to be equivalent to the Aramaic Up* 1 "} i = empty. 

It was a term of contemptuous address ; cf. Ja 2 20 . It is not 
infrequently used in Jewish writings; cf. Bab. Berakh 32 b , where 
it is applied by a ruler to one who had not returned his salute, 
Mechilta (Ugol.), 389, Sanhedrin ioo a . 

fiwpi] is the Greek word. It has quite unnecessarily been 
identified with the Hebrew mio, Nu 20 10 . Since the Jews 

borrowed many foreign words, it is quite possible that /i.wpos was 
in use amongst the Aramaic-speaking population in Christ's time. 
Or fiwpi may be a translation of 'Paxa. For examples of /aw/dos 
in the Midrashim, cf. Levy, Nenheb. Wbrterb., and Pesikta, Rab. 
Kahana 14 (Wiinsche, p. 158), where it is used to explain Nu 20 10 . 
yeewav rov irvpos] DJIVJ was the name of a valley on the 
south-west of Jerusalem. In Jewish literature it became a name 
for the place of punishment of the godless. It occurs in Apoc. 
Bar 59 10 "the mouth of Gehenna"; 2 Es 7 36 "the furnace of 
Gehenna shall be revealed" ; and Targ. Is 33 14 " the wicked shall 
be given over to Gehenna, (to) burning of everlasting fire." It 
occurs frequently in the later Rabbinical literature. It has three 
doors and seven names, Bab. E7-ubh 19*. Fire has ^th part of 
the heat of the fire of Gehenna, Bab. Berakh. 57 b . " Those who 
are destined for Gehenna are called sons of Gehenna," Bosh ha Sh 
1 7*. It was one of seven things created before the world, Bab. 
Pes 54*. Cf Weber, Jud. Theol. 341 ff. ; Yolz, Jud. Eschat. 288 ff. 

t<JJ d5eX0y ai)roO] D at S 1 S 2 add dKr\. The word has strong second 
century attestation, but may perhaps more probably have been added as a 
limitation of a wide generalisation, than omitted as unnecessary ; cf. on v. 11 . 

23, 24. First application of the preceding. 

If therefore thou art offering thy gift upon the altar, and there L 
shouldest remember that thy brother hath aught against thee ; leave 
there thy gift before the altar, and go ; first be reconciled to thy 
brother, and then come and offer thy gift.] 

€ X ei tl Kara (rod] Cf. Bab. Joma 87* b Kn^O TP? mn = he 
had something against. This section deals with the necessity of 
reconciliation with one's neighbour before the day of Atonement. 
" Rabbi Isaac said, If a man vexes his neighbour, even if it be only 
by what he has said, he must be reconciled to him." 

25, 26. Second application. Cf. Lk 12 57 - 59 . 

Be agreed with thine adversary quickly, whilst thou art with him L 
on the way (to Judgement) ; lest the adversary deliver thee to the 
judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into 
prison. Verily I say to thee, Thou shall not come out thence, until 
thou payest the last farthing.] 


cwoetv only here in N.T. " Its regular meaning is ' be well 
disposed to,' ' have goodwill to.' " Abbott, Johannine Vocabulary, 
1 714®. The dvTt'St/cos in this passage should be parallel to dSeA<£og 
in the preceding verses. The brother who has been wronged must 
be appeased ; and the adversary must be agreed with, in accordance 
with the principle that murder includes anger and all such tur- 
bulent passions of the soul. 1 dvuSiKos in this connection should 
therefore mean "prosecutor"; cf. Lk 18 3 . But with this meaning 
vv 25b an( j 26 have no real point, and 23 " 24 and 25 " 26 are not in any 
true sense parallel. Vv. 23 " 24 apply the principle of v. 22 . " Because 
anger is implied in the command 'do not murder,' therefore 
remove all cause for anger before coming before God with a gift." 
That is an exhortation with an implicit warning. " God will not 
accept the gift of an offerer whose heart is stained with evil 
passion." Vv. 25 ' 26 suggest in the first few words that we have a 
second application : " For the same reason be reconciled with 
one who has legal claims against you " ; but the following words 
carry us into a new atmosphere of thought : " Be reconciled " not 
"because God condemns anger," but "lest you meet the due re- 
ward of your wrongdoing and languish in prison." Of course it is 
possible to obtain some sort of connection between the verses by 
spiritualising the details of vv. 25 " 26 . " On the road through life be 
careful to settle your accounts with spiritual enemies, lest you come 
at last before God, the Judge of all, and by Him be cast into hell." 
But in this case the idea involved in dm'SiKos falls into the back- 
ground, and must remain in ambiguity as an unessential element 
in the saying, whereas its position shows that it is obviously as 
important as is dSeA^o's in v. 23 . There can be little doubt that 
the connection here is literary and artificial. The editor has 
appended to the saying about "the brother who has aught against 
thee" another about "thy adversary," i.e. "thy prosecutor,". in 
spite of the fact that as a whole the general purport of the sayings 
is quite different. Vv. 25 " 26 are clearly a warning against the risk of 
appearing before God at the judgement day unreconciled to Him. 
He is alike Prosecutor and Judge and executor of judgement. Lk 
(12 57 " 59 ) has the saying in a context to which this meaning is more 
applicable. For a somewhat similar legal simile of the relation of 
men to God, cf. Ab 3 20 . " The office is open ; and the broker 
gives credit ; and the ledger is open ; and the hand writes ; and 
whosoever will, comes and borrows ; and the bailiffs (PX3J) go round 
continually every day and exact from a man whether he wills or 
not; and they have whereon to rest {i.e. the arm of the law), 
and the judgement is a judgement of truth." For God as Judge 

1 Cf. The Instruction of Ptah-Hotep, p. 53: "Set out therefore after a 
quarrel ; be at peace with him that is hostile to (thee) his opponent. It is 
such souls that make love grow." 


and Prosecutor, cf. Ab 4 s9 " He is Judge, and He is Witness, 
and He is Plaintiff" (|H bjtt). 

27-28. Second illustration. 

Ye heard that it was said, Thou shalt not commit adultery. L 
But I say to you, That every o?ie who looks upon a woman to desire 
her hath already committed adultery with her in his hearty 

ov /^oi^e-Veis] Ex 20 13 , Dt 5 17 . The prohibition includes also 
lustful thoughts. — 6 (SXi-rruiv yvval/ca] Cf. Jer. Challah 5S 3 ; Bab. 
Berakh 24% quoted by Lightfoot ; and Shabbath 64 b . 

hn6vya](jo.i airrjv] Unclassical ; but cf. Ex 20 17 , Dt 5 21 ovk 
€7ri#v/A?7creis rrjv yvvaiKa. tov ttXtjctlov aov ; cf. Blass, p. 102. 

29. First application of this. 

And if thy right eye is causing thee to stumble {by inducing lustful ' L 
thoughts), pluck it out, and cast it from thee : for it is better for thee 
that one of thy members perish, than that thy whole body be cast 
into Gehenna.~\ 

Se£io9 as applied to a hand seems to emphasise it as being 
the more valued of the two. It is here transferred to the eye by a 
natural assimilation of the two phrases. 

<TKavSaAt£ei occurs outside the New Testament in LXX Dn 
n 41 ; in Aquila, Ps 63 9 , Is 40 30 63 13 , Pr 4 12 , Dn n 41 ; in Ecclus 9 5 
2 3 8 32 15 ; in Sym. Is 8 21 ; in Ps-Sol 16 7 , and in eccles. writers. 

30. Second application. 

And if thy right hand is causing thee to stumble, cut it off, and L 
cast it from thee : for it is better for thee that one of thy members 
perish, than that thy whole body go away into Gehenna.'] 

For the hand as an instrument of lust, see Bab. Niddah 13, 
quoted by Lightfoot. For the greater value of the right hand, cf. 
Bab. Berakh 62 a . Vv. 29 - 30 occur again in substance in i8 8 - 9 ; and 
it has been questioned whether their position here is not artificial. 
V. 30 is omitted by D and S 1 . But they may well have been spoken 
in this connection. The lustful look, v. 28 , suggests the thought 
that the offending member, the eye, should be plucked out ; and 
this leads quite naturally to the thought of another member, 
the hand, which is a ready instrument wherewith to satisfy desire. 
Sight and contact which stimulate passion are alike to be avoided. 
For sight in this connection, cf. Job 31 1 

30. Is omitted by S 1 . This and the previous verse have the same ending 
in S 2 , and the verse may have been passed over for that reason by the 
scribe of S 1 . 

31. Special application to divorce. 

And it was said that, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let L 
him give to her a bill of divorcement '.] Cf. Dt 24 1 - 3 ypanf/et alrfj 
fiifikLov aTToo-Tdo-iov. a.Tro<TTa<jLov occurs also in Is 50 1 , Jer 3 s 
eSwKa avTQ (3ij3\iov airoaTaxnov. 


L 32. But I say to you, That every one who puts away his wife, 
except on account of fornication, causes her to commit adultery : 
and whosoever marries her that has been put away commits 
adultery '.] Cf. Lk i6 18 . — 7rap£KTos \6yov Tropveias] Xoyov iropvctas 
is probably equivalent to the Heb. niiy "Ol = " something un- 
chaste," which the school of Shammai decreed to be the only ground 
of divorce; cf. Gittin 90 s1 "No one shall divorce his wife unless 
there be found in her something unchaste." iropvda defines the 
unchastity as illicit sexual intercourse. It is, however, open to 
question whether this exception is not an addition of the editor, 
representing no doubt two influences, viz. Jewibh custom and 
tradition, and the exigencies of ethical necessity in the early 
Christian Church. A similar exception is made in 19 9 , and it 
will there be seen that the clause is clearly an interpolation. 
There is, therefore, a presumption that it has also been inter- 
polated here. Moreover, the teaching of Christ as recorded by 
S. Mark (io 11 ) seems to preclude any such exception. And S. 
Luke represents His teaching as a simple prohibition of divorce 
without reservation (16 18 ). The same may be said of S. Paul's 
account of Christ's teaching, 1 Co 7 10 - u . — iroul airrjv /xoixevOrjvai] 
The clause implies the circumstance that after divorce the woman 
will be likely to marry again. In that case the divorce will have 
been the means of leading her to marry again ; and so from Christ's 
standpoint, though not legally, committing adultery, because accord- 
ing to His teaching the divorce was ideally wrong, and the first mar- 
riage was ideally still valid. — os idv] cf. Moulton, 42 ff. — ixoixarat] 
because she is ideally still the wife of the first husband. Christ's 
teaching here therefore seems to admit of no exceptions. If a 
man divorces his wife, he causes her to commit adultery (it being 
presupposed that she will remarry), because ideally her first marriage 
still holds good. If a man marries such a divorced woman, he 
not only causes her to commit adultery, but himself does so, since 
he marries one who ideally is still the wife of her first husband. 
The interpolated clause confuses the issues. If a man divorced 
his wife for iropvcia, he would not then cause her to commit 
adultery, because she would already be guilty of this crime. 

32. was 6 airoXvLov] So X B al. h% av aTroXtiay has strong second cen- 
tury attestation, DS^'^k. The first reading might be due to assimilation 
to vv.~* w , the second to assimilation to v. 31 . But in a writer fond of sharp 
antithesis, the second reading is more probable here, to contrast with v. 31 ; 
cf. Introduction, p. xxxi. — ical 8s 4av — /xotx<""cu] Omit Dab k. 

33-37. Third illustration. 

E L Again, ye heard that it was said to the ancients, Thou shalt not 

swear falsely, but shalt pay thy oaths to the Lord. But I say to you, 

Swear not at all ; neither by the heaven, because it is the throne of 

God ; nor by the earth, because it is the footstool of His feet ; nor by 

1 =Mishnah Gittin 9 10 . 


Jerusalem, because it is the city of the great King. And swear 
not by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. 
But let your speech be, Yea, yea ; Nay, nay : and whatever goes 
beyond these {comes) of what is evil.] 

For the whole passage, cf. Secrets of Enoch 49 1 : " For I 
swear to you, my children ; but I will not swear by a single oath, 
neither by heaven, nor by earth, nor by any other creature which 
God made. God said, There is no swearing in Me, nor injustice, 
but truth. If there be no truth in men, let them swear by a 
word, yea, yea, or nay, nay," and the passages from Philo cited in 
Charles' note. 

ovk £7rtopK7j(rets] Cf. Lev 19 12 . — d7roSwcreis — tous opKovs cov 
Cf. Dt 23 21 , Ps 50 14 , Nu 30 3 . — 6p6vo<s] Cf. Is 66 1 . — vttottoSiov 
A late word found in Lucian, Athenaeus, LXX, Egyptian Papyri ; 
cf. Deissm. Bib. Stud. 223. Cf. Is 66 1 , La 2 1 . — 'lepoo-6\v/j.a\ 
Cf. On 2 1 . — ecrrt tot) /xeydXov /SacriAecos] Cf. Ps 47 s . 6/J.vvew 
ev is common in the LXX. For the interchange of ets and iv, cf. 
Blass, p. 123, and for swearing, cf. 23 16 " 22 , Ja 5 12 . In its present 
connection the sequence of thought is confused. "Thou shalt 
not swear falsely, but shalt pay to the Lord thy oaths," must, as 
a reference to Nu 30 3 shows, mean, " If you bind yourself by an 
oath, you must carry out your promise." The emphasis is here 
clearly not on the way in which the promise is made, whether by 
an oath or otherwise, but on the necessity of fulfilling promises 
made to God. That is to say, the " swearing " is merely incidental. 
" Promise" or "pledge yourself" would be equally in point. But 
"swear not at all" lays all the emphasis on €ViopK^o-«9, and 
neglects altogether the second half of the clause. Again, it seems 
improbable that Christ should have found in the incidental 
references to swearing in connection with religious vows in the 
Old Testament, a text upon which to hang His " swear not at all " ; 
because it is clear that His utterance has in view not the solemn 
use of oaths in religion, but the casuistical distinctions made by 
the Jews between different formulas in swearing. In other words, 
His teaching here is opposed to Jewish tradition, instead of being, 
as we should here expect, interpretative of Scripture. It seems 
probable that the editor has adapted words traditionally ascribed 
to Christ, vv. 34-37 , to this context by providing for them an artificial 
antithesis from the Old Testament, v. 33 . Leaving v. 33 out of con- 
sideration, the meaning will be that Christ's disciples should avoid 
as far as possible the use of unnecessarily strong expressions of 
affirmation. The Jews avoided swearing by the divine name, and 
used equivalents for it. The Christian disciple should avoid these. 
For him Yes and No should be sufficient. His ungarnished 
statements should carry with them the authority of truthfulness. 
The necessity for supporting simple statements of fact by artificial 


formulas of swearing, arises from the evil in life which obscures 
truth. The Talmud Sanhed 36* discusses the question whether 
Yes and No are oaths, and decides that they are oaths if repeated 
twice. Here we should expect a simple vat and ov. They seem 
to be repeated to add emphasis. J a 5 12 has the saying in a 
slightly different form : " Let your Yes be Yes," that is, let your 
statements carry with them the assurance of their accuracy. And 
the saying is not infrequently quoted in this form in early writers. 
Cf. Resch, Paralleltexte, ii. 96 ff. Zahn thinks that James 
represents Christ's words more closely than the Gospel. But it 
may be questioned whether the construction in the Epistle is not 
due to a grecising of the original. 

38-39 a . Fourth illustration. 
1 Ye heard that it ivas said, Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth. 
But I say unto you, Resist not the malicious^ Cf. Ex 21 24 , 
Lev 24 20 , Dt 19 21 . 

We are here carried into the atmosphere of the law court. 
One element in Jewish law was the rough adaptation of punish- 
ment to crime. From the individual point of view, recourse to 
law for protection against injury meant an attempt to retaliate 
upon the offender through the arm of the law. The question is 
here contemplated from the point of view of the individual 
wronged, not from that of social justice. So far from seeking to 
injure his oppressor by calling in the aid of the law to inflict 
penalties upon him, the Christian disciple should quietly submit 
to wrong. We need not ask as to the gender of ™ -n-ov-^pw. Just 
as in v. 37 it meant the evil and sinful element in life regarded 
from the abstract point of view, so here it is the same element 
contemplated as in action through an individual. For the lex 
talionis in Jewish and Babylonian law, cf. Johns, The Oldest Code, 
and Cook, The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi, 249 ff. 

39 b -42. Fivefold application. Cf. Lk 6 29 " 30 T 
L But whosoeier smiteth thee upon thy right cheek, turn to him 
also the other. And if a man wishes to go to law with thee, and 
to take thy coat, suffer him (to take) also thy cloke. And whosoever 
shall impress thee for one mile, go with him two. To him that asketh 
give, and turn not away from him that wishes to borrow of thee .] 

X"w] The coat worn with a girdle over the shirt. — \p.ariov\ 
The cloak worn over the yir<s>v. See DB, art. " Dress." 
ayyapevuv is Persian in origin. ayya/Doi were the mounted couriers 
who conveyed the royal messages, cf. Hdt. 8 98 . The verb is 
found in Jos. Ant. xiii. 52, with reference to the compulsory trans- 
portation of military baggage, but occurs as early as the third 
century b.c. in Egypt in reference to a boat used for postal service. 
See Deissm. Bib. Stud. 86 f. The substantive dyyapeta seems to 
have been borrowed by the Jews. Cf. Dalman, Worterbuch, i. 23. 


fxikiov] A word of Latin origin used in later writers, Polyb., 
Plut., Strabo. Like dyyapeia, it occurs in the later Jewish litera- 
ture, Targ., Bab. Talmud (Joma 67", Sank 96 a ), Midrashim. 
Only here in the N.T. 

For tw 6£\ovTi in v. 40 D has 6 dekwv, the nominative being a 
casus pendens. Cf. 1 7 9 kcu KGtTa/Wvovres, D ; 1 7 14 kcu i\6u>v, D. 
See Moulton, 69, 225, and Wellhausen, Einl. p. 13. 

43-48. Fifth illustration. Cf. Lk 6 27 ' 36 . 

Ye heard that it was said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and L 
shcdt hate thy enemy. But I say to you, Love your enemies, and 
pray for those who persecute you ; that you may be sons of your Father 
who is in the heavens : because He causes His sun to rise upon evil 
and good, and sends rain upon just and unjust. For if ye love those 
who love you, what reivard have ye ? do not even the toll-gatherers 
do the same ? And if ye have saluted your brethren only, what more 
do ye (than they) ? do ?wt even the Gentiles do the same ? Ye shall 
therefore be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect^ 

The first clause is found in Lev 19 18 , the second is an inference 
from the distinction drawn in the Old Testament between conduct 
towards Israelites and conduct towards Gentiles. Christ here 
sweeps away all casuistical distinctions between neighbours and 
enemies, Jews and Gentiles. The neighbour of the Old Testa- 
ment is to include the enemy. Love is to seek the good of all 
men alike, regardless of moral or racial distinctions. In this 
respect the Christian disciple is to be a son of the heavenly Father, 
i.e. like Him in moral character. For He bestows His blessing 
on all alike. Cf. Secrets of Enoch 50 4 " When you might have 
vengeance do not repay, either your neighbour or your enemy." 
Buddhist and Christian Gospels, Edmunds, p. 82 : 

" Let one conquer wrath by absence of wrath, 
Let one conquer wrong by goodness, 
Let one conquer the mean man by a gift, 
And a liar by the truth." 

For 7rarpos v/xaiv rov iv ovpavoi<;, see On V. 16 . — (3p£)(ei] In this 
sense poetical and vernacular. See Kennedy, Sources, 39. It is 
common in LXX and N.T. tcAwv^s here as in the Rabbinical 
literature, used as descriptive of a despised class of men ; cf. 
Schurer, 1. ii. 71. aa-irda-TjcrOe defines the practical method of the 
prayer of v. 44 . The divine blessing is to be invoked on all, regard- 
less of distinctions of race and religion, not only on brethren, i.e. 
Jews. iOvLKoi is apparently equivalent to Gentiles, cf. 6 7 18 17 , and 
3 Jn 7. In Oxyrhynchus Papyri, i. 126. 13, a.d. 573, it seems to 
signify a collector of taxes. 

48. T£'A6ios] Lk. has oIktlp/xwv, but it is probable that he sub- 
stitutes this word to emphasise the particular aspect of " perfection." 


which the whole context in his Sermon makes prominent. " Per- 
fection " in the Old Testament means " without moral blemish," 
and can be used of upright men such as Noah (Gn 6 9 ), Job (i 1 ). 
It is enjoined in Dt i8 13 Te'Aeio? ear) ivavriov Kvpiov tov 6tov aov. 
Here the context defines it as perfection in love, which seeks the 
good of all men. God is perfect, because He bestows His favour 
on all alike. The whole section is aimed at definitions of the word 
"neighbour," which would limit its application to a particular 
class who must be treated in accordance with the command " to 
love," whilst others not included in it might be treated in a differ- 
ent way. " Perfection " contemplates all men alike from the stand- 
point of love, and this is in accord with God's dealings with men. 
Compassion or mercy is a rather one-sided application of this idea. 

44. roi)s ixOpoiis v/muv] Add eiXoyeTre robs KaTapu/ntvovs ii/xas kclKws 
■woie?Te robs HKTOvvras v/ids, D al from Lk 6 28 . 

virep tw] Add iirrjpea^ovTccv v/xas ko.1, D al from Lk 6 28 ; cf. note on I 25 . 

47. The verse is omitted by S 1 k either by homoeoteleuton or intention- 
ally. The " salute" is widened into " love" by Aphraates. 

VI. 1-18. Three illustrations of the statement that " righteous- 
ness" is not to be like that of "the hypocrites." 
L 1. Take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men, to be 
seen of them : if ye do, ye have no reward from your Father who is 
in the heavens'] 

8iKaioa-vvrjv refers back to 5 20 . " Righteousness " is to exceed 
that of the scribes and Pharisees in the sense illustrated in 5 21 - 48 . 
It is also to differ in kind from that of the scribes and Pharisees in 
avoiding ostentation. — 6ea6rjvai avrois] For the construction, cf. 
23 s , and see Blass, p. 113. 

2-4. First illustration. 
L 2. But when thou art doing alms, do not sound a trumpet before 
thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that 
they may be glorified by men. Verily I say to you, They have their 
reward already?^ 

o-aA.7rto-^s] Not to be taken literally, but as a metaphor for 
methods of attracting notice. — 01 inro/cpircu] i.e. the scribes and 
Pharisees; cf. 15 7 22 18 2 3 13 - 14 - 15 - 23 - 25 - 2 ?- 29 . 

pv/jLcus] See Kennedy, Sources, p. 15. 

o7ro)s 8o£aadwcnv] Contrast Bab. Bathra io b "They (idolators) 
only do alms to be exalted." 

airexovai] For a^e^o) and its use in receipts, see Deissm. Bible 
Studies, p. 229. It means here, " They have their reward now, and 
can expect none in future." 
L 3. But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what 
thy right hand doeth.] — uov 8e itoiowto9] For the construction of 
the participle, see Blass, p. 252 ; Moulton, p. 74. 
L 4. That thy alms may be {done) in secret : and thy Father who 


sees what is secret shall recompense thee openly.] Cf. Bab. Bathra 

9 b " He who does alms in secret is greater than Moses our teacher." 

6 /SAeVouv iv t<5 KpvirTw] Cf. Sotah g a "She does it in secret; 

but He who sits in the secret place, the Most High, looks upon her." 

1. SiKaiocrvvriv] SoX*" b BDS 1 ; i'Ke-qfioiT'uvrjv , EKa/; 86<rii>, X tt ; gift, 
S 2 . diKaioawi} is probably original, because v. 1 is a general introduction to 
the following section. The " righteousness " which is not to be ostentati- 
ously paraded is illustrated under the three subdivisions of "alms" 2 " 4 , 
"prayer" 5 " 6 , "fasting" 16 " 18 . dtKcuo<T\ji>r)v has, therefore, much the same 
sense as in 5 20 , and means the religious life as expressed in the carrying out 
of religious duties. The variant reading is due to the fact that the Hebrew 
and Aramaic ripis, xnps had acquired the sense of "alms, "and that iroulv<tvvt)v might, therefore, have the meaning to do alms in any context 
where this meaning was required. — iXe^fioavvrf] is the substitution of a more 
direct synonym for SiKatoo-vvrj understood (wrongly here) in the sense of "alms." 

4. diroduaei cxoi] Add if rui (pavepf, E K al S 1 a b c f g 1 h q. The agree- 
ment of the Old Syriac and the Old Latin proves the reading to be an ancient 
one. And such antithesis is in the style of Mt. Cf. Intro, p. xxxi. If it is 
genuine here, its occurrence, in some authorities, in vv. 6 and 18 is accounted 
for as an assimilation to this passage. 

5-8. Second illustration. 

5. And when ye pray, ye shall not be as the hypocrites : because L 
they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the 
open places, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say to you, That 
they have their reward already.] The whole verse is omitted by S 1 . 

ovk eowtfe] For the fut. ind., cf. Blass, p. 209. 

6. But thou, when thou pray est, enter into thy chamber, and L 
having shut thy door, pray to thy Father who is in secret ; and thy 
Father who sees what is secret shall recompense thee.] 

Ta/xeiov] The word thus spelt occurs in the Papyri. See Deissm. 
Bible Studies, p. 182 ; Blass, p. 23 ; Ditt. Syll. 418. 10, 87; 892. 6. 
— dTToSujo-ei] The verb seems less relevant here and in v. 18 than in 
v. 4 , where it forms a contrast to "give alms." Here the emphasis 
is not on the answering of prayer, but on the reward of avoidance 
of ostentation. Mt. adds other sayings which bear upon the same 
subject, vv. 7 " 15 . 

7. And when ye pray, do not speak idly, as do the heathen ; for L 
they think they shall be heard for their quantity of words.] 

idviKoC] See on 5 47 . — fiaTToXoy^cnp-e] The Sinaitic Syriac 
renders " do not be saying battalatha," i.e. idle things. The mean- 
ing of fiaTToXoyeiv is unknown. It may be an attempt to render 
w6i33 "IDS. This and the following verse probably comes from 
the Logia, but did not stand there in the Sermon. It is directed 
against heathen, not against hypocrites = Pharisees. 

8. Be not therefore like to them : for your Father knoweth what L 
things ye need, before you ask Him.] 

oTSc yap 6 iraTijp vpuv] Cf. V. 32 = Lk I2 80 . — alrrjaai] D h have 
avoiiat. to o-To/xa. For "Wore you ask Him," cf. Is 65 s4 . 


9. The editor here adds, vv. 9-12 , the Lord's Prayer. This is 
found in Lk n 1 " 4 in a different context and in a shorter form. 
Mt. probably drew it from the Logia. In the source from which 
Lk. drew it its Jewish and eschatological colouring had been 
partially obscured. The Jewish phrase " which art in heaven " 
had been omitted. The further omission of " Thy will be done 
as in heaven, so upon earth," partially obscures the eschatological 
significance of the first three petitions as they stand in the first 
Gospel. The substitution of sins (d/xapnas) for ocpeiX^fxara avoids 
the Jewish metaphor implied in the latter word. Lastly, the 
omission of " but deliver us from evil " avoids an ambiguous 
phrase. See below. 
L Thus therefore pray ye : Our Father which art in the heavens, 
Hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in 
heaven so upon earth. Our daily bread give us to-day. And forgive 
us our debts, as we forgave our debtors. And lead us not into tempta- 
tion, but deliver us from the evil.] — otrrws] i.e. "after this manner," not 
" in these words." — vpets] in contrast to aureus, v. 8 . — 7rdVep — 6 iv toT? 
ovpavols] See on 5 16 . The first three petitions are eschatological 
in scope, and pray for the inauguration of the kingdom ; cf. 
Introduction, p. lxix. For the aorist imperatives as appropriate in 
prayer, cf. Moulton, p. 173. When the kingdom has come, God's 
name will be sanctified and His will will be realised. — aytao-^rw to 
ovofxa crov] Cf. Is 2Q 23 "They shall sanctify My name," Ezk 36 s3 
" I will sanctify My great name." The " name" of God is equivalent 
to His nature as revealed. In one respect His name is profaned 
when His people are ill-treated. The sin of the nation which 
brought about the captivity had caused a profanation of the Name, 
Is 43 25 48 11 , Ezk 36 20 " 23 . By their restoration His name was to be 
sanctified. But this sanctification was only a foreshadowing of a 
still future consummation. Only when the " kingdom " came would 
God's name be wholly sanctified in the final redemption of His 
people from reproach. Thus the petition, "Hallowed be Thy 
name," carries with it the anticipation of the next clause. 
" Hallowed be Thy name." Yes, but when can that be ? Only 
when the kingdom is inaugurated. So " Thy kingdom come." 
Cf. the collocation of the two clauses, " May His great name be 
sanctified," and " May His sovereignty reign," in the Jewish prayer 
cited below. Further, when His name has been sanctified in the 
redemption of His people and in the establishment of the kingdom, 
then, and then only, will it be true that God's will is done. Hence 
the third petition forms the climax of the first two. D*abck 
omit ws before iv oipavw. With or without d>s the sense is the 
same: "May Thy will be done" throughout the universe. The 
addition of d>s iv ovpavip kou €7rt (ttJs) 777s does not exclude the 
reference to the coming " kingdom," since there is nothing in the 


Gospel which leads us to believe that the editor thought of that 
kingdom as purely heavenly or spiritual. True, the Son of Man 
is to come on the clouds of heaven, and the elect are to be 
gathered from the ends of the earth. But, on the other hand, the 
wicked are to be gathered out of the kingdom, and the just to 
shine forth in it (13 41 " 43 ). The phrase "heaven and earth shall 
pass away," 24 s5 , need not be anything more than a rhetorical 
statement by contrast of the eternal validity of Christ's words; 
cf. 5 18 . Even if they are understood as a direct statement of a 
future passing away of the heaven and earth (cf. Is 65 17 66 22 ), they 
must be interpreted in the light of the conception of the 7raAiyyev- 
ccria of 19 28 , in which the apostles are to judge the twelve tribes of 
Israel. The contrast heaven-earth is frequent in the later Jewish 
literature ; cf. Berakh 2 9 b " Do Thy will in heaven above, and give 
rest of spirit to them that fear Thee beneath"; 17° "May it be 
Thy will, O Lord our God, to establish peace in the upper family 
and in the lower family " ; Jotna 39* " If a man sanctifies himself 
below, they sanctify him above" ; cf. Ps 135 6 . 

The prayer passes from aspiration for the sanctification of God's 
name by the inauguration of the " kingdom," in which His will will 
be universally recognised and carried into effect, to three petitions 
which concern the daily life of those who are awaiting the " king- 
dom." The first is for the satisfaction of bodily necessities. 

11. Give us to-day our daily dread.] — 0-77/x.epov] Lk. has to ko.6' 
■fjfxipav and BCSov for 80s. — iiriovcrios] The word is obscuie. The 
Syriac versions S 1 S 2 have " continual bread," but S 3 " bread of our 
necessity." Jerome says that the Gospel according to the Hebrews 
had " of the morrow," and this would agree with the usual deriva- 
tion of €7rioixrios from the participle eViowa. Cf. the phrase 17 
eTriovo-a (rjfxepa) = " the morrow." But this meaning does not 
harmonise readily with o-rj/Aepov in this verse, nor with 6 34 "Take 
no thought for the morrow," and Greek phrases for "for the 
morrow " were ready to hand without coining a new adjective for 
the purpose. Jerome substituted supersubstantialem in Mt. For 
this and other renderings, see Chase, Texts and Studies, i. 3, 
pp. 42-53. It is difficult not to think that r6v eVtovo-iov rests upon 
misunderstanding (false transliteration ?) of an original Aramaic 
phrase, or upon a Greek corruption. If Lk. did not borrow it 
from Mt., their agreement proves that the word must have become 
stereotyped in Greek versions of the prayer at a very early period. 
We should expect a phrase corresponding to the "my needful 
bread" of Pr 30 8 ; cf. Job 23 12 . 

The second is for the divine forgiveness of sin : " And remit 
to us our debts, as we also remitted to our debtors." The concep- 
tion of man's indebtedness to God, and of his inability to pay the 
debt as constituting a state of sin which can only be removed by 


the divine remission of the debt and forgiveness of the sin, is 
illustrated in 18 21 ' 35 , where also the divine forgiveness is represented 
as conditional upon the forgiveness by men of their fellows. Cf. 
the saying of Rabbi Akiba in Aboth 3 20 " Everything is given on 
pledge, and the net is cast over all the living. The office is open ; 
and the broker gives credit ; and the ledger is open ; and the hand 
writes ; and whosoever will borrow comes and borrows ; and the 
bailiffs go round continually day by day, and exact from a man 
whether he wills or not ; and they have whereon to lean ; and the 
judgement is a judgement of truth." For the Aramaic sain = debt 
or sin, cf. Targ. Is 53 5 = Heb. J?t?fi. 

The third petition is for deliverance from the evil that is in the 
world. The thought is that God allows men to be led into 
circumstances of moral danger and temptation. They are to pray 
that He will so overrule the circumstances of life that they may not 
come into positions of trial and difficulty, and that in any case He 
will deliver them from the snares of evil. The terms are left 
purposely ambiguous. 6 Trovrjp6<; in i^- 2 * means the Devil, who 
is the personification of evil. But here as in 5 37 it is better to 
assume a nominative to -n-ov-qpov, and to think of "the evil" as a 
wide generalisation of the evil element in life. 

12. acprjKafiev] N*BZ. dcplopev, Dal; icplefiev, N c Gtf/; &<f>lionev, L. 
"So that we also may," S 2 . The right reading in Lk u 4 is a<pio/j.ev. The 
renderings of the Syriac versions are striking. In Mt. S 1 is wanting. S 2 has : 
"so that we also may." In Lk. S 1 has : "and we also ourselves forgive" ; 
S 2 " and we also will forgive." The Acts of Thomas has : " that also we may 
forgive." S 3 has : "have forgiven" in both Gospels. In other words, the 
early Syriac tradition understood the clause as a final one. But vv. 14 and 15 
demand a comparative sense. dcp-^Kap-ev has the best attestation. The variants 
seem to be assimilations to Lk. 

13. The doxology is omitted by N B D Z. Its insertion seems to be due 
to the liturgical use of the Lord's Prayer, and the early forms of it vary, k 
has : "quoniam est tibi virtus in saecula sasculorum" ; S 2 " Because Thine is 
the kingdom and the glory for ever and ever, Amen." The Acts of Thomas 
omits it. The Didacht has : " For thine is the power and the glory for ever." 

With vv. 9 " 12 compare the ancient synagogal prayer known as the 
Kaddisch. I translate from Dalman's Messianische Texte, appended 
to his Die Worte Jesu, Leipzig, 1898: 

" May His great name be magnified and sanctified in the world 
which He has created according to His will. May His sovereignty 
reign" (or kingdom rule) ; or, "And may He cause His sovereignty 
to reign [and His redemption to shoot forth, and may He bring 
near His Messiah, and redeem His people] in your life and in your 
days, and in the life of all the house of Israel, speedily, and at a 
near time. And say ye Amen." 
, 14. For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father 
will also forgive you.] 

Similar words occur in Mk n 25 "And when ye stand praying, 


forgive, if ye have anything against any one : that your Father who 
is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses." Mt. has omitted 
them in the parallel to that passage, if indeed they stood in his 
copy of Mk. He inserts them here with the next verse from the 
Logia; cf. also 18 35 . 

15. But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your L 
Father forgive your trespasses. 

16-18. Third illustration. 

" And when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance ; L 
for they disfigure their faces that they may be seen to fast by men. 
Verily I say to you, That they have their reward already '.] 

o-KvdpuiTToC] in the N.T. only again Lk 24 17 . In the LXX it 
occurs Gn 40 7 , Neh 2 1 , Ecclus 2 5 23 , and Dn Th i 10 . — d<£avi£ouo-i]. 
Cf. Joel 2 20 /ecu de^aviw to 7rpocra)7rov avrov, where, however, the sense 
is different. d<£avi£ et,/ seems not to be used elsewhere in this sense 
of the face. Cf. the epithet pjnnvn = " dyed," applied to the 
Pharisees by King Jannai in B. Sotah 2 2 b (Wiinsche, 299). d<£avi- 
£eiv may have been chosen here to rhyme with <£avwo-6. 

17-18. But thou, when thou art fasting, anoint thy head, and L 
wash thy face ; that thou be seen not by men to fast, but by thy Father 
who is in secret. A fid thy Father, who sees what is secret, shall recom- 
pense thee.] 

airoSwcrei] See on v. 6 . 

VI. 19- VII. 6. Three prohibitions. 

(a) VI. 19-34. Relation to wealth. 

This section finds parallels in Lk 12 22 - 34 11 34 " 35 i6 ls . Mt. drew 
most of it from the Logia, but may have massed together sayings 
or groups of sayings which were there disconnected. V. 19 may 
have been attached to 16 " 18 because of the occurrence in both of 
the verb d<£avi£eiv. 

19. Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon the earth, where L 
moth and rust mar, and where thieves break through and steal.] 
Lk 1 2 33 has : " Sell your goods and give alms. Make for yourselves 
purses that do not become old." 

20. But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither L 
moth nor rust doth mar, and where thieves do not break through nor 
steal.] Lk 12 33 has: "a treasure unfailing in the heavens, where 
thief approaches not, nor moth corrupts." Cf. Test. Levi 13 5 " Do 
righteousness, my sons, upon earth, that you may have treasure in 
heaven " ; x Buddhist and Christian Gospels, Edmunds, p. 83, " Let 
the wise man do righteousness ; a treasure that others can share 
not, which no thief can steal ; a treasure which passeth not away." 2 

1 See Charles, Hibbert fournal, April 1905, p. 563. 

2 Mr. W. T. Lendrum (Class. Rev. July 1906, 307) quotes the following 
parallel from Pindar, Frag. 22 : 

Aids irah 6 xP va fo' 
Keivov oi <ri?s ovoi ids davrtt. 


L 21. For where thy treasure is, there will be thy heart also.] 
Lk 12 34 has: " For where your treasure is, there also your heart 
will be." 

22. To obtain this heavenly treasure you must keep your inner 
eye healthy by almsgiving. 
L The lamp of the body is the eye. If therefore thy eye be sound 
( = liberal), thy whole body will be light.] Lk 1 1 34 has : " The lamp 
of the body is thine eye. Whenever thy eye is sound, then thy 
whole body is light." 

The idea here is the naive one that the eye is the organ through 
which light has access to the whole body, and that there is a 
spiritual eye through which spiritual light enters and illuminates the 
whole personality. This spiritual eye must be kept sound, or else 
light cannot enter, and the inner man dwells in darkness. But how 
can it be kept sound? The contrast aTrkovs — irovt]p6<; suggests the 
answer, by liberality and almsgiving. Treasure is not to be hoarded, 
but to be given away. In Jewish idiom, " a good eye " is a metaphor 
for liberality, " an evil eye " for niggardliness. Cf. Dt 15 9 " Beware 
that . . . thine eye be evil against thy poor brother, and thou give 
him nought," 28 s4 - 56 ; Pr 23 s "Eat not the bread of him that 
hath an evil eye," because he is niggardly, and grudges what you 
eat, 28 22 " He that hath an evil eye hasteth after riches " by hoarding 
up wealth, 2 2 9 "He that hath a good eye (py 3112) . . . giveth of 
his bread to the poor"; To 4 7 "Give alms of thy substance . . . 
and let not thine eye be evil " ; Ecclus 14 10 "An evil eye is 
grudging of bread, and he is miserly at his table " ; Aboth 5 15 
" He who is willing to give, but not that others should give, his 
eye is evil towards the things of others," i.e. he wishes to have a 
monopoly of liberality for himself; She moth R. 31 (Wunsche, 235). 

We should therefore expect here, as a contrast to irovy]p6<;, 
ayaOos rather than a-n-Xovs. But (1) the phrase "a sound eye" 
may have had in the original saying a wider meaning than that 
of liberality, which is here imparted to it by the context. There is 
no such limitation in the passage as it stands in Lk. (2) aTrXovs 
may have been chosen because it interprets dyaflds as = liberal ; cf. 
Pr 11 25 i}/vxt] €v\oyovfX€vrj iracra a7rXrj, where d.7r\rj after the pre- 
ceding verse seems to mean liberal; Ja i 5 , where airXws seems to 
mean "liberally," and the use of d7rXd-n?s = liberality in 2 Co 8 2 
9", Ro 12 8 . 

Cf. Test. Issach 3* " I slandered none, and I walked in singleness 
of eye." 
L VI. 23. But if thine eye be evil (niggardly), thy whole body is 
dark. If therefore the light which is in thee be darkness, how great 
is the darkness /] Lk 1 i 34 " 35 has : " But if it be evil, then thy body 
is dark. Take heed, therefore 1 Perhaps the light which is in 
thee is darkness." 


The meaning is, " If thine eye be evil, i.e. if you are miserly 
and grudging, keeping your wealth for yourself, then spiritual 
light cannot penetrate unto you ; and such light as you have be- 
comes ever darker, till it ceases to be light, and becomes dark- 

24. Moreover, you cannot have both the treasure upon earth 
and the treasure in heaven. 

No one can serve two masters. For either he will hate the one L 
and love the other, or he will cleave to the one and despise the other. 
Ye cannot serve God and Mammon.'] So Lk 16 13 with oiVeTT/s after 
ovSci's. Lk. has the saying in quite a different context. Mt. 
probably drew it from the Logia, where it need not have stood 
in this connection. 

0W1] See Blass, p. 35. For 6 cts — 6 hepos, cf. Blass, p. 144. 
— /xa/A/iwvas] is derived by Dalm. Gram. 2 p. 170, Anm. 1, from 
JiDXD = " deposited." JiDD and &U1E>» occur in the Talmuds, see 
Levy, and in the Targums. 

25-33 occur in Lk 12 22 - 31 . Mt. probably drew them from the 

25. Therefore I say to you, Be not careful for your life, L 
what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink ; nor for your body, 
ivhat ye shall put on.] So Lk. omitting the first v/xwv and 77 ri 


Is not the life more than food, and the body than raiment ?] Lk. 
has : " For the life," etc. 

The connection seems to be : " Because you cannot lay up 
treasure on earth and in heaven, therefore give up all thought of 
earthly treasure, and even of the necessities of life, which God 
will provide for you." 

The Sia tovto occurs also in Lk. in quite a different context 
Here the connection seems loose. After v. 24 we should expect : 
"Therefore serve God and renounce wealth," or words to that 
effect. The Sia tovto seems to refer back to some assurance of 
the providential care of God for those who trust in Him. Mt 
may have transferred it to this place from some context in the 
Logia where the Sia tovto would be more applicable. 

The thought of the last clause seems to be that God, who has 
given the life and the body, will also provide the lesser gifts of 
food and raiment. 

26. Look at the birds of heaven, that they sow not, nor harvest, L 
nor gather into granaries. And your heavenly Father feeds them. 
Are ye not of more value than they ?] Lk. has : " Consider the 
ravens, that they sow not nor harvest, who have neither chamber 
nor granary, and God feeds them ; of how much more value are 
ye than the birds ! " 

Cf. Job i2 7 " 9 , and New Sayings of Jesus , 11. 9-14. "Jesus saith, 


(ye ask who are those) that draw us (to the kingdom if) the kingdom 
is in heaven ? The fowls of the air, and all beasts that are under 
the earth, or upon the earth, and the fishes of the sea." Ps-Sol 
5 11 to. 7T€Tetva kcu tous lydvas crv Tp€(£eis 
It 27. And which of you by being careful can add to his stature 
one cubit ?] So Lk. omitting eva. Lk. adds : " If therefore ye are 
able (to do) not even the least, why are ye careful about the 
rest ? " The saying is a difficult one. wt7x v5 * s a measure of space, 
not of time. ^Aiki'o. can mean either age, duration of life, or stature. 
In Mt the latter seems more appropriate. V. 25 lays down the 
double precept, Take anxious thought neither for the nourishment 
of the life, nor for the clothing of the body. V. 26 illustrates the 
former precept, Take no anxious thought for the nourishment of 
the life. God nourishes the birds of heaven. Much more will He 
care for you. Vv. 27-30 seem to illustrate the second precept about 
the body. You cannot increase your bodily stature, and are 
not so foolish as to spend thought on trying to do so. Why 
then be anxious about the clothing of the body ? God who clothes 
the flowers will clothe you. The structure of the passage may be 
illustrated as follows : 

General proposition. Take no thought either (a) for the 
nourishment of your life; nor (b) for the clothing of your body 
(v. 25 ). 

For (a) God will provide nourishment (v. 26 ). 

(b) (1) You cannot increase the height of your body. Why 
then trouble about its clothing? (v. 27 ). (2) God will clothe you 
(vv. 28-30 ). It will be seen that there is nothing in (a) corresponding 
to b 1, and the argument from the impossibility of adding to the 
height of the body to avoidance of care about its clothing seems 
so forced that many commentators prefer to render ^Ai/a'a. by length 
of life. For Tn)xy<; in reference to time, cf. Ps 39 s " Behold thou 
hast made mine age as handbreadths " ; and see Zahn, in toe. V. 27 
must then be connected with v. 26 thus : 

General proposition. Take no thought for life or body (v. 25 ). 

For (a) God will nourish your life. And you cannot add to 
its length (vv. 26 - 27 ). 

(b) God will clothe you (w. 28 " 30 ). 

The difficulty of the verse is increased by Lk.'s addition, for 
iXdxta-Tov seems to refer to the " adding to one's age or stature," 
and tuv Xolttwv to nourishment and clothing ; and it is not easy to 
see how the former, whether fjXiKia be translated age or stature, 
can be said to be "least " as compared with the two latter. 
L 28. And for raiment, why are ye careful? Study the flowers 
of the field, how they grow ; they toil not, they spin not.] Lk. has : 
" If therefore ye cannot even (do) the least, why are ye careful 
about the rest ? Consider (xaTavo^o-aTe) the flowers, how they grow. 


They toil not, nor spin." — ere] see Moulton, p. 117, who 
suggests " understand, take in this fact about." 

29. And I say to you, That not even Solomon in all his glory was L 
clothed as one of these. ~\ So Lk., omitting on. 

30. And if the grass of the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow L 
is cast into the oven, God so dresses, will He not much more {clothe) 
you, O ye of little faith 1] Lk. has: "And if in the field the grass 
which is to-day, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, God so 
dresses, how much more (will He clothe) you, O ye of little faith ! " 
— 6Atyo7no-Toi] The object of the ttiotis here is God, and faith is 
confidence, assurance, trust in His power and willingness to care 
for the bodily needs of those who trust in Him. See on 8 26 14 31 
16 8 . The word does not occur in Mk., once in Lk, 12 28 . 

31. Be not therefore careful, saying, What shall we eat ? or what L 
shall we drink 1 or wherewith shall we be clothed ?] Lk. has : 

" And ye do not seek what ye shall eat, and what ye shall drink, 
and be not of doubtful mind(?)." 

32. For all these things the Gentiles seek after. For your L 
heavenly Father knoweth that you need all these things.] Lk. has : 

" For all these things the Gentiles of the world seek after. But 
your Father knoweth that ye need these things." 

33. But seek first His kingdom and righteousness ; and all these L 
things shall be added to you.] Lk. has : "But seek His kingdom, 
and these things shall be added to you. 

34. Be not therefore careful against the morrow ; for the morrow L 
will be careful of its own (affairs). Sufficient for the day is its evil.] 

Cf. Sanhedrin ioo b "Trouble thyself not about the trouble 
of the morrow, for thou knowest not what a day brings forth. 
Perhaps on the morrow thou wilt not exist, and so wilt have 
troubled about that which does not exist for thee." 

dpK(.To{\ a late and rare word; cf. Deissm. Bib. Stud. p. 257 : 
" Outside the N.T. only authenticated hitherto in Chrysippus (in 
Athen. iii. 79, p. ii3 b ); is also found in the Fayum Papyri, BU 
531, ii. 24 (second cent, a.d.) and 33. 5 (second to third cent. 
A.D.)." Add Jos. Wars, iii. 130 : apxeTrjv Svvafj.iv. 

33. tt]v fiaaihelav] Add toO deov, E al S 2 latt. k has tov Oeov for avrov 
after diKaioavvrjv. B transposes j3acri\da.v and<tvi>tiv. The explanatory 
tov 9eov is quite needless after 6 iraTijp vfiuiv of the previous verse. The 
transposition of B, which is hardly likely to be genuine, is perhaps due to 
observance of the fact that 8iKaioavvr) is said to be a requisite for admission 
into the kingdom, 5 20 , and should therefore come first. 

34. fj-epififfjaei eavTTJs] the harsh construction is due to translation from 
Aramaic. See Wellhausen, in loc. E Ka/ have to. eavrrjs to ease the Greek. 

(b) VH. 1-5. Judgement of others. Cf. Lk 6 37 " 12 . 

1, 2. Judge not, that ye be not fudged. For with what judgement L 
ye judge, ye shall be judged. And with what measure ye mete, it 
shall be measured to you.] Lk. has : " And judge not, and ye shall 



not be judged. For with what measure ye mete, it shall be 
measured back to you." Lk., who has nothing in his Sermon 
corresponding to 6 1 " 34 , connects this saying about judgement with 
his saying : " Be ye merciful," which is parallel to Mt 5 48 . There 
is a good connection between the ideas of compassion and fair 
treatment of others. In Mt. there is no connection between 7 1 
and 6 34 . The verse probably stood in the Logia after 6 20 . Mt. 
has drawn together 6 21 " 34 from other parts of the Logia. The 
compiler of the Sermon as it lay before Lk. omitted 6 1 ' 18 , just as 
he had omitted 5 17 - 39a - 43 because of its controversial tone. 

The sayings in this verse are of the nature of proverbs, and 
were probably current maxims of life. For /at) Kpivert, cf. Rosh 
ha Sh i6 b " Who accuses his neighbour, will himself be punished 
first." ev <5 ju.€t/do>, k.t.X., occurs in Mk 4 24b , where Mt. omits it. 
It is common in the Jewish literature, e.g. Mechilta (Ugol.) 136, 
140, Siphri (Ugol.) 884, 904, cf. 512, Sotah 8 b , Sanhedrin ioo a . 
The meaning here seems to be that hasty or unjustifiable con- 
demnation of others will provoke the just judgement of God. 

L 3. And ivhy dost thou behold the mote that is in the eye of thy 
brother, and considerest not the beam which is in thine own eye ?] 
Lk. has the same, with a slight variation in order. Cf. Arachin 16° 
where R. Tarphon (end first cent, a.d.) says : " If one says, Take the 
mote from thy eye; he answers, Take the beam from thine eye." 

The thought is, that so far from judging others, a man should 
consider that in himself which will expose him to judgement. 

L 4. Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me cast out the mote 
out of thine eye ; and, behold, the beam is in thine own eye ?] Lk. has : 
" How canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, let me cast out 
the mote which is in thine eye, when thyself seest not the beam 
in thine own eye?" — a<£es e/</3aAu)] See Blass, p. 208; Moulton, 

p. 175, who quotes Ox. Pap. 413 : <z<£e? e'yto avrrjv Opyjirjcru). 

L 5. Thou hypocrite, cast out first the beam out of thine eye ; and 
then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother's 
eye.] Lk. has : " Thou hypocrite, cast out first the beam out of 
thine eye ; and then shalt thou see clearly the mote which is in 
thy brother's eye to cast out " ; cf. Grenfdl and Hunt, Sayings of 
Our Lord, 11. 1-4. 

(c) 6. Perverted zeal. 

L 6. Give not that which is holy to dogs, nor cast your pearls before 
swine, lest they trample them with their feet, and turn and rend you .] 
This saying occurs only in Mt., and has no particular connection 
with the preceding. But it may have stood here in the Logia. 
619-20 yi-5 an( j tn i s verse f orm a group of three prohibitions. 

The " swine " and the " dogs " symbolise alien and heathen 
men. For "dogs," cf. Phil 3 2 , Rev 22 15 . The "pearls" symbolise 
religious truth ; cf. 13 46 . 


The verse is, of course, capable of infinite adaptation. As it stood 
in the Logia (and here in the mind of the editor ?) it may express 
the Jewish-Christian point of view with regard to the preaching of 
Christianity to pagans; cf. Introduction, p. lxxvii, and the appli- 
cation of Kwdpia to Gentiles in 15 26 . It was applied to the Eucharist 
in the second century. Cf. Didachi ix. ; Tert. de Prcescr. xli. 

7-23. Three Commands. 

(a) 7-12. Prayer. 
7-11 occur in a different context in Lk n 9-13 . Mt. probably 
drew them from the Logia, where they probably did not stand in 
the Sermon. 

7. Ask, and it shall be given to you; seek, and ye shall find ; L 
knock, and it shall be opened to you.} So Lk. with : " And I say to 
you," at the beginning. 

Kpovere] Cf. R. Benaiah (c. 200 a.d.) in Pesikta 176* with 
reference to the study of the Mishna : " If he knocks, it will be 
opened to him." 

8. For every one who asks receives ; and he who seeks finds ; L 
and to him that knocketh it shall be opened.] So Lk. 

9. 10. Or what man is there of you, who, if his son ask for bread, L 
— will he give him a stone 1 Or also {if) he shall ask for a fish, 
will he give him a serpent?] Lk. has : "But which of you being a 
father, shall his son ask a fish, will he give him instead of a fish a 
serpent ? or also shall he ask an egg, will he give him a scorpion ? " 

11. If ye therefore, who are evil, know hoiv to give good gifts to L 
your children, how much more will your Father who is in the heavens 
give good things to those who ask Him.] Lk. has : "If ye, there- 
fore, who are (vTi-apxovTes) evil, know how to give good gifts to your 
children ; how much more will the Father who is from heaven give 
the Holy Spirit to those who ask Him ? " 

12. All things therefore whatsoever ye wish that men should do to L 
you, so also do ye to them : for this is the law and the prophets.] Lk 6 31 
has : "And as ye wish that men should do to you, do ye to them like- 
wise." I k. has this saying after the parallel to Mt 5 42 . Mt. no doubt 
found it in the Logia in the Sermon, possibly after 7 1 - 2 . But it seems 
more in place in Lk.'s connection, i.e. to say somewhere within Mt 
1538-48 which concern the treatment of others. In its present connec- 
tion in Mt. the verse seems out of place, but 7 1 - 2 deal with behaviour 
to other people, and so does 7 6 . If vv. 3 " 5 and 7 " n are interpolations 
from other parts of the Logia, 7 12 may have stood in connection 
with 7 1, 2 - 6 . A negative form of this saying was attributed to Hillel : 
"What is hateful to thee, do not do to thy neighbour," Shabbath 
31* ; and is found in To 4 16 a /xtcreis //.^Sevi 71-01770-775. Cf. Philo 
apud Eus. Prap. Ev. viii. 7.6:5 tis TraOelv l-^Oaipu 7x77 TrouiV airov. 1 

1 Cf. also Isocrates, Nicocl. 39 C : 4 ir&axovTst v<p' iripwv dpylfeade, ravra 
rots &\\ois /j.t) Troielre. 


(b) 13-14. The narrow gate. Cf. Lk 13 24 . 

L 13. Enter in through the narrow gate : because broad and wide 
is the way which leadeth to destruction, and many are tiiey that go 
in through it.] Lk. has : " Strive to enter through the narrow 
door : because many, I say to you, shall seek to enter, and shall 
not be able." 

L 14. How narrow is the gate, and contracted is the way, which 
leads to life, and (how) few are they who find it/] 

14. The narrow gate or narrow door (Lk.) is the gate or door 
into the kingdom of heaven. Lk. has the phrase in an eschato- 
logical context. Here the meaning is less definitely eschatological, 
but it is not improbable that we should interpret the words in the 
light of w. 22ff< with reference to the future kingdom. " Enter 
through the narrow gate" will then mean, "remember that the gate 
by which you must enter into the kingdom is a narrow one " ; cf. 
jq24 «j t j s easier to go through the eye of a needle than — into the 
kingdom " ; and 2 Es 7 3 " 14 . The metaphor of the narrow gate 
suggests the parallel and more common metaphor of the two ways. 
And the speaker states the first member of that simile : " Because 
broad and wide is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many 
are they that go in through it" For SY avTr}<; = 8ia ttjs 68ov, cf. 2 12 . 
Then instead of simply stating the second member of the simile, 
the speaker breaks into an exclamation which combines both 
metaphors : " Ah ! how narrow is the gate and contracted is the 
wav which leads to life, and few there are who find it." For the 
two ways, cf. Jer 21 8 ; Siphri on Dt u 26 (Ugol.) 604, where 
"blessing and cursing" are interpreted as "two ways; the one at 
first level and at last full of thorns, the other at first full of thorns 
and at last level." — oAtyoi daiv, k.tX.] cf. 2 Es 8 3 " There be 
many created, but few shall be saved." — eis t^v £a»?v] cf. i8 8 - 9 
19 17 . In T9 16 - 29 25^ we have "eternal life." For "life" as 
equivalent to "eternal life," see Dalm. Words, 156 ff . ; Volz, Jiid. 
Eschat. pp. 306, 326, 368. 

13. i] 71-15X77] is omitted by S'abchkm for and by many Fathers. S 1 
is unfortunately wanting. The words have probably been inserted by the 
copvists to complete the parallelism with v. 14 . 

14. W] So X bTid6t c B 2 E al S 2 latt 5rt, X* B*, is perhaps due to 
assimilation to the previous verse. 

(c) 15-23. False prophets. Cf. Lk 6 43 " 19 13 26 - 27 . 
L 15. Beware of false prophets, such as come to you in sheep's 

clothing, but are inwardly ravening wolves.] 
L 16. From their fruits ye shall recognise them. Do men gather 

from thorns grapes, or from thistles figs ?] Lk 6 U has: "For not 

from thorns do they gather figs, nor from a bramble-bush do they 

pluck grapes." 
L 17. So every good tree makes sound fruit ; but the rotten tree 


makes evil fruity Lk 6 43 has: "For there is not a sound tree 
making rotten fruit ; nor again a rotten tree making sound fruit." 

18. A good tree cannot make evil fruit, nor a rotten tree make L 
good fruit.] 

19. Every tree which does not make good fruit is hewn down, and L 
cast into the fire '.] 

20. Therefore from their fruits ye shall recognise them.} Mt. L 
has an application of this saying about trees and their fruit con- 
taining sayings parallel to Lk 6 44a and 45 in 12 s3 - 35 . He probably 
found in the Logia after the saying about false prophets, v. 15 , the 
words : d— 6 twv Kapvwv avrwv liriyvuxrecrOe avTovs, 16a . This suggested 
to him the insertion from elsewhere in the Logia of the saying 
about trees and fruit which he closes by repeating the words, v. 20 , 
which had suggested the insertion. Compare his insertion of a 
parable 20 1 - 15 to explain 19 30 . Here, too, he closes his inter- 
polated section with the text from which he started, 20 16 . Com- 
pare also his insertion of parables 24 43 -2 5 12 to explain 24 42 . Here, 
too, he repeats at the end 25 13 , the verse from which he started. 

21. Not every one who saith to Ale, Lord, Lord, shall enter into L 
the kingdom of the heavens ; but he who doeth the will of My Father 
who is in the heavens.] Cf. Lk 6 46 . 

6 iroiwv to OiX^a, k.t.X.] Cf. Aboth 5 22 (R. Jehudah ben 
Thema) : " Be bold as a leopard, and swift as an eagle, and fleet 
as a hart, and strong as a lion to do the will of thy Father which 
is in heaven " ; 2 4 (R. Gamaliel iii., c. 210 a.d.) : " Do His will as if 
it were thy will" ; Siphri (Ugol.), 872 : "If any one keeps the law 
and does the will of his Father who is in heaven." The phrase 
to do the will is common in Jewish writings ; cf. Mechilta (Ugol.) 
220, 222, 230, 240, 242 ; Siphri (Ugol.) 956; Berakhoth i6 b "It 
is our will to do Thy will." 

22. Many shall say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord, did we not L 
prophesy in Thy name 1 and in Thy name cast out demons ? and in 
Thy name do many miracles ?] Cf. Lk 1 2 26 . 

cv iK€Lvr] rrj rjfiipa. For " that day " as a technical eschatological 
term, see Voh,/ud. Eschat. p. 188. 

23. And then will I confess to them that L never knew you : L 
depart from Me, ye workers of lawlessness^ .Cf. Lk 13 27 . 

24-27. Closing parable. Cf. Lk tf 7 ^. 

24. Every one, therefore, who hears these My words, and doeth L 
them, shall be likened to a wise man, who built his house upon the 
rock.} Lk. has : " Every one who cometh to Me and heareth My 
words, and doeth them, I will show you to whom he is like. He 

is like a man building a house, who digged and went deep, and 
laid the foundation upon the rock." 

25. And the rain came down, and the streams (TroTafio!) came, L 
and the winds blew, and fell upon that house; and it fell not: for it 


was founded on the rock.] Lk. has : " And when there was a flood, 
the river (7rora/i.ds) beat against that house, and could not shake 
it, because it was well founded." 

fip°xv] ls a l ate an d rare word. The lexicons quote Orac 
ap. Clem. Alex. 50. In Ox. Pap. iii. 593, a.d. 172, ii. 280. 5, 
a.d. 88-89, /3po^at are artificial inundations of land. 
L 26. And every one who heareth these My sayings, and doeth them 
not, shall be like?ied to a foolish man, who built his house upon the 
sand.] Lk. has : " But he who heard and did not, is like to a man 
who built a house upon the soil without a foundation." 
L 27. And the rain came down, and the streams came, and the 
winds blew, and fell upon that house ; and it fell : and its fall was 
great.] Lk. has : " Upon which the stream beat, and straightway 
it fell in, and the destruction of that house was great." 
E M 28. And it came to pass when Jesus finished these words, the 
multitudes were astonished at His teaching^] Cf. Lk 7 1 " When 
He had fulfilled all His words {prjfxaTa) in the hearing of the people." 

Kal lyivtro, k.t.X.] For the formula, see Introduction, p. lxiv. — 
l^TrXrjcra-ovTo ol o^A.01 €7rt T77 8i$a)cfj avroi)] With these words Mt. 
returns to Mk i 22 after his long insertion, 5-7 27 . 
M 29. For He was teaching them as one having authority, and not 
as their scribes.] Mk. has the same without avruv. 

The relation of the Sermon to S. Luke, 6 2(M9 . 

The Introduction, 5 1 - 2 . 

Lk. introduces His Sermon at a later period in the narrative. 
After borrowing Mk 3 1 " 6 = Lk 6 6 " 11 , he passes on to the appoint- 
ment of the Twelve, Mk 3 13 - 19 = Lk 6 12 " 16 . This took place, 
according to Mk., on a mountain. He then records the descent 
into the plain again, koi KarafSas /act o.vtwv Zo-rr) tirl tottov TreSwov, 
6 17 , and then turns back in order to summarise Mk 3 7 ' 12 = Lk 6 7 ' 19 , 
thus obtaining an audience for the Sermon which he introduces 
in 6 20 with the words : " And He, lifting up His eyes upon His 
disciples, said." It is clear that the two Evangelists independently 
create a suitable time and place and audience for the Sermon. 
Mt. places it early in his Gospel to illustrate Mk i 21 - 22 "He was 
teaching — at His teaching — He was teaching." Lk. places it after 
the formal appointment of the Twelve, and provides an audience 
by transposing Mk 3 13 - 19 and 7 " 12 . Mt.'s to Spot and Lk.'s tottov 
ttSivov may both represent a tradition that the Sermon was spoken 
on a hillside. But Mt's to opo<s may equally well be due to the 
Evangelist. It was fitting that the exposition of the Christian law 
of the kingdom should have been given on a mountain as the Old 
Law to Moses on Mount Sinai. Cf. in this Gospel the mountain 
of temptation (4 s ), the mountain of transfiguration (17 1 ), and the 
mountain upon which the Lord gave His final commands to the 
disciples (28 16 ). Lk.'s KaTa/3as — ml tottov -rreSivov is probably an 


editorial connecting link. It was more natural to represent the Lord 
as descending from the mountain upon which He had appointed 
the Twelve to find an audience for His Sermon in the plain than 
to bring the multitudes from Judaea and Tyre and Sidon up into 
the mountain. Lastly, Mt. has provided an audience for His 
Sermon by collecting phrases from Mk. (see on 4 23-25 ), whilst Lk. 
provides an audience by transposing Mk 3"" 12 and 13 " 19 . 

There is therefore no necessary connection between the 
introduction to the Sermon in Mt. and Lk. other than a common 
use of Mk.'s Gospel. 

A. The Beatitudes, 5 3 - 18 . 

Lk. has a corresponding section, consisting of four blessings 
and four woes, 6 20 " 26 . The four blessings are addressed in the 
second person (Mt. in the third) to 01 irr&ypl (Mt. -m^yoX tc3 
irvev/xaTi), ol 7retvwvT€s (Mt. ol Treiv&vTes ko.1 Suf/fovTCs ttjv SiKaioavvrjv), 
ol KAatovTes (no parallel in Mt.), and to those who are hated and 
persecuted ; cf. Mt w. 11 - 12 . It is clear that the Evangelists in this 
section are independent of one another, and that they did not use 
a common written source. The Sermon traditionally began with 
Beatitudes, but the number and form of these varied in different 

B. The two metaphors of discipleship, Mt 5 13 " 16 , do not occur in 
Lk.'s Sermon. They have probably been inserted here from other 
parts of the Logia. Lk. has parallels to 5 13 - 15 in 14 s4 - 35 8 16 n 33 . 
See notes on vv. 13 " 16 . He drew the sayings from some source, or 
sources, other than the Logia. 

C. Relation to the Old Law, 5 17 - 48 . 

Lk. has no parallel in his Sermon to 5 17 ' 39a . But in 6 27 - 36 he 
ha6 parallels to Mt g 39 ^ 48 . The dXX ifjuv Ae'yw tois olkovovctlv (cf. 
Mt s 44 eyw 8e Aeyw ifjuv) suggests that Lk. himself, or the source 
which he follows, has omitted from the Sermon matter parallel to 
Mt 5 17 " 39a on account of its polemical character. On the other 
hand, Mt. has probably added to this section of the Sermon as it 
stood in the Logia sayings from other parts of the Logia. Such 
additions are probably vv. 18 " 19 - 22b - c - 25 " 26 - 33 ' 37 . See the notes on 
these passages. 

D. Three illustrations of righteousness, Mt 6 1 * 18 . 

No parallels to this occur in Lk.'s Sermon. The Sermon in 
the Logia may have contained it ; but if so, Mt. has probably 
added 7 " 15 from other sections of the Logia. Lk. has parallels to 
8 in 12 30 , and to 9 " 12 in n 2 " 4 . He was drawing from independent 

E. Three prohibitions, Mt 6 19 -7 a . 

Lk. has no parallels in his Sermon to 6 19 " 34 , but has sayings 
corresponding to 6 19-21 in 12 s3 - 34 , to 6 22-23 in 11 34 - 35 , to 6 24 in i6 ls , 
and to 6 25 " 34 in 12 22 ' 31 . The Sermon in the Logia may have 


contained Mt 6 19 " 20 , which Mt. has enlarged by adding 21 " 34 from 
other parts of the Logia. Lk. drew from independent sources. 
Lk. has parallels in his Sermon to 7 1 " 6 in 6 37 " 42 . Mt. probably 
drew from the Logia, Lk. from his independent source. 

F Three commands, Mt 7 7-23 . 

Lk. has parallels in his Sermon to 7 12a - 16 - 18 and 21 = Lk 6 43 " 44 - 46 . 
The section probably stood in the Logia, but may have been 
enlarged by Mt., e.g. vv. 16b - 20 , from other parts of the Logia. 

G. Concluding parable, Mt 7 24 " 27 , is found at the end of Lk.'s 
Sermon, 6 47 ' 49 . 

These facts seem most easily explained on some such lxnes as 
these : 

Mt. found in the Logia a sermon containing — 

A. Beatitudes, 5 2 - 12 . 

B. Relation to Old Law, 5 17 - 20 - 21 " 24 - 27 - 30 - 31 ' 32 - 38 " 42 - 43 " 48 . 

C. Three illustrations of righteousness, 6 1 * 4, 6 ' 6, 16 " 18 . 

D. Three prohibitions, 6 19 ' 21 71-6-6.12, 

E. Two commands, 713-14.15-ito 

F. A warning and concluding parable, 7 21 " 23 - 24 " 27 . 

This sermon he has enlarged by adding to it sayings which also 
were probably contained in the Logia, viz. 513-16. 18-19. 25-26.33-37 57-15. 

22-34 -7-11 ieb-20^ 

Lk. also had in one of his sources (not the Logia) a Sermon 
which was parallel in outline to that of the Logia. It contained, A, 
a section of blessings and woes (6 20-26 ), and then passed, B, to a 
series of exhortations to Christian love (6 27-38 ), followed by, C, 
various precepts (6 39 " 45 ), and ended by D, a parable (6 46-49 ). Either 
Lk. himself or, more probably, an editor at an earlier stage, in the 
transmission of the Sermon, omitted before B a section dealing with 
Christ's relation to the Old Law. Of course, the Hebrew or 
Aramaic Logia may be the ultimate source of both Mt. and Lk.'s 
Sermon. But if so, it is probable that the Sermon was excerpted 
from the Logia, and passed through several stages before it reached 
S. Luke. Mt, on the other hand, seems to have used a Greek 
translation of the Logia itself. That Mt. and Lk. were not using 
the same Greek source for the Sermon is suggested by their 
frequent divergence in language, and is decisively proved by the 
remarkable differences in the section containing blessings, with 
which the Sermon opens. Lk. also has, not in the Sermon, but 
elsewhere in his Gospel, sayings corresponding to sayings which 
Mt. has in the Sermon. Whilst Mt. drew these probably from the 
Logia, where some of them need not have stood in the Sermon, 
Lk. borrowed them from oral tradition or from other sources. 
That the two Evangelists did not draw them from the same Greek 
source is proved by the variations in setting and in language, and 
by other differences. The Lord's Prayer alone, with its striking 


variation in the two Gospels, proves that the Evangelists took it 
from quite independent sources or streams of tradition. For it is 
very improbable that Lk. should have shortened Mt 6 9 - 13 , or that 
Mt. should have expanded Lk 1 i 2-4 . On the other hand, it is very 
probable that the Prayer should have received different forms in the 
period of transmission prior to our two Gospels. The Logia may 
be the ultimate source of tradition. But if Mt. drew directly from 
a Greek translation of the Logia, Lk. borrowed from some source 
in which the Prayer had been borrowed from the Logia after 
passing through several stages of transmission. The fact that in 
both Gospels the Sermon is followed by an entry into Capharnaum 
(Mt 8 5 = Lk 7 1 ), and by the miracle of the centurion's servant, has 
led to the supposition that both Evangelists used a source in which 
this connection was already made. But this is very doubtful. In 
Mt 8 5 Eio-eA#ovTos Se avrov ets Ka<f>apvaovfj. may be purely editorial. 
The editor places immediately after the Sermon Mk.'s narrative of 
the leper, 8 1-4 . He now wishes to continue with the story of the 
centurion's servant. Capharnaum was the obvious place in which 
to locate this, cf. Mt 4 13 , especially as the editor intends to 
continue with Mk 1 29 - 31 , which did take place in Capharnaum. He 
was therefore obliged to insert a statement of the return to that city 
somewhere, and 8 5 was an obvious opportunity for doing so. In 
Lk. also, if we allow that Capharnaum was the natural place for the 
miracle, there was an obvious reason for inserting 7 1 between the 
Sermon and the miracle. Of course, there are other possibilities. 
The statement in Mt 8 5 may be editorial, whilst in the source 
which Lk. was following the Sermon may have been immediately 
followed by the return to Capharnaum and the miracle. In that 
case the agreement of Mt. and Lk. in linking the Sermon to the 
miracle by the entry into Capharnaum may be accidental. Or this 
may be just one of those points in which the first Gospel has 
influenced Lk. He remembered the closing formula of Mt 7 28 
" And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished these words," and 
reproduced them in 7 1 in the form, "When He had fulfilled all His 
sayings in the ears of the people." Then, passing over Mt 7 28b - 29 
and 8 1 " 4 because he has them in other contexts in Mk., he came to 
Mt 8 5 , and recorded the entry into Capharnaum and the miracle, 
not slavishly following Mt., but giving the miracle in the form 
known to him from another source. The view that Mt. and Lk. 
were both following a source in which Sermon and miracle were 
already linked by the statement of the entry into Capharnaum, would 
have everything in its favour if it did not make it impossible to 
understand the variations in the Sermon in the two Gospels. 

(c) Illustrations of his work, 8 1 -9 34 . 

(1) Three miracles of healing, 8 1 ' 17 . 
8 x - 4 = Mk 1 40 - 45 . 


The next section in Mk. is i 23 - 28 , the account of the demoniac 
in the synagogue at Capharnaum. We should expect the editor to 
begin his account of Christ's miracles with this incident. But he 
omits it, and, postponing several verses which follow, continues with 
the account of the leper, which in Mk i 40 " 45 is found without 
notice of time and place, unless we may infer from Mk i 39 that it 
took place during the journey throughout Galilee there mentioned. 
This change in Mk.'s order is difficult to explain. We have to 
account for (i) the omission of the incident of the demoniac, (2) 
the insertion of the account of the leper immediately after the 
Sermon, and before the entry into Capharnaum and the incidents 
there. (1) The omission of the account of the demoniac is 
probably intentional, (a) Both Mt. and Lk. seem to have disliked 
the story as found in Mk. We read there that the demon obeyed 
the Lord's command to come out, but not until He had "rent" 
the patient and "cried with a loud voice." Lk. materially modifies 
this when he omits the " crying," and adds, " having in no way 
injured him." A somewhat similar modification is found in the 
parallels to Mk 9 14 " 29 , where Mt. altogether omits the details that 
the demon after Christ's command " cried out and tore him much," 
and that the patient "became as one dead, insomuch that the 
more part said, He is dead " ; whilst Lk. retains indeed the 
" rending," but places it before Christ's command, and, like Mt., 
omits the "becoming as one dead." (b) Mt. takes over two of 
Mk.'s narratives of expulsion of demons, 5 1 " 20 and 9 14-29 , omitting, 
however, from the latter all traces of demoniac possession except 
in v. 18 . Elsewhere he sometimes omits references to this subject 
from Mk. ; cf. his omission of Mk i 34 - 39 3 U . (2) In view of his 
habit of arranging incidents and sayings in numerical groups, it is 
probable that he wished to begin his illustrations of Christ's 
miracles with three incidents of healing of typical diseases — leprosy, 
paralysis, fever. The incident of the leper, which in Mk. seems to 
have no expressed details of time or place, is therefore substituted 
for that of the demoniac, and becomes the first miracle (8 1 " 4 ). 
The fact that this incident illustrates Christ's attitude towards legal 
ceremonies may have co-operated in influencing the editor to place 
it immediately after the Sermon on the Mount. A healing of a 
paralytic, which Lk. also has in close connection with the Sermon, 
is inserted as the second (8 5 ' 13 ) ; whilst the healing of Peter's wife's 
mother, which follows the omitted incident in Mk., supplies the third. 

E 1. And when He came down from the mountaiit, great multitudes 
followed Him.'] In this way Mt. forms a connection with the 
following incident. 

M 2. A?id behold a leper came and was worshipping Him, saying, 
Lord, if Thou wilt, Thou canst cleanse me.] Mk. has: "And there 
cometh to Him a leper, beseeching Him, and kneeling down, saying 


to Him, that if Thou wilt Thou canst cleanse me." For ko.1 ISov 
as a connecting link, see on i 20 . Mt. avoids Mk.'s historic present 
Ep^erat, and substitutes his favourite word Trpoo-epxeaOcu. See on 
4 3 . For Mk.'s vivid " beseeching Him, and kneeling down," he 
substitutes another word (trpoo-Kweiv) which is characteristic of the 
first Gospel. See on 2 2 . Mt. omits Mk.'s on (see Introduction, 
p. xix). Kvpue as a form of address to Christ is common in Mt. 
and Lk. In Mk. it occurs only 7 28 io 51 . Ka6api£uv is late, and 
rare outside the LXX and N.T. It occurs in Jos. Ant. xi. 153, and 
two or three times in inscriptions in a ceremonial sense ; cf. Deissm. 
Bib. Stud. p. 216, and Ditt. Syll. 633. 3, 653. 37. 

3. And stretching out the hand, He touched him, saying, 1 will ; I 
be cleansed. And immediately his leprosy was cleansed.} Mk. has : 
"And having compassion (DafPTat Eph. "being angry"), He 
stretched out His hand and touched (him), and saith to him, I will ; 
be cleansed." Since Mt. elsewhere omits words descriptive of 
human emotion in the case of Christ (see Introduction, p. xxxi), 
with the exception of o-7rAayxi i£eo-6ai which he has four times, it is 
probable that his copy of Mk. had opyio-Qds, and that he intention- 
ally omitted it. — rjiparo avrov Ae'ywv] Mk. has r]\pa.TO /ecu Xiyet ; 
Mt. prefers subordinate to co-ordinate clauses; cf. 8 25 = Mk 4 s8 , 

9^=2^ l 4 27 = 6 50 , 2O 30 =IO 47 , 2I 1 - 2 =II 1 - 2 , 26 67 - 68 =I 4 65 , 2I 23 = 

n2". 28 t — i K a6api(r6r) avrov rj XeVpa] Mt. combines two clauses in 
Mk. He elsewhere omits one of two synonymous clauses ; see 
Introduction, p. xxiv. 

4. And Jesus saith to him, See that thou tell no man ; but go N. 
show thyself to the priest, and offer the gift which Moses commanded, 
for a testimony to them.'] Mk. has : " And he urgently charged 
(ep/^pip^o-apevos) him, and immediately sent him out (i£ef3a\ev) ; 
and saith to him, See that thou tell no man : but go show thyself 
to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing the things which Moses 
commanded, for a testimony to them." Mt. omits Mk.'s first 
clause as unnecessarily strongly worded. For the omission of pLp.r)o-dfjL€vos, cf. Introduction, p. xxxi. Mt. inserts 6 'lrjarovs, 
and omits one of Mk.'s negatives; cf. Introduction, p. xxv. He 
also substitutes to Bwpov for -n-epl tov Ka6apio-p,ov aov. For the 
offerings made by a leper, cf. Lev 14. — eh papruptov arrois] i.e. to 
the priests, but not to assure them that he was healed. The 
priests would exercise their own judgment as to this before the 
customary offerings were made at Jerusalem. The clause can only 
refer to the supposed hostility of Jesus to the law already implied 
in 5 17 ' 20 . The fact that Christ bade His patient present himself 
to the priests and offer the usual sacrifices, should convince them 
that He did not seek to undermine the Mosaic ritual. The illus- 
tration here given of Christ's attitude towards legal ceremonies 
may be one reason why the editor places this incident immediately 


after the Sermon on the Mount. Mk. adds here : " But he went 
out and began to publish (it) much, and to spread abroad the 
matter, so that He could no longer openly enter into a city, but 
was without in desert places : and they came to Him from every 
quarter." The words are ambiguous. The first "he" is probably 
the healed leper, the second "he" Jesus. But the subject in 
both cases may be Jesus. " He went forth from the place where 
He healed the leper, and began to preach much, and to spread 
abroad the word of the good news of the kingdom, so that in 
consequence of the thronging multitudes He was obliged to avoid 
the towns with their narrow streets, and to receive the people in 
the open country." For tov Aoyov = the Gospel message, cf. Mk 
2 2 4 14ff - 8 32 . Mt. omits the verse partly because it does not suit 
the connection in which he has placed the incident. In his 
narrative, Christ, so far from being unable to enter into a city, is 
immediately to enter into Capharnaum, partly perhaps on account 
of the ambiguity in the words, partly also from a feeling of dislike 
to recording an act of direct disobedience to Christ's expressed 
command, and of hesitation at the firj Svvao-Oan. as applied to Christ. 
He elsewhere omits clauses attributing failure or inability to Christ ; 
cf. Mk 6 5 ovk iSvvaro— TroirjcraL = Mt 13 58 ovk liroi-qo-ev ; Mk 6 48 kcu 
r)Qe\*v Trape\9eiv avrovs, Mt. omits ; Mk 9 30 koX ovk T^eAev Iva. tis 
yvoL, Mt. omits. Cf. also Mk 8 3 and n 13 with Mt.'s parallels, 
and see Introduction, p. xxxi. 

In one or two small points Mt. and Lk. agree in their account 
of this incident against Mk. Both have *cu l8ov and nvpu at the 
beginning, and TJij/aro — Ae'ywv for fjif/aTo kcu Aeyei. Both omit 
o-7rAayxvio-0ets and Mk 43a . Lk. paraphrases Mk 45 in such a way 
as to avoid the disobedience of the man, and the "could not" 
of Christ. Mt. omits the verse. This partial agreement in treat- 
ment and the omissions may be due to the same tendency operating 
independently in two writers. The other agreements may be due 
to the influence of one Gospel upon the other in respect of the 
original writers, or of later copyists assimilating one passage to 
another; to oral tradition independently influencing the original 
writers ; or to some unknown cause. They are not sufficient to 
make it probable that Mt. and Lk. had any other written account 
of this incident before them in addition to Mk. 

5-13. The Paralytic ; cf. Lk 7 1 - 10 . 
X 5, 6. And when He entered into Capharnaum, there came to Him 
a centurion, beseeching Him, and saying, Lord, my boy lies in the 
house sick of the palsy, terribly tormented?^ — avrov — avrw\ For the 
construction, cf. Blass, p. 251. For Trpoo-ipx^o-dai as a characteristic 
word of Mt., cf. on 4 s . — eKarovrapxos] In Hellenistic writers 
CKaTOVTapx?7S also occurs ; cf. Blass, p. 28. — irapaKaXwv avrov kcu 
Aeywv] It is curious that the editor should omit 7rapaKaAwv in 


Mk v. 40 and insert it here. Perhaps he thought it more suitable 
in view of the long appeal which here follows, than in reference 
to the short sentence of v. 2 . For Kvpu, see on v. 2 — 6 7rcus jxov] 
7rats may be either " child " or " servant." — TrapakvTiKoi] See on 
4 24 . — fitfiXrjTaL] Lies prostrate. The strong word represents a 
Semitic original. 

7. And he saith to him, Shall I come and heal him ?] The X 
centurion was probably a Gentile. He had not ventured to bring 
his servant to a Jewish healer. Only in the case of Jairus' 
daughter does Christ go to the patient. Elsewhere the sick are 
brought to Him. It matters little whether we translate the last 
clause as a question or as a simple statement, " I will come," etc. 
In either case the main point is that Christ should be willing to 
enter the house of a foreigner. 

8. And the centurion answered and said, Lord, I am not worthy X 
that Thou shouldest enter under my roof : but only speak, and my 
servant shall be healed.} For Kvpie, see on v. 2 . — i*avos It/a] Blass, 
227 f. For the position of fxov, cf. 724.26. Bi asS) !68; and see 
on 9 5 . 

9. For I, too, am a man under authority, having soldiers under X 
?ne : and I say to one, Go, and he goes ; and to another, Come, and 
he comes ; and to my servant, Do this, and he does it.~\ The officer, 
impressed with the spiritual power of Christ, believes that He must 
have spiritual agencies at His command, who could carry out His 
command that the patient should be healed. 

10. And Jesus hearing, marvelled, and said to those who follotved, X 
Verily I say to you, With no one did I find such faith in Israel.] — 
77-10-™'] "Faith" here is "confidence," "trust," "assurance," that 
Christ could, if He would, heal with a word. 

11. And I say to you, That many from east and west shall come L 
and sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom 
of the heavens.] For this and the next verse, cf. Lk i3 28 -30. The 
gap between this and the last verse must be bridged by the 
thought that such faith as that exhibited by the Gentilic centurion 
would admit him into the kingdom. And he was only typical of 

a class. Many in all parts of the world would be found to have 
this faith. When the kingdom came, they would come from the 
remote corners of the world, and, entering into it, would sit down 
to feast with the righteous patriarchs. The metaphor of a meal is 
frequently used in the N.T. to symbolise the joys of the kingdom. 
Cf. 26 29 , Lk 14 15 - 24 22 30 , Rev 3 20 19 9 . It is common in Jewish 
literature. Cf. Aboth 3 20 "Everything is prepared for the ban- 
quet," Secrets of Enoch 42 s " At the last coming they will lead 
forth Adam with our forefathers, and conduct them there, that 
they may rejoice, as a man calls those whom he loves to feast with 
him " ; and Pesikta i88 b . Behemoth and Leviathan are reserved for 


the meal of the righteous. Cf. Volz, Jiid. Eschat. 331; Enoch 
62 14 , Apoc. Bar 29*. 

L 12. But the sons of the kingdom shall be cast forth into the outer 
darkness: there shall be the wailing and the gnashing of teeth.] 
"Sons of the kingdom " is in Semitic idiom equivalent to those who 
should inherit it, its rightful heirs. Here it, no doubt, signifies 
the Jewish nation or people. Such of them as are lacking in the 
faith which the centurion possessed will be cast out of the king- 
dom, whilst Gentiles sit down with the righteous patriarchs at 
the banquet. For "sons of the kingdom," cf. Bab. Shabb. 153*; 
"Who is a son of the world to come?" Pesahim 8 a , and cf. 13 38 . 
to o-KOTos to i$d>T€pov occurs only in Mt. ; cf. 22 13 25 30 . Cf. Enoch 
103 8 "into darkness — will your spirits enter"; 108 14 "those who 
were born in darkness will be cast into darkness"; Ps-Sol 14 6 
"their inheritance is — darkness," 15 11 "the inheritance of the 
sinners is — darkness " ; Sib. Or 4 43 He will send back the un- 
godly into darkness. For the Rabbinical literature, cf. Vayyikra 
R. 27 (Wunsche, 183): "God names gehinnom 'darkness.'" 
Shemoth R. 14 (Wunsche, 100) : "the sinners in gehinnom will be 
covered with darkness." Cf. Bousset, Rel. Jud. 266; Weber, Jiid. 
Theol. 393; Volz, Jiid. Eschat. 284 f. : ckci eWat 6 KXavOfxbs kcu 
6 fipvy/jLos twv oSdvTwv. This refrain is characteristic of Mt. It 
occurs again in i3 42 - 50 22 13 24 61 25 30 , and once in Lk 13 28 . Cf. 
Enoch 108 3 , the transgressors "will cry and make lamentation"; 
6 " the voice of crying, and weeping, and lamentation, and strong 
pain " ; Secrets of Enoch 40 12 " the mighty hell — full of lamentation." 
For the whole verse, cf. Philo, de Exsecr. vi. The proselyte 
(hrr\\v<i) — receive(s) for reward a sure and firm foundation in heaven, 
such as cannot be described. But the rightful heir (einraTpiSrjs) " will 
be dragged downwards, and brought into Tartarus and deep darkness." 

X 13. And Jesus said to the centurion. Go ; as thou hast believed, be 
it to thee. And the boy was healed at that hour.] For the healing 
at the moment of Christ's utterance, cf. (f 12 15 28 17 18 . — lv ixeLvy 
rr) wpa] is a formula of frequent occurrence in Rabbinical litera- 
ture ; cf. Schlatter, Die Sprache und Heimat des vierten Evan- 
gelisten, p. 64. — o>s eVi'o-Tevo-as] see on v. 10 . 

5. For "And when He entered into Capharnaum." S 1 k have : "After 
these things." This abrupt introduction is quite unlike Mt.'s style, and may 
be original. S 2 has: "After these things, when He entered into Caphar- 
naum " ; adding the last clause from a Greek MS. which had assimilated to 
Lk 7 1 . The Gk MSS. vary between elce\Bbvro% §k avrov, X B C Z, €l<re\66vrt 
d£ clvt$, and daeXddvri 5k ry 'Itjitou. 

eKardvrapxos] So the Greek MSS. S 1 has " chiliarch, " which maybe 
original, 4Kar6fTapxos being in that case due to assimilation to Lk. 

vwb ^ovcrlav'] N B add Taaabp-evos, assimilating to Lk. S 1 has : "I also 
am a man that hath authority." S 2 " I also am a man under authority, and 
I have authority also." S 1 has misinterpreted the rather ambiguous iiirb 
i^ova-tav, and S' has prefixed a more exact rendering. 

Vm. 13-15. 1 MINISTRY IN GALILEE 79 

10. irap ovSevl rocraijT7)i> trlcriv iv tu> Tcr/ja^X] So Bakq S 2 (" not even 
in any one of the house of Israel have I found aught like this faith," Burk). 
The variant ov§k iv ry 'Icpa.TJ\ Toaa.'in-rjv vlariv, KCa/ S 1 ("not even aught 
like this faith have I found in the house of Israel," Burk), may be due to 
assimilation to Lk. 

5-13. The Paralytic. 

Lk 7 1 ' 10 records a similar incident in a similar connection 
immediately on the entry into Capharnaum, which followed the 
Sermon. The narrative setting of the two Evangelists is very 
different. In Mt. the officer himself comes to Christ. In Lk. he 
sends, first, elders, and then friends, to intercede for him. On 
the other hand, the dialogue Mt 8 " 12 =Lk 6b " 9 is almost verbally 
identical ; but Mt. has two verses, n-u , which are not found in Lk. 
The similar position of the story might be accounted for by sup- 
posing that Mt. and Lk. drew from a common documentary source. 
Against this is the divergent narrative setting. Or on the sup- 
position that the incident was connected with the Sermon in oral 
tradition. The agreement in dialogue is not too great to be 
accounted for on this view. Or, lastly, the agreement in position 
may be due to reminiscence of Mt. by Lk. The reverse is on 
many grounds hardly probable. It seems probable that the two 
Evangelists record different versions of the same story. For a 
third, cf. Jo 4 46 ' 54 . The text of Mt. seems to have undergone con- 
siderable assimilation to Lk. See the critical notes. 

14-16. From Mk i 29 " 34 . 

The editor now returns to the incident in Mk. which follows 
the omitted section of the demoniac. 

14. And Jesus came into the house of Peter, and saw his wife's M 
mother abed, and fever-sick.] Mk. has: "And straightway they 
went out of the synagogue, and came into the house of Simon and 
Andrew, with James and John. And the wife's mother of Simon 
lay fever-sick, and straightway they tell Him of her." Mt. must 
omit e/c rr}s a~vvayoiyrjs ££e\66vT<i<i because he has omitted the 
previous scene in Mk. which took place in a synagogue. He 
abbreviates Mk.'s account by omitting as unnecessary nal 'AvSpcov 
jLtera 'Iaxoj/5ou kgli 'Iwdvov and kcu eiOvs Xiyovcriv avrw trepi avTfjs. 
fiefiXrj/xevrjv for Mk.'s KaTe/ceiTo is an assimilation to v. 6 ; see note 
there. Cf. a similar change in g 2 , and cf. Mk 7 30 . 

15. And He touched her hand, and the fever left her : and she 
arose, and ministered to Him.] Mk. has: "And He came and 
raised her, having taken hold of (her) hand ; and the fever left 
her, and she ministered to them." The editor slightly paraphrases 
Mk. rj\l/a.To for Mk.'s KpaTrja-a<s is an assimilation to v. 3 . Mk. has 
the plural throughout, " they came — ministered to them," because 
since i 16 " 20 he has represented Christ as accompanied by the four 
disciples ; cf. \. n "they come." But Mt. has left the incident of 


the call so far behind that he has ceased to be influenced by it, 
and substitutes the singular. 
M 16. And when it was evening, they brought to Him many 
demoniacs ; and He cast out the spirits with a word, and healed all 
that were in evil plight '.] Mk has : " And when it was evening, 
when the sun set, they were bringing to Him all who were in evil 
plight, and the demoniacs. And the whole city was gathered at 
the door. And He healed many who were in evil plight, and cast 
out many demons ; and did not suffer the demons to speak, 
because they knew Him to be the Christ." 

This passage is very characteristic of Mk.'s style. Notice the 
tautologous " When it was evening, when the sun set," the repeti- 
tion of toi>9 Karoos l^ovTas and of to. SaifAovta, and the emphasis 
upon the multitude who thronged the door. Mt. omits "when 
the sun set " ; cf. Introduction, p. xxiv. He substitutes the aorist 
Trpocnyvey/cav for Mk.'s imperfect £<f>epov. See Introduction, p. xx. 
Trpoa-^epuv occurs fifteen times in Mt, three in Mk. The sub- 
stitution of the composite for the simple verb carries with it the 
substitution of ai™ for 7rpos avrov ; cf. the same change in 9 2 = 
Mk 2 3 , the dat. for 71750s /x-e in i7 17 = Mk 9 19 , the dat. for irpos avrov 
in 2 2 23 =Mk 12 18 , and the dat. for 7jyx>s tov n^Aai-ov in 2 7 57 = 
Mk 15 43 . He abbreviates the rest in such a way as to omit one 
occurrence of tovs kcckus l^ovTas and of to. Sat/^ovia, and by a 
slight transposition has "many brought, all healed" for Mk.'s "all 
brought, many healed." Cf. Introduction, p. xxxii. \6yta is an 
assimilation to v. 8 . It enhances the miraculous character of the 
healing. Cf. Introduction, p. xxxii. 
O 17. The editor closes his first series of miracles with a quotation 
from Is 53S which seems to be an independent translation of the 
Hebrew. The LXX is quite different (ovros Tas d/Aaprtas rjiunv 
4>epei Kal Trepl rjp.wv oSuvaTat), and would hardly have been applicable 
here. We need not ask as to the exact signification of the verbs. 
The translator's thought was centred on the nouns " weaknesses 
and diseases." Christ healed these, as the three illustrations of 
leprosy, paralysis, and fever just given show. In so doing, He "bore 
and carried " them in any sense in which these verbs can be pre- 
dicated of a physician. The translator therefore chooses two 
colourless Greek verbs — Xajx^avuv, /jWrd^av — to represent the 
Hebrew originals, giving us no clue whether the thought in his 
mind was that Christ "took away" and "carried away" disease 
from the sufferer, or rather that He took upon Himself and carried 
in His own person these ailments in the weariness which such 
work caused Him. Cf. Deissm. Bib. Stud. 102 f. 

(2) Three miracles of power, 8 18 -9 17 . 

18. The next section in Mk is 1 35 - 39 . This the editor omits 
as being irrelevant to his purpose, since it contains no miracle. 


Mk i 40 " 45 he has already inserted. He comes therefore to 2 1 ' 22 
But this occurred at a second visit to Capharnaum (Mk 2 1 ), and 
Mt, who has already inserted Mk i 4 °- 45 , which separates the two 
visits, cannot by continuing with 2 1-22 confuse them. He therefore 
postpones 2 1 " 22 . 2 23 ~3 6 contains controversial matter, which Mt. 
reserves for a special controversial section (12). 3 7-35 furnishes no 
miracle of healing. 4 1 " 34 is reserved for a special parable section 
(13). He therefore comes to 4 35 , where Christ is described as 
surrounded by a multitude at evening time, and about to cross the 
lake, possibly being wearied with His ministry. Mt. adapts this 
situation to what he has just recorded, inserts 8 19 ' 22 , and then takes 
over Mk 4 35 -5 20 = Mt 8 23 " 34 with considerable omissions. These 
verses contain two incidents which form the first two of a second 
series of miracles illustrating Christ's power over natural and 
supernatural forces. 

18. And Jesus, seeing great multitudes^ about Him, gave command M 
to depart to the other side.] Mk has : "And He saith to them on 
that day when it was evening, Let us cross to the other side." 
Mt. omits " on that day when it was evening," because he has 
already recorded the latter fact in v. 16 . 

19-22. Lk 9 57 " 62 has the story of these two claimants to X 
discipleship, with the addition of a third, at a later stage in the 
ministry. The substantial agreement in language is no reason for 
supposing that both drew from the same documentary source. 
Lk.'s addition and the difference of context is against this. But it is 
not easy to see why Mt. should have placed the section here in his 
series of miracles. Possibly the thought of the sickness bearer sug- 
gested to him the companion picture of the homeless Son of Man. 

19. And there came a scribe, and said to Him, Teacher, I will X 
follow Thee whithersoever Thou goest away. 

TrpcxreXOwv] Cf. On 4 3 . — «ts ypay.fiaT€v^ 
of cIs = tis, cf. Blass, p. 144; Win.-Schm. p. 243. But contrast 
Moulton, p. 96; and for one = "a" in Aramaic, Dalm. Gram. 121. 
In Aramaic it is placed before the substantive, in Hebrew after it. 
Its use in Hebrew in this sense seems to be occasional and limited. 
Hatzidakis, Einl. 207, says that this use occurs in Greek writers 
since Polybius. Zahn prefers to take eh ypa/^arevs in apposition, 
"one, a scribe," cf. 18 24 els o^eiAeV^s, on the ground that when 
Mt. uses €is as = ns, he places it after the substantive ; cf. 9 18 12 11 
18 5 2 1 18 . Lk. has simply tis. 

SiSdaKaXe] = pa/3/?et. See Dalman, Words, 336. What induced 
this scribe to wish to accompany Christ in His wanderings we 

1 iro\\oi)s 6x^ovs, cf. 8 1 . So N°Ca/latt ; 6x^ovs, H*; 6x^ov, B, assimilating 
to Mk 4 36 "the great multitude," S^ 2 ; turbam multam, eg 1 ; 5x^os ttoXus, 
a b ff 1 h k q. In a half editorial note of this kind the plural is more probable ; 
cf. Introduction, p. lxxvi. 


For the Semitic use 


cannot say. The next verse suggests that the Lord doubted his 
sincerity of purpose. 

X 20. And Jesus saith to him, The foxes have earths and the 
birds of the heaven nests, but the Son of Man hath not where to lay 
His head.] " Son of Man " is here quite clearly a self-designation 
of Himself by Christ. For its meaning, see the Introduction, p. lxxi. 

X 21. And another of the disciples said to Him, Lord, suffer me 
first to go away and bury my father.] 

?Tepos] is used loosely for aAAo?, as in io 23 12 45 15 30 . — rm> 
fxadrjTwv] loosely qualifies erepos without implying that the 
ypafx.jxaT(.v<i was a disciple. 

X 22. And Jesus saith to him, Follow Me, and let the dead bury 
their own dead.] It is generally suggested that tov<s vtKpovs means 
the spiritually dead, i.e. those who had not felt the call to follow 
Christ, and were dead so far as He was concerned. They could 
perform the duties of burial. The questioner had received the 
call, and that was the more urgent duty. In this case, the burial of 
the dead parent would come under the rule that sometimes the call 
to follow Christ might necessitate the abandonment of human rela- 
tions ; cf. 1 9 29 . But it is possible that "let the dead bury their dead" 
was a proverbial saying, meaning, "Cut yourself adrift from the past 
when matters of present interest call for your whole attention." 

M 23. And when He embarked into a boat, His disciples followed 
Him.] Mk. has : " And they left the multitude, and take Him as 
He was in the boat. And other boats were with Him." The 
editor adapts Mk. to his context. In Mk. Christ was already in a 
boat, and had been speaking from it (Mk 4 1 ). Mt. is obliged to 
insert a statement of the embarkation, and omits the reference to 
the other boats as superfluous. 

24. And, behold, there arose a great storm in the sea, so that the 
boat was being covered by the waves : but He was sleeping.] Mk. has : 
" And there arises a great hurricane of wind, and the waves were 
beating into the boat, so that the boat was already being filled. 
And He was in the stern upon the cushion sleeping." 

Kal iSov] see on i 20 . — o-€ioy/.os] Mk. has the stronger phrase 
XalXaif/ — avijxov. — lyeWo] for Mk.'s historic present, cf. Introduc- 
tion, p. XX. — KaAv7TT€cr#ai] for Mk.'s Stronger ye/xt'^ecrflcu. Mt. 
avoids the repeated to irXolov; see on v. 16 . — auros Se] for Mk.'s /cat 
avros, cf. Introduction, p. xx. Mt. omits lv rfj Trpvp.vr) irrl to 
■n-pocTK^aXaiov ; cf. Introduction, p. xvii. 

M 25. And they came and aroused Him, saying, Lord, save ; we 
are perishing.] Mk. has : "And they arouse Him, and say to Him, 
Teacher, dost Thou not care that we are perishing ? " The editor 
inserts his characteristic Trpoo-eXOovres. — 7rpocreX^ovres rfytipav avrbv 
Aeyovres] for Mk.'s iyeipovcnv avTov kcu Acyoucrtv, see note on 8 3 . 
Mt. as usual avoids the historic present Cf. Introduction, p. xx. 


— crwcrov d7roAAv//.e0a] for Mk.'s ov fiiXei (rot on airoXXvp.e8a ; ctuxtov 
is a conventional substitute for the half reproachful ov /AeAct aoi ; 
cf Introduction, p. xxxiii. 

26. And He saith to them, Why are ye cowardly, O ye of little M 
faith ? Then He arose, and rebuked the winds and the sea ; and 
thers was a great calm.] Mk. has : " And He rose up, and rebuked 
the wind, and said to the sea, Be silent, be muzzled. And the 
wind ceased, and there was a great calm. And He said to them, 
Why are ye cowardly ? have ye not yet faith ? " The editor trans- 
poses Mk 39 - 40 in order to bring the answer of Christ in close 
juxtaposition to the appeal of the disciples. He modifies the 
severity of the rebuke by substituting oAtyoVio-Toi for oviro) ex £T€ 
tticttlv. For other instances, cf. Introduction, p. xxxiii. 6Aiyo7ncn-os 
addressed to the disciples does not occur in ML, but in Mt. here 
and 6 30 14 31 16 8 , in Lk. only 12 28 . Here the object of 71-10-1-19 
seems to be the power of Christ, for He was with them, and that 
should have kept them from fear of danger : or perhaps more gener- 
ally the providence of God. — totc] see Intro, lxxxv. — tois dve'/xots] 
Mk. has the singular. It is characteristic of Mt. to prefer plurals. 
Cf. his frequent 0^X01 for Mk.'s o^Ao? ; dXXa and ircrpwSrj, 13 6 , 
for Mk.'s dAAo and Tre-rpwoes; fivaTrjpia, 13 11 , for Mk.'s fxvo-TTjpiov ; 
and apyvpia, 26 15 , for Mk.'s doyv'ptov. — *ai rfj OaXdao-rj] Mk. has : 
kcu ct7ro/ rfj OaXdo-o-y StoWa Tv^Lfjuao-o. The editor perhaps wished 
to avoid Mk.'s strong imperatives, and he elsewhere avoids the 
oratio recta ; cf. V. 18 eKtXevo-ev aireXOtiv = Mk V. 35 Aeyet — oieA.0w/xev. 

27. And men marvelled, saying, What manner of man is this, M 
that even the winds and the sea obey Him ?] Mk. has : " And they 
feared greatly, and were saying to one another, Who then is this, 
that even the wind and the sea obey Him?" The subject of the 
sentence in Mk. must be inferred to be the disciples from Mk vv. S4 
and 36 . In the whole of the succeeding section Mk. speaks 
ambiguously of "they" and "them." Mt. has introduced "the 
disciples " in v. 23 . ot SvOpwiroi might mean " men." It generally 
has this meaning in the first Gospel; cf. 5 13 16 13 and 24 times. 

If so, the verse would mean that " men (hearing of the miracle) 
marvelled," cf. 9 8 . This is more probable than that the editor 
should refer to the disciples as "o! avOpwirot." Feeling that 
Mk.'s " and they feared greatly " refers to the disciples, he sub- 
stitutes " marvelled " to soften the expression, and then to remove 
all reference to the disciples inserts oi dvOpwiroi as subject to the 
sentence. Cf. 9 8 , where he inserts ot 0^X01 to remove all possible 
reference to the disciples. 

23-27. There are some small points of agreement between Mt. 
and Lk. as against Mk. Both report the embarkation. Mt. IfxfiavTi 
avrw eis 7rAoiov 7jKoXov6r]o-av avTw ot p.a8t]Tai avrov ; Lk. avTOS ivefir) 
eis 7rAotov /cat ot jjLadrjTal avrov. But since both editors have broken 
Mk.'s connection, it is necessary for them to say that Christ entered 


into, rather than that He was in, a boat. ifij3aiv€Lv is the common 
synoptic word for embarkation, and in other respects the two 
clauses could hardly agree less. Both agree almost verbatim in 
the words TrpocreX66vTi<; iqyeipav (Lk. Sirjyeipai') avrov Aiyovres. 
The main point here is the agreement in the insertion of irpoo-eX- 
0ovtcs. Both agree in iOav/xaa-av (Mt 27 , Lk 25 ) and in the plural 
ave/Aoi. Lastly, both agree in omitting Mk 36c , in paraphrasing 37b , 
in omitting all or part of 38a , in omitting or paraphrasing ov piiXei 
o-oi in 38b , in omitting the direct command in 39 , in modifying the 
rebuke in *°. It does not, however, seem necessary to suppose 
that they had another written source besides Mk. These agree- 
ments are probably in part independent changes, and in part 
may be due to reminiscence of Mt. by Lk. and to assimilation in 
process of transmission. 

M 28. And when He had come to the other side, to the country of 
the Gadarenes, there met Him two demoniacs coming forth from the 
tombs, exceeding fierce, so that no one could pass by that way.~\ In 
these words Mt. paraphrases and abbreviates Mk 5 1 " 6 . The two 
most striking changes introduced are the " two " and Gadara for 
Gerasa. In view of the brevity of Mt. as compared with Mk. in 
this section and the following, and to a less extent in the preceding 
one, it seems not improbable that when the editor came to Mk i 45 
and was proposing to pass on to Mk 4 35 -5 20 , he did not unroll Mk.'s 
Gospel to these verses, but summarised them from memory, per- 
haps purposely shortening them. If that was the course adopted, 
Svo may be a slip of the memory ; but it should be borne in mind 
that, having omitted a previous history of a demoniac, he may 
purposely have duplicated here by way of compensation. Cf. 20 30 , 
where he has two blind men and Mk. has one, with the fact that 
he had previously omitted a history of a blind man, Mk 8 22-26 . 
The change of Gadara for Gerasa is probably intentional. The 
best known Gerasa lay 30 miles to the south-east of the lake. 
Mk.'s Gerasa is therefore a geographical crux, and has been 
corrected into Gadara by A C II 2 $ S 3 , and into Gergesa by 
N c a L U A S 1 , in that Gospel. Mt. seems to have felt the diffi- 
culty, and to have substituted Gadara. This city lay 6 miles south- 
east of the lake, and the miracle might be supposed to have taken 
place within its district (x<V*)- He does not say, as does Mk., that 
the demoniacs met Christ immediately on His landing, but seems 
to imply that Christ had come into the district of Gadara when 
the meeting took place. The herd of swine by the lake was " far 
from them," v. 30 , when the demons entered into them. That is to 
say, Christ had left the lake "far" behind Him. 

8a<./x,ovt£op.evoi] Mk. has avdpiDiros iv irvevfxaTL a.Ka9dpT<a ; cf. 
the change in 9 20 Ot alfAOppoovcra for ovaa iv pvaei at/yiaros. 

M 29. And, behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with 
Thee, Thou Son of God? art Thou come here before the time to 


tormetit us ?] Mk. has : " And seeing Jesus from afar, he ran 
and worshipped Him. And cried with a loud voice, and saith, 
What have I to do with Thee, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? 
I adjure Thee by God, do not torment me." 

For kcu l8ov, see Introduction, p. lxxxv. 

vlk toS 6eov] We may suppose that the fame of Christ's miracles 
had preceded Him, cf. 4 24 . The demoniacs, seeing Him approach- 
ing, guessed Him to be the great healer. They address Him as 
" Son of God," meaning no more than one who was endowed with 
divine power, or possibly using it as equivalent to Messiah. Cf. 
Dalm. Words, 274 ff. — fiaaavicrcu] The word carries us into the 
atmosphere of the then current belief about demons, their activity 
and their destiny. See the art. " Demon " in DB. It was be- 
lieved that evil demons could enter into human beings and 
dominate their personality. They could also be expelled by 
magic. Josephus speaks of one Eleazar whom he had seen curing 
demoniacs by holding a magical ring to the nose of the patient. 
He then drew the demon out through his nostrils {Ant. viii. 46, 47). 
The demons have power to afflict mankind until the day of judg- 
ment, when they will be punished, Enoch 15-16. Cf. Weber, Jud. 
Theol. 254 ff. ; Bousset, Rel. Jud. 331 ff. The demons who have 
taken possession of the two men here spoken of see coming one 
whose fame as an exorcist had preceded His arrivaL They beg 
Him not to anticipate for them the destined torments of hell by 
casting them out homeless into the wilderness. Mt. here omits 
Mk w. 8-10 , which are not necessary to the story, and contain a 
question: "What is thy name?" ascribed to Christ. Cf. the 
omission of such questions from the parallels to Mk 5 30 6 38 8 19 " 20 - 23 
^12. 16. 21. 33 10 3 14.14. and see Introduction, p. xxxii. 

30. And there was far from them a herd of many swine feeding^] M 
Mk. has : " And there was there at the mountain a great herd of 
swine feeding." For /j.a.Kpav air airwv, see note on v. 28 , and cf. Mk v. 6 . 

31. And the demons were beseeching Him, saying, If Thou cast M 
us out, send us into the herd of swine.] Mk. has : " And they were 
beseeching Him (7rapa«i\ovv, A D al latt Syrr), saying, Send us 
into the swine, that we may enter into them." — 01 81] For Mk.'s 
/cat, cf. Introduction, p. xx. The editor omits Mk.'s tautologous 
iva eis avTovs etcxe'A^w/xev ; cf. Introduction, p. xxiv. 

32. And He said to them, Go. Arid they went out, and went away M 
into the swine : and, behold, ail the herd ran down the declivity into 
the sea, and perished in the waters.] Mk. has : "And He suffered 
them. And the unclean spirits went out, and entered into the 
swine. And the herd ran down the declivity into the sea, and 
were choked in the sea." — 01 8\ e£eA0ovTes] For Mk.'s #ccu 
i£e\66vTa, cf. Introduction, p. xx. — kcu 18ov] see on 2 1 . For the 
omission of Mk.'s o>s, cf. Introduction, p. xviii. — h rots 
v8a<riv] Mt. avoids the repeated OdXaaaa of Mk. See note on 8 16 . 


M 33. And the herdsmen fled, and went away into the city, and 
reported all things, and the {affairs) of the demoniacs.] Mk. has : 
"And the herdsmen fled, and reported into the city and into 
the country." — 61 8t] For Mk.'s /cat as usual, see Introduction, 
p. xx. — ets ttjv tt6\iv\ Mk. adds koX eis toi>s dypovs. Mk. uses 
dypo's here and in 6 36 - 56 in the sense of " farm " or " hamlet." Mt. 
avoids it in this sense. 

M 34. And, behold, all the city went out to meet Jesus. And when 
they saw Him, they besought {Him) that He would depart from their 
frontiers^] With these words Mt. abbreviates Mk vv. 14c " 17 . — 7rape- 
KaAeo-av] For Mk.'s r)p£avTo 7rapaKa\uv, cf. Introduction, p. xxi. 

cis viravT7)(Tiv tc3 'Irjcrov] For the construction, see Moulton, 
p. 14, n. 3. 

Mk. has here three verses which Mt. omits. 

28. Tadaprjvur] So Bo/ S 1 ; Yepaa-qvUv, latt ; Tepyearjvwv, N c at ; 
Ta^apr]vQv, K*. 

28-34. Mt. and Lk. have a few points of agreement against 
Mk. in the following : 

Scu/Aovi^o/Aevoi, Mt 28 = Sai/xovia, Lk 27 . 

Sai/xoves, Mt 30 ; cf. Sai/Aovia, Lk 33 . 

8e, Mt 32 , Lk 33 , for k<u', Mk 13 . 

8e, Mt 33 , Lk 34 , for Kat, Mk 14 . 

*£rj\.0€ir, Mt **=€£r)\0ov, Lk 35 , for 7j\$ov, Mk u . 

IX. 1-8. The healing of a paralytic, from Mk 2 1 - 12 . 

1. And He embarked into a boat, and crossed over, and came to 
M His own city.] Mk 5 21a has : " And when Jesus had crossed over 
in the boat again to the other side." The editor now wishes to 
return to Mk 2 1 , which begins : " And He entered again into 
Capharnaum after some days, and it was reported that He is at 
home. And there were gathered together many, so that there 
was no longer room for them ; no, not even about the door (R.V.) : 
and He was speaking to them the Word." The editor omits, as 
usual, the thronging of the multitude, cf. Introduction, p. xviii, 
and substitutes for cis Ka(f>apvaovfj. the words eis t^v iStav 7roA.1v. 
He has already (4 13 ) made it clear that Christ's headquarters were 
at Capharnaum. For the omission of Mk.'s eV oikw, see on 15 15 . 
He now inserts Mk 2 3-12 , and thus completes his second series 
of miracles over forces natural (8 23 " 27 ), supernatural (8 28 " 34 ), and 
spiritual (forgiveness of sin, 9 1 " 8 ). He then adds Mk 2 13 ' 22 simply 
because it is closely connected in Mk. with the preceding section, 
and in spite of the fact that it interrupts his series of illustrations 
of Christ's healings. 
M 2. And, behold, they were bringing to Him a paralytic lying on 
a bed. And Jesus, seeing their faith, said to the paralytic, Be of 
good courage ; Son, thy sins are forgiven thee.] Mk. has : " And 
they come, bringing to him a paralytic borne of four. And not 


being able to bring him to Him on account of the crowd, they 
unroofed the house where He was. And digging a hole, they let 
down the pallet upon which the paralytic lay. And Jesus, seeing 
their faith, saith to the paralytic, Son, thy sins are forgiven thee." — 
/cat l8ov] See on 2 1 . — 7rpoo-ec/>€pov] See on 8 16 ; and for the past 
tense for Mk.'s historic present, cf. Introduction, p. xx. — eVt 
k\i\>t]<; j3€/3X.y]fiei'ov] In these words the editor summarises 
Mk 3lM , thus avoiding the emphasis on the multitude ; cf. 
Introduction, p. xviii. For (3eBXrjp.€vov, cf. 8 6 . Here, as in 8 15 , 
it takes the place of Mk.'s Ka.reKei.To. For kXlvt), Mk. has the 
vernacular and dialectic Kpa{3fiaro<;. — 6a.pcrei\ inserted by the 
editor, as in 9 22 . — 7rto-riv] as in 8 10 , the quality of assurance, 
trust, confidence in the power of Christ to heal the patient. — 

aov at dp.apTiai] See On V. 5 . 

3. And, behold, certain of the scribes said within themselves, This M 
man blasphemes^ Mk. has : " And there were certain of the 
scribes there sitting, and reasoning in their hearts. Why doth 
this man so speak? He blasphemes." — /cat iSov] See on i 20 . — 

kv eaurots] for Mk.'s ev rats /capStats avruv refers to inward 
reasoning, not to outward expression. Mk. adds : " Who can 
forgive sins save one, God ? " 

4. And Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said, Why do you think M 
evil things in your hearts ?] Mk. has : " And straightway Jesus, 
perceiving in His Spirit that they so reason within themselves, saith 

to them, Why do you reason these things in your hearts ? " Mt. 
omits Mk.'s to irvev/xaTL avrov. Cf. the similar omission from 
Mk 8 12 ; and see Introduction, p. xxxi. 

5. For which is easier} to say, Thy sins are forgiven ; or to say, 
Arise, and walk ?] Mk. has : " Which is easier, to say to the 
paralytic, Thy sins are forgiven, or to say, Arise, and take up thy 
bed and walk ? " Mt. omits t<3 7rapaA.vTt/ca5 after the first et7r€iv, 
and /cat apov tov KpafiaTTOv crov after iyeipov. evKOiros is a late 
and uncommon word. It occurs in Ecclus 22 15 , 1 Mac 3 18 ; 
evKoiria, 2 Mac 2 25 . — <rov at duaprtat] This order occurs in 
Mk 2 5 - 9 14 47 , and parallels in Mt., also in Mk 6 52 7 19 io 37 14 s 
15 19 , Mt 2 2 5 16 6 4 7 24 - 26 9 2 9 6 i2 13 - 50 17 15 etc. 

6. But that you may know that the Son of Man upon earth M 
hath authority to forgive sins, then He saith to the paralytic, 
Arise, take up thy bed, and go to thy house.] Mk. has : " But that 
ye may know that the Son of Man hath authority upon earth to 
forgive sins, He saith to the paralytic, Take up thy pallet, and go 
to thy house." For the parenthetical clause breaking the construc- 

1 Which is easier. The reply expected is that it is easier to say Thy sins are 
forgiven, because such a claim could be neither proved nor disproved. On the 
other hand, to say Arise and walk would be to court ridicule when failure 
followed. Hence in v. 6 Christ supports His right to make the apparently 
easier statement, by demonstrating His power to make the seemingly harder. 


tion as suggesting dependence of one Gospel upon another, cf. 
Hor. Syn. p. 42, and Mk i 16 = Mt 4 18 , Mk 5 28 = Mt 9 21 , Mk 14 2 
= Mt 26 s , Mk i5 10 = Mt 27 18 . The construction of or! t^s y^s is 
ambiguous. In Mk. it occurs as here before, afydvai d/uiprtas 
(so N C D al latt S 3 , but B <3> place it afterward). The ambiguity 
is therefore due to Mk. The somewhat emphatic position of kiti 
-n}s yr}<; seems intended to give implicit expression to the under- 
lying contrast in heaven. In heaven, God alone can forgive sins, 
but on earth the Son of Man has authority (delegated to Him by 
God) to do so. For " Son of Man," see Introduction, p. lxxi. It 
is, of course, possible that in the Aramaic phrase originally used here 
by Christ, " Son of Man " meant (in this passage, not necessarily 
elsewhere) "man" — "That you may know that men share with 
God His divine prerogative of forgiving sins." But if Mk. had 
thus mistranslated the original Aramaic * by 6 vios tov dvOpwirov 
instead of 01 avdp^iroi, it is hardly possible that Mt. would not 
have corrected him. He therefore probably understood the 
phrase in Mk v. 10 as referring to Christ. The Son of Man has 
received from God the power of exercising a function otherwise 
restricted to God alone. Cf. Dalm. Words, 261. 

kXlvt] for Mk.'s Kpd.f3a.TTos, as in v. 2 . For roVe in Mt., see on 
2 7 . — aov tt]v kXivtjv] See on v. 6 . 
M 7. And he arose, and went away to his house.] Mk. has : "And 
he arose, and straightway took up the pallet, and went out before all." 
Mt. omits the taking of the bed, as in v. 5 . Mk. has it three times. 
M 8. And the multitudes, seeing (it), feared and glorified God, who 
had given such power to men.] Mk. has : " So that all were amazed, 
and glorified God, saying that we never saw anything like it." Mt. 
makes it clear that the 7ravras of Mk. means the multitude. — 
i<poj3y]8i]o-av] Mk. has the strong word l&o-Tao-Oai. Mt. once (12 23 ) 
uses this in reference to the effect produced by the healing of a 
blind and dumb demoniac, where its use is probably due to Mk 
3 21 . He twice omits verses of Mk. which have it (Mk 5 42 6 51 ). 
Here he substitutes "fear" as being more appropriate to the 
forgiveness of sin than "astonishment." But Mk., no doubt, has 
chiefly in mind the effect produced by the miracle of healing, 
rather than by the exercise of forgiveness. 

Tots dv0pw7rois] Christ, the " Son of Man," was also man. If 
He had the power to forgive sins, then this power can be said to 
have been given to mankind as represented by Him. It is, 
therefore, pedantic to see in tois avOpunrois a proof that the editor 
regarded 6 mos tou avOpwrrov as equivalent to " mankind." 

1-8. There are several small points of agreement between Mt, 
and Lk. against Mk. Both have a different introductory verse to 

1 For Mk as resting on an Aramaic basis, see Expository Times, xiii. 328 ff., 
and, more recently, Wellhausen's Commentary. 


that given by Mk. Mt 9 1 is due to his alteration of Mk.'s order, 
and his omission of Mk 2 2 is in harmony with his omissions else- 
where, e.g. of Mk i 33 - 46 2 13 3 e - 20 32 . He does not, like Mk., 
emphasise the pressure of the multitudes. But there seems no 
reason why Lk. should omit Mk.'s reference to Capharnaum and 
introduce the incident in such ambiguous terms. Both have kcu 
18ov and kXlvt] or kXlvlSlov, Lk 5 19 - 24 for KpafSaTTos. Both omit t<5 
TrapaXvTiKw and /ecu apov tov KpdfSaTTov <rov from Mk 9 . Both insert 
SnrrjXOev els tov oikov olvtov in Mk 12 . Both have an expression of 
" fear " in the parallels to Mk 12 . Lk. also has several details 
peculiar to himself. 

Many commentators, therefore, think it necessary to suppose 
that Mt. and Lk. had before them a second documentary source 
which would account for these agreements, and in particular for 
Lk 17a . But it is questionable whether the facts are sufficient to 
warrant the conclusion. kXivt), e.g., and the omissions from Mk 9 
may well be independent alterations. airrjXOev ek tov oikov avrov 
may be due to independent inference from Mk n waye cts tov 
oikov o-ou, whilst the insertion of " fear " at the end, and all these 
agreements, may be due to reminiscence of Mt. by Lk. It seems 
better to leave them unexplained than to build upon them the 
theory of a second source, which, whilst it affords an explanation of 
these details, introduces other difficulties. 

9. The calling of Matthew from Mk 2 13 - 14 . 

9. And Jesus passing thence, saw a man sitting at the place of IS. 
toll, called Matthew, and saith to him, Follow Me. And he arose, 
and followed Him.] Mk. has here : "And He went out again by 
the sea. And all the multitude was coming to Him, and He taught 
them." Capharnaum lay on the lake side, and the customs house 
was probably on the outskirts of the town. But Mt. in this section 

is not concerned with the teaching of the multitude, and omits. 
Mk. continues : "And passing by He saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, 
sitting at the place of toll ; and He saith to him, Follow Me ; and 
he arose, and followed Him." Mt. inserts iKeWev. See on 4 21 . 
In substituting " Matthew " for " Levi, son of Alphaeus," he pre- 
sumably follows tradition, which identified the Apostle Matthew, 
cf. io 3 , with Levi the toll-gatherer. Ma0#cuos represents the Hebrew 
TIB shortened from JToriD or rrnno. A similar name KfiD occurs 
in a Palmyrene Inscription. Cf. Dalm. Gram. p. 178; Encycl. 
Bib. art. " Matthew." The customs at Capharnaum were levied 
for Herod Antipas; cf. Schurer, 1. ii. 67 f. For avaoTas as an 
Aramaic or Hebrew idiom, cf. Dalm. Words, 23 f., 36. 

10. And it came to pass, as He was sitting in the house, that, M 
behold, many toll-gatherers and outcasts came and sat with Jesus and 
His disciples.] Mk. has : " And it cometh to pass that he sat in 
his house, and many toll-gatherers and outcasts sat," etc. Mt. 


avoids as usual the historic present yiveTcu. In Mk. the avrov is 
ambiguous. It might refer to Jesus, but more probably signifies 
Levi. However, the connection, "he arose, and followed Him. 
And it cometh to pass that he sat in his house," is a harsh one. 
Mt. seems to have understood the house to be that of Jesus, and 
attempts to make this clear by altering the construction into the 
Septuagintal Hebraic : " And it came to pass as He ( = Jesus) was 
sitting in the house ( = at home) and ( = that)," etc. For koI 
lyevcTo — xat, cf. Blass, p. 262. It seems improbable that Mt., who 
in 4 13 has spoken of Christ as settling at Capharnaum, and in 9 1 
has referred to it as " His own city," can mean by the simple ev rrj 
olklo. any other than Christ's own house. By dfj.apTu>Xoi are no 
doubt meant people who were regarded with suspicion by the 
orthodox Jews because their lives were immoral, or because, like 
the toll-gatherers, they practised a trade which was looked upon 
with disfavour. At the end Mk. has " for they were many, and 
they followed Him." Mt. omits this as tautologous. 

M 11. And the Pharisees seeing it, said to His disciples, Why 
does your Teacher eat with toll-gatherers and sinners T\ Mk. has : 
" And the scribes of the Pharisees seeing that He eats with toll- 
gatherers and sinners, said to His disciples, (Why is it) that He 
eats with toll-gatherers and sinners ? " Mt. avoids the iteration of 
the phrase kvQ'ui /xera twv a/xapTcoXwy kou tcXwvwv ; cf. Introduction, 
p. xxiv. Sta tl seems to be a grammatical correction of Mk.'s on 
= "why." Cf. Mk 9 11 , Mt. tl; q 28 , Mt. Sia tL We need not suppose 
that the Pharisees (Mk. the scribes of the Pharisees) were guests 
at the meal. They were acquainted with the fact that Christ had 
sat at table with outcasts, and took an early opportunity of remon- 
strating with the disciples. 

M 12. And He hearing, said, The strong have no need of a physician, 
but they who are in evil plight.] Mk. has: "And Jesus hearing, 
saith to them that," etc. — on] recitative, is characteristic of Mk. 
Mt. generally omits ; cf. Introduction, p. xix f. 

L 13. But go and learn what is (i.e. what the meaning is of the 
words), Mercy I desire, and not sacrifice." 

These words are not found in Mk. The quotation with a 
different introduction is also inserted by Mt. (12 7 ) after Mk 2 26 . 
It is, therefore, probable that the words represent a traditional 
detached utterance of Christ inserted twice by the editor in what 
seemed to be suitable connections. Here they emphasise the 
different attitude of Christ and of the Pharisees to religion. They 
laid stress on obedience to the law and to its sacrifices. He 
emphasises the moral aspect of the Old Testament revelation. 
The quotation comes from Hos 6 6 , and is in the words of the 
Hebrew and LXX (A Q) ; for nal ov B has 77. 

M 13. For I came not to call the righteous, but sinners.] Mk. has : 


"I came not to call the righteous, but sinners." — rjXOov] cf. on 
5 17 , has behind it the conception of the divine mission. — ov yap 
rjXOov Kakia-ai Sikcuovs dAA' d/xaprwAovs] Had Christ, then, no 
message for the 8u<aiov<;? Not as such. The word implies 
righteousness obtained by obedience to the law. Only when the 
St/caiot, as in the case of S. Paul, realised their essential un- 
righteousness, and ceased to strive after righteousness as a condi- 
tion to be produced along the lines of orthodox Jewish teaching, 
could they need or appreciate Christ's call to repentance ; cf. Gal 
2 17 (evptOrj/jLev /cai avrol dp.apTU)\oC). 

10-13. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following : 

oi Qapuraloi, Mt n , Lk 30 . 

81a rt, Mk n , Lk 30 j 5n, Mk 16 . 

€?7rev, Mt 12 , Lk 31 J \iyei, Mk ». 

13. a/xapruXovs] Add, eh fierdvoiav, C E al S 1 eg 1 3 . Omit, XBDa/, 
The words have probably been added by Lk 5 32 to Mk. in order to explain 
why the 51kclioi were not called. From Lk. they have crept into the 
authorities for Mt. and Mk., partly in order to assimilate the Gospels to 
each other, partly because the same motive that influenced Lk. probably 
still affected the later translators and copyists. 

14. Then come to Him the disciples of John, saying, Why do we M 
and the Pharisees fast often, but Thy disciples do not fast ?] Mk. 
has : " And the disciples of John, and the Pharisees were fasting 
(i.e. were performing one of the stated fasts), and they come and 
say to Him, Why do the disciples of John and the disciples of the 
Pharisees fast, but Thy disciples do not fast ? " The iteration of 
words and phrases here is characteristic of Mk. Mt. avoids by 
omitting clause a, inserting o! p-aQ-qral 'Icodvov as the subject of 
Trpoa-ipxpvTai, and substituting -ry/Acts for these words in the next 
clause, with ol Qapio-aioi for 01 p-aOrp-aX twv $ap. He substitutes for 
Mk.'s epxovrai his favourite compound (see on 4 3 ), but, against his 
custom, retains the historic present. For fasting among the Jews, 
see Schurer, 11. ii. iiSff. ,- Bousset, Pel. Jud. 157 f. 

15. And Jesus said to them, Can the sons of the bride-chamber M 
mourn so long as the bridegroom is with them ? But the days will 
come when th: bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall 
they fast]. — viol tov vvp.<f>wvo<s] Hebrew nan ^3, Aramaic NJ33 "03. 
The guests at a wedding, in particular, the friends of the bride- 
groom. — 7rev#eiv] Mk. has vrjareveLv. irevOelv is probably due to a 
desire to avoid iteration of the same word. — £<£' ocrov] for Mk.'s 

iv <5, to compensate for the omission of ocrov xp° vov in the next 
clause of Mt. The ocrov is necessary to suggest that amongst the 
Jews the wedding festivities might last for some days. — /xct avTwv 
eo-Tiv 6 vup.cpio's] We should expect some such phrase as " whilst 
the festivities last." Christ singles out the bridegroom as essential 
to His application of the analogy ; His disciples cannot fast in His 


company any more than the guests and friends of a bridegroom 
during the wedding festivities. Mt. omits here Mk.'s tautologous 
" so long as they have the bridegroom with them they cannot fast." 
Cf. Introduction, p. xxiv. — eAewoi'Tcu Sc ^//.e'pai, /c.t.X.] After His 
departure from them they will fast. The words need not be under- 
stood as a prophecy, nor as a command, but may be a way of 
saying " they cannot fast now, but there will be time and cause for 
such expressions of mourning then." — vrjai ever ova iv\ Mk. adds 
the tautologous lv cWvrj rfj rjtxepa. For Mt.'s omission, cf. Intro- 
duction, p. xxiv. 

14. TroMd] Om. N # B. N bvela* „„,„', S 1 "eagerly," as in Lk. The 
omission in X B may be due to desire for absolute antithesis between fasting and 
not fasting, and to assimilation to Mk. Mt. either found the word, which is 
very characteristic of Mk., in his copy of that Gospel, or added it to weaken the 
impression that Christ condemned fasting absolutely. 

M 16. But no one places a patch from an undressed piece of cloth 
upon an old coat, for such a patch drags away from the coat, and a 
worse rent is made.] Mt. inserts 8e, thus connecting what follows 
with the foregoing incident, and substitutes iirt(3aX\.ei for Mk.'s 
otherwise unknown eirtpairret. — pa*os] = rags. Artemidorus, 27, 
uses it of strips of cloth wrapped round a mummy. In. Ox. Pap. 
1. cxvii. 14, pa.K7] ouo = two strips of cloth. — dyvd(pov] A word 
ayva7TTos = undressed, uncarded (so new?), occurs in Plut. 169 C, 
691 D. In the second clause Mk. has et Se p.rj cupei to TrX-qpu>p.a 
air avrov to kouvov tou 7raAaioi3. The sentence is obscurely worded, 
and has caused difficulty to the copyists (see Swete's notes). 
ir\y]po)p.a is apparently synonymous with im{3\r]p,a, and both words 
mean the patch sewn on an old garment to mend it. Wellhausen 
regards TrXrjpwpa as an Aramaism. He cites examples of the 
Syriac |\V> = to mend, and | » \V) = a cobbler. £irtfi\r]fia will de 
note the patch as that which is let in or on to the coat ; Tr\iqpu>p.a 
emphasises its function as that which fills up and completes it. 
We need not ask whether Tr\r)pwp.a has a passive or active sense. 
It is used as a rough equivalent of an Aramaic noun or participle 
derived from a verb of which the primary meaning is " to fill " 
(see Armitage Robinson, Ephesians, p. 256). Mk.'s clause ap- 
parently means: "If he does (sew a patch of undressed cloth on an 
old coat), the patch drags away from it (by its weight, and because 
it shrinks), (I mean) the new (patch drags away) from the old 
(coat)." Mt., like the copyists in Mk., attempts to relieve the 
awkwardness of the words, " For (in such a case) its (his ?) patch 
drags away from the coat," and omits the rather obscurely expressed 
explanation, to Kawbv rov iraXaiov. The connection of this verse 
with the preceding is obscure. Mk. has no connecting particle. 
He may be compiling detached sayings round a convenient 
incident. The strife about fasting suggests the contrast between 


new and old, between the old systems of the Pharisees and of 
John and the new system of Christ. But Mt, who connects by 
8e, understood v. 18 as the continuation of the foregoing. Christ 
had justified the abstention of His disciples from fasting in v. 15 . 
He now explains why He did not graft His teaching on to the old 
and outworn Pharisaic system of religion ; why, in other words, He 
did not reinforce the whole system of religious observances as 
taught by the orthodox Jews. He does not emphasise the effect 
which would be produced on His own teaching. That is suggested 
by the next verse. Here He lays stress on the disastrous effects 
which His teaching would produce on Judaism. As the new patch 
makes a worse rent in an outworn coat, so His teaching would 
weaken rather than heal weak points in the religious system of 
Judaism. A system to which fasting and the like was essential, 
was outworn. That is why He introduced a conception of religion 
in which fasting was perhaps an expedient, but not a vitally 
essential element. 

17. Nor do they put new wine into old skins. Otherwise the M 
skins are burst, and the wine is poured out, and the skins are 
destroyed. But they put new wine into fresh skins, and both are 
preserved?^ — ouSe /3cu\Aou(Tiv] for Mk.'s kol ovSeis /3aAAa. — prjyvvvrai 
oi acTKOi] Mk. has prj£ei 6 olvos tous dcrKOvs. — /cat 6 oTvos tK^eirat kol 
oi aa-Kol a7roAAwTai] Mk. has koli 6 oivos a7roXXvTat *at ol daKoi. We 
should expect Mt. to omit the second and redundant 6 oho?. But 
he retains it, and furnishes it with an appropriate verb. — fidWovo-iv] 
Mk., in his abrupt manner, has no verb. Mt. inserts to make the 
Greek smooth, and adds kol dp^oTepoi o-vvrqpovvTai to describe the 
effect of this better course of action. 

The verse carries on the thought of the preceding, but from a 
new point of view. To graft Christianity on to Judaism would not 
only increase the rents in the latter, and ultimately destroy its 
forms and ordinances ; it would also be disastrous for Christianity 
itself, which, confined in the forms of Judaism, would burst them 
asunder and be dissipated like wine poured on the ground. Forms 
such as fasting could not hold the wine of the new Christian spirit. 
The last clause, "and both are preserved," can only give expression 
to the thought that if Christianity be allowed to develop in- 
dependently of Jewish modes, both Christianity and Judaism are 
preserved. But the thought of the preservation and continuance 
of Jewish modes of religion is foreign to the context. The clause 
is doubtless due to the editor, who is thinking rather of completing 
the literary parallelism than of the meaning underlying the words 
which he records. 

16-17. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following : 

eVijSoAAei, Mt 16 , Lk 36 ; iwtpdirrci, Mk 21 . 

ei & pjyt, Mt 17 , Lk 37 ; ei Se p.7], Mk 22 . 


iKxeircu, Mt 17 ; kKxvdrjaerai, Lk 37 . Mk. has no correspond- 
ing verb. 

PaWovw, Mt 17 ; px-qriov, Lk M . 

(3) Three miracles of restoration, 9 18 - 34 . 

18. The editor now, as before (see on 8 18 ), postpones 
Mk 2 23 -4 34 . He has already inserted 4 35 -5 20 . This brings him 
therefore to Mk 5 21 " 43 , which contains two miracles, one set within 
the other. The editor probably counted this as one incident rather 
than as two miracles. He then adds two miracles from other 
sources, and thus completes a third series of three miracles illus- 
trating Christ's power to restore life, sight, and speech. Sir John 
Hawkins' Horce Synopticce, p. 134, reckons ten miracles in S^—g 34 , 
and quotes Pirke Aboth 5 s and 8 "Ten miracles were wrought 
for our fathers in Egypt and ten by the sea. . . . Ten miracles 
were wrought in the sanctuary." But ten is not by any means a 
number exclusively used of miracles or wonders in Jewish literature ; 
cf. Ab 5 1 ten utterances at creation ; 5 2 ten generations from 
Adam to Noah ; 5 3 ten generations from Noah to Abraham ; 5 4 
ten temptations of Abraham ; 5 s ten temptations of God ; 5 s ten 
things created on the eve of the Sabbath ; ten days of repentance, 
B. Rosh ha Sh i8 a ; ten things through which the world was 
created, B. Chagiga 12* ; ten praise Psalms of David, B. Rosh ha 
Sh 32 a ; ten words at creation, ib. ; ten things incompatible with 
study, B. Horayoth i3 b ; ten times Israel is called a bride, 
Midrash Shir, p. 123 (Wiinsche) ; ten journeys of Shechinah, 
Midr. Echah. p. 32 (Wiinsche); ten famines, Midr. Ruth, p. 12 
(Wiinsche) ; ten expressions of joy, Midr. Shir, p. 28 (Wiinsche) ; 
ten terms for prophecy, ib. p. 84. Moreover, other numbers are 
used of wonders or miracles ; cf. six wonders done by Phinehas, 
B. Sanh. 82% and six miracles at the fiery furnace, ib. 92 b . In both 
these cases the same word CDJ is used as in Ab 5 5 - 8 . It is true that 
as a matter of fact there are ten miracles in S 1 -^ 4 , but 9 18 - 26 con- 
tains a miracle within another, and may be counted as one. And 
the fact that there are two previous series of three miracles, suggests 
that the editor reckoned this last series as three, not four. For 
the frequent use of three in this Gospel, see Introduction, p. lxiv. 
M 18. Whilst He was saying these things, behold, a ruler came and 
was worshipping Him, saying that my daughter is just dead; but co?ne, 
lay Thy hand upon her, and she shall live.'] Mk. has, " And there 
cometh one of the rulers of the synagogue, by name Jairus ; and 
seeing Him, he falls down at His feet and beseeches Him much, 
saying that my daughter is very ill, (I pray Thee) that Thou wilt 
come and lay hands on her, that she may be saved and may live." 
— ravra airov XaXovvros avTols] inserted by the editor to form a 
connecting link ; cf. Mk 5 35 . This section is much longer in Mk. 
than in Mt. In part, this is due to the difference of situation in 


the two Gospels. In Mk. Jairus comes to Christ when He is by 
the lake side, and surrounded by a multitude (5 21 ). But when Mt. 
transfers the incident to 9 18 , Christ is in a house discoursing to the 
disciples of John. Consequently he has to omit Mk vv. 30-33 , 
which could not have taken place in a house. The shortening 
may also be due to the method adopted by the compiler, who, 
instead of unrolling his copy of Mk. from 2 22 -5 20 , may have 
summarised 5 20 - 43 from memory, purposely shortening (see on 8 28 ). 
It is certainly noticeable that the sections in which Mt. is con- 
siderably shorter than Mk., viz. Mk 4 35 - 41 5 1 " 20 - 21 " 43 , are just those 
to obtain which the editor must be supposed to have unrolled his 
copy of Mk. if he wished to see them before him. — l8ov] See on 
i 20 . — apyuv ets] Mk. has ets toiv apxicrvvaywyo>v. For these titles, 
see Schiirer, 11. ii. 63 ff. For ets = Ti?, see on 8 19 . Mt. as usual 
substitutes his favourite compound for Mk.'s simple epx^ai, and 
avoids the historic present. Mt. omits Mk.'s ovofian 'Iaeipos. — 
Trpoo-tKvvu avTu> Acywv on] these words summarise Mk.'s kcu ISwv 
avrov TTLTTTti 7rpo5 tovs 7roSas avrov KOi 7rapa.KaA.ei avrov iroXXa Aeywv 
on. Mt. substitutes his favourite word, Trpoo-Kweiv (see on 2 2 ), 
avoids as usual Mk.'s present tenses, and omits the clause of 
entreaty as in 8 2 = Mk i 40 . — rj Ovydr-qp] Mk. has to Ovydrpiov. 
Mk. is fond of diminutives ; Mt. avoids them. — apri frcAeuV^o-cv] 
Mk. has iaxo-Tois ?x«, and records later on that a message came 
that the girl was dead. Mt. summarises. — dAAa] Mk. has the 
pregnant <W= "I pray thee that." — kcu ^crerat] Mk. has fva o-udr} 
Kal ^rjo-rj. For Mt.'s omission of one of two synonymous clauses, 
see Introduction, p. xxiv. 

19. And Jesus arose, and was following him, atid His disciples.'] M 
Mk. has " And He went with him ; and a great multitude was fol- 
lowing Him, and they were thronging Him." Mt. elsewhere omits 
the references to the pressure of the multitude. Cf. Introduction, 

p. xviii. 

20. And, behold, a woman, with an issue of blood for twelve M 
years, came behind, and touched the tassel of His cloak.] Mk. has : 
"And a woman, being with an issue of blood for twelve years, 
and having suffered much from many physicians, and having spent 
all her substance, and being not at all benefited, but rather having 
become worse, having heard about Jesus, came in the crowd behind 
and touched His cloak." — ko.1 ISov] See on 2 1 . — al/xoppoovo-a] for 
Mk.'s awkward ovo-a iv pVa a?/xaTos, cf. on 8 28 . Mk. has a long 
and awkward string of participles, which Mt. omits. — -n-poo-eXdovo-a] 
the editor substitutes his favourite word for Mk.'s l\6ovo~a. See 
on 4 3 . — o7no-6ev] Mt. omits iv tw o^Ao), see above, on v. 19 . — tov 
Kpao-7reoW] the editor adds to assimilate to 14 36 , where Mk. has 

it. — KpriWeSa] are the tassels attached to the corner of a garment, 
in accordance with Nu 15 38 , Dt 22 12 . See DB, art. "Fringes." 


M 21. For she said to herself, If only I shall touch His cloak, 1 
shall be saved.] Mk. has : " For she said that, If I shall touch but 
His garments, I shall be saved." For Mt.'s omission of on, cf. 
Introduction, p. xix. — fiovov] Mk. has /cdV; for a similar change, 
cf. Mk 6 56 =Mt i 4 36 . 
M 22. And Jesus turned and saw her, and said, Be of good courage, 
daughter, thy faith hath saved thee.'] In these words the editor 
summarises Mk vv. 30 - 34 . — dapo-u] is inserted by Mt. as in 9 2 . For 
his insertion of /ecu ia^Orj f) yvvrj airb r»/g wpas eKeivr]<;, cf. 8 13 15 28 
1 7 18 and Introduction, p. xxxii. — fj ttio-tk o-ov] 7tio-tis here, as in 
gio g2 _ assurance, trust in the power of Christ to heal. 
M 23. And Jesus came into the house of the ruler, and saw the flute 
players and the multitude making a noise, and said.] Mk. has : 
" And they come into the house of the ruler of the synagogue, and 
He seeth the noise, and those who wept and bewailed much. And 
He entered in, and saith to them." — IXO^v] the editor avoids, 
as usual, Mk.'s historic present; cf. Introduction, p. xx. — rot>s 
avX^ras] a touch of Jewish knowledge for Mk.'s vaguer kXo.Lovto.% 
Kai dAaAa£ovTas. Cf. B. Chethuboth 46 b , "Even the poorest in 
Israel will provide two flutes and a wailer." — tov 6\Xov] Mt. here 
retains Mk.'s sing. ; see Introduction, p. lxxxvi. 
M 24. Depart, for the girl is not dead, but is sleeping; and they 
laughed Him to scorn.] Mk. has : " Why do you make a noise, and 
weep ? The child is not dead, but is sleeping." 
M 25. And when the multitude was put out, He entered in, and 
took her hand, and the girl arose.] The editor here summarises 
Mk M -* s .—iie(3X.jdri, fyipOrj] Mk. has fySaAriv, av£<rrq. For Mt.'s 
preference for passives, see Introduction, p. xxiii. 
E 26. And the fame of this went out into all that land.] This 
clause is inserted by the editor. His next section ends with 
similar words. 

18-26. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following : 

i'Sou, Mt ^ 8 , Lk 41 . 

apxwv, Mt 18 = dp^cov ttJs (rvvayoiyrjs, Lk 41 , for Mk.'s €ts t!x>v 

Ovyar-qp, Mt 18 , Lk 42 , for Mk.'s OvyaTpiov. 

tov Kpacnre&ov, Mt 20 , Lk **. 

Trpoo-e\6ovo-a, Mt 20 , Lk 44 , for Mk.'s iXOovo-a. 

i\6wv — ets t?);/ OLKtav, Mt 23 , Lk 51 , for Mk.'s €p\ovrai €ts tov oTkov, 

yap, Mt 24 , Lk 52 . 

airr)?, Mt 25 , Lk 54 , for Mk.'s tov ttcuSiW 

27. Mt. here inserts two miracles which illustrate Christ's 
power to quicken defective physical senses. The first of these, 
that of the two blind men, is noticeable for two reasons — (a) Mk 
records two healings of a blind man, 8 22 " 26 to 46-52 . Mt. omits the 
first of these, but both here and in the parallel to io 46-52 has two 


blind men. The case is similar to that of the demoniacs. Mk. 
records two healings of a man ev irvevpan aKa6dpTw, i 23 " 28 5 1 " 20 . 
Mt. omits the first, but in the parallel to the second has ovo 
8ai[xovi£,6/xevoi. (b) It is striking that Mt., who in 8 4 omits 
i/x(3pifxr]adfjt.evo<; and the disobedience to Christ's express and 
urgent command from Mk i 43 " 45 , should here (vv. 30 " 31 ) have 
evefipip.rjo-o.To followed by just such an act of disobedience. It 
looks as though the editor, both in his insertion of v. 26 , cf. v. 31 , 
and in his record of the fact that the blind men spread Christ's 
fame, was preparing for the extension of Christ's work in the mis- 
sion of the Twelve, which forms the subject of the next chapter. 

27. And as Jesus passed thence, tivo blind men followed Him, cry- E 
ing and saying, Have mercy on us, Thou Son of David.~\ — eKeWev] (see 
on 4 n ) i.e. from the ruler's house. — TtapdyovrC] cf. 20 30 . — *pa£ovT€s 
koI AeyovTe?] cf. Mk IO 47 . — 'EXirjcrov vie Aa/3i<5] cf. Mk IO 47 
vie Aa/ftS 'Irjaov ikerjaov fxe. For " Son of David " as a current 
Messianic title, see Dalm. Words, pp. 319T. 

28. And when He came into the house, the blind men came to E 
Him. And Jesus saith to them, Believe ye that I am able to do 
this? They say to Him, Yes, Lord.] — eh rrjv ouaav] presumably 
the house in which Christ lived at Capharnaum. — -n-poa-^XOov 
Mt.'s favourite word. See on 4A — trio-revere} See on 8 10 . — Kvpie 
See on 8 2 . — kXOovrt oe\ D a b c g 1 h k have /ecu epx^rai. 

29. Then He touched their eyes, saying, According to your faith E 
be it to you.] — rj^aro] cf. 8 15 of the hand, 20 34 of the eyes, Mk 7 s3 
the tongue. — Kara rr]v ttlcttlv v/awv] cf. Mk IO 52 f) ttiotis crov crecruiKev 
<re. — 7rto-Tis] as in 8 10 o 2 - 22 . 

30. And their eyes were opened; and Jesus urgently charged E 
them, saying, See, let no one know it.] — ive/3pip.ycraTo] The verb 

is used of horses snorting (^Esch. Theb. 461), of men fretting or 
being downcast (Luc. Nee. 20), or being angry (Dn u 30 LXX). 
It occurs twice in Mk., i 43 14 5 , where Mt. both times omits it. In 
Mt. it occurs only here. It is found twice in a different sense in 
Jn ii 33 - 38 j followed by tw irvevp.arL or iv eavrw. Here, as in 
Mk i 43 , it presumably means "to command with emphasis." 1 

31. But they went out and spread abroad His fame in all that E 
land.] — Sia<£->7/u£eiv occurs in Mk i 45 and again in Mt 28 15 . 

32-34. And when they were going out, behold, they brought to E 
h im a dumb man possessed with a demon. And when the demon 
had been cast out, the dumb man spake : and the multitudes marvelled, 
saying, Never zvas it so seen in Israel. But the Pharisees said, By 
the prince of the demons He casts out demons.} A similar story is 
substituted by Mt i 2 22 " 24 for Mk t, 1 ^' 21 . But no mention is there 
made of the casting out of the demon, as in eK/3\r]6evTos rov 

1 See Abbott, fokannine Vocabulary, 1811, " Gk. usage seems to demand 
tome such rendering as ' roar.'" 



Zaifxoviov, Mt 9 33 . It is curious that Mt. should not have reversed 
the order. 982-34 W ould suit the discourse (Mt 12 25 - 30 ) better than 
does 12 22 " 24 . Another curious fact is that Lk ii* 4 -i5 a i s0 substitutes 
for Mk 3 19 " 21 an incident which has greater similarity to Mt 9 s2 - 34 
than to Mt 12 22 ' 24 . If, however, Mt 9 34 be omitted, see below, 
this agreement is much lessened. It would seem that Mt., 
wishing to find a miracle to conclude his series, has fashioned a 
short account of the healing of a dumb demoniac from phrases 
which for the most part occur again in the Gospel, airwv 81 
i£epXo/j.evu)v is a mere connecting link. iSov and Trpoa-qveyKav airy 
are Mt.'s favourite words. See on i 20 and 4 3 . For Kuxpbv 
SaifMovL^o/xevov, cf. Mk 7 s2 and 9 25 , both of which Mt. omits. 
eK^aAAeiv is the word used frequently of the expulsion of demons. 
When he comes to Mk 3 19b - 21 the editor wishes to substitute a 
more suitable introduction to the following discourse. He 
therefore inserts 12 22 ' 24 . Lk. omits Mk 3 19b - 21 , and at a later point 
in the narrative substitutes for the discourse which follows in Mk, 
another similar one from a different source which Mt. has also 
seen. As an introduction to it, Lk. inserts n 14 " 15 , very possibly 
by reminiscence of Mt 9 32 " 33 . 


84. Om. S 1 Dak. It may be due to assimilation to i2 M = Mk 3 : 

C. (4) Extension of His work in the mission of the Twelve, 
9 s5 -! i 1 . 935-S8 an expansion of Mk 6 6b . 

35. Having finished his illustrations of Christ's teaching (5-7) 
and healing (8-9 34 ), the editor now proposes to show how this 
ministry found extension in the mission work of the Twelve. The 
fame of Jesus had gone forth into all the land of Israel (9 26 " 31 ), 
and men were everywhere desirous to see Him. He therefore 
sent forth the Twelve to carry on His work. In order to introduce 
his account of this sending, the editor postpones Mk 6 x ~ 6a , and 
expands Mk 6 6b into an introduction to this mission, modelled on 
the similar introduction to his illustrations of Christ's preaching 
and healing (4 23 " 25 ). 

E 35. And Jesus passed about all the cities and villages, teaching in 
their synagogues, and preaching the good news of the kingdom, and 
healing every sickness and every disease.] Mk. has : ' ' And He passed 
about the villages in a circuit teaching." For tol? 7roAeis 7racras kcu 
Ta? Kw/xas, cf. Mk 6 56 eh Kou/ r/ €ts 7roA.ets ; for ev reus crwaya)yat<; 
airwv, 4 23 ; for koli Krjpvo~cro)v to evayyeXiov tt}s /'as, 4 23 > 
for kclI Bepairivtav 7ra<rav vocrov kclI irao~a.v fiaXaKiav, 4 23 . 

E 36. And when He saw the multitudes, He was moved with com- 
passion for them, because they were harassed and cast down as sheep 
that have not a shepherd.'] — icnrXayxi'icrO-ri] o-rr\ayxyi£,eo- 6 ai occurs 5 
times in Mt., 4 in Mk., 3 in Lk., in Testaments of XII. Patriarchs, 
in LXX A, Pr 17 5 , 2 Mac 6 8 , in Symm., 1 S 23 21 , and Ezk 24 21 . 


— co-KvA^eW] o-KvWeiv in ^Esch. and the Anthol. — to " flay " or 
"mangle." In the N.T. to "annoy," "importune," Mk 5 s5 , 
Lk 7 6 8 49 . In Berlin Papyri, 757. 14 (12 a.d.), to " plunder"; in 
a 4th cent, papyrus (Fayum I'owns, 134.2), (xkvXov o-cairroy = to 
" hasten " ; cf. Trotrjcrov airov <TKvXr)vai = " make him concern 
himself," Ox. Pap. i. 123. 10. The substantive o-kvA/xo's means 
"vexations," Artemid. 11. xxxi. ; "fatigue" of a journey, Faytim 
Towns, iii. 5; "insolence," Tebtunis Pap. 41. 7, B.C. 119; 
"violence," id. 48. 22, B.C. 113. Used here of the common people, 
it describes their religious condition. They were harassed, im- 
portuned, bewildered by those who should have taught them ; 
hindered from entering into the kingdom of heaven (23 13 ), laden 
with the burdens which the Pharisees laid upon them (2 3 4 ). 
Zpifi/Mtvoi denotes men cast down and prostrate on the ground, 
whether from drunkenness, Polyb. v. 48. 2, or from mortal wounds. 
Here " mentally dejected." — wcrel irpofiaTa fxrj c^ovTa 7roi//.eVa] An 
Old Testament simile. Cf. Nu 27 17 , 1 K 22 17 , Ezk 34 s . The 
words are anticipated here from Mk 6 84 . 

37, 38. Then He saith to His disciples, The harvest indeed is L 
abundant, but the labourers few ; pray, therefore, the Lord of the 
harvest that He will send forth labourers into His harvest.} — totc] 
See on 2 7 . — ii</3d\r)] For the weakened sense, " bring out," " send 
out," cf. 12 20 12 35 , Mk i 43 . These two verses occur in Lk io 2 at the 
beginning of the charge to the Seventy in identical words, except 
that Lk. has in the introductory clause "and He said to them." 

36. icKvXfjJvoi] N B C D al ; iKKekufiivoi., L. 

X. 1. The editor continues with Mk 6 7 . 

And having called His twelve disciples, He gave to them authority M 
over unclean spirits, so that they should cast thtm out, and heal every 
sickness and every disease^ Mk. has : " And He calleth the Twelve, 
and began to send them forth two by two, and was giving them 
authority over the unclean spirits." — ko.1 Trpoo-KaXeo-dpevos] The 
editor avoids as often Mk.'s historic present. See Introduction, 
p. XX. — tovs SciScKa /xaOrjTa<; avrov] Mk. has simply tovs Sw8eKa. 
In Mt., who has previously omitted Mk 3 13 - 19a , and has not hitherto 
recorded the choice of the Twelve, the mention of the twelve 
disciples is abrupt and unprepared for. ISojkcv for Mk.'s e'SuW 
See Introduction, p. xx. The editor omits Mk.'s "and began 
to send them forth two by two " ; but shows a reminiscence of it by 
arranging the Apostles in pairs. For the last clause, cf. 4 s3 and 9 35 . 

2. The editor thought that this would be a suitable place for 
the insertion of the names of the Apostles, Mk 3 16 ' 19 , which he 
had previously omitted. 

How of the twelve apostles the names are these : First, Simon, E M 
who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; and James the son 


of Zebedee, and John his brother.} Mk. has: "And He appointed 
the Twelve. And he added to Simon a name Peter, and James the 
son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James ; and He added to 
them names, 1 Boanerges, that is, sons of thunder ; and Andrew." 

twv St 8<i)8eKa olttocttoXwv ra 6v6/j.ard ecrrtv rarra] This is an 
editorial introduction. a.7roVroAos, which occurs only here in Mt, 
is a reminiscence of Mk 3 14 . 2 — 7rpu>Tos] The word is unexpected 
in a mere catalogue like the following. It can only mean that 
Peter was the most prominent amongst the members of the 
Apostolic band; cf. 16 17 " 19 . — 2t/xo>v 6 Aeyo'yuevos II expos] The 
editor simplifies Mk.'s harsh construction. On Si/zojv, see note 
on 4 18 . Mk. places the three chief Apostles first, and thus brings 
together the Greek names Andrew and Philip. Mt. places the 
brothers in pairs. — 'Avope'as 6 dSeA<pos avrov] Lk. also has 'AvSpe'av 
tov dSeA<pov avrov. — Icuav^s 6 dSeAcpos avroJ] avoiding Mk.'s 
iteration of the name James. See on 4 18 . For Mk.'s 1-n-iO-qKtv 
avrots oVo/xara, 1 cf. Dn I 7 LXX, Th. 
M 3. Philip, and Bartholomew ; Thomas, and Matthew the toll- 
gatherer ; James {the so?i) of Alphozus, and Thadd<zus.~\ Mk. has : 
"And Philip, and Bartholomew; and Matthew and Thomas; and 
James (the son) of Alphaeus, and Thaddseus." 

Bap6o\o/Acuo<;~\ an Aramaic name; cf. Dalm. Gram. 176. — 
©w/za?] another Aramaic name = " twin " ; cf. Dalm. Gram. 145. — 
MaOOalos] also Aramaic. Cf. Dalm. Gram. 178; Words, 51. The 
editor transposes Thomas and Matthew, and adds to the latter 
6 TeAoji'?;s in order to identify the Apostle with the Matthew of 9°. — 
'AAepcuos] Aramaic; cf. Dalm. Gram. 179. — ©aSSatos] according 
to Dalm. Gram. 179, Words, 50, is of Greek extraction = ®evoas. 

3. 0a55cuos] NBcff'g 2 ; Ae£/3cuos, D k ; AeftStuos 6 ^rtKXrjdels QaS- 
Satoj, C 2 E al. S 1 has "Judas the son of James," assimilating to Lk 6 16 . 
In Mk. Ga55cuos is read by most authorities, including S 1 ; Aeflfiaios by 
D a b ff 2 i q. It is best to suppose that in both Gospels 6a55cuos is original, 
and that Aej3j3a?os was substituted in Western texts for reasons that can only 
be conjectured. It is possible that someone who supposed Thaddreus to be 
connected with the Aramaic word for "breast" substituted Lebbteus, which 
he had formed from the Hebrew word for "heart," as a more fitting name for 
an Apostle. The Thaddseus of Mk. and Mt. may be a corruption of Judas, 
which Lk. has rightly replaced. Cf. Encycl. Bib. ' ' Thaddaeus. " 

M 4. Simon the Canatiaan, and Judas Iscariot, who also delivered 
Him up.] Mk. has: "And Simon the Cananaean, and Judas 
Iscariot, who also delivered Him up." 

Kavavalosi] according to Lk. means " Zealot," i.e. a member of 
the fanatical sect known to us from Josephus, Wars, iv. 160, v. 

1 6v6/jLara is read by N A C L al, 6vo/ia by B D. 

2 oOs kclI dirocTToXovs ihv6fxaatv, X B C* vld A. But this clause may be an 
interpolation in Mk from Lk 6' 6 . If so, the title airoffroXos in Mt. is due to 
reminiscence of Mk 6 M . 


310, vii. 268 ; cf. Schiirer, 1. ii. 80 ff. Dalman {Gram. p. 174) thinks 
that the Greek form should be Kawaios, and this has been changed 
into Kavavatos by assimilation to the geographical term Canaanite. 
'Io-/ca/3iioT?7s] Mk. has 'lo-KapiwO, which Mt. has found unin- 
telligible, and has graecised. 'la-KapiwO has been explained in many 
ways, but none of them are satisfactory. Dalman, who thinks that 
it is equivalent to the Hebrew nvip B*K, admits that it is surprising 
that this phrase should have been left untranslated. Cf. Words, 51 f. 

5. These twelve Jesus sent forth, having charged them, saying.] M 
Mk 6 8 has : "And He charged them." 

The relation to Mk. of the discourse which follows may be 
shown as follows : 

Mt io 5b " 8 . 

9-10a = Mk 6 8-9. 


u -k Expand 6 10 ' 11 . 

15-16 # 
17-22 # 

23 -lV\ 

omit. 6 12 - 13 . 

It is clear that Mk describes a sending out of the Twelve on a 
definite occasion. They go forth in pairs, Mk 6 7 . Their activity 
brings the name of Jesus to the notice of Herod, 6 14 . They return 
and report the result of their work, 6 30 . To the editor of the first 
Gospel this mission of the Twelve during Christ's lifetime seems 
to have had little interest. He omits the statement that they went 
forth, and the notice that they returned. Further, he draws 
together here sayings that clearly refer to the work of the Apostles 
in the interval between Christ's death and His return, e.g. 17 " 23 - 38 ' 39 . 
His discourse seems to have in view the circumstances of the band 
of disciples after His death whilst they were still in Palestine 
expecting their Master's return. The startling feature in it is that 
Christ is represented as bidding His disciples to limit their preach- 
ing to the Jews (v. 6 ), and as assuring them that they will not have 
exhausted the cities of Israel before His return (v. 23 ). We may com- 
pare with this the parallel conception that Christ's return would 
immediately follow the fall of Jerusalem. It might be possible to 
harmonise these sayings with the rest of the Gospel by interpreting 
"cities of Israel," not geographically, but ethnographically = "cities 
where Israelites lived," thus including the Jews of the dispersion. 
Along these lines v. 6 would mean "do not go out of your way 
to preach to non-Israelites, rather go to the dispersion of the 
Jews." But it seems more probable that the two sources Mk. and 
the Logia, which the editor of the Gospel is combining, represented 
different standpoints on this question. The compiler of the 
Jewish Christian Logia preferred to emphasise those sayings of 


Christ's teaching which seemed to limit the preaching of the 
kingdom to the Jewish people. The Twelve were to preach in 
Palestine, io 6 - 23 ; but the Jews in the dispersion, and proselytes 
from the heathen, would also furnish disciples of the kingdom, 8 11 . 
In Mk., on the other hand, emphasis is laid on a preaching to 
all nations; cf. 13 10 "The good news must first be preached to 
all nations," and Mt 28 19 " all nations," which probably comes 
from Mk.'s lost ending. Mt. borrows these passages, but defines 
the object of the preaching of Mk 13 10 as eis fiaprvpiov Traa-Lv tois 
tOvemv. He seems to have found it possible to combine the ideas 
of a coming of Christ to usher in the end of the world immediately 
after the fall of Jerusalem, and of a previous preaching of the good 
news of the Kingdom to all nations. We may suppose that to him 
the phrase " all nations " was only a wide generalisation, and that he 
saw no difficulty in the idea that the good news could be preached 
" in all the world " within a single generation. The difficulty of 
completely harmonising io 23 with other parts of the Gospel, arises 
from the fact that the editor is borrowing from sources representing 
different points of view, which he has not found it possible to blend 
so thoroughly that no trace of the original divergence remains. 

L 5, 6. Go not away to the Gentiles, and enter not into a Samaritan 
city ; but be going rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.} — 
eis o&bv\ means apparently "to," "towards," "in the road that 
leads to." The reference is to the large Gentile population in 
Palestine. For the Hellenistic towns there, see Schurer, 11. i. 57 ff. 
For the Pharisaic view of the Samaritans as " in many respects 
on a level with the Gentiles, see Schurer, 11. i. 8. — to. irpofiaTa i-d 
dTToXwA-oraj cf. 15 24 , Jer 5o 6 = LXX 27 s . 

L 7. And as you go, preach, saying that The kingdom of the heavens 
is at hand.} Cf. 3 2 4 17 . 

L 8. Heal sick people, raise the dead, cleanse lepers, cast out demons. 
Freely ye received, freely give.] For Kadapfeiv, see on 8 2 . — aadevovv 
ras] cf. larpov rbv OepaTrevirovTa. rovs do-^eyowra?, Ditt. Syll. 503. 1 6. 

M 9, 10. Acquire neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your girdles ; 
nor a wallet l for travelling, nor two coats, nor sandals, nor a staff ; 
for the labourer is worthy of his rations.} Mk. has: "That they 
should take nothing for travelling except a staff only ; neither 
bread, nor a wallet, nor brass in the girdle ; but being shod with 
sandals, and not to put on two coats." 

In Mk. these regulations seem intended to teach the disciples 
that they need make no preparations for their journeys. Their 
wants will be supplied. A staff is all that they will require. No 
bread need be carried, and consequently no travelling sack will 

1 Deissmann, Exp. Times, Nov. 1906, p. 62, suggests that irijpa. means "a 
beggar's collecting bag," and quotes in support a Greek inscription of the 
Roman period found in Syria. 


be needed. Nor need they take money to purchase food. The 
recommendation of sandals seems to strike a discordant note. 
How could it be of any importance whether the missioners went 
barefoot or not ? The prohibition of wearing two coats seems to 
refer to the under and overcoats (see DB, art. " Dress "). It is, 
however, difficult to think that the text of Mk. is in order. The 
Greek is harsh (see Swete), and the command to wear sandals 
seems quite pointless. The command not to wear them, though 
difficult, would at least be easier, as having the same sort of 
meaning as the prohibition of two coats. In B. Berakhoth 54* 
it is said that men were forbidden to use the Temple courts as 
a thoroughfare. Consequently they went there without a staff in 
the hand, without shoes on the feet, and without money, whether 
in the girdle or in a purse. It is possible that Christ wished His 
missioners to avoid anything that would make them look like 
ordinary travellers journeying for purposes of trade or pleasure. 
In that case, the prohibition of staff and sandals would be more 
natural than the command to take them. Mt. has /x^Se viro$rjp.a.Ta 
fj.rj8e pdfiSov. Lk. in the parallel section has /x^re pdfiSov, and 
omits the reference to the sandals ; but in the next chapter, in the 
charge to the Seventy, he has p.r] i-n-oS-q/xaTa. Both Mt. and Lk. 
seem to be rewriting Mk. in the light of a more familiar tradition of 
Christ's words, according to which staff and shoes were forbidden. 

a£ios yap 6 epydY^s rJJs Tpo<prjs airov cotiv.] Lk., in the charge L 
to the Seventy (10"), has the same words with llkjOov for rpo<pr}<;, 
and without ia-nv ; and Lk.'s form occurs in 1 Ti 5 18 , where the 
words seem to be quoted as Scripture. 

11. And into whatsoever city or village you enter, inquire who M 
in it is worthy, and there abide until you go out.] Mk. has : 

" And He said to them, Wheresoever you enter into a house, 
there abide until you go out thence." Lk. in the parallel 
section has : " And into whatsoever house you enter, there abide 
and thence go out." But in the charge to the Seventy He has 
separate sections dealing with the entry into a house and into 
a city. It would seem, therefore, that Mt.'s 7roA.1v 77 kw/xtjv is 
due to reminiscence of a traditional form of this saying which 
contained these words. — i^rdo-are, k.t.X.] comes probably from 
this tradition. For i&Td&iv, cf. 2 8 . 

12, 13. And when you enter into the house, salute it. And ifli 
the house be worthy, let your peace come upon it ; but if it be not 
worthy, let your peace return to you.] Mk. has no parallel words; 
but Lk., in the charge to the Seventy (io 5 - 6 ) has: "And into 
whatsoever house you enter, first say, Peace to this house. And 

\f a son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon him. But if 
not, it shall return to you." The words differ from those in Mt. 
The two Evangelists are drawing from different sources. 


KT. 14. And whosoever will not receive you, nor hear your words ; 
as you go outside that house or city, shake off the dust of your feet.] 
Mk. has : " And whatsoever place will not receive you, and they 
will not hear you ; as you proceed thence shake off the dust which 
is under your feet for a testimony against them." Lk. has : "And 
whosoever will not receive you, as you go out from that city, shake 
away the dust from your feet for a testimony against them." Both 
Mt. and Lk. substitute Koviopros for Mk.'s x ^, an d introduce the 
reference to the city. Lk. has the same features in the charge to 
the Seventy (io 10 ). They are due to the use of independent 
non-Marcan sources. 

L 15. Verily, I say to you, It shall be more tolerable for the land 
of Sodom and Gomorrhah in the day of judgement than for that city.] 
Lk. has similar words in the charge to the Seventy : " I say to you, 
that for Sodom in that day it shall be more tolerable than for that 
city." Sodom is used in the N.T. as a typical instance of the 
execution of divine judgement; cf. n 23 * 34 , Lk io 12 17 29 , Ro q 29 , 
2 P 2 6 , Jude 7 . So in Jub 36 10 " On the day of turbulence, and 
execration, and indignation, and anger, with flaming devouring fire, 
as He burnt Sodom, so likewise will He burn His land and His 
city." — 17/xepa /c/Ho-ews.] For the omission of the article in a 
technical phrase, see Blass, p. 151. For the end of the world 
as a day of judgement, see the references in Volz, Jud. Eschat. 
p. 1 88; Charles, Enoch, p. 126; and cf. Ps-Sol 15 12 "The sinners 
shall perish in the Lord's day of judgement for ever" ; Jub 4 19 " until 
the day of judgement"; Secrets of Enoch 39 1 , 2 Es 7102. 113 I2 34 # 

L 16. Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves : 
be therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves. ~\ The first 
clause, with apvas for Trpofiara, occurs in Lk io 3 in the charge to 
the Seventy, and is probably to be reconstructed in the fragment 
called Fragment of a Lost Gospel, published by Grenfell and 
Hunt. It there stands immediately after fragments of a saying 
parallel to Lk n 52 = Mt 23 13 . — cppovip.01 ws ol 6'<£eis.] Cf. Gn 3 1 

6 Sc 6'c/>is ~r]V (ppOVip.WT0.T0S. 

It will have been noticed that in the preceding verses Mt. 
seems to have borrowed Mk 6 6b " n . Lk. in the parallel section 
seems also to have borrowed Mk 6 7 " 12 . Mt. and Lk., in several 
striking respects, agree against Mk., e.g. Trpoo-KaAccra/xevos — e'Sco/cei/, 
Mt IO 1 = <TWKaXecra/A€vos — e'SwKev, Lk 9 1 ; koX 6epo.ire.veiv iracrav vocrov 
Mt I = koX vocrovs, Lk 9 1 . Both have /xrjre (Se) pd/38ov. 
Both add " nor silver." Both add a reference to a city, i£epx6p.evoi 

e£u> — Tr)s 7roXews eKeivqs, Mt 1 4 = e£ep)(6fAevoL oltto ttjs TroAews iKeivrjs, 

Lk 9 5 . Both have Kovtoprov for Mk.'s ^ow. The case is com- 
plicated by the fact that Lk., in the charge to the Seventy (ch. 10), 
has verses parallel to Mt 9 87 - ^ io 7 - 10b - 12 ' 13, 15 - 16a , and also has 
parallels to Mt.'s expansions or alterations of Mk. in Mt io 9 fir 


inroS-qfxaTa, n iroXcv. These facts seem to be best accounted for 
by supposing that Mt.'s modifications of Mk. are due to the 
fact that he not infrequently substitutes for Mk.'s phrases others 
which were more familiar to him. He may, of course, have 
had before him in writing another account of the charge to 
the Twelve, or of words spoken to disciples with reference to 
their mission work, and it is probable that the Logia contained 
such an account. Lk., in copying Mk., has also been influenced 
by his memory of other forms of Christ's charge. Sometimes the 
phraseology which he remembers, or the second source which he 
uses, agrees with Mt.'s source. In compiling or copying the charge 
to the Seventy, the language of his source, oral or written, is often 
in agreement with the language of verses which Mt. has inserted 
in the charge to the Twelve. In other words, the situation is best 
explained as follows. Mt. has before him Mk.'s short account. 
He also has quite probably a section of the Logia containing a 
charge to the Twelve. These he combines, with quite possibly 
insertions or turns of phrase from his reminiscence of forms of the 
charge current in Church circles. Lk. has before him Mk., and 
quite possibly one or more other accounts of the charge. Amongst 
these may have been the first Gospel. He sometimes substitutes 
for Mk.'s phrases others drawn either from Mt., or from another 
source which was closely allied to Mt. in phraseology. The 
common theory that Mt. and Lk. both used (a) Mk., (b) the 
Logia, and that Lk. had also a third source, is too artificial to be 
carried through the Gospels, and does not leave enough to the 
independence of the Evangelists. 

17. The editor is reminded by the £v ^eVw Xvkwv which he 
has just written of a passage which occurs later in Mk.'s Gospel 
(i3 9b_13 ). He therefore inserts it here, though it is clear that it 
does not, like the preceding sayings, refer to the Apostolic mission 
during Christ's lifetime, but to their preaching after His death. 

But beware of men : for they shall deliver you up to Satihedrins, M 
and in their synagogues shall they scourge youJ\ Mk. has: "But 
take ye heed to yourselves. They shall deliver you up to San- 
hedrins, and in synagogues shall ye be beaten." — irpoa-ix^ T( - a.ir6\ 
cf. 7 15 , and Blass, p. 126. Mk. has fiXe-n-ere Se vp.€i<s iavTOvs ; cf. 
Mk 8 15 /JAeVere otto, where Mt. again has Trpoaex €Te <"ro. Mt. 
omits /?A.€7reTe from Mk i3 23 - 33 . — irapaSwo-ovo-i] Mt. as often 
inserts a connecting particle, here yap. — o-we'8pia] the local 
courts of justice; see Schiirer, 11. i. 151. — koX kv Tats crwaywyais 
p.a.(TTi.ywcrovcriv r/Aas] Mk. has the harsh kcu €ts crvvaywyas SapqaeaOe. 
For the substitution of eV for ds, cf. 24 18 = Mk 13 16 , and Introduc- 
tion, p. xxvii. 

18. And before rulers and kings shall ye be led for My sake, for II 
a testimony to them and to the Gentiles.'] Mk. has: "And before 


rulers and kings shall ye stand (fast) for My sake, for a testimony 
to them." — axO-qa-eaOe] for Mk.'s crra^owfle is Suggested by dywaiv 
of Mk v. 11 . — Ko.1 reus iOvearw] for Mk.'s harsh /ecu «is irdvTa to. 
IQvt), which in Mk. belongs to the following verse. The editor could 
not take over the next few words, irpwrov Sei Kr)pvx9r)vai to evayyiktov, 
since they are obviously unsuited to this charge to the Twelve. 
He should therefore have stopped at fxaprvpiov aureus. See on 24 14 . 

M 19. And when they shall deliver you up, take no thought how or 
what ye shall speak : for there shall be given to you in that hour what 
ye shall speak.] Mk. has : "And when they shall lead you, deliver- 
ing you up, do not be taking thought beforehand what ye shall speak. 
But whatsoever shall be given to you in that hour, this speak." 

orav 8e] Mk. has /cat orav; see Introduction, p. xx. — 7ra/3aSwcnv] 
Mk. has aywcriv — TrapaSibovTv;. The editor has carried the dycoo-iv 
into the previous verse (axOrjo-co-de). The editor adds ttws ■%, which 
are found also in Lk 12 11 . 

M 20. For not ye are the speakers, but the Spirit of your Father 
which speaketh in you.] Mk. has: "For not ye are the speakers, 
but the Holy Spirit." 

M 21. And brother shall deliver up brother to death, and father, 
child : and children shall rise up against parents, and shall kill 
them.] So Mk. with kcli for Se at the beginning. See Introduction, 
p. xx. Social strife is a common feature of the Apocalyptic 
description of the last days ; cf. 2 Es 5 9 " all friends shall destroy 
one another"; 6 24 "At that time shall friends make war one 
against another like enemies"; Jub 23 19 "And they will strive 
one with another, the young with the old, and the old with the 
young, the poor with the rich, and the lowly with the great, and 
the beggar with the prince " ; Apoc. Bar 70 3 " And they will hate 
one another, and provoke one another to fight ; and the mean will 
rule over the honourable, and those of low degree will be extolled 
above the famous" ; Enoch 56 7 99 s ioo 1 . See note on v. 84 . 

M 22. And ye shall be hated by all for My name's sake. But he 
that endured to the end, he shall be saved.] So Mk. In Mk. the 
Te'Aos is the coming of the Son of Man in the period after the 
great tribulation ; cf. 2 Es 6 25 " Whosoever remaineth — he shall 
be saved, and shall see My salvation, and the end of the world " ; 
9 7, 8 " And every one that shall be saved — shall be preserved." — 
vizop-uva.%] cf. Dn I2 12 (Th) //.a/cdpios 6 VTrojxevoiv. 

L 23. But when they persecute you in this city, flee to the other : 
for verily I say to you, Ye shall not exhaust the cities of Israel, 
until the Son of Man come.] The as t€'A.os of the last verse has 
carried away the mind of the editor, in spite of his context, to the 
thought of the Second Coming. The apostles had been forbidden 
to go to the Gentiles or Samaritans. They were to preach to the 
lost sheep of the house of Israel, vv. 6 - 6 . In this work they would 


suffer persecution, vv. 17 " 22 . But persecution would not become so 
universal that a city of Israel could not be found as a refuge 
before the Son of Man came. It seems to be impossible to 
interpret this verse of a coming of Christ to His missionaries during 
His lifetime. In this Gospel the coming of the Son of Man is 
always a final coming after His death to inaugurate the kingdom. 

19. 7rws ij] om. S 1 a b k. 

23. After tt\v kripa.v~\ DLS'abkg'qh add: "and if they persecute 
you in the other, flee ye to another." The words, as Merx points out, seem 
necessary to explain the following exhortation. 

24. The editor here collects together other sayings bearing 
upon persecution. 

A disciple is not above the teacher, nor a slave above his master.] L 
Lk. in his Sermon (6 40 ) has clause a, adding : " but every one who 
is perfected shall be as his teacher." 

25. Sufficient for the disciple that he be as his teacher, and the L 
slave (shall be) as his master. If they called the master of the 
house Beelzeboul, how much more the members of his house /] In Lk. 
the saying about the disciple and his teacher illustrates the saying 
about the blind leading the blind. Because a blind man cannot 
be directed by a blind man, so a scholar dependent on his teacher 
cannot receive more wisdom than his teacher has. At the best, 
he will he as wise as his teacher. Here the words have a different 
application, and are intended as a warning to the disciples to 
expect persecution. If their Master has been ill-treated and 
slandered, they must expect similar treatment. It is clear that 
Mt. and Lk. were acquainted with the saying in a detached form 
or in different contexts. — Iva. yeV^Tcu] Here as in 8 8 practically 
equivalent to the infinitive. See Moulton, p. 206 ff. — BceX^ov'A.] 
Here clearly a term of reproach. 1 In 12 24 it is wrongly made 
equivalent to arch-devil. It has been traced to the 3UT b]!2 = 
god of flies, of 2 K i 6 . This has been changed into b)21 b]12 in 
order to introduce assimilation to the sound of 73J=dung. In B. 
Ab. Zar 18 6 the sacrifice (1"I3?) of the heathen is ironically called 
but "dung." Cf. Dalm. Gram. p. 137. The objection to this 
explanation is that there is no evidence that Baalzebul was 
adopted into the popular demonology as a powerful devil, or that 
flies were particularly identified with evil spirits. Others connect 
zebul with the Hebrew TOT, meaning "lofty dwelling," cf. 1 K 8 13 , 

Is 63 15 ; but 7131 in this sense is used as the dwelling of God, 
whereas we should expect here some term equivalent to Hades, 
the abode of evil spirits. In the Rabbinical literature, Zebul is the 
name of the fourth heaven, in which are the heavenly Jerusalem, 
the Temple, the Altar, and Michael. 2 In the apocalyptic literature 

1 C E at have Bee\fr/3oiJX ; N B, Beefe/3ouX ; S 1 c g' Beelzebub. See 
on 1 2 s14 . a Cf. Ckagiga I2 b . 


the lord of evil spirits and the Antichrist is called Beliar; cf. 
Charles on Ascension of Isaiah i 8 . 

25. apKcrov] See on 6 34 . — 6 SouXos] sc. " let him be " or " shall 
be." We should expect to SovXw. The nom. is probably due to 
careless translation. 

26-33. The editor here inserts a section which finds a parallel 
in Lk i2 2-9 , where it is ascribed to an occasion at a later period in 
Christ's life. There is a good deal of agreement in language, with 
some striking differences. These differences do not favour the 
theory that the two Evangelists borrowed from the same written 
source ; and the difference in historical setting is still more unfavour- 
able to such a view, unless the supposed source contained sayings 
without any historical settings. It is probable that the two writers 
drew these words from different written sources, Mt.'s being the 

L 26. Fear them not, therefore ; for nothing is covered which shall 
not be revealed, and hidden which shall not be knownJ\ Three times 
in the following verses we get this "fear not." See Introduction, 
p. lxv. The saying about that which is hidden being revealed 
seems to have been a traditional utterance of Christ which could 
be adapted to any context. Mk. has it after the parable of the 
Sower, 4 22 , in the difficult form, oi yap e'oriv KpvirTov iav /at) iva 
(pavepuOfj ovSl cyevero airoKpv<pov aXX' Iva ets cpavepov e\6r}. It there 
seems to be applied to the teaching in parables. The truth was 
hidden in the parabolic teaching, but only that it might gain the 
greater publicity. Mr.., having inserted a similar saying here, omits 
Mk 4 22 in his parallel section. Lk. in the parallel to Mk. has : 
ov yap IdTiv KpviTTbv o oi (pavepbv yerjio-erai ouSe airoKpvcpov o ov fir) 
yvtiicrOrj kcu cts (pavepbv Z\6rj. Lk. here in yvwcrdfj shows remem- 
brance of the form of the saying which occurs in Mt., yvwo-OrjcreTai. 
Lk. has the saying again in 12 2 , where he has a section, 12 2 - 9 , 
parallel to Mt io 26-33 , but assigned to a different occasion. The 
saying in 1 2 2 runs thus : ovoev 8e o-uyxeKaXv/x/xa'ov ioriv, o ovk 
airoKaXvcpOrjaeTai kcu Kpvmov 6 oi yvoja^creTat. This is almost 
identical with Mt, where the words seem to be used as a proverbial 
saying, affording an analogy for the following exhortation : " Just as 
all hidden things are destined to be brought to light, so you must 
publish to the world what I tell you now in obscurity." In Lk. 
the application seems different : " Beware of hypocrisy, because 
the truth will come to light." 

L 27. What I say to you in the darkness, speak ye in the light ; 
and what you hear at the ear {in whispers), proclaim upon the 
housetops.^ Lk. has: "Wherefore (avB' £>v), whatever things you 
say in the darkness shall be heard in the light, and what you speak 
to the ear (i.e. privately) in the chambers shall be proclaimed upon 
the housetops." In Mt. the meaning seems to be : "I give you 


My teaching in privacy and obscurity. But I wish you to be the 
agents in making it everywhere public." In Lk. the idea rather is : 
" Hypocrisy is essentially futile, inasmuch as all things hidden 
ultimately come to light, and your secret words and whispers 
will one day be known." 

28. And fear not those who kill the body, but cannot kill the L 
soul. But fear rather Him who is able to destroy both soul and body 
in Gehenna.'] The second " fear not," cf. v. 26 . The warning there 

is against fear of slander ; here, against fear of persecution to the 
death : " In your work of making My teaching public you will 
meet with persecution. Fear not physical death. But fear the 
wrath of God against unfaithfulness to Him, for He can destroy 
soul and body together in Gehenna." The Talmud (B. Rosh ha Sh 
i6 b i7 a ) says that the school of Shammai taught that at the 
judgement-day there would be three classes of men. Of these, one 
would remain in Gehinnom for twelve months, after which their 
bodies would be destroyed and their souls burned. But, as a rule, 
both in Apocalyptic and Talmudic literature, the punishment of 
the wicked is regarded as eternal ; cf. Yo\z,Jud. Eschat. pp. 286 f. 
Lk. has : " But I say unto you, my friends, Fear not those who 
kill the body, and after these things have nothing more that they 
can do. But I will show you whom you should fear. Fear Him 
who has power after killing to cast into Gehenna. Yea, I say unto 
you, fear Him." 

For 4>o(3rj0r]re o.tt6, a Hebraistic idiom, cf. Blass, p. 88. 

For ye'evva, cf. on 5 22 . 

29. Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing f and not one ofl, 
them falls to the ground without your Father.] Lk. has : " Are not 
five sparrows sold for two farthings? and not one of them is 
forgotten before God." 

ao-o-dpiov] The Latin as, known to the Talmudic writers as 
nDX. It was equivalent to ^th of a denarius, i.e. to something 
less than a halfpenny. Cf. Pesikta des Rab. Kahana, 10 (Wunsche), 
p. 113 : "If the bird is not captured without the will of heaven, 
how much less we ! " 

30. But even the hairs of your head are all numbered.] So Lk. L 
with d\Xa Kol — ifiiov for ifiwv Se i«u. The emphasis here is rather 
upon al rpt^cs than upon vyu.u>v. 

31. Fear not, therefore, you are more valuable than many L 
sparrows.] So Lk. without ovv or v/ieis. This is the third " Fear 
not " ; cf. vv. 26 - 2S . 

32. Every one, therefore, who shall acknoivledge Me before men, I L 
also will acknowledge him before My Father which is in the heavens .] 
Lk. has : " And I say to you, Every one who shall acknowledge 
Me before men, also the Son of Man will acknowledge him before 
th* angels of God." 6/xoAoyeiV Zv occurs only here and in Lk 12 8 . 


It is an Aramaic and Syriac idiom. Cf. even Moulton, p. 104 : 
" It seems best not to look for any justification of this usage in 
Greek." — tov 7rarpos /xov tov iv toi? obpavo'ts] See on 5 16 . 

L 33. But whosoever shall deny Me before men, I also will deny him 
before My Father which is in the heavens.] Lk. has : " But he who 
denied Me before men, shall be denied before the angels of God." 
Vv. 82 - 83 find a differently worded parallel in Mk 8 38 , which the 
editor of Mt. omits when he comes to that section of Mk. 

L 34. The thought of persecution, especially of persecution at 
the hands of near relatives, reminds the editor of other sayings 
bearing upon the divisions caused by Christ's teaching in families. 
Think not that I came to cast peace upon the earth. I came not 
to cast peace, but a sword.] This and the following verse find a 
parallel in Lk 12 61 - 63 in a different context. Lk. has: "Think ye 
(Sok€it«) that I came (vapiycvopuqv) to give peace on the earth? No, 
I tell you, but division." Phraseology and context alike differ. 
The two Evangelists draw from different sources. 

Mr) vofxt(rr]T€ on r)\6ov — ovk rj\6ov] The same formula occurs 
in 5 17 . The editor probably assimilates. 

35. For I came to divide a man against his father, and a 
daughter against her mother, and a bride against her mother-in-law '.] 
Lk i2 52 - 58 has a similar thought in different words. 

Cf. B. Sanhed. 97* " In the period when the Son of David 
shall come, a daughter will rise up against her mother, a daughter-in- 
law against her mother-in-law." For similar formulas in Babylonian 
Inscriptions, cf. Jeremias, Babylonisches im NT, p. 97. 

Cf. also Sotah 49 s b " The son despises the father, the daughter 
rebels against the mother, the daughter-in-law against the mother- 
in-law, and a man's enemies are they of his own household." 

L 36. And a man's enemies (shall be) those of his household.] This 
and the previous verse seem to be a reminiscence of Mic 7 6 . 

L 37. He who loveth father or mother more than Me, is not worthy 
of Me ; and he who loveth son or daughter more than Me, is not 
worthy of Me.] This and the following verse find a parallel in 
Lk 14 26 " 27 . But context and phraseology are alike different. The 
Evangelists draw from different sources. Lk. has : " If any man 
come to Me, and hate not his own father, and mother, and wife, 
and children, and brothers, and sisters, yea, and also his own life, 
he cannot be My disciple." 

L 38. And he who taketh not his cross, and followeth after Me, is 
not worthy of Me •.] Lk. has: "Whosoever beareth not his cross, 
and cometh after Me, cannot be My disciple." It is clear that in 
the Synoptic Gospels we have three recensions of this saying, viz. 
(a) Mk 8 34 =Mt i6 24 = Lk 9 23 , a positive form, c? ns OtXti ottio-w 
fiov iXOiiv (Lk. epxecrOai) apirjado-Qoi kavrbv ko.1 apdrw tov crravpov 
avrov (Lk. adds ko.6' r/fxipav) Kai aKoXovOetToi p.01. (b) Mt IO 38 , a 


negative term, os ov Xau/?av€i tov crravpov avrov Kal aKoXovGti 6iricro> 
pov. (c) Lk 14 27 , another negative form in a different context, 
ocrris ov /Sacrra^et tov aravpov kavrov Kal ep^erai ottlctu) [xov. The 
two latter look like independent translations of a Semitic original. 
It is commonly assumed that this saying betrays reflection upon 
the manner of Christ's death. So far as Lk. is concerned, the 
thought of discipleship as involving probable death in persecution, 
seems less obvious than that of faithful discipleship simply. It 
would not have been surprising had we found " yoke " for " cross " 
there. The Rabbis spoke of a man as receiving the yoke of 
the law, cf. Ab 3 6 ; or the yoke of the kingdom of the heavens, 
cf. B. Berakhoth 13*. So Christ, elsewhere, Mt n 29 , spoke of His 
yoke. But it is historically probable that Christ in speaking of 
His death should anticipate it as one of crucifixion. This had 
become, as it would seem, typical of violent death. It is so used 
in the parables of the Mechilta. Cf. Fiebig, Altjiid. Gleichnisse, 
p. 44: "(Like) a robber who entered in and outraged the king's 
palace, (saying), If I find the king's son I will seize him and kill 
and crucify him." Cf. Plato, Rep. ii. 361 : " The just man — will be 
impaled." The condemned man carried his cross to the place of 
execution. Cf. Artemidorus, ii. 56 : 6 ueAAwv airy (o-ravpu>) irpoo-- 
rjXovaOai irporepov avrov /?ucn-a£ei ; x Bereshith Rabba, Par. 56 
(Wiinsche, p. 266) : " Abraham took the wood of the offering as one 
who bears his cross upon his shoulder " ; Plut. de Sera Num. Vind. 
C. g : Kal tw o~<x>p.ari twv KoXa£op.evu)v e/caoTOS Kanovpyuiv tKcpcpet tov 
avrov aravpov. The thought in Mt io 38 is no doubt of death in per- 
secution. The disciples would be dragged before courts of justice, 
v. 17 ; they would be killed by their relatives, v. 21 . But they were not 
to fear physical death, v. 28 . If they shrank back and recanted their 
faith in Christ, He would deny them before God, v. 33 . They must be 
prepared to go to a shameful death, following His example, v. 38 . 

39. He that found his life shall lose it ; and he that lost his life 1 
for My sake shall find it.] This saying occurs in four forms : (1) 
Mk 8 35 = Mt i6 25 = Lk Q 24 os yap iav (Lk. av) 6e\. V rty ijnjxqv 
avrov (Mk. Iavrov ipv)(r]v) o~uio~ai a7roAeo*£i airrjv, os S' av airoXicrrj 
(Mk. a.7roA.€0-€i) Trjv <//v^r;v avrov c'vexev lp.ov (Mk. koX tov eiayytXcov) 
outos (om. Mt. Mk.) owei avrrjv (Mt. evprjo-et, assimilating to io 39 ). 
(2) Mt IO 38 6 €vpwv Trjv fpv^rjv avrov a.TroXeo~ei. avrrjv, Kal 6 aTroXecras 
tt)v \pvxv v avTOV ^ef ejnou evprjaei avrrjv. (3) Lk 17 33 , in a different 
Context, os iav ^rjTrjarj tt)v ipvxV v avT0V trepL7roLt]crao-6ai aTroXlcrei 
avmjv, os 8' av aTvoXia-rj ^woyovrjeru avrrjv. This and No. I look like 
independent translations of a Semitic original. They are not based 
on a common Greek source. (4) Jn 12 25 6 tftiXwv rr)v if/vxr)v airrov 
arroXXvei avrrjv Kal 6 /jllctwv rrjv if/v)(r]v avrov iv tw Koa/xu) rovrto ets 
farjv aluiviov <f>vXd£ei avrrjv. 
1 Quoted by Dr. Bigg, The Church's Task under the Roman Empire, p. 79. 


In Mk 8 = Mt 16 = Lk 9, and in Mt. io, this saying is connected 
with the saying about bearing the cross. 

Here in Mt. it clearly has reference to death in persecution. 
" He who shrinks from death, and wishes to preserve his life of 
the body, will indeed do so, but will lose the higher life of the soul 
into which he would have passed through martyrdom. He who is 
content to suffer death because of his faithfulness to My teaching, 
will forfeit the life of the body, but will make discovery on the 
other side of death of the higher life of the soul." 

L 40. He who receiveth you receiveth Me, and he who receiveth 
Me receiveth Him that sent Me.] Cf. Mk 9 37 . 

L 41. He who receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet shall 
receive the reward of a prophet ; and he who receives a righteous 
man in the name of a righteous man shall receive the reward of a 
righteous man.] V. 40 finds a parallel in Mk 9 37b os av iv twv 
toiovtwv 7raiStW 8e£r]Ta.L 67rt t<3 ovo/xarL /xov ifie Se'^eTai* kcu o? av cue 
Se^Tai ovk cue Se^eTai aWa. tov diroo-TetXavTa ue. Mt. adapts to 
his context here by substituting v/x.Ss for " one of such children," 
and omits from Mk when he comes to that passage. The thought 
passes from the fate of the disciples to that of those who receive 
the teaching of Christ, which they are to proclaim to the world. 
Those who receive them, i.e. welcome their teaching, receive 
Christ, because it is His teaching which the disciples transmit, 
and receive God who sent Him. This idea of Christ's mission 
from God has already underlain the rj\6ov of 5 17 io 34 . In v. 40 the 
Christian missionaries are called Trpo<prJTai and BUmou For the 
first, cf. 23 s4 . They were oYkcuoi as practising the hiKatoo-vvrj which 
he taught them, 6 1 " 18 ; cf. 5 20 . eis ovoua is a translation of the 
Jewish DC? = " in the capacity of," " as," " on the ground of his pro- 
phetic qualifications." Cf. Heitmiiller, Im Namen Jesu, pp. 112 ff. 
Those who receive the Christian missionaries in respect of their 
Christian message, i.e. accept their teaching and become Christians, 
will receive the same reward as the preachers themselves. For the 
idea of eternal life as a reward, see on 19 29 ; and for the concep- 
tion that early and late comers into the kingdom receive the same 
reward of eternal life, see on 20 1 - 16 . 

M 42. And whosoever shall give to drink to one of these little ones a 
cup of cold water only in the name of a disciple, verily I say to you, 
he shall not lose his reward.] This saying is clearly out of place 
here, because there is nothing in the context to explain the mean- 
ing of twv ut/cpwj/ TovTiov. It occurs again in Mk 9 41 with v/xas for 
" these little ones." os yap av t?otio~q vp-as iroTrjpiov vbaros iv ovo/xart 
on XptcrroC ecrre, afjiijv Xiyw v/juv on oi //.?/ aTroXecrr] tov pucrObv avrov. 
Mt. in the parallel section to Mk. omits this verse. Mk., however, 
has Taij/ fLiKpuv TovTiov in the next verse, 9 42 . Mt. seems to be 
quoting from memory, and to have brought in the " these little 


ones " inadvertently. Mk.'s v/u.Ss would have suited the purpose 
much better. If Mt. had known the saying independently with iw 
fxiKpwv tovtoiv, he would almost certainly have inserted it in this form 
in the parallel to Mk 9 41 . On the other hand, twv /xiKpwv tou'twv 
in Mt io 42 can only be explained as a reminiscence of Mk 9 41 - 42 . 

XI. 1. And it came to pass, when Jesus finished charging His E 
twelve disciples, He departed thence to teach and to preach in their 
cities, ,] For this formula at the end of five long discourses, cf. 
Introduction, p. lxiv. For iKeWev, cf. on 4 21 . — tov SiSda-Kuv] Mt. 
has tov with inf. 7 times. The present tense emphasises the con- 
tinuance of the action; cf. 13 3 , and contrast 2 13 3 13 . See Blass, 
pp. 196 ff.; Abbott, Johannine Grammar, 2496. 
C. (5) Survey of His ministry, n 2 " 30 . 

2. The editor gives a survey of Christ's work. It falls into 
three sections. Christ's work is considered (a) in relation to that 
of the Baptist, 2 " 19 ; (o) in view of its apparent failure, 20 ~ 24 ; (c) in 
view of its real success, 25 " 30 . 

No part of this is found in Mk. 
Vv. 2 " 19 find a parallel in Lk 7 18 - 35 . But 

Mt 2 " 3 bear little resemblance to Lk 18 " 21 . 

4-11 agree verbally for the most part with 22 " 28 . 

At this point Lk. breaks the thread of the discourse by inserting 
an editorial comment, vv. 29 " 30 . Mt. seems to carry on the speech, 
but vv. 12 " 15 are probably inserted here by him from another 
context. Vv. 12,13 find a parallel in Lk i6 16 , where the clauses are 
in the reverse order. 

Mt 16 ' 19 agree very closely with Lk 31 " 35 . 
20 is an editorial comment. 
2i-23a a g ree closely with Lk io 13-15 from the charge to the 

23b has no parallel in Lk. 
24 agrees closely with Lk io 12 . 
25-27 a g r ee closely with Lk io 21 - 22 after the return of the 

28-30 have no parallel in Lk. 
So far as vv. 20 " 30 are concerned, it seems probable that the 
editor is bringing together detached sayings, some of which Lk. 
has placed in or after the charge to the Seventy. The two 
Evangelists cannot have had a common source for these sayings, 
unless the source consisted of sayings only, without historical 
connections. These sayings had probably become stereotyped 
in tradition, and were drawn by the two writers from different 
sources. But the relation of Mt 4 ' u - 16 - 19 to Lk 22 " 28 - 31 ' 35 is very 
puzzling. Why do both writers connect these groups of sayings ; 
and why do both insert between them a paragraph which is quite 
different in the two Gospels ? It is probable that the two groups 


existed independently before the two Evangelists. Why both 
writers connected them is not easy to explain. But since both 
groups deal with John the Baptist, it is not altogether unnatural 
that two or more Gospels should have connected them together. 
That they did this independently is shown by the different char- 
acter of the connecting links, Mt 12 " 16 , Lk 29 " 30 . 

If it be thought that the close verbal agreement of Mt 4 " n = 
Lk 22 " 28 and of Mt 16 - w = Lk 7 31 " 35 compels us to think of a direct 
connection between the Gospels, it would be better to fall back 
upon the view that Lk. had seen Mt., than to suppose that both 
are borrowing from a common source. In the latter case it is 
impossible to explain the fact that both editors independently 
insert extraneous words at the same point in a common source. 
If Lk. had seen Mt, he may well have taken objection to w. 12-15 
as obscure, and substituted for them a comment which prepared 
an anticipatory explanation of Mt 19b . In that case he has not 
cared to pass over Mt 12 " 13 altogether, but has placed them in 
another context, transposed them, substituted d-n-o rore for dirb Se 
twv rjfxcpwv 'ludvov which he felt to be anachronistic, substituted 
euayyeAi^cTcu for the ambiguous /?ia£€Tcn, and paraphrased yStaorat 
apira^ovo-iv avrrjv by 7ras cis aurr/v /Jia^erac, thus making the sentence 
clearly express the idea that the Baptist's ministry was the in- 
auguration of the kingdom of heaven. Cf. Ac i 22 io 37 . 
L 2, 3. And John having heard in the prison the works of the 
Messiah, sent through his disciples, and said to Him, Art Thou the 
Coming One, or are we to wait for another ?] Lk. agrees only in 
the last clause. 

iv tw Seo-^wTT/pt'o)] The imprisonment of the Baptist has been 
referred to in 4 12 . — Ta Ipya] of which illustrations have been given 
in S 1 ^ 3 *. — 6 ipxofxevos] i.e. the Messiah ; cf. 3 11 , Ps 118 26 , Dn 7 13 . 
L 4-6. And Jesus ansivered and said to them, Go report to John 
what ye hear and see : blind men see, and lame men walk. Lepers 
are cleansed, and deaf men hear. And dead men are raised, and 
poor men are told good news. And blessed is he who shall not be 
made to stumble in MeP\ — Kadapi^ovrai] See on 8 2 . — euayyeAi'Covrai] 
The verb occurs only here in this Gospel. For the construction, 
cf. He 4 2, 6 . — <TKav§a.\Lo-6fj~\ See on 5 29 . 

Lk. agrees almost word for word. He omits 6 'I^o-ovs, has 
eiSeTe kou rjKovcraTe for aKOvere Kal /8Xe7T€TC, omits xai before \w\oi, 
veKpoi, and 7rra>xot, and has lav for av in the last clause. 
L 7. And as they were going, Jesus began to speak to the multitudes 
concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness to behold? A 
reed shaken by the wind? or : Why went ye out into the wilderness ? 
To behold a reed shaken by the wind ?] Lk. has : aTrt\96vTwv h\ twv 
dyyeXiov Iwdvov, for tovtwv Se Tropevo/xivwy. 

The reed shaken by the wind seems to be a metaphor for a 


commonplace event. But there is probably a side reference to 
the thoughts of the multitudes concerning John. He had predicted 
the coming of One mightier than he (3 11 ). He had recognised in 
Christ one who honoured him by coming to his baptism. Now 
his message seemed to show that he was vacillating, doubtful 
v/hether after all Christ was the coming mightier One. 

0eacracr#ai] does not occur in Mk. The seeing implied is the 
beholding, gazing at, e.g. a spectacle or pageant. It occurs in 6 1 
"to be gazed at by them," 22 11 "to look at the guests," 23 s " to be 
gazed at by men." 

8. But what went ye out to see ? A man clothed in soft (raiment) ? L 
Behold, they who wear soft (raiment) are in kings' houses.] Lk. has 
iv /xaA.a/<ot5 IfxaTLOL? in the first clause, and for the second : IBov 01 iv ivS6$w /ecu Tpv<f>fj vira.p)(0VT€<; iv tois /3acriXeiois cicrtV. The 
meaning is : " You did not go all that way into the wilderness to 
see a worldly sensualist." 

9. But what went ye out to see f A prophet ? yes, I say to you, L 
and more than a prophet.] So Lk. 

" You went to see a spiritual leader of men. And the fulfilment 
exceeded your expectation. You saw a prophet, and that no 
ordinary prophet." 

10. This is he, of whom it stands written, Behold, I send My L 
messenger before Thy face, who shall prepare Thy way before Thee.] 

" For John is he whom the Scripture predicted as the messenger 
who should prepare the way for the Messiah." The quotation 
comes from Mai 3 1 , where the LXX has iSov (e'yw, N c A Q T) 
t£a.7ro(TTeWto rov ayycAov fiov, /ecu £7n./3Ae'i/'eTai 6Sov Trpb irpocrw-rrov 
fiov. Mt., Mk i 2 , and Lk 7 27 agree against the LXX — (a) in 
airoarTeWo) for i$<nrocrT€\.\w ; (b) in irpo Trpoawirov crov after " My 
messenger" ; (c) in os for kgu; (d) in Ka.TacrKeva.cru for iirifiXeyj/cTat, 
and Mt. and Lk. agree ; (e) in tp-TrpocrOtv a-ov for irpo Trpoo-wirov 
a-ov after " way." Both Mt. and Lk. omit in their parallels to 
Mk i 2 . It seems clear that the quotation was current in Christian 
circles in a form slightly different from the LXX. irpb -n-poauyxov 
fiov after "My messenger," may be due to assimilation to Ex 23 20 . 

11. Verily I say to you, There hath not arisen among women-born L 
a greater than John the Baptist. But the least in the kingdom of 
the heavens is greater than he.] Lk. has : /L*€t£ojv Iv ycvv^T&ts 
ywatKu)v 'Iwdvov ouSets Icttiv, and " of God " for " of the heavens." 
"Thus as fulfilling the prophecy of Malachi and heralding the 
Messiah, John is pre-eminent. But the least who shall stand 
within the kingdom shall be more privileged than he." The 
thought is that it is better to enter the kingdom than to herald its 
coming. John was unique amongst men, but citizenship of the 
kingdom will be better than his unique position. On ap.rjv, cf. on 
S 18 . — iv ycw^Tots yvvaiKw] is equivalent to "amongst mortal men"; 


cf. Job 14 1 15 14 25*. — /uKpoTepos] For grades within the kingdom, 
cf. 5 19 . The comparative form is probably used in a superlative 
sense. Cf. Blass, p. 3$; Moulton, pp. 77m In 13 32 , Lk 9 48 , 
fiiKpoT€po<s has the same superlative sense. For /?ao-iAeia twv 
oipavuv, see Introduction, p. lxvii. Here as hitherto in this Gospel 
it is thought of as the kingdom to be inaugurated when the Son of 
Man comes. 1 The least in that kingdom will be more privileged 
than if he had been its herald. 
EP L 12-15. And from the days of John the Baptist until now the 
kingdom of the heavens suffers violence, and violent men ravage 
it. For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John. And 
if ye will receive it, this is Elias ivhich was about to come. He that 
hath ears to hear, let him hear.] 

These obscure verses serve as a connecting link between 
vv. 4 - 11 and 16 ' 19 . Lk. has instead two verses of editorial comment 
describing how the people and the toll-gatherers were baptized by 
John, whilst the Pharisees and the lawyers refused to submit to 
his baptism. Of Mt.'s four verses, Lk. in 16 16 , in quite a different 
context, has a parallel to 12 and 13 in the reverse order : 6 vo/aos ko.1 
oi 7rpocj)rJTaL p.^XP L 'Iwavov <X7ro tot€ tj /3ao-iAeia rov 0€ov evayyeXt^erat 
kcu 7ra? ets avTrjv /Jia^erat. Mt v. 14 is not found elsewhere. V. 15 
is a refrain which occurs again in i3 9 - 43 . In Lk 16 16 /?ia£eTcu is 
clearly middle. " Every one presses into it with vehemence." 
That is to say, the good news of the kingdom is preached, and 
men welcome the good news. For the middle sense, see Deissm. 
Bib. Stud. p. 258, and add to his reference to Ditt. Syll. 379 the 
following, ei rts — fiiacrdfAevos avoi£r) tt)v Kap.dpav, Ditt. Syll. 893. 5. 
Cf. also fiid£,ea6ai = "to take forcible possession of," in a decree of 
B.C. 140-139, Tebtunis Papyri, 6. 31. In Mt. the subject of /Jia£€Tai 
is 17 fiaatXtia. The verb, therefore, can hardly be middle, for in 
what sense could it be said that the kingdom forces its way with 
violence. We must translate, "The kingdom of the heavens is 
violently treated," that is, in the persons of its messengers and 
heralds. The editor has in mind the death of the Baptist and the 
similar ill-treatment meted out to subsequent Christian preachers, 
cf. 23 s4 - 35 . Cf. Dalm. Words, pp. 139 ff. So far the words might 
be taken as a simple editorial comment parallel to the editorial 
comment at this place in Lk. But just as Lk 7 29 - 30 are so worded 
that they might appear to be a continuation of Christ's words, so 
Mt n 12 suggests the question, Is this a simple comment of the 
editor reflecting on the fact that John was the first of a long line 

1 iarlv need not compel us to suppose that the kingdom is here thought of 
as a present condition of things in any other sense than that the good news of its 
near advent and of its nature was after a fashion a present foretaste of its future 
blessedness. The verb would not be represented in the original Aramaic. 
See note on 5 3 . 


of men who suffered on behalf of the kingdom, or did he intend 
the verse to be taken as a continuation of Christ's words ? The 
parallel in Lk 16 16 seems to prove that Mt. was acquainted with a 
traditional saying of Christ which brought into close connection 
the kingdom and the verb /3ia£eo-0cu. That is to say, in his 
comment in v. 12 he is paraphrasing words traditionally ascribed 
to Christ, and he probably intended the verse to be taken as 
spoken by Christ in continuation of v. 11 in spite of the fact that 
the phrase ci7r6 8e twv ^cpaiv 'Iwdvov tov (SaTTTUTrov clearly betrays 
either Christ speaking on another occasion than that described in 
vv. 2-8 , or the Evangelist himself. It seems probable that he knew 
of a saying ascribed to Christ which described the kingdom, since 
John preached as in some sense the object of men's violence. He 
therefore inserted it here, together with w. u and 15 , as affording a 
connecting link between vv. 7-11 and 16 " 19 , and with the intention of 
preparing for the latter paragraph in which John's career is viewed 
as finally closed. 

V. 13 seems to be brought in here only on the ground that it 
contains the name John. It seems impossible to find any good 
connection with v. 12 . What is the meaning of " all the prophets and 
the law prophesied until John " ? And why the " prophets and the 
law," and not "the law and the prophets "? Does the verse mean 
that io foretelling the Christ, John had been preceded by the pro- 
phets and the law, and that these had borne witness until he came 
to supplant them, and to give the finishing touch to their witness? 

If, however, we prefer to disregard the obvious clue to com- 
pilation in the words a7ro $€ Ta>v rj/xepQiv 'Icoavou tov /3aTTTio-TOV ews 
apn, and to interpret /?ia£eTcu in a middle sense, as in Lk., it will 
be possible to connect the verses in the following manner : 

V. 9 . John was more than a prophet. He was a fulfilment of 
prophecy. A prophet foretells the future. John helped to 
inaugurate what he preached. He proclaimed the Messiah, and 
at the same time prepared the way for Him. 

V. 10 . He was thus the messenger foretold by Malachi. 

V. 11 . Hence he was the greatest of men. But though in a 
sense he inaugurated the kingdom, yet he stood outside it. The 
least who has become a disciple of it is more privileged than he. 

V. 12 . For since his preaching men can, in a sense, stand within 
the kingdom. The good news of its near advent has entered into 
life with all the force and energy of a spiritual movement, and men 
and women fired with enthusiasm welcome it. 

Vv. 13 - 14 . Before John's coming the prophets had foretold the 
kingdom ; and when there were no prophets, the law, i.e. the whole 
divine Scriptures, bore the same witness. But when He came, 
prophecy was at an end, and fulfilment began. For He was Elias 
whom the Scripture foretold. 


13. iTrpo4>^T€vaav\ For the augment, see Blass, p. 39. 

14. Already in Ecclus 48 10 the coming of Elijah to accomplish 
a work of restoration is presupposed on the basis of Mai 4 5 - 6 . 
This idea is common in the later Jewish literature; cf. Weber, 
Jud. Theol. 352 f. ; Vo\z, Jud. Eschat. p. 192. There is a remark- 
able discussion as to the work of the prophet in B. Edujoth 8 7 . 
It is there said that Johanan ben Zakkai had received from his 
teacher a tradition that Elijah would not come to pronounce clean 
or unclean, to separate or receive {i.e. to decide upon the legitimacy 
of Israelites whose descent was doubtful), but to separate those 
who had been received by force (yn?3 pxnpDn), and to receive 
those who had been separated by force, i.e. to remove those who 
had fraudulently claimed Israelitish descent, and to receive back 
those whose legitimacy had been wrongly denied. Here we have 
the idea of membership of the Israelite community suffering 
violence, and violent men wrongly laying claim to it. It is possible 
that this throws some light on the sayings underlying Mt u 12 , 
Lk 16 16 . The Baptist strongly denounced the claim to Abrahamic 
descent as in itself conferring merit (3 9 ). In other words, he threw 
open the kingdom, or the stage of preparation for it, to all men 
without regard to the question of legitimacy. Consequently, since 
his day men forced their way into it whose claims would have 
been denied from an orthodox Jewish standpoint. The common 
people and men of suspected orthodoxy like the TcAdJj/ai welcomed 
his teaching, Lk 7 129 , and forced their way into the kingdom. In 
thus opening the kingdom to invasion on the part of those whom 
orthodox Jewish theologians would have excluded, John fulfilled 
one of the functions expected of the coming Elijah ; cf. Ecclus 48 10 
"to restore the tribes of Israel," but in a sense opposed to Jewish 
theological expectation, not merely by restoring to their rights 
those whose true membership was wrongly denied, but by clearing 
away the superstition that purity of descent in itself was essential 
to participation in the Messianic blessings. In this respect John 
was Elijah who was to come. 

2. did] N B C* D al 33 124 q. Mo of C 3 E F al seems to be an assimila- 
tion to Lk. For did, cf. i 22 2 5 - 1B - »■ M 3 s 4 14 8 17 12" 13 35 21* 24 1B 27 s St' oD, 
l8 7 26 s4 , and 6/j-6a-ai SI dy/Aw^, Ditt. Syll. 122. 25. 

5. teal tttujxoI evayyeXLtovTai] Omit S 1 k. evayye\l£e<rdat, occurs only 
here in Mt. It is common in Lk. For other Lucan words occurring once 
in texts of Mt., cf. <rwe'x€cr0ai, 4 24 ; vofuicds, 22 s5 . 

15. The words occur again in i3 9,4S . Here they seem to call 
attention to a fulfilment of prophecy, and they may have a similar 
purpose in 13 43 . See note there. 

16. But to what shall I liken this generation ? It is like to 
children sitting in market-places, who call to the others, and say.'] 
Lk. has: "To what therefore shall I liken the men of this genera 


tion, and to what are they like? They are like to children who 
sit in the market-place, and call to one another. Who say." 

Tivt Se o/xotwo-w — 6/Wa etrrt] In the Jewish Midrashic literature 
the most common formula for introducing a parable is nth *WG 
. . . b nun "imn = " a parable. To what is the matter like ? to," etc.; 
cf. Bacher, Exeget. Termin. der Jiid. Traditionsliteratur,\. p. 121, 
ii. p. 121. — dyopcus] on Mt.'s preference for the plural, see on 8 26 . 

17. We piped to you, and ye did not dance ; we wailed, and L 
you did not lame /it. .] Lk. has iKXavcrare for iKoxpaaOe. The idea is 
that the children could get no response from their playmates, whom 
they could attract to no games, whether cheerful or mournful. 

18. For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, L 
He hath a devil.] Lk. has : " For John the Baptist has come 
neither eating bread nor drinking wine, and you say, He hath a 
devil." The austere life of the Baptist (cf. ch. 3), and his call to 
repentance, failed to influence his contemporaries. " He has a 
demon," they said, "who drives him to an excess of asceticism." 

19. The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, L 
Behold a man a glutton and a winebibber, a friend of publicans 
and sinners :] Lk. has again iX-qXvOev for r]X0ev and Aeyere for 
Xiyovuiv. On the other hand, the sociability of Christ, His inter- 
course with the common people, equally failed to attract His 
contemporaries. He associates, they said, with men of lax life. 

It is clear that this paragraph is aimed at the orthodox Jews, 
the Pharisees, who judged the Baptist and the Lord by the standard 
of their Pharisaic righteousness. It seems out of place as addressed 
to the multitudes, and probably originally belonged to a context in 
which Christ was addressing the Pharisees. Lk. has endeavoured 
to prepare for it by inserting 7 29 - 30 . 

And Wisdom was justified by (against) her children.] Lk. has : L 
"all her children." 

This obscure verse is full of difficulty. o-o^)t'a is presumably 
the divine Wisdom of God to whom the Baptist and the Lord 
alike owed their inspiration. Both had been sent by Wisdom, 
and the responsibility for the different character of their teaching 
and methods rested with her. Cf. Lk. n 49 8ta tovto ko.1 rj o-o</>ta 

tov 6eov €LT7€V a.7rocrTeXw, k.t.X., and see On Mt 23 s4 . — e$iKaiw8r)] 

If we suppose that the editor wishes this clause to be taken as a 
continuation of Christ's words, the aorist must be compared with 
the similar aorists in 4 17 (euSoK^o-a), n 27 (-rrapeSoOrj), 28 18 (ZSoOtj), 
as implying a pre-temporal foreordaining of future events by the 
divine Wisdom, which was eternally "justified" as it developed 
itself in history. If it were not that the clause occurs also in Lk., 
it would be natural to interpret it (cf. on v. 12 ), as a comment of the 
Evangelist reflecting on the fact that the divine Wisdom which had 
seemed to fail in its methods, so far as Christ's contemporaries 


were concerned, had nevertheless justified her plan of action in the 
history of the Christian Church. If the Jews had failed to respond 
to her summons, others had obeyed her call ; cf. 8 12 the sons of the 
kingdom rejected, whilst many from east and west take their place. 
d7ro here is apparently equivalent to vtto; cf. Blass, p. 125. The 
divine Wisdom, which had planned and carried out its purposes 
of sending the Baptist and the Son of Man to call the Jews to 
repentance and to the kingdom, was declared to be right, approved, 
justified by her children, i.e. by those who did not pass condemna- 
tory judgements on the Baptist and on the Son of Man, but did 
respond to their teaching, and become their disciples. These 
showed themselves to be the sons of the Wisdom who called to 
them through John and through the Son of Man. The clause 
therefore seems to qualify the " this generation " of v. 16 . As a whole, 
or in large part, they were indeed as irresponsive children un- 
affected by the message of Baptist or Son of Man. But there 
were exceptions, Wisdom's sons. These caught the sound of her 
voice in the preaching of the Baptist and of Christ, and re- 
sponded to it. In so doing they justified the methods and agents 
used by the divine Wisdom. For the " sons " of Wisdom, cf. Pr 
8 32 Ecclus 48 11 ; and in this Gospel the parallel viol -nys /Sao-iXctas, 
13 38 . Lk. seems to have anticipated the meaning of i&iKaiwOr) in his 
insertion in 7 29 " All the people and the tax-gatherers justified God, 
i.e. declared, proved Him to be right by submitting to John's 
baptism." Thus Wisdom was justified of her children. Well- 
hausen gives a different turn to the passage by taking 6\tt6 as = 
Ul\> JD or , JQ» = against. The divine Wisdom represented by John 
and Jesus was justified against her children, i.e. the Jews, in so far 
as their complaints against her (w. 18 - 19 ) were seen to be conten- 
tious contradictions. For " sons of Wisdom " as = the Jews, cf. the 
viol rr]<i /3ao-iA.etas of 8 12 , which also is equivalent to the Jews. 

16. A wpo<j<f>u}vowTa — \iyov<riv\ so KBDZ. — nal irpoiKpwvovcn — ko\ 
\tyovcriv] so EFo/, S 1 S 2 have "send" for irpoacpui'eiv, and so S 1 in Lk. 
7 32 .— rots irtpois] so SBDZ; roh eralpois Avtuv, G S U V al S 1 S 2 . C E F 
al S 1 S 2 add o.vtQi> to rots irtpois. eralpos occurs in this Gospel three times in 
the vocative, 20 13 22 12 26 50 , but rots tripois is both best attested and most 
likely to have given rise to the variants. Lk. has dXXTjXots. 

19. TtKvw] B 2 D al S 1 S 2 a c k ; tpywv, X B* S 3 S 4 codd. ap. Hier. In 
Lk. Zpyuv is read by N only. It might be urged that t£kvu>v in Mt. is due to 
assimilation to Lk. ; but, on the oiher hand, Zpywv may be a late conjec- 
tural emendation. There seems to be no trace of it before the fourth century. 

20. The editor adds a connecting link in order to introduce the 
following paragraph, which in Lk. occurs in the charge to the Seventy. 
E Theft He began to reproach the cities in which His many miracles 
happened, because they repented not. 

totc] See On 2 7 . — cu irXelo-Tai 8wa/ms] For 6 TrActo-ros = 6 
7roAu'?, cf. Blass, p. 143 ; Moulton, p. 79, " those very numerous 

XI. 20-25.] MINISrRY IN GALILEE 121 

mighty works." Swcyus = " a miracle," " a mighty deed," is common 
to the Synoptic tradition, but is avoided by Jn. Cf. Abbott, 
Johannine Vocabulary, 1686 e. 

21. Woe to thee, Chorazin I woe to thee, Bethsaida I Because L 
if in Tyre and Sidon had happened the miracles which happened 
in you, long ago they would have repented in sackcloth and ashes.] 
Lk. has ly€vq6r](Tav for iyerovro, and adds KaOy/xevoi. after airoSio. 
Chorazin lay about an hour's distance north from Tell Hum 

( = Capharnaum ?) ; see Sanday, Sacred Sites, p. 24. Bethsaida was 
situated on the left side of the Jordan, a little north of the lake ; 
see Sanday, p. 41. It is remarkable that the Gospel tradition 
should have preserved the name Chorazin without at the same 
time transmitting some account of the " many " miracles done 
there. For sackcloth and ashes as symbols of grief, cf. Jon 3 6 , 
Dn 9 3 , Is 58 5 . 

22. But I say to you, For Tyre and Sidon it shall be more L 
tolerable in the day of judgement than for you. ~\ Lk. omits Aeyw ifuv, 
and has iv r-rj /cpicrei for iv rjfxepa Kptcrews. See for this phrase on io 15 . 

23. And thou, Capharnaum, shalt thou be exalted up to heaven ?L 
Unto Hades shalt thou come down. Because if in Sodom had 
happened the miracles ivhich happened in thee, they would have 
remained unto this day.] Lk. has only the first clause. Clause a 
seems to contain a reminiscence of Is i4 13 - 15 619 rbv otpavbv 
avafir)< — ek aSrjv (aSou, K A) KaTa(3-qa~rj. The words are purely 
metaphorical. The men of Capharnaum dwelt in a nourishing 
city, of which they were proud. But they had failed to appreciate 
the true significance of Christ's works, and need expect no better 
fate than the judgement which overwhelmed the inhabitants of 
Sodom. On Sodom, see note on io 15 . 

24. But I say unto you, That for the land of Sodom it shall be 
more tolerable on the day of judgement than for thee.] The verse 
does not occur in Lk. Similar words have already occurred in 
io 15 ; see note there. 

23. /jLV—tyuOfavl KBCD<f>abcfTg 2 ; 77— ityu0«<ra, N 2 at; if— ityti^s 
E F al. S 1 has " that hath been uplifted," S 2 " not unto heaven shalt thou be 
uplifted," k "nequomodo in ccelum elata es." The variation between the 
two Greek readings is explicable as due either to a repetition of the fi oi 
Ka<papi>aovfi or the omission of the y. of fi-q- The rendering of S 2 is due to 
misunderstanding of ix-f). Either reading gives a good sense. For the exclama- 
tory question, cf. 7 14 tI arev^i, k.t.X. 

KaTafiricrri] B D ; Kara^aa-dria-ri, X C at. The former is probably original 
here, and is due to assimilation to Is 14 18 on the part of the editor. The 
latter is due to assimilation to Lk. by the copyists. 

25. The editor here inserts a paragraph which, in Lk. io 21 " 22 , 
occurs after the return of the Seventy. 

25. At that time Jesus answered and said, I praise Thee, Father, L 
Lord of heaven and earth, because Thou didst hide these things from 


wise and prudent men, and didst reveal them to babes.] Lk. has : 
" In that same hour Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit, and 
said," etc. 

S.TroKpi6zi<; 6 'I^crovs cTttcv] For the Hebraistic d7ro«pi^ets, see 
Dalm. Words, pp. 24 f. — e£oyu.oAoyov/x.<u] used as in the LXX = 
b rrnn, " to give praise to " ; cf. 2 S 22 56 , and see Kennedy, Sources, 
p. 118. In view of the dependence of vv. 28 - 29 upon Ecclus 51 23 " 27 , 
cf. also Ecclus 5i L 17 . Tavra in this connection means the <Wd/xeis 
which the men of Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capharnaum failed to 
recognise in their true bearing, and the methods of the divine 
Wisdom which the Jews misunderstood. — o-o<pu>v koX (twctwv] i.e. 
the Jews, with their arrogant condemnation of Wisdom's methods. — 
1/7771-1015] i.e. the children of Wisdom who justified her methods. 
There is an underlying contrast here between the stereotyped 
orthodox Jew, who misunderstood Christ's teaching, and the 
unlearned, childlike simplicity of His disciples, the " children of 
Wisdom," who accepted it. 

Ij 26. Yea, O Father, because so it was well-pleasing before Thee.] 
So Lk. — 6 7ra.Trjp] For the nominative used as the vocative, cf. 
Blass, p. 87, and 27 29 6 fiao-iXevs. — iyevero tuSo/aa (.fxirpoa-Qiv 0-01/} 
is equivalent to the late Hebrew and Aramaic ^asta jlVli mp Nljn 
Cf. "pasta pm W. B. Berakhoth 17" 2 9 b , B. Taanith 24 b , and 
"" Dip Nljn •&*, Targ.Jud. 13 23 . 

L 27. All things were delivered to Me by My Father. And ?io one 
understandeth the Son except the Father. Neither understandeih 
any one the Father except the Son, and he to whom the Son wills to 
reveal {Him).] Lk. has yivwo-Kei tis io-riv for iinyLvwa-Ket, and ko.1 tis 
i(TTLV 6 TraTTjp for ovSe tov iraripa tis (TnyivuxTKei. iTrtyivuxTKeiv IS 
used in 7 16 - 20 14 35 i7 12 in the sense " to recognise," and so four 
times in Mk. Jn. uses ytvwo-Kuv of the relationship between 
Father and Son. See Abbott, Johannine Vocabulary, 1626. 

For the aorist 7rapi866r), cf. evSo/c^cra, 3 17 ; i866r], 28 18 . 
The idea involved is of a pre-temporal act, and carries with 
it the conception of the pre-existence of the Messiah. The 
same thought probably underlies the r)X9ov of 5 17 io 34 , and 
the d7roorT6tAavra of io 40 . For the belief in the pre-existence 
of the Messiah, cf. Enoch 48 s " Before the sun and the 
signs were created, before the stars of heaven were made, 
His name was named before the Lord of Spirits," 48 s " He has 
been chosen and hidden before Him before the creation of the 
world, and for evermore " ; and see Charles on Enoch 48 s ; Schiirer, 
11. ii. 160; Bousset, Eel. Jud. pp. 250 ff. ; Volz, Jud. Esch. pp. 
217 m; Weber, Jud. Theol. p. 355 ; Dalm. Words, pp. 129 ff., 299 ff. 
Dalman endeavours to show that "Judaism has never known 
anything of a pre-existence peculiar to the Messiah antecedent to 
His birth as a human being" ; but however true this may be of 


Rabbinical Judaism, traces of a conception of a premundane 
existence of the Messiah or Son of Man in the Apocalyptic 
literature cannot be altogether explained away. For traces of this 
idea in the LXX, see Bousset. — tov vlov] The remarkable antithesis, 
the Son — th*> Father, is found only here in this Gospel. But see 
note on 24 s6 and Intro, p. lxvi, note 1. It is a reminiscence of a 
side of Christ's teaching which is prominent in the Fourth Gospel. 
The occurrence of this verse in both Mt. and Lk., even if the two 
Evangelists borrow from a single source, proves that this saying 
reaches back to an early stage of the Gospel tradition. If, as is 
probable, the two writers drew from different sources, this tradition 
was widespread. If we add the fact that a similar use of the 
Son — the Father occurs in Mk 13 32 , this usage as a traditional 
saying of Christ is as strongly supported as any saying in the 
Gospels. It implies consciousness of a unique relationship to God, 
and that relationship, as the context suggests, consisted in part of 
fulness of revelation, " all things were delivered," and in part of 
pre-existence with God. Whether the words as originally uttered 
involved consciousness of pre-existence is, no doubt, open to 
question. But it is difficult not to suppose that the editor of this 
Gospel interpreted them in this sense. The Messiah was super- 
naturally born of a virgin, i 18 " 25 . His return from Egypt fulfilled 
the words, "Out of Egypt I called My Son," 2 15 . The devil 
challenged Him upon this point : " If Thou be God's Son," 4 3 - 6 . 
At His baptism the divine voice proclaimed Him to be " My Son, 
the Messiah, elected by divine choice from all eternity," 3 17 . In 
His teaching He spoke of having come, " I came " (5 17 io 34 ), and 
of having been "sent" (io 40 ). In accordance with this line of 
thought, 1 1 25-27 are m ost easily explained if the tenses be treated 
as aorists referring to pre-temporal acts of God wrought in the 
prehistoric " beginning " or eternity : " Thou didst conceal — didst 
reveal — all things were delivered." Since the Son was pre-existent 
with God, it follows that no one knows the Son (i.e. knows fully) 
except the Father ; and the reverse is equally true. 

<5 idv] idv is found after relatives for av in the LXX, in MSS 
of the N.T., and in the papyri ; cf. Blass, pp. 60 f. ; Deissm. Bibl. 
Stud. 202 ff. ; and Moulton, Class. Rev. 1901, p. 32, Gram. pp. 42 f., 
who speaks of it as " a fashion of the first and second centuries." 
"It seems fair to conclude that dv in cents. 1 and 2 was written 
by those who were particular about correctness, and that N.T. 
writers, therefore, used predominantly the popular idv." 

28-30. These verses are peculiar to this Gospel. 

Come unto Me, all who labour and are burdened, and I will L 
refresh you. Take My yoke upon you, and learn of Me. Because 
I am meek and humble-hearted : and you shall fi?id refreshment for 
your souls. For My yoke is easy, and My burden is light.] There 


seems to be an undoubted dependence of these words upon 
Ecclus 50, 51. Cf. the following : 

Mt II 25 e£ofio\oyovfxai aoi irdrep Kvpie tov ovpavov koX Tr)s yi}s. 
Ecclus 51 1 i$o/j.oXoyij(TOfjLai croi K.vpie fiacnXev . . . i$ofioXoy ov/xau 
5 I 10 irreKa\€adfji,7]v Kvpiov 7rarepa Kvpiov fxov. 

Mt II 28 Sevre 717305 fxe. Ecclus 51" 3 cyyt'crarc Trpbt /xc. 

9fi ' e « „ 97 5 / 

Ir° 7ravT£S 01 kotticovtcs. 5 1 e/co7riao~a. 

II 29 apare tov £uyov ju.ov 5 1 26 tov Tpd^rjXov t>/x,cov 

eq> vpas. vTroaerc vtto C,vyov. 

II 29 Kal p.dd€T€ air ifiov. $l 26 Kal iinhe^dcrOo) rj 

if/vx?] v/xwv 7rcu- 
II 29 Kai dpr/aere dvdVav- 51 27 Kai eupov epauTw 7roX- 

trii' Tacs ipv)(cu5 Xrjv dva7rauo-iv. 


For this last phrase, cf. also Ecclus 6 28 and Jer 6 16 , Heb. The 
LXX has Kal ivprfo-ere Tat? vjv^aLS v/xwv. 

29. tov £uyov /xov] See on io 38 , and cf. Ab 3 6 "Whoso 
receives upon him the yoke of the law"; B. Berakhoth 13* "Yoke 
of the kingdom of the heavens" ; "Yoke of the commandments," 
Schemoth R. Par. 30 (Wiinsche, p. 217); "the yoke of God," 
Ps-Sol 7 8 ; ^cis virb £vyov aov, 17 32 . 

There is throughout this passage an underlying contrast between 
the Pharisaic conception of religion and the teaching of Christ. 
The Pharisees maintained the authority of the law as traditionally 
interpreted : Christ had a higher authority committed to Him by 
the Father. "All things were delivered." The Pharisaic treat- 
ment of the law made it a heavy burden ; cf. 23*. Christ's 
teaching was a light burden and an easy yoke. The Pharisaic 
conception of religion made them despise the unlearned and 
common people. Christ summoned to Him these simple folk 
groaning beneath the burden of religion as expounded by the 
Pharisees. The paragraph may be paraphrased as follows : " I 
praise Thee because Thou hast concealed the working of Wisdom's 
methods from the orthodox Pharisaic formalist, and hast revealed 
them rather to simple-hearted peasants innocent of religious techni- 
calities. So Thy divine pleasure foreordained it. The Pharisees 
claim authority and inspiration. I have complete and final authority 
from the highest source. The Pharisees fail to recognise the Son 
of God, and indeed no one knows Him but the Father. They 
misrepresent God, and indeed no one knows Him but the Son, 
and those to whom the Son wills to reveal Him. The Pharisees 
despise the unlearned and simple, and burden them with the heavy 
burdens of their expositions of the law. But I bid those who are 
weary of carrying Pharisaic loads to come to Me that they may be 
relieved. Let them take in exchange the yoke of allegiance to 


Me ; let them be disciples of one who is a sympathetic teacher, 
not harsh nor arrogant. They shall find My yoke which I lay 
on them to be mild, and My burden which I impose to be 

27. We should expect : " And no one understandeth the Father save the 
Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal Him." The insertion of the words 
relating to the knowledge of the Son by the Father do not seem in place in 
the context, and the order "the Son," " the Father" is unexpected. Iren. 
i. 13. 2 has the reverse order, but in iv. 11. 1 he ascribes this order to " those 
who wish to be more skilful than the Apostles." The same order is given 
by Just. Dial. 100 and Apol. i. 63, and by Tertullian, Adv. Marc. iv. 25. 
But the difficulty is not removed by reversal of the order of the clauses. 
Even if placed second, the clause relating to knowledge of the Son by 
the Father seems irrelevant to the context. But it occurs also in Lk., and 
is no doubt genuine in Mt. The connection seems to be as follows: "All 
things were delivered to Me by My Father," i.e. " I was appointed as the 
agent of His revelation of Himself." "And no one understands the Son 
save the Father," i.e. " My true nature and functions are known to God 
alone." " Nor does any one understand the Father save the Son, and he to 
whom the Son wishes to reveal Him," i.e. " As the appointed representative of 
the Father, I alone have full knowledge of Him, which I can impart to whom 
I will." But there does not seem to be any clear connection of thought with 
w. 25 " 28 , where the Father is the revealer of things hidden from the wise. 
The link of "revelation" (aireK&\v\J/as, v. 28 ; d7ro/caXt/\£<ai, v. 27 ) may have 
brought together detached sayings in a source lying behind our two 

C. (6) Hostility of the Pharisees, i2 1-45 . 

XII. The editor now wishes to illustrate the grounds of the 
hostility of the Pharisees to the Messiah and His work. For 
material for this he goes back to the earlier point at which he left 
Mk.'s narrative, i.e. 2 23 . He borrows Mk 2 23_28 = Mt I2 1 ' 8 , and 
also the next section, Mk 3 x - 6 = Mt 12 9 - 14 . In vv. 15 - 21 he sum- 
marises Mk 3 M2 , and adds a reference to the Old Testament. As 
he has already inserted Mk 3 13 " 19a , this brings him to 3 19b - 2 i. For 
this he substitutes Mt 12 22 " 23 , thus completing a series of three 
incidents illustrative of Pharisaic hostility. For arrangement in 
threes, see Introduction, p. lxv. 

J.. At that time, Jesus went on the Sabbath day through the M 
cornfields. And His disciples were hungry, and began to pluck ears 
of corn, and to eat.] Mk. has : " And it came to pass that He 
was going on the Sabbath day through the cornfields ; and His 
disciples began as they went to pluck the ears of corn." — iv 

CK€tvo) T(3 kcu/duJ iiroptvOr) 6 'Irjcrovsj Mk. has Kal iyeveTO avrbv — 

SiaTropeveaOai. The editor avoids kcu iyevero as a connecting link 
except in a special formula ; see on 3 13 . iv eV-etvo) t<3 Katpw occurs 
three times, here, 1 1 25 , and 14 1 , in this Gospel ; never in Mk. or Lk. 
We have just had it in 1 1 25 . Formulas have a way of appearing in 
close connection in this Gospel ; cf. ets o\r]v tt/v yrjv iKeivrjv, g 26 ; 

iv o\fi nj y-Q iKtivrj, 9 31 ; the Construction ava^wprjcra.i'Twv 8e avrwv 


— l8ov, 2 1, 13, 19 . 7rapayCvti ac 'IcooVt/s, 3 1 ; 7rapayiV€Tai 6 'Irjcrovs, 3 13 ; 
the construction aKouo-as 8k— dvexuprjo-ev, 4 12, 18 5 1 ; the construction 
Kai ififidvTi auT(3 — r}Ko\ov9t](rav airw, 8 23, 28 ; Kai u£Ta/?as iKtldev, I J 29 ; 
Kai i£e\8a>v tKeWev, 15 21 ; the construction Kal c/x/3as — 8uir£pao~e, 
9 1 - 9 . Cf. Intro, lxxxvi. The editor avoids Mk.'s pleonastic 81a- 
■n-opeveo-Qai Sia by substituting the simple verb. Cf. TrepnraTwv irapd, 
4 18 , for Mk.'s irapayuiv irapd ; and cf. Intro. XXV. — tois o-dfS(3aat] from 
<rd(3fiaTa, which seems to correspond to the Aramaic Nna^, but is 
declined as though it were a neuter plural. — to. o-7ro'piua] — sown 
land or crops, seems to occur only here. — 01 8k fxaOrjTai] for Mk.'s 
Kal ol fiaBrjTal, see Introduction, p. xx. iireivaarav icat is omitted 
by Mk. For eVeivao-av, see on 4 2 . — rjp^avro Ti'XXftv] Mk. has 
rjP$avTo 686v 7rot€tv Tt'AAovTes. Mt. omits the ambiguous 686v 
■n-oulv and substitutes after cn-a^vas, K ai lo-OUw. Mk. specifies 
two actions, "making a way "and "plucking"; Mt. has two, 
"plucking" and "eating"; Lk. has three, "plucking," "rubbing 
with the hands," and " eating." The " eating " already involved 
in Mk.'s "plucking" is probably an explanatory addition of the 
later Evangelists. The " plucking " was, probably, from a Pharisaic 
standpoint, regarded as work on the Sabbath. " Reaping " is 
one of the thirty-nine kinds of work forbidden on the Sabbath 
in the Talmud, B. Shab. 73 b ; and Lightfoot, Hor. Heb., quotes 
Maimonides as saying : "To pluck ears is a kind of reaping." 
M 2. And the Pharisees saw it, and said to Him, Behold, Thy 
disciples do that which is not lawful to do on the Sabbath.} Mk 
has : " And the Pharisees were saying to Him, See ! Why do they 
on the Sabbath that which is not lawful ? "] — 61 8k] as often for 
Mk.'s Kal ol. — tSovres et7rav] for Mk.'s eXcyov. For the form c'tto, 
see Blass, p. 45; Moulton, Class. Rev. 1901, p. 36. — l8ov ol 
paOrjTai o-ov] Mk. has simply I8e. — ttolovo-lv o ovk e£ecmv 7roteiv 
ev <Ta/3/3aTw] Mk. has : ttolovo-iv tois cra/3/?a(riv o ovk I^ccttiv. 
o-dfifiarov is the Greek form of the Hebrew J"QC\ 

M 3. And He said to them, Did you not read what David did, 
when he was hungry, and those who were with him.} Mk. has : 
" And He saith to them, Did ye never read what David did when 
he had need and was hungry; he and those who were with him?" 
6 8k €?7rev] as often for Mk.'s Kai Ae'yei. — ovk] for Mk.'s OL'SeWre. — 
ore €7T€tVacrej/] Mk. has two clauses : ore xpeiav lo-\ev kou eVctVacrcv. 
For Mt.'s omission of one of two synonymous clauses, see Intro- 
duction, p. xxiv. — Kat 01 fxer avrov] Mk. prefixes av-ros. 

M 4. How he entered into the house of God, and ate tht bread of 
the setting forth, which was not lawful for him to eat, nor those 
who were with him, but for the priests alone ?] Mk. has : " How 
He entered into the house of God in the time of Abiathar the 
high priest, and ate the bread of the setting forth, which it is not 


lawful to eat save for priests, and gave also to those who were with 
him." In clause a Mk. has brl 'Afiiddap dp^tcpew?. Mt. omits as 
an erroneous reference (as do D latt S 1 in Mk.), Ahimelech (LXX 
Abimelech) being high priest at the time; cf. 1 S 21 1 . — rovs aprons 
tt}<; irpoOea-ew;] is one of the renderings of the LXX for the Hebrew 
D'OSn on?; cf. 2 Ch 4 19 . Other renderings are aproi ivwinoi, Ex 
25 s9 ; 01 aproi oi irpoKeip.evoi, Ex 39 18 ; aproi rov Trpoaw—ov, I K 2 I 6 . 
For its meaning, see Deissm. Bib. Stud. p. 157. — o ovk i£6v r/v 
avT<Z (pa-yew ov8e tois airov el p.rj Tots iepevo-iv povots] Mk. has : 
oSs ovk e£ecrriv (pa-yew el p.}) tovs lepels Kal eSwKev rots o~vv airw ovcriv. 
Mt. assimilates tois (rvv avr<3 oucriv to 01 airov of V. 3 , and 
substitutes the easier dative for tovs lepeXs. 

Christ meets the complaint that His disciples work on the 
Sabbath by pleading necessity, and by quoting an analogous 
instance sanctioned by Scripture. The charge was based on the 
Rabbinical exposition of the law of the Sabbath. " Plucking the 
ears" was not in itself an offence, cf. Dt 23 s5 , but it came under 
the category of work forbidden on the Sabbath by scribal tradition. 
Against this tradition Christ appealed to Scripture. David ate the 
shewbread. That was an illegal act. But he was impelled by 
necessity. In the same way the action of His disciples was 
sanctioned by their need. 

6. The second point in Christ's answer in Mk. is the statement '. 
that " the Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath," 
with the inference that " the Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath." It 
is clear that this last statement in the form given by Mk. does 
not very well suit the context. It is the disciples who were 
blamed, not Christ Himself. Very possibly 6 uios rov avOpwirov 
is a mistranslation for " man." This would give the required 
justification of the disciples. The Sabbath was made to subserve 
man's need, therefore man is lord of the Sabbath, and may use it 
as need requires, working upon it if necessary. But Mk.'s Kal 
eXeyev avrols may be a hint that he has added here words spoken 
on the occasion of some other Sabbath dispute, when Christ Him- 
self was attacked, and the 6 uios rov avOpw-n-ov would be in place. 
Mt. omits the words Kal e\eyev — Bia. to o-d/3(3aTov, and substitutes 
a second appeal to the Old Testament. Just as it furnished a pre- 
cedent for the breaking of religious regulations in case of necessity, 
so it also sanctioned the overruling of general laws (in this case 
the prohibition of work on the Sabbath) in particular cases. The 
editor then adds an appeal to the general tenor of the Old Testa- 
ment witness, as illustrated in Hos 6 6 , and ends with Mk 2 M . 
The argument in these verses is not easy to follow. The action 
of the disciples is in no sense parallel to that of the priests in the 
temple ; nor could the fact that the priests obeyed the injunctions 
of the law, by working on the Sabbath, justify the disciples for 


disobeying the scribal expositions of the law which prohibited work 
on the Sabbath. The appeal to Hos 6 6 is more suitable in such 
a context as 9 13 , where the editor has again inserted it, than it is 

It seems probable, therefore, that the editor here, as elsewhere, 
adds to a particular incident sayings spoken on other similar occa- 
sions. He is also, probably, influenced here by the difficulty of 
the present text of Mk vv. 27 " 28 . " The Sabbath was made for man — 
so that the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath," seems to have no 
bearing upon the disciples and their plucking the ears of corn. If 
6 vios tov avOpwTTov is a mistranslation for " man," the saying 
becomes pertinent, " Man is lord of the Sabbath." That justifies 
the action of the disciples. But " the Son of Man is Lord of the 
Sabbath " seems to be no true inference from the preceding clause, 
nor to have any bearing upon the action complained of. The 
editor, therefore, omits " the Sabbath was made for man, not man 
for the Sabbath," and, losing sight of the incident of the disciples 
and the ears, adds a saying in which Christ on some other occasion 
justified His own action in working on the Sabbath. The priests 
in the temple work on the Sabbath. That is to say, the sanctity 
of the temple overrides Sabbath regulations. But the Messiah is 
greater than the temple. Much more, therefore, can He dispense 
Sabbath rules. For the Son of Man ( = the Messiah) is, in virtue of 
His personality, Lord of the Sabbath. 

L 5. Or did you not read in the law, that on the Sabbath the priests 
in t/ie temple profane the Sabbath, and are without guilt ?] — ev ra 
vo/xw] Cf. Nu 28 9, 10 . — ficfirjXovo-Lv] i.e. by performing the actions 
necessary to the offering of the sacrifices. 

L 6. But I say to you, That more than the temple is here.] The 
" more than the temple " is the Son of Man = the Messiah. If the 
temple was not subservient to Sabbath rules, how much less the 
Messiah ! 

L 7. But if you had knoiun what is "Mercy I wish, and not 
sacrifice," ye would not have condemned the guiltless.] See on 9 13 . 
The words are of the nature of a parenthesis. The ydp of the 
next verse continues the thought of v. 6 . 

M 8. For the Lord of the Sabbath is the Son of Man.] Mk. has : 
wcrre /cvpios iaTiv 6 vios tov dvOpdiirov koI tov crafifiaTov. Mt.'s yap is 
necessary to his argument. The Messiah is greater than the temple, 
for He is Lord of the Sabbath, i.e. = to God who ordained it. 

1-8. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in one or two striking 
details. Both omit oSdv 7roieiv from Mk 23 , and specify the " eat- 
ing." Both have el-n-av for eA.eyov in Mk 2i , and eTttcv for Ae'yei in 
Mk 25 . Both insert poVovs (-01s) in Mk 26 , and both omit xP^ av 
Zo-xev from Mk 25 ; cVi 'AfiuxQap dp^iepews from Mk 26 , and to 
o-dfiftdTov — to o-d.fij3a.Tov from Mk 27 . It does not, however, seem 


necessary to suppose that they had a second source other than Mk. 
See on 8 4 . 

9. And having departed thence, He went into their synagogue.] M 
Mk. has : " And He entered again into a synagogue." — kou //.eTa/?as 
tKtWev] for Mk.'s Kal — TraAiv. 7raA.1v as a connecting link in descrip- 
tive narrative is characteristic of Mk., occurring 26 times. Mt. 
generally avoids it. For eKeWev, see on 4 21 . Kal [teTafias eKeWev 
occurs again in 15 29 . /xera/foiVav 5 times in Mt., never in Mk. 
— r/XOev eh] avoids the redundancy of Mk.'s elo-rjXOev — eh. See 
on I2 1 . — eh rr)v crvvaywy^v avTwv] Mk. has simply eh crvvayoiyrjv. 
Lk. also has the article. 

10. And, behold, a man having a withered hand. And they M 
questioned Him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath ? that 
they might accuse Him.] " Mk. has : " And there was there a man 
having the hand withered. And they were observing Him, if He 
would heal him on the Sabbath, that they might accuse Him." — 
Kal iSov] See on i 20 . Mk. has Kal ty eKel. — x e W a *X WV £vpu- v ] 
Mk. has i£r)paiA/xevr)v ex wv T *l v X € W a - Lk. also has $r]pd. — Kal 
iirrjpuyrrjcrav avrbv A.eyovTes] Mk. has Kal TzapeTrjpovv avrov. — el 
e£«rriv — depaiveveiv] Mk. has el — Qepairevaei avrov. For el before 

a direct question, cf. Blass, p. 260. 

Mk. has here : " And He saith to the man having the withered 
(£r}pdv) hand, Rise into the midst. And He saith to them, Is 
it lawful on the Sabbath to do good or to do evil, to save life 
or to kill ? And they were silent. And looking round at them 
with anger, being grieved at the hardness of their hearts." Mt. 
omits all this. He elsewhere omits clauses which describe Christ's 
human emotions. See Introduction, p. xxxi. Here he substitutes 
instead an example of the doing good of which Mk. speaks in v. 4 . 

That he may introduce vv. 11 - 12 the editor changes Mk.'s "they 
were observing Him, if," into a direct challenge, "they asked 
Him if." 

11. And He said to them, What man of you shall there be, who L 
shall have one sheep, and if this fall on the Sabbath into a pit, 
will he ?wt take hold of it and lift it out ?] 

12. How much therefore is a man better than a sheep ? So that L 
it is lawful to do well on the Sabbath.] Lk. has similar sayings 
differently worded in another miracle, 14 1 - 6 . There is no sufficient 
reason for thinking that the two Evangelists drew from a common 

11. Trpofiarov ev] See on 8 19 , and Blass, p. 144. S 1 S 2 ff 1 k omit ev. 

12. 7rdo-w ovv Sia<£e'pei] Cf. io 31 ttoXXujv (TTpovOLwv Siacpepere, 6 26 
oix vp.els fxaXXov diacpepere avrwv. 

13. Then He saith to the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And M 
he stretched it forth ; and it was restored whole, as the other.] Mk. 
has : " He saith to the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he 


stretched it forth, and his hand was restored." For totc, see on 
2 7 . — aTreKaTeardOr}] For the double augment, see Blass, p. 39. 
Omit wynfe S 1 S 2 latt 

M. 14. And the Pharisees went out, and took counsel against Him, 
how they might destroy Him.] Mk. has : " And the Pharisees 
straightway, with the Herodians, went out and gave counsel against 
Him, how they might destroy Him." — e£eA#dvT€s Se] as often for 
Mk.'s kcu i$€\66vT€<i. After Qapto-aioi, Mk. has eidvs /xera twv 
'HpwStavwv. For the omission of eiOvs, see on 3 16 . The editor 
omits the Herodians here, but retains them in 2 2 16 = Mk 12 13 . — 
crv/z/?ovA.iov !Aa/3ov] Mk. has eSi'Souv or eVoiow. (rv/if3ov\t.ov Xajx- 
fiavuv occurs 5 times in Mt, here and in 22 15 27 1 - 7 28 12 . <tv/a- 
fiovXiov occurs in Plutarch, Rom. 14, Lucull. 26 ; and in Ditten- 
berger, Syll. 316. n (second cent. b.c), 328. 7. 8, 334. 7. 29, 39, 
55> 57 (73 B -c) > an d twice in Egyptian Papyri of the second 
century. See Deissm. Bib. Stud. p. 238. 

M 15, 16. And Jesus perceived it, and departed thence : and there 
followed Him many, and He healed them all ; and He charged them 
that they should not make Him known.} The editor summarises 
Mk 3 7 " 12 , which he might have omitted as not congruous to this 
chapter of controversy. But Mk 3 7 " 12 suggested to him a contrast 
between the Lord's quiet work of healing and His avoidance of 
publicity, and the hostile clamour of the Pharisees. He adds the 
quotation from Isaiah to emphasise the contrast. — 6 8« 'It/o-ovs] 
as often for Mk.'s nal 6 'I^o-ovs. yvous is not in Mk. iiceWev 
added by Mt. ; see on 4 21 . — rjKoXov^rja-av avrw 7roAAoi] Mk. has 
ttoXv irXrjOos — rjKo\ov$r]crev. — 7raj/Tas] Mk. has ttoAAous. For a 
similar change, see on 8 18 . Lk. also has ^arras. — hreri/iiqo-ev] Mk. 
has ttoAXo. iireTLfxau Mk.'s adverbial 7roAA.a (13 times) is generally 
omitted by Mt He retains it twice, 13 3 16 21 ; and has it once 
besides, 27 19 . For the substitution of the aorist for the imperfect, 
see Introduction, p. xx. 

The editor here adds a fulfilment of prophecy. 

O 17-21. That it might be fulfilled which was spoken through 

Isaiah the prophet, saying, Behold My Son, whom I adopted ; My 
Beloved, in whom My soul was well pleased ; I will put My spirit 
upon Him, and He shall announce judgement to the Gentiles. He 
shall not strive, nor cry out ; nor shall any one hear His voice in the 
streets. A bruised reed He shall not break, and smoking flax He 
shall not quench, until He bring forth judgement to victory. And in 
His name shall Gentiles hope.} 

ottws irX-qpwOrj, k.t.A..] For the formula, see on i 22 . The 
quotation is from Is 42 1 - 4 . The only trace of the LXX seems to 
be in the last clause, where the Hebrew has " His law " for 
" His name." The editor may be translating from the Hebrew, 
but more probably is using an existing Greek version which is 


already presupposed in Mk i 11 . The passage had probably been 
adapted in Christian circles in order to bring out the conception 
that the Messiah, the Son of God, accomplished the career that 
had been foretold of the idealised nation. We should expect to 
find vios here or ttcus in Mk i n = Mt 3 17 . But vio's as more 
applicable to the Messiah may have been substituted for 7rais 
either by the author of the Greek second Gospel, or at some stage 
between his time and the first appearance of the quotation in this 
Greek form. 7rais in Mt. is either a return to the original form of 
the quotation in Greek, or a reminiscence of the LXX. — tv rjptTLcra] 
alpeT&iv is a late word common in the LXX. It is used as = 
equivalent to " adopt " in I Ch 2 8 6 on rjpiriKa. ev avrw elrai /jlov v\6v ; 
Mai 3 17 ov Tponov ai/KTi£ei avdpwTros tov viov ; Kaibel, Epigrammata, 
252 : atpeTiVas 8c irarrjp crTopyai <pvcnv iirpOTeprjo-ev. The aorist here 
and in euSoV^o-cv may simply be due to imitation of the Hebrew 
tenses, but in the mind of the Christian translator probably imply 
the eternal pre-temporal act of God in the election of the Messiah. 

6 dyaTrrjTOS p.ou = the Messiah, see on 3 17 . — €is ov €v8oKr]crev 17 ipv^r} 

/xov] in 3 17 ev <L elSoK-qo-a. For the good pleasure of God in the 
Messiah as shown in election and adoption to Messiahship and 
Sonship, cf. Eph i 4 " 6 , and see Bacon, Am. Journ. Theol. ix. 458 ff. 
— aTrayyeXet] Heb. is K^T, LXX efoicrei. d7rayyeAA«v, a very 
common LXX word, seems to be a translation according to the 
sense. — Jpio-et] The Heb. is pJW, LXX K6jcpa£ercu. — Kpauydo-ei] 
Heb. NB>\ LXX dv#r«(cf. K^ = <mV l >.Gn 18 24 , Jos 24 19 , Is i 14 
2 9 46 4 ). — Kpauya£eiv] only here in Mt., is used once in Ac 2 2 23 , 
and 4 times in Jn. of a multitude of people, and once Jn 11 43 of 
Christ at the tomb of Lazarus. By earlier writers it is used of 
discordant forms of utterance — of a dog, Plat. Rep. x. 607 ; of 
a drunken man, Demosth. Con. 1258; of a raven, Epict. Diss. 
iii. 1.37; of shouting in a theatre, id. iii. 4. 4. — Ka.Ted£ei] For the 
augmented fut., cf. Blass, p. 52; Moulton, Class. Rev. 1901, p. 
36. — ets vikos] Heb. lV2i&, LXX «s IX-qOuav, but cf. Hab i 4 
tSQK'D mttb N'^ *6« After xpiaiv, Is 42 4a is omitted, the translator's 
eye passing from DD^O to the second occurrence of the same word. 
22. The editor here omits Mk 3 19b - 21 . He elsewhere omits 
Mk.'s references to a house, see on 15 15 ; and also elsewhere omits 
the descriptions of the thronging of the multitude ; cf. the omissions 
of Mk i 33 from Mt 8 16 , Mk i 46 at Mt 8 4 , Mk 2 2 from Mt 9*, 
Mk 3 9 from Mt ia 15 . And he has probably felt objection to Mk 3 21 , 
especially IXeyov yap on i£eo-Trj. The copyists of Mk. have felt 
the same difficulty. D has eiea-raraL avrovs; abdffiq exstntiat 
eos. But a reminiscence of this verse betrays itself in the 
iiitrravTo of Mt 12 23 . There follows in Mk. the statement that 
"the scribes . . . said that he hath Beezeboul," and this is 
followed by a short rebutting discourse of Christ. Mt. has here 


a short introductory miracle followed by a much longer discourse, 
in which are verses parallel to the discourse of Mk. Thus : 
Mt 12 22 " 23 . Introductory miracle. 

24-26 _ Mk ^22-26 # 


29 _ -27 

3 • 

80 . 

81. 32b _ - 28-30 



Here follows the statement that some of the scribes asked for 
a sign, v. 38 , and a discourse in answer, vv. 39 " 45 . The question of 
relationship is complicated by the parallels in Lk. Lk. omits Mk 
322-30 j n j ts orc i er . it should come at Lk 6 19 or 8 4 . But later in his 
Gospel he has a discourse which is very similar to that in Mt. Thus : 
Mt 12 22 - 23 = Lk ii 14 . 

24-26 _ J^k ■J 22 " 26 = 15 - 17 " 18 . 

Lk. has here combined the request for a sign which in Mt. comes 
later with the charge of demoniac agency. 

Mt 12 38 = Lk n ia . 

27-28 _ 19-20. 

29 _ Mk -,27 _ 21-22. 

80 = 23 

43-45 24-23 

Lk vv. 27 " 28 have no parallel in Mt. 
Mt vv. 31 " 37 have no parallel in this discourse in Lk. 
Mt 1 a 39 " 42 = Lk ii 2932 . 

It will be seen that both Mt. and Lk. prefix an introductory 
miracle. Both have parallels to Mk 23 " 26 , but in this section Mt. 
and Lk. have verbal agreements against Mk. E.g. : 

etSws 8e Tas ivOvfjLr)<ru<; avruyv €i7rei/ aureus, Mt 25 = auros Se etSws 
avrdv tol Stavor/fxaTa ei7rei' avrois, Lk 17 . 

iracra /3ao"iAeta fxepLaOelcra, Mt 25 = irao-a fiaariXeLa — Siajaepicr- 
0€L(Ta, Lk 17 . Mk. has kclI iav /3a(TL\eLa — /AfpicrOr}. 

ipyj/jLOvrai, Mt 25 , Lk 17 . Mk. has ov Svvarai (TTadrjvai rj /8ao-t\et'a 

7T(3s — (TTaBrjcrtTai rj /SacriXet'a avrov, Mt 26 , Lk 18 . Mk. has ov 
Owarai o"n}vai dXXa tc'Aos ex et - 

Both have parallels to Mk 27 , but here Mt. agrees closely with 
Mk., whilst Lk. considerably diverges. Mt. embodies Mk 28 " 30 . 
Lk. omits. Further, in Mt. the whole discourse falls into two 
portions, one an answer to the charge of demoniac agency, the 
second an answer to a request for a sign. In Lk. the charge and 
the request are combined, but the discourse is divided by vv. 27 " 28 , 
which have no parallel in Mt. And, lastly, Mt. has a section, 
31 " 37 , which has no parallel in the discourse in Lk. It is not easy 
to explain adequately this complex relationship. The fact that 


Lk. omits Mk.'s paragraph at the place where it would naturally 
occur in his Gospel, and gives instead a longer discourse later in 
his Gospel, would naturally suggest the explanation that he had 
before him a second source containing this longer discourse at a 
later period in Christ's life, and that he abandoned Mk. to follow 
this source. Cf. his omission of Mk i 16 " 20 at Lk 4 15 , because he 
proposes to insert a little later, 5 1 " 11 , a similar narrative from 
another source. Cf. his omission at 8 56 of Mk 6 1 " 6 , because he 
has inserted a similar account in 4 16 - 30 . It seems, therefore, 
necessary to suppose that Lk. had a second narrative before him 
containing matter parallel to Mk 3 22 - 30 . That being so, it is 
natural to suppose that Mt. also had a discourse longer than 
Mk 3 22 - 30 , and containing many features parallel to Lk. Their 
divergence in many points makes it unlikely that they were copy- 
ing from the same document. More probably they had before 
them different sources containing discourses in many respects 
parallel to one another. To some extent their agreement may be 
due to Lk.'s reminiscence of Mt. Mt.'s source is probably the Logia. 

22. Then there was brought to Him a demoniac, blind, and E 
dumb : and He healed him, so that the dumb spake and saw.] 
Lk. has : "And He was casting out a dumb devil. And it came 
to pass when the devil was gone forth the dumb spake." Mt. has 
already inserted in 9 s2 - 33 a similarly worded miracle : " Behold, 
they brought to Him a dumb demoniac. And when the devil 
was cast forth, the dumb spake." It is striking that Lk n 14 is not, 
as we should expect, so nearly agreed with Mt 12 22 as with 
Mt 9 32 " 33 . It must remain doubtful whether this miracle was in 
the sources used by Mt. and Lk. It is quite possible that in 
^32-34 mj- ^ wishing to add another miracle, described as shortly as 
possible the healing of a deaf demoniac (see on 9 s2 ), the fact of 
such a healing being current in Christian tradition. At 12 21 he 
wants a suitable introduction to the following discourse, and 
rewrites shortly a similar account. But it is curious that he 
should not have specially mentioned, as in 9 s3 , the " casting out " 
of the devil in order to prepare for the iKpdWei of 12 24 . Lk., 
when inserting in n 14ff - the discourse which follows, has felt the 
same need of an introductory miracle. His choice of a deaf 
demoniac may be due to reminiscence of the two passages in Mt., 
or may be accidental, and due simply to the fact that both 
Evangelists inserted in this same connection the story of a deaf 
demoniac, known to them as an incident current in Christian 
tradition, of which no details had been preserved. Given the fact 
of the healing of a dumb demoniac, the agreement in language 
between Mt 9 32 " 33 and Lk n 14 is not very remarkable. It would 
be difficult to describe the bare fact of such a healing without 
some verbal agreement. 


tot« TrpovrjviyQf) aur<3] For totc, see on 2 7 . For trpocrfytpzw as 
characteristic of Mt, see Introduction, p. lxxxvi. wpoo-qvixOv 1S 
the reading of N C D al latt. B S 1 S 2 have Trpoo-rjveyKav, as in g 32 . 
For the passive, cf. 18 24 19 13 . 

E 23. And all the multitudes were astonished, and said, Is this 
indeed the Son of David?] l^ia-ravTo only here in this Gospel. 
It is a reminiscence of Mk 3 21 . For "Son of David" as a title of 
the Messiah, see Dalm. Words, 319 ff. 

M 24. But the Pharisees heard it, and said, This man doth not 
cast out devils, except by Beelzeboul, chief of the devils.] Mk. has : 
" And the scribes who had come down from Jerusalem were saying 
that He hath Beelzeboul, and that by the chief of the devils He casts 
out devils." Mt. and Lk. independently, or Lk. by reminiscence 
of Mt., fuse together the two clauses of Mk 22 , and wrongly make 
Beelzeboul equivalent to the chief of the devils and Satan. In io 25 
(3<zek£ef3ov\. is a name of reproach. Here in Mk. it seems to be 
the name of a demon by whom Christ was regarded as possessed. 
But it is not equivalent to Satan, the apx^v tu>v Bai/xoviwv from 
whom Mk. distinguishes Beelzeboul. For Beelzeboul, 1 see on io 25 . 

M 25. And knowing their thoughts, He said to them, Every kingdom 
divided against itself is made desolate ; and every city or house divided 
against itself shall not stand.] Mk. has : " And having called 
them, He was saying to them in parables, How can Satan cast 
out Satan ? And if a kingdom be divided against (e7u) itself, that 
kingdom cannot stand. And if a house be divided against itself, 
that house shall not be able to stand." Lk. agrees closely with Mt. 
in omitting the summoning of the disciples, in substituting the know- 
ledge of the thoughts of the Pharisees, and in combining Mk.'s 
two analogies into one clause. " But He (auros), knowing their 
thoughts (8iai/o?^u.aTa), said to them, Every kingdom divided (81a- 
(lepLO-Oeicra) against itself (e<£' lavTrjv as in Mk., Mt. has Kaff eavTrjs) 
is made desolate, and house falls on house," or " a house (divided) 
against a house falls." — oTko?] Mt. and Mk. have oIklo. Well- 
hausen argues that " house " in Aramaic, and so here, means " a 
political territory," as in "house of Lysanias." This would give 
an appropriate meaning in Mt. No kingdom torn by internal 
dissension can escape devastation. And no city or State so divided 
can long maintain its independent existence. Lk.'s source seems 
to have differed here from Mt.'s. 

M 26. And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself ; 
how therefore shall his kingdom standi] Mk. has : "And if Satan 
rise up against himself and be divided, he cannot stand, but hath 
an end." Lk. agrees closely with Mt. : " And if Satan be divided 
(Su/mepio-dr}) against himself, how shall his kingdom stand ? " Lk. 

1 CD al have Bee\fe/3oi/\, and so Eph. Syr., the Armenian and the Arabic 
Diatessaron. X B have Beefe/SotfX, as in IO 28 . S 1 S a have Beelzebub, as in io 28 . 


adds here : " because you say that by Beelzeboul I cast out devils " ; 
cf. Mk v. 30 . 

27-28. And if I by Beelzeboul cast out devils, your sons by whom L 
do they cast {them) out ? therefore they shall be your judges. But if 
I by the Spirit of God cast out devils, then the kingdom of God came 
upon you.] These verses are not in Mk. Lk. has them in verbal 
agreement with Mt., except that he has SolktvXu for 7n/ev/>ia.Ti. 
Christ, after urging the absurdity of the charge brought against 
Him (25-26^ now throws back the accusation upon the Jews. 
They, too, practised exorcism. Were they also the agents of 
Beelzeboul ? — ol viol v//.«v] means " people of your own race and 
religion," i.e. Jews. It is here an Oriental circumlocution for " you." 
For an example of Jewish exorcism, cf. Jos. Ant. viii. 46, 47 (quoted 
on 8 29 ), and Ac 19 13 . — Sia tovto] occurs 11 times in Mt., 3 in Mk., 
4 in Lk. — Kpiral vfxuv] " shall convict you of hypocrisy in accusing 
Me of employing diabolical arts whilst you yourselves practise 
exorcism." — irve.viia.TL 6eov] Lk. has the striking SaKTvAw 6eov ; cf. 
Ex 8 19 < 15 ) where it is applied to a miraculous event, and Dt 9 10 . — 
£<£#ao-ev] <pOdveiv occurs only here in the Synoptic Gospels. With 
prepositions it means to " arrive at," " reach to," " come upon " ; 
cf. Jg 20 34 ovk cyvtoaav otl <p6dvei iir airovs rj ica/cia. The aorist is 
difficult, and we should expect the perfect The same unexpected 
aor. occurs in 1 Th 2 16 t<p6ao-e Be In avrovs tj 6pyq. " If I by the 
Spirit of God cast out devils, then when I began my work, or when 
I came, the kingdom of God came to and amongst you, though 
you were not aware of it." /3acr. tov $eov occurs 4 times in Mt, 
here and in 19 24 2i 31 - 43 . The kingdom is here regarded as some- 
thing present. But only by anticipation. Where the Messiah was, 
there must be the kingdom in some sense. But in a fuller sense 
it was still future, to be inaugurated when He came on the clouds 
of heaven. 17 /foo-iAeta tov $eov here is certainly due to the source 
used by the editor, in this case probably the Logia, which therefore 
contained sayings about " the kingdom of God " and " the kingdom 
of the heavens." The reason why the editor did not here sub- 
stitute the latter for the former no doubt is that he always uses 
r) /Sao-iAeia twv ovpavuv in an eschatological sense, which would 
here be out of place ; cf. Introduction, p. lxvii f. 

29. Or how can any one enter into the house of " the strong man," M 
and spoil his goods f unless first he bind " the strong man," and 
then he will spoil his house.] Mk. has : " But no one can, having 
entered into," etc. Lk. has a different version of the saying. — 77 
7rws] In Mk. the saying is loosely appended to the preceding with 
dXXd. The saying about the strong man and his goods had probably 
become proverbial ; cf. Ps-Sol 5 4 ov yap X-qxpeTai anvXa. avOpioiro? 
irapa. av§pb<; SvvaTOV ; Is 49 24 /x.77 Xr)jx\ptTai tis Trapa yiyavTOS o~kvXcl. 

So far from acting as a subordinate of Beelzeboul, Christ had 


invaded his territory, and by ejecting devils from the possessed, 
was spoiling his goods. This implied a previous victory over him. 

L 30. He that is not with Me is against Me : and he that gathereth 
not with me scattereth.] So Lk v. 23 . 

In this war against Satan's strongholds there are only two sides : 
for Christ or against Him, gathering with Him or scattering with 

M 31. Therefore I say to you, Every sin and blasphemy shall be 
forgiven to tnen : but blasphemy against the Spirit shall not be 
forgiven.] Mk. has : "Verily I say to you that all things shall be 
forgiven to the sons of men, 1 the sins and the blasphemies where- 
with soever they shall blaspheme. But whosoever shall blaspheme 
against the Holy Spirit hath not forgiveness for ever, but is guilty 
of an eternal sin. Because they were saying that He hath an 
unclean spirit." Lk. has no parallel in this discourse, but in 12 10 has 
" He who blasphemed against the Holy Spirit shall not be forgiven." 
In Mt. the meaning seems to be : " You have taken sides against 
Me in the war against Satan. In so doing you have committed 
an unpardonable sin, because in charging Me with being an agent 
of Satan you have hardened yourselves against a revelation of God's 
Spirit working in Me." 

M 32. And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of Man, 
it shall be forgiven him ; but whosoever shall speak against the Holy 
Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this age nor in the 
coming.~\ This verse seems to repeat the thought of the last, the 
difference being that as a contrast to speaking against or blasphemy 
against the Spirit, we have here speaking against the Son of Man 
in particular, instead of all sin and blasphemy in general. The 
two verses seem to be different recensions of the same saying. 
Mt. has probably conflated Mk. and his other source, or Mk. = 
the other source and another form of the saying known to him. 
Lk. in 12 10 has: ko.1 7rSs 05 epei Aoyov cts tov vlbv tou avBpuivov 
a<f>e$-qaeTa.L airw' tw Se ets to Ayiov irvcvfia ^\ao~4>r]p.rjo-avTL ovk 
afadr/o-eTau. Lk. appears to borrow the first clause from Mt 32 , 
the second from Mt 31 = Mk 29 . He may have done so from 
memory, or may have had the saying before him in this form. If 
Mt 32 and Mt 31 = Mk 28 " 29 be different recensions of one saying, 
it is probable that Mk.'s striking rots viols twv avOpw-rruv and Mt.'s 
Kara tov vlov tov av8pu)7rov go back to the same original Aramaic 
phrase. Of the two, Mk.'s phrase is probably the more accurate 
translation. " Anything shall be forgiven to men save blasphemy 
against the Holy Spirit," gives a clear and intelligible meaning. 
On the other hand, "Opposition to the Son of Man is pardon- 
able, opposition to the Holy Spirit is unpardonable," is difficult to 

1 This Aramaic "sons of men"="men" occurs only here in the Synoptic 
Gospels. Mt. avoids it. 


explain. How could the Pharisees be supposed to be able to 
distinguish between the Son of Man ( = Christ ?) acting as such, 
and the Son of Man driving out devils by the power of the Spirit. 
We have here a fairly clear instance where an original Aramaic 
phrase meaning "sons of men " = " men " has been mistakenly 
represented by 6 vlos tov avOpw-n-ov. Mk 2 28 is probably another 
instance. The general drift of vv. 31, 32 seems to be : " You accuse 
Me of Satanic methods in casting out devils. In reality I cast 
them out by the power of God's Spirit. In substituting Satan for 
the Holy Spirit you are guilty of blasphemy. And this is an 
unpardonable sin. It is the lie in the soul." — ovre iv tovtu t<3 
cuuivi ovre ev tw peWovTi] Mk IO 30 has : ev tw alujvi to ep^o/xeVco. 
So Lk. ; but Mt. omits. Lk. also has : tov cuo^os tovtov, 16 8 20 34 , 
and tov aioivo? Ikuvov, 20 35 . These phrases are connected with the 
distinction which is common in apocalyptic literature of the first 
cent. a.d. between the present and the future age. See Dalm. 
Words, pp. 147-156; Volz, Jiid. Eschat. p. 57 ; and cf. 2 Es 7 50 
" the Most High hath not made one world, but two " ; 7 47 
"the world to come"; Apoc. Bar is 7 - 8 44 15 "the world to 
come." The distinction is also found in Rabbinical literature; 
cf. Aboth 2 8 . Hillel said: "He who acquires for himself the 
words of the law, acquires for himself the life of the age which 
is coming." Dalman says of this, "if genuine." Ber. R. 44 
(Wiinsche, p. 209) : According to Jochanan ben Zaccai, c. 80 a.d., 
God revealed to Abraham " this age, but not that age." According 
to Akiba, "He revealed to him both ages." "The currency of 
these expressions 'this age,' the future age," says Dalman, "is 
at all events established by the end of the first Christian century." 
Mt. has also 5 times the expression o-vvreAeta tov alwvos. See 
on v. 39 . — ovk d<£e0jjo-£Tai] B has ov fx-i] a<peOrj. For this construc- 
tion, see on 5 18 . 

33-35. The editor here inserts a paragraph which is similar to 
one which he has already recorded in the Sermon on the Mount, 
7 17 - 20 . Lk. in his Sermon, 6 43 " 45 , also has a similar section, which, 
however, is more closely in agreement with Mt 12 than with Mt 7 ; 
that is to say, Lk 6 43 and 44b = Mt 7 18 - 16 , whilst Lk 6 44a - 45 = Mt 
I2 33c 34b. 35_ LL is here perhaps conflating the words of his source 
for the Sermon with reminiscences of Mt 12. 

33. Either make the tree good, and its fruit good ; or ?nake the L 
tree rotten, and its fruit rotten : for by the fruit the tree is known .] 
Cf. 7 17, 18 , Lk 6 43 . The meaning here is " Be consistent. Either 
allow My acts of casting out devils to be good in result, and 
attribute the power to do such good acts to the Holy Spirit ; or 
condemn them as evil in result, and attribute them to Satanic agency." 

34. Ye offspring of vipers, how can you speak good things, being L 
evil?] This has no parallel in Lk. The meaning is: "The 


reason why you utter judgements which directly gainsay plain facts 
is to be found in your evil nature." 

L 34. For out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.} 

L 35. The good man from the good treasure brings forth good 
things : and the evil man from the evil treasure brings forth evil 
things.} Cf. Lk 6 45 "The good man from the good treasure of 
(his) heart brings forth (irpocpepei) the good. And the evil man 
from the evil brings forth the evil. For out of the abundance of 
the heart his mouth speaketh." 

The meaning is : " Your malicious judgements come from the 
treasure-house of your malicious nature." 

36-37. These verses have no parallel in Lk. 

L But I say to you, that every idle utterance that men shall speak, 
they shall give account concerning it in the day of judgement. For 
from thy words shall thou be acquitted, and from thy words shall 
thou be condemned?^ 

36. Tva.v prjjxa apyov] The Pharisees might urge that their say- 
ing of v. 24 was after all only a pleasantry, and did not express their 
real beliefs. Christ warns them that such idle utterances, because 
they come from the heart (v. 34 ), give expression to the inward 
nature, and will be called into judgement no less than the reasoned 
statement or the outward action. The last verse, with its change 
to the singular and its substitution of Adyos for prip.a, sounds like 
a quotation or a proverbial saying. Clause (a) is perhaps a 
reminiscence of Ps 50 6 07rws av Sikcuco^s iv tois Adyois <rov. 
For o lav, see on n 27 . 

L 38. Theti answered Him certain of the scribes and Pharisees, 
saying, Teacher, we wish to see a sign from Thce.~\ In Lk n 16 this 
request is combined with the accusation at the head of the 
discourse. " But others tempting (Him), were seeking a sign from 
heaven from Him." 
totc] see on 2 r . 

L 39. And He answered and said to them, An evil and adulterous 
generation seeks for a sign ; and a sign shall not be given to it, 
save the sign of Jonah the prophet.} Lk. has: "And when the 
multitudes were crowding together, He began to say, This 
generation is an evil generation : it seeks a sign, and a sign 
shall not be given to it, save the sign of Jonah." —] means 
apostate, disobedient, and unfaithful to God. 
E P L 40. For as Jonah was in the belly of the monster three days 
and three nights ; so shall the Son of Man be in the heart of 
the earth three days and three nights.} Lk. has : " For as Jonah 
was a sign to the Ninevites, so shall be also the Son of Man to 
this generation." 

It is probable that Mt. (or the writer of his source) has para- 
phrased the saying as recorded by Lk., in order to explain the 


parallelism between Jonah as a sign and the Son of Man as a 
sign. " As Jonah was a sign." But how was he a sign ? Cer- 
tainly not simply because he preached. His message of warning 
could in no true sense be called a sign. He was a sign because 
of his remarkable experience recorded in Jon 1-2. "So shall 
the Son of Man be a sign," in virtue of His remarkable life's history 
from beginning to end. The writer of the saying as recorded in 
Mt. has wished to make this parallelism clear. He has done so 
by illustrating it from one particular event in the life history of 
Jonah and of the Son of Man, in connection with which there 
was, as it seemed to him, a striking coincidence. The Son of Man 
( = Christ) foretold, as tradition recorded, that He would rise 
again after three days; cf. Mk 8 31 9 81 io 34 , Mt 27 s3 . (This was 
traditionally interpreted as equivalent to " on the third day," cf. 
Mt 16 21 17 23 20 19 , Lk q 22 18 33 24 7 - 46 , Ac io 40 ). It might, therefore, 
be said that He lay in the grave for three days. Mt. turned to 
the Book of Jonah, and found in 2 1 the words : teal rjv 'Was ev tq 
KoiXia. tov Krp-ovs Tpets ly/xepas koX Tpeis viVras. Here was material 
for a comparison. Jonah's wonderful story of guidance and pre- 
servation culminated in his sojourn in the belly of the sea monster 
followed by his miraculous deliverance. This, as illustrating his 
whole unique experience, made him a sign to the Ninevites. He 
preached to them as one miraculously accredited. The life history 
of the Son of Man culminated in His sojourn in the grave, followed 
by His miraculous resurrection. This, as illustrating His whole life 
of wonder and marvel, constituted Him a sign to the men of that 
generation. Mt. has, of course, rather forced his analogy. 1 Putting 
aside the fact that according to Christian tradition Christ lay in 
the grave only one whole day and parts of two others, he has 
tried to increase the parallelism by adding -roeis mras, when at 
the most there were only two. 

The words rjv 'Was — vuVras are borrowed from Jon 2 1 . — rfj 
KapSia ttJs y^s] cf. Dt 4 11 Heb. "the heart of heaven," and cor 
maris, 4 Es ( = 2 Es R.V.) i 3 25 - 51 . 

41. The men of Nineveh shall rise up at the judgement with this L 
generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the message 
of Jonah; and, behold, more than Jonah is here.] Lk. transposes this 
and the next verse, probably simply in order to secure a chrono- 
logical sequence. He has this verse in verbal agreement with Mt. 

dvao-T^crovTat iv rfj Kpcaet] shall stand or rise up at the judgement. 
Except in this and the next verse, Mt. uses rjfiepa Kpurews in this 

1 For an early attempt to account for the " three days " and " three nights," 
see the Syriac Didascalia (ed. Lagarde), p. 88, where the "three days" are 
reckoned as Friday 6 a.m. to noon, Friday 3 p.m. to 6 p.m., and Saturday; 
the "three nights" as Friday 12 to 3 p.m. (darkness = night), Friday night, 
and Saturday night. 


sense; cf. io 15 1122.24 I2 36 # jr or ^ KpiVts = the last judgement, 
cf. Lk io 14 . The idea is that at the final judgement the men of 
Nineveh will indict the men of this generation for not having 
repented at the preaching of Christ, who had been a greater sign 
to them than Jonah had been to the Ninevites. Wellhausen 
urges that in Aramaic "stand or rise up in judgement with" means 
" to accuse." That is true ; but even so the implied period of 
accusation must have been the final judgement day. The Greek 
translator, who rendered the Aramaic original by avaa-Trjcrovrai iv 
rfj KpLo-et. /xerd, only made his words express what he supposed to 
be implied in the original. — 7rXetov 'Iwva] cf. 12 6 tov Upov p.ei£,ov. 

L 42. The queen of the South shall rise up at the judgement with 
this generation, and shall condemn it ; for she came from the ends of 
the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon ; and, behold, more than 
Solomon is here.] So Lk. with tujv avftpwv after /texa. eyep^^o-erai 
is synonymous with di/ao-r^o-erai of v. 41 . Both represent the same 
Aramaic word. — votov] In i K io 1 fcO£> = LXX 2a/?c£. Jos. Ant. 
viii. 165 calls her queen of Egypt and Ethiopia. But Sheba was in 
southern Arabia. Wellhausen remarks that this is the earliest 
instance of the name Jemen ( = " south " = votos) for South-West 

L 43-45 are placed by Lk. (1 1 24 ' 26 ) earlier in the discourse. There 
they seem to illustrate the futility of the methods of the Jewish 
exorcists (v. 19 ). These seem to do the same work as Christ, but 
really they act against Him (v. 20 ) ; for the evil spirit whom they 
drive out returns, making the sufferer worse than before. In Mt. 
the verses seem rather to describe the condition of the Jewish 
nation in Christ's time. They had formerly repented at the 
summons of God, and their evil spirit had been driven out. 
But it had returned with seven others. And now the condition 
of the nation was such that even the preaching of Christ had no 
effect. Or the passage may have been added here by the editor, 
with immediate reference to the preceding verses, as bearing upon 
the subject of exorcism with which the discourse started. It is 
possible that Lk. may have tried to improve the connection by 
placing the verses within the body of the discourse. 

L 43. But when the unclean spirit is gone forth from the man, he 
passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and finds none.] So Lk. 
with p.r) evpco-Kov for oi)( evpiaKei. — avvSpwv to7to)v] Demons were 
thought to dwell in deserted places. Cf. Is 13 21 34 14 , Bar 4 s5 , Rev 
18 2 , Mk 5 10 . For the waterless place, cf. the incantation given in 
Thompson, Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia, i. pp. 61, 167 : 
" Neither with sea water, nor with sweet water, 
Nor with bad water, nor with Tigris water, 
Nor with Euphrates water, nor with pond water, 
Nor with river water, shalt thou be covered." 


And for desert places as the abode of demons, cf. the same work : 
p. 123: "O evil spirit — to the desert. 

O evil demon — to the desert 

O evil ghost — to the desert 

O evil devil — to the desert. 
p. 139: O evil spirit, get thee forth to distant places. 

O evil demon, hie thee unto the ruins. 

■ •«•«••• 

A ruined desolate house is thy home." 

44. Then he saith, I will return to my house whence I came 1 
out ; and having come, he finds it vacant, swept, and adorned.'] So 

Lk. With VTTO(TTpeif/W €15 TOV OLKOV jXOV for EtS TOV OLKOV [XOV i7Tl(JTpilf/<j) j 

but a* A D at S 1 S 2 omit o-xoka^ovTo. in Lk. — crxoXd(ovTa] Rare in 
this sense; cf. Plut. Cat Grose. 12 ; and of uncultivated land, Plut. 
Timol. ch. 22 end. — aapooi] A late form of aaipoi, Artem. ii. t,^. 

45. Then he goeth, and taketh with himself seven other spirits L 
worse than himself, and entering in they dwell there ; and the last 
state of that man becomes worse than the first.] So Lk. without fieff 
iavrov, and with iwTa. after eavrov. — on-a] For the seven evil spirits 
of Babylonian demonology, cf. Thompson, pp. xlii ff. 

So shall it be to this evil generation.] These words are not 
found in Lk. 

C. (7) His relations seek Him. 

46. The editor now goes back to Mk 3 31 - 35 . In Mk. Christ is in a 
house (3 19b ), where the preceding discourse was presumably uttered. 
But in Mt the last place mentioned is the synagogue of 12 9 . In 
1 2 15 He leaves the synagogue, and in 1 2 22 a blind and deaf demoniac 
is brought to Him ; but no detail of place is given. 

While He was still speaking to the multitudes, behold, His W 
mother and brethren had taken their stand without, seeking to speak 
to Him.] Mk. has: "And His mother and His brethren come, 
and, having taken their stand outside, sent to Him, calling Him." 
The outside here means outside the house in which He was (3 19 ). 
In Mt. the outside must be interpreted as on the outskirts of the 
crowd. The editor is obliged to rewrite Mk.'s opening words, 
In airov AaAowTos] Cf. the insertion of a similar formula, ravra 
airov XaXovvTos, as a connecting link, in 9 18 . — toi? 0^X019] cf. v. 23 . — 

l8ov] See on I 20 . — £7770 wtcs airw AaA^crai] Mk.'s a7reo-T€iAav 7rpos 

airov (taXowTes airov is unsuitable here, where Christ is separated 
from His relatives only by the circle of people round Him. Mt. 
anticipates the ^tovo-lv ere of Mk v. 32 which he omits. 

48. And He answered and said to him who told Him, Who is M 
Afy mother ? and who are My brethren f] The editor summarises 
Mk vv. 32 - 33 " And the crowd sat about Him ; and they say to Him, 
Behold, Thy mother and Thy brethren without seek Thee. And 
He answered them, and saith, Who is My mother and brethren ? " 


M 49. And He stretched out His hands toivards His disciples, and 
said, Behold My mother and My brethren /] Mk. has : " And He 
looked round at those sitting in a circle about Him, and saith, 
Behold My mother and My brethren ! " It is in Mt.'s manner to 
make the reference apply specially to the disciples. — l8ov] for Mk.'s 
r8e. See on i 20 . 

M 50. For whosoever shall do the will of My Father who is in the 
heavens, the same is My brother, and sister, and mother.] Mk. has : 
"Whosoever shall do the will of God, he is My brother, and sister, 
and mother." For tot) 7rarpos i*ov tov iv ovpavdis, see on 5 16 . Cf. 
A both 5 22 " Be bold as a leopard, and swift as an eagle, and fleet 
as a hart, and strong as a lion, to do the will of thy Father which 
is in heaven." 2 4 " Do His will as if it were thy will, that He 
may do thy will as if it were His will. Annul thy will before 
His will, that He may annul the will of others before thy will." 
B. Berakhoth i6 b "Our will is to do Thy will" See also on 6 12 . 

47. X'CDEa/ latt insert here : " And one said to Him, Behold, Thy_ 
mother and Thy brethren are standing without, seeking to speak to Thee." 
Mk. has : "And there sat about Him a multitude ; and they say to Him, 
Behold, Thy mother and Thy brethren outside are seeking Thee." The verse 
in Mt. is rightly omitted by X* B L T S 1 S 2 ff 1 k. Mt. has purposely omitted 
the corresponding clause in Mk., and has only taken from it the frTovaiv <re = 
ftTovvres avrQ XaX^crai, Mt 48 . The interpolator has written the words to 
assimilate to Mk. and Lk., and to prepare the way for v. 48 . If the verse were 
genuine, Mt. and Lk. would agree against Mk. in iaT7)Ka.<nv, as they do in 
the next verse in elirev for X<fyei. 
C. (8) Illustrations of His parabolic teaching, is 1 ' 52 . 
XIII. The editor now comes to Mk 4. 
M 1. On that day Jesus went (out of the house ?), and sat by the 
sea.} Mk has : "And again He began to teach by the sea." 

cv iKeLvrj rfj y^pa] inserted to make the connection closer, as 
in 2 2 23 , and as a substitute for Mk.'s irdXtv, which Mt. often omits. 
ck rfc 01/a'as if genuine is a reminiscence of Mk 3 19b *ai cpxerai 
cis oW, which Mt. had omitted, but which still underlies 12 46 ; 
but D S 1 a b e ff x 2 g 1 k omit in t^s olxtas. B omits e*. C E a/ have 
(xtto. The words are probably a gloss to explain l£eA0<Sv. — eKo/hpo] 
Mk. has r)p£a.To StSdo-K€tv. Mt. often avoids rjp$aTo. For inddriTo, 
cf. 15 29 . It is suggested here by the KaO^adai of the next clause 

in Mk. 

M 2. And there were gathered to Him many multitudes, so that 
He embarked into a boat, and sat.] Mk. has : " And there is 
gathered to Him a very great multitude, so that He embarked 
into a boat, and sat in the sea." — avviQx&V a ' av ] for Mk -' s hi ?t 
pres., as often.— o X A.ot] for Mk.'s singular, as often. Mt. omits 
Mk.'s superfluous iv rfj OaXdao-rj. 

M And all the multitude had taken its stand on the shore.]^ Mk. 
has : " And all the multitude were at the sea upon the land."— «ri 


tov alytaXov] For aiyiaXo?, cf. v. 48 . Mt. avoids Mk.'s redundant 
"at the sea upon the land." Cf. Introduction, p. xxiv. 

3. And He spake to them many things in parables, saying, Be- M 
hold, the sower went out to sow. ,] Mk. has: "And He was teach- 
ing them many things in parables, and He said to them in His 
teaching, Hear; Behold, the sower went out to sow." 

TroXXa] Mt. generally omits Mk.'s adverbial u-oAAd. — iXdX-qcrev] 
abbreviates Mk.'s iBiBacrKev — *ai tAeyev avT0i9 ev Trj BiBa^rj avrov. 
See Introduction, p. xxiv. — tov <nretpciv] for Mk.'s a-n-elpai. Mt. 
has tov with inf. 7 times. The present tense emphasises the con- 
tinuance of the action. See Blass, p. 196 f., and note on n 1 . 

4. And during his sowing, some fell by the wayside, and the M 
birds came and devoured them.] Mk. has: "And it came to pass 
during the sowing, some (o) fell by the wayside, and the birds 
came and devoured it." — a] Mk. has the singular. For Mt.'s 
preference for plurals, see on 8 26 . — iXOovra — Ka.Tc<f>ayev] for Mk.'s 
rjX6ev xal KaTe<payey. 

6. And others fell upon the stony places, where they had not much M 
earth ; and immediately they sprang up, because they had not depth of 
earth.~\ Mk. has : "And other fell upon the stony place, and where 
it had not much earth ; and immediately it sprang up because it 
had not depth of earth." — dAAa] plural again, and so in 7rerpwBr] 
for Mk.'s dAAo and ireTpwSes ; see on 8 26 . But Mk. has aAAa in 
v. 8 and ireTpw&r) in v. 16 . — aAAa Be] for Mk.'s /cai aAAo, as often. 

6. And the sun having risen, they were scorched; and because they M 
had not root they withered.] Mk. has : "And when the sun rose," etc. 

7. And others fell upon the thorns, and the thorns grew up and M 
choked them.] Mk. has: "And other (sing.) fell into the thorns; 
and the thorns grew up and choked it, and it gave no fruit." — aAAa 

Bi for Mk.'s /cai aAAo, as often. — diriirvi^av] Mk. has avviirvi£a.v. 
In Mt. xD have the simple verb, which occurs also in 18 28 , Mk 
5 13 . d7T£7rvi£av may be an assimilation to Lk. 

8. And others fell upon the good ground, and was giving fruit .] M 
Mk. has : " And others fell into the good ground, and was giving 
fruit, growing and increasing." Mt. omits Mk.'s rather obscure 
last three words, see Swete. — aAAa Be] for Mk.'s teal aAAa, as often. 
C7ri is easier than Mk.'s cis. " Some an hundred, and some sixty, and 
some thirty fold" Mk. has : "And was bearing one thirty, and one 
sixty, and one an hundred fold." Mk.'s eU — ev — h> is due to mis- 
translation of the Aramaic Kin bv or Hebrew in ; cf. iiNO in *?V, 
Gn 26 12 (Targ.) = an hundred fold, njne> "in, Dn 3 19 = sevenfold. 
Cf. Exp. Times, xiii. p. 330, and so now Wellhausen on Mt. Mt. 
has avoided the Aramaism by substituting o — 6 — o. 

9. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.] Mk. has : "And M 
He said, Who hath ears to hear, let him hear." The words occur 
again in Mt n 15 and i3 4S . 


1-9. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following : 

op(Aoi ttoXXol, Mt 2 = ox^-ov 7roAAoO, Lk 4 . Mk. has o^Aos TrAcicr-ros. 

tov o-tri.ipi.iv, Mt 3 = tov <nrelpai, Lk 5 . Mk. has o-rretpcu. alone. 

iv tu cnreipeiv auTW, Mt 4 , Lk 5 . Mk. has /ecu eycVero cv t<3 

6 l X o)v, Mt 9 , Lk 8 . Mk. has os ^et. 
M 10. ,4/z^ the disciples came and said to Him, Why dost Thou 
speak to thetn in parables ?] Mk. has : " And when He was in 
private, those who were around Him with the Twelve were asking 
Him the parables." This is ambiguous. Lk. interprets it to mean, 
"asked Him the meaning of the parable." In Mk. we must under- 
stand that vv. 10 " 33 refer to teaching on some occasion other than that 
implied in vv. 1 " 9 - 35 " 36 . This explains Mk.'s plural Trapaf3o\d<;. On 
some other occasion the Twelve and others asked for an explana- 
tion of the parable of the Sower and of other parables. But Mt. 
prefers to treat Mk 4 10 - 33 as a part of the same scene as Mk 1_9 - 35 " 36 . 
He therefore omits " And when He was in private," and changes 
" Asked Him about the parables " = " asked Him what the meaning 
of the parables was " into " Said to Him, Why dost Thou speak 
to them in parables?" For Trpoo-c\66vT<.<s, see on 4A — ol p.a$r]Tai\ 
"disciples" in a wide sense. Mt. thus avoids representing the 
Twelve as ignorant of the reason of Christ's use of parables. See 
Introduction, p. xxxiii. 
M 11. And He answered and said that, To you it has been given to 
know the secrets of the kingdom of the heavens, but to them it has not 
been given.] Mk. has : " And He said to them, To you the secret oi 
the kingdom of God has been given, but to those outside all things 
happen in parables." — p-vo-Tr/pLa] for the plural, see on 8 26 . The 
singular might suggest that the very conception of the kingdom was 
something unknown. But the idea of the kingdom was current 
and familiar. Christ's teaching about it contained, however, many 
things unfamiliar. Hence the plural. Mt. adds the explanatory 
yvwvai. — Se'Sorai] Christ's teaching about the kingdom had 
familiarised His disciples with many conceptions (yuwr^pta) of its 
nature and near approach which remained unknown to the masses 
of the people. — p.vo-nqpia\ The word is used in the LXX to 
denote a "secret"; cf. Wis 2 22 "the secrets of God," To 12 7 "the 
secret of a king," Jth 2 2 the same, 2 Mac 13 21 . The representa- 
tion of eschatological ideas, immortality of the soul, resurrection 
of the body, future judgement, Messianic kingdom as "secrets" 
revealed to the elect, is especially characteristic of the Apocalyptic 
and Sibylline literature, and the word in this sense has been 
adopted by the New Testament writers. See Armitage Robinson, 
Ephesians, pp. 234 ff. S 1 abeffk omit twv ovpavwv. 

eKcivots Sc ov SeSorai] Mk. has the obscure e/ceiVois Se T015 e£w 
iv 7rapa/3oAcus 7ravra ytVtrat, which may perhaps mean, " all spiritual 


teaching is like an unexplained parable to the uninitiated," or "to 
the multitude outside (the place where we are)." 

12. For whosoever hath, there shall be given to him, and increased. M 
But whosoever hath not, even that which he hath shall be taken from 
him.] Mk. has a similar clause in 4 25 " For he who hath, there 
shall be given to him; and he who hath not, there shall be taken 
from him even that which he hath." Similar words occur in 2 5 29 
in the parable of the Talents, and Mt. here adds ko.1 Trepio-o-tvOrjo-cTai 
to assimilate to that passage or in anticipation of Kat TrpoareOrio-eTai 
ifjiiv, Mk 4 24 . Here the words seem to refer to spiritual opportuni- 
ties. The disciples "had," e.g., faith to receive the revelation of the 
secrets of the kingdom. Hence these secrets were entrusted to them. 
The masses of the people "had not" such capacity for divine 
truth. Hence these secrets were withheld from them, because 
the parabolic form in which Christ taught them only yielded its 
"secret" to those who already had some understanding of the 
nature of the secrets concerned. But the verse does not seem 
entirely applicable here, because it is difficult to give any adequate 
meaning to the last clause. The teaching in parables did not 
bring about the "taking away even what he hath." Mt. has 
probably added them here in order to afford at least a partial 
explanation of Mk.'s obscure "all things happen in parables." 

13. Therefore I speak to them in parables : because seeing they W 
do not see ; and hearing they do not hear, nor understand^ Mk. 
has : " (Happen in parables) in order that seeing they may see, and 
not see ; and hearing they may hear, and not understand ; lest they 
should turn, and be forgiven." 

The verse in Mk. is an adaptation of Is 6 9 - 10 aKorj aKovo-ere /cat 
ov /at) crvvrjTe Kat /3A.e7rovT£9 fiktyeTe Kat ov /at) iSr/re — //.?/ nore — 
€7rto-Tpet//a)ori Kat tao-o/Aai auTous. In the last clause Mk.'s Kat 
ctyeflf) aijTors is nearer to the Heb. lb KB"il than to the LXX. As 
the words stand in Mk. they describe the purpose of the "all 
things happen in parables." This may mean, " To the unspiritual 
masses of the people, who have no capacity for divine truth, the 
whole of life, and, in particular, all revelation of divine secrets, is 
like an unexplained parable, into the real meaning of which they 
never penetrate. And this condition of things fulfils the words of 
God to the prophet Isaiah, which described the spiritual condition 
of that generation." A modern speaker would use terms of analogy 
rather than of purpose to connect the state of things before him 
with the Old Testament parallel. But in the New Testament any 
condition of things parallel to or analogous to a similar condition 
in the Old Testament is said to fulfil the terms which describe 
the latter. And the use of future tenses in the LXX of Isaiah 
easily leads to the use of the passage as a prediction of future events 
rather than as the description of a present condition. 


Mt, however, has explained the question of Mk 4 10 as asking 
after the reason of Christ's use of parables, 81a ri Zv 7rapa/3oXats 
XaAets auTois ; and introduces this use of Isaiah's language with the 
direct answer, " Therefore I speak to them in parables." He 
cannot, therefore, continue with Mk.'s Iva, the effect of which 
would be to represent Christ's speaking in parables as purposely 
adopted in order to prevent the people from understanding the 
teaching underlying them. The editor feels that this would be 
intolerable. He therefore changes Iva into on, and substitutes 
indicatives for Mk.'s subjunctives. "I speak in parables, because 
the people are not able to receive nor to understand the ' secrets ' 
when revealed in plain language." " They see, and yet do not 
see; and they hear, and yet do not hear, nor understand." 
Nothing is here said (as apparently in Mk.) of the object gained 
by the use of parables, but an explanation is given of the causes 
which made it necessary. But there is implied the inference that 
the object was to present the " secrets " of the kingdom in a form 
which would enable all such as had (v. 12 ) capacity to understand, 
to penetrate their meaning, whilst it would shroud these divine 
secrets from those who had no qualifications for appreciating 
them. In this way Christ fulfilled His own saying, " Give not 
that which is holy to dogs, nor cast your pearls before swine " (7 6 ). 
DS 1 S 2 abcdeffk add fx-q nore ItncrrpZ^oicnv from Mk. 

14, 15. Mt here introduces the direct quotation, which is in- 
directly employed in Mk 5 12 . 
23 And there is being fulfilled for them the prophecy of Isaiah, 
which says, With hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand ; 
and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive. For the heart of this 
people was made fat, and with their ears they heard heavily, and 
their eyes they smeared ; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear 
with their ears, and understand with their heart, and should turn, 
and I should heal them.] 

/cat dva.7rA?7poi)Tcu aurots] We might expect the editor to use 
the formula oVws (Iva) TrXrjpoiOrj to p-qOiv, on which see Introduction, 
p. lxi. But that formula seems to have been characteristic of a 
special group of quotations which the editor had before him in a 
Greek form. In this case he himself has recourse to the LXX, in 
order to quote a passage which has been suggested to him by 
Mk 4 12 . He therefore uses an introductory phrase of his own, 
which was suggested, no doubt, by the irX-qpudrj of the recurring 
formula. The quotation which follows seems to be verbally 
identical with the LXX of Is 6 9b-1 °, even to the unexpected fut. 
ind. Ida-o/xaL of the last clause. 

16-17. Cf. Lk iq 23 - 2 *, Mk 4 13 . 
L But blessed are your eyes, for they see ; and your ears, for they 
hear. For verily I say to you, That many prophets and righteous 


men desired to see the things which ye see, and did not see ; and to 
hear the things which ye hear, and did not hear.] Mk. has : " And 
He saith to them, Do ye not know (olSare) this parable, and how 
shall you understand (yiweo-0e) all the parables?" Mt. omits this 
reproach (see Introduction, p. xxxiii), and substitutes for it a passage 
from the Logia containing a statement of the privileges of the 
disciples. This saying also occurs in Lk io 23 " 24 in a different 
context (the return of the Seventy), and differently worded : "And 
turning to the disciples, privately He said, Blessed are the eyes 
which see the things which ye see ; for I say to you, that many 
prophets and kings wished to see the things which ye see, and did 
not see : and to hear the things which ye hear, and did not hear." 
vfjLwv <$€.] The v/jlwv is emphatic, and contains a direct contrast 
to those referred to in aurots, vv. 10 " 13 , e/cctWs, v. 11 , and in vv. 13 " 15 . 
" They " cannot understand the parables, and that is why I use 
the parabolic method, because they are not capable of appreciating 
the " secrets " when plainly taught in literal language ; " for they 
have blinded their eyes to the light of divine truth. But blessed 
are your eyes, for they see this divine light." 

18. Ye therefore hear the parable of the sower.] The words are in- E 
serted by the editor. — v/ms] " Because your eyes see, you are able 
to understand and to receive the 'secrets' which the parable enfolds." 

19. In the case of every one who hears the word of the M 
kingdom, and does not understand, ther". comes the evil one, and 
zvrests away that which was sown in his heart. This is he who was 
sown by the wayside^] Mk. has : " The sower sows the word. 
These are they who (are) by the wayside, where the word is sown. 
And when they hear, straightway cometh Satan, and taketh away 
the word which was sown into them." Mk.'s explanation of the 
parable suffers from condensation. "These are they who are by 
the wayside " interprets o p.\v e-n-ecrev napa tt)v oSoV, v. 4 , i.e. the seed 
which fell by the wayside describes the case of the people who 
hear the doctrine and allow it quickly to be lost from their memory 
and understanding. Properly speaking, "that which fell by the 
wayside" is the doctrine, and the wayside represents superficial 
hearers ; but Mk.'s loosely connected words seem to confuse the 
seed sown, i.e. the doctrine, with the people amongst whom it is 
sown, i.e. those who hear it. Mt. might have simplified by saying in 
his last clause, " This is, i.e. this is represented by, that which was 
sown by the wayside " ; but he follows Mk.'s confusion between 
the seed sown and the people amongst whom it is sown. He adds 
Kal /*■>; otWi/tos to explain why the evil one succeeds in wresting 
the seed from them, and substitutes lv 777 KapUa avrov for Mk.'s 
harsher ets avrov? — 6 71-01/77^05, as in v. 38 . 

20. 21. And he that was sown upon the stony places, this is he M 
who hears the word, and straightway with joy receives it ; but hath 


not root in himself, but is ephemeral ; and when tribulation or 
persecution for the word cometh, straighhvay is made to stumble .] 
Mk. has : " And these are they likewise who are being sown on 
the stony places, who, when they hear the word, straightway with 
joy receive it ; and have not root in themselves, but are ephemeral. 
Then when tribulation or persecution for the word cometh, straight- 
way they are made to stumble." There is here again the same 
confusion in Mk., followed by Mt., between the seed and the 
people amongst whom it is sown. — cnrapdi] and so in v. 22 for 
Mk.'s less suitable <Tireip6p.evoi. Mk. has (nrapevTes in v. 20 . 6 Se 
for kol ovroi ; and ovk l^a Se for /ecu ovk e\ovaiv, as often ; tov Xoyov 
throughout this chapter means the good news of the kingdom ; 
cf. v. 19 . 
M 22. And he that was soivn into the thorns, this is he who hears 
the word ; and the care of the world and the deceitfulness of riches 
choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful.] Mk. has : " And others 
there are who are being sown into the thorns. These are they 
who heard the word ; and the cares of the world, and the desires 
concerning the rest, enter in and choke the word, and it becometh 
unfruitful." Again the same verbal confusion. Lk. here simplifies 
by substituting the neuter: "And that which was sown," etc. Mt. 
Omits koX at Trepl to. \onra £iri6vp.(.ai as being involved in rj piptpiva 
toC cuwvos. tov atwvos probably implies the distinction between 
this and the coming age ; see on 12 32 . 
M 23. And he that was sown upon the good ground, this is he 
who hears the word and understands, who brings forth and pro- 
duces fruit, some an hundredfold, and some sixty, and some thirty.] 
Mk. has : " And these are they who were sown upon the good 
ground, who hear the word and receive it, and bring forth fruit, 
one thirty fold, and one sixty, and one an hundred. Lk., again,, 
has the neuter — " that which," etc. crwieis, cf. v. 19 , explains 
Mk.'s irapaUxpvrai. — o — o — o] for Mk.'s h — Iv — Iv. See on v. 8 . 
— o Se] for Mk.'s Kai, as often. 

The parable as it stands here seems to describe the reception 
of the word, or good news, or teaching (v. 19 ) about the secrets of 
the kingdom (v. 11 ) as taught by Christ. Some do not understand 
it (v. 19 ). Some cannot endure the persecution with which its 
disciples are assailed (vv. 20-21 ). Some are too much preoccupied 
by worldly pursuits to allow it to influence them (v. 22 ). But others 
welcome it, and become true disciples of the kingdom (v. 23 ) ; 
cf. v. 52 . 

10-23. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following : 

ol fMaOrjTat, Mt 10 ; ol p-aQ-qral avrov, Lk 9 . Mk. has 01 7rept 
avror avv Tot? SwSe/co. 

6 8e — ei7rev — yvwvat to. p.vo-Tr)pia, Mt u , Lk 10 . Mk. has koX 
eAeyey — to p.v<rTypi.ov. 


tv rfj KapSia airov, Mt 19 = <x7ro ti}s KapStas, Lk 12 . Mk. has 
eis avrous. 

8e, Mt 20 , Lk 13 ; Mt 22 , Lk 14 ; Mt 23 , Lk 15 . Mk. has ko.1. 
24-30. The tares. 

24. Another parable He put forth to them, saying, The kingdom L 
of heaven is likened to a man who sowed good seed in his field.] 

6)[xoi(L6r}~\ The usual introduction of a parable in the later 
Jewish literature is : "A parable. To what is the matter like ? 
To," etc. See Bacher, Exeg. Term. i. 121, ii. 121. The use of 
parables is very common in this literature. Examples from the 
Mechilta may be seen in Fiebig, Altjud. Gleichnisse. All the 
parables in Mt. which are not borrowed from Mk. are introduced 
with the formula w/xoiwOrj or 6/xoia ecn-i, except 25 14 " 30 , which is 
introduced with a simple wa-n-ep, a method also used in the Jewish 
parables. Cf. Fiebig, p. 78. 

25. And whilst men were sleeping, the enemy came and sowed L 
tares in the midst of the wheat, and went away.] 

26. But when the blade sprouted and made fruit, then appeared L 
also the tares.] 

27. And the servants of the householder came, and said to him, L 
Lord, didst thou not sow good seed in thy field ? Whence, therefore, 
hath it tares ?] 

28. And he said to them, An enemy hath done this. And the L 
servants say to him, Dost thou wish, therefore, that we go and 
gather them ?] 

29. And he saith, No, lest as you gather the tares ye root up also L 
with them the wheat.] 

30. Let both grow together until the harvest; and in the tif?ie of the L 
harvest Lwill say to the reapers, Gather first the tares, and bind them 
into bundles to burn them ; but the wheat gather into my granary.] 

aira eis Sia-fias] L X A S 1 S 2 a b c g 1 2 ff 2 q omit els. ^ D e f h k 
omit avra. Epiph. quoted by Tisch. gives Sea-pas Sea-pas ; cf. 
crvfj-TToaia o-vjjLTr6<Tia, Mk 6 39 ; and see Moulton, p. 97. 

31. Mt. here omits Mk.'s added sayings, 4 21 - 25 . He has already 
inserted a parallel to 4 21 in 5 15 , and to 4 22 in io 26 . A parallel to 4 23 
has already been given twice in i3 9 = Mk 4 9 , and in 1 1 15 . A parallel 
to Mk 4 2i has been given in 7 2b , and to 4 s5 in v. 12 . This, therefore, 
brings the editor to 4 26-29 . But it is probable that in the Logia 
he had before him a group of parables containing the Tares, the 
Mustard Seed, the Leaven, the explanation of the Tares, the Hid 
Treasure, the Goodly Pearl, the Drag-net, and a conclusion. He 
turns now to this source, and borrows from it, thus omitting 
Mk 4 26 " 29 , and substituting for 4 30 - 32 the similar parable of the 
Logia. After the third Logian parable, the Leaven, he turns back 
to Mk. and borrows Mk.'s conclusion, 4 s3 - 34 , before continuing 
with the explanation of the Tares from the Logia. Thus : 


Mt 13. Mk 4. 

Seed growing secretly, omitted 26 " 29 . 

Tares, 24 " 30 — 

Mustard Seed, 81 " 32 substituted for 8 °- 32 . 

Leaven, S3 — 

Conclusion, 84 ' 35 33 ' 34 . 

It may seem strange that, having once abandoned Mk at 13 24 , 
he should take the trouble to borrow from him 4 s3 - 34 , and that he 
should place this not after the Mustard Seed as in Mk., but after 
the Logian parable of the Leaven. By so doing he seems to intro- 
duce into his chapter two conclusions, 13 34 - 35 from Mk., and 51 ' 52 
from the Logia. 

But let us suppose that the Logia contained two groups of 
three parables, separated by the explanation of the Tares, and 
ended with the conclusion, vv. 61-52 . Thus : 
13 24 - 30 Tares j 

si-32 Mustard Seed I First group. 

83 Leaven ) 

86-43 Explanation of Tares. 

44 Hid Treasure J 
45 - 46 Goodly Pearl >- Second group. 
47 " 50 Draw Net ) 

Of course, the difficulty here is in the position of the explana- 
tion of the Tares. Why does it not stand immediately after the 
parable ? Moreover, the reference to the house, v. 36 , is improbable 
as a feature of the Logia. In any case this is probably due to the 
editor. It does not help us to attribute the whole of vv. 36-43 to 
the editor, because the position of the section remains a difficulty, 
and because the section is characterised throughout by phrases 
which are probably due to the Logia. 

It is easiest, therefore, to suppose that the Logian parables 
were arranged as above in two groups of three, separated by the 
explanation of the Tares. The editor having once deserted Mk., 
inserts the first group of three, and then adds Mk.'s conclusion. 
He did not place it immediately after the mustard seed, where 
Mk. has it, because he did not care to break up the grouping into 
three. For his liking for this arrangement, see Introduction, p. lxv. 
31, 32. Cf. Mk 4 30 - 32 , Lk i3 18 - 19 . 
L M 31. Another parable He put forth to them, saying, The kingdom 
of the heavens is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, 
and solved in his field.] Mk. has: "And He said, How shall we 
liken the kingdom of God, or in what parable shall we set it forth ? 
As a grain of mustard seed ? " 

ofjioca ia-TLv] see on v. 24 . Mt. avoids Mk.'s redundancy ; cf. 
Introduction, p. xxiv. For Mk.'s d>s, cf. 25 14 , and see on v. 24 . 
I, M 32. Which indeed is less than all seeds. But when it has grown it 


is greater than the herbs, and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the 
heaven come and lodge in its branches.] Mk. has : " Which when 
it is sown upon the earth, though it is less than all seeds which are 
upon the earth, and when it is sown, grows up and becomes greater 
than all herbs, and makes great branches, so that the birds of the 
heaven are able to lodge under its shadow." 

o jxiKpoTepov fxev eo-Tiv] Mt. simplifies Mk.'s harsh construction, 
os — [iiKporepov ov. He also avoids the repetition of orav airapf) 
and €7Ti T?/s yrjs. — Karao-K7]vo2v] cf. Ps 104 12 . — iv tois /cXaSots airov] 
Mk. has wo t>)v (tklolv airov. Both expressions are used of birds 
in connection with trees. For vn-o rr}v o-kiglv airov, cf. Ezk 1 7 23 ; 
and for iv tois xXaSois airov, Dn 4 18 Th. The latter phrase 
expresses more suitably here the size of the tree. 

Mt. and Lk. have several agreements in this parable as against 
Mk. ; cf. 6/xota eoriv, Mt. Lk. ov A.a/3wv avdpwTros eo-ireipev iv T(3 
dyp<3 airov, Mt. = bv Xa/3wv aV0pa)7ros e/3a\ev €is ktjttov iavrov, Lk. 
av^r)6y, Mt. = Tjv^-qo-ev, Lk. J 8evSpov, Mt. Lk. — ev Tots kXclSois airov] 
So far as Mt. goes, these variations from Mk. might be easily 
explained as editorial revisions of Mk.'s text. But his omission of 
Mk 4 26_29 , combined with these variations and with the fact that 
the interpretation of the Tares does not immediately follow that 
parable, but comes later, after other parables in vv. 36 " 43 , suggests 
that he borrowed the whole section 24 " 52 (excepting v. 34 ) from the 
Logia. In that case, when he came to Mk 4 26 he turned to his 
other source for all that follows down to v. 62 . His variations from 
Mk 4 30 - 32 are then due chiefly to the fact that this parable stood in 
the Logia in a form which differed from that of Mk. Lk. at 8 18 
omits Mk 4 26 " 34 , but has the parable of the Mustard Seed com- 
bined with that of the Leaven later in his Gospel at i3 18-21 . He 
probably, therefore, borrowed them from a non-Marcan source, 
which may have been the first Gospel, or a source which contained 
these two parables in the same order and largely in the same 
language as the Logia. 

The parable seems to describe the future propagation of the 
word or doctrine of the kingdom. Starting from small beginnings 
in the teaching of Christ, it will spread rapidly and win many 

31, 32. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following : 

bfioia io-TLV — ov \uf3o)V avOpwiros — avrov, Mt 31 , Lk 18, 19 . 

avg-rjOrj, Mt 32 = r)v£r)o-ev, Lk 19 . Mk. has o-rraprj. 

SevSpov, Mt 32 = eis 8ev8pov, Lk 19 . Mk. has p-ti^ov iravrwv rS>v 

iv rots AcXaSoi? airov, Mt 32 , Lk 19 . Mk. has V7r6 tt)v o"Kiav 

33. Cf. Lk i 3 20 - 21 . 

Another parable He spake to them ; The kingdom of the heavens 


is like to leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of 
meal, till the whole was leavened.] Lk. has : "And again He said, 
To what shall I liken the kingdom of God ? It is like to leaven," 
etc. — 6/xot'a €CTTtV] for this and for Lk.'s tivi 6/Aoiwarw — opota iartv, 
see on v. 24 . The parable, like that of the Mustard Seed, describes 
the propagation of the doctrine of "the kingdom." Like leaven, 
this will spread rapidly until it has accomplished the purpose for 
which it was taught. 

34. The editor now inserts Mk.'s conclusion, 4 s3 - 34 . 

M 34. All these things spake Jesus in parables to the multitudes ; 
and without a parable He was speaking nothing to them.] Mk. 
4 33 - 34 has: "And with many such parables He was speaking to 
them, as they were able to hear. And without a parable He 
was not speaking to them. But privately He was interpreting 
all things to His disciples." Mt. has omitted Mk 33b and 34b on 
account of the ambiguity of 33b "as they were able to hear." 

35. He now adds one of the series of quotations from which 
he has elsewhere borrowed. 

O 35. That it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the 
prophet, saying, I will open My mouth in parables ; I will utter 
things hidden from the foundation of the world.] — oVws 7r\r]piD$fj] 
see Introduction, p. Ixi, and on i 22 . The quotation is from Ps 
77 2 . The LXX there has: dvoi£co ev TrapajSoXals to crrop-a p.ov, 
<p8£y£ 7rpo(SX^[jLara air apxv^- The first clause of the Gospel 
quotation betrays reminiscence of the LXX, the second clause 
appears to be an independent translation from the Hebrew. For 
ip€vyea$ai, cf. Ps 18 3 ; and for Ka<pvp.p.£va, cf. 2 Mac I2 41 . KaTafioXr) 
Koapov does not occur in the LXX, but here, 25 s4 , Lk n 50 , Jn 17 24 , 
Eph i 4 , three times in Heb., 1 P i 20 , and Rev 13 8 and 17 8 . Cf. 
also Ass. Mos i 14 "ab initio orbis terrarum" = 71730 Ka.Ta(3o\r}<; Koa-p-ov, 
with Charles' note, p. 58. But see critical note on p. 154. 
E L 36. Then having left the multitudes, He went into the house ; 
and there came to Him His disciples, saying, Explain to us the 
parable of the tares of the field.] — rore] see on 2 1 . — duel's] as in 26 44 
22 22 . — el? ttjv oiKiav] cf. 13 1 . Mt.'s references to place in this 
chapter are very vague ; vv. 2 " 9 were spoken in the boat. 7rpocr- 
eA#6Vres, v. 10 , may or may not suggest a change of scene, but in the 
former case nothing is said of the disembarkation nor of the scene 
of the following section, 10 " 35 . The reference here to tous o^Xovs 
suggests that the whole of 2 " 35 was spoken in the boat. If so, Christ 
now disembarks and returns to the house. Since the reference to 
the boat and the house are borrowed from Mk., it seems probable 
that totc a<peU — oiKiav is an editorial insertion to introduce the 
explanation of the Tares. — 7rpocrrj\8ov] see on 4 3 . — Siao-d^o-ov]. 
The verb occurs again in 18 31 , a probable Logian passage. It is 
found in Dt i 5 , Dn 2 6 LXX, 1 Mac 12 8 , and several times in 2 Mac. 


37. And He answered and said, He who sows the good seed is L 
the Son of Man .] 

38. And the field is the world ; and the good seed, these are the L 
sons of the kingdom ; and the tares are the sons of the evil one.] — 
ol viol rJ/s /3ao-<AeiW] i.e. those who are qualified to enter into it ; 
cf. "Son of the coming world," Taanith 2 2 a , and other phrases 
quoted by Dalm. Words, p. 115. The phrase is used with rather 

a different application in 8 12 . There it means " those who were 
chosen to enter the kingdom, but have failed to justify the choice." 

39. And the enemy who sowed them is the devil ; and the harvest L 
is the consummation of the age ; and the reapers are angels.] — 
avvTeXeia atwvos] The phrase occurs in vv. 40 - 49 24 s and 28 20 . In 
the two latter it seems to have been inserted by the editor into 
his source. If this section is Logian, the phrase in 24 s and 28 20 
will be due to the influence of Logian language on the editor. If 
this section is wholly editorial the phrase points to the Jewish 
origin of the editor, for it is characteristic of Jewish, especially of 
apocalyptic, literature. It occurs in He g 26 . Cf. o-wre'Aeia rwv 
alwvoiv, Test. Levi 10 ; "consummation of the age," A foe. Bar 83" ; 

" consummation of the world," 54 21 ; Dn 12 13 o-wTe'Aeiav rj/xepwv ; 
"consummation of the times," Apoc. Bar 13 3 27 15 ; "of time," 29 s ; 
"the day when the great consummation of the great world will be 
consummated," Enoch 16 1 ; "the end of this time," 2 Es 7 113 ; "the 
consummation of the end of the days," Ass. Mos i 18 . Cf. Dalm. 
Words, p. 155; Yo\z,Jud. Eschat. p. 166. — -ayycAoi] cf. 24 31 . 

40. As therefore the tares are gathered and burned with fire ; L 
so shall it be at the consummation of the age.] 

41. The Son of Man shall send forth His angels, and they shall L 
gather together out of His kingdom all stumbling-blocks, and they 
who do lawlessness.] — airoo~Te\a.] cf. 24 31 . — ck rrjs /?ao-iWas avrov] 
This must not be interpreted in such a way as to suggest that the 
kingdom is conceived of as a present condition of things within 
which tares and wheat grow together. When the Son of Man has 
come, then the kingdom also will have come. Hence at that 
future date the tares can be said to be gathered out of His 

42. And shall cast them into the furnace of fire : there shall be the L 
wailing and the gnashing of teeth.] — xd/xivov tov 7n/oos] only again in 
v. 50 a Logian passage; cf. "furnace of Gehenna," 2 Es 7 30 , and 
see Volz, Jud. Eschat. p. 285. — ckci e'en-cu, k.t.X.] See on 8 12 . 

43. Then the righteous shall shine as the sun in the kingdom L 
of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.] 

Tore] see on 2 7 . — ot oYkcuoi eKXa/jupovcnv] Cf. Dn 12 3 Th. 
kou ol crvi'ieVre? \a/Juf/ov(Tt.v — kclI oltto twv oi/caiW. — ws 6 rJAios] ct. 
references on 17 2 , and add Ecclus 50 7 ws 17A10S €KAa//,7rcov ; Ep. Jer 
66. — 6 Ix^v, k.t.A.] A similar refrain occurs in n 15 13 9 . 


The parable deals with the period prior to the future establish- 
ment of the kingdom, during which Christ and His disciples preach 
its " secrets " and announce its coming. See Introduction, p. lxx. 

35. Add "Htralov, N* curss. and MSS. known to Eus. and Jer. Omit 
S b BCDS 1 S 2 . The word is certainly not genuine. — KarapoXiji tcdaiiov] N b 

B I 22 k omit k6<tjj.ov. S 1 S 2 have "from of old " ^(LipO ^-^?> assimilat- 
ing to the Syriac and to the Hebrew of the Psalm, which has mp '3D. It 
seems probable that Mt. wrote /cora^oX^s, that S 1 and S 2 assimilated to the 
Hebrew, and that the mass of authorities have added k6(7/j.ov to assimilate to 
the general usage of the N.T. 

36. dia<rd<t>T 1 (Toi>] N* B ; <f>pd<roi>, K° C D a/. S 1 S a -^ ■ S probably 
implies diacdcpr/crov. 

44-50. Three Parables from the Logia. 

L 44. The kingdom of the heavens is like treasure hidden in the field; 
which a man found and hid, and from joy goes and sells all that 
he hath, and buys that field.] This and the following parable deal 
rather with the nature of the doctrine of " the kingdom " than with 
the method of its propagation, as in the previous parables. The 
good news of the kingdom is of such value that men will give up 
everything else to accept it. 

L 45, 46. Again, the kingdom of the heavens is like a merchant, 
seeking goodly pearls. And having found one precious pearl, he 
went and sold all that he hath, and bought it.] 

6/xoLa eori] see on v. 24 . — avOpuyiruy ifxiropof] cf. dvOpwTrw @a.<n\ti, 
l8 23 2 2 2 ; cf. avOpwiru) oiKoSecnroTr], 13 52 2 1 33 . 

L 47. Again, the kingdom of the heavens is like a net, cast into 
the sea, and gathering of every kind.] 

L 48. Which, when it was filled, they drew to the shore, and sat 
down, and gathered the good into vessels, but the bad they cast away.] 
— ayyr/] SO X B C M*. dyycta, D E F al. dyyetov occurs again in 25*. 
S 1 S 2 have " the good as good " for ra kclXcl eis dyyrf ; see Burkitt. 

L 49, 50. So shall it be at the consummation of the age: the 
angels shall go forth, and shall separate the evil from the midst of 
the righteous, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire : there 
shall be the wailing and the gnashing of teeth.] 

crvvreAeia] see on V. 39 . —] see On V. 42 . — e/cei ecrrai, k.t.A.] 

see on 8 12 . 
L 51, 52. Have ye understood all these things ? They say to Him, 
Yea. And He said to them, Therefore every scribe who has 
become a disciple of the kingdom of the heavens is like a householder, 
who brings out of his treasure new things and old things.] — 7ras 
ypa/xjuaTeus] Christ's disciples were to be disciples and teachers 
of His doctrine, just as were the Jewish scribes of the Law and 
of the traditions; cf. 23 s4 where He describes His disciples as 
"prophets and wise men and scribes." — fi.a.6r]Tev8€is] only here 
passive, no doubt corresponds to TD^TI, a scholar or disciple. 


— avOponno olKoSecnroTr)] see on v. 45 . The thought seems to be of 
a house steward, who brings from his household stores, new and 
old things, food, raiment, etc., as and when they are needed for 
household use. Just so Christ's disciples who had learned from 
Him the secrets of the kingdom, i.e. the truths about its near 
approach, the qualities which befitted those who should enter into 
it, and the separation between bad and good which would be 
made at its coming, were to be teachers of others. In this respect 
they would be as stewards, bringing out of the stores of their 
newly acquired knowledge, truths new and old, as was necessary 
to the requirements of those who wished to learn from them. 
(9) Various incidents, i3 53 -i5 20 , borrowed from Mk. 

53. And it came to pass, when Jesus fi?iished these parables.~\ E 
For this formula, see Introduction, p. lxiv. 

54. The editor left Mk at 4 34 . Having already inserted 4 s6 - 
5 43 , he comes to 6 1-6a which he now borrows. 

He departed thence, and came into His native town, and was ¥ 
teaching in their synagogue, so that they were astonished, and said, 
Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these miracles ?] Mk. has : 
"And He went forth thence, and cometh into His native town; 
and His disciples follow Him. And when the Sabbath came, He 
began to teach in the synagogue. And the multitude (01 iroXXol) 
hearing were astonished, saying, Whence hath this man these 
things ? And what is this wisdom which is given to Him, and 
the miracles such as happen through His hands ? 

ficTTjpev iKeWev] fjLtrrjpev occurs again in 19 1 for Mk.'s epx^rai, 
here for Mk.'s i£r}\6ev. ixeWev in Mk. refers to the house of jairus ; 
here, to the house of Mt 13 36 . — €ts tt/v narpiSa airov] in Mk. 
apparently means Nazara, cf. Mk i 9 , and so, no doubt, in Mt., cf. 
2 23 . — iXOwv] Mt. as usual avoids Mk.'s hist pres. epxerai, and 
omits kcu olkoXovOovctiv ol /xaOyrat airov as unnecessary, since the 
disciples are not mentioned in the incident that follows, and ko.1 
yevop.£vov craft fidrov as unnecessary, since no further reference is 
made to the Sabbath. — eSi'Sao-Kev] Mt. avoids Mk.'s rjp^aTo, as 
often. — ttoOcv TovTto rj a-o<pia avrrj] Mt., as often, dovetails together 
two clauses of Mk., see Introduction, p. xxiv; but in this case 
compensates by repeating the phrase in the next verse but one in a 
slightly different form, ttoBcv ovv tovtw Tat to. Trdvra. — Kai at Sina/ieis] 
Mt. omits Mk.'s TOtavrai Sta Taiv \€ipu)v avrov ytv6p.aat as Otiose. 

55. Is not this the Son of the carpenter f Is not His mother M 
called Mary ? and His brethren, James, and Joseph, and Simon, and 
Judas ?] Mk. has : " Is not this the Carpenter, the Son of Mary, 
and brother of James, and Joses, and Judas, and Simon?" Mt. 
has substituted " the Son of the carpenter " for " the Carpenter," 
from a feeling that the latter was hardly a phrase of due reverence. 
Mk.'s striking phrase " the Carpenter " is occasionally echoed in 


later writers ; cf. Celsus ap. Origen, vi. 34 : -Jyv tcktwv t^v re^yrjv. 
Origen, vi. 36, denies that Jesus was called tsktwv anywhere in the 
Gospels J Just. Tryph. 88 : to. tcktovlkol tpya rjpyd^€TO iv di'#po)7rots 
u>v, aporpa kcu £vyd ; Acts of Judas Thomas, ed. Wright, p. 159: 
" I know how to make ploughs and yokes." This substitution 
explains why he has felt it necessary to change Mk.'s 6 vtos tj}s 
Ma/Has. He might, of course, have simply substituted koI Mapias ; 
but it is questionable whether, whilst feeling no objection to " Son 
of Joseph " or " Son of the carpenter," he would not have shrunk 
from " Son of Joseph (or the carpenter) and of Mary." To the 
editor, Jesus was legally the Son of Joseph and physically the Son 
of Mary. He would probably avoid a phrase which seemed to 
describe Him as Son of Joseph in the same sense that He was Son 
of Mary. He therefore substitutes for 6 vtos t^s Maptds a para- 
phrase, oi>x V M T VP o-vtov Xeyerat Mapta/t ; and this carries with it 
the change of k<u aSeXtpos 'IaKto/Jou, k.t.X., into koll 61 aSeXcpol avTov<;, k.t.X. 

Since parentage in Palestine was always reckoned (and expressed) 
from the father, it may be argued with much probability that Mk.'s 
6 mos Trjs Mapta? implies either the death of Joseph, or, more 
naturally, an allusion to the supernatural circumstances of the birth 
of Jesus. The verse is entirely misquoted when it is used as an 
argument that S. Mark himself believed Jesus to be the natural 
Son of Joseph and Mary. He may have so believed, but no proof 
of such belief can be found in this passage. 

'Iwo-j;'^)] Mt substitutes the old Hebrew name for Mk.'s 'Iwo-rjs. 
The latter represents the Galilean ""DV ; cf. Dalm. Gram. 2 175. 

M 56. And His sisters, are they not all with us ? Whence, there- 
fore, hath this man all these things 1] Mk. has : " And are not His 
sisters here with us?" — -n-oOev ovv toutq> TavTa 7raVTa] the words are 
an expansion of the clause omitted from Mk 2 . See note on v. 54 . 
— 7rpos rjfjias] for Mk.'s <SSe 7rpo? f]pa<i, see Introduction, p. xxiv. 
For etmi 7rpos, see Abbott, Johannine Grammar, 2363*. 2364. — 
Trpds] implies the familiarity of daily intercourse. 

M 57. And they were made to stumble in Him. But Jesus said 
to them, A prophet is not without honour, save in his native town, 
and in his house.] Mk. has : " And they were made to stumble 
in Him. And Jesus said to them that a prophet is not without 
honour, save in his native town, and amongst his kindred, and in 
his house." For <rKav8a\i£eo-8ai, see on 5 29 . — 6 Se] as often for Mk.'s 
/<at, see Introduction, p. xx. — et7rev] as often for Mk.'s eAeyev. Mt. 
often omits Mk.'s ort ; cf. Introduction, p. xx. — ovk iariv 7rpocp^Tr]<;, 
k.t.X.] cf. the similar sayings, Lk 4 24 , Jn 4 U ; and Sayings of Jesus, 
No. 6 : ovk t<TTiv Scktos 7r pu<f>i']Tr)<s cv Trj TrarpiSi avTov. Mt. omits 
Kat e'v toIs o-vyyevevcnv avTov, as implied in the next clause ; see 
Introduction, p. xxiv. 


58. And He did not do there many miracles because of their M 
unbelief^ Mk. has : " And He could not do there any miracle, 
save that He laid His hands on a few sick folk, and healed them. 
And He marvelled because of their unbelief." For the omission 
of i&vvaro and of idavfjiaaev, see Introduction, p. xxxi. 

55. t{ktoi>os] S^bfTVhadd "of Joseph"; S 1 has "of Joseph" only. 
The true reading in Mk. seems to be 6 t4ktwv 6 vlbs r^s Mapfos ; so N B D A. 
Mt. has changed from the motives above explained. The variants in Mk. are 
due to assimilation to Mt. Mt. has no objection to the phrase "Son of 
Joseph," but might not unnaturally wish to avoid " the carpenter." 

The editor now comes to Mk 6 6b-13 . This he has already 
inserted (9 35ff -). So he passes to Mk 6 14 " 29 . From this point in 
his Gospel the grouping of material taken from Mk. and elsewhere 
under subject-heads ceases to be observable. Henceforth he 
follows Mk.'s order, expanding it and adding to it other material. 

XIV. 1. At that time Herod the tetrarch heard the report concern- M 
ing Jesus. 1 Mk. has: "And the king, Herod, heard; for His name 
became notorious." In Mk. the reference in cpavepbv yap 
to ovofxa avrov seems to be to the mission of the Twelve which Mk. 
has just recorded : " They went out and preached, and cast out 
many demons," etc. " And Herod heard ; for His name became 
notorious." Mt., by altering the order, has separated this incident 
of Herod from the charge to the Twelve, and, moreover, had 
omitted altogether the express statement that they went forth on 
their mission. He therefore introduces the section with a loose 
formula, Iv e#ceivo> t<3 Kaipw ; cf. n 25 12 1 . For /3ao-iAevs he sub- 
stitutes the more precisely accurate Terpadpxv^ which Lk. also has, 
and omits the surmises of the people. For aKo-q, cf. 4 24 . 

2. And he said to his servants, This is John the Baptist ; he is M 
risen from the dead; and therefore the powers are active in him.] 
Mk. has: "And he said (IXeyev, NACLS 1 ) that John the Baptizer 
has risen from the dead, and therefore the powers are active in 
him. But others were saying that it is Elijah. And others were 
saying that he is a prophet as one of the prophets. But Herod 
heard, and said, John whom I beheaded, he is risen." Mt. seems 
to have had lAeyev in Mk 14 . — /3a7n-io-T?;s] for /3a.7rri£a>v, cf. the same 
change in 3 1 . Mt. abbreviates Mk.'s double statement of Herod's 
opinion and the surmises of other people. — at Swa/ms] elsewhere 
in this Gospel means " miraculous actions." Here, as in Mk. w , it 
seems to denote the supernatural powers who operated through 
the risen Baptist. 

3. For Herod seized John, and bound him, and threw him into M 
prison on account of Herodias, the wife of Philip his brother.] Mk. 
has : " For he, Herod, had sent and seized John, and bound 
him in prison on account of Herodias, the wife of Philip his 
brother. Because he had married her." — Z8r)<rev] The aorists 


throughout the section are borrowed from Mk. They are 
practically equivalent to the English pluperfect. — eV <f>v\cu<rj] i.e. 
Machserus, Josephus, Ant. xviii. 119. — QiXiinrov] not the tetrarch, 
but a son of Herod the Great and Mariamne. Josephus, Ant. 
xviii. 136, calls him " Herod." 

M 4. For John said to him, It is not lawful for thee to have her.] 
— aurcS] Mk. has : tw 'UpwSrj. Mt. as often omits Mk.'s on. 
— avr^v] Mk. has : ttjv yvvaixa tov dBeXcpov a-ov. For Mt.'s 
avoidance of Mk.'s iteration of a phrase, see on 4 18 , and Introduc- 
tion, p. xxiv. 

M 5. And wishing to kill him, he feared the multitude, because they 
held him as a prophet.] Mk. has a different account : " And 
Herodias set herself against him, and wished to kill him, and could 
not. For Herod was fearing John, knowing him to be a man just 
and holy. And he was keeping him in prison ; and having heard 
him, he was much perplexed, and was hearing him gladly." Mt., 
in summarising Mk., seems to be influenced by another form of 
the story. 

M 6. And on the birthday of Herod, the daughter of Herodias 
danced in the midst, and pleased Herod.] Mt. summarises Mk 
vv. 21 and 22 . — yevccriots 8k yevofxevocs] For the dative, cf.Blass, 
p. 120, n. 3. The dative seems to be due to a fusion of Mk.'s tols 
yevtcrt'ois with his preceding yevo/Aevv/s rj/xipa^. yevecna is used in 
the later Greek as equivalent to yeveOXia, a birthday ; cf. Fayum 
Tcnvns, 114 20 , 115 8 , 119 30 . 

M 7. Whence with an oath he promised to give to her whatever 
she should ask.] Mt. summarises Mk 23-24 . For o lav, see 
On II 29 . — alTrjcrrjTai] Mk. has atT^cr^s and alrrjCTOv, but r/Trjo-aTO 
in v. 25 . For the middle as the stronger word, see Moulton, 
p. 160. For the juxtaposition of both voices, see Mk io 35 - 38 . 

M 8. And she, being put forward by her mother, Give me, she says, 
here upon a dish the head of John the Baptist.] Mt. summarises Mk 
24 ' 25 . In abbreviating, he shortens the narrative so far as to make 
it almost unintelligible. The reader must suppose that Herodias 
and Herod were living together, which Mk. has stated in v. 17 on 
av-rrjv Zydfxrjo-ev, from the fact that the daughter of Herodias 
danced before Herod. He has also to infer that this took 
place at a public festivity from tovs <rvvavaKeip.ivov<s of the next 

M 9. And being grieved, the king, because of his oaths, and because 
of those who sat with him, commanded (it) to be given.] Mk.'s 
/Sao-i/Veus creeps in here, in spite of rerpaapxr]^ in v. 1 . The 
<jvvava.Kup.zvov>: is a hint that Mt. has omitted much that precedes 
in Mk. The editor summarises Mk vv. 26, 27 . 

M 10. And he sent, and beheaded John in the prison.] 

M 11. And his head was brought upon a dish, and given to the girl ; 


and she brought it to her mother.} For the passives, see on 4 1 , and 
Introduction, p. xxiii. 

12. And his disciples came, and took up the corpse, and buried him.} M 
Mk. has : " And His disciples heard it, and came (yXQav) and 
took up his corpse and placed it in a sepulchre." For irpoaipx^crOai 
as characteristic of Mt, see on 4 3 . 

And came and brought word to Jesus.] Mk. has : " And the M 
Apostles gather together to Jesus, and brought Him word, all 
things that they had done, and that they had taught. And He 
saith to them, Come ye yourselves privately into a desert place, 
and rest a little : for those who were coming and going were many, 
and they had no opportunity to eat." In Mk. the execution of 
John is introduced parenthetically. The disciples go forth on 
their mission, 6 12 . (As a result) Herod hears of the fame of 
Christ. He expresses his belief that John has risen. This gives 
occasion to the Evangelist to introduce the story of John's execu- 
tion. In Mt. the sequence of events is distorted. He has omitted 
the statement of the Apostolic Mission, and is obliged to introduce 
Herod's belief that Jesus was the risen John, with a vague reference 
of time: "At that time." But since he must have been aware 
that the story of John's execution is introduced parenthetically to 
explain the superstition of Herod, it is very surprising to find him 
treating it as though it were recorded here in its proper chrono- 
logical sequence : " His disciples came — and buried him, and 
came and told Jesus. And Jesus having heard, departed." That 
is to say, the Evangelist treats John's execution as though it 
happened historically before the events of Mk 6 s0Ai , and actually 
alters Mk w. 80 " 31 to suit this artificial sequence. The reason for 
this goes back to ch. 10. The editor has there constructed a 
charge to the disciples which is quite unsuitable for the temporary 
Galilean missionary expedition described by Mk. He therefore 
omits the short description of this mission given by Mk. (6 12 - 13 ). 
When, therefore, he comes to the statement of Mk. that the 
Apostles returned to Christ and brought news of their doings on 
this mission, the editor is compelled to omit this also. He there- 
fore summarises Mk 30-31 into the sentence: "And coming, they 
reported to Jesus"; but has done so in words which it is impossible 
to avoid connecting with the preceding : " And his disciples came 
— and buried him." That he intended this is shown by his insertion 
of: " And Jesus having heard," and by his change of Mk.'s a.Trf}\8ov 
into dvc^wpTjo-cv. In Mk. the subject of airrj\6ov is Christ and the 
returned Apostles. But in Mt. the comers are John's disciples. 
Since they would improbably have accompanied Christ, the editor 
is obliged to alter the verb into the singular. This treatment of 
Mk.'s narrative is not more artificial than the editor's rearrange- 
ment of Mk. in S 1 -^ 4 , but is less justifiable, because even though 


Mk w. 30 " 31 had to be omitted in pursuance of previous changes, 
it was not necessary to supply another motive for Christ's retire- 
ment into the desert. 

M 13. And Jesus heard it, and withdrew thence in a boat to a 
desert place privately ; and the multitudes heard it, and followed 
Him on foot from the cities. — avex<*>PW €v «c«0ev] both favourite 
words of Mt. ; see on 2 12 and 4 21 . The last place mentioned was 
Nazareth, 13 54 . — kol d/cow-avres, k.t.A..] Mk. has: "And many 
saw them going, and recognised (them), and ran together there on 
foot from all the cities, and went before them." Mt. summarises. 

M 14. And going forth, He saw a great multitude, and had com- 
passion on them, and healed their sick.'] Mk. has : " And going 
forth, He saw a great multitude, and had compassion on them, 
because they were as sheep not having a shepherd : and He began 
to teach them much." — e£e\#a>v] in Mk. almost certainly means 
"having disembarked." That is to say, the multitude reached 
the landing-place before the boat. This is probably the meaning 
also in Mt. For cnrXayxyi&aOai, see on 9 s6 . Mt. has already 
inserted the analogy of the sheep in 9 36 . — iOepdirevcrev] Mt. 
substitutes healing for teaching in 19 2 and 2i 14 =Mk io 1 n 17 - 18 . 

M 15. And when it was evening, the disciples came to Him, saying, 
The place is desolate, and the hour is already a late one ; send away 
the multitudes, that they may go away into the villages, and buy 
food for themselves.] Mk. has : "And already, it being a late hour 
(/ecu fj8rj <Spas iroXXfjs yevo/AeV^s), His disciples came to Him, and 
were saying that, The place is desolate, and already it is a late 
hour (kol r/S?7 wpa TroXXy). Send them away, that they may go 
away into the neighbouring hamlets and villages, and buy some- 
thing for themselves to eat." — 6\j/tas 8e yevopiv-qs] Mt. avoids Mk.'s 
iterated o>p a -n-oXX-q. — irpoa-rjX6av] on the aor. in a, see Blass, p. 45. 
— Aeyoi/res] Mt. as usual omits Mk.'s on. — TraprjXOcv] For 
irapepx^a-Oai of time, cf. i P 4 s . The meaning here seems to be, 
"the hour (for the customary meal) is already passed." — rovs 
o^Xovs] The editor, who in v. 14 copied Mk.'s o^Aov, slips back 
here into his customary plural. For the omission of Mk.'s aypovs, 
see on 8 33 . 

M 16. And Jesus said to them, They need not go away ; give ye to 
them to eat.] 

M 17. And they say to Him, We have not here save five loaves, and 
two fishes. ~\ 

M 18. And He said, Bring them hither to Me.] Mk. has : " And 
He answered and said to them, Give ye to them to eat. And they 
say to Him, Are we to go away and buy two hundred pennyworth 
of bread, and give them to eat? And He saith to them, How 
many loaves have ye ? go, see. And having ascertained, they say, 
Five, and two fishes." Mt. summarises. — ovk e^op.ev] The editor 


avoids the half-sarcastic question of the disciples. — ol 8e] for Mk.'s 
koli, as often. Mt. also avoids the question in the mouth of the 
Lord; see on 8 29 16 9 - 10 17U.14.17 ^l ig 7 2 6 18 and Introduction, 
p. xxxii. 

19. And He commanded the multitudes to sit down upon the M 
grass.] Mt. summarises Mk 39 . 

And took the five loaves, and the two fishes, and looked up into 
heaven, and blessed, and brake, and gave to the disciples the loaves, 
and the disciples to the multitudes.] The editor slightly alters Mk. 
— eSw/cev] For Mk.'s iSiSov, see Introduction, p. xx. — eVl tov ^oprov] 
see Introduction, p. xxviii. 

20. And they all ate, and were filled ; and they took up the remain- M 
der of the fragments twelve baskets full.] For yppToQiiv, see on 5 6 . 

to 7repio-o"evov twv KXaoy/aTiov SwSexa KO<f>wov<; irX-qpeis] for Mk.'s 
harsher KXacr/jLara SdJStKa Kocpivoiv 7rX^poj/i.aTa. Mk. adds Kal airb 

TWV l)(6vU)V. 

21. And they who ate were about five thousand men, besides M 
women and children.] — ol of] as often for Mk.'s /cat. The editor 
adds x^ots yvvaiKwv Kal 7raiSiW ; cf. the similar insertion in 15 38 . 

12-21. There are a few verbal agreements between Mt. and 
Lk. as against Mk. ; e.g.: Mt 13 dvc^wpT/crev = Lk 10 vn-^wp-qo-ev ; 
Mt 13 ol 6^X01 7]KoXov6rjcrav auTu=Lk 11 0! Se 6^X01 — r]Ko\ovdr)o~av 
avT(3; Mt 14 i6epa.Trevo~ev = Lk u #epa7reias ; Mt 15 Tots 0)(Xov% 
= Lk 12 tov o X Xov ; Mt 17 , Lk 13 oi 84 for Mk.'s Kai ; Mt 17 ovk §o/*ev 
= Lk 13 ovk cicriv rjfjuv \ Mt 15 fipwfiara = Lk 13 /3pwpaTa ; Mt 2Z to 
TTcpio-o-cvov = Lk 17 t6 irepto-o-cvcrav. Both omit Mk v. 31 . And both 
avoid the questions in Mk 37 * 38 . It is not, however, probable that 
they had a second source besides Mk. See Introduction, p. xxxix. 

23. And straightway He compelled the disciples to embark into M 
a boat, and to go before Him to the other side, until 1 He had sent away 
the multitudes.] Mk. has to ttXoIov, and after irepav adds irpos 
Br]8o-ai8dv, and then has ews airos airoXvei rbv ox^ov. The occur- 
rence of Bethsaida gives rise to difficulties, because if the miracle 
took place on the north-eastern shore of the lake, Bethsaida (see 
on n 21 ) lay close at hand, and would hardly be called on the other 
side. Moreover, as a matter of fact, nothing is said of an arrival 
at Bethsaida, but of a disembarkation at Gennesareth, Mk 5S . Of 
course, Mk. may have meant that they proposed to cross obliquely 
the north-east corner of the lake towards Bethsaida. They may 
have arrived at this place and embarked again, or may have 
been driven away from Bethsaida to the western side of the lake. 
In either case the mention of Bethsaida in Mk 45 seemed to Mt. 
unnecessary, as finding no further mention in the narrative. — toi>s 
o^Xods] as usual for Mk.'s tov o^Xov. 

23. And having sent away the multitudes, He went up into the M 
mountain privately to pray .] — a7roXvcras tovs oxXous] Mk. has the 
1 Iws oO for Mk.'s ?ws. See on 26 s8 . 


ambiguous a7roTa£a/i.€vos avTols, aTrrjXOev for avef3rj, and omits /ccrr' 

M 23, 24. And when it was evening He was there alone, and the 
boat was already in the midst of the lake.] Mk. has : " And when it 
was evening the boat was in the midst of the lake, and He Himself 
was alone upon the land." 

Tossed by the waves, for the wind was contrary^ Mk. has : 
"And seeing them tossed in their rowing; for the wind was 
contrary to them." — oi/aas Se] for Mk.'s *cu oi/aas, see Introduction, 
p. xx. — /Jao-avi^eiv] has occurred in 8 6 of a patient suffering from 
paralysis, in 8 29 = Mk 5 7 of the demons. Here Mk. uses it of the 
rowers exhausted by their efforts. Mt. transfers it to the boat 
buffeted by the waves. — fiio-ov ti}? OaXdcrcrrjs yv] So N C E F al 
latt. D has rfv eis /xecrov rijs 6aXdcr<jr]<i. B 13 124 238 346 S 1 S 2 
have oraSiovs iroXXovs dirb t?}? yfjs curclx*- 

M 25. And at the fourth watch of the night He came to them, 
walking over the sea.] Mk. has : " About the fourth watch of the 
night He cometh to them, walking on the sea (1-175 OaXdcra-r]?), and 
wished to pass by them." r/X6ev for Mk.'s historic present Ipx^rai, 

*f- as often. For the omission of Mk.'s last clause, see Introduction, 
p. xxxi. Mt. has £7ri ti)v OdXaacrav for Mk.'s eu-i ttjs 6aXdaa-r]<;. 
Cf. 13 2 ewi rov alyiaXov for Mk.'s €7rt T17S yr}<> ', 1 5 s6 dvaTriaeiv «7rt 
rr]v yrjv for Mk.'s eVt rqs y^s ; and Introduction, p. xxix. 

M 26. And the disciples seeing Him walking on the sea, were 
troubled, saying that it is a phantasm ; and they cried out from 
fear.] Mk. has : " And seeing Him walking on the sea, they 
thought that it is a phantasm ; and they cried out (dve'/cpa£av). 
For all saw Him and were troubled." Mt. slips here into Mk.'s 
genitive, ewt 1-175 OaXdo-o-rjs. See Gould on Mk 6 48 . 

M 27. And straightway Jesus spake to them, saying, Be of good 
cheer ; it is I; be not afraid.] Mk. has: iXdXrjaev /xer' avruiv kcu 
Ac'yei aurot?. Mt. alters, as often, into iXdXTja-ev — Xe'ywv. Cf. 
on 8 3 . 

28-31. The editor here inserts four verses from tradition : 
P And Peter answered Him and said, Lord, if it be Thou, bid me 
come to Thee over the waters. And He said, Come. And Peter 
descended from the boat, and walked over the waters to come to Jesus. 
And seeing the wind to be strong, he feared ; and, beginning to be 
immersed, he cried, saying, Lord, save me. And immediately Jesus 
stretched out His hand, and took hold of him, and saith to him, 
thou of little faith, Why didst thou doubt ?] — rbv ave/ww] B 2 C D 
al S 1 S 2 latt add icrxypov ; omit KB. — KaTcnrovTiCtcrOai] occurs 
again in 18 6 . — Siora^etv] occurs again in 28 17 . — oAiydiricrre] See 
on 6 30 . Here the object of 77-icn-ts seems to be not so much the 
providence of God as the power of Christ and His good will. 

M 32. And when they had gone up into the boat, the wind ceased.] 


Mk. has : " And He went up to them into the boat. And the 
wind ceased." 

33. And they in the boat worshipped Him, saying, Truly, Thou M 
art God's Son.] Mk. has : " And they marvelled exceedingly in 
themselves. For they understood not about the loaves ; but their 
heart was hardened." For the omission of this statement, see 
Introduction, p. xxxiii. 

For irpoa-Kwetv as characteristic of Mt., see on 2 s . (v\ 

34. And having crossed over, they came to the land into Genne- M 
saret.] Mk. has : "And having crossed over to the land, they came 
into Gennesaret ; and came to moorings." — TcwqvapcT] called in 

1 Mac ii* 7 , in Josephus, and in the Talmud Gennesar. For a 
description of the plain, see G. Adam Smith's Hist. Geog. 443, n. 1. 

35. And the men of that place recognised Him, and sent into all M 
the surrounding district, and brought to Him all who were in evil 
plight.'] Mk. has : " And when they had gone forth from the boat, 
straightway recognising Him, they ran about all that country and 
began to bring (irepicpepeiv) on beds those who were in evil plight, 
where they were hearing that He is. And wheresoever He 
entered into villages, or into cities, or into hamlets, they placed 
the infirm in the market-places." Mt. summarises, and gives the 
impression that he understood Gennesaret to be not, as in Mk., 

a district, but a town. For Mk.'s aypovs, see on 8 33 . For Mt.'s 
TravTas, cf. 4 24 8 16 I2 16 . 

36. And were beseeching Him that they might only touch the M 
tassel of His garment ; and as many as touched were completely 
cured.] — iva /j.6vov] Mk. has Iva k<Lv. For a similar change, see 
9 21 . For KpacnriZov, see on 9 20 . — $ic<ru>6r]<Tav] Mk. has «rd)£ovTo. 
Mt.'s is a stronger word, " were (not ' were being ') thoroughly, 
completely cured." 

XV. 1. Then there come to Jesus from Jerusalem Pharisees and M 
scribes, saying.] Mk. has : " And there gather together to Him 
the Pharisees, and certain of the scribes, who had come from 
Jerusalem." — totc] see on 2 7 . — Trpoa-lpxovTai] see on 4 s . 

2. The editor here omits Mk.'s long archaeological note, vv. 2 " 4 . 
Why do Thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders ? For M 

they wash not their hands when they are eating bread.] Mk. has : 
"Why do Thy disciples not walk according to the tradition of the 
elders, but eat bread with common hands." — irapa/Wvovo-i] for 
Mk.'s more technical ov 7r«/3<.7raToi)o-iv Kara, — ov yap viTTTOvrai, 
k.t.X.] Mk. has : d\\a koikus ^epo-iv io~6iovo~iv tov dprov. Mt. 
avoids Mk.'s technical koivcus \tpa-l.v. 

3. And He answered and said to them.] Mk. has simply : M 
"And He said to them." In what follows Mt. has altered the 
sequence of the verses in Mk. in such a way that he makes a 
double antithesis: "Why do Thy disciples transgress?" v.* ; 


"Why do ye transgress?" v. 3 ; "God said," v. 4 ; "But you 
say," v. 6 ; and makes the speech work up towards the rhetorical 
climax : " Ye hypocrites," etc. 

Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God because of your 
tradition ?] Mk. has : "Well do you annul the commandment of 
God that you may keep your tradition." Mt. turns the ironical 
statement into a question to form an antithesis with v. 2 , assimi- 
lating aOerelre to TrapafiaiveTe to make the antithesis more pointed. 

M 4. For God said, Honour the father and the mother ; and, He 
who curseth father or mother, let him surely die.~\ Mk. has : " For 
Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother; and, he who 
curseth father or mother, let him surely die." — feos] substituted 
for M(jiv<rfj<; to heighten the antithesis. — Tt/xa tov 7raTepa Kal tt)v 
firjTepa] Mk. has crov twice. So LXX in Dt 5 16 . In Ex 20 12 , 
only after — 6 KaKoXoylLv, k.t.X.] from Ex 21 17 LXX has 
avrov twice and TeXivrrjcru>, but A F Luc 6ava.T<a T€\evTa.TU). 
For^theHeb. has "and." 

M 5. But you say, Whosoever shall say to the father or the mother, A 
gift (is) anything wherewith thou mightest be profited by me, shall not 
honour his father.] Mk. has : " But you say, If a man say to father 
or mother, Korban (that is, A Gift x ) is anything wherewith thou 
mightest be profited by me — you no longer allow him to do ought 
for father or mother." Mt avoids Mk.'s technical term Kop/?av, and 
endeavours to emend Mk.'s harsh construction. The custom which 
the Lord was reproving was this, that the scribes allowed a man by 
a formula to dedicate all his property to the Temple, and so escape 
the duty of supporting his parents. A legal formula thus became 
more sacred than the divine command expressed in Scripture. 
In Mt. this is described thus: "Moses said, Honour thy father, 
etc. But you say, A man need not honour." In Mk., however, 
the construction is very harsh. To complete the sentence we must 
supply after uxpeX-qOfis some such words as "he is absolved from 
honouring his parents." But we should expect "and" before 
ovKcn. The fact is that the sentence consists of two unassimilated 
constructions: (1) You say, If a man says, etc. (he need not 
honour). (2) You no longer allow a man to do ought for his 
father or mother if he says, etc. Mt. has endeavoured to correct 
this harshness by converting ovk(ti acpUTe ovtov, k.t.X. into the 
required clause giving the contents of Xeyere. "You say, If a man 
say, etc., he shall not honour." Clearly, however, this is not 
original. " He shall not honour " is the result attributed by Christ 
to the scribal teaching, not the literal expression of that teaching. 
It is only explicable as a literary attempt to ease Mk.'s harsh 
Greek. On oi p.rj, see Moulton, p. 190. 

1 Cf. Josephus, Against Apion, I : rbv KaXovfitvov 5pKov Kopfihv JtjXo? 

tk — 5u>pov Oeov. 


6. And you made void the word of God because of your tradition. ] M 
Mk. has : " Making void the word of God by your tradition 
which you delivered ; and many such similar things you do." 
For Mt.'s omission of the redundant 77 iro.pe8wKa.Te, see on 8 16 . 
For aKvpovv, which occurs here and in Gal 3 17 , the lexx. cite 
Dion. H. 2. 72. Add Ditt. Syll. 329. 30. 1 

7. Ye hypocrites, well did Isaiah prophesy concerning you, M 
saying.] Mk. has: "And He said to them, Well did Isaiah 
prophesy concerning you hypocrites, as it stands written that." 

8. This people honours Me with their lips, but their heart is far M 
from Me.] 

9. And in vain do they worship Me, teaching as doctrines M 
ordinances of men.] The quotation is given in the words of Mk. 
(except 6 Aaos ovtos) = LXX (for ovtos 6 Aao's), which differ only 
slightly from the LXX of Is 29 13 . The LXX has : ev tois ^eiAto-iv 
avTwv TifJiwaiv p.e, and IvraXfiara dvOpviirwv xal Sioacr/<aAias. 

2. rr\v vapadocnv] S 1 S 2 have "the commandments," assimilating to v. 3 
t\\v tvTo\y\v tov deov. 

5. iraT^pa avrov] add t) ttjv HTjrtpa avrov, C E at. om. X B D S 1 S 3 . 

6. rbv Uyov] K ca B D abff 12 S 1 S 2 ; rbv vd/xov, N* e * cb C; r^v ivTokhv, 

8. The quotation is completed by the addition of the words tyylfa /xoi at 
the beginning, and of tQ artnari. avrov Kai after ovros by C E at. 

10. And having called the multitude, He said to them, Hear M 
and understand^] — 7r/3oo-KaAccra^€vos] Mk. adds 7raXtv. For Mt.'s 
omission, see Introduction, p. xx. — €t7rcv] for Mk.'s IXeyev, as often. 
— CLKOvtre] Mk. has aKOva-ari fiov iravTes. — tov o^Xov] Mt. retains 
Mk.'s sing, here and in vv. 31 - 32 - 33 - 35 . See Introduction, p. lxxxvi. 

11. Not that which goes into the mouth defiles the man ; but M 
that which comes out from the mouth, this defiles the man.] Mk. 
has : " There is nothing outside a man entering into him which can 
defile him. But the things which proceed from the man are those 
which defile the man." The ambiguity of Mk. is clearly original. 

It is this ambiguity which called for explanation. Mt, by sub- 
stituting the explanatory Ik tov o-tojacltos for i* tov av6pw7rov, makes 
all that follows tautologous and redundant. 

13, 14. The editor here inserts three verses from the Logia : 
Then came the disciples, and said to Him, Dost Thou know that E 
the Pharisees, when they heard the saying, were made to stumble 1 And 
He answered and said, Every plant, which my heavenly Father did L 
not plant, shall be rooted up. Let them alone : they are blind guides. 
And if a blind man be leading a blind man, both will fall into a pit? 
totc] see on 2 1 . — trpocreXOovTes] see on 4 3 . — io-Kav$a\io-6r]o-av 

1 Ox. Pap. iii. 49i- 3 (a.d. 126), 494. 4 (a.d. 156), 495. 3 (a.d. 181-189). 
In these three cases it means "to revoke" of a will. It occurs also in 
I Es 6 32 , 6 times in 4 Mac, and 6 times in Aquila. 


see on 5 29 . It is no wonder if the Pharisees were dismayed. For 
Christ's saying, that what went into a man did not defile him, 
directly contravened the Mosaic distinction between clean and 
unclean meats. 77-ao-a <pvreia, cf. 3 10 - 12 . The Pharisees and scribes 
were barren trees about to be cut down, chaff about to be burned, 
plants about to be uprooted. It is said of the heretic Acher that 
he uprooted plants by his false teaching, B. Chag. 15*. — bh-qyoi do-iv 
tv<£A.<h] Lk. has a parallel in the Sermon, 6 39 p.r\n Bvvarai tu</>Aos 
TV(f>\6v oSrjyelv ; ou^i ap.<f>OTepoi tis (369vvov i/nrarovvTai ; 

M 15. And Peter answered and said to Him, Declare to us the 
parable.} Mk. has : " And when He entered into a house from the 
crowd His disciples were asking Him the parable." For Mt.'s 
omission of Mk.'s vague and indeterminate reference to a house, 
cf. Mk 2 1 3 20 9 28 io 10 with the parallels in Mt 9 1 12 22 15 21 17 19 19 8 . 
For the prominence given to S. Peter in this Gospel, cf. io 2 i4 28ff - 
i6 16ff \ — TT/v irapa^oX-qv] That is the saying of v. 11 , which Mt. has 
already interpreted by inserting ck tov oro/AaTos. 

M 16. And He said, Are you even yet without understanding! 
Mk. has: "And He saith to them, Are you also so without 
understanding?" — 6 Se] for Mk.'s k<u, as often. — £?7rcvj for Mk.'s 
Xc'yet, as often. — aKfxrfv] only here in N.T. Mk. has ovtws. 

M 17. Do you not understand that everything that goeth into the 
mouth passeth into the belly, and is cast out into the closet.} Mk. 
has : " Do you not understand that everything that goeth into the 
man from outside cannot defile him, because it goeth not into the 
heart, but into the belly, and goeth forth into the closet, cleansing 
all meats." The editor omits the last clause in Mk., which is 
difficult to construe, and of doubtful meaning. — d^eSpajv] is a rare 
word of doubtful meaning. It is generally understood as equivalent 
to d7roVaTos. But Wellhausen argues that it means the " intestine," 
on the ground that this suits the context in Mk. " The intestine 
(not the closet) cleanses meats by separating from them the 
unwholesome elements." But Mt., who substitutes eKftdWerai for 
eK7rojoev€T<u and omits Kadapi£o)v iravra to. (SpwfxaTa, probably under- 
stood the word to mean "closet." 

M 18. But the things which go out from the mouth go forth from 
the heart, and they defile the man.} Mk. has: "And He was 
saying that that which goes forth from the man, that defiles the 
man." Mt. again anticipates the explanation. Mk v. 20 simply 
repeats the ambiguous saying of v. 15b , and the explanation follows 
in v. 21 . But Mt., by substituting Ik tov aro/xaro's for in tov 
avOpw-n-ov, and by inserting e* ttJs KapStas c^e'p^eTai, anticipates the 
explanation of the next verse. 

M 19. For out of the heart go forth evil thoughts, murders, 
adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witnesses, railings.} Mk. has: 
" For from within from the heart of men evil (ica/coi) thoughts go out, 


fornications, thefts, \nurders, adulteries, covetousnesses, malicious- 
nesses, craft, wantonness, an evil eye, railing, pride, folly." Mt. in 
abbreviating Mk.'s list of evils confines it to external actions. 

20. These are the things that defile the man. But to eat with M 
unwashen hands does not defile the man.] Mk. has : " All these 
evil things go out from within and defile the man." 1 

Cf. Buddhist and Christian Gospels, p. 93 : " Destroying life, 
killing, cutting, binding, stealing, speaking lies, fraud and 
deceptions, worthless reading, intercourse with another's wife — 
this is defilement, but not the eating of flesh." 

D.— XV. 21-XVIII. 86 = Mk 7 24 -9 B0 . 

Further ministry in and on the outskirts of Galilee. A period 
marked by Christ's teaching about His death and resurrection. 

The phrase iKtWev 81 dvaards in Mk 7 24 marks the beginning 
of a new period in that Gospel. Cf. e/ceitfev avao-rds at the 
beginning of the next development, Mk io 1 . Christ had hitherto 
worked in or near Capharnaum amongst the multitudes who 
thronged to Him. He now enters upon a period of travel on the 
Dutskirts of Galilee. It is true that we read of Him at Capharnaum, 
but He no longer publicly taught there, Mk 9 3 °-33; and instead of 
preaching to the common people, He now devoted Himself to 
instructing His disciples on the subject of His death and resurrec- 
tion, Mk 8 31 9 10 " 12 - 31 ' 32 . In Mt. the long and purposeless journeys 
are curtailed, cf. 15 29 with Mk 7 31 , and it might seem as though 
the editor intended to enter upon a new section of his Gospel at 
16 21 d-n-b rare, k.t.X., cf. 4 17 . But even in 4 17 this phrase does not 
stand at the very beginning of the section which it opens, 4 12 -i5 20 , 
and it is convenient to retain in Mt. as in Mk. the grouping : 
Mt 4 12 -i5 20 = Mk i 14 -7 23 , work in or near Capernaum; Mt 
i5 20 -i8 35 =Mk 7 24 ~9 50 , work outside Galilee marked by a new 
phase in Christ's teaching; Mt i9 1 -20 34 = Mk 10, journey to 
Jerusalem; Mt 21-28 = Mk n-16 8 , last days of the Messiah's life. 

21. And Jesus went out thence and withdrew into the regions M 
of Tyre and Sidon.] Mk. has : " And having arisen thence, He 
departed into the boundaries of Tyre and Sidon. — i$t\Owv] for 
Mk.'s Semitic duacrrds. — dve^wprjcrev] for Mk.'s dirq\6ev. See on 2 12 . 
IkuOw in Mk. refers to the house of v. 17 . In Mt. it has no antecedent. 

Mk. adds here : " And entering into a house, He wished no 

1 The addition of the last clause in Mt. is significant. In Mk. the section 
w. 14 " 28 might seem to be diiected against the Mosaic regulations with regard to 
clean and unclean meats. Mt., by omitting Mk 19 end and by inserting the last 
clause, seems to have wished to make it clear that the whole paragraph was directed 
not against the Mosaic law, but against the ceremonial rules of the Pharisees. 


one to know it, and could not be hid." For Mt.'s omission of the 
house, see on 15 15 . For the omission of the statement that Christ 
" wished, but could not," see Introduction, p. xxxi. 

M 22. And behold a Canaanite woman came out from those 
boundaries, and cried, saying, Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of 
David ; my daughter is grievously afflicted with a demon.] Mk. 
has : " But straightway a woman having heard about Him, whose 
daughter had an unclean spirit, came and fell at His feet. And 
the woman was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by race. And she was 
asking Him that He would cast the demon out of her daughter." 
It can hardly be unintentional that Mt. omits the statement that 
Jesus entered into a house in this heathen territory, and represents 
the woman as coming out of those boundaries to Jesus ; cf. io 6 . 
23-25 are not in Mk. 

E And He answered not a word. And His disciples came and 
asked Him, saying, Send her away ; for she crieth after us. And 
He answered and said, I was not sent save to the lost sheep of the 
house of Israel. And she came and worshipped Him, saying, Lord, 
help me.] — rjpwTiav] iporrdo) in the LXX and N.T. has the sense 
to "beg," "beseech." So in the Papyri, e.g. Fayfim Towns, 
CXXXli. I ; cf. Ditt. Syll. 328. 5, 930. 56. — eis to. TTpoQara, k.t.X.] 
see on io 8 . — 7rpoo-e\66vTe<s] see on 4 s . — 7rpo<T€Kvvei] see on 2 2 . 

M 26. And He answered and said, It is not good to take the 
children 's bread, and to cast it to the dogs.] Mk. has: "And He 
was saying to her, Let first the children be fed : for," etc. — Kwdpia] 
house-dogs. Mk. is fond of diminutives, which Mt. sometimes 
retains ; but cf. v. 25 Ovydrpiov, for which Mt. Ovydr-qp. 

M 27. And she said, Yea, Lord : for even the dogs eat from the 
crumbs which fall from the table of their masters?^ Mk. has : " And 
she answered and saith to Him, Yea, Lord ; even the dogs under- 
neath the table eat from the crumbs of the children." — Nat] " Yes, 
that is true." — ko.1 yap] " It is neither good to give the children's 
food to the dogs, nor is it necessary ; for they eat of the crumbs." 
«/aX<W] The word seems to occur here only. — Kvpie] occurs here 
only in Mk., in Mt. 19 times, in Lk. 16, in Jn. 38. 

M 28. Then Jesus answered and said to her, O woman, great is 
thy faith : be it to thee as thou wilt. And her danghter was healed 
from that hour.] — totc] see on 2 7 . — oltto 1-175 wpas iKtivrjsi] cf. Mt 
9 22 8 13 17 18 . Mk. has : "And He said to her, For this saying go, 
the demon has gone out of thy daughter. And she went away 
to her house, and found the child lying upon the bed, and the 
demon gone out." For ttio-tis = assurance, confidence, trust in 
the healing power of Christ, see 8 10 9 2, 22 - 29 . See Gould in loc. 

21-28. The relation of this section to Mk 7 24 - 30 is not easy 
to determine. It is possible that the editor here is substituting 
for Mk.'s narrative a second and longer account traditionally 


known to him. On the other hand, a good many of the features 
of Mt.'s account remind us of characteristics of the editor of this 
Gospel. It is, e.g., quite natural that he should omit Mk v. 24b ; see 
above. Further, the phraseology of the whole narrative is strongly 
marked by the editor's characteristic phrases ; e.g. avax^peiv, see 
on 2 12 ; no! ISov, see on i 20 ; 'EXe-qa-ov p.e Kvpie vie AaveiS, cf. g 27 
eXerjcrov rjp.a<; vie AaveiS, 17 16 Kvpie eXerjcrov /xov tov vlov, 20 s0 
Kvpie eXerjcrov rj/xas vie. Aavei'S ; irpoo-epxea 6 at, see on 4 3 ; irpoa-nvveZv, 
see On 2 2 ; Tore, see On 2 7 ; fj.eya.Xr] aov r) ttlcttls yevqOrjTUi croi ws 
OeXeis, cf. 8 13 ws cVtCTTevo-as yevrjdrJTO) croi, g 22 r) 7tio-tis crov (recrwKev 
ere, 9 29 Kara ttjv ttlotlv vp-tov yevq6rJT<a vplv ; kcu ld6rj r) Ovydrr/p avTrjs 
Atto rrjs wpas eK.eivq<i, cf. 9 22 kcu ecrwOr] — Atto t^s wpas €*c6tv7/s, 8 1S 
kclI laOrj — ev rrj wpa eKeivrj, 17 18 kcu eOepaTrevd-q — a7ro ttjs tupas 
eKeLvrjs. It would seem, therefore, that the editor has rewritten 
Mk.'s narrative with a view to explaining how it was that Christ, 
in spite of such sayings as io 5 - 6 , should have extended His com- 
passion to a heathen woman. He did not enter into a house on 
heathen soil. Rather the woman came out to Him. At first He 
paid no attention to her entreaty, conscious that His mission 
concerned only the lost sheep of the house of Israel. When she 
still importuned Him, He told her that the children's bread, i.e. 
privileges intended for the Jews, should not be cast to dogs, i.e. 
to heathen women like herself. She, inspired by her misery, was 
quick to turn the analogy in her own favour. It was quite true, 
yet dogs fed from the crumbs of their master's table. Therefore 
mercy shown to her might be justified by the metaphor. Thus, 
as in the previous case of condescension to a heathen (8 5 " 13 ), faith 
forced the barrier of Christ's rule of working only amongst His 
own people. The chief obstacle to this view is the insertion of 
w.23-25 why does the editor "lengthen the dialogue. Partly 
perhaps to heighten the effect. Not at once, and only because 
of the woman's earnest importunity, did Christ condescend to her. 
And partly, to explain the ambiguity of Mk 27 "Let first the 
children be fed." There is no specific explanation given in Mk. of 
this " children." The reader is left, as the woman was, to apply it to 
the Jews as contrasted with the heathen (dogs). But Mt. by prefixing, 
" I was not sent save to the lost sheep of the house of Israel," gives 
a clue to the interpretation. The " children " are the " lost sheep 
of the house of Israel." Cf. Mt.'s interpretation, 15 11 , of Mk 7 15 . 

29. And Jesus removed thence, and came by the sea of Galilee ; M 
and He went up into the hill country, and sat down there.'] Mk. 
has : " And again He went out from the boundaries of Tyre, and 
passed through Sidon to the sea of Galilee, amidst the boundaries 
of Decapolis." The geography of Mk. is difficult. He here 
describes a journey of considerable length from Tyre, through 
Sidon, to the east side of the lake of Galilee, without giving 


any further details about it, so that it seema quite purposeless. 
Wellhausen is probably right in supposing that the text of Mk. 
is corrupt, and that Sia Siowyos covers some original statement 
about Bethsaida. This would considerably shorten the journey. 
The editor of Mt. has felt the needlessness of recording a long 
journey to the north without giving any details. He therefore 
brings Christ back at once to the lake. For /lera/Jas e*ei#ev as a 
connecting formula, cf. n 1 p.€T€J3r} «Kei#ev, 12 9 //.era/?as eVeiflev. 
Mk. now describes the healing of a deaf man at an unknown 
place. A little later, 8 22 " 26 , he records the healing of a blind man 
at Bethsaida. Mt. omits both miracles, probably intentionally, for 
it can hardly be accidental that they are both characterised by 
features which Mt. elsewhere avoids. In both the healing is 
performed in private, 7 83 d7roAa/?d/x.€vos avrov euro tov o^X-ov /car' 
iStav, 8 23 e7riAa/3d/y<.€yos — ifcyveyKtv avrov !£a> ttJs Ktoyiu/s. In both 
physical contact and material means are employed, 7 s3 e/?aAev 
rovs Sa/cruAovs avrov €ts To. wra avrov /cat 7rrucras ^if/aro t?}$ y\wo~o~r)<; 
avrov, 8 23 kcu 7rrvVas eis to. 5/xp.aTa avrov €7ri0€ts Tas ^etpas avrcp. 
In the former we read that Christ sighed (icrrevaiev), and that the 
people disobeyed Christ's express command to keep silence. In 
the latter the recovery of sight is gradual, and Christ asks a 
question, u n /?AeVeis, as though He were not sure how far recovery 
was taking place. In the first Gospel we have " touching " as an 
incident in healing, 8 3 - 16 9 29 20 34 , but never the use of spittle, and 
there is an opposite tendency to describe miracles as taking place 
at the simple word or command of Christ, 8 8 p.6vov elve Adytp, 9 s 
8 16 i$€{3a\e to. -rrvev/xaTa Adyu>. Mt. elsewhere omits such phrases 
as io-Teva£ev, which seem to attribute emotion or effort to Christ ; 
cf. the omission of o-7rAay^vio-^ei's (D opyiaOeU), Mk I 43 ; ifx/3pifjir]cra.- 
/nevos, I 45 ', TrepL^Xeij/d/xevo'i avrovs /act opyrfi o - vvAv7rou/i.€vos, 3 5 ; 
iiearr], 3 21 ; iOavfxacrev, 6 6 ; avacrT€vd£a.<; tw rrvevfiari, 8 12 ; 7]yava.KTT](rev, 
io 14 , and lays emphasis on the immediacy of Christ's miraculous 
healings; cf. 8 13 9 22 17 18 . He elsewhere omits statements that 
people disobeyed Christ's commands ; cf. the omission of Mk i 45 , 
on which see on 8 4 , and also statements to the effect that Christ 
asked questions as though He had not absolute knowledge. See 
notes on Mt 8 29 14 18 i6 9 ' 10 17i1.14.17 jgi IQ 7 2 6 18 and Introduction, 
p. xxxi. It seems probable, therefore, that the editor intentionally 
passes over Mk 7 32 - 37 . In lieu, he has substituted a general descrip- 
tion of Christ's miracles of healing, vv. 80 " 31 . 
E 30-31. And there came to Him many multitudes, having with 
them lame, blind, dumb, maimed, and many others, and they cast 
them by His feet, and He healed them : so that the multitudes 
marvelled, as they saw the dumb speaking, the maimed whole, the 
lame walking, and the blind seeing: and they glorified the God of 
Israel.] — Trpoo-^A^ov] see on 4 3 . — Trapa tovs 7rdoas avrov] D S 1 


have vivo, tous oy\ov% 0avfxdo-ai] so B E al S 1 S 2 . N C D U A curss 
have tov oy\ov. It is very improbable that Mt. in this non- 
Marcan passage would have the singular. See Introduction, 
p. lxxxvi. 

32. And Jesus called His disciples, and said, I have compassion M 
on the multitude, because already three days they are present with 
Me, and have nothing to eat : and to send them away fasting I am 
not willing, lest they faint on the road.] — 6 8e 'I^crous] Mk. has a 
longer introduction : " In those days again there being a great 
multitude, and they not having anything to eat, having called the 
disciples, He saith to them," etc. — e?7rev] as usual for Xeyeu — 
o-7rAay^vi^€cr^at] See on 9 38 . — on 77S77 rj/xepai Tpets irpoo-jxivovcrC 
fjiot] The same phrase occurs in Mk. For the nominative stand- 
ing in a parenthesis interrupting the construction, see Blass, p. 85 ; 
Moulton, p. 70 ; and cf. Est 4 11 oi kckAt^/uu — etcriv olvtcu rjp.ipa.1 
TpiaKovra. But the accusative would be so much more natural, 
that the nominative in Mt. and Mk. must be regarded as a proof 
of dependence of one Evangelist upon the other. — ko! airoXvo-ai] 
Mk. has : " And if I send them away fasting to their homes, they 
will faint on the road : and some of them are from a distance." 
The change Of eav aTroXvcrw into d7roAi)crai — oi 0e'Aa>, like other 
alterations of Mk. by Mt., heightens the note of mastery and 
dignity of Christ's words. The idea of His sending away the 
people to faint on the way home was to be avoided. 

33. And the disciples say to Him, Whence have we in a wilder- M 
ness loaves sufficient to feed so great a multitude 1] Mk. has : " And 
His disciples answered to Him that, Whence shall one be able to 
feed these with loaves here on a wilderness ? " For the omission of 
Mk.'s ort, see Introduction, p. xx. eprjfiia and vfjo-Tis occur only 
here in the Gospels. Both are rare words in Biblical Greek. For 
■XPpT&'Cuv, see on 5 6 . lv ipqfuq, is easier than Mk.'s e7r' iprjfuas. 

34. And Jesus saith to them, How many loaves have ye ? And 
they said, Seven, and a few little fish.] Mk. has: "And He asked 
them, How many loaves have ye ? And they said, Seven. . . . And 
they had a few little fish." The editor here retains the question 
in the mouth of the Lord. In 14 17 he avoided it. 

35. And He commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground.] M 
Mk. has irapayye'AAci and iirl Tr}<; yrjs. For Mt.'s change of eVi T17S 
■yjjs into £7Ti tt]v yyjv, cf. r3 2 ; eart tov alyiakov for Mk.'s iirl Trj<; yrj<; ; 
14 25 7repnra,Twv £7rt ttjv OdXaao-av for Mk.'s C7rt rijs OaXdo-o-q^ ; cf. 
Introduction, p. xxviii. 

36. And took the seven loaves and the fishes, and having given M 
thanks, He brake and was giving to the disciples, and the disciples to 
the multitudes.] Mk. has: "And having taken the seven loaves, 
having given thanks, He brake, and was giving to His disciples that 
they might distribute; and they distributed to the multitude. 


And they had a few little fishes : and having blessed them, He 
commanded (ei7rev) also to distribute these." 

M 37. And all ate, and were filled : and of the remainder of the 
fragments they took up seven baskets full.] Mk. has : " And they 
ate, and were filled : and they took up remainders of fragments 
seven baskets." Mt. adds 7raVres and TA^peis, to assimilate to 14 20 . 
— o-<£u/Di'3as] For this spelling, see Deissm. Bib. Stud. 158, 185. 
D has (T^vpilo.% here and in Mk 8 20 . In Mk 8 8 it is read by N A* 
D; in Mt 16 10 by B D. 

M 38. And they that did eat were four thousand men, besides women 
and children.] Mk. has : " And there were about four thousand." 
Mt. adds x w P' ? yvvaiKwv Kal 7raiSiW, to assimilate to 14 21 . 

M 39. And He sent away the multitudes, and embarked into the 
boat, and came to the boundaries of Magadan?] Mk. has : " And 
He sent them away ; and straightway having embarked into the 
boat with His disciples, He came to the regions of Dalmanutha." 
Mk.'s Dalmanutha is certainly corrupt The editor of Mt. has 
tried to emend by substituting Magadan. If Cheyne {Encyc. Bib. 
1635) is right in suggesting that the real name of the place was 
Migdal-nunia, a suburb of Tiberias, Mt has got from oral tradi- 
tion or from some earlier copy of Mk. a form which is not very far 
from the original. 

32-39. In these w. Mt. has here and there assimilated the 
language to that of the feeding of the five thousand. 
Cf. 14 19 xai tov5 — IxOvas with I5 3C . 

19 ol &k paOrjral tols o^Xots with 15 s ®. 

20 Kal £<payov 7ravTes with 15 3 '. 

80 Kal rjpav to irepiacrtvov tujv KXacrpaTwv ScoSfKa KOtptvovs 

7rA?;p€i? with 15 37 /cat' to TTtpiaazvov toiv KAacrpariuv 
t]pav €7rra crcpvpioa? 7rAr;peis. 

81 ol Se icr6tovT£<; r/crav ai'Spe? wcrel TrevTaKLcr^iXiOL X W P L ^ 

ywauKiiiV Kal 7ratStwv with 1 5 s8 01 Se ecr&'ovTcs Tjcrav 
TCTpaKco-^t'Atoi avSpes X w P ts ywaucw Kal iraiSiwv. 

39. MayaS&v] NBD; Magedon, S a ; Magedan, S 1 ; Magedan, latt ; 
Ma75aXd ; EFa/. 

M XVI. 1. And the Pharisees and Sadducees came, tempting Him, 
and asked Him to show them a sign out of heaven.] Mk. has : 
" And the Pharisees went out, and began to dispute with Him, 
seeking from Him a sign from heaven, tempting Him." For the 
request for a sign, see 12 38 . eVepan-av = to beseech, cf. on 15 23 . 
The editor substitutes his favourite Kal irpocreXOovTvi for Mk.'s 
i£fj\6ov, of which the precise reference is obscure. Whence did 
they go out? 

2. And He answered and said to them.] Mk. has: "And 
having groaned in His spirit, He saith." For the omission of 


dva<TT€ia£as to) 7rv€r'/xaTi airov, see on 15 29 . The editor here 
inserts two verses (but see critical note) which are not in Mk. 

When it is evening, you say, (It will be) fair weather : for the E P 
heaven is red.] 

8. And in the morning (you say), To-day (will be) stormy : for the E ? 
heaven is red and angry. The face of the heaven you know how to 
discern ; but the sign of the times ye are unable.] For similar ideas 
differently worded, cf. Lk 1 2 54 " 56 . 

4. An evil and adulterous generation seeks for a sign ; and a sign M 
shall not be given to it, save the sign of Jonah.'] Mk. has : " Why 
does this generation seek ((rjrel) a sign ? Verily I say to you, A 
sign shall not be given to this generation." Mt. assimilates to 12 39 . 

4. And leaving them, He went away.] Mk. has : "And leaving 
(&<f>ei<;) them, again having embarked, He went away to the other 
side." Mt. transfers els to -repay to the next verse. 

1-4. Mt. and Lk n 16 - 29 agree against Mk. in the following: — 

a~r)fxeiov ck tov ovpavov, Mt 1 -= o~rjp.eZov i$ ovpavov, Lk 16 . 

irovqpa, Mt 4 , Lk » 

kcli crrjpLeLov ov boOrjo-erai avrrj el p,-q to crr)p,eiov Iuva, Mt 4 , Lk 29 . 

2. 'Oxjslas yevo/xtv-ns—oi dtvaade] C D at. Om. SBVXS'S 2 . The clause 
can hardly be genuine here. It seems to be a gloss modelled on Lk 12 54 " 56 . 
— ffTvyv&fav] (rrvyvdrris is used of the dulness of the sky in Polyb. iv. 21. 1. 
OTvyv&teip occurs in the LXX = DD^ Ezk 27 s5 28 19 A, 32 10 . irvppafciv seems to 
occur onlv in Byzantine writers, rvppl^eiv occurs in the LXX, Lev I3 19, 42,4S - 
• 14 s7 , B 2 R. 

6. And the disciples came to the other side, and forgot to take M 
bread.] Mk. has : " And they forgot to take bread, and had 
not with them in the boat save one loaf." In Mk. the dialogue 
which follows presumably took place in the boat during the cross- 
ing of the lake. Mt. by inserting kcu iXBovres ot (tcdhjnu before eh 
to iripav in Mk v. 13 seems to wish to make it clear that the subject 
of iireXdOovTo did not include Christ. The disciples forgot, not 
the Lord. His insertion has the further effect that the whole of 
what follows took place, not during the crossing, but when they had 
reached the other side. It is necessary, therefore, to omit Mk 14b . 

6. And Jesus said to them, Take heed, and beware of the leaven M 
of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.] Mk. has: "And He was 
charging them, saying, Take heed, beware (jSXeirere) of the leaven 
of the Pharisees, and of the leaven of Herod." — -n-poo-exere airo] 
see on io 17 . Lk 12 1 also has Trpoo-ex eT€ m tms connection. — xai 
SaSoouKattov] Mk. has kol tt}s t > vp.r)<; 'HpwSov. It is doubtful what 
Mk. intended his readers to understand by the leaven of the 
Pharisees and of Herod. Possibly the plots of the Pharisees and 
the Herodians to kill Christ, cf. Mk 3 6 . Mt. has understood £,vp.-q to 
mean false teaching, and therefore substitutes SaSSov/caiWfor'HpwSou. 

7. And they were reasoning in (or amongst) themselves, saying, m 


{He says it) because we took no bread.] Mk. has : "And they were 
reasoning with one another because they have no bread." 1 The 
disciples suppose that the Lord's warning against the leaven of the 
Pharisees had some reference to the fact that they were without 
sufficient provision, as though He were advising them to be on 
their guard against purchasing poisoned loaves. — ol Se] for Mk.'s 
Kai, as often. — 8u\oyi£ovTo lv cauTots] occurs again in 21 25 . 

M 8. And Jesus, perceiving it, said, Why do you reason in (or amongst) 
yourselves, O ye of little faith, because you have no bread T\ Mk. 
has : " And perceiving it, He saith to them, Why do you reason 
because you have no bread?" — yvovs Se] for Mk.'s /cat yvous, as 
often. — «*7r€v] for Mk.'s Xe'yci, as often. Mk. omits 6 'I^o-ovs and 
cv cauTots okiyotncrroi. oXtyo-mtTTot is also inserted by Mt. in 8 26 , 
where, as in the next verse, He is softening a rebuke administered 
to the disciples. It occurs also in 6 30 14 31 . Here iriari<; seems 
to be trust, confidence, assurance in the power of Christ to provide 
food as He had done before. 

M 9, 10. Do you not understand nor remember the five loaves of 
the five thousand, and how many baskets ye took up ? Nor the seven 
loaves of the four thousand, and how many baskets ye took up T\ The 
editor rewrites Mk vv. 17 " 20 in such a way as to avoid the questions 
in Christ's mouth (see notes on 8 28 14 17 15 29 i6 9 " 10 1711.1*" 18 1 
19 7 26 7 - 8 ), and to soften the rebuke of the disciples ; cf. 8 26 , note. 
Mk. has : " Do you not yet understand nor perceive ? Have ye 
your heart hardened ? Having eyes, see ye not ? And having 
ears, hear ye not ? And do ye not remember ? When I brake the 
five loaves to the five thousand, how many baskets full of fragments 
took ye up ? They say to Him, Twelve. When the seven to the four 
thousand, of how many baskets took ye up (their) fulness of frag- 
ments ? And they say to Him, Seven." Mt. three times omits re- 
ferences to the hardness of the hearts of the disciples ; Mk 3 5 6 52 8 17 . 

M 11. How do ye not understand ?] Mk. has : " And He was 
saying to them, Do ye not yet understand ? " 

E The editor here adds the explanatory that not about bread I 
spake to you, but beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 

E 12. Then understand they that He bade them not beware of the 
leaven of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees, .] 
This explanation, which is connected with the substitution of 
SaSSovKaiW in v. 6 for 'HpwSou, has little to commend it. Whatever 
may originally have been meant by " the leaven of the Pharisees and 

1 (xovuiv. So B. D has etx av > an< ^ a b i q haberent. S 1 has "there is no bread. " 
KACa/ assimilate to Mt. by substituting £x°M e " ar *d inserting Xiyotrres. But 
Mk.'s tx ov<T '- v 1S ambiguous. The clause might be rendered, " They were disput- 
ing (cf. o 34 ) because they have no bread," without any apparent reference to the 
leaven of the preceding verse, which does not appear again in Mk. 's narrative. Mt. 
by inserting \4yovres and changing (xowriv into £\dj3o/j.ei>, connects the "reason- 
ing" with the preceding saying, and so prepares for his insertion of w. 11,u . 


the leaven of Herod," it can hardly have been teaching. The con- 
nection of the Pharisees with Herod suggests rather that the leaven 
symbolised the hostility and enmity of the Pharisees and of Herod ; 
cf. Mk 3 6 . For a similar note in favour of the disciples, see 17 13 . 

12. rijs tyfiris twv &prwt>] Om. twv dpruv, D S 1 S 2 a b ff 3 . This is 
probably right. S 2 assimilates to the preceding verse by adding "of the 
Pharisees and of the Sadducees." K° B L add tu>v iprwv ; C E al rod dprov. 

18. The editor here omits Mk 8 22_2fl . For this omission, see 
on 15 29 . See also Briggs, The Messiah of the Gospels, p. 93. 

And Jesus having come into the districts of Ccesarea Phi lip pi, M 
asked His disciples, saying, Whom say men that (P) Son of Man am ?] 
Mk. has : " And Jesus and His disciples went out into the villages 
of Caesarea Philippi, and on the road He asked (iirrjpwTa) His 
disciples, saying to them, Whom do men say that I am ? " — iXOcov 
8t] for Mk.'s Kal i$rjX6ev, as often. Mt. substitutes tov vlbv tov 
avOpoiirov for Mk.'s fxe to form an antithesis to v. 16 6 vlbs tov 6eov. 

14. And they said, Some (say) John the Baptist, but others M 
Elijah, and others Jeremiah, or one of the prophets.] Mk. has : 

" And they spake to Him, saying that John the Baptist, and 
others Elijah, but others that one of the prophets." Mt., as usual, 
omits Mk.'s on, and corrects cf? into «va to harmonise with the 
other accusatives. The insertion of Jeremiah shows acquaintance 
with Jewish belief in the possibility of the appearance of the 
illustrious dead ; cf. 2 Mac i5 18ff - where Onias and Jeremiah appear 
to Judas Maccabee ; 2 Es 2 18 : " For thy help I will send My 
servants, Isaiah and Jeremiah." For the expectation of Elijah, see 
on n u . Mt.'s ol fxev is intended to ease the Greek. For hepot. 
in the third clause, see Blass, p. 179 ; Win.-Schm. p. 244. 

15. He saith to them, But you, whom say ye that I am ?] Mk. M 
has : " And He asked them, But you, whom say ye that I am ? " 

16. And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, M 
the Son of the living God.] Mk. has: "Peter answered and saith 

to Him, Thou art the Christ." Mt.'s 6 vlb's tov 6eov tov £witos is 
explanatory. It has caused the substitution of tov vlbv tov avOpui-nov 
for /Me in v. 13 to form an antithesis. 

13-16. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following : 

aXXoi 8e, Mt l * Lk ld . Mk. has koX aAXoi. 

8£- etircv, Mt 16 , Lk 20 . Mk. has My*. 

6 VIOS TOl) 6iOV TOV ^OJVTOS, Mt 16 = TOl) 8eOV, Lk 20 . 

17-19. The editor here inserts three verses which are not in 
Mk. For the prominence given to S. Peter, cf. io 2 14 28 - 31 15 15 . 

17. And Jesus answered and said to him, Blessed art thou, Simon L 
Bar Jona, because flesh and blood did not reveal (it) to thee, but My 
Father who is in the heavens.] — 1ip.u>v] for the form, see on 4 18 . 
@dp is the Aramaic "son," and 'Itova (cf. Jn i 43 ) = njV = Jonah 


&0V as a shortened form of pnV = John, is not found elsewhere. 
See Dalm. Gram. p. 179, Anm. 5. — <rap£ ko.1 aXfia] D"n ~iB>3 is very 
common in the Talmud and Midrashim as an expression for 
humanity as contrasted with God ; cf. B. Berakhoth 28 b "a king of 
flesh and blood," contrasted with " the King of kings, " the fear of 
flesh and blood " contrasted with the " fear of heaven." — 6 -n-ar^p jxov 
6 iv Tots ovpavols] see on 5 18 . 

L 18. And I also say to thee that thou art Peter, and on this rock 
will I build my church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail 
against //.] The irirpa is equivalent to the object of a-n-eKdXvif/t in 
v. 17 " Flesh and blood did not reveal it," i.e. the Messiahship and 
divine Sonship of Christ. " Upon this rock of revealed truth I 
will build my Church." The play upon IleVpo? and -n-erpa means, 
" You have given expression to a revealed truth, and your name 
Ilerpos suggests a metaphorical name for it. It shall be the -n-erpa 
or rock upon which the Church shall stand. In other words, it 
shall be the central doctrine of the Church's teaching." The idea 
that the divine Christ is the keystone of the new edifice of the 
Christian Church, finds expression elsewhere in the parallel 
metaphor of the corner-stone in 1 P 2 4 ' 8 , Eph 2 20 . — c/c/cAijcrta] As 
the Evangelist wrote the word, he, no doubt, had in mind the 
Christian society for which eK/cA^crta had long been a current title 
(Acts, S. Paul, Hebrews, S. James, S. John's Epp., and Rev.). 
There is no difficulty at all in supposing that Christ used some 
Aramaic phrase or word which would signify the community or 
society of His disciples, knit together by their belief in His divine 
Sonship, and pledged to the work of propagating His teaching. 

TrvXai a8ov] Against the Church the powers of evil shall not 
prevail. But just as the Church has been compared to a building, 
so, too, the powers of evil. These have their metropolis in the 
fortress of Hades. For Hades symbolised as a strong fort with 
barred gates, cf. Is 38 10 " the gates of Sheol " (ttvXclls aSov), Job 17 16 
"the bars of Sheol," Job 38 17 "the gates of death," Ps 9 13 107 18 , 
Wis 16 13 , 3 Mac 5 51 , Ps-Sol 16 2 . "The gates of Hades shall not 
prevail against the Church" is a pictorial way of saying, "The 
organised powers of evil shall not prevail against the organised 
society which represents My teaching." 

L 19. / will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, and 
whatsoever thou shall bind upon earth shall be bound in the heavens, 
and whatsoever thou shall loose on earth shall be loosed in the heavens.'] 
KXets] The figure of the gates of Hades suggests the metaphor 
of the keys. There were keys of Hades, Rev 1 18 ; cf. 9 1 20 1 . The 
apocalyptic writer describes the risen Christ as having the keys 
of Hades, i.e. having power over it, power to enter it, and 
power to release from it, or to imprison in it. In the same way, 
" the kingdom of the heavens " can be likened to a citadel with 


barred gates. He who held the keys would have power within it, 
power to admit, power to exclude. In Rev 3 7 this power is held by 
Christ Himself : " He that hath the key of David, that openeth 
and none shall shut, and that shutteth and none shall open." The 
words are modelled on Is 2 2 22 , and express supreme authority. To 
hold the keys is to have absolute right, which can be contested by 
none. Just so in B. Sank. 11 3* it is said that the keys of birth, 
of rain, and of the resurrection of the dead are in the hand of God, 
and are delegated to no one. 

It would, therefore, be not unexpected if we found the Messiah 
or Son of Man described as having the keys of the kingdom of the 
heavens. This would imply that He was supreme within it. But 
it is surprising to find this power delegated to S. Peter. We must, 
however, be careful not to identify the iKKkr]<ria with the kingdom. 
There is nothing here to suggest such identification. The Church 
was to be built on the rock of the revealed truth that Jesus was the 
Messiah, the Divine Son. To S. Peter were to be given the keys of 
the kingdom. The kingdom is here, as elsewhere in this Gospel, 
the kingdom to be inaugurated when the Son of Man came upon 
the clouds of heaven. If S. Peter was to hold supreme authority 
within it, the other apostles were also to have places of rank : " Ye 
shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel," 
18 28 . The iKKX-qo-ta, on the other hand, was the society of Christ's 
disciples, who were to announce the coming of the kingdom, who 
were to wait for it, and who would enter into it when it came. 
The Church was built upon the truth of the divine Sonship. It 
was to proclaim the coming kingdom. In that kingdom Peter 
should hold the keys which conferred authority. In the next 
clause this authority is described under a different metaphor. To 
" bind" and to "loose," in Jewish legal terminology, are equivalent 
to " forbid " and to " allow," to " declare forbidden " and to 
" declare allowed " ; see Lightfoot, Hor. Heb. in loc. The terms, 
therefore, describe an authority of a legal nature. If he who has 
the keys has authority of an administrative nature, he who binds and 
looses exercises authority of a legislative character. In the coming 
kingdom Peter was to exercise this two-sided authority. — o lav Sryo-^s 
e7ri tt)<; y^s tcrrai SeSe/xeVov iv rots oipavois] The idiom " on earth," 
" in heaven," is simply an emphatic way of stating that the action 
referred to would be permanent in its results: "Whatsoever thou 
bindest shall remain bound, shall never be loosed." Cf. B. Joma 
39 a : " If a man sanctifies himself a little, he will be sanctified 
much ; if (he sanctifies himself) below, he will be sanctified above ; 
if (he sanctifies himself) in this world, he will be sanctified in the 
world to come." The contrast, therefore, between earth and heaven 
is merely literary. The words throw no light upon the earthly or 
heavenly position of the future kingdom. But nothing in this 


Gospel suggests any other locality for it than the renewed (cf. 19 28 } 

17-19. The whole passage, therefore, might be paraphrased 
thus: "Happy are you, Simon, son of Jonah, because the truth to 
which you have given utterance was revealed to you by God Him- 
self. Your name is Petros, and this truth is a rock (irtTpa) upon 
which I will build My Church. It will be the foundation truth of 
the belief of My disciples, i.e. of those who await the kingdom of 
heaven. In that kingdom you shall hold an exalted position, 
having the keys of administrative power, and the right to legislate 
for the needs of its citizens." 

As an alternative, we might interpret t<xs /cAets with special 
reference to the function of a key in opening shut doors. Cf. 
Mt 23 13 "You shut the kingdom of the heavens before men : for you 
enter not, nor suffer those who are entering to go in"; Lk n 52 
" You took away the key of knowledge," i.e. refused to open the 
doors of the kingdom of " knowledge " to others. Swo-w crol Tas 
kXcIs will then mean : " I will give to you the right of admitting 
others to the kingdom." The Evangelist may very possibly have 
had in mind the part taken by S. Peter in the early days of the 
Church in admitting Gentiles to its privileges, just as in the 
" binding " and " loosing " he may have had in mind the prominent 
part taken by S. Peter in regulating the affairs of the infant 

It is possible that originally the " keys " described the effect of 
S. Peter's insight into divine truth. His perception that Jesus 
was the Divine Son, was a key which admitted him into the king- 
dom. By bringing others to the same faith, he would open for 
them, too, the kingdom, in contrast to the scribes and Pharisees, 
who locked it in the face of those who wished to enter, 23 13 . But, 
if so, the Evangelist by inserting v. 18 before v. 19 , and by combining 
the saying about " the keys " with the saying about " binding " and 
"loosing," has obscured the original meaning. In his connection 
the " keys " are not equivalent to S. Peter's faith, but represent 
a privilege promised to the Apostle as a reward for it. Further, 
the position of v. 18 , with its description of the Church as a fortress 
impregnable against the attacks of evil (the gates of Hades), sug- 
gests irresistibly that "the keys of the kingdom" mean more than 
power to open merely, and imply rather authority within the king- 
dom. And this is confirmed by the "binding" and "loosing" which 
immediately follow. The latter saying occurs again with the verbs 
in the plural in 18 18 . This may be its more original form. If so, 
the Evangelist is here, as elsewhere, compiling detached sayings, 
fitting them into contexts which seemed to him to be suited to 
them. If we remove, therefore, 19b as alien to the context, we are 
justified in asking whether the remaining three verses originally 


formed part of this incident. V. 17 is in every respect suitable to 
the context. V. 18 might seem to betray the hand of the Evangel- 
ist in the phrase olKoSo/x-qao) fiov rrjv iKKX-rjcriav, which certainly 
seems to reflect ideas which presuppose the history and growth of 
Christianity in the early Apostolic age. But if Christ, wishing to 
commend S. Peter's faith, drew from his name a metaphor, "the 
rock," to symbolise the value and importance of the revealed truth 
to which S. Peter had given utterance, this metaphor of the rock 
would suggest the phrase "to build" rather than any such expres- 
sion as "My disciples shall stand." hack-yc-ia may well be the 
equivalent of some Aramaic expression for community, society, 
school, band of disciples. Further, the idea thus gained of the 
Christian body as a building firmly founded, would suggest the use 
of the common phrase "gates of Hades" to describe the forces 
of evil which would attack it And it is possible that this latter 
phrase would suggest the keys of the kingdom of the heavens as a 
term expressing some privilege to be given to S. Peter. The real 
difficulty in supposing that vv. 1M9a were spoken on this occasion, 
lies in the vagueness of the idea thus expressed. What were the 
keys thus given ? Even if we identify the kingdom with the 
Church, it is not entirely satisfactory to suppose that the Lord 
simply foretold that S. Peter was to take a prominent part in the 
work of opening the door of faith to the Gentiles. His share in 
that work, though a great, was not an exclusive one. S. Paul 
bore the burden of it. Of course we might, without identifying 
Church and Kingdom, give the words some such meaning as this. 
The truth of the divine Sonship shall be the keynote of the 
doctrine of My disciples in their work of preaching the coming 
kingdom. All to whom this truth is revealed will have in it a key 
to the kingdom, and will be able to admit others to it, i.e. make 
them members of the society which waits for the kingdom. In 
this case S. Peter would be mentioned on the ground that it was 
he who had given utterance to the divinely revealed truth, with the 
implication that all to whom it should be revealed would have 
the same privileges. But in view of the fact that v. 19b is almost 
certainly added to this context and modified by the Evangelist 
so as to apply specially to S. Peter, it is difficult not to be drawn 
to the conclusion that the whole of the passage, vv. 17 " 19 , inserted 
in S. Mark, is the work of the Evangelist. The motive must have 
been to emphasise the prominence of S. Peter in the Christian 
body as foretold and sanctioned by Christ Himself. Through- 
out the Gospel the twelve Apostles are everywhere represented in 
a more favourable light than in Mk. Rebukes addressed to them 
by Christ are softened, see on 8 26 16 9 . Statements that they did 
not understand, or did not know what to say, or disputed, are 
passed over, cf. Mk 6 52 9 6 - 10 - 82 - 3S - M 14 40 . On the other hand, it is 


expressly said that they did understand, Mt 16 12 17 13 . They had 
left all to follow Christ ; but when He sat on the throne of His 
glory they would sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes 
of Israel, 19 28 . And amongst them Peter was pre-eminent. He was 
/rpwTos, io 2 . He had shown remarkable ventures of faith, 14 29 " 31 . 
To him Christ had given the keys, and the power of "binding" 
and "loosing." It is, therefore, possible that 16 17 ' 19 are in their 
present order and connection the work of the Evangelist compiling 
detached sayings in honour of the great Apostle. The Jewish 
colouring in these sayings is very remarkable ; crap£ koL al/xa, 6 
■jrarrjp pov 6 ev tois ovpavois, Tri'Aai a.8ov, -ras kA.€is, rj /^acriAeia twv 
ovpav&v, the "binding" and "loosing," the literary contrast of 
"earth" and "heaven," were probably all commonplaces of Jewish 
theological thought. The single word c/</o\.?7crta alone lies open to 
the suspicion of betraying Christian influence, and it may easily 
be explained as representing a more specifically Jewish or less 
Christian word. 
M 20. Then He charged the disciples that they should tell no one 
that He was the Christ^] Mk. has : " And He charged them that 
they should speak to no man about Him." — totc] see on 2 7 . — 
Sieo-retAxn-o] Mk. here has tireTip.r)o-ev, but Sieo-T€iA.aTO in 5 43 7 36 9 9 . 
The verb occurs only here in Mt. B* D S 1 S 2 have lireTLfxrjcrtv. — 
rots fiaO-qTcus] Mk. has avTot?, but the insertion of vv. 17 " 19 makes 
the explicit reference to the disciples necessary. — on av-ros 1<ttiv 
6 xpto-ro?] for Mk.'s 7rept avrov. For similar explanatory glosses, 
see v. 22 26 s "- 73 . 
M 21. From that time Jesus began to show to His disciples that He 
must go to Jerusalem, and suffer much from the elders and chiej 
priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again on the third 
day.] — airb totc] Mk. has kcu. Cf. 4 17 . The Galilean mission to 
the common people is over. Henceforth the Lord devotes Him- 
self mainly to instructing His disciples. The tois //.aureus for Mk.'s 
aureus assists the emphasis. — avrov] Mk. has tov vibv tov dv#pu>7rou, 
which Mt. has anticipated in v. 13 . The editor inserts €ts 'IepocroAv/ia 
aireXOetv xat, or rather substitutes it for Mk.'s, 
which is involved in ttoXXo. iraOeiv. This carries with it the altera- 
tion of vtto into 6.t?6. D has vtto. — rrj TpLTy rjp-epa lyzpOrjvai] for 
Mk.'s ju.€Ta TpcU rjp.ipa<i avao-Trjvai. The resurrection took place, 
according to tradition, on the Sunday after the Friday of the Cruci- 
fixion. The " after three days " of the Lord's prediction was, there- 
fore, interpreted as equivalent to "on the third day," counting the 
day of Crucifixion as the first. So S. Paul (1 Co. 15 4 ), the writer of 
the Acts (io 40 ), and the first and third Evangelists. Mk 8 31 9 31 io 34 
and Mt 12 40 27 s3 retain the "three days." The order irpeo-fivTepuv 
Kai dpxic'pewj/ kol ypapparcW is striking, because it is an unusual 
order. The editor has borrowed it from Mk. (so Lk.)- Mk. adds 


here kcu Trapprjata tov Xoyov (or eicXaAci, k S 1 Tat.), which 
Mt. omits as being of doubtful meaning. 

22. And Peter took Him, and began to rebuke Him, saying, M E 
(God) be gracious to Thee, Lord ; that shall not happen to Thee.] 
Mk. has : " And Peter took Him, and began to rebuke Him." 
The words from Ac'ywv are an explanatory gloss of the editor to 
explain Mk.'s iiriTifxav; see on v. 20 . — "IAews o-oi] Cf. *IAca>s p-oi 

= h rWri i Ch ii 19 , 2 S 20 20 ; Letronne, Recueil des Inscripts 
grecques et latines de V Egypte, ii. p. 286, "Acws 0-01, 'AXvtti : 
" (Sarapis) help thee, Alypius " ; or with the subject inserted, ib. 
221, fAcws IIXotwv /ecu ivravQa, quoted by Moulton, Class. Rev. 
1901, p. 436. — ov p.r] Icttcu] For the fut. ind. after ov p.rj, see 
Blass, p. 209; Moulton, p. 190. — irpoo-Xa^avuv] occurs only here 
in Mt. and Mk. Its presence in Mt. is due to Mk. 

23. And He turned, and said to Peter, Go behind Me, Satan : M 
thou art a stumbling-block to Me: because thou thinkest not the 
things of God, but the things of men.} So Mk., without o-xdVSaAov cT 
ifiov, which is inserted by the editor to explain the use of the harsh 
Sarctva with reference to the Apostle. Mk. also has Ittictt partis for 
cny)a$ets (for crrpec/xu, which Mk. never uses, cf. 9 22 ), and adds kclI 
i8(bv tous fiadrp-as airov, which seems to emphasise the publicity of 
the rebuke. The editor omitted it for this reason, or because he 
missed the point of it here. 6ttlo-u>, see on 3 11 . — ov <ppoveis to. tov 
6cov, k.tX] seems to mean: "Your ideas of the Messiah and His 
destiny are superficial. You can imagine a career of splendour for 
Him, but fail to understand that suffering and death are a part of 
the career planned out for Him by God." 

O-xavSaXov €i ifiov] So N* B 1 3 ; el p.ov, N c C ; c? ip.01, D latt ; 
p.ov ct, E F al. Abbott, Johannine Grammar, 2566 c, suggests that 
the original may have been dpi 0-01 = "I am a stumbling-block 
[it seems] to Thee ! " But Scn-aca suggests that the following 
o-KGtvSaAoi' is used of S. Peter, not of the Lord. In trying to set 
aside thoughts of the coming Passion, Peter was at once Christ's 
adversary and His stumbling-block. And this interpretation alone 
explains the following cm. 

21-23. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following: ciTro 
— rp Tpirp rjp.epa iyep6f}vai, Mt 21 , Lk 22 . 

21. 6 Tijo-oOs] So S cb C al S 3 ; 'I^oDs X/>«tt6s, N* B*. The latter can 
hardly be original. It is the work of a scribe who wished to emphasise the 
fact that this was a turning-point in Christ's ministry and teaching. 

24. Then Jesus said to His disciples, If any one wishes tc come M 
after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow 
Me.] Mk. has : " And having called the multitude, with His 
disciples, He said to them," etc. For the saying about the cross, 
see note on io 38 , where another form of the saying has been 


inserted. Here the meaning clearly is that the disciples must be 
ready to face death in allegiance to their Master, and after His 
example. The cross need mean no more than violent death ; see 
on io 38 . 
M 25. For whosoever wishes to save his life shall lose it, and who- 
soever shall lose his life for My sake shall find it.] See on io 39 . — 
05 — eav] See On II 27 . — eveKtv ip.ov] Mk. adds kou tov evayyeXiov. 
For Mt.'s omission of one of two synonymous clauses, see on 8 16 ; 

and Cf. I9 29 €V€K€V TOV e/JLOV oVo/XdTOS for Mk.'s €V€K€V ifXOV KCU €V*K€V 

tov evayyeAtov. — tip-qo-ei] Mk. crwo-ei. Mt. assimilates to io 39 in 
order to form an antithesis to diroXeo-ei. For antithesis in Mt., see 
on I9 8.9 t 

M 26. For what shall a man be profited if he gain the whole world, 
but be deprived of his life ? or what will a man give as exchange for 
his life ?] Mk. has : " For what will it profit a man to gain the 
whole world and to be deprived of his life ? For what would a man 
give as exchange for his life ? " The meaning seems to be : 
" Suppose a man to shrink from martyrdom, he will, indeed, c save ' 
his physical life. But he will ' lose ' the higher life of the soul. 
To gain the whole world, and to lose this higher life, is a profitless 
proceeding ; because this higher life cannot be purchased. No 
money can buy it." — ux^eX-rjOrjo-eraL] For Mt.'s preference for 
passives, see on 4 1 . — fafiuaOy] t,-qjxiovv is to "fine" or "con- 
fiscate"; so in the passive, "to suffer confiscation or loss of"; 
Cf. Phil 3 8 to. iravra i^rjfXLwOrjv. — dvrdXXay/xa] is the price paid for 
anything ; cf. Ecclus 6 15 <piXov Tnarov ovk Icrriv avTaXXay/xa, 26 14 
ovk eanv avTaXXay/xa 7TC7ratSev fxeyqi t/a;;^}?, "there is nothing worth 
so much as, nothing which can be paid in exchange for, a well- 
instructed soul." Sol in Mk. is the aor. conj. ; cf. Blass, p. 49 ; 
Moulton, Class. Rev. 1901, p. 37 ; Gram. p. 55. Mt. substitutes 
the easier fut. ind. 

Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in this verse in the following : 
uxfxXrjOyjaeTaL dv6pwTro<; — 8e, Mt. = dxpeXeirai dvOpoiTros — Se, Lk. Mk. 
has JxfceXel avOpunrov — /ecu. 

M 27. For the Son of Man is about to come in the glory of His 
Father with His angels. And then He shall give to each man 
according to his work.] Mk. has : " For whosoever shall be 
ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful 
generation, the Son of Man shall be ashamed of him when He 
shall come in the glory of His Father with the holy angels." Mt. 
has already inserted words parallel to the first clause of Mk. in io 33 . 
He therefore omits them here, and makes of oVav eXOrj a main 
clause, p.iXXei yap — lpx*<r6ai. p.£XXeiv, which here emphasises the 
nearness of the coming, is characteristic of Mt. ; cf. i7 12 - 22 /xiXXei 
— Trapa8 i8o<r6 at for Mk.'s TrapaSt'SoTai, 2o 17> 22 24 s . He then adds, 
by way of compensation for the omitted clause of Mk., *ai tot* 


airo8wo~€t eKaorro) Kara. tt)v irpa^iv avrov. — iv rfj $6£r) rov iraTpos avrov] 
For the glory of the Messiah ; cf. Enoch 61 8 " The Lord of Spirits 
placed the Elect One on the throne of glory," 62 2 "The Lord of 
Spirits seated Him on the throne of His glory " ; and Test. Levi 18. 
koX totc d7roSwcr€t, k.t.A.] For the conception of the Messiah 
in glory judging men after their works, cf. Enoch 45 s " On that 
day Mine Elect One will sit on the throne of glory, and make 
choice amongst their deeds," 6q 27 " And He sat on the throne 
of His glory, and the sum of judgement was committed to Him, 
the Son of Man." The terms seem to be borrowed from Ps 
6 1 13 av a7roSw<rets ekcio-tu) KaTo. Ta tpya avrov ; cf. Pr 24 12 , Ecclus 

28. Verity I say to you, That there are some of those who stand M 
here who shall not taste of death until they see the Son of Man 
coming in His kingdom.] Mk. has : "And He was saying to them, 
Verily I say to you, that there are some here of the bystanders 
who shall not taste of death until they see the kingdom of God 
come with power." The iXeyev ainus of Mk. may be a hint that 
this saying was not spoken on the same occasion as the preceding. 
However that may be, Mt. omits kou ZXeyev avrols, and connects 
the words closely with the foregoing. By substituting tov viov tov 
dvOpwirov ip)(6fi€vov iv rfj /3acriAeia avTOv for rrjv fiao-iXtiav tov 6eov 
iXrjXvOviav iv Swd/xei, he makes it clear that what the "some of those 
who stand here " will see is the coming of the Son of Man " in the 
glory of His Father," or " in His kingdom." That is to say, he 
believed that that coming would take place in the lifetime of some 
of Christ's contemporaries. The same belief finds expression in 
io 23 and 24 s4 , and has an important bearing on the date of the 
Gospel. — dfxrjv] see on 5 18 . — yevecr#ai Oavdrov] was a Jewish 
phrase ; cf. Schlatter, Die Sprache und Heimat des Vierten Evangel- 
isten, p. 35. It occurs in Jn 8 52 , He 2 9 . 

XVII. 1. And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, and James, and M 
fohn his brother, and leadeth them up into a high mountain privately.] 
So Mk., without tov dScA^ov avrov, and with /xovovs after kolt' t'Siav. 
For Mt.'s omission of one of two synonymous expressions, see 
on 8 19 . 

2. And was transfigured before them ; and His face did shine as M 
the sun, and His raiment became white as the light.'] Mk. : "And 
was transfigured before them ; and His raiment became glistening, 
very white, as a fuller on earth cannot so whiten." — /xeTep.op(f>wOr}] 
Both the later Evangelists seem to have found difficulty in the use 
of this word in reference to Christ. It was ambiguous, and it 
might easily be misinterpreted Lk. omits it, and substitutes 
cyeveTO — to etSos tov irpocrwTrov avrov trepov. For this, cf. Dn 5^ 
LXX 7] opao"ts avTov rjXXotwOr], Theod. f) p.op(j>7] rjXXoiwdr], Secrets of 
Enoch i 7 "the appearance of my countenance was changed." 


Mt. retains the word, but explains it by adding kcu eXa/uuj/tv to 
irpoo-iDirov airov ws 6 ^Atos. For this, cf. Secrets of Enoch i 5 "their 
faces shone like the sun," 19 1 "their faces shining more than the 
rays of the sun," 2 Es 7 97 "their face shall shine as the sun," Rev 
i 16 " His countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength." In 
Enoch 14 20 the simile is used of raiment, "His raiment did shine 
more brightly than the sun." — to. Se IfiaTLa avrov lyivero AevKa d>s to 
</>u>s] to. hi for koX rd, as often. Mt. omits Mk.'s o-TikftovTa. This 
word is used elsewhere of metals, e.g. brass, Ezk 40 3 , Dn (Th) 
io 6 ; or of hills reflecting the sun's rays, 1 Mac 6 39 . Lk. substi- 
tutes e£ao~TpdirTO)v, which is the LXX equivalent of Theodotion's 
o-TiXfiovTos in Dn io 6 . For Mk.'s simile of the fuller, which Lk. 
omits, Mt. substitutes u>s to <£o»s. 

M 3. And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking 
with Him.] Mk. has: "And there appeared to them Elias with 
Moses, and they were talking with Jesus." — kcu 18ov] see on i 20 . 
The order Moses and Elias, substituted by Mt. and Lk. for Elias 
with Moses, is probably simply due to a natural desire for the 
chronological order; cf. Lk.'s order in n 31 - 32 , as compared with 
Mt i2 41 - 42 . On Elijah as the expected forerunner of the Messiah, 
see note on v. 10 . There seem to be traces in Jewish literature 
of a belief that Moses would accompany Elijah when he came ; 
seeVo\z,Jud. Eschat. 191-193, and cf. Jochanan ben Zaccai in 
Midr. Debarim R. Par. in (Wiinsche), p. 55 : " When I bring the 
prophet Elijah, you shall both (Moses and Elijah) come together." 
Moses may be referred to as one of the two witnesses of Rev 1 1 3 ; 
see Bousset and Swete, in loc, and Tert. Anim. 50. 

M 4. And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Lord, it is good for us 
to be here : if Thou wilt, I will make here three booths ; for Thee one, 
and for Moses one, and for Elias one.] ML: "And Peter answered 
and saith to Jesus, Rabbi, it is good for us to be here : and let us 
make three booths," etc. For the Semitic use of d7roKpi0eis, see 
Dalm. Words, p. 24. 8e for kcu, as often. eTwev for Aeyei, as often. 
— Kvpie] see on 8 2 . 'Fafifiei occurs again in Mk io 51 n 21 14 45 . 
Mt. retains it only in the last instance. — Tpeis o-K-qi'ds] The idea 
apparently is that of prolonging the scene. Mk. adds at the end : 
"For He did not know what to answer; for they were very afraid." 
For Mt's omission, see Introduction, pp. xxxiii f. ; and cf. the 
omission of Mk., i4 40c . The "fear" is postponed by Mt to a 
more suitable place in v. 6 . 

M 5. While He was still speaking, behold, a cloud of light over- 
shadowed them : atid behold a voice out of the cloud, saying, This 
is My Son, the Beloved in whom I took pleasure ; hear Him.] — Iti 
airov AaAoiWos] is inserted by the editor ; cf. similar insertions, 
Mt i2 46 = Mk 3 31 , and Mt 9 18 = Mk 5 21 . In both these passages, 
however, the clause is placed at the beginning of a section as a 


connecting link. Here there seems no reason for the insertion. 
Lk. has a similar clause ; see below. Mk. has ko.1 iyevero here 
twice, and in i 9 - 11 2 23 4 4 - 39 . Mt avoids it in i 9 2 23 4 4 . He has it 
5 times in a formula, 7 28 n 1 i3 6S 19 1 25 1 . In 3 17 =Mk i 9 he has 
kou ISov, and in clause b here he assimilates to that passage. In 
clause a he has simply ISov. — vecpe\r]\ Mt. adds (pwrivrj ; cf. Rev 
14 14 vc<f>e\r) XevKT). The cloud is the symbol of the divine 
presence. It was to reappear in the Messianic period ; cf. 2 Mac 
2 8 ocpOrjo-erai rj S6£a tov Kvpiov kou rj vecf>e\r). — eVecr/a'ao-Ei/] cf. Ex 
40 29 €7r€CTKia^£v eV airrjv 17 vc<pe\rj. — koX ISov] for Mk.'s /cat lyevero, 
assimilated to 3 17 . — ovto's iartv, k.t.X.] See on 3 17 . Mt. assimilates 
to that passage by adding ev w evSoKrjaa. — aKOvere airov] cf. Dt. 18 15 , 
avTov aKovcrecrde. Christ was the prophet foretold by Moses. 

6. And the disciples, when they heard it, fell upon their face, and E 
fea re d exceedingly. ] 

7. And Jesus came and touched them, and said, Rise up, and E 
fear not.~\ Mk. has nothing corresponding to these two verses. 
Mt, who has omitted eKfpofioi yap lyevovro from Mk 6 , where " He 
knew not what to answer; for they were very afraid" seems to 
express a degree of bewilderment on the part of the Apostles 
which is unexpected, expands it here into the statement that the 
disciples were exceedingly afraid when they heard the divine voice 
from the cloud of light. Lk. places the " fear " at the entry into 
the cloud. — crc/>oSpa] occurs 7 times in Mt, 1 in Mk., 1 in Lk. — 
irpoarj\6ev] see on 4 3 . 

8. And lifting up their eyes, they saw no one, save Jesus only.] M 
Mk. has : " And suddenly, looking round, they saw no one with 
them, save Jesus only." Mt has modified to suit the previous 
verse. " Suddenly looking round " would harmonise badly with 

" Jesus came and touched them." — oiStva] Mt omits Mk.'s 
ovKeTi; see Introduction, p. xxxi. 

1-8. Mt. and Lk. both modify Mk. in some striking respects. 
In some of these modifications they agree, but not in others, e.g. 
both feel the necessity of explaining /xere/jiop^wOr], but do so in 
different ways ; see above. Both omit a-riX/SovTa, but Lk. sub- 
stitutes i£a<TTpo.7TT<Dv. Both omit the simile of the fuller, but Mt. 
substitutes <I>s to <£ws. Both transfer the fear of the disciples to 
another part of the narrative, but they do not agree in the position 
which they assign to it; see on v. 7 . These changes look like 
independent editing. Further, both agree in kou ISov and in 
MwwttJs ko.1 'HAetas, Mt 3 , Lk s0 ; in ilirev, Mt 4 , Lk 33 ; in en avrov 
XaAowTOS, Mt 5 = Tavra Se avrov Xeyovros, Lk 34 ; and in Xiyovaa, 
Mt 5 , Lk 35 . Of these all except the insertion of " while He was 
still speaking " = " while He was saying these things," may be 
accidental coincidences. The additions of Mt. in vv. 5, 6 - 7 are 
probably due to the editor. On the other hand, Lk 31 " 32 and 


cVXeXcy/xevos in 35 for dya7rijTos rather suggest that Lk. had a second 
source for the narrative. But they might be explained equally 
well by supposing that Lk. is inserting reminiscences of other 
versions of the incident, or as simply editorial insertions. The 
insertion of " while He was still speaking " = " while He was saying 
these things," can hardly be purely accidental, but is insufficient 
even in combination with the other small details, kolI ioov, Mowcr^s 
Kal 'HXcta?, et7rev, Acyoucra, to serve as a basis for the theory that 
Mt. and Lk. had in common a second narrative which they both 
used in addition to Mk. If so, their divergences, e.g. in Mt 2 = 
Lk 29 , in Lk 3U 82 , in Mt 6 " 7 , and in Lk ss , cause fresh difficulties. 
Rather Lk. may be supposed to have read Mt., and to have 
occasionally written reminiscences of Mt.'s phraseology. 

M 9. And as they came doiun from the mountain, Jesus charged 
them, saying, Tell no man the vision, until the Son of Man be risen 
from the dead.] Mk. has : " And as they came down from the 
mountain, He charged (Steo-retAaro) them that they should recount 
to no man what they saw, except when the Son of Man should 
rise from the dead." 

eyepOrj for avacrrfj ; cf. on l6 21 . 

Mk. has here the words : " And they kept the saying to them- 
selves, disputing what the 'rising from the dead ' was." Mt. omits 
other statements of misunderstanding on the part of the disciples; 
cf. the omission of Mk 6 52 8 17 , and see Introduction, pp. xxxiii f. 

M 10. And the disciples asked Him, saying, Why therefore do the 
scribes say that Elijah must come first?] Mk. has: "And they 
were asking Him, saying, Why do the scribes say that Elijah must 
come first?" Two facts in the preceding narrative may have 
suggested this question. The disciples had seen Elijah on the 
mountain. In what relation did this appearance stand to the 
coming which was attributed to him by the official theologians ? 
Further, it was part of this official theory, that Elijah would 
prepare the way for the Messiah by restoring all things. (On this 
see Volz, Jiid. Eschat. p. 192.) But if all things were restored, 
and Israel was made ready for the Messiah, what did Christ mean 
by foretelling His death and resurrection ? Why death in view 
of the restorative work of the forerunner? — iirrjpwTrjo-av] aor. for 
Mk.'s imperf., as often. ri for Mk.'s ambiguous on; cf. similar 
changes in i7 19 = Mk g 2S , Mt 9 u = Mk 2 16 . 

M 11. And He answered and said, Elijah indeed cometh, and shall 
restore all things.] Mk. has : " And He said to them, Elijah 
indeed having come first, restores all things." — airoKaTao-rqa-u] for 
Mk.'s airoKa.Tio-Ta.vei is an assimilation to the LXX of Mai 4 s . 
Christ answers that the scribes are right in expecting a return of 
Elijah to accomplish a restoration, because so much was foretold 
in the prophet Malachi. 


The words which follow in Mk. are very obscurely expressed : 
"And how has it been written concerning the Son of Man, that 
He should suffer much, and be set at nought?" Does this mean : 
" It has not been so prophesied. Elijah's coming was foretold, 
but not the Messiah's suffering"? Or, "Seeing that Elijah was 
predicted as coming to restore, in what sense are the prophecies 
of Messiah's suffering to be understood"? Or, "Elijah indeed 
comes, and (yet) how has it been written of the Son of Man ? (It 
stands written) that He should suffer " ? " But I say to you that 
Elijah has come," that is, " It was not only foretold that he should 
come, but he has come in the person of John the Baptist." " And 
they did to him whatever they wished." That is, " And he did 
not restore all things, because Herod thwarted prophecy by putting 
John to death. Thus no restoration has taken place, and there 
is room for the fulfilment of the prophecies of Messiah's death." 
"As it has been written concerning Him." To what does this 
refer? The answer is generally found in 1 K ig 2 - 10 "The fate 
intended for Elijah had overtaken John : he had found his Jezebel 
in Herodias " (Swete). But how can this prophecy by type and 
contrast explain the matter of fact words KaOois yiypairrai «V 
avTov? How can the escape of Elijah from death at the hands of 
Jezebel be a prophecy of the execution of John the Baptist at the 
instigation of Herodias ? ML has re-edited the passage in order 
to simplify it He omits the obscure question Mk 12b , and the 
equally obscure /ca&bs yeypa-rrrai eV avrov. The reference to 
Herodias can hardly have been present to his mind, for he has 
omitted Mk.'s statements that she persecuted the Baptist. Further, 
he adds : o&k iiriywo-av avrov dAAa, to explain the failure of the 
prophecy that Elijah should restore all things, and to compensate 
for the omission of Mk 12b adds the definite statement : ourws koX 

6 vlbs TOV OLvOpUiTTOV jU.cA.Aei TTa.(T)(iLV VTT CLVTlliV. 

12. And I say to you, That Elijah has already come, and they M 
did not recognise him, but did in his case whatever they wished. So 
also the Son of Alan is about to suffer from them.] — ovk €Treyvw<rav 
avrov] i.e. did not recognise Elijah in the person of the Baptist. — 
7)6iXrj(jav\ aor. for imperf., as often. — l-noirjaav — ocra rjOiXrjaav] Cf. 
Dn II 16 7roi7jcrei — Kara, to 6eX.rj/xa airov. — /xeAAei] see On 16 27 . 

13. Then understood the disciples that He spake to them concern- E 
ing John the Baptist^ An editorial comment in favour of the 
disciples; cf. 16 12 . 

14. And when they came to the multitude.] Mk. has : " And M 
having come to the disciples, they saw a great multitude, and scribes 
disputing with them. And straightway all the multitude seeing 
Him, were astonished ; and running up, were saluting Him. And 
He asked them, Why dispute ye with them ? " ML shortens the 
narrative throughout. Here he omits as elsewhere the question 


in the mouth of Christ. See Introduction, p. xxxii. The rest he 
probably passes over because it is ambiguously expressed. Who 
were the parties to the dispute — the scribes and the disciples, or 
the scribes and the multitude? Why should the people be 
astonished (iK$ap.fS€iv is a strong word) when they saw Christ? 

There came to Him a man, kneeling down, and saying.] Mk. 
has : " And there answered Him one out of the multitude." — 
7rpoarjX6ev"\ see on 4 8 . 

M 15. Lord, have pity on my son: because he is moonstruck, and in 
evil plight : for often he falls into the fire, and often into the water, .] 
Mk. has : " Teacher, I brought my son to Thee, having a dumb 
devil ; and wheresoever it takes him, it throws him down : and he 
foams, and gnashes his teeth, and wastes away." And in v. 22 " And 
often it cast him into the fire, and into waters, to destroy him." 
The symptoms seem to be those of some form of epileptic seizure, 
described in Mk. under terms of demoniac possession. Mt. omits 
the references to demoniac possession, except in vv. 18 - 20 . — Kvpte] 
for Mk.'s SiSao-KaAe. A similar change in 8 25 . — aeXrjvid&Tai] only 
again in 4 24 . 

M 16. And I brought him to Thy disciples, and they could not heal 
him.] Mk. has : "And I spoke to Thy disciples that they should 
cast him out, and they could not (to-^vcrav). — irpoo-rjveyKa] See on 
4 3 . — depaireva-at] because Mt. omits the references to demoniac 

M 17. And Jesus answered and said, O faithless and perverted 
generation, how long shall I be with you ? how long shall I suffer 
you ? bring him to Me here.] Mk. omits 6 'Ir]crov<;. — elirev] for Mk.'s 
Aey«, as often. — xai hua-Tpap,p.ivrj] is not in Mk. ; cf. Dt 32 s . — p-eO* 
v/xwv] " in your company." Mk. has 7rpos ty*Ss ; cf. Mk 6 3 . — u>8e] 
is not in Mk. ; cf. Mt 14 18 . Mk. adds here eight verses describing 
how the boy was brought, how the spirit rent him so that he fell 
on the earth and wallowed foaming, how Christ asked how long 
he had been so afflicted. Then follows a short dialogue with the 
father, after which Christ commands the spirit to come forth ; upon 
which the spirit having " cried and rent him much, came forth : 
and he became as dead; so that many said that he had died." 
Jesus then took him by the hand, and he rose up. For all this 
Mt. simply has : 

M 18. And Jesus rebuked him; and the demon came forth from him : 
and the boy was healed from that hour.] It is probable that Mt. has 
intentionally omitted Mk.'s account of this healing. He elsewhere 
omits questions in the mouth of Christ; see Introduction, p. xxxii. 
He elsewhere has omitted a narrative of the expulsion of a demon, 
Mk i 23 ' 28 , in which it was said that after the command of Christ 
the demon rent the sufferer and cried out. And, lastly, he has 
elsewhere omitted a miracle in which the healing was described 


as a gradual process, Mk S 22 ' 26 . He therefore substitutes the 
simple statement that Christ rebuked the demon, and the boy 
was healed ; but curiously enough retains the clause that the 
demon came out, although he has elsewhere in the narrative, 
except in the next two verses, suppressed the references to features 
of demoniac possession. For oWo r>}? wpa<s ckci'v^s, cf. 8 13 9 s2 15 28 . 

19. Then came the disciples to Jesus privately, and said, Why M 
could not we cast him out?] Mk. has: "And when He entered 
into a house, His disciples privately were asking Him, Why (on) 
could not we cast him out?" For Mt.'s omission of the house, 
see on 15 15 . 81a rt for Mk.'s on; cf. ri, 17 10 , for on, and 9 11 
Sia rt, for oti. 

20. And He saith to them, Because of your little faith : for M 
verily I say to you, If you have faith as a grain of mustard seed, 
you shall say to this mountain, Remove hence yonder ; and it shall 
remove ; and nothing shall be impossible to you.] Mk. has : " And 
He said to them, This kind cannot go out by anything except by 
prayer." This apparently means, "devils (or this particular 
species of devil) can only be expelled by the power of prayer 
which you lacked." But the words are vague and ambiguous. 
Mt. omits them, and substitutes a direct reproof, " because of your 
little faith." Cf. the editor's use of oAiycWros in 6 30 8 2fl 14 31 16 8 . 
To emphasise the effect of faith, he adds a saying, influenced, 
perhaps, by opos, I7 1 * 9 , which recurs in a different form in 21 21 , 
where it is taken from Mk. Lk 17 6 has a similar but quite 
independent saying. — 6Aiyo7rio-Tiai'] ttio-tis here is different from 
the trust implied in 8 10 92.22.29 I5 8 6 30 8 26 I4 si l6 8. i n al j t h ese 

passages it is assurance, trust in the power and love of God or 
of Christ. Here it is the same trust, but combined with the 
confidence that the man who has it can himself apply the divine 
power to work miracles. Cf. 21 21 and 1 Co 13 2 . The Talmudic 
writers use " uprooter of mountains " as a term of praise for a 
skilful expositor of the law who removed difficulties of interpreta- 
tion. See Lightfoot on Mt 21 21 . 

14-20. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. (a) in two or three 
small points, e.g. Xeycui/, Mt 15 , Lk 38 ; on, ib. ; rj^vvrjOrja-av, Mt 16 , Lk **; 
ehrev, Mt 17 , Lk 41 ; kcu St&rrpafifUinj, ib. ; <S8e, Mt 17 , Lk 41 ; (b) in 
omitting the greater part of Mk 20 " 26 , of which, however, Mt. 
shows a trace in v. 15 7roAAa/as yap, k.t.X. = Mk 22 , and Lk. shows 
traces in V. 38 i$€<f>v7)<; Kpa£ci kgu cnro-pacTcm avrbv fxer afypov koX 
p.oXis aTTOxwpei 0.71-' auTov crvvrpl^ov avrov. Cf. Mk 20 - 26 . Lk. has 
transposed the convulsions of the sufferer after the command of 
Christ to a general description of his condition before that 
command. Lk. treats Mk i 26 in a similar way. It is there said 
that after Christ's command " the unclean spirit rent him, and 
cried with a loud voice." Lk 4 s5 omits the loud cry, and adds a 


clause to the effect that the demon did him no harm. It is 
therefore probable that the two Evangelists independently modify 
Mk. in this passage. The other verbal agreements are insufficient 
as a basis for a theory of a second source used by Mt. and Lk. 
It may more probably be supposed that Lk. had read Mt., and 
inserted reminiscences of his phraseology into his own account. 

20. dXiyoTTia-rlav] K B I 13 22 33 124 346 S a . Airiffrlav, C D al S 1 
latt. iXiyoirtcrrla occurs only here, but dXiydiriaros occurs 4 times in Mt. 
Internal evidence is in favour of dXtyoiriffrla — (1) in view of the facts collected 
in Introduction, pp. xxxiii f., it is unlikely that the editor would have written 
iiricrrla here, whilst his use of dXiydTrurros 4 times of the Apostles would 
suggest dXtyoTriffrla. as a suitable word here ; (2) the substitution in the 
MSS. of the common 6.tkttIo. for the rare dXiyoirurTla. is easier than the 
reverse process. 

21. tovto dt rb yivos ovk iKiropeverai el fi^ iv irpocrevxv Kal wyarrelq.] So 
N b CDn/ latt. Omit X* B 33 e ff 1 S 1 S 2 . The words are interpolated here 
from Mk 9 M , which had already been corrupted by the addition of nal 

M 22. And whilst they were gathering together in Galilee, Jesus 
said to them, The Son of Man is about to be delivered into the hands 
of men.] Mk. has: "And they went out thence, and were going 
through Galilee. And He wished that no one should know it; 
for He was teaching His disciples, and saying to them that the 
Son of Man is being delivered into the hands of men." 

It is in accordance with the editor's practice to omit Mk.'s 
kol ovk fjdekcv Zva tis yvoi. Cf. his omission of ovStva rj^eXcv yvwvcu 
from Mk 7 24 , ^fleXev irapeXOelv avrou's from Mk 6 48 . But it is 
difficult to see why he substitutes o-vo-Tpetpofieviov 8e auTw iv rfj 
TaXtXata for Mk.'s iwopevovro Sia rf/s TaXtXatas. o-vo-Tpifao-Qai 
occurs only once again in the N.T., in Ac 28 s , of S. Paul gathering 
sticks. It is used of the movement of soldiers or of men 
conspiring together. Here apparently it means simply to " gather 
together." — /xe'XXet] See on 16 27 . 

M 23. And they shall kill Him, and on the third day He shall be 
raised again.] Mk. has : " And they shall kill Him ; and being 
killed, He shall rise after three days." See on 16 21 . 

M And they were exceedingly grieved.] Mk. has : " And they were 
ignorant about the saying, and were fearing to ask Him." For 
Mt.'s omission of the ignorance of the disciples, see Introduction, 
p. xxxiii. — \vTriio-6at] occurs six times in Mt., twice in Mk. — 
o-^o'S/aa] seven times in Mt., once in Mk. 

Lk. also found a difficulty in the ignorance of the disciples in 
view of Christ's plain statement. He adds a clause to the effect 
that " it was hidden from them that they should not perceive it," 
probably meaning that their ignorance was due to the divine 
providence. See note on Lk q 45 . 

22, 23. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following : — 


8e, Mt» Lk 48 ; cTttcv, Mt 22 , Lk «. Mk. has IXeyw. fieAAa 
7rapa8i8o(r6ai, Mt 22 , Lk 44 . Mk. has 7rapao7SoTai. 

22. <rv<rTpe<pofj.4i>wv] So X B I. avaarpecpo^vwv, C D a/. 

24. ^4«</ when they came to Capharnaum.] Mk. has : " And M 
they came to Capharnaum." Mt. here inserts ( 24 - 27 ) the incident 
of the stater in the fish's mouth. Mk. has here : " And being in 
a house, He was asking them, What were you disputing about on 
the way ? And they were silent, for they had disputed with one 
another on the way (as to) who was the greater." It is quite in 
accordance with Mt.'s practice to omit this. For his omission of 
questions in the mouth of Christ, see Introduction, p. xxxii. For 
his omission of disputes among the disciples, see on 16 19 . He sub- 
stitutes for it the simple statement that "the disciples came to Jesus, 
saying, Who is the greater in the kingdom?" 18 1 . But this by 
itself, and as compared with Mk., would be rather abrupt. Mk.'s 
account of the dispute formed a suitable introduction to the dis- 
course which follows. Mt. therefore, having omitted Mk.'s introduc- 
tion, substitutes another, viz. the incident of the stater in the fish. 
In this story Peter was singled out by the tax-collectors as though 
he were in some way the representative of Christ's followers. This 
affords, therefore, an occasion for the question, " Who then is the 
greater?" i.e. "Why is Peter assumed to be the chief among us?" 

They who receive the half -shekel came to Peter, and said, Does not p 
your Master pay the half-shekel '? He saith, Yes.] According to 
Ex 30 13 every Jew from the age of twenty was to pay half a shekel 
to the Temple treasury once a year. The LXX renders shekel by 
8i8pax/j.ov, so that the sum to be paid according to the LXX of 
Ex 30 13 was to fjfxicrv tov 8i8pax/Aou. But Josephus, Ant. iii. 194, 
says that the shekel was equivalent to four Attic drachmae, and calls 
the sum paid to the Temple to BCSpax/J-ov, Ant. xviii. 312, so that 
this was a current term for the Temple tax. After the destruction 
of Jerusalem, the Romans confiscated this yearly tax, and applied 
it to the support of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus; Josephus, 
Wars, vii. 218. As v. 26 shows, it is the tax paid to the Jewish 
Temple that is here intended. The narrative, therefore, reflects 
the condition of things in Palestine before the year 70 a.d. It 
looks like a tradition which had grown up in Palestine to regulate 
the position of Jewish Christians towards the Jewish authorities. 
Christ Himself had paid the Temple tax. His disciples should do 
the same. Earthly monarchs take tribute from subject peoples, 
not from their own race and kin. Christians, as disciples of the 
Son of God, were children of the heavenly King. By analogy, 
they should be exempted from paying tribute to His Temple. This 
might rightly be imposed upon the Jews who, as compared with 
Christians, were strangers and foreigners. But no good purpose 


could be gained by giving needless offence. For the tax, see 
Schiirer, n. i. 249 ff. We should expect here to StSpa^ov. For 
the prominence assigned to S. Peter, see on 16 19 , p. 180. 

P 25. And when he entered into the house, Jesus anticipated him, 
saying, What thinkest thou, Simon ? From whom do the kings of 
the earth receive taxes or tribute ; from their own people, or from 
aliens ?] — eis rrjv ot/a'av] may be a reminiscence of Mk. v. 33 . — rt aoi 
Sokci] the phrase is common in the latter part of the Gospel ; cf. 
18 12 2 1 28 22 17 - 42 26 66 . — ot/?ao-iAets ttJs yrjs] are obviously contrasted 
with God, the heavenly King ; cf. 5 s5 . — w vlwv avrajv] in Oriental 
idiom, means not relatives, but members of one's own race. 
" Earthly monarchs (in the East) take no tribute from their own 
people, but from aliens." The implied analogy is that God, the 
heavenly King, takes no tribute from His own people. But by 
His sons or people the Jews can hardly be intended. Otherwise, 
the meaning would be that the Temple tax, as paid by the Jews, 
was an unjustifiable one, not binding on the consciences of 
religious Jews. It might be paid voluntarily as a freewill offering, 
but not of necessity. It is, however, questionable whether the 
Lord would thus have criticised the imposition of the Temple tribute 
sanctioned by Old Testament precedent, Ex 30 13 . Compare, how- 
ever, His criticism of the Pentateuchal distinction between clean and 
unclean meats. Rather the vioi seem to signify a class of people 
contrasted with the Jews. The latter are the aliens who are rightly 
called upon to pay tribute to the heavenly King. In this case the 
vioi must be Christ and His disciples. They were in a true sense 
"Sons of God," cf. s 9 , and might claim exemption from tribute. 
Te'Ar/J taxes on goods. — ia}vo-o<s\ the capitation tax. 

P 26. And when he said, From aliens ; Jesus said to him, Then 
are their own people free.] 

P 27. But that we may not cause them to stumble, go to the sea and 
cast a hook, and take the first fish that comes up. And having opened 
its mouth, thou shall find a stater. That take, and give for Me and 
thee.] — o-KavSaAto-w/Aev] See on 5 29 . — crrcrnypa] The stater was 
equivalent to four drachmae, and thus exactly equivalent to the 
Temple tax for two persons. The Evangelist probably recorded 
this tradition as illustrative of Christ's foreknowledge and power, 
which emphasised His independence from obligation to pay taxes. 
Divine foreknowledge may also be intended in v. 25 irpo£$6a.crev. 

BI XVU1. 1. In that hour came the disciples to Jesus, saying, 
Who then is greater in the kingdom of the heavens ?\ The editor 
here returns to Mk S3 , but omits the dispute and Christ's question 
(see above), for which he substitutes the statement that the disciples 
came with a question. The apa is probably intended as a link 
with the preceding incident. "Why is Peter regarded as chief 
among us ? Who is to be chief in the coming kingdom ? " In order 


to form a connecting link, the editor inserts ev ekciVjj tt} u>pa ; cf. 
the insertion of ev iiceiv(a to Kaipw, 12 1 . For irpoa-rjXOov, see on 4 s . 

2. ^4«^/ ./ife called a child, and placed him in the midst of them, 
and said.'] Mk. has: "And sitting down, He called (e<£wv??0-e) the 
Twelve, and saith to them, If any one wishes to be first, he shall M 
be last of all, and servant of all. And He took a child, and placed 
him in the midst of them; and having taken him into His arms, 
He said to them." For the omission of eVay/caXio-a/tevo?, cf. 1 9 15 . 
In Mk. there now follows a series of sayings, 9 s7 - 50 , broken by 
a short paragraph of incident, 38 " 40 . The connection of these 
sayings is sometimes very obscure, and frequently artificial. The 
transition, e.g., from 42 to 43 is difficult, and unless irvpi in v. 49 has 
the same reference as in 48 , the connection of thought seems to be 
broken there also. It is probable that Mk. has strung together 
detached sayings or paragraphs. eVl tw 6v6p.ari jaov of v. 37 would 
remind the Evangelist of s8 " 40 and 41 , both of which have a similar 
phrase vv. 39 - 41 . iw toioutwv 7r<uSiW ( = children) of v. 87 would 
bring to his remembrance v. 42 with its /xi/cpuJv tovtwv twv mo-revoy- 
1(1)1/ ( = recent converts). And the o-Kav&aXiar} of 42 would suggest 
the section 43 " 48 , although this paragraph has no immediate bearing 
on the subject with which the discourse started. Lastly, Trvpt of 
v. 48 would suggest the (probably) quite different irvp of v. 49 (see 
Swete), and dAio-^Wrai of this verse recalls to the Evangelist's 
mind the saying about salt, v. 50 . 

The editor of Mt., however, has treated the whole series of 
sayings as though it formed a unity, only omitting some of the 
least harmonious verses. But just as he has made Mk 6 8-12 and 4 
the basis round which to group a number of other sayings so as 
to form a discourse of some length, so he has done here. The 
relation of Mt. to Mk. may be shown as follows. Passages in 
brackets are added by Mt. : 

Mt i8[ 3 " 4 ] for 3 ; cf. Mk io 15 . 

6 = Q 37a . 

omitted 37b . 





6 _ 48 

[ 7 J 

6-9 _ 43-47 

omitted 48 " 50 . 


Mt 19 1 * is a closing formula like that which closes the three 
previous great discourses in Mt 7 28 n 1 13 53 . 

Of the verses omitted, 37b has already found a place in io 40 ; 
S8-40 are omitted because they break the tenor of the speech ; 41 
has already been recorded in io 42 ; 4850 are probably omitted on 



account of their difficulty. A saying parallel to v. 60 has already 
been recorded in 5 13 . Of the verses inserted, 12 " 14 find a parallel 
in a different context in Lk 15 s " 7 ; 6 finds a parallel in a different 
context in Lk 17 2 ; 7 in Lk 17 1 ; 15 in Lk 17 3 ; and 21 in Lk 17 4 . 

L 3. Verily I say to you, Except ye turn and become as children, 
ye shall not enter into the kingdom of the heavens.} That is to say, 
''in asking who shall be the greater, you have entered upon a path 
which will not lead you to this end. The very question shows 
that you do not understand what greatness is. You must turn 
back and recover the childlike temper which is untempted to 
self-advancement. You must become again as children, i.e. 
unassuming. Otherwise, so far from being great in the kingdom, 
you will never even enter it." This verse anticipates Mk io 15 . 

L 4. Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this child, he shall be 
the great one in the kingdom of the heavens.} That is to say, "great- 
ness involves humility. To be great one must be unassuming." 

M H. And whosoever shall receive one such child in My name receives 
Me.} Mk. has: "Whosoever shall receive one of such children 
in My name receives Me." By "receive in My name" here is 
apparently meant to recognise in the humble, unassuming dis- 
position of children a feature of the Christlike character; cf. n 29 . 
They who recognise and welcome this characteristic of childhood 
receive Christ, i.e. are in communion with Him. 

The editor here omits Mk 37b - 41 . But it is noticeable that in 
IO 40. 42 ne h as parallels to the first and last of these sayings. 

M 6. And whosoever shall cause to stumble one of these little ones who 
believe in Me, it is expedient for him that an ass's millstone be hanged 
about his neck, and {that) he be sunk into the deep sea.} Mk. has : 
"And whosoever shall cause to stumble one of these little ones who 
believe in Me, it is good for him rather if an ass's millstone is placed 
about his neck, and he is cast into the sea." — os oV] for Mk.'s kcu 
os, as often. — w ttio-tcuoVtw] In Mk. the thought of the dis- 
course has been turned by the insertion of vv. 38 " 40 from the 
consideration and treatment of children to that of children in 
faith and belief. 1 In Mt., who has omitted s8 " 40 , the thought is 
still of children. The editor retains Mk.'s tw irto-Ttvovrwv ets ifx.e 
in spite of its incongruity. Mk. has ko\6v ccmv — /xaXXov for 
crvfuftepei. Mt. assimilates to 5 29, 30 . Lk. in 17 1 has XwiTcAei. — 
iva Kpe/xaa-Ofj} Mk. has el 7rcptK£tTai. So Lk. The tva is an 
assimilation to 5 29 - 30 . — KaTairovTiaOr}} Mk. has (Si^XrjTai, Lk. 
eppLTrrai. — 7reA.ayos tt)s OaXdcrar]^} Mk. has rrjv 6aXao m o m av simply. 
Trio-reveiv eis occurs only here in Mt. In Mk. it is wrongly 
omitted by X D A a b ff i k. The -mcrTevovTuiv cis i/ii there, 

1 Men like the Exorcist, w. 88 " 40 , or like him who merely gave a cup of cold 
water, v. 41 , were " little ones who believe in Me." No stumbling-blocks were 
to be placed »n their way. 


immediately after vv. 38 " 41 , can only refer to such as had confidence 
in the power of Christ, like the man who cast out demons in His 
name even though he was not an immediate follower of Christ. 
The construction does not occur again in Mk. nor in Lk. It is 
common in Jn. The rw iriorcudvTwv eis i/j.e in Mt. is incongruous, 
and is only explicable as borrowed, i.e. not omitted, from Mk. 

7. Woe to the world because of stumbling-blocks I for there is L 
necessity that stumbling-blocks come ; but woe to that man through 
ivhom the stumbling-block comes/] Lk 17 1 has: dvevSe/crov io-rw tov 
to. (TKavSaXa fxr) iX6eiv, irXr]v oval oY ou epx^rai. The editor inserts 
the saying here because of the verbal connection between o-KavSaXa 
and o-KavSaXia-y of the previous verse ; cf. the juxtaposition of 6 16 
(a0avt£ot>cri) and 6 19 d<£ai't'£«. For Kooyxos, cf. 5 14 13 38 . 

8. And if thy hand or thy foot is causing thee to stumble, cut it M 
off, and cast (it) from thee. It is good for thee to enter into life 
maimed or halt, than having two hands or two feet to be cast into 
the eternal fire.] Mk. has two separate sayings for the hand 
and the foot : " And if thy hand should cause thee to stumble, cut 

it off. It is good for thee maimed to enter into life, than having 
the two hands to go away into Gehenna, into the unquenchable 
fire. And if thy foot should be causing thee to stumble, cut it off. 
It is good for thee to enter into life halt, than having the two feet 
to be cast into Gehenna." Mt. has the saying about the hand in 
5 30 . He combines here, selecting fiX-qOr/vai (Mk 45 ) rather than 
aireXOeiv ( 43 ). In 5 29 - 30 he has both verbs. He assimilates to 
5 2 * by substituting el o~Kav$aXi£ei for edv CTKavSaAtcrr; (t£?7), and 
Ikkox\/ov for Slttokoij/ov, and by adding ko.1 fidXe anro arov; cf. Intro- 
duction, p. xxx. For " life," see on 7 14 . — €is to irvp to atwi/tov] 
Mk. has : eis tt/v ye'cviav, eis to ttvo to dcr/?60"TOV. to irvp ro altoviov 
is an assimilation to 25 41 . aiwvios occurs again in 25 46 of KoAao-ts, 
and in if) 16 - 29 25 46 of £wrj. On the idea of everlasting punishment, 
see Volz, Jiid. Eschat. p. 287. Cf. Ps-Sol 2 35 dirwXeia at'cii'ios; 
Enoch 9 1 9 "eternal judgement"; 27 s "judgement — continually, for 
ever"; 22 11 "punishment and torture for ever " ; 67 13 "fire which 
burns for ever " ; Josephus, Wars, ii. 164, "everlasting punishment" 
(d'i'67a> Tt/xwpi'a KoXd£ecr6au) ; Ant. xviii. 14, "an everlasting prison" 
(upyp,bv di'Stov) ; Secrets of Enoch io 6 hell is "an everlasting 
inheritance "; Jubilees 24 s2 "eternal malediction " ; Berakhoth 28 b 
(Jochanan ben Zaccai) " All the more should I weep now that 
they are about to lead me before the King of kings, the Holy One, 
blessed be He, who lives and abides for ever, and for ever and 
ever ; whose wrath, if He be wrathful, is an eternal wrath ; and if 
He bind me, His binding is an eternal binding ; and if He kill 
me, His killing is an eternal killing ; whom I cannot placate with 
words, nor bribe with wealth"; Baruch 85 12 "there will be no 
opportunity of returning, nor a limit to the times." In view of this 


general drift of contemporaneous thought upon this subject, there 
is no justification for the attempt to weaken the meaning of atwvtos 
in this Gospel. For the questions raised as to the duration of 
punishment in the Rabbinical schools, see Volz. 

M 9. And if thy eye is causing thee to stumble, pluck it out, and 
cast (it) from thee. It is good for thee with one eye to enter into life, 
than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire.] Mk. has : 
" And if thy eye should be causing thee to stumble, cast it out. It 
is good for thee with one eye to enter into the kingdom of God, 
than having two eyes to be cast into Gehenna, where 'their 
worm dies not, and the fire is not quenched.'" Mt. assimilates 
to 5 29 by substituting €i — cncavSaAi^ei for eav — a-KavSaXiCrj, croL for ere, 
€$eX.e for €K/3aXe, and by adding koI /?a\e a7ro a-ov. The addition 
of rod 7rv/oos after ytewav is an assimilation to 5 22 and a substitute 
for Mk v. 48 . 

L 10. Take heed, do not despise one of these little ones ; for I say 
to you, That their angels in heaven always see the face of My Father 
who is in heaven.] The editor adds a saying which clearly has 
reference to children, not to adult Christians of childlike faith, 
and is an additional proof that in v. 6 he still had literal children in 
mind. The twv fxiKpuv tovtuv of v. 6 and of this verse probably 
suggested the insertion of this saying here. See note on v. 7 . — 
fiXeTrovcri to irpoo-uiTrov] Cf. 1 K io 8 , 2 K 25 19 , To 12 15 . The 
" seeing the face " means that they stand in the immediate presence 
of God. The verse gives an additional reason for reverencing the 
Christlike qualities of children ; cf. v. 6 . 

I* 12. What think ye? if any man have a hundred sheep, and one 
of them stray, doth he not leave the tiinety-nine, and go to the 
mountains and seek that which has strayed ?] 

L 13. And if it happen that he find it, verily I say to you, that he re- 
joices more over it, than over the ninety-nine which did not stray.] Lk 
15 s-7 has a similar saying. The parable there illustrates the divine 
love which seeks to reclaim sinners. In Mt. after v. 10 and before 
v. 14 it apparently illustrates from another point of view the value of 
children in God's sight. Their angels stand in His presence, and 
He cares for them as a shepherd does for his lost sheep. But this 
can hardly be an original connection. 

L 14. So it is not the will of (before) your Father who is in heaven, 
that one of these little ones should perish.] Vv. 12 " 14 have probably 
been added here by the editor as a third saying about twv /aik/dujv 
tovtwv; cf. vv. 6 - 10 . Even if vv. 10 " 14 be interpreted of children in 
faith, i.e. recent converts, vv. 12-14 can hardly be in an original 
connection. They presuppose a context such as that in Lk. 
where they would illustrate the divine love, not for children or for 
childlike believers, but for sinners who had strayed away from His 
love. For $l\rjp,a e/jLirpoaOev, cf. II 26 euSoKi'a efjurpooSev. 


10. twv fxiKpwv toutuv] Dbcfl 12 g 1 2 S 2 , add tQjv tnaTfvbvTuv elt 
£fj.i, to assimilate to v. 6 . The words are very unsuitable here. 

11. ?)\de yap 6 vlbs rod dvOpwirov owcu rb diroKwXos] So D at S 2 latt. 
Omit X 13 L* I 13 33 e ff 1 S 1 . The verse is interpolated from Lk 19 10 , 
apparently in order to riake some sort of connection between v. 10 and 12 " 14 . 

15. The thought with which the discourse started was the 
necessity of an unassuming and unpretentious disposition in those 
who hope to enter the kingdom. Children and behaviour towards 
them were the test of this quality, vv. 1 ' 5 . A change was then 
made to the consideration of conduct towards children, and the 
sin of putting stumbling-blocks in their path, v. 6 . Another abrupt 
change due to Mk. introduced the subject of a man who puts 
stumbling-blocks in his own spiritual life, vv. 7 " 9 . Lastly, in some 
verses added by Mt. to Mk.'s discourse the thought returned to 
the consideration of right conduct towards children (or childlike 
believers?), vv. 10-14 . In these last three verses the thought of 
God's forgiveness of sinners is not prominent. Rather the thought 
emphasised here is that of His love for children (or childlike 
believers ?). But the love of God is most strikingly expressed in 
His forgiveness of sin, and the Evangelist is aware that the 
parable could more appropriately be employed to illustrate His 
forgiving love. This suggests to him the sayings which follow 
about forgiveness as a necessary qualification of the Christian 
character. It seems clear that the juxtaposition of the ideas of 
giving no offence to little ones, v. 6 , and of forgiving sin, v. 16 , is 
purely artificial and literary, and that it is due to the editor of 
the Gospel. Now it is noticeable that vv. 6 - 7 - 15 - 21 are paralleled 
in Lk That is to say, that both Evangelists connect 
the ideas of giving offence to little ones and of forgiving sin. 
Since a motive for this connection can be discovered in Mt., 
whilst in Lk. it seems purely arbitrary, it seems probable that 
Lk 17 1 - 4 is due to reminiscence of Mt 18. 

15. And if thy brother sin against thee, go convince him between 1, 
thee and him alone ; if he hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother.] 
Lk (1 7 3 - 4 ) has : " If thy brother sin, rebuke him ; and if he repent, 
forgive him. And if seven times a day he sin against thee, and 
seven times turn to thee, saying, I repent, thou shalt forgive him." 
Cf. Test. Gad 6 3-7 "If he admit his offence and repent, forgive 
him." — eAey^ov] cf. Lev 19 17 iXty/j.<Z i\iy$ei<s tov irXrjcrLov o~ov. — 
IA€Ta£v o-ov koI ovtov] is an Aramaism. The thought is of personal 
offences. The Christian disciple is to be reconciled to his offended 
fellow-Christian before he can bring offerings to God, 5 23 - 24 . He 
must also do everything in his power to bring one who has wronged 
him to penitence and to forgiveness. 

16. But if he will not hear {thee), take with thee one or L 
two more, that at the mouth of two witnesses or three every word 


may stand.] — iav Se p.r/ a.Kovo"rf\ i.e. if he will not admit his wrong- 
doing and be reconciled to you. — Trapd\a/3e p-crd aov In Iva 
r) 8vo] i.e. take with you one or two that they may admonish 
him, and be witnesses to the fact that you have made efforts to 
re-establish amity. — iva 77 Suo] in order that the Mosaic "two or 
three " may be satisfied. The two or three are the offended 
Christian and the one or two whom he takes with him. The 
matter is not treated from a strictly legal point of view, because 
the offended person would not be regarded as a witness in a law 
court. Moreover, the one or two are to witness not to the offence, 
but to the unwillingness of the offender to be reconciled, and to 
the efforts made by the offended party to bring about reconcilia- 
tion. It is probable that the quotation is an addition to the 
original saying made by the Evangelist, or by the compiler of 
his Jewish Christian source. The words quoted are from Dt 19 15 
e7rt crrd/xaTOS &vo p-aprvpiav Kal ZttI ord/Aa-ros Tpiwv fiaprvpwv (TT^crerat 
7rav prjp.a. Luc has 8vo p.apTVpu>v 7) Tpiwv. 

L 17. But if he refuse to hear them, tell it to the Church : and if he 
refuse to hear the Church also, let him be to thee as the Gentile and the 
toll-gatherer :] TrapaKovtiv in the later Greek is to refuse to hear, cf. 
Es 3 3, 8 , To 3 4 , Polyb. xxvi. 2. 1, xxx. 18. 2, and Mk 5 s6 with Swete's 
note. — IkkXtjo-lo] see on 16 18 . The Church is the society of 
disciples of Christ who dwell in any place. For iOviKos and 
TfAwvi/s, see on 5 46 - 47 . The Christian disciple who refuses to be 
reconciled to his fellow-Christian is to be regarded as no true 
member of the Society. 

L 18. Verily I say to you, Whatsoever things you shall bind on earth 
shall be bound in heaven : and whatsoever things you shall loose on 
earth shall be loosed in heaven.] The saying with the verbs in the 
singular has already been recorded in 16 19 . Here it means that 
the decisions of the community regarding what is or is not 
justifiable in its members must be regarded as final. 

L 19. Again I say to you, That if two of you agree upon earth 
concerning anything zvhich they shall ask, it shall be done for them 
from My Father who is in the heavens.] This gives the reason for the 
assurance made in v. 18 . The decisions of the community will be 
final, because God will hear the petitions of even two Christians 
who agree together. But the verse cannot be in an original 
connection. In v. 18 the agreement presupposed is agreement in 
coming to decisions upon questions which concern the Church's 
welfare. V. 19 is clearly an encouragement to prayer on the ground 
that the agreement of the smallest number in their petitions will 
insure an answer. The "on earth" and "in heaven" in both 
verses suggested the insertion of 19 here. Cf. note on v. 7 . 

L 20. For where two or three are gathered in My name, there 
am I in the midst of them.] That is to say, the prayer of two 


who are agreed will receive an answer, because Christ is with 
His disciples in their prayer ; cf. Sayings of Our Lord, Log. v. : 
" Wherever there are (two) they are not without God, and wherever 
there is one alone I say I am with him " ; Mai 3 1C " They that feared 
the Lord spake often the one to the other, and the Lord hearkened 
and heard " ; Aboth 3 s "Two that sit together and are occupied in 
the words of the Law have the Shechinah (i.e. the Divine Presence) 
among them." Cf. 3 9 and B. Berakhoth 6 a quoted by Taylor, 
The Oxyrhynchus Logia, p. 34 f. 

15. eh <xd] So D al latt S 1 S 2 . The words are wrongly omitted by N 
B 1 22 234*, and if not expressed would have to be understood. They are 
not found in Lk 17 3 , but occur in the next verse, iiwaye is omitted by S 1 S 2 . 

20. D S 1 have this verse in a negative form : " For there are not two 
or three gathered together in My name that I am not in the midst of them." 

21. Then came Peter, and said to Him, Lord, how often shall my L 
brother sin against me, and L shall forgive him ? unto seven times ?] 
Lk 17 4 has : " And if seven times in the day he sin against thee, and 
seven times turn to thee, saying, I repent ; thou shalt forgive him." 
For the introduction of Peter, cf. 14 28 15 18 ; and see note on 16 19 , 
p. 1 80. 

22. Jesus saith to him, Not, L say to thee, until seven times ; but, L 
until seventy times seven.] The latter number is meant as an 
indefinitely great one. There is the same literary contrast between 
seven and seventy times seven in Gn 4 s4 LXX. Cf. Moulton, 

p. 98 : "A definite allusion to the Genesis story is highly probable. 
Jesus pointedly sets against the natural man's craving for seventy- 
sevenfold revenge, the spiritual man's ambition to exercise the 
privilege of seventy-sevenfold forgiveness." Dr. Moulton had pre- 
viously said that the meaning "seventy-seven times" is unmistakable 
in Genesis. It is very probable that Mt.'s e/ftJo/i/r/KovraKis Ima is 
modelled on the similar phrase in Genesis, but it seems doubtful 
whether in both passages we should not translate seventy times 
seven, rather than seventy-seven times. In Mt., D has e/38o/j.r]Kov- 
Ta/as €7rTaKi5, an obvious emendation. Blass renders seventy times 
seven, p. 145. So Wellhausen and Zahn, in loc. Contrast the 
teaching in the Babylonian Talmud, Joma 86 b " Rabbi Jose ben 
Jehuda said, If a man commits an offence once they forgive him, 
a second time they forgive him, a third time they forgive him, the 
fourth time they do not forgive him : for it is said (here follow Job 
33 29 and Am 2 6 )"; 87* "Rabbi Isaac said, Every one who vexes 
his neighbour, if only in words, must appease him." " Rabbi Jose 
ben Hanina said, He who begs forgiveness from his neighbour 
must not do so more than three times, for it is said " (here follows 
Gn 2 17 , in which are here three particles of entreaty). 

23. The editor now inserts a parable to illustrate the necessity 
of forgiveness. 


L 23. Therefore the kingdom of the heavens is like to a man, a king, 
who zvished to take reckoning with his servants.] — o>p.oiw8r]] See on 
1 1 16 . — av6pw7rw fiaaiXel] cf. 20 1 2 2 2 13 52 . Here and in 2 2 2 avdpwiros 
/foo-iXeus probably means "an earthly king," a grecised form of the 
Jewish "king of flesh and blood" which is common in the parables of 
the Talmud and Midrashim. — awapai Xo'yov] occurs in B U 775, 2nd 
cent. a.d. ; the middle voice in Fayum Towns, p. 261, <xui%>/xai Xoyov 
tu iroLTpL, ist cent. a.d. ; and in Ox. Pap. i. 113, 2nd cent. a.d. 

L 24. And when he began to take account, there was brought to him 
a debtor to the amount of ten thousand talents.] — el? o^eiXe'rr;?] Cf. 
Blass, p. 144. And see on 9 18 . — pvpiwv TuXavTwv] The talent 
was equivalent to 6000 denarii, or ^240. 10,000 talents is, there- 
fore, an enormous sum. We must either suppose that the sum is 
heightened in order to form a literary contrast to the 100 denarii, 
or suppose that the servants here referred to are the higher officers 
of the king, through whose hands would pass the imperial taxes. 

L 25. And when he was unable to pay, his lord commanded him to 
be sold, aftd his wife and children, and all that he had, and payment 
to be made.] 

26. Therefore the servant fell doivn, and did homage to him, 
saying, Lord, have forbearance with me, and I ivill pay thee all.] 

L 27. And the lord of that servant had compassion on him, and 
absolved him from the debt.] 

L 28. And that servant went out, and found one of his fellow- 
servants, who otved him one hundred denarii.] The denarius was 
worth about eightpence halfpenny. 

And he seized him, and held him by the throat, saying, Pay any- 
thing thou ozuest.] 

L 29. Therefore his fellow-servant fell down, and besought him, 
saying, Have forbearance with me, and I will pay thee.] 

L 30. And he would not ; but went and cast him into prison, until 
he should pay what was ozved.] 

L 31. Therefore his fellow-servants, seeing ivhat had happened, were 
grieved exceedingly, and came and recounted to their lord all that had 
happened.] — IXvirrjQ-qa-av acpohpa] see on 17 23 . 

L 32. Then his lord called him, and saith to him, Thou evil servant, 
I forgave thee all that debt, since thou besoughtest me.] — totc] See 
on 2 7 . — oc^etX?;] occurs in 1 Co 7 3 , Ro 13 7 . 1 

L 33. Oughtest not thou to have had pity on thy fellow-servant, as 
I had pity on thee?] 

L 34. And his lord was angry, and delivered him to the torme?itors, 
until he should pay all that was owed.] 

1 For examples from the Papyri, see Deissmann, Bib. Stud. p. 221. And 
add Ox. Pap. ii. 286. 18 (a.d. 82), 272. 16 (a.d. 66), iv. 719. 24 (a.d. 193), 
736. 75 (a.d. i) ; Fayum Towns, 247. The word is not found in literature out- 
side the New Testament. 


35. So also my heavenly Father will do to you, if ye forgive not L 
each his brother from your hearts.} 

The details of the parable do not seem altogether consistent. 
After v. 23 we seem to have a story of a wealthy merchant and his 
slaves, rather than one of a king and his ministers. The story 
has quite probably been adapted by the editor to suit the context. 
But the main point, that an unmerciful disposition will meet with 
the divine wrath, is quite clear. The parable begins with the 
formula "the kingdom of heaven is like." This means nothing 
more than that a lesson may be drawn from what follows, which all 
who hope to enter the kingdom should lay to heart. 


XIX. 1-12. From Mk io 1 ' 16 . 

1. And it ca?ne to pass, when Jesus finished these words.] For E 
the formula, cf. 7 28 n 1 13 53 26 1 . 

He departed from Galilee, and came into the boundaries of Hi 
Judcea beyond Jordan.} Mk io 1 has: "And He arose thence, and 
cometh into the boundaries of Judaea, and beyond Jordan." — r)\d(.v~\ 
for Mk.'s hist, present, as often. The addition of a-rro tt}s TaAiAatas 
marks the editor's perception of a new stage in Mk.'s Gospel. 

2. And there followed Him many multitudes ; and He healed them TIL 
there.} Mk. has: "And there journey with Him (?) again multitudes; 
and as He was wont, He was teaching them." — rjKoXovdrjvav] Mt. f 

as often, avoids the hist. pres. crvviropcvovTai. He omits Mk's Semitic 
dvacrras as in i5 21 = Mk 7 24 and 26 60 = Mk 14 57 , and omits also, as 
often, Mk.'s 7raAiv. — e6epairevo-ev] The editor substitutes healing 
for teaching in i4 u = Mk 6 34 , and in 2i 14 = Mk n 18 . — 0^X01 ttoXXoi'.] 
For the addition of ttoAAoi, cf. 4 25 8 1 - 18 13 2 15 30 . 

In Mk. most MSS. have o-vvnopevovTai. 7raA.1v o^Xot. This is 
the only occurrence in Mk. of the plural o^A-oi. But D S 1 a b c ff 1 
i k q have the singular. o-vviropeve<r6ai occurs only here in Mk. 
D has arwipx^TaL, cf. Mk 3 20 . avvrroptvecrOai. tt/jos is awkward, and 
the reading of D al may be original. 

3. And there came to Him Pharisees, tempting Him, and saying, M 
Is it lawful to put away a wife for every cause ?] Mk. has : " And 
Pharisees came and were questioning Him, if it is lawful for a 
man to put away a wife, tempting Him." At first sight Mt. seems 
more likely to be original than Mk. The Jews did not question 
the legality of divorce. That was legalised by Dt 24 1, 2 . But 
they debated about the scope and limits of reasons for divorce. 
Cf. Gittin oo a , where the views of the schools of Hillel and of 
Shammai are given. The former allowed divorce for trivial offences, 
the latter only for some unchaste act. But it is clear that Mt. is edit- 
ing Mk., and that in. Kara -rracrav alrlav and (et) fir] eiri iropveia, V. 9 , he 


has inserted into Mk.'s narrative matter which is really inconsistent 
with it. In Mk. the Pharisees first put their leading question, Is 
it lawful to divorce a wife ? They themselves would have no doubt 
of the legality of this, but they test Christ (7reipa£ovr£s, Mk 2 ), 
knowing probably from previous utterances of His that He would 
reply in words which would seem directly to challenge the Mosaic 
law. Cf. His criticism of the distinction between clean and unclean 
meats, Mk 7 14 " 23 . Christ answers with the expected reference to the 
law, What did Moses command ? They state the Old Testament 
law. Moses sanctioned divorce. Christ at once makes His 
position clear. The law upon this point was an accommodation 
to a rude state of society. But a prior and higher law is to be 
found in the Creation narrative, " Male and female He created 
them," Gn i 27 LXX, i.e. God created the two sexes that they 
might be united in the marriage bond, which is, therefore, ideally 
indissoluble. In answer to a further question of His disciples, 
the Lord enforces the lesson. A man who puts away his wife and 
marries another commits adultery. A woman who puts away her 
husband and marries another commits adultery. Upon this point 
Christ's teaching passes beyond the ordinary conditions of Jewish 
society. No woman could divorce her husband by Jewish law. 
But that is no reason why the Lord should not have expressed 
himself as Mk. records. There were exceptional cases of divorce 
by women in Palestine. Cf. Salome, Jos. Ant. xv. 259: "She 
sent him (Costobar) a bill of divorce, though this was against the 
Jewish law (and dissolved her marriage with him)." And there 
is no reason why He may not have been acquainted with the 
possibility of divorce by women in the West, or why, even if He 
had not this in view, He may not have emphasised His point by 
stating the wrongfulness of divorce on either side of the marriage 
tie. All this is logical and consistent. Compare with it Mt.'s 
account. The Pharisees are represented as inquiring, Is it lawful 
to put away a wife on any pretext? Christ answers as in Mk., that 
marriage from an ideal standpoint is indissoluble. The Pharisees 
appeal to the law against this judgement. In reply we should 
expect the Lord, as in Mk., to state the accommodating and 
secondary character of the legal sanction of divorce, and to reaffirm 
the sanctity of marriage. But instead, He is represented as affirm- 
ing that icopvda. constitutes an exception. Thus He tacitly takes 
sides with the severer school of Jewish interpretation of Dt 24, and 
acknowledges the permanent validity of that law thus interpreted 
in a strict sense, which immediately before He had criticised as an 
accommodation to a rude state of social life. This inconsistency 
shows that Mk. is here original, and that koto, iraa-av alriav and (el) /xr/ 
cVi iropveia are insertions by the editor of Mt. into Mk.'s narrative. 
The motive of these insertions can only be conjectured. But in 


view of other features of the Gospel, it is probable that the editor 
was a Jewish Christian who has here judaised, or rather rabbinised 
Christ's sayings. 1 Just as he has so arranged i$ 15 -m as to represent 
Christ's attitude to the law to be that of the Rabbinical Jews, who 
regarded every letter of the law as permanently valid, so here he 
has so shaped Christ's teaching about divorce as to make it con- 
sonant with the permanent validity of the Pentateuchal law, and 
harmonious with the stricter school of Jewish theologians. It is 
probably to the same strain in the editor's character, the same 
Jewish Christian jealousy for the honour of the law and for the 
privileges of the Jewish people, that the prominence given to Peter 
(see on 16 19 , p. 180), and the preservation of such sayings as 
io 5-6. 23 j s (j ue And to the same source may probably be attri- 
buted the judaising of Christ's language, in such expressions as " the 
kingdom of the heavens," " The Father who is in the heavens." 

3. €t e£e<rru/] See note On I2 10 . — Kara iracrav curtavj cf. Jos. 
Ant. iv. 253 : yvvaiKO% Be ttjs <rvvoiKOvo"q<s /3ovAop.€vos Biat,ev)(6rjvai 
KaO dcrSrjTroTovv curias. 

4. And He answered and said, Have ye not read, that the m 
Creator from the beginning made them male and female ?] Mk. has : 

" But from the beginning of the creation male and female He 
made them." 6 ktio-cis an dpx^s is an adaptation to suit the 
altered order of Mk.'s d7r' dp^s /mo-coos, for which cf. Pesikta 
R. K. 21 (Wiinsche, p. 205) : xh\V b& irpna r^nno. 2 dpo-ev xal 
6rjXv iiroirja-ev auTous is a quotation from the LXX of Gn i 27 5 2 . 

5. And said, For this cause shall a man leave the father and the M 
mother, and shall be joined to his wife ; and the two shall become one 

flesh.'] Mk. has no "and said," and omits the second clause of 
the quotation. The editor has inserted koX el-n-ev to separate the 
two quotations, and inserts the clause omitted by Mk. The 
passage comes from the LXX (the Hebrew has no "two") of 
Gn 2 24 , which has avrov after trarepa and after /xyrepa. Luc omits 
the second avrov. So Mk. Mt. omits both. 

The idea involved in the verses seems to be that God created a 
single pair, who were therefore destined for one another. It was also 
written that a man should forsake his parents and cleave to his wife, 
and that he and his wife should be one flesh. In other words, married 
couples were in respect of unity, as the first pair created by God, 
destined for one another. Divorce, therefore, should be out of the 
question. This conclusion is expressed in the next verse. 

6. So that they are no longer two, but one flesh. What therefore M 
God joined together, let not man separate.] So Mk. Divorce, 
therefore, is from an ideal standpoint not to be thought of. 

7. They say to Him, Why then did Moses command to give a bill M 

1 See also p. 167, note 1. 

1 Cf. also Ass. Mos I 17 12* ab initio creatures orbis terrarum. 


of divorce, and put away (a wife) ?] In Mk. this clause occurs 
earlier in the narrative in the form, " And he answered and said, 
What did Moses command you ? And they said, Moses allowed 
us to write a bill of divorce, and to put away (a wife)." Mt., as 
usual, avoids the question in the mouth of the Lord. No Jew 
would regard Dt 24 lff - as anything else than a Mosaic command to 
adopt certain forms in cases of divorce. And yet, as grammatically 
construed, the passage does not command the giving of a bill of 
divorce, but assumes that as a matter of practice it will under 
certain circumstances be given. See Driver, in loc. 

8. He saith to them, that Moses for the hardness of your heart 
allowed you to put away your wives, but from the beginning it hath 
not been 1 so.] That is to say, the toleration of divorce by the law is 
a departure from the high standard of morality presupposed in 
the creation of a single pair. Divorce is a bad custom which 
has grown up amongst a degenerate people, and the Mosaic law 
tolerated it as an accommodation to a low level of moral custom. 
Mk. has : " And Jesus said, For the hardness of your heart he 
wrote for you this commandment." 

9. Mk. has here : " And in the house again, the disciples were 
asking Him about this." Mt., as elsewhere, omits Mk.'s vague 
references to a house. See on 9 1 i5 15 - 21 17 19 . 

M 9. But I say to you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, save 
for fornication, and shall marry atiother, commits adultery.] Mk. 
has : " And He saith to them, Whosoever shall put away his wife, 
and shall marry another, commits adultery against her. And if she 
who has put away her husband shall marry another, she commits 
adultery." — \£ya> Si] for Mk.'s /cat Xiyei, to make an antithesis with 
v. 8 , cf. Introduction, p. xxxi. The editor omits the last clause 
as inconsistent with Jewish custom. See on v. 8 . Some of the 
copyists of Mk. have also found it inconvenient, and modified it 
so as to get rid of the conception of divorce by a woman. See 
critical note in Swete. A parallel to this saying has already been 
recorded in 5 s2 . See note there. 

And he who marries her that is put away, commits adultery.] 
This clause is not in Mk. If genuine (see below), it may be meant 
to compensate for the omission of Mk 12 . 

E 10. The disciples say to him, If the reason {of divorce) between a 
man and his wife be so, it is not convenient to marry.] The editor 
adds three verses which are not in Mk. Vv. 10 - n are probably an 
editorial link to connect 12 with the preceding. alrCa refers back to 
airi'a of v. 8 . If the cause or reason of divorce between man and 
wife be so, i.e. if it is to be limited to unchaste acts, it is better 

1 yiyoytf. For the perfect cf. 21 21 , Dn 12 1 Th. It seems to mean " Moses 
indeed tolerated divorce ; but from the creation onwards it was not and never 
has been the Divine intention. Behind the Mosaic toleration lay always the 
ideal implied in Gn I 27 5 2 . 


not to marry, because marriage with a woman of bad temper or 
malicious tcngue, e.g., is in that case an intolerable burden which 
cannot be thrown off. 

11. And He said to them, All do not receive this saying, but those E 
to whom it has been given.] That is, "what you say about the 
expediency of abstaining from marriage has some truth in it. But 
it is not practicable for all men, but only for some for whom pro- 
vidence has so destined it, e.g. physical eunuchs, and those who 
abstain from marriage in order to obey a religious call. If a man 
feels himself called to do so, let him." It is clear that if the passage 
be so interpreted, the disciples instead of receiving an explanation 
and solution of their difficulty that marriage without facility for 
divorce would be a burden, receive what amounts to a commenda- 
tion of abstention from marriage for the kingdom's sake. In other 
words, whilst vv. 1-9 are calculated to heighten the conception of 
marriage, vv. 10-12 are clearly intended to increase respect for those 
who renounce marriage. This can hardly be an original connec- 
tion. V. 12 is probably added here by the editor simply because it 
is concerned in a negative way with the subject of marriage, which 
has been the subject of vv. 1-9 . 

If v. 11 be a historical saying of Christ, it looks very much as 
though it were originally connected with the exposition of Christ's 
about divorce as given in Mk., and not with this teaching as 
modified by Mt. For the saying of the disciples, that if Christ's 
exposition of the question of divorce were to hold good, marriage 
would be a burden better left alone, seems to arise naturally 
enough from the strict teaching that divorce is not permissible, 
whilst it is very unexpected in the mouths of Christ's disciples as a 
protest against the doctrine that divorce should be limited to cases 
of adultery. Could not Christ's disciples endure what the disciples 
of Shammai submitted to? 

It might be possible to interpret the passage in a different 
direction by referring tov \6yov tovtov not to the question of the 
disciples, but to the statement by the Lord of the indissoluble 
character of the marriage bond, vv. 1-9 . " Not all can receive this 
estimation in their understanding and carry it into practice in 
their life, but those to whom it has been given by the divine grace. 
But these can receive it ; for just as there are physical eunuchs, so 
there are spiritual eunuchs, who, knowing marriage to be a sacred 
and indissoluble bond, abstain from it for the purpose of dedicating 
their lives to the kingdom." But the logical consequence of " not 
all receive this saying (vv. 1 - 9 ) but those to whom it has been given," 
is not for there are some who abstain from marriage, but for there 
are some who recognise the sacred nature of the bond, and live 
married lives without recourse to divorce. The whole section in 
Mt. suffers from inconsistency of thought due to literary revision 
and compilation, (el) /xrj eVl iropveia is inconsistent with v. fl , and 


whilst this verse, and the whole paragraph, x ' 9 , exalts marriage as an 
institution of the Creator ; v. 12 , without depreciating it, emphasises 
the duty of renouncing it under certain circumstances. — ^wpetv] "to 
contain," then of the mind "to contain," "receive," "hold": the 
saying is too sweeping to be universally received and practised. — 
tov Xoyov tovtov] (see above) either the dictum that it is better not 
to marry, or less probably the exposition of Christ that marriage is 
a permanent bond, and should be unbroken by divorce, vv. 4 " 8 . — 
oh Se'SoTcu] See on 13 11 . vixlv 8e'8orat are those who have received 
spiritual insight, which enables them to receive and practise the 
high standard involved in " this saying." 

12. For there are eunuchs who were born so from their mother's 
womb, and there are eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men, and 
there are eunuchs who made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of 
the heavens. He who can receive it, let him receive it.] The verse 
explains what is meant by oh Se'Sorai. Some there are to whom 
the spiritual capacity to recognise the truth of " this saying " 
and to practise it has been given. For just as there are 
physical eunuchs, i.e. men for whom natural infirmity or the 
cruelty of men has made marriage impossible, so that for them the 
saying " better not to marry " is a necessary truism ; so there are 
some who have made themselves spiritual eunuchs, *.*. have 
renounced marriage for the sake of the kingdom, i.e. because the 
calls of religious duty have made marriage inexpedient. To such 
as these spiritual insight has been given which enables them to 
realise that it is better not to marry. For renunciation of earthly 
blessings for the sake of the kingdom, cf. vv. 28 - 29 . The Lord may 
have had in mind such instances of the renunciation of marriage as 
the Essenes, or John the Baptist, or some among His disciples. 

3. TrpoaeXOdvTts $apt<ra.Toi] The words are omitted from Mk. by D S 1 a b k. 
If they are not genuine there, Mt. has inserted them. For his partiality for 
irpootpxeadai, see on 4 3 ; and for the insertion of the Pharisees, cf. 22*** 41 , 
and Introduction, p. lxxviii. 

4. 6 KTlaas] So B 1 22 33 1 24. Krlcas is probably a reminiscence of 
Mk io 6 , and is probably genuine. — 6 irorfo-as] of K C D Z al S 1 S 2 latt, though 
strongly attested, is probably an assimilation to the following iiroLtjo-ev, and to 
the LXX of Gn I 27 . S 1 S 2 have : " Have ye not read that He that made 
the male from the beginning, the female also made ? " This is not the original 
text (Merx), but a clumsy translation which necessitates the omission of avrovs 
at the end of the clause. — dpcrev ical drjXv iirolrjaev avrovs] is taken by the 
editor from Mk. If he had wished to suggest the complete equality of the 
sexes by omitting avrovs, he would also have changed the order of the words 
to make this clear, ical elirev is added by Mt. to separate the two quotations. 
It is omitted by S 1 , but after the change of Mk.'s KrLaews into 6 tcrlcras it 
suitably introduces the following quotation as a direct command of the 
Creator expressed in the words of Scripture. S 1 ff omit i£ dpxvs. 

7. Sovvai] S 1 S 2 introduce a subject " that he that would dismiss his wife 
should give," etc. 

9. The passage in Mk. runs : 8$ av airo\vo-ri ttjv ywalxa avrov kclI yafi^cry 
AWrjv fj.otxS.Tai tir' avr^v koX iav avrl] airoXvcraca rbv dvSpa avrrjs ya/x^o-g 
l\\ov ii.oixS.rai. This has given trouble to the Syriac and Latin translators, 


who substitute desertion for divorce in the second clause. So S 1 , who also 
transposes the clauses : " That woman which leaveth her husband and 
becometh the wife of another doth indeed commit adultery, and that man 
which leaveth his wife and taketh another doth indeed commit adultery " 
(Burkitt). D has Kal ihv 71*77 it-t\6ri airb rov dv8p6s, and so in substance 
d a b c ft -2 Wellh. Mt. inserts (el) fir) iirl iropvela after ywaiKa avrov, and omits 
the harsh iir' airr/v. He also omits the whole of the second clause. 

B D S 2 133 latt assimilate to 5 32 by substituting TrapeKrds \6yov iropvelas for 
(el) fj.7) iirl iropveLa. B C* N further assimilate to 5 82 by substituting woiet avr-f)v 
p.OLxexidrjvai for pLoixo-rai. 1 B N also omit Kal yap-rioy AW-qv for the same 
reason. S 2 adds "against her," to assimilate to Mk. 

Kal 6 diroXeXn/x^T/v yafiJitras fioixarai] is omitted by K C 3 D L S S 1 
S 2 a b e ff g 1 h. It seems to be a further assimilation to 5 s2 . 

13-22. From Mk io 13 " 22 . 

13. Then were there brought children to Him, in order that He M 
might place His hands upon them, and pray ; and the disciples 
rebuked them.] Mk. has: "And they were bringing children to 
Him, in order that He might touch them ; and the disciples were 
rebuking them." — totc] see on 2 7 . — Trpoo-rjvexOrjo-av] Mk. has 
Trpo<T€<pepov. Mt. substitutes aor. for imperf., as often. For Mt.'s 
preference for passive verbs, see on 4 1 ; and cf. rjvexOr], 14 11 , for 
r/veyKev Mk. 6 28 . — Tas ^eipas eiriOfj auTois kcu 7rpo(rev$r]Tai] Mk. has 
simply a£Twv ai/rr/Tai. Mt.'s words are an editorial explanation. 

— oreri/o/o-av] aor. for Mk.'s imperf. (A D al latt (so also Lk. x B al), 

but N B eireTifirjcrav), as often. 

14. And Jesus said, Allow the children, and forbid them not, to M 
come to Me : for of such is the kingdom of the heavens.] Mk. has : 

" And Jesus saw and was vexed, and said to them, Allow the 
children to come to Me ; do not forbid them : for of such is 
the kingdom of God." It is usual with Mt. to omit verbs like 
rjyavdiKTrjo-ev as applied to Christ; see on 8 3 and 15 29 , and Intro- 
duction, p. xxxi. — Kal prj KtoXvere] Mk. rather frequently in the 
latter part of his Gospel has no connecting link between sayings. 
Mt. generally supplies a particle. Lk. also has «ai here. — twv 
Toiovroiv iarlv rj /3ao-iAa'a twv ovpavwv] i.e. many qualities character- 
istic of childhood are necessary to admit people into the kingdom. 
See on 18 3 - 5 . 

15. Mt. here omits Mk v. 16 . He has anticipated it in 18 3 - 4 : M 
And having laid His hands upon them, He departed thence.] Mk. 
has: " And having taken them in His arms, He was blessing them, 
having laid His hands upon them. And as He was going forth 

to travel " (eis 680V). Mt. omits Mk.'s, as in 18 2 . 

16. The connection of sections in Mk. 10 is probably purely 
topical. The relation of Christianity to the marriage ques- 
tion ( 1-12 ) suggested the incident of the children ( 18 " 16 ), and the 

1 It would be natural to suppose that irape kt6s \6yov iropvelas is original here, 
if it were not that we should then have to explain why (el) fi^ ivl vopvelq has 
been substituted here only, and not in 5 s2 . The two phrases may be alternative 
renderings by the editor of the rrny nan of the school of Shammai. See on 5 32 . 


relation of Christianity to wealth f 17 "* 7 ) followed naturally enough. 
Mt. simply follows Mk.'s guidance. 

Iff And, behold, one came to Him, and said, Teacher, what good thing 
shall 1 do, that 1 may have eternal life 7] Mk. has: "And as He was 
going forth into the way, there ran one, and, kneeling down before 
Him, was asking Him, Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may 
inherit eternal life?" — liropvod-q tKtWev ical ISov] for Mk.'s kcu iK-n-opev- 
o/Acvov £is o86v. For ko.1 l$ov, see On I 20 . — els wpocriXOwv avrio e?7T€v] 
abbreviates Mk.'s vpoa-Bpajxwv eis /cat yovvircTi]cra<; avrbv eV^pwTa 
airov. For 7rpoo-€A#cov, see on 4 3 , — SiSao-KaXe] Mt, in view of 
his modification of the next verse of Mk., transposes " good " from 
" Teacher " to " what." — <rxw Curjv alwiov] For " eternal life," 
see Dalm. Words, p. 156; Volz, Jiid. Eschat. p. 368. Mk. has 
K\-qpovop.rjo-ta. "Inheritance" is a common Jewish metaphor, to 
express participation in the blessings of the future; cf. Dalm. 
Words, 125 ff. ; Vote, Jud. Eschat. p. 306. 

Iff 17. And He said to him, Why askest thou Me about the good f 
One is the good. But if thou wilt enter into life, keep the com- 
mandments.^ Mk. has : " And Jesus said to him, Why callest 
thou Me good ? No one is good save one, God. Thou knowest 
the commandments." Mt.'s changes are probably intentional, to 
avoid the rejection by Christ of the title " good," and the apparent 
distinction made between Himself and God. In Mk. the meaning 
seems to be, " Why go out of your way to call one whom you 
regard as a human Teacher ' good ' ? Goodness is a quality of 
character, and belongs in any full sense to God alone. But God's 
goodness is revealed in His commandments, and inheritance of 
eternal life depends upon keeping them." Thus the words begin as 
a rebuke for the thoughtless use of the epithet " good," and end as 
an answer to the question, " What shall I do," etc. Mt., by placing 
" good " in the main question, is obliged to treat all that follows as 
a direct answer to the question. The sequence of thought seems 
to be, " Why askest thou Me about the good ? One is good," i.e. 
"the good" is not an independent and limited quantity in life which 
can be ascertained and "done." It is an attribute of character, 
and that the divine character. But the goodness of the divine 
nature is revealed in His commandments. In order to make clear 
this last thought, which is already implied in Mk., the editor 
substitutes " But if thou wilt enter into life, keep the command- 
ments," for Mk.'s " thou knowest the commandments." 

For rrjpdv, cf. 23 s "keep," i.e. a continual process, not a single 
act which can be begun and ended («' Troi^crw ayaOov), as a 
necessary preliminary to entry into life. 

Iff 18. He saith to Him, Of what sort f And Jesus said, Thou shalt 
not kill, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou 
shalt not bear false witness^ Honour father and mother ; and, Thou 


shalt love thy neighbour as thyself^ Mk. has : " Do not kill, Do 
not commit adultery, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, 
Do not defraud." Mt. takes a severer view of the character of the 
questioner than Mk. By representing him as asking, " What good 
thing shall I do that I may have eternal life ? " he makes the 
question more unintelligent than it is in Mk. Here, by inserting 
Ae'yei — to, he emphasises the man's obtuseness. In v. 20 , by putting 
into his mouth, " What lack I yet ? " he attributes to him self- 
sufficiency. And he omits altogether Mk v. 21a . Compare the 
treatment in Mt 22 34 " 40 of the questioner described in Mk 12 28 " 34 . 
7rotas may mean, "What sort of commandment?" cf. 22 36 . Or 
7rotos may be hardly distinguishable from tis, " Which command- 
ments ? " cf. Blass, p. 176; Win.-Schm. p. 241. See on 24 42 . — 
oi <£ovei'crei?, k.t.A..] Mk. has p.rj <povevo~r]<;, k.t.X. After p.r] ij/evSo- 
fxapTvprjcrrjs, Mk. has /xrj aTroo-Tcprjcrys (so K A B 2 C D latt). This may 
be a reminiscence of Ex 21 10 , or Dt 24 14 (LXX A F), or Ecclus 4 1 . 
Mt. omits it (if it was in his text of Mk., but B S 1 omit there), and 
substitutes after " honour father and mother," " thou shalt love thy 
neighbour as thyself." This comes from Lv 19 18 , and occurs again 
in 22 39 = Mk i2 31 = Lk io 27 , whence it is here taken. The first 
four clauses come from Ex 20 13 " 16 or Dt 5 17 " 20 . In Mk. the order 
ixr) fj-oL^. /J.r) cpov. is attested by A N X al latt, but p.r\ <pov. p.rj p.oi\. 
in N 1 B C al S 1 . Mt. has this latter order, which is that of the 
Massoretic Text of Ex. and Dt., and of the LXX A F. In. Ex. B 
has oi ftoi^. oi k\€\J/. oi <pov., and in Dt. ov p.oi-%. ov <pov. oi K\eif/. 
Thus Mk. (x a B C al S 1 ) and Mt. agree in order with the Heb. 
(M.T.) and the LXX (A F Luc). The other order, oi /xoix- oi 
tpov. oi k\<hJ/„ represented by Mk. (A N X al latt), Lk 18' 20 , LXX 
(B in Dt.), Philo, is now supported by the Hebrew Papyrus 
published in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Arch&o/ogy, 
xxv. pt. i. pp. 34-56. Mk. has the conjunctive for the indicative 
of the LXX. Mt. assimilates to the LXX. 

19. Tip.a rbv irarepa koX ttjv p.yjripa\ Mk. has o~ov after iraripa, M 
and in Ex. LXX B omits the second aov. Mt. (k B C* D al) omits 
the pronoun altogether as in 15 4 . It is twice inserted by S 1 S 2 and 
some old latt, but can hardly be genuine. This is surprising, since 
the tendency in Mt. is to assimilate Mk.'s quotations to LXX, not 
to deviate from it. 

20. The young man saith to Him, All these things I observed : M 
what lack /yet?] Mk. has: "And he said, Teacher, all these 
things I observed from my youth." — 6 veavto-Kos] Mt. has formed 

a nominative for the verb out of Mk.'s i< vcot^tos p.ov, which 
he omits. He also omits Mk.'s SiSao-xaXe, and has icpv\a$a for 
icpvXa^dfirjv. 1 The former is the New Testament form elsewhere ; 

1 Weiss renders this in Mk. " From all these I guarded myself." See 
Meyer's Comm. 6th ed. in toe, and cf. Ac 2I 28 , 2 Ti 4 15 . 



cf. Lk n 28 i8 21 , Jn 12 47 , Ac 7 63 16 4 21 24 , Ro 2 2 «, Gal 6 13 , 1 Ti 521 
6 20 , 2 Ti I 12 - 14 . — rt en va-repui] is formed out of Mk.'s <fv ore vo-repei 
in 1 .• next verse. See on v. 16 . 

M 21. Jesus said to him, If thou wishest to be perfect, go sell thy 
possessions, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in 
heaven: and come follow Me.] Mk. has: "And Jesus looking on 
him loved him, and said to him, One thing is lacking to thee : 
go sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt 
have treasure in heaven : and come follow Me." Mt. omits the 
first clause, in accordance with his tendency to drop out clauses 
which attribute emotion to the Lord ; cf. on 8 3 , and Introduction, 
p. xxxi. Moreover, the questioner, as described by Mt., with his 
obtuse self-complacency, was not lovable. Mt. substitutes : " But 
if thou wilt be perfect." What could be said to a man of this 
sort, one who conceived of eternal life as something to be acquired 
by merit, as a day labourer earns a wage ; one who regarded 
"goodness" as a definite and ascertainable quantity which could 
be worked off; one who so misunderstood the commandments, 
and so deceived himself as to suppose that he had kept them; 
one who could ask the question, What do I yet lack ? " If thou 
wilt be perfect," says the Lord. The words are, of course, a 
descent to the level of the questioner. He thought of perfection 
as attainable by works, and the Lord took him at his own estima- 
tion, and proposed to him a task which would not lead him to 
perfection, but which would do one of two things. If he obeyed, 
he might learn in the service of Christ something of the spirit 
of the gospel, which sets before men the ideal of the divine 
perfection, 5 48 , and which can never conceive of perfection as a 
goal reached ; cf. Lk 17 10 . If he found the task too hard for him, 
he would have learned to be less confident of his own capacity 
to do the one thing needful for inheritance of eternal life. 

For Te'Aeios, cf. 5 48 . — <rov to. VTrdp^ovra] for Mk.'s o<ra ix u<i ' 
to. wrdpxovTa occurs in 24 47 25 14 , never in Mk., but often in Lk. 

M 22. And the young man when he heard this saying went away 
grieved : for he had great possessions.] Mk. has : " But his coun- 
tenance fell at the saying, and he went away sorrowful : for he 
had great possessions." Mt. omits Mk.'s strong word arvyvdo-as, 
with its implication of unwillingness to obey Christ's command, just 
as he omits Mk i 45 with its direct disobedience of Christ's word. 

16-22. The section with its striking deviations from Mk. is 
most easily explained as being derived from the second Gospel. 
The alteration in v. 17 seems clearly secondary as compared with 
Mk. On the other hand, the insertions in vv. 17, 19 - 21 , and the double 
historic present vv. 18, 20 , might seem to point to another source, 
but are insufficient as a proof of such a source. 

Lk. has some points of agreement with Mt. against Mk 


Both have £<]>v\a£a (Lk. N A B L) for i<pv\aidfxr]v, both have 
ovpavots for ovpara), both omit o-rvyvao-as and substitute dicovcras, 
both omit fir] diro(<;, and both omit e/x/JAc'i/zas ovtw r)yd.Trr](T€v 
airov. These agreements are not sufficient to make a second 
source necessary. 

16. ScSdffKaXe] CEa/S 1 S a latt add dyadt, assimilating to Mk IO 17 .— 
ri. dya66v] dyaddv is omitted by S 1 S a ff 2 238 248 for the same reason. 

17. ri fie ipwrqs ireplrovdyaOov] So X B D L S 1 S 2 latt. C E al assimi- 
late to Mk. 

eh iarlv 6 dyadds] X B D L 1 22 S 1 a ; and with 6 Wos b c ff J 2 S 2 . C E 
al assimilate to Mk. 

In these verses Mt.'s omission of dyad^ after 3i5da-/caXe, his insertion of 
dyadov after ri, his change of Mk.'s ri fie \4yeis dyadov into ri /xe epuras 
irepi tov dyadov, and his change of ov5eh dyados d /ir] els 6 deos into eh iarlv 
6 dya66s, seem clearly due to a desire to warn readers of Mk. that the Lord 
did not refuse, as applied to Himself, a title which He admitted as applicable 
to God, and did not draw a sharp distinction between Himself and God. 
That these changes are due to Mt. himself rather than to the copyists of his 
Gospel, is suggested by the changes made by Mt. in the text of Mk. , which 
are collected on pp. xxxi, xxxii of the Introduction. 

The later copyists of the Gospel have assimilated the passage to the text 

20. tytikat*] X b C D al S 1 S 2 a b c e ff 2 h q add 4k ve&r-nrbs p.ov from 
Mk. — ri £n vo-repw] Om. S l . 

21. iv oupavoh] BCD. But X E F have iv ovpavip as in 6 20 . S 2 adds, 
"and take thy Cross." The words are added in Mk. by A N X a/aq S 1 . 

23-30. = Mk 10 23 - 31 . 

23. And Jesus said to His disciples, Verily I say to you, That M 
a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of the heavens. And 
again I say to you.] Mk. has: "And Jesus looking round saith 
to His disciples, How hardly shall they who have riches enter 
into the kingdom of God. And the disciples were amazed at 
His words. And Jesus again answering saith to them, Children, 
how hard it is to enter into the kingdom of God." Mt. by 
abbreviating avoids the redundancy of Mk., cf. Introduction, 

p. xxiv ; and also the amazement of the disciples, cf. Introduction, 
p. xxxiv. 7raXtv is a reminiscence of the clauses omitted from Mk. 
oWkoAws] is an uncommon word. oWkoAio. occurs in Job 34 30 ; 
Sv'o-KoAos, Jer 49 8 , Ezk 2 6 (Th) ; Ditt. Syll. 213. 33, Suo-koAwv 
Kaif>o)v, and in Galen, Arist., Plato, Xenophon, and other writers. 

24. // is easier for a camel to enter through the eye of a needle, M 
than for a rich man into the kingdom of the heavens.] Mk. has : " It 

is easier for a camel to pass through the hole of a needle, than for a 
rich man to enter into the kingdom of God." — evKorrwrcpos] see on 
9 5 . — Tprj/jLaros] for Mk.'s late and rare Tpv/mAtas. — elae\6eiv] Mt. 
avoids the duplication of the verb 8u\$elv, daeXBdiv in Mk. — pact's] 
add to the examples in Lexicons, Ox. Pap. iv. 736. 75, (a.d. i). 

25. And the disciples when they heard it, were very astonished. M 
saying, Who then can be saved '?] Mk. has: "And they were 


exceedingly astonished, saying to Him, And who can be saved?" 
Mt. inserts aKovo-avres and p.a8r]Tai, substitutes his favourite a-cf>68pa 
for Mk.'s stronger 7repicr<xa>9, omits 7r/x>9 aurov, and substitutes rt's 
apa for kcu Tis. For tcs apa, cf. 18 1 19 25 2 4 45 , Mk 4 41 . For 
Mk.'s 7r/3os airov, see Abbott, Johannine Grammar, 2366°. 

M 26. And Jesus looking upon {them) said to them, With men this is 
impossible ; but with God all things are possible.] Mk. has : " Jesus 
looked upon them and saith, With men it is impossible, but not 
with God. For all things are possible with God." Mt. inserts a 
conjunction, and substitutes a past tense for Aiyci, as often. He 
omits the redundant dAX' oi Trapa #e<3 : cf. Introduction, p. xxiv. 

M 27. Then Peter answered and said to Him, Behold, we have left 
all things, and followed Thee ; what then shall we have ?] Mk. has : 
" Peter began to say to Him, Behold, we have left all things, and 
followed Thee." — totc] Mt. avoids Mk.'s abruptness and his fjp£a.To. 
His insertion of rl apa larai rjfxiv seems intended to relieve the 
ambiguity of S. Peter's statement as recorded in Mk., where " Behold 
we," etc., is a half-interrogative statement evidently intended to pro- 
voke comment. " We have done what the young man could not 
bring himself to do (v. 22 ). What reward in heaven shall we have ? " 

M 28. And Jesus said to them, Verily I say to you, That.] Mk. has : 
"Jesus said, Verily I say to you." Mt. avoids Mk.'s abruptness. 
Mt. here inserts the following : 

L Ye who have followed Me, in the regeneration when the Son of 
Man shall sit on the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit on twelve 
thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.] Lk. has somewhat 
similar words in 2 2 2S ' 30 . — 7raA.tvy€vecrta] After the advent of the 
Messiah the Jews expected the creation of a new heaven and new 
earth. Cf. Is 65 17 66 22 , Dt 32 12 (Onq.), Apoc. Bar 32 s "the 
mighty One will renew His creation " ; 44 12 " the new world," cf. 
Charles' note on 32 s . 7raA.ij/yev€o-ia is used by Philo, Vita Mos. 
ii. 12, of the renewal of the world after the Flood, and de Mund. 
xv. of the restoration of the world after being burned. There 
seems to be no exact Aramaic equivalent. According to Dalman, 
Words, p. 177, "new world" would be the nearest. — orav KaQLa-Q, 
k. t.A.J cf. Enoch 62 5 " Pain will seize them when they see that Son ot 
Man sit on the throne of His glory"; and see on 16 27 . — <pv\a<sTov 
'lo-paijX] i.e. those to whom they had preached the gospel ; cf. io 6 - 23 . 

M 29. And every one who hath left houses, or brethren, or sisters, 
or father, or mother, or children, or lands, for My name's sake, shall 
receive a hundredfold, and shall inherit eternal life.] Mk. has : 
"There is no one who hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, 
or father, or mother, or children, or lands, for My sake, and for 
the gospel's sake, but he shall receive an hundredfold now in 
this present time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, 
and children, and lands, with persecutions ; and in the coming age 


eternal life." Mt. avoids Mk.'s harsh construction, ovoVis la-rtv os 
afyrjKtv — iav fir] Ad/fy. In Mk v. 30 the thought is of the many 
advantages of incorporation into the Christian society. In it the 
convert should find fresh ties and new interests more satisfying 
than those from which he had cut himself adrift; cf. 1 Co 3 21 . 
But in Mt.'s connection, after the insertion of v. 28 , the whole 
emphasis is on the future reward in the Trakivyevecria. This is why 
Mt. omits Mk.'s vvv iv tw Kcupw tovtw — Stwyfjiujv, for which his 
KkrjpovofjLTjcreL is a sort of substitute. The Apostles should sit on 
thrones ; but even the humblest disciple should receive a manifold 
compensation, and inherit an estate greater than any which he had 
abandoned, namely, life everlasting. 

30. But many first shall be last ; and last first.] The con- M 
nection of this clause with the preceding is obscure both in Mt. 
and in Mk. It would seem that the iroXXoi must refer to Christian 
disciples. All will inherit life everlasting, but many who are now 
first shall then be last. It seems best (with Swete) to understand 
the words as a rebuke to the self-complacent spirit implied in S. 
Peter's words: "It may be difficult for the rich to enter into the 
Kingdom, but we who have left all are in no danger of exclusion." 
Christ's words are a warrant for this confidence, and at the same 
time a rebuke and a warning. The ambiguity lies in the " first " 
and "last." Does He mean " Many who first became My disciples 
will find greater difficulty of entry than many who followed Me at 
a later period"? Or is the Trpuyroi used of rank rather than of 
time : " Many who now seem to hold a position of privilege will 
then find themselves in the lowest place"? Lk. (13 30 ) has similar 
words in a different connection, and the saying occurs in the New 
Sayings of Jesus from Oxyrhynchus, 11. 25-27 in a doubtful context. 

23-30. Mt. and Lk. in this section have a number of small 
points of agreement against Mk. 

E.g. : Mt 23 = Lk 18 24 Sc— €?7rev. Both omit Mk v. 24 ; but Mt. 
has a trace of it in 7raA.1v Se Xe'yw vplv. Mt 24 = Lk 25 Tprj/xaros. 
Mt 25 = Lk 26 d/cou'o-avTes. Mt 26 = Lk 27 t-lirev, and the omission of 

d\A' ov irapa dtw. Mt 27 = Lk 28 €t7rev, rjKoXovOrjcrapiev. Mt 28 = 
Lk 29 6 8e— eTTrev 1 . Mt 29 , Lk 30 TroAAaTrXacriova (Mt. B L). 

24. ^acCKelav tov 6eov~\ Z curss abceS 1 S 2 have (3acri\eLai> tu>i> ovpavwv. 
We should certainly expect the latter, but, in editing Mk. , Mt. does not seem 
to have carried out his modifications with absolute uniformity, and he may have 
left tov Oeov here. If so, it was inevitable that it should be altered into twv 
ovpavCiv. But in view of the facts given in Introduction, p. lxvii, it must 
remain probable that rdv ovpavwv is original here, and that it has been changed 
into tov deov to assimilate to Mk. 

TpT}ixa.Toi\ H* B, but K c D L X al, Tpvirfi(j.a.Tos. 

29. fj.r}Ttpa] H C K al S 2 add 7) yvvalKa, which occurs in Lk 18 28 . It is 
omitted here byBD 1 S'abeff 12 . It is unnatural here after the express 
prohibition of divorce in vv. 1 " 9 . 


tKaTovravXaaLova] So N C D X S 1 S a . ToXKairXaalova as in Lk. is read 
by BL, 

XX 1-16. " For the kingdom of the heavens is like to a man, 
a householder," i.e. in the preparation for the kingdom, God deals 
with His servants as a householder does with his hired labourers, 
who pays them each and all the stipulated wage. Just so God 
when the kingdom comes will give to all who enter His service 
the eternal life which He has promised to them. The parable, as 
originally spoken, can hardly have had any other object than that 
of warning Christ's first disciples, that others who should become 
His disciples at a later date would also be partakers of privileges 
equal to theirs who had first joined Him (cf. Gal 2 6 ). The state- 
ment that the payment of wages began with the last hired, is a 
literary device to account for and to emphasise the dissatisfaction of 
the first hired labourers. The editor has been led by this feature 
to insert the parable here as an explanation of Mk.'s difficult v. 31 . 
The first called will be as the last called, because all alike will 
receive an equal reward. A somewhat similar question is solved on 
parallel lines in 2 Es 5 41, 42 . God has made promises of love to 
His people : " And I said, O Lord, Thou hast made the promise 
unto them that be in the end : and what shall they do that have 
been before us, or we, or they that shall come after us ? And He 
said unto me, I will liken My judgement unto a ring : like as there 
is no slackness of them that be last, even so there shall be no 
swiftness of them that be first." Cf. also Apoc. Bar 30 2 " the 
first will rejoice, and the last will not be grieved." This does not, 
however, exclude the thought of differences of position in the 
kingdom ; cf. 1 g 2 *. 
L 1. For the kingdom of the heavens is like — for the formula, 
cf. on ii 16 13 24 — to a householder, — cf. 13 52 , — who went out early 
— " the time of working," says the Babyl. Talmud {Bab. Mez 83 2 ), 
"is from sunrise" — to hire labourers into his vineyard.~\ For the 
earthly estate owner as contrasted with God, see the parable from 
the Mechilta, cited by Fiebig, Altjudische Gleichnisse Jesu, 69. 
For a somewhat similar parable, with, however, a very different 
application, see Jer. Talm. Berakhoth 5 s quoted by Lightfoot. — 

fiia-Ouia-aa-Qai epyctTas] misses the ring of the original "TJK "HiaiO ; 
cf. Bab. Mez y6\ 

L 2. And having agreed with the labourers at the rate of a 
denarius a day, he sent them into his vineyard.] For the denarius, 
cf. on 18 28 . It was equivalent in value to the Greek drachma 
which Tobit received as his daily wage (5 14 ), and the word, like 
many other Latin terms, passed into Jewish use. 

L 3. And he went out about the third hour, and saw others stand- 
ing in the market-place unemployed.] — ayopa] had passed into Jewish 
usage. See Dalman's Worterbuch. The third hour is 9 a.m 


4. And he said to them, Go also ye into the vineyard, and L 
whatsoever is fair I will give to you. And they went.] 

6. Again he went out about the sixth (=12) and the ninth L 
( = 3 p.m.) hour, and did likewise.] 

6. And about the eleventh hour ( = 5 p.m.) he went out, and L 
found others standing; and he saith to them, Why have you stood 
all the day unemployed ?] 

7. They say to him, Because no one hired us. He saith to them, L 
Go ye also into the vineyard.] 

8. And when it was evening, the master of the vineyard saith to L 
his bailiff, Summon the labourers, and pay to them the wage, beginning 
from the last unto the first.] — €7rtTpo7ros] has passed into Jewish 
usage ; see Dalman, Worterbuch. 

9. And they came {who had been hired) about the eleventh hour, L 
and received each a denarius :] 

10. And the first came, and thought that they would receive L 
more ; and they also received each a denarius .] 

11. 12. And having received it, they murmured against the house- L 
holder, saying that these last laboured one hour, and thou hast made 
them equal to us, who bore the weight of the day and the heat.] — 
yoyyv^uv] only here in Mt. It is equivalent to Djnnx, Jer. Talm. 
Berakhoth 5 s . It is a vernacular word found in the LXX, N.T., 
and later writers ; cf. Kennedy, Sources, 39. It occurs in Ox. Pap. 

i. 33, iii. 14, 2nd cent. a.d. — Kavarwv] a colloquial word found in 
the LXX, N.T., and late writers; cf. Kennedy, 154. Kavo-uv 
occurs 15 times in the LXX, generally of a hot blasting wind = 
Heb. DHp. It is used as here of heat in Athenaeus, iii. p. 73* 
fieXiXwTti'oi crrzcpavoi 7ravv cvwSets Kal Kavcranos wpa iPvktlkwtcltol. 

13. And he answered and said to one of them, Friend, I do not L 
wrong you : didst not thou agree ivith me at a denarius 1] — 'Eratpos] 
cf. ii 16 . It occurs again in the vocative, 22 12 26 60 . 

14. Take what is thine, and go : it is my will to give to this L 
latest (comer) even as to thee.] 

15. May I not do what I will with my mvn (or in my house) ? L 
or is thine eye grudging because I am liberal 1] i.e. "do you grudge 
my generosity ? " For irov-qpos and 6<t>6a\(i6<>, cf. on 6 22 . 

16. So the "last" shall be "first," and the "first" "last."]n 
That is, " in a similar way the saying about first and last will be 
fulfilled. All alike will receive the reward of eternal life, whether 
they become disciples of the kingdom at an earlier or at a later 

At this point C D S 1 S 2 al add 77-oAAot yap daiv kXtjtoI oXiyoi 
8« ixXcKToL But it is almost impossible to give the words any 
meaning in this connection. They are genuine in 22 14 . 

17-19. From Mk io 32 " 34 . 

17. And as Jesus was going up to Jerusalem, He took the twelve M 


disciples privately, and on the way He said to them.~\ Mk. has : 
And they were on the way going up to Jerusalem : and Jesus was 
going before them ; and they were amazed ; and they who followed 
were afraid. And taking again the Twelve, He began to tell them 
the things which were about to happen to Him." Mt. abbreviates 
Mk., omitting as often the unexplained amazement or fear of the 
disciples; cf. i9 24 = Mk io 24 , i8 6 = Mk 9 6 , Mt8 27 = Mk4 41 , Mt 17 23 
= Mk 9 32 ; or of the multitude, cf. Mk 5 15 - 33 , and Mk.'s 7j-aA.1v 
and on. 

M 18. Behold, we go up to Jerusalem ; and the Son of Man shall 
be delivered to the chief priests and scribes, and they shall condemn 
Him to death.] So Mk. The agreement in "chief priests and 
scribes " without " elders " is proof of dependence. Cf. on 16 21 . 

M 19. And shall deliver Him to the Gentiles for mocking, and 
scourging, and crucifying : and on the third day He shall be raised 
again.] — «is to eu7rar|ai] Mk. has kou ifnrai$ovcnv, and adds kclI 


Mt.'s change is probably due to remembrance that crucifixion was 
the actual form of death. But there would be no difficulty in 
supposing that Christ, if He foretold His death, would speak of 
it as crucifixion. See on io 38 . — kol ttj TpiVr? rjp-epq. iycpdrjcreTai] 
For Mk.'s fi€Ta t/3€is rjp.epa<; avao-rqcrerai, see on 16 21 . 

17-19. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in omitting Mk 32b , and 
in the omission of on, Mk 33 ; and of 7raA.1i', Mk 32 ; in cnrcy, Mt 17 , 
Lk 31 ; and in ttj t/htt; -qp-ipo., Mt 19 , Lk 32 . See Introduction, 
p. xlviii. 

17. ko\ bvafSalvuv] K Da/S'S 2 . /xiSXuiv dldvafialveiv, B I. The fj.iK\uv 
is in Mt.'s style, cf. 16 27 i7 12 - 22 20 22 24 s , but is weakly attested here. 

20-28. From Mk 10 35 - 45 . 

M 20. Then there came to Him the mother of the sons of Zebedee 
with her sons, worshipping Him, and asking something from Him.] 
Mk. has : " And there come to Him James and John, the two 
sons of Zebedee, saying to Him, Teacher, we wish that Thou wilt 
do for us whatsoever we ask." The substitution of the mother 
instead of the two sons as the chief petitioner (cf. airy, v. 21 ) is 
probably due to a desire to minimise the ambition of the 
Apostles. See Introduction, p. xxxiii. — totc] See on 2 1 . — 
irpoo-Kwetv] See on 2 2 . — Trpoo-rjXOev] for Mk.'s historic present, as 
often. For the verb, see on 4 s . — aiTovcra] For the active voice, 
see on 14 7 . 

M 21. And He said to her, What do you wish ? She saith to 
Him, Say that these my two sons shall sit, one at Thy right hand, 
and one at Thy left hand, in Thy kingdom.] Mk. has: "And He 
said to them, What do you wish that I should do for you ? And 
they said, Grant to us that we may sit, one at Thy right hand, and 


one at Thy left hand, in Thy glory." — els — ko.1 as] see Blass, 
p. 144. 

22. And Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. M 
Can you drink the cup which I am about to drink f They say to 
Him, We can.] Mk. has : " And Jesus said to them, Ye know 
not what ye ask. Can you drink the cup which I drink, or be 
baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized ? And they 
said to Him, We can." — ue'AAw] see on 16 27 . Mk.'s "cup" and 
"baptism" both signify suffering. For "cup" as a metaphor of 
sorrow, cf. La 4 21 , Is 51 17 . For "baptism," cf. Lk 12 50 . Mr. 
omits the latter clause as synonymous with the first, cf. 8 3 , or 
simply on the ground of its obscurity. 

23. He saith to them, Of My cup indeed ye shall drink ; but to M 
sit at My right hand and at the left is not Mine to give, but (it shall 
be given to those) for whom it has been prepared by My Father.] 
Mk. has : " And Jesus said to them, The cup which I drink, ye 
shall drink ; and with the baptism with which I am baptized, shall 
ye be baptized. But to sit at My right hand or at the left is not 
Mine to give, but (it shall be given to those) for whom it has been 

For Mt.'s addition, vtto tov TraTpo<; mow, cf. 25 41 , 6 rjTOLfxaaev 6 
irarrip uov, D I 22 a b C ff 1 2 g 1 h. 

24. And the ten having heard, were vexed about the two M 
brethren.] Mk. has: "And the ten, having heard, began to be 
vexed about James and John." — ^yava/crT/cravl The aor. as often 
for Mk.'s r)p£avTo and inf. — twv 8vo dSeX^wv] Mt. avoids Mk.'s 
express mention of the names of the two Apostles. 

25. And Jesus having called them, said, Ye know that the rulers M 
of the Gentiles lord it over them, and the great ones have authority 
over them.] Mk. has : " And Jesus having called them, saith to 
them, Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the 
Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones have authority 
over them." Si for kcli, as often. ct7r€v for Ae'yei, as often. — 01 
ctp^ovTc?] Mk. has 61 Sokovvtcs ap-^iiv, an unusual paraphrase. 
See Swete. — 61 /xeya'Aoi] Mk. adds clvtwv. — Karc^ovcr la^eiy] is 

a very rare word. Its occurrence in Mt. and Mk. is proof of 
dependence. See on Lk 2 2 25 . 

26. Not so is it amongst you. But whosoever wishes amongst M 
you to be great shall be your minister.] So Mk. with Si after ovrtus, 
and iv ipuv after yevicrOcu instead of before /xeyas. 

27. And whosoever wishes among you to be first shall bey our TB. 
servant.] So Mk. with ttovtw for uuuiv. 

28. Even as the Son of Man did not come to be ministered to 31 
but to minister, and to give His life a ransom for many.] So Mk. 
with /cat yap for uxnrep. 

This is the first passage in the Gospel where the death which 


has been foretold is described as intended to have a definite result 
or effect. For the idea of expiatory self-sacrifice, cf. 2 Mac 7 37 - 38 , 
4 Mac 17 22 . "Give his life": cf. Mechilta (Ugol.) 207. "Moses 
gave his life for three things, and they were called by his name," 274. 

22. irivfiv] C E al add from Mk. koX rb (SdirTHT/ia & iyd) /3a7rrffo/ua» 

23. irleade] C X al add from Mk. ical rb p&irriafia d 4yw /SairWfoyuat 

28. o.ptI ttoWwv] S a adds here: "But seek ye, that from littleness ye 
may increase, and not from greatness become little. What time ye are bidden 
to a supper party be not sitting down to meat in an honourable place, that 
there may not come one more honourable than thou, and the lord of the 
supper say to thee, ' Bring thyself down ' ; and thou be confounded in the 
eyes of the guests. But if thou sit down to meat in a lesser place, and 
there come one less than thou, and the lord of the supper say to thee, ' Bring 
thyself, and come up and sit down to meat ' ; then thou shalt have more 
glory in the eyes of the guests" (Burk). S 1 is wanting here, but did not con- 
tain the passage. D ab eff 13 g 1 h m n and 6 Vulgate MSS have the same 
insertion, but without the negative in the second clause. The passage is 
ancient, and finds parallels in the Canonical Gospels. For the first sentence, 
with the negative in the second clause, cf. Mt 23 12 , Lk 14 11 18 14 . For the 
rest, compare Lk 14 8 " 11 . The negative of S 2 looks like an afterthought 
to bring the originally independent first sentence into harmony with the 
following passage. 

29-34. From Mk io 46 * 52 . 

M. 29. And as they go forth from Jericho, there followed Him a 
great multitude?^ Mk. has : " And they come into Jericho. And 
as He goes forth from Jericho, and His disciples and a great 
(Uavov) multitude." Mt. abbreviates, omitting the quite needless 
statement of the entry into Jericho, including the Lord and His 
disciples (who have been mentioned in the last paragraph) in avrCjv 
for avrov, inserting a verb for the o^Ao?, and substituting the more 
usual 7roAvs for i/cavos. 

M 30. And behold two blind men sitting by the roadside heard that 
Jesus is passing by, and cried, saying, Lord, have pity on us, Thou 
Son of David.] Mk. has: "The son of Timaeus, Bartimseus, a 
blind beggar, sat by the roadside. And having heard that it is 
Jesus, the Nazarene, he began to cry, and to say, Thou Son of 
David, Jesus, have pity on me." — /cat iSov] see on i 20 . — 8vo] Mt. 
substitutes two men for Mk.'s one, and as a consequence omits 
Mk.'s name of one man. But cf. his omission of the name Jairus 
in 9 18 . For the "two," see on 8 28 . — 'I^crovs] Mt. omits Mk.'s 
6 Na£ap77vos. Cf. the same omission in 28 s = Mk 16 6 . In 26 s9 
= Mk 14 67 he substitutes 6 raA.iA.cuos. — Ixpa^av] the aor., as often, 
for Mk.'s r)p£a.TO and inf. — £*<pa|av Ae'yovTes] for Mk.'s *cpa£eiv *al 
Afiyetv : cf. on 8 s . — Krpie] for Mk.'s 'lrjcrov, see on 8 2 . — vios] nom. 
for vocative ; cf. Blass, 86 f. See on Lk 18 38 . 

M 31. And the multitude rebuked them, that they should be silent. 
But they cried the more, saying, Lord, have pity on us, Thou Son of 


David.] Mk. has: "And many were rebuking him, that he 
should be silent ; but he was crying much the more, Thou Son of 
David, have pity on me." — iireTi/xTja-ev and €Kpa£av] aors. for Mk.'s 
impfs., as often. 

32. And Jesus stood and called them, and said, What will ye M 
that I should do for you f] Mt. abbreviates three verses of Mk. 

33. They say to Him, Lord, that our eyes may be opened.] Mk. M 
has : " And the blind man said to Him, Rabboni, that I may see." 

34. And Jesus, having compassion, touched their eyes ; and M 
straightway they saw, and followed Him.] Mk. has : " And 
Jesus said to him, Go, thy faith hath saved thee. And straightway 
he saw, and was following Him on the way " ; ^\j/aro twv 6p.pdrwv 
au-iw] 0/jLfj.a.Ta occurs only here and in the omitted section, 
Mk 8 22 " 26 . The clause here is probably a reminiscence of that 
passage. — rjKoXovOrja-av] aor. for Mk.'s imperf., as often. 

29-34. Mt 33 and Lk 41 agree against Mk. in Kvpie for 
Mk.'s 'Pa/?/?oiW. Cf. also irapdyci, Mt 80 = irapepx^Tat, Lk 37 . 
Mk. has ia-ru 


XXI. 1-11. From Mk 1 1 1 " 11 . 

XXI. 1. And when they came near to Jerusalem, and came to M 
Bethphage, to the Mount of Olives, then Jesus sent two disciples.] 
Mk. has : " And when they come near to Jerusalem, to Bethphage 
and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives, He sendeth two of His 
disciples." — rjyyurav, direcrreiXev] aors. for Mk.'s hist, presents, as 
often. Mt. inserts a second verb, r/X6ov, to ease clause a, and omits 
Bethany. This probably is simply due to his tendency to omit 
redundant details. He feels that one village is sufficient to identify 
the scene. BrjOcpaytf = »JjtB rV3 = " house of unripe figs " ; cf. Dalm. 
Gram. p. 191. — totc] see on 2 7 . 

2. Saying to them, Go into the village which is over against you, M 
and straightway you shall find an ass tied up, and a colt with her ; 
loose, and lead to Me.] Mk. has: "And saith, Go (vn-dyere) into 
the village which is over against you, and straightway entering into 
it, you shall find a colt tied up upon which no one of men ever 
sat ; loose it, and bring." — Xeywv] for ko.1 Xeyei, as often. — TropeveaOe] 
for vTrdyere. Cf. a similar change in 28 7 = Mk 16 7 . iropeveaOai 
occurs once in Mk 9 30 as a variant for Trapcnropeveo-Ocu ; in Mt. it 
occurs twenty-eight times. Mt. omits cl<nropev6p,cvoi ets avrrjv as 
redundant. — ovov — kcu ttwXov /act' avi-^s] Mt. adds ovov in view 
of the passage which he is about to quote (v. 4 ). dydyere is a more 
usual word in this connection than Mk.'s <f>ep€Te. 


M 8. And if any one say anything to you, you shall say that the 
Lord hath need of them ; and straightway he will send them.] Mk. 
has : " And if any one say to you, Why do ye this ? Say, The Lord 
hath need of it and straightway sends it again heie" ( = will 
return it). Mt., as often, omits rraA.iv. — «u0vs Se] for ko.1 ei8vs, as 
often. In Mk. the subject of dirooTeAAei seems to be 6 *i;pios. 
" The Lord needs it, and will soon return it." Mt. seems to make 
the sentence mean, " and (at your words) he (the man who spoke 
to you) will send it." 
O 4, 5. And this has come to pass, in order that it might be fulfilled 
which was spoken through the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter 
of Zion, Behold, thy King comet h, meek, and sitting upon an ass, 
and upon a colt, the foal of a yoke-bearer.] 

tovto <$£ yeyovev Iva ir\r]pu)6fj] For the formula, see Introduction, 
p. lxiv. The quotation for which the editor has prepared, by insert- 
ing ovov — per av-rq<i in v. 2 , comes in the main from Zee 9 9 . — el-rare 
rfi dvyarpl 2twv] seems to be a reminiscence of Is 62 11 LXX. The 
rest of the quotation agrees with the LXX of Zee. except in the 
last seven words, for which the LXX has : iirl vTro'Cjvyiov koX ttwXov 
veov. Mt.'s eirl ovov ko.1 evl irwXov viov virofcvyiov looks like a 
translation of the Heb., with adaptation of the words of the LXX. 
For viro^vywv = ass, see Deissm. Bib. Stud. p. i6of. 

M 6. And the disciples went, and did as Jesus commanded them.] 
Mt. abbreviates Mk VV. 4_d . — iropevOevTes 8e] for Mk.'s /cat a7rr}\6ov. 
The Be for /cat, as often. Cf. -rropeveo-dai for cLTrepxeo-dat, Mt 26 14 = 

Mk 14 10 . 

M 7. And brought the ass and the colt, and placed upon them their 
clothes, and He sat upon them.] Mk. has : "And bring the colt to 
Jesus, and place upon it their clothes ; and He sat upon it." — 
^yayov] aor. for Mk.'s hist, pres., as often. — rrjv ovov /cat] for the 
insertion, see on v. 3 . — eirldr)Kev] aor. for Mk.'s hist, pres., as often. 
— eir avrwv] Mt., in modifying the passage, is not quite careful 
to make the details harmonious. The Lord could not ride on 
both animals, and there was no need, therefore, to place clothes on 
both. — tol i/tdYia] Mk., who adds avTw, almost certainly means 
that the disciples managed to find some raiment, which they threw 
over the colt's back. Mt. writes i-a i//.ana simply as though he 
understood it to refer to the saddle cloths of the animals. — cVriVw 
auxw] If the editor had not just said that they placed clothing 
upon them, we might take erravw avTw here to refer to the 1/j.a.Tia. 
But he may have meant it to refer to the animals, regardless of the 
impossibility of riding more than one at a time. 

M 8. And the very great multitude spread their garments in the way; 
and others were cutting branches from the trees, and were spreading 
{them) in the way.] Mk. has: "And many spread their garments 
on to the way. And others having cut litter from the fields." — 6 8e 


7rX£tcrTos o^Xos] 8i for /cat, as often. For ttXcio-tos 0^X05, see on 
11 20 ; and cf. Blass, p. 143. — Ikotttov kXciSous] is the substitution 
of a more ordinary feature for Mk.'s unusual ori/JaSas /co^avrc?. 
The editor adds koX io-rpuvwov iv rrj 68u> to make it clear what was 
done with the branches. In Mk. this is implied in his abrupt 
participle KcfyavTes. 

9. And the multitudes who were going before, and who were M 
following, were crying, saying, Hosanna to the son of David : 
Blessed is He who cometh in the name of the Lord ; Hosanna in the 
highest places.] Mk. has: "And they who were going before, and 
they who were following, were crying, Hosanna : Blessed be He that 
cometh in the name of the Lord : Blessed is the coming kingdom of 
our father David; Hosanna in the highest places." — Se] for /ecu, as 
often. — 'Qtjavva\ See Dalm. Words, 220 f. The word is derived 
from Ps n8 25 - 26 mm DE>a Kan "pia • • • K3 nyw\n = " give salva- 
tion now — Blessed be He that cometh in the name of the Lord." 
S3 nyL"in is addressed to God, and is a prayer for help and 
deliverance. In the source from which Mk. drew, nyW\r\ had been 
shortened into the common form ytnn. Cf. Dalm. Gram. p. 249. 
Mk., as often, retains a Hebrew or Aramaic phrase ; and it is 
probable that he, without necessarily " being ignorant of its origin 
and meaning," believed that it had become a cry of greeting and 
homage, like our " hail " or " welcome." Only on this ground can 
we explain his wo-awa iv toU M/aarois, which can only mean, " let 
those in the heights of heaven say, Hosanna." Mt., who adds to 
the first 'Qaawd the words tu> vlw AaveiS, must also have supposed 
wo-avva to be a cry of acclamation. He need not have been 
ignorant of its philological meaning. The multitudes cried 

" Hosanna," i.e. " glory, or hail, or welcome to David's son." eiXoyr)- 
/xe'vos 6 ep^o/xevos iv ovd/xcm Kvpiov is the LXX of Ps Il8 26 . Mk. 
adds a clause : ei\oyr]p.ivr) y) ip^o/xivrj (SacriXeia tov 7ra-rpos 17/ti.wv 
Aau€iS, which Mt. omits as tautologOUS. — uxravva iv -rots w/a'o-Tois] 
Lk. also understood uxravva to be a cry of acclamation ; he renders 
it by Sd£a. See note on Lk 19 38 . 

10. And when He entered into Jerusalem.'] Mk. has : " And M 
He entered into Jerusalem." Mt. now inserts, All the city was 
moved, saying, Who is this ? And the multitudes said, This is the 
prophet Jesus, who is from Nazara of Galilee. 

8. larpwaav, second time] N*Dceff 2 q. tffrpwvvvov, X° B C atb f ff 1 
g 12 hS 2 . In Mk. ZaTpuirav is read by most MSS., but iarpuvwov by D S 1 
curss. The imperf. is probably genuine in Mk. and in the second clause 
of Mt. Mt. having altered the imperfect into Zarpwaav in clause a, con- 
tinued with imperfs. Ikotttov, iaTpibvvvov in clause b, and in v. 9 ^Kpat^ov. 
H* D in Mt. have assimilated iarpwvvvov to the torpwoav of clause a, 
and of Mk., and in Mk. most MSS. have assimilated iaTpuvwov to Mt. 's 
clause a. Lk.'s vveo-rpwvi'vov shows that he too had the imperf. in his copy 
of Mk. 


1-10. Mt. and Lk. agree in the following : 

r/yyicrav, Mt 1 = ^yytcrev, Lk 29 ; eyyi^ovariv, Mk \ 

aTrecrreiXev, Mt 1 , Lk 29 ; airooTe'AAei, Mk l . 

Aeywv, Mt 2 , Lk 80 ; ko.1 Xeyei, Mk 2 . 

dyayere, Mt 2 , Lk s0 J ^e'pere, Mk 8 . 

epciTC, Mt 3 , Lk 31 ; elvare, Mk 3 . 

r/yayov, Mt 7 , Lk s5 ; (j>r.povo~Lv, Mk 7 . 

eavrwv — ev tt} 6Sd5, Mt 8 , Lk 36 ; avrw — els rrjv 080V, Mk 8 . 

Xe'yovMS, Mt' 9 , Lk S8 . 

12-17. From Mk n 15 " 19 . 
M 12. And Jesus entered into the temple of God, 1 and cast out all 
who sell and buy in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money- 
changers, and the seats of those who sell the doves.] Mk. has here : 
" And He entered into Jerusalem, into the temple : and having 
looked about at all things, it being already a late hour, He went 
out to Bethany with the twelve." The editor of Mt. omits this. 
For omission of verses of a similar character, cf. the omission of 
Mk i 45 6 12-13 . The next three verses in Mk. are 12_u , which con- 
tain the first part of the narrative of the fig-tree, the sequel being 
yy ao-85 Mt., with the obvious intention of representing the wither- 
ing of the fig-tree as having taken place immediately upon the 
word of Christ, postpones vv. 1!M4 that he may connect them with 
20 " 25 . This brings him, therefore, to Mk 15 " 19 , which he now inserts. 
The result of these changes may be shown thus : 

First day — Mt. Entry. . . . Cleansing of temple. Return to 
„ Mk. Entry. Return to Bethany. 

Second day — Mt. Cursing and withering of fig-tree. Teaching, 

2I 13 -2 5. 

„ Mk. Cursing of fig-tree. Cleansing of temple. 

Third day— Mt. 

„ Mk. The withered fig-tree. Teaching, n 27 -i3. 

Mt. has, therefore, shortened Mk.'s sequence of events by one 
day. Lk. does the same, but does not even suggest that the two 
days which he mentions were consecutive. He places the entry 
and the cleansing of the temple on one day, omits the incident of 
the fig-tree, and introduces teaching parallel to Mt 2i 13 -25 and 
Mk n 27 -i3 with "and it came to pass on one of the days." It 
is clear that neither Mt. nor Lk. regarded Mk.'s sequence of events 
as chronologically important in detail. It is not probable that Mt.'s 
change in Mk.'s order is accidental rather than intentional. But, if 
so, at Mk v. 12 he came to the words koX elo-fj\6ev eU 'Upoo~6\vp.a eis 
to Upov. From these words he passed on by accident to Mk v. 15 kol 
epXpvTat eis ItpocroXvfxa kclI elcrcXdwv eis to Upov, and he therefore 

1 tov $eov] So C D al latt S 2 ; XBL omit. The phrase to hpbv rod 6eov 
does not occur elsewhere, and is probably genuine here. 


continued with the account of the cleansing of the temple, Mk vv. 18-19 . 
Then finding that he had omitted the cursing of the fig-tree, Mk 
vv. 12-14 , he combined it with the withering of the fig-tree, Mk vv. 20-25 . 

12. Mk. has : " And they come to Jerusalem : and He entered 
into the temple, and began to cast out those who sell and who buy in 
the temple, and He overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and 
the seats of those who sell the doves." — e£c/?aAcv] the indie, as often, 
for ML's r)p£aTo, and the inf. Mk. adds, " And did not allow any 
one to carry a vessel through the temple." 

13. And saith to them, It stands written, My house shall be M 
called a house of prayer ; but ye made 1 it a lair of robbers.] Mk. 
has : " And was teaching, and saying, Does it not stand written 
that My house shall be called a house of prayer for all nations ? 
but ye have made it a lair of robbers." — 6 oTko's fxov, k.t.X.] the 
quotation is from the LXX of Is 56 7 . Mk. seems to have carried 
the quotation too far. The temple was not, in fact, a house of 
prayer trao-iv tois Z6v€cnv. Mt. omits the words. — cnrqXaiov 
At/otcovJ seems to be a reminiscence of Jer 7 11 . 

14. And there came to Him blind and lame in the temple ; and E 
He healed them.} Mk. has here: "And the chief priests and 
scribes heard, and were seeking how they might kill Him : for they 
feared Him, for all the multitude was amazed at His teaching." 
Mt. substitutes for this an account of miracles done in the temple 
which the chief priests saw, and how they heard the children cry- 
ing, Hosanna, and were vexed. He elsewhere substitutes a state- 
ment of healing for Mk.'s statement of teaching. See on 14 14 19 2 . 
He has already omitted Mk.'s reference to teaching, Mk v. 17 . The 
editor seems to regard the first day as a day of action (vv. 14-15 ), the 
second as a day of teaching. Hence Mk.'s eSi8ao-K€j/, 1 1 17 is, trans- 
ferred to Mt 2 1 23 , and Mk II 18 iras yap 6 oy\o<i e$eir\rj(r<TeTO eirl t-q 
hihaycfj auroS to Mt 2 2 33 . 

15. And the chief priests and scribes seeing the marvellous things E 
that He did, and the children who were crying in the temple, and 
saying, Hosanna to the Son of David, were vexed.] 

16. And said to Him, Dost Thou hear what these say ? And L 
fesus saith to them, Yes ; did you never read that "From the mouth 
of babes and infants Thou didst bring praise to perfection " ?] The 
quotation is from the LXX of Ps 8 3 . The Heb. has " strength " 
for " praise," and is, therefore, less adapted to this context. Lk. 
places sayings parallel to these during the entry into Jerusalem, 
!q39-40 "Certain of the Pharisees from the multitude said to Him, 
Teacher, rebuke Thy disciples. And He answered and said, I say to 
you, that if these shall be silent, the stones will cry out." It seems 
clear that Mt. and Lk. have independent traditions behind them. 

17. And having left them, He went outside the city to Bethany, J& 

1 iTonfi<rare] So C D at, as in Lk. XBL have xwetre. 


and passed the night there.] Mk v. 19 has : " And when it became 
late they were going outside the city." — e£r}\6ev] aor. for Mk.'s 
imp. iijeiropevovTo, as often. But Mk. has i£r}\6ev in v. 11 . — tjvXurBrj] 
Lk. has the same verb in a similar connection, 21 s7 . It occurs 
from Homer downwards, and is common in the LXX. It is used of 
men, Apoll. R. 2. 1284; Diod. 13. 6; Hdt. 8. 9, 9.37, Xen. Cyrop. 4. 
18-22. From Mk 1 12-14.20-25. 

M 18. And early in the morning, as He made for the city, He was 
hungry.] Mk. has: "And as they were passing by early in the 
morning," v. 20 ; and : " And on the morrow as they went out from 
Bethany, He was hungry," v. 12 . 

M 19. And seeing a fig-tree by the way side, He came to it, and 
found nothing on it, save leaves alone, and saith to it, There shall no 
longer be fruit from thee for ever.] Mk. has : " And seeing a fig-tree 
from afar having leaves, He came, if haply He might find anything 
on it : and having come to it, He found nothing except leaves ; for 
it was not the season of figs. And He answered and said to it, May 
no one any longer eat fruit of thee for ever. And the disciples were 
hearing it." The editor omits el apa ti evpi'jaei ev airy kol eXOwv, 
and 6 yap Kcupos ovk r)v avKwv, which might suggest that Christ 
hoped against probability to find " fruit " and was disappointed. He 
also modifies the imprecation or wish, Mk 14b , into a solemn pro- 
phecy of fact. 

E 19. And the fig-tree withered away immediately.] Mk., who 
puts the continuation of the story on the following morning, has 
no parallel to this. 

M[ 20. And the disciples saw it, and marvelled, saying, How im- 
mediately did the fig-tree wither away /) Mk. has : " And Peter 
remembered, and saith to Him, Rabbi, see, the fig-tree which Thou 
didst curse is withered away." 

M 21. And Jesus answered and said to them, Verily I say unto 
you, If ye have faith, and doubt not, not only shall ye do this of the 
fig-tree, but if ye shall say to this mountain, Be taken up and cast 
into the sea, it shall happen.] Mk. has: "And Jesus answered 
and saith to them, Have faith in God. Verily I say to you, That 
whosoever shall say to this mountain, Be taken up, and cast into 
the sea, and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that 
what he speaks happens, it shall be to him." — airoKpiOeU S«] for /ecu 
airoKpi6ct<;, as often. — ciTrev] for Xiyu, as often. Mt. omits Mk.'s 
on, as often. — eav exfre iricrnv] for Mk.'s «x €T6 t""""' is an assimi- 
lation to 17 20 . — 77-10-Tis] here, as in 17 20 , means trust in the divine 
power combined with confidence that he who trusts can make use 
of the divine power to work miracles. See on 17 20 . In Mk. N D 
curss S 1 have el ex €Te > arj d Mt. may have had this before him. If 
so, he bas changed to eav ex 1 )™ to assimilate to 17 20 . 

M 22. And all things, whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, 


ye shall receive.} Mk. has : " Therefore I say to you, All things 
whatsoever ye pray and ask, believe that ye received, and it shall be 
to you." — atTiyo-^re] Mt. omits one of Mk.'s two synonymous verbs ; 
see on 8 3 . — 7tio-t£vovt69] i.e. with trust in the power and love of 
God to grant the request. Mk. adds here : " And when ye stand 
praying, forgive, if ye have ought against any one ; that your Father 
who is in the heavens may forgive you your trespasses." The 
verse seems out of place in Mk., and appears to have been added 
as an afterthought. It is very possibly an early gloss. The phrase 
"Father who is in the heavens " occurs nowhere else in Mk. 1 If the 
verse was in the copy of Mk. used by Mt, the latter has omitted it, 
because he has recorded similar sayings in 6 14 5 23 . A further 
addition is made in Mk. by the majority of MSS., namely, & 8k 
vfieis ovk d(f>i€T€ ov8k 6 Trarrjp vfiwv 6 iv (tois) ovpavois acprjaei ( TO. 
■jrapaTTTwixara vp.S>v. The clause is omitted by X B L S A S 1 k. 
23-27. From Mk u 27 " 33 . 

23. And when He came into the temple, there came to Him, as M 
He was teaching, the chief priests and elders of the people, saying, 
By what authority doest Thou these things, and who gave Thee this 
authority ?] Mk. has : " And they come to Jerusalem : and as He 
was walking in the temple, there come to Him the chief priests, and 
scribes, and elders, and were saying to Him, By what authority 
doest Thou these things ? or who gave Thee this authority that 
Thou shouldest do these things ? " Mk.'s kol epxovrai ek 'UpoaoXvpui 

is unnecessary after v. 18 . — TrpocrfjXOav] slot., as often, for Mk.'s hist, 
present. For irpoa-ipx^o-dai, see on 4 3 . For the aor. in a, see Blass, 
p. 45. — SiSaoTKovTi] This is to be a day of teaching, as yesterday was 
of action; see on v. 14 . — 7rpoa~rj\0av — A.eyovT€s] for Mk.'s Ipxovrai. — ko.1 
tXeyov, as often. Mt. omits Mk.'s redundant <W ravra iroirjs at the end. 

24. And Jesus answered and said to them, J also will ask you one M 
thing, which if ye tell Me, I, too, will tell you by what authority I do 
these things.] Mk. has: "And Jesus said to them, I will ask you 
one thing, and answer Me, and I will tell you by what authority I 
do these things." Mt.'s ov lav tlinjTe p.01 Kdyw ipw is a grammatical 
correction of Mk.'s /ecu airoKpiOrjre poi /ecu ipu>. 

25. The baptism of John, whence was it 1 from heaven, or from M 
men ? And they disputed among themselves, saying, If we say, From 
heaven ; He will say to us, Why then did you not believe him ?] So 
Mk. without irodev rjv and with aTTOKpid-qri p.01, which Mt. omits 
as redundant, after avOpwinov. — o! 8k cucAoyt^ovTo] for Mk.'s ko.1 
SieAoyi^ovTo, as often. — cv eavrots] for Mk.'s 7rpos cauTovs. For a 
similar change, cf. Mt 16 7 , Mk 8 16 . The point seems to be 
that John had borne witness to Christ as the Messiah. If the 

1 But the antithesis " the Father — the Son " occurs also only once in Mk. , viz. 
x 3 32 . ypt is certainly genuine. In the same way Mk 1 1 28 may be a genuine survival 
in Mk. of a Palestinian form of expression which finds fuller expression in Mt. 



authorities had given credence to John, they would have had no 
need to ask by what authority Jesus acted. — eVio-Teuo-aTe airw] 
mo-Teveiv in 8 13 q 28 18 6 21 22 meant to have "trust," "assurance" in 
the power and goodness of God or of Christ. But here and in v. 32 
24 23 - 26 it has the weaker sense to " give credence to." 
M. 26. But if we should say, From men ; we fear the multitude, for all 
hold John as a prophet?} Mk. has : " But should we say from men 
— they feared the multitude. For all held John that he was truly a 
prophet." — eav Se] is a grammatical correction of Mk.'s harsh dAAd. 
— <f>o/3ovfj.€6a\ avoids Mk.'s aposiopesis. — ex ov<TLV &<> TrpcKprp-qv} is a 

correction of Mk.'s el^ov — ovrws otl -TpocprJTrj<; 7)v. 
M 27. And they answered Jesus, and said, We do not know. He also 
said to them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things.} 
So Mk. with Aeyoucriv for iiTTCLv and ko.1 6 'It/o-ovs Ae'yei avrots for ecpt) 
aurots ko.1 ai'ros. 

23-27. Mt. and Lk. agree in the following : 

aurw SiSacrKOVTi, Mt 23 \ SiSoctkoitos avrov, Lk 1 ; 7r€pt7raroi)i'TOS 
airov, Mk 27 . 

AeyovTcs, Mt 23 , Lk 2 . 

aTTOKpiOds 8e, Mt 24 , Lk 8 . Mk. has no d7roKpi0ei's. 

Kdyw, Mt 24 , Lk 3 . 

€t7TT/T€, Mt 24 ; €*7rare, Lk 3 ; a.Troi<pi8r]T€, Mk 29 . 

Both Mk. and Lk. omit Iva raDra 7rotys from Mk 28 and 
a-n-oKpLO-qre p.01 from Mk 30 . 

ol 8c, Mt 25 , Lk 5 ; Kot, Mk ». 

ihv Se', Mt 26 , Lk 6 ; dAAd, Mk 32 . 

Mk. has here : " And He began to speak to them in parables," 
followed by the parable of the Wicked Husbandmen. Mt. inserts 
first the parable of the Two Sons, then borrows from Mk. that of 
the Husbandmen, and then adds the parable of the Marriage Feast ; 
thus forming a group of three prophetic parables (cf. Introduc- 
tion, p. lxv), foretelling the divine judgement impending over the 
Jewish nation. See Gould on Mk 12 1 . 

28-32. Parable of the Two Sons. 
L 28. But what think yef A man had two sons ; and he came to 
the first, and said, Son, go to-day work in the vineyard.} — rt Sc vp.1v 
8oku] See on 17 25 . — 7rpocr€A.#ajv] See on 4 3 . 
L 29. And he answered and said, I am not willing ; but after- 
wards he repented, and went.} 
L 30. And he came to the second, and said likewise. And he 

answered and said, I (go), sir ; and went not.} 
L 31. Which of the two did the will of the father ? They say, 
The first. Jesus saith to them, Verily I say to you, That the toll- 
gatherers and the harlots go before you into the kingdom of God.} 
— irpodyowiv v/xas ets rrjv (SacnXeiav tov dtov} We might have 
expected the editor to use €i« t^v /?acriA.etav raiv oipavuiv, so that 


Trpodyovaiv would have been a timeless statement of fact, meaning 
" go " into the kingdom whenever it shall appear, and so practically 
equivalent to a future ; cf. 7rapa8t'Sorai, Mk 9 31 . It very probably 
represents an Aramaic participle. The fact that we have rov 
6iov instead of tS>v ovpavwv makes it clear that the phrase is not 
editorial, but that it is derived from the source used. The reason 
why the editor did not alter it into 7w oipavuv is not clear. But 
(1) he has perhaps once out of fourteen times left rov 6(ov in a 
Marcan passage (Mt 19 24 ). (2) He elsewhere once has a phrase, 
which he generally alters, e.g. /tei-a Tpeis rip-epas, 27 s3 . Contrast 
j 521 x ^23 20 i9 (?,) He may have felt that here, as in 12 28 , the 
" kingdom of God " of his source was not quite the same as the 
"kingdom of the heavens" which he elsewhere describes. See 
also on 2 1 43 . In "go before you into the kingdom" the meaning 
is not so much, " will go before you into the kingdom when it is 
inaugurated," as "obey God by fulfilling John's command to 
repent, submit to the divine will, take upon themselves the yoke of 
the kingdom, and become heirs of its promises." In other words, 
the " kingdom " here means rather the condition of preparedness 
for the coming kingdom than that future kingdom itself. Had the 
Evangelist written, " will go before you into the kingdom of the 
heavens," he would have represented the Lord as foretelling the 
future admission of the people to whom he was speaking into the 
kingdom. This was just what the editor wished to avoid. They 
were to be cast out of the kingdom, 8 12 . " Go before you into the 
kingdom," on the other hand, emphasises the fact that the toll- 
gatherers and harlots "go," and leaves it quite ambiguous whether 
the persons addressed "go" or not. Like 12 28 , this parable pro- 
bably came from the Logia ; and if that is so, the Logia contained 
not only parables of the kingdom of the heavens, but other sayings 
and parables in which the phrase " kingdom of God " was used in a 
sense not always identical with "the kingdom of the heavens." 

32. For John came to you with the way of righteousness, and you L 
did not believe him : but the toll-gatherers and the harlots beliezed 
him : and you saw (it), and did not afterwards repent, so as to believe 
him.] — ev 6Stp Sikcuo<tw?7s] oSo's here, like the Heb. "i\y\ and the 
Aramaic KrYtiK, means not so much the path trodden as the manner, 

custom, method. To come with the way of righteousness is to 
come as a representative and teacher of righteousness and of her 
methods. "John came with the way of righteousness," means 
" John came, and what he taught was good," he represented and 
stood for the manner of life which righteousness demands. See 
Wellhausen, in loc, and cf. 686v 6eov, 22 16 . The Lord applies the 
answer of the authorities to their own conduct by way of contrast. 
They had said that that son was to be approved who, though he 


was unwilling at first, yet afterwards went into the vineyard. But 
the Baptist came preaching righteousness, calling men to go into 
God's vineyard through the gate of repentance, and they had given 
no ear to his preaching. In this respect they were like the first 
son of the parable, who said I am unwilling. But, unlike him, 
they had not afterwards repented and obeyed the Baptist's call. 
On the other hand, the toll-gatherers and the harlots had also 
been like the first son, but they had changed their mind when 
John preached, and had obeyed the call. This only hardened 
the Jewish authorities the more. A vineyard in which outcasts 
worked was no vineyard for them. A kingdom into which the 
toll-gatherers could enter was no kingdom for them. Thus toll- 
gatherers and harlots went before them into the kingdom of God. 
— tov 7rio-T€uo-cu] " gives rather the content than the purpose of 
/jL€T€fxe\i]Or]T€" Moulton, p. 216. But unless oi be omitted or 
another negative be inserted before Tricn-evo-cn, it is difficult to 
make any sense of the clause which will suit this context, except 
by translating "to believe," i.e. "and believed him." See below. 

28-31. sCDLa/S'S 2 latt have the obedient son first, the 
disobedient son second. 

B reverses the order. 

In v. 81 K C L al c f q S 2 have -n-pwros. This seems to be required 
by the context. The Pharisees could hardly give any other answer, 
and the Lord's reply seems to presuppose it. The Pharisees 
were in part like the first son, i.e. they refused to give heed to 
John's preaching. But they were also unlike him, since he came to 
a better state of mind, whilst they hardened themselves the more. 

B has uorepos, D latt lo-^aTo?, S 1 " the last." In the case of B, 
which has reversed the order of vv. 29 - w , the Pharisees still approve 
the conduct of the son who first refused and afterwards went. 
But D S 1 latt make the Pharisees approve the conduct of the son 
who promised to go and failed to fulfil his promise. Wellhausen 
believes this to be the original text, and supposes that the 
Pharisees intentionally gave a perverse answer in order to make 
pointless the moral which Christ was going to draw from the natural 
rejoinder. They ought to have answered that the first son did 
his father's will, and He would then have contrasted their conduct 
with that of the son approved by them, and compared them to 
the son whose conduct they reprehended. But they purposely 
give the wrong answer, and Christ's rejoinder, v. 31 , is an expression 
of indignation at their perversity, rather than an explanation of 
the parable. Merx, too, upholds this reading, and finds in it the 
original text which has given rise to the other readings. But it 
seems probable that the order of K C D L al and Trpurros are the 

There would be a natural tendency to transpose this order : 


(1) It might be argued that if the first son went, there was 

no occasion to summon the second ; 

(2) the fulfilment of the command forms an unexpected climax 

to the story ; 

(3) it was natural to identify the disobedient son with the 

Jew, the obedient son with the Gentile. Along this 
line of interpretation the latter should come last in 
chronological order ; 

(4) the varepov of v. 29 may have had some influence in causing 

this verse to be placed after v. 30 ; 

(5) further, v. 32 may have suggested the change of order. 

" John came, and you did not believe " = ovk dirrjXOe ; 
" the toll-gatherers and harlots believed " = fxera^X-qdeU 


On these grounds the order of B might be explained as due 
to emendation for literary and exegetical reasons, and the substitu- 
tion of " the last " for " the first " might be supposed to be later 
than the transposition of order. 

But the MS. evidence suggests that the substitution is earlier 
than the transposition of order, and is the probable cause of it. 

The earliest emendation seems to have been the substitution 
of "the last" (D latt S 1 ) for "the first." This may be due to 
antipharisaic motives. The Lord had said of them that "they 
say and do not." They must, therefore, be represented as 
approving of one who said " I go," and went not The variations 
vo-Tcpos, laxaros are against the originality of this reading. 

The transposition of order seems to have originated in a text 
in which " the last " had already been adopted, and to have been 
made by some one who misunderstood the motive which had led 
to the substitution of "the last" for "the first," in order to make 
the Pharisees return the obvious answer. 

32. oil fieTe/xeXrjdTrre] B I 1 3 22 33 latt have oi'84. D omits the nega- 
tive, c e alter its position quod non credidistis. S 1 also omits. Burkitt 
translates " but ye, when ye saw it — at the last have ye changed your 
mind that ye should believe in Him?" But the clause is not necessarily 
interrogative in the Syriac. The omission is probably accidental. The 
clause is very difficult. Mt. has tov with the infinitive seven times. In 
2 13 and 3 13 with an aorist, of a definite action, in n 1 and 13 8 with a present, 
of a continuous action. In 6 8 it occurs after irp6. Here "did not repent 
so as to believe " should be tov iriaTeveiv rather than tov viarevo-cu. But to 
translate "did not repent of having believed " seems to destroy the sense. 
The Pharisees had not believed, v.* 2 . D's omission of the negative gives a 
possible rendering "repented so as to believe" ; but this seems an unlikely 
conclusion to the saying. The transposition of the negative by c e also gives 
a weak finish to the saying, and is probably a translator's emendation. A 
omits the whole of the last clause. This may be due to homceoteleuton. It 
is difficult to think that the clause as it stands is original, but if any part 
is genuine ov or otidt jierfniK-fjdTjre must have belonged to it; possibly tov 
TKrrevffcn avrtfi is a later gloss. 


33-46. From Mk I2 1 " 12 . See Briggs, The Messiah of the 
Gospels, p. 114. 

33-46. The labourers in the vineyard. 
M 33. Hear another parable : There was a man, a householder, 
who planted a vineyard, and placed round it a fence, and digged in 
it a press, and built a tower.] Mk. has : " A man planted a vine- 
yard, and placed round (it) a fence, and digged a press, and built 
a tower." The details are borrowed from Is 5 2 . For the av#pw7ros 

OlKoSeCTTTOT^S OOTIS, Cf. 1 3 52 dv6pa)TTW OLKoSeCTTrOTJj OCTTIS, 20 1 lb., 

l8 28 avdpwirw ^acrtXci os. Mk. has simply av6p<Miro<;. — <f>payp.6v avrto 
TrepuOrjKev] Mk. has rrepUdrjKev <f>payfx6v. For Mt's order, cf. 

Is 5 2 . — Aryvoi/] Mk. has V7ro\rjviov ) Is. TrpoXrjviov. 

M 33. And let it out to husbandmen, and went away.] So Mk. 

M 34. And when the season of the fruits arrived, he sent his 
servant to the husbandmen to receive its fruits!] Mk. has : " And 
sent to the husbandmen at the season a servant, that he might 
receive from the husbandmen the fruits of the vineyard." 

M 35. And the husbandmen took his servants, and beat one, and 
killed another, and stoned another.] Mk. has: "And they took 
him, and beat him, and sent him away empty. And again he sent 
to them another servant; and him they — (?), and shamefully 
treated. And another he sent, and him they killed." 

M 36. Again, he sent other servants more than the first : and they 
did to them likewise.] Mk. has : " And many others ; beating some, 
and killing some." In Mk. there is before the final sending of the 
son a triple sending of a single messenger, vv. 2, *• 5 , followed by a 
general statement, v. 6 " and many others." Mt. simplifies this 
into a double sending of several messengers, vv. 84, 36 , but seems to 
show a trace of Mk.'s first three messengers in his ov p.ev, ov 8£, 
ov Se, v. 35 . He avoids Mk.'s rare and uncertain (probably corrupt) 
word eV€(£aAiWai/. Further, in Mk. the treatment of the first three 
messengers is climactic : the first they beat and sent away, the 
second they put to shame, the third they killed. After this " the 
many others " comes in very weakly. Mt., with his double sending 
of several messengers, avoids this anticlimax. Lk. has a triple 
sending of a single messenger. The first was beaten and sent 
back empty-handed, the second beaten and dishonoured and sent 
away, the third wounded and cast out. Thus the crime of murder 
is not reached till the son is sent. 

M 37. And at last he sent to them his son, saying, They will 
reverence my son.] Mk. has : " Still one he had, a son beloved. 
He sent him last to them, saying that they will reverence my 
son." See Gould on Mk 12 6 - 11 . 

M 38. But the husbandmen, having seen the son, said amongst 
themselves, This is the heir ; come, let us kill him, and let us have his 
inheritance.] Mk. has : " But those husbandmen said to one 


another that this is the heir ; come, let us kill him, and ours shall 
be the inheritance. — iv eavTois] Mk. has Trpos tavrous. Mt. avoids 
7r/3os in this sense ; cf. v. 25 , and i6 7 = Mk 8 16 . 

39. And they took him, and cast him outside the vineyard, and M 
killed him.] Mk. has : " And they took him, and killed him, and 
cast him outside the vineyard." Mt., with the history of the 
Passion in his mind, reverses Mk.'s second and third clauses. 
Christ was crucified outside the city. See on Lk 20 15 . 

40, 41. When, therefore, the lord of the vineyard shall come, what M 
will he do to those husbandmen ? They say to him, He will evilly 
destroy the evil ones, and will give the vineyard to other husbandmen, 
who will render to him the fruits at their seasons.] Mk. has : 

" What will the lord of the vineyard do ? He will come 
and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard to 
others." In Mk. Christ Himself answers the rhetorical question. 
Mt. places the answer in the mouth of the rulers, that they them- 
selves, as in v. 31 , may pronounce their own condemnation. This 
change involves others. Mk.'s abrupt ri 71-01770-61 6 Ku'pios tov 
afjLTrc\wvo<; must now, as an independent sentence, be rounded off 
by the anticipation of orav ovv IXBrj, and by the addition of ekci'vois, 
which had been omitted from Mk 7 . In v. 41 ko.kov<; kokws takes 
the place of cAevcreTcu, which has been transferred to v. 40 ; eVSojo-eTai, 
cf. i$£8eTo, v. 33 , takes the place of Swaei, and a clause is added to 
round off the sentence. For the phraseology, cf. Ps i 3 . 

42. Jesus saith to them, Did you never read in the Scriptures, M 
The stone which the builders rejected, this became the head of the 
corner : from the Lord was this, and it is marvellous in our eyes 1] 
So Mk., without "Jesus saith to them," and with " Did you not 
read this Scripture," for Mt.'s " Did you never read in the Scrip- 
tures." The quotation is from the LXX of Ps 117 22 . avrq 
corresponds to the Heb. neutral pronoun nxt. " This " means this 
fact, that the rejected stone became the head of the corner. 

43. Therefore I say to you, That the kingdom of God shall be E 
taken from you, and shall be given to a nation which produceth its 
fruits'] The words do not occur in Mk. They are an expository 
comment of the editor. The parable carries forward the thought 
of the preceding section. The Jewish rulers had adopted towards 
the Baptist a policy of non-recognition, which involved them in 
doubts as to the authority of Christ as the Messiah, vv. 23-32 . Their 
action was typical and prophetic. They had at all times disobeyed 
the messengers of God, and were on the point of putting to death 
the Messiah, the Son of God, and His final Messenger to them. 
Consequently the divine favour, the kingdom = the vineyard, would 
be withdrawn from them and given to others. Vv. 41 " 42 express the 
same thought under another metaphor. The stone which the 
builders of Israel, that is, the Jewish authorities, rejected would 


become the chief stone in another building. The edifice of Israel's 
national life was to give place to another building; cf. i6 18 oIko- 
So/xricru) fxov rrjv eK/cAr/criav. — rj ySacriXeia tov #eow] Since the parable 
as a whole is clearly taken from Mk., there is every reason to 
suppose that this verse, which is not in Mk., is an editorial 
comment on the meaning of the parable. The vineyard was to be 
taken from the Jewish nation ; but what term could the editor sub- 
stitute for the vineyard ? What he wished to express was, no doubt, 
the privileged position of the Jews as the recipients of a divine 
revelation. But this was just what the Rabbinical writers express 
by " the sovereignty of the heavens." When a heathen became a 
proselyte, and was incorporated into the privileged Jewish people, 
he was said to take upon himself the sovereignty of the heavens ; 
see Dalman, Words, p. 97. We might therefore have expected the 
editor to use the phrase j3ao-i\eCa w oipavwv. But since he has 
throughout the Gospel employed this term for the eschatological 
kingdom which Christ announced, and which was to be inaugurated 
when the Son of Man came upon the clouds of heaven, it would 
have been unsuitable here. For that kingdom had never been the 
possession of the Jewish rulers, and could not be taken from 
them. The phrase /fao-iXeia tov 6eov, in the sense current 
among the Jews of the 1st century a.d., of sovereignty of 
God, seemed more suitable here; and the editor, by using it, 
once more betrays his Jewish origin, and emphasises his sense of 
the difference between this phrase in his Gospel and the more 
frequent fiacriXeia. tuv oipavwv. See on 12 28 and 21 31 , and Intro- 
duction, p. lxvii. — eOvet] the conception of the Christian society as 
an eOvos occurs only here in the Gospel. It has twice been called 
an eKKXrjaia, 16 17 18 17 . The word is probably here suggested by 
the idea of the Jewish nation, implied in the v/iSv. 
E ? 44. And every one who falleth upon this stone shall be dashed in 
pieces : but upon whomsoever it shall fall, it shall scatter him as dust.] 
The words do not occur in Mk. The stone of v. 42 seems to have 
suggested the stone of Is 8 14 - 15 and the stone of Dn 2 34 - 44_45 . The 
verse apparently means that the rejection of the Messiah, " the son " 
of v. 37 and " the stone " of v. 42 , would involve the complete break 
up of the Jewish polity. — AiK/x^o-ei] is borrowed from Dn 2 U (Th.), 
and is used in the same sense as in that passage, namely, to break 
into small pieces, or to scatter as dust ; see Deissm. Bib. Stud. 
p. 225. See also Briggs, Afessianic Prophecy, p. 208. 

The verse is omitted by D 33 a b e ff 1 2 S 1 . It may perhaps be 
an interpolation from Lk 20 18 , where the saying occurs in the form 
7rSs 6 Trecrwv «r Ikuvov tov Xidov, k.t.X. But the verse as it stands 
in Mt. looks very much like an early gloss, suggested by v. 43 . That 
verse seems to be an editorial interpretation of the meaning of the 
parable. The vineyard was to be given to others, v. 41 . That is to 


say, the privileges of the Jewish nation, entrusted to it by God, 
were to be taken from it and given to others. The editor describes 
these privileges as " the kingdom of God," by which he probably 
means the whole of the special revelation vouchsafed to the Jewish 
nation. He could hardly have used the term " the kingdom of 
the heavens," because he everywhere employs this term to signify 
the kingdom announced by Christ as coming in the near future. 
Here the parable necessitates the use of a term to describe some 
privilege, corresponding to the vineyard, already in the possession 
of the Jewish nation. It is not very probable that after thus 
interpreting the parable and closing the narrative the editor would 
have added v. 44 , which carries the thought back again to v. 42 . But 
a later copyist of the Gospel has been reminded by the word ZOvu 
(v. 43 ) of a passage in Dn 2 U where it is said that the kingdom 
shall not be left to another people, ^ /3ao-iA.aa avrov Xaw frepu) ovx 
vTro\u<f>6ij<TeTai, Th. ; avrr] 7) /SacriAeia aAAo edvos ov fx.r) idarj, LXX. 
Whilst considering this contrast, his eye was caught by the next 
clause in Dn., Xen-rwel kou Ai/c^ctci iracras ras /3acrtXetas. This 
afforded him the nucleus of an explanatory gloss, v. 44 , which he 
has built up out of Dn 2 45 (Th.), Is 8 14 - 15 . How, then, are we 
to explain Lk 20 18 ? It is natural to say that, if not genuine in 
Mt., the history of the saying begins with Lk 20 18 , whence it has 
been transferred to Mt. But, if I am not mistaken, the history of 
the clause begins rather with Mt 21 43 . It was the ZOvei of that 
verse which directed attention to the " other nation " of Dn 2 U , 
and so to the XiK/x-qcret of that passage. It is improbable that the 
original editor of Mt. inserted v. 44 , but it may have been inter- 
polated at a very early date, and may have been read as part of 
the first Gospel by the author of the third. Or it may have passed 
from the first Gospel into the third at so early a date that no hint 
of its spuriousness there is given by the extant witnesses to the 
text of that Gospel. There is, of course, no reason why the same 
glossator should not have inserted the words in both Gospels. 

45. And the chief priest and the Pharisees heard His parables, M 
and perceived that He speaks about them.] 

46. And seeking to arrest Him, they feared the multitudes, since M 
they held Him for a prophet.] Mk. has : "They were seeking to 
arrest Him, and feared the multitude : for they perceived that He 
spoke the parable with reference to them. And leaving Him, they 
went away." Mt., who has another parable to insert, omits the last 
clause. Mt.'s slight changes of Mk. are intentional, lyvwo-av yap 
in Mk. explains not the immediately preceding clause, but ^iJtow 
avrov Kpa-nja-at. Mt. places the clauses in logical order : (a) the 
motive, "they perceived that He spoke about them "; (b) the con- 
sequent action, "seeking to arrest Him"; (c) the hindrance, "they 
feared the people." Then to maintain the external form of Mk.'s 


sentence, he adds another clause stating the ground of tyo/Sr/Orjcrav. 
— c»xA.ovs] as often, for Mk.'s singular. d<s Trpocp-rJTrjv, according to 
Wellhausen, is Aramaic. We should expect <I>s, as in v. 26 . 

33-46. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following parti- 
culars. Both have the order avdpu>7ro<; i<pvTevcrev d/i.7reAoJva, Mt 33 , 
Lk 20 9 . Both insert oi yeatpyoi, Mt 35 , Lk 10 . Both insert iSo'vTes, 
Mt 88 , Lk 14 . Both insert o3v, Mt 40 , Lk 15 . Both insert oi 
dpx ie P £ <^> Mt 45 , Lk 19 . More important is the fact that Lk. also 
inserts words almost identical with Mt 44 . If Mt ** be genuine, 
this agreement might seem to suggest a second source. But 
since in other respects the texts of Mt. and Lk. read like the 
result of independent redaction of Mk., it is better to suppose 
that Lk. had read Mt, and that the agreements just mentioned 
are due to reminiscence by Lk. of Mt.'s version of the parable. 
The editor here adds a parable from the Logia. 

E XXII. 1. And Jesus answered again, and spake in parables to 
them, saying, 

L 2. The kingdom of the heavens is likened to a human king, who 
made a marriage for his son.] For wfiotwdrj, see on 13 24 . For 
avOpuTrti) /3acri\eL, 18 23 . 

L 3. And sent his servants to call the invited (guests) to the 
marriage : and they were unwilling to come.] 

L 4. Again, he sent other servants, saying, Say to the invited 
(guests), Behold, my feast I have prepared : my oxen and fatlings 
are slaughtered, and all things are ready : come to the marriage?] 
For the double sending, cf. 21 36 . 

L 5, 6. And they, neglecting (the invitation), went away, one to his 

E estate, and one to his business : and the rest seized his servants, 
and ill-treated them, and killed them.] — tSiov] here = the possessive 
pronoun; see Deissm. Bib. Stud. 123. 

E 7. And the king was angry, and sent his armies, and destroyed 
those murderer*, and burnt up their city.] 

6, 7. These "erses may be due to the editor writing in remem- 
brance of the death of the Baptist, the Crucifixion of the Messiah, 
the persecution of the Apostles, and the destruction of Jerusalem. 
V. 8 follows well upon v. 5 . ovk rja-av d£i«n suits the indifferent 
guests of v. 5 much better than the executed murderers of v. 7 . The 
verse expresses the editor's belief in the connection between the 
fall of Jerusalem and the Parousia. The marriage feast here 
follows the burning of the city. 

L 8. Then he saith to his servants, The marriage feast is ready, 
but the invited (guests) were not worthy '.] 

L 9. Go therefore to the byways, and as many as ye shall find, 
invite to the marriage.] — Sic^o'Sovs rwv 68o>v] Cf. Hdt. i. 199. 

L 10. And those servants went out into the highways, and gathered 
all whom they found, both evil and good : and the marriage feast 


was supplied with guests.] — crvr^yayov] is probably a translation of 
the Aram, root D33 which in the Piel means to "gather," and in 
the Hiphil to " bring in," to " invite." The subst. riDJSn means 
hospitality, e.g. DTniN riD33n, Shabb 127% Peak, c. i. irov-qpoxx; pre- 
pares the way for vv. 11 " 14 . — 7royrjpovs re ko.(] tc *<ai only here in 
Mt., tc occurs also in 27^ 28 12 . 

1-10. So far the editor has adapted a Logian " kingdom " 
parable to his context. In the original parable the story of a 
king who made a marriage feast and invited guests who were 
indifferent to the invitation, was used to describe the reception 
accorded to the good news of the coming kingdom of the heavens. 
By inserting vv. 6 " 7 the editor has adapted this, and brought it into 
line with Mark's parable of the Husbandmen, and the preceding 
parable of the Two Sons. The Jewish nation in the person of its * 
rulers had refused to listen to God's call to repentance (21 32 ), had 
rejected the Messiah (v. 39 ), and had neglected the summons to 
the marriage feast (2 2 5 ). Consequently, judgement upon them 
was at hand. Another people would receive their privileges (21 43 
22 10 ), whilst the Jewish metropolis, and with it the Jewish polity, 
would be destroyed, 2 2 7 . The next four verses seem to be the 
closing paragraph of another parable. They are hardly suitable 
here as a conclusion of vv. 1 " 10 , because the people invited in from 
the streets could hardly be expected to have provided themselves 
with festal attire. The parable to which n " 14 originally belonged no 
doubt spoke of an interval between the invitation and the feast, 
during which the guests were expected to make suitable preparations. 

Such a parable is attributed to Jochanan ben Zaccai in B. 
Shabbath 153% and to Judah ha Nasi in Midr. Koh 9 s (Wiinsche, 
p. 122). A king invited his servants to a feast, but gave them no 
fixed time for the meal. The wise attired themselves fittingly, and 
waited at the palace door. The foolish went away to their work. 
Suddenly the king issued his summons. The wise came in their 
festal robes, and the foolish in their working clothes. These were 
made to stand and watch the wise enjoying the meal. Lk 14 15 - 24 
has a parable of similar outline to Mt 22 1 " 10 . But the language 
and details are quite different. The two Evangelists clearly are 
not borrowing from the same written source. 

11. And the king went in to behold the guests, and saw there L 
a man not attired in a wedding garment.] — ovk evSeSv/xevov] cf. 
Moulton, pp. 231 f. — 8eda-au6ai] cf. on II 7 . 

12. And he saith to him, Friend, how earnest thou in here not L 
having a wedding garment? And he was reduced to silence.] — 
croupe] See on 20 13 . 

13. Then the king said to the servants, Bind him feet and hands, L 
and cast him out into the outer darkness ; there shall be the wailing 
and the gnashing of teeth.] Parable and fulfilment here inter- 


mingle. In the parable the rejected guest was dismissed from 
the palace with ignominy. But the editor has in mind the fulfil- 
ment of the parable in the expulsion of the unworthy from the 
kingdom into the darkness of Gehenna, cf. i3 41,42 , and gives the 
ending of the parable in terms more appropriate to its explanation 
and fulfilment For to o-kotos, k.t.X, see on 8 12 . 
1 14. For many are called, bui few chosen.~\ Vv. 11 * 14 do not seem 
to suit this connection. The editor has added them apparently 
because of the similarity of subject-matter, a wedding feast 1 " 10 , 
a wedding garment u ' 14 . Vv. 1-10 in this connection seem clearly 
prophetic of the fate of the Jewish nation. That is to say, this 
application is given to the parable by the context into which the 
editor has set it. But vv. 11 " 14 seem to have no bearing upon this 
application, unless we suppose that the editor found in the verses 
some such train of thought as the following. The Jews as a 
nation would be punished for their rejection of God's call by the 
destruction of their national polity, vv. 1 ' 9 . Their privileges would 
be given to other people, v. 10 ; but though the invitation would be 
given to all, none would be admitted without the proper qualifica- 
tion, n * 14 . It seems clear that the parable from which n " 13 are 
taken originally had reference not to the Jewish nation at all, but 
to the Christian society waiting for the coming kingdom. During 
this period the disciples were to be in a state of readiness, because 
when the kingdom came all who were not prepared would be 
rejected. Compare the parable of the Tares, i3 24 - 80 - S6 -* s , and that 
of the Virgins, 25 1 ' 13 . The wedding garment obviously symbolises 
a condition of readiness and equipment with the necessary quali 
fication. What this is need not be further defined than by saying 
that it is the righteousness obtained by obedience to Christ's 
teaching, 5 20 ; or by doing the will of God, 7 21 ; or the moral 
qualifications which Christ recommends, 18 3 ; or confession of 
Him before men, io 32 . V. 14 seems to express this warning in a 
proverbial form. Many are called to enter the kingdom, but 
comparatively few obtain the necessary qualifications, and are 
ultimately admitted. The words, though they express the same 
lesson of warning as w. 11-13 , do not seem very harmonious in form 
with them. They may be a detached saying added here by the 
editor because of the verbal connection 1 between kXtjtoi and 
KtuXruxivoi, vv. 3, 4 . The contrast between the few and the many is 
found in 2 Es 8 1 " The Most High hath made this world for many, 
but the world to come for few " ; 8 " There be many created, but 
few shall be saved " ; cf. 8 55 " the multitude of them that perish " ; 
9 16 "there shall be more of them which perish, than of them 
which shall be saved " ; Apoc. Bar 44 16 " the dwelling of the rest 
who are many will be in the fire." 

1 Cf. on 6 19 18 7 . 


15-22. From Mk 1 2 13 - 17 . See Gould in be. 

15. Then the Pharisees went and took counsel how they might M 
entrap Him in argument.] 

16. And they send to Him their disciples with the Herodians, M 
saying, Teacher, we know that Thou art true, and teachest the way 
of God in truth, and carest not for any man ; for Thou regardest 
not the person of men.] Mk. has : " And they send to Him certain 
of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, that they might ensnare Him 

in argument. And they came and say to Him, Teacher, We know 
that Thou art true, and carest not for any man ; for Thou regardest 
not the person of men, but truly teachest the way of God." In 
Mk. the " they " must refer to the chief priests and elders and 
scribes, who have not been mentioned by name since n 27 . Mt., 
who throughout regards the Pharisees as the most bitter of Christ's 
opponents, and lays stress on their hostility, has inserted chief 
priests and Pharisees in 21 45 , and reintroduces them here as the 
subject of the sentence. For totc, see on 2 7 . For TropevOwTv;, 
see on 21 2 ; and for <rvfi(3ov\iov !Aa/3ov, 12 14 . Mt. substitutes 
7rayiSev€iv for Mk.'s aypcv€iv. He retains here, unusually, Mk.'s 
historic present, d7ro<rre'AAov<riv. He had omitted the Herodians 
from Mk 3 6 , but retains them here because their presence adds 
point to the narrative. As supporters of Herod, they would have 
been glad to denounce to the Roman Government any one who 
agitated against the political status quo. The rearrangement of 
clauses in v. 16 brings together the two positive sentences followed by 
the two negative ones. — rrjv 6Sov rov 6eov] for o8ov, see on 2 1 31 . The 
way of God is the conduct or manner of life which God requires. 

17. Tell us, therefore, What thinkest Thou 1 Is it lawful to give m 
tribute to Casar or not?] Mk. omits the first clause, and adds 
Swfxev 17 fjirj 8wpev. For ti <roi Bokcl, see on 1 7 25 . For Mt.'s 
omission of the redundant " shall we give or not give," see on 8 16 ; 
and for kt^o-os, 17 25 . 

18. And Jesus perceived their malice, and said, Why tempt ye u 
Me, ye hypocrites ?] Mk. has : " And He knew (ci'Sws) their 
hypocrisy, and said to them, Why tempt ye Me ?" Mt. substitutes 

irovrjpiav for VTTOKpuriv, but adds VTTOKpiTdL 

19. Show to Me the tribute coin. And they brought to Him a m 
denarius.] Mk. has: "Bring Me a denarius, that I may see it 
And they brought (one)." Mk.'s <f>epeTe may be due to the fact that 
Roman denarii would not be current in the Temple, and were, there- 
fore, not likely to be found there. If so, Mt. with his tViScif are misses 
the point. See Swete. For irpoo-^lpuv, see Introduction, p. lxxxvi. 

20. And He saith to them, Whose is this representation and M 
legend f They say to Him, Casar's.] Mk. has: "And He saith 

to them, Whose is this representation and legend ? And they said 
to Him, Caesar's." For totc, see 2 7 . 


M 21. Then He saith to them, Render therefore to Ccesar the things 
of Ccesar, and to God the things of God.] So Mk., with "And Jesus 
said " and no ovv, which occurs in Mk. about four times as against 
about fifty-six occurrences in Mt. For the meaning, see Swete. 

M 22. And they heard (it), and marvelled, and left Him, and 
departed.] Mk. has : " And they were marvelling at Him." — 
iOavfjiacrav] aor. for Mk.'s imperfect, as often. 

15-22. Lk. agrees with Mt. in omitting BQy/xev r) p,rj Sojp.ev from 
Mk v. 14 ; in Sei&we Lk 24 = Mt 19 hnSeigart against Mt 16 <f>e P ere ; 
and in the order olttoSotc — ra Kai'o-apos as against Mk.'s to. Kaurapos 
a7rdSoT€. Also in auTOts, Mt 21 = irpos avTOvs, Lk 25 . 
23-33. From Mk 12 18 - 27 . 

M 23. On that day there came to Him Sadducees, saying that there is 
no resurrection, and they asked Him.] Mk. has : " And there come 
Sadducees to Him, who say that there is no resurrection ; and they 
were asking Him." For iv Ikuvti rrj rj/j-ipa, see 13 1 ; Trpoa-rjXOov, 
see on 4A Mt. avoids Mk.'s hist. pres. Ip^ovTai, as often. — 
iirrjpwTrja-av] Mt. avoids Mk.'s imperf., as often. 

M 24. Saying, Teacher, Moses said, If a man die, not having 
children, his brother should marry his wife, and raise up seed to his 
brother.] Mk. has : "Saying, Teacher, Moses wrote for us, that if 
a man's brother die, and leave a wife, and leave no child, that his 
brother should take his wife, and raise up seed to his brother." 
Mk.'s Greek is awkward. In eypaif/ev on — Iva there is a confusion 
of two constructions, and the threefold d8eA<po's obscures the 
meaning. Mt. substitutes ti? for nvos d8eA<£os, thus getting rid of 
one dSeAepos, omits the superfluous Iva, omits the unnecessary /ecu 
KaTaXiirQ yvvaiKa, and substitutes the technical pevetv for 
Ad/fy^'cf. Gn 38 s ydp.(3pev<rai avrrjv. In Lv 18 16 20 21 marriage 
with a deceased brother's wife is forbidden. But Dt 25 5 " 10 
specifies certain circumstances under which it shall be the duty of a 
man to contract such a marriage. — p.r) e\ (1)V TiKva] The Heb. has 
simply "son," i.e. male issue. But the LXX has <nr£pp.a, and 
Jos. (Ant. iv. 255) interpreted in this sense. 

M 25. And there were with us seven brethren ; and the first, having 
married, died, and not having seed, left his wife to his brother.] 
Mk. has : " Seven brethren there were ; and the first took a wife, 
and died, and left no seed." 

M 26. Likewise the second, and the third, to the seventh^ Mk. 
has : " And the second took her, and died, not leaving seed. And 
the third likewise. And the seven left no seed." 

M 27. And last of all, the woman died.] So Mk. with la-xarov f or 
vvrepov. Mt. seven times has vo-repov. 

M 28. In the resurrection, therefore, of which of them shall she be 

1 In Dt 25 s LXX has koX ffwoirfffti avry for Wfflb but Ao -- ha<; /<cai ) * r *W*' 
(ipeixrei (airnjv). 


wife, for all had her 1] Mk. has: "In the resurrection, of which 
of them shall she be wife, for the seven had her as wife ? " Mt. 
avoids Mk.'s repeated "seven" and "wife," and inserts a con- 
necting particle (ow), 

29. And Jesus answered and said to them, Ye err, not knowing M 
the Scriptures, nor the power of God.] Mk. has: "Jesus said to 
them, Do ye not therefore err," etc. Christ's answer is twofold. 
In denying the possibility of a resurrection, and in supposing that 
imaginary complications arising out of earthly relationships could 
be used as an argument against it, they betrayed (a) insufficient 
knowledge of the law, which, if it did not explicitly teach the doc- 
trine of the resurrection, yet did implicitly teach its possibility; (b) 
want of faith in the power of God to solve all such difficulties as 
they alleged. Broadly speaking, a belief in a resurrection was a 
fundamental doctrine of Jewish literature from the second century 
B.C. See Charles, Eschatology ; Volz, Jiid. Eschat. 240 ff. ; Schiirer, 
11. ii. 179 ff. But very varied views were held as to its scope. 
The Sadducees denied it; see Jos. Wars, ii. 165; B. Sanh oo b . 
So did the Samaritans, who were accused by the Jews of having 
falsified the Pentateuch in order to obliterate passages which taught 

it ; Sanh oo b . Appeal was made on behalf of it to Scripture, e.g. 
in B. Sanh 9o b R. Jochanan appeals to Nu 18 28 , from which it 
is deduced that Aaron is eternally living : " Here is also the 
resurrection of the dead signified." R. Simai appealed to Ex 6 4 
"The Sadducees asked R. Gamaliel, Whence is it proved that the 
Holy One, blessed be He, will raise the dead ? He answered, From 
the Pentateuch, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa." There follow 
citations of Dt 3i 16 , Is 26 19 , and Ca 7 10 . "He has no part in 
the world to come," says the Mishnah (Sanh io 1 ), "who denies 
that the resurrection can be proved from the Pentateuch." 

30. For in the resurrection they do not marry, nor are given in K 
marriage, but are as angels in heaven. 1 ] Mk. has : " For when they 
rise from the dead they do not marry, nor are given in marriage ; 
but are as angels in the heavens." The point seems to be that, in 
the life which follows the resurrection, men will then be as the 
angels in heaven now are, immortal, and without need of marriage 
to propagate their kind. 

31. 32. But concerning the resurrection of the dead, Have ye M 
not read that which was said to you by God, saying, I am the God 
of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob ? He is 
not the God of dead (persons), but of living.] The inference seems 
to be that when the words were spoken the patriarchs were still 

1 iv rcj; ovpavy. Mk. has iv rois ovpavoh, and the plural would accord with 
the usage of the first Gospel. Cf. 24 s9 - 36 18 10 . Mk 13 32 has the singular in this 
connection, and Mt. there substitutes the plural, so that the singular in 22*° is 
all the more unexpected. 


living, and that their resurrection was a natural and probable 
corollary. Cf. the similar inference from Nu 18 28 with reference 
to Aaron, quoted above from Sank 9o b . Mk. has : " But con- 
cerning the dead, that they rise: have ye not read in the book ol 
Moses, at the Bush how God spake to him, saying, I am the God 
of Abraham, and God of Isaac, and God of Jacob ? He is not 
God of dead persons, but of living : ye greatly err." The quota- 
tion is from Ex 3 6 . 
M 33. And when the multitudes heard, they were astonished at His 
teaching.} The editor inserts here words which he has omitted 
from Mk n 18 "For all the multitude was astonished at His 

23-33. Lk. agrees with Mt. against Mk. in the following : 

Trpo(rrjX6ov, Mt 23 = TrpoaeXOovTts, Lk 27 ; lp\ovTai, Mk 18 . 

€7T?;pwTT/(rav, Mt **, Lk 27 ; iwrjpwTwv, Mk 18 . 

vo-Tcpov, Mt 27 , Lk 32 ; Io-xcitov, Mk 22 . 

e&rw, Mt » Lk 84 ; tyrj, Mk 24 . 

Both Mt 28 and Lk 33 insert ovv, and both omit ZXaftev avT-qv, 
koX airiOavtv p.rj KaToAnrwv awepfxa from Mk 21 . 

23. \tyovres] So X B D a/S 1 S 2 (" and they say "). The meaning seems 
to be that certain Sadducees came and denied that there was a resurrection, 
N c EFa/ have ol X^yovres ; but with this reading we should expect also el 

30. (LyyeXoi] Add 0eoO, N L. Omit B D I 209 latt S 1 S J . 

34-40. Cf. Mkia 28 " 34 . 

E 34. And the Pharisees, having heard that He had silenced the 
Sadducees, were gathered together.} 

E 35. And one of them asked Him, testing Him.~\ 

Mk. here records the story of a scribe who, approving of 
Christ's answers, himself asked a question, and expressed great 
approval of the answer which he received. The story ends with 
a statement of Christ's appreciation of the character of His 
questioner. In Mt. the incident takes a different turn. The 
Pharisees gather together, and one of them puts a question to 
Christ, testing Him. The whole of Mk.'s continuation of the 
narrative after Christ's answer is omitted. It is difficult to see in 
the continual mention of the Pharisees in Mt. any other purpose 
than a desire to prepare the way for the chapter of denunciation 
of the scribes and Pharisees which is to follow in ch. 23. Cf. 21 45 
"the chief priests and the Pharisees," 22 15 "the Pharisees," 
84 " the Pharisees," 41 " the Pharisees." This may account for 
the unfavourable view taken here of Mk.'s scribe He was a 
Pharisee, and came to Christ with hostile intent. Consequently 
the approval expressed of him by Christ must be dropped, and 
with it goes what may have seemed to the editor the somewhat 
patronising words of the scribe in Mk I2 32 - 33 . Cf. the omission 


of the reproachful ov /xeXei <roi from Mk 4 38 = Mt 8 25 , and of the 
somewhat sarcastic question from Mk 6 37 -Mt 14 17 . 

In this way Mt 2 2 34-40 might be explained as due to editorial 
revision of Mk i2 28-34 . But another factor has to be taken into 
account. Lk. in the parallel to Mk. abbreviates the whole section 
into one sentence : " And certain of the scribes answered and 
said, Teacher, Thou hast well said. For no one dared to ask 
Him anything." Two reasons for this shortening may be con- 
jectured — (a) Lk. found Mk.'s narrative to be not free from 
objection ; (b) he had already inserted a similar story free from 
the objectionable element in io 25 " 27 . Now, Lk io 25 " 27 agrees in 
some points with Mt 22 34 " 40 against Mk 12. In both, according 
to the usual text, the questioner is described as vo/uko's. In both 
he comes to test Christ — ireipd^wv, Mt 35 ; iKweipd^v, Lk ^ 
Both stories have a definite reference to the law, eV -nS vo/am ; and 
both omit the quotation from Dt 6 4 , and partially assimilate Mk.'s 
quotation of Dt 6 5 to the Hebrew by substituting eV for Mk.'s « 
( = LXX). Lk., however, has both prepositions. These facts are 
rather difficult to explain. We might suppose that Mt. and Lk. 
were both acquainted with a narrative of a lawyer who came to 
tempt Christ. Lk. inserted it in ch. 10, and afterwards omitted the 
somewhat similar narrative of Mk 12, whilst Mt. substituted it for 
the story of Mk 12. Or Mt.'s text may be regarded as a revision 
of Mk.'s, and Lk io 25 " 27 may be entirely independent, or affected 
by reminiscence of Mt. and Mk. on the part of Lk. 

36. Teacher, what kind of commandment is great in the law 1] MP 
Mk. has: "What kind of commandment is first of all?" — 7nnos 

cf. 19 18 . Or it is equivalent to n's ; cf. 2i 23ff -, Win.-Schm. 
p. 241. 

37. And He said to him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God m ? 
with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.] 
Mk. has : " Jesus answered that the first is, Hear, O Israel ; The 
Lord our God is one Lord : And thou shalt love the Lord thy 
God from all thy heart, and from all thy soul, and from all thy 
mind, and from all thy strength." The quotation is from Dt 6 5 . 
The LXX has "from all thy mind (Siavoi'as), and from all thy 
soul, and from all thy power (Swa/iew?)." But A F Luc have 
Kap8ia<; for Siavotas. Mk. seems to have conflated the two 
renderings, and to have substituted io-xvos for & Mt., 
remembering the fact that there were only three clauses in the 
original, retains only the first three from Mk., and assimilates to 
the Hebrew by substituting ev for ck. 

38. This is the great and first commandment^] ]£ p 

39. A second similar one is this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour j/i ? 
as thyself.] The quotation is from Lv 19 18 , and has already been 
quoted in 19 19 . This saying in a negative form is ascribed to Hillel 



in B. Shabb 31* "What is hateful to thee, do not do to thy neigh- 
bour. That is the whole law. All else is commentary upon it." J 
M ? 40. On these two commandments hangeth the whole law, and the 
prophets.'] Mk. has : " Greater than these is no other command- 

Mt. here postpones Mk 34b to the end of the next section, 
where it suitably closes the whole series of questions. 

34. iirl rb aM] D latt S 1 S 2 have ^7r' airrbv cf. 27 27 ffwi'/yayov tir' avrbv. 
iirl has here a hostile significance, as in Ac 4 127 . This reading gives an 
admirable sense, and would be easily corrupted into 4irl rb avrb : cf. Ac 4 26 . 

35. vo/j.ik6s] Om. ieS 1 Arm Orig. The word occurs seven times in 
Lk., not in Mk., nor elsewhere in Mt. 

37. Siavoiq.] c S 1 S 2 have " power" (c. virtute) = l<r X vC from Mk. S 1 S 2 
also have "from" for iv throughout, assimilating to Mk. (and the Pesh. VS. 

41-45. From Mk i2 85 - 37a . 

M 41. And when the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked 
them, saying.] Mk. has : " And Jesus answered and said, as He 
taught in the temple." For the emphasis on the Pharisees, cf. 
on v. 85 . The collocation of o-wr])(6r]crav, v. 34 , with irepl tov Xoio-tov, 
v. 42 , suggests that very possibly the Evangelist had in mind Ps 2 3 . 

M 42. What think ye about the Messiah ? Whose Son is He ? 
They say to Him, David 's.] Mk. has : " How say the scribes 
that the Messiah is David's Son?" — ti ifilv 8oicet] cf. on 17 25 . 
For Xiyovcnv avTui, cf. 19 7 2 1 31 2 2 21 . 

M 43. He saith to them, How then does David in the Spirit call 
Him Lord, saying?] Mk. has : " David himself in the Holy Spirit 
said." — iv irvev/iaTL i.e. by divine inspiration. Cf. " David said in 
the Holy Spirit," Schir ha-Schirim 2 1 (Wiinsche, p. 54), and see 
Bacher, Exeget. Termin. ii. 202. 

M 44. The Lord said to My Lord, Sit at My right hand until 1 
place Thy enemies underneath Thy feet.] So Mk. That is to say, 
"there is a Psalm of David in which the writer speaks of the 
Messiah as Lord." It is assumed that the Psalm is Davidic, and 
that it deals with the Messiah. The reference is to Ps no 1 . 
Both Mt. and Mk. differ from the LXX in omitting the article 
before Kvpios, and in substituting> for vttottoo'lov. 

JUL 45. If, therefore, David calls Him Lord, how is He His Son ? 
Mk. has : " David himself calls Him Lord, and whence is He His 
Son ? " Christ here raises a difficulty which He does not solve. 
If the Messiah is David's Son, how is it that David, speaking by 
divine inspiration, ascribes to Him a divine title and divine 
prerogatives ? The solution suggested, though not expressed, is 
that the Messiah is not only Son of David, but Son of God. See 
Dalm. Words, pp. 285 f. 

1 Cf. also Siphra on Lv 19 18 (Ugol. 853) " Rabbi Akiba said, This is the 
Greatest commandment in the law," and Bereshith R. (Wiinsche, p. 1 12). 


46. And no one could answer Him a word, nor did any one M 
dare from that day to question Him any further.] Mk. has : " And 
no one any further dared to question Him." 

Mt. and Lk. agree in the following : 

a*™*, Mt « Lk «. 

Kakei — ttws, Mt 45 , Lk u ; Aeyci — iroOev, Mk ". 

Both insert ovv, Mt 45 , Lk **. 

44. vwoKdrw] KBDa/behqS'S 2 ; vvoirdSiou, E F a/latt. In Mk. 
viroKoiTu is read by B D* 1 T d 28 S\ vwowbfoov by KALX a/Iatt. Lk. has 
virowddiov here (K B al S 1 , but D latt S 2 , vn-oKarw) and in Ac 2^. 

XXIII. For Mk i 2 37b - 40 Mt. substitutes a much longer dis- 
course. The relation of this to Lk. may be shown as follows : 







Mk I2 38b - 39 

!j43 20 4« 


14 11 18 14 

II 62 



II* 2 


U 39-41 


II 44 

j j 47-48 



j j 49-51 


T ,34-35 

It will be seen that Lk n3 9 -52 contains sayings spoken to a 
Pharisee, 38 , or Pharisees, 42 , or lawyers, 46 , all of which are 
incorporated in Mt 23, but without distinction of audience, in a 
different order, and in different language. The last difference 
makes it very unlikely that Mt. and Lk. had a common written 
source. Mt w. 37-39 recur in Lk 1384-35 [ n a different context, and 
with variations of language. A common written source is im- 

1. Then Jesus spake to the multitudes, and to His disciples, say- E 
ing.] Mk. has : "And in His teaching, He was saying." Lk. also 
has tois [LaOrjTcus in this connection. 

2. The scribes and the Pharisees sit on the seat of Afoses.] Cf. L 
B. Rosh ha Shanah 25* " Every council of three in Israel is like the 
council of Moses " ; Aboth i 1 " Moses received . . . and delivered 
to Joshua, and Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the 
prophets, and the prophets to the men of the great synagogue." — 


£Ka#icrav] The aor. is difficult. It may be due to the fact that 
the editor writes from his own standpoint, and looks back upon 
the period when the scribes and Pharisees were in power. But 
Wellhausen speaks of it as a Semiticism. 

L 3. All things therefore whatsoever they say to you, do and 
observed] The words are difficult in view of the criticism of the 
regulations of the traditional law in 15 1 " 20 ; cf. esp. 15 6 . We must 
suppose that a limitation is to be inferred from " sit in Moses' 
seat." Do all things that they teach, in so far as this is in 
harmony with the spirit of the Mosaic law. The comprehensive- 
ness of the saying reminds us of 5 18 . — But do not according to 
their works : for they say, and do not.] This can hardly mean 
that the Pharisees did not themselves endeavour to conform to 
the regulations of the traditional law. The Aiyouo-iv implies that 
the whole Pharisaic system was professedly an endeavour to fulfil 
the commands of God expressed in the Old Testament, and to 
live up to the moral standard there revealed. By ov ttoiovcti is 
meant that in practice their system tended to miss the real 
righteousness of the Old Testament, and to overlook its true prin 
ciples, love, mercy, truth, etc. Cf. 12 7 . They professed regard 
for the Old Testament, but neglected the mercy which it taught , 
1 5 4 - 6 they so explained away the divine command of filial duty as 
to sanction the direct contrary ; 23 23 they paid great attention to 
minuter regulations of the law, but neglected the great underlying 
moral principles. 

L 4. And they bind heavy burdens, and lay them upon the 
shoulders of men ; and they themselves with their finger are unwilling 
to move them away.] Lk n 46 has: "Ye burden men with in- 
tolerable burdens, and yourselves touch not the burdens with one of 
your fingers." The verse gives an example of the failure to " do " 
referred to in v. 3 . The law was given not as a burden, but as 
a privilege. But the Pharisaic interpretation of it made it a 
burden upon life. And the Pharisees refused to lighten this ever- 
accumulating burden of legal restrictions in the slightest degree. 
Traditionalism is always unwilling to relinquish what has become 
effete and antiquated. The burdens referred to are those of the 
traditional law with its ever-increasing complexity. 
For KLvrj<rai= " to remove," cf. Rev 2 5 6 14 . 

L 5. And all their works they do to be seen of men : for they 
make zvide their phylacteries, and enlarge their tassels.] The verse 
emphasises a special vice which was eating into the heart of the 
whole Pharisaic system. For <f>v\aKrijpia, see DB, " Phylacteries." 
For KpdcnrcSa, cf. on Q 20 . 
ML 6, 7. And love the chief seat at feasts and the first places in the 
synagogues, and salutations in the market-places, and to be called by 
men, Rabbi.] Lk. has (n 43 ): "You love the first place in the 


synagogues, and the salutations in the market-places." Mk. 
reverses the order, and so does Lk. in the parallel to Mk., 20 46 . 
— <f>iXov<ri] so Lk. <f>ikovvT<av. Mk 38 has BeXovrwv. 

8. But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Teacher ; and all L 
ye are brethren?] 

9. And call no man your father upon earth: for one is your Father, L 
the heavenly one] irarepa fxi] KaXeo-rjTt ifxwv is harsh. "Father" was a 
term of respect for the men of a past generation ; cf. the title of the 
Mishnic treatise Pirke Aboth = Sayings of the Fathers, and the title 
7raT€/>a)v v/xvos of Ecclus 44. The Aramaic Abba was used as a 
title or name of distinguished teachers ; cf. Levy, Neuheb. Wb'rter- 
buch ; Dalm. Words, 339. 

10. And be not called leaders: for one is your leader, even L 
Christ.] Ka$7jyr)Trj<i and StoacrKaAos (v. 8 ) are probably renderings 
of 31. If so, the two verses are duplicate versions of one saying. 
See Dalm. Words, 340. 

11. But the greater among you shall be your minister.] Cf. Mk L 

q35 io 43 . 

12. And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased, and who- L 
soever shall humble himself shall be exalted?^ Cf. Pr 2 9 23 . Similar 
words occur in Lk 14 11 18 14 . 

4. /3ape'a] Add koX 8wp&<TTaKTa, B D at. Omit N (fieydXa ^apia) L 1 209 
a b e ff 2 h S 1 S 2 . Probably an interpolation from Lk 1 i 46 . 

r<$ 6clkt6\({) avTuv] Om. S 1 . 

5. to. tpvXaKT-fipia avrwv] S 1 S 2 have "the thongs of their frontlets."— 
HcyaXtvovcriu rd KpdaireBa] S 1 S 2 have "lengthen the fringe(s) of their 
cloaks." The translators are influenced by knowledge of Jewish practice and 

7. t>appe[] D al S 1 S a pappct, pa#3ef. 

8. p.*} K\r]drjTe] S 1 S 2 have " call not ye men Rabbi," assimilating to v.». 
12. E F G al add here : " Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites : 

for ye devour the houses of widows, and for a pretence pray at length. 
Therefore ye shall receive more abundant judgement." Omit NBDLZae 
ff 1 g 12 S 1 . The words are an interpolation from Mk I2 40 , Lk 20 47 . In some 
authorities the words stand after v. 18 . 

13-32. Seven illustrations of Pharisaic "saying," and "not 

13. But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites I for ye shut L 
the kingdom of the heavens before men : for ye enter not in, neither 
do ye allow those who are going in to enter.] Lk ii 62 has : " Woe 
to you, lawyers ! for ye took away the key of knowledge. Your- 
selves ye did not enter, and those were going in ye prevented." 
Cf. Fragment of a Lost Gospel, ed. Grenfell and Hunt, 11. 41-46, 
which may be reconstructed as follows : " The key of the kingdom 
(or of knowledge) they hid. Themselves entered not, neither 
suffered they those who were going in to enter." The meaning is 
that the Pharisaic interpretation of the law obscured rather than 
illuminated its religious content 


L 15. But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites I for ye go 
about sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is become (one) 
ye make him twice as much as yourselves a son of Gehenna^] For 
the Jewish Propaganda, cf. Bousset, Rel. Jiid. 80-82 ; Schurer, 
II. H. 291 ff. For tt)v iripdv = tt]v yrjv, cf. Jon i 9 , Hag 2 fl . — vlov 
yeevvrjs] that is, one destined for Gehenna ; cf. UiTVi "33, Rosh ha Sh 
1 7 a , Kan D^iyn p = " son of the coming age ", Berakh 57*. 

Troirjo-at. eva irpoa-q\vTov\ i.e. to Pharisaism. Whilst the number 
of heathen attracted to Judaism at this period was very great, 
a comparatively small proportion would have been regarded by 
the Pharisees as satisfactory converts. The Hellenistic Jewish 
literature, e.g. the writings of Philo and the Sibylline Oracles 
(Book iii.), are evidence of the zeal of Jews of the Dispersion to 
attract Gentiles to the worship of the one God. But converts to 
Pharisaism as distinguished from Judaism, with its infinite variety 
of shades of belief and practice (Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, 
Therapeutas, and those who belonged to none of these orders), 
were probably few. !va may reflect upon this comparative failure 
of Pharisaic missionary zeal. Friedlander l ingeniously illustrates the 
verse by reference to Jos. Ant. xx. 34-48. It is there recorded that 
a Jew named Ananias converted to the worship of God Izates, son of 
Monobazus of Adiabene, but told him that he could worship God 
without being circumcised. However, another Jew, " reputed to be 
accurately acquainted with Jewish learning," iravv 7T£pl to. Trarpia 
Sokwv d/fpt^T/s e'vai, persuaded Izates to be circumcised, on the 
ground that he was guilty of impiety in neglecting to do so. 
Friedlander sees in this story an example of the Pharisaic zeal in 
compassing sea and land to make one proselyte to their own rigid 
interpretation of the universal application of the requirements of 
the law to the Gentiles. 

L 16. Woe to you, blind guides, who say, Whosoever shall swear by 
the temple, it is not valid ; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of 
the temple, is bound by his oath.] Cf. 5 s3 - 37 . As in that section, the 
reference is not to legal oaths but to the unnecessary reference to 
divine things in common life, Kiddushin 71* "by the temple," 
Taanith 24" " by the temple worship." 

L 17. Fools and blind : for which is greater, the gold, or the temple 
that hallowed the gold 1] 

L 18. And, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is not valid ; 
but whosoever shall swear by the gift which is upon it, he is bound 
by his oath.] 

L 19. Ye blind men : for which is greater, the gift, or the altar 
that halloweth the gift?] B C al prefix paapol /ecu, as in v. 17 . 

L 20. He therefore who sweareth by the altar, sweareth by it, and 
by all that is upon it.] 

1 Rel. Beweg. pp. 32 f. 


21. And he who sweareth by the temple, sweareth by it, and by L 
Him who dwelleth in it.] 

22. And he who sweareth by heaven, stveareth by the throne of It 
God, and by Him that sitteth upon it.] 

23. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites I for ye tithe L 
mint and dill and cummin, and have neglected the weightier matters 
of the lazu, judgement, and mercy, and faith : these ye ought to have 
done, and not to have neglected those.] Lk n 42 has: "But woe 
unto you, Pharisees ! for ye tithe mint and rue and every herb, 
and pass by judgement and the love of God : these ye ought to 
have done, and not to have passed over those." — For the tithing of 
small herbs, cf. Maaser, i. 1 : " Everything which is eatable, and is 
preserved, and has its nourishment from the soil, is liable to be 
tithed. — Tj8io<riwv] = mint. See DB, " Mint."— a.vr)0ov] = dill. See 
DB, "Anise"; cf. Maaser, iv. 5 : "Rabbi Eliezer said, Of dill 
must one tithe the seed, and the leaves, and the stalks." — kv/jlivov] 
See DB, " Cummin." All three herbs were used in cooking, and 
the two latter for medicinal purposes. For av-qOov, Lk. has 
nrfiyavov. Nestle, Exp. Times, Aug. 1904, suggests a misreading 
of fcOat? = Trriyavov, for xrQBJ = avrjOov. For " judgement," cf. 
Is i 17 , Jer 22 3 , Zee 7 9 , Secrets of Enoch 42° "Blessed is he who 
gives a just judgement for the orphan and the widow." For 
"mercy," cf. 9 13 ; and for "faith," cf. Hab 2 4 . 

24. Blind guides, who strain out the gnat, and swallow down L 
the camel.] 

25. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye cleanse L 
the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of 
rapacity and wantonness.] Lk n 39 has: "Now, ye Pharisees 
cleanse the outside of the cup and the plate (-n-Lvai), but your 
inside is full of rapacity and wickedness. — yi^ovaLv] The verb is 
usually followed by a genitive, ck here signifies that the contents 
of the vessels are obtained by immoral methods. 

23. S 1 S 2 omit. Burkitt thinks that they presuppose ravra Si woiijffai 
KaKeiva fir] d(pdvai, and that this is original, being a literal translation of an 
Aramaic idiom. In Lk 11 42 S 2 again omits £5ei. but S 1 presupposes it. But 
the Syriac VSS. elsewhere omit del So S 1 Mk 9 11 I3 10 , Lk I2 12 18 1 24", 
Jn 3 7 4 20 - 24 ; S 2 Mk I3 10 , Lk 24**, Jn 3*. 

25. For the purification of vessels, see Schiirer, 11. ii. 106 ff., and 
B. Kelim. The verse is aimed at the excessive importance attached 
to the ceremonial cleanness or uncleanness of utensils. After all, 
what does this matter, provided that they are used for honourable 
purposes ? But if they be used to contain food gained in a dis- 
honest manner, they may rightly be regarded as unclean. 

26. Blind Pharisee, cleanse first the contents of the cup and of the L 
platter, that its outside also may be clean.] That is, " use the vessels 


only for food honestly procured, and it will be unnecessary to ask 
if the outside is ceremonially clean." Lk 1 i 40 - 41 has : " Ye fools, 
did not He who made the outside make also the inside ? But give 
as alms what is within ; and, behold, all things are pure to you." 
It is questionable whether the two Evangelists understood the 
words to be a polemic against the Pharisaic regulations about the 
purification of vessels, or whether they interpreted cup and plate as 
metaphors for men, like the sepulchres of the next verse, and 
understood the words to be aimed at the regulations concerning 
personal ceremonial cleanness ; cf. Mk 7 lff -. In Mt. the reference 
to the cleansing of literal vessels seems hardly disputable, and airov 
in v. 26 would have to be deleted before rov rror-qpiov could be 
interpreted as a metaphor of the human person. Lk., by inserting 
i[xu)v in v. 39 , seems to draw a contrast, not, as in Mt., between the 
outside of the vessels and their contents, but between the 
ceremonial cleanness of the vessels and the moral uncleanness of 
their possessors. Cf. Buddhist and Christian Gospels, p. 84 : 
" What use to thee is matted hair, O fool ! what use the goatskin 
garment ? Within thee there is ravening ; the outside thou 
makest clean." But in v. 41 he seems to fall back upon the other 
contrast between the inside and outside of the vessels. Wellhausen 
thinks that Lk. has here misrendered his original. He would 
transpose eo-wOev and Ifwflcv (with D Cyp) in v. 40 , render rroidv 
by do = set straight = cleanse, and substitute for Bore iXerj/ioa-vvrjv 
Mt.'s Kaddpta-ov. " Does not the man who cleanses the inside 
cleanse the outside too? (cf. Mk 7 lff -). Cleanse the inside, and, 
lo, all is clean." If this be the original form of the saying, Mt. has 
wrongly inserted rov -n-orrjpLov and airov in v. 26 . But, however the 
apparent inconsistency in Lk. be explained, it seems most natural to 
suppose that Mt. rightly understood the saying to be aimed at the 
casuistical distinctions between clean and unclean utensils. 1 — kcu 
ttj<; Trapoif/LSos] omit D S 1 i 209 a d e ff. 
L 27. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites I for ye are 
like to whitened tombs, which outside appear beautiful, but inside are 
full of dead bones, and all uncleanness.] Lk n 44 has: " Woe to 
you ! for ye are as sepulchres that are unseen, and the men who 
walk over them do not know it." It was customary on the 15th 
of the month Adar to whitewash graves, that people might not 
unintentionally touch them and contract ceremonial defilement ; 
B. Moed Qat. 1 a, Schequal, i. 1. Moed Qatan, 5a, bases this on 
Ezk 39 15 . — K€Koviap.€voi-i\ The tombs were whitened with chalk 

1 If this be so, the thought here is much the same as that which Mt. (15 10 " 20 ) 
has read into Mk j 1 *- 23 . There it is " Eating meat with unwashen hands 
will not defile you if you are morally clean " ; here it is " Eating from vessels 
which are ceremonially unclean will not defile you, if the food has been 
honestly obtained." 


or lime. The Talmudic verb is p ,| X = to mark, distinguish. 
KCKoviafxevot occurs in Pr 21 9 , where it apparently means plaistered, 
i.e. luxurious, dwellings. There is no need to suppose that omves 
fikv fyaivovTai wpatot, which is omitted in S 1 , is a later gloss by 
someone who thought that the purpose of the whitening the tombs 
was to beautify them. wpalo<; might seem to suggest an aesthetic 
purpose for the whitening. But the original Aramaic may have 
been a more colourless word. The saying in Lk 1 1 has a different 
turn. There the Pharisees are likened to unwhitened tombs, 
which therefore defile those who unwittingly pass over them. The 
difference is not favourable to the theory of a common Greek 
source for Mt. and Lk. 

28. So also ye outwardly appear to men to be just, but within are L 
full of hypocrisy and lawlessness.} Like the whitened sepulchres, 
the Pharisees were fair outside, foul inside. 

29. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites 1 for ye build L 
the tombs of the prophets, and adorn the sepulchres of the fust.] 
Lk 11 47 has: "Woe to you ! for ye build the sepulchres of the 
prophets, but your fathers killed them." 

30. And say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we L 
would not have been their associates in the blood of the prophets.] 
That is, " You honour the dead whom your ancestors put to death, 
and say that, had you lived in the days of your fathers, you would 
have been wiser than they." 

31. So that you bear witness to yourselves, that ye are the L 
descendants of those who killed the prophets?] Lk n 48 has: 

" Therefore ye are witnesses, and consent to the deeds of your 
fathers : for they killed them, but ye build (their sepulchres)." 
" By so saying, you bear witness to the murder-taint in your blood." 

32. And you will fill up the measure of your father s.] " And L 
you will sin as they sinned." 

33. Ye serpents, ye offspring of vipers, how are you to escape from L 
the condemnation of Gehenna ? 

34. Therefore, behold, I send to you prophets, and wise men, and L 
scribes. Some of them you shall kill and crucify ; and some of them 
you shall scourge in your synagogues, and hunt them from city to city.] 
Lk. has : " Therefore also the wisdom of God said, I will send to 
them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall kill and 
persecute." In S. Luke S<a tovto kcu t) cro$ia 6eov elirev may be an 
insertion by the Evangelist into Christ's words, and by 17 cro^Ca may 
be meant Christ Himself. Or the clause may be a continuation of 
Christ's words. In that case the words which follow are presumably 

a quotation from an unknown source. See on Lk 1 1 49 . In Mt. there 
is no hint that the words are a quotation, and the Evangelist clearly 
regards them as words of Christ Himself. But, of course, the 
Evangelist may have been aware that the Lord was quoting and 


adapting to Himself words from some literary source. — irpofprjras 
Kal crocf>ov<s /cat ypafx/jLaTeis] The Christian missionaries are de- 
scribed under terms taken from Jewish institutions. The Trpo^rt]? 
passed over into the Christian Church, but the terms o-o<pot and 
ypafx/xarel^ were too familiar in contemporary Judaism to be 
permanently adopted by Christian teachers. For the scourging in 
the synagogues, cf. io 17 ; for the persecuting from city to city, io 23 . 

L 35. In order that there may come upon you all the righteous 
blood slain upon the earth, from the blood of Abel the righteous to the 
blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom ye slew between the shrine 
and the altar.] Lk n 60 has : " In order that the blood of all the 
prophets (slain from the foundation of the world) may be required 
from this generation, from the blood of Abel to the blood of 
Zachariah, who was slain between the altar and the house." Abel 
(Gn 4) and Zachariah (2 Ch 24 20ff -) represent the beginning and 
end of the Old Testament Canon of Scripture, in which Chronicles 
is the last book. The murder of Zachariah left a deep impression 
upon Jewish tradition. In the Bab. Talmud, Sanh 96**, Gittin 
57 b ; in the Jerus. Talmud, Taanith 69"; and in the Midrashim, 
e.g. Echa Rabbati, Wiinsche, p. 2 1, Koheleth 3 16 , Pesikta R. Kahana 
15, it is recorded that Nebuzaradan slew many Jews in order to 
quiet " the blood of Zechariah," who is said to have been "a priest 
and a prophet." It seems natural, therefore, to suppose that the 
Zachariah of the Gospels is the Zachariah of 2 Chronicles. Abel's 
blood cried from the ground (Gn 4 10 ). Zachariah, when dying, 
said, "The Lord look upon it and require it" (2 Ch 24 22 ). — 
vlov Bapaxiov] The Zachariah of 2 Ch. was son of Jehoiada. It 
is possible that Christ spoke of Zachariah as son of Barachiah, 
because the tradition of His age identified or confused the priest 
and the prophet ; cf. Zee i 1 (see Dictionary of Christ and Gospels, 
art. " Barachiah "). In this case the omission of vlov Bapaxtov 
by N* is due to someone who wondered at the Barachiah instead 
of Jehoiada. Or the " son of Barachiah " may be an insertion by 
the editor of the Gospel, either on the ground of Jewish tradition, 
or in remembrance of the LXX of Is 8 2 , Zee i 1 . The fact 
that the editor of the Gospel elsewhere uses LXX forms of proper 
names, as in 'A<ra<£, 'A/xws, i 8,10 , is in favour of the latter. Or, 
lastly, the " son of Barachiah " may be a later insertion in the 

L 36. Verily I say to you, All these things shall come upon this 
generation.] Lk 1 1 51 has : " Yea, I say to you, it shall be required 
from this generation." 

L 37. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killeth the prophets, and 
stoneth those sent to her, how often would I have gathered thy children, 
as a hen gathereth her young ones under her wings, and ye would 
not I] So Lk 13 34 . — eViowayayetv] Cf. 2 Es I 20 . 


38. Behold your house is left to you.] So Lk 13 85 . L 

39. For I say to you, You shall not see Me henceforth, until you L 
say, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord.] So Lk 13 35 
with 86 for yap, without air aprc, and with ews for ecus av. atpUrai 
vjjuv] cf. Apoc. Bar 8 2 " He who kept the house has forsaken 
it"; Joseph. Wars, vi. 299; 2 Es i 33 , Jer 12 7 26 s , Enoch 89 s6 

" He forsook that their house." air apri] See note on p. 284. 

37-39. The words seem to be a fragment belonging to an 
earlier period of the ministry, when Christ was leaving Jerusalem 
for the last time before His triumphal entry. We must imagine a 
controversy with the Jews similar to that recorded in S. John 
io 22-39 a s on that occasion, the Jews had perhaps tried to stone 
Him. He therefore spoke to them these parting words. They 
had rejected His teaching, and had adopted towards Him a policy 
which would lead in the near future to His death, and in the 
further future to the destruction of their State. For the present 
He would visit their Temple no more. Their house was given up 
to them. They would see Him no more until they greeted Him 
with the words of the Psalmist. 

The editor seems to have placed the paragraph here because it 
was suggested to him by the murders of v. 35 (Zachariah was stoned, 
2 Ch 24 21 ). Lk. links them to another saying of Christ about 
Jerusalem, 13 33 - 35 . 

26. ical ttjs irapo\pL5os\ is omitted by D S 1 1 209 a e ; airrov] B* D E S 1 
I 13 28 69 124 157 a e ; airrCiv, X B 2 at. Kai rrjs irapo^idos may have been 
inserted to assimilate to v. 28 , and airrov consequently changed into airrCiv. 

27. S 1 has : "Graves that on the outside are whitened, and inside," etc., 
omitting otTipes fxiv <palvovrat dipaloi. Merx regards the words as a gloss 
added by someone who misunderstood the purpose of the whitening of the 
graves. But this is quite unnecessary. Our Greek text simply states that 
graves when whitened appear outwardly beautiful, and does not say that they 
were whitened in order to beautify them. S 1 has probably taken offence at 
the word upaht as too strong a term to express the result of the whitening, 
and consequently omitted the clause. 

32. irXrjpwo-fTe] So B* S 1 60. irX-npuxrare is read by K B 2 C at, but the 
imperative breaks the connection : " You acknowledge that you are physically 
descended from prophet-murderers, and, in fact, you are also morally their 
successors, and will sin as they sinned." The present would be even better 
than the future, and the Aramaic original may have had the participle= "Ye 
are filling up" ; that is, "You sin, e.g., in the murder of the Baptist as they 
sinned." D H al have the aorist eVX^uxrare, which gives an inferior sense. 

35. vlov Bapa\lov] Omit N* 6 13. Jerome's Nazarene Gospel had 
filium Joiadse. "In evangelio quo utuntur Nazareni pro filio Barachiae 
filium Joiadse reperimus scriptum," Comm. in Alt. 

38. 6 oIkoj iifiQv] KCDs/ add Zprj/ios ; cf. Jer 22" ds ip-fifj-wo-iv tarat 6 
oIkos ovtos. Omit B L ff 2 S 1 . 

aQlerat vfiiv 6 oTkos v/xCov] 6 oIkos may mean either the city or the temple. 
For the latter, cf. Jer 26 s " Them will I make this house " (cf. v. s " the court 
of the Lord's house") "like Shiloh ; " Apoc. Bar 8 2 "He who kept the 
house" (cf. l "from the interior of the temple") " has forsaken it." For 
the former, cf. Jer I2 7 "I have forsaken My house " ; 22* " This house shall 


become a desolation. Eor thus saith the Lord concerning the house of 
the King of Judah." Enoch Sc/ - M "they forsook that their house"; 
B0 " He iorsook that their house and tower." See Charles' note on w . The 
two meanings seem here to be combined, " Your city and Temple are 
abandoned by God, and given up to desolation." For the idea of the 
abandonment of a doomed city by the divine power which protected it, cf. 

the story told in Jos. Wars, vi. 299, of the priests who, before the capture of 
the city by Titus, heard a sound as of a multitude, saying, " Let 
Cf. also Apoc. Bar 8 1 * a , and Tacitus, Hist. v. 13. 

Let us go hence." 

XXIV.-XXV. Discourse on the last things. 
24 1 " 8 Occasion of the speech. 
4 " 14 Events preceding the final apostasy. 
ib-28 'pj ie affliction preceding the Second Coming. 
21,-81 The Second Coming. 
82-61 Admonitions to watchfulness. 
25 1 " 40 Three parables, — the first inculcating watchfulness, the 
second diligence, the third describing the final 
Part of this discourse is contained in Mk 13. 



1. 2 

Mk I3 1 - 2 
3. 4 

8 m 

4. • - 6. 0a 

Mt. has already inserted Mk 1 3 9b - 10ft - u ' 18 in io 17 " 22 . He there- 
fore does not repeat them here, but summarises 9l> - n - 12 in the 

words : tot« irtifmfiitHToviriv v/tu? <ts 6\(ij/Li' ko.1 aTTOKTCVOvaiv vftas. 

Mt 2 4»» 



j ,ut>. 11. 12 













|"2(S -2S 1 






8t :m 










Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following: 

in' KaT<i\vO)j(TtTai, Mt a , Lk ° ; ou jxy KiiraXvOjj, Mk *. 

\fyovrn, Mt ;1 , Lk 7 . 

rfirtv, Mt \ Lk s ; fjrfaTo Xtytiv, Mk 6 . 

ydtp, Mt B , Lk 8 . 

yd,,, Mt tf , Lk ». 


*«.', mi 7 , Lh ,o . 

,'1 r<ji fly/no. Ml IH «V i!y/)<r>, I ,k 1 / : " ; ill nV Aypo'l , Mk '". 
I&W, Ml » l.k i-;' 1 ; W«, 'Mk "•". 
,/, Ml » l.k .•;•'. oipavuv. Mi ■*, l.k -irt ; hi «">- roil ovpavotf, Mk ■*, 
ml .W.,.. roAAiJt, Mi :m , l.k « ; roAXfa ko) W£lJI, Mk », 
Ian .'.,-. Mi : ", l.k "j ptfvpu 0*, Mk », 

,.,'. ,,,,. Ml », l.k ;,: '; .,.•■, Mk : ". 

Il seems clear t Ml. has seen in Mk 13 an eschatological 
discourse in which he could attach othci sayings ol a similai 
nature. H) so doing he has hnill ii|) a discourse forecasting the 

future from the moment of utterance to the final judgement. The 
general drift oi this discourse leemi clear. 

In v." the disciplei ask, "When will these things, i.e. the 

destruction ol the temple, he? Ami what shall he the sign of Thy 
coming ami oi the end oi the world?" in w. ,u Christ foretells 

the events that will happen before th6 end. There are to he lalse 

Christs, v. ft ; wars and rumourS|V t 'j political disturbances, famines, 
and earthquakes, v. 7 ; persecution oi Christians hy pagans, v. w 
treachen andapostasj amongnt Christians themselves, w. 1011 ; the 

gospel to he pre. h lied in all the woild, v. 14 . 

Then will come the end (ti> rlXoi). This is to he ushered in 

hy .1 period of unprecedented distress. Its heginning will be 

marked hy the appearance ol the fibtKvyfJua n/% iprjfiw v in the 

holy place. The Christians in Juosm are advised to Bee to the 
mountains, v. lrt , and the urgency and physical sufferings accom 

panying theii llight arc graphically depicted, vv. 17 " BU . h'alse ('hosts 

and lalse prophets are once more to arise, vv.-"' '. Then amidst 

portents Oi nature the Son of Man will COtne upon the clouds ol 
heaven, and gather His elect to Himsell, w.' w : ". 

lien- follow the winds and parables ol warning to watchful 

hiss, 14" .•s :i ". The whole diseomse is magnificently ended by s 

description Ol th€ coming judgement. 

XXIV. 1. And /e\u\ went forth from the temple, an,l was K'''"K M 

<>n ///» way,' and thtrt tame to linn /In discipUs x to tikaw linn the 

buildingi of the temple. \ Mk. has: "And as lie was going forth 

from the temple, one ol His disciples saith to llim, Teacher, see 

what stones and what huildin loi ir/joc t/ArVor, sec on 4". 

'2. .-in, I fir UHSWiftd or:, I \oi,/ to them, See \e not all these tkiHgi I M 
/ ' :.'v I toy to vo:/, I'here shall not he lift here a stone upon a stone, 
Which shall fh<t be tlnoivn ,l,nvn.\ Mk. has: "And |< ,11 . s.nd to 

him, Thou seest these great buildings; there shall not be left here 

a si one upon .1 si one, uhu h 1 1 1.1 II not In- I hi own down." i> <<< foj „„] 

i'», as oiien. ns at MniiAt'f'i/iicim l Mi. avoids Mk.'i harsh repeated 

»u /o/ I'oi <<v fn'j as common in dis< onrse, s< ■<■ MoultOn, p. 101. 

3. And Oi He was sitting on the mount oj (>/rres, /lis ,lisaple\ M 


came to Him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be f 
and what {shall be) the sign of Thy coming, and of the consummation 
of the age?] Mk. has: "And as He was sitting at the mount of 
Olives over against the temple, Peter and James and John and 
Andrew were asking Him privately, Tell us, when shall these 
things be, and what shall be the sign when all these things are 
about to be consummated?" — eVi] for Mk.'s harsh cis. — TrpoaijXOov] 
see on 4 5 . Mt., in view of Mk vv. 24-27 , transforms Mk.'s question 
about the fall of Jerusalem into one concerning the second coming 
and the end of the age. He introduces irapovo-ia without any 
antecedent explanation. In so doing he overlooks the fact that 
the disciples, according to the Gospel narrative, had not the 
requisite understanding of the future for a question about Christ's 
coming. For TrapovcrCa, cf. Secrets of Enoch 32 1 "My second 
coming," 42* "the last coming." — crwrcWas tov aiwvos] is a tech- 
nical apocalyptic expression; cf. Volz, Jud. Eschat. p. 166. Cf. 
Apoc. Bar 13 3 "the consummation of the times," 27 16 29 s 30 3 54 21 
56 2 59 8 82 2 83 7 - 23 , Ass. Mos i 18 ; cf. Enoch 16 1 "until the day when 
the great consummation of the great world be consummated" (p-^xp^ 
rjp.epa^ 7-775 TcAeuocrcws — iv y 6 cuo>v 6 /xeyas Te\ecr6rfcr€TO.i), Dn I2 4 
LXX, /ecu/Dos (TWTeXeCas ; 1 2 13 LXX, crwTc'Xeia T^nepaiv ; Test. Levi 
10, avvTfAeia twv auova>v. 

M 4. And Jesus answered and said to them, Take heed lest any 
man lead you astray.] Mk. has : " And Jesus began to say to 
them," etc. Mt. omits Mk.'s jjp£aro, as often. 

M 5. For many shall come in My name, saying, I am the Messiah ; 
and shall lead many astray.] Mk. has : " Many shall come in My 
name, saying, that I am (He), and shall lead many astray." Mt. 
inserts a connecting link (yap), omits on, as often, and adds the 
explanatory 6 Xptcrros. 

M 6. And ye shall be about to hear of wars and rumours of wars. 
See that ye be not troubled. For they must come to pass ; but not 
yet is the end.] Mk. has : "And when you shall hear of wars and 
rumours of wars, be not troubled. They must come to pass ; but 
not yet (is) the end." — /xeXArycrerc] see on 16 27 . — yap] added to form a 
connecting link. — to tc'Aos] i.e. the fall of Jerusalem, and the con- 
sequent irapovaia and trwreKfUL tov alwvos. 

M 7. For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against 
kingdom : and there shall be famines, and earthquakes, in divers 
places.] Mk. has : " For nation shall rise against nation, and 
kingdom against kingdom. There shall be earthquakes in divers 
places. There shall be famines." Mt. smooths the jerky style of 
Mk. by adding particles. 

M 8. And all these things are a beginning of sufferings.] Mk. has : 
" A beginning of sufferings are these things. — aiSivcov] The Jews 
spoke of "the sufferings of the Messiah." By the phrase they 


signified the time of unprecedented trouble which was to precede 
the Messianic salvation ; see Vo\z,Jud. Eschat. p. 173 ff. ; Schiirer, 
11. ii. 154-156. Cf. B. Sanhed 98" "The disciple of Rabbi 
Eleasar asked him, What can one do to be preserved from the 
sufferings of the Messiah?"; Shabb n8 a "three visitations, the 
sufferings of the Messiah, the judgement of Gehinnom, and the 
war of Gog and Magog." For descriptions of the evils of the last 
days, cf. 2 Es 15. 16, Apoc. Bar 27. 48 31 - 37 70 s - 10 , Jubilees 23 16 - 25 , 
2 Es 5 1 - 12 6 18 " 25 , Enoch 9Q 4 - 7 ioo 1 " 6 . 

9. Then shall they deliver you up to afflictio?i, and shall kill you.~\ M 
In these words Mt. summarises Mk vv. 9b - u - 12 , which he has 
already inserted in io 17 ' 22 , because they referred to the treatment of 
the Apostles. 

And you shall be hated of all nations for My name's sake.] So M 
Mk i3 13a omitting tw IOvwv. 

10. And then shall many be caused to stumble, and shall deliver L 
one another up, and shall hate one another.] 

11. And many false prophets shall arise, and shall lead many L 

12. And because that lawlessness is multiplied, the love 1 of many L 
shall wax cold.] 

10-12. These verses are not in Mk. For the apostasy of the 
righteous in the last days, see the references in Volz, Jud. Eschat. 
p. 179. — 7r\rj6vvOrjiaL ttjv avofxiav] cf. 2 Es 5 2 "iniquity shall be 
increased," 10 "unrighteousness shall be multiplied," Enoch 91 7 . 

13. But he who endured to the end, he shall be saved.] So M 
Mk 13 13 . Cf. Dn I2 12 Theod. //.o-Kapios 6 vTrojxivutv (LXX i/xfiivwv) ; 

2 Es 6 25 " And it shall be that whosoever remaineth after all these 
things ... he shall be saved," 9 7 - 8 " And every one that shall be 
saved ... he shall be preserved." 

14. And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the M 
ivorld for a testimony to all the nations, and then shall come the end.] 
Mk 13 10 has: "And to all the nations must first the gospel be 
preached." — to tcAos] i.e. the fall of Jerusalem and the end of the 
world. The editor defines t6 cvayyc'Aiov by adding rrj<; /3ao-iAei'as, 
and somewhat limits the conception of the preaching to all nations 
by inserting eis fiaprvpiov, which he borrows from Mk v.*. — irao-iv 
tois Zdviaiv] for Mk.'s harsh €is iravra to. I6vq ; see on io 18 . 

15. When, therefore, ye see " the abomination of desolation, 1 ' m 
which was spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy 
place. Let the reader understand.] Mk. has: "And when you 
see 'the abomination of desolation' standing where he ought not. 
Let the reader understand." 

to fiMXvyfia tt}s epiy/taJo-ews] the phrase in Mk. seems to be 
borrowed from Dn 12 11 ; cf. 9 27 /JSeAvy/xa tSc ep^/iwo-ewv, ii 31 
(3Se\vy/xa ipr)fjLW(r(oi<;. The object alluded to in these passages 
1 aydirrj. See Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 198 f. 


seems to have been an idol altar. Cf. 1 Mac i 54 - 59 " they builded 
an abomination of desolation upon the altar; — and they sacrificed 
upon the idol altar, which was upon the altar of God." Cf. Driver 
on Dn n 31 . In ML the phrase denotes an undefined object 
described as fulfilling the prophecy of Daniel. But see Swete on 
Mk 13 14 . The participle which follows is in the masc. gender, and 
suggests that the Evangelist had in mind a statue or other personal 
object. — 6 avayivoio-Koiv vofiVto] is a tacit reference to Daniel. Mt. 
adds an explicit reference to Daniel, substitutes a neuter for Mk.'s 
masc. participle, and substitutes for Mk.'s ambiguous oirov oi Set the 
more definite Iv tottio dyiw. In Ac 6 13 21 28 to7tos ayios means the 
temple. But in both places it has the article which we should 
expect here. However, the temple is probably intended. The 
editor may have had in mind Dn 9 s7 kcu eirl to Upbv (38e\\ryp.a ™v 
iprjfjuoa-eoiv (.arai Iws trwTcXctas. In 2 Mac 2 18 "the holy place" 
means the Holy Land. 

M 16. Then let those in Judcea flee to the mountains.] So Mk. 

M 17. He who is on the housetop, let him not come down to take 
things out of his house.] Mk. has p.r) KarafSdroi p.rj8l elcreXOdTw. 
For Mt.'s omission of one clause, see Introduction, p. xxiv. 

M 18. And he who is in the field, let him not turn back to take his 
coat.] — iv t<3 aypw] for Mk.'s harsh el<s tov dypov, cf. v. 8 . 

M 19. But woe to those who are with child, and to those that give 
suck in those days 1] So Mk. 

M 20. And pray that your flight happen not in winter, nor on the 
Sabbath.] Mk. has : " And pray that it happen not in winter." 
The subject here is probably general, " the period of affliction. " 
Mt. interprets with special reference to v. 16 , and adds 17 <pvyr) lp.iov. 
With this in mind, he adds also the remarkable firjSe o-afifidrw, a 
clear proof of the Jewish predilections of the Evangelist ; cf. 5 18 
io 6. 23 j^9 23 s - 23 . The saying with this addition was no doubt 
familiar to him from his Palestinian sources. It may have stood 
in the Logia. See Introduction, p. Iv. 

M 21. For there shall be. then great affliction, such as hath not 
happened from the beginning of the world until now, nor shall 
happen^] Mk. has : " For those days shall be affliction such as 
there hath not happened like it from the beginning of the creation 
which God created until now, and shall not happen." Mt. omits 
Mk.'s redundant roiavr-q and fy Iktictcv 6 0eo?, cf. on 8 16 , and 
substitutes Tore ecrrcu for Mk.'s Semitic ea-ovrai ai 17/xepai e/ccivai. 
For the idea of the last days as a period of unprecedented 
tribulation, cf. Dn I2 1 lutivr) 17 rj/xipa ^Aii/fcws ofa ovk lywrjQr) a<f> ov 
lyevrjOrfcrav ews tt}s rj/xipa<; ckciVt/s : Ass. Mos 8 1 " And there will 
come upon them a second visitation, and wrath such as has not 
befallen them from the beginning until that time " ; cf. Jer 3o 7 , 
t Mac 9 27 . — yiyovuv. For the perfect cf. Dn 12 1 Th. 


22. And except those days were shortened, no flesh should be M 
saved : but because of the elect, those days shall be shortened.] Mk. 
has : " And except the Lord shortened the days, no flesh should 
be saved. But because of the elect whom He elected, He shortened 
the days." — eKoXofiwO-qcrav] pass for Mk.'s act ; cf. Introduction, p. 
xxiii. For the omission of Mk.'s redundant ovs e£e\e£aro, cf. on 
8 3 . — ovk — 7ras] A Hebraism; cf. Blass, p. 178. But see also 
Class. Rev. 1901, p. 442. KoXofiow is elsewhere used of physical 
amputation. — eKAe/crcwY] For the elect in the final tribulation, cf. 
Enoch i 1 28 2 - 3 - 4 48 9 62 s - n - 12 - 13 "the elect shall be saved on that 

In Enoch 80 2 it is said that "in the days of the sinners the 
years will be shortened " ; cf. Apok. Abrahams 29 : " zur Verkurzung 
des Aons der Gottlosigkeit." 

23. Then if any one say to you, Behold, here is the Messiah, or M 
here ; believe (him) not.] Mk. has: "And then if any one say to 
you, Behold, here is the Messiah ; behold, there ; do not believe 
(him)." — /jlt) Tna-revcr-qre] Mk. has /xr) Trio-revere, which is less 
applicable to a future occurrence. See Moulton, p. 124. 

24. For there shall arise false Afessiahs, and false prophets, and M 
shall give great signs and marvels ; so as to lead astray, if possible, 
even the elect.] Mk. has : " For there shall arise false Messiahs 
and false prophets, and shall give signs and marvels to lead astray, 

if possible, the elect." 

25. Behold, I have told you before.] Mk. has : " But take ye M 
heed, I have told you beforehand all things." 

26-27. Occur in Lk 17 23 - 24 . 

26. If, therefore, they say to you, Behold, he is in the desert ; go L 
not forth : behold, he is in the chambers ; believe (them) not.] Lk. has : 

" And they will say to you, Behold there, or behold here. Go not 
after nor follow (them)." 

27. For as the lightning goes forth from the east, and appears to L 
the west ; so shall be the presence of the Son of Alan.] Lk. has : " For 
as the lightning, when it flashes from the one part under the heaven 
shines to the other part under the heaven, so shall be the Son 
of Man." The idea apparently is that the presence of the Son 
of Man will be not local, but everywhere visible. See on Lk 
i7 24 - 37 . 

28. Occurs in Lk 17 87 . 

28. Wheresoever the corpse is, there will be gathered the eagles.] L 
An enigmatic sentence, probably a proverbial saying ; cf. Job 39 s0 

ou 8' ay wcri reOvewres Trapa^prjfjLa evpldKovrai, SC. " young vultures." 

Here the meaning probably is that the Parousia will be at the 
destined time when evil has reached its fated climax. Just as 
when life has abandoned a body, and it becomes a corpse, the 
vultures immediately swoop down upon it ; so when the world has 



become rotten with evil, the Son of Man and His angels will come 
to execute the divine judgement. See Hastings, DCG i. p. 65. 

M 29. And immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun 
shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the 
stars shall fall from the heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall 
be shaken.'] Mk. has : " But in those days after that tribulation 
the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, 
and the stars shall be falling from the heaven, and the powers 
which are in the heavens shall be shaken." Such signs are 
symbolical of any great manifestation of Jehovah's power. Cf. 
Is 13 10 at the fall of Babylon, "The stars of heaven and the 
constellations thereof shall not give their light, the sun shall be 
darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her 
light to shine"; 34* at the destruction of Edom, "All the host of 
heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled together 
like a scroll"; Ezk 32 7-8 at the desolation of Egypt, "I will cover 
the heaven, and make the stars thereof dark ; I will cover the sun 
with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light." In the 
Apocalyptic literature such portents are to recur in the last evil 
time. Cf. Joel 2 31 " The sun shall be turned into darkness, and 
the moon into blood " ; 3 15 " The sun and the moon are darkened, 
and the stars withdraw their shining"; 2 Es 5* "The sun shall 
suddenly shine forth in the night, and the moon in the day " ; 
Enoch 80 4 "And the moon will alter her order, and not appear at 
the (appointed) time"; Ass. Mos io 6 "And the horns of the sun 
will be broken, and he will be turned into darkness; and the 
moon will not give her light, and will be turned wholly into blood." 
Mt. inserts ev#t'u>s. He has not, like Lk., definitely interpreted 
the ftSekvy/Aa of Mk w with reference to the last siege of Jerusalem. 
But nevertheless it remains probable that by his eo-ros cv roirta ayiw 
he tacitly alludes to something that was to happen in the temple 
during the final invasion of Palestine by the Roman armies. By 
inserting evdews in v. 29 he signifies his understanding that the 
napova-ia of the Son of Man was to take place at no great length 
of time after the fall of Jerusalem. Cf. ra^v, Rev 22 20 . 

E 30. And then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in 
heaven.] The words do not occur in Mk. They appear to be 
the answer to v. 8 tl to (rrjfxtZov ttJs cr^s irapovaias ; There, however, 
the "sign" seems to be distinct from the "coming." "What shall 
be the sign which warns of Thy coming ? " Here by analogy we 
should render : " Then shall appear the sign which precedes the 
Son of Man," as though the sign were some independent and 
unexplained phenomenon. Possibly this is the editor's meaning, 
who thinks of the sign as some unique portent which heralds the 
immediate coming of the Son of Man. But more probably the 
direct reference is to Dn 7 13 . The coming of one like a Son of 


Man there predicted was itself a sign : " Then shall appear the 
well-known sign of the Son of Man predicted by Daniel." 

And then shall all the tribes of the land wail.] The words are E 
not in Mk. They are based on Zee 12 12 ko.1 Koxperai 17 yrj Kara 

<pv\a<; <pv\a$. 

And they shall see the Son of Man coming upon the clouds of IB. 
heaven with power and great glory.] Mk. has : "And then shall 
they see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and 
glory." Mt. has transferred tot« to the previous clause. The 
words are based on Dn 7 13 , with a reminiscence of Zee 12 10 . For 
Mk.'s ev vc<£cAais, Mt. substitutes €7ri twv ve<£eXu>v rov ovpavov, to 
assimilate to the LXX of Daniel. See Driver on Dn 7 13 . For 
the "glory" of the Son of Man, see on 16 27 . 

The same combination of Zee i2 10 ' 12 with Dn 7 1S occurs in 
Rev i 7 . It is, of course, possible that one writer is dependent on 
the other, but equally possible that this combination of the two 
passages was a commonplace of Christian Apocalyptic study. 
For the Messianic application of the previous clause of Zee 1 2 10 , 
cf. Jn 19 37 . Bousset on Rev i 7 suggests that there is implied in 
the passage a belief that Christ would appear with or on the cross. 
If Mt. had this in mind, the " sign of the Son of Man " would 
mean the crucified Saviour appearing in the air. 

81. And He shall send His angels with a great trumpet, and M 
they shall gather His elect from the four winds, from the ends of 
heavens to their ends.] Mk. has : " And then shall He send the 
angels, and gather His elect from the end of earth to the end of 
heaven." — aTroarektl toi>s dyye'Aors airov] cf. 13 41 . For the trumpet 
as the signal for the gathering of the elect, cf. Ps-Sol n 1 " 3 , Is 
27 13 , Apok. Abrahams 31. Schemoneh Esreh 10: "Blow the great 
trumpet for our freedom, and raise a signal for the gathering of 
our dispersion." 

32. And from the fig-tree learn its parable. So soon as its M 
branch becomes soft, and it puts forth leaves, ye perceive that the 
summer is near.] So Mk., with ivriv and two variations in order. 

33. So also ye, when ye have seen all these things, perceive that it M 
is near at the doors.] Mk. has "these things happening" for "all 
these things." — eyyvs — iirl Ovpais] is one of the pleonasms so 
characteristic of Mk. The subject of Io-tIv in Mk. seems to be 
the coming of the Son of Man. In Mt. the insertion of iravra 
seems to suggest a wider reference to all that has gone before, 
including the appearance of the Son of Man, which is regarded as 
closely connected with the preceding events ; cf. eideus (v. 29 ). 

34. Verily I say to you, That this generation shall not pass M 
away, until all these things have happened.] Mk. has /a«x/hs ov for 
cois av. 

36. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not M 


pass away.~\ — ov fvq Trap£\6u>o-iv\ for Mk.'s ov TrapeXevcrovTcu. Cf. 
on v. 18 , and Moulton, 190-192. 
M 36. But concerning that day and hour no one knoweth, not even 
the angels of the heavens, except the Father alone.~\ Mk. has " in 
heaven," "or hour," and omits "alone." In Mk. the "day" and 
" hour " are synonymous expressions for the period of the coming. 
Mt. westernizes, by treating "hour" as a nearer specification of 
time within the "day."— ouSe 6 vio's] is omitted in S 1 K ca E Fg 12 
al; and its omission would be so consonant with Mt.'s treatment 
of Mk. in respect of statements about the person of Christ, that 
it is difficult to think that he would have retained the clause here. 
See Introduction, p. xxxi. For God's knowledge of the period of 
the Messiah, cf. Fs-Sol 17 23 , Zee 14 7 . 

Vv. 37-41 find a parallel in Lk 1 7 26-27. so. 34. 35, Mt. drew 
them from the Logia, Lk. from an independent source. 

L 37. For as the days of Noah, so shall be the presence of the 
Son of Man.] Lk. has : " And as it was in the days of Noah, so 
shall it be also in the days of the Son of Man." "The days 
of the Messiah " was a technical expression for the Messianic 
period. 1 

L 38, 39. For as they were in those days which were before the flood, 
eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the 
day in which Noah entered into the ark, and they