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*V — x °*\ 

/ n, 


The International Critical Commentary 







T he International Critical Commentary 







Edinburgh: T. & T. CLARK, 38 George Street 






First Impression . . . 1924 
Latest Impression . . . 1959 

The Rights of Translation and of Reproduction are Reserved 







The preparation of this volume was promised some 
years ago, but has been delayed by the many and 
multiform duties of practical life which have come to 
the author. If there are still occasional marks of the 
want of that concentration on one task which is so 
necessary for a Commentary, there is this compensating 
advantage: coming back again and again to these 
Epistles my mind has seemed to feel a truer sense of 
the proportion of the various parts to each other : I feel 
more able to " make the salient points salient," to put 
the first things first. 

The first purpose of the writer was, I am sure, 
ethical : he wanted to build up a high level of character 
in the Christian communities, such as would attract the 
outside world to Christ. "You have" (he says to his 
Churches) " to take your share in the life of the world 
around you and to attract it to Christ ; you have to 
be good citizens, good neighbours; for this you must 
embody the natural virtues which the heathen world 
around you rates most highly, and must add to them 
the graces of faith, hope, and love: and this you can 
do, for you have the power of the Incarnate and 
Risen Christ to help you." To emphasize the true 
features of that character and the spiritual dynamic 


which would make it possible was his first aim, and 
should be the first aim of his commentator. 

Quite subordinate to this, though important for its 
efficiency, is the ecclesiastical organization. Very little 
is said about the duties of any grade in it ; little about 
the method of ordination to any of them or about the 
relation of each grade to the rest ; even the problem of 
the relation of the iiriaKoiro*; to the ir pea (3vt epos only 
admits of a probable solution. Taking the references 
at their face value and assuming an early and Pauline 
date for the composition, it is practically certain that 
they are two different names for one and the same grade 
of ministry ; but assuming a late date, say in the 2nd 
century, near the time of Ignatius, when the distinction 
between the two was clearly marked, no reader 
would then have any doubt that they represented 
distinct grades, any more than a modern reader would 

Subordinate also to this is the problem of the 
authorship on which so much careful and meticulous 
scholarship has quite rightly been spent hitherto. I 
have tried to show (p. xxxi) how truly Pauline in spirit 
these letters are, whoever was the amanuensis who took 
them down and whoever the person who dictated them ; 
but, apart from the special reasons which apply to these 
Kpistles, I cannot but think that by this time in the 
history of Christianity the question of authorship of 
almost any book of the Bible has become of only 
secondary importance. Every century which has borne 
its witness to the intrinsic value of a book has so far 
diminished the apologetic importance of knowing its 
author, and a long line of witnesses, from Ignatius in his 
letter to Polycarp, through the many Church Orders, 


through Chrysostom and Gregory, through Calvin and 
George Herbert, down to the latest treatises on pastoral 
or missionary work 1 or the last addresses to candidates 
for Holy Orders, bears witness that, as long as the 
Church endures, these Epistles will have an abiding 
value, and the careful study of them will repay the 
student with fresh insight into their meaning and 
fresh guidance for building up his own character, be 
he layman or be he an official minister of the 
Church. 2 

In conclusion, I have to express my warmest thanks 
to the Rev. Henry Austin Wilson, Fellow of St. Mary 
Magdalen College, Oxford, who corrected the proofs of 
the first half, and to the Rev. Edward Charles Everard 
Owen, formerly Fellow of New College, Oxford, who 
continued the work when Mr. Wilson was prevented by 
illness. To both I owe useful suggestions as well as 
most careful correction of the proofs. 

Nor must I end without a special word of thanks 

1 Mr. E. F. Brown's Commentary in the Westminster Commentaries is a 
great proof of the value attached to these Epistles by missionaries working in 

a Since the Introduction was in print a fresh test has been applied to the 
problem of the Pauline authorship. In the Journal of Theological Studies 
for Oct. 1923, Professor H. J. Rose has examined and classified carefully 
the clausula, the rhythms of the endings of the sentences, in the whole 
Pauline Corpus, and by comparing those in these Epistles with those pre- 
dominant in the admittedly genuine Epistles, comes to the conclusion that 
2 Timothy is in the main genuine, that Titus is doubtful, and that 1 Timothy 
is definitely non-Pauline. It is striking that this method of approach should 
lead to a result very similar to that which had been reached by other methods, 
and it certainly weakens the case for 1 Timothy. But it is very doubtful 
whether this rhythmical test, however applicable to set speeches, can be trans- 
ferred with any confidence to informal letters : Mr. Rose has to admit 
exceptions to its rigid application ; and for it to be conclusive these Epistles 
should only be compared with the practical sections of the earlier Epistles ; 
the more argumentative or more poetical and rhetorical sections ought not to 
be thrown into the scales. 


to the patience and good nature of my publishers, and 
to the carefulness and suggestive thoughtfulness of their 

Christ Church, January 1924. 





The Christian Character 
i The Apostolic Teaching . 
i/Organization and Ministry 

Date and Authorship 
Text . 

Later Influence 


Additional Notes — 


KaX6<;, dyaflds 
irapaOrJKr) . 


Greek Words 
Subjects and Names 











(Cf. also PP. xli-xliv). 

A.V. . 

/Egypt. K.O. 


Apost. Ch. Ord. . 

Apost. K.O. . 


Bibl. Antiq. (Philo) 

Blass, NT. Gr. . 
Brightman, L.E. W. 
Canones Apost. 

Canones Hipp. 

Clem. Horn. . 

Const. Apost. 


Deissmann, B. St. 

Deissmann, L.A.E. 

Diet. Chr. Ant. 

in Texte und 

ii. 5. 

Authorized Version of the English 

See Egypt. CO. 
Apostolical Church'' 

Apostolische Kir- 

(Berlin) Griechische Urhunden, 1895- 
The Biblical Antiquities (of Philo), ed. 

M. R. James, S.P.C.K., 191 7. 
Grammar of New Testament Greek, 

English translation, 1898. 
Liturgies Eastern and Western, Oxford, 

Canones Apostolorum (from the Apos- 
tolical Constitutions, viii. 47), ed. F. 

Lauchert, 1896. 
Die Canones Hippolyti, ed. Achelis, in 

Texte und Untersuchungen, vi. 4. 
Codex Claromontanus. 
dementis Romani Homilioz, ed. 

Dressel, 1853. 
Constitutiones Apostolorum, ed. P. A. 

de Lagarde, 1862. 
Coverdale's New Testament. 
Biblical Studies, by A. Deissmann, 

Eng. translation, 1901. 
Light from the Ancient East, by A. 

Deissmann, Eng. transln., 1910. 
Smith and Cheetham, The Dictionary 

of Christian Antiquities, 1875-80. 


Dittenberger, Syll. 

Egypt. CO. . 

Encycl. Brit. 
Fuld. . 
H.K. \ . 
//and C.J . 

I.C.C. . 
I.G. . 
III. Bible Dictn. . 

Inscr., Cagnat 

/. Th. St. 

K.O. . 
M.M. . 

McGiffert, A.A. . 

Moffatt, L.N.T. . 

Moulton, Gr. N.T. 

N T in Apost. Fathers 

Nageli . 


O.L. . 
Orelli, Inscr. 

Orelli, Henz. 

P.B. . 
Pap. Eleph. . 

Pap. Oxyr. . 

Sylloge Inscriptionum Grwcarum, ed. 

W. Dittenberger, 1888. 
Egyptian Church Order, ed. Connolly, 

in Texts and Studies, viii. 4. 
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1899- 1903. 
Codex Fuldensis. 

The Geneva New Testament, 1557. 
Hand Commentar zum N.T, vol. iii., 

Freiburg, 1891. 
Dictionary of the Bible, ed. J. Hastings, 

International Critical Commentary. 
Inscriptions Grozca, Berlin, 1873- 
Murray's Illustrated Bible Dictionary, 

ed. W. C. Piercy, 1908. 
Inscriptions Grcecoz, ad res Romanas 

pertinentes, ed. R. Cagnat, Paris, 

The Journal of Theological Studies, 

London, 191c- 
Kirchen-Ordnung. See Apostol K.O. 
The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, 

by J. H. Moulton and G. Milligan, 

History of Christianity in the Apostoli t 

Age, by A. C. McGiffert, 1897. 
Introduction to the Literature of the 

N.T, by J. Moffatt, 191 1. 
A Grammar of N.T. Greek, by J. H. 

Moulton, 1906- 
The New Testament in the Apostolic 

Fathers, Oxford, 1905. 
Das Wortschatz des ApostePs Paulus, 

von T. Nageli, 1905. 
Orietitis Grceci Inscriptions Selects, 

ed. W. Dittenberger, 1903-5. 
Old Latin Version. 
Inscriptiones Latinoz Selects, I. II., ed. 

J. E. Orelli, 1828. 
Inscriptiones Latince Selecta, III., ed. 

W. Henzen, 1856. 
Die Pastoral Briefe. 
Elephantine Papyri, ed. C. Rubensohn, 

Berlin, 1907. 
The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, ed. Grenfell 

and Hunt, vols, i.-xv., London, i8y8- 



Pap. Paris 

Pap. Tebt. 

Pirke Aboth 


R.V. . 
S.-H. . 

Schurer, H.J. P. 

si v.l. . 
Soutei . . 

T. und U. . 

T. und U.N.F. . 
Test. Dom. Nostri 
Test. XII Patrum 

Texts and Studies . 

• • • 

Trench, Syn. 

Tynd. . 
W.-H. . 

Zahn, Einl. . 

/.eitschr. N. T. Wissenschaft 

Paris Papyri, ed. Brunet de Presle, 

Paris, 1865. 
The Ted turn's Papyri, ed. Grenfell, 

Hunt, and Smyly, London, 1902-7. 
The Sayings of the Jewish lathers, ed. 

C. Taylor, 191 1. 
The Psalms of Solomon, ed. Ryle and 

James, 1891. 
Revised Version of the English Bible. 
The Epistle to the Romans, by Sanday 

and Headlam, in the ICC. 
A History of the Jewish People in the 

time of Jesus Christ, Eng. tr. 1890. 
si vera lectio. 
Novum Testamentum Greece. Textui 

a Retractoribus Anglicis adhibito 

brevem adnotationem criticam sub- 

jecit, A. Souter, Oxford, 19 10. 
Texte und Untersuchungen zur Gesch- 

ichte der Altchristlichen Literatur, 

von Gebhart und Harnack, Leipzig, 

Texte und Untersuchungen Neue Folge, 

The Testament of Our Lord, ed. 

Cooper and Maclean, 1902. 
The Testaments of the Twelve Patri- 
archs (Greek Version), ed. Charles, 

Ed. J. Armitage Robinson, Cambridge, 

JVovum Testamentum Greece, ed. C. 

Tischendorf and C R. Gregory, ed. 

octava, 1894. 
Synonyms of the New Testament, by 

Archbishop Trench, 8th edition, 

Tyndale's New Testament, 1534. 
The New Testament in Greek, with 

Introduction and Appendix, by 

Westcott and Hort, Cambridge, 

Einleitung in das Neue Testament, von 

Theodor Zahn, 1897^9. 
Zeitschrift fiir die neutestamentliche 

Wissenschaft, Giessen, 1900- 


Name. — These Epistles were from the first separated from the 
letters to the churches as part of a group of private letters to 
friends, written " pro affectu et dilectione " : as such they are, in 
the Muratorian Canon and in all MSS., classed with Philemon. 
But they were soon separated from it, as having a bearing on church 
life (Canon Mur. " in honore tamen ecclesiae catholicae in ordina- 
tionem ecclesiastics discipline sanctificatae sunt." Tert. adv. 
Marc. v. 21 " ad Timotheum duas et unam ad Titum de ecclesias- 
tico statu compositas ") ; and Marcion, while accepting Philemon, 
rejected them. The earliest reference to a common name for 
them is found in the 17th century, "qure Pontificiae vocari solent " 
(Cosmas Magalianus, Lugduni, 1609) ; and from the 18th century 
the title "Pastoral" suggested first by P. Anton in 1726, soon 
became a recognized title in Germany ; cf. Michaelis, Ein/eitung, 
1777, "die so-genannten Pastoral- briefe" (cf. Wohlenberg, p. 68; 
Zahn, Einleitung, i. 444; Harrison, pp. 13-16), and has since 
gained universal currency. 

Unity of purpose. — This title well describes them, though 
in rather different degrees : 1 Ti is entirely pastoral, and perhaps 
intended to be of universal application ; Titus is mainly pastoral, 
but also a letter of commendation and a letter of recall ; 2 Ti 
is mainly personal, a letter of recall, and only incidentally pas- 
toral ; yet all may be for many purposes treated as a unity. For 
the main purpose of them all is the same ; it may be summed 
up in the words of I 3 16 , 7ru>s Bel iv olkw 6eov avaa-rpefpecrdai., to 
build up a high standard of Christian character and intercourse 
in the Church as the family of God, or in those of Tit 2 11 - 13 (of 
the purpose of the Incarnation and Atonement), to enable men 
to live <rw(t>p6vw<; kou Siko.uu9 kclL cucrc/^oj? : and the two instruments 
which are to achieve this aim are the same in all — a high standard 
of character and loyalty to the Apostolic teaching. 

The Christian Character — The secret of the character 
is a personal relation to Christ as one who had lived a human 
life, and is now a Risen and Ascended Lord (I 3 16 ), a constant 
b xiii 


remembrance of Him as a Risen Lord able to help (II 2 8 ) : a 
constant expectation, nay, a wholehearted desire (dyd^) for His 
Returning Presence (Tit 2 13 , II 4 s , I 6 14 ) : for He is the mediator 
between man and a God of life (I 4 10 ), a God who has made all 
creation good (I 4 4 ), and who wishes all men to be saved (I 2 4 ) ; 
who of His grace saves the worst sinners from sin (I i 1B ), and 
brings them back to share His own glory (I i 11 ). Man's attitude 
towards God is exnressed in the Pauline triad, faith (I i 4 - 14 2 16 4 12 , 
Tit 3 15 ), love (I i 5 - 14 ), and hope (I i 1 4 10 5 s 6", II 4 8 , Tit i 2 3 7 ). 
His ideal is to live a quiet and peaceable life in a religious and 
serious spirit (I 2 2 , cf. II 2 22 ) : his essential characteristics are 
sincerity, a good conscience, a pure heart ; he models himself on 
the Divine qualities of goodness and loving-kindness (Tit 3 4 ); he 
receives power from Christ : hence he holds himself well in hand 
(ey»cpar^s) : he has his passions under control (<ru>4>p(i>v) : he is 
content with little (I 6 7, 8 ) : he is sober-minded (vrj^dXios : cf. 
vrj<f>et.v, II 4 5 ; avavq^fLv, II 2 26 ) : his virtues are kept healthy, free 
from any feverish excitement (uyiai'veiv, Tit 2 2 ; cf. I 6 4 ) : he avoids 
profitless discussion and speculations (I i 4 6 3 ). Hence he is 
prepared for every good work, ready to be used by his Master 
at a moment's notice (tvxprjo-ros) : he lives a life useful to his 
fellow-men (d><£eAi/Aos, I 4 8 , Tit 3 s ; cf. Tit 3 14 note) : he is generous, 
if he has wealth (I 6 1M9 ) : he is careful of justice to others 
(SiKaiocTvvr)), gentle and forbearing in the face of opposition : he 
is not content with merely good works, he aims at excellence 
(»caA.a epya : cf. special note, p. 22). Hence there is an orderly 
beauty about all his actions (ko'ct/aios) : they adorn the teaching he 
has received (Tit 2 10 ) : nay, there is a religious dignity (o^vcm;?) 
that marks him out : he moves through life as though it were a 
great religious service (cf. UpoTrpcirels, Tit 2 3 ) conducted in the 
sight of God and of Christ (I 5 21 6 13 , II 2 16 4 1 ), with the hope 
that his life may attract outsiders to share the joy of the pro- 
cession. This type of character is to be exhibited in family life 
(for the family is the type of the Church, I 3 5 5 1 ) : in a high 
conception of marriage (I 2 15 4 s 5 14 ), in fidelity of husband to 
wife and wife to husband, in the control of and provision for 
children by parents, and in the obedience of children to parents, 
in the training of the young by the old, in the care for widowed 
relations, in the kindness of master to slave and faithfulness of 
slave to master, in a more willing service to Christian masters : 
it is to be exhibited in civic life, for the Christian is to pray 
for his rulers (I 2 2 ), to be obedient to authority (Tit 3 1 ), to join 
in any good civic work, to be occupied in any trade that is 
respectable, and not to incur the charge of being a useless citizen 
(Tit 3 1 - 8 - 14 notes). It is to be exhibited in Church life : for the 
character of the ministers is to be the model for all, and their life 


is to be under supervision and discipline, their work duly 
rewarded, their sins duly punished. The whole life is being 
disciplined, educated in righteousness, under the grace of God 
(nmSevovaa, Tit 2 12 ; cf. II 2 25 3 16 ). 

Two things may be noted about this type of character : (a) 

it denotes a second stage in the Christian life ; that life has passed 

through the excitement of conversion ; there is none of the 

restlessness which St. Paul had to rebuke in the Corinthian 

Church ; none of the upsettal of ordinary duties and family life 

which resulted from the expectation of a speedy coming of the 

Returning Lord ; there are only slight hints of the controversy 

between law and grace (I i 8 , Tit 3 5 ) : the true purpose of law is 

seen in due proportion, and the "sound teaching" of the 

Christian Church is felt to incorporate, while it transcends, the 

commands of the decalogue (I i 8-11 notes). Another cause 

operated to effect the same result. The sense of the speedy 

Parousia of the Lord had passed away : we have no longer a 

"crisis-ethic" j the more abiding relation of the Church to this 

world is being denned. In a sense Christian Teachers are 

necessarily falling back on the Rabbinic effort to regulate exactly 

the duties of daily life, but the teaching is quite free from 

meticulous scrupulousness ; the central religious motives are kept 

central. The ideal is the same as that described in Clement of 

Rome (c. 1) and Justin, as that which Tertullian pointed to as 

realized in his time as marked by "gravitas honesta," and 

Eusebius as to aefivov kclI eiAiKpives kolI iXevOipcov to re trucfypov 

Kal KaOapov t?)s evdeov TroAiTeias. 1 Hence missionaries have 

turned to these Epistles for guidance in dealing with a second 

generation of converted heathen. 2 (b) While it stands in striking 

contrast to the past heathen life of the converts and to the 

general standard around them (Tit 3 1 - 5 ), yet it shows how close 

the Christian character comes to the best ideal found in Greek 

and especially in Stoic Ethics. St. Paul had bidden the 

Philippians note well, wherever they might be found, all things 

a\rj6rj, crtfivd, 8t/caia, dyva (Phil 4 8 ), and all these words are 

embodied in these Epistles : the writer gives a warning against 

falling short of a heathen standard (I 5 8 ) : <ra)cf>pocrvvrj and 

iyKpareia are as central in Plato and Epictetus as here : evcrtfiuu 

(I 2 2 note) and OeocrefitLa (I 2 10 ) are common terms in Greek 

religion : avrapKua is a special note of Stoicism : many of the 

qualities required for Christian men and women are found 

already on Pagan Inscriptions; the illustrations quoted in the 

1 Clem. Rom. i. 1 ; Justin, Apol. i. IO ; Tert. ae Prcescr. Hcer. c. 43. 
Eusebius, H.E. iv. 7, quoted by Bright, Some Aspects of Primitive Church 
Life, pp. 140-52, an excellent account of the early Christian ideal. 

2 Cf. Brown, The Pastoral Epistles, passim 


notes of Wetstein and Dibelius are illuminating in this respect ; 
the qualities required for a ruler in the Church have many points 
of contact with those of the Stoic wise man or those of a Greek 
general (I 3 2 note) ; the ideal of Marcus Aurelius is very similar: 
for him man acts as priest and servant of the gods (iii. 4), his 
conduct is serious and dignified (cre/xj/os, i. 9, ii. 5) : with him 
goodness is beautiful (ii. 1) : man — even an emperor — should he 
avTapKrjs and need little for happiness (i. 1 6, ii. 5, iii. 4, vi. 30, oAiyois 
apKovfievos, olov olKrjaei, (TTpoifxvrj, iadrJTi, rpo<pr], virqpia-ia): hence he 
is iyKpdTtjs (1. 15), sober-minded (vrjtpov Iv irucn, i. 16, iv. 26, vi. 31); 
sound in judgment (vyiV) iv. 51, x. 35), of ordered beauty (Kooyuos, 
iii. 7); he is an athlete in the noblest contest (iii. 4) ; he has the 
same dislike for profitless speculations (i. 7). The lists of moral 
virtues found in him correspond very much with those of these 

Epistles (iii. 6, 8i#caioo-i'i'TJ, uAri^ei'a, o~w</>pocrw7/, av8p€ia : V. 5, to 
(T(.p.vov . . . to d^iAr/ooi/oi/ ... to oAiyoSec's, to cv/acvcs, to 
d(p\vapov. cf. v. 12, vii. 68). 

The writer wishes to say to his churches : You are settling 
down to join in the life of the Empire, to hold your own with 
your Pagan neighbours ; therefore you must not fall short of 
their moral standard : your life must incorporate the highest 
virtues on which their teachers lay stress; nay more, it must 
aim at a standard of excellence which shall adorn the doctrine 
of your Saviour, because the Christian life is one of the chief 
means which will attract Pagans to Christ (I 6 1 , Tit 2 5810 , and 
cf. 1 P 2 12 3 1 - 2 ). 

"The true ecclesiastical life and the true Christian life and 
the true human life are all one and the same ; " x but there lies 
behind the two former a motive in the relation to a personal 
Saviour from sin, which enabled Christianity to win its way to all 
classes of men to a degree which Stoic Ethics never touched. 2 

The Apostolic Teaching. — One means for securing this high 
level of character is loyalty to the Apostolic teaching. This is 
based upon " the words of the Lord Jesus Christ " (I 6 3 , cf. 5 18 ), 
on the Gospel of St. Paul (I 2", II i 13 2 8 3 10 ), on the inspired 
Scriptures of the O.T. (I 5 18 II 3 1C ). It is expressed in stereo- 
typed phrases : it is 17 8i8ao~Ka\ia (I 6 1 ) : 17 koAt) 818. (I 4 6 ) : 
77 iyicuVowa (I I 10 , II 4 s , Tit I 9 2 1 ) : 7/ ko-t cforejSetav (I 6 3 , Tit I 1 ) : 
7/ rou crwTT/po? ( Pit 2 10 ) : 6 Aoyos tov dcov (II 2 9 , Tit 2 5 ) : tt}s dA.77- 
0«'as (I I 2 15 ) : r; iXjOua (I 3 15 4 3 , II 2 18 3 8 4* Tit I 14 ) ! cf. eVi'yvai<m 
dAi^eias (I 2 4 , II 2 25 3 7 ) : r) rum* (I i 19 (?) 3 9 (?) 4 1 - 6 6 10 - «, II 3 «, 

1 Hort, TAe Christian Eccltsia, p. 200. 

8 For a full account of the treatment of the Greek cardinal virtues bj 
Philo and by the earliest Christian teachers, cf. Strong, Christian Ethics, 
Note on Lectures III. and IV. 


Tit I 18 2 2 (?)) : to evayye'Aioi' rrj<; 86£r)<; tov fxaKaptov 6tov (I I 11 ) : 
17 7rapayyeXta (I i 6 ). It is already embodied in hymns (I 3 16 ), 
in faithful sayings (I i 15 3 1 4 9 , II 2 11 , Tit 3 s ), and the germs of a 
creed seem to be implied in I 6 13 , II 4 1 . 

In contrast to this there are false teachers and false teaching, 
but the allusions to their exact doctrines are not clear. They are 
teachers within the Church (cf. Acts 20 30 , Rev 2 2 , which both show 
the existence of false teachers at Ephesus), some of whom have 
already been handed over to Satan (I i 19 - 2( >, 1 1 2 17 , cf. Tit 3 10 ) ; they 
lay great stress on the importance of their teaching (I i 7 , ftiafie- 
ySatovvTai), and make great efforts to attract followers (II 3°, Tit 
i u ). Some of them are Jews, others are not (Tit i 10 ): there is 
no reason for supposing all the allusions to be to one set ; there 
were many varieties of false teaching in Ephesus (Acts ig 1 '*- 9 - 13 
and 2o 29 - 30 ), and there seem two distinct tendencies. 

(i) Jeivish. — This is clearly marked in Titus (i 10 01 «e t^s 
TrepiTOfArjs, i 14 'lovoVi/cots fjivOois, 3 s yuccas vo/xiKas) : the references 
to "myths and genealogies" in I i 4 " 7 (where the teachers claim 
to be vo/AoSiSacncaAoi) 4 7 , II 4 4 would most naturally be explained 
by the passages in Titus and probably do refer to Jewish 
Haggada, though they certainly are capable of adaptation to the 
Gnostic aeons and genealogies and the Gnostic stress on know- 
ledge as the method of salvation (vid. notes ad /oc). The falsely- 
called knowledge (I 6 20 ) will in this case refer to Rabbinical 
pride in knowledge of the law. 

(ii) Gnostic. — Springing out of a belief in the evil of matter : 
this is the probable reference of I 4 1 " 5 , where the reference to the 
prohibition of marriage and ascription of the source of the teach- 
ing to "devils" make it almost impossible to trace that source 
to Judaism. With this may be classed the denial of the literal 
Resurrection (II 2 17 ) and the possible allusion to magic (II 3 s - 13 ). 
These are forms which 2nd century Gnosticism took [vid. notes 
ad /oc.) ; but similar tendencies were in existence in the 1st 
century (cf. 1 Co 15 12 , Col 2 8 , Ro 14, Heb 13 4 ). 

Of our Epistles, 2 Ti is the least determinate and gives little 
guidance as to the nature of the teaching : Titus is markedly 
anti-Jewish ; 1 Ti. has the most definite statements, yet they are 
ambiguous and are capable of reference either to Jewish or 
Gnostic teaching ; if it was written after Titus and was intended 
as a general direction to all the Pauline churches, it may have 
intentionally widened the allusions in Titus, so as to make the 
warning applicable in different directions. But the main reason 
of this ambiguity is that the writer is not so much concerned 
with the doctrines as with the moral tendency of the rival 
teachings. On the one hand, the Apostolic teaching tends to 
produce excellence of character (xa\rj) : it is sound and healthy 


(vyiaivovo-a), it is adapted to a religious standard (kcit* ei'o-c/Jeiav), 
its one aim is " love out of a pure heart " (I i 6 ), the Lord has 
placed His own stamp upon it (II 2 19 ). To remain loyal to it 
appeals to the deep instinct which regards the care of a deposit 
as a solemn trust (cf. note on irapaBrJKrf, II i 12 ). On the other 
hand, the false teaching is aimless (I i 6 ), empty of real substance 
(I 6 20 ), useless (Tit 3 9 ), ruinous to character (II 2 14 ); it springs 
out of failure to keep a good conscience (I i 19 ), and leads to 
quibbling argumentation, to discord and ill-will (I i 4 6 4 ). The 
writer's feeling is closely akin to that of Socrates towards the 
Sophists, of St. Paul towards the Corinthians who placed know- 
ledge before love (1 Co 8, Col 2), of Marcus Aurelius, who was 
grateful to Rusticus that he had first learnt from him the need 
of moral correction and amendment, and renounced sophistic 
ambitions (i. 7). 

Church Organization and Ministry. — The Church ad- 
dressed is one organized community, an ecclesia of a God of life, 
God's family (I 3 5 - 15 ) ; its members are 61 dSeAtpoi (4 6 ), ol ttkjtoL 

( 4 12, Cf. 5" 62), aycoc ( 5 10), 01 ^e'repoi (Tit 3"). 

There are meetings for worship both evening and morning 
(I 5 5 Tais Trpocrev)(aL<; vuktos xal 17/Aepas) ; at them prayers and 
thanksgiving are combined (I 2 1 ); there is reading of Scripture, 
exhortation, teaching (I 4 13 ) ; men and women worship together 
and the desire of women to teach is checked by the writer : it is 
not clear whether any man present might lead the prayers, or 
whether this was confined to a minister (I 2 8 note). 

Baptism is the method of salvation and new birth (Tit 3 5 ), and 
an allusion to a baptismal profession of faith in God and in Christ 
Jesus is probable in I 6 12 . 

There are also meetings for discipline (cVco7riov ttolvtuv, I 
5 20 ), though it is not clear whether these would be meetings of 
the whole Church or only of the presbyters. 

Ministry. — (a) The Apostle. — The Apostle, as receiving 
his commission from Jesus Christ, and as in the service of God 
(Tit 1 1 , I 1 1 , II i 1 ), has the supreme authority. He lays stress 
on his own Gospel (I i u 2 1 , II i 1(M3 3 14 , Tit i 3 ), solemnly entrusts 
it to his delegates (I i 18 ), hands over false teachers to Satan 
(I i 20 ), and, though contemplating a speedy return, sends to his 
delegate exact instructions and wishes about his teaching, the 
details of common worship, the choice of and discipline over the 

(6) The Prophets are referred to as having in the past pointed 
out Timothy to St. Paul for his work I i 18 4 14 , but there is no 
reference to any present action by them. 


(c) The Apostle's delegates, Timothy and Titus. — No official 
title is given to them : Timothy is called an " Evangelist " (II 4 6 ), 
a man of God (I 6 11 ), the Lord's servant (II 2 24 ); his task is one 
of ministry (Sia*:oj/iai', II 4 5 ). No title is given to Titus. They 
both have power given them to teach themselves, to hand on the 
Apostle's Gospel, to control the teaching of others (I i 3 II 2 14 ) ; 
to ordain ministers, to exercise discipline over them " with all 
authority " (I 5 17 - 25 , II 4 2 , Tit 2 15 3 10 ), both for reward and for 
punishment ; to remit penalties once inflicted (?) (I 5 22 ) ; to 
regulate the roll of widows (I 5°). Each is to be a model of 
character as well as of teaching (I 4 12 , Tit 2 7 ). 

But it is not clear whether they received special consecration 
for this task. No allusion is made to this in the case of 
Titus : in the case of Timothy it is probably implied in I i 18 4 14 , 
II i 6 : he has had hands laid upon him by the Apostle and by 
presbyters at some time, but all these allusions may refer to some 
earlier event in his life. Nor is it clear what was their exact 
status. They may have been only temporary delegates se nt to deal 
with temporary emergencies, as they had been sent before to the 
Church at Corinth, and 1 Ti i 3 3 14 - 15 4 13 , Tit i 5 3 12 point this 
way (cf. II 4 10 where Titus is sent to Dalmatia) : or they may have 
received some permanent commission and consecration to act as 
the Apostle's delegate at any place to which from time to time he 
might send them : and II 4 12 , Tit 3 12 may imply that, when they 
were recalled, someone else was put in their places : or, lastly, it is 
possible that they had received permanent commission with per- 
manent localization at Ephesus and Crete, their recall being only 
temporary. II 4 s - 6 seems to imply that Timothy would remain 
at his task after the Apostle's death, though not necessarily at 
Ephesus. 1 Timothy and Titus favour the first of these views, 
2 Timothy the last, and a change may have been made in 
Timothy's position when Paul returned to Ephesus ; but in any 
case they are "the instruments of an absent rather than the 
wielders of an inherent authority" (Moberly),and it is ordination 
at some point in their lives which gives them grace and power, to 
the fact of which the Apostle can appeal. They are Vicars 
Apostolic rather than monarchical bishops, but they form the 
transition to the monarchical Episcopate of the 2nd century. 

(d) Local ministry. — There are grades in the ministry : the 
lirio-KOTrrj is already an object of desire: the deacon, if he 
serves well, may pass to a higher grade (I 3 1 - 13 ). But it is not 
clear whether there are two or three grades. Three titles are 
given, €7ricrK07ros, 7r/3eo-/3vT£pos, Skxkovos, but the first two may be 
different titles for one office. This is probable, as the duties 
assigned to each, and the requisite character of each, are almost 
identical ; cf. I 3 2 " 7 with Tit i 6 " 9 ; and this is confirmed by the 


absence of any reference to Trpto-fivrepoi in I 3 2 " 13 , and tc 
iTTio-KOTrot in I 5 17 " 21 . On the other hand, it is noticeable that the 
bishop is always referred to in the singular with the definite 
article prefixed (tov liricrKo-rrov, I 3 2 , Tit i 7 ). 

The Bishop's relation to the Church is hke that of a father to 
a family : his duty is ■n-pd'icriaodat, iTrifxeXeurOiu, I 3 4 - 5 , to preside at 
meetings, to keep discipline, to take forethought for the whole, to 
teach (SiBcLKTiKov), to exhort, to rebuke (Tit i 9 ): he represents 
the Church to the outside world (I 3 7 ), and has to welcome Chris- 
tians coming from elsewhere (<fn\6$cvov). I lis is a task, and a 
noble task (*caA.ou Zpyov, 1 3 1 ). 

The Presbyters are a group of elders in each city (Tit i 5 , 
2 Ti 2 2 , cf. to Trpeo-fivrepiov, I 4 14 ) : they are formally appointed 
(Tit i 5 , 1 Ti 5 22 (?) ) and tested before appointment (1 Ti 3 10 ko.1 
ovtoi) : their duty is to " preside " and to teach (1 Ti 5 17 ) : they 
receive some honorarium, which is increased if their work is well 
done : they are liable to censure and formal judgment before the 
whole body {il>. 19 " 22 ). They also take their part in laying hands 
on other ministers (1 Ti 4 14 ). 

It is then quite possible that these are two different titles for 
one status; and if so, ''presbyters" would be the title, springing 
out of the analogy of the Jewish synagogue, a small group 
of leading men chosen by the founder of each church to manage 
its affairs after he had gone : and " bishops " would be a descrip- 
tion of thrir function as taking oversight. This is strongly 
supported by Acts 20 17 and 28 ; cf. Phil i 1 . But it would be 
frequently necessary for the church to be represented by some 
one officer, whether to manage the finances and exercise 
hospitality to strangers, or to preside at a meeting for exercising 
discipline, or more frequently still for presiding at the Eucharist 
(cf. 6 7rpoeo-rojs, Justin M. Apol. i. 67), and the title " the overseer " 
would naturally be applied to the presbyter so acting, without 
implying any difference of grade or permanent status. This 
would explain the constant use of the singular. 

Deacons. — The existence of the office at Ephesus is assumed, 
and their duties are not defined. Stress is laid upon their char- 
acter, both as fitting them for their own work of assisting in church 
service and administration of charity, and as preparing them for 
the higher office of the presbyterate to which they may aspire. 
Their character, perhaps also their soundness in the faith, has to 
be formally tested before they can enter upon their office. They 
are not mentioned at all in the churches of Crete. 

(e) Ministry of women. — (i) The ministry of deaconesses is 
almost certainly referred to in 1 Ti 3 11 , but no definition of their 
duties or of the method of their appointment is given. 

(ii) Widows. — There is already in existence an order of 


Church Widows whose names are kept on a regular list. The 
writer's aim is to limit this list. It is possible that those on the 
list were used for deeds of kindness to others, but this is not 
clearly stated. The main purpose of the order was eleemosynary. 
No one is to be placed on it who is under sixty years of age, 
or who can be supported by her own relations : only excellence 
of character qualifies for admission. 

For fuller details cf. the notes on each passage. The follow- 
ing books should be consulted : Bp. Lightfoot, The Christian 
Ministry; Hort, The Christian Ecclesia, cc. xi. xii. ; Hatch, 
The Bampton Lectures, 1880; Lindsay, The Church and the 
Ministry in the Early Centuries, 1903; Lowrie, The Church and 
its Organisation (based on Sohm's Kirchenrecht), 1904 ; Harnack, 
Constitution and Law of the Church, Eng. tr., 19 10; Swete, The 
Early History of the Church and Ministry, Essay II., 19 18 ; Gore, 
The Church and the Ministry, c. v., 191 9 ; Headlam, The 
Bampton Lectures, c. ii., 1920. 

For the previous use of the words lirio-Koiros and irpiafivTcpoi 
in connexion with religious officials, cf. Deissmann, B.S. s.vv., 
M.M. s.vv. ; Gore, ubi sup., ed. 2 , Note K. 

Theology. — (i) The conception of God is mainly that of the 
O.T., with the sense of His Fatherhood deepened by the revelation 
of Christ, and with more abstract qualities emphasized, perhaps 
through the influence of Greek philosophy upon Jewish thought. 
In essence He is One only (I 2 5 6 15 ) : a God of life (I 3 15 4 10 ) : 
the Happy God (I i u ) : immortal, invisible (I 6 15, 16 ). In 
manifestation He is creator of all things (I 4 4 ), holding them in 
life (I 6 13 ), giving them bountifully for man's enjoyment (I 6 17 ). 
He is father of men, willing all to be saved (I 2 4 ) : true to His 
promises (Tit i 2 ) : the King of all the ages (I i 17 6 16 ) : revealing 
Himself at His own times (iSiois kcu/jois, Tit 1 3 ) : Christians are 
His elect (II 2 10 , Tit i 1 ) : He is their saviour in the fullest sense 
(I 4 10 ) : the Church is His family (I 3 s - 15 , II 2 15 - 19 ) : its ministers 
are His slaves (II 2 24 ), His stewards (Tit i 7 , I i 4 ), His "men" 
(I 6 11 , II 3 17 ?) : He issues His commands to them {ko.t cViTay^v, 
I i 1 , Tit i 3 ): He gives them His gifts (II i c - 7 ): He is the 
source of grace, mercy, and peace (I i 2 , II i 2 , Tit i 4 ) : the giver 
of repentance to those who have gone astray (II 2 25 ) : the object 
of hope (I 5 5 ) : the future Judge (cf. I 5 21 ). 

(ii) The conception of Christ is primarily that of the Jewish 
Messiah — Xpto-ros 'Iiyo-ovs almost always, 'Irjo-ovs Xpioros rarely, 
never 'Ir/a-ovs alone or Xpicn-os alone (cf. Harrison, p. 57) — but 
the Messiah as one with God in His universal love and work ; 
perhaps also modified by an intentional contrast with the deified 


Roman Emperor (Tit 2 13 note). He is thought of as existing 
before all time (II 1 9 ) : His earthly life was a manifestation (I 3 16 ), 
a coming into the world (I i 15 ); yet He was truly man, able to 
represent all mankind before God (I 2 5 ). His teaching is perhaps 
referred to (I 6 3 ) : His true confession before Pontius Pilate 
(I 6 13 ) : His self-sicrifice (1 2 6 ) : His atoning death (Tit 2 14 ). 
But He is mainly thought of as the Risen Lord ; the mediator 
between God and man (I 2 5 ); the saviour, the source with the 
Father of grace, mercy, and peace : the giver of wisdom (II 2 1 ) : 
the source of life itself (II i 1 - 10 ) : the inspirer of courage (II 2 8 ) : 
the object of our faith (I i 16 ) and of our hope (I i 1 ) : for whose 
final appearing Christians long (II 4 8 ), because He guards safely 
our deposit (II i 12 ), and with the Father will be the righteous 
Judge, giving the crown of righteousness to the righteous and 
rewarding the wicked according to their deeds (II i 18 4 8 - 14 ). He 
is called " the glory of our great God and Saviour," or perhaps 
"our great God and Saviour" (Tit 2 18 note). 

(iii) To the Holy Spirit there is little allusion ; He may be 
referred to in I 3 16 as the inspirer of Christ's perfect life. He is 
the source of the inspiration of Christian prophets (I 4 1 ) : to all 
Christians He is the source of the renewal given in Baptism 
(Tit 3 5 ), and the indwelling power which enables them to be 
loyal to their trust (II i 14 ). 

Date. — On the assumption of the Pauline authorship the date 
must be subsequent to St. Paul's imprisonment at Rome and 
before his death, and will fall between a.d. 60 and 64. But 
deferring this problem, the evidence is very uncertain. Any 
date between 60 and 1 15 is possible ; between 60 and 90 probable. 

External evidence. — The surest starting-point is the rejection 
of their Pauline authorship by Marcion. This implies their exist- 
ence and their attribution to St. Paul by others before a.d. 140. 
About the same date they were included in Syriac and Latin 
versions. Further, there are striking coincidences with their 
language to be found in the Epistles of Ignatius and Polycarp, 
which make it probable that they were well known before a.d. 
115. There are again possible reminiscences of their language 
and a real sympathy of tone between them and the Epistle of 
Clement, a.d. 95. (For reference, cf. von Soden, ffdc.,p. 151 ; The 
Neiv Testament in the Apostolic Fathers, p. 137 ; Harrison, pp. 177, 
178 ; Von der Goltz, T. und U. xn iii., pp. 107-18, 186-94.) 

Internal evidence. — (a) Church organization. — A regular 
ministry of at least two grades is already in existence: the 
presbyters are salaried : they are liable to discipline : they form 
a higher grade to which deacons may be advanced : the position 
of €7rurK07ro<; is already an object of desire ; only those who are 


not newly-converted may be appointed to office. There are 
many widows, some of more than sixty years of age ; some have 
already been untrue to their profession. This implies a Church 
of some years' standing, but is possibly consistent with a period 
of twelve years, which may have elapsed between the first founda- 
tion of the Ephesian Church by St. Paul and his imprisonment 
at Rome. On the other hand, the uncertainty of the exact 
position held by Timothy and Titus, and the uncertainty of the 
relation of the €7rib-/<o7ros to the irpeafivTepoi, and the need of 
regulating the worship of men and women, are quite different 
from the situation implied in the letters of Ignatius, and point 
to a date not later than the ist century. The need of the 
enforcement of prayer for the Empire points to a time before 
Clement's letter. 

(b) Relation to the outside world. — The chief danger of false 
teaching comes from Judaism ; there are also traces of Gnosticism, 
but in an incipient form, not nearly so developed as in Marcion. 
The Church is settling down to play an active part in the world : 
it prays for the Empire ; its members are encouraged to loyalty 
and active service as citizens ; the characteristic of Christian life 
embodies all the virtues of Stoicism : " The writer is a type of 
the time when the ethical voice of a noble Hellenism and the 
Roman instinct for organization are uniting themselves with the 
Christianity which had sprung as religion out of Judaism " (von 
Soden) : the notes of the Christian character already found in 
the Corinthian Church in the time of Clement of Rome (c. i) 
recall those of these Epistles. Some of the best illustrations of 
the writer's meaning are to be found in Ignatius or Tertullian or 
Cyprian (cf. notes on I 2 16 5 22 , Tit 3 s ) : but there is no indica- 
tion that those imply customs which had arisen in the 2nd 
century. Tertullian often adds cautions to guard against dangers 
which might arise from the language of the Epistles ; cf. Tert. de 
Idol. c. 8 : " cavere debemus ne quid scientibus nobis ab aliquibus 
de manibus nostris in rem idolorum postuletur." lb. 12: " ut 
non usque ad idololatriae affinitates necessitatibus largiamur." 
lb. 15 : "subditos magistratibus . . . sed intra limites discipline, 
quousque ab idololatria separamur." In the same way a com- 
parison of the advice to slaves in I 6 1,2 as compared with that in 
Ignatius and Polycarp points to an earlier date. 

(c) Literary dependence. — (a) The Gospels. — There is no refer- 
ence to the existence of written Gospels : in I 5 18 a saying 
recorded in St. Luke's Gospel is quoted ; possibly as Scripture, 
though probably not (vid. note) : I 6 3 possibly implies a collection 
of the Lord's discourses, and Q may have been known to the 
writer; but the coincidences with the Gospel sayings are quite 
explicable as due to oral tradition. The more striking are : 


I 2 


• Mk 

io«), 4 8 

( = Ll 

: i8 39 ), 5 5 

( = Lk 

2 s7 ), 

5 18 

( = Lk io 7 ; 


a g 





differs), 6 17 " 19 ( 

= Lk 

I2 2021 ), II 2 19 

( = 


7 23 ), 


4 18 ( 

= Mt 

6 13 ), Tit 

i 15 ( = 


/ ) 

Lk ii«), 3* 

(=Jn 3 5 ). The Johannine phrases rjKOev eis tov koo-/aov, I i 15 
i^avi/mOr) er aapKL, 1 3 16 , are found in quotations Irom " faithful 
sa>ings" or "hymns." 

(6) The Epistles. — There are many coincidences of thought 
and language with St. Paul's Epistles, especially with Ro., 1 Co., 
Eph., Phil. Nearly all the reminiscences of the O.T. are of 
passages quoted by St. Paul: I 2 13 , cf. 1 Co n 8 : I 2 14 , cf. 
2 Co 11 3 : I 5 19 , cf. 2 Co 13 1 : I 6 1 , cf. Ro 2 24 : II 2 20 , cf. Ro 9 21 : 
Tit i 14 , cf. Col 2 22 : Tit 2 5 , cf. Ro 2 24 . Frequent coincidences 
occur with St. Paul's own language : 

with Ro. : I i^^Ro 16 26 : i 5 = Ro 13 10 : i 8 = Ro 7 16 : 2 5 = Ro 
3 80. 2 7 = r 9 i # 

II i 3 = Roi 8 : i 7 =Ro8 15 : i 8 -=Roi 16 : i 9 =Roi6 26 : 

i l4 =Ro8 n : 2 1M3 = Ro 6 8 8 17 . 
Tit i w = Ro 16 26 : i 15 =Ro [4 20 :3 l =Ro T3 1 . 
with 1 Co. : I i 12 - 13 = 1 Co 7- 5 15'°: 2 11 - 12 =i Co i 4 »*: 4 4 = 
1 Co io 30 : s 18 =i C09 9 : 5 17 =i C09 14 . 
II 2 4 " 6 =i C09 7 : Tit 3 3 =i Co 6 0U . 
with 2 Co. : I i 11 = 2 Co 4 4 , 
withEph.:II i 8 =Eph 4 1 : II i 9 = Eph i 4 2 8 :Tit 3 s = Eph 2 3 : 

Tit 3 5 =Eph 2 8 5 26 . 
with Phil.: II 4 6 = Phil i 23 2 17 . 
Of these, one or two passages (I 2 7 , II 4 6 , Tit i 2 - 3 3 5 ) suggest the 
possibility of conscious literary imitation ; but they, like the rest, 
are consistent with a general acquaintance with the Pauline 
language. They certainly imply a date when these Epistles were 
well known, and in II 2 11 " 13 we have a faithful saying formed out 
of Pauline phrases. For a fuller list of coincidences, cf. Harrison, 
pp. 167-175 ; but many are included by him which are probably 

The relation to 1 Peter is less clear. 1 Ti and Tit both 
deal like 1 P with the duties of family life and of obedience to 
government; I, like 1 P, deals with the dress of women with 
some linguistic similarity, but not sufficient to suggest depen- 
dence. Tit has also many points in common with 1 P : " the 
peculiar people" (Tit 2 14 , 1 P 2 9 ) : salvation by baptism (Tit 3 s , 
1 P i 8 3 21 ) : the stress on hope, on redemption from lawlessness 
(Tit 2 14 , 1 P i 18 ). Cf. Dr. Bigu, I.C.C., p. 21, who believes in a 
conscious connexion between Tit and 1 P ; von Soden, Handc, 
p. 1 74, who thinks this also true of 1 Ti ; and Harrison, pp. 175-6. 
Hut it is doubtful whether there is more than the use of current 
Christian language ; there may be a common dependence of each 
on some earlier Christian manual of duties ; and as between the 


two, there is no clear mark of priority. The only certain indica 
tion of date from literary dependence is that the Epistles are latei 
than the second and third groups of Pauline letters. 

Authorship. — In face of the many points of connexion with 
the Pauline Epistles, the alternative theories of the authorship 
resolve themselves into two. 

(a) They were written by St. Paul, after the other letters, all 
late in his life, 2 Ti in the face of death. "These are my last 
instructions to my most trusted sons." This theory is consistent 
with the possibility of later additions to the original letter. 

(b) They were written at the end of the 1st or beginning of 
the 2nd century by some Pauline Christian anxious to guard 
against false tendencies of teaching and a low standard of life ; 
for this purpose writing in Paul's name in order to strengthen hi?> 
own authority, and perhaps incorporating genuine fragments of 
Paul's letters. This would scarcely have been regarded as a 
forgery, but only as equivalent to saying, "This is what Paul 
would say to you, if he were now alive." 

The farewell address of St. Paul to the elders of Ephesus 
Ac 20 17 - 38 , has many points of contact with the Past. Epp. They 
would be a natural sequel to it by St. Paul himself, or it might 
have been taken by an imitator as a model on which the Epistles 
were framed : cf. the appeal to his own past sufferings (Ac 2o 19 - 23 , 
2 Ti 3 11 4 7 ) ; his anticipation of future false teachers and apos- 
tasy (20 29 , 1 Ti 4 1 , 2 Ti 3 1 ); his eagerness to fulfil his course 
and his ministry (20 24 , 1 Ti i 12 SiaKoviav, 2 Ti 4 7 8p6fiov) : his 
sense of his independence (20 s3 - 34 , 1 Ti 6 7 ) : his stress on " the 
church of God," "the peculiar people '^ (2o 28 , 1 Ti 3 t5 , Tit 2 14 ) : 
the interchange of irpeafivTepoi and iiriaKoiroi : his deposit with 
God (20 32 , 2 Ti i 12 ) : his stress on the true use of money (20 35 , 
1 Ti 6 9 - 10 - 17 " 19 ). 

Either they are genuine "letters" or artificial "Epistles" 
(like the Ars Poetica of Horace) : the nearest analogy to their 
form is the letter of Ignatius to Polycarp, which strongly favours 
the first alternative. 

External evidence. — The evidence of Church writers is the 
same as for the other letters of St. Paul. They are all quoted as St. 
Paul's by Irenseus (c. Hcer. Pr<zf. ii. 14. 7,iv. 16.3 (1 Timothy)): 
iii. 2. 3, iii. 14. 1 (2 Timothy); i. 16. 3 (Titus)). They were in- 
corporated, with St. Paul's name embodied in them, in Latin 
and Syriac Versions of the 2nd century : their existence is 
almost certainly implied by coincidences with their language in 
Barnabas, Ignatius, Polycarp (cf. N.T. in Apostolic Fathers, 
pp. 12-14, 71-73, 95-9 8 )> ar, d probably in Clement (cf. 
Harrison, p. 177), so that it is probably carried back to a 1st 


century date, when a mistake about their authorship is unlikely 
No other author's name has ever been suggested. 

On the other hand, there were doubts from early in the 
2nd century. The Pauline authorship of all was denied by 
Basilides and Marcion (Tert. adv. Marc. v. 21); that of 1 and 
2 Timothy by Tatian, who accepted Titus (Jerome, Prol. ad 
Titum), and by other heretics, ol a-n-o twv alpeo-euv t<xs 7rpos Tip.6deov 
aOerovaiv tVtcrToAa? (Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 11). This may have 
been due, as Tertullian, Clement, and Jerome assert, to dislike of 
their teaching ; or to some special source of knowledge, such as 
Marcion seems to have had about the destination of the Epistle 
to the Ephesians. Dislike of the doctrine would naturally have 
led Marcion to treat them as he did the other Epistles, erasing 
sections rather than repudiating the whole. 

Internal evidence. — The Pauline authorship is not only stated 
in the Salutation of each letter, but in 1 and 2 Timothy is implied 
in constant personal references either to St. Paul's own life 

(I jlLWI 2 7 n j 3. 11. 12. 15-18 3 10 4 6-8.9-18) or to h j s re l a tionS 

with Timothy (I i 3 - 18 3 14 4 6 - 16 5 23 6 12 - 20 , II i 5 - 13 - 18 2 1 3 10 - »• 14 ). 
These references spring out of the situation ; they are natural to 
an old man entrusting an important task to a younger; they 
correspond with the traits of St. Paul's character as seen in the 
earlier letters. There is the same practical wisdom, the same 
sense of the dependence of character on doctrine, the same self- 
consciousness recalling his own unworthiness, asserting his own 
commission, bursting out into doxologies, dependent on the 
affection of others, trusting them with great tasks, very sensitive 
to any failure in loyalty to himself, very confident of Christ's 
protecting grace, with loving eyes fixed on His appearing. The 
references are equally true to the character of Timothy as known 
elsewhere ; he is young, not strong in health, timid, needing self- 
discipline, needing also encouragement and reminder of all that 
has prepared him for his task, of all his past training and loyalty, 
yet withal a "genuine" and "loved" son whom he can trust. 
Cf. Ro 1 6 21 6 awcpyos ftov : 1 Co 4 17 tckvov ayaTnjTOv Kal ttkttov cv 
Kvpiw : 1 6 10 /3\eir€T€ Lva acpofiws yevrjrai irpb<; vp.a<; ) to yap epyov Kvplov 

ipyuCerai is eyo> : Phil 2 20 * 22 . The personal references to Titus 
are much slighter, i 5 3 12 - ls : a comparison of 2 15 /x^Seiv crov 
7r€pt0/)oi€tT(u with I 4 12 /XT/Seis crov rrj<; veor^Tos Kara(ppov€LT'.i, and 
the absence of in the salutation, perhaps imply an older 
and stronger man ; and this corresponds with the impression con- 
veyed in r and 2 Co. (For a careful examination of these 
personal references, cf. Parry, c. 2.) 

The doctrinal background is essentially Pauline. The 
"goodness" of all creation (I 4 4 , Tit i 15 ), the universalism of 
salvation (I 2 1 - 7 ), the Divine initiative in it (II i 9 , Tit 3 5 ), the 


Divine overruling of the world and its history (I i 17 6 15 , Tit i s ). 
the conception of Christ's nature and work as the Risen 
Lord ( I 3 16 II 2 8 ), the thought of the Church as a family (I 3 1 - 15 
5 1 ) and as the inheritor of the promises made to the Jewish 
nation (Tit 2 14 ), are no longer discussed, but are all implied as 
the basis of Christian life. There is the same stress as in Col. 
and Eph. on the importance of a regulated family life: in one 
respect, indeed, there is a difference ; here younger widows are 
advised to remarry, in 1 Co 7 39 - 40 all widows were advised to 
remain unmarried, but that passage recognized the widow's 
freedom, and that advice was given under the expectation of a 
speedy Parousia of Christ. As we have seen (p. xv), there has 
been an advance, a change towards a more regulated life, a 
closer intercourse with the heathen world ; but this would be 
quite natural in one who was a Roman citizen and brought up 
in Tarsus, a centre of Stoic Teaching. 

Equally Pauline is the stress upon organization and discipline. 
He had impressed this upon his churches from the first (1 Th 5 12 ' 15 , 
2 Th 3 6 " 14 ) : he had called upon the Corinthian Church to join 
in the severe exercise of discipline (1 Co 5 3 ' 5 ) : in his estimate of 
spiritual gifts he had ranked those that were organized, regular, 
that made for edification and for peace, above the more showy 
and emotional (1 Co 12 28 i4 1-33 ): the ministers were regarded as 
gifts of the Ascended Lord to the Church (Eph 4 11 ). He is the 
Apostle of Subordination no less than the Apostle of Christian 
fieedom : l these Epistles are (as Sir Wm. Ramsay has said) only 
an expansion of the message sent to Archippus, " Take heed to 
the ministry which thou hast received in the Lord, that thou 
fulfil it" (Col 4 17 ) : and such stress would naturally increase with 
the prospect of his own death (cf. Mk 3 6 - 14 ). The details of the 
organized ministry correspond with those of Ro 16 1 (deaconess) : 
Phil i 1 €7ricrK07rots kcu SiaKovois : cf. 1 Co 16 15 , Col 4 17 , Ac 14 23 
20 i7. 28 } un iess (which is unlikely, cf. p. xx) the single bishop 
constitutes a separate grade. The position of widows is more 
defined than in 1 Co 7 ; but it is apparently being regulated in a 
very early stage, and Ac 6 1 9 s9 bear witness to the eleemosynary 
care for widows, and to their charitable activities, in the earliest 
days of the Church. 

The style raises a more difficult problem. There are slight 
differences between II and I and Tit., II being more intricate 
in structure and often less clear in expression ; but this is not 
more than is due to a difference of mood, and is very parallel 
to the difference between 1 and 2 Th. The style of the three 
may therefore be treated together, and clearly it is more like 

1 £\evd(pia and its cognates occur twenty-eight times in the earlier Epistles, 
viroTayn and its cognates twenty-two. 


that of St. Paul than that of any other N.T. writer, if it is 
compared, as it ought to be compared, not with either the 
argumentative parts of previous letters {e.g. Ro 1-9, Gal.) or the 
parts written under strong personal provocation (2 Co 1-7, 
10-13), but with the more quiet and practical sections {e.g. 
Ro 10-15, 2 Co 8. 9). There is the same basing of practice 
upon doctrine, the same personal touches with references to 
his own past life, the same sense of his own responsibility, 
a similar fondness for adapting O.T. language, a similar use of 
Rabbinical Haggada and of quotations from classical writers 
(I 4 4 , Tit 1 12 ), the same love of oxymoron (£u>o-a ridvrjKev, I 5 6 : 
ripyat fxavdavovcn {id. 13 ) tVi Karaor po<f>fj twv clkovovtwv, II 2 U ), 
the same play on a word and its cognates (I i 8 6 vopos . . . 
I'Ofiifiox: . . . dvo/xois: I i 11 " 16 i-jrio-TCvdrjv, tvivtov, a-mcrrta, 7rurr«uj<;, 
ttkttos, 7ri(TTevtLV : I 6 17 - 18 7r\oucriots, nkovrov, 7T/\ouctiu)s, TrXovTtiv 
eV Ipyots KaAots), the same 'Hellenistic' idiom rather than 
that of literary Greek. But the vocabulary offers striking 
differences. About 850 words are used: of these over 170 
are not used in N.T. writers, over 300 (including these 170) 
not in the earlier letters, only about 50 are common to St. 
Paul and the writer alone ; again, where 1 and 2 Th. show 8 
aira$ \ey6p.ei>a to a page, Gal. Ro. 1 and 2 Co. from n to 12, 
Phil. 13, these Epistles show from 19 to 21. St. Paul shows, 
indeed, always a great choice of vocabulary and fondness for 
different groups of words at different times : thus of the words 
that he uses (about 2500), 1257 occur only in someone Epistle; 1 
and whereas the proportion of (iira$ Aeyoptva is 1 for 155 
verses in these Epistles, in 2 Co. it is 1 for every 3-66, in 
1 Co. 1 for 5'53 2 Much is due to a difference of subjects 
treated, and a somewhat similar but scarcely an equal variety 
has been shown to exist in Shakespeare {Expository Times, June 
1896, p. 418) and in the different parts of Dante's Divina 
Commedia (Butler's Paradise, p. xc). But the difference ex- 
tends beyond mere words, it includes many stereotyped and 
technical phrases ; cf. p. xvi, and add 'Irjaov 17 ikvU ww (I I 1 ), 
rr)v Kakrjv arpareiav (I I 19 ), xaipots tSiots (I 2 6 ), 17 T«Kj/oyovia 

(? 2 15 ), TO TT7S €UO-€^€ia9 flVCTT^pLOV {^ U ), t) tVtpyWLO. (? 6 2 ), 7) 

■n-apaOrjK-q (6 20 ), 17 tov Sia/?oA.ou Trayi's (I 3 7 , II 2 26 ), 6 tow Ocov 
avOpwiros (II 3 17 , cf. I 6 n ), koAo. tpya {passim), and formulas of 
quotation (ttio-tos 6 Xoyos). Further, the same thought is ex- 
pressed differently, irapaB-^Kr] takes the place of TrapdoWis, 

virorvTrwcris of tuVos, TV(pov(rdai of <piKrioucr#ai, 6 vvv alwu of o 
aluiv OVT09, X^P lv *X £lv °f «HX'jpio-T£U', Seo-TrorTjs of KVptOS, St' *fV 

1 Ueber die Sprache in den Pastoralbriefen, von Dr. F. Torm, Ztsch. NT 
Wissenschaft, 1918, p. 229 sqq. 

2 Rolling, ap. Weiss, p. 51. 


alrtav o! ware, Sto and apa : there is no use of av, avri, e/xTrpoadtv, 
ecos (prep ), oirws, <rvv (a few compounds of o-vV), Z>cnrtp, all 
of which are fairly common in St. Paul. 

This linguistic argument against the Pauline authorship has 
been greatly strengthened by the proof that the vocabulary 
shows a much greater approximation to the vocabulary of 
Christian and other writers of the 2nd century than to that 
of the earlier letters. Thus of 175 onra£ Acyo/xem in these 
Epp., 61 occur in the Apostolic Fathers, 61 in the Apologists, 
32 of which are not in the Apostolic Fathers, making 93 in all 
(Harrison, pp. 68 ff., 150, 151); and 82 words which are not 
found either in the N.T. or in these Christian writeis are 
found in Pagan writers of the 2nd century (t'b. p. 161). This 
though very striking is not quite convincing, as these Epistles 
may have influenced the Christian writers, and as there is no 
evidence that the words are not earlier than the 2nd century. 

The conc!u-ion is difficult. There is no word impossible to 
St. Paul, no word not natural to him. There are indeed three 
words which soon acquired a technical ecclesiastical meaning, 
/3u0/,.o<;, veo^uros, atperiKos, but it is doubtful whether any of 
these has that meaning here ; they are on the way to it, but have 
scarcely arrived. Much change of vocabulary, including even 
particles, is due to the kind of letter, not argumentative or 
impassioned but full of practical warning and guidance, not 
written to churches or to private friends but to close intimate 
fellow-workers (this would explain the use of stereotyped 
phrases); much may be due to lapse of a few years tending to 
introduce fixity of phrase and formula ; something, perhaps, to 
the freedom used by the amanuensis, — it is a natural suggestion 
from II 4 10 (if that is a part of the whole letter) that St. Luke 
was the amanuensis of 2 Ti, and there is a considerable quantity 
of Lucan non-Pauline words in all these Epistles (cf. Holtzmann, 
p. 96, who quotes 34, including hi rjv alriav, ov rpoTrov, iirl Trkeioi', 
^oioyovelv, eTncpaLvtadai, crwcppocrvvr], <£iAai/#pco7rta) ; but I doubt 
whether St. Paul would have allowed much freedom to an 
amanuensis. Some of the a-n-a^ Aeyo/xcva are also semi-quota- 
tions from faithful sayings, from liturgical doxologies and hymns, 
very possibly from existing manuals on the qualifications for 
various office;. The argument from style is in favour of the 
Pauline authorship, that from vocabulary strongly, though not 
quite conclusively, against it. 

[For ttv; arguments against, cf. Holtzmann, P.B. i. § 7 ; 
Nageli, de* Wortschatz des Apostels Pauhis, pp. 85-88, Gottingen, 
1905 ; Moffatt, Introd. to N.T., T9 11 ; Harrison, The Problem of 
the Pastoral Epistles, 1922 (far the most thorough, making 
previous discussions out of date) : for the arguments for, cf. G. G. 


Findlay in Sabatier, The Apostle Paul, 1891 ; James, The 
Genuineness and Authorship of the Pauline Epistles, 1906; P. 
Torm, " Ueber die Sprache in den Pastoral-Briefen," Ztschr.fut 
NT Wissenschaft, 19 18, p. 225.] 

The vocabulary in all the letters, and the impression, especi- 
ally in 1 Ti, of a comparatively late stage in Church life, favour 
a late date ; on the other hand, the lapse of years since the 
earlier letters and since the foundation of the Church at Ephesus, 
combined with the quickness of development which marks the 
early growth of a religious community, especially when face to 
face with other organized religious communities, as the Christian 
Church was face to face with the Jewish synagogue and the 
Pagan mysteries, make it possible to place these letters within 
St. Paul's lifetime, at any rate on the assumption that he was 
released from the first Roman imprisonment; 1 and the personal 
notes embodied in the substance of the letters, the doctrinal 
assumptions, the stress on character and ordered life, the in- 
corporation of the best elements of Stoic morality, are all in 
favour of St. Paul. In this Commentary the whole of the 
Epistles are treated as coming direct from St. Paul's hand ; 
that is what their author intended, whoever he was. But the 
strength of the case against them, especially as presented by 
Mr. Harrison, is doubtless very great, and every student should 
carefully examine his reconstruction of them as represented in 
his Appendix IV. He will see at once the extent of the non- 
Pauline vocabulary, the dependence of the author on Pauline 
phrases, and the possibility of separating genuine fragments 
from the rest. Yet he will feel also the artificiality of the way in 
which Pauline phrases are borrowed and ofien slightly altered, 
the great improbability of the invention of such a detail as I 5 23 
(fxrjKtTL vS/jo7roT« . . . aa-Qei'tias), and of the separation of II 4 13 - 15 

1 The question of the release of St. Paul from the Roman imprisonment 
of Ac 28 is not of primary importance with regard to the authorship of these 
letters. For (i) either on the supposition of the Pauline or of a non-Pauline 
authorship it is possible that 2 Ti 4 9 " 21 (for which the release is mainly needed) 
consists of notes written at a different date and incorporated alterwards, 
whether intentionally or accidentally, by a later editor or scribe, (ii) The 
arguments from the state of the ecclesiastical organization and from the 
vocabulary would still remain. 

Yet there seem! no valid reason for doubting the tradition that St. Paul 
was released. It is a natural inference from Ac 2S :iu (cf. Parry, p. xv) ; it is 
at lensi a possible, though perhaps not the most probable, inference from 
( km. Rom. i. 5, ^""2 T b rip/xa rijs Sforews e\6Jiv : it is the natural interpretation 
cf the Muratorian Canon. " profectionem Pauli ab urbe ad Spaniam " ; and 
il Dr. ( iiilord {Speakers Cooim., Koi/ians, pp. 24-29) is right, as seems very 
probable, in treating Ro 16 as a letter written by St. Paul to Rome after his 
release, w th messages to the friends whom he had made during the two years' 
imprisonment, this supplies first-hand evidence of contemporary date. 


from 20 - 21a if they were parts of one genuine letter carefully pre- 
served because it was genuine. Yet neither for problems ol 
doctrine nor of exegesis is the question of primary importance ; if 
they were not written as they stand by St. Paul, they probably in- 
corporate some earlier notes of his (v. infra, p. xxxii) ; the whole 
was written by one who thought himself a devoted follower oi 
St. Paul, whose mind was steeped in the very language of St. 
Paul's letters, who has tried to express his spirit ; and this attempt 
was accepted by the Church as true to its memory of what St. 
Paul had been and taught. They may seem to lay more stress 
on a regulated life and an ordered ministry than the earlier 
letters ; but those letters showed him from the first conscious of 
the need of such regulation, and the consciousness grows with 
each letter; the regulation of community life in i and 2 Th. is 
followed by that of citizen life in Ro., of family life in Col. and 
Eph. (cf. W. Lock, St. Paul, the Master Builder, c. 4). As 
the thought of the imminent Parousia recedes before the sense 
of the work to be done in the world and the sense of the reality 
of the abiding Presence of Christ in the heart, so the problem of 
the Christian society to the world around it becomes more 
pressing. The experience of many a missionary in China or in 
India in the present day shows how quickly the converting 
missionary has to organize and regulate his group of converts 
(cf. T. M. Lindsay, The Church and the Ministry, 1903, p. 139). 
All the letters are a sufficient proof that the mystic who lives " in 
Christ," in whom "Christ" lives, is also the practical statesman, 
caring for all the Churches, providing things honest in the sight 
of men ; the chief message of him who was constrained by the 
love of Christ has been defined as loyalty to the Christian 
society (cf. Royce, The Problem of Christianity) ; and this picture 
of the man and of his message is reproduced in these letters. 

Integrity. — On the theory of Pauline authorship there is a 
priori little reason to doubt the integrity. A private letter by an 
Apostle would naturally be preserved entire; yet when it was 
first made public and canonical an editor might add his com- 
ments and illustrations and bring up to date some of the regula- 
tions. Thus Professor C. H. Turner {Inaugural lecture, Oxford, 
1920, p. 21) conjectures that 73-10-7-05 6 Xoyos, which occurs in all 
three letters, is an editorial note ; so might be the illustrations of 
individuals introduced by S>v icrrtv, I i 20 , II 2 18 . It is also quite 
possible that fragments of other letters should have been com- 
bined, whether intentionally or accidentally, at the end of the 
genuine letter. 

On the theory of the non-Pauline authorship of the letters as 
they stand, the problem will differ in each, according as the later 


editor has or has not attempted to incorporate earlier Pauline 

Each letter must therefore be considered separately. 

i Timothy. — Assuming the Pauline authorship there is no con- 
clusive reason for treating any part as a later insertion. Yet the 
formula 7ricrTos 6 Xoyos, i 15 3 1 4 9 , and the illustration introduced 
by wv io-Tiv, 1 20 , may be editorial notes : so possibly the additional 
note about Sulkovoi and the reasons alleged for it in 3 12 - 13 {n.b. 

Siu/<oi/r/<ravT£sand ftaOfiov) 6 10 {n.b. airfTrXavyOqaav) \ also the whole 

section 5 9 - 10 the regulation of the viduate, the section which 
more than any other suggests a late date ; and the apparent 
reference to future false teaching in 4 1 " 5 ; and the allusion to 
"knowledge falsely so called" in 6 20 . 

Assuming the non-Pauline authorship there is less ground still 
for doubting the integrity, though it is almost incredible that i 12 ' 10 
5 23 are not genuinely Pauline ; and von Harnack, who dates the 
writing of the Epistle between 90 and 100, still regards the 
sections on the bishops and deacons (c. 3), and the discipline over 
the presbyters (c. 5), and the last verses (6 17 "' 21 ), as additions ol 
a later writer between a.d. 140 and 150 {Chronologic, i. pp. 480- 
85). Critics have separated a genuine Pauline letter in i 1 " 10, 18 " 20 
41-16 6 3 - 16 - 2or - (so Hesse, quoted by Moffatt, L.N. /'., p. 406), or 
even two, one written from Corinth (i 3f - 18 - 20 2 1 " 10 4 12 5 1 " 3 " 4c "°- 1M3 - 
19-23. 24f.) and one from Cassarea (i 12 " 17 3 14-16 4 1 ' 11 ' 18 " 16 5 7f - 6l7 " 19 
js-n 62-16. 20. 21) ( so Knoke ap. Moffatt, I.e.). But such re-arrange- 
ment is most unlikely, and the uniformity of style is almost 
conclusive against such hypothesis (so Moffatt, I.e., and Harrison). 

There are, however, very possibly some dislocations of the 
text. Ewald would transpose i 3 ' 11 and i 12 " 17 , and place 3 14 -4 16 
after 6 2 , but without any necessity. More probably 6 17 - 19 should 
follow or precede 6 1 - 2 , 5 23 might follow 4 12 , 5 16 after 5*. Parry 
would arrange the section s 3 " 9 in the order 3 - 4 - 8 - 7 - 5 - 6 - 9 . 

2 Timothy. — The Pauline authorship of the whole Epistle as 
written at one and the same time in its present form is open to two 
objections : {a) Throughout the whole two different thoughts 
are intertwined ; the one, " come and join me at Rome," the 
other, " Do your work as an Evangelist at Ephesus and hand on 
your work to others." These are not really inconsistent, as the 
absence from Ephesus for a visit to Rome may have been the 
reason for the command to hand on his teaching to others, and 
the advice about the nature of the teaching may be meant chiefly 
for those who were to take Timothy's place. But the possibility 
remains that two letters have been combined, one private and 
personal (4 9 - 21 ) to which the personal greeting belongs ( 22a ), the 


other more general and pastoral (i x -4 8 ) to be communicated to 
others with the plural greeting ( 22b ). If these two are separated 
the apparent inconsistency disappears. 

(b) But, further, there are great difficulties about the unity of 
4 9 " 21 . It is difficult to fit the allusions into St. Paul's life, as 
known from the Acts, and there are inconsistencies within the 
paragraph itself. The command in 21 seems scarcely needed after 
that in 9 , n scarcely consistent with 21 ; the double salutation 
in 22 needs explanation. It is therefore most probable that an 
earlier note, or perhaps more than one earlier note, from Paul 
to Timothy, has been, whether intentionally or unintentionally, 
added to the main letter at the end, as apparently Ro 16 was 
added to 1-15. The most probable suggestion is that of Mr. 
Harrison (P. Epp.), who distinguishes three separate notes written 
at separate times, which can be fitted into the structure of the Acts : 

(j) 13. 14. 15. 20. 2U wr j tten by St. Paul, while in Macedonia 
(Ac 19 22 ), after visiting Troas (2 Co 2 12 ) on the third missionary 
journey, to Timothy after he had returned from Corinth to 
Ephesus. This is possible, but it is hard to account for the 
separation of the two parts of one short note 13 " 15 - 20 - 21a when 
reproduced. (For a very similar reconstruction, cf. McGiffert, 
Christianity in the Apostolic Age, p. 409.) 

(ii) 16 - 17 - 18a , written from Cassarea (Ac 23 s5 ), the first 
defence referring to Ac 22 1 , the Lord's standing by him to the 
appearance in Ac 23 11 . This is the least happy suggestion. The 
verses include what is called elsewhere (p. 28) the non-Pauline 
meaning of irXrjpoc^oprjOfj, and St. Paul could scarcely have ex- 
pected any one to stand by him on the occasion of Ac 22 1 . 

(iii) 9 - 10 - lL 12 - 21 , written early in the imprisonment at Rome 
to Timothy at Lystra, pressing him to come quickly. This leaves 
the apparent inconsistency between 10 and 21 still existing. 

Without feeling entirely satisfied with all these details, I am 
inclined to think that 9 " 22a consists of earlier notes, and to 
regard the whole Epistle as Pauline, 1-4 8 written from Rome, 
during a second imprisonment, 4 9-22 at some earlier times. 

Those who treat the present form of the letter as due to a 
later editor still think that it retains some earlier Pauline frag- 
ments besides those in 4 9 ' 22 . Various suggestions will be 
found in Moffatt (L./V.T., p. 400); but Mr. Harrison's is again 
1 he most probable. He treats the following as a farewell letter to 
Timothy, from St. Paul at the end of the first Roman impris- 
onment, after his final trial and condemnation : i la - 2 - 16 " 18 3 10 - n 
4 1 " 8 . But the allusions to Timothy's childhood and parentage 
(i 5 3 14 - 15 ) seem at least to carry their own credentials, and these 
to outweigh linguistic differences. 


Titus. — On the theory of Pauline authorship there is no 
reason to suggest editorial redaction or dislocation by scribes. 

Some who ascribe the letter to a later editor think that genuine 
Pauline fragments are embodied. Von Soden finds Pauline 
materials in i 14 3 12, 13 ; McGiffert, in i 1 " 6 3M.IIU. Harrison 
only in the short address IlauAos Titw and 3 12 " 15 , which he regards 
as written by Paul from Western Macedonia (Ac 20 2 ), perhaps 
having already preached in Illyricum (Ro 15 19 ), to Titus who is 
still at Corinth on the mission of 2 Co 2 13 , and who on the 
receipt of this letter joins him at Nicopolis with the good news 
of 2 Co 7 7 , which led to the writing of 2 Co 1-9. But this 
ignores the implication of 2 Co 7° 8 1 g 2 , that the whole of 2 Co. 
was written from Macedonia, and it is difficult, though possible, to 
reconcile it with Paul's intention to spend this winter at Corinth, 
1 Co i6 d . It is also noticeable that these four verses contain 
six words or meanings which are non-Pauline, vo/ukov, XciVoj, 0! 
?//x€Tcpoi, Ka\a t/yyn, irpourraaOai (meaning), aKapiroi (meaning). 
If the linguistic criterion were conclusive these verses would have 
to be condemned. 

Order of composition. — On the theory of Pauline authorship 
1 Ti. and Tit., in both of which St. Paul is free to move about, 
clearly precede 2 Ti. when he is a prisoner in expectation of 
death. Tit. perhaps preceded 1 Ti. as simpler and dealing less 
with organization, but they may well have been written about the 
same time, the differences being adequately explained as due to 
the different circumstances of Crete and Ephesus. 

Those who accept the theory of a later editor generally prefer 
the order 2 Ti., Tit., 1 Ti. (cf. von Soden, pp. 154 ff. ; Moffatt, 
Lit. N.T., pp. 559-60). The chief reasons urged are (i) the 
greater number of personal allusions in II, and the fact that the 
earlier notes in 4 9 " 22 have been annexed to it point to its being 
nearer to the lifetime of St. Paul ; but the whole circumstances 
are more personal as between Paul and Timothy, and the position 
of the notes may be purely accidental, the work of a scribe. 

(ii) The greater definiteness in describing the false teachers 
in Tit. and I, and the greater severity in the way they are treated, 
e.g. contrast II 2 24 4 2 with Tit 3 11 I i 20 : but the passages in II 
are not dealing directly with teachers but with tendencies, those 
in Tit. and I with definite persons. The references to Hymenaeus 
I 1* II 2 18 do imply greater severity, but these may be notes 
added later (cf. p. xxxi). 

(iii) Possible literary dependence of Tit and I upon II and 
upon r P, e.g. I i 4 4 7 , Tit 3 !l upon II 2 28 , I 2" upon II i u , 
I 4 1 upon II 3 1 (von Soden, p. 155), and again Tit 2 35 upon 
1 P 2 1310 , 6 ' 9 upon 1 P 5 1 - 4 , I 2 9 - 1 ' 1 upon 1 P 3 1 - 6 , I 3 16 upon 
1 P 3 18 " 22 (von Soden, p. 174): but in no case is there 


proof of literary dependence, they may all be independent treat 
ment of similar subjects; nor is there any clear proof of the 
priority of i Peter. 


The authorities for the text are the same as for the other 
Pauline Epistles, except that these Epistles are lost from B and 
that we have a commentary by Jerome on Titus. It will be 
sufficient to refer for the main problems to Sanday-Headlam, 
Romans, Introd. § 7, and to the articles by C. H. Turner in 
Murray's III. Bibl. Dictionary, and by J. O. F. Murray in 
H.D.B. Supply who has a careful examination of the Syrian 
readings in 1 Timothy, and to B. Weiss, Te.xtkritik der Paul. 
Brie/e, T. und U. xiv. 3. 

An examination of the variants quoted in Tischendorf or in 
Souter shows that by far the greater number are unimportant 
and almost accidental. Even these are interesting as illustrating 
the habits and aims of scribes. Some are purely accidental, e.g. 
omissions through op-oioTeXevrov, I 3 7 , the whole verse, I 4 12 
bf 7no-T€i, iv dyveia. : changes in the order of words, I 2 12 8i8d<rK(iv 
8t ywaiKi, 3 14 Trp'os <re ikOelv : mistakes in the division of words, 
I 3 16 6ixo\oyov/jLev\o)<;, II 2 17 ydyypa\tva, Tit 2 7 7rdV-rus eavrov : 
mistakes through similarity of sound, I 5 21 t^oo-kA^o-ii/ for 
irp6<TK\«riv, I 6 20 II 2 16 K<uvo<f>u>via<;, Kei/otpwvLa*;, II I 8 orv ovv 
KaK(md9r)(TOV, avyKaKOirdOrjrrov, II 4 13 - 16 , Tit I 6 3 18 AeiVw, AtVa) : 

mistaken reading of letters, so perhaps I 3 16 tfeos for os. Others 
are semi-conscious reminiscences of cognate passages, I i 1 
€7rayy«A.i'av from II I 1 : I I 12 htivvapovvTi from Phil 4 18 : I I 17 
add 'Tocfioj from Ro 16 27 : I 2 7 TrvevfxuTt from Jn 4 28 : I 5 18 
Kry/xwrrcis from i Co a 9 : ttJs Tpo^? from Mt io 10 : II i 7 SoiAcias 
from Ro 8 15 : Tit i 4 add tAeosfrom I i 2 , II i 2 . Others are more 
conscious attempts to improve the text: sometimes to make the 
construction clearer, I i 3 om. *a0ws : I 3 15 add ere : I 3 16 o and 
perhaps 0«o's for os : I 6 7 insert &r)\ov or dA.r/fle's : II 4 1 Kara for koC: 
sometimes to substitute a more usual word, I i 4 ^t/tt/o-cis for 

£K£r/Tr/o-eis : I I 12 rbv irporepov for to -irporepov : I 6 n 7rpai;Tr/Ta for 
7Tf)avird6eiav : I 6 13 £<«07toiowtos for £woyovowTOS : I 6 19 aiuviov for 
ovrws : II 3 16 to. Upd for Upd : Tit 2 5 oUovpovs for oUovpyovs, or a 
more usual form Iva o-wcppoin(o>ariv, Tit 2 4 A desire to enforce a 
moral duty may possibly underlie I 5 5 speret,instet, for sperat.instat., 
to avoid a harsh prayer, II 4 14 a7ro8wo-£i for aTro^unf : to enforce dis- 
cipline Tit 3 10 om. Koi hevrepav ; and to emphasi/.e a doctrinal truth 
I 3 lfl 0eos for os : but see above for this. Some later scribes of the 
minuscules add facts apparently from apocryphal sources, e.g. II 

3 11 d Sid rr]v ©eVAai/ eiruOev : II 4 19 AtKrpav rrjv ym>a~iKa avrov koi 


Si/iatav, or later ecclesiastical rules, Tit i 9 p.r) ^uporovu-v hiyapovi 
firihi Ouucovovi avrous ttoiuv p.7)8e ywnLKas e^fiv «V Siya/uuas* yu^St 
irpoa€f^HT()w(Tav ev tu OvaiicrTrjpiio Xfirovpyelv to detov' Tore <'/>\orru<; 
Tot'? diSiKOK'/uVas «ai dpTra^as *ai i/^vVras kui dreAeT^uoi'us lAeyye ws 
#£Oi> oid/covos : Ti I 11 ti\ TeVva oi tovs ioYous yoJ'Cis v/3pt£ovTe<; rj 
TVTTTovTe<; (TTicrTopi^e ko.1 vovOerei ws iraTrjp Te'fcva. In several places 
interesting questions of punctuation arise, vid. note on I 2 5 3 1 4 9 , 
II 2 2 - " 4 1 , Tit 2" 9 . On I 2 4 4 1 " 6 4 , II 2 ' 5 G has the marginal 
note " goddiskalkon " or " cont goddiskolkon " ; a hint that these 
texts refute the predestinarian views of Godeschalk (cf. Scrivener, 
p. 122). 

W.-H. allow possibilities of variation of reading in 46 places. 
The majority of these affect the order of words, 'I^o-ou? Xpurros 
or Xpio-ros T^o-ovs, I i 10 6 1:J , Tit i 1 2 13 ; the insertion or omission 
of the article, I 6 U II 2 18 ; a variation of tense, I i 1218 4°, II 3 1U 
4 i.i3.i6 ) Tit j5 ,13. of voice, I5 816 ; of number, I 2 8 6 8 ; of punc- 
tuation, I 3 1 6 2 , all making some slight difference in meaning, 
but none that requires discussion. 

The following are the more important. [The authorities 
quoted are from Souter except where otherwise stated.] 

I i 4 oucovoniav, KAGHuS (hi) £ (boh) 3, Chr. Theod.- 
Mops. Iat , but olKoSofxrjv D* % & (vg hl m e) (£ I rem Hil. Ambst. 
oiKo8op.iai', D c 625. The evidence for oiKo8o/xr)v is strong, but 
olKovop.iav is perhaps the more likely to have been altered ; it 
suits both irapexova-L and ttjv iv 7rio-T€t better, and is strongly 
protected by d>s 6eov otKov6p.ov in Tit i 7 

I i 15 avdpwTTivos, humanus, % vt r only, but also in Latin 
MSS known to Jerome (ad Marcel/., Ep. 24) ; so, too, in Ambst , 
Julian, and sometimes in Augustine, both here and in 3 1 where I) 
also lias it. The MSS authority is not strong, but the correction 
from 7rio-Tos is unlikely (but vid. W.-H., Notes on Select Readings 
on 3 1 ), whereas the assimilation to tvmtt6% in 4 9 , II a 11 , Tit 3 8 , 
where there is no variant, is very probable. It is therefore 
possibly right, and the meaning will be "true to human needs" 
(cf. Ambst. "ut hominem peccatis ablueret . . . ut plus esset 
adhuc in beneficiis humanis . . . presidium tulit homini . . . 
conversation! humanaa se miscuit "), and so akin to 17 <f>i\av6pwnia 
tov crwTvJpos Oeov, 'I it 3 4 . So in 3 1 , if the words are there to be 
joined with the preceding verses. 

I 2 1 7rupaKaA.<7), almost certainly right, cf. 8 , and the direct 
commands to Timothy begin later ; but irapuxaXu, D* G il (vt nonr ) 
IE (sah) Hil. Ambst. is possible; cf. 6 17 . 

I 3 1 . Fid. note on i 15 . 

I 3 16 . os is accepted in all critical editions. It was probably 
altered to o in order to agree with p-va-T-qpiov, and to 6ed? possibly 
by accidental misreading, or to supply a -native, or. less 


likely, for dogmatic definiteness. For a full examination of the 
evidence, cf. Tischdf. ad loc. ; W.-H, Select Readings, p. 134. 

I 4 2 aTrexeaOai. There is no variant, and no change seems 
necessary ; cf. 2 12 where l-mrpi-Trw has to be carried on from ovk 
iiriTpeiru). But Bentley would insert KcAeudvTwv ; W.-H. {Select 
Readings) conjecture •>) a.irTeo~6ai or kcu yeveo-Oac. 

I 4 10 dya>vi£<y*e0a, X* A C G K 33. 1908 al Cyr., but <WSi- 
(nfitOa X c D w verss. Orig. Chrys. Ambst. Theod.-Mops. lat . 
There is thus strong support for 6>eiSi£d/Ae0a, which may be right 
(especially if 4 10 is the faithful saying), and which is unlikely to 
have been substituted for dywvi£d/xe#a : but dywvi£d//e0a suits the 
context better; cf.£,e, yv/xvaaia, and is protected by 6 12 , 
II 4 7 . 

I 6 3 Trpoo-epxerai, but Trpoo-ix* rai N % Theod.-Mops. Cypr. 
Lucif. Ambst. "acquiescit," "intendit." There is no necessity 
for a correction (vid. note ad loc), but Bentley conj. trpoo-ix^ 
from i 4 , which was doubtless in the writer's mind. Was the 
original reading ^poo-e^ei tois ? 

1 6 7 otl oihi. The MSS make various corrections, inserting 
BrjXov, akyjOh, verum, haud dubium : Hort would omit on as an 
accidental repetition of ON in Koo-p.ov (W.-H., Select Readings) ; 
Parry would invert the order ovS' on, " not to speak of being 
able to carry anything out " ; but is any change necessary ? vid. 
note ad loc. 

I 6 21 7) xdpts \xS v/xuiv, but fierd a-ov D E K L d e f (vg) syr utr , 
Arm. Eth. Thdrt. Dam. (Tischendorf), perhaps points to a 
combination of two letters ; or a change to the plural would 
have been natural when the Epistle was treated as canonical and 
as affecting the whole Church. 

II i 13 &v all MSS. Hort conj. ov, " hold as a pattern of 
sound doctrine that doctrine which . . ." (W.-H., Select Read- 
ings); but the attraction, though unusual, is possible; cf. v. I. on 
Tit 3 5 ; Blass, § 50. 2. 

II 3 1 ytvwo-Kerf, A G 33 al pauc. % (vts), Eth. Aug. Perhaps 
accidental change, perhaps due to the feeling that vv. 1-9 are so 
much more general than 2 22 "- 5 3 10ff- . 

II 3 14 tiW, X A C* G P 33. 19 r 2 1L (vt) & pal Ambst., but 
rtVos C c D oj 3L (vg) S (vg hi) Arm. Goth. Eth. Chr. Hil. Aug. 
Theod.-Mops. lat , probably an alteration under the impression 
that the reference is to the Apostle ; cf. 10 - n . 

II 4 10 TaXariav, A D G co % (vt vg codd ) & (vg hi) 55 (boh), 
Goth. Eth. Iren. Theod.-Mops., but TaXkiav N C al pauc. IL vg codd , 
Eus. Epiph., probably a later change to avoid the ambiguity of 
TaXaTiav : and if so, a witness at that time to the belief that 
St. Paul had been in Gaul ; cf. W.-H., Select Readings, 
ad loc. 


II 4 U u7roS(o(rtt. There is some authority for uttoSwtj, D c oj 5. 
(vt d vg) S (hi), Diod. Chrys. Theod.-Mops. lat , and this is the 
reading more likely to have been altered to avoid the appearance 
of an imprecation (cf. Tischdf. ad loc.) ; but ihe indicative is 
protected by Pr 24 12 d7roS<.'8wrri : Ps 62 12 d7roS(ocreis : Ro 2 6 , and 
the spirit of Ro 12 19 , and cf. 16 infra. 

II 4 22 : cf. note on I 6 21 . 

Tit 2 10 7rdcrav tti(ttiv eVSciKvu/teVous ayadrjv. Almost all MSS, 
but k* l l omit tticttiv, and 17 adds aydinqv. W.-H. admit this as 
a possible alternative ; but it may be an attempt to avoid the 
awkwardness of the position of dyaO-qv. 

Tit 3 1 dpx al ? e£oucriais. There is fair MSS support for insert- 
ing Kcti : it may have been a conscious addition to avoid the 
asyndeton, but may it not have accidentally dropped out after 

appals ? 

Tit 3°. For the MSS variation between cpas and cptv, cf. 
W.-H., Notes on Orthography, p. 157. 

Tit. 3 10 Kal Scurepav. The MSS authority is almost un- 
animous for the insertion of these words, but with differences of 
form and order (kui Svo, fj Seure'pav, *ai Sevripav after vovdiaiav), 
and they were omitted in one MS of the Vetus Latina, by other 
MSS known to Jerome, as well as by Irenseus, Tertullian, Cyprian, 
Ambr., Ambrst., and Augustine f. Their omission, if genuine, 
was probably accidental, due to bfioioTiXevrov : but they might 
have been inserted later to relax the severity of (ilav. 

Later Influence of the Epistles. 

These Epistles had great influence from the first, affecting the 
Liturgical services of the Church at once, and giving a model on 
which were framed later the Church Orders and treatises on 
Ministerial Character. 

(i) Liturgical. — The most direct, immediate, and permanent 
effect is to be seen in the introduction of prayer for all men and 
for kings and rulers into the Eucharistic Liturgy. This is already 
found in Clem. Rom. i. 61, and Polycarp, Ep. 12, and remained 
permanently in the Eastern Liturgies (vid. note on I 2 2 ), and the 
exact words are often borrowed from 1 Ti 2 1 " 4 and the same 
reason given for the prayer; cf. Brightman, L.E. IV. i. pp. 55, 92, 
114, 128, 168, 288, "make wars to cease in all the world and 
scatter the divided people that delight in war, that we may lead 
a quiet and pleasant life in all sobriety and godliness" (from the 
Persian lite), 333. 

But apart from this passage the language of these Epistles is 
often borrowed in the Liturgical prayers : the titles of God, " King 
of the ages" (pp. 32, 51, 162. 2qo\ " King of kings" (pp.41, 128). 


dwelling in light unapproachable (pp. 5, 26, 263, 369, 412, 
436), who cannot lie (p. 170), the Saviour of all men, especially of 
them that believe (p. 263) : the titles of Christ, as " Our Saviour " 
(p. 24), "our (great) God and Saviour "(pp. 9, 33, 97, 103, 113, 
114,132,322,337,444), "our Hope" (pp.5, 21, 322): His work 
as saving sinners (p. 394), giving His life as a ransom (p. 347), as 
abolishing death (p. 232), as preparing a peculiar people, zealous 
of good works (pp. 264, 326) : the Christian life as the real life, tt?s 
ovtws £wr)s (p. 4), the good fight (pp. 94, 352), as requiring a pure 
heart (pp. 116, 123, 135, 293, 295), a pure conscience (p. 34), as 
begun in the laver of regeneration (pp. 4, 157, 315) : the work of 
the Episcopate as "rightly dividing the word of truth " {passim). 
These are the most frequent : Dr. Brightman would add the dox- 
ology So£a Kol Tiprj, the combination " with faith and love," the 
prayer, "The Lord be with thy Spirit," as borrowed from I i 17 
i 14 , II 4 22 ; but these seem more doubtful. 

In the Roman Mass it is the practice that when the Epistle 
is read: "si desumpta est ex Actibus Apostolorum incipit, In 
diebus Hits ; si ex epistolis, Fratres \ si ex epistohs Pauli pastor- 
alibus, Carissime" This has perpetuated the note of personal 
affection struck in II i 2 . 

In the English Ordinal, 1 Ti 3 8 ' 13 is an alternative Epistle in 
the Ordering of Deacons ; 1 Ti 3 1 ' 7 in the Consecration of 
Bishops ; and the language of Tit i 9 2 8 - 12 underlies the questions 
addressed to the Bishop before Consecration ; 2 Ti i 6 - 7 , 1 Ti 
4 13 " 16 the exhortation after Consecration ; 2 Ti 4 2 , 1 Ti 4 12 , 
2 Ti 4 7 - 8 , the final prayer. 

The prayer in the General Confession at morning and evening 
prayer "that we may hereafter live a godly, righteous and sober 
life," is taken directly from Tit 2 12 . 

(ii) Ecclesiastical. — (a) The Didache. — This resembles the 
Pastoral Epistles in laying down rules for the character of the 
Christian Life in general and of the ministry in particular : but 
it deals more fully in details about the Ministers, their testing, 
their election, their maintenance, and their relation to the 
Apostles and prophets and with the Sacraments. It offers some 
interesting points of illustration (cf. notes on I 2 8 5 17 6 17 - 20 ), but 
neither quotes these Epistles, though quoting some other Epistlt-s 
of St. Paul, nor shows any verbal correspondence with their 
language even when dealing with similar subjects (cf. Did. 2, the 
summary of the Commandments, with I i 8-10 ; Did. 5, the list of 
heathen vices, with II 3 s " 5 ; Did. 4, § 3, judicial action, with I 5 21 ; 
I )id. 4, § 10, masters and slaves, with I 6 1 - 2 , Tit 2 9 ). The tone of the 
Didache is more akin to 1 Thessalonians than to the Pastoral Epis- 
tles ; on the other hand, there is no trace of our author having used 
the Didache. They are two entirely independent documents, one 


dealing with a Church in a mainly Jewish environment, the other 
with Churches face to face with Gentile life. 

(l>) The Egyptian Church Order is now recognized as the 
earliest of ihe extant Church Orders, and as being the dTrooroAi/o; 
7rupaSocris of Hippolytus, [cf. Cambridge Texts and Studies, viii. 4], 
and therefore early in the 3rd century. But this, too, shows little 
influence of the Pastoral Epistles. Its tone is ecclesiastical rather 
than ethical : it does lay much stress on the character of candidates 
for baptism, but in dealing with the ministry it is mainly an 
Ordinal, dealing with the method of appointment and the prayers to 
be used at the ordination of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, ihe 
setting apart of Widows, Readers, Sub-Deacons for minor offices, 
the administration of Baptism and the Eucharist, the rules for 
fasting, private prayers, attendance at church, the sign of the cross. 

(c.) The so-olled Cations of Hippolytus. — All the later Church 
Orders, of which it will be sufficient to take this as a specimen, 
make much more use of the Pastoral Epistles. These Canons 
quote them twice: § 7, "Episcopus sedatus sit sicut de illo in 
Apostoloscriptumest" = I 3 2 : § 217, "secundum mandatum apost- 
olorum[? leg, apostoli], dum venio attende lectioni" = I 4 13 , and 
there are frequent reminiscences of their directions or actual 
vocabulary, e.g. § 1, "de fide sacra sana quae est de domino nostro 
Jesu Christo" = I 6 3 : § 41, "mores sine peccato coram omnibus 
hominibus"=I 3 7 : § 58, "duplici honore afficiatur" = I 5 17 : § 59, 
" Viduis honos tribuitur " = I 5 3 : §§ 81-87, on women's dress, esp. 
87, "neque tu quae pretiosorum lapidum et margaritarum orna- 
mentis superbis tarn pulchra es ut ilia quae sola natura et bonitate 
splendet" = I 2 9 - 15 : §88, "neve loquatur in ecclesia, quae est domus 
Dei " = I 2 11 3 15 . 

All these later orders take their tone and many details from 
the Pastoral Epistles, but do not seem to have treated their regula- 
tions as necessarily of permanent obligation : e.g. in some, celibacy 
is put forward as the ideal of a bishop, " It is good that he be 
without a wife, but at any rate that he have been the husband of one 
wife only." Test. Dom. JVosiri, § 20 (with Cooper and Maclean's 

Harnack attempts to show the dependence of the Pastoral 
Epistles on an early " Kirchenordnung" which underlies the 
Earliest Church Orders (Chrono/ogie, i. p. 483; T. und U. ii. 5), 
but in most instances quoted the priority seems clearly on the side 
of the Pastoral Epistles, and in none is their dependence clear. 

(iii) Pastoral. — The ethical influence of the Pastoral Epistles 
has been even more emphatic and permanent. Two illustra- 
tions will be sufficient. 

St. Chrysostom, De Sacerdolio, deals with the dignity and 
responsibility of the Priest's office, dwelling even more than 


the Pastoral Epistles on the spiritual peril to which the holder is 
exposed; he emphasizes the difficulty of dealing with individual 
souls, and the importance of intellectual ability for the needs of 
teaching. But St. Paul is his ideal throughout ; to his teaching he 
most frequently appeals: he quotes his requirements for the 
liri<TKoiro<i as the standard of the ideal priest (Si' wv 6 /xa/«xpios 
IlavAos rrjv tov apurrov tepews aveTrXijpwcrev et/<oi'a, § 533) ; he refers 
directly to I 3 1 " 17 (^ 135, 228), 11 2 25 (§ 119), and adopts the 
language of I 3 6 4 12 (§ 163), Tit 2 14 (§ 88). His rules for the 
treatment of widows (§§ 299 ff.), and his warning of the danger 
to a priest of sharing the sins of others, help to explain the 
meaning of I 5 5tr - and 22 . 

St. Gregory the Great, Regultz pastoralis liber. This book 
is even more closely akin to the Pastoral Epistles, as its main 
themes are the character of the Pastor and the different ways 
in which he must deal with different classes of men both in 
preaching and in private intercourse. St. Paul is for him 
" praadicator egregius " the " magnus regendi artifex " : his subjects 
follow the lines of I 3 1 " 7 5 1 -6 2 , Tit 2 1 - 9 : he also quotes I 4 1 - 
5 i.8. 23 6Lici7 f n 4 i. 2.8 > Tit i 9 - 15 2 15 ; but he uses as often 
other Epistles of St. Paul and the Old Testament, especially the 
Prophets and the Wisdom Literature, at times even the minute 
prescriptions of the Levitical Law. These are allegorized in a 
way that is always ingenious, often very apt, sometimes grotesque. 
But apart from this the whole tone is wise, spiritual, with a keen 
insight into human nature and the characters of men — in a word, 
worthy of St. Paul. 

Commentaries on these Epistles. 

[This list does not aim at being exhaustive ; it represents 
those books which have been used for this edition ; those 
asterisked represent those which are still of great value to the 
student. Fuller information on the Patristic Commentaries will 
be found in Hastings, D.B., Extra Volume, "Greek Patristic 
Commentaries"; Lightfoot, Galatians, Add. Note; Swete, 
Theodore of Mopsuestia, Introd. V. ; a con plete bibliography 
of all that has been published on these Epistles since 1880 in 
Harrison, The Problem of the Pastoral Epistles, App. III. ; and 
a list covering the whole ground in Wohlenberg in Zahn's 

Cent. 11. Clement of Alexandria. A few notes preserved in 

Cent. in. Ongen. A few notes on Titus only, mainly em- 
bodied in Jerome. 


Cent. iv. **Ambrosiaster (ap. Ambrosii Opera, vii., ed. 
Benedict, Venice, 1781 ; cf. A. Souter, Cambridge Texts 
and Studies, vii. 4), c. 375, written at Rome by an anony- 
mous layman, probably to be identified as a converted 
Jew named Isaac. Independent, practical and dogmatic, 
with special interest in questions of Church organization, 
and with illustrations from Jewish teaching and practice. 

***St. Chrysostom (ed. Field, Oxford, 1861 ; Eng. tr., 
Tweed., Oxford, 1843), Homilies, probably delivered at 
Antioch c. 385-95. Sound sensible exegesis, invaluable 
as interpreting the sequence of thought, the personal bear- 
ing and the spiritual application. 

St. Jerome (ed. Vallarsi, vii. pp. 685-740), c. 388, on 
Titus only. Generally sensible exegesis, with some 
strange mystical interpretations ; pressing home with a 
satirist's outspokenness the moral and spiritual bearings ; 
interesting in the account of his own studies and those of 

Cent. v. Pelagius (ap. Hieronymi Op., ed. Benedict xi ), 
c. 400-09. Short pointed notes, partly exegetical, partly 
moral and doctrinal; always shrewd and practical. (For 
a careful account, cf. Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. ix., 
Cambridge, 1922.) 

**Theodore of Mopsuestia (ed. H. B. Swete, Cam- 
bridge, 1880, with most valuable notes; Migne, Patrol. 
Gr. 66), c. 415. Fragments only of the Greek extant in 
Catenae; Latin tr. (c. 550) complete. Good literal and 
historical exegesis, with keen practical and theological 
interest, but tending to rationalize doctrine. 

Theodoret (ed. C. Marriott, Oxford, vol. i., 1852; 
vol. ii., C M. and P. E. Pusey, 1870), c. 450. Clear, 
sensible, doctrinal, but mainly compiled from Chrysos- 
tom and Theodore. 

?Cent. vi. Catena Anonyma (ed. J. A. Cramer, Oxford, 
1841-44). Valuable, as containing extracts from lost 
earlier commentators, down to the 5th century. 

Cent. viii. John of Damascus (ed. Le Quien, Paris, 17 12). 
Notes on a few passages ; fairly full on 1 Ti. ; very slight 
on 2 Ti. and Tit. ; mainly extracts from Chrysostom. 

Cent. ix. OZcumenius : Catena (Migne, Patrol. Gr. 119). 
Mainly abbreviated from Chrysostom, with extracts from 
others, especially Photius and Theodoret, and notes of 
his own, exegetical and doctrinal. 

Cent. XI. Theophylact : Catena (Migne, Patrol. Gr. 125). 
Extracts, mainly from Chrysostom, but from a greater 
variety of previous commentators than in GZcumenius. 


Cent. xiii. St. Thomas Aquinas (ed. J. Nicolai, Lugduni, 
1689). On the Vulgate, not on the Greek text: a careful 
examination of the meaning of each Latin word, of the 
reason why it is used, and of the structure of each sentence 
and paragraph. He shows a shrewd knowledge of human 
nature {vid. notes on Tit i 7-9 2 1 " 10 ), and illustrates from 
Aristotle and Cicero. His quotations also show the 
kinship of practical advice between the Epistles and the 
Wisdom Literature (Proverbs, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus). 
Cent. xvi. J. Calvin, Commentarii in NT, Berlin, 1833-34. 
Strong clear-headed exegesis, but dominated at times by 
controversial aims. 
Cent. xvm. **J. A. Bengel, Gnomon Novi Testamenti 
(Tubingen, 1734, ed. 5, J. C. F. Steudel, 1835). Spiritual, 
epigrammatic, rich in beauty and suggestiveness. 

**J. J. Wetstein, Novum Testamentum GrcBcum, 
Amsterdam, 1751-52. A repertory of classical illustra- 
tions, especially valuable for these Epistles. 
Cent. xix. H. Alford, The New Testament, ed. 5, 1863. 
Always thoughtful and well balanced. 

C. J. Ellicott, The Pastoral Epistles, ed. 4, 1864. 
Most thorough lexically and grammatically. 

**H. J. Holtzmann, Die Pastoral-Briefe, Kritisch und 
Exegetisch behandelt, Leipzig, 1880. A masterly treat- 
ment of the problem, with verdict against the Pauline 

B. Weiss in Meyer's Kommentar uber das NT, ed. 5, 
Gottingen, 1886. Careful introduction and exegesis. 

A. Plummer, The Expositor's Bible, 1888. Interesting 
analysis of the subject-matter. 

***H. von Soden, Hand-Commentar zum NT, 
Freiburg, 1.S91. Quite excellent in scholarly exegesis; 
the strongest statement of the case against the Pauline 

J. B. Lightfoot, Biblical Essays, London, 1893, 
Essay xi. " The date of the Pastoral Epistles." 

***Th. Zahn, Einleiiung in das NT, vol. i. c. vii., 
Leipzig, 1897. The most thorough and learned defence 
of the Pauline authorship. 

H. P. Liddon, London, 1897. 1 Timothy only. 
Careful analysis and good patristic illustrations. 

E. Riggenbach, Kurzgef. Komm. z. d. bibl. Schriften, 
Munchen, 1898. Terse exegesis, with suggestive analysis 
of the sequence of thought. 

**J. H. Bernard, Cambridge Gk. Test.,\%^. Thought- 
ful, interesting, with good knowledge. 


F. Field, Otium Norvicense, Pars Tertia, Cambridge, 
1899. Excellent examination of a few select passages. 

**G. Wohlenberg in Zahn's Kommentar sum NT, 
Leipzig, 1906. Very careful work; independent, with 
subtle analysis of the thought, and interesting classical 

N. J. D. White in Expositors Greek Testament, 
London, 19 10. Thoughtful. 

***M. Dibelius in Lietzmann's Handbuch zum NT, 
Tubingen, 19 13. Terse, pointed notes, with most valu- 
able illustrations from pagan, especially religious sources. 

**E. F. Brown, Westminster Commentaries, London, 
19 1 7. Useful illustrations from work as a missionary in 

A. E. Hillard, London, 19 19. Excellent on the 
pastoral spirit. 

**R. S. J. Parry, Cambridge, 1920. Most scholarly. 

**P. N. Harrison, The Problem of the Pastoral 
Epistles, Oxford, 192 1. Indispensable on the linguistic 
arguments against the Pauline authorship. 


BX^jre rr\v SiaKoulav fjv 7rapAa/3es iv tcvpttp, IVa avrijv TrkrjpoTs. — Col 4 17 . 

Historical situation. — There is no certain indication of the 
place at which the letter was written. St. Paul had been with 
Timothy at Ephesus, or possibly Timothy had come from 
Ephesus to meet him at some point on a journey that he was 
making to Macedonia (cf. the situation of Acts 20 17 with i 3 ) : St. 
Paul was bound to go forward, but was so much impressed with 
the dangerous tendency of some false teachers at Ephesus that 
he pressed Timothy to stay on in order to counteract them. St. 
Paul has continued his journey to Macedonia, and is perhaps 
now there : perhaps he has heard that all is not prospering in 
Ephesus : more probably his natural anxiety prompts him to 
write, for Timothy is still young (4 12 ), naturally timid, liable to 
frequent illnesses (5 s3 ) : his hands need strengthening. Paul 
hopes to be able to return himself soon (3 14 ), but he may be 
delayed (3 15 4 13 ), so he writes at once (cf. the similar circum- 
stances that led to the writing of 1 Th (2 17 ~3 5 ), and also 
1 Co 4 17 " 19 , Philem 22 ), to reinforce his charge about the false 
teachers, to lay down rules on certain points of public worship 
and the character of the officers in the Church, and to give 
Timothy guidance as to his own life and teaching. 

General character. — In large parts of the letter the personal 
and local element is strongly marked — either in allusion to St. 
Paul's own life (ii-s. n.12-16 2 7 3 14 ) or to Timothy's character 
and circumstances (i 1 - 3 - 18 3 15 4 6 - 16 5 23 6 11 " 13 - 20 ) or to local condi- 
tions at Ephesus (i 6 - 19 5 15 6 3 ' 10 - 17 " 19 - 21 ). On the other hand, 
some sections are quite general and might have been sent to any 
Church (e.g. 2 1-6 - 8 " 15 3 1 " 13 5 1 " 16 6 1 - 2 ), and the greeting is not to 
Timothy but to the Church. It is probable, therefore, that these 
parts at least were intended for public reading. It is further 
possible that the writer was thinking of a wider audience, and 
intending the more general parts to be circulated among other 
Churches (cf. 2 Co i 1 , Col 4 10 ) : the phrase iv ttolvti to™ (2 s ) 
lends itself to this theory, and St. Paul was always anxious to 
secure uniformity of practice and order in his Churches (cf. 


i Co n 16 i4 33 )- Or the explanation may be slightly different: 
the general problems discussed in these sections are problems 
that would arise in every congregation : St. Paul must have had 
to deal with them again and again : and his teaching would have 
become stereotyped in some form which could be embodied 
without change when sent to a particular Church. 

Date. — There is no reference to external events to throw any 
light on the date of writing. On the other hand, the many 
similarities with the subject and language of Titus prove that it 
was written about the same time as that Epistle, probably a little 
after, as the thoughts are fuller here. The similarities between 
both these Epistles and i P (cf. Introd. p. xxiv) point the same 
way, though the priority of i P is doubtful. The use of the 
Pauline Epistles, especially Ro. and Co., may imply adaptation by 
a later writer, but is consistent with repetition of the same 
thoughts by the same writer. The quotation of three " faithful 
sayings" (i 15 2 15 4 9 ), of a Christian hymn (3 16 ), of lil.urgical 
doxologies (i 17 6 15 - 16 ), of a Christian prophecy (4 1 ), the possible 
allusion to some early form of creed (6 13 ), and the possible, 
though not probable, reference to "Scripture" for a saying of 
the Lord (5 18 ), all favour a comparatively late date, though not 
necessarily one later than St. Paul's life. Hence most editors 
who favour a non-Pauline authorship place this Epistle as the 
latest of the three (so von Soden, H.K., p. 154 ; Moffatt, L.N.T., 
p. 560; McGiffert, A. A., p. 413). 

For the evidence from Church organisation, the false teach- 
ing attacked, and the style, cf. pp. xvii ff. 

Spiritual value. — (i) The chief contribution which the Epistle 
makes is the picture of the true Teacher and the true Teaching. 
The teacher eagerly pursuing righteousness, godliness, faith, love, 
patience, meekness (6 U ), keeping a good conscience (i 19 ), dis- 
ciplining himself (4 s ), self-controlled in all respects (3 1 " 3 ), free 
from the love of money (3 s 6 10 ), a pattern for his people (4 12 ), 
controlling his own family well (3 4 ), treaiing his church as his 
own family (5 1 ' 3 ), growing in courage and boldness of speech 
(3 13 ), free from favouritism and impartial in judgment (5 17 " 25 ), 
keeping the commandment without spot, as he remembers God 
as the source of life and Christ Jesus as the example of courage, 
and looks forward to His reappearance to judge (5 21 6 14 ). There 
is not the unveiling of the deepest motives of the minister of 
Christ, such as is found in 2 Co., but there is the practical out- 
come of such motives. 

So, too, with the nature of the teaching : it is healthy and 
sane (i 10 ), free from feverish excitement (6 4 ), its standard and 
aim is godliness (6 s ): it aims always at the central verities, love, 


faith, truth, a pure heart, a good conscience (i 5 2 7 ): it is 

impatient of aimless speculations, of old wives' fables, of all 

that hinders the work of God's steward (i 4 4 7 ) : it is loyal to 

the Apostolic teaching and based on the words of the 

Lord Jesus and the Gospel of the glory of the blessed God 

(i u 6 3 ), and falls back quickly on great doctrinal truths 
(,16 2 4. 5 3 ia 4 i0). 

(ii) This high spiritual level is consistent with a regulated 
worship and an organized ministry. In the regulations, worship 
is first dealt with as giving the keynote for life : in all the churches 
prayer is to be offered for all mankind and for the rulers, regula- 
tions which have influenced all liturgies and have done much to 
promote a missionary spirit based upon a belief in human nature, 
and also helped to favourable relations between the Church and 
the State. This carries the duty of obedience to government as 
given in Ro 13 to a higher level (2 1 " 7 ). The following regula- 
tion about the relation of men and women at service does not 
add to that in 1 Co. 

Some organization of the ministry is assumed as already 
existing, but there is a clearer picture than elsewhere of the 
relation of the deacon to the "bishop," of the possibility of 
passing from one grade to another, a fuller reference to the work 
of deaconesses and to the order of widows. 

But it is a striking fact that a church so organized is not left 
independent, to deal with its own difficulties : it is subordinate 
to the Apostle's delegate, who has to control the teaching, to 
arrange for the services, to exercise discipline over the presbyters, 
and for these tasks stress is laid upon his ordination : he has 
received a definite gift: stress is laid upon its "given-ness" 
(xa-pia-fxa, i866rj, 4 14 ) : given by prophecy and the laying on of 
hands of the presbytery : it is in the strength of such prophecies 
that he is able to war the good warfare (i 18 iv avTaU). 

Both as a handbook of Church Discipline and Worship, and 
as a treatise on ministerial character, the Epistle has had a great 
influence on the services, the organization, and the literature of 
the Church ; cf. Introduction, p. xxxviii. 

Analysis of the Epistle. 

A. i 1 " 20 . Introduction. 
1 - 2 Greeting. 

3 " 20 Appeal to Timothy to have courage to rebuke the 
false teachers : 
1-11 (a) because their teaching does not promote the 
central spiritual purpose of the true Gospel 
committed to the writer himself. 


12 " 17 (b) because he himself can tell of power for mini- 
stry given to himself though the chief of 

18 "-° (c) because of the prophecies about Timothy's 
own ministry. 

B. 2 T -6 2 . General Regulations : 

2 x -3 13 (a) for the Church. 

2 1 " 7 (i) the scope of public prayers. 

8-15 (ii) the conduct of men and women at public 


3 1 ' 13 (iii) the character of ministers: the bishop 

{ l ~~); deacons ( 8 " ,() ); deaconesses ( ll ) ; 

deacons as aspirants to higher office 

(12. 13). 

3 14-16 Central doctrine. The Person of Christ the 
source of true religion. 
4 1 " 5 Transition to the following regulations. Dan- 
ger of the teaching of a false asceticism. 
4 6 -6 2 (/') for Timothy himself. 

4'" 10 (i) his own life and teaching. 
5 ] -6 2 (ii) his treatment of others ; the old and 
young (5 1 - 2 ) ; widows ( 3 " 16 ) ; discip- 
line over presbyters ( 17 " 25 ) ; slaves 
(6i- 2 ). 

C. 6 3 ' 21 . Conclusion. Contrast between the false and the true 

3-10 The false teacher misled by the hope of gain. 
n-iG Appeal to Timothy to be a true man of God and fight 

the good fight. 
11-13 Based on Timothy's past confession. 
14-16 „ ,, the example of Christ Jesus and the thought 

of His return to judge. 
17-19 Th e proper teaching to be given to the rich. 
20. 2ia ]^ na i appeal to Timothy. 
?lb Greeting. 

The Greeting. 

i. 1-2. I Paul, writing with all the authority of an Apostle 
of Christ Jesus, and in obedience to the direct commandment of 
God who has saved us from our sins, and of Jesus Christ, who is 
the object of our hope, send this letter to you Timothy, with all 
the confidence which a father feels in a true son in the faith; 
and I ask God, the Father of us all, and Christ Jesus our Lord, 
to give you grace for your work, to aid you in your difficulties, 
and give you peace at heart. 

I. 1.] I TIMOTHY 5 

The greeting is formal and elaborate ; it is partly personal to 
Timothy (yvrja-iw tckvo> . . . eAeos), but also official (airoo-ToXos, 
kolt iTTtTayrji'), perhaps because the letter is meant to be read tc 
others (cf. fxeff v/jlwv, 6 20 ), and to be treated as an authoritative 
guidance for the Church or Churches to which Timothy has to 
communicate its regulations ; it is to strengthen Timothy's hands 
against false teachers; cf. i 11 2 7 . 

1. dirooroXos] ev$ews tov aKpoarov rrjv Sidvoiav eh tov o.tto<jtzl- 
Xavra TrapairepLTret (Chrys.). 

XpiaTou 'ItjctoG] In the other Epistles (Jas., Pet, Jude, Jn.) the 
order is 'I770-. Xp., perhaps because to their writers the memory of 
the earthly life had been the first thing ; in St. Paul the order is 
generally Xp. T770-., perhaps because the knowledge of the Heavenly 
Messiah came before that of the earthly life ; but there is no 
uniformity in him, though when he refers to facts of the earthly 
life the order is often 'I170-. Xp. 6 3 , II 2 8 , 1 Co 2 2 3 11 15 57 , 2 Co 8 9 . 

For a full examination of the usage, cf. I.C.C., Galatians, 
pp. 392 ff. 

kcxt' emTayV] eVn-ay^, Paul only in N.T. (1 Co 7 6 - 25 , 2 Co 
8 8 , Tit 2 15 ) ; Ka.T l-n-nayrfv (Tit i 3 , Ro 16 26 ). It suggests a royal 
command which must be obeyed, cf. Esth i 8 , and was used 01 
divine commands (cf. M.M. s.v.). Ramsay quotes kolt cVirayr/r 
tov KvpLov Tvpdwov Aios (Inscr. Le Bas Waddington, No. 667). 
Here it refers primarily to the choice of Paul as an Apostle 
(2 7 , Acts 22 14 ), though it may include the wider command of the 
King of all the ages (cf. i 17 6 15 ), revealing the message of salva- 
tion (Ro 16 26 ) and calling for obedience, cf. ek vTraKorjv 7rio-Teu)s 
(Ro i 5 ). It gives the commission in virtue of which he acts, and 
the rule and standard of his work. Paul writes because necessity 
is laid upon him (1 Co 9 16 - 18 ); he is anxious to be able to report 
to his Lord, when He returns, Kvpie, yeyovev o €7T€Ta£as (Lk 14 22 ). 

Geou o-arriipos Tjfxui'] Possibly with an allusion to the heathen 
use of the title as applied to Zeus, Apollo, or ^Esculapius 
(Tit 2 13 note ) ; cf. Harnack, Exp. of Christianity, i. 2. 2 ; but the 
phrase is Jewish, Dt 32 15 , Ps 24 5 , Lk i 47 , Jude 25 . By St. Paul 
it is applied to the Father in 1 Ti., to Christ only in 2 Ti. (i 10 ), 
to the Father and to Christ in Tit. : in the earlier Epistles only to 
Christ, Eph 5 23 , Phil 3 20 , but cf. 1 Co i 21 . Here it anticipates 
the thoughts of i 15 2 3 - 4 - 15 4 10 - 16 . 

ttjs e'XmSos ^fiwi'] On whom we place our hopes, whom we 
hope to see and to be like ; cf. Col 1 27 X/hcttos ev vplv, fj IX7ris 
ttjs 86^t)s, and 1 Jn 3 2 - 3 . Cf. Ps 64° IwaKovaov fjpwv 6 0£os 

awTTjp rjpiwv, rj e'A7ris TravTiav tcov TrepdraiV tt}? yr)? : Wisd 14 s f] cAttis 
tov Koa-fxov, of Noah (Wohlenberg). Liv. xxviii. 39 : "spemomnem 
salutemquenostram,"ofScipio(Wetstein). Similarly Kvpie, V7rop.ov.'y 
'Io-pa^A, Jer 17 13 . Here the phrase has almost become a fixed 


title, as it has become by the time of Ignatius {Trail. Inscr. and 
2, MagH. ii, Ph. 5 and Ii, Eph. 21. Cf. 17 TtAcia tticttis, ad 
Polyc. 10): and Polycarp, Phil. 8. 

2. TifxoBita] Cf. Introd., p. xxvi. 

ycT]o-iu> tek^w {diledo, Vg. ; germano, Ambros. ; viscera li, ite.) 
perhaps combines the thought of 1 Co 4 17 "my true son 
whom I have begotten and to whom I have a right to appeal," 
with that of Phil 2 20 - 22 (icntyuxov . . . yi/T/o-tws . . . <I> S ^en-pl 
TeVi'ov a-vv ifiol i8ov\evaev), " my son whom I know that I can 
trust," perhaps with implied contrast to others who had failed 
him, inf. 3 " n 6 3 " 10 . Dibelius compares the use of father and 
son for teacher and pupil in the Mysteries, quoting Poimandres 

I 3 3 > P- 34° (Reitzenstein), p.rj <pdovti p.01, irdrep- yvT/crios uios dfit- 
oi.a<ppa(rov /xoi Trjs 7raXtyy£i'€<rias tov Tpoirov. 

iv morei] Cf. h Xpiarw, 1 Co 4 15 ; eV Kvplu, ib. 17 . There the 
stress is on the spiritual sphere, here on spiritual character, faith 
in and loyalty to Christ ; cf. 4 - 5 and Tit i 4 Kara kolv^v tiotiv. 

Xdpi<i, eXeos, eip^T]] For x^P'S and elprjvv), cf. S.-H., Romans 
i 5-7 : eAco? is found in prayers combined with dp-^vq (Gal 6V, 
Tob 7 11 (N)), with tip?;!/?; and dydinq in Jude 2 , with x<W and 
elprjvrj, as here, only in 2 Ti i 2 , 2 Jn 3 . The addition in 1 and 2 
Ti. (not in Titus) may have reference to Timothy's difficulties 

at Ephesus. toSto oltto ttoAAt}? (piXoo-Topyias' irXtiovo. yap eirtv^rai 
tu> 7ratSi, SeSotKws virep avrov Kai rpipaav, Chrys. ; cf. rjXer/Orjv, u - 16 , 

he invokes for his son the mercy which had aided himself. 

d-n-6 0€ou TTcrrpos Kal Xp. '|. tou K. tjjj.wi'] cf. S.-H., Romans 1 7 ; 
Frame, 1 Thess 1 l . rrarpos is here, perhaps, limited by r)p.wv (cf. 1 ), 
or quite unlimited " the Father," e£ ov iraaa -rrarpid oio/xd&Tcu, 
Eph 3 15 ; the father invokes blessings on his spiritual son from 
the source of all fatherhood. 

i. 3-20. Appeal to Timothy. Warn the false teachers at 
Ephesus not to waste their time on myths and genealogies and 
teachings about the law to the neglect of the true spiritual aim 
of the gospel. They entirely misunderstand the true purpose of 
the law, as seen in the light of the gospel. Its purpose was to 
control sin, but the gospel saves from sin ; yes, it saved me the 
chief of sinners, and I was allowed to be its preacher. Do you 
then, as my true child, hand on this charge, and be warned by 
the fate of Hymenasus and Alexander. 

Note. — The key-words of the section are 77-10-Ti? with its 
cognates (cf. l - 4 - *• »• > 2 - ™- »<■ is. 10. 19 bi.) and &ydin} j* u^ which 

are contrasted with intellectual speculation : cf. the contrast 
between yvwo-is and dydwq in 1 Co 8, between speaking with 
tongues and prophesying in 1 Co 14. 

I. 3.] I TIMOTHY 7 

3-11. Paraphrase. I wrote to press on you the purpose with 
which I urged you to stay in Ephesus when I had to leave for 
Macedonia. It is that you should strictly charge certain teachers 
there — I need not mention their names — not to pride themselves 
on being teachers of novelties, or to waste their time on untrust- 
worthy legends and questions of genealogies which are unending, 
for they only supply them with abstruse investigations, and do 
not help them to do their work as God's stewards, whose one 
aim is to produce faith. The whole purpose of the charge which 
Christ has given us, His stewards, is to produce a true spirit of 
love, springing out of simplicity of aim, of a clear conscience, 
and a sincere faith. But some of these teachers have wholly 
failed in these qualities, and turned out of the narrow path into 
worthless discussions : they claim to be Christian rabbis, but 
they do not understand their own assertions, nor the meaning of 
the subjects on which they are so positive. But we know that 
the law is of high value, if a teacher enforces its right purpose, 
if he realizes that law is never enacted to control one who is 
already acting rightly, but it is to control the wilful and restless, 
those who violate their duty to God and their neighbour in any 
way that is inconsistent with the sound teaching of Christ. This 
is the position of the law in the light of the good news that the 
blessed God has now communicated His glory to men and 
enabled them to obey. It is this good news with which I was 
entrusted, I on whose behalf you have to speak. 

Note. — With the whole section cf. Acts 20 30 , and inf. 6 8 ' 10 : 
here, the stress is laid on the character of the teaching ; there, on 
the character of the teachers. 

3. For the historical position, cf. p. xvii. On the duty of 
the Bishop to check his clergy from useless discussions, cf. 
Chrys., de Sacerd., §§ 409-12. 

KaGws TrapeKctXeaa] What is the apodosis? Probably (as 
Grotius suggested) ha ;rapayyd\r)<;, "As I urged, so now see 
that you charge " ; Iva being elliptical, vid. note on Tit 3 13 . If 
this is not so, then the sentence is an anacoluthon, cf. Ro 5 12 ; 
such anacolutha are common at the commencement of letters ; 
cf. Ignatius, Ron. 1, Eph. 1, Sm. 1 ; Pap. Oxyr. x. 1299, quoted 
in M.M. s.v. Ka6w<s. The reason is that the act of writing takes 
the place of an apodosis. " As I urged, so now I write." So 
on the stage the apodosis has often to be supplied from 
some movement on the part of the actor; cf. Soph. O.T. 325. 
A similar movement explains Mt 26 50 . 

TrapcKciXeaa] Perhaps "encouraged," implying hesitation on 
T.'s part (so Chrys., Theod.-Mops.), but more probably "urged " 
cf. 2 1 , Philem 9 . 


irpoo-|jLeri'ai (cf. 5 5 , not in the earlier Epistles, but cf. Acts 
I3 13 ), slightly stronger than /xivetv, "stay on." 

TtcrijThey have not reached the point of shipwreck of faith, 
and have not had to be dealt with judicially like Hymenaeus and 
Alexander ( 20 ) ; so he tactfully mentions no names ; cf. 6 - l8 
5 15 - 24 6 10 - 21 , and compare 2 Co 3 1 io 2 . 

eTepo8i8aCTKa\eiw, cf. 6 3 , Ign. ad Polyc. 3 (cf. KaKoSioW/caXeu', 
Clem. R. ii. 10; frepoSiSuo-xaAos, Eus. H.E. iii. 32). The word 
was possibly coined by the writer, half-parodying vo/xoStSdo-KuXoi. 
They pride themselves on being "teachers of law"; they are 
really only teachers of novelties, of things alien to the true 
gospel, irapa ttjv StSa^r/v rjv vp.eis e/xa^ere, Ro l6 17 ; crepov 
cvayy eXiov, Gal I 6 . 

4. ivpoaixeiv (c. dat. 3 s 4 L 1S , Tit i 14 : also Luke (2), Acts (6), 
Heb (2), not in the earlier letters; but cf. Acts 20 28 ). 

uu0. tea! yev. direpdi'Tots] air£pavTO<i, used with a note of im- 
patient scorn (cf. d7repavToXoyid, aire ; Athenasus, 
Strabo ap. Wetstein), is the emphatic word, and probably quali- 
fies both |xu0. and yev. Cf. the similar protest in Epict. iii. 24, 
av 8' 'Opr/pw iravTo. 7rpocr€^6ts kol rots pLvOois avrov (Dibelius). 

jxu0. Kal yev. to be taken closely together, p.v6oi being defined 
by yeceaXoytat, legendary stories about genealogies ; but ytvea- 
Aoyicu was used widely of any mythologies connected with the 
history of early founders of states. Cf. Polyb. Hist. ix. 1. 4, 
where 6 yei'caXoyi/cos TpdVos of the historian is contrasted with 
the parts which deal with colonizations, foundations of cities, the 
policy of nations, and is said to be specially attractive to the 
inquisitive; and ib. 2. I, ra Trepl rds yertaXoyias kol p.v6ov<;, is 
contrasted with these more historical parts. So Philo calls the 
history of the patriarchs in the Pentateuch to yeveaXoyixbv p.epo<; 
(de V. Mosis, ii. 8). 

There may be implied here a contrast with the short, clear 
historical life and teaching of the Lord, "the mjstery of godli- 
ness" summed up in 3 16 . Cf. 2 P I 16 ov yap o-eo-0(pt<rpei(>L<; 
pvOoiS i$aKoXov6rjcravTes iyvwpiaap.ev vpuv ttjv tov K. i)p.wv I. Xp. 

* v / 

0vvap.1v Kut irapovacav. 

The exact reference of the words is uncertain. 

(i) Probably they refer to something Jewish; and if so, to 
legends and stories centring round the pedigree of the patriarchs 
and O.T. history which were handed down in tradition, the 
Rabbinical Haggada, and which are prominent in Jewish Apoca- 
lypses (so cf. HoTt,Judaistic Christianity, p. 135), and were used 
to support the institutions of the Jewish law. The Book of 
Jubilees, "an attempt to rewrite primitive history from the 
standpoint of the law," based on to yeveaXoywov and introducing 
many legends about evil spirits, or "The Book (attributed tc 

I. 4.] I TIMOTHY 9 

Philo) concerning Biblical Antiquities," a legendary chronicle 
of O.T. history from Adam to Saul, dating from the ist century 
a.d. (ed. M. R. James, S.P.C.K., 1917), would be the best illus- 
trations of this. Cf. also Justin M. Dial. c. Tr. c. 112 ; Irenseus, 
i. 30, for similar profitless discussions. This Jewish reference is 
made probable (i) by the fact that these teachers claimed to be 
i/o/AoSi8acn<a\oi : (ii) by the clear reference in Tit i 14 'IouSaiKois 
[avOois : 3 9 yeveaAoyias kou e/oeis kclI p.d\a<s vopiKas : (iii) by Ign. 
ad Magn. c. 8 (possibly an allusion to this place), where 
/xvOtv/xaaLV 7raXatois irXavaaOai is a note of living Kara ' lovhaia fiov . 

(iv) The allusion to Jannes and Jambres, 2 Ti 3 s , is perhaps 
drawn from such legendary Haggada. 

This reference is supported by Chrys., Pelagius, Thdt. tt/j> 
'IovSaiK^i' epfJLrjviiav ttjv vtt avrwv KaAou/ue'v^v bevTepwcriv : and 
Ambrosiaster, "de fabulis quas narrare consueti sunt Judaei de 
generatione suarum originum." F. H. Colson (J. Th. St. xix. 
265-71) thinks that the reference is not to a Pharisaic Judaism, 
but to a "somewhat conceited pseudo-Hellenic Judaism," which 
treated the O.T. as the "grammatici" and " rhetores " treated 
Homer in literary circles ; and he quotes a similar criticism 
of such points by Suetonius, Tiberius, c. 70, " Maxime curavit 
notitiam historic fabularis, usque ad ineptias atque derisum," 
quoted with other reff. by Mayor on Juv. 7. 234. 

(ii) But, possibly, to the genealogies of the aeons, which in 
Gnostic teaching separated the supreme God from the material 
world, cf. 4 1 " 4 . Irenseus directly applied these words to the 
teaching of Valentinus (adv. Beer, prcef. i.), and so did 
Tertullian (Prcescr. 7 and 33) ; but neither states that our writer 
was referring to them, for Irenceus applies Mt 7 15 and Tertullian 
Col 2 8 , Gal 4 3 5 2 to the same heretics; and Tert. (adv. Valent. 3) 
supposes St. Paul to anticipate these teachers, and to meet the 
germs of their teaching (" his jam nunc pullulantibus seminibus 
haereticis damnare prasvenit"); cf. Introd. p. xvii. 

€K£T]Tr)creis] Here only in N.T., "out-of-the-way researches" 

(cf. eVfqreiv, EccluS 39 1, 3 (of the Jewish Rabbi, aocpiav iravroiv 
ap^at'wv iK^rjTrjaei . . . airoKpvfya irapoipiwv iK^rjTrjo-ei), I P I 10 

and "eruere"). For the distinction from ^r^ara, cf. Acts 15 2 

yevop.ivr]<i . . . ^Tjrrjaews ovk oAiyTys era^av . . . avafiaLveiv II. /cat B. 
irepl rov £r]T^fJ.aTOS tcdtov. 

oiKOfofnaf 0€ouj " God's stewardship," i.e. they do not help 
them to carry out the stewardship entrusted to them by God ; cf. 
Tit I 7 <I)5 8eov oli<ov6p,ov : supra 1 kclt e7n.Ta.y77j/ : n i-Ki<n(.vQt)v. Ign. 
ad Eph. 6, irdvTa ov 6 oiKoSecrTroTTjs €is loiav oiKovojxiav. 

The metaphor is a favourite one with St. Paul (cf. esp. 1 Co 9 17 ) 
and St. Luke : elsewhere only in 1 P 4 10 . This is ultimately 
''God's own method," His "scheme of salvation" (cf. Eph i 10 , 


Ign. Eph. 1 8. 20 {ubiv. Lightfoot), Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 24: oikovo- 
fuu ko.0' tjv iirai8evovTo Efipaioi . . . cis fiovov to moreueii' tov Oebv 
tlvai (quoted with other interesting illustrations in Tatiani, Or., ed. 
Schwarz, Texte und Unters. i. 4. 1, pp. 86-90); but the analogy 
of Tit i 7 shows that this is not the primary thought here, and is 
almost conclusive against the reading of the Western text, oIko- 
Sofir/v, for which cf. 3 15 , 1 Co 3 9 , and supra, p. xxxvi. 

tt)k lv morei] which has faith as its central principle — faith in 
the steward (cf. x ) and faith in those whom he teaches (cf. 5 ) ; 
faith, not abstruse questionings (cf. 4 ) ; faith, not stress on law 
( 7 - n ) ; cf. Col 2, Gal 3. 

5. to 8e TeXos] tovtcoti to o-vfjLirkr)p<x>p.a, cf. Ro io 4 , Chrys.; but 
here the metaphor is of " the way " (cf. do-TOY^o-avTts . . . e£e- 
Tpa-mqa-av €is). " The goal," " the true end to be reached " ; cf. 

Ign. Eph. 14, apxh l*-* v 7Tto"Tts, reAos 8c ayaTrrj. 

ttjs irapayyeXias] *".*., primarily, the charge which Timothy has 

to give (Trapayyei\r)<;, 8 J TrapayyiXiav, 18 ) : but the last words, 

oi/coS. 6eov ttjv iv Triarei, have carried the mind on to the whole 
scheme of salvation, and perhaps extend the meaning more 
widely — the end of all Christian moral preaching, the whole moral 
charge which is given to God's stewards ; cf. rj SioWKaAta, 6 1 : ij 

tVToXrj, 6 14 : TO K-qpvy/JLa, I Co I 21 . 

dyd-mr]] Cf. Gal 5 6 7r«rris 81' ayonrrjs ivepyov/ievr), inf. 1 14 2 15 4 12 6 11 . 

ck Ka8apds k.] Cf. 2 Ti 2 22 , 1 P i 22 (si v.l.), Mt 5 8 . It is an 
O.T. conception, Gen 20 5 - 6 , Job n 13 t,2, 3 , Ps 23 4 50 12 . 

o-uvciStjocws dy.] i 18 , i P 3 16- 21 ; Ka\-q, Heb 13 18 ; contrast 
crumo. Trovrjpa, Heb io 22 . For the history of the word, which is 
of Greek philosophic origin, cf. S.-H. on Romans 2 15 ; Bonhoffer, 
Epiktet und das NT, p. 156. 

dyuiroKpiTou] 2 Ti i 5 "a word chiefly Christian" (but used in 
Wisd 5 19 18 6 ), "as might be expected from Our Lord's warnings 
against vtt6kpmti% and vTroKpirat, partly from the high standard of 
veracity set up by the Apostles; cf. Jas 3 17 (o-o<f>ia), Ro 12 9 , 
2 Co 6 6 (dydTTT;), 1 P i 22 (<£iAaS€A<p t 'a) " ; Hort ad Ja. I.e. The 
words are in an ascending scale, simplicity of aim, which is 
always ready to listen to truth (cf. Lk 8 15 lv KapUa KaXrj koi 
ayixOfj), a constant desire to do right, and a faith which accepts 
Christ as its guide with sincerity and consistency (cf. Gal 2 13 ), 
resulting in love for God and man. 

All these qualities can be re-created in the penitent sinner; 
cf. Ps so 12 , Heb io 22 3 12 . 

6. S)v\ Failure in these moral qualities loses sight of the true 
goal ; cf. 1 19 . 

do-Tox-] 6 21 , 2 Ti 2 18 (only in N.T.), Ecclus 7 19 S 9 , and com- 
mon in Polybius and Plutarch, "failing to strike," or perhaps, 
rather more definitely, " taking no pains to aim at the right 

I. 6-9.] I TIMOTHY 1 1 

path " ; cf. the description of their character in 6 3-6 , Ecclus 8 9 
1X7] octto-^l Si^yr/yucn-os yepoi'Twv : and for the thought, Mt 7 14 . 

e|eTpcnr.] 5 15 6 20 , 2T1 4 4 , Heb I2 13 only in N.T. fAdTcuoXoyia 
here only in N.T. ; cf. Tit i 10 , Ro i 21 . 

7. rofxoStSdo-KaXoi] Perhaps without reference to the Jewish law, 
half-ironical, "claiming to be professors of moral philosophy"; 

cf. Epict. ii. I. 25, 7TWS OVV £Tl VfJLLV 7TlCTT€i;crO/X.6V, to (piXraTOL VOflO- 

Oerai (Dibelius) ; but vv. 4 * 8 - 9 - 10 make a reference to the Jewish 
law more probable. 

riv<av\ The interrogative is probably used for the relative 
for the sake of variety alone, as in late Greek they tended to 
become interchangeable ; cf. Moulton, N. T. Greek, p. 93 ; Blass, 

P- 175- 

SiaPepaioGt'Tai] Tit 3 s only in N.T., " on which they insist, lay 

so much stress." Hort (W.H. App., pp. 167 and 171) suggests 

that the form is really subjunctive, cf. ^t/AoCtc, Gal 4 17 <pvo-iovo-6i, 

1 Co 4 6 , "nor on what points they ought to insist"; cf. Ro 8 2C 

to yap ti Trpo(xev£<i)fjLe6a Kadb Set ovk oi8ap.ev : but this would 

probably have been stated more clearly. 

8. oiSajicy] " We Christians," with, perhaps, a conscious refer- 
ence to Ro 7 12, 14 oiSafiev yap on 6 vo/jlos Trvev/xariKOS. 

KaXos (cf. note, p. 22) 6 kojmos. The Mosaic Law, but only 
as the instance used by these teachers of what is true of all law, 
vop.o<; v . 

idv -us] Any teacher (cf. ncrt, 3 ; Ttve's, 6 ) : cofiijxws (here and II 2 5 
only in N.T.), in accordance with its true spirit, "as a law," not 
"as a Gospel." " Si quis sciat quibus, quare, et quamdiu habenda 
sit data," Pelag. Law with its penalties is needed to control 
sinners, but when once the true love of God is created in a 
man's heart, there is no longer need to appeal to its sanctions ; 
Love fulfils it: the true Christian is "non sub lege sed cum 
lege" (Aug. on Jn 1, Tr. 3), he is " amicus legis" (Ambrosiaster 
on Ro 2 12 ), and law is put on a firmer basis, not as a penalizing 
force, but as the guidance of a loving God; cf. Ro 3 31 7 14 8 4 
13 8 " 10 , Gal 5 23 . " When at last love suffuses all the mind — love of 
God and His Laws, and love for our neighbour as made in His 
image and the chief mirror of His goodness, then indeed the 
yoke becomes easy and the burden light," Inge, Personal Idealism, 
p. 16. 

9. oiKCu'w I'ofxos ou KeiTai : cf. Gal 5 22, 23 Kara twv toiovtwv ovk 
tori vofxos. He appeals to an universal principle, acknowledged 
generally, and cf. 6 fxrjSev dSi/cwv ovoei>6<s Seirat vo/xov, Antiphanes Fr. 
288 (Koch), and Aristotle's claim for philosophy ; to dv€7riTaKTws 
7roiav d tiv€s Std tov Tail' vop.i)iv cfaofiov ttoiovctlv, Diog. Laert. 5 20 
(Wetstein). The heathen imagined a past golden age in which 
law was not needed (Tac. Ann. iii. 26 ; Ovid, M. i. 90), and the 


Christian Fathers attributed the same to the patriarchal period ; 
cf. Ambrosiaster, ad loc, " Custodientes legem naturalem, quam si 
humanum genus ducem habuisset, lex in litteris per Moysem 
data non esset"; and Iren. iv. 16. 3, quoting this verse, "Mex 
non posita est justis ' : justi autem patres virtutem decalogi con- 
scriptam habentes in cordibus et animabus suis . . . non fuit 
necesse admoneri eos correptoriis Uteris." Ambrose, de Off. iii. 
5. 31, "Justus legem habet mentis suae et aequitatis et justitiae sure 
normam, ideoque non terrore poenae revocatur a culpa sed hones- 
tatis regula" (U'ohlenberg). 

dyopns k.t.X.] The list follows the order of the Decalogue : d^ou. 
kcu dKuiroT., the general refusal to obey all law : do-e|3. kcu dp,, (cf. 1 P 
4 18 , Jude 15 ) the general refusal to obey the law of God : dfcxr. 
tea! pefSrjX., the more detailed opposition to the law of God : 
■n-aTpoX. urjTpoX. the 5th, de8po<f>. the 6th Commandment, cf. Ex 2o 15 , 
iropf. dpo-. the 7th, d^Spcnr. the 8th, vj/euor. eiuopK. the 9th. In 
each case extreme forms of the sin are chosen to emphasize the 
strength of the evil in the heathen world and the real need of 
law for those who have not heard of the gospel : cf. Ro 1 21 - 32 . 
Plato, Phced., pp. 113, 114; Verg. /£n. vi. 608 sqq. 

10. dySpa-rroStoTcus] Cf. Ex 21 16 , Dt 24 7 , and an interesting 
chapter in Philo, de Spec. Legg. iv. 4, which condemns dvSpairo- 
8«rrai as ol to iravTwv apMTTOV KTrj/xa, ty)v iXev6epiav, d<f>aipovp.cvoi 
rous c^ovTas. Slavery is not condemned here, but slave trading is. 

et ti erepoy . . . dyTiKeirai] Perhaps a semi-conscious remin- 
iscence of Ro 13 9 ei tis iripa IvToXrj, and of Gal 5 17 Tavra yap 
dAA-^Aois avTLKeLTai. 

ttj uyiai^ouo-Ti SioacrKaXia] i.e. the moral teaching of the gospel ; 
but as these sins have just been treated as sins controlled by the 
Mosaic Law, thegospel isthought of as absorbing in itself the Law of 
Moses and, we may add, the natural law written in the hearts of the 
heathen, which itself often, as embodied in legislation, condemned 
many of these vices; cf. 5 s , 1C0 5 1 ; so Pelag. "legem evangeliis 
concordare demonstrat," and Ambrosiaster, quoted above. 

uyiati/ouorTi]. Sana doctrines, "sound" (cf. Lk 5 31 7 10 15 27 ), not 
" wholesome." There may be an allusion to the diseases of the soul 
(cf. Plato, Rep iv. 18; Philo, de Abr. 38, hi twv iraOw /ecu voo~qpLa.Tu>v 
TraptvrjjjLipovvTuv Tot's vytaivovTa<; Adyous, 2 Ti 2 17 6 Adyos ciutojj/ ojs 

ydyypaiva) ; but it is doubtful whether the medical reference was at 
this time more conscious than in our word " sound " : cf. Prov 24 76 
( = 3I 8 ) Kpiie 7raj'Tas iyiaJs : ib. 13 3 6 <poftovpevo<; ivroXrjv outos 
vytaivei : l'lut. A/or., p. 20 F, vyiaivoucrai 7re/n Oewv Sd£ai koX dXi]9eU. 
The metaphor is common in and confined to the Pastoral 
Epistles in N.T. 6 3 , 2 Ti i 13 4 3 , Tit i 9 - u 2 12 - 8 : it is of a piece 
with the stress on an ordered regulated life, and is found in 
Stoic writers: vyir/s Adyos, Marc. Aur. viii. 30. 

I. 10, 11.] I TIMOTHY 13 

S^SaoKaXta] Used in N.T. only by St. Paul (except Mt 15 9 , Mk 
7 7 in quotation from Is 2Q t8 ), 15 times in Past. Epp., 4 elsewhere. 
It varies elsewhere between the sense of "active teaching " (cf. 4'- 
13-16 5I 7 , 2 Ti 3 16 , Tit 2 7 , Ro 12 7 15 4 , Col 2 22 ) and "the body of 
doctrine " ( 4 6 6 1 - 3 , 2 Ti 3 10 (?), 4 3 , Tit i 9 2 1 - 10 , Eph 4 14 ) : here the 
latter is probably right, as it implies a definite standard ; but the 
contrast to eTepoStSao-zcaXtiv ( 3 ), vop.o8i8d<rKa\oi ("), suggests the 

11. Ktn-a to cuayyeXioc k.t.X.] Constructed with the principal 
sentence o'(.8a.p.ev . . . XPV T0LL '• c ^ R° 2l6# 

Tr]s 86|t]s tou |xaK. 6.] Possibly a title for Christ. The gospel 
of Him who is the manifestation of the Divine Glory (cf. Hort 
on Jas 2 1 and Tit 2 13 note) ; but the context suggests rather 
the glory of God as manifested in man, of which all sinners fall 
short (Ro 3 23 ), but which gives liberty to the children of God (Ro 
8 21 ), which is the note of a ministry of righteousness and of the 
Spirit, and into which we are gradually transformed, 2 Co 3 7 " 18 4 4 " 6 
1 P 4 14 . It is thought of here as a present glory, though its 
complete realization will come with the Returning Christ, cf. 6 15,16 . 
kcu Tot fxiXXovra alviTTerat, Chrys. 

tou fAdKapiou 6eoC] Here and 6 15 . God as containing all 
happiness in Himself and bestowing it on men. "Beatus beat" 
(Bengel) ; cf. Is 65 19 " I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my 
people." The exact title is not found elsewhere, but " the happy- 
gods, " 6to\ fxaKape<;, is frequent from Homer's time ; and the idea 
of God as independent of men, and containing all happiness in 
Himself, came through Epicurus (to fiaKapcov kcu afpOaprov, 
ap. Plut., p. II03D) and Aristotle (evSaipwv icrrl Kal paKapios 
. . . 8Y avrov auTo'?, de Rep. vii. 1) into Alexandrine Judaism, 
and is common in Philo {e.g. 6 0eos . . . crunr^p re «at euepyerr/s, 
paKapioTr]TO<; ko.1 irdcrq'i euSaiyaoi'ia? dcairXea)?, de Spec. Legg. I. 2 09) 
and Josephus (6 #e6s «X €l T ^ ^d.vra, 7rai/TeXi)? kol //.a/capios, C. Ap. 

ii. 22). See other instances in Wetstein and Dibelius. 

emaT6u'0T]i' (cf. /car cViTay^i', : ) eyw : cf. Eph 3 7 , Col i 23 - 25 , 
Tit i 3 . I, your father, whom you have to represent; I, the 
founder of the church, who have authority to enforce against 
false teachers (cf. I Co 4 15 lv yap Xp. 'b/o-. Sia tou euayy. eya> 

iyewrjaa u/aSs) ; I, who know the power of the gospel to rescue 
from sin. 

12-17. Paraphrase. Yes, it was entrusted to me ; but when I 
say me, I must stop to thank Him who gave me strength for the 
task, Christ Jesus our Lord, for He deemed that He could trust 
me ; for His own purpose He chose me for service, — me who 
before had blasphemed His truth and persecuted and harried His 
followers. But mercy was shown to me, because I did it in 


blindness while still unbelieving ; but the grace of our Lord over 
flowed its channel and flooded my heart with faith and love, 
that perfect love which is known only in Christ Jesus. Faithful, 
indeed, is that saying, and worthy of whole-hearted acceptance : 

" Christ Jesus stooped this world within 
Sinners to rescue from their sin," 

sinners — of whom I am chief; yet for this very purpose was 
mercy shown to me, that in me first Jesus Christ might make 
clear that there are no limits to His long-suffering, and so make 
me the first sketch of all the myriads who are going to believe on 
Him and win life eternal. Now to Him who rules the ages, to 
the immortal, the invisible, the only God be honour and glory 
age after age. Amen. 

This section is a personal digression, dominated by the 
emphatic eyw ( n ) ; but it is not a mere digression, it serves as 
an encouragement to Timothy (cf. lAeo?, 2 ; rjXo'/Orjv, 13, 16 ) ; and 
it illustrates the main purpose of the gospel, to save sinners and 
to produce love and faith ; cf. 2 Ti i 12 " 14 . 

12. \dpiv *X W ] 2 Ti i 3 , not elsewhere in St. Paul, but it was 
a common phrase; cf. Lk 17 9 and Heb 12 28 ; Pap. Oxyr. i. 113, 
X«/hv ex™ ^ €0 ' <J Tao-Lv (Dibelius) ; perhaps a little stronger than 
ei>Xa/Ho-ra>. " I feel and show, I express, gratitude." 

tw eyWapwcmm.] Perhaps a reminiscence of Phil 4 13 iravTa 
to-xvco €i' to) Iv^vva/xovvTC yu.€. Here the primary thought is " who 
gave me strength for my task as Apostle," the time being that of 
eiruTTev6r)v : cf. on ttlcttov . . . SiaKovi'ay : and 2 Ti I 7 uvfv/ia 
8wi/i.€ojs : 2 Co 3 5 r) LKavoT-q'i rj/x&v €« toC 6eov : Ign. Stnyrn. 4, 
ttovto. v7ro/j.ev(x), avTov fxe ivSvvafxovvros rov nXeiov ai'9pu)Trov : but 
there lies behind this "the strength to conquer sin and obey 
the law " (cf. Ro 5 6 8 3 ), and this thought emerges in 14 " 16 , cf. l °- u . 

on. tucttoV |i€ i^YV aT0 -] " Fidelem si putaveris, fades," Seneca, 
Ep. Mor. i. 3 ; cf. 1 Co 7 25 ^Xe^/AtVos ii7ro Kvpiov rrto-To? elvau 

Qifievos] Appointing for His own purposes : cf. Wtro, 1 Co 
I2 18 - 28 , 1 Th 5 9 ovk ZdcTo 17/Aas cis opyijv, and ireOrjv, inf. 2 7 , 
2 Ti i 11 , 1 P 2 8 (ubi v. Hort). There is perhaps a reminiscence 
of Is 49 s , quoted by St. Paul of himself, Acts 13 47 reOtiKa. o-e €15 

c/)u)S zOvwv, and of Jer I 5 irpo<^rjTqv «i<> IBvrj TeOeiKa. crc. 

eis SiaKoviay] Not only €is airoa-ToXrjv ; for service of any kind, 
cf. 1 Co 16 15 , 2 Ti 4 11 , Heb i 14 , Acts 11 29 (when Paul was used 
for much humbler service), 20 24 in Paul's address to the elders 
of Ephesus ; but, above all, for the ministry of reconciliation, 
2 Co 5 18 . 

13. p\aCT<j )T lM- 01 ' Kat oiojKTTjy Kal uPpiaT^] A triad (as so often 
in St. Paul) with perhaps an ascending scale rising from words to 

I. 13-16.] I TIMOTHY 1 5 

acts of authorized persecution and of illegal violence ; cf. Ps i 1 . 
Bengel would treat them as sins against God, against others, and 
against himself (insulting his own Saviour), all failures in love ; 
but though ftXdar(f>r]iAov may include blasphemy against God, the 
other distinction is fanciful ; and the main thought of each word 
is of attacks on the Church ; cf. Gal i 13 - 2S , Phil 3 6 , Acts 2 2 4 26 9 - 11 . 
riXerjerii' k.t.X.] Cf. Acts 3 17 , Lk 23 s4 , and more directly Ro io 2 
(ov kclt iTTiyvwa-iv' dyvoovvT€<s yap . . . ovx VTrerdyrjcrav), Test. 
XII. Patr., Jud. 19, of which this may be a ren iniscence, dXX' 6 
#€os twj/ iraripoiv p.ov r/Xe'^tre p.e otl ev ayvwaia. tovto iirot-qara. 
Ign. Rom. 9, perhaps a reminiscence of this place, ovSe yap d£ios 

tl/j.1, wv ccr^aTos avTaiv ko.1 CKTpw/xa' dXX r)X£r)p,ai ris civat. There 

is therefore no reason to assume the influence here of the Greek 
conception that sin is the result of ignorance. 

14. uirepeirXcoracre] Here only in N.T., but found in Ps.-Sol 5 19 ; 
cf. Ro 5 20 VTrepeirepicracvo-ev rj X"/ 315 * VTrep = " a bove its usual 
measure," rather than "rising higher than my sin." This v. was the 
origin of the title of Bunyan's autobiography, Grace Abounding. 

(i6Ta. mo-Tews] In contrast with dirto-rid : dydirrjs in contrast with 
/3X. ko.1 St. ko.1 vf3pi<TTTqv : cf. Tit 3 3 . 

tt]s iv Xtw. 'Irjo-ou] Not the love shown by Christ Jesus, which 
is already implied in r) x^pts, but the true love which Christians 
feel, cf. 6 supra, and which is only felt in union with Christ, 
and is a reflection of His love; cf. Jn 15 9 p.uvarc iv ttj dydTry 
rrj ip.rj. 

15. tticttos 6 Xoyos] Cf. Tit. 3 s n., and for the v. I. dv6p^irtvo<i, 
cf. Introd. p. xxxvi. Probably a quotation, as the phrase r}X6*v ek 
tov Kocrpov as applied to Christ is elsewhere only found in John. 
The whole phrase implies a knowledge of Synoptic and Johannine 
language (cf. Lk 5 s2 , Jn 12 47 ), and is a witness to their essential 
unity, but does not imply direct quotation from either. 

iraaTjs, "entire," perhaps combining the thought of "whole- 
hearted," cf. 16 , and "universal," cf. 2 4 . 

irdCTTjs diroS. a£ios] Here and 4 9 only in N.T. (cf. d7roSeKTos 
2 8 5 4 ), but common in contemporary Greek, both as applied to 
persons — cf. Dittenberger, Syll. 246, from Sestos, c. 130-120 B.C., 
ttjs KaXXtor^s a7ro8ox^s d£iovp.evo<; ; Orelli, Inscr. i. 33 7, from 
EphtSUS, C. A.D. 148, dvSpos $OKipLO)TaTOV Kal Trdo~q<z Tip.r)% koX 

d7roSo^s a£lov — and to things or sayings ; cf. Diodorus Sic. xii. 
15, vop-ov d7roSo^s dfiou'pei/ov : Justin Martyr, Tryph. c. 3, diro- 
8o)(rj<; d£ta, opposed to <f>opTLKa kclI fidvavcra : cf. Acts 2 41 01 pev 
ovv aTro$e£dp.ei'oi tov Xoyov avrov ifiaTTTto-Orjaav. For other 
instances, see Field, Otium Norvic, ad loc, and Wetstein. Its 
meaning varies between mere "accepiance" and stronger 
" approbation," " welcome," Philo, de Decal. 10, d-n-oSox^ koi 

Tipr/5 peTaXap/3dvtiv. 


T^kOey 6i§ toc Koap.oi'] Contrast */ a/xapTta elsrov Kocrftov elcrrj\8e. 
Ro 5 U and cf. Jn I 9 12 46 16 28 . The analogy of Jn 6 14 , Ro 5" 
shows that the idea of Divine pre-existence is not necessarily 
involved in it. 

ww irpuTos eijjii] "I am," not "I was." The sinner remains 
a sinner even if forgiven ; the past is always there as a stimulus 
to deeper penitence and service. The sins for which he re- 
proaches himself are not sins against the moral law (cf. Phil 3 6 ), 
but sins against the truth and the light; sins which disqualified 
him from Apostleship Hence the longer he lives, the more he 
knows of the power of Christ and His truth, the severer becomes 
the self-reproach for having opposed it; cf. 1 Co 15 9 cA-a^crros 

twv aTrocrToXwv : Eph 3 8 t<2 cAa^ioroTepco Trdvrwv ayicov, and here 
wpioTos afjLapTU)\uv. " Quoniam enim prae ceteris Sacramento se 
imbuit Salvatoris, propius ad cognoscendam magnificentiam ejus 
accedens, accusat se magis qui tantum boni tarde agnovit," 
Ambrosiaster. For similar self-condemnation, cf. Tert. de Pain. 
c. 4 and c. 12, with Glover's comment, Conflict of Religions, 
p. 313, and Mr. Keble's Letters of Spiritual Counsel, Preface, 
pp. xxxv-1. Celsus used this verse to point his taunt against 
the character of the Apostles, Orig. c. Cels. i. 63 ; cf. Ep. Hani. 
v. 9. Moreover, by this time Paul had himself been evil-spoken 
of (Ro 3 8 , 1 Co 4 13 io 30 , Ac 13 45 ), persecuted ( 1 Co 4 12 , 2 Co 4 9 , 
Ac 13 50 ), insulted (r Th 2 2 , 2 Co 12 10 ), and so could more 
keenly enter into the feelintis of those whom he had wronged. 

16. 81a toGto T)\eT)8r)i/ IVa k.t X.] It is suggestive to compare 
Ro 9 1 '- 18 Aeyti yap y ypacf>>j tw <I>a/>uuj - on eis avro toito i£i}yeipd ae, 
ottois £i'oeii;< iv <TOL rr/y ovvafiiv fxov ko.l 6Vu>s 8tayye\rj to 6vop.d 
p.ov iv Trdarj rfj yrj' dpa ovi' ov OeXet iXeel, ov S« OtXet fTKhqpvvti, 

irpwTw] Starts with the meaning "chief" (cf. irpwros, 15 ), but 
also implies "first" in contrast to those who are coming after 

(twv /xcAAoVtoji/). 

eVoet£r]Tai] A favourite word with St. Paul, 5 times in earliei 
Epp., 4 in Past. Epp. (elsewhere 2 in Heb.). He only also uses 

iv8uyp.a and €i'Sei£i9. 

'ItjctoGs Xpto-Tos] The change of order (contrast vv. 1 - 2 - 12> 14 - 15 ) 
perhaps emphasizes the note of personal affection, and recalls 
the moment of conversion, and the words iyw dp.i 'J^o-ovs ov xrv 
StwKci?, Acts 9 5 . 

rr\v airao-ai/] Here only in N.T. with the article. His entire 
unlimited, ever-patient patience, not only converting, not only 
choo-ing me for service, but making me Apostle, and keeping 
me faithful. 

u-rroTu'-n-wo-ie] Here and 2 Ti i 13 only in N.T. : an incomplete 
(v-rro- ; cf. viroypdfftri) sketch in contrast to the comp'ete picture 
(dvaypdtpciv, Ar. Eth. N. i. 7 ; i£epyacria, Plotinus, Enn. vi. 37, 

I. 16, 17.] I TIMOTHY I J 

ap. Wetstein, who quotes other instances) : the first sketch for a 
gallery of portraits ; cf. cnaa, Heb io 1 . The substantive may be 
consciously active, "that He might draw a sketch," "ad informa- 
lionem," Vulg. ; " deformationem," Am. : or of the result " to 
serve as a sketch," "ad exemplum," Ambrosiaster. The former 
is more common elsewhere: the latter suits 2 Ti i 13 better; cf 
vTrdSeiYjua, 2 P 2 6 . For this vista into future generations, cf 
Eph 3 20 - 21 

eV aurw] As upon a sure corner-stone. Tno-Tivuv eVi, c. dat, 
is only applied elsewhere to Christ in quotations from Is 28 16 (Ro 
9 33 io 11 , 1 P 2 6 ), and that passage may be in the writer's mind here. 

17. For similar doxologies, cf. Gal i 5 , Ro n 36 16 27 , Ph 4 20 , 
Eph 3 21 /*/ 6 16 . 

tw PaaiXet twc cuwVw/j This first title is suggested by tu>v 
fj.e\\6vTwv and by £w»/v aldiviov of 16 , and dcpOdpTu) also by £<u?)v 
alwviov : but the others are not specially connected with the con- 
text, and the whole is probably a semi-quotation from some Jew- 
ish liturgical formula; cf. Ps io 16 fiaaiXevo-ti Kvpios eis tov cuuiva 
kcu cis tov cuwva tov atwvos : Tob i^ 1 - 6 - 10 in prayer, ebXoyrjTos 
6 #€os 6 £,uiv eis tous attovas . . . vij/wo-are tov /3ao-iA.ea twv atwvwv 
. . . euAoyci tov /3acr. twv aluvtuv . . . cis 7rao"a? ras yevcas tov 

atwvos: Test. XII. Tatr., Reuben, c. 6; Clem. Rom i. 61 (also 
in a prayer), liturg. Jacobi, Brightman, E. and W. Lit., p. 51. 

d<f>0(£pTw, dopdTw] Cf. 6 16 , Jn i 18 : both common thoughts in 
Greek philosophical conceptions of God, and in later Jewish 
speculations ; cf. Wisd 12 1 ; Philo, de Abr. 75 f. ; Vita Mosis, ii. 
171 ; Josephus, Bell. Jud. vii. 346 ; Epicurus ap. Diog. Laert. x. 
123, t6v #eov £wov acfiOapTOv koli fj.aKa.pLov voixi%u>v (and Other exx. 
in Wetstein or Dibelius) ; cf. Clem. Rom. ii. 20, to fxovw ©e<3 

aopuiTU), iraTpl T17S aXrjOeias, tw l^aTrocrTtiXavTi tov o~u)Tr}pa 
kcu apyrjybv ttjs a(p6a.po-ia<z, 81 ov kcu ifpavepwaev ijplv ttjv a\rj8ciav 
kcu ttjv CTrovpaviov £<orjv, avTw y) 8o£a eh tous aiw^as twv alwvtov. 

liovu] Cf. 6 16 , Ro 16 27 . 1 Co 8 4 - 5 explains the emphasis 
on this. 

18-20. Paraphrase. This charge, then, I now in my absence 
place in your care, my own son Timothy ; recalling to mind the 
words of the Christian prophets which led me to choose you 
to help me in my work, that in the strength of these words 
you may carry on God's true campaign, holding fast yourself 
faith and a good conscience, for remember how some refused 
to listen to their conscience and so made shipwreck of their 
faith : of such are Hymenaeus and Alexander on whom I formally 
passed sentence, that they may learn under discipline not to 
speak against the truth. 

Compare the similar warning from the example of others in 
2 Ti i 15 . 


18. to«5tt)»' t^v rcapayyeXlav] i.e. the charge of 6 as expanded 

in n . 

•n-apaTiOefjiai] For the metaphor, cf. 2 Ti i 13 note. The 
middle shows that he still feels his own responsibility : he will 
still have to give account for that which had been entrusted to 
him, u . "That I may be faithful to my trust, I choose one 
whom I can trust," cf. 2 Ti 2 2 . 

•tiit¥0¥ Tifioflee] Cf. Ramsay on Gal 3 1 , p. 310; and notice 
how here, as in Phil 4 15 , the personal address to another follows 
directly on an account of his own work and of Christ's power to 
aid him. Is there a play on Timothy's name, " You whose 
name commits you to giving honour to God " ? cf. nS . . . dew 

' 17 
Tip.i] ". 

koto. Tas Trpoay. eirl ere irpo^TjTeias] " Either according to the 
previous " (cf. Heb 7 18 dfreT^cm 7rpoayou'o-7/s en-oA^s : Jos. Ant. xix. 
§ 298, oirep eV tous irpoayovaais yoa<£ais irapiSop.ev) " prophecies 
about thee" (cf. Ezek 37* irpotprfTevaov eirl to. ocrra Tavra) : or 
"according to the prophecies leading" (cf. 5 24 irpoayovaai eU 
KpLaiv : Mt 2 9 6 dcrTT/p irporjyev aurous) " me towards you." 

irpo<J>iiT6ias] Utterances by Christian prophets pointing out 
T.'s promise of useful work. The plural points to more than 
one such occasion, and may well include St. Paul's first choice of 

T. (cf. os ip.aprvpciTO vtto iw . . . aSe\(j>wv, Ac l6 2 , and the 

appeal to their first common work in 2 Ti 3 11 ), and his delegation 
of him for the special work at Ephesus ; cf. 4 14 , 2 Ti i 6 (of 
Timothy himself), Ac 13 1 " 3 (of St. Paul's delegation to new work), 
Acts 20 28 (of the presbyters at Ephesus ip.a<; to irvtvfia to ayiov 
t#€TO iinaKOTrovs) : SO Chrys. otc TrepieTep.e kclI ore e^tipordvct. Such 
prophecies may have come from Silas, who himself was a prophet, 
Acts 15 82 . 

Xva oTpareuT) . . . orpaTeiay] The metaphor is perhaps 
suggested here by tw /?ao-iA€t toW aiwvwv, the true campaign in 
the service of the true King. Cf. Maximus Tyr. xix. 4, (TTpaT-qyov 
p.iv t6i/ Oeov, OTpareiav Be t^v t,oir)v, ottXltyjv Se tov avdpuirov {dp. 
Wetstein). It was a common metaphor both in philosophical 
writers (cf. Plato, Apol. 28 D; Epict. iii. 24, cnparela. r'i.% ecrnv 6 
/Ji'os eKaarov : Seneca, Ep. 96, " Vivere, mi Lucili, militare est ") 
and in the mysteries, cf. Apuleius, Met. xi. 15, "da nomen sanctae 
huic militiae." " Enrol thyself in the sacred soldiery of Isis." 
These may have influenced the Christian use of it, but the thought 
here is more of an aggressive campaign against evil, and its use is 
Jewish ; cf. 4 Mac 9 23 tepav ko.1 evyevrj arpareiav (TTpaTevcraaOe 
irepl TTJs evcrefieias. " Omnis vita hominis militia (Job 7 1 ) 
imprimis hominis Christiani (2 Co io 4 ) maxime vero pastoris 
evangelici (1 Co 9 7 , 2 Ti 2 8 - 4 , Phil 2 25 )," Grotius. For interesting 
illustrations cf. Wetstein and Dibelius, ad toe. 

I. 18-20.] I TIMOTHY 19 

tt)!' KaXrjf CTTpaT.] icrrl yap Kal KaKrj arpartLa, ChrysostOm. 
but the contrast is rather with service of earthly kings. 

19. e\(t)v morie Kal ay. au ve i'or]o-i.y] Cf. 5 . The leader must 
have the qualities he is going to enforce. 

dya0T)i' ctuv€i8y]chi'] " Bonam erga dogmata consciemiam," Thd.- 
Mops. This may be included, but the thought is as wide as in 6 . 

rji'] i.e. a-vv€i8r]aLv, cf. 6 note. The teacher who does not prac- 
tise what he preaches will find his faith fail him. 

dirworafACi'Oi] Cf. Acts 13 46 , Prov 15 32 os airu)8eiTai 7rat8etav 
iavTOV : Hos 4 b 0Tt °~ v eirtyviao'iv a.7ru>o"w, Kayw awo-op-ai ere : Test. 
XII. Patr., Asher i. air<i}6ovp.evo<; to dyaObv Trpoa\ap.fSdi'eL to kolkov. 

The word implies violent effort, a kicking against the pricks ; 
cf. Bengel, " Invita recedit : semper dicit Noli me laedere " ; cf. 
aTrrjXyrjKOTes, Eph 4 19 . 

irepl TTjf iriariv] Perhaps (cf. note, p. 20) here " about the Chris- 
tian faith," i.e. they have not held to the central doctrines, cf. 6 ; 
and this is strongly supported by 6 21 , 2 Ti 2 18 irepl rr/v dXrjduav 
■^a-Toxqa-av, and perhaps by pr) fiXao-cprjpelv ( 20 ) ; but the connexion 

with iridTLV Kal dyaOrjv o-vvei8rj<riv and the Stress On 7UOTis 

throughout the whole chapter make the subjective meaning more 

ivavayf]vav] For the metaphor, cf. Orelli on Hor. Od. i. 14 ; 
Lighttoot on Ign. ad Polyc. c. 2 ; Cebetis Tabula, vavdyovaiv iv 
tw (3io) koI 7r\avC)VTaL : Philo, de Decal; c. 14, craAevovaiv . . . 
p.r]&eTroTe €is Xip.iva Karapai p.y]8' /3e/3aiws aXrjdeia 
8wdp.€voi. The Christian teacher must be good soldier and good 
sailor too. 

20. 2>v ivriv] So 2 Ti i 15 2 18 only: in each case with two 
nominatives, perhaps implying some common action of the two. 

'YfieVaios] cf. 2 Ti 2 18 . 'AXe^avSpos, perhaps the same as in 
2 Ti 4 14 , but not the same as the Jew Alexander, Ac 19 33 . 

ous Trapc'SwKa ™ laTcx^a] The origin of this phrase seems to 

lie in Job 2 6 €i7rev 8k 6 ki'/dios t<3 8ia(36\u> 'l8ou 7rapao7Sa>/u 0*01 

avrov' p.6vov rrjv if/v^i/v avTov 8ia<f>v\a£ov, where Satan is allowed 
to inflict any bodily suffering short of death on Job to test the 
sincerity of his religion. Hence it seems to have become a 
formal phrase for passing sentence, perhaps in the Jewish syna- 
gogue, certainly in the Christian Church ; and it is also possible 
that the use may have been influenced by, it is at least illus- 
trated by, the contemporary Pagan " execration-tablets " by which 
a person who had been wronged handed over the wrong-doer to 
the gods below, who inflicted bodily suffering upon him ; cf. Greek 
Papyri in the British Museutn, i. p. 75, ve.Kvhaip.ov, Trapa8c8a)p.i 
0-01 rbv Sciva . . . oVcos . . : so also of a form for exorcising a 
demon, Trapa8t8wp.i ere ets to p.i\av \do<; iv tous aTrcuXeiais, Pap. Paris. 
574. In the same way a ceremonial or moral offence against the 


God was punished by infliction of disease ; it was only healed 
after confession of the sin (Deissmann, Light from the East, 
p. 304 ; Sir W. Ramsay, ad loc, and in Expository Times, Oct.- 
Dec. 1898). 

The punishment implied is either (i) an exercise of the power 
of Jn 20 23 av tlv(j)V KpaTi/Te tus afiaprias, xeKpaTrji'Tai, carrying with 

it exclusion from the society, cf. 2 Th 3 14 , 1 Co 5 11 , 3 Jn 10 «V 
ttJs iKKkrjo-ias eKfidXkti : cf. Tert. Apol. 39 of the meetings of the 
Church for discipline, " judicatur magno cum pondere ... si quis 
ita deliquerit ut a communicatione orationis et conventus et 
omnis sancti commercii relegetur," so Chrys. i^efidWero tou koivov 
a-wSpiov: Theod. "abalienaviabecclesia"; or also(ii) the infliction 
of some bodily suffering : and the analogy of Job, of the Pagan 
tablets, of I Co II 30 Sia tovto iv vpXv ttoWoI d<rd(vel<; *ai appioo-roi 
teal Koip.(LvTa.i iKavoi (cf. Acts 5 1 " 11 13 11 ), makes it almost certain 
that this is included. 

•n-ape'SwKa] Seems to imply the action of the Apostle only, and 
if the infliction was only bodily suffering this would be probable, 
cf. Acts 13 11 ; but the action of the whole community is not 
excluded; there would be no need to repeat the whole details to 
Timothy, and it is included in 1 Co 5 3 " 5 where the language is 
equally individual, eya> . . . KeKpiKa . . . TrapaSovvat.. 

p,T) pXacr^T^fxeir] Might include the thought not to speak evil 
of us, cf. 6 4 , Tit 3 2 ; but as the warning is against false teaching, 
the main thought is not to speak evil of God, to misrepresent His 
truth, cf. 1 Co 15 15 . 


A careful account of the previous history of these words will 
be found in Burton, Galatians, I.C.C., pp. 475-85; cf. also 
Hort on 1 P i 21 . Here it will be sufficient to note the usages in 
these Epistles and to compare them with the earlier Pauline letters. 

mori9 = (a ) faithfulness, Tit 2 10 , and perhaps 1 Ti 2 15 5 11 , 
2 Ti 2 22 ; so Ro 3 3 , Gal 5 22 . In both groups the usage is rare. 

(b) faith as the essential quality of each Christian life, 
so passim : as in St. Paul ; but whereas St. Paul frequently 
adds a defining word — 'Irjo-ov Xpia-rov, 'I^o-oG, toC vlov tov 
dtoZ, eh Xptcrrov, ev tcu Kvpioy 'Irjn-ov, that is rare here, and 
the one phrase in which it occurs, -q 7ritrTis 17 ev Xp. 'lrja. 
(I 3 13 , II I 18 3 15 ), is slightly different : "the faith which is 
found in union with Christ." The object of the faith no 
longer needs defining. 

(c) the principle of faith as characteristic of Christi- 
anity, and as professed and taught : almost equal to "the 
Creed," "the doctrines believed"; but it is doubtful 

I. 20.] I TIMOTHY 21 

whether it is ever quite equivalent to that. The strongest 
instances of this use are : I 4 1 aTToa-Tya-ovTac tiv«s t»}s tti<t- 
tcws: 4 6 ivTpe<f>6fjLtvos tois Aoyois Trj<; iriaTfws: 5 8 rrji' ttl(ttiv 
rjpvrjTai: 6 10 aTreTrXavrjOTjaav awo T7]<; TrLaTews : 1 1 3 s ahoKipoi 

irefA tt]v ttlcttlv. More doubtful are I i 2 - 19 3 9 6 12 - 21 , II 4 7 


This scarcely ^oes beyond St. Paul's use of fj ttio-tis: 

cf. Ro 3 31 IO 8 to prjp-a Trjs 7rto-rcws o Krjpv(T(rop.ev : I2 6 Kara 
rr)i' avaXoyiay tt}s ttl(tt€0)<; : 1 Co 16 13 (TTTjKtTe iv rfj 7rurm : 
Gal I 23 evuyyeXi^eTai tyjv tt'kjtiv r/v wore liropdzi : 6 10 toi>s 
oi/cei'ovs tt}s 7TLaTeco<s : Ph I 27 o-uva^AowTes rrj ttlctt(.l tov 
evayyeXiov : Col 2 7 fiefiaiavpivot rfj ttl(tt(.\. Ka#ws eoiha\drjT(.. 

But the usage is more frequent here, and perhaps slightly 
more fixed. 
moT€u€ie = (a) to entrust, commit to, 2 Ti i 12 , and in passive 
I i 11 , Tit i 3 ; so Ro 3 2 , 1 Co 9 17 , Gal 2 7 , 1 Th 2*. 

(b) to believe, (i) c. dat. Tit 3 s 61 7re7rio-TcvK6T€s 0eu>: 
cf. Ro 4 3 ; (ii) eVt with dative, I i 16 , cf. Ro 9 s3 io 11 . 

Once in the passive, I 3 16 ; cf. 2 Th i 10 (si vera lectio). 
In the verb there is no difference in usage, 
mcn-os = (d) trustworthy: I i 12 - 15 3*- n 4 9 , II 2 2 - "• 13 , Tit 
i 6|,,9 3 8 ; so 10 times in St. Paul. 

(b) believing : I 4 3 rots 71-10-7-015 : 4 10 mo-rCiv : 4 12 twv 
7rio-Twv : 5 16 el tis Tna-Trj : 6 2 b,s , Tit i 6 (?). This also is 
found in St. Paul but much more rarely, Gal 3 9 , 2 Co 6 15 , 
and more doubtfully, Eph i 1 , Col i 2 ; but never ol ttkttoL 
= the believers, the Christian body : yet 01 a7rio-roi is a 
regular title for "unbelievers." 
Similarly — 

aina-Tuv: Ro 3 s only — probably "to be unbelieving," though 
perhaps "unfaithful." 
2 Ti 2 13 only — probably "to be unfaithful " 
amo-rid : St. Paul 4 times, Ro 3 s 4 20 n 20 - 23 — "want of 
faith," "state of unbelief." 
Past. Epp. i Ti i 13 only, in the same sense. 
ama-Tos : St. Paul 14 times, always " unbelievers," " heathen." 
Past. Epp. twice, 1 Ti 5 s "unbeliever," Tit i 15 
"wanting in faith." 
There is then a slight difference from the Pauline letters, and 
a rather greater fixity of meaning. 71-10-™? as the Christian quality 
is not felt to need a defining object : it approaches nearer to the 
meaning of a faith professed and taught; and 7tio-tos has become 
the natural antithesis to "heathen"; 01 tthttoi, a common term 
for the Christian Body. The difference is slight and conceivable 
within St. Paul's own lifetime and in his own writing, but it is 
noteworthy ; cf. also Parry, pp. ciii-cx. 


koAoSj dya^d?. 

The distinction between dyados, practically good, morally 
good (as opposed to «a/co9, 7roi'i/pds, <paGAos), and KaAds, restheti 
cally good, beautiful, good to men's eyes (as opposed to aio-xpo's), ' 
is still present in Hellenistic Greek, though the contrast had 
been blurred. It is there, cf Gen i 8ff - loev 6 6e6<; on KaXov : Mt 5 16 

07TWS iSwCTll' VfJLWV TO. KdXa (pyd : I P 2 12 €K TWV KaXwV Ipywl' 

€TTOiTTeuoi'Tes ! I Ti 5 25 Ta tpya to. KaXa Trp6or)\a : 6 12 ttjv KaXrjv 
ofLoXoyiav ivutnov 7roXXwv fxapTVpwv : Lk 8 15 KaXrj Kal uyaOrj. On 

the other hand, *aAo's appears as the antithesis of Kayo's (Heb 5 14 ), 

of 7rovr)po<; (Gen 2 9, 17 tov yivoHTKeiv KaXov Kal irovrjpov, Lv 27 10 , 

Is 5 20 , Mic 3 2 ) : and this is perhaps the most common usage 
of it in the N.T. It is clear then that the distinction cannot 
always be pressed : it may often be a mere desire for euphony 
or variety which decides the choice between the two words, 
except where there is a clear reference to the effect upon others. 

A comparison of the Pastoral Epistles with St. Paul's earlier 
letters is suggestive. St. Paul uses KaAds 16 times, /<aA<T,s 8, 
generally in the sense " practically " or " morally good " ; cf. 
/caXo7roi€U', 2 Th 3 13 ; KaTepyu£eo-#ai to KaXov, Ro 7 18 ; to KaXov 
ttol€lv, Ro 7 21 , 2 Co i 3 7 , Gal 6°, a phrase not found in Pastoral 
Epistles. (The sense "good to sight," kolXo. ivtatriov ttolvtidv 
avBpunrwv, Ro 12 17 , 2 Co 8 21 , is a quotation from Prov 3 4 .) He 
never uses KaXa Ipya. The Pastoral Epistles use KaAds 24 times, 
KaAws 4 ; cf. KaAoStSao-KaAos, Tit 2 3 , and the phrase KaXov Hpyov, 
KaXa epya, 7 times : often with reference to a deed as seen 
by Others, I 2 3 ivdnviov tov 6eov: 3 7 fiaprvpiav KaXrjv diro twc 
e^w0€i': 5 10 iv epyocs /caAois papTupoupeVr], 5 s5 6 12 {v. supra): at 
other times with the idea of excellence in contrast to other 
specimens of the same class, I i 18 ttjv koAt/v o-TpaTuav : 4 KaAds 

SiaKoros . . . tt}s KaXrjs SiSaaKaXias : 6 12 tov KaXov dywva tt/s 
mo-Tews : cf. II 4". There is no essential difference between 
the two writers, between to KaXov noieiv and tu KaXa. epya as 
descriptions of the Christian life, and Pastoral Epistles also use 
frequently tpyov ayadov, Ipya. dyaOd : the change of phraseology 
perhaps points to a different writer, but in any case is due to the 
growing sense in Christian teachers, so marked in 1 P, that the 
lives of Christians must be one of the chief means of winning 
the heathen to Christ: and this would be quite natural to St. 
Paul, always insistent on the duty of his converts to the heathen 
world, cf. Gal 6 10 , Ro 12 18 . 

" No one English word will express xaAds fully, the meaning 

1 Cf. Hort on Jas 2 7 ; " k<l\6s is what is good as seen, as making a direct 
impression on those who come in contact with it : contrast aya06s, which is 
good in result." 

I. 20.] I TIMOTHY 23 

changing with the context. Thus ' every creature of God is 
good' (1 Ti 4 4 ), i.e. free from defilement, fit for human use 
with the Creator's stamp upon it. 'The law is good' (1 Ti i 8 ), 
valuable, working a good purpose, an excellent instrument in a 
teacher's hand, if he use it in accordance with that purpose. 
One who desires a bishopric sets his heart on 'a good task' 
(1 Ti 3 1 ), on an honourable post that sets him before the world's 
eye, and that requires constant labour : he must rule his family 
with dignity and success (1 Ti 3 4 , cf. 5 17 ), he must have an ex- 
cellent reputaiion from those without (1 Ti 3 7 ) : the deacon who 
gains distinction ((caAws) acquires a distinguished position for 
higher service (1 Ti 3 13 , cf. 4 6 ). The widow must not only have 
taken part in every good work (epyw dyadw), but be well reported 
of by others for striking deeds of charity i(l/3yois kolXoIs, i Ti 5 10 ). 
The Christian soldier must endure hardness as a well-trained 
soldier (2 Ti 2 3 ), engaged in a noble struggle (tov kclXov dywva, 
1 Ti 6 12 , 2 Ti 4 7 ) in the most honourable of all campaigns (1 Ti 
i 18 ). The doctrine which he preaches is attractive, winning, 
with the glow of healthy life upon it (1 Ti 4 6 , Tit 2 1 ' 7 ). Timothy's 
public profession had something heroic about it, as had that of 
his master (tt)v KaXrjv bfxoXoyiav, 1 Ti 6 12 - 13 ) : Titus is to be an ex- 
ample of 'excellent' works (Tit 2 7 ) : the rich are not only to do 
good (ayadoepyelv), but to use their wealth for works of special 
excellence (eV epyois /caAois), to lay up a ' good ' foundation, one 
well-laid, a sound base for an eternal life (1 Ti 6 18 - 19 ). All 
members of the Christian family are to take the lead in honest, 
honourable occupations (Tit 3 14 ), for this is the duty of those 
who believe in God, who had purified unto Himself a peculiar 
people for the very purpose that they should be zealous for works 
that should rise above the level of the world and exhibit the 
beauty of holiness (£,rjXo)Tr)v kolXwv Zpytnv, Tit 2 14 , where Theo- 
doret paraphrases KaXS>v by tw Zira.Lvovp.£v<av epyuiv)." 1 

ii. l-iii. 16. 7Tcus §£6 Iv oiko) 6eov dvaa-TpicpecrOai, 3 15 . Regula- 
tions for the Church, as regards (a) public worship, the proper 
objects of prayer (2 1 " 7 ), and the position to be occupied by men 
and women (2 8 " 15 ); (a) qualifications for the officers: the bishop 
(3 1 " 7 ), deacons (3 s " 10, 12, 13 ), deaconesses ( n ). 

ii. 1-7. Paraphrase. I come to special regulations to guide 
you in your true work, and I want to urge first of all that Chris- 
tians should realize the universality of the message of the gospel. 
For this, prayers and thanksgivings are to be made in public 
worship for all mankind, and primarily for rulers and all in any 
position of authority, that so we may be able to live a quiet life 

1 From my St. Paul the Master Builder, p. 1 1 8. 


undisturbed by war and persecution, in a religious and serious 
spirit. Such prayer is true prayer and well-pleasing to God who 
has already saved us, but wishes all men to be saved too, and to 
reach a full knowledge of truth. 

For there is one and one only God, one and one only who 
stands between God and men, He who shares human nature, 
Christ Jesus, and He gave Himself in life and death for all man- 
kind, so bearing witness to God's great Love in God's own time; 
and it was to carry on that message that I myself was chosen as a 
herald, as a commissioned Apostle — yes, whatever my opponent 
may say, that is true : He did commission me — whose one task 
is to train Gentiles in the spirit of faith and in truth. 

The keyword of this section, as of the Epistle to the Romans, 
is universality, 7ras ({nrtp TrdvTiov dv$pu)TTiov . . . Trdvrwv tC>v iv 
virtpo^rj . . . iravTas dvOpunrovs . . . V7rep Trdvrtav). The em- 
phasis on it may be due to Gnostic tendencies to exclusiveness, 
laying undue stress on knowledge, and distinguishing between 
irvevfiaTLKOL and i//u^t«ot (cf. 6 2C , Jude 19 ), but vv. 5 " 7 suggest that 
it is rather due to Jewish exclusiveness. St. Paul would naturally 
be anxious that the Christian Church should not fail, as the Jews 
had done, in recognizing the universality of its mission. 

1. oue marks the return from a digression to the main subject, 
but perhaps suggesting a logical connexion. " Since, then, our 
one object is to produce love (i 5 ), and to carry the message of 
salvation to all sinners (i 15 ), there must be prayer for all men." 
Chrysostom has some excellent remarks upon the power of 
intercession to break down the barriers of prejudice. 

irpwToi' tt&vtwv] Because worship gives the note which action 
has to take up. 

Serjo-eis, irpoaeuxas, errcu'^eis, e"X > c ^ Phil 4 6 rrj npoo-tvxfj «at 
rrj 8e>](T€L p.(Ta eu^. Ta aiT-qfiara vpwv yi'wpi^taGw. For attempts 
to distinguish the three words, cf. Origen, irepl evxys, 14; 
Augustine, Ep. 50 (who refers them to distinct parts of the 
Liturgy), Bengel, and Bernard. Probably Ser/cms emphasizes the 
sense of need,7rpoo-tux<u the approach to God, £vTev£€is( = aiT^ara, 
Phil 4 6 ) the actual petition, but the distinction was not meant to 
be emphasized : the triad is a favourite feature in St. Paul's style. 
The connexion with 8 " 15 and the effect of this passage on the 
Liturgies makes it clear that the primary reference is to public 

worship, eV rrj Xarpeia rrj Ka6qp.epivr), Chrys. 

^Teu'^cis] Here and 4 5 only in N.T., also in 2 Mac 4 8 , and 
cf. 3 Mac 6 40 ivTV)(ia.v iirotyo-avro — from iiTvyxditiv, "to chance 
upon," then " to have an audience with a king," to have the good 
fortune to be admitted to an audience, so to present a petition ; 

II. 1, 2.] I TIMOTHY 25 

cf. Wisd 8 21 ivervxov t<S Kvpiw Kal £8er/6r)v avrov. errcv^is, a formal 
petition, especially to a king ; so frequently in Josephus, Diodorus, 
and the Papyri (Deissmann, B.S., pp. 121, 146). The thought 
of the King of the ages, i 17 , may still be in the writer's mind. 

cuxapicTTias] not in the technical usage = "Eucharists," "thanks- 
givings in offerings"; cf. Lightfoot on Clem. Rom. i. 41, and 
the careful examination of the use of the word by Dr. Swete 
(/. Th. St. iii. p. 161) and Dr. Hort {ib., p. 594); but "thanks- 
giving in words," thought of as part of common worship, cf. 1 Co 
14 16 . It will include gratitude for the past kindnesses of those 
for whom we pray (yirip tw irpoinrypyiAevwv dya#a>v, Theodoret), 
for God's past mercies to them (Chrys. quoting Mt 5 45 ) ; but 
more widely — for what they are, God's creatures, the object of 
His love, whom He wishes to be saved. Chrysostom says finely, 
to<T7rcp /coivos tis eVti TraTrjp tjJs oiKovfxivrjs airdo-qs 6 Uptvs' 7ravTwv 
TOivvv a^iov avrov Krj8ea0aL, Ka.0d.irep /cat 6 0eos, (o leparai. 

uirep -n&vruv avQpuiuov] There is no one for whom the 
Christian Church has not to pray ; no one for whose creation it 
has not to thank God ! Even for God's enemies its duty is "et 
quod facti sunt diligere et quod faciunt increpare : mores 
pravorum premere, vitse prodesse" (Gregory, Reg. Past. iii. c. 22). 
2. uirep pacriXeW] not "for the emperor" (as in 1 P 2 17 tov 
/3aai\4a Ti/uare), but "for emperors," the rule being meant to be 
universal and lasting; cf. Tert. Apol. 30, "pro omnibus impera- 
toribus " ; or perhaps " for kings," including local kings under the 
Empire; cf. Mk 13 9 on rjye/j.6v<av Kal fiaaiXewv. The duty is 
emphasized perhaps because of the Jewish tendency to rise 
against the Empire ("Judaeos assidue tumultuantes," Suet. 
CI. 25), which might pass over into the Christian Church under 
a misapprehension of Christian liberty (cf. 6 1 - 2 , 1 P 2 16 ), and 
under the stress of persecution and growing suspicion (Tac. 
Ann. xv. 44) ; but apart from this it would be natural to St. Paul 
with his pride in the Empire and its citizenship, Ro 13. 

Compare Jeremiah's advice to the Jews in Babylon, irpoo-ev£ao-6t 
■jrepl avTuiV 71730s xvpiov, on iv clprjvrj avTrj? ilp-qviq vp,wv, 2Q 7 and 
Bar I 11- 12 Trpoaev^ao-de vepl Trjs £o)f}<; N af3ovxo8ovoaop, Ezr 6 10 , 
1 Mac 7 33 . The later Jews prayed " for the peace of the kingdom, 
since but for fear thereof we had swallowed up each his neighbour 
alive," Pirke Aboth, iii. 2, and prayed for the emperor in their 
synagogues (Philo, ad Flaccu?n, p. 524), and offered sacrifices twice 
a day in Jerusalem for the emperor and people of Rome ; but this 
was stopped with the outbreak of the last Roman war, Jos. B.J. 
ii. 10 and 17 ; cf. Abrahams, Studies in Pharisaism, § viii. 

For a similar command, probably based on this, cf. Polyc. 
Ep. 12 (ubi v. Lightfoot); and for the substance of the prayer, 
Clem. Rom. i. 61, oU 80s, <vpu y vyuiav, dprjvrjv, 6p.6voiav, 


€V(TTa.6tiav, t£s to Suireiv avTov<; tt)v vtto (rov 8c8op.evr)v avrols 
t'lycjioviav aTrpoaKOTTws . . . tru, Kvpie, BievOvvov rr/v fiovXrjv avruv 
Kara to koXov ko.1 (vdpeaTOV h'wTnov <rov, oV(os SicVovtcs eV iip-qvyj 
koX TrpavTrjTt ticnfiws tt/v vtto <tov auTOis SeSopevrfv i^ovuiav tXctd 
aov Tvyxavu<riv : Tert. /?/#/. c. 30, " Vitam illis prolixam, imperium 
securum, domum tutam, exercitus fortes, senatum fidelem, popu- 
lum probum, orbem quietum"; ib. c. 39, "Oramus pro impera- 
toribus, pro ministeriis eorum ac potestatibus, pro statu saeculi, 
pro rerum quiete, pro mora finis." For the effect of this passage 
on the Liturgies, cf. the "Clementine" Liturgy, TrapaKaXov/xev 
ere, icvpic, VTrep rov /JacriAews kcu twv iv V7T€po^7j Ka\ iravros tow 
(TTpaTOTreSov, tva elprji'tvwvrai to. Trpbs 17/xas oVws iv r)o-v\ia Kal 
6p.ovoia StayovTcs . . . ooca^w/zev o~e (Brightman, Lit. E. and W. 
i. p. 21), the Liturgy of St. James (ib. p. 55), the Coptic Liturgy 
(ib. p. 168), the Prayer for "the whole state of Christ's Church " 
in the English Prayer Book. 

iv uTrepoxfl ("in sublimitate," Vulg. ; "in sublimi loco," Am- 
brosiaster) : here and 1 Co 2 1 only in N.T., but cf. Ro 13 1 
e£ov0*tais viT€p€)(ovcrai<; : 1 P 2 13 /SaaiXei is v-rrepi^ovTL : 2 Mac 3 11 . 

Ira k.t.X.] gives the result of the prayer. Pray for good 
government, for that will secure you a quiet life. Perhaps also (so 
Holtzmann) dependent on woulaOai, giving the result of ihe fact 
that they pray. Pray for the government, that the heathen may 
recognize your loyalty and you be left in peace. Cf. Tertullian, 
Apol. 39, and Seneca (Ep. Mor. 73), who defends philosophers 
from the charge of disloyalty to rulers, "e contrario nulli 
adversus eos gratiores sunt : nee immerito : nullis enim plus 
praestant quam quibus frui tranquillo otio licet." 

riptpov (here only in N.T.), Tjcruxioy, 1 P 3* only, but cf. 
r}o-vxa(et.v, 1 Th 4 11 ; para ^<n>x«'as, 2 Th 3 12 , a retired and quiet 
life (cf. M.M. s.v.), undisturbed by war or persecution from 
outside ; free from such tumults as that at Ephesus had been 
Acts 19 23 . 

iv euoefieia Kal crefiyoTTjTi] an interesting Hellenic counterpart 
to the Hebraic iv 6o-l6tt]ti /ecu SiKaiocruvr] of Lk i 75 . 

cuCTePeia] (" pietate," Vulg.) godliness ; the true reverence 
towards God which comes from knowledge ; characteristic of 
Past. Epp. here and 3 16 4 7 - 8 6 3 - 6 - 6 - n , 2 Ti 3 s , Tit. i 1 , but also in 
Acts and 2 P, and common in LXX and classical literature ; cf. 
Bernard and Trench, Syn. s.v. It may include a true respect 
and reverence for human superiors (cf. 5 4 ), and perhaps does so 

o-eu^ornTi ("castitate," Vulg. ; "sobrietate," Thdt. ; "honestate," 
Calvin), dignity, gravity, seriousness, the demeanour of the eiVe/?T;s 
towards men (cf. Tert. Prccscr. 43, "ubi metus in Deum, ibi 
gravitas honesta ") : " a grace and dignity not lent him from earth, 

II. 2-6.] I TIMOTHY 27 

but which he owes to that higher citizenship which is also his : 
being one who inspires not respect only, but reverence and 
worship," Trench, JV. T. Syn. s.v. ; cf. IcpoTrpeTrel';, Tit 2 s note ; 
Clem. Alex. Strom, vii. 35, o-e/ivos Sid t?)v eVt to 9a.ov eVio-Tpoc/^e. 

3. touto] "Such prayer for all mankind," or "such a life" 
(so Pelagius, von Soden) : either will help on God's purpose 
and help to save men. Cf. Euseb. H.E. iv. 7, who speaks of the 
Church as to o~ep.vbv /cat etAiKptves nal iXtvOepiov to tc cruicfapov /cat 
Kadapbv t^s Ivdiov ttoXltuols kcu cptAocrocptas eis airav yevos EAAryi/wv 
re KO.X fiapfidpwv 6nroo-Ti\.j3ovo-a. 

KaXof] Cf. additional note, p. 22. Here it may be joined 
closely with cbrdSe/a-ov, "good in God's sight," or perhaps its 
reference is manward. This will win men and please God. Cf. 
2 Co 8 21 ; Clem. Rom. i. 7, /caAov /cat TrpocrStKTOv evtairiov toi) 
TroirjaavTOs t;/a£s. 

4. irai'Tas] With slight antithesis to 17/u.wv : he who has saved 
us, 3 including the chief of sinners (i 15 ), wills to save all, cf. 4 10 , 
Wisd 16 7 8ta o-e tov 7ravTwv aorrrjpa. There is no limitation, such 
as Tertullian, "eorum quos adoptavit" (de Or. 4); Augustine, 
"omnes prasdestinati, quia omne genus hominum in eis est" 
(de corr. et gr. 44). His will to save is as wide as His will to 
create and to protect, "omnes vult salvari quia et omnes tuetur" 
(Thd.-Mops. ad loc, with Swete's note) ; cf. Ezek 18 23 , Wisd i 13 ' 16 , 
Ko 5 18 , and Epict. iii. 24. 2, Oeov os 7raj'Tas dv#pwVous iirl to 
(iSaifiovclv, art to tvo-raOfiv iiroirjaev. But Bengel's non coguntur 
and Ambros. si et ipsi velint add the necessary limitation to the 
working of God's will ; cf. Herm. Sim. viii. 1 ; Hooker, Eccl. Pol 

v * 49- 

em'Yfcjo-ii'] Favourite word with St. Paul (10 times; seeArmitage 

Robinson on Eph., detached note) ; elsewhere Heb. (1), 2 P (4). 

eiriyy- dXrjGeias] Past. Epp. only 2 Ti 2 25 3 7 , Tit i 1 , but eViy. 
rrj<; akrjO., Heb io 26 . It has become a techn-cal term for the 
intellectual acceptance of Christianity ; cf. /zeTavacrras «ts aXyOeiav 
of the proselyte to Judaism, Philo, de Spec. Leg. 4. 178 (Dibelius), 
kolvovos ets iiriyvwcnv t^s a\r]6eia<s of philosophy, Epict. II. XX. 2 I 
(M.M. s.v.). 

5-7. 6 ' 6 expand a-wOr/vat, 7 expands eis liriyv. d\rj6. iXOetv. 

5. ets] Correlative to TrdvTas. One, and therefore with a will 
for all mankind, for Gentile as well as Jew ; cf. Ro 3 29 - 30 77 

'IovSat'wv 6 0eos p.6vov ; ov^i /cat eft'Sv ; vai, kcu e#va>v, enrep ets 6 ^eos, 

Eph 3 4 " 6 and Is 45 20 " 23 . There may also be an implied antithesis 
"one and not many"(cf. 1 Co 8 4 ' 6 ). 

cts Kal fieaiTtis] one mediator able to represent both God and 
man entirely (cf. Iren. iv. 20, "hominibus ostendens Deum, Deo 
autem exhibens hominem"), again with an implied antithesis, one 
and not more : not Moses any longer (Gal 3 19 ; Philo, de Vita 


}f<>StS, ii. 1 66, ola /x€(TiTr]<; kgu SiaAAaKTTjs . . . Tas virtfi ov tOvov* 
iKeatas kui Aims eVoieiTo), not any Jewish High Priest (Heb 8 6 - 
'•'• 15 i2 2 '), nor any angel (Col 2 18 , Heb 2 ,G ; Test. XII Tatr., 

Dan, C. 6, cyyi£«Te to> &€<?> Knl tw dyye'Aw tw TrapniTov/xivu) v/xds - on 

OUTr>S €(TTl /Z€0"<.TJ/S 0€OU Kttl avOpiOTTUW €7Tt T^S (lprjVl]<i 'lvparjX : Philo, 

/?/<£/. Antiq. xxxii. 14), nor any being in the mysteries intermediate 
between God and the creation, like Mithras (Cumont, Les mys- 
teres de Mithra*, pp. 129, 139), nor any Gnostic aeon intermediate 
between God and the world. Philo had regarded the Word of 
God as occupying such an intermediate position ; cf. Quis return 
div. /iter. 42, where He is described as ikc't^s toO dvrjrov and 
rrptcrfievTrjS rov rj-ye/xovos 717)05 to virrjKoov. Christ JeSUS has em 

bodied this function in a human life. 

aVSpwn-os] The Divine side is assumed: the human only 
mentioned, as he is thinking of the gift given in the human life, 
a true man, no angel, no mere phantom appearance, but one 
living a human historic life, a " second Adam," " The Son of man." 
There is much to be said for Lachmann's punctuation, putting 
the comma after dV6y)w7ros. For there is one only God, one only 
man too, representative of God and man, viz. Christ Jesus. 

6. 6 Sous eauToe] prob. a reminiscence of the Lord's own saying, 

Mk IO 45 Sovvai ttjv ij/v\r]v avrnv XvTpov o.vt\ ttoWwv : cf. Tit 2 14 note. 

dm'XuTpoe] Here only in N.T. : in Ps 48° it is an alternative 
rendering for t»/v Tifxrjv tt}s Atrrpwo-e'ws ( Field, Hexaftla), a vicarious 
ransom: for the form, cf. avTipiaOia, Ro i 27 , 2 Co 6 13 ; for the 
thought, Tit 2 14 note, and cf. Eleazar's prayer that the sacrifice of 
his own life may save his nation, nadapcnov avrwv Troi-qaov to ip.6v 
alp.a Kal dvTLif/v^ov auTaiv Ad/?€ tt)v ip.rjv i{/v)(T]v, 4 Mac 6 29 . The^e 
verses 6 - 6 may be quoted from some formula (Dibelius), cf. 
1 Co 8 6 , but they spring naturally out of the context. 

t6 fiap-rupioy] ace. in apposition to the preceding statement, cf. 
Ro 12 1 , 2 Th i 5 : the great truth revealed in God's own time. 
Put by whom? It may include the whole chain of witnesses, (a) 
The law and the prophets pointing to it, cf. Ro 3 21 p.apTvpovfi(vrj v-no 
rov v6p.ov Kit tu)i' irpcxprjTMv, and 1 P 1 11 . (&) The witness ol the 
Lord Himself in His Life (cf. 6 13 and John 18 37 Iva fiapTvpr'iiTo> rfj 
a\r)diLa and 1 P i 11 . "Sanctae vitas dedit exemplum," Pelagius), 
His passion (p-aprvpiov to 7rd0os, Chrys.), and resurrection ("tem- 
pore quo resurrexit,"Thd.). {c) The witness which the writer and 
all future teachers have to give, cf. 1 Co 1^2 Th i 10 . "This is the 
fact to which we are to bear our testimony, as opportunities present 
themselves," Twentieth Century N.T. "The outlook is to the 
future of the Church," Bernard. This suits the context, ordering 
prayers for all men that so the message of salvation may reach to 
all : and this will need time. But Tit i 8 makes any reference to 
the future doubtful. 

II. 6, 7.] I TIMOTHY 29 

Kcupols ISiois, cf. Tit i 3 note. 

7. els o eTe'Orji'] 2 Ti i 11 , and supra, i 13 note. 

Krjpu^] The word was associated not only with the games 
(1 Co 9 27 ) but also with the Eleusinian mysteries; cf. tov 'EAeu- 
(Tiviov lepov Krjpv$, Philostratus, Vit. Soph. ii. 33, and other 
instances, ap. M.M. s.v. 

d\T]8. Xiyw] Ro 9 1 , 2 Co ii 31 , Gal i 20 . The language of one 
whose authority and whose truthfulness have been attacked in 
the past, and who is still face to face with opposition. 

iv morei (cf. i 2 ) ieal dXrjGeia] The sphere and the subjects in 
which he teaches ; corresponding to the two purposes of God 
in 4 , faith in salvation and knowledge of Him. It may include 
his own loyalty (i 12 ) and truthfulness (cf. ak-qOdav Xc'yw) (so 
Wohlenberg) ; but only by implication. 

8-15. Paraphrase. The second point which I wish to stress 
is the spirit and order of public prayer. Men when they pray 
to God must lay aside all personal ill-will and irritation ; women 
must dress quietly, for they are engaged in a sacred task, and 
their true adorning is that of good works, not of costly jewels 
and dress. The women should listen to the teaching quietly and 
submissively : I do not allow a woman to be herself a teacher, 
nor to dictate to men ; and that for two reasons. The order of 
creation suggests man's taking the lead, first Adam, then Eve. 
The history of the Fall suggests women's weakness : it was not 
Adam but Eve who was deceived and so fell. Yet God's will to 
save all men extends to her : 

"A child from woman's seed to spring 
Shall saving to all women bring." 

That is a true saying; but to be saved they must continue 
faithful, loving, holy, and self-controlled. 

The whole section refers primarily only to public prayer 
(though it appeals at times to principles that have a wider 
application) ; this is clear (a) from its position between 1-8 and 
3I- 13 . (b) From the analogy of 1 Co ir 2 " 16 14 34 - 36 which were 
apparently in the writer's mind, (c) From its influence on 
subsequent Church orders ; cf. Canon. Hippol. §§ 81-88, 
" mulier libera ne veniat veste variegata in ecclesiam . . . neve 
omnino loquantur in ecclesia quia est domus Dei." Test. Dotn. 
Nostri, ii. 4 ; Const. Apost. iii. 6 ; cf. Clem. Alex. Peed, iii. n, l-rfi 
rrjv iKKX-rjaiav aKTeov ttjv ywaiKa kcu tov avSpa larroXto-fxivov<i Koo-fiiws. 
(d) Perhaps from the analogy of heathen priestesses ; cf. 10 note. 

The purpose of the section is twofold, (a) Primarily, to y 
secure a right spirit and character in those who pray, both 
men and women ; cf. *• 9 - 10 - 15 . (b) To check a freedom which 


women were claiming to teach at the meeting. Nothing is men 
tioned about women prophesying, which was always exceptional, 
and the writer is laying down general rules. It is less clear 
whether any rule is laid down as to leading the prayers. This is 
not stated, and the language is consistent (i) with the theory that 
there was no leader, but that all prayed in silence until the Spirit 
moved some one, man or woman, to pray aloud (cf. Ramsay, 
Exp., Sept. 1909) : (ii) with the theory that the eVi'o- kotos acted 
as leader, the rest joining in with the Amen (1 Co 14 16 ). This 
is more consistent with L 2 supra, and 3 1 ' 7 . 

8. pou'Xoficu (cf. 5 14 , Tit 3 s , Phil i 12 ) o&V, parallel to \ but 
perhaps suggesting a slight connexion with the last paragraph. 
The thought of God's universal salvation is still in his mind, 
a-w6rjvai, 4 ; aw6y](T€Tai, 15 , and the ideal of the true Christian life : 
cf. 2 with 9 " n . 

iv irarn, tottw] " Wherever you meet for public worship " j or 
more probably the writer means the rule to be universal for all 
churches under his influence, rravrC being an echo of -n-avra^ ( 4 ), 
Tvavroiv ( 6 ) ; cf. I Co I 2 7 17 1 4 s3 ws eV 7rdo-ais reus cVxAt/o-icu? tw^ 
dyiW. There is possibly a reminiscence of Mai i u iv iram tottw 

8vfJ.iafx.a Trpo(rd.y€Tai . . . kclI OvaCa KaOapii' Siori p-iya. to 6i">p.d fxov it 
rots eQvecriv, which was a favourite quotation in 2nd century 
writers, as pointing to the universal offering of the Eucharist ; cf. 
Justin, Dial. 41 and 117; Iren. iv. 17 ; so Uidache, c. 14, where it 
is given as a reason why no one who has a quarrel with another 
should join in the Eucharistic sacrifice. 

eiraipoKTas x e ^P as ] Standing to pray, as was customary with 
pagans and Jews alike, and common with the early Christians ; 
cf. Diet. Chr. Antiq., s.v. Oranti. For Greek and Roman illustra- 
tions, cf. Wetstein, Wohlenberg, and Deissmann, L.A.E., p. 421. 

60-ious x^pas] Combines the idea of moral purity (" quaa Sanctis 
operibus ministraverint," Origen on Ro 6 ; cf. Job 16 17 IxIikov S« 
oi>8ev T)v iv \epcrL fxov, ei>xv <$e fxov nadapd : Ps 24*, Is I 15, 16 , Jas 4 8 ; 
Clem. Rom. i. 29, iv oo-lottjtl yj/v^rj^ dyyas Kat d/xidvTous X € 'P a ? 

atpoi/T«s) with that of consecration, hands like those of consecrated 
priests, performing the tasks of holy priesthood (1 P 2 9 ). It is 
partly explained by x^P^ opyv* KC " SiaAoy. They must have 
the consecration of Christian Love, if they are to pray aright. 
Cf. Tert. Apol. 30, " manibus expansis quia innocuis " ; De Orat. 
14, " manus expandimus, de dominica passione modulati," in 
imitation of the Cross. It is difficult to imagine after Our Lord's 
teaching that Christians had taken over the Jewish practice of 
ceremonial ablutions. So Ramsay, ubi s , but cf. Hippol. Canon, 
§ 241, "Christianus lavet manus omni tempore quo orat." 

Xwpls opyrjs (cf. Mt 5 23 -- 5 6 14 - 15 ), Kal SiaXoyifffiou, probably "dis- 
puting " (" disceptatione," Vulg.) ; cf. Phil 2 14 x^p\% yoyyvo-fiiov koi 

II. 8-10.] I TIMOTHY 31 

SiaA.oyiayi.wi/ : Mk 7 21 01 oiaAoyicruoi ol kclkoi, evil thoughts against 
one's neighbour, the chief of the things which really pollute. 
Did. 14, 7ras c^wy T7]v ap.(pif3o\iav ucrot tov kraipov avrov firj crvveX.- 
Oerw vjaiv, eus SiaWaywaiv. Tertull. De Or. 11. 12. Thd. and 
I'hdt. interpret it as " doubt," "hesitation " (cf. Mk n 23 , Jas i 6 , 
Herm. Maud. ix. 1) ; with right feeling to man and God, with 
love and faith (cf. 15 and i 14 ) ; but the idea of doubt is alien to 
the context, which emphasizes man's relation to his fellow-men. 

8-15. This section deals only with the dress and conduct of 
women at the meetings ; but compare the general relation of 
husband to wife in 1 P 3 1 " 8 , which appears to be influenced 
by the passage; cf. also Cyprian, De Hab. Virg., where an a 
fortiori argument is drawn from this passage to the ordinary 
dress of virgins, and Tertull. De cultu Fern., where it is used as 
an argument for the ordinary dress of all Christian women, who 
may have to face martyrdom at any moment. Compare also the 
contrast between Virtue, KeKoa-p.rjfievrjv to 0-w/i.a Ka6apoTt]Ti, ra 
8e ofjifxara alSol, to Se o-^/xa o-axppoirvvr], i(r6rJTi. Se XevKr/, and Vice, 
K€KaXX<j}TrL(Tfj.evrjv to p.ev XP^H- - • • • ^6^ra 8' i£ 17s av /xa\i(rTa rj 
wpa SiaAa/ATi-oi, in the story of Prodicus, Xen. Mem. ii. 1. 

9. uo-auTug] Perhaps carries on to women all that has been 
said about men (Chrys., Ramsay), but not necessarily (cf. 3 s - u , 
Tit 2 s - 6 ), and it does not affect the construction, which is fiov\ 

KaTdoroXfj] Possibly "demeanour," " deportment" (Ambros., 
Dibelius, M.M. s.v.) ; but as this is expressed in /u.€t<x . . . 
o-uKppocrvvris, more probably " dress," which is implied by the 
contrast pvq . . . TroAuTcAei : cf. Is 61 3 ; Clem. Alex. Peed. iii. 11, 
quoted above. 

alSous] " That shamefastness which shrinks from overpassing 
the limits of womanly reserve and modesty " ; icai o-u4>p., " that 
habitual inner self-government with its constant rein on all the 
passions and desires which would hinder temptation from arising, 
or at all events arising in such strength as should overbear the 
checks and barriers which cuows opposed to it." Trench, Syn. s.v.; 
cf. Tert. de C. Fern. ii. 8, " ubi Deus, ibi pudicitia, ibi gravitas, 
adjutrix et socia ejus." For its meaning as applied to different 
ages and sexes, cf. additional note, p. 148. 

iroXuTeXei] Cf. 1 P 3 4 , which seems suggested by this place. 

10. <hra Y Y. (cf. 6 21 , Wisd 2 12 ) : Oeoo-epeiac (" promittentes 
castitatem," O.L. ; " pietatem," Vulg. Ambros. ; " professing god- 
liness," R.V., A.V. ; but better, " promittentibus Deum colere," 
Thd., " that professe the worshippynge of God," Tyndale), refers 
to their action in coming to the Church's worship. There is per- 
haps a comparison with heathen priestesses ; cf. 60-tous x € '/° as > 8 5 
UpoTrpeirei<;, Tit 2 s , and an inscription describing the dress of the 


itfiai ywcuices it) the mysteries, /at) i^tna firjfa/ua xpvo-ia . . . uiySi 
iTis- ;|»\iis iiru7rt7r\€y/x£i'as-. Dittenberg, SylL ii." 653 (quoted l>\ 
Dibelius) ; cf. Tert de C. F, ii. 12, "sacerdotes pudicitiae." 

hi" tpywi' uyftOwi'l " Etiam sine sernioiie," Bengel : prob. with 
KOcrfMiv, cf. lit 2 10 , Clem. Rom. i. 33, iv t/>yois Ayodois . . . 
iico<rfir}dtl<rav, not with tVuyyeWo/AeYuis : cf. Tert. r/r- ( '. /•'. ii. 1^ 

for a rhetorical expansion of this passage, and Hipp. Canons 
82-87, " Neque enim tu qiue pretiosorum lapidum et tnargari 
tarum ornamentis super his tain pulchra es ut ilia qua? sola Datura 
et bonitate splendet.'' 

11-15. Still dealing directly with conduct at the meetings; 
but the word ti7ror(iy»/ suggests a reference to the whole relation 
of wife to husband, cf. Kph 5 s3 The language is coloured 
throughout hy den 2 and 3: ivXdtrd^ — ftrXacrce, Gen 2 1 ; Tfira- 
Ti'/Oii = i]Tra.Tij(T€, 3 13 ; Tenvoyovia = Tt£eis TtVcru, ^"'. 

11. iv TTao-T] uiTOTayrj] " Submission to constituted authority, 
i.e. the officials and regulations of the Church," Ramsay, though 
■jrdtrt] suggests also " their husbands." 

12. auOei-Teie] The earliest known use of the word, common in 
late Greek (from uiV'-tYr?/?, a self-actor, an independent actor, so 
in vulgar Greek = Sctnronjs (cf. Rutherford, The Aew PArynicAus, 
§ d6 ; Nageli, p. 49; Moulton and Milligan, s.v.), "to lord it 
over," " to dictate to," the antithesis of avnSs o-ov Kvpuvan, 
Gen 3 16 . 

13. ({j(i7raTr)8clcra, : SO 2 Co 1 1 8 l$iiTrdrr]crev, though the LXX 
has I'lTTaTijirtw 

14. CI' 2 Co ii 3 ; and for the Jewish tradition that Eve was 
tempted by the serpent to infidelity, cf. Thackeray, The Relation 
of St. Paul to Contemporary Jewish Thought, pp. 50-57 ; for 
the fewish attitude to women, Taylor, Sayings of (he Jewish 
/■others, i. 5 note ; and for the connexion of live with trans- 
gression and death, Ecclus 25' J4 utto yuraiKos dp\ii ipaprCas mu St' 
avriji' airouvrjcTKOfUV ?rurT€s. 

ycyoi'cr — passed into and has remained in the position of 

aw8r)atTaiJ taking up awOtjvui, * &fUipT<ti\ov$ o-unrai, I 15 ; shall 
be spiritually saved. 

cVi ti'is (" that of Gen 3 ie ," or more technically " the great ") 
TeKvoyok-ias. Two interpretations seem possible, (a) " By hear- 
ing children," by that child-bearing which was once a thing of 
sorrow but now has become a source of salvation ; not by 
spiritual activities at the meetings, but by motherhood and the 
quiet duties of home (cf. 5 14 ); including perhaps (so Chrys ) tin- 
rearing of children (cf. 5 10 ei Iracvorpo^^arcv, and llippol. Canon 
82, " Neve det infantes quos pepeiit nutrieibus sed ipsa sola eos 
nutriat . . . neve adnunistrationem familiar negligat "), and all 

II. 14, 15.] I TIMOTHY 33 

maternal instincts, which become the saving of a woman from 
self and draw out her soul both to others and to God ; cf. Ramsay, 
Expositor, 1909, pp. 339-47. If so, there may be an implied 
protest against those who depreciated marriage, \ A . 

(/>) By the great child bearing, by that which has produced 
the Saviour, the child-bearing of Mary, which has undone the 
work of Eve. This use of the article is very common in the 
Past. Epp. ; cf. to [jivcrTrjpiov, rj irians, r} SiSao-KaAc'u (p. xvi) : for the 
thought, cf. Ign. ad Eph. 19, ZXaOev t6v dp^ovra tov alwvos tovtov 
fj Trapdevia Maptas /cat 6 toketos ciuttjs, 6fx.oio)<; kcu 6 #aearos tov 
xvpiov, Iren. Hcer. v. 19, "si ea inobedierat Deo, sed haec suasa est 
obedire Deo, uti Virginis Evce virgo Maria fieret advocata, et 
quemadmodum adstrictum est morti genus humanum per 
virginem, salvetur per virginem " : cf. ibid. 3. 22; Prcedic. 
Apostolica, c. 33; Justin, Dial. c. 100; Tert. de Came, xli. 
c. 1 7 : cf. the stress on a.vdpo>iros, sup. 6 , and Gal 4* yevoptvov ck 


(0) is probably right. It was given by some anonymous 
commentator (Cramer, Catena, vii. 22), and has been revived by 
Ellicott, von Soden, and Wohlenberg. Indirectly it reflects a 
glory upon all child-bearing, which has become the channel of 
the Salvation of the world. 

The nominative to crcoGrjacTcu is perhaps Eua(cf. Irenaeus, u.s.), 
or r) yvvrj ; Eve as the representative of women. 

15. lav \izlv(o<nv] Who ? not " the children " (Chrys., Jerome), 
which is too far from the context, but ywcuVes, from 9 - 10 ; or 
possibly " husband and wife," suggested by 12 " 14 ; cf. 1 P 3 7 
(TvyK\r]povop.Qi ^dpiTos £,<»r]s. 

morei kcu dy.] The essential Christian virtues, cf. 2 Th 2 13 ; 
but possibly ttiWci suggests marital fidelity ; cf. tovs iv ydp.w 
8ia<f>vX.a£ov iv -nia-rd, Brightman, Lit. E. and IV., p. 26. dy. jxctci 
o-w<J>p. the right relation between husband and wife, cf. 1 Th 4 7 , 
and a rhetorical amplification of the section in Clem. Horn. 
Xlll. 16—18, 2 1, aweppova yvvaiKa «X €tl/ GiX.<av kolI avTo? 

tticttos 6 \6yos] Cf. Tit 3 s note ; and for the variant 6.v6pu>Trivo<;, 
Introd., p. xxxvi. The words perhaps refer to the preceding 
statement (so Chrys., Holtzmann, W.-H., Hillard), as the other 
faithful sayings deal with salvation. If so, it is still uncertain 
how much of that sentence is included in the quotation ; prob- 
ably only (xwOrjcrtTai Se 8td t^s Tt/cyoyoi'id?. I would suggest 

that the previous words, 'ASo/a yap . . . yiyove, are a quotation 
from some Jewish Apocrypha, scornful of women (this would 
make the perfect tense yiyove more natural), which is answered 
by quoting a well-known Christian saying about the effect of the 
Incarnation on women. 


But most editors connect the words with the following 

iii. 1-13. The officials of the Church : (a) the overseer, the 
bishop ( w ) ; (b) ministers, deacons ( 8 -'°) ; (c) deaconesses, ( u ) ; 
(d) the deacons as possible candidates for higher office ( 12 - ls ). 

The transition is abrupt in form (cf. 5 1 6 17 ), but the writer's 
mind passes naturally from the members of the community to 
those who act as officials and either as leaders or assistants 
regulate their worship and their life. In each case little is said of 
their duties, a knowledge of which is assumed ; but, as in c. 2, the 
whole stress is on character, on the moral and intellectual quali- 
fications for office. Ka\d? ( L 4 - 7 - 12 - 13 ) strikes the note of the 
whole section. 

Paraphrase. A third point on which I wish to lay stress is the 
character of those who hold any official position : and, first, for the 
leader of the worship, the bishop. You know the common saying : 

" He who would play a leader's part 
On noble task has set his heart." 

It is right, then, to wish for such a post ; but such a noble 
task requires a character above reproach. So the bishop must 
not fall behind a high Christian morality in respect of marriage 
or sobriety, or self-control and dignity ; and he must have special 
qualifications : he must be ready to welcome guests from other 
Churches, and able to teach in the assemblies : in dealing with 
m ambers of the Church he must not be overbearing or hasty, but 
large-hearted, ready to make allowances, peace-loving : he must 
have no love of riches, as he has to control the finances : his 
power of ruling must be tested by his power of ruling his own 
household. Has that been a " noble task " with him ? has he 
kept his own children obedient to discipline with true dignity? if 
not, how will he be able to take charge of a Church ot God's? 
Moreover, he must not be a recent convert ; for, if so, his head 
may quickly be turned and the devil be able to bring accusations 
against him. Lastly, he must be well thought of by those outside 
the Christian body : otherwise he will easily cause scandal, and the 
devil will snare him to his ruin. 

Then for assistants, deacons : they must have a character 
that inspires respect : their word must be trustworthy : they must 
not say one thing to one person, another to another: they must 
not be given to excess in wine: they must be above making 
money in unworthy ways : they must hold the truths of the 
gospel with a conscience free from stain. Yes, and like the 
leaders, they must be tested first, and only be admitted as deacons 
if no charge can be sustained against them. 

Much the same has to be said about deaconesses : their 

III. 1.] I TIMOTHY 35 

character must inspire respect : they must not be gossips and 
scandal-mongers : they must be sober : entirely trustworthy. 

There is another point about assistants (deacons), they may 
come to be leaders (bishops) : so in choosing them, see that they 
have the same qualifications about marriage and the discipline 
over their own families which are required for bishops. For 
those who have treated the diaconate as a noble task win for 
themselves another noble position and preach with full assurance 
in the faith which is in Christ Jesus. Cf. Tit i 5 " 9 ; St. Chrysostom, 
De Sacerdotio, ed. Nairn, pp. xxvi-xxviii. 

1. iticttos 6 \6yos] cf. 2 15 note. If these words apply to the 
following paragraph, the variant avdpJiTrivo<; would seem more 
appropriate, the writer quoting a saying applicable to all over- 
seership in human life ("allgemeinmenschlich," Wohlenberg) and 
applying it to the Christian Church. Deissmann (B. St., p. 230), 
shows that €7rio-/co7ros was used as a pre-Christian religious title. 

dpeyeTcu] "Aspires to," in no bad sense; but Clem. Rom. i. c. 44 
shows how early a wrong ambition set in and was foreseen by 
the Apostles. 

KaXou] " prseclarum " (Calvin) : which ought to attract the world 
to Christ ; and therefore difficult, xaAe7r<i to. /caXa. 

epyoi'] " negotium, non otium," Bengel, cf. 2 Ti 4 5 , 1 Th 5 13 
8ta to tpyov avraiv, and for failure in such a task, Ac 15 38 fir) 
crvve\66iTa auTois eis to epyov. 

2-8. Qualifications for the imo-KOTros. For the relation of the 
€7rio-K07ros to the presbyters, v. Introd., p. xix. The singular here 
may imply that there was only one in the community, or it may be 
limited by the context — the e7rux/<o7ros who is leading the worship. 
No definition is given of his duties, but the following are implied : 
(a) Presiding (irpoiaTao-dai, eirifieXeiaBaL), i.e. (i) exercising disci- 
pline, cf. the analogy of the family ( 6 ) ; (ii) (arising from the 
context) presiding at worship, (b) Teaching, SioWriKov ( 2 ). (c) 
Control of the finances, acptXapyvpov ( 3 ). (d) Representing the com- 
munity to Christians elsewhere (cpiX6£evov ( 2 )) and to the world 
outside ( 7 ). 

These qualifications form guidance for "the scrutiny of 
candidates " who desire the office (Ramsay) : they are partly 
the ordinary moral qualities which would be respected in a lay- 
man, and failure in which would imply censure ; partly those which 
would be required for his special position. "To St. Paul the 
representative character of those who had oversight in the 
Ecclesia, their conspicuous embodiment of what the Ecclesia 
itself was meant to show itself, was more important than any acts 
or teachings by which their oversight could be exercised" (Hon). 
Hence it scarcely gives the ideal of a bishop, but the necessary 
requirements (so Chrys. arvfifierprffiivrfv elinv dpirrfv, ovk eKeivrjv 


tt)v av<D, rrjy vif/rjXyv). A comparison with Tit i 6 " 9 shows how the 
list of moral qualifications was getting stereotyped : Bernard com- 
pares the requirements for the Stoic wise man, who was to be a 
married man ( 2 ), uVvepos ( 6 ), temperate in wine ( 2 ), and to combine 
<Ta>4>po<Tvvq with Koo-fj.ioT7]<;. Diog. Laert. vii. 116-26. Wetstein 
and Dibelius (q.v.) quote the close analogy of the requirements 
for the choice of a general, who was to be <rw<ppova, iyKpa.Tr}, 
vrjirTrjv . . . d(f>L\a.pyvpou, a\v tu^t; koX varepa Tra.L8u>v, Ikolvov Xiyeiy, 
tvBo$ov: Onosander, De Imperatorum Officio, c. 1 (_/?. ^.55 B.C.). 
Either of such lists may have been known to our writer, but they 
are all probably independent. 

2. df€Tri'\T]irTOf (5 7 6 14 ; cf. M.M. s.v.) perhaps slightly stronger 
than dvey«\r;Tos, Tit i 6 . That would imply more definite charges 
(KaTrjyopia, ib.) : this, any criticism or censure. It is explained 
by the following words : Not liable to criticism as he would be 
if he failed in any of these qualities. 

fiias ywaucos avSpa . . . icoo-puov, general moral qualifications, 
in relation to his own life: <pi.X.6£aov, 8i&o.ktik6v, qualifications for 
his special office. 

fxj) irapoivov . . . ap.axov, qualifications in relation to other 
members of the community. 

acpiXdpyvpov, qualification in relation to the finance of the 

tou Iolov olkov, in relation to his own family. 
p.r) v(.o<pvTov, in relation to his standing in the community. 
Set Se, in relation to the world outside. 

fuas yueaiKos aVSpa] In interpreting this difficult phrase, two 
facts guide us. (a) The standard is not the highest (v. supra) ; 
it must be something, failure in which would incur reproach ; (//) 
but the standard is that of a Christian community ; contrast ". 
It presupposes a knowledge of the teaching of Our Lord and of 
St. Paul. 

(i) The phrase might imply that the bishop must be a married 
man (so Wordsworth, The Ministry of Grace, pp. 215-20 ; 
Lindsay, The Church and the Ministry, p. 145), and the writer 
might well prefer a man with the experience of the head of a 
family (cf. 4 ) for the overseership of a church, and might wish to 
guard against any depreciation of marriage (cf. 4 s ) ; but to be 
unmarried would incur no reproach : such a requirement would 
be scarcely consistent with the teaching of Our Lord (Mt 19 12 ) 
and of St. Paul (1 Co f- 8 ) : so the writer is only thinking of the 
true character of a bishop, //married ; as in 4 he deals only with 
his relation to his children, //he has children. 

(ii) It certainly implies — not a polygamist. Such a rule would 
still be necessary, as polygamy might still be found among Jews ; 
cf. Justin Martyr, Tryph. c. 134, cunyes teal fic'xpi vuv koX TcWapav 

III. 2.] I timothy 37 

Kai irevre €\«v vju,a<? ywaiKas tKao-rov (ruy^wpovtri : Joseph. ^4«/. 
xvii. I. 2,ird.Tpiov yap TrXttocriv rjpXv o-vvoikuv : cf. Schiirer, i. I, 
p. 455 note. Schechter, Documents of Jeivish Sectaries, i. 17. 

(iii) It also certainly implies "a faithful husband," married to 
one woman and loyal to her, having no mistress or concubine ; cf. 
Tertull. Apol. 46, "Christianus uxori soli suae masculus nascitur." 
Canones Apost. xvii. 6 Su<ri yd/i-ois avp.rz\aK(.i% /tcra to fiawTio-fxa r/ 
■nraWaKrjv Krrjtrdp.evo'; oi Swarm elvai iiri&KOTros : cf. lb. Ixi. A similar 
provision is found in heathen marriage contracts ; cf. Tebt. Pap. 

104, [ir] c^ecTTco <J?iA«j7«i) yvvaxKa dXXrjv iiraydyeoOai dWd 'Atto\- 
\wviav fj.r]8e TraWaKrjv fxrj&e TtKvoiroteicrOai ef aAXrys ywaiKos, ^cocr^s 
'A7roAXtovtas (92 B.C.), and similarly Pap. Eleph. 1 (310 B.C.). 

(iv) It also implies, and was probably meant to imply, not 
divorcing one wife and marrying another. This would be a 
Christian rule, based both on Our Lord's teaching and on St. 
Paul's (cf. Hermas, M. iv. 1, which forms a good commentary on 
this phrase), and very necessary in view of the laxity of divorce 
both among Jews (Schechter, u.s. ; Abrahams, Studies in Phari- 
saism, § 9) and among heathen ; cf. Friedlander (Eng. tr.), pp. 242- 
43 ; Fowler, Social Life in Rome, c. 5. Dill, Roman Society from 
Nero to M. Aurelius, pp. 76-79, though he points out that the 
heathen standard was rising: "The ideal of purity, both in men 
and women, in some circles was actually rising . . . there were 
not only the most spotless and high-minded women, there were 
also men with a rare conception of temperance and mutual love. 
. . . Plutarch's ideal of marriage, at once severe and tender, 
would have satisfied St. Paul. . . . Seneca and Musonius, who 
lived through the reign of Nero, are equally peremptory in de- 
manding a like continence from men and from women." 

(v) Did it also imply, "not marrying a second time after his 
wife's death " ? This is possible, but scarcely likely. No doubt 
the phrase led to this interpretation and was used to support it, 
and that by the end of the 2nd century ; cf. Tertull. ad Uxor. 
i. 7 ; Clem. Alex. Strom, iii. 12 ; Origen, Horn. xvii. in Luc, and 
the later Church orders ; cf. Apost. Ch. Order, i. koXov pXv eu/ai 
dywatos* ct Se pr), drrb /Aias yurai/co's. Apost. Canons, xvii. (quoted 
above) ; Apost. Const, ii. 2, ptas yvvau<b<; dvSpa yzytvrjp.£vov; ib. vi. 
17. Test. Dom. N. J. Chtisti, c. 20 (where see Cooper- Maclean's 
note). There were also tendencies in the heathen world moving 
in the same direction. There was the feeling for the children of 
the first wife who might be harmed by the stepmother; cf. Eur. 
Ale. 301 sqq. ; Propert. iv. 11. 81, and the law of Charondas 
forbidding such a second marriage, quoted in Diod. Sic. xii. 12 
(Wetstein) : there was also the natural devotion to a loved wife; 
cf. the Inscr. at Pisa (Orelli, ii. p. 517, No. 4623), "conjugi 
karissimse . . . cum qua vixit annos xviii. sine querella, cujus 


desiderio juratus se post earn uxorem non habiturum " ; cf. Bigg, 
The Church's Task, p. 102 : "In the epitaphs two not uncom- 
mon words are virginius and Virginia : they denote a husband 
who never had but the one wife, a wife who never had but the 
one husband." Such a feeling would be increased by the 
Christian thought of the eternal relation of husband and wife 
(cf. Chrys. on Tit i 6 ) ; yet such a standard is always regarded 
as exceptional, and is too high for this context ; and the later 
writers are influenced by a growing love for celibacy (dywaios), 
which is certainly alien to this passage, and by the denunciation 
of second marriages in all cases (Athenag. Leg. 33), which is also 
alien to the Epistle, 5 14 ; cf. Suicer, s.v. Siyu/ua. Diet. Christ. Ant., 
s.v. Marriage, p. 1097 and p. 1103 ; and for a strong defence of 
the stricter view, The Library of the Fathers, Tertullian, vol. i. 
pp. 420-32. 

rr]4>d\iot'] ( u , Tit 2 2 only in N.T.), temperate in use of 
wine; cf. 8 - " 5 23 ; perhaps also " sober-minded " or "vigilant" 
(aypvTrvov, Chrys., cf. Heb 13 17 , and Homer, 77. ii. 24, 25). Cf. 
2 Ti 4 5 crv Se v^cpe ev ttSlctlv : 1 P i 13 (ubi v. Hort) 5 s , 1 Co 15 34 


c-cJ(j)pom, Koapoc] (2° only in N.T.). " Quod aia^pwv est intus, 
id K007A105 est extra," Bengel. kou (pdiyp-an koI o-^jnart koX 
ftKififxaTt. k<lI (3a8C<TfiaTi, Thdt. ; cf. Inscr. from Magnesia, ^aavra 
o-w^pdi/ws kou KocrfiLw<; (Dibelius, and M.M. s.v.). It implies well- 
ordered demeanour, but also the orderly fulfilment of all duties 
and the ordering of the inner life from which these spring. Cf. 
Trench, Syn., p. 332. It is the quiet, orderly citizen, the anti- 
thesis of araKTOS. 

4>i\6|e^oc] The duty of individual Christians (5 10 ) and of the 
whole Church (Ro 12 13 , 1 P 4 9 , 3 Jn 5 ), with a special blessing 
attached to it (Heb 13 2 Sid tuvt^? yap ekadov Tives £ei'icravT€S 
dyyc'Xovs : cf. Clem. Rom. i. 10-12, a comment on that passage) ; 
finding its fullest expression in the Ittio-kottos, cf. Herm. .S. ix. 27, 
where Ittlctkottol <pi\6£cvoi, otnvcs t^Scws €is tovs oikovs iavrtov 
irdvTOTe vire8e£avTO tovs Sov'Aovs tov deov are compared to trees 
sheltering sheep, and singled out for special praise (Dibelius). 
For its importance, cf. Harnack, Exp. of Christ. 1. ii. 3. ; Ramsay, 
Pauline Studies, pp. 382-86. 

fit] •n-dpoii'ov', p.Tj -irXiiKTTjf] the negative of the positive vrj<pdXiov, 
o-weppova, in relation to others. Cf. Ti i 8 note. 

tflnenci), ap.axoy] the mark of all Christians, Ti 3 2 , where see note. 

d4>iXdpyupoy] Cf. Ti i 8 note. 

4. Cf. Tit i° ; fi£Td ird(TT]9 CTcp.i'OTTjTos : cf. 2 2 of all Christians : 
here the reference is specially to the father (cf. 8 . u ), though it 
might include the effect on the whole household (7rda^?). 

6. For the analogy from the family to the Church, cf. Eph 2 19 

III. 5-7.] T TIMOTHY 39 

oiKcioi tow 6eov, 5 28 -6 9 , where the family is treated as the nursery 
in which the virtues characteristic of the Church are trained. 
The analogy from the family to the State is common in classical 
writers; cf. Sen. de Clem. i. 9., "quo hoc animo facis? ut ipse sis 
princeps? . . . domum tuam tueri non potes," Tac. Agr. 19, 
and other instances in Wetstein and Dibelius. 

ckk\. Geou] St. Paul only in N.T. : here and 15 only without 
the article, " a church of God's." 

6. For later formulation of this rule, cf. Apostol. Canon lxxx. 
(adding as reason, olSikov yap tov p^St Trpoirapav eViSei^apevov 

ercpwv &va\. SiSao-KaAov), Concil. Nic. Canon ii. with Bright's note. 

yeo^uToe] "a recent convert" (for the form, cf. o-vp<puros, Ro 
6 5 ; and for the metaphor, 1 Co 3 s ). The word is used literally 
in the LXX and Inscr. (Deissmann, Bible St. s.v.); as a simile, 
Ps T43 12 viol ws veocpvTa : here, first as a metaphor; so in Ter- 
tullian, Prcescr. 41, adv. Marc. i. 20. 

Tu<j>w0€is] 6 4 , 2 Ti 3 4 only in N.T., from rvcf>o<;, smoke, with 
his head dazed and turned "in superbiam elatus," Vulg. ; enttte. 
It combines the ideas of conceit and folly ; he may behave 
arrogantly to others and teach foolishly. Wetstein aptly quotes 
the warning of Tiberius, "ne quis mobiles adolescentium animos 
prsematuris hononbusad superbiam extolleret," Tac. Ann. iv. 17. 
For the harm wrought by tvc^os, cf. an interesting passage in 
Philo, de Decal. cc. 1 and 2, tv<£os . . '. &7]p.tovpy6s ecrriv dXa^ov- 
etas, vTrepoij/ias, dvicroTTjTos . . . rv<pw koll to. 6u.a i^ojXiywprjTai. 

tou 8iaf36\ou] The parallelism of 7 and 2 Ti 2 26 makes it 
certain that this is "the devil," sw/ (as Weiss) "some human 
accuser." But the analogy of 5 14 , Tit 2 8 suggest that the devil 
is thought of as working through some human agent ; cf. Ecclus. 
5 1 2 iXvTpwcru) to au>/xd [xov i$ airu)\eia<; ko.1 Ik Trayi'So? Sia/3oXrj% 
yXwaro-rjs, Prov 6 24 , and perhaps Eph 4 27 . 

Kpipa tou 8ia.p.] not (as Chrys. Pelag. Thdt. Calvin, Bengel) 
"the judgment passed on the devil," which is not parallel to 7 , 
and would naturally be to Kpip.a, but "some judgment which the 
devil, the slanderer, the setter at variance, the accuser of the 
brethren (Apoc. 12 10 , cf. Jude 9 , 2 P 2 11 koio-iv), passes upon 
him. Such a novice is arrogant or foolish in teaching. The 
devil reproaches ( 7 ). This is your humble Christian ! this your 
learned teacher ! The devil lays snares ( 7 ) to draw him on and 
to discredit the whole community. The man makes shipwreck 
of his faith by some moral (i 19 ) or intellectual (6 21 ) failure; he 
is handed over to Satan (i 20 ) ; and he passes judgment, perhaps 
some bodily infliction, upon him; cf. Job 1 and 2 and Test. XII. 
Patr., Reuben 6, ets oXeOpov BeXtap kcu oVeiSos aiwvtov. 

7. tuv e'lwGev] For St. Paul s care for the opinion outside the 
Church, cf. 1 Th 4 12 , 1 Co io 32 , Col 4 6 . 


€is iyeiSiCTfioy Kal TTdyiSa.] cf. fl note. 

8-10. Deacons] For the earlier use of the word, cf. Hort, The 
Christian Ecclesia, pp. 198-211 ; a recognized title for an office 
air ady existing. No definition of duties is given. The name 
implies service — assistant ministration — perhaps in the Church 
services, certainly in administering charity and attending to the 
needs of the poorer members ; and it is implied that they would 
naturally pass to higher office in the Church. The qualifica- 
tions are partly central Christian virtues (aefivovs), partly those 
needed for their office as they moved from house to house (fir] 
8i\. fxrj olv(o 7r. irpocr.), handling Church money (fir] alaxpo 
*cp8«r?), speaking of their faith to others (exovra<s k.t.A..) 

For similar qualifications, cf. Polyc. ad Phil. 5, perhaps based 
on this passage. 

8. 8t\6you§] "tale-bearers," Lightfoot on Polyc. (u.s.), but 
prob.ibly "double-tongued," "ad alios alia loquentes " (Bengel); 
cf. Sio-o-o\oyos (Const. Apost. iii. 5), oYyAajo-o-os (Prov n 13 , Ecclus 
5 10 els Iotcj crov 6 Aoyos), 8i7rpoo-w7ros (Test. XII. Patr., Asher, c. 2); 
"the parson of our parish, Mr. Two -Tongues " (Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress), 8ii/ruxo<j (Jas i 8 ). The word here only in N.T., and not 
elsewhere in this sense. For the thought, cf. Test. XII. Patr., Benj. 

C. 6, r) a.ya6r] S/aiota ovk e^ei Svo yAoWcras, euAoyias kcu Kardpa%, 
vfipeuv; Kal TLfirj^, rj<jv\ia<; Kal Tapa^s, VTroKpL<rew<; Kal aX-rjOtias. 

9. to nu<nr)pioi' ttjs ■"••] perhaps " the secret truths of the Chris 
tian faith " ; cf. 1(i , lay,ng stress on doctrinal correctness, but 
more probably, as there is no duty of teaching implied, holding 
their own faith, the secret of their allegiance to Christ, secure 
under the protection of a good conscience, "a true inward 
religion and a true inward morality" (Hort., u.s.). The stress is 
on iv Ka6. avveiSrjo-ei, the casket in which the jewel is to be kept ; 
cf. 1 ,9 note. 

10. 8oKifxa££o-0a>o-ay] Probably not by any definite examination 
or by a time of probation (Ramsay), but only in the same way 
as the £7rtcr/co7ros (*al ovtoi Si), by the opinion of the Church 
judging his fitness by the standard just laid down. 

11. yuyaucas] From the context and from the parallelism 
between the qualities required for them and for the deacons 
((Tffivds = (Tffivovs : fir) SiafioXovs — fir) SiXoyovs : vr)<pa\iovs = fir) olvto 
it. -rrpoa(\ovTa<; : maras iv iracri = fir] al&XpoKfp&els . . . trvveiS^a'ti), 

these must be "deaconesses" (not "wives of deacons"), women 
who help; cf. R016 1 ; Pliny, Ep. x. 96 (written a.d. 112), "ancillis 
quae ministry dicebantur." Their duties in later times are defined 
as instructing and attending at the baptism of female cate- 
chumens, of looking after them at the services and taking messages 
from the bishops to them ; cf. Diet. Christ. Antiq. s.v. ; Nic 
Canon xix., with Blight's note. A post. Const, ii. 26, iii. 15, tU 

III. 12, 13.] I TIMOTHY 41 

Tas twv yvvaiKwv virqpt(ria.<i . . . Kal yap ets iroAAas \p«'as yvvaiKos 
Xprj£,oficv SiaKovov. 

12. StaKOkoi] The writer returns to deacons from a new point 
of view, as men who may become iirio-KOTroi : so in addition to 
what they needed as deacons they must have the two external 
relations — to wi!e and children — which were required in the 


13. paOpSi/ (here only in N.T.), lit. "a step" (so in LXX, 
1 S 5 5 , Ecclus 6 36 , 2 K 20 9 ) ; then "a standing," "position". 
This may be thought of as — 

(a) Moral: a vantage ground for influence, analogous to 
ttoXXtjv Trapprj(riav: cf. Clem. Rom. i. 54, ZavTw fxeya kAc'os ivXpicrTw 
7r€pnroirjcreTaL : Herm. M. iv. 4, TrepicraoTepav iavTw Tipvqv Kal 
p.eydXr}v So£av 7T£pi7roieiTai Trpos tov YLvpiov : Poimandres, p. 343, 
6 fiaO/Jibs ovtos, S> t€kvov, 8iKatoo~vvr)s icrTiv eSpaafxa : Inscr. at 
Mitylene, I.G. ii. 243, rots Tas d£ias /3ao-p.o'Z<; (M.M. s.v.). Parry 
quotes Clem. Alex. Str. ii. 9. 45, tovtov irp&TOv ttJs eVe/ccu/a 
yvwcretus vTroTL$ep.ei'0<s. 

(b) Ecclesiastical: a higher grade, an honourable rank; cf. 
Ap. K.O. 22, 01 yap KaXws 8ia/cov^cravT£S tottov eavTois irepnroiovvTai 
tov Troip-eviKov. Apost. Const, viii. 2 2, a£iov£ovos /3a#pov Sid 
Xpio-Tov. This is common in later eccles. writers ; cf. the prayer 

for the deacons, daviXov a{nw ttjv 8iaKOViav cpvXa£ov Kal fiadpLOvs 

aya6ov<> 7T€pt7rotr/o-ai, " Lit. of S. James," Brightman, E. and W. L., 
p. 55, and is probable here from the use of the aorist oiaKovrjo-avTes, 
and from the analogy of fSadp-bv koXov to KaXov Zpyov l , and of eauTots 
TrepnroLovvTai to iiridvp-ei. But such eccles. promotion will include 
all that was implied in (a). It is used of promotion in the army ; 
cf. Harrison, p. 165, who quotes from Hadriani Sententice, 
lav Ka\b% crrpaTiwTT/s yev^, rptra) f3a8p.w Svvrjar) ei? irpaiTo>piov 

iroXXTjf TrappTjo-iaf] Certainly man-ward, cf. Philem 8 ; perhaps 
also God-ward, cf. Eph 3 12 . 

With the whole verse contrast Herm. S. ix. 25, where dis- 
honest deacons are compared to reptiles and wild beasts that 
destroy men, 01 pev tov? o-jtlXov<; e^ovres Skikovol tlcri kcikgjs Siatcon^- 
crafTes Kal 8tap7racravT€S ^rjpwv Kal opcpavwv rr/v £u)r)V Kal eauTots 
TrcpnroiTjo-dfiefOi €K 7-775 SiaKovias 775 eXafiov StaKovrjo-ai, perhaps a 
conscious parody of this verse. 

14-16. The Secret of True Christian Character. 

Paraphrase. I hope to come to you soon and strengthen 
your hands by my presence ; but in case I should be delayed, I 
write at once that you may know what is the true Christian life, 
the true relation of one with another in God's own family, for it 

42 THE PASTORAL EPISTLES [ill. 14, 15. 

is a Church belonging to God Himself, the living source of all 
life ; and its task is to hold up the truth for the whole world to see 
and to give it a firm support in the lives of its members. And 
confessedly the secret of a true religious life is very important ; 
for it centres in a personal relation to a Living Person : to one 
of whom we sing in our hymns that He was — 

" In flesh unveiled to mortals' sight, 
Kept righteous by the Spirit's might, 

While angels watched him from the sky : 
His heralds sped from shore to shore, 
And men believed, the wide world o'er, 
When he in glory passed on high." 

This section primarily gives the reason for the regulations in 
the preceding chapters, especially cc. 2 and 3 ; but it also leads 
on to the warning against false teaching and the advice about 
Timothy's teaching which follows. It thus becomes the very 
heart of the Epistle ; it should be compared with similar doctrinal 
conclusions in i 15 2 3-5 6 13-16 , Tit 2 12 " 14 3 s - 7 . But this goes deeper 
than all in its picture of the Incarnate and Glorified Christ as 
the centre of the true life of the whole world, cf. 2 Ti 2 8 . It is 
the poetic expression of Gal 2 20 £77 h i/xol Xpio-ro's. 

14. TauTa] i.e. mainly cc. 2 and 3 (with their constant stress 
on true character, on the knowledge of truth (2 4 - 7 3 9 - ls ), and on 
God's family) ; but it may include the whole letter. 

cXm'^coK e\0eic] Not " although I hope," but " hoping.'' I write 
and hope to come and strengthen your hands by my personal 
authority (0-01 . . . Trpos <re) ; cf. 1 Co 4 17 - 19 , Phil 2 19 - 24 . 

Iv T<&xei] The variant ra-^iov will mean much the same, as its 
comparative sense was dying out; cf. Jn 13 27 , Heb 13 23 ; cf. (HKtiov, 

II I 18 ; (TTTOV&alOTepOV, V.I., II I 17 . 

15. iris Set] Picking up 3 2 - 7 . 

iv oiKw 0eoO] Picking up 3*- 5 - 12 , and therefore not "God's 
house," but "God's family"; cf. Tit i 11 , 2 Ti 1 16 , and Eph 2 19 
oiKciot tov deov : Gal 6 10 r*/? iriareo)?. The reference to 3 s makes 
it almost certain that the allusion is not to the universal family, 
to the Church as a whole, but to the special community at 

dfcurTp€4>ecT0ai (" conversari," Vulg.) includes the life and char- 
acter of each individual (cf. Eph t\ Heb i3 18 , and avaa-rpocp^, 
Gal i 13 , Jas 3 13 , and instances from papyri in M.M. s.v.) ; but 
also the intercourse of each member with other members, of men 
with women (c. 2), of parents with children, of ministers with 
those to whom they minister (c. 3) ; cf. Hort on 1 P i 7 . " He 
wishes Timothy to have before him an outline of the relation 
which must exist between the various parts of a congregation or 
household of God " (Ramsay). 

III. 15. j I TIMOTHY 43 

The subject of draor/oe<p. might be o-e (which is found in a 
few MSS and Fathers), " how you ought to behave," as the 
oIkovoiaos in the household, but the general character of cc. 2-3 
makes it almost certain that it should be wider, " how men 
ought to behave," " that you may know the right relation of class 
to class." 4 12 shows that it will include Timothy himself as well 
as those to whom he is to be a model. 

eK«\Ti<n'a] Possibly (as in Eph.) the Universal Church through- 
out the world ; but 3 6 decides that the primary allusion is to the 
Church at Ephesus as a separate congregation, though thought 
of as part of the larger whole ; cf. Bengel, " Ecclesiam innuit 
universalem, non universe, sed quatenus pars ejus turn erat 
Ephesi, commissa Timotheo," and Hort, The Christian Ecclesia, 
pp. 172-75. This increases the dignity attached to each Chris- 
tian Church and therefore a fortiori to the whole Ecclesia which 
incorporates them. 

0eoG £wi/Tos] Perhaps with semi-conscious contrast to heathen 
gods, cf. 1 Th i 9 , 2 Co 6 16 ; but emphasizing the thought that a 
God of life can give life and make such intercourse possible, 
cf. 4 10 6 13 , and perhaps the thought that He is alive to punish 
those who fail to live the true life, cf. Heb io 31 : so " a contrast 
with the true God made practically a dead Deity by a lifeless 
and rigid form of religion " (Hort, u.s.). 

oruXos] The origin of the metaphor is not quite clear : if 
o-tuXos is used of the Universal Church, it would be drawn from 
some one pillar standing alone and holding up to view a statue 
(such as was afterwards " Pompey's pillar" at Alexandria). If, 
however, it is applied to a local church or an individual (v. next 
note), the thought will be of one of a row of pillars which support 
and give strength to the whole fabric, like one of the many 
pillars in the temple of Artemis at Ephesus : there will be no 
sharp distinction between it and eSpa«o/xa. This is the more 
probable, the combination of the two words being common. 
According to Lightfoot (HorcB Hebr., The Temple, c. 22), 
it was applied to the great Sanhedrin by the Jews ; by R. 
Levi, to the reference to the Exodus in the Paschal precepts, 
"quia fundamentum id magnum sit et columna valida legis ac 
religionis Judaicse" (Bengel). 

cSpaiwfxa (" firmamentum," Vulg.), that which makes steady, 
stay, buttress, rather than base; cf. Col i 23 T€#e/x.eA«o/xeVoi na\ 
iSpaioi : 1 Co 1 5 58 eSputot ytVccr^c. 

orCXos kcu eSpcu'wfia] Four views have been held of the con- 
struction — (i) In apposition with iKKXrja-ia. 

(ii) In apposition with the nominative of tl?>fj<;. 

(iii) In loose ungrammatical apposition with Ozov (Holtzmann) 

(iv) To be joined with koX 6/aoA. /^eya. as nominative to eo-n. 

44 THE PASTORAL EPISTLES [in. 15, 16. 

Of these (iii) and (iv) may be put aside, (iii) is unnecessarily 
artificial, and gives an inadequate description of the living God. 
(iv) though defended by Bengel, leads to an anticlimax, o~t. kox 
i8p. Kal /At'ya, and is tautological, " the secret of godliness " is not 
the support of the truth, but the truth itself. In favour of (ii) it 
is to be said that otvAos is used generally of individuals in the 
N.T. (Gal 2 9 , Rev 3 12 ) : that the combination of the same or 
similar words is also so used (cf. Eus. H.E. v. 1 of Attalus, 
o~rvAos koX i8p. tw ivravOa ; Justin M. Tryph. 5, HXaTwva /ecu 
WvOayopav, oi wanrep tci^os r/ptv /cat Ipctcr/Aa cpiXoaocpias iyivovro : 
Greg. Naz. Ep. 29, of Eusebius, or. Kal Z8p. tt}<> iKKXrjmas, 
ira.Tpi8o<; Ipaoyxa), and it suits the context — " I want you to know, 
. . . because you are in position to uphold and support the truth," 
cf. i 18 6 20 . Yet the stress of the preceding chapters has been 
more on what the Church than on what Timothy is to be, and 
this is decisive for (i). Each local Church has it in its power 
to support and strengthen the truth by its witness to the faith 
and by the lives of its members. A very full note on the usage 
of the words will be found in Suicer, Thesaurus, s.v. o-rvAoy. 

16. Cf. Eph 5 s2 to p.v(TTrjpiov tovto p.iya eortv. 

ofioXoyooucVws] "By common agreement" ("manifeste," Vulg.) 
i.e. of Christians, perhaps also including the impression made on 
the pagan world around ; or perhaps " by common profession " 
("omnium confessione," Ambros.), hinting that the following 
words come from some Church hymn, and so equivalent to 
bp.o\oyovp€v ojs found in D* <S (pal). 

to ttjs cuo-e|3eias jAuoTrjpioi'] The revealed secret of true religion, 
the mystery of Christianity, the Person of Christ: cf. Col i 27 to 

7TA.OVTOS T^S Oofv^S TOV p.V(TTr]piOV TOiJtoU iv TOtS Wv€(JlV O 60TI XpiOTOS 

iv i/xlv, r) £'A.7ns T?;? 80^5. The phrase is perhaps a deliberate con- 
trast to to pvanqpiov rrj<; avofiias, 2 Th 2 7 , and cf. inf. 4}- 2 ; also 
with implied contrast both to Judaism, cf. i 8-11 and Ep. Diogn. 
c. 5, to ttj<; tStas airwv deoo-eftelas p.vaTtjpiov (of the Christians as 
opposed to the Jews) ; and to the secrets of the heathen 
mysteries, cf. iv tois edveo-iv, Col i 27 2 18 - 19 . 

tt]s coo-ePcias may perhaps include the thought of doctrine as 
well as of life, " Christianity," as it in later ecclesiastical Greek 
became the equivalent to orthodoxy : but the context here and 
the use of it as applied to the life of all Christians (2 2 ) and 
of Timothy himself (4 7, 8 ), shows that the main stress is here on 
moral life ; cf. 2 Ti 3 12 ei>o-c/3ais £r}v iv Xpio-Tw lrjo-ov. 

os . . . cV 86|tj] Source. — These words may be (i) the writer's 
own, or (ii) a quotation. The latter is more likely because of its 
introduction with 6/toA.oyovyu.eVoj? (contrast Eph 5 s2 ), of the 
rhythmical form, of the use of words not found elsewhere in this 
writer (i^ai^pMOrj, eVio-reiifl?/, nvt\-i]rf>0-q), of the fact that it goes 

III. 16.] I TIMOTHY 45 

beyond the statements required by the context, and of the 
writer's fondness for quotation. If this is so, it will be from 
some well-known Christian hymn (cf. Eph 5 19 ), possibly from 
the same hymn as that quoted in Eph 5 14 , in which case 6 Xpicrros 
will supply the antecedent to os. It implies a wide preaching of 
Christianity, but such as might fall within St. Paul's lifetime ; cf. 
Col i 6 iv 7ravTi tw Koa-fiw. There are reminiscences of it in Ep. 
Diogn. 1 1 , d.7reaTeiA.€ Aoyov Xva. /coo-pa) <f>avfj, os . . . Sia aTroaroXuiv 
KrjpvxOeh ino iOvuv imaTcvOr] : Ep. Barn. §§ 6, 9, 1 1 ; § 14, eV aapax 
tpeAAtv (pavepovaOat, kolI iv yjplv KaroiKeiv. Resch (Paulinismus, 
p. 397) thinks that it may have influenced the author of Mk i6 9-19 . 

Structure. The arrangement is uncertain : it may be six 
parallel lines in groups of two, but this gives no clear correspond- 
ence of thought in the group : more probably it represents two 
stanzas of three lines, which balance each other, contrasting the 
Incarnate Lord with the Ascended Lord. 

(i) The Life of the Incarnate — 

(a) as seen on earth, itpavepwOrj ev o-apid 

iBiKdiwOr] iv irvev pari. 

(b) as watched from heaven, ttxpdr] dyyc'Xois. 
(ii) The Life of the Ascended Lord — 

(a) as preached on earth, iicrjpvxOr) iv Zdveo-iv 

iTTL(TT€v9r] iv KOO-JAO). 

(6) as lived in heaven, dveXrjfpOr] iv bogy. 

The main thought, then, is that one who has really lived a 
perfect human life on earth has a message for the whole world, 
and lives to give his righteouness to all; cf. i 11 rrj<s 86$rj<: : 2 4 " 7 
V7rep irdvTwv . . . iOvwv. 

os] What is the antecedent? (a) 6 XpioTos, either implied 
in evo-e/3. p-vvT-qpiov (cf. Col i 27 , 2 2 ), or expressed in some previ- 
ous verse of the hymn ; cf. Eph 5 14 . It can scarcely be foo's, 
to which iSiKaiuOr} would not be suitable, but might be deov 
vlos; cf. Ep. Barn. c. 5, which seems reminiscent of the passage, 
i<pavipwa-€v iavTov eivai vlov deov. (b) outos to be supplied before 
line 4. He who so lived on earth has now been preached 
throughout the world (von Soden) ; but this lays almost too much 
stress on the last stanza, and is less suited to poetic style. 

c^avepciGrj iv aapKi] Of the human life, as an unveiling of a 
previous existence, and perhaps including the manifestation after 
the Resurrection ; but the stress on o-ap£ is on its weak?iess, in 
the weak flesh that we share ; cf. Ro 8 3 , Gal 2 20 . Neither word 
is used of Christ in the Pastorals : the first is Johannine, the 
second, both Johannine and Pauline. 

eSiKauaGr) iv -nreufAaTi] Either "was made righteous in the 
spiritual sphere," was kept sinless through the action of the Spirit 
upon His Spirit. avOpwos w<pdrj dvapopT^i-os : Chrys. "justificatum 


et immaculatum factum virtute sancti spiritus " ; Theod.-Mops. ; 
cf. Herm. S. V. 7, tyjv aapKa . . . (frvXaaae KaOapav iVa to irvevfjia to 
koltoikoxv iv avrfj fxapTvprjarj avTrj ku\ diKatwOrj crov r) o~dp£ : or " was 
justified" in His claims to be the Christ in virtue of the Spirit which 
dwelt in Him, enabling Him to cast out devils (cf. Mt 1 2 28 ), to con- 
quer all evil, and to rise from the grave ; cf. Ro I s - 4 e* o-rrtpfiaTos 

AavtO Kara crdpKa, tov bpiadivros vlov 9eov iv &vvd/x€i Kara -rrvevfxa 
uyuoo~vvr]s €cf ui'aoracretos i'€Kp<ov '. cf. Mt II 19 , Lk 7 35 , Jn 16 10 . 

w<}>0t) dyyeXois] Not (as Hofmann, Wohlenberg, etc.) "was 
seen by messengers," i.e. by those who told the message of His 
Resurrection, though this would lead on naturally to iKrjpv^O-q, 
and would sum up the repeated w<j>$r) of 1 Co 15 5 " 8 : the refer- 
ence to the Resurrection, though included in iSiKaiwOr), is scarcely 
explicit enough for this : but " was seen by angels," who watched 
the earthly life, cf. Lk 2 13 , Mk i 13 , Jn i 61 , Lk 24 23 , and still 
watch His working from Heaven, Eph 3 10 , 1 P i 12 . Dibelius 
quotes the Ascension of Isaiah, c. 1 1, " all the angels of the 
firmament and Satan saw Him and adored Him." 

t^pu'x0T) iv edfccrii'] Cf. 2 7 xrjpv^ . . . 8i8acr/<aAo9 lOvuiV. 

cmoreu0T] iv Koafiw] The response to iKrjpv^Orj, universally, and 
perhaps with emphasis on the character of the koV/aos, in a world 
full of sinners (cf. i 15 ) which needed reconciliation (2 Co 5 19 ). 

dwX^etj (Acts i 2 - u - 22 , Ps -Sol 4 20 with Ryle and James' note : 
Apoc. Baruch, ed. Charles, p. 73) iv 86|t] in an atmosphere of 
glory in which He remains, and communicates His glory to men ; 
cf. i 11 note. 

For a somewhat similar reminiscence of a hymn about Christ's 
Life, cf. 1 P 3 18 - 22 . 

iv. 1-5. Warning against false teaching. 

Paraphrase. Yet, though each church has to uphold the truth, 
and though it knows the secret of the true human life, inspired 
prophets have given us clear warning that, in after days, some 
Christians will fall away from the true faith : they will pay heed 
to evil misleading spirits, to doctrines inspired by heathen deities, 
embodied in the false teaching of insincere men — men whose own 
conscience bears the brand of sin upon it, men who teach others 
that it is a duty not to marry, and a duty to abstain from certain 
kinds of food. Yet it was God who created those foods, and 
created them that those who have accepted Christ nn<l come to 
know His full teaching might enjoy them with thankfulness. For 
every created thing has the Creator's stamp of excellence upon 
it, and there is none that need be cast aside, if only it is accepted 
with a grateful heart, for then it becomes consecrated by the 
Divine blessing and our responsive prayer. Cf. Mt 24 11 , Acts 
20 29. 30 } 2 Tn 2 1 - 1 '-', 2 Ti 3 1 " 5 , Tit i 14-10 , and notice how in the 

IV. 1.] I TIMOTHY 47 

address to the elders at Ephesus the warning against "grievous 
wolves" follows directly on the duty of feeding the flock and on 
the mention of "the Church of God." 

The false teaching referred to. The prohibition of marriage 
and of certain foods finds an exact analogy in the Gnosticism of 
the 2nd century ; cf. Iren. Beer. i. 28, of the Encratites, dyapiuv 
€K7)pv£av, d^erovvTcs Trjv dp^atav 7rXao"tv tov 6eov . . . kcu toiv 
\eyop.ivu>v Trap avroi9 ifxxpv^inv airo^iqv elo-rj-yrjaavTo d^apio-TovvTcs 
7(3 7rdvra TreiroirjKOTi #ea) : ib. 24. 2, " nubere et generare a Satana 
dicunt esse. Multi autem . . . et ab animalibus abstinent, per 
fictam hujusmodi continentiam seducentes multos" (both of which 
passages seem reminiscent of this place). Cf. the Acts of Paul 
and Thekla, c. 12. If the Epistle is not genuine, this is doubtless 
the reference. But there is no allusion here to the Gnostic central 
doctrine of an inferior Demiurge (cf. 3 note), and there is nothing 
that goes beyond the teaching already denounced in Ro. 14, Col 
2 10 - 23 , Heb i3 4 - 9 . We may therefore trace it possibly to a Judaism 
of the dispersion influenced by Essenism ('Eo-cmiW oiSeis dy€T<u 
yvvaiKa, Philo, p. 633 ; Josephus, B.J. ii. 8 ; cf. Ep. Diogn. c. 4), 
or perhaps more probably (cf. Saifxoviwv) to Oriental tendencies 
which developed into Gnosticism. In such a syncretistic city as 
Ephesus there is no need to assume only one set of false teaching. 

On the other hand, the allusions are too definite for it to be 
merely " an apologetic vade-mecum for' all anti-Gnostic contro- 
versy" (Dibelius). 

1. hi] With slight antithesis to 3 15 and the substance of 3 16 . 

to weujia] The Spirit of the Lord speaking through some 
prophet, possibly the writer himself, "sibi," Ambros. ; cf. Ac 20 29 , 
but vide next note. 

precis] "clearly," "unmistakably," or, more probably "in ex- 
press terms," implying that he is quoting a prophecy (cf. Justin 
Martyr, Apol. i. 63). If so, the utterance of the Spirit will not 
have been made to the writer himself, but he is quoting that of 
some other Christian prophet. The person is ignored : the fact 
of his inspiration emphasized ; cf. Charles, Revelation, i. p. cix. 

iv uore'pois icaipoTs] "In later days," "at some later crisis" 
(the plural not being pressed; cf. Kcupots iStots, Tit i 2 note); cf. 
ixrTf'po) XP° V ¥> Plato : iv vo-repots ^poVot?, Plut. ap. Wetstein ; Acta 
Carpi, 5, Xpua-Tov . . . toi/ eA#ovTa iv varipois Katpots eVt crcor^pia 
r/paJv. The writer contemplates that this is a present danger, 
cf. 6 " n : hence we may paraphrase, " there is a past prophecy 
about a later crisis, which is now being fulfilled"; cf. 1 Jn 4 1 - 3 . 

• irXaVois k.t.X.] Cf. Mt 24 15 , 1 Jn 4 6 , Rev 16 14 
Trvevp.a.Ta SaipoviW iroiovvra o~qp.u.a, hence probably from some 
heathen source; cf. 1 Co io 20 - 21 , Jas 3 15 o-o^ta SatpovtwS^s. 


Iv oTTOKpiaei] Insincere, because their own lives are incon- 
sistent ; cf. Mt 2 3 4 , Ro 2 17 - 23 . 

The clause is connected c'osely with SiSao-KaXiais, teaching 
embodied in insincere utterances of lying teachers. 

KeicauTTipicKTficVwi'] Not " rendered callous as by medical treat- 
ment," cf. Eph 4 19 , but rather "branded with the brand of 
slavery to their true master Satan," cf. 2 Ti 2 26 , and contrast 
Gal 6 17 rot crrty/aaTa tov 'Irjcroo. Claudian in Rufin. ii. 504, " en ! 
pectus inustae Deformant maculae," and other illustrations of the 
metaphor in Wetstein here and on Gal. I.e. 

3. kwXuoitw yajxeif, dTre'xeo-Gai] Forbidding to marry, bidding 
to abstain ; cf. 2 12 . Hcrt unnecessarily conjectures *al ytvto-dai 
or t) a7TT€o-^at, VV.-H. note ad loc. 

a, i.e. probably jip^jxara only : it might include marriage also ; 
cf. ApOSt. Canon 51, ei tis iiri<TKOiro<; rj Trpto-fivrepos ydpov kcli 
Kpewv Kal olvov ov 81.' ao-Krjcriv dXXd Sid f38e\vpiav a7re^€Tai, eViXafld- 
/aci'OS ort Tra.vTa. KaXd At'av Kal otl apcrev Kal BrjXv iiroirjcrey 6 #€os tov 
dvOpioTTOV dXXd fi\acr(pr]p.wv Sia/^dAAa ttjv 8rjp.iovpyiav 17 Stopdovadw 
77 KadaiptCo-Oo) : SO 53 of food only, Ka8aip(Lcr6w u>s KCKaur^piacr/xeVos 
T7)v iSiav crvvttbr)(TLV. 

tois ttiotois] those who have accepted the gospel — so not for 
the Jews on whom the Levitical law was still binding : Kal i-neyv. 
■n\y d\r|0fcicH' — so not for weak Christians who have till late been 
used to idol worship or scruple about eating meat ; cf. 1 Co 
8 7 , Ro 14, esp. V. 14 oTSa Kal 7T£7r€io7tai eV XpiaTw 'lrjcrov on ouSev 
koivov, and 23 . 

4. irav kt. 0. KaXoV] A reminiscence of the sevenfold refrain 
r,f Gen I, iSev 6 0eds 6V1 K0.X0V. Cf. also Ecclus 39 m 24 - 27 Tavra 
7rdvTa tois tio~efieo-iv cis dyaOd, outws tois d/xapra)Xois TpairrjatTaL 
€ts KaKa. 

ouSey diropXTjTow had become almost a proverb based on II. iii. 
65, outoi diro^K.t)T io-Ti Oewv epi/cuSea Swpa (cf. Field, Ot. Norvic. 
ad loc., and Wetstein). Both Holy Scripture and Greek pro- 
verbial wisdom condemn these teachers. 

Xap.pdkop.efoi'] If taken as a gift — not treated as a right — and 
with gratitude. The divine word is constantly Xd/JeTe, (payer* 
(Mt 26 26 ). 

dyid£€Tcu] It becomes holy to the eater ; not that it was unclean 
in itself, but that his scruples or thanklessness might make it so to 
him. Possibly there is the further thought, it is protected from 
the power of evil spirits (Sai/xoVia) ; cf. Lake, Earlier Epp. oj 
St. Paul, p. 195. 

Sid Xoyou 8eou] possibly "by the Word of God" in the 
Johannine sense, cf. Justin M. Apol. i. 66, Sid Xoyou deov aapKo 
n-ou/fois 'IT70-0DS Xpio-Tos, and cf. J. Th. St., April 1923, p. 310 : but 
more probably, as this technical sense seems foreign to our writer. 

IV. 5.] I timothy 49 

"through God's utterance," "with God's blessing upon it,' : 
referring directly to Gen i. "God said," perhaps more exactly 
to the word implied in ttuv KTto-p.a Otov kcl\6v. But this word is 
thought of as taken up in some word of Scripture used from 
meal to meal (dyid^eTai, not yyiaarai) as grace : e.g. Ps 24 1 tov 
Kvpiov rj yrj Kal to TrXr/pwfJLa avTr}s, which St. Paul quotes as 
sanctioning the eating of all food sold in the market (1 Co io 20 ), 

cf. Justin Martyr (ubi SUpra), tj]v oV ev^s \6yov tov trap* avrov 
€V)(api(TTr)9eio-av rpcxprjv. Cf. Sinker, Essays and Studies, p. 115; 
and for the influence of Jewish forms of grace upon the blessing 
of the bread and wine and other offerings in the Eucharist, von 
der Goltz, Tischgebete u?id Abendmahlsgebete. T. und U., N.F. xiv., 
who quotes Athanasius, irepl napdei'ias : c. 13, to (Spwp.d aov Kal to 
Tr6p.a aov rjytao'p.ivov iari' oia yap twv irpoo~(v)(£)v Kal twv dytwv 
prjp.a.T(nv dyid^€Tat : cf. Irenseus, Hcer. V. 2, iTri8e)^€TaL tov Xoyov tov 
Otov Kal ytVcTat rj iv^apiaTLa crw/xa Xpto"ToG. 

iv. 6-vi. 2. Personal advice to Timothy, as to (a) his teach- 
ing and life as the chief officer of the Church (4 6 ' 16 ) ; (b) his 
conduct to various classes of the members of the Church 

(5'-6 2 ). 

6-16. Timothy's own teaching and lite (e^^e o-euirw /cat ty^ 
SiSao-KaAia 16 sums up the paragraph, but the two parts are not 
kept distinct). 

Paraphrase. Put these foundation truths before the brethren, 
and you will be a true servant of Christ Jesus, keeping your own 
soul trained by the precepts of the faith and of the true teaching 
which you have accepted and taught so faithfully until now. 
But as for those irreligious and old wives' fables which are so 
prevalent at Ephesus, have nothing to do with them at all. 

Yet there is a training which you will need, and now you 
must be your own trainer, the training which helps towards a 
holy life. The bodily training of the athlete has some little 
value, but a holy life is valuable in every respect : 

"To it God's promise standeth sure 
Of life that ever shall endure." 

That saying is quite true and worthy of whole-hearted accept- 
ance : for it is to win life that we spend our days in toil and take 
part in the spiritual contest, for our hopes have been set on a 
God of Life, on one who is a Saviour of all men, but, in the 
deepest sense, of those who put faith in Him. Hand on these 
truths from me and enforce them in your own teaching. 

So teach and so live that no one shall slight you for your 
youth ; nay, rather show yourself a model of what believers 
should be both in speech and in your dealings with others — 



loving, trustworthy, pure. Until I can reach you, do you 
superintend the reading of the Scriptures, the sermons and the 
instructions given at the meetings. Do not neglect the divine 
gift which is in you, rememhering that it was a gift, from God, 
given after the guidance of prophets, and confirmed by the whole 
body of presbyters when they laid their hands on your head. 
Think carefully of these duties ; throw yourself heart and soul 
into them, that everyone may note your constant growth. Keep 
careful watch over your own life and the teaching that you give : 
persevere in all these tasks. So will you work out your own 
salvation and that of those who hear you. 

The keynotes of the paragraph are : (i) Doctrinal, yvp-vacrla, 
evo-e'/Jeia, o-uTrjpU ( 10 - 16 ), C^V- A true self-discipline, ministering 
to holiness of life, and so laying hold of the salvation which God 
offers to all, and which is true life, (ii) Personal. Timothy's 
growth. eerpeepd/xeros, fivOovs irapaiTov (see note), yvp.iat,e creavrov, 
v'€OTrjTo<;, irpoKoirrj. You have passed from childhood to man- 
hood, when you can so act that no one will slight you ; but there 
must still be growth, still constant self-discipline. 

6. uTTOTiOe'fiei/os] either, "suggesting," a gentle word suited to 
Timothy's youth (ovk €ltt€v inndrTUiv, ovk enre it apayyeWwv aWti 
vttotlO. . . . <I)S (rup.ftov\tvuiv, Chrys. ; cf. Philo, de vita Mos. ii. 8, 
lv Tat? irpocrrd^ia-iv koX dirayopevcrecTiv vTrorideTat ko.1 trap-qyopu to 
■n-Xeov r) KcXeuei) ; or " supplying," as a foundation for their faith, 
the metaphor of building (3 15 ) being still in his mind ; cf. Jude 20 . 

toIs dS«(\4>ois] The metaphor of the family is still in his mind ; 
cf. 3 15 and 5 l . 

ti/Tpe^ofieyos] Possihly the metaphor is that of feeding; cf. 
1 Co 3 2 , Heb 5 12 " 14 , and Epict. iv. 4. 48, tovtoi% tois 8ia\oyto-p.ois 
cvrpicpoiMevos, M.M. s.v., "reading and inwardly digesting"; but 
more probably " training yourself in " : cf. Eur. Phcen. 368, ff omjiv iverpdcprji', with yvp.vat,€ creavrov^ (so Hillard). 
Chrys. adds Ka#' iKaar-qv r)p.ipav to emphasize the present tense. 

ttjs ir.] recalling 4 3 T019 77-10-1-015. 

ttjs kciXtjs 818.] recalling 4 s oreyy. ttiv dXydtiai', the teach- 
ing which will make a KaAos Sia/co^os. 

■n-apT]Ko\ou0T]Kas] cf. 2 Ti 3", combines the ideas of "under- 
standing," as frequently in Epictetus, with that of "practising 

7. tous 8e . . . fAu'9ous] The myths which the false teachers 
are propagating, cf. 1 4 note; not necessarily to be identified 
with the teaching in 1_5 supra. 

P€(3r|\ous] "ineptas," Vulg. ; " profanas," O.L., Ambros. ; con- 
tributing nothing to cvo-«/?«'u. 

ypaoiSeis] such as old women tell to children (Plato, Rep. 
i. 350 E, uKTirtp Tai? ypavai Tais tovs p.v6ov<; Acyouo-a/?), quite 

IV. 7-10.] I TIMOTHY 51 

unfit for strong young men who have to be trained to discipline 
themselves (ib. ii. 377 A, Trporepov 8i. p,v6oi<> 7rpos to. 7raioYa ■*} 
yuyu.vacriois xpa>/xe#a.). 

yufAKa^e] but you are full-grown, you have to be even your own 
trainer — perhaps with the thought "in my absence" (so Bengel) 
implied. Your training must be of your whole self, body and 
soul, not for health or a crown in the games, but for living a 
religious life. Dibelius quotes Isocr. ad Nicoclem, 10, ov&ivi twv 
aaK7)Twv ovTw TrpocrrjKet. to awp,a yvpivd^LV <Ls tois fiaaiXtvo-i rrjv 
if/v)(r]v kavTwv. Ps.-Isocr. ad De?fionicum, 21, yz;p,va£e (reavrbv 

7ToVoi5 CKOUCTtOl?, 07TC0S av 8vv7] KOLl TOVS O.KOV(TIOVS VTTOfJLeveiV. This 

the euo-e/fys would need ; cf. 2 Ti 3 12 . For further very interesting 
illustrations see VVetstein. 

8. rj awjjL. yup,c] "corporalis exercitatio," Vulg. The refer- 
ence is to either', (i) ascetic discipline, the thought of 3 being 
still in his mind : you, too, will need discipline of the body, but 
it must be from a right motive, and only as a means to an end, 
for in itself it goes a very little way. On this interpretation the 
best comment is Col 2 20 " 23 ; or (ii) athletic discipline : an illustra- 
tion from the ordinary training in the gymnasium ; and the best 
comment is 1 Co g 24-27 . This is the more probable, as the 
subject of 3 seems to have been dropped at 5 , and it is supported 

by dya)Vi£d/xe#a 10 . 

irpos oXiyoK] e.g. irpbs (pdaprbv <rTe<pdvov ( I Co 9 25 ) 7rpos vyuiav 
(Lucian, Macrob. 6, ol yvjxvacriois . . . 7rpos vyuiav Xpd)p.woi). 

CTrayy. 'iyouaa. k.t.X.] cf. Tit I 2 cvo-e/Jetaj/ . . . ^w^s . . . iirny- 
ya'Aaro; Jas i 12 , 1 Jn 2 25 , Rev. 2 10 . The saying may have 
been based on the Lord's own words, Lk 18 30 os oi pr) anrokdflr) 
TroXXairXacnova iv ™ Katpw touto) kou Iv tw aidvt tw ep^oyaeVw ^coriv 
uiwvtov, cf. Lk 12 15 for the thought, but it has earlier Jewish 
analogies ; cf. Pirke Aboth iv. 2. " Who is rich ? He that is con- 
tented with his lot : for it is said, Happy art thou in this world, 
and it shall be well with thee in the world to come." True life 
lies in contentment (6 6 ), in the glad acceptance of our lot, in 
gratitude for God's common blessings, in the sense that all things 
are ours through union with Christ, 1 Co 3 22 ; cf. Chrys. ad loc, 
or Traherne's Meditations. 

9. tuotos 6 Xoyos] probably the preceding verse, which is 
more stereotyped in form and wider in application than the 
Christian experience which supports it (yap). 

tt({o-y]s] cf. i 15 note: here perhaps anticipating o-am?p 7rdvTO)v 10 
as 7J-10-TOS leads up to ttlo-tuv. Those who have faith have found 
this saying trustworthy, and it is worth all men's while to accept it. 

10. els touto] cf. 1 Co g 25 - 27 . 0ew £wm : living, and therefore 
able to give life now and hereafter; cf. 3 15 note. 

<7wr?]p ("salvator," Vulg.; "salutaris," Ambros.) tt&vtw dV0p., 

52 THE PASTORAL EPISTLES [ IV - 10 -1 2 - 

perhaps, as giving them their life (" quia ex ipso et per ipsum 
vivunt," Ambros. ; cf. 6 13 £woyovovvro<; tol iravra: Acts 17 28 ) and 
protection from danger (Chrys. Bengel, "servat omnes"), but, 
much more deeply, as giving them the instincts that feel after Him 
(Acts 17 27 ), and as longing for their full spiritual salvation (2*). 

|xd\urra Triaiw] as completing their salvation, giving grace 
in response to their faith and in proportion to every need, and 
life to meet a daily dying; cf. 1 Co 15 31 , 2 Co 4 10 - 15 . The 
difference of treatment lies not with God, but with men them- 
selves. He is always Father and Saviour; but they who tru^-t 
Him as such and accept the revelation through His Son, know 
that He is such and gain a fuller life. Cf. Plut. Alex. p. 683 A, 

u)5 iravTW uiv oVtci kolvov av8pu)Tro>v iraripa tov dtov, I&lovs ok ttoiov- 
fxevov ZavTw tous dpio-rous (Wetstein). Christians have to imitatt- 
the Divine method and proportion in their well-doing, Gal 6 10 , 
Phil 4 5 . 

dYw^i^ofxtea] cf. 6 12 , 1 Co 9 25 , 2 Ti 4 7 . For the reading cf. 
Introd. p. xxxvii. 

*m8i&6pcea] Cf. Ro 15 3 , 1 P 4 14 , Heb 10 33 13 13 ; but the 
thought of persecution and reproach is not found in this Epistle, 
nor is it very appropriate to this context. 

11. •n-apdYYeM e ] "ut riant, Si'Sacrite quomodo nant," Pelagius. 
■na.oa.yy£\\e.i.v does not occur in Titus, and is perhaps more suit- 
able to Timothy's age — " hand on my message." Contrast Tit 
2 15 (Ramsay, Expositor, 19 10, p. 331). 

12. fATjSels . . . KaTa<f>pov€iTa>] contrast Tit 2 16 . It is perhaps 
a side hint to the Church, who would hear the Epistle read (6 21 , 
cf. I Co 16 11 , and Ign. Magnes. C. 3, Se Trpiirei fxr] crvyxpao-Oai 
rf) rjXiKia tow eTrio-Koirov), but mainly advice to Timothy, so to act 
that none may be able to despise him. Cf. 2 Ti 2 22 . 

ftoTTjTos] used of grown-up military age, extending to the 
40th year; cf. Iren. c. Beer. ii. 22, "triginta annorum astas prima 
indolis est juvenis et extenditur usque ad quadragesimum annum. ,; 
For fuller illustration cf. Ramsay in Expositor, 1910, p. 327, 
and Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, i. p. no. 

tuttos . . . -rdv mo-Tui'] not so much " a model for the faithful 
to follow" (rot? ttio-tois, cf. 1 Th i 7 , 2 Th 3 s , but also tvttoi tov 
TroifjLviov, 1 Pet 5 3 ) as "a model of what the faithful are" (cf. 
Tit 2 7 Tvirov KaXuiv tpyuv), which will make its appeal to all men 
(cf. 10 - 15 ) and attract them to complete salvation (cf. 2 3 " 8 ). 

iv Xoyw, iv dyacrrpo<J>fj] "in conversation" (preaching is dealt 
with in the next verse), "and all intercourse with others"; cf. 3 1& , 
1 Pet 3 1 - 2 . These give the sphere, the next three the qualities 
in which he is to be a model. 

iv moTci] Possibly " faith," but more probably, owing to the 
context, "fidelity," "trustworthiness." Cf. Gal 5 22 and the com- 

IV. 12-14.] I TIMOTHY 53 

bination ayvol ttuttoI ovvSlkoi, " true and upright advocates." 
rap. Oxyr. i. 41. 29 (M.M. s.v. ayvos). 

iv dyyeia] purity of act and thought. The transition from 
ritual to moral purity had already been made by the Greeks ; cf. 
the Inscription on the temple at Epidaurus : 

dyvbv xprj vrjoio 6vwoeo<; ivros lovra ayveirf 8' ecrri <frpovtiv ocria. 

Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 1. 13. 

Cf. the account of the early Christians given to Pliny, Ep. x. 97. 
"soliti essent . . . se sacramento obstringere ne furta, ne latrocinia 
( = ayd-rrrj), ne adulteria ( = dyvet'a), committerent, ne fidem faller 
ent, ne depositum appellati abnegarent ( = ttl(ttu)" 

13. Tfj dt/ayi'wcm] i.e. the public reading (cf. tois 7rpoo-€i'xais, 
5 5 , Acts 2 42 ), as in the Jewish synagogues (cf. Charles on Rev 1 3 ) 
This would, with the O.T., include Apostolic letters ( 1 Th 5 27 , 
Eph 3 4 , Col 4 16 , Euseb. H.E. 4. 23), apocalypses (Mk i3 14 , 
Rev i 3 ; cf. Tert. Apol. 39, "cogimur ad litterarum divinarum 
commemorationem si quid praesentium temporum qualitas am 
praemonere cogit aut recognoscere "), the memoirs of the Apostles 
or the writings of the prophets (Justin M. Apol. i. 67). 

irpoaexe] This will include his own reading (cf. Tit i 9 ) and 
t'lat of any official to whom it was deputed. It will imply — 

(a) A wise choice of the passages to be read : cf. Apost. 
Const, ii. 5 {infra). 

(0) Audible reading: cf. Apost. Canons, 19, dvayvwo-rr/s 

Ka0L<JTO.<j6^ eVTfKOOS. 

(c) A power of correct exposition : cf. ib. dvayv. . . . Sir/y?/- 

tikos, eiSws on evayye\«TTOV tottov epyd^ercu : A post. Const, ii. 5 
of the bishop : ttoXv% kv dvayvtoo-fxatriv, lvcl Tas ypd<£as €7rip.eAo)s 

Such supervision will necessarily imply previous private 
study ; cf. Apost. Const, i. 5, Ka0€£o/xevos evfW dvayivwo-Kc rbv voixov, 
rds fSaaiXeLovs, tows 7rpo0ijras k.t.X. Hippol. Canons, 27, "Sol 
conspiciat matutino tempore scripturam super genua tua." Cf. 
2 Ti 3 15 . 

For an interesting analogy, cf. Pap. Oxyr. ii 1 - 531, from a 
father to his son, Tots /?i/3A.«us crov avro fiovov 7rpocr€^e cpiXoXoywv 
Kai air avTwv ovrjcriv e^eis. 

tt] -n-apaKX. ttj Si8ao-K.] cf. Ro 12 7 and Tit 2 1 " 14 , which shows 
that the teaching will include moral and doctrinal instruction. 

14. x a p l '°"f AaT °s] an individual capacity with external recog- 
nition. The gift of authority by the Society strengthens the 
individual's power and confidence : cf. 3 13 . Here the gift com- 
bines the capacity to preach himself and the authority to control 


C&66T,] cf. I Co I2 7ff -, 2 Co I2 7 . 

8ia Trpo4>T}Te£as] Possibly " through " the gift of prophecy 
given to Timothy himself, which carried with it the lesser xupioyi.a 
(Pelag. Ambros.) ; but Timothy is never elsewhere treated as a 
prophet, hence, almost certainly, through the utterance of some 
prophet or prophets ; cf. i 18 . 

|xct emfleae'ws k.t.A..] This may well have been combined 
with the laying on of the Apostle's hands, 2 Ti i 6 ; but here stress 
is laid on the action of the presbyters, because Timothy has to 
exercise discipline over them ( 13 5 17 " 25 ). They have themselves 
recognized your authority. 

When and where was this gift given ? Either at Lystra on 
the first choice of Timothy as minister (so Hort, Christian 
Ecclesia, p. 187, and, more doubtfully, Ramsay, Expositor, 1910, 
p. 325), or at Ephesus when left there by St. Paul. The latter 
suits this context better. 

To what office ? The laying on of the hands of the presby- 
ters would, if later usage is a guide, point to the presbyterate : 
cf. The Egyptian Ch. O. (Connolly, pp. 178, 179); but it might 
be to an "overseership," a presbyter being associated sometimes 
with the bishops in the ordination of a bishop : cf. Wordsworth, 
Ministry of Grace, p. 167. For the very doubtful tradition that 
at Alexandria presbyters alone consecrated a bishop, vid. C. H. 
Turner, in Cambridge Mediaeval History, i. pp. 155-61. 

15. fxeXe'Ta] either "meditate upon" (A.V.); cf. Seneca, 
Ep. 16, "hoc quod liquet firmandum et altius cotidiana medi- 
tatione figendum est " (Wetstein), and Darwin's advice to G. J. 
Romanes — "Always cultivate the habit of meditation." 

Or, " practice " ; cf. fxeXtrav Te^vr/v. Make this your " pro- 
fession," cf. 5 13 fxavOavovaiv : and for the whole verse, Epict. 
i. I. 25, ravra eSei /xekerai' tovs <j>i\cxro(povvTa.<;, ravra ko.0' rjp.ipav 
ypdfaiv, iv TOVT019 yv/xvd^a-OaL (Field, Ot. Norvic. ad loc). 

iv tootois ict0i] an unusual phrase, picking up the duties and 
qualities enumerated above 12 iv, iv, iv, iv, iv. Cf. Hor. 
Ep. 1. i. n, "omnis in hoc sum." ttpokotttj, cf. Phil i 12 - 25 : a 
favourite word in Stoic writers of a pupil's progress in philosophy. 
Bonhoffer, Epict. p. 128. -naoiv : so that no one may despise 
thee 12 . 

16. eTTcxe] Give heed to, keep an eye upon (cf. Lk 14 7 , 
Acts 3 5 ) thy own life and the teaching which you (Qv. and 
Others, cf 1:i ) give. Cf. Acts 20^ Trpoaix^c iavro7<; Kal irdvTi tw 


CToiaasJ cf. I 15 2 15 4 10 . aeauToc, cf. 1 Co 9 27 . Kal tou9 
dKOuorTas, cf. Jn lO 9 81 iftov idv Tts ( =7rot/x?;i') tiaiXOy, (TwOy/aerM 
(himself) *ai ticrtXcuo-CTai «a! e^cAevcrtTOi Kal vo/xrjv evpr}(T€L (for 
his sheep 1 ). 

V. 1, 2.] I TIMOTHY 55 

v. 1-vi. 2. Advice to Timothy how to deal with various 
classes in the Church : older men and younger men ( 1 ), older 
and younger women ( 2 ), widows ( 3 ' 16 ), presbyters ( 17 ~ 25 ), slaves (6 1 - 2 ). 

"Those who hear thee" (4 16 ) are now subdivided : there is 
no single line of division : it is partly age, partly official position 
in the Church, partly social status ; but two thoughts are common 
to the section, (i) The respect due to all, as members of the 
Christian family: cf. 5 1,2,s (rt/J-a), 17 ((WA^s Tip.rj<s), 6 1 (-7rdo-r}<; 
Tifj.r}s). There must be honour paid to real need, to good service, 
to social position. The thought of the family is carried on from 
3 15 4 6 (where see notes) : cf. Lk 8 21 pr\rr]p pov kol dScX^oi fxov 
ovtol dcriv ol tov Xoyov tov Oeov dKOuo^Tes Kat 7rotowT€? : Jn I9 26 - 27 . 

(ii) The importance of winning respect among their pagan 
neighbours, cf. 5 7, 8 - 14 6 1 . Wetstein's notes on the whole passage 
illustrating the various commands from Greek and Roman writers 
are most illuminating in this respect. 

Cf. Titus c. 2 throughout, which deals with the same problem 
from the point of view of the teaching to be given to each class. 

1, 2. Paraphrase. If you have to correct any, suit your 
correction to their age. Never sharply chide an older man, but 
appeal to him as you would to your own father ; to younger men 
as to brothers ; older women treat as mothers ; younger women as 
sisters, with purity of thought and speech and deed. 

irpe<T{3uTe'pw] cf. Lev 19 32 "Thou shalt honour the face of the 
old man " ; Ecclus 8 6 " Dishonour not a man in his old age " 
(but note the difference of motive), " for some of us also are 
waxing old." 

jult) cirnrXrjlTjs] cf. py ir\i]KTrjv, 3 s , Tit i 7 note, and Hierocles 
ap. Stob. Flor. T. lxxix. 53, cl ti irov yevoiVTO irapafiapTauovTCS, 
iTravopOwreov fiev, dAA' ov yaer' eTnir\i]$ ews . . . KaOdirep edos 7rpos 
tovs i\a.TTova<; rj icrovs irouiv, dAA.' d>s fxera Trapai<\r]creii)S (Field, Ot. 
Norv. ad loc). 

<&9 iraTe'pa] cf. Plato, Legg. p. 879 C, tov 8k irpoixovra eiKoaiv 
fjXiKias treo-iv appeva 17 6r)\vv vo/j.i£wv ws iraripa t) fx-qripa ouvXa- 
(3(.la6ia. Aul. Gell. ii. 15, "majores natu a minoribus colebantur 
ad Deum prope et parentum vicem " (Wetstein). " One who has 
been familiar with the ordinary Greek usage in modern times 
can feel no doubt that these verses imply that Timothy should 
actually address men and women older than himself by the titles 
'father' and 'mother,' while he was advised to salute those 
who were approximately of the same age with himself as 
'brother' and 'sister'" (Ramsay, Expositor, 1910, p. 326). 

2. ws jiTjT^pas] cf. Ro 16 13 " his mother and mine." 

iv irdo-T] dyveia] cf. Mt 5 27ff \ Wetstein quotes no illustration 
of this command. 


3-16. The care for widows, based on natural sympathy for 
suffering (ttjv a-ihrjpav 1-779 \VP ( ^ Ka/xivov, Chrys. de Sacerd. i. 2), was 
characteristic of the Jews (cf. Ps 68 6 , Dt io 18 24 17 , Is 1 17 , Lk 2 37 ) 
and carried on at once by the Christian Church (Acts 6 1 , Jas i 27 ; 
Ign. Smyrn. 6, with Lightfoot's note). They received of the 
alms of the Church (Justin M. Apol. i. 67), and were specially 
commended to the bishop's care (Ign. ad Polyc. 4). A common 
instinct drew them together, and they were grouped as a body 
(Acts 9 39 - 41 7rao-<n at xVP at ) occupied in deeds of kindness to the 
poor (id.). At some time a formal list (/caraAoyos, cf. 9 ; "vidua- 
tus," Tert. de Virg. v. 9) was made of them, and there were two 
classes of them, one objects of honour and charity, the other 
active officials of the Church ; cf. Eg. Ch. Order, pp. 180, 189 
Hippol. Canons, 59, 157, and most fully for the later details 
Test. Bom. JV. 40-43 (with notes by Maclean and Cooper) 
Const. Apol. Hi. 1-3 ; St. Chrys. de Sacerdot. iii. 16; Diet. Christ. 
Antiqq. s.v. ; Wordsworth, Ministry of Grace, pp. 264-74. 

The exact status implied here is not clear. A formal list 
is assumed to exist ( 9 ) : there is a danger that unworthy recipients 
of charity will be admitted, and the main purpose of the writer is 
to control applicants, to exclude rather than to include (*• s - 16 ) : 
some have already been untrue to their ideal ( 1? - 15 ). These 
facts imply some lapse of time. On the other hand, there are 
more detailed regulations for the qualifications of a widow than 
there were for bishop or deacon, as if the order were not yet 
fully established ; and there is a more definite recommendation 
of second marriages than would have been likely in the 2nd 
century. It is also not clear whether two classes are implied 
here : (a) recipients of charity, not included in any list but dealt 
with as necessity arose ( 48 ), and (b) active officials busied with 
• leeds of kindness ( 9 " 15 ). This is possible, though we might expect 
such a distinction to have been more clearly marked at v. 9 . 

The care of widows would be required very early, and all 
that is laid down here would be possible in a church that had 
been founded for ten years. 

Paraphrase. In dealing with widows, distinguish between 
those who have any to support them and those who have not. To 
the last give official recognition and support ; but if any have 
children or grandchildren, let these learn their first lessons in 
true piety by respect for their own family, and make due return 
to their forbears, for this is acceptable in God's sight. But one 
who is really a widow and left entirely alone in the world has 
only God to trust in, and remains constant in her prayers and 
supplications evening and morning : whereas a widow who lives 
a life of pleasure and self-indulgence is no better than a living 
corpse. TTnnd o n to them thr^e instructions, that none of them 

V. 3.] I TIMOTHY 57 

may be liable to censure. But any Christian who makes no 
provision for his own kith and kin, especially those who live 
under his own roof, thereby gives the lie to the Christian faith 
and is worse than his heathen neighbours. 

There is another distinction to be made. You must have an 
official list for widows in the service of the Church, and no one 
should be put on this list unless she is at least sixty years old, 
and has proved herself faithful to her husband : she must be one 
of whom her neighbours speak well for her kind actions, if she 
has brought up children carefully, if she has shown hospitality to 
strangers, if she has with her own hands washed the feet of God's 
people on their travels, if she has relieved those in trouble — in a 
word, if she has at all times thrown her whole heart into good 

But do not put on your list of widows any one younger than 
sixty. For such, whenever they chafe and fret against the re- 
strictions which their allegiance to Christ involves, wish to marry 
and so expose themselves to censure as being untrue to their first 
devotion to Him. Nay, more than that, they also train them- 
selves to be nothing better than idlers, as they gad about from 
house to house : yes, not only idlers but gossips and busybodies, 
rhattering about things on which it is better to be silent. It is 
my wish therefore that younger women should marry, bear 
children, rule their households, and so give no occasion to any 
enemy to abuse the Church. For, short as the time has been, 
yet some have already turned aside from their allegiance to 
Christ to be followers of Satan. 

One word more. If any such woman has any widows in her 
household, she should, as I have already said about men, support 
them herself and not let the expense fall on the Church funds : 
they are needed for the support of those who are widows in the 
fullest sense, with no one to support them. 

Parry suggests a possible displacement of the text and would 
arrange the verses in this order : 3 - 4> 8 - 7 - 6 - 6 - 9 . This would be 
more natural, but is scarcely necessary. 

3. Tip.a] " Show due respect and honour to " (cf. vv. 1 - 2 and 
6 1 ). Such respect would include (a) sustenance when needed. 
Cf. 17 , Mt 15 4 " 6 ; and Wohlenberg aptly quotes Horn. //. 12. 310. 
YXavKe, tlyj St) vwi rer ijxi^/x€a6a. p.a\tcna eSpy T€ npiacriv t rj8i 
7rXeiois 8€7raccro"iv ; 

{b) Perhaps also a special seat in the meetings and rank in 
the Church hierarchy; cf. Origen, in Joanneni,\\. p. 412 (Lom- 
matzsch), 17 /caTaAcyo/xeVr? eis iKKXrjo-iaaTiKrjv TLftrjv \ijpa. Condi. 
Laodic. Canon 11, at TrpoKaO-qpivai: but it must not be limited 
to these. Respect would be equally due to widows not supported 
by the Church, cf. 4 ; cf. Hippol. Canons, 59, " Viduis propter 


copiosas orationes, infirmorum curam et frequens jejunium 
prxcipuus honor tribuatur." 

tcis ovtws] in contrast to (a) any who have friends who 
can support them 4 ; (b) any who live self-indulgent lives, who 
deserve neither support nor respect 6 . 

4. euo-ePete] " pie tractare " (Anibros.) rarely applied to human 
beings, though evae/Sua was used of loyalty to the Emperor (cf. 2 2 
note, and vid. M.M. s.v.) : here irpdrov suggests deeper lessons to 
be learnt afterwards. Let them learn their first lessons in cvcrefteia 
in their treatment of their own parents : then they will know how 
to reverence God's family (cf. 3 15 , supra l - 2 ) and God Himself; 
cf. note on 8 . 

liavQavtTUiaav] what is the nominative? Possibly "such 
widows " making return to their forbears by due treatment of 
their own children or grandchildren (Chrys. Thdt. Pelag. Holtz- 
raann, Wohlenberg), but more probably " such children and 
grandchildren" as TcVva ^ l/cyova lead up more naturally to tois 
7r/3oydi'ois, and this gives a better antithesis to v. 5 , and is more in 
accordance with the whole drift of the paragraph which is about 
the support of widows rather than their duties (so Theod.-Mops. 
Bengel, Liddon, von Soden). For the sense of this filial duty 
in the pagan world, cf. Eur. Or. 462-69, /ph. in Aul. 1228; 
Demosth. C. Aristog. I, eyw yap dirio~TOV /cai 0eois i)(0pov, ov p.6vov 
dv#pco7rois, viro\a.[xf3dv(i) rbv twv yove'wv dfjakovvra, and Other 
illustrations in Wetstein. 

dfj,oipds] The plural is common (even when speaking of one 
person ; cf. Eur. Or. I.e. airi&uK dp.oi/3d<; ov xaXds) ; cf. Inscr. 
Cagftat. iv. 293, ii. 39, Kop,i£6p,evo<; t5>v evepyeo-Lwv d£tas tos d/A0i/3d? 

(M.M. s.v.). 

5. ical'u>p.eVir]] cf. 4 Mac 16 10 17 7roXt':rat5 Kal KaXAiVai; 
yvvr] XVP a KCLL f^ovr} Ti-okv8pr)vo<;. 

Tals Se^aeaiv] the prayers, i.e. those at the meetings of the 
Church (cf. Lk 2 37 rj ovk dc/xferraro d-rrb tov Upov v^crmais Kal 
Serjaea-L Xarpevovcra), or those prescribed for widows to say in 
private. Hymns of praise for widows to say at night and at 
dawn are given in full in Test. Dom. JV. c. 43. 

6. o-TraTaXdiCTa] probably akin to (nrdw, to suck down, hence 
to live luxuriously, self-indulgently, often combined with rpvepdv. 
cf. Jas 5 5 , Ezek 16 49 iv Tr\r)o-p.ovfj aproiv Kal iv tvQ-qvia. io'irardXaiv 
air!] Kal at dvyartpes airf)*; : Prov 29 21 KaTacnraTaXdv. Hermas, 
Sim. vi. 1 ; Barn. x. 3; Ps.-Chrys. de poena, ix. 277 E, 6 o-n-aTa- 
Xt'crrv;? eVcuos of Dives in Lk 16 19 . For these and other illustra- 
tions, cf. Hort on Jas. ubi sup. and Add. Note, p. 107. Vulg. 
"qua? in deliciis est"; Th.-Mops. "solis epulis et deliciis vacare 

^wcra Te'Gi/TjKc] possibly suggested by Lk 15 24 vck^os ty ko.1 

V. 8-9.] I TIMOTHY 59 

e'C^o-e (Resch), but the thought is common ; cf. Rev 3 1 ovo/xa 

e^eis on £t/s kcu i'€Kpos €t : Hermas, Sim. vi. C. 2, tu>v tolovtwv 17 

£to?7 6ava.To% ia-Tiv : Juv. viii. 85, " Dignus morte perit, ccenet licet 
ostrea centum Gaurana"; Cic. ad Att. xii. 2, "Homini non recta 
sed voluptaria quserenti nonne /?e/3iWai ? " (cf. Wetstein for other 
illustrations). So Dante sees in hell the soul of Friar Alberigo 
whose body is still on earth {Inf. xxxiii.). 

8. et %i -us . . . 00 Trpoyoei]. This command takes up again 
the command of 4 , showing that the duty of children or grand- 
children was part of a general law of Christian duty. It may 
include the duty of a Christian providing for his widow and 
children in case of his death (so Hofmann and Wohlenberg ; cf. 
Judith 8 7 and the requirement of Jewish Law, that a husband 
should always so provide for his widow at the time of marriage, 
vid. Jewish Encyclopaedia, s.v. Ketubah), but it cannot be limited to 
that. There is an interesting analogy to this argument in Philo, 
de Decalogo, § 23, who argues that men who neglect their parents 
are worse than storks, who show evo-efieia (cf. 5 supra) towards 
them and provide for them in their old age ; and he concludes 
afxrj-^avov 8' eucrej3€icr0cu tov aoparov vrro twv ets tovs ificpaveis Kai 
iyyvs ovras aaefiouvTW. 

oikcicok, probably a narrower circle than 1S1W (for [xaXia-ra 
cf. 4 10 , Gal 6 10 ), his relations, and especially any who are still 
members of his household ; but the two may refer to the same 
persons, those who are his own kin and most closely intimate 
with him (Expositor, Jan. 1922). 

ttjc tna-nv r\pvr]rai (cf. Tit i 16 ), he has been untrue to the 
Christian faith, which requires honour for parents as part of the 
Christian duty. 

(xtucttou x e W >&,v '] ( a ) Because unbelievers perform the duty ; 
cf. Eur. Fragm. 852 (Nauck) : 

ocrns Sc Tto cpvaavTe fir} rifxav 6£\zi 

fir) fioi yevoLTO fjajre (rvvOvrrfs #€ots 

firjT iv OaXdcrcrrj koivottXovv crreAA.01 cr/ca<£os. 

(b) Because he has not only the law of nature but the law of 
Christ to guide him, cf. Gal 6 2 - 10 . For similar appeal to heathen 
morality, cf. Ro 2 14 , 1 Co 5 1 , Phil 4 s ; and for the same a fortiori 
argument, Jn 19 11 . 

9. KaTaXeyeVSa) (oar. key. in N.T.) placed on a list of those 
who were pledged (cf. iricrnv, 12 ) to life-long widowhood. 

irutv e^YJKocTa] when the desire for marriage 12 would have 
passed; the age fixed by Plato for men and women to become 
priests and priestesses in his ideal state (Laws, p. 759 D), and 
regarded by Orientals as the time for retiring from the world for 
quiet contemplation (Ramsay, Expositor, 1910, p. 439). 


10. lt>bs di'Spos ywf{] cf. 3 2 note. The arguments for trans- 
lating "married only once" are stronger in this case, because of 
the dislike of " nuptiae secundae " and the praise of the " univira " 
or "virginea" both in the Jewish (Judith 16 22 , Lk 2 36 ) and in 
the heathen world (cf. Tert. ad Uxor. i. c. 6, De Monog. c. 17, 
and illustrations in Wetstein). Yet the permission to remarry 14 
points the other way ; the writer would scarcely exclude from 
the official list a widow who on his advice had remarried and 
again become a widow. Hence " faithful to one man " remains 
possible. So Thd.-Mops. Thdt. to o-wcppo'vws iv ydp.w /Siovy 
vo/xoOerd: Ramsay and many modern Commentators. 

eTeKyoTpoifjTjcrei'] " vel suos vel alienos" (Bengel); the context 
(epy. KaX. p,apTup.) suggests something that goes beyond the 
duties of her own home ; and Church widows later had the 
charge of orphans, Herm. A/and. viii. There may be implied — 
if she has not exposed her children, but brought them up 

c^ei'oSoxTio-ei'] cf. 3 2 <f>i\6$evov, note, Acts 16 15 , Heb 13 2 . 
Chrys. ad loc. <Ls airbv Se^o/xivr) rbv XpioroV. 

ei dyiwe TToSas eVuf/cv] cf. I S 25 41 , Lk 7 44 , Jn 13 14 . 

el . . . €Trif]KoXou0r)(Tev'] " If she has followed up thoroughly 
(eVi) every good work," summing up the preceding and expand- 
ing it to include all good tasks (epyw dyaOw), not merely those 
that stand out in the eyes of the world (Ipyois koAoIs). Cf. Plato, 
Rep. 3 7 o B, ardyKT] rov irpaTTOvTa. tw Trpa.TTop.ivu iiranaXovOziv p-q 
iv irapepyov p.epei (Wohlenberg), and illustrations from the papyri, 
ap. M.M. s.v. There may also be the new point — "if she has 
helped in the good works which others have begun" (Liddon), 
but this would probably have been more clearly expressed. 

KdTaorpTji'i.dcrGdo-i (dVaf Acy., but cf. crTprjvidv, Rev 18 9 ; (rrprjvos, 
Rev 18 3 , 2 K 19 28 used of the Assyrian king, to orpT/vos aov 
Avifiq iv tois oicri p.ov), to grow physically restless and so restive 
against the limitations of Christian widowhood; Apost. Const. 

ill. I, 7rpo(pd(T€L rov /at) hvvao-Qai Kparetv rrj<; aKp.rj<;. 

12. Kpip.a] liable to severe judgment, i.e. primarily of men 
(cf. 14 ), though the thought of the divine judgment lies in the 
background, cf. 24 ; Apost. Const, iii. 1, Xoyov icpi^et t<3 6cw. 

tt]^ TrpoiTTjt' tt'mttiv (cf. Rev 2 4 tt)i' ayaTrrjv tt)v irpioTrjv, 2 5 to. 

irptoTo. tpya), the original impulse of faith which led her to join the 
widows ; or more exactly "the first troth " or " promise of allegi- 
ance " made when she joined, ttjv o-wOqK-qv Ac'ya, Chrys. " primam 
fidem susocptae viduitatis," Tert de Monog. 13. on <n\v kavr-q^ 
ivayytXiav ovk i<f>v\.n£e, Apost. Const, iii. 1 (cc. 1-3 are an 
expansion and interesting later comment on this section). Cf. 
Ps I4 4 6 6p.vvmv rep ir\r](riov avrov /cat ovk dOerwv. 

13. dpyal p.ayfldi'ouo-i] " they learn to be idle," an unusual 

V. 13-16.] I TIMOTHY 6\ 

construction, but found in the technical phrase of learning a 
profession ; cf. 7raXaio-rr/s fiavOdvctv, la-rpos fia.v6d.vciv, Chrys. vri. 
p. 699 A, ix. p. 259 B (Field, Otium Norvic. ad loc). Hence it is 
unnecessary to suppose that clvai has dropped out of the text 
(Blass, N.T. Gr. § 73), or to conjecture \av6dvovo-t (Hitzig). 

(jLai/Sdi/ouo-i] cf. 2 Ti 3 7 irdvTorc fiav6dvovra, and contrast 
Slip. 2 11 61' TfO-vyiq. fxa\6avCTw. 

14. vewTe'pas] i.e. xVP a<s U > "juvenculas viduas," Tert. ubi 
sup. ; though, perhaps, not limited to them (von Soden), cf. 

Tit 2 4 - 5 . 

olKo&eCTTTOTele] "The application of the word to a wife implies 
the new and improved position which was secured to women by 
the Gospel" (Liddon), but oiKoSe'o-Troiva is found in Plutarch and 
other non-Christian writers. 

tw dyTiKeifxeVu] Any human opponent of the Gospel, anxious 
to use a scandal as a means of discrediting the Church (cf. 3 7 6 1 , 
Tit 2 5,8 , 1 Co 16 9 ); or perhaps " The Adversary," i.e. Satan, as 
in (Philo) Bibl. Ant. xlv. 6, the human adversary being thought 
of as his agent. 

15. r\ht]] cf. ovtw Taxc'ws, Gal I 6 ; c^crpd-n-rjaav, cf. I 6 , turned 
out of the true path (cf. the " Two Ways ") from following the 
true leader (Mt 16' 24 fins 6c\u 6iricru> fxov ck6*iv) to follow false 

teachers (Acts 20 80 tov diroa-jrav tovs fia6r)Td<; OTricru) avrwv), nay, 

the great opponent himself, i.e. by second marriage after the 
promise of perpetual widowhood; or by such lives as those 
described in 13 , cf. 2 Ti 3 s . 

16. et tis mcrrr]] The general principle (cf. 4 and 8 ) is re- 
asserted and applied to women, who have just been thought of as 
managing households ( 14 ). Such a woman may have a widowed 
mother, or grandmother, or daughter, or even servant in her 


17-25. Discipline over presbyters. 

(a) Reward for faithful work, 17 - 18 - 25 . 

(b) Censure for faults, 1922 - 24 . 
Personal digression, 23 . 

Cf. Apost. Const, ii. 6 sqq. Apost. Canon 74, 75 for later 
expansion of these rules ; and for the spirit in which the discipline 
was exercised, cf. Tert. Apol 39, "judicatur magno cum pondere, 
ut apud certos de Dei conspectu, summumque futuri judicii 
praejudicium est." 

Paraphrase. Let such presbyters as have presided well be 
treated by the Church as deserving of yet greater honour and 
more ample support, especially those who take pains with 
preaching and teaching, for Scripture lays down the definite 
command, " Thou shalt not muzzle an ox when treading out 
corn," and the Lord Himself has said, " The labourer is worthy 


of his wages." If an accusation is brought against any presbyter, 
refuse to listen to it unless it is supported by two or three 
witnesses. But those presbyters who are proved guilty rebuke 
before all, that the rest may fear to imitate them. When you 
act as judge, keep before yourself the thought of the last judg- 
ment, of (iod, of Jesus Christ, of the chosen angels; and care- 
fully observe these rules, never making up your mind beforehand, 
never acting out of favouritism. If you have passed censure on 
any one, do not be over hasty in remitting the penalty ; do not 
let your own good name be soiled by contact with the sins of 
others; keep your own life pure and untarnished. You have 
done so hitherto and have with that view abstained from wine, 
but I would advise you no longer to keep this rule ; take wine 
sparingly, as your digestion is weak and you are so often ill. 
Such weakness may impair your judgment. In your decisions 
as judge you will need careful patience ; in some cases, no doubt, 
the sins are patent to everybody and lead you by the hand to a 
decision, but in others they only appear after investigation. In 
the same way excellent actions are, as a rule, patent to everybody, 
and those that are not cannot in the end remain hidden. 

17. irpeo-puTe'poi] not of age, but of official position : appar- 
ently the same as that of the e7rio-/co7ros, cf. 3 2 (8i8o.ktik6v) 3 5 

( Tt pdlCTTafXiVOv). 

SittXtjs Tipjs] in the widest sense "honour," "respect" 
( 3 note, 6 1 ; cf. Didache, 4, n^o-eis avrbv d>s Kvpiov : Apost. Const. 
ii. 28, Ti.fx.av 8i<i twv TrpoicTT<i)T<j)v KvpLov tov 6t6v) ; but such respect 
has to show itself through material support from the offerings of 
the faithful; cf. Apost. Ch. Order, 1 2, n^creis avrbv . . . £ K tov 
ttovov tw \updv (tov : hence 0WA.17S may be quite literal, twice 
the amount of firstfruits (cf. Didache, c. 13) that is given to 
others, perhaps especially twice that given to widows ( 3 - 16 , cf. 
Apost. Const, ii. 28, ocrov 8' eKao-r^ rwv Trpeo-(3vTi8u>v oiSorcu, 8iir\ovv 
8i86a-6<ii tois SiaKoVois . . . tot€ 8e TrpecrfivTepOLS . . . SnrXrj /cai 
auroi9 d.<popi.^€0-8u) rj ixolpa . . . £i<do~TU) ow d^tw/xaTi 01 AaiVoi tt/v 
irpoo-rjKovo-av n/xr/v veyu.£Tcoo"av rot? Sotxacri Kal ttj Kara tov i3iov 
ivTpoirrj). Cf. Wetstein for illustrations of double pay given to 
soldiers who had done good service. 

ol KomwfTes] distinguishes those presbyters who teach from 
those who only preside ; or, perhaps, those who take special 
pain< from those who do not; cf. II 2 6 . 

18. poOe k.t.X.] Dt 25 4 , quoted by St. Paul in 1 Co q 9 . 
a£ios k.t.A..] Lk io 7 . The analogy of 1 Co o 9-14 ourw koX 6 

Kvpws Sierafev, makes it clear that this is quoted not as a well- 
known proverb, but as a saying of the Lord. As such it might 
be known to the writer orally, or possibly in the Lucan copy of 
Q (tov, Lk. ; but tt}<; Tpo<f>iis, Mt.). In the latter case it 

V. 18-22.] I TIMOTHY 63 

might be included under the introductory phrase 17 ypa<p-q, and 
would be the earliest instance of the Lord's words being quoted 
as "Scripture." 

19. em 8u'o . . . fiapTupw/j The words were omitted in some 
MSS known to Jerome, but in no extant MS, and are necessary 
to the context. Perhaps " Do not let an accusation be brought 
before you in private, unless two or three witnesses are present 
with you to hear it " (Holtzmann, Wohlenberg, cf. Apost. Canon 
74, liriaKOTrov KOLTr]yopr]8evTa liri nvt irapd d$toTTLaT(x)V avSpwTriov 

KaXfio-Bai avrov avdyKaiov), where the trial follows : but more 
probably it refers to the actual trial, a short phrase equivalent to 
eVt (TTopaTos Svo k.t.X., " unless two or three support the charge 
with their evidence " — the rule of Jewish law (Dt 19 15 ) taken up 
by our Lord (Mt 18 16 ), by St. Paul (2 Co 13 1 ), and later applied 
to a charge against an Ittlo-kottos, Apost. Canon 75, which limits 
the witnesses to orthodox Christians, cis p.aprvpiav t^/v kolt 
iirio-KOTrov atpertKOV p.7] TrpooSexzo-dai, dXXa p.r)$k 7ti(ttwv eva p.6vov. 

20. tous dp.apTdi'orras] perhaps " those who persist in sin " 
(present partic), cf. Tit 3 11 . The context limits this and ttoVtcov 
and ol konroi to presbyters. 

21. Cf. II 4 1 , 1 Th 3 1S . The appeal is to the thought of 
those who will take part in the final judgment (Mt 25 31 ), with 
the double suggestion — (a) Judge, as one who has to represent 
on earth the Divine Judge in heaven, cf. Mt 18 18 , and Tertullian, 
Apol. 39, quoted on p. 61. (0) Judge, as one who will have him- 
self to be judged for his actions as judge. 

tw ekX. dyy.] cf. Odes of Solomon, 4. 8, " the elect arch- 
angels." Test. XII Patr. Levi 19, p.dprv<i icrrl Kvpios kou 
p.dpTvpe<; ol ayycXoi avrov: 4 Esdr 16 68 " quomodo absconders 
peccata vestra coram Deo et angelis ejus." They are " elect " 
in contrast to the fallen angels ; but the main thought is "chosen 
to share in the judgment " ; cf. Charles, Rev 14 10 , and w e/<A.€K- 
tm' Iv 'Pwp.rj SiKacrrwv, OGIS. 499 s (M.M. S.V.). 

22. x e ^P a s cTTiTiOei] Either " ordain no one hastily " : the need 
of discipline over presbyters suggests the importance of great 
care at ordination to prevent subsequent troubles : he must be 
careful to keep his hands quite clean, to allow no suspicion of 
favouritism or of condoning evil, lest he be tarred with the brush 
of others' sins. An interesting expansion of this will be found 
in Chrys. de Sacerd. iv. 374-78. This is supported by 3 10 and 
the use of x«p ai > €7rm'0evai in the N.T. (so all the Greek commen- 
tators, von Soden), 1 but it is not very appropriate to the context. 

1 Wetstein quotes, to illustrate the thought, Isocrates, ad Demonic, § 38, 
eh apxh" Karaaradeis fi-qd^vi. XP& irovrtpQ irpbs t&? SioiK-qaeLS' S>v yhp flv inelvoi 
afidprot., jot tols alrlas dvaOrjiroviTiv. Hor. Ep. i. 18. 77, " Qualem commendes 
etiam atque etiam aspice, ne mox Incutiant aliena tibi peccata pudorem." 


Or, more probably, after you have passed judgment, do not be 
hasty in revoking it and receiving the offender back again into 
communion ; cf. Jas 5 15 , 2 Co 2 ' 11 . This was done later by laying 
mi of hands; cf. Cyprian, Ep. 74. § 12, "hos enim oportet cum 
redeunt acta paenitentia per manus impositionem solam recipi." 
Eusebius, H.E. vii. 2 (who speaks of it as a ■koXo.iov e#os for 
receiving heretics into the Church) ; Apost. Const, ii. 18 (of any 

penitent) x €i P°@ eT '] a ' a s aurov ea Xolttov tivai iv tw ttoi[j.viw, ib. 4 1 

and 43. This suits better the context, which is one of discipline, 
and also the following command against being implicated in the 
sins of others ; cf. De Aleatoribus, % 1, " salutari doctrina admone- 
mur ne, dum delinquentibus adsidue ignoscimus, ipsi cum eis 
pariter torqueamur" (so Hammond, Ellicott, Hort {Christian 
Ecclesia, p. 214), Chase [Confirmation in the Apostolic Age, 
p. 65), Holtzmann). 

23. dyyoe] of personal purity ; cf. 4 12 5 2 , with perhaps a 
wider reference, free from all contact with evil and the sins of 
others; cf. Apost. Const, ii. 17. 

uSpoiroTeif] here only in N.T., but Dan i 12 (LXX); and in 
classical authors, cf. Harrison, p. 165. This suggests that Timothy 
had adopted the rule of entire abstinence from wine, whether for 
example's sake or from ascetic reasons ; cf. Dan i 12 ; Philo, de 
Vit. C, p. 477 of the Therapeutae. Similar advice is given for 
the bishop in Test. D. N. cc. 22 and 31 ; also cf. Epict. iii. 13. 
21, and Hillard aptly quotes G. Herbert, A Priest to the Temple, 
c. x. " It may be added, not for emboldening the unruly but for 
the comfort of the weak, that not only sickness breaks the 
obligations of fasting, but also sickliness. For it is as unnatural 
to do anything that leads me to a sickness to which I am inclined, 
as not to get out of that sickness when I am in it, by any diet." 

8id toc OTojj.axoi'] cf. Libanius, Ep. 1578, iriirTaiKe koX 6 

CTTO/Xa^OS Tai? CTVV€)(€CriV vS/307TO<TICUS (WetStein). 

24. 25 return to the main subject, emphasizing the need of 
careful examination both for praise and for censure. TTpo8r]\oi, 
in the sight of all, cf. Heb 7 14 ; Trpodyouo-ai, cf. i 18 note ; Ep. Barn. 

4. 12, lav rj dyu#os, r) olkcuovvvt) olvtov Trporjyyjcr€Tai avrov' lav rj ttov- 
rjpos, 6 fXLcrdos tt}<; irovqpia*; efjiTrpocrOtv clvtov. Kpiaic, i.e. primarily 
Timothy's judgment, but the thought of the Divine judgment 
lies bjhind (cf. Tert. Apol. I.e. p. 61, and the Agraphon, l8ov 
uV0pcD7ros /cat to epyov clvtov : Resch, Agrapha, pp. 133, 265, 293). 

25. to. d\\ws Ixorra] i.e. not TrpoSrjXa. They cannot in the 
end be hidden, and you will be able to honour them adequately, 
rd epya tu Ka\d recalls /<a\<Ls 17 but goes beyond that instance. 

vi. 1, 2. The relation of slaves to their masters. 
Paraphrase. This duty of proper respect holds good also 

VI. 1, 2.] I TIMOTHY 65 

of the relation of slaves to their masters. Some slaves will have 
heathen masters who make their life a burden to them ; yet 
teach them to show all respect to such, lest the name of God and 
our teaching should be brought into disrepute. Others will have 
Christian masters : let such not fail in due respect, on the pretext 
that Christianity treats them and their masters as brothers ; nay, 
let them serve them all the better on the very ground that those 
who share the good service are Christians and so dear to them- 

Cf. 1 Co 7 21 , Eph 6 6 , Col 3 22 , Philem ">-", Tit 2* 10, 1 P 
2 i8-25 (perhaps known to our author). Didache, 4. 11; Ign. ad 
Polyc. 4 (apparently based On this — aXXa jur/Se avrol (pvaLOvo-Ouxrav, 
aXX' ets So£av $eov ttXIov SouAcveraxrav). Eg. C.O. p. 148 ; Hipp. 
Canon 63; Can. Apost. 81 ; Apost. Const, iv. 12, viii. 31. 

The treatment here points to an early date. No question is 
raised about using Church funds for emancipation (as in Ignatius), 
or of the relation of a slave who was to be baptized (Eg. C.O. ; 
Hipp. Can. ; Ap. Const.) or to be ordained (Can. Apost.) to his 
master. The writer has only to deal with the danger of Christian 
liberty and brotherhood being abused ; cf. 2 2 note, Gal 3 28 , 
1 Co 11 2 " 16 , and especially 1 P 2 11-18 (with Hort's notes). He 
meets it by laying stress on the respect due to all social positions 
(cf. 5 3 - 17 , 1 P 2 17 Trai/ras Ti/xijo-are), and on the higher law of love 
which binds Christians; cf. Gal 5 13 Sid t^s aydirrj^ SovXevere 
aWrjXots. The treatment falls in with the growth in the best 
heathen thought of the duty of a better treatment of slaves by 
their masters; Seneca, Ep. 47, " unus omnium parens mundus est " 

( = 6tl aSeXcpot eicri). Epict. i. 1 3, ovx avi^rj toS a8eX(pov tov aavrov 
os l^€t tov At'a Trpoyovov : cf. Dill. Roman Society from Nero, p. 
117; Harnack, Expansion of Christianity, i. pp. 208-11 (Eng. 
tr.) : and of the power of slaves to confer not only service and 
duty, but freewill benefits upon their masters, Seneca, De Benefic. 
iii. 18-22. 

1. uiro £uy6V] perhaps not applied here to all slaves, but only 
to such as being under heathen masters feel their slavery as a 
yoke: cf. 1 P 2 18 ; Apost. Const, iv. 12 ; Hippol. Can. 63, "si est 
heri idololatrge servus." 

if a |UL-f^ to 01/ofjia k.t.X.] from Is 52 s (of the heathen), quoted 
by St. Paul, Ro 2 24 . Notice the higher effect of such conduct 
in Tit 2 10 Iva tt)v S1Sa.0-KaA.1a1/ /coo-uwcru'. 

2. oti &8. eicri : the reason for KaracfifioueiTOiaav, not for jut/ 
Kara^.l cf. Prov 23 s2 /at] Kara^povei on yey^/ja/ce'i' aov rf fjLrjrrjp. 

on . . . dfTiXafiPafofiefoi] The punctuation of these words 
and the exact reference of each word are uncertain, but the 
balance of the sentence seems to show that oti Tnaroi clai takes 



up 71-io-Tous and is parallel to on dStX^ot tlai, and therefore must 
refer to the masters ; and this probably carries with it the rest of 
the sentence, " because the masters who receive the benefit of 
their better service are believers and beloved." But W.-H. 
(mg.) punctuate dAAd //.SAAov SouAcucTtocrav, on 7rio"Toi €to"i /cat 
dya7T7;roi, oi tt}<; evepyeaias dvnA. (" but let the slaves, who take 
part in the benefit, serve all the better because the masters are 
believers and beloved "), and Wohlenberg punctuates dAAd fiaXXov 
SovAcueVwo-av on ttkttoL ilcri, ko.1 ayairrjToi 01 rrjs ivepyeaias di'nAayu.- 
ftavo/xtvoi (" let those who have believing masters not despise 
them because they themselves are in Christ brothers to their 
masters ; but let them serve all the better because their masters 
are believers, and those who take part in conferring kindness 
(as they would do by serving better) are always beloved ") ; but 
this destroys the parallelism between on d8eA<poi eicn. and on 


diriAafiPcu''oi] taking part in. It might either be " taking 
part in conferring" or "taking part in receiving" (cf. Mart. Polyc. 
15, cucooYa? di'reAa/?djae0a), and this suits the context best. 

rf]s euepyeo-tas] possibly " the divine cuepyeo-ta," " the unspeak- 
able gift" of 2 Co 9 15 "those who share the blessing of redemp- 
tion." Cf. Clem. Alex. Protrept. III. I, a6pu ttjv Oeiav cvepyeo-iav : 
112. I, 6 SiSdcrKaAos 6 ir\r}p(i)(Ta<; to. iravTa . . . 8r}[jLiovpyia, o~u)Tr)pia, 
evepyetrta, vo/Ao^ccria : Liturg. Jacobi ap. Brightman, L. E. and W., 
p. 41, 'Irjaovv Xpiorov criDTrjpa kou XvrpuTTjv ko.1 evtpycTrjv. Com- 
pare the frequent application of it in the Papyri to the eicpyeo-ia 
of an Emperor to his people {M.M. s.v.) ; and for the ground of 
the appeal I P3 7 airovep-ovTes TLfJirjv d)$ kou o~vyi<\-qpov6p.oi ^dpiros 

Perhaps more probably "the human kindness," not of the 
masters (Chrys. Thdt. Pelagius, von Soden, Dibelius) — as this is 
scarcely implied in the context — but of the slaves as shown by 
their better service (Hofmann, Wohlenberg, Field, etc.). Seneca, 
in a noble passage, de Beneficiis, iii. 18-21, discusses the 
question whether a slave can confer a beneficium on a master, 
and decides that he can: " quidquid est quod servilis officii 
formulam excedit, quod non ex imperio sed ex voluntate pras- 
statur, beneficium est." The Christian writer assumes it without 
discussion. Yet even if this is the central meaning, the thought 
of the divine evepyeo-ia may lie in the background : cf. Ep. Diogn. 
X. 6, ooTi? . . . iv a) /cpttcrcrioi' io~riv erepov twv iXaTTOv/xtiwi 
evepyerelv c'dcAct, . . . 0eos yutrai twi' X.ap.f3av6i>Tiov, oirros /xi/i^Tr;s 
e'ori 0£oD. 

dyaTTTjToi] they share their faith and have become beloved — 
no longer feared — by themselves: perhaps also with the sugges- 
tion " beloved of God." 

VI. 3.] I TIMOTHY 67 

3-21. Conclusion. Final warning and exhortation, returning 
to the thought and often to the very words of i 3 " 20 ; but there the 
stress was on the character of the teaching, here on the character 
of the teachers. Two contrasts underlie the whole : (a) The 
faithful and unfaithful teacher : the latter loving novelty and con- 
troversy, with his eye set on material gain ; the former pursuing 
spiritual aims, loyal to the teaching he has received, with his 
eye set on the coming of the Lord and on the life eternal, (d) 
The true and false attitude to riches : the desire for wealth, the 
source of all evil and the ruin of teachers ; the true use of wealth 
leading to a wealth of good deeds here and eternal life hereafter. 

The " words of the Lord Jesus Christ " 3 form the standard 
for the teaching, and His words about contentment and the 
danger of the desire of riches (Mt 6 24 - 34 , Mk io 23 ' 25 , Lk 12 15 - 21 
16 19 " 31 ) may lie at the back of the second contrast, though there 
is not sufficient verbal similarity to prove a literary dependence. 

3-10. Paraphrase. I go back to the warning with which I 
began. If any teacher sets himself up to teach novel doctrines and 
does not loyally adhere to sound words — I mean words that come 
from the Lord Jesus Christ Himself — and to the teaching which is 
true to real religion, such an one's head has been turned : he has 
no real knowledge : he is like a delirious patient feverishly excited 
over this small point and that, fighting with words as his only 
weapons ; and the result is envy, strife, abuse of other teachers, 
ill-natured suspicions, incessant friction between men whose minds 
have been confused and who have been deprived of the truth 
they once knew ; they have come to think of religion wholly as a 
source of gain. Aye, and religion is a source of true gain, it 
combined with a contented spirit : and we ought to be contented, 
for we can carry nothing with us when we leave the world, and that 
is why we brought nothing with us when we came into it. Nay, if 
we have food for our lifetime and a shelter and clothing, that will be 
enough for us. Whereas those who set their heart on becoming rich 
fall into temptations, into dangerous positions, into many desires 
which are foolish and worse than foolish, fatal, for they lead men to 
shipwreck and plunge them into death and destruction. For the 
love of money is proverbially the root from which the whole host 
of evils springs : and already some teachers through their craving 
for money have wandered from the safe path of the faith and have 
fallen pierced through with many a pang and many a sorrow. 

3. €Tcpo8i8.] i 3 note. irpocrepxeTai applies himself to ; cf. Epict. 
iv. 11. 24, TrpoaeX6eiv ^tXoo-o^t'a (Dibelius); but the present tense 
implies constant application and approach to the words of a living 
and speaking master, and for one already a teacher some word 
denoting "abiding in" would be more natural. Hence Bentley 


conj -rrpocrix* 1 fr° m l4 » ap d Tischendorf reads 7rpocre'^€Tai ; cf. 
Introd. p. xxxvii. Was the original reading ^poo-e^ei tois? 

tois tou Kopi'ou] possibly the teaching about the Lord, cf. II i 8 , 
but more probably " the teaching of the Lord." There is possibly 
an allusion to some collection of His sayings, cf. 5 18 note, 
Acts 20 85 . 

TeTu<j>wTai] 3 6 note. voadv suggested by vyiaiv. Xoyoi : he is not 
yet dead (5 6 ) but is in a dangerous state, on the way to death e ; 
cf. Plut. de Laud, propr. p. 546 f. rot? 77-cpi 86£av voo-ova-t (Wetstein), 
Chrys. de Sacerd. iv. 3, orai' 7repi Soy/xara voarj r) i/'v^^ tu voda. 
j^TjTTJaets, cf. i 4 note. Xoyopaxias (cf. II 2 U ) hair-splitting — fights 
in which words are the weapons and perhaps also the object ; 
there is no reality behind them. 

e£ uv yiveTai] for the singular cf. i 20 , II 2 18 ; Moulton, Gr. i. 
p. 58. For a similar formula cf. Didache, c. 3, §§ 2. 3. 4. 5, Ik yap 
tovtu>v a7rdi'TU)v yervaivTai <povoi . . . /xoi^eiat . . . €ibu>\o\a.Tpia 
. . . kAo7tcu . . . (3\aacpr)p.iai, which suggests that we should here 
read ytvva.Ta.1 or yeiiwTai with Ddgm 62 . 

p\aa(|)T]fj.iat] not here of God, but of their rival teachers. Imov. 

iTOV-qpai, cf. Ecclus 3 24 xmovoia irovqpa (bXicrOrjae Staiota? airwv. 

5. 8iairapaTpi.f3cu] (" conflictationes," Vulg.) persistent col- 
lisions; cf. Polyb. ii. p. 172, to. p.ev ovv Kara Kap^ScWous Kal 
'Pw/Aatovs ev V7rot/a'ais r/v 7rpos a\\i]\ovs «at 7rapaTpt/3ais. 

8ie4>0. t^ voOv] Cf. II 3 8 , Tit I 15 ; iropiapo^, cf. 5 17 - 18 , II 2 6 , 
Tit i 11 , and (Wetstein) Seneca, Ep. 108, "qui philosophiam velut 
aliquod artificium venale didicerunt." All the following truths 
can be illustrated almost verbally from classical writers (cf. 
Wetstein throughout), and they suggest a conscious modelling 
on the best Greek teaching. 

6. auTapKei'as] "sufficientia," Vulg. ; "quod sufficit," Aug. ; but 
the meaning is probably not, " if he has sufficient " (which is stated 
in 8 ), but " if combined with contentment " ; cf. Phil 4 11 , Prov 13 11 , 
o (Tvvdywv lavrw p.tT evcre/?€ias Tr\.r)6vv6r}creTai : Ps. Sol v 18 " 20 , Pirke 
Aboth iv. 3. "Who is rich? He that is contented with his lot." 

" The training of a Jewish Rabbi might be even more exacting. 
This is the path of the Torah. A morsel with salt shalt thou 
eat, thou shalt drink also water by measure, and shall sleep 
upon the ground and live a life of trouble while thou toilest in 
the Torah. If thou doest this, happy shalt thou be, and it shall 
be well with thee: happy shalt thou be in this world and it shall 
be well with thee in the world to come." Pirke Aboth vi. 4 
(Abrahams, Studies in Pharisaism and the Gospels, c. xiv.). 

■n-opio-pos pe'yas] cf. 4 8 : not only because it makes him happy 
with the little that he has; cf. 

"Contentment is a constant feast, 
He's richest who requires the least" (Barnes), 

VI. 6-10.] I TIMOTHY 69 

but because he is able to enjoy all God's gifts as gifts to himself; 
cf. Prov 1 7 6a tov ttmttov oAos 6 Kooytos Twv xprip.dTcov : Tob 4 21 , 
I Co 3 23 iravTa vfichv. OGIS. 38 3 14 ov fxovov KTrjcriv [3tfSai0T('iT-qv 
dAAa. Kan airoXavaiv r)$io~Tr]v avOpwTroLS evop.ura rrjv €uo"€/3e<.av. Tlie 

best comment on the verse will be found in T. Traherne's Medi 
tations, Century 1. 

7. Perhaps based on Job i 21 Autos yupvos i£fj\6ov i< /coiAi'as 
p,*iTpos fiov yupvos Kal aTreXevao/xat exet : cf. Philo, de off. Vict., p. 
256. 12, tov /xrjBkv ei's koo-jaov dAAa fnjSe. aeavTov ettrev^vo^ora' 
yupvos pie yap ^A0es, yupvos 1rdA.1v a7reis, but it had become almost 
proverbial ; cf. also Ecclus 5 14 ; Seneca, Ep. 102, " non licet plus 
efferre quam intuleris "; Ovid, Trist. v. 14. 12, " Nil feret ad manes 
divitis umbra suos " (Wetstein). c^evey/cttv suggests " carrying out 
in burial," Acts 5 6 . 

on (if genuine, but cf. W.-H. App. where H. suggests that it 
is an accidental repetition of " ov" in Ko'o-pov), perhaps introducing 
the quotation " for the proverb says," or implying the Divine 
ordering of birth as a preparation for the life of a stranger and 
sojourner on this earth who has to pass through death to his 
abiding city. Hillard treats on as neuter of oo-tis and translates 
"wherefore," comparing Eur. Hec. 13, o ko.C p.e yrj<; vTre^eire/juf/ev: 
cf. airb tovto, 2 Co 2 3 , Gal 2 10 . Parry, more probably, con- 
jectures ovS" on, " not to speak of being able to carry anything 
out ; " cf. Introd. p. xxxvii. 

8. SiaTpo<j>ds] perhaps "throughout life" (Sid), aKeirdo-jiaTa 
("quibus tegamur," Vulg.), clothing (cf. Gen 28 20 edv 6 Kijpios . . . 
8w [jlol dprov cpayciv Kal ip,aTiov TrepifSaXecrOaL : Diog. Laert. vi. 105 
of the Cynics, avTupKto-i ^pwp^evoi o-in'ois kol Tpi(3wo-L) (Dibelius) : 
perhaps also "shelter," "homes"; cf. Ecclus 29 21 'Apxy £00775 
v8wp kol dpros Kal ip.dnov, Kal oikos KaXvTTTOiv ao~)(r)p,oavvr]v, and 
Philo, de Vita Cotit, p. 4.77. 16, o-KeVr/s Sittov eTSos to pev iaBrj<s to 
8e oiKia (Wetstein) ; Epict. Enchir. 33, to to crwpa p.i\pi Trjs 
i/aA^s xptias 7rapaA.dp/3ave, otov Tpo<pds, 7ropa, dpiTrc^ovriv, ot/aav, 
oiVeTt'av, Marcus Aur. v. 6. 30, quoted on p. xvi. 

9. J3u0i£ouo-i] for the metaphor, cf. i 19 , and de Aleatoribus, § 1, 
"aleatores se in lacum mortis immergunt"; § 6, "aleae tabula 
est diaboli venabulum et delicti vulnus insanabile." The whole 
treatise is a comment on this verse. 

ets o\. Kal d-nrwX.] cf. 1 Co 5 5 , 2 Th 1 9 , 1 Th 5 s . The combina- 
tion (found here only) is emphatic, "loss for time and eternity." 

10. p££a] not "a root," which would suggest that the writer 
was thinking of other possible roots (which no doubt there are, 
e.g. jealousy, St. Cyprian, de zelo ac livore, 6 ; pride, Aug. in Joh. 
xxv. 16), but "the root" (cf. Field, Ot. Norvic. ad loc). 

pi'£a . . . <J>i\apyupia] again proverbial, cf. Test. XII. Pair., 
Judah, c. 19, and the Greek saying attributed sometimes to 


Bion, sometimes to Democritus, t^v (f>i\apyvpiav etvai p.r)Tp6iro\iv 
TrdvTOiv twv kclkwv, Diog. Laert. vi. 50 ; Seneca, de Clem. ii. 1, 
" alieni cupiditate, ex qua omne animi malum oritur." Ps.-Phocyl. 

42, 7] <pi\oxpy]p.ocrvvr) p-rjrr)p KaKOTrjTOS aTrdcrrj'i (WetStein and 

Dibelius). So Philo, De Judice, c. 3, warns a judge against 
being d>i\oxprjp.a.Tov oirep icrrlv bpp.r]TrjpLOV twv p.tyi<TTU)v Trapavo/xr]- 
fidrtov. The combination of this with v. 7 in Polyc. ad Phil. c. 4 
suggests literary dependence on the epistle. 

o&uecus] both actual evils and the pangs of remorse. For the 
metaphor, cf. Prov 7 23 " 27 . For illustrations, Mk io 22 dirrj\6e 

\vTrovp.evo<;' rjv yap t^oyv KTrjp.a.Ta TroWd : Acts 5 1 " 10 . For a similar 

condemnation of "wealthy Ephesus," cf. Pseudo-Heracl. Ep. 8. 
It is in his address to elders of Ephesus that St. Paul insists that 
he had coveted no man's silver or gold or apparel, Acts 20 83 . 

11-16. Paraphrase. But you, who are God's own prophet 
with a message from Him, turn your back on all such desires and 
empty discussions : nay, press forward to gain true righteousness, 
true piety, loyalty, love, endurance, and a patient forbearing 
temper. Persevere in the noblest of all contests, that o f the 
faith ; lay hold once and for all on that eternal life to which you 
were called — ay, and there were many who witnessed the noble 
profession of faith that you then made. So then I charge you 
as in the sight of that God who is the source and sustainer of 
life to all that lives, and in the sight of Christ Jesus who Himself 
when at the bar of the Roman Governor made His noble pro- 
fession, that you carefully keep the command He gave us free 
from all stain and all reproach, until the day of the appearing of 
Our Lord Jesus Christ, which at the right moment He will unveil 
to the world, who is the blessed, nay, the One only Sovereign, 
the King over all who rule kingdoms, the Lord of all who hold 
lordship over their fellows, He who alone hath in Himself im- 
mortality, who dwelleth in light to which none can approach, 
whom no eye of man ever looked upon, no nor can look upon — 
to whom be all honour and sovereignty for ever. Amen. 

Note the stress on life throughout the section. rrj<; alwvtov 
£(dt}s . . . tov £woyovovvTo<; . . . dOavaa-'iav . . . Kpdros alwviov, 
drawing the contrast with the doom of the false teachers 6\e8pov 

kgu a7rwAeiai' . 

11. ae8puTT£ 6eou] here and II 3 17 only in N.T. In the O.T. 
applied to Moses (Ps oo\ Dt 33 1 ) and to prophets (1 S 2 27 ), 
cf. 2 P i 21 01 dyioi Qeov "ivOpwrroi (v.l.). Here the thought is 
either that of the prophet with a command to carry out, cf. 14 , a 
message to deliver (cf. 20 ), or more widely (cf. II 3 17 note) of one 
who is God's soldier, "The King's Champion" (Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress, of one Great-Grace), one whose whole life is lifted above 

VI. 11-13.] I TIMOTHY 7 1 

worldly aims and devoted to God's service, "non divitiarum 
homo sed Dei" (Pelagius); cf. Clem. Alex. Quts Dives, c. 41, 
where the rich man is advised to submit to the guidance of some 
"man of God"; and Philo, de gigant. 61, Qiov Sc avOpwiroi upeis 
#cai 7rpo<f>rJTai, otrives ovk rj$iwcrav 7roA.iTetas tt}s 7rapa tg3 Kooyxw 
TU^eiv . . . to 8f alaOrjTOv ttcLv VTrcpKvif/avres eis tcV voijtov KO<rp.ov 
fieTaveo-Trjo-av kclkuOi wK-q<rav (Dibelius). The phrase is found in 
Pagan magical formulae (Nageli, p. 49). 

4>euy6 . . . Siwke] cf. II 2 22 . The virtues chosen are the 
central Christian virtues, first towards God, then towards men 
(81/c. . . . ayd.TT7jv), and those specially needed for enduring trial 
(v-rrofi.) and the opposition of false teachers (Trpainra$., cf. II 2 25 , 
and contrast 4 - 6 supra). 

TTpauirdiOeiav] here only in N.T. but found in Philo, de Abr. § 37 ; 
Ign. Trail. 8, rrjv Trpavirddetav dVaAa/?6VTes : the inner spirit of which 
wpaoTrjs is the outcome (" mansuetudinem," Vulg.; "tranquillitatem 
animi," Ambros.). Ambrosiaster draws out the incompatibility 
of the love of money with each of these virtues (" quomodo autem 
fieri potest ut avarus fidelis sit, qui operibus negat quod verbis 
fateri videtur? unde autem amator fraternitatis, cujus manus 
sunt avidae? quomodo vero patiens qui semper ad aliena se 
tendit? aut quatenus quietem animi possit habere, qui die 
nocteque aviditate cupiditatis incenditur?"); Liddon, the way in 
which these would destroy that love. 

12. dywc^ou] cf. 4 10 , II 4 7 note. 

up,o\oYT)o-as] The time is almost certainly the same as that of 
ckAt^s, i.e. baptism. That would have been his public con- 
fession (cf. Ro io 9 ) of faith in Christ. The phrase r/ k. 6/xoA.oy. 
is applied to the confession of a martyr at his death in Martyr. 
Ign. Antiochene Acts, c. 4. 

13. Cf. 5 21 . Here the appeal is to God and Christ as those 
in whom he had professed faith at Baptism, who are strong 
enough to support him in all persecution, and who will judge 
him at the final judgment. 

There may be a semi-quotation of some Baptismal form — 
faith in God, maker of all things, and in Jesus Christ, as King 
who is to come again. 

Scjoyocoon-os] used in LXX = (i) to give life (1 S 2 6 6 Kvpios 
Oavarol kcu £woyovei, Symm. Gen 3 23 ^woydvos, Symm. = Eve, 
mother of all living, Encyc. Bibl. i. p. 61); (ii) to save alive, 
Ex i 1T " 22 , Jg 8 19 etc. Hence the thought here may include (i) God 
who is the source of all life (cf. Neh g 6 av £wo7roieis rd rravTa), 
with a reminiscence of 4 4 . In this meaning it will be parallel to 
the credal expansions of the Baptismal formula ; cf. Justin M. 
Apol. i. 61, eV ov6pa.To<i tow 7raTpos twv o\wv : Iren. c. H&r. i. io, 
rov TrcrroirjKOTa tov ovpavov kcu tt)v yrjv kcu iravra Ta iv avTol<s : Tert. 


de Prmcr. 36, "unum Deum novit, creatorem universitatis." In 
Pap. Lond. 121 529 it is used of the Sun, 6 ra oA.a <rwix<»v koX 
Cmoyovwv (M.M. s.v.). (li) God who can protect you in all danger 
and persecution ; cf. 12 and 18 ; r^s dvaa-Taa-ew; v-n-6p.rr]cri<;, Chrys. 

irA n. n] not "in the time of," though that is supported by 
Ign. Trail. 9, Smyrn. 1, and expanded in Magn. 1 1 into iv Kaipw 
T77S T^yc/Aoi'ta; II. II. : but there stress is laid on the historical 
reality of the facts, which is not in question here ; here it is part 
of an appeal for courage, and corresponds to evwTnov ttoXAw 
/xaprvpwv of Timothy's own confession, hence " in the presence 
of," "at the bar of." 

tV k. ofioXoyiae] The noble profession of His Messiahship 
and the nature of His Kingdom, rqv k. p-aprvpiav would have 
been more natural, but he wishes "to mark the essential identity 
of the confession which Timothy might soon have to maintain 
with the Lord's own confession" (Hort on Rev i 2 ) and with that 
which he had already made 12 . 

14. tV erroXTJe] "The charge given thee at baptism," cf. 
2 Clem. 8, Trjpi'jaare ttjv (TapKa dyvr/v koll rr)v cr<ppayl8a acnn^.ov : 
perhaps also more widely "the whole Christian commands"; cf. 
i 4 Trj<s irapayyeXias, i 18 . St. Cyril of Jerusalem (Cat. v. 13) para- 
phrases it TT7V TvapaZi&ofxivrjv tti<jtiv. 

acnriXoy] possibly agreeing with <re (cf. Jas I 27 , 2 P 3 14 ), but 
probably with Ivrokrjv ; cf. Job 15 16 (Symm.) of the heavens, 
Eph 5 27 of the Church. The commands must be kept clear, 
not explained away, and yet presented with such tact as not to 
cause offence. 

6TTi4>akeias] cf. Tit 2 11 note. The thought of the dawning of 
light which will test the minister's work and character is pro- 
minent here ; cf. Setfa 15 , 1 Cor 4 s . 

15. tccupols 18101s] cf. Tit i 8 note. This description of God 
is full of O.T. reminiscences and is perhaps based on some 
doxology in use in the synagogue. The stress is laid on the 
supremacy of God over earthly rulers (fva p.rj 8e8oiKrj tous evrav^a 
/foo-iAeis, Chrys.) : on His sole possession of life I4 13 , and on His 
superhuman Majesty. These qualities were brought out in the 
O.T. in contrast to the heathen gods, here also in contrast to 
earthly kings, especially to the growing cult of the Roman 
Emperors. Dibelius quotes the Acts of the Scillitan Martyrs, 
"jura per genium domini nostri imperatoris," " Cognosco dom- 
inum meum, regem regum et imperatorem omnium gentium." 
The Greek metaphysical conception of God may also influence 
the description (cf. 1 11 note). 

fAdicdpios] cf. i 11 ; p.6vo$ Somcmjs, cf. i 17 , 2 Mac i 24 6 /xovos 
/3a(Tt\ev<; : 2 Mac I 2 16 tov fxeyav tov KOcrp.ov 8vvd(TTr)v, Ecclus 46 s 

TOV V\pl(TTOV 8vvd<rT7]V. 

VI. 15, 16.] I TIMOTHY 73 

6 p. tG>v (3. k.tX] Dt io 17 , Dn 4 84 , Rev 17 14 19 16 , Enoch q 4 ; 
cf. sup. i 17 note. There is perhaps an implied contrast with 
Pontius Pilate, the temporary, the unjust, delegate ; cf. Martyr. 
Polyc. 21 of Polycarp's martyrdom, a.vBvnaTs.vovTo<i Irariov 
KoSpacrTou, /^acnAevovTos Se ets tovs auovas Irjaov Xpicrroi). 

16. 6 p,6Vos ex^iv dOakaow] cf. i 17 ; Philo, de sacrif. Abelis, 
C. 30, Trepl Qtov toO dyevrjrov /cat d(f>6apTOv «at aTptirrov koli ayiou koli 
fiovov fxaKapiov (Bernard); cf. Wisd 15 3 d8eva.L aov to nparo^ 
pitfl. d^avao-tas : Deissmann, B.S., p. 293. 

4>ws oikwi'] based on Ex 33 17 " 23 . dirpoaiToi', used by Philo of 
Mount Sinai, opos . . . oVcp dirpoo-iTOv koX afiaTOV rjv, de vita 
Mosis, iii. 2. 

ov etSe^] cf. Ex 33 2 <>, Jn I 18 . 

w . . . dp.^] cf. i 17 . The thought of the First and of the 
Second Advent alike suggests a doxology to his mind. 

17-19. Advice to the rich. 

Paraphrase. I have warned teachers against the desire for 
riches ; but there are other members in your church rich in this 
world's good, and they will need your guidance. Bid them not to 
be purse-proud or conceited, not to set their hopes for hereafter on 
so uncertain a reed as riches, but on God ; and Him they should 
try to imitate ; for He has all the riches of the whole world, and 
He gives them out liberally to us men that we may enjoy them 
thoroughly ; so they should do good like Him ; they should have 
for their riches a store of good deeds : they should be quick to 
give to others, ready to share with their friends : in this way they 
store up true treasures for themselves which form a firm founda- 
tion on which they can build for the future ; such use of wealth 
will help them to lay hold of the only life that is worthy of the 

The paragraph is awkwardly placed here, breaking the con- 
nexion between 16 and 20 ; von Soden suggests that it has been 
accidentally misplaced, and should come after 2 ; but it is natural 
advice to a church in a rich city like Ephesus (cf. Ac 19 25 , which 
shows that St. Paul's teaching had been attacked there, as 
endangering the wealth of the trade); the thought may have 
been suggested by 9 - 10 ; and it is more appropriate after these 
verses than they would be after it. There may be also con- 
sciously a link with 11 " 16 in the thought of eternal life (cf. note 
there). That thought suggests to the writer's mind the special 
danger in which the rich are of losing eternal life 19 . 

The thought and language may be based on Our Lord's 
words, cf. Mt 6 19 , Lk 12 16 -' 21 16 9 . But the thoughts of the 
uncertainty of riches, of the treasure laid up in heaven by good 
use of wealth here, even that of the imitation of God in the use 


of wealth are thoroughly Jewish (cf. Philo, de Josepho, c. 43, and 
Abrahams, Studies in Pharisaism and the Gospels, c. xiv.), and 
found in pagan thought ; cf. the epitaph in Or. Henz. 6042, 
bene fac, hoc tecum feres. So Dill, Roman Society from Nero, 
p. 190, "Seneca enforces the duty of universal kindness and 
helpfulness by the example of God, who is bounteous and 
merciful even to the evil-doer" {de Benef. iv. 5, iv. 26, iv. 28), 
and p. 232, " Herodes used to say that the true use of money 
was to succour the needs of others ; riches which were guarded 
with a niggard hand were only dead wealth." Clement of Alex- 
andria's Quis Dives Salvetur is an interesting commentary on 
the section (especially c. 16), but shows no knowledge of it. 

17. fif, 6i|/T)\o4>po^^] cf. Jer o 23 , Ro n 20 12 16 , Ja i 9 " 11 2 1 " 5 ; 
Clem. Alex. Quis Dives, I, ttJs irepiovarias KaO" av-rqv iKariJs overt]? 
Xavvwcra.1 -ras i/'u^as twv KeKTrj/Atvcov. As Tairavocfrpovtiv was among 
the Greeks a term of reproach but in the Bible a virtue, so 
u»J/Ti\o<f>poi'ei»' was a term of praise and becomes a reproach 
(Wohlenberg from Hofmann). 

TJXmiceVai] cf. I Co 15 19 r/XiriKOTd lo-fiiv : Job 3 1 24 c! Xfflw 
iroXvTtXd kireiroid-qcra. The perfect tense either looks back to 
the beginning of the rich man's hopes, or possibly anticipates 
his feelings at the irapovcria. : "Alas, alas, I have placed my hopes 
on that which has failed me !" cf. II 4 8 rp/airqKoo'i. 

d8r]\<5TT)Ti] Cf. Jas i 10 , Anthol. Gr. i. 80. 19: 

orav Aoyioyxois KarafxaOw ra Trpdyfxara 

/cat ras aKCLipovs tov (3lov p.€Taarpo(pu<; 

kcli p(v/x dmaTov rfjs dvwpdXov rv)(rjs, 

7raJs toi'S Trtvrjra<i TrXovaiov; cpya^ercu 

kcu tovs e^ovras \pr]p.dTwv aTro<TTtpti, 

Tore /car i/xavrov rfj irXdvrj o~kotov/x£vos 

fx.Lcru> Ta TrdvTa rrj<; dS^Aias -^apw. (Wetstein.) 

els diToXauffn'] stronger than ei9 p-trdX-q^iv, 4 s . There is a true 
"apolaustic" life, but it comes from realizing that the simple 
blessings of nature (tov depa, to cpws, to vSiop, rd aXXa -rravra, 
Chrys.) are gifts to each from God ; cf. Traherne's Meditations, 
and Didache x. rpo<pr]v tc kou ttotoi' Iowkcis tois dvOpdiirois eis 

18. dyaGoepyeiV] like God Himself, Acts 14 17 dyadovpywv . . . 
V€Tov<; SiSovs ko1 Kmpovs KapTro<p6pov<i. 

cup-eTa&oTous, koi^w^ikous] The distinction is not clear ; either, 
quick to give away to others in charity (singulation, Bengel), cf. 
Ro 12 8 , Eph 4 28 , 1 Co i3 a , and ready to share with one's friends 
that which is one's own (cum multis, Bengel), e.g. at the dyd-n-r], 
cf. Gal 6 6 , Heb 13 16 ; or, eup.€Ta8., of action, "open-handed," 

cf. ei'yx. th tt)i' n%f\<f}r>Tr)Ta, Apost. K.O. § IQ ; KOIVOJVIKOVS, of 

VI. 18-20.] I TIMOTHY 75 

demeanour and temper, "gracious," with true sense of human 
fellowship, the antithesis of vif/rjXocppoveiv, cf. Ro 12 16 ; so Chrys. 
■n-poo-rjvels, Thdt. tous arv(pov r)6o<; e^ovras, and so frequently in 
Plutarch, who couples it with tto\itik6<; and <piXdv6p(OTro<;. For 
the Church's use of money, cf. Harnack, Expansion 0/ Christi- 
anity, Eng. tr. 1. ii. c. 3. 

19. diro0T]<7aup.] cf. Mk io 21 , Mt 6 20 . The thoughts of the 
true treasure and the true foundation lie close together in the 
Sermon on the Mount ; cf. Apost. K.O. § 21, kol yap ravra v-pwra 
Kvpt'ov (? leg. 7rapa t<3 Kvpiw) 6y]cravpl.a-[xaTa. elaiv dyaOd. Tob 4 9 
/XT] <po/3ov ttouIv iXtrjfxocxvvrjv' Bip.a yap dyaObv OrjaavpL^ws (reavTw 

ets rjp.epav dvayKr/s, suggests the emendation OifiaXiav (conj. Bos.) 
for Oe/xiXiov, or simply 6e/xa (Hitchcock, Expositor, Oct. 1919); 

cf. Ign. ad Pol. 2, to 6ep.a dcpOapata kcu £wr] cuwios. 

Ira emXdp.] cf. 12 . This true life would be laid hold of here 
and now, as they enter into the true life of love, cf. Jn 17 3 . 
ttjs orrus £wt)s, cf. 5 3 ; Clem. Alex. Quis Dives, 7, 6eov tov oVtws 

Ol'TOS. 8, To) t,7)(T0fxivfa TYjV OVTWS ^tOIJV : PhilO, de DeCal. 2, TOV OVTa 

oVtws dXrjOy] dtov. 

An interesting Rabbinic illustration is found in Bab. Bath. 
11a. It happened to Monobaz that he dispersed his wealth 
and the wealth of his fathers on alms in time of famine. His 
brethren gathered round him and said, "Thy fathers laid up 
treasure and added to their fathers' store, and dost thou waste it 
all ? " He answered, ' My fathers laid up treasure below ; I have 
laid it up above. . . . My fathers laid up treasure of Mammon ; 
I have laid up treasure of souls. . . . My fathers laid up treasure 
for this world ; I have laid up treasure for the world to come." 

20, 21. Conclusion. Very probably added by St. Paul with 

his own hand, 2 Th 3 17 , summing up the thoughts of 1 s " 11 4 1 " 10 

Paraphrase. O Timothy, it is to you that I must look. 
Remember the truth is a sacred trust which Christ has left with 
us, and He will come to ask it back. Keep it then jealously ; 
avoid all empty argumentations, all balancing of casuistical 
problems : they have nothing to do with religion, they add 
nothing to it, they spoil its simplicity, though some who falsely 
claim to special knowledge lay stress on them. These teachers, 
though they assert their proficiency in knowledge, have wholly 
missed the central truths. 

May God's grace be with you all. 

20. <S Tifi.] cf. u i 18 notes, t^ -irapaO^KTjf ; cf. II 1 12 note; 
and for this application, Didache 4. 1 3, <£uAd£eis a 7rapeXd(3e<; : 
Dem. c. Meid. p. 572, tovto yap iad' o (pyXdrreiv vp.d<; Sei, toi-s 
vop.ov<i, rov opKOv. ravr e^eO' ^/ xe '-5 °' SiKoi^ovTes oxnrepel irapaKara- 
SrjK-qv rjv dira<rLv . . . ow virdpxtiv Bel: Philo, de ehrtet. § 52, 


7rapa.Ka.Ta0rJKr]v ^Siox^fXccrrdrcov 8oyp.aTtov <f>v\d£ai p.r) Surayaevu) 
(Wohlenberg). An exact exegesis of each word in this verse 
will be found in Vincent. Lerin. Commonitorium, 22. 

^KTpeTrop,€KOs] I 6 5 15 , II 4 4 ; cf. II 2 16 ra.% (3. k. irepUo-Tau-o. 
This last passage makes it probable that the meaning is not 
"turning your back on those who so talk," but "refusing to 
adopt their methods." 

J3e|3.] cf. 4 7 ; Kefo<f>. II 2 16 only; cf. //.aTcuoAoyiav, i 6 ; Aoyo- 
/Aa^ias, 6 4 note ; tous KevoAoyowTas, Is 8 19 . 

dfTiGeaeis] parallel to Kevo<pwi'ia<;, and under the construction 
of rd? {UftyXov; ; hence not (i) oppositions, controversies, " turn 
aside from opponents and do not argue with them"; cf. II 2 25 
rous dvTiSia#e/xevou5 : supra, I 10 el tl avrtKetrat : 5 14 ra5 avTLKeip.4v(D : 
Job 32 s ovk rjhvvrjQ-qa-av a.TroKpidi}vai avTiOera 'Iw/3 (so Chrys., 
Holtzmann, von Soden) ; but (ii) rival theses ( = 0ecriv avri foo-e'ws), 
sets of antitheses (cf. Lucian, Mort. D. x. 373, airodov tuv 
prjfxaTwv tt)v roaavTrjv airepavToXoylav /cat dj/Ti0€<reis koX 7rapicrwcr€is 
. . . Kal ra dAAa fiapr] twv Aoywv (Harrison, P.E. p. 165)); 
either the Gnostic contrasts between the O.T. and the New, 
which found their fullest expression in Marcion's "Antitheses," 
cf. Tert. adv. M. i. 19, iv. 1, "opus ex contrarietatum opposi- 
tionibus Antitheses cognominatum et ad separationem legis et 
evangelii coactum " ; but this is not consistent with the stress on 
the Jewish law implied in i 6-10 : or, more probably, " the endless 
contrasts of decisions, founded on endless distinctions, which 
played so large a part in the casuistry of the scribes as inter- 
preters of the law" (Hort, Judaistic Christianity, p. 140). It is 
identical with " the tradition of the elders " which the Lord 
denounced, and of which St. Paul had been zealous before his 
conversion (Mk 7 3 , Gal i 14 ), afterwards embodied in the Halacha ; 
cf. 4 7 , II 3 s note. 

ttjs \|/. yt'CJcrecus (contrast yvwcriv aipivSr), Wisd 7 17 ). The 
opponents must have claimed a special knowledge, but this 
might apply to the early stages of Gnosticism ; cf. 1 Co 8 2 - 3 ei 
rts ooKil eyv'WKeVai tl, ovttu) lyvw Ka0a>s 8«i yvwvai : or to the 
Rabbinical pride in knowledge, Lk n 52 , Ro 2 20 . 

21. eTrayyeXAo/xecoi] cf. 2 10 : r\(TT6\r](jav, l 6 . 

r\ xdpis pe0' uawi'] as in II and Tit the blessing is for the whole 
Church ; but there is considerable MSS support for fitra <tov : 
cf. Introd. p. xxxvii. 


dvdpuwos Aeeipds el* /ut? <£o|9oD, vylaive, dvopl^ov Kal foxvaai. — Dan IO 1 ". 

Historical situation. — (i) St. Paul. — St. Paul is a prisoner in 
Rome (i 3 - 16 2 9 ) and has been so for some length of time, during 
which he has received a visit from an Ephesian Christian, 
Onesiphorus, who had found him out, though apparently with 
difficulty, and had cheered him with frequent visits (i 16 ). The 
charge laid against him is not stated : it may have been of being 
a Christian (2 10 , cf. 1 P 4 16 ), perhaps that of some offence against 
the State (2 9 ws Ka/coCpyos, cf. 1 P 4 15 ko.kotvoi6%). The end of 
the trial is in sight : so he writes to his beloved son Timothy, to 
bid him farewell, to exhort him to be ready to share suffering for 
Christ's sake, and to impress upon him the duty of choosing 
faithful ministers to whom to hand on the true teaching, and to 
lay stress upon the true characteristics of such teaching. This 
is all that we can say, if 4 9 " 21 is to be separated from the Epistle 
as embodying fragments of letters of an earlier date (cf. p. xxxii). 
If, however, we can assume the integrity of the Epistle, the 
further object is to request Timothy to join him speedily in Rome 
and share his sufferings there (4 9 ' 21 , cf. i 8 2 3 ). There is no 
certain indication of the place to which the letter was sent, but 
i 18 makes Ephesus probable. 

(ii) The Church at Ephesus. — Very little light is thrown on 
the circumstances of the Church at Ephesus. Timothy is in 
charge of it, as the Apostle's delegate, and is expected to remain 
there, so that the Epistle seems to point to the position of a 
permanent rather than that of a temporary delegate : he has to 
do the work of an " Evangelist," and it is described by the 
indefinite title of "ministry" (4 5 ). He has had the Apostle's 
hands laid upon him (i 6 ), apparently for this special task : his 
duty is to keep the deposit of truth, to hand it on to others, to 
control their teaching, to exercise discipline over the members 
(4 2 ). No mention is made of other grades of ministers or of the 
details of the services. But there are false teachers, tickling the 
ears with novelties, appealing specially to women, corrupted in 
mind, disloyal to the faith ; their teaching tends to a low standard 



of morality and is likely to spread (2 16 ). Of its nature there are 
three hints : (i) they deal with well-known fables (toi's /mvOovs, 4 4 ), 
i.e. probably stories from the Jewish Haggada (cf. Introd. p. xvii). 
(ii) Some of them are called yorjTes, i.e. % probably, dealing with 
magical charms, like Simon Magus and Ely mas and the sons of 
Scseva a Jew at Ephesus (Acts 19) : so this, too, may spring from 
Jewish influences, and they are compared with the Egyptian 
magicians who opposed Moses, (iii) Two of them assert that 
the Resurrection is past (2 18 ), probably influenced by doubts 
about the Resurrection of the body, and misrepresenting St. 
Paul's teaching (Ro 6) as meaning only a resurrection to spiritual 
life in this world. This is the tenet most akin to later Gnosticism 
{vid. notes ad loc), but it might also be suggested by Sadducean 
teaching. There is then nothing to separate them from the 
teachers referred to in 1 Ti and Tit. 

Date. — If we assume the integrity of the whole, Paul has 
lately been travelling through Asia Minor and Greece with a 
band of fellow-travellers, including Demas, Crescens, Titus, Luke, 
Tychicus, Erastus, Trophimus ; but all have now gone different 
ways except Luke, who alone is with him : he has once been put 
on his trial and has made his defence : he has been left alone 
without any human aid, but the Lord has protected him, If we 
further assume the completeness of the Acts as a record of St. 
Paul's travels at this time, it seems impossible to fit in all these 
allusions with the data there : it becomes necessary to assume 
that St. Paul was released from the imprisonment of Acts 28 (cf. 
Introd. p. xxx), that he travelled freely in the East after it, was 
arrested again and is now suffering a second imprisonment which 
ended in his death, probably in a.d. 64. If, on the other hand, 
4 9 - 21 are earlier notes, all the data in them must be put aside ; 
and the letter might have been written at the end of the imprison- 
ment of Acts 28, not long after the Third Group of Letters; cf. 
Introd. p. xxii ff. 

Spiritual value. — The importance of the Epistle is not great 
doctrinally or ecclesiastically : doctrinally, indeed, it seems to 
give justification for prayer for the dead (i 18 note); and it gives 
the fullest statement in the N.T. of the inspiration of the O.T. 
and of its primary value to a Christian teacher : ecclesiastically it 
shows the value attached to the imposition of the Apostle's hands 
and to a succession of carefully chosen ministers as a means of 
securing the tradition of sound teaching. But its main interest 
is that of character, and two portraits may be traced in it. 

(i) The portrait of the ideal Christian minister. He is, like 
His master, to reproduce the features of Isaiah's ideal of " the 
suffering servant " : he is to be patient, gentle, hopeful, interced- 
ing for his opponents (2 24 ) ; he is to be like a soldier, un- 


entangled with civil duties (2 s ) ; like an athlete, obeying loyally 
the rules of the contest (2 s ) ; like a husbandman, toiling hard and 
earning his reward (2 6 ) ; like a tradesman, skilfully cutting out his 
goods (2 15 ?); like a fisherman, trying to catch back those who 
have been caught by the devil (2 26 ?). He needs long-suffering, 
yet persistence in pressing his message in season and out of 
season (4 2 ), sobriety of tone (4 5 ), courage to face suffering 
(i 8 2 3 4 6 ) ; he has to aim at the great central virtues, to keep 
in touch with all sincere Christians (2 22 ), so as to become a 
vessel which his Master will always find ready to His hand (2 21 ) ; 
he has to rekindle again and again, "to keep at white heat," 
the grace given by ordination, remembering that it was the gift 
of love, of strength, of self-discipline (i 6 ); he has to rely upon 
the Holy Spirit that dwells in him (i 14 ). In teaching he has to 
avoid idle speculations and restless innovations, to be loyal to 
the truth, and to take for guidance : (a) the example of the 
Apostle's life (3 10 ) ; (b) the outline of the Apostle's teaching (i 13 ) ; 
(c) the O.T. Scriptures, which are not only able to make men 
wise unto salvation, but are also a guide for the discipline of 
others (3 16 - 17 ). His aim is to make each person a man of 
God thoroughly equipped for every good work (3 17 ). 

(ii) The portrait of the Christian Teacher face to face with 
death, with his work finished. It is, "Testamentum Pauli et 
cygnea cantio " (Bengel), and should be compared with the fare- 
well words of Moses (Dt 31 1 " 8 ), of Joshua (c. 23), of David 
(1 K 2 1-fl ), of Our Lord Himself (esp. John 13-16), with 
2 Peter, and with St. Paul's own farewell to the elders of Ephesus 
(Acts 20). He is ready to endure what suffering still remains 
(2 10 ); but his thoughts turn back to the past or forward to the 
future. He looks back to the religion which his ancestors had 
taught and he himself had learnt from childhood (i 3 ), to the 
commission he had received to preach the Gospel (i 11 ), to all 
his sufferings in the past, to God's protection of him through 
them all (3 11 ), to the fight which he has fought ; he is grateful 
for the kindness of friends, invoking God's blessing upon them 
(i 16 ), for the loyalty of his loved son (3 10 ), sensitive to the failure 
of others to support him, but leaving their punishment to God 
(i 15 , cf. 4 16 ). But his eyes are mainly on the future : he foresees 
difficult days (2 17 3 1 ), he tries to prepare his successor to face 
them: he is prepared to depart himself ("de prospectu ejus 
exultans scribit," Tertullian, Scorp. 13) : he has deposited his all 
in God's care, and hands on the truth as a deposit to his successor 
(i 12 - u ) : his thoughts are full of " that great day " (ckci'v*/ rj rjfiepa 
three times here, elsewhere only once in St. Paul) : his eyes are 
turned to the light (cf. i 10 ), to the bright shining of the Lord's 
coming : he looks forward with confidence to a crown of righteous- 


ness, and to a life beyond death : his faithful saying is a hymn 
about life through death with Christ (a 11 , cf. i 10 ) : he is to the 
end that for which the will of God had chosen him, an Apostle 
kolt i-n-ayyeXiav £a»}s (i 1 ). It is the letter of a good shepherd 
who is laying down his life for the sheep (2 10 Sia tovs ck/Wtous) to 
one whom he is training to be in his turn a good shepherd and 
to lay down his life for the Gospel's sake, inspired by the thought 
of "the Good Shepherd" who had laid down His life and had 
risen from the grave (2 s ), to be the strength of all who should 
suffer for His sake. 1 

Analyst's. — The subject-matter oscillates between the thought 
of St. Paul's own position, with which it begins (c. 1) and ends 
(c. 4), and that of Timothy which occupies the central part 
(cc. 2, 3) ; but the two are not kept separate and often interlace. 

A. i 1 - 2 . Greeting. 

3 " 18 . St. Paul's feelings and position : 

3 - 6 . Thanksgiving for Timothy's past affection and 

desire to see him again. 
8 - 18 . Appeal to Timothy : 

(1) To stir up the gift given him by the 
laying on of St. Paul's hands ( 6 - 7 ). 

(2) Not to let St. Paul's imprisonment dis- 
hearten him, but to be ready to face suffering 
himself, remembering Christ's conquest of 
death, and St. Paul's own sufferings and un- 
swerving faith in God's readiness to keep all 
that he has entrusted to His care ( 8 " 12 ). 

(3) To hold fast the truth that St. Paul has 
taught him ( 13 - 14 ). These appeals enforced by 
two recent experiences of St. Paul's : as a 
warning — his desertion by all in Asia ( 15 ) : as 
encouragement — the boldness and kindness of 
Onesiphorus at Rome ( 16 " 18 ). 

B. 2 a -4 5 . Timothy's duties. 
In relation to himself: 
To be strong — 

(1) To hand on his teaching to others ( x - 2 ). 

(2) To be ready to face suffering and endure 
toil, like a good soldier, a good athlete, a good 
husbandman ( 3 " 7 ) ; constantly to bear in mind — 

(a) The Risen Christ, who has enabled Paul 
to endure suffering and imprisonment for the 
sake of the elect ( 8 " 10 ) ; 

(b) The faithful saying — with its encourage- 
1 Adapted with some alterations from my own article in H.D.B. 

II. 11-IV. 22.] 2 TIMOTHY 8 1 

ment to all who share Christ's death and 
warning to all who deny Him ( u " 13 ). 
In relation to the teachers to whom he hands on the 
deposit : 

To warn them against empty wranglings ( 14 ) : to 
be himself a true worker avoiding such dis- 
cussions which will only lead to impieiy and 
harm, as is seen already in the teaching of 
Hymenseus and Philetus ( 15 - 18 ) : to remember 
the true foundation — God's own knowledge of 
His own, and their abstaining from iniquity 
( 19 ). To keep himself pure, to avoid youthful 
impulses, to aim at the central virtues ( 2 °- 23 ) ; 
to avoid foolish discussions and contentions ; 
to be a true servant of the Lord, gentle, skilful 
in teaching, hopeful for his opponents ( 23 - 26 ). 
Times are hard : there are many, and there 
will be more, whose whole standard is based 
on selfishness and pleasure (3 1 " 5 ). There will 
be silly teachers who will oppose the truth, as 
Jannes and Jambres did Moses. Timothy 
must avoid all such, and their folly will soon 
be exposed ( 1_9 - 13 ). Timothy has been loyal 
to him in the past and shared all his sufferings, 
and must not expect to escape persecution him- 
self ( 10_12 ). Let him be loyal to the teachers who 
taught him in his youth, and hold fast to the 
Scriptures which can make him wise and able 
to do his work as a teacher ( 14 " 17 ). He must 
preach boldly, persistently, however unwilling 
people are to listen to the truth (4 1 " 4 ) : must 
be sober, ready to suffer, carrying His ministry 
out to the full ( 5 ). 

C. St. PauVs own position. 

All this is necessary, because St. Paul's own end is 
approaching : he has done his work : he can look forward 
in confidence to the award of the righteous Judge ( 6_8 ). 
9 ' 18 Appeal to Timothy to come speedily. Details 
about his companions and his own recent 
19-21 Special greetings to and from individuals : further 
details about his companions : more pressing 
appeal to Timothy to come to him. 
22 Salutation to Timothy and to those with him. 

With the exception of the Final Salutation (/*€#' vp.u>v) — which 


may possibly have been added when the Epistle was made 
canonical — the whole is strictly personal, and the note in 2 7 
emphasizes the personal, almost esoteric, character of the advice 
given. There is scarcely any section which could have been 
intended to be read publicly when the Church met. 

i. 1, 2. Address and Greeting. — Paul to Timothy, his well- 
loved son, these : Paul writing with authority as one who has 
received his commission from Christ Jesus, through no choice 
of his own but by the will of God, who chose him because He 
had promised life to the world, the life which was realized in 
Christ Jesus, and who needed men to tell of that promise. I 
pray God the Father and Christ Jesus Our Lord to give you 
grace for your work, help in your difficulties, peace in your heart. 

As in I, the address is partly official and authoritative, as 
he wants to strengthen Timothy's authority (dTrocrroXos), partly 
personal and affectionate ; and this second element is stronger 
than in I (kolt lirayy. £wr)<;, as contrasted with ko.t' irriTayrjv 0£ov, 
ayairrjTuJ with yvq<riw T€KV(p). 

8ia 0e\. eeoS] so'i Co i 1 , 2 Co i 1 , Col i 1 , Eph i 1 ; cf. Gal i*. 

Ka-r' cTrayy £wrjs] qualifying aTroVroXo?, cf. I I 1 , Gal 3 29 ; it 
gives the standard by which God chose him and to which his 
Apostleship must be true ; cf. 10 - ll tis o IriO-qv . . . dTroo-roXos. 
It is expanded in Tit I 2 eV eX?ri8i £(otJs altaviov r/v eV^yyeiXai-o 6 
a\j/ev&r)<; 0eos irpb xpovw altoviuav. It is naturally emphasized by 
a writer who is face to face with death and is going to exhort 
Timothy to face it too (2 11 - 13 ) ; but the thought is not only of life 
beyond the grave, but of a life which begins here and persists 
through death ; cf. 10 and I 4 8 . 

dY<nrr]Tu>] cf. i Co 4 17 , Phil 2 20 " 22 . The latter passage, com- 
bined with' i 15 4 11 - 16 infra, perhaps suggests that the thought is 
not only "loved," but loved as an only son is loved; the only 
son on whom I can rely, Horn. Od. 2. 365, /xowos ewv dyairrjr6<;. 

2. Cf. I i 2 notes. 

3-ii. 13. Thanksgiving to God for Timothy's past life, and 
appeal for renewed efforts, for courage to face danger, and for 
loyal adherence to the apostolic teaching. 

3-5. Thanksgiving — called out by (a) the writer's own feelings 
and memory ( 3 - 4 ), and (0) by some recent reminder of Timothy's 
faith ( 5 ). 

Paraphrase. My first word must be to thank God — that God 
whom my forefathers worshipped and whom I worship with a 
pure conscience — a thanksgiving which springs up in my heart 
whenever I make mention of you, as I never fail to do night and 
morning in my prayers ; for I have a yearning to see you once 
more, as I remember the tears you shed at our parting : if you 

I. 3-5.] 2 TIMOTHY 83 

could only come, my happiness would be complete. And now 

1 have a special ground of thankfulness in the recent reminder of 
the sincerity of your faith — a faith which you too have inherited, 
for it dwelt first in your grandmother Lois and in your mother 
Eunice, aye, and I have had many and many a proof that it 
dwells equally in you. 

This section has striking verbal resemblance with Ro i 8 ' 12 (cf. 
also 1 Th i 2 - 3 3 6 ); but there is no reason to suspect deliberate 
imitation by a writer copying St. Paul (so Holtzmann), as the 
thought is common in literary correspondence of the time ; cf. 
J. A. Robinson on Eph., Additional Note "On some current 
Epistolary Phrases." 

3. X&P lv ^X u ] I j12 n °t e - w XaTpeuw diro irpoyovwv] cf. Acts 

2 2 14 6 debs w iraxipbiv f}p.wv : 24 14 Xarpevto tw iraTpwo) 06<3, Phil 
3 4-6 

iv icaGapa aoceiS.] cf. I i 5 . This was true of him even while 
a Jew; cf. Acts 23 1 . The sense of the real continuity of the 
Christian with the Jewish faith is constant in St. Paul ; cf. Gal 3 
passim, 6 16 , Eph i 1 ' 11 , Ro n 13 " 24 . 

As in I i 3 the construction is not clear : for what does he 
thank God ? probably for Timothy's life and loyalty. &s . . . 2x w is 
almost equivalent to " when," " as often as," but adds the thought 
of the correspondence of the thankfulness with the thought of 
Timothy, x<*/° tv *X W ^ s ^X* / A,/€t ' a,/ : to think of thee is to thank 
God for thee ; to think more is to thank more ; to think every 
day is to thank every day. 

i»ukt6s koI Yjpepas] either with prec. "in my evening and 
morning prayers," cf. I 5 s ; or with seq. "all night and day longing 
to see you," cf. 1 Th 3 10 . The balance of the sentence supports 
the latter construction. 

4. Toil' SaKpuwf] cf. Acts 20 37 , though this can scarcely be an 
allusion to that scene. "Lacrimae flos cordis" (Bengel). 

TrXT]pu)0a)] perhaps to be joined closely with following : " that I 
may be filled with joy by the receipt of the reminder which your 
coming would give" (so R.V. margin, YV.-H.); or uiropi/. \a$6v 
is loosely constructed with x"P ll/ *X W - " I thank God on the 
recent receipt of a reminder of your faith." This implies that 
he had lately heard news about Timothy, cf. Col i 4 , or perhaps 
had received an affectionate letter from him. 

5. uirdpvTjo-ii'] properly of an external reminder, cf. 2 P i 13 3 1 
and v7rofj.Lfxyr](TKe, 2 U ; but a comparison of Mk 14 72 avepvrjo-dr} 6 
IIcVpos to prjjxa with Lk 22 61 VTT€/jivqa6r] 6 IleTpo? tov pharos 

makes it doubtful whether the difference can be pressed in 
Hellenistic Greek; cf. Clem. Horn. i. 1, avvrjv yap pot Aoyio-p.os 
. . . 7T€pt TruKvas Troiovp.evo'i VTrofxvr}o-ei<i : Marc. Aurel. 
vii. 27, x. 34. 


tjtis (not ?;) gives partly the reason for awiroKptTov tt., sincere, 
for it was inherited as well as personal. Timothy, like the writer 
( 3 ), has a family religion behind him ; cf. the appeal of Virtue to 
the young Heracles, iyw fJK<i> 7rpds ere eiSvia tous yewijo-avTas ere kcu 
tt]v <pvo~Lv tt^ (rrjv iv rrj 7raiS€i'a KaTafiaOovcra, Xen. Mem. ii. I ; cf. 
I 2 8 " 15 note, p. 31. This does not necessarily imply that Lois 
and Eunice had become Christians, though it is probable. The 
language might have been used by St. Paul of religious Jewesses 
who had trained the young Timothy in the Jewish expectations 
of a Messiah, cf. 3 15 . 

ire'-jreio-fiai] cf. 12 , Ro 8 38 14 14 15 14 . cVwktjo-c "implies steady 
and persistent faith," Hillard. It was always at home in their 
hearts ; cf. 14 . 

6-ii. 13. Appeal to Timothy for greater effort, for courage to 
face danger and difficulty, and for loyalty to the Apostle's 
doctrine. The appeal is based upon the reality of God's power 
to strengthen him ( 7 " 10 ), the example of the Apostle ( 1L 12 2 9 - 10 ), 
and of Onesiphorus ( 15 " 18 ), the memory of the Ri«en Christ (2 s ), 
and the sense that the doctrine is a sacred trust ( 13 - u 2 1 - 2 ). The 
key-notes of the section are SuVa/xis ('- 8 - Swards 12 , ivhwap-ov 2 1 ), 
liraio"xyvza-6at. ( 8 - 12, 16 ), 7rapa8y']Krj ( 12 - 14 2 2 ), ( ( 8 2 3, 9 ), 
Ti-to-Tis (loyalty to a loyal Master, i 5 - 12 - 1S 2 2 - n - 13 ). There are 
many points of kinship in phrase and thought with the earlier 
letters, cf. Ro i 16 8 15 , 1 Co 15 55 , Eph 2 5 " 9 , but none suggest 
conscious adaptation. The writer is perhaps feeling his way 
towards the request that Timothy will come to him at once to 
Rome. For that he will need courage, and he must leave 
faithful men in charge of his work at Ephesus. 

6-14. Paraphrase. Feeling this confidence, I write to remind 
you to stir into full life that gift of God which is within you, which 
was given by the laying of my hands upon your head. For the 
gift which God gave us was no spirit of cowardice, but a spirit of 
strength combined with a spirit of love for others and of self- 
discipline. So then, as you have that spirit, do not be ashamed 
of the witness which we have to bear about Our Lord, do not be 
ashamed of me because the preaching of Him has led me to 
imprisonment ; nay, be ready to share my sufferings in the cause 
of the Gospel : you have not to rely on your own strength, but 
on the strength of God Himself — of the very God who saved us 
and called us into His kingdom by a holy call to holiness, and 
that not in virtue of our own efforts, but in virtue of a purpose 
entirely His own, of a gift freely given — given indeed to us as 
embodied in Christ Jesus before time began, though only shown 
in these latter days by the bright light which radiated from the 
appearance of our Saviour Christ Jesus on earth, when He 

I. 6, 7.] 2 TIMOTHY 85 

destroyed the power of the dread tyrant death and brought to 
clear view the full meaning of life, aye of immortal life, through 
the good tidings which I was appointed to proclaim, to carry 
with authority throughout the world and to teach its truths. It is 
because I have done this that I am a prisoner now, that I endure 
these fetters ; but I am not ashamed of them, for I know Him 
whom I have trusted, and I feel confident that He has strength 
to guard safely all that I have entrusted to His keeping till that 
great day to which we Christians look forward. Take then as 
your pattern of sound doctrine the pattern of the doctrine which 
I taught you, hold it firmly in a spirit of faith and of that true 
love which is only found in union with Christ Jesus. It is a 
trust put into our hands for safe keeping ; it is the most precious 
of all trusts ; guard it then with the help of the Holy Spirit who 
dwells in our hearts. 

6. 8i' fjy auw] cf. 12 , Tit i 13 note. d>a£<«mupei> ("resuscites," 
Vulg. ; "recrees," Ambros.), properly "to stir up smouldering 
embers into a living flame," "to keep at white heat" (Parry) 
(" O joy that in our embers Is something that doth live ") ; there 
may be a conscious reference to the thought of the Spirit as fire, 
cf. Acts 2 3 , Mt 25 s , 1 Th 5 19 ; cf. Seneca, Ep. 94, "Honestarum 
rerum semina animi nostri gerunt quse admonitione excitantur : 
non aliter quam scintilla flatu levi adjuta ignem suum explicat " 
( Wetstein) ; but the use in the LXX (2 K 8 1 - 5 to bring to life a 
dead child, Gen 45 27 , 1 Mac 13 7 "to revive" (intrans.)), makes 
it very doubtful whether the metaphor was consciously present 
in Hellenistic Greek; cf. Ign. ad Eph. c. 1, dva^wirvp-qaavTes iv 
at/Km deov. Chrys. paraphrases happily Trapprjo-ias ZfJLTrXrjcrov clvto, 
Xapas, ev(f>po(Tvvris' (TTrjOi yevi/aiws. 

to x^P 1 ^"] c f- I 4 14 - ^ T *is em6c<T€a>s] cf. I 4 14 note. 
The time referred to is probably the same as there, the ordina- 
tion for his present work at Ephesus : the context there suggest- 
ing a reference to the presbyters, the personal appeal here 
suggesting a reference to his own act alone. But the allusion 
here to Timothy's home training ( 5 ), and the character of the 
gift conferred ( 7 ), leave it possible that the reference is to Paul's 
first choice of Timothy to be his minister (Acts 16 2 ; so Hort, 
Christian Ecclesia, p. 184), or even to his confirmation at the 
time of his conversion, Acts 14 7 (so Bp. Chase, Confirmation 
in the Apostolic Age, pp. 35-40). On the other hand, the whole 
context of the epistle implies an appeal to one in an ordained 
and authoritative position. 

7. Yjp.ii'] "to you and me," "to us his ministers"; the state- 
ment is true of all Christians, cf. I. 2 15 , but in a special degree 
of ministers, and the context (eoWev taking up to \6.pi(Tfia, and 


cf. 13 - 14 ) points to that limitation here; cf. Ro 8 15 ov yap iXafitre 
7rvtvfjLa SouAcias 7raA.iv els 4>d|3of dAAd 7rvevp.a uio^co-iac. 

SciAias] cf. I Co l6 10 idv Z\8r) Ti//.d0€os fSXiiriTt Xva d<pd/3ojs 
yevrjrai 7rpos v/xas, and compare Mk 4 40 Tt SfiAoi Iotc; ovirw t\ fT€ 
iricrTiv ; Jn 14 27 . 

Sukducws (" virtutis," Vulg.), cf. 8 - 12 2 1 and Ro i 16 ov yap 
€7raia"^ui'0/xat to evayyiXtov Swa/xis ydp #eoi! ecrriv. In writing 
from Rome as well as to Rome he dwells upon power as the 
essential characteristic of the Gospel, a power which is to prove 
stronger than the Empire of power ; cf. also 1 Co 4 19 - 20 . 

Kal dydTrrjs] which drives out fear, 1 Jn 4 18 , and gives the 
impulse to go to the aid of others in their hour of need. 

o-u^poyio-uou (here only in N.T.), the power to make cruxppw, 
whether to discipline others (cf. Tit 2 4 " 6 ), or to discipline oneself, 
to keep oneself in hand, free from all excitement or hesitation ; 
it is " the sanity of saintliness," cf. Bp. Paget, Studies in the 
Christian Character, pp. 64-67. The context probably limits 
the reference here to self-discipline (" sobrietatis" Vulg. : " sance 
mentis " Text. Scorp. 13); cf. 2 22 . aydnrj and «rw<ppovicr/xds control 
the exercise of Si'va/xts. The Christian minister must be strong, 
efficient, courageous, but never forget personal tenderness for 
others (cf. t Co 4 20 - 21 iv Swd/xct . . . lv ayairfj), or control of his 
own temper. 

8. to fiapTupio/) The witness to a crucified Messiah, "to Jews 
a stumbhngblock, to Gentiles foolishness," 1 Co i 23 . 

toC tcupi'ou Tjp.ui'] perhaps with conscious contrast to the 
Emperor, " hunc opponit Caesari quern sui sic appellabant " 
(Bengel) ; cf. Tit 2 13 note. 

rhv 8e'o-p.iof auTou] cf. Eph 3 1 , Phil i 12sqq which show the 
strain which St. Paul's imprisonment laid upon his converts. 

CTUYKaKOTrdflriCTOk] here only in N.T. and not found in earlier 
writers : probably coined by St. Paul, who frequently coins 
compounds of o-vv out of his deep sense of the close "with- 
ness " of Christians with each other and with Christ. The main 
thought here is "suffer with me on behalf of the Gospel"; cf. 
2 3. 9 2 10 ("collabora in Evangelio," Ambros.), rather than 
"suffer with the Gospel" ("collabora Evangelio," Vulg.), which 
may also be included; cf. 1 Co 13 6 r) dyd^ . . . o-vy^aipci 1-77 


9. Every word emphasizes the power which has been given 
to Christians 7 : a power which has done what man could not 
do of himself, which has acted out of love for man, which has 
destroyed his chief enemy and given him life, which therefore 
calls for some return and gives strength to face suffering and 
death ; cf. Tit i 3 3 s , Ro 8 28 ' 30 9 11 i6 25 - 26 , Eph 2™ (some of which 
may have been in the writer's mind), and Ep. Barn. c. 5, § 6, 

I. 9, 10.] 2 TIMOTHY 87 

which may be based on this passage, auros 8e Iva Karapyrjarj tov . . . otl iv o-apKi ISet avTov <f)avep<i)6rjvai, VTrepeivcv. 

k\t)o-6i dyia] mainly "with a calling to be holy," cf. kXtjtoU 
ay tots, Ro I 7 , I Co I 2 , I Th 4 7 CKaXeo-€v 17/xas iv dyiaap-w: but 
with the further thought of God's holiness which we have to 
imitate, cf. 1 P i 15 - 16 : "quaetota ex Deo est et nos totos Deo 
vindicat " (Bengel). 

Trp6Qe(riv] Ro 8 28 9 11 , ubi v. S.-H. 

tx\v BoOeiaai' . . . irpo yjpovtitv alui'iwi'] The grace of God is 
embodied in Christ Jesus : we only gain it through union with 
Him, and it was given to Him by God long before we were born. 
The reference may be either to the gift to mankind contained in 
the promise of the victory of the seed of the woman, Gen 3 15 : 
this would be supported by the allusion to Gen in I 2 14 and by 
the use of irpo xp. alwv. in Tit i 2 ; or to the gift to mankind con- 
tained in the pre-existent Christ before the world was created, as 
even then He was the recipient of the Divine life of Sonship of 
which man was to partake : it was given to us in our ideal. Cf. 
Eph I 4 Kadws i£e\£$aTO i^uas ev auT<3 Trpb KaTafio\r)<; Koap.ov. The 
other reminiscences of the Ephesian letter in the verse makes this 
the more probable view. Pelagius draws a human analogy, " Nam 
homines solent filiis parare praedia priusquam nascantur." 

irpo xpoVwe aiwfituc] cf. Tit i 2 note ; "ante tempora scecu/aria," 
Vulg. Ambros. ; "(sterna," Aug. Thd. 

10. eTH^amas (" illuminationem," Vulg.) here only of the 
Incarnation ; but cf. Tit 2 11 note, 3 4 iiri^dv-q. Here the two 
thoughts of the divine intervention of a saviour in the hour of 
need and of the dawning of a new light, cf. <pavepw6elo-av . . . 
(j>wTio-avTo<; ("illustria verba," Bengel) and Lk i 79 £Vt<pavat -rots iv 
o-Koret Ka6r]p.evoi<;, are combined. 

KaTapyrjo-avTos • • • ] Explanatory of owavros 9 , which has 
just been taken up by o-cor^pos. 

TOk OdvaTov] That tyrant death (cf. c'/foo-tAewev, Ro 5 14 ) whose 
presence caused constant fear and took the sense of freedom out 
of life (cf. Heb 2 14 00-01 ^>d^8w Oavdrov Sta 7ravTOS tov £,t}v evo^ot rfo-av 
SovXeias), that death which the writer has learnt and Timothy must 
learn to face. 

4>(im<mi'Tos] "illuminavit," Vulg. This was done (a) by His 
teaching of the nature of eternal life, consisting in a knowledge 
of God and beginning here on earth ; it is interesting to compare 
the language of Epictetus (1. iv. 31) about Chrysippus: tut^v 
dA^eta^ eipovTi «at <£a>Tto~avri »cat et? 7rdvras avdpwirow; i&veyKovri, 
oi rrjv irepl to £?}v, dAAd tt)v 7rpos to cv £,r)v ; {/}) but above all by 
the fact of the Resurrection, cf. 2 8 , 1 Co 15 51 " 56 , Acts 2 27 . There 
was hope of immortality in the world before, but the Resurrection 
had converted it into a certainty and shown from beyond the 


grave the continuity of life there with life here; cf. Driver, 
Sermons on the O.T., Sermon 4; Mozley, Essays, ii. pp. 170-75. 
"The Gospel first gave to a future world clearness and distinctness, 
shape and outline ; the Gospel first made it a positive district and 
region on which the spiritual eye reposes, and which stretches 
out on the other side the grave with the same solidity and ex- 
tension with which the present world does on this side of it. A 
future life was not an image before the Gospel : the Gospel 
made it an image. It brought it out of its implicit form, and 
from its lower residence within the bosom of the great funda- 
mental doctrine of true religion, into a separate and conspicuous 
position as a truth. This was a bringing to light, and a species 
of birth, compared with which the previous state of the doctrine 
was a hidden and an embryo state." 

%ur\v kcu d4>9apcrtaf] a climax, life, aye, unchangeable life; 

contrast o\t9pov /cut a7rwAeiaj/, I 6 9 . 

11. Cf. 1 Ti 2'. 

12. d\V ouk €Traitj X .] cf. 8 and Ro I 16 . 

w TreirioreuKa] not " whom I have believed," as in Tit 3 s oi 
TreTnarevKOTes 0€w, but rather " whom I have trusted," " to whom 
I have entrusted my deposit"; cf. 2 Mac 3 22 ra irrmo-Tevfxeva 
toI$ 7T€ttiot€uk6(ti dwa 8ia.(f>v\d(ro-eiv. It anticipates the accusative 

ttjv TrapaOrjKrjw 

tt]c -irapaflrJKT]!' p,ou] that which I have deposited with Him. 
(v. Additional Note, p. 90) : all my precious things which I have 
put under His care. He does not define or limit ; it will include 
his teaching (1 Co 3 12 " 15 ), his apostolic work, his converts 
(Acts 20 32 TrapaTiOefiaL fyms tw 6(w), his life which has been al- 
ready in God's keeping and which will remain safe there even 
through death (cf. Lk 23 46 , 1 P 4 19 ). The last is perhaps the 
primary thought, suggested by £wr]v ko.1 afydapviav 10 . 

eKeiwrjv TTp rju^pai/] i 18 4 s ; cf. 2 Th i 10 ; here only in St. Paul, 
who generally adds some explanatory genitive, rjfiipa tov icvpiov 
fjfjLw, l^aoi) Xpicrrov, aTro\vTpuKTeu)<;. The day is now so present 
to his mind that it needs no defining. 

13. uttotuttwctii' (" formam hal>e" Vulg. ; "formationem" Thd. ; 
" exemption" Jerome) here and I i 16 (where see note) only in N.T. ; 
cf. tCttov &i8axr}<>, Ro 6 17 . uyicue. \6y<i»>, 1 Ti I 10 note. 

tnroTu-nucrtv ex 6 -] "hold fast as form of teaching"; cf. I 3 s 
c^oi'ras to fJLVaTtjpiov Try; 7ricrrca)5 eV KaOapa. (TW€iS?ycm ; inf. 2 2 . 
Parry would translate "hold forth in your life: let your own 
character represent to the world wholesome teaching." This is 
very parallel to I 4 12 tvttos yivov rwr ttmttwv . . . iv aydirrj, iv 

7rio-T€i : but it strains the meaning of «x € ar) d scarcely arises out 
of the context. 

S)v Trap' €fioo ^Kouaas] wv is probably a loose attraction foi 

I. 13-16.] 2 TIMOTHY 89 

ous or possibly a (cf. 2 2 ), " hold as outline of sound teachings 
those teachings which you heard from me." Hort regards wv as 
a primitive corruption of ov after Xoywv, " hold as pattern of sound 
doctrines that doctrine which you heard from me." W.-H. ii. 

P- 135- 

14. t!)v k. ■jr<xpa0r]Kir)i'] cf. t^s k. SiSao-KaA6a9, I Ti 4 6 . The 
thought of his own deposit with God 12 suggests that deposit 
which Christ has left with him, a far more precious and ideal 
thing; cf. Philo, Quod det potion, 19, €7r«rr?^u.77s KaXrjv irapaKara- 

81a ric. 'Ayiou] cf. Ro 8 n . This is true of all Christians, but 
the thought here is, probably, still that of the special gift to 
ministers for their work 6 - ". 

too cfoiKoorros] perhaps consciously recalling ??tis ZvwKyo-e 6 . 

15-18. Examples of warning and encouragement. 

Paraphrase. I appeal to yourself: you know instances both 
of cowardice and of courage : you know that all those in Asia 
turned away from me, of whom Phygelus and Hermogenes are 
the chief. On the other hand, may the Lord be merciful to the 
family of Onesiphorus, for many a time did he refresh me, every 
visit of his like a breath of fresh air; and he was not ashamed of 
my fetters, nay, when in Rome on a visit he took great pains to 
enquire where I was imprisoned and he found me: the Lord 
grant to him that he may find mercy from the Lord in the last 
great day. Yes, and all the many services which he rendered in 
Ephesus you have yourself the best means of knowing. 

For similar warning, cf. I i 19 - 20 , at the same point in the 
letter; but here the stress is on the encouragement of One- 
siphorus which is described at much fuller length, and accom- 
panied with prayer for him. 

&Treorp(£<{>T]o-ae] The occasion is unknown. It might refer to 
doctrinal apostasy (cf. 13, 14 ), but more probably to some failure 
to help Paul himself (/xe, cf. Mt 5 42 ) : as it is introduced mainly 
as a foil to the personal kindness of Onesiphorus, cf. 4 10 A-q/xas 
fie eyKa.TeA.i7rev. Possibly all the Asiatic Christians who were in 
Rome at the time, cf. 4 16 , failed to support him at his trial and 
had now returned to Asia (cf. oTSas and Zv rrj 'Aaia) : or all the 
Christians in Asia at the time when he was arrested there failed 
to help him or come with him to Rome. 

S>v can] cf. 2 18 , I i 20 . <t>u'Y€\os, not mentioned elsewhere. 
' 'Epjaoy 4vr]<s is mentioned in the Acts of Paul and Thecla (c. 1) 
with Demas, both being described as v7ro/<ptcrea>s ye^ovn<i, One- 
siphorus (c. 2), as welcoming Paul to his house at Iconium. 

16. dye'i|/u£e] " refrigeravit," Vulg. ; cf. avanj/v^, Acts 3 19 ; 
KaTcu/nj'xeiv, Lk 16 24 . This would include personal intercourse, 
cf. 1 Co i6 17 - 18 , and gifts to relieve the hardships of his imprison- 


ment, cf. Phil 4 14 - 17 ; but, though it includes his visit at Rome, it 
need not be confined to that time. Cf. Ign. Eph. c. 2, Kpo*os 
. . . Kara ■Ka.vra. fie avtiravcrei', <I)S kou avrov 6 iraTrjp l-qcrov Xpierrou 

Skuw] Eph 6 20 , Acts 28-' . iTv^x^er], recalling 8 - 12 . 

17. yei'Oficfos If] after arriving in Rome, cf. Acts 13 5 . 
^i]tt)o-€ seems to imply a change from the freedom of the first 
imprisonment, Acts 28 30 . 

18. Swtj] A late form of the optative, cf. 2 Th 3 18 ; W.-H. 
ii. p. 168. 6 Ku'pios, the Lord Christ; cf. 2 - 8 - 16 . -nrapd Kupiou, 
possibly also " from Christ " as the Judge, cf. 4 8 ; or " from 
the Father," a stereotyped phrase for mercy at the day of 
judgment. eV eKeuo] ttj iip.e'pa, cf. 12 . e.v6a. ttoXXov iXlovs XP eta 
■fjfjuv, Chrys. Yes, but the Lord will say to Onesiphorus, eV 

<f>v\a.Krj rj/xrjv Kai rj\dt<; irpos /£€. 

The context implies that Onesiphorus was separated from his 
family, probably that he was dead ; cf. tuJ . . . olkw ( 16 and 4 19 ), 
iv €K€ivg rr) ^/xc'pa 18 , and so would provide a sanction for prayer 
for the departed. This, in this simple form, is a natural instinct ; 
it was practised by some later Jews, cf. 2 Mac 12 43 " 45 , and is found 
in early Christian epitaphs and in the liturgies ; cf. Plummer, ad 
loc. ; Gayford, The Future State, c. 4. Wohlenberg quotes the 
Acts of Paul and Thecla, § 28, which is a prayer that a heathen 
may be transferred after death to the abode of the righteous. 

eCpe . . . eupeiy] It may be fanciful to imagine a conscious 
play on the words " invenit me in tanta frequentia : inveniat 
misericordiam in ilia panegyri " (Bengel) ; but Paul was fond of 
such playful allusions and we can imagine him thinking of the 
meaning of Onesiphorus, " the help-bringer " ; cf. Philem n . 

StTjKo^ae] cf. 4 12 . It is not defined here, and may include 
services rendered to Paul himself and to the whole church at 

plX-nof] Perhaps " better than I," but the comparative sense 
cannot be pressed; cf. Moulton, Gr. N.T., pp. 78 and 23O ; 
M.M. S.V. ; Acts IO 28 (D) (HKtiov icpLO-raa-Oe, I T 3 14 Ta.\Lov (?), 
Jn 13 27 . 

Additional Note to Chapter I. 

impaOrjKT] (in Classical Greek more commonly TrapaKaTaOrjKr]) 
always implies the situation of one who has to take a long 
journey and who deposits his money and other valuables with a 
friend, trusting him to restore it on his return ; cf. Tob i 14 

(Trop(v6fxr]v fis ttjv Mrj&tiav Kai Traptdifirjv Tafiarjku) apyvpiov 

I. 12.] 2 TIMOTHY 91 

raXavra Scko. The irapaOrjKy} is always that of the depositor : 
the duty of the friend is <f>vXdacr€iv and dVoStSoi/cu. From the 
earliest days this duty was protected by law ; cf. Hammurabi, 
§§ 122-126. " If a man shall give silver, gold, or anything what- 
soever, all whatever he shall give he shall show to witnesses and 
fix bonds and give on deposit " ; and exact regulations were laid 
down fixing the penalty in the case of loss or damage ; cf. Ex 
22 7-13 , Lev 6 2 " 7 . The striking story of Glaucus, who was con- 
demned by the Pythian oracle for even wishing to retain such a 
deposit, shows the importance attached to faithfulness in this 
duty (Herod, vi. 86; Juv. xiii. 199-208), and it was one of the 
first duties impressed on Christians, who bound themselves on 
each Sunday " ne fidem fallerent, ne depositum appellati 
abnegarent," Pliny, Ep. 96. Among the Jews in Maccabean 
times the place of the friend was taken by the Temple treasuries, 
which took charge of such deposits and of the money of those 
who had no natural guardians ; cf. 2 Mac 3 10 - 40 7rapaKaTa6rJKa<; 
XVP^ V T£ KaL op<pav£>v 10 toiis TrzTncrTevKOTas 12 to. irf.TncrTtvp.eva. tois 
TrcTricrTtvKOcnv trwa 8ia<pvXdcr<reiv 22 . 

In the N.T. the substantive is only used in the Pastoral 
Epistles : it comes naturally from one who is preparing for his 
last long journey, but the verb occurs elsewhere, and the word 
was used metaphorically in many applications, (a) Of the body 
of truth which Christ deposits with the Apostle and the Apostle 
with Timothy, cf. I T I 18 irapartOefiai, 6 20 tt]v Trapa6T]K7]v, 2 T I 14 , 
and which Timothy has to hand on to others when he takes his 
journey to Rome, 2 T 2 2 irapdOov. This use may have been 
suggested by the parable of the Pounds, Lk 19 12 . (b) Of our 
true self which the Creator has handed over to us to keep safe, 
cf. Epict. ii. 8. 21, ov p.6vov ae KarecrKfvaarev dXXa /ecu aoi p.ovw 
€7ri<TT€i>o-€v kcu irapaKarideTO . . . irapaStSwKt ctol creavrov : SO Phllo, 
Quis hceres, p. 491, tovt hraivos icrri tov <nrovhaiov, rrjv Upav 
rjv ?A.a/?e Trapa.Ka.Ta6r]Kr)v ^XV^j alcrOijueoiS, Xoyov . . . Ka6apS>s kol 
d8oAa>s fir] eavroj, p.6vo> Se rw 7T€7rtcrT£VKOTi cf>vXd£avTO<s (WetStein), 
and Hermas, Mand. 3, 01 \\n.vh6p.(voi . . . yivovTai airoarep-qTal 
toC Kvpiou, p.7] 7rapaSiScVr€s avroj t^v irapaKaraQ-qK-qv rjv €A.a/3ov. 
eXafiov yap Trap' avrov Tn>€vp.a aij/evo-Tov : ibid. Sim. ix. 32, " Reddite 
ei spiritum integrum sicut accepistis." (c) Of good works de- 
posited with God in heaven : a very common Jewish thought, 
4 Esdr 8 83 " justi quibus sunt opera multa reposita apud te " ; 
Apoc. Bar 14 13 "justi sine timore ab hoc domicilio profici- 
scuntur quiahabent apud te vim operum custoditam in thesauris " 
(Wohlenberg) ; cf. 1 T 6 19 ; Ign. ad Polyc. 6, to. 8€7rocriTa vpZ>v to. 
epya vp.wv, and cf. Abrahams, Studies in Pharisaism and the 
Gospels, p. 148. (d) Of persons entrusted to the care of others, 
Clem. Alex. Quis dives salv., C. 42, r»)v TrapaKarad^Krjv d7roSos r)v 


eyw re kcll o aruiTrjp trot TrapaKaraOefxeOa : Acts 20 82 
v/xa? tiZ 6ew (this is said of the elders at Ephesus) ; Chrys. p. 597 C, 

p.(ya\i]v TrapaKaTuOijxrjv e)(op,cv to. 7rai8ta. (e) Of our life deposited 
with God at death, Lk 2 3 46 eis xt?pa$ <rov to Trvivp.d 
p.ov : I P 4 19 01 7rao-^oi'T£5 Kara to Oekrjp.a tov Oeov ttkttw kt'io-tt] 

TrapaTi6e<r6o)cra.v Ta? i/zu^as olvtu)i>. The life which at first was 
God's deposit with us becomes our deposit with God. 

1-13. Further appeal to Timothy to take heart and to entrust 
his teaching to others. 

Paraphrase. So then, as others have failed me, I turn to 
you to whom I have a right to appeal, such as I had not to 
Onesiphorus, as you are my own child in the faith — and I bid 
you to realize constantly the strength which is yours in virtue of 
the grace given you through your union with Ghrist Jesus. In 
that strength, Come to me and, before you come, hand over the 
truths which you heard from me, in the presence of many witnesses, 
to men on whom you can rely as being of ability enough to train 
others in their turn. Then come and take your share of suffer- 
ing as a true soldier in the army of Christ Jesus : now every 
soldier hopes to please his general and, therefore, while on active 
service does not tie himself up with business affairs : so, too, an 
athlete hopes to win the prize, but he cannot win it unless he 
observes to the end the rules of the contest : in the same way 
a husbandman hopes to take his share first of the fruits of the 
ground, but he must work hard for it. Think over the way in 
which this applies to you : for the Lord is ready to give you 
discernment in all things. 

Keep ever in your memory Jesus Christ — as one who has 
been raised from the dead, and as the offspring of a Royal 
ancestor, as a living Lord, for this is the central truth of the 
Gospel entrusted to me. In the service of that Gospel, I am 
now suffering, aye, imprisoned and fettered as though I was a 
criminal : yet God's word has never been fettered by man : it has 
been free and doing its work all the time: and, therefore, I am 
ready to endure this and anything to help God's chosen oiks 
that they with me may obtain salvation, that complete salva- 
tion which is given by union with Christ Jesus and which 
carries with it a glory that is eternal. How true is that great 
saying : 

"Who shares Christ's death His life shall share: 
They reign with Him their cross who hear: 
Who Him deny He will deny: 
Though our faith fall, He cannot lie." 

Nay, He cannot be untrue to Himself. 

II. 1-4.] 2 TIMOTHY 93 

1. cru, in contrast to i 15 " 18 : ouV, taking up i 14 , "as I need 
some one to guard the deposit"; cf. i 14 irapaOrjK-qv with 2 2 
ira.p6.6ov. ivbuva\i.o\j, taking up i 7 - 8 - 12 : a favourite Pauline word 
(six times : elsewhere in N.T. only Acts o 22 where it is used of 
St. Paul) : probably middle voice ; cf. Eph 6 10 iv8vvap.ovo-6e lv 
Kvpiw . . . ivSvo-aaOe : for the thought, cf. 2 Co 1 2 9 . iv ttj x<*piTi, 
" grace " in its widest sense, but perhaps with special reference 
to the xapio-)U.a of I 6 . 

2. The connexion of x and 2 is not clear : there may have 
been practical difficulties to be faced in the choice of these 
men so that Timothy would need to fall back on God's strength : 
or 1 may refer mainly to the courage needed for coming to 
Rome ; 2 to the necessity of appointing other ministers to 
take his place while absent and in case he should never 

T]Kou<ras] possibly at the time of i 6 , or during the whole 
ministry ; cf. 3 10 . 

Sia it. jj.apTupwi'] in later Greek almost equivalent to " in the 
presence of" ; cf. Sia #ea>v /Aaprvpwv, Plut. ii. p. 338 F (Wetstein). 
Field (Of. Norv. ad loc.) suggests that it was a legal term : if so, 
it would carry a slightly stronger meaning, "supported by many 
witnesses." Here they may be the presbyters of 1 Ti 4 14 , or the 
hearers of St. Paul's teaching from time to time who bore witness 
to its truth (cf. 2 Co i 20 to ap.-qv, Jn 3 33 ) and also knew what 
Timothy had heard ; cf. 1 Ti 6 12 . But may it not be constructed 
with irapaOov of the further security which Timothy is to take ? in 
which case the witnesses will be presbyters, as in 1 Ti 4 14 . 

iropdflou] taking up i 14 . 

3. o-uYKo.KOTTdGrjo-oi'] cf. i 8 , with me and with all who suffer. 

4. Ka\6s oTpaTiwTTjs] I I 18 tva orrpaTCvr] rrjv KaXrjv or/Dcrm'av 
and <xv(TTpaTiwTr]<;, Philem 2 , Phil 2 25 , show that St. Paul applied 
it specially to the ministers of Christ. The three similes are 
found together in 1 Co 9 6 - 7 - 24 ' 27 , and there may be a conscious 
reminiscence of that chapter, though the main thought is different 
here. Here stress is laid on two points : (a) the conditions of true 
service : it needs whole-hearted devotion ( 4 ), loyalty to the rules 
( 5 ), hard work ( 6 ) ; {b) the natural hope of a reward, the reward 
of pleasing the Master, of winning a crown, of partaking of the 
results. The same thoughts recur in u ' 13 . The application is 
both to Timothy himself and to the regulations he is to make 
for the irLo-Toi avOpoyxoi. 

e/m-XeKeTai] cf. 2 P 2 20 . Epict. iii. 22. 69, of the ideal Cynic, 
ox) irpoo'SeSep.evov KaOrfKOvatv tSiarriKots oib* ip.7reTr\ey/xcvov tr^ecrccrtj/. 
Teas too (3tou TrpaYp.a,T.] the businesses by which men earn their 
livelihood ; cf. Hermas, Vis. 3. 6, of rich Christians, oVav yiv-qrai 
6Xi\pi<;, Sia tov ttXovtov avruiv Kai Sia t£s 7rpayyLtaTetas airapvovvrai 


tov Kvpiov airSiv: cf. Clem. Horn., Ep. Clem. c. 5. As applied to 
ministers this command requires whole-hearted devotion to their 
work, perhaps implying abstinence from secular trades (cf. 1 Co 
9 6 - 7 ) : but this was not required at first. The Council of 
Chalcedon forbade trading: only if done Sia alaxpoKepBeiav or 
8«x <pi\apyvpiav, Canon 3, ubi v. Dr. Bright's note : " Most of 
the clergy of Csesarea in Cappadocia practised sedentary trades 
for a livelihood" (Basil, Ep. 198), "and some African canons 
allow, or even direct, a cleric to live by a trade, provided that his 
clerical duties are not neglected" (Mansi, iii. 955). . . . " In the 
Anglo-Saxon Church . . . the canons of King Edgar's reign 
ordered every priest diligently to learn a handicraft (No. 11. 
Wilkins, i. 225)." Cf. also Hatch, Bampton L. vi. ; Diet. Chr. 
Ant., s.v. Commerce. 

Iva dpeVrj] cf. i Co 7 s2 - 34 , Ro 8 8 , 1 Jn 322. Ign. ad Polyc. 6, 
upecr/ccre u) o-Tparevecrde, d<p ov Kal to. oi/fcovia Kop.L^ea6e. It in- 
cludes the thought of " pleasing by good service " ; cf. Milligan 
on 1 Th 2 4 . A useful expansion of these two verses will be found 
in S. Greg. Reg. Past, ii. 7. 

6. dGXfj] cf. 1 Ti 4 7-10 . These two similes are expanded fully 
in Tertullian, ad Mart. c. 3. 

yofU|j.u>s] will include both the training for the contest and 
the regulations for it; cf. Epict. iii. 10, 6 0cos <roi Ae'yci 'Sos p.01 
diroBei^w el vo/u/xajs fj6X.r]cra<;, el e<paye<; ocra 8el, el eyvp.vd(r6i]<;, el 
tox aXeiirrov rjKoucras : Plut. Non posse suaviter viv., p. 1105. 1 : 
adXrjTai crrecpavov ovk ay<Dvi£6p.evoi \ap.f3dvov<Ti, dXAd ayu)vicrap.evoi 
Kal viKTq<javTe<; (Wetstein). As applied to the Christian minister 
the training is that of 1 Ti 4 7 ; the regulations those of the law 
of Christ, especially those laid down here in 10 ' 12 . 

6. yewpyot'] cf. yewpyiov, 1 Co 3 9 . tw KapTTw. This may well 
include (a) the "honour" and maintenance he receives from the 
Church, cf. I 5 17, 18 ; and Bel seems to point to some regulation 
that Timothy is to enforce ; (b) the spiritual reward which comes 
here on earth in the sense of God's approval and blessing on the 
work J cf. Phil I 22 «ap7ros epyov: Ro I 13 IvaTwd Kapirov cr)(w Kal ev cf. Jas I 25<dpio<; iv rjj 7rotr;crci olvtov : Chrys. (here) e'v 
aurw tw K07ra) 77 dvTioocris. 

7. v6ei] cf. Mk 13 14 , Eph. 3 4 , Rev. 13 9 ; and for the appeal, 
1 Co io 16 KpLvare vp.el<; o <prjp.i. Sucrci ; cf. Jas I 5 . Ign. ad Polyc. 1, 
alrov a-vvea-iv irXeiova. rj<; e^eis. He does not think it wise to 
explain his allusion too explicitly. Verbum sapienti. 

8. finf]p6v€ue] so St. Peter is said to have appealed to his wife 
on her way to martyrdom, p.ep.vrjaro, w avrrj, tov Kvpiov, Clem. Alex. 
Strom, vii. p. 869, § 63 (Wetstein). St. Paul is acting in the spirit 
of the Eucharist, cts ttjv ifxrjv dvdpvrjo-iv, 1 Co II 24 . 

'\r](joOv Xp.] here only in this Ep. (elsewhere Xp. 'Irjaovv) : with 

II. 8-11.] 2 TIMOTHY 95 

stress on the historic life as the first thought, and X/ho-toV perhaps 
consciously a predicate. "Jesus — as the Messiah"; cf. Ro i 3,4 . 

eyTjYepfji^of] not the mere fact of the Resurrection (iyrjyepOcu), 
but keep Him in your mind as a Living Risen Lord who is able 
to give His life to you ; cf. o-v£ u . 

iK «-Tre'pp.aTos Aa{3ioJ Perhaps a semi-quotation from an early 
form of a creed : cf. Ign. Eph. 18, Trail, q, Smyrn. i, in all which 
places it emphasizes the reality of the human nature. There may 
be some such antidocetic thought here (cf. I 2 5 note), and in 
Zyrjyepfiivov a refutation of Hymenaeus and Philetus ( 18 ) ; but 
the context lays stress rather on the power of Christ to help, so 
that £* o-7r. A. expands the thought of Xpiarov — a Messiah and a 
true descendant of David, a King who can share his Kingdom ; 
cf. (, v. 12 and Lk i 32 - 33 . 

kotci to euayy. pou] cf. Ro 2* 6 i6 26 — not invented by me but 
entrusted to me ; cf. i Ti i n . 

9. a»s KcucoGpyos] "like a criminal," "quasi male operans," 
Vulg. ; "ut latro," Ambros.; "ut malefactor," Thdt. : or perhaps 
" on the charge of being a criminal " ; cf. i P 4 15 yu.77 ns vpwv 
Traax^TU) <I>s <povev<; rj kXcttt^s 17 KdKOTroios. This might imply that 
the writer was not tried for Christianity but for some alleged 
crime; cf. Suetonius, Nero, 16, "affiicti suppliciis Christiani, 
genus hominum superstitionis novae ac maleficae." Tac. Ann. xv. 
44, "per flagitia invisos"; but some more definite word than 
KaKovpyc*; would be more natural in this case, and iv w points to 
Christianity as the offence. This would be quite possible in 
Nero's time ; cf. Hort on 1 P 2 12 ; Chase in Hastings' D.B. iii. 
p. 784. 

ou S^SeTai] a strict perfect, while I have been bound the 
Word has not been, for I have been able to speak on its 
behalf, cf. 4 17 ; and others are doing its work, 4 9 - 12 ; " God 
buries His workers but continues His work," cf. Phil i 12 -^ Eph 
5 13 . For the personification, cf. 1 Th 2 13 , 2 Th 3 1 . Origen, 
c. Cels. i. 27, p.7] 7r€<pvKU)s KwXveaOai, is Xoyos deov (said of Jesus). 

10. 81a tooto] cf. Col 4 s 81' o /cat 8e8epat. irdvra uiroueVa) in 
the power of Love; cf. i 7 , 1 Co 13 7 . 

Siot tous ckXcktou's] both (a) those already called whose faith 
will be strengthened and their salvation helped by the example 
of my endurance; cf. Col i 24 , 2 Co i 5 - 6 ; and (b) those objects of 
God's Love who will be drawn to Christ by it ; cf. 4 17 . This 
power of endurance was the fact of St. Paul's life which most 
impressed his contemporaries; cf. Clem. Rom. i. 5, virop.ovr}<; 
yevo/xevos /Aeyio-ros viroypap.p.6<;. 

S6|tis alumou] Chrys. has an interesting contrast between the 
temporary glory of Nero and the eternal glory won by St. Paul. 

11. mcrros 6 \6yos] almost certainly a quotation (cf. Tit 3 s 


note). It may refer to the preceding verses ; if so, most probably 
to v. 8 , yap n confirming the writer's appeal to the saying about 
the Risen and Royal Christ by the quotation of a well-known 
hymn; or possibly to the following U-I8j y a 'p being explanatory, 
" namely," or a part of the quotation. In any case, et yap . . . 
ttiotos /*ev€i is a rhythmical saying, a careful balancing of en- 
couragement and warning. The language is full of reminiscences 
of earlier passages in the N.T., Ro 6 8 8 17 3 3 , Mt io 33 , and may 
be a hymn composed in face of persecution, encouraging to 
boldness and warning against defection. Polycarp, c. 5, has a 
reminiscence of this place, or perhaps an independent reminis- 
cence of the same hymn : vTreo")(eTO eyelpai rj/xas ex vetfp&v /cai 
on, eav 7roAiT£u<ra>/xe#a d£icos avrov, kcu o-vp.l3ao-iXevcrop.ev aur<p, 
elye Tria-Tevofxev. 

el o-uv aired dvoaev] the aorist perhaps anticipates the " one act 
of self-devotion in martyrdom" (Bernard); but the analogy of 
Ro 6 8 suggests that the primary reference is to baptism : " if our 
death with Christ was real and complete, so real that we shall be 
ready to share his literal death " ; so Chrys., rov re S-a. toO 

Xovrpov /cat tov Sid Ttov 7ra8r)fia.T(i>v. 

ovfrijoouei' confirms eyr\yepu.evov • ; as o-vufiao-ikeuaouev does cac 
cnrepp.aTO<; Aa/3i'8 8 and UTrop.eVojiei' does virofxivw 10 . The writer's 
mind passes from the past (0-wa7rt6a.v0fj.ev) through the present 
({nroix.) to the final test (dpvr]cr6p.e6a) ; cf. Tertullian, De Fuga. 14, 
" Non potest qui pati timet ejus esse qui passus est." 

13. eiceiyos moros fie'eei] perhaps, He remains faithful to His 
promises of mercy, cf. Ro 3 s 11 29 - 32 and 1 Jn 3 20 , d7rio-roii/A6v 
being then less strong than dpvr]a6p.e6a ; but the balance of the 
rhythm and the following clause almost require a note of warning : 
He remains faithful ; He keeps his word both for reward and for 
punishment ; cf. 4 8 and 14 , Dt 7 9 , Ex 34 s - 7 . 

dpwTJcrao-0ai . . . SuVaTai] prob. a comment by the writer. 
For the thought, cf. Nu 23 19 , " God is not a man that he should 
lie, neither the son of man that he should repent." Tit i 2 o 
di//€vSr/? #£0<>. Clem. Rom. i. 37, ov8ev yap aSvvaTOV irapa. tw 6ew, 
el fiij to \pevo~ao-8ai. 

14-26. This paragraph passes from the thought of the subject- 
matter (d rjKovo-as, 2 2 ) to that of the character of the teaching 
and of the teacher. It begins with advice which Timothy has to 
give to others, but passes at once to advice to himself. Remind 
those to whom you hand on your teaching not to strive about 
mere words ( 14 ). Show them in yourself the example of a true 
worker and teacher, avoiding empty discussions which will tend 
more and more to lower the tone of religion and eat out the life 
of the Church ( 15 " 17 ). One case is given of such false teaching ( 18 ) : 
two tests of the true teacher ( 19 ) : there is a great variety of char- 

II. 14-26.] 2 TIMOTHY 97 

acter within the Church, good and bad, and a teacher must care- 
fully keep from the bad, if he is to be fit for his Master's work 
(20. 2i) # ]7 or yourself, avoid merely youthful impulses, aim at the 
central virtues, keeping in touch with all sincere Christians ( 22 ). 
Avoid profitless discussions and all that is inconsistent with the 
character of the servant of the Lord, who should be patient, 
skilful in teaching, hopeful for the conversion of opponents ( 22 - 26 ). 

The whole paragraph is very analogous to I 4 6 - 16 ; but the 
notes specially characteristic of this are : 

(a) The contrast of work (ipyarqv 15 , nav Ipyov ayadov 21 , to 
CKetVou 6e\r]fj.a 26 ) with mere talk (\oyop.a^dv u , /ceyo^oovtas 16 , 
A.e'yovT€S 18 , ^r^creis 23 ). 

(b) The contrast of true speech (rbv Xoyov tt)s a\r]6eia<; 15 , rjinov 24 , 
SiSolktlkov 24 , iv TrpaorrjTL iraiSevovra 25 ) and false (e7r' oiSev xp^cri/tov, 
iirl Kara(TTpo(f>rj tCjv anovovTOiv 14 , (3e(3r]\.ov<s 16 , 6 Xoyos avrwv is 
ydyypaiva 17 , avarpiirovat. ttjv tii'wv ttiutiv 18 , jnwpas, a.7rai8euTOus 23 ). 

Paraphrase. These are the central truths of which you 
must remind any to whom you entrust your teaching, and you 
must charge them as in the sight of their Lord and Master not 
to be " word- warriors," constantly arguing and wrangling with 
words as if they wished to ruin rather than to build up their 
hearers' faith : such wrangling is perfectly useless. With regard 
to yourself, take all pains to present yourself before God as one 
who can stand His test — as a real worker, as one who will never 
be put to shame for bad or scamped work, but as teaching 
rightly the one message of the truth. But to all these irreligious 
and frivolous hair-splittings give a wide berth. Those who take 
part in them will go forward — on a downward grade of impiety : 
their message will be like a cancer eating into the sound 
members of Christ's body. To that class belongs Hymenaeus 
and Philetus, for they have entirely missed their aim about the 
truth, explaining away the literal resurrection and saying that 
Resurrection is only our past resurrection with Christ in Baptism, 
and thereby they are upsetting the faith of some. Yet be not 
alarmed ; whatever false teachers may say, the solid foundation- 
stone of God's Temple has been fixed once for all ; and on it 
are two inscriptions carved first by Moses and renewed by Our 
Lord : one tells of God's knowledge, "The Lord knoweth them 
that are His own " ; the other of man's duty, " Let every one 
who worships the Lord depart from iniquity." Yet within the 
Church there will be great varieties : it is like a big house, in 
which there are not only vessels of gold and silver, but others of 
wood and earthenware ; some for honourable, some for mean 
uses. If, then, any teacher keep himself quite clear of these false 
teachers, he will be a vessel for honourable use, set apart for 



service, ready to his Master's hand, prepared to take part in any 
good work. But that you may be such a vessel, you must turn 
your back upon all merely youthful impulses and passions ; you 
must set your face towards just dealings with others, towards 
loyalty, love, and peace with all who call the Lord their God out of 
a pure heart. But these foolish discussions with men of untrained 
minds persistently avoid : you know they only engender strifes, 
and, as Isaiah said, "A servant of the Lord must not strive"; 
nay, he must be courteous to every one, apt and skilful to teach, 
ready to bear with contradiction, speaking in a gentle tone, as 
he has to train the minds of opponents. He must always have 
in his heart the hopeful question, " Mav it not be that God will 
give them a real change of heart, and they will come to a real 
knowledge of truth? May it not be that they will come back to 
their sober senses, saved from the devil's snare ? May it not 
even be that I shall be a fisher of men, and save them alive, and 
bring them back to do their true Master's Will ? " 

14. TauTa] = ravra of 2 2 , with the addition of the truths in 2 s-13 . 
uT-ofu'p.n'iCTKe] i.e. remind the teachers of 2 2 , who have to 

think of the good of their hearers (twv olkovovtwv). Siapap-rupo- 
p.ckos : cf. I 5 21 6 13 . XoyopaxeTv : cf. I 6 4 note. 

Xprjo-ifAo/] perhaps governing hr ouScV, "a course useful for 
nothing," but probably agreeing with ovSeV, " to no useful 
result": cf. iir' ovhzvl ^p^cri/Aw, Plut. de ira cohib., p. 456 B {ap. 
Wetstein). Ambrosiaster's note is suggestive, " Necesse est 
enim ut contentio extorqueat aliquid, immo multa quae dicuntur 
contra conscientiam, ut intus in animo perdat, foris victor 
abscedat. Nemo enim patitur se vinci, licet sciat vera quae 
audit. . . . Collatio ergo inter Dei servos esse debet, non 
altercatio": cf. H. C. G. Moule (ad be), "The time of religious 
controversy is the time above all others to resolve that our souls 
shall live behind and above words, in conscious touch with the 
eternal Things." 

iiri] denoting the result (Blass, N.T. Gr., § 43. 3, but without 
any parallel instance) ; rather, the result is treated half-ironically 
as the purpose "as if they set themselves deliberately not to 
build up, but to throw down " ; cf. 16 . 

15. TrapaoTT|crai] to present yourself for service, cf. 21 and 
Ro 6 13-16 ; perhaps also, with the further thought, present your- 
self for judgment, cf. 1 Co 8 8 , the solemn appeal in 14 having 
suggested the thought of God as Judge. 

ipy6rt)v] with a slight antithesis to Xoyofiax^v, cf. 1 Co 4 19 - 20 . 

drc-n-aiaxurroi'] perhaps a conscious reminiscence of i 8 - 12 - 17 
"a workman who is not ashamed of his task or of his master"; 
but more probably "a workman who will never be put to shame 

II. 15-18.] 2 TIMOTHY 99 

by being shown to have done bad work" ("inconfusibilem," 
Vulg. ; "non impudoratum," Ambros.); cf. Phil i 20 iv otSevl 
aiVxw^r/0-o/, and i Co 3 10 " 15 . This carries on the thought of 
8oKifxov, and leads up to 21 . 

opfloTOfAoufTa] "recte tractantem," Vulg., rightly teaching, 
keeping the word free from logomachies. The stress is on 
6p0o- : it is doubtful whether in Hellenistic Greek the metaphor 
in -TOfAourra is consciously present (cf. kcllvoto/xuv). If it is, it 
may be that of a plough driving a straight furrow (Chrys.), or of 
a road-maker driving his road straight; cf. Prov 3 6 n 5 SiKaioa-wrj 
dp.wp.ovs oSou's, or of a mason squaring and cutting a 
stone to fit it into its proper place (Parry). The whole phrase 
is used frequently in the Liturgies as describing the duty of the 
bishop, cf. Introd, p. xxxix ; and 6p6oTop.ia is used of orthodoxy, 
Clem. Alex. Strom, vii. 1 6. 104, T-qv eKKA^onaoTi/ajv . . . opdo- 


16. K€yo<}>a)i'ias] cf. I 6 20 . irepuarao-o, Tit 3 9 . 
TrpoKoi|/oucn.i'] i.e. 61 KevocpuvovvTes. The word is ironical (cf. 

I 4 15 note). They will make progress — on a downward grade, 
cf. 14 . Perhaps there is a conscious antithesis to opdorop-ovvra, 
TrpoKoirruv being also used of road-making. 

17. vop^v c|ei] perhaps " will eat into their own heart and 
ruin it more and more," cf. Tit i 15 ; hut the chief thought is 
" will spread further into the Church and corrupt others " ; cf. 
1 Co 5 6 , Acts 4 17 iva p.r] €7rt 7rAetov 8ia.vep.7)6fj cis tov \aov : Apost. 
K.O. 17, puffTTOTf. . . . «ri 7rA.€iov Vip.rj6rj is ydyypaiva. 

w i<mv : cf. i 15 , 1 Ti i 20 note : it might be a later note added 
by an editor, giving an illustration from his own time, cf. Introd., 
p. xxxi. 'YfjieVcuos, 1 Ti i 20 . «1>i\t|to?, not mentioned elsewhere. 

18. Tjor6xiio-a>'] cf. 1 Ti i 6 note. 

\£yovrz<i . . . avdaracriv] i.e. that the Resurrection was only 
a spiritual Resurrection, which took place at Baptism when the 
Christian rose to newness of life and a knowledge of the truth. 
This is analogous to Philo's treatment of the "translation" of 
Enoch (p.€T€drjKev avrov 6 6e6s, Gen 5 24 ) as equivalent to conversion 
from a lower to a higher stage of moral life (de Abrahamo, cc. 3 
and 4), and was a natural perversion of the teaching of St. Paul (Ro 
6 1 ' 11 ) and of the Fourth Gospel (Jn 17 3 ). It was held by many 
Gnostics, some denying that the true Christian would ever die 
(Iren. i. 23. 5 of Menander, " Resurrectionem per id quod est in 
eum baptisma accipere ejus discipulos et ultra non posse mori sed 
perseverare non senescentes et immortaks" ; Tert. de Anima, 50 ; 
Justin M. Apol. I. 26, Dial. 80, a/xa tw airoOvrjO-Ktiv ras i/a^as dvaXap.- 

fidveo-Oai et? tov ovpavov. Does this theory lie behind Jn 21 23 ?); 
some holding that there would be no Resurrection of the body (Iren. 
ii. 31. 2 of Simon and Carpocrates, "esse autem resurrectionem 


a mortuis agnitionem eius quae ab eis dicitur veritatis " : cf. i Co 15 ; 
Tert. de Res. Carnis, 19). Justin M. (Fragments on the Resurrection, 
ed. Otto, ii. p. 211) argues fully against this view, and it probably 
led to the emphasis on the " Resurrection of ' the flesh' or of 
'the body,'" in the early Creeds (v. J. Th. St., Jan. 19 17, p. 135). 
A quite different explanation prevailed very early — that men 
do not rise at all, but only live on in their posterity : cf. Acta 
Pauli et ThecltZ, C. 1 4, 17817 ye'yovev dvaoracrt? £<p' 01s t^op.€v tc'kvois : 
so Ambrosiaster ("Hi autem, sicut ex alia Scriptura" (i.e. 
probably, The Acts of Paul and Thecla) "docemur, in filiis fieri 
resurrectionem dicebant"), Pelagius, Theod.-Mops. ("quam in 
successionem aiunt nostram constare "), Thdt. (t<zs Ik 7raioWouas 
SiaSo^as). This was a Jewish view (cf. Ecclus n 28 (LXX), 
3o l8 ii-), and might have been introduced from Sadducean sources, 
but it would have been expressed more clearly, e.g., as in Ecclus 
30 4 ireXevTiqaev olvtov 6 Trarrjp kcli ojs ovk aTreOavev' Ofioiov yap aura! 
KCLTeXlTTeV p.€T avrov. 

19. Reassurance to Timothy — in spite of the false teachers' 
work, i-rrl Karaa-Tpo<pfj u and o.var piirovcn 18 , the foundation is 
firmly set and has its mark upon it ; God knows his own, and they 
will depart from iniquity. 

6 . . . GcfAeXios] i.e. either Christ Jesus and his Apostles (cf. 
i Co 3 11 , Eph 2 20 , Rev 21 14 ) : or, more widelv,"the Church" (cf. 
r Ti 3 1S ); or "the truth," "the deposit" (Hillard): but the 
emphasis is on larrjKtv rather than on #€yu.e'Aios. 

a^paylSa] perhaps simply " inscription " ; cf. Ex 28 36 €«rv7rw/xa 
<r<ppayi8o<; dytW/xa Kvptov. or, more exactly," seal," whether the 
stonemason's mark, denoting workmanship, or the owner's mark, 
denoting " ownership, security, and destination " (H.D.B. s.v. 
"Seal") ; cf. Jn 6 27 , Eph i ls 4 30 . 

lyku] Perhaps, of foreknowledge, Ro 8 29 ; cf. Odes of Solomon, 
8. 15, " I do not turn away my face from them that are mine, for I 
know them, and before they came into being I took knowledge of 
them, and on their faces I set my seal " (Dibelius) : or more likely 
(as it is an adaptation of an O.T. phrase), of complete insight 
into character: cf. 1 Co 8 3 , Gal 4 9 , Nah 1" Kupios . . . yiyvwo-Kwr 
tous €v\a(3ovp.ivov<; avrov, the aorist denoting the complete result 
of past watching (Moulton, N.T. Gr., p. 113). 

6 6yo}idi<j)y to oyofia] who names the name of Christ as his 
Lord, who calls himself Christian and worships Christ ; cf. 
Lev 24 16 , Jos 23 7 , Is 26 13 . 

Both inscriptions have their origin in the O.T., and probably 
both in the story of the rebellion of Korah, Nu 16 5 l-jriv mittch 

kgu tyvu) 6 6eos tovs ocra? avrov, l6 26 a7rocr\urdrjT€ cltto tHh> aKrjvwv 

tu)v avOpuiiruiv rail' <tk\y)pwv tovtwu : cf. Is 52 11 . FJut each is modi- 
fied by sayings of the Lord ; cf. Mt 7 23 ouSeVoTc tyvw i/xas, 

II. 19-24.] 2 TIMOTHY IOI 

Lk 13 27 a-Troo-TrjTC air i/xov 7raires ipydrau dSi/a'as, SO that the writei 
may be quoting from some early Gospel or collection of Christian 
sayings ; cf. Apost. Const, ii. 54, Ka0ws yeypa-n-rai- tois e'yyvs kclI tois 
/xaKpdv, oSs eyvw Kupios ovras avrov (Resch, Agrapha, pp. 204-07). 

20. fJieydXif] otKia . . .] i.e. the Church (so Ambros. Thd. and 
modern Commentators, though many Patristic Comm. interpret 
it of the world). The illustration is perhaps suggested by Is 52 11 
airocrTrjTt, dTroarrjTe . . . aKaOdprov fx-q dif/rjcrOe, ol (pepovres rd 
o-Kevr) Kvpiov. cf. Wisd 15 7 , Ro 920-23 xhe object is twofold, to 
teach Timothy patience with varieties of character within the 
Church, cf. 1 Co 12 20 - 26 , but mainly to warn him against contact 
with all impurity and false teaching. 

21. tis] any member of the Church, but, especially, any who 
would be a teacher. 

ckkci0. IciutoV] Keep himself (cf. 16 and 2 Co 7 T ) completely 
(ix) pure by separation from these, i.e. from the vessels to dis- 
honour: tovVcov, prob. neuter, though the reference is primarily 
to the false teachers, " a doctoribus haereticis," Pelagius. o-kcuos 
dcrTpdxivov tjv 6 IlauAos dAA.' iyevero xpvcrovv, Chrys. 

coXpiiCTToy] 4 11 , Philem n , easily usable (" utile," Vulg ; " opti- 
mum," Thd.); contrast in ovSlv ^o-i/x.ov 14 ; cf. Epict. ii. 16, 
To\p.r](rov dvaft\e\pa<s irpb<; top 6tbv elireiv, '^pw p.01 Xolttov els o av 
$eA.r]S . . . ctos elpu . . . ottov OeXeis, dye'. 

els • . • dya06V] Tit i 16 3 1 . ^Toifiao-jxeVoi/ he is prepared for 
the tasks prepared for him, Eph 2 10 KTiaOivres iv Xpto-rw 'Irjcrov 
C7rt epyois dyaOdis 01s Trpor)Toip.aaev 6 6e6$. 

22. Combines the thoughts of I 4 12 and 6 11 (q.v.). 

Tds reuTepiKds €iri0.] will include impulses to impatience, love 
of disputation, self-assertion as well as self-indulgence (cf. illus- 
trations in Wetstein); everything inconsistent with the virtues 
that follow. 

8ikcuoowi]i>] contrast dSi/cids 19 , "justice" — rather than the 
more abstract "righteousness." many, the main thought is 
"fidelity," "trustworthiness" ("integntatem," Pelagius), as the 
stress is on relations to other men. 

jieTd] probably to be joined closely with dprjvrjv, cf. Heb 12 14 , 
but possibly with the whole sentence ; cf. 1 Co i 2 . iw emicaX 
Tbv K., cf. 19 , Joel 2 32 , Ro 10 12 {ubiv. S.H.), 1 Co i 2 . ^c Ka0. 
KapSias : cf. eKKaOdpy 21 , I I 6 note. 

23. Cf. I 1 4 4 7 '6 4 , Tit 3 9 . dTratSeu'rous here only in N.T. 
but frequent in Wisdom literature, always of persons, "sine dis- 
ciplina," Vulg.; "ineruditos," Ambros. 

24. SouXoi' Kopi'ou] here in its special sense of a minister 
(cf. Ro i 1 , Phil i 1 ), probably with a conscious reference to the 
picture of the servant of Jehovah in Is 42 1 - 3 53. One who like 
Christ has to do the Lord's own work of winning and saving ; 


cf. G. A. Smith, Isaiah, ii. p. 288 ; Chadwick, The Social Teach- 
ing of St. Paul, c. 5. 

r\moy] as both Paul and Timothy had been at Thessalonica ; 
cf. 1 Th 2 7 (si vera lectio). dee|iKaKoi' here only in N.T. But 
the ave$iKa.Ko<; will be tried by persecution ; cf. Wisd 2 19 8a<do-wp.(v 
rrjv lire^LKaKtav airov. 

25. TraiSeuorra] contrast a7rcuSeuTovs 23 and cf. Tit 2 12 . The 
servant will be carrying out the work of grace. 

too? drriSiaTiGcfAeVous] those who are adversely disposed ; cf. 
Longinus, de Subl. 17, 7rpos ttjv 7T€i0u) twv A.oya)v TrdvTws avTiStart- 
Berat (Field, Ot. Norvic. ad loc). 

firJTTOTe 8wr]] " ne quando," Vulg. ; " si quando," Ambros. 
It is an indirect question ; cf. Tob 8 10 p.rj kcu ovtos avoOavr) : Lk 
3 15 fxrjiroTe avTos elrj 6 Xpicrros : Gen 24 5- 39 . 

8wt]] ovk €ltt€, ixrjTTOTe. Svvrjdys . . . tov K.vpiov to irav yt'vcrai, 
Chrys. The form is optative, cf. i 10 - 18 ; but both here and in 
Eph i 17 the subjunctive 8u>r) would be more natural ; cf. Moulton, 
N.T. Gr., p. 55 ; W.-H. ii'. p. 168. 

26. d^'a^'1^4' wo ' l, '] cf. 4 6 vrjfa, and I Co 1 5 84 CKV^i/wre Sikcuo)? — 
there, too, out of ignorance (dyvwcrtav yap Beov zx 0VCTLV ) ar) d 
profitless discussion about the Resurrection. 

ck ttjs • • . TrayiSos] I 3° note, Ps 124 7 t) ipvxy rjp-^v ws 
(rrpovOtov ippvcrOr) ht rrjs 7raytSos twv Orjpevovrwv : Prov 5 22 irapa- 
vop.ia.1 av&pa aypzvovcri. 

e^wypTjfieVoi] cf. Lk 5 10 avdpdiirovs lo-rj £a)ypwj', a saying of the 

Lord's which may be in the writer's mind. In the LXX the 

emphasis is nearly always on taking or on saving alive; cf. Jos 
2 13 6 25 9 20. 

utt' aoToo . . . els t6 eK€iVou GeXTjfia] Four alternative trans- 
lations are possible. 

(i) " Having been captured by the devil to do his will"; cf. 
Ign. Kph. 1 7, pJr] alxp.a\o)TLarj vp.a<; ck tov irpoK€ip.ei>ov l^rjv [6 ap\o)v 
tov al£)vo<; tovtov] (so "a quo captivi tenentur ad ipsius volun- 
tatem," Vulg., A.V., most Patristic Comm., Holtzmann, Dibelius) ; 
ckcivov being substituted for avTov to suggest a contrast with God 
whose will they ought to be doing, — " that false master's will," — cf. 
Test. XII Patr., Nepht. 3, ev Ka$apoT7]Ti KapStas ctwt^ctc to OlXrjfxa 
tov ®eov Kpareiv kcu airoppiirTtiv to 6VA.7iyu.a tov HeXtap : cf. Wisd 
x 16 2 j5 |3 ut tn j s adds n0 new thought and does not give its full 

force to i£,<i)ypr}p.evoi. 

(ii) After having been captured by the devil, they may return 
to do God's will. " The true master's will," so Bernard, 
Wohlenberg ; but the same objections hold good to this. 

(iii) " Having been captured by God to do Ilisv/Wl" (Thphl. 

cis to iroir/arai to 6e\r)p.a airov, cf. Heb 13 21 ), but it is doubtful 

whether God would be said faypelv avOpuirovs. 

III. 1-IV. 8.] 2 TIMOTHY IO3 

(iv) Having been saved alive, captured into life, by the 
servant of the Lord to do the Lord's will, and not the devil's 
(Bengel, Wetstein, R.V. marg.). 

This seems best, as (i) it gives its full force to i^ypijfxevoi : cf. 
the Inscr. from Apamea, " my greetings to the beloved of God 
and the newly-caught" (Authority and Archeology, p. 384); 
cf. 2 Co io 5 for a similar metaphor. 

(ii) It makes eis Ikuvov OiKrj/xa parallel to cis iTrtyvuxnv 

(iii) It ends on a note of hopefulness and encouragement to 
Timothy; cf. Chrys. de Sacerdotio, ii. 119, yevvaias olv Set i/w^s 
tva fir) 7repiKaK7], iva fxr) aTroyivwcTKr] tt/v twv 7r€7rAar>7/i.ei/o)v o-wttj- 
piav, Iva crwe^ws e/ceivo /ecu Xoyi^qrat Kal Xeyy M^7tot€ Sw auTOis 
6 #£os iTnyvwatv dA^eias xat a7raAAayuj(ri -njs tov Sia/3oAou 7rayiSos. 

iii. 1-iv. 8. — Further appeal to Timothy for boldness and 
loyalty, based on the thought of the last days and of the Final 

Remember, times will grow more difficult ( 1 ) : professing 
Christians will prefer self and pleasure to God ( 2 " 5 ) : false teachers 
will oppose the truth ; their hearers will be at the mercy of each 
caprice and each novelty : they will have a temporary success 
( 6 * 9 4 3 - 4 ). But I trust you to face persecution and to remain 
loyal to my teaching, for you have my example to guide you 
( 1(M4 ) : you have Holy Scripture to fit you for your task ( 15 -*7) : 
the thought of the Judgment and the coming Kingdom both to 
awe and to encourage you (4 1 ' 5 ), and my approaching death will 
throw all the responsibility upon you ( 6 " 8 ). 

In this paragraph there is still the contrast between empty 
talk and real work, cf. 3 5, 7 - 17 irav epyov ayadov, 4 5 Ipyov : but 
more markedly that between the source of the teaching — the 
Apostolic teaching, 3 10 4 3 , and Holy Scripture, 3 15 , as opposed to 
myths, 4 4 : that between the character of the teacher, loyalty 
to tradition, 3 14 //,eVe, as opposed to love of novelty, 3 13 4 s : that 
between the result, in the one case, wisdom and salvation, 3 15 , 
in the other, failure to lay hold of the truth, 3 7 , and folly, 3 9 . 

Paraphrase. But things are not yet at their worst : we have 
been warned that, as the last days approach, there will be 
moments very difficult to face. Men's affections will be set not 
on God, but on self, on money, and on pleasure. This will make 
them braggarts about what they have, overbearing to those who 
have not, quick to rail both at God and man, disobedient to 
parents, with no sense of gratitude to any, no respect for divine 
things or for human affection, implacable when offended, ready 
to speak evil of others, with no control over their own passions, 


no human tenderness, no love for what is good or for those who 
are good, quite ready to betray their brethren, reckless in speech 
and action, conceited and puffed up. They will have all the 
externals of religion, but have long set at defiance its power over 
their lives. These, too, you must avoid. For it is from a 
society like this that arise those teachers who creep into private 
houses and take captive silly women, whose consciences are 
burdened with past sins, who are at the mercy of caprices of 
every kind, and so, though always pretending to learn, yet have 
no power of coming to any knowledge of truth. Yet, though 
these are their only followers, these men — just as Jannes and 
Jambres opposed Moses — oppose the truth, men whose intellect 
is completely debased, who can stand no test as to their faith. 
But they will not be able to get far ; for their utter folly will be 
quite clear to every one, exactly as that of Jannes and Jambres 
was shown to be. But you I can trust, for you heartily became 
my follower; you listened to my teaching, imitated my manner 
of life ; my aims became your aims, my faith your faith, my 
forbearance, my love, my endurance passed on to you ; you 
know all my persecutions and sufferings ; what sufferings befell 
me in Antioch, in Iconium, in Lystra ; what persecutions I bore 
up against : yes, and the Psalmist's words came true, " out of 
them all the Lord delivered me." Aye, and all who are minded 
to live a religious life in union with Christ Jesus will be per- 
secuted. And malicious men will grow more malicious, im- 
postors will get worse and worse, deceiving others and deceived 
themselves. But I appeal to you — stand firm in those truths 
that you first learned and in which your past life confirmed you, 
knowing who your teachers were, knowing, too, that from your 
cradle you have been taught religious teaching from Scriptures 
which have it in them, if you have true faith in Christ Jesus, to 
give you the true wisdom which leads to salvation. All Scrip- 
ture is inspired by God, and therefore is useful for all your task — 
for teaching truth, for conviction of sin and refuting of false 
doctrine, for correction of faults, for discipline of character in 
the right way. It was given to make every one of God's men fit 
for his task, for it can fit him completely for every good work. 

1. yiVwffKe] not exactly " know," as if the writer were com- 
municating a new piece of knowledge, but "recognize," "realize" 
the fulfilment of what you have heard ; cf. Eur. Ale. 418, yiyvwo-Kt 
Se <Ls Tra(TLV yfj.iv Kardavtiv otptLKcrai. on . . . x a ^ €1T01 ) a semi- 
quotation of some eschatological prediction (cf. I 4 1 ), of the 
woes that would precede the irapovoia: cf. Mk 13 19 , Mt 24 12 , 
2 Th 2 2 on lvi<rrt\Ktv j) jjfxipa, 2 P 3 s , Jude 18 . This implies that 
the last days are already present and Timothy has to face them 6 - 

III. 1, 2.] 2 TIMOTHY IC>5 

iv ia\. rjfj.£pais] the days preceding the irapovo-ia, based on 
Is 2 2 iv reus iax- W-> Acts 2 17 . The omission of the article 
perhaps emphasizes the quality of those days " in days which 
are last and therefore worst " ; cf. io~xa.Tr) wpa, 1 Jn 2 18 ; iv Kaipo) 
tVxaTw, 1 P i 6 (ubi v. Hort). Ign. Eph. n, lo-^aTot naipoi: 
cf. also Gen 49 1 of Jacob in anticipation of his death, o-wayO-qrt. 
Iva dvayyei'A.0) Ti aTravTrjcrei vpxv iir io-\\ twv rjpepoyv, which 
suggests little more than " hereafter." 

xaXeiroi] hard for teachers, for the servant of the Lord to 
keep the spirit of 2 24 ' 26 ; cf. Eph 5 16 i$ayopa£6p.evoi tov xaipov, 
otl ax f]p.epai irovrjpaL €«ri. 

2-5. This list is probably also based on some previous 
Apocalyptic (cf. Test. XII. Patr., Iss. 6, yiyvwcr/ccTe ovv, rtKva p.ov, 
on iv eV^aTOis Katpois KaraXeiif/ovo-LV ol viol vp.wv ttjv airXoT-qTa ko.1 
naWrjO-qo-ovTai rrj air\r]o-Tia k.t.X. — Assumption Mos. C 7, Mt 
24 12 ) ; perhaps also with a reminiscence of Ro i. ii. (cf. 6 with 
Ro 2 20 l^ovTa t^v p.6p<p(oo-Lv rrj<; yvcocrcws), as though Christian 
morality was in danger of falling back to the level of heathenism 
and Judaism. Here, however, there is no stress on individual 
immorality as in Ro 1 : the main thought is that the love of self 
will lead to neglect of the duty to others and to God, nay more, 
to active wrong-doing to them. 

<|>t\auToi . . . 4>i\o8cot stand in sharp antithesis : <f>i\dpyvpoi 
and <f>i\r]8ovoi are subdivisions of <pi\avToi. The true centre of 
life is changed. Self has taken the place of God, so all sense of 
the duty to others, whether man or God, disappears. The rest 
are mainly ranged in pairs : Chrysostom, perhaps fancifully, 
assumes them to form a climax, each leading to the next after it. 
<f>i\auTos was already a term of reproach in Greek Ethics (cf. 
Arist. Eth. Nic. ix. 8 for an interesting discussion of the problem 
in what sense it is a vice), and is placed by Philo in antithesis to 
the love of God, de Spec. Legg., p. 264 M, v-ko <pt\avria<; iic\a66- 
p.evoL tov 7rpos aXrjOeiav ovtos Oeov (Wetstein). 

<j>i\dpYupoi] suggested by the chief danger at Ephesus, cf. I 
6 10 . There, it was the root of all evil; here, it is itself traced 
back to a root deeper down in human nature, the love of self. 

dXatfti (cf. Ro i 30 , Jas 4 16 , 1 Jn 2 16 , "elati," Vulg. ; "in 
solentes," Ambros. ; "gloriosi," Beza), uirep^ai'oi (Lk I 61 , Jas 
4 6 , 1 P 5 5 ), p\d(T<|)Yi(jioi, all mainly faults of speech, braggadocio 
about self, boasting of one's own gifts or pretending to those we 
have not (cf. Arist. Eth. N. iv. 7, Rhet. ii. 6 ; Theophr. Char. 
xxiii.) ; scornful arrogance in thought and word towards man and 
God (Theophr. Char, xxiv.) ; outspoken abuse and evil speaking, 
both manward and Godward ; cf. Trench, Syn. § xxix. dAa£ov€u» 
and iireprjtpavia are combined in Clem. Rom. i. 16, X/hcttos 
'I^o-ovs ovk rjXdev iv Kopurw dA.a£ov6ids ovSe irrreprjfpavias . . . aXXa 


TdTTtivocfrpwv, and the spirit of the two underlies the Pharisee's 
prayer, Lk i8 n - 12 . 

YovcG™ dTT€i0€l s ] Ro i 80 ; cf. I i 9 , Tit i 6 , Eph 6 1 . 

dxdpKrroi] both to men and God; cf. Ro i 21 , Ecclus 1728.2^ 
and contrast Eph 5 20 ev^apio-Towrcs 7rai'Tore virep iravruyv. 

deoCTioi] 1 Ti i 9 "scelesti," Vulg. ; " impii," Ambros. 

aCTTopyoi] Ro i 81 ; cf. 1 Ti 5 8 "sine affectione," Vulg. ; "sine 
dilectione," Ambros. 

affiroi'Soi] " implacable when offended " ; cf. Trench, Syn. 
§ lii. : but it may also include the thought " untrue to airovSai 
already made," "faithless to their pledged word"; cf. ao-vvOirovs, 
Ro i 81 ; "sine pace," Vulg.; "sine fide," Ambros. 

SidpoXoi] cf. 1 Ti 3 11 , Tit 2 8 ; it may include the two thoughts 
"slanderers" and "setters at variance," promoting quarrels in 
the hope that they may gain from them. 

dyrjuepoi] cf. KaKa Orjpia, Tit I 12 ; ws to. dXoya £a>a, Jude 10 . 

dcJuXdyaOoi] no lovers of what is good (" sine benignitate," 
Vulg.), or, of those that are good ("bonorum inimici," Ambros.), 
cf. Tit i 8 note; cf. d<piXo/caXos (Plut. Qu. Conv. v. 1), and the 
interesting contrast between Antoninus and his father in Pap 
Oxyr. i. 33, to p.ev irpSirov rjv <piXoo~o(pos, to Scirrepov dcpiXdpyupos, 
to Tpirov (pi\ayd$o<;' <toi tovtwv to. evavTLa. cvkcitcu, Tvpavvia, d<piXa- 
yaOia, d7rat8t'a (Qy. = a.Trai8evcria). 

irpoSoTcu] cf. Mt 24 10 /ecu dXX^Xous -rrapaSwo-ovcri, and Clem. 
Rom. i. 5 for the part which jealousy played in the Neronian 

irpoireT€isl hasty, reckless, either in speech (cf. Suidas, tj 
d^aXtVwTos yXwa-0-a) or in action; cf. Acts 19 86 . 

TeTu^wjieVoi] I 3 6 note, 6 4 . 

4)1X^801/01 corresponds at the end to <pi\dpyvpot. at the begin- 
ning, both expressions of cpiXavroi and pointing the contrast to 
<pi\66iOL: Bengel's comment is " Epicureorum epitheton," but 
Epicurus held that the (ptX-^Sovoi must be <piXo'*aXoi koI <fn\o- 
SiKaioi: cf. Cic. ad Fam. xv. 19. For the contrast, cf. Philo, de 
agric. C 19, <pi\rj8ovov kol <piXo7ra#>) p.a\\ov 17 <pi\dpeTOv kclI 
<pi\69eov (Wetstein) ; cf. Phil 3 19 &\> 6 #«6s f) Koikia. 

5. fiopcjxoo-u'] "speciem pietatis," Vulg. ; " formam," Ambros. ; 
"deformationem," Cypr. : having all externals of religion, or, 
perhaps, a power of showing such externals. This may include 
(a) having a correct creed ; cf. Ro 2 20 ex ovTa T V V p-opfpwaLv t^s 
yiwews Kal t^s uXyOtias iv to i'o'/i{j> : (/>) a form of worship and 
external expressions of religion, " in habitu vel doctrina," Pelag. ; 
cf. Philo, de plant. C. 17, curt Tives rSiv 67ri/iop<£a£6VTa>v (vare(3n.av 

Kal tou'tous] those too as well as the controversialists of 

2 23-26 

III. 6-10.] 2 TIMOTHY 107 

6. eVouVocTes] cf. Jude 4 7rap€io-£oWav ; cf. Iren. i. 13. 3 of 
the Valentinian Marcus, [idXio-Ta ircpl yweu/cas do-xoAcn-ai : ib. 6, 
c^a7raTwi/Tes ywaiKapia 7roXAa SucfiOetpav. 

aixp-aXamlorres] the Hellenistic form for the Attic alxfia\u>- 
tcvW, Nageli, p. 28 ; Rutherford, New Phrynichus, ccccvii. 

o-60-wpeup.eVa] heaped up, overladen ; cf. 4 3 , Barnab. 4. 6, 
€7rto-o)/)€uovTas Tats ap-apTiais i/iwv. They have become caricatures 
of true womanhood, dyo^-eya; cf. 1 Co 12 2 and contrast Ro 8 14 , 
Gal 5 18 . iroiKiXais of many kinds, including sensual desires (cf. 
Iren. I.e.), but also the desire for novelties (cf. 4 3 ), for the name 
of learned women, " mentis et carnis " (Bengel). 

7. fxaeGdVorra] cf. I 5 13 , where there is a similar oxymoron 
apyaX fxavdavovai. els iirlyvtaaiv aktfl. 2 25 . A change of heart 
might still enable them to know : they would then regain the 
power which true piety gives, cf. with ttjv 8vvap.1v 5 ; cf. 
Hermas, Sim. 9. 22, #£'A.ovt« irdvra yivwo-Ktiv koI ov8\v oXws 

8. 'la^s Kal 'lap-PpTis] (or possibly Ma^s, which is found in 
the Western texts and in the Talmud). An ad hominem illustration. 
They are fond of their Jewish myths and genealogies : well, the 
nearest analogy to themselves to be found there is that of 
magicians whose folly was exposed, ov Tpoiroi' may perhaps 
imply similarity of method, that these teachers used magic arts 
like the Egyptian magicians; cf. yo^Tcs 13 and Acts 19 19 . The 
reference is to Ex 7 11 9 11 . The names are not found in O.T., 
Philo, or Josephus, but in slightly different forms in late Jewish 
Targums, one perhaps as early as the first Christian century 
(Schechter, Documents of Jewish Sectaries, i. p. 5); in heathen 
writers (Pliny, Hist. Nat. xxx. 1. 11 ; Apuleius, Apol. c. xc), and 
in several Christian Apocryphal writings, e.g. Evang. Nicodemi, 
c. 5). Origen twice {ad Matth. 27° 23 s7 ) refers to an Apocryphal 
book with the title "Jannes et Mambres." The names are 
apparently Semitic, perhaps meaning " the rebel " and " the 
opponent" (so Thackeray, The Relation of St. Paul to Contempo- 
rary Jewish Thought, pp. 216-21). For fuller details, cf. Schiirer, 
H.J. P. (Eng. tr.) ii. 3. 149, Wetstein, Holtzmann, Dibelius, and 
W.-H. Notes on Select Readings, ad loc. 

dSoKifioi] contrast 2 15 and cf. Tit i 16 . ttjc irumy, probably 
subjective, as parallel to rbv vow; cf. Add. Note, p. 20. 

9. em irXelo/] " farther " : or, perhaps (not pressing the com- 
parative, cf. i 18 note), " very far." 

10. Cf. i 5 - 6 . There, the appeal was to his start in life; here, 
to his start in the Christian life. 

irapT]Ko\ou6T](ms is capable of different shades of meaning, to 

ollow in mind, to understand; cf. Epict. i. 9; Marc. Aurel. iii. 1, 

iv. 9, vii. 4 : to imitate ; to accompany : here it changes as St. 


Paul mentions his teaching, his Christian virtues, the events of 
his life. For the list, cf. 2 Co 6 4 n 23 . 

tt] SiSao-K. -rfj dyuyfj, ttj TrpoGeVci] possibly all in an active 
sense — my teaching of you, my training of you (cf. Plutarch, 7repi 
■n-alBuv ayu>yrj<i), my suggestion of tasks for you to perform, cf. 
Plat. Rep. 413 C, irpodefievois tpya: Crito, 51 E, rrpoTidivTwv 
rjfiwv . . . a av KcXevwaev (v. Expositor, Nov. 19 19) ; but could 
■npoOicrei be so used without an explanatory genitive ? If not, we 
must translate — my doctrine (I 4 6 ), my manner of life (cf. Esth 
2 20 , 2 Mac 4 16 ; Pap. Tebt. i. 24 s7 jxoxOr}ph.v dycoy^v, M.M. s.v. ; 
Nageli, p. 34), my own purpose (cf. Acts n 23 27 13 , 2 Mac 9 27 
wapaKoXovOovvra rrj ip.rj Trpooupeaei). 

ttj oTTojiokfj] cf. Clem. Rom. i. 5 of Paul, vttollovtjs yevd/xcvos 
/Lteyto-Tos vTroypap.p.6<i. " Vivam nobis boni doctoris imaginem 
depingit nempe qui non oratione modo formet ac instituat suos 
discipulos sed pectus quoque suum quodammodo illis aperiat ut 
intelligant ex animo ipsum docere quae docet " (Calvin). 

11. old fiot cyeWro] St. Paul enumerates the first only of a 
long train of persecutions, 2 Co 11 30 - 33 . Timothy was noc his 
companion in these ; but he doubtless heard of them and 
followed St. Paul in spite of them. On account of this difficulty 
Wohlenberg separates this verse from 10 , and treats it as an 
exclamation. Oh, what I suffered ! what persecutions I endured 
from the first — yet the Lord delivered me ! 

Ik iravTwv k.t.A..] cf. 4 18 . There is here perhaps a conscious 
reminiscence of Ps 33 18 and 20 . 

CK€Kpa£av 01 SiKaiot /cat 6 Kvptos eicr^KOVcrev auraiv 
kcu €K 7rao"uv twv 6Xi^rt(DV auraiv ipvcaro avrov<i 

• •••■•• 

7roAXai at ^Xii/'£is Tail' SiKatcov 

koX €K Traarwv avTwv pvaerai auTOUS. 

12. Cf. 1 Th 3 4 /te'XXoaev 6\ifie<r6ai., Acts 14 s * Std tto\\£>v 
6\i{f/€0)v Set y)/xa<; elaekdiiv ets ttjv /JacrtXetav tov $eov — words which 
Timothy probably heard when spoken (Hillard). Probably in 
each case there is a reminiscence of Mt 5 10 - u or some similar 
saying of the Lord : Prochorus (Acta /oh., p. 83) quotes the 
words of Acts 14 22 as a saying of the Lord ; cf. Resch, Agrapha, 
pp. 100, 148, 278 ; Pau/inismus und die Logia, p. 452. Pelagius 
makes the testing comment: " Timendum ergo nobis est ne 
non pie vivamus, qui nihil patimur propter Deum." 

13 irofripot] "mali," Vulg. ; "nequam," Ambros. ; but better 
"maligni," Bengel. The thought is more of malignant harmful- 
ness, willing to persecute, than of moral evil ; cf. 4 18 , 2 Th 3 2 - 3 , 
Mt 6 13 . 

yoT)T€s] " seductores," Vulg. ; impostors, as off en in Hellenistic 

III. 13-15.] 2 TIMOTHY 109 

Greek (cf. Wetstein) : so yorjreia, "crafty guile," 2 Mac 12 24 ; 
but it may also imply the use of magical arts ; cf. 8 and 15 notes. 
TrpoKo^ouCTi/] not of external influence as in 9 , but of internal 
downgrade development as in 2 16 q.v. 

irXarwp.ei'oi.] probably passive : deceived by 6 irovrfpos, Mt 6 1S , 
or by other teachers, the phrase being almost proverbial; cf. 
Philo, de migratione Abraham, c. 15 (cf. the Egyptian magicians), 
aTrardv Soxovvres cbraTwrai : Ovid, Met. xiv. 81, " deceptaque 
decipit omnes " ; Aug. Confess, vii. 2, " deceptos illos et decep- 
tores " (v. Wetstein, Dibelius, for these and other illustrations) ; 
cf. 2 Th 2 11 . 

14. au W] returning to the appeal of 10 and to the thought 
of 2 16 . 

f«Ve] " remain loyal to," " permane," Vulg. ; " persevera," 
Ambros. ; cf. Acts 14 22 ififxiveiv rrj irio-rei, Jn 8 31 iav v/acis fxeivrfre 
ev t<3 Aoya) ra ifx.S, aXr/Ovs fiaOrfrai /xov lark : perhaps also with 
a slight antithesis to TrpoKo^ovai, " remain stationary " ; cf. 2 Jn 9 
7ras 6 7rp6ayo)V kol fx.7] fxevtov iv rrj SiSa^r). 

cmoTciSris] " wert assured of," " confirmed in by experience " ; 
cf. Clem. Rom. i. 42, TrapayycAias Aa/JoVres . . . kol ■7ri(rTw6evTe<; 
iv tw Aoyw tov 6eov p.€Ta TrX.r)po<f>opia<i Trvevfiaros dyiov. Contrast 
Ps 77 8 and 37 ovSe iino-T<ii9r]aav iv rrj 8ia6r)Ky avrov, 

tivwk] will include both the Apostle ( 10 ) and the home 
teachers (i 6 ), and, perhaps, the many witnesses of 2 2 . For the 
reading, cf. Introd., p. xxxvii. 

15. &tto pp€<f>ous] The Jewish parent's duty was to teach his 
child the Law when in his fifth year ; cf. Philo, Leg. ad Caium, 
p. 562, C. 16, SeSiSayp^evous e£ auTaiv rpoirov rtvd (nrapydvoiv vtto 
yoveW; cf. Joseph, c. Apion. 1. 12 ; Susanna 3 , 4 Mac 18 9 . 

Upa YpaH-H-aTa] The reference is doubtless to the O.T. (cf. 
Test. XII. Patr., Levi xiii. 2, infra) ; but he does not use the 
full phrase, " the Holy Scriptures," to. Upa ypdp.fx.aTa (common in 
Josephus), or i-as Upas ypa<pds, but Upa yp. (a) Because he is 
laying stress on Timothy's knowledge, and uses a technical 
phrase of education — " religious teaching," " sacred letters " ; cf. 
Jn 7 15 7Tois ovtos ypdp.fx.ara oT8e, p.r) p.€fx.a6r]K<i)<; : Is 29 11 av6pwTrw 
iTTio-Tafievuy ypdp.fx.ara : Test. XII. Pair., Levi xiii. 2, 8t8d£are 8e 
/<ai vfiels ra rixva vftwv ypdp.fx.ara Iva e^cocriv orvveaiv . . . dvayivwa- 
Kovres dSia\£t7TT(os tov voiiov. For instances from the papyri, cf. 
M.M. S.VV. ypdjxp.a and dypdp.fx.aros. 

(b) Possibly also he wishes to hint at an antithesis both to 
the unwritten myths and genealogies of the false teachers and 
to the 'E^eo-io. ypdp.p.ara, the sacred books and charms of the 
magicians at Ephesus, Acts 19 19 {Encycl. B. ii. col. 1304). Your 
text-books were Scriptures, not tradition ; they were Upd, not 

110 THE PASTORAL EPISTLES [ill. 15, 16. 

cnxfuaai] a contrast to aVoia ( 9 / ) and irkavwfxevoi ( ls ), with per- 
h;i[)s a reminiscence of Ps 18 8 17 p.aprvpia Kvpi'ou TricrTrj, aotpi^ova-a 
ir/7ria (cf. diro fiplcpovs) 

els awTTipiaf] "tuam et aliorum," Bengel; cf. I 4 16 . 

Sid m'o-Tcus] if combined with faith, not otherwise; cf. Jn 

5 39-47. 

16. irao-a Ypa<J>rj] all Scripture, everything which has become 
recognized as authoritative Scripture ; cf. 2 P i 20 irao-a irpofaTcia 
ypa<f}?]<;. Wohlenberg would include any Christian writings which 
had become so recognized by this time, cf. I 5 18 note; but this 
is scarcely consistent with 16 , ypa<prj defining more exactly the 
ypap.p.ara in which Timothy had been trained from child- 

OcoTTfeuaTos] inspired by God, " divinitus inspirata," Vulg. ; 
but perhaps also, " with its breath given it by God," so " convey- 
ing inspiration," Scripture being personified, cf. o'wdp.eva 16 , Heb 
4 12 ; so Bengel, " Non solum dum scripta est Deo spirante per 
scriptores ; sed etiam dum legitur Deo spirante per scripturam 
et scriptura ipsa spirante " ; cf. also Cremer, JVbrterbuch, s.v. 
Here it is, perhaps, an attribute, "all inspired Scripture is also 
useful," but also is not needed in this case ; better — a predicate 
— " All Scripture is inspired by God (contrast ivroXaU avOpwTrw, 
Tit i 14 ), and therefore useful " (axpe'Aipos — contrast dvuxpeA^is, 
Tit 3 9 ). For the Jewish and Christian conceptions of Inspira- 
tion, cf. Westcott, Study of the Gospels (Introduction) ; Ep. 
Hebrews (Appendix) ; Sanday, Bampton Lectures, esp. Lecture II. ; 
Armitage Robinson, Some Thoughts on Inspiration. This is no 
complete definition of the purposes of Holy Scripture, and 
cannot be quoted as ruling out other purposes ; a different 
purpose, to give men hope, is ascribed to it in Ro 15 4 . Here 
stress is only laid on such as affect the teacher's task in face of 
misleading teaching; cf. I i 8 " 10 . It should be compared with 
God's method, as described in Ecclus i8 18 - 14 eXe-y^w koX irai8e6wv 
Kal SiSdcrKwv /ecu €7rio-rpe<pwv ws voi/xyv to irotfiviov avrov (Bengel), 
and with the value attributed by Epictetus to the Greek mysteries, 
ourws u)<pZ\ip.a yu'ercu to. /AvcrTyjpia . . . otl iirl iraiBeia Kal 
€7rai'op#u)cr€i tov fiiov KarecrTa^i] tvavra Tavra viro tu>v 7raAataii', 
iii. 21. 15 (Wetstein). 

■n-pos SiSaaKaXiai/] for teaching, " ad docendum," Vulg., rather 
than "ad doctrinam," Ambros. ; cf. 2 24 SiSolktikov. 

eXeypoi'] refutation of false teaching, cf. Tit i 9, ls , and rebuke 
of sin, i 5- , 'lit 2 15 ; cf. Eph 5 13 , Jn 16 8 . 

cirai/opOwatc] correction, recovery, setting upright on their 
moral feet; cf. Epict. I.e. and Enchir. 51. 5, r^v iiraiopOoxrcv 
votrjcrai -ri)v aeavrov (Wohlenberg) ; and for illustrations from the 
papyri, v. Af.AI. s.v. 

III. 16. 17.] 2 TIMOTHY 1 1 1 

iraiSeiay ty^ iv Sue.] the final training in an active Christian 
life ; cf. Tit 2 11 " 14 iraiSevovcra k.t.X. 

17. apTtos] here only in N.T., fit for his task ; cf. 2 21 tvxpw TOV 

tw Be&TroTrj, cis ivav 'ipyov ay aOov rjTOifx.acriii.vov. 

6 tou Geou acOpwiros] Is this the teacher fitted for his task by 
the study of Holy Scripture ? or the pupil fitted for his task by 
the teacher's training ? The context favours the former, cf. I 6 11 ; 
but the analogy of 2 21 , I 5 10 , Tit 3 1 , makes the wider reference 
more probable, by which every Christian is thought of as " a 
man of God." The thought of Lk 6 40 KaTr/pTicr/^eVos 8e iras 
corai ws 6 SiSao-KciAos airov, supplies a link between the two 

e£f]pTi<Tfx^eos] cf. KaTTipTLa/xevos, Lk 6 40 , of the pupil trained 
by the teacher, and tt/dos tov KaTaprio-fiov twv dyiW €i's epyov 
SiaKovtas, Eph 4 12 , of the training of the Saints by the Ministry 
for their work of service. 

iv. 1-8. Final appeal based on the coming judgment and the 
writer's approaching death. You have followed me loyally thus 
far : I charge you to follow me further, and to remain true to the 
truth until the end. 

As in the sight of God and of Christ Jesus who shall come 
to judge us all whether living or dead, as you would be ready 
to welcome His Appearing, as you would hope to share His 
Kingdom, I charge you, preach the message of the Gospel, 
stand up to your task boldly, in season and out of season, whether 
you are welcome or unwelcome, refute false teaching, rebuke 
wrong-doers, pass censure on those who refuse to obey, encourage 
those who do, never failing in patience, using every method of 
teaching. For a time will come when men will not tolerate the 
sound teaching, nay, led, each by his own caprice, they will pile 
teacher upon teacher, and burden upon burden on their own 
backs; with ears always itching for some novelty, they will 
refuse to listen to the simple truth, they will turn aside to listen 
to all those empty legends. But do you keep calm, keep self- 
restrained in all things, be ready to face suffering : your work is 
to preach good tidings, preach them fully ; your task is a task of 
ministry, perform it to the full. For I shall have to leave you to 
yourself: my life-blood is on the point of being poured out as 
a libation to God : the moment is close at hand when I must 
strike my tent and be gone. Yes : I have fought my fight, and 
it was the right fight : I have come to the end of the course ; 
I have kept faith with my Master. So henceforth there is stored 
up safely for me the crown of a righteous life : the Lord will 
award it to me on that great day : yes, but not only to me, but 


also to all who have set their hearts on His appearing. We 
shall be together with Him whom we love. 

Note. — (i) This paragraph completes the appeal of i 8 2 8 " 13 , 
and prepares the way for the request of 9 . For the main thought 
of it, cf. 2 Th i 6 ' 12 , 2 Co 5 1 " 11 . 

(ii) In vv. 68 there seems to be a conscious reminiscence of 
Phil i 23 2 17 3 13 - 14 . If St. Paul is the writer, he may be de- 
liberately recalling to Timothy's mind the words of that Epistle, 
of which Timothy was probably the amanuensis. "What I 
dictated to you then — that 1 was willing to depart and to have 
my life-blood poured out — is now come to the test. I am face 
to face with it now." 

(iii) From Chrysostom onwards commentators have wondered 
whether St. Paul can be cleared of the charge of self-praise in 
this passage. It is true that St. Paul is always over self-conscious 
(cf. i Th 2 3 ' 8 , 2 Co ii 16 " 33 ); the break in his life by conversion, 
and the constant opposition which he had to face, made him 
such ; but with St. Paul there is always Xpioros behind the iyw 
(Gal 2 20 ), always the thought of the grace which enables him 
who can do nothing by himself to do all things in its strength 
(i Co 15 10 , Phil 4 13 , 1 Ti i 12 ); and to one who so recognizes the 
power which enables him to be what he is, there is a true self- 
confidence, a legitimate self-praise; especially when, as here, 
the purpose is to give confidence to a younger man to follow. 
May it not even be that St. Paul, who was constantly " bearing 
about the dying of Jesus " (2 Co 4 10 ), may have been thinking 
of His Master's confidence that His work was completely done, 
and that He could confidently commit His spirit into His 
Father's hands? (Lk 23 46 , Jn 17 4 19 80 ). 

1. Sia/iapTu'pofjiai k.t.X.] For a similar appeal to the thought 
of the judgment, cf. I 5 21 6 13-16 ; and for the construction with an 
accusative, rr)v eVic^ui'eiaj' : cf. I Th 5 27 , Mk 5 7 6pKi£iti <r€ tov 6c6v. 

Kpi^eif £. Ka! v.~\ perhaps already a fixed formula in a bap- 
tismal creed, cf. Acts io 42 , 1 P4 5 ; here perhaps with the personal 
thought, "you alive and me dead," or "both of us, whether 
alive or dead." 

Im+Aveiav] cf. I 6 14 , Tit 2 13 note ; tt]v fiaaikeiav, cf. 18 and 
2 Th I 5 €ts to Ka.Ta£i.u>6r)vai v/xa<; tt)s /SaaiXtLas tou Otov. The 
kingdom which we may hope to share, 2 12 . 

2. tov \6yoc] absolutely, cf. 1 Th i 6 , Gal 6 6 ; cf. supr. 2 9 rov 

6eov, I5 T77S akijOuas. 

£tticttt]0i] "insta." Vulg. stand forward, stand up to your 
hearers ; cf. Jer 46 ,4 = 26 14 LXX, iirttrrqOi Kal erot/uacroi'. 

euKcu'pus dicaipws] semi- proverbial, "at all times": both 

IV. 2-5.] 2 TIMOTHY 113 

whether or no the moment seems fit to your hearers, "welcome 
or not welcome " ; cf. 3 , 3 1 Kaipol ^aXe-noc, Acts 24 25 Koupov 8k 
fj.€Ta\a/3o)v /A£TaKaAeVo/xat ae : and " whether or no it is con- 
venient to you" (cf. I Co 16 12 orav evKaipy'jar), Acts 17 21 ), "in 
otio vel negotio," " on duty or off duty," " in the pulpit or out 
of it," " take or make your opportunity." So Paul himself had 
preached iv heo~p.WTiqpl.ia Kal iv ttXolu) kcu TrapaK€Lp.€vr]<s TpairitflS 
(Thdt.); cf. Sen. Ep. 121, "Et virtutes exhortabor et vitia con- 
verberabo; licet aliquis nimium immoderatumque in hac parte 
me judicet, non desistam " (Wetstein). 

cXeyCof (cf. 3 16 ) eirmpjo-oi' (cf. 2 Co 2 6 ) irapaKciXeo-oi' {ibid. 8 ). 
St. Paul's treatment of the offender at Corinth is a good illustra- 
tion of this combination, 1 Co 5 1 - 5 , 2 Co 2 5 - 11 . 

3. ttjs uy 8i8offic] I i 10 note, Tit I 9 2 1 ; emcrupeuo-ouo-i, 3 6 , 
suggests a confused crowd of teachers, each teaching different 
things, so becoming a burden too heavy for the mind to bear. 

Kj'rjGofiei'oi] "being pleased, having their ears tickled by each 
new teacher" {T(.pir6p.evoi, Thdt.): cf. Clem. Alex. Strom, i. c. 3, 
of the Sophists as teachers, KvrjOovres kcu yapyaXi^ovTes ras ctKoas 
twv KvrjaacrOa.1 yAt^o/xeVwv (Wetstein) ; Lucian, de Saltat. ii. 266, 
to 6p.oiov ■jreTrov6o)<; tois to. uira 7-repiij Kvu>p.ivoL<s (Harrison, P.E., 
p. 165) ; or "having itching ears, and desiring to get the itching 
checked"; "prurientes" Vulg. ; cf. Acts 17 21 els ov8lv Irepov 
evKaipow rj Aeyctv Tt rj olkovuv tl Katvortpov. 

4. tous p.u0ous] I i 4 4 7 , Tit i 14 . The article is half con- 
temptuous — those many myths on the knowledge of which they 
pride themselves (cf. 1-775 G/>iA.ocro</>tas, Col 2 8 ), profane and old 
womanish as they are ! 

eKTpainqcrofTai] perhaps passive, "will be turned by their 
teachers," but more probably middle : cf. I i 6 5 15 . 

5. yt)<J>e] The word is probably suggested by the self-control 
of the athlete in training ( 7 ) ; cf. vrjcpe d>s ©eoC d^A^Try?, Ign. ad 
Polyc. 2 ; here it implies free from excitement about novelties, 
self-controlled, vigilant. " Opposed to the morbid habit of mind 
which craves for fables rather than the naked truth" (Hort on 
1 P i 13 ), cf. 1 Th 5 6-8 , and Marcus Aurelius' description of his 
father's qualities, vfjcpov iv ivacri kol fiefiaiov Kal /A^Scutov a7T€ipo- 
xaAoi' p.r)8e Ka.ivor6p.ov, Cotnm. 1. § 16. KaKOTrctGrjaoi', cf. I 8 2 3 . 

cpyov (cf. 2 15 I 3 1 ) euaYY^Aicrrou. Perhaps a special title ; cf. 
Acts 2 1 8 , Eph 4 11 : "one who has to spread the knowledge of 
the gospel, a missionary"; but the thought of a missionary is 
not specially appropriate to Timothy, ryv hiaKovtav that follows 
is not official, and this phrase rather sums up the whole teach- 
ing of the Epistle than adds a new command. Hence the 
stress is on euayye'Aiov do the work of one who has a Gospel, 
not myths and genealogies, to teach, who lays stress on " Jesus 


Christ risen from the dead" (2 8 ), and on the whole of my 
Gospel; cf. i 8 - 10 2 8 , I i 11 . The command follows KaKoirdOrjcrov, 
for which cf. i 8 note, and Mk 8 35 . 

tt)c SiaKo^iat'] thy task of service to the Church and its work, 
cf. » I I 12 . 

■jr\T]po4>opT]oroe] "imple," Vulg., fulfil, carry it out to the end : 
cf. 17 , Lk i 1 . 

6. aircVSofiai] " delibor," Vulg. ; "libor," Cypr. ; cf. Phil 2 17 ; 
ubi v. Lightfoot, and cf. Ign. Rom. c. 2, irkkov p.01 p.r] irapdo-xrjo'de 
tov cnrovoiaOrji'ai ©ew, is In Bvcnao-TrjpLov Itoi/aov iariv. The 
metaphor rests on the Jewish belief in the sacrificial value of a 
martyr's death ; cf. Charles on Rev 6 8 . In the similar metaphor 
as used by Seneca and Thrasea, Tac. Ann. xv. 64 (" libare se 
liquorem ilium Jovi liberatori "), xvi. 35, the comparison seems to 
be between death and the close of a feast at which a libation 
was poured to Zeus o-uTrjp. Hence there the active is used ; here 
a-7T€v8ofiaL is probably passive. His whole life has been a sacri- 
fice : now the libation is ready to be poured upon it. 

dva\uo-eo>9] cf. Phil r 23 ; Clem. Rom. 1. 44. Philo, in Flaccum, 
21, p. 544 M, ttjv Ik tov fiiov TeXevralav dvdkvariv. Epigr. Gr. 
340. 7, e's Otovs dvekvaa, f.G.S. 1794 2 Kal 7ra>s fioL /?e/jiarrcu ko.1 
ttws avikvo-a /xaOrjar] (Nageli, p. 34). The metaphor is either from 
a sailor loosing from his moorings or a soldier striking his tent : the 
next words (tov aywva K.T.k.) make the latter the more probable. 

7. The stress is mainly on the perfect tenses : " my fight is 
over, my task ended." Cf. Verg. /En. 4. 653-55, 

" Vixi et quem cursum clederat fortuna peregi, 
Et nunc magna mei sub terras ibit imago," 

but secondarily on his own achievement, " I chose the right con- 
test, I have kept on running, I have kept faith." There is here 
a true pride in true achievement, in the power given by Christ. 
Cf. Jn 17 4 , 1 Co 15 10 : stressed here in order to encourage 
I imothy. ov fieyakrjyopwv aAA.' dvio"ras tov 7raioa (Chrys.) 

To^ dywca t6c Ka\6k] cf. I 4 10 6 12 . The metaphor may be 
from the arena ; cf. Philo, Leg. Al/eg. ii. 26, p. 86 M, of the fight 
of the soul against pleasure, ndkkio-Tov dywva tovtov 8id6krjo-ov 

/cat o-7roudacroi' o-T€<f>avo)6r)vai . . . Kakbv Kal cukAcS aTecpavov : or 

from the battlefield ; cf. 2 4 and the Athenian Inscription, Syll. 
214 10 % A6r)vaLoi Ka\ AaKcSat/xovtoi . . . 7roAAoiis Kal xakovs dywi'a? 
rjywio-avTo p.tT dkktjkwv (Af.Jlf. S.V.). 

to*' 8p6p.ok TCTAeica] cf. Acts 20 24 , i Co g 2 *, Phil 3 14 . The 
metaphor is expanded in full details in Clem. Alex. Quis dives 
sa/vetur, c. 3. Christ has gone before as the ttoo'Soo/xo?, Heb 6 20 . 

TTjc ■m'oTii' TCTTJpTjKa] perhaps, " I have carefully guarded 
the faith," cf. I 6 14 , Eph 4 6 ; or "I have kept faith with my 

IV. 7-9.] 2 TIMOTHY 1 1 5 

master," " I have been true to my promises " : cf. Joseph. B.J. 
vi. § 345, KaToufjvy overt tti<jt€i<; iT?>pr)(ra. : Polyb. 10. 37, tyjv irpos 
'Piofjiaiov; TTjpdv trio-Tiv (with other instances in Wetstein and 

8. diroKetrai] is stored away safely ; cf. Col i 6 and OGIS. 
383 189 ois d.7roKeto-erat irapb. Oewv ko.1 rjpuxav X™/ 3 ' 5 evo-c/Jet'as, and 
other inscriptions in M.M. s.v. 

ttjs SiKcuoerui'Tis] the crown which belongs to, which is won 
by righteousness; perhaps also the crown which consists in per- 
fect eternal righteousness ; cf. Job 33 26 d7roSwo-ei avOpwirois Sikcuo- 
a-vvrjv, and this is parallel to tov o-ricpavov Wys ^w^s, Rev 2 10 , 1 P 5 4 , 
Jas i 12 , all probably based upon some unwritten saying of the 
Lord (cf. Resch, Agrapha, p. 252). Cf. Wisd 4 2 , of virtue, 
iv tco alwvi <TTecpavrjcpopov(Ta iropvirtvu, tov t<x>v ap.ia.vTwv a6Xu>v 
dywva viKr/o~acra. 

dTToSwaei] corresponding to airoKUTai : give as due to him, 
give back what he has deposited with him, what he has earned 
(cf. TvapaOrjKrj, p. 90). The thought here is not that of a 
generous giver, but of a righteous judge. Cf. 14 , Ro 2 6 
os d7roSo)0"€i €KaaT(S Kara to. ipya avTov, and Heb I2 11 irao-a 
7ratSet'a . . . Kapirov elpyviKov rots 01 aurijs ytyvp.vao-p.ivoi*; 
oLTToStSoio-L SiKaioo-vvrjs : and for the thought, Ign. ad Polyc. 6, to. 
SeTToaira vp.C>v to. epya. vp.C)v, iva to. aKKeirra vp.Q>v a£ia$£ : 
2 Jn 8 . 

ou }j.6yov ok ep.01] added not only to encourage Timothy, but 
perhaps also to emphasize the blessing in store. We shall be 
with many others there ; cf. 1 Th 4 17 o-vv avrois . . . o-vv Kvpiw. 

6 Siicaios Kpi-r^s] cf. Ro 2 5 * 6 . Here perhaps with intentional 
contrast to the unjust tribunal at Rome, I 6 15 note and 1 P 2 23 . 

tois TjY a7TT l K ^ CTl ] c ^ J as l12 ° v iTrrjyyeiXaTO tois dyaTrwo'ii' 
avTov. here the tense is viewed from the time of the judgment; 
cf. 1 Ti 6 17 rjX-mKivai. For this aspect of the Christian life, cf. 
Tit 2 13 , 1 Co i 7 , and 4 Esdr 7 98 — 

"They shall rejoice with boldness, 

be confident without confusion, 
be glad without fear: 
for they are hastening to behold the face of him 
whom in life they served and from whom they are 
destined to receive their reward in glory " (Box). 

It is suggestive, but scarcely suitable to the context, to combine 
with this the thought of love for the first Appearing, or love for 
the many manifestations of Christ to the believer's heart 

9-18. Appeal to Timothy to join him quickly, and assurance 
of God's protection. 


Paraphrase. Make every effort to come speedily ; I am very 
lonely ; Demas deserted me ; his heart was set not on the appear- 
ing of the Lord, but on what this present world can offer, and 
he went off to Thessalonica ; Crescens is gone to Galatia, Titus 
to Ualmatia. Luke is with me, but he is single-handed. Pick 
up Mark on your journey and bring him with yourself, for he is 
most useful — alwa>s ready for any service. As for Tychicus, I 
am sending him to Ephesus. The cloak which I left behind in 
the Troad with Carpus, bring with you when you come, also my 
papers, but above all I want the rolls. Alexander, the worker 
in bronze, showed me much ill-will and did me much harm : I 
leave him to the Lord's judgment, who will give every man his 
due reward. But I advise you, too, to be on your guard against 
him, for he bitterly opposed all that we said. At the first hearing 
of my case no one appeared to support me; nay, every one 
deserted me : may it not be laid to their charge. But the Lord 
stood by my side, and inspired me with strength, that by my 
mouth the proclamation of the Gospel might be fully made, and 
all the Gentiles might hear it. Aye, and I was delivered from 
the very jaws of the lion. The Lord will deliver me again from 
every harmful deed, and will carry me safe into His Kingdom, 
that Kingdom of His in the heavens. To Him be all glory, age 
after age. Amen. 

This paragraph is partly an appeal to Timothy, partly an 
encouragement to him by the stress laid on the Lord's protec- 
tion of the writer ( 17 - 18 ). In the latter part the language is 
perhaps coloured by that of the Lord's Prayer (cf. Chase, The 
Lord's Prayer in the Early Church, Texts and Studies, i. 3, pp. 
119-22); and throughout there is much similarity with that of 
the 22nd Psalm : 

Cf. Ps 2 2 1 eyKaT€'A.i7res, with 10 and 16 . 

,, 5 ipvaco, 9 pvcrdaOo), 21 pvcrai, with 17, 18 . 

,, 12 ovk zvtiv 6 fiorjBuiV, with 16 . 

,, 14 - 22 awaov fxe €K (TTOyuaTos XeopTo 1 ;, with 17 . 

,, 17 Troi'i)p(vofx.evwv, with 18 . 

,, 6 - 22 icrwOrjo-av, cr£j<rov, with 18 . 

,, 24 So£acraT€ avrov, with 18 . 

,, 28 7ra(rat at 7raT/3tai Ttov IQvutv, with 17 . 

„ 29 rov Kvpiov T) (3acrtXtia y with 18 . 

Had St. Paul, like his Master, been saying this Psalm in the 
hour of desertion? 

For the interpretation on the assumption that these verses 
incorporate earlier notes from St. Paul to Timothy, cf. Introduc- 
tion, p. xxxii. 

IV. 10, 11.] 2 TIMOTHY 117 

10. AT]jJi,a$ (probably a shortened form of Demetrius; it 
appears also as a woman's name, Pap. Oxyr. iii. 506), Col 4 14 
{ubi v. Lightfoot, who suggests that he was a native of Thessa- 
lonica), Philem 24 . In the Acta Fault et Theclcz, cc. 1. 4. 12. 14. 
16, he appears as a jealous and treacherous companion of St. 
Paul ; in Epiphan. Hcer. li. 6, as an apostate. If he could be 
identified with the Demetrius of 3 Jn 12 the opposite was the 
case, and he, like Mark, returned to true loyalty (cf. J. Th. St., 
April 1904, pp. 362-66, 527, 528). 

dycnnioxis] perhaps with intentional contrast to riyaTrrjKocri 8 , 
and SO Toy vue ai&ea to rrjv €7r«pdveiav. The suggestion is that his 
courage failed ; cf. Polyc. ad Phil. 9, of Paul and other martyrs, 
ov yap tov vvv rjyair-qo'av alwva dAAd tov virep rjfJiwv airoQavovTa. 

Kprjaiais (a Latin name; cf. Tac. Hist. i. 76 of a freedman of 
Nero, Ann. xv. 1 1 of a centurion), not mentioned elsewhere in 
N.T. By later tradition bishop of Chalcedon in Gaul (Chronicon 
Pasch. 2 121 ), and founder of the Churches of Vienne and Mayence 
[Acta Sanctorum, June 27 ; Menologion, May 30). 

raXcmai'] i.e. either Galatia, as always in St. Paul, or possibly 
Gaul ; so K C, YaWiav, cf. Introd., p. xxxvii ; cf. Monum. Ancyr. 
vi. 20, xvi. I, t£ 'Io-7ravtas /cat TaXaTt'as kcu irapa. AaAyaarwv, and 
this vas the current Greek name for Gaul in the 1st and 2nd 
centuries a.d. There is a similar ambiguity in 1 Mac 8 2 . 
Theod.-Mops. interprets it of Gaul, tois vvv Ka.\ovp.£vas raAAias" 
ovtws yap auras 7rdvTcs ZkolXow ot 7raAaiot, and he appeals to Jose- 
phus' history of the Jews (? de Bell. Jud. ii. 16, v. Swete's note). 
Theodoret is even stronger — Tds TaAAias outojs iKaXea-ev' ovtw 
yap inaXovvTO 7rdAai" ovto) 8k kcu vvv aurds ovop-d^ovcriv 01 rrj<; e^w 
7rai8etds /AtTetA^oTfs. For the usage : v. Lightfoot, Galatians, pp. 
3 note and 31 ; Encycl. £., s.v. ii. 16 16. If this interpretation is 
right, it is an indication of St. Paul's interest in Churches west 
of Rome, and would support the theory that he went to Spain 
(Zahn, Einl., p. 415). 

AaAp.cmcu' (or possibly AeXfiariav, Deissmann, B.S., p. 182), 
the southern part of Illyricum, cf. Ro 15 19 . 

fio^os] perhaps suggesting Luke's feeling of loneliness and 
need of some helpers. It has been inferred from this that Luke 
was the amanuensis who wrote this letter. 

11. MdpKoi/] Acts 12 25 15 37 , Col 4 10 , Philem 24 ; for the details 
of his life, cf. Swete, St. Mark, Introd. i. 

dvaXaPwi'] Acts 20 13 - u . €uxpti<rros, cf. 2 21 , Philem u . els 
SiaKoi'iai', either for personal service in prison, or for missions to 
the city, or for help in worship. Mark had proved his capacity 
as VTrrjperrjs, Acts 13 5 ; as avvepy6<s eh tt;v /3acriAetav, Col 4 11 ; as a 
comforter in trouble (ibid.) ; and, like Onesimus, though once 
S.Xprj(TTos, had become evxprjo-ros again. 


12. Tu\ik6v] of Asia (Acts 20 4 ) the companion of the first 
imprisonment, sent with Ephesians and Colossians, Eph 6 21 , 
Col 4 7 , and by later tradition bishop of Colophonia or of Chal- 
cedon (Menologion, Dec. 9). This statement would have come 
more naturally after 10 : perhaps the writer had forgotten it for 
a moment and now adds it, cf. 1 Cor i 16 ; or it may imply that 
Tychicus is being sent to take Timothy's place at Ephesus, cf. 
Tit 3 12 . 

i3. ^tuXo^ (Latin pcenula, but it is uncertain which language 
borrowed from the other) : either (1) a warm cloak for travelling 
or winter wear (cf. 21 ), such as was used by the lower classes at 
this time, though the use of it was allowed to senators by Alex- 
ander Severus; cf. >Elius Lampridius, "paenulis intra urbera 
frigoris causa ut senes uterentur permisit, cum id vestimenti 
genus semper itinerarium aut pluviae fuisset " (Wetstein). It 
is found either in this form or in the diminutive <£cuvoA.iov in the 
Papyri {Pup. Oxyr. vi. 933 sq. and other instances in Dibelius). 
The form <paa>6\iov was used later for the chasuble in the Greek 
Church, but there is nothing in the context here to suggest such 
an allusion. Farrar compares the story of Tyndale in prison 
writing to beg for a woollen shirt and his Hebrew Bible, 
Grammar, and Dictionary ; cf. Pap. Oxyr. xii. 1583, Ytvov napa 
'IcriSuipov X"-P LV T °v [<£<*ii/]oA.ou /cat aTrev[ey]i<ov irapa KaXvKYjv, 

where it is one of a parcel of clothes, cf. Expositor, April 191 8 : 
or (2) a woollen wrap for carrying books safely: Chrysostom 

suggests this as an alternative, and it is adopted by Birt, Das 

Antike Buchwesen, p. 65; Milligan, N.T. Docume?its, p. 20; 

Latham, The Risen Master, p. 463 note. The context suggests 

this, though the use is not found elsewhere except in comments 

on the verse and in the Lexica which may draw inferences from 

it ; cf. Did. Christ. Antiq. s.v. 

to. PipXia] papyrus letters, possibly copies of his own 


Iiefippdms] probably rolls of the O.T. (so Thd. Thdt. 

Milligan, u.s. ; Kenyon, Our Bible and the Ancient MSS, p. 94) ; 

or possibly official copies of the Lord's words or early narratives 

of His life ; cf. I Mac I2 9 TrapaKXrjaiV ixovres ra fiifSXia ra ayta 

(Thorn. Aquin.). 

14. Nothing is known of this event or of Alexander, but cf. 

I i 20 . The context would suggest that it happened either at 

Troas, to which his mind has just gone back, or at Rome at the 

same time as 10 . 

tyeSei^crro] cf. Gen 50 15 nuvra to. Kasa u ei'e8«£d/A«0a ovtw, 

Dan 3 41 , 2 Mac 13 9 . 

txTroSojcrei] perhaps with conscious contrast to 8 : cf. Prov 

24 12 , Ps 62 13 <rv d7ro8o')(T€i<; exdaTO) Kara rn. ?n , "i avrnv : cf. Ro 

IV. 14-18.] 2 TIMOTHY 119 

2 6 12 19 , and contrast 1 K 2 s - °. For the reading,^ Introd., p. 

15. toIs %€Te'pois Xoyois] possibly " our arguments " with 
reference to some part of the trial at Rome; or more likely "our 
words," " our preaching " : this opposition might be an element 
in the ftXao-(f>rjp.e7v of I i 20 . This suits better -qperipois (not 
fytois), cf. Tit 3 14 ; and for the plural, cf. i 13 , I 4 6 6 3 . 

16. ttj irpwTT) diroXoy.] either (a) the first process of the 
present trial : assuming that he had appeared before the court 
and the case had been adjourned. For a vivid picture of the 
scene, cf. H. C G. Moule, pp. 168 ff. ; or (b) the first trial at Rome 
at the end of the imprisonment of Acts 28 30 ; so Euseb. H.E. 
ii. 22. 3 ; Zahn, Einl. § 33 ; Wohlenberg ; and this suits better 
the purpose in 17 and the sense of entire deliverance. 

irapeye'veTo] as advocate or friend to bear testimony for him. 
irdcTEs, cf. i 15 , all who at Rome might have come forward to 
support his case. 

fi*l auTois \oY«r0eiT]] cf. Lk 23 s4 , Acts 7 60 (either of which 
scenes may be before St. Paul's mind as he writes these words), 
I Co 13 5 17 ayairf] ov Xoyl^erat to ica/cov. 

17. eeeSui'cip.wcrc] cf. I i 12 note; iva . . . ?0it], that the 
Lord's prophecy might be fulfilled (eis iravra tol Wvq 8el irpuyrov 
K-rjpvxOrjvai t6 evayyc'Aioi/, Mk 13 10 ), and my task completed 
(Acts 9 15 ). The time of the fulfilment will depend on the inter- 
pretation of 16 . It will be either (a) that all the Gentiles who 
were present at Rome at the time of the present trial might 
hear his proclamation of the Gospel in his defence; or more 
probably (b) that after my acquittal at my first trial I might 
complete my task and all the Gentiles — west of Rome as well as 
east, cf. Ro 15 20 — might hear. This would support the belief 
that he went to Spain. 

ck <rr<5p.aTos X«?orros] a proverb for extreme danger, probably 
consciously borrowed from Ps 22 (cf. Ps 7 2 35 17 , Ecclus 51 8 , Esth 
14 13 (LXX), Pss.-Sol 13 3 drjpla €TreSpdp.o(rav avrois irovqpa.' 
iv tois oSovctlv avrwv eTtWocrav crdpKas a&Twv, /cat iv tous ynvAais 
tOXttiv oora avTu>V kcu i< tovtwv airdvTOiV ippvcraro rjjj.3. 1 ; Kvpto?) : 
hence there is no need to attempt to identify the lion — whether 
with Nero (so Chrys., cf. Prov 19 12 /3ao-iAeios aireiXrj ofioia 
fipvyp-w Xe'ovTos : Josephus, Ant. xviii. 6. 10, riOvrjKtv 6 AeW of 
Tiberius) or with Satan (1 P 5 8 ). 

18. puo-eTcu] in the future as He had done in the past, 3 11 . 
diro . . . iroi'Tjpou, not "from any wrong-doing, any failure of 
courage" (as in Dt 23 s , Job i 8 , Test. XII. Patr., Dan 6. 8; diro 
7rdi/Tos djuapT^/xaTos, Chrys.), but "from any harmful attack," 
"from anything that may harm me," whether coming from 
Trovrjpol avOpoytroi, 3 13 , or from 6 irovTqp6<;. The phrase is perhaps 


based on the Lord's Prayer, pDacu ^/xas a7ro tow Trovrjpov, which 
itself may be based on Jewish liturgical forms ; cf. Taylor, Sayings 
of the Jewish Fathers, p. 142. 

tt)v cTT-oupdvioy] " regnum Neroniano melius" (Bengel); but 
the contrast is rather with the present kingdom on earth, Col i 13 
" that kingdom whose real seat is in the heavens," cf. l . $ f\ 86|a, 
so 4 Mac 18 24 ; cf. Charles, Revelation, 1 6 . 

19. UpidKav Kal 'Ak«5W] Acts i8 2 - 18 , Ro 16 3 , 1 Co 16 19 : very 
probably freed members of the gens Acilia at Rome ; v. S.-H. on 
Ro 16 s . 

toc 'Ovr]cn<\>. oIkov] cf. i 16 " 18 . 

20. "EpaCTTos] probably the same as in Ro 16 23 , and perhaps 
also as in Acts 19 22 . 

Tp6<J>ifiof] Acts 20 4 2 1 29 . These facts would naturally have 
been mentioned in 10 or 13 : they are perhaps added here to 
explain why no greeting is sent to or by them. 

21. irpo xeip-wi'os] as quickly as possible : before winter sets 
in which will make travelling dangerous for you, and when I 
shall specially need your presence — and (perhaps) the warm 

These are members of the Roman Church, not com- 
panions of St. Paul, cf. 10 - n , and probably not of sufficient 
standing in the city to have appeared in court in support of him 
(cf. 16 ). Linus is probably the bishop of Rome (Iren Hcer. 
iii. 3). Of Eubulus nothing is known. For an examination of 
the untrustworthy legends which have grown up round the 
names of Pudens and Claudia, cf. Lightfoot, Clement of Rome, 
i. pp. 76-79 ; Edmundson, The Church in Rome, note C. 

22. Probably an autograph blessing, cf. 2 Th 3 17 ; and indeed 
the whole paragraph, 9 ' 22 , so full of human personal feeling, may 
well have been written with his own hand. 

pe9' up^] so I 6 21 , Tit 3 16 ; v. Introd., p. xxxiii. Thdt., who 
read p.S fjixwv, ends his comment with the prayer, " And may it 
be our lot, too, to gain that grace through the intercessions of 
him who wrote and him who received this letter; and may we see 
them in their everlasting habitations, not from afar, as the rich 
man saw Lazarus, but dwelling side by side with them and 
enrolled under their leadership." 


^ti tpyois ayaOoti oh Trpo^Tol/xaaev 6 6ebs 'iva. iv droit Trepnra.rho-wu.ev 
-Eph 2 10 . 

Historical situation. — (i) St. Paul. — St. Paul has been at 
Crete, and has left Titus behind to complete the organization of 
the churches there : he is now apparently on his travels (3 15 01 
ju.«t' kfiov 7ravT€s, cf. Gal i 2 and contrast 1 Co 16 19 ) : with him are 
Artemas, Tychicus, Zenas, and Apollos : the latter two are start- 
ing on a journey which will take them past Crete : so St. Paul 
sends this letter by them, which is to serve as a o-wn-a.Ti/07 Ittkt- 
roXrj for them, and also to prepare Titus to join him before the 
winter, as soon as he receives a visit from Artemas and Tychicus, 
and meanwhile to guide him in his work and teaching at Crete. 
There is no indication of the place of writing : it is perhaps a 
fair inference from 1 Ti i 3 that it was somewhere in Macedonia : 
this would be consistent with his intention to winter at Nicopolis. 
Zahn {Einl., p. 430) assumes that Titus had written, asking for 
advice : this is possible, but not necessary. 

(ii) The situation at Crete. — There are already groups of 
Christians, "whole families," i 11 , in several cities in the island 
(Kara 7roA.1v, i 6 ), but their organization is incomplete: there are 
false teachers, mainly converted Jews, laying stress on the Jewish 
law, on myths and genealogies, wasting time on worthless contro- 
versies ; and the standard of life has scarcely risen above that of 
their heathen neighbours : there are insubordinate, quarrelsome, 
useless members of the community. St. Paul had begun to 
organize them and had left Titus to finish his work : he is now 
authorized to appoint presb>ters, i 6 " 9 , to guide the teaching, 2 M6 , 
to rebuke with authority, to deal with those who are factious, 3 11 : 
there is no mention of his ordination for this special work or of 
its permanence. The bishop is mentioned and presbyters, but it 
is not clear whether they are separate grades (cf. Introduction, p. 
xx) ; there is no mention of deacons, deaconesses or widows, or 
of any details of the Services of the Church, except the allusion to 
Baptism (3 s ). The Christians are "God's elect" (i 1 ), His 
" peculiar people " (2 14 ), both titles of the Jewish nation in the 


O.T., ol 7r€7ricrT€VKor€s 0£w (3 s ), the men of faith, and, apparently, 
ot rj/ierepoL (3 14 ), " our brothers and sisters." 

Date. — Assuming the integrity and Pauline authorship of the 
whole, it seems impossible to fit these circumstances into the 
narrative of the Acts. St. Paul is only mentioned there as visit- 
ing Crete on the last journey to Rome : he stayed there some 
time (Acts 27 s - 9 ) : this might be the visit referred to in i 6 , and the 
Epistle might have been written during the imprisonment of Acts 
28 ; but there is no evidence of Titus being with him on that 
journey, and, with the exception of Tychicus, his present com- 
panions are different from those in the letters from Rome. More- 
over, the likeness of style with I and II Timothy points to a later 
time after the release from the first imprisonment. The greater 
likeness with 1 Ti (as compared with 2 Ti) suggests that it was 
written very nearly at the same time as it, and its greater simplicity 
suggests that it was the earlier of the two and therefore the earliest 
of the three Pastorals. 

On the theory that the Epistle is a later expansion of a genuine 
Pauline fragment, that fragment, consisting only of the address 
and the personal messages, 3 12 - 16 , might have been written by St. 
Paul while in Macedonia to Titus still at Corinth, i.e. after writing 
2 Co 10-13, an d before writing 2 Co 1-9 (so Harrison, P.E., p. 
115); and the expanded letter will fall at the end of Cent. I, or 
the beginning of Cent. II. In this case, it would probably be 
later than 2 Ti but earlier than 1 Ti, as being simpler and imply- 
ing a less organized Church ; but v. Introduction, p. xxxiv. 

Aim and value. — The chief aim of the writer is to raise the 
level of character ; but whereas in I and II Ti the main stress was 
on the character of the officers of the Church, on the teachers, 
here it is also and mainly on the character of the taught. He is 
dealing with communities in a fairly early stage of Christian life 
and with less civilization than the Church at Ephesus. The 
population of Crete had always been very mixed (cf. Horn. Od. 
19. 172-77): there had been constant rivalry between city and 
city : in the first century before Christ it had been the centre of 
piracy, subdued with difficulty by the Romans: since 67 B.C. it 
had been part of a Roman province, and at this time there was 
still a mixed population, consisting of the Roman officials, the 
natives, and a considerable colony of Jewish traders (Philo, Leg. 
ad Gaium, 36; cf. 1 Mac n 33 ) ; it still supplied mercenaries for 
foreign armies (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 4. § 3 ; Livy, xliv. 45), and the 
inhabitants had a bad name for treachery and for love of money 
(Polyb. vi. 46, 47 ; Plutarch, Aimil. 23, tois xPVI JL<l(rL, '> wenrep 
KT)pun<; p.iXi.TTai, Trpoo-\nrap(»vvT€<;. Livy (itbi supra), " Cretenses 
spem pecuniae secuti "). 

Hence the writer lays stress on the duties of members of a 

I. l-II. a] TITUS 723 

family, and on those of citizens of a State. The true character of 
each member is defined : the duty of obedience to authority, of 
active service to the community, of honest trading, of a peaceable 
temper, are insisted upon. This is exactly in the spirit of St. 
Paul's stress on family life in Col. and Eph., and on obedience 
to magistrates in Rom. : it is the natural language of the Roman 
citizen anxious to strengthen the hands and to carry out the 
policy of the Roman Government towards its provincials (cf. 
Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen, c. 6). To 
secure such a character the foundation is laid in sound, whole- 
some teaching : the grace of God disciplines and educates : Christ's 
self-sacrifice was made for this very purpose : God's own gracious- 
ness and love for man is the model for the Christian's imitation and 
supplies the strength for it. The Church is the school of character. 


i 1 ' 4 Salutation. Paul the apostle of a common faith, a true 
knowledge, a hope of eternal life, to Titus a genuine 
son in the faith. 

i 5 -3 n Commands to Titus. 

(a) With regard to the ministry (i 6 ' 16 ). 

Presbyters to be appointed in every city, but 
only men known to be of high character in 
their family life to be chosen, 5 - 6 . 

Reason. — Because the bishop has to regulate 
God's family, to teach sound teaching, and 
refute opponents, 7 * 9 . Such opponents are 
to be sharply rebuked, as upsetting others, 
insubordinate, wasting time on foolish discus- 
sions, and as untrue to their profession, 


(b) With regard to the various classes in relation to 

their family life (2 1 ' 15 ). 
Titus is to teach and enforce a true standard 
of character on the elder men, 2 : 

The elder women, who are to train the 
younger women. 

Reason. — That God's word be not 
evil spoken of, 3 " 5 . 
The younger men, to whom he is to be 
himself the example. 

Reason. — That opponents of Christi- 
anity be put to shame, 6 " 8 . 
The slaves, to be obedient, honest, 
thoroughly loyal to their masters. 


Reason. — That they may adorn the 
Christian teaching, 9 - 10 . 
Such character is made possible by the grace 
of God, bringing salvation and training us 
to a true life here, with our eyes fixed on the 
appearing of Christ, the whole purpose of 
whose self-sacrifice was to save us from 
lawlessness and make us eager for excel- 
lence, 1W *. 

(c) With regard to the behaviour of Christians to the 

heathen zvor/d, to their life as citizens, 3 1 " 8 . 

They must be reminded (1) to be subordinate 
to authority and active in good works, (2) 
to be courteous and gentle to all men, *" 2 . 

Reason. — God's loving-kindness to us has raised 
us from the old heathen life by the rich 
outpouring of the Spirit to a hope of eternal 
life ; hence all believers must take the lead 
in good works and live useful lives, 8 " 8 . 

(d) In regard to teaching. Titus is to avoid foolish 

discussions and controversies ; to rebuke ; 
but if rebuke fails, to have nothing to do 
with factious men, 9 ' u . 
u. 13 Personal messages. 

14 Final appeal for useful, fruitful lives. 

15 Greetings. 

i 1 " 4 Paraphrase. Paul to Titus his true son in the faith. 

Paul writing as a slave of God, bound to obey his Master's 
command, yet, more than that, as one formally commissioned to 
speak for Jesus Christ — Paul, whose only standard is the faith 
shared by God's elect and a knowledge of truth such as makes 
for godliness, whose whole work rests on hope of eternal life, 
that life which the God who cannot deceive promised to man 
long ages past, aye, and at the right moment He published 
abroad His message in a proclamation, which was put as a 
sacred trust into my hands in virtue of a direct command from 
God, your Saviour and mine, writes to you as a son whom he 
knows that he can trust, a son in a common faith. Grace and 
peace be with you from God our Father and Christ Jesus ourSaviour. 

The address is unusually long, but compare Gal i 1 " 6 , Ro i 1 " 7 
x 525-27. j t m ight have been compiled with a reminiscence of 
those passages, but a compiler would naturally have been 
simpler, and the changes are more natural in the same author 
writing at a different time. 

L 1, 2.J TITUS 125 

It strikes two notes — (i) a personal note, a letter from a father 
to a son (cyw . . . tckvu)); (ii) more strongly an official note, 
instructions from an apostle to a delegate (cbrdo-ToA-os . . . 
yvrjaiw tc'kvw) : laying stress (1) on his duty rather than on his 
authority (8oi)Aos . . . aTroo-roAos . . . inio-TevOrjv . . . kolt iTTLrayqv) ; 
(2) on the nature of the message he has to give. This is the 
point mainly emphasized ; it is no novelty, no unfounded state- 
ment, no aimless discussion, but rooted in the past and looking 
forward to the future, and affecting a godly life, opa ttws y<f/x« 
to Trpooifxiov twv evepy ear iwv tov 6eov, Chrys. 

1. SoGXos 8eoG] here only in St. Paul of himself, but cf. SoCAos 
'Irjaov Xp., Ro i 1 , Phil i 1 ; SoEAos Kvpcov, 2 Ti 2 24 . It carries 
the thought of obedience beyond Jesus Christ to God, " the 
God of our fathers who had chosen him to know His will " (Acts 
22 14 ), and so places him on a level with Moses and other O.T. 
servants (Dan 9 10 - n ), especially with " the servant of the Lord " of 
Isaiah; cf. 2 Ti 2 24 note. Pelagius' comment, "servus Dei non 
peccati " (cf. 2 14 3 s , Ro 6 15-23 ), is suggestive, and perhaps con- 
sciously present. 

diroo-ToXos 8e 'I. Xp.] strengthens the sense of duty, perhaps also 
to enforce his authority. "Scribit non quae. Titus in cubiculo 
solus legat sed quae proferat in publicum," Calvin. 

koto, tticttii', as in k<zt' €vcre/3eiav, kclt kiriTayrjv, Kara kolvtjv 
7rLcrTiv, Kara gives the standard; but the application of the standard 
differs with the context. Here it may include (a) chosen in 
conformity to the faith, on inio-Ttvcre KaOairep oi Xolttol ckXcktoi 
(Theophylact) ; (&) preaching by that standard, "to preache the 
faith" (Tynd. Cov.) ; cf. 1 K 19 3 airr}\dev kclto. tt)v i/'vx*?'' eavTov, 
"to save his life." 

ckXcktw 0€oG] so Ro 8 33 , Col 3 12 is e*A. tov 6., 2 Ti 2 10 , 
1 P i 1 . The phrase springs from the O.T., being based on the 
choice of Israel as a nation, charged with a message for the 
whole world ; cf. ot IkXcktol p.ov, Ps 88 3 , and especially its use 
with regard to Israel as the Servant of the Lord, Is 43 20 45 4 
65 s etc. Hence it here may include the thought of the Jewish 
nation in the past, and lays stress on the sense of God's choice 
of the Church and of its duty to carry His Truth to the world. 

imyvuuiv dXtje.] cf. 1 Ti 2 4 , 2 Ti 2 25 3 7 , Heb io 26 . Not faith 
alone, but knowledge also is necessary for an apostle : cf. Ro io 2 
of the Jews, £?}Aov 6eov e\ovaw, dAA' ov kclt cwtyvwcrtv : Jn 6 69 
ireTrio~T€VKap.€v /ecu iyvwKap.ev. 

tt]s kcit' eucrcp.] cf. 1 Ti 6 3 , contrast 2 Ti 3 5 . 

2. i* ZXmoi £.] cf. 1 Ti 4 9 - 10 . 

6Trr]YYeiXaTo] from Gen 3 15 onwards, cf. Ro i 2 , Lk i 70 . 
6 dij/euSTjs 0.] here only in N.T. ; perhaps with contrast to 
the i/^Oo-Tai at Crete 12 ; but cf. 2 Ti 2 13 , 2 Co i 19 - 20 , Martyr. 


Polyc. 14, 6 di/'evoiys /ecu aXr]Bivo% $e6<;, in Polycarp's last prayer. 
The God whose promise of life will not fail in face of death. 

Ttpo xp- alwi'iui'] ''ante tempora srecularia," Vulg., long ages 
past, age-long periods ago, not referring to God's purpose before 
time began, as in 2 Ti 1 9 , Eph i 4 , but to definite promises (cf. 
Ro 9 4 ai eVayyeXi'cu) made in time. 

3. 6<|>aWpwCT€ Se] The relative sentence is broken off and a 
direct sentence substituted; cf. 1 Ti 6 12 and Blass, G.G.,§ 79. 11. 
Possibly the relative sentence is continued down to 181'ois, "which 
he promised and declared at the right moment," toj/ \6yov 
being in loose apposition to the whole sentence ; cf. to fiaprvptov, 
1 Ti 2 6 . 

t6v \6yov auTou] cf. 3 s note. 

Kaipois ISlois] The thought of the Incarnation taking place 
at the right moment in the world's history is a favourite one 
with St. Paul (Gal 4 4 , Ro s 6 Kara. K ai P 6v, Eph i 10 , Acts 17 26 ), 
springing from apocalyptic expectations, summed up by the Lord 
(Mk i 15 TreTrXrjpioTai 6 Kaipo's), and expanded by himself in his 
philosophy of history, Ro 1-3; perhaps consciously meeting the 
objection n vvv kcu ov Trporepov ; cf. Kp. Dwgn. C. I, ti St^totc 
kolivov tovto yeVos . . . elcrrjkOev £ts tov /3iov vvv kcu ov Trporepov. 
The nearest analogy to the phrase is also Pauline, KcupS i6Yu), 
Gal 6 9 ; the exact phrase is peculiar in N.T. to P.E. (1 Ti 2 6 
6 15 only); both words are ambiguous: (i) is i8i'ois = "at its right 

moment"; cf. Tob 14 4 (S) ivavTa o-vp.fSrjo-iTaL Tots Kaipots avTiou, 

Lev 23 4 20 4 , Ps i 3 , Gal 6 9 ; Justin M. c. Tryph. c. 131, TraVra 
■7rpo\ap.fidvovTO<; irpb tu)v tSi'wv Kaipdv tou 6eov : or " at His own 
time," ore eSoKt^acre, Thdt. ; SO Ps 74 s otclv Xa/?<D icaipov, Acts 
I 7 Katpous ous 6 TraTTjp Iv rrj iSta c^ovcria. The context, 
with its stress on God's action, makes the latter probable here 
and in 1 Ti 6 16 , the former in 1 Ti 2 6 ; but the two thoughts lie 
close together, and were perhaps not kept distinct, (ii) Is the 
plural only an idiomatic usage, practically equivalent to the 
singular? cf. Jer 50 26 ( = 27 26 LXX) ol Kaipol avTyj<; = 6 xaipos Ik- 
SiKi^crews, ibid. 81 ; so xpoVoi, Lk 20 9 23 s ; ya/toi, Lk 12 36 ; or is the 
plural to be pressed? In the former case the reference would be 
to the whole life of the Lord (cf. Heb i 1 ) ; in the latter, to the 
various points in the life, the birth (Gal 4 4 ), the death (Ro 5 6 ), 
and to the subsequent apostolic preaching (1 Ti 2 6 3 16 ). The 
contrast with yj>6voi alwvioi and the analogy of Ro 16 26 favours 
the latter view. 

For the preparation for Christ in History, cf. Lux Mundi, c. 4, 
and Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 44, is koto, xaipbv rjKd to K-qpvyp.a 
vvv, ovt(o<; Kara xaipov ib~66r) v6p.os plv kou 7rpo<pi/Tcu /3ap/3u'pots, 
<pi\ofro<pta 8« "EXXtjo-l. 

kot' emTayrjcl connected primarily with iino-Tivbijv (cf. 1 Ti i 1 

I. 3. 4.] TITUS 127 

note), but Ro i6 26 suggests a further connection with icfxtvipwae. 
The command to St. Paul to preach the gospel is part of the 
command of the eternal God to manifest the Christ ; cf. i Ti 2 7 . 

tou awTTJpos rjpiv] of all of us Christians, but with the 
specializing thought " of you and me " ; cf. Kara kolvyjv ttco-tiv. 

4. Ti'tw] Personal references to the life or character of Titus 
are very slight in the Epistle ; such as occur are quite consistent 
with the little that is known of him elsewhere. He is never 
mentioned in the Acts. A Gentile by birth, he was perhaps 
converted by St. Paul on his First Missionary Journey at Iconium 
{Acta Pauli et Theclce, c. 2). He is first mentioned in the Epistles 
as accompanying St. Paul on the visit from Antioch to Jerusalem, 
mentioned in Gal 2. There his case was apparently taken as a 
test case of the need of circumcising Gentile converts, and 
(although the reading and meaning of Gal 2 3-6 are not quite 
certain) the demand was almost certainly successfully resisted. 
Later he becomes St. Paul's delegate to Corinth : he begins 
there to organize the Collection for the Saints (2 Co 8 6 " 10 ) ; he 
goes later, perhaps taking the severe letter of 2 Co 2 and 7, to 
deal with the refusal of that Church to obey the Apostle : he 
deals successfully with the difficulty and returns to gladden the 
Apostle's heart in Macedonia ; he then gladly returns to com- 
plete the Collection (2 Co 8 16 ). On another occasion he is sent 
on a mission to Dalmatia (2 Ti 4 10 ). He is a trustworthy, confi- 
dential delegate, walking in the Apostle's steps, walking in the 
same spirit (2 Co 12 18 ), his "brother" (2 Co 2 13 ), his fellow- 
worker and sharer of his toils (8 23 ). So here he is a "genuine 
son, sharing the same faith (1 4 ); his life is to be a pattern to 
younger men (2 7 ) ; but there is less of personal guidance and 
exhortation than there was to the younger and more timid 
Timothy. His name does not occur in the Acts, but two 
interesting suggestions have been made : (i) that he was a rela- 
tive (Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen, pp. 
284-86, 390), or even the brother (Souter, Expository Times, 
March 1907, cf. 2 Co 8 17 - 18 12 18 ) of St. Luke; (ii) that he was 
the author of the " we " sections in the Acts. Either would 
account for the absence of any mention of him in Acts ; but 
both are precarious. Later ecclesiastical tradition spoke of him 
as Bishop of Crete (Euseb. H.E. iii. 4), and as living to a very 
old age ; and there was an Acts of Titus, which is no longer 
extant (cf. Lipsius, Die Apokr. Apostelgeschichte, iii. pp. 401-06), 
and a panegyric on him is found in the works of Andrew of Crete 
(Migne, Patrol. Gr., vol. 97). He is commemorated on Jan. 4 
in the Latin Church, on Aug. 25 in the Greek, Syriac, and 
Maronite Churches {Acta Sanctorum, i. pp. 163, 164; Nilles, 
Kalendarium Manuale). 


Yvtjctiu] cf. i Ti i 2 . kcitA KoifTji' irlotiv : "in virtue of a faith 
which is common to you, to me" — to you a Gentile as much 
as to me a Jew — but also with the wider suggestion, "a faith 
common to all Christians": cf. Jude 3 ; but not so definite as 
"secundam fidem catholicam" (Holtzmann). Cf. Acta Carpi 

et Papyli, § 30, 6 avOviraTOS tiirev Tekvcl i\€t<; ; lIa7n;Aos etirev' 
*ai 7roAAa Sia tov ®eov. €t<> tis ix toD brj/xov i/36i]o-ev Xtytov Kara 

TljV TTLO-TIV TUiV Xpl(TTtaV(i)V XiytL TiKVa «X €tl '• IlaTrvXoS tlTTCV . . . 

iv Trdo~r) €7rapvi'a Kal iroXei elcri fiOL t£kvo. Kara. ®eov. 

0eoO iraTpos] 7;/xw is perhaps to be supplied from tov crwn}/Dos 
tj/xwv: if not, 7rarpos is used in its widest sense (cf. 1 Th i 1 , 
1 Ti i 2 , 2 Ti i 2 only), Father of all, e£ ov irao-a 7ra.Tpta . . . 6vo- 
fxd^tTai, Eph 3 15 , perhaps (so Chrys.) recalling yv-qaLw t*kvu, God 
the source of all fatherhood, and of my relation to you my son. 

toG owf}po$ f\u.u)v] Christ is placed on the same level as 
God 3 ; the phrase anticipates the stress on salvation from sin 
in 2 11 - 14 3 4 ' 7 . 

5-9. Paraphrase. Be sure to carry out the purpose for 
which I left you behind in Crete : there was much left by me 
incomplete; you were to complete it by appointing a body of 
elders in each city. I gave you general instructions, but the 
important point in the choice of them is the character they bear 
in their own homes. One whom you appoint must not be liable 
to have any charge brought against him, he must be the husband 
of one wife, his children must be loyal and trustworthy — not 
liable to be accused of wasteful extravagance or disorderly life. 
For it will never do for the presiding officer of a church to be 
liable to have any charge brought against him ; for it is God's 
own family that he has to control. So he must not be self- 
willed, not hot-tempered, not violent in speech, nor given to 
striking others, nor willing to make money in unworthy ways : 
he must be ready to welcome Christian passers-by, to give a 
welcome to every one and everything that is good ; self-controlled, 
just to others, holy in character, having himself well in hand, 
holding firmly a preaching that is loyal to our doctrine : for he 
has a twofold duty — both to stir up the faithful by the sound 
teaching that he gives and to answer those who oppose it. 

Cf. 1 Ti 3 1 " 7 and the notes there. The main qualifications 
for the presbyters are the same in both places, but 1 Ti implies 
a community of longer standing and completer organization — 

(a) in insisting more upon good testimony to character from 
those without, 

{b) in excluding recently-converted Christians (fj.rj vt6<pvrov), 

(c) in laying down rules for deacons and deaconesses as well- 

I. 5, 6.] TITUS 129 

[One cursive, 460, adds here /xr/ xeiporoveiv 8iydp.ov<s /xrj8l Sta- 
kovovs auToi's TroL(Lv fxrjSe ywaiKa'; e'x €l,/ * K Siya/Aias. ] The method 
of ordination is left undefined. A free hand seems to be given 
to Titus (<Va . . . Karao-T^cr^s) ; but this would be consistent with 
a previous choice by the community (cf. Acts 6 5 , 1 Ti i 20 note). 
The duties are also undefined, but there are implied discipline 
over the members of the community, teaching, perhaps control 
of the finances (p.rj alaxpoKep8rj), and the duty of hospitality to 
strangers. The qualifications insisted upon are moral : they are 
such as have been tested in the family life of the candidate 
before his appointment, and therefore show, even in points like 
"the husband of one wife," the standard expected in a good 
layman. For the relation of the e7rto-K07ros to the Trpeo-fivTepoi, cf. 
Introd., p. xx ; and for the whole section, Hort, The Christian 
Ecclesia, pp. 190-92. 

5. tou'tou x*P l,/ ] Eph 3 1 - u only in N.T. ; cf. ov x a '/°" / > Luke 
7 47 and the adverbial use of x^P lv ls verv common, e.g., Gal 3 19 , 

1 Jn 3 12 - 

dire'XtTrof, 2 Ti 4 20 ; elsewhere not in St. Paul, who uses Kcn-aXci- 
7T€tv (1 Th 3 1 only). Both words were in common usage. SlttoX. 
perhaps suggests more than /caraA. the thought of intention — 
I purposely told you off for this work, and left you behind for it. 

7a Xei-n-on-a] in this neuter sense, 3 13 , Luke 18 22 only in N.T., 
but common both in prose and poetry ; cf. iv i-n-avopdwa-qTai. ra 
iWuirovra, Plut. X. Or. Vita, p. 844 E (Wetstein). 

emSiopGcjCTT]] complete (eVt) setting thoroughly (S«£) right ; cf. 
Sioptfwcm, Heb 9 10 ; SiopOwTrjs, Wisd 7 15 ; ltrav6p6oi(xiv, 2 Ti 3 16 . 
The middle is not quite so personal as the active " see that things 
are got right under your guidance." 

KciTaoTTJo-Tjs] cf. Acts 6 3 ovs Ka.Ta(TTr)<Toixtv, which shows that 
it does not exclude a choice by the community, but the change 
from the middle lirihopdwcrri perhaps points to the separate action 
of Titus. 

irpeaPuTe'pous Kara iroXn'] (Kp-qrr) €KaTop.iro\i<;, II. 2. 649 !) a 
body of " elders " in each city ; cf. Acts 14 23 20 17 , and 1 Ti 4 14 to 
Trpeo-fivrepiov, which Theophylact substitutes here both in text 
and commentary. 

ws iyu o-oi 8ieTa|ap.T]i'] perhaps with implied antithesis to some 
opponents at Crete : " as /, Christ's Apostle (cf. o lin(jTi.vQy]v eyw, 
i 3 ), laid down to carry out my own ideal (middle; cf. 1 Co 7 17 
ovtws iv rais £kk\. 7rao-ats Siarao-o-o/Aat) and impressed upon you 
my son and my delegate." The instructions may be limited to the 
following qualifications for the ministry : but more probably they 
were wider, and included rules for the method of appointment 
and the duties of the presbyters. 

6. p.i&s Y uv,auK °s A^pj cf. 1 Ti 3 2 note. 



mora] perhaps " believing," " Christian," " non ad idolorum 
culturam proruentes," Thd. ; cf. i Ti 4 1 ' 2 5 16 6 2 , Concil. Carthag. 
iii. Canon xviii. " ut episcopi et presbyttn et diaconi non ordi- 
nentur priusquam omnes qui sunt in domo eorum Christianos 
catholicos fecerint." More probably, as suiting the following 
qualifications better, " trustworthy," " loyal " ; cf. 1 Co 4 17 tikvov 

dyairrjrov K.a.1 ttlcttov, and I Ti 3 5 . 

dawTias] "luxuriae," Vulg. ; "lascivise," Thd.-Mops. The 
conduct of the do-<uT09, one who cannot save, who wastes his 
money, often with the implication of wasting it on his pleasures, 
and so ruining himself, cf. Lk 15 13 £wi/ dawrw;, Eph. 5 18 oivw iv 
o> io-rlv dcrcoTta, 1 P 4*, 2 Mac 6 4 dcrw7ias xat kuiudv — " extrava- 
gance," "prodigality," almost "profligacy." Aristotle (JYic. Eth. 
iv. 1) defines it as virepfSoXr] irepl xprj/xara : iXevdepLorrj'; being the 
true mean, dveXevOtpia the failure to use money rightly. The 
characteristic of the do-<DTo<; is to (pOeipew ryv ovu-iav : so he comes 

to ruin himself 6 Si' avrov aTroWvixcvos, So/cei 8' aTru)\eid tis avrov 

elvai *cal rj ttJs oicrtas <f>6opd. Prov 28 s provides an apposite 
comment on this verse, <pv\do-aei vo/xov ut6s o-wctos, os 8e TToip.aiv(.L 
daurriav &Ti|id£ei TraTe'pa : cf. Trench, Syn. N.T. S.v. 

dvuiroTaKTa] primarily— to himself, 1 Ti 3 4 Te'uva iyovra iv 
iiroTayij, but including disorder out of doors, insubordinate to 
the officers of the city ; cf. KaT-qyopta and inf. 3 1 . 

7. The qualifications are partly negative, partly positive, 
(i.) Negative : qualities which would prevent his successful govern- 
ment of the community or discredit it. 

au6doTj] self-willed, obstinate in his own opinion, arrogant, 
refusing to listen to others, "superbum," Vulg.; "audacem," 
Thd. ; " stubborn," Tynd. ; " frowarde," Geneva. In Aristotle 
{Eth. Magn. i. 29, Rhet. i. 9. 29), aiOdSeia is the antithesis to 
dpecTKeia, at/xvoTT]^ being the right mean between them. It is fatal 
to the ruler of free men : cf. Theophylact, €7no-K07ro9 Se ckoVtwv 
dpx<j)v ovk 6<£ av8d8r)<; Elvcu, ware avToyv<i)fxoi<i nal avro/SovAws 
/<ai aVeu yvw/jir]<; t<1>v dp^ofxtviDV irpdrreLV' rvpavviKov yap tovto, and 
Plato, Ep. 4, in advice to Dion, rj 8' av6d$eia iprjp.Ca $vvolko<;. 
For other illustrations, cf. Field, Ot. Norvic. ad loc. ; Trench, 
N.T. Syn., M.M. s.v. 

irdpon'oi'] perhaps quite literally — " not given to much wine ,: ; 
cf. 2 3 , 1 Ti 3 8 ; " vinolentum," Vulg. ; but this is not necessarily 
implied: perhaps only " blustering," "abusive," like a man who 
has been drinking; cf. Joseph. Ant. iv. 6. 10 (Holtzmann), where 
irapoLvtiv is used of the Israelite who married a Midianitish 
woman, as the antithesis to o-uxfrpovdv, = " to act outrageously"; 
Aristides, Apology, c. 14, iixirupoivrjo-avrt*; eis avrov , of the conduct 
of the Jews to Christ: so Chrys. de Sacerd. iv. 1 applies irapoivia 
to the conduct of the sons of Eli. 

1.7-9.] TITUS 131 

ttXtjkty]!'"] quite literally, not hasty to strike an opponent; cf. 
2 Co 11 20 €i T6s eis TrpocriDirov vfxd<; Scpet : Apost. Cation 28, 'E77-1- 

(TKOTTOV . . . TVTTTOVTa TTL<TTOV<i afXapTO.VOVTa<i . . . Ka0aip€L(r6aL TTpO(T- 

Ta.T70fji.ev : Pelagius, "non debet discipulus Christi percutere, qui 
percussus est et non repercussit." But the Greek commentators 
extend the reference, p-rJTe Sid ^cipaiv p.rjTe Sia iriKpwv \6yuv 
(Theophyl.), -rrXrjTTOVTa ttjv avveiSrjo-iv tw dSeA.<puiv (Oecumenius), 
"cito increpantem" (Theod.), "brow-beating." 

aiaxpoKepSrj] "turpis lucri cupidum," Vulg., making money 
discreditably : adapting his teaching to his hearers in the hope of 
money from them (cf. n , 1 Ti 6 5 , 1 P 5 2 ) ; or appropriating to 
his own use the gifts of the faithful (cf. 2 Co i2 16-18 , Jn 12 6 ) ; or 
perhaps engaging in discreditable trades (cf. 3 s note). Contrast 
St. Paul's example, Acts 20 s3 - 3i . For the Cretan love of money, 
cf. supra, p. 122. 

8. (ii) Positive: mainly the central Christian Virtues, and 
those which will fit him for ruling and teaching : there is more 
stress laid here than in 1 Ti on the teaching test. 

<f>i\6£ei'ok' ("herberous," Tynd.; "harberous," Genev.), 4»i\- 
dyaOoi' : he starts not from self (contrast avOdhyj), but from love for 
others, cf. 2 Ti 3 2 note ; ready to welcome Christian passers-by 
(cf. 3 13 , 1 Ti 3 2 note) ; ready to welcome all good men, or prob- 
ably "goodness wherever he sees it," cf. Wisd 7 22 Io-tw lv 

avTrj (Wisdom) Trvevfxa. . . . <$>ikdya6ov. (piXdyaOov = (piXovvTa to 
dyaOov rather than tows dyadovs ; cf. Ro X 2 9 KoXXupavoi tw dyaOw. 

For the thought, cf. Phil 4 8 ; "a lover of goodness" (Tynd., 

CTcocfjpoi'a] his duty to self (contrast dpyiXov, irdpowov, TrXrjKT^v) ; 
oYkcuov, to his neighbour; ocriov, to God; cf. 2 12 . 

eyKpa-rii] trie climax, as in the fruit of the Spirit, Gal 5 23 , 
complete self-mastery, which controls all passionate impulses, and 
keeps the will loyal to the will of God; cf. Additional Note, 
p. 148. 

9. dcTexop.ecoi'] a strong word — " amplectentem," Vulg. ; 
"tenacem sermonis," Ambrosiaster ; "utroque brachio amplexi 
et mordicus tenentes," Calvin ; " holding firmly to " — both for his 
own support (cf. Prov 3 18 of Wisdom, £vXov £a»}s eo-rt tois dvTe^o- 
/Ltevois avTrj<s, Pap. Tebt. i. 40 9 dvTe^eo-Oat 7779 o-fjs o-kcit^s), and in 
loyal obedience to it (cf. Is 56 4 - 6 rfs 8ia6rji<r)<; /xov. Jer 2 8 tov 
vo/jLov : Arist. Poet. 9, twv Trapa8eSop.(v(av p.vOwv avre^eo-Oai : Pap. 
Oxyr. ix. 1203, iw v-kqvti&v rjp.€iv Sataitav irdvTwv avTevoue^a 
(M.M. s.v.). 

toG marou \<5you] not to the law or the old covenant as a 
Jewish Rabbi would (cf. last note), much less to commandments 
of men ( 14 ), but to the trustworthy (" unde admonitio et elenchus 
robur accipit," Bengel) message (cf. s ), which corresponds with 


the true teaching — the teaching of the Apostle himself (cf. Ro 6 17 

eiv ov TrapeSoOrjTe tvttov 8t8a^j}s, l6 17 irapa ttjv Sioa^r/i' f}»/ ifxdOere), 

which is ultimately that of the Lord Himself (cf. i Ti 6 3 ). 1 The 
phrase suggests a stereotyped outline of doctrine, either oral 01 
written, such as is quoted in i Co i5 3ff \ 

iv ttj 8i8a<xKa\i'a] cf. i Ti i 10 note, almost equivalent to ttjv 
StSax^ of " the body of doctrine," but thought of as embodied 
by the e7rtcrK07ros in his own " teaching." 

eX^yX 61 "] r ef ute with argument : also including the thought 
of " reprove," cf. 13 2 15 and 2 Ti 3 16 7rpos SiSao-KaAiav, 7rpos 
i\cy/x6v. Origen in a very interesting chapter (V. Ce/sum, iii. 48, 
cf. vi. 7) quotes this verse in answer to the taunt of Celsus that 
Christianity only appealed to the uneducated. 

10-16. Necessity for such qualifications : the character of the 
false teachers at Crete and the substance of their teaching. 

Paraphrase. They will need this qualification, for there are 
many at Crete who are unwilling to submit to any control, 
teachers of worthless doctrine, clever enough to impose upon 
the minds of others — this is especially true of those of them 
who have been Jews — and all these must have their mouths 
stopped ; forasmuch as they upset whole households, teaching 
things which they know they have no right to teach, merely to 
make gains of which they ought to be ashamed. It was one of 
their own islanders, one whom they themselves regard as a 
prophet, who said : 

"Cretans are always liars, very Minotaurs, gluttonous, idlers." 

This testimony is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that 
they may be sound in their faith, and not devote themselves to 
Jewish legends and commandments, which are only command- 
ments of men, aye, and of men who are turning their backs upon 
the truth. It is true that "All things are pure to the pure- 
minded" ; but to those who have been defiled and have no true 
faith, nothing is pure; nay, for them both mind and conscience 
have been defiled. And that is the case with them : God, indeed, 
they acknowledge in their creed, but in their lives they belie such 
knowledge, being abominable, and disobedient, and with a view 
to every good work, unable to stand the test. 

Note. — These teachers are not heathen ; they are professing 
Christians ( 16 ), mainly but not wholly Jewish Christians ( 10 ), who 
pander in their teaching to curiosity and dwell upon Jewish 
legends of the patriarchs, and add to the Christian life a number 
of external duties which can claim no divine authority, and which 

1 For the interpretation of the phrase as a reference to the Personal Logos, 
cf. 3 8 note. 

I. 10-12.] TITUS 133 

deal with the distinction between things clean and unclean ( 15 ), 
and spring out of the Jewish law (3 9 ). There is no reference to 
the enforcement of circumcision; so that they do not correspond 
to the Pharisaic Jewish Christians denounced in Gal., but 
more to the opponents at Colossse, Jews of the dispersion trying 
to represent certain sides of the Jewish life as a higher philosophy 
(cf. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, pp. 116-46). Such Jewish 
teaching would find natural support in incipient tendencies to 
Gnosticism, with its belief in the evil of matter, and that may be 
subordinately alluded to in 15 - 16 . 

The writer deals with this teaching in two ways: (1) it is 
sharply denounced as profitless for all moral purpose; it does 
not raise the moral life or fit men for service; (2) appeal is 
made to great Christian principles. True purity is purity of 
heart ; true faith must issue in good works. 

10. yap] gives primarily the reason for the last qualification 
(cf. e'Acyxeiv 9 , cAey^e 13 ), but also for the whole section ( 5_9 ). 

druiroTaKToi] cf. 6 (which was leading up to this) and 3 1 note. 

paTcuoXoyoi] here only in N.T. ; cf. p-araioXoyLav, 1 Ti i 6 . 
ywaTatos was the favourite Jewish term of scorn for heathen idols 
and worship : this thought may be present here. Their teaching, 
so far from being on a higher level, is as worthless as that of 
heathenism ; cf. ySSeAu/cToi 16 . 

4>pekcnrdTai] here only in N.T., but <frptva.ira.Tav, Gal 6 8 . 
Scarcely (as Lightfoot, ad loc.) = <ppzv\ a7raTai/, to deceive by 
fancies, cf. tppevoreKTiav ; but = <ppiva airarav, '' mentium decep- 

tores " (Jerome) ; cf. cppevoyrjOrjs, <pp€vo0eAy?7S, rfrpivoKXoTTOS. 

11. eirio-TOfAL^eif] (here only in N.T., though in some cursives 
of Lk 1 1 53 ), perhaps anticipating KaKa Orjpia I2 : either " to bridle," 
" to guide aright," " refrenari " (Jerome), cf. Jas 3 s ; or more 
probably " to muzzle, to silence " : " redargui " (Vulg.), " silentium 
indici" (Jerome). This is more analogous to its classical 
usage ; cf. illustrations in Wetstein and in M.M. s.v. 

SXous oI'koos] Where order and discipline need such care- 
ful guidance; cf. 6 2 1 " 10 . 

dcaTpeirouo-i] " upset their faith " ; cf. 2 Ti 2 18 avarp. tt\v tlvwv 
ttiotlv, "pervert" (Tynd., Coverdale), or "upset their peace and 
harmony," " subvert," A.V. ; contrast the teaching of 2 1 " 10 . 

aio-xpou Ke'p&ous] cf. 7 note, hoping for greater gifts from their 
hearers; cf. 1 Ti 5 17 - 18 6 6 , 2 Co 12 14 - 18 . For this tendency at 
Crete, cf. Polybius, vi. 46. 3, 6 7repi ttjv ala^poKepSeiav /ecu ttXcov- 
e£iav rpoiros oi;tgjs iTri^wpid^ei wore irapa. p.6voi<i KprjTaievai twv 
(nravroiv arBpuiTrwv p.7]Sev ala^pbv,€cr6aL KepSos. 

12. c| auTwi'] sprung from themselves, so with special know- 

1810s au-raH' Trpo^rJTTjs] whom therefore they ought to believe, 


and whom I may quote without offence : Epimenides, whom 
they regarded not merely as a poet but as a prophet, a great 
religious reformer (#fo<piA?/s ko.1 o-o<p6s -n-cpl rd Otla, Plut. Solon. 
12) and predicter, who had predicted the failure of the Persian 
invasion of Greece ten years before it took place (Plato, Laws, 
i. 642 D), and whom we may still regard as a prophet, his 
words in this saying being true still ; cf. the treatment of the 
words of Caiaphas (Jn n 51 ), of Balaam's ass (2 P 2 16 ). Similarly 
Irenaeus (iv. 33. 3), apparently borrowing the phrase from here : 
" Accusabit autem eos Homerus proprius ipsorum propheta" 

i|/euo-Tai] cf. 10 and 16 . So Hesychius, Kpqri£eiv, i//€v8ccr^at 
kclI aTrarav : Ovid, Ars. Am. I 297 : 

"Nota cano : non hoc, qirne centum sustinet urbes, 
Quamvis sit mendax, Creta negare potest," 

and other interesting illustrations in Wetstein. 

xatcd 0T)pia] cf. 10 avv-noraKTOL . . . l-n-to-Topii^iiv. Is there an 
allusion to the Minotaur? 

yaoTepes dpyat] cf. u alcxxpov KcpSous X"P l,/ > 16 7r / J0 ? to-v Ipyov 
dyafrov doo/a/u.01. 

A r ote. — i. The line was attributed to Epimenides (of Crete, 
600-500 b c.) doubtless in pre-Christian times. It is quoted as 
from him by Clem. Alex. (Strom. 1. xiv. 59), by Jerome (here) 
as from a poem entitled Xprja-fioC, Oracula, and by Isho'dad, a 
Syrian commentator (c. a.d. 850), as from the Minos (cf. Rendel 
Harris, Expositor, 1906, p. 305; 1907, p. 332; 1912, p. 348). 
But the attribution is very doubtful, as the dialect is Attic and 
not Cretan (cf. Moulton, N.T. Gr. i. p. 233 n.). It was prob- 
ably earlier than Callimachus (a.d. 300-240), who quotes the 
first half of it in his hymn to Zeus : 

Yipr)Tt% dei if/evcrraL' kgu ydp Tu<por, w dya, ado 
Kprjres iTeKTrjva\To' <rv o° ov Oaves' ccro-c yap aid. 

And it was probably the legend that the tomb of Zeus was to be 
found in Crete that gave rise to the charge of lying as charac- 
teristic of Crete. It is also possible, as Rendel Harris also 
suggests, that the last half of the verse is abuse of the animal 
sacrifices and the feeding on them in the worship of the Cretan 
Zeus. His further suggestion, that the words in Acts 17 28 , 
" Far in him we live, and move, and have our being," are a 
quotation from the same poem of Epimenides, would give an 
interesting link between our writer and St. Paul, but can scarcely 
be maintained ; they are too mystical for so early a date (cf. 
J. U. Powell, Classical Review, Aug.-Sept., 1916). 

2. For an interesting account of the use of classical literature 

I. 12-15. TITUS 135 

in the early Church, see Plummer, Expositors Bible, c. xx. 
Clem. Alex., in quoting this passage (I.e.), adds : " you see how 
Paul assigns even to the prophets of the Greeks an element of 
the truth, and is not ashamed to use Greek poems for edification 
and rebuke " : but when heathen critics urged that the quotation 
virtually implied St. Paul's belief in the real and immortal ex- 
istence of Zeus, the Fathers take pains to refute the inference. 
So Chrys. Theod. Thdt. Jerome, ad he. 

13. tj fAapTupi'a] not in the earlier Epistles, which use p.aprvpiov 
(four times) : perhaps slightly different, " witnessing," rather than 
"witness." For similar severity, cf. Ro 16 18 , Phil 3 19 . 

eXeyx 6 ] cf- 9 » as an example to the Ittlo-kotto^. diroTop-ws, 
2 Co 13 10 , only in N.T. 

%C r\v o!tiok] Lk 8 47 , Acts 22 24 , Heb 2 11 , 2 Ti i 6 - 12 , only in 
N.T., not in the earlier Epistles: perhaps a Latinism = quamo- 
brem. So Kara, ravrqv tj)v aniav, Sta ravras Tas om'as in the 
papyri, M.M. s.v. 

iv Tfj morel] perhaps " in the Creed," and the context makes 
this almost certain ; but, possibly, " in their faith, their loyalty 
to Christ " : cf. 2 2 . 

14-16. Cf. Ro 14 13 - 23 , Col 2 16 " 23 , 1 Ti 4 1 - 5 and notes there, 
Mk 7 18 - 23 . 7rpoo-e^ovre9, 1 Ti I 4 note. 

'louS. jjlu'Gois] cf. 3 9 , 1 Ti i 6 , Introduction, p. xvii. en-oXais 
dyflpeSiroji/ (contrast ivroXwv ®eov, 1 Co 7 19 ), a reminiscence of 
Is 29 13 fJLCLTrjv cre'/Sovrat yu.e (cf. fMaraioXoyoL 10 ) SiSacrKorres lvTa.Xfj.ara 
avdpoiTroiv kol SiSao-KaXtas, quoted by Christ (Mk 7 7 ) and adopted 
by St. Paul (Col 2 22 ). The reference is to the "traditions of 
the elders," and will include interpretations of the law of clean 
and unclean meats and ceremonial washings, Mk 7 2 ~*. These 
have no authority, as only the interpretations of men, and of men 
who are now turning away from (cf. Acts 13 46 ) the truth "as it is 
in Jesus " (Eph 4 21 ). 

15. irdVTo. KaGapd] This goes further than the tradition of the 
elders ; it abolishes the Mosaic law, which had served the 
purpose of separating the Jews from the heathen world. 

toIs KdGapcus] those who are pure — not, as the false teachers 
would say, by ceremonial washings, but by purity of heart. Cf. 
Mt 5 8 , Jn 15 3 , 1 Ti 2 8 note. aKadapros p.6vq rj dpapria, Chrys. 

irdcTa k. -rots KaGapois] has the ring of a proverb, and was 
perhaps a saying of the Lord Himself (so von Soden) ; cf. Lk n 41 
l8ov iravra KaOapa iariv : cf. Pap. Oxyr. V. 840, iyw Se xal 01 
paOrjrai p.ov ov<z Xeycts ju,t) /3ef3airTLcr6ai flefidp.p,€6a iv vSacri £0)775 
alwvLOv : and Ro I4 14, 20 ol8a /cat ir£irtt<r p.aL iv k. 'Itjctou . . . irdvra 
pikv KaOapa. 

The thought, especially on the negative side, that the im- 
pure heart makes all things impure, was found in the prophets ; 

136 THE PASTORAL EPISTLE* [1.15,16. 

cf. Hag 2 10 * 14 , and was becoming a common-place of pagan 
philosophers, both Epicurean and Stoic; cf. Lucr. vi. 17-34; 
Hor. Ep. i. 2. 54, "Sincerum est nisi vas, quodcunque infundis 
ace^cit." Seneca, de Bene fie. v. 12, "quemadmodum stomachus 
morbo vitiatus . . . quoscunque accepit cibos mutat, ita animus 
caucus quicquid illi commiseris, id onus suum et perniciem . . . 
facit. Nihil potest ad malos pervenire quod prodest, immo nihil 
quod non noceat ; qusecunque enim ill is contigerunt in naturam 
suam vertunt, et . . . profutura, si melioribus darentur, illis 
pestifera sunt," and Philo, de Legg. Spec. iii. 209, p. 334 M, 
a.Ka6apTO<; ... 6 dSiKus kcu do-£/3r)s . . . iravra <pvpwv xaX (rvy^iwv 
. . . w(TT€ wv i(f>aif/r}TaL Trpayp.aro)v iravra icm iirik-qirra rrj tov 
SpaWos o-vfJLfJLtTafiuWovTa p.o)(9r]pia' kcu yap . . . a[ 7rpd£eis twv 
ayaOwv tira.ivt.Tai, /3eXTioi;//.evai Tats Tail" ivtpyovvrwv dperais, iirti&t] 
TTtcpVKt 7ra>s To. yivofitva rots Spuxriv i£op.oiovcr6<u (WetStein). 

tois $€ (i.efiiaafA£vois] (but /Atyua/x/teVois, W.-H., Tisch., with 
N A C D* L ; cf. Blass, Gr. N.T., § 163), cf. Hag 2 13 iav axjrqrai 

ptp.iafip.fvo? aK(i6apTOS tin i/'UXT? * 7r ' 7ravr6s toutojv, el p.iavQrjO'tTaL ; 
koL a-rrtKpidrjcrav 01 lepeis kcu tnrav Mtav$rjo-€Tai. 

dTriCTTois] This would apply (a) to the weak Jewish Christian, 
not believing that Christ is the end of the law, cf. Ro i4 esp - 2S ; 
6 ipvxrjv exmv aaOtvrj iravra pvirol, Chrys. ; Or (/>) to the Gnostic, 
without faith in God's creation of matter, cf. 1 Ti 4 1 " 5 ; but here 
the reference is only to the former. 

6 kous tea! rj o-ucet8r](ns] Their judgment is perverted : they 
will call evil good and good evil (cf. 1 Ti 6 5 , 2 Ti 3 s ) ; their con- 
science is callous, not telling them when they have done wrong 
(cf. r Ti 4 1 ), nor condemning them when they have done it. 

16. ofioXoyouCTiy] They acknowledge, assert in their Creed — the 
word does not imply boastful profession — that they know God, 
but in practice belie such knowledge ; cf. Jas 2 14-26 , 1 Jn 2*. 

dpvoueTai] not in the earlier, but frequent in the Past. Epistles ; 
cf. 2 12 , 1 Ti 5 8 , 2 Ti 2 12 - 13 3 5 . 

pSeXuKToi . . . dSoKifiot] " Hsec sunt opera quae nesciunt 
Deum " (Ambrosiaster). " Christus sapientia est, justitia, Veritas, 
sanctitas, fortitudo. Negatur per insipientiam sapientia, per 
iniquitatem justitia, per turpitudinem sanctitas, per imbecillitatem 
fortitudo, et quotiescunque vincimur vitiis et peccatis, toties 
Deum negamus" (Jerome). 

pSeXuK-roi] takes up 16 , the antithesis to KaOapoL 
(cf. Prov 17 15 os Sixaiov Kpivti tov uSikov, olSlkov Se tov Slkcliov 
aKaOapTos Kal /38eXvKTos 7rapd ®tw) : perhaps with an allusion to 
the use of (38l\vyp.a of the abominations of heathen idolatry; cf. 

/LtaraioXoyoi 10 note . 

dTTtiOets] "incredibiles," Vulg. ; " diffidentes," Theod. ; but 
better, " inobedientes," Jer. Ambrosiaster. It takes up d7ri'o-Tots, 

I. 16-11. 1-15.] TITUS 137 

but interprets it in the sphere of action ; cf. awn-oTaKToi 10 , and 
contrast 3 1 " 3 . 

•n-pos irdi' epyoc dy. dSoKipot] worthless for the tasks for which 
they ought to be ready (3 1 ) : much more for the excellence for 
which God's peculiar people are eager (2 13 ). The whole of 2 1 " 18 
is a contrast to this phrase. 

II. 1-15. Paraphrase. But your language must be very differ- 
ent : you must lay stress on character, on that character which is 
consistent with the sound teaching, and that with regard to every 
member of the Christian family. Elder men you must train to 
be sober minded, dignified, self-controlled, sound in their faith 
in God, in their love for their fellow-men, in their power of 
enduring persecution. Elder women similarly, to be reverent 
in staid demeanour, not given to gossip and scandal, not the 
slaves of drink, teachers of all that is excellent; for their aim 
should be to discipline and train the younger women to be 
lovers of their husbands, lovers of their children, to be self- 
controlled, chaste, workers at home, kindly to their servants, in 
willing obedience to their husbands: this is important' in order 
that the truth of God may not be evil spoken of. Younger men, 
too, exhort to be self-controlled ; for them you yourself must be 
the model of what excellent character should be. When you 
teach, your motives sincere, your manner such as to inspire 
respect, your message sound and not open to criticism. This, 
too, is important in order that any opponent of Christianity may 
be put to shame, when he can find nothing evil to allege against 
us. Slaves, too, must be trained to be obedient to their masters, 
eager to please them in every way, not answering back, not 
pilfering, nay, showing glad whole-hearted fidelity. This, too, 
is most important, because by so doing they may make the 
teaching about God our Saviour more attractive, more likely to 
win their masters to it. 

And such a character is possible, for the grace of God when 
it broke upon the world, like light dawning upon darkness, 
brought with it salvation for every race and class of men, and it 
came as a school of character training us to renounce impiety 
and mere worldly impulses and to live a life of self-control, of 
just treatment of our fellows, of piety to Godward, in this present 
age, while we still look forward to a better future, to the blessed 
hope and fresh light yet to break upon us from the glory of Him 
who is at once the High God in heaven and our Saviour upon 
earth, Jesus Christ, who gave His life unto the death on our 
behalf — for this very purpose that He might rescue us from all 
disobedience to law, and purify for His own service a people of 
His own choice, enthusiastic for all ideal works. 

This is what you have to teach : aye, plead with them to rise 


to it ; if need be, rebuke with all authority any who oppose. 
Let no one ignore your authority. 

Note. — 1. The whole chapter is full of reminiscences of c. 1. 
Titus is to be in his teaching a model for the presbyters, to show 
them how to exhort and how to rebuke (cf. 2 1 - 16 with i 9 ). He is 
also to be a contrast to the false teachers : his teaching is to be 
sound, sincere, not able to be silenced (cf. 2 1 with i 10 ) : it is not 
to be aimless, but at all points to build up character (cf. 2 1 with 
i 10 , 2 14 with i 16 ): it is not to upset families, but to build up a 
true family life on the basis of a willing subordination (cf. 2 5 - 9 
with i 10 - 11 ). The "evil beasts and idle bellies" are to be 
disciplined into self-control (cf. <ru<ppu)v, 2 2 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 12 , with i 12 ) : 
instead of attending to Jewish myths and ceremonial purifications, 
the Christians are to realize that they are now God's peculiar 
people, purified with a spiritual cleansing (cf. 2 14 with i 14, 15 ) : 
instead of being useless for every good work, they are to be 
eager to stand out before the heathen world as models of 
excellence (cf. 2 14 with i 16 ). 

2. The whole illustrates the importance attached to building 
up the conception of a high family life (cf. Ramsay, St. Paul, the 
Traveller and Roman Citizen, c. vi.), and it should be compared 
with Col 3 18 ~4 X (where St. Paul for the first time regulates the 
duties of the members of a family), Eph 5 22 -6 9 (where he treats 
the family as a training ground for the sense of true membership 
in the church), 1 Ti 5 J -6 2 (where he treats of Timothy's attitude 
to the different classes in the church), and also 1 P 2 18 ~3 7 where, 
as here, the importance of the Christian's life at home is em- 
phasized because of its effect upon the heathen world outside : 
but here the argument is scarcely so strong as there ; here, it is 
mainly to avoid disparagement by the heathen, cf. 2 5 - 8 - 10 ; there, 
it is rather to win the heathen to salvation, 1 P 2 12 3 1 . In no 
case is the similarity sufficient to suggest any literary dependence 
of one writer upon the other. Cf. also Clem. Rom. c. xxi. ; Ign. 
ad Polyc. c. iv. 

3. Notice the strong sense of divine and human purpose 
throughout the section (Iva six times). It was the Divine purpose 
in the Incarnation that man should live a moral and religious 
life (Iva . . . tyau/xev 12 ) : it was the purpose of Christ's death 
that we should be free from the power of sin and eager for excel- 
lence of life (tva . . . ko\u)v Zpywv u ) : and man can co-operate 
with this purpose ; the elder women are to aim at training 
the younger (ha a-tD^povi'Cuicn 4 ) : the younger women, at keeping 
God's message free from all calumny (Iva fir) . . . /?Aao-c/>?7//.T/Tcu 6 ) : 
more strongly still, Titus and the younger men can act so as to 
put heathen opponents to shame (iva 6 «'£ evavTta*; ivrpaTrrj 8 ) ; yet 
more strongly still, even slaves can make it their aim to add 

11.1,2.] TITUS 139 

fresh lustre to the doctrine and make it attractive to the heathen 
(iva . . . KOa-fxwaiv iv TracrLV 10 ). 

1. ctu 8e] contrast 2 10 . ttj uy. SiSacric., which is to be the 
standard for the presbyters, i 9 . 

2. -n-peo-puTas] " senes et aetate et ordine possunt intelligi " 
(Pelagius and Oecumenius) ; but there is nothing in the whole 
context to suggest official position of any kind, either in the 
other classes referred to or in the qualities required. 

yY]<f>a\ious] 1 Ti 3 2 note. 

acficous] 1 Ti 2 2 note, elvai, possibly the imperatival infini- 
tive, cf. Phil 3 16 , Ro 12 15 (Moulton, N.T. Gr. i. p. 179); but 
more probably governed by AaAei, cf. 6 . 

<rw<J>poi'as] "castos," "pudicos," perhaps also wise in counsel 
"prudentes," Clarom. ; cf. Add. Note, p. 148. 

uyicuVorras] cf. I 18 ; contrast vocruv, I Ti 6 4 , and aaOevovvra rrj 
ma-rei, Ro 14 1 : they must be sound, there must be no internal 
weakness in any part of the Christian life ; their faith in God 
must not be half-hearted, must have no alloy of false human 
teaching (i 14 ); their love must not wax cold in the presence of 
the lawlessness around them (Mt 24 12 ), it must not be unbalanced; 
their power of endurance must be able to hold out against the 
provocations and persecutions of the world around them (cf. 5 - 7 
3 2 ). Each quality must be able to stand a strain without 
snapping. The thought of " soundness " is most applicable to 
" faith," but it perhaps also suggests a " sanitas caritatis " and 
a "sanitas patientiae" (Jerome), in the sense that each quality 
may degenerate into weakness. "Love," which is not weak, 
sentimental, dangerous, cf. Orelli, Inscr. Lat. 4651, "quae dum 
nimia pia fuit, facta est impia" ; "endurance," which is not faint- 
hearted nor yet callous, obstinate, fanatical, which will not court 
martyrdom. Jerome, whose note is excellent, points to 1 Co 13 
as defining the "sanitas caritatis"; cf. Augustine's " serenitatem 
dilectionis" (Con/, ii. 2); Tyrrell, Hard Sayings, p. 295, "He 
came to teach our affections a rhythm from heaven." Words- 
worth's "Laodamia": 

"The Gods approve 
The depth and not the tumult of the soul, 
A fervent, not ungovernable love " ; 

and for the combination of the three, S. T. Coleridge, "Love, 
Hope and Patience in Education " : 

"Yet haply there will come a weary day 
When, overtasked at length, 
Both Love and Hope beneath the load give way. 
Then, with a statue's smile, a statue's strength, 
Stands the mute sister Patience, nothing loth, 
And, both supporting, does the work of both." 


3. Trpeo-puTiSas] this again has been referred (Theod. Oecu- 
inenius) to some prominent official position in the community 
(" wie es heute bei den Herrenhutern der Fall ist," Koehler), 
such as is found later ; cf. the nth Laodicean Canon, nepl toG /at/ 
8elv ras Aeyopera? 7rpeo-/3GTiSas 77701 7rpoKa6rjp.ei'a<; iv eKKXrjcria 
KaOiUTaaOaL : the epithets UpoTrpeirels, KaAo8i8acr/<dAous, would suit 
this, but the whole context is against it (cf. note on 2 ). 

KaTao-TT/'/xari] demeanour, deportment (" incessus, motus, vul- 
tus, sermo, silentium," Jerome), but with the additional thought 
of settled, staid, sedate demeanour ; cf. KaracrTTip.aTiKo's, and 
Porphyr. de Abstin. iv. 6, to crep.vbv kS.k toG Karao-xT/paro? 
eooparo' Tropcia tc yap r/v €ut<zktos /cat /3Aep.p.a Ka9(.<rrrjKo<; iirtT-qoevtTo : 
Ign. Trail. 3, t<j> iin<TKOir<i> vp.u)V ov auro to KaTa.crTrjp.a peydAri 
liadrjTfia, with other interesting illustrations in Field, Ot. Norvic. 
and M.M. s.v. For the thought, cf. Ecclus 19 30 o-ToAio-p,os dVSpos 
Kczi ycAws ooovtwv ko.1 (5i)p.ara avOpwirov dVayyc'AAei to. irepl avrov. 

Upotrp€TT€t<;] temple -like, reverent, like people engaged in 

sacred duties, cf. I Ti 2 10 o Trpiirei ywcu£iv e7rayy€AAop.€i/ais 
Otocrefiiiav, and an inscription from Delos, to.? Ova-ias Upcn.peTrws 
(TwertKeo-ev (M.M. s.v.). They are to carry into daily life the 
demeanour of priestesses in a temple ; cf. Philo, Quod omnis 
probus sit liber, 12. 76, p. 457 M. of the Essenes, depot-neural ©coG 

yeyoVao-i, ov £uia KaraOvovTes dAAd UpOTrpeTre'is Tas iavTwv Siavoias 

KaTa<TK(vdt,cu> d^iowTcs (Wetstein). The idea of life as one 
constant festival to the wise man is found in Stoic writers (Marc. 
Aurel. iii. 4, 6 di'Tip 6 toioGtos . . . tepcvs ti's eo~Ti kcu VTroupyos 
9(S)v : in Philo, de Sacrif. Abel. 33, eoprr) yap i/'v^s 17 iv dpcTals 
tv(j>pocrvv7] tcAcuu? . . . poVos Se ioprd^ei ttjv Toiavrqv iopT-qv 6 
o-o<po's, and in early Christian writers, Clem. Alex. Strom, vii. 49, 
uVas 8e 6 /3tos aGroG 7rav7/yvpt5 dyi'a (of the true Gnostic). So 
Tertullian, Decultu Fern. ii. 12, calls Christian women "pudicitiae 

There is some MSS authority for Upo7rpe7rtr, " in habitu 
sancto," Vulg. ; " in habitu decenti," Theod.-Mops., cf. 1 Ti 2 9 iv 
Karaa-ToXfi Acocrpiw : but the following adjectives strongly support 
the plural here. 

8ta/3dAoTJs] 1 Ti 3 11 , 2 Ti 3 s "criminatrices," Fuld. ; "in- 
centrices," Jerome. 

4. KaAoSiSao-KdAous] here only, " bene docentes," Vulg. ; but 
better, " bona docentes," Thd.-Mops., teachers of what is excellent. 

Zva cro)(ppovi£w(ri] not neuter, "that they may be self-con- 
trolled," Ttt? re'as being then parallel in construction to 7rpco-/3»;ra? 
and 7rp€o-/3un8a9 (so Calvin, Hofmann, Wohlenberg); for this is 
scarcely adequate as the climax of the preceding, nor sufficiently 
parallel to the other final sentences with Iva : but active, that they 
may discipline, train in o-Mrbpom'vyj the young women ; cf. crwcftpav 

II. 4-7.] TITUS 141 

loyxos, 2 Ti I 7 ; Justin M. Apol. ii. 1, os dv aoxppovi^rjTai vtto 7ruTpds . 
Xen. CEcon. vii. 14, where a wife says to her husband 8' 
e<pr)<T€v rj p-rJTrjp tpyov elvai o-oxppovuv, where the meaning is, " to be 
prudent in household management." 

tJuXd^Spous, «|>i\oTeKKous] Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 255, 
quotes an Inscription from Pergamum of the time of Hadrian, 
IouAios Bdoxros Ora/aXta TlwXXrj rfj yXvKVTaTy yvvaiKi <pi,XdvSpw 
/cat c/>iA.ot€kvu> crvfjL(3i(D(rdar] dp.€p.7rTa>s €T>/ A. 

5. olKovpyovs] workers at home; cf. Clem. Rom. i. 1, t<i Kara. 
tov oTkov cre/Avuis oi/coupyeiv eStSao-Kere irdvv o~(a<ppovovo~a% (possibly a 
reminiscence of this passage). Orelli, Tnscr. Lat. 4639, " pia, 
pudica, frugi, casta, domiseda": ibid. 4848, "domum servavit, lanam 
fecit"; contrast 1 Ti 5 13 -irepLep)(6p.evaL tols 01/aas, Prov 7 11 of a 
courtesan, cv olkw oix rjo-v^a^ovo-iv oi 7rdSes avTrjs. The meaning 
is not far different from that of the more usual oUovpovs, " home- 
minders," "domus curam habentes" Vulg., "domos suas bene 
regentes " Theod.-Mops., which is read here in N c D c H CO &. 

dyras] cf. the frequent appeal of the Christian Apologists to 
the high standard of Christian wives, e.g. Tert. Apol. 9, " diligen- 
tissima et fidelissima castitas." 

dyaOds] possibly qualifies oi/covpyovs "good workers at home" 
(Hofmann, Wohlenberg, Riggenbach), but more probably 
introduces a new feature, "kindly," i.e. mainly, "to their 
servants," " benignas," Vulg.; " quasi dicat, cum mansuetudine 
regant," St. Thom. Aq. : cf. 1 P 2 18 tois dyatfois /ecu l-KiuKio-w 
(of masters). 

uTroTao-CTOfjieVas] whether the husbands are Christian or not (cf. 
1 Ti 6 1 - 2 , 1 Co 7 10-16 ). Chrysostom and Theodoret add the later 
application, that they are not to leave their husbands through 
wishing to live a "religious" life. For the duty, cf. 1 Co 14 84 , 
Eph 5 22 , Col 3 18 . Resch, Paulinismus (T. und U., N.F. xii. 
p. 463) thinks that a command of the Lord (cf. 1 Co 14 37 ) lies 
behind the command of the Apostle. 

Xva. firj . . . p\aCT<})Tf]p.T]Tai] a reminiscence of Is 52 s Si' vp.ds 
to 6vop.d p.ov j3\ao-(f>r]p.eiTai iv tois eOveai, cf. Ro 2 24 , I Ti 6 1 . 
The Christians are now God's " peculiar people " ( 14 ), like the 
Jews in captivity, in a heathen world. They have to protect 
from abuse not only " the name " (to 6vop.a) of God, but His new 
"word," His new message (6 Ao'yos, cf. i 3 - 9 ; x?)v SiSao-KaAiW, 2 10 ) 
of universal salvation, n . To the Jew the profanation of God's 
Name was the deadliest sin, even as the sanctification of the 
name, especially by martyrdom, was the highest duty ; cf. C. G. 
Montefiore in Beginnings of Christianity, i. pp. 63-65. 

7. TTcpl irdcTa] possibly with aax^poveiv, " tarn mente quam 
corpore ... in omnibus rebus, ne honores indebitos appetamus, 
ne accendamur avaritia, ne ulla passione superemur" (Jerome), 


but more probably with Trape^o/xevos, being expanded in the 
following words ; cf. I Ti 4 1 '-'. 

Trapexofiefos] scarcely different from the active in Hellenistic 
Greek, cf. Col 4 1 ; and fairly common with the reflexive pronoun 
in inscriptions; cf. Deissmann, B.S., p. 254; Moulton, N.T. 
Greek, i., pp. 155-59- 

iv ttj 8i8ao-Ka\La] " in your teaching," to be joined with all 

the following words d<pOopiav . . . aKaTayvwo-TOv. 

dfyQopiav] the quality of the dcpOopos, chaste, pure (cf. MM. 
s.v.) : purity of motive, without desire of gain (cf. i 11 ) or respect 
of persons, and purity of doctrine (cf. 2 Co 4 2 aTrenrdpeBa rd 
KpvTTTa T//9 ala^vvrjs, p.r] TrepnraTovi'Tes iv iravovpyia p.rjoi 8o\ovvTe<; 
tov Xoyov). 

acp.i'OTTjTa] dignity of phrase and utterance, \6yov uyir], tne 
message in true proportion, well-balanced ; cf. e£ vyiovs xal eV 
d\rj9ua<;, Pap. Oxyr. ii. p. 215. dKaTdyfUCTTOi' (found in 2 Mac 
4 47 and in several contemporary epitaphs; Deissmann, B.S., 
p. 200), not liable to be censured, criticized, silenced ; contrast 
i 10 3 11 , Gal 2 11 . 

8. 6 i£ ivavrias] " he that is of the contrary part " — doubtless 
the main thought is of pagan criticism ; cf. 5 - 10 , [ P 2 12 - 15 , 1 Ti 
5 14 6 o% : but as there is a direct reference to Titus, it 
may include " the contrary part " within the Church ; cf. tovs 
dvTiXeyovTas, i 9 3 15 note, 2 Ti 2 25 . 

9. SouXous] cf. 1 Ti 6 1 note, 1 Cor 7 21 , 1 P 2 16 - 18 . h irfitnr, 
possibly with viroTdo-o-to-Qai (W.-H., Wohlenberg, von Soden), and 
this balances best with iv irdo-tv at the end; but cf. Clem. Alex. 
Strom, vii. 83, Iva 7rpos tov Kvpiov tvdpeoros iv Trdai yivrjTai. 
The Patristic commentators are careful to point out the necessary 
limitation, e.g. "quae imperant justa," Pelagius ; so Jerome, Thd. 
Thdt. |xt] dvTiXe'yovTas, " non responsatores," Ambrst. ; cf. dvav- 
rtppifrus, Acts io 29 . voo<\>\X,o\Livou<i, Acts 5 2,3 , like Onesimus, 
Philem 18 . 

10. ■no.oa.v tticttii/ (cf. Gal 5 2 -') e^SeiKku/xeVous] cf. Pap. Oxyr. 
iii. 494. 9, KaTaXciiru) ttj yvvaiKL p.ov . . . evvoovo~r] p.01 kcu irdo-av 
iriaTiv ivhf.iKVvp.ivr) a idv diroXtnrui (.iriirXa.. 

dya.§r\v\ possibly limiting irdo-av, " in rebus non malis " 
(Bengel) ; but almost certainly strengthening it " with a hearty 

good will " = p.tT euroia?, Eph 6 7 ; iXtvOepa d(f>ir)p.L . . . /car tvvoiav 
Kal (pikoaTopyiav SoiAd p.ov o~d)p.aTa, Pap. Oxyr., ubi supra, 
line 6. 

W.-H. place in the margin, as an alternative reading, irdo-av 
eVS. dydirqv : but Pap. Oxyr. strongly supports irdaav ttIo-tiv, and 
dydiri/v may have been an attempt to avoid the doubtful meaning 
of dyati-qv : cf. Introd., p. xxxviii. 

KOCTfAWCTi*] " Quo vilior conditio servorum, eo pulchrius 

II. 10, 11.] TITUS 143 

describitur eorum pietas," Bengel (" that they may do worshippe 
to the doctrine," Tynd. Cranmer). The very difficulty of the 
slaves' position — for which see an interesting note in Chry- 
sostom — makes his loyalty redound the more to the credit of 
the Gospel, and show that it is a Gospel of glory, 1 Ti i u ; cf. 
G. Herbert : 

" Who sweeps a room as for thy laws 
Makes that and the action Jine." 

The notes of St. Thomas Aquinas on vv. 2 " 10 show a shrewd 
knowledge of human nature, and the appropriateness of each 
quality to be pressed upon each class. 

11-14. The reason and motive power for this appeal — the 
enabling grace of God. 

This dogmatic statement is introduced as the basis of the 
previous appeal, cf. 1 Ti 3 15 - 16 ; " do this for you can, God's 
grace was given for this very purpose." It springs directly out 
of the command to slaves, 9 - 10 , but certainly includes 2 " 8 , and 
probably also 1 . "Teach rightly, for God's grace was an 
educating grace : let each class in the household live a true 
Christian life, for God's grace was given to all classes to make 
possible such a life." Hence the emphasis lies on 77-ao-iv avOpu- 
7rois, TrouSevovora, £r]\<DTr]v kolXwv epywv. 

11. eireeJxxi'T]] the passive only here and 3 4 (but eVi^at'veiv, Lk i 79 , 
Acts 27 20 ) in N.T. but common in LXX, Josephus, Inscrr. The 
essential meaning is to appear suddenly upon a scene, and it is 
used particularly (a) of divine interposition, especially to aid 
(cf. Gen 35 7 , 3 Mac 6 9 , so eV»£ai/£ia, 2 Mac 2 21 3 24 12 22 14 16 ; and 
for pagan illustrations, v. M.M. s.v.), " Apparuit gratia Dei," 
Vulg : (b) of the dawning of light upon darkness (Nu 6 25 , 
Ps 30 16 117 27 etc.), " illuxit gratia Dei" (Jerome). The con- 
text here (o-amypios) suggests the former shade of meaning. 
The grace of God came to the aid of our need, the reference 
being to the whole life of Christ, Incarnation and Death, cf. 14 ; 
in 2 Ti i 10 the thought of light is more prominent. For further 
illustrations see excellent notes in Ezra Abbot, Critical Essays, 
p. 454 ; Milligan on / II Thess., p. 148 ; Justin Martyr (Apol. i. 
5 and 14) contrasts the eirt^ai/eiat of daemons in dreams and 
other ways, leading to immoral acts, with the i-mcfxiveia of Christ 
leading to a life of love. 

o-omjpios] taking up o-wt%)os 10 and anticipating 14 , bringing 
salvation from the power of sin to all. 

■naaiv dkOpwirois] " nullam conditionem excipit " (Pelagius) ; 
"etiam servis, etiam gentibus," cf. 3 2 (Bengel). The first 
thought is certainly right — " to all classes of men, even slaves, 
enabling all to live true lives " : the second thought is perhaps 


also suggested by the reference to the effect on the heathen 
world, 6 - 810 : the message of salvation is intended for all, so 
you need not despair of winning any by your lives, cf. i Ti 2 4 

12. -jrcuSeuouo-a] training, schooling, cf. 2 Ti 2 25 3 16 (not, as 
more often, "chastising "). The educative power of God's grace 
is dwelt upon, as the context is concerned with sound teaching. 
The thought is akin to the Greek conception of redemption 
from ignorance; but this is not un-Pauline, and the primary 
thought is redemption from moral evil. 

dpi'rjo-dfxevot] perhaps with reference to a particular time, the 
time of baptism. 

do-cPeiav] ttjv elBuiXoXarpeiav, kcu to. Trovrjpa Soy/xara (Theoph.), 
but this is too narrow ; it is the contrast to elcreftux;. Impiety, 
all wrong thoughts about God, and the actions that follow from 
it, which marked the heathen (rrjv) life, cf. Jude 15 - 18 ; " im- 
pietatem et saecularia desideria " (Vulg.). 

Kocrfwcds] here only in N.T. in this sense ; cf. 1 Jn 2 16 7^ to 
ev tw Koa/xw, r) liriOvpLLa. tt}? crapKOS Kai r) imOv/xLa tuv ocp^aXpwv, 
Kal i) a\a£,oveia tov (Siov, for the meaning. 

o-w<j>p6y(i)s] placed first, as the contrast to €Tn6vfx.iai and as the 
characteristic word of the whole chapter : with self-control, with 
respect for the rights of others, with true piety towards God. 

tw vuv auSvij 1 Ti 6 17 , 2 Ti 4 10 only in N.T. 

13. •jrpoo-oexofi.ei'oi.] because we look forward to a yet brighter 
future, when all that is good in this present life will be rewarded 
and completed; cf. 1 Cor i 7 , 2 Th i 7-12 . To the writer as he 
approached death expectation had grown into love, 2 Ti 4 8 . 

tt]»' paK. eXmoa] almost = Xptcrrov 'Irjaovv ; cf. I Ti I 1 and n . 

em^dkcicn'] in N.T., only here and 2 Th 2 8 , t Ti 6 14 , 2 Ti i 10 
4 1 and 8 ; cf. note on eTrecpdvr) n . The word vas applied to the 
accession of a Roman Emperor (cf. Milligan on / // Thess., 
p. 148): that might be in the writer's mind here (cf. next note 
and 1 Ti 6 15 , 2 Ti 4 1 )— the taking of the kingdom by the true 

rfjs o6£t]$] The full manifestation of all that Christ is in Him- 
self and in His saints ; cf. 1 Ti i 11 note, 2 Co 3 18 , 2 Th i 10 orav 

t\6r) Ivho^aa-drjvai iv Tots dytoi? clvtov ; but vide below. 

toO pey^ 00 6cou] here only in N.T., but 6 Oebs 6 /xiyas (Dt io 17 , 
Neh i 6 etc.), of Jehovah in contrast with heathen gods, and used 
by heathen of their gods and goddesses; cf. Acts 19 27 r^s 
/x€ydA.?/s 6ta<i 'ApTe/JuSos. 

tou p.. 0. Kal awTtipos] Do these words apply to two persons, 
" of Our Great God and of our Saviour," or to one, " of Our Great 
God and Saviour " ? Probably to one, and that one Jesus Christ ; 
cf. 1 Th i'°, 1 Co 1 7 . 

II. 13.] TITUS 145 

(i) For— 

(a) This is the natural (though not necessary) construc- 

tion of two substantives after one article, and the 
relative clause os cSojkc seems to require a second 
article with 0-007-77/305, if that refers to a separate 

(b) The purpose in 14 tva XvTpwo-rjTcu k.t.A. is attributed 

to Jehovah in the O.T., but here to Jesus Christ : 
so that it is natural that Jesus Christ should be 
identified with Him in this phrase also. 

{c) There is possibly an intentional contrast with the 
Roman Emperor or (? and) with the object of 
worship in the mysteries. The combination owt)p 
kou 6e6s had been applied to Ptolemy 1., 0cos 
€7ri<j!>avr;s to Antiochus Epiphanes, debv iirujxivr) 
Kai kolvov tov avOpoyxivov fiiov cruyrrjpa to Julius 
Caesar (Dittenberger, Gr. Inscr. xvi. 2. 3 ; Syll. 
Inscr. Gr. 347. 6). So Osiris was called Lord and 
Saviour in the Isis mystery. 

{d) In Jewish Apocalyptic there is sometimes an antici- 
pation of a manifestation of Jehovah, sometimes 
of that of a Messiah, but not of both, 
(ii) On the other hand, the identification is — 

(a) Against the general usage of the earlier Epistles, 
though Ro 9 5 is probably an exception. 

(6) Against the usage of the Past. Epistles, cf. 3 4 ' 6 , 1 Ti 
i 1 2 6 - 6 , 2 Ti i 2 ; but those passages speak of 
Christ's past or present work, this of His future 

(c) Against the distinction between the glory of the 

Son and that of the Father, Lk 9 s6 , Mt 16 27 . 

Patristic evidence is divided. Justin Martyr. Apol. 

1 . 6 1 , C7T ovoyaaros tov IlaTpos tu>v oAgjv Kai BeairoTOv 

®eov Kai tov (TioTrjpo<; fjfiS)v 'Iyer. Xt. ko.1 tov 7rvev/x.aT0?, 

favours the separation ; Clem. Alex. Protr. c. 1, § 7, 

the identification, quoting the passage as a proof 

that Christ is both God and man ; Chrys., Jerome, 

Thdt, and (apparently) Theod.- Mops, and Pelagius, 

and the Liturgy of St. Basil (Brightman, L.E. IV., 

p. 402), all support Clement's view, Ambrosiaster 

that of Justin. 

The question is not one of doctrinal importance : on the 

theory of separation Jesus Christ is still placed on a level with 

the great God, as a manifestation of His glory, and as having 

effected Jehovah's work of salvation. Chrysostom's question 

Still remains — Troij elo-iv ol tow 7raTpos eXarTora tov vlctv XeyovTcs ; 


Dr. Hort (on Jas 2 1 and Add. Note, p. 103 : and so Lange, von 
Hengel, Schenkel, quoted in Ezra Abbot, p. 450) takes t^s So'^s 
as in apposition to 'lijo-ov Xpurrov and governing tov peydXov 6cov 
/cat au)Ti}po<: fjfjiwv — " the appearing of him who is the glory of 
the great God and our Saviour " — i.e. of Jesus Christ, the glory 
of the Father, who is both the great God and our Saviour ; 
supposing the thought of the Shechinah or the Glory of God (cf. 
Burney, Aramaic Origin of the Fourth Gospel, pp. 36, 37) to 
have been transferred almost as a fixed title to Christ, as the 
thought of the Word was transferred to Him in the Fourth 
Gospel. Passages such as 2 Co 4*, Eph i 3 (6 Trarrjp toC Kvpiov 
i)p.wv 'Ir/cr. XtoS side by side with i 17 6 iraTrjp t?)? oofr/s), and 
perhaps Jas 2 1 , would support this : in a similar way Christ is 
identified with to pLvcmjpiov tov ®eov, Col 2 2 , with t6 o-K^wTpov 
ri}s /A€ tov ®eov, Clem. Rom. i. C. 16, with rj SuVa/us 
tov ®eov, Justin M. c. Tryph. c. 61. This is possible, but Jesus 
Christ has Himself been called "our Saviour" in this Epistle, i 4 , 
and the reasons urged above seem to decide in favour of referring 
the whole phrase to Jesus Christ. For a very full discussion of 
the history of the interpretation, cf. Ezra Abbot, Critical Essays, 
pp. 439-87 ; he separates tov p.eyd\ov 0eou from o-uyri}pos rjp.S>v. 

14. os e'SoDKCj' cauToV] 1 Ti 2 6 , Gal i 4 , based on the Lord's 
own saying, Mk 10 45 . The gift is the gift of the whole life, but 
principally of the life surrendered in death ; cf. 1 Co 1 1 23 Trape8i8ero, 
Phil 2 8 , Eph 5 25 . 

Xva XuTpoio-TiTai . . . irepioucrtof] a reminiscence of several 
O.T. passages, Ex 19 5 23 s " eaiaOe poi Aaos irepiovo-ios airo 
ttolvtwv Ttoe iOi'Civ : 2 S 7 23 tov XvTpd>aao-6ai aura Xaov (ct. Ex 15 13 , 
I Ch 17 21 ): Ps 130 8 /ecu auros AvT/oakreTcu tov 'lo-parjX eK iracr^v 
tu>v avopiwv avrov : Lzek 37 avrovs airo Tracroiv Twr 
avop.Lwv olvt&v, wv vp.dpToo'av iv aureus *ai Ka.6a.pLw aurous *ai 
lo-ovrai p.01 €ts Aaov. 

XoTpoioTjTai] (Lk 24 21 , 1 P i 18 only in N.T., but very frequent 
in LXX). " Rescue," " deliver," though the previous words 
e8u>K(v tavrov vnlp rjpCtv suggest the further idea of ransom as 
lying in the background. 

otto irdo-Tjs d^ofuas] As from Egyptian bondage (Ex 15 13 ) and 
from Babylon (Is 44 2224 ) in the past : hence the main thought is 
rescue from the power, not from the guilt of sin. 

KaGapi'crfl] from Ezek 37 s3 {supra). The original reference 
was probably to the sprinkling of the people with the blood of 
the covenant, cf. Ex 23 22 24 s ; so that the thought is still of 
death : cleanse with his own blood, 1 Jn i 7 to alp.a 'Irjcrov KaOa.pi&i 
ffftas u7ro 7rdcrT;s duaprias : ibid? vltto 7700-77? aSixias : Heb 9 14 ' 2 ", I P I 
(with Hort's note): Justin M. Apol. i. 32, oY aipaTos KaOaLpmv tows 
trio-Ti vovras : c. Tryph. 1 3. 

II. 14, 15.] TITUS I47 

The word also looks back to i 15 ; there is a cleansing needed , 
but no Jewish ceremonial cleansing to be repeated from time to 
time, but a cleansing of the heart (cf. Acts 15 9 ) which has been 
effected by Christ Himself: perhaps it also anticipates 3 s and 
contains a reference to the cleansing of baptism ; cf. Eph 5 25 - 26 , 
1 Co 6". 

irepiou'o-ioi'] ( = Hebr. n^JD, "set apart," "reserved," Ex 19 5 , 

Dt 7 6 14 2 26 18 ) is not found except in the LXX, prob. signifying 
"that which is over and above," the special portion which a 
conqueror took for himself before the spoil was divided, or the 
first-fruits which the owner takes from his threshing floor (cf. 
Clem. Rom. c. 29). It is also translated Xaos ets Trepnroi-qcnv 
( Mai 3 17 , I P 2 9 ) ; 7) TrepLirotycris (Eph 1 14 ) and tyjv iKK\r)aiav vv 
TrepuTroirjo-aTo (Acts 20 28 ) are virtually translations of the same 
word. It implies the thought of Christ as a triumphant king 
(For full discussion of the word, vide Hort on 1 P 2 9 ; Lightfoot, 
Revision of N.T., Appendix.) 

The Latin translations vary : " abundantem," Clarom. ; 
" acceptabilem," Vulg. ; " egregium," Jerome ; " proprium," 
Theodore: cf. "domesticam Dei gentem," Tert. Apol. 18. 
According to Jerome, Symmachus was the first to use the Latin 
word peculiarem, transliterating it into Greek ; and from him 
Jerome, though leaving " acceptabilem " here and " populus 
adquisitionis "in 1 P 2 9 , used it in the O.T., and it has come 
thence into our English versions. It is derived from the 
peculium, the private property of a slave. 

£tj\ci>tt)c KaXiav cpywi'] " gemulatorem," O.L. ; " sectatorem," 
Vulg.; "a pursuer," Rheims ; " fervently given to good works," 
Tynd. Israel had been a peculiar people, to keep God's 
commandments (Dt 26 18 ) ; the Christian Church has to have 
an eager enthusiasm for and to take the lead in all that is 
excellent, in all that will " adorn " the doctrine. Cf. tov ayaOov 
£rj\wTai, 1 P 3 13 ; and contrast ^Awtcu tou vop.ov, Acts 21 20 ; 
£77X0)7-77? tw TrarpiKcov p.ov irapaSoaewv, Gal I 14 . This contrast 
may be conscious here, cf. i 14 - 15 , 1 Ti i 7 . Epictetus would 
have each man ws Oeov ^Xwt^v iravTa. ttoluv koL Atyeiv, ii. 14. 13. 
The phrase ^Xwral ray KaAAun-wv is found in inscriptions more 
than once (M.M. s.v.). 

The conception of the Church, as the chosen people, which 
has taken the place of and has to do the work of the Jewish 
nation, is specially marked in 1 Peter, but it is equally clear in 
St. Paul ; cf. Gal 6 16 " the Israel of God " ; Phil 3 3 ^ms 
rj TrepiTOfj.rj, and it underlies the Lord's choice of twelve apostles 
and His building a new e/<KXr?cria. 

15. \d\ei ( = !), irapaKciXei (= 6 : 9 ), eXeyxe (i 9, 18 )- P*™ 
Trdcrrjs eiriTayTJs] cf. aTroTo/xws, I 13 , which suggests that the words 


only belong to «A.£yx«. Cf. Tert. Apol. 39 (of Christian assem 
blies), "ibidem etiam exhortationes, castigationes, et censura 

■7Tepi</>poye£Toj] perhaps not quite so strong as KaTatppoieiVw, 
1 Ti 4 12 , "ignore," but Chrys. and Thdt. both treat the two 
as synonymous. Calvin assumes that the Epistle would be read 
in public, so that this command is virtually addressed to the 
church rather than to Titus. It probably implies advice both to 
Titus and to his hearers. 


^(Lfftptav and its cognates are specially characteristic of the 
Past. Epp., not occurring at all in the earlier letters : iyKparip 
and its cognates are comparatively rare in each set, once in Past. 
Epp. eyKpcmjs, Tit i 8 ; thrice in the earlier letters iyKparua, 
Gal 5 23 ; iyKpareveaOai, 1 Co 7 9 q 25 . In Tit i 8 both are stated 
as qualifications for the €7ruxK07ros, as though a distinction was 
consciously drawn between them. This would probably be the 
same as that drawn in Aristotle : iyKpdreia is control of the 
bodily passions with deliberate effort, a self-mastery which keeps 
the self well in hand (cf. Gen 43 s0 ivexpaTevaaTo of Joseph at the 
sight of Benjamin, 1 Sam 13 12 ), the main stress is on the will; it 
is applied most frequently to sexual and all bodily passions 
(1 Co 7 9 9 25 ), but also with the widest possible reference 
(Gal 5 23 , 2 P i 6 ). 

o-cjcppoo-vVr; is a free and willing control which no longer 
requires effort ; the main stress is on the judgment which 
recognizes the true relation between body and spirit, a rational 
self-control, a sound mind which always "keeps its head." So 
in Plato's application of it to the state it is the recognition of 
the true relation of each part to the other, and, while common 
to all classes, it is most important and effective in the ruler. 
But in popular usage it tended to be regarded as the peculiar 
virtue of women, in the sense both of sexual self-control and of 
practical wisdom, and of the voung. Cf. Xenophon, CEconom. 
vii. 14 (quoted supra 2 4 ) ; Arist. Khet. 1361^, drj\eiu>v dptry 
. . . tyvxfjs cro}(f)po(rvvr] kol cpcXepyia dvcv dveXevOepiw;. 

Professor Gilbert Murray would add a new thought to 
a-uxftpoa-vvrj, which would make the distinction stronger; he sees 
in it a saving power which would give it an altruistic effect, 
while iyKpuTtia would be only self-regarding. " It is something 
like Temperance, Gentleness, Mercy; sometimes Innocence, 
never merely Caution ; a tempering of dominant emotions by 
gentler thought. But its derivation is interesting. The adjective 

TITUS 149 

o-w^pwv or aaocfipoiv is the correlative of oXoocppuv. '0\o6(f>pwv 
means ' with destructive thoughts ' ; auxppwv means ' with saving 
thoughts.' Plutarch, when the force of the word was dead, 
actually used this paraphrase to express this same idea (vow 
crwTT/pia (ppovovvra, De Tranquillitate, 470 D). There is a way of 
thinking which destroys and a way which saves. The man or 
woman who is o-w^pwv walks among the beauties and perils of 
the world, feeling the love, joy, anger, and the rest; and through 
all has that in his mind which saves. Whom does it save ? 
Not him only, but, as we should say, the whole situation. It 
saves the imminent evil from coming to be" (The Rise of the 
Greek Epic, p. 27). This is excellent as a description of its 
usage ; but I doubt whether it springs from the derivation, 
which implies a "sound" rather than a "saving" mind, and 
Plutarch's words are not applied to the o-w<ppwv but to 6 vow 

It is, however, very doubtful whether a distinction between 
the two words is to be pressed always in Hellenistic Greek. A 
comparison of Acts 24 25 SiaA.eyoju,eVou Se avrov irepl SiKaLoavvr]'; 
Kai eyKpa/mas with 26 25 aAr]6eias ko.1 o-wfppocrwrj'i prjp.ara onrocpOty- 
yop,ai, both said of Paul in similar conditions, makes it im- 
probable; and in Clement of Alexandria iyKpdreia becomes 
more positive : " it now forms the basis of reasonable self- 
limitation in regard to all the passions and desires. The cause 
of this improved conception of lyKpa.ri.ia is probably due in part 
to the less hostile attitude taken by Christianity towards the 
body and the emotional nature than that which prevailed 
before" (T. B. Strong, Bampton Lectures, p. 170). Cf. also 
Hermas, Vis. 3. viii., where it is one of the seven women round 
the tower, rj Trepu^wo-piivr] Kal 6\v?>pi£ > op.£v7) Ey/cpaVeia. KaAeiTaf 
avTT} Ovyarrjp eariv rfjs tticttcws' os av ovv aKo\ov6rjcrr) avTrj, 
paKaptos yiVeTai iv Tjj £u>7) avrov, on ttolvtwv tu>v Trovrjpwv epywv 

In the Past. Epp. iyKparfe is applied only to the kirio-Koiro<; : 
awcppwv to every class — to those in authority, I 3 2 , Tit i 8 (the 
£7ricrK07ros), II i 7 (St. Paul and Timothy and all teachers) : to 
old men, Tit 2 2 ; to women, I 2 9 ; to the elder women, Tit 2 4 ; to 
young women, Tit 2 5 ; to young men, Tit 2 6 — generally in the 
widest sense of self-control, once with special reference to self- 
control in married life, I 2 15 . It is one of the essential character- 
istics of the Christian life, one of the purposes of the Incarnation, 
Tit 2 12 . 

Both words and their cognates are rare in the O.T., but they 
come, often with conscious reference to the Platonic cardinal 
virtues, in the Apocrypha ; cf. the section headed iyKpareia \pvxvs, 
Ecclus i8 30ff - ; for o-w^poo-vvr], Wisd 8 7 9 11 o-w<pp6vn)<;, 2 Mac 4 s7 , 


4 Mac 1 8. c is. so. si g28 . o-w^pwv, 4 Mac i 85 2 2 2 10 6 crw</>pto» 

,oG S , 2 18.28 3 17.19 7 23 ^lO. 

For fuller illustrations, cf. Trench, Syn. §§ xx. and xxi. ; 
Burton, ICC, Gal. p. 318; F. M. Cornford in Classical 
Quarterly, Oct. 191 2, pp. 249 ff. ; R. Hackforth in Classical 
Quarterly, Oct. 1913, pp. 265 ff. 

iii. 1-8. The duty of Christians to the outer world : obedience 
to government, activity in good works, gentleness and meekness 
in private life, L 2 . And the motive for such conduct : the duty of 
imitating God's love to us who has saved us from our sins, 3 " 8 . 

9-11. The duty of avoiding useless discussion 9 and factious 

opponents, 10 - u . 

This section is connected with the preceding chapters : vv. 18 
with ch. 2 ; w. 9 " 11 with ch. 1. Ch. 2 had given commands to 
different classes, this gives one command common to all : that 
had emphasized the duty of subjection in the younger women 
and in slaves, this extends it to all classes : that had hinted at the 
effect of Christian lives on the heathen, this brings out the direct 
duty which Christians owe to them : that had dwelt on God's 
saving grace as enabling Christians to do good works, this on 
God's gift of a new birth as putting them under an obligation to 

do them. 

In the same way 9 " n pick up the main thoughts of i 10-16 , the 
duty of avoiding Jewish discussions (i 14 3 9 ), and the duty of 
rebuke to opponents (i 13 3 10,11 )- 

The keynote of the chapter is usefulness. Christians have 
to be useful citizens, ready for every good work; only such 
teaching is to be given as is useful to the world ( 8 ) : "our 
friends " are to be ready to help others in need : they are not 
to be unfruitful ( H ). Titus himself is to be useful to Zenas and 
Apollos when they arrive ( 13 ). 

For the whole section cf. Ro i2 17 -i3 7 , of which there may 
be a reminiscence. 

Paraphrase. There is one thing of which you must remind 
them all, free and slaves alike— that is, to be loyal subjects to 
the Government and its officials, to obey any commands which 
they issue, to be on the look out to help in any kind of good 
work, to speak evil of none, to avoid all quarrels, not to stand on 
their own rights but to be large-hearted, never failing to show 
gentleness to any one. This is our bounden duty, for there was 
a time when we were as void of understanding as they are now ; 
we too were disobedient, easily misled, the slaves of passions 
and pleasures of many kinds, passing our life in ill-will and envy 
of others, worthy of hate and hating one another. 

III. 1.1 TITUS 151 

" But when in gracious love for man 
Our Saviour God unveiled His plan, 
'Twas not for merit of our own 
But ot His pitying care alone 
He saved us, by a heavenly birth 
Cleansing away the stains of earth 
And on our heads in rich largess 
Pouring His Spirit's holiness." 

All this He did that so being justified by His free gift we 
might become heirs, through hope, of eternal life. This saying 
is worthy of entire faith, and on all these points I wish you to 
insist, in the hope that those who have put faith in the message 
of God may set themselves to make honourable deeds the very 
business of their life. These truths are excellent in themselves 
and full of profit to others. But as for foolish speculations and 
genealogies, and strifes and wranglings about the Jewish law, 
give them a wide berth, for they are profitless and lead to nothing. 
If a man is self-willed and factious, warn him once, warn him 
again, but then avoid him, knowing that a man of such a char- 
acter is perverted and sins, being condemned by his own action. 
As soon as I shall send Artemas or Tychicus to you, make 
haste to come to Nicopolis to join me, for that is where I have 
decided to winter. Help forward on their journey with all 
diligence Zenas and Apollos : see that they have everything they 
want. Yes, and let all our brethren learn to make a real business 
of honourable works, that they may be able to help in such cases 
of need, that so they may not deserve the taunt of being " idle 
drones." All my companions send you greeting : do you give 
my greeting to all who love us in a common faith. God's grace 
be with you all. 

1-3. Duty to the heathen world: (a) obedience to govern- 
ment, cf. 1 Ti 2 1 - 2 notes, and (more closely) Ro 13 1 - 7 , 1 P 3 s-17 . 
Such a command would be necessary at any time and place to 
Christians, who might regard their allegiance to Christ as exempt- 
ing them from allegiance to the Pagan Emperor (cf. Acts 17 6 
24 5 ), and it is specially enforced in St. Paul's letter to Rome 
and St. Peter's letter from Rome ; but it has a peculiar appro- 
priateness in writing to Crete, partly because of the large number 
of Jews (i 10 ) in the Christian body who doubtless there, as at 
Rome, would be "assidue tumultuantes" (Suet. Claud, c. 25); 
partly because of the turbulent character of the Cretans them- 
selves (o"Tao-£o-t kclI <f>6voi<; koll 7roA.tyu.01s €/t<£vAiois dvao-r/De^o/xevous, 
Polyb. vi. 46. 9), who long fretted against their subjugation by 
Rome (cf. Dio Cassius, xxxvi. 1, quoted in Wetstein). 

1. uTrofn'fAvr)<rKe] perhaps suggests that St. Paul had himself 
laid stress on this at the time of his visit to Crete ; but they need 
a reminder. 


dpx<u$ e£ou<Tiais] The omission of kox is very unnatural ; cf. 
Lk 12 11 ras apxas xal Tas i$ov<rtas : Martyr. Polycarfi, 10, 
8e8i8d.yfji.e6a yap dp^ais xal i$ov<riai<; Ti/xip dirovep.eiv, is apparently a 
reminiscence of this place, and suggests that Kat has accidentally 
dropped out ; cf. Introd., p. xxxviii. 

u-n-oTdo-ffeo-Scn] of the general attitude, "quod superioribus 
debent subditi reverentiam subjectionis" (Thorn. Aq.). 

ireiSapxeif] of obedience to particular commands, e.g. the 
payment of tribute and dues, Ro 13 6 ; cf. Xen. Cyr. viii. 1. 3, 
/jLeyurTov ayaOov to iretOap^elv ^aiVcrat €ts to KaraTrpdrTeiv rd dya^a 

(6) Activity in good works. 

irpos irav Ipyoi' dyaGoV] The connexion suggests every good 
work started by the government, and would include civic and 
municipal duties; but it need not be limited to these: cf. Clem. 
Rom. i. c. 33, possibly a reminiscence of, certainly an interesting 
comment on, this phrase. 

dyaOoV] perhaps limiting : provided that it is good ; cf. Thorn. 
Aq. "alioquin non esset obediendum," cf. 3 note and 2 8 note. 

(c) Gentleness in private life. 

2. djidxous] (here and 1 Ti 3 3 only in N.T.), cf. 9 and 2 Ti 

2 23. 24_ 

cTriciKeis] " temperate," Wycl. ; " softe," Tyndal ; " modestos,' : 
Vulg. ; not pressing their own rights, making allowances, re- 
membering that the heathen do not know of the graciousness 
and love of God our Saviour, they have not the eVutKcia of Christ 
before their eyes (2 Co io 1 ); "large-hearted," " high-hearted," cf. 

"Truth's school for certain doth this same allow, 
High-heartedness doth sometimes teach to bow " 

(Lady E. Carew), 

and Ar. Rhet. i. 13, §§ 17, 18, for a full description of to cVieiKes, 
" It is the indulgent consideration of human infirmities. To 
look not to the mere letter of the law but to the mind of the 
legislator, not merely to the act done but to the intention of the 
doer, not to a part but to the whole, not to the character of 
the actor at the moment but to his general character, to re- 
member good deeds received from him rather than the bad, and 
the benefits you have received rather than those you have con- 
ferred " (Cope). Such a quality would be needed by masters in 
the treatment of their slaves (1 P 2 18 ), but here the reference is 
wider ; cf. Phil 4 5 to iiruiK\<i vjxtov yvo)o-#//Ta> Trao~iv a\0p<i)Trois. It 
would be needed especially in face of persecution ; cf. Wisd 2 1S 
1 /ipti nai ftaadvu) iTaaw/xtv avrov Iva yvwp.ev tt}v lirieiKeiav avrov. 
For good accounts of the word, cf. Lightfoot on Phil 4 s , Mayor 
on Jas 3 17 . 

III. 2-4.] TITUS 153 

irdaav cV8.] perhaps reminiscent of 2 10 — as gentle to all men 
as your slaves are faithful to their masters. irpaoTtiTa] Again — 
like their Saviour-God, cf. 2 Co io 1 . irpos tt&vtols 6.vQp.] for St. 
Paul's stress on the duty of Christians to the whole world outside, 
cf. Ro 12 17 , Gal 6 10 , Phil 4 5 ; and for the result of such teaching, 
cf. Justin M. Apol. i. cc. 14-16; Tert. Apol. c. 36, "civilitas in 
imperatorem tarn vere quam circa omnes necesse habet exhiberi. 
. . . Nullum bonum sub exceptione personarum administramus." 

3-7. Two reasons are given — (a) we ourselves were no better, 
and therefore are bound to be tolerant and forgiving, cf. Lk 
7 40 ' 50 , Ex 22 21 : (b) we have been reborn by God's graciousness 
and loving-kindness, and ought to imitate these qualities ; cf. 
Eph 2 3 - 10 4 17 - 24 5 1 - 2 yive<r8e /xifjLrjTai tov 6eov k.t.X. The similarity 
suggests a conscious reminiscence of that Epistle. 

3. av6i)Toi] in intellect, cf. Eph 4 18 , Ro i 21 ; direiGets, in action ; 
primarily, disobedient to human authority ; cf. x and i 6 - 10 , Ro i 30 , 
2 Ti 3 2 yovevcriv dbmtfeis : but also to divine commands, cf. i 16 . 

irXa^necoi] passive (cf. 2 Ti 3 13 , 1 Co 12 2 , Pan's Pap. 47, 
d7ro7r£7TTojKa/A€v TrXav u>/j.€vol V7r6 rdv Oeuiv) : it explains avorjToi, as 
SovAeuoires explains d^eitfe??. 

KaKia] " active malice," cf. Eph 4 31 ; 1 P 2 1 with Hort's note. 

4. xprjcTTOTK]?] "benignitas," Vulg. ; "benygnity," Wycl.; " kinde- 
ness," Tynd. ; graciousness, goodness, ever ready to bestow His 
blessings and to forgive ; cf. Trench, Syn. lxiv. The substantive 
occurs in N.T. only in St. Paul (8 times) ; but cf. xp^o-to's, Lk 
6 35 , 1 P 2 3 , and frequently in the Psalms applied to Jehovah. 

(JuXayOpcoma] here and Acts 28 2 (cf. <j>t.\avOpwTrm, ibid. 27 s ) 
only in N.T., but frequent in classical writers and in the LXX of 
the Apocrypha; often in connexion with xPW T ° Tr )' ;: l° ve °f man 
as man, humanity, showing itself in kindliness to equals (Acts, 
ubi s.), in graciousness to subjects (2 Mac 14 9 ), in pity for 
those in trouble; cf. Clem. Horn. xii. 25-33 (a most interesting 
discussion of the word), 17 (jtiXavOpunria iravra. avOponrov, kol66 
di/#pw7ros tern, <f)i\ovo-a eiepyerel. One special application was to 
the ransoming of captives (Avcreis ai^/xaAwTuv koll Toiairras dAAas 
<£iAav#pa>7rias, Dem. de Chersoneso, 107. 15 (Field)), and that 
may be consciously present here; cf. SouAeiW-res 3 , Xvrpwo-rjTai 2 14 . 
It is applied to Wisdom, <$>i\a.v6punrov irvzvp.a cro^ia, Wisd i 6 7 23 . 
Here it adds to xPV a " r ° Tr l'> the note of pity for man's state and 
the thought that it extends to all men (7rdvTas avdp. 2 ) ; but they 
are so allied (cf. Field, Ot. Norv., here and on Acts 28 2 , and 
Wetstein here for suggestive illustrations) that the verb is in the 
singular. The two qualities are chosen in contrast to the con- 
duct of men in the past 3 , and as examples to Christians in the 
future 2 ; cf. Justin Mart. Apol. i 10 p.ip.ovp.ivov<i <rw<ppocrvvr}v kcu 
diKaioavvrjv kcu (piXavdporrrtav /cat ocra otK£ia ®ew iam. 

154 THE PASTORAL EPISTLES [ill. 4, 6. 

^ire^anr)] cf. 2 11 note, tou crwrfjpos ^fiwc 8eoG, i.e. the Father j 
cf. I s , I Ti I 1 , Ps 109 26 ctuhtov fie Kara to p.eya cAcos crov. God's 
" peculiar people " is, as of old, entirely dependent on His 
initiating choice; cf. Deut Q 4 ' 6 ou^i Sia ras Sixaioawas crov kvoios 
6 6e6<s crov 8l8u)(tiv (tol ty}V yrjv tt]v dyaOrjv ic\l|porofL^atU : Ps II5 1 
/XT] rj/J-w, Kvpie, fj.r) dAA tj tu> ovofiarC crov 86s &6£av iirl t<2 
eX^ci crov. The clause is added to prevent self-complacency and 
to call for a true response to God's mercy, but with a side refer- 
ence to past controversy with Pharisaic Judaism ; cf. Eph 2 8 ' 10 , 
2 Ti i e ; Clem. Rom. c. 32 (a full comment on this verse, per- 
haps a reminiscence of it). 

5. Sid XouTpoG] For the stress on baptism, cf. 1 Co 6 n , Eph 5 26 
(the instrument of cleansing), 1 P 3 21 (of salvation, as here), 
jn 3 6 (of new birth). There is probably a conscious reference 
to i 15 and 2 14 . We needed cleansing, but with more than Jewish 
ceremonial ablutions, with a washing that would entirely renew 
our nature. 

XouTpoG] "washing" rather than "a laver" (RV margin), 
"fountain," Tynd. ; cf. Robinson on Eph 5 26 . Justin. Mart. 
Apol. I 61 to iv T(Z vSciti Xovrpbv Troiovi'Tat . . . KaAeirai tovto to 
Xovrpov (pu)Tiafx6<;, 66 Xovaafxivco to eis avayevvrjcriv XovTpov. 

iraXiyye feo-ia?] here only in NT of spiritual birth : cf. <W- 
yiyc.wqp.ivoi, 1 P i 3 and 23 , both perhaps suggested by the Lord's 
saying, afterwards recorded in Jn 3 8 - 5 . Cf. Justin Mart. Apol. 
I 61 ayorrai vcp' rjp,u)v cv6a v8wp icrrl ko.1 TpoVov avayewrjo-ews . . . 
dvayewwvTai : Aug. de pecc. mer. iii. 9, " Christianos non facit 
generatio sed regeneratio." Other associations may have led to 
the choice of the word. (1) The analogy of the Rabbinic title 
for a convert to Judaism, " a new creature," Kaivr) ktio-is (Gal 6 15 , 
ubi v. Lightfoot). (2) The thought of the new birth of one 
initiated in the Greek mysteries, a rebirth which followed a ritual 
bathing ; cf. Apul. Met. xi. 23-25. (3) The Stoic use of the 
word for the periodical restoration of the world after its periodi- 
cal destruction by fire : this is less obvious, but there may be a 
conscious contrast between the Stoic and the Christian TraXtyycv- 
ecria — "the one by fire the other by water: the one physical, 
the other spiritual ; the one subject to periodical relapses and 
renewal, the other occurring once for all and issuing in an endless 
life" (Swete, The Holy Spirit in N.T., App. M). Philo seems 
to apply this Stoic thought to the Flood (vit. Afos. ii. 12 of Noah, 

ov /Aorov avTOi crttiT-qpuLS ctvy/h' . . . dXXa /cai 7raXiyye^€crias eyev- 
ovto yycpove; ko.1 Seure/jas dp^qylrai jrepvoSov, cf. I P 3 21 and 

m. Rom. 9, Nw€ 7raXiyycveo-i'ai' Kocrpup CKrjpv^tv (cf. Dalman, 
The Words 0/ Jesus, p. 177 ; Trench, Syn. A r .T, § xviii.). 

(WKaieoiatws] (Ro 12 2 only in N.T. avaKauovv, 2 Co 4 16 , 
Col 3 16 only ; both perhaps coined by St. Paul, MM. s.v.), 

III. 5-8.] TITUS 155 

probably governed by Xovrpov, " per lavacrum regenerationis et 
renovationis," Vulg., referring to the moment of baptism ; cf. 
Jn 3 5 , Acts 9 17 " 19 , 2 Co 5 17 , Gal 6 15 Kaivr) ktiW, Ezek 36^ 26 pav5> 
i<f>' ifxas vhwp KaOapbv . . . kolI Sw<rw Kaphiav Katvrjv kol i7V(.vp.a 
Katvov Swo-w Iv If governed by S«z it might add the thought 
of subsequent daily renewal, or of the fuller gift of the laying on 
of hands in Confirmation (Chase, Confirmation in the Apostolic 
Age, p. 98). 

6. e^e'xcei'] recalling Joel 2 28 (eK^ew o-tzo tou irvevfidTOS f- ov ) as 
used by St. Peter in Acts 2 17 , cf. 83 ; so with primary reference to 
Pentecost, but to Pentecost as an abiding reality affecting each 

irXoucriws] cf. Eph 2 4 . " abunde," Vulg. ; " ditissime," 
Theod., sufficient for all men (cf. 2 11 ), and for all the needs 
of each : " ad opulentiam sufficit quod, quantulumcunque nobis 
detur, nunquam deficiat " (Calvin). 81a 'It]<x. Xp. ; cf. Acts 2 33 . 
tou (TUTfjpos %wv. His work is at once placed on a level with 
God's ; cf. 2 13 n. 

7. SiKatwGeVTcs] not "at the Judgment day" (which would 
make kot' eX-n-tSa meaningless), but "at the start of the Christian 
life," as in Ro 3. 4, Gal 3-5 : " we at once might become heirs 
of life, yet with a further hope (cf. 2 13 ) that it will become fuller 
and eternal " ; cf. i 2 , Ro 8 17 , Gal 4 6, 7 - 

KXrjpoi'op.oi] like the Jews of Canaan ; cf. Deut 9" (quoted on 

P- x 54)- 

8. moros 6 Xoyos] If this phrase stood here alone it might 
well be "Faithful is the whole gospel message entrusted to me" 
(cf. i 3 and 9 ), but it is a formula common to and confined to 
the P.E., 1 Ti i 15 3 1 4 9 , 2 Ti 2 11 : perhaps a marginal gloss by 
some scribe subsequently embodied in the text (so C. H. Turner, 
Inaugural Lecture, p. 21); more probably the writer's own note, 
either calling attention to the importance of what he has said 
himself (cf. 2 Co i 18 , Rev 21 5 22 s ovtol 61 A.0-/01 ttkttol /cat 
a\rj6ivoL da-i), ox (more probably, as all the sayings have a gnomic 
and rhythmical character and bear on salvation) quoting some 
well-known saying; cf. Ro 13 9 iv tou'toi tw Adyw avaKCfpaXaiovrai, 
I Co 15 54 tote yevrjo-erai o Xoyos 6 yeypapp-ivos, and I K IO 6 
a\y)6ivo<i 6 Xoyos ov f/Kovaa. This would imply the formation 
of some collection of Christian maxims analogous to the Xoyoi 
tov Kvpiov 'Irjo-ov, Acts 20 35 , and the Oxyrhynchus Sayings, Pap. 
Oxyr. iv. 654. Here the Saying is contained in 5_7 , either in 
whole or in part, e.g. 6 only, 6 and 7 being the writer's own 

An attempt has been made recently (cf. Jour. Th. Stud., 
April 1923, p. 310) to prove that 6 Aoyos here and wherever it 
occurs in the Pastorals is used in the Johannine sense of the 


personal Word of God, on the analogy of 7rio-ros 6 ©eos, 7ti<ttos 6 
Kvpios : but in i 8 it does not suit the following words, iv Ktjpvy- 
fxarL : in i 9 the personal Logos could scarcely be described as 
" faithful according to the teaching" ; in the phrase tthttos 6 Adyo? 
the personal use would be appropriate in 2 Ti 2 11 , but it is not 
needed there; it seems tautologous in 1 Ti i 15 , and very inap- 
propriate in 1 Ti 3 1 and here ; whereas the explanation of it as a 
quotation is appropriate in each passage. 

toutwc] the truths in 4 " 7 , but also the commands in 2 1 -3 3 . 
It recalls ravra in 2 15 . 

8iaPe{3cuoGcT0ai] here and 1 Ti i 7 only in N.T. <f>pofTL£u)o-i ; 
here only in N.T. " Make a point of"; cf. Grenfell and Hunt, 
Grk. Pap. ii. 121, ^povria-are to. avaXwOivra eToipvacrai : contrast 9 . 

KaXutv epywc (cf. 2 14 ) irpoi<TTao-0ai] from the technical use 
= "to stand before a shop as a tradesman selling his goods," 
" to practise a profession " (cf. Plutarch, Fit. Per. 24, of Aspasia, 
ov Koa-fMiov TrpoecTTwa-av cpyacrias : Chrys., p. 443 C, of St. Paul, 
Sepftara eppawre /ecu ipyaa-Trjpiov irpoeio-TrjKei, and Other illustra- 
tions in Field, Ot. JVorvic). Here the application may be : 
(a) literal, "to profess honest occupations" (R.V. margin), "to 
engage in respectable trades.'' Cf. 1 Th 4 11 ipyd£ecr6ai Tats 
Xep&lv vp.wv, Eph 4 28 €pya£dp.evos to dyaGof t<hs x € P aLV ° V(X *XV 
p.€Ta8<.86vai t<S \pe(av Zx ovTL ( c ^- 14 tn /-) ') Did. 12, fxrj apyos 
p.t6' vp.S>v tyo-erai Xpto-Ttavos. In all the Church Orders certain 
trades are banned for Christians, such as the making of idols, 
acting, dancing on the stage, fighting as a gladiator, dealing in 
witchcraft. Cf. Egyptian Church Order, p. 149; Canones 
Hippol. §§ 65-67 ; Const. Apost. viii. 3 ; and Tertullian, de 
Idololatria, passim. 

Or (b) metaphorical, " to make a business of all that is ex- 
cellent," to be active in all good works : " bonis operibus prae- 
esse," Vulg.; "bona opera exercere," Herm. Sim. x. 4; "ad bona 
opera docenda praeesse"; Pelag. "misericordiae studere," Am- 
brosiast., and Chrys. (765 A-767 D) refers it to almsgiving. Cf. 
Clem. Rom. 34 (which seems to recall this chapter), irpoTplirtTan 
■qpas 7ri(TT€uovras ctt' aura) p,rj apyovs fA.rj8e Traptipivov; eivat cVi 
irav Zpyov ayaOov. 

Here the wider sense is strongly supported by 2 14 and 3 2 , 
where there is no limitation, and by the analogy of Eph 2 10 ; 
but the narrower reference may have been consciously included 
and seems to be the primary meaning in 14 . 

01 TreTTioTeuKOTes] recalling 7riord?. Those who have believed 
a message so worthy of belief. 

TauTa] cf. Trtpl toutoji' 8 , q.v. <L<}>Aip.a in NT only here, 
1 Ti 4 8 , 2 Ti 3 16 ; not in I -XX, but frequently in classical writers 
in combination with KaXds; v. illustrations in Wetstein. 

III. 9-11.] TITUS 157 

9. £Y]Trjcms] 1 Ti 6 4 , 2 Ti 2 23 ; not in the earlier letters, but 
frequent in Acts. 

YereaXoytas] 1 Ti i 4 note. " Originum enumerationes," Am- 
brost., who refers it to Jewish pride in their descent from the 
patriarchs, and to legends about the burial of Moses, the building 
of the Temple, etc. Similarly Jerome (whose note here with his 
account of Origen's work on the O.T., and of the teaching of 
Isaac, his own contemporary at Rome, is full of historical interest). 

irepitoraCTo] here and 2 Ti 2 16 , only in N.T. in this sense, which 
is late and censured as a solecism by Lucian, but common in 
Josephus, M. Aurelius, etc. 

&ew<f>e\eis here and Heb 7 18 only in N.T. ; cf. Ign. Magn. 8, 
fir) irXavacrOe . . . fj.v6evfj.dcnv Tots 7raAa6ots dvaxpeAccn.i' ovcrw — 
perhaps a reminiscence of this verse. 

10. aipeTiK<5i/ here only in N.T. It is used in Plato (?), Def. 
412 A = "having the power of choice": here it is still an adjec- 
tive, from the secondary meaning of a?pecris = either a self-chosen 
party, a sect (Acts 5 17 15 5 24 s (of Jewish sects), Gal 5 20 , 1 Co 
n 19 , 2 P 2 1 (of Christian)), or, self-chosen teaching, heresy (Ign. 
Eph. 6). Either is possible here, (a) factious (R.V. margin), 
partisan, "an auctor of sectes," Cranmer: cf. <£i\oj/«kos, i Co 
ii 16 "ambitiosos omnes, prsefractos, contentiosos, qui libidine 
impulsi turbant Ecclesiae pacem ac dissidia concitant . . . quod 
nomen, quamvis inter philosophos et politicos homines sit 
honorificum, merito infame est inter Christianos " (Calvin) ; or (d) 
" given to heresie," Tynd., heretical (cf. Tert. de Prcescr. 6). This 
suits vv. 9 - 10 better, and cf. Gal i 6 " 9 , Ro 16 17 rov% -ras Sixooraaias 
ko\ to. ovcavSaAa irapa ttjc SiSa^y . . • ttoiowtois, which shows 
how close the two thoughts lay in St. Paul's mind. This seems 
the earliest use of the adjective in this sense : it is not found in 
the Apostolic Fathers, but is frequent in Irenaeus and Tertullian, 
as a substantive = " a heretic," though it still preserved the sense 
of a "schismatic," cf. Concil. Constant. Canon vi. with Dr. 
Bright's Note and Suicer, Thes. s.v. 

jjl€t& [ilav tea! Scut. (For the reading, cf. Introd., p. xxxviii) 
vouQecrlav (1 Co io n , Eph 6 4 only in N.T.), either of private appeal 
(cf. Acts 20 31 ) or of public censure (2 Th 3 15 , 1 Ti i 20 ). There 
may be a conscious allusion to Our Lord's command, Mt i8 15 " 17 , 
and also a reminiscence of the practice of the Jews, under which 
there was a first admonition of an offending Rabbi lasting for 
thirty days : then a second for another thirty days : then ex- 
communication was pronounced (Edersheim, Life and Times oj 
Jesus, ii. p. 183). 

irapcuTou] a favourite word in P.E. not in the earlier letters : 
cf. t Ti 4" 5 11 , 2 Ti 2 23 . 

11. e^ecTTpairrai (here only in N.T.), twisted out of straight- 

158 THE PASTORAL EPISTLES [ill. 11-14 

ness, perverted: cf. Dt 32 20 yei/ca i$eaTpap.p.eyr), Ezk 13 20 u/xets 
tKCTTpi(ji€T(. tu<; \J/v%a<; avrwu. 

apapTavei.] both as "factious" and as refusing to listen to 

auTOKaTcUpiTos] Condemned "by his own action"; he can 
be left to God's judgment; cf. Mt 18 17 , 1 Co S 12 - 13 ; perhaps 
also " by his own conscience," cf. Lk 19 22 , Jn 8 9 " 11 . 

12-15. Cf. Introduction, p. xxxiv ; Harrison, P.E., pp. 1 15-18. 

12. 'ApTtfiak'] (For the name, probably a contraction of 
Artemidorus, cf. Pap. Oxyr. iii. 505) ; according to a later 
tradition, one of the Seventy and bishop of Lystra. TuxikoV of 
Asia, Acts 20 4 , frequently trusted with messages by St. Paul. Eph 
6 21 , Col 4 7 , 2 Ti 4 12 . The contrast with v. 13 suggests that which- 
ever came might be meant to take Titus' place in his absence, 
when he left for Nicopolis ; cf. 2 Ti 4 12 note. 

Nikott-oW] probably Nicopolis in Epirus : a good centre for 
missionary work in Dalmatia (cf. 2 Ti 4 10 ) or for a journey to 
Rome. Here not many years later Epictetus settled and taught 
his pupils to live a life true to nature, possibly with some know- 
ledge of St. Paul's work and writings, but without the knowledge 
of the saving, enabling grace which would help them to live it. 

13. Zr\vav (contracted from ZrjvoSwpos), according to tradition 
bishop of Diospolis and author of an apocryphal " Acts of Titus." 
Toy yojiiKo*', possibly a converted Jew, t6v twv 'IouSac/cwv v6p.a>v 
€/x7rci/3oi/, Chrys. ; cf. //.a^as vo/xi/cas 9 , and so always in the Gospels : 
or a Roman lawyer, " jurisconsultum." His association with 
Apollos, a Jew, makes the former more probable. 

'AttoMw contracted from 'Airo\\wvio<; (which D reads in Acts 
18 24 ) or from 'AttoAAoSco/jos, a very common name (cf. M.M. s.v.), 
but here doubtless the same as in Acts 18 24 , 1 Co i 12ff -. 

iva . . . Xeiirji] probably a new sentence, not dependent on 
7rpo7r€p.\j/ov (so Hofmann and apparently Oecum. Theophyl.). 
"See that nothing is wanting to them," cf. Mk 5 23 "fa iXduv 
iiriOrjs airfj tols x e 'P as : 2 Co 8 7 , Eph 5 s3 . This use of iva is 
fairly common in letters, cf. Cic. ad Ait. vi. 5, ravra ovv irpwrov 
p.€V, Lva iravra aw^r/rai, oevrepov Se, tW p.r)Oe t£jv toko)v oAivajp^cr^s. 
Tebt. Pap. 408, crv Se irtpl wv (3ov\ei ypd(f>e, to. S' dXAa iVa uyiatVj/s 
(cf. Moulton, Gk. Gr., Proleg. p. 176; Blass, § 64. 4, M.M. s.v. Iva). 

14. kcu "as well as yourself." Yes, and let all our people be 
always prepared to help ; perhaps also " as well as their pagan 
neighbours " ; cf. note on aKapwoi. 

oi ^(leTepoi not to be limited to "all of our friends" ( = toi>s 
rfiiXovvTas 1/ iv irurTci 1S ; cf. irdVrcs oi e/xot, Oxyr. Pap. i. 
p. 181, "lesnotres" of the Port Royalists) as opposed to the 
false teachers, i 10 : but = " the whole household of faith," "our 
brothers and sisters," in contrast to their pagan neighbours : cf. 

111.14,15.] TITUS 159 

Mart. Polyc. c. 9, t&v rj/xeTeptav ol irdpovT€<i : Iren. adv. Hair. v. 28. 

4, d>S €17T€ TIS TWV r]^(T£p(OV. 

xaXw epyw TTpoior.] A special application of the general rule, 
with reference to a new purpose, and here peculiarly applicable 
to working at trades ; cf. 8 note. 

els Tas d^ayx. xp eta s] common both in classical writers and in 
the papyri (cf. Wetstein and M.M. s.v.), will include both "for 
their own needs" (1 Th 4 12 tva /x-qSevos xP €tav *XV Te ) an ^ "for 
helping others " (Eph 4 28 Iva e.\rj /neTaSiSovai rw ^pet'av e^ovn). 
Herm. Sim. x. 4 : " Die omnibus ut non cessent, quicunque 
(Qy. legendum, "quaecumque") recte facere possunt, bona opera 
exercere ; utile est illis. Dico autem omnem hominem de in- 
commodis eripi oportere " ; perhaps a reminiscence of this 
chapter. A comparison of 1 Th 4 12 , Eph 4 28 with this place is 
very suggestive as to the gradual deepening of Christian motives, 
the desire of independence, the willingness to help individuals, 
the desire to be a useful member of society. 

aKapiroi] cf. Ro 7 4 , 2 P i 8 , Jude 12 , and the expansion of the 
simile in Herm. Sim. 4. But here the special reference seems 
to be to the Roman taunt that Christians were unprofitable to 
the State, as keeping apart from many trades, that they were 
" infructuosi in negotiis," Tert. Apol. 42, and his reply, " Navi- 
gamus nos vobiscum et militamus et rusticamur et mercamur : 
proinde miscemus artes nostras, operas nostras publicamus usui 
vestro " ; cf. notes on 3 and 8 . 

15. 01 fie-r' e(xou] perhaps " my travelling companions," as no 
place is mentioned ; cf. Gal i 2 . 

ciott. tous <f>t\.] cf. BGU. 332, 'Acnra£ov 'A/i,//.a>j/ow <rvv tckvols 
kolI cru/A^io) Kal tous <pl\ovvtol<; uc, and other instances in A. 
Robinson on Eph., p. 281. Our real friends in contrast to false 
teachers, i 9 2 8 . 

lv morei] possibly " in loyalty " ; cf. Fay. Pap. 118, toDs <^>iAow- 
ras ^as n-pos ak-qOiav, but i 4 , i Ti i 2 make it almost certain that 
it is "in a common faith," "in loyalty to Christ." 

p.eTa 7r<£inw ujxwi/] even with those to whom he could not 
send a warm greeting. This implies that the substance of the 
letter would become known to the whole church. 



dya66s, 22. 
aya.Trr)T6s, o2. 
&yye\ot, 46, 63. 
ayvtla, 53. 
aipeTtKbs, xxix, 1 57- 

&KapTOS, 1 59- 

avafairvpetv, 85. 
avaXvais, 1 14. 
avaurpocpTj, 42, 52. 
dyeTra/crxwros, 98. 
avdptiwLvos, xxxvi, 35. 
&v6pwiTos Oeoxj, 70, III. 
avTt6taeis, 76. 
avTiKaixfiaveada.1, 66. 
avT'CKvrpov, 28. 
doparos, 17. 
d7ro5ox^, 15- 
dcarrta, 1 30. 
avOdSrjs, 130. 
avdfvTitv, 32. 
avrapKeia, xv, xvi, 68. 

^adfxds, 41. 

TaXaria, xxxvii, 1 17. 
-yeyeaXo-yicu, xvii, 8, 1 57. 
7pd/up.aTa, 1 09. 
yv/nvaala, 51. 

5id/3oXos, 39. 
Sid^ofos, xx, 40, 41. 
dia\oyi<Tp.6s, 30. 
5i5a(TK'aXia, 13. 
SiKaioffi'VT], xiv. 
StKaioui', 45, ^S- 
61X0705, 40. 
56ta, 13, 146. 
SofXos 0eoO. 125. 

eyKparris, xiv, xv, /«j<i?. 
inXeKToi, 63, 95, 125. 


ATris, 5. 

^v iravTi rbirif, 30. 
evos dvSpbs yvvrj, 3S, 60. 
ivrev^is, 24. 
^Trfyvwcm dXrr^etas, 27. 

^TTLeLKTJS, 152. 

(iriaKcnros, xix, xxiii, 35. 
iTTurrofjLL^eiv, 133. 
(TriTayrj, 5> 126. 
£TTi<pdveia, 72, 87, I43, 144. 
e'crxarai rj ficpai, 1 05. 
ei''a7YeXicrT?js, 1 1 3. 
evepyecrla, 66. 
etW/3eia, 26, 44, 58. 
ei'Xaptoricu, 25. 

foypuv, 102. 
fux^cweii', 71. 

^eoTrceucrros, I IO. 
#eos 6 fi^yas, 144. 

iepd ypd/jL/j-CLTCL, 109. 
iepoTrpevr]?, xiv, 1 40. 
'iT/ffoDs Xpicros, xxi, 5, 16, 94. 
iW, 158. 

Kaipois ibiois, 72, 126. 

KaXos, xaXd £p7<x, xiv, .2.2, 147. 

Ka.Td(TTrjixa, 140. 

Kvjjdeiv, 113. 

koivwvikSs, 74. 

Koa/xto's, xiv, xvi, 38. 

X^oeros, ^/c crrd/naTos, 1 19. 
X070S 0eoO, 48, 155. 

yua/cdpioj 0e<5s, 13, 72. 
yuecr/TTjs, 28 

yitids 7ui'ai\-6s de7?p, 36. 
fivdot, xvii, 8, 135. 

I 62 


vedtpvros, xxix, 39. 
vij<pd\tos , xiv, xvi, 38. 

oiKOvofiia dtoO, 9. 
bpdoTotxtlv, 99. 

vaioeveiv, xv, 144. 
7ra\i77ei'efl'ta, 154 
irapaOodvcu r<f> ilarai'p, 19. 
wapaOrih-q, xviii, 88, 89, yo, 1 1 5- 
Trapa.Ko\ov8eiv t 107. 
irdpoii'os, 130. 
7rfpto«/<nos, 1 47- 

irforts (and cognates), 20, 60, 88, 

TTKTrdj 6 \6705, XXxi, I5, 33, I55. 

irpedjivTepOL, xx, 54, 62, 63. 
Trpoiuraadai, 1 56. 

TrpO<t>->)T€LtX, l8, 54. 

credos, xiv, xvi, 26. 
iTK(ira<x/xa, 69 
(TTraraXdi', 58. 
<T7r<i'5o/, I 14. 
Girtpna. Aa.ito, 95. 
■'-jua \4ovtos, 1 19. 

cfrpareia, 18. 

<m''\os Kai idpaiw/xa, 43. 

<rdi<ppwi> (and cognates), xiv, xv, 31, 
33, 38, 86, 140, 148. 

Teicvoyovia, 32. 
tiholv, 57, 62. 
ri'0oOirtfat, 39. 

vyialvetP, xiv, xvi, 12, 139. 

i0pOTTOT(ll>, 64. 

{nrdfivr]<Tis, S3. 
i'iroTa.777, 32. 
pn oTi'/irw<rts, 16. 

(paiXofijs, 1 iS. 
ipavcpovadai, 45. 
(pi\ai>Opu>iria, 1 53. 

XfiptSi' tirl$c<nt, 54. 63, 85. 
XJjpai, xx, xxvii, 56. 

XpilTTOS, t'. 'iTJCTof*. 

Xpbvoi aiwvioi, 87, 126. 

WK Am, XXxi, 19, 99. 


Abrahams, I., 25, 37, 68, 74. 
Agrapha, xxiii, 62, 68, 101, ioS, 135, 

Anacolutha, 7. 

Apocalyptic (Jewish, 105. 

,, (Christian), 47- 

Apocrypha (Jewish), 33, 100, 107. 

Baptism, xviii, 154. 
Bishops, xx, xxiii, 35, 129. 

Character, Christian, xiii. 41. 

,, Cretan, 122. 132, 151. 

,, St. Paul, xxvi, 16, 1 12. 

,, Timothy, xxvi. 

,, Titus, xxvi, 1 > :. 

Chrysostom, De SacerJono, xl, 7, 56, 
»3, 103. 

en life, xiv, 25, 151. 
( i -.1. germs of, 45, 71, 95. 

, XX. 

I h'dache, xxxix. 

ipline, xviii, 19, 61, 157. 
Divorce, 37. 

Epictetus, xv, 18, 27, 54, 65, 69, 87, 

93. 101. 

Epimenides, 134. 
Excommunication, 19. 

Family life, xiv, xxv, xxvii, 39, 55, 
58, 138. 

Galalia, 117. 

Gnosticism, xvii, xxiii, xxvi, 9, 24, 

47. 76, 99-. 
Gospels, relation to, xxiii. 
God, titles of, xxi, 13, 17, 52, 73, 

Grace before meat, 49. 
Greek Proverbs, 48, 69. 
Gregory, KegnUs pastoralh liber, xli. 

Ilippolytus, Canons of, xl. 

I lomer, 48. 

Hymns, xxiv, 42, 96. 

Inspiration, 1 10. 

Jannes and Jambres, 107. 



Johannine phrases, xxiv, 15, 45, 48, 

Judaism, xvn, 8, 47, 133. 

Law, function of, II. 

Laying on of hands, 54, 63, 85. 

Lord's Prayer, 116, 120. 

Man of God, 70, in. 
Marcion, xiii, xxiii, xxvi, 76. 
Marcus Aurelius, xvi, xviii, 113, 140. 
Married life, 36, 38, 48, 60. 
Mysteries, 6, 18, 28, 44, 145, 154. 

Order of composition, xxxiv. 
Ordination, xix, 3, 18, 54, 63, 85, 

Oxymoron, xxviii, 59. 

Penitence, 16. 
I Peter, relation to, xxiv. 
Play on cognate words, xxviii. 
Prayer for all men, 25. 

,, for rulers, 25. 

,, for the dead, 90. 
Presbyters, xx, 54, 62, 129. 
Prophecy, xviii, 18, 47, 54. 
Psalm xxii, 1 16. 

Rendel Harris, 134. 
Resurrection, 96, 99. 

Riches, right use of, 69, 73, 75. 
Roman Emperor, prayer for, 25. 

,, ,, worship of, xxii, 

72, 86, 95, 120, 145. 
Rose, H. J., v. 

Salvation, 27, 52. 

Scripture, purpose of, 109, 110. 

„ reading of, 53. 

Secular trades, 93. 
Self-condemnation, 16. 
Self-praise, 112, 114. 
Servant of lehovah, 101. 
Services, Church, xviii, 23, 29, 53, 58. 
Shechinah, 13, 146. 
Slavery, 12. 65, 66, 142. 
Spirit, the Holy, xxii, 89. 
Stoicism, xv, xvi, 36, 140, 154. 
Style, xxvii. 

,, clausula of sentences, v. 

Teacher, the Christian, 2, 78. 
,, in face of death, 79. 
Torm, F., xxviii. 

Traherne's Meditations, 51, 69, 74. 
Turner, C. 1L, xxxi, xxxv, 54. 

Vicarious sacrifice, 28. 

Widows, xx, xxvii, 56. 
Women, ministry of, xx, 29, 31. 

(See also pp. ix-xi, and xli-xliv.) 

Lock, Walter. BS 

Pastoral epistles, **91