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The present volume forms the fourth portion of my Commentary ou St 
Paul's Epistles, and contains an exposition of the important Epistles to the 
Philippians and Colossians, and of the graceful and touching Epistle to Phi- 

The notes will be found to reflect the same critical and grammatical char- 
acteristics, and to recognize the same principles of interpretation as those 
which I endeavored to follow in the earlier portions of this work, and on 
■which the experiences slowly and laboriously acquired during this under- 
taking have taught me year by year more confidently to rely. There is, 
however, a slight amount ot additional matter which it is perhaps desirable 
briefly to specify. 

In the first place, I have been enabled to carry out more fully and com- 
pletely a system of reference to the great versions of anti<iuity, and hare 
spared no pains to approach a little more nearly to those fresh and clear, yet 
somewhat remote, well-heads of Christian interpretation. In the notes on the 
Pastoral Episties it was my endeavor to place before the reader, in all more 
important passages, the interpretations adopted by the Syriac, Old Latin,' 
and Gothic Versions. To these in the present volume I have added refer- 
ences to the Coptic (Mcmphilic) and Ethiopie Versions ; to the former as 
found in the convenient and accessible edition of Biitticher, to the latter as 
found in \Valton's Polyglott, but more especially and exclusively to the ex- 
cellent edition of the Ethiopie New Testament by the late Mr. Pell Piatt 
(1830), published by the Bible Society. These have been honestly and 
laboriously compared with the original ; but, as in the preface to the Pastoral 
Epistles, so here again would I earnestly remind the reader that though I 

' I have now adopfcd tliis torin, IVeling convinccil tlmt the term ' Italic' is hkcly to 
mislead. The latter I retained in tlie previous Epistles, as sanctioned by common usage ; 
1 wiwi, however, fully aware tliat the term ' vctus Itala' n-ally belonged to a recension, and 
not to an independent version. In the present Epistles I have derived the Old Latin from 
the trnuslatiou in that language as found in the Codex Claromontanus. 


have labored unflineliingly, and have spared no pains faithfully to elirit the 
exact opinion of these ancient translators, I still am painfully conscious how 
very limited is my present knowledge, and many must needs be my errors and 
misconceptions in languages where literary help is scanty, and in applications 
of them where I find myself at present unaided and alone. Poor, however, and 
insufficient as my contributions are, I still deem it necessary to offer them ; for 
I have been not a little startled to find that even critical editors of the stamp 
of Tischendorf, ^ have apparently not acquired even a rudimentary knowl- 
edge of several of the leading versions which they conspicuously quote : nay 
more, that in many instances they have positively misrepresented the very 
readings which have been followed, and have allowed themselves to be misled 
by Latin translations, which, as my notes will passingly testify, arc often sadly 
and even perversely incorrect. I fear, indeed, that I am bound to say that 
on the Latin translations attached to the now antiquated edition of the Cop- 
tic New Testament by Wilkins, from which Tischendorf appears to have 
derived his readings, little reliance can be placed ; and on that attached to the 
Ethiopic Version in Walton's Polyglott even less, because not only as a trans- 
lation is it inexact, but as a representative of the Ethiopic Version, worse than 
useless, as the text was derived from the valueless edition of 1548 (Rome), 
which in its transfer to the Polyglott was recruited with a fresh stock of inac- 

It is fair to say that in this latter version Tischendorf appears to have 
also used the amended translation of Bode, but even thus he is only able to 
place before the reader results derived from an approximately accurate trans- 
lation of a careless reprint of a poor original ; and thus to give only inade- 
quately and inaccurately the testimony of the ancient Ethiopic Church The 
really good and valuable edition of Pell Piatt has lain unnoticed and un- 
used, because it has not the convenient appendage of a Latin translation. 
The same remark applies to the edition of the Coptic Version by Schwartze 
and Botticher, which, though differing considerably less from that of Wilkins 
than the Ethiopic of Piatt from the Ethiopic of the Polyglott, is similarly 
devoid of a Latin translation, and has, in consequence, I fear, received pro- 
portionately little attention. 

Under these circumstances, when our knowledge even of the true readings 
of these two versions is still so very limited, I do not shrink from offering my 
scanty contributions, which, though intentionally exegetical in character, may 
be found to some extent useful even to a critical editor. Gladly, most gladly, 

1 The fourth volume of the new edition of Home's Introduction will show how con- 
scientiously our countryman Dr. Tregelles has acted in this respect, and what pains he 
has taken to secure an accurate knowledge of versions in languages with which he himself 
did not happen to be acquainted. 


bIiouIi] I wck-orao other lalxin-rs into the same field, nor can I point out to 
stuilents in these somewhat intraetable Iau;iuajres a more rc-ally useful un<ler- 
tukiiig than a eorreet Latin translation of Piatt's Ethiopio Version, and a 
similar translation of the portions of the Coptic New Testament published by 
Scliwartze and his less competent successor. 

I will here add, for the sake of those who may feel attracted towards these 
fiL'lds of labor, a few bibliojiraphical notices, and a few records of my own 
limited experiences, as these m:»y be of some passing ai»l to novices, and ma\ 
serve as temporary fin;ier-pos;s over tracks where the paths are not well-trod- 
den, and t!ic travellers Imt few. 

Ill C'opiic, I have used with great advantage the grammar of Arehdeacon 
Taltam, and the lexicon of the same learned editor. The more recent lexi- 
con of Peyron bas, I believe, secured a greater reputation, and as a philo- 
logical work seems deservedly to rank higher, but after using both, I have 
found that of Tattara more generally useful, and more practically available 
for elementary reading, and for arriving at the current meaning of wonls. 
The very valuable Coptic grammar of Schwartze cannot be dispensed with 
by any student who desires to penetrate into the philological recesses of that 
singular language, but as a grammar to be put into the hands of a beginner, 
it is of more than doubtful value. 

In Ethiopic, the old grammar of Ludolph still maintains its ground. The 
author was a perfect Ethiopic enthusiast, and has zealously striven, by the 
most minute grammatical subdivisions, to leave no peculiariiies in the Ethi- 
opic language unnoticed and une.xplained ; the student, however, must not 
fail to exercise his judgment in a fii*st reading, and be careful to confine him- 
self to the general principles of the language, without embarrassing himself 
too much with the many exceptional characteristics which this difficult* lan- 
guage presents. These leading principles, especially in the second edition, 
are sufficiently well-defined, and will easily be extracted by any reader of 
moderate sagacity and grammatical experience. The recent Ethiopic gram- 
mar ot'Ddlmann hius passed through my hands, but my acipiaintance with ir 
is far too limited to proimume on it any opinion. As far as I could judge, 
it seems to be very to that of Si-hwartze in Coptic, and only calcu- 
lated for the more mature and scientific student. With reganl to lexicons, 
there is, I believe, no better one than that of Ludolph ("id ed.). That of 
Castell, alluded to in the preface to the Pa<t<>ral Epuftlts, I have since found 
to be decidedly inferior. 

I do venture then to express a humble hope, that even with no better 

' This epithet must be coiisidt-Toil as used subjectively. To roe. who am UDfortunatclr 
Ui)ac<i\inintod with Arabic, this language has presented many difliculties The Arabic 
icholnr would very likely entirely reverse my judgiueuf. 


literary appliances than these, earnest men and thoughtful scholars may be 
induced to investigate patiently and carefully the interpretations of these 
ancient witnesses of the truth. Surely the opinion of men, who lived in such 
early ages of the Church as those to which the chief ancient versions may all 
be referred, cannot be deemed unworthy of attention. Surely a version 
like the old Syriac, parts of which might almost have been in the hands of 
the last of the apostles, a venerable monument of almost equal antiquity like 
the Old Latin, a version so generally accurate as that of Ulfilas,^ a version 
so distinctive as that of the Coptic, and so laborious as Piatt's Ethiopic,^ can- 
not safely be disregarded in the exposition of a Divine Revelation, where 
antiquity has a just and reasonable claim on our attention, and where novelty 
and private interpretation can never be indulged in without some degree of 
uncertainty and peril. 

"With these three earthly aids, first, an accurate knowledge of Hellenic 
Greek ; secondly, the Greek commentators, and thirdly, the five or six prin- 
cipal ancient versions, we may (with humble prayer for the illuminating grace 
of the Eternal Spirit) address ourselves to the task of a critical exposition 
of the Covenant of Mercy ; we may trust that, though often with clouded 
and holden eyes, we may yet be permitted to see and to recognize some sure 
and certain outlines of Divine Truth : but without any of these, or with one, 
or even two, to the exclusion of what remain, dare we hope that our inter- 
pretations will always be found free from uncertainties and inconsistencies, 
and will never exhibit the tinges of individual opinion, and the often estima- 
ble, but ever precarious, subjectivity of religious predilections ? 

I fear indeed that these remarks are but little in unison with popular 
views and popular aspirations ; I fear that the patient labor necessary to per- 
form faithfully the duty of an interpreter is unwelcome to many of the for- 
ward spirits of our own times. To be referred to Greek Fathers when suar 
sive annotations of a supposed freer spirit, and a more flexible theology claim 
from us a hearing; to be bidden to toil on amid ancient versions, when a 
rough and ready scholarship is vaunting its own independence and sufliciency ; 
to weigh in the balance, to mark and to record the vei'ging scale while reli<T- 
ious prejudice is ever struggling to kick the beam, — all seems savorless, 
unnecessary, and impracticable. I fear such is the prevailing spirit of our 
own times ; j^et, amid all, I seem to myself to descry a spirit of graver 

1 Some tinges of Arianism have been detected in this Version, e. g. Phil. ii. 8, ' iii vulva 
rabnida visan sik galeiko [surely not a correct translation of Ifco] gu|Ja,' but are not sufli- 
ciently strong to detract seriously from the general faithfulness of the Version. 

" I regret that I cannot in any way agree with my valued acquaintance Dr. Tregelles, 
in his judgment on the Etliiopic Version : in St. Paul's Epistles I have tbuud it anything 
but ' the dreary paraphrase ' which he terms it in his remarks iu Uorue, Jntroductian. Vol. 
IV. p. 319. 


searc'j wimiinj; its way among us, a more determineil ullcgiauce to tbe trulL, 
a grcatiT tcrulcufv to snaj) the chains orseitarian bondage, and it is to tho^e 
who fi'L-l themselves animated by this sj*irit, who are (juiekeued by the desire 
at every cost to search out ami to prciclaim tlit- truth, who think that then- is no 
sacrifice too great, no labor too relentless, in the exjtosilion of the word of 
God, — to them, and to such as them, I would fain, with all humility, commend 
the imperfect and initial cflbrts to elicit the testimony of the ancient ver- 
sions which these pages contain, and it is from thcra that I hopefully look for 
corrections of the errors and inaccuracies into which my inexperience will, 
I fear, be ol'fen found to have betrayed me. 

Another addition which I have striven to make, and which the profound 
importance of the subject has seemed to require, consists in the introduction 
of a few iloc/rlnul connnents upon the ])assagos in these Epistles which relate 
to our Saviour's divinity; and this I trust no one will deem supererogatory. 
The strongly developed tendencies of our own times towards humanitarian 
concepiions of the nature and work of our divine M;ister, — tendencies ot'ten 
associated with great depth of feeling and tenderness of sympathy, — seem 
now to demand the serious attention of every thoughtful man. The signs of 
the times are very noticeable. The divinity of the Eternal Son is not now 
so much assailed by avowed heretical teaching, as diluted by more plausible, 
perhaps even more excusable, but certainly no less destructive and perni- 
cious, developments of human error. The turmoil of Arian and semi-Arian 
strife has comparatively ceased, to be succeeded, however, by a more delu- 
sive calm, and a more dangerous and enervating repose. In the popular 
theology of the present day, the Eternal Son is presented to us under aspects 
by no means calculated to ronse any active hostility or provoke any earnest 
antagonism. All is suasive and seductive : our Lord is claimed as united to 
us by huniau aflinities of touching yet precarious application ; He is the 
]ii-inre of siiUVrers, the champion of dependence and depression, the repre- 
sentative of contestcil juinciples of social union; His crucifixion becomes the 
apotheosis of self-<leuial, the atonement the master work of a pure and subli- 
mated sym])atliy, — all principles and aspects the more dangerous from in- 
volving admixtures of partial truth, the more liarmful from their secminj» 
harmlessness. It is against this more specious and subtle form of error that 
we have now to contend ; it is this plausible and versatile theosophv that 
seeks to ensnare us hy its appeal to our better feelings and warmer svmpa- 
thies, that seems to edify while it perverts, that attr.acts while it ruins, that it 
is now the duty of every true servant of Jesus Christ to seek to expose 
and to countervail. And this can be done in no wav more charitably, yet 
more eflTectually, than by simply setting t'orth with all sincerity, faithfulness, 
and truth, those portions of the word of life which declare the true nature of 


the Eternal Son in language that no exegetical artifice can successfully ex 
plain away, and against which Arian, semi-Arian, Deist, and Pantheist, have 
beaten out their strength in vain. 

Under these feelings, then, in the important doctrinal passages in these 
Epistles which relate to our Lord's divinity, I have spared no paius in the 
endeavor candidly and truthfully to state the meaning of every word, and to 
put before the younger reader, in the form of synopsis or quotation, the great 
dogmatical principles and deductions which the early Greek and Latin Fa- 
thers, and more especially our own Divines of the seventeenth and early part 
of the eighteenth century have unfolded with such meek learning, such per- 
spicuity, and such truth. I need scarcely remark that here I have had to 
rely solely on my own reading ; for in the works of the best German com- 
mentators sound dogmatical theology will I fear too often be sought for in 
vain, and even in the more recent productions of our own country, subjective 
explanation and an inexact and somewhat diffluent theology have been 
allowed to displace the more accurate and profound deductions of an earlier 
day. On this portion of my labors more than on any other may the Father 
of Lights be pleased to vouchsafe His blessing, and to overrule these efforts 
to issues beyond their own proper efficacy, and to uses which my earnest 
aspirations, but not my sense of their realization, have presumed to contem- 

A few additions will be found in what may be termed the philological 
portion of this Commentary. Wherever the derivation of a word has seemed 
obscure, and an exact knowledge of its fundamental meaning has seemed of 
importance to the passage, I have noted in brackets its probable philo- 
logical affinities, and stated, with all possible brevity, the opinions of modern 
investigators in this recently explored domain of literature. Gladly would I 
have found this done to my hand in the current lexicons of England or Ger- 
man}', as it would have saved me not only much labor, but many unwelcome 
interruptions ; but upon the philology of modern lexicons I regret to say 
very little reliance can be placed. Even in the otherwise admirable lexicon 
of Ixost and Palm, which, I may here remark, is now brought to a completion, 
it is vexatious to observe how much philology has been neglected by its com- 
pilers, and how uncertain and precarious are the derivations of all the more 
difficult words. 

With regard to references to former notes, which, now that my work has 
extended to eight Epistles, have necessarily become somewhat numerous, 1 
have endeavored to observe the following rule. Where the reference has 
appeared of less moment, I have contented myself with a simple allusion to 
the former note. Where the reference has seemed of greater moment, and 
the. note referred to contains any critical or grammatical investigations, I 


liave proncrallv emleavorod to finbody ln-icfly in the note before the reader 
the priiifiples previously discussed, leavinfr the fuller iletail to be sought for 
ill t!ie note referred to. I^Iy desire is thus to make each portion of this work 
<as nui! h as pussiltle an independent whole, and while avoidinjir repetitioD §till 
to obviate, as far as is eompatible with the nature of a eontlmious work, the 
necessity of tlie purchase or perusal of forejroing portions. 

A few concluding words on the Translation. I have more than once had 
mv attention called to passages in (bruicr commentaries, where the translation 
in the notes has not appeared in perfect unison with that in the Revised Ver- 
sion. In a few cases I fear this may have arisen from an omission to correct 
the copy of the Authorized Version which lay beside me, but I believe in 
most instances these seeming discrepancies have arisen from the fact that the 
fixed principles on which I venture to revise the Authorized Version do not 
alwavs admit of an exact identity of language in the version and In the note. 
Ill a word, the translation In the note presents what has been considered the 
most exact rendering of the words taken per se ; the Revised Version pre- 
serves that rendering as far as Is compatible with the lex operis, the context, 
the Idioms of our language, or lastly, that grave and archaic tone of our ad- 
mirable version which, even in a revised form of it designed only for the 
closet, it seemed a kind of sacrilege to displace for the possibly more precise, 
yet often really less expressive, phraseology of modern diction. Needlessly 
to divorce the original and that version with which our ears are so familiar, 
and often our highest associations and purest sj-mpathies so Intimately bound, 
is an illionsidered course, which more than anything else may tend to foster 
an unyoked spirit of scriptural study ami translation, alike nnfilial and pre- 
sumptuous, and to which a modern reviser may hereafter bitterly repent to 
have lent his example or his contributions. 

I desire in the last place to record a few of my many obligations. These, 
however, are somewhat less than in earlier portions of this work, as the 
and unlntcrmitling labor expended in the examination of the ancient ver- 
sions, especially the Coptic and Ethlopic, has lett me little time. and. perhaps 
I might say little need, for consulting commentaries of a secondary character. 
These It is not necessary (o specify, but the student who may miss their names 
on my present pages will, I truly believe, have gained far more fi-om the an- 
cient versions that have been adduced, than lost by the writers that have 
been left unnoticed. 

Of the larger cf)ininent:»ries. I Iiave carefully and thoughtfully perused 
the excellent eommentary of my iriend. Dean Altbnl. From it I have not 
derived nuieh directly, as I deemed it best for the cause of that truth which 
we both humbly strive to advance, to consult for myself the original an* 
thoritles and various exewtical subsidies that were alike accessible to us 


both, that so my adhesion to the opinions of my able predecessor, or my de« 
parture from them, might be the result of my own deliberate investigations. 
At the same time I have been particularly benefited by the admirable per- 
spicuity of his notes, and have felt rejoiced when our opinions coincide, and 
unfeignedly sorry when I have deemed myself compelled to take a contrary 
or antagonistic side. 

To the commentaries of De Wette and Meyer, but especially to those of 
the latter, I am, as heretofore, greatly indebted for grammatical and exe- 
getical details, but in the dogmatical portions I have neither sought for nor 
derived an}' assistance whatever. To German commentaries the faithful and 
candid expositor of Scripture is under great obligations, but for theology, he 
must turn to the great doctrinal treatises of the Divines of our own countiy. 

Of separate commentaries on the Philippians, the learned and laborious 
production of Van Ilengel has been on many occasions extremely useful from 
its affluence of grammatical examples ; but it is rather deficient in that brev- 
ity and perspicuit_y of critical discussion which is nowhere more indispensable 
than in the aggregation of parallel passages, and the comparison of supposed, 
but perhaps illusory, similarities of structure. 

The commentary of Wiesinger is thoughtful and sensible, and not unfre- 
quently distinguished by a sound and persuasive exegesis. Those of Rilliet 
and Holemann, but especially the former, deserve consideration, but have 
been still so far superseded by more modern expositions, that it will in all cases 
be advisable for the student to read them with some degree of caution and 
suspended judgment. 

Of commentaries on the Colosslans, I must first specify the learned and 
exhaustive work of Bishop Davenant, which has certainly not received that 
attention from modern expositors which it so fully deserves. Its usefulness 
is somewhat interfered with by the scholastic form in which the notes are 
drawn up, nor is it free from the tinge of theological prejudice ; but there is a 
thoroughness and completeness of exegetical investigation, which render it aa 
exposition which no student of this profound Epistle will be wise to overlook. 

Of modern commentaries, that of Huther will well repay the trouble of 
perusal, but both this work and that of Bahr have been so thoroughly exam- 
ined by De Wette and Meyer, and in many passages so assimilated and in- 
?orporated, that a separate study of them is rendered somewhat less neces- 
sary. They will, however, always be referred to with advantage, but this 
should not be apart from a consideration of the opinions of their successors, 
and of the various rectifications which a more accurate scholarship has occa- 
sionally been found to suggest. 

The commentary of Professor Eadle has been of occasional service to me ; 
but, as in the commentary on the Ephesians, so here also I fear I am com- 


pelled In candor to say, that the frrammatical comnicnts do not always appear 
quite L'xact, nor are tlie doi-trinal passages always dis<-ussod with that calm 
precision and dignified simplicity ol' language which these subjects seem to 
require and suggest ; still most of the exogetical portion is extremely good, 
nor will any reader rise from tht; study of this learned, earnest, and not un- 
Ireijuently elocpient volume, unimproved either in head or in heart. 

Notiees of the other and larger commentaries on the New Testament, or on 
St. Paul's Epistles, to which I have been in the habit of referring, will be 
found in the prefaces to the preceding portions of this work. 

It now only remains for me to commit this volume to the reader, with the 
earnest prayer to Almighty God that he, who has so mercifully sustained me 
with health and strength during the anxieties of continued research and the 
pressure of protracted lal)or, may be pleased to grant that this research may 
not prove Avholly fruitless, this labor not utterly in vain. 

TPIA2, M0NA2, 'EAEH20N. 

Cambridge, Octobeu 20, 1867. 


The second edition of this ])Ottion of my labors is now at length presented 
to llie reader. Like the second edition of the portion wirah preceded, the 
Pastoral Epistles, it has been delayed till time could be found for calmly and 
deliberately reviewing and reconsi<lering the whole work. 

This duty has now been performed. Every portion of the commentary 
has been read over; every interpretation has been tesied; and, I might 
almost add, every citation of S^-ripture has been examineil and verified anew. 
For this labor, which has occupied a considerable portion of the past summer, 
there is but little to show. The booic fcuiains nearly in all it« details as Mell 
as in its larger features exactly what it was. A very few readings, and those 
unimportant, have been changed; a certain number of alterations have been 
introduced in the Rcvisid Translation ; a small number of references to 
standard sermons, which had been either overlooked or not known wlu-n the 
commentary was written, are now added; and lastly, a short introduction 
has been prefi.\ed to each one of the three Epistles that are included in 
this volume. 

This I fear is all that I have to show for the time spent in preparing this 
•♦dition. Yet perhaps that time has not been spent wholly in vain. It now 
enables me, with all humility, and with a thorough consciousness of my own 
imperfections and shortcomings, yet with some measures of chastened confi- 
dence, to commend to the reader the interpretations of the many great doc- 
trinal passages, — especially those bearing on the Majesty and Divinity of 
our adorable Lord, — whlrh he will find in the first two of the portions of 
Holy Scripture contained in this volume. Those interpretations (which, let 
it be observed, are nearly in every case those of the early versions or Greek 
commentators, stated only in a little more precise and technical language) 
have been again carefully tested. The accuracies of modern scholarship 
have been anew brought to bear upon them, the finesse and ingenuity of 
modern exegesis have been freely applied to the passages which they ex- 
pound to us ; and the result is that these ancient interpretations appear to 
have as strong claim upon our attention as ever, and, in an age of unlicensed 


criticism and sadly deceitful dealings with the word of God, to stand forth as 
examples of what the meek wisdom of earlier days regarded as the true and 
accurate method of expounding the message of salvation. 

If such be the result of these present labors, — if the renewed testimony 
of one humble witness may be permitted in any degree effectually to warn 
the young and the earnest from rash and unblest modes of Scriptural inter- 
pretation ; if these pages may be thought in some measure to show that the 
deductions of rigorous scholarship and of catholic truth stand ever in the 
truest union, — then I shall humbly and devoutly rejoice, and bless God that 
amid many recent hinderances and distractions I have been thus enabled 
carefully to revise and calmly to reconsider a very important portion of my 
labors, and thus to commend it with renewed confidence to the Christian 

May the blessing of the Father of Lights rest on all readers and expound- 
ers of his inspired Word, and move us all, in these proud and dangerous 
days, to yield up our high thoughts unto him who ' of God is made unto us 
wisdom,' and to determine, even as an inspired apostle determined amid the 
sceptical disputants of his own times, ' not to know anything save Jesus Christ 
and Him crucified.' 


EX£T£B, S£F'<'£MB£B, IStfL 

I N T R D U C T I O X. 

This fervent, aflectionate, and, in parts, pathetic Epistle was written by 
the apostle to his liberal and warmhearted converts in the Roman colony of 
Phllippi, towards the close of h'lnjirst captivity at Rome (see Introd. to 1 Tim.), 
and at a time when, it would seem, his imprisonment was of a closer and 
hirsher character, and his earthly prospects, though not by any means without 
hope (ch. i. 25, 2G ; ii. 24), yet, in many respects, cheerless and depressing 
(ch. i. 20 sq., ii. 17, 28). It has thus been supposed, with some probability, 
to have been written after the death of the Prajtorian Prefect (Burrus) to 
whom the apostle had been at first entrusted (Acts xxviii. 10), and by whom, 
as we may infer from Acts /. c, he had been treated with leniency and con- 

As the death of Burrus took place in A. i>. G2 (Clinton, Fofd Rom. Vol. I. 
p. 44), and as there are some expressions in the Epistle tliat seem distinctly 
to imply that the captivity had been of some duration (ch. i. 13 sq., comp. 
ii. 20), we may fix the date of the Epistle towards the close of', or more prob- 
ably about the middle of, A. D. 03, and may thus place it as the last In order of 
the four Epistles written during the first captivity at Rome : see Davidson, 
Jnlroil. Vol. II. p. 373. 

The circumstances that gave rise to the Epistle appear to have been 
simply the fact of Epaphroditus having come from the Church of Philippi 
with contributions to alleviate the necessities of the captive apistle. — con- 
tributions which, as we learn from the Epistle itself (ch. iv. IT), 10 ; compare 
2 Cor. xi. 9), this liberal Church had promptly sent on other and earher 
occasions. Moved by this fresh proof of love evinced by his dearly-beloved 
Philippians, — his 'joy and crown ' as he afTeetionafely terms them (ch. iv. 1), 


tlie apostle avails bimself of the return of Epaphroditus, who now, after a 
dangerous illness (ch. ii. 27), was on his way back to Philippi, to send to that 
Church and its chief officers (ch. i. 1 ; see notes in loc.) by the hand of their 
own messenger, his warm and affectionate thanks, mingled with personal 
notices relative to his own state, earnest commendations, pointed but kindly 
warnings, and varied expressions of consolation and encouragement. No 
Epistle written by the inspired apostle is pervaded with a loftier tone of 
cheering exhortation (see notes on ch. iii. 1) ; none in which the pressing 
forward for ' the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus ' is set 
forth in language of greater animation ; none in which imitation of his own 
love . of his Master is urged upon his converts in strains of holier incen- 
tive (compare ch. iii. 17-21). The supposition that there were definite 
parties and factions in the Church of Philippi, and that the Epistle was 
designed to expose their errors, and especially those of the Judaists, does not 
seem tenable. It is clear that Judaiziug teachers had intruded into the 
Church of Philippi (ch. iii. 2), but it seems also clear that their teaching had 
at present met with but little reception. 

The genuineness and authenticity of the Epistle are very convincingly 
demonstrated by external testimony (Polycarp, ad Philipp. cap. 3, Irenseus, 
Hcer. IV. 34, ed. Grabe, Clem.- Alex. Pcedag. i. p. 129, ed. Pott., Tertull. de 
Resurr. Cam. cap. 23), and even more so by the individuality of tone and 
language. Doubts have been urged by a few modern writers, but they have 
been justly pronounced by all competent critics as wholly unworthy of atten- 
tion. The same may be said of the doubts as to the unity of the Episf'*.- see 
Davidson, Introd. Vol. ii. p. 387 sq. 



Apoatollc nddrrn nnd pqId- 


AV^VOS Kal Ti/j,6^eo^ oovXoi Xpuxrov 


iracriv tol<: ajLOi^ tu 


1. Kal TtuS^eos] Timothy is here 
associated witli the apostle (as in 2 Cor. 
i. 1, Col. i. 1, 1 and 2 Thcss. i. 1), heinj? 
known to, and prol^ahly esteemed by, the 
Pliilippians (Grot.), whom he Inul al- 
ready twice visited ; once in company 
with St. Paul (Acts xvi. 1, 12), and once 
alone (Acts xix. 22). Tho association 
seems t-imilar to that with Sosthenes, 1 
Cor. i. 1 ; Timothy beinir neither the 
joint author of the Epistle (Menoch.), 
nor the ' comproi)afor ' of its contents 
(Zanch. ; comp. notes on Cal. i. 2), nor 
n^in the mere transcril>cr of it (comp. 
Rom. xvi. 22), hut simply the ' socius 
.s tliitdtlonis,' Est. Two verses lower tho 
apostle proceeds in his own person, and 
in ch. ii. 10, when Timothy reappears, it 
is simply in the third person. It 

nay he remarked tliat it is only in this 
E;)., 1 and 2 Tlicss., and, a-; we mi<;ht 
expect, Piiilem., that St. Paul omits his 
oiiicial desi'jnation, a-ToffroXos k. t. \. 
(Gal. i. 1 ), or airda-r. 'I?j<r. Xp. (remain- 
in;; Epp.). This seems due, not to' mo- 
destia ' in the choice of a title common 
to himself and Tim. (Grot.), for sec 2 
Cor. i. 1, Col. i. 1, but simply to tho 
terms of affection and familiarity on 
wliich he stood with the churches both 
of'onica (ch, ii. 19, 20, iii. 6- 

10) and Philippi : he was their apostle, 
and ho knew from their acts (Phil. iv. It 
sq.) and their wishes (I Thess. iii. f.) 
that they regarded him as such. On the 
modes of salutation adoi)ted by St. Paul, 
see Riickert on Gal. i. 1, and compare 
notes on Eph. i. 1, and on Col. i. 1. 
5oD\oi X. 'I.] ' liond-sfrrnnts of Jfsus 
Clirist ; ' ' servi propric cnmt qui toti ob- 
stricti crant Domino in perpetnum,' 
Zanch. ap. Pol. Si/n. ; so Rom. i. 1 ; 
compare Gal. i. 10. and also James i. 1, 
2 Pet. i. 1, Judo 1. The interpretation 
of Friizsche (Rom. i. 1). 'Jcsu Christi 
cultor,' scil. ' homo Chri.<tianus,' is tena- 
ble (compare Dan. iii. 20), but like so 
many of that commentator's intc:-profa- 
tions, hopelessly fri^jid ; comp. Gal. i. 
10, where to translate Xp. Sov\os ovk tw 
<J,u7ji', ' non esscm homo Chrisiianus,' is 
to impair all tlic vi;;or of t!ie pasisayc. 
The term is used in its (thioil, rather 
than mere hi.itorlml sense, ' an apostle.' 
etc. (see Mover on Gal. I. c ), and the 
pcnitivo is stronirly />a«.v.«,s/fv ; they bo- 
longed to Christ as to a master, comp. 
1 Cor. vii. 22 : Ilis they were ; yea, Ilis 
very marks they bore on their bodies ; 
compare Gal. vi. 17, and see notes in lor. 
Tho fonnula SovKos &*ov (comp. "n^ 
Hrn Ps- cxJii. I, al.) is nitur.iUy more 

18 PIIILIPriANS. CriAP. I. 1. 

*Ir]aov rol<; ovaiv ev ^tXlinroL'i avv i7naK67rot<; kol huiK6voi<i. 

general ; ^ovKos Xpiarov, somewhat more 
personal and special : compare notes on 
Tit i. 1. waffiv To7s 

ayiois k.t.\.] 'to all the saints,' etc., 
' to all that form part of the visible and 
spiritual community at Philippi ; ' ayioi 
beinj^ used in these salutations in its 
most inclusive sense : see notes on Eph. 
i. I. Though ayios in these sorts of ad- 
dresses does not necessarily imply any 
f pecial degree of moral perfection, being 
a]iplicd liy the apostle to all his converts, 
except the Gal. (and apparently Thess., 
kyloti in ch. v. 27 being very doubtful), 
yet still tlic remark of Olsh. {on Rom. i. 
7) is probably true, that it always hints 
at the idea of a higher moral life impart- 
ed by Christ. This in the present case 
is made still more apparent by the addi- 
tion eV XpitTTM : it was ' in Him ' (not for 
5x(£, Est , Ilheinvv), in union with Him, 
and Him alone, that the aywrris was 
true and real ; ol yap eV Xp. 'Itjct. ayioi 
vvTCDS etaiy, Theophyl. : com])are Koch 
0)1 Tiiessnlon. i. 1, p. 59. The inclusive 
irSo-ic, repeated several times in this Ep., 
ch. i. 4, 7, 8, 25, ii 17, 26, iv. 23 {Rec), 
well expresses the warmth and expan- 
siveness of the apostle's love. 
4>i\'nT-irois] Philippi, now Filibah or 
Filibejih, and anciently Kp^iviBes (not 
Metros, Van Heng. after Appian, Brll. 
Civ. IV 106, wliicli was the ancient name 
of the port, Ncapolis), was raised to a 
position of importance by Philip of Ma- 
cedon about n. c. 358, and called nfter 
Iiisname. In later times it was mcmo- 
riiblc as overlooking the scene of the bat- 
tle between Antony and Octavius against 
Brutus and Caspiu«, when the cause of 
the republic was finally lost (Merivale, 
Hist. Vol. HI. p. 208) : soon afterwards 
it liecame a Eoman colony (Colon. Au- 
gust. Julia Philippcnsis) and received 
the 'Jus Italicum.' It was, however, 
etill more me'Tiorable as being the first 

city in our continent of Europe in which 
the gospel was preached, Acts xvi. 9. A 
few ruins are said still to remain ; see 
Eorbiger, Ah. Geogr. Vol. iii. p. 1070, 
and the article by the same author in 
Pauly, Enajl. Vol. v. p. 1477 ; compare 
also Leake, N. Greece, Vol. iii. p. 216. 
avv iiriffK. Kai SiaK.] ' together with 
the bishops and deacons ; ' not merely ' in 
company with ' {/xeTa), but ' together 
with' ('una cum,' Beza), — specially in- 
cluded in the same friendly greeting; 
compare notes on Eph. vi. 23. Various 
reasons have been assigned why special 
mention is made of these church-oflicers. 
The two most plausible seem, (a) be- 
cause there were tendencies to division 
and disunion even among the Philippi- 
ans, which rendered a notice of formally 
constituted church-ofiicers not unsuitable 
(Wiesinger, al.); (6) because the firicrK. 
and StaK. had naturally been the princi- 
pal instruments in collecting the alms 
(Chrys., Theoph., and recently Meyer, 
Bisping). The latter seems most prob- 
able ; at any rate the date of the Epistle 
is not enough to account for the addition 
(Alf.), nor does the position of the clause 
warrant any contrast with ' the hierarchi- 
cal views' (ib.) of the Apost. Ff. (now 
by no means critically certain); for com- 
pare Ignatius (?) Philad. i : — the shep- 
herds naturally follow the sheep. On 
the meaning of the title of office, firierKO' 
TToy, here appy, perfectly interchangeable 
with the title of age and dignity, irpetrBv- 
repos (Acts XX. 17, 28, 1 Pet. v. 1). see 
especially notes on 1 Tim. iii. 1 ; and on 
SioLK. see notes on ib. iii. 8. The reading 
of B-D'; 39, 67, <Twfiri(rK6Trois, retained 
and noticed by Chrys., seems meaning- 
less and indefensible, and arose probably 
from the epistolary style of later times ; 
comp. Chr3'S. in he. 

2. x<^P's u;u?c (c.T. A.] On the sph"- 
rtua! significance of this blended form of 

TnAP. I. 2-3. 

P II I L I P 1' I A N S . 


' X^P''^ L'/iti' Kai eiprjvri airu Qeov iraTpo*; t'lfioii' Kal Kupiov 'Irjaou 


1 ihDiik my God with con- TIT'* ' ~ a " t \ > • / 

.tant prayer. f..r your pr.^ J^VXapi<T7CO TCO &e<f} pOV CTTl TTaaT) TJJ pv€ia 

rn: lillowthip in the gotixl, and my lure makr* rac conllilcnt for the future. May yc abouud yet inorv and 

Occidental and Oriental salutation, see 
notes on Gal. i. 2, and on Epfies. i. 2 ; 
conip. also Koch on 1 Thess. p. 60. The 
fonnula is sahstantially the same in all 
St. Paul's Ejiistle*. except in Col. i. 2, 
and 1 Thess. i. 1, wlierc the readinj; is 
doulitful. In the former, koI Kvp. '\i\<t 
Xp. seems ccrtaiiih' an insertion, and in 
the latter (tlie aj)o-tIe's earliest Epistle) 
it may !«; doubted whether tlie simple 
xap«5 Kal fipr,yT}, without any further ad- 
dition, may not be tlie more probable 
reading; ; see, however, Tisch. in hx. 
Kal Kupiov] Scil. Ko] airi Ki/pfou »f.T.\. 
The Socinian intcrpr. »fal (s-arpJij) Ki/- 
piov, found also in Erasm. on Rom. i. 7, 
is rendered hiijlily improbable by the u«e 
of the same formula without rl^uilv, 2 Tim. 
i. 2, Tit. i. 4, most probably 1 Tim. i. 2, 
and perhaps 2 Thess. i. 2 : compare 1 
The-s. iii. 11. 2 Thess. ii. 16. 

3. € I'/xop • ff ■r « (c. T. X.) A closely 
similar form of commencement occurs in 
Rom. i. 9. I Cor. i. 4, Philcm. 4 ; com- 
pare also Eph. i. 16, Col. i. 3, 1 Thess. 
i. 2. Indeed in all his Epp. to churche<, 
with the sinjrlc and sad exception of that 
to the Galat., the apostle either returns 
thanks to G -d, or blesses Ilim, for the 
spiritual state of his converts ; tovto 5« 
itotfi (K rod »ro\Ao a'trols cvyfiSffot 07- 
oStf, C!irys. Tiie present use of ti/xapia- 
TfTi' (' quod pro qratias arfrre ante Poly- 
bium nsur])avit nemo,* Ix)l)eck) is con- 
demned by the Atticists ; see LoIkjcU, 
Pfinjn p. IS, Thom. M. p. 913 (ed 
Bern.) Ilcrodian, ]>. 400 (ed. Koch), 
but consider Demosth. de Cor. p. 257. 
Pollux {Ononi. V. 141 ) admits it for 5t5(J- 
yat x^P^t but condemns it for tlhtvai xc£- 
piv ; sec, however, Boeckh, Corp. Tntrr. 
Yo\. I. p. 52, and notes on Col. i. 12. 

T If ©«» fiov] So Rom. i. 8 ; compare 
Acts xxvii. 23, ol> fifi.i ^ jtol Karptva. 
' Sifpiificat I'aulus quantil fiduciJ vero 
Deo adha;reat. Sunt cnim qui sentiunt 
Deum miscricordcm quidcm e-se [K.t 
Christum Sanctis hominibus nescio qui- 
bus, non autem seiitmiit Deum ipsis esse 
mi-icricordcm,' Calv. 
^xJ rdo'Ti r fi ^vci'a] ' on tfie trfiole of 
nil/ remembranre of you,' not 'every re- 
membrance,' Auth. (but not the older 
En;.'lisli Vv.), Bloomf., Conyb., and oth- 
ers, — a translation incompatible with the 
use of the art. ; comp. Winer, Gr. ^18. 
4, p. 101. Tlie prcj). tVl with the dative 
(which we can hardly say 'answers to 
the same prep, with a jjen ; Rom. i. 10, 
Eph. i. 16,' Alf.) is not here temporal 
(Ileb. ix. 26), baixn Vfiwy avofurriabi, 
Chrys., Winer, Gr. p. 3S0, — a meaning: 
favored by the incorrect interpr. of xa/n; 
Tj7 fxy., but semilocal, and correctly ex- 
presses the idea of close and complete con- 
nection, ' my grivinjr thanks is based upon 
my remembrance of you,' 'remembrance 
and pratitude arc l>ound up together ' 
(comp. Isaiah xxvi. S),the primarj' idea 
being, not add it ion (Alf.), but sui>erjiosi- 
tion, Donalds. Cralifl. ^ 172, Gnim. i 
4S3 : sec notes on ch. iii. 9, and on Kph. 
ii. 20, where (ed. 1) iiitercliange the ac- 
cidentally trans]>oscd ' former ' and ' lat- 
ter.' In Rom. i. 10, and Epli. i. 16 (sec 
notes), where itX is used witli the ;;en. 
in a very similar sentence, a certain 
amount of temi>oral force .«ecms fairly 
recognizable. The musal meaning, ' de 
CO quod vos mei recordamini,' Homlierg, 
Michael., al. (comp. 1 Cor. i. 4), accord- 
ing to which i/fiiy is a gen. suhjecti, is 
exegetically untenable, as ver. 5 gives 
the reason for the ti/xapt "^id spc«.i6e« 



Chap. I. 4, 5. 

v/JLwv, * irdvTore ev nrdarj Zei)cy€i fxov vTrep iravrcov ufiwv fieTo. 
p^apa9 TTjv Serjcrcv TTOLOvfievo'i, ^ iirl ttj KOivcovia vf^cov el<; rb 

sonicthing which far more naturall}' elic- 
ited it. fii'eia.vixa>f]'re- 
membrau:e of you,' 1 Thess. iii. 6, 2 Tim. 
i. 3 ; not ' commemorationeni vestri ' 
(Van Hengel), — a meaning which, as 
Meyer rightly observes, it only receives 
wlien associated with iroLua^ai ; compare 
Rom. i, 9, Eph. i. 16, 1 Thess. i. 2, Phi- 
lem. 4. 

4. vdi/T oT e — irotovixevos] Parti- 
cipial sentence defining and explaining 
more fully when the evxapicrTu k. t. \. 
takes place, viz., on every occasion that 
he prayed for them : the evxapt<r'ria was 
based on, and inseparable from the nvela, 
and this thankful remembrance ever 
found an utterance in every prayer. 
UdvTOTe is clearly not to be joined with 
evxap'(TT(o (Wicsing.), — a construction 
which interferes with the studied and 
affectionate cumulation Traj/Tore, irdcrri, 
irdvraiy (comp. 2 Cor. ix. 8) in the parti- 
cipial clause ; compare Col. i. 3, where it 
also seems best (contr. Meyer, De W. ; 
see notes) to join the adverb with tlic 
participle. It may be remarked that no 
inference can be drawn from the position 
of irdvTOTe (a favorite word witli tiie 
apostle), it being as often used by him 
after as before the verb with whicli it is 
connected : in the other writers of the 
N. T. (except John viii. 29, where it is 
emphatic) it precedes the verli. On the 
emphatic repetition, irai/Tore, i^da-rj, -Kdu- 
rwv, see the copious list of examjiles in 
Lobeck, Paralip. p. .')1 sq. 
iJirep irdvTwv i)fjiwv\ These words 
may be connected cither [a) with t))v 
Seriartv iroiovfxevos, Calv., De Wette, Alf , 
al., or {h) with Serjcrej fiov, Auth. and all 
Engl. Vv., Meyer, al. Both are gram- 
matically tenable ; the omission of the 
article before v-rrtp Tracrajj/ljcing perfectly 
justifiable in the first case (see notes on 
Eph. i. 15), and according lo rule in the 

second ; sec Winer, Gr. § 20. 4, p. 126. 
The latter, however, seems much more 
simple and natural ; the wdvTOTe is de- 
fined by Trdari Se-fiaei, and irdaT) 5. again 
is limited by inrlp vixQiv, while the article 
attached to hf-qiriv (Alf. seems here to 
argue against himself; compare with 
Meyer) refers it back to the Se'ijtrjs thus 
previously limited : so most of the an- 
cient Vv., Syr., Clarom., Vulg., Coptic. 
Tlic construction adopted by Est., al., 
evxap. — VTrep trdvT. v/x., though else- 
where adopted by St. Paul (Kph-.i. 16, 
comp. Rom. i. 8, 1 Tlicss. i. 2, 2 Thess. 
i. 3 ) , seems here very unsatisfactory. On 
the meaning of Seria-ts (a special form of 
irpoaevxv), see notes on 1 Tim. ii. 1. 
nera xop«s] These words serve to 
depict the feelings he bore to his children 
in liie faith at Philippi ; he prays for 
them alway, yea, and he prays with joy; 
SiriveKais v/j.aii' fj.eixv7]fj.4vos ^vfJirjBias aird- 
CTjs, Theodoret. 

5. Sir] T1J Ko ii/aii'ia] 'for your fel- 
lowship ; ' (tt\ correctly marking tlie cause 
for wliicli the apostle returned thanks, 1 
Cor. i. 4, 2 Cor. ix. 15 ; see Winer, Gr. 
§ 48. c, p. 351. This clause is most 
naturally connected with evxap. (Bcng., 
al., and apparently Greek commentt.), 
not with tjV Sericr. iroiovfi. (Van Heng., 
De W. ; compare Green, Gr. p. 292), 
as tliere would otherwise be no specific 
statement of what was the subject of the 
apostle's evxapiarla,. De Wette urges 
as an objection the use of evxap. enl in 
two different senses, in ver. 3 and 5, but 
this may be diluted by observing tliat the 
first eVl is not (as with De W.) temporal, 
but nemilocal (ethico-local), defining t!io 
subject on which the thanks rest, and 
with wliich they are closely united, the 
difference between whicli and the present 
simply ethical use is but slight. Tims 
then ver. 3 marks the object on which the 

Cn-vi'I. 5, C. nilLirPIAXS. 21 

«vxap- rests, ver. 4 (ktiues when it takes 
place, ver. 5 wliy it takes place. Such 
slightly varied and delicate uses of prep- 
ositions are certainly not strange to the 
style of St. Paul. 

Koivwtltf fls TO fiiayy.] ' JtJlou's/iip 
toward the gospel;' not ' i/i the gospel,' 
Syr., Vulg. (but not Clarom.), but ' in 
reference to,' or perhaps more strictly 
'toward ' (Ilanim.), tlie tU marking the 
object toward which the Koiwvla was 
directed (Winer, Gr. ^ 49. a, p. 3."j3), — 
the fellowsiiip of faiiii and love which 
they evinced toward the gosj)cl jmimirlly 
and generally in tiieir concordant action 
in the furtherance of it, and Sicondarily 
and sfjeciaJIy in their contribution and 
assistance to St. Paul. So in effect 
Chrysostom, &pa rh auvauniKayL^inia^at 
KOivoivia iarl fU rh tvayyiXiov, except 
that he too much limits the (ruvavriKatt.^. 
to the particular assistance rendered to 
the apostle (^o Tlieopiiyl., Bisping.), 
which ratlier api)ears Inculvul in, than 
directly conveyed by. the expression. 
On tlic other hand, the absence of the 
article before «»$ rh tuayy., wliich con- 
fessedly involves the close connection of 
Koiv. at 1 «(j t6 fi/ayy. (Winer, G'r. ^ 20. 
2, p. 123, romp. ch. iv. 15), coupled with 
the cxe;ictical coii>ideration, that in an 
epistle wliich elsewhere so esix-ciaily 
commemorates the liberality of the Phi- 
lippians (ch. iv. 10, 15, 10), such an al- 
lusion at the outset would be both natu- 
ral and probable (coinp De W.), renders 
it dilTicnlt witii Mcy. and Alf. to restrict 
Kotvaivia merely to ' unanimous action ' 
(Alf.), ' bon accord' (Rillict), and not 
to include that particular manifestation 
of it which so especially niarked the lib- 
eral and warm-hearted Christians of Phi- 
lippi ; compare Wiesing. in loc., and Me- 
ander, Ph.i. p. 25. Koivuyla is thus al)- 
tolute (Acts ii. 42, Gal. ii. 9) and alv 
siract, — ' fellowship,' not ' contribution ' 

(Bisp.), a translation which is defensible 
(sec Fritz, on liotn. xv. 20, Vol. III. p. 
2S7), but wliii.!i would mar thi; studielly 
general chanu-ter of the expression. The 
intei'pretation of Theod. (not Chryso^: ), 
al., according to which «ii rh *vayy i- a 
periphrasis for a gen. {Koiywyiuy S* roH 
fiiayy. rr)v wiarif iKaKtaf), is grammat- 
ically untenable ; compare Winer, Cr. § 
30. 5, J). 174. a-wh irpuT rjs 

i)fi(pas] 'from the jirst day,' in wliich 
it was preached among them (euj*' oZ 
(iriffTfiffaTf, Theophyl.), Acts xvi. 13 
sq., comp. Col. i. C. This clau^e, which 
seems so obviously in close union with 
the preceding words, is connected by 
Lachm. (ed. stereot., but altered in larger 
ed.) and Meyer with iKiroi^ui k. t. X., en 
account of the absence of the article. 
Tiiis is hypercriticism, if not error ; arh 
rfxirris k. t. K. is a suliordimUe temjjoral 
definition so closely joined with the ko«- 
nuvia, as both naturally and logically to 
dispense with the article. The in^enion 
of the article would give the fact of tlie 
duration of the Kowtevia a far greater 
prominence than the apostle seems to 
have intended, and would in fact suggest 
two moments of thought, — ' comrauiiio- 
nem camque a prima die,' etc. ; comp. 
Winer, (Jr. § 20. 2, and notes on 1 Tim. 
i. 13. Kvcn independently of these 
grammatical objections, the use of W- 
■KOi^a, wliicii De Wette and Van Heag. 
remark is usually plac-ed by St Paul lii-st 
in the sentence (ch. ii. 24, Rom. ii. 19, 2 
Cor. ii. 3. Gal. v. 10, 2 Thess. iii. 4), 
would certainly seem to suggest for the 
participle a more prominent position ia 
the sentence. The connection with th 
X<v- ((Ecum., Beza, Beng.) seems equal- 
ly untenable and unsatisfactory ; sudi a 
tcnqioral limitation could not suitably Ikj 
so distant from its finite verb, nor would 
OLTii wpuTTjs K. T.A. be in harmony with 
the prcs. (i/xap., or the prior teiui)oral 


TovTOf on 6 ivap^dfjL6vo<; iv vfuv epyov dya^ov iimekeaeL a^t<i 

clause vdvTOTi k. r. K. ; compare De 

6. IT eTToi^o) s aurh tovto] 'being 
conjlclent of this very thiny, viz., that He 
who,' etc., comp. Col. iv. 8 ; not ' 001111- 
dent as I am,' Alford (comp. Peile), but 
witli the faint causal force so often couch- 
ed in the participle, ' seeing I am, etc. ; ' 
' haic fiducia nervus est gratiarum actio 
nis,' Beng. This clause is thus, gram- 
matically considered, the causal member 
of tlie sentence (Donalds. 6V. § 615) ap- 
pended to euxapKTTw K. T. \., standing in 
parallelism to the temporal member, 
iravroTi — Troiovfxei'os k. t. \., and cer- 
tainly requires no supplementary koI 
(Tynd., Flatt, al.), nor any assumption 
of an asyndeton (Van lleng.). The 
accus. avrh tovto is not governed by ire- 
iroi^cis (Rapliel, Wolf), but is appended 
to it as specially marking the ' content 
and compass of the. action' (Madvig, 
Si/»t. § 27. a), or, more exactly, 'the 
object in reference to which the action 
extends' (Kriiger, SpracJd. ^ 46. 4. 1 
sq.), which again is more fully defined 
by the following oti k. t. A. ; comp. Wi- 
ner, Gr. § 23. 5, p. 145, where several 
examples of this construction are cited. 
It is mainly confined to St. John and St. 
Paul, and serves to direct the attention 
somewhat specially to what follows ; 
compare Ellendt, Lex. Soph. Vol. 11. p. 
461. 6 i V ap^ajj-ev os\ 

' lie who hath he(]un ; ' obviously God : 
see ch. ii. 13, and comp. 1 Sam. iii. 12, 
tp^o/xai Kai iirneXea-u ; not ' each better 
one of the Philippians ' ( Wakcf. Sijir. 
Crit. Vol. II. p. 98), — an interpretation 
to which the following ipyov aya^ov (see 
below) need in no way compel us. The 
rerb ivdpx occurs again in connection 
with iitirfX. in Gal. iii. 3, and 2 Cor. viii. 
6 [Laclim., but only with B). The com- 
pound verb does not appear to mark the 
' vim diviuam hominum in anirais aijen- 

tem,' Van Heng. (for see Gal. /. c, and 
comp. Polyb. Hist. v. 1. 3, 5), but per- 
haps only differs from ipx^rStai in this, 
that it represents the action of the verb 
as more directly concentrated on the ob- 
ject, whether (as here) expressed, or un- 
derstood ; see Rost u. Palm, Lex. s. v. 
eV, E, Vol. I. p. 912. 
ev iifjilv] ' in you,' sc. 'in animis ves- 
tris,' compare 1 Cor. xii. 6 ; not ' among 
you,' Hanim., which would scarcely be 
in harmony with virep iravTuii, vfxuiv, ver. 
7. The commencement of the good woii 
was not limited to instances among the 
Philippian Christians, but was spoken 
generally in reference to all. 
epyov aya^ov] 'a good worl,' — not 
' tlie good work,' Luth. : not elsewhere 
used in ref. to God (yet comp. John x. 
32), but only in ref. to man; compare 
Acts ix. 36, Rom. ii. 7, 2 Cor. ix. 8, 
Eph. ii. 10, Col. i. 10, Heb xiii. 21, al. 
Still there is no impropriety in the pres- 
ent use ; the epyov aya^ov, though here 
stated indefinitely, docs not appear to re- 
fer subjectively to the good works ( Si r. ; 
Ta KaTop^d/jiaTa, Chrys.), the epyov tt/s 
TTiffTews (1 Tliess. i.3) of the Phili))pians 
generally (Reuss, Theol. Chie't. Vol. 11. 
p. 172), but rather o^yec//re/y to the par- 
ticular Koivaivia els eiiayy. previously spe- 
cified : God bad vouchsafed unto them, 
among other blessings, that of an open 
hand and heart (Tavrriv vixlv 5aipr]ad/xe- 
fos tV TTpodu/xiav. Tlieod.) ; this blessing 
He will continue. This declaration, 
however, is expressed in a general form ; 
comp. Rom. ii. 7. 

eir IT €\e<rei] ' will accomplish,' 'will 
perfect,' not merely 'will perform it,' .Au- 
thor., but ' will bring it to a complete 

and perfect end,' Syr. ) ^Sa 1 [exple- 

bit] ; see notes on Gal. iii. 3. With re- 
gard to tlie dogmatical application of tlio 
words, which, owing to iheii- pioliable 

CuAP. 1. 7. niiLi ri'iANs. 23 

Tjp,£pa<; Xpia~rou 'Iijaov' ' Ka\)(i)s tariv hiKaiov ep.ol roOro (Ppovuu 

specific reference cannot safely be pressed, 
it seems enough to say with Theoph., 
awh Tu/y irapt^d6y7ti>y koI Tfpl ruv fi.fv6v- 
Twv <rroxa((Tai : tiic inference is justly 
drawn, iliat (ioil who lias thus far hle--<scd 
tlicni with Hi-; j,Tace will also bless them 
with tlie f:ift of perseverance; compare 
1 Cor. i. 8 : ' Gottes Art ist es ja nicht, 
etwas hall* zu thun,' Xeander. The 
charije of 6emi-relaj,'ianisin brought 
ajrainst Clirysostom in loc. has been sat- 
isfactorily disproved by Justiniani, who 
thus pcrs|iicuously suras up that great 
commentator's doctrinal statements ; 
' vult Chrysostomus Deum et incipere et 
perficere : illud excitantis, hue adjuvan- 
tis est i:ratirc ; ilhi liljeri arbitrii conatura 
proevenit, hsec comitatur.' On the doc- 
trine of Perseverance generally, see the 
clear s atements of Ebraixl, ChristlicJie 
Dofimatik, \ 513, 514, Vol. tl. p. 534- 
549. The conclusions arrived at are 
thus stated : ' Perseverantia est effectus 
sanctificationis. Sanctificatio est condi- 
tio perse verantiae. Datur ajwstasia re- 
genitorum, nempe si in sanctificationo 
incrtes sunt,' p. 548 ; compare also some 
admirable comments of Jackson, Creed, 
X 37. 4 sq. ixpis fififpas 

Xp. 'Itjc] ' iiitto, or t//» lo the Jay of 
Christ JtS'is, i. e. SxP* '''V^ Tapouffiai toC 
Kupiou, Theoph. That St. Paul in these 
wonls the nearness of the com- 
ing of t!'.e Lord (Alf ) cannot be posi- 
tively asserted It is ceitainly evasive 
to refer this to future genenitions (to7s 
<{ ifiHv, Tlieophyl.), but it may be fairly 
said that St. Paul is here using language 
whit li has not so much a mere historical, 
as a general and pidcliral reference : the 
day of Christ, whether far off or near, is 
the di'ci-ive day to each individual ; it 
is practically coincident with the day of 
his death, and Iiecomes, when addressed 
to the individual, an exaltiition and am- 
jlificaiion of that term. Death, indeed, 

a^i has been well remarked by Bishop 
Reynolds, is dwelt upon but little in the 
N. T. ; it is to the resurrection and to the 
day of ( hrist that the eyes of the Itelievci 
are directed ; ' semper aJ luatam resur 
rectiunem, tanquam ad sco]>um, refercn- 
di'sunt oculi,' Calv. To maintain, then, 
that this is not the sense in which the 
apostle wrote the words (Alf.) seems 
here unduly and indemonstralily exclu- 
sive Sec notes oit I Tim. vi. 14, and 
compare (with caution) Usteri, LtUrh. ii. 
2. 4. B, p. 326 sq. On ixP« ''"•l M*XP'. 
see notes on 2 Tim. ii 9. 

7. Ka^dii K.r.\.\' fvenas :' explan- 
atory statement of the reason why such 
a confidence is justly felt ; i-ompare 1 
Cor. i. 6, Eph. i. 6. On the nature of 
this particle, see notes on Gal. iii. IG, and 
on Ej)h. I. c. i Ik a toy] 

' riijlu,' ' meet,' scil. ' secundum legem 
caritatis,' Van Ilengel ; it is in accord- 
ance with the genuine nature of my lovo 
(I Cor. xiii. 7) to entertain such a confi- 
dent hoj>e : compare Acts iv. 19, Ep!i. vi. 
1, 2 Pet. i. 13. Alford (with Meyer and 
Dc W.) remarks that the two classical 
constructions are SlKouoy ifit roirro ^p. 
(Herod. I. 39). and SiKai6t ci'iu tovto ^p. 
(Plato, Leijii. X. 897). The last construc- 
tion is the most idiomatic (comp. Krii- 
ger, Sjirachl. § 55. 3. 10), and perhaps 
the most usual in the best Ga>ek, but 
there is nothing unclassical in the pres- 
ent usage ; comp. Plato, liefnilJ. i. p. 
334. Sixaioy T^f rourois rovs royripovt 
w^t\uy. TO? TO ippoyfTy] 

'to think this,' Auth., Syr; 'hoc sen- 
tire,' Vulg. ; I. e. to entertain tliis confi- 
dence : ' ^povtty hie non dicitur de animi 
affectu scd do mentis judicio," Boza ; 
compare I Cor. iv. 6 (U'c), Gal. v. 10. 
To refer toOto to the prayer in verse 4, 
' hoe cursuv pro vohis,' ^Yolf (compartj 
Conyb.). or to the exjicctation in vcr. 6, 
' hoc omnibus vobis ap|>eterc, scil. omni 


vTTep TTcivTcov vfiwv, Sio, TO e^eiv fjie iv rfi KapZla v/xd^^ ev re T049 

cura et precibus ' (Van Heng.), is unsat- 
isfactory, and is certainly not required 
by vTTfp, which occurs several times in 
the N. T. (2 Cor. i. 6, 8; 2 Thess. ii. 1, 
al), in a sense but little different from 
Trepl; see Winer, Gram. § 47. I, p. 343. 
The probable distinction, — •' wepl solam 
mentis circumspectionem, virep simui an- 
imi propensionem significat ' ( Weber, 
Demosth. p. 130), is perfectly recogniza- 
ble in the present case, but cannot be ex- 
pressed without a periphrasis, e. g. ' to 
entertain this favorable opinion about 
you,' ' ut ita de vobis sentiam ct confi- 
dam,' Est. On the uses of inrhp and 
Trepj, see notes on Gal. i. 4, and on ([>po- 
vfiv, see Beck, Seelenl. in. 19, p. 61 sq. 
5 to rh ex^ti> k.t.\.] 'because 1 haoe. 

you in my heart,' ■ t^P « ^ ■ ■* *~i\*^ 

[in corde meo positi] Syr. ; not ' because 
you have me,' Rosenm., Conyb. : the 
apostle is throughout clearly the subject 
and agent (comp. ver. 8) ; the depth of 
his love warrants the fulness of his confi- 
dence. In all cases the context, not the 
mere position of the accusatives, will be 
the surest guide ; compare John i. 49 : 
see also Winer, Gr. § 44. 6, p. 294. The 
translation of Beza, ' in animo tenere ' = 
' quasi insculptum habere memoriae ' 
(&(!^eaTov irepi^epu t7]v ^vi\fji.riv , Theod. ; 
see especially Justin, in lac), is opposed 
both to the similar affectionate expres- 
sions, 2 Cor. iii. 2, vii. 3, and to the pre- 
vailing use of KapSia (comp. Beck, Bill.. 
Seelenl. in. 24, p. 89 sq., notes on eh. iv. 
7, and on 1 Tim. i. 5) in the N. T. It is 
the fervent love of the apostle that is ex- 
pressed ; and in this remembrance is ne- 
cessarily involved; compare Chrysost. 
in loc. iv re toTs Sec- 

fio7s K.7.X.] It is doubtful whether 
these words are to be connected with the 
preceding Sib. 7h ex^"' ''• '''• ^- (Chrys., 
Theoph.), or with the succeeding avyKoi- 

vuivovs fiov K.r.K. (Calvin, Lachmunn, 
Tisch.). Neander and the majority of 
modern commentators adopt the l-ormer ; 
the latter, however, seems more simple 
and natural. The apostle had his confi- 
dence because he cherishes them in his 
heart; and he cherishes them because 
their liberality showed that whether in 
his sufferings (5e<r;ao7s), which they alle- 
viated, or in his exertions for the gospel 
(rp k-KoX. Koi fiep.), with which they sym- 
pathized, they all were bound up with him 
in the strictest spiritual fellowship. On 
re — Kal, which here serves to unite two 
otherwise separate and distinct notions, 
slightly enhancing the latter, see 
tung, Parlik. Vol. ii. p. 98, and comp. 
notes on 1 Tim. iv. 10. 
iv TT) airoXoyia k.t.\.] 'in my de- 
fence {of) and confirmation of the gospel.' 
These words have been somewhat per- 
versely intei-preted. 'AiroAoyia and iSe- 
fiaiwffis are certainly not synonymous 
(Rheinw ), — nor do they form an hen- 
diadys, sc. a7ro\. els fiefi. (Heinr. ; com- 
pare Syr. ' dcfcnsione quce est pro veri- 
tate [confirmatione] evangelii'), — nor 
can Tp BTToA. be dissociated from toD 
evayy. (Chrys.), both being under the 
vinculum of a common article (Green, 
Gr. p. 211), — nor, finally, docs it seem 
necessary to restrict the clause to the ju- 
dicial process which resulted in the apos- 
tle's imprisonment (Van Heng.). It 
seems more natural to give both words 
their widest reference ; to understand by 
airo\oyia, St. Paul's defence of tiie gos- 
pel, whether before his heathen judges 
(compare 2 Tim. iv. 16) or his Jewish 
opponents (comp. Phil. i. 16, 17), and 
by fielBaiaxTei his confirmation and estab- 
lishment of its truth (Ilcb. vi. 16), — not 
by his sufferings (Chrys., Thcod.), but 
by his teacliing and preaching among his 
own followers and those who resorted to 
him (compare Acts xxviii. 23, 30) : sco 

C-.'M'. I. 7,8. 

I'lll Lll'l'I ANS. 


^t(TfioU fiov Kat iv rfj uTroXoyia kuI ^t/Sauocrei tov eva^f/eXiov 
air/KuivcopoV'i fxov tt/s" ')(iijino'i Tramwi v/jui^ ovra<;. " fxapru^ yap 

8. (lou iffiiu] So liec. with ADEKL ; great niiijority of mss. ; very inauj Vv. 
(but Vv. ill sucli cases can scarcely l)C dej)ciided on for either side) and many Ff. 
{Griesh. [Imt oin.], Sdiolz.). Tlio itrrly is omitted \>y Tisclieiid. and bracketed by 
fyichm. with BFG ; 17. 67**; Vulg., Claroman. ; Chrysost. (ms.), Tbeod.-Mops. 
{M(yir, Alf.). Tlic external evidence seems too decidedly in favor of the in^ertioa 
to bo overltalanced by the somewhat doubtful internal argument that iarlv is a rem- 
iniflcenco of Roni. i. 9 (Mcy., Alf.). Jt does not seem much more probable that 
the transcriber should have borne in mind a remote reference, than that the ajtosile 
should have twice used the same formula. 

the good note of Wieseler, Chronol. p. 
429, 4;i0 

a uy K IV uvov S ic. t. A..] 'seeing that 
loth in my di fence of and. etc., ye are all 
jiartakers with me of my yrace ;' ' ut qui 
omnos mecum consortes estis gratiaj,' 
Schmid ; compare llamm., and Scholef. 
Uiitts, p. 104. The preceding v/xas, fur- 
ther characterizcil as tv re — avyKotv., is 
rhetorically repeated (see Beriihardy, 
Synt. VI. 4, p. 275 sq.) to supjiort irdv- 
ras ; the whole clause serving toex|ilain 
the reason for the ^x*"* ^^ "''J? «ap5ia. It 
is doubtful whether ^i)u is to be connect- 
ed (a) with (TvyKotvuvous as a second gen- 
itive (Syr., Copt.), or (l>) with t^i X'^'- 
roi (lomparo Clarom., Vulg.), the pio- 
noun being placed out of its order ( Wi- 
ner, Cr. ^ 22. 7. 1 ) to mark the ivfea-nce 
of the prep, in auyKoii/. As ffvyKoiy. is 
found in the N. T. both with persons (1 
Ccr. ix. 23) and things (Rom. xi. 17), 
tlic context alone nuist decide; this, in 
consequence of the meaning assigned l>c- 
low to x*^?'^) seems in favor of (a) ; com- 
pare ch. ii. 30 : so Hammond, De Wette. 
rf/s x<^P''''o^1 '^'•'-^ reference of this 
subst. has been dilTcrently explained : 
the Greek commentators refer it more 
specifically ' to the grace of suflfering,' 
romp. ver. 29 ; Rosenm., nl. to the ' mu- 
nus apostolicuni,' scil. ' yc arc all assist- 
ants to me in my duty,' Storr, Peile ; 
others again to the ' cvangelii donatio,' 


compare Van lleng. ; others to grace ia 
its widest acceptation, Kph. ii. 8, Col. 
i. G (De W. Alf.). Of these the first is 
tuu restrictive, the others, especially the 
last, too vague The article seems to 
mark the x^P'^ "s that vouchsafed in both 
the cases previously contemplated, suf- 
ferings for (ver. 29), and exertions in 
belialf of the gospel. The translation 
' gaudii,' Clarom., Vulg., Ambrst., al., is 
apparently due to the n-ading x<«f"r> 
though no Jiss. have been adduced in 
which that variation is found. 

8. fidpT vi ydp K. r. \.] 'For God 
is my wiliu'ss ; ' earnest continnation of 
the foregoing verse, more especially of 
Sta rh (xftv n( iv rij KapSta ufjias. Chrvs. 
well says, o^x ii ajri<rToi'^*vof fiaprvpa 
Ka\f7 rhv &e6v, oAA' ^k iroA.Aijj Sia^tafus. 
The reading /loi [DEFG; al. ; Chrys. ; 
Lat Ff.] would scarcely involve anv 
change of sense ; it would perhaps onlv 
a little more enhance the personal Rela- 
tion, us ^Tmro.^o»] 'how 
I long nfl,r you : ' comp. ch. ii. 26, Rom. 
i. II, 1 Thess. iii. 6, 2 Tim. i. 4. The 
force of M in this comj>ound iloes not 
mark intension (' vchemcnter desidero,' 
Van Ileng. ; 'expetam,' Beza), but, as 
in iirtdvtxt7y and similar words, the direr- 
tion of the trS^os ; sec notes on 2 Tim. ii. 
4, and Fritz. Rom. \. 9, Vol. i.p. 31. 
Again, it seems quite unnecessary with 
Van lien;;, to restrict the t6^os to ' tcs- 


P H I L I r P I A N S 

Chap. I. 8. 9. 

Tov ^Irjaov. ^ Kal tovto Trpoaev^o/xai, Iva r] a/ydirrj vjjlwv en 

trae consuetutlinis desideriura ; ' the long- 
ing and yearning of the apostle was for 
something more than mere earthly reun- 
ion ; it, was for their eternal welfare and 
blessedness, and the realization, in its 
highest form, of the x"/''^ o^ which they 
were now avyKoivuvoL The context 
seems clearly to decide that «s here, and 
piobably also Rom. i. 9, is not 'quod' 
(liosenmuller, De Wette) hut ' quo- 
modo ' (Syr., Copt.), scil. 'quantopere,' 
' quam prepense,' Corn, a Lap. ; com- 
pare Chrysostom, oh ovvaThv elirfTv irus 

iv air\dyx''ois X. 'I.] This forcible 
expression must not be understood mere- 
ly as qualitative, — ' opponit Christi vis- 
cera carnali aliectui,' Calv., but as serai- 
local, ' in the bowels of Christ,' in the 
bowels of Him with whom the apostle's 
very being was so united (Gal. ii. 20), 
that Christ's heart had, as it were, be- 
come his, and beat in his bosom : comp. 
Merer in loc, who has well maintained 
this more deep and spiritual interpreta- 
tion 'Ei/ thus retains its natural and 
usual force (contr. Rilliet), and the gen. 
is not the gen. anctoris or orii/inis (Har- 
tung. Casus, p. 17), as apparently Chrys. 
(TirXdjxi'a ycip ai/'rr; [t] trvyyeueta 7] fcaTO 
X().] ■',IJ-'ti' x^P'C*''''^'' ^''1'' simply /ws.sess/iv. 
We can hardly term this use of a-wxdy- 
xya (c"'t:n"i) completely Hebraistic, as 
a similar lise is sufficiently common in 
classical Greek (see examples in Rest u. 
Palm, Lex. s. v. Vol. ii. p. I.'i04); the 
verb (r:rAa7x«"'C''M'"; however, and the 
adjectives iro\v(rir\ayx''os and eUairKay- 
Xvos (when not in its medical sense, Hip- 
pocr. p. 89) seem purely so, while, on 
the contrarj-, the substantive ivairXayx- 
via occurs in Eurip. Rhes. 192. For a list 
of Hebraisms of the New Test, judi- 
ciously classified, see "Winer, Gram. § 3, 
p. 27 sq. 

9. Ka\ TOVTO irpoff.] ' Etiioc preaxr' 
but not ' propterea precor,' as "Wolf, 2 : 
the KoX with its simple copulative force 
introduces the apostle's prayer (ver. 9 — 
1 1 ) alluded to in ver. 4, while the tovto 
prepares the reader for the statement of 
its contents, ' and this which follows is 
what I pray.' Tiie koX (as Meyer ob- 
serves) thus coalesces more with tovto 
than vpo<T€ ; not koI irpocr. tovto, 
but Koi tovto irpoff. To connect tho 
clause closely with what precedes (Ril- 
liet) destroys all the force of ver. ^ 
'lva\ The particle has here what has been 
called its secondary telic force (see notes 
on Ep/t. i. 17) ; i. e. it does not directly 
indicate the purjtcse of tiie prayer, but 
blends with it also its subject and purport : 
Theodoras in loc. paraphrases it by a 
simple infin. It may be again remarked 
that this secondary and blended use (esp. 
after verbs of prayer), though not recog- 
nized by Meyer and Fritzsche, cannot be 
safely denied in the N. T. : there are 
numerous passages (setting -iside the dis- 
puted use after a prophecy) in which the 
full telic force ( ' in order that ' ) cannot 
be sustained in translation without arti- 
fice or circumlocution ; e. rj. comp. Meyer 
on John xv 8. Wc may observe further, 
that this use o'-'lva is not confined to the 
N. T. : it wes certainly common in Plel- 
lenic Greek (see examples in Winer, Gr. 
§ 44. 8, p. -SOC), and in modern Greek, 
under the form .'(t witli tlie su'j., it lapses 
(after a large clasi' of verbs) into a mere 
])criplirasis of the infinitive ; see Corpe, 
Gnniim. pp. 129, 1.'30. 
7] a yd ITT] vfj.wv] 'your loiv/ not, to- 
wards tlie apostle ( Chrys. ), — which had 
been so abundantly shown as to leave a 
prayer for its increase almost unnecessa- 
ry ; nor again, 'toward God ' (Just.), 
nor even, ' towards one another,' Meyer, 
Alf. (Theodorus unites the two : comp. 

Chap. 1.9. Til 1 LI 1' 1' I A N S. 2'. 
fidWou Kai fMciWov irepLaa^vT) iv tVr/fa>cret Kai Tzuaij aia^^ijCreL^ 

Wiesinj,'.), both of which seem uiiiicc-es- important particulars, a sound kuowl- 

sarily restrictive. It seems rather ' to- edge of the imth and a rit,'ht spiritual 

wards all ' (eomp. De Wette), — a love perception, and of both of which it was 

which, already shown in, and forminj,' to have still more and motv. Tltfjiaatu- 

an element of, their Koivavia, ver. 4 (not av is tlius not absolute, but clo-cly in 

identical with it, Alf.), the ajiostle prays union with iv and its dative, and may Ihj 

may still more and more increase, not so considerctl •lenerally and jiractically as 

much /jt r ,•!(», a.s in the special elements identical with a/*M«t/«/-e and an alilative, 

of knowledu'c and moral perce|)tion. Kx- the substantives defining; the elements 

amples of the very intelli;;ible fiu.K\ov kou and items in which the increase is real- 

fmWof will Ije found in Kypke, OI>s. Vol. ized ; compare 2 Cor. viii. 7, Col. ii. 7, 

II. p. 307. nfptafffVTi al. Ijirhmttiin, Tisilundorf read -rtpur- 

iv ic.T.X.] 'may alound in f:iiou-l>d;/e fftvar} whh U\)E ; al., but as two of these 

and all (ereri/ form of) i>ercei>ltoii,' not MSS., DK, adopt tlie aor. in ver. 20 with- 

' in all knowledge and perception,' Lu- out critical support, their readinj: is here 

ther, — an attraction for wliicli there su-picious. iirtyf. Kai 

seems no authority. The exact force of irdtrij oiV^.] These two substantives 

ii) is somewliat doulitful ; it can scarcely may be thus distin-^ni'hed ; iwiyfwffit 

[a) appro.ximate in meanim; to fifrd, ' acurata coirnitio' (see notes on /i/'A. i. 

Chrys. (who, however, fluctuates betweeti 17), denotes a sound knowledjie of theo- 

this ])rei)0.-<ition and t|), Corn, a Lap., retical an<l practical truth (Mcy.), t>,»» 

al. ; for this use, thou.'h {grammatically irpo(ff]Kov<TaM fvijiiaiv twv tls apfTrjy avv- 

defensible (com]), examjiles in Oreen, Ttivivrtnv, Theodoras. Afffdijeru, * sen- 

(Jr. p. 289), is not exe-retically sati>fae- sus ' (Vulg., Claix>ni.) is morc }:eneric, 

tory, as ver. 10 shows that it is not to but herc, as the conte.xt implies, nmst 

ayiin) to'jether icitli iiriyv. and aiffb., but Iw limited to r'x^ht spiritual dis(crument 

to iiriyv. and alad. more espcciallv, as *"• <j. " *■ 

1 • 11^- .1.1 ' .1 . (>^»099 N^,-SGil^ [intelli<rentia siiiri- 

msphcnn;; and dehmng tliat love, that ' • i >- i 

attention is diivcted ; nor (/-) does it ex- tus] Syr.), a sensitively correct moral 
actly denote the manner of the inca-asa i)erception {v6i\<Tii, Hesych.) of the true 
(De W.), as this a-^ain seems to jrivo nature, good or bad, of each circum- 
too little prominence to ^iriYi/. and cuV^. ; stance, case, or object which ■ xpcrience 
nor, lastly, is iv here instrumental, Flatt, may present ; compare Prov. i. 4, where 
lleinr., — as love could hardly be said it is in connection wiiii tcvoio. and Exod. 
to increase by the agency of knowledge, xxviii. 3, wlietie it- is joined with ao<pia. 
Tlie prep, is thus not simply equivalent It only occurs here in ilie X. T. ; the in- 
to fi€Tc{, Kari, or 5i(i (much less to «ij, strumenial derivative (uV.^T^pioi' ('orjran 
comp. Winer, Hr. § 50. 5, p. 370), but of feeling,' etc.) is found Hel). v. 14; 
with its usual force marks the sphere, ele- compare Jer. iv. 19. The adjective xiinj 
ments, or particulars, in which the in- is not /n/t-HA/iv (' plena et solida.' Calv.), 
crease wi\s to take place ; compare Winer, but, as api)arently always in St Paul's 
^7;-. (f 48. a, p. 34.'>. It was not for an Kpp., extmsive, ' ever}- form of; ' i-omp. 
increase of their love absolutely that the notes vn Eph. i. 8. 

apostle jirayed. for love might iK'come 10. (is t6 So«r i^dCcif k.t.a.] 'for 
tiic sport of every impulse (comp. Wic- i/ou to piore ihinysthtitarc rxceJleiit ;' par- 
sing.), but it was tor its increase in tiio pose of the -^tpiatr. iv imyv. koI al<r\ 

28 PIIILIPPIAXS. Chap. I. 10 

1^ et? TO BoKLfjbd^etv vfia<; la Bia<p6povTa, 'iva ^re et\iKptV€l<i Ka\ 

(not result, — a meaning grammatically 
admissible, but here inapplicable ; com- 
pare Winer, 6V. 44. 5, p. 294, note), to 
which the furtlier and (inal purpose iVa 
^T6 K. T. A. is appended in the next clause 
The words Bok. to. 5ia(p., both here and 
Rom. ii. 18, may correctly receive two, if 
not three, different interpretations, vary- 
ing witl) the meanings given to Siacpe- 
popra, and the sliade of meaning assigned 
to SoKifxiC^iu. Thus they may imply 
either {a) ' to prove (distinguish between) 
things tliut are different,' i. e. to discrimi- 
nate {'^oKii.i.a^iiu Kou. SiaKpiveiy, Airian, 
Epict. I. 20), — whether simply between 
what is riglit and wrong (Tlicoph. on 
Rom. ii. IS, De W.), or between differ- 
ent degrees of good and their contraries 
{eiSeyai riva /xff Ka\d, r'lva Se Kpiirrova, 
riva Se iravTaTratri to. Biatpophv irphs &\- 
\Tl\a exofTa, Thcod.) ; so Beza, Van 
Heng., A!f., al. ; (&) ' to approve of things 
that uie excellent,' ' ut probetis potiora,' 
Vulg., TO. 5jo<J)€'poj'Ta being used in the 
same sense as in Matth. x. 31, xii. 12, 
Luke xii. 7, 24 (Meyer adds Xen. Hier. 
1. .3, TO dia<p., Dio Cass XLiv. 25), and 
SoKiiJ.d(eiv in its derivative sense, comp. 
Piom. xiv. 22, I Cor. xvi. 3, and exam- 
ples in Eost u. Palm, Lex. s. v. ; so Au- 
thor., Mey., al ; or lastly (hi) ' to prove, 
bring to the test, things that are excellent,' 
Syr. [ut discernatis convenientia], JEth. 
[ut perjiendatis quJB prjestat], the pri- 
mary meaning of 5ok. being a l.ttle more 
exactly preserved ; see Eom. xii 2, Epli. 
V. 10. Exegetical considerations must 
alone decide ; these seem slightly in fa- 
vor of tlie meaning of 5ia<p4povTa (' ]wa'- 
stabilia, sc. in bonis optima,' Beng.) 
adopted in (6) and (b\), — the prayer for 
the increase of love being more naturally 
realized in proving or approving what is 
excellent, what is really worthy of love, 
than in merely discriminating between 
what is different. Between (6) and (hi) 

the preceding ala^ricrei and the prevailing 
lexical meaning of Sok. decides us in fa- 
vor of the hitter ; so Tiicophyl. (rh avfi- 
(ptpoy SoKifjidcrai koI iinyuuivai rtVos n\v 
Xprj <pi\uv Kol Tivas fi^i), and apjjarently 
Chrysostom, Beng. {' e.rplorare ct am- 
plecti '), al., who ajipear correctly to hold 
to the more exact meaning of SoKL/xd^fw : 
comp. notes on Eph. v. 10. 
eiXiKpive'is] ' ]iinr,' 2 Pet. iii. 1 : 
compare 1 Cor. v. 8, 2 Cor. i. 12, ii. 17. 
Tlie derivation of tJiis adjective, though 
a word not uncomnio;) eitlier in earlier 
or later Greek, is somewhat doubtful. 
The most probable is iliat adopted by 
Stallbaum (Plato, Phad 77 a), who de- 
rives it from cIAoj [lie must mean etAjj] 
anAKplvtu, with reference to a root el\e7v. 
As, however, the primary meaning of 
this root is not quite certain, el\iKp. rtay 
be either ' what is parceled off by itself 
(gregatim), with reference to «?Aij (see 
especially Buttmann, Lixil. § 44, and 
compare Post u. r.ilm. Lex. s. v.), or 
more probably, ' \o'.ul)iii agitatione se- 
cretum,' witli reference to tiie meaning 
vulrtre, which has recently been indicated 
as the primary meaning of eJAeTy ; see esp. 
Pliiiol. Museum, Vol. i. p. 405 s(j. So 
appy. Hesych. elKiKpivh- rh Ko^aphv koI 
a/xtyes eTtpov ; see Plutarcli, Quasi. Rom. 
§ 26, flKiKpivh Kol a/xiyes ; lb. Is. ct Osir. 
§ 54, Ko^aphs ouS' i'lAticpivris, and cs]). 
§ Gl, where to. e'lAmpi:/', and ra fiiKTo, arc 
oppo-ed to each otlier ; compare also 
Slax. Tyr. Diss.rsl. Tlie more usual, 
but less iinib., derivation is from etAij, 
'splendor' [' EA-, cognate with 2EA,* 
Bcnfcy, Wurzellcx. Vol. i. p. 460], in 
wliich case the rough breathing would bo 
more suitable ; compare Schneider on 
Plato, Rep. II. p. 123. Several exam- 
ples of the use of el\iKp. will be found in 
Loesncr, Ohs. p. 350, Ky[;ke, Obs. Vol. 
II. p. 398, and Eisner, Obs. Vol. ii. p. 
10, of which the most pertinent are 

CUAP. I. 11. 

riiiLiri'i ANs. 


uTTpuaKoirot fiV ijfiLpav XpcaTou, ^^ 77e7rX7;pw/xtfOi Kapiruv ciKaio- 
cvi/T)^ rui> Bia hjcrou Xpia-oii, tiV co'^av Kal tiraLuov t)kuu. 

those above. oTpiJ<r«oiro«) 

' without ojjtnct, stiintblinf/ ; ' * inurtciiso 
cursu,' Bcza ; intransitively as iu Acts 
xxiv. IG, Ilesyc'li. aaKcwSdXiaToy ; com- 
pare Suiccr, Tt'iesanr. s. v. Vol. i. [>. 495. 
C'lirys. and others ;,'ivc an active mean- 
ing, as in I Cor. x. .32, ' givinj^ no of- 
fence,' (i\iKp. marking tlieir relation to 
God, air£6aK. their a-lation to men. This 
hardly accords with the context, in which 
their inward state and relations to God 
form the sole sulijeet of the prayer. It 
will be best, tlien, in spite of 1 Cor. /. c, 
to maintain tlie.intransitivc meaning ; so 
apj)arcntly Vulg., Syriac, Coptic ; but 
these are cases in which tiie Vv. scarcely 
give a definite opinion. 
€/i J) (if pa V Xp.] ' ogniiist the daij of 
Christ ; ' ' in diem,' Vulg., scil. "va r6T( 
tvpth7)Tt Ko^apol, Chrys. ; — not ' till the 
day,' etc., Auth. Ver. (compare Beza), 
which would rather have been expressed 

by fixP'* W<V»^' '^ •" ^^^ ^- '^'>*^ prep- 
osition luis here not its tcm/'oml, but its 
ethical force; compare ch. ii. 16, Ephes. 
iv. 30, and notes on 2 Tim. i. 12, On 
tlie cxprcssi.n vufpa Xp. see the notes on 
ver. 6. 

11. irfK\r)p<Dfityoi k.t.K.] ' lieing 
Jilltd icith thtj'ntit <J' riyhttoiisness ; ' mo- 
dal clause defining more fully dXiKp. ical 
iirp6<TK., and specifying not only on the 
negative, but also on the positive side 
the fullest and conifjetcst Cliristian de- 
velopment. The accus. Kopirhv [KapiriHiv, 
litc, is unsupported by uncial autliority] 
is that of ' the remoter object,' marking 
tliat in which the action of the verb has 
its realization ; so Col. i. 9, irAijpa<^"jT< 
r^iv iviyvaxriy roij i&fX^/taTOj ; coin|niro 
Hartuiig, V'isiis. p. 62 sq. and notes on 
1 Tim, vi. 5, wliere this construction is 
discussed. If we compare Rom. xv. 14, 
ircK\iipo)fi(voi trdffjjs yvdaeois, we may 
recognize the primary distinction be- 

tween the cases : the gen., the * whence- 
case,' marks the absoluie mattriul out of 
which the fulness \si\8 rcitliztd (compare 
Krii;^er, Si'rachl. ^ 47. 16) ; the accus., 
the ' whither-iasc,' the object towards 
which and along which the action tended, 
and, as it were, in the domain of which 
the fulness was evinced ; sto 5>clieuerl., 
Si/nt. § 9. 1, p. 63. The gen. SiKaioTvtnrts 
is the gen. oriijinis, that f.ora which the 
Kopiehs emanates (Ilartung, Casus, p. 63}, 
or perhaps more strictly, that of the ong- 
inuling cause (Sehcuerl. Si/nt. § 17. 1, p. 
125), — a Kapnh^ that is the production of 
SiKaioavvT] ; compare Gal. v. 22, Eph. v. 
9, James iii. 18, and on t!ie meaning of 
Kap-Kos, notes on Gal. I. c. 
AVith regard to tlic strict meaning of 5«- 
KaioiTvvT) it may be briefly remarked that 
wc must in all eases be guided by the 
context : here ver. 10 and the a])p. empha- 
sis on Kopirhv point to Siv. as & morsil 
hal'itus (comp. Chrys.), as in Rom. vi. 
13, Eph. V. 9, al., — not 'justification' 
proper (Rilliet), but the righteousness 
which rosults from it and is evinced in 
good works ; so C;'.lv , Meyer, De W. 
On the distinction between the 'lighteoas- 
nessof sanetilication ' and the ' righteous- 
ness of justification,' see espcciilly the 
admirable sermon of Hooker. § 6, Vol. 
HI. p. 611 (ed. Koble), and on the doc- 
trine of justification penentlly, the short 
but comprehensive ta'atise of Waterland, 
WurLs, Vol. VI. pp. 1 -3S. 
rhv Bta 'I. X. serves to specify the 
KopirSu, as l)eing only and solely throu;:h 
Christ ; compare notes on 2 Tim. i. 13. 
This fruit is a communication of the life 
of Christ to Ilis own (Wicsing.) ; it re- 
sults from ' the jnin* grace of Christ our 
Lord whereby wc were in Him (l>y the 
working of the Spirit He sent. Gal. ii. 
20, iii. 22, Mey.] made to do those good 
works that God had appointeil for as to 



CiiAi'. I. 12, K 

Know that my sufFerings 12 T^,,„' _,,^,,. SJi S.,.^.^ /^„,'.^„. „ ' SJ ^ JL ' " 

have furtherej; the gospel. ^ \ lVCOaK6iV be V/XU^ f^OvXofiaC, ubeXcfiOl, OTt 

for Christ ia preached by ^^ ^^j' ^„^ aoXXov 619 TTOOKOTTrw Tov evayyeXiuv 

ull. I indeed would fain ' ' ' 

depart to Christ, but for iXljXv'^ei^, "^^ W<7Te TOj)? SeCTyLtOU? flOV (f)avepOV<i 

your sake I shall remain. 

walk, in,' iT/w^r Edw. VI. Catech., cited 
by Waterland, J«s<// Vol. vi. p. 31. 
(is 5 J I a v Kal fv. e o £>] ' to the 
praise and glory of God : ' the praise and 
glory of God is the ' finis primarius ' of 
the TTeTrArjpaiff^at. Hence ' ad gloriam,' 
Beza, is more exact than ' iu gloriam,' 
Vulg., Clarom. ; see notes on Eph. i. 6. 
Ad|a is here, as Meyer pertinently re- 
marks, the ' majesty ' of God per se, 
iiraivos, the ' praise and glorification ' of 
the same; compare Eph. i. 6, 12, 14, 1 
Pet. i. 7. 

\2. yiviiiff Keiv 5€ k. t. A.] 'Now 
I would have jjoii know ; ' the transitional 
Se (Ilartung, Partik. 5e, 2, 3, Vol. i. p. 
165) intruduc'.s the fresh subject of the 
apostle's present condition at Rome, his 
hopes and f ars ; compare Rom. i. 13, 1 
Cor. xii. 1, 1 Thcss.iv. 13, al. It seems 
rather far-fetched in Meyer, followed by 
Alf., to refer yiuclxTK. to eV tTrtyv. above, 
' and as a part of this knowledge I would 
have you know,' etc. There certainly 
seems no peculiar emphasis in ytuciaKeiv ; 
the order is the natural one (comp. Jude 
■'■l when ^ovKojxai is unemphatic ; con- 
tra>t 1 Tim. ii. 8, v. 14, al. Though 
few minor poiiits deserve more attention 
in the study of tlie N. T. than the collo- 
cation of words, we must still be careful 
not to overpress collocations which arise 
not so much from design as from a natu- 
ral and instinctive rhythm ; compare 2 
Cor. i. 8. rrt /cot' e/ue] 

' nvj circumstances,' ' rcinim inearum con- 
ditio,' AVolf ; comp. Eph. vi. 21, Col. iv. 
7, Tobit X. 8, and see illustrations in 
Eisner, Ohs. Vol. ii. p. 234, Wetst. in 
Eph. I. c. In such cases Kara is local, 
and mark-?, as it were, an extension 
alon'jr an object; compare Acts xxvi. 3, 
and see Winer, Gr. § 49. d, p 356. In 

late writers, /caret with a personal pro- 
noun becomes almost equivalent to a 
possessive pronoun, and with a substan- 
tive almost equivalent to a simple gen. ; 
comp. 2 Mace. xv. 37. 
naWov] ' rather ; ' not ' maxime ' or 
' excellenter ' (compare Beza), but ' po- 
tius,' rather than Avhat might have been 
expected, — viz. hinderance : see Winer, 
Gr. § 35. 4, p. 217, by whom this use of 
the comparative is well illustrated. 
TrpoKoir-fjv] ' advance,' 'furtherance ; ' 
a substantive of later Greek condemned 
by the Atticists, see notes on 1 2'im. iv. 
15, and confpare Triller on Thom. M. 
s. v. p. 741 (ed. Bernh.), who, though 
perhaps justly pleading for the word as 
an intelligible and even elegant form, is 
unable to cite any instance of its use in 
any early writer, Attic or otherwise. Ku- 
merous exatnples, especially out of Plu- 
tarch, are cited by Wetst. in loc. 
e\-f)\vbfu] ' have fallen out,' Author. 
Ver. ; compare Wisdom xv. 5, els vi/nSos 
fpXfrai. Further but doubtftd exam- 
ples are cited by Raphcl, Annot. Vol ii. 
p. 499 ; at any rate, from them take out 
Mark v. 26, Acts xix. 27 (cited even by 
Meyer), in which eA^eTc certainlv implies 
nothinu' more than simple (ethieul) mo- 
tion. Alford adduces Ilerodot. i. 120, 
6$ aff^evfs epxerai. which seems fully in 

13. Sxm Tovs SecTfi. k. t. \.] 'so 
that my bonds have become manifest in 
Clirist ; ' illustrations of the above trpo- 
KOTTri ; first beneficial result of his im- 
prisonment : ' duos nunc sigillatim apos- 
tolus fortunte sure advcrsaj niemomt cf- 
fectus,' Van Heng. The order of the 
words seems clearly to iiuply tiiat e«'_Xp. 
must be joined, — not with oeaixovs, Au- 
thor. Ver., al., scil. ' ad provchendum 

Chap, I. IJ. I'll ILiri'IANS. 31 

ii' Xpicrry ytvta^at ti> oXro rco TrpaiTcopt'fo Ka\ roU XoittoU Traaiv, 

Cliristi honorem,' Calv., but with tpaff- 
povi , on wliicli, perhaps, there is a sliylit 
emphasis ; tlic Stvfiol were not Kpuvrol, 
but ipai/fpoi ; nor <pav€po\, only, bu^^ovf- 
po\ iv Xp.y ' nianifesta in Cliristo,' Chi- 
roni., niaiiilL'st — not ' throwjh Christ,' 
Theoph., (Eeum., but 'in Christ,' mani- 
fest as home in fellowship with Him, and 
in His service. On this important qual- 
itative formula, which must never be 
va<;ncl\' explained away, see notes on 
Gal. ii. 17, and for a brief explanation 
of its ^rencral force, compare Hooker, 
Scrm. 111. Vol. III. p. 7G3 (ed. Keble). 
The variation tpav. yfviab. (Chrys. adds 
Touj) ivXp. with DEFG; Boem., Vulg., 
nl., shows pcihaps that some diinculty 
has been felt in the connection. 
ill o\o) T w V pair.]' in the wJiole prato- 
riuni.' The meaning of irpcuTwpiov in 
this i>a^s:i;,'e lias been abundantly dis- 
cn-sed. Taken persa, the adjectival sub- 
stantive ' pnvtormm ' has apparently the 
foUowin'j: meanings: (a) 'the general's 
tent,' se. ' te:itorium or talwmaculum ' 
(Livy, VII. 12), and derivatively 'the 
council of war' held there (Livy xxvi. 
15) ; (b) tlie ' palace of a provincial gov- 
ernor' (Cicero, I'err. iii. 28; coitpare 
Muttli. xxvii. 27, Mark xv. 16, al.), sc. 
'domicilium,' and thence derivatively, (o) 
'the palai-o of a king ' (Juv. x. IGl ; 
compare Acts xxiii. 33), and even (/3) 
' the mansion of a private individual ' 
(compare Suet. Octai: 72) ; lastly, (r) 
' thcJ)odv:^iartl of the emperor ' (Tacit. 
IIi:tt. IV. 40) ; and thence not improba- 
bly, {(I) ' t!ie guard-house or barracks 
where they were stationed ; * compare 
Scheller, L'T. s. v., from which this ab- 
stract has !)cen compiled. In the pres- 
ent passage Chrys. and the patristic ex- 
positors all adopt (/', a) and refer t!ie 
term to ' the emperor's palace' (ri 0aa[- 
Kna), but since the time of Pcrizonius 
{(le Pnrt. «/ Prtvtorlo, Franeq. Ifi87) 

nearly all modem commentators adopt 
(</}, and refer irpauT. to the ' castrum Prae- 
torianorum ' built and fortified by Seja- 
nns, not far from the ' Porta V'iminalis ;' 
compare Suet. Tllxr. 37, Tacit. .Inn. iv. 
2, Dio Cass. lvii. 19. The jjatristic in- 
terpretation, on account of the la.x use of 
' pnetorium,' seems fairly defensible : 
as, however there is no proof that the 
in)perial palace at Rome was ever so 
called, and as it is exjiressly said. Acts 
xxviii. IG, tliat St. Paul was delivered 
T<f (TTpaTOTte^apxy (one of the two Pra;- 
fecti Pnetorio, perhaps Burrus), and by 
him assigned to the custody of a (Prae- 
torian) soldier, it seems more probable 
that the apostle is here referring to the 
' caitrum Pr.X'torianoruin,' — not merely 
to the smaller portion of it attached to 
the palace of Xero (Wieseler, C/ironol. p. 
403, followed by Hows. [Vol. ii, p. 510, 
cd. 2], and Alf. in loc.), but as oAy and 
the su!)scquent generic to~s \otiro7s rturiv 
seem to imply, — to the whol". camp of 
the Praitorians, whether inside or outside 
the city, — in which general designation 
it is not improb d>le that the oi«c(a Kcdtra- 
poi (chap. iv. 22) may be included : see 
notes in loc. The interjir. ' hall of judi- 
cature,' Hamm., al. (see Wolf in loc.), 
does not appear either satisfactory or 
tenaltle. The argutnents 

based on this passage by Baur ((/<t Af>osi. 
Paul, p, 469 sq.) against the genuine- 
ness of this Ep. must be pronounced 
very hopeless and unconvincing. 
Kal rols \oiTo7i] 'and to all the 
rft{/,' beside the Pnetorian camp, • reli- 
quis omnibus Roma; versantibus,' comp. 
Neandcr. Plmttinrj, Vol. i. p. 3 1 7 ( Bohn ) : 
not 'the re<t of the Praetorians ' (Wiese- 
ler, Chronol. p. 457). a meaning too lim- 
ited ; nor, ' hominibuscx/f-r/s (gentilibus) 
quibnscunqne,' Van Heng., a meaning 
which 01 \o\iro\ certainly doc-s not neccs- 
sarilv bear. Vulg., .Eth , and Author. 


P II I L I r P I A N s . 

Chap. I. 14, 15. 

^^ Kol TOV'i TrXeiova'i tmv uheX^wv iv Kvplw TreTTOL^ora^ Tot9 Seer* 
fMOc<i fiov 7repiaaoTipa)<i roXfidu a^6/3(o<i lov koyov XaXeiv. ^^ Tive<i 

refer To?y Xoiirols to locality, ' in other 
places' {iy T?7 iroAet Tratrj?, Clirys.), the 
dative l)eing under the vinculum of ii> : 
this is grammatically possible, but, as 
\onrhi is not elsewhere applied to places 
in the X. T., not very probable; comp. 
2 Cor. xiii. 2. 

14. Kttl Tovs TTXeiovas] ' and that 
the greater part of the brethren : ' second 
benefi(Mal effect of the apostle's imprison- 
ment. The presence of the article obvi- 
ously shows tliat ir\eiovas must here re- 
tain its proper comparative force, — not 

'many,' Auth. Ycr. m,ai:(7 [multitu- 

do] Syr., but ' the greater portion,' ' the 
more part,' as Author, in Acts xix. 32, 
xxvii. 12, 1 Cor. ix. 19, xv. 6. So also 
2 Cor. ii. 6, iv. 1 5, ix. 2, where both Lu- 
ther and Auth. incorrectly retain the 
positive. iv Kvp. ir eir o i^.] 

'having in the Lord cortjidence in my 
bonds ; ' not ' in regard of my bonds ' 
(Piatt, Eill.), which vitiates the construc- 
tion; the dative not being a dative 'of 
reference to ' (comp. Gal. \. 22), but the 
usual transmisslvc dative. At first sight 
it might seem more simple and natural 
M'iih Syr. to connect iv Kvplw with ateX- 
<puv, ' brethren united with, in fellowsliip 
with tlio Lord,' — a construction admis- 
sible in point of grammar (Winei-, (Jr. § 

20. 2, p. 123), but open to the serious 
objection that though the important mo- 
dal adjunct, eV Kvplci), occurs several 
times in St. Paul's Epistles with sub- 
stantives or quasi-substantives, e.^. Rom. 
xvi 8, 13, Eph. iv. 1, vi. 21, Col. iv. 7, 
it if never found with a5e\(p6s : Eph. vi. 

21, cited in opp. by Van Heng., is not 
in point ; sec Meyer in lac. On the con- 
trary, ireiroii^. is found similarly joined 
with ev Kvp. chap. ii. 24, Galat. v. 10, 2 
Thess. iii. 4, comp. Rom. xiv. 4. The 
objection that in these and similar cases 

ireTTota-. stands first in the sentence (Alf.), 
is not here of any moment ; tlie empha- 
sis rests on e'l' Kvpiw, and properly causes 
its precedence : surely it must have been 
' in the Lord,' and in Him only, that con- 
fidence could have been felt — when in 
bonds : so rightly Meyer, and very de- 
cidedly Winer, Gr. § 20. 2, p. 124. 
TTfpiffffoTipws r o\ nav] ' are more 
ahundantljj liold,' scil. than Avhen I was 
not in bonds ; not ' arc very much em- 
boldened,' Conyb., a needless dilution of 
the comparative ; ' hAc freti plus solita 
audere debemus, jam in persona IVatrum 
pignus victoriiB nostrse habentes,' Calv. 
The construction adopted by Grotius, 
Baumg., Ci-us.i, al., irept<r(T. atpSfiois, i. e. 
a(poPooT4pcos, is eminently unsaisfactory; 
each verb naturally takes its own adverb. 
With a(l)6$uis \a\uv, comp. Acts iv. 31, 
f\a\ow rhv Xoyov tov &eov fiera. Trapprj- 
aias, a passage which may have suggi st- 
ed here the insertion of the ncarlj' certam 
gloss TOV Qeov, as in AB ; about 20 mss. ; 
majority of Vv. [Lachm.). The varia- 
tions (see Tisch.) serve to confirm the 
shorter reading. 

15. rives /j.ev k. t. \.] ' Some in- 
deed even from envy and strife:' excep- 
tions to the foregoing; 'this is the case 
with all; some preach from bad motives.' 
Tiie previous definition, iv Kvp. Treiroi^., 
seems to render it impossible that the 
Tivh fxkv should be comprised in the 
adiXipol, ver. 14. The mention of ' speak- 
ing the word' brings to the apostle's 
mind all Avho were doing so ; he pauses 
then to allude to all, specifying under 
the rivfs fxev (obs. not oi fitv as in ver. 
\&) his Judaizing — not his unbelieving 
(Chrys.) — opponents, while in nvh Se 
he reverts to the sounder majority men- 
tioned in ver. 14. Kal, witli its common 
contrasting force in sucli collocations 
(see notes on chnp. iv. 12; comp. Klotz, 

Chap. I. 15, 10. IMI T T. I P T I A N S . 33 

/xev Kill Bia <f>^6vov Kal epiv, riv€<{ 8e Koi Bl evdOKiav tuv \pi<nov 
KT]pv(T(Tovaiv ^'' ol [itv fc'^ uyuTTij^;, eiouT€'i oTt el'i inruXoytau ~ov 

L)i:iar. Vol. II. p. C'iC, and cxaniplos in point of view, and us forniin;^ t!ie oppo- 

Iluniui;:, Ptiiiil:. Vol. i. pjt. I.IG, l.'JT) site puny to those hut nientloticd, Tliu^ 

inarks that tlieio were, alas ! other mo- of those who fij)ake the word, rivii fiiv 

lives lieside tlie jrood ones that ini;tht ho were factious and envious, rn/is it lull 

inft-rred from tiie preiedin;; words. Al- of jrooil will and kindly feel in;.', and tiiese 

ford reft IS koI to rifd, ' besides those latter were they who constitute the irA*«-' This, however, docs oyas rwv aSf\<pwy, vi:r. 14. 

not seem tenahle. Si a 16. o« fiiv i^ a7(£irTjs] ' those in- 

ip^6i'ov] 'oil acroiiiil of tnvij' or more detxl (thai an) oflorr ('/o sf) ; ' se. £1^*1, 

i,Iioniati«aily, 'from envy,' ^foi^ envy,' comp. Rom. ii. S, Gal. iii. 7. The two 

— to <rratify that evil feeling ; so Matth. classes mentioned in the last verse are 

xxvii. 18, ^^ark xv. 10, comp. Winer, now by oj ^f" ii»d of 5t a little more cx- 

Cr. <) 4?>. c, p. ."J.'i.j, and notes on Gd. iv. actly specified, the order bciiiir inverted. 

13. Al'.ierti adduces somewhat pcrti- In lice, the more natural order is pre- 

nently I'iiilenion (Major, a comic i)oet, served, but is very insuQicienlly sup- 

II. c. ;i.'!0] 7roAA.a fxf 5i5a(r/c€is acpbovus ported, viz., only by one of the 8C<ond 

5io (p^'ivov; see Meincke, Cum. Fnifjm. corivciors of 1), K (L omits oj fuv e'{ 

\'ol. IV. p. 55. It is scarcely necessary iptb. to fxov), otiier mss. ; Syr.-1'hilox. 

to add tliat the translation Uimidcxwy' and other Vv., and several Givek Ff. 

(.lowcit 0)1 Gill. iv. 10), is quite untcna- The Auth. Ver. and apparently nearly 

lile : 5ia with an ucct(s. in local or quasi- all the older expositors make ol n\v tlio 

local references is purely i)oetical ; com- subject, and refer i\ d^amjs to the sup- 

])are Berniiardy, Sipit. v. 18, p. 23C. plied clause, Tbt- Xp.Krjp.: so also Maith., 

5i' (vSoKiay] ' un account of , f, urn , good Alf., and other modern commentators. 

will,' knb vpoAvn'ias aTrdffijs, Chrys., — This is plausii>lo at first sijrht, but on a 

towards tlio aposilc ; not towards others nearer examination can hardly be main- 

in respect of tlicir salvation (Kst. ). Do tained. For, /jVs/, ^|a7dir7)s would thus bo 

W. objects to this meaniii;^ of (vSoKia as only a kind of rcpmition of 5io (vSokiov, 

notsulnciently confirmed, and adopts tho as also e{ ipib. o{ Sta ipdoyov; and ser- 

transl. ' ;:ood pleasure,' sc of me and my ondly, the force of the causal participial 

nlTairs. This seems somewhat hy])ercriti- clause would be much impaired, f«>r tho 

cal ; ^urely the opposition 5io <pb6voi> o'jcct of t!ic ajiostie i< rather to specify 

coupled with i^ aydwrji-, ver. IG, seems the motives which caused this difiVn'ncc 

suflicicnt to warrant the cunxMit transia- of l>chavior in tlie two clas>es than merely 

tion ; see Fritz. />om. Vol. 11. p. 372, to reiterate the mtturc of it. Si-n csp. 

whose note, however, is not in all points Do Wette 1*1 Ax-, by whom ilie present 

pcrfectlv exact ; comp. notes on A'/)/i. i. intcri)retaiion is ably maintainetl ; .«o 

5, and the quaint but sugj;estivc com- Meyer, Wics., an<l (in langua;:e perhaiis 

ments of AndixMves, Sum. xiii. Vol. i. too confident), Van Ilen^. : wheivappy. 

p. 230 ( Anjxl.-Cath. Libr.). The ^•al all the ancient versions aiv on the other 

refers to contrary motives just enunciat- side, it is not wise to l>e too ]>o>iiive. (^n 

ed ; and the j^arty s]iecificd under riyis the expression, 0/ i^ i^cJjTTjj, ' qui ab 

5(', thoujrh practically coincident with the amore originem ducunt,' see notes on 

■ir\eloi-n, are yet, as De Wetto rii^htly Gal. iii. 7, and Fritz, on lutm. ii. 8, Vol. 

observes, put slightly mulcr a dilVerent i. jv 105. *i5($Tf j 5ti «:. t. X.l 




Chap. I. 17. 

evayyeXlov Keifiat, ^"^ o'l Be i^ €pL^eia<; rbv Xptarov Karayy^- 
Xovacv ou)(^ ayuo)<;, olo/xevot ^Xl-^lriv iyeipeiv roi? Secr/iot? fiov. 

' as they know that I am appointed for the notes on Transl. 

defence of tiiegospel,' i. e. ' set to defend KaTayytWoiKXiv] ' declare,' ' pro- 
the gospel,' Tj-nd., Cran. ; participial claim;' in effect not different from /ceputr- 
clause cx]ilainin;i: the motives of the be- anv, ver. 16 {KarayyiWerar Kripvaa-erai, 
havior, compare Rom. v. 3, Gal. ii. 6, Hesych.), but perhaps presenting a little 
Eph. vi 8, al. They recognize in me more distinctly the idea of 'promulga- 
the appointed defender of the gospel, — tion,' 'making fully known' (Xenoph. 
not the incapacitated preacher, whose Anab. ii. 5. 11, tivI t)}v iTrtfiov\7]y} ; 
positinn claims their help (Est , Fell 2), comp. 1 Cor. ix. 14, Coloss. i. 28, and 
but the eneri^etic apostle whose example Acts xvii. 3, 23, in which latter book the 
quickens and evokes their co operation, word occurs about ten times. It is pe- 
Kf7fiai has tl'.us a purely passive refer- culiar to St. Paul and St. Luke. In 
ence, not ' j ;cco in oonditione miserS,' this compound the preposition appears 
Van Heng. (a meaning lexically defensi- to have an intensive force, as in Kara- 
hie, see examples in Rost u. Palm, Lex. Xtyeiv, KaTa<pay(7v k. t. A. ; see Rost u. 
8. v.), but ' constitntus sum,' JEth., 'I Palm, Lea:, s. v. IV. 4. 0-Jxa.yvus'''m&'m- 
am set,' Autli., Qeos ix.e Kex^ipoT6vr\Ke, cerely,' 'with no pure intention,' (ou/c 
Theodorct : so Luke ii. 34, 1 Thess. iii. uMnpivois oiiSe hi ahro to irpayna, Chrys- 
3. The apostle was in confinement, but est.), belongs closely to Karayy., and 
not, as far as we can gather, either in marks the spirit in which the}' performed 
misery or in suffering; compare Conyb. the (coTa77€Afa. On the meaning of ay- 

and Hows. St. Paul, Vol. ii. p. 515 sq. 
airoAoylav rod ehayy. is refeiTcd 
by Chrys., Thooiih., and CEcum. to the 
account (ras evbvvas] of his ministiy. 

vos ('in quo nihil est impuri ') see notes 
on 1 Tim. v. 22, and Tittm. Synon. i. p. 
22. 01 6 /J. f v 1 K. r. X.] 

'thinking {thus) to raise up, etc.;' not 

which the apostle would have to render exact!;/ parallel to elSSres, ver. 16, but 

up to God, and which tiie co-operation of explanatory of o'jx ayvais. The verb 

oihers might render less heavy. This ot'etr,^ot seems here to convey a faint idea 

seems artificial: airoKoyia is nowhere ofintention, though of an intention which 

used in t!ie N. T. in reference to God, was not realized ; e. (j. Plato, Ajiol. 41 d, 

and can hardly have a different meaning olS/xei/oi fiAdirreiv (cited by De W.) ; Ka» 

to tliat whicii it bears in v. 7 ; sec Wie- Ka\u)s flire rh olS/xevoi- ov yap ovtois f|e- 

scler, Chroiiol. \). 430 note. ^aivev, Chrysost. The reading eyeipuv 

17. oi Se 6 1 ep*(&«ioj] ^ hut thei/ (Zi^c. €7ri(/)e'p€ij') is suppoi'ted not only by 

{that are) of parti/ feeling/ or dissension ; ' the critical principle, ' prodivi lectio:ii 

opposite class to oi i^ aydirrjs, ver. 16. praestat ai'dua,' but also by the weight of 

On the derivation and true meaning of uncial authority, ABDipG ; so too, three 

ipiSrtia, — not exactly ' contention,' An- ms.s., Vulg , Clarom., Gotii., al., and the 

thor. (comp. Vulg., Syr., Copt.), follow- best modern editors, 

cd by many modern commentators, but to?s Setrfiols /x""] ' ««'" my bonds ' 

'intrigue,' ' party-'~-pirit' (dcatSwj Kara dat. incommodi, Jelf, Gr. § 602. 3; en- 

n'ijv ayopav TrepiiiJfTes, Tlieod.), as appar- deavoring to make a state already suffi- 

ently felt by Clarom. ' dissensio,' and ciently full of trouble yet more painful 

•perhaps iEth., — see notes on Gal. v. 20. and afflicting. There is some little doubt 

On ithe most suitafblc. translation, comp. as to the exact nature of this ,^A./>//«y. Is 

CiiAiv I. 18. rillLU'i'lANS. 35 

'^ Tt 7"P; 7r\ijv Travjl TpoTTto, eire Tvpot^uau eiVc a\rpicla^ 

itoiitwaid, i'.*. daii;j;cr8 from the iiiHumcd 
liutioil ui' IfC'itlitn enemies {CluA>ost.), or 
iiiward, i. *>. ' troul)lc of spirit ' (Alt'oid) ? 
I\ot tlie latter, wliieli is not in liarinony 
Willi tlic studiedly oltjeetive Sfafiuti, or 
with the pnvaiiin;.? use of dKl\ifii in the 
N. T. ; — nor yet exaetly as Chrys., a!., 
whieh seems too restricted, if nor artifj- 
cial, but, more prolmhiy, ill-tix-atment at 
the hands of Jtuv and .hiduiziiuj Ohris- 
liaii^J, wliieli the false teaching of the oi 
tf ipi^(ia% would be sure to call forth. 
C.'.ilvin very prudently ohserves, 'erant 
piurima; occasiones (Apostolo iiocendi] 
(|Uie sunt nobis inco;:iiitiU qui tern])oruin 
circumstamias nou teneiuus.' 

18. ri yoLp] ' Wluit tlini;' 'quid 
enim,' Vulg.. or perhaps more exactly, 
'([uid cr;.'0 ; ' not 'quid i^^itur,' Beza, 
which is not commonly thus used in in- 
de])cndent questions The uses of ri 
yap may be approximately stated as 
three . (<i) aiyumfntatire, answering; very 
nearly to th^ Lat. • quid enim,' and while 
lontirming or explaining the jtreceding 
sentence, otien serving to imply tacitly 
that an opponent has no answer to 
make ; sec Hand, Turstll. Vol. it. p. 386. 
It is thus often followed by another in- 
terrouration ; compare Uoin. iii. 3. Job 
xxi. 4; {!>) iiffinmilice ; answering vent' 
nearly to ' prolecto ' or the occasional 
'quid ni' of the Latins (Hand, Turstll. 
Vol. IV. p. 18G); compare Eurip. Oresf. 
481, Soph. (Ed. Col. 547, and see Herm. 
Viger, No. 108, and Ellendi, Lex. Soph. 
Vol. I. p. 5.37, who however has not suf- 
ficiently disi-riminatcd between the ex- 
amples adduce<l ; (c) rhctoriial, as ap- 
parently here, answering more nearly to 
'quiderjo" or 'quid ergo est' (Hand, 
Tursill. Vol. It. |>. 45G), and marking 
eommon'y cither a startleil question (ann- 
paix" C7v(/ Co!. 544, 552), or, as here, anil 
apparently ,Iob xviii. 4, a liriilc transition 
I' ubi quis cum alacritato quadam ad 

novum Kententiam transgre<litur,' Kiih- 
ner on Xenoph. Mtiiwr. ii. C. 2). and 
thuu perha|)S diftering from the cultuer 
■rl oly. Ill every one of these eases, how- 
ever, the pro|>er (brcc of 70^ (' sane pro 
rebus compuratis ') though Kucce.ssively 
becoming more obscure, may still be rec- 
ognized ; here, for example, the tjues- 
tion amounts to, ' things being then as I 
have descril>e<l them, what is my state 
of feeling?' Sec Klotz, Dnar. Vol. 11. 
]). 247 8(1. All su]>plements, lia^ipti 
(Chrys ), /aoi (xiKft (Theopli.), ^aufitw 
(Van H.), etc., are jK-rfectly unnecessa- 
ry, if not uncritical. 

Tr\r\v\ ' uotifitlistniidiiifi,' 'nevertheless;' 
this particle, probably connected with 
irAt'oj' ( Pott, Jili/m. J'oisrk. Vol. II. pp. 
39, 323), not with WAas (Hanung, P<ir- 
tilc. Vol. II. J). 30), has pro[K'rly a com- 
parative force, especially recognizable in 
the disjunctive comparison v\))v <5 (see 
Donalds. Cratjl. § 100), and its use with 
the gen. e. 7. Mark xii. 32, John viii. 10. 
This might Ik; termed its prtfositional 
use It however soon |ia.<sed by an in- 
telligible gradation into an aditrlial use, 
and came to imply little more than oAAd, 
* nevertheless, ' ' abgeseben davon ' (ch. 
iii. 16. iv. 14, I Cor. xi. 11, Eph. v. 33), 
with which particle it is not unfrequently 
joined ; sec Klotz, Deror. Vol. 11 j) T2."i. 
•wavrX TpdiTft'] ' in evtTjf uyii/,' scil. o! 
preaching the go^jicl, more exactly de- 
fined by firf — tXrt. At first sight tlicro 
might seem some difiiculty in this lenity 
of St Paul towards false, and |K'rliaps 
heterodox teachers. — men against w hom 
he warns his converts witli such empha 
sis in c!i. iii. 2. The answer s<H'm< rea 
sonablc, that St. Paul is here contcin 
pbuing the /tersoiud motives nither than 
alluding to the doctrines of the preach 
crs ; nay, more, that jiervcrted in man} 
respects as this preaching might be 
Christ is still its subject, and to th« 

36 PHILIPPIANS. Chap. I. 18 

XpiaTCf? KarayyiWerai, koI ev tovtco '^aipto' aWa Koi 'X^apijao/xat' 

large heart of the apostle this is enough ; 
this swallows up every doubt and fear : 
' let then the word be preached, and let 
it be heard ; be il sincerely, or be it prc- 
ten^cdly, so it be done, it is to him [St. 
Paul] and should be to us, maiter (not 
only of contentment, but also) of rcjoic 
ing,' Andrewcs, Spvin. ix. Vol. v. p. 
191 (A.-C. Lihr. ) ; sec especially Nean- 
dcr, Pl(iiiti>ifj, Vol. I. p. 318 (Bohn), and 
compare Stier, Ileden Jesu, Vol. ill. p. 
29. efre ir po<f)dff f t /c. r. A.] 

' whether in jireterice or in truth ; ' datives 
e.xpressivc of the manner, technically 
termed, niodnl datt. ; see "Winer, Gr. 
§ 31. 6, p. 193, and especially Jclf, (Jr. 
§ 603, by whom this use of the dative is 
well illustrated ; compare also Hartung, 
Casus, p. G9: The phraseological anno- 
tators, especially Wetstein and Raphcl 
(Vol. II. p 500), adduce numerous in- 
stances of a similar op])osition lietween 
irporpaais and aXrjSrfia or TaArj^es ; these 
are quite enough, independently of the 
context, to induce us to reject the trans- 
lation of npopdaet, adopted by Grot., al., 
'occasione,' /. p., 'be the good not in- 
tended but only occasioned by them,' 
Hammond. On the more general mean- 
ing of the here more limited aA?'?^eia, 
compare Reuss, The'ol. Cliret. iv. IG, 
Vol. 1 1 . p 169. iu T 1) T f)] 

' therein,' ' in this state of things,' scil. 
that Christ is preached, though from dif- 
ferent reasons ; comp. Luke x. 20. This 
use of Qu TovTc,', nearly = Germ. ' darii- 
ber,' though apparently not very com- 
mon in the bc^t prose, is certainly no 
Hebraism (Rillict); see Winer, Gram. 
§ 48. a, p. 346. Meyer compares Plato, 
Republ. X. p. 603 C, ev rovrois -Kucnv -7) 
XvTrovfxivovs *; X'"P'"'''''*S- 
hWbi Ka\ xap] 'iff^y "^"^ I shot I. re- 
joice : ' not exactly, a e I virep rovruy x^- 
frfiao/xai, Chrys., Galv., but, in more strict 
connection with the following fut., vhen 

the awo^. els acoT. is being realized. The 
punctuation is here not quite certain. 
LachiH., followed by Tisch. and Meyer, 
places a full stop before aWa, and a co- 
lon after x°^Pv thus connecting olSa yap 
more immediately with the present 
clause. This seems right in principle 
bot'.i on grammatical, as well as exeget- 
ical, considerations : a colon, however, 
as in text, seems preferable to a full stop, 
for there is a kind of sequence in the 
Xalpw and x^'-P' Avhich can hardly 
be complete/// interrupted. De W., Van 
Heng., and others who retain the com- 
ma (Alford has a comma in text but a 
colon in translation) suppose an ellip- 
sis of o'j fjLovov before x'^'^P'^- 'I his is 
very unsatisfactory. 'AWa koI has here 
its idiomatic meaning ' at etiam,' the 
faintly seclusive force of aAAa serving 
specially to confine attention to the new 
assertion which the kuI anni xcs and en- 
hances ; see Fritz Iiom. vi. 5, Vol. i. p. 
374. It may be observed that in these 
words, and also in some uses of the idi- 
omatic aWa yap, aKka /xev, the primary 
force of dAAa ( ' aliud jam hoc esse de quo 
sumus dicturi,' Klotz, Lhvar. Vol. ii. p. 
2) is so fiir obscured that it does practi- 
cally little more than impart a briskness 
and emphasis to t!ie declaration ; see 
Klotz, /. c, p. 8, Hartung, Partlk. Vol. 
II. p. 35. Lastly, we should be careful 
to distinguish between the present use of 
aXKa Ka\ and (a) Avhere a hypothetical 
clause precedes, evoking a more distinct 
o])position, e. ej. 1 Cor. iv. 15, 2 Cor. iv. 
16; [h) where an opposition is involved 
iu the terms themselves, e. g. Diod. Sic. v. 
84 (Fritz.), cV rals vrjaois aWa koI Kara 
ryjv 'Afflav; or (c) where aAAa occurs in 
brisk exhortation, e. (j. Soph. Pliiloct. 
796, aAA' Si riKvov Ka\ ^dpaos tax^ i '" 
which passage Hermann's proposed 
emendation ii bapaos does not seem 
cither plausible or necessary. 

CiiAi-. T 19. I'HILIVriANS. 37 

J. . 'f ''^"^ 

*'•' olSa yap uti tovtu ^ol inrofit'jcreTai eU (T(07t]piav cia rPj^ v/jloju 

I'J. o/5u ydfi\ C<tiitinii;itii)ii of tlio iiii>ati>factory iiK'aiiiii;: in .1 ii'vmati<iil 

words imiiif(li; proctiliii;.', tlif ydit |)oiiit of view, this is not ^'raminutically 

Imvlnj,' its siniplr ar^'unicritaiive lone, exact. No article ii« required. Laclj 

If with Calv., IJisp.. al. this clau>e be isulintantive has it.-> own deliiiiii;; ;.'enitivc, 

referred to ver. 17, yap must liave more and on tiii.s account the second may Uis- 

of an ej/^/ii/Ki^""^ force (conip. notes un |K'nse with its article; to Winer, (jr. 

6'(i/. ii. G) : such a ref., however, is un- ^ 19. 5, p. 118 (ed.G). Meyer is unfort- 

dulv re;ircssive ; tovto liere can only unate in referrin;; to Winer in sup|»ort 

mean the same a.s^oi^T^ ver. 19. — the of his inierjjretaiion, aj< that {Tanimarian 

more extended prcachin;,' of the gospel exprcssly adopts the more natural con- 

of Clni>t. The words ToiiTo — amrripiav ^truciion. ivtxop'^y^o.^ 

occur in Job xili. Iti, and »H(/j/ have l)cen to On v.] ' supidi/oj^lhe Sitirit.' 'riie>e 

a reminisicncc. fls words admit of two interprctaiions ac- 

troiTTjpfav] ' to siilnttioii.' The exact cordin>; as rov Tlf. is considered a gen. 

meaning' of ffwrvpia has l)ecn very dilVcr- ofijecti or sitbjccti ; compare Winer, (jr. 

entlv explained. It lias been referred to ^ .30. 1, p. 108. If the former, the mean- 

(«) ' salus rur/iorta,' scil. ' csca])c from in;; will be, 'the supj)ly which is tlie 

present danjrer,' araXKayiii', Chrys., who Spirit,' the ^'cnitivc being tiiat of tdmlily 

however fluctuates; 'preservation in or o/'/wsiV/'o/i (Scheuerl. S;/ii(. ^ 12. 1, p. 

life,' rh oaov oitSt irw naprvpiof, (Ecum., 82, 83) ; so Chrysost., Theopli.. CEcura. 

and a|)parently Syr. ; (/<) ' salus s/jiVZ/m- If the latter, the meanini; will be tho 

alls,' ' Seelenheil,' I)e Wette, ' his own ' supply whidi the Spirit gives,' the gen. 

fraitfulness to Christ,' Alford ; (<) both being that of the ou(jin or ufftitt (Ilar- 

uniied, ' for good, whether of soul (Rom. tung, t'nsns, p. 17) ; so Theo<loret, De 

viii. 28) or of body' (Acts xxvii. .34), W., Mey. This latter intei-pretation is 

IVile, Bloonif. ; ((/) 'salus semjn'tnna,' on the whole to l>e jircfcrred, as the par- 

whuther (o) in reference to others (Cirot., allelism, 'the prayers you ofler — the 

damn. I, or {0) in nf. to himself, ' suam aid the Spirit supplies,' is thus more ex- 

salntem veram ct pcrennem,' Van Ileng. a tlv retained. Wiesing. and Alf. urge 

The last of these meanings alone .seems Gal. iii. .'), but this can hardly Ik- consid- 

to satisfy tlie future refeR-nce (oirojB.), cred sufticiently in point lo tix tlio iiitcr- 

nnd is most in accordance with the piv- pretation. Still less tenable is the asser- 

vailing nieaning of eriMiTqpia in St Paul's tjon that the gen. su!ii(cti would have re- 

Ej'istles : com]>arc ver. 28, ch ii 12, and (juiird the order rod Xlv. *I. X. iv^xop. as 

€1$ awT. Uom. i. 16, 2 ii. i:i. in Kpli. iv. 16 (Alfonl) ; for in the first 

5io T Tj s K. T. \ ] • llirowjh your siippli- jilace examples of the contrary (and in- 

cation iintltlir siiiijili/ of' llie aiu'iit of, T. ('.:' deed, usual) order arc most abundant, 

the two means by which (he ao)ri\pla. is see Scheuerl. Si/nt. p 126, Winer, Gr. 

to be iralizcd. intercessory supplication p. 1 67 ; and in the next place the gen. 

on the p:iri of man, and supply of the in Eph. /. c. is confessedly of a different 

Spirit on the part of God. Meyer and grammatical class ; scv notes in lac Tlnj 

Alforil reganl the gen. iwtxoprryias ivs Spirit is here termed rh Uy. 'Irjo-. Xp., 

dependent on iifiiliv, ' yoiir supply to me not rnerely because Christ gives Himself 

(by that prayer) of. etc.,' on the ground spiritually in and with the Holy Ghost 

that 5ii r'ls, or at least Trjs wouKl have (Meyer on Rom. viii. 9). but that 

been inserted. Independently of the very eternal Spirit prL>reods from t!ie Son ; so 

38 PHILIPPIANS. Chap. I. 20. 

B€r]<T€(o<; Kol i7n^op7]yia<i tov IIvevfMaTO<; ^Irjcrov Xpc<770v, ^^ Kara 

Pearson, Creed, Vol. i. p. 383 : in a 
word the genitive is not so much a Jetin- 
itive or quasi-posscss. gen., as a simple 
genitive oriyinis, ILirtung, Casus, p. 23. 
Lastly, on (Trixopijyla, which perhaps re- 
tains a slif/ht siiade of the primarv mean- 
ing of x<'P'?7- i" t'i*2 ampleness and liber- 
ality which it seems to iiint at op the 
part of the gift and giver, see notes on 
Coloss. ii. 19, and Harless on Epkes. iv. 
16. The e'irl is directive, not intensive ; 
see notes on Eph. I. c. 

20. Kar a T-Jji/ airoKap.] ' accord- 
ing to my expectation,' sc. ' even as I am 
hoping and expecting,' Syr., ' sicut spe- 
ravi et confisus sum,' jEth. The curi- 
ous word airoKapaSoKia (Hesych. irpoffSo- 
Kia, aireKSoxv) only here and Rom. viii. 
19 in the N. T., is derived from /capa, 
and SoKfw [possibly allied to a root die, 
' monstrare,' Pott, Eti/m. Forsch. Vol. i. 
p. 185, 267] and properly denotes ' cap- 
itis, scil. oculorum animique ad rem ab 
aliquo loco expectandam attenta conver- 
sio,' and thence derivatively ' patient, 
persistent, looking for' (Rom. viii. 19), 
and, with a further weakened force, 
'calm expectation,' as in this place; the 
meaning necessarily varying with that of 
the simple KapaSoKuv, which, from the 
ideas of 'attention' (Eur. Troad. 93) 
and 'observation' (Polyb. Hist. x. 42. 
b), passes to those of 'suspense' (Eur. 
Med. HIT) and simple 'expectation' 
(Eur. Iph. Aid. 1 433). The prep, airh 
is not properly intensive, as in airob(pi6a, 
aTro\f/evSofMai, k. t. X. (Tittm. Si/non. p. 
106 sq., and even Meyer on Rom. viii. 
19), but local: it primarily (so to say) 
localizes the Kapa^oKeiv, by marking ci- 
ther (a) the yAwcQ, from which the obser- 
vation is maintained, e.(j. Joseph. Bell. 
Jud. III. 7. 28, comp. Polyb. Hist, xviii. 
31. 4, or (b) the quarter whence the thing 
or issue is looked for, e. 7. Polyb. Hist. 
XVI. 2. 8, — and comes thence, as in 

a.TTfKSixof^O'^ (Germ. ' abwavten,' see notes 
on Gal. V. .')), with a gradual, but intel- 
ligible, evanescence of the local idea 
(' quidquid enim expectcs alicuiide tc id 
expectare oportet,' Fritz.), to imply little 
nicwe than tUeJixedness, jiermanerf"^ and 
patience (not ' solicitude,' Tiitin ) with 
which the olwervation is continued, or 
the expectation entftlained ; see Winer. 
de Verb Compos. IV. p. 14, and especially 
the excellent discussion of Fritz. Fritzscit. 
Ojiusc. pp. 150-157. 

on iv ovhevl oicx-] ' that in nothing 
I shall be. put to shame.' These words 
admit of various possible interpretations ; 
for example (a) on may be either relati- 
val, ' that,' rh i\iri(fiv on, Chrys., or 
argumentative, ' because.' ' quia,' Vulg., 
Clarom. ; [b] oiiBevl may be cither neuter 
(Syr., Auth., al.), or masculine in refer- 
ence to the preachers of the gospel (Ho- 
elem.) ; again (c) at(rx"f^- may be either 
passive, ' confundar,' Vulg., or with a 
middle force, ' pudore confusus, a!) offi- 
cio deflectam,' Van Hengel. In this 
variety of interpretation w^e must be 
guided solely by 'the context: and this 
seems certainly in favor of the above 
translation; for («) on far more natu- 
rally follow s i\iris as defining the subject 
to which it refers (comp. Rom. viii. 21) 
than as supplying the reason why it is 
entertained ; the latter interrupts the se- 
quence, vitiates the logic, and leaves the 
object of hope undefined. Again, (b) 
oiiSei/i cannot be masculine ; for if so, it 
would Ijave to be arbitrarily referred onlij 
to the better class of those mentioned 
above, whereas if neuter it remains per- 
fectly general and inclusive, not merely 
oijTf iv Tw ^f/i/ oi/re tV davuv, Thcoph., 
— but, 'in no respect, in no particular' 
(comp. ver. 28), thus forming an antith 
esis to ej/ irdffT) irap^. Lastly, {>■) aitrx 
cannot logically be taken with any mid 
die force ; St. Paul can scarcclv know 

Chap I. 20. 

I'll I Lirri A XS. 


ji/v uTTOKapaooKLav Kui tXiTioa fiuv, on tv oiiOevi aia^vi^ii,(TOfiait 
a\X tV Truer/; Trappijcna o)^ trdmoTe kui vvv fieyaXvu^ijaeToi 
Xpiarus tf Tio (TcofiuTi fj-ov, tire 6ia ^wyv €lt€ Cia '^avdrov. 

that (lie preaching will turn out to liis 
ealvuiion, and yet only ho])C nud c\|)cct 
that lie shall not full from his liuty. 
What tlic a|iostlc docs hope and expect 
is, not merely bn oli wtptttroyrai otiroi, 
Clirys., St» Kpfiaaaiy taofiai rHiv huax*' 
puf, Tlu'od., hut n)ore ^'cuerally, that he 
shall not he hrou;;ht to a. t^tate of shame 
(2 (^r. X, 8, 1 John ii. 2S), that he shall 
not fail in the hi;:hest duties and aims of 
his life ; see l)e NVcttc i'm loc., wiio aptly 
com|>aivs the llelirew -J-ia Psalm xxxiv. 
5 (LXX. Karaiaxuvi^). Ixix. 2 (LXX. 
aiax"i'-^f^V<^iiy), iind contrasts St. Paul's 
favorite term Kavxatriat. 
iAA' i If waffp irapf>.] 'hut (oii_ the 
corilrari/) in all Mdiiess;' antithesis to 
the fi)rc;.'i)iii^ clause introihuod with the 
full fone of the ad vcrsative aAAa. riatrri, 
as has often heen remarked (see vcr. 9), 
is not »|ualitativo, ' une pioine lil)ert(5,' 
Kill., hut, as usual, quantitative, 'every 
form and manifestation of boldness,' 
forminjr an exact opposition to iv o'jSfA 
above. '£»> irapJ)Tjaia is tims not men-ly 
' in joyfulncss ' (Wicsing., comp. Epii. 
iii 12), and certainly not tracptcf (pavfput, 

CEum., comp. Svr. |>^| ^S.^-*...S 

- -» ^ 

[rtvelat.'i f.icic], but, as ihc contrast and 

context bot!i imply, ' in liducia,' Vulg., 

' in boldness of speech and action ; ' 

comp. Ejih. vi. 19. 

i) J IT tt »T or e Koi yvv] Tentporal 

clause, fnllowini; close on the forc;;oin;j 

modal pmlication (comp. Donalds. (»r. 

^ 444). The addition xal vvv •:ivcs a 

di^nifyinjj and consolint; aspect to the 

ojiostlc's f> ;scnt condition, cheerless as 

it mi^ht seem, and supjilies a rctmspec- 

tive coiToltoration of ver. 12. 

fityaKvvbiiVtTai i v r if aw yu.] '.<//(i// 

iie mai]niji(d in my Uxlj/;' not «V ifiol, 

but, in accordance with tlic studiedly 
passive asjKJct jxiven to the whole decla- 
ration (obscured by ..l^th.), — iv t^ aun-, 
' in my l»ody ; ' ' my l>ody shall l>e, an it 
were, the theatre on which Christ's glory 
shall be disjilayed,' comp. John xxi. 19 ; 
and in illustration of this use of iv ('sub- 
stratum of action ') see notes on d'al. i. 
24, Winer, (Jr. ^ 48. a, p. 345, MtyaX. 
is thus not 'shall l>c eniarired,' 'an^ebi- 
tur,' Copt. (comp. Luke i 58, 2 Cor. x. 
15), with reference to t!.e develo])ment 
and prowth of Christ wiihin ( Rill. ; com- 
pare Gal. ii. 20, Horn. viii. 10), which 
here would not harmonize with the mo- 
dal iv irapp., and still less with tlie local 
iv owfi., — but, as in Acts xix. 1 7, ' shall 
be glorified,' Sfix^^ceTOi S$ <<tti, Theod., 
' ploriosior apparcbit,' Just., the meaning 
being here appy. a little more forcible 
than ' be ]>raised ' ( Alf. ; comj). Lk. i. 46, 
Acts v. 1.3) and pointing more to the gen- 
eral, than to the merely oral sjiread of the 
Lord's glory and kingdom among men. 
ttr f S ti K. r \.] ' whftlu T h<i life or bj 
deiilh ; ' two alternatives, suggested by 
and in explanation of the preceding if 
auuari ; • in my l>ody,' — whether that 
l>ody be preserved alive as an cartlily in- 
strument of my Master's glory, or bo 
given up to martynlom for His name's 
sake : 5ia fiiv ictf!;j. Sti t^(t\fTo' 5ia ^a- 
rirov if, on ot>5f davaros iwfifft nt OLpvi,- 
tratrbat otT<J«', Clirys. Well then miglit 
the apostle say olia oti...*Is aurripiar 
when he could entertain a hojw and an 
expectation so unspeakably blcs-sed. 
The whole verse, and csjtecially this 
clause, is stix)ngly txjnfirmatory of tJio 
fuller meaning of aarrripia. 

21. iiiol yip] Confirmation and elu- 
cidation of the last clause of v. 20. The 
•)ip has no rcf. to any omitted clause (Bl.), 

40 PHILIPPIANS. Chap. I. 21, 22. 

2^ ^E/Moi yap TO ^liv Xptaro'i koX to airo^avelv KepSo<;. ^ el 8e to 

— ever a doubtful and precarious mode 
of explainini:; this particle, — hut simply 
confirms the preceding assertion I)y show- 
ing the real nature of (oii] and Srdi/aros, 
according to the apostle's present mode 
of regarding them ; ' in jny view and def- 
inition of the term, Life is but another 
ttame for Christ,' Peile. The emphatic 
ifiol ('to me, in my merely personal ca- 
pacity,' see Wiesinger) is thus the pro- 
nominal dative jiidicii (De W.), or per- 
haps more correctly and more inclusively, 
the dative of ethical rdalion (comp. Gal. 
vi. 14) ; not merely ' in my estimation,' 
but ' in my case,' ' life in my realization 
of it,' — a dative which is allied to, and 
more fully developed in, the dative corn- 
modi or iiicommodi ; see Bernhardy, Si/nt. 
III. 9, p. 85, and especially Kriiger, 
Spracld. § 48. 6. 1 sq., by whom this use 
of the dative is well illustrated. 
rh ^r\v XpifTT^sJ 'to live is Christ' 
i. e. living consists only in union with, 
and devotion to, Christ ; my whole being 
and activities, are His; ' quicquid vivo 
Christum vivo,' Bcng. : see Gal. ii. 20, 
but observe the difference of the applica- 
tion ; there the reference is to faith, here 
rather to works (De W.), the context 
showing that Xpiaros, beside the idea of 
union with Him, must also involve that 
of devotion to His service. So, perhaps 
too distinctly, J&th. (compare Calv.) ' si 
vixero, Christo.' Tb ^v is clearly the 
subject ('vita mea,' Syriac, Copt.), the 
natural life alluded to in the preceding, 
and more specifically in the following 
verse. It cannot refer to spiritual life 
(Rill., comp- Chrys., Theoph.) as the 
antithesis, (riv — otto^^., is thus obscured, 
and the argument impaired : what ^w^ 
16 in vcr. 20, that must rb (riv be here. 
<al rh airob. KfpSos] 'and [simple 
copulative] to die is gain ; ' death is^ gain, 
as I shall thus enjoy a still nearer and 
more blessed union with my Lord ; <ra- 

^((rrfpof avrip ffweffo/xat, Chr^'s., The- 
oph. Kf'pSos belongs onlij to this latter 
clause, the full meaning of whicii is very 
easily collected from the context ; com- 
pare verse 23. To make Xp. the subject 
to both members of the sentence and tJi 
(r)v and tJ» aTro^. accusatives of 'refer- 
ence to' (Kriiger, Sprachl. ^ 46. 4), sc. 
' ut tam in vitS quam in morte lucrum 
esse prajdicctur ' ( Calv. ; com])are Beza), 
is to mar the perspicuity, and to intro- 
duce a difficulty in point of grammar, as 
tJ» airo^. could scarcely be ' in morien- 
do : ' such accusatives commonly point 
to tilings or actions which maj', so to 
say, be conceived as extensible, and over 
the whole of which the predication can 
range ; see Scheuerl. Si/nt. § 9. 3, p. 68, 
Kriiger, Sprachl. § 46. 4. 1. Numerous 
examples of similar expressions are cited 
by Wetstein in loc, the most pertinent 
of which is Joseph. Bell. vii. 8, 6, ffvfi- 
(popa rh ^v eariv avbp<i>vois oii-x). ^ai/aros, 
as it hints at the purely substantival char- 
acter of rh ^v (opp. to Alf.) and t6 
aTTo^auilv. The practical aspects of thfe 
subject will be found in Heber, Serm, 


22. e< he rh ^rjv /c. t. A.] ' hut if mij 
living in the fie sk, — if this is to me the 
(the medium of ) fruit from my labor ; ' so 
Vulg., Claromau., Goth., and (with ob- 
scured toDto) Syr., Copt. : antithetical 
sentence suggested by tlie remembrance 
of his calling as an apostle, 'liicrc are 
difficulties in this verse in the individual 
expressions, as well as in tiie connection 
and sequence of thought. We will (1) 
briefly notice the former: (a) fi is not 
problematical, ' if it chance,' Tyndale, 
Cranm., but as Meyer correctly observes, 
syllogistic, — and virtually assertory. (/3) 
The addition eV trapKl does not imply 
any qualitative difference between -rh (i}v 
here and rh (?iv in ver. 21 (Kill.), but 
guards against it being understood in the 

CiiU'. I. 22. r II I L I I' I' I A N S . 41 

^]V tv aapKi, rouTu fioi KUpTro^ tp^/ov teal ri aipr}<, ov 7^a>- 

filijlier Rvnsc, wliidi the preccdin-^ rh airod. 
KfpSos ('to die, I. e. to live out of the 
floli with Cliiitit, is ^'uiii ') mi;.'lit other- 
wiso si-eiH natu rally to 6U'rjj:t'st. (7) 
Tovro is not u ivtluiulaiK-y ' jjor llebrais- 
nuiiu ' (see (jlasse, Phil. Hucr. p. 738 
[21 '.»]), but is ik'sij:iK'tl to j^ivc special 
j)roii)ii)cni'e and eiii|)liusis to the idea 
contained in the prcecdinjj words ; com- 
pare Winet-, (Jr. ^ 44. 4, p. 144 (5) In 
Kaptriti ifTfov the ;:eni'ive is not a ^en. of 
api>osilioii, ' opus i>ro fructu lial)et,' Ben- 
gel, nor a gen. olijecii, ' protit for the 
work' (Ril!.), Imt a i>iniplc gen. subjecti 
[ori'/iiii.t], ' |)r<)ventus opcris,' Do Wettc, 

■ ^^ '•'^V'^ {) \^ [fruetiis in opcribus 

nKi>J Syr., /. t. ' conveys with it, is the 
condition of fruit from ajiostolical labor,' 
the fpyoy referring to the Lilorioiu nature 
of the apostolic work (Acts xiii. 2, 1 
Tluss. V. 15, 2 Tim. iv. 5) ; Kapiro(popui, 
SiSadKuiu Koi (poiri^wv iratrras, Thco|jh. : 
comp. llapliel, OLt. Vol. 11. p. 622. 
(2) The connection then seems to be as 
follows: in verse 21 the apostle had 
spoken of life and death fiom a strictly 
pcrsonitl ])oint of view (ifiol) ; in this as- 
pect death was gain. The thought, how- 
ever, of his offiriiil labors reminds him 
that his life bears blessings and fniiiful- 
ncss to others; so he pauses; 'o'jertA 
spe conversionis multorum, lurrct atquo 
ha^sitat,' Just. : so, in sulistaiuc, The- 
ophyl. (who hi\s explaineil this clause 
brielly and persjjicuously), Chrys., The- 
odorct, (Ecumen., and after them, with 
some variations in detail, l)e W., Meyer, 
and the best modem editors. Of the 
other inter]>r(.-tations the most plausible 
is («) tliat of Auth., Beng., al., accord- 
ing to which toCto k. t. K. forms the ap- 
Oilosis, iffrl HOI being supplied after iv 
aapKi, ' but if I live in the flesh, thi-s is,' 
etc. ; the Icnst so ('>) that of Beza, dene v. 
(amended by Conyb., but satisfactorily 

answered by Alf ), acconlin'.: to which ti 
is ' whether,' and Kopiths fpyov = ' o|>ersB 
pretium ' (comp. Grot., llamin , Schole- 
lield. Hints, p. 105, — u more than doubt- 
ful translaiioii), scil. 'and whetlier to 
live in the flesh were prolitable to me, 
and what,' etc. The objection to (a) is 
the very harpli and unu>ual nature of the 
ellipsis; to ('>), independently of gram- 
maticiil olijections, the halting and incon- 
sopieni nature of the aigumeni ; see Alf. 
in I'jc. Ka\ rl aipiiaofiai 

K. T. A.] ' then, or why, wliut I am to choose 
(observe the middle] / Lnowjnol ; ' apo- 
dosis to the foregoing. The principal 
difliculty lies in the use of koi. Though 
no certain e.xamjde of an exartly similar 
u^e of (I — KoX has been adduced from the 
N. T. (2 \.'or. ii. 2 [De Wettc] is not in 
point, being there the Ka\ of ra])id inter- 
rogation. Llartung, Parlih. Vol. I. p. 
147), yet the use of koI at tlie beginning 
of the apodosis is so common (see Bm- 
der, Cone. s. v. ita/, i>, p. 455) as to ren- 
der such a use after.ti by no means im- 
probable ; sec examples in llartung, 
Part'k: s. v. koI, 2. 6, Vol. 1. p. 130, and 
compare the somewliat similar use of 
' atquc,' Hand, Turstll. Vol. 1. p. 4SI sq. 
In such ca>es the proper force of koI b 
not wholly lost. Just as, in brief logical 
sentences, it constantly im;uics that if 
one thing 1)0 true, then another will be 
true also, e. <f. d <piiafi Kit'Ctrai Kiw /Si'a 
Kiyrtbtit), K&c (t 3ia ical ^latt, Arist. Je 
Aitim. ch. 3, p. 9 (ed. Bckk), — so here, 
if life i-ertaiidy subserve to apostolic use- 
fulness, i\uTv will al.Mt be a difluulty us 
to choii-c. It is thus ninieccs.sary to as- 
sume any ai>osio[)tsis after the first mem- 
ber, sell. ' nou repugno,' * non ;egre fcro,' 
Midler, Kill. There is only a slight 
pause, and slight change from the ex- 
pected, to a more emphatic sequence, 
which this scmi-ratiocinaiive koI > cry ap- 
propriately introdui-cs. On 

42 PHILIPPIANS. Chap. 1.23. 

pi^o}' ^^ avvi'^ofxav Be e/c tmv 8vo, rr}v etn^viiLav e^tui; eh to ava- 

the use of the less exact ri for 7r(^Tepo«', 
see Winer, 6V. § 25. 1, p. 153 (ed. 6) ; 
and on that of the future in a delibera- 
tive clause, Winer, ib. § 41. 4. b. p. 2G7. 
The strict alliance between the future 
and the subjunctive renders such an in- 
terchange very intelligible. 
ov yvo) pi(^o}\ ' I dotwt recognize,' ' 1 do 
not clearlj perceive,' — a somewhat excep- 
tional use in the N. T. of yvo>p., which 
is nearly always ' notuin facio.' For 
exam])les of the present use, see Ast, 
Lex. Plat. s. V. ; comp. Job xxxiv. 25 
(lxx), iv. 16 (Symm.). 

23. (Twexofiat Be k. r. \.] ' yea, I 
am lulJ In a strait hij the two ;' antitheti- 
cal explanation of the last member of 
verse 22; the /(tintli/ oppositive 5l (not 
'metabatic' [Meyer] on the one hand, 
nor equivalent to aWa on the other) 
placing the emphatic o-iu'exo/uot in gentle 
contrast with the preceding ov yva!pi(w. 
The reading yap (Rec.) has scarcely any 
critical support, and is only a correction 
of the less understoed Se. On the real 
difference between these two particles in 
sentences like the present, see especially 
Klotz, Deiar. Vol. ii. p. 363. The prep. 
eK is here not used for aTr6 (Bloomf.), 
nor yet for Sia (Ileinr., — instrumentality 
would have been expressed by a simple 
dative, e. fj. Matth. iv. 24, Luke viii. 37, 
Acts xviii. 5, xxviii. 8), but with its 
proper force points to the origin of the 
avvox^, the sources out of which it arises ; 
see notes 07i Gal. ii. 16, where the uses 
of this prei)Osition in N. T. are briefly 
noticed. Lastly, the article is not pros- 
pective (compare Syr.) but retrospective 
(Mey., al.). referring to the two alterna- 
tives previously mentioned. This is 
confirmed by the apparent emphasis on 
ffvvex-, f"i<^' the illustrative connection 
with it of the two classes which follow. 
T^v 4'mdvfilai' ^X'^"] ' havinrj mij 
desire ; ' not merely ' a desire,' Author., 

nor ' the desire previously alluded to,' 
Hoel., — as no iTn^vij.ia, strictly speaking, 
has been alluded to, — but 'the desire 
which I now feel,' ' my desire.' The 
e7rj,^i;^io thus Stands absolutely, its direc- 
tion being defined in the words which 
follow. A very eloquent and feeling 
application of this text will be found in 
Manning, Serm. xx. Vol. iii p. 370 sq. 
fls rh ava\vffai] ' towards depart-^ 
ing,' ' turned to departure ; ' not ' desid- 
erium solvendi' (toO\., Origtn, in a 
free citation), nor even quite, ' the desire 
to depart,' Conyb. (comp. Winer, Gr. 
§ 44. 6, p. 294), — both of which w. uld 
seem to imply the not unusual definitive 
genitive after em^. (comp. Thucyd. vn. 
84, ToD irLelv fin^ ), but with the proper 
force of the prepo.-ition els, ' desidorio 
tendens ad diniissionem ; ' compare Wi- 
ner, Gr. § 49. a, p. 354. The j)rcposi- 
tion is omitted in DEFG; Chrysostom 
(comm.), apparently by accident, as the 
construction would not thus be made 
more easy. 'AyaKvaai is not ' dissolvi,' 

Vulg , nor even ' libcrari,' Syr. i-i^^VlN 

(comp. Schoettg. in loc), but, perhaps 
with primary reference to breaking up a 
camp or loosing an anchor, ' migrare,' 
^th. (romp. Judith xiii. 1, yElian, Var. 
Hist. IV. 23), and thence with a shade 
of meaning imparted by the context, 
' discedere a vita,' ^ evrevbev airaWayfi, 
Theod. ; compare notes o?) 2 Tim. iv. 6, 
and see Suiccr, Thesaur. Vol. i. p. 286 
sq., by whom this word is copiously il- 
lustrated ; add too Perizonius, on ^ISlian, 
Var. Hist I. c. The translation adopted 
by Tcrtull. ' recipi ' has perhaps refer- 
ence to the 'reccptui canere.'and is thus 
virtually the same ; comp. Mill., Prole- 
gom. p. Lxvii. Ka\ <rvp 

Xp. elvai] From the immediate con- 
nection of this clause with avaXvtrai dog- 
matical deductions have been made in 

CliAl-. I. 24. 

I'll I Liri'I ANS, 


Xvaai teal gvv XpicrT(o eli^ai, ttoWm yap fuiWou Kpilaaov 
■^ TO hk tTrifMki'eci^ et^ rrj aapKi uva^KaiuTtpuv ci 

reference to tlie intermediate state ; ' cUire 
ostenilitur animus sanctorum ex liac vitA 
8ino ])eccrtto mi^rrantiiim staiim post 
mortem esse cum Chrisio,' Kst. ; coinp. 
Cyrill.-Alex. cited Iiy iMjrbes, Inshwi. 
XIII. 8. 3.1. Bull, Jii»,l \V»rl:s, p. 42 
(Oxf., 1S44), Ueu«iS Tiieil. Vliril. iv. 21, 
Vol. II. p. 2-10. Without presuminj; to 
make iiaxty deductions from isolated pas- 
sages, wo may safely rest on the hroad 
and sound opinion of Bishop Pearson, 
that life eternal may be rejrardcd n> in- 
itial, jiartial, and ]>crfcclional, ami that 
the blessed a])Ostle is now in the fruition 
of that second state, and ' is with Clirist 
who sitteih nt the rijj:ht hand of God,' 
Creed, Art. xii. Vol. i. p 4GT, and comi- 
pare I'olyc. ad Plnfl. ^ 9, tU rhv o<pfi\A- 
fifyoy oi'TOij TOirov fieri vaph Kvpiy, Clc ii. 
Iloni. 1 Cor. -i 5, (iropeiKir} [Uf-rpos] tls 
Thf 6<pti\. T6iroy t',s SJfTji. For a con- 
trary view, see Burnet, Stttte of Dipurled, 
eh. III. p. 58 ; and lastly, for a practical 
application of the verse, FarimUm, Scrm. 
XXXVI. Vol. II. p. 1006 (edit. 1672). 
The mcanin;; involved in the wonls ahv 
Xp. f7fai, in reference to tiic soul's incor- 
poreal state, is e.xplained profoundly, 
though ])erhaps somewhat sin;;nlary, tiy 
Hofmann. Sclni/lh. ii. 2, Vol. it. p. 440, 
' selhst korpcrlos, wird er den Leih, in 
weleliem die Fiille der Gottheit wohnt, 
zu seiner Wohnung hal>en ;' comp. Dc- 
litzsch. Uihl. Psijriiol. VI. 6, p. 383 sq. 
iroA.Xij> yap ic. t. A.] 'Jbr it is veri/Jlir 
better,' scil. bcin;.; with Christ is so (for 
me) ; explanation of the forejroinij de- 
sire. The comparative 8tren;;thencd by 
naXKov f^ives a force and enerjiy to the 
assertion that is here veri* noticeable and 
appropriate ; compare Mark vii. 3t), 2 
Cor. vii. I. I, and Winer, ^V. § a."). I, p. 
214. The readinsr is somewhat doubt- 
ful : 7ckp is omitted by DEFIJKL; preat 
majority of mss., several Vv. and some Ff. 

{Ric, (I'rtoili. butom. om.) ; a<, however, 
it is found in ABC ; 31. 67** ; Cojtt ; 
Or. (1 ), Bas., Au;:. (often and explic. — 
as l)'F(f show in tliis passajre marks of 
incertitude in reailin;; ■w6(Tai for woAAy, 
ami lastly, as yiip mi;:lit have l*een 
thou;;hito interrupt the sequenee, wo 
may perhaps safely acquiesce in the in- 
scition with Ijochm., Tisch., and everi 
Kh and SrhiJz. 

24. rh 5 € i -w I fxi V 1 1 f «c. T. A.] ' yet 
to turn/ in wij flisli.' In tiie former verse 
the apostle stated what is Kpuaaov, for 
himseir, nf)W be turns to wliat is a»'oy- 
Kai6T(pov in rcirard of his converts. A< 
is thus simply 'but,' * yet,' — scarcely 
' nevertlicle>s,' Autli., whirh is commoidy 
a more suitable translation of aAAa : on 
the (litrcrcnco between these particles 
(' verum — sed '), see Klotz, /Vmr. Vol. 
II. pj). 33, 361. The iirX in ^iri.u. im- 
plies rest in a jdace (comp. notes un Gal. 
i. 18). and hints at a more protnieted 
stay; eom])arc Bom. vi. 1. The next 
wonls iv Tj7 aapKi are, Jis Meyer correctly 
observes, scarcely quite the same as iv 
<rapK\ m ver. 22 ; there the expre>>-ion 
was jreneral, here more specilio and in- 
dividualizing ; see Krii;:er, Sfintrld. ft 50. 
2.3. iivayK a t6r f pov 

8 « * u ^ a f ] ' more nenlfid on your arcoimt ;' 
not an inexact companitive (Do W.), 
nor to 1)C diluted into a positive (Clarom., 
compare Syr.), nor with reference to the 
ajwstle's own feelinp>, scil. ' quam ut 
meo desiderio s.iti>liat,' Van Ileng., Ben- 
pel, — but simply 'more needful.' scil. 
than tlio contrary course, than ivaXi'treu 
K. T. A. This latter course St. Panl 
mii:ht have tlioui:ht avayKOiov on his 
own account, a thinir to Iv prayed for 
and hastened ; continnance, however, 
was a.vayKai6Tfpov on account of his con- 
verts. The meaning proposed by Ix>esn., 
' pra'stat, ' melius est ' (comp. ^Eth.), has 




Chap. I. 25. 

icdi TOVTO 7re7rot^a)9 olSa on fxevoi koX nrapafievw ttckjiv v/mv et9 

25. TTapaueva,] So ZacAm. with ABCD'FG ; 5 mss. ; Vulg., Clarom. ; Lat. Ff. 
(approved by Griesb., Alf.). Tisch. reads a-v/JLirapafievui, appy. only witli D^EKL ; 
majority of rass. ; Chrys. (expressly), Tlieod., Dam., Theopliyl., ai. (/Zee, Siholz, 
^If-y.). Wliile on the one hand, it is possible that the unusual compound might 
have been changed into the more simple form, still, on the other hand, the dative 
Ka<Tiu might have snggested the insertion. The uncial authority is moreover far 
too prcpo.iderant to be safely reversed. 

no lexical authority, and is not supported 
by the examples adduced 06s. p. 353. 

25. Kal TOVTO Teiroji&ciJs] 'And 
being persuaded, being sure, of this ; ' scil., 
that my tTrijuLeveiv eV ttj aapKl is more 
necessary on your account. neirotS^ws 
has thus its natural force and regimen 
(ver. 6), and is not to be explained away 
adverbially, ■7reiroi^6TO)s koI dSierTaK-Tois 

ol5a ,Theoph., A^]Lx£ji [confidcntcr] 

Syr., Gotli., Copt., or blended with ol5a 
(^th.), l)ut is to be closely connected 
with TOVTO, while o?5o is joined only with 
oTt ; ' persuadens mihi vitam meam vobis 
esse [magis] necessarian!, scio quod Deus 
me vobis adiiuc conccdet,' Corn, a Lap. 
o?5o] 'I know;' not with any undue 
emphasis, ' prjevideo,' Van Hcng., for 
see ch. ii. 17, but simply ' I know.' sc. it 
is my present feeling and conviction ; 
compare Acts xx. 25. For somewhat 
analogous uses of olSa, see the examples 
adduced by Van Heng., but observe that 
even in the strongest (Hom. 11. vi. 447) 
dlSa. still refers more to the persuasions 
of the speaker than to an}" absolutely 
prophetic certitude. 

irapafj.ei'ai] 'continue here (on earth),' 
' blciben und rfubleiben,' Meyer, who 
aptly cites Herod, i. .SO, TeKva (Kyfv6- 
fifva Kol TTixvTa irapaixiivavra ; add Phlto, 
P/icrdo, p. 115 D, cireiSac ttIq} to <pd.pij.a- 
KOV, ovKfTi vfj.'iv irapaaevu), ib. Crito, p. 51, 
irapafiflvrj, opp. to iteToi/ceij' &\\oaf. On 
the reading see critical note. The dative 
iraatv ifxiv tha dative of interest, 
'to support and comfort you' (Kriiger, 

Sjirachl. \ 48. 4), but is here far more 
naturally goA'cmed by the irapa. in the 
compound ; see Plato, Plued. I. c , Apol. 
p. 39 E, apparently Prolog, p. -335 d, and 
contrast 1 Cor. xvi. 6, irphs v[xus irapu- 
/j-eico, where the wphs gains its force from 
the intended journey to them just before 
mentioned ; here the apostle is mentally 
with tliose he is addressing. Tliis is a 
somewhat more common regimen than 
Kriiger (SpracJd. § 48. 11.9) seems in- 
clined to admit. 

f I s r 7] u V jxioi' K. T. A.] ' for your fur- 
theranrc in, and Joy oft/tejltith ; ' not ' for 
your furth., and for your jov,' etc.. Van 
Heng., — there being here no reason 
wliatever to depart from the ordinary 
rule; see Winer, 6V. ^ 19. 4. d, p. 116, 
andcomp. Middleton, (Jr. An. p. 368. It 
is scarcely necessary to say that tiiere is 
not here any kind of inversion (' fur your 
joy and for the increase of your faith ') 
as Syriac, nor any di.tjioicflon (' fo'" your 
furth., and for your faith, and for your 
joy'), as in JEth., nor any conjunction 
( ' for the advancement of the joy of youi 
faith'), as Macknight : still the rela- 
tion of the genitive to the two substan- 
tives seems slightly ditTercnt ; in the first 
case it is a gen. subject i, nfenible per- 
haps to the class of the pos.<^ess. gen ; in 
the latter it is a gen. originis, ' cpiod ex 
fide promanar,' Zancli., and belongs to 
the general division of the gen. of obla- 
tion ; compare Scheuerl. Synt. § 11. 1, 
p. 79, Donalds. Gr. ^ 448 sq. Or\xap<i, 
compare Reuss, T/t^'iL Clire't. iv. 18, 
Vol. II. p. 202, whose definition how- 

Chat. I. 20, 27. 



TTjv vfxoiv TrpoKOTTJjv Kal yapav tj}? 7n'(TTea>?, '**' li'a ru Kav^rjp^ 
Vfiow TrepicrcTfVT] ti> Xptcnto Itjctov ti' t/j.oi tia t/"/? t/x)^s" Traj.ovfTia^ 

IJr» mt bircoimtli the go«- '^ UlltUOV U ^/&}'» TOV CVW/yeXiOU TOV XpKTTOU 

pel, llmt win t'lir ob»cnl or ' iv " >' > \ l\ ' > »^ v » <■ n 

prv.ei.t 1 inv lie- well of 7ro}uT€V€aiy€y ii>a eiTe tX^uiv KOI iCdJU vpM^ ene 

Tou. Be mil dlmmaycd. ye»vi/ ^ \ , ^ ri ' .»\ 

•re .uffcrrrt for ChrUL UTTOJV llKOVCTOy TU TTepi VfjLOJV, OTt (mjKeTt (U €l>l 

ever, ' cctto s^:eni:<? do rumo qui la prd- 
scrve dj tout deiOiiraf:eiiient d;ins I'ad- 
Tcrske,' impurts to xfV* '^^ passive a 
eh;inicter. Xaph is ratlier tliat siitivc nnd 
operative emniintion of love nnd thank- 
fulness tliat forms the sort of spiritual 
equipoise to fip^»T) a:u\ inrotiairf). 

2l>. Ti'o tJ> KavxVli'O' <c. T. A.] ^i/i 
ordir that i/oitr mailer of hoaatinrj mijy 
aLouial ill Jesus C/in'st t'n me : ' more spe- 
cifie statement of the i>urposo of the 
apostle's continuance with his converts ; 
the previous abstract tij rr,y v^wv t^iok. 
K. T. K. Ikmu;; expanded into tlie more 
definite and concrete Tva k. t. \. These 
words, simple as they seem, have not Iwen 
alwnys clearly understood. In the first 
place Ka ux^Ms i^ "ot t'lc same as icau- 
X»?<'''s ; not ' jiloriatio qua ;;'ori.imini,' 
Com. a Lap., hut ' gloriandi in.itcries ' 
(nbnr, •Icre. xvii. 14), as in Rom. iv. 2, 
1 Cor. i.\. 15, nnd api)y. < verywlicre in the 
N. T. (sec notes on G il. vi. 4), t!.is ' nia- 
tcries * heinjj t^ iarriptx^cu iv -nj iri'irrti, 
Chrys., or gener.dly, their possesion of 
the pos|>cl (Meyer), their condition as 
Christians Ap^niii, ^v Xp i ir t'C is not 
to l)C (onncctcd, directly or indirectly, 
with KavxVf^ (' loccasion de vous jrlnri- 
fier d'e re unis i\ Christ,' Rill.) hut with 
wfptffffti'Ti, t5ie qualitative tV X^. defiiiinjr, 
as it were, the Messed spliere »'>i which 
the increase takes place, and out of which, 
Christianly speakin'», it has no existence. 
Lastly ^ I' ^ M o 1 is neither =5«' ifiov, Hein., 
nor ' propter ine,' Grot., nor even ' do 
me.' Bcza, hut 'in me,' Vul^r., — the 
preposition here marking the siihslraliim 
of the action, the mirror, as it were 
(Zanch.), in which the whole gr.icions 

procc<liirc was displayed ; si-c notes on 
(Jttl. i. 24. It is thus not to l>e connect- 
ed with irai'xT)^ directly, or as in Chris., 
hy inversion, "iva (x** »tai/x«<''^a* '" vuIp 
ixfi^6ifws, nor even with -wtpivcT. alone 
hut with the complete idea rh irot'x- »«- 
piffff. iv Xp- Thus the whole scorns clear : 
ilic Kavxv!^ is their condition as Chris- 
tians ; iv Xp. defines the holiness and 
jiuriiy of its increase ; iv iuol, tlie seat 
and substratum of t!ie so defecated ac- 
tion. 8<i t'is (f. t. X. is 
to lie closely connected with iptoi as de- 
finiiij; the exact means by wiiiih the in- 
crease of matter of boasting, tlius specifi- 
cally Christian, is to take place iv ifiol. 
Passages like the present, in which dif- 
ferent pretlications are groujH'd •losely 
together, will repay careful analysis. 
IIcic it wil Ik; seen iv Xp. is t'lC mysti- 
cal nnd generic predication of manner, 
iv of place, 5ia t'i wop. of special instni- 
mcntality, involving also in ius substan- 
tive ti:c predication of time ; compare 
notes on Kpbrs. i. 3, and Donalds. Gr. 
^ 444. 

27. fxdvov] 'Oiili/:' my ]>crsnnsion 
then iK'ing as I have told you, this is the 
sole thing tliat I s;>cci:illy j>rcss apon 
you. anrl exact from you as indispensa- 
ble ; rovTO iffTi rh ^rjTovfitvov ftSror koI 
oii^tv ixxo, riiry-s. ; compare Gal. ii. 10, 
T. 13, in which latter passaj:e. as here, 
' verlioram tanqnam agmcn ab illo dnci- 
tur,' Van Hong. In this one requisition 
many weighty duties nre involved. 
TOU tvayy. rov Xp] ' the r^pel oj 
Cfirist,' i.e. which relates to. whicli tells 
of, Christ ; rov Xp. I>eing the gen o'>,ecti, 
not, as ..¥:th. would seem to imply, sub 

46 PniLIPPIANS. Chap. I. 27. 

TTvevfiaTi, fiia "^v^fj (7vva^\ovvre<; rrj Trlcrrei rov evajyeXlov, 

j'ecti, ' the gospel taught by Him.' In 
such cases the nature of the gen. is not 
perfectly certain, but, from the analogy 
supplied by partially similar use of 
£11077., is more probably that ohjecti ; 
see Winer, Gr. § 30. 1, p. 168, but ob- 
serve that the ref. to Rom. i. 3 is of 
doubtful pertinence. 

7roAtTeiJ6(r,^€] 'have your conversa- 
tion' ' l}clmve yourselves,' or more exactly, 
'lend your life of (Christian) citizen- 
ship;' compare Acts xxiii. 1. It can 
scarcily be doubted that this word, oc- 
curring once oijly in St. Paul's Epis- 
tles, tiiough examples of very similar 
exhortations arc not wanting (Eph. iv. 
1, Col. i. 10, 1 Thess. ii. 12) has been 
studiedly used instead of the more com- 
mon TT^piiraTfiv, to give force to the idea 
of fellow-ciiizenship, — not specially and 
peculiarly with Christ (Heinr.), but witli 
one another in Ilim. — joint membership 
in a heavenly iroKiTivfia, comp. ch. iii. 
20. Numerous examples of a similar 
meta])liorical use of the word ('vivere, 
lion quoad spiritum et animam, sed 
quoad mores,' Loesn., ' ad normam insti- 
tutorum in IJepublicti mores vitaique ra- 
tionem componere,' Krcbs.) will be found 
in \Vctstcin in loc, Krebs, Obs. p. 24."), 
Loesn. Obs. p. 226, and especially in 
Suiccr, ThesauT. Vol. 11. p. 799 sq. 
'iva € IT 6 eXb^v K. T. A.] ' <« ordir 
t/iai, ivhfthcr hnvi?}g come and seen you or 
else rewaininrj absent, I may hear the tl/inf/s 
roncerninrj you.' This clause, though 
l)erfectly intelligible, is apparently some- 
what inexact in structure. It would 
seem that aKovau (for which Larhmann, 
with BD' ; 10 mss. ; Basm., re:ids aKovu) 
really performs a kind of double office ; 
in the one case it stands in antithesis to 
iSoij' (per orat. variat.) ; in the second 
place it repeats itself (Van ILng.), or 
suggests some appropriate verb {ev(ppa.i'- 
da>, Chrys., yfu), De Wette) immediately 

before otj : in a word, quoad sensuin it 
seems to belong to airdu, quoad struciuram 
to ha. Attemjjts have been made to de- 
fend the construction as it stands, either 
(a) by referring a-Kovcnc zeugmatically to 
both clauses, 'j'apprcnne a votre .';uiet 
que,' Rill. ; or (3)by undcrtaiidingitto 
imply ' hearing /"/om theninelvrs,' in refer- 
ence to the first cl.ausc, ' hcarir'g from 
others, ' m the second, Meyer. This last 
explanation is ingenious, hut is a])par- 
cntly precluded by the o])pusition be- 
tween ISo.'j' v^ias and aKovcrco ra irepl vuwif, 
wliich seems too distinct to have been 
otherwise than specially intended. There 
must be few, however, who do not pre- 
fer the warmhearted incuria of such a 
brevity of expression to restorations like 
€?Te i\bwv Kol iSdi/, eUe airwu aKovaai tA 
TTfp) vjxiiiv, aKovu oTi K. T. A., Or Still 
worse, OTTcov koi aKovcras ra it. vfi. yv& 
Sn K. T. A., as suggested by modern com- 
mentators. <Jt» (TT-f)KeTe] 
'that ye are standing;' fuller expansion 
and definition of rh irepl vfxciv ; the ex- 
planatory clause being in structural de- 
pendence upon the principal member, 
according to the ordinary and simplest 
form of attraction; see especially Winer, 
Gr. § 66. 5, p. 551, wlicre tliis and other 
forms of attraction and assimilatinn are 
perspicuously discussed. The present 
form of attraction is especially common 
after verbs of knowledge, perception, 
etc., e.rj. Mark xii. 34, Acts iii. 10, i 
Cor. xvi. 13, 1 Thess. ii. 1, al. 2.T-fiK(u-, 
it may be observed, is not per se, ' to 
stand fast,' Author. Ver., ' jierstare,' 
Bcza, but simply ' stare,' Vulg., Syriac, 
Goth., the ideas of readiness (compare 
Chrys.), persistence, etc., being imparted 
by the context : compare ch. iv. 1, 1 Cor. 
xvi. 13, Gal. V. 1, 1 Thess. iii. 8, 2 Thess. 
ii. 15. ivev}iri/({] 
'in one spirit;' in one common higher 
principle of our nature. The addition 

riiiLiri'iANS. 47 

Kal fit) rrrvp6fj.€voi eV firjoevl irrrb rdv umiKei^tvwv., yra 

Ciiw. I. 28 


fuf ^uxf) seems certainly to >liow tliut 
wytvua i.-i liere tlie human spirit, tlie 
lii;;licr part of our iiniuatcrial nature (sec 
Sehulicrt, 6'..scA. d,r Stilc, § 48, Vol 

11. p. 498), that in which the agency of 
the Holy Spirit is c>peciully seen and 
felt. This common unity of the spirit 
is, however, so obviou>ly the eH'ect of 
tl:c iiiworkln<r of the Holy Si)irit, that an 
indirect refercn- c to rh Tlytviia (compare 
Eplies. iv. 4) becomes necessarily in- 
volved. Indeed in most cases in the 
N. T. it may l>o .«aid that in every men- 
tion of tiio human irffvfjia some ivference 
to the eternal Spirit may always Imj rec- 
ognized ; see notes on 2 Tim. i. 7, and 
compare Delitzsch, DiU. Psijchol. iv. 5, 
p. 144 sij. fiia ^vxv] 
' icith one soul sirivinr) fofjetfierjur tlipfiiilli 
of the iios/tl;' makinjj your united ef- 
forts from the common faith from one 
common centre and seat of interests, af- 
fections, and energ:ies. As the higher 
iryfi'Ha which gave direction was to l>c 
one and common to them all, so was the 
lower 4"'X'/ which obeyed those behests 
to be one, — one common seat of con- 
cordant affections and energies. The 
remark of Dcngel is true an>l deep ; ' est 
\nter«'um inter >anctos naturalis aliipia 
»itip.ithia : h:t;c vincitur ul>i unitas est 
non solum spiritus, sed etiam anima?.' 
On the dilTerence between tiie irftifia 
(' vis superior, agcns, imperans in hom- 
ine') and the i|/yx^. ^^^ sphere of the 
will and affections, the centre of the per- 
Bonaliiy, see Olshauscn, Opuscuhi, Art. 
VI. p 14.5 sq , Beck, Bill. Sceknifhre, ii. 

12. IT, ]). .">0 >i\. 

avvaib\ovvTfs iniist be united witli 
fiij ^JXV< ''"•'' forming a partici|)ial, and 
ind'.^cd psycbolo'zical, jviralKI to (m']Ktiv 
tV. n»'. It is somewhat singular that 
t'.ic lH-;t ancient Vv. (Syr., Vuig., Clar.,, Copt.), with Chrys., nl., agree in 
referring ^a >^vx^ to «rTT)x«Tt. Such a 

construction, however, lias but little to 
recommend it in jioint of grammar, and 
still less in point of p.-ychohigy : fi^ 
^vx^ stands correctly in prominence 
ufrer the Bcmi-cmphatic iv iv\ xv. (comp. 
Jclf, (»V. ^ 902), and forms a modal ad- 
junct to the undcfiiicil awa^Koimti es- 
pecially signifii ant and appropriate ; arrt- 
Ktiv iv trvfufiari, ffui>ad\tif T17 ^UXV- '^"'•'^ 
forc-e of the pref>osiiion <rlt> has lK?en dif- 
ferently estimated ; it is referred by the 
Greek expositors to the fellowship of tlie 
Philipp. (<TvnvapaXan$ayfr( a\Xyi\ous, 
Chrys.) ; by Meyer and others to fellow- 
ship with St. Paul ; the former seems 
more suitable to the context. 
TTJ irlffrfi] 'for the fti.^h ; ' dat. corn- 
mod i : not under the regimen of <rvy, 
' adjuvantes fidera,' Erasm., — an un- 
exampled prosopopoeia ; nor a dat. in- 
strum. (more precisely termed by Kru- 
gcr, a 'dynamic' dative, Sprarhl. ^ 48. 
15), 'fide Ev.,' Calv., 'per fidem Ev.,' 
Bcza, — this construction having previ- 
ously occurred in the case of fii^ •i'^XV- 
TlitTTts, here, as nearly always in tlie 
X. T., lias a subjective reference ; see 
notes on Gal. i. 23. 

29. ■KTvp6 fjLf yoi] ' Uinj terrified : ' 
St. Xfyun- in N. T. ; proj>erly used in 
refcremce to scand horses (Diodor. Sic. 

XVII. 34, XTVpSlJLfVOt Tck X**^'"^ SlKTt/oK- 

To), thence generally, though often with 
some tinge of its more special meaning, 
as in Plut. ^for. p. 800 c, mV« '^f M^* 
^uyp wrvpififyoy, and lastly, ns here, in 
a purely general sense, e.n- [I'lnto], At- 
ioch. § IC, O'JK av iroTt rrvptlris rhy biyO' 
lov ; c<im>. Ilc^ycli. ■wrvpfrcu ' fffitrau, 
^oBuTat. (pp'mi. ami Kypke, Oli.t. Vol. 
II. p. 312. It is not improb. derived from 
a root mr-, — and allied with »to»i» ; 
.see Benfey, Wurzfllei. Vol. 11. p. 100 
Tuy iyriKftfiiywy] * the opixtscrs,' 
' j/our adrcrsarics ; ' comp::re 1 Cor. xvi. 
9, 2 Thess. ii. 4, Luke xiii. 17, xxi. 15. 



CnAP. I. 28, 29 

iarlv avTOL<i €vBeL^i<i aircoXela^^ v/jLlv 8e crwrrjpiaf;, Kal tovto 
dirb Qeov' '^ ore v/xlv ej^apla^r] to virlp Xpiarov, ou fiovov 

Who tliese were is not perfectly certain. 
The context and general use of the word 
seem l)ot!i to point to open and avowed 
enemies of Christianity ; not Judaists, 
bnt unbelieving Jews (Usteri, Lehrh. p. 
o3-2, conip. Acts xvii. 5), or, perhaps 
even more probably, Gentiles ; compare 

Acts Xvi. 19 Sq. 'i]t IS 

e<niv K. T. A.] 'the ir/iiih is to them,' 
' seeiii'i it is,' etc. ; viz , when they see, 
as they cannot fail to do, if they will 
pause to consider, that tlicy cannot in 
timidate j'on ; orau yap oi StuiKovres ruv 
SiaiKOfj.evo3v n"!; TrejuytvoivTai, oi fTrijiouAfv- 
ovres Tu/v iiri^ovXivoixtvoov , ol KparovvTes 
riav KpaTovixivoov, oh;c avTo^ev tarai S'lKov 
avTo7s, on arroAbvi'Tai, on ovSev (Vxcffou- 
mv ; Chrys. The oVris, as in Eph. iii. 13 
al., has here a fiint explamitorif foi'ce (see 
especially notes on Gal. iv. 23), and is 
the logical relative to (u); irrvp'jfM. k. t. \., 
though grammatically connected (by at- 
traction) with the predicate iv^filis ; see 
examides of this species of attraction in 
Winer, (/mm. § 24. 3, p. 150; com])are 
also § GG. 5. 2, p. 552, and Madvig, Sijnt. 
§ 98. The dative avro7s is the dative 
inconm. o'-, of ' interest ' (Kviig., Sprnchl. 
§ 48. 4), and is dependent on ecSej^is, not 
on airaiKelas (llolem.), — a needlessly 
involved construction. The reading of 
Rer. a\>To7s fxfv iinlv has but little criti- 
cal snpjjort [KL ; Theodorct, al.], and 
is properly rcicctcd by all the best edi- 
tors. V fxlv Se <r it>T 7] pias\ 
' hut to yon {an evidence) of salvati(m ; ' 
scil. of final salvation, as opposed to tiic 
preceding anwAeia; ' ipsos perdet et du- 
cet in gehennam, vos autem ducet ad 
salutem et gloriam,' Corn, a Lap. ; com- 
pare similar antitheses, Rom. ix. 22 sq., 
1 Cor. i. 18, al., and on the force of avci- 
Aeia, notes on 1 Tim. vi. 9. The 
present reading is somewhat doubtful : 
v/xuv is adojited by Lachm. and Tisc/i. 

(so Meyer, Alf.) with ABC-; 4 mss. ; 
Clarom., Sangerm. ; Chrys. (ms. ), Aug., 
al., and is phiusible on account of tlio 
possible conformation of v/xTi' to ajTo7s. 
The text is, however, strongly supported 
(D^EFKL [;;;u7^ CiDiG;"'73]; Vulg., 
Goth., Copt., Basm., ^th. (Piatt, Pol.), 
Syr.-Piiil. ; Chrys., Thcod ), and has 
ajjparently the di[)lomatic pi-( pondcrancs 
plainly in its favor. 

Kal TO II TO K. r. \.] -^'^ Oi's from. 
God,' comp. E])h. ii. 8 ; i. e. nox mereJv 
'vos salutem consecuturos esse,' Calvin, 
which would arbitrarily limit tovto to 
the latter member ; nor even ' iilud, ad- 
versarios quidem perituros, vos vcro sa- 
lutem,' etc., Grot, but, as the consola- 
tory nature of the context seems to re- 
quire, witli reference to the u-'.ole pnced- 
in-j (certainly not succefdinfj, Syr. ^tli., 
Clcm.-Alexan. Sirom. iv. p. 004, Pott.) 
declaration, in fact to cTriSfiJiy (Peile, 
De W., Alf.) ; ' et hoc sane non augu- 
rium humanum est, sed divinum,' Van 
Heng., and sim., Michaelis Whether 
it be recognized or not as such, there 
still is this token of the issue for either 
side, and it is from God ; compare Wie- 
sing. in loc. 

29. oTi vulv K.T.X.] Ecnsonforthe 
declaration immediately preceding, by 
an appeal to their own cases : not ex- 
actly, motives to steadfastness (Dc W.) ; 
as, in the first place, the exhortation to 
be steadfast is implicit rather than ex- 
plicit ; and, secondly, such motives would 
have been more naturally introduced by 
yap. The apostle says, the euSei^ts 
K. T. \. is verily not an ' humanum ' but 
a 'divinum angurium,' because the grace 
given to you (observe the slij'.htly em- 
phatic position, — whatever it mny be to 
others) is such that you are thereby ena 
bled not only to believe in Christ, but 
also to suft'er for him : the double favoi 

CiiAi'. r. 30—11. 1. 

PHI LI rri ANS. 


TO eiV avTov Tncneveiv uXXa /eal to inrep ainov Trtla^dv, *' Tcrt 
avTov a^{C)va t>(oine<i olov etoert sV e'/xoi. kui vvv uKovcre cv (fioi. 
Bo i„ M>ini. i>e |j £- ^^ ^^^ iTapuKX.i)cn^ ti> XpicrT(o, el Tt 

lowly ill lii«ita>uu9Clirii(. r i / .' 

wbo luimblcd llliniclfunto death, and w» rxalied with every ui< Murc of CMltatioii. 

you have rctcived atrords tho (•iircst 
proof of tlio eHsemially diviiio iiatuio of 
tlie token ; see Meyer »/i lor. 
^ X <* *" ''^ '^ ''J 1 ' ii^-isfretly yiren ; ' rb xav 
d"OT-idels TffJ Qf'fi, koI X'^f"' *^*'<" Kiyuiy 
Koi x»'P"''M<t *<«* Scepfav rb irdffx*'*' ^'tp 
XpiffToi", Clirvs. Tlie iiori>t is u.-etl as 
nfenin^ to ilic period when tlie initial 
grace which has since wiou<^lit in the 
heurt-i of tlie riiihp|)iaiis was first given : 
Xapi^fTai would l)e too i>i-csent, and in- 
deed pro.-pective (coinp. Kriij^er, Sjirarlil. 
4 53. 1 ), to suit the uetiial circumstances ; 
iteX*^/"""' *' ^^'oiild express that the eflccts 
of the x«»P»<''*^« ""^ remaining, which, 
thougli probaliiy rf ally the case, less per- 
fectly harinonizes with the language of 
implied exhortation than the simple ref- 
erence to what they once received, and 
must show that they now possess. The 
essential character of the tense ('quod 
priEteriit, sed ita ut non dcfiiiiatur ipiam 
late pateat iil tpiod actum est,' Fritz, de 
Aor. 17, p. 17 S([.) may here l)e easily 
traced . rbiurtpXpto-ToD 

is not 'in Chrisii negotio,' Ikza (comp. 
Autli.), luit is logically dependent on tho 
following iriaxitv, and would have liocn 
structurally associated with it if the a])Os- 
t'le !u»tl iiotpau-cd to interpolate a clause 
(o') (livov — htttf) avToZ) tliat serves ma- 
terial, y to heighten tho assertion ami add 
to its signilicance : (Kit ju«i' o^fiAtrjji 
tlfii, ivraiiba 8« 6<pfi\iTijy (xi^ "rJli' X^iff- 
rov, Clnys. So expre>»ly Syr., ^ICth., 
l)OtIi of whidi suppress in translation the 
prefixed rb i/Kfp Xp. 

30. ^x <•»"■* *] ' "^ .V" '""'<' •■ ' further 
specification of tho preceding iraa-xt'»'. 
with a consolatory turn suggested by tlic 
associated example ; koI rb Trapa'if ly fui 
^XfTf. TtiAif ainols itralpti, Chry-^OSt. 
Tho structure is ' ad sensiim ' rather 

than ' ad verhum ; ' the participle l>cing 
constructed with the u^tii which is prac- 
tically involved in the jireceding verse, 
ratlier than with the ufuv whiclt immedi- 
ately precedes : see cs[K*cially lljih. iv. 2, 
and notes /;i loc. Such of tiio 
participle into the nominative aro far too 
eominon to render it necessary wiih Ikn- 
gel, Bloomf, and what is more singular, 
Lachm., to enclose f/ns — aorov -Koaxdw 
in a parenthesis: sec examples in Winer, 
Gr. ^ 63. 2, p. 305, Jtlf, ^r. § 707. The 
frequent, and almost idiomatic, occur- 
rence of such anacolutha seems to be t«- 
ferrible to the practically weaker force of 
tiie oblique cases of participles. 
olo'v (Xh(rf\ ' sudi us t/oii sitw in me,' 
sc. when I was witli you at I'hilijipi • 
comi)arc Acts xvi. 16 sq. : ojk f'ivfy, 
aKijKoarf, oAA', (fSerc koI yap tKU ^d- 
\r)iTfy iv ♦i\(xTotr, Ciirys. In the ex- 
pression iv i^lo\ the pivp. marks as it 
were the substmtinn of tlie action ; sc« 
Winer, Gr. ^ 48. a, p. 34."), and compare 
notes on Gal. i. 24. Tiiero is thus no 
need, with Syr., ^tii., to translate tho 
second iv ifiol ' do inc ' : as the I'hilip- 
pians saw the ayuiv when he was Dresent 
with them, so now tiicy hear of it in his 
Episile, in which he as it wen? person- 
ally speaks to them ; comjtare Meyer. 
The reading i^crf (/.'t., (,'iii. ■<>>.), though 
fairly supported |R-1) Il-FGKL ; very 
many mss. ; Theopli., CEcuin.) is appar- 
ently only due to the interchange of tl 
and 1 (itacism) ; see Scrivener, Collation, 
etc. in, 3, p. I.XI.\, 

ClI.Vl'TKU II. — 1. ft TtJ oiv] '// 

then, etc' The oZv, which has here ita 
rtflcxice rather tlian collective force, re- 
calls the readers to the consideration o( 
what their dutv ought to l>c under exist- 



Chap. II. 1. 

irapafiv^iov djd'jn]'?, e'i rt? Koivavia IIv€VfjbaTO<i, el' riva cnrXd'yvya 

ing circumstances, with a retrospective ref. 
to the exhortation in ch. i. 27; 'revocat 
ovu lectorem ad rem praesentera, id est, 
quae nunc cum maxime agitur, eodem 
prorsus niodo, quo Latina particula igi- 
tur,' Klotz, Devar. Vol. ii. p. 717. Be- 
za's correction of the Vulg., ' igitur ' for 
' ergo,' i« thus judicious. On the exact 
difference between these particles, see 
Hand. Tiirsell. Vol. iii. p. 187. 
TTapaKX. iv Xp.\' exhorlationin Christ,' 
i. e. exhortation specified and character- 
ized by being in Him as its sphere and 
element. This important modal adjunct 
defines the irapaKXriaLs as being essen- 
tially Christian, ' quam [qualem] dat 
conjunctio cum Christo,' Wahl; it was 
only ' in Him ' that its highest nature 
was realizable; compare notes on Eph. 
iv. 1. TlapaKKriais is apparently here 
'exhortation' (comp. 1 Cor. i. 10, Eom. 
xii. 8, and Fritz. Rom. Vol. i. p. 32), 

not ' consolatio,' Vulg. ||«aQ.2 Syriac 

(compjre Goth., Copt.), wliich, though 
lexically tenable (see Knapp, Script. 
Var. Arrj. Vol. i. ]>. 132 sq., and comp. 
notes on 1 Thcss. v. 11), seems here 
somewhat tautologous when irapanv^iov 
so immediately follows. The 

exact distinction between the clauses is 
worthy of notice : the first (eV Xp.) and 
third (Tlvevfx.), as Meyer observes, cer- 
tainly jioint to the ohjerrive principles of 
Cliristian life, while the second (ayairijs) 
and fourth ((TirKdyx"- "• oIkt.) point to 
tlie sulijertive elements : so also Wiesing., 
who, however, somewhat unsatisfacto- 
rily refers the first two members to St. 
Paul, the last two to the Philippians. 
Surely the very terms of the exhortation 
seem to imply that all must be referred 
to the Philippians It is the hoped- 
for, and indirectly assumed, existence 
of these four elements among his con- 
verts that leads the apostle so pressingly 

to beseech them to fulfil his joy : comp. 
Chrys., who very well iJlustrates the 
force and meaning of the apjieal. 
irapafx.v^iov a 7.] ' comfort or cmsola- 
tion of love ; ' ' solatium caritatis,' Vulg., 

compare Syr. j ^-i \^ (I Vl ^ r> [loqu- 

utio in cor], J¥a\\. and apparently Copt. ; 
not 'winning persuasion,' Wiesing., — a 
meaning which is defensible (compare 
Plato, Le(irj. X. p. 880 a, -Kapaixv^iois eu- 
•irei^Tjs yiyvrjTai), but here ajiparently 
precluded by the parallelism uirxdyxva 
Kol oIkt. in the fourth clause. The gen. 
aydTrr]s is the gen. of the source or agent, 
' comfort such as love supplies ; ' see 
Scheuerl. Synt. § 17, p. 126. 
Koivuvia n I/.] 'fellowship of the 
Spirit ; ' gen. ohjecti, communion with, 
participation in the gifts and influence 
of the Holy Spirit ; t))v fxfToxvf ai/ToS 
Kal TiV fi.erdKr\\\iiv Kad' %v ayia^ofxfda, 
Theoph. on 2 Cor. xiii. 14 : so expressly 
JFAh., ' particcps fuit in Spiritu ; ' comp. 
Chrys. The gen. at first sight might 
seem a gen. suhjecti as above, — a con- 
struction both lexically and grammati- 
cally defensible (compare Fritz. Rom. 
Vol. III. p. 81, 287), but here somewhat- 
at variance with the prevailing use and 
reference of Koivasvia and Koivuivhs (comp. 
I Corin. i. 9, 2 Pet. i. 4) in passages of 
this doctrinal aspect ; see Meyer on 2 
Cor. xiii. 14, compare Pearson, Creed, 
Vol. I. p. 419 (edit. Burton), and the 
good sermon of Waterland, Works, Vol. 
V. p. 351. The Spirit here is not the 
human spirit, ' animorum conjunctio,' 
Tirin. (Pol. 5yn.), De W., al., but the 
personal Holy Spirit, as the parallelism 
to the first clause, and the recurrence of 
the expression in 2 Cor. xiii. 14, seem 
very distinctly to suggest. So JEthiop. 
(Polygl.,but not Piatt), which expressly " 
inserts ayios' et riua <rv\. 

K. T. A.] ' if any hoivels {heartfelt loie) and 


CiiAP. II. 2. 


Kal ulKTipfioi, - TrKrjpnoaaTt fjLov rrjv '^(apu.v, "va ro aino <f>pouf)T€, 
TijV airri^v uy('nrr)i> t^orrts", avin^v^oL to tv <ppovovi'7€<:, '" p.rjBtu 

ro;iiiiiissiotis.' By oompariii;; Juincs v. 
II, and cspctiully Col. iii. 12, arr\dyxfci 
olKTn>fiov, it would scfiii that tlii-ro i.s 
fidiiic distinction liLtwton the two words, 
mid tliut the hitter is not a mere exi)lti- 
i.ation of the former (Zaiich.). Tliat ad- 
\;!iiicd hy 'rittniann {Si/noii. i. p. G9) 
seems sati«f;utory, ' irirA. amorem velic- 
mei\liorem <inem(iiii(iue denotat {(rrop- 
y»)f, compaa- I'hihmi. 12); oikt. miseri- 
eordiam proprie denotat, seu sensuni do- 
loris ex inalis seu ineommodis aliorum ;' 
coini)aro (>rot. In /or. It is somewliat 
sinjiiilar that all <lie uneial MSS. includ- 
ing K. "t h'n'^t r>0 mss., and several Ff. 
read «f Tiy airK. Thouf^h adopted hy 
Tisc/i. (ed. 7) and Luchm., and defended 
hy Green, (Jrain. p. 284, it seems i-eally 
to have arisen from an eiToncous (para- 
diplomatic) reijetition of the preceding 
Tjy. The prevalence of such an appar- 
ent error necil not shake our faith in mere 
MSS. testimony (.Vlf ) ; it rather seems 
to lilnl at the jreiieral lidelity of the tran- 
scribers. They could scarcely have all 
made tlie same error ; hut may very 
pr.ihahly have studiously perpetuated it 
on the authority of two or three inon> an- 
cient documents. Tivck is found in Clem. 
Alex. Strom, iv. p. C04 (id. Pott.). 

2. irA7jpal(roT«] 'fulfil,' * make rom- 
jtlilc;' o'jK <?7rf TToiTJffOTf ^01, aWd, itAtj- 
ptiffarf TOiTffTTi;' ^Jfifaffde (pvTfvttv iv 
ifxol' ^Stj hoi fitTfSwKaTf rh tipjctKfif, 
d\\' (Is TtKos ^Tridi/;uti ^Ad*?c, Chrys. 
The position of ^ou hefore x''/'^'' does 
not seem intended to convey any empha- 
sis ; see the lon<j list of similar examples 
in Winer, Gr. § 22. 7. 1, p. 140 (ed. fi). 
I fa rh aiiT b le. t. \.] ' that so ye /«• 
lihmindfd.' The particle Tea does not 
hero denote simple iiurjx^e (Meyer), — a 
forced and unsatisfactory interpretation 
wliich i'.;nores the usa^rc of later Gn-ek 
niid tlie aualoi:v of the modern vi (see 

Cor|>e, (mt. p. 129 Bfj.), — hut, with a 
weakened force, hiends the ^ul)ject of the 
entreaty, etc., with the purpose of mak- 
in;: it : so ri;;htly Clirys., -rl ^ovKti ; Ti-a 
at KivZwttit kTraWa^ieyLfv. 'va <to[ ti X''PV' 
yr](rwixtv ; ObZtv rovrotv ipriaiv. a\A*, lya 
vfifit ri) aurh ippov'irf. See note> c/i A'y//i 
i. 17, where this and other u-e^ ofiya an. 
Iiricfly investijraied. Van Hen;.', refers 
iVa to an omitied "ravrriv, sc. X'*f^'' Tau- 
TTjv iVa K. T. A.. : this seems very unsatis- 
factory. To a'jrh ippoy. is 
rightly explaineil l>y 'I ittinann {Si/non. 
]i. 67) as, • eandem sententiam lialiere, 
idem sentirc, vellc et qua'rere,' while the 
following participial clauses, t/V aurV 
ay. IX- and avi/yp. rh iv <pp , more nearly 
define its essence and characteristics. 
See Fritz. Hum. xii. IG, Vol. iii. p. 87, 
who however docs not ajipear quite ex- 
act in separating <ri'i/\J>. from to iv <ppov. ; 
see lielow. rijv out?;*' a*y. 
f xA ' l"i>'">y ffif snmt' lo''e ; ' closer ileti- 
nition of rh ainh (ppovtiv : tar\ yap koI rh 
aiiri <t>povf7v Kal ^J) aydirr]!/ fx*'^^ Chrys. 
The true nature of such love is well de- 
fined hy the same ahle comment;itor as 
dfxolus Kol <pi\f7v ical <pi\f7ff^ai. On the 
nature of Chii»-tian love as delineated in 
St. Paul's Kpistles, the most summary 
and cotnprehensivc definiiion of which 
is in vcr. 4, see Usteri, I^hrU. ii. I. 4, p. 
242 sq.. Reu^^s, TI,A>I. Chr€l. iv. 19, Vol. 
I! p. 20.3 sq . (T u r i|> i; X ( 
K. T. A.] * with accordiiut souls mindinij 
(tin ) onr th'in'] ; ' second ilcclining clause, 
and parillel to tV a"''- ay- fx- Most of 
the ancient Vv (Syr,. Copt , ..Etli., al.), 
apparently the Greek expositors, nnd 
several modern commentators reirard 
ffvvtfivxoi and ih iv pp. as separate pnvii- 
cations; it seeins however hest, with 
Meyer, to reganl them as united, the 
sliirhtly emphatic tri'-iTf^. forming a quasi- 
adverhial or secondary pretlicatiou to rk 



Chap. IL 3. 4. 

Kara ipc^elav /xrjhe Kara Kevohotiav^ aXka rfj Ta7reivo(f)poavvr} 
aX\)]\ou'i tiyou/xevoL inrepe-)(0VTa<i eavTcov, ^ fii) to, kavjwv eKaajoi 

%v (pp. There is tlius no necessity for 
any artificial distinctions between rh avrh 
^p. and tJ) ev <pp. (Tittmann Si/nou/jm. 
I. p. 09), nor for the assumption of a 
studied tautology (comp. Chrys.) : (yvv- 
\l/vxoi serves to illustrate the participial 
clause with which it is associated, while 
rh ef (pp. remands the reader to the rb 
a-jrh (pp. above, with which it is practi- 
cally synonymous, and of which it is 
possibly a more abstract expression; 
compare Green, Grain, p. 201. Middle- 
ton {(Jr. Art. p. 368) following Grotius 
refers this latter clause to what follows : 
this is not satisfactory, and mars the 
symmetry of the sentence. On the dis- 
tinction between o-yi'ifuxos and l(76\l/uxos, 
see notes on ver. 20. 

3. firjBev Kuril, ipt^.] ' meditatimj 
nothing in the waij of dissension, or conten- 
tiousness ;' not iroiovvTes, V. Hcng., Scho- 
lef. ([lints, p. 105), or siill worse iroietTe, 
Luth., but simply (ppovoiyTes, continued 
from the preceding verse; see Winer, 
Gr. ^ 64. 2, p 618. Tlie prep, koto pri- 
marily denotes the model or rule, and 
thence, as here, by a very intelligible 
gradation, the occasion or circumstances 
in accordance with it ; see notes on Tit. 
iii. 5, and Winer, Gram. § 49. d, )). .3.'i8. 
On epi^eia see notes on ch. i. 17, and on 
G(d. V. 17; compare too 1 heophyl. in 
loc., who appears to have caught the true 
force and meaning of the word ; cnrovSd- 
aai iX^y ''''* f^V M^ viK^crr) 6 ScT^a' toCto 
^(TTiv ^ ipt^ela. fj T]5e Kara 

KevoSo^iai'] ' nor in the vny of vniu- 
glory.' Kfvod. an air. Keyd/x. in the N. T. 
(adj. Gal. v. 20) is sufficient!}' defined 
bj' Suidas as, fiaraia ri.s irepl iavroi/ oi- 
rjiTis ; compare Puiyb. Hist. iii. 8t. 9, x. 
33. 6. The reading is here very doubt- 
ful, that adopted in the text [ABC ; 
Vulg., Clarom., Sanp., Syr. (1) Copt., 
<Eth. (1) ; Lachm., Tisrh.], though not 

free from suspicion, has the greatest 
amount of external evidence, and seems 
on the whole the most probalde and sat- 
isfactory, rfj TaTrfivo(p- 
pocTvvr)] 'with, under tiie injincwe of 
(dui) lowliness;' modal dative (comp. 
notes on ch. i. 18), or perhaps more pre- 
cisely dat. of the subjective cause, thus 
falling under the general head of the 
' dynamic ' dative, see Kriiger, Sprachl. 
§ 48. 15. 5. On this causal dative, which 
though allied to, must not be confounded 
with, the instrumental dat. (as appar- 
ently Mey., Alf ), see Bernhardy, Si/nt. 
III. 14, p. 101, sq., Seheuerl. Synt. ^ 22, 
c, p. 181, and Kriiger, /. c. The article 
here prefixed to the abstract rair€tvo(pp. 
may have its collective force (Jeif, Gr. 
§ 448) and mark ' lowliness ' in its most 
abstract form, ' the virtue of lowliness ' 
(Mey.. comp. Middl. Gram. Art. p. 90), 
but more probably only characterizes the 
raiTiiv. as thatc?(/e and liefitting lowliness 
by which each onglit to be irifluenced : 
comp. Rom. xii. 10 ?(\., and Fritz, in loc. 
On TaTr€ivo(ppo(rvvri, 'the thinking lowly 
of ourselves because we are so,' and its 
distinction from irpavrrjs, see notes on 
Ejih. iv. 2. Trench, Sj/non. § 42, and the 
more spiritually profound discussion of 
Neandcr, Planting, Vol. i. p. 483 sq. 
(Bohn). vn e p e X fT as 
e avrwu] ' superior to themselves ; ' com- 
pare Horn. xii. 10, Ephes. v. 21, 1 Pet. 
v. 5. The query of Calvin, how those 
w ho really and obviously excel others in 
certain ))oints can conform to this pre- 
cept, is satisfactorily answered by con- 
sidering the tine nature of Tairttvo(pp. 
The raTrfiv6(pp(x>v is one so conscious of 
his dependence on God, and of his own 
imperfections and nothingness, tiiat his 
own gifts only remind him that others 
must have gifts also, while his sense of 
his own utter nothingness suggests to 

ClIAl-. II. 5. 

1* II I I. I Vl' I A N'S. 


CK07rovvT€<;, (iX\a Kti\ tu ii^puiv tKacnoi. ^ Tuuro yap (bpoveirt 

5. fap\ So /?.<•. and now TUch. (c<l 7) with DEFGJK; very many Vv. ; Gr. 
and Lat. Ff. ( (Jrnsli., I.nt oni. om>. ; Wm lltii>i , Mf>)., Alj'.). The jjariiile iu omit- 
ted hy /xi'Am. with AB('i<; 17. a7 ; Coptic-, Ann., ^Elh. ; Urif^cn, Atli., al. As 
verse 5 lio^lns an ccrle^iastiral k-ction, and as the expliiative force of tlic 7ap ini;^ht 
not have been fully understood, and have led to the oinis.-ion of the jKirtiele, the 
reading' of liie text seeins slit/lilli/ more probj'.ble. 

(ppovuTfl So AIK'UKFli!*; ;i tnss. ; Vul;,' , (.larom., Syriae, .Kth. (I'ol. and 
Piatt) ; C'yr. ; Lat. Ff. (Uichm., Mty)- The readin;_'of 7'/Wi. (ed. 2, 7), (pp<»<'«i<rjaf, 
with CTvL; nearly all mss. ; Copt., Goth., ul.; Ori;;., Aih. (Ike, Al/.), is insufli- 
cientlv attested hv uneial authorities, and, on internal >;rounds, tiulte as likely to 
have been a correction of <pi)ovf7Tf (to harmonize with o koI iv Xp. 'lr)<r) i-s vice 
versA : compare contra, Fritz. Fril::sili. O/iusc. ]). 49 note, whose jud;,'inent, however, 
seems here hasty and ill-sujiported. We irturn, then, to the reading of LucJuii. and 
Tisch. (ed. I ). 

Iiiin that these gifts may well be supe- 
rior to his own, and hif;her in nature and 
de<rrco ; sec especially Neander, Plaut- 
iri'j, Vol. I. p. 4S.') (Bohn). 

4. tA favTwv ffK6ir.] ' ref/ardinij, 
looking to tfulr own iiitereMs : ' warning 
against a selfish regard for themselves, 
I'ollowing suital)ly on the exhortation to 
Tairtivoippoaui'T). Pride, as Miiller well 
ob.serves, is the most naked form of self- 
ishness : see the excellent ix'inarks on 
selfishness us the essence of sin, and as 
Fpecially developing itself in pride and 
hatred, ib. I'ortr. of Sin. i. 3. 1 and 2, 
especially Vol. i. p. 175 sq. (Clark). 
2Koir€?j' is here scarcely different in seu'^e 
from Cv^tTv, ch. ii 21, I Cor. x. 24, .l.^. 
xiii. 5 ; compare 2 Mace. iv. 5, rh avu- 
^tpov a-Koirwv. Numerous examples of 
similar forms of ex])ression will be found 
in Wetstein in loc, the mo'^t pertinent of 
whicli is from a writer whose diction is 
Slid often to rcficct that of St. Paul, 
Plotin. Knn. I. 4. S, oh ih iKtlvtiiv (ri (Tko- 
■Kovyifvaiv, oAXa t5 iavrOiv. The reading 
of AVc, f/fao-Toj (with CHKIvLX: al.)— 
OKOirtiTf (with L; al.) is rightly rejected 
by Lachinann, Tisch., and most modem 
commentators : it may, however, bo re- 
marked that in all other cii.<es in the 
N. T. (Rev. vi. 11 [/?«•.], is more than 

doubrful) iVacTTOj is only found in the 
singular. oAAa Kal] ' I'lit 

also : ' a somewhat weakened form of tho 
adversative clause, the km perhaps point- 
ing to the thought tliat it was natural 
that a man should look after his own in- 
terests ; .sec Winer, (Jr. § 55. 8, p. 441 
sq., Fritz. .!/(*;•<•. exc. ii. p. 7SS. Ou 
the differL-ncc between ovk — awd. oii 
(xSi'DU — dAAc(, nnd ov ftoyov — oAAa (coi, 
see the acute remarks of Kloiz, Dtvar. 
V(d. II. p. 9. It is, jxThaps, scan-ely 
necessary to controvert the position of 
Rnphel (0/;s. Vol. ii. p. 50.1). that ra, 
iamuy arc ' sua </on<i ; ' such an inter- 
pretation is less in harmony with tho 
context, and would tend to make «rcu ap- 
pear reduiulant. What the apostle con- 
demns is not so much a reasonable re- 
gard for their own interests as the sdjish 
e.xhiliition of it ; com]>. Waterl. Serin, v. 
Vol. II. p. 503. 

5. 7ap has here its eriiluiiaton/ fon-c, 
' verily,' * as the case stands,' and serve* 
l)oth to illustrate and confirm the preced- 
ing exhortation ; see e,«pecial!y notes on 
G'lil. ii. 6. where this use of ^ap is briefly 
illustnited. ^port it t ip 

ufiTv] ' enlrrUiin tilts mind in i/oiirsflffs,' 
se. ' in nnimis vcstris,' Van H.. not ' intra 
vestrnm ca-tuni,' a construction whicli 

54 PHILIP P I AXS. CiiAP. II. 6 

iu vfXLV o Kol €v XpicTToy ^Irjaov, ^ 09 ev fMopcfif] ©eov inrdp-^wv ov^ 

seems distinctly precluded by the follow- 
ing tV Xp. Meyer compares the Homeric 
ivl (ppeiri, iv\ dv/j.^, thus similarly com- 
bined with (ppovflv, III. XXIV. 173, Odjs. 
XIV. 82, al. h Ka\ iv X. 'I.] 

' which was also in CItrist Jesus,' sc. i(p- 
poveiTo or i<\)povij^i). The fcal i< not 
' cum maxime,' Van. Hen":., but simply 
correlative, indicating the identity of tlie 
disposition that is to be between the Phi- 
lippians and Clirist (Wies.) : on the in- 
sertion of KOI after relative particles, and 
the form of comparison it indicates, see 
Klotz, Devar. Vol. 11. p. 636. The in- 
terpretation of Hofmann (Schriftb. \o\. 

I. p. 130), according to which 6 is to be 
refeiTed to ^poveiu, not i(l>povr\S)7), scil. 
' welches ein <ppovuv in ilincn sclbst nicht 
ist, o!me auch in Christo Jesu ' (compare 
Gal. ii. 20), seems artifi^'ial and unsatis- 

6. o j] In this important, and it is to 
be feared much perverted passage, nearly 
every Mord has formed the subject of 
controversy. In no portion of Scripture 
is it more necessary to follow the simple 
and plain grammatical meaning of the 
words. The first question is, to what 
does hs refer? To Christ as (a) the 
A070S 'aaapKos. Ciirist in his pre-incarnate 
state (Chrys. and majority of Ft'.), or, 
as [h] the \6yos ti/a-apKos, — what is now 
usually, but iiot veiy reverently, termed 
the 'historical Christ' (Novation, De 
W., al ) 1 The true answer seems, — 
to neither exclusiveli/, but, as the appro- 
priately chosen antecedent (Xp. 'Irjir.) 
suggests, and the profound nature of the 
subject requires, to («) axd {h), to the 
riXeiostihs (Hyppolyt. ap. Routh. Opusc. 
Vol. I. p. 73) in cither form of His eter- 
nal existence ; it being left to the imme- 
diate context to define the more imme- 
diate reference ; compare Col. i. 13, 15, 
and see Thomasius, Chi-isli Person, Vol. 

II. p. 136. In the present verse the rcf 

erence seems plainly to (a) ; for as the 
tertiuin r.omparationis is manifestly Toiret- 
vo^poavvT), so this cannot be completely 
evinced in the case of Christ, unless His 
prior state be put in clear contrast with 
that to which He was pleased to conde- 
scend ; compare 2 Cor. viii. 9, where, 
while 'Itjo-. Xp. is similarly tlie sulycft, 
TThovcTios &>v can scarcely admit any otiier 
reference than to Christ's pre incarnate 
state; so even Usteri, Lehrb. 11. 2 4, p. 
29."). In verses 8-12 the reference is 
as obviously to (b) : the Aoyos aarapKos, 
which is the more immediate subject of 
verse 6, passes into the ASyos euffapKos in 
ver. 7, and as the slight break in the con- 
tinuity of the sentence, Kol trxv/J-aTi /C.T.A., 
fittingly and significantly indicates, re- 
mains so to the end of the clause. Other 
opinions, especially that of Origen, will 
be found in the admirable sermon of Wa- 
terl. {Works, Vol. 11. p. 109), in which 
the whole passage is very clearly dis- 
cussed. See also Pearson, Creed, Art. 
II. Vol. I. p. 155, Bull, Prim. Trad. vi. 
21, Jackson, Creed, Book viii. 1, Tho- 
masius, Chr. Pers. Vol. 11. p. 136 sq. 
Reference to the older moiiogra])hs on 
this subject will be found in Wolf in loc., 
and to the more recent in Meyer in loc. 
ev jxopcp'^ Qeov vTrdp.] ' siibsistinr/ in 
the form of God,' ' iirstandend u. s. w.,' 
Thomasius, /. c, scil. from all eternity, 
in reference to His pre-incarnate exist- 
ence, the participle not iiaving so much 
a causal ( ' inasmuch as he was ') as a con- 
cessive reference, ' although he was,' a 
sufiiciently common solution of the par- 
ticiple ; see Donalds, (ir. ^ 621. The 
use of vndpxoov, not Hv, is especially no- 
ticeable. In the following words, ^op<J)-)) 
Qeov, there is but little difliculty, if we 
adhere simply and honestly to the true meaning i.fjuop<^i'), and |iropcrlyat> 
tend to tlie subscqneiit anti.hcsis. With 
respect to fiop^i) [jn-obr.bly derived from 

Chap. II. 6. I'll I LI I'l'I ANS. 55 

uoTrayfxou I'lyi'iaaro to tu>ac taa fe'tcp, ' aXXa tairrou L/cii/wtrti' 

tlio SuiiscT. i'arpiis, ' form,' comp. Ben- 
fcy, W'lirztllex. Vol. ii. p. 30'.*J, we muy 
first ob.scMN e, that it is not pcrfocily i«lcii- 
tical with <f>vais or ovaia (Clirysost., ul., 
Jaiksoii, / c), beinij; in fact one of ifs 
two osst-ntial elements (sec e.speeially 
Ari.>i»it. tie Aiiiiiid, ii. I), hut (Je.-.ignatis 
' fonn.' ' ai)penrance ' (."Etli.), ' likeness ' 
(Syr.), and may iio eomparetl with flK<iy, 
Cul. i. I."), ami xufwJjp ti")! uiroffToo-twj, 
Ueh. i. 3; <i>m|iare Thomasius, /. c, p. 
137. As, liowever, hotli these allied ex- 
pressions stand in connection with a ref- 
eixMice to the etenial Son.slii|) (Waterl. 
I.e.), as fioptp^ Qtou stands in distinct 
and umlenialilc antithesis to fi.opcpi)!' Bou- 
\ov (Bull, /. c), and as this latter expres- 
sion is referred hy the apostle himself to 
tlie ns>umption of human nature, so no 
candid man can donht that hotii antc- 
Nicene and i)Ost-Nieeno writers were 
right in their dnhtction that fi-opipr) Qtov 
has reference to the divine nature, and 
docs express as much as 0fhs ^k 0eov 
{IIi[>])ol. Vol. II. p. 29, ed. Fabr.) and 
vihs Ofov (Dionys.-Alexan. apnd. Labb. 
Vol. I. |>. 853), and hence, what is truly 
and essentially divine ; see e>j). W.iterl. 
Serm. v. Vol. il. p 10.') sq. 
oi/x apit ay fi-hv K.r.K.\ ' lie did not 
dfcm His hciiitj on an eqiuditif tridi (Jod a 
tltin'j lo lie aeizal on, or to fjra.i/i at.' C)n 
this im[)or4"ant clause wc ini;st premise 
tlic foliowin;^ remarks: (I) the sli;,'htly 
cmpliatic afitayfihv is the i>redi.ate, and 
rh flvai K. T A., tlio immediate obje-.-t to 
r,yr,aaTo, .-iie Winer, Gr. § 44. .3, j). 289 ; 

(2) tlie word apir., if considmd a/Hirt 
from the ronttxt, docs not seem mcRly = 
Eipirayua or apTriyifiof (Callim. Hymn. 
Cir. 9), but, with the usual force of its 
termination (Dona dson, Crnti/l. ^ 25J), 
would seem to denote ' the act of seiz- 
in;; ; * compare Tlut. (?) dc Kdnr. p. 120 
A, rhv ix KpVjrrjj KoXoi'infvov aprayuSif ; 

(3) iffa is used adverbially (Winer, Gr. 

1) 27. 3, p. ICO), fx*'" ■^"^"'^ *=>*'f • ' *'iual 
iter Deo e^se,' Thoma»., / r , p. 140, and 
that no stress can be hiid on such an use 
('spectari tan<|uam Dcum,' Grot.), a* 
the whole force of the iLssertion of equal- 
ity lies in the use of the verb, subst., rk 
tlfot; see Pearson, Crnd, Vol. ti p 88, 
Cil. Burton ; (A) iv t^optpt) Qfov irwapx- 
and rh that taaQc^ are virtuaHy, thou-h 
not preci.->ely, identical. Both refer to 
the Divine Nature^ the former, however 
(perhaps with a momentary glance of 
thoui^ht to its di/Aia), ])oints to it in re- 
spect of its form and ]ire-*xisience ; tbo 
latter, with exquisite distinction, to its 
state and prtstnl continuance, referrin^r iho 
reader, as it were, to the very moment of 
the i,yij(TaTo. On t/use jirem- 

iscs the translation would be, — (a) He 
ihowfiit the btinij eifiiul to God no act of 
rolJxri/, — no usurpation of any di;;niif 
which was not His own by ri^'at of na- 
ture (Jackson, Cri<d, viii. 1); ' nou 
rapinam cxistimavit pariari Deo.' Ter- 
tullian, see Waterl., /. <:., ]>. U>7 sq : so 

appy. Syr. m-£"' .) ii [direptio], Vulg 

'nipinam,' tloth. ' vulva,' and perhaps 
Copt. ' haltni ' (but aj)py. — apiray p. a I.rCV. 
vi. 4), Authoriz., and many of the older 
commentators. To tliis. however, the 
lotjical consideration that a condition 
cannot pro]H.'ily be regarded an art (com- 
pare Ilofmann, Srliri/i!i. Vol. i. p 131), 
and the still graver rontcrtnal consiilera- 
lions, — (o) that the above rendering of 
apir. riyria-. not only affonls no exempli- 
tication of ^v; rck iavrHiv OKOir. (vcr. 4) 
but really implies the very reverse; (/3) 
that the antithesis oi>x vyv<f- — iAAi iK*y. 
is thus wholly destroyed (sec Ik-Iow), — 
present objections so serious, and appar- 
ently insurmountible, that we seem jus- 
tified in reconsidering (2), and in assign 
ing to tlic rare word ap-rayixhs a mcaninji 
approaching that of the verbal in -rot 

56 PHILIPPIANS. Chap. 11. 7. 

f/,op(pr]v SovXov \aj3u)v^ iv ofioicofxari, av^ponrwv <yev6[xevo^, 

(Hesiod, Op. 520) or the substant. in -fxa 
[consider ^€(th6s, xpvi^/^os, and [)ermuta- 
tions of -/xa and -/tioy, sucli as Sioay/jia, Si- 
wy/xos], so that the phrase may be consid- 
ered closely allied to apway/xa riye7a-^ai 
(Heliod. ^^t/i. VII. 20) and the similar 
expressions apir. iroiuadat, Euseb. Const. 
II. 31, apira ^ecT^at, Euseb. Hist. viii. 
12; compare apirahia ^6<ns, Find. Pijth. 
Tin. 65, and see especially Donalds, in 
loc. The meaning- then will he (/;) lie 
did not deem the heinrj on an fqualitij icilh 
God a thiiuj to be .leized on, a state to be 
exclusively (so to speak) clutched at, 
and retained as a prize ; the expression 
ovx apir. rjj. being perhaps studiedly 
used rather than ovx "ip'ira-ae, JE^ih., ' ut 
sententiam ctiam graviorem redderct, et 
Christum do illo ne cugitasse quidem sig- 
nificaret,' Eai)iger, in Tlsomas. Christ. 
Pers. Vol. II. p. 1.39 : so in effect Theod- 
oret (oM ixeya rovro inreAa^f), and, with 
some varintions in detail, Van Heng., 
De W., Wiesing , and the majority of 
modern commentators, except Meyer 
and Alford), who adopt a (7«as/-active 
meaning (' cin Verhaltniss dcs Beutema- 
chens,' ' self-cnriehmcnt ') but somewhat 
confuse the exegesis. The fuller justifi- 
cation of [b) will ai)pcar in the following 

7. aWa eavrhy ^ k e v.] ' hut emp- 
tied Hinistif: ' ' He retained not his equal- 
ity with God, but on the contrary emp- 
tied Himself, — Uimself, with slight em- 
phasis, divine as lie was in nature and 
.prerogatives.' The real difficulties of 
tliis passage are brought into clear prom- 
inence by this adversative clause We 
have here two lines of interpretation, 
perfectly and plainly distinct. (1 ) If, on 
the one liand, we adopt (a), the first in- 
terpreiation mentioned ver. 6, then virap- 
Xcov will be causal, ovx "■P'"'- vy- will re- 
fer to the pnceding account of Christ's 
greatness (Waterland, /. c, p. 110), and 

ap-K. will more nearly presei"ve its appar- 
ent lexical meaning, but aWa. will have 
to be regarded as equivalent to oAA' ojxws 
(Waterl., p. 108), and the antithesis as 
one between whole members, not, as the 
context seems imperatively to demand, 
between conterminous clauses ; ' He 
thought tite being equal to God no usurpa 
tion; yet He emptied Uims<lf;' so ex- 
pressly Waterland, and, as far as we can 
infer from renderings almost perplex- 
ingly literal, Auth., and the principal 
ancient Vv., except JEth, (2) If, on 
the other hand, we adopt [b) as above, 
then — inrapx- will be concessive, ovx 
apir. riy. will refer to the consequent ac- 
count of Christ's humiliation, presen-ing 
an exact parallelism to fxi) to eavruv 
(TKoir., apiT. will recede further from its 
lexical meaning, but oAAo will retain its 
usual, proper, and logical force after the 
negative clause (' aliud jam hoc esse de 
quo sumus dicturi,' Klotz, Devar. Vol. 
II. 2), and the sentence will be even, con- 
tinuous, and in fullest contextual har- 
mony : ' He did not deem. His equality to 
God a prize to be seized, but, etc. ; ' in 
other words, — ' He did not insist on 
His own eternal prerogatives, but, on the 
contrary, humbled Himself to the condi- 
tion and suflerings of mortal man.' Of 
these two interpretations wliile (1) pre- 
serves more nearly the primary lexical 
meaning ofMp'^ayfj.6s, it so unduly ex- 
pands that of aWd, and so completely 
mars the regular antithesis {ovk — a\\d), 
that we seem bound to adopt confidently 
and unhesitatingly the latter interpreta- 
tion : see esjiecially Waterland (I. c, p. 
110), who while adopting (1) shows 
dearly that (2) is a sound and catholic 
interpretation : compare Middlcton, Gr. 
Art. p. 370, Browne, Articles, i. 2, p. 41, 
neither of whom, however, seems to have 
felt snfticicntly the lexical diflSculty con- 
nected with opTToyuds. All 

CiiAi'. II. 8. I'lIILiri'I ANS. 57 
Koi a^r'jfiaTC evpe^eU &)s" dv^pcoTro<; eTanecvojo-ev t'airroi', y€i'6fji(i'0>{ 

ancinpts to iirc^LTvc liotli t!ie (^.fur/ mean- fiiinie real dignity He ever haJ ' (fif'^wy 

iw^ of apTT. niitl the re^'iilar i^'raininaiical t ^v, (\afify t ovk ^f (CUrvs.), Iiut, as 

wfqueiue (Meyer, and apparently Alt.), tlie following elause move expressly 

in faet to eonil.ine (1) and (-2), .-eem shows, of that wliicli lie had j/i that form 

hopeless: the two tran>lati(ins are fun- (eonip. Tearson, (Snttl, Vol. i. p. 158), 

danientally distiiKf, and nio-;tof the con- that Godlike majesty and visilde ;:Iories 

fused interpnn:!tioiis of this ])assa^'e arc (conip. Delitzsch. I\i/i/tJ. p. :J4) which 

owin;jj to thi- distinction and this incoin- He had from all eternity : T?)y o^soi' k»- 

patihility not having liecn seen and a-c- Ta/cpi'\f.ay tV ixpav raxuvoipiioavirtiv tt- 

ognized. It is fair to add that of the-;e \fTo, Theodoret. '1 he military mcta- 

attenipts, the moat plausihio is the as- phor which Kivhs {OLs. \> .329) finds in 

sunied coherence of the negative with KtvoZv and even in apv. iyi'iff., seems 

apnaytJL6v (=' non-rapinam '), hnt to this doubtful in the highest degree, 

the Uirui and balance of the sentence, — fio p(p7] i> S ov\ou Xa/3(uv] ' lakiny, or 

the apjicarance of ou with an aorist in /,y Uikiwj, the funii of a strvaut ; ' the ae- 

thc lirst member, followed by aWa witii tion of the aor. part, being synchronous 

a respou>ive aor. in the second member, witli that of the finite verb (see Bcmhard., 

— seems, as before, to present a gram- S^/nt x. 9, p- 383, notes on Ejih. i. 9), 

matical objection t!iat remains in all its and serving more fully to explain it: "si 

fullest validity. Lastly, it is not qua;ris quomodo Cliristus seipsum exi- 

.orreet to say (Dc Weite) that rh flvai nanivit? Kespondet apostolus, sfrr/ybr- 

<. T. \. must reler to something Clirist niam ncciitiint,' Bull, Prim. Trad. vi. 

did )iot possess : suit-ly it is logically ac- 20. The clioice of the tenn Sov\ou, aa 

cuiate to say that Christ did not seize the same gre;it writer ably observes, has 

for Himself, and covet to retain a state no reference to any sirrilis romlilio ('mi- 

tliat was then his own. Kven though seram sortem,' Ileinr. ). but is suggested 

such phrases as rhv bavaTov ipnayua dt- only by the preceding antithesis fiopipTJ 

fifvoi (Eu-eb. Hist. VIII. 12) may be &(ov. and marks the relation which our 

found, would it be necessarily incorrect Lord assniued tow.ards God ; ' ad Deum 

to say of a patriot, ovx Spir. (or a^Tr.), autem comparata crcatura omnis sen"i 

//•yi^ffaTo rhv jBi'oi/ iw' f'i\fTo rbv ^dva- fonnam halict, Deique ad o!K;dientiam 

Tox ? iavThv iKfuaifffv] obstricta tenetur,' lYi. § 20. 

' miptiid IlimSi/f',' not meiapliorically, iy dftoiw/aart k. t. \.] ' Uiifj inade 

' humiliavit,' .lEth., but according to tlio in the likeness of men ; ' ntodal clauisc siif>- 

simplc and lexical meaning of the word ordinated to the precciling: — 'if any 

(compare Xcnoph. G£eon. viii. 7, al.), man doubt how Christ emptied Himself, 

'cxinanivit,' Vulg., Claroman. ; ^-r^ 'I"' ''"''' '''" '"''''"'' '"'"■ '*>' ''''''"^ '^ 

""^^ri form of a scrmiit : if any still question 

[inane reddidit] Syriac, ' effluere fecit,' liow he took the fonn of a servant, ho 

Copt. ; compare ' us-lansida,' Goth. Of hath the apostle's resolution by l>cing 

what did He empty IIim>clf ? Not ex- made in the likeness of mfw,' IVar-on, 

actly of the fiopip^ 0<oO (Mcy., Alf ) un- Cned, Vol. i. p. l.")7 (ed. Bunon). The 

less understood in a sense diflerent to expression if d/xoitin. is very notii-eabic ; 

that which it inferential I if has in t!ie i>ix?- Clirist though jxTfcct man w:u« still not 

ceding clause, for, as Waterl. truly says, a mere man. a ^t\hs iwbponroi, but was 

'Ho had the same essential glory, the d .\6^oi aap^ yfyofxtios ; companj Th©. 


58 PHILIPPIANS. Chap. II. 8, 9. 

v7r7]KOO<i fJ-eXP^ '^avdTov, ^avuTOV Be aravpov. ^ Sio koX o &e6<i ainov 

ophylact in Joe, and Fritz. Rom. viii. 3, 
Vol. II. p. 97. Lastly, yipeabai does not 
here imply merely ' to be bom,' but, as 
the context requires, with a greater lati- 
tude of meaninjr, ' apparere,' ' in con- 
speetum venire,' Kiihner on Xenophon 
3Icin. III. 3. 6 (Meyer), while eV is used 
with a quasi-local force to mark the en- 
velope or environment ; see Bemhardy, 
Si/nt. V. 7, p 209. 

8. Kal ax'hy-O'ri k. t. \.\ ' and be- 
ing found in fashion as a man.' etc. ; da- 
tive of reference, Winer, Gr. § 31. 6, p. 
193, and notes on Gal. i. 22 ; ov toCto 
Ktyoiv, oTi ri cpvffts fieTfTrecrev ouSf ffvyxv- 
ffis Tjs iyiviro, aWa cxri/xaTi iyei/ero, 
Chrys. This clause is connected by De 
Wette, Meyer, 'I'isch. (ed. 2, 7), and 
others closely with what precedes, a stop 
be ng placed after ii'^pcairos, and irairel- 
vojffev being left, without any connecting 
particle, to commence the next clause : 
so also Copt , and probably Syr. and 
^th. To such a punctuation there are 
two grave objections. On the one hand, 
such an abnipt separation in a group of 
clauses which have a close logical and 
historical coherence is improbable, and 
apparently unprecedented (the examples 
cited by De Wette, Gal. iii. 13, v. 25, 
2 Cor. V. 21, are not in point) : on the 
other, as was hinted above on ver. 6, the 
slight break, combined with the some- 
what peculiar evpidtls harmonize admi- 
rably with the change of subject, and indi- 
cate the transition from the pre-incarnate 
glory to the incarnate humiliation and 
post-incarnate exaltation of the Eternal 
Son : so it would seem, expressly, Chrys. 
Horn. VII. 4, init. Evpedus is thus not 
for iov, but, as always, implies that He 
y^as found, manifested, acknowledged, to 
be; see notes on Gal. ii. 17, and Winer, 
Gram. § 64. 8, p. 542 sq. On trx'Va. 
which, as its derivation [ex^] clearly 
hints, is not = diioiw(j.a, Heinr., but de- 

notes the hiibitus, ' outward guise, de- 
meanor, and manner of life' (oiks'tow 
(Tx?it^a. vtpifbTiKe, Lucian, Necyom. § 16, 
(rx'JM* <t>pvyaviaTTipos Xafidiv, Folyajn. 
Stiategem. i. p. 37 [Wetst.]), and its dis- 
tinction from t!ie more ' intrinsic ' and 
' essential fiopcp-q,' see Jonrn. Class. Phil. 
No. VII. p. 115 sq. ; compare notes on 
2 Tim. iii. 5. ws&i^^pai-iros] 

'as a man ; ' though a pi rfcct man, yet 
not a mere man ; rjnils yap ^uxh xal 
au>fxx iKilvos 06OS, KoL ^'"X'lt '^"^ awpua, 
Chrys., who, however, would have ex- 
pressed himself with more psychological 
exactness if, in both clauses for ^ux"!), 
lie had written irveifj.a kuI 'fux^ ! comp. 
Luke xxiii. 26. and Delitzsch, BiU. Psi/- 
chol. V. 1, p. 283 sq. 

i T air e ivwcr ( v] ' hnnihlcd Hiinsdf: ' 
not kavThv fTair., the em|. basis resting 
rather on the act, than, as before (eavr. 
fKiv. ) on the subject. 'ETairelv. is clearly 
not synonymous with tKfv. (Riieinw.), 
but refers to the acts of condescension 
and humiliation in that human nature 
which He emptied Himself to assume : 
' non solum, cum Deus esset. naturanx 
assumpsit humanam, verum in ea se ve- 
hementcr hnmiliavit et dcjecit,' Bull, 
Prim. Trad. vi. 21. On the meaning of 
raneivhs [allied with TciTrTjy, and not im 
probably derived from a root STAIT — 
' press,' ' tread,' compare Benfey, Wur 
zeUex. Vol. I. p. 6.')6] in Christian writers 
in contradistinction to heathen (by whom 
it is conimonly used in a bad sense, e. g. 
TOTreir-)) Kal avfKfv^epos, Plato, Lpgg. IV. 
p. 774 c.), see Trench, Si/non. ^ 42. 
yevoixfvos k.t. \.] 'hi/ hemming obedi 
ent even to death ; ' modal clause ap 
pcnded to and explaining iTaireiveefffv , 
tlie supplementary words /ie'xpi k. t. A. 
not belonging to the finite verb (Beng., 
Hofm. Schriftb. Vol. ii. 1, p. 80), but, 
as the explanatory nature of the parti- 
cipial clause and the even flow of the 

CuKi: II. 9. P III L I 1' r I A N S . 59 

VTrepin^cjaev kul e^apicraro avrco ui>op.a ru vTrtp ttuv oi'o/ztt, 

sentenco clearly require, — to f(v&nivo% 
uwttK. Tlio inroKo!/ here mentioned was 
not that nliown to Ilis eiuthly pan-nts 
(Zaneh. ), or to Jews an<l Romans ((iro- 
tia*), but, as tlie folloivin;; verse seems 
dLstiuetly to indicate, to (Jod ; eom[»arc 
Matlii. xxvi. 39, Rom. v. 19, llel). v. 8. 
The meanin;; of the term cannot fairly 
be pressed, e. ij. v-xi]Kouatv in v'los, ovx 
iis Sov\os, Theod., for see Rom. vi. 16, 
Col. iji. 22. As tiie derivation su^ri^-sts, 
MjKoos and (ntaxovuv involve the idea of 
' dieto obtemi)craro ; ' rtibta^iu is ratlier 
* monitasequi,' irei^apx*^" 'eoactus o!).-c- 
qui;' sec Tittm. Sjnon. i. p. 193, and 
notes on Tit. iii. 1. On tiic ajiparent 
futility of distinctions between m*XP' 
(here not of time Imt degne) and ixr'> 
pec 071 2 Tim. ii. 0. 

davir ov 5« o-t.] 'y'l ihulh on the 
cross ; ' not only death, but u deatli »f 
sufferinir, sHamcfiil and accursed : oItot 
yap [A ^ou'ttToj] Trdvrcav 4iroynitariKii>Tf- 
pos flvcu iSoKfi. olroi 6 alffx^yVi yif-uv, 
olnoi 6 ^TrapaTos, Clirys. On the use of 
5* in repetition, in wiiich however the 
original oppositive force may ju.-t faintly 
be traced ('similis notio quodam modo 
opponitur'), sec K\oi7., Dei^r. Vol. it. 
p. 3t>l, Ilariunj:, Partik. St, 2. 7, Vol. 1. 
p. 1G8; and on tiie genitive (of 'more 
remote relation'), sec exx. in Winer, 
(Jr. § 30. 2. p. IGS. 

9 8 1 & K a /] ' 0'» which account also ; ' 
' in eonsequcni'C of this condescension 
and ImmiliaUon on the part of Christ 
God aUo, etc. ; ' the koI not being merely 
consecutive (De W., Mey.), hut stand- 
ing in connection with inrtpinii., and serv- 
ing to place in gentle contrnst the conse- 
quent exaltation with the previous rairtl- 
ytacris; see Klotz, I hear. Vol. it. p. C.'Ja, 
and notes on cli. iv. 12. The meaning 
of St6. 'quo facto' (comp. Wolf, al.), 
adopted only, it is to be feared, from 
dogmatical reasons, is distinctlv nntena- 

l)le in gnimmar, and by no means iieiece- 
sary in point of theology ; ' God,' as B;i. 
Andrewes says, ' not only raised llim, 
but, /To/z/rr hor, even " for that cause" 
c.valted Ilini also to live wiiii Ilim in 
glorj' for ever, Srm. i. Vol. it. p I'-'T, 
ib , p. 325 : otov r?is aapKht iri\d0rjTai 
i nandpioi flaiKos wayra A.oiwhi' rh ra- 
ircifa lifTo, aSti'as (pmyytrat, C!iryso-t. in 
lor. ( )n tlic humiliation of the Eternal 
Son sec especia ly Jackson, Creed, viii. 
1.2, and on tlic nai ure and degree of His 
exaltation, Andrewes, S-rm. ix. Vol. i. 
p .022 S(i. (A.-C. Lil.r ). 
a'v t}>v vit(pvy^(i)afv\ ' higlilj fxaltid 

Iliin;' cds'^LcS » A o,ir7| [muhum 

exaltavit cum] Syr. ; coiujcirc P-alra 
xevi. 9, ff<p6Zpa vir(p\/\^uby\s virip Toyrci 
Tooi dtoiis, iJan. iv. "A, The Oxtp is not 
here temporal, nor even lucal, thou-h the 
reference is obviously to the Ascension 
(Eph. iv. 10) and elevation at the right 
hand of God, but etliical, — ' dignitato 
atque im])crio sui)ra omncs,' Zauch., 
' insignitcr cxtulit,' Just. : so ..Ethiopio, 
Copt. On St. Paul's favorite use of 
xnrtp and its compounds, see notes o« 
Ei'h. iii. 20. The exact natuix; of this 
exaltation is well discussed in Waterl. 
Scrm. II. Vol. II. p. 112 ; it is to bo 
doubled, however, whether, as Waterl. 
maintains, the irfercnco is specially to 
Christ as Son of Go«l, and to ' an exalta- 
tion rthitire to tts. by a new and real title, 
viz., that of redemption and salvation ; ' 
so also J:ick-on. Crctil, xi. 3. 4, Bull, 
Primit. Titidit. vi. 2.1. The acioi-dant 
opinion of these great writers claims our 
most serious consideration ; still as the 
aor. seems to point to a detinito histori- 
cal fact, — as in ver. 8 there is appy. al- 
mo.-<t a marked transition from tlic pro- 
incarnate to the incarnate Son, — as in 
ver. 10 this allu-ion seems still contin- 
ued in the name 'IijiroD, — so bcix: tho 


*^ 7va ev Tu> ovo/jban ^Irjcrov irav 'yovu Kafiylrrj iiroupavLOov Koi 

reference is the same ; vinpv^ova-Siat Ae- 
yerai, Kol ws ouk ix'^^^ 5'°' ''"o <^vhp<intivGV 
(iovovovx'h Ilippolyt. Fragm. Vol. ii p. 
29 (cd. Fabr.). The exaltation is thus 
not merely relative but proper ; an inves- 
titure as the Son of Man, with all that 
full power, glory, and dominion, wliich 
as God Ho never wanted; see Pearson, 
Creed, Vol. i. p. 190 (cd. Burt.). So, 
distinctly, Chrysost., Theodoiet, Cyr.- 
Alcx., some of the ante-Nicene and ap- 
parently the bulk of the post-Nicene 
writers. For the psychological consid- 
erations dependent on this exaltation of 
the God-man, seeDclitzsch. Bibl. Psijdi. 
V. 1, p. 287. exap^caro] 

'freely gave ; ' chap. i. 29. There is no 
reason whatever to depart from the sim- 
ple and proper lexical meaning of the 
word ; el Se Ae-yerai eV rd^ei xap''''MO''''os 
•rh iiirep irav tjvofia Sexeff^ai, els eKe7i>o Srj- 
KoyoTi juera erap/cbs iiraydyeTat, els oirep 
■^u /col Si'xo aapKos, Cyr.-Alex. Thesmir, 
p. 130. ivojxa /c. T. A.] 

' a name the ichich is above every name ; ' 
a name, whicii, as thecontext shows, is 
not to be understood generically (comp. 
Eph. i. 21, Heb. i. 4), as Kvpios (Mich.), 
or vihs &eov, but specifically and ex- 
pressly as ''Irjaovs, the name of His hu- 
miliation, and henceforth that of His ex- 
altation and glory ; a name with wliich 
now every highest attribute, grace, 
power, dominion, and KvpiSrris (vcr. 11) 
is eternally conjoined. There is thus no 
reason whatever for modifying the sim- 
ple meaning of 6vona: both here and 
elsewhere (Mark vi. 14, John xii. 28, 
Acts iii. 16, Rom. i. 5, al.) the idea of 
'dignity' (Bloomf, Ileinr.), is derived 
solely from the context ; see Van Ileng. 
in loc. The reading is somewhat doubt- 
ful. Laclim. and Mey. read rh vvo^a Tb 
K. T. \., with ABC; 17; Copt, (a lan- 
guage which has a definite and indefi- 
nite article], Dionisius-AIex., Euseb., 

Cyr. (2), al. ; but, as the inseition can 
more plausibly be referred to grammati- 
cal correction than the omission to erro- 
neous transcription, — scil. the prece- 
dence of t6, we retain with DEFGKL : 
nearly all mss. ; Orig., Atli., Chrys., al., 
tlie reading of Tisclirndorf On the use 
of the article with the defining clause to 
characterize more expressly the preced- 
ing anarthrous noun, see Winer, § 21. 4, 
p. 126, who, however, appears to lean to 
the other reading. 

10. 'Iva K. T. A.] 'that in the name of 
Jesus ; ' purpose and intent of the exal- 
tation. 'Eu Tu 6v6fj.. is not equivalent to 
els tJ) uvofj.a (Ileinr.) as directly specify- 
ing that to which (^Eth.) the adoration 
is to be paid, nor yet, ' ad nomen,' Beza 
(compare Auth.), ' nuncupato nomine,' 
Grot., — a meaning of iv ovofx. wholly 
witliout example in the N. T., but, with 
the full force of the prep., 'denotes the 
spiritual sphere, tlie Imly clement as it 
were, in which every prayer is to be of- 
fered and every knee to liow ; see Eph. 
V. 20, and Ilarless in loc, who well re- 
marks that tJi ovojxa. K. T. A. does not 
imply simply and per se the ])ersonality 
(' pro pei'sonA positum,' ICst.), but that 
personality as revealed to and acknowl- 
edged by man : compare also Winer. Gr. 
§ 48. a, p. 345. ttuv ySw 

K.T.K.] 'every Iciiee sliouki hate;' els 
irpoa-KvvTjo-iv ^-riXovdri, CEcumen. ; genu- 
flection being the external representation 
of worship and adoration ; »see Rom. xi. 
4, xiv. 11, Epli. iii. 14 and notes in loc, 
Suicer, Thcsanr. Vol. i. p. 77". The 
subject to whom the adoration is di- 
rected, can only be, as Meyer rightly ob- 
serves, the principal sulijcct of the con- 
text, our Lord and Master Jesus Christ. 
Such an adoration is not, however, as 
Meyer goes on to say, merely relative 
(comp. ver. 11, els h6'iav Qeov), but, as 
the whole aspects of the passage, its 

CiiAP. II. II. I'll I i.i rri Axs. CI 

OJL Kvpio-; lijaov^ XpioTo^ tK ho^au Geou Trarpu^;. 

clear coiitrast-i, aiitl iis coiuiuiliii;; tli'Mnc, idea so siiifaliie with the. present as with 

— tlic exaltation of the Son, — sofin all the foilowinj; clause. The oilii-r iiiter- 

pltiiiily to iiiili(-atc>, /losilive and altsulnte. piTiations that have Im-c-ii |tro|iu»«.-d are 

By no one has the distiiuiion heiwccn titiicr putvly url»itrary (Christian^, Jews, 

tlie rel itive nnil al>.'<o!ute worship of the Ileailiens), or ndju^ted to dK;;niatitul 

Son hecn inoie dearly unuiu-iuted than preeoneejdions (' (jui in iJur;^utorju sunt,' 

hy Bi.-liop Bull; 'si al)>oIutc ut Deus Jvst.) to which the context yields no su[»- 

spcctatur iiloin jilane divinu.-! culms jmrt. It may he here briefly rc- 

queni I'atri c.xiiihenius oinnino (Klietur. marked that the reverential custom of 

Sin Filiiim inineainur rehite qu i Filius makiiij: an outward sij;n of adoration at 

est, et ex Deo I'atre trahit ori;:ihein ; the name of Jesus (Canon 18), thoujrh 

turn rur>us certum est cultuni ct vcncra- certainly not tlinctlij dcducihie from this 

tioiiem omnem quern ip>i deferimus, ad ie.\t, may still, as Mede admitj*, l>e dc- 

Patrem ivtlundare,' Fid Ale. ix. 13, — rived from it ' f^encrali et indertnita con- 

a section that for soundness of divinity nequenti'i,' F/iint. 71 ; see Bingham, .1«- 

and clearness of deKn it ion deserves at ten- tit/. Vol. ix. p. 245 sq.. And i ewes, Scrm. 

live perusal: see also Waterl. D'/. of' ix. Vol. i. p. 334 sq. (A.-C. Lihr.). 
Qiiei: XYll. XViii. Vol. ll. ]>. 421 »q. 11. rraaa 7Ati;<ro-a| ' erni/ loii'iue ; ' 

iiroupav'ioiv k. t. K.] 'of thiiii/s in not metaphorically, irorro t^ f^tTj, The- 

heaven, uml lltiii'js on earth, and thiiKjs nn- odoret, hut simply and literally in ac- 

der the enrlh ; ' ' qna- in coelis, ct in terra, cordance witli, and in expansion of, the 

ct in ahyssis,' ^Eih. (Piatt) ; comp. Rev. preccdinjj concrete expression nav yovu ; 

V. 13, and for cxami)lcs of a similar scp- 'the knee is hut a dumii ai knowicd;;- 

aratioii of the iiom. from its dojicndent riicnt, hut a vocal confession that doili 

pcnirives, Winer, drum. ^ 30. 2, p. 172. utter our mind jilainly.' Andrcjves, .Seri/i. 

The three classes here mentioned are to ix. Vol. it. p. 337, who. liowever, with 

bo understood not with any ethical refer- ids chanictcristic exhaustion of every 

ence (»col oi ^Uaioi [not koX ol ^wmts. as possible meaninjj also notices the former, 

cited by Mcy. and Alf ] koI oi anapruKol, p. 339. i^ofxoKoyriafTat] 

Chrys. 2), but simply and jilainly, angels ' oitenly coiifiss,' ' di>ertc contiieatur ' 

and archangels in heaven (comji Epii. [coiifitebitur], Beng. ; the prep, not 

i. 21), Ileti. i. 4, 6), men upon earth (com- merely pointing to 'cxitum vocis a!) ore,' 

pare Plato, Ripuhl. viii. p. 54S a, [il>.) Van llengcl (comp. Andrewcs. /. r.), 

Axioih 3fi8 h), and t!ie departed under but, as the occunvncc of the simple verb 

the carili ; i-Kovpavloui KoKti rhs aopa.,-ovi in similar but less cmpliatic passages 

Suvdiuc^. iirtyuov% h( Tovs iTi (^u'yras ay- (John ix. 22, al), indii"ectly suggests, 

dpiiirovi Kol Karaxibovlovs Toui Tf^vfurai : the <'/><'n)ic.« and («»«/»/( /(Hf.ts of t!ie iuo- 

c mparc Delitzsch, DiU. Psi/rh. vi. 3,]). \oyia; compare Acts xix. IS, (iofioKo- 

3'.i4. The last class is referred by Chrys. yovufyot koI ai'ayyfKXoyTfs raj irp^cis, 

1, Thcoph., and Gicum. to 5a//iov<s, but, Philo, /^. Alliy. § 26, Vol. i p. 60 

as Meyer well obsei^cs, such is by no (cd. Mang.), Lucian, Iltrn.ot. ^ ~5 ; and 

means the locality elsewhere assigned to sec Fritz. o»i MMth. iii. 6, p. 126, who, 

them by the apostle (comp. E|ih. vi. 12), hoMrevcr, on the other hand, somewliat 

nor is the honii\ge of impotence or sub- oirr-presscs the force of the compound, 

jugatcd malice (2 Pet. ii. 4, Jude G) an ' lubcatcr et apertc ct vchcmcntcr conii- 


P H I L I r P I A X s , 

Chap. II. 12. 

^ "flare ayaTrrjTot /xov, Ka^oo-; Trdvrore virr}- 

Work cut Tour salvation ; 

be peaceful and blameless, ' \^»« / , j^^x 

and give me cause to re- KOVaaTe, fir] W9 ev TT] 7rapOV(Tia flOV fWVOV, uXXxt 
joice, even if I have to be offered up for you. 

teri.' The student must always boar in 
mind the tendency of later writer? to 
conipoand form* : see Thiersch, de Pent. 
II. 1, p. 8.3. The reading is doubtful : 
on the one hand the fut. [ACDEFGKL ; 
30 mss. ; Tisch.] may be due to a change 
of vowels ; on the other hand the subj. 
[B ; Lachm. ex errore] is very probably 
a correction of the anomalous future. 
On the wliole, it seems safer to adhere 
to the ranjority of MSS. For examples 
of :vo with a fut. see Winer, Gr. § 41. 1. 
b, p. 258. Kvpios} Predi- 

cate put foiTvard with especial emphasis ; 
the contrary, a.s Mey. observes, is avd^- 
ffia 'iTjirot/s, 1 Cor. xii. 3. This august 
title is not to be limited ; it does not re- 
ler to a Kvpi6rr\s merely over rational be- 
ings (Hoelem.), but assures us that not 
only hath Jesus Christ ' an absolute, su- 
preme, and universal dominion over all 
things, as God,' but that as the Son of 
Man He is invested with all power in 
heaven and earth : partly economical, for 
the completing of our redemption ; partly 
consequent unto the union, or due nnto 
the obedience of His passion, Pearson, 
Creed, Art. ii. ad fin., Vol. i. p. 196 (ed. 
Burton). tls ^6^av fc. t. A.] 

'■ to the (/lori/ of God the Father,' depend- 
ent on efo)uo\., not on on k.t.K.; i.e. 
the object contemplated by the act of con- 
fession (Mey., De W., Wiesing.), not the 
subject matter of it, Andrewes (I.e.), who, 
however, notices both. The tran<l. of 
Vulg., 'in gloria' (^th.,comp. Beng. ), 
is an untenable alteration of the more 
correct ' in gloriam ' [better ' nrfgloriam,' 
see Hand, Tursell. Vol. iii. p. 317] of 
the Old Latin ; so correctly Syr., Copt. 
(?). The confession of Jesus as Lord of 
all redonnds ' to the gloiy of the Father, 
whose Son He is ; th' ir honor insepara- 
ble and their glory one," Wnterl. Vol. 

II. p. 118: bpas travtaxov orav 6 Tihi 
So^a^-qrai, rhv Tlartpa Eo^a^ouevov. O'jto) 
OTav aTifid^rrrai 6 Tibs 6 Uarijp aTiud(fTou, 
Chrys., — true and wise words thr.t it is 
well to bear in mind. We now pass on 
to a more easy paragraph. 

12. wffTf] 'So then,' ' Consequent! ij ;' 
exhortation directly and definitely flow- 
ing, not from all the previous admoni- 
tions, ch. i. 27 sq. (De W.), but more 
especially from the paragraph immedi- 
ately preceding, els rovro a<j)op(iyTfS rh 
TrapdSeiyfm, Theodoret. Li the union of 
ware with the imper. the usual force of 
the panicle ('consecntio alicujus rei ex 
antecedentibns,' Klotz) is somewhat ob- 
scured, — the idea of real or logical con- 
sequence (see notes on Gul. ii. 13) merg- 
ing into that of inferential exhortation ; 
' rem faciendam certo documento firmat,' 
Ellendt, Lex. Soph. Vol. ii. p. 1013 : see 
also Klotz, Devar. Vol. ii. p. 776, and 
for examples, Winer, Gr. ^ 41. 5. 1, p. 
269. In such a case the correct transla- 
tion in Latin is not'igitur' (Ellendt, 
Lej-. So/ih. s. V. p. 1013), nor even per- 
haps ' proinde,' Beza (which according 
to Heindoif = ' ii/itur <um exhortatione 
quadam '), but ' itaque,' Vulg., this par- 
ticle being more correctly n-ed of con- 
clusions naturally flowing from what has 
preceded (nexus real is), ' igitur ' of con- 
clusions that are the i-esult of pure ratio- 
cination (nexus lofficus) ; see especially 
Hand, Tursell. Vol. in. p. 187. 
K ad ills tivrort K.r.X.\ ' as i/e were 
alicai/s ohedient :' observe the latent par- 
allelism to xnriiKoos yev6a. v. 8. But to 
whom was the obedience shown? Not, 
as the context might at first sight seem 
to suggest, ' mihi.' JEih , Conyb., ' mihi 
ad salutem vos honanti,' Beng , but, as 
the more plausible connection of fj.h w$ 
K. T. K. with the last clause seems to in- 

CiiAi'. n. iL>. riiiLiri'iANs. G;J 

vvu TToWy /j.dX\oi> eif r?i inruvcjia fiov fie-ra (f>of3ov kui rpo/xov 

dicatc, — to the tfifit stiliject of tlic uira- the rp6nos wiis the anxious solicitude 
Ko-J) in vcr. 8, i'. e. ' to (Jod ; ' or what is wl)ii-li was naturally ois-^ociated with it ; 
in eflect ciinivalcnt to it, ' Pei prttcoptis see f'onvh. in loc. An unplied cxhorta- 
ab a[)o^tolo traditis,' Kstiiis : ho N'an tion to humility (Xinndcr. p. C7), or 
llenj;., Moy., Alf., an«l amon;j the older warninfr aj;ainxt faJse security ( 
expo-iioi-^, Ca-ll. and perhaps Justiniani. not rf<|uired hy the context, and is not 
On the hiter form Kabiis, see notes on in accordance with what seems the re;.'n- 
C(il. iii. G. fii] ws K. T. X.] lar meaniiif: in which the pn'«eiit form of 
' iiol (IS if ill nil/ presence oulif, but now words is used hy the aposile; Pee esp. 
much wore in my ahsiwc' These words the {.•■fK)d note of IIamin(>n>l, who has 
must l>c connected with the succeeding well investi;.'ated tlie mcaniii;: of the ex- 
imperative (fartyy (Grot., />W//«.), not pression ; conip. Beveridfre, St^m. xvi. 
with t!ie preceding aor. iiin\K., — aeon- Vol. i. p. 2'.i4, who, however, is here 
struciioii wliidi would ccrtniidy seem to less precise and discriminating, 
require ou (see Winer, 6V. 4 .i5. 1, p. 422), r^v iavruv ffurrfp.] ' your oicn s»l- 
nnd would tend to oliliterato the force of ration ; ' the reflexive pronoun not witli- 
yiy. The i'j (though omitted l)y B ; a out emphasis, hinting tliat now they 
fow niss. ; Copt., ^•Eih., al.) is certainly were alone, and must act for themselves ; 
pemiiiie, and not to be passed over in compaiv Bcng. Their salvation was 
translation. The npostle does not con- something essentially individual, some- 
tent bimseif with the simple i»recept, /ca- thing between each man and his God. 
rfpy- M') «•" '"'^P- K. T. K , but also spcci- A refercnee to the example of Christ 
fies tiie feeling and spirit with which they ('as lie ol)eyed so do yon obey,' Alf.) 
were to do it ; /'. c. not with the spirit of seems very doubtful ; the whole exhor- 
men who did it when he was ])resent,but taiion refers to that example, but tiie in- 
left it undone when he was absent, but dividual pronoun more naturally points 
who even in the latter case did it in a to the words which immediately precede 
yet higher degree ; .see Mcy. »/i /oc., who it. The unsatisfactory interpretation 
has well e.xplained t!ic force of this par- iauTvy =^ aWriKiay (compare Mieliaelis) 
tide. The slight difficulty arises from is fairly nfuteil by Van Heng. in loc. 
two oppo>iiions — ■ndvTOTf — I'l'v, irapov Kartpya^fffbt] ' coiu/Ji te,' ' carry 
<riij — airouiTi'o being blended in a .>-ingle o»/,' * pcragite,' Grot., ' perficite, perfec- 
enunciatioii. /*«Ta ^i&ov tiim reddite,' Just. 2: compare Rom. 
K. T. A.] ' irith fiar aiul treiiihliwj' i. e. vii. 18, Kph. vi. 1,3, and see notes in ioe., 
with anxious solicitude, with a distrust where the meanings of this verb are 
in your powers that )ou can ever do briefly noticed. The comp<>ui;d form 
enoug!i ; sec esi)ccially Kph. vi. 5, an<l d»x*s not imply the <rrovSii or ixi^iKtia 
notes III Iw: ; compare also I Cor. ii. 3, (Chrysost ). but the ' j>erscver:intia ' that 
2 Cor. vii. 15, where the meaning is suIh was to be shown, the intensive Kara, in- 
stantially t!ie same. The 'fear 'is thus dieating the carrying lAroi/'/A of the fpTor; 
to be aferreil, not dircrtly to God {yifitC* J'l'e Host u. Palm, Lt. s. v., and s. v. 
waptrTdi'ai rhv &f6f, Cbrys., Watorlami, Kard, iv. Vol. 1. p. 159H. On the prac- 
ir<'/7.s, \ol. V. ]>. GST), but only indi- lical aspects of the doctrine, sec the good 
ivctly and infercutially ; the <f>6$os Arose sermon by Beveridje, Srrm. xvi. Vol. 
directly from a sense of the i:reatness of i. p. 284 (.\.-C. Library- ), Taylor, Lift 
the work II nd the possibility of f.iilure ; of Clirist lu. 13. Ifi, S!ierlo<k, Scnmm 

64 PniLIPPIANS. Chap. II. 13. 

rr)v eavroyv awrripiav Karepyu^ea'^e' ^^ 0eo9 <ydp ianv o evepytov 

XVIII. A"ol. I. p. 311 (edit. Hughes). 
13. &ehs yap k. r. K.] 'for (Joel is 
Hp. irhn effectnalhj workcfli,' etc. : yea, 
work and bo not disheartened, for verily 
God i.-^ He who worketh vvifhin you. Tiie 
yap is not arqiiiiu'nifitire in reference to a 
suppressed thou;^ht, /rJ; <p6^ov on elirov, 
fierci (p6^. Kol rpofiov, Chry.s., but explnn- 
nton/ (sec notes on Gal. ii. 6), in refer- 
ence to tlie prccedinjr command, obviat- 
ing any olyection by demonstrating the 
vital truth on which it was based, and 
the great ])rinciple on which it was justi- 
fiable : ' work anxiously, work solicit- 
ouslv ; i^crilij (' sane pro rebus compara- 
tis,' Klotz, Devnr. Vol. ii. p. 232) ' God 
giveth you the ability ; ' compare Lucke 
on John iv. 44. The omission of the 

article before Qehs is justified by ABCD' 
FGK ; al., and is adopted by LacJim. and 
Tisch. 6 ifepywv] 'lie 

who imrketh effectuallij,' >_^L2.^iuD [^ffi- 

ciens, sedulam operam navans] Syrinc. 
The full meaning of this word, so fre- 
quently used by St. Paul, must not be 
obscured ; it appears in all cases to point 
not only to the inward nature of the 
workiu'^, but also to hint at the persistent 
and effective ch.aracter of it, scil. ivepyhv 
elvai, ' vim suam exercere ; ' comp. Po- 
lyb. flisf. III. G. 5, xvii. 14. 18, xxvii. 
1. 11. When then Augustine urges in 
opposition to the Pelagian misinterpre- 
tation, ' Dcus facit ut faciamus,/«(c/)e«c/(; 
vires efficficissimas voluntati,' he would 
seem to be no less verbally e.\act than 
doctrinally accurate : compare de Gnit. 
et Lib. Arh. 9. 16, covtrn Pclag. i. 19. 
It may be remarked in passing, that iv- 
epye7u is used several times in Polybius, 
see Schweigh. Lex. s. v. ; there is how- 
ever this distinction between his use and 
that of St. Paul, that i)y the latter it is 
never used in the p.issive (see notes on 
Gal. V. 6), and by tiio former never in 

the middle; see Fritz. Row. vii. .5, and 
for a notice of its various constructions, 
notes on Gnl. I. c, and //'. ii. 8 : see also 
Suicer, Tliesaur. Vol. i. p. 111.5. 
fv Lr/Li?!/] ' ill you,' i. e. in your minds, 
not among you ; this being alike pre- 
cluded by the prevailing use of tlie verb 
(Matth. xiv. 2, 2 Cor. iv. 12, Gal. iii. 5 
[see notes]. Col. i. 29, al.) and the natUre 
of the context. Ka\ rh 

S>4\e IV K. T. A.] ' hath to will nnd to do,' 
as much the one as the other. 01)serve 
especially the use of the more emphatic 
enumeration koI — Kal ; the deXeiv no less 
than the ivepyelv is a direct result of the 
divine ivepyeia ; see Winer, (jr. § 53. 4.- 
p. 389, notes on 1 Tim. iv. 10. Of thcso 
the first {rh StiKew) is due to the inwork- 
ing influence of sanctifying grace (Wa- 
terl. Serm. xxvi. Vol. v. p. G88), or, to 
speak more precisely, of (jratia privveni- 
ens, to which the first and feeblest mo- 
tion of the better will, the first process of 
the better judgment (2 Cor. iii. 5), is 
alone to be ascribed ; comp. Andrewes, 
Serm. Vol. v. p. 303 : tiie second (tJ> 
ivepye^v) to the (jratia ro-openivs, lij the 
assistance of which we strive (' non per 
vires nativas sed dativas') to i)erform 
the will of God ; see Kbrard, (.hristl. 
Dogm. § 524, Vol. ii. p. ,'3GG. T!ie lan- 
guage of Chrys. in lor., hv ^eKr.arjs, Ture 
evepyrjCTfi rh K)f\€iv, might thus seem 
open to exception if the beKt'^arjs is to be 
referred to a 'dispositio praivia;' this 
however cannot be certaiidy inferred 
from his context. For tiie diversities of 
opinion on this text, even among Ro- 
manists, see the long and perspicuous 
note of Justiniani in loc, and for tiie dif- 
ferences among Protestants, and the nec- 
essary distinction between pas.nviti/ ('ho- 
mo con vertitur nolens') and receptivity 
('ex nolente fit volens '), see Ebrard, 
C:liristl. Dogm. ^ 519 — 522, Vol. ii. p. 
558 sq. It may be remarked llial 

Chap. II. 1.1, 14. T II 1 1. 1 T P I A N S . 05 

iv i/fuu Kal TO "t^tXetj^ Kal to ivefyyelu irrrep tPj^ evBoK'ia<i. '^ irdiTa 

the repeiiti(iii of the W(jril ivtp-ft'iv, ([trv- 
Bcned correctly by (Uaroiimii., Coptic, 
but not Syr., Vul;;.), rather than leartp- 
yd(faicu, is due to the fact that it ex- more exactly the imcurJ ability 
showiii'i itstif in action, autl is thus more 
Kuituble in connection with diKtiy. Whilo 
then tliis ini|iortant ver.-o is u conclusivo 
protest af;ain<t Pela^'iaiiism on the one 
hand, its ;;u:irdcd lan<jua};c as well as 
its intimate connection >vith ver. 12 show 
tlint it is as conclusive on the other 
against the Donlraccne doctrines of irre- 
vocable election (cap. 1), and all but 
compcllin;^ <;racc : cap. tu. iv. 12, IG, 
Reject en-. 8. uirtpT^s 

f\thoK.\ ^ of His good pleasure ,' i. e. in 
fultilnicnt of, to carry it oat and satisfy 
it ; 6ia i),v ayairriv, hia, rr]v apfffKficw aii- 
Tov, Chrys. The prep, inrip here seems 
to approach in mcaninc: (card (K|)h. i. 5), 
or 5id ( r.pli. ii. 4 ), but may still be clearly 
distin;;ui>hcd from either. It does not 
represent tlie «L/5o/cia as the mere ratio of 
the action, or the mere norma accord- 
ing to wliiih it w:is done, but, as the 
intereslcil rntise of it ; tlie commodum of 
the *JSo;cia was iliat wiiich tlic action 
was desi;;ncd to subserve ; comp. Rom. 
XV. 8, John xi. 4, wliero however the 
primary nicanin;; of wrJp is less obscured: 
see Wine:-, (!r. § 47. I, p. 34.3, and cdm- 
parc Host u. \'-,\\m.' I^x. s. v. inrip, 2, 
Vol. II. i>. 20C7. EuSoKio is rcfcrrc-d by 
Syr., .hi-.t , Green (Gram. X. T. p. "02), 
to the ' bona voluntas ' of the I'liilippi- 
ans : this is j:ramm:uically i)lausible, but 
owin;: to tlie preccdinL; btKtiv (Meyer) 
not exegctieally satisfactory. Still less 
probable is the connection of the clause 
witli ver. 14 (Conyb.), which, independ- 
ently of grammatical difficulties (see Al- 
ford), has the whole consent of antiquity, 
Ff. and Vv., opposed to it. On the 
nie^min;: of tvZoKia, sec notes on Kph. i. 
5, and compare Andrcwcs, Strm. xiii. 

Vol. I. p. 239 (A.-C. Libr.). 

14. iiivra\ ' all tliinijn,' not exactly 
' cveryihing you have to do,' or with ref. 
to ver. 3 (Fell), but, as the context and 
the laist of the two a£SO<iated substan- 
tives seem to suggest, ' everything wliich 
stands in more iinniediute connection 
with the foivgoing commands, and ia 
which the malice of the devil might more 
especially be displayed : ' sec Chrysost. 
in loc. yoyyv<Tfxuv\ 

' murmurings ; ' compare 1 Pet. iv. 5, 
Sivtu yofyvcTfjiov : here apparently against 
God, A yoyyv^oiv axcLptirrfi Tip 0fy, 
Chrys. ; not, against one anotlier, Wie- 
singer (' placide se gerant inter homi- 
nes,' Calv.), — a command which here 
finds no natiiral place. Alford urges 
that in every place in the N. T. (only 4, 
and only here by St. Paul) yoyyvc/x. re- 
fers to murmuring against tmu; Imt of 
these passages, one (John vii. 12) i-; not 
ai)plicable, and another (1 I'ei. iv. 9, 
compare Dc Wette) not perfectly cer- 
tain. That it may lie applied to God 
seems demonstrable from I Cor. x. 10. 
The forms yoyyv^a and yoyyjafihs [;»cr- 
haps derived from the Sanscr. giij, ' to 
murmur,' Benfey, ]Vu>-ztllix. Vol ii. p. 
G2] are said to be Ionic, the Attic forma 
being Tovbopv^-j> and TOfiopuo-^Jr ; see 
Ix)beck, Phryn. p. 358, compare TI;om. 
M. p. 8.")G (cil. IJern.). On tlie ul;ege<i 
but doubtful distinction between &:■«(/ and 
X^Jp/j, see notes on E/ih. ii. 12. 
StaKoyiffnuv] ' douhtinq<' ' li.Tsita- 
tionibus,' Vulg , ..-Ethiop. [dul>itationc], 
Copt, [cogitationibus], — not ' iUtracta- 

tionibus,' Clarom., or «^^-^£^ [divis- 

ione], a meaning not found in the N. T., 
and apparently not supported by any 
good lexical authority ; see especially 
notes on I Tim. i. 8, where this word is 
briefly noticed. Alford urges the use of 
SicL\oyl{w [read -i(o_uat] in Mark ix. 33. 

§6 PniLIPPIANS. Chap. II. 15. 

'TTOieire %ct)/3t9 lyoiyyva-jjicov koX BLokoyLa-fxwv, ^^ "va yivrja^e 

34 ; but even there the idea is 'discus- 
sion, ' rather than ' dispute ' or ' conten- 
tion : ' comp. Xcnoph. Mem., iii. 5. 1. 

15. V^a /c. T. A.] Object and aim not 
' incitamentum ' ( Van Hcng ), contem- 
plated in tlio foregoing exhortation. 
Tiiey were to fulfil everything connected 
witli the great command, ver. 12 sq., 
without mnrnunings and doubtings, that 
they might both outwardly evince (o/xe^- 
TTTot) and be inwardly characterized liy 
(aK6p.) rectitude and holiness, and so be- 
come examples to an evil world around 
them. When Alford urges against the 
internal reference of SiaA. that the object 
is outward, — blamelessness and good 
example, he suppresses the direct inter- 
nal object uKipaLoi (suitably answering to 
X(up!s 5iaA.), and makes thi apposition- 
ally stated, and more indirect object, — 
the good example, primary and direct. 
The reading is very doubtful ; Lachm. 
reads 7>f with AD E^FG ; Vulg., Cla- 
rom., al. ; Lat. Ff. ; but the external au- 
thority (BCD"^E"^KL; appy. all mss. ; 
( hrys., Tiieod., Dam., al.) combined 
with the greater probability of correction 
bcems slightly preponderant in favor of 
t!ie text. aKepaiot] 'pure,' 

simplices,' Vulg., iEth., ' sinceres[i],' 
Claroni. ; not 'harmless,' Auth., Alf, 
- - a mca' not recognized by the best 
ancient Vv., and neither in harmony 
with tlic derivation and lexical meaning 
of the word ( 6 /j.^ KeKpajxevos icaKo7s, a\\' 
air\ovs Koi aTroiiaXos, Ii!t>/mol. J\f.), nor 
substantiated by its use in the N. T. : 
see Maith. x. 16, aKfpawi is ai irepiffTe- 
pai, lloin. xvi. 19, aKspalovs els rh KaK6v ; 
in tlic former of which passages it stands 
in a species of antithesis to <pp6uiixos, in 
the latter to aoipos ; compare Suicer, 
Thesaur. s. v. Vol. i.p. 1.54, Krebs. Obs. 
p. 3.31, and for the distinction between 
VLKep., ottAoDs, and &KaKos, Tittm. Si/non. 
I. p. 27. TfKva &fov 

K. T. A.] ' irreproachable, unUamaUe, chil- 
dren of God [by virtue of the vlob^aia, 
Rom. viii. 1.5, 2.3] in the midst,' etc. ; not 
' irreproachable or blameless in the midst 
of,' Luth., a position wliicii weakens the 
climactic force of the epithet, and ob- 
scures the apparent allusimi to Dent, 
xxxii. 5, TfKva fjuufji-qTd., yei/ea trxoAia Kol 
Sietrrpa/i/ueV'Tj. 'Aij-co/xtitos [Lachm. ajxajfia, 
with ABC ; 2 mss ; but an apparent al- 
teration] is a Sis \e'y6fji. in the N. T., 
here and 2 Pet. iii. 14 {Lachm., Tisch.), 
compare Ilom. 11. xii. 109 ; and, as de- 
rivation and termination suggest, ap- 
pears but little different- from &/xfiJ.irros, 
except as perhaps appi'oaching nearer to 
&fj.viifios (Hesych. oyUco^TjTos- &/xw/xos),and 
expressing not merely the unblamed 
(Xen. Afjes. vi. 8), but nonblamewor- 
thy state of the rtKva ; compare JEsch. 
Sept. 508, and see Tittm. Sijiion. i. p. 
29. The reading fieaoy 

(adverbially used, Winer, Gr. § 54. 6), 
with ABCDiFG {Lachm., Tisch.), has 
the weight of uncial authority as well as 
critical probability in its favor. 
(TKoKias Kal StecTTp.] ' crooked and 
perverted,' in reference to their moral 
obliquity and their distorted spiritual 
growth ; compare Dent, xxxii. 5. 'S.ko- 
Ki6s, allied probably to iXKfXos, ffKfX\6i, 
and ffKaipnv [Pott, Etijm. Forsch. Vol. i. 
p. 268, root-form 2K-, ' progression by 
steps,' Donalds. Cratjjl. ^ 387, less prob- 
ably KP-, Sanscr. kri with prefixed <r, 
Benfey, Wurzell. Vol. ii. p. 363], occurs 
elsewhere in the N. T., once in a proper 
sense, Luke iii. 5, and twice, as here, in 
an ethical sense, Acts ii. 40, 1 Peter ii. 
18. AteffTp. is similarly found in Matth. 
xvii. 17, Luke ix. 41, Acts xx. 30; see 
also examples from Arrian in Eaphel, 
Annot. Vol. ii. p. 309. 
iv oTs] 'among whom,' — in reference to 
the persons of which the ytvea was com- 
posed ; comp. Winer, Gr. § 58. 4. b, p. 

CiiAP. ir. 15, iG. PHI Lirri Axs. 07 

afitfiTTTOt Kai uKepaioi^ Tetcua Qeov ufiw/xTjTa fieaou yevea*; (TKoXiui 
Kal dieaTpafifieiTj'i, ev olv (f)a(i>ea*t)€ oxf (^'jicriipe^ (v Koafifo^ 
^^ Xuyop ^w/yv t"7rt;^OKre9, etV Kav)(i)ixa ifiol elf T)fiipau XpKTTuv, 

457 : so, somcwliat similarly. Gal. ii. 2. ever, Ik? cither (o) occu/tantes, comp, Syr. 

^al yfff^f] ' i/e (tiiimir, ure seen;' not j ,. . ► *"<.*■» i" 

' luretis, \ ul;:., ( laioin., >\ onlsw., al , »• ^ ^ • \ \ .4 • 

wliich woulil reiiuirv; tlio active tpalvtrt, [ut bills illis loio sulutis], and tliunce, 

Jolm i. 5, V. 35, 2 Pet. i. 19, al. Alford with a niodifu-ntion of mcanin;:, 'conti 

ohjects tliat the active is not used l»y St. nentcs,' Vulfj., Claroman , * tencntcs,' 

Paul: but will tliis justify a departure Copt. {^Eth. jiaraphrases), Kartxayrfs, 

not only from the wimple meaniiijj of the Chrys., ixovrts, Tlieoph., CEcum , — 

word, hut from the Fpciial use of the a translation that has ccrtainiv a Kxical 

middle in connection with the appear- basis (see examples in Host u. Palqi, 

aiire or rising of heavenly bodies ? see Lex. s. v. i. b. Vol. i. p. 1029) and is far 

examples in Rost.u. I'alm, Z'jr. s. V. II. too hastily condemned by Van Ilenjr. 

I. b. The verb is indicative (Vul;,'., and AViesin;;. ; ()3) jiratfudentcs, IJeza, 

Copt., iEih ), not irnperat. (Syr., The- Auth., ' doctrinam speetandam i)riEl)en- 

ophyl): Cliristians were not to be, bnt tes,' Van Henp., with rcfereme to the 

now actually were, as luminaries in a preceding imnpc. Of these interpr. (o|, 

dark, heathen, world; compare Matth. has clearly the weight of antiquity on its 

V. 14, Eph. V. 8. side; still as no fxart/y opposite example 

i(ta)<rr-?ipfs iv Koafiui] 'luminaries, of the modified sense ' contincntes ' has 

heaveiili/ lifjlits in the u-orhl : ' ivKifffi.hc- yet been adduced, and as the meaning 

ing closely joined with <pu(rr. as its secon- ' occupantes ' involves an idea foreign to 

dary jnedioate (Vulg. and all Vv.), not the X. T. (compare Meyer), we seem 

with (pa'iita^f (De W.), which would bound to adhere to (/3), a meaning that 

thus have two prepositional adjimcts. is lexiially accurate and exegctically 

To illustrate the meaning of <^a«rT. com- sati-factory. The objection of Meyer is 

pare Ikcv. xxi. U, Gen. i. 14, IC, Ke- fully answered by Al ford //i /or. 

dus. xliii. 7 (ap|)lied to the moon), Wis- Tlic \6yoi (w~;s is the irospcl. (a>?ii l>cing 

dom xiii. 2, and for the dilTerent uses of ^ species of gen. of the couUnt, tJjv «««- 

H6afios, here apparently in its ethical fiov rpo^tftl Carfiy, Theod. : comp. John 

sense, sec notes on Gal. iv. 3. The ref- vi. GS, and notes on Eph. i. 13. 

ercnco to the use of torches to guide pas- < « i k a v x V f- o] ' '<* form a pronml cf 

Rcngers along tlie narrow and winding iMistiiif) for me;' result, on tiie siile of 

streets of a city (Wordsw. ) is ingenious, St. Paul, of his converts l)ecoming i/i'M- 

but scarcely in harmony with ipaiyfadf, ttoj ical aKipaiui: roaavrt) i/fiuy y afttrfi, 

and the tenor of the context. dj /i>) v^as awi^fiy tidyov, oAAi koI ifii 

Ifi. in 4 xovr f s K. T. \.] ' seeiiifj ye Xau.'Kphv icoit7y, Chrys.; romp. 2 Cor. i. 

hold forth (are the ministrrs of) the nord 14. tlitjuipay Xp.| 

of life:' further and explanatory defini- ' anainst the dai/ of Christ :' the prcjiosi- 

tion of the jireceding, the participle hav- tion not so much marking the epoch to 

ingas-lightlycnH.'io/ force. The meaning u-hich {ties), as that /br whicJi, in refer- 

of^a-f'x. is somewhat doubtful. It ccr- cnce to which, the boa.sting was to l>e 

tainly cannot be for irpotre'xovTf s, Theod., rcser%-ed ; compare ch. i. 10, Eph. iv. 30, 

as thiswould requiira dat. ; it mav, how- and notes on da], iii. 23. On the ex- 

g8 ^ PHILIPPIANS. Chap. n. 17, 18. 

on ovK 619 tcevov eSpa/xov ovSe et? ksvov eKoirlacra. ^" aXXa el Kcii 
a-TrevSo/xai eVt rfj ^vaia ical Xetrovpyla tt}? irlcrTew^ vfiojv, '^aipco 
Kai, crvv^aipo) irocnv v/xiv ^° to o avTO Kai vfxeL'i '^aipere /cat 
avv^alpere fiot. 


pres>sion fjixepa Xp., see notes on ch. i. 6. 
fSpauov, fKoiriaffa] The same idea 
of ministerial activity presented in two 
different forms of expression, the one fig- 
urative, from the stadium (comp. Gal. 
ii. 2, 2 Tim. iv. 7), the other more gen- 
eral, involving the notion of tlie toil and 
suffering undergone in the cause ; see 
notes on 1 Tim. iv. 10, For exx. 

of the adverMal fls ksvju, Heb. pi"i'b , 
Job xxxix. IG (comp. eh xaXoi', els koi- 
v6v, Bernhardy. Synt. v. 11, p. 221), see 
2 Cor. vi. 1, Gal. ii. 2, 1 Thess. iii. 5, 
and Kypke, Ohs Vol. i. p. 275. 

17. aWa K. T. \.] ' IJowbeit, if I be 
even poured out , ' contrary hypothesis to 
that tacitly implied in the preceding 
verse. In no verse in this epistle is it 
more necessary to adhere to tlie exact 
force of the particles and the strict lexi- 
cal meaning of tlie words. 'Awd, with 
its primary and proper force (' aliud jam 
hoc esse de quo suraus dicturi,' Klotz, 
Devar. Vol. ii. p. 2), has no reference 
to a suppressed thought {ouk eKow. els 
kev., Rill.), but presents the contrary al- 
ternative to that already implicitly ex- 
pressed. The preceding words els kuv- 
XTj/iot might seem to imply the expecta- 
tion, on tlie part of the apostle, of a liv- 
ing fruilion in the Cliristian progress (iVa 
yep. &fieixiTT.) of his converts ; the pres- 
ent verse shows the apostle's joy even in 
the supposition of his death ; compare 
Bisping. So remote a reference as to ch. 
i. 26 (Dc W.) is wholly inconceivable; 
and even a contrast to an implied hope 
that the apostle would survive to the 
rjfiepaXp. (Van Ileng.) improbable, as 
els T\fi. Xp. is only a suljordinate tliougiit 
to the general idea implied in els Kavxvf^a 
i/jioi. el Kal must not be 

confounded with koI el (Scholcf. Hints, 

p. 106), but, in accordance with the po- 
sition of the ascensive Kai, marks a more 
probable supposition ; tlie Kal in the for- 
mer case being referred to the consequent 
words (etsi or si etiam), but in the latter 
merely to the preceding condition {etiam 
si). Contrast Soph. (Ed. Rex, 302, « 
Kal /xv; P^eirets (ppov(7s S' ofiws, or ib. 304, 
ei Kal ixri K\veis, with JEsch Clioeph. 296, 
K€J yUT) ireTTOi^a, Tovpjou effr' epyaareou, 
and see especially Herm. Vifjer, No. 307, 
from which these examples are taken ; 
see also Klotz, Devar. Vol. ii. p. .519, 
Hartung, Partik. Kai, 3. 3, Vol. i. p. 
141. Thus, ihen, in the pres- 

ent case, the apostle in no waj' seeks to 
limit "the probability of the supposition ; 
his circumstances, though by no means 
without hope (ch. i. 25), were still such 
as seemed to ])reclude any such limita- 
tion. It may be remarked, however, 
that Kal el is very rare in St. Paul ; ap- 
apparcntly only in 2 Cor. xiii. 4 {Rec, 
Tiscli.), if indeed the reading be consid- 
ered genuine ; comp. Gal. i. 8. 
o-TevSojuai] * am jionred out,' am in 
the art of being so, in reference to the 
diingers with which he was environed; 
comp. ch. i. 20. The simple form, which 
must not be confounded either with inttr- 
7reV5. (Ilcrod. ii. 39, iv. 62, Plut. Popl. 
^ 4, al ), or /carao-TTeVS. (Plutarch Alex. 
§ 50, ib. Mor. p. 435 B, p. 437 a), both 
here and in 2 Tim. iv. 5, under the im- 
age of the ritual drink-offering wliich 
accompanied the sacrifice (Numb. xv. 5, 
xxviii. 7), alludes to the ponrinrj out of 
his blood ('libor,' — not ' immolor,' as 
Vulg., vSyriac, Copt.) afid the martyr's 
death by which it might be reserved for 
the apostle to glorify God ; see espec- 
ially notes on 2 Tim. I. c, Suiccr, The- 
sanr. Vol. n. p. 993, and the good note 

CiiAi-. II. 19. r II I LIl'I'I ANS. Q<J 

I liope to«i-n<l my unKclflth Ifl 'ir"\_..'K. 5;;l J I/' ' 'T ' T" 't\ 

•nd to loine ii.yitif. Ta^fc'&)9 TTtfj-yfrai v/jLU', wa Kayu} evyp-vyoi jvov<i 

of Woiilsworth in loc, iirl r tj jiartiti|iine in rfjoicing with vou all : iiiv 

&vfflcj. K. T. \.] ' uuto thf sacrijice and joy i< not ultert-d on tiie supposition of 

(fir ustly) service of your faith.' The ex- niy deuth. ^vvxaipw is not * <on;j:itaiti- 

act mi!niinj;of duffioiis sonR'wlmt ilouljt- lator,' ^'ulJ:., — a nieariiiij;^ wliicli the 

ful. Tiiure is tortaiiily no %v Sia hvoli' verh apparently mnv have in c-liu<-ii-ul 

(eomp. Conyb.), hut it inuy be doubted (yKsch. dt J-'ah. Ltij. p. 34) 'as well as 

whether tlie use of the sin;;le artieie does post-elassieal writers {rdyb. 7//^/. xxix. 

not so eonneet ,<>u<r and Attr., that both 7. 4), — but ' siniul (raudeo,' Coptic, 

may s[)eii(V itrts of whieli iriar. is the ^ " , 

'\ ■ . »f -1 . >Oi^ 10? lexulto cunil Svr- ..12th. (!), 

common oI>ject ; see Mey. j;i lor. As, •''""■ {" i i J • * » " 

however, dvaia in St. Paul's Kpistles, the meaning: wliich o-i/fx- always appears 

and indeed throu;;liout the N. T., appy. to have iu the N. T., and to wiiich the 

always means the thin;; sacrihccd, not followinj; verse offers no exe;retical ol)- 

tho aetion, we seem bound with Syriae, staele (Meyer, Alf.) Imt is railier con- 

Vulj;., Copt. [? for eomp. Jolm xvi. 2], firmatory. 

./Eth., and thus far Clnys. and Theod., 18. tJ) 5" avr 6\ '^«', on t/ie sunt 

to retain the simple meanini,'of du<T. and account;' not 'in like manner,' 8iholef. 

to regard ir(VT€a>i as a common (jeu. ob- IJints, p. 106, but the simple pronomi- 

jertl to both, standing in a species of ap- nal accus. after x<»'p'«' ; com[)are Kriij^cr, 

positional relation to tlic former (the 5/>rac/i/. § 46. 5. 9. Meyer reads a'rrh 

faith, not the apostle [Chrys., Theod.], rovro, ' hoe ipsum,' apjiafently by au 

was the sacrif.) and of sim]>le ixdation to oversight, as there is Iiere no diftVrence 

the latter. The dvffia, then, is the sacri- of reading. x<»^P*'''* *«' 

fieo, the A€«7. the act of offering it by the ffwx] 'rejoice and jointly rfjuice ;' not 

apostle (Bisp.), and the object both of indie. Krasmus, but im|)er.. as S_\T. and 

one and the other (in sliglitly different all the best Vv. The apostle Inid pre- 

relatior<) the irlaris of the l*hili[)pians. viously said that he rejoiced not only for 

'Eirl will thus be, not simply temporal, himself, but associated them with tiiis 

' wiihrcnd,' Meyer, nor simply eihical, joy : lest they might think that the prol>- 

' propter,' or ' in sacriliciiim,' vEth., but able martyrdom of their lo\ed apostle 

will im|)ly 'addition,' 'accession to' was not a mtbject for <ry»'xo/pti»', he e;n- 

(Matth. XXV 20), and will point to the pliatically repeats in a reciprocal form 

ffiTtvS. as the concomitant act ; see esp. {kcu 6/h.) what he had im|ihTd in the pre- 

Arrian, Alex. vi. 19.5, (nrdaas M rij ceding verse, — that thuy were indce I to 

bv(ri(}, cited by Raphcl in li>c. ; so Van rejoice in this seemingly inuurnfiil ulter- 

llcng. and De Wette. The local mean- native. 

ing is untenable, as with the Jews the 19. iKirl^ta 5«] ' yel I ftope :' the op- 

libation was not poured on (Jahn, -Ir- positives* su::.gests that the (rrtVS. alwve 

clurol. ^ 37S), but tironnd the altar ; see mentioned was not necessarily consid- 

Joseph. ..4"/i''/. 111.9.4, and notes on 2 end either as certain or immetliate. This 

Tim. iv. 5. XQ'P'^ '(o* liope was iv Kvplte, it ivstcil and was cen- 

ffvyx] * 1 rejoice, and jointly rrjoicc iritli tr»'d in Ilim, it arose from no eTtnnirous 

you all ;' I rejoice ab.'soliitely (not ^irl feelings or ex]K?ctations, and so would 

•n} duff. x«'V- Chrys.), i'. c on account of doulitless Ik> fuililled, dopjii un i^fvfiafi- 

my probable a~wtvSfodai, and do herein trtt not 6 ©t^s tovto, Chrys. ; see notes 



Chap. IT. 20, 21 

ra Trepl v/jlmv- ^^ ovheva yap e^co lao^v^oVf oaTi^; yvyjaici)'; to. 

\ r " / 91'' \\r'>o'- > 

Trepi vjxoyv fMepLfxvrjaei' ^^ oi Trafxe? lyap ra eavjoiv grjTovaiv, ov 

on Ephes. iv. 17, vi. 1. 
i)f».'iv\ 'to you,' not ' unto you' in the 
sense of Trpbs vixas, — a local usage of the 
dative too broadly denied by Alf. (see 
Winer, Gr. § 31. 5, p. 192; compare 
Hurtung. Casus, p. 81 sq.), nor again 
the dat. commodi, De Wette, but the da- 
live of the recipients (JNIey ), falling un- 
der the general head of what is techni- 
cally termed the transmissive dat. ; com- 
pare Jclf, GV. § 58". Kayci) 
6 in|/ 1; X «] 'I also [1 the sender as well 
as you the receivers J jnaij be of good heart.' 
Ev^i/vx- is an or. Keyofi. in the N. T., but 
is occasionally found elsewhere, compare 
Poll. Oiiom. III. 28 : the subst. ev\l/vxia 
(Polyb. 1. 57. 2, ii. 55. 4, al.) and the 
adv. ev}pux<ns (Polyb. x. 39. 2, al., Jo- 
seph. Ant. VII. 6. 2) arc sufficiently com- 
mon. The use of the verb in the imper- 
ative as a kind of epitaph is noticed by 
Post u. Palm, Lex. s. v. ; Jacobs, Anth. 
Pal. p. 939. 

20. ydp] Reason for sending Timo- 
thy in preference to any one else : Ti/tJ- 
^fov irffj.irfis ; Tt SrJTTOTe ; Not, (pTjcrlu, ov- 
SeVa yap k. t. A.., Clirys. 
Iffdipvxov] ' Uhe-minded,' i. e., with 
myself, ifxoluis i fj.oi Kr)56fi(vov vixoiiv Koi 
(ppovrl^ovra., Chrysostom ; compare Syr. 

y V 

I • 4 '^ 1 2-*] 9 [qui sicut animam me- 

am]: so expressly Copt., Syr. Timothy 
is not here contrasted with others (Be- 
za), but, in accordance with the natural 
and logical reference of the Iit6ti)s to the 
subject of the sentence, with the apostle. 
On the distinction between lff6\^. ' qui 
eodem modo est animatus,' and ffvix\pu 
Xos, ' qui idem sentit, unanimis,' see 
Tittmann, Si/non. i. p. 67. The word 
is an oTT. KtyS/j,. in the N. T., but is found 
occasionally elscwliere, both in classical 
(iEsch. Ar/am. 1479), and post-classical, 
Greek (Psalm liv. 13) ; comp. la-otpvxos, 

Eustath. on III. xi. p. 7G4. 
ocrrts] 'who;' not ' quippe qui,' imt 
' ita comparatus at,' Mey., ' of that kind, 
who,' Alf., with reference to the voiSttis 
of the antecedent {ovUus towut6s iariv, 
Chrys., comp. Ilartung, Cashs, o. 286) ; 
the relative being here used (to adopt a 
terminology previously explained) not 
explicatiocly, but classificalhj, or rjiidiitU' 
tivdy ; see notes on Gal. iv. 24, and K; ii- 
ger, Sprackl. § 51. 8 sq., where the dif- 
ference between ts and o<ttis is liriefly 
but satisfactorily explained. 
yvrjffius /xepifiv^aet] ' will genu- 
inely care for,' ' will have true care for ; ' 
with that genuineness of feeling which 
befits the relationship between the apos- 
tle and his converts; yvriaiuss, TovrtaTi 
■KarpiKios ; compare 1 Tim. i. 2, and sec 
notes in loc. Mepinvav is always thus 
used with an accusative of the object by 
St. Paul,— contrast Matth. vi. 23 (dat.), 
ch. vi. 28, Luke x. 41 (with ir€pi), ch. xii. 
25 (absolutely), — and agreeably to irs 
probable deiivation and affinities, /uepyiiTj- 
pffco, fj.fpij.fpos [Sanscr. smri, — ' merai- 
nisse,' ' anxium esse,' Benfcy, Wurzd- 
lex. Vol. u. p. 32, Donalds. CraUji. 
§ 410] denotes anxious thought, solici- 
tude, ' ita curare ut solicitus sis ' (comj). 
Luke X. 41), differing in tiiis rc-^pict 
from the simpler (ppovTi^fiv ; see Tittm. 
Sjjuon. I. p. 187. The future is not etli- 
ical, but points to the time when Timo- 
thy should come to tlicm. 

21. oi vdvTfs yap] ' for all the rest 
(now with me) ; ' not ' plerique,' Wolf, 
but ' omnes quos nunc habeo mecum,' 
Van Hcng., the article, apparently spec- 
ifying the whole number of the otiiers 
with St. Paul (cuncti), to whom the sin- 
gle one, Timothy, is put in contrast. 
On this use of the art. with ttSj, see Krii- 
gcr, Sprarhl. ^ 50. 11. 12, compare Bern- 
hardy, Si/nt. VI. 24, p. 320, and Rose, 

Ciivi-. II. -'2-24. I'llIM IT I .VNS. 7] 

ra 'Ir/aou Xpicrrov. -- t//i/ Be C0Kifj.>ii> avrov yivuxTKSTt;, on a>v 
rraroi tLkvov avv ifiol iBovXeucev €i<i to euayyeXtov '■^^ tovtov 
fitv oi'V cXtt/^o) 7rc'/x\|r</i, to? tiv iK^icxo TO. irepl e'/ne, e^aviT}^. -' 7rt- 
TToC^Xa hli eu Kvpifo OTi Kal auTwi tu^^oj^ tXivaojiai. 

21. 'l>)(ToD XpiffToD) So Ldchmann, with ACUKl'G ; mss. ; many Vv. ; Lat. Ff. 
{Gitesb., Scholz ; /fee. iiiscrU toC). Tlio reversed order is adopted by Tiscli. witli 
BL ; jrrciit iiKijurity of ins.s. ; Deniid., Copt., Syr. : I'hilox. ; many IT. The ex 
tonial amlioritv seems to prt'iwiiderate decidedly in favor of tlie text. 

ill Midill. Art. \>. 104 note, to wliose li>t the Philippians themselves prolmhly liad 
ofexamiiles of the art. with vas (plur.), personal experience on a former visit; 
when u-c(l without a suhst., this passage comp. Acts xvi. 1-4 with vcr. 12. TIkj 
may he added. The attempts to exjdain use of Soici^}} in the X. T. is confined to 
away this declaration are very numerous, St. I'aulV Epistles; compare llcuss, 
but all cither arbitrary or uni,'rammaii- T/t^ol. L'hr^. iv. 20, Vol. ii. p. 229. 
cal : this only it seems fair to ur;;c, that yivuxxKeTt] ' ije Lnow ; ' indicative, as 
the context does necessarily imply some Syr., Clarom., Copt., JEth , not imper., 
sort of limitation, and does apparently as Vul;j;., Corn, a Lap., — a construction 
warrant our restricting it to all those almost jilainly inconsistent with the fol- 
companions of St. Paul who were avail- lowing words, which seem specially do- 
able for missionary purposes, who had signed to explain and jusiify the asser- 
undertakcn, and were now falling back tion ; Kal on oux airKoiis A«-)ei>, vfifls, <J)7>- 
from t!ic hardshijis of an ajiostle's life, ffiv, aurol iTtiaracbf, on k. t. A., C!irys. 
Who these were, cannot be ascertained ; ws irar p\ r ( Kvoy] ' </s a ihiltl to a 
compare Wiesing. /;i /oc. jUtlur,' ' sicut ])atri filius,' Vulg., not 
TO iavrwv] 'their own thiwjs,' not ' with a father,' Syr., Autii. Ver. ; such 
specially tV oiKflav ai/diravffiv koi rh iv an omission of the ])reposiiion in t!ie first 
aff^oAtio tTj-aj, Chrys , followed liy The- member l»eing apparently confined to 
oph. and CEcum , with reference to the poetry; sec Jclf, (Ir. § C.")0. 1, 2, Krii- 
ditliculiies and perils of the journey, but gcr, Spnicld. f) GS- 9. 2. Mcy. and Alf. 
generally, ' sua,' Clarom., ' tcmporalia deny unrestrictedly an omission of the 
commoda consectantcs,' Anselm, — con- pre]), in the fii-st member, but see vEsch. 
pidcring their own selfish interests, and Sni'j'l. 313, Eurip. 77</. 872, and Jclf, 
not the glory and honor of Chri^t ; com- Cr. ^ 650 2. The construction afionls 
pare vcr. 4. an example of what is termed ' oratio 

22. r)iv St SoKifivv] ' Dtit his variata : ' the apostle, feeling that «'5ov'- 
tiial chill aclir ;' contrast of the charac- Xcvirrf was scarcely suitable in connec- 
ter of Timothy with that of the oi vdyrfi. tion with irarpt and TtKvov. proc^t'ds with 

. o > the comparison in a slightly changed 

AoK.,u,',. U^CiS [probatio] Syr., 'ex- f^,.„^ . t'SovA^^aeK,— not «>/, as the con- 

perimentum,' Vulg., here and Ivom. v. slruction might seem to i-equirc (Rom. 

4, 2 Cor. ii. 9, ix. 13, by a very easy xvi. IS), but cvv iy,ol, as the nature of 

gradation of meaning points to the indo- the relation suggested; sec Winer, Gr. 

les spectata,' Fritz. (Rom. v. 4, Vol, i, ^ 63. ii. 1, p. 509. €«s to 

p. 2.">9). 'indoles,' yEth. [simply, — al- tvayytKiov] ' for (he (fOJiiKl ; ' not ' in 

most as we use ' character '], by whiih the gospel,' Auth., Syr., ' in the doctrine 

Timothy was distinguished, and of which of the gospel,' -Eih., but 'in cvange- 



Chap. II. 25. 

Epaphioditus, your mes- 
senger, who haa been griev- 

^ ^ AvayKoiov he rj'ytjcrdfxrjv 'E7ra(f)p6SiTov 

ou8ly silk, and has risked j^p dheXcboV Kol CVVeO'VOV KOt (TWCnpOTniiTTIV 

his lite for me, I send back, ' ' ' 

jjiov, vjxoiv he cLTroarokov koI \eiTovpj6v t?}? 

that you may rejoice. 

liura,' Vulg., I. e. to further the cause of 
the gospel ; the preposition fls with its 
usual force denoting the object and des- 
tination of the action ; compare Luke v. 
4, 2 Cor. ii. 12, and Winer, Gr. § 49. a, 
p. 354. 

23. Tovrov fxtv olv\ 'Him then;' 
the jtiej/ being antitlietical to 5e, ver. 24, 
and the retrospective ovv continuing and 
concluding the subject of the mission of 
Timotliy. On this force of ovv see notes 
on Gal. iii. 5. ws tiv 

dc/x'So)] 'whensoever I shall have seen 
{the issue of) ;' in effect, ' so soon as I 
shall have, or have seen, etc.,' Auth., 
Stov 5;5w iv rivi 'i<Trf)Ka, Chrys., but de- 
Bignedly couched in terms involving 
more of doubt, the particle Uv being 
joined with the temporal us to convey 
the complete uncertainty when the ob- 
jectively-possible event specified by the 
subjunctive will actually take place ; 
compare Jelf, Gr. § 841, Herm. de Par- 
tic. &v, II. 11, p. 120, and on the tempo- 
ral use of MS, see Klotz, Devar. Vol. ii. 
p. 759. The remark of Eustathius (p. 
1214, 40) is very pertinent, on S4 iarl 
ris KM xpoviKi] TTOTe arifiacrla, palverai iv 
iiTKnoXfi rov fiacrtXeais ^AvtiSxov, oTov, 
iis tiv ovv AaySjjs rr/v eVtcrToATji/, avvTa^ov 
Kijpv'yiJ.a tronicTaiT^ai, ¥iyovv r/vlKa \d^r)S. 
He would, however, have been more cor- 
rect if he had said tjv'ik &v, see Ellendt, 
Lex. Sophocl. Vol. I. p. 773. In the 
compound form a<pLd. the prep, is not in- 
tensive, 'see clearly' (Alf.), but local, 
referring, however, not to the object, but 
to the observer, ' prospicere,' and per- 
haps may further involve the idea of a 
' terminus ' looked to ; see Jonah iv. 5 
(a pertinent example), Herod, viii. 37 ; 
compare ano^euff^at, aTrodKoirilv, al., and 
especially Winer, de Verb. Comp. iv. p. 
11. The change from the tenuis to the 

aspirate (with ARiDiFGN ; 17, Lachm., 
Tisch.) is ascribed by Winer ( Gr. § 5. 1, 
p. 43) to the pronunciation of lSe7v with 
a digamma; comp. Acts iv. 29 {Lachm., 
Tisch.). TO, ire pi 4fj.(] 

'the things pertaining to me ; ' not identi- 
cal with TO /cot' €>€ (ch. i. 12), but with 
a faint idea of motion (occupation about. 
Acts xix. 25), in ref. to their issue and 
development; i.e. how they will turn, 
what issues they will have ; iro'iov e'let 
TeAos, Chrys., 4a.v reXeov Kafiij Xvtnv ret 
SuffXfp^, Theod. The form e'lour^j, sc. 
TTjs S>pas, ' illico,' ' e vestigio ' {-irapavTiKa, 
Hesych., ev^etcs, Suid.), occurs in Mark 
vi. 25, Acts X. 33, al. 

24. IT eiro td. iv Kv plqi] ' am con- 
fident in the Lord ; ' He is the sphere of 
my confidence; see notes on ver. 19, and 
oti Eph. iv. 17, vi. 1. 

Ka\ avT6s\ 'I myself also ; ' tlie Kal 
implying that besides sending Timothy 
to them, the apostle hoped himself to 
come in person. The rax^ois, as Meyer 
remarks, must, as in ver. 19, date from 
the present time, the time of writing the 
Epistle. In recurring, however, to the 
mission of Timothy, ver. 23, he ex- 
presses the hope that it would be elouTjjs, 
' forthwith ; ' his own visit he iiad good 
confidence would be Taxf<»s, i e. no long 
interval after. 

25. avayKalov Se ^7T/<r.] ' yet I 
deemed it necessary ; ' though j)robable, 
the mission of Timothy and the apostle's 
own visit were both contingent ; he 
deemed it necessary therefore to send 
(back) one on whom he could rely, and 
in whom the Philippians had interest 
and confidence. Wiesinger denies any 
connection between the sending back 
Epaphr. and the mission of Timothy ; 
this, however, is surely to overlook the 
antithesis suggested by Se. On the 

CM.U-. II. 26. r II II. II' 1- I AN s. 73 

of tlic epiotolary aorist (still more ex- 
pressly ver. 28), see Winer, G'r. § 40. 5, 
b. 2, |). 249. 'Eira<pp6SiToy] 

Of Kpapliroditus, Ik-voiuI this jmssaj,'e, 
notliinj; is known. lie lias Ix-en sup- 
posed to lie tlic same with Epaphras, Col. 
i. 7, iv. 12, Pliileni 23 ; Imt this, iliou;,'li 
etytuolo;jically i)os-iblc, is certuinly not 
liistoriraly denion>tralile. As the name 
appears to have heen not uncomtaon 
(Suetoii. Nero, ^ 41), Josc])h contr. Ap. 

1 1, al., sec Wctst. in loc.), — as Epa- 
phras was a Colos,-5ian (Col. iv. 12), — 
and as the alms of the European city of 
Pliilipl)i woulil hardly have been com- 
mitted to the member of a church so re- 
mote from it as tlic Asiatic Colo>sa.', it 
seems natural to R';^ard them as different 
persons. For the necessarily scanty lit- 
erature on the subject, sec Winer, R WB. 
Art. ' Epaphras,' Vol. i. p. 330. 

rhy aSf\(phv k.t.K.] Three general 
but climactic designatiotis of the (sjiirit- 
aal) relation in which Epaphroditus 
stood to the apostle, under the vinculum 
of the common article ; my brother in 
the faith, fellow-worker in preaching it, 
and follow-soldier in maintaining and 
defending it ; on ffvyvrpar. compare 2 
Tim. ii. 3, and iiotes in loc. 
vfiuv Sf K. r. \.] 'but your messenger 
and viinistcT to mi/ nied ; ' secular and ad- 
ministrative relation in which Epajdi. 
stood to the I'hilippians. 'Av6ffro\oy is 
here used in its simple etymological 
sense, not ' apostolum,' Vulg., Clarom., 
tijy 4irifit\ftay vfiuiv ifurmarfv^itvoy, 
Theod., Ciirys. 2 (comp. Taylor, Kjiisc. 
§ 4. 3), but, as the context seems to re- 
quire, ' legatuin,' Beza, Beng. ; comp. 

2 Cor. viii. 3, and see notes on (i<il. i. 1. 
\nTovpyhy (Rom. xiii. 6, xv. IG) is used 
in its general and wider of ' minis- 
ter ' in rcf. to the office undertaken by 
Epaplir. cl'j Ttt -rap' avricy airotTToAfVra ko- 
uiacwra xp^M^^a, Theod. On the vari- 

ous meanings of X«it. sec Suicer, The' 
saur, B. V. Vol. 11. p. 222. The 

connection is not j>crfcctly certain, but 
on the whole it seems most natural to 
conpect vfMuy with this as well as with 
the pR'ceding subst., comj). ver. 30 : so 
Scholef. Hints, p. IOC ; contr. De Wetie 
(cotnp. JEth.), who, however, urges no 
satisfactory reason for the separation. 
ir( iji\\,ai] It was really ayairffi\i,cu, comp. 
ch. iv. 18 : if, however, as does not seein 
improbable, Epajfhr. was sent to stay 
some little time with the apostle (Beng.), 
the simple form becomes more appropri- 
ate -. comp. ver. 28, 30. 

2G i-iTftS^ K.T.K.] Iveason fur the 
awayKaloy r)yr\(ra.fa)v. The conjunction 
(iTftSri , ' quoniam ' [ciuom jam], ' sinte- 
mal,' ' since '(sith-then-ce, comp. Tooke, 
Die. of Purl. I. 8, Vol. I. p. 253), differs 
thus, and thus oidy, from ivfl, that it also 
involves the quasi-temporal refcanco 
('aflirmatio rerum eventu jietita,' Klotz) 
which is supplied to it by 5^, and thus 
expresses a thing that at once ensues 
temporally or causally) on the occur- 
ivnce or realization of another; seo 
Klotz, Devar. Vol. ii. p. 548, llartung, 
PurtiL: 5^, 3. 3, Vol. i. p. 259. It is not 
of frequent occurrence in the X. T. ; in 
St. Paul only, 1 Oor. i. 21, 22, xiv. 16, 
XV. 21. iviirodwv^y] 

' he was lomjiuf] after yon all.' On this 
use of jires. part, with the auxiliary verb, 
to denote the duration of a >tate (less 
commonly in rcf. to an action), sec Wi- 
ner, Cram. ^ 45. 5, p. 311, and notes on 
Gal. i. 23. The construction is occa- 
sionally found in classical Greek (see 
cxamjiles in Winer, /. c, and Jelf, Gr. 
Ij 375. 4), but commonly with the limi- 
, tation that the part. ex]in?s<cs some jirop- 
crty inherent in the subject. On the (</<- 
Ttctive) force of M in ^imrod., sec notes 
on 2 Tim. i. 4. aSijfjLoyur] 

' in kcariiiess ; ^ see Matth. xxvi. 27, Kv 




Chap. II. 27, 2a 

vfid<i, Kol aSrjfiovcov, Bloti. TjKovcraTe on i^a'^ivijaev. ^~ Koi '^{ap 
tja'^evqcrev irapaTrXrjaiov ^avdrw' aXKa 6 Qeo<i r/Xetjaev auTov, 
ovK avTov Be /jLouov, dWa Kol ifxe^ iva fxr) Xvtttjv cttI Xvirrjv cf'x/t). 
^^ (77rovBaioTepa)<i ovv eiref^'^a avrov, 'iva lB6ur€<; avrov ttclKlv 

itiicrSiai Koi aSrifx., Mark xiv. 33, eK^a/j.- 
fielaiirai. Kol aSriix. This somewhat pe- 
culiar verb is explained by Buttmann 
(Lexil § 6. 13) as properly denoting 
'great perplexity (Etym. M. aXieiv Koi 
airop€7i , afj.rixat'f'tv, Ilesychius, ayccvtav) 
leading to trouble and distress of mind,' 
and is to be referred not to a root aSe'co 
(Wiesing.), but, as Buttmann plausibly 
shows, to d, Sf/zuos ; comp. aSrjfjLelv, and 
see Symm., Eccles. vii. 16, where the 
LXX. have eKirXayrjs. How the Phi- 
lippians heard of this, and why Epaphr. 
was especially so grieved, is not ex- 

27. K al yap 7} (T^.] ' For he really 
ivas sick; ' the report you heard was true. 
In this formula the koi is not otiose, but 
either with its conjunctive force (comp. 
notes on cli. iv. 12) annexes sharply and 
closely the causal member, ' etenim ' 
(comp. Soph. Antirj. 330), or with its 
ascensive force throws stress on the pred- 
ication, ' nam etiam,' as here ; see Klotz, 
Devar. Vol. ii. p. G42, Ilartung, Partik. 
Kai, 3. 1, Vol. I. p. 138. The remark of 
Ilartung seems perfectly just that there 
is no inner and mutually modifying con- 
nection between the two particles (con- 
trast Kal 5e', notes on 1 Tim. iii. 10), but 
that their constant association is really 
due to the early position which yap regu- 
larly assumes in the sentence. 
IT apaTTK-ffff lou Sraudrw] 'like unto 
death.' There is here neither solecism 
(Van Heng.) nor brachyology (Dc W.). 
TlapairK. is the adverbial neuter (Polyb. 
111. 33. 17, with dat. ; iv. 40. 10, abso- 
lutely; comp. Herod, iv. 99), and like 
the more usual form TrapanKriaim (Plato, 
Phcedr. p. 255 e) is associated with the 
regular dative of ' likeness or similarity ; ' 

see Kriiger, Sprachl. § 48. 13. 8, Jelf, Gr. 
§ 594, 2, and the numerous exx. in Rost 
u. Palm, Lex. s. v. The gen. is rare ; 
compare Plato, Soph. 217 b, Polyb. Hist. 
1. 23. 6. The meaning is thus in effect 
the same as /x^'xP' ^avd't'ov i)yyi(rsv, vcr. 
30, TTKriffiov acp'iKiTO ^avdrou, Galen in 
Hij)pocr. Epid. i. (cited l>y Wctst.). hut 
the mode of expression is diilercnt. 
\inrriv eirj Kvtttip] 'sorrow coming 
upon so)Tow ; ' \virr} arising from the 
death of Epaphr. in addition to the Xvirr) 
of my own captivity, Bisp. ; not as 
Chrys. t^i/ avh rfjs reKeuT/js iirl rij Bih 
Ti]v appuitrTiav yevofievriv avTo>, for, as 
Meyer justly observes, this would bo 
clearly inconsistent with aXvirSrfpos, ver. 
28. If the second Kvtrrj had arisen from 
the sickness of Epaphr. it would have 
ceased when he was well enough to be 
sent away, and the apostle in that re- 
spect would have been not compara- 
tively, but positively, &\vwos. The read- 
ing of the text is supported by ABCDE 
FGL ; major of mss. (Lach., Tixh.). and 
differs only from the more usual ewi AiJjrjj 
(Rec. with K ; Chrys., Theod.) in imply- 
ing motion in the accumulation ; comp. 
Psalm Ixviii. 27, Isaiah xxviii. 10, Ezek. 
vii. 26. '^X'^] The subjunc- 

tive is here appropriately used after the 
prjEterite to mark tlie abiding character 
the sorrow would have assumed ; see 
Winer, Gram.^ 41. l,p. 257, and espe- 
cially Klotz, Devar. Vol. ii. p. 618. This 
remark, however, must be applied with 
great caution in the N. T. where, in com- 
mon with later writers, the use of the op- 
tative is so noticeably on the decline ; 
see notes on Gal. iii. 19. 

28. ffirovSaioTfpus] ' more dill 
gently than I should have done if ye ha<t 

CiiAi'. II. 29. r III L 1 1' r I A X s . 70 

-^apijTe Kuyoi a\i/7roTfpo? w. ■^ 7rpo<TO^^€a^?i€ ovv aurhv ei> Kvpi'} 

30. (pyov ToO Xp] So liec. with DEIvL; al. {Lichin. witli BFG ; al., oin. jol) 
Tisch. oniiis Tov Xp. only with C, — certainly iusuflitiout uutliority. 

rapafioKtvadfifvos] Tlio rcadiiij; is doulitfui. lite, and yVst/i. read wapafiouKt*- 
ffdfjLfvoi witli CKL; mo.-!t mss. ; Clirys., Tliiod., ul. ; tlic moaning of wliich would 
1)0 ' (jntini male consuluissct ; ' conip. Cojit., ' /KiraliuuUusllie ' [cited \>y Tisc/i. and 

Al/. l\)r the o/Znr rcadin;,'] ; Syr. j WO [sprevitj, Goth. ' ufarniunnoiids ' [ol)!ivi>- 

ceiis], all of wiiich Hccni in favor of -Kapafiovh. On the contrary, the form xapo/3o\. 
is adopted l>y (Iriish., Ltichiit., and most modern editors with ABDLFUX; Clarom., 
Vulg., Au;;:., ^1-tli. (both), al. ; and Lat. Tf., — and ri'jfilli/, the weight of autiior- 
ity and appy. uniiiue use of the word i)eing in manifest favor of the text. 

not heard, and hcen distpiieted l)y the 
tidings of his sickness.* In examples of 
this nature, which arc common botii to the 
N. T. and classicalGreck, the conip. is 
not u.«cd for the positive, l)Ut is to lie e.\- 
plained from the context ; comp. 1 Tim. 
iii. 14 (notes), 2 Tim. i. 17 (notes), and 
SCO Winer, 6V. I) .'33. 4, j). 217. 
irdXtv may be connected wi.ii ISovrts 
(Bcza, Auth.), but is more naturally ic- 
fcrred to xnp>i''e ( Vulg., Luth.), i: being 
the habit of St. Paul to place ireUo' be- 
fore the verb, wherever the structure of 
the sentence will permit ; contrast 2 Cor. 
X. 7, Gal. iv. 9, V. 3. The same order 
is regularly adopted by St. Matthew ; 
but St. Mark and St. John, who use the 
word very frequently, place it nearly as 
often after, as before, the verb with which 
it is ns.-iociated ; compare the extremely 
useful work, Gcrsdorf, UeltTaije, p. 491 
sq. b.\vv 6r ( pos\ ' leas 

surroirfiil : ' the joy felt by the rhilip])i- 
ans will mitigate the sorrow (in his con- 
finement) of the symi)athizing apostle; 
iiiy u/it?? xa^P^lTf, Ki-yu X'^'P'^t Chrysost. 
The word aKvir. is an Sir. KeySfi. in tlio 
N. T. ; in classical writers it is occasion- 
ally found in a transitive sense ; comp. 
iAinroi ohos, Athen. I. 29. 

29. TpoaSfXfo^dt otv] ' Rcnive 
him thru ; ' in accordance with my inten- 
tion in sending him ("iva k. t. \.). The 
$vr here perhaps slightly differs in mean- 

ing from the one immetliatcly jjreeeding. 
In ver. 28 it i- slightly more inferential, 
here it relap.'^es to its perhaps more usual 
meaning of 'continuation and retros|jcct,' 
Donalds. Cr. § C04. On the two uses 
<.f oSv (tlie collective and rijlvxia), see 
Klo:z, Dd-ar. Vol. ii. p. 717, compaicd 
wi;h Ilartung, Parlik. Vol. ii. p. 9 sq., 
and on its varieties of translation, Ilcv. 
Tiaiisl. of St. Juhn, p. X. 
iv Kvplf)] ' in the Lord,' almo>t, ' in a 
truly Christian mode of reception.' Christ 
was to bo. as it were, the element in 
which the action was to be ix^rformed , 
compare notes on ver. 19 and 24, and 
tlic caution in notes on Eph. iv. 1. 
ircfffTjj x^P"*] ' ol'j'^.'/'' ' every form 
of it,' not ' summa lajtitia,' Do Wetre 
(on James i- 2) ; sec notes on ch. i. 2"», 
on Ejili. i. 8, and comparys 1 Pet. ii. 1, 
where this extensive force of iruy seems 
made dearly apparent by tlio plural 
forms of the associated abstract accusa- 
tives. TOUS TOIOUT. K. T. X.] 
' nnd such hold in honor ; ' ' such,' scil. as 
Epaphroditus, who is the sort of speci- 
men of the class. On the use of the art. 
with toioOtoi to denote a known individ- 
ual or a whole class of such, see Kiihncr 
on Xenoph. .l/im. i. 5. 2, and notes on 
(iai. V. 21. The formula (miixov fx*'*'. 
though not without parallel in cl.i-ssiral 
Greek, e.q. ivriyi. iiyf7adau (Plato, P/iird. 
p. 64 d), Toifiy, al., is more usually ex- 



Chap. II. 30. 

^leTa Traar)'; "^apwi, Kat rov^ tolovtov^ €vri/xov<; ep^;€Te, ^" on oia to 
epyov rod Xptcrrov f^e'^pc ^avdrov "ijyytaev irapa/SoXeva-d/jLevci rfj 
"^^XVi '■^^ ava7r\7}pwarj to vpLWV vaTeprjfjba t^9 tt/do? /le Xenovp- 

pressed with the adverb, e. 7. ivrifiuis 
exetv, Syeir, compare Plato, Repuhl. vii. 
p. 528 B, VIII. p. 548 A. 

30. Si a rh epyov rov Xp.] 'on 
account of f.fie work of Christ.' All the 
Greek commentators refer these and the 
following words to the danj^er arising 
from persecution confronted by Epaphr. 
at Rome in his endeavor to minister to 
St. Paul ; elKbs ouv iravrhs KaTa<ppovy]<Tai 
KiuBvvov, Siare 'irpoffe?i^€7t> koI vnriperr)- 
iracrAai, Chrys. The foregoing mention, 
however, of his sickness, and tlie subse- 
quent statement of the object contem- 
plated by the rh vapajSoAov of his con- 
duct, seem to restrict the reference sim- 
ply to the service undertaken, and ren- 
dered by, Epaphroditus to the apostle, 
the performance of whicli exposed liim 
to the dan^^er of an all but mortal sick- 
ness. Tb ipyov Tod Xp. is thus not ri 
evayy. Baurag.-Crus. (compare Rill.), 
but the service which, by being rendered 
immediately to the apostle, became im- 
mediately rendered to Christ. 
[lexpi ^avdrov] ' up to death ; ' ex- 
tent of the danger ; compare Job xxxii. 
2, ijyytae fls bavarov 7] ^tixh avTOv, Isai. 
xxxviii. 1, f/iaAo/fi'tr^Tj eics bavdrov ; and 
still more expressly, 4 M.acc. 7, jue'xp* 
bavatov ray Paardvovs as, and 
Polyaen. Straiegem. p. 666 (Wetstein), 
ft^xpt bavdrov fxaxovvrai. On the force 
of /xe'xp* and &xph see notes on 2 Tim. ii. 

9. ■irapaPo\. TTJ'^f/vxv] 

' hariiifj risked, hazarded liis life, (soul) ; ' 
' tradens,' Vulgate ; ' parabolatus de,' 
Clarom, ; ' tradidit,' iEth. The form 
and meaning of this word has been well 
investigated bj' Meyer. It would appear 
to have been formed from the adj. ira- 
pdlio\os, ' venturesome ' {<pi\0KivSvvos kuI 

irapdfi., Diod. Sic. XIX. 3), like irepirepev- 
effbai (1 Cor. xiii. 4), from irepirepos, and 
to belong to a class of words in -fvcc 
rightly branded by Lobeck as ' longe 
maxima pars invecticia,' and designed to 
express the meaning of the adj. and aux- 
iliary ; see Lobeik, Phryn. p. 67, 591, 
and Winer, Gram. § 16. 1, p. 85. The 
meaning will then be irapdfioXos ehai, 
and thus really but little different in 
meaning from irapalSovK., — at any rate 
as the latter is explained by Theophyl., 
fiTeppi\piv fuvrhv rco bavdrw. Meyer com- 
pares Trapa^dWo/xai rfj ifxavrov Kf(pa\fj, 
Lobeck, Phrijn. p. 238. The figurative 
reference to the stake {irapa^dAiov or na- 
pd^oKov) which the appellant deposited, 
and if lost forfeited ( Wordsworth), is 
scarcely so probable as the simpler ex- 
planation adopted above. The dative 
^vx^ is the dative ' of reference,' and 
with the true limiting character of 
case expresses the sphere to which the 
action is confined ; see notes on Gal. i. 
20, and Winer, Gr. § 31 6, p. 193. On 
the relation of the ^vxh to animal life, 
and its intimate connection with the 
blood, see esp. Delitzst h, DiU. Psijchol. 
IV. 11, p. 195 sq., Beck, Bill. Sctlenl i. 
2, p. 4. OLV air Kn p di (T ri\ 'JiH 

up,' 'supply ;' compare Col. i. 24 (avra 
va-rrX.), and 1 Cor. xvi. 17. The pri 
mary and proper meaning of this com- 
pound verb is ' ca-plcre,* ' totum implere ' 
(1 Thess. ii 16), and thence by an easy 
gradation of meaning, ' sup)j!ere,' the 
avh. denoting the addition, or rather 
making «p, of what is lacking; corap. 
Plato, Conviv. p. 188 e, d n e^e\nroif 
ffhv €pyov avanXripucrai. It is tlius never 
merely synonymous with irAripovv, but 
has regularly a reference more or less 

Ciixv. III. 1. 

p II I r. I p r I A N s . 


lUJolce.brethi^n, be«.re HI. To XoiTTUV, uZeX^L /AOU, X°-^P^^ '='*' 

of Jud izer* who trust in^/ < >v > i »- •< •_» 

U.e fl .... I h.v. .v.,y I^VpKO. T- T aVTU ypa(f>€lU VfHV, 6/XOl fltf QVK 
eauie to truit therein, but value nuught uve Chritt. Ilia righlcroudiru, and the power uf IIU re^umxCioo■ 

distinct to a jinrl'ml rattier tliiui iiii en- 
tire racmiin. Such examples as Thucvd 
II. 2S (dcnuo), lielonj^ to anotlier ti<e of 
tlie prep. ; sec especially Winer, tie \'erl>. 
Cowp. III. p. 11 sfj., anil notes on Cal. 
vi. 2. rh viiiov var. »f. t. A.J 

* ijouT lark, I. €. that wfitrh yon larked, in 
year service to ;«<? ; * ifiOn^ being the trcn. 
of the mtl'j'tt {& vfifls b<rTt(ri\(rarf , The- 
oph.), and so a kind of {^-n. jw&sessivus, 
and TT^y Ktirovp-y., t!ie gon of the oliject 
in refei-ence to which ilic va-rtfyniJM 
evinced, and so n jjen. of what ha^^ l.ecn 
termed ' the point of view :' see Selicii- 
erl. Sjiit. ^ 17. 2, p. 127 sq., where these 
douhle freniiives are hricfly hut clearly 
discussed ; comp. also Winer, 6V § ."0. 
3. 3, p. 172. There is therefore in tlic 
words no call to niodcsiy or humility 
(Chrys ) on the ground that 6 trimts 
6<pti\rr( fiivoi TfiroirjKfv (Theod.). — as 
this would imply a virtual connection of 
vfiitv with XfiTovpylas, hut only a {rentlo 
and affectionate notice of the complete 
nature of the services of the emissary. 
All that the Philippians lacked was tlic 
joy and privile;xe of a personal ministra- 
tion ; this E|)aplirod. hy executing the 
commission with which he was charged 
(Tfjs irpis ftf AfiT. comp. verse 25) sup- 
plied, — and to the full. It would thus 
seem that the illness of Ejtaph- 
roditus was connected, not with his jour- 
ney, hut with his anxious afcndance on 
the apostle at Kome. See Meyer in lor., 
who has well explained the true mean- 
ing of this delicate and graceful commen- 

CllArTKU III 1. rh \otir6y] ' Fi- 
nallif;' preparation for, and transition 
to, the concluding portion of the Epistle, 
again rei^attd yet more specifically ch. 
iv. 8; conipan^ 2 Cor. xiii. 11, i Thess. 

iv. 1, 2 Thess. iii. 1, and fur the gram- 
matical difference l)ctween tliis and the 
gen. rod \oiwov, see notes o»i Gal. vi. 17. 
There is perhaps a slight difficulty in the 
fact, that buhjects previously ul.uded to 
arc again touched on, and that the per- 
sonal relation of the apostle to ii:e Juda- 
ists is so fully stated in a concluding 
portion of the Epistle. Without having 
recourse to any arbitrary hypotheses 
(comp. Van Ileng.), it seems enough to 
say, Jirst, that the exhortations all as- 
sume a more generic form, — x*'?*'''*- '^ 
Wic^ing. remarks, is the key-note ; and 
Sfrond/i/, as Alf. sugirests, that the men- 
tion of (caTOTo/i)) leads to one of tliose 
digressions, expressively but too f.imil- 
iarly, termed by Paley, ' going off at a 
word,' which so noticeably ciiaractcrizc 
the writings of the inspired apostle : sec 
Iliirtr Pnnl. ch. \\. 3. 
Xo(p«Tt iv Kvptu] ' ujoire in the 
Lord ; ' their joy is to Ikj no joy Kara -rhv 
Kiauov, hollow, earthly, and unreal, but 
a Tffu>ioTiic?; i&i/;xT)5io (Theod.), a joy in 
Ilim ; in whom al dAii^dJ altai ixowrt 
Xap<£j', Chrys. : comi)are ch. iii. 10, 24, 
20. and notes. ra avri\ 

It is very doubtful to what t!ie<e words 
refer. Out of the many opinion* that 
Imvc been advanced, three descn-e con- 
sideration ; (a) that they nfor to exhor- 
tations in a lost Epistle (Flatt, Mcy.) ; 
(f>) that they refer to oral communica- 
tions, whether made to the Phil, person- 
ally (Calv ), or recently communicated 
to Timothy and Epaphr. (Wicseler); 
(r) that they refer to the words just pre- 
ccdinir. viz. x"'?*'''* ^•' Kiipiy (Wie- 
sing.. Alf). Of these (a), whatever may 
\yc said of the general question (sec notes 
on Col. iv. 16), must liere he pronounced 
in a high degree doubtful and precarious, 
and is expressly rejected by Theodorct : 

78 PHILIPPIANS. Chap. in.2. 

OKprjpov, vfuv Be aa^aXi<i. ^ ^eirere toi"? Kvva<;, ^errere TOV'i 

the remark in Polyc. Phil. § 3, ts koI 
&Trwu vfuv ijpa^f/iv linar6\a^, seems 
fairly neutralized by 'epistolas ejus,' ch. 
11, see "Wies. Chron. p. 460, and comp. 
Wordsw. in he. The second [h) is well 
defended by Wieseler, I. c, p. 459 sq., 
but implies an emphasis on ypd<p€ii/, 
which neither the language nor tlie order 
of the words in any way substantiiites. 
The last (c) appears on the whole open 
to least objection, as x'l'Pf"' ^^es seem 
the pervading thought of the Epistle, ch. 
i. 4, 18, ii. 17, iv. 4, 10, and to have 
been the more dwelt upon as the actual 
circumstances of the case might have 
very naturally suggested the contrary 
feeling : compare Chiys. J3b??i. x. init., 
who, iiowever, refers to. aina to what 
follows, though admitting the appropri- 
ate nature of the precept. The gram- 
matical objection to the plural to; avra. 
( Van Heng. ) is of no weight ; the plural 
idiomatically refers to and generalizes 
the foregoing precept, hinting at the par- 
ticulars which it almost necessarily in- 
volves ; sec Jelf, Gr. § 383, Kiihner on 
Xenoph. Mem. iii. 6 6, and the exam- 
ples collected by Stallbaum on Plato, 
Apol. p. 10 D, and Gorrj. p. 447 a. 
6 KVT] p6v] * fjrievoiis,' ' irksome ; ' com- 
pare Sopli., CEd. Rex. 834, ^jfuu ravr 
oKvrjpd. The primary idea of ukvos and 
o/c/^rjobs seems that of ' delay,' or ' loiter- 
ing,' whether from fear or sloth ( Matth. 
XV. 26, Rom. xii. 11), and thence that 
which is productive of such feelings in 
others. The derivation is uncertain ; 
perhaps from Sanscr. vak, with the no- 
tion of ' bending,' ' stooping,' or ' cow- 
ering' (?), see Benfcy, Wurzcllex. Vol. 
II. p. 22. a.a<f>a\4s\ 'sure,' 

' safe ; ' i e. in eflPect, as Syr. paraphrases, 

.9(31]^ \C^-^? ^:>-^^ [propterea 
quod vos commoncfaciunt]. The word 
is pressed both by Wieseler (/. e.) and 

De W., though on different sides, and is 
confessedly somewhat singularly used. 
It seems, however, suitable on the 
grounds alleged above, viz , that the 
Philippians might think they had eveiy 
reason — not x'^'P^^" hut advpiuu. The 
quasi causative sense is jjarallel to that 
in 6kvijp6i/ ; compare Joseph, .^l/i^'iy. iii. 
2. 1. 

2. P\ fir ere] 'look to,' 'ohscrrc;' 
' videtc,' Vulg., Goth., Copt , not ' be- j 
ware of,' Auth. Ver., with Syr., this be- 
ing a derived meaning (Winer, Grnm. 
§32. 2, p. 200): ^th (Piatt) unites 
both. This exhortation not unnaturally 
follows. The remembrance of the many 
things that wrought against to x°-^P- ''" 
Kvp. rises before tiie apostle ; one of the 
chief among which, — perhaps immediate- 
ly suggested by the word aa-(pa\(s, — he 
now enumerates. It was here that a 
<T(pd\iJ.a was in some degree to be feared. 
Tohs Kxivas] 'ihe dogs' not so much, 
in the classical use of the term, in rcf to 
the impudence (Poll. Onom. v. 65), or 
the snarling and reviling s])irit (Athen. 
XIII. § 93), of those bO designated, — as 
in the Jewish use, in ref. to the impure 
(Rev. xxii. 15), and tssentially ethnic 
(Matth. XV. 27, comp. Schocttg. Hor. 
Vol. I. p. 1145), and antichristian char- 
acter of these spiritual enemies of the 
Philippians ; Sxrirfp ol i^viKol kol rov 
Qeov Koi rov Xpi<rToC aWdrptoi i',(Tav, 
Chrys. rovs kukovs epy-] 

'the evil workers;' compare 2 Cor. xi. 
13, ipevSanoffToKoi, (pydrai SoKiui ; they 
were tpydrat certainly, but the ipyd^ea- 
^at was firl kuku, Chrys. The use of 
the article seems to show that there were 
some whom the apostle especially had 
in his thoughts. ri/v 

KaraTopt-riv] 'the concision,' Auth. ; 
i. e. ' the concised ' (' curti Judffii,* Hor. 
Sal. I. 9. 70), ' truncatos in circumcis- 
ionc,' J^thiop. (Piatt) o/'/'.y. [but (?), as 

C:ia:-. tit. 3, 4. P II I 1. 1 1' 1' I A N S . 79 

KaKov<i epyaTw;, /^XtVeTe riju Ka-raro^ijv. ^ i]fMei({ yup iajiev i) 

irepiTOfii), ol Uuev/jLaTi Geov '\arptvome<; kuI Kaxr^aofJi^voi ev 

Api(TT<o Irjcrov kul ovk tv aapKi 'rrt7roi\)oTe<{, * Kaiirep tyui t^<ov 

the word in llic onj:iiial lias also ri-f. to seemed too purely explanatory of t!:0 
cxionimmiicatioii ; compare Tlieoil.) : allusion, and ko would have weakened 
a studiedly eontem])tuous [laroiioinasia, the force of the nntiilicsis. The daiive 
sec examples in Winer, 6'r.*§ C8. 2, p. Ut'tvu. is not the dative noritnr; (Van 
OGl. Tiie ai)o-tle will not gay irtpiTO^^, Ilenj^., conajjare notes on Gal. v. IG), 
as tliis, thou;:h now aliro;,'ated in Christ hut, as the context seems to recpure, tlio 
(1 Cor. vii. 19, Gal. vi. 15), had still its dative tnstnimenti, or wliat KrU;:er per- 
si)iritual aspects (ver. 3, IJom. ii. 29, haps more correctly term's, t!io ' dy- 
Col. ii. 11), — hut Karatotxij, a mere namic' dat. (S/jrac/i/. § 48. 15), compare 
hand-wrou'^ht, outward mutilation (com- llom. viii. 14, Galat. v. 5, 18. «I. ; the 
pare I'pli. ii. 1 1 ). wliich tiicsc false teach- Holy Spirit was the influence under 
crs gloried in and sou^rht to enforce on wliich the \arptla was ])erfornicd ; corn- 
others ; ovofu dAAb jroiofffic -1) tv)i/ aapKh pare John iv. 23. The reading Qtou 
Karartuvovaiv, Clirys. The reference to nsts upon the authority of all the uncial 
excommunication (Theod., Hammond) MSS. except D' ; more tiian CO niss. ; 
seems wliolly out of place: indeed it is Copt., Syr. (Philox), inmar;:.,al., and is 
8inp:ular that such a very intellij^ihlc al- adopted I>y all modern editors. It is to 
lusion sliould have received so many, he rc;ri"ctted that Middlcton ( Gr. Art. p. 
and some such monstrous interpreta- 371) should be led by a doubtful theory 
tions, e.ij. Baur, Paulas, ]). 435. to oppose himself to such a prepondcr- 
3. ;j^««j yap k.t.\.] 'For we arc anee of authority. It seems perfectly 
the circiiiiicisioii ; ' reason I'or the dcsijjna- ix-asonable to consider nvfvfia &fov as a 
tion immediately preceding : ' I say tco- proper name, and as haviiifj a similar 
TaT0;U7), for you and I, whether circum- fix-edom in res[iect to the anicle ; sec 
cised in the body or no, are tlw cirrum- Tritz. lloin. viii. 4, Vol. ii. p. 105, com- 
cisioii, irfpiTofi-f) in its highest, truest, and pare notes on Gal. v. 5. 
spi "itual sense , — the circumcised in KarptvofTts] Absolutely, as in Luke 
heart, ab "^bi? (Kzek. xliv. 7);' see ii. 37, Acts xxvi. 7, Ileb. ix. 9, x. 2. 
l\om. ii. -9, and the jjood note of Fritz. Tor a eennon on this and the followin;; 
{•t Ik. On the spiritual aspects of wfpj- venues, more, however, rc.semblinj; a c-om- 
tofi'fl, see particularly Ehnird, Aftendm. mentary, see Aui;ustiue, S-nn. clxix. 
() 2, Vol. I. p. 23 .sq., Kurtz, Gesch. d<r Vol. v. p. 915 sq. (ed. Mipie). 
Alt, IJiitid. § 58. 3, p. 184 sq., where Ka\ ovk k. r. \.\ 'and vot Inislinf} vi 
tho subject is well di.scnssed. tlir Jh s/i ; ' opposition to the prcce<linjr, 
ol Xlvf vfxar i H. T. \.] 'who liif the tliou;?h still under the vinculum of a 
Spirit of' Gud are serviiiff ; ' apposition by common article: 'we l>oa<t in Christ 
means of the substantival participle Jesus, — and in the flesh, the bodily and 
(comjiarc Winer, Gr. § 45. 7, p. 31G), external, far from iKiastin^: as they did 
and indirect epexegesis of the precedin>; (Gal. vi. 13), we po not so far even as to 
collective desijxnation. The sentence put trust.' On the definite ncsration im- 
mi;;ht have been expressed by means of jdicd by ou with the part., see Winer, 
Saot or otTtfti with the indicative, but Gr. § 55. 5, p. 430, Git?cn, Gr. p. 120. 
the former would have too much limited 2ekp{ does not specially and exclusively 
the class, while the latter would have refer to c/»ri/mc/«ion, but, .as the widenini' 



Chap. III. 4, 5 

ireTTOL^rjcnv koI ev aapKi. eiTt<; BoksI aWo<; TreTrot^evat iv crapKi, 
iyo) fidWov ^ TrepLTOfirj 6KTa7]/jiepo<;, eK yevov; ^lapaifK^ (f)v\i]^ 

nature of the context seems to suggest, 
to the outward, the earthly, and the pho- 
nomenal ; see Ilofmann, Schrifib. Vol. i. 
p. 541, Mullcr, Doctr. of Sin, ii. 2, Vol. 
X. p 35.3 (Clark). 

4. KaiTrep e-yoi «■. t. A.] ' althoiigh 
mjselfhaviiKj,' etc. ; concessive sentence 
introduced by Ka'tirfp. qualifying the as- 
sertion which immediately precedes ; see 
Donalds. Gr. § 621. The construction 
involves but lirtlc difficulty. In the pre- 
ceding rj/xi7s and oh ireirot^. the apostle 
is himself included : lest this disavowal 
ofiren-o/d (V aapKi miglit on his part be 
attributed to the absence or forfeiture of 
claims, rather tlian the renunciation of 
them, he passes at once by means of 4yu 
to his own case, and proceeds as if tlie 
foregoing clause had been in the singu- 
lar ; 'I put no trust in the flesh, though, 
as far as txtemals are concerned, I for 
my part have an inalienable and de jure 
right (ex'*"') to do so.' Thus, then, Kai- 
vep has its ])i-oper construction with tlie 
part., and tlie concessive sentence a sim- 
ple and perspicuous relation to the fore- 
going clause. Kalirep, only used in 
this place by St. Paul (Heb. v. 8, vii. 5, 
xii. 17, 2 Pet. i. 12), has its regular 
meaning, ' even very much ' (see Klotz, 
Derar. Vol. ii. p. 723), the Trep (Trepl) 
giving to the simple koI the idea of ' am- 
bitum rci majorem' (Klotz). or perhaps, 
more probably, the intensive meaning of 
' through-ncss ' or ' completion ; ' see 
Donalds. Cratyl. § 178. The meaning 
'though,' it need scarcely be said, arises 
from its combination with the participle. 
ireirofS-. Ka\ ev capfcf] 'confidence 
even in iheflish,' ' in it as well as eV Xp.,' 
the force of koI being apparently descen- 
sive; see notes on Gal. iii. 4. There is 
no reason for modifying the meaning of 
this word (' gloriandi argumentum,' 
Calv.), or that of the simple prcs. part. 

ix"'" (' '"sni pra;teritam facit pra?sentem,' 
Van Heng.) : ireTroi'^. is simply xa^X'?" 
ffiy, TrappTjaia, Chrys., and is actually 
vow possessed by the apostle ; he still 
has it, though he will not use it ; ' ha- 
bens, non utens,' Beng. 
8oKe7 is certainly not pleonastic (see 
examples in TViner, Gr. § 65. 7, p. 540), 
but may be either (c) in the opinion of 
others, — ' videtur esse, quam rere esse 
diceremavult,' Fritz. Matth. iii. 9. p. 129, 
compare 1 Cor. xi. 16, where such a 
meiosis seems plausible ; or (h) in his 
own opinion, — ' opinionem qua quis sibi 
placeat,' Van Heng., as 1 Cor. iii. 18, 
viii. 3, al., and appy. in the great major- 
ity of cases in the N. T. The latter 
seems best to suit the presumptuous, sub- 
jective irevoi^ffis of these Judaists, and 
does not seem at variance (Mey.) with 
€70) fiaWof, scil. SoKu ire7ro(&. eV ffapicl, 
wliicii follows ; so Syr., and apparently 
Copt., .^th. (Piatt). 

5. TV f p LT fiy OKTaTj/iepos] ' eifflit 
ddi/s old when circuinriscd, lit. in respect 
of circumcision,' dat. of 'reference,' Winer, 
Gr. § 31. 6, p. 193, notes on Gal. i. 22. 
Ritualistic distinction, followed by his 
natal prerogatives, and (ver. 6) his per- 
sonal and theological characteristics. 
Circumcision on the eighth day (Levit. 
xii. 3) distinguished the native Jew, 
whether from proselyte or Ishmaelite, 
the latter of whom was circumcised after 
the thirteenth year, Joseph. Antiq. i. 12. 
2. The nom. irepiTOfiri, which is found 
in Sfeph. 3, Eh. (1624, 1633), with some 
fewmss.. and apparently Chrys., Theod., 
is not correct : the abstract trepiroix^ is 
suital)ly used for the concrete in its col- 
lective sense (ver. 3), but apparently 
never, as assumed here, for a single per- 
son, Winer, Gr. § 31. 3 (ed. 5) : so Van 
Heng., Meyer. e/c yevov s 

*I(rp.] ' of the race of Israel ; ' gen. o/ 

Cii.u>. III. 5, C. r II 1 LIP PI AN S. ftl 

BeviafxiVy 'E^pa1o<; t^ ' E^pai<i>v, Kara vofxov ^apiaaio^^ kcizo. 

apposition or idtnititi/, Sclieucrl. § 12. i, p. 
82, 83 : fust of tlio three ilimac tic Jis- 
tinctions in regard to nice, tribe, and 
lineaijC : ' in cenfum nunc venit splen- 
dor nataliuin,' Van Ilcn^. 'Ek. ytv- 'lap. 
is exactly equivalent to 'la(,a.i\Xirjis in 
the very similar passaj:u.s, Uom. xi. 3, 
2 Cor. xi. 22, and, as the designation 
'I<rpav)A suggests (see Ilarl. on Eph. ii. 
12, Meyer on Cor. xi. 22), stands in dis- 
tinction to Idumean, Ishmaelite, or eth- 
nic origin in a theocratic point of view ; 
compare also Trench, Si/non. \ 39. 
The vfptT. showed that the apostle was 
no proselyte ; the in yty. 'lap. that he 
was oiiof TrpoffrjKvTofu yovioiv, Chrys. in 
loc. Ml yei and Alf. fi>Ilowing Theodo- 
ret refer Ivp. to the ■irp6yovov Jacob, but 
this seems to mar the symmetry of the 
climax and the parallelism with Rom. 
xi. 3 and 2 Cor. xi. 22. 
pv\Tii Btftanlv] ' of the tribe of 
Benjamin ;' of one of the two most il- 
lustrious of t!ic tribes, n true son of the 
ItirotK'.a (Ezra iv. 1). Some of the de- 
scendaitts of tlio other tribes wcve still 
existing, ind tliough amalgamated un- 
der tlic common name, Iou5a?oi, could 
still prove their descent ; compare .lost, 
Gisrii da Isr., Vol. i. p. 407 sq., 
and Winer, liWD. Article ' Siiimmc,' 
Vol. II. p. 513. The a.s.«ertionof (^hrys., 
S)<rr( roil SoKtuuTfpou fifpovi, to yap U- 
pibiv (V T'f> K\rjpy toi'ttij tJj/ tT/I (pu\T,s, is 
appari-ntiy not historically demonstra- 
ble. 'E$pa'ios ^ 'E/3p-] 
' a Ifelircw of [fi brews,' a Hebrew of He- 
brow paR'ntagc nnd ancestr}-. a Hebrew 
of pure blood ; ti$ aiiTijy t^ plCav d»'t'5- 
pafitv, Theodorct : compare Dion. -Hal. 
III. p. 1G3, iKfubtpai i^ i\tv^fp<DV, Vo- 

lyb. IllSt. II. 59. 1, iK TVpOLVVWV Xf<pV- 

K6Ta, and other examples in Kypke, 
OI>s. Vol. II. p. 115. It docs not seem 
proper to limit it merely to Hebrew ;k7- 
rents on both sides (Mey., Alf). Owing 

to the loss of private records in earlier 
times (comp. Ezra ii. 59, G2) and the 
confusions and troubles in later times, 
there might have Ijccii (even in spite of 
tlic care with which private genealogi<i« 
were kept, Othon. Lrjr. Ilabb. p. 7ti, 2G2) 
many a Benjamitc, espec. among those 
whose families had left Palestine, who 
could not i)rove a pure Hebrew descent. 
Thus the Jew of Tarsus, the Roman cit- 
izen, familiarly speaking and writing 
Greek, might naturally bo desirous to 
vindicate his pure descent, and to claim 
the honorable title of 'E/SpoTot {avtubti' 
riaiy (iiSoKiiJioiv 'loi/Soueof, Clirys.) fur him- 
self and his forefatlicrs ; compare Winer, 
nWB. Vol. I. p. 472, 475. That £$■ 
pouos may also have ref.jrence to lan- 
guage (Clirys.) is fiir too summarily de- 
nied by Meyer and Alford ; sec Trench, 
Si/non. § 39. has reference to 
locality (Palestinian not Hclkniit) is 
every way doubtful: the assertion of Je- 
rome, by whicli it is supported, tliat St. 
Paul was l>orn at Gisch la in Palestine, 
appears only to be, as that writer himself 
terms it, a ' fabula ; ' see Neandcr, Plant- 
infj. Vol. I. p. 79 (Bohn). 
Kark v6fjL.oi> k. t. \] 'in rrs/Kfi of 
t/te law {of Mosfs) a Plutrisec : ' i. e. in 
regard of keeping or maintaining it, the 
prep. Kari being used througliont in its 
more general signification of ' quo<l atti- 
net ad ; ' compare Winer, Cr. ^ 49. d. 
p. 35'. Kofios is here the ' Mosaic law : ' 
though it may occasionally have what 
Reuss calls ' signification ^o omique, 
tout ce qui tient u Tanrienne dis|H?n6a- 
tion' {T/iAJ. Cl.rdl. iv. 7, Vol. ii. p. 
66), this would l>c here out of harmony 
with the following Bikoiixt. jj ir liiiv-- 
The present and two following 
state the theological characteristics of 
the apostle, arranged perhaps climacti- 
cally, a Pharisee, a zcalou* Pharisee, and 
ft blameless Pharisee ; co:n\\ Acts xxiL 




Chap. III. 6, 7. 

^rjXov Blcokcov rrjv iKKKrjcnaVy Kara BcKaioavvrjv rrjv iv vofio) yevo' 
fievo^ a/ie/i-7rT09. "* AXk aTtva rjv fxoL KepSr], ravra 'ijyij/ Sia 

3, xxvi. 5, Gal. i. 14. 

6. Kara (yKov K.r.\.] ' in respect 
of zeal — persecuting/ the Church;' comp. 
Gal. i. 1-3 ; said licre perhaps not without 
a tinge of sad irony ; even in this re- 
spect, this mournful exhibition of Judaist 
zeal, he ran, if they will, set himself on 
a level with them. If they be Judaists 
he was more so. The present part, is 
not for the aor. (Grot.), nor used as the 
historical present (Van Heng.), nor as a 
substantive (the examples refcn-ed to by 
Mey. and Alf. being all associated with 
the art ), but is used mljectivalhj, standing 
in parallelism to the following epithet, 
&!j.eixirros, and prcdicativcly in relation 
to a suppressed verb subst. that pervades 
the clauses ; comp. Winer, Gr. § 45. 5, 
p. 312. The sense is the same, but 
grammatical propriety seems to require 
the distinction. 5iKaio<r. 

T'^r if i/6ixb}] ' rii/hteousness that is in 
the Jaw ; ' righteousness specially so 
characterized, comp. notes on 1 Tim. iii. 
14, 2 Tim. i. 13. In ver. 9 the same idea 
is somewhat differently expressed : hiK. f] 
fx v6fiov is righteousness that emanates 
from the law, tliat results from its com- 
mands when truly followed ; Sik. fj 4v 
v6fx't} righteousness thut resides in it, and 
exists in coincidence with its commands. 
In the one case the law is the imaginary 
origin, in the other the imaginary sphere, 
of the SiKawffvvT]. All limitations of 
ySfios, e. fj. ' specialia instituta,' Grot., 
' 'Tad'tionem patmm,' Vatabl., are com- 
j)letoly untenable. On this verse, and 
ou Justification generally, see August. 
Srrm. ccxx. Vol. v. p. 92G sq. (edit. 
Migne). ijuf/tTrroj] 

'blameless;' ' proprie est is in quo nihil 
dcsidcraii potest, 5^co/xos in quo nihil est 
quod rcprehendas,' Tittm. Si/non. p. 29. 
The a.ixfix<pia here spoken of, in accord- 
ance with the clearly external relations 

previously enumerated, must be referred 
to the outward and common judgment 
of men ; ' vitse meae rationes ita plane 
composui ut nihil in me quisquam rep- 
rehendere aut damnare posset,' Justini- 
an i in lor. 

7. ariua] 'the which things;' scil. 
the qualities, characteristics, and prerog- 
atives alluded to in the preceding clauses, 
oaris being used in reference to indefi- 
nitely expressed antecedents ; see notes 
on Gal. iv. 24. The general distinction 
between hs and oVtjs has rarely been 
stated better than by Kriiger ; ' ^s is 
purely objective, ocrris generic and qual- 
itative,' Sprachl. § 51. 8. 
?iv fioi Ke pSrj] ' were gains to me ; ' 
not, ' in my judgment,' ' non vera sed 
opinata lucra,' Van Ileng., fioi being 
thus an ethical dative (Kruger, Sprachl. 
§ 48. 6. 5), — but ' to me,' a simple dat. 
commodi ; they were really gains to St. 
Paul in the state previous to his conver- 
sion ; compare Schoettg. in loc. The 
plural Kepdr] is appropriately used in ref- 
erence to the different forms and charac- 
ters of KipSos involved in the foregoing 
prerogatives ; ntpSos, in fact, considered 
in the plurality of its parts, Jclf, Gr. 
§ 355. 1, Kriiger, Sprachl. § 44. 3. 5. 
Meyer compares Herod, iii 71, irepifiaX- 
\6p.evos koiVTCf KepSea ; add Plato, Legg. 
IX. p. 8G2 C, P\dfias Kol Kep^t). 
5 « a rhv X p.] 'for Christ's sake,' more 
fully explained in ver. 8, 9, and put, for 
tlie sake probably of emphasis, between 
the verb and its accusative. Chrys. here 
not inappropriately remarks, tl Sta rhu 
XptffT6v, ov tpvtret Cvi^''<^' 
1) 7 7j H a « (rj p^lau] ' T have considered 
(and they are now to me) as loss:' con- 
trast rjyovfxai, vcr. 8, and on the force of 
the perfect, which here marks ' actionem 
quse per cffectus suos durat,' see notes 
on Eph. ii. 8. Meyer, followed by Alf, 

CiiAP. ITT. 8. 

r TI I T- T r P I A N R , 


Tou XpiaTOV ^rjfi/ap. ^ «XXa fitv oiv koI ij^/ovixai iruina ^rjfiiau 
eiifat Bia to vircpe^ov tj}s- yi>u)(T€0)(; XpiaTov 'Irjaou rov Kupiov 
fj.ov, Bl 01/ TO. TTuvTa t^t]/j.iuji^^j]v Kul ii'/uvfxaL (TKVfdaXa eivai, iva 

fommcius on the use of the sin^;. (rjti'tcw 
i\!i marking ' one loss in all thiiij;s ' of 
which thi- apostle is here 8|ienkin<j. This 
is possible, but it may he doubted 
wlictlier tlic singular is not regularly 
used in this formula (conip. examples in 
Kypkc, Vol. 11.315, Klsner, Vol. ii. p. 
252, and cspciially Wetst. in loc.), and 
whether the use of the plural would not 
suggest the inajipropriate idea of ' pun- 
ishments,' a prevalent meaning of ^tj/iicu : 
8C0 Rost u. Palm, Lex. s. v. The form 
fr)^. is supposed lo be connected with 
' damnum,' and perhaps to he referred 
to the Sanscr. dam, 'domitum esse,' 
Pott, I-y;/iii. Fursrh. Vol. I. p. 261. 

8. oAAi fifyovv k. r. A.] ' A'jy 
more, am indetd <dso, etc. ;' 'at sane qui- 
dem,' Winer, Gr. § 53. 7, p. 392. In 
this formula, scarcely accurately ren- 
dered by ' imo vero,' Wiesinger (after 
Winer, ed. 5), or ' but moreover,' Alf., 
each particle has its pro()er force ; dAAo 
contrasts the pres. Viyovficu with the jierf. 
fiyijfiat, fiiu confirms, while oZi', with its 
usual retro^i>cctive force, collects and 
slightly concludes from what has been 
previously said ; see Klotz, iJevar. Vol. 
Ti. p. CG3, and for the use of ^iv oZv in 
adding some emphatic addition or cor- 
rection, comp. Donalds. Gr. § 507. Tho 
continuative force of ^J;* oZy, ' cum quA- 
dam (onclusionis significatione,' is no- 
;iced by Ilcrm. ll;ier. No. 342. 
The reading of Rcc, nfvovvyt, rc-^ts only 
on A ; very many mss. ; Tlieoph., al., 
and is rightly rejected by I.nchm. and 
Tisch. Ka\ 7j 701*^01] '/ 

am also accounllnrj ; ' not only "j-ynixai but 
fjyovfiou, the kclI, with its usual ascensive, 
and indirectly contrasting, force, bring- 
ing into prominence the latter verb ; it 
is not with St. Paul merely a p:u«t but 
al.-o a pR'sei\t action. 

irovTa] ''///,' — in reference to the \>re- 
ceding ani/a fiv k. t. X., ' ilia omnia,' 
Syr., Copt. ; wavra, as it> position shows_ 
liaving no emphasis, but Iteing usud only 
to include ' tjuttcumiue antea Apostolo in 
lucris i)osita sunt,' Van Hcng. 
The fuller and regular construction, ^n- 
/ii'of tlvai (coinj)are Weller, Dtmcrh. ziim 
Gr. Sj/itt. |). 8, — an ingenious tract), is 
here adopted on account of the dilferent-o 
in the order of the words. 
5«a rb virfp. k t. A ] 'for the txcel- 
hncij of the L-iioiclnh/e of Christ my fjjrd,' 
— 'qui milii super omnia est,' Grotius, 
'dominus mihi cari»simus,' Van Ilcng. ; 
compare Est. in loc. The anicic with 
tlie neuter adjectival participle seems de- 
signedly used to bring into prominence 
the specific characteristic or attribute of 
the yviiiffis ; it was not mcn-ly 5io t^ 
impixovaav yviuan', but Si^ t5 uxfu. rrjs 
yv., see Bemharly, Si/nt. iii. 42. d, p. 
156, and compare Jelf, Gr. ^ 436. 7, who 
notices this use of the neuter part, as 
very characteristic of Thucydidcs, 1. 142, 
II. 63, 111.43, al. This nicety of lan- 
guage was not unobserved by ("hrysost., 
who adverts to it to show that the real 
diflTiTcnco l)etween the yvaiati and the 
iraj'To (involving the y6)xos) with which 
it was contrasted, lay solely in the vrip- 
oxh of the former ; Sih rh {rwfpf\ov, o'j 
5io rh aWorpiov. t5 yap inrtpfxov rov 
Snoyryovs virfpfxft- The deduction, 
however, is unnecessary if not uiitcna- 
able. The knowledge of Christ admits 
no homogeneities, and transcends all 
comparisons. ri vdyra 

i ^r] fi.] ' / S'lfftrrd the loss of tht m all ; ' 
not with any middle force bnt puirly 
passive, the retrospective and inrlusivo 
Tck rit'Ta (koi ri xaXat, koI ra xol^'oi-ra, 
Chrys.) being the regular accu<. of the 
(so termed) qnautitative ol ject ; comp 



Chap. III. 9. 

Kpiarov KepS^aco, ® Koi, evpe^co iv avra>, fir) e^cov ipbip BcKaio- 
(7vui]v T7]v eic vofiov, aXXa ttjv hia TriVrew? Xpicnov, rijv e'/c Geov 

Matth. xvi. 26, and see Hartung, Casus, 
p. 46, comp. Winer, Gr. § 39. 1, p. 223. 
Tlie verb is designedly stronger tlian the 
preceding n)yovfjiai (rjixiav, and its objcct- 
accus. more oomprclicnsive ; both suita- 
bly enhancing the climactic sequence of 
this noble verse. kuI i) 7 o C- 

fiai ffKvfi. eTvai] ' and count them to 
be dung ; ' clearly not a parenthetical 
clause (Van Heng ), but, as the nature 
of the verse indicates, joined to, and in 
sentiment advancing further than what 
has last been said. The colon in some 
editions (Oxf. 1836, 1851), is very unde- 
sirable; even the comma [Mill, Grifsh., 
Scliok, Tisrh.) can be dispensed with. 
The somewhat curious word uKv^aXov 
appears properly to mean ' dung' (Syr., 
Clarom., Vulg.), e. g. Alex.-Aphrodit. 
Prohl. I. 18, f^iaiTi cTKvP. koI oS^oc, and 
thus is probably to be connected with 
CKwp (not ffKcip), gen. (rKarSs ; see Lo- 
beck, Pathol, p. 92, Benfey, Wurzfllex. 
Vol. n. p. 172. The old derivation, 
Kv(rl 0a\e7ii, i. e. KvaifiaXov (Suid., Etipn. 
M.) or is Kvvas, is still defended by I'ott, 
Etym. Forsch. Vol. 11. p. 295. On the 
various derivative meanings, ' refuse,' 
'quisquilias' (Goth., iEth.), etc., see 
Suicer, Thesaur. s. v. Vol. 11. p. 978, 
the numerous exx. collected by Wetst. 
in loc, and the smaller collections of 
Kypke, Eisner, and Loesner. 
%va. Xp. K€p5^(r£o] ' that I ma}j gain 
Christ ; ' purpose of the iiy. (tkv^. tlvai, 
antithetically expressed with reference 
to the previous ^Tj/xwCo-^ai. Meyer and 
Alf. properly olyect to the bleak intcrpr. 
of Grot., 'Christum, i.e. Christi favo- 
rera:' it is curious that it should have 
been adopted by so good an expositor as 
Hammond. To 'gain Clirist' is, to use 
the exquisite language of Bp. Hall, ' to 
.lay fast hold upon Him, to receive Him 
inwardly into our bosoms, and so to 

make Him ours and ourselves His, that 
we may be joined to Him as our Head, 
espoused to Him as our Husband, incor- 
porated into Him as our Nourishment, 
engrafted in Him as our Stock, and laid 
upon Him as a sure Foundation,' Christ 
Mijstical, ch. VI. — a treatise of the lofti- 
est spiritual strain. 

9. e V pf^u f u aiir^] 'be found in 
Him ; ' in Him, as the sphere and ele- 
ment of my spiritual being ; comp. notes 
on Eph. ii. 6, Gal. ii. 17. Evpe&oj must 
not be regarded as a mere perip!u-asis for 
the A'crb subst., ' existam sive sim,' Gro- 
tius (see contra Winer, Gr. § 65. 8, p. 
542), nor as referring solely to the judg- 
ment of God (Bcza), nor yet as antithet- 
ical to being lost (Bp. Hall), but simply 
and plainly to the 'judicium universale ' 
(Zanch.), 'the being and being actually 
found to be eV alrw,' botli in the sight of 
God and his fellow men ; see notes on 
Gal. ii. 17. fi^ exw] 

Dependent on the preceding 'Iva, and as- 
sociated witii the preceding eupe^w as a 
predication of manner. Tischend. and 
L'ichm. both remove the comma after eV 
avTM, thus leaving it doul)tful whether 
juv) ix^" ™^y no'' form a portion of an 
ohjt'ctive sentence (Donalds. Gr. § 584 
sq.), ' be found in Him not to have, etc.' 
— a ccmstruction that is grammatically 
defensible (comp. Kruger, Sf>rac/d. 56. 
7. 2), but certainly not exegetically sat- 
isfactory : 4v axnoi would then be wholly 
obscured ; comp. Meyer in loc. 
6(U^i' 8«/(. K. T. A.] ' my righteousness 
that is of the law ; ' i. e. such righteous- 
ness as I strove to work out by attempt- 
ing to obey the behests of the law, lijv 
tSiav BiKatoavvr^v, Rom. x. 3. The mean- 
ing of SiKaioff. is here slightly different 
in its two connections. With f/x^iv it 
implies an assumed attribute of the apos- 
tle, with eK vSjxov it implies a righteous* 

CllAI-. III. 10. 

riii LI riM ANs 


hLKaioavvi}v iirl TJj Trier ei^ ^^' tov yvcJi'at avruv ko-l tijv cvi/afjiip 

ness rcckoiiL'tl us suili, owin;; to u fullil- ujj. Gulf, ^flJtluJ. p, 99-135, but tliu work 
mcnt of ilio claims of the law. Un the is of verj' doubtful date. The 
force of ^(c in thchC coiubinations (' im- conntctlun is not perfectly clear ; ivlrp 
mcdiiite origin,' etc.), cee notes on G'ltl. nirrfi has been joined, (a) with the sue* 
ii. 16. T )) f 5ia -Kiar. Xp] cocdI:'.jr toD 7ftti»'cu, .^t'l. {Pol., bat not 
"■that which is throwjh faith in Christ;' I'latt), C'hrAs., and, with a diflcifni np- 
ofwliiih faith in is the ' cau>u plication, Calv., Beng. ; {/-) wiili the 
medians,' and wliicli, as the followinj,' retnotcly preccdin;^ fx**'- ^^*^'>'- •' (' ) with 
words specify, comes immediately from the immediately preccdin;^ 8i«oo<rii7}»', 
God as its active source and orij;in ; Vu!;;., Copt., Goth. Of thc.-e (-/) i- not 
compare Waterl. on Jus/if. Vol vi. p. 4 tenable ; see below on verso 10 ; (/) U 
note, Usteri, J.ihh. ii. 1,1, p. 87. On imjjrob.ible and harsh, owinj; to the dis- 
tho meaning of iriar. X^. and the dog- tance of iirl rij ir. from fx*^" > (' ) "" *''C 
raatical inii)ort of Sta iriar., see notes on other hand is grammatically defensible, 
Gal. ii. IG (comp. notes on Col. ii. 12), and eminently simple and perspicuous, 
where both expressions are briefly dis- As we may Fay SiKaiovabcu /rl tjJ fimt, 
cussed ; and also the short but extremely so 5*k. <Vl rp Ttiar. without the art. is 
perspicuous remarks of Ilamm., Pruct. permissible, see Winer, Gr. § *."0. 2, p. 
CiUcch. I. 4, who well observes that our 123, and comp. notes on Ej>h. i. 15. 
' faith itself cannot be regarded, in the 10. tov yvwyat] 'that I nioij knom 
strict sense of the term, as a logical in- Uiin,' Auth. Ver. ; infinitive of design 
Btrumcnt of our justification, but as a dependcni on the preceding (vptibit), not 
condition and moral instrument without on ixi} cx"" (^Icy.), which Fcems to give 
whicli wesliallnot bejustified.'p. 7S (A.- an undue prominence to the participial 
C. Libr.) ; so also with equal pci-spicoity clause. The reference of rov yywyau 
Forbes, Iiwitruct. viii. 23. 22. On the ( = 'ii'ayyw) to ver. 8, as Winer, De W., 
true doctrine of justification see cspcc. al., seems to disturb the easy and natu- 
Ilooker, on Justif. ^ 6 sq., and for the ral sequence of tliought ; sec Wiesingcr 
ojiposing tenets of the Komanists the and Alf. in loc. On the infin. ' of de- 
clear statements of Miihlcr, Si/mliolilc, sign,' which falls under tlie general head 
§ 15, ]). 148 sq , § 22, p. 215, 2IG. of the gen. of suljtctife nlation (compare 
ivl TTJ irlffTfi] ' Lisetl on fitith ;' uoi Kriigcr, i^yjmc/i/. ^ 4", 22. 2), and is by 
' sub hac conditioJic ut habeas,' Fritz, no means without example in chissica! 
{Rom. Vol. 1. p. 4G), but 'super fide,' Greek (Ccrnhardy, Sjnt. i.\. 2. p. 3.')7, 
Copt., Beng., iriffTij being the founda- JIadvig, Sjnt. § 170 c), sec Wintr. G'r. 
tion on wliicli it firmly and solidly rests. ^ 44. 4, p. 291, where other examples 
On the force of twl with ilic dative, which, are noticed and discussed. Tho con- 
roughly speaking, denotes a more close, struction of toC yyiOiyau wiili ^tI ttj ritrr., 
while with tho gen. it expresses a Uss if (a) as equivalent to Si<rr( yyai-.-ai 5i» 
elo50 connection (Kriigcr, 5/)rac/i/. § G8. tjji wirrfois (Thcod , Chrys,), is op- 
41. 1), sec notes on ch. i. 3, and esp. on posed to the onlcr of words, and to nil 
Eph. ii. 20, — where, however, observe rulesof grammatical analysis, — if ('<) as 
that (in ed. 1) tho wonls 'former' and a definitive gen., ' so as to know llim ' 
' latter ' have become accidentally trans- (Calv., Beng.), is a construction of rl<r- 
poscd. Numerous examples of ^»1 with tu not found in the N. T ; see Mover 
both ca.<cs (appariMitly intcrebangcably) and Alf. The knowledge hero 
will bo found in [Eratosth.] CtUusterismi, mentioned, as Meyer rightly ob.-.crves, ia 



Chap. III. 10, 11. 

T?"}? apacrrucre(o<; avTov Kal rrjv KOivwvlav rcov Tra^Tjfiarcov avrov, 
<7VfMfMop(j)t^6fJ,evo<i rco ^avu-Tw avrov, ^^ et ttw? Karavrijo-oi et<? tijv 
e^avuGTaaLv rijv i>c vcKpwv. 

not merely speculative, but practical and 
experimental ; sec especially Beck, See- 
Icnl. I. 9, p. 22, comp. Andrewes, Serm. 
Vol. II. p. 204 (A.-C. Libr.). 
Ka\ Tyy Svu. ic. t. \.] ' and the power 
of His resurrect on ; ' fuller explanation 
of t!ie preceding ahrdv, under two differ- 
ent aspects, the Lord's resurrection, and 
the Lord's sufferings. The Swa.uts t",s 
avuffT. is clearly not ' potentia qua cxci- 
tatus fuit,' Vatabl. [auaar. being a gen. 
ohjecti), but, ' qua justos ad imniortalita- 
tem rcvocabit,' Just., — avaaT. being the 
gen. originis (Ilartung, Casus, p. 23) ; 
' a virtue or power flowing from Christ's 
resurrection, called by the apostle vis 
resurrect ioiiis' Andrewes, Serm. Vol. ii. 
p. 204 (A.-C. Libr.) ; compare Tlicoph. 
As the resurrection of Christ has at least 
four spiritual efficacies, viz. (a) as quick- 
ening our souls, Eph. ii. 5; (h) as con- 
firming the hope of our resurrection, 
Rom. viii. 11,1 Corinth, xv. 22 ; (r) as 
assuring us of our present justification, 
Eom. iv. 24, 25 ; [d) as securing our 
final justification, our triumph over 
death, and participation in His glory, 
2 Corinth, iv. 10 sq., Colos. iii. 4, — the 
context can alone determine the imme- 
diate reference. Here the general con- 
text seems to point to (c) or [d), the 
present verse and ver. 1 1 , perhaps more 
especially to the latter. On the fruits of 
Christ's resurrection, see Pearson, C/'ecc/, 
Art. V. Vol. I. p. 313, Usher, B'xJij of 
Div. ch. XV. ad fin., and on our justifi- 
cation by Christ's resurrection compared 
with that by Ilis death, the admirable 
remarks of Jackson, Creed, xv. IG. 8. 
T^r Koivwviav K. T. \.] ^ the fellow- 
ship of His sufferinijs ; ' furtiier exempli- 
fication of the experimental knowledge 
of Christ, regarded as ohjective and pres- 
ent, suggested by the preceding clause, 

of which the reference was rather subjec- 
tive and future. It is only in a partici- 
pation in Ilis sufferings that there can be 
one in Ilis resurrection and glory : «« 
Toluvu uri (.incTTivoixtv on (rv;.iPa(Ti\eva'o- 
liiv ovK ay ToaavTa Kal Ta-roiavTa eiracrxo' 
fiiv, Theoph. ; compare Kom. vili. 17, 2 
Tim. ii. 11. This partnership in Christ's 
sufferings is outward and actual (Chrys., 
al.), not inward and ethical (Zanch.) ; 
it is a sharing in the sufferings He suf- 
fered, a drinking from the cup He drank ; 
comp. 2 Cor. iv. 10, 1 Pet. iv. 1.'5, notes 
on 2 Timotlnj, ii. 11, and Reuss, Tlxul. 
Chre't. IV. 20, Vol. ii. p. 224. 
avfj.ixop(piC6iJ.. K. r. \] ' ieiu;/ con- 
Ajnried unto Ilis death,' i. e. ' l)y being, or 
while I am, conformed unto His death, 
even as I now am : ' pres. participle logi- 
cally dependent on the preceding yvuvai ; 
see notes on Eph. iii. 18, iv. 2. This 
conformation, then, is not ethical, ' ut 
huic mundo emortuus sim quemadmo- 
dum Christus mortuus est in cnice.' Van 
Ileng., but, as the connection and tenor 
of the passage require, artiiul, and as the 
pres. suggests, even now more especially 
going on : ' ut cognoscam communica- 
tionera passionum ejus, in quam venio, 
et quoe mihi contigit dum per passiones 
et mortis pericula quaj pro nomine ejus 
sustineo, conformis cfficior morti ejus,' 
Estius. The reading is slightly 

doubtful ; Rec. has auiJ.fxopcpoi'<tJ.efos with 
D'^EKL ; fd. ; Chrysost., Theod. : the 
rarer form in the text is adojjtcd liy 
Luchmarin and Tisch. with ACD'; 17. 
07 * * 71 ; Orig. (mss.), Bas., Maccd., 
to which the incorrect avv<poprei^6ij.evo$ 
of F and G may lend some slight weight. 
\\. fi vws\ ' if hj any means,' 'si 
qnomodo,' Vulg., Clarom. ; an expres- 
sion, not s« much of doul)t, as of humil- 
ity, indicating the object contemplated in 

ClIAP. III. \2. 

PlI I LI ri'I ANS. 


I have not yet obtsliied.but I'J (Juy UTL 

ua eigrrly pressing for- A. 

w«rd : In lliii imitate me. 

aufifiop<pi^. K. T. X. ; oh dappw yap, <{>v<f'^t 
othru ourws, iTaTTfiyocppSffi, 1 lR't)|)li. : 
8C0 also Ncander, P/iil. p. 43. In this 
formula, wlien thus associated witli verbs 
denotin;4 an action directed to a particu- 
lar end, tlie idea of an ultimjit is con- 
veyed ('nixuni fidei rauliiia',' Hcn^.), 
wiiicli may or may not l»o successful ; 
comp.irc Acts xxvii. 12, Uom. i. 10, xi. 
It, and SCO Fritz. Rom. xi. 14, Vol. ii. 
p. 47, llartun-, Pmlik. ti, 2. C, Vol. il. 
p. 206, and for a few examples of tlio 
similar u^e of si' in Latin, Madvijx, ImI. 
Gr. §451. d. KaT aif Ti'iffuf 

6 « s] 'mm/ alt-tin unto;' not indie, fut., 
as in IJoni. i. lo; and perhaps xi. 14 
(Mey.), hut aor. sul>j. (Alf ), as ihc fol- 
lowinjj^ words, tl xal KaraXdfiui, seem to 
su^;:cst. On tlie force of «i wiili the suhj. 
(' ubi nihil nisi conditio ij)sa indicctur'), 
now admitted and aeknowled;^ed in the 
best Attic Greek, sec Ilcrm. clc Paii. 6.v, 

II. 7, p. 97, Klotz, Deiar. Vol. n. p. 
499 sq., comp. Winer, Gr. § 41, 2. c, p. 
263. The expression Karavrav tU, ' pcr- 
Ycnirc ad,' is u>cd in tlic N. T. in con- 
nection with places (Acts xvi. 1, xviii. 
19, 24, al.), prisons (1 Cor. x. 11, xiv. 
36), and etliiail nintions (Acts xxvi. 7, 
Eph. iv. 13), in which last connection it 
is also found with ^jrJ several times in 
Polyl). ; c. (/. with ^ren., Hist. \iv. 1.9 
(but ^re.idin;,'). with accus., iii. 11. 4, 

III. 91. I, XIV. 1. 9. The n-f. of Van 
lleng. to time, ' si ]ierveniain ad tenipus 
liiijus cventi,' is thus w!;olly unneies- 
sary, if indeed not also lexically untena- 
ble, i ^aviff T aff If k. t. a] 
'the nsurred ion from the ihad : ' i. c, as 
llij context sujjjicsts, the Jir.'it re-urro«'- 
tion (Rev. XX. .')), when, at the Lords 
cominiT the dead in Ilini shall rise first 
(I Thessalon iv. 16), and the qui.'; ho 
cau::ht up to meet llini in the clouds 
(I Thcss. iv. 17) ; compare Luke xx. 
35. The first resurrection will include 

yOrj tXa^ov rf yoi) TeT€\ei(, 

only true believers, and will apparently 
precede the sccoml, that of non-l)elievtra 
and disbelievers, in point of time; stjo 
Ebjard, Do'/m'tfik, § 571, and the sin^- 
lar but learned work of Burnet, ^/i iJie 
DifMjrtecl, ch. i.\. p. 255 (Tran>l.). Any 
reference here to n merely ethical re>ur- 
rectiou (Cocccius) is wholly out of tlio 
question. The double (ompound 

i^avaffTouTts, an fi». At^d/x. in N. Te>t. 
(comp. Polyl). IJiit. III. 55. 4), does not 
appear to have any special force (tIji/ tr- 
So^ov, rj]i/ iv y(^i\aii (^apffiv, Tlic- 
ojihyl.), but seems only an instance of 
the tendency of later Givek to adopt 
such forms, witiiout any increase of 
nieaninjr, see Thiersch, </e Icr.s. Altx. ii. 
I, p. 83, and notes on EpU. i. 21 : comp. 
Pearson, Crud, Vol. ii. p 316 (edit, 
Burt.). Ti)v Ik viKpiit'\ Dis- 

tinct and slightly emi)hatic s]K.'cilication 
of the tfavacT. ; see notes oi> 1 Tim. iii. 
14, 2 Tim. i. 13, where, however, the first 
art., as being associated with a word of 
known meaning and common o^-cuiTcntx', 
is omitted afier the prep. The reading 
is slightly doubtful. Meyer defends Ilec. 
i^ay. Twv yfKpwv (KL; ul), on the 
ground that elsewhere St. Paul regularly 
omit.s iK ; these internal considerations 
however must yield to such disMiict pre- 
jionderancc of external authority as 
ABDE; 10 mss. ; Syr., and great ma- 
jority of Vv. ; Bas., C!:rysost , al. ; so 
L'lthm., Tisch. 

12. ovx S T «] * [I xaif) not thnl : ' not 
so much in confirmation of pre- 
cedes (Tiieoph.), as to avoid mi".«i/)/>rr- 
liaision and by his own ex.Tmple, to con- 
firm liis own exhortations, ch. ii. 3, com- 
pare iii. 15 ; ' nolite, iinjuit, in me falli ; 
plus me ipse novi quam vos. Si nescio 
quid niihi desit, nescio quid adsit,' Au- 
gust. On the use of o''x "'"' ^i''- o'^* ^P^ 
Sti, in limiting a pn.'i-eding a^senion or 
obviating a misapprehension, see liar 

88 PHILIPPIANS. Chap. III. 12. 

BuoKCi) Se et Kol Karakd^co^ i(f S koI Kare\i]/J.(f)^r)v vtto XpcaTov. 

tung, Partik. Vol. ii. p. 154, compare 
Herm. Viger, No. 253. 
^5ij e\a$ov] ' I have aiready attained.' 
The object of %\afiov is somewliat doubt- 
ful. The two most natural supplements 
are (o) Xpiar6v, Theod., implied from 
what precedes ; (h) Ppa^elov, Chrvs., re- 
flected from what follows. Of these {h) 
is to be preferred, as the Siukw immedi- 
ately following seems to show that tlie 
favorite metaphor from the stadium was 
already occupying the apostle's thoughts. 
The simple tXa^ov thus precedes, almost 
'generaliter dictum,' to be succeeded by 
the more specific KaiaXa^w. On the 
force of ^5rj and its distinction from vvv, 
see on 2 Tim. iv. 6. 

TfT e A.€ 1 couat] 'have been made per- 
fect : ' more exact explanation of the 
semi-metapl.orical thafiov, and result of 
it. The preceding aor. is thus not to be 
regarded as a perfect, but as represent- 
ing a single action in tiie past (' ita ut 
non detiniatur, quam late jiateat id quod 
actum est'), Fritz, de Aoristi Vi, p. 17), 
which the succeeding perf. explains and 
expands ; comp. Winer, Gr § 40. 5, p. 
257. That the rtXeiovtybai has here an 
ethical reference, ' to be spiritually per- 
fected,' not agonistical (Haram., Loes- 
ner, p. 353), 'to be crowned or receive 
the reward,' is almost self-evident : com- 
pare Reuss, Tkeol. Chr^t. iv. 16, Vol. 
II. p. 182. The verb is only used here 
by St. Paul (2 Cor. xii. 9 is more than 
doubtful), though common in Hebrews 
and elsewhere in the N. T. The ancient 
gloss •*; {/'Stj SfSiKaico/nttj inserted after e\- 
a^ov DiEFG ; Clarom. ; Iren , al., indi- 
rectly shows the meaning here ascribed 

to T€T6A€ia>|UOJ. Z llSlKU 8 «] 

'hut I am presswcj onward;' not 'sed 
persequor,' Beza, but ' [per]-sequor au- 
tcm,' Vulg., with a more just regard to 
the force of the particle : see Hand, 
TurselL Vol. i. p. 559. In sentences of 

this nature, where a negative has pre- 
ceded and the regular dA.Ao (sondeni) 
might have been expected (comp. Don- 
alds. Cratyl. § 201 ) it will be nearly al- 
ways found, that the connection of the 
two clauses is oppositive rather than ad- 
versative ; i. e. that in the one case (aWa) 
the preceding negation is brought into 
sharp prominence and contrasted with 
what follows, while in the other (Sc) the 
negation is almost left unnoticed, and 
the sentence continued with the (so to 
say) connective opposition that so regu- 
larly characterizes the latter particle ; 
see Klotz, Devar. Vol. ii. p. 360, and 
compare Hand, /. c. The 

metaphor is obviously taken from the 
stadium (Loesn. 06s. p. 355, etrayd>vi6s 
elfj.1, Theoph.), and the verb Sjcowai, as in 
the examples cited by Loesn., and as 
also in ver. 14, seems to be here used 
absolutely, Kara o-ttovS-ov 4\avveiv, Pha- 
vor. ; see examples in Kypke, Obs. Vol. 
II. p. 317, Buttmann, Lexil. § 40, p. 232 
(Transl.) : so, distinctly, Syr., Copt., 
' curro,' and apparently Chrv'S., who re- 
gards it as only differing qualitatively 
(fxtd' o(Tov tSuov) from rpexai ; see also 
Theophyl. inloc. IfSjc£/fco be regarded 
as transitive, the object of Sico/ctB will be 
the same as that of KaraXaliw, scil. the 
fipa^iiov imjiVted in the 6(J)' S : compare 
JEth. (Piatt). The former constniction, 
however, seems more simple and natu- 
ral. €(' Ka\ Kara\<ifia>\ 
• if I mif/ht aho lay hold on ; ' the Koi con- 
trasting jcaToAajSoj not with the more re- 
mote fXa^ov (Mey.), but with the imme- 
diately preceding ZkLku ( Alf ) : see Ec- 
clus. xi. 10, xxvii. 8, comp. Rom. ix. 

30, Lucian, Uermot. § 77, Cicero, Off. i. 

31. 110, in all which passages there 
seems a contrast more or less defined 
between the StciKeiu and KaTaXa/uLfidfeiv, 
the ' sequi ' and * assequi ; ' compare 
Fritz. Eom. Vol. ii. p. 355. On the 

C.iAi'. III. n, 14. I'lll Lll'l'IANS. 89 

^^ aB€\(f)oi, eyco tfiavrov ou Xo'/Z^o/zat KareiKrjt^evaf. • ^^ ev 2t', ra 

force of tl Koi SCO notes on cliajt. ii. 17. 
Whether KaraKa^u> (' assequar,' Rom. ix. 
30, 1 Ct>r. ix. L'4) is to he taken ahso- 
lutelv or transitively will depend on tlie 
mcuniii^ as>i;:ne(l to ^0' ^. 
i<p' ifi Ka\ Ka-T t K.\ ' that for xchich also 

I was laid hold on ; ' SO Svriac ^g-lfl-i 
'^ A V >. '-<■<< [id cujus causa], and him. 

^thiopio (Piatt), — the only two ver- 
pions tiiat make their view of this pas- 
sage peifcetly clear. 'E^. c? has here 
received several different intei-prctations. 
Taken jur se it may mean ; (o) quurr, 
like di-y vv ( Luke V. 3), at the lieu'in- 
nin;^ of a seiUeni-e ; comp. Diodor. Sic. 
XIX. 9, i<p' cZ rof fifv /ifi'C'"' Ko^oCcj ToD- 
pov K. T. \. ; (j3) eo quod, projitcrea quod, 
Bcil. e'lrl Toi/Tep, Srt = Siori (apparently- 
Rora. V. 12, 2 Corinth, v. 4), expressed 
more commonly in the plural 4<pi' oU in 
clas^■ical Greek ; see Thom M. p. 400, 
ed. Bern., and Fritz. liom. Vol. 1. p. 299 ; 
(7) snl> qua cviiditione, ciijiis causa, almost 
' to which very end,' Hammond (see 
I Thess. iv. 17, Gal. v. 1.1, and notes, 
also examples in Lobeck, Phryu. p. 47.')), 
(JS hcin;.; here re;;arded as the relative to 
a suppressed antecedent toCto, the ohj. 
accus. of KaToXi^oi : comp. Luke v. 25. 
Of these (/3) and (7) are the only two 
which here come into consideration. The 
former is adopted by the Greek commen- 
tators, Benjr., Meyer, al.. and deserves 
consideration, hut introduces a reason 
where a reason seems hardly appropri- 
ate. The latter is adopted by Svriac, 
Copt., De W.. Neand., and appan-ntiy 
the hulk of modern expositors, and seems 
most in harmony with the context : the 
apostle wa-i laid hoKl on by Clirist (at 
his conversion, Ilorsley, Serin. xvii.,not 
necessarily as a fu!.ritive in a nice. Chrys., 
Ilamm.) with n?f. to that, — to enable him 
to obtain that, which he was now striv- 

in;i^ to lay hold of. It may be 

observed lastly that koI does not refer to 
a supj)resscd l-yii, nor to Ka-rtK. (Alf. ), 
but to the preccdiii',^ ndative, which it 
specifies, and tacitly eontrasLs witli other 
ends v.iiich ini;;ht be conceivable ; ' for 
which, too, for which vcrj' salvation, I 
was apprehended,' etc. ; comj). 1 Cor. 
xiii. 12, Ko^ws deal iwfyvwff^v, and see 
Klotz, Lkiar. Vol, 11. p. G;JG. 

13. a8(A<^o/] Earnest and emphatic 
repetition of the preceding statements, 
under somewhat hortatory aspects, neg- 
ative and positive : in the lii-st portion 
of the verse the ajiosile disavows all self- 
esteem and self-conlidence, — not perliaps 
witliout refercni-e to some of his converts 
(rocTa irphs roi/s fityaXoJipovovirrai ^irl 
Tory ^5ij KaTopd(i>d(7(Ti Kfytt, Theod.); 
in tlie second portion and verse 14 he 
declares the persistence and energy of 
his onward endeavor ; iv6s flfii fuivov, 
rov ro1% ifiirpoadfy iirficrflvfffbai, Clir^'S. 
ilj.avrhv oil \oyl^. k. r. K.] * do not 
tstom MYSELF to hare apprehriidcd : ' 
the juxtaposition of ^7d> and the simjc- 
ially added iixaxrrhn (see Winer, Gram. 
ij 44. 3, p. 2S7) not only mark the self- 
ish clement wliich the apostle disavows 
(Mey.), but declare his own delil>erate 
judgment on his own case ; comp. Bong. 
The verb \oy{(outu is rather a favorite 
word with St. Paul, being used (exclud- 
ing quotations) twenty-nine times in his 
Epp., and twiib only (Mark xi. 31 is 
very doubtful) in the rest of the X. T. 

14. 'if 5«J 'but one thiiiq I do,' scil. 
votu, the general verb in the first clause 
being inferred from the special verb thai 
follows; see Winer, Or. § GG. 1. b, p. 
546. The ellipsis is variously supplied 

( N^|.A [novi] Svriac; ippoini^w or ^l.^- 

pifjLvo), CEcunif n. 2 ; i<rri, Be/.a ; 5ui'«co», 
Flatt), ev.ndcd (Gothic), passed over 
(-Ethiopic), or left nakedly as it stands 



Chap. III. 14 

Kara ctkottov Scvokco eirl ro /Bpa/Selov t?}<? civco kX7]<j€0)<; tov Geov 

14. firi] So Pec, Griesb., with DEFGIvL; majority of mss.; Chiys., Tliecd. 
On the other iiand, Lachm. and Tisch. read els with AB ; 17. 73. 80 ; Clem., Ath., 
al. (Merj., Alf.), apparently on the ground of iirl being an interpretation of the f/j 
of ' destination.' As it can scarcely be said that eTrt, especially with the meaning 
anciently assigned to Ppa0. (e. g. Theod.), is a much easier expression than eh, it 
does not here seem safe to reject the reading of so many uncial MSS. 

(Vulg., Copt.). The most simple and 
natural supplement is that adopted 
above, as Theoph., CEcum., and most 
modern expositors ; see Jelf, Gr. ^ 895. 
c. Meyer strongly urges the participial 
form iroia>v, but this surely mars the em- 
phasis, and obscures the prominent Sico/cco, 
to wliich the ellipsis seems intended to 
diiect attention. rh. jxev 

oTTicTcii eiri\.] 'furgelting the tilings 
behind;' not the renounced Judaical 
prerogatives, ver. 5 sq. (Vorst.), nor the 
deeds done under their influence, but, 
as the metaplior almost unmistakably 
suggests, tlie portions of his Christian 
course already traversed, ' the things at- 
tained and left behind,' Fell ; eu voiw, 
ephs '^iyvojxai jxSuov, ottus atl irpoK6irTotjj.i' 
eTnAav^afo/xai rwv KaTopbocixaTwv koi a.(pi- 
7jm avTO. o/rlaw, Koi oiiSe fxeni/rifxai oKcos 
auTwu, Tlicoph. ; compare Clirys. The 
special reference of Theod. to o* irepi rod 
K-ripvynaros ir-jyoi is unsatisfactory, as ob- 
scuring the general and practical teach- 
ing whicli this vital passage conveys ; 
KoX ^]ixe7s yU7j offov Tjuvaafxiv t7]s apeT?]s 
avaXoyt^ti/xf^a, aW' offov r.iMV Keinei, 
Chrys. In the verb i-mAav^. 

(middle, — of the inward act, Scheucrl. 
Sijnt. p. 29.5 ; act. non occ.) the preposi- 
tion seems to mark the application of tlie 
action to, and perhaps also its extending 
over (accus.) the object, a little more 
forcibly than the simple verb (Ki)Sifi ira- 
paSovvai, Chrys.) ; comp. Rost. u. Palm, 
Lex. s. v. eirl, C. cc, dd It is occasion- 
ally, as here, found with tlie accus. ; the 
simple form always with gen. ; compare 

Jelf, Gr. § 512, Thorn. M. p. 348 (ed. 
Bern.). to7s Se tpurpocr- 

bev 67reKT.] 'but stretching out after 
the things that are in front : ' more dis- 
tinct emergence of tlie image of the 
racer. The to inirpoabev are tiie 5;ouAo« 
(to use the language of Ciirys.) which 
are yet to be passed over in the Chri.s- 
tian course, and are tlie successive ol)- 
jects (dat. oi direction, see Ilartung, Ca- 
sus, p. 83) toward wiiich the action of 
the iireKreiv. is directed : good works 
done in faith are the successive strides ; 
Andrewes, Serm. Vol. iii. p. 95 (A.-C. 
Libr.). In the double compound tVe/ci . 
the s'ttI marks the direction, e/c the pos- 
ture, in which the racer stretclies out his 
body toward the objects before him ; 5 
yap iireKT€iv6fievos oliros iffrip 6 tovs iri- 
5as Ka'iroi Tpexoiras toJ \onr^ adijxaTi 
irpoKa^elv ffirovSci^wi', thrys. A very 
similar use of iireKTiivearSiai is cited in 
Steph. Thesaur. s. v., Strabo, xvu. p. 
800. Kara (TKOirhv 

S I w K oo] 'I press forward toward the 
mark.' The preposition Kara here marks 
the direction of tlie SiuKeiv (see Acts 
viii. 2G, xvi. 7, and with more geo- 
graphical reference, ii. 10, xxvii. 12), — 
a direction which, according to the pri- 
mary meaning of the jirep. (Karct = ks-v 
-to) is rc))rcscnted ' beginning near us 
and proceeding to a point not necessari- 
ly distant,' Donalds. Cralijl. § 183. On 
the absolute use of StwKU), see on ver. 12. 
fipap. 7 1) s Si'd) K\r]a(ws] 'prize 
of the heaven! I) calling ; ' tiie gen. not be- 
ing of apposition (De W.), which would 

CuAi'. III. 15. r 11 1 1. 1 1' 1' I A N s . 91 

tu XpLaroi 'Iijcrov. ^^'Oaoi ovu rtXeioi, tovto (})pov(i)fj.ev kui €i ti 

iiivulve the uiitenaI)lo assumption tliat 1"). Oaoi aZv] 'An inany then as;' 
KAj'/ff'J = ' •'^»1'^''""'^ bcatituJo,' Est., com- the ovif with its usiml rolicc-livc ami ret- 
paio Do W., — hut a specius of tlic f^c-u. rospcctivc forte gaiheriii;,' into a d> fiiiao 
])oss(ssiciis, purviii;; to mark t!ie Ppa0. as cxliortation the statcmints mad;.- in tlio 
that whiili t!ic dfu KAfyau has in cxjjec- thivo preccilin^' verses : loniparc Kk>tz, 
tatiou as its final crown. The ^pa^t'uv Dciiir. Vol. ii. p. 717. "Offot is clearly 
is here, as in 1 Oorintli. ix. '24, not ' l!io not synonymous whh »/m*«i o1, Ileiur., 
goal,' hat ' the pri/c ' (rh a.^\ov iKoKtatv, hut is desij,Mjed!y upcd us leaving to each 
Thcod.), and is the olject vviiich the 5»a;- one's conscience whetlicr he were rcKtios 
Kfif is designed to attain (compare Luke or no. t<'a««oi] '.nrfeKt;' 
XV. 14, xxii. .')2, Acts viii. 3G, and seo not aIi.>olutely, e. <j. rfT(Knutity>.i, (vcr. 
critical note), — ' the future eternal glory 12). hut relatively; — yet not uecessa- 
to wLicli God calls us hy the gospel of rily as opposed to vi'jirio«, ' in socict:ito 
Christ,' Bull, S.rm. xiv. p. 2G8 (Oxf. CInistiani cum adultis comparandi,' 
1844). The derivation is uncertain; Va:» Ilcng. (compare 1 Cor ii. C, xiv. 
pfrluijis ppa — irpo with reference to tlic t^'J. wl:crc, however, tlic reference t^ecms 
judge sitting fonvard to award the prize. i:io:c tj knowledge), hut simjjly as those 
Bcnfcy, IViirztllcx. Vol. ii. p. IO(i. who had mudo some advance toward tlio 
Tiic KK?,ffis, here dtlincd as proieedi;ig tc'aos cf Christian life ; compare AVie- 
fronj (iod (gen. or/y//)/.;), is still further singer /-/ loc., where this view is elaho- 
specilied as i'; &iw i:\'ffts, the /laivcn'ij ratcly and successfully maintained, 
calling (compare Col. iii. 2, Gal iv. CO) ; toDto (ppoywixfif] 'let us ic of l/u's 
not with any special reference to the pe- mind,' ' let us entertain tliesc views with 
culiar appointment of St. Paul (Meyer, regard to religious practice (Ilorsley), 
Alf ), hut, as the latitude of the passage which I follow, and which I am here in- 
seenis to require, with (jcnerul reference culcating.' Yet what views ? Surely 
to its ends and ohjects ; it was a K\yais nut nurilj rh 5ti 5«rT<i;' iviabtv iiriXay- 
irrovpdvios (Ileh. iii. 1). Goil was its au- diyfff^ai, Chr}s. ; so that rtXnirTji in 
thor (1 Thess. ii. 12). heaven the ohject its fullest sense is to consist in t5 ^Jj ya- 
to which it conductcil, and in reference fiiCiiv iairrby riKuov tlvai (t-otnparc Tlie- 
to which it was vouchsafed ; compare ophyl.), hut with a more inclu.-ivo refer- 
ver 20. iv Xp. 'I »j tr. may ho con- ence to the wliolo great suljct which 
nccted ((() with Sjcixo), as Chrys., ajjpy. commenced ver. 7, was continued to ver. 
Thcoph., OEcum., and very emphatical- 12, and was sptfiutli/ illustrated in vor. 
ly Miver; or (//) with K\~}ats (Copt., 12-14. Tiiat the roino does refer to 
-Etli.), — (ca\«?;' ^I'Xp., and therefore kA.. what immediately precedes, to i he If Si 
<»'Xp. without t!ie art. lieing a permissil)lo of ver. 1.3, seems require-d by the rules 
formula ; sec Winer, Gram. § 20. 2, j). of ]>erspicuity, — but, that it refers to it 
12'}, and notes on Eph. i. 15. The latter only in so as it forms a s^ort of exam- 
seems most simple, and most coincident pie and special s-tatemcnt of the modus 
vhh St. I'aul's use of the formula. O'joidi, in refcre'iice to ver. 8 sij., seems 
On the dogmatical significance of this required by the evident inierdependenco 
verse, as indicating an effort on our jtarts of the whole passage. »c a 1 
through the assistance of grace, compare <jf ti ic. t. A.] ' and if in amj rrspctt ye 
Ecuss, Th6ol. Chr€l. iv. 22. Vol. ii. p. aird'J'crcnllymindid;' ' if youcntcrt.ain, 
2>>5. as is certainly supjwsable {d with indie, 



Chap. III. 15, 16 

ere/DW? (j)popecT€, koI tovto 6 ©eo? vfuv a'TroKcCkw^eL. ^^ ifk-qv eh 
icji^daafiev tm avrw crTOi'xelv. 

see Winer, Gr. § 41. 2, notes on Gal. i. 
9), upon any point, — not of doctrine or 
extei-nal worship (Horsley), but of moral 
practice {oj Trepl ^oyixdrwv toCto upnTai 
aWa TTffil B'iov Tf\ei6TT]Tos, Clirys.), any 
different, and so, almost necessarily, less 
correct sentiments, even this too, — this 
about which ye are thus differently 
minded, will God reveal to you in its 
true relations.' There is thus no need 
with Horsley, in his able sermon on this 
passage, to give <ppoi/e7Te two different 
references, (a) to religious disposition, 
(/') to opinion ; nor is it enough to regard 
erepcus as merc'y in opposition to ' same- 
ness and uniformity,' when the context 
seems so clearly to imply an impi-oper 
and injurious diversity ; see examples of 
this sense of erepos in notes on Gal. i. G. 
We may observe (with Wiesinger) that 
the apostle does not say erepou hut ere- 
pus ; they did not differ in fundamentals, 
but in the aspects and relations in which 
they regarded them and carried them 
into practice. Kal tovto] 

' even this,' ' tJiis aJso, as well as the otlicr 
things which God has been pleased to 
reveal ; ' the ascensive koI contrasting 
the present tovto, — the point on which 
they need revelation, not with the pre- 
ceding TOVTO (Flatt), but with the other 
points (to which el ti is the exception) 
concerning which they have already re- 
ceived it, and are already in ac: ord wit'.i 
the apostle : compare Ilartung, Partik. 
s. V. Kal, 2. 8, Vol. I. p. 1.35. The rodro 
is somewhat differently exjdained,. 'jus- 
titiam esse ex fide,' Yatabl., ' vos esse 
deceptos,* Grot., ' quod nos pcrfecti sen- 
timus,' Bcng. ; alii alia. The only nat- 
ural explanation seems that adopted 
above, viz., the thing concerning wliich 
eTf pus (ppovelre (Horsley), ?'. e. the true 
relations of the preceding tI, ' ti in sei- 
ner wahrheit,' De Wette; 6 Qehs vfjuv 

£is ayvoovtriv inroSel^fi t5 Seov, Theoph. 
a.TTOKaKv^'ei] ^ iviU reveal,' by means 
of the Vlvfvfia aocpias koI a,iroKa\ii\f/fa>s, 
Ephes. i. 17 ; ovk elTrei'. ii/d^et, aW' airoK- 
a\vypei 'iva 8J|p fiuWov ayvoias fluai rb 
■Kpuyixa, Chrys. The future is not merely 
expressive of loish, but of an assured and 
predictive hope ; ' loquitur pro spe quam 
ex priore ipsorum fide conccpeiat ; sic 
et Gal. V. 10,' Grot. : comp. Winer, Gr. 
§ 40. 6, p. 251. 

16. v\7]v] ' Kotwithstandinr/,' 'be 
that as it may,' Horsley ; ' in spite of 
there being several jjoints in which you 
will probably need^is.' The 
practically adversative force of irA^v lim- 
its the preceding expression of predic- 
tive hope, while its intrinsically compar- 
ative force serves also to contrast the aor, 
i^b. with the fut. ottok. ; see notes on 
ch. i. 18, and Klotz, Devar. Vol. ii. p. 
724. els t i(^bda-afj.ev] 

' whereto we have attnlnecl,' Matth. xii. 
28, Rom. ix. 31. compare Luke xi. 20. 
Tlic primary and classical meaning of 
this verb (/;/-cevcnire) appears to have 
been almost entirely lost sight of in Al- 
exandrian Greek, and to have merged 
in the general meaning ' venire,' and 
with (Is, ' pervertire ; ' compare Dan. iv. 
19, rj ixeyaKwavvr) aou lixeyaXvviiri Ka« 
ecp^ao'ev els rhv o'.'pavoy. sec Fritz. Rom. 
Vol. II. p. 357. It is doubtful 

whether ecp^dcr. denotes advance in moral 
conduct (Chrys., Thcophyl., Mcy.j, ad- 
vance in knowledge (De W., Wie-ing.), 
or in both (Alf.); the first seems most 
in accordance with tlie context and with 
a-rotxe'iv, tlie last, however, not improba- 
ble. Lastly, that h does not indicate a 
point common to all, is almost self-evi- 
dent : it is a point, in a common line, va- 
rying in its position according to indi- 
vidual progress. This common line 
(produced) the apobtlc, in the following 

Cnvr. HI. 17. 19. T II I L I T I' I A N S. 93 
imi .t,. iiir .ud my follow- 17 ^yu,n,iui}Tai LLou ytvea^e, <ioe\d>ui, Ka\ 

er», for iiiuii,t , alia 1 mind r r r 1 r 1 1 r ' 

tmrlhly Our louii- aKOTTiXTe TOV'i oi/TO}<i TTeplTTaTOVVTa's KO^^Ms ^VCTf 

tiy U iraviii, wliiiice we ^ ^ _ ^ ^ _ 

look lor oiir Lord .iid our TVTTOV i]^<i. TToXXot '^Up TTeplTTaTOVCni'^ OLS 

final clunge. I 

words, {-omniaiids all to pursue, and not continuation of the foregoin;; exliui tation 
to divcr^ from : ooinparo the illu>tra- with rcforenrc to the a;>ostle"ii own ex- 
tivo di:i','ram of Meyer in luc. amjjle. The (tuv in avfifi m apparf ntly 
t4» avrti irTo«x*«^] ' tcatk oiitcard neiilier oiiosc on the one iiand, as in 
coincidentli/ tcit/i the same,' or 'according (TvyroKTrat, Ephes. ii. 19, nor yet on the 
tc the same ; ' dat. norince, compare Gal. other does it imply so much as ' omnes 
vi. IG, rip K<w6vt roxnif arrnxflv, where uno consensu, ct un& mcntc,' Calv., Al- 
sec note and reforontes. Tlie infinitive ford, — a tinge of ethical meaning not 
is here imiH-rativul, and in accordance suggested or required l>y the context It 
with that usage, conveys a precise and appears simply to maik the common s»- 
emphatic command, or ratiier address ture of the action in wlijrh tliey u// were 
( Kriigcr, .9, 'mc/</. § 55. 1. 5), in t!ic sec- to sliare ; not merely 'he imitators' (1 
end 1 erson singular or plural ; see Jc'.f, Cor. iv. IC), hut ' beacompaiiy of i^uch ; ' 
Gr. G71. a, IVitz. Rom. Vol. iii. p. SO. Koiiairfp *V x"?'? ""* <rTpoT0Tt5» rhv x"' 
Hence the hortative translation in the prrj-yhv koX cTpaT-r^hv hu fiifiua^at robs 
first person, as in Tliuopli., (ttoix'^'M"' Kotirois, Chrys. xal 
(comp. Cliry-i.), and in all the Vv. ex- v KOTflrt «. t. A.] 'and mark them 
cept jTaIx. (Piatt), seems grammatically wln'cJi are thus walkin'j ; ' they were all to 
douhtful ; .<o rightly Mey., All"., hut not imitate the absent apostle and to ohserve 
De Vr. This i.^ perhaps the only ccnain studlou-ly those with them who walked 
instance ofajiurc imiieiiitival infinitive after his example. WIio i!ie-e were can- 
in the N. T. ; otiicr instances, v. q. Uom. not ho determined : tlie reference may 1)C 
xii. l'», p iss more into declarations or to Timotliy, Epajihras, and otiier mis- 
duty and of w!iat ouyitt to be done, and sionaries of the apostle, hut \s perhaps 
may conseriuently he joined with all more naturally to all tho-e. wlietlier holy 
tliifc persons ; see Jelf, Gram. § 071. b, men among t!ie riiilip;iian.=, or tcaehei^ 
Winer, (Jr. § 4.3. 5, p. 2S.3. The sent to them, wlio followed t!ic example 
addition in lice, Kay6vi, rh avrh ^povtlv, of Si. Paul; 3i5cur«(« iy toWoJ/i ?x** 
whic'.i appears, with variations bn;Ii of rolZt rol <tkovoZ Koivatviixis, ThcoH. 
words and order, in the majority of un- na^ws cx«t« k. t. A.] ' a-< y have 
cial MSS (sec Tlsch.), is rejected by uajor an ensam/ile,' xa-iui staiuling in 
AB ; 17.67"*; Copt., Sah.,..luh. (Pol., correlation to the prcci-dini; o!>ra>s, and 
but not Piatt), Theodot.-Ancyr. ; IM.. r]^ias referring to the apo-tio : so Vulg., 
Aug., al , and by Ltwhm., Tiseh., and Clarom.. and all Vv.. Ch ys. and the 
mo-it recent editors. It has been do- Greek expositors, and. it tnay l>c added, 
fended by llimk. Matth., and Wordsw., nearly all moilcni commentators. Meyer 
but, owing to t!ie suspicious variations and Wiesing. give ko^us an argumenta- 
in wonls and order, has even.- appear- tive force, ' inasmuch as ' (see notes on 
anceof an explanatory gloss ; comp. ch. Eph. i. 4), but in so doing seem to im- 
ii. 2, Gal. vi. If.. pair the force, and obscure the perspi- 
17. (ru^MifiTjTol »c. T. A.] ' lie iini- cuity of the ]>assagc : see Alf. in /'jc., who 
tators torj(th<r, scil. with all who imitate has satisfactorily refuted this intcrprcta 
me;' ' coimit-itotrs,' Clarom., Copt.: tion. The use of the v.aat docf 



Chap. III. 18, 19. 

7roWdKL<; eXeyov v/juv, vvv he Koi Kkalwv Xeyco, tov<; i^pov'i rov 
aravpou rov XpLcrrov, ^^ &v to reXo? uTrooXeia, wv 6 ©eo? rj KoiXia 

not imply a reference to St. Paul and 
Tovs ovTws irepiw., but seems naturally to 
point either to the apostle and iiis fellow- 
workers (Van Heng., Alf.), or perhaps, 
more probably, is tlie apostle's designa- 
tion of himself viewed less in his per- 
sonal than his official relations : ' be all, 
in matters of practical religion, imitators 
of me, Paul, and observe those, etc., who 
have me their apostle as their ensample ; ' 
compare 2 Thess. iii. 7, 9. The singu- 
lar Tvirof yields no support to either in- 
teipretation ; see Bernhardy, S/jnt. ii. 5, 
p. 61. 

IS. TToWol ydp] Reason for the 
foregoing exhortation arising from the 
sad nature of the case. Who the ttoAAoI 
were cannot be exactly determined. It 
seems, however, clear that they are not 
the same as those mentioned in ver. 2 
sq. The latter were false teachers, and 
of Judaical tenets ; these, on the con- 
trary, were not teachers at all, and were 
of an Epicurean bias; not, however, Pa- 
gans (Kill.), but nominal Cliristians, 
baptized sinners (Manning), who dis- 
graced their profession by their sensual- 
ity; XptaTiaviff/Ahi/ fiev viroKpiviixevoi iv 
rpv(pfj Se Koi aviffii ^wuTfs, Theop!i., 
after Chrys. irepitrarov- 

ffw] ' ere waUcinfj' ' are pursuing their 
course.' There is no need to supply 

any qualifying adverb (Aii*).AJ^.^| 

[aliter] Syr.), or to assume any pause 
and ch .ngc of structure (Rill., Dc W.). 
Though commonly associated by St. Paul 
with qualifying ailverbs or adv. clauses, 
whetlicr/;i /jonam (Rom. xiii. 13, Eph. iv. 
1), or in malam partem (2 Cor. iv. 2, 2 
Thess iii. 6), the verb itself is of neutral 
meaning (comp. 1 Thess. iv. I), and in 
its metaphorical use seems only to de- 
signate a man's course of life in its prac- 
tical axpects and manifestations ; it being 

left to the context to deddc whether 
thev are bad or good. 
TT oWdK I s f Key ov] ' qfttimrs vsed to 
mention to you ; ' most probably by v,OY(i 
of mouth ; perhaps also in the messages 
transmitted to them by his emissaries ; 
not by any means necessarily in another 
Epistle (Flatt). The iroWdKis (' many 
times') follows the iroWol with a slight 
rhetorical force not without example in 
St. Paul's Epistles ; see Winer, Gr. § 68. 
1, p. 560, and compare the large quan- 
tity of examples collected by Lobeck, 
Paralipom. p. 56, 57. 
Ka\ H\aia>v\ 'even weeping,' because 
the evil has so increased ; ivrws SuKpuwi/ 
a^ioi oi Tp'jpuivrfs, rh fj.hf iripifi6\aiov, 
TovTetTTi, tJ» awua \nraivovTes, ttjS 8e 
fjLfWovcrrjs ehbvvas hi56vai [i^uxf/s ?] ov- 
Se'va iroiovvTai Koyov, Chrys. 
TOVS e xb pov s rov ar av p ov\ ' the 
{special) enemies of the cross : ' apjiosition 
to the preceding relative ; comjiare Wi- 
ner, Gr. ^ 59. 7, p. 469. The article de- 
fines the class sharply and distinctly, 
and specifics them as enemies kut t^oxi". 
They are so specified, not on account of 
their doctrinal errors ( SiSatr/cocras Srt 
5ix<t T^s vouiKris iroAiTfios u^vvarov tT,s 
araiTTiplas rvxe'tv, Thcod.), but on account 
of their sensuality and their practical de- 
nial of the great Cliristian principle, oi 
Se rod XpiffTov t^j/ ffdpKa ecravpuffav ahv 
ro7s ira^rifiacrtv koI toTs eTri&yjuiair, (lal, 
V. 24. So Chrys., Thcopli., Qicumen., 
and, with a more general rcf., Athan. (?) 
de Virgin. § 14. On the practical ap- 
plication of the verse, ' the Cross the 
measure of sin,' see Manning, Serm. xi. 
Vol. III. p. 201 sq., and compare Bp. 
Hall, Serm. xii. Vol. v. p 172 sq. (Oxf. 

19 £ I* T^ TeXos airc^Aeia] 'whose 
end is perdition ; ' more specific descrip- 
tion of their characteristics, and the cer- 

CnAT III. 19, 20. rillLIPriANS. 95 

Kal I'l Bo^a €u rfi alcr-yyvr) avrcov, oi ra eTrr/eia <^povovmc<;. ^ r'jfuop 

tain niid foatful i.-sucs tliat nwait tliem. 
TfXos lias tlic article a.s inaikin;; tlic defi- 
nite and almc^t ncc-cssary cud of sur'h a 
course (conipai^ 2 Cor. xi. Ij), while 
awuKfia marks that end as no merelr 
tcmpoial one, but, as its usage in St. 
Taul's r.pp. (ih. i. 28, Kom. ix. 22, 2 
Thess ii. 3, 1 Tim. vi. 9) seems always 
to indicate. — ns eternal ; compare Fritz. 
Ho.naus, Vol. ii. p. 338, and contrast 
Kom. vi. 22. uf 6 ef6s] 

' ulioxe God is their Ulli/ : ' coinp. Rom. 
xvi. IS, Ty Kvp'itj} ijfi.uiy XpiffTifi ob Sov- 
Kti'Ouctv iXkk Ttj iaxrruv KOi\la ( I I'scli.). 
That this peculiarly characterizes these 
sensualists as Jews (>ee Theod.), and 
csi>cc. riiari.-'Ces (Schoettg. Ilor. Utbr. 
Vol. I. p. 801), does not seem tenable; 
sec on ver. 18. Several commenta- 
tors, B. Crus., A!f. (comp. Vulg., The- 
oph.), i-e;jard 6 Qthi as the predicate; 
the followinjj clause seems to suji';^st the 
contrary. koI i] 5o{a 

«. T. X.] 'and {whose) (/lory is in their 
shame,' scil. 'exists in the sphere of it,' 
' versatur in,' not ' becomes their shame,' 
Luther ; clause dei)endent on the pre- 
«dini; u!t>. The SS^a is hen?, as Meyer 
.iglitly suiij^sts, siil>jn:tii'e, wliat they 
deemed so ; at(rxvyv< on the contrary, is 
objective, what every moral consideration 
jnarked to be so. The reference of oXa- 
XiJvij to cinumcision (' quorum gloria in 
pudendis,' Aug, P.seudo.-Ambr., An/ 
selm), jirobably suirgested liy the confu- 
sion of tliosc here mentioned with those 
noticed in verse 2, is alluded to. but 
rightly not adopted by Chiys. and The- 
oph. 1 Ti iiriy. ippo- 

vovvt(i\ ' irho tiiind lurthlj things:' 
relapse into tbe nominative to give the 
clause force and emphasis ; see Bern- 
hardy, Sjnt. III. 3, p. 6S. This can 
scarcely be called so much a participial 
anacoluthon (sec examples in Winer, 
Gr. § 63. 2, p. 505), as an enipha io re- 

turn to f!ie primary construction, voxkoi 
yap rtptir. — ol ra inlyna ppovovyrts. The 
word ippoi/ilv, as Ilorslcy lias remarked 
(on ver. 15), has considciaLlc amplitude 
of meaning : combined with ri i-wlytui 
(contrast ver. 20) it here seems to denote 
the concentration of all l!iou;;ht, feeling, 
and interest in earth and earihline.-s, — rh 
iyravHa Toyra KtKrTtff^ai, C.irys., who 
gives special exx. ; comp. Alf. in loc. 

20. i]fi€)v yap rh troA.] '/or OCR 
countrif or commonwealth is in hcaitn ; ' 
confirmation (' enim,' Clarom., not 'au- 
tein,' Vulg.) of the foregoing by means 
of the contrasted conduct of St. Paul ami 
his followers (ver. 17), ^^v being em- 
phatic, and iroX. in ovp. in antithesis to 
TO itriy <ppov(7v. The word xoXlrtviia, 
an air. Keyofi. in the N. T., has received 
several dilFerent explanations. Threo 
de>erve consideration; (r) conversation; 

' eonversatio,' Vulg., 1 ^^ ~ '^ [opus] 

.•^jT., ' vita civilis,' Copt., and as far as 
we can i/i/Jr, Theodorct, OEcumenius, 
— the meaning being, ' nostra quam hie 
secjuamur vivendi ratio in cojlis est,' 
Van Ileng., De Wctte ; (5) citizenship, 
' municipatus,' Jerome (comp. Tertull. 
de Cor. Mill. ^ 13), 'jus civitatis nostra;,' 
Zanch , Luther (earliered ), — the mean- 
ing being, ' wc arc fi-cedmen of a heav- 
enly city,' Whichi-ote, Scrm. xviii. Vc»l. 

11. p. 375, and more recently Manning, 
S<nn. X. Vol. III. p. 183; {y) ronutry, y 
state, to which wc l>elong as xoX7tcu ; 
Sanderson, S<mt. xv. Vol. i. p. 378 
(cd. Jacobs.); sec 2 Mace. xii. 7, tw^ 
"loirxiTi)' To\'iTtvfia, Polyb. Ilist. t. 13, 

12, TO xoXiTtt'/ioTo [Ttif 'Potfu. «t. Kopx ]i 
and compare Eph. ii. 19. «ru»Tro\?Tai riy 
a-flwi>\ soTlieophl. (Tjjvrorpj'Sa), Beng., 
Mey., Air, and the majority of modem 
comment.ttors. Of thc^e (o) has this 
advantage, that l)cing su!>jcctivo it pre- 
sents a more c\act contract to Ti irty. 



Chap. III. 20, 21. 

7ap TO 7ro\iT€Vfia ev ovpavol<; virdp'^^ei, i^ ov koX (TOiTrjpa aireKBe' 
•^ofMe^a Kvptov ^Irjaovv XpicrTov, ^^ o? fieraa-'^rjfiaTicTei to acofia 

(ppovttv ; the equiv., however, to avacr- 
Tpo<p}i rests only on the use of the verb 
(comp. Philo, de Confas. § 17, x'^P"" «'»' 
^ ir-oXirevovTai), and is itself not lexically 
demon&trnble. Again in (j8) the equiv- 
alence of TToAiTeu^a to iroXtTei'a (Acts 
xxii. 28) is ccjually doubtful, for the pas- 
sage adduced from Aristot. Pol. iii. 6, 
does not prove tliat the woi'ds arc used 
indifferently ( Alf.), but indifferently only 
in regard to a particular sense (■K6\ea>s 
talis), — a statement fully confirmed by 
other passages, Polyb. Illst. iv. 23. 9, 
al., Joseph, contr. Ap. ii. 17. — a perti- 
nent example ; compare Bcza in loc. 
We retain then (y), which appears to 
yield a pertinent meaning, and was per- 
haps chosen rather than irt^Ats (Heb. xi 
10), or irarpis (Ileb. xi. 14), as repre- 
senting our heavenly home, our 'lepoi/ca- 
\)]fi iirovpttftos- (Ilcb. xii. 22), on the side 
of its constitution and polity; 'o?/r state, 
the spiritual constitution to which we be- 
long is in heaven : ' compare Gal. iv. 
26, Rev. xxi. 2, 10, Usteri, Lchrh. ii. 1. 
2, p. 182. €f oiipavols 

iirdpx-] ' existetk in heaven,' 'consti- 
tuta est,' Clarom. ; see Wordsw. in loc, 
who rightly calls attention to the strong 
word vvdpxet- The various practical 
aspects of tliis consolatory declaration 
are a!)!y stated by Whichcote, <SVnrt. 
XVIII., though somewhat modified by 
the intei^retation assigned to Tro\iTevfj.a : 
our honic is in heaven while we are liere 
below, exemplar iter, as we make it our 
copy ; Jinaliler, as we carry it in our 
thoughts ; analocjice, in regard to the 
quality of our actions ; inchoative, accord- 
ing to the degree of our present station ; 
intellectualiter, according to the constitu- 
tion of our minds ; Vol. ii. p. 375 sq. 
^1 ov] 'from whence,' ' inde,' Vulgate 

_^.is£ ^Lo [exinde] Syr. ; not e| ov, 

scil. iroKiT. (Beng.), a construction per- 
missible, but not necessary, as c| o5 is 
purely adverbial ; see "Winer, 6V. § 21. 
3, p. 1 28. The meaning ' ex quo tem- 
pore,' is grammatically correct (Kriiger, 
Sprachl. § 43. 4. 7 ) but obviously point- 
less and unsatisfactory. 
Ka\ crwr. air €kS.] 'we also tarry for 
as Saviour ; ' the Kal marks the corres- 
pondence of the act with the previous 
declaration, a-wrripa the capacity in which 
the Lord was tarried for. The pure eth- 
ical meaning of aTrewS. so. ' constantcr, 
jnitienter, expectarc' (Tittm. Sjnon. i. 
p. lOG), seems here, owing to the preced- 
ing €| oZ, less distinct than in other pas- 
sages where such local allusions are not 
present, e. g., Rom. viii. 19, 23, 25, 1 
Cor. i. 7, Gal. v. 5, 1 Pet. iii. 20, but is 
perliaps not wholly lost: see notes on 
Gal. V. 5, Winer, de Verb. Comp. iv. p. 
14, Fritz. Fritzsch. Opusc. p. 156 ; com- 
pare also notes on ch. i. 20. The sim- 
ple form eKSe'xsC'&at occurs 1 ( or. xvi. 
11, James v. 7 ; comp. Sopii. PA/7. 123, 
Dion. -Hal. Antiq. Vi. 67. 

21. yueToo-xiMOTio-ej] ' shall trans- 
form,' simply ; — not ' verklaren,' Liith., 
Neand., a meaning derived only from the 
context. This peculiar exhibition of our 
Lord's power at His second coming is 
brought here into prominence, to en- 
^hance the condemnation of sensuality 
(ver. 19) and to confirm the indirect ex- 
hortation to a pure though suffering life. 
It seems wholly unnecessary to restrict 
this merely to tiie livin,' (Mcy.) ; still 
less can we say with Alf. that ' the words 
assume, as St. Paul always does when 
speaking incidentally, the ^j/xus surviving 
to witness the coming of the Lord,' when 
really every moment of a true Christian's 
life involves such an aireKSoxv"- On the 
nature of this fieracTX'niJ-aTiffn.Ss, which 
the following words define to be strictly 

CnAi'. III. 21. 



TT/v TaTreipwaeo)'; i'ifj,ojv avfifiopcpou no aa)fj.aTi t//v ho^rfi ainou, 
Kara t/)v tvtpytiav tou 6ui>aa\iai auruv icai vTroTu^at auT o ja 
•nuura. r 

in ufconJaiR'c with that of the Lord's 
Iwd y, — a clianj;o from a natural to a 
spiriuial body (i Cor. xv. 44), loinimrc 
BuriK't, Slute of J Mid, rh viii. p. 231 
(Traii.-l.), Cudworth, InttU Syst. v. 3, 
Vol. in. p. 310 sq. (Tcj^i,'), Delitzsch, 
Psijrhol. III. 1, p. 401 Mj., and tho com- 
ments of Wordsw. ill loc. 
rh a it) IX a k.t.\.\ 'the bodjj of our hu- 
milialion ;' not 'our vilo Ijody,' Auth. 
Ver., Conyb,, a solution of tins genitive 
case wliiih tliou^li in some cases admis- 
sible (Winer, iir. \ :\4. 3.1), p. 211) hero 
obscures the full meaning of the words 
and mars tho antithesis. Tliegen. seems , 
here not so much a gen. of (jimlitij as of 
cotttvnt. antl to belong to the general cat- 
egory of tlie genitive viatcrue (Scheuerl. 
Synt. Ij 12. 2. p. 83) ; t!ic randvaxTti was 
that which tlie awfxa contained and in- 
volved, that of which it was the recc|)ta- 
clc ; compare liernii. Si/nl. in. 45, p. 
63. It seems undesirable with Chrys. 
(comp. Mey., Alf. ) to refer Ta7re(»'ai(riy 
wholly to tlio suflcrings of the body, 
'huniil. quaj tit per crucem.' Though 
tho more remote context (comp. ver. 18) 
shows that tlusc must clearly bo in- 
cluded, the ntore immediate antithesis 
rh <Tii);.ia T?,s fiti^Tjs seems al>o to show 
that the ideas of weakness and fleshly 
nature (Coloss. i. 22) must not Iw ex- 
cluded ; compare Tritz. A'ow. vi. 6, Vol. 
X. p. 382. The distinction between ra- 
wtlvuais and Tairtiff^TTjy (compare Alf.) 
cannot safely be pressed ; see Luke i. 48, 
Prov. xvi. 19 al. For examples 

of a similar connection of tho jjronoun 
with the dependent subst., see Green, ^iV. 
p. 2()5. ffvfifiop(poy K.T.\\ 

' {so as to be) coiiformeil to thr IkmIij of /As 
glory;' scil. tij rh ytvta^ai ffvfj.u., — a 
gloss whicli n,-c. with 1)-D'KKL ; many 
Vv. ; Orig., al., retain as a portion of 

the text. The shorter reading has not 
only internal, but jjieponderant external 
evidence [AUD>FG ; Vulg., (Maioin., 
G.-th.,al.] distinctly in itsfivor. On this 
proleptic use of the adj., see Winer, (Jr. 
§ 6G. 3, p. 55U, Jelf, Gum. § 439. 2. 
The genilival relation t!/i So'Jtji avrou is 
exactly similar to that of r7is raw. ijix., 
' the body which is the receptacle of llifl 
glory, in which His glory is manifested.' 
lu respect of this Sofa we are avfifiofxpoi, 
— oil Kara r^jf iroffSrijTa aWa Kara rr]!/ 
irojJrijTo, Theod. Kara 

ri]v iffpy.] ' accordiiuj to the wofhing 
of His ahilili],' etc. ; com|)are Eph. i. 19. 
The object of this clause, as I'alviu 
rightly remarks, is to remove every pos- 
sible doubt ; ' ad intinitam Dei poten- 
tiam convertere 0|.onet, ut i])sa oniiiem 
dubitatioiicm absorlieat. Nee potenti;B 
tantum meminit, sed eflicacia?, qua; est 
effectus vel potcntia in actum se e.xsc- 
rens.' The iiilin. with ruv is dcj endent 
on the preceding subst. as a simidc (|>os- 
sessive) gen. (a construction very (om- 
mon in the N. T.), and serves lure to 
express, perhaps a li.tle more forcibly 
than fii'rajuij, the enduring nature and 
latitude of that i)ower; see examples in 
Winer, Gr. § 44. 4, p. 290. 
Ka\ uiroTct{a«] ' fvcii to sii^rdiif ; ' the 
ascensive koI .serves to mark the limitless 
nature of that power : He shall nor only 
transform rh aaiua k r. \ , liut shall also 
subdue ri iratn-a, ail existing things. 
Death not excluded (I Cor. xv. 2G), to 
Himself. The Kuptorrii of tlie Lternal 
Son will then be complete, supreme, and 
universal ; to be rcsij^ned unto the Fa- 
ther ( I Cor. XV. 2S) in so far as it is eco- 
nomical, to last forever and for ever in 
-SO far as it is ' consequent unto the union, 
or due unto the olwdieiice of the |)assion." 
Pearson, Creed, Art. ii. Vol. i. p. 197 




Chap. IV. 1-3, 

Brethren, stand fast in the 

IV. " flare, aBeXcjiOL fxov o/yaTT'qToX koX eVt- 


I,et i;uodia and Syutyche 
be of one mind : assist, O 

^ Evohiav TrapaKoXo) koL XvvTU)(r)v irapa' 

yoltcfellow, the faithful ^oiXoi TO aVTO (boOVelv iv KvOLCO. ^ UoX epWTGJ 

(ed. Burt.). On the use of out^j [AB 
DiFGj, not safT&J (Rec), comp. notes 
on Eph. i. 4. 

Chapter IV. 1. Strre] 'So then' 
' Consequently,' ' itaque,' Vulg. ; ' as we 
have such a heavenly home, and tarry 
for such a salvation : ' concludinjr exhor- 
tation naturally flowing from the preced- 
ing paragraph, eh. iii. 17-21, and con- 
tinued in the same tones of personal en- 
treaty {a5i\(poi) ; comp. 1 Cor. xv. 58, 
where the partif'e similarly refers to 
what has immediately preceded. De 
Wette and Wiesingcr refer the particle 
to ch. iii. 2 sq , but thereby deprive the 
exhortation of much of its natural and 
consecutive force. On the force of Sffre 
with indie, and inf., see notes on Gal. ii. 
I'i, and rcff., and with the imper., notes 
onch. ii. 12. a.yany)To\ 

Ka\ i-Knr6S>.\ 'beloved and longed af- 
ter' — terms by no means synonymous 
(Hcinr. ), but marking both the love the 
apostle entertained for them (emphati- 
cally repeated at the end of the para- 
graph ) and the desire he felt to see them ; 
' carissimi et desideratissirai,' Vulgate. 
The word is an air. Aeyofi. in the N. T , 
but is occasionally found elsewhere ; Ap- 
pian, Ilisp. § 43, iTrnroby]Tovs SpKovs 
(Rostu. Palm, Zej-.), Clem. -Rom. 1 Cor. 
■§ 59, fVKTaiay kuI eirnr6h7]rov ilp{ivi)v. 
On the force of i-rcl, see notes on 2 Tim. 
1.4. X "i P ^ f" i "■''■* 4"*' 

v6s nov\ ' ntj/ joi/ and crown,' sell. d<t>' 
ms x"P°'' •'''''' iTTaivov ex^> Camcrar. 
See especially 1 Thess. ii. 19, in which 
the words eV rfj avrov [Kuplov] ■napowla 
there limit the reference to the Lord's 
coming, — a reference, 'however, here 

(Alford, comp. Calv.) by no means nec- 
essary : the Philippians were a subject 
of joy and a crown to St. Paul, now as 
well as hereafter ; compare 1 Cor. ix. 2, 
3. For examples of this metaphorical 
use of crTf(p., see Isaiah xxviii. 5, Eeclus. 
i. 11, XXV. 6, Soph. Ajax, 460. 
o 1/ T 01 s] ' thus,' — ' as I have exhorted 
you, and as those are acting whose iroKl- 
revjxa is in heaven.' A reference to their 
present state ("sic ut ccepistis, state,' 
Schmid., Beng.), though suggested by 
Chrys., seems out of place in this ear- 
nest exhortation : 1 Cor. ix. 24, cited by 
Bengel, is not in point. aTr\Kcre 

iv K\) p.] ' f;tand (fast) in the Jj)rd ; ' not 
' per Dominum,' Zanch., but ' in Domi- 
no,' — in Him as in the true element of 
their spiritual life; see 1 Thess. iii. 8, 
and notes on Ephes. iv. 1 7, vi. 1 . al. 

2. 'Evo'biav irapofc.] Special ex- 
hortation addressed to two women, Euo- 
diaand Syntyche ; compare ver. 3. The 
opinion of Grot, that they are the names 
of two men (Euodias and Syntyches) is 
untenable ; that of Schweglcr (Nacha- 
post. Zcit. Vol. II. p. 135), that they rep- 
resent two parties in the Church, mon- 
strous. Of the two persons nothing 
whatever is known ; they may have been 
deaconesses (Rom. xvi. 1), but wore 
more probabl}' persons of station and 
influence (Chrj's., comp. Acts xvii. 12), 
whose dissensions, perhaps in matters of 
religion (rh avrh <ppov. iv Kvp.), might 
have shaken the faith (comp. ovtws ar-fi- 
KfTf immediately preceding) of soiue of 
the Phiiippian converts. Syntyche has 
a place in the Acta Sanct. (July) Vol. v. 
p. 225. irapaKaKu] The 

irepctitioa of this verb is someAvhat nc 

Ciivr. IV. 3. 

rii iLipriANS. 


/fat <7e, 'yvi'jcne (Tvv^ir/e, <JvWafi/3uvov avToi^, airiva (.v to ei/ay- 
7'X/--) <xvpi'/^^XT]crui^ fioi, fi€Ta kuI KXi'jfj.eino'i kuI tCiv Xoittwv <7i%>- 
apyiov fiov, u)v TO, ovufiara tu ^i/dXf-y ^oyPi^\ 

tii'CiiMc : it scarcely seems ' ml velK-meii- 
tiaiii ufTcctus sigiiificaiuluin,' Krasm., 
Mev., Iiiit railiur to mark that tin y Kotli 
equally needed the exiiortation, that they 
were in fact IkjiIi equally tolilame. The 
if Kvp. is of course not to be joined with 
wapoH., "obtestor per Doni.,' Beza 2, but 
marks tlie sphere in which the rh ainh 
^fiov. (sec notes on ch. ii. 2) was to l>e 

3. va\ i puTci Kal ff t] ' i/cii, I be- 
seech eri-n Ihee..' The particle vol (not 
Kal, He, which has. scarcely any critical 
support) has here its usual and proper 
coiijirmatory force. It is used either (n) 
in assent to a direct question, Matth ix. 
28, John xi. 27, Kom. iii. 29 ; [l) in as- 
sent to nn assertion, Matth. xv. 27, 
Mark vii. 28 ; (c) in graver assertions 
as confirmatory of what has preceded, 
Maiih. xi. 26, Luke xi. .51, xii. 5; ((/) 
in animated addresses as corro'ioratinp 
the substance of the petition, Philem. 20 
(see Mcy. i"/i luc.). The simple ' vis ob- 
secrandi,' = Ileb. X3 {Grot., Vi;,'er, al.) 
cannot be substantiated. For examples 
of its use in classical Greek, sec Vijrer, 
Idiom. VII. 9. p. 424, Rost u. Palm, Ixt. 
s. V. Vol. 11. p. 309. On the 

distinction between iporrav (•rojrare,' — 
equals) and alrtlv{' petere,' — superiors), 
see Trench, Synon. § 40. 
yyflffif crvv(vy(] ' true yokr-filloir,' 
' dilectissimc conjunx,' Claroman. — a 
translation that may have early been 
niisunderstood. The explanations of 
these words are somewhat numerous. 
Setting aside doubtful or untenable 
conjectures, — that the person refern-d 
to is the wife of the apostle. Clem. Alex. 
Strom. III. 53 [grammatically incoiTCct 
(opp. to Alf.) as the uncertain gender of 
vvi-( (Eur. Ale. 315, 343) would cause 
yrf](Tws to revert to three terminations]. 

the hu-band or brother of one of the 
women (Clirys., hesitatingly), Timothy 
(Esiius), Silas (Beng.), Epaphroditus, 
though now witli the ajwstle (Grot., 
Ilamm.), Christ (Wicsclcr, Chronol. p. 
458), — two ojiihions deserve considera- 
tion ; (a) that ffi'v^uyos is a proper name, 
and that yy^iaws is used in allusion to 
tiie correspondence between the name of 
the man and his relation to the apostle, 
' qui verc, et re et nomine, <rvy(vyoi es,' 
Gum., Mc»er; (/-) that the chief of the 
iiriffKuwot (ch. i. I ) at Piiili|ipi is here re- 
ferred to. Of these (") harmonizes with 
the meaning of ytrf](rios (comp. notes on 
1 Tim. i. 2), and is slightly favored hy 
the Older (Luke i. 3, Galat. iii. I ; but 
KL ; al. Rtc reverse it), but is improb- 
able on account of the apparently unique 
occurrence of the name. As the only 
valid objection to (//). — that St. Paul 
never elsewhere so designates any of his 
avvtpyol (Mey.), may be dilute<l by the 
fact that the chief Bishop of the place 
stood in a somewhat different relation to 
such associates, and as the order is prob- 
ably due to emphasis on yvrian (Winer, 
6V. § 59. 2, p. 4G9), the balance seems 
in favor of this latter view : so Luther, 
De Wette, and apparently the majority 
of modern expositors. 
ffi/\\a^/3 auTo«$] ' assist the III,' SQ\\. 
Euodia and Syntyche, in endeavoring to 
bring them to a state of 6tJi6voia ; not 
' those women which,' Auih. and otlier 
Engl. Vv. (comp. Vulg. ' illas qua;'), 
— an inexact translation of cunvn (sec 
l>elow) which obscun's the reference of 
alnali to the ])reccding sulwtantives. 
The middle avWau^. occurs in a similar 
construction, Luke v. 7 (&or\buy D), 
Gen. XXX. 8 (.1/<j.), -i:iian, Var. Hist. 
II. 4, and with a gen. rti, Sojih. Philoct. 
282. The active is more usual, in this 



Chap. IV. 4, 5. 

Eejoice, show forbearance; 4 Y— .'„^— ^ ^■.. V .^' ^ ,— ' — — '•\ »« 

be%,ot anxious, but teii ^ Attt/jeTe 6^ Kv^ft)^ -KavTOTe' TTaXtv epco, 

your wants to God, and yalpere. ^ TO eVtet/ce? L/ucoy 7t'aj<T'&?}T&) Trdaiv 

Hisne:jce fihoil be witli von. /V ( # / 1 

His peace shall be with you. 

sense, in classical Greek; see examples 

in Rost u Palm, Lex. s. v. 

a'i rives] ' inasmuch as theij ' ' ut qu£E,' 

Beza, compare Syr. ■ * Toi? [quia ip- 

sae] and see Scholef. Hints, p. JOB: a 
very distinct use of the explicative force 
of oVtjj : see notes on (Jal. iv. 24. 
iv T<S eiiayy.] The gospel was the 
sphere in which the labor was expended ; 
compare lleuss, Th€oL Chr^t. iv. 8, Vol. 
II. p. 81. Meyer very appropriately 
calls attention to the fact that women 
were apparently the first in whom the 
gospel took root in Philippi; Acts xvi. 
13, i\a\ Ta7s (TvveK^ov(7ats yvpai^lv. 
' Women were the first fruits of St. Paul's 
labors on the continent of Europe,' 
Baum. on Acts, I. c. /uerA 

Ka\ K\ii(ji.\ 'in company with C'/einent 
also,' scil. avvri^Kricrav : they were asso- 
ciated with Clement and the apostle's 
other fellow-laborers at Philippi in some 
efforts to advance the gospel, perhaps, 
as Beng. suggests, not unattended with 
danger; Acts xvi. 19 sq., compare Pliil. 
i. 28. It is doubtful whether tlie Clement 
here mentioned is identical with the third 
bp. of Rome, or not. On the one hand 
we have the very distinct testimony of 
Origen, in Jonnn. i. 29, Vol. iv. p. 153 
(ed. Ben.), Euseb, Hist. Eccl. in. 4, 15, 
Jerome, de Vir. III. xv. Vol. ii. p. 839 
(ed. Vallars.), Epiphanius, Ilccr. xxvii. 
6, Const. Apost. VII. 46 ; see Hammond, 
contr. Blond, p. 254, Lardner, Crediii/iti/, 
II. 38. 23. On the other hand (n) the 
notice of Clem, in Irenosus, IJar. in. 3. 
3, 6 Kal eaipaKws rovs /xaKaplovs P^iroaro- 
hovs Koi (rujti/8€/3\9;Kaj$ oiitojs, — where, 
however, cruiJ.I3f0\. (most unnecessarily 
queried by Conyb. and Bloomf ) sliould 
not be overlooked, — contains no allusion 
to this special commendation ; and {!>) 
the present context seems certainly in 

favor of the supposition that Clement, 
like Euodia and Syntyche and (appy.^ 
the awepyoi, was a member of the 
Church of Philippi. Still, as it is per- 
fectly conceivable that a member of the 
Clmrch of the Roman city of Pliilippi 
might have become 7 or 8 years after- 
wards (Pearson, Minor Works, Vol. ii. 
p. 465) Bp. of Rome, — as (6) is merely 
negative, and as the early testimony of 
Origen is positive and distinct, there 
seems no just ground for summarily re- 
jecting, with De W., Mcy., and Alf., this 
ancient ecclesiastical tradition ; compare 
"Winer, RWB. Vol. i. p. 232. The 

position of ffol between the prep and the 
noun is somewhat unusual, such a collo- 
cation being in the N. T. apparently con- 
fined to yap (Jolin iv. 37), 76 (Luke xi. 
8), 5e' (Matth. xi. \2),n4v (Rom.xi. 22), 
ix\v ydp (Acts xxviii. 22), and t6 (Acts 
x. 39) ; compare Matth. Gr. § 595. 3. In 
the present case, however, the vinculum 
of the preposition extends over the whole 
clause. Koi — /cat (see notes on 1 Tim. iv. 
10) being correlative. The examples 
cited by Alf. (compare Mey.), in which 
only a single Kal occurs, are thus not 
fully in point. wv rek 

6v6 fx. appear only to refer to ruv \oi- 
iriuv, — ' Clement whom I have men- 
tioned by name, and the rest, who though 
not named by me, nevertheless have their 
names in the book of life ; ' comp. Luke 
X. 20, Rev. xiii. 8, xvii. 8, xx. 12, xxi. 
27. To supply an optative (efij, 'ex- 
istent') and assume that the \Qnro\ were 
now dciid (Beng.), seems unnecessary 
and unsatisfactory. The expression is 
not improbably derived from the Old 
Test. ; compare Exod. xxxii. 32, Psalm 
lix. 28, Isaiah iv. 3, Ezek. xiii. 9, Dan. 
xii. 1. 

4. x'l'P^'''*] Separate exhortations 
to the church at large, continued to ver. 

CiiAiv IV. 5. 6. 1' II I r. I P P I A N s . 101 

uv^poiTTot'i. 6 Kupio^ iyyvi;. ^ MrjBev fj^pifivdre, uXX tv Trawu 

10. Tlicy toinmcnce witli the e.xliortu- 
tion, wliitli, as ha.s Ih.'cii already ro- 
markeil (ce notes on ch. iii. I ), iK?rvadcs 
tlie wlioic Lpisilc. Ou tlie rcpetitiun, 
Clirys. well oliscrve.s, rovro Ha^^avvovros 

ioTi Kol hnKVVVTOi, 0T< b iv 0t-j5 [Kufi/toJ 

t>¥ dfl xo'ff i'^-" ''* ^Kifirf^ai, Kixf Sriovif 
wiaxv ^*' X^'V*' ^ TowiiTos : see tlic ;^ood 
sermo I of Deveiiii;;e on this te.\t, S<Tm. 
cv. Vol. V. p. d'J s(|. (A.-C. Lllir.), and 
compare Aajrust. Senn. CLXxi. Vol. v. 
p. 9.33 (ed Mi-iie). 

wiK ly i p^] ' 111/11111 I will sui/,' not ' I 
Bay,' Autli , as ipii seems rc-jularly and 
correitly u>ed throughout the N. T. as a 
future The traces of a present tptv 
(IlippoiT. Picec('iit. p. 04, fJjiidfm. ii. |). 
691) are few ami douhtful ; sec Buttm. 
Jrrei. Virbs, p. 89 (Translation). It is 
scarcely nec-essary to do more than no- 
tice the very improhable construction of 
Bi-n^:., l>y which iroi'ToTe is joined with 
this ( lausc. 

5. t6 iir le iKfs iiiuv] ' i/our for- 
bmrance,' Conyheare, ' your moderation 
(Auth.) and readiness to waive all ri^'or 
and severity:' compare Joseph. Arch. 
vi. 12. 7, 4-KtnKt7i Kcu fifrpiot, and Loesn. 
Olis p. 35S, wliere several examples are 
cited of itrtflKfia in connection with -wpat- 
TTjr, <piKaj>df)<a>iria, and r]fjitp6Tris. See 
notes oil 1 Tim. iii. 3, and comp. Trench, 
Sifuon. 4 43. On the use of the a!»tract 
neuter (ih ^ir««Kts = tiruiKtia), compare 
Jelf, 6'/-. § 436. 7, and notes on ch. iii. 
8 ; aild Horn. ii. 4, 1 Corinih. i. 25, and 
Glaa^e, P/iilul. in. I, ]>. .'),{7. 
yyaia^iiru womv a»'dp.] * Iwcome 
known to oil mtn ; ' ' let the {goodness of 
your principles in this respect be known 
cx])crimentally by all who have dealin;,'S 
with you, bo they epicurean enemies of 
the eix)<s (Chrys., Theoph), or pajran 
persecutors' (Thcod.). The command 
is wholly unrestricted. 
i Kvpios ^T'yi/j] * the Lord {Jesus) 

is near.' The e.xact mtaniinj and am- 
ueciion of the words is slightly doubtful. 
The regular meaning of Kipwi in St. 
Paul's Kpi«ile.s (compare Winer, (iram. 
^ 19. I, |>. 113) and the demon-trable 
temporal meanin;: of ^yyi/i (.Matth. xxiv. 
32, Itom. xiii. 11, Uev. i. 3) seem dearly 
to refer this not to a general rcadine-^s to 
hcl]) (.Mannin-.', St^m. xiii. Vol in. p. 
241), but sjiecially to the Lord's second 
advent, which the insj)ired aj)Ostle rc- 
l^ards as nigh, yet n»t necessarily as im- 
mediate, or to happen in his own life- 
time. That the early church expected 
a speedy return of Christ, — tliat they 
thouglit that He ' that was to come would 
come, and would not tarr},' is not to 
be denied. This general expectation, 
however, founded on our Master's own 
declarations, and on the knowledge that 
the tcrxoToj iififpat (.James v. 3, 7) and 
Katpoi v<TTfpoi were already come, both 
is and ought to ix-, separated from any 
specific and personal anticipations of 
which the N. Test, pn-seitts no certain 
trace. With regard to the connti:tion, it 
may l>e either minatory (Sihocttg. //or. 
Vol. I. p. 803) or encouraging (l)e W.) 
witli regard to what has prewded, or, 
more prol>ably, consolatory with refer- 
ence to what follows (Clirjs.), or, not 
unlikely, a Iiond of union to botii ( Alf.) : 
on the one hand, the Lord's speedy i-om- 
ing (as Judge) adds a stimulus to our 
exhibition of forl)earaiue toward others, 
comp. James v. 9 ; on the other, it swal- 
lows u[> all un|>rolual>le anxieties. 

6. firjSkv fitptny.] ' l>r canfnl alont 
notfiinff ; ' ' entertain no di>quieling anx- 
ieties about anything earthly,' Matth. vi. 
25. The accusative is that of the object 
whereon the fitpiiivav is exercised (Jelf, 
Gr. § 551), and stands in emphatic an- 
tithesis to the following iy ■wayri. Chrys. 
and Theophyl. refer fitiifv mainly to the 
pressure of calamity or persecution {fi^rt 



Chap. IV. 

T^ irpoaevyfj kui Ty BeT]aei f^cera ev-)(apLaTLa<; to, alrijfiaTa vp-ojp 
ryvwfji^ea-'^co irpo'i rov Qeov. "' koX i) elp/jvr] tou &eov 17 virepeyov- 

TTis iKiivoiv vfipeais, i.i.7)Te t'/s viiiiv (&A.i- 
i|/ea)f, Tlicoph.) : it seems better to leave 
it wholly unrestricted. The practical 
applications of the text will be found in 
Beveridge, Serin. Vol. v. p. 181 sq. 
(A.-(\ Libr.). ev iravTi] 

' in everiftldiuj,' equally unrestricted ; not 
'in all time,' Syr., iEth., but, ' in omni- 
bus,' (opt., iv -Kavrl <pr\ai, rovTiari iTfjay- 
fian, Chrys. The translation of Vulj^., 
* in omni oratione ' (so Clarom.), which 
Meyer, and after him Alford defend as 
meaning ' in omni (re) oratione,' etc., is 
certainly rather suspicious. 
rp irpoo-euxp f-T.A..] ' hy your fn-ajjer 
and your supplication, ' by the speciHc 
prayer offered up when the occasion may 
require it; compare Middleton, Art. v. 
1. 3,4, p. 9.3 (ed. Hose). The repeti- 
tion of the article gives an emphasis to 
the words ; each noun is enunciated in- 
d peiHlently : see Winer, Gr. § 19. 5, p. 
117. The difference between the more 
general irpoff. [precatio) and the more 
special SeTjo-. [rotjatio) is stated in notes 
on Epii. vi. 18, and on 1 Tim. ii. 1. 
It era ivxo-p] ' v-'ith thanksgiving' an 
adjunct to prayer that should never be 
wanting, 1 Thess. v. 18, 1 Tim. ii. 2 ; 
see Beveridge, Serm. cvii. Vol. v. p. 
76 sq. (A.-C. Libr.) compare notes on 
Col. iii. 1.5. Alford remarks on the 
omission of the article, ' because the 
matters themselves may not be recog- 
nized as grounds of euxapiffTta.' It 
seems more simple to say that evxap., 
' thanksgiving for past blessings ' (com- 
pare Hofm. Schriftb. Vol. 11. 2, p. 337), 
is in its nature more general and compre- 
hensive, irpoa. and Ss'tjit. almost necessa- 
rily more limited and specific. Hence, 
though evxap. occurs twelve times in St. 
Paul's Epistles, it is only twice used 
with the article, 1 Cor. xiv. 16, 2 Cor. 

iv. 15. TO 0«TTJ;UaTa] 

' your requests ; ' according to termina- 
tion, 'the things requested' (compare 
Buttm. Gr. § 119. 7), and thence (as the 
context requii'es), with a slight modifi- 
cation of meaning, ' the purport or sub- 
jects of prayci*:' ' petitum, materia Bfif 
aews,' Beng. ; compare Luke xxiii. 24, 
1 John v. 15. There is often, especially 
in later Greek, a sort of libraiion of 
meaning between nouns in ais and -Ma; 
compare 2 Tim. i. 13, al. Meyer quotes 
Plato, Rep. VIII. p. 566 u, where the 
explanatory clause ahe^v rhv S'jtxou (see 
Stallb. in loc.) seems to show that there 
is even there also some tinge of such an 
interchange. ir ph s rhv 

€ p J'] ' toward God,' i. e. ' before and 
unto God,' the prep, denoting the ethical 
direction of the prayer; see Winer, Gr. 
§ 49. h, p. 371. 

7. Ka\ 7) el p. Toii 6 C] 'and 
(so) the ))eace of God,' the peace which 
comes from Him and of which He is 
the source and origin :; gen. auctoris, or 
rather originis (Uartung, Casus, p. 17, 
Sclieuerl. Synt. § 17, p. 125), belonging 
to the general category of the genitive oC 
ablation (Donalds. Gr. § 448). On the 
use of the consecutive »coi (Heb. xii. 19, 
al.), see Winer, Gram. § 53. 3, p. 387. 
The exact meaning of elpi]v7) tov Qeov 
(see below, ver. 9) is somewiiat doubt- 
ful. Three meanings have been as-^igncd 
to elpTjUT] ; (a) 'concord;' ' studmm pa- 
cis, unitatis, concordiai, inter homines 
atque in ecclesia ' (Pol. Syn.), appar- 
ently adopted by Thcodoret (ws iiiraW^j- 

• ",/ - s - ' ' ' - 

\a>v uvTuv rwv oiiiiyixinv avayKaiais avrois 
T»V s'P- ^T^nv^aro), and strenuously ad- 
vocated by Meyer in loc; (/3) 'reconcil- 
iation ' with God ; 7; KaraWayi), i? d7££- 
wrj rod &eov, Chrys. 1 ; compare Rom. 
v. 1, and Green, Gr. p. 262 ; (7) 'peace,' 
i. e. tlie deep tranquillity of a soul rest 
ing wholly upon God, — the antitliesis 

CuAP. IV. 7. r* TI I L T P r I A N s . 103 

aa TTuma vovv ^povpijcei ra<; fcapBiwi vfuou kul tu I'oijfxara v/foiu 
iv XpiaTfJi lT]aou. 

to tlie .soliciiiulo iiiid anxiety engeiulcred Gab. ; Goth. prcs. toimnoiily BUpplius 
by tlio world and worldlincss ; coinparo place of Greek future], Coptic, al. ; the 
Joliii xiv. '27 ; Chrys. 2, Beza, Beii;.^., al. event will follow if the exliortat.on /^TjSt* 
Of these (a) seems clearly insufliciciit k. t. X. is attended to. We can scarcely 
and not in harnioiiy with the context ; Kay with Coiiyb. that ^povp. is liurullj 
(/3) points in the right direction, liut is ' shall {,'arrison ' (2 Cor. xi. 32, Thucyd. 
unnecessarily iv>irictivc ; (7) is fully in in. 17, Plato, /it/j. iv. p. 420 a), as the 
accordance with the context (coinp. ^TjSii/ idea of ' wuuhimj over,' ' ^^nardin;;,' ac- 
(ifpifxy., ver. 6), includes (/3), and gives cords with derivation [o^o — vpo, and 
a full and spiritual meaning : so I)e \V., llonuric OP- ; I'ott, Ju. I'urmh. Vol. 1. 
Wiesing., Alf., and most modern com- p. 122], and ajjpcars hotli in connectioa 
inentators ; compare noies on Col. iii. 15. with persons and tilings ; Sophoc. (Ed. 
if vntp. itiv-ra vovv] * uhirh ofir- Ilex, 1479, Kuriji. f '»/'/. C^&,U<rr. Far. 
pusseUi eviry xtuderstaniliiu] ;' ' wliich 399; Ilesycli. <ppoupfi- tpuKarTti. Tho 
trausccndeth every effort and attemi)l on nature of the (ppoup7/(T(j is more nearly 
iho part of the understanding to grasp defined by iy Xp. 'Itjit. which appeai-s to 
and realize it.' Nous liere, as the context denote, not so much with a scnii-local 
suggests, points to the human vi>(vfj.a reference {Ztrrt jiij iKirtauv alnov t')i 
'quateims cogitat et intelligit ' (Olshaus. iriVrfoos, Chrys.) the spliere in which 
Opusc. p. 15G), — a meaning, however, tliey were to be kept, as that in which 
in many, perhaps the nuijority of the action was to take place ; sec .Meyer 
in the N T., not sufficiently comprehen- in loc. t as KupSi as 
give; see notes on I Tint. \\. 5, and on k. r. K.] ^ your hearts and i/o-ir thimi/hls ;' 
2 Tim. iii. 8. It may be ob.served that ' corda vestra et cogita:iones vestras,' 
tho term vovs is ajiparcntly used by tho Copt., JEilx. The distinction betweca 
sacred writers, not to denote any sepa- these two words should not i>e j)bscured. 
rate essence or quality ditFeivnt from the KapSia, pro|>erly tlic (imagiuary) seat of 
irvfvua, but as a manifestation or ontcom- the \i>vxh, the ' I>cbens-Mitte ' (sec Beck, 
ing of tiio same in mond and intdlirluul St-elenl. in. 20, j». G3), is used with »-on- 
aetion, tlic human iryfifxa, ' (piatenus siderable latitude of meaning to denote 
cogitat, intelligit, tt vnlt,' — tlie isart the centre of feeling, willing, tliinliu^, 
limits of this ilefmiiion being in all cases and even of moral life (see es|>ecially I)c- 
bcst fixed by the immediate context : see litzsch, BiU. Psyrfi. iv. 11, \^. 203 s<i.», 
cspeciallv Beck, Stilenl. n. 18, p. 4S sip, and, to speak roughly, bears much tho 
Delit/.Sih, JjiU. Psych, iv. 5, p. 145, and same relation to the i^ux?) that yois bears 
compaiv Schubert, (ftic/i. c/cr .Sf(/(', \\)1. to irKtC/ua (see above), U'ing in fact the 
n. p. 494 sq. On the use of the transi- ^ivxh in ^^ pr.ictical asj>ects and rela- 
tive uirtptxtif with an acats. of the ob- tions ; sec OUhaus. Opnsc p. Ij.'i sq., 
jcct surpassed (contrast chap. ii. 3), .see and notes oh 1 Tint. i. 5. The yo-lifiara, 
Jelf, (ir. ^ 504. obs. 2. on the other hand, are |>ro|>erly (as here) 
^povp{)<T(t\ ' shall (juard, keep ; ' not the ftroduct.f of spiritual activity, of tliink- 
optativc, ' custodial, ' Vulg., Claroman., ing, willing, etc. (2 Cor. ii. 11). and 00- 
and in effect Chrys. iia<pu\dl(if Koi olt- casionally and derivatively, the implc- 
^oAiVaiTo, liut simply future, as iu (iotii. ments or instruments of the .«ame. 2 Cor 
■fastai|>' [serv.ibit, — not • scrvat,' De iii. 14, iv. 4: sec Beck, S<x!enl. n. 19, 



Chap. IV. 8. 

Practise all thnt is good, and » rii\ -y / 'C'-xj'" » \ 5-^o>"w 

all that you have learned ^ ° KOLTTOV, abe\(pOi, 0(Ta eCTlV aX.rf^r), OaO 

*^°'"'"^' aefMvd, oaa StKaia, oaa djvd, ocra TrpoacfiLXrj, oaa 

p. 59, Eoos, Psijch. IV. 26. Tlie meaning 
is thus in effect as stated by Alf., ' your 
hearts themselves (?) and tlieir fruits;' 
or as, briefly, by Beng., ' cor sedes cog- 
itationum.' On biblical psychology gen- 
erally, see the remarks in pref. to Past. 
Epist. p. v., and notes on 1 Tim. iij. 16. 
8. T 5 \oiir 6v] ' Finally ; ' conclud- 
ing recapitulation, in an emphatic and 
comprehensive summary, of the chief 
subjects for preparatory meditation and 
(ver. 9) consequent practice. The for- 
mula is here more definitely conclusive 
{iravra Tjfuv ftpy)rai, Chrys.) than in ch. 
iii. 1 (see notes), where the nature of the 
exhortations kd to a not unnatural di- 
gression. It thus echoes, yet, owing to 
the difference of the exhortations, does 
not resume (Matth.) the preceding rb 
Xont6v. The sixfold repetition of oaa 
adds much to the vigor and emphasis of 
the exhortation. On the whole verse 

see thirteen able sermons by Whichcote, 
Works, Vol. in. p. 368 sq. 
d\7jf&75j 'true:' i.e., as the context 
requires, in ITieir nature and practical 
applications, ' genere morum,' Which- 
cote : so Theoph. (comp. Chrys.) ciAtj,^^' 
TOVTfCTTiv ivapera • r} yap KaKta \pevSos ; 
compare Eph. iv. 21. To restrict the 
reference to words (Beng., Bisp.), or to 
doctrine (Hamm.), seems undesirable; 
the epithets throughout are general and 
inclusive. ffefMud] 'seemly,' 

' venerable,' ' deserving of, and receiving, 

e ..7 

respect,' Syr. ■i H'^ J [verecunda] : com- 
pare Ilor. Epist. I. 1. 11, 'quid verum 
atque decens euro et rogo.' The Vulg. 
'pudica ' is too special, the Auth. ' hon- 
est' scarcely exact. As the derivation 
suggests (ffe^ojxai), the adjective prima- 
rily marks whatever calls for ' respect ' 
or ' veneration,' and thence, with a some- 
what special application, whatever is so 

seemly and grave (3(ro iv (TxviJ-a<ni' Kal 
K6yoi5, Kal 0a5i(T/j.a(ri Kal Trpd^ecrtv, CEcu- 
men.) as always to secure it ; see Which- 
cote, p. 399. Th aefivov, according to 
this able writer, consists in ' grave be- 
havior ' and ' composure of spirit,' and 
is briefly characterized by Calvin as ' in 
hoc situm ut digne vocatione nostra am- 
bulemus : ' hence such associations as 
aefxi/hv Kal ayiou, Plato, Soph. p. 249 A, 
fjLerpta Kal (Tefjivd, Clem.-Eom, 1 Cor. ^ 1 ; 
compare notes on 1 Tim. ii. 2. 
SiKaia] 'just;' in its widest applica- 
tion, ' quie talia sunt qualia esse opor- 
tet,' Tittm. Synon. p. 19 : not exactly 
'just and equal,' Whichcote, but rather 
'just and right,' whether from the pro- 
portions of things or constitutions of the 
law (Whichcote, Vol. iv. p. 10), with- 
out any reference to others (Col. iv. 1) : 
compare Acts x. 22, Rom. v. 7, 1 Tim. 
i. 9. On the distinction between Si'/caios 
and the more limited aya^6s, see Tittm. 
Synon. p. 19 sq., and on that between 
Si'/c. and oaios notes on Tit. i. 8. 
ayvd] 'pure;' 2 Cor. vii. 11, 1 Tim. 
v. 22 : not ' chaste,' Grot., Est., al., in 
the more special and limited meaning of 
the word, On the use of ayv6s and 
its distinction from S.yios (with which 
the Vulgate appears here to have in- 
terchanged it), see notes on 1 Tim. \. 
22, and Tittmann, Synon. i. p. 21 sq. 
Chrys. draws a correct line between this 
and the preceding ae/xvos ; rh crenvhv t^s 
e|co iffrl Sui/ajj-eios, tJ) Se ayvhv tt]? yl/vxv^- 
ir^poff<j)t\ij] 'lovely' (air. \fy6ix.), not 
merely in reference to our fellow-men, 
'per qu£e sitis amabiles hominibus,' Est. 
(compare Ecclus. iv. 7), nor even with 
exclusive reference to God (airep iffrl t^S 
©€^ TTpo(T<p., Theod.) but generally, what- 
ever both in respect of itself, and the dis- 
position of the doer (Whichcote), concil- 
iates love, is generous and noble. See 

Chap. IV. 9. 

P II I L I r P I A N S 


€v<^i]ixa^ €1 TL'i upeT>i Kal €t Tt? tiraivo^^ jaina Xoyi^eo-^a* 
^ tt Kal t/xu^^ere kuI irapcXdlSeTe Kai ijKovaare Koi erotrt kv tfxol. 
rauTLi TTpuaatTe • Kal u 6)tos" t»}v eipiji'T]'^ tcnai /xt*^ vp.o)v. 

tlio guoil cxcmpliticatious uf rh -Kfiuaipi- 
\4sf\n Wliic'licote, Scrm. lxxv. Vol. iv. 
p. 83 Bq. f C <^ Tj /iaJ_J_n/' 

good rejj ort ; ' not merely ' qua; buoum 
faniam pariunt ' (Grot., Calv.), but. in 
accordance with the more literal mean- 
in;; of the word, 'wcll-soiuidin;^' (Lutli.), 
'of aus|)icions nature when spoken of,' 


Syriac ■ li '*' O ^ [laudabilia], — those 

' great and l)right trutlis ' in relation to 
God, ourselves, and our fellow-men, 
which sound well of tliemselvcs (loquun- 
tur res), and command belief and cnter- 
tainniciit, Whicheote, p. 108 sq. 
ti r IS ap(T-{^] ' whatever virtue there 
be,' Scholcf. I/iiits, p. 107, or more accu- 
rately ' tliero IS,' Alf, it being as.sumed 
that thero is such ; sec Latham, EmjUsh 
Lawj. § 614 (cd. 3), and comp. Words- 
worth in loc. : recajiitiilation of the fore- 
going, witli ref. ])Crhaj)s to all tlie epithets 
except the last, which seems to 1)0 {gen- 
eralized by tlie followin;,' twaivos. 'ApfT^ 
[from a root AP- and connected with 
Sanscr. rrf, ' protc;.^}re,' Pott, Eli/m. 
Forsch. Vol. I. p. 2*21, Donalds. Crat. 
§ 2S5] is only found elsewhere in the 
N. T. in 2 Pet. i. 5 (in reference to man ; 
jompare Wisdom iv. 1) and 1 Pet. ii. 9, 
2 Pet. i. :i (in nf. to God ; comp. Ilab. 
iii. 2, Isaiah xlii. 8, al.) : it desi;:natcs, 
as Meyer observes, ' moral excellence in 
feeling and action ' (yj tuv koXwv pofu^o- 
filvaiv ifjiirftftia, Ilcsycii.), and is opposed 
to Koucla, Plato, Rejmld iv. 444 i), 445 c : 
SCO Whicheote, Vol. iv. p. 120. 
ixaivos] 'praise:' not 'id quod est 
laudabile,' Calv., or, ' ea qu:c laudcm 
apud homines mercantur,' Est., — but 
' praise,' in its simple sense, which, as 
Wliichcotc observes, ' regularly follows 
upon virtue, and is a note of it and a 
piece of the rewju-d thea'of,' p. 132. The 

addition iwiffritfir]s after firouy. wilt 
D'E'FG ; Clarom., some mus. of Vulg.. 
al., is an interpolation properly rejected 
by all modem editors. 
Xoyi^ta^f] 'think ouj ' tah; OiXQUI^ 
of'.' not however merely ' bear them in 
your thou;;!its,' 'meditate' (Alf), but 
' use your faculties upon them,' ' horum 
rationem habete,' Beng. ; compare I Cor. 
xiii. 5, and seo Whicheote. ]>. 13S. 

9. 8 itolj ' which also:' extmplitica- 
tion of the foregoing in the apostle him- 
self; toCto StSaffKoXiai apirrris, rh ir 
itdffais Tats irapaifffffaiy iairrhy irapfxfi* 
Tvirov, Chrysost. The first koI is ascen- 
sive (' facit transitionein a generalibus 
(Sffo) ad Paulina.' Beng.), — not ' ct,' 
Vulg. (Syr., Copt, omit), but ' etiam,' 
Luth., the other tliree simply copulative, 
the sentence falling into two portions 
((,u<i^- ""' itaptK. rtKova. koI fto.) con- 
nected by Kod, each of wliicli ng:iin is 
similarly inter-connected : ' duo priora 
verba ad doctrinam iKTtineiit, duo rcli- 
qua ad exemplum,' Estius ; compare 
Thcod., Kol Sia twv \6ya>i' u/xaf tStSofa, 
Kol 5ii ruv ■wpaffiaTo)!' irtrtSfi^a. So also 
Van Ileng., Mey., Wiesin::cr, al. 
traptKi^fTf] 'rcceired;' not, how- 
ever, in a purely /)f7As/iv (Galat. i. 12, 
1 ii. 13), but, as the climactic or- 
der of the words (compare ii^covir. iced 
fiS ) seems to suggest, with a somewhat 
a<r/(¥ reference (John i. 11, 1 Cor. xv. 
1) ; comi)aiv nioii.-IIalic. i. p. 44, Af'yw 
& irap^ rwv iyxteplwv wapt\aL0ov ((|ua: nb 
incolis perrrpi). and the somewhat simi- 
lar ava\afi(7v iv KopSla, Job xxii. 22. 
The distinction of Grot. ' «VadfT« signifi- 
cat primam institutionem : iraptKiBtrt 
exactiorcm dix'trinam ' (iyyp<i(i>ais, The- 
oph., — but qu. reading) seoms lexically 
doubtful : for examples of irapaK. seo 
Kypke, OL-:. Vol. ii. p. 222. 




Chap. IV. lo. 

^^ ^E-^aprju Be ev Kvpiw fie'^aXas^, on Ijcr} 

Ye iiave freely •jTQTe ave^u\eT6 TO vTTeo iuLov (boovelv id) <5 Kal 

ny needs, and ' ' ' ' ' ' 

I rejoiced in your renewed 

aid : yet 1 iim content and 

want not. 

supplied my 

God shall supply yours. 

TjKovaaT e does not refer to any form 
of teaching or preaching ('refertur ad 
familiares sermones,' Grot., Hammond), 
but, as the division of members, noticed 
above, seems to require, to the example 
which the apostle had set them wlien he 
was with tliem ; — this they heard from 
others, and further saw for themsclvco. 
'Ec t/jLol thus belongs more especially to 
the two latter verbs, the prep. eV denot- 
ing the sphere, and as it were substratum 
of the action; see notes on Galat. i. 24, 
and Winer, Gr. § 48. a, p. 345. 
ravra ir pdff a er (] Parallel to the 
preceding ravra \oyi(i(r^e, without how- 
ever suggesting any contrast between 
* acting ' and ' thinking ; ' KoyiC (see 
notes) having a distinctly practical ref- 
erence ; see Meyer in loc. 
Kal 6 &ehs K. T. A.] ' and {so) the God 
oj" peace;' compare ver. 7, where koI has 
a similarly consecutive force, and see 
notes on ver. 12. The expression 6 Qebs 
T?js elp. admits of different explanations 
according to the meaning assigned to 
elpTiui}, see Eeuss, TIM. Clir€t. iv. 18, 
Vol. II. p. 201. Here there seems no 
reason to depart from the meaning as- 
signed in ver. 7 ; the gen. being a form 
of the gen. o^ content, or (wJiich is nearly 
allied to it) of tlie characterizing attribute ; 
see Schcucrl. Si/nt. ^ IG. 3, p. llo, and 
comp. Andrcwcs, Serin, xviii. Vol. ii. 
p. 84 (A.-C. Libr.). 

10. ixo-pi]v Se] ' JSow I rejoiced:' 
transition to more special matters, the Se 
being /ieTaiSaTi/ccJ;/ (Ilartung, Partik. Vol. 
I. p. 1G5), and marking the change to a 
new subject ; ilra koX irepl rSiv TrefKp^ev- 
rwv Trap' avTwv ypdcpd xpVM^^'^'^f 1 hcod. 
The addition tv Kvpicfi serves to define 
the nature of the joy ; it was neither 
Eelfish nor earthly, it was in his Lord 
and without Him was not ; see notes on 

ch. iii. 1. ^Stj vore] 'now 

at length,' ' tandem aliquando,' Vulg., 
Rom. i. 10 ; more fully expressed in Aris- 
toph. Ran. 931, ^5jj ttot' eV p.aKp'2 xpovca, 
— ■^Srj acquiring that meaning from ref. 
to something long looked for ; see Har- 
tung, Partik. i)5r), 2. 4, Vol. i. p. 238. 
De Wette adopts the tran:ilation ' jetzt 
einmal,' 'jam aliquando' (comp. Plato, 
Si/rnp. p. 216 e), on the ground tliat the 
more usual transl. involves a tacit re- 
proach. This is not the case. The 
apostle, as the Pliilippians well knew, in 
all cases preferred maintaining himself: 
now, however, his captivity seemed to 
call for their aid ; compare Neand. Plti- 
li/'p. p. 2.5. ayiiyd- 

A 6 T 6 KT. \.] ' jiut forth new shoots, 
flourished again, in respect of your solici- 
tude fjr me;' ' refloruistis ])ro me sen- 
tire,' Vulgate, and less literally, Syriac 

> aSa? y^.i^ll^k ,oA.S^]9 [ut 

coepistis curam habere mei]. There is 
some little difficulty both in the construc- 
tion and the exegesis. The verb avu- 
bdWeiv may be either transitive (Ezek. 
x^ii. 24, Ecclus. i. 18), or intransitive 
(Psalm xxviii. 7, Wisdom iv. 4). In 
the former case the construction is plain 
(rh vTtfp K. r. \. being a simjjle accusa- 
tive after the verb), but the exegesis un- 
sati.^factory, as the ava'^dWeiv would ap- 
pear dependent on the will of the Phi- 
lipj)ians, which the context certainly 
seems to contradict. In the latter, adopt- 
ed by Vulg., Copt., Syr., and the Greek 
commentators the exegesis is less diflS- 
cult, but the construction somewhat am- 
biguous. Either (a) rh vntp ifiov is the 
accus. object, after (ppovuv, the verb it- 
self being somewhat laxly appended to 
aviStdk., Beng., Mcy., Alf, ; or (h) rh 
virep ffiov (ppovi'iv is the accus. of tho 

Chap IV. 11. P IT I I. I P P I A N S . 107 

^(^povtLTt, t'/Kaipeia^e 6t'. ^^ ov^ on ku^V uaTeprjcriv Xtyw t'/M 

qitaiititiitu'f oI)ject (uotcii on Ejik. iv. l.'i) 
depciKk'iit oil ai/t^aXtTf, AViniT, Gram. 
§ 44 I, |i. 284, Wiesiii;,'., Bi>p., anil ap- 
parently Clirvsost. and Tlieopliyl. (wlio 
interpolates «ij). Of tluse (<i) is artifi- 
cial and contrary to ilio current ami kc- 
qncnce of the Greek : {/<) is simple and 
intelli;iil)le, hut certainly involves the 
ditlirulty that the followinj; clause (it wc 
retain tlic iiro;>cr and ohvious reference 
of «<p' (^) will in f;irt he i<p(>ovuTt in] T(fi 
virif) ifiov (pfjoy(7v. As, however, this 
logical diniiulty may be diluted hy oh- 
serving tiiat <ppoy(7v U not used exactly 
in the same sense in rhc two clauses, — 
rh inrip ijjiov (pp in fact coalcsciiij: to form 
a new idea, — and jus (<i) is not only ar- 
tificial, hut involves an undue emphasis 
on rh lirlp iixov, we somewliat confident- 
ly ado|)t [h) : so Wie.-inu;. and BisjiinL:. 
Lastly, ayfbi\frf does not involve any 
censure {on vpoTtpav tivrts av^pol ijxa- 
pivb7)(Tav, Cliry.<ost ) : the time du: in;,' 
wliich i)Kaipovvro was the period of un- 
avoidahle torpor; when the suitahle time 
and opportunity eanic, avibaKov, comp. 
Andrewes, Scrm. xviii. Vol. iii. jt. 09 
(A.-C. Lihr.). The rare aor. 

kvib. is noticed hy Winer. § 13, Duttm. 
Irri'iJ. T'cr/w, s. v. daAAoi. 
t<J)' y] ' for whii-li,' ' with a view to 
whiih,' 'in contemplation of which ; ' 
the tVl mai kin;; the object contcmi)lated : 
not ' sicut,' Vul;;., Syr., ' in quo,' Copt., 
intcrpix'tations which obscure the pro])er 
force of the pri'positions. On the mean- 
ings of ^<;>' w, sec the notes on ch. iii. 12. 
Kal i<ppovt IT (]' i^e also were a nrio<is, 
careful;' imperf.. marking the coiitinu- 
anco of the action, to which the koI adds 
a further empha,-is : ' your care for mc 
was of no sudden growth, it did not show 
itself just when tho need came, — far 
from it, you were also anxious long l>c- 
forc you h'ti^dKfTf.' Tho omission of 
tth after ((pp^f. gives, as Meyer observes, 

a greater vigor to the aniiiheMs; see 
Klotz, Deiiir. Vol. ii. ]>. 3jG, compare 
notes on GaK ii. 15. 

^Kaipt'ia^t] ' tjt were lacLli.y opportu- 
iiiti/ ; ' i. e. ' it was not from any Larreu- 
iiimt on y<jur part,' Wonlsw. 'Axaip. (an 
air KfySfi.) is u word of later Greek, the 
ojiposite of which is tvKanptlv («i trxo^^^iS 
tX(«>'). a form equally condemned by tho 
Atiicists ; Loheck, Phnjn. p. 125, Thorn. 
M p. 830. Clirysostom refers tho term 
specially to tho temporal meani of tho 

Phil o'uK (XxfTf iv Xf/"^"'. "JSt iv OL^O- 

fi:t 7iT(, and urges tiie poj.ular use of 
o«o;p. in tliat sense. It may have liccn 
so ; it seems, however, safer to jircservo 
the ordinary temporal reference ; see 

11. o X oTi] 'not lliul,' '/ do ifA 
linen lliut :' see notes on ch. iii. 12, Wi- 
ner, Or. § G4. 6, p. 52C. The apostlo 
docs not wish his joy at this proof of 
their sympathy to be mi-understood as 
mere sati.-faction at l<eing rclicved from 
present want or ])ressure. Kab' 

va r f pr\a iv\ 'in consefjueiice of ifuiit,' 
' propter peimriam,' Vulg., sim. Syriac 

^^ • '>•'"* Nw^^wls [propterca quod 

defucrit inihi] ; sec notes on chap. ii. 3, 
and 0)1 Tit. iii. 5, whero tliis meaning of 
Kara, is briefiy investigated. Van Ilcng., 
to preserve the more u u;il meaning of 
tho prep., gives vaftpy)<Tiv a concrete ref- 
erence, ' ut more recepium est ]>enuri:c ; ' 
this is artificial and unnecessari-. Tho 
meaning is simply oxi 5ii r^v iaijv XP''«'*'» 
Theodorct ; * no:io S'Cniidum facile tran- 
sit in notionem jirojtter' Kiiliner, Xcn- 
oph. .l/(;/i. I. 3. 12. iyit 

yit.p tuabov] ' for I for %iiy fMtit hn»e 
ItiirneJ,' not ' learned,' Alf., which repre- 
sents tho action as too remote to suit tho 
Kmjlish idiom. In tho Greek nothing 
more is said than that the ^iai'.^eb'<ii' took 
place afler a given time (see Donalds. 

108 PHILIPPIANS. Chap. IV. 12. 

fyap efjba^ov iv oh eifu avrdpKr]<i elvai. ^ olBa icai Taireivova-^ai^ 

Gr. § 432) ; whether it does or does not 
last to the present time is left unnoticed ; 
Bee especially Fritz, de Aor. Vi, p. 16 
sq. The iycD is emphatic, ' quidquid 
alii sentiunt aut cupiunt,' and i/xa^ou, as 
the tenor of the verse seems to ^indicate, 
refers to a teaching derived, not ' divini- 
tus,' Bcnf^., but, from the practical ex- 
periences of life ; Sia twv ivavriuv oSevwy, 
velpav f\a0ov iKavr,v, Theod. 
iv oXs ilixt] * in what state I am:' 
not, on the one hand, with reference 
merely to his present state, which is too 
limited. — nor on the other hand, with 
reference to any possible state, ' in quo- 
cunqne statu sim,' Eaphel (compare 
Auth.), which would require &v, — but 
with reference to the state in which he is 
at the time of consideration ; almost ' in 
every state that I come into.' The 
expression eV oTs (no ellipse of xpVa- 
atv, Wolf, al.), is copiously illustrated 
by Wetstein in he. ; see also Kj-pke, 
Obs. Vol. II. p. 319. 

ovTttpKTjs] ' content' ' ut sufficiat mihi 
id quod est mihi,' Syr. (compare Ileb. 
xiii. 5, apKovnepoi rois irapovaiv), literally 
self-supporting,' ' independent,' the op- 
posite being, as Meyer observes, irpotr- 
hei)s &\Xoiv, Plato, Tim. 33 d ; compare 
Arist. Ethic. Nic. I. 5, rh riXuov aycu^hf 
avrapKfs elf at SoKe7 : see notes o?i 1 7"//;;. 
vi. 6, and Ban-ow, Serm. xxxvi. Vol. 
II. p. 404. The practical inferences de- 
ducible from this verse are well stated 
by Sanderson, Serm. v. (ad Aul.). 

12. oTSa KOi T aire If.] 'I Icnoiv 
(how) also to he abased: ' second member 
of the climax {ei.t.adov K.T.\.,olSa k. t.\., 
(ieij.v7)ixai K. T. A.) explaining more in de- 
tail the preceding eV oh eifj.\ aurapK. ehai : 
the apostle, as Andrewes well say.s, ' had 
stayed nffcctions.' The first koI thus 
serves to annex the special instance (to- 
veiv.) to the more (jeneral statement (see 
notes on Eph. v. 18, Winer, Gr. § 53. 3, 

p. 388, ed. 6), the second appends to 
Taiteiv. its opposite, and is tlius copula- 
tive and indirectly contrastive. The use 
of Kol in the N. T., as tlie Aramaic Q 
would have led us a priori to supi)ose, is 
somewhat varied. Tliougli all are re- 
ally included in tlie two broad distinc- 
tions et and etiam (see especially Klotz, 
Devar. Yol. ii. p. 63.5), we may perhaps 
conveniently enumerate the following 
subdivisions. Under the first {et) koI 
ajipears as, (o) simply copulative ; (j8) 
adjunctive, i. e. either when the special is 
annexed to the general as here, JMark i. 
5, Eph. vi. 19, al., or conversely the gen- 
eral to the special, Matthew xxvi. 59 ; 
(7) consecutive, nearly ' and so,' verse 
9, 1 Thessalonians, iv. 1, compare James 
ii. 23, Matthew xxiii. 32, al. Under 
the second (etiam) Ka\ appears as, (S) 
ascensive, ' even,' a very common and 
varied usage (compare notes on Ephe- 
sia)is, i. 11), or conversely, descensive, 
Gal. iii. 4, Eph. v. 12, where see notes ; 
(e) explanatory, approaching nearly to 
'namely,' 'that is to say,' John i. 16, 
Gal. ii. 20, vi. 16, where see notes ; (Q 
comparative, especially in doublc-mem- 
bered clauses, see notes on Eph. v. 23 ; 
to all which we may perhaps add a not 
uncommon use of Ka(, which may be 
termed (rj) its contrasting force, as here 
(2^ Koi), and more strongly, JIark xii. 
12, 1 Tliess. ii. 18; compare 1 Cor. ix. 
5, 6 (2^ Kai). In such a case I lie parti- 
cle is not adversative, as often asserted, 
but copulative and contrasting ; the op- 
position arises merely from the juxtapo- 
sition of clauses involving opposing or 
dissimilar sentiments. These seven 
heads apparently include all the more 
common uses of koI in tlie N. T. ; for 
further examples see the well an-anged 
list in Bruder, Concord, s. v. Kal, and the 
much improved notice in the sixth ed. 
of Winer, Gr. § 53. 3. The 

Chap. IV. 12, 11. 

I'll I l-I I'l'I A NS. 


olSa Kal 'rreptcrcreveiv eV ttuvtI kuI tv ttlktiv fiefxvTjfiai, kui X^I'"^^' 
^taViat Ka\ Treiudu, Kal iT:pia<jev:iv Koi vaTepda'^Aai. ^' Truma 

rcadin;: 5i (olSa 8«) of Tier, lias sc.iriLly 
ony iiutliuriry, uml is ri^'liily i-ejected Ity 
ajj|)aromly all iiioderu editors. 
Wfoifffffufiv] 'to iifivitriJ.' 'I'lio op- 
posilioii between TaJr««f. and wtpiaa. is 
not e.\ai.tly perfect (contrast -Matili. 
xxiii. 12, 2 Cor. xi. 7, and altovc, Pliil. 
ii. 8, 9), liut still need not in\olvc a de- 
parture from l!ie lexical meaning; of ei- 
ther word. The former ( ravuv. ) is more 
general ('to bo cast down,' — not ex- 
pressly, Xiymnritv, (Ecum., and sim. 
even Do W.), but obviously includes 
the idea of the jiressure and dejection 
arising from want (com]). -lEth.); the 
latter i-i more specific. The jiaraphrase 
ofPclag. (cited by Miycr) is thus per- 
fectly satisfactory', ' ut nee abundiiitia 
extollar, nee franj:ar ino]iiJ. 
iv irofTl Ka\ iv itaffiv] ' in evcry- 
Uiinfj and in all thiiKjs.' ' in omni et in 
omnibus,' Clarom., Goth., not ' uhique 
et in omnibus,' Vulg., Auth., — an as- 
sumed ellipsis of TfJa-M (Chrys. supplies 
Xpii"?) which cannot be substaniiatcd 
any more than that of ii'dptiiroi? (Denjj.) 
after iruffti' ; compare 2 Cor. ix. 8. Tho 
expression seems desiqrncd to be per- 
fectly {Tcneral and inclusive, ii- irarrl 
irpiyt*" '^"^ ^^ ■"■''<''' Tors iraptjuiriirroucTi, 
Phot. ap. G2cum. it.fn.iin-\ 'I have hern initiated, fiillif tnu ihl,' 
' institutus sum,' Vul;;., Clarom., Copt. ; 

PI w^'ti.Lo [oxcrcitatus sum] Syr., 

' assuctus sum,' .Eth. ; — climactic, sec 
above. The word is an Sir. Xtyifx. in 
the N. T., and ap|>ears used, not in its 
primary sense, 'discipline arcan;\ imbutus 
sum,' Bcnp;. {tivovntvos- ixvirrayaiyoitif- 
yoi, Ilesydi.), but in its derivative sense, 
' I have been fully instructed ' (fii-rjaif 
^oi^cri;, KaTi'ixi}<Tts, Ilesyih.), with per- 
haps some n^fereiicc to the practical mode 
in which tho knowledge was acquired ; 

■Kfipay anayTui> (x'^t Phot ap. CKcum. ; 
sec Suicer, Tlnsnur. a. v. Vol. ii. p. 379 
sq. As ixut'iaicu is used wi:!i an accus. 
of t!ie thin;,' (IMito, Sjiiip. p. :iO.) I-., and 
seecxamiiL's in Uost u. Pa m, hr s. v.), 
mo:e rarely wiihaj.i.n. (Ikliod. ^Elhiop. 
I. 17, see Lobeck, AjUtopli. p. C5l note) 
or dat. (Luciaii, Demon. II ), some mod- 
ern commentators (Mey., Alf.) join 4if 
■Kosn] K. T. A. witli the infinitives. This 
is har.h and somewhat hypercritical ; 
fivfla^cu appears with a prep. (Kari) ia 
3 Mace. ii.«>0, and is probably so to be 
joined here; so Syr., Vu!.;., Clarom., 
Goth , and appy. Copt., J£i\i 
irt tvay] Later form for irdvTiV. see Wi- 
ner, Gram. ^ 13. 3, p. "I, Thorn. M. p. 
C99 •. ' vulgaris horum vcrborum scrip- 
tura cum in;^i"cssu Macedonit i icvi, ten- 
uis scaturijiinis instar, hie ibi cmicat,' 
Lo!>cck, P/iri/n. p. CI. The verb x^R" 
Ta^a>, properly used in ref. to animals 
(llcslod, 0/>. 454, Aristoph. Pax, 176, 
Plato, I2rp. II. p. 372 d, comp. ix. p. 
.5SG d), is found always in the N. Test, 
(except Rev, xix. 21), and very com- 
monly in later writers, in simple ref. to 

13. -wdyra i <r x "^ «] ' ^ can do all 
tliin;}.-!,' — not 'all this,' Hammond on 
1 Cor. xiii. 7, ' omnia mcmorata,' Van 
Ilenrj., but 'all things,' with the most 
inclusive reference, marking: the transi- 
tion from the special to the general. 
Bernard (5cr;«. lxxxv.) well says, ' ni- 
hil omnipotentiam Vcrbi clariorem 
rcddit, quam quod omnipotentcs facit 
omnes qui in se [co] spenint ; ' see a 
good sermon on this text by Hammond, 
S<rm. XIV. p. 297 (A.-C. Libr.). noira 
is the accus. of the ' quantitative ' object 
after laxva (Gal. v. 6, James v. IG, Wis- 
dom xvi. 20), delining the mcasuiv and 
extent of the action ; see Madviir. Si/nt. 
§ 27. ff r<f iySvf.] 'in 



Chap. IV. 14 15 

layixo iv TOi evSvva/xovvTL fie. ^* TfKrjv KoX.cb'i iTroLi'jaare avyKOC' 
vojv/jaavre^ fiov rr} ^Xn^ei. ^^ oiBare Be koI vfjieU, ^iXiinrricnoi, 
on iv cLp^rj tov euayyeXiov, ore i^ifk^ov airo MaK€Sovia<;, oliBefila 

Him that r/ireth me inward strength ; ' not 
' per eura,' Ccza, l)Ut ' in Ilioij' in vital 
anil livin,i; union with Ilini who is the 
only source of all spiritual Swafiis ; com- 
pare 1 Tim. i. 12, 2 Tim. iv. 17, and 
Ignat. ad Smijrn. § 4. The late form 
(vSwaixoo! occurs six times in St. Paul's 
Epistles, in Acts ix. 22, and Hcb. xi. 34 
(see notes o)i 1 Tim. i. 12), Psalm Hi. 7, 
and cccl. writers. The simple form oc- 
curs Col. i. 11, Psalm Ixviii. 31, and is 
noticed by Lobcck, Phrrjn. p. 605 note. 
The inteq)olation of Xpicrif after jue 
(Rec.) is well supported [I)aEFGKL; 
Boern., Syr. (both), Goth., al. ; Gr. Ff.], 
but seems due to 1 Tim. i. 12, and is 
"ejected by most modern editors. 

14. ttA^i/ k. t. \.^ ' Notwithstanding 
ye did weU ; ' clearly not ' ye have done 
■well,' Pcilc, — the event referred to be- 
longed definitely to the past. In this 
verse and the following, which in fact 
present the positive side to the negative 
ovx oTi, verse 11, the apostle guards 
against any appearance of slighting the 
liberality of his converts (Chrys., Calv.), 
by specifying what peculiarly evoked 
his joy, — the sympathij of the Philippi- 
ans, T^ iTtr/KOiv(i)v?i<rat ftov rfj S)\i^ei. For 
the explanation of irXi^v see notes on ch. 
i. 18, ill. 16, and for examples of the 
idiomatic KaXUs tir. with a part. (Acts 
X. 33), see Eisner, Obs Vol ii. p. 257. 
(Tvy Ko IV wv. K. T. \.] 'in that ye com- 
municated, had flloicship, with 7iij/ afflic- 
tion,' see notes on Eph. v. 11 : specifica- 
tion of their action viewed in its moral 
aspects ; vixSiv toDto KepSos- Koivoifo] yap 
Toiu ffiuiy tYeVefr,^^ ira^fj.dTui', Thcod. 
The action of the participle is contempo- 
raneous with that of the finite verb (see 
Bemhardy, Si/nt. x. 9, p. 383, notes on 
Eph. i. 9, comp. Winer, Gr. § 45. 6. b, 
p. 316), and specifies the act in which 

tlie (caAws eTToi-fjcraTe was evinced. It is 
scarcely necessary to add that ^\i^ei is 
not either here or 2 Cor. viii. 13, ' penu- 
riaj ' (' necessity,' Peile), but simply 'trib- 
ulationis,' Vulg. : the gift of the Philipp. 
is regarded from a iiighcr point of view, 
as an act of ministering pympatliy. 

15. oiSare 8f Koi v/x.] ' Alonover 
yourselves also know ; ' notice of their for- 
mer liberality in the way of gentle con- 
trast. Ae here does not merely annex 
an ' enlargement upon ' the preceding 
verse (Pcilc, 'and,' Scholcf.), but passes 
to earlier acts, which it puts in juxtapo- 
sition with the present ; see notes on Gal. 
iii. 8, and Klotz, Dei-ar. Vol. ii. p. 356, 
362, who has well discussed this parti- 
cle, with the single exception that he 
denies any connection between it and 
the numeral, which seems philologically 
certain; Donalds. Cratijl. § 155. The 
Kol suggests a comparison with the apos- 
tle, ' ye too, as well as I ; ' comp. notes 
on ver. 12. 4>i\j7r7ri7(r«oj] 

' men of Philippi.' The mention by 
name is emphatic (compare 2 Corin. vi. 
11); it does not mark merely affection 
('my Philippians,' Bisp.), but specifies 
them, gratefully and earnestly, as the 
well remembered and acknowledged do- 
ers of the good deed. Beng. goes rather 
too far when he says, ' innuit antithcton 
ad alias ecclesias ; ' the comparison is 
instituted in what follows. 
8 T e e I "; A ,& o »/] ' when I went out,' 
'quando profectus sum,' Vulg., sell, at 
the time that event took place. It is 
doubtful whether the npostle alludes (n) 
to the assistance supplied to him when 
at Corinth, and especially mentioned 2 
Cor. xi. 9; or {b) to that supplied pre- 
viously to, and possibly at, his depart 
urc. Acts xvii. 14. If (a), then i^?,\bov 
must be regarded as having a pluperfect 

Cirxi'. IV. IG. 



fioi ^KKKiiaia tKOtvujUTjcrcu (is' \uyov Bucreco'i Kal X/y/i'v//-e&)?, ei /xr; vfiel^ 
fiovoi, ' ' uTL Kal iv 6t(Taa\oviKr) kuI aira^ Kal hU etv tj;// yjpeiav fiot 

refcrciRO ( \'aii Hen;;., Do \V., see Pu- 
ley, Ilor. Paul, vii 3), — an interpreta- 
tion to wliiili no serious ^rramniutifal ob- 
jection lan lie urjjjed (Jelf, Crum. ^ 404, 
Winer, Ginm. § 40. 5 ; 8ec, liowevcr, 
Fritzseli, </-' Aor. p. 16), lint wliiih seems 
at variance witii iv a^xri rov tvayy., 
wliieli, as Meyer oltscrves, refers tlio 
event to the earliest jteriod of tlieir con- 
nection with tiio iipostle. It seems safer, 
tlicn, to adopt (/<) ; so Meyer, Aif., and 
IJisi). i KO IV d) vriff ( V 

K. T. X.] ' rommunicaltd with (' dealt with,' 
Andrewc>>) me in rcijard of the account 
(ver. M ) of yivinfj iind rectivliifj ; ' fls 
xSyof not Itein^ taken in the more lax, 
yet defensible sense, ' rationc habit.'i,' 
Van llenL.'. (comp. 2 Mace. i. 14, Thu- 
cj'd. iii. 40), but, as tis K6yov below seems 
to su;.r;:est, in tlie stricter meaning:, ' in 
rationc dati et acccpti,' Vulg., Gothic, 
Copt.; compiiro Cicero, LckI. xvi. (53), 
' ratio accej)torum ct datorum.' The 
exact meaning of the words is sligiitly 
doubtful. Chrys., Tlieopii., nearly all 
the earlier, and the great majority of re- 
cent expositors refer the giving and re- 
ceiving 10 each party ; 6p^s irus iKotvw- 
tn)aav, tis K6yov SSfffws rwf aapKiKuv Kol 
A^/i^cws ruiv irvfj^ariKuv, Chrys. ; comp. 
1 Cor. ix. 11. (irotius and others limit 
the giving to the I'liilippians and the re- 
ceiving to t!ic apostle ; ' ego sura in ves- 
tris expensi talmlis, vos in mcis accepti.' 
Meyer (followed by Alf.) extends this 
8o far that each party is sujiposod to 
open an account with the otlicr, but that 
the debtor side was vacant in tlieir ac- 
count, the creditor in his. This last in- 
torpr. seems so artificial, and the first so 
fairly analogous with the spiritual np- 
plicMtion in ver. 17, that we see no reason 
for ilc[)artinix fium the ordinary interpre- 
♦ation ; so nnently Wiesing., and Ri<- 
,>iii^. Examples of the expression Xi]^is 

Kol 5({<rii arc cited by Wetstein in loc. ; 
compare also Sdioettg. Ilor. Vol. i. p. 
804. For the construction of xoivwiit. 
Bee notes on Gal. vi. 6. 

IC. Sri] ' btaiuse,' — nrgutnentativc 
(not demonstrative, 'that,' I'aley, Van 
Ileng., liilliet, al.), the object of this 
verse being to justify the statement, iv 
^I'XV "^"^ *"«77- (ver. IT)), by noticing a 
very early period when assistani-e was 
sent to the apostle from I'hilippi. Even 
Infore he had left Macedonia they had 
twice ministered to his necessity: so 
Goth. (' unic '), and perhaps, Vulg., Cla- 
rom., ' quia : ' the other Vv. are ambig- 
uous ; JEth. omits. The other interpre- 
tation of oTi reverses the order of time, 
and disturbs the logical sequence, 
(fol 4v 0«<r<r.] ' eren in Thtssalonica,' 
not ' to The.ssalonica,' Vulg., Claroman., 
but, ' when I was in that city.' There is 
here no ellipse of (5i^t (Beza), nor a di- 
rect instance of the jjreposition of rest in 
comliinaiion with a verb of motion (Mcy., 
Alf.), but only a case of simple and in- 
telligible braehylogy, Winer, Gr. § 50. 
4, p. 369. The ascensive koI is referxcd 
by the early commentators to the imijor- 
tance of Thessalonica ; iv ttj fjn\rpoiti\fi 
Ko^fifvos xaptt Ti'iJ fiiKpat irpi<pfTO ■w6- 
\((D^, Chrys. This is doubtful ; it seems 
moa' naturally ascensive in n-fercnce to 
tiinf, ' even at so early a period as when 
I was at Thessalonica;' compare liar- 
tung, Piirtik: Kai, 2. 8, Vol. i. p. 135. 
>fal fiiral k a\ Sis] ' lioth once and 
twice,' i.e. 'not once only, but twice.' 
emphatic: see 1 Thcssal. i. 18, Xehem. 
xiii. 30, 1 Mace. iii. 30, and Herod, ii. 
121. 2, III. 148. Meyer cites as the an- 
tithesis ovx fi»a{ oiiSf Sis, riato, Clitoph. 
p. 410 n. On kcu — Kai, see notes un 1 
Tim. iv. 10. 

€ i J T I) c X P * ^ « *"] ' '" *"/V''.V '".'/ "<■" 
ctssiti) ; €11 marking the ethical dcsii- 



Chap. IV. 17, 18. 

eTrefxyp-aje. ^'^ ov^ ore eTn^rjrci) to So/xa, aWa eTntrjTO) rov Kapirov 
TOP TrXeovd^ovra et? \6yov vficov. ^^ avre^co Be irdvra koX irepia- 

nation of the contribution; so els rh 
evayy., 2 Corinthians ii. 12, 'to preach 
the gosjjel ; ' see examples in Winer, Gr. 
^ 49. a, p. .3.54. The article marks the 
necessity the apostle then felt, i. e. ' my 
necL'ssiry,' Sjt., al. Chrysostom calls 
attention to the absence of the pronoun, 
O'JK elwe TCLS f/xas [xpf'as] o.\\' awAds, 
rov ffffxvov iinixe\6ixfvos : this is inexact, 
as the art. fully performs the function of 
the pronoun ; MickU. Art. v. 1. 3. 

17. ovx <iri] ^ not that;'' added, as 
before ver. 11, to avoid a misunderstand- 
ing ; see notes on cli. iii. 12 ; ' sic laudat 
Philippensiura liberalitatem ut tamen 
sinistram cupiditatis immodicae opinio- 
nem semper a se rejiciat,' Calvin, 
e TT J ^77 T oj] ' / seek after,' not ' studiose 
quaero,' Bretschneid., nor even ' insuper 
qufero/ Van Heng., who has an ehibo- 
rate, but not persuasive note on this 
word : the eVt, as in iTriirobeiu k. t. A., 
only marks the direction of the action, 
see notes on ch. i. 8, and on 2 Tim. i. 4. 
In many cases, in this and similar com- 
pounds, the directive force is so feebly 
marked that the diiference between the 
simple and compound is hardly appre- 
ciable ; compare Winer, de Verb. Comp. 
1. 22. Meyer rightly calls attention to 
the present. — the ' allzeitiges Prasens' 
of Kriiger {Sprarlil. § 53. l),as marking 
the rerjnlar ond characteristic mode of ne- 
tion ; see Bernhardj', Sijnt. x. 1, p. 370, 
and compare the English present, in 
which, however, habitude is more strong- 
ly marked than in the Greek ; Latham, 
Eng. iMng. § 507 (ed. 4). 
tJ» S({/xo] 'thegift,' — not exactly ' the 
gift which they had [now] sent him,' 
Scholef. Uints, p. 108, but ' the gift in 
the particular case in question ' (Mever, 
Alford), almost in Engliaii idiom 'any 
gift.' The Coptic [laio] seems to con- 
vey the idea of a recompense, ' honora- 

rium.' dAAct i-JTi^] 'but 

I do seek,' Alf. : the repetition of the 
same verb with o\Aci, as in Rom. viii. 
15, Heb. xii. 18, adds force and empha- 
sis, and makes the primary meaning of 
aWa (' aliud jam hoc esse de (juo sumus 
dicturi,' Ivlotz, Devar. Vol. 11. p. 1) still 
more apparent ; compare Fritz. Rom. 
viii. 15. rhv Kapiehv 

K T. A.] ' the fruit which ahoundith to 
your account,' vfiwv, ovk ffiov, Chrys. ; 
i. e. the future divine recompense, which, 
on every fresh proof of tlieir love, is rep- 
resented as being laid up to their account, 
6 Kapirhs eKfivois TlKTerai, Chrys. As 
■7r\fovd(eii' appears in all other cases in 
the N. T. to stand alone (2 Thess. i. 3 is 
doubtful ; Alford cites it here as certain, 
but in his notes in he. takes it different- 
ly). Van Heng. and De W. here connect 
ets with ent^vTU). This seems an unnec- 
essary refinement ; there is nothing in 
TrKfovd^o) to render its connection with 
els, as marking the dcstimitioh of tho 
vXeovaffixSs, either ungrammatical or un- 
natural : it is joined with eV [i'lato], 
Locr. p. 103 A. Theu e oi\6yos\s 

here the same as in verse 15, not ' habita 
vestrum ratione,' Van Heng., and cer- 
tainly not = eis iiiias (Kill.; compare 
Syr.), but 'in rationem vcstram,' Vulg., 
i. e., dropping all metaphor, els -r^v v/xeT- 
4f)av (TWTT)f)iav, Chrys. ; compare Calvin 
in loc. 

18. oTrextw Se irivTa.] ' But 1 have 
all T need ; ' ' though I seek not after the 
gift, I still have all things in abundance; 
your liberality has left me to want noth- 
ing.' The Se thus retains its proper op- 
positive force (not *andnow,' Pcile), and 
preserves the antithesis between the em- 
phatic airex<>> and the foregoing stti^tjtw , 
a.TTiX.'^ T^i-vra, ov^ev eiri^-qTViTeov. 'Aire'xa) 
is neither Itarely ' habco,' Vulg., nor yet 
with any special forensic sense (accepti- 

Cii.u-. IV. 18, 19. I'll 1 J. 1 1'l'i ANS, ll;J 

aevoj^ TreTrXi'ipoyfiat Be^dfit^i'O^i irapa ^Kira^pooiiov ra Trap vp.Cji>, 
oapLijv evfodiUy;, )^vaiav BeKjijv cvupearov t(o Gero. ''' o ot" Oco^ 

laiio) ' s:Ki. Ii.ihco,' • I ;;ivo _\oii my ac- ^ .'iSO. li) IjuI simjjly to llic ncrus ra rap' 

|uitt:iiico ' li.iiiitiudid uu Mail- xiv, 41 ; i/fiuin, wliiili is ilius furilicr ilciiiied mi J 

comijari; Clirvs. tSdfcf Uri optiKli tarl iliariR-icrizctl. It >.•< doulMlul wlictitL-r 

rh ir^u7Ma), liut t.itiii)!y ' ucccpiuiii teiico,' tliL- ;;eii. tJuj'tai ii lO l)-' coii>i.lcrL-(l a j^cn. 

. » iwitiiliL ( W., (jf. ^ M. 2. 1), |j. 212 note, 

A ' I *^ *•■ |:i(<-cpi| Svr., Copt., tlie iircii. » • /n . .•! g 

^ ' II.' 1 > II coiiipuru Ari.'^i. lUut. i. :t)or u {,t*u. of 

awb apijarciitly liaviu;^ a sli;j:litly iiiten- the c/ianicUrizinj <jiiultlj (sue Sclicuerl. 

Kivc forie (' si-nilicat ai-tioiiis (iiieiiilani, Sijut. ^ IC. 3, p. 115) ; the latter U pcr- 

ut ita dicaiii, dcur-iiini, atqiio aik-o in liaps most simple and most j:i harmony 

agendo pcrsevcr.intiam,' Winer, \'ib. wiili i!ic Ileliraistie ^/'i^e wlii(.!i gcems to 

Coinp. VI. p. 7), and niarkin;^ the com- mark tliese kinds of gen. in ilie N. T. ; 

jjckhiss u\\i\ dijinilire mitnir of ihc ixfiy ; eompare Winer, Gr. I. c. (text). 

compare Matli. vi. 2, .'), IG, Luko vi. 24, dvtriav k. r. \.] ' a sucrijice acceptable 

riiiloin l.'j, Anian, Ein'ct. in. 24 |p. {'iikI) nrll jikasing to (iml;' not ' nn ac- 

22.'', nl. liorh.j T^ -yap cjSaifiOi'oiy oTt- cepted sacrilicc sncli us is,' e:c., Peilc, 

X*<>' StTirdfTa & ibiAa, ami eoni])are Wi- (<omp. Syr.) ; hotli adjectives us well as 

ner, d'r. ^ 40. 4, p. 24 6. tlic p:-eccd iig 6(Tixr,f fvwS. (com]). Lev i. 

K o 1 irt pia (T f V ai\ ^ and abound ; ' ex- 9, I'J) standin;^ in connection witli rif 

pansion and amplilication of the prcced- Qeui, whicli thus f.dls under tlje jrcncral 

injj CLTrfxto, ' I have all I want and more liead of tlic da ive of ' interest ; ' see 

than all,' the following TreirArpojfiat com- Kriiger, Sjiracld. \ 48. 4. Tlic good 

plcting tlic climax; ' tlie Iliille mid deeds wliich t!io I'hilippiasis did towards 

Fiille Iialie ich,' Meyer. To supjily xa- the a|)0>ilo bi come, liom the spirit in 

pun after ireir\r,p. (Grot.) is to wliolly width tiiey were dor.c (comj). Chrys.), 

mar the simplicity and climactic force of an acceptable sacriliiu to Liotl Himself. 

the sentence. St ^dutvos It does not seem necessary with John.^on 

K. T. \.\ Temporal clause, ' now that I [i'uU. S<:cr. ii. 4, Vol. i. p 4'>G [.V.-C. 

have received,' I'eile. ' postciupiain ae- Lihr.], compare Ii-cnteus, ILvr. iv. 18) 

eepi,' EriL'^m. ; compare Ponald.s. (jr. to conclude that the alms brought by 

^ 573 sq. Ill the following word,; there is I'.paphr. had been ofl'crcd l)y the people 

a slight variation of MSS. \.\. omits at the altar : the sacrilice of alms is on* 

rcaph. 'Eir. : FCl, al. sujiply ir(jU(^de»'Ta af of the spiritual and evangelical sacrififva 

icr lifitL'i'], caused inobalily by the recur- specially noticed in the N. T., e.if. Ilcb. 

ivnce of 5rape£ : there is, however, no dif- xiii. 16; see the comprehcnsivo list in 

liculiy ; vfif7s'Ewa(ppoSir(i> i5u!KaTf,'F.ita- Waterland, /.^oc/. ©/"/.'mA. cli. xii. Vol. 

(ppoSiTOi iuol, Thcodorct. i\. p. 7.^0 

ixruijv CPU'S I as] ' a sirrrt-snwiliiitj sa- 19. i Si Qt6f nov] Not without 

tor;' accus. in apjiosition to t'lC preccd- emphasis and nn expression of lioi>oful 

ing TO vap' vfiwf; compare T,\>h. v. 2, tra>t, 'qui mcam ngit causam.' Van 

and notes >n lor. The reference of A!f. Hong. ; see notes on chaj). i. 3. 

to Kiilmcr, '/;•. Vol. it. ji. 14G, and the irXrjpdff ft k r. k] ' sliuil fulfil (with 

examples cited (Horn. //. xxtv.7'^.'>, Ku- reciprocating reference to »«ir\. ver. 18) 

rip. Onst. 950) are not (piitc in point, as erer;/ nrrd of i/mtrs ;' not in the firm of 

the apposi.ion is not to the verbal action prayer (^Tci'xeTai o'"'to?j, Cliry.s.), but of 

contained in tlio sentence (Jelf, Girim. hopeful promise, tlie future wKftpiLatt bc- 




Chap. IV. 20, 21. 

fiov irXrjpoiaei iraaav '^^peiav vixwv Kara ro ttXouto? avrov iv Bo^ij 
ev Xpio-To) ^Irjaov. ^^ tS Be Gecp Kal irarpl yfiwv rj ho^a et? Tov<i 
alcbva^ ro)v alcoucov, dfiijv, 

^^ 'AaTrdaaa^e irdvra aytov iv Xpcard) 'Irjaov. 

All here send you 

iiig- distinctly predictive ; compare Rom. 
xvi. 20, 2 Cor. xiii. 11, 2 Tim. iv. 18. 
The rcadinn: irKripaia-ai [DVFG ; several 
mss. ; Vul^., Clarom., al.], followed hy 
Tlieod., Theophylact, seems clear!}' a 
gloss. It is doubtful whether xp^''"' is; 
to be referred solely to temporal (Ciirys.), 
or solely to spiritual (Theodor.) wants. 
The use of xpf'« ^"f^ ^''^ preeedino; allu- 
sions are in favor of the formei- ; the use 
of irKovros and the immediate context, 
of the latter : the inclusive form of the 
expression seems to justify our uniting 
both. i V S d I j;] ' in (/Ion/ ; ' 

not so much an instrumental (Meyer, 
Alf ) as a modal clause, closely in union 
with eV Xp., the former pointing to the 
manner in which God will supply tlieir 
wants, — not, however, merely ' magni- 
ficc, splendide,' Calv. (compare Bcng.), 
but with reference to the element or the 
attribute in which the action will be 
evince:!, — while h> Xp. 'Irjcr. specifies 
the ever-blessed sphere in whicli alone 
all is realized ; see notes on Ephcs. ii. 7. 
iSo apparently Chrys., outw irepifffTfiei 
vfxTf aTravTa ware iv Sd^r; avrov tX^"'- 
Grotius and others (comp. ..^th.) con- 
nect eV B6l]i with ir\ovTos ; this is gram- 
matically admissible, — the cxjiression 
TrXouTeiv iv rivi (1 Tim. vi. 18) justify- 
ing the opiission of the article (sec notes 
on Eii/i. i. IS), — and certainly deserves 
consideration, but the remark of IMcyer, 
that irXouTos is always used in the N. T. 
in such metaphorical expressions with a 
gen. of the thing (Rom. ii. 4, ix. 23, 2 
Cor. viii. 2, Ephcs. i. 7, 18, ii. 7, iii. 16, 
Col. i 27), and that we should have ex- 
pected KOTO rh ir\ovTOS 7?iS S. avrov, 
seems to strike the balance in favor of 
tAtj/j. iv S6^ri : so apparently Syr., but 

these are cases in whicli the Vv. cannot 
safely be adduced on either side. 
Kara rh ttA.] ' accordinfj to,' i.e. "in 
accordance with tlic riches He has ; ' 
compare notes on Epk. i. 5. The clause 
involves a shade of modal reference, and 
marks on evKoKov outw koI SvvaTov, koI 
Tox^'^s ifoiuv, Chrys. 

20. 0€&) Kal irarpi] 'to God and 
our Father ; ' anticipatory doxology 
called forth !)y the preceding words. On 
the august title 0eJ>$ kuI Trar-np, see notes 
on Gal. i. 4. 7] Si^a] Scil. 

€n), not icrrai ; see notes on Ephesians 
i. 2. The article seems here to have its 
' rhetorical ' force (Bernhardy, Synt. vi. 
22, p. 315), and to mark the 5ci|a as that 
' which especially and peculiarly belongs 
to God ;' see notes on Gal. i. 5, where 
this and the following expression, ««j 
TO'js aliiivas rwv alcivwv, are briefly inves- 
tigated. On the two formulie aiihv twv 
alcivcov, and alwvis rccv alwvwv, see Ilar- 
less on Ejih. iii. 21, with however the 
qualifying remarks in notes in Inc. 

2\ . IT d V r a 07401'] ' erei'j saint •• ' 
not ' omnes sanctos,' Syr.. Copt., JEih , 
but ' omncm sanctum,' Vulg., Clarom : 
it does not apply to the whole Church, 
but, as Beng. suggests, indirid ah'zcs ; 
each one is specially saluted ; so Conyb., 
Wies., Alf. On the term dyios and its 
apjilication in the N. T., see notes on 
Eph. i. 1 . It is doubtful whether iv Xp. 
is to be joined with aandcraaiie (compare 
Rom. xvi. 22, 1 Corin xvi. 19) or with 
S,ytov (eh. i. 1 ) ; the former is adopted 
by Syr. (plui-al) and Thcod. (6 ry Kvpiu 
'l7?(roC irtffTcioov) ; the latter by Mey. and 
several modern interpreters. As S,yios 
is connected in this Epistle with iv Xp. 
(comp. Rom. xvi. 3, 8, 9, 10, 13), and 

CiiAP. IV. 22, 23. 

nil LirriANS 


uavu^ovTtti u/xav ot crvv e/xol dBe\<pot. — acnru^oirai v/j.d^ Trainee 
o'l ciyioi, fiuXicTTa Se ol €k t/}? Kalaapo^ otKi'a<i. 
liriwdiciioi.. -3 'JJ ■^(Ipi'i ToO Kvpi'ov ^I-qcov Xpia-ov fiera tou 

'TTvevp.a-ro^ V/J.COU. 

us LtnrdC Joes not appear elsewhere used 
witli ii> Xp or if Xp. 'iTjff., Init only with 
if Kupicfi, tlic latter is perhaps 8li;,'htly 
t.'ie most |)robaItle. 

ol ffiif ifiol aBf \<poi\ Those wlio 
were more iniinoiliatoly in eonimunira- 
tloii wiih the apostle, suitalily ami natu- 
rally si)ciilk'(l before the inclusive navrfi 
oi aytot in ihe Ajllowinf; verse. The ap- 
jmiX'Ut difficulty between this anil th. ii. 
•JO, is simply disposed of by Chrys., ou 
7ropa«Tt?Toi Kol rovTOvs a5fK<povs KoKf^f. 

2'2. ixaKicTT a] ' rs/nilallif^ ' they were 
naturally more in contact with the apos- 
tle than the other Christians at Kome, 
■wlio were not amonp; his inimediarc as- 
sociates. The primary force of /xaAirrra 
is alluded to in notes on I Tim. iv. 10. 
oi 4k r 7) s K. 01 k ias] ' tliose of C(t- 
sar's Itousehohl.' These words have re- 
ceived various inteqiretations. It seems 
most natural to re;rard them a^ denotin«r, 
not on the one hand, merely ' the I'rano- 
rian guards' (Matth.), nor on the other, 
the ' members of Nero's family ' (comp. 
1 Cor. i. IC), Camer , Van Ileiig:.. and 
more recently, and it is to be feared with 
obvious reasons, Haiir (Apost. Pnnhis, p. 
470), — who founds on this interpretation 
an anjrument apunst the genuineness of 
the Ep., — hut simj)ly the oIkuoi (The- 
od ), the servants and retainers beloni;- 

ing to the emj)eror'8 houscliold ; see 
Krebs, Obs. p. 332, I.«csn. O'-s. p. 358. 
It may thus seem not iini)robab!e that St. 
Paul was in confinement in or near to 
that barrack of the Pra?torians which 
was attached to the palace of Nero 
(Hows. St. Paul, Vol. II. p. 510, ed. 2), 
but it does not necessarily follow that 
■wpaiTwpiov in ch. i. 13 (sec notes) is to Imj 
restricted to that smaller portion. The 
barracks within the walls were probably 
in constant communication with the 
camp without. See an inierestinjr paper 
by Lij;htfoot, ./o(/rn. Class. Philol. 1857 
(March), p. 58 sq. 

23. fitra r ov ir y t v fi,.] ' with your 
spirit ; ' the ' potior pars ' of mir compos- 
ite nature, the third and hi;_'hcst constit- 
uent of man: see notes on (Jal. \\. 18, 
and on 2 Tim. iv. 22. The n-adiiip is 
not very doubtful : the more u<ual fitra 
Trdyron' vfiHv is not strontrly supported 
[KL; many mss. ; Syriac (both), al. ; 
Chrys., Thcod.], while the text has de- 
cided external evidence [ABDEFG; 17. 
67.** 73. 80; Vul;:., Clarom., Coptic, 
^Eth. (Piatt) ; many Ff.], and does not 
seem so likely to have iteen chanircd from 
wdyTotv iifiwv as the converse. The addi- 
tion of ijfiwv after Kvpiov [Rrc. with DE ; 
Coptic, al.) has still less critical sup- 



The profound and diHioult Ei)istle to tlie Colossiaiis was vrritten by the 
apostlu during liis /?r.s< captivity at Romt' (Acts xxviii. IC ; (.onipare Inlrod. to 
1 Tim.), and, as far as we can gather from some of the expressions in the 
concludin;^ chapter (ver. 3, 4), at a pei-iod of that captivity, when the ajKjs- 
tle's anticipations were not of so grave a cliaracteras tliey appear to us in the 
Epistle to the Pliilippiaiis (( h. i. '_>i>. I'l. 30, ii. 27 ; see IntroiJ. to Pltilijip.), 
and when his restraint was probably less (lose (comp. Acts xxviii. IG sq.) and 
his treatment more merciful (comp. ch. iv. 8 s(j.). 

We may thus not improliiibly plaie it first in the tliiril of the four groups 
(the K[)istles of the first captiviiN ) into which St. Paul's Epistles may be con- 
veniently divided, and conceive it to have been written a very short time be- 
fore the Epistle to the Ephesiatis, and perhaps about the early part of the 
year a. d. 62. It was conveyed to the chunh of CoIossib by Tychicus (> h. 
iv. 7, 8), who had received a similar commi:-sion with reference to the con- 
verts at Ephesus (Eph. vi. 21), and it not improbably reached its destination 
before the Epistle to the last-mentioned Church ; comp. Meyer, Kommcut. iib. 
Eph. p. 1 7. 

The Epistle seems to have been called forth by the information St. Paul 
had received from Epaphras (ih. iv. 12; Philem. 23), who, if not the actual 
founder of the Church of Colossa; (Davidson, Inlrod. Vil. ii. p. 403). was 
most certainly one of the very earliest preachers of Christ in that city ; com- 
pare eh. i. 7 and notes in loc. Its object transpires very clearly, — an earnest 
desire on the part of the apostle to warn the Culossians against a .system ot 
lalse teaching, partly Oriental and theosophisiie in its character (ch. ii. 18), 
and partly Judaieal and ceremonial (ch. ii. 10), which was tending on the 
one hand directly to obscure the majesty and glory of Christ (< omp. ch. i. IT), 
ii. 8 S(i.), and on the other, to introduce ritualistic observances, especially on 
the side of l>odily austerities (< h. ii. 16-23), opposed alike to the simplicity 
and freedom of the gospel, and to all true and vital union with the risen I^rd 
(ch. ii. 19, iii. 1). For further particulars see Davidson, Introd. Vol. II. p> 


407 sq., -where the sects to which these corrupters of the faith have been sup- 
posed to belong, and the peculiar nature of their tenets are very carefully 
discussed; comp. also Smith, Diet, of Bible, Art. ' Ep. to the Colossians,' Vol. 
I. p. 342. 

In reference to the genuineness and authentic it >/ of this Epistle it may be 
said briefly that no doubts have been urged that deserve any serious consid- 
eration. Even if the external testimonies had been less clear and explicit 
than we find them to be (Irenseus, Ilcer. in. 14. 1, Clem.- Alex, iitrom. i. p. 
325, ed. Pott, TertuU. de PrcBscr. cap. 7, Origen, contr. Cels. V. 8), the inter- 
nal arguments derived from the peculiarities of style and expression, must 
have been pronounced by every sagacious critic as final and unanswerable. 
To class such an Epistle, so marked not only by distinctive peculiarities of 
style, but by the nerve, force, and originality of its argument, with the vague 
productions of later Gnosticism (Mayerhoif, Baur, al.) is to bewray such a 
complete want of critical perception that we can scarcely wonder that such 
views have been both very generally and very summarily rejected ; see 
Meyer, Einleilung, p. 7, Davidson, Introd. Vol. II. p. 427 sq. As the latter 
writer very justly observes, the iabrlcatlon of such an Epistle would be ' a 
phenomenon perfectly inexplicable' (p. 428). 

The similarity between many portions of this Epistle and that to the Ephe- 
sians has often been noticed, and the claim to priority of composition much 
debated. With regard to the first point It may be again observed (see Introd. 
to Eph) that the two Epistles were written closely about the same time, and 
addressed to two Churches sufficiently near to one another to have had 
many points of resemblance, and to have needed very similar forms of exhor- 
tation, especially in reference to the duties of social and domestic life. AVith 
regard to the second point it may be enough to say that the nature of the 
contents of the two Epistles seems to harmonize best with the opinion that 
the Epistle to the Colossians was first in order, and that the more directly 
individualizing and polemical preceded the more directly systematic and 
doctrinal ; see Davidson, Introd. Vol. ii. p. 346 sq., and compare notes on 
Eph. vi. 21. 



ApofloUc adilrcM and »1u- 

nA^^ AO^ aTToaToXo? Xpiarou ^Irjaov 
hia V>e\;//iaTOC 6>eoi) /cat Tt/zoi^to? 6 

ClIAPTEit I. \. air6ar. X p. 'I»j(r.] 
' «/( apostle of Jesus Cfirist ; ' tlie (posses- 
sive) genitive denoting; whose minister 
lie was : see notes on Kph. i. 1, and for 
the mcanintjs of oircJo-ToAoi, here ohvi 
ously in its hi;;hor iind more especial 
sense, see notts on (J >( i. 1, ami ou Eph. 
iv. 11. The form of ^rreetinj: in tiiisEp. 
closely resembles that to the Ephesians ; 
there are, however, as has hccn previ- 
ously observed {ooraparo notes on flph. 
i. l,and see Itiiik. on Gal. i. I), some 
differences in the addresses of St. Paul's 
Ejiistles, espofially in the apo<tle's desi;;- 
nation of himself, wliich, thoUirh not in 
all eases easy to aecount for, can lianl- 
ly be deemed accidenti\l. Wc may 
tliiis classify these dcsi^rnntions : in I 
Thess. and 2 Tiiess., simply riarAos ; 
in Philemon (very approjiriately), 5«<r- 
fiios Xp. 'T. ; in Pliil., 5oi\os &fov (asso- 
ciated with Timothy) ; in Titns, SovK. 
&tov an6<rT. 5* X. *I. ; in Rom., SovK. 'I. 
X. (Tiscli. X. 'I.) K\rj-ihs airoar. ; in I 
Cor. (KKrjrhs air. Tisch., fiec., bnt not 
certain), 2 Cor., Ephes., Col.. 2 Tim , 
in-offT. X. 'I. 8ii b(\vnaTos Qfou : in 1 
Tim. iirdffT. X. 'I. kixt' itrtray^v &. ffti>- 
rrpas ijuoiv Kol X. 'I. k. t. A. ; and lastlv, 
nith fullest t'tular distinction, in Galat.. 

a.ir6(TT., ovK air' aubpunrtiiv oi/St 8i' av^p. 
K. T. A. An interesting paper might be 
written on these peculiarities of designa- 
tion. 1 a d € \i; fiar OS 
Qfov] Added, probably, in thankful re- 
membrance of God's grace, and in feel- 
ings of implicit obedience to His will ; 
see notes on Eph. i. 1 . nal 
tiix. 6 o8tA<^.] Timothy is simi- 
larly associated with the aJl0^tle in his 
ga'cting in 2 Cor. i. I, Phiiem. 1, and, 
e\cn more conjointly as to form of asso- 
ciation. Phil. i. 1, 1 Thess. i. I, 2 Thess. 
i. 1 : so also Sosthenes, 1 Cor. i. 1, com- 
pare Gal i 2, and sec notes in lor. It 
may be observed, however, that in 1 
Cor, Phil., and Phiiem , the apostle pro- 
ceeds in the singular, while here, 2 Cor. 
i. .3 (sec Meyer), I and 2 The-salon., he 
continues the address in the f)lur:d ; see 
below, notes on ver. 3. It hius been 
6upi'0!!id that Timothy was also the 
transcrilHjr of the Epistle (Steigcr, Uisp. ; 
compare ch. iv. IS) : this is pos«iblc, but 
nothin'.: more. The title b a5<A<^Jr, as in 
1 Cor, 1. 1, 2 Cor. i. 1, has no special 
reference to ofticial (ovkovv xa\ axdcTToAai, 
Chri-s.), but simply to Christian hr. tnct^ 
hoiMl ; Timothy was one of ol a^f\<f>ol, 
' dcr christliche-Mitbmdcr,' Ue Wette. 


122 ■ 


Chap. I. 2. 

dBe\(f)b^ ^ TOi<i iv Kd\acraal<! dyloL^ kuI 7naT0i<i dS6\(})oU it 
Xpiaroj. %^pi? v/jlIv koI elpi'iVT) diro Geov Traxpo? ij[jiOiv. 

2. KoAaffffois] So Rec. (but not Elz.j, Laclim., and Tisrli., witli AB (C ia 
Bubscr.) K ; more than 40 mss. ; Syr. (both), Copt; ^TLthiop. (Phitt), Slav, (mss.) ; 
Origcn, Thcod., Chrysost. (mss.), Theophyl. (uiss.), Suidas, al., to which may be 
added mss. in Heiod. vii. 30 and Xenoph. Anah. i. 2. 6 The more usual mode of 
spelling is found in B-1)EFGL ; numerous mss. ; Vulg., Claroman., al. ; Clem., 
Chrys., Theodoret (mss.), al. ; Lat. Ff. {Rec, Meyer, al.). It can be proved by 
coins that the lalti r was the correct form (Eckhel, Doctr. Num. iii. 147) ; still the 
external authority, especially as seen in the Vv., seems so strong, that KoKaaaah 
can hardly be referred to a mere change of vowels in transcription found only in 
two or three of the leading MSS., but must be regarded as the, not improbably, 
provincial mode of spelling in the time of St. Paul. So too Meyer, who admits that 
KoXoiTffah was an old emendation. 

2. Ko\o(7crors] Colossffi or Colas- 
sse (see crit. note) was a cityof Phrvgia, 
on the Lycus (an affluent of the Maean- 
der), near to, and nearly equidistant 
from the more modern cities of Ilierapo- 
iis and Laodicea. It was anciently a 
place of considerable importance (vSkis 
fj.eyd\ri, Herod, vii. 30 ; ir6\is olKovfiei/r), 
eiiSaifj-ciiy koI ;ue7aA.7;, Xenoph. Anab. i. 2. 
6), but subsequently so declined in com- 
parison with the commercial city of Apa- 
mea on the one side, and the strong, 
though somewhat shattered city of La- 
odicea on the other {al fxeylcTrai rwv Kara 
t))>' ^pvylav TToAeem'), as to be classed by 
Strabo {Ccofjr.xii. 8. 13, ed Kramer) 
only among the iroXitTfiara of Phrygia, 
though still, from past fame, classed by 
Pliny (Nat. Hist. v. 41) among the ' cel- 
cberrima ojipida ' of that country ; see 
Steigcr, Eiid. ^ 2, p. 17. It afterwards 
rose again in importance, and under the 
name of Xci^ai (Theojihylact) again re- 
ceived the titles of iiiZaiticau and jxiyaXr] 
(Nicetas, Chan, p 203, ed. Bonn). It 
has been supposed to have occujjied the 
site of the modern Chonas or Khonos, 
but of this there now seem considerable 
doubts ; see Smith, Diet. Geogr. s. v., 
Conyb. and Hows. St. Paul, Vol. ii. p. 
471 note, Pauly, Real-Encijcl. Vol. ii. p. 
518, and the very interesting topograph- 

ical notes of Steiger, Einl. p. 1 — 33. 
ay io is] ' saints ; ' used substantivally, as 
appy. in all the addresses of St. Paul's 
Epp., Rom. i. 7, 1 Cor. i. 1, 2 Cor. i. 
1, Eph. i. 1, Phil. i. 1 ; so Copt., Mth.. 
(Piatt), and appy. Chrys. De W. and 
others connect 071011 with aSeXp. (so ap- 
parently Syriac, Vulg.), but with con- 
siderably less plausibility, as in such a 
case TTiaTols would far more naturally 
precede than follow, the more compre- 
hensive ayiois. On the meaning of 0710$ 
in such addresses, see Davenant in lac, 
Beveridge, Serm. 11. Vol. vi p. 401, and 
compare notes on Eph. i. 1. 
•Kiaro'is aSe\(po7s k. t. \.] 'faith- 
ful brethren in Christ ; ' more specific, 
and slightly explanatory, designation of 
the preceding 07101. "Ev Xpiarw is in 
close union with a8(\<poi, and marks the 
sphere and clemeiit in which the broth- 
erhood existed. The omission of the 
article is perfectly admissible, eV Xp. be- 
ing associated with aSeKcpoh so as to 
form, as it were, one idea ; 
see Winer, Gr. § 20. 2, p. 123, and notes 
on Epii. i. 15. The insertion of the ar- 
ticle would throw a greater emphasis ou 
(V Xp., ' iisque in Christo,' than is neces- 
sary or intended ; see notes on 1 Tim. 
iii. 14, Gaf. iii. 26. Ltichm. adds 'Itjo-ou 
with ADiE'FG ; 3 mss. ; Syriac, Copt 

Chap. I. 3. 



"^ Ko^apiaroufji€v ru) Oecj) iraTjji rov Kvpiov 

We l!i«uk CoJ «or your 
teiUi, an 1 lov«, auil (irgrvx 

iu tiie f. ri'vi ui prca>:iicd -fjuiov l'n<jov Xpu7T0v. TrdmoTe Treol vu(oi> Trpoa- 

lo you by Epaplinu. ir- i r J r r- r 

(uoi,<Eih.),al.,but, tousidcriii^' the i»rol»- 
ability of inboriion, not on suflick-iii uu- 
thonty. It may be observi J that 

licre, Horn. i. 7, Kpli. i. I, and Pliil. i. 1, 
the iipo-itle docs nut write esj>ccially to 
ilic C! urch (I Cor. i. i, 2 Cor. i. 1, 
i. 2 (;)lural), 1 Tlicss. i. 1, and 2 Thc>8. 
i. 1 ). liiu to tlic Cliristiaiis collcttivcly. 
This is pcrliaps not intentionally siynifi- 
caiit ; at any rate it can liardly be con- 
i-vivid that lie only uses the title iKtcKri- 
a'ta to ilio^e cliurclies which lie had him- 
self founded : sec Meyer in luc. 
xdf(ij (c. T. A.J On this blended form 
of the modes of Uecidental and Oriental 
salutation, sec notes on Gal. i. 3, EijIi. i. 
2. The term x**"* i^ elaborately ex- 
plained by Davcnant ; it seems enough 
to say with Waterland Euchar. x., that 
XOf"5 ' i;i the general siguilies ' favor,' 
'mercy,' ' indul;:enre,' 'bounty;' in 
particular it sj^nilies a gift, and more 
especially a ' spiritual jj'ift.' and in a 
sense yet more restrained, the j^'ih of 
sanctificaiion, or of such spiritual aids as 
may enable a man both to will and do 
according to what tJod has commanded,' 
]VijrLs, Vol. IV. p. GG6. 
iraTphs /'/fib'i'l Tiie addition Koi Kvp. 
'I.X. iidiiiitcd by Ii<c. with ACFG ; mss. ; 
VuIl:. (cd ), Syr.-Phil., — but wirh as- 
terisk, Bocrn., al. ; Gr. Ff, apj)eais right- 
ly ivjccted by f^ic/tm., Ti:sch., and most 
modern edirors. 

tliaiiks ; ' I. e. I and Timothy. In this 
Ip., as in 2 Cor , the singular and plu- 
ral are both n<ed (see ch. i. 23, 24, 28. 29 ; 
ii. 1 ; iv. 2, 3. 4, 13), and sometimes, as 
in ch. i 23, 28, iv. 3, 4, even in juxtaposi- 
tion : in all cases the context seems fully 
to aocount for and justify the appropri- 
ateness of t'le .selection ; sie Meyer on 2 
Cur. i. 4. It is douL)iful whether xtt;^oT« 
is to bo joined (u) with the tinitc verb 

(1 Cor. i 4, 2 Thes.s. i. 3, comp. Kpii. i. 
IG), or {b) with the participle (compare 
Uom. i 10, Phil. i. 4) : Syr., JEih., and 
tlie majority of m'Hlern commentiiton> 
adojit the former ; tlie Greek expositors 
and ap|»arently Co|»t. and Vulg. the lat- 
ter. As wtpl vfiuy would seeui a vcrj 
feeble comniencemeui to the panicipiiil 
clause, {b) is to Le preferred : see Alf. i» 
luc , who has well defended this latter 
construction. On €irx'V"''''*'*'> ^"^ notci 
on eh. i. 12, and on Phil. i. 3. 
The reading is very doubtful. Ilec. in- 
serts Kol before -warpl, with AC*D'LKL ; 
al. : Lachinann inserts t^ with D'FG ; 
Chrys. : Tisch. adopts simply jtot^I with 
BC. As the ]jiobabiIity of an instrilon, 
especially of tlie familiar «a» (Kph. i. 3, 
al.), seems very great, we retain, i!iou:.:Ii 
not with perfect confidence, tlie ivadmg 
of Tiscli. The anarthrous use of iroTi*;^ 
is fully admi>siblo ; see the list in Winer, 
Gr. § 19. I, p. 109 sq. 
wtpl ifiuy xpoa.] ' fir'iyiii'j fur tfou' 
The uncial authorijies arc here agaia 
ne.irly C(iual!y divided between wtpl [AC 
D'E-KL] and ui<> [BDU.JFG): tho 
fonnor is adopted by 7V*/r. and most 
modem editors, and on ciiiical grounds 
is to l)c i)rcferred, thou;,h grammatically 
considered t!ic differem-e is e.xtremclr 
slight, if indeed appreciable, com|iarfl 
Fritz. Horn. Vol i. p. 25 sq. Tlie ut- 
most perhaps that can be said is that inrif 
seems lo direct the attention moa- to tiio 
action itself, wtp\ more to the olijeit or 
circumstam-es towards win. h it is dinnt- 
ed, or from which it may be supjtosed to 
emanate : see notes on Gal. i. 4. On tho 
primary meaning and etymolog. aflinitics 
of i«pt, see Donalds. Cratifl. § 177, 178. 
4. a.KOV(Tavrf{\ ' harinp heard, i. e. 

■ iifti-r hnving hoard.' Svriac *^^ 


[a quo audivimus], ^lltliiop. 



Chap. I. 4, 5. 

ev^ofievoc, * aKOvaavT€<; ri-jv ttlcttlv v/xoov iv XptaTa> 'Irjcrov Kal 
rrjv dyaTrrjv i)r e^€T6 et? irdvra<; tov<; djlovi ^ Bta Tr]v i\7rl8a rrjp 

postquam ; ' temporal use of the partici- 
ple (Dunalds. GV. § 575), not causal, 
'quoiiiain audivimus,' Calv. It was not 
the hearing but the substance of what he 
lieai'd that caused the apostle to give 
thanks. For examples of the union of 
two or more participles with a single 
finite verb, see Winer, Gram. § 45. 3, p. 
303. 4v Xp. 'Irjtr.] 'in 

Christ Jesus,' — in Him, as the sphere or 
substratum of the iria-rts, that in which 
the faith centres itself. The omission of 
the article gives a more complete unity 
to the conception, ' Christ-centn d faith,' 
Bce notes on Eph. i. 15, and conip. Fritz. 
Bom. iii. 25, Vol. i. p. 195, note. Ulans, 
as usual, has its subjective meaning ; 
not ' externam lidei professionem,' nor 
both this and ' internam et sinccram in 
corde iiabitantem fidem' (Davi'nant), 
but simply the latter ; compare notes on 
Gal. i. 23. %v ex ere] 

Further statement of the direction and 
application of the dycJiTTj. The difference 
between this and tV €ts {Rtc.) is slight, 
but appreciable. The latter simply ap- 
pends a stcond moment of tliought 
(' umorem. enmque erga omnes sanctos '), 
the former draws attention to it, and 
points to its persistence, V eirioeucvvfievoi 
SiereAouj/, Theodor. The reading of 
Rec. is, however, very feebly supported 
[D'E-KL ; al.] and rejected by all recent 

5. 5ta t))v ikwiSa is most natu- 
rally connected witii the preceding rela- 
tive sentence, not with evxap., Davenant, 
Eadie ; for, as Meyer justly remarks, 
this preliminary evxapiffTia is always, in 
St. Paul's Epistles (Rom. i. 8, 1 Cor. i. 
4, Eph. i. I.i, rhil. i. 5, 1 Thess. i. 3, 2 
Thessa'on. i. 3, 2 Tim. i. 5, Philem. 4), 
grounded on tlie subjective state of his 
converts, aKovaaures k. r. \. The love 
tlicy entertained toward the 07101 was 

evoked and conditioned by no thought 
of any earthly return (compare Calvin), 
but by their hope for their fxiadhs in 
heaven ; ayaTrare (prjai, tovs ayiovs, ov 
Sia Ti av^ptinnuov, aKKa Sia rh iKiri^eti/ 
Ttt ytte'AAoi'Ta aya^d, Theoph. ; so Chrys. 
and Theodoret. rijr 

air K e i 1x4 VT,v k. r. \.\ ' ichicli is laid 
up for yoa in heaven,' ' propter coelestem 
bcatitudinem,' Daven. This defining 
clause, as well as the following words, 
seem to show that the e'ATrls must here 
be regarded, if not as jmrtly objective, 
' id quod speratur,' Grot., yet certainly 
as under objective aspects (conip. Eom. 
viii. 24, eAirls fi\eirofj.fv7), and perhaps 
Heb. vi. 18), scil. t-Jji' fuTpeiria/jLeviji' 
iiljuv Twv obpavoiv ^acnKelav, Theod. ; 
compare notes on Eph. i. 18. It is char- 
acterized as tV airoK. k. t. A. partly to 
mark its security (rb h.a(pa.\ks tSei^ev, 
Chrys.), partly its futurity (see notes on 
2 Titn. iv. 8),' — the awh denoting the 
setting apart, liy itself, for future pur- 
poses or wants ; compare Joseph. Antiq. 
XV. 9.1, KapKMV ocroi aireKuvro SeSoTro- 
vripLivwv, Xen. Anah. 11. 3. 5, al fid\avoi 
rwv (poiviKuv To7s otKfTais aTTsKeifTo, and 
examples in Kypke, 06s. Vol. 11. p. 
320. 'irpoT)KOvffaTe] ' i/e 

heard bfore : ' before when ? Not I)cfore 
its fulfilment, ' rcspeciu spei quae illis dc 
re futurA erat facta,' Wolf, — which 
would leave the con)pound form very 
unmeaning ; nor yet specifically before 
this Epistle was written, ' ante quara 
scriberem,' Beng., but simply and gen- 
erally, 'formerli/,' Steiger, A!f., — i.e. 
not before any definite cpocli (e. g. ' when 
you received this liope,' Meyer, al.), but 
merely at some undefined period in the 
past, ' prius [sharp] audistis,' Coptic; 
compare Herodot. v. 86, ou TrpoaKrjKoSfft 
To7(n 'hby)vaioi(n (■Kiireai?!/, viii. 79, irpo- 
aKrjicoe on ; compare Plato, Legg. vii. p. 

Caxr I. 5, 6. 



aTroK€ifievr)v ufi.iv iv roU ovpavoU, fju irpoTj/eovcraTe tV rw Xoyro t//? 
a\if'^€ia<i Tov t^vayyeXiou, '' lov trapuvro^ eiV u/iuc /caVia»>» kui i*» 

797 A. The verb is often found witli a 
purely Iol'iiI sense, e. rj. Xeiioj)!i. Mem. 
II. 4. 7, wliero sec Kiiliner. 
Ttf! \6yri> T f) I d\7jA.] ' ifte word of 
Tiiil/i :' not tlie ;;cii. of ijiiiilili/ {' veris- 
siniuin,' Grot.), but the {^cu. of llie sui- 
staiire or content (SelicuerUin, Syitl. ^ 12, 
I, p. 82), t7,s aXTj^tiai spccifviii;; what 
\v:Ls ilie sulistiiiiee and purport of its 
tcaeliin;; ; see notes on Eph. i. 13. Tlio 
genitive tiiayy(\'wu is usually taken as 
the {lenitive vf tijijxjsitiun to rip AcJ^y r~)S 
oAijd. (Do"\Vette, Olsh.); hut it seems 
more 8im]jlo to "rejjard it as a defining 
genitive allied to tlio genitive jiosstsuli-us 
{gcnh'ivc rontiiiciilis) . wliich specifics, and, 
so to say, localizes the general notion of 
the ;joverning suhstantivc, — ' the truth 
which was prcuclicd in and was an- 
nounced in the gospel ; ' compare notes 
on Kjilt. i. 1), and SL-e examples in Wi- 
ner, dr. 30. 2. In Gal. ii. .5, 14, tho 
gen. fbayy. i-; somewhat dillerent, as 
dAi)d<io stands prominent and scpanite, 
whereas hero it is under the reyiinen of, 
and s rvcs to cir.iracferizc, a j)receding 

6. TOV vap6vTos tis v fi.] ' w/iich 
is pnsi it iiitli i)on ; ' more exactly ' whi' h 
came to and is present with you,' the tU 
(not Cv as in the ne.\t clause) convening 
ilic idea of the go<i)cl having re ichid 
them (Jelf, (tr. ^ C25), while irajxSfTOj 
implies tlnit it aMdcs there ; ou itapf-yiv- 
tTO. ^Tjfff, »fal* oircffTT;, aXK tfxfu't koI 
i'ariv iicfl, Ci;rys. Tor exami>les of this 
not very uncommon union of verb;! of 
rest with ei's or irpjy [Acts xii. 20), sea 
Winer. Gr. § 50. 4. pp. 3CS, 3G9. A 
somewhat extreme case occurs in Jcr. 
xli. T, fff<pa.^ei> mnohs fh rh <ppfap. 
K a^ u s K a\ K-. T. A.] ' (Ten as it nlso is 
in the icliulc u-orUl ; ' vavrcxov Kpar(7, 
Chrj-s., — a very natural and intelligihlo 
byperlwlo ; cdinparo Koni. i. IS, x. IS. 

It ix obviously not necessary eitlicr to 
limit K6<rnot to the Iloman empire (Mi- 
chael.), or to understand it with u literal 
exactness, w liich at this periotl could not 
be substantiated ; comi). ( >rig in M.itth. 
Tract. x.\viii.,und see Justitiiani inloc. 
Ka\ (ariv Kaptro^. k. t. A.] ' and a 
be.arinij fniit and incretisimj : ' inetnpiior 
from trees or arborescent plants (Clirys., 
Just. ; compare Meyer) depicting tho 
inward and intetisirc, as well as outwarl 
and extensive progress of the gospel. Ic 
may bo observed that the apostle doci 
not merely append a parallel p.nrticiplo 
Kol KapitoOopovfxivov, but by a studied 
change to the liiiitc verl) (see on J'/ih. i. 
20, Winer, (ir. § G3. 2. b, p. :>0.')) throws 
an emi)hasis on the f.ict of the Kapiro(po- 
pia, while by his use of the periphrastic 
present (not Kapitotpoptl ' frncuficat,' 
Vulg., but ' est Jfuttificans,' Clarom.) 
he gives further prominence to the idea 
of its present contitmance and duration ; 
see Winer, Gr. § 45. 5, p. .•ill. The 
distinction between the two verbs has 
been diftci-cntly explained : on the whole 
Greek commentators seem right in re- 
feiTing KapTToip. to the inner and personal, 
av^. to the outward and collective in- 
crease ; icapiroipopi^y toD €1107^. KfKXvxf 

Tjyf *■'<»■ T If rixf aKTiKodTuy Kol T^if tTat- 

vovtxivT\v ToAiTf/av ai'^Tjirii' 5i raiv wta- 
Tfv6vTa!y rb Tr\'dos, Theod. : i-omparo 
Acts vi. 7, xii. 24, xix.20. The middio 
Kapvoip- is an fiir. Xf^ifi. in tl:e N. T ; 
it may perhaps l»e an instance of tho 
'dynamic' middle (Donalds. Gr. ^ 432. 
2.W, Kriigcr, SpracU. § 52. 8), and may 
mark some intensification of ihc active, 
' fructus suos exserit ; ' comi>arc iytpytl- 
ffdoi, Gal. v. 6, and notes iVi loc. Tho 
reading is somewhat doubtful : koI av^., 
with ABC!) KU"c;L, scorns to ivst on 
preponderant evidence, but tlie aulliori- 
tie> for the omission [ABt. D'l^' ; Copt.. 



Chap. I. 6, 7. 

•jTaml TO) Kocr/jurp, Koi ecrriv Kaprro^opov/xevov Koi av^avo/xevov 
<ica^a)<? Kal ev v/jlii^, acj) ^9 rj/xepa^; ^jKovaare koI iireyvcore rrjv 
')(/ipiV Tov ©€ov iv uXrf^eLo,' "^ Ko^oj^ €/xd^er€ inro ^ETra<ppa 

Sail.], or insertion [D-D"E-'FGKL ; 
Vulg, Claroman , Syr. (both), JEth.] of 
the first Kai, owiiiyj to the great prepon- 
derance of the Vv. on the latter side, 
are nearly equally balanced. On the 
whole it seems more likely to have been 
omitted to modilV the hyperbole than in- 
serted to preserve the balance of the sen- 
tence ; so Tisch., Mey., and De W. 
Tvjf x^-P '■" TOV Qeov] ' the grace of 
God,' {. c. as evinced and manifested in 
the gospel : ' amplificat hisce verbis eflB- 

oaciara evangelii evangelium vo- 

luntatem Dei salrantem ostendit, et nobis 
gratiam in CIn-isto offert,' Daven. ; com- 
pare Tit. ii. 1,5. It is doubtful whether 
this aecus. is to lie connected (a) with 
botli verbs (De Vrette), or (b) only witli 
(ireyvcuTe (Mey.). The grammatical se- 
quence appears to suggest the former, 
and is ai)parently followed by Chrysost., 
a.:a (Se^atr^e, Si/j-a tyvuTe Tvji' x^^P- t. 0., 
but the logical connection certainly the 
Litter ; for if ii/ aKri^. were joined with 
■q/coiVoT6, Ka^ais (sell. eV aA.7j&., see be- 
low) K. T. A., in verse 7 would seem tau- 
lologous. On tlie whole it seems best 
to ado]»t [h) ; so Steiger, Mey., al. 
4 1> aKr]^ eiq,] ' in truth ; ' i. e. in no 
Judaisiic or (inosiic form of teaching; 
eV oAtj^. being (as kcAus, ver. 7, seems 
naturally to suggest) an adverbial defi- 
nition of tlie manner appended to the pre- 
ceding iireyvane ; compare Matth. xxii. 
IG, and see Winer, Gr. f 51. I, p. 377 
(comp. p. 124), Bemhardy, Synt. v. 8, 
p. 211. Alfoid objects to tlie adverbial 
bolution, but adopts an interpretation, 
' in its truth and witii true knowledge,' 
t'.iat docs not api)rc(iably diftcr from it. 
Botli Chrys. and Tlieoph. {uvk eV \6'y(a, 
ouSe tv cnrdTT] k. t. A.) appear to iiave 
given to fV more of an instrumental 
force : tliis is not grammatically neces- 

sary, and has led to the doubtful para- 
phrase, TovTfffTi (n]fj.elois Kal tpyois napa,- 
S6^0LS, Tlicophyl. 

7. KaSrciis] ' even as : ' not c.iusal ' in- 
asmuch as' (Eph. i. 4), but as usual, 
simply modal, referring to the preceding 
eV a\T]r^ela, and thus serving formally to 
ratify the preaching of Epaphras : j-.s it 
was in truth that they had known the 
grace of God, so was it in truth that they 
had learnt it. On the later form Kadtis, 
see notes on Gal. iii. 6. The Rcc. adds 
Kal after ko^ws : the external authority, 
however, is weak [D^EKL], and the 
probability of a mechanical repetition of 
the preceding Ka^u)s koX far from slight ; 
comjiare Neander, Planting, Vol. i. p. 
172 note (Bohn). 'Eira<\>pa\ 

A Colossian (ch. iv. 12) who appears 
from tills verse to have been one of the 
first, if not the first, of the preachers of 
the gospel in Colossae : he is again men- 
tioned as being in prison with St. Paul 
at Rome, Philem. 23. Grotius and oth 
ers conceive him to have been the Epapli- 
roditus mentioned in Philip, ii. 25 ; see 
Thornd. Right of Ch. ch. m. 2, Vol. i. 
p. 402 (A.-C. Libr.) : this supposition, 
however, has nothing in its favor except 
the possible identity of name ; see Wi- 
ner, R WB. Vol. I. p. S.jO, and notes on 
ch. ii. 25. The reading Kobins Kal 

(fiib. will not modify the apparent infer- 
ence that Epaphras was the first preacher 
at Colossa; ; this would have been the 
case if the order had been na^iis koI airh 
'Ett. ifjioi^. : see Meyer in he. contrasted 
with Wiggers, Stud. u. Krit. for 1838, p. 
185. For the arguments that the apos- 
tle himself was the founder of this 
Church, sec Lardner, Credibil. xiv. Vol. 
II. p. 472 sq. ; for replications and coun- 
ter-arguments, Davidson, Introd. Vol. 
II. p. 402 sq. avvho{)\ov\ 

Thai-. I. P, 9. 

C O L O S S I A N S 


Tou dyaT77]Tou avvEovXov i'jfJ.oM', 09 tariv 7riaro<; irrrtp vfiwv Eid- 
AToros" jov XpKTToVf ^ 6 KaL hjjXojaa'i yfiiu rijv vfitov uyu7n)v ev 

W.. „nc«.inglv pr.y Omt 9 J^^ ^oGtO Kal jW^, ud) 7%^ VLiepa^ VKOV- 

)!• iiuy l>e Iruitful In '' ' ' ' '' ' ' 

pK»i «..iki^ ani ii»nkiui fj^n^p q{j TTuvuLiti^^a vTTtp viioiv Trpoa€vyuu.€voi 

rorj'oursatval^oii InCliritt, ~ ~ r r- r A. r" 

-«l>o U lliecrtator, ruler, ^al aLTOVfl€VOt IVa TtXt^/J tu'ii T/Te T»yf tTTiyVOJCTlV 
■ iiU rctuiicilvr of all lliliigi. 

' fdhw-strvmt,' i. e. of our common mas- 
ter, Christ : loinpnrc ili. iv. 7 Tliis luul 
tlic furilicr f-peiilKiiiioii in the pronomi- 
nal diiuse Kccnj tlesi;^iRHl to conliitn utid 
eiiliamo tlic iintlioriiy of Kjiaiilinis, ri 
d{i'J7ri(TToi' ivTfv-itv StiKifVffi TOU aySp6s, 
'riicoph., compare Tlicod. 
i/irip vfxatf] 'in your bthalf,' i.e. to 
advance vour s|iiritiiul good, ' pro vcstrA 
salute,' Davcn., — not ' in your jjlacc,' a 
tran.-lation grammatically (Philem. 13, 
SCO notes on Gul. ii. 13), but not liistori- 
cally permissible, as this would imply 
tliat Epaplir. had been sent to Koine to 
minister to the apostle (Mcnocli.), — a 
supposition which needs conlirniation. 
The reading is slightly doubtful ; iMilnn. 
adopts r,ixuv with ABD'G ; 8 m>s. ; Bo- 
crn., in wiiich case ' vice Apostoli ' (Am- 
brosiast.) would be the natural transla- 
tion (opp. to Mcy.): the external au- 
tliority, iiowever, [CD-EFKL ; great 
majority of mss. ; and nearly all Vv.], 
and tlie arguments derived from errone- 
ous transcrijition (compare jncf. to (Jitl. 
[1. xvii, ed. 2) seem decidedly in favor of 
the reading of Iltc, as rightly followed 
by Tixrh. (id. 2, 7). 

8. <J Kai StjAwo-oj]' urho also made 
inoini ;' further and accessory statement 
of the acts of Kpaphr. 'y\tuv, as l)efore, 
refers to the apostle and Timothy ; see 
notes on vcr. 3. d 7 a jt tj »» 

iv X\v tifiar i\ 'lore in the S/'lrit;' 
not merely love towards the apostle 
( rheopii., (Ecum., and ai)py. Clirys.), 
but ' brotherly love ' in its most general 
nienni:^g. in which that towards St. Paul 
wr.s necessarily included ; ' ergu me et 

omnes Ciiristianos,' ("om. a Lap. This 
love is characterized as in 'the (Holy) 
Spirit' (compare Ilom. xiv. 17 x«4'« '" 
Tlv.ayttf.') ; it was from Iliin that it arose 
(comjiare Uoin xv. 30, ay. rov Ilv.), and 
it was only in the sphere of His blessed 
influence (surely not iv instrumental, ' a 
S|). div. excitatum,' Fritz. liom. Vol. 
III. p. 203) that it was genuine and op- 
erative ; o7 7« &\\cu ui'Ofia aydirrjs txovai 
fiSi/ov, Chrys. (Ecumenius suggests the 
the right antithesis (oi cofiKiirnv, oAAo 
■KvfviiaTiKi^v), iiut dilutes the force I y the 
adjectival solution : the omis.-ion of the 
article lH.'fore tV IIi'. is |)erfecily in ac- 
cordance with X. Test. u<age, and pre- 
serves more complete unity of concep- 
tion ; sec Winer, (iram. § i;0. 2, i>. 123. 
On the term ayain\, sec lieu»s, TI.6A. 
Vhr^. IV. l'.>, Vol. II. p. 203 sij. 

9. 5ii toCto] 'On this account;' 
' because, as we hear, ye liave such f.iith, 
and have displayed such love : " Ko^awfp 
fv rois ayitiatv iKfivovi fid\i(r-ra iifyfi^o- 
fxtv roi'i tyyvs vvrat tT,s yixijs' oZrai S') 
Kal 6 riaCXos TovTou; ^oAiffra va^ioKa.Vii 
Toi/J rb wKfov KaTu'pda:K6rai Clirys. ; .^e 
esp. Ejih. i. 15. Thu> the ' causa impul- 
siva ' (Daven.) of tlic ai>o^tle's prayer is 
this Christian progress on the part of bis 
converts ; tlie mmle of it is warmly cx- 
pifssed by the intensive ov iravofiai 
K.r.K.; the fuliject (blended wiiij the 
jHirjK)se of it) by tya -rXtipKn^TiTf k. t. A. 
sal yfifli] 'tee also,' 'Timothy and 
I on our parts ; ' gentle contrast lictwecn 
the Colossians and their practical dis- 
play of vital religion, and the rci iprocal 
prayer of the apostle niid his helper. 

128 COLOSSIANS. Chap. I. 9. 

Tov ^eX/jfxaro'? avrov iv iruar) cro^la Kai avveaei TrvevfiaTiKfj, 

Kal has here its slightly contrasting force, 
and is clearly to be joined with r,^us, 
not TOhTo, as De W. ; see notes on Phil. 
iv. 12. a (j)' 7) s 7] /x e f} a s 

K. T. A..] 'from the day that ice heard ; ' 
incidental definition of tlie time, wi:h 
reference to uKovaavTis, ver. 4, not a((>' 
^s fju. rjKovffaTe, ver. 6 ( Hutli.), which 
may he echoed in the present clause, but, 
from tlie difference of the subjects of the 
aKovfii/, is not direct!}^ referred to. 
oil iraixJ^ e&a k. t. \.] See the ex- 
actly similar affectionate hyperbole in 
Eph. i. 16 : ov fAav rjfiepav virepevx^/J-e^a, 
ouSe Stjo, ov Tpfis, Chrys. On thi.-; idio- 
matic use of the part., which as usual 
points to a state supposed to be already 
in existence, see notes and reff. on Eph. 
i. 16, and for a general investigation of 
the union of the participle with the finite 
verb, see the good treatise of Weller, 
Bemcrk. z. Gr. Sjjnt. p. 11 sq. 
ifal alrovfievoi] ' and making our pe- 
tition ; ' the more special form of the 
more general irpoaevx-, see .Mark .\i. 24, 
Eph. vi. 18, and notes in he. The pres- 
ent passage seems to confirm the view, 
expressed Eph. /. c, and on 1 T.m. ii. 1, 
that TTpoffevxv (and TrpoaeixofJ-ai) is not 
merely for good ihi>i(/s (comp. Andrewes, 
Serm. Vol. v. p. 358, A.-C. Libr.), but 
denotes piayer in its most general as- 
pects. On the exact force of iVo, wiiich 
has here its second. iry tclic force, and in 
which the subject of the prayer is blend- 
ed with the purpose of making it, see 
rotes on Eph. i. 16. Meyer, as usual, 
too strongly presses the latter idea. 
ri/v iiriyi/waiv k. t. \.] ' the ( full) 
knowledge of His will,' — of God's will, 
the subject of avrov sufiiciently transpir- 
ing in -jvpoa-evx- k. t. A. The accu-;ative 
iviyv. is that of the remoter, or, as it 
is sometimes termed, the ' quantitative ' 
object in which the action of the verb 
has its realization, see Winer, Gr. ^ 32. 

5, p. 205, and notes on Phil. i. 11, where 
this construction is discussed. On tho 
meaning of eiriyvwirtv, not barely * Kennt- 
niss ' (compare riii<k. on Rom. i. 28, 
Olsh. on Eph. i. 17), but ' Erkenntniss,' 
' pcrfecta cognitio,' Daven., sec notes on 
Eph. i. 17. The remark of Alf. on ver. 
6 is apparently just, that the force of the 
coniiiound can hardly be expressed in 
English, but the distinction between yvu- 
(Tis and iiriyi/aicns (opp. to Riiik. on Horn. 
i. 28, Olsh. on Eph. i. 8) seems no less 
certain. The former, as De W. rightly 
suggests, points to a mere unpractical 
and theoretical, the latter to a full and 
living, knowledge ; see Wordsworth in 
loc. ^€ \-fjfj.aT as] Obvi- 

ously not with any special reference, 5ii 
Ti Tbi/ Tlhu iiretJL^ev, but simply and gen- 
erally, His will, — not only in refeience 
to ' credenda,' but also and perhaps more 
particularly (Theod.) to ' agenda ; ' com- 
pare ver. 10, and see Davenant in loc. 
iv irdffTj K. T. X.] ' //( all spiritual wis- 
dom and understand in;!,' or perhaps more 
exactly, though less literally, ' in all wis- 
dom and understanding of the Spirit,' 
TTfev/j.. referring to the Holy Spirit,' 
(^Eth.-PoL), the true source of the (ro<pla 
and cTvyeats, see notes on Ephes. i. 3 ; 
compare Romans i. 11,1 Cor. ii. 13, al. 
Thus then Tratrrj (so expressly Syr., JEth. 
(Platl), Copt.) and Tn/€i;^oT(Kj7 (opp to 
Alf. ; compare Chrys. ) refer to I'Oth sub- 
stantives, the extensive ttoo-j? referring to 
every exhibition or manifestation of the 
aocp. Koi ffvv. (see notes on Eph. i. 8), 
while TTi^ev^iaTiKfj points to the character- 
istics and origin of both. The clause is 
not purely instrumental, but represents 
the mode in which, or the concomitant 
influences under which, the Tr\Tip(ab?,vai 
tV (iriyv. was to take ])Iace : this ao(pia k. 
avu. was not to be av^piairivTf (1 Cor. ii. 
13) or ffapKiKi) (2 Cor. i. 12), but irvev- 
IxaTiKT), — inspired by and sent from the 

CnAP. I. 10. 



^^ 7repnrar?i<jai. u^lco^ rov Kvplov eiV iracrav upeaKeiav, tV Traml 
epyro dya\^M Kapirot^opovvT*-^ Ka\ au^apo/xevoi rrj tTriyviL^Tti rov 

10 irfpiiraTj'ffat] So /,<i'7(/;i. wiili ABC'D'FG ; lOtnss. ; Clem. (Griesb., Sc/tols, 
Mtiftr, 111.). J'lsch. (fd. 2, 7) followiii;j^ AVe. adds 6>iar with D'lLKL; (rix-at nm- 
jority of mss. ; Clirys., Tla-od., Dam. The ttddi;ion is deficient in uiuial auifiority, 
nnd somewhat opposed to (^rnmmatieal usaj;^ ; eompare Winer, Gram. § 44. 3, jj. 
287 8q. 

ttJ friyi^iifffi] So Larlimann with ABCD'K'FG; nearly 10 mss.; Amit. Tol. ; 
Clem., Syr., JIax. (Griesb., Schuh, Dn IT., Al/.). On tlie contrary, jT/m/i. (cd. 2, 
7) reads ti's tijv iiriyvaaiv with D^E-KL ; vcrj' jireat majority of mss.; Theod., 
Dam., Thcopli. {lite, Mcyei-, Bisji.) : lastly, if rp i-myv. is found in about 4 mss., 
nearly all the Vv., and Chrys. On reviewing this e\ iden<c, the uncial autliority is 
indisputably in favor of the text ; the Vv., on the other hand, miirlit seem to be in 
favor of the insertion of a preposition. As, however, the Vv. may nearly as proh- 
ably have inserted the prep, to explain the ill-understood instrumental dat. t^ ixiyr. 
as the Cf|nally nii>under.-tood ds iiriyvuiffiv, and ns internal considerations seem 
rather in favor of the simple dat., we return to the reading of Tisch. (ed. I). 

Holy S|)irit ; compare Ephes. i. 3, and 
notes, wlierc however the instrum. force 
is more distinct. With regard to ao(pia 
nnd ffvufffi;, both appear to have a /nac- 
llcal reference (see csp. Davcn.) ; the 
former is, however, a general term, the 
latter (the opposite of wliich is fiyvoia, 
Plato, Re/i. Ill p. 376 b) its more special 
result and application ; see llarless on 
Epit. i. 8, and compare Beck, S-elml. 
II. 10. p. 60. Between <rvif. and ;pp6yrt- 
ffts (Luke i. 17, .' ph. i. 8) the dill'i rencc 
is very slight; avyfvis is perhaps seen 
more ir» practically embracing a truth 
(i'phes. iii. 4),<f>p6if. more in bringing 
the viiiifl xo licar ujion it ; compare notes 
0)1 E/>'i. I 8, and Beck, /. c, p. CI. 

10, ire p i Tar f) o- a i k. t. X.) ^ that 
y walk worthi/i/ of the Lord;' purpose 
and oliject (Tva, Theod., compare The- 
opiiyl ), not rfMilt ("^teigcr, nl.) of the 
TrKijpte^Tivai, specified by the ' infin.epex- 
egeticus ; ' see Winer, Gr. ^44. 1, p. 
284, Bomhardy, S;/nt. ix. p. 365. For 
examples of d{i<»y with the genitive, sec 
Ep!i. iv. 1. riiil. i. 27, 1 The<s. ii. 12, 
and the examples collected by Raphel, 
Aiuiot. Vol. II. p. 527. Lastly, Kupiov 
is not = &(ov (Tlicod.), but, as appar- 

ently/ always in St. Paul's Epistles, refers 
to our Lord ; see Winer, (j'r. § 19. 1 , p. 
113. Ill the Gospels, 2 Pet., and James, 
it commonly refers to God, Imt in I Pet. 
ii. 13 (the other examples arc quotations) 
to Christ. fls ■wuaay 

apt OK.] ' unto all (cverif form of) pUtts- 
ing,' ' in omne quod placet.' ( laroinan., 
i'. f. ' to please Ilim in all ihin;:s,' u-a 
ouTctf ^T< wOTf 8ia •riyriav apioKny t '• 
0cZ [Kvpltii], Theoph On this use of 
apiaKfia, ' studium pl.iccndi,' Bcng. {a;i 
fir. Xfy6,u. in the N. T.), see lAKSner. 
Olis. p. 361, where there will l>o found 
several illustrative examples frotn Philo, 
the most pertinent of which are, (/-• Maud. 
Opf. § 30, Vol. I. p. 35 (ed. Mang.). 
itdjrra teal Ktytiy Koii rpirrny iairovia^tr 
fls iptiTKfiav rov irarpos ko.) 0affiKtus, 
ami </e Sicrf. § 8, Vol ii. p. 257. Sia 
waauv Uvat taiy tis hipfaKttay i^u.-^. On 
the extensive was, see above, and on 
Eph. i. 8. iy wayrX 

fpytf 47] ' in erery r/oodicork ;' sphere 
in whidt the Kopro^opla is manifested. 
This clause is not to be connected with 
the preceding us apfCKftai', as Syriac 
(Pcsh.), Chrj-s., Theoph., but with the 
following Kapiro<pop., as Vulg., Gothic, 


130 COLOSSIANS. Chap.I. 11. 

Geov, ^^ iv rrrdcrrj BvvdfieL Bwa/iovfievot Kara to Kpdro'i tt}? ho^i)^ 

Syr. (Pliilox.), Thcod., and the majority 
of modern commentators. The construc- 
tion is thus perfectly S3'mmetrical, each 
participle being associated with a modal 
or instrumental predication. The parti- 
ciples, it need scarcely be said, do not 
belong to irX-qp. (Bcng.), — a construc- 
tion which Schwartz quaintly terms a 
' carnilicinam,' but with the infin., the 
participle having relapsed into thenom. ; 
sec Winer, Gr. § 63. 2, p. 505, and notes 
onEjth. iii. IS, iv. 2. 

Ka\ ail ^. T 7j iiriyudcrei] ' and in- 
creasiiifj I'lj the (full) Inowledge of God.' 
The tirl-yvaxTis 0€oD was the instrument 
by which the growth was increased. The 
reading of Tier., tls t-Jji/ iiriyv., is not ex- 
cgctically untenable, as iiriyp. may be 
viewed wiih a kind of reciprocal refer- 
cn(;e as the measure of the moral a{/|7jo-ij 
(sec Mcy. in loc , and comp. Ephes. iv. 
13),butt!iG weight of external evidence, 
if not al of internal, preponderates 
against it ; sec critical note. 

11. iv IT dcTT] K.T. \.] ' heinrj strenrjfh- 
fiied icitli all [everij form of) strength;' 
t.'iiid participial clause parallel to, and 
in CO ordination with, iv travrl k. t. \. 
Lv liei-c seems purely instrumental (con- 
trast vcr. 9), the action being considered 
as involved in the means ; see Jelf, Gr. 
§ 623. : with tliis may be compared 
tlie simple dat. Eph. iii. 16, see notes in 
he. Alford regards 4v as denoting the 
dement, Svvaixis being subjective : this is 
possible ; the instrumental force, how- 
ever, seems clearly recognized by Theod., 
Tp 3-eiiy poTVT) KpaTvySfievot, and appears 
more simple and natural. Tlie simple 
form SwafiSco is an ott. \(y6fi. in the 
N. T. (sec Tsalm Ixvii. 28, Eccles. x. 
10, Dan. ix. 27), ivSvvaix6(a being the 
more usual form. kut a 

rb K par OS t7)S 5.] 'according to the 
power of Ilis fjlori/ ; ' not His glorious 
power,' Antii., Ccza, al., but ' the power 

which is the peculiar characteristic of 
His glory,' the gen. belonging to the cat- 
egory of the gen. possessivus ; compare 
notes on Eph. i. 6. The prep, koto rep- 
resents, not the source (Daven.), nor the 
motive (Steig.), but, as usual, the norma, 
in accordance with which, and in corres- 
pondence with which, the Swd^uaxris 
would be effected. The power which is 
the attribute of the glory of God indi- 
cates the measure and degree in which 
the Colossians will be strengthened ; ovx 
airKws, (pricri, Swafiovcr^e, aA.\' ws ttKhs 
Tohs ouTois la'xvp'i' Seern-Jr?? SovKevovras, 
Clirysost. On the deriv. of Kpdros, see 
notes on Eph. i. 19. 

fls TTaffav K. T. A.] ' unto all patience 
and hngsuffering ; ' i. e. ' to insure, to 
lead you into, every form of patience and 
longsuffcring,' ' ut procreet in nobis [vo- 
bisj patientiam,' etc., Davcnant, — the 
prep., as usual, marking the final desti- 
nation of the Swdutcais. The distinction 
between these words is not very clear : 
neither that of Chrys. (ixaKpo^vixla nphs 
aWrjXovs, inroixov)] Tzphs rovs e|a)), nor 
tliat quoted, but not adopted by Daven. 
(tinofx. ad ilia mala quaj a Deo infligun- 
tur jua/cpo^. ad ilia qute ab hominibus 
inferuntur) is quite satisfactory, as both, 
on different sides, seem too restrictive. 
Perhaps inrofxovi) is more general, desig- 
nating that ' brave patience,' — not ' endur- 
ance,' with which the Christian ought to 
bear all trials, whetlier from God or men, 
from within or without (see notes on 2 
Tim. ii. 10, and on Tit. ii. 2), while /xaK- 
po^. points more to forbearance, whether 
towards the sinner (see on Eph. iv. 2), 
the gainsay er, or even the persecutor : 
see on 2 Tim. iii. 10. /h€to 

X op 5 s is joined by Theodoret, Olsh., 
De W., Alf., and others, with the pre- 
ceding clause ; so appy. Vulg., Coptic, 
Goth., Syriac (Philox.), and ..(Ethiop. 
Viewed alone this cotmection seems 

Chap. I. 12. COLOSSIANS. l^A 

auTOv fis" iraaav \moiiovi]v xat fioKpdiSvfxiav, /iera ■^apa<i '- ev^a- 
picnovi'T€<i T(o Tlarpl tm iKavwaai'TL ///xa«? eiV tiju p.ipiOa toO 

very jdau-ilile, — the xnrofx uinl tt.aKp. !_v in favor of Ikom., for whiili KoXia. 

arc to lie associated with joy, the resij^- would have foriiied a natural (^'.oss. ('!) 

nation i-. to Ite genuinely Christian, coin- 'Ikov. \^ not ' qui dijcnos fecit, 'V'uljj., hut 

pare Daven. As, however, cacli jireied- ^ i" 

1 • 1 1 J' • — _aS_^P Iiiui idoneo>i nos fceitl Svriac, 

ir.g clause commences with a dchning ^T^^^'* '' j . ' 

prepositional adjunct, and lx)th uvonov)\ compare ^Eth. ; sec 2 Cor. iii. G, t»f <ra] 

and ixoKfod. arc perfectly distinct and arc iKavwatv ifiai, where the mcaniiij^ is 

commonly used, whether in juxtaposi- perfectly clear. A-raiii tlic part, has not 

lion (2 Cor. vi. 4, 6, 2 Tim. iii. 10) or here a cau-al force ' ([uipiic qui,' Meyer 

scjiarately (llom. v. 3, 2 Cor. xii. 12, al. ; (compare Thcod., Sn Koiywvols o»«'^i'«), 

(ial. V. 22, Col. iii. 12, al.), without any — a mcaniii;; which is precluded liy the 

further definition, it seems more natural, presence of the article (see notes on F.j'h. 

with Syr., Chrjs., Theoph., (Ecumcn., i. 12), hut is distinctly i)redicative, and 

and recently Mcy., iMchin., and Tisch., somewhat solemnly dc>criptive ; -KoKxtrh 

to connect the defining words with tux"" iSa^Joj tSeifev, Chris. The principal 

piffToviTn. ditliculty is, however, in the const rurticn, 

12. tvx- '"¥ liar pi] '(/icini) thanks a.s ^v ry <f)cirri may admit of at least four 

to the Father,' scW. 'of our Lord Jesus connections, (a) with iKoydiaavri, in an 

Christ;' participial clause, ohviously instrumental (Mover) or semi-modal 

not dependent on oh ravS/j.. verse 9 sense, — as apparently Chrys., CEcum., 

(Chr}-s., Theoph.), but < o-ordinate with Theoj)!!., who cxjdain <^o>t5 as = yytiffti ; 

the pieced in;; clauses. The meanin;: of [b] w'nh fijtf ^ipiSa {licnz-), «V having a 

fvxap. is well di.scussed hy Boeckh, C/ry>. local force, and delining the position of 

Iiisrr. Vol. I. p. 521 ; it is there stated the /i*pi's ; (') with ayiuy, — iy ^arri dor- 

to have four meanings : (a) Attic, ' ffnit- ignaiiiig their alxxlc ; compare Grotius ; 

ijicari,' xipiy^t^oyai; (/<) non- Attic, 'r/ni- lastly and most pro!>altly, (</) with kKt)- 

tius ha'x re nl nferre ; hut f'ColtcmoMh. tie pov, or more exactly kAtj/jou raiy ayiuy, 

Cur. p. 257. 2 ; (c) gratias ut/cre ferhis,' the gen. s|>ccifying the i>ossessors, and 

nsed hy Polyh. (.\vi. 25. 1, xviii. 26. 4, so indirectly the character of the KX'ipos, 

XXX. 11. 1) and later writers; (r/) '(/fa//<is the pi-cp. clause its ' sitiim ct condiiio- 

n/tire simultt aijere (jratlfuando' found in nein,' Corn, a Lap. Of these ('i ), thougli 

certain inscri|it. : sec also notes on Phil, ahly defended by Meyer, is liarsli ai;d 

i. 12. The readings t(J) ir. koI ©ty and impro'iahle; (h) causes a di^Io<■ation in 

rtc Q(cZ K- ». are obvious interpolations, the order, unless fitp. k. t. A. be all taken 

and rest on no critical authority; .sec as one idea (Alfoid), in which case the 

Tisch. in loc. r^ iKayii- omission of the article is not perfectly 

ravTi K. T. A.] ' who made us mrtt for saii>factory ; (c) gives to oi fiyipi an un- 

the i>ortion of the inhrrilance of the stiiiits due prominence, compart" Alfonl ; (</) on 

in /iijht.' These words deserve some con- the i iintrary seems to give to the KKtjpos 

sideraiion. In the first place the reading T<i» ay. exactly the qualifying, or pos.-i- 

is slightly doubtful: DiptJ; 17. SO; bly localizing definition it requires, and 

Chironian., Goth. ; Did. ; Lat. Ff. read preserves a pooil antithesis with «'{. rou 

KoXfffoyTi for iKoy., while L«f/i/«., with ffK6rovs, y. 13, which («) especially ob- 

n, retains both Tip iKoy. koI Ka\. l he scures ; compare Acts xxvi 18. The 

critical jircpondcrance is, however, clear- art. before tV ry <porrl is not needed, as 



Chap. I. 13. 

KKi)pov rcov ayicov ev tco (peon, ^"^ 09 epfjvaaro i^fxaq e/cTjy? e^ovcria<i 
Tou (TKOTovi, Kal fieT£crT7](Tev ek rijv j3aaC\.eiav rou viov t?}? dyd- 

K\rip. Twu ay. 4v tq) <j>. forms a single idea 
(Winer, Unim. § 20. 2, p. 123) : with the 
whole clause ( Alf. ) it could be less easily 
dispensed with. We retain then (d) with 
De VV., perhaps Tlieod., and ap])arently 
tiie majority of interpreters. There re- 
main only a few details. 
fcAfjpos] ' iiiheritatice,' Acts xxvi. 18; 
j)roperly ' a lot' (Matth. xxvii. 35, Mark 
XV. 24), thence anything obtained by lot 
(compare Acts i. 2.5, Rec], and thence, 
with a greater latitude, anything as- 
signed or apportioned {rdiros, Kr^iixa, ob- 
<ria ^ \axM-6s, Suid.), whether officially 
(1 Pet.v. 3 ; ' cleros appellat particulares 
ecclesias, Calv.), or, as here, a posses- 
sion and inheritance ; comp. Heb. tnbns. 
The KK'ipos tV (p. is represented as a joint 
inheritance of the saints, of which each 
individual has his fiepiSa. The deriva- 
tion is uncertain ; perhaps from K\deiv, 
i. e. a ' broUen-off' portion (Pott, £'/^m. 
Forsch. Vol. 11 p. 597), or, less probably, 
from Sanscr. hi., with sense of ' casting,' 
or 'parting off' (Bcnfey, Wurzellex. Vol. 
II. p. 172). Its more specific use in 
eccl. writers is well illustrated by Suiccr, 
Thesaur. s. v. Vol. 11. p. 110 sq. 
e y T(S <p w T i] It is not necessary to 
refer this specifically to the heavenly 
realm : (pies marks its cliaracteristics on 
the side, not merely of its glory (Huth., 
compare Bp. Hall, Invis. \Vor/d, 11 5) 
but, as tho antithesis suggests, of i:s es- 
sential purity and perfections ; compare 
1 John i. 5 This blessed inheritance 
may be entered upon in part even here on 
earth. For a good sermon on this text, 
see Bcveridgc, Sfrm. 11. Vol. vi. p. 399. 
13. hs tp^vaaro K. T. \.] Apposi- 
tional relative-sentence (Winer, (Jnim. 
§ 60. 7, p. 479), introducing a contrasted 
amplification of the preceding clause, 
and preparing for a transition to the 
doctrine of the person, the glory, and 

the redeeming love of Christ, ver. 14- 
20. The special meanings that have 
been assigned to eppvaaro (' eripuit ; plus 

hoc est quam libera vit : eripiuntur 

siepe inviti,' Zancli.), though in part phi- 
lologically defensible (see Buttm. Lexil. 
s. V. § 53. 1,2), cannot be certainly main- 
tained in the j\. T., where for the most 
part the idea of ' dragging from a crowd 
of enemies' (comp. Luke i. 74, 2 Tim. 
iii. 11, iv. 17; — surely not unwilling) 
passes into the more generic idea of ' sav- 
ing ; ' see Buttm. /. c, § 3. The remark 
of Theoph. is much more in point ; ouk 
elire de, i^i^oKev, aA\' ippvaaro, SetKH/i 
oTi Sii alxiJ'a.KtiiiToi (Ta\atirii)povp.eda. 
i^ovffias T oil a k6t.\ ' t!tt jiou.'er of 
darkness;' the ]iower which is possessed 
and exerted by Darkness, — not, how- 
ever, merely suhjectivily, t^$ irAaj/rjj, 
Chrys. 1, but evil and sin, viewed objic- 
lively as the antitliesis oi <\)ws,i. e. rov 81- 
a^oKov t7)S TvpauviSos, Chrys. 2, Theod. 
lj.eTe<TTri(Tei'\ ' translated,' ' removed ;' 
redcniinion in its further and positive 
asjjects. The verb clearly involves a 
local reference, the removing from one 
place and fixing in anotiier ; we were 
taken out of the realms of darkness and 
tran.sfcrred to the kingdom of light : see 
Joseph. Aiitiq. IX. 11. 1, Tovs olK-fiTopas iar 7)<T ev f Is t^v avrov ^aaiXfiaf. The 
farther idea ' migrare cogit ex natalisolo,' 
Daven., though theologically true, is not 
necessarily involved in the word. 
els T^v ^a<T iKelav\ The term /3o<rj- 
Aei'a has here a reference neither purely 
metaphorical (e. g. the Church ; comp. 
Huth.), nor ethical and inward (Olsli. ; 
Luke xvii. 21 ), nor yet ideal and prolcp- 
tic (Mey.), — but, as the image involved 
in fierea-T. sugircsts, scmilocal and de- 
scriptive. Nor is this wholly future ; 
the viol Tov (pcoTos, the pure and the holy 
(comp. Matth. v. 8, Hei). xii. 14), even 

CiiAi-. I. 14. 15. COLOSSIANS. I;j3 

TTJj-i avrov, ^* tu M t^ofit^v t)ji> inroXvTpoxjiv^ ti]v ucptaiv 7u)v u^uxip- 

TiuiV ^'^ Us tariv tiKUii> rov 0€ou tou aopuTuu, irpoiTUTOKu^ Truarjs 

wliilc turryiiii^ ill tliese lower couru uie not ' our ri.(lLMii|iiiuii,' Alfurd, Imt 'the 

tlie buljcits of that kiii<^'doiii, tliu ' duiii- red.,' or witli idiomatic omiM>ioii of the 

aens ' of iliat itu\'tTfvna ( I'liil. iii. :iO), art., * l{ederii|itioii,' Aui!i., — ilie refer- 

tlie sharers of iliat i/t'oj«(ri'a (K|j1i. i. b), oiiiv Uiii;; to tlie adeiuptioa (lOin tho 

just as the viol tT/j airtojtiaj are even wrath and punitive justice of God in ili 

here on eartli llie occupants of tlie realm mostcomprehent-ive hi;;nilication, wheth- 

of darkness and tlie vassals of its Koff/to- cr Fjiecially ours or common to us and 

Kparopfs. A ioiijr and elaborate treatise to all mankind. Tiie |»rep. airo is not 

oa tlio fiaiTiKfla Qfou will be found in iuiensivc (ovk «7irt \irrpwaiy, aA\' awoK., 

t'omment. Tluul. \'ol. 11. |). 107-173. Siart ijii\Zi ■wtauv Koi-k6v, C'hrys.), but, 

Tf;i ayaKi\s avrov] ' uf' IJIs lurt-,' witii its usual force {' stfiaralionis rtmo- 

I. f. wiio is the olijcct of it, whom it cm- tioiiisfjue potesuus,' Winer, Viil>. Coiiii>. 

braces. This genitive has received dif- iv. 5), points to the j»uiii>iiment and di- 

fei-eiit explanations ; it has been retrard- vine wrath //-o/h wliich we were a-dcenud 

cd as ((I J a genitive of the characterizing in Clirist and by His blood. < >n t!ie 

quality (compare Winer, (Jr. I) 3i. 3. four degrees of redemption, — viz., («i) 

b, p. I'll), ill wiiich it di Hers little from payment of ransom for all, ('-) admi?- 

i7air»jTjj, Matthew iii. 17, Mark xii. 6, sioii into the Church, (<) exemption 

al., or T)7ajrT);u*Voj, Ephes. i. G, compare from tyninny of sin here, and (dj ex- 

Ciirys. ; (/-) u species of gen. oniiinis, empiioii from hell and death here- 

a7<inTj Ix-'ing considered more as an es- after, — see Jackson, Vnnl, ix. .*), Vol. 

senee than an attribute; see Au;:ust. de vui. p. 218 S(|. (Uxf. 1844). For other 

7'n»i. X. 19 (cited by Est. and Just.), details see notes on E/ih. i. 1. There is 

and Olsh. in luc. ; (c) the gen. of the re- some variation in reading ; lia rov aun. 

inoter object (comp. Winer, Gr. § 30. 2, (R<x.) i-ests only on cursive m>s., and is 

p. IG9), 'the son who luis His love,' rightly omitted by nearly all modern ed- 

8teiger, compare Woidsw;; or, ^impIy itoi-s. "Y-xoynv is more doubtful, as it 

and more proliably, (d) the gen. sitlijvcti, might be a change in conformity with 

d7air»js being classed under the general Epii. i. 7. ImcUui. ivads {'(rxoutf with B 

head of tlie possessive genitive; comp. (A is doulttful), Copt. [«n-s/] ; but ihe 

Krii'.rcr, Sjnwlil. § 47. 7. 7 : De Wetto diplomatic authority licems insuflicicnt 

and Mey. compare (Jen. xxxv. 18, vihs to warrant the change. t iV 

i8i/K»jj nov. It has been thought that i(pfffty riiv auapr.\ ' t/ie fonjirr- 

tho title is specially selected to imply tuss of our sins:' apposition to the pre- 

somo reference to tho vio^tffla (Hulh.) ; ceding rijv awo\., detining more exactly 

this is possible, but the context and a its nature and signiticance. On the dis- 

romparison with Ephes. i. 6, 7, do not tinction l>etween &(p»ffis and rapf<ris, >ce 

favor tho su])position. Trench, Si/non. ^ .T), and on that lietween 

\^. 4v 4'] ' '" tffiom;' certainly not o^ta^jriai and xaf)aTT«>iaTo. notes o/i A.'/<A. 

'by whom,' but ' in ' Him as tho living i. 7. 

source of redemption : sec notes o« /'/>//. 1"). 5j iartv k. r. \.] Detailed de- 

i. 7, where these and the following words scription of the person of Christ, His 

in tlie clause are commented upon and dignity, and His exaltation, for which 

illustrated. (xof^f ^ W the preceding verse and the allusion to 

&ToX.] ' «re are hai-inj the rtdtmpliun,' fiafftXfia'm ver. 13 tbrin a suitable prep- 

134 COLOSSIANS. Chap. I. 15,16. 

KTiaeoyi, ^° on ev avT(o eKTca^rj ra Travra, ra ev T049 oupavot^ Kai 

aration. As this forms one of the three 
important passages in St. Paixl's Epistles 
(Ephesians i. 20-23, Phil. ii. G-11 ) in 
which the doctrine of the person of Christ 
is especially unfolded, both the general 
divisions and the separate details will 
require very careful consideration. With 
regard to the former, it seems scarcely 
doubtful that there is a twofold division, 
and that, as in Phil. ii. 7, Koi axvi^ari 
K T. \. seemi d to introduce a new por- 
tion of the subject, so here the second koI 
avrhs (v. 18) indicates a similar transi- 
tion ; and further, that, just as in Phil. 
/. c. the first portion related to the A6yos 
6.(rapKos, the latter to the ASyos tvcrapKos, 
so here in ver. 15-17, the reference is 
rather to the pre-incarnate Son in His re- 
lation to God and to His own creatures, 
in ver. 1 8-20 to the incarnate and now 
glorified Son in His relations to His 
Church : so Olsh., hastily condemned 
by Meyer, but, in etFcct and inferentially, 
supported by the principal Greek and 
majority of Latin Fathers : comp. Pear- 
son, Creed, Vol. i. p. 14, See contra, 
Hofmann, Schrifth. Vol. i. p. 135, whose 
opposition, however, is based on the 
more than doubtful supposition that koX 
ouTos (ver. 17) is dependent on the fore- 
going oTi. ''Os thus refers to tlie subject 
6 vlos T?is ay. avrov in its widest and 
most complex relations, whether as Cre- 
ator or licdeemer, the immediate context 
defining t!ie precise nature of the refer- 
ence : see on Pliil. ii. 6. 
elniiv r ov e o t. t. \.] 'the imar/e 
of the invisible God;' not 'an image,' 
Wakef., or 'image,' Alf., — the article 
is idiomatically omitted after ta-nv ; see 
Middl. Gr. Art. iii, 3. 2. With this ex- 
pression conip. 2 Cor. iv. 4, '6s ia-riv ukwv 
rov 0eoO, Heb. i. 3, airaxiyaafjia. rf/s S6^tis 
Ka\ X"-?"''^'''^? ''"'}* viroaTac^uis avrov : 
Christ is the original image of God, 
* bearing his fiLiure and resemblance as 

truly, fully, and perfectly as a son of 
man has all the features, lineaments, and 
perfections belonging to the nature of 
man,' Waterl. Serm. Ciir. Div. v. Vol. 
II. p. 104, see especially Athan. Nicen, 
Def. \ 20. Without overpassing 

the limits of this commentary, we may 
observe that Christian antiquity lias ever 
regarded the expression ' image of God ' 
as denoting tlie eternal Son's perfect 
equality with the Father in ropect of 
His substance, nature, and eternity ; 
' perfects requalitatis significantiam ha- 
bet similitudo,' Hil. de Sjn. § 73, oTa- 
pdWaKTos eiKiiOi/ toO Harphs [on tlie sub- 
sequent Semi-arian use of this term, see 
0.rf. Libr. of Ff Vol. viii. p. 35, 106] 
KoX rov irpaiTOTVirov eKTviros xapaKTi]p, 
Alex. ap. Theod. Hist, Ecd. i. 4 ; see 
Athan. contr. Arian. i. 20. The Son is 
the Father's image in all things savo 
only in being the Father, ukuv (pva-iid) 
Koi anapdWaKTos Kara vdvra bixoia t^ 
irarpi, ir\)}v tj)s ayevvriffias Koi t?js irarpS- 
T71T0S, Damase. de Imag. iii. 18 ; comp. 
Athan. contr. Arian. i. j21. 
The exact force of the emphatically 
placed Tov aopdrcj (' who is invisible,' 
AVordsw. ; Winer, Gram. ^20. 1. a, p. 
120) is somewhat doubtful. Does it 
point to the primal invisibilitij (Clirys., 
Grig. ap. Athan. AVe. Df. § 27), or, by 
a t.acit antithesis, to the visibilitij, of the 
uKdjv (Daven., Meyer, al. ; compare 2 
Cor. iii. 18, Heb. xii. 14) 1 Apparently 
to the hitter: Christ, as God and as the 
original image of God. was of course 
primarily and essentially aoparos [ftrei 
obS' av (iKuiv iiri, Chrys.) ; as, however, 
the Son that declared the Father (John 
i. 18), as He that was pleased to reveal 
Himself visibly to tlie saints in the 0. T. 
(see especially Bull, Dcf. Fid. Nic. i. 1. 
1 sq.). He was &par6s, the manifester of 
Him who dwells in <f)a)r aTrp6<nTou (I 
Tim. vi. 16) and whom no man hatU 

CuAi-. I. 16. C O L O S S I A N S . 135 

Ttt tTTt ri'i'i 7/'/^, ra opaia Kut ra dupaTa, eiT€ '^pomi, ene 

seen or can sco ; Joliu i. 18; compare miuin, I.e.), the cxpretsioii compartd 

Bcii;:. j/i /oc. ■\Vlietlifr llicie is licTc any witli TrpujiTOKos rdy vfKfiwy, Itev. i. 5, 

iippiDximatioii to views ciittrtaiiaJ liy and (csp. in the las-t of these c:i8e6) 

I'hilo ((Hs!i., Atf., .see U-tcri, A<Ar6. II. the Ariaii dL-duttioii, that Chri*t is a 

2. 4, jt. 29.1), is very doubtful. We must Kriait, deemed <//uw«iu/«a//y poscihle ; 

at any rate remember tliat Philo was the gcc Usteri, Lelirh. 11. 2. 4, and even 

unin.spii-ed exjKjnent of tlie Injtter theos- HeutiS, TliA>l. Clirt^t. IV. 10, Vol. 11. p. 

opiiy of iiis day, St. I'aul tlie inspired 100, both which writers u.-e lani^ua-^'e, 

npostie revealinj^ the higlicst and most wliich, without the limiiaiion imnieJ liy 

transcendent mysteries of tlio Divine Thorndike ((be. Cruit, 11. 17. 5), mu»i 

cconomv. On the ineanin;; of be j)ronounced simply and plainly Arian. 

(iKwy, and its distinction from ifioiu'tris, la the last cjisc, vuaa Krlais retains its 

sec Trench, Si/nun. § 15. proper force, ■wpa>r6T0Ka% its comparative 

wpiDTor oKos xaffTjj KritT.] 'the reference, and the conclusion of Atha- 

/irsl-lorn It /'on- utrj creature,' I. e. 'be- nase, especially when viewed in (oimec- 

f,'Ottcn, and that antecedently to every- tion with the context (ut« tV ouTy «kt., 

thiiij; that was creited ;' surely not ' the ver. 16), perfectly iitcri.'ahlif ; oAAoj iari 

whole creation,' Watcrland (Vol. 11. p. Twf KTitrfidruy, kou nriatm fiiv o'jk tan, 

57), compare Alf., — an inexact tran>la- KTicrrys 5< riv KTiafidtuv, loiitr. Arum. 

tion which here certainly (contrast on 11. ^ 62, — a passage of marvellous force 

Elilt. ii. 21) there seems no necessity for and perspicuity : see also, both on tliis 

maintaininji; compare MidiUeton, Gr. and ver. 16, Pear.son, Vrted, Vol. 1. p. 

Art. p. 373. As verse 17 (irph vdvrwi') 148. The term TrpuT6TOKos (ohs. not 

cxi)ressiy reiterates, our Lord is here irpair6pcTierTos or vpurSitKaaTos) is studi- 

solemnly defined as vpwr6roKus in rela- ously used to define our Lord's relation 

tion to etxrj created tliin^', animate or to His creatures and His brotherhood 

inanimate, human or superhuman ; Trpw with them (conip. Rom. viii. 211), and is 

TOT. rov Qfov. Kol TT^h irivToiv tojv KTiff- in this resjiect distinjrui'Iied fioni /toro- 

fjKXTuy, Just. Martyr, Diul. ^ 100. This yti^s which more exactly defines His 

notable cxpa-ssion has received every relation to the Father; fiotoytyns fitr, 

varictv of explanation. Graiumat. con- 81a r-.jy iK Xlarphs "^ivi-tiaiy TpanuroKoi 

sidered, ti)j Kfitrtuis may perhaps be the St, 8«A tV tls rijy ktIoiv oj^KaToSaaip 

iHirt. ^en., the postus. ;^en. (Hof. ^^^cliriflb. [condescension] «<u tV Ttiv iroK\ws> dS(\- 

Vol. 1. 137), or, much more probably, ^oroijjffn', Athan. rowfr. -1iV«h. 11. 62 : in 

the ;:eii. of t!ie jioiitt of view, ' in rcferenco a word, He was l>fgotten, they wen^ rreulitl, 

to, ' in comparison to,' (Scheuerl. Si/nt. — the };ulf infinite, yet as He stooped to 

§ 18. I. p. 129), the latent eompanitivo wear their outward form, so He didains 

force involved in the vpwTos rc!idcring not to institute, by the mouth of His 

this last j:e\iilival relation siill more in- apostle, temjioral comparison Unwecn 

tellijiiblc and perspicuous ; comp. Fritz. His own j:encraiion fix>m etensity and 

on Hum. X. 19, Vol. II. p. 421. In the their cnation in time; see Bull, /'>/<n. 

first two cases, iruja Kriais must be con- Fid. Xic. ill. 9. 9, who however appears 

., , , , *_vJr. to have mi.-understood the meanins ol 

sulcinl as cnuiv. to a plur. (— ^51— iS9 , „ ■ ., ^ 

e » ^ ■ ffvyKardfiaais, compare Newman, m (frf. 

]Z^f^ [omnium creaturariim) Syr), /,/ir. o/'//. Vol. viii. p. 2SS. 

i. e. every form of crc;uion (comp. Hof- Lastly, as there uem to be two senses ia 



Chap. I. 16. 

Kvpiorrjre;, etVe ap^ai, eiT€ i^ovaiar ra iravra hC avrov 

Scripture in which our Lord is first-born 
in respect of every creature, viz., in its 
restoration after the fall as well as in its 
first origin (see Athan. /. c, § 63), we 
may possibly admit, as vcr. 18 also par- 
tially suggests, a secondary and inferen- 
tial, — certainly not a primary (Theod.- 
Mops. ; ^th., 'supra omnia opera'), 
nor even co-ordinate, reference to prior- 
ity in dignity {irpoTifirjais) : see Alf. in 
he, who, however, unduly presses this 
reference, and by refcmng the whole to 
Christ in his now glorified state (so 
Mej-., and Hofmaim, Schriflb. Vol. i. p. 
135), certainly seems to impair the the- 
ological force and significance of this 
august passage. For further doctrinal 
comments see the good note of Words- 
worth in loc. 

16. oTi] 'because,' not 'for,' Alf., a 
translation better reserved for y6.p, — 
logical elucidation of the preceding mem- 
ber : He, in t'le sphere of whose crea- 
tive power all things were made and on 
whom all thinL's depend, vas truly the 
TTpoTor. Tracnjs Kriaeus, and had an eter- 
nal priority in time and dignity. The 
olijections of Schleiermacher {Stud. u. 
Krit. 1832, p. .502) to the logic of this 
causal explanation are unreasonable and 
pointless. ev alrcf] 'in 

Him' as the creative centre of all things, 
the causal clement of their existence ; 
compare \Yiner, Gr. ^ 50. 6, p. 372 (ed. 
6; here judiciously altered). The prep- 
osition has received several different ex- 
planations, three of which deserve con- 
iideration : «'»/ has been referred to Christ 
as (fl) the causa instrumentalis (iu = 5j<£), 
creation being conceived as existing in 
the means, Jclf, Gr. § 622. 3 ; (b) the 
causa exemplaris, the Koff/io? voijrhs being 
supposed to be included and to have its 
essentiality (Olsh.) in Him as the great 
cxemplnr ; (c) the causa couditiona/is, the 
act of creation being supposed to rest in 

Him, and to depend on Him for its com- 
pletion and realization. Of there (a) is 
adopted by the Greek commentators, but 
is open to the serious objection that no 
distinction is preserved between iv abr^ 
here and St' avTov below, whicii St. 
Paul's known use of prepositions (see 
notes on Gal. i. 1 ) would lead us certain- 
ly to expect. The second (b) is adopted 
by the schoolmen and recently by Olsh., 
Neander, Bisp., but is highly artificial, 
and supported by no analogy of Scrip- 
ture. AVe therefore adopt (c) which is 
theologically exact and significant, and in 
which St. Paul's peculiar, yet somewhat 
varied, use of iv Xpiar^ wit!i verbs (com- 
pare 2 Cor. V. 19, Gal. ii. 17, Eph. i. 4, 
al.) is suitably maintained : compare the 
similar usage of e'j/, especially with pro- 
nouns, to denote the subject in whicii and 
on which ('den Haltpunkt') the action 
depends, e. g. iv aoi irSff' fyoi-ye ffw^ofiatt 
Soph. AJax, 519; see Rost u. Palm, 
Lex. s. V. iv, 2. b, Vol i. p. 509, Bern- 
hardy, Si/nt. V. 8. b, p. 210. 
e/cTtcr&Tj] 'were created,' with simple 
physical ref. : observe the aorist of the 
past action, as contrasted with fKrurrai 
below, in which the duration and persist- 
ence of the act (' per effectus suos durat/ 
see on Ejili. ii. 8) is brought into especial 
prominence ; comp. 1 Cor. xv. 27, and 
Winer, Gr. § 40. 4, p. 243. The forced 
(ethical) meaning ' were arranged, re- 
constituted' (Schleierm.), though lexi- 
cally admissible, is fully disproved by 
Meyer, who observes that K-ri^o} always 
in the N. T. (even in Eph. ii. 10, 15, iv. 
25) implies the bringing into existence, 
spiritually or otherwise, of what befoni 
was not. For an exposition of this im- 
portant text see Cone. AntioclLap. Routh, 
lieliq. Sacr. Vol. ii. p. 468, referred to 
by Wordsw. in loc. r a tr oivr a\ 

' all things (that exist) ' — more specifical- 
ly defined, first in regard of place, sec* 

Ciup. I. IG, 17. COLOSSIANS. I37 

€t<» ainov tKTt(TTai, ^' kuI axno'i ^(ttiv irpo irdvrcjp, /cat to. Truirra 

ondly in regard of nature and essential 
cliaructcristifs. On the u>o of the urt 
('das All '), see W., Gr. ^ 18. 8, p. 105. 

TO iv TO?I oil p. K T. A.j '(he thilllJS 
in the heaven, and (he thiiu/s vn the eart/i ; ' 
not in refeivnco merely to intelligent Itc- 
ings (Ilulher), nor to the exclusion of 
things under the earth (I'hil. ii. 10), hut, 
as iu Kph. i. 10 (see note>), with the ful- 
lest amplitude, — ' all things and beings 
whatsoever and wheresoever; 'hue dis- 
trihutione univeream ereaturam complee- 
titur,' Daven. The following clauses 
carry out the universality of the R"fer- 
encc, liy sj)ecifying the two classes of 
things, the visible ^and material, anil the 
invisible and spiritual, — which latter 
class is still further specified by disjunc- 
tive cnumoiaiions. 

Tck 6 pari. Ka\ r a a 6 p.] ^ the thinrjs 
visible and the thiw/s iurisiblr ;' amplifi- 
cation — not exclusively of the former 
{StSdcTKfi (Taipiartpov TiVa KoXfi ovpivM 
(Xrt dpara [as sun, njoon, and stars] f'irt 
iApara, Theod.), or exclusively of the 
Inttir member ^aSpara tJjj/ xfivxh" Xiytnv, 
bparh irdmas oi'dptijrour, Clirys.),but of 
both, ' the visible and invisible world:' 
' in ccelo visibilia sunt sol, luna, stellue ; 
invisibilia, angeli : in teira visibilia, 
planta;, elementa, animalia; invisibilia, 
unimoe, humanju,' Daven., — unless in- 
deed, as the following enumeration 
seems 10 imply, this last class, ' anim:B 
humaniv,' bo gron]>cd with dpard (Mey.). 
ftrt b p6v I K- T. \.] ' whftftcr throws, 
tchrthrr dominions, irhrther princi/talilies, 
ithet her J lowers : ' disjunctive specification 
of the preceding aSpara ; ' lest in that 
invisible world, among the many degires 
of the celestial hierarchy, any order 
might fcem exomjited fi-om an essential 
dependence u])on Ilim, ho nanieth those 
which are of greatest eminence, and in 
them comprehendeth the rest,' Pearson, 
Creed, Vol 1. p. 148. There seems no 

reason to modify the opinion advanced 
on Eph. i. 21, that four orders of h< av- 
enly intelligenco are here eimrnerated ; 
see notes and references in loc., livasB, 
Th^. (JhrA. IV. ao. Vol. II. p. 2L>6 sq., 
and the e.Mrcniely good article in Suiccr, 
Tiiesuur. 8. V. fiyy. Vol. I. p. 30-48 By 
comparing this passage with Kpli. / c, 
where the order swms descensive, we may 
jMssibly infer that iho dpivoi (not else- 
where in N. T., but noticed in Dyonys. 
Areop. de Iliir., and in Tist. xii. Pair. 
p. 532, rabric.) are the highe^t order of 
blessed spirits, those sitting round the 
eternal throne of (Jod, Kvpi6rr]Tfi the 
founh, apxal and i^oua'iBU the intermedi- 
ate (Mey.), if indeed, as is ob.served 0/1 
E/ih. I. c, all such distinctions arc not 
to be deemed precarious and presump- 
tuous; compare Bull, iS<nn. xii. p 221, 
and llofmann, S^•hri/th. Vol. i. p. 302. 
This enumeration vtay have been sug- 
gested by some known theo.-opliistic 
speculations of the Colossians (chap. ii. 
18, compare Maurice, Cniti/ 0/ \. T. p. 
5GG), but more jirobably, as in Eph. i. 
21, was an incidintal revelation, which 
the term a6para evoked. Of the other 
numerous interpretations which these 
words have received (see De Wette in 
loi\), none seem worthy of serious atten- 
tion, ri irivTa K.7.K.] 
' (i/fa) all thini/s,' ttc; solemn recapitu- 
lation of the foregoing. The most nat- 
und jiunctuation seems to be neitlier a 
jieriod (Tinch.), nor a comma (Alf.), 
least of all a parenthesis {1.^-hm.), but, 
as in .1////, and in Uiittniann's recent edi- 
tion, a colon. Si* aitTOv 
Ka\ *i s avT 6i>] ' throwjh Hint and for 
Him ; ' resumption of iy awry iirr. with 
a change both in tense and pri'positions ; 
there the Son was n'presenied as the 
' causa conditionalis ' of all tilings, hero 
as the ' causa medians ' of creation, and 
the ' causa tin;Uis ' (Daven.) or • finis olti- 


138 COLOSSIANS. Chap. I. 17, 18. 

€v avTQj crvvecTTrjKev' ^° Kai avro^ eartv ij K€(pa\r] rov aoifiaro^. 

mas' (Calov.) to which it is referred. 
It was to form a portion of His glory, 
and to bo subjected to His dominion 
(comp. Matth. xxviii. 18) that all things 
were created ; ejs avrhv Kpifiarai ri irdv- 

Twv inrucTTaais Sxrre ^v airocrTraffbij tt]s 

avTov npovoias, air6\ci>\e Koi Si€(p^apTai, 
Chrys. We may observe that tlie me- 
diate creation, and final destination, of 
the world, here referred to the Son, are 
in Rom. xi. 36 referred to the Fatiier. 
Such permutations deserve our serious 
consideration ; if the Son had not been 
God, such an interchange of important 
relations would never have seemed pos- 
sible : compare Waterland Def. Qu. xi. 
Vol. I. p. 3S3 sq.. Vol. Ii. p. 54, 56. 
On the force of the perf. eKTiarai, see 
above ; and in answer to the attempts to 
refer this passage to any figurative crea- 
tion, sec Pearson, Creed, Vol. i. p. 149, 
150 (cd. Burt.). 

17. Kol avrSs k. t. \.] 'and lie 
Himself,' etc. ; contrast between the cre- 
ator and the things created ; ahr'bs being 
emphatic, and koI having a gentle con- 
trasting force (see notes on Phil. iv. 12) 
by which the tacit antithesis involved in 
ahrhs ('ipse oppositum habet alium,' 
Hermann, Dissert., avrSs 1 ) between the 
things created {rh irdvTa) and Him who 
created them is still more enhanced : 
the;j were creiitcd in time. He their crea- 
tor is and was before all time. It may 
be obsei-ved that though avrhs appears 
both in tliis and the great majority of 
passages in the N. T. to have its projjcr 
classical force ('ut rem ab aliis relnis 
discernendam esse indicet,* Herm. Dis- 
sert, I. c), the Aramaic use of tlie cor- 
responding pronoun should make us 
cautious in pressing it in every case. Tiie 
vernacular tongue of the writers of the 
N. T. must have produced ?3?ne effect 
on their diction. nph 

vdyruy] 'before all things,' not 'all 

beings' (* omnes,' Vulg., Clarom.), and 
tliat too not in rank, but, in accordance 
with tlie primary meaning of izpaiTOTOKos 
and tlie immcdii\te context, — in time; 
TovTO 06(5 apixo^ov, CliiTS. Theodoret 
with reason calls attention to tlie expres- 
sion — not iyevfTO irph irduToiu, but ecrri 
irph TTavTwu: contrast John i. 14 
iv avT c3 a vv e (XT.] ' consist in Ilim,' as 
the causal sphere of their continuing ex- 
istence : not exactly identical with ii/ alrca 
above (Mey., Alf. ), but, with the very 
slight change whicli the cliange of verb in- 
volves, in more of a carnal ref- ; Christ 
was the conditional element of t'jcir ova- 
tion, the causal element of their persist- 
ence ; comp. Heb. i. 3, (pipoiv re ri tviit/Ta 
Tw priixaTi T7JS Suia.ueois avTov. Tlie de- 
claration, as Waterl. observes, is in fact 
tantamount to ' in Him they live, and 
move, and have their being' (Serm. on 
Div. VII. Vol. II. p. 164), which is and 
forms one of the great arguments for the 
omnipresence and the ])reserving and 
sustaining power of Christ ; see ib. Def. 
Qu. XVIII. Vol. 1. p. 430. The verb 
trvviffrdi/ai is well defined by Reiske, Ind. 
Dcm. (quoted by Meyer), as 'corpus 
unum, integrum, perfectum, secum con- 
sentiens esse et permanere,' compare 
2 Pet. iii. 5, and [Arist.] de Mundo, 6, 
fK ^fov ra irdvTa, kclI 5ia Stsov ^tfjiiv ffi*- 
peaTTjicef ; see especially Krebs, Obs. p. 
334, and Loesncr, Ohs. p. 362, by both of 
whom tliis word is copiously illustrated 
from Josephus and Pliilo; compare also 
Eisner, Obs. Vol. ii. 259. 

18. Kal avT6s k.t.X.] Transition 
to the second part, in wliich the relation 
of the incarnate and glorified Son to His 
Church is declared and confirmed, not 
perhaps without some reference to the 
erroneous teaching and angel-worship 
that apparently prevailed in the Church 
of Colossae. Avrhs is thus, as before, 
emphatic, possibly involving an antitho- 

CuAi. I. 18. COLO SSI AN S. 1C9 

sis to some falsely imaj^iiioJ (ttc/ioAi; or 
Kt(paKaX of tlie Ciiuicli ; ' lie- in wlioin all 
things consist, He, and no otiier than He, 
is the head of the Cliun-h.' 'I'he ernjtiia- 
sis, as Meyer ohserves, rests on KtipaXy 
rather ilian iKKKrjffia ; it was the iiead- 
ship of tiie Churih, not its imaginary 
constituiion, that formed the undercur- 
rent of the erroneous teaeiiing. 
ToC aw^i. r?) s ^K kK.] 'of His hodj, 
the Church,' ti'/j iKKK. heing the genitive 
of tdtiititi/ or a/>]iosilion ; see Winer, (Jr. 
4 59. 8, I). 470, Seiieuerl. 6>^ ^ 12. I, 
p. 82. The apo.-tle does not say merely 
' of the Clmnli,' but ' of His body,' etc., 
to show, — not the <pt\cw^pwTria of Chri>t 
{biKuf iifJtf oiKfiOTfpov SeT^ai outJi/, 
Chrys.), but tlic real, vital, and essm- 
tial union between the ( liurcli and its 
Head: compare Ephe-. iv. l.">, IG, and 
notes Ml loc. ; sec al o Honi. xii. .i, 1 Cor. 
X. 17, Ephes. i. 23, al. o y 

i<mv\ ' seeiiif] He is;' the relative 
ha\ing a semi argumentative force, and 
serving to confirm the previous declara- 
tion ; see Jelf, Gram. § 8."36. 3. We can 
scarcely say that in such sentences ' t$ 
is for Sri ' (Jelf, /. c, Matth. Cr. § 480. 
c), but rather that, like tho more usual 
SffTiy, the simple relatival force pixsses 
into the erplatiatonj , which almost neces- 
sarily involves some tinge of a causal or 
argumcntaiivo meaning: sec notes on 
Gal. ii. 4. apxv] ' the 

betjinniiv/,' not merely in rcf. to tiio fol- 
lowing Tii>t> vfKfiwv (Meyer, Hofmann, 
Schrillh. Vol. II. 1, p. 241 ; compare 
Thcod.), nor even to tho spiritual resur- 
rection (Daven.), bot!i of wiiich seem 
too limited ; nor yet, with a general and 
abstract refei-cnce, tho ' first ci-oative prin- 
ciple ' (Steig., Hiith. ; compare Clcm.- 
Alex. Strom, iv. p. G38, 6 0cbi 5J &yap- 
XOi cipxh "T^" SAcdi' ■irayTf\4)s), — but, as 
tlie more immediate context and the ref- 
erence to our Lord's Headship of His 

Cliurch seem certainly to suggest, in ref. 
to the iieiv creation (comp Calv., Corn, 
a La|). ; 2 Cor. v. 17, Oal. vi. 17), the 
following xp-j>TuTOKOi iK rOiv vtup. t-crv- 
ing to define that relation more closely, 
and to preserve the rctrospectiv. allusion 
\oirpwr6r. in ver. 15: our Lord in His 
glorified humaniiy is the ipxTV^J t'i 
(ta7ii (Actsiii. 15) to His ( hurch, tiie be- 
ginning, source, origin and of the new and 
sj)iriiual, evt-n as He was of tl;e former 
and material, creation ; see Ulsh. anil 
Bisp. in liK-., and compare Usteri, Ixhib. 

II. 2,4, p. 304. The plausible reading 
airapxv- adopted by Chrys. and u few 
niss., is a limiting gloss suggest' d by 
the next cl.mse compared with 1 d'r. 
XV. 23. The omission of the article [in- 
serted in B, 07**] before apxh '» 'hn', 
not to the abstract form of t!ie word 
(01>haus.), but simply to the preceding 
verb subst, Middl. Gr. Art. in. 3. 2. 

TT p uT 6 T. Ik t Ci V fCKpuf] ' Jjrst- 
burn from the dtud;' not exactly identi- 
cal with ■wp<aT6r, tOiv vfKpuy, Kcv. i. 5 
(partitive gen.), but witii the projH-r fonv 
of tho preposition, ' the fir>t-borii, not 
only cf', l)ut out of the dead ; ' He left 
their realm and came again r.s \\lt!i a 
new begetting and new l)irth into life 
(see especially Andrewes, Sirin. Vol. 

III. p. 57) ; he was the true h-tcapx}} ruv 
KfKotfirifitvoiy, I Cor. xv. 23 : comjiare 
Hofnninn, Schriflb. Vol. ii. 1 p. 241. 
Others had been translated or had risen 
to die again, He had risen with giori'.icd 
humanity to die no more (Rom. vi 9): 
hence He is ' not called simply the first 
that ro-c, but with a note of gcieraiion, 
■KpwT. ^K Tu'i/ vfKpwv,' IVarsoH, Cretd, 
Vol. 1. p. 136 (ed. Burt.). 

T*"* •ytfjjrai k. t. X.] ' »;i ordir that 
ill all thiiifis He might become (not 'sit,' 
Vulg.) pre eminent, might tale the jirst 
place' ' jirimas tcncat,' Beza, Daven. ; 
Tcu-TttXoC irpaiTOS' tSiym T/xwroj, it> rp ix" 


140 COLOSSIANS. Chap. I. 19. 

ryevrjrat ev 'rraatv avro<i irpoiTevcov, ^^ on ev avrco evoo/crjaev irav 

K\r\a'i.a TrpaiTos, iu Trj avatnaan irpcoTos, 
Chrys. : divine purpose (iVa has here its 
full tclic force, compare on Eph. i. 17) 
of His being the apxh of the new crea- 
tion, and having the priority in the res- 
urrection, — a divine purpose fulfilled in 
its temporal, and to be fulfilled in all 
conceivable relations, when all things are 
put under His feet, and the kingdom of 
the world is become the kingdom of the 
Lord and His Christ (Eev. xi. 15). The 
tense yeur)Tai cannot be safely pressed, 
as in the sulij. the force of the aor. is 
considerably weakened and modified ; 
see Benihardy, Syut. x. 9, p. 382. The 
verb TTpooTeveiu is an Stt. \ey6fjL. in the 
N. T., but is not uncommon elsewhere ; 
compare Zech. iv. 7 (Aquil.), Esth. v, 
11,2 Mace. vi. 18, xiii. 15, in all which 
passages an idea of vporifiria-ts seems 
clearly conveyed. This however does 
not require a similar meaning to be as- 
signed to ttpwtSt. (comp. Do W, Alf.) : 
irpwreveiv was to be the result, ■irpa>r6T0K. 
K. T. \. was one of the ftcts which led to 
it ; compare Meyer in loc, 
fv ira.<Tiv\ ' in all things' surely not 
' inter oranes,' Beza, — a restricted ref- 
erence that completely mars the majesty 
of this passage, and contravenes the force 
of the neuter ra irdura in tlie causal sen- 
tence which follows. Lastly, aiirSs, as 
above, must not be left unnoticed ; ' si 
quis alius mortem debellassot, etc., tum 
Christus non tcnuisset primatura in om- 
nilius,' Daven. We rany observe that 
with this clause the predications respect- 
ing Christ seem here to reach their acme 
(comp. 1 Cor. xv. 28), and lead us to ad- 
mit, if not to expect, a modification of 
Bubj. in the causal sentence which follows. 
19. Sti] 'because;' confirmation of 
the divine purpose in reference to Christ's 
precedence i» vatriv : He in v.hom the 
whole ir\'l}pQi,ua (of the &f6T7]s) was 
pleased to reside, must needs have had 

His precedence in all tilings eternally 
designed and contemplated. 
iv owTw] ' in Him,' and in Him special- 
ly ; connected with KaroiKfli/, and put 
early forward in the sentence to receive 
full emphasis. The reference, as the 
context seems to show, is notv more es- 
pecially to the incarnale Son. 
€ vS 6 KT) a e V K. T. X.] ' the whole, fulness 
{of the Godhead) icas pfeaaed to dwell;' 
' ill ipso complacuit omnis plenitudo in- 
lialiitare, ' Clarom. The first difficulty 
in this profound verse is to decide on the 
grammatical subject of evSoKtlu. This 
verb, a late and probably Macedonian- 
Greek word (Sturz, de Dial. Maced. p. 
167 ), has four constructions in the N. T., 
all personal ; with eV and a dat. (Matth. 
iii. 17, xvii. 5, al. : 2 Thessalon. ii. 12 is 
doubtful), with els and an accus. (2 Pet. 
i. 17), with a simple accus. (Heb. x. 6, 
8), with an infin. referring to the subject 
(Rom. XV. 12, 1 Corin. i. 21, al., — the 
principal and prevailing use in St. Paul's 
Epp.) ; see Fritz. Rom. x. 1, Vol. ii. p. 
369 sq., where the uses of ebdoK. are fully 
investigated. In the piescnt case three 
subjects have been proposed ; {a) Xpia- 
r6s, the preceding subject, TcrtuU. Marc. 
V. 19, and recently Conyl)., and Hofm. 
Schriftb. Vol. ii. 1, p. 24-'. where it is 
fairly defended ; {b) Oeo's, su;)piied from 
the context ; so, it can scarcely be doubt- 
ed, Syr., Vulg., Gotli., Tlicod., and, by 
inference, Chrysost., Theopli., and after 
them the bulk of modern expositors ; 
(c) the expressed subject tJ> irui/ TrX-fipo)- 
fxa; Claiora., Copt., apparently ^Eth., 
and recently Peile, and, very decidedly, 
Scholef. Uints, p. 108. Of these (a) in- 
volves indirect opposition to strong anal- 
ogies of Scripture {e. g. 2 Cor. v. 19), 
and, equally with [b), a liarsh change of 
subject to the two infin. : the second (b) is 
dogmatically coiTCCt, but involves a very 
auusual construction of ev^oK. (comp. 

CiiAi>. I. 20. COLOSSI A X fi . i4t 

TO TrXt'jpayfia KaroiKT^aai -^ Kai li av7ou uTroKaTaWu^cu la iruvra 

Tolyb. Ulst. I. 8. 4. VII. 4. .'i, 2 Mace, 
xiv. .1j), a iliiriTcnt su'ijcct to kutoik. 
and axijK., and furtlier an ellijisis of a 
word, wliiili iliouj^li not wiiliout this- 
siial iKirnllol (sec Jclf, 6V. ^ 37.1. 3) 
would here, in a pa><sa;jc of this do;j- 
matical iiii;)orta!iec, lie in a very lii;;li 
decree unnatural and im|>ro!)al>Ic : the 
tliinl {(•) is syntaetifally simple, it is 
nlso in harmony with St. Paul's rej:ular 
nsa;^ of €u5o«. when associated with an 
in(in., and, — what is still more impor- 
tant, — l>o;h in its causal connection, the 
nature of tlie expressions, and the order 
of the words (Meyer's assertion that it 
woultl haie l>ecn Srt iraif rh irK. <i/5. 
K. T. A. fiills to the irround ; observe also 
tlio order in 1 Cor. i. 21, x. 5. Galat. i. 
15), stands in closest parallel with the 
aathoritativc interpretation in ch. ii. 9, 
in iv auTr'< KaroiKt7 xav to r\. T>)y df6- 
TijToi aic/i. Wc seem bound t!icn to 
abide by ('•), — possibly the inteqiretat. 
of the ancient La; in Church : it involves, 
however, as will be seen, some grave, 
though appaiently not insuperable, diffi- 
culties, irav rh w^ii- 
pu/xa] 'the whole fulness (cf the Hod- 
head),' 'omnes divime natura: divitia\' 
Fritz. These words have been very dif- 
ferently explained. Lexically consid- 
ered, vK'fipiDua has three possible mean- 
ings, one active, (o) implcndi actio, and 
two passive, (j8) iV/ (juod im/)/t/»;n ext, 
Ephes. i. 23 (see notes), and the more 
common (7) id quo res iin)>litur. Gal. iv. 
4, Ephes. iii. 9 (see notes on both pas- 
snges), which again often passes into the 
neutral and derivative (7i) rj/luaitiu, 
abundant i' I, ttKovto?, — especially in con- 
nection with abstract genitives, Kom. 
XV. 29; sec Tiitz. Rom. xi. 12, Vol. 11. 
p. 4G9 sq., Ilofmann, Sriirifili. Vol. ti. 
1, p. 26. Of tl'.csc Oi), or perhaps sim- 
ply (7). is alone exegeiically admissible. 
The real dittienlty is in the supplemental 

gen. Setting aside all doubtful and ar- 
bitrary exjdanatiuns, r. 7. iKxKriala ( The- 
od., ."^ever.), 'fulness of tlie (ieniilcs' 
(Sch!cierm.), 'fulness of the universe' 
(Conyb., Ilofiu. /. c, p. 2G), wc have 
only one authoritative supplement, dtS- 
TjjToi, eitlier exactly in the same sense 
as in ch. ii. 9, ' plcnirndo Dcitatis,' or in 
the more derivative sense, ' plenitudo 
gratiaj habitualii ' (compare Davenant, 
Mey., al.). The lattcrof tlnse is adopt- 
ed by those who advocate consiruction 
(/') of tuioK., but has this great disadvan- 
tage, that it involves two interpretations 
oi ■KXv.fufia bfOT. (here in ref. to ' d'vina 
(jralla,' tliere to ' divina (ssmta,' 60 
ilcy., Alf., al.), whereas on tlie constr. 
of (IZoK. already adopted, irX^p. will nat- 
urally be the same in Ixitli cases, and 
will imply ' the complete fulness and cx- 
haustless perfection of the Divine Es- 
seme,' the plenitudo Dcitatis,' — an ab- 
stract terra of transcendent significance, 
involving in itself the more concrete 
Q(6%, which, as will Ijc seen, seems pos- 
sibly to be the subject of the following 
jianii ipial clause. When we con- 

sider the context in ch. ii. 9, thoiv seem 
grave reasons for thinking tliat St. Paul 
chose this august expression with special 
reference to some vague or i>erverted 
meaning assigned 10 it by t!:e fal-e teach- 
ers and theosophistic spciulators at Co- 
losstc ; comp. Thonilikc, Cov. of Grace, 
II. 15. 12. Ka-r OlK^)<Tai\ 

' to dtpell ; ' a term especially applied to 
the indwelling intlncnre of the Father 
(compare I'.ph. ii. 22), the Sot> (Kph.iii. 
17), and the Spirit (.James iv. 5), and 
both here and ch. ii. 9, enhancing the 
pirsonal relations involved in the myste- 
rious word TAi':pa>^a ; /iciT tLicriatv ovk 
ii'tpytid Tij aA\' o'jala, Tlicophyl.) 

20. at o Kar. rh ireJi'Ta] * to re- 
concile all t/iin^x ; ' not ' prorsus reooncil- 
iare,' Mey. (compare Chr}s., irorj|AA<ry 

142 COLOSSIANS. Chap. I. 20. 

et? avTov, elprjvoTTOLrjaa'i Blo, tov aifjiaro'; tov cnavpov avrov, 

jufi/oi, aWa reXei'cos €5e()> but, with the 
natural force of owr5 in similar com- 
pounds {avoKcubicrrdviti', airev^ivvnv), 
' in pristinam conditionem rcconciliando 
rcducere ; ' see Winer, de Verb. Coinp. 
IV. p. 7, 8. The subject of the inf. is of 
course the same as that of koltoik., i. e., 
grammatically considered, the irXi^pufiLa 
above, but exegetically, — as the follow- 
ing ahrhv and other scriptural analogies 
(compare 2 Cor. v. 19, Eph. i. 10) seem 
to suggest, the more definite ©erfs, in- 
volved and included in the more mysti- 
cal and abstract dcsiiznation. The reve- 
lation contained in these words is of the 
most profound nature, and must be in- 
terpreted with the utmost caution and 
reverence. Witliout presuming to di- 
lute, or to assign any improper ' elas- 
ticity' (Mey.) to, the significant anoKar. 
{(■■(J. ' reunionem creaturarum inter se 
invicem,' Dallaius), or to limit the com- 
prehensive and unrestricted to irdvTa 
(e. g. ' universam Ecelesiam,' Beza, ' om- 
nes homines,' Corn, a Lap.), we must 
guard against the irreverence of far- 
naching speculations on the reconcilia- 
tion of the finite and the infinite (Usteri, 
Leiirb. II. 1. 1, p. 129, Marhcincke, 
Dofjm. § 331 sq.), to which this mighty 
declaration has been supposed to allude. 
Tills, and no less than this, it dues say, — 
that the eternal and incarnate Son is the 
' causa medians ' by which the absolute 
totality of created things shall be restored 
into its primal harmony with its Creator, 
— a declaration more specifically unfold- 
ed in tlie following clause : more than 
this it does not say, and where God is 
siletit it is not for man to speak. See 
the sober remarks of Hofmann, Srhriflh. 
Vol. I. p. 188 sq. The mysterious aua- 
KecpaKaidcraar^ai, Ephes. i. 10 (obs. both 
the prep, and the voice), is a more gen- 
eral and perhaps more developed, while 
2 Cor. V. 19, Koa/xov KaraW. is a more 

limited and more specific, representation 
of the same eternal truth : see Destimj of 
Creature, p. 85 sq. € j i 

avr 6v\ ' unto Himself, ' i. e. to God, 
couched in the foregoing -irXripuixa: a 
' pra?gnans constvuctio,' — the preposi- 
tion marking the reconciled access to 
(comp. Eph. ii. 18), and union witli the 
Creator; compare Winer, Gr. § 66. 2, 
p. 547. The simple dative (Epli. ii. 16 ; 
compare Rom. v. 10, 2 Cor. v. 19, al.) 
expresses the object to whom and for 
whom the action is directed, but leaves 
the furtlier idea conveyed by the prep. 
unnoticed. There is no need to read 
ajT6y (Griesh., Scholz), as the reference 
to the subject is uncmphatic; see notes 
otiEph.i.4. elpTjvoTTOffi- 

<T as] ' having made peace ; ' i. e. God, — 
a simple and intelligible change of gen- 
der suggested by the preceding aurbi 
and the personal subject involved in the 
subst. with which the participle is gram- 
matically connected ; in fact, ' a con- 
struct, irphs rh vir 0(T7]jJiaiv6iXivov.' The 
parallel passage Eph. ii. 15, tzomv elp-fi- 
vr)v, would almost seem to justify a ref- 
erence to the Son (Theod., fficumen.) 
by the common participial anacoluthon 
(Stciger; compare Winer, Gr. § 63.2, 
p. 505), but as this would seriou>ly dis- 
locate the sentence by separating the 
modal participial clause from tlie finite 
verb, and would introduce confusion 
among the pronouns, we retain the more 
simple and direct construction Thus 
then the two constructions (/<) and (c) 
noticed in ver. 19 ultimately coincide in 
referring verse 20 to God, not Christ; 
and it is worthy of thought whether the 
ancient Syr. and Clarom. Vv. may not, 
by different grammatical processes, ex- 
hibit a traditional rcf. of ver. 20 to God, 
of a very remote, and perhaps even ati- 
tl'.oritative antiquity. S t h 

TOV a'lfJL. TOV (TToi-p.] ' bg the blood of 

C'liAi. I liO, 21. COLOSSIANS. 143 

tt avTOVf eire ra eiri tt}? yij'i eiTe ra iv roi^i ovpavol's. 

i„M wl.o were .llrn.lrd '-il Xat VU.U'i TTOrk 6ma<i UTTTlWoZ OKOUtfOV^ 

llcrfconcileilliy«lli. i i r 

ll m li-ii«l )e rruiBiit Oriii in (lie fkllh aod abide by thr liupc uf the GutpcL 

{i. e. s/uJ uiiuii) thf cross ;' more specific in earth and heaven, and that it is the 

luul rirciiiii.^tiiiitial statement of the ' cau- l>lesse<! medium hy whiih, between God 

sa nietliaus ' of the reioiiciliation. The and His creatures, whether an;:elical, 

(;en. is wiiat is termed of ' remoter af- human, animate, or inanimate ( itom. 

ereme,' formin;,' in faei a sjieeies of Ire- viii. I'J xj.), penec is wrought ; see the 

viloquiutia : tieo especially Winer, Gr. valuable note of Harlcss on Kith. i. 10, 

^ 30. 2, p. 1G8, where numerous exam- especially p 52, I lofmann, ^c/ir(/W. Vol. 

pks are collected. 8 j' 1. p. 189, and comp. Wordsw. in loc. 

aitoi] ' ii) llim ;' it is scarcely neccs- 21. it a 1 u/xSi) ' and you also : ' new 

sary to say that 8i' avrou does not refer clause, to he sci)arated hy a i»erioil (not 

to tlie immediately |)rc(edin;r Sia rou merely hy a comma, //;t7/m., Bisp.) from 

aiu., hut to the more remote 5«' avrov of ver. 20, descriptive of the ajiplicaiion of 

which it is a vivid and emjdiatic repeti- the universal reconciliation to tlie special 

lion. These words axe omitted in some case of the Colossians ; compare ch. ii. 

MSS. [DlJ'FlJL; 10 mss], hut almost 11, and sec notes on Ei>h. ii. 1. The 

ol)viously to facilitate tiie construction. structure involves a sli;^ht anacoluthon : 

ttrf TO iv ovp. K. T. \.] 'will titer the apostle prohahly commenced with 

tht lliimjs Ujion the eorth or the things in the intention of placinjr v^ias under the 

the hearcits ; ' disjunctive enumeration of immedinte rc;jimen of aTo<foT»jAA., but 

the ' univcr>itas rcruni,' as in ver. 16, was led by iroTt Urraj into the contnistcd 

with t!iis only diUerente, that the order clause I'wl 5c In-fore he inserted the verb ; 

is transposed, — possibly from the more compare Winer, (tniin. § 03. I, p. 504. 

close connection of the death of Christ The rcadin;.; a-woKaTTjWdyTjrf ado])tcd by 

with TO iv\ t'is yiiS. It is hardly neces- lAuhm. and Meyer witli B [DTCi ; Cla- 

s.try lo say t!iat the lanjrua|zc precludes rom. ; Iren.. al., have airoifaTaAAa7«»-res] 

aiiy idea of rcioiuiliation /W"et'i the oc- involves an equally intellij.;ii>!e, though 

rupants of earth and heaven (apparently much stroni^er anacoluthon, but has not 

Cyril.-IIicros. Gitich. xiv. 3, Clirys. (in sufficient external support, 

part), Theoil., ul.) or, in reference to tvras AwijAXorp.] ' beiiui nlienntni,' 

the latter, of any ivconciliation of only ' l>eiii;f in a stale of iiiienution,' scil. ' from 

a retrospectively preservative nature God;' compare Eph. iv. 23. The part 

(Bramhall, Disc. iv. Vol. v. p. US), of the verb subst. is used wiih tlie jK-rf. 

How the reconciliation of Christ afTccts jiart. to express yet more fonibly tlie 

the spiritual world — w hether by the an- continuinp; state of the alienation ; com- 

iiihilation of 'posse peccare,' or by tlic pare Winer, (»V. § 45. 5, p. 511. For 

infusion of a more perfect knowledjre illustrations of the emphatic verb iroAX. 

(Eph. iii. 10), or (less probably) some (' abalicnati,' Bc7.a), see notes on ICfh. 

restorative application to the f.tllcn spir- ii. 12, where the application is more ex- 

itual world (t)rig., Neand. P/nntin;/, Vol. prcssly it;.stricted. Both there and Eph. 

t. }). 531), — wc know not, and we dare iv. 28, the Ephcsi:ins were represented 

not s|>eculato : this, however, we m.iy as a portion of heathenism, hen; the Co- 

fcarle.ssly assert, that the efficacy of (he lossians arc represented as a portion of 

sacrifice of the Eternal Son is infinite the ' nniversitas rcmm,' to whom the 

and limitless, tiiat it extends to all thiii;.'s redeeminfr power of Christ extends. 



Chap. I. 21, 22. 

Koi i'^pov'i Trj Siavoia iv toi<; epyot^ to2<; '7rovrjpot<;, vvvi he utto- 
KaryjKXa'^ev ^ iv rw auifxaji tv}i? crapKO'^ avrov Sea rov ^avdrov, 

eX'^pous-Tj? Star.] ' enemies in your 
umJerstaiidint/ ;' not jmssive, 'rej^arded 
as enemies by God ' ( Meyer, who com- 
pares Tvoni. V. 10), but, as the subjective 
tinge <rivcn by tlie limiting dative and 
the addi.ioii eV to7s tpy. seem to imply, 
(; fx^pol ?iTf, Atjci, Kol ra ruv ix- 
Srpup firpa.Tr€T€, ("hrysost. The dative 
S.avoU \i what i> termed the dat. of ref- 
creiice to (see note^ on (Jal. i. 22), and 
re])resciits, as it v.-ere, the peculiar spir- 
itual seat of the liostility (comp. notes on 
L'jjh. iv. 18), while eV ro7s epyots marks 
the practical spheres and substrata in 
which the ex^pa ^^"is evinced ; comp. IIii- 
ther in Ion. On the meaning of Sidpoia. the 
' higher intellectual nature ' (5i6|o5os \o- 
yiKTi, Orig.), especially as shown in its 
practical relations (contrast ei/yota, Heb. 
iv. 12), see the good remarks of Reck, 
Serlenl. ii. 19. I), p. .53. The 

addition to7s ■Kovr)piHs, not simply iv to7s 
vov. tpy., serves to give emphasis, and 
direct attention to the real character of 
the epya; Winer, Or. § 20. 1, p. 119. 
vvul Sf air o K ar.] ' yH r.oio hatli lie 
( God, see next note) reconciled: ' antith- 
esis to the pideding iroTt tivras, the op- 
positive 5e in the apodosis being evoked 
by the latent 'although' (Donalds. (Jr. 
§ G2I) involved in the participial ])iota- 
si:; ; compare Xen. Mmi. iii. 7. 8, e'/cei- 
vovs pa,Blws x^'povjxevos, tovtois 5e fx-q^iva 
Tp'jirov Old SwriCTfO'dai Trpoirej'eX'^';'''^'. 
and see the note and rcflP. of Kulincr, 
also Buttmann, Mid. Excurs xii. p. 148 : 
add K'otz, Derar. Vol. ii. p. 374, Ilar- 
tung, Pai-tik. Sf, 5. 6, Vol. i. p. 186. 
Such a construction is not commcm in 
Attic writers. In this union of the em- 
phatic particle of absolutely present time 
with the aor. (comj). Hartung, Ptirtik. 
Vol. 11 p. 24) the aor. is not equivalent 
to a prts. or pcrf., hut marks with the 
proper force of the tense, that the action 

followed a given event (here, as the 
context suggests, the atoning death of 
Chrit), and is now done with ; see Do- 
nalds. Gr. § 4.3.3, compared with Fritz. 
de Aor. p. 6, 17. Meyer ])ertinentl3'' 
compares Plato, Symp. p. 193 a, -nph 
Tov . . . tv ^fifv, yvi/l de Sta t))v aSiKiav 
Siceicia^uep vTrh tou ^eov. 

22. iv T w (T d) fx. K. T. \.] 'in the 
body of His flesh,' i. e., as the language 
and allusion undoubtedly requires, — the 
flesh of Christ ; the prep, iv pointing to 
the suhstratuni of the action ; see notes on 
Gal. i. 24, and comjj. especially Andoc. 
de ifyst. p. .33 (ed. Schill.) 6 fj-ev a-ywu 
iv T'Z (rdiixaTi rcS ii.i'S Ka^^effTTiKev. It 
may ju.stly be considered somewhat 
doubtful wiiether the subject of tlie pres- 
ent clause, and of the verb axoKur-nK- 
\a^ev is regarded as Christ (("lirysost., 
CEcum., al.), or God. In f.ivor of the 
first supposition we have the use of ffd>- 
fxuTi (which seems to suggest an identi- 
ty between the subject to wliich the awfxa 
refers and the subject of the verb), per- 
haps the use of irapa(TT?,(7at (comp. I'ph. 
V. 27, but contrast 2 Cor. iv. 14), and 
the ready connection of such a purpose 
with the fact specified by airoKar. (comp. 
De Wette), and lastly, the semi-parallel 
passage, Eph. ii. 13. Still the difHcultv 
of a change of subject, — the natural 
transition from the more general act on 
the pait of God alluded to in ver. 20 to 
the more particular application of the 
same to the Colossians, — the fuller am- 
plification which this verse srems to be 
of the substance of ver. 13, — and the 
similarity between the circumstantial 
5ia TOV a'tfi. rov err. above and the cir- 
cumstantial iv T'o fftifi. K. T. A. in the 
present verse, seem to supply distinctly 
preponderant arguments, and lead us 
with Dengel, lluth., and others, to refer 
aTTOKar. to the subject of ver. 20. i. e. to 

CuAV. 1. 22. C O L O S S I A N S . U't 

irapaa-Ti'iaai vfj.U'i ayi'ov^ Ka\ ufj^novi xal uve'/KXi'iTov'; KaTcvojiriov 

God. Manv reasons have hecn a£siy:ned is commonly obscured (Madvi-.:, ^ 1"2), 

why St. Paul adds the spetifving gen. es|iecially as here in an aori-tiriieiiucru-e. 

{aubst'iiititr, Winer, (Jr. ^ 30. 2) r7> vap- On irapaffriiffai, which ceituii)!y ccimeyi 

k6s. Two opinions deserve considera- no sacrilicial idea, cotnp. on J-./ih. v. 27. 

tioii ; (a) thai it was to oppose some There the reference is more restricted, 

forms of iJorctic error which were pre- here more general. 

vailing at C'olossa', Steiger, Iluiher, ul. ; ayiovi ical ifi- "oi a.vt-(K.\ • liJjf 

(/<) that it was directed against a false and blameless and without cliunit ; ' desig- 

spiritiiiilism, wiiich, from a mistaken as- nation of their contemplated state on iu 

ecticism (ch. ii. 23), led to grave error positive and neg:itive tide (Mcy.), 0710UI 

with respect to the efficacy of Christ's marking the former, A/wi/u koI oytyKK. 

atonement in the flesh ; so Meyer, fol- the latter. Strictly considered then, tlis 

lowc<l l)V Alford. As there are no di- first and second koI arc not |>erfectly co- 

rect, and appy. no indirect (contrast ordinate and similar: they do not con- 

Ignat. Mii'inis. § 9, 11, al.) ullu.-ions to nect three different ideas (' erga Dcum, 

Doceiic error traceable in this Epi.>tle, respcctu vestri, respectu pro\imi,' lien- 

thc opinion {!•) is, on the whole, to Ije gel) nor simply aggregate three similar 

preferred. That the addition is used to ideas (Davcn.) ; but, while the'fiist con 

mark t!ie distinction between this and- nects the two meml>er> of ilie latent an- 

tho Lord's siiiri/mil aw^a, the Clmrch tithesis, the second is, as it were, under 

(Olsh.), docs not seem natural or prob- a vinculum joining the component parts 

able. 5iet tov bav.] 'by of the second member. On the meaning 

vieaiis of Ilis diath ;' added to the pre- of inwfxoi (I'ncu/yxi/i/s. not tiiiinaruJjitiis), 

ceding iyra> <r<tf^. to express the Hi«»((« by see notes on Eph. i. 4 : it is apparently 

whidi the reconciliation was so wrought : less strong than the 1 blowing du'«7ifX. ; 

it was by means of death, borne in. and aviyKX. yip t<$t» A»7fToj, oray /ijjM 

accomplished in tliat blessed bndy, that fi*XP^ Ka-r ay fufffws /m « f^^xt>i tyn Kii/jui- 

reconciliation wa-; brouglit a' out ; I'om- ros ^ ri wcirpayfityoy m.'- , C'!iry<o~tom. 

pare .-omc valuable remarks in Jacksun, Lastly, on the distinr.iici iMiween ij-c'-y- 

Cnrd. VIII. S. 4. >f/M;Toj and oftTiATjirros C i:i quo inilla 

irapotTT "/ ffoi] ' to present ; ' infinitive, j'i<s/a causa sit reprehcti-ionis '), see Titt. 

expressing the actual purpose and iutent mann, Si/non 1. p. 31. 

of the action exprc-sed in otok. ; sec Kar fvuir i oy avroi] 'hftrr IJim :' 

Madvig, Synt. § 118 where this mood God, — not Christ (.Mey.), a refcreni-e 

is extremely well discussed. Had wvrt neither natural nor easily ixHoncilalle 

been in.serted, the idea of manner or de- with the very similar passage-, Eph. i. 4. 

gree would rather have come into prom- There may be here a faint refcrem-o to 

incnce (Madvig, § 166), and the mean- the ' day of Christ's «•>""> i i'_'.* Alford 

•ng would literally have been ' as with but it does not seem perfectly certain 

the intention of, etc.,' tlie finite verb from the context. With resix-ct to the 

being in fact again tacitly supplied after question whether ' snnctitas iniputnta ' 

fioT* .• see especially WcUcr, Dtmerh. :. (Iluth.), or, perhaps more probably, 

6Vi(v/i. .S/Ht. p. 14 (Mein. 1843). Meyer ' sanctitas in/urrens,' (Chrys. ; compare 

calls attention to the tense, but it must notes on Eph. i. 4) is here alluded to, 

be observed that in the infin. the aorist, the remark of Davcnant seem* just. — 

except after verbs declarandi vel saitiendi, ' cum dicit, ut sistat nos snixios, non ttf 




Chap. I. 23. 

avrov' -^ eiye iTri/xiveTe ry iriarei re'^e/jbeXtcofievoi koI iBpaioi, Koi 
fjiT] fieTaKLvovfJLevoi airo ttj? eX7ri8o9 tov evayjeXlov ov rjKovaarej 

shteremus iws, manifestum est ipsos re- 
conciliatos et renatos sanctitatem suam 
a Cliristo mutuari, sive de actuali, sive 
de inhffirente, sive de iniputatA loqui- 
miir,' p. 113 (ed. 3); 'whensoever we 
have £iny of these we have all, — they go 
together,' Hooker, Servi. on Jiislijication, 
II. 21. 

23. elf 7 6 € TT t fj.. Tj] TriffTsi] ' if at 
least ye continue in the faith ; ' a tropical 
Kse of e'jriju. peculiar to St. Paul, Kom. 
vi. 1, xi. 22, 23, } Tim. iv. 16: e7ri;u., 
Acts xiii. 43 (Rec.), has scarcely any 
critical support. Like several compounds 
of t'lri it has two constructions (see Wi- 
ner, Gr. § 52. 7. p 382), with preposi- 
tions eTTi, Trp6s, iv (Acts xxviii. 14, 1 
Cor. xvi. 17, Phil. i. 24), and with the 
simple dative (Ilom. II. cc, I Tim. I. c.) 
which ap])arently is semilocal (comp. on 
(ial. V. 1), or, perhaps more probably, 
under the influence of the preposition. 
The preposition eVi is not (perse) inten- 
sive (Alf. ), but appears to denote rest at 
a place, see notes on Gal. i. 18. On the 
racanin.i; of dye, see notes on Eph. iii. 2, 
and on t!ie distinction between dye (si 
<]uidem) and direp (si omnino), see notes 
on Gal. iii. 4. r e^e fieK. 

/to) 15 pa Tot] ' fjrounded and firm;' 
specification on the positive side of the 
mode of the iirijxovi) ; compare Eph. iii. 
-17, fppi^a)fj.€voi Kul T€^f;U.eAjco^eVoi, and 1 
Cor. XV. ."JB, eSpa7ai, MfieraKlyriToi. The 
qualitative termination -aios seems to 
justify the distinction of Beng., ' re^e/i. 
Jtffixi fundamento, e(5p. stabiles, firmi 
iiitus.' That there is any reference to 
the metaplior of a temple (Olsh.), seems 
here very doubtful. naX 

fii} fteTaiciv.] 'and not heinfj moved 
accaij;' nearly identical with afxeraKivri- 
roi, I Cor. XV.. 58, and representing their 
fixity on hs nrr/ative side : the change to 
the present pass., — as marking hy the 

tense the process that might be going 
on, and by the mood (pass., not act., as 
De Wette), that of which they were now 
liable to be the victims, — is especially 
suitable and exact ; see the suggestive 
example cited by Alford, viz. Xcnoph. 
Hep. Lac. XV. 1, iroAneias jxcraKeKivyjixe- 
vas kolI en vvv /leTaKivovfievas. On tlie 
fii] with fieraK., which, in a hypothetical 
sentence like the present, is usual and 
proper, see, if necessary, Winer, Gram. 
§ 55. I, p. 522. Tf;s i \ir. 

T C evayy.] ^ the hope of the Gospel,' 
i. e. arising from, evoked b_y, the Gospel, 
TOV evayy. being tlie genitive of the ori' 
gin or rather the originating agent ; see 
Hartung, Casus, p. 17, and comp. notes 
on 1 Thess. i. 6. To regard it as a pos- 
sess, gen. (Alf.) gives an unnecessary 
vagueness to the expression. Such gen- 
itives as those of the origin (Ilartung, 
p. 17), originating agent, and perhaps a 
shade stronger, the causa efjir.iens ( Scheu- 
erl. Sijnt. \ 17), all belong to the gen- 
eral category of the gen. of ' ablation ' 
(Donalds. Gr. § 448, 449) : the context 
alone must guide us in our clioice. 'E\- 
TTis can hardly be here, except in a very 
derivative sense, equivalent to 6 XpimSs, 
Chrys. ; it seems only to have its usual 
subjective meaning ; compare notes on 
Eph. i. 18. ov i)KOvcraTf] 

* which ye heard' scil. when it was first 
prcaclied to you ; not ' have heard,' 
Auth., — here certainly an unnecessary 
introduction of the auxiliary. This and 
the two following clauses serve to give 
weight to the foregoing ^^ ixeraKivovfie- 
voi : they had heard the Gospel, the 
world had heard it {■Kd\iv avrovs <pepei 
fxdpTvpas, tira t^v oiKovixevnv, Chrys.), 
and he the writer of tliis Episile, — who 
though i)rohably not their founder (see 
on verse 7), yet stood in close relation 
to them through Epaphras, — was th« 

CiiAP. I. '23, 24. 

C L O S S I A N S . 


Tov KT)pv^eirro<; ev iruar) xricrei rfj vtto tov ovpavov^ ov e^/evufijjv 
£70) IlavXo'i 8idKovo<;. 

oiii iirvacliiug the iiiy>tcry ululvaliuii, mid •Iriviiig tu pretrnt rvrry iiiau pcrfrcl bcfure ChhtL 

prcaclier of it ; koI tovto tls t b a^tSntr- 
TOV ffuj/TtAf?, Clirys. The apostk- t;i\ es 
WL-i;j;lit to his assertions by tlic spuciul 
mention of his name, 2 Cor x. 1, CJal. 
V. 2, E|)h. iii. 1, 1 Tliess. ii. 18, Philem. 
19. i y "■<i<»'P KTlffti] 

' ill the hearing of tvrrij crHiturc ; ' >urely 
not 'in tlio whole of creation,' Alf., — a 
transhition wliieh, even if we conecde 
that tcaaa tcriais inuy bc equivalent to 
'every form of ercation,' 1. f. 'all crea- 
tures' (Ilofm. Schtiftl,. Vol I. p. 137), 
wouKl lie needlessly inexact. The art. 
is inserted in D'KKL [Rtc), but clearly 
lias not suflirieiit critical support. This 
noiile hyperbole only states in a slightly 
different form what the Lord had com- 
manded, Mark xvi. 13: the inspired 
apostle, as Olsh well says, sees the uni- 
versal tendciuv of Christianity already 
realized. The limitation, T17 ii-xh rhy ovp. 
characterizes the ktictii as tiriyaos, in- 
cluding however, therel)y, all mankind. 
For tlie meaning of iv, ajiud, coram, — 
perhaps hero with singular reverting 
somewhat 10 the primary idea of splirre 
of operation, sec Winer, Gr. ^ 48. a. d, 
f 34. SiiKovos] ' a tiilit- 

later;' see notes oh K/iIhs. i i. 7. The 
three practical deductions which Dave- 
nant draws from this clause aix- worthy 
of perusal. 

24. vvv x° 'P"l 'transition suggest- 
ed by tlio preceding clauses, especially 
by the last, to the apostle's own sen ices 
in the cause of the GosikI. The viv is 
not merely transitional (compare Klotz, 
Denir. Vol. tt. p. 677), but, as its posi- 
tion shows, purely temporal and em- 
phatic (2 Corinth, vii. 9), ' uow, with the 
chain round my wrist' (Eadie), forming 
a contrast with the past time involved in 
the fon>going mjpvx^tyros and iyfi'6,aiji'. 

The reading hs nvv k. t. A. (l)lElF(i ; 
Vuig., Clarom., a!.) hcems cither due to 
the preceding letters, or was intended to 
keep up the 6uj>i.osed contiection between 
ver. 25 and vcr. 23. i y 

■Kabrifiaaiy] Not exclusively ' de iis 
qua; patior,' Beza, but simply ' in pas- 
sionibus,' Vulg. ; the ira^fiara were not 
only the subject whercujion he rejoiced, 
but the s])here, tlie cin umstances in 
which he did so ; xa'P^ "•affx»»', Clirys. 
The brief and semi-adverbial iy Toinu 
(Phil. i. 18) is pcrhajis slitfht/i/ different. 
Tlic omission of the article before inrip 
vfiuv arises fioni ircurx«ii' Inrip being a 
legitimate construction ; see notes on 
£./ih. I. 15. vwipvfiiiiiy] 

'for yon,' not ' in your place,' Steig., 
nor, with a causal nftrencc, 'on your 
account.' Eadie, ' ve-tra causa,' Just, 
(compare Vm. and Com. a L;ip.), but 
' vestro fruciu et commodo,' Beza, 'zum 
Vortlicil,' Winer, Gr. § 47. I, p. 342. as 
the more u.-ual meaning of the prep, in 
the X. T. and its use Iwlow both suggest. 
On the uses of the preposition compare 
notes on Gal. i. 4. iii. 13, Phil. i. 7. 
icrafttTA. «c. t. A.J ' am jillin} fully 
u/> 'lie lacking tiitti.iuns oftliesufftriniisot' 
Christ.' The meaning of these wonls 
has formed the subject boih of excgriical 
«liscussion and polemical aj)|iIication ; 
compare Cajet. dr Induli/. Qu. 3, Bdlar- 
mine, de Indulff. Cap 3. Without cn- 
t( ring into tlic latter, we will endeavor 
briefly to state the grammatical and con- 
textual meaning of the wonls. 
(1) ^Kl^fts XpiffTov is clearly not 
' afllictiones propter Christum sulvun- 
d.T,' Eisner (Vol. 11. p. 260). Schoettg., 
al., nor ' calamitates quas Christus |>er- 
ferendas imposuit.' Fritz, {liom. \'o\. 
III. p. 273), — a somewhat artificial gx^o. 



Chap. I. 24, 25. 

Kai avTavaTr\r)pQ) ra vcneprjfxara rwv ^\l-\lrea>v tov Xptarov ev rf] 
aapicl fiov vTTep rod acofiaro^; avTov, 6 icmv rj eKK\r)<xia' ^'^ ^5 

auctoris, — i)ut simply and plainly ' the 
afflirtions of Christ,' ('. e. which apjier- 
tain to Christ, not, however, with corpo- 
real reference, ocra uire/xeive, Theod., but 
whicli are His (X/>. beinjj a pure posses- 
sive gcnit. ; comjiare Winer, Gr. ^ 30. 
2, p. 170, note), of which He is the mys- 
tical subject ; see below. But 
(2) how are the uo-repTj/uoTo of these af- 
flictions filled up by the apostle ? Not 
(a) by the endurance of afflictions s/w/Zar 
{5.'<TavTws, Theod.) to those endured {utto- 
(TTaTiKcos) by his Master (comp. Ileb. xiii. 
13, I Pet. iv. 1.3), and liy drinking out of 
the same cup (Matth. xx. 23), as Huth., 
Mey., — for, independently of all other 
considerations, the distinctive feature of 
the Lord's ^xl^pfts, vicarious suffering 
(Olshauf.), was lacking in those of H s 
apostle {ov yap Kaov tovto ov^e ofioiov, 
iroWov ye Kai Se?, CEcum.), — but, {!>), 
in the deeper sense given to it by Chrys., 
Theoph., CEcum., and recently adopted 
by De Wetre, Eadie, Alf., al.,— by the 
endurance of afflictions which Christ en- 
dures in His suffering Church ((rx""t- 
Kws), and of which the -K^rjpwfia has not 
yet come ; see Olsh. in luc, who has well 
defended this vital and consolatory in- 
terpretation, and compare August, m 
Psidm. Ixi. 4, Vol. iv. p. 731 (edit. 
Migne). (3) The meaning 
oi ai'T avair Kr^povv has yet to be con- 
sidered ; this is not ' vicissim explore ' 
(Beza, compare Tittmann, Si/non. ii. p. 
230), nor 'cum Christo calamitates im- 
ponente in mnlis perfercndis ffiniulans' 
(Fritz.), — a somewhat artiticial inter- 
pretation, nor even ' alterius vcTTeprifxa de 
suo ex])lere ' ( Winer, de Verb. Comp. 
III. 22), but, as Mey. suggests, ' to meet, 
and fill up the ixTreprina with a corres- 
ponding TrK^ipaiixa ; ' the avri contrasting 
not the actors or their acts (contrast Xen- 
Oph. Hell. H. 4. 12, at'Tavtir\7i<Tav com- 

])ared with a previous\riarai), but the 
defect and the siijiph/ with which it is 
met : see the examjjles cited by Winer, 
especially Dio Cass. xliv. 8, '6(rou eveSei 
TOVTO eK Trjs irapa Tciiv i.Wa>v ffvuTeXflas 
avTavarr\7]poi)dfj . I'lie simpler ai/ajr\rjp6a) 
[found in FG ; mss. : Orig. in allusion] 
would have expressed nearly the same ; 
the double compound, however, specifies 
more accurately the intention of the ac- 
tion, and the circumstances (the varepi)- 
HOTo) which it was intended to meet. 
For a practical sermon on this text, see 
Donne, Serm. xcvii. Vol. iv. p. 261 sq. 
(ed. Alf.), and compare Destiny of Crea- 
ture, p. 39 sq. if TTJ 
aapKl /jLov clearly belongs to di/ra- 
vaTrK., defining more closely the seat, and 
thence, inferentially, the mode, of the 
auTavairAripaxTis (compare 2 Cor. iv. 11, 
Gal. iv. 14) ; the word trap^, which thus 
involves the predication of manner, 
standing, as Meyer acutely observes, in 
cx(iuisite contrast with the awfxa, which 
defines the oliject of the action. Steiger, 
Huther, al., connect this clause with 
A\l\pfaiv TOV Xp. : this may be grammat- 
ically possible (Winer, 6V.§ 20. 2, p. 
123), but is exegeticaily untenable, as it 
would but reiterate what is necessarily 
involved in the use of the first person of 
the verb. 8 4 cr tiv €/ckA..] 
As e/c/cA.. might be thought the word of 
importance, the construction iStjs 4<ttiv 
iKK\., 1 Tim. iii. 15, might have seemed 
more natural ; compare Winer, Gr. § 24. 
3, p. 1 50. The present construction is, 
however, perfectly correct, as the article 
and defining gen. associated with <rwfj.a, 
as well as the antithetical contrast in 
which it stands with crfpf, point to ffcufxa 
as the subst. on which the chief momenj 
of thought really dwells. 

25. ^s iyfi>6fj.7iv K. T. \.] 'of 
which I (Paul) became a minister: ' state- 

CiiAi-. I. '2:>. c O L O S S I A N s . 1 ;f , 

iycvo/j.T]P iyu) Cu'ikovo^ Kara rijv OLKOvofilav tov Oeov tjjv oo\Suaai' 

ment of the reliitioii in wliidi lio stands which, owiu}? to the difterent meanings 

to tlic iKKK-qaia just mentioned, the fji of oikov., u\\'^\n otherwise have Inen 

bavin*; a fainllv eausal, or rather trjilun- mi-uiulerKtood : ' this oiKufOfila was sjMi- 

tttoiy foreo (sec notes on ver. 18, ami tialk ut>^i(XlKd to me and vou, — you, 

Ellendt. L»'.r. &/7i. 8. V. Vol. II. p. 371 ), Gentiles, were to lie its ol jeiL'; ' Tiie 

and indirectly j^ivin;: tlie rea^on and eonneetion of «('« i^ioj with xAtjfi. (Sclio- 

movin;; jirimiple of tlie aiTcwairX^fm-ffij ; Icf. HinlK, \>. 110) does not seem plausj- 

* I Jill up the lui kin;; measures of the Me : the juxtajiosiiion of the jnonouns 

8utferin;:s of C'luist in hehalf of His lK>dy (fioi ui iinas) su;.'|;ejts their Io;:u-jI «on- 

the L'hurch, U'inj; an appointed miiii^ier nidion. wKtjpuxrai thy 

thereof, ami Inning' a spiritual lumtion K6y. rov 0.J ' to fuljil th,- uuid ./ 

in it committed to me l>y (Jod." The Gud;' i.e. 'to perfonn my offitt; in 

iyw continues, in a sli-;litly chan-icd preachin;; unrestrictedly, to trive all it. 

relation, the iyu FlaCAoj of ver. 2.1 : there full scope to the word of God : ' iiifin. of 

the SiOKOvia referred to the tiiayy., here dvsirin (sec notes on ver. 22) dependent 

to the Church by which the tiiayy- is either on ^s iy(v6tn\v (llnth.), or |>er- 

prcachcd ; ' idem plane est ministrum liaps more naturally on nV hoiuvay 

Ecclesi;B esse ct Evan^'elii,' Just. k. r. A., thus yivin^' an amplitication to 

Kark T^jy o'lKoy. & ( o v] ' in uccordunce the preccdin;; ti'i umms The ^;losses on 

with die dis/ifiisiition, i. c. the siiiritiial irATjfdiffaj are exceedingly numerous ; t!ie 

stea-ardsliifi, of <J(mI ; ' ttis ^KK\T)(Tias ivt- most probable seem, (n) ' ad plenc expo- 

irtffTfv^v t}]v trurripiav, Kai t7> tov (ctj- neiidan) totain salutis doctrinam,' Da- 

pvyfiaros ivtxfip^<r^t' SiaKoyiaf, Theod. ven. 1, compare tU.-h., and Tholuck. 

The somewhat ditlicuit word oIkovoh. Din/pr. p. ]:i& ; (h) ' to spread abroad," 

Beems here, in accordance with tV So- lluth., — who compares Acts v. 28 ; (c) 

bflffay tc. T. A. which follows, to refer, " to <:ive its fulle.-t amplitude to, to fill 

not to the ' disf^sition of God, Syriae up the meiisures of its foreordained uni- 

o ». o V versality,' not perhaps without tome al- 

l^sJj^yio [gubernationcm], Gothic lusion to the o<Vo.OM«'a which won d thus 

' raj^ina,' yEtii. 'ordinationcm,' but, as Im? fully discharged ; comi»are Rom. xv. 

Just., Mev., al., to the ' si)iritual func- 19, /it'xpi toC 'lAAi/pofoO T(1^A^J^>a•^ «'ra» ri 

tion,' tlie ' office of an oiKovoyios ' (see I fuo77»A<oi' rov Xp. Of these (A) has an 

Cor ix. 17, compared with 1 Cor. iv. 1), advantage over (<i) in implying a «-A^- 

originating from, or assigneil by, liod ; poian viewed ejrtensirtiy, in liaving, in 

the more remote gen. ©toD denoting fact, a quantitative rather than a quali- 

either the or/f/fH of the commission (liar- tative n.fercnce, but fail.-> in exhausting 

tung, Cusii.i, p. 17), or, with more of a the meaning and completely satisfying 

possessive force. Him to whoiu it be- the context ; (c) by candying out the idea 

longed and in whose service it was further, and pointing to the \6yos as 

bonic : see Heuss, Th6A. Chr€t. iv. D, something which was to have a univers:il 

Vol. II. p. 93, and notes on Kph. i. 10, application, and not be confined to a 

where the meanings of oIkovoh. in the single nation (hence the introduction of 

N. T. are briefly noticed and classilied. «ij i'nas), seems most in ai-cordam-c with 

ri)v SoUtiiray k. t. A.] ' trhich teas the spirit of the passage and with the 

gireii me for yon ; ' further definition of words that follow ; compare the some 

tlie oiKov. rov &(ov, the meaning of what analogous expivssion, i Arf^ui rov 



Chap. I. 26, 27 

fiOL et9 u/ja? irXrjpwaai rov Xoyov rod ©eov, ^'^ to (Mvarripiov to 
aTTOKeKpufifj-ivov airo twv aloovcov Kal diro roiv 'yeveiop, vvul he id)a- 
vepco^r) To2<: dyiot<i avrou^ ^' oh y'^eXijcrev 6 ©eo? 'yvcoplaai ri 

Qfov rtv^ave, Acts vi. 7, xii. 24. It need 
hardly be added that the \6yos rod Qtov 
does not imply the ' promissiones Dei, 
partim de Christo in genere, partim do 
voeatione (jcntium,' Beza, but simply 
and plainly to euayyiXiov, as in 1 Cor. 
xiv. 36, 2 Corinth, ii. 17, 1 Thessal. ii. 
13, al. 

20. T^ ixvaT^]piov ih diro/c.] 
' the mijstenj which hath been hidden ; ' ap- 
position to the preceding -rhv \6yov rov 
Qeov. The fnvcrrriptou was the divine 
purpose of salvation in Christ, and, more 
especially, as the context seems to show, 
'desaivandis Gentibus per gratiam evan- 
gelicam,' Daven. ; see Ephes. iii. 4 sq., 
and compare Eph. i. 9. On the mean- 
ings of iJLvffTrjpiui' in the N. T., see notes 
0)1 Eph. V. 32, and Reuss, Tli^oL Chret. 
IV. 9, Vol. II. p. 88, where the applica- 
tions of the term in the X. T. are briefly 
elucidated. a tt b r wv 

alwvwv K.T. A.] 'from the aijes and 
from the (jcnerations {that have passed) ; ' 
from the long temporal periods (alooves) 
and the successive generations that made 
them up (yeveai; see on Eph. iii. 21), 
which have elapsed (observe the article) 
since the ' arcanum decretum ' was con- 
cealed. The expression is not identical 
with irph Toiv aiiiuwy, 1 Cor. ii. 7 ; the 
counsel was formed tt ph rSiv alwvwv, but 
concealed air h twv aldvw;/ ; comp. Rom. 
xvi. 25, and see notes on Eph. iii. 9, 
where the same expression occurs. 
vvvl 5e itpafepw^t)] 'but now has 
been made manifsl ; ' transition from the 
participial to the finite construct., sug- 
gested by the importance of tlie predica- 
tion ; see notes 07i Eph. i. 20, and Winer, 
Gr. § 63. 2. b, p. 505 sq., where other 
examples are noticed and discussed. 
The (pavepwcTLs, th" actual and historical 
manifestation (De W.), took place, as 

Meyer observes, in different ways, partly 
by revelation (Ephes. iii. 5), partly by 
preaching (eh. iv. 4, Tit. i. 3) and expo- 
sition (Rom. xvi. 26), and partly by all 
combined. On the connection of wA 
[Ladtm. viiv, with BCFG ; mss. ; Did.] 
with the aor., see notes on ver. 21, and 
for a good distinction between pvv ( tirX 
Twv Tpiuv xp^^'^") ^nd vvvi (iir\ /xdi/ou 
eVeo-ToiTos), see Ammonias, Voc. Diff. 
p. 99, ed. Valck. r ols ay lots 

auTov] To limit these words to the 
apostles, from a comparison with Eph. 
iii. 5 (Steiger, Olsh. : FG ; Boern. actu- 
ally insert dn-oTrjAois), or to tlie elect, 
' quos Dcus in Clnisto consecrandos de- 
crevit ' (Daven. 1), is highly unsatisfac- 
tory, and quite contrary to St. Paul's 
regular and unrestricted use of the word ; 
so Theod., who, however, shows that ho 
remembered Eph. iii. 5, to7s i,iTO(TT6\ots, 

Kol To7s S(d TOVTOIV WfTTlffTeVKOiTl. On 

the meaning of ayios, see notes on ver. 
2, and on Eph. i. 1. 

27. ols i)d€\r]ff ev 6 0] ' '.o whom 
God did will ; ' i. e. ' seeing that to them 
it was God's will,' etc., the relative liav- 
ing probably here, as in ver. 25, an indi- 
rectly causal, or erplanatori/ force ^ ' ra- 
tionem adjungit,' Daven.), and reiterat- 
ing the suliject to introduce more readily 
the specific purpose yvwpiffai k t. \. 
which was contemplated by God in the 
(pavepaiats. The most recent commenta- 
tors, Meyer, Eadie, A If., rightly reject 
any reference of Tj&fArjtrei' to the free 
grace of God (Eph. i. 9, Kord tV fvSo- 
niav avTov), no such idea being here in- 
volved in the context : what Ti&eArjo-fv 
here implies is, not on the one han<l, that 
God ' was pleased ' (' propcnsioncm vo- 
luntatis indicat,' Est.), nor on the other, 
that He ' was willing,' Hammond, but 
simply and plainly 'it was God's will' 

Chai'. I. 27. 

C U L O S S I A N S 


TO ttXoi/tos T/'/'f Cu^r}^- Tov fj.v<Tr7]fjiov TovTov tf Totv t^veaiv, o? 

to do so. On t!ic distinction between 
de'Aw und fiovKomu, sec notes on I Tim. 
V. 14. yvwplffat] ' to make 

knoutt ; ' practically little different from 
^ayfpwaat. The latter perhaps i.s sli;;ht- 
ly more nstrictcd, as involving the idea 
of a pavious concealment (see nbove 
and coniparc 2 Tim I. 10), the former 
more general und unlimited : see Meyer 

ill loC. T I rh T \0 VT o s 

K. T. A.] ' iclitit is the ri'-Jtes of the (jlurij of 
this iiii/sttri/ : ' not, exactly, ' how great,' 
iley., Itut with the simple force ofrls, — 
' what,' refenin;; alike to nature and de- 
gree; compare Kph. i. 18, and sec notes 
in loc. The gen. Tjjy S6^rii is no mere 
genitive of quality which may be re- 
solved into an adjective, and appended 
either to irXoirros (" herrlichc Rcichthura,' 
Luth.) or to fivaTTipiUf (' gloriosi hnjus 
mysterii,' Beza), hut, as always in these 
kinds of accumulated genitives in St, 
Paul, s|)ccially denotes that peculiar at- 
triliute of the titxrr-ijpioy (gen. subjecti) 
which more particularly evinces the 
T\oirrot ; sec notes and reff. on IC/'h. i. 6, 
and compare Kph. i. IS. The S6^a itself 
is no: to 1k5 limited to the tran^-forming 
nature of tlic mystcPk- of the Gosixl, in 
its effects oil men (Sta ij^iAcvy ^udraiv koI 
xiffTfus fii-.nris, Chrys.), nor yet, on the 
oltjective side, to the 8o{a tov Stov, the 
grace, glori', and attributes of God which 
are revealed by it, — but, as the weight 
of the entinciation n.(iuia>s, to botJi (see 
especially Dc W.), perhaps more par- 
ticularly to the latter. To make its ref- 
erence identical wiih that of the S6^a 
below (Mcy., Alf ), where the pa-ceding 
words introduce a new shade of thou^zht, 
does not S" cm so cxegetically satisfacto- 
ry. The f >nner 5</{o gains from its col- 
location a more general and abstract 
force ; the latter, from its association 
with (Kris, has a more specific reference. 
i r rots fdyfffiy] ' among the Gen- 

tilfs ; ' f erailocal clau>e apjK-ndcd to ti 
(«Vti) ri wKovTos K. T. A.., defining tliC 
sphere in which liie xAoitoi t>"» ii^ 
rou nvcr. is more especially evinced ; 
^oiVfTcu S( ttf irtpoif, xuAAv 8< wKiov iw 
Totrrots J) ToW)) roO fii/arrjplou 2o'{a, 
Chrys. ; boo especially Ep'a. i. 18, where 
the construction is exactly similar. 
8f iariv Xp.] The rending is here 
somewhat doubtful ; Is is found in CD 
KKL ; nearly all inss. ; Clirys., Theod. 
(Tisch., liec.), and, as Ix-ing tho more 
difDcult reading, is to l»e paferrcd to {, 
adopted by LatJim. with ABFG ; 17. 
67**, and jjcrhaps Vul:;., al. IJut to 
what does it refer ? Three interpreta- 
tions have been suggested : (a) the com- 
plex idea of the entire clause, — Christ 
in his relation to the Gentile world, Do 
Wette, Eadic ; (b) the more icmotc rh 
rKovTos K f. A.; OEcuni., Daven., Mey. ; 
(c) the more immediately prewdrng ynta- 
•ntpiou TovTou, Chrys., Alf., al. Of iheso 
(a) is defensible (comp Phil. i. I'S), but 
too vague; (b) is plau»iblc (compare 
Eph. iii. 8), but rests mainly on the «s- 
sumjition that xAoPtoj is the le.tding 
word (Mey., Winer), w'sercas it .seems 
clear from ver. 26, that ti.wTTr.p. U t!ie 
really important word in the scntetice. 
Wo reuiiii then tlie usual reference to 
Hv<rrr}pio¥ ; Clirist who w;is jireached, 
and was working by grace timoixi thcni, 
was in Himself the true and real mystery 
of redemption ; compare notes oi Ei>h. 
iii. .I. In any case the m;isc. 6y re-^ults 
from a simple attraction to the pa dicate ; 
sec Winer, Gr. ^ 24. 1. p. 1.50. 
iif uiilv] 'among you;' not exclusive- 
ly ' in vobis iuhabitans i>er fidcm,' Zanch. 
(compare Eph. iii. 17), hut in parallel- 
ism to the prci-eding tV toIs t^r. A«, 
however, this parallelism is not jxTfectly 
tract (Alf.), — for ir vylv is in c/os"" as- 
sociation with the preceding sn!)>t:intive, 
whereas i» rols t^ytctv is not, — we may 


C O L S S I A N S , 

Chap. I. 28. 

io-TLv Xpi(TTO<; iv vfJLiv, rj i\7rU Tf/'i So^???* ^ ov rj/xei'i KararfyeX- 
\o/Ji,6v, vou'^€TOvvTe<i TTcivTa dv^pcoTTOP KoL Si,SdcrKovre^ iravra dv- 
^pcoTTOP ip Trdarj aocp'ia, Xva TrapaarTjaojfiev irdpra dp^pcoTrop 

admit that ' in joa. ' is also virtually and 
by consequence involved in the present 
use of the preposition ; compare Olsh., 
Eadie. The connection adopted by Syr. 
.OS' > y 
\L£iXSD -aa^5 [qui in vobis est spes] 

involves an unnecessary and untenable 
trajection. ^ i Kit Is ttjs 

5 <{ 1 7j s] ^ the hope of glory ; ' apjDOsition 
to the preceding Xpicrrhs iv v/uv ; not 
either the ' spei causa' (Grot), or the 
object of it (Vorst), but its very element 
and substance ; see 1 Tim. i. 1, and notes 
in loc. The second gloss of Theoph, t] 
iKiris TjixSiv evBo^os, is unusually incor- 
rect ; 5($|a is a pure substantive, and re- 
fers to the future glory and blessedness 
in heaven, Roui. v. 2, 1 Corin. ii. 7 (ap- 
parently), 2 Cor. iv. 17, al. For a list 
•f the various words with which i\nli is 
thus joined, see Reuss, Theul. Chre'c. iv. 
20, Vol. II. p. 221. 

28. hv r)iu.e7s k ar a yy.] ' whoimve 
■preach ; ' whom I and Timothy, with 
Other like-minded teachers (comp. Stei- 
ger), do solemnly preach ; the ^/ucis be- 
ing emphatic, and instituting a contrast 
between the accredited and the non-ac- 
credited preachers of the Gospel. On 
the intensive, surely not local (^voibev 
avrhv (pepovres, Chrys.) force of Karayy., 
see notes on Phil. i. 17. 
vovberovvres] ' admonishing,' ' loarn- 
ing,' ' corri|)ientes,' Vulg., ^th. ; parti- 
cipial clause defining more nearly the 
manner or accompaniments of the Karay- 
yeX'ia. The verb vov^fTe7v has its proper 
force and meaning of ' admonishing with 
blame ' {vov^frtKol \6yoi, Xenoph. Mem. 
I. 2. 21, compare notes on Eph. vi. 4), 
and, as Meyer (compare De W.) rightly 
©bserves, points to the ixfTavoeTre of the 
evangelical message, while 5iSt£<r»c. lays 

the foundation for the nicrTeveTe ; so, in- 
ferentially, Theophyl., vov^fala filv iirl 
Trjs 7rpa|ea>s, SiSaffKaXla 8e iirl SoyfiaTwv. 
On the meaning of vov^ertlu, which im- 
plies, primarily, correction by word, an 
appeal to tlie vovs (compare 1 Sam. iii. 
12), and derivatively, correction by acf, 
Judges viii. 16 (compare Plato, Leg. ix. 
p. 879), sec Trench, 5y«on. § 32. 
irdyra &v^p.] Thrice repeated and 
emphatic ; apparently not without allu- 
sion to the exclusiveness and Judaistic 
bias of the false teachers at Colossae. 
The message was universal ; it was ad- 
dressed to every one, whether in every 
case it might be received or no : rl \4- 
yeis ; Trdyra iv^pcairov ; val, (prjal, tovto 
(nrov5d^oiJ,ev. ei Se fir] yeyrjrai ovSfU irphs 
^;uaj, Theoph. iv irdari 

ffo<pia\ ' in all, i. e. in every form of, 
wisdom ; ' see notes on Eph. i. 8 : mode 
in wliich the Bi^dcrKuv was, carried out, 
;u6Ta TTao-Tjs (Tocpias, Chrys. (compare ch. 
iii. IG), or periiaps, more precisely, the 
characteristic element in which the SiSa- 
xh "as always to be, and to which it 
was to bo circumscribed. The meaning 
is thus really the same, but the manner 
in which it is expressed slightly differ- 
ent. The lines of demarcation between 
sjihere of action (Eph. iv. 17), accordance 
with (Ephes. iv. 16), and characterizing 
feature (Eph. vi. 2), all more or less in- 
volving some notion of modality, are not 
always distinctly recognizable. The in- 
fluence of the Aramaic iS in the various 
usages of iv in the N. T. is by no means 
inconsiderable. 'iva irapa- 

aTTiffwfiev] 'in order that we vmy pre 
sent,' exactly as in ver. 22, with implied 
reference, not to a sacrifice, but to the 
final appearance of every man before 
God : ' en metam et scopum Pauli, atque 

Chap. I. 29. 

C O L O S S I A N S . 


TtiKeiov tv J^pi(TT(p' -^ ei(? /fat KOTnoi ayfovi^ofieuo^ Kara ti)v 
ivefjytiau avrov tijv euepyovfitmji/ iv t/iot t'l/ 6vuufj,ei. 

acko oiMiiium vcibi niiiiistroruiii,' IJuve- 
naiit, — wliosc remarks o» the prupriety 
of tlic iiiteiitioii, — lis coiiiiiij; from one 
wlio Silt at tlio Council of Don, — aro 
not umleservini,' of perusal. Tlio coii- 
tludiii;,' words tV Xjj., as usual, define 
the spliere in wliieli tiie rtAtidriji, ' I'en- 
Ecmlile do toutes les (|ualites naturellcs 
au Chretien ' ( Ueuss, T/nfol. Chrdl. Vol. 
II. p 18'2), id to consist; compare notes 
on ell. iv. 12, and vn Eiili. iv. 13. The 
polemical antitliesis wliidi Clirvs. here 
finds, ovK iv vSfiU) oitSi ii> ayyfKois, owinjj 
to tlie continual recurrence of ^j/ Xp., is 
perhaps more tiian doubtful. The addi- 
tion of ItjuoD isrijiiitly rejected by Tisch. 
with ABCD FG ; iiibs. ; Claromanus ; 
Clem., and Lat. Ff. 

29. (is b] 'to which end ; ' the prep, 
witli its usual and proper force denoting 
the object contcmi)lated in the Koirtav ; 
compare notes on (/al. ii. 8. 
Kal Kow li)] ' 1 also toil ; ' ' bcsiile 
preachiiiM; with fovbfffla and SiSaxv, I 
alao sustain every form of kovos (2 Cor. 
vi. o) in the cause of the Gospel,' the 
Hal contrasting (see notes on Phil. iv. 12) 
the Kovtii) with the previous Karayy- 
K. T. \. The relapse into the first per- 
son has an individualizing force, and 
caiTies on the reader from the general 
and common labors of preaching the 
Gospel (if i)fius KOTayy), to the strug- 
gles of t!ie individual preacher. On the 
meaning and derivation of KotnH, sec 
notes on I Tim. iv. 10. 
iywy 1^6 fxf vo s] ' strifiiir/ ;' compare 
chap. iv. 12, I Tim. iv. 10 (L<u-l,m.,—i\ 
doubtful reading, vi. 12), 2 Tim. iv. 7, 
and in a more special sen<c, 1 Cor. i.\. 
2.'). It is doubtfid whether this is to l»e 
referred to an outward, or an inward 
iyiLv. Tiie fonner is adopted by Chrys., 
Thcop'a., Davanant, al. ; the latter by 

Steig., OUh., and most modem com- 
mentators. The use of tcowiw (see on 
Tim. I. c.) jjcrhap') may seem to |»oint to 
the older interpretation ; the immediuto 
context (ch. ii. 1), however, and the use 
oi iLyuvi^ofuu in tiiis Ep. (see ch. iv. 12, 
a,yit>vi^6fi(vos inrtp vnuy iv tm ■wpoatif 
Xali) seem here rather more in favor of 
modem exegesis, unless indeed with 
QEcum. and De Wctte we may not im- 
probably admit both. 

Kara t ^v i v i py.] ' accordlnr/ to His 
u-orkiiiij which icorkiUi in me;' measure 
of the apostle's spiritual k6tos (compare 
notes on Eph. i. 19), viz. not his own 
ivipytia but, as the context seems to 
suggest, that of Christ ; rhv avrov kSttov 
Kal ayiiiva ry Xptcrrifi avari^fis, CEcum., 
who alone of the Greek commentators 
(Thcod. silet) expressly refers the ainov 
to Christ, the others apparently referring 
it to & B(6i. On the construction of the 
verb ivfpy., see notes on Gal. ii. 8, v. 6, 
and on its meaning, notes on Phil. ii. 13. 
The }Hi&sive interpretiition ' qu;e agitur, 
exereetur, perficitur' (Bull, Knm. Cens. 
II. 3), though lexically defensible, seems 
certainly at variance with St. Paul's reg- 
ular u;.e of the verb ; sec on Phil. I. c. 
iv Svvdfift] 'in fjower,' i.e. ]>ower- 
fnlly ; modal adjunct to ivfpyuvixtyyjv. 
Thougli it seems arbitrary to restrict 
Svvams to miraculous gifts (Michael.), it 
still .seems equally so (with Meyer and 
Alf.) summarily to exclude it ; compare 
Gal. iii. 5. The i>rincipal nferciu-e, as 
the singular suggests (lOntnLst Kom. i. 
4 anil Acts ii. 22), seems ccrtaiidy to in- 
ward ojienitions ; a secondary reference 
to outward manifestations of power 
seems, however, fairly admissible ; 'quum 
res iHistulat, etiam miriculis,' Calvin, 
comjiare Olsh. i"a luc. 



Chap. II. 1. 

II. ©6\a> <yap vfi,d<i elhevat rjXUov aycova 

I am earnestly striving for 
you, that you may come to 
the full knowledge of Clirist. Let uo one deceive you, but aa you received Christ, walk in Him. 

Chapter II. 1. 7 dp] Description of 
the nature and objects of the struggle 
previously alluded to, introduced by the 

yiip argumentative (not transitional, ^^? 

Syr. [jjrobably not a diiFerent reading, 
see Schaaf, Li'x. s. v.], and partially even 
Alf.), which confirms and illustrates. — 
not merely the foregoing word aytavi^o- 
fievos (Beng.), but the whole current of 
the verse : ' meminerat in calce superio- 
ris capitis suorum laborum et certami- 
num, eorum nunc causam et materiam 
explicat,' Just. rjKiKov 

aywva] 'how great a struggle;' not 
'solicitudincm,' Vulg., but ' certamen,' 

Clarom., jja^l Syr., ' quantum col- 

luctor,' ^th. The struggle, as the cir- 
cumstances of the apostle's captivity 
suggest, was primarily inward, — 'in- 
tense and painful anxiety,' Eadie (com- 
pare ch. iv. 12), j-et not perhaps wholly 
without reference to the outward suffer- 
ings which he was enduring for them 
(ch. i. 24), and for all his converts. 
The qualitative adj. tjKIkos (Hesychius 
•iroTaTr6s, fiiyas, ottoIos ; compare Don- 
aldson, Cratijl. § 254), occurs only here 
and James iii. 5. Trepl 

vfiuu] 'for you.' The reading is some- 
what doubtful. iMchm. reads tnrep with 
ABCD* ; 6 mss. ; but as this might ea- 
sily have come from ch. iv. 12 (compare 
ch. i. 24), it seems best with Tisch. to 
retain irepi, which is found in D'D^EFG 
KL, and the great majority of mss. : 
these prepositions are often interchanged. 
On the distinction between them, see on 
Gal. i. 4, and on Phil. i. 7. 
Kol rSiv 4y AaoS.] The Christians in 
the neighboring city of Laodicea are men- 
tioned with them, as possibly .subjected 
to the same evil influences of heretical 
teaching. The rich (Rev. iii. 17), com- 

mercial (compare Cicero, Epist. Fam. 
III. 5), city of Laodicea., formerly called 
Diospolis, afterwards Rhoas, and subse- 
quently Laodicea, in honor of Laodice, 
wile of Antiochus II., was situated on 
the river Lycus, about eighteen English 
miles to the west of ColossiB, and iibout 
six miles south of Hierapolis, which lat- 
ter city is not improbably hinted at in 
Ka\ '6(701 K. T. \. ; see Wieseier, Chronol. 
p. 441 note. Close upon the probable 
date of this Epistle (a. d. 61 or 62), the 
city suffered severely from an earth- 
quake, but was restored without any as- 
sistance from Rome; Tacit, ^/(n. xiv. 
27, compare Strabo, Geoi/r. xii. 8. 16 
(ed. Kramer) : a place bearing the name • 
of Eski-hissar is sujipo.-ed to mark the 
site of this once important city. For 
further notices of Laodicea see Winer, 
RWB. s. V. Vol. Ji, p. 5, Pauly, Real- 
Enci/cl. Vol. IV. l,p. 764, and Arundell, 
Seven Churches, p. 84 sq., ib. Asia Minor, 
Vol. II. p. 180 sq. K al oaoi 

K. T. A.] 'and (in a word) as manij as, 
etc. ; ' the koI probably annexing the 
general to the special (compare Matth. 
xxvi. 59, notes on Eph. i. 21, Phil. iv. 
12, and Winer, Gr. § .53. 3, p. 388), and 
including, with perhaps a tliought of Hi- 
era]H)lis (see above), all in those parts 
who had not seen the apostle. The or- 
dinary principles of grammatical perspi- 
cuity seem distinctly to imply that the 
vfius and the ol ii> Aao5. belong to the 
general class koi offot k. t. \., and con- 
sequently that the Colossians were not 
personally acquainted with the apostle. 
Recent attempts have been made either 
to refer the oaoi to a third and different 
set of persons to the Colossians and La- 
odiceans (Schulz. Stud. u. Krit. 1829, p. 
538 ; so Thcodoret and a schol. in Mat- 
thtci, p. 168), or to a portion only of 
those two Churches (Wiggers, Stud. u. 

CiiAi-. 11.2. c L o s s 1 A X s . 1 :..•, 

tyo) TTtpI vfj.o)i' Kill ruiv tV AaooiKeia, /cat oaoc ov^ tJjpanur to 
•jrpoauiiTuv fj-ou ti> aapKi, - ifa TrapaKXij^io^aiu ai Kaptiai avjiov 
avp,f3i^aa'^tvTe<i tV dyaTrr) kuI eis" ttup to TrXuino'i t//v T7\i]po(po- 

Kiit. 1838, p. 17C), hut as all tlif words al., — lait ' cuiiiiolentur ' (loniiolatioiiera 

are, in fact, uiuKt the viiuuluni of a *^\ ^ \ " 

comn.oii preposition, aiul as auriv, if "<■< ip'"'")- Vul-.. ^cU^AJ [.oii^ol. 

dissoi'iaied fnun vftHiy ko] twv iy Aao5. accipiaiitl, Syr., ' piiuleaiu,' yKih., — 

(I'Oinp. Siliulz), would leave the men- tlie fuller ineauinj; wliidi, in passa-^'ej* of 

tion of these two fonncr elasses most this naiure, irapaK. alwa\> apj'ears to 

aimless and uiijiatural, we seem justilied hear in St. Paul's Epistles, imd from 

in conclmlini: with nearly all modern whieh there does not here -eem ruflUient 

editors that the Colos.«ians and tliose of reason to depart (eonir. Bi>p., Alford) : 

Laodieea had uol seen the a])o>t!e in the surely tho>e exposed to the sad trial ol 

flesh ; see the {;ood note of Wiescler, erroneous teaehinjjs needed eon.->o'ation ; 

Chronol. p. 440 si]., and Neander, Phmt- eomparc Davcnant »/i toe. For cxam- 

ini), Vol. 1. p. 171 (Bohn). The pie of irapaicaA. compare eh. iv. 8, Kph. 

form itipaKav adopted hy /.<ii/im., Tiscli. \'\. ^'J, and e»on 2 Tliess. ii. 17. where 

[with AIJC (top.) I)'], is det idedly Alex- the assoc iated ffTrjpi^au is not a repeiiiion, 

andrian (see Winer, d'r. § 1.'5. 2, p. 71 j, hut an aniplitieation, of the j>reeidin;^ 

and prohahly the true rcadin;;. 'I'lie 7rnpa»caA«Voi. The final Iva is obviously 

' .sonsii;:e Gehraneh Pauli ' ur;;ed aj;::iinst dependent on aywva tx" (>'omp. Chrys. 

it by Meyer is imaginary, as the third ay. fx"' ^I'ari ytiijTai), and intro^luces 

person plur. does not elsewheie oeeur in the <///;; of the siru;r.ulc, — the consolation 

St. Paul's EpistKs. iv and spiritual union of those believers 

trapKl seems naturally connected with previously mentioned who had not seen 

the i)reccdinfr irp<5(ra»ird»' fiou ( Vulp., Cop- the apostle in the flesh, 

tic, yEth.), not with iwpaKav (Syr., hut ffvfi$i$a(fdtvT(s iv «>! ' they h&- 

not Philox., where the order is chanjjed), iii(f hiit 1o>iitlitr in lore:' relapse to the 

forming: with it one sin;;le idea Tliere Io;;i<al sul ject by the common partieip- 

is almo>t obviously here no implied an- ial nnacoluthon (Eph. iv. 2 ; see notes 

tithesis to ir>'«i'',uoTt {i(lKvv<riv ivravda on Eyh. i. 18, and on Plnl. i. 3(1), the 

bri iiSipuv avvtx<^'i iv irf., Chrys., The- jiariiciple havinc: its modal force, and 

oph., compare ver. 5) : the bodily conn- delinin;; the manner wlierehy, and cir- 

tenancc is not in opposition with ' the cumstimi-es under which, the To^oxXjjffu 

spiritual physio;:noniy,' Olsh., but seems was to take place; see Madvijr, Synt 

a concrete touch added to enhance the ^ 176. b. The verb ayjufli/g. has not herd 

nature of his stru^^le ; it was not for its derivative sense, ' instructi,' Vulg., 

those whom he personally knew and who Copt., but its jirimar)- meaning of ug<jrf- 

personally knew him, but for those for (/</ri'oH,' knit toj^-ther,* Auth. (comp. Syr. 

whom his interest was purely spiritual »• " » 

. , ■ ■„ ■ 1 ,S^i.xAJ laccedantl, vEth., ' conlir- 

aiid mimstenal. \ *^ ' '' ' 

2. 7va TapoK \.] 'in ordtr that th>ir inctur '), as in eh. ii. 19, and Eph. iv. 16, 

hearts inaif be comforted : ' not 'may bo where see notes. The rcadin;; -tvrcty 

streny;thened,' ' inveniant robur,' Copt. (AVr., with 1)'E-KL ; nl.) seems certain- 

[literally, but ? if the derivative meaning ly oidy a {:rammaiical emendation. 

■ consol. accipere ' is not the most com- Ev aydwri, with tlie n-ual meaning of 

mon, e. g. Psalm cxix. 52j, De W., Alf., the prejKjsition, denotes not tlie instm- 

156 COLOSSIANS. Chap. II. 2. 

pla<i T^<? (7vve(rea)<;, et? eTriyvaxTtv rov fivarrjpLOv rov Oeov Xpcarov^ 

ment (' per caritatem,' Est.), but the 
sphere and element in which they were 
to be knit togetlier, and is associated by 
means of the copulative koI (not ' etiam,' 
Bcng.) witli els Trail K.r. \. which defines 
the object of tlie union ; see next noic. 
els irav rh ttXovtos] 'unto all the 
richness : ' prepositional member defining 
theohject and purpose contemplated in the 
ffufj-filpaffis, and closely connected with 
the preceding definition of the ethical 
s/ihere of the action ; deep insight into 
the mystery of God is the object of the 
union in love. The connection with ira- 
paK\7i'^- (Baumg.-Crus.) mars the union 
of the p'epositional members, and gains 
nothing in exegesis. The reading iracra 
irAovrov, tliough fairly supported (Rec. 
with DEKL), seems clearly to have had 
a, pnradiploniatic origin (secPref. to Gal. 
p. XVII ), the TA being a clerical error 
for TO, and irKovrov a corresponding 
correction. On this neuter form, see 
notes on Eph. i. 7. 

Tijs TT \r) p (p pi as t rj s arvvfa.] 
' of the full assurance of the understand- 
inrj : ' not ' certo persuasas intelligentiae,' 
Davenant, a resolution of the gen. which 
is wholly unnecessary : compare notes 
on ch. i.27. The word irX-qpocp. (1 Thess. 
i. 5, Heb. vi. 11, x. 22) denotes on the 
qualitative side (nXovr., quantitative, 
De W.) the completeness of the persua- 
sion which was to be associated with the 
ffvveffis, — which the cvve(nsv,'as to have 
and to involve (gen. possess.), — and, as 
Olsh. observes, may denote that the av- 
pecris was not to be mercl}' outward, de- 
pendent on the intellect, but inward, rest- 
ing on the testimony of the Spirit ; com- 
pare Clem. -Rom. i. Cor. § 42. On the 
meaning of avueais, see notes on ch. i. 
9 : that it is here Christian awea-is, clear- 
ly results from the context (Mey. ). 
els eiriyvwffiy «. t. X.] ' unto the full 
knowledge of the mystery of God, even 

Christ ; ' prepositional member exactly 
parallel to the preceding eh ttuv rh it\. 
K. T. \. Tiie construction of the last 
three words is somewhat doubtful. Three 
connections present themselves ; (a) ' the 
niystiry of tite God of Christ,' Huth., Mey., 
XpLCTTov being the possessive gen. of re- 
lationship, etc. ; see Scheuerl. Synt. § 16. 
7, p. 123 sq., and comp. Eph. i. 17, and 
notes in loc. ; (3) * the mystery of God, 
even of Christ, Xp. being a gen. in sim- 
ple apposition to, and more exactly de- 
fining 0€oD; so in effect, Hil., 'Deus 
Christus sacramentum est ; ' (y) ' the 
mystery of God, even Christ : ' Xp. being 
in apposition, not to Qeov, but to fxvffrri- 
plov, and so forming a very close paral- 
lel to ch. i. 27. Of these (o) seems hope- 
lessly hard and artificial ; (3) though 
dogmatically true, seems here an unne- 
cessary specification, and exegetically 
considered, much inferior to (y), which 
stands in harmony with the preceding 
expi'ession ixvarripiov os eVri Xpiffrds (ch 
i. 27), and has the indirect sujiport of 
Di, Clarom., Aug.. Vig., and JEth., za- 
baenta Chrestos [quod de Christo]. It 
seems singular tliat tiiese words have 
not given rise to more discussion (South 
has a doctrinal sermon on the text. Vol. 
II. p. 174 sq., but does not notice the 
readings), for ()3), though in point of 
collocation somevvhat doubtful, seems 
still, considered apart from the context, 
not indefensible, and at any rate is not 
to be disposed of by Meyer's summary 
' entbehrt aller Paulinischen analogie ' 
We adopt (7), however, on what seem 
decided exegetical grounds. On 

the meaning and applications of fivar'ff 
piov, see notes on Ephcs. v. 32, Reuss, 
Th€oL Chr^t. iv. 9, Vol. 11. p. 89; and 
for the exact force of e-rrij^jL-iTis ('acca- 
rata cognitio ') here apparently confirmed 
by the juxtaposition of the simple yvHais, 
ver. 3, see notes on Eph. i. 17. 

C'liAi. II. .-3. COLOSSIANS. 157 

•* tv (Ji eiatv Trainee ol ^rjaavpol tt}? ao(f)ia<; Kai tt}? yvaxTeo)^ 

2. rov Qtoi' XpiffTov] This jj!issu;:c deserves our attentive consitiirutioii. The 
reading uf tlie text is thut of B, liil. (iMth., Tisrh. cd. 1, J/f^., Uuth., Wordttc.), 
and hits every uppeannue of Iteiiif; tho ori;:iiinl rciidint;, and tliut from witich the 
many perplexin;: variations have arisen. Tlic other |)rinci|)ul rcaiiiii;:s arc (n) ro5 
e<oD, with riirsire niss. 37. 07**. 71. 80*. IIG {d'rUsli., ShJz, Tisrii. ed '2, 1), fol- 
lowed hy Olsh., l)e W., Aif , and tlio majoriry of nioilem cotnincnfatorg : {//) toC 
6toC J» ka-r\v Xfitffrds, with D' ; L'luroui. (-Kih., quud de t'lirisio) : (i ; rov Stov wa- 
rpbi TuC XpiffTov with AC; a!.; Vv. ; and lastly, (</) tov ©foO koI var^i Kai tov 
Xp. with D'KKL ; many mss. and Vv. ; Tiieod., Dam., al. (A'<c.). Now of these 
(rj) is undoulitedly too weakly supported ; (/-) seems very like a ^Moss of the as- 
sumed true reading tov 0<oC Xp. ; (c ) and (</) still more expan<led or explanatory 
n-adinjrs. As all four may Ik; so simply derived from the text, (a) by omission, tlic 
rest hy gloss and expansion, we adopt, witli considerable confidence, tlie reading of 
Lachin., and we Injlievc al>o, of Tte<itUes. 

3. iv ^\ • /n u'/ioiw,' relative sentence words seem to show that axoirpv^poi is 
explaining the predication involved in not to be joined with €t<Tiy as a direct 
the preceding apposition (fjLvarrrjp. = panlication (Sjt., Copt., l)e W., al.), 
Xpurrov), tlie relative having i s fr/ilana- but that it is subjoined to it ( Vulgate, 
tory force; see notes on ch. i. 25. To -4iih.) as the predication of manner, and 
follow the n ading of tlie text, and yet is in fact equivalent to an adverb, the 
to refer ^y ^ to the tiuarripiav (.Mcy.), most distinct ty])e of the seconlary pred- 
seems unusually pcr]ilexed, unless (wiih icate ; see csjiecially Donaldson, Vratyl. 
Mcy.) we adopt the unsatisfactory con- ^ -304, and comp. Miillcr, KUtne Srhrifl. 
Btniction (a), previously discussed De \'ol. i. p. 310 (Don. Ids), w!io has the 
Wette and Mey. uige the implied an- credit of first introducing tliis nci-essary 
tithcsis between fimrr. and airSKp., but to dis'inction k'tween ' adjectiva attribitla, 
this it may be said, — Jirat, t!i:it what is jmrdicata, and a/>/tosita ;' see al.-o Don- 
applicable to fivvT is equally .so to that aldson, (Jr. ^ 436—147. It will l>e seen 
to which it is eciuivalent (comp. I'isp.) ; thnt the translation of Meyer and Alf , 
secomlli/, that tho secondary predicate and especially the explanations based 
i.it6Kpvipot (sec below) logically eluci- u|>on it, an? uii>atisfaciory from not hav- 
dates the equivalence of Xpiarhs with ing oldened these important distinc- 
thc ixva-ri)piov, but would seem otiose if tions. Exegetically consid- 
only aided to enhance the nature of the cred, the expression seems lo convey 
Hvarvpiov ov l\\v iirlyvfuats \\\\:r\-cii : i-om- that all treasures of wisdom and knowl- 
pare Waterl. Christ's Ih'r. Scrm. vii. edge are in Christ, and an: /liddtnlji/ so, 
Vol. It. p. ITiC. fl(T]y TravTti ' quo verlio innuitur, quod protiosum et 
•f. T. X.j ' are idl (he traisiin s of wi.^'oin niagnifwum est in Christo non promi- 
and knowUd'je hidden ; ' not ' the secret nere, aut protinus in oculos incurrere 
treasures, etc.,' Meyer, Alf., which oh- hominum camalium, sed ita latere ut 
scures the secondary predication of man- conspiciatur tantiimmoilo ah illis quibus 
ner, and in fact confounds it with the Deus oculos dodit aquilinos, id est, spir- 
asual ' attributive ' construction (Kriig., iiuales ad vivemlum,' Davenant ; icrt 
SpracfiL ^ 50. 8). The position of the trap' ainjv Bu viyra otTtly, Clirysostom. 
substantive verb and the order of the There is thus no need with Balir and 




CuAP. II. 4. 5 

a7roKpv(f)OL. ^ TOVTO Se \^yco Xva firi^ei^ v^a<i irapaXoyit^T^rai iv 
7ri^avo\o<yla. ^ el yap koI rrj aapKl aTreifxi, aWa rco irvevfiari 

others to modify the simple meaning of 
the adjective. ffocpias 

Kal y v d a € u s] The exact distinction 
between these words is not perhaps very 
easy to substantiate. "We can hardly 
say that ' (ro<pia res crcdendas, yv&ffis res 
agendas complectitur ' (Davcnant), but 
rather the contrary. It would seem, as 
in (TO(pia and (pp6i'ricns (see notes on Eph. 
i. 9), that ao^ia is the more general, 
' wisdom,' in its completest sense, koivws 
airdvT'jiv fj.aSfri<ns, Suid., yvSxns the more 
restricted and special, ' knowledge,' as 
contrasted with the results and applica- 
tions of it ; see Neander, Planting, Vol. 
I. p. 139 (Bohn), Delitzsch, Bill. Psy- 
chol. IV. 7, p. 166, and, on the meaning 
of'Avisdom,' comp. Taylor (11.), iVotes 
from Life, p. 95. 

4. rovTO Se x4yui\ 'Now this I 
say ; ' transition, by means of the Se /xe- 
TafiariKov (Hartung, Partilc. Vol. i. p. 
165; omitted by Lachm. with A^ (ap- 
parently), B ; Ambrosiast.), to the warn- 
ings which, with some intermixture of 
exhortation and doctrinal statements, 
jiervade the chapter. The tovto seems 
clearly to refer not merely to ver. 3, but 
to the whole introductory paragraph, 
vcr. 1-3. Trapa\oylCv'o-t] 

'may deceive;' only here and James i. 
22, though not uncommon in the LXX, 
c. g. Josh. ix. 22, 1 Sam. xii. 28, 2 Sam. 
xxi. 5, al. The verb irapaXoy. is of com- 
mon occurrence in later Greek, and 
properly denotes ' to deceive,' either by 
false reckoning (Demosth. Aplwh. i. p. 
822), or false reasoning (Isocr. p. 420 
c), and thence generally, a-Kajuv, y\iev- 
aaabai (Ilesych.) ; comp. Arrian, Epict. 
Ti. 20, if^atraTuicnv v/xas Kal irapaXoyi^oi'- 
rai, and examples in Eisner, Obs. Vol. 
IT. p. 261, Loesn. Obs. p. 335. 
er iri^avoKoyia] ' with enticing 
tpeech ; ' compare 1 Gor. ii. 4, 4v iret^ols 

(Tocplas \6yois, the prep, tv liaving that 
species of instrumental Ibrce in which 
the object is conceived as existing in the 
means; comp. Jcif, Gr. § 622.3. The 
subst. occurs in Plato, Thcoit. p- 162 e, 
and the verb in Aristot. Eth. Nic. i. 1, 
but with a more special and technical 
reference to probability as opposed to 
demonstration or to mathematical cer- 

5. €« 7&/) Ka\ K. T.\.] 'for if I am 
absent venly in the flesh;' reason for the 
foregoing warning, founded on the fact 
of his spiritual presence with them ; el 
yap KoX Trj aapKi aireifjn, a.\\' o/j-ccs ol5a 
Tohs avanoivas, Chrys. The koI does 
not belong, strictly considered, to the el 
(compare Kaphel in lor.), but to aapKi, on 
whicli it throws a slight emphasis, con- 
trasting it with the following -rrvevixaTi : 
see notes on Phil. ii. 17. The dative 
aapKi is the dat. ' of reference,' and, with 
the regular limiting power of that case, 
marks that to which the aTtovaia was re- 
stricted ; see notes on Gal. i. 22. 
dXAa] 'yet on the contrary ,' 'neverthe- 
less ; ' the hypotlietical protasis being 
followed by dA.Aa at the commencement 
of the apodosis ; see examples in Har- 
tung, Partik. aWd, 2. 8, Vol. ii p. 40. 
In such cases, which are not uncommon, 
the oAAd preserves its primary and proper 
force ; ' per istam particulam quasi tran- 
situs ad rem novam significatur quae ei, 
quae raembro orationis condirionali erat 
dcclarata, jam oppona'ur,' Klotz, Devar. 

Vol. II. p. 93. T (f ITViV- 

fxar i\ ' in the spirit ; ' dative exactly 
similar to rp aapnl. It need scarcely be 
said that this is St. Paul's human spirit 
(Beck, ScelenL ii. 11, p. 29 sq.), not 
any influence of the Holy Spirit, Pseud- 
Ambr, (compare Grot. ; Daven. unites 
both), vvhicli would here violate the ob- 
vious antithesis. The deduction of Wig- 

CiiAP II. 5. COLO S S I A N S . 150 

ovv vfj.ii' eifJ-h X'^^P^^ '^^'' /S^tVwi' vfioJi' TiiuTci^iv Kat to crT€pt(i)fj.a 

gcrs (Stud. u. Kill. 1838, p. 181) from 
tliis passa^^o and especiully from tlio uso 
of iirfifii, tliat there liaJ In-en a previous 
xapovffia \vitl> tlio Col. on tlic part of St. 
riiul, is rij:litly njei-tcil hy Do Wctto 
and Mover : tlic verb itself simply im- 
plie.s iilisfiice wiiliotit any rcforcnco to a 
]trevioiis/<r(S(7ir<'; the acecssory tliou^lit 
is supplied hy the eontcxt. Contra.<t the 
oilier instances in tlio N. T., 1 Cor. v. .3, 
2 Cor. X. 1,11, xiii. 2, 10, Phil i. 27, in 
all of whieh irdpfiixi is distinetly ex- 
pressed, trvv vfiTif] ' in'th 
f/ou;' 'joined with you,' in a iruo and 
close union ; compare Gal. iii. 9, where 
Kce remarks on the dilference between 
ahv and /utra : compnre on E]>h. vi. 23. 
■Xaipinv Ka\ $KfTewv k.t.\.] ' rc- 
joicimi ( a-it/i i/oii), and sciing your order ; ' 
modal and eiivumstantial clause defining; 
the feelinirs with which he was present, 
and the accessory circumstances. There 
is some diflii ulty in the union of these 
two participles. After rejecting: all un- 
tenable assumptions, of an iv Sta Suolv 
('};audeo dum video,' Wolf), — a zcujr- 
niatie ronstni tion of the accusative with 
both verbs {' mit Frcuden sehcnd,' De 
"Wettr), — a trajection (' secin;r, etc., and 
rejoicinjr,' see "Winer, Gram. § .54. 4, p. 
417 note), — a causal use of koI ('Rau- 
dons quia cerim,' Davcn., conijiare Syr. 

jl^*^). etc., wo have tliree plausible in- 

toriTctafions, (o) ' rejoirinfj, to wit, see- 
inn,' etc., Ko.\ bein^ used purely explica- 
tiveiy, Oish., Winer, 2, /. c; (j9) ' re- 
joicimj (thcrrat), i. e. at Iicini; witli you 
in spirit, and sccinrj, etc.,' t!ic subject of 
the>nv beinp: deduced from the wonls 
immediately preeedinjr, and the koX \to- 
\\vx simply copuUitivo ; so Meyer, and 
after him Kadie and Alf. ; (7) ' rrjoicinr} 
(iihout i/ou) and seeinp,' i<p' viilf bcinjj 
su;rj:ested by the preccdintr trvf ^m"', Wi- 
ner 1, l.c , Fritz. Rom. A'ol. 11. p. 42.') 

note. Of tlicso (a) seems hard and arti- 
ficial ; {$) im|>ort8 a somewhat alien 
thou<j;!it, for surely it wai> the state of the 
Colossians, rather than the bcin;; with 
them in spirit, that made the apostle re- 
joice ; (7) preserves the practical con- 
nection of xafp- witli tlic latter part of 
the sentence, but assumes an ellipse 
which the context does not very readily 
supply. It seems best then (5) .-o far to 
modify (y) as to assume a continuation 
of avy vfuv ; the modal xcdpt^f expressing^ 
the apostle's general feeling of joyful 
si/mpathij (suj^gestcd by the state in which 
he found them), while the arcumstautid 
^Kt-iraiv K. T. \. adds a more special, and, 
in fact, explanatory accessory : for tliis 
use of Kal (special after general), comp. 
notes on E/ih. v. 18, and on Pliil. iv. 12. 
rd^iv] 'order,' i.e. ' orderly state and 
conduct ; ' tV ■»'<£{if, t^V firTa^iav (prjcri, 
Chrys. ; specification of their state out- 
wardly considered in reference to cliurch- 
fcllowship, and to the attention and obe- 
dience of tlic good soldier of Christ : Ls 
yap M irapari^fws ij tinal'ia tiV ^iAoT^a 
ffTfpfav KO^laTrfffiv ovra> kcu ^ttI tTjJ ^k- 
KATjffi'aj, irav fura^'a fi, tjjj d^ain)! rdi'- 
TO KO^icrrdtrrjs Kai fiy uyrmv ffX't^l^dTtL'i', 
t6t( KaH rb ffTfpfWfia yivfToi, Tlieoph. 
The allusion may lie to a well organized 
body politic (Meyer, Alford ; compare 
Demosth. de Uhod. L '>. p. 200) or, per- 
haps more probably, in acconlancc with 
the apostle's meiapliors elsewliero (Fph. 
vi. 11 sq.) to military sen'ii-e ; see Wolf 
in loc. .crjufptwua] 'solid 

fuundalion' 'Jjrm a ttitude.' KoJidirtp irphs 
(TTpacTiuTas €inaKTws icrCira^ kolL $(Bali>;i, 
C!ir}-s. ; specification of their state in- 
wardly considered : not ' firmita*.' Syr., 
^T^tli. (Iioth which languages have an- 
other word more exactly answering to 
the concrete], followed by llutber. Do 
Weite, nl., but. ' fundamentum,' Vulg., 
' firmamentum.' Copt. — thero being no 



Chap. II. 6. 7 

T^9 ei9 Xpiarov irlar&ay^ vficov. ^ 'fl^ ovv irapeK.u^6Te tov Xpia' 
TOP ^Irjaovv top Kvptov, iv avru) TrepiTraTeiTe, "' ippt^coficvoi Koi 

lexical ground for regarding the more 
concrete arepeoina (' effect of the verb as 
aconrrttinii,' Biittm. 6V. § 119. 7; nearly 
= part, in -ixeuov) as identical in mean- 
ing witli tlie purely abstract amptSTrjs. 
The woid (an air. \ey6fi. in the N. T. ; 
compare 1 Pet. v. 9, Acts xvi. 5) occurs 
frequently in the LXX, and nearly al- 
ways in its proper, sense, though occa- 
sionally showing the tendency of later 
Greek in a ])artial approximation to the 
verbal in -tris ; ccmp. Esth. ix. 29. The 
gen. may be a gen. of apposition (comp. 
notes on Eph. vi. 14), but seems more 
naturally a gen. suhjccti referable to the 
general category of the possessive geni- 
tive. On the construction of tticft. with 
els, see notes on 1 Tim. i. 16, and Reuss, 
Th€oL Ch-e. iv. 14, Vol. ii. p. 129. 
After these words we have no reason for 
doubting that the Church of Colossae, 
though tied by heretical teaching, was 
substantially sound in the faith. 

6. ois oiv irapeA.aj8eTe] 'As then 
ye received :' exhortation founded on the 
words of blended warning and encour- 
agement in the two preceding verses, oZv 
having its common retrospective and col- 
lective force ( ■ ad ea qu£B antea revera 
posita sunt lectorem revocat,' Klotz), 
and thus answering better to ' then,' 
Peilc, than ' therefore,' Alf. : see Klotz, 
Devar. Vol. ii. p. 717, compare Don- 
aldson, Gr. § 604. On &s see notes an 
Tit. i. 5. The Trape\a.0eT€ can hardly 
be ' from me,' Alf. (see on ver. 1) but, 
from Epaphras (ch. i. 7) and your first 
teachers in Christianity. Though the 
reference seems mainly to reception by 
teaching (compare e5i5ax^'?Te, ver. 7), 
the object is so emphatically specified, 
rhv Xp. '\r,<T. ihv Kvp., as apparently to 
require a more inclusive meaning ; they 
received not merely the aKTjpaTov SiSatr- 
KoX/ai' (Theod.), the ' doctrinam Christi ' 

(Daven.), but Christ Himself, in Him- 
self the sum and substance (.f all teach- 
ing (Olsh., Bisp.) ; compare Ephes. iv. 
20, and notes in loc. rit r 

Kvpiov] 'The Lord;' not without 
emp'iasis ; yet not so much as * fur your 
Lord,' Alf., after Huth. and Mey., — an 
interpretation which, independently of 
grammatical difficulties (Kvptou 2 Cor. 
iv. .5, not rhv Kvp., see Middleton, Gr. 
Art. III. 3. 4), would make irapaKafieiv 
imply rather the recognition of a princi- 
ple of doctrine, than the spiritual recep- 
tion of the personal Lord. The title, as 
both the position and article siiow, is 
plainly emphatic, — it marks Him as 
Lord of all, above all Prindpality and 
Power (Eph. i. 20), the Creator of men 
and anfjcls (Col. i. 16), hut cannot be 
safely regarded as forming a tertiary 
predication ; compare Donalds. Crati/l. 
§ 30.5. f u avT ^ 

TreptirareiTf] ' walk in lliiii,^ as the 
sphere and element of your Christian 
course. Christ is not here represented 
as an 6S6s (?'; irpoadyovaa els -rhv Ylaripa, 
Chrys.), but as an enspherintr ' Lcbens- 
Element' (Mey.), to which the wepiTra- 
reiu, i. e. life and all its principles and 
developments, was to he circumscribed ; 
compare Gal. ii. 20, Phil. i. 20. For 
a practical sermon on this text, see Fa- 
rindon. Sermon xxxii. Vol. ii. p. 165 
(Lond. 1849). 

7. 4 p l> I ^<t> fxi V I K a\ eTToiKoSo- 
fxovneuoi] ' havinr/ been rooted and be- 
inrj Imilt tip in Him;' modal definitions 
appended to the preceding ■jrepiirareTi/ ; 
the first under the image of a root-fiist 
tree (hence the per/, part.), the second 
under that of a continually uprising 
building (hence the pres. part.) marking 
the stable growth and organic solidity oi 
those who truly walk in Christ. The ej» 
avrtS is attached to both : Christ, as Mey 

Cii.u'. II. :, 8. COLOSSIANS. l,jl 


Kill tiroiKohofiovfjLevoi fV avTuy, kui ^elSaujUfievoi ?// vrtarei /cu^oxf 

7. «VaLrr77| So A'lC., />i</i//i., and now 7V>t7i. (td. 7) wiili BU-'iCKL; jm-at mass 
ofniss. ; V'uIl'- '< luioin., ' in illo,' iis also I)'; mss. ; und ptrliajis Jtoine \'v., t!io 
• iiflexioiis of wliicli oltcn leuve it uiic-orlain wlit-ther ip at/Trj or iv a'-ny wan in the 
orij^nial; ; Clirys., '1 lieod , al., und Lat. Ff. The two wonls werv oniiaed hy J'lsrh. 
(cd. 'J) with AC; 15 inss. ; Am. Tol. (certainly not Copt., us Ti-nh., Alf.) ; Ar- 
1 lit'! , al., — Imt are now ri;;Iitly re>tored. Tho uutliority for tlieir oniission i-cems 
elcaily insuttiiient, cs]>ccia!ly when sueli an omif<8ion might so easily have been 
(suggested by tlic difliculty of the constiuetion. 

observes, is hciili the •jrroiind iH whi.h tlio lished in faitli : thi.s iliey might have 

root is held (Eph. iii. 17), and the solid been taught by Ejiapliras (eh. i. 7) or 

foumhition on whii.h(l Cor. iii. 1 1 ) tho by some of their early instrurtors. 

building is raised, — the prep, iv (not «V' ntpiffa. 4v aiirrj k. r. \.] ' alound- 

avrip, ICpli. ii. 20) being studiously con- 11/(7 in it with tli(inks;iiri)it) : ' participial 

tinned to enhance the ifiea tV Xptarw clause subordinate to $(fiaioi>fi., main- 

that pervades the passage ; comp. ly reiterating with a quantitaiire, what 

ii. 21, 22. 'I'he accessory idea of the had been preriously expressed witli a 

fuiiiKltttioii is ndmirab y conveyed by tho qualitative reference. Of tho two pre- 

^irl in the compound verb ; comp. 1 Cor. jiositional adjuncts, the first iv a'-irri 

iii. 12, Epii. ii. 20. In a passage of such is united closely with itfpiaa., spccify- 

forcc and pers|iicuity we need not ]»'.usc ing the element and item in which tho 

on the slight mixture or discordanic of increase takes place (e«iuivalent to alun- 

metaphors ; it would i>e dinicult indeed dure with an aid. ; sec notes ou Plul. i. 

to imagine such fruitful and su''L;cstivo 9), the second as the licld of o|>eration 

thouglits conveyed in so few words. in which (Alf.), or p<rliaps rat hi r the 

Ha\ $f 0ai ovfi. Tp ir/ffTfi] 'ami mcomjxinimnU with w! ich {<rvy ti'xap-, 

lieiii'i st'tlJis/ud in yonr fiiii/i ; ' tho idea CEcum.), the rtptaa. tv irtartt was asso- 

(Ti 0f0aiin>) Involved in the preceding ciated and, as it wen-, environed ; rom- 

pariiciplcs being still more dearly pare Luke xiv. 31, l.p!ies yi. 16, I Cor. 

bi-ought out, — and, as the nature of tho iv. 21, in which the gnidnal transition 

ease roiuiits, in tho j)rfstiit ten>c. Tlio from the more distinct idea of enn'i-on- 

clat. TJ7 ir/ffTfi is not tho instrumental mtnt to the less detined idea of nronn/xi- 

dat. (.Mey ), but the dat. 'of reference niw^/if may be easily traced; see Urecn, 

to' (l)e Wctte), faith being naturally 6V. p. 289, and note> t»n ch. iv. 2. 
rcg.inlcd as the jirinciple which needed 8. 0\4rfTt ^^ tjj it.t.A.] ^ Tnlr 

fii^a'iaxTiv, und to which it miL'ht most htrd lest there shall br any onr that viaktth 

appropri tcly be restricted : see note: o/i j/oii his tHX>ti/,' — t/wi as well «s the others 

<ud. i. 22. The prep, fy is inserted In*- that have been led away ; ittas, as the 

fore xiffifi in liic [with ACD^'EKL), order suggests, l)eing slightly emphatic : 

but is apparently rightly rejected by sec critical note. The cautionary im- 

Lachm. and Tisch., though only with por. /SA^Trrc is found in at least six rom- 

BD' ; 4 niss. ; Vulg., — the probability binations in the N. T. ; («) with a sim- 

of an insertion being veiy great. pie accos., Mark iv. 24, Phil. iii. 2 ; ('>) 

Kabws 4SiBdx^] ' ei'in as i/e rreie with 4iri and a gen., Mark viii. l.'>, xii. 

tawjht ;' scil. to become firmly estal>- 3S ; (c) with »ii and the indie, Luke 




Chap. II. 8. 

Let not worldly wisdom 8 BXiireTe 117) Tt.<i viia<i ear at 6 av\ay(oy(ou 

lead you away from Uim r i i • • 

who is the Head of all, who BiO. TTjS: (fx-XoCOcbia'i KoX KeVT]^ ttTTaTT;? KUTO, TTjV 

hns quickened you, and for 

given you, and triumphed over all the powers of evil. 

8. vyas earai] It is curious tliat apparently no critical editor except Wetst. (and 
recently Tisch. cd. 7) has noticed tlie doubtful order of these two words. Tischener 
(ed. 2) silently adopted eo-rai ii/jas with ACDE (Ladnnann), but lias now (cd. 7) 
rightly reversed the position of the words. The order of the text is tlint of CKL ; 
all mss. ; Chr., Theod., al., — and is apparently to be preferred as the less obvious 
order ; so Rac. and Scholz. 

viii. IS, 1 Cor. iii. 10; (d) with 'Iva and 
the suhj., 1 Cor. xvi. 10 ; (e) with fi)^ and 
the sui)junctivc, — the prevailing con- 
struction, Matth. xxiv. 4, Gal. v. 15, al. ; 
\f) with ixr) and tlie future, only here 
iftwl Heb iii. 12. The last construction 
jsiaidopted in the present case as imply- 
ing ithe fear that tlie case contemplated 
yr'iW really occur, ' ne futurus sit qui,' 
et^, ; see Winer, Gr. § 56. 2, p. 446, 
Hartung, Partik. jui'/, 5. 6, Vol. ii. p. 
140, and compare Herm. Soph. Elect. 
992. Numerous examples of ^^rl] in dif- 
ftH'cnt constructions after opa k. t. A. 
will-be found in Gayler, Pariik. Neg. p. 
3l"6 sq. avKaytaywv] 

' beariiifj. away as a booty ; ' an air. XeyS/j.. 
in tlie N, T., found only in later Greek, 
hotlx directly with an accus. pereonce, e. g. 
irap^ewi/, Heliod. ^th. x. 35, and, in a 
more derivative sense, with an accus. 
rci, e. g. oIkov, Arista;n. Ep. ,M. 22. 
There seems no reason for diluting Ofxus 
{(TuKaywyaiv rhv vovv, Theoph.) or adopt- 
ing the weaker I'orce of the verb (oLvoffv- 
Kctii ri-jv vlffTiv, Tlieod.) : the false teach- 
ers sought to lead tliem away captive, 
body and mind ; the former by ritualis- 
tic restrictions (verse 16), the latter by 
liereticitl teaching (verse 18). On the 
nse of the art. after tlic indef. ris, see 
notes on Gal. i. 7. Sta rys 

<pt\oa. K. r^ \.] ' by means of pliUoso- 
phy and .rain deceit,' i, e, a philosopliy 
that is essentially and intrinsically so, 
the absence of both prep, and article be- 
ifore Kevris airdrifs showing that it belongs 
tto the same category as the foregoing 

<j)i\oao0ta, and forms with it a joint idea ; 
tTreiSr) 5uKi7 ffefxvhv flvai rb Tr)$ (pi\o(TO- 
<t)ias TTpoiTf^rjKe, Kol Kfv^is oir., Chrys. : 
see Winer, Gram. § 19. 4, p. 1 16. Such 
(pi\oa-o(pia was but a /cev^ airaTr], an 
empty, puffed-out [comp. Benfey, Wur- 
zelkx. Vol. II. p. 165] system of deceit 
and error ; compare Eph. v. 6. The 

term (piXoaotpia in this passage has been 
abundantly discussed. There seems no 
suffitient reason lor referring it, on the 
one hand, to Grecian pliilosophy, wheth- 
er Epicurean (Clem.-AIex. Strom, i. 11 
(.50), Vol. I. p. 346, ed. Pott.), Stoic 
and Platonic (TertuU. PriEsa- § 7), or 
Pythagorean (Grot.), or on the other, to 
the ' religio Judaica ' (Kyi)ke, Olis. Vol. 
II. p 322; so Loesner and Krebs), — 
but, as the associated terms and the 
general contrast seem to suggest, to that 
hybrid theosophy of Jewish birth and 
Oriental affinities (rfys <pi\o(T., — the pop- 
ular, current, philos. of the day), which 
would be likely to have taken nowhere 
firmer root than among the speculative 
and mystery-loving Phrygians of the first 
century ; see Neander, PluntiiKi, Vol. i. 
p. 321 sq. (Bohn), and the good note of 
Wordsw. .<jn this verse. In estimat- 

ing the reiTors combated in St. Paul's 
Epistles which ^were allied with Judaism, 
it becomes very necessary to distinguish 
Ijetweeji, (ct) Pharisjjiical Judaism, such 
as that opposed in the Epistle to the Ga- 
latians ; (b) Christianity tinged with 
Jewish usages and spec^,ilations as con- 
demned in the Pastoral Epistles, — not 
lieres}- projjer, but an adBU.en'.ated Chri*- 

CilAP. 11. S, 9. 

C L O S S I A N S . 


TrapahoaLv t(ou av^ pwiroyp, Kara to. aroi^eia tov kuct/jLOv koI ov 
Kara Xokttuv, '"' oTi tV avT(o KaioiKtl ttuv to TrX/ypoj/za T/ys" 

tiaiiity (sec iiotCH on I 'I'lm. i. 4), wliich 
r.ftcTwaitls nuT'.'C'fl into (<) speculative 
and heretical Judai-iii, U'^ noticed in tliis 
Epistle ; perhaps of a more decided Cah- 
halistie ori;.'in, and as-of iated more inti- 
mately wiili the various forms of Orien- 
tal theosophy : sec Neander, /. c, Uothe, 
AiifiiiK/f, p. 32(1 s<i., Bunon, lACtnns, 
III. Vol. I. p. 7G (ed. 2), lUuss, Theul. 
C'licl. VI. 13, Vol. II. p. 642 sq. 
Karii TTji* irapaS. r w v a,vb.\ ' oc- 
conliiii/ to tkf tnidition of men ; ' modal 
predication attached, not to rljj <pt\ocro- 
<pias, K. T. A. (a coii.struction in a hij^h 
decree grammatically d(iiil)tl'ul), but to 
the part. ffv\aywywi', detinin^r, first posi- 
tively and then ne;.'atively, the charae- 
teristies of the eruKaywyia. riiilo-optiy 
was the ' causa medians,' itapiS. rwv avbp. 
tho 'norma ' and ' modus aj:endi.' The 
gen. Tuv avbp. is apparently that of tho 
orliin (llartunj:, (.'(/si/.s, p. 23), the irofa- 
toffis took its rise from, and was received 
from, men ; compare ("lal. i. 12, 2 
iii. G. Meyer presses the art. rHv avbp. 
(' Twv markirt die Kat<yoiii\ die ' traditio 
huwaiiii ' als sokhe der OfTeiiliaran;; cnt- 
pc<;en':esetzi '), hut apparently unduly : 
the article is prohahly only inirotluced 
on the re;rular principle of correlation ; 
see Xliddl. ton, Gr. Art. in. :). 6. p. 48 
(ed. Rose). k ai a ri 

ir T o I X- <f . T. A.] ' accordiiKj tu the riuli- 
nieutsvf'thc uoild:' second mo lal pred- 
ication parallel to the fore^^oin^:. The 
antithesis ev itorii Xp. seems clearly to 
show that this expression here includes 
nil rudimental religious trachiiij: of «.>n- 
Clirlslliin character, whether heathen or 
Jewish, or a commixture of both, — the 
first element /kxwi'W// slightly predomi- 
nating in thought here, the second in 
ver. 20. On the various meaniniis ns- 
sijjned to this difficult expression, see 
rotes on Girl. iv. 3. 

K ar a X p kt r 6 v] ' nrrorJing to Christ ;' 
dearly not, am Grot., (^oni. a Lap., ' se- 
cundum (loctriiiam Christi,' hut 'secun- 
dum Christum,' us rou Xpiorou xf^p'tC"*" 
Toj, Theoil. (compare Chrys.): Christ 
Himself the personal Christ, was the 
Buli>taiice, end, and normn of all evan- 
gelical tcachiii};. A good lecture on th«! 
' ten points of faith ' is based on this 
text by Cyr.-llieros. Cattch. iv, 

9. Sti iv auTwj ' bfcatixe ill I/iiii ; ' 
reason for the imjilied exclusion of all 
oilier teaching excejtt tliat kotA Xpiarov, 
iv ainQ being prominent and emj)Iiaiic, 
and standing in dose connection wiili 
tl'.e preceding Xpi(n6v, ' in linn, an I 
in none other than llim.' Mill and 
Grttsli.^ by placing a period alter Xp 
would seem rather to imply a reference 
to )3Aeirrr« (compare Iluth.), to wliich, 
however, tho emphatic tV out^ seems de- 
cidedly opposed. KaroiKt'i] 
' (lot ft (lu\ll,' — now and evermore: olv 
serve l>oth the tense and the compound 
form. The former points to the pa>ent, 
continuing (taToiojo-ij of the Goilhcad in 
the glorified son of God (comparv Ilof- 
mann, 6VAr;/?/». Vol. ii. I, p. 24): t!ie 
latter to the permanent indwelling, tl;c 
«r a r initla, not irof oiiria, of the irA^pt^^a 
3«<5t»jtoi, rompare Dcyling, CH'S. iv. I, 
Vol. IV. p. 591. and see notes on i!i. i. 
19, and on E/Ji. iii. IT. 
■way -r h w A i^ p.] 'oil the falntss of the 
GixUu<itl' all the exhausiless pcrfd lions 
of the essential l>eing of God : not with- 
o'lt emphasis ; iv ^fiiy fiiv yap oTofX'J 
Ka\ ap^a^uv ^(6-rtjroi KaroiK(7, iv Xp. Si 
■Kitv rh ■KXi'ip. riii bfSrriros, Athiin. : sec 
notes on ch. i. 19, where the meaning of 
T\-fipa>fia in this conneciion is briefly in- 
vestigated. Any rcrerence to the Church 
(Theotl., but with some hesitation) is 
here wholly out of the question. It is 
onlv ncce»^a^v to add that dftfrTjs must 



Chap. II. 10. 

^eoTi^TO? craifiaTiKa)^, ^'^ Kai iare iv avrat treTrKTjpcofiivoL^ 09 iariv 

not he confounded with ^ei67T]s (Kom. i. 
20), as Copt., Syr., ^th., and, what is 
more to be wondered at, Vulg., which 
has certainly two distinct words : the 
former is Delias, ' die Gottheit,' ' sratum 
[essentiam] ejus qui sit Deus,' Aujrust. 
C'ir. Dei, vii. 1, and points to the nature 
of God on the ^ide of the actual cssentij, 
{rh flvai Qeov) ; the latter ' dirinitas,' 
'die Gottliuhkeit,' ' conditionem ejus qui 
sit de7os,' and jioints to tlie divine nature 
on the side of its qunlilas (^h eJvai ^uov) ; 
see Fritz. Rom. i. 20, Vol. i. p. 62. Tiie 
I'eal difBculty of the verse is in the next 
word. (T 0; I-!, ar t K i s] ' in 

.OP > 

ladlly fisliiun,' A^ ^ISl. 0'Q-<t^ [corjio- 

raliter], Syr , ' corporaliter,' VuIlt- The 
meanings assigned to this word are very 
numerous. If we follow the plain lex- 
ical meaning of the word, and the true 
qualitative force of the termination -ikos 
(■ like what ? ' Donaldson, Cratijl. § 254), 
we must certainly decide that it signifies 
neither oAij^ws, se. oh jo-kikws t] trKian- 
Kus, ' vere, non nmbratice' (August., 
compare Hammond 2), — '6\ws, ' totali- 
ter,' (Capell.). — ovaiw^ws sc. ov (rxf^t- 
Kw%, essentialiter, non relative ' (Qicum,, 
Usteri, Le//?-/). p. 303), -t- nor even viro- 
trraTiKws, ' personal iter ' (compare Cyr.- 
Alcx. adv. Nest. i. 8, p. 28), hut — with 
reference, not so much to that which in- 
dwells, as to that which is dwelt in (Ilof- 
mann, Schriftb. Vol, 11. 1, p, 25), ^r^ 
'bodUy wise,' 'in bodily,' in the 
once mortal, and now glorified, hody of 
Christ; comp. Phil. iii. 21. 
The irX'fipceixa ^e6T7)ros, which once dwelt 
nv Kara aoitxaTiKhv elSos in the ASyos 
iiTapKos, now dwells forevermore ffaiixan- 
K(os (Chrys. calls attention to the precis- 
ion of the language ; /u'7 vouIittjs Qehv 
ervyKeKKuiT^ai, ws eV adfiari) in the Ad- 
yos iVffapKos : compare Meyer in he, 
and Hofmann Srhriftb. /. c. So De 
Wette, Eadie, Alford, and most mod- 

ern commentators, and anciently jEthi- 
opic, ' in came s. corpore hominis,' and 
ap])arently Atlianasius contr. Arian. iii. 
8, de Siisc. Hum. Vol. i. p. 60, Damasc. 
Ortliod. Fid. III. 6, except that the refer- 
ence is perhaps not sufficiently extended 
to the piesent glorified liody of our Re- 
deemer : see the copious rcfF. in Suicer, 
Thesaur. s. v. Vol. ii. p. 1216, and con- 
pare Wordsw. in he. 

10. Kai iff re k.t.\.\ ' and (because) 
ye are in him JiUedfuU ; ' not exactly, ' ye 
are made full in Ilim ' (Eadie), but, as the 
position of eVre and the order of the words 
seem to require, ' ye are in Him made 
full,' — there being in fact a double pred- 
ication, 'ye are imited with Christ (do 
not then seek help of subordinate power), 
yea and filled with all His plenitude (and 
so can need nothing supplementary).' 
There is no necessity to supply any defi- 
nite genitive, t7,s SitoT-qTos (Thcoph.), 
Tov nrXrip. tT^s beoT. (De W.), Tv^y {cuv/S 
(Olsh.): all wherewith Christ is full, 
all His gif s, and graces, and communi- 
cable perfections, are included in the 
Tr\-f}pe>iffts ; compare the somewhat paral- 
lel tcxt'Eph. iii. 19, and see notes in loc. 
Grotius and a few others regard eorre 
as an impcr. parallel to ^KfTrere, but are 
rightly opposed by all modern commen- 
tators. OS ear If K. T. A.] 
' who is, i. e. scein<j He is, the head of all 
[every) Principal iifj and Power,' the 61 
having a sliglit explanatory force (see 
notes on ch. i. 25, and on 1 Tim. ii. 4), 
and tacitly evincing the folly of seeking 
a ir\r]ptiiffis from any sultordinate source, 
or by any ceremonial agency (compare 
verse 11). The reading is somewhat 
doulitful : Lachm. reads t) with BDEFG ; 
Clarom., a!., and encloses koi — 4i> avr^^ 
in a parenthesis, but as the neuter rela- 
tive would seem to have arisen from a 
mistaken rcf. of eu ovtm to irATjp., we 
seem justified in retaining ts with AC 
KL ; nearly all mss. ; Chrys., Theod., 

ClIAl'. II. 10, II. 

C T) L O S S I A N S . 


ij Ke<{)u\ii iTuar)<; upX'^i^ '^'"' t^uvaias" ^' tV w /cai 7r€pUTfj.ii^^TjT€ 
irepiTO^fl ti'^cipoTrou'iTM^ tV tj} aireKCvaei rov ao}fjuiro<; t/)s" oapKifi^ 

al., followed by 7iec and Tisili. On tiie 
use of tlic al).strac't terms dpx») "I'd t^ou- 
cia to denote orders of lnnvtiili) Iiitelii- 
gCM)fC>, see notes and reff. on Ji/i/i. i. 21, 
and Suieer, Tlicsaur. s. v. &yyi\os, \'ol. 
1. p. 30-4^. 

1 1 . ^ »» a') '//I uhoin' i.e. 'seeing 
that III Him,' not ' iteriiaem,' Sehoottg., 
iv <f boinjjr cXiietiy i>arallel witli iv ain^ 
(ver. 10), and tlic u>o of tlie relative 
similar to that of i)s in tlie foie;j:oinj^ 
clause : all tliat the believer eaii rcreive 
in spiritual blessiii<;s is already j^ivcn to 
him in Clirist (Ul>h ). 
Ka\ irtpitT/i^i^TjTt] 'ye were iilso 
circuiiicisitl,' viz. at your conversion and 
baptism, * quum primuiu facti estis Chris- 
tiani,' Schoettg. : not ' in whom too, ye, 
etc.,' Eadic, which tends to separate kcu 
from the verb on which it throws empha- 
sis. The Colo<sians seem to hare been 
exposed to the iiiHuence of ttro funda- 
mental errors ; Jirst, the belief that they 
were under the influence, or at any rate 
needed the assistance, of intermediate in- 
telli;.:ences ; sicondlif, the persuasion that 
circumci>ion, the syinliol of purilication 
appointed by Ciod, mu>t still be necessa- 
ry. Both are in fact met by the sinfrlo 
clause Koi iarf — irtirArjp. (sec al»ove) ; 
this, however, is further cxpandul in two 
explanatory relatival clauses, 5j (Vtik, 
K. T A. being diivcted against the lirst 
emir, iv ^ koX k. t. A. against ilic sec- 
ond ; see llofinann, Scliril'ih. Vol. ii. '2, 
p. 1 53. a X * « p <"■ o « ') T vl 

' not hmtd-wrou'iht ; ' they were indeed 
circumcised — in a spiiitual and anti- 
typical manner, as the two chanicteriz- 
ing definitions which follow still more 
clearly show. The epithet axftp- l^nts 
in obvious contrast the spiritual irepxro^t?) 
IDaptism. see hclow] with the legal, typ- 
ical, wtpirofiij x*'P<'»oiT)T.)y, jx^rformcd 
outwardly iy capKl, Ejih. ii. 11. Sev- 

eral references to a spiritual circumci>ion 
will be found in Schoettg. JJor. Vol. I. 
p. 815; compare Dcut. x. 10, xxx. 6, 
ul. The form dxnp»» occurs u;;:iin 
Mark xiv. 58 (in cxpR-ssed cx»iitra>i), 
and '2 for. v. 1. t y 7 p 

iw f kS iff * t K. T. K.] ' in the jtitttnui ujj 
01 tliif LoJi/ of' the Jhsh ; ' not ' by lueans 
of etc.,' Mcy., the prep, iy not having 
any qua^i-iustruinental force, but simjily 
sjiccifying tliat in which the rtpiron^ 
consisted (Do \V.), the external act in 
which it took place ; compare notes on 
vcr. 7, and Winer, Gr. ^ 4S. a, p. 345. 
In all such cases the real use of ilie prep- 
osition is local, but the application ethi- 
cal. The awixa r'lS aapKht has been 
somewhat dilfercntly explained. Gram- 
matically considered, the expixsiiun is 
exactly the same as in c!i. i. 22 ; aapKht 
is the gen. of the material or specifying 
element (see notes), but its meaning 
and application are neces>ari!y difl"en'nt. 
There it was the material cap^ of the 
Redeemer without any ethical signifi- 
cance ; here it is the material ff<£^{, qua 
the seat of sinful motions, practically sy- 
nonymous with the more generic aufia 
djLiapTi'as (Uom. vi. 6), and designedly 
used in this place to keep up the anti- 
thetical allusion to legal circumcision : 
the wtpiT. xf'pcT. consisted in the dWic- 
Svffis and wtptrofi^ of a part (F.xod. iv. 
25), the jTfpir. Xftirrov in the iiriKSvffis 
of the whole trev/ia rijs aapKos ; .«ce Ilof- 
mnnn, SchrijVi. Vol. 11. 2, p. 154, and 
Wonlsw. Ill loc., who pertinently cites 
the good doctrinal comments of Hilary, 
de Trill. IX. 7. It is somewhat 

perverse in Miillcr, Doctr. of Sin, Vol. i. 
p. .359(Tninsl.), p. 455 (Gerra.). to salve 
his general interjjrctation of <rap{ liy here 
giving to <Tuna a figurative meaning 
(' massa,' Calv., al.), which, even if lex- 
ically admissible, is obviously cit of 

IQQ COLOSSIANS. Chap. II. 11, 12. 

ev rfj TrepiTO/u.jj rov Xpiarov, ^^ <JvvTa<^kvTe<i avrw iv ru) ySaTTXicr- 

hai mony with tlie concrete references 
(invTa(pePT(s, crvvT^yep^riTe) in tlie con- 
text. No writer lias more ably vindirat- 
ed tlie prevaiiing meaning of adp^ (see 
notes on Gal. v. 5), hut that there are 
some passages in tlie N. T. in which aap^ 
has a reference to sensnlionulism general- 
ly, to weakness, flushliness, and sinful 
motions cannot safely be dcni( d ; comp. 
with this expression, aTreKSuffdfiei/oi rhv 
ira\aihv av^p. k. t. \. ch. iii. 9, and see 
esj)ecially the excellent article of Tho- 
luck in Stud. u. Krit. for 1855, p. 488- 
492. The reading of liec, adifx. toiu 
afiapr. rt)s a witii D'D-^E^KL, is rightly 
rejected by Tit'^hener and most modern 
critics. iv rrj rrepiT. rov 

Xp.] ' in the circumcision of Christ,' com- 
municated by, and appertaining unto, 
Christ; second characterizing definition 
parallel to ec ttj aireK. k. t. \. specifying 
more exactly the nature of the ■jrepiTOfj.i) 
axeipoTToivjTos. XpiffTov is not exactly a 
gen. auct/tris (b Xpiarhs irepire'/uj'ei iv T(p 
fiainicrpiari, Theophyl.), but of the origin, 
or perhaps still more exactly, the origi- 
tniiiiir) cause (see Ilartung, Casus, p. 17, 
and notes on ch. i. 23) ; tovtwv atrios 6 
Sea-rroTrjs XpiffrSs, Theod. : Ciirist, by 
union with Himself, brings about the 
circumcision and imparts it to believers. 
To give the genitive a strongly possessice 
ref., e. g. ' the circumcision undergone 
by Clirist,' Schocttg., seems, cxegetical- 
ly considered, very unsatisfactory ; com- 
jiare Olsh. in loc. The reference ofaweK. 
K. T. \. and TrepiT. rod Xp. to tlie death 
of Christ (Schneckenburger, Thcol. .Talirb. 
for 1848, p. 286 sq.) is convincingly re- 
futed by Meyer. Even Miiller [on Sin, 
Vol. I. p. 359) will take no refuge in 
such an interpretation. 

12. avvra<p(vres\ 'having been 
bun ;d together with Him,' ' when you were, 
etc., the action described in the partici- 
ple )eing contemporaneous with that of 

irepieT. (Mey.) ; compare ch. i. 20, and 
see Bernhardy, Si/nt. x. 9, p. 383, Stallb. 
on Plato, Plimlo, p. 62 d. The tempo- 
ral force seems, however, here clearly 
secondary and subordinate, tlie primary 
force of the part, being apparently molal, 
and serving to define the manner in 
which the irepirofi^ Xp. was communicat- 
ed to the believer : compare especially 
Romans vi. 4. There seems no reason 
to doubt (with Eadie) that both here and 
Rom. /. c. there is an allusion to tlie /ca- 
To5u(r(j and avdSvais in Bajitism ; see 
Suicer, Thesaur. s. v. avd,^. Vol. i. p. 
259, Bingh;im, Antiq. xi. II. 4, and 
comp. Jackson, Creed, xi. 1". 6. That 
this burial with Christ is spiritually real 
and actual (rh ^Aimafxa koivwvovs iraist 
Tov davdrov Xp. Theod. -Mops, on Rom. 
I. c), not symliolical or commemorative, 
seems certain from the plain, unrestrict- 
ed language of the apostle ; compare 
Waterl. Euchar. vii. Vol. iv. p. 577. 
iv ^ Ka\ ffvvi\y.^ ' wherein ye were 
also raised with Him : ' o\\' ov rdcpos 
fxSvov iarl [rb ^Sc^TTTiff/ua], opayap ri <priai, 
Chrysost. (compare Tlieoph.), — noticed 
by Meyer, Alf., and others as referring ^ 
to Xpi(n6s, but apparently without suffi- 
cient reason. The reference of ^ to Xp. 
(Mey., Eadie) is at first sight structurally 
plausible {'6s...iv S...iv q5),but on a closer 
consideration certainly not exegetically 
satisfactory ; tlie two spiritual character- 
istics, the rb ffuvTa<t>i\vai as shown in the 
Kardhvcns, tlic rb ffvv(yepM\vai as shown 
in the avd^uffis, must surely stand in 
close reference and connection with Bap- 
tism. The counter-arguments of Meyer 
founded on the use of tlic prep, {iv 5 not 
6| ol), and the.parallelism of the prepo- 
sitional clauses (avvTa<p. avrcS iv k.t.K., 
avvriyepb. Sia k. t. A.) arc not convinc- 
ing. In the first place no other preposi- 
tion would be so appropriate as the scmi- 
local iv ; and in the second place, 5(d 

CiiAi. II. 12, 13. COLOSSIANS. 1^7 

fjicni, tu (o /cat aui'i)y(Lfi\)i/m Bia tz/s" Trt'aTtojv t//*? euepyeiwi tou 
&euLi Tuu tyei'pamos' aviuv tK rojv ptKi^oJU' ^'^ kuI vfiu>i if€Kpov<{ 
ovja^ ti> TuLs 7TapaTTT(jtjp.aaiv kul r?/ uKpoj^vaTui t/^s' aauKU'i 

K. T. \., tlic siatcmciit of the atusa mtili- iifipbrin, Clin*., — a.> iiiull cuhcs wlieitj 
ans, can Marccly Ite coiKfivid ii.s furia- wiarn i* l!ius usboc-iuiud Willi u {:eii. rti, 
in;; any lo;:iial parallel ism with liic fure- tlic j^cii. amieani to denote tlic ol>jeit of 
;,'i>in^ .-eniilocal ^j/ rt^ fianr. Lastly tlie faiili ; toiiiji. Acts iii. 16, Phil. i. '27, 2 
Kal seems to keep hoih ffvm. and auyjiy. Tliess. ii. l.'J. The statement of Mcy., co- 
in ilo-<u eonelative lefeieiicc to eaeh dorscd hy Eudie, and Alf. (Iiut eomp. tlio 
oflier. By eomjuirin^ IJom. latter 0/4 (Jul. iii. 2J, that this is true ia 
vi. 4, it would seem that the primary ret", every ease exiejit where ihejicn. refers to 
of (Ti/tTjy. is elearly to a jmsenl ;ind .s/iir- the believer, does not sefin i^fiftclltf ecr- 
ittKil ri>uri-cetio!i, hut again l>y eom[)ar- tain ; sec notes on Gul. ii. 16, iii. 2-', and 
in;; Kplies. ii. 6 (in wliieh tiie Stier o;i IC/ih. Vol. i. p. 477. 
seems true; ^ee notes), it would tou iy f I pat>T os k. t. a.] Clause 
np])ear that a secondary ref to a J'ulnre ajipcnded, to ;:ive a sure and certaia 
and /'/i^»/(V(/ resurrection oujrlit not to lie plcdj;e (ivix^pov ixotna rou ifoworou 
excluded: as Jack.«on well says, ' of our Xpiarov ttji' avatrTaffiv, Theud.) of the 
rcsurretlion unto glory, we receive the almij;lity ti/fpyfia «pf (jod, both in the 
plcd^ic or earnest when we receive the present vi'vifuation to new life and the 
grace of regeneration which enables us furure vivitication to gloiy (comp. Eph. 
to walk in newness of life ; and this is i. 20 and notes.Z/i /oc. J ; — 'that nothing 
called the Jirst nsnneclion,' Cretd, xi. may be done or siiflen?d by our Saviour 
17.7; compare Waterland, A'/«7((jr. VII. in these great transactions but may Ite 
Vol. IV. p 577, Iteuss, Th(ful. Chri't. iv. acted in oursouUand repre-enied in our 
21, Vol. 11 p. 2:1'}. spirits,' Pearson, (r«J, Vol. i. p. 2C5 
8 « a T j) J wliTT (us] ' l/iiou'/h Jiiilli : ' (fd. Burt.). 

subjective midiuni by which the objee- l-J- Kal vfiai] 'and you also,' ' ct 

tive grace is received : ' faith is not the vos etiam,' Copt. ; ajiidicaiion of the 

mean by which the grace is wrought, foregoing to the Colossi.ins, esix-cially 

cflectcd, or conf.rri'd ; but it may be and ^*ith reference to their formerly /(«(ir/«n 

is the nienn by which it is ay^fjikJ or state, koI l)cing associated with vi^as and 

nciiiid,' Watcrl on Justif. \'ol. vi. p. usansire, not with au^t(. in a mervly 

23; comjiare Usieri, L<lir!'. 11. 1. 3, <^opulative sense ; see notes o/i A'/iA. ii. I. 

p. 21G. The image of Alf., 'the hand The pronoun is repeat, d afier auyf(. 

which held on, not the plank that .saved,' with ACIvL (B, nl., i;nai ; nion- than 

i.>. in more than one respect, not dogmat- 40 ; Copt., ^l^thiop., al. ; Tliet>d. 

ically satisfactory. r i) s ('«>■). Dam., Gicum., and rightly adopi- 

iffpytlas K.T.\] ' (/;i) tl,e tjj'uiual t'd by 7V>'7j. and most modern e<liiors ; 

uW./»/y o/" ^■.A/.• ' not gen. of the m/f/ir the omission [lUc. with DKFG ; al.j 

)V causi iffitiens (l)e Wette, al.), but was obviously suggest d by the npiiarcnl 

more simi>ly ami intciiigiblv the ganltivo syntactic diflicultT. This, however, is 

.... _ ^A,," '' , . ,. very slight, as a rhetorical pleonasm o< 

J ^i..A-i^cn7 I'l"' *rt.ii the pronoun for the sake of emplMsis is 

distis in) Syr., sim. JmIi., ' in tide, in not uncommon ; see Bernhardy, 6y«/. 

auxilio' (Plati ; Pol. inverts). eVio-rtu- VI. 4, p. 27,"). 

ffOTs 6ti SiVaToi 6 Bths ijflpai, koI olkui vticpovs Svrai] ' Uiuj tUtid,' or ' ir/.tJi 

168 C0LOSSIANS. Chap. n. 13. 

Vfjicav, avve^moTTOcijaev v/xa<; crvv avTOj, '^apicrdfJi€vo<; rjfuv irdvia 

you wrtre dead' (not, 'who were dead,' 
Alf.), the past sense attributed to vvras 
being justified by the a'orists wliich are 
associated with it in the sentence (Wi- 
ner, Gr. § 41. 1, p. 305) ; see also notes 
on Ephes. ii. 1 (Tmnsl.). It seems ex- 
tremely unsatisfactory in Meyer, both 
here and Ephes. ii. 1, to give veKpovs a 
proleptic reference to pfii/sical death, scil. 
' certo morituri,' inrh ryv Si'ktji' eKeia^e 
CLTTo^aveTv, Chrys. : a remote, inferential, 
reference to physical death may possibly 
be included (see Alf. on Eph I. c), but 
any primary ref. seems wholly irrecon- 
cilable witli the context. 
fv Tots TTapoTT.] ^ in your transgres- 
sions ; ' the prep, as usual marking the 
element in which the dead state was ex- 
perienced ; contrast Eph. ii. 1, where the 
iv is omitted and the dat. is instrumen- 
tal. The prep, is actually omitted in 
BL; 20 mss. ; Goth.; Greek Ff., but 
appy. either by accident or conformation 
to Eph. /. c. There does not seem reason 
for receding from the general distinction 
between wapaiTT. and a^apT. (especially 
when associated) advanced in notes on 
Eph. I. c. T fj aKpofi. Trjs 

cap K 6 s] 'the uncircunir.ision of your 
flesh,' i. e. that appertained to, was the 
distinctive feature of — the gen. not be- 
ing either of apposition ( Storr), or quasi- 
material (B.-Crus., compare Alf), but 
simply possessive. The associated words 
(obs. the omission of the prep.) and the 
foregoing use of the term (ver. 11) may 
perhaps justify us in assigning some eth- 
ical reference to aapl, — not merely your 
material (Eadie), but your sinful, unpu- 
rified flesh, of wliicli the aKpofivarla was 
the visible and external mark ; they were 
heathens, unconverted, sinful heathens, 
as their very bodies could attest : this 
uKpofivcTTia, however, had now lost its 
significance ; they were irepmTiJ.rjixivoi 
in Christ. 'AKpofivvria is thus not ne- 

cessarily spiritual (Dcut. x. 16, Jerem. 
iv. 4), but retains its usual and proper 
sense ; on the derivation (not iKpou /3ua>, 
but a corruption of aKpoTroaSrla) see Fritz. 
Rom. Vol. I p. 136. 

avye^woTroiTjaev] ' He tocjether quick- 
ened,' spiritually, — with refei'ence to the 
life of grace ; a secondary and inferential 
reference to the pliysical resurrection 
need not, however, be positively exclud- 
ed : see above, and notes on Eph. ii. 5, 
where the force of the aorist (what is 
wrought in Christ is wrouglit ' ipso facto' 
in all united with Him ) is briefly noticed ; 
see especially Waterland, Euchar. ix. 
Vol n^ p. 643. The great 

difficulty in this clause is the subject. 
On the one hand, a comparison with 
Rom. viii. 1], and still more Eph. ii. 5, 
seems to point to the last substant. ®e6s, 
ver. 12 ; so Tlieod., Theoph., appy. Copt. 
[' secum,' Wilk,, is a mistransl.], and 
nearly all modern commentators. On the 
other hand, the logical ditTiculty of sup- 
plying a nom. from tlie subordinate gen. 
0€oO, — the obvious prominence given to 
Christ throughout the preceding portion 
— the peculiar acts described in the par- 
ticiples (especially e|o\. k. t. A. com- 
pared with Eph. ii. 15, and even x«»f"<''- 
compared witii Col. iii. 13), — the rela- 
tion of Christ to opxol and i^ouaiai (ver. 
15, compare i. 16, ii. 10), — and lastly, 
the extreme difficulty of referring the 
acts described in ver. 14, 15, to God the 
Father, are arguments so preponderant, 
that we can scarcely hesitate to refer trv 
vfC- 'i"'^ its associated participles to 
Christ, who, as of the same essence and 
power with the Father and the Holy 
Ghost, did infiiilibly quicken Himself 
(Pearson, Creed, Art. v. Vol. i. p. 302, 
ed. Burt.) : so Chrys. (here, e sil., but 
elsewhere expressly), apparently Syriac 
and Goth, (certainly in ver. 15, see be- 
low), perhaps ^th. (Piatt), and recently 

Ciiap. II. 13, U. COLOSSI ANS. 1Q9 

la 77upa7rriofj.aTa, ^' i^a\eiy^a<i to /caS^' 7j/j.o)v -^eipoypucpop roU 

Ilciir., Baiir, Piiulus, ]>. 45'i note, and 
wry (k-citlcdly, Doimlds. C/ir. Orl/ioil. 
p. 7G. It is soinewliut siii;.'iilar that the 
Givck coinme-ntators Tht'oil., Thuoiih., 
and (Ecuni., silently adopt 0«bi as the 
Buhji'it of verso 1'}, and 6 Qtls A6yos 
(Tlu'dd ), as that of ver. 14, 15; conip. 
also Wordsw. in /or., who conceives the 
propositions in this and in the following 
verses ' to refer to God in Christ, and to 
Christ as God.' Suih an inicrprctation 
is dojrniatically defcnsihlc on the ^rround 
of the ' coinmunicatio idioniatuin ' (com- 
pare llhrard, ('lir. Dofjin. § 38:)), and 
certainly deserves consideration, hut 
viewed logically and grammatically 
seems somewhat artificial and unsatis- 
factory. We tnay oliscrve lastly, that if 
the reference to Christ \\ck advocated is, 
as it certainly sc ms to he, correct, it is 
worthy of serious notice that actions else- 
where ascrihcd by the ap.ostlo to God 
(Eph. ii. 5, compare Horn. viii. II), arc 
here unrest rirtidl if prcil.'raful of Christ. 
Meyer's ohjcction that the ahovo intcrpr. 
is opposed to the ' Lehrtypus,' that God 
raised Christ, is not very strong ; God, 
it is here said, did raise Christ, Christ 
us, — yet, as God, also Himself. 
ahv a(>Tif\ 'with IlimxiJf.' As this 
seems a case in wliich a reference to the 
suhject is somewhat immediate, and in 
Avhich it is desirahlo to obviate misumler- 
standing, the aspirated form may he 
properly adopted ; comp. notes on Kjih. 
i. 4. x°^P ^ ^ ^1^^ >"> ^ ic.T.A.] 

' liitrituifariiinn us ullvur trunsiinssioiis : ' 
modal participle describing the prelimi- 
nary net which conditioned the realiza- 
tion of the ffv^^wiroirjffis, by removing the 
true cause of the vtKpSrTjs : irdtn-a irapairr. 
^o7a ; & TiV yfKp6r7jTa iwoin, Chrys. ; 
compare ch iii. 1.3, 2 Cor. v. 19, Ephes. 
iv. :V2, and observe that in these last two 
passages Qths is the subject, yet with the 
noticeable addition, ^v Xpiarf'. For tlie 

reading v^if {/i/z. not Stej'h.), there is 
but little critical authority. Both exter- 
nal and internal arguments suggest the 
more inclusive rjtuf. 

14. /(aAfii^as] ' hai-iii'i Uotttd out ; ' 
modal participle contemporary with, 
suru'y not prior to (Mey.) xop'<^<'M'>'o^t 
and detailing it more fully and circum- 
stantially. Christ forgave us our sin* 
when he took them upon Himself and 
suffered for us ; the mode of forgiveness 
was by cancelling the x*tp^yp<^<po''- Suixj- 
ly if this participle be applied to God, 
arguments might be founded on it not 
only in support of Patripassian doc- 
trines, but in opposition to the vicarious 
satisfaction of Christ. K God the Fa- 
ther did all tliis, what was the precise 
effect of the expiatory death of Christ ? 
To answer, with Eadie, ' What Christ 
did, God did by Him,' only evades, but 
does not meet, the difficulty. The form 
i(a\. (Acts iii. 19, Kev. iii. 5, vii. 17, 
xxi. 4 ; compare Psalm 1.9, cviii. 13), 
as its derivation suggests (a = oia, and 
Sanscr. lip, ' illinere,' Pott, E't/m. Forsch, 
Vol. I. p. 258, Vol. II. p 1.53), |)roi>orly 
denotes ' cer.i obducta dclere * (compare 
Krebs, Olis. p. 337), and theme, ' to ex- 
punge,' ' wipe out,' generally, in opposi- 
tion to ypd<pfn>, ap. Stob. fiord. 
xciii. 10, p. 507 (ed. Gesn ), or iyypd- 
^*ty, Plato, Rrp. vi. p. 501 n, compare 
Xen. //.//. II. 3. 51. 

rh Kad' iiniiv X*'P- "• t. A.] 'the 
luinduTitinrj in force nijainst us hi) its de- 
crees ; ' the dative SSyfiaffiy Wlonging 
closely to rh ko^' i ,^. x^'P-> ""'l falling 
under the genenil head of the dative ' of 
refeivncc to' (notes on (it.l. i. 22) ; the 
So'^^oTo were that in which the rh ko^' 
ituaiv (the hostile aspect or diivi'tion. op- 
]>osed to {rrtp, sec Winer, ^.V. § 47. k, 
p. 341 ) of the bond was specially evinced : 
see Winer, GV. ^ 31. 10. 1, p. 197. The 
usual explanation. ' consisting of Siyfi» 



Chap. II. 14. 


y/xaaiv o tjV vTrevavriov rjfiiv, kul avro fjpKev 6k tov fiea-ov, Trpoa- 

TO,' ' rituurn chirogvapho,' Bcza, — in 
which the dat. would be equivalent to a 
kind of gen. mater ice, or involve a tacit 
eliijisis of eV (compare Ephes. ii. 15) — 
seems distinctly ungrammatical, and that 
of Meyer, Eadie, and Alf., — according 
to which the dat. is governed by the ver- 
bal element in x^'P^yP-j — more than 
doubtful, as x^'P- '* ^ synthetic compound 
(Donalds. Gr. § 372), and apparently 
incajiahle of such a decomposition ; com- 
pare Tobit V. 3, ix. 5, Polyb. Hist. xxx. 
8. 4. The reference of x^^P^yP°-'P'"' '^^^ 
been very differently explained. The 
context would seem to suggest that x"- 
poyp. is clearly not the command given 
to Adam (Thcophyl. 2), nor the lavv' of 
conscience (Lutii.), nor even specially, 
the moral law (Calv. ; compare Neand. 
Plant i II (/, Vol. i. p. 462), nor yet the 
ceremonial law (Schoettg., Wordsw. ; 
see especially Deyling, Obs. Part. iv. p. 
596 sq. ), but the whole law, ' nam bencfi- 
cium chirographi ad omnes spectat, tarn 
Gentiles quam Judieos : ergo hujusmodi 
chirogr. ponere oportet, quo e.x aliqua 
parte tenentur omnes,' Daven. ; compare 
Andrewes, S^rm. iv. Vol. i. p. 54 sq. 
( A.-C. Libr.), and Vol. in. p. 66, where 
he curiously terms it the ' ragman roll : ' 
so De Wctte, Mey., and most modern 
commentators. The x^'P^yp. was ko^' 
7)iiit>v, Jews and Gentiles ; immediately 
against the former, mediately and infe- 
rentially (as founded on immutable prin- 
ciples of justice and rectiiude) against 
the latter, Rom. ii. 15, compare Rom. 
iii. 19. It was in the positive commands 
whether written on stone or in the heart 
that the rh /cay i]ixuiu was mainly evinced: 
compare on the prohibitive side, Rom. 
vli. 7 sq. The law thus 

appropriately designated, being a ' bond,' 
an ' obligatory document ' (comp. Plut. 
Mor. p. 829 A, and see exx. in Wetst.), 
by which all were bound, and which 

brought penalty in case of non-fulfil 
ment ; compare Pearson, Creed, Art. iv- 
Vol. I. p. 248 (ed. Burt.), Usteri, Lehrb. 
II. 1, 2, p. 175,.Reuss, TheU. Chr^C. iv. 
17, Vol. II. p. 190. 

& ^ f VTrevavriov 7] fx.\ ' which teas 
against us ; ' expansion of the preceding 
rb Kay v/ioiv : it was hostile not merely 
in its direction and aspects, but practi- 
cally and definitely. The idea of secret 
hostility {{nrh) is not implied either here, 
Heb X. 27, or indeed in the majoriiv of 
passages where the word occurs : see 
cxx. in Rost u. Palm, Lfx. s. v. Vol. ii. 
p. 20G4. Perhaps the jircp. may have |iri- 
marily involved an idea of locality, local 
opposition (compare Hesiod, Scut. .347, 
"iriroi vnivoLVTioi a\\r]\oiffLV o^sIj, XP^I^^' 
aav, 1 Mace. xvi. 7) which in t!ic meta- 
phorical applications of the word neces- 
sarily became ob iterated. Tliis is fur- 
ther confirmed by the fundamental mean- 
ing of vir6, which, it may be ol)servcd, is 
not ' under,' but appears to be that of 
' motion to the speaker from that which 
is near to him ; ' see Donalds. Crati/L 
§279. Kal auTh k. t. \.] 

' and He hath taken it out of the way ; ' 
change from the participial structure to 
that of the finite verb to add force and 
emphasis (see notes on ch. i. 6, 20), and 
especially to the perfect [D'FG ; many 
rass. ; Orig., Thcod., al , road ?,fjfv, but 
on insufficient autiiority] to express the 
enduring and permanent nature of the 
act ; sec Winer, (ir. § 40. 4, p. 242, and 
notes on Ephes. ii. 20. TIic addition tK 
fxeaou expnsscs still more fully the com- 
pleteness of the ^pKev (fTToirjCT-e iJ.7jBh ^ai- 
viT^ai, Theo;ihyl., /u); a(pe]s iirl x'ipay, 
(Ecum.), and perhaps also the impedi- 
mental character (Meyer) of the thing 
taken away ; examples of aipeiv ew fieaou 
will be found in Kypke, Obs. Vol. ii. p. 
323. vpoar)\(j)(Tas k.t.\.\ 

'having nailed it to the cross;' modal 

ClIAI-. II 15 

C O L O S S I A N S . 

ijXcoaa'i avTo TO) crravpto, ^' aircKZvauiJ.cvo<i to.^: "/>V"s a'"' Ta? 
i^ovaia^ tBer/fj.dTia€v €u irafjprjcria, ^ piafi/3€vaa<i airrov^ tV aimo. 

j)arti(i|)Ie, rontciniiorancous with tlie 
commencement of the JipKfv (Alf.). <le- 
seribinj,' the manner in whic h Christ re- 
moved the x*'f<'7^o<f>o»' : He nailed tlic 
Mosaic hiw with all it.s decrees to His 
cross, and it died with Ilini ; aurij ko- 
Aacrddi tKuof koX tjjj' afiapTiav kou t};i/ 
K6Kaaiv, Clirvs. The refeix-nce to a lH)nd 
cancelled hy 8trikin;jf a nail throu;.'li it 
(Pearson, CrenI, Art. iv. Vol. ii. |i. 
248 ; conijtaie Ziip^riliv, Chrys., Kariaxt- 
ffty, Theoph.) vecnis very douhiful. All 
that the apostle seems here to imply is, 
that in Christ's crucifixion, the ciinse of 
the law wa>i borne, and its ot>li;;atoiv 
and condemnatory power, its power as 
a x*'P<^*;Ptt'f'<»' Koi' ifiwv, forever ex tin - 
gui>hed and aliropitcd ; conip. Ifom. x'.i 
6, and see Aiidrcwes, S'lni. Vol. i. p. 
55 s<i. (A.-C. Lil.r). 

15. airtKSva. Toj apxa-i k.t.\.] 
' haviiiff stri/>ixd mcai/ from Illmstlf tlie 
(hostile) priiici/xilitiis and jiotfers;' nei- 
ther 'exspolians,' Vul;r., silently follow 
cd by apparently all modem writers ex- 
cept Deylinjj ((>/<.<. Vol. ii. p. 009). Don- 
aldson {V/ir. Orili. p. CS), Ilofmann 
{ScfmfV,. Vol. I. p. 305), Alford, and 
Wordsw., nor even, ' liaving stiippcd 
for Himself,' ' deponere juhens,' Winer, 
de Verb. Coni,i. iv. 15, — both interpri'tt. 
wliolli/ unsupported by the lexical usayc 
of iiroSi'o), (VSi'a'. and dn-ffcS. (see Host 
u. I'alm, Ltr. s. vv.), and o/>/>o.std to St. 
Putii's oini use of' the word, eh. iii. 9, — 
but 'exuens se,' Claroman.. Copt. |mis- 
transl. by Wilkins], .Eth. (Piatt), Chns 
2, more distinctly Theoidi. 2, and with 

P r 
a special reference, Syriac - ^ \ * '-^ 

m r 

Olju-S per exsjHiliationem coqmris sui), 

Goth., 'andhamonds sik. leika,' and per- 
haps Theod. followed by Ilil., Anju-t., 
Pacian, and reflected in the ancient gloss 

airtKS. tV odfiKa, TO ; B<x'rn., ul. The 
nire binary compound awtKS. was appar- 
ently clioscn rather than the sim I r /irJ. 
to express, not only tin; act of ' divesti- 
ture,' liut that of ' removal ; ' see Winer, 
/. r. It is sin;:ular that an interpretation 
of .such anii<iuity, so well aitested, and 
so lexically certain, shonld in modern 
limes have Iicen completely, if not con- 
temptuously i-noivd. The meanin^j: of 
the expression is, however, somewhat 
obscure : it appears most jirobably to 
iin|)ly i!;at, as hinted at by Theod., and 
apl>aivnily a!l the Greek < onimentators, 
our Ixird by His ileath strip|>ed awav 
foil Himsiifall the ojiposin;; ho-tile 
jiowiTs of evil (observe the article) that 
sou;.'lit in the natuix' which H • had i on- 
descended to assume, to win for them- 
selves a victory, aTffcJi'o-oro t.V Xad-fif 
[rb iif^paiiroi tTj-ai], ovdAijirroj (up^dif 
rais apxati fol rais i^ovfflaii. Theoph. 2, 
compare Theod. Wiien He died on tho 
cros.-;, when He disscdvcd that temple in 
which tliev, both in earlier (Matth. iv. 1 
sq., Luke iv. i. sq., obs. wpbs Kaipoi/, ver. 
1.3), anil later, and ]K:rliaps n-doubled 
irtbrts of temptation (see .1 hn xiv. 30, 
and especially Luke xxii 5:}), had vainly 
endeavored to make sacrilc;:ious entry, 
He reft them away forever, and vindicat- 
ed His n?pil power (Pcar-on, Crcd, Vol. 
I. p. 2C0, ed. Burt.) ; yen, the loud «oire 
(Matih. xxvii. 50, .Mark xv. 37. Luke 
xxiii. 4G) was the shout of eternal tri- 
umph and victory. See Wordsw. in loc., 
who has adopted the same view, and 
well explained the jieculiar siirniticanco 
of the term. Thus all seems 

clear, consistent, and theoloj;ically pro- 
found and si;:nificanf ; while our Saviour 
bore the curse of the law. He destroyed 
its condemnatonr* power forever [ttpii' 
■Kdptv iKU. Chr}s.l, while He iindenvent 
sutTerings and death, and the last effort! 



Chap. II. 15, 16. 

^^ Mr] ovv Ti9 y/ia? Kpiverco iv /Spcoaec rj iv 

Let no one judge you In 

ceremonial ubservances, 

holding not the Ilead. Submit not to outward austerities tliat are inwardly vain and carnal. 

of baffled demoniacal nniliL^nity, He de- 
stroyed rhv rh Kparos exo»''''o tov bav6.Tov, 
rovT" i<jTi TOV Sid^oAou, Heb. ii. 14 ; com- 
pare 1 Jolin ill. 8. ras 
apxa-s Kal tos €|.] ' tlie Principali- 
ties and tlie Powers (that strove against 
Him) : ' these abstract terms being used, 
as always in the N. T., with reference to 
spiritual beings (avT ovs) and Intelligen- 
ces (see notes on Eph. i. 26, vi. 12), the 
context showing whether tlic reference 
is to good (ch. i. 16, see notes), or, as 
here, to evil angels and spirits ; see Us- 
teri, Le/ub. ii. 1. 2, p. 176, Reuss, Tlteol. 
Chrd. IV. 20, Vol. H. p. 226 sq. The 
opinion of Hofraann {Schrijlb. Vol. i. p. 
305), Alf., al., that good angels only are 
here referred to, and tliat aTre/cS. refers 
to God putting aside from Him tlie nim- 
bus of the Powers which shrouded Ilim 
from the heathen world (Hofm.), is in- 
genious, but not satisfactory, and furtlier 
rests on the assumption that this verse 
refers to Qeos, not Xpt(TT6s. 
eS e ty fjidr Iff e v iv iropp.] 'Lie made 
a show (if t/iem with boldness ; ' not 

ymjJSS'^ [diifamavit] Syr., sim. Goth., 

^axnt^-ivriae, Chrys., compare jlithiopic 
(Piatt) and Theod., — but simply, 'fecit 
COS manifestos,' Copt., ' ostcntui esse 
fecit,' Hil. : it was an open manifesta- 
tion, and tliat too, iv Tapprjaia, ' Avith 
boldness,' — not opp. to iv kpvtttm (Jolm 
vii. 4), sc. drj/ioaia, irdvTwv opwuTiav, 
Chrysost., but, as the formula seems al 
ways used by St. Paul, ' confidenter,' 
Vulg. ; sec notes on Phil. i. 20. The 
woi'd SeiyfiariCnv (Mattli. i. 19, Laclim., 
Tisch.), apparently confined to tlie N. T., 
does not much differ in meaning from 
the compound rrapaSnyfxa.Tl^dv, except 
that it c( the idea to :;n open ex- 
hibition (as tlio context shows) in tri- 
umph, witliout any further idea of shame 
or ignominv (Polybius, Hist. xvii. 1. 5, 

XXIX. 7. 5). To connect eV Trap^. with 
bpiaix^. (Hofm. Schriftb. Vol. i. p. 305) 
seems very unsatisfactory, but has appy. 
arisen from the assumption that ' open- 
ly ' is the correct translation. 
^p tafjifi. avTovs] ' havinrj triumphed 
over them ; ' contemporaneous with iSeiyfi. 
(see no'es on ver. 12), explaining more 
fully the circumstances of the action. 
The expression dpta/u^eveiv riva occurs 
again 2 Cor. ii. 14, and apparently there 
(sec Mey. in loc.) as necessarily here, not 
in a factitive sense, but witli an accusa- 
tive of tlie object triumphed over, or led 
in triumph ; compare Plut. Comp Thes. 
c. Rom. ^ 4, ^affiKeis idpidu.^evcre Ka\ fjye- 
fiSvas, and examples cited by Wetst. on 
2 Vor. I. c. On the derivation of the 
word [iipi-, cogn. with &vp-, connected 
witli Tpe7s, and iafi^os or a,u/3os, ' proces- 
sion,' or ' close dance'], see Donaldson, 
Cratijl. § 317, 318, and compare Bcnfcy, 
WurzrlUx. Vol. II. p. 260. The varied 
nature of our blessed Redeemer's meek 
triumphs is well set forth by Hilary, de 
Trin. X. 4S (cited by Woi'dsw.). 
i V a u T 6?j ' in it ; ' not (a) 'in the nailed 
up x^^p^ypo-'P""}' Me}'., which would give 
a force to avTca with which its position and 
the context seem at variance ; nor (b) 
' in semetipso,' Vulg., Andiewes, Serm. 
Vol. HI. p. 06, wliich would form an 
almost unnecessary addition ; but (c) ' in 
it,' sell. T(j} <rTavp(f (iv tw |i'A«, Grig.) 
with tlie Greek commentators and ma- 
jority of modern expositors : rh yap rod 
KSff/xou opuvTos i,vw iv Tw |uAfo rhv i<piv 
aipaytacrA?}yai, tovto icni rh davf.aariv, 
Clirys. ; see Pearson, Creed, Vol. i. p. 
291, and especially notes. Vol. ii. p. 
217, 218 (ed. Burt.). 

16. ^^ oZv] 'Let not then,' etc.;* 
with reference to ver. 14 sq., oZv having 
its usual collective force, and recalling 
tlie readers to the fact that tiie Mosaic 
Law is now abrogated ; sec notes oa 

CiiAi-. II. iG, i: 



IC. ?) tv\ y'sr/i. (t(l. 2) KoJ «V only on tlic authority B; Copt., Syriac; 
Ori.'. (I) ; Hior., Ti.lion. (Ttrtnll. ' it ' 4 timc«). Imt now (cd 7) has right 'y re- 
turned to tlie aadin;.' of AVr., huhm. Tlie tomntoti a.'isotiation of $pu.ais and «(J<ri» 
would very naturally have f!U;_'-c«itcd the displareniont of 1) fur the more u»ual koI. 

vp,. C_ Kfiivirw iv '/<• '''. Cout. (^ \, Vol. M p. 477 (edit. 

fiputifi] 'jiuhe you in turiii'i,' pa^'H a Man-.). fv fi*ptt 

judtrinent ui)on what may or may not l)C iopr:,f\ ' in titi- mutter of a /r^titul: ' 

eaten ; iv referrin;; to the iti m in wliieli not ' in the partial observan.o of fcsti- 

tlie jud;,'nient was pa.^scd, see Rom. ii. vals ' (ou 70^ ih wavTa Karflxof rk irp6- 

Tfpa, Cliry.s.), ' ob partem ali<iuam festi 
violatnm,' Dav., nor ' in sc;:rejrationc ' 
(j. e. setting apart one day rniiior than 

another), Calv., eomp. Syr. K < ^ ~ ^ O 

l.xiv. 22. Bp'1-ffti is not hero ' eihns,' 
Vulj^. (lomp. Triiz. Rom. xiv. 17, Vol. 
III. p. 200), hut, as apparently always 
in St. Paul's Epi.-tlcs (Horn. xiv. 17, 1 
Cor. viii. 4, 2 Cor. ix. 10), ' e>us,' 'ac- 
tus cdcndi,' Co;it , Tittm. Synon. i. p. [in divisionihus s. di<tin(tioiiil>u-], nor 
159, the passive verbal being rc;.'ul..rly speeifiraliy, 'in the jTi.lmudical] tract 
u^•cd by t'.ie apo.^ile in reference to the upon.' Ilamin. af;cr Casauh and ^cal., 
thing eaten ; conip. 1 Cor. iii. 2, vi. 13, — hut, simply and pl.iinly, ' in the mat- 
viii. 8, 13. X. .T, 1 Tim. iv. 3. The di.^- tcr of,' fitpos jiointing to the ' class' or 
tinciion is, however, not observed in St. 'category' (Mey.) : sec I'lato, prinibl. 
John (com]), iv. .^2, vi. 27), nor indeed i. p. 34i* E, iv ap(T~is (tal <ro<|>ioi ridrti 
alway- in cl;i,<!>ical writers, conip. Horn, fitpft ri]v aSiKioy, T»fat. p. !.'>.") k, al., 
0(1. I. 191, VI 176; Plato, I^rjfj. vi. p. examples in Loc-sner Ois p. .367, and 
783 c, cited by Meyer, does not seem compare 2 Cor. iii. 10. The three ob- 
cqually c> rtain. The rule of Thom. M., jects in the matter of which judgment is 
fipil'Hara' ir\r)bvin-tKws, oi> /SptiiAio, ovSt forbidden, arc cnumcrnted in reference 
iSpaffir, cannot be sul)»tanti:ited ; see to the frequency of their occurrence ; top- 
notes collected liy Hem. in loc., p. 174. r^ referring to one of the greater feasts, 
t) iv ir6fftt] ' or /;i </n//i-i;/'7,' t!c prep, vovfirjvla to the monthly festival of the 
being re[icatcd to give a slight force to new moons (XnMi!i. x. 10; si'cJ.ihn, Mr- 
thc enumeration. The ivmarks made r/ino/. § 351, Winer, A' ir/>. s. v. ' Xea- 
in rc«^pect to Ppuats apply exactly to monde,' Vol. 11. p. 140), andffcf^^aTa to 
w6<Tis, contrast I Cur. x. 4 with llom. the weekly fotival ; comp. IJal. iv. 10. 
xiv 17, and compare John vi. 55. As 17. fi iariv] 'which thiuiis <irf;' 
there is no eomr.iand in the Mosaic law relative clause showing the justitv of tho 
relative to ir<$ff(y except in the case of prcc-cding command, the relative having 
Kazarites (Numb. vi. 3) and priests be- a sliirht eTplannturi/ force; see notes on 
fore going into ihe talK-rnacle (I>ev. x. cl>. i. 25, 27. That ft refers not merely 
9), and as irSfffi seems certainly to form to the last three items but to the whole 
a distinct memlicr (opp. to Alf.), we are verse, 1. <-. to all legal or tnidition.nry 
driven to the conclusion that the Colos- ccitjmonies, seems clear from the con- 
sian heretics adopted ascetic pr.-ictices in text. The reading 5, with BF(i; Cla- 
resjicet of wine and strong drinks, per- rom., Goth., al. (/>/rAm.),is not improh- 
haps of a Ra!>binical origin. The F.s- able, but is insnfticiently attesteil. 
sencs, we know, onl\"*drank water: iro- VKti] 'shadow;' not 'an outline,' in 
rhr vBitip fauariaiof aiToIj itrriv, Philo, reference to a eKurfpa<;>la, ' l>cneficia 

'l74 COLOSSIANS. CiiAP. II. 17, 18. 

TMv /xeWovTCOv, TO Be <7(t)fx,a Xpiarov. ^^ fi7]8et<; vjxa^ KaTa/3pa- 

Cliristi ac doctrinam evangclicam ob- 
scure delineabant,' Daven., — a mean- 
ing doubtful even in Heb. x. 1, but, as 
tlie antithesis acb/xa obviously requires, 

jA-*J.^»4 [nmbraj] Syr., sliadows op- 
l)osed to substance (Joseph. Bell. Jud. 
II. 2. 5, (TKtay aiTrtcrSfiefos /SatriAeios, ^$ 
'I'lpTTairey eoi/Tcp rh au/ia), and with per- 
haps some further reference to the typi- 
cal character of such institutions, shad- 
ows flung- forward (' praenunciativaj ob- 
servaliones,' Aug.) from the to. fxeWovTa 
(scil. TO T'ijs KamjS Sia^-I^KTjs, Thcoph.), 
from the future blessings and realities of 
the Chri:Uian covenant ; irpoAafj.l3dv€i he 
0) CKta rh crcifia avicrxofjos tov <f)WT6s, 
Theod. The use of tlie present i^riv 
must not l)c unduly pressed ; ' loquitur 
de illis ut considerantur in sua natiird, 
abstractte a circumstantiis temporis,' Da- 
vcnant. rh 5e aw fia Xp.] ' but 

the liocli/ (their substance) is Christ's:' the 
aoc/xa, sc. twu fiewSfTcov, belongs to Christ 
in respect of its origin, existence, and re- 
alization ; ' in Christo habemus ilia vera 
ct solid I bona qua; erant adumbrata et 
figurata in priEdictis coerimoniis,' Daven. 
Tiie nom. might at first siglit have been 
expected ; the possessive gen. Xpiffrod 
[so Tsch. rightly, with DEFGKL; not 
rov Xp. with ABC ; Lachm.], however, 
is of more real force, as marking that the 
true aw,ua rwv ixfWSvruv not merely was 
Christ, but belonged to, was derived 
from Him, and so could only be realized 
l)y union with Him. A reference of this to ver. 18 (comp. August. Epist. 
."SO) destroys the obvious antithesis and 
is wholly untenable. Tlie assertion 

of Alf. (comp. Olsh.) — that if the ordi- 
nance of the Sabbath had been in any 
form of lasting observation in the Chris- 
tian Cimrch, St. Paul could not have 
use! such language, — cannot be sub- 
Btantiated. The <rafifia-Tov of the Jews, 

as involving other than mere national 
reminiscences (with Dcuteron. v. 15, 
contrast Exod. xx. 11), was a tr/cia of 
the Lord's day : that a weekly seventh 
part of our time should be specially 
given up to God rests on con-iderations 
as old as the Creation ; tliat tlust scventli 
portion of the week sliould be the Jirst 
day, rests on ai)Ostolica!, and perhaps 
inferential ly (as the Lord's appearances 
on that day seem to show) Divine usage 
and appointment ; see Bramhall, Lord's 
Day, Vol. v p. 32 sq. (A.-C. Libr.),and 
Huh. Essaj for 1843, p. 69. 

18. /coTai3pa/3eu€TCD] ' beguile you, 
of your rcivurd:' so distinctly, Zonar. 
on Coiic.Laod. Can.S.'j (Suiccr, Thesaur. 
s. v.), KaTal3paPeieiu eo-rl rh /x^ viin)(Tav 
Ttt a^iovv TOV fipa^eloj, aW' irtpfo SiSocat 
auT6, aSiKOvufi/ou to* fiiKi)cravTos, the Karh 
marking the hostile feeling towards the 
proper recipient, which dictated the con- 
sequent injustice, and t^ irapa^paPeuetv ; 
see Demosth. Md. p. 544, iTrnTTa/xfAa 
^TpaTwua VTrb MetSiou KaTajSpaBev^fvra 
KOi irapa iravTa ra S'lKaia a.ri;j.oi>^eyTa, and 
Buttm. in loc. (Index, p. 17G), who per- 
tinently remarks, ' verbum in translato 
sensu !\litei' usurpari non potuisse quam 
do eo qui debitaiu altcri victoriam eripit.' 
The many renderings, either insutll;icnt 
(KaraKpiuiTw, Ilcsych. incorrect (Kara.- 
iraXaieTO}, Castal. ap. Pol. Syn.), or per- 
verted {e. g. KaTaKvpifveTQ), Corn, a 
Lap.), that have been assigned to this 
word will be found in Pol. Synojis., and 
in Meyer in loc. Tlie PpajSiTov, 

of which the ftilse teachers sought to de- 
fraud the Colossians was not tin ir Chris- 
tian freedom (Grot.), — at first sight a 
plausible interpretat., — but, as the con- 
text and the grave nature of the error it 
reveals seem certainly to suggest, 'vita 
ajtenia,' Gom., rh ^pafielov tt},- ivca KK'ff 
aeus (Phil. iii. 14)v and with a more ex- 
act allusion, the H^^aprov arecpauov (1 

CiiAi'. II. 18. COLOSSIANS. 2J5 
fievirw '^^iiXiov ti> rwrreiuoiPpoavi/T] xal ^pijaKeia row u'/'/eXoyv, a 

Cor. ix. 25), the o-tc^ovoj/ tv)j Sivaiocru- {Si/uon. i. p. l.Tl), al., and most recenf- 

mjs (2 Tim. iv. 8), t";* ^wP/j (James i. ly, Alf. Tlie former is distinctly uiiten- 

lii), T^s oofrjs (I Pet. V. 4), wliiili i!ic nlile, as contrary to all anulo;_'y of iisa;,'0 

Lonl, 6 SiKuioi Kpn{,s (2 Tim. /. c), will of dfAdv in the N. Test. Tlie latter is 

pivc to tlic CIiri.Ntiun \ictor nt tlio last structurally and irrumniatioally defenhi- 

day. Tiii.^ i)rize the f.lse tcaclicrs sought Mo, rompare 2 IVt. iii 5, hut, even in 

to ohtain, hut it was un<ler circumstances the translation of Alf., ' of purpose de- 

of sudi faial error, viz., the worsiiip of fraud you," cxcjjctically unsatlsfactorj-, 

nr.gcLs, tlie introduction, in fact, of fresli as it would seem to impntc to the false 

mediators, iliat tluy would eventually teachers a frightful and indeed suicidal 

hcguile and defraud of tlie ^pa^tloit those malice, which is neither justified hy tlie 

who were misled enough to join them : ( ontcxt, nor in any way credible. Tlioy 

'niliil uliud moliuntur nisi ut palinam sought to gratify their vanity liy piining 

ipsis intcrcipiant, quia ahducunt eos a adherents, not their malice hy compass- 

ixctitudinc cursus sui,' Calv., — who, ing, even at their own hazard, their ruin, 

however, does not api)ear to have felt The Kara^pi^tvai^ was perhaps reckless- 

t!:c pivcisely correct application of Kara- ly risked, hut not maliciously designed 

fii>afi(Vfiv. bf\wv\ ' (hsir- beforehand. The translation of Words- 

///.'/ (/o (/o //),' soil. KaraQpa^jivfiv ; b(\wv worth is much more plausible, 'by the 

toZto votuv, CEtum. ; modal j)ariiciple exercise of his mere will,' but is perhaps 

defining the feelings they evinced, and scarcely so simple as that of the Greek 

/(/n/(/;7 at the studied natuie of the course commentators proposed above, 

of action which they followed, and which iv t aireivo<pp.\ * in loutimss;' elo- 

resultcd in the KaroBpafitvats ; tovto t<£ ment in which he desires to do it, the 

vuy auvt^oiKivov iKfiyoi ylyvfa^ai, rairfi- prep, iy not being so much instrumental 

voippoffvyt) STidev Ktxpnnivoi, Tlicodor , (Mey.) as modal, »aj$, ^vrairfii'. ; I) »«y, 

wlio, however, somewhat overpresses ipvaiovixtvoi ; huKwat Kivo^o^ias ht> -rh 

bikuv, compare notes on 1 Tim. v. 14. tuv, Chrj-s. It seems char that ra-Ku- 

The.>c feelings were not directly, but in- votpp. is not here proper Christian hu- 

dii-cctly, hostile to the icaTa)3pa2«w^(7<{>i€- mility (sec notes vn PhiL ii. 3), but a 

i/oi; the i)uriose was to secure the ffT«'- f.dsc and jicrvcrtcd lowliness, which 

<pavo5 for themselves and their followers ; deemed God wa.* so inaccessible that He 

the result, to lose it themselves, and to could only lie approached thronuh the 

defraud others of it. Two other inter- mediation of inferior beings ; xi-/oyr*t 

pretations have been proposed ; («) the ua a6paros 6 rww oKuy &t6s, afi<;>iK76t t« 

Ile!)raistic construction, i&tA.fjv tVTttiTfii'., Koi ixariXtjirros, koI ■wpo<f{]Kn Sia tww 

^ 3 VBn(l Sam. xviii. 22, 2 Sam. xv. ayyiKtav t\\v d*iay fvfttyttay fpayuaTtif- 

2G, 1 Kings xv. 26, 2 Chron. ix. 8, only, fddai, Theod. ; sec al.-o Zonaras on Can. 

however, with a personal jironoun), 3.'>, Cone. Laod. (a. D. 363 ? sec Giesel. 

adopted by Aug., al., and recently by Kircfirnpcsch. Vol. i. p. 396), where this 

Olshaus., but contrary to all analogy of heresy was expressly condemned ; see 

usage in the X. T. ; and, perhaps more np. Bruns, Conril. Vol. i. p. 37. 

plausibly, (/>) the connection Karo/S. d«- Apijfficff^ tuv iiyyiKvv] ' vrorship 

Xttfr, ajiparently favored by Syr., and, of the nngels;' not gcn. sul'jtcti (James 

with vaniniT shades of meaning assigned i. 26), ' qu.T angelos decent, ' Wolf, with 

lo the part., by Beza, Zaiuh., Tiitraami nfcienec to the ultra-human character of 

176 COLOSSI AN S. Chap. 11. 18, 

firj eopUKev ifi/Sarevcov, cIkP] (pvcriov/jLevo^ vrro rod voo'i r?}? aapKoi 

devotion which the false teachers affected 
(see Nocsoelt, Dispnt., IlaltE, 1789), but 
gen. ohjccll (Wifdoin xiv. 21, eiSciAcoy 
bpmaKeia, and examples in Krebs, Oha. 
p. 3:^9), -worship paid to angels; see 
Winer, GV. § 20. 1, p. 108, and Suiccr, 
Thesaur. ^'ol. I. p. 44. Theodorct no- 
tices tlic prevalence of these practices in 
PliiTgia and Pisidia, and the existence 
of ejKTVipta to jMicli::el in his own time : 
even in modern times the worship of the 
Archangel in tliat district has not become 
extinct ; see Conyb. notes in he, and 
on angel-worship generally, the good 
note of Wordsw. on ver. 8. "Whether 
this hud originally any connection with 
Essene practices, cannot satisfactorily 
be determined, as the words of Joscjili. 
BeV. Jud. II. 8. 7, arc ambiguous ; see 
Whiston //( loc. That it was practised 
by Gnostic sects is attested by TeituU. 
Prccsf. § 33, Iren. ILcr. i. 31. 2, Epiph. 
Har. XX. 2 : see further references in 
Wolf, in loc. The evasive interpretation 
of i&pTjtTK., talcm angclorura cultum qui 
Christum cxcludat,' Com. a Lap., ' im- 
piuin angclorum cultum,' Just., is wholly 
opposed to the simple and inclusive 
jneaning of the word ; compare Browne, 
Artirlcs, Art. xxii. p. 539. 
& fn^,) i 6 p. 6/xj3.] ' intrudinr] into the 
tlii.yjs which he hath not seen ; ' /x?; not oh, 
as the dependence of the sentence on fir]- 
8;h v^us icaraPp. leaves tiie objects natu- 
r.iUy indctcrmin.ate, and under subjec- 
tive aspects ; see Winer, Gr. § 55. 3, p. 
42G ; compare E.\od. ix. 21, t>s fj.y] irpo- 
fffVxe T^ Siai'oi'a els rh ^?}fia, where the 
use of the /uvj somewhat similarly results 
from the indeterminate nature of t!ie sub- 
ject of the verb. Tlie reading is dou!)t- 
ful. The negative is omitted liy Lachm. 
[with ABDi : 3 mss. ; Clarom., Sang., 
Copt. ; TertuU., Ambrst., al-l, but right- 
ly retained by Tisch. [with CD2DTvKL 
(FG ovk) ; nearly all mss. ; Syr. (both). 

Vulg., Boern., Goth., JEth. (Piatt), al. ; 
Origen, Chrys., Thcod.], as, in the first 
place, external authority is distinctly 
preponderant, and secondly, the less 
usual subjective negative led to correc- 
tion, and correction to omission. Mey. 
and Alf. defend tlie omission, adojjting 
an interpretation (' an inhabitant of the 
realm of sight, not of foith,'" Alf) which 
is ingenious, but not very plausible or 
satisfactory ; sec Xeander, Planting, Vol. 
I. p. 327 note (Boim). 
'Ejx^areveiv, witli an accus. object!, has 
properly a local sense, e. jr. ■!r6\iv, Eurip. 
Electr. 595, vaov, ib. Rhcs. 225 (see fur- 
ther examples in Krebs, Ohs. p. 341), 
and thence by a very intelligible appli- 
cation an ethical reference, the accusa- 
tive denoting the imaginary realm to 
whicii the action extended; comp. (but 
with a dative) Philo, Plant. Nor, § 19, 
Vol. I. p. 341 (cd. Mangey), i<xPzrevov 
res e7ri(7T-/;/iaij. 6 t /: •!) 

(pvtTtov fx.] ' vdinlij pi'J/cil np ; ' modal 
clause, more fully defining c^paTeveov. 
The false teadiers were infiatcd with a 
sense of their superior knowledge, but 
it was e'lK?] ( Rom. xiii. 4, 1 Cor. xv. 2, 
Gal. iii. 4, iv. 11), bootlessly, without 
ground or reason. On the derivation 
[from elueti', perhaps Sanscr. vicnn, ' re- 
ccderc '] compare, iiut wit!i caution, Ben- 
fey, Wurzellex. Vol. i. p. 349. De W., 
following Steig., joins ehc?/ wiih the pre- 
ceding clause ; this is a possible, but not 
probable connection, as it would tln^ow 
an emphasis on the adverb (comp. Gal. 
iii. 4) which really seems solely confined 
to ft fxi) eSpaKev. uirh r oZ 

uohs K. T. \.'\ ' hi) the mind of Ins flesh' 
i. e. the higher spiritual principle in its 
materialized and corrupted form, tho 
genitive probably being simply ;iosscss(Ve 
(compare notes on Eph. iv. 23), and t!ie 
contradictory form of the combination 
being chosen to depict tho abnormal 

C:i\p. II. 19. COLOSSIANS. 17 7 

avTOv, '^ fcal ov Kparcov ti]v KC(l>a\}'jv, i- ov irav to aufMi Eta tojv 

condition : the fle»h wa^, as it were, cn- 
dueil uitli a coCs (instead of lire rtrsa), 
and tliis was the rulin;,' iirinciplc ; see 
Olsli. Ojiitsr. [). l.'iT, Dc!itz>ili, Psjchul. 
IV. .'>, p. 144, and for tlio normal incan- 
inf: of •'off in tlie N. T., notes on 1 Tim. 
vi. 5. TI;c ah.^i apparently sianiii* in 
latent antiilie>is to the -Kvfv^a (tomparo 
Chrys. i/Tth aapKiKTis Siavoias ob rytufia- 
TtKT.s), and seems here clearly to iviain 
its ethical sense, ' his world-mind ' (Miil- 
ler, Doctr. o/Sin, Vol, i. p. 353, Clark), 
his devotion to things phenomenal and 
material ; compare Tholuck, Sliui. u. 
Krif. 1S55. p. 492, Beck, S<lti,l. n. IS, 
p. 53. 

19. Ka\ oil Kparuv k.t.\.\ 'and 
not huldiii ifost the head ; ' ov not /n'j, tlic 
negation hero becoming direct and ob- 
jective, and designed to be specially dis- 
tinct ; compare Acts xvii. 27, 1 Cor. ix. 
2G, and sec Winer, Gr. § 55. 5, p. 4"30, 
and especially Gaylcr, Part. Nrj. p. 2S7 
sq., wlicrc there is a good collection of 
examples. Kpartlv is here used witli an 
accus. in the same sense as in Acts iii. 
11, compare Cant. iii. 4, iKpirriaa a'nov, 
Kol o-j f a<p~,Ka ahrov, and Poly!). llUt. 
VIII. -0 8, and denotes thnt individual 
adiurencc to Christ t!io Head which 
n!one can constitute life and solvation ; 
rl to'ivuv i^,v K((paX)]v d^tls (xV '^'^''' 
itfXuiv, CIirA- ost. : compare t!ic po-;si!>lc 
pliysiological rcfercnee alluded to in 
notes on Eph. iv. 16. 
i^ ol] ' fioin which;' not neut., eitlicr 
in reference to t^ KfKirtiv. Beng.. or un- 
der an a!>stract and generalized a«pi'tt 
(Jelf. Cr. § ?20. i, Kriiger, S/rnhl. § CI. 
7. 9). to Kt(poi\riv, Mcy., Eadio, but, :;s 
the exactly parallel passage Tph. iv. 10 
so distinctly suggests, — masc. in ref. to 
XpKTTov, the subject obviously referred 
to in Kf<pcL\i}y. The assertion of Meyer 
that the reference is not to Christ in His 
personal relations cannot he substantiat- 

ed. The following veroc hccms tu inijjly 
distinctly the contrary. Nor again, dois 
it seem ncce>'ary, with the ham- «om- 
mcntator, 10 refer *'{ oi Initli to ih'.' par- 
ticiples and t!;e finite verb, as in Eplics. 
iv. 19; t!ie cunncifioti seems n::tmallr 
with aH^ei. — the i>rej>. «'{ inaiLii:^ the 
source and ' fons auginentationis ; ' soo 
notes on Gal. ii. 10. 

ir uy T h ff « /I a] ' tJie whole Mi/ ; ' SOTO- 
ly not neces.-ardy ' the lody in its every 
part,' Alf. : between rh Ttay aw^a (a f>o- 
sition of the art. vcn.- rarely fnund in tho 
N. T.) and irav -rh awna. no distinction 
can safely be drawn. If xas had occu- 
pied the position of a secondan,' predi- 
cate (comp. Matth. x. 30, Rom. xii. 4) 
there would have been some grounds for 
the distinction. 81a rS>p 

a<p<tiy K a\ avvS.] ' ly means of its 
joints and bands ; ' media of the iirtxopi)- 
yija-ts and (rvfifiificuTis. The ir^ol and 
(TvvBftrnoi. as the common article seems 
to hint, arc the same in genus; t!ie for- 
mer referring, not to the ' ncr\cs,' Mcy. 
(in opp. to Syr., JEth. (I'latt), Coptic, 
and all the l)cst Vv.), but to tlie joints, 
the ' commissunc ' of the frame (comp. 
Andrewes, Scnn. Vol. iii. p. 9C) ; the 
latter to the varied ligatures of nerves 
and muscles and sinews by whiili tho 
body is bound together. The di-tinc- 
tions adopted by Mcy., al.. — ac(t)rding 
to which the o<;>ol arc sjwcially associated 
with intxop-, and referred to Faith tho 
avy^. with <Tvti$., and referred to Love. 
— are plausible, but perhaps scartvly to 
be relied upon. As in Eph. /. r., the 
passage docs not seem so much to in- 
volve special metaphors, as to state foi- 
cibly and cumulatively a genenil truth ; 
waaa ij iKKXrjata, iocs tt.y txjl Ti)y Kf <^aA^iJ', 
aCJci, Clirjs. iirtxop. 

K al <rvfi$.] 'bfinr/ stipf^itd and t-nit 
toprlher ; ' passive and present ; tlie no- 
tion w.js due to communicated inflncn- 



Chap. II. 19, 20. 

u(pcbv Koi (jvvSeafjLQ)v iTri'^oprjyovfxevov Kal cvii^L^a^o^evov av^eL 
Trjv av^Tjatv rov Geov. ^^ El uire^dvere crvv XpiaTOj airo twv 

CCS, and the action was still going on. 
To give iirtxop. a middle sense (Eadie), 
' furnished wiih reciprocal aid,' seems 
higlily unsatisfactory: the pass, of the 
simple form is by no means uncommon ; 
see Polyb. Ilist. in. 75. 3, vi. 15. 4, 3 
Mace. vi. 40. The force of eirl is not 
intensive but directive, pointing to the ac- 
cession of the supply, ' cui, qua; sunt ad 
incremcntum nccessaria, sufficiuntur/ 
I'ocsselt (sec notes on Gal. iii. 5) ; but it 
docs not seem improbable that both in 
Xopi\y. and iirixop. some trace of the pri- 
mary meaning, some reference to the free 
and ample nature of the supply, is still 
preserved, compare 2 Pet. i. 5, with ver. 
8, and Winer on Gal. iii. 5, p. 76. On 
the meaning of tTvfx^. see notes on Eph. 
iv. 16 T^^/oiJf. ToC 

O e C] ' with the increase of God,' i. e. 
the increase which God supplies, rov 
jDsoD being the gen. auctoris or orir/inis, 
Hartung, Casus, 17, 23 ; compare 1 Cor. 
iii. 6, 7, al. To regard the expression 
a"? a periphrasis is wholly untenable ; see 
Winer, Gt. § 36. 3, p. 221. The accus. 
jl/|i3(r(i is that of the cognate subst. (not 
merely ' of reference,' Alf.), and serves 
to give force to, and develop the mean- 
ing .of t!ie verb ; sec Winer, (ir. § 32. 2, 
p. 200, Loheik, Paralip. p. 501 sq., 
where this etymological figure is elabo- 
j'atclj discussed. 

20, *t atre^. k. t. \.] ' If ye be 
dead icith Christ ; ' warning against false 
asceticism ; see notes on 1 Tim. iv. 3, 
imd compare generally Rothe, Tlieol. 
Jlthik, 4 878 sq., Vol. in. p. 120 sq. 
The apostle grounds his gentle expostu- 
lation on the acknowledged fact that they 
were sharers (by baptism, ver. 12) in the 
death of Christ; in ch. iii. 1, he bases 
his exhortation on their participation in 
His resur'"cction. The collective oZv, 
and.tlie art. before Xp. inserted in Rec, 

have the authority of all the MSS. 
against them, and are properly rejected 
by all modern editors. a-rrh 

T wv ff T IX- TOO K 6 a fj.ov] ' from 
the rudiments of the world,' ■ from ritualis- 
tic observances and all non-CIiristian 
rudiments wliich in any way resembled 
them ; ' see notes on ver. 8. T!;e Law 
and all its ordinances were wiped out by 
the deatli of Christ (ver. 14), they who 
were united M'ith Him in His death 
shared with Him all the blessings of the 
same immunity. There is no brachylogy 
(Ilutli.) ; Christ Himself anei^avev airh 
i/S/jLov, when He fulfilled all its claims 
and bore its curse. The ' constructio 
pra?gnans ' aire^. anh only occurs hero 
in tlie N. T. ; it is probably cliosen in 
preference to the dat. (Ilom. vii. 14, Gal. 
ii. 19), as expressing a more complete 
severance, — not only death to it, but 
separation and removal from it ; comp. 
Winer, Gr. § 47, p. 331. 
ws ^uvT e s if kSo" fio}] 'as if ye 
were living in the world,' i. e. as if yc were 
in antithetical relations ; ' ye are dead 
with Ciirist; why do ye lii;e as if in a 
character exactly the reverse, as in a 
non- Christian realm, from all the rudi- 
ments of which yc are really dcudi' 
5 7 /n a T f f € (T ,& e] ' do ye submit to ordi- 
nances ;' vTr6Kei<T^€To7s ffToixeiots, Chrys., 
Twi' ravra oiSaatiivraiv afexeci&f, Tlicod.: 
middle, — certainly not active, ' dcccnii- 
tis,' Vulg., ' unrcdi);,' Goth, (a meaning 
here not only inappropriate but lexically 
incorrect), and appy. not passive, 'pla- 
citis adstringimini,' Beza ; (comp. Syr. 

AlA«>.^A^n [judicamini] ; Coptic and 

iEth. paraphrase), as this, though per- 
fectly lexically admissible (obscrs'e 2 
Mace. X. 8, 45oyfj.dri(rav iravil ma t^vei), 
seems somewhat less in harmony with 
the tone of this paragraph than the ' dO" 

r::Ai>. II. 21, 22. COLORSIANS. 171. 

cnotj(eiu)V ruu Kuafiov, t/ ojs' ^wzTe? ti> Kodfiw BcyyfiaTi^ca^e. -^ Mi) 

u-^tji fMijBe yevcri), fJ.T]oe Vir/jyv ~ (a tcniv iraina et^ <^opav tij 

fori vos siiiih's' (Ciiot.) of the iiiiJJk'; lutwceii the Ktron;,t'r itma^ai and tlic 

ijpa Si Koi irus vptfia aurovi Ztaxw^tuStT, \\i:aln:r !iiyydi/fii/ [QIT, TAP, lAU,:o, Volt, 

SoyiJ.ari(f(Tdt tlitiliv, 'I liooi>!i_vl. : so Wi- Jjjin. J'uimh. \'(il. I. p. 2.'55], compare, ^V. i) 3D. 4, j). 295 (cil. ."j), tliougli Trciuli, Synoii. I) 17. 

apparently not in ctl. C. In eitlier case 22. & ianv *. t. X.] ' ir/iiV/i things, 

tlio mcaiiinjj is prueticiilly tlio came ; in almost, set'uuj ihnj are things, which art 

the tone of e.xpostuhition only is there a all to be distroj/ed in thtir ctmsumption ; ' 

slii,'ht sluule of dilTcTcnce. parenthetical observation of the ajwstle 

21. jul/ fit^j? K. r. K.] 'Handle not, on the essential character of tlic meats 

nor, nur touch ; ' e.\am[)les of the and drinks wliicli tlio f.ilsc teachers in- 

SoyyuttTJO-M^s to which they allowed them- vested with su'.li cci-einoniaf* charac- 

selves to sii!)mit ; ' recitative ha;c profc- tcrisiics ; ' r.itio ducitur nl» ipsa naturfi 

runtur ah apostolo,' Daven. With re- et conditionc harum rcrum,' Davenant : 

gard to tlic grammatical, the tlicy were onlaincd to be con'^umcd and 

coarser fii^jj at the be;;inning, tlic inter- enter into fresh p!iy>ical combina- 

poscd 7€t5ffj?, and tliC more delicate 3/-y7?j lions; compare Matthew xv. 17. To 

nt tlie end might seem to justify the dis- refer this eitlier to tlie preceding com- 

tinction of Meyer that the fir.^t /irjSt is mands, ' quod totum genus priec-epto- 

more adjunctive (see notes o/i Gal.i. 12 ruin,' Aug., Sanderson (Sirm. vii. ad 

and on Eph. iv. 27), tlic second more as- Pop.], al., or to the preceding chiuse as 

ccnsive, if such a distinction in so rcgu- the continued statement of the false teach- 

lar a sequence as /i}).-A*'75«...^7jS« he not ers, Ncand. (Plant., Vol. i. p. .32S), De 

somewhat [irecarious ; con.-ider Horn. W., al., seems to infringe on the meaning 

xiv. 21, and especially Luke xiv. 21, of dToxfijffii (see Mcy.), and certainly 

where there is a similar slight disturb- gives a less forcible turn to the parcnthe- 

nnce «)f the climax. The essenti 1 cliar- si<- The objection urged by De Wctte, 

ucterof sui'.i quasi-adjunctivc enumera- and apparently felt in some measure by 

tions is tliat the items are not ' aptc con- Chrj-sost. and Theoph. — tliat Si. Paul 

nexa, seil potius fortuito concursu accc- wou'd tlius Iw furnishing nn argument 

dentia,' Klotz, Dcvar. Vol. ii. p. 707. against restrictions generally, even those 

With regard to the objec s alluded to, sanctioned by divine authority, may be 

the interposed ytvtrfi and the terms of diluted by obscr^•ing (n) that a very sira- 

vcr. 23 seem certainly to suggest a ref- ilar form of argument occurs in I Tim. 

crenec of all three verbs to ceremonial iv. 3 sq., and (l) that these restrictions 

distinctions in ^pHiais and irJ<rir (verso and obsen-anccs are not condemned /><t 

IG) ; see especially Xeiioiiii. Cyr. i. 3. sc, bnt in relation to the new dispcnsa- 

5 (cited by Rapli.), where all three verbs lion, in which all ceremonial distinctions 

are used in reference to food, and for ex- were done away, and things remanded 

aniplcs of fiiTTtff^oi, see Kypke, O.'.*. p. (so to say) to their primary conditions. 

324, Loesn. Ols. p. 372. Moix; minute ««s ^bopiv\ 'fur destruction, decom- 

distinctions, e.g. Si\^rp, women (Ol.-h ), /)twiVi'ofi,' the prcji. marking the destina- 

corpses (Zanch.) ; diyyi, oil (Boehm. ; tion, and <pdopii having apparently ft 

compare Josepli. Bell. ii. 8. 3), sacred simply physical sense; compare Syriac 

vessels (Zanch.), al., seem verv doubt- ji^ '», i» 

ful and uncertain. On the distinction " - • <> .d ' '^ 



Chap. II. 22, 23. 

aTTO^p^aei), Kara ra evruX^aTa kuX ^iBaaKaXiw? rcov av^pvoircov', 
^ aTLva ecrrtv \6you fJiev e)(pvTa (To<pta'i iu i'^eXo^prjaKeia Kal 

bills], and very distimtly Tlicod., eis 
Kuirpou yap airavra fiSTa^dWerai, and 
CEcum. cl)^opa yap, (prjcriv, uiroiceirai ev 
Tf3 a<pihpwvi . rriaito- 

X p 17 o" e «] 'in their conxitmplion,' in their 
being used completely up ; ov ffKOTrelre us 
fi.6vip.ov TovTdiv ovSfv, Tlieod. The com- 
pound a-Koxp- has here a somewhat simihir 
meaning to Siaxp. (comp. Rest u. Palm, 
Lex. s. v.), tlie prep, a-nh denoting ' non 
solum sejiiirari aliquid ab aliquo, scd ita 
removeri ut esse prorsus desinat,' Winer, 
de Verb. Comp. iv. p. 5 ; compare Plu- 
tarcli, Ccesar, ^ 5S, Kaiv?,s tpaira So^tjs 
iiroKexp'tfJ'iVM t^ irapoucTT), and sec Sui- 
cer, Tiu'saur. Vol. i. p. 489, wliere sev- 
eral pertinent examples are coKectcd 
from tlie eccl. writers. 
Karcb TCI evraKp..] ' according to the 
commaitdiiients and teachings of men ; ' fur- 
ther definition and specification of the 
preceding hoypLari^nT^e ; they had died 
with Clirist, they were united with a di- 
vine Deliverer, and yet were ready to 
submit to the ordinances and doctrin'-s 
of conscience-enslaving men. The 5i- 
Sa(r«., as tlie exceptional omission of the 
article (Winer, Gram. ^ 19. 3, p. 113) 
shows, belonged to the same general cat- 
egory as the *VtoA.,u., and are added 
probably by way of am]Dlification ; they 
were submitting to a ^oypLanaixhs not 
only in its preceptive, but even in its 
doctrinal, aspects ; compare Jley. in he. 
Alford presses ruv av^p. as describing 
the authors 'as generally /^uwin/i ; ' this 
is doubtful ; as eVraAu. has the article, 
the principle of correlation requires tliat 
av^p. should have it also: sec Middle- 
ton, Gr. Art. III. 3. 6. 

23. Sir IV a] 'all which things,' « a set 
of things which;' in reference to the 
preceding ivraK/x. koi Sif>., and speciffing 
the class to which they belonged. 0n 
this force of oo-tis, see notes on Gal. iv. 

24. The difference between hs and cVtis 
is here very clearly marked ; & (ver. 22) 
points to its antecedents under purely 
objective, anva under qualitative and 
generic aspects ; see Kriiger, Sprachl, 
§51.8. iffriv K6y. 

€ X o" ''' <"■] ' do have the repute of wisdom,' 
' are enjoying the repute of wisdom,' the 
verb subst. being joined, — not with tlio 
concluding clause of the verse .Conyb., 
Eadie), but, as every rule of perspicuity 
suggests, witli exof'TQ, and scning t*. 
mark the regular normal, prevailing char- 
acter of the ex^'" j ^ce Winer, Gr. § 4.'). 
5, p. 311. Tiie exact meaning of Xhyou 
eXf" is somewhat doubtful, as K6yos ia 
this combination admits of at least three 
different meanings ; (o) ' speciem,' axyifia, 
Theod., Auth. Ver., De W. , compare 
Demosth. Leptin. p. 462, \6yov nvk exof 
opp. to if/efSos ov faveirj, sec Eisner. Obs. 
Vol. II. p. 205; ()3) •rationem,' scil. 
' grounds for being considered so,' Vnlg., 

Clarom., and prohablv Svriac j A^lo ; 
compare. Polyh. Hist. xvii. 14. 5, SoKodi> 
"KavovpySraTov eivai iro\hv «x^' \6yov too 
(pavASraTov virapx^ii', and other exam- 
ples in Schwei;;h. Lex. Poli/b. s. v. ; (y) 
'ftmam,' scil. 'has the repute of,' Mey., 
Alf., and perhaps (^hrys., \6yov <\)i]irlv, 
ov dvvap.iv apa ojk a\7}^etav; compare 
Ilcrod. V 66, oan-fp 5); \6yov ex^' '''^^ 
Uv^irjv avairtlaai (cited by Kaph.). Of 
these, thougli in fact all ultimately coin- 
cide, (-)') is perhaps to be prefeired ; 'tA 
\6y. ex- sunt res ejusmodi quae quidem 
vulgo sapientiae nomcn liabent, sed a 
vera sapieutii absunt longissime,' Ra- 
phel, Annot. Vol. ii. p. 53.5. ju e i/has here 
no corresponding Se, but sen-es to pre- 
pare the reader for a comparison (Klorz, 
Devar. Vol. ii. p. 656) which is involved 
in the phrase \6yov ex^'" (^^yov oh 5wa- 
fuv, Chiys.), and is substantiated by the 

CiiAi- II. 23. 

C O L O S S I A N S . 


TaiTLivo(^poavvi] Kai cicptLcia aw^aro'i, uvk tV Ttf^f} Tii'i, Trpo^ ttXijct- 

context ; Winer, dV. § G.'!. 2. e, p. 
607, where otlier omissions of 8« nrceiiu- 
merutetl ami caivfully elassilied. 
iy i^ t \odpr)aKt t <f] ' in stlf-imiHj>ri{ 
worsliij),' — iV jioiiitin;; to, not the instru- 
ment 111/ whieli (Mev), Imt as usuiilly, 
the etliical ilo:iiain in which, the \6yot 
ao<f>ias was acquircil, or the substratum 
on w, iili tlie rb ixttv k. t. A. takes phicc ; 
sec Winer, (inim. (j 48. a, \>. .345. Tiic 
word i^f\o^p. is apparently an Sjt. Xt- 
y6fi- ; liut hv a comparison witli similar 
compounds i^tKoSouKfla, idfKoKiiKrjffts, 
K. T. A. (sec lIo>t u. Palm, Lix. Vol. i. 
p. 778), and wiiii tiio verb ti^fKo^p-q^KfTv 
as explained by Suidas (iSiV i^eAVi/xari 
aifitiv tJ» ZoKoiv)ma\ I* dearly assumed 
to mean, ' an arbitrary self-imposed ser- 
vice,' — which, as the similar association 
with ravdv. in vcr. 1 8 seems to su^rgest, 
was evinced in the ^priaKt'ta twv aryyi^'^^*'. 
•raittiv. K a\ d<J)*»5.>(rw/i.] ' lowli- 
ness and disrcfjiinl, or unsjiarinr/ treal- 
vient of the Imly : ' the two other pencrt- 
cd elements in whii h the Koyos <ro(piai 
was acquired Un raitfiv., which here 
also obviously implies a fiilse, perverted 
humility, sec notes on verse 18. Tlic 
iL(pfid. awfi. marks the false spirit of as- 
eciicism, the unsparin<r way (conij)aro 
Diod. Sic. XIII. do, a(p(tSf7v (TuiiaTos), 
in which they practised bodily austeri- 
ties, the awfiariK^ yvfifaaia in wliich 
Jewish Theo>0])!iy so emuloiisiy in- 
dul.v:ed ; compare notes on I I'ini. iv 8. 
The omission ofKal after Tanfty. and the 
rcadin;j^ a.(pfiStlii (B; [fAirhm.]. Stei;;.) 
is strenuously supported by Ilofmann, 
Sc/iriftl>. Vol. II. 2, p. 04, who takes it 
ns an adjective (comp. it<pftiflws, Ai>oll.- 
liliod. III. 897), but seems both unsatis- 
factory and imj)robabU'. 
OiiK i¥ rtfif) K. T. X.] ' W't in nni/ rial 
ya!iie scrvin;/ (onli/) to the satis f'l/iinj of the 
/ItsJi.' The explanations of this very ob- 

scure clause are exceedinj.'ly numerous. 
With re;iard to tlie lirst portion, two only 
seem to deserve consideration ; («) that 
of tlie Greek comm., uccordin;^ to which 
Ti/x;7 is understood to point nntit!ieti<ally 
to the preced. d<f>f<8.. and to n.fcr to the 
6ame;;cu. (ovKiyrifi^ rtpauftaTi xP'H'^bli, 
Theopliyl.), the clause oi>H iv Tififi beiuy 
regarded as a continuaTic-e on the ikijU' 
tire side of what had previously l>een 
expressed in the positive : Ht\. k. t. a. 
were the elements in w hieh the K6yoi ooq>i- 
as was, and rtfifi rivi the element in which 
it Mas not acquired ; (I/) that adopted by 
Syr. and appy. .^th. ( I'latt ), according to 
which T1/U1J approaches to the me ming 
of ' prctium,' and suggots that tliere was 
something; which mij:ht l»e a true gul>- 
straium for the ri txtii* k. t. X., if iirop- 
crly chosen, — 'a rcjjutation of wisdom 
evinced in id(\. k. t. A., not in any prac- 
tices of true value and honor; ' so Dcra, 
Benjr., al., and, with sli;:ht variations in 
detail, Iluther, Meyer, antl Neand. Plant- 
inrj. Vol 1. p. 328 (Bohn). Of these, 
('/) has much to ncommeud it ; as how- 
eviT it suggests, if not involves, either a 
very unsatisfactory meaning of wphi 
irATjoTfi., ' so that the natural wants of the 
body are satisfied ' (ChrA'sost., al.), or a 
retro~|>ective connection of the clause 
with itTTiv, or, still less likely, with Soy- 
fiari^tadf ( .Mf ), it seems better to adopt 
(/'), to which also the use cf t»i, almost, 
* no value of any kind,' seems decidedly 
to lean. Uphs wXrifffioyfiy, 

added somewhat closely, then defines 
pnively and conclu>ively the real object 
of all these perverted austerities, — ' tho 
satisfying of the unspiritual clement, tho 
fleshly mind ;' aapKhs having a rctr«si>ec- 
tivc rcferi'nce to yohs ttjs oap^hs in vcr. 
IS, and contrasting, with gn-at pcint, tho 
means jiursued and the end really in 
view; they weie unsjxiritiij (d^S.) with 



Chap. III. 1,2 

Mind the things above, for HI. EloVV aVVrjyip'^lJTe TW XpcaTM, TU 

your life is hidden with ^ r^TeiTf, OV 6 XoKXrO^ iaTlV iv SsPt^ TOV 

Christ : when he 19 mam- "'5/7 r » i 

rested so shall ye be also. QeOV Ka^1]fieV0<i' ^ TO. aV(0 (j^pOVeiTe, fit) TO, eVt 

the awna, that they mi;,dit sutisfi/ (Trphs 
ir\7jo-/x.) — the adp^. Syr. and iEth. in- 
sert aWa before irphs it\ri<T. ; this is not 
necessary ; the exposure of tlie motive 
is rendered more forcible and emphatic 
by the omission of all connecting parti- 

CnAPTEE III. 1. ei oZv\ 'Tfthen' 
with retrospective reference to el aire^ , 
chap. ii. 20, ovu being slightly inferential 
(resurrection with Christ is im]>';icd in 
death with Him), but still preserving its 
general meaning of ' continuation and 
retrospect,' Donalds. Gr. § 004. Tiie el 
is not ]iroblematical, but logical (jMc)-.), 
introducing in fact the first member of a 
conditional syllogism ; compare Rom. v. 
15, and sec Fritz, in loc. In such cases, 
instead of diminishing, it really enhances 
the probability of the truth or justice of 
the supposition ; compare notes 071 P/iil. 
i. 22. avvrjyfpHrjTe] ^ i/e 

were raised together,' scil. in baptism ; 
not merely in a moral sense (Dc W.), 
which would render the injunction that 
follows somewhat superfluous : etVciv, 
8t« aire^dveTe ffiii/ Xp. 5<a tov ^airTi'tr/ua- 
Tos STjXaSi), Kal Kara rb aianT'JiiJLevov Sobs 
voeiu on Kal trvvrjyfp^Te (rh yap PawTiff- 
fia, &tnrep 5ia tvjs KaTa^vcreass biivarov, 
ohrw 5ia TTJj ava^vaews r^y avdffTatnv 
Tviroi), vvv fladyei k. t. A.., Thcoph. ; 
compare Usteri, Lchrb. 11. 1. 3, p. 220. 
On the force and deep reality of these 
expressions of mystical union with Ciirist, 
compare Reuss, Jlte'ol. Chr€t. iv. 16, 
Vol. II. p. 104. TO &V0}] 

' the thiiu/s above:' all things pertainln"' 
to the ■KokiTfVfj.a fv ohpavoh, Phil. iii. 20, 
and to the Christian's true home, the 
•^ &vta 'IfpovffoX-fjfi, Gal. iv. 26 ; the con- 
trast being tA iirl TJjj 7^1, ver. 2 ; comp. 

Pearson, Creed, Art. vi. Vol. i. p. 322 
(cd. Burt.). OV 6 Xp. k.t.k.] 

' where Christ is, sitting at the right hand 
of God ; ' not exactly, ' where Christ 
sittcth,' Auth., as there arc really two 
enunciations, ' Christ is there, and in all 
the glory of His regal and judiciary pow- 
er ;' ovK f/p/ctVi&ij Se Tw ivu flirelv, ou5e, 
oj 6 Xp. iffriv aWa irpo<Teb'r]K€v, iv Se|. 
Ko^/x. TOV 0€oO, 'Iva irXeov tj a.irocTTria'ri 
rhf vow ruieHv awh t?}S yT^s, Thcophyl. ; 
comp. Chrys. On the session of Christ 
at the right hand of God as implying 
indisturbance, dominion, and judicature, 
see Pearson, Creed, Art. vi. Vol. i. p. 
328, and on the real and literal sig- 
nificance, Jackson. Creed, Book xi. 
1. The student will find a good Ser- 
mon on this text by Andrewes, Ser- 
mon VIII. Vol. II. p 309-322 (A.-C. 
Libr.), and another by Farindon, Ser- 
mon XLii. Volume 11. p. 359 (London, 

2. Tct &v<o <ppove7Te] ^ mind the 
things above ; ' expansion of the preced- 
ing command, tppovelv having a fuller 
meaning than (-nTtiv ; they were not on- 
ly qucerere but sapere. On the force of 
(ppovelv, compare notes on Pliil. iii. 15, 
Bcveridge, Serm. cxxxvii. Vol. vi. p. 
172 (A.-C. Libr.), and especially the 
able analysis of Andrewes, Serin, viii. 
Vol. II. p. 315. rh 67rt 

rris 7 »; s] ' '^'^ things on the earth ; ' all 
things, conditions, and interests that be- 
long to the terrestrial ; compare I^hil. iii. 
19, oi rb. firiyfta (ppovovvres. There is 
here certainly not (</) any polemical al- 
lusion to the earthly rudiments of the 
false teachers (Thcoph., CEcnm.), for, 
as Meyer observes, the remaining por- 
tion of the Epistle is not anti-heretical 
but wholly moral and practical, — nor 

Chap. III. 3, 4. C O L O o S I A N S . 183 

Xpiaito tV TO) Oeco' * uTuu u Xpia-TO^ <f>av€p<o^^[/, i) ^(orj ij^iiouy 
TOTf Koi vfieU <Jvv avTUi (^avepio^^ijcua^^e tV tu^rj. 

(b) iinv special ctliical ullusioti wiili nf. ward exporieuces and t!ie iny.-^tcrv of 
to vcr. 5 (Estius), for the antitlle^is ri iis union with tlic life of CLri>t. Wheu 
Aj'W oltviouhly itiecludLS all such liinita- He is rcvcaiud, tlieii tlie lifeof wliicli lie 
tion. Tiic roimniind is unrestricted and is the sourt-c and element will he re- 
comi)a'hensivc, ' supenia curate non tcr- vcaled in all its i)roiK)rtions and all iu 
rcstria ; ' sec Calv. in tor., and the sound blessed characteristics : the manifestatioa 
sermon by Ccveridgc, Serin. Vol. vi. p. which is now at best only partial and 
169 sq. (A.-C. Libr.). subjective, will then Ijo objective and 
3. aiTfddyfrt ydp] ' Fvr ye are complete; compare the tliou^'htful re- 
dtnd,' Air., AVordsw., as the reference marks of Dclitzsch, BiU. Psi/rh. v. 3, 
seems still to the past act, ch. 20. Co- p. 298. iy r <f & f f] 'in 
nvb. ur;;es that the associated KfKpirwrcu God;' Ho is the clement and sjiheic in 
shows that the aor. is here used for a which tlie ^unj is concealed : in llim, tut 
perfect. Surely' this is inexact ; the aor. <pus oIkww avpoairov (I Tim. vi G), aa 
may, and a|)parently does, jmint to the the Father in whom a t!ie Eternal Son 
ac/, the perfect to the s^u/e wliich ensued (John i. 18, xvii. 21), and with whom 
thereon and still continues. The nature Ho forever reigns (ver. 1), the life of 
of byf)ffKw, however, is such as to pre- which the Son is the essence lies shroud- 
cludc any rigorous translation on cither ed and concealed. Considered under 
side. i] C'^h vfi.wv] ' your life,' its i;i/irre«t relations our fw^ is concealed 
— ••hich succeeded after the dirt^ovf- iv &Kp ; considered under its coin rail re- 
T€ ; your real and true lilc, — not merely lations it is concealed ovy Xpurrif; com- 
your ' re-iurrection life,' Alf. (t7)i 7;^*Tt- pare Meyer in ioc., whose intcr])a'tatioi» 
pai aycuTToifffOi rh fjLuarripiov, Tlieod.), of ^(ii)j {' d:is eif/V/c Ixbcn ') is, however, 
but, witli the tinge of ethical meaning narrow and unsatisfactory, 
which the word ji'wTj, from its signiticani 4. <pav€pfi>dTi] ' siiall be manl/isUd ;' 
antithesis to ddyaros, always seems to scil. at His second coming, when He shall 
involve (compare Ileuss, Tli^l.Clir€l. iv. be seen a^ He is, and when His present 
22, Vol. II. p. 252), 'your inward and concealment shall cease; oCt* fap v^' 
heavenly life,' of which Christ is the cs- vnwy dparou, ko) inrh rHy iixiaTuy wayrt- 
sence, and, so to speak, impersonation \ui ayyodrai, Theod. : compare 2 Peter 
(ver. 4), and with whom it will at last iii. 4. rj (aif ijfiwy] 'our 
receive all its higliest developments, ex- Life,' almost, ' being our Life,' the ' j)ne- 
pansions, and realizations ; comp. notes dieatio,' as Daven. acutely observes, be- 
en 1 T'/m iv. 8. On the meaning of j,a(^, ing ' causalis non cssentialis.' Christ is 
sec the good treatise of Olshausen, Oyiisc. here termed 7; (ui}) r,^lil!y, not, however, 
Art. VIII. p. 187 sq., and on \t<i distinc- as being men'ly tlie author of it (Davcn), 
tion from $los, Trench, Synvn. I) 27. or the cause of it (Corn, a Lap.), much 
it^icpuTTa* (Tvy T^ Xp.] ^ hath Uen less ' in the character of it ' (Eadie). but 
((»»</ is) hidden with Christ;' its glorr as l>cing — our Life itscl/, the cs.<enc<j 
and highest characteristics are concealed and the impersonation of it ; rompare 
from view, — not merely Maid up,' Al- Gal. ii. 20, Tiiil. i. 21. Thus Clirist ii 
ford, but shrouded in the depths of in- termed 7; AtIj vfiay, I Tim. i. 1 (comp 



Chap. III. 4, 5. 

Mortify your memhers and 5 JSfeKpMCraTe OVV TCI LLsXt) VLLcbv TO, iirl TO? 

tlie evil principles in wliicli ' i i i 

y« once waiiccd : put off «,^^ 'jTopveiav, a/ca^apaLuv, 7rd^o<i, eTn^vfjLiap 

tiieold inaii, and puton tl>c » ' r 

new, in which all are one in Christ. 

5. TO. fj.(\r} "1^'^^'] So /Zee, Lac/im., with AC'DEFGKL; nearly all mss. ; "Vulg., 
Clarom., Syr. (Ijotli), Copt., ^th. (Pol. and Tlatt), Goth., al. ; Chry.s., Thcod., al. 
(Meyer, De WelU-). Tlie pronoun is omitted by Tiscli. (ed. 2, but not ed. 7), Alf., 
with BCi; 17. 67**. 71; Clem. (1), Orig. (5), al. The great preponderance of 
MSS., and the accordant testimony of so many Vv. seem to render this otherwise 
not improbable omission here very doubtful. 

Col. i. 27), 7) flp-hvT] vfJ.S)v, Eph. ii. 14, 
where see notes. The reading 

is very doubtful : rifiwu is adopted by 
Rec, Lachm., and Tlsch. with BD^D'E- 
KL; great majority of mss. ; Syr. (both), 
al. ; Or., fficum., m1. On the other hand, 
vtiwv is supported by CD^E'FG ; 5 mss. ; 
Viil^'., Clarom., Copt, [quoted by Tisch. 
and Alf. for the other reading], Goth., 
^th. (Pol. and Piatt) ; many Latin and 
Greek Ff. As i]jx(tiv is far less easy to 
account for than vixwv, which might have 
come from vcr. 3 or from the v^eTs in the 
present verse, critical principles seem 
to decide for tlie reading of the text. 
Ka\ u /i e Ts] ' //e also ; ' ye Colossian 
converts, as well as ail other true Chris- 
tians. Tiio more verbally exact opposi- 
tion would have been ' your hidden life ' 
(comp. Fell) ; but this the apostle per- 
haps designedly neglects, to ])rcvcnt ^cov; 
being applied, as it has been applied, 
merely to the resurrection life. Alford 
urges this clause as fixing that meaning 
to ^o)-^ ; but surely the avoidance of the 
regular antithesis seems to hint the very 
reverse ; yjueTs (pai/ep. is the natural sequel 
of your inward and heavenly life, and is 
its true development. 
iv 5 (J I »?] ' »« glory ; ' compare Rom. 
viii. 17, etirep trvfxiracrxofi^v 'iva, kcH (Tvv- 
Zo^a.(rS)ii>tJxv. The h6i,a will be the issue, 
development, and crown of the hidden 
life, and will he displayed both in the 
material (1 Cor. xv. 43) and immaterial 
portions of our composite nature : ' hu- 

jus ajternai vitte promissa gloria sita est 
in duplici stohi ; in stola animte et stola 
corporis,' Daven. The conjunction of 
body and soul, soul and spirit, will then 
be complete, harmonious, and indissolu- 
ble ; ^oi^} will become ^ ovtws ^airi, and 
will reflect the glories of Him who is its 
element and essence : comp. Olsh. Opusc. 
p. 19.5 sq. 

5. veicpciffare ovv] 'Make dead 
then : ' ' as you died, and your true life 
is hidden wit!i Christ, and hereafter to 
be developed in glory, act conformably 
to it, — let nothing live inimical to such 
a state, kill at once (aor.) the organs and 
media of a merely earthly life.' Odv is 
thus, as commonly, retrospective and 
collective ('ad ea qua? antea revera pos- 
ita lectorem revocat,' Klotz, Devar. Vol. 
II. p. 719), serving to enhance the perti- 
nent reference of veKpciaare to the aTre^d- 
vere and r] ^usrj {//.icof wliich have jircccd- 
ed. TO, ne\ri v/jloiv] 'your 

members' the portions of your bodily or- 
ganization (compare Pom. vii. .5) qua the 
instruments and media of sinfulness and 
lusts ; compare with respect to the pre- 
cept, Rom. viii. 13, Gal. v. 24, and with 
respect to the image, and form of expres- 
sion, Matth. v. 29, 30. These are mofe 
specifically defined as to e'jrl tTji yr^s 
(compare ver. 2), as defining the sphere 
of their activities (' ubi suum habent pab- 
ulum,' Beng.), and as justifying the pre- 
ceding command. 
TT pv e iav Ka\ aKa^apcrlav] 'for- 

Cii.u. III. 5, 6. COLOSSI AXS. 1^5 

KOK/jV, Kal 7})v TrXeovftt'av i'iri<i €<ttii> etcoiXoXaTpt/a, ^ ci tk 

6. *irl Tuur viovi airiui.] 'J'lsrh. [/Air/nn], ami A//, omit tlifiic wonig with B; 
S:ilii<l., jVaU. (I'ol., Iiiit not riatt); Ck-m. (I), (text). On tlie one 
Land, it is certainly |ios.sible that they may have been inserted from tlie paral- 
lel passaj;^ , Kpli. vi. 6 ; still, on the utiier, the overwhelming wei;.;ht of e.xtcrnal 
evidciuc, and the prohahility, that in two Ejiisths where so much is alike, even 
individual ex|)re.>;>ions niij^ht be repeated, seem to render the omission on such evi- 
dence more than doubtful. 

nicalioi) oud uiicliaiiiuss ;' spoeifie and uisdeanness ' (tonip. Siorr, Flatt, al.), 

generic products of the T«k ^irl t'/s 77,'$ nor {rcnerically, ' insatial.ikm cupidito- 

fitKr] on the side of and carnality ; teni voluptatum turpium,' E.'iiu.", ' the 

compare Kph. v. .T. There is no need whole Ion;:ing of the creature,' Trench 

to supply mi ntjdly vtKpiLaar* (Fritz. (S^non. § 24, — a very doul/tf.^1 cxpan- 

liom. Vol. I. p. 371)), or to introduce sion), but simply ' covetousness,' ' inex- 

paraphras'.ically a l>rep., ' a seortatione,' plcbiK in appctitum animi quairentis di- 

.Jtlth. ; tlic four nccu.'^aiivcs stand in an villas,' Davcn. (compare Theod., The- 

apposiiional icUitioii to to ^'^T ". t. A., oph.), a sin that esi>ccially depends on 

as dcnoiin;; their evil jroducts and op- the to ixl rfyi yT/S (' maxime eCgit ad 

crations ; sec Vi'iucr, 6V. § 59. 8, p. 470, terrain,' Len<.'.), and makes, not scn- 

and compare Mattli. d: § 432. 3. sational cravings ju-r se, but tlic means 

vd^os iTTibvii. /CO K -./!'] ' lii»tfiiliicss, of gratify iiig tlicni, the objects of its in- 

cril coiictiiiiiu-<ncc ;' furilier and more ge- tenst; sec especially ilii'lcr, Doctr. oj 

neric inanirc>5tation5. It docs not sicm Sii>, 1. 1. 3. 2, Vol. i. p. 1G9 (Clark), 

proper.ontlic one hand, tocxtciulirddojto and notes 0/1 Efilies. iv. 20. 

' iiiotus vitiosos, qu.llcs^unt fx^poi, fpeij, yrn iarlv ciSwX] 'tlie icliich is, 

Ci\ot, K. T. \.,' Grot., or, on the other, sfciny it is, iJolntri/;' ex|)lanatory forc« 

to limit it to more fri;.;!itful exhibitions ot'oaris, sec notes on Gal. iv, 24. The 

(Rom. i. 20, 27) : it points rather, as the remark of Thcod. is very jvertinent, irtt' 

evolution of thought sJcems to irquiiv, to CJj thf fiOfifiui^a Kvptoy 6 owr-,,p vp<nnrf6- 

'the disposition lowaid lu.<t,' Olsh., the ptvct li^dffKwv, in 6 T<f wo^ct t*i ■w\*o- 

' niorbum Kliidinis,' Beng., — in a wi rd, veji'cs hovXfi'uv is bthv Thv vKoiTOfriua. 

not merely to lust, but to lustfiiIius.-< ; The very improbable reference of >,tji to 

ird^os »j AiViTo Tov auf-iaToi, koI Siavtp /leAri (Ilarl. o;i Ki'li. v. 5), or to all that 

irvpfT6s, ^ rpaina. */ oAA.?; ydtros, Tlicoph. precedes (Ileinr.), is rightly rvjcctcd by 

The last, tTri^K/ii'a kokij, is still more in- AVincr. Gr. ^ 24. 3, p. 150. 
elusive and gent rie ; iSov yfi'iKws ^h ■irai> G. 5 1' S] 'on accoiiiit of' u-hicli sms ; ' 

»;>», Ciirys. Tijv IT X to- clearly not 5»* S, se. /k'Ati (Balir), but in 

yt^lay] ' Coiu Iousikss,' — with the arii- reference to ' j>eecatii pra:i-cdentia uliaque 

ele, as the notorious form of sin ('die llajiitia,' Grot. : compare notes on K^h. 

bekannte, hau])t.-ilehlieli vermeidende v.G. The reading is doubtful :& is found 

Unsittlichkeit,' Winer, Gr. § IS. S, p. in C'DiFJFG ; Claroman., Sang; t in 

lOG), that ever [ reserves so frightful an ABC-D-l) 'E^IvL ; al., and apparently 

alliance with the sins of the lle.":li. Tiiere rightly adopted by Lachmann and Tisch. 

seems no reason whatever to depart from after /?«c. Thougli an emendation is 

the jMoper sense of the word ; it is nci- not improbable, the prcpond. ranee of 

ther specially ' base gains derived from external evidence seems too di>tinct to be 




Chap. III. 6-8. 

ep-)(eTai rj opyr] rov 0€ov eirl tov<; tiov<i t?}? aTrei^e/a?* ' ev oU 
Koi t'/ TrepieTraTTjaare Trore, ore i^ijre ip rovTOVi' ^ vvvl S<; 

safely reveived . € p x ^ ''^ « '] 

* doth come ; ' emphatic, both position 
and tense. Tlic present hints at the en- 
during principles of the moral govern- 
ment of God ; see notes on Eph. v. 5. 
71 opyi) Tov Qeov] Not only here, 
but hcre.ftcr ; Kal t] fxeWovaa opyrj Koi t) 
iv rcS vvv alijivi iroWaKis KaraKafJ-fiduovat 
rovs ToiovTovs Tlicoijh. Meyer rejects 
this, hut without sufficient reason ; see 
Tnte« on E/Ji. v. 6. 

•> oh s V I oh s r T] s air e t ^.] ' the sons 
of disobedience ; ' those who reject and 
disobey the principles and practice of the 
Gospel ; .see notes on Eph. v. 6, where the 
same expression occurs in the same com- 
bination, and on the force of the Hebra- 
istic circumlocution, notes on ib. ii. 2. 

7. iv o1s\ 'among w/ioin,' scil. vloTs 
Tijs oTrej^eios, — not neuter ' in which,' 
in reference to the foregoing vices : see 
£ph. ii. 3, ey ois Koi rifjuls av€(Trpi<pf]iJ.ev, 
which, with the present (longer) reading, 
seems to leave no room for doubt. Tlie 
objection of Olsh. that the Colossians 
were still walking among the vio7s rijy 
oiret^. as converts, seems easily answered 
by observing that irepiiraTuv, St. Paul's 
favorite verb of moral motion (only here 
and 2 Thess. iii. 11 with persons), seems 
always used by him to denote an actual 
participation in a course or manner of 
life ; contrast Jo!in xi. .54. 
ef^Tc fv T ovT is\ 'ye were livini) in 
these sins,' ' these things were the sphere 
of your existence and activities ; ' the 
verb e'^/re referring to tiie preceding 
dirci^. (ver. 3), and its tense portraying 
the then continuing state ; compare Jelf, 
Gr. § 401. 3. Huther and others regard 
TovTois as masc. : this does not seem 
satisfactory, as ore i(. would be l>ut a 
weak and tautologous e.xplanaaon of the 
preceding iv oh irepieir. -Kore, and as ^vjj/ 
iv (except la its deeper meanings, e. g. 

Criv iv Xp. K. T. \., Rom. vi. U, Gal. ii. 
20) is always used by St. I'aul willi 
thimjs ; compare Rom. vi. 2, Gal. ii. 20, 
Phil. i. 22, Col. ii. 20. See the exam- 
ples collected by Kypke (Obs. Vol. ii. p. 
327), ^jv iv '0^v(T(Teia, iv (ppovTicriv, iv 
xSyois, iv aperrj, iv (piKo(Tocpia k. t. A., in 
all of which the non-per-onal sulistan- 
tives similarly define the sphere to wliicli 
the activities of life were confined ; rce 
also examples in Wetst. in lor. The 

reading of Rer. avTo7s [D^E^fQ^f^] ],as 
insufficient critical support. 

8. vvvl Se air6^f ad e]'but now hij/ 
aside ; ' emphatic e.xhort;ition suggested 
by thcT present state, tlie forcibh; vvvl 
(llartung, Parlik. Vol. ii. 24) standing 
in sharp opposition to the preceding tSts, 
lire. On the figurative aTr6^effiie, opp. 
to ivSvcraffde, compare notes on Eph. 
iv. 22. The translation of Eadic, 'ye 
too have put oflT,' perhaps suggested by 
a misunderstanding of Auth., can only 
be regarded as an oversight ; such mis- 
takes, however, seriously weaken our 
confidence in this otherwise useful wiiter 
as a sound grammatical expositor. 
Kal vfjLe7s\ 'ye also,' ye as well as 
other Christians ; the Kal putting thi m 
here in contrast with tlieir fellow-con- 
verts, as in ver. 7 with their fellow-heath- 
ens; comp. notes on Phd. iv. 12. 
TO TT dvT a\ ' the whole of them : ' all 
previously [tovtois, ver. 7), and hereaf- 
ter to be mentioned. Winer ( Gr. | 18. 
1, ]). 98) refers ra. irdvra, with an inten- 
sive force, only to what had been already 
adduced : the enumeration which fol- 
lows seems to require a more compre- 
hensive and prospective reference ; seo 
Mc\cr in he. So similar'y Syr., Goth. 
{JEih. omits), 'luce omnia' (compare 
Tlicod.), except that this is perhaps too 
exclusively prospective. There is no 
full stop after this word in Tisch., as is 

Chap. III. 8. 9. 

C O L O S S I A N S . 


aTToV^eo-S^f KUt vfieU to, irdma, opy/ju, ^Vfiov, KOKiav, ^Xaa(^ii^iav^ 

a8i»eiteJ liy A!f., nor apparently in any 
ediciuii. icaKiaK] ' malict,' 

' badiiLSs of heart,' the evil iiuhit of the 
miiiil as contra>tcil witli wonipla, tlie 
more definite manife.statiou of it ; conip. 
Eph. iv. 31, and Trench. Sjuoit. § II. 
On tlie distinction between the preceding; 
ipyi) (the more ."settled state) and dun6s 
(the more eruptive and temporary), see 
notes on E/'fi. iv.3l, and Trench, Sjnon. 
f 37 ; add also OEium., who correctly 
remarks, fim ")op dv/ihi .... ({a;^is tij 
Kol ayaiivtiiaffis o^tla rov Tabovs, opy^) ti 
tli)iofos \\rrt\. $ \a(T <pr)n i ay 

may he either ajrainst God or a;::iinst 
men, according to the contc.\t (see notes 
on 1 'J'im. i. 13) ; here tlie a.<soci;ued 
vices seem to liiuit the reference to the 
latter; toj \oiSopias olrrw At'"y«i, Thc- 
oph. ; see notes on the very similar pas- 
sage, Eph. iv. 31. aicrxpoAoyiaf] 
'coarse {reproaclifal) sjteakinr;.' It is 
somewhat doubtful whether "wc arc to 
adopt (ti) the more limited meaninjj 
' tttrpiloijuium,' Claronian., sim. Vul^., 
Syr., ' aj:Iaitivaurdein,' Goth., turpitu- 
do,' ^Elhiop. ; or {b) the more jjener.d, 
' foul-niouihcd abusiveness,' Trench 
(conip. Copt., where, however, it seems 
confounded with ficupoKoyla), ' schand- 
bares Retlen,' Mover. As alffxp- is an 
ir. \ty6n. in X. T., and does not occur 
it LXX., and as both interpretations 
have pood lexical authority, — the for- 
mer, Xenopli. Lacni. v. 6, Poll. Onomast. 
IV. lot), Clem.-Alex. Pad. ii. 6, comp. 
Suicer, Thesaur. 8. v. Vol. l. p. 136 ; 
Raphcl, Aimot. Vol. it. p. 535 ; the lat- 
ter, Polyh. IJlM. VI II. 13. 8, and xxxi. 
10. 4, where it is associated wiih AoiSopio, 
— the context alone must decide. As 
this nppy. 'refers mainly to sins a;jainst a 
ncijjhl>or (tomp.are ver. 9), the balam-e 
seems in f.ivor of (6), accorilin^ to which 
alaxP- ^iU ^ <^ exteosiuQ of $\aff<p., 

and will imply nil coar.^e and foul- 
moutlied Umguaj;e, whether in abuse or 
otherwise. rfu rov vri- 

fiaroi is not to Ihj rvferred solely to 
alaxpoK. (-Etli.), but to the two pre<x-d- 
in;; substantives, aw6b*ai» beiti^ men- 
tally supplied. It seems doubtful wheth 
er the addition marks specially the /»oi//u- 
liou (^inro? yap rh tls ij^jKoytay Stov t»- 
irotijfitirov arifxa, Gicuin., tomp. < hrys.), 
or the uiisniUiUetttss (Mey.) of the ac- 
tions whiclj aa- here descrilK-d : the lat- 
ter is perhaps 8li;.'htly the most proliable ; 
comp. James iii. 10. 

9. fii) \^tv^fabt\ 'do not lie :' pre*., 
do not indul;:e in tlie practice. The ad- 
dition fit aWriKovi specifies the oljects 
luiaiid whic'.i the jji-aciice was forbidden 
(compare Winer, Uram. ^ 4'J. a, p. 3i3), 
and stamps it as a social wronj:. On 
the frij;litful character of untruthfulness, 
and its evolution from seltishness and 
lust, see c.>pecially Miiller, Dortr. of Sin, 
1. 1. 3. 2, Vol I. p. 171 sq. (Clark). 
It seems l)est with IjacUm., Tisc/i., aud 
apparently most modem editors, to place 
only u comma Iwtwecn ver. 8 and 9. 
awfKivffdn€yoi] ' setiiiff ihnt ye htn-e 
]>ul off,' Auth. ; causal participle, giving 
the reason for thiO precept, and in point 
of time )K.'injj jirior to (Mvyer), not 
contemporaneous with ( exspoliantcs,' 
Vnl^., Clarom), the pre«-edin;; aor. infin. 
awo^tobt. Such a reference is not su- 
))er{luous or in.ippn)priatc (I)e W.); the 
part, sen es suitably to re'mind them that 
the condition into which they bad now 
entered rendered a selfish and untruthful 
life a self-contradiction. To consider 
avcicS. as l)e};inninj; a new j>criixl, inter- 
rupted and resumed in ver. 12, as Hof- 
mann, S>hrifth. Vol. ii. 2, p. 268, seems 
very harsh and improbable. On the 
double compound i»<«c5. see notes on 
cb. ii. 11. r^y *a\ai^» 



Chap. III. 10. 

uireK^vad^evoL rov vdkaiov av^pcoirov criiv raU irpd^ecnv avrov. 
^^ Kol iuBvaa/jbevoi, rov piov rov avaKuivovfievov et? ^TTLyvcoaiv Kar 

&v^p.\ 'the old man;' not merely ttjv 
irpoTi^av iroXireiai', Theod., but, with a 
more iiulividualizing reference, our for- 
mer unconverted self, our state Ijefore 
regeneration ; sec notes on E/ili. iv. 22. 
Pavenunt (comp. Calv.) refers the term 
to the ' insita naturce nostraj corruptio,' 
— a special and polemical reference, to 
which the context, which seems to point 
simply to their ante-Christian, as con- 
trasted with their present, state (T6Te, 
pwi), seems to yield no support. 
avf Tais IT p.] 'with his deeds;' 
sliglitly explanatory, marking the prac- 
tical character of the developments of 
the iraKaihs av^pwiros ; comp. Gal. v. 24. 
10. Kal ivS. -rhv v i o v\ ' and hace 
■put on the new man ; ' closely connected 
with the preceding clause, and presenting, 
on the positive side, the act succeeding 
to the ax6/c5. on the negative. The veos 
&vdp. stands in contrast with the iraKaihs 
as specifying the newly-entered and fresh 
state of spiritual conditions after conver- 
sion and regeneration. In Eph. iv. 23 
the term is Kaii/ds, as marking rather the 
new state in respect of quality ; compare 
Tittmann, Synon. i. p. .59, notes on Eph. 
iii. 16, iv. 24. It is not improba- 

ble that the reference in the two passages 
is slightly different, there, (Eph.) as t!ie 
hortatory tone suggests, the reference is 
primarily to renovation ; here, as the ar- 
gumentative allusion seems to imply, 
primarily to re^/ericration, yet in neither, 
as tlie noticeable combinations (auave- 
oCff&aj — Kaivhv &i'^p., v(ou &i>^p. — rov 
avaKaiv.) further siiggrst, is the reference 
exclusive. On the distinction, see AVa- 
tcrland, Rer/en. Vol. iv. j). 433 sq., com- 
pare Trench, Si/non. ^ 18. 
rhv a V a K a I u.] ' who is being vncwcd ;' 
characteristic, not merely of &vbpw- 
vov (De W.), but of the v4ov &v^ponrovt 
as the prominence of the epithet clearly 

requires. This process of ai^aKaifucrts, 
of which the causa inslrumenlalis and 
agent (Tit. iii. 5, compare Eph. iv. 23) 
is the Holy Spirit, is represented an con- 
tinually going on ; compare 2 Cor. iv. 
16, 6 taabfu (oLv^p.) avaitaivovTai 'liuepa 
Koi vp.ep^. The prep ava appears to 
mark restoration to a former, not neces- 
sarily a primal, state; see Winer, de 
Verb. Comp. ill. p. 10, coin[>are notes on 
Eph. i\. 23, eis eiriy va>o i r] 

' unto complete knowledge,' apparently of 
God, and the mystery of redemption 
(toD Qiov Kol TU)v Sri'i(i>v. Tlieoph ) ; com- 
pare eh. i. 9, ii. 2, Ephes. i. 17; ' in eo 
quod ait qui renov. in ognitionem, demon- 
strahat quoniam ipse ille qui ignorantiae 
erat liomo, id est, ignorans Deuin, per 
C?) cam quae in cum est agnilionem ren- 
ovatur,' Iren. fleer, v. 12. On the full 
meaning of (iriyv. (' accuralu cognitio'), 
see notes on Eph. I. c, and compare on 
Col. ii. 2. This was the o!)jcct towards 
which the avaKaiv. tended (not the sjihere 
171 which, Auth., Copt.), — the result 
which it was designed to :ittain; comp. 
Eph. iv. 13. KUT f'lKova 

K. T. A..] ' aj'le)- the image of Him that 
created him.' By a comparison with the 
similar and suggestive passage, Eph. iv. 
23, there can scarcely be a doubt that 
this clause is to bo connected with ava- 
Kaiv., not with tiriyvoKTiv (Meyer, comp. 
Hofm , Schriflb. Vol. i. p. 252), — a con- 
struction grammat. admissible (see Win. 
Gr. § 20. 4, p. 12G), but not cxeget ally 
satisfactory. Kara will tints ]ioint othe 
'norma' or model (notes on dd. iv. 28), 
and the ^Ikwv toC kt'io. to the image of 
God (Theod.), not of CIn-ist (Chrysost. ; 
compare Miillcr, Doctr. of Sin, Vol. n. 
p. 392, Clark), in wiiicli the first man 
was created, which was lost by sin, but 
' is to be restored again by a real though 
not substantial change,' Pearson, CVeerf, 

Cum: III. Jl, 12. 

C O L S S I A N S 


eiKui>a rov KTiaaino<i ainov '^ ottou ovk tvi" KWrjv kui lovSaZof, 
TTtptTOfi)] Kal aKpo'iiucrria, l3ufj{3apo<;, SKu).)i]i, BouXo'i, c\€v^epo<i, 
uWa TCI TTuvra Kal tv irucnv Xpicriwi. 
Put ni, m.Mv.i... n.rcivins I'j ']^pcuaaa^^€ ovu, o)<{ iKXcKTol Tov Geou 

■nu liiviiip, and let the 

peace . t Gud rule in you. BIhk •lnud. and in your l.i-»rt«, lo God, and give lliiiika. 

Art. II. Vol. I. p. 149 (c(l. lUut.) ; 'in. 
CO qiioJ (licit siriiiiihim iimiq. couihloris 
j-cciipitiiliitioiicni manifciitiu it rjiw l:oiii- 
inis qui in initio soiiunluni ir.ia^incm 
(actus est Dei.' Ircn. liar. v. 12. conip. 
Dclitz di, Dill. I's;/r/,ol. ii. 2, p. 51. 
who conceive* that with the spiritual, a 
j)liysieal dcjiravation of tlic iTna;.'C was 
also incluiled. To assert that a n-fer- 
cnce to a rL-storation of t!ic imajrc of (iotl 
in the first creation involves ' an idea 
forei;,'!! to Scripture' (Alf., c(ini)i. MiU- 
ler, Ihctr. nfS'ii, Vol. li. p. S'J3. Clark), 
seems somewhat sweepin;^ ; sec notes on 
Ep/t. iv. 24, and the passajres collected 
from the early ccd writers in Bull, Eu'iL 
WoiLs, Disc. V. p. 478 sq., and especial- 
ly p. 492. On the mcanini.j of (tKuiv, sec 
Trcncli, Si/nnn. 15. avT6v\ 

Scil. ¥fov ttf.^^). ; not merely &vdp. (De 
W.). which seems oppo.sed lo the lojjical 
and grammatical connection, and is not 
rc(piired hy t!ic preceding: interpretation. 
Whctlier (iod ho defined as i Krlaai in 
reference to the J'lrst, or to the sfrond 
creation {aviitTKHi, Pearson. Crrrd, Vol. 
II. p. 80, Hurt.), does not alter the doc- 
trinal truth involved in the words — 
'quod pcnlidimus in Adam, id est sc- 
cunilum inajjincm ct similitiulinein esse 
Dei, hoc in Christo Jcsn recipimus,' Ire- 
nnius. Jlirr. iii. 18. 

11. Sttou] * where;' ' qu;\ in re' 
('apiid ([ucm,', scil. in which 
condition of oir«'/.5i/<riy of the old, and 
fvSvffit of the new man ; compare Xen- 
ophon. Mini. III. 5. I. and Kiilmer, in 
/o«'., cited (hut incoiTcctly) hy Meyer. 
oiiK ( v i] 'time is uat:' see notes on 
(iai. iii. 2f, wl-cn? the grammatical char- 
acter of this contraction is briefly dis- 

cnssed. *EXX»ji» ical 'lov9.] 

' (t'rnL- and Jnr;' a IiIhe^i•^ involving 
national distinctions, followed hy a sec- 
ond (ircpiT. #fal Afp.) involving ritual 
characteri-itics, and hy a climax (/5ap/5., 
2»fi^d. ) in reference to liahits and civili- 
zation ('Scytlia; harharis harhariores,' 
Hcng.. Bpaxii THy ^fiioiv Sta<pipoyr €S, Jo- 
sepli. roiilr. A]>. II. ;]7 ; see examples in 
Wctst. in I'T ), and lastly, hy a third nn- 
connectcd antithesis (SoCXor, iKtib.) in- 
volving social relations. B twcen the 
last two ImcIiiii. inserts koI, with AD'E 
FG ; 3 niss. ; Vulg., Clarom., al : the 
external authority is fair, hut the proha- 
hility of a conformation to the preced- 
ing very great. The addition of koI hy 
D'K'Fli after /3of)/3. seems a clear inter- 
polation, thus ivndering the testimony of 
the same MSS. of douhtful value in the 
next pair. To insert 'and' in transla- 
tion (Scholef. Hints, p IM) seems quite 
unnecessary. dxx4 tA 

■wivra k.t.K.] ' lut CliniST is nil and 
in all : ' similar in meaning to wdyrts 
u/«?j (U I'o-Tf «V Kf). 'lT/<r., Galat. iii. 28. 
hut Willi a somewhat more comprelien- 
sive enunciation : ' C'Ansf ' (placed with 
cmpliasis at ihc end, Jelf. (inim. (j 902, 
2) is the aggregation of all things, dis- 
tinctions, prerogatives, blessings, and 
moreover is in all, dwelling in al, and 
so uniting ail in tlie common element of 
Himself; -wivra v^l7l' 6 Xfitarhi foToi, ifal 
i^ivna Ko} yivos. koX iv naaiv vyuv avr6s, 
Chrys. For examples of flfcu rh Triyra 
or *dyra (as AC, and many m>-;. in 
this place) in rcf. to an indirid'inl. seo 
the verj- large collection in Wet stein on 
1 Cor. XV. 2S. 

12. iySvffaffbt oir] ' put on thin ;' 



Chap. HI. 12, 13. 

a'yLoi, Koi '^yaTrrj/jbevot, aTr\dy)(ya oiKTip/Jiov, yprja-TorrjTa^ ruTret- 
vo^po<TVV7)v, 7rpavrr)Ta, /xaKpo^v^iav, ^^ ave-^oijievoi aWrjXoiv koX 

exhortation naturally following from the 
fact that the v4os iv^panros which in- 
volved all the ahove blessings had been 
put on ; 'as you have put on the new 
man, put on all its characteristic quali- 
ties.' The oZv has thus appy. more 
of its reflexive force ; ' it takes up what 
has been said and continues it,' Donalds. 
Craii/l. § 192; compare notes on Phil. 
ii. 1. usiK\. Tov&eov] 

' as chosen ones of God ; ' as being men 
who enjoy and value so great and so 
singular a blessing ns to have been called 
out of lieatlien darkness to the knowledge 
of Christ; compare Tit. i. 1. Meyer 
acutely calls attention to the fact that iis 
iicKfKTol eciioes the preceding argumen- 
tative anfKSva-., and thus stands in logi- 
cal and exegetical connection with what 
precedes. It is doubtful whether ayiot 
KOI T)ya.iriiix. are to be regarded as used 
substantively ('ut sanctietdilecti,' jEth., 
— Pol., but not Piatt), and as co-ordi- 
nate to, or as simple predicates to, the 
preceding €/cAeKTo2 rov ©eoC. The pure 
substantival use of the latter expression 
in St. Paul's Epistles (Rom. viii. 33, Tit. 
i. 1, compare 2 Tim. ii. 10), coupled 
with the fact that the force of tlie exhor- 
tation rests on their character as €« Aevroi, 
not as l)eing Sytoi /cal ^yair., renders the 
latter connection most plausible ; so 
Beng., and after him Mey., and the ma- 
jority of modern editors and expositors. 
Ciirysost. and Theoph. appear to have 
regarded them as three attributes ; so 
Daven., Iluthcr, al. 

air Xay x" '*■ oIkt ip (i ov\ ' bowels of 
mercy ; ' bowels which are characterized 
by, are the seat of mercy, the gen. being 
that of the ' predominating quality,' and 
probably falling under the general head 
of the genitive possessivus ; see Scheuerl. 
Si/nt. § 16. 3, p. 115, and compare Luke 
i. 7S, (TirKiyxi'a i\fovs. The expression 

is probably a little more emphatic than 
the simple oiKnpixovs (Heb. x. 28), or the 
more common iKtos : ovk elireu e\eoy_ 
a\\' 4fx<pavriKU)Tepov Sta twv Svo, Chrys. 
Forexx. of the troi)ical use of a-irKayxva, 
which, however, is here not necessarily 
required (compare Meyer), see Piiilip- 
pians i. 18, ii. 1, and notes in locc. 
The plur. olKTipfiwv (Rcc.) has only the 
support of K ; mss. ; Theod., al., and is 
rightly rejected by Lachm. and Tisch. 
Xpriarj 6T-rir a\ ' kindness : ' ' benevo- . 
lence and sweetness of disposition as 
shown in intercourse with one another; ' 
joined in Tit. iii. 4 with <piXaubp(t>TTla, 
and in Rom xi. 22 opp. to a.Tro70fi.ia; 
see notes on Gal. v. 22. 
Ta-ir(ivo(ppo<r.] ' lowliness [of mind)' 
the thinking l()wly of ourselves because 
we are so ; h.v Taireivbs ^s, koI ii>vo7](rps 
tIs iiv irw7 fffdAris, a(popfj.}]v vrphs aperiji' 
Ka/xPai/fts r^v fivrinTiu. Clirys. on Eph. iv. 
2, here more exact than in his definitions 
collected in Suicer, Thesaur. s. v. On the 
true meaning of tiiis word see the valua- 
ble remarks of Neander, Plantmq, Vol. 
I. 483, Trench, Si/non. ^ 42, and notes 
on Eph. iv. 2. irpa iJttjt a] 

' meekness' in respect of God, and toward 
one another; see notes on Gatat. \. 23, 
and on Eph. iv. 2, in which latter pas- 
sage it occurs in exactly the same posi- 
tion with respect to Taireiv. and fxaxpobv 
/xia. Eadie objects to the primary refer- 
ence to God, but apparently without suf- 
ficient reason : tliat irpauTris is frequently 
used in purely human relations is quite 
trae (compare Titus iii. 2, irpauT. irphs 
TTavTas avbpwirovs), but that its basis is a 
meek acceptance of God's dealings with 
us seems clearly shown in Matth. xi. 29, 
where it is an attribute of the Saviuur, 
and in Gal. vi. 1, und perhaps 1 Cor. iv. 
21 and 2 Tim. ii. 2.5, where a sense ol 
dependence on God forms the very 

Cii.u-. III. 13, 14. 

C L O S S I A X S . 


yapt^ifievot eauTOK, etlv tk Trpo'i riva e'^T] /io/x<^/yi', Aca^to? Kai o 
Xpiaro'i ("^apiaaro ovrto^ Kal vpel^;- ^* dirl ttiktiv hk roinoi^ 

gmuiulwurk of tiio exhortation. In siicli 
ptis^a^cs incru gentleness gccnn>< quite 
illsuliiciL'lit. U.I >iaic^>u>^>a o|)|i. 

to o^u^iu^iio. (Jainos i. 19;, aco iiulcs o/i 
Ei>li. IV. :i 

13. ai'fx<^M<*'<" i-^^J 'Jorbearinij 
out uiiuiui I- ; ' cxl,ibitioii ol' ilic lust two, 
ami jicrliaps moru particulurly of tlic 
lust, ol'ilie uixtVL'-nifiitioiic'd virtues ; eoiu- 
|)urc Kpli. iv. L', fitra fxax^o^., cwtx^fiffoi 
oXA. iv a-fdrji. 'J'here does not seem 
any neies>ii_v for enclo.sing tlie wliolc 
verse {Uriesb., lAirfim., Uuttm.), nor even 
Ka^wi Kal...vti.f7s (Winer, (Jr. § 64, ed. 
5), in 11 ]iaR'iithesis. 1 lie structure and 
sequence of iliouglit geem uninterrupted ; 
while the lirst participial clause expands 
the preceding substantives, the second is 
enhanced hy an adverbial clause wliich 
in its sec(jnd nietnbcr curries with it the 
prcced ng ]>ariiciple x'^P^i^/xtyoi ; see 
Winer, dr. ^ 62. 4, p. 4')9, ed. 6. 
Xo pt^6ftf vol iavrots] 'Juri/ivinrj 
niiih vtlur ;' compare Eph. iv. 32. The 
change to the retlexivc pronoun in two 
mcmlxrs so p rffcily similar (Eph. / c. 
is u little diffcivni) is jurlmps not acci- 
dental ; wiiilo iXKiiKmw murks an act to 
be done by one Christian to his fellow 
Christian, iatnols may suggest the per- 
formance of an act faintly resembling 
that of Christ's, namely, of each one to- 
ward all, — yea even to themselves in- 
cluded (' vobismct ipsis,' Vulg.), Chris- 
tians iK'ing members of one another ; 
iaa Uv iv rw fiifpytrfTv irotdfitv iripovf, 
Ka\ui Tavra, Ka\ Sta rh TtKos Kal Sia t^ 
cvoadifiovi i, flits tlvcu, fiuWov f<( I'l/uas 
avaipiptTat, Origfn on KjiIlLc. (Cramer, 
Cut. Vol. I. p. 311), here perhaps more 
npproi>riate. fi. o tx <p i] v\ 

' (ijrouiul of) hiaine.' This form is nn 
firo^ \fy6ft.. in the N. T., hut, especially 
in combmaiion with fx^> surticicmly 
common in classical Greek ; see exam- 

ples in Wet.stein in lor., and in Ko^t u. 
Pulm, />?2". n. V. The plosses fiifii^iv 
[D'E?] and Apyrji' [E(JJ are oliviously 
sugge*ted by t!ie non-appearance of the 
Word elsewhere in ilie N. T. or in the 
LXX. icabus (cal 6 Xp.] 

' ertn a$ Christ aluo Jori;are you ; ' comp. 
ch. ii. 13, wlieit: the same divine act is, 
as it would there i-cem, similarly attrib- 
uted to Christ : contrast Eph. iv. 32, 
where it is refem-d to 6 e«bj iv Xp. Kabwt 
(comp. on Gal. iii. 6), jL<sociated witli 
the Koi of comparison (Klotz, Dfrar. 
Vol. II. p. 635) and balanced hy the fol- 
lowing ouTuii Kai. here simply intro<iuces 
an example {fiindabf rhv Af<nr6Trjv, The- 
od.) : in Eph. /. c, as the imperatival 
stniiturc suggests, it has more of an 
argumentiitive tinge ; see notes mi lac. 
The reading is slightly doubiful : Kvputs 
is adopted by Ijcicltm. wiili ABI)'E(j ; 1 
mss. ; Vulg., Clarom.. al. ; Aug. al., but 
is not improbably due to some attempts 
at ronformation to Eph. iv. 32. 
»tol u/ifif] Scil. x<»piC'^M**'<". 'he .«trar- 
ture remaining parti<i|)ial : see Winer, 
(Jr. ^ G2. 4, p. 499. The principal Vv. 

Syr. (Ojn OAr [condonate]), Clarom. 

('itactvos facite'), (loth, (taujaip'), 
J£.i\\. (' facite'), and Theoil. suppiv the 
imperative, which in some MSS. jO'E' 
FG : al., Toi(7Tf| is actually cxpix^ssod : 
this, however, certainly seems at vari- 
ance with the structure, and interrupts 
the othenvisc easy scipience of <lauses ; 
so rightly l)e Wettc and Meyer. On 
the double koI in sentences composed of 
correlative raemlwrs. sec Klotz, /Vi-ar. 
Vol. It. p. 635, and notes on IC/>hfs. r. 
23, where the u.>-age is briefly investi- 

14. i ir\ w a ff I V 8i toiWo.*) ' hitl 
ovrr all thcst thiwjs : ' not. as in Eph. vi. 
14 (see notes in loc.), with a simple 

;£92 COLOSSI A NS. Chap. III. 14, lb. 

TTjv ayaTrrjv, o iarlv cvvheafio'i t^? TeKeiOTryro^. ^° Kal rj elp^vT) 

force of accession or superaddition, Syr. 
, A/rr \^ ■^^'^ yOi^ rcum his oni- 

nibus], yEth., but, as the more distinct 
expression and especially the foregoing 
image seem to require, with a semi-local 
force (' super/ Vulg., ' ufir,' Goth.), the 
dative with inl as usual conveying the 
idea of closer and less separable connec- 
tions ; see notes on Eph. ii. 20, but trans- 
pose (cd. 1 ) the accidentally misplaced 
' latter ' and ' former.' Love toward all 
(comp. on Ph.'l. i. 9) was thus to be the 
garb that was to be put on over all the 
other elements in the spiritual eySvcris. 
S] 'which {clemtnt) ;' neuter, the ante- 
cedent being viewed under an abstract 
and generalized aspect ; see Jelf, Gram. 
§ 820. 1, Kruger, Sprachl. '§ 61. 7. 9. 
The reading is not perfectly certain ; 
^T«s (Rec.) is fairly supported [D-D^E 
KL ; many Ft".], and is certainly in ac- 
cordance Avith St. Paul's (explanatory) 
nse of the indef relative in similar pas- 
sages; still the probability of a gram- 
matical gloss seems here so great, that 
the reading of Larhm. and Tisch. is to be 
distinctly preferred. 

(Tui'Sto'^os tQs Te\ii6'T7)Toi\ 'the 
bond nfprrfectness,' Auth. ; not ' of com- 
pleteness,' Alf., which would be a more 
suitable translation of 6\0K\r)pia ; comp. 
Trench, Si/non. § 22. The gcnitival re- 
lation has been somewhat dilTerently ex- 
plained ; the abstract gen. may be (n) 
the gen. ofqualili/, in wlilch cascTsAeior. 
would be little more than an epithet, 
' the most perfect bond,' Hamm., Grot., 
and even Green, Gram. p. 247 ; (h) tlie 
gen. of content, ' amor complectitur vir- 
tutum univcrsitatem,' Bengel, compare 
Bull, Eram. Cens. ii. .5, — r'^s re\ei6r. 
marking that which the irvi>S. enclosed 
within it, De W., Olsh., compare Usteri, 
Lehrh. ii. 1. 4, p. 242 ; or (r) the genit. 
objectl ; tTjs TeKeiSr. being that which 

is held together by it, and on which it 
exercises its conjunctive power ; TrdfTa 
iKuva avri) avff<piyye7, Theopliyl. : so 

Chrys., Theod., apparently Syr. |X]ii<M 

[cinctorium], and more recently Steigl 
and Meyer. Of these (c) has cleavlj the 
advantage, as not involving either a 
douV)tful genitive or an unsatisfactory, if 
not indemonstrable meaning of trvvditr- 
nos (comp. Meyer) ; as, however, it as- 
signs a questionable collective force to 

TeA.€lo'T7JS, Scil. t4 T7JJ' TfXflOTTITa TTOIOVU- 

7a, Chrys., Theoph., it seems more ex- 
act to regard the genitive as, (J) a gen. 
siibjecti belonging to the general ca.egory 
of the gen. possess. ; love is the bond 
which belongs to, is the distinctive fea- 
ture of perfection : contrast Eph. iv. 2, 
and compare notes in loc. The 

omission of the article may be due to 
the verb substantive ; sec Middleton, Gr. 
Art. HI. 3. 2, p. 43 (ed. TXosc). 

1.5. etpvifTj Tov Xp.] 'the peace oj 
Christ ;' gen. atictoris, or perhaps rather 
ori;jinis (Ilartung, Casus, p. 17, see on 
cli. i. 23), ' tlie peace wliich comes from 
nim wlio is our peace (Ephes. ii. 14), 
and who solemnly left His peace to His 
church' (John xiv. 27) ; eKeiVryj' {flp'fi- 
irrjv) ^v 6 Xpiffrhs a.<l)?]KfV avrSs, Clirys. 
The peace of Christ must not be restrict- 
ed merely to 6n6voia, tliough this is ap- 
parently the more immediate reference 
in the present passage, but includes that 
deep peace and tranquillity which is His 
blessed gift, and emanates from His 
Cross ; compare elpr.vrj 0€oi", Phil. iv. 7, 
in which the iJea is substantially the 
same, except that perhaps pea e is there 
contemplated as in its antithesis to anx- 
ious worldliness (see notes in loc.), while 
here it is rather to the hard, unloving, 
and unquiet spirit that mars the union 
of the %v (Twixa. The reading rov Oeou 
(Rcc.) is fiirly supported [C-DTJK; 

C:iAi'. Ill l.-i, 16. COLOSSIANS. \f)^ 

Tou XpiCTOv (Bpa^eveTQ) ev raU Kaphi'ai<: vfjLOJV, ctV yu kui t'/c\>/- 
^T^re tf eft acofiarr kuI €u)(upiaToi yiuea'iie. ^'' (J \ir/0'i too 

16. if rais KapS/oii] So Gri(sb., Schol:, Lachm., witJi ABCD'FG : 10 mss. : ai>- 
parently iill Vv. ; Clirysost., Tlicod. (oomm.) ; I>iit. Ff. The readiii;: iv rfi Kut>Siif 
' {Rrc, T.'s'Ii. u(J. 2. 7) is (d) 80 fcubly sufiported, — only \>y D'EKL (MSS. lien* of 
douljiful nutlioiiiy from filiowin;; other traces of for.formatioti to Epii. v. 19) ; t:real 
mass of m-s. ; Clem., Theod. (text), al., and ('.) so very probaMy an a-i-imilation 
to E|)Ii. /. c. (H, liowcvcr, there reads iv rais «ap8.), that it is difficult to i-onceive 
what pi inriplc, e.xcept that of opposition to Lacliiii.. induced Tisc/i. to retain so very 
qucstioiiahle a reading, and to reverse the judgment of his first edition. 

nearly all m-s. ; Goth., al.], hut in all wliich, the fit marking the immediate 
proliuhility is a correction. (not ultimate) ol>ject of the (foAtrf (I 
'"' Cor. i. 9, 1 Tim. vi. 12, comi>are notes), 
Ppa$.vfra,] ' ruh : j,SyJ [ducat, „nd thus differing: hut little from ^irl «v ill, 
rcpat] Syriac, 'sit piheiiiatrix,' Bcza. dat., hy which Chry-o^t. here e.xpLins it. 
The verh /3fa/3«ue«i' [3^a = irpo, see notes The latter perhaps involves more the 
on P/i//. iii. 14j has lit re received difTer- iUca o{ approriwal ion (Donalds. Craii/l. 
entexi)lanations, 'exultct,' Vul^'., Goth., § 172), the fonner of </mrr/oii. The as- 
' stahi'.iaiur,' Copt., ^thiop., ' aliundet,' censive .vol marks the K\~j<ris asa!sn hav- 
Clarom., all perhaps endeavoring to re- ing the same ohjcct as the apostle's ad- 
tain some t.hade of the ori;:inal meaning monition. ^y iy) awfiari] 
(iyuvoifToicray Tf icdl $pa^(vov<ray. The- ' in one Imdif,' \. e. so as to abide in one 
od.), hut ol)S(uiiii|; railier tiiaii elucidat- body ; not marking the object coiitem- 
ing. Tiie later and secondary meaning plated, ' ut unuin essctis corpus ' (comp. 
' administrare,' ' <rul)eniiire,' ile.«ychius Grotius), nor the manner of the calling 
tovvt'ffOw (Raph.,.<-ln;io^\ol. II |).533sq. (Steig., compare 1 Cor. vli. 15), hut, as 
and Scliwcigh. Lct. Pu/i/h. s. v.), seems the more concrete tonn -eenis to require, 
hero llic mo>t simple; 'let simply the result to whi<h it tended; 
the jieacc wliich comes fiom ("hrist order <fKov6an<r»' A Xp. robs iraKraj ty traifta roc- 
all tilings in your hearts.' Forconfirma- rjaou, ; com]>arc I ph. ii. Ifi, and 
tiou of i!iis later meaning, see also the Winer, 6V. § 50. 5, p. ;170. 
exx. collected by Krebs (OUt. p. 343), Ka\ tix^P- t^A ' «"<' ''^ (h-come) 
and Loesn. (0/«.-. p. .373), one of i he most t/ninL/ul,' .scil. to God (Chrysost., Theo- 
periiiient ot which is Jos. .^1 .•.7/9. iv. 3. 2, phyl) as 6 koXuv (see notes on (7al. i. 6) 
■wayraaii irpovo!a SiOiKflrat Ka\ .... (cori less prolwbly to Chri>t, as Thcod. and 
/Soi'Arjffif jB^a/Stuo^itvo*' tjV ar,i' tis riKos cxpres.-ly Syr. and yV.ih The meaning 
i'/;x*Ta« wliero the as.ociation with Siot- ' amabiles,' tvx''^""<" (^"^'i:*'"^'. though 
Kf7ff^icu renders the meaning verj- dis- lexically defensible (comp. Xcn. OCron. 
tinct. On the use of KopSia to denote v. 10), seems here wholly innppnipriate. 
the subject in its inner relations, see Euxaptirrla was a duty ever foremost in 
Beck, Setlenl. 111. 23, p. 80, compare p. the thoughts of the great apostle. 1 
'0"- *«i f)!' Kal iK\rtd.\ Thess. v. 18; observe his frequent use 
' unto which [almost, yorun/o it (see notes of (vxaptmly (25 times) and fvxapurria 
on ch. i. 25, 27)] ye tca-e also callid;' (12 times), the hitter of which only oc 
unto tlie enjoyment and participation of curs thrice elsewhere (Acts xxiv.3, Rcr. 




Chap. III. 16, 17. 

XpidTov ivoLKe'iTco iv v/xLP TrXoucrt'ct)?, iv irdcrr) cro<^ia BcSdaKovre^ 
Kal vov^eTOvvTe<i kav'rov<i ylroKfjLOi^, v/jLVOt<;, wSai? irvevfjuartKat^;, iv 
Trj y^dpiTL uhovre^i iv rat? Kap8iai<i v/xcov t&j ©ew, ^' kol irdv 6 tl 

17. 'Itjo-oD Xp«7ToD] So Lachn., with ACDiFG; mss. ; very many Vv. ; some 
Ff. Rcc, followed by Tlsch. and Alf., reads Kupi'ou 'Itjo-oG with BD^EK; great* 
mass of uiss.; Amit., Goth., Syr. (Pliilox.), al. ; Clem. (?), Theod., al., but appy. 
with less probability. By a comparison of the variations of this and the preceding 
verse with those of Eph. v. 19, 20 ( Alf.'s remark that there are ' hardly any,' is scantly 
correct) we may form some interesting local comparisons. It will be seen that KL 
present distinct traces of conformation, E less so, ADFG perhaps still less, and B 
scarce!}' any at all ; C has a lacuna at Eph. /. c. 

iv. 9, vii. 12) in the whole N. T. For a 
good sermon on the whole of the verse, 
see Frank, Scrm. li. Vol. ii. p. 394 
(A.-C. Libr.). 

16. o xSyos rov X p.] 'the word 
of Christ,' as delivered in the Gospel, 
XpifTTov biing the genitive siihjecti, the 
word spoken and proclaimed by Him, 1 
Thessalon. i. 8, iv. \h, 2 Thessalon. 
iii. 1 ; compare Winer, (jr. § 30. 1, p. 
158. It is perfectly unnecessary, with 
Lacltm. (oJ. stcreot.), to enclose this 
clause in brackets. The previous more 
general exhortations to love and peace 
which conclude with eyx^P- yiveabi are 
saita'.jly accompanied by a more special 
one which shows the efficacy of the Gos- 
pel in such respects, and more fully ex- 
pands t'le last precept ; napaiviaas (v- 
Xap'^ffTovs elvai Kal ttjj/ oShv Se'iKwct, 
Chrys. e voiKeir w iv 

xtntu Tr\.] ' dwtll within you richly;' 
surely not ' among you,' De W., which 
would tend to obliterate the force of the 
compound, nor ' in you as a Church,' 
Tileyer, Alf., which really comes to the 
same thing, — but, as usual, 'within 
you' {r))v Tov Xp. ^i5a(TKaKiav iv rf} 
\f>i>XV "tfpKpfpiiv Of/, Theod.), 'in your 
hearts,' the outcoraing and manifestation 
of which was to be seen in the acts de- 
scribed by the participles. Comp. Rom. 
viii. 11,2 Tim. i. 5, 14, the only other 
passages in St. P.ul's Epistles (2 Cor. 
■»i. 16, is a quotation) in which ivoiKuv 

iv vfuv occurs, and which, though the 
rh ivoiKouv is difllerent, go far to fix the 
meaning in the present case. The 

indwelling was to be ■KXaxxrims, ' richly,' 
' not with a scanty foothold, but with a 
large and liberal occupancy,' Eadie. 
iv IT afff) ff o<l>la ifi not to be connected 
with what precedes (Syr., — but appar- 
ently not Chrys., as asserted by Meyer, 
Alf.), but with what follows, as in ch. i. 
28. The construction is then perfectly 
harmonious ; ivoiKelra has its single ad- 
verb irKovffius, and is supported and ex- 
panded by two co-ordinate participial 
clauses, each of which has its spiritual 
manner or element of action (iv irdffrf 
a-o^ia, iv x^P'T' ) more exactly defined ; 
see notes on ch. i. 28. 
SiSdffK. Kal vov^er. iavr.] 'teach- 
ing and admonishing one another : ' on the 
meaning and force of vouberftv, see notes 
on ch. i. 28. On the possible force of 
iavTovs, see notes on ver. 1 3 : here it is 
more probably simply for a\\ri\ovs ; see 
"Winer, Gr. § 22. 5, p. 136. On the very 
intelligible participial anacoluthon, see 
Green, Gr. p. 313, notes on Eph. iii. 18, 
and on Phil. i. 30. 

\f/oA/xo7s, Sixvois, K. T. A.] 'with 
psalms, hymns, spiritual songs ; ' instru- 
ment by which, or vehicle in which 
(Mey.), the SiSaxh and vov^eTriffis were 
to be communicated. Mill and Tisch. 
connect these datives with the following 
words, but not with propriety, as dSovrts. 

Cu\r. HI. 10. 17. 



tav iroiriTe iu koyro rj ev ^pyro, iruvra tv ovular i Irjaov Xfjtarou 
cvyapicTovi'T€'i toj fc)eai TruTpi Bi ainov. 

lias already two defining; members asso- 
iKited wiili it. On t!ie di.-liiution be- 
tween tlic term;;, and the force of irv*v- 
fiar. (' buili a.s tlie Holy Spirit insj)ireii '), 
see notes on tlic parallel passai^e, J'/jIi. 
V. 10. Meyer remarks that the sinj;ing, 
cte , here allnded to, was not iieeessarily 
ftt divine scrviee, but at the ordinary so- meeiiii;rs ; see rleni.-Alc.x. Ptnl. ii. 
4. 43, Vol. I. p. 194 (ed. Pott.), where 
this passa;:e is referred to ; eomparc Sui- 
eer, T/usaur. Vol. ii. p. 15G8. On the 
hymns used by t!ic aneient ehureli in her 
services, sec lJinj;ham, Antiq. xiv. 2. 1. 
The copula Kol after \^aAMO''j IC-D'-'D^E 
KL] and after ZfjLvois [AC^D'EKL] 
seems to have come from the sister pas- 
sage, and is ri^litiy rejected by iMchm., 
Tiscli., and most modern editors. 
iv r^ xdf^iTi ^5.] ' i'/« (j'race siiiff- 
iitij:' participial clause co-ordinate to 
the forc^'oing, 6|)ecifying another form of 
singing, viz., tliat of the inward heart ; 
see Ep!i. v. 19, and notes in /or. 'Ev t^ 
Xip- {liic. omits tj; with A1)''E-KL ; 
al.] is obviously parallel to iv trdirr) ao- 
fpiif, and serves to define the characteris- 
tic element to whicli the ^Stij* was to be 
circumscribed (see notes on ch. i. 28); 
it was to be in the clement, and with 
the accompaniment of Divine grace : so 
Chrys. 2, dirb t7,s xf^f'TosTof' n»'«iVoTos, 
CEcnm., ita rfjy irapa lov aylov ni-ft'.ua- 
Toj Sodci'o")]! x^^""^"*' ''0''' "f which, how- 
over, are rather coarse of the 
preposition. The interpretations ' quod 
sc utilitatc commendct,' Beza, 'with be- 
coming tliankfulness,' l)e Wettc, etc., 
an* uns;itisfacton,-, and xopi«VTo»r, Grot., 
' in dexteritate quadam gratio.^'i,' Da- 
vcnant 2, untenable, as tlic singing was 
not aloud, but in the silence of the heart 
(Moy.). iv Ta7i KapS iais 

vna y\ ' in your ficiirts ; ' locality of the 
f Stiv. Thi:> f S((i> iy toTs ko^S. is not an 

expansion of the preceding, defining its 
projKjr characteristics or accompani- 
ments (fxi) fi6yoy rf ar6fiari, Theod.) — 
in wiiich case the clause would l>e fiilior- 
(liiKite, — but s|)ecilies another kind of 
singing, viz., that of the inward heart lo 
Ciod, the former being iauroTs : see notes 
on Kfih. V. 19. The reading Kvpiy [Iltc. 
with C'-'D KKL) seems clearly to have 
arisen from the parallel passage. 

17. iruv 8 T i... tpya] An absolute 
nom. standing out of regimen and 
placed at the beginning of the sentence 
with a slight emiihatie force ; see Jelf, 
(Jr. § 477. 1. This seems slightly more 
correct than to regard it as an accusative 
reflected from the following vitna, as 
api>arently Steiger and Dc Wctte. 
■wivra is certainly not advirbial (Storr, 
compare Kypke, Ols. Vol. ii. p. 329), 
nor even a resumption of the preceding 
■Kuv, hut an accus. governed by -Koiurf, 
suj)plied from the preceding xoiTre ; 
compare notes on Kfihes. v. 22 What 
had been stated indiviilnally in ■wav 8 t« 
K. r. \. is now expressed more fully and 
collectively by tovto. It is difiii ult to 
understand how the reverse can In? ilie 
case (F.adie). and the plural 'individual- 
izing.' iy iy6iMaTi '1. 
\p.] ' in the name ofJistis Ciirist;' not 
' invocatoillius adjutorio,' Daven. (»fa\*i 
rhv Tloy, Chrj's. ), but, as in Kph. v. 20, 
'in the name, in that holy and spiritual 
clement which His name l)Ctokens ; ' 
see notes on K/Jus. I. c, on Phil. li. 10, 
and comptiic Barrow, isrm. xxxiii. 6, 
Vol. II. p. 323, where every possible 
meaning is stated and exhau>tcd ; see 
also Whichcotc, Disc. XLiii. Vol. ii. p. 
2S9 sq. (AI>oril. 1731 ), — one of a i-ourse 
of thiec valuable sermons on this text, 
and comp. Deveridge, Serin cix. Vol. v. 
p. 116 sq. (A.-{\ Libr.). 
fvXo.p- Ty e « <p It. T. A. ] ' giving thiuiLt 



CuAP. ni. 18, 19. 

Wives and husbands, chii- '^^ Al yvvaiKe^, vTroTuccea^e rot? av^pdaiVf 

dren and parents, observe f>»^ 'f' ^0/^'''S^ ' "■ 

your duties Servants, obey ««? aVTlKeV ev KvpM. ^-^ Ul avbp6^, ajaiTaTi 

your masters and be faitliful ; masters, be just. 

to God the Father through Ilim ; ' attend- 
ant service with which the (TroiejTe) Trdura 
K.T.K. is to be ever associated ; comp. Epli. 
V. 20, and see notes on vcr. 15, and on 
Phil. iv. 6 ; add Ilofmann, Schrlftb. Vol. 
II. 2, p. 336, wlio less probably limits 
the evxaf- to thankfulness for ability 
thus to do all ef ov6)x. k. t. \. Tlie read- 
ing 06y Kal TTUTpl (Rcc.) is well support- 
ed [DEFGK; mss.; Vulg., Clar., al.], 
but opposed to AC and B (an important 
witness in these verses, see crit. note) ; 
some mss. ; Goth., Copt., Sah., al. : Clem, 
and many Ff. ; so also Lachni. and Tlsch. 
18. ai yvvalKe s] This verse and 
the eight following (iii. IS-iv. 1) con- 
tain special precepts, nearly the same as 
those in the latter part of ch. v. and the 
bei^inning of cli. vi. of tlie Epistle to the 
Ephesians. Such a similarity, often ex- 
tending to words and phrases, is notice- 
able, and not very easy to account for, 
except on the somewhat obvious suppo- 
sition that social precepts of tliis nature 
addressed, in the first instance, to t!ie 
Christians of Colossse and Laodicea, were 
known and felt by the apostle to be 
equally necessary and applicable to tlie 
church of Ephesus and the Christians 
ofLydia. The exhortations in the past 
Epistles are urged under somewhat dif- 
ferent aspects. A comparison of the two 
Epistles will here be found very instruc- 
tive ; it seems to lead to the opinion that 
the shorter Epistle was written first ; com- 
pare notes on E/ih, vi. 21. Alford in 
he. seems of a contrary opinion, but is 
in some degree at issue with his Prole- 
gomeua, p. 42. viror. 

Tots apSp.] ' submit yourselves to your 
husbands ; ' see notes on Eph. v. 22, where 
the same precept occurs nearly in the 
same language. The addition j5/oiy 
[Rec. with L ; many mss. ; Vv. and Ff.] 

is opposed to the authority of all the 
other uncial manuscripts. 
ws avriKev\ 'as it became fittinj ,' 'as 
it should be,' as was still more your duty 
wlicn you entered upon your Christian 
profession. The imperf. not perf, Huth.) 
is not for the ])resent (compare Thorn. 
M. s. v., p. 751, ed. Bern.), but, as the 
associated iv Kvplo) still more clearly 
shows, has its proper force, and points to 
conditions that were simultaneous with 
their entrance into Christianity, but 
wliich were still not eompldtly fnljillod ; 
see Winer, Gr. § 40. 3, p. 242. and Bern- 
hardy, Synt. X. 3, p. 373, add also Ilcro- 
dian, s. v., p. 468 (ed. Tiers.), where in 
the similar forms irpoffTiKf, fXP't") «56j, 
the tense is properly recognized. On 
the frequently recurring eV Kvpiai, here 
to be connected with avTiKev (compare 
vcr. 20), not with uttotoo-o-. (Chrysost., 
Theoph.), see notes on Eph. iv. 16, vi. 1, 
Phil. ii. 19. al. 

19. 0* &u5pes K. T. \.] Repeated 
in Eph. V. 25, but there enhanced by a 
comparison of the holy bond between 
Christ and His Church. The encyclical 
letter enters into greater and deeper re- 
lations, fii) iriKpal- 
vea^e] 'do not be embittered ; ' compare 
Eph. iv. 31. The verb occurs in its 
simple sense, Rev. viii. 11, x. 9, 10 ; liere 
in its mctajjlioiical sense, as occasionally 
both in classical (e. 9. Plato, Legij. v. p. 
701 D, associated with aKpaxo\f7t/, [De- 
mostli.] Epist. p. 1464, joined with fivj]- 
aiKaKuv), and post-classical, writers, e.g. 
Exod. xvi. 20, iiriKpivSti} eV ahrds, al., 
comp. Joseph. Autiq. v. 7. 1, ivixpaivi- 
fievos vphs avTovs. The form is appar- 
ently pass, with a middle force ('medial- 
pass.,' Kriiger) ; compare Theocr. Tdyll. 
v. 120, and Schol. in loc, viKpaiveraf 
\viruTcu, and see Kruger, Sprachl. § 52 

PiJAP III. 20,21. 

C L O S S 1 A N S 


TCf yvfaiKU^ Kill fit) TTiKpaivea^e irpo'i ai/ra?. ® To. T€Kva inra' 
Kovcre Tots "/uvevaiu Kara ttuutu' toCto yap evapearov eariv €V 
Kvpup. -' 01 T7aTep€<i, fit) epe'^i^ere to. rtKva vp.a)i>, iva fxi) ti^i/- 

20. tvdiHarSy iirriy] So Tisch. (ed. I), Ijochm., A{f., al., with AUCDE ; 3 iiiss. 
( Vv. in siuli lasvs aru haiillv to be ivliid on). Tisih. (cd. 2, 7) ado[)ti) the reversed 
order with FCiKL ; and (^re^it majority of n\n<., — appartnily virv in^uOii-ient 

6. 1, wlicrc a lar;;e li^t of such verbs is 
given, wiili cxami/les. < )n tl»e derivation 
of ■wiKpos [from a root niK- 'pierced 'J, 
see Buttmann, I^jH. § 56, coini). Don- 
alds. Cnil^jl. § 26G. 

20. iwuK. Toiy 7 Of. k. t. A.] ' /•«• 
obedient to your parents in all ihimjs ; ' 
comp. Epli. vi. 1. There the exhorta- 
tion is act'ompanied with a sprciul rcf. 
lo the fifth eommandinent ; here tlial 
reference is applied only, and involved 
in the argumentative clause. The com- 
prehensive ri Trama is obviously to be 
regarded as tlie pcncral rule ; excep- 
tional cases (to?i yt acffifirt -rarpj.ffiv oi 
Kara Tarro St7 inroucoitiy, Tlieophyiact) 
would be easily recognized ; the great 
apostle was ever more occupie<l with 
the rule than witli the exceptions to it. 
On the exceptions in the present case, 
see Bp. Taylor, Duct. Dub. iii. .'), Rule 
1. and 4 sq. The form vxcucovfty, if not 
stronger than v-xotaaa. (De W.), has a 
more inclusive aspect as implying ' dicio 
o'jtemj>enire,' — no: merely submission 
to nutiiority, but obedience to a com- 
mand ; see Tittmann, Synon, i. p. 193. 
rovro yap k. r. \.] 'for this is wtll- 
jlaising in the Lord; ' obviously not ' to 
tlio Lord' (Copt., fHxhaps following a 
differoni reading), ^k not being a * nota 

dat.,' nor even ' coram * ^|>0 Syriac, 

•apud,' ^Eth (Pol), but, a-s in ver. 18 
nnd elsewhere, ' in Domino,' Vulg., Cla- 
rom., Goth., the prep, defining the sphere 
in whidi the rh (I'dptaroy was especiallv 
felt and evinced to be so. The reading 

of Ptc, TO! Kvpiu, ha* not the supjort of 
any uncial MS., and is njected by all 
modem editors. 

21. nh ip(dlC*Tf] ' do itot irritate :' 
duty of fatliers, expressed on the negative 
side ; comi)are I'pli. vi. 4. The com- 
mand there is n^i vapopyi^fTf, l)etween 
wliic!> and the present tlie difference is 
perhaps scarcely appreciable. The for- 
mer verb perhajis points to provocation 
to a deeper feeling, the latter (' irritare ') 
to one more partial and transitory. The 
derivation of iptbi^v and ipibtt is not 
perfectly cenain, it is commonly referred 
to (pis [Lol>eck, Piithvi. p. 438, Bcnfey, 
Wttrzelltx. Vol. I. p. 102], ^^ ^iKovtuco- 
rtpovs avTobs r3if7Tf, Ohn'so-t., — but 
comp. Pott, £t. Fvrsch. Vol. ii. p. 162, 
and Benfey, Wurzdlac. Vol. it. p. 340. 
Lachntann here, accor.ling to his jirinci- 
ples, reads rapopyi^frf witii ACD'E'F 
GL ; al. Though well supported, u can 
scarcely be doubted that it is a confor- 
mation to Ephes. /. c. 
'fa fii} advfi] ' in ordtr that they luay 
not be disheartened;' th it th< v may not 
have a broken spirit and pxss into apa- 
thy and desperation, by seeing their 
parents so liJirsh and difficult to please ; 
compare Com. a Lap. in loc. The verb 
a^vixflf is an &w. \fy6u. in the X. T., 
but sufficiently common Loth in the 
LXX. (1 Sara. i. 7, xv. 11), and el.-e- 
where ; see examples in Wetst., who 
cites a penincnt passage from ^Eneas 
Tact. [ap. Fabric, iii. 30. 10]. Poliorret. 
3S, opy^ 5« iij\biva utrttrat rwy rvx^y^ttf 
iydpwTa/y ib^i'fi^Tfpot yiip f/fr if. 



Chap. III. 22, 23, 

fiwaiv. ^ 01 8ov\.oi, vTraKovere Kara Trdvra roh Kara adpKa 
KvpiOi'?, fXTj ev 6c})^d\/jioBouXeiai<; w? dv^poyrrdpecrfcot, dW ev dir- 
XorrjTi Kaphla^ (f)oj3ovfjbevoL tov Kvpiov. ^'^ o idv Troujre, €k '^V)(i]<i 

22. 1 SoCAoi] Duties of slaves, 
more fully detailed, yet closely siin., both 
ia arguments and language, in the paral- 
lel passage in Eph. vi. .5 sq., where see 
notes. On the general drift and object 
of these frequently recurring exhorta- 
tions to slaves, see note on 1 Tim. vi. I 
sq. ro7s Kara ffdpKa 

Kvp]' your masters uccordlnfj tu tlic flesh ;' 
your bodily, earthly masters ; you have 
anot'.ier blaster in heaven : ' oi Kara udp- 
Ka Kvp. tacite distinguuntur a Ci.risto,' 
Fritz, nom. Vol. ii. p. 270. There is 
apparently no consolatory force in the 
addition {irp6<TKaipos t] SouKsia Chrysost., 
Tlieoph. ; sira. Theod., Q2cum.) ; see 
notes on Ej)h. 1. c. On the neglected 
distinction between Kvpws and Stffirorjjs, 
see Trench, Sijnon. § 28, com]). Ammon. 
Dijf. Voc. \). 39 (ed. Valck.). 
iy ocp^aKfioSovKfiats] 'in acts oj" 
ei/e-service ; ' Kar 6(pda\fj.o5ov\eiau, Eph. 
vi. 6 ; the primary refei-ence to the mas- 
ter's eye (Zanders. Sirm. vii. 67, ad 
Pop.), passes into the secondary ref to 
falsehearted and hypocritical service gen- 
erally. For examples of this use of the 
plural, compare James ii. 1, dv irpocrwiro- 
K7i\p'iais, and the long list in Gal. v. 20, 
where sec notes and grammatical refer- 
ences. L-ichin. here reads 6(^&a\,uoSou- 
Aei? with ABDEFG ; 6 mss. ; Dam., 
Thcoph., Chrysost. (varies) : in spite of 
this preponderance of uncial autliority we 
seem justified on crilicol. principles in re- 
taining with CKL ; great mass of mss. ; 
Clem., Thcod., CEcumen. (Rec, TisrL), 
— the plural, which, even independently 
of the parallel passage, was so likely to 
be changed to a reading supposed to be 
more in harmony with the dy aTrAJrrjTi 
KapSi'as in the correlative member which 
follows. ^i' air\6r. Kap- 

Slas] ' in singleness of heart,' in freedom 

from all dishonesty, duplicity, and false 
show of industry ; see Eph. vi. 5. where 
the meaning is slightly more limited by 
the preceding clause ixerh. <p60ov koX rpS- 
fiov. On tl'.e scriptural meaning and ap- 
plication of ' doubleness of heart,' see 
Beck, Seeleiil. iii. 26, p. 106. Ilere, as 
Meyer observes, ev drrAJr. in the nega- 
tive clause answers to eV o<J)^a\/xo5. in 
tlie jiositive, and the following cpoplov/j. 
rhv Ki'p. to ojj avibpcii-^rdpeaKoi. Tiie read- 
ing is again sli'ilitlji doubtful. Rec. lias 
Qi6v, with D^E-Iv ; mss. ; Lachm. and 
Tisch. adopt Kipiov, with ACCDiEiP 
GL. — which is certainly to be preferred, 
as there seems nothing in Eph. /. c. to 
which it could be a conforma'ion. 

23. h ihv iroifjTc] More specific 
explanation and expansion of the pre- 
ceding positive exhortations. Again, 
there is a difference of reailing ; that of 
the text is found in ABCD^FG, and 
adopted by Lachm. and Tisch. The 
Rec. Ka\ vav 3 tj iav is feebly supported 
[D'D'EKL], and possibly a reminis- 
cence of ver. 17. Alford prefixes km, 
apparently by an oversight. 
e/c y\ivxvA 'from the heart (soul);* 
stronger than ip an\6T. KapS. above, scil. 
e'l ehvoias /cat oVt) SvuafjLts, CEcum., and 
as opposed to any outward constraint, 
Delitzsch, Psi/chol. iv. 7, p. 1G2: comp. 
on Eph. vi. 7. is tcS Ki/p. 

K. T. A.] ' as to the Lord and not to men ; ' 
dat. of ' interest,' Kriiger, Sprachl. § 48. 
4. The Q>s serves to mark the mode in 
which, or the aspects under which, the 
service was to bo viewed ; see Bernliar- 
dy, Si/)it. VII. 1, p. 333, Fritz. Rom. 
Vol. II. p. 360, and notes on Eph. v. 22, 
where this interpretation of ws is more 
fully investigated. It is objected to by 
Eadie {on Col. p. 258), but a])parentlj 
without full reason, being grammaiicallj 

CUAP. III. -Ji, JJ. 



if/ydt^ea^^e w^ Tfp Kvjjt'^i Kat ovk u.i>\^puyTroi<;^ -^ etoore? on utto 
Kvpiou a7ro\/)/i'»/rtcr"^t" tijv avraiTuouaiv T/'ys" K\ripovOfiia\. TfO 
Kvpi'o Xpiarco cuv\tv^T€' '•" u yup doiKOiv Kop-iatTUL o tjOtKijcrev, 
Kol OVK tdTiv 7rpoaa)7ro\T]fj.yfria. 

exact and :i|ij);iiciill\ c.\c;^ctirally .satis- 
factory. Tlic iicj;utivc ouie, us usually 
in sutli o|>|H)site iucMnl>LTs, is ubsolutc 
ami olijvi-iivi.' ; tlu-y wtri.' to work as 
workers to ilic Lonl ami iioii-woikLTs to 
men ; tlicy wt-re iKit to serve two musters 
(Mey.); coinj). Winer, (Jr. § jj. I, p. 
422, Ureen, Gr. p. lL>l sq. 

24. tiSirfi] ' set iwj yi: know : ' cau- 
sal jtartiiijjle, ^'ivinj; the rea.<on for the 
preeetlin.; coiniiiaml ; compare eli. iv I, 
ami the parallel passa;.'e, Kpli. vi. 8. 
oiri Kupfouj' lium tin- Lord' not pcr- 
fcetly iileutieal with rapa Kvf>lou Eph. vi. 
8, but, witli the proper force of the prep., 
cxpre.ssiveof jiroceiliire from, as from t!ie 
more rimule ulijcet : see Winer, (Jr 47. h, 
p. 326, ami notes uii (Jal. i. II. The re- 
mark of Ladie that airh niarks that the •xifc 
'comes immnli'atdi/ from Christ,' is thus 
wiiolly untenalile. In vapa ( more usual in 
pei^onal relations) the primary idea of 
sitn])le motion from the suhject jmsses 
into the more usual one of motion from 
the immeiliato neij^hhorhood of the oh- 
jeet ; seo Donalds. Crat. §177, Winer, 
/. c, p. .'527. rijv avrair. t fj s 

K A 7} p. I ' llie rtcompeuge oj'lhf iu/ici itanre' 
i. e. tlie ro 'ompensc which is the inheri- 
tance, tT/s K\Tjpov. hcin;; the jren. of ideiiti- 
ty or ajijiosilt'oii, Scheucrl. Si/nt. § 12. 1, 
PI). 82, 85, Wi. (j'r. § 5'J. 8. a, p. 470. This 
K\rif>ovo,ula is oltviou-ly the KKiipof. {iv 
Tjj paat\(i(f rov Xp. kcu &(oii, lOpll. v. 5), 
which was reserved for them hereafter; 
compare I I'ct. i. 4, and on the meaning 
of the term,, T/wol. C/ml. iv. 22, 
Vol. II. p. 249. The doulile compound 
avravuSoaii in an Ht. \fy6iji. in the N. T , 
hut nut uncommon clsewlierc (I-a. l.\i. 
2, Ilo.sea ix. 7, Polyb. Hist. vi. 5. :i, and 
with a local reference, iv. 43.5, al.): 
ilio verb is found several times in the 

N. T., and the puss, compound, ayrairi- 
iofia, twice. Luke xiv. 12, Koin. \i. 9 
(quotation). The filom fuadawoSoffiar 
only occurs in cursive uiss. 
T <fi K V p. X p. 8ouA.] ' Sfrcf ye the Lord 
Clirist : ' brief yet coniprciiensive state- 
ment ol liie duty of Boi\ot, n';,'arJed in 
its true li;;ht, iii t^ Ki/pii^ koI ovk ay^fxi- 
iroij, ver. 23. So di>iini'tly, im|>erative, 
Vul;.'., Copt. (an-iiU),^Eih. (Pol. ; mis- 
tran.-lated) ; Claronianus less probubljr 
adopts the present. The readinj; is 
scarcely doubtful : Rtc. inserts 7ap with 
D-D3(i:?)KL; Syriac (both), JCthiopic 
(Plait), Goth., al., but with very little 
])rol)ability, beiny^ weaker than t!ie text 
in uncial auiiiority [ADt'C-'D'Ej, and 
suspicious as helpinj^ out the seeming 
want of connection. 

25. 6 yap aiiKuf] 'fur the xcroiig- 
doer.' It is sli;;htly doubtful whcihcr i 
aSiKwv refers to the master (Tlieod.), to 
the slaves (Theopli.), or, more compre- 
hensively, to both (llulher). The prc- 
vaiiing meaning; of aSixfly in the N. T. 
(' iiijuriam faeere,' Vulj;. ; ex. e])t Rev. 
xxii. II, but surely not Philcm. 18, as 
Eadic), ami still more the sucixvdini; 
clau>e, OVK (ffTif ■wpoain'K., seem decided- 
ly in favor of the former; so t!iat tho 
verse must be re;:arded as supplying: cn- 
rouraj.'cment and con.-«oluiion to ^bivcs 
w hen sutlVrinj; oj>j)rtssion or injus:it-e at 
the hands of their masters ; Sunt ^r\ai, 
KOif /u)j ^vxriTt aya^wv a.yTiZ6<T*<iiv ra^ 
tuy Stff-w6To>y, iffrl SixcuoKpiTrjs tt oi-it 
o73( iovKov ttal B*<rw6rov Sia^upai-, aWii 
StKaiay fta<pipu Tr,v \li?,<po¥, Theod. 
Konia-fTai] ' xliall ri-ciivi; ImicI:,' as it 
wcR» a de|)osit : not so much a bracliy- 
lo;.'y as a pre^ant statement, ' he shall 
receive back i ^SiVrjat in the form of jast 
retribution,' Winer, Gram. § 66. 1. b, p. 



Chap. IV. 1-3. 

IV. 01 KvpLOi, TO BiKUiov Kol Trjv laoTrjTa TOi? Sov\oi<i Tra- 
pi'x^ea^e, elB6Te<; oti koI vfieL<i e^ere Kvptov iv ovpavw. 

Pray for us and for our sue- ^ Tfj TrpOaeVXjj 7rp0aKapr€pelT€j ypiJJOpOVV- 

eese in the Gospel. Walk j > « > j / Q ' r/ 

wisely, epeak to the point, "^^^ ^^ «l^T?7 ^J^ €VXapL<TTLa, <^ TTpOaeUXOfJ^eVOi UflU 
and be ready to answer them that ask. 

547. The future refers to the day of 
final retril)ution ; see on Eph, vi. 8. 
wpotrcoTroATjjLiif/^o]' respect of persons ;' 
see notes on Gal. ii. 6, and on the (Alex- 
andrian) insertion of ;u, Tisch. Proleyom. 
p. xlvi. sq. (ed. 7). In the parallel pas- 
sage, Eph. vi. 9, Trapa avTw (Rom. ii. 11. 
ix. 14) is added [FG irapa tw Qey], in 
which case the prep, its prevailing 
idea of closeness to (comp. on ver. 24), 
and marks the ethical presence witli the 
object (Latin in] of the quality alluded 
to ; comp. Matt Gr. § 588. b. 

CiiAPTEK IV. 1. Oi Kvptoi] The du- 
ties of masters are enunciated on the 
positive side ; in the parallel passage, 
Ephes. vi. 9, the addition, avievres tV 
aiTfiK'fiv, defines also the negative side. 
ri}!/ iiT oTTjra] ' equity.' The associa- 
tion of this word with rh S'lKaiov and the 
undoubted occurrence of it in a similar 
sense elsewhere (see Philo, de Just. § 4, 
Vol. II. p. 363 (cd. Mang.), and esp. 
§ 14, ib. p. 374, where it is termed the 
H^rpT) SiKaio(rvi/r)i) seem fully to justify 
the more derivative meaning adopted 
above : so Syr., Vulg., ^th. (Pol.), ap- 
parently Copt., and distinctly Chrysost., 
and the Greek commentators ; iVoTrjra 
iKuKfore -riju trpoariKOvaav fTrtfxfKnau, 
Theod. : so De W., ISeander (Planting, 
Vol. I. p. 488), Alf., and the majority 
of modern expositors. Meyer, and after 
him Eadic (with modifications), contend 
for the more literal meaning 'equality' 
(2 Cor. viii. 13, 14, compare Job xxxvi. 
29), i.e. the equality of condition in 
spiritual matters which Christianity 
brought with it; compare Philcm. 16: 
BO perhaps Goth. Xl nassu [similitudinera ; 

cognate with 'even']. This is ingenious 
and plausible, but, on account of the as- 
sociation with TO SiKOJOj', not satisfactory. 
In such a case we may with some profit 
refer to the ancient Vv. and Greek com- 
mentators. Trape'xeffi^e] 
' siipjily on your side ; ' middle, Acts xix. 
24, Tit. ii. 7 ; active elsewhere in the 
N. T. In this form of the middle voice, 
called the ' dynamic ' (Kriiger, SpracM. 
§ 52. 8), or 'intensive' middle, the ref- 
erence to the powers put forth by the 
subject is more distinct than in the ac- 
tive, which simply states the action ; 
compare Donalds. Gram. § 432. 2, 6A4. 
Such delicate shades of meaning can 
scarcely be expressed in translation, but 
no less exist ; see especially Kriiger, /. c, 
where this verb is particularly noticed, 
and Kuster, de Verb. Med. § 49. The 
diflTtrence appears to have been partially 
appreciated by Ammonius, in his too 
narrow distinction, irapfx^"' M««' Aeyeroi 
TO Sia. x^^P^s ^iS6neva, Trape'xeCi^oi 5e inl 
rwv TTjs "^vxyis Sta^eaeaii', olov irpo^vjxiav, 
(tivoiav [but see Acts xxviii. 2, al.], de 
Diff. Vac. p. 108 (cd. Valck.) 
els 6t f s K. T. A.] ' seeing ye know that 
ye also ; ' causal participle, as in chapter 
iii. 24. The ascensive *col hints that 
masters and slaves stand really in like 
conditions of dci)endcncc ; uxrirtp iKfTvot 
iifias, ovTw Kal vfifls ex^'''^ Ki'pioj', The- 
oph. The reading in the last word of 
the verse is not quite certain : Rec. with 
good uncial authority [DEFGKL] reads 
ovpavots, but not without suspicion, on 
account of the parallel passage, Eph. vi. 
9. The singular is found in ABC ; al. 
(Luchm., Tisch.). 

2. Tj7 IT p oa evxfi trpocK.] 'con- 

C iiAi-. IV. 2, 3. C O L O S S I A N S . 201 

KoX Trepl 'ifJ-iov, iva 6 &eu^ duoi'^r] 'ifjilu "^vpav tov Xcr/ov, XaXijaai 

tiiiue iiistint in your prayr;' Worn. xii. 
12, AvU i. 14. The verl) TrpoaKaprnniv 
occurs several times in llie N. T., and in 
the ni:ijority of ciises, as here, witli u dat., 
in wliich couibiniiiiou it u|i|>eurii to de- 
note an euriKsl adiierenee and attention 
whetlier to a per-oii (Acts viii. 13) or to 
a thin;^ ; irpoaKap. tVj wpoatuxv, in f'P* 
Ttvos i-inirSuov, Chrys. Ii is I'uiinil in the 
LXX. (Num. xiii. 20, ali.sohjiely), and 
in rolvh. (lltst. I. 5.-). 4, I. iiO. 12, al.) 
botli ahsolutely and witli a (hitive rti or 

ypriy pov UT f s iv auTp] * Iniitg 
tvatclij'iil in it ; ' modal chiu.^e to irpoff- 
KOfntptiv : tliey were not to he dull and 
lieavy in this jrreat duty, hut wakeful 
and active; compare Eph. vi. 18, 1 Pet. 
iv. 7. 'Ev is here not instrumental (l)e 
Wette), but, as usual, denotes the g/i/ifre 
in which the wakefulness and alacrity 
was to he cvince<l. 

if «ux«p*<'"''io] ' ir//7( thiink-sijiriiKi.' 
This clause is not to lie connected with 
the finite verb, but with the |)articiple, 
and, as in Eph. vi. 18 (see notes), spcci- 
wCS the peculiar arcuiii/Hiniutint, or con- 
comitant act with which tj irpoa. was to 
be associated ; Tovrtari fxtrk fux'V"'"''''" 
ravTTfv voioUvrts, Theophil. This not, 
uncommon use of iv in the N. T. (eV <«/- 
j'unctin) to denote an attendant act, ele- 
ment, or cinumstanto, has scarcely re- 
ceived from Winer [iir. ^ 48. a, |). 344) 
the notice it deserves ; see notes on di. 
ii. 7, 0)1 Kjifi. V. 2G, and Oreen, (ir. p. 
289. On the duty of ti'<x<V<''''{a see notes 
on ch. iii. 15. and on Phil iv. G. 

3. Kol ir*pl fj fi wv] 'for us tiUo ; ' 
soil, for tlie apostle and Timothy, not for 
the apostle alone (Chrys., Theophil): 
the chanjre to the singular in the last 
«:lau.<;e of the verse (5*8«>ia«) would other- 
wise .<ecm pointless ; see notes on ch. i. 
8. On the almost interchani^ealiL' mean- 
ings of ir«^l and inctp in this and similar 

formnlje, see notes on Pliil. i. 7, and on 
Kfli. vi. 19. If a K. T. k] 

Subject of the prayer blended with liie 
purjx)se of makiii;; it : use of Iva in ref- 
erence to secondary pur|>ose ; sec notes 
on Phil. i. 9, and on K/ih. i. 17. 
iivol^jl Tintf K. T. A.) ' niiiy oitm to 
us a door o/t/w uxnd ; ' i. c. may remove 
any obstacle to the prcachin-: of the gos- 
pel. The dvpa is thus not exactly *iao- 
Sos Kol iro/J^7)ffia (Chrys., Gieutu.), but 
involves a fi;,'urative repixsenlation of 
obstructions and impediment.^ that barred 
the way to preaching the (Josiiel, which 
were removed when the ^vpa was open- 
ed ; compare Acts xiv. 27, 1 Cor xvi. 
9, 2 Cor. ii. 12, Suicer, Tlimaur. Vol. i. 
p. 1415, and examples in Wet.-tein ort 
1 Cor. i. c. KaK^iva i] 

Intin. of purpose and intention ; see notes 
on eh. i. 23, where this construction is 
discussed. On the meaning and deriva- 
tion of \a\f'iv ' vocem ore emittere,' see 
notes on Tit. ii. 1, and on the distinction 
between AaAtji' (rii t«to7m«»''«» Tpo<pipf- 
a^ou rhv Koyov) a.\\f\ Xiftiv (rh aTOJCTcts 
iK<piptiv TO €i'iroirirTo»'Ta jiTitiaTa). — a 
distinction, however, which cannot al- 
ways l>e maintained in the N. Test., see 
Ammonius,/^///'. \'oc. p. 87 (ed. Valck.). 
fivff T-fi piov TOV Xp.]'the mysti-iyo/ 
C/iriil ; ' not ' the mystery relating to 
Christ,* gen. oljtcli (l)e \V.,eonii). Eph. 
i. 9), but gen. snljicli, 'the mystery of 
which He is the sum and substance ; ' 
see notes on Eph. iii. 4, and tomparc on 
CW. ii. 2. On the meaning of /iwrr^pio*', 
see on Ephes. v. 32, and Keuss, ThAi. 
Chret. IV. 9, Vol. ii. )). 89. 
8i' h Ka\ B*Sffiai\ '/r which I 
hint al.'io iMtn lionnd ; ' ' which I have 
preached even fitxp' Stffuwf' (2 Tim. ii. 
9), the ascensive koI marking tlic cx- 
tn.>me to which he had procectlcd in his 
evangelical lalnirs : he had endured pii- 
vations and sufferings, and now beside 



Chap. IV. 4, 5 

TO fj,v(7T7]ptov Tov Xpiarov, Sl o koX BeSefxai, * iva (pavepooaco avTo 
&)9 3ei j.i€ XaXi'jaac. ^ Ev ao(pia TrepLTrareire Trpo? toj)? e^oo, top 

that, bonds. The pevf. Se'Sejuat (' I have 
been and am hound') seems clearly to 
evince that the apostle was now in cap- 
tivity : tliat tills was at Rome, not at 
Csesarea (Jlcy., Einl. p. 5), is satisfacto- 
rily shown hy Alford, Prolegom. p. 20 
sq. com])ared with p. 39. The reading 
Si' ov, adc'pted hy Laclim. with BFG ; 
Boern,, has not sufficient external sup- 

4. 'Iva (p a V e p <!} (T 'jo\ 'in order that I 
may make it manifest.' It is somewhat 
doubtful whctlier tliis clause depends {«) 
on 5e'o€^at, Chrys., Bong., al. ; compare 
Phil i. 12, 2 Tim. ii. 9 ; {!>) on irpocreu- 
xifJ-fvoi, Do W., Baumg.-Crus., al. ; (<.■) 
on the preccdhig iiirmitival clause of ])ur- 
pose, \aK7,crai. rh ij.v(nr\piov, vcr. 3, Mey., 
al., or more gcneralh', on the whole pur- 
pose involved in the verse, viz. unob- 
structed, unhindered speaking. Of these 
(a) involves a paradoxical assertion, 
which here, without any further explana- 
tion or expansion, seems somew'nat oltt- 
potrSo/cTjToj' and out of place : [h] impairs 
the continuity of tlie sentence, and puts 
a prayer which thus taken per se would 
naturally be referred to subjunctive ca- 
pabilities in somewhat awkward paral- 
lelism with one which refers to the re- 
moval of objective hindcrances : (c) on 
the contrary, keeps up the continuity, 
and carries out with proper modal addi- 
tions {ws Set ,U6 KaX'icrai) the \a\y(Tai 
which was the object involved in the 
prayer ; oiix oircas airaWayci) rwu Secr/jicov, 
OA.A. OTTus \a\ri(Tcj} ra ixvffT-ripiov tov 'S.pia'- 
Tov, Theopll. ws del fxe 

\a\ri<T ai\ 'as I oiujht to speak ; ' so, 
but witli a slightly different reference, 
Eph. vi. 20. This was not to be ixira 
iroWTis rys irappriaias Kol fXTj^fi/ viroffTei- 
Kifjifvou (Chrys.) while in prison (which 
is apparently the sentiment mainly con- 
veyed in Eph. /. c), nor with any sub- 

jective reference to his inward duty (Da- 
venant, Hammond), but, as the previous 
avo'.^ri bvpav seems to suggest, simply 
and objectively, ' as I ought to do it (scii. 
freely and unrestrainedly), so as best to 
advance and further the gospel.' While 
5f5€/x4i/os he could not \a\?icrai as tSe* 
avThi/ \a\7iaai ; see Meyer in loc. Eudie 
unites both the subjective and objective 
reference : the phrase is confessedly gen- 
eral, still the context seems to point, 
mainly and principally, if not exclusive- 
ly, to the latter. In Eph. /. c, on tlie 
contrary, thougli the language is so very 
similar, the reference in botii members 
se 'ms to have more of a subjective char- 
acter, and the construction in conse- 
quence to be slightly diliorcnt. 

5. iv (To<j>i<}\ 'in wisdom;' clement 
and sphere in which they were to walk, 
Winer, Gr. § 48. a, p. 346 : fnjBffiiav 
avTo7s irp6(pa(Tiv SiSore P\d^r]s, irdi'Tci 
virep T7Js avTwv ix.TixaviJ.CTiii aurrfpias, 
Theod. On the meaning of ffocpia, — 
not merely 'prudence,' but practical 
Christian wisdom, — compare notes on 
ch. i. 9, and on Eph. i. 8. 
irphs Tovs e^o] 'toward them that Without,' tovs yuTjSe'iriu neTriaTeuKdTas. 
Theod. ; the regular designation of all 
who were not Christians, 1 Cyr. v. 12, 
13, 1 Thessal. iv. 12 ; see Kypke, Obs. 
Vol. II. p. 198, and notes on i Tim. ill. 
7. The prejK Trpds, both here and 1 Thess. 
I.e., marks the social relation (Jley.) in 
which tlicy were to stand with ol e|a>, the 
l)roper meaning of ' ethical direction to- 
ward ' (Winer, Gr. § 49. h, p. 360) being 
still distinctly a])pareut. For examples 
of this use of Trpds, see Bernhardy, S/jnt. 
V. 31, p. 265, Host u. Palm, Lex. s. v. 1. 
2, Vol. II. p. 1157, where this prep, is 
extremely well discussed. 
rhp Kaipbv i^ay.] 'buying up for 
yourselves the (fitting) season : ' see on Eph. 

CiiAi-. IV. 6, 7. 



Kaipiiv t^ayopa^6fM€voL. '^ u Xjyov ufjicov ttuvtotc tV ^t/'/jtrt, uXari 
i)/3TV/it'yos', elBtvat 7r&>9 Bti u/zav €i>l kmlaroi diroKfjivea^iai. 

You wtU Icurii my iUte " Tu KUT t/Xt TTuWa yp(i)(Jt'(7ei Vfl'lV TvXlKOi 

(II J all umlUT* here from ' ■> - ' S^ ^ J ' ^ i ^ , li^ ',.e.i>uu.. ^ U^/aTn^TWi udL\(pu(: KUi TTtO-TO^ OIUKUVO^ KUl 

V. 16, where this fornmhi is iiivesti^ruted 
at lengtii. Tlic cxhortntioii in tliis verso 
is extremely similar to that in Kphcs. v. 
15, 16, except only that the precepts ex- 
pressed there in ii ni<iullie, are here ex- 
prcs>ed in a jwsitiie form. The reason 
for the present clause is there 8i>eciUcaliy 
noticed, on at ijifpai Tomfpai fitriy : iiero 
notliiuj; more is stated tlian a j^encral 
prcrept (('17 aocp'.a TCfpiwarf^Tt) with an 
adjoined notice of tiic luanner in wliich 
it was to l>c carried out : tlicy were to 
make their own every season for walkin;; 
in wisdom, and to avail themselves of 
every o|>portunity of ohcyingj tlio com- 

6. 6 \6yos uniiiy] 'your speech,' 
not only generally, but, as tlie close of 
the verse shows, more especially Trphs 
rovs (^a>. iv x'*P»''"«j 

' If <7/i ffnice ; ' scil. ta-rw : x^P'^ ^^'''^ 'o 
bo the element in which, or perliaps the 
garb with which, the \6yoi was to he in- 
vested ; x'^P'^ ^^'"^ ^^ ^ '''0 ' hai)itus 
orationis;' compare notes on 1 J'im. i. 
18. &\art i]pTvfi.\ ' sta- 

soned with salt ; ' further specification. 
Their discourse was not to l>o profitless 
and insipid, hut, as food is seasoned 
with salt to make it agreeable to the ]ial- 
ate. so was it to have a wliolcsome point 
and pertinency which might commend 
itself to, and tend to the edification of 
the hearers ; see Suicer, Tfirsaur. s. v. 
Vol. n. p. 181. An indirect caution 
and antithetical reference to \uyos «ro- 
irphs (ne quid putridi subsit,' Bengel, 
compare Chr^-s.) is plausible (compare 
Eph. iv. 20 sq.), but not in acconlance 
with »«i Stl aroKpii'tffdai, which p>oints 
to \6yos under forms in which <rairpdTj)j 
could scarcclv have been intruded. Tlio 

later classical u^e of oAt, ' sal, 6uies, sa- 
lina;,' seems hero out of place. On tJio 
later form oAat, sec Buttm. (Jr. Vol. i. 
p. 2li7. tiS*yat] 'toinow,' 

i. e. ' so tliat you may know ; ' loosely 
a[ii)ended infinitive expressive of lonse- 
queuce ; eomjiare Madvi.', C'ruiii. \ 143, 
rem. For examples of this ' infin. epex- 
egeticus,' wiiicli is more usually found 
in clauses exi)ressive of pur/iose or inttn- 
tiun (see on ch i. 22), but is also found 
in laxcr coin!)inations (Acts xv. 10, Ilib. 
v. 5), see Winer, (Jr. § 44. 1, p. 2S4. 
iris Sft airoKp.] * low you owjht to 
rtturn answer;' the »a>i embracing all 
the various fonns of answer whiili tijo 
occasion might require. The n;:o>tlo 
further adds, not without significance, tvl 
cKcuTTO) ; each individual, wliether jm:- 
ting his questions from malice or igno- 
rance, sincerity or insincerity, was sepa- 
rately to receive the up])ropriatc answer 
to his inquiry ; compare I I'etcr iii. 15. 
The context, as ilcver observes, seems 
to limit the present reference to the inter- 
course of Christians with non-Christians, 
though the command has obviously an 
universal application : Clirj'sost. notii-cs 
the case of the a])osilo at Alliens; Mey. 
adds to this his an>wer before Felix, 
Festus, aud the Jews at Home. 

7. T i It a t' i ^^.i\ ' my cxtntlitiuit,' ' my 
ctjcumstancts,' • ivs mens,' Beza : on this 
formula see rvtF. on A'y/i. vi. 21, and on 
the Ibri-e of Korek in this collocation, 
notes on Phil. i. 12. 

Ti''x«*oij not Tvxik6s, Mill, (7ri(sb. ; 
an A(Tiay6s, mentioned Acts xx. 4, ICj>h. 
vi. 21, 2 Tim. iv. 12, Tit. iii. 12; sec on 
Ji/th. I. c. His namo is here associated 
with Uuxe titles of esteem and affection; 
he is an ayawTjrht dScAi^s in reference t« 



Chap. IV. 8, 9. 

avv8ov\o<i ev KvpcM, ^ ov eVe/ii/ra tt/jo? v/J,a<; ek avro tovto, iva 
7Z/&) Ta TTspl v/xcov Kol irapaKoXiarj Ta<; Kaphia^ vfjLMV, ^ avv Ovtj- 
ai/Moi Tcp TTcaTM Koi ayairrjTtp dSeXcpM, o? eariv i^ vpoiv iravra 
vplv <yv(opioiaip to, wSe. 

the Christian community, a niffThs Sio/co- 
vos in reference to his missionary services 
to St. Paul (not in the ministry {general- 
ly, Alibrd), and further, with a graceful 
allusion to similarity of duties, a avfSov- 
\os ev KvpUp, a co-operator with, and co- 
adjutor of, the apostle in the service of 
the same Master ; compare notes on Ejih. 
v'i- 21. ev Ki/p/wmaybe 

.issociaicd with all three designations 
(Do W., compare Eph./. c), or witli ilie 
iast two (Mcver), or with avv^oukos 
^tl).-PoI., and perhaps Syr.). As tlie 
two urmer have defining epithets, per- 
haps tne last connection is slightly the 
most piobable. 

8. its avrh t o y r o] 'for this verif 
purpose,' viz. as further defined and ex- 
panded in the following clause, ' that he 
should gain a knowledge of your state, 
and comfort you.' On the reference of 
ovrb TovTo to what follows, comp. Eph. 
vi. 22, Phil. i. 6, and notes in he. The 
reading is doubtful. Griesb. and Laclan. 
read Yx/ajre and r)ixwv, with ABD'EG; 
10 mss. ; Clarom., yEth. (both Pol. and 
Piatt) ; Thcod. (text), al., to wliich Mcy. 
adds the argument derived from proba- 
ble erroneous transcription (comp. Pref. 
to Galal. p. xvii.) ; viz. the accidental 
omission of the te before ta. The text 
(Rec, Tisch.) is found in CD-'D^EKL ; 
great majority of mss., and (what is very 
important) Vuig., Syr. (Iioth), Coptic, 
Goth.; Chrysost., Thcod. (comm.), al. 
The weight of uncial authority is clearly 
in favor of yi/wre, still tlie distinct ])rcpon- 
derance of Vv., and the proliabiiity of a 
conformation to Eph. vi. 22, induce as 
to retain the reading of 2'tsch. ; so Do 
Wette and Alf. it apaKaKeari] 

' comfort ; ' in reference to their own 

state ; Sef/cfvcri Se avTovs ev ireipafffiois 
vvTas, Kol irapaKK-fiaeus Seofj.evovs, The- 
ophyl. : according to the other reading 
the reference would be to St. Paul ; 
compare on E})h. vi. 22. 

9. (Tvv 'O v 7} o- 1 /x m] ' with Onesimus,' 
scil. eirefiT^a,. There seems no reason to 
doubt (Calvin) that the Onesimus here 
mentioned was the runaway slave of 
Philemon, whose flight from his master 
(Philein. 15),;ind subsequent conversion 
(at Home by tlic apostle, gave rise to the 
exquisite Epistle to PliiJemon. Whether 
he was identical with Onesimus, Bishop 
of Ephesus, mentioned l)y Ignatius, Eph. 
§ 1, as affirmed by Ado (ap. Usuard. 
Martiirology, p. 272, cd. Soil.), is very 
doubtful ; see Pearson, Vind. Irpx. ii. 8, 
p. 4G3 (A.-C. Libr.). The name was 
not uncommon, added to which the tra- 
dition of the Greek Clmrcli ( Const. Apost 
VII. 46) represents the ' Onesimus Phi- 
lemonis ' to have been Bishop of Beroja 
in Macedonia ; compare Winer, R WB. 
Vol. II. p. 175. There appear to have 
been two at least of this name in the 
early martyrologics, the legendary no- 
tices of those lives have been mixed up 
together; see Acta Sanrt. Feb. IG, Vol. 
II. p. 85,'j sq. OS ear IV 

e I V fjt.u!v\ ' who is of yon,' ' who belongs 
to your city.' This addition seems to 
have been made, not to give indirect 
honor and praise to the Colossians {'iva 
Kal eyKoWanri^cDt'Tai iis toiovtov irpnevey- 
Kovres, Theoph.), but to commend the 
tidings and the joint-bearer of them still 
more to their attention. 
TO. w5e] 'the thiiifjs here,' the matters 
here at Rome, of which tr kut e'/ue, ver. 
7, would form the principal portion. 
The addition ■trparT6fifva [EG; Vulg. 

CiiAi-, IV. 10. 

C O L O S S I A N S . 


^ AaTTil^CTCU vfJLaf ^ Ap'i(nap-)^o<i 6 avpcu)(^- 

Arl»fBriliu», ^nd olhfr«, 10 

and your failliful Kjiaplirui, 

•alulr you. IiilereholiKe epUtUi with llie cliureli uf Uodlcrm. Tril Archipput lo be J»!if<-iiL 

Cluroman.; L:it. I'l".] is a self-evident 

10. 'A/taTapxaf] A luitivo of Tlicssii- 
loiiiia ( Acts xx. 4), wlio aecomiiaiiicl 
St. Paul on liis tliiid missionary joumiy ; 
lie wa.* with t!ic apostle in tlio tumult at 
Ephcsus (Act.s xi.x. 29), and is ayain 
noticed us lx.-in^' witli liini in the voyago 
to Rome (Aits xxvii. 2). There lie 
shared tlio apostle's eajuivity, either as 
ail attendant on him (sec iiclow) or a 
fellow-.-nflVrer. Aeeordin;j; to ^onle tra- 
ditions of the Cla-ek Cliurih he ii said to 
h.ivc In'cn lii>h()p of Apainea in Phry^r- 
ia : ueeordiw;: to the IkOman martyrolo- 
gics, Bishop of Thessaloniea ; sec J/jr- 
tt/roi. Rom. |). 343 (Antwerp, 1389), Acta 
Sami. Aug. 4, Vol. i. p. 313. In the 
Menol. l-'rac. (April 15, Vol. iii. p. ^u) 
ho is said to have been one of tlie 70 dis- 
cijde.-. <5 ffvvaixf^'^^'^' 

r6s tiov] ' nil/ jlllou'-prisuiicr.' It is 
ccriainiy singular that in the Epistle to 
Philemon, wriiten so closely at tlie same 
time wiili tlie pre>ent Epistle, Aristarclius 
should l>e mentioned not as a awcuxt^d^- 
but as a avvfpyos, while Epaphras, wlio 
here indireeUy, and siill more dearly ch. 
i. 7, appears in tlio latter capacity, is 
there a ffvmixn<i'^<^os. There seem only 
two proltahle jolutions ; either that their 
positions had hecomo interchanged l»y 
the results of some actual trial, or that 
their captivity \yas vqlunliari/, and that 
they took ihcir turns in sharing tlic ajKis- 
tlc's cajitivity, and in miiii>tcring to him 
in his bonds. The latter solution, which 
is that of Fritz. (A'om. Vol. i. p. xxi, 
followed by Meyer), seems the most nat- 
ural ; compare also Wieseler, Chiouol. p. 
417 note. To regard the term as semi- 
tiiular, and as referring to a bygone cap- 
tivity (Steiger, i-oraparc Horn. xvi. 7), 
docs not seem satisfactory. The tenn 
is slightly noticeable ('designat hasta 

!-uj>eratum et captum,' Daven.), a« car- 
rying out the metaphor of i!ie io>dttr of 
Clirist ; <oinparc XIe<er»#i luc. 
ViipKOf] Almost certainly the samo 
wi:li John Mark the f-an of M ry (Acta 
xii. 12), wliom St. Paul and Si. Camo- 
bas took with them on tliclr first mission- 
ary journey, who left them wlien in 
Pamphylia, and who was afterwards tho 
cause of the contention In-tween the 
apostle and St. Banialias (Acts xv. 39); 
compare Dlunt, Wracity if ICl-oikj. \ 24, 
where the connection between John 
Mark and St. Barnabas, and esi)ecialljr 
the history of the latter, is aldy elucidat- 
ed. There seems no reason lor doubt- 
ing (Grot., Kicnlen, Stud. n. Kril. 1S43, 
p. 423 s(|.) tliat he was identical with St. 
^I;irk t!)C Evangelist ; sec Meyer, Einl. 
z. Infant), d. Maikus, p. 2, Fritz. Proleg. 
in More. p. 24. According to ecclesias- 
tical tradition, St. Mark was fir»t Bishop 
of Alexandria, and sntVead marty.dom 
there ; see Ada Sunct.. A]'til 23. Vol. 
III. p. 344. ayf\^t6s] 

' cousin,' •i"irT~;3 , Numb, xxxvi. 1 1 ; 
ofo^ioi' tun a5fK<p(Ly itaTZts, Ammon. 
Voc. Diff. )i. 54 (ed. VaUk.) ; the proper 
term for what wxs sometimes designated 
as i^i^tX^oi by later a d nonH-hu-sical 
writers ; see Lobeck, Plin/n. p. .306, 
where the proper meaning of iiyt\f>ihs is 
well discussed. St Mark was tlius not 
tiie ' nepliew ' ( Auth., but ? See remarks 
in Ti-ansl.), but the ' consobrinns ' Vulg., 


Claroman.), the 01?? j-S (Syr.) of St. 

Baniabas ; sccox.x. in W(.i>t. in luc. 
iK(x$*T t ivToKi%\ ' ife reccir<d com- 
mands ; ' what these were cannot Iw de- 
termined. The conjectural explanations, 
— messages from Bamal>as (Chrysost.), 
letters of commendation (' litersc forma- 
taB '), either from St. Paul (Davcn.) or 
the Church of Rome (Est,), etc. are very 



Chap. IV. 10, 11. 

/tiaXtwTO? /xou, KoX MdpKO<; 6 dveyjno'; Bapvd/Sa, irepl ov iXd^ere 
€VTo\d<; (^edv eX^ij irpo^ vfx,d<i, Si^acr^e amov)^ ^^ koX 'l7]aov<i 6 
Xej6fji,€vo^ 'Jo{)o"T09, ol 6vTe<i e« 7r€pLT0/ji,fj<i' ovtoi ijlovol auvepyol 

numerous, but do not any of them seem 
to deserve particular attention. To find 
in eav K. T. A. the ' summa illorum man- 
datorum,' Beng., is grammatically un- 
tenable ; the person of the aor. precludes 
the assumption of its use as an e])istolary 
present. The parenthetical clause, liow- 
ever, so immediately following the ikd.- 
fiere iVTo\as does certainly i-ecm to sug- 
gest that these eVroXcJ were of a com- 
mendatory nature ; compare Wieseler, 
Chroiiolog. p. 452, note. A few MSS. 
[DiFG ; ISyr., Arr.] read Se^curdai, prob- 
ably on the same hypothesis as that of 
Bengal. Se ^ac^e avr 6i>] 

^receive him,' L e. with hospitality (comp. 
Mattli. X. 14) and friendly feelings (Luke 
ix. 48, John iv. 45). The historical de- 
duction, founded on the use of the sim- 
ple Se^acrde (contrast Acts xxi. 17), that 
St. Mark had not been in the neighbor- 
hood of Colossa3, and would not have 
been recognized as an assistant of St. 
Paul (Wieseler, CItronol. p. 567), seems 
not onl}- precarious but improbable. 

11. 'ItjctoOs b \iy. 'Iovcttos] 
Mentioned only in this place ; prol)ably 
not ideniicai with Justus of Corinth 
(Acts xviii. 7). Tradition represents 
him as afterwards bishop of Eleutherop- 
olis. 1 ovTis iK TrepjT.] 

' who are of the circumcision ; ' participial 
predication in reference to the three pre- 
cedirfg nouns. Meyer, Ltic/nrnmn, and 
Duttm. (ed. 1856) remove the stop after 
7r€ptTouf/y, and regard the clause as in 
the nom. ('per anacoluthon'), instead 
of being in the more intelligible partitive 
genitive. Such an anacoluthon is not 
uncommon (see Jelf, Gr. § 708. 2), but 
does not seem here necessary as the 
uovoi naturally refers the thought to the 
category last mentioned ; ' these only of 
that class are my helpers : ' compare 

Philem. 24, where, though Luke and 
Demas are grouped together with tliem 
as (Tvvfpyoi, the same gi neral order is 
still preserved. On the formula tii'ai tn, 
with abstract sul)stantives, in which eK 
retains its primary meaning of origin, 
compare notes on GuL iii. 7, and Fritz. 
on Rom. ii. 8, Vol. i. p. 105. 
els rijv ^aff i\.] ' unto, towards, the 
kiurjdom of God : ' ' adjuverunt Paulum 
ad regnum Messianum qui ei, quum 
homines idoneos redderet qui in illnd 
regnum aliquando reciperentur, opitulati 
sunt,' Fritz. Rom. xiv. 17, Vol. iii. p. 
201. On the term fiaaXeia Qeov, see an 
elaborate paper by Bauer (C. G.) in 
Comment. Tiieol. Part ii. p. 107-172, and 
Reuss, Th€ol. Chre't. iv. 22, V'ol. ii. p. 
244. o^T If e s iyev] ' men 

who proved ; ' the indefinite otms being 
here used in what has been termed its 
classijic sense, and poii.ting to the cate- 
gory to which tiie antecedents belong ; 
see notes on G<d. ii. 4, iv. 24. The pas- 
sive /or/« tyevri^., condemned by Thorn. 
M. p. 189 (cd. Bern.), and rejected by 
Phrynicus, p 108 (ed. Lobeck), as a 
Doric inflexion, occurs not uncommonly 
in the N. T. (noticeably in 1 Tiiess.), 
but, as a careful comparison of parallel 
])assagcs seems to show, without any 
clearly pronounced passive meaninrj, or 
any justly appreciable difference from 
fytviTo ; comp. Buttm. Irrer/. Verbs, p. 
50. irapTiyopia] * a com- 

fort ; ' an dna^ KeySfj. in the N. T. but 
not uncommon elsewhere, see the exam- 
ples in Kypke, Ohs. Vol. ii. p. 330 ; add 
also .ZEsch. A'/dm. 95, where the term 
seems to involve a slightly medical al- 
lusion. The di.-tinction of Beng. 'wo- 
pafivdia in ma'rorc domestico, iraprjyopia 
in forensi periculo,' docs not seem sub- 
stantiated by lexical usage. Perhaps 

(^lAi-. IV. 12. 13. 

C O L S S I A N S . 


e(V Till' /SaaiXeiap lov 0€ov, oiTive^; €y€uyi^r)<Tui> fxoi Trapij^/upia. 
^- ufTTTul^tTai ufj.a.'i E7ra<f)pa.'i 6 t'^ vfiojv^ 8ov\o<; Xpianov lijaov, 
TTuPTOTe uywvilofjLtpo'i uTTtp vp.o)v tV Tat«f Trpo(Tev^aU\ iva ari^re 
jJXeioi Kal 7re7rXT)po(Popi]fjLeiJoc ei> ttuutI '^eXtjfuiTi toO (:Oeou. ^'^ pxip- 

tlic uiilv I'C.'il (listtiictiuti is tliiil -wonirryo- 
pttv ninl its derivatives uiliiiit of pliysioil 
and (|iiasi-jiliy>icul rvferem-es which are 
not ImuihI witli the more purely etliieai 
irapatxvdfiadai ; see tiic {jood lists of ex- 
nmiiles in Host u. I'alm, Lfx. s. vv. 

Vl. ■E>ra<;)paj) See notes on eh. i. 7 ; 
he is speeilied in the same way as One- 
simus, as a native ot Colossa;. For the 
pro!iaI>le reason of the addition, see notes 
on ver. 9. 8o C Ao j Xf>. 

'iTjff.] ileyer, and after him Alford, fol- 
lowinjjf Cn'tsli. twho, however, R-ads 
only XpiffToC), join these words with 6 «( 
ifittiy '• this eertainly seems unncecssary, 
the title SotAo? Xp. 'It/o-. is of quite sulH- 
oient wei^rht and importance to stand 
alone a.s a title of honor and distinction ; 
BO appareatly Coj)!., as it inserts the def. 
art. heforc SurKos. In ^Eth. (Toly^d.) 
the posit on of tlie pronoun of the 3d 
pers. [appy. here for the verl) suhst., Lu 
dol])!), (I'r. ]). 1.3.')] mifrht seem in favor 
of tlie other mode of puiictuation ; Syr. 
seems in favor of tiio text. The inser- 
tion of 'Ijjo-oC after XpurroZ (lyichmaiin, 
Tiscli.) has;;ood critical supjjort [ABC.I ; 
10 mss. ; ^'u!;; , Copt., Arm.] and is 
rightly adopted hy most modem editors. 
iLy<t)vi^6ii.fvos\ ' St ri villi] eariustli/ ; ' 
compare lioni. xv. .30, where the com- 
pound (Tuvayaii-. occurs in a similar con- 
text ; compare ch ii. 1, and notes mi li>r. 
Tva jrTiJTt] * tfinl i/r mm/ slaiiil fiat ; ' 
purpose of the dyoin^djufi'os, the more 
emphatic i.yuvi(6ix. iv irpovfvx- (not 
mei-ely trpofftvx^fifvos) not requiriii;: any 
dilution of the telic force of tva; comp. 
notes oit K/ili. i. 17. St^ioi has here, as 
in Kph. vi. 11, \^^, nl., the meaninjr of 
staudinjr./fVm and unshakni amidst trials 
and danijers (.see notes on F.jihis. II. re), 
and is moix> nearly delined bv the follow- 

in;; adjectives and their associated f-emi- 
local predication iv toktI dtK'fifiari. 
T * \f o I Kal »«tAt;po<^.] ' i/trfect 
ami full ij assuri-d ;' secondary prvtlicatcs 
of maimer (Donalds. Craii/I. f) 303), tho 
first referrin;; to their maturity and per- 
fectness (ch. i. 28, Eph. iv. 1.3), the sec- 
ond to their firm persuasion, and the ab- 
sence of all doubtfulness or scrupulosity. 
On the distinction between riKtiot and 
6\6K\r]pos ('onniibus numeris absolu- 
tus') see Trench, Si/non. § 22, and be- 
tween T«\. and iprios, notes on 2 Tim. 
iii. 17. The readiiijr wfirATjpo(^. is adopt- 
ed by Lachmann and Tisv/i. [with ABC 
DiFG ; 6 mss.], and both on external 
and on internal (rrounds is to be pre- 
ferred to -KtirKripwfiivoi {fitc). 
i V ir avrX d c A 7) /i a t i ] ' I'/i ecery ( man- 
iflstdtioii of tilt) will of d'od,' i. e. ' in ev- 
eryiliin;; which God willeth ' (Winer, Gr. 
§ 18. 4, p. 101 ), which, thou;:h not f^ram- 
matically, yet in common usa;:e becomes 
equivalent to ' in all tho will of (»od,' 
Auth. It is doubtful whether these 
words are to be joined with the finite 
verb (Meyer, Alf. ; compare Rom. v. 2, 
1 Corinth, xv. 1 ), or with the secondary 
pivilicatcs TtKttoi Ka\ ■KfTtKi\po<p. ( I)e \V. ). 
The latter is most simple, as definiii;; 
the sphere in which the t«A«iJtj}s and 
■KKripoipopla was to Ik" evinced and find 
its realization ; so Chrys., Theopli., and 
jtcrhaps Coptic, Gothic, who even with 
■wfK\rjp<i>fityoi (comp. on Kph. v. 18) con- 
nect iy irayrl d*\. with the secondary 
predicates. The Vv., however, in such 
cases cannot be oppealcd to with confi- 
dence, as they commonly preserve the 
amlii;:uous order of the ori;:inttl. 

1.3. fiaprvpci ydp] Confirmatory 
{•)ap) testimony to the earnestness and 
activity of Jipaphrms. » • X k r 



Chap. IV. 13-15, 

rvpco jap aiiTm on e^et ttoXvu ttovov inrep vfiwv koI rcov ev Aao- 
hiKeia koI twv ev ' lepaTroXet,. ^* aairui^eTai vfia<i AovKa^ 6 larpo<i 
6 wyaTTTjTo'i Koi A'qixa^. ^^ aaTrdaacr^e tol'9 ev AaohiKeia a8eX(f)ov<i 

v6vov\ 'much labor;' not such as tliat 
which attend.-; a combat (Eadie). hut, as 
the ctymo'.o.iical affinities of nSvos [con- 
nected wit!) irevo/xai, and prohahly derived 
from 2nA-, see Benfcy, Wurze.llex. Vol. 
II. p. 3G0] seem to sufji^est, such as im- 
plies a putting forth all one's strength 
(inlentio) ; compare Suidas irSvor irirov- 
277, ewiraats. The word is rare in the 
N. T., ->nly here and Kcv. xvi. 10, II, 
x.Ki. 4. This may account for the vari- 
ety of reading ; kSttoi/, DiPG ; C?i\ov 
D^D^rKL (Rer.). The text is support- 
ed hy ACC ; 80; Coptic (emkah), and 
indirectly hy DTG : so Lijclim., Tisch. 
AaohiKela] For a brief notice of tliis 
city, see notes on ch. ii. I. 
'lepoiroAei] An important city of 
Phr3'gia, about twenty English miles 
NNW. (surely not ' ostlich,' Winer) of 
Colossae, celebrated for its mineral 
springs, and a mephitic cavern called 
Plutonium, which was apparently con- 
nected with the worship of the ' INIagna 
Mater;' sec Str.ibo, GW/r. xiii. 4. 14 
(ed. Kramer), Pliny, IHst. Nat. ii. 93 
(ed. Sillig). The site of Hierapolis ap- 
pears to liave been close to the modern 
Pambuk-Kulasi, round which extensive 
ruins are still to be traced ; see Forbigcr, 
Alt. Gcorjrnph. Vol. ii. p. 348, 349, Arun- 
dell, Sn-en Churches, p. 79 sq., ib. Aaia 
Minor, Vol. II. p. 200 sq.. and a good 
article in Kitto's Dihl. Cyclop. Vol. ii. p. 
848. It is curious that this city should 
apparently have been unnoticed in Pau- 
ly, Re<d. Eiicijd. 

14. AovKui] The Evangelist, who 
according to ancient tradition (Irenaius, 
H(er. III. 14. 1, ' creditus est refeiTC no- 
bis evangelium') has been regarded as 
identical with the larphs ayaTr-nrhs here 
mentioned. The tradition that he was 
a painter (Nicephor. Hist. Eccl. ii. 13) 

is late and untriisnv ortln '. There seems 
no etymological grounds whatever for 
i<lcntifying him further with the Lucius 
mentioned in Rom. xvi. 21 (Origen) : 
Lucas may have been a contraction of 
Lucanus, or possibly even of Lucilius, but 
not of Lucius. For further notices see 
notes on 2 Tim. iv. 11. The addition & 
larphs 6 a,yairr\Ths may possibly have 
been intended to distinguish the Evan- 
gelist fiom others of the same name 
(Chrvs.), but more probably is only a 
furtlier designation similar to those given 
to Tychicus (ver. 7), Onesimus (ver. 9), 
Aristarchus, Mark (ver. 10), Justus (ver. 
11), and Epaphras (ver. 12). 
A 7) ;U 2 s] Mentioned as one of tlie apos- 
tle's ffvi/epyol (Philem. 24). but too well 
remcmbeied as having deserted him in 
the hour of need ; see notes on 2 7V.'«. ir. 
10. Whether the omission of a title of 
honor or affection is accidental, or owing 
to his having already sbown symptoms 
of the dtfcction of which he was after- 
wards guilty (Meyer), cannot be deter- 
mined. The latter does not seem im- 
probable, especially as he here occupies 
the last place in the enumeration ; con- 
trast Philem. 24. 

15. Kal N V fifpav) 'and {among 
them) Ai/niphas,' /col being here used to 
add the special to the general (see notes 
on Ejih. V. 18, vi. 19), and to particular- 
ize Nymphas, who apparently belonged 
to Laodicea and, as the following words 
seem to shovv, was a person of im- 
portance : '6pa. yovv irois diinvvai fiiyav 
rhv iivSpa, Chrys., — who, however, adds 
too rcstrictively, elf 76 rj oiKia avrov ^k- 
K\T)ala; compare notes on Philem. 2. 
The repetition of the more generic rp 
AaoS. iKK\. in ver. 16 would seem to 
show that the church in the house of 
Nymphas did not comprehend all the 

CiiAl'. IV. 15, IG. 



Kal NvfKpav Kai rijif kut ihkov ainov €KK\rjaiav. ''' /cat otuv aua- 
yva)a)^fj irap vixlv i) ^TTiaToXi'j^ iroiijaaje iva Kai ev t^ Aao^tKcajv 
€KK\y]aia avur/vo)a'^]j^ Kai tijv e'/c AaohiKiia<i Iva Kal vfj.€t*i uuayvojTC. 

Ciiristians of Luodioea. Tlie form Ni'/x- 
0ai {/mc/ijh., Bullm., with M'^) is not cor- 
rect ; the hist syllahle is circumtlcxud, 
and murks a [irohahlc contraction from 
Kymplioilorus (riiny, Hist. Sat. vii. 2), 
lis 'OAu/iiras (Uom. xvi. 15) from f)lym- 
piodoru-s, Zr)fas (Tit. iii. 13) from Zciio- 
donis ; compare Fritz. Hum. \'ol iii. p. 
309. /car' oIkov ootoC] 

So Kom. xvi. 5, in rcfeivnce to I'risca 
and Aijuihi, who iiiid also at Corinth 
(1 Cor. xvi. 19) devoted tlieir house to 
a similar righteous use ; compare on P/ii- 
lein. '2, and sec especially Ncand., Plant- 
in;/, Vol. 1. p. 151, note (Bolm). The 
readinj^ is somcwiiat douhtful. The text 
is supported hy DEFGKL; jrreai ma- 
jority of mss. ; Clirys , Theod., al. (Htc, 
Tisrii.), and appy. ri;.;htly, for though 
auTOfj/ I AC; 7 mss. ; Slav, (mrs.)) is not 
improhaLile as at first sight a more diffi- 
cult reading, it may siill have easily 
arisen from the preicding plural, and 
the desire, even at the expense of the 
sense, to identify the whole cliurch of 
Laodicea with that in the liou^eof Nyni- 
phas. If aiiTU'v lie adojited (Mcy., Alf ), 
then the plura! must he referred to 
'Nymphas and his family,' involved Ka- 
ra avyfffw in the preceding suhstantive ; 
see Jclf, (ir. § 379. h, compaiv Winer, 
Gr. § 22. 3, J). 132. Laclim. reads ain'ii. 
but on authority |B ; 07**] manifestly 

16. i) iiriffToAi')] ' tlif jiristui ht- 
ier;^ compare Rom. xvi. 22, 1 Thess. v. 
27. Sc\cral cursive mss. aiid aurVj, hut 
quite unnecessiuily ; see Winer, (jrnm. 
^ 18. 1, p. 97. 

iroi'^o'aTf IV o] ' r<iii.s-»' tliiit;' i\ form- 
ula of later Greek (John xi. 37, compai-e 
Kev. iii. 9), thou;xlt not without parallel 
in tlie Toi^rf oirci's (Jelf, Gr. § GG6. ohs.) 
of the classical writers. The proper force 

of '/ca, though weakencil and Homcwhat 
appnjximating to tlie lax u.«e of toD with 
the inlinitivo after wotuv (Acts iii. 12, 
Josh. xxii. 26, al.), is not wholly lost; 
see Winer, Gr. § 4-t. 8, ji. 301. 
TTjf i K Aao8.| ' t/uit from I/iodicta,' 

nut Uq*| ;> T^ L^l^J\} [({uie 
scri]>ta c.-t ex Laodicen.-il.usj Syr., — 
hut eoirected in I'hilox., or '({uam scripsi 
ex Luod.,' JEtli. (compare Theod.), but, 
with the usual and pro|)er force of the 
pa^position, ' that out of Laodicea,' 'J>oci 
ist lis Laud.,' Goth., ' iLdlchin Laod.,' 
Copt., — tuo prepositions being really in- 
volved in the clause ' the Epistle sent to 
and to be received from or out of Laod.,' 
but the lattir, by a very intelligible and 
not uncommon attraction, alone cx- 
pivssed ; compare Luke ix. 61, xi. 13, 
and see Winer, Gr. § 66. 6, p. 553, Jelf, 
Gr. § 647. a. "I'he real difficulty is to 
determine what letter is here referred to. 
Setting aside attempts to identify it \nt\\ 
the 1st Epistle to Tim. (Thcophylact), 
the 1st Ep. of St. Jolin (Lighff.), the Ep. 
to riiilemon — an csseniially private let- 
ter ( Wieseler, Cliroiiol. p. 452), two opin- 
ions deserve con.- idem t ion ; — (n) that it 
is tiie Epistle to the Ei)liesians ; (/)) that 
it is a lost Ei>i>tle. For (<i) we have tlio 
similarity of contents, and the probabili- 
ty, from the absence of yn-etings and lo- 
cal allusions, that the Ep. to the Epho- 
sians was designed for other readers than 
those to whom it was primarily ail- 
(bessed. Avainst it, the great improba- 
bility that the apostle should know that 
his Epist. to the Ephesians would have 
ivachcd Laodicea at or near the time of 
the deliverj- of his Ep. lo the Colo.-sians. 
For (/') we may urge the highly prolm- 
ble circumstance that Tychicus might 
have been the bearer of the two letters 



Chap. IV. 16, 17, 

^' Kai eiTTUTe ^Ap^iirTTcp BXiire ti]v hiaKovlav rjv 7rape\aj36<i iv 
Kvpiw, I'va avTiju 7r\')]poi<i. 

to tlie two iic-i;^!iboring cities, leaviii<4' 
t]»at to Laodicca first, with orders for the 
intenthangc, and then continuing his 
journey. Against it there is the a priori 
improbabihiy that a letter which, from 
the present direction given by the apos- 
tle, stood apparently in some degree of 
parallelism to that to the Colossians (we 
have no right to assume that it was ' of 
a merely temporary or local nature,' 
Eadic; see contra JNIeyer). should have 
been lost to the Church of Christ. The 
fact that the ortliudox early Church (com- 
pare Jones on Canon, Part iii. 6) does 
not seem to have ever acquiesced in [h] 
makes the decision very diiiicult ; as, 
however, tlie Ep. to the Colossians does 
appear to \va\q been written first, — as 
the title toIs eV '£<j)eVa) (Eph. i. 1) does 
seem to preclude our assigning to tliat 
Epistle a further destination tlian to the 
churches dependent on Ephcsus (see crit. 
note o« Eph. i. 1), — as there does seem 
a trace of another lost Ep. (1 Cor. v. 9), 

— as tlie close neighborhood of Colossa; 
and Laodicea might prepare us to admit 
a great similarity in contents, and conse- 
quently a very partial loss to the Church, 

— and lastly, as a priori arguments on 
such subjects are always to be viewed 
with some susiiicion, we decide in favor 
of (li), and believe that an actual Epistle 
to the Laodiceans is here alluded to, 
which, possibly from its similarity to its 
sister-Epistle, it has not pleased God to 
preserve to us : see Meyer, Einl. z. Eph. 
p. 9 sq., where the question is fairly ar- 
gued. It may be added in conclusion 
that the above reasoning rests on the as- 
sumption that the Epistle to tlie Ephe- 
sians was written to tliat Church, and 
that the words iv 'E0e(rcv arc genuine. 
It is right, however, to add that the new- 
discovered N rejects them, and tiiat thus 
aa important authority has been added 

to tlie side of those who deem that a 
blank was left for the name of the 
Church, and tiiat the Epistle was purely 
encyclical. If this view (which still 
seems ver// doubtful) be adopted, the bal- 
ance will probably lean more to (a) j at 
present, however, no more need be said 
than this, that the title of the Epistle to 
the Ephcsians and the present question 
may justly be considered as in somewhat 
close connection. The forged Epistle 
to the Laodiceans deserves no noiicc, 
being a mere cento out of St. Paul's 
Epistles ; see Jones, on Canon, P;u't 
III. 6. 

17. 'A p X ' "■ "■ ^J -^^ churcii-ouiccr of 
Colossa;, — not of Laodicea ( V^ieselcr, 
Chrunol. p. 452, compare Const. Apost. 
VI I. 46) ; possibly an instructor (Thcod. 
Phileni. 2), but more probably a friend 
(Chrys., Theophyl. ib.) of the hou:?ehold 
of Philemon, — if, indeed, on account of 
the position of Arch, in the salutation 
(Philemon 2), not more nearly related 
(compare Olsh.). What the Sia/coj/io of 
Arciiippus was, caiuiot be determined ; 
that he was a SiaKoi/us in the literal mean- 
ing (compare Wordsw. ), does not seem 
improbable. Tradition represents him 
to have suffered martyrdom at Chonae ; 
see Menoloq. Gnecum, Nov. 23, Vol. i. p. 
206. A brief notice will also be found 
in the Acta Sanctorum, Jlarch 20, Vol. 
III. p. 82. On the somewhat unusual 
(Ionic) form eiVoTe (Matth. x. 27, xxi. 
5J, see Winer, 6V. ^ 15, p. 78. 
/3 A € TT e T )] V B L UK y I a If] ' see to, take 
heed to, the ininislri/ ; ' somewhat too 

strongly Syriac, 9^?ll [diligens esto], 

thougli rightly preserving the construc- 
tion : for examples of this meaning of 
^Ktiteiv see Eisner, Ohs. Vol. ii. p. 272, 
and comp. on Eph v. 15. Grotius and 
others asaume here a Hebraistic inversion 

CiiKV. IV. 18. C O L O S S I A X S . 211 


Autocnph ulutiitiun einJ 19 '/» ' _ _*_"?" * FT '\ 

fiovevere fiov 70}v Cta^Cov. >} X^p'">' /^t"iy i^dv. 

ioi ^Kiitf iVa irArj/)., — a iK-etllcBS violu- a); loinjjare 1 Cor. xvi. Jl, and iiotfS 

tioii of llie order ol' the words and of ilic on i/al. vi. 11. The {^cn. riai^Aoi/ U in 

more usual ineaiiiii]^; of 'Iva ; tlic olijcct ujipositiou to the |K.'r.soiiul imjiiuuii in- 

of lUo fiKfiffti/ rijv SioKOfiay oil the part volved in //ip ; see exuiujjles in Jelf, 6V. 

of Archipjtus was to lie u'a ai»T>/»' TAT/poi ; § -107. -1. fivrf noy t v tr * 

compare 2 John 8, and notes on Cat. iv. /i u f t oic htanuv] ' Ui.mlmui.h my' 

11. Tlie expression irATjpoCf itaKOfiav lioNUS.' A toucliin;^ exhortation, >jK.-ak- 

occurs u^xain Acts xii. :i5 ; sec examples in;,' vividly to the hearts of iiis readers, 

in Rajiliel, Aimof. Vol. ii. j>. 538, and breaiUin;; j>atience, love, and eneour- 

Kvi4ie, Obs. Vol. ii. p. 331, and Welst. a;:ement ; /i«-,iVTij Si wapaxATjajs aurois 

in loc. ir ap ( \afif i iv t<l nuaav bKi\^iv rh fxvTjuonvtiV TlavKou 

Kvploi] ^ didbl rt nice in iht: Lord ;' not StSf/utVou, Theoph., eoiupare Chrysost. 

■ perDoniinum,' Daven., nor ' secundum The remark of Kadie is just, that as tho 
Domini jir;eivpta,' Grot., hut as always, apostle u.-ed his hand to write he felt his 

■ in Domino,' Vul;>., Clarom., al. Tiie I)onds yet more keenly, but he .should 
Lord was, as it were, the s/<Ae/-e in which have remembered, that it was (in all 
he had received his SiaKovia, and out of j^robabiliiy) not tho /<;/> hut the nV/Zi/ 
wliicii it found no place ; see notes on hand tliat was bound to the soldier that 
Ejtli. iv. IC, vi. 1. Phii. ii. 19, and else- guarded him; see Smith, Diet. Autiq. 
where. The addition, as Meyer well ob- s. v. ' Catena,' p. 207. 

serves, still more enhances the olpli;;ation i; x^f's] 'Grace,' xar i^oxvv ; .-ee 

of Arehippus to fultil a StaKOfla so re- notes on Ejili. vi. 24. and on the various 

ceived. meanings of x^^'^i Waterl. Kwhnr. x 

18. 6 aavacr fihs k. t. \.] Auto- Vol. iv. p. GGG. The ofiijy of lUc. is 

ijraph salutation of the ajiostle, to attest found in DEKL ; Vv. and Ff., but is 

the authenticity of the document (2 rightly rejected by modern eiiitors on 

Thess. iii. 17, contrasted with ib. ch. ii. preponderant uncial authority. 


I N T R O D U C T I O X. 

Tnis exquisite ami interesting Epistle, alike a master-piece of persuasive 
tact and (lelicacy, and an enduring model of truest Christian tourtesv, was 
written bv St. Paul to Philemon closely about the same time as the Epistle to 
the Church of Colossa*, and not improbably stands first in the group of Epis- 
tles written during tlie first captivity at Rome ; comp. Davidson, Introd. Vol. 
III. p. 158. It would thus Iiave been written about a.d. 01 or C2 : see Introd, 
to Colos.iians. 

It was addressed to Philemon, most probably a member of the Church of 
Colossa; (vcr. 2. compared witii Col. iv. 0, 17), who had originally been con- 
verted lo Christianity by tlie apostle (vcr. 19), and wjio, from the honorable 
titli' of * iellow-laboror ' (vcr. 2; compare vcr. 24 and Col. iv. 11), coupled 
with tlie notice of ' the church in his house' (ver. 2) and the general tone of 
tlie Epistle, appears to have been a person of distinction, worth, and Christian 
zeal and carne-tness (ver. 7). The bearer of the Epistle was Onesimus, a 
slave who had run away from, and as it would seem robbed Philemon (vcr. 18), 
but who now, after having had the blessing of meeting with St. Paul at Rome, 
and of being converted to Christianity by him (ver. 10), was returning to the 
master he had wronged, changed and repentant, especially commended to hi:« 
love anil forgiveness (ver. 17), and mentioned, not without honor (Col. iv. 9), 
to the Clunch of which both were now alike to be menibers. Hi? fellow trav- 
eller Tychicus, the bearer of the Epistles to the Chundies of Colossa: and 
Ephesus (Col. iv. 7, E[)h. vi. 21). to whose care and gootl ollices he was not 
improbably further committed, and who might have been instiucted by the 
apostle to induce the Colossian Ciiristians generally to receive the hitherto 
uprofitable servant (comp. ver. 11) with forbearance and favor. 

The "/;/Vc/ of the Epistle is very clearly set before ns, — an afTectionato 
desire on the part of the apostle to restore Onesimus to the confidence and 
love of his ma.>iter, and lo insure for him a reception which he might justly 
have been considered wholly to have forfeited. The e.\<iuisito tact with which 
his fraudulent conduct towards Philemon is alluded to (ver. 18), — the ab> 


sence of everything tending to excuse or palliate the misdeed, yet the use of 
every expression and sentiment calculated to win the fullest measures of Phi- 
lemon's forgiveness, — has never failed to call forth the reverential admiration 
of every expositor of this Epistle from the earliest times down to our own day. 
The originality with which the Epistle is thus stamped, and the strong 
external testimonies of antiquity which, short as this Epistle is, are by no 
means wanting (Tertull. adv. Marc. v. 42, Origen, Horn. xix. in Jerem. ; in 
Matth. Tract, xxxiil. xxxiv., Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. iii. 25), may justly be 
said to p!ace its genuineness and aiUhenticily beyond all doubt. It appears, 
however, to have been carped at in early times (see Jerome, Procem. in Phi- 
lem.), and has I'ocently been considered by a modern critic (Baur, Apostel 
Paulus, p. 4 75 sq.) as of doubtful authorship, but on grounds so utterly unten- 
able that we may with justice reiiise to notice what the very author of the 
criticism seems to feel (p. 476) is open to the charge of an undue and unrea- 
Bonable scepticism. 


Apctolic nddroM ana «alu- T f.VVAOS StV/UO? XpiaTOV ^IlJCTOU Kul 

irrjTM Kai (Twepyco-^ficbv - kul Aircpia rfj uOe\(pf/ kul A p^nrTrfo tm 

2. a.5(\<p^] So Laclim. and Tisch. cd. 1, with ADiE'FG ; 3 inss. ; Claroraan., 
Amit., Tol., Copt., ^th. (Plaft) ; Hcs., Ilicr. {Meyer). In his later odd. Tisch. 
reverts to the reading; of Rec. with D^E^KL ; nearly all mss. ; Syr. (IhjiIi, — but 
Philox with asterisk) ; Theod.-Mops. (expressly), Chrys., Thcod., al. The ex- 
ternal autliorities arc thus very nearly balanced ; it does not, however, seem im- 
probal)le that the supposed connection between Philemon and Apjjhia might have 
'ed to the same title being applied to each. 

1. Sefffiioi Xp. 'iTjff.] ' a prisoner 
of C/inst Jcfsiis,' ' whom Christ Jesus and 
His cau<c have made a prisoner ; ' pen. 
of the autlior of the captivity ; see Wi- 
ner, Gram. § .10. 2, p. 170 (cd. 6), and 
notes on E/i/i. iii. 1, 2 Tim. i. 8. Con- 
sidering; the subject of the Epistle, no 
title could be n>oro appropriate, or more 
feelin^rly prepare Pliileinon fur the re- 
quest wliicli the apostle is about to make 
to him. On the titles adopted by St. 
Paul in his salutations, see notes on 
Phil. i. 1, and especially on Col. i. I. 
Ka\ T(juod«oj] Associated with the 
apostle in the same way as in 2 Cor. i. 
1, Col. i. 1, each having a scpanitc, and 
not, as in Phil. i. 1 (compare 1 and 2 
Thess. i. 1), a common title; see notes 
on Phil, i., and on Col. i. 1. Tiio associ- 
ation of Timothy in a letter which has 
the character of a private communication 
was perhaps, as Chrys. suggests, Sxrrt 
Kiuct7uoy {nrh iroWicv a^tovud'oi' fxaWoy 
(7(<u Kol Sovyat rijy X'^P^*'- 

^ i\i\lxoyi\ Philemon was a member 
of the Church of Colosste (compare Col. 
iv. 9), who owed his conversion to St. 
Paul (verse 19), and who by his zeal in 
the Cliristian cause (verse 5), showed 
himself worthy of the considenition and 
regard which the apostle evinces for him 
in this Epistle. There does not seem 
any good ground for the opinion of Wie- 
seler (Chronol. p. 4.')2) that Philemon 
belonged to Laodicea ; his house at Co- 
lossal was shown in the time of Thoodo- 
rct {Arnum. ad PhiUm.), and tradition 
{Const. Apusl. VII. 46) represents him as 
having l)cen bishop of that city, — not of 
Laodicea, as Alford, Prole^om. p. 114. 
In the Menol. Gracum, Nov. 2.*?, Vol. i. 
p. 206, he is said to have suffered 
tyrdom with Archippus at Chonx. 
a-vyfpyf ijfiiy] ' our fJlow-hdiier ; ' 
more special designation suggested hj 
the real of Philemon for the Gospel. 
The genitive r,^iul^, as the sin^'lc article 
hints, belongs to avytpyf and the verbal 





crvv(TTpaTi(t)Tr} rjficov, teal rf] Kar ol/cov aov iKKkijaia. ^ %a/9i9v/iti 
Kol elprjvrj a'TTo ©eov ira-rpb'^ iifXMV koX Kvplov 'Iijaov XptaTov. 
l^Xl^aZyZi ' Evxaprar^ 7a> 0e^ f.ov, nrdvrore /.veiav 

it may prove beneficial to otiiers : the proofs of thy love to the saints gladdens me. 

ayaTrrtTM, compare Rom. i. 7. Both titles 
are dwelt upon by Chrys. and Theophyl.; 
the hitter says, d ayairriTis, Sclxrei tV 
Xo-pi-v el (TvvepySs, ov Ko^f^ei rhy SovKov 
aWa TraXiv dTroerTeAel irpbs uirrjpetri'ai' tov 

2. 'Air(^ia] Most probably, as sug- 
gested by Ciirysos. and the Greek com- 
mentators, the wife of Philemon. If this 
be so, it is not improbable that Archip- 
pus may have been their son ; see notes 
on Col. iv. 17. The name 'A7r(j)io, which 
in some mss. appears in the form 'Airiria 
(see Acts xxviii. 15), is the softened 
form of the Latin ' Appia' (Grot.). 
'Apx^T^''^';'] Supposed by Wieseler 
(CltronoL p. 452), but without sufficient 
reason, to have been of the Church of 
Laodicea ; see notes on Col. iv. 17. He 
is here distinguished by the honorable 
title of avvffTpaTid>Ti]i with the apostle ; 
compare 2 Tim. ii. 3. On the Alexan- 
drian form avvarp. see Winer, Gr. § 5. 
4, p. 4G. T^ KaT o1k6v 
ffov e/cKA.] ' (he church in thy house;' 
not merely the household of Philemon, 
oiSe 5ov\ovs iraprjKfv dvrav^a, Chrys., 
but, as tlic expression s^eems regularly 
to designate, tlie assembly of Christians 
that were accustomed to meet at the 
house of Philemon, and join with his 
liouseliold in public prayer ; compare on 
Col. iv. 15, and Pearson, Creed, Art. ix. 
Vol. I. p. 397. 

3. xdpti vfiTif K. T.\.] Scil. ejfj;, not 
t(TTa> (Koch) ; see notes on Eph. i. 2 : the 
regular form of salutation in St. Paul's 
Epp. On the spiritual meaning of the 
blended form of address, see notes on 
Gal. i. 2, Eph. I. 2 ; add also on Phil. i. 1. 
K a I K.t; p I t;] Scil. (col anh Kvpiov K.r.X. 

as expressly in S3'r. ^f^ ^^0 [eta 

Dom. nostro] : the Socinian interpreta- 
tion KoX [ira.Tp'hs) Kvpiou secms very im- 
probal)le ; see notes on Phil. i. 2. 

4. €vxo-pt(TTui] Usual cucharistic 
commencement in reference to tiie spir- 
itual state of his convert ; ' a gratulatione 
more suo incipit,' Calv. : see Rom. i. 9, 
1 Cor. i. 4, and notes on Phil. i. 1, where 
this mode of address is briefly alluded to. 
For the meaning and uses of ihxapufTuv 
Cgratias agere') in earlier and later 
Greek, see notes on Col. i. 12. As in 
Rom. i. 8, 1 Corinth, i. 4, Phil. i. 3, the 
thanks are returned tuj Qew n.ov,to Him 
'whose he was and whom he served' 
(Acts xxvii. 23), a particularizing mode 
of address called forth from the warm 
heart of the apostle, by a remembrance 
of the great mercies vouchsafed to him 
in having thus been blessed in his labors ; 
comp. on Phil. i. 3. 

IT iv Tore k. t.A..] Participial sentence, 
defining more closely both when the e-i- 
Xapi<Tria took place, and the circum- 
stances under which it was offered to 
God ; ' nunquam oro quin tui memine- 
rim,' Est. Tiie adverb is here, as also 
in Phil. i. 4, Col. i. 3, more naturally 
joined with the participle (Chrysostom, 
Thcod.) than with the preceding eir;^a- 
pta-TO) (Syr., JEthiop.), sec notes on Phil, 
i. 4, where the reasons for a connection 
with the participle are more distinct than 
in tiie present case. 

fiviiav (Tov] ' mention of ihce,' fxvtia 
receiving this meaning when in associa- 
tion with TToieiffbai. ; see notes on Phil. i. 
3. The formula is not uncommon in 
classical Greek (comp. Plato, Protag. 
p. 317 E, and a little more strongly ib. 
Phcedr. p. 254 a), and, as Koch remarks, 
is an expansion of exei;/ nveiav twos (1 
Thess. iii. 6, 2 Tim. i. 3), the ' dvnamic' 



<70U TTOiovfievo^ tVf Tail/ Trpoatv^uiV fiou, ^ uKovtov aou tijv uyd7ri)p 
Kal T))v TTtcrriv yu t^CL<; 7rp6^ rov Kvpiov 'Iijaovv kol ei9 Trarra? 

miJdIo vottla^ai nut liuiii;,' without it« 
force and si^ificance ; comp. Ivruy;cr, 
S^irncfil. § 52. 8. 1 sq., ami notes on Col. 
\\\ i. iir\ ruv wpoTtvx*^"] 

' ill iiij yrayrrs,' not merely ' iit tlic time 
fif making tliem.' l)Ut, \vit!i a tln;,'e of 
local force, ' in orationilms,' Vul;;., Syr., 
Copt., scil. when en;,'nf;eil in offering 
them ; sec Bernliartly, S;i)ti. v. 23. n, p. 
24G, and notes on A'yi/i. i. IG. 

5. i.K 1) wv\ ' OS I am hcariiu] ; ' cail- 
.«al partiiiple (DonaUls. Cr. § GIG), giv- 
ing the rcoson for the fiixaptff'iH:, or, per- 
haps more exactly, for the circumstances 
wliich especially leil to its being offered ; 
rhf rwy liKcov Qfhv iirl toik aois narop^w- 
ixaaiv iLvvfivo), Theod. : contrast Kom. i. 
8, where fux<tp- '^ followeil by the more 
definite on, and the causal sentence is 
expressed in a pas.>ive form. 
f)v ?x*'s] '"■/"'/' (./•"''') tliou lia^t to- 
ward the Lord Jisns, atid dost evince to- 
vxtrd all the sainls.' There is some diffi- 
culty in these words. In the fust place 
the reading is doubtful ; Lichm., with 
ACD'E ; 17. 137, reads <ir rhv Kvpiov, 
and with l^E ; 10 mss. ; Syr., al. inverts 
the order of i.yikTn\v and it'icrriv. Both, 
iiowcver, seem corrections suggested by 
the somewhat unusual iriffrj? wpbi Kvpiov, 
and the np])arcntly anomalous connec- 
tion oi trljTiv with ei'j irai'Taj rovs a,-\iovs. 
Adopting tlie present text, wo have two 
explanations ; (n ) that of Meyer, ivcently 
adopted by Winer in tlic last edition of 
his grammar (^ 50. 2, p. 303), according 
to which ir/ffTir is taken as equivalent to 
'fidelity,' and justified by Rom. iii. 3, 
Gal. V. 22, and Tit. ii. 10. in the first of 
which ■ issages the meaning o curs in a 
^ery different combination, while in the 
second it is more than doubtful (see 
notes i;i loc.). and in the third is asso- 
ciated with an adjective ; {!>) that of 
Grot., al . derived from Thcodoret and 

followed by Dc Wettc, Alf., and inoi-i 
commentators, according to which tt/v 
iydrny is to bo referred by a kind of x<- 
afffjLb% (Jelf, 6V. ^ 904. 3) to th witrrat 
Tout ayloui, and ri]y wlffriv alone to rbr 
Kvpiov. Of these (a) does not seem ten- 
able, lUi it is surely very improbable that, 
in combination wit!i 0761x7;, wlaTis should 
revert to a meaning so very unusual, and 
in St. Paul's Epistles so very feebly sup- 
ported, as that of ' fidelita:5.' The sec- 
ond {b), grammatically considered, is ad- 
missil)lc (see "Winer, Cir. 5 50. 2, p. 3C5). 
but the distinctive ijv (x*^' (^cc Meyer) 
and the repetition of the aniclc with 
both substantives make it very unplaa- 
sible. In this difficulty a 

third view seems to descnc considera- 
tion, according to which iritrm irphs rht- 
Ki'p. = ' a faith directed towards the 
Lord ' (comp. 1 Thess. i. 8), in a purely 
spiritual reference, while wlffns tls ■wdi- 
Tar #c. T. X. = ' a faith evinced towards 
[n-ffn) the saints,' with a more practical 
reference, scil. as shown in contributions 
to their necessities, — a me.ining sug- 
gested to the reader by the preceding 
aydTrnf. and conveyed by the studied 
pi-eposiiioual interchange. The prepo- 
sitions then substantially preserve t!ie 
di-tinction alluded to in notes on Jiphrs. 
iv. 12, Tit. i. 1 ; irphi refers to a more 
rnnotc, tij to a more immeilialc, applica- 
tion of the specified action, wlicthcr rrffa 
(2 Corinth, viii. 24, 1 Pet. tT. 9), contra 
(Horn. viii. 7), or with a more neatnil 
ref. (2 Cor. x. 1, Col. iii. 9); compare 
Winer. Cr. ^ 49, a, p. 353. This seems 
also lonfirmed by etymology, for while 
*ii i^vs) incorporates the ide,n of locality, 
of having n-ached the place (compare 
Donaldson Cratyl. ^ 170), irphs primarily 
presents little more than the idea of sim- 
ple motion fonvards ; sec Donalds, il. 
^ 1C9, 171. On the various construo 



T0U9 ajiov';, ^ oirco^ rj Koivcuvla t?}? TTicrrefe)? aov eVepyj;? 'yevqrat 
ip i'n'L'yvcoaec nravrb'i dja^ov rov iv 7)ixlv ek Xpiarbv ^Irjaovi/. 

tions of iritnis and irKTTfvai, see Reuss, 
Th^ol. Chre't. iv. 13, Vol. it. p. 129. 

6, oirws] ' in order that;' dependent 
on tvxaptffTw, or perhaps raore immedi- 
ately on fjiVilav (Tov Troiovfieyos eirl Tail' 
irpo(T(vxoiv, and convoying the object of 
the prayer (2 Thcssalon. i. 12), perhaps 
sUghtlij blended with the subject of it ; 
iijXOiUai, (f>7taiv, "va, i/ Koivmvla. T7\<i tt'kx- 
Teciis aov eu^py-lis yevriTai, Chrysost., and 
more distinctly Thcod., Seofxai koI avri- 
0o\a> rhv Koii/hy evepyirtiv, reXeiav aoi 
Sovvai tV KT?;(Tiv rwv ayaStwv. To give 
the particle an exclusive reference to re- 
sult or consequence (Estius ; compare 
Tittmann, Sjjnon. ii. p. 5.5, 58), or to re- 
fer it to ver. 5 as giving the ' tendency ' 
of ^j^ exeis (Bcng., Meyer), is very un- 
satisfactory. It is singular that two such 
good commentators as Bcng. and Mcy. 
should agree in an interpretation so ut- 
terly pointless ; sec Winer, Gr. § 53. G, 
p. 410. On the essential meaning of 
iirws, and its distinction from 'iva, see 
notes on 2 Thess. i. 12. 
Koivwvia TTjs via T iws aov\ ' com- 
munication of thy faith ; ' scil. ' participa- 
tion in thy faith enjoyed by others,' ttiV- 
Tetis being not a gen. subject!, but, as 
more commonly (except with a ])ersonal 
pron.), agen. objccti ; comp. Phil. ii. 1, ill. 
10, al. The clause tlms serve? to clear 
up, and indeed indirectly confirm the 
interpretation of the preceding iriffTiv els 
irdfras roiis ayiovs. Tlie meaning as- 
signed to Koivoivia by CEcum., ij koiv)) 
vlffTis, 7) Koivhnroi6s. ' fides tua, quam 
communem nobiscum liabes ' (Bengcl), 
or the more concrete, ' bcncficentia ex 
fide profecta' (Estius, compare Beza), 
does not seem accordant witli the use of 
Koivwvia in St. Paul's Epistles when asso- 
ciated with a gen. rei ; compare notes on 
Pliil. ii. 1 . e I' € p 7 ^ s 

ye'rTjTo ] ' might become operative,' sci\. 

ij-£iiLs I'jI-S )^0U» [reddens fruc- 
tus in operibus] Syr. ; yiverat fvepyiis 
oTav epya ^xv< Chrys. The translation 
' evidens,' Vnlg., ' manifesta,' Clarom., 
appears to have arisen from a mistaken 
reading 6Vap797s. 4y hiriy- 

ycifffi Travrhs ay.] ' in the (complete) 
hiouicdge of every good thing ; ' sphei-a 
and element in which the 4vfpyeia was 
to lie displayed (see notes on Phil, i 9), 
serving also indirectly to define the ' mo- 
dus operandi ; ' irais Se earai fvepy-fis ; 
Bia TOV iiTiyvSivai ere Kal wpuTTetv ttuv aya- 
S^Si), CEcum , Avho however unnecessa^ 
rily introduces koI irpiTTeiv, and incor- 
rectly limits it to Philemon, whereas the 
previous interpretation oi Koivwvia siiows 
that the reference is to others, to tlie koi- 
vaivol Trjs irla-Teiis aov ; see Mej'er in loc. 
On the meaning of itrlyvoiais ('accurata 
cognitio'), sec notes on Eph. i. 17, Phil. 
i. 9, but observe that this force of iir\ 
cannot always be conve3'ed in translation ; 
compare on Col. i. 9. rov 

ev vtJ-'iv] ^ which is in us ;' -with special 
reference to them as Christians, and as 
recipients of the good gifts and graces of 
God. The reading is slightly doubtful. 
Lnchmann omits tov with AC; 17, but 
on authority manifestly insufficient. 
Again Pccc. reads iif^lv with FG ; Vulg. 
(ed.), Syriae (both), Coptic, al., but on 
weak external, and still weaker internal 
evidence, as viuv might have been easily 
suggested by a desire to conform to the 
vfuv '\n \GV. 3. els Xp. 

'iTjtr.] 'unto Christ Jesus,' not merely 
' in reference to Him,' but with a closer 
adherence to the primary force of the pre- 
position, ' for the work of,' ' to the honor 
of,' 'erga Christum,' Erasm. (compare 
notes on ver. 5) ; ' bonum nobis exhibi- 
tum redundare debet in Christum,' Ben- 
gel. The words obviously belong to 

r n I L E M ON . 


^ yapuv yap 7roX\>/f ta^ov kch TrapdK\T]<Tiv eiri t/} w/utttj aov^ uTi 
ra airXdy^va tcop uyicov uvairkiravTaL Sea cov doeX^e. 

7. x"^**'! ^^ Larltin. aiul Tin-I,. tnl. 1, \vit!i ACDKl'U ; 10 luss. ; apparently all 
Vv. ; Lat. Ff. ((iricsl>., Sdiolz., J/y. ). In cdil. 'J and 7 Tisch. reads x'^P'*' ^^''^ 
ICL ; great majoriiy «if inss. ; Clins. (ms.), Tlieod., iJain., Tlieopli., al. (ajiiiroved 
by Griesb., and adojited by Al/.). Tins latter rcadin;^ has sonio little claim on our 
attention, on tlic itrinciplo ' proclivi leetioni praestat ardua,' still as x^^P'" "li;;''' 
have been sui/j^'sted by the tuxtpiaru which precedes, it does not apjjcar Kifc to re- 
verse so };reat a preponderance of uncial authority. 

iax^"] ^" Lnrliiii and Tisch. ed. 1, with ACFU ; 5 mss. ; Vul}^., Copt, {(li-slii), 
JEih. (Pol. and IMatt), al. ; Thcod. ; Lat. Ff. The jdur. (axo) is found in DT. ; 
Chuoni., Sang. ; Ilier., al. (Mt<j., Al/') ; tiie jircs. /xo^*** (before woXAf/i') is found la 
D'JK ; fjjreat nuij. of mss. ; Syr. (both) ; Chrys., Dam., Theoph., al., and adopted 
by 7V.<(7<. cd. 2, 7. Atnrstsij:ht the plural (St. Paul and Tim., ver. 1) would t.cem 
to be the true reading, of which the text was an alteration. As, ho\\cvcr, the change 
might have liecn duo to the preceding vi^^") ^^o retain the best attested reading. 

iyfpyi]S yfi-rfTai, not to what immediately 
precedes (Syr., Vulg., and more distinct- 
ly .iEtli. (Piatt), tli being assumed = ^i'), 
still less to the more remote tt)? trlaTfds 
aov, as Grotius. Lachm. omits 

'iTjo-ofi/ with AC; 2 mss.; Copt., ^Eth. 
(Polyb., but not Piatt) ; Ilicr., al., but 
without sufficient external authority. 

7. 7«tp] It is somewhat doubtful 
whether this gives the (subjective) rea- 
son for the (i)xapi<TTia, ver. 4 (Jerome, 
Mey), or for the i)rayer immediately 
preceding (Do W., Alf.). The latter is 
jierhap^ the most natural, as iho subject 
of thanksgiving seems insensibly to have 
passed into that of prayer. The ajiostlo 
prays that the Koivuvia h. t. a. may jirovc 
ivfpyfli./ur ('sane ixbus itacomparaiis,' 
Klotz) it is at present so great as to 
cause joy both to himself and to Timo- 
thy ; av /uo( irapl)r}(Ticu> tSaiKas r\ tut tit 
irepovs ytvonti'inv, Chrys. 
(<TX'>*'\ 'Il'dit:' scil. when I first 
lio.ird of your iydirrii' and tiVtiv, ver. 5. 
The iroKKiiv, as Meyer observes, appears 
to belong to both substantives ; compare 
Jclf, Gr.^ 39. 1. obs. 
^ ir I T p iydiTTi aov] 'in t/ii/ lore ; ' 
literally, ' based on thy love,' ^irj with 
the dat., as usual, marking the basis and 

foundation upon which the x*po ^^'^ *«" 
pinK. rested ; sec notes on Phil. i. 3. 
oTi 1 ii a ir \ay x" o.\ ' l>ec<iuse the 
hearts;' e.xplanalion of the preceding 
eVl TTJ 07. ; iroAAr,j yap ifiTri^iirXaiiai ^v 
fiftSias oTi iravToSairi]!/ ro7s aylois ^»oa- 
Ttiiav irpoa<pfp(is. Tlieod. On the semi- 
Ilebraistic <rir\a7x»'a (ver. 20, 2 Coi vi. 
12, al.), sec notes on Phil. i. 8 : there, 
however, the idea of 'affection' (rytv- 
/ioTiKJj tpiKorropyia, Theod. i'»i loc.) is 
more predominant ; here the term only 
serves to specify the imaginary scat of 
it; comp. Liicke on I John iii 17. As 
tnrXayxfa is a Somewhat comprehensive 
term (' proprie sunt viseer.i ilia, nobiliora 
vocata, cor, jmlmones. hcpar et lien,' 
Tittmann, Synon. 1. p. GS), the ethical 
a]>plications may obviou>ly be somewhat 
varied ; see Suicer, Theuiur. s. % . Vol. 
II. p. 997. eLva,iriwavTa.t\ 

' half Ixen rffreshed ; ' so 1 Cor. xvi. IS, 
2 Cor. vii. 13. On the distinction Im?- 
tween aytlrat/criv, ' pause or cessation 
from lalwr.' and twtffiz, ' relaxation of 
what had been tightly strained,' see 
Trench, St/»on. § 41. 
i5«X<j)«l Not ' Bntdcr in Wahrheit,' 
Dc W., Koch, but as -Eth., ' fratcr mi,' 
— in tones of earnest aficctioa : ' hoc in 




^ Ai6 TroWyjv iv XpicrTat irapp-qaiav €)(cov 

^ Bia T-i]v ayd'irTjv 

Ibcsccch f-hee for Ones'.miis, 

thy once unprofitable eer- 

rant, who left thee a ser- iTrtrdcO'eiV (TOC TO dvrjKOV, 

vant, to return a brother : 

receive him as myself. If he be a defaulter, I will repay thee. 

fine positum miiltum hahet ttoAos ; conf 
Vir;j. ^n. vi. 836/ Scip. Gent. ap. Poli 

S. 5t6] ' On ichich account,' ' as I have 
so much joy and consolation in thee ; ' 
not in connection with ira^p. ex<^v [Zv- 
vdfisvos, <pi)(r'i-, ^appelv &s ^epfius Trtiri- 
arevKSri, Theod.) ,as S3'r. and the Greek 
commentators, but in rcf. to the preced- 
ing x'^'P"-" eo'X'"' — *""' '''V ^7'''''?'> express- 
ing more fully the motive of the Sia ryju 
ay. iJ.aK\ov vapaK. which follows ; so De 
Wette, Meyer, Alf. On the use of 5t6, 
sec notes on Gal. iv. 31, and for its dis- 
tinction from ovv and &pa, see Klotz, De- 
var. Vol. II. p. 1 73, but on the two latter 
particles contrast the more correct re- 
marks of Donalds. Gram. § 604, Crabjl. 
§ 192. iro/5^. eX""'] 

' tliough I have boldness ; ' concessive use 
of the simple participle, see Donald- 
son, Gram. § 621, and compare the re- 
marks of Winer on the translation of 
participles, Gr. § 46. 12, p. 413, — ed. 5, 
apparently omitted in cd. 6. On the 
meaning of irapp-, — here in its deriva- 
tive sense of e|ouffia, SSeia, Hcsych., — 
see notes on 1 Tim. in. 13. This irapprj- 
ffia was eV Xp. ; He was the element in 
which (not 8ia rijv iriaTiv r))v els Xp., 
Chrys.) it was entertained, and out of 
which it did not exist : compare on Eph. 
It. 1 . iw IT da <T. <T I tI) 

avriKov\ 'to enjoin upon thee tliut which 
isjitting;' explanatory infin. following 
a phrase expressive of ability or capaliil- 
ity; compare JIadvig, Synt. § 14.5. 1. 
The verb fivndaff. thougli not uncommon 
elsewhere in the N. T. is only found here 
in St. Paul's Epistles : iirirayr], on the 
contrary, occurs seven times in these 
Epistles, but not elsewhere in the N. T. 
The neuter tJ) ai'?]Kov (comp. Eph. v. 4, 
Col. iii. 18), not exactly rh eh xpf''«*' M"" 

eA^oV, Theoph., but more generically 

' quod decet facere,' Coptic , ^N*] 

_ir>9l9 [ilia qu!E justa) Syr., rh irpiirov, 

Suid., marks the category (Meyer) to 
which the receiving back of Onesimus is 
to be referred. 

9. St a t)^v 017.] 'on account of love,' 
'for love's sake,' Auth. ; partially explan- 
atory of the preceding Si6, but with a 
more general reference, the aydirri liers 
not being i]i> Kayu ix'^ T^pos ere, Theoph., 
or ^f ayairo) re ae Kot ayaTrufxai, CEcum., 
nor even ' charitas tua in Christum,' 
Just., but, as the omission of all defining 
genitives seems to suggest, ' Christian 
love' in its widest sense (De Vv''., Mey.). 
The article gives the abstract noun its 
most generic meaning and application, 
Middleton, Gr. Art. v. 5. 1, p. 89 .sq. 
T lovT OS &v\ ' Being such an one,' 
' As I am such an one' scil. who would 
rather beseech for love's sake, than avail 
myself of my irap^rjaia}' iirndaffiiv. 
Tiiere is some iittle difficulty as to the 
connection of tliis participial clause. It 
is usually regarded as preparatory to the 
Qis TlaiiKos which follows, and is con- 
ceived to more nearly explain it. Meyer, 
however (whose note on this clause is 
very persuasive), shows that the unde- 
fined ToiovTos, though often more nearly 
explained and defined by olos, ware, nei- 
ther is, nor scarcely can be, associated 
with ws, which naturally presumes a 
more defined antecedent, and always 
' aptius conjungitur cum sequentibus,' 
Klotz, Devar. Vol. 11. p 757. Tliis be- 
ing apparently the case, toiovtos iiv must 
be referred to ver. 8, while u>s XlavKos 
irpe(T)3uT7js, enhanced by vvv\ Se koI Sea- 
fxios 'I. X., belongs to the second irapa- 
Ka\u (so Lachm., De Wette, and recently 
Buttm., Alf.), and states the capacity in 

9, 10. 

r n I L r: m on . 


fiaXXuii irapaKoXo). roiuvro'i wf, cos" Tlav\jo<; 7rp€(TJ3ini}<;, vvi^l Be 
Kal 8t'(r/xtov Irjtjoi) XptaTou, ' " TrapajcaXo) a€ irepl tov €fwv TiKVOVy 

9. '\y\aov Xfitaru'v] So lltc. with 1J-1>*KFGKL ; aj>[jarfnlly great Jiiajuriiy of 
niss. ; Vulj;., Clarom., Syr., J£.\\\. (I'lttttl.ul. ; Clirys., Tlicod. Liirhm. &nA TtscU. 
reverse ilic orJor wiili AC; a few iu»«. ; ( opt., ..ICili. (rol.), IIkt., ul. The cvi- 
deiu-e Ulm.-s not seom bufficient to justify the reversed onkr, especially m the Ijest 
autlioritics ;^ivc Xp. 'l?j<r. in ver. 1 , whitli might c&»ily have tugtresied tlie c-orrec- 

wliicli tlio ajMiSile makes liis affectionate 
ixjquest. Larhiu. it may be ol>served en- 
closes u>s UavKoi in a parenthesis ; Liutlm. 
isohites it by eoinmas (so Chrys., anh 
tTji irot($T7jToj rov Hfiuaiiiirov ajrh rf/j ^At- 
(fi'ay aTri rov iiKcuorifiou vdyruv on ko) 
Sf'tr/iios K. T. X., ('onip;tre j^ih. [I'latt]) ; 
Ijotli liowever uijsaiisfaetorily : IlaDAos 
seems more naturally to stand in imme- 
dato union with wpfa0uTr}s (Syr., Copt.) 
and to hint at the title he might have 
assumed, ' Paul the Apostle.' 
wotcBvrrji] 'tin at/etl man,' Auth., 

' sene.x,' Vulg. f '"'^ Syriac and ajipy. 

all Vv. It is (piite unnecessary to at- 
tempt to explain away the simple mean- 
ing of this word (' non jeiatom sed ofli- 
cium 6i;^nitieat,' Calvin, ' ein Senior der 
Christenlieit,' Kuch), or to evade the al- 
most obvious reference to age ; sec Wolf 
inloc. If with Wieselcr we assume as 
late a year as \. d. .'59 for the martyrdom 
of Stephen, and consider the vtavlas at 
that time as no more tiiat 25 or 2G, the 
apostle would now (|)ruliably a. d. 62) 
l>e nearly 50, which, broken as he was 
with labor, sullcring, and anxieties (2 
Cor. xii. :i4-28), might well cniitle him 
to the ap|)ellation of rpta^vTi^s. If wo 
fellow the tradition in Pseud. -Chrys. 
Oat. de Petr. el Paulo ( Vol. vi 1 1. spur. 
p. 10, cd. Bened.), that St. Paul's age 
was 68 when he suffered martyrdom, 
there will remain no doubt as to the ap- 
propnatcness ol the term. All attempts, 
however, to tix the year in which St. 
Paul was bora seem hopeless ; compare 

Winer, nwn. Vol. J I. p. 217. 

ii f (T nio $ 'I. X.] AiolSia Xfitarbii Sfitu*- 

yos, Chrys., but, as in vcr. I, ' one wiiom 

Christ and his cause have bound ; ' 6C6 

notes above, and Winer, 6V. ^ 30. 2, p. 


10. TOV i fiov T f K V o v] ' my oiai 
child ; ' with tender reference to Phile- 
mon as being converted by the apostle, 
and owing to him his Christian exist- 
ence ; compare 1 Cor. iv. 14, Gal. W. 
19, and Loesncr, Oks. p. 431, who cites 
the partially parallel fiaXKov ainhy 1) ovx 
ilTToy rijiiv yoviwy "^fyfyyrjKa, Philo, Cut. 
§ 8, Vol. II. p. 554 (ed. Mang.). The 
j)ronoun i/xov seems here emphatic. 
Lacfnn and Meyer intixnlucc iyw befonj 
tytyyrjffa, but though on internal grounds 
not improbable, the external authority 
[A; 2 mss. ; Slav, (ms.), Chrys. (1)) 
docs not seem nearly sufBcicnt to war- 
rant the insertion, iy Tots 
S*afiois\ With feeling allusion to tho 
circumstances in which he was when 
Philemon was convened, ami in which 
he now is agam while urging his re- 
quest ; xoAic 01 S«Tfxo\ SvffcemjriKol [e.\- 
orandi vim habent], Chrys. The addi- 
tion fioii after itafiols [IW., Sc/ioh, with 
CD^KL ; al] seems rightly rejected by 
Liicltm. and Tiscli. 

'Oyriff tfioy] Accusative, owing to an 
inverted form of attraction ; the relative 
which would moi« usually (i-omparu Wi- 
ner. Gr. § 24. 1, p. 147) have been in 
the same gender and case as riKyov here 
follows tlie common ivgimen, passing 
into the gender of the latter subsuntire. 



11, 12. 

ov iyivvijcra iu Tol<i 86a/xoi<;, ^ Ovr]crcfJioi>, ^^ rov irore aoc d)(p7f 
arov, vvvl he aol koX k/xol €v')(p7]arou, ov ave'7r€ir*^d aoc. ^ aif 8e 

11. av4Trfn\f,d (7oi] So Laclvnann and Tischen. 1, with ACD^D ; 17; Syr., Copt. 
{ha-pok), JVjI\\. (both) ; Chrvs. (irphs ere) ; Lat. Ff. (Mei/er). In his second edition 
Tisch. omits croi with DTGKL ; nearly all mss. ; Amit., Fuld., Goth., Syr. (Phi- 
lox.) ; many Ff. (Rec. Alf.). Independently of external authority which seems to 
])reponderate against the omission, it does not seem improbable that aoi sliould have 
been omitted on account of the two preceding repetitions in the same verse, and the 
oh 5e which immediately follows. 

and atti'acting it into its own case ; see 
Winer, Gram. § 24. 2, p. 149, S 66. 5, p. 

11. rhv IT ore a o t 6,xp-] ' iclio icas 
once unprofitable,' ' unserviceable,' scil. 
who once did not answer to his name 
(ov7\(nixou) , but by running away, and 
apparently also by theft (Chrys. on ver. 
18), proved himself ^xP'?''"''os. The word 
Hxpri'^T. is an air. \iyufi. in the N. Test. 
{fvXf'V<^'''o^> 2 Tim. ii. 21, iv 11), and is 
defined by Tittra. {S_i/non. ii. p. 12) as 
' quo uti recte non possumus,' ' qui nul- 
lum usum prsebeat.' The distinction be- 
tween this and expe'tos (Matth. xxv. 30, 
Lukexvii. 10) is not very palpable : per- 
haps the latter rather implies oZ ovk ean 
Xpeia, 'quo non opus est' (Tittm.), 'one 
who could be dispensed with,' and hence, 
inferentially, ' worthless,' ax/X'^uv koi avw- 
<pe\es, Xen. Mem. i. 2. 54, while 6.xpv- 
aros has less of a negative sense (oh XP"^' 
ai/j-ov) and more approximates to that of 
irovrip6s. It would seem, however, that 
axpf^os belongs mainly to earlier, &XPV- 
ffTos mainly to later Greek. The 

play on the name, 'Ovncrtfiov, rbv TroTt 
ixprj^^'o" (not noticed by the Greek com- 
mentators), lias been recognized by the 
majority of expositors ; see Winer, Gr. 
^ 68. 2, p. 561. Any further allusion, 
XpTjffTbj as compared with Xpi<TTiav6s 
(Koch), seems improbable and even un- 
tenable, compare Mey. in he. 
9o\ Ka\ inol fi>xp] ' profitable, ser- 
viceable, to thee and to me.' The evxpij- 
vrla here alluded to has obviously a 

higher reference than to merely earthly 
service (comp. Chrys.) : Philemon had 
now gained in his servant a brother in 
the faith ; St. Paul, one who owed him 
his hope of future salvation, and was a 
living proof that he had not run in vain 
In the delicately added ifjLol (Philemo- 
nem civiliter prceponit sibi,' Beug.) it is 
somewhat coarse (Theoph., Corn, a 
Lap.) to find a hint that Philemon was 
to send him back to the apostle. On the 
various beauties and persuasive touches 
in this exquisite Epistle, see Marshall 
(Nath.), Serm. xiii. Vol. ii. p. 327 sq. 
(Lond. 1731). hy ave- 

ire /bL\l/d. ffoi] 'I hat'e sent back to thee,' 
or even ' I send back, etc.,' — epistolary 
aor. ; present to the writer, but aoristic 
to the receiver of the letter; compare 
tTTf/jL^a, Phil. ii. 28, and see examples in 
Winer, Gr. § 40. 5. 2, p. 249. 

12. crv Se avr6u] 'But do thou 
{receive) him.' The sentence involves 
an anacoluthon, which, however, affords 
but little difficulty, as ver. 17, in which 
the construction is resumed, suggests the 
natural supplement. The addition irpotr- 
AajSoC [Rcc. with CDEKL ; al.] is well 
attested, but considering the tendency of 
St. Paul, esp. in relatival sentences, to 
pass into anacolutha (see examples in 
Winer, Gr. § 63. 1, p. 500), rightly re- 
jected by Lachm., Tisch., and most mod- 
ern expositors as an ancient gloss. Lach- 
mann also omits ab S4 [with AC; 17], 
but with little probability, as the omis- 
sion was apparently the result of an Rt- 




avTov, TOUT tCTiv TO. t/xu aTrXuy^va, '^ ov eyoy i/dovXofirjv npotf 
t^avTuv KaT€^€iv, iva virtp aov fioi hmKOvfj tv loU BecrfjuoU tou 


tempt to evade the iinaioluilion l)y join- nection with persons ; see notes on GuL 

injj i.vf-ie(tv\ia nnd ain6v ; fonip. Meyer i. 18, and Winer. Gr. \) 49. h, p. 300. 

(crit. note), p. 173. rii iiir\p oov\ 'in th if steaJ ;' not %im\i\j 

ifih n-ir\o7x •'"1 ' """? own litart,' for ayrl, but wiili a linpo of the nioro 

' mcinos brusts,' Cioth. ; ourto yhp avrhv usual meaning of tlie j)repo.sition 'in 

ayavui Ka) iv rij \fivxfi trtpKptpu, Thc3[)h. the place of, and thereby l»cncfiiially to 

I tlieo ; ' compare Eurip. Alcest. TOO, kot- 

The niesiiiinir adopted bv Svriac ^^a] 

■ '■ ' ^ Ig >• ■? [sicut Datum menm], 
jEthiopii- (Piatt ; Polyyl. paniphrascs), 

^cwfiv inrip aov, and SCO Green, Gram. p. 
301. This more derivative meaning of 
the prep, cannot bo denied (see Winer, 
Gr. § 47. 1, p. 342), but has l>een uudaly 
Theod., (K Toif (nuv yf-fiyirnrat <Tir\dyX' pressed in doctrinal passages ; comparo 
yuf, ul., tliou;;h perfectly defensible (see notes on Gal. iii. 13, and Usteri, Ltltrb. 
Suicer, Tliesaiir. s. v., and the pertinent ii. 1. 1, p. 115. The exquisite turn tint 
examples in Wcistcin), does not here St. Paul gives to his intention of retain- 
seem requisite or indeed satisfactorj', as ing Oncsimus, viz. as a representative of 
the paternal relation of St. Paul to Ones- his master (Iva rfjs <rTjt fiot StoKovias ix- 
imus was a purely spiritual one, and as rla-p rh xpt'os. Theod.), should not be 
ffirKdyxfa appears nearly alwjiys in St. left unnoticed. SiuKovfi] 

Paul to involve some special idea of af- ' mvjht minister;' present, idiomatically 
fection, or, as here, of the seat of it: referring to the time when t!ie <y3ouA.<JM'j»' 

Meyer (after Grot.) quotes ' meum cor- 
cnlum,' Plant. Cos. iv. 4. 14 (IC) : com- 
pare notes on ver. 7. 

13. iyiii i0ov\6nT)i>] 'I [on my 

took place, and giving a vividness to the 
past by rei)rc«enting it as present ; sec 
Winer, Gr. § 4 1 . b. 1 , p. 2jS, and Klotz, 
Dcvar. Vol. 11. p. CIS: compare also 

pnrt) ims purposing ; ' contrast ^^tATjo-a, Gal. i. 16, but observe that the use of the 

ver. 14, where not only the general dis- present is somewhat different ; tlicre an 

tinction between the verbs ^ovKofiai and event is referred to whidi w:is still going 

S)f\o> (see notes on I Tim. v. 14), but, as on, hero the Siokovio. in its more dircrt 

Meyer remarks, between the tenses, is sense, had now ceased, as Oncsimus 

accurately preserved The imperfect all but on his way home to his master, 

points to the time when the design was iftTfiols rov fvayy.] 'bonds of ih<t 

formed, and to its non-fulfilment; com- gosf>el;' seil. 'bonds which the gospel 

pare Bcmliardy, S/;ir. ,\. 3, J). 373. The brought with it, — which preaching the 

use of riuxifiriv Rom. ix. 3 (Alf.) though gospel entailed on me,' ti>eryy. being a 

analogous, is not exactly similar, as this gen. auctoris; see Winer, Gr. § 30. '2. /3. 

belongs to a use of the imperfect where note, p. 170, llartung. Casus, p. 17. 

there is a more distinct reference to a Again a delicate allusion to his sufi'erings 

suppressed conditional clause ; sec notes (comp. v. 9), and to a state w!:ich could 

on Gal. V. 20. xphi not fail to touch the heart of Philemon. 

ifiavrSv] 'with myself:' the proper 14. x^P^i 5 J «. t. A.) 'hut tcithout 

and primary meaning of the preposition tlii/oirnnpftroval :' comp. Raphel, .clnnof. 

('motion toward,' comp.nre Donaldson, Vol. ii. p. 642, who vcrj- appropriately 

Cmtijl. § 169) is often obscured in con- cites Polybius, Hist. p. 9S3 (xv. 18. 4), 




14, 15. 

evavyyeXiov ^* %®/3W ^e tt)? (rrj^ jvcofxij^; ovBev '^f^eXijaa 7roi7]<Taif 
iva fjL7] &)<? tcara dvuyKTjv to dya^ov aov rj, dXka Kara kKOVcnov. 
^^ Tcvya <)'ap Bia rovio i-^copia^r] 7rpo<i &pav, Xva alcovtov avrov 

X<oph TTjs 'Poifxataii' yvifixis ; compare ih. 
III. 21. 7, xcijpls TTJS avTov yywfJLrjs, lb. 
XXI. 8. 7, ii/ev Tys eKe'iPOV yvw/xris (cited 
in Schweigli. Lex. Pohjh. p. 89). Tvwur] 
occurs a few times in the N. T., and in 
slightly varied senses ; comp. Acts xx. 
3, where it has apparently the stronger 
sense of 'desii^n,' and 1 Cor. i. 10, vii. 
25, 40, 2 Cor. viii. 20, where it has its 
more regular meaning of ' sententia' or 
'judicium;' compare Meyer on 1 Cor. 
i. 10, and Kypke, 06s, Vol. ii. p. 205. 
i}be\T)cTa\ ' was willing ; ' aor., see 
notes on ver. 13. is Kara 

o.i'a.yK7\v\ 'as ifhij necessitij' ' compul- 
sion-wise ; ' the KaTo. marking primarily 
the norma or manner according to which 
the action was done (see notes on Titus 
iii. 5), and tliencc the pi-evailing princi- 
ple to whicli it was to be referred (comp. 
examples in Winer, Gr. § 49. d, p. 358), 
wliile OS marks tlie aspect which the ac- 
tion would Iinvc wora ; see Bernhardy, 
S^nt. VII. 2, p. 333, and notes on Eph. 
V. 22, Col. iii. 23. . Chrysost., and more 
fully Tlieophyl. and (Ecum., rightly call 
attention to this insertion of the particle. 
tJi aya^6v <tov\ 'tluj cjood,' ' ihj he- 
iH'Jicence,' ' the good emanating from or 
performed by tliec,' — t!ie gen. perhaps 
being not so much a mere possessive 
pen. as a gen. aurtoris or causae efficien- 
tis; see notes on Col. i. 23. The exact 
meaning of the words is slightly doubt- 
ful ; there seems certainlj- no reference 
to any manumission of Onesimus (Es- 
tius, Koch; contrast Maurice, CT/JiVy of 
N. T. p. 659), nor merely to the kind 
reception which Philemon was to give 
him on his arrival (Ilofinann, Schriflh. 
Vol. IT. p. 387), nor even to tlie ' benefi- 
cium ' which in tliis particular instance 
Philemon was to confer on the apostle, 
tat, as the more abstract term suggests, 

' beneficentia tua' (Calv.), whether as 
shown in this or in other good and merci- 
ful acts generally. If the apostle had 
retained Onesimus, Philemon would ha% e 
doubtless consented, but the -rh aya^hvm 
the particular case would have worn the 
appearance (o>s) of a kind of constraint ; 
St. Paul, however, wished, as in tliis so 
in all other matters, that Philem.on's t^ 
a.ya^})v should be fri) ojs kot^ avdyKTjv 
aWa KaTo, eKOvcriov. On the 

doubtful distinction in the N. T. between 
rh aya^hv and rh kolK6i/, see notes on 
Gal.y'x.XQ. Kara, eKOvfftov] 

' voluntarili/.' The more usual periphra- 
sis for the adverb appears in the earlier 
Greek to have been ko^ eKovaiav, Thu- 
cydides viii. 27, or £| eKovcrias, Soph. 
Track. 724, by an ellipse of yvcliix-i). In 
the present case there may have been 
originally an ellipse oi rpoirov (Porphyr. 
de Abs. I. 9, Koy kKoia-iov TpSirov) ; the 
expression, however, would soon become 
purely adverbial : comp. Lobeck, Phryn. 
p. 4. 

15. rAx^"- y°-p\ ' For perhaps ;' rea- 
son that influenced the apostle in send- 
ing back Onesimus. The insertion of 
Toxo (Rom. V. 7 ; more usually rax ^"t 
in classical Greek) gives a softening and 
suasive turn to tlie admission of his con- 
vert's fault, no less sound in principle 
('occulta sunt judicia Dei, et temera- 
rium est quasi decerto pronunciarequod 
dubium est,' Hieron.) than judicious in 
its present use ; icaAaJs t6, rdxa. "va fl^rj 
6 SeenroTTjs, Chrys. ; rdxa yap Kaia^dav 
olKovo/xlai' fcpvyff, Thcoph. Both Chrys. 
and Jerome admirably illustrate from 
the history of Joseph the great feature 
of the providential government of God 
wliich these verses disclose, — ' prjEsta- 
bilius duccre Deum de mails bona facere, 
quam mala nulla facere,' Justin, in loc.. 


r,, iR. nil LEMON. 227 

u7r.'Y/;s", "" ouKeri cus" BouXov., tlXV vTTtp EulXov, dBt\(f>bv ayavrjTOV, 

bje AuMist. Eiuhir. § :), Vol. vi. p. .'U9 liAc viia fiiiltur, at fniterniuis C'hriotiuiia 

(jil. B.n. 18"C). inaiict in ctcnuiin.' Tlio tcni.iry paxli- 

ixwpia^t]] ' he Jipartnl ; ' lie iloc-s not c;ito of time, altiviov, is not an advcrli 

*.»v ((pvytv lest ho slioiild rouse n|) any (Mey.), I>nt, as its position su;,'^'csts, :in 

nnirrv rcmeinlirnnces in the mind of Phi- adverliial adjeetivc involvinjj a jinJipti- 

Icm. : so Clirys., Giicum., and Theopliyl. ral Btatenient of the result :omp. Don- 

rtll of whom have adniirahly illustrated aids. dr. ^ 409 sq.. and see examples in 

the doliiate touches in this heautiful Ep. Winer, (Jr. S .')4. 2. p. 412. On 

For cx;im;iles of tliis sort of ' medial- the compound i-xf'xftv, in which, as in 

passive,' in wliieli. however, not only the iiroXafx^dyfii' k. t. X., tlic prep, does not 

piissivo form, hut passive meaning, is ai);i:irent!y so mucli mark i!ie ' receiving 

clearly to he recognized, t;ee Kriigor, bad:.' as t!ic ' having for one's own ' 

S/iracU. Ij 52. t>. 1. (' sibi iiahere,' Bengcl, ' hinweghaljcn,' 

rphs &pav] 'for a seajion:' 2 Corin. Mcy.), see notes on Phil. iv. 18. comp. 

vli. 8, (Jal. ii. r). and more defmitely 1 Winer, Virb. Cmip. iv. p. 8. 

Tliess. ii. 17, irpbj Kaiphv S>pai. In the jg. ovk4ti iis SouKov] Changed 

present expression the duration of the spiritual relation in whieli he now would 

time is. not expressly stated, hut it may ptand to his master; Sia-re koI Tfp XP°'''? 

l)C inf rred from the antithesis to have KtHtpSoKui Koi tij iroi6Tr}Ti, Chrys. Tho 

not hecn very long ; compare Thcophyl. particle ws almost convincingly shows 

III lor. The proper force of the prcji. {imt j]ie,.e jg |,ci-e no reference to manu- 

(' motion towards ') may lie easily recog- mission (comp. on vcr. 14) : though ac- 

nized in the formula, especially when tually a slave, he is not to he regarded 

compared with its more appreciable force ;„ ti,p ordinarv- asi>ert of one (cc verse 

in such expressions as -irphs ((nripav 14) . ,],(. inward relation was changed, 

(Luke xxiv. 29), al. ; compare Bernliar- (^q outward remained the same ; comp. 

dy, S;int. V. ni, p. .')G4. The derivation Hofmann, Sr/mfib. Vol. 11. 1. p. 318. 

of fipo i-i uncertain ; it has hcen connect- {n^ip iov\ov\ ' nlxn-e 1 stare, more 

ed with the Sanscr. luVd, ' time' (Ben- ,^,,„ „ sl,„-e,' ' ufar skalk,' Gothic, 

fev, ]VarzrllrT. Vol. 11. p. 32S). hut, p<T- v 

haps more with the Zenil. Jare, r^ r» ^ [l-nvstantior qnam]. Sjt., 

Germ. 'Jahr,' as apparently evinced in sim. -"Eih. (Piatt), Copt.; not ' pro ser- 

the Lat. ' horno ; ' compare Pott, Kf>/m. vo,' Vulg., Clarom., which oh&ctires i' c 

Forscli. Vol. I. p. 8, 123. force of 1 he proposition ; compare Matt'i. 

atiiyiov airrhv Iltt.] '111i11hte.1t re- x. 24, 37, Acts xxvi. 13, in which t!ie 

ceive him etcmalhi, errrhistim/li/,' not force of ^Jrjp is somewhat* similar, aiul 

merely 'pcrpetuum,' Beza (Grot, com- see Winer, 6V. ^ 40. e, p. .359. Thctx- 

pares Ilor. £'/)i.sf. 1. 10. 41, * servict ffitcr- prossion is cxplaineil hy the followii'g 

num'), nor with any allusion to 'per- a5f\i?5»' aya-rtiTiv ; Oaesimus was not 

petua mancipia,' Exodus xxi. 6, Dcu;. now to he regarded in the light of a 

XV. 17 (Beza, Gent.), hut ' in tcterniim,' slave, hut in a higher light, viz. as a l>e- 

Claroin., ' aivcinann,' Goth.; o''k fv tw loved hrotlier ; avrl Soi'Xou axp'f;(i~fov, 

rapSirri fxiyov Kaipy aWck koI ^v tt? ^«\- XPV'^'^^'' tt5«X<fiJ>»' i.r(i\Ti(pas, CEcuva. 

\oirri, Ti'o SiaTTcurrht fxV^ a'jT6v, ox/Ktrt fiiXiff r a ifiol] ' rsj)ecial'y, above a, I 

iot\oi' c.K\h riuitirtpov Sov\ov, Chrys. : others, to me ; ' not directly dependent on 

so pertinently Estius, 'servitus omnis ayainjT6v (Meyer), but, as kyarriTht ia 




fiaXiaTa en-oi Troafo Be fiaWov croi Koi iv aapKi koX ev Kvpco), 
^' el ovv /j-e e;\;ei'? kolvwvov, TrpoaXa/^ov ainov co? efxe. ^^ el 8i ti 

the X. T. has to a great decree lost its 
verbal character,, a dative 'of interest ' 
(Kriiger, Spracld. § 4S. 4) attached to 
dSeA.!^. ayair. ; comp. Syr., Bengcl. lie 
stood in the light of an a^e\(p. aya-n-. to 
St. Paul, wliorn he had r.ow left, but 
much more so to Philemon, who had 
formerly known him as a mere SovXof, 
but \v!io was now to have him as his 
own in a higlier and closer relation than 
before. On t!ie meaning and derivation 
of juaAwTTo, compare notes on 1 I'im. iv. 
10. Ka\ iv n-apKl k. t. A.] 

' both in the Jicsh and in the Lord : ' the 
two spheres in which Onesimus was to 
be TToaco fiuW'jv an a5eX(f:is ayaTrriThs to 
Philemon than to the apostle, — ' in the 
flcsli,' i. c. in can'.ily and personal rela- 
tions (Mcy.), as having intercourse and 
comriiunication with him on a necessa- 
rily somewhat ahered footing ; — 'in the 
Lord,' as enjoying spiritual communiijii 
with him which he had never enjoyed 
before, — nearly koI iv rats (rajxaTiKch 
inreprjffiaLS Kal iv rais irvevixaTiKcui, 
Schol., except that the idea must not he 
limited to virripeaia ; compare Tiicod., 
CEcura. To define iv aapKl more nearly 
(comp. Grot., al.) i.s neitlier here neces- 
sary nor in harmony with the general 
use of the word in St. Paul's Epistles ; 
eee notes on Galat. v. IG, and the elabo- 
rate notes of Koch, p. 99 sq. ; ' die Ge- 
gensatzc, a^ Mmsch und als Christ sind 
in ihrer gatizcn "Weite zu belasscn,' Mey. 
On the force of koI — Kai ('as va-ll the 
one as the other'), sec notes on 1 Tim. 
iv. 10. 

17. el ovv] 'If then;' summing up 
what has been urged, and resuming the 
request imperfectly e.\pressed in vcr. li!. 
On the 'vis collcctiva' of ovv (Gitl. iv. 
15, Phil. ii. 29, see notes) and its re- 
sumptive force (Galat. iii. 5, see notes), 
both here united, see Klotz, Dcvar. Vol. 

II. pp. 717, 718. Koivuv6v] 

' ti partner,' scil. in faith, and love, and 
(-hristian principles generally, — not 
merely in sentiments {el to avrd /not 
(ppovels, €Jrl To7s a'jTo7s rpexeJS, el <pi\ov 
r,yf), Chrys., Just.), or, still less likely, 
in community of property ('ut tua sint 
mca, et mea tua,' Beng., compare Beza, 
Pagn.), interpretations which here im- 
properly limit what seems purposely left 
unrestricted. v poff Ka^ov 

us e/ue] ' receive him to tliee as mysdf ; ' 
' as you would mc ; ' in my spiritual af- 
fection towards him he is a part of my 
very self, compare vcr. 12. The form 
TtpoaXaix^. occurs in a very similar sense, 
Rom. xiv. 1, .", XV. 7, the idea not being 
so much of a mere kindness of reception 
(compare Acts xxviii. 2) as of an admis- 
sion to Christian love and fellowship ; 
see j^.Icyer on Rom. x'.v. 1, and Fritz, in 
loc., who, however, in his transhition ' in 
suum contubcrnium recipere,' somewhat 
puts out of sight the Christian character 
of the reception which the context seems 
to imply. 

IS. €1 5€'] 'But if;' contrasted 
thought (comp. Alf.), suggested by the 
remembrance of what might militate 
against the warmth of the reception. 
Tlie 6f thu^ docs not seem nera^nTiKiv 
(Mey.), bat preserves its usual opposi- 
live force ; ' qui loquirur, ctiam si nihil 
positura est in oratione tamen aliquid 
in mente habet, ad quod rcspiciens illam 
opposirioncm infcrt.' Klotz, Devar. Vol. 
II. p. GC5. r]SlKria-ev <re] 

' uronijed thee,' more specifically ex- 
plained by the ' mitius synonymon ' 
(Beng.) *; otpeiXet. The Greek commen- 
tators draw attention to the tender w;'.y 
in which St. Paul notices that misdeed 
of the repentant Onesimus which mutt 
have tended most to keep up the irrita- 
tion of P'.iilcmon [ovic elrrtv iK\f\l/ev, aK\' 




ijBiKTjaev ere yo^elXei, touto e/xol tXXo'ya. ^^ f7ci> TlauKo^ e^pa-^a 

0|)h.), and further, the kind and wise 
way in wliicli lie keeps it to the end of 
his letter ; Spa »ou rt^nKf koI wort rb 
aiiKOfici' Cartpov /i«to t6 nuKKa Cnip 
rovTou irpotnrtTf, Clirys. 
TOUTO ( fioi i\\6ya] ' t/tis set duicn 
to my arcouiit,' seil. 3 t» riilictjafv trt ^ 
3^(iA(t ; ' id ineis raiioiiibus iinputa,' 
Grot. TlioUj^h tliere is no cuinin lexi- 
cal aiuliority for ^Woyiu (it docs not 
upjK-ar in tlie now cd. of Steph. Tliesuur.), 
and tliou^li its existence lias bten some- 
what iiereniptorily denied (Pritz. Rom. 
V. 13, Vol. I. |). 31 1 ), yet still as ilic dc- 
siderativc Ao7a«i) (Lucian, Ltxij/fi. § 15) is 
an acknowled^^ed form, and as peculiari- 
ties of oitliography or errors of transcrip- 
tion cannot l>c made satisfactori'y to ac- 
count for the assumed permutation of et 
an I a [Bastius ap. Greg. Cor. p. 706 
(cd. Scha-'f.) cited by Fritz, is not in 
point, as iicre refcnin^j to cursive mss. ; 
see examples and plates referred to] we 
seem bound to follow the preponderant 
uncial authority, ACD'FG ; 17. 31 : so 
Lachm., Tisch., and also Meyer, Alf. 

19. ^7tt) UaiiKos (yp\ ' I Pi'ul 
have written ; ' scarcely ' I write,' De W., 
Conyb., Green (Gr. p. 17), as this epis- 
tolary aorist in tiie N. Test, doe^ not ap- 
pear usetl sinjply in reference to wliat 
j'oli'uws, but always more or less ivtro- 
BjK'ctiv^Iy, wlictlier in rcfereut-c to a for- 
mer letter (2 Cor. ii. 3), to pn.'ivding 
passages in an all but concluded letter 
(Horn. XV. 13, .see Meyer I'/i htr.), or to 
an immediately foregoing portion of one 
in progress (l Cor. ix. 13): when the 
reference is to wliat is deliuitely pivsent, 
llio simple ypaipu is used in preference to 
the idiomatic aorist ; sec Winer, Gram. 
§ 40. 5. 2, p. 249, and notes on Gal. vi. 
11. This would lead us to conclude 
that St. wrote with his own hand 
certainly the preceding verse, and not 

improbably (Theod., Hieron.) tlie whole 
Ejdstle. It docs not tlius ^ccm desira- 
ble witli Lachm. and Baltm. to make this 
verse tlie commencement of a \v w para- 
graph, iyu kwoT 'iaui\ 
' I u-itl re/>a/' obviously not wj:li any 
serious meaning, as if the apostle expect- 
ed that Pliilemon would demand it, but, 
as the Ga'ck commentators all observe, 
Xa^iitvTus (Theoj)!!.), yet, pcrliap*. a« 
the next words convey, with a gr.iccfullT 
imjilied exhortation, koI ixirpftrriKut a^ta 
KCLL xap'**^"* (Chrys.); coinp. Theod., 
drri ypannariov TTifSi Kii-rtx* fh>' i'^tiffro- 
\r]v xaffay ain);y tydi yty^aipa. The 
addition tV Kvpicp (D'E' ; Claromanus, 
Sang.] is an improbable repetition of h 
Ki'/Jioj below. Iva firj Ktyct 
ffot] ' that I inny not sui/ to thee ; ' a rhe- 
torical tun), — o'X'JA"* vapaffiuin']efats, 
Grot., or ■irapa\fiyfifws, Gent., * rhctorica 
pra;teritio,' Est., — in which what might 
Ik: said is partially suppressed, or only 
delicately brought to the remcmlirance 
of the person addi-cssed. The Tva does 
not seem strictly dciHjndcnt on ^7^0*^0. on 
oToTi'ffcD ( Jley), nor yet on a suppressed 
imper. 'yield me this request' (Alford), 
— which wouM impair the graceful flow 
of thought, but rather, as Chrys., Thc- 
ojih., and CEcum. seem to suggest, on a 
tliought called up by the aworltru, — * rc- 
l)a\ ; yes I say this, not doubling thee, 
but not wishing to press on tlicc tlic claim 
I might justly urge : ' all was to be ov 
Kara afayicijy aA\ck koto tKovtriof, verse 
14. Tpo<ro<;>«iA.«is)' thou 
ouest unto mc Usidts : ' riiilemon was not 
only an actual debtor to the apostle of 
any trifle that he thus {utra xaf'roj tT;s 
ryfVfiaTne-Tjs, Chrjsost.) oflcrs to make 
good, but in addition to it (wpoff-), even 
{»fal asccnsivc) his own self, his own 
Christian existence. Raphel adduces 
somewhat similar uses of Tpovo^tlXtiv in 
Xen. Cyr. iii. p. .'i9 (iii. 2. 16), (E<-on. 


r II I L E M O N , 

20, 21. 

rf} ifiy X^^P'-i ^y^ uTTOTiCJoci' 'Iva /jl^] \eyoi aot on koI creavrov fioc 
7roocro(^eiXei?. "'' Nat, uhc\cj)c, cyo) aov ovaifMTjv iv Kvplcp • dvd- 
vrauaov jjlov to, (JirXdy-^a ev l\.pLaTu>. 
I am confiucnt that thou 21 JJeiTOi^ui^ TT) vTTaKOTJ <T0v eypa-\lrd 

wilt fully comply with my ' '' ' i i 

request. Prepare iv.e a (jot, etScb? OTt Kul VTTep O \eyO) 7rOL7]aei<y 


p. 684 (20. 1); the meaning, liowcver, 
ij sufficiently obvious. A curious meta- 
phorical use of iTpoffo<p. ( ' longe inferio- 
rem esse ') will be found in Polyb. Hist. 
XXXIX. 2. 6. 

20. vai, a 5 e \ (J) e] * yea, brother : ' 
certainly not 'ijrecantis' (Grot.), nor 
' vchementer obsccrantis ' (Gent.), but 
with the usual force of the particle in the 
N. Test., ' scrio affirmantis ' (compare 
Erasm.), in reference to the request eixi- 
bodied in ver. 12 sq. ; a(p€\s rhy x^-P'^^"' 
rKTfxhf ird\tv e^*'''''' '''^'' ""poTfpwv twv 
(TTrovSaiaii', Chrys., compare Thcoph. and 
GScum. On the use of vol in the N. T., 
sec notes on Phil iv. 3. 
iyci <rov oval iJ.t)v\ ' may I reap 
profit fruin thee ;' — /, not without em- 
phasis ; the apostle again (comp. ver. 12, 
17) mak's it a matter between himself 
and riiilcmon, putting for the time One- 
simus almost out of siyht ; it was a favor 
to himself. The somewhat unusual ovai- 
fiT}i> [2 aor. opt., see Buttm. Irrccj. Verbs, 
p. 189 Tr.ansl.], coupled with tlie signifi- 
cant iy^ (I, not merely Ones.), seems to 
confirm tlie view of most modern oom- 
mentt., except Do W., that there is again 
a play on the name of Onesimus ; see "Wi- 
ner, Gr. § G8. 2, p. 501. The form ouai- 
(wji/ is similarly used by Ignatius (Pol ye. 
I. 6, Mayn. 12, al.), — once (Ephes. 2) 
curiously enough, but apparently by 
mere accident, after a mention of an 
Onesimus. if Kvpita 

denotes, as usual, the sphere of the ouTiats, 
(sec on Ephes. iv. 17, Phil. ii. 19, al.), 
just as iv XptiTT^, which follows, speci- 
fies that of the avairavcns ; both, were to 
be characterized by being in Ilim, they 
were to be such as implied His hallowing 

influences. It may be here observed 
that iv Xp. has distinctly preponderating 
authority [ACDiFGL ; al. ; Claroman., 
Syr. (both), .^th (both), Copt., Goth.], 
and is adopted by nearly all modern eds. 
TO o-TTAayx*'"]' '"i/ heart ; ' not One- 
simus, as in v. 12 (Ilieron.), which would 
here be wholly out of place, nor t^jv 
irepi ae aydTTiqv (Thcoph., Qilcum.), but 
simply the (nr\dyxva. of the apostle, — 
the seat of his love and affections ; see 
notes on A'er. 7. 

21. IT eir 01^ w s tt) inraic] Conclud- 
ing allusion to his apostolic authority, 
but how delicately introduced, how ten- 
derly deferred, and how encouragingly 
ecb.oing the commendations with which 
lie commenced ; unep Kal apxo,ufvos elire, 
Trapprjaiav %X'^^ tovto koI eVToi^a Xe-yet 
els tJ) iiriacppayiaat r^jv iiricrroXrji', Chrys. 
e 7p a ;|/ a] ' / have written,' not ' I write,' 
De AT. ; see above on ver. 19, and con- 
trast the following present. 
iiirepo \€y<a\ ' beyond what I am say- 
iny ; ' compare Eph. iii. 20. It is very 
doubtful whether this alludes, however 
faintly, to the manumission of Onesimus 
(Alf. ). The tenor of tlie Epistle would 
seem to imply nothing more tlian en- 
couraging confidence on the jnirt of the 
apostle {a;j.a koI Snjyeipev tl-ruv rovro, 
Chrys. ), that Philemon would show to 
the fugitive even greater kindness and a 
more afl'cctionate reception than lie had 
pleaded for; compare notes on ver. 14 
and 16. Laclnn. here reads uTrep & with 
AC ; 3 mss. ; Coptic, Syr. (PhMox.),— 
not without some reason, as the single 
request might have suggested the cor- 
rection (compare Alford) ; still it is 
perhaps more safe to retain the text 


I'll I LEMON. 


— ufia 0€ Kai eTuifj-a^e fxoi ^eviuv iXiri^o) <^/ap on Cia Toyv rrrpocrev 

ssuiuiaiioui. -^ AaTTu^^Tai ae E,ira<^pa'i o auvai'^^julXcoTOii pou 

iu XptaT(p IrjcroO, -' MupKo^, ^Apicrrap^^^o^, ^rjpui-i, Aovkus^ oi 
<Tvvep^/oi pov. 

BiiicdicUon. -•' 'H. 'Xypt'i Tov Kvpiov i)pu}v 'It}(Tou Xpi<T70u pero, 

TOV TTVevpaTO'i vpiov. 

as best supported l>y external autlioiity. 
22. S^a 5i Ka\ k.t.\.\ 'Moreover 
at ilie same lime also i/rovidc me a lodg- 
1W7; ' a coiumis>ion appended to his re- 
quest : in udJiiion to complying,' with the 
subject of tlie letter, Philemon was also 
to make this piovi.-ion for the e.\i>ected 
apostle. Chns. and Theod. (comi)arc 
Alf ) (iiul in this.incsja;,'0 a last thou^'ht 
of Onesiuiu.'^, and a direction tending to 
secure him 11 kind reception ; 7fo -trpov- 
SoKuv a'JTOv t}]v irapovcTiow alSfcrdfj [♦lA.] 
Ko) ra, Thcod. It may be 
doubted, however, whether the yjVs/ view 
of Theoph. and CEcumen. is not more 
jirobable, and more worthy both of Phi- 
lemon and of the apostle, — viz., tiiat 
Piiilemoii was not to consider the Epis- 
tle a mere pciitio'.i for Onesimus {d fii] 
Sii, 'Oin'ia-ifxoi> oiiSf \6you fie iliiov, The- 
oph.), but c.s containing special messages 
on otlicr matters to himself. The word 
{evi'a (Ilcsycli. viroSoxVy KaT(L\vna) only 
occurs here and, also in reference to St. 
Paul, Acts x.wiii. 23. 
5<^ T uy n poff fvx'i' *' ii fj. €> v\ throwjU 
your prai/ns ; ' in rcfcix'nec to Philemon, 
Apphia, Arcliippus, and tliosc mentioned 
in ver. 2. The same exjKJctation of 
recovering his liberty appears in Pliil. i. 
25, ii. 24 ; there, however, the journey 
contemplated is to the Piiilippians, and 
iho date wiicn it is formed, according to 
the general view, a j-ear or two later ; 
comp. Wicseler, Clironul. p. 45G. 

2.3. do-ircf i«Tai] Greetings from tho 
same persons us those mentioned in tho 
Ep. to the Coloss. (ch. iv. 10 sq.), with 
tho exee|)tion of Justus. Tho order ob- 
sen'cd is substantially the same, Mark 
and Aristarchus (oi tints Ik Tfpirofjris, 
Coloss. iv. 11) preceding Luke and Dc- 
mas, except that Epuphras is iicre placed 
first. The reading ounrdCoyTat [Rcc. with 
D-'D'IvL] is riglitly rejected by most 
modern editors as a grammatical correc- 
tion. 6 cri>i'a<XA'c(X. f-ou] 
' '"!/ fdloic-prisoney ; ' more specifically 
defined a.s iy Xpiarf 'Irjaov ; see cm Ejih. 
iv. 1, The title here given to Ejiaphras 
is, in Col. iv. 10, given to 'Apirrapxas, 
while the latter is afterwards named as 
a crvyfpySs : for the probable reasons, 
see notes on Col. I. c. 

24. MdpKos] Probably John Mark, 
and the Evangelist. For a bri» f notice 
of him, and those mentioned in this 
verse, sec notes on CA. iv. 10 and 14. 

25. i) xdpii K.T.\.\ Precisely tho 
same fonn of salutation as in Gal. vi. 1 8, 
witli the exception of the significant con- 
clusion aSfX^r. As there, so here (com- 
pare also 2 Timothy iv. 22), the apostlo 
j)niys that the grace of tho Lord may Ihj 
p-trh. tov xyfVfiaTos, ' with the spirit ' of 
those whom he is addressing, with tho 
third and highest portion of our compos- 
ite nature ; seo notes on Gal. I. c, Lksti- 
ny 0/ Creature, p. 113 sq., and compar* 
Olshaus. Opusc. vi. p. 145 sq. 



The following translation is based on the same principles as those adopted 
in the portions of this Commentary that have already appeared. The in- 
creased and increasing interest in the subject of revision has, however, induced 
me to be a little fuller in the citations from the eight Versions, which are here 
compared with the Authorized, and has also suggested the insertion of a lew 
comments on general principles of translation, and of a few brief reasons for 
changes, which the notes on the original might not fully supply. My humble 
endeavor has been to avoid everything that might seem arbitrary and capri- 
cious, and to cling with all possible tenacity to fixed principles of correction ; 
still there both are and must be many passages in which the context and 
general tone of the original render one of two apparently synonymous trans- 
lations not only more appropriate, but even more faithful and correct, than 
the other. In the present edition a few alterations have been made, but not 
any of sufficient importance to require here to be separately specified. 

Of the older English Vv., the attention of the student may be especially 
directed to the version of Coverdale, which, considering the time and circum- 
stances under which it was executed, appears remarkably vigorous and faith- 
ful. This venerable Version has now become accessible by the reprint of 
Coverdale's Bible, published by Messrs. Bagster ; but a small and cheap edi- 
tion of the New Testament alone, with perhaps the Version in the ' Duglott' 
edition [Cov. (Test.)], would, I am confident, be very acceptable to many 
students who may be deterred by the size and price of the reprint above 
alluded to. Some interesting remarks on these Versions, and on the subject 
of Revision generally, will be found in a tract by ' Philalethes,' entitled The 
English Bible, 8vo. Dubhn, 1857. 



PAUL and Timothy, servants of Christ Jesus, to all the saints 
in Christ Jesus \vhic!i arc at Philipii, \vith the bisho] s and 
deacons: - grace l>e unto you, and i:cace, from God our Father 
and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

^ I thank my God upon all iny romcmhrancc of you, * always, 
iu every supplication of mine lor \ou all, making my sui)plicatioa 
with jo)', ^ for your fellowship) shown toward the Gospel from the 
first day until now ; '^ being confident of this very thing, that He 

CUAPTLR I. 1. S!T(•«H^^) So 117(7.; 

•tho servants,' ^l«//i. and tlic oilier Vv. 
On tlio designation Tiinoiliy (' Tinio- 
theas,' Auth.), sco notes on CoJoss. i. 1 
{ Transl. ) . Clirist Jesus ( 1 •> ) ] 

'♦Jesus Christ,' Amh. 

2. Ami the Lord] So Cor. (Test.) : ' and 
J'lom tlie Lord,' Ant/t. and tlio other Vv. 
except W'icl., 'of.' It is perhaps more 
exact to omit the i)rcposition in tho sec- 
ond nionil)er, a;; in tho Greek : here it is 
unimportant, l)ut in some cases the sense 
and construction arc imj^aired hy tlio 
repetition ; coinp. Blunt, JUxt. on Ptir. 
Priest, ])p. 53, 56. 

3. ^1// vii/ remcmlirancc] ' Every re- 
membrance,' Auth. 

4. Snpfiiiailion] ' Prayer,' Auth. and 
all Vv. : it is perhaps better to retain 

the more special mcanintr, as evincin<» 
the earnest nature of tiie apostle's prayer; 
com]), notes on 1 Tim. ii. 1, and notice 
below, ]Vicl., Cor. (Test.), in the trans- 
lation of tho second Sdrjan. It is curioas 
that all the Vv. except Auth. cliauj^ to 
tho ])lural, ' all my i)r.iycrs ; ' this cer- 
tainly presences the ira(n)xv<f'i (lomparo 
on Eph. V. 20). hut at the expense of ac- 
curacy. M'l supplication] ' l»equcst,' 
Auth.; ' bisechyn;;c/ Wicl.; ' instiiunto 
pniyer,' Cor. (Test.); ' praier,' Bislt. ; 
'petition,' li/titn.; the remainin;; Vv. 
adopt tho simple verb ' and prayc ' 
( Tiind., Cov., Cran.),OT ' i)rayin}X, ( Gen.), 

5. Shoicn toirarrl] ' In,' Auth. and all 
Vv. except Cran., ' of.' 

6. Depan] ' Ilath begun,' AutA. In 
you a good uvrk] So ]VicL, Cov. (Test), 



Chap. I. 6-11. 

which began in 3'ou a good work, will perfect it up to the daj^ of 
Christ Jesus : ''' even as it is meet for me to think this of jou all, 
because I have you in my heart ; inasmuch as both in my bonds, 
and in my defence and confirmation of the gospel, ye all are par- 
takers with me of my grace. ^ For God is my witness, how I do 
long after you all in the bowels of Christ Jesus. ^ And this I pray, 
that your love may yet more and more abound in knowledge and 
in all discernment, '^^ to the intent that ye may prove things that 
are excellent, that ye may be pure and without offence against the 
day of Christ ; ^^ being filled Avith the fruit of righteousness, which 
is by Jesus Christ, unto the glory and praise of God. 

Rhem. : ' a good work (' that g. w.,' Cov., 
'the,' Coverd. Test.) in you,' Auth. and 
the other Vv. Perjlct] So 

rJiem., and sim. Cov. (Test.), ' fulcndc :' 
'perform,' Auth., WicL, Cranm., Bish. ; 
' go forthe with it,' Ti/nd., Cov., Gen. 
Up to] Sim. Rhem. ' unto : ' ' until,' 
Auth. and remaining Vv. except WicL, 
' til in to.' Christ Jesus] 

'*Jesus Christ,' Auth. 

7. Mu defence] So Co;;. (Test.), Gen.: 
' the,' Auth., Cranm., Bish., Rhem. ; ' in 
dcfcndyngc,' WicL, Cov. ; ' as Idcfende,' 
Tjjnd. Partakers with me] 
So Cuv. and sim. Tijnd., Cranm., ' com- 
panions of grace with nic ; ' ' partakers 
of my grace,' Auth., Genev , Bish., and 
sim. WicL, ' fclowis of my joie ; ' ' par- 
takers of my joye,' Cov. {Teat.), Rhem. 

8. Witness] So WicL, Rhem. : ' re- 
cord,' Auth. and the other Vv. except 
Tynd., Gen., ' beareth me recorde.' 

Do long] So Cov. (Test.), and sim. Cov. ; 
'greatly long,' Auth. and other Vv. ex- 
cept WicL, Rhem., ' coueitc ; ' Bish., 
' hartely I long.' The insertion of the 
auxiliary seems to throw a slight empha- 
sis on the action expressed by tlie verb, 
which is not inappropriate after the sol- 
emn adjuration. Christ Jesus] 
'* Jesus Christ,' Auth. 

9. Yet more and more abound] Sim. 
Rhem., ' may more and more abound : ' 

' abound yet more and morc,^ Auth., Bish., 
and, with similar position of the adverbs, 
the other Vv. The inversion seems a 
little more closely to preserve the Greek 
order and the connection of Treptaffeveip 
with ilic particulars in which the increase 
takes place. All discernment] 

More literally ' all manner of,' etc., a 
translation actually adopted by Coverd., 
but m.arred by the untenable attraction, 
' in all manner of knowledge aad in all 
experience.' Discernment] 

' J u.di;mcnt,' Auth., Gen.; 'wit,' WicL; 
' fealingc,' Tijnd. ; ' experience,' Cov. ; 
' understandyng,' Cov. (Test.), Cranm., 
Bish., Rhem, 

10. To the intent that] ' Th t,' Auth. 
and all other Vv. It seems desirable to 
make some difference in translation be- 
tween the more immediate els rh k. t. \. 
and the further and final iVo -lire k. t. A. 
Prove] So ]VicL, Cov.: ' apjyrovc,' Auth., 
Rhem. ; ' accepte,' Tyndale, Cranmer ; 
'alowe,' Cov. (Test.); ' discrne,' Gen., 
Bish. Pure] So Tynd. and 
all Vv. except ^iu^/i., Rhem., 'sincere;' 
WicL, 'clenc.' Against] Sc 
Coverd. (Test.) : ' till,' Auth., Bish., and 
sim. Tynd., Cran., Gen., ' untyll ; ' ' in,' 

Will. ; ' unto,* Cov., Rhem. 

11. Fruit] '*Fruits, Auth. 
D] ' are,' Auth. 

12. Note] ' But,' Auth., Cov. (Test.), 

Cn.vr. 1. 12-17. 

Mill. I I'l'I ANS. 


^ Now I would liavo vou know, bretliren, that matters with mo 
have fallen out rather unto tiie furtherance of the gospel ; ^ so 
that my l)on<ls have become manifest in Christ in the whole jjrajto- 
rium, and to all tlie rest ; ^^ and that the greater jtart of the brethren 
having in the Lord confidence in my bunds, are more abundantly 
bold to speak the word without fear. *'* Some indeed preacli Christ 
even from envy and strife ; and some too from good will : ^'^ they 
that are of love so preach, because they know that I am set for the 
defence of the gospel ; '" but they tliat are of contentiousness pro- 

Dish.; 'for.' Wir!.; 'and,* PJuin. ; tlio 
rest omit. JIuve i/on k-now] 

So n/icin.. ami sini. Cor. (Test.), 'have 
you to witc : ' ' wolc that yo witc,' Wicl. ; 
'yc slioultl nnilerst.ind,' Anth., Cranm., 
Dish., and (^im.- Ti/nd., Cuvrrd., Gcncv , 
' woldc yc understodo.' Mattcnt 

with me\ Somcwliat similarly, WicL, Cov. 
(Test.), 'the thingi.s that ben aboute 
mc : ' ' the thinjrs about mc,' RJiem. ; 
' the thiiigs which hnpjievcd unto me,' 
Author., Cranmer, Gencr. {'have hap.') 
Bish. ('came'); 'my busyncs,' TymL, 

13. IJave hccom('\ Sim. Wicl., Cuvrrd. 
(Test.), lihcin., ' wcrcn made:' 'are,' 
Aitth. and remaining Vv. 

The perfect is adopted as perhaps better 
continuiiij^ tlie tense of the precedin;::; 
member. Manijlst in Chrisi] 

' Bond.s in Christ,' Auth. The 

whole Pneloriitni] ' All the palace,' Auth. ; 
' echo moot lialie,' Wicl.; ' all the judj;- 
tnen' hall,' T</nd., Covcrd., Cran., Gen., 
Disli. ; ' evci7 jud ;mcnt house,' Coverd. 
(Test.) ; ' al the court.' lihrm. 
To all thf rfat] Sim. IVian., 'in all the 
rest:' Auth. {"Sliw^.), 'to all oiliers ; ' 
' in all other places ' Auth. and remain- 
ing Vv. 

14. Tliiit the (jrtater /v»i7] ' Manv,' 
Auth. and the otiier Vv. except Wicl., 
• mo.' All ho\vcv(T except Auth. prefix 
' tluit.' riaving in the fjord, 
ftc] ' Brethren in the Lord, waxing con- 
Idcnt by my bonds,' Auth., and, with 

some variations, the oilier Vv. except 
Wicl., Coverd. (Test.), which connect if 
Kvp!a> wit!i irfirot^cJrar. 

15. From] 'Of,' Auth., Tjnd., Cov., 
Cran., Gen., Bish.; 'for,' Wicl., Covcrd. 
(Test.), Rhem. To',] 'Also,' 
Aulh., Gen., lifum. ; the rest omit. 
From] ' Of,' Anth. and the other Vv. 
except TF7c/., Cov. (Test.), Wiem., 'for.' 

16. They tJiat are, etc.] ' But the other 
cflovc,' Auth., hut with a transjiosition 
ofvcr. 15 and 16. B-cause tlfij 
knoic] So Cran., and sim. Tynd., Cor., 
' because they se : ' ' knowing,' Auth., 
Cov. (Test), (Jen., Bish., Rhem.; ' wit- 
ynge,' Wicl. 

17. But ihetf th'tt are, etc.] ' Tlic one 
preach Christ of contention, not sincere- 
ly, supjiosing to add aflliction to my 
bonds,' Auth., but with a transposition of 
ver. 15 and 16. There is some Ittle dif- 
ficulty in finding a suitable translation 
for ipidfia. On I lie one hand, the older 
translation, ' strife, ' Wici., Tijiul., Cov., 
Cran., Gen., Bish., is certainly o;)en to 
the o!ijeciio:i of confounding fpts and 
ipi^fia, from which tliat of Auth., Cov. 
(Test.), Rhem., viz., 'contention,' is 
scarcely fix?c : on the other hand, the 
more lexically exact, ' a spirit of in- 
trigue.' here certainly presents an inade- 
quate antithesis to oydxij. In tliis difl^- 
culty perhaps the term chosen in t!i» 
text sufficiently maintains the antithesis, 
while in its etymological formation it 
approaches lexical accuracy by keeping 



Chap. I. 17-23. 

claim Christ, not sincerelj, thinMng thus to raise up affliction unto 
mv bonds. ^^ What then ! not-withstanding, in every ^\aT, v.hether 
in pretence or in truth, Christ is proclaimed, and therein I do re- 
joice ; yea, and I shall rejoice ; ^^ for I know that this shall issixe 
to me unto salvation, through 3'our supplication and the supply of 
the Spirit of Jesus Christ, ^^ according to my steadfast expectation 
and hope, that in nothing I shall be put to shame, but that -with all 
boldness, as always, so now also, Christ shall be magnified in my 
body, whether it be by life, or by death. -^ For to me to live is 
Christ, and to die is gain. ^ But if to live in the flesh, — if this 
is to me the fruit of mi/ labor, then what I should choose I wot not. 
23 Yea I am held in a strait betwixt the two, having the desire to 

in view the spirit, the spirit of faction 
and dissension, tliat actuated the oppo- 
nents. Proclaim] 'Preach,' 
Aidfi. and the other Vv. except Wicl., 
Cov. (Test.), ' schewcn.' 
T/iiuIciiKj] ' Supposing,' Auth. 
To raise up] ' *To add," Auth. 

18. In every iriiij] ' Every way,' Auth. ; 
' on alle maner,' Wicl. ; ' all maner 
wayes,' Tynd., Cov. ('of waves'), Gen.; 
' by evciT meane,' Cov. ( Test. ) ; ' anye 
maner of waye,' Cran., Bish. ; ' by al 
meanes,' Rhem. Proclaimed] 
' Preached.' Auth. and other Vv. except 
Wicl., ' schcwid.' Therein I] 
' I therein,' A uih. : changed to avoid any 
fcAso cmpliasis on the pronoun. 

Shall] So Wicl. and Coverd. (Test.): 
' will,' Auth. and the remaining Vv. 

19. Issue to vie unto sale] Sim. fihein., 
' shall full out to me unto salv. : ' ' turn 
to my salv.,' Auth., Gen., Bish. ; ' come 
to me in to i)clthe,' Wicl. ; ' shall befal 
unto me to saluacion,' Coverd. (Test.) ; 
'shall chaunce to my salv.,' Tynd., Cov., 
Cran. Supplication] ' Prayer,' 
A>ith. and all the other Vv. 

20. Steadfast cxpectatio}>] ' Earnest ex- 
pectation,' Auth., Bish. ; ' expcctacion,' 
Craiim., Rhem. ; ' abidyngc,' Wicl. ; ' as 
I hertcly lokc for,' Tynd., Cov., Gen.; 
* waytynge for,' Cov. (Test.). 

Hope] So Wicl., Cov. (Test.), Cranm., 
Pliem. : ' my hope,' Auth. ; ' and hope ' 
(verb), Tynd., Cov., Gen., Bish. 
Put to shame] ' Ashamed,' Auth. and all 
Vv. except Rhem., ' confounded : ' it 
seems desirable to preserve and express 
the passive aj(Txi"''S^'ilcro;tiat. 

22. But if to live, etc.] ' But if I live 
in the flesh, this is the fruit of my labor/ 
Auth., and somewhat similarly as to con- 
struction, Tynd., Cran.: the other Vv. 
arc perplexed, except Cov., ' but in as 
moch as to live in the flesh is fruteful to 
me for the worke,' and better Coverd. 
(Test.), ')-f to live here in the flesh is 
frutc of my labour, what,' etc., in which 
t'.iough the rovTo is overlooked, tliat di- 
vision between protasis and apodosis is 
the preserved which seems, on the wliolc, 
most probable : so in this respect simi- 
larly Wicl., Rhem. Tlien n-hat] 
• Yet what,' Auth. ; ' lo what,' Wicl. ; 
' and what,' Tynd., Cranm., Gen., Bish. ; 
'I wote not what,' Cov.; 'wliat,' Cov. 
(Test.). Should] 'Shall,' 
Auth. and the other Vv. except Tynd., 
Gen., ' to chose,' — an idiomatic transla- 
tion, but tending to obscure the delibera- 
tive future. Wot not] So 
Auth., Tynd., Cov., Cranm., Gen., Bish. : 
scarcely exact, yet forcible and firm in 
cadence. The translation of Cov. (Test.), 

Ciiap. I. -J-^-r. 



depart, and to be vltli Chri>(t, fur it is very far better : -^ yet to 
abitle iu the flesh /a more needful for your sakes. ^ And being 
j)ersaudeil of tliis, I know that I shall abi<le and shall continue here 
wiih you all for your furtherance in and joy of Faith, -'^ in order 
that ycur ground of boastiniz; may abound in (. hrist Jesus in me 
throup;h my presence with you a^ain. 

-~ Only let your conversation be worthy of the gosjjel of Christ ; 

' I cannot tel,' is iiliomatic, and prcfeiablo 
to ' knowc not,' WIcl., li/iem. 

23. Yta] ' *For,' Aiith. lam 
held in a strait] ' I am in a strait,' Aut/i., 
Dish.; ' lam constreyned,' Wicl., Ti/nd., 
Crnn. ; ' l)oth these tliinjrcs lyo lianlc 
upon mc,' Cue. ; ' I am in distrcssc with 
two thlnurs,' Cor. (Test.) ; 'I am greatly 
iu doulnc.' Cenci\ ' I am straitened,' 
Rhem. The tiio] ' Two,' Auth. 
and tlie other Vv. except Cov. and Illicm., 
which (tlic former somewhat too strong- 
ly) e.sprcss the article. The 
dtsire\ *A desire,' Auth, Coc. (Test), 
Dish.; ' desire,' /JAcm. ; 'I haue desire, 
Wicl. ; ' I dcsyre,' Tynd., Cov., Cranm. ; 
'desiring,' 6Vn. For it is.itc] 
' Which is far better,' Author. ; ' it is 
niyche more Itetter,' Wiclif; ' wliich 
thingo is l>est of all,' Tyjid., Giinr. ; 
' which thinge were moch more lietter,' 
Coe. ; ' the whychc is much more hettcr,' 
Cov. (Test.) ; ' and to lx> with Christ is 
moch hetter,' Cnm. ; ' which is nmchc 
farre l)etter,' Dish. ; ' a thing much more 
l.;ttcr,' nJicm. 

24. Yit] ' Nevertheless,' Auth., Ti/nd., 
Cran., Gni., Dish. ; ' hut,' Wicl. and the 
remaining Vv. Fur your 
sakfn] So Cov. (Test.) : ' for you,' ..-lii/A. 
and tlic other Vv. 

25. Diiii'j persuaded of thir] ' Having 
this confidence,' Author. ; ' trustyngc,' 
Wicl., Cov. (Test.), Rhem. ; ' am I sure 
of,' T/iid., Cov., Cran., G'ru., Ih'sh. 
Shalt continue here with] ' Continue with,' 
Author., with a dilTcrcnce of reading, 
wliich, however, docs not affect the 
translation. The Vv. aiv nearlv all 

identical with Author., except Wicl., 
' dwelle and pcrfightli dwelle,' and Cov. 
(Test.), ' contiime with you all unto the 
end.' Furthrnince in] ' Your 

furthcnince and joy,' Author., Cranmer 
(' youre faith '), Dish., Rhfmish (' the 
faith ') ; 'youre profight and joie of faith,' 
Wicl. ; ' the furth. and joyc of youre f.,' 
Tynd., Cov. ; ' to youro profile and re- 
joycynge of f.,' Cov. (Test.); 'the fur- 
therance and joy of your f.,' Gen. 

26. In order that] ' That,' Auth. and 
all Vv. Ground of boosting] 
' Rijoieing,' Auth., Cov. (Test.), Cran., 
Dish. ; ' thanke,' Wicl. ; ' may moare 
abundantly njoyce,' Tynd., Cov. (om. 
'moare'), Gcnev. ; 'your gratulation,' 
niuni. Alound] So Wicl.. 
RJinii., and sim. tor. (Test.), 'be plen- 
teous : ' 'be more abundant,' Author , 
Cran. ('the more'). For Tynd., Cov., 
Gm., Dish., sec above. 

In mi] So Wicl., Cranm. (but ' thorowo 
J. C), Rhem.: 'for me,' AiUh., Gen., 
Dish. ; ' thorowo me,' Tynd., Cov. ; ' by 
mo,' Cov. (Test.). Through 

my presence tvilh you] ' By my coming to 
you,' Auth. and most of the otiier Vv., 
— but perhaps less exact tlian in the 

27. Worthy of] So Covcrd. (Test 1. 
RJi'm., and sim. U'/V/., ' worthili to': 
' as it becometh,' Author, and remaining 
Vv. Remain absent] ' Be 
nb>ent,' Auth. and the other Vv. except 
Wicl., ' ethir absent ; ' Cov. (Te^t.), ' Ih;- 
ynge absent.' Are standing] 
Sim. Wicl., Rhem., ' ye stondcn : ' ' stand 
fiLSt,' Author., and sim. Coverd. (Test,), 



CiiAP. I. 27-11. 2. 

that whether I come and see you, o-r remain absent, I may hear of 
your affairs, that ye are standing in one spirit, with one soul striving 
together for the faith of the gospel, ^^ and not being terrified in by your adversaries ; the which is to them an evidence of 
perdition, but to you of salvation, and this from God : ^ because 
unto you was granted, in behalf of Christ, not only to believe in 
Him, but also in behalf of Him — to suffer; ^° having the same 
conflict as ye sa^v in me, and now hear of in me. 


If then there he an}'- exhortation in Christ, if any comfort of love, 
if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any bowels and compassions, ^ make 

'stande stcdfaste;' ' contynue,' Tijnd., 

Cov., Cran., Gen., Bish. 

jSciu/] So Ti/nd., Coverd., Cranm., Bhh. : 

' ramAc,' Auth., Gen., Rhem., and sim. 

Cov. (Test.), 'one myndcd ; ' ' wille,' 


28. Not heiiif) terrified] ' In nothing 
terrified,' Aiilh. ; ' in no tliin;; he ye 
aferd,' WicL, Cov. (Test.), 'afraid;' 'in 
nothynge fearinge,' Tpid., Cov., Cran., 
Bish. ; 'in nothing fcare,' Gen.; 'in 
nothing be ye terrified,' Rliem. 

The irhivh] So Cov. (Test.): 'which,' 
Auth. and all remaining Vv. 
/•'jidence] ' Evident token, ' Author. ; 
'cause,' WicL, Coverd. (Test.), Cranm., 
Rhem. ; 'token,' Ti/ud., Coverd., Genev., 
Bish. This from] Sim. Rhem., 

' this of : ' ' that of,' Auth. and remaining 
Vv. except WicL, ' this thing is of.' 

29. Because] ' For.'^x^A. and all Vv. 
Was granted] ' It is given,' Auth. and 
all Vv. In Him] So TT7c/., 
Cov. (Test.), Rhem. : ' on Him,' Author. 
and remaining Vv. It seems very de- 
sirable, on account of the etymological 
affinity of els (c'vs) and eV (Donalds. 
Cratyl. § 170), to translate irKmlieiv els, 
' believe in ' (where a more literal trans- 
lation is not possible), and to reserve 
• on' for Tturrevuv em : for the construc- 

tion of this verb in the N. T., see notds 
on 1 Tim. i. 16, Reuss, Theol. Chr^t. iv. 
14, Vol. I. p. 129, and A'ei-. Transl. of 
St. John, p. X. In behalf of 

Him, etc.] ' Suffer for His sake,' Author. 
and the otlier Vv. except WicL, Cwerd. 
(Test.), Rhem., ' for Him.' For the rea- 
sons for this change, see notes. ' 

SO. As ye saw] So Cov. {Test.), Rhem. 
(' have seen '), and sim. Cran., 'soch a 
fyght as ye saw : ' ' which ye saw,' Auth. 
and remaining Vv. {Cov., ' have sene '). 
Hear of] ' Hear to be,' Author., Genev. 
('have heard'); ' han herde of me,' 
WicL, Rhem.; 'hear of me,' Tynd., Cov. 
(both), Cran. ; ' heare in me,' Bish. 

Chapter II. 1. If then there be] 'If 
there be therefore,' Auth., Cov. (Test.), 
Cran., Gen., Bish. ; ' therfor if ony com- 
fort is,' WicL ; ' if therefore there be,* 
Rhem. ; Tynd. and Cov. omit oZu. 
Exhortation] ' Consolation,' Auth. and 
the other Vv. except WicL, Cov., ' com- 
fort.' Compassions] ' Mercies,' Auth. 
and sim. Tynd., Cov., Cran., Gen., Bish., 
' mercy ; ' ' inwardnesse of mcrci doynge,' 
WicL ; 'entier mocion of pytie,' Coverd. 
(Test.) ; ' bowels of commiseration,, 

2. Make ye full] ' Fulfil ye,' ^w<A. 

CiiAi'. II. 3-7. 

I'll I LI rri ANS. 


ye full lu}' joy, that ye iniuil ihe same thing, having'the same love, 
with united souls miu'liug the one thing ; ^ inindliuj nothing in the 
way ul' contentiousness, nor in the way uf vain glory, hut uith due 
lowliness of mind esteeming other sujierior to themselves ; •* not 
looking each of you to your own things, hut each of \'ou to the 
things of others also. '' Verily have this mind within you, which 
was also in Christ Jesus : ^ who, though existing in the r«.rm of 
God, esteemed not His being on an ecjuality with God a i>rize to 
be seized on, '' but emptied Himself, taking upon Him the form of 

MiiiJ tlif same ihimj] 8iin. ]\'hl., ' iin- 
dcrstontlo tlio siune thing : ' 'be like 
niinik'il,' -*lii//(., Cmmn., Gviiev., BUh.; 
' drawc one way,' Tynd., Cov. ; ' mynde 
one thin;;.' Conrd. (Test.) ; ' 1)0 of one 
nicaninij,' li/mit. Witli 

united souls, dr.] ' BLin;j; of one accord, 
of one mind,' Author., and sini. Tijnd., 
Cov., Criiiim. ('and of), Bish. ; ' of O 
wille and folcn the .same thin;r,' Wicl. ; 
' of one niynde meanynpje one tliyni^c,' 
Cov. (; ' of one aceonlo and of 
one jiid;,^mont,' Cnin.; ' of one mind, 
agrcein;;; in one,' R/um. 

3. Miiidimf, etc.] ' Let notiiin;; he done 
throuLjh,' Aiith., Cor. (Test.), Z?/.s7i., and 
sim. Tytid., Cov. ('there he'), Cranw., 
Genev. : 'tliat notliinge he done ; ' *no 
thin*; hi,' Wirl., Rhcm. 
Content ionsneas] Sim. Jilicui., ' conten- 
tion ; ' ' strife,' Aufli. and the remaining 
Vv. ; SCO notes on cli. i. 17 ( JVansL). 
Xor in the tin if of] ' Or,' Anlh. 
mth due hnvlimsi;] ' In lowliness,' AutJi. ; 
''in mekncsse,' Wid., Bish ; ' in niekc- 
ncss of mind,' Ti/ud., Cnuini., (jaitv. ; 
' thorow rackcness," Cov. ; ' in humhle- 
nossc,' Coverd. (Test.); 'in hnmilitie,' 
Wicm. As the article docs not a]>])car 
merely nscd to give rartdv. its more ah- 
Btract fone. hut. to nwirk the ' due, hofit- 
ting ' lowlincsis by which the rhilipi)ians 
were to he influenced, the insertion would 
seem justifi:ihlc. Estamimj] 

So Coverd. (Test.); 'let c:ich esteem,' 
Auth., and sim. the remaining Vr. ex- 

cept Wici. ('dcmyn;.'e '), /iV«//i. ('count, 
ing"), which retain the con- 
struction. Suijeriorto] Sim. 
Cov. ( Test. ) , ' the superiores of : ' ' bet- 
ter than,' Author, and the otiicr Vv. ex- 
cept WicL, ' higher than.' 

4. \vt looking, etc.] ' '-Look not ♦ev- 
ery man on,' Author., and sim. in tho 
imperative, Cranm., Gem-v., BiJt. ; ' not 
belioldynge,' Wicl ; ' and that no man 
consider,' Tynd. ; ' and let eucry mau 
lokc not for his awne profet,' Curerd. ; 
' euery one consydering not,' Corerdale 
(Test.), lilicm. Out each of 
you, itc] ' But *cvery man al-o on,' 
Auth., and sim. Gtn., Bish., the only 
two Vv. that notice in translation the 
asccnsivc Kai. 

5. VeVily] Auth. and all the Vv. omit 
tho translation of yip, except Wicl., 
' and ; ' AV/rm., ' for.' Uave 
this, etc.] ' *Let this mind l)0 in you,' 
Auth., sim. Tynd., Cor., Cran., Gen. : 
' let the same mind, etc.,' Cjv. (Test./, 
Bi.<h. ; ' that mind, etc. ; ' ' fcle ye thi« 
tiling in you,' Wirl. ; ' iliis tliink in 
yourselves,' BJicm. 

G. Thouijh exiitiny] ' Being,' Author., 
Tynd., Gen., Biah. ; ' wiianne lie w:is,' 
Wicl. and remaining Vv. 
Kstremed not, etc.] ' Tliought it not rob- 
bery to he equal with God,' Auth., Tynd., 
Cov., Dish., and sim. Cov. (Te^t.), Cran., 
Grn., Ilhem., ' no rohl)ery, etc. ; ' ' domed 
not nuieyn, tliat him silf were cucne to 
God,' Wicl. 




Chap. II. 7-13. 

a servant, beiitg made in the likeness of men : ^ and being found in 
fashion as a man, He humbled Himself, becoming obedient even 
unto death, yea unto death on the cross. ^ Wherefore God did 
also highly exalt Him, and bestowed on Him a name which is 
above every name, ^° that in the name of Jesus every knee should 
bow, of tilings in heaven, and things on earth, and things under 
the earth ; ^^ and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ 
is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 

^ So then, my beloved, even as ye were always obedient, not as 
in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out 
your own salvation with fear and trembhng. ^^ For it is God wliich 
worketh in you, both to will and to perform, of His good pleasure. 

7. Emptied Himself] ' Made Him- 
«ielf of no reputation,' Author, and the 
other Vv. except Wicl., 'lowede Him- 
self;' Rhem., 'exinanited Him self.' 
Talcing] So WicL, Cov. (Test.), Cran., 
Bith., Rhem. : ' and took,' Auth. and the 
remaining Vv. There is some little dif- 
ficultj in the translation of the modal 
(tior.) participle, when, as in the present 
case, tlic action of the participle is syn- 
chronous with that of the finite verb. 
On the who'c, t!ie pres. part, in English 
seems the best and most idiomatic cquir- 
alent, especially as in practice the tense 
of the finite verb seems so far reflected 
on the participle, that though really pres- 
ent in form, it becomes almost aoristic 
in sense, Deivg made] Sim. Bish., 
' and made : ' ' was made,' Auth., WicL, 
Coo. (Test,), Gen. ; ' became iyke,' Tijnd , 
Coccrd., Crai.m. ; ' made into,' Rhem. 

8. Deromiwj] ' And became,' Author. 
and the other Vv. except WicL, ' and 
was mat!e ; ' Cov. (Test.), ' was made ; ' 
Bish., Rhem., ' made' 

Even unto] ' unto,' Auth. Yea 

unto death] Sim. WicL, ' ye to tlie death : ' 
' even tlie death,' Auth. and the other Vv. 
except Cov., which inserts ' unto,' as in 
text. On the cro?s] ' Of the 

cross,' Auih. and all the other Vv. : the 
•light change seems to add somewhat to 

perspicuity, and is compatible with the 
present use of the gen., which is one of 
' more remote relation.' 

9. Did also, etc.] So Coxerrf. (Test.), 

* God also hath,' Auth., Cranm., Bisk., 
Rhem. ; ' God enhauncid,' WicL ; ' God 
hath exalted,' Tijnd. ; ' hath God, etc.,' 
Cov. ; ' God hath highly exalted,' Gen. 
The change in the text seems to have 
the advantage of placing the contrasting 
Kul in more distinct connection with vne- 
pv\l/u<rfv. Bestowed on] Sim. 
WicL, Coverd. (Test.), 'gave:' 'given,' 
Author, and the remaining Vv. except 
Rhem., ' hath given.' 

10. In the name] So WicL, Tynd., 
Cov. (both), Cran., Gen., Bish. ; ' at the 
name,' Auth., Gen. On earth] 
Sim. Coverd., ' upon erth : ' ' in earth,' 
.<ri«//i. and remaining Vv. except WicL, 
' erthely thingis ; ' Rhem., ' terrestrials.'* 

12. So then] 'Wherefore,' Auth. ami 
the other Vv. except WicL, Cov. (Test.), 
Rhem., ' therefore.' Even as\ 
' as,' Auth. Were alivays ob.] 
' Have always obeyed,' Auth. and the 
other Vv. except WicL, 'evermore ye 
han obeischid.' 

13. To perform] So WicL, Coverdale 
(Test.), and sim. Rhem., 'accomplish :' 

♦ to do,' Auth., Bish. ; ' the dede,' Tynd., 
Cov., Cran., Gen. 

CiiAr. II U-IR. 



'* Do all things without miinnurings and doubtings ; ^■' that je may 
III' l)l;:uieless and i)ure, children ot'drd without rej, roach, amidst a 
cro tiaMl and i»C'rvci"sc goniTution, anionir whom yc apj)oar a.s heav- 
enly lights in the world, ^'^ holding forth the word of life ; that I 
may have whereof to hoast against the day of Ciirist, that I did 
not run in vain nor yet labored in vain. ^" Ilowbeit if I be even 
jiourcd out in the sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy, and re- 
jaice with you all. ^^ And for the same cause do ye also joy, and 
rejoice with me. 

14. DouhUngs] So Wtd., Coc. (Test.), 
iind siin. liliein., ' stafr^crin^s : ' ' dis- 
])Utin^'s,' Auth. ami, in the Biiijj., Tynd., 
Cov., Craii., Diah. ; 'reasoning's,' Gen. 

15. Pun] So Ti/iul., CoL'., Gen., Dish. : 
' liarniless,' Author. (Marg. 'sincere'); 
' j>ini|)le,' Wicl., Coverd. (Test ), IViein. ; 
' nnfayiicd,' Crnn. Children 
of] So Cov. (Test.), Rhem.: 'the sons 
of,' Author, and remaining Vv. except 
Cran., ' unfayned sonncs of.' 

Without reproach] ' Witliout relmke,' 
Auth. Amidat] ' * In the 

fliidst,' Auth. Generation] 

So Cot'. (Tcbt.), R/iem.: 'nation,' -iu/A. 
and remaining Vv. Ajiintar] 

• Shine,' Aitth. and all the otlier Vv. 
Ueaviulif li'jhtx] ' Lights,' Auth. and all 
the Vv. except WicL. ' geucrs of light.' 

16. IJave u-hercof, etc.] ' Rejoice,' 
Author., Cranm., Gen. ; ' to my glorie,' 

WicL, Wiem. ; ' unto my rcjoysynge,' 
Ti/nd., Cov. (both.). Dish. (' to'). 
A;jalusl] ' In,' Auth. and all Vv. 
Did not run] ' Have not run,' Auth. and 
all the Vv. The change to the aori>tic 
form seems in this case clearly proper 
and necessary : the form with tlie auxil- 
iary is here diosen for the sake of piT- 
scrving the rhythin of the Auth. Ver , 
which can rai-cly be negle<-ted without 
Borao loss to the general cadence of the 
rcrso. Modern translators have i)aid fur 
too little attention to this not unimpor- 
tant clement in a good version of the 
Scriptures. Nor yet] 'Neither,' 

Author, and all the Vv. cxce|>t fHitm., 
'nor;' Coy. (Test.) omits. The change 
is here made in accordance with the rule 
generally followed in this revision — to 
adopt the weaker translation ('nor,' or 
' neither') of the disjunctive oiSt, whcrv 
the meanings of the wonls itdi.-joins are 
more similar and accordant, tiic stronger 
and more emphatic ('nor yet ' ), where 
they are less so ; see notes on 1 Tim. i. 4 
( Tmnsl.). 

17. Ilowbeit] ' Ycaaiid,' .lu/Zi. and the 
other Vv. except Wicl., 'but though;' 
Cov. (Test.) 'butathough;' lUtcm., ' but 
and if,' — an archaic, but not othenvise un- 
satisfactory transl. Be even /xiitrid 
out] ' Be offered,' Auth. and sim. Tynd. 
(adds 'or slayn '), Cov., Cran., Gtn., 
Bish., 'be offered up;' 'am off. up.' 
Cov. (Test.) ; ' l>e immolated,' Ithtin. 

In tlu] ' Upon the,' Author, and all the 
Vv ( Wicl., 'on the ') ; it seems, liow- 
ever, desirable to mark in translaiit)n 
tliat M has liens probably not a local 
but an ethical n.'forcni-c ; the more cxacl 
' unto ' (see notes) would here l>c hardly 

18. And for] 'For, etc.,' Aulk. and 
the otlier Vv. except Wicl., 'and the 
same thing have yo joic ; ' Cor. (Test.), 
' l)C yc glad also of the same ; ' lihem., 
' and the self same tiling do you also re- 
joice.' The regimen of airrh is some- 
what more exactly expressed by C'oimt/. 
(Test.) than by Auth. and the Text, bat 
there seems scarce! v suflicicnt rcison to 



Chap. II. 19-24. 

^9 Yet I hope in the Lord Jesus shortlj to send to jou Timothj, 
that I also may be of good comfort, Avhen I know your state. ^^ For 
I have no man hkeminded, -who will have a true care for your 
state. 2^ For they all seek their own things, not the things of Christ 
Jesus. '^ But ye know the proof of him, that, as a child to a father, 
he served with me in furthering the gospel, "^ Him, then, I hope 
to send forthwith, so soon as I shall see how it will go with me. 

introduce the change, especially as the 
sense would remain substantially the 
same, while the rhythm would certainly 

Do ije ulso\ Sim. Rliem., ' do you also : ' 
'also do ye,' Auth., Cmn., Bis/i. ; 'also, 
rejoice ye,' Tynd. ; 'be ye glad also,' 
Cov. (both); 'also be ye glad,' Gen.: 
Wicl. omits ' also.' 

19. Yet I hope] ' But 1 trust,' ^u/Zw. 

(Marg., 'moreover'), Bish. ; 'and I 
hope,' Wicl. Rhem. ; ' I trust,' Tijnd., 

Cov. (bolh), Cran., Gen. Shortly 

to, ttc.\ ' To send Timothy shortly unto 
you,' Author, and the otlicr Vv. except 

Wicl., ' schal sende Tyraothe soone to 
you ; ' Rhem., ' to send Tim. unto you 
quickly.' The change is made to en- 
deavor to show that vjuv is the transmis- 
sive dative, and not the same as wphs 
ilias, ver. 25 ; see notes. 

20. Will have a true care] ' Will nat- 
urally care,' Auth., Bish. ; ' is bisie for 
you with clcne affection ; ' ' with so pure 
affeccion carcth,' T'/nd., Coverd., Gen.; 
• be careful for you with sincere affec- 
cion,' Cov. (Test.); 'with so pure aff. 
will care,' Cran. ; ' with sincere affection 
is careful,' Rhem. 

21. They all] So CorerJ. (Test.), and 
somewhat sim. Tytid., Cov., Cran., Gen. : 
'all,' Author., Bish., Rhim. ; 'all men,' 
Wicl. Own tkinr/s] ' Own,' 
Author, and the other Vv. except Wicl , 
Rhem. 'the things that ben her owne,' 
and sim. Cov. (Toat.j. Of Christ 
Jesus] ' Which are ^'"Jcsns Christ's,' 
Auth., Cran., Cov. (Test), ('that be'), 
Bish., Rhem. ('that are'); ' that ben of 

Crist Jhesus,' Wicl. ; ' that which is Je- 
sus Christes,' Tynd., Cov., Gen The 
cliange in the text seems to leave the 
translalion equally uncircumscribed with 
the Greek : the possessive gen. in Eng- 
lish seems more limited. 

22. The proof] So Auth. and all the 
Vv. except WicL, ' assaie ; ' Rhcmish, 
' an experiment : ' the meaning really 
amounts to 'proved character' (see 
notes), but as so many of the Vv. retain 
the literal meaning of SoKifx-fj, a change 
may be deemed unnecessary. 

Child to a father] Sim. Cov. (Loth), 'a 
divide unto the father: ' ' a son with the 
father,' Auth., Bish., and the other Vv. 
except Wicl., ' a sone to the f. ; ' RJiem., 
' a Sonne the father.' Served] 

Sim. Cov. (Test.),'dyd he serve,' and 
sim. as to aoristic form, Tynd., Civnm., 
Gen. : ' hath served,' Auth., Wicl., Bish., 
Rhem. ; ' hath he ministred,' Cov. 
In furthering the gosptl] 'In the gospel,' 
Author, and the other Vv. except Tynd., 
' bestowed his labor upon the gospel.' 

23. Then] ' Therefore,' Auth. and the 
otlier Vv. except Tynd., Coverd., which 
omit ovv in translation. 

FurtliWith] ' Presently,' Auth. ; ' imme- 
diately,' Rhem. : the rest omit. The 
conciiiding words of the verse are due 
to the version of Tynd., and have been 
retained by succeeding Vv. except Bish., 
' as soone as I knowe my estate ; ' Rhem., 
' that concern me.' The sen^e is ex- 
pressed with sufficient accuracy (see 
notes) to render it undesirable to alcer a 
translation so thoroughly idiomatic. 

24. Myself also] So Coverd. (Test.), 

LilAP. II. 24 --JS. 

rii 1 1. ii'ri ANS. 

^ 246 

'* But I trust ill the Luid that I myself also shall coine shortly. 

'•^ Yet I sini|>useJ it necessary to send unto you Ei^ajjliroi^liias, 
my brother, and cumianiun in labor, and fellow-soldier, but your 
messeni^er and minister to my need, '■^ since he was lon^in^ after 
you all, and was full of heaviness, because that ye heard that he 
had been sick. -" For indeed he was Mek like unto death: how- 
beit God had mercy on him ; and not on him only, but on me al-o, 
that I should not have sorrow upon sorrow. ^ I have sent him 

JiJtem. (omits ' I ') : ' also myself," Aulli. 
ami tlic remaining: Vv. 

•25. L'litu you] So Coven!., ninl, after 
' Epajilir.,' Tyiid., Craii., Gtn.: 'to you,' 
Autli., Wicl., Bisfi., lUitiii. ; Cot'. (Test.) 
oralis. It seems de^ir^blc to alUmpt to 
make a di>tiiKtion between itphs v/xai 
and the transn'issive dative ; see notes 
on ver. 19. Minister, ttc] 

Sim. W'icl., Bish., ' the myni^tre of my 
ncde ; ' RJiein., ' minister of my necessi- 
tie ; ' Tyiid., Col: [' ncde '], ' my minis- 
ter at my ncdes : ' ' he that ministered to 
my wants.' .^lu^i. ; ' the servant of my 
nedc,' Cur. (Test.); ' wliieh also myn- 
ystcreih unto me at ncde,' Cran. ; ' he 
that ministered unto me such thinj^s as 
I wanted,' Gtn. 

26. 5i'«ct] 'For,' Aiitli. and all the 
Vv. except Conrd., ' for sio mocli as,' an 
archaic, but not inexact uanslation ; 
Il/ieni., ' because.' 

Jle teas lotiijiiig\ ' He lonJJ^^l,' Au'/i. and 
the other Vv. except W'icJ., ' he desired ; ' 
Jilicm., ' he had a desire.' Ye 

heuid] So W'icl.: 'had lieard,' Author. 
and the remaining: Vv. In the next 
member the En;;li,>h idiom seems clearly 
to reijuii-c the pluj)crfect in tnin>l;uion ; 
in the former mcral)er it may apparently 
l)C dispensed with. 

27. Lik-e unto] ' Niyh unto,' Author., 
Tyiid., Coc, Cran., Gen., Dish. ; ' sike to 
the decth,' Wicl. ; ' untyll death,' Cov. 
(Test.) ; 'even to death,' Rliem. 
Uoidxit] ' But,' zUith. and all Vv. 

7 lioi I should not] ' Lest I should have,' 

Author, and the other Vv. except W'ici. 
' lecst I haddc ; ' Tynd., Coc, ' 1 shuM 
have had.' 

28. Ilaie sent] ' Sent,' Auth. and all 
the other Vv. The chauge seems neces- 
sary, as iirtix^a is in all probability the 
epistolary aorist (see notes on PhiUmon 
1 1 ), Epaphr. beiny appaanitly the bearer 
of this Epistle. It may be doulitcd 
whether the present ou};ht not to l>e 
adopted, as in Covtrd. (both) : English 
idiom, however, seems in favor of the 
perfect ; compare notes on Cotoss. iv. 8 
( TniiuJ. ) . Thertfort ] So 

Auth. and all the Vv. ; and apparently 
ri;^htly, as this seems one of ilie cases in 
which ovv has a slightly ii.ferential t'ori-c, 
which is inadequately expressed by 
' then ; ' see notes on 1 Tim. ii. 1. 
Dillijently] So Tyud., Bis/i., and sim. 
Cranm., Gen., 'diligcntliar ; ' comj>are 2 
Tiw. i. IT : ' carefully,' AutJt. ; ' h:u.>tli,' 
Wicl., Covtrd. ; ' spedcly,' Coc. (Te>t.), 
Rltem. The translation of iJio text, 
though not wholly free from ambiguity, 
perhaps shows a littk moru clearly t!ian 
Author., al., that the apostle showed 
ottoi/St) in sending Ep. 
I too] Sim. Cor., ' I also : ' * I,' .li-M, 
and remaining Vv. The inserted pn/- 
noun (' I on my side ') perha|)s suggests 
this slight addition. Btjoict 

again] So Tynd., Coc, Cranm., liJitm., 
and sim. Wicl., Cov. (Test.): 'again, 
ye may a-joice,' -tu/A., Gat., Dish. Per- 
haps the insertion of the adverb Iwtwccn 
the auxiliary and the verb might seem 



Chap. II. 29-III. L 

therefore the more diligently, that, when je see him ye may rejoice 
again, and that I too may be the less sorrowful. ^ Receive him 
then in the Lord with all joy, and hold such in honor ; ^'^ because 
for the work of Christ he went nigh even unto death, having 
hazarded his life, to supply that which you lacked in your service 
to me. 


Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same 
things to you, to me indeed is not irksome, while for you it is safe. 

more consonant with the order of the 
Greek, and perhaps also with our pres- 
ent modes of expression : as, however, 
it has a tendency to suggest an undue 
empliasis on ' again,' and is, perhaps, a 
modern collocation, we retain the order 
of the older version. This is one of 
many minor points that would need 
careful consideration in any formal re- 
vision of our present version. 

29. T/ie7i] ' Therefore,' Aidh. and all 
Vv. : see notes in loc. Joy\ 
So WicL, Rhem. ; ' gladness,' Aitth. and 
the remaining Vv. It certainly seems 
undesivable to depart from the usual and 
almost semi-theological meaning of x^pa. 
In lionor^ So Coverd. (Test.), and sim. 

Wid., Rhem.: 'in reputation,' Auth. ; 
' make nioch of soche,' Ti/tid., Coverd., 

Cnin., Gen., Bish. 

30. Went nifjh, etc.] ' Was nigh unto 
death,' Auth., Gen., Bish. ; ' he wente to 
deeth,' Wicl. ; ' he went so farre, that 
he was nye unto deeth,' Tynd., Cranm.; 
came nye unio,' Coverdale ; ' M'cnt to 
even untyll death,' Coverdale (Test.) ; 
'came to the point of death,' Rhem. 
Having hazarded] ' Not regarding,' Auth., 
Bish. ; ' gcuynge his liif,' Wid. ; ' and 
regarded • not his lyfe,' Tynd., Coverd., 
Cran., Gen. ; ' geuyng over his lyfe,' 
Coverd. (Test.) ; ' yeldinghis life,' Rhem. 
The translation of the aor. part., when 

associated with the finite verb, requires 
very careful consideration. Besides the 
usual periphrastic translations by means 
of temporal or causal particles, we have 
tliree forms of translation, — (a) the 
present participle ; (i) the past partici- 
ple, with the auxiliary ' having ; ' (r) the 
idiomatic conversion into the finite verb 
witii ' and.' Of these, (a) is especially 
admissible when the part, defines more 
closely the manner of the action expressed 
by the finite verb, or the circumstances 
under which it took place (see notes on 
ch. ii. 7) ; (b) is often useful when it is 
necessary to mark the priority of the ac- 
tion of the part, to tiiat of the finite verb ; 
(c) sometimes serves to mark their con- 
temjwrandty. In the present case the 
choice seems to be between (b) and (c), 
as the Tvapa^oX. may be regarded as 
partly accompanying, and partly as hav- 
ing preceded, the ijyyi(Tei/. As, logically 
considered, the latter idea seems here 
distinctly more prominent, we adopt the 
second form of translation. 
Tliat tvhich, etc.] So somewhat similarly 
Tynd., Cov., Gen., ' that service which 
was lacking on your part to me : ' ' your 
lack of service to me,' Auth., Bish.; 
' that that falid of you anentis my ser- 
vice,' Wid. — not an incorrect view of 
the gen. (see notes) ; ' it that was want- 
ynge unto you toward my willyngc ser- 

Caw. III. 2-5. 

I'll ILl ri'I ANS. 


2 Look to the Jogs, look tu the evil- workers, look to the coxci»loN. 

3 For we are the ciiicuMCisiON, which by the Sijirit of God do servo 
Him, and make our buust hi Christ Jesus, aiid put no coufiJenee 
in the flesh ; "* though myself possessed of confidence even in tho 
flesh. If any other man dcemeth that he can put confidence in the 
flesh, I more : " eireumeised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, 

vycc,' Coi\ (Test.); 'that wlikh was 
lackynge on youro part toward nic,' 
Craii. ; ' tl»at which on your part wanted 
toward my seiTicc,' lUtcm. 

CiiAi-TLK III. I. Iihsomt] 'Griev- 
ous,' Author. ; ' it is not slowc,' Wkl. ; 
' it grcvctlj me not,' Tijnd., Cov., Cran., 
Gen., Biah.; 'no grefe,' Cov. (Test.); 
' tedious,' Rliim. Whik] 

'But,' Anllt., Cut-. (Test.) ; 'and,' WicL, 
Cov., Gen., lUttin. ; ' for to you it is, etc.' 
Tynd., Cran., UUh. It would at first 
sight seem desirable to suppress the fjikv 
in translation ; as, however, the opposi- 
tion fxtv — 5« is sparingly used in the X. 
T., and only when a somewhat decided 
contrast is intended, it is best to rctJiin 

2. /^oo^- /o (.} limes)] Sim. WicL, ' se 
yo ; * llhem., ' see : ' ' beware of,' AuUior. 
and the remaining Vv. 

The doij.t] So L'hitn.: 'dogs,' .^1 h//i. and 
the remaining Vv. The presence of tho 
article wiih the two following substan- 
tives seems to siiow tiiat here the article 
is not merely generic, l>ut di.ainctivc and 
definitive ; ' i..dicat cum do ccrtis qui- 
busdam loqui, quos illi noverint,' Erasm. 
IM loc. The cvll\ So IViem. : Auth. 

and the remaining Vv. omit ilie article. 

3. Bi/ the ."^jiiril of, itc] ' Worship 
♦God in the spirit,' .-l»///ar. It seems 
permissible to add '///";;i ' to the absolute 
Karptvoirrts in accordance with Auth. in 
Luke ii. 37, Acts xxvi. 7. The transla- 
tion of Cov., ' even wo that ser^'C, etc.,' by 
wiiich tlie appositional character of oi 
nvcv/i. K. r. X. is fully preserved, is not 
andescrving of notice : there seems, how- 

ever, scarcely sufficient reason for a 
change. Make our ioust] 

Sim. Wicl., I'Jian., ' glorieu : ' ' rejoice,' 
Auth. and tlic remaining Vv. 
Put] ' Have,' Auth. On account of the 
next clause it seems de-irable here to 
avoid the u e of have' 

4. Mi/se/f jiosscssed of] ' Thougii I 
might also have,' Biifi., Auth., and sim. 
RJtcm. ('albeit I also have'); 'though 
I have trist,' Wul. ; ' thougli I also have 
confidence,' Cocerd. (Test.); 'though I 
have whcr of I myght njoyce,' Tynd., 
Coc, Gen. ; ' though I myght also ro- 
joycc,' Cran. The change to ' |)osses5cd 
of/ is an endeavor to mark t!ic ' habcns, 
non utens ' implied here by t'x*''> ""^ 'o 
draw a distinction in translation between 
TttiroL^ws and ix'^" '"C'Oi^Tjatv. 

Ecen in /At] ' In the flesh,' Auth. and all 
the Vv. except Wicl., ' in flesli.' 
Deeuuth] ' Thinkcth,' Author, and the 
other Vv. except Wicl , ' is seyn to trist ;' 
Cov. (Test.), ' scmcth to have; ' Wiem., 
' scerae to have.' The sliglitly stronger 
' decmcth,' appears Ix^st to coincide with 
the view of hoKu adopted in the notes. 
Can put conf.\ ' Hath whereof he miglit 
iruit,' Auth., Ti/nd., Cixin., Gen., Bi&Ji.: 
'is seyn to trust,' llVcA ; 'whereof he 
might rcjoycc,' Cor. ; ' sccmcih to have 
confidence,' Coctrdale (Test.), IVirmish 
(' secme '). The literal translation, ' that 
be hath confidence,' is here sliglitly am- 
biguous,' and appy. wanant-s our adopt- 
ing the slight jicriphmsis in the tc.\t. 

5. As rajards] ' As touching,' Aulh. ; 
' bi,' Wici. ; ' as concemyngo,' Tynd., 
Cov., Cran. ; 'after,' Cor. (Test.), Bish. ; 
' by profession a Ph.,' Gen. ; ' according 



Chap. III. 6-8. 

of the tribe of Benjamin, an Hebrew of the Hebrews; as regards 
the law, a Pharisee ; ^ as regards zeal, persecuting the church ; as 
regards the righteousness which is in the law, having lived blame- 
less. ' Howboit v.-hat things were gain to me, these for Christ's 
sake I have counted loss. ^ Nay more, and I do also count them 
all to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus 
my Lord ; for whose sake I suffered the loss of all things, and do 

to,' JRhem. It will be seen (from next 
verse) that Wicl. and Rhem.are the only 
two which preserve the same translation 
of icaTo, in the three clauses : t'.;is certain- 
ly seems desirable, as more clearly di- 
recting the '-euder's attention to the three 
theological characteristics of t!ic apostle, 
which are not improbably climactic ia 

6. As rer]urcls\ ' Concerning,' Author., 
Bish. ; ' as concernynge,' Tynd., Cov., 
Cran., Gen.; 'after,' Cov. (Test); 'ac- 
cording to,' Rliem. As regards 
the, etc.^ ' Touching,' Author., Dish. ; 
' bi,' Wicl. ; ' as toucliyuge,' Tijiid., Cov., 
Cranuu, Gen. ; ' according to,' Coverd. 
(Test.), lUiem. Havimj lived 
blameless] Sim. Wicl , ' lyuynge without 
playnte : ' Cbc. (Test.), ' I have walked 
wythout blame ; ' Rheni.. ' conversing 
without blame ; ' ' blameless,' Auth. ; ' I 
was unrebukcable,' Tjnd., Cov., Cran., 
Gen. ; ' I was blameless,' Bish. The 
addition of Wicl. serves to mark, though 
not quite adequately, the 7ei'(5jU€;'oj which 
Auth. leaves unnoticed. 

7. Iloicheit] ' But,' Auth. and all the 
Vv. The adversative aWh seems here 
to require a stronger translation than 
the merely oppositive ' but.' 

These] So Wicl. : ' tliose,' Auth., Cran., 
Bish., Rhem. ; ' the same,' Ti/nd., Cov. 
(botli), Gen. For Chi'isi's 

sake] So Tj/nd., Cov, (both), Cranm., 
Gen., Bish., but at the end of the sen- 
fence : ' for Christ,' Auth., Wicl., Rhem. 
— also at the end. The change of order 
perhaps keeps up the antithesis Kfpdos 

and fijM^a with a little more emphasis. 
Have counted] So sim. Coverd. (Test.), 
' have I counted ; ' Wicl., ' I have 
dcmede ; ' Rhemish, ' have I esteemed ; * 
' couutcd,' Auth. and the remaining Vv. 
8. Nai/ jnore] ' *Yea doubtless,' Auth., 
Gen. ; ' uetheless,' Wicl. ; ' ye,' Tynd., 
Cov., Cran., Bish. ; ' neverthelesse,' Cou. 
( Test ) ; ' yea but,' RJiem. The most 
literal translation would perhaps be ' nay 
indeed as was said,' but is obviously too 
heavy for an idiomatic version ; comp. 
notes. Do also count them all] 

'I count all things,' Auth., Cov. (Test.) ; 
' I gessc alle thingis,' Wicl. ; ' I thinke 
all thynges,' Tynd., Cov., Cranm., Gen., 
Bish. ; ' I esteeme al things,' Rliem. 
The insertion of ' them,' and the cliange 
to ' do also count,' seem required to show 
that tlie real emphasis docs not rest on 
■naura, but on r, as contrasted with 
ijjTjfjLai, wliile irdvra refers back to the 
preceding uTwa k. t. \. ; comp. Meyer 
in he. To he loss] So Cov. 

(Test.), and sim. Wicl., 'to be peire- 
ment : ' ' but loss,' Author, and tlie re- 
maining Vv. For whose sake] 
So Coverd. (Test.), Bish.: ' for whom,* 
Auth. and the remaining Vv. : change 
for the sake of accordance with the trans- 
lation of 5(o Thv Xp., ver. 7. 
Suffered] ' Have suffered,' Auth., and 
similarly with tlie auxiliary ' have,' all 
Vv. except Wicl., ' I made alle thingis 
peirement.' To be duntj] So Bish. : 
'but dung,' Auth., Tynd., Cov., Gen., 
Bish.; 'as drit,' Wicl.; 'as doun^,' 
Cov. (Test.), Rhem.; ' but vyle,' Cran. 

Chap. III. 9-12. 

P II I L I P r I A N S 

^ 249 

count them to bo dung, that I may win Christ, ^ and be found in 
Ilim, not having; mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but 
that which is through Faith in Chinst, even the righteousness which 
Cometh of Goil by Faith : ^'^ that I may know Him, and the jjower 
of His resurrection, and the fellowship in Hi3 sufferings, being fash- 
ioned to the r.keness of His death, " if by any nieans I may attain 
unto the resurrection from tjje dead. 

^ Nut that I have already attained, or am already made jx;rfect ; 
but I am pressing onward if th;it I may lay hold on that fur which 

9. FaiUi in\ Sim. Tumi., ' the fuvth tlioui^h hunctioncd liy Hooker, is now of 

which is in Christ : ' ' the faitli of,' AutJi. 
and tiie ixMnainiiig Vv. Ei-en] 

So Cranm., aiul sim. Wicf., ' tliat is:' 
Tynd., Gtii., • 1 nieane ; ' €ov., ' name- 
ly;' Aut/i. and Bisli. omit, and Cocerd. 
(Test ) and R/iftn, nl;er the construction. 
Tiic insertion, thus sanctioned by six of 
tile Vv., boems to add sii;:htly both to 
tlie perspicuity and emphasis. 
Couutli of\ So Ti/iid., Cov., C'l'uu., (ten., 
Bish. : ' is of,' Aitlh , Wicl., RItem. ; Cov. 
(Test.) alters the construction The 
coneludin;^ words, ' by faith,' Aul/i. ('in 
faitli,' Wicl., Coi^rdale (both), RJtein. ; 
' tliorowo faitli,' Ti/nd., Cranin., Gener., 
Dish.), are scarcely an exact translation 
of W TTj -riarti (sec notes), but are jK^r- 
huj)? a sufficiently clo.-e appro .\imation 
to it to be preferable to any perijihrasis 
(' ^'rounded on faitli,' ' resting on faith),' 
which an adhesion to the literal meaning 
of the prep, would render necessary. 

10. In Ills] ' Of His.' Author, and the 
remaininf; Vv. Fashimrd 

to, etc.] Somewhat sim. Wicl., ' made 
liik to;' Cor. (Test.), ' lykc fashioned 
with : ' ' *made conformable unt^,' Aut/i. 
an 1 the remaiiiinj; Vv. except lihem. 
The expnssion in the orijxinal {avufiop- 
^iftffdoj dwoTa-) thou;;h perfectly intcl- 
li;;iblc, is so far unusual as to re<piire 
some slijiht periphrasis in Eni^lish. The 
shorter translation, ' beinjr conformed 
to,' is perhaps ojwn to objection as in- 
Tolving a use of ' confonu,' which. 

rare occurrence. The tninsl. of Conyb., 
' sharing,' the likeness of,' is objectiona- 
ble as o'llitcrating the passi%'e. 

11. May] So Coi^rd. (Ix)th), lihem.: 
'might,' Authvr. and the remaining Vv. 
except Wicl., ' if. I come.' 

Krom the dead] So Coc. : ' *of the dead,' 
Author, and the remaining Vv. except 
]Vicl., Cue. (Test.), liJiem., which follo\r 
the reading in the text. These three Vv. 
all translate T171/ (' that is fro,' Wicl., 
Cui: (Test.); 'which is from,' lUicin.) : 
the iiisenion of the anicle is certainly in- 
tended emphatically to sj>ocify, but appy. 
falls short of the very distinctive force 
conveyed by the parallel insertion of the 
relative in English. 

12. Xa that] So Wicl., Coc. (both), 
Cran., liJtein. : 'not as though,' Auth., 
Tynd., Gen., Bish. I lujvt] 
So Wicl., Coverd. (both), Cran., R/iem.: 
' I had,' Auth., Tynd., Gtn., Bish. On 
the use of the auxiliary- ' have ' in tlie 
translation of the aor. wiih ijSjj. see notes 
on E]ih. iii. 5 ( Traiisl.), and on 1 Tim. i. 
20 ( Traiisl.). Or am already, etc.] 
Sim. ITii*/., ' or now am perfect ; ' tbr., 
Cran., ' or that I am all ready p. ; ' Cov. 
(Test.). ' or that I 1)0 now p.;' Rliem., 
' or now am p. ; ' ' cither were already 
jierfert,' Auth., Tynd., Gtn., BisJi. On 
the translation of tlie jwrfect, see notes 
on Co/, i. 16 (Transl.). Am 
firessinf]] ' Follow after," Auth., Bish. ; 
' sue,' Wicl. ; ' folowe,' Tynd., Coverd., 




Chap. III. 13-17 

also I was laid hold on by Christ. ^^ Brethren, I count not myselp 
to have gotten hold : but one thing I do, forgetting the tilings that 
are behind, and stretching forth after the things that are before, 
1^ I press on toward the mark for the prize of the heavenly calhng 
of God in Christ Jesus. ^^ Let us then, as many as be perfect, be 
of this mind : and if in any thing ye are differently minded, even 
this will God reveal unto you. ^^ Nevertheless, whereto we have 
attained, — in the same direction walk ye onward. 

i' Brethren, be followers together of me, and mark them which 

Cran., Gen., Bish. ; ' follow upon,' Cov. 
(Test.) ; ' pursue,' Rhem. 
Lay hold on — was laid hold on^ ' Appre- 
hend — am apprehended of,' Author. ; 
' comprchcndc — am comprehendide of,' 
Wicl. and the remaniing Vv. 
Christ] ' *Christ Jesus,' Aufh. 

13. Gotten hold] So Cov. (Test), and 
sim. Ti/nd., Cov., C?'an?H., 'gotten it:' 
'apprehended,' Auth. ; ' comprehendide,' 
Wicl , Rhem. ; ' atteyned to the mark,' 
Gen. ; ' attained,' Bish. 

One thing] So Wicl., Tynd., Cov. (both), 
Gen., Rhem.: 'this one thing,' ^w^Aor., 
Cran., Bish. The things] So 

Wicl., Coverd. (Test.), Rhem.: 'those 
things,' Author., Cranm., Bish. ; ' that 
which,' Tynd., Cov., Gen. 
That are (twice)] So Wicl, Cov. (Test., 
once), Rhem.: 'which,' Auth. and the 
remaining Vv. If the distinction allud- 
ed to on Ephes. i. 23 be correct, ' that ' 
would seem here slightly more exact than 
' which.' Stretching forth 

aj'te)-] Sim. .TF/cZ., ' strecche forth my 
silfto;' Tynd., Cor., ' stretche my silfe 
unto;' Cov. (Test.), ' stretchynge my- 
self to ; ' Rhem., ' stretching forth myself 
to : ' ' reaching forth unto,' Auth. ; ' en- 
deuore myself unto,' Cran., Gen., Bish. 

14. Press on] ' Press,' Auth., Tynd., 
Cov. (both), Cranm., Bish.; 'pursue,' 
Wicl., Rhem. ; ' follow hard,' Gen., Bish. 
In this verse the simple English present 
is more suitable than the auxiliary with 
the part., as in ver. 12. There the ad- 

verb ^Stj and the past tenses eAaySoi/ and 
TeTe\6io);uai suggested a contrast in point 
of time ; here the iterative force involved 
in the English present (Latham, Engl. 
Lung. § 573) is more appro])riate. 
Heavenly] ' Higli,' Auth. and the other 
Vv. except Rhem., ' supernal.' 

15. The7i] ' Therefore,' Auth. and all 
the Vv. 0/this mind] ' Thus 
minded,' Auth., Coverd. (Test.), Bish., 
Rhem. ; ' feele we this thing,' Wicl. ; 
' thus wyse minded,' Tynd., Cov., Cran., 
Gen. Are differently] ' Be 
otiierwise,' Auth. and the other Vv. ex- 
cept Wicl., ' undcrstonden in other raan- 
er ony thing.' This will 
God, etc.] ' God shall reveal even this 
unto you,' Auth. and, in the same order, 
with some slight variations of language, 
the other Vv. except TI'7c/., ' this thing 
God schal schewe ; ' Rhem., ' this also 
God hath reuealed,' — a singular mis- 

16. Attained] 'Already attained,' 
Author.; 'ban commun,' Wicl.; 'are 
come,' Tynd., Cov., Gen., Rhem. ; ' at- 
tained unto,' Bish. In the 
same direction, etc.] ' *Let us walk by 
tlie same rule, let us mind the same 
thing,' Auth. The verse is obscure from 
its brevity ; the translation ' to what 
point we have attained, — in the same 
direction, etc.,' perhaps may slightly 
clear it up, but is inferior to Author, in 
giving too special a meaning to us S. 

17. Are walking] 'Walk,' Auth. and 

Chap. III. 18-IV. 3. 



are wiUkiii^ su as yc Lave ua toi- aii ciisamitle. ^® Fur muiiy walk, 
of whuiu inani/ tiinets I used to tell you and now tell you even weeji- 
ujg, tlud they are the enemies of the cross of Christ : ^^ Wiiose 
end is jierdition, whose God is their belly, and wfvuge glory is iu 
their shame, who are minding earthly things. ^ For our common- 
wealili is in heaven ; from ^sh^.nce we also tarry for a hfaviour, the 
Lord Jesus Christ : -' Who shall transform the body of our humili- 
ation ,s'/ (hdt it be fashioned like unio the body of His glory, accord- 
ing to the working whereby lie is aide even to subdue all things 
unto Himself. 


WuEiiEFOUE, my brethren dearly beloved and longed for, my joy 
and cro'^u, so stand /a«i in the Lord, dearly beloved, 

2 I exhort Eu(jdia, and I e.xhort ^yntyche, that they be of the 
same mind in the Lord. ^ Yea I entreat tlice also, true yoke-fel- 

all the Vv. It seems desirable to maUe 
some slight distiirtion hetwecn the pies, 
partieiple in this verse ami the present 
indie, in ver. 18. 

18. Many times I ustJ, ttc] ' Have 
told you often/ Autli. and the other Vv. 
except Wicl., ' I have seide oftc to you ; ' 
RJtciii., ' oCten I told you of.' Clmnfjc to 
preserve the true force of l!\(yoi>, and the 
trapiixV<f^^< wo\Aa — iroWatciy. 

19. Pmliliuii] ' Destnu-tion,' Aittlior., 
Rliun.: 'deeth,' Wicl., Coixrd. (Test.); 
' danipnacion,' Tyiid., Coi:, Craii., Gen., 
Bi.tli. Compare on 1 7"/)/!. vi. 9. 

Are rniiidiii'j] ' Minde,' Author., Coverd. 
(Test.), Disfi.,IiJi>in. ; ' sauercn,' Wicl.; 
' arc worldely niynded,' Tynd., Cranm., 
Gen. ; ' are earthly minded,' Cov. 

20. Commonwealth] ' Conversation,' 
Author, and all the Vv. except Wicl., 
' lyuyng.' We also tarry for, 
etc.] ' Also we look for tlie Saviour,' 
AiUh., Gen., Dish. : ' also we nhidcn the 
sauyour,' Wicl.; ' wc lokc for a saveour, 
even, etc.,' Tynd., Coverd. ('the sav. J. 
C.') ; ' we do wayte for the saueoure the 
Lord J. C.,' Cov. (Test.) ; ' wc loko for 

the s., even the Lord J. C.,' Crun. ; ' wo 
c.xjrcct the Saviour our Lord J. C.,' 

21. Transform] ' CIian;,'e,' AutJt. and 
the other Vv. except Wicl., liJiem., ' re- 
fourme ; ' Cov. (Test.), 'restore.' 
Body of our humiliation] Sim. fUtcm., 
' body of our humilitic ; ' Wicl., ' bodi 
of oure mckenesse : ' ' vile body,' AutJi. 
and the remaining Vv. So 

that it l>c] • *That it may Ive,' Aulh. 
Bixly o/ His ijlory] So IVttm., and sira. 
Wicl., ' l)odi of his cleivness : ' ' jrlorious 
lx>dy,' Author, and the rvmaininjj Vv. 
except Cov. (Te>t. ), ' hys clears l»ody.' 

Cn.iiTEn IV. 1. Whtre/orr] So Cor. 
(both) : ' therefore,' Author, and the ro- 
luaining Vv. The more exact transla- 
tion, ' fO then,' is here somcwiiat awk- 
wanl on account of the following 'so.' 
Dearly lul. (2ud)] Auth. ]irelixes ' my,' 
with Dish., lUiem. ; ' most dcrc brithercn,' 
Wicl.; ' yo Ixiloved,' Tynd., and tlio 
ivmaiiiing Vv. 

2. £"^^0^] ' Beseech,' Auth., Cottrd., 
(Test.); ' prcie,' llVc/. and the remain' 



Chap. IV. 3-8. 

low, give them aid, since they labored with me m the gospel, m 
company with Clement also, and the rest of my felloAv-laborers 
whose names are in the book of life. 

* Rejoice in the Lord alway : again I will say, Rejoice. ° Let 
your forbearance be known unto all men. The Lord is at hand. 
^ Be anxious about nothing ; but in every thing b}' your prayer 
and your supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be 
made known before God. "^ And the peace of God, which passeth 
all understandings, shall keep your hearts and your thoughts in 
Christ Jesus. 

^ Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things 

ing Vv. except Rhem., ' desire.' As 
irapaKoKu) is a word of very frequent oc- 
currence in St. Paul's Epp. (compare 
notes on 1 Ti)n. i. 3), the irauslation must 
vary with the context : here perhaps the 
slightly stronger 'exhort' is more suita- 
ble than the (now) weaker ' beseech.' 

3. lea] ^ * And,' Auth. (koi ip.) 
Give them aid, etc.] ' Help those women 
which,' Auth., Gov. (Test.), Dish., RJiem. 
('that'); ' the ilke zfj/mmeji that,' Wicl. ; 
' the women whicli,' Tijnd., Gov., Gran., 
Gen. In company luitli] 
' With,' AutJi. and all tlie other Vv. 
The rest o/"] Sim. Rhem., ' the rest my : ' 
'with other,' Auth., Tijnd., Gov., Gran., 
Genev., Dish. ; ' and other,' Wid. ; ' my 
other,' Gov. (both). 

4. Again] So Rhem., Goverd. (Test.), 
Bish., and sim. Wicl., 'efte:' 'and 
again,' Auth. and the remaining Vv. 

I will say] So Dish. : ' I say,' Anth. and 
all the other Vv. 

5. Forbearance] ' Moderation,' Aulh. ; 
'pacience,' Wicl.; ' softencss,' Tynd., 
Gov. (both), Granm. ; ' patient mynde,' 
Gen., Dish. ; ' modestic,' Rhem. 

6. Anxious (d)oiit] ' Careful for,' ^4«//*., 
Granm., Dish. ; 'no tiling bisic,' Wicl.; 
'not caifull,' Tynd., Gov., Gen. ; ' noth- 
ynge carcfull,' Gov. (Test.), Rhem. 
Your (twice)] Auth. and the other Vv. 
simply ' prayer and supplication ' ( WicL, 

' bisechinge ' ) . The Versions which er- 
roneously connect ttoj/tI with Trpotreuxp 
are Wicl., Goverd. (Test.), and, what is 
singular, Granm., as this Version was 
not from the Vulgate, and was preceded 
by the correct translations of Tynd. and 
Gov. Defore] So Goverd. : 

'unto,' Author, and the remaining Vv. 
except Wicl , ' at ; ' Rliemish, ' with.' 
Though not perfectly exact, the above 
translation of irphs is slightly preferable 
to ' unto,' as not seeming to imply to 
the Englisli reader tliat a dat. is used in 
the original. 

7. All understandings] ' All under- 
standing,' Anth. and all the Vv. ( Wicl,, 
'witte'). As these words are so famil- 
iar to Christian ears, it seems desirable 
to introduce the slightest possible change 
consistent with accuracy. This .=eems 
to be t!ic change to the plural, as it ap- 
proximately conveys the meaning of 
TTciuTa vovv (comp. notes on Gol. ii. 15), 
and precludes the ordinary misconcep- 
tion that 'understanding' is a participle. 
Your thoughts] ' Minds,' Auth. and the 
other Vv. except Wicl., Goverd. (Test.), 
' undirstondingis ; ' Rhem., ' intelligen- 
ces.' In] So Wicl., Tynd., 
Goverd. (both), Genev., Dish., Rhemisk : 
'through,' Audi., Gran., Dish. 

8. Seemly] ' Honest,' Author, and the 
other Vv. except WicL, ' chast.' 

ClIAl-. IV. 't-1-' 

]' II 1 I. I I'l'l ANS. 


are seemly, whatsoever tliin .:s are just, whatsoever thhi^s are pure, 
whatsoever thin^^s are lovel.-, whatsoever things are of good report ; 
if there be any virtue, and if there ho any praise, think on these 
things. -' The tilings, which ye also learned and received, and 
hoanl, and saw in me, the same do : and the God of peace shall he 
with you. 

^'^ Now I icjoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at length ye 
tloarished again in resj)ect of your care for me, wherein ye were 
rtlso careful, hut ye lacked opportunity. ^^ Not that I speak in 
consequence of want : for I have learned, in what state I am, therein 
to he content. '- 1 know also how to he abased, I know too how 

9. Tlie thiii'is] So Cot: (Test.), wliorc 
also it is similarly resumed as in text l)y 
' the same : ' ' tl:o>c thiii;.^,' Anllior. ; 
' whiili,' Ti/ttd. mill the rcmaining Vv. 
except Wicl., ' tlnit." Also 
leanucl] Similarly Wicl., ' also ye lian 
Icrneil : ' ' have both learned,' Ati(/i. and 
the remaining Vv. Sou-] 
' Seen,' Author. The sume 
du] So Coo- (Test.), * do tlie same,' and 
sim. Ti/nd., Cov., Cranm., Gen., Dish., 
' those ihyngcs do ; ' IUietni.';h, ' the>o 
things do ye ' ( Wicl. inverts order) : 
'do,' Auth. 

10. Xow] ' But,' Aiilh., Wicl., Cov. 
(Test.), Dish.; '.nnd,' lUtnn. ; the rest 
omit. Atlttifilli] Sim. /We/H., 
' at the length : ' ' at the last,'.l»//i. and 
the other Vv. except Wirl., ' sunitymc 
aftirward.' Yijlmii-i.-i'iid 
t'tjfiiii, iti\\ ' Your care of me hath nour- 
ished again,' Auth. ; ' yo flouriden agcn 
to fele for me,' Wicl. ; ' yc nrc revived 
agaync to care for me,' 7//W., Coivrd., 
(jtiier., IJish. ; ' yc nro flonryshyngo 
agaync to regarde me,' Coccrd. (Test.) ; 
' your care is rcuyiicil ngaine for me,' 
Cran. ; ' you have reflourished to care 
for me,' Rlmn. 

11. Ill ronstqiteiice of] ' In respect of,' 
Auth.; ' as for,' IFiW. ; ' of,' 
Tynd., Cov., Crau.. Gen., Dish. ; 'as he- 
cause of,' Cor (Test.) ; ' as it were for,' 

lihem. The translation in the text is 
jiroliahly a modern form of expression, 
hut is appy. exact : the Auth. though not 
incorrect is somewhat ainhiguous. 
What stall] Sim. Conrd. (Test.), ' what 
eases : ' 'whatsoever state,' Author, and 
the rcmaining Vv. ('estate') except 
Wirl., ' to he suflicicnt in whiche thingis 
I am ; ' lUicui., ' to he content with tlio 
things that I have.' TJierein] 

' Therewith.' AutJior. and the otlicr Vv. 
except Wicl., RJiriii. (see above), and 
Cov. (Test.), which omits. 

12. Know also] ' *Know both, Aulh., 
lihem.; 'can also,' 117(7.; 'can both,' 
Tynd., Corcrd. (Test.), Cranm.: 'can,' 
Coverd., Grn. ; ' knowe how,' Dish. It 
may here be remarked in passing that 
the ]>osition of icoi in Greek, and that of 
' also,' ' even,' or ' too,' in Engli.>h, will 
not always exactly correspond. Here, 
for instantx?, koI Iwlongs to rawtiiovadai 
(s e notes), whereas in I'nglish the ' also' 
seems idiomatically to take an earlier 
place in the sentence, and in position to 
connect itself with ' know : ' the transla- 
tion in the notes, ' know how also to be 
abased, or to Ik? abased al.<o,' is literal, 
but scarwly idiomatic. The attention 
of the student is directed to this point, 
as it requires some discrimination to 
perceive when it is positively neccssarr 
to retain in translation the positiou of 



Chap. IV. 13-1 : 

to abound : in every thing and in all things I have been fully taught 
both to be full and to be hungry, both to abound and to suffer need. 
^^ I can do all things in Him that strengtheneth me. ^* Notwith- 
standing ye did well that ye bare part with my affliction. ^'^ injure - 
over, Philippians, yourselves also know that in the beginning of the 
gospel, when I departed from iMacedonia, no church communicated 
Avifch me as touching any account of giving and receiving, but ye 
only : ^^ since even in Thessalonica ye sent to me both once and 
again unto my necessity. ^' Not that I seek after your gift ; but 

Kal, and when to yield to a, more usual 
Englisli collocation. / know too] 

' And I know,' Author., Bish. ; ' I can 
also,' Wicl., Tynd. ; ' and I can/ Cov. 
(both), Cranm., Genev. ; 'I know also,' 
Rhem. In ecery thing, etc.] 

' Every where and in all things,' Auth. 
and the other Vv. ( Gen. omits ' and'). 
Have been fully taught] Sim. Wicl., Cov. 
(Test.), ' I am taughte : ' * am instruct- 
ed,' Auth. and the remaining Vv. 

13. In Him that] ' ^Through Christ 
which,' Author., Coverd., Cranm., Bish.; 
' tliorow the helpe,' Tynd., Gen. 
Strengtheneth] So Auth. and all Vv. ex- 
cept Wgl. and Cov. (Test.), ' coumfort- 
ith.' The force of ivSvy. cannot be ex- 
pressed without weakening the emphasis 
of the verse, and impairing the rhythm. 

14. Did well] ' Have well done,' ^lu//(. 
f.nd the other Vv. except Wicl., Coverd. 
(both), Rhem., ' han don wel.' 

Bare part icitli] So Coo. (Test.), ' bear- 
ynge parte wyth,' and sim. Tynd., Cov., 
Cran., Gen., ' ye bare part with me in : ' 
' communicated with,' Auth. ; ' did com- 
municate to,' Bish. ; 'communicating to,' 

15. Moreover, Philippians, etc.] 'Now 
ye Phil, know also,' Auth., and sim. Cov. 
(Test.), Gen., 'and ye, etc.;' 'for ye 
lilipensis witen also,' Wicl.; 'ycofPhi- 
iippos knowe that,' Tynd., Cov., Cranm., 
(' also that ') ; 'ye Philip, knowe also,' 
Bish. ; ' and you also know, Philipp.,' 
Rhem. As touching any, etc.] 

' As concerning giving and receiving,' 
Author., Tynd., Cov. (omits 'as'), Cran., 
Gen., Bish. ; ' in resoun of thing gouun 
and takun,' Wicl. ; ' in the way of gyfte 
and rcceate,' Coverd. (Test.) ; ' in the 
account of, etc.,' Rhejn. Perhaps the 
insertion of the indefinite ' any ' may be 
considered permissible as serving slightly 
to clear up the meaning ; neither ' an 
account' or 'the account' {Rhem.) is 
free from olijections. 

16. Since] 'For,' Auth. and the other 
Vv. except Wicl., which omits the con- 
junction. To me] So Wicl. : 
Auth. and all the other Vv. omit. 

Both o)ice] ' (Jnce,' Author, and the other 
Vv. Unto] So xiuih. and all 

Vv. ( ]Vicl., ' in to ; ' Rhem., ' to ') except 
Coverd. (Test.), ' to my behofe.' It is a 
matter of grave consideration whether, 
in a literal but idiomatic translation like 
the Authorized Version, we can consist- 
ently introduce here and in similar pas- 
sages such periphrastic yet practically 
correct translations of us as ' to supply,' 
' to meet,' etc. As there might seem to 
be some difficulty in fixing the limits of 
such periphrases, and as the older Vv. 
appear to have but seldom adopted such 
transl., it is perhaps best in the majority 
of cases to retain the more literal, tliough 
sometimes less intelligible rendering. 

17. That] So Tynd., Coverd. (both), 
Crarm., Gen., Bish., Rhem. : ' because,' 
Aidh. ; ' for,' Wicl. Seek after 
(twice)] ' Desire,' Auth. and the other 

Chap. IV. lS-!i3. 

rii rLipriAys. 


I seek afte. the fruit that multiplieth unto your accouut. ^^ But I 
luive all thin<^ ami ahound : I am full now that I have received 
from Epaphroditus the thin;^.s which came from y<ju, a savor of 
sweet suK'H, a sacrifice acceptable, well-pleai^iiig to God. '•' But 
my God shall supply every need of youi-s according to His riches, 
with glory in Christ Jesus, '^ Now unto God and our Father be 
glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

■•^^ iSalute every saint in Christ Jesus. The brethren which are 
•with me salute you. - All the saints salute you, but esj)ecially 
they that are of Caesar's household. 

23 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ he \nth your spirit. 

Vv. exii'iit Wici, Co.: (I'otli), li/um., what iiitcrfL'res with the hrief and cli- 

' seke.' Your rji/t] ' \ };:ift,' mactic character of the first portion of 

Author., Disli. ; ' giftc,' 117(7., Coccrd. ; the verse. Now that, etc.] Sim. 

' pyftos,' Tijiid., Cran. ; ' the giftc,' Cor. Tijnd., Gen., Dish., ' after that I had rec. :' 

(Test.), Ilhnn.; ' a rcwarde,' Gen. It Coi*. ' whan I rec. ;' Coc. (Test.), ' whan 

is doul'tful wlietlior the plural translation I had received; ' Cranm., ' after that I 

of 7//;if/. a:ul Orjn;n. does not practimlli/ received;' Rhem., 'after I received.' 

convey more clearly tlian the text the From] 'Of,' Auth. and all Vv. 

meaning of tlic present article, ' the gift Uliich rame] So Ti/ud., Coverd., Gen. : 

in the particular case,' i.e. 'gifts,' or ' ichich were sent from,' Author., Cmnm., 

even ' any gift ; ' compare notes : such Dish. ; ' which ye scnten,' Wicl., and 

translations, however, involve principles sini. Coverd. (Test.), Rhem. 

of correction tliat should be admitted Savor of siceet smell] Sim. Cor. (Test.), 

with great caution. The 'a savoure of swetness : ' ' of n sweet 

fruit] So Coverd., Gen., Rhem. ; ' frait,' smell,' Anth., Cran. ; ' odour of swet- 

Aiith., U7(7., Dish. ; ' alx)undant frutc,' 
Ti/iuL Cxtn. : ' plcntyfull frute,' Covird. 
(Test.). That mult i 1)1 iith] 

' That may nhound,' Author., and sini. 
Gen., ' whicli may fort her ; ' ' ahound- 
ing,' Wicl., Dish., RJiem. The change 
is of no imjiortancc, but made to jirc- 

nesse,' WIcL: '«n odour that smelleth 
gwete,' Tijnd., Gen. ; ' odour of swcete- 
ness,' Cor., Rhem. ; 'an odour of a sweeto 
smell,' Dish. 

19. With <ilorii] 'In glon,-,' Author, 
Wicl., CnP. M.oih). Dish., Rhem.: 'glo- 
rious riches,' Ti/nd., Cran., Gen. 

servo in the translation the dilTcrent /") So H'lW., Tynd., Cov. (Injth), Gen., 

words used in tlie original, hei-c and in 
ver. 18, — 7r\6o«'c({,*ei»' and Trtpivaevftv. 
Unto] ' To,' Auth. 

18. .1// things] So 117(7., R/icmish : 
* all,' A'ltli. and tiie remaining Vv. The 
jircscnt translation of airtx« (Author. 
Wicl., Cov. (both), Dish., Rhem.) is un- 
duly weak ( Tipid., Cranm., Gen., omit 
'have'); but the more literal transla- 
tion, ' I have in full,' ' I have for my 
0W11,' seems as unduly strong, and some- 

Dish., Rhnn. : ' by,' Auth., Cran. 

21. Salute yoMJ So Cove)-d. (both), 
Rhem. : ' gR-ct,* Auth. and the remaining 
Vv. .\ change of translation in the 
same verse does not seem desirable. 

22. Dut espccialli/] So CoctTt/. (both), 
RJiem. : ' chiefly,' Auth. : ' moost sothli,' 

U7i7. ; 'and most of all,' J'ynd., Gen.; 
'most of all,' Cran., Dish. 

23. The Lord] ' ♦Our Lonl.' AutJt. 
Your spirit] ' * You all. Amen,' AutJt. 



PAUL, an a])Ostlc of Clirist Jesus by the will of God, and Timo- 
thy our hrotlier, - to the saints in Colossae and faithful hrethren 
in Christ : grace he unto you and peace, from God our Father. 

^ We give thanks to God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
praying always for you, ^ having heard of your faith in Christ 
Jesus, and of the love which ye have to all the saints, ^ because of 
the hope which is laid up for you in heaven, whereof ye heard be- 

Chapter I. 1. C/iri'sl Jisus] ' *Jcsu8 ' for we hauc hearde,' Cvuh. Tlie trans- 
Christ,' Aiith. Timothy] lation of Aulh., al. is pcrliaps somewhat 
So WivL, Coc. (Test.). lifiem.: ' Timo- ambiguous, 'since' liaviiijr as much a 
thcus,' Aut/ior. and the remaining Vv. causal as a temporal reference As tho 
The principle jmt forward in tlie preface latter seems to 1)e the most prohahlc rtf- 
to Aulh., thou;;h apparently not always ercncc in the present case (see notes in 
followed, seems sound and reasonable, loc.), it will jK'rhaps l>e l>e>t to adopt 
— to adopt, in the case of pro|)er names, what seems a more definitely temporal 
those forms which arc most current, and translation ; sec notes on Phil. ii. 30 
by wliiih the bearers of the names are (Tninsl.). Ti> all] So .1h/A. 
most jiopularly known. A few of the Vv., Cm-. (Test.), Ilhem., 

2. Siiiuts in Colossif] Sim. Ti/ndale, retain the more literal ' toward.' 
Cov., Cran., ' sayntcs which are at Co- 
lossa: : ' 'to the saints and faithful breth- 
ren in Christ which are at Colosse," Aulh. 
and, with slitrht variations in oitler, tho Word of truth, tic] So Coc. e.\cc])t that 
remaining Vv. God our ^v (1««) is translated ' by,' and >imilarlT 
Futhrr] .tfi^/i. adds ' *and tlie Lord Je- (itn., ' the worde of truth which is in 
sus Christ.' the gospel : ' ' word of 4he iruih of the 

3. (,\Hi the Fiithir] ' *God and the gospel,' Author., WicL, Fh<m. : 'true 
Fatlicr,' Aulh. worde of the gospell,' Tynd., Crttnm. ; 

4. Havnuj hxird] 'Since we heard,' 'worde of truih of the gosjHM,' Cotrrtl. 
Aulh., Tynd., Cov., Gen., Diih. ( ' have") ; (Test.), Bish. The true niation of the 
' hcrj'ngv,' M'u/., Cov. (Test.), Rhem. ; genitives thus seems expressed bv three 


5. Bti^iuseof] So Cnr. (Test.) ; 'for,' 
Author., Wicl., lihem. ; ' for the hope's 
sake,' Tynd., Cotvrd., Cran., Gen., lii.<A. 



Chap. I. 6-11 

fore in tlie word of Truth in the gospel ; ^ which is come unto you, 
as it is also in all the world ; and is bringing forth fruit and in- 
creasing as it is also in you, since the day ye heard of it, and came 
to know the grace of God in truth : "^ even as ye learned of Epa- 
phras our beloved fellow-servant, who is in your behalf a faithful 
minister of Christ ; ^ who also declared unto us your love in the 

^ For this cause we also, since the day we heard it, do not cease 
to pray for you, and to make our petition that ye may be filled 
with tLe knowledge of Ilis Avill in all spiritual wisdom and under- 
standing ; ^^ that i/e may walk worthy of the Lord unto all pleasing, 
bringing forth fruit in every good work, and increasing by the 
knowledge of God ; ^^ being strengthened with all strength, accord- 

of the older Vv. ; see notes. The arti- 
cle preceding aAT]^fias appears only to 
mark that a\^^. is used in its most ab- 
stract sense. This use of the article in 
the case of abstract nouns is commonly 
marked in this Revision by a capital 

6. It IS also (1st)] So Cov. (Test.), 
and in. IT7':/., ' also it is ; ' Rhem., 'also 
in the \vholo world it is : ' 'it is,' Auth. 
and the remaining Vv. 

Is hrivgin(j forth fruit] ' Bringeth forth 
frait,' Auth., Cov., Test, (omits ' forth ') ; 
' makith finite,' Wicl. ; ' is frutefull,' 
Tynd., Cov,, Cran., Gen., Bish. ; ' fructi- 
fieth,' Rhem. And increasing] 

Auth. -^omits. Is] ' Doth,' 

Auth. Came to Icnow] ' Knew,' 

Author, and the remaining Vv. ( Coverd. 
Test., ' haue knowen') except Tynd., 
Cran., ' had experience ' — a translation 
■which similarly with text endeavors to 
express the force of e Ts'-yi/wre (see notes 
on ver. 9), and dcservc.'s consideration. 

7. Even as ye] Author, adds ' *also,' 
and omits 'even.' The translation of 
Kabdis, whether ' as ' or ' even as,' must 
depend on the general tone "of the pas- 
sage : here the latter seems to connect 
the present verse a little more closely 
with the concluding words of ver. 6. 

Beloved] 'Dear,' Auth., Tynd., Coverd., 
Cran., Gen., Bish. ; ' moost dereworthe,' 
WicL; ' mooste beloued,' Cov. (Test.); 
' decrest,' Rhem. In your 

behalf] ' For you,' Auth. and the remain- 
ing Vv. It seems desirable to select a 
translation that should prevent virhp be- 
ing possibly understood as ' in your 
place ; ' sec notes. 

9. Make our petition] ' Desire,' Auth. 
and the other Vv. {Tynd., Rhem., ' de- 
syringe') except WicL, 'to axe;' Cov. 
(Test.), 'axing.' May] So 
Coverd. (Test.), Rliem: 'might,' Auth. 
and the remaining Vv. except WicL, 
' that ye be filled.' Spiritual 
wisdom and, etc.] So Cov. (Test.) : 'wis- 
dom and spiritual understanding,' Auth, 
and all the remaining Vv. 

10. May] So Coverd. (Test.), Rhem.: 
' might,' Author, and the remaining Vv. 
except WicL, ' that ye walke.' 
Bringing forth fruit] So Cov, ( Test. ) : 
' being fruitful,' Auth. It seems desira- 
ble to preserve the same translation as 
in ver. 6. By the] ' *In the/ 

11. Being strengthened] So Coverdah 
(Test.) : ' strengthened,' yl»/^u)r. and tho 
remaining Vv. except WicL, ' and be 
comfortid ; ' Cov., ' and to be strong.' 

CiiAi- I. 12-lC. 

C O L () S S I A N S . 


i.ii; to the mi^lit of His glory, unto all ] atienco and long-suffc'ring 
wiJ.i joy ; ^- giving thanks unto the Father, which made us meet 
for the j;ortion of the inheritance of the saints in light : ^ who 
delivered us out of the jxjwer of darkness, and translated us into 
the kingdom of the k^<'M r.f His love ; ^* in whom we have llc- 
demption, even the forgiveness of our sins. ^^ Wlio is the image 
of the invisihle God, the firsthurn beftre every creature: ^'^ be- 
cause in Him were all things created, the things that are iu 
heaven, and the things that are on earth, the things visible and 
the things invisible, whether (Jay be thrones, or dumhiions, or jirin- 
cipalities, or powers, — all things have been created by Him, and 

Strentjth\ ' MiVht,' Anth. and the other 
Vv. except 117(7 , ' vertu ; ' Cov. (both), 
' power.' It is perhaps ilcsirahle to re- 
tain the iropTJX'JC's of tlie original. 
The viiijld of Ilin f/lory] So Cor. ( lioth ) , 
llhen\., and sim. Wid., ' migt of- His 
tlcrencsse : ' * glorious power,' Auth. and 
tiic remaining Vv. Joif] 

So WicL, li/ifin., and, with a different 
collocation. Cor. (Test.) : '}<)yfuliiess,' 
Author, and the remaining Vv. : comp. 
notes on Phil. ii. 29 (Transl.). 

12. J/a</<] So Wicl.: 'hath made,' 
Atith. and the remaining Vv. 

/<«• the jiortioii] ' To ho partakers of," 
Auth., Ti/iid,, Cranm., Gen., Bisli. ; ' to 
the part of,' IT7c/. ; ' mete for the inher- 
itance,' Cor. : ' worthy of the parte of 
thecnh.,' Coverd. (Test.) ; ' worthy unto 
the p.irt of the lot,' Rhem. 

13. DJlvercd] So 117-7. .- ' hath deliv- 
ered,' Auth. and the remaining Vv. ex- 
cept Covtrd. (Test.), 'hath drawen us 
cute.' Out of ] ' From,' Auth. 
Trnnslaled] So Wicl., Coverd. : ' hath 
translated,' Auth. and the remaining Vv. 
The Son of His /ore] So lihein.. and sim. 
Wicl., ' the sone of His louynge : ' 
' His dear Son,' AutJi. and the remain- 
ing Vv. except Cov. (Test.), ' Hys he- 
loued Sonne.' 

14. Iiedemytion] ..iHfA. adds '♦through 
His blood.' Our 

sins] ' Sins,' Auth. and all the other Vv. 

15. Firstborn] So Auth., Cov. (Test.), 
High., Rhem.; 'first begotten,' U7c/., 
Ti/iid., Cov., Cranm., Gen. It is appar- 
ently not of much moment which of 
these expressions is adopted, as the 
meaning is substantially the same. In 
Rom. viii. 29, Auth. adopts the former, 
in Rev. i .5, the latter : in expressions of 
this peculiar and mystical nature it seems 
desirable to prcsene a uniform transla- 
tion. Before] So Cov. (Test.) : 
' oi' Author, and remaining Vv. This 
latter translation was retained in ed. 1, 
as most inclusive ; the arguments, how- 
ever, for the translation in the text (sec 
notes) seem sufBcicntly strong to justify 
the alteration. 

IC. U<.atuiit] ' For,' .lt(f/i. and all tlio 
otlur Vv. /;,] So n7c-/., 

lihtin.: 'by,' Auth. and the remaining 
Vv. The thinys that art] 

' That are in heaven and that are in 
earth, visible and invisible,' .^iu/A., Crtm., 
IJi^h., and, with some slight variations, 
117(7., Cov., Gtn., lihfin.: Ti/nd. alone 
inserts ' things,' four times as in the 
text. The n.'|>cUtion seems to give em- 
]>hasis to the enumcnition ; sec notes on 
Eph. i. 10 (Transl.). liar* 

Urn creatt-d] ' Were created,' Author., 
Cran., Gen., Bi.^., Rhrm. ; ' l>en made 
of nought,' Wicl.; 'are created,' Ti/nd., 



Chap. I. 17-21. 

for Him ; ^' and He is before all things, and in Him all things 
subsist. 1^ And He is the head of the body, the church ; who is 
the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, in order that in all things 
He might have the pre-eminence : ^^ because in Him it pleased 
the whole fulness of the Godhead to dwell, "^^ and by Him to recon- 
cile all things unto Himself, having made peace through the blood 
of His cross ; by Him, I aaij, whether they he the things on earth, 
or the things in heaven. 

21 And you also, though ye were in times past alienated and 

Cov. (both). As the Greek perfect ex- 
presses both ' have been ' and ' are ; ' 
there is sometimes a difficulty in know- 
ing which of the two to select : perhaps 
as a general rule (where idiom will per- 
mit, and there is no danger of miscon- 
ception) it is best to adopt the former 
when past time seems to come more in 
prominence, the latter when present ef- 
fects are more immediately the subject 
of consideration. To apply this to the 
present case; as the former part of the 
verse seems to show that the reference 
is perhaps more to the past than to pres- 
ent operations of the Divine power, these 
latter being more alluded to in the fol- 
lowing verse, — we may perhaps judi- 
ciously change the ' are created ' of cd. 1 
into the translation now adopted in the 
text. On the translation of St' aliTov, 
see Revised Transl. of St. John, p. xiii. 

17. In] So Wicl, Tfind., Cov. (both), 
Gen., Dish., liliein.: ' by,' Anth., Cran. 
Su!isist] ' Consist,' Auth. 

18. Who] So Auth., Rfiem., Wicl., and 
Cov. Test, ('whyche') ; ' he is the beg.' 
Ti/nd., Cov., Cranm., Gen., Dish. The 
relative translation is scarcely sufficient, 
as it docs not fully convey the explana- 
tory force in the relative ' being as He 
is.' As, however, the translation in the 
commentary ' seeing Ho is,' though per 
se expressing clearly this force of 8s, is 
perhaps somewhat too strong when 
placed in connection with what precedes 
and follows, it seems better to leave 

.4«<A. unchanged. In order that] 'That,' 
Author, and all the other Vv. The oc- 
casional insertion of ' in order ' seems, 
useful where it is required to exhibit 
clearly the purpose involved in the ante- 
cedents. . 

19. Decause in Him, etc.] So similarly 
WicL, ' in Hym it plcsid alle plentee to 
enhabite ; ' Coverd. (Test.), 'it hath 
pleased alle fulnesse of the Godheade 
to dwel in Hyin ; ' Rhem., ' it hath wcl 
pleased al fulness to inhabite : ' 'for it 
pleased the Father that in Him should 
all fulness dwell,' Auth. and the remain- 
ing Vv. (Coverd., ' shuld dwell all f.'). 

20. Having made — cross] .4 »?/i. places 
this clause in the first part of the verse, 
immeiliately after ' and.' All the other 
Vv. retain the order of the Greek, but 
with some variations in the translation 
of the participle. The things 
on earth] ' Things in earth,' Auth. 

The thinijs in] ' Things in,' Auth. 

21. And you also] ' And you,' Author. 
and all the other Vv. On this transla- 
tion of Kai, see notes on Eph. ii. 1. 
Thou'jh ye ivere, etc.] Similarly Rhem., 
' wliereas you were ; ' compare WicL, 
Cov. ( Test.), ' whanne ye weren : ' ' that 
were,' ^ !<//(. ,• ' whiche were,' Tynd. and 
the remaining Vv. In times 
past] So Tynd., Cov., Gen. : ' sometime,' 
Auth. and the remaining Vv. 
Understanding] So Anth. in Eph. iv. 18; 
' m'md,' Auth., and sim. remaining Vv 
except WicL, Coverd. (Test.), 'witte;' 

Cii-vr. I. 22-27. 

C L S S I A N S 


enemies in your understandinji; in wicked works, vet now hath He 
rccoucileJ ~ in the body of His flesh through His death, to jiresent 
jou holy and lilamele«s and without charge in His sight : ^ if at 
least ye continue hi the faith, grounded and stable, and without 
being raoved away from tlie lutpe of the gospel, which ye heard, 
and which was ])reached in the luaring of every creature wjiich is 
under hea\en ; uherenf I Paul became a minister. 

^ Now I rejoice in my sufterings for you, and am filling fully up 
the lacking measures of the afflictions of Christ in my fleth for His 
body's sake, which is the church : ^ whereof I became a minister, 
according to the dispensation of God which was given to me for 
you, to fulfil thcword of God ; '^ even the mystery wliich hath Uiin 
hid from the ages and from the generations, but now hath been 
made manifest to His saints : '■^ to whom it was God's will to make 

' by coj;iuition,' Bi'g/t. : Wiem. ' sense' 
/;i] So U7c/., lihtm., and, with a differ- 
ent construction, Tynd., Col:, Crunm., 
Gen., Dish.: 'by/ Author.: ' geuen to, 
etc' Cov. (Test.). 

22. Ills death] • Death,' Auth. and all 
the other Vv. Bhtnuless and 
without charge] ' Unblamalile and unre- 
provablc,' Author. ; ' unwcninied and 
without rejireef,' ]Vicl. ; ' unblanieable 
and wiiliout faut,' Tynd., Cortrd., L'ran., 
Gin., Dish. ; ' unsjx)ttcd and unblainca- 
blo," Cortrd. (Test.) ; ' ininiacuhite ami 
blameless,' IViem. 

23. If lit hast] ' If,' Auth. and the re- 
maining; Vv. except Wicl , ' if netheles ;' 
/i/icni., ' if yet.' StnlJi] So 

WicL, lihem. : ' settled,' Author. : ' .staln 
lysshcd,' Ti/nd. and tlie remaining: Vv. 

ll7//(oi// Uiiiij] ' Be not,' Auth. and the 
other Vv. exeejjt Wcl., Covcrd. (Test.), 
rihiin., 'unmoualile.' ILurd] 

' Have heani,' Author, ani all ilie other 
Vv. In the hniriiiii '_</"] ' To,' 

Auth., Gtnev., Dish. ; ' in al creaturis,' 

W'icl. ; ' anionge all creatures,' Tynd., 
Cov., Cranm., lihcni. ; ' anionj; euery 
n-eaturc,' Cov. (Test.). 
Btcaim] Siniilaily Cor. (Test.), ' am I 

Paul become:' 'am made,' Auth and 
the remaining Vv. 

24. .Voir/] '*Whonow,' .4urA. 
Am Jillinff fully up] ' Fill up,' Author. ; 
'fille,' \Vicl.; 'fulfill,' Tyiid., Corerd. 
(both), Cranm., Gen., Bish. ; ' accom- 
plish,' lUiem. The lacking 
tnmsures of] ' That which is l>chind of,' 
Auth., Tynd., Cov., Cranm., Bish. ; ' the 
tiiin':is that fallen of,' Wirl. ; • ilie 
thynjies that arc wantyiige of,' Cortrd. 
(Test.), siiu. lihrm. ; ' the rest of,' Gen. 

25 Becami] Similarly Cov. (Te.<t.), 
' am become : ' ' am made,' Auth. and 
the remaining!: Vv. Was 

given] So Tynd., Cranm. : ' is given,' 
Auth. and the remaining Vv. 

26. /xJMij ' Been,' Attthor. Perhajts 
the slight change may licttcr convey the 
force of tlic jierf. participle. 

From the agts and from the gen.] ' From 
ages and from gen.,' Author., W'icl., 
Rhcm. ; Tynd., Cov., Cranm., G>n., and 
Bi.-ih., parajthrase; ' from cuerhu-tynge 
and the genenuions,' Cov. (Test.). 
Hath been] ' L;,' Auth. and all the oihcr 

27. It uns God's will] ' God would,' 
Auth. and all the other Vv. 



Chap. I. 28-11. 4 

known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the 
Gentiles ; which is Christ among you, the hope of Glory : ^ whom 
WE proclaim, warning every man, and teaching every man in all 
wisdom ; that we may present every man perfect in Christ : ^ to 
which end I also toil, striving according to His working, which 
■worketh in me with power. 


For I would have you know what great conflict I have for you, 
and them in Laodicea, and as many as have not seen my face in 
the flesh ; ^ that their hearts may be comforted, they being knit 
together in love and unto all the riches of the full assurance of the 
understanding, unto the full knowledge of the mystery of God, even 
Christ ; ^ in whom are hiddenly all the treasures of wisdom and 
knowledge. ^ Now this I say, that no one may beguile you with 

Amomj (M)] So Coverd. (Test.): 'in/ 
Auth. and the remaining Vv. 
Christ] ' *Christ Jesus,' Aiitk. 

28. Proclaim] ' Preach,' Author, and 
the other Vv. except [VicL, ' schewen.' 

29. To which end] ' Whereunto,' Auth., 
Gen., Bisk. ; ' in whiche thing,' Wicl. ; 
'whei'in/ Tynd., Coverd. (both), Cran., 
Rhem. Toil\ Comp. on 1 
Tim. iv. 10 : ' labor,' Auth. and all Vv. 
except Wicl., ' traueile.' 

With power] Similarly Cov. (Test.), ' by 
power ; ' Rhem., ' in power : ' ' mightily,' 
Author, and the remaining Vv. except 

Wicl., ' in vcrtii.' 

Chapter II. 1. Would have j/ou, etc.] 
Similarly Cov. (Test.), ' would have you 
to know ;' Rhem., ' wil haue you know : ' 
' would that yc knew,' Author., Cranm., 
Bish. ; ' wole that ye wite,' Wiclif; 
' wolde ye knewe,' Ti/nd., Cov., Gen. 
And them] ' Andybr tlieni,' Auth. 
In] ' At,' Auth., Wicl., Cranm., Coverd. 
(Test.), Bish., Rhem. ; 'of,' Tynd., Cov., 
Gen. And as many] ' And 

for as many,* Auth. 

2. May] So Coverd. (Test.), Rhem.; 
' might,' Author, and the remaining Vv, 
except Wicl., 'that her hertis counforted.' 
They being, etc.] ' *Being knit together,' 
Author. The riches] So Wicl., 
Cov. (Test.), Rhem. ; ' riches,' .4«^A. and 
the remaining Vv. The 
understanding] Author, and all the otlier 
Vv. omit the article; 'full understond- 
inge,' Tynd., Cov., Cran.; ' persuadv^d 
underst.,' Gen. Unto] ' To,* 
Auth.: cliange to preserve parallelism 
with the preceding els. Fidl 
knowledge^ 'Acknowledgment,' Auth., 
' knowynge,' Wicl. ; ' for to knowe,' 
Tynd., Cranm., Gen. ; ' knowledge,' Cov. 
(both), Cranm,; ' to know,' Dish. The 
juxtaposition of iniyi'aicTis and yvwais 
seems here to justify this translation ; 
comp. notes. 

Of God, even Christ] ' Of God *and of 
the Fatiier, and of Christ,' Auth. 

3. Hiddenly] ' Hid,' Autli. and all the 
other Vv. 

4. Now] ' And,' Author., Gen.; 'for,' 
Wicl.; 'but,' Coverdale (Test.), Rhem.: 
Tynd., Cov., Cran., Bish. omit. 

Chap. II. 5-10. 

C O L O S S I A N S , 


enticing speech. '' Fur if 1 um absent verilj in tlio-flesli, jet still 
I iixii with you ill the- .'^ Irit, joying uith yuu and beliolJiH;.^ vour 
order, and the iirni Ifmnduiiun of your fuitii in ChrL^t, ''■" As tlien 
ye received Chiist Jcsils thl Loud, «y walk ye in llim ; ' rooted 
and Ixin^ Imllt up in Ilini, and being stabllshed in your faith, even 
as yc were taught, abounding therein with thanksgiving. 

^ Beware lest there shall be any one that maketh vou his booty 
through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after 
the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ. ^ Because in 
IIlM doth dwell in bodily fashion all the fulness of the Godhead. 
'^ And ye arc in llim made full ; who is the head of every j rinci- 

That no o/i/^J ' Lc.Nt ♦any one,' Autlior. 
Mail] ' Slionlil,' Aitt/i. and the other Vv. 
exeejit W'icl., Cut: (Test.), PJian., ' that 
no man disceyue you.' 
EntkiiKj speadt] ' Enticing words,' Aidh. 
and tlic other Vv. except WicL, Coverd. 
(Test.), ' higthe of wordis ; ' Dish , 'per- 
suasion of word ; ' lUicin., ' loftines of 

5. I/I am absnit virili/,ctc.] ' TliOU;j;h 
I bo al).scnt,' Auth. and ail the otlicr Vv. 
Yet still I urn] 'Yet am I,' Author, and 
the Other Vv. except Cov. (Test.), 'but 
yet am I ; ' lilum., ' yet in spirit I am ;' 

Wicl. omits. Joyiiiq with 

yo'.i] ' Joying',* Author, and the other Vv. 
except Ct'ivn/. (Test.), Ilium., ' rcjoyc- 
yn^.' ^ Finn J'ouiidat ion] 

' Stedf.istncss,' /l(//io)-., Cocrrd. (l)Oth) ; 
'sadncsso,' Willi/; ' stcdfast fayth,' 
Ti/nd., Cnin., (im., IJish. ; ' constancie,'» 

6. As then yt] ' As ye liave tliereforc,' 
jM</i.and all liie other Vv. ( Wicl, lihtm., 
' thcifor as ye han '). 

7. /><//)'/ built uji] Aiitli. and :ill tlic 
other Vv. either omit ' l>cin.!.',' or sii^'htly 
chan;^ the construction. The insertion 
is an iitlimi>t to mark the diffonrncc of 
tense in tlie two participles. The true 
force of tlic tense in each case (as is su;.;- 
pcsted in notes in loc.) Ls ven.- discerni- 
ble ; they liiid already been ixioted and 

were now remaining so (pcrf.); they 
were lityi;; built up (prcs.) — the process 
going on from day to day. Wiiat was 
underneath was firm and was remaining 
so ; what was above was receiving con- 
tinual increase and accession. 
Being stablished] So Cvvrrd. (Test.) : 
Autlior. and the remaining Vv. either 
omit ' being ' or slightly cliaiige the con- 
struction. Yuurfail/i] 'The 
faith,' Author, and tlie other Vv. except 
Wicl., ' the biicue ; ' Cov. ( I'cst. ). Cran., 
' faith.' 

8. There sliall be any cue tLit, ttc.\ 
' Any man sj)oil you,' Aulh., Cov., Dish.; 
' that no man disceyue you,' Wictif, 
Rhcm. ; ' eny man come and spoyle you,' 
Tifnd., Gen.; ' ony man doceauc you,' 
Cov. (Test.); 'lest l>c cny man spoyio 
you,' Cran. 

9. Dtcnuse\ ' For,* Auth. and all tlie 
other Vv. Doth </(«•//] 
' DwoUctli,' Auth. and all the otlicr Vv. 
The introduction of the auxiliarj- ap|>canj 
to aild a slight force to tlie important 
verb KaToiKfl. The princijial emphasis 
appan-iitly falls on iv a-jrv ; the verb, 
liowcver, l>oth from meaning and posi- 
tion, is not without promincni'C. 

In bodily fashion] ' liotlily,' Author, and 
the other Vv. except llhnn., ' cori)orally.' 

10. In Ilim made full] Sim. Hhcm., 
'in Him replenished:' 'complete in 



Chap. II. 11-13. 

palltj and power : ^^ in whom ye were also circumcised with a 
circumcision not wrought with hand, in the piitting off of the body of 
the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ ; ^ having been buried with 
Him in your baptism, wherein ye were also raised with Him 
through your faith in the operation of God, who raised Him from 
the dead. ^^ And you also being dead in your trespasses and the 

Him,' Author, aud the other Vv. except 
Wicl, Gov. (Test.), 'filled in Him.' 
Wh6\ ' Which,' Author. The otherwise 
unnecessary change adds here to perspi- 
cuity. Every] ' AH,' Auth. 
and the other Vv. 

11. Ye were also circumcised] 'Alsoyc 
are circ.,' Author, and the other Vv. ex- 
cept Rhem., ' also you are,' etc. , 

A circumcision] So Coverd. (Test.), and 
sim. all the other Vv. (except Author.], 
' circumcision : ' Author, inserts the defi- 
nite article. Not wrought with 
hand] 'Made without hands,' Author., 
Tynd., Genev., Bish. ; ' not made with 
bond,' Wicl., Rliem. {'hy'); ' circum. 
without hondes,' Cocerd. ; ' not made 
with handes,' Gov. (Test.); 'done with- 
out handes,' Cruii. In the 
putting off] ftc] ' In putting off,' etc, 
Auth. ; ' in dispoilynge of (off),' Wicl. ; 
'by puttingeof (oif),' Tj/nd., Gov., Gen,, 
Bish.; 'in robbyng of,' Gov. (Test.); 
* for asmoch as, etc.,' Granm. ; ' in spoil- 
ing of,' Rhem. The insertion of the ar- 
ticles gives a heaviness to the sentence, 
bat seems required to show that iv Tfj 
iirsKS. is not to be regarded as modal, 
much less causal, as Granm. 
Body qfthefltsh] ' Body *of the sins of 
the flesh,' Auth. In the cir- 
cumcision] So Gov. (Test.), Rhem., and 
similarly Wicl., ' in circumcision : ' ' by 
the circumcision,' Auth., Bish. ; ' thorow 
the circ.,' Tynd., Granm., Gen. ; ' with 
the circ.,' Gov. 

12. Having been buried] ' Buried,' 
Author., Bish., Rhem. ; ' and ye ben 
biried,' Wicl. ; ' being buried,' Goverd. 
(Test.) ; ' in that ye are buried, etc' 

Tynd. and the remaining Vv. Compare 
notes on Phil. ii. 7 ( Transl.). 
Your baptism] ' Baptism,' Auth. and all 
the other Vv. Ye were also 

raised] ' Also ye are risen,' Auth., and 
with slight variations the other Vv. : 
the Kai, however, is rightly joined in 
translation with (Tvvi\yipb. by Tynd., 
Gov., Gran., Gen., Bish. 
Your failh] 'Faith,' Author, and, with 
some variations in construction, the other 
Vv. except Goverd. (Test), Bish., Rhem., 
' the faith.' The personal address seems 
here to render the translation of the arti- 
cle by the possessive pronoun correct 
and appropriate ; there are, however, 
many cases in which such attempts at 
accuracy overload and embarrass the 
sentence; consider Romans xii. 7 sq., 
where, as in many other passages, it re- 
quires much discrimination to decide 
when the article lias a pronominal force, 
and when it is merely associated with an 
abstract noun. In the operation] 

' Of the operation,' Auth., Bish., Rhem. ; 
'wrought by the operaeion of,' Tynd., 
Goverd., Granm., Gen.; 'of God's work- 
5'nge,' Gov. (Test.). On the translation^ 
of this word see notes on 1 Thess. ii. 13 : 
the rendering here adopted by Author. 
may perhaps be allowed to stand ; the 
term 'operation,' though not usually a 
good translation, here not unsuitably 
representing the ' potentia in actum se 
exserens ' (Calv. on Phil. iii. 21) alluded 
to and exemplified in the clause which 

13. You also] Auth. and the other Vv. 
omit ' also : ' see, however, notes on 
Eph. ii. 1. Trespasses] So 

Chap. II. ll-i: 



uuciicimicisiou of your flcsli, lie quickened together with Ilimjielf, 
having forgiven us all our tresjjaases, '* blotting out the handwrit- 
ing in force against us hy its decrees, which was contrary to us ; 
and Ue hath taken it out of the way, nailing it to His cross ; ^^ and 
stripping away from Himself priucijialities and |X)wers, He made a 
show of them with boldness, triumphing over them in it. 

^•^ Let not any man therefore judge you in eaiing or in drinking, 
or in the matter of an holy day, or of a new moon, or of a sal>- 
batli : ^" whieli are a shadow of tilings to come, but the body is 

Au(h. ill Epli. ii. l.aiul in tlic present uouii : the insertion of it, however, 

verse: 'sins,' Authur., i'oierd. (both), coupled witli the sli^'ht elian^- in punc- 

Dish. ; ' (;iltis,' W'icl. ; ' sjnne,' Ti/nJ., tuiition, seems to char up the eonstruc- 

Cran., (Jmev. ; ' tlie oflenses,' liliem. tion, and render the connection of 

He quickened] So Wicl., Coi'., afid sira. clauses somewhat more perspicuous. 
li/iem^ ' did he t|uickcn : ' ' liatli he, etc.,' 15. Strijiping, ttc] ' Haviujr sjwilcd,' 

Auf/i. and the renimnin^ Vv. Auth., Bish., and sim. Coverd. (Te^t.), 

Himself] ' Ilini,' Aulli. and all the other Illiem., 'spoilinj: ; ' ' and hatli spoyled,' 

Vv. Us] ' ♦You,' Auth. Tijiid. and the remaining Vv. 

Our tiesimssts] So Ti/nd., Cratim., Gen. M'ilh boidntss] Similarly Cov. (Test.), 

(' your '), Liisli. (' your ') : ' trespasses,' ' boldcly ;' lUieui., ' contidently : ' ' ojHjn- 

Aullior. ; ' ;;iltis,' W'irl.; 'sins,' Coverd. ly,' Authorized and the n-maining Ver- 

(botli) ; ' offenses,' Hhnn. sions. 

14. Blottiuij out] So Author. As this 16. Ltt not, etc.] ' Let no ni;in there- 
participle seems contemporary with the fore,' Author, and the other Vv. except 
preceding, and to nnuk the circumstances Wicl., ' tlierfor no man juge.' 
under which the preceding Jict took place, ICntin;} or in drinking/] ' Meat or in drink,' 
the present participle in Em/li.'ih may he Auth., Wicl., Cbc. (Test.) (omits ' in '), 
pro]H;rly retained ; comp. notes on Phil. Bish., liJiem. ; ' racatc and drinke,' Tynd., 
ii. 7 (Transl.). Tiio more exact, 'by Cov. ('or'), Crtin., Gen. 
having, etc.,' is oj»cn to the objection of In die matter uf] 'In rcspci-tof,' AuOior. ; 
being cumbrous, and perliaps unduly in part of,' Wicl., Bish., Rlitm. ; ' for 
nioihil. In force fi(jaiiist us, etc.] jK'co of,' /'i/hc/., Col'., Cran., Gen ; ' in a 
'Of ordinances that was jigainst us,' jiartof,' Cov. (Test.). ^1 nfir 
Author.; ' that writynge of decre that nioun] ' The, etc.,' ..-luMor. and the other 
was agens us,' Wicl.; ' the haiidwTitiiig Vv. except II7</., ' neomynyo.' 
that was agaynst us contained in the .1 stiLUith] ' Sabbath dai/s,' Auth. and 
lawe written,' Ti/ud., Coc, Cr<in. ; 'the tlie other Vv.cxcejit H'lV/ , Coc. (Test.) ; 
lianile wrytyngo that was againste us of lihun., ' Saliotis.' As <rd0$aTa is used 
the dcffv.,' Cov. (Test.) ; ' the handwryt- with the force of a singular (Matth. xii. 
ing of ceremonies that wius against us,' I, Luke iv. 16, al.), and a.s the preceding 
6V»i., Bish. ('onlinani'cs ') ; 'the liand- terms are in the singnbir, it seems l»et- 
writing of decrees,' liJtan. terto revert totliat form in transl.ition. 
llathtalen] So Ti/nd., Cov., Cran., BiiJi., 17. Christ's] So Cov. (Test.), Ix/tcm. : 
Rhan. : ' took,' .I1///1. and the remaining 'of Christ,' AutA., Uld., Bi*h. ; 'is in 
Vv. Auth. also omits the personal pro- Christ,' Tynd., Cov , Cran., Gen. 




Chap. II. 18-22, 

Christ's. ^^ Let no man beguile you of your reward, desiring to do 
it in false lowliness of mind and worshipping of the angels, intruding 
mto the things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed up by the 
mind of his flesh, ^^ and not holding fast the Head, from which the 
whole body by means of its joints and bands having nourishment 
ministered, and being knit together, increaseth with the increase of 

Qod. ^° If ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the 

world, why, as if ye were living in the world, do ye submit to ordi- 
nances, 2^ Handle not, nor taste, nor touch, ^ (which things are all 
to be destroyed in their consumption) , after the commandments and 

18. Desiring to do it, etc] ' In a vol- 
untary hnmility/ Auth. ; ' willynge to 
teche in mekeness,' Wicl. ; ' which after 
his awnc ymaginacion walketh in the 
hurahlenes and holynes of angels,' Tynd., 
sim. Cuv. ; ' wyllyngc in humblynessc,' 
Cov. (Test.), Rhem. ; ' by the humblenes 
and holynes of angels/ Cranm. ; ' by 
humblenes, and worshipping of angels,' 
Gen. ; 'in the humb. and w. of angels,' 
Bisli. Tiie insertion of the epithet 'false,' 
is only an exegetical gloss to assist the 
general reader. 

The aiH/els] ' Angels,' Auth. and all the 
other Vv. The insertion of the article 
is perhaps not a certain correction, as it 
may be used only to specify the genus. 
It seems however plausible to consider 
it as referring to the special class to 
whom this unbecoming adoration was 
habitually offered. The 

things] So Wicl., Cov. (Test.), Cranm., 
Rhem. : ' those tilings,' Auth., Dish. ; 
' thingcs,' Tijnd., Coo. The mind 

of his flesh] Sim. Wicl., with wit of liis 
fleisch: ' Cov. (Test.), ' iu the raeanynge 
of hys fleshe : ' Rneni., ' by the sense of 
his flesh : ' ' his fleslily mind,' Auth. and 
the remaining Vv. { Cov., ' his owne '). 

19. Holding fast] ' Holding,' Wicl, 
Cov. (Test.), RJim.; 'holdeth,' Tynd. 
and the remaining Vv. The 
whole body] So Coverd. (botli), Rhem.: 
' all the body,' Auth. and the remaining 
Vv. By means of its joints] 

' By joints,' Auth. and the otlier Vv. ex- 
cept Coverd. (Test.), ' by knottes and 
jointes ; ' Wicl., ' bi boondis and join- 
ynges.' * Deing knit together] 

' Knit together,' Author., Genev., Dish. ; 
' made,' Wicl. ; ' and is knet together,' 
Tynd.. Cov., Cran. ; ' fastened together,' 
Cov. (Test.); 'compacted,' Rhem. 
2Q. If] '* Wherefore if,' ^u</i. 
As if ye were living] ' As thougli living,' 
Auth., Dish. ; Wicl. (very exactly), ' as 
men living;' 'as though ye yet lived,' 
Tynd., Gen. ( Cov. omits ' yet. ') Do ye 
suhmii] ' Are ye suliject,' Auth. ; ' demen 
ye,' Wicl. ; ' are ye ledde with tradicions,' 
Tynd., Cran., Dish. ; ' holden with soch 
trad.,' Coverd. ; ' what do ye yet use de- 
crees,' Coverd. (Test.); 'are ye bur- 
thened with traditions,' Gen. ; ' decree,' 
Rhem. The change in the text is intend 
ed to ex]iress that Zoytxari^iff^^ is here 
taken as in tlic middle voice. 

21 . Handle not, etc.] ' Toucli not ; taste 
not ; handle not,' Author, and tlie other 
Vv. ( Tynd. and Genev. prefix ' of them 
tliat say ') except Wicl., 'tliat ye touche 
not, nether taast, nether trete with hondis 
tlie thingis ; ' Cov., ' as when they say, 
touch not tliis, taste not that, handle not 

22. Which things] ' Which,' Auth. 
Are all] So Rhem., and in a similar col- 
location Cov. ( Test. ) : 'all are,' Auth. 
and the remaining Vv. except Coverd., 
' all these things do.' Change made to 

CiiAi. II. -.'a-lll. 1. 



ducu-iucs of Lucu ? ^ All which ihiugs have iudecJ the rcj.ute of 
wLsJom in voluntary worship, and lowluiess of mind, and un^sjarin;^ 
treatment of the body, nut in any tlaiKj of real value, serving; vnly 
to satisfv the tlesh. 


If then ye were raised together with Christ, seek the things 
that are above, where Christ i.'?, sitting on the right hand of God. 

preserve not only the order hut u <li3tiiic- 
tion hetween the (lertiiite and tiie iiiJefi- 
Dito relative ; see next verse. 
To be distroyed, ttr.\ ' To jxrish wiili 
the usinfr,' Aut/ior. ; ' in to decth liy llic 
ilkc use,' Wicl. ; ' pcrysshe with the u-yu;: 
of them,' Tijnd.. Gen. ; ' do hurte unto 
men l>ecause of tlie al)U5e of theui,' Cor., 
— an unusually imoiiett translation, es- 
pecially for Covad. ; ' do all hurtc wi;Ii 
the very use,' Coc. (Test.); ' perys.slie 
thorow the very ahuse,' Crauin. ; " lie in 
corrujjtion, in ahusynj^e,' Dish. ; ' unto 
destruction hy the very use,' Rlitm. 

23. AU uhich thinijs] ' Which thin;;s,' 
AiUh. and the other Vv. except Wicl., 
Gov. (Test.), Rhcm., 'whicli.' 
The repule\ ' A shew,' Author., Dish., 
Gen , RJunn. ; ' a resouu,' Wicl. ; ' the 
similitude,' Tynd., Cran. ; ' siiyne,' Coc. 
(l)0th). The definite article with ' repute ' 
SQoms rcijuireil hy usa;^o and ordinary 
Knglish idiom. 

Volunturi/ icorsliip] Sitnilarly Cm., ' vol- 
ontarie woi-shippinjj ; ' Dish., ' volunta- 
rie relii;ion : ' ' will worship,' Autftur. ; 
' veyn ix'legioun,' H7<7. ; ' chosen holy- 
nes,' Ti/nd. ; ' chosen spirituality,' Cor. ; 
' supcrsticion,' Cov. (Test.), Gen., Winn, 
[jowliness of mind\ 'Humility,' Author. 
Possibly hero the epithet ' false ' mifrht 
bo inserted as in ver. 18. 
Uiisparimj trtatmrnt] ' Nei;lectin;r. Auih.: 
not to spare,' lITi/.. liJiem. ; • in that 
Uiey spare not,' Ti/nd., Coixrd. ; ' iu not 

s-paryn^',' Cocnd. (Test.), Gtnrc, Dish. 
Sot in uny thiuij, etc.] Somewhat simi- 
larly Gen., 'yet are of no value; ' ' in 
any honor,' Auth., Wicl., DiiJi., lifiein.; 
' do the llcsslio n j wor.-hype,' Tynd., 
Cureid., Cnin. ; ' couniin-^ it not worthy 
of ony lionoure,' Cor. (Test.). It will 
he o!)served (see below) that Gtn. ap- 
1 roadies most nearly to the view taken 
in t!;c te.\t, 1 ut that it tacitly assumes a 
change of construciion and an ellipsis of 
the verli substantive. To avoid this, and 
to be intclli^ilile, we seem foned to 
some paraplinise like that in the text. 
Strrinrf only, i/c] ' To the sati<fyin;r of,' 
.l«.'/ior., and sim. the other Vv. except 
Gen., which thus paraphrases, ' but ap- 
perieine to those tltimjs whenvith the tiesho 
is cnimmed.''TKK III. 1. I/tlten\ 'Ifyetlien,' 
Autlmr. and the other Vv. except Wid., 
Rhem., ' tlicrfor if ye ; ' Cor. (Test.), ' yf 
}e are therforu.' litre 

raised tojftllur] 'Be n,' -4 »//(., Dish., 
Rhcm.; • han rise to j;'<J"-'.' H 'W. ; 'bo 
then rysen apiyne,' Tynd., Cranm. ; ' be 
risen now with,' Cotrrd. : ' are therfore 
rysen wiili,' Cotxrd. (Test-); ' !« rj.scn 
a;xaync with.' Gen. Ths 

thin^fs that are al)ore] So Cov. (Test.), 
Rhcm. : • those ihinps which axv,' AiUh. 
and the remaininj; Vv. except WicL, 
' the thiniris that Ixn." The lighter rela- 
tive ' that ' seems hert morv suitable, and 



Chap. III. 2-8 

2 Set your minds on the things that are above, not on the things that 
are on the earth. ^ For ye died, and your life hath been hidden 
with Christ in God._^ ^ When Christ, our Life, shall be manifested, 
then shall ye also be manifested with Him in glory. 

^ Make dead then your members which are upon the earth ; for- 
nication, uncleanness, lustfulness, evil concupiscence, and covet- 
ousness, the which is idolatry : ^ for which things' sake the wrath 
of God doth come on the children of disobedience ; '' among whom 
ye also once walked, when ye were living in these sins. ^ But 

accords with the translation in verse 2. 
On the supposed distinction between 
' that ' and ' which,' compare notes on 
Eph. i. 23 (Transl.), and Brown, Gram, 
of Grammars, ii. 5, p. 293 (ed. 1 ). Per- 
haps, as a verij rough rule, it may be said 
that ' which ' is a little more appropri- 
ately ,u=ed when the clause introduced 
by the relative tends to form a distinct 
and separable predication in reference to 
the antecedent ; ' that,' when the relative 
60 coalesces with its concomitants as 
either to form with them a species of ep- 
ithet, or to express a predominant and 
prevailing, rather than an accidental 
characteristic. Christ is, 

sittiiHj] So Gov. : ' sitteth,' Auth., Tijnd., 
Cran., Gen., Bish. ; ' is sitting at,' IFiH., 
Gov. (Test.), Rhem. 

2. Set your minds] So Gov. (Test.), 
and Gov. ('minde'): 'set your affec- 
tion,' Auth. and the remaining Vv. ex- 
cept WicL, ' sauer tho thingis ; ' Bish., 
'affections' (plural). 

The things that are (bis)] So Rhem. : 
' things ' (bis), Auth., Bish. ; ' tho thingis 
that ben aboue not tho that ben, etc.,' 
WicL, Coverd. (Test.); ' thynges that 
are above, and not on thinges which are,' 
Tynd., Gov. (inverts relatives), Granm., 
Gen. (' which,' bis). 

3. Died] ' Are dead,' Author, and all 
Vv. ; see notes. Hath been] 
' Is,' Auth. 

4. Glirist, our Life] So Gov. : Author. 
inserts ' who is ; ' Tynd., Granm., Gen., 

Bish. insert ' which is ; ' WicL, Goverd. 
(Test.), Rhem., 'yoare liif.' 
Be manifested (bis)] 'Appear' (bis), 
Auth., WicL, Gov. {Teat), Bish., Rhem..; 
'shewehim silfe — appeare,' Tynd.. Gov., 
Gran., Gen. The change seems neces- 
sary to keep up tlic antithesis between 
the KiKpvirrai. and (pavepwbf. 

5. Make dead then] ' Mortify therefore,' 
Author, and the other Vv. except WicL, 
' therfor sle ye.' Which] So 
Auth. and the other Vv. except Goverd. 
(Test.), Rhem., ' that,' and Gran., ' erthy 
membres.' Here ' tliat ' seems inexact ; 
the original is ra ue\7) vixuf to, iirl rrjs 
yrjs. Lusfahipss] Similarly 
Rhem., ' lust : ' ' inordinate affection,' 
Auth., Bish.; ' leccherie,' Wid. ; ' un- 
naturall lust,' Tynd., Gov. (both), Gran.; 
'wantonness,' Gen. Tlie which] 
'Which,' Auth. and all the other Vv. 

6. Doth come] So Goverd. (Test. ), and 
somewhat similarly Granmcr, ' iiseth to 
come : ' ' cometh,' Author., Tynd., Gov., 
Gen., Bish., Rhem. ; ' cam,' WicL 

7. Among tvhom] So Gran.: 'in the 
which,' Auth., Gov. (both). Gen., Bish. ; 
'in whiche,' WicL, Rhem.; 'in which 
tliynges,' Tynd. Once] 
' Sometime,' Auth. Were 
living] ' Lived,' Auth. and the other Vv, 
except Gov. (Test.), 'did live.' 

These sins] ' *Them,' Auth. 

8. Do ye] ' Ye also,' Auth. ; the other 
Vv. adopt the simple imperative form, 
' put ye, etc.,' but thereby somewhat ob- 

CiiAi-. III. 9-13 



NOW do ye also put away from you all these ; anger, wrath, malice, 
railini:, coarse speakhi;^ out of your mouth ; ^ do not lie f.-ne to 
another, seeiuj^ th;it ye have put off from you the old man \^ith his 
deeds ; ^'^ and have put oti the new man, which is bein;_' renewed 
unto knowledire after the image of Him that crcate<l him : ^* where 
there is no Greek and Jew, circumeislun and uneircumclsinn, Bar- 
barian, Scythian, bond-man, free-man \ but CllKlST u all, and in 

^ Put ye on, then, as elect of Uod, holy and beloved, boweb 
of mercy, kindness, lowliness of mind, meekness, long-suffering ; 
^ forbearing one another, and forgiving each other, if any man 

ecure the coiiuection of ical with u^t'ti. 
Put arcai/ from i/oii] So, in slijrhtly va- 
ried order, Tynd., Cow, Cranm. ; Wkl., 
Gen., aud IJish. omit ' from you : ' ' put 
off,' Attlli. ; 'lay away,' Coverd. (Test.), 
lihem. It seems dcsirahlc to preserve a 
sliglit distinction bet%vecn i.Tr6d(iTd( and 
itrfuSvaaufvoi, ver. 9. .1// 

thest] So Auth., and sim. most of the 
other Vv. Dish, omits ' these,' but is 
thus vciy liable to be misunderstood, 
especially as some cdd. leave out the 
comma tliat ought to sepiurate ' all ' and 
the subst. that follows. 
Railini/] ' Blasphemy,' Author., Wicl., 
Coverd. (Test.), Dish., lihtm. ; 'cursed 
speaking,' Tynd., Coverd., Cran., Gen. 
Coarse speahinr/] ' Filthy communica- 
tion,' Auth., Coc. (Test.), Cran., Disli. ; 
' foulc word,' Wici. ; * filthy speakyn<^?,' 
Tynd., Gen. ; filthy wordes,' Cot?. ; ' fil- 
thic talkc,' lihnn. 

q. Do not li-] • Lie not,' Author, and 
the otiicr Vv. except U7i7., ' nyle ye 
lie.' Off from j/ou] Auth. 

omits ' from you,' and similarly the other 
Vv. except HVo/., ' spuyle ye you ; ' Cov. 
(Test.), ' robbjTig yourselvis ; ' liJiem., 
spoiling yourselves of.' 

10. Unto] So lihem., aud similarly 
Wicl., C'XJii., Bish., * in to : ' ' in,' Auth. 
and the remaining Vv. 
Til being reiuu-id] ' I> renewed,' Auth. 

1 1 . T/(crc is no] ' There is neither,' 
Auth. And {hi.)} So Wicl., 
Conrd. (Test.), R/um.: nor," AtUJior. 
and the remaining Vv. except Coverd., 
which oraiti. Bond-man, 
free-man] Similarly Wicl., ' boiide man 

and fre man : ' ' bond nor free,' Author. ; 
'or,' Tynd., Cran.; 'and.' Cor (Test.), 
liJiem. ; Coverd., Gen., Bish. omit ' nor.' 

12. Putyi] So Cov. CIlcsu), JUum., 
and similarly Wicl.: Author, aud the 
remaining Vv. omit. The insertion of 
the pronoun is perhaps desirable ai the 
l>cginning of a new par.igraph. 

llien] ' Tliereforc,' Auth. and all tljo 
other Vv. Elect] So Tynd., 

Cov. (Test.), Cranm., Gen.: 'the el*ct,' 
Auth., Cor., Dish., lihcm. : ' the chosun,' 
Wicl. I'erhajis a more exact translation 
would Ite ' chosen ones,' as gi\ ing to 
iKKfKToi its substantival force without tlio 
inaccuracy of Uie inserted article. 
MiTcy] ' *Men.ies,' Aulh. 
Lau^iness of mind] So Auth. in Phil. ii. 
3 : ' humbleness of mind,' Auth. and the 
other Vv. except Wicl., ' niekencs ; ' Cov. 
(Test.), • lowlinesse ; ' Rhrm., ' humil- 

13. Each oilier] Similarly Wid., Coc. 
(Test.), both of which make a differenco 
of translation l>ctween oXA^AMr and iau- 
rolt ('ech oon other — you ^ilf,' ' cche 
other — amonge yourselves ') ; see notes. 



Chap. III. 14-18. 

have a complaint against any ; as Christ forgave you, even so doing 
also yourselves. ^^ But over all these j9i(< on Love, which is the 
bond of perfectness. ^^ And let the peace of Christ rule ii^ your 
hearts, to the which ye were also called in one body ; and be yc 
thankful. ^"^ Let the word of Christ dwell within you richly, teach- 
ing and admonishing one another in all wisdom, with psalms, liymns, 
and spiritual songs, in Grace singing in your hearts to God. ^" And 
in every thmg, whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the 
name of Jesus Christ, giving thanks to God the Father through 

^^ Wives, submit yourselves unto your husbands, as it should be 

Auth. and the remaining Vv., 'one an- 
other.' Complaint] So Coo. 
(Test.): 'quarrel/ Author, and all the 
remaining Vv. As\ ' Even 
as,' Auth. In tlie attempt to express 
the true participial structure, idiom 
seems to require the union of ' even ' 
with the latter member; compare Tynd., 
Cran., Gen., Bish. Even so, 
etc.] ' So also do ye/ Auth., Bish. ; ' so 
also ye,' Wicl. ; ' even so do ye,' Tynd., 
Cran., Gen. ; ' so do ye also,' Coverd. 
(both) ; ' so you also,' Rhem. 

14. But] So Coverd., Rhem. : ' and,' 
Auth., WicL, Cov. (Test.), Gen., Bish. ; 
Tynd., Cran. omit. Over] 

So, with apparently similar local force, 
WicL, ' upon : ' ' above,' Auth. and the 
remaining Vv., some of which, as Cov. 
(both), ' above all things,' probably here 
gave to ^ttI a decided ethical reference. 
These] Auth. adds ' things,' and so the 
other Vv. Perhaps the indeterminate 
' these,' i. e. ' qualities,' ' principles,' ' vir- 
tues,' is more exact. Love] 
So Tynd., Coverd. (both), Cran., Gen.: 
' charity,' Author., WicL, Bish., Rhem. 
See notes on 1 Tim. i. 5 (TransL). 

1.5. Christ] '*Go(\,' Auth. 
Were] ' Are,' Autli. and all the other Vv. 
Also called] Sim. Coverd., 'called also : ' 
Auth. (' wliich also ') and Rhem. (' whcre- 
\\\ also') connect with the pronoun. 

16. Within] 'In,' Author, and all the 
other Vv. In all wisdom] 
Auth. and all the other Vv. place these 
words after, and connect them with the 
adverb. With] So Cov., Rhem. : 
' jn,' Auth. and the remaining Vv. 
Hymns] Auth. prefixes ' *and ; ' so also 
before ' spiritual songs,' but with not 
much critical probability. 

In grace] So WicL, Rhem. : ' with grace,' 
Auth., Cran., Bish. The change seems 
desirable to obviate such misunderstand- 
ings as Tynd., Coverd., ' songes which 
have favour with them;' Cov. (Test.), 
' graciously ; ' Gen., ' with a certeyn 
grace.' Singing in your hearts] 

So WicL, Rhem. : ' singing with grace 
in,' Author., and similarly the remain- 
ing Vv. It seems especially desirable 
here to preserve the order of the Greek, 
as q.5fiy iv roils Kap3. stands in disliuct 
contrast with another and audible sing- 

17. And in every thing, whatsoever] 
' And whatsoever, ' Author. It seems 
riglit to preserve the slight irregularity 
of the original as setting forth the studied 
inclusivcness of the command. 

Jesus Christ] ' *Lord Jesus,' Auth. 
God the Father] ' God *and the Father,' 
Aicth. Through] ' By,' Avth. 

and all the other Vv. 

18. Your husbands] ' Your *own bus- 

CiiAi- HI. 10-TV. 1. 

C O L n P S T A N S 


in the Lord. ^''' Husbands, love your wives, and be not embittered 
towards them. '^ Children, obey your parents in all things ; for 
tliij is wcll-j .leasing in the Lord. -* Fathers, provoke not your 
children, lest they be disheartened. ^ Bond-servants, obey in all 
things your masters aeeording to the flesh ; not with acts of eye- 
service, as men-iileasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing the 
Lord. '^ ^Vhatcver ye do, do it from the heart, as to the Lord and 
not to men ; -* seeing ye know that of the Lord ye shall receive 
the recomi)ense cf the inheritance. Serve ye the Lord Christ ; 
^ for the wrong-doer shall receive back that wliich he did wron;i- 
fully ; and there is no respect of persons. 


MaSTEHS, deal out unto your servants justice and equity ; seeing 
yo know that ye also have a Master in heaven. 

bands,' Auth. It should be] 

'It is iU,' Anth. ; 'it bilioucth,' Wicl., 
EJiem, ; ' it is comly,' Tynd., CovcrJ., 
Cran., Gen., Bish. ; ' it is due,' Coverd. 

19. Emhitlcred] ^ H'Mcr,' A>i(h. 
Toicards] So Coverd. (Test.), Rhem.; 
' nj^ainst,' Author., Wish. ; ' to,' Wicl. ; 
' luuo,' Tynd. and the rem.iining Vv. 

20. In the Lord] ' *UntO t)ic Lord,' 

21. ProvoLr] Auth., Coverd. (Test.), 
Cran., Grit., Dish, add ' to anger ' after 
'children.' Tliis seems unnecessary : 
as in present practice ' provoiic,' wlicn 
used absolutely, nearly always involves 
the notion of ' an^'cr ' or ' indijjnation.' 
Dishearten! d] ' Discouraged,' Author., 
Dish, lUiein. ; 'bo not made fcbil liert- 
cd,' Wicl. ; ' 1)0 of & desperate niynde,' 
Tynd., Cuv., Cranm. ; ' ware not feblc 
mynded,* Coreix/. (Test.) ; 'cast downe 
llieir harte,' Gen. 

22. Dund-seri>ants] ' Servants,' Auth., 
Wirl., Tynd., Gen., Dish., Ilhcm. ; ' ye 
servants,' Cov. (both), Cran. 

Act.<t of eyc.irrvice] ' Eycservicc,' Anth. 

and the other Vv. except Wicl., ' seru- 
ynge of the iye;' Cov. (Test.), lihem. 
('to the'). The Lord] 

'*God,' Auth. 

23. Whatever] ' ♦And whatsoever,' 
Author. From the heart] So 
lUinn. : * heartily,' Auth. and the remain- 
ing Vv. except Wicl., 'of wille.' 

To men] ' Unto men,' Auth. 

24. Seeinij ye know] Similarly Tynd., 
' for lus mochc as ye knowe : ' ' knowing,' 
Auth., Cov. (Test.), Gnt., Dish., W,em. : 
' wittyngc,' IT7f/. ,• ' and yc be sure,' 
Cov., Cran. (omits 'ye'). 
Recompense] ' Reward,' Author, and the 
other Vv. except Wicl., ' gildynge ' (giv- 
ing] ; Uhem., ' retribution.' 

Serve yc] * *For ye ser^■e,' Auth. 

25. For] • 'But,' Auth. 

The wronff-doer] ' He that docth wrong,' 
Aitth., Tynd., Cov., Gen., Dish. ; ' he that 
doeth injurio,' Wicl., Dhem. ; ' whoso 
doth wrongc, Coi-erd. (Test.); 'ho that 
doth sinno,' Cran. Rccein 

Uick] Sim. Wicl., C}v. (Test.), Rhem., 
' rcsceyue that, etc. : ' ' receive for the 
x\Tong which lie h.ith done," Auth. 



Chap. IV. 1-8. 

^ Persevere in your prayer, being watchful therein with thanks- 
giving ; ^ withal praying also for us, that God would open unto us 
a door of the word, to speak the mystery of Christ, for the sake of 
which I am also in bonds, ^ in order that I may make it manifest, as 
I ought to speak. ^ Walk in wisdom toward them which are without, 
buying up the time. ^ Let your speech be alway with grace, sea- . 
soned with salt, so that ye may know how ye ought to answer every 

" All my state shall Tychicus declare unto you, our beloved 
brother, and faithful minister, and fellow-servant in the Lord: 
^ whom I have sent unto you for this very purpose, that he may 

Chapter IV. 1 . Deal out] ' Give,' 
Auth., WicL, Gov. (Test.); 'do/ Tijnd. 
and the remaining A"v. 
Justice and equitij] ' Tluu which is just 
and equal,' Autli. and all the other Vv. 
( Cov. Test, omits ' which ') except Wicl., 
' that that is just and eiiene.' 
Seeing ye know] So Tijnd. : ' knowing,' 
Aulli., Gen., Bisli., Rheni. ; ' witynge,' 
Wicl. ; ' and knowe,' Coverd. ; ' beynge 
sure,' Cov. (Test.) ; 'and be sure,' Crun. 

2. Persevere in\ ' Continue in,' Auth. 
and the other Vv. except Wicl., * be ye 
bisie in ; ' Rhem., ' be instant.' 

Your prayer] ' In prayer,' Author, and 
all the other Vv. 

watchful] Sim. Coverd. (Test.), RJiem., 
' watching : ' ' and watcii,' Author, and 
the remaining Vv. except Wicl., 'and 
wake.' Therein] So Coverd. 

(Test.): 'in tlic same,' Auth. and tlie 
remaining Vv. except Wicl., Rhem., ' in 

3. Of the word] So Cov. (both), and 
sim. Wicl., ' of word : ' 'of utterance,' 
Author, and the remaining Vv. except 
Rhem., ' of speech.' For the 
sake of which] ' For which,' ^m<A., Wicl.; 
'wherfore,' Ti/nd., Cov., Cranm., Gen., 
Bish. ; ' for the whycbe thynge,' Coverd. 
(Test.) ; ' for the which,' Rhem. 

4. In order that] ' That,' Author, and 
all the other Vv. 

.5. Buying up] ' Redeeming,' Auth., 
Coverd. (Test.), Bish., Rhem. ; ' agenbi- 
ynge,' Wicl.; 'andredeme,' Tynd., Cov., 
Cranm., Genev. ; ' lose no opportunite,' 

6. So that] ' That,' Auth. and all the 
other Vv. The slight change is made 
to express distinctly the infin. of conse- 
quence, and to prevent ' that ' being re- 
garded as indicative of purpose, and as a 
translation of iVa with the subjunctive. 

7. Our beloved] So GVn., and similarly 
Rhemish, ' our dearest : ' 'a beloved,' 
Author. ; ' moost dere ' (no art.), Wicl. ; 
' the deare,' Tynd., Cov. ; ' the mooste 
deare,' Coverd. (Test); 'the beloved,' 
Cranm. ; ' a dearely beloued,' Bish. 
Faithful] So Wicl, Col: (botli), Cran., 
Bish., Rhem.; ' a faithful,' Auth., Tynd., 

8. Rave sent] So Auth. and tlie other 
Vv. except Wicl., Cov. ( Test. ), ' sent.' 
As Tychicus appears certainly to have 
been the bearer of this letter (compare 
notes on Phil. ii. 28, and on Philem. 2), 
the pres. ' send ' was adopted in ed. 1. 
Our English perfect, however, seems to 
be used idiomatically with a similar epis- 
tolary reference to present time, and may 
thus be left unchanged. 

This very] ' The same,' Auth. and the 
other Vv. except Wicl., Rhem., ' thia 
same;' Cov. (Test.), ' therfore.' 

CiiAP. IV. 9-13. 

C L O S S I A X S 


know your estate, and comfort your hearts ; ^ with Onesimus our 
faithful and beloved brother, who is one of you. They shall make 
known unto you all thin;is which are done here. 

^'^ Aristarchus my fellow -jirisoner saluteth you, and Mark, the 
cousin <jf Barnabas, touching; whom ye received commandments (if 
he come unto you receive him) ; '^ and Jesus, which is called Jus- 
tus, who are of the circumcision. These only are ivy fellow-workei-s 
unto the kingdom of God, men who have iiroved a comfort unto me. 
^ Epajthras, who is one of you, a servant of Christ Jesus, saluteth 
you, always striving eaniestly for you in his prayere, that ye may 
stand /(i^/, perfect and fully assured in all the will of God. ^^ For 
I bear him witness, that he hath much labor for you, and them that 

May] .' Might,' Author. Change to pre- 
serve tlie ' succe-ssion ' of tenses. 

9. Vur faithful] Sim. Cov. (Test.), 
' our niooste bcloucd and faythful : ' ' .a 
fiiithful,' Auth. and the remaining Vv. 
except Wicl., moost derc and feithful ; ' 
lihtm., ' the most dere and faithful.' 

Whirh are doue] So Author., except that 
in the more approved editions ' arc,' 
which is necessary for the construction, 
is in italics, wliile * done,' which is a 
mere exegctical insertion, is in the ordi- 
nary character. A hctter, hut now anti- 
quated, translation is that of Ti/nti., al., 
' wliich are adoyn;:e here.' 

10. Hark] So Wicl., Coverd. (Test).. 
Ixhtm. : ' Marcus,' Auth. and the remain- 
ing Vv. ; R-e notes on ch. i. 1. 
Thecousiinf] So W'irl., a\u\ ^\m. Rhem., 
* the cosin-gernian of:' 'sister's son to 
Barnabas,' Auth. and sim. Tyud. (' Bar- 
nab.nssis systers bonnc') and the other 
Vv It seems very doubiful wlicthcr 
this is to be considered a mi^take : it is 
not improbably an ardiaic mode of ex- 
pression, equivalent to the ' Geschwist- 
crkind,' of the Gemian. The following 
words are included by Auth. in a paren- 
thesis : tliis seems hardly correct ; see 

11. Xtcn trho halt proved] ' "Which 
have been,' Auth., Cranm., Dish., lUuiii. ; 

' that when,' Wicl. ; ' which were,' Tyiud., 
Cov., Gen.; ' which comforttd,' Covfrd. 

12. Christ Jtsus] ' ♦Clirist,' ^u^A. 
Striving earnestly] Sim. Marg., ' striv- 
ing : ' ' laboring fervently,' Autli., Bish., 
and sim. Tynd., Cov., Cranm., Gen., 
' lalioreth fervently ; ' ' bisie for you," 
Wicl. ; ' alwaye carefull,' Cor. (Test.), 
Rlicm. His prayers] Auth. 
omits ' his.' Standfast] 
' Stand,' Author, and all tlie other Vv. 
The addition of the epithet is useful as 
implying what really seems involved in 
tlie ffxiJTf , and as also leaving tiie second- 
ary predicates TtXtioi and wnrKrifo^. 
more imlejiendent and emphatic. 

Fully as.'iund] ' *Complete.' Auth. 

13. nV/His-s] Sim. Wirl., ' witness- 
yngc : ' ' reconl,' Auth. and the remain- 
ing Vv. except liliem., ' testimonie.' 
Much lalior] ' *A great zeal,' Auth. 
Hem that an-] So Auth., Cov. (Test.) ; 
the other Vv. vary : Wrl. inserts ' thai 
ben ' in Itoth clauses ; ' tJicni of L. and 
them of II.,' Tynd., Grn., Dish.: 'them 
at L. and at H.,' Coverd. ; ' iliat are 
of (in both clauses), Cranm.; ' that are 
in ' (in both clauses), Bish. ; ' U>at be ai 
L., and th.^ arc at H.,' lihrm. In this 
variety the translation of Cor. (Test.) 
and Auth. is, on the whole, most satis- 

274 COLOSSIANS. Chap. IV. 14-18. 

are in Laodicea, and them in Hierapolis. ^^ Luke, tlis beloved 
physician, saluteth you, and Demas. ^^ Salute the brethren that 
are in Laodicea, and Nymphas, and the church which is in his 
house. ^^ And when this epistle is read among you, cause that it 
be read also in the church of the Laodiceans ; and that ye likewise 
read the epistle from Laodicea. ^" And say to Archippus, Take 
heed to the ministry which thou receivedst in the Lord, that thou 
fulfil it. 

1^ The salutation by the hand of me Paul. Remember my 
BONDS. Grace be with you. 

factory; the insertion 'that are,' in the 13. That are\ So Wicl., Cov. (Test.), 

first clause, makes the meaning perfectly Rheni. : ' which are,' Auth. and the other 

clear, while its omission, in the second, Vv Change to preserve a uniform 

prevents the sentence being unduly heavy, translation with ver. 13. 

14. Saluteth you] So Coverd. (Test.), 17. Receivedst] ' Hast received,' J.!(fA. 

Rheni., and, in the same order, Tynd., and the other Vv. except WicL, 'hast 

Cov., Cranm., Gen., ' greteth : ' ' greet takun.' 

.you' (at the end of the verse), .4ui/ior., 18. With you] Auth. adds '*Amen.' 
Wicl., Bish. 

Tin: KJ'isTLi: to itiilkmun. 

T)AUL, a ])nsoner of Christ Jesus, and Timothy our brother, 
J. unto Philemon our dearly beloved and fellow-laborer, - and to 
Apj)hia our sister and to Archippus our fellow-soldier, and to the 
church in thy house : ^ grace he unto you, and jicace, from God 
our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. * I thank my God, always 
making mention of thee in my prayers, '^ hearing, as J do^ of tli j 
love and the faith, which thou hast toward the Lord, and Just t^hoic 
toward all the saints ; "^ that the conmiunication of thy faith may 
become effectual unto Christ Jesus in the knowledge of every good 

1. Beloved aud] ' Beloved, and etc.,' 
Aiith, Tlic comma should be removed, 
as iifiuv apparently belon;«! both to 07a- 
wifT(f and avvf(ry<p. 

2. Our sisl:r] ' *Our beloved Apphia,' 
Auth. To Arch.] So all the 
Vv. except Author, and Cui'erd. (Test.)i 
which omit the ' to.' 

3. Grace l>e unto t/o«] ' Grace to you,' 
Auth. The insertion of ' l>o ' with ' to ' 
or 'unto' is the form adopted by Auth. 
elsewhere in St. Paul's Epistles. 

4. Always makimj mention] So, in 
point of order, Rhem. The other Vv. 
differ in their mode of placing; the ad- 
verb : Author, places it after ' of thee ; ' 
Wicl. connectii it with the foregoing 
clause ; Ti/nd. and the remaining Vv. 
insert it directly after ' mention.' It 
eeems best to follow tlic onler of the 
Greek, and so to retain the slight empha- 
sis which the position implies. 

5. Hearing, as I do\ ' Hearing,' JkM., 

^^lcl., Coi-erd. (Test.), Dish., lihem. : 
' when I heare,' Tijnd., Cranm., Gen. ; 
' for so moch as I heare,' CoiTrd. Tlje 
pai-ticii>lo explains the circumstances 
wliich led to the prayer being offered. 
The faith] So Coverd. (Test.) : ' f.iith,' 
Auth. and the remaining Vv. 
Lord] ' Lonl •Jesus,' Auth. 
Dost show toirard] 'And toward,' Auth. 
and the other Vv. except IF/r/., ' and 
to ; ' Coc. (Te.<t.), ' and unto.* 
The saints] So Rhem. : ' saints,' Author. 
and the remaining Vv. except Wici., 
' holi men.' 

6 I'nlo Clirist Jesus] ' In Chr. Jesus,' 
Author., Wicl., Coverd. (Test.), Rhrm., 
and at the end of the verse. So, in point 
of order, Ti/nd., ' by Jesus Christ ; ' 
Cranm., Dish., ' towarde J. C. ; ' ' the 
good that ye have in J. C.,' Cor. ; Gen., 
with a transposed order, ' whatsocuer 
good thing is in you throughc Chrbl 
mav be knowen.' 


P II I L E J.I N . 


thing which is in us. '' For I had much joy and consolation in thy ■ 
love, because the hearts of the saints have been refreshed by thee, 

^ Wherefore, though I have much boldness in Christ to enjoin 
thee that which is becoming, ^ yet for love's sake I rather beseech 
thee. Being such an one as Paul the aged, and now also a pris- 
oner of Jesus Christ, '^^ I beseech thee for my own child Onesimus, 
whom I begat in my bonds ; ^^ Avhich in time past was to thee un- 
profitable, but now profitable to thee and to me ; ^ whom I have 
sent back to thee. But do thou receive him, that is, mine own 
bowels ; ^^ whom I was purposing to retain with mj^self, that in thy 
stead he might minister unto me in the bonds of the gospel : ^^ but 
without thine approval would I do nothing, that the good thou 

In the knowledge] Sim. WicL, ' in kiiow- 
inge; ' Coverd. (Test.), Cranm., Bish., 
' in the knowledge ; ' Rhem., ' in the ag- 
nition of:' 'by the acknowledging of/ 
Auth. ; ' thorow knowledge,' Ti/nd., Cor.; 
Genev. changes the construction ; see 
above. Us] ' *You,' Auth. 

7. I had] ' *We have,' Auth. 
Much] ' Great,' Auth. Hearts] 
So T'jnd., Cran., Gen.: ' bowels,' J.u^/i., 
Bish., Rhem. ; ' cntrailis,' WicL, Cov. 
(Test.); ' arc hertely refrcszhed,' Gov. 
Have been] 'Are,' Auth. and the other 
Vv. except WicL, ' rcstiden ; ' Covctd. 
(Test.), ' dyd reste ; ' RJicm., ' haue 

8. Have much boldness] Sim. WicL, 
' hauyng myche trist ; ' Rhem., ' hauing 
great confidence :' ' might be bold,' Auth., 
Cranm. ; ' be bold,' T//nd., d'en. ; ' have 
great boldnes,' Cov. ; ' I bcynge bold,' 
Cov. (Test.) ; ' be mnch bolde,' Bish. 
Enjoin thce\ So Auth., following Tjind. 
and Gen.; an archaism which it does 
not seem necessaiy to remove. 
Becoming] Sim. Tynd., Gov., Gen., 'that 
which becomcth the : ' ' convenient,' 
Auth., Bish. ; ' that that pcrtcyneth to 
profete,' WicL ; ' tiiat maketh matter,' 
Coverd. (Test.); 'that whidi was thy 
dewtye to do,' Cranmer ; ' that wliich 

perte3'neth to the purpose,' Rhem, 

9. Tliee] Auth. places a comma after 
' thee,' and a full stop at the end of the 
verse ; so very similarly all the other 
Vv. : Wicl. (' sithen thou art suche as, 
etc.') and Rhem. ('whereas thou art such 
an one, etc.') refer tlie toiovtos i>v to 

10. Own child] 'Son,' Auth. and all 
the other Vv. Begat] So 
TT7c/., Tijnd., Gen.: 'have begotten,' 
Auth. and the remaining Vv. 

12. Have sent] So Auth. and the other 
Vv. except Wicl, Coverd., 'sente:' see 
notes OH Col. iv. 8 (TransL), 

Back to thee] Author, omits ' *to thee.* 
But do, etc.] ' Thou therefore,' Auth. 

13. Was purposing to retain] 'Would 
have retained,' Auth., Rhem.; ' wooid 
with hoold,' Wicl, ; ' wolde fayne have 
retayncd,' Tijnd,, Cran,, Gen. ; ' wolde 
haue kcpte,' Cov. (both); 'would have 
fayne retayncd,' Bi.'ih. 

Mijself] ' Me,' Auth. and all the other 
Vv. flight minister] So 

Rhem.; 'might have ministered,' ylw^/(. 
and tlie remaining Vv. except WicL, 
' schuldc serve.' 

14. Thine approval] ' Thy mind,' Au- 
thor. and the other Vv. except WicL, 
Cov. (Test.), Rhem., 'couneeil.' 


I'll 1 LEMON 

doest shoulJ n^^t bo us it were of necessity, but willingly. ^ Fur 
ijerliajuS bo tlieivt'ire dej arteJ for a seas<Jii, that thou mi;^htc8t re- 
ceive bill! eternally ; ^^ nu Ionizer as a servant, but above a servant, 
a brotlier beloveil, s|ic'eially to me, Imt bow much more unUj liiee, 
both in the llesh, ami in the Lord '! '" If therefore thoii countcst 
me a jartucr, receive bim as myself. '® But if he hath wronged 
thee, or owctb fJue ou;ibt, this set down to my account ; ^ I Paul 
have written wilh mine own band, I will rejay it : tiiat 1 may not 
say to thee bow tliou owest unto me even thine own self besides: 
^ Yea, brother, may I reap profit from thee hi the Lord : refresh 
mv heart in Christ. 

The t/ood thou ilorst] Sim. Cur. (both : 
Cov. To ^, 'that thou, etc.'), Cnium., 
' tlic ^'ooil whiclic tlioii doest ; ' Ti/nd., 
' tluit ^'00(1 wIiiL'Ii s;)ri:igetli of ilie : ' 
'thy heiielit,' Aiitli., Gen, Dish.; 'thy 
good,' I]7f/., lUiciii. 

15. T/icrrfure] So Auth. and all tlie 
other Vv. ; and aI)p.^rently with pood 
reason, fur the more usual translation, 
' for this cause,' seems to fail in eonnect- 
in;^ the first and seeond memhors with 
sullieicnt closeness, unless einjiha>is is 
laid on 'this.' Mi)il,t,st] So 
Cor. (Test.), Rhcm.: ' shoiildest,' .Ih/A. 
and the remaining Vv. 

Ktintalli/] ' For ever,' Auilwr. and the 
other Vv. except Wiclif, ' withouten 

16. iVo Awr/fi] 'Not now,' Aut/i. am\ 
the other Vv. except Wi'cl., lllitm., ' now 

17. If till n fort] So ^'.;i., I^hnn., and 
siin. U7(7., ' tlierfor if:' Auth., Cranm., 
Cbi". (Test.), Jh'sh., ' if thou count mo 
iliercfore ; ' Cor. omits. As ovy has ap- 
parently here somewliat of an inferential 
tinge (see notes on Phil. ii. 2S), tlic 
translation ' therefore ' may he retained, 
and bo alloweil lierc to occiii\v tlie same 
position in the sintoncc as ovv in the 
Greek. Countist] So (icn., 
and similarly as to mood, Wirl., ' hast ;' 
Cov. (Test.), 'holdest:' 'count,' Aufh., 

Tynd., Cran., Dish. ; • holde me for,' 
Covird. ; 'take inc for,' /.7«m. On the 
jirojier u :e of the imlicaiivc and sulijunc- 
tive with ' if,' seo Latham, A''///. Lang. 
§ CI4 (ed. .3), and notes on 2 Thiss. iii. 
14 {Tritiist.). 

18. JJiit if] So Covrrd. (hoth) : 'if,' 
Author, ami tiio remaining Vv. except 
Will., ' for if; ' Ilhim., ' and if.' 

ILilh irroiiiifd\ So Auth., and in respect 
of the insertion of tlie ' hatli ' all the 
other Vv. This therefore may In; re- 
garded as ono of those cases in which 
our idiom rcquiri-s tlie auxiliary to Ihj 
inserted. If omitted, the event seems 
too removed hack into the pa--t : com- 
pare 1 ThtsK. ii. IG ( Trmisl.). 
This set ihnn, etr.] ' ^Tut that down on 
mine account,' Author.: ' arrettc thoa 
tliis tl'.ing to mo,' H'W. ; 'that lave to 
my charge,' 7'i/ud., Cor. { Cor. Test., 
' lay that '), Cnntin., (len., LWi. ; 'that 
impute to me,' niiem. It will l>c oh- 
servetl that six out of tlio nine Vv. re- 
tain the enjj)hatie positioa of the pro- 

19. Writtni] So Hhnn :' wriucn it,' 
Author, and the remaining Vv. except 
TI7c/ , ' wroot ; ' ticncr., /jisJi., 'written 
this.' Jlial I mn;/ ni4 fay\ 
VorA- sim. WicL, ' tliat I .<eic not;' ' al- 
l>cit, I do not say,' Author., (jrn., IJiiJi. ; 
' so that I do not save,' Tynd., Coperd 




'^^ Having confidence in tlij obedience I have written unto thee, 
knowing that thou wilt do even above what I say. ^ Moreover at 
the same time prepare me also a lodging : for I hope that through 
your prayers I shall be granted unto you. 

^ Epaphras, my fellow-prisoner in Christ Jesus, saluteth thee ; 
^ Marcus, Aristarchus, Demas, Lucas, my fellow-laborers. 
^ The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. 

(both), Cranmer ; 'not to say,' Rhem. 

20. May I reap profit from] 'Let me 
have joy of,' Auth. ; ' I schal use thee,' 
Wid. ; ' let me enjoye the,' Tjjnd., C'ov., 
Crart., Bish. ; ' thus shall I enjoye thee,' 
Coi (Test.); ' let me obteyne this fruit,' 
Gen. ; ' graunt I may enjoy thee,' Rhem. 
Heart] . So Cov. : ' bowels,' Aitthor. and 
the other Vv. except WicL, Cov. (Test.), 
'enti-vilis.' Christ] ' ^TheLord,' Aiith. 

21. Have tvrilten] So Coverd. (both), 
Rhem. ; ' wrote,' Auth. and the remain- 
ing Vv. Do even] ' Also 
do,' Auth., Cranm., Bish. ; ' aboue that 
also,' Rhem. ; the rest omit koI in trans- 
lation. Above what] Sim. 
Coverd. (Test.), ' above it that; ' Rhem., 

' above that also which : ' ' more than,' 
Auth. and the remaining Vv. except 
WicL, ' ouer that that I see.' 

22. Moreover at the same time] Sim. 
Ti/nd., Cov., Cranm., Gen., ' moreover 
prepare:' 'but withal,' Author.; 'also 
make thou redi,' Wicl. ; ' and make redy 
also,' Cov. (Test.); ' moreover prep, me 
also,' Bish. ; ' and withal,' Rhem. 
Granted] ' Given,' Awth. and the other 
Vv. except Cov. (Test.), 'restored.' 

23. Saluteth] Sim. as to number and 
position WicL, 'gretith;' Cov. (Test.), 
' saluteth the in Christ Jesus : ' ' there 
salute thee,' Auth. and the remaining 
Vv. except Cov., ' saluteth.' 

24. Spirit] Auth. adds * *Amen.* 




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1. A critical text, viz. the text of Tischcndorf's eighth or last edition. embod}-ing 
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liy •!. A. KuLiiKLT. D.D., Professor in Indiana University. IMuom- 
iugton, lud., based on the German of W. F. Gess. 1 :.'nio. pp. 4o6. 
Cloth, S2.00 

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