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Full text of "A critical and exegetical commentary on the book of Psalms"

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UNDER THE EDITORSHIP OF 

The Rev. SAMUEL ROLLES DRIVER, D.D., D.Litt., 

Regius Professor of Hebrew, Oxford; 

The Rev. ALFRED PLUMMER, M.A., D.D., 

Master of University College, Durham; 



The Rev. CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D., D.LriT., 

Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symbolics, 
Union Theological Seminary, New York. 



THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICAL COMMENTARY 



CRITICAL AND EXEGETICAL 
COMMENTARY 



ON 



THE BOOK OF PSALMS 



BY 
CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D., D.Litt. 

PROFESSOR OF THEOLOGICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA AND SYMBOLICS 
UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, NEW YORK 

AND 

EMILIE GRACE BRIGGS, B.D. 



(In Two Volumes) 
Vol. I. 



EDINBURGH 
T. & T. CLARK, 38 GEORGE STREET 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY 
MORRISON AND CIBB LIMITED 

FOR 

T & T. CLARK, EDINBURGH 

NKW YORK : CHARLES SCRIBNER's SONS 



MAY 16 1964 

First Edition .... ig 6 

Latest Reprint . . . . Ig e 



&0 

JOHN CROSBY BROWN 

AND 

D. WILLIS JAMES 

PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS 
OF 

THE UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

THIS WORK IS DEDICATED 
IN RECOGNITION OF THEIR EMINENT SERVICES TO THEOLOGICAL 
EDUCATION AND TO LIBERTY OF CHRISTIAN SCHOLAR- 
SHIP DURING THE THIRTY-THREE YEARS OF 
THE AUTHOR'S PROFESSORATE 



PREFACE 

This Commentary is the fruit of forty years of labour. In 
1867, when making special studies in Berlin with Dr. Emil 
Rodiger, I began a critical Commentary on the Psalms, the Ms. 
of which is still in my possession. In 1872 the translation of 
Moll's " Commentary on the Psalms " in Lange's Bibelwerk was 
published in the series edited by Philip Schaff. I translated 
and enlarged the Commentary on Pss. 1-41 51-72 with twenty- 
five per cent additional matter, and edited the Introduction 
with additional notes. In 1874 I began teaching as professor 
of Hebrew and cognate languages in Union Theological Semi- 
nary, and lectured on the Psalms every year until 1890 when 
I became Edward Robinson Professor of Biblical Theology, in 
which position I continued to lecture on the Criticism and The- 
ology of the Psalter until 1904, when I was transferred to my 
present chair. In the plan of the International Critical Com- 
mentary I undertook the volumes on the Psalms, and have 
been at work upon them ever since. In addition to my work on 
the theological terms of the new edition of Robinson's Gesenius' 
Hebrezv Lexicon, BDB., I have made a complete lexicon to the 
Psalter, based on a revised Hebrew text, which I hope ere long 
to publish. I have spared no pains upon the text of the Psalter, 
not only in the study of the Versions, but also in the detection 
and elimination of the glosses in the search for the original texts 
as they came from their authors. The Theology of the Psalter 
has been carefully investigated ; only the limits of space pre- 
vent me from giving it in this volume. 

I have made a careful study of the chief commentaries and 
have referred to them so far as practicable in the notes, but the 
most that could be done was to distribute credit to my predeces- 
sors in fair proportions. The amount of literature is so vast 
that no other course was possible. The Commentary will show 



Vlii PREFACE 

that Roman Catholic Commentators have rendered valuable ser- 
vice which has been too often neglected by modern Protestants ; 
and that the older British interpreters are the real fathers of 
much of the material for which modern Germans usually receive 
the credit. For more than thirty years I have given much atten- 
tion to Hebrew poetry. For a long time I had to battle for it 
alone against unreasoning prejudice. I have lived to see a 
large proportion of American scholars adopt essentially the views 
which I represent. All of the Psalms have been arranged in 
this Commentary in measured lines, and the great majority of 
them in equal strophes. Their literary character has thereby 
been greatly improved and their historical propriety become 
more evident. The translations are based on the English offi- 
cial Versions, but whenever important I have not hesitated to 
forsake them in order to conform to that original which I have 
determined by the principles of textual criticism. I have not 
attempted to give a Version for public or private use, but simply 
one to set forth the original text as I have determined it. 
A public Version, in my opinion, should be less pedantic and 
literal than the Revised Version, and not so slavish in its adhe- 
rence to the Massoretic text. In this respect the older Versions, 
especially the Version of the Book of Common Prayer, is to be 
preferred ; for while it is less accurate than the later Versions, 
it preserves many readings of the Greek and Vulgate Versions 
which later English Versions unwisely rejected, and it is con- 
cerned to give the sense of the original in rhythmical devotional 
language well suited to the character of a book of prayer and 
praise. 

The results which have been reached in Textual Criticism, 
Higher Criticism, Hebrew Poetry, Historical Criticism, Biblical 
Theology, and Interpretation of the Psalter have not been stated 
without long and careful consideration. If I could spend more 
years in preparation, doubtless I would do much better work. 
But there is a limit to all things, and I cannot longer withhold 
my Commentary from the press. Whatever is true and sound 
in this work will endure, whatever is mistaken and unsound will 
soon be detected and will perish. I would not have it otherwise. 

The Psalms are among the most wonderful products of human 



PREFACE IX 

genius. No other writings but the Gospels can compare with 
them in grandeur and importance. The Gospels are greater 
because they set forth the life and character of our Lord and 
Saviour. The Psalter expresses the religious experience of a 
devout people through centuries of communion with God. 
I cannot explain either Gospels or Psalms except as Books of 
God, as products of human religious experience, inspired and 
guided by the Divine Spirit. 

I could not have completed these volumes without the help 
of my daughter, Emilie Grace Briggs, B.D., who has laboured 
with me on the Hebrew Lexicon and in the preparation of this 
Commentary. It is simple justice to add her name to mine on 
the title-page. I have dedicated these volumes to John Crosby 
Brown, Esq., and D. Willis James, Esq., who have for more 
than the thirty-three years of my professorship served Union 
Seminary on its Board of Directors. Their services to Theolog- 
ical Education and especially to the liberty of theological scholar- 
ship cannot be too highly estimated. 

C. A. BRIGGS. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

ABBREVIATIONS xiii 

INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK OF PSALMS . . . xix 

§ i . The Names of the Book of Psalms xix 

A. The Text 

§ 2. The Text of Hebrew Mss xxii 

§ 3. The Massora xxiii 

§ 4. Printed Editions xxiv 

§ 5. The Septuagint xxv 

§ 6. Other Greek Versions xxix 

§ 7. The Syriac Peshitto xxx 

§ 8. Version of Jerome ""xxi 

§ 9. The Targum xxxii 

§ 10. The Original Text xxxiii 

§11. Psalms with Double Texts xxxiv 

§12. Poetry of the Psalter xxxiv 

§ 13. Psalms Divided xlviii 

§ 14. Psalms Composite . xlix 

§ 15. Textual Glosses . . xlix 

§ 16. Textual Errors . . li 

§ 17. Editorial Glosses . lii 



B. Higher Criticism 

§18. Ancient Jewish Opinions of the Psalms 

§ 19. References in the New Testament 

§ 20. Traditions in the Church .... 

§21. Opinions of Times of the Reformation 

§ 22. Modern Critical Theories .... 

§ 23. Higher Criticism of the Psalms . 

§ 24. Ancient Songs 

§ 25. The Miktamim 

xi 



liv 

lv 

lvi 

lvi 

lvii 

lvii 

lix 

Ix 



Xll 



CONTENTS 



§ 26. The Maskilim 

§ 27. Psalter of David . 

§ 28. Psalter of the Korahites 

§ 29. Psalter of Asaph . 

§ 30. Pseudonyms 

§ 31. The Mizmorim . 

§ 32. Psalter of the Elohist . 

§ 33. Psalter of the Director 

§ 34. Musical Directions 

§ 35- The Ilallels 

§ 36. The Pilgrim Psalter . 

§37. Orphan Psalms . 

§ 38. The Final Psalter 

§ 39. Liturgical Assignments 

§ 40. Doxologies . 

§41. Selah .... 

§ 42. Numbering of Psalms and Books 

§43. Evolution of the Psalter 



PAGE 

lxi 
lxii 
lxv 
lxvi 
Ixvii 
lxviii 
lxix 
Ixxii 
lxxv 
lxxviii 
lxxix 
lxxx 
lxxxi 
lxxxii 
lxxxiii 
lxxxiv 
lxxxviii 
lxxxix 



C. Canon icity 

§ 44- Canonical Recognition of the Psalter xciii 

§ 45- Religious Contents of the Psalter xciv 

§ 46. Objections to Canonicity Answered xcvii 

D. Interpretation 

§ 47. Of Jesus and His Apostles ci 

§ 48. Of the Catholic and Greek Fathers cii 

§ 49. Of the Latin Fathers 

§ 50. Of the Middle Ages 

§51. Of Mediaeval Jewish Scholars cv 

§52. Of the Period of the Reformation cvi 

§ 53- Of the Seventeenth Century ...... C vii 

§54- Of the Eighteenth Century cvii 

§55. Of the Nineteenth Century cviii 

§ 56. English Versions ciy 

COMMEXTARY. Pss. I-L o ,_ 422 



ABBREVIATIONS, 



I. Texts and Versions. 



& = The Psalter of Asaph. 

Aid = Aldine text of (g. 

Aq. = Version of Aquila. 

AV. = Authorized Version. 



BD. = Baer & Delitzsch, Heb. text. 

Chr. 

Comp. 



The Chronicler, author of 

Ch. Ezr. Ne. 
Complutensian text. 



IB = The Psalter of David. 

D. = The Deuteronomist in Dt.,in 

other books Deuteronomic 
author or Redactor. 
©H = The Psalter of the Director. 

5E = The Elohistic Psalter. 

EV S . = English Versions. 

E. = Ephraemitic sources of Hex- 

ateuch. 

(3 = Greek Septuagint Version. 

(g B = The Vatican text of Swete. 

(3 v = The Alexandrine text. 

<gi - ; = The Sinaitic text. 

(g R = Psalterium Graeco-Latinum 

Veronense. 
(H T = Psalterium Turicense. 
<J5 U = Fragmenta papyrocea Lon- 

donensia. 
(gA. =r Leipziger Papyrusfragmente. 



^ = Hebrew consonantal text. 

H. = Code of Holiness of the 

Hexateuch. 
H P. = Texts of Holmes and Parsons. 
Hex. = The Hexateuch. 

3 = Latin Version of Jerome. 

J. = Judaic sources of the Hexa- 

teuch. 

JPSV. = Jewish Publication Society 
Version. 

£t = The Korahite Tsalter. 

Kt. = K e thib, the Hebrew te t as 
written. 

% = Old Latin Version. 

£ff = The Psalter of the Mizmorim. 

Mas. = Masora. 

MT. = The Massoretic pointed text 

NT. = The New Testament. 
OT. = The Old Testament. 

P. = The priestly sources of the 

Hexateuch. 

PBV. = Version of the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer, 

Qr. = Q e re, the Hebrew text as 
read. 



XIV 



ABBREVIATIONS 



R. = The Redactor, or editor. 

RV. = The Revised Version. 
RV. m = The margin of the Revised 
Version. 

& = The Syriac Peshitto Version. 

2 = The Version of Symmachus. 

& = The Targum or Aramaic 

Version. 



H = The Vulgate Version. 

Vrss. = Versions, usually ancient 

WL = The Wisdom Literature 
of the OT. 

= TheVersionof Theodotian. 

\j/ = The Psalter in its present 

form. 



II. Books of the Old and New Testaments. 



Am. 


= Amos. 




Jb. 
Je. 


= Job. 

= Jeremiah. 


BS. 


= Ecclesiasticus of Ben Sira. 


Jn. 


= John. 








Jo. 


= Joel. 


i, 2Ch. 


= 1,2 Chronicles. 




Jon. 


= Jonah. 


Col. 


= Colossians. 




Jos. 


= Joshua. 


i, 2 Cor 


.= I, 2 Corinthians. 




Ju. 


= Judges. 


Ct 


= Canticles = The 


Song of 








Songs. 




I,2K. 


= I, 2 Kings. 


Dn. 


= Daniel. 




La. 


= Lamentations. 


Dt. 


= Deuteronomy. 




Lk. 
Lv. 


= Luke. 
= Leviticus. 


Ec. 


= Ecclesiastes. 




Mai. 


= Malachi. 


Eph. 


= Ephesians. 




i, 2 Mac 


.= 1,2 Maccabees. 


Est. 


= Esther. 




Mi. 


= Micah. 


Ex. 


= Exodus. 




Mk. 


= Mark. 


Ez. 


= Ezekiel. 




Mt. 


= Matthew. 


Ezr. 


= Ezra. 




Na. 


= Nahum. 


Gal. 


= Galatians. 




Ne. 


= Nehemiah. 


Gn. 


= Genesis. 




Nu. 


= Numbers. 


Hb. 


= Habakkuk. 




Ob. 


= Obadiah. 


lleb. 
Hg. 


= Hebrews. 
= Haggai. 




Phil. 
Pr. 


= Philippians. 
= Proverbs. 


Ho. 


= Hosea. 




Ps. 


= Psalms. 


Is. 


= early parts of Isaiah. 


Rev. 


= Revelation. 


IS.2 


= exilic parts of Isaiah, 


Rom. 


= Romans. 


IS.8 


= postexilic parts of Isaiah. 


Ru. 


= Ruth. 



I, 2S. 

I, 2 Thes. 
I, 2 Tim. 



AUTHORS AND WRITINGS 
I, 2 Samuel. 



XV 



= i, 2 Thessalonians. 
= i, 2 Timothy. 



Zc. = Zechariah. 

Zp. = Zephaniah. 

Wisd. = Wisdom of Solomon. 



III. Authors and Writings. 



AE. 


= Aben Ezra. 


DB. 


= Hastings's Dictionary 


Ains. 


= Ainsworth. 




of the Bible. 


Aug. 


= Augustine. 


De. 


= Franz Delitzsch. 






DeR. 


= De Rossi. 


Ba. 


=: F. Baethgen. 


De W. 


= De Wette. 


BDB. 


= Hebrew and English 


Dr. 


= S. R. Driver, Parallel 




Lexicon of the OT., 




Psalter. 




edited by F. Brown, 


Dr. 


= Heb. Tenses. 




S. R. Driver, C. A. 


Dr. Intr 


= Introduction to Litera- 




Briggs. The editor 




ture of OT. 




specially referred to is 


Dru. 


= Drusius. 




designated by 2?DB. 


Du. 


= B. Duhm. 




F. Brown, BDB. S. R. 


Dy. 


= J. Dyserinck. 


Bar Heb. 


Driver. 

= Bar Hebraeus. 


EB. 

Ehr. 


= Encyclopaedia Biblica. 
= Ehrlich. 


Be. 


= G. Beer. 






Bi. 


= G. Bickell. 


Eph. Syr. 


= Ephraem Syrus. 






Ew. 


= H. Ewald. 


Bo. 


= F. Bottcher. 


Ew.8 


= his Lehrb. der Heb,. 


B6.§ 


= his Lehrb. der Heb. 








Sprache. 




Sprache. 


Br. 


= C. A. Briggs. 


Fu. 


= J. Fiirst. 


Br.MP 


= Messianic Prophecy. 






Br.MG 


= Messiah of the Gospels. 


Genebr. 


= Genebradus. 


Br. M A 


= Messiah of the Apostles. 


Ges. 


= Gesenius, Thesaurus. 


Br. SH S 


= Study of Holy Scripture. 


Ges.i 


= his Heb. Gram. ed. 


B r Hex 


= Higher Criticism of the 




Kautzsch. 




Hexateuch. 


Ges. L 


= his Lehrgebaude. 


Bu. 


= F. Buhl. 


Gi. 


— Ginsburg. 


Bud. 


= K. Budde. 


Gr. 


= Gratz. 


Bux. 


= Buxtorf. 


Grot. 


= Grotius. 


Calv. 


= John Calvin. 


Hengst. 


= Hengstenberg. 


Cap. 


= Cappellus. 


Hi. 


= F. Hitzig. 


Che. 


= T. K. Cheyne. 


Houb. 


= C. F. Houbigant. 


ChWB. 


= Levy, Chald. Worter- 


Hu. 


= H. Hupfeld, Psalmen. 




buch. 


Hu.R* 


— Psalmen 2 ed. Riehm. 


Co. 


- C. H. Cornill. 


Hu. 8 


= Psalmen 3 ed. Nowack. 



XVI 



ABBREVIATIONS 



JBL. 


= Journal of Biblical Lit- 


Ra. 


= Rashi. 




erature. 


Reu. 


= Ed. Reuss. 


JE. 


= Jewish Encyclopaedia. 


Ri. 


= E. Riehm. 


Jer. 


= Jerome. 


Ri.-H^ = Riehm's Handw'brtcrbuch. 


Jos. 


= Fl. Josephus. 


R6. 


= E. Rodiger. 


JQR. 


= Jewish Quarterly Re- 


Rob. 


= E. Robinson, Biblical Re- 




view. 




searches. 






Ros. 


= Rosenmiiller. 


Kau. 


= E. Kautzsch. 


RS. 


= W. Robertson Smith. 


Kenn. 


= B. Kennicott. 






Ki. 


= Daniel Kimchi (Qam- 


Siev. 


= E. Sievers. 




chi). 


Sin. 


= R. Smend. 


Kirk. 


= A. F. Kirkpatrick. 


SS. 


= Siegfried and Stade, Heb. 


Ko. 


= F. E. Konig. 




Worterbuch, 


Kue. 


= A. Kuenen. 


Sta. 


= B. Stade. 


Lag. 


= P. de Lagarde. 


Talm. 


— The Talmud. 


Lag.™ 


= his Bilditng der No- 


Tisch. 


= C. Tischendorf. 




mina. 


Tr. 


= Tristram, Natural History of 


Luz. 


= S. D. Luzzato. 




the Bible. 


Mich. 


= J. D. Michaelis. 


We. 


= J. Wellhausen. 


Mish. 


= The Mishna. 


We.^ 


= his Skizzen und Vorarbeiien. 


NHWB. 


— Levy, Neuhebr. Wor- 


ZAW. 


- Zeitschrift f. alttest. IVis- 




terbuch. 




senschaft. 






ZMG. 


= Z. d. deutsch. Morgenland. 


Ols. 


= J. Olshausen. 




Gesellschaft. 






ZPV. 


= Z. d. deutsch. Pal. Vcreins. 


Pe. 


= J. J. S. Perowne. 







IV. General, especially Grammatical. 



abr. 


= abbreviation. 


a.X. 


= aira£ XeyS/xevov, word or phr 


abs. 


= absolute. 




used once. 


abstr. 


= abstract. 


al. 


= et aliter, and elsw. 


ace. 


= accusative. 


alw. 


= always. 


ace. cog. 


= cognate uc'j. 


antith. 


~ anthesis, antithetical. 


ace. pers. 


= ace. of person. 


apod. 


= apodosis. 


ace. rei 


= ace. of thing. 


Ar. 


= Arabic. 


ace. to 


= according to. 


Aram. 


= Aramaic. 


act. 


= active. 


art. 


= article. 


adj. 


= adjective. 


As. 


= Assyrian. 


adv. 


= adverb. 







GENERAL, ESPECIALLY GRAMMATICAL 



XV11 



Bab. 


= Babylonian. 


impf. 


= imperfect. 


B. Aram. 


= Biblical Aramaic. 


imv. 


— imperative. 






indef. 


= indefinite. 


c. 


s= circa, about ; also cum, 


inf. 


— infinitive. 




with. 


i.p. 


= in pause. 


caus. 


= causative 


M 


. : id quod, the same with. 


cf. 


= confer, compare. 


intrans. 


-- intransitive. 


cod., codd 


. = codex, codices. 






cog. 


= cognate. 


juss. 


= jussive. 


coll. 


= collective. 






comm. 


= commentaries. 


lit. 


= literal, literally. 


comp. 


= compare. 


loc. 


— local, locality. 


concr. 


= concrete. 






conj. 


= conjunction. 


m. 


= masculine. 


consec. 


= consecutive. 


metaph. 


= metaphor, metaphorical. 


contr. 


= contract, contracted. 


mng. 


= meaning. 


cstr. 


= construct. 


mpl. 


= masculine plural. 






ms. 


= masculine singular. 


d.f. 


= dagesh forte. 






def. 


= defective. 


n. 


= noun. 


del. 


= dele, strike out. 


n. p. 


= proper name. 


dittog. 


= dittography. 


n. pr. loc. 


= proper noun of place. 


dub. 


= dubious, doubtful. 


n. unit. 


= noun of unity. 






NH. 


= New Hebrew. 


elsw. 


= elsewhere. 


Niph. 


= Niphal of verb. 


emph. 


= emphasis, emphatic. 






esp. 


= especially. 


obj. 


= object. 


Eth. 


= Ethiopic. 


opp. 


= opposite, as opposed to 


exc. 


= except. 




or contrasted with. 


exil. 


= exilic. 










P- 


= person. 


f. 


= feminine. 


parall. 


= parallel with. 


fig. 


= figurative. 


part. 


= particle. 


fpl. 


= feminine plural. 


pass. 


= passive. 


fr. 


s= from. 


Pf. 


= perfect. 


freq. 


= frequentative. 


Ph. 


= Phoenician. 


fs. 


= feminine singular. 


phr. 


= phrase. 






Pi. 


= Piel of verb. 


gent. 


= gentilic. 


pi. 


= plural. 


gl. 


= gloss, glossator. 


post B. 


= post Biblical. 






postex. 


= postexilic. 


haplog. 


= haplography. 


pred. 


= predicate. 


Heb. 


= Hebrew. 


preex. 


= preexilic. 


Hiph. 


= Hiphil of verb. 


preg. 


= pregnant. 


Hithp. 


= Hithpael of verb. 


prep. 


= preposition. 



XV111 



ABBREVIATIONS 



prob. 


= probable. 


str. 


= strophe. 


pron. 


= pronoun. 


subj. 


= subject. 


ptc. 


=s participle. 


subst. 


= substantive. 


Pu. 


= Pual of verb. 


s.v. 


= sub voce. 






syn. 


= synonymous. 


qu. 


= question. 


synth. 


= synthetic. 


q.v. 


= quod vide. 


Syr. 


= Syriac. 


Rf. 


= refrain. 


t. 


= times (following a num- 


rd. 


= read. 




ber). 


refl. 


= reflexive. 


tr. 


= transfer. 


rel. 


= relative. 


trans. 


= transitive. 






txt. 


= text. 


sf. 


= suffix. 


txt. err. 


= textual error. 


sg- 


= singular. 






si vera 


= si vera lectio. 


v. 


= verse. 


sim. 


= simile. 


V. 


= vide, see. 


sq. 


= followed by. 


vb. 


= verb. 


St. 


= status, state, stative. 







V. Other Signs. 



t prefixed indicates all passages 

cited. 
X prefixed indicates all passages in 

^ cited. 
II parallel, of words or clauses chiefly 

synonymous. 
= equivalent, equals. 
+ plus denotes that other passages 

might be cited. 
[ ] indicates that the form enclosed 



is not in the Hebrew, so far as 

known. 
y/= the root, or stem. 
' = sign of abbreviation in Hebrew 

words. 
'" = Yahweh. 
( ) Indicates that Massoretic text 

has not been followed, but 

either Vrss. or conjectural 

emendations. 



VI. Remarks. 



Biblical passages are cited according to the verses of the Hebrew text. 

Numerals raised above the line (i) after numerals designating chapters 
indicate verses (Gn. 6 3 ) ; (2) after numerals designating lines of strophe 
indicate measures (2 Str. 6 4 ); (3) after proper names refer to sections of 
grammars or pages of books (Ges.§ 42 ). 

Proper names usually refer to works upon the Psalter given in the History 
of Interpretation. * 

In notes numbers in italics (Ps. / 2 ) indicate passages in which the word has 
been fully discussed. 



INTRODUCTION. 



§ 1. The Psalter belongs to the third division of the Hebrew 
Canon, entitled Hymns or Prayers, from its chief contents. The 
Greek Version named it Psalms from the most frequent sub-title, 
and in this has been followed by other Versions. 

The Hebrew OT. consists of three divisions, the Law, the 
Prophets, and the Writings, representing three layers of successive 
canonical recognition. The Writings were of indefinite extent 
until their limits were defined by the Synod of Jamnia. Prior to 
that time there were disputes as to several of the Writings, such 
as Chronicles, Song of Songs, and Ecclesiastes ; but, so far as we 
are able to discover, there never was any dispute as to the canon- 
icity of the Psalter as a whole, or as to any one of the Psalms. 
In the Greek Septuagint ((3) these divisions of the Canon were 
broken up and the books were rearranged on topical principles. 
The Apocrypha were mingled with the books of the Hebrew 
Canon, doubtless from a wider and looser view of its character 
and extent (Br. SHS U4 " M0 ). EV 8 . follow the order of the books 
of the Latin Vulgate (U) of the sixteenth century, which was 
based on (3, but with several important differences. This order 
for the three great poetical books is Job, Psalter, Proverbs. 

The most ancient order of the Writings, preserved in Literature, is that of 
the Baba Bathra of the Talmud (f. 14 6 ), which placed Ruth first, because 
of the theory that it gave the genealogy of David, and therefore should 
precede the Psalms of David (v. Br. SHS252 ). The modern Hebrew Bibles 
follow the order of the German codd., which, though of comparatively late 
date, doubtless preserve the original order in putting the Psalter (1//) first. 
The breaking up of the triple division of the Canon in (g, followed by other 
Vrss. ancient and modern, occasioned various other rearrangements of the 
books in accordance with different theories about them. The books which 
were supposed to be historical, Ch., Ezr., Ne., and Est., were arranged with 



XX INTRODUCTION 

the prophetic histories. Ruth was attached to Judges. These all therefore 
preceded \f/. The three great poetical books, which in the German codd. are 
in the natural order, \f/, Pr., Jb., were given in H in the order Jb., \f/, Pr., in 
accordance with a mistaken theory as to their historical order of composition. 
La. was attached to Je., in accordance with a theory as to date, authorship, 
or character of the composition. Thus, of the five rolls which in the Hebrew 
Canon belonged together, only Ec. and Ct. were left to follow Pr. The most 
serious change, however, was the placing of the three greater poetical books 
and these two rolls in the middle, between the Historical and the Prophetical 
Books. 

In the Hebrew Canon the Psalter bears the title Praises, or Book 
of Praises, because of the conception that it was essentially a col- 
lection of songs of praise, or hymn book, to be used in the worship 
of God ; or else Prayers, because it was a collection of prayers, a 
prayer book. In (3 it is entitled Psalms, doubtless because the 
word "psalm " was in the titles of such a large proportion of the 
poems. In early Greek writers it received the name Psalter, 
which seems a more appropriate name for a collection of Pss. 
for use in public worship. 

(A) The Hebrew title was either o^?r\ or O'Snn -ibd N.H. or pSnn Aramaic 
for the proper Hebrew nlSnr, pi. of n^nn n.f. a song of praise, formed by n from 
SSn vb. praise in sacred song. The nucleus of the Pss. 90-150 is composed 
of Ilallels, with the title rmV?n, originally a collection of songs of praise or 
hymns (v. § 35). Only Ps. 145 has the title nS"ir. This title of \p appears 
in a writing ascribed to Hippolytus (ed. Lagarde, p. 188) as 2<?0pa 0e\eln 
(cf. the gloss <re<f>p ddeWifj. in Mercati's Un Palimpsesto Ambrosiano dei 
Salmi Esap/i, Turin, 1898); in Origen (Euseb. Hist. Eccl. VI. 25, ed. Mc- 
Giffert) 20ap0e\\ei / u ; and Jerome {Psalterum iuxta Hebraeos, ed. Lagarde, 
p. 2) sephar tallim, quod inter pretatur volumen hymnorum. So also Philo 
always uses the term \\xvoi or one of its compounds in his citation of Pss. 
(Hatch, Essays in Biblical Greek, p. 174), and in the De vita contempt. (II. 
475), an early writing attributed to Philo {v. Br. 8IIS - x - 6 ), the same usage ap- 
pears. Josephus (Anliq. VII. 12) refers to the psalms as songs and hymns 
{v. § 12). 

(/?) [^Sn] vb. Qal only in mng. be boastful, which also appears in Pi. and 
Hiph. make one's boast (v. j 6 56 s - n ). Pi. Upraise: (i) obj. God 63 s 69^ 
119 175 ; c. Sr, on account of, 119 164 ; in summons I48 1 - 1 - 13 ; often of public 
worship in holy place 22 23 - 27 84 s 107 32 146 12 ; || rp">M 35 18 109 30 ; c. 2 instr. 
149 3 ; (2) obj. ov, of God 69 31 74 21 113 11 I35 1 - 1 145 2 148 5 . Imv. used of 
temple worship 22 24 , cf. v. 23 - 25 , 1 tjo 2 - 2 - 8 - 8 - 4 4 - 5 - 5 , in summons to angels and 
all creatures I48 2 - 2 - 3 - 8 - 4 - 7 ISO 1 * 1 ; addressed to all nations 117 1 ; to Zion 



NAMES OF THE BOOK OF PSALMS xxi 

147 12 . Liturgical use: rwSSn 135 3 ; elsw. as titles of Hallels, at the begin- 
ning 106 1 in 1 112 1 113 1 135 1 146 1 147 1 148 1 149 1 150 1 ; at the end 104 35 
105 45 106 48 113 9 115 18 Ii6 19 117 2 135 21 146 10 147 20 148 14 149 9 150 6 ; in other 
forms 102 19 115 1 " 150 6 . Pu. be praised : (1) maidens in song 78 s3 ; (2) elsw. 
of God, in ptc. with gerundive force, to be praised, worthy of praise, 18 4 
(= 2 S. 22 4 ) 4 8' 2 96* (= 1 Ch. 16 25 ) 145 3 ; of His name 113 3 . — $ nWi n.f. 

(1) praise, adoration, paid to Yahweh, 22 4 34 s 48 n 51 17 716.8.14 I09 i I];i io 
119 171 145 21 ; as sung 40 4 106 12 , cf. 33 1 148 14 (?); (2) act of general public 
praise 22 26 65 2 66 2 - 8 ioo 4 147 1 149 1 , cf, also 22 4 33 1 106 1 * 2 ; (3) song of praise 
in title 145 1 ; (4) qualities, deeds, etc., of Yahweh demanding praise 9 15 35 s8 
78 4 79 13 102 22 io6 2 - 47 . 

( C) The term niSpn is used in Ps. 72 20 as a sub-title of the Davidic Psalter 
(v. § 27). % n^n n.f. prayer, is used in the titles of Pss. 17, 86, 90, 102, 142, 
and also lib. 3 1 . In all these cases it was original before the Pss. were taken 
up into any of the Psalters. nSon is used elsw. in \js for prayer 35 13 66 20 80 5 
88 14 102 18 io9 4 - 7 141 5 , c. ■? 42 s 69 14 , ^jflS 88 3 141 2 . Phrs. for hearing prayer: 
c. yr.v 4 2 39 13 54 4 65 s 84 s 102 2 143 1 ; aiffpn 61 2 66 19 ; runun 17 1 55 s 86 6 ; npS 
6 10 , Sn hjd 102 18 . The vb. J [?Vi>] is not used in Qal. It prob. had the fun- 
damental mng. intervene, interpose, and accordingly the derivatives, arbitrate, 
judge, not used in \f/ ; and intercede, pray, Pi. io6 3) , Hithp. c. ^n 5 s 32 s , "ipa 
72 15 . The term n^cn was indeed the most appropriate title for 13, as the 
great majority of its psalms are prayers. But the term nSnn ultimately pre- 
vailed among the Hebrews as among Christians; for prayers when sung in 
worship naturally are regarded as hymns. Thus, in place of nV?cn 72 20 of 
Hebrew text © has iixvoi, so Ttf laudes, showing that at the date of the origin 
of (3 the conception of the Psalms as hymns had already, among Hellenistic 
Jews, displaced the older conception. Gr. does not hesitate to regard <S as 
giving the original text. £J> omits the passage as an editorial note. But Aq., 
2, 0, 3, agree with |^, which certainly gives the true reading. 

(D) In <3, \p bore the title ypaX/xoi, pi. \f/a\fj.6s, so Lk. 24 44 , or Book of 
Psalms Lk. 20 42 Acts I 20 ; \J/a\iJ.6s is the translation of "flDTt; used in the titles 
of fifty-seven Pss. in ffy, a n. formed by d from [ict] vb. denom. [*VDT] n.m. 
song or poem, with trimmed, measured words and ornate style, from f ID? vb. 
trim, prune. Qal Lv. 25 s4 . Niph. Is. 5 6 . f "VCT sg. cstr. Is. 25 s , elsw. pi. 
2 S. 23 1 Is. 24 1G Jb. 35 10 Pss. 95 2 119 54 . t n 7?t n -f- idem, accompanied with 
instrumental music Am. 5 s3 Pss. 81 3 98 s ; prob. also, though not mentioned, 
Ex. 15 2 Is. 12 2 51 3 Ps. 118 14 . t[iDT] denom. vb. only Pi.: (i) sing, c. u , 
to God 9 12 27 s 30 5 66 4 71 23 75 10 101 1 104 33 105 2 146 2 Ju. 5 3 . zv^ Pss. 18 50 92 s 
135 3 ; c. Sn 59 18 ; c. ace. sfs. 30 13 57 10 (?) 108 4 (?) 138 1 ; c. ace. God 68 83 147 1 
Is. 12 5 ; dv Pss. 7 18 9 3 61 9 66 2 - 4 68 5 ; -p-vm 21 14 ; Swd 47 s ; abs. 57 s 98 4 108 2 ; 

(2) play, musical instruments 33 s 47 7 - 7 - 7 - 7 71 22 98 5 147 7 149 3 , cf. 144 9 . "YiETD 
is a more technical form for n>cr, mcr, and indicates a poem with measured 
lines and strophes, selected for public worship. It seems probable that all 
these annrn were gathered in an early collection for this purpose (v. § 31). 
The title of this early Psalter subsequently became the title of the whole 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

Psalter. The term of <S has been followed by most Vrss. In @ A the title 
\pa\Trjpiov appears; also in Hippolytus, Athanasius, Epiphanius, and other 
Fathers. On the whole, this seems to be the most appropriate title. Hb. 4 7 
£p AavLd seems to be a title of the Psalter, reflecting the popular usage as 
reflected elsw. in NT. and in ancient and modern usage as a popular personi- 
fication of the book that bears his name. Here, again, the early Psalter of 
David gave the name to the entire collection of the Psalter. 

A. THE TEXT OF THE PSALTER. 

§ 2. The original text of the Psalter was written in the Hebrew 
language, and in letters which were subsequently abandoned for the 
Aramaic script. This latter text has been preserved in Afss., none 
of which are older than the tenth century ; but they rest upon two 
important revisions of that century, those of Ben Asher and Ben 
Naftali, which differ chiefly in Massoretic material. 

The text of the Psalter, as that of all the OT., was written in 
the ancient Hebrew language. The Pss. were written by many 
different authors at different periods of time, and also passed 
through the hands of many different editors. They therefore show 
traces of several stages in the development of the Hebrew language. 
The most if not all of the Pss. were written in letters resembling 
those of the Samaritan language, preserved elsewhere only in in- 
scriptions and on coins. They were subsequently transliterated 
into the square Aramaic letters through an intermediate form of 
current Aramaic script (Br. SIIS170 " 173 ). In all these processes of 
copying, editing, and transliteration, changes occurred, some 
of which were intentional, others unintentional, due to mistakes 
of various kinds. The Hebrew text has been preserved in a large 
number of Mss. The earliest text of the entire OT. is the 
St. Petersburg Codex, 1009 a.d. There are a number of codd. of 
the Psalter, but none of an early date. All these rest upon a 
revision of the text made by the Rabbi Ben Asher in the early 
part of the tenth century, who undoubtedly used material no 
longer accessible, and made such excellent use of it that his text 
has remained the standard authority for the Massoretic text until 
the present day ; although the variations in pointing of his co- 
temporary, Ben Naftali, representing another tradition, have been 
preserved in the Massoretic apparatus which is usually given in 
Hebrew Bibles. 



THE MASSORA XX111 

The earliest text of the OT. preserved is the St. Petersburg Codex of the 
Prophets, 916 A.D., but this does not contain the Psalter. Ginsburg ( Text of 
the Heb. Bible, p. 469 sq.) thinks that a Ms. of the British Museum was writ- 
ten in 820-850 A.D., but, so far as we know, he has found no one to agree with 
him. Most Hebrew codd., that have been preserved, rest upon a text revised 
by Rabbi Ben Asher in the early part of the tenth century, and this is the text 
that has been taken as a standard in all printed editions. The recently dis- 
covered codd. of St. Petersburg gives an earlier and simpler system of vowel 
points and accents, but only slight variations in the unpointed text. The 
variations in the most important codd. are given by Baer in his text of \f/ from 
two codd. Curtisianus, three codd. Erfurtensis, one cod. each Francofurtensis, 
Heidenheimianus, Petropolitanus, and Sappiri Parisiensis. The Massora also 
contains 13 traditional variations between the Palestinian and Babylonian 
tradition, and 299 variations between Ben Asher and Ben Naftali, none of 
which are of any serious importance for the interpretation of the \p. 

§ 3. The Massora also gives evidences of variations of text, 
going back to primitive times, in marginal notes and signs, where 
the text remains unchanged. Citations in the Talmud and other 
early Jewish writings give little evidence of other variations of 
text. 

The Massorites devoted themselves to the study of the tra- 
ditional text of the OT. When the knowledge of ancient Hebrew 
was confined to scholars, they endeavoured to perpetuate and 
stereotype the traditional pronunciation, the method of recitation 
of the OT. in the synagogue, and the connection of words and 
clauses in the sentence, by the use of vowel points, accents, and 
other signs. This was necessary because the Hebrew, like other 
Semitic languages, was in ancient times written only so far as the 
consonants were concerned. 

These Massorites were so called as masters of Massora, or tradition. Their 
work was based upon the methods of the Syrian schools with reference to 
Syriac Literature. The differences between the so-called Babylonian and 
Palestinian systems of vocalisation and accentuation show various stages in 
their work, which continued for several centuries. The earliest stages have 
left no record, but they may be inferred from the simpler forms of Syriac and 
Arabic Literature (Br. SHS - 18 °- 183 ). It is important to notice that all these 
vowel points and accents are comparatively late in origin, and, although they 
rest on tradition going back to primitive times, they were still matters of 
opinion, and by no means have the venerahle authority of the consonantal 
text. The view that they were equally inspired with the consonantal text, 



xxiv INTRODUCTION 

held commonly in the sixteenth century, has been universally abandoned. 
There are several Massoretic notes and signs which are of great importance, 
for they indicate variations of text in ancient tradition which the Massorites 
felt obliged to record, although they did not venture to change the traditional 
text. These are: (i) The variation between the np, that which should be 
read, and the a*na, that which is written. There are seventy of these in \p. 
(2) The inverted J, parentheses, 107 s3 - «*.».«. 27.88. 40 („, Qchla veochla™; 
Dikduke hateamini% m \ Gemara, Rosch hashana v;b ). (3) The Paseq, which 
calls attention to a peculiarity of text that sometimes needs correction. There 
are forty-seven of these in \f/ (v. Grimme, Psalmenprobleme, s. 166 sq.; Ken- 
nedy, Note Line in Biblical Hebrew, commonly called Paseq or Pesiq). This 
sign was neglected by the older critics, but has been carefully considered by 
many moderns, and is often found to be a sign of a corrupt text. (4) The 
change of the form of letters also probably indicates variations of text, the 
m»jn 'i 24*, nnai 'a 8o 16 , nnai 'p 84*, rmSn 7 8o 14 . (5) The superfluous let- 
ters: dSjjj 'h 99 6 104 12 n6 r> , 'i *vp> 51*, 'i "vn> 26 2 38 21 8c/ 29 101 6 144 13 145 8 , 
'> "vn> 16 10 21 2 77 2) II9 147 - 161 . These all need attention as suggesting varia- 
tions in the text. (6) The extraordinary points mark letters as doubtful 27 13 . 
There are large numbers of citations of \p in the Talmud and other early 
Jewish writings, but so far as they have been examined and collated they 
give no evidence of any important variations besides those indicated in the 
Mas., which doubtless took the most, if not all of them, into consideration. 

§ 4. The earliest printed edition of the Hebrew Psalter was 
published at Bologna in 1477. Independent texts based on Mss. 
were published at Soncino, in the Complutensian Polyglot, and the 
second Rabbinical Bible. All subsequent editions were mixed texts, 
until those of Baer and Ginsburg, which give accurate forms of the 
Massoretic text of Ben Asher. 

(1) The earliest edition of the Hebrew text of \p was printed at Bologna, 
1477. The whole Bible was first printed at Soncino, Lombardy, in 1488; 
then at Naples, 1491-1493. Another edition was printed at Brescia in 1494. 
This was used by Luther in making his version. The same text is used in 
Bomberg's first Rabbinical Bible, 15 16-15 1 7, edited by Felix Pratensis, and in 
his manual editions 15 17 sq.; and also by Stephens, 1539 sq., and Sebastian 
Munster. (2) The second independent text was issued in the Complutensian 
Polyglot, 1 5 14-15 1 7, of Cardinal Ximenes. (3) The third independent text 
was edited by Jacob ben Chayim in the second Rabbinical Bible of Bomberg, 
1 524-1 525. This was carefully revised after the Massora. All the printed 
texts from that time until recent times are mixtures of these three texts. 
(4) Baer and Delitzsch undertook a fourth independent text by the use of 
the entire Massoretic apparatus accessible. The Liber Psalmorum was pub- 
lished in 1880. (5) A fifth independent text was published by Ginsburg, 



THE SEPTUAGINT XXV 

1894. It is essentially "based upon the first edition of Jacob ben Chayim's 
Massoretic recension." (6) A sixth independent text is in process of publica- 
tion by R. Kittel (1905), with critical notes, using ancient Vrss. and con- 
jectural emendations. The vol. containing \J/ has not yet appeared. 

§ 5. The earliest Version of the Psalter was that of the Greek 
Septuagint, translated from the Hebrew in the second century B.C. 
at Alexandria, and preserved in many ancient codices, the earliest 
of the fourth century A.D., giving evidence as to an original Hebrew 
text, many centuries prior to any Hebrew authorities. The ancient 
Latin, Coptic, Gothic, Armenian, a?id Ethiopic Versions are based 
upon the Greek Version. 

The OT. was translated for the use of Egyptian and Greek Jews. 
The earliest writings translated were the five books of the Law in 
the third century. The Psalter was probably translated in the 
early second century, for use in public prayer and praise in the 
Egyptian synagogues. It was made from the best Mss. accessible 
at the time, and gives evidence as to the original Hebrew text of 
early second century B.C., three centuries earlier than the text 
fixed by the school of Jamnia, and twelve centuries earlier than 
the Mass. text as fixed by Ben Asher and preserved in the earliest 
Hebrew codd. It is usually called the Septuagint because of the 
legend that it was prepared by seventy chosen Hebrew scholars 
(Br. SHS188sq ). The Septuagint Version of the Psalter, referred to 
in the abbr. (3, is one of the best translations of the OT. It 
shows an excellent knowledge of the original Hebrew, and a good 
knowledge of Alexandrine Greek. The translator appreciated 
the poetic character of the Psalter, and also the fact that it was 
for public use in the worship of the synagogue. He was con- 
cerned, therefore, to preserve as far as practicable the metrical 
form, and to give the sense of the original in intelligible Greek. 
Where a literal rendering interferes with these objects he departs 
from the letter and gives the spirit of his original, and so tends 
toward the method of the later Targums. He shares in the re- 
ligious and theological prejudices of his times. He has an undue 
awe of God, and conceives of Him as essentially transcendent. 
He shrinks from the anthropomorphisms and anthropopathisms 
of the earlier writers. 



xxvi INTRODUCTION 

The text of (S has been preserved in several types enabling us to go back, 
on the genealogical principle of textual criticism, to an original earlier than 
any of the codices (v. Br. s,IS - 23 l8 i). (i) The earliest codex is one preserved 
in the Vatican Library, usually indicated by B. Pss. I05 27 -I37 6 are missing. 
This cod. was written in the fourth century a.d. It was the basis of the 
Sixtine edition of the Septuagint of 1586(7). It was used in the London 
Polyglot, with critical notes making use of the other known codd. ; and so in 
many manual editions, especially Van Ess, 1823, 1854, and Tischendorf, 1850, 
1856. B was published by Mai in 1857, and a facsimile edition by Vercel- 
lone and Cozza in 1866 sq., a photographic lithographic edition, 1890. The 
hands of several later editors may be traced in the text, indicated by B abc . 

(2) About the same time, and under essentially the same influence, the Sina- 
itic codex was written. It was discovered by Tischendorf in 1844- 1859, in 
the convent of S. Catharine, on Mt. Sinai, and was deposited in the Imperial 
Library at St. Petersburg. It gives \j/ complete. It is known usually as n, 
but by many Germans as S {v. Gregory, Prolegomena, pp. 345 sq.). Tischen- 
dorf issued a facsimile edition in 1862 {Bibliorium Codex Sinaiticus Petro- 
polilanitSy Tom I.-IV.). He also used K in his manual editions of i860, 1869, 
continued after his death by Nestle, 1875, x 8So» 1887. The best text of B 
has been issued by Swete (3 vols. 1 887-1 894, 1895- 1899), wno uses N to SU P~ 
ply the missing Pss. The references to B will be given simply as <S B , those 
to n will appear as (S* {v. Intr. Swete's edition). These two codices give 
what Westcott and Hort term the Neutral Text, based on a text written on 
separate rolls in the early part of the second century a.d. (v. Br. sns197 ). 

(3) The Alexandrian codex (@ A ), now in the British Museum, was written 
in the fifth century. Pss. 49 19 ~79 10 are missing from its text. This codex rep- 
resents an Alexandrian official text, but later than the revisions of Hesychius 
and Origen. This text was published by Grabe and his associates in 1707- 
1720). HP. also cite the Psalteriiim purpureum 7'uricense ((S T ) as Ms. 262. 
It has been preserved in the Municipal Library of Zurich. It was published 
by Tischendorf in his Monamenta Sacra inedita, IV. It was evidently writ- 
ten in the seventh century. According to Swete its readings are in frequent 
agreement with A. The following Pss. are missing: 1-25 30* 2 -36' 20 4i 6 -43 3 
58 14 -59 5 59 9 - 10 S^-^ 1 64 12 -7i* 92 s -93 7 96 12 -97 8 . (4) The text of Origen 
is represented in the fragments of his Hexapla which have been preserved. 
A Syriac translation of the text of the Hexapla (Syr. Hex.) was made by Paul 
of Telia in 616 a.d. A Ms. of this text of the eighth century was discovered 
by Ceriani in the Ambrosian Library of Milan, and issued in 1874. (5) Lucian 
the martyr (311 +) made an independent revision of the entire Greek Bible 
at Antioch. Lagarde issued this text for the Historical books of the OT. in 
1883, but died before he was able to publish the rest of the OT. This text 
rests upon a parent text which is the basis of the old Latin version, is near 
the Syriac version, and resembles that used in the citations in Josephus (v. 
Br.sns. 203-2O4). Tne Codex Vaticanus 330 (HP. 108) was recognised by Field 
and Lagarde as giving essentially this text. It was the chief authority for the 



THE SEPTUAGINT XXVli 

text of the Complutensian Polyglot; but this cod. does not contain \f/. Swete 
regards 144, 147, 185 HP. as Lucian in their characteristics. (6) The Re- 
vision of Hesychius is not so easy to determine. Cornill (Ezekiel, 79) and 
Swete {Introduction to Old Test, in Greek, 486) think that the Aldine text 
gives essentially the text of Hesychius. Four other codices have come into 
importance in recent times. (7) The Psalterium Graeco-Latinum Vero- 
nense, <3 R , generally attributed to the sixth century, is preserved in Verona. 
It was published by Bianchini in his Vinaiciae canonicarum scripiurarum, I., 
Rome, 1740 ; but was not used in HP. It is highly valued by Tisch., Swete, 
and others. Swete says: "A few portions of the Psalms (i 1 -2 7 65 2) -68 3 
6g-26-33 io5 43 -io6' 2 ) have been replaced or supplied by a hand of the tenth 
century, to which the corrections throughout the Ms. are generally due." 
(8) The Fragmenta papyracea Londinensia (<S U ). These are in the British 
Museum. Only two portions of ^ have been preserved: io 2 -i8 G 20 14 ~34 6 . 
It was published by Tisch. in his Monumenta sacra inedita, Nov. Coll., 1855. 
Tisch. ascribes it to the sixth or seventh century. " Its readings are often 
unique, or agree with the Hebrew or the Vrss. or patristic citations, against 
all other known Mss." (Swete, p. xiii). (9) The Leipzig papyrus fragments 
of the Psalter contain Pss. 3o 5 " 14 - 18 " 25 31 1 32 18J -33 9a 33 13 ~34 2 34 24 ~35 3 36*- 
55 14 . They have been published by Heinrici, in Beitr'dge zur Geschichte und 
Erklarung des N.T., IV., Leipzig, 1903. According to this scholar, these 
fragments resemble those of (§ u , and both represent the common text, used 
by Christians and cited by the early Fathers, as described by Jerome and 
Origen, before the latter undertook to purify it and establish a correct text 
(pp. 9, 13, 25). 

Many ancient Vrss. were translated from (3. The oldest of 
these was the ancient Latin. Many Latin Psalters have been 
preserved, but so far as known, none of them give early texts. We 
are for the most part dependent on citations in the early Fathers. 
Jerome made a revision of the Latin Psalter under the auspices 
of Pope Damasus I. in 383. This is the Roman Psalter still used in 
St. Peter's at Rome. About 392 Jerome made a second revision 
on the basis of the Hexapla. This is known as the Gallican 
Psalter, and is still in use in the Vulgate and the Roman Catholic 
Breviaries. The Coptic Vrss. were made from (3. The Bohairic 
Vrs. of the Psalter is of the sixth century (edited by Lagarde, 
1875). The Sahidic Vrs. is older, but of uncertain date. The 
Psalter has been edited by Bridge, 1898. It seems to represent 
a text of (3 corresponding closely to (& v (v. Brightman, Journal 
of Theol. Studies, II., 275). The old Gothic Vrs. of the sixth 
and the Slavonic of the ninth century were made from (S> of 



xxviii INTRODUCTION 

Lucian. The Armenian and Ethiopic Vrss. in their present form 
are based on mixed texts, in which Syriac and Hebraic elements 
are mingled with the Greek. 

The texts of the Psalter in the several codd. of (3 are not always 
homogeneous with the texts of other parts of OT., especially in 
the early codd. This was due to the fact that the Psalter was 
usually on a separate roll, and that the most of these rolls were 
prepared for ecclesiastical use. Swete remarks quite truly that 
Pss. of (& x " are evidently copied from a Psalter written for ecclesi- 
astical use, and it is interesting to notice how constantly A here 
appears in company with the later liturgical Psalters, R and T, and 
with the seventh century corrections of S known as K c- \" He also 
says : "The first hand of X often agrees with A against B, and the 
combinations X, A, R, T in the Psalms are not uncommon " {Intr. 
to OT. in Greek, p. 490). To this may be added that in fact it 
is just these liturgical Psalters which seem to have preserved the 
most accurate text of (£, whether that was due to the well-known 
conservatism of liturgical texts, or to a more conservative revision 
of the ancient faulty texts by Origen and Lucian than has gener- 
ally been supposed, limited chiefly to the correction of errors. 
The text of i& where there is a consensus of readings has a value 
which has not been estimated by critics as highly as it ought to 
be, so far as the Psalter is concerned. In a very large number 
of cases this common text is to be preferred to J^. Where the 
ancient codd. (& B M differ from the other codd. they are almost 
invariably at fault. It is altogether misleading to take them as 
the norms of a correct text of the Psalter. 

I have carefully examined all the most important variations, and the result 
is the following. I. Where <!£ i stands alone : (1) there are nine corruptions 
of Greek words, 17 14 27 s 35 20 37 28 71 15 74 s 76 s 84 11 105 36 . (2) There are four- 
teen omissions of words or clauses of ft? required by measure or else earlier 
Heb. glosses, 16 2 64 s 6$*-* 71 12 73 18 74 4 75 7 88 19 90 16 102 16 139 12 143 8 145 2 . 
(3) There is one insertion injuring the measure, 76*. (4) There is only a 
single instance in which the text is correct. That is the omission of a clause 
of |^, 41' 2 , which injures the measure. But this may be merely an accidental 
coincidence in which a careless scribe happened to omit a passage which was 
a real gloss. II. Where G s stands alone there are many cases of error, e. g. 
no«-6-« 1 158 U6 1 - 2 - 6 i22 2 - 6 - 9 129 4 130 6 1 38 s . 



OTHER GREEK VERSIONS XXIX 

The earliest printed editions of the Psalter of (§ rested upon codd. which 
have not, so far as I know, been determined: Milan, 1481; Venice, i486, 
1489; Basel, 15 16. Justinianus issued in 15 16 at Genoa his Octaplum Psal- 
terium. The text of the Complutensian Polyglot, 1514-1517, was followed by 
four other polyglots : Antwerp, 1569-1572; Heidelberg, 1 586-1 587; Hamburg, 
1596; Paris, 1645 -f. The Aldine text of 1518, the text of the Complutensian 
Polyglot and of the Octaplum, all agree for the most part with 144, 185, 264, 
of HP; and although based on late codd., in fact are much nearer the orig- 
inal <g than the earliest codd. <J| B - N . In a few instances the Octaplum differs 
from the Complutensian text, but in these, so far as the most important read- 
ings are concerned, it agrees with 144 HP, which is regarded as Lucian's. 
A valuable discussion of texts and versions of (H is given by Swete, Intro- 
duction to the Study of the O T. in Greek, and by Nestle, Urtext und Ueber- 
setzungen, pp. 64-65. A cautious but valuable study of the reading of <& of 
Swete's edition is given by F. W. Mozley, The Psalter of the Church, 1905. 
There remains much work to be done in the study of these codd. 



§ 6. Several other Greek Versions were made in the second, 
third, and fourth centuries A.D., that of Aquila front the official 
Hebrew text of the school ofjamnia, that of Theodotion to improve 
(3 in the direction of that text ; and that of Symmachus to give a 
better Greek style. Other minor Versions, indicated as Quinta 
and Sexta, were also composed. None of these have been preserved, 
except in fragments. 

(3 was used in a large proportion of the citations in the NT. 
and Christian writings of the second and third centuries. The 
Jews of the school of Rabbi Akiba, owing to a literalistic tendency, 
threw discredit upon (3 among the Jews, and so gradually under- 
mined the confidence even of Christians in its accuracy. Accord- 
ingly, many attempts were made to make a better Version. The 
first of these came from Aquila, a pupil of Akiba, who made a new 
translation from the official text established by the school of Jamnia. 
This is exceedingly literal and pedantic, and frequently transliter- 
ates rather than translates. This Version, indicated by Aq., is 
chiefly valuable for its evidence as to the official text which it 
translates. Theodotion (©) undertook a revision of (3 to make 
it more conformable to the Hebrew text of Jamnia. Its variations 
from (3 also help to the official Hebrew text of the second century 
rather than to an earlier text. Symmachus (2) had a later and a 
different purpose ; namely, to improve the style and character of (3. 



XXX INTRODUCTION 

It is therefore of value in helping to a text of (3. It is difficult to 
determine the purpose of Quinta and Sexta, but so far as appears 
they do not give evidence of any knowledge of early Hebrew 
codd. These efforts did not succeed in producing a text suitable 
for universal adoption ; they in fact increased the confusion and 
corruption among the Greek codd. by mixed texts. This evil was 
the chief reason for the masterly work of Origen in his Hexapla. 
Origen's Hexapla was the most important Biblical work in ancient 
times. It gave in six parallel columns the original Hebrew text, 
the same transliterated, a purified text of (3, the Versions of Aq., 
2, 0, and also, as a sort of appendix, Quinta, Sexta. 

The Hexapla has been preserved only in parts. The Syriac translation 
was discovered by Ceriani in the Ambrosian Library of Milan, and published 
in 1874. Mercati, in the same library, discovered the original Hexapla of 
Ps. 45 and parts of 17, 27-31, 34, 35, 48, 88, of which he gives an account 
in Un Palimpsesto Ambrosiano dei Salmi Esapli, 1898. He has recently dis- 
covered additional material in the Vatican. The publication of all this mate- 
rial is announced for one of the forthcoming parts of Studi e Tesii, Roma, 
under the title Psalmorum Hexaploriim reliquiae e codice rescripto Ambrosi- 
ano, etc. The parts of the several Greek Vrss., so far as they were known 
to exist at the time, were published by Field, Origenis Hexaplorum quae 
super sunt, 2 vols., Oxford, 1875. Dr. Schechter discovered some fragments 
of Aq., portions of Pss. 22, 90, 91, in the Genizah at Cairo. 

§ 7. The Syriac Peshitto Version was made from a comparison 
of the Hebrew text with (3, and shows the influence of an early 
Aramaic Targum. It has maintained its integrity since the fourth 
century. 

At an early date, probably in the second or third century, a 
translation of the Psalter was made for the use of Syrian Christians 
(<&). It was based upon a Hebrew text, but kept (3 constantly in 
view. It also shows traces of the influence of an oral Aramaic 
Targum earlier than the existing Targum (v. § 13). The author 
was a good Hebrew scholar, but his purpose was to give a Vrs. for 
practical use, rather than an exact verbal rendering. He therefore 
takes liberties with the original from a dogmatic as well as a prac- 
tical point of view. & passed through a number of revisions, but 
has kept its integrity since the fourth century, as Aphraates in his 
Homilies uses it essentially in the same form that we now have. 



OTHER VERSIONS XXXI 

The first edition of the Psalter of B was published by Erpenius, Leyden, 
1625, from two late codd. Gabriel Sionita in the same year issued a Syriac 
text based on three other codd., with a Latin translation. This edition was 
used in the Paris Polyglot, 1629-1645, and the London Polyglot, 1654-1657. 
In the latter, Herbert Thorndyke in his critical apparatus used two codd. of 
late date. Dathe in 1768 reissued the text of Erpenius, with variations from 
the London Polyglot. The text of the London Polyglot was reissued by Lee 
in 1823, and was translated into English with critical notes by Andrew Oliver, 
Boston, 1861. The American missionaries, in 1852, published at Urumia, Per- 
sia, a Nestorian text of much value. This has been the basis of other texts 
for use in the East. The Codex Ambrosianus was published by Ceriani, Milan, 
1 876-1 883. F. Bathgen, in 1878, made a collation of this codex and three 
later codd. in his Untersuchungen. In 1879, in his Psalterium Tetraglottam, 
Nestle reissued the Codex Ambrosianus ; and this edition has been reprinted 
by W. E. Barnes, in his Peshitta Psalter according to the West Syrian Text, 
1904. Barnes, however, corrects it occasionally from early West Syrian codd., 
and gives a rich critical apparatus derived from a collation of a large number 
of codd. The best estimate of the text of j$ is given by Ba. in the Jahrbiicher 
fur Protestanische Theologie, 1882. The influence of <§ upon J5 was so great 
that when these agree it is doubtful whether the testimony of % as to the 
original text of f§ is independent. Especially was «S influenced by <S L ; but, 
on the other hand, it belongs to the same family of texts. Agreement with 
f^ is of greater importance, and disagreement with p£ and © L more impor- 
tant still. It should also be remembered, as Barnes justly says, " We have to 
deal in the Psalter with a text which was specially transcribed for ecclesiastical 
use, and accordingly we must not be surprised, if we find it coloured by eccle- 
siastical phraseology" (p. xxxv). On the one side, it may be said that because 
of its ecclesiastical use it is more difficult to revise the Psalter than any other 
book of the Bible ; on the other side, that the Vrss. often preserve early read- 
ings. My study of the text of the Psalter shows that while J5 tends to an 
agreement with (& L , it nevertheless often agrees with |$ against <&, and some- 
times with 3 against <S and MT. It not infrequently has independent read- 
ings, a fair proportion of which are to be preferred as nearer the original text 
than those of any other Vrss., even of J^ ; cf. 2 7 - 12 16 2 17 13 27 s 32* 46 6 74 s , 
but especially 4 8 17 s - 4 59 10 69 s 80 13 112 4 139 16 . 

§ 8. Jerome in the early fifth century issued his Latin transla- 
tion, made from the Hebreiu text of his times, but with all the other 
ancient Versions and Origen's Hexapla in view. 

Jerome, after the completion of the two revisions of the old 
Latin Psalter already mentioned (§ 5), undertook c. 389 a transla- 
tion of the entire OT. from the original Hebrew, which he com- 
pleted in 390-405 at Bethlehem. This Vrs. took the place of 



XXXll INTRODUCTION 

the old Latin Vrss. in all the books except the Psalter, and is 
known as the Vulgate (U). This new Vrs. of the Psalter could 
not overcome the use of the Gallican Psalter in the usage of the 
Church. Accordingly, U of the Psalter is the Gallican Version, 
and the Version of Jerome is distinguished from it in reference by 
the abbreviation 3. This Vrs. is exceedingly valuable, especially 
in the study of the Psalter; for Jerome was not only an able 
Hebrew scholar, using the best Hebrew texts accessible to him 
in Palestine, at the time when the Rabbinical School at Tiberius 
was in its bloom ; but he was also familiar with Origen's Hexapla, 
and the full text of all the ancient Vrss. in earlier Mss. than those 
now existing. 3 in the main gives evidence as to the Hebrew text 
of the fourth Christian century. Where it differs from %fy and (S 
its evidence is especially valuable as giving the opinion of the best 
Biblical scholar of ancient times as to the original text, based on 
the use of a wealth of critical material vastly greater than that in 
the possession of any other critic, earlier or later. 

The text of 3 is best given in Lagarde's Psalierium juxta Hebraeos Hie- 
ronymi, 1874, and also in Nestle's Psalierium Tetraglottum, 1879. 

§ 9. The Aramaic Targum of the Psalter in its prese?it form 
dates from the ninth century, but it rests upon a?i oral Targum 
used in the synagogue from the most ancient times. 

The Targum on the Psalter (&) represents a traditional oral 
translation, used in the services of the synagogue from the first cen- 
tury a.d. The original Hebrew text was constantly kept in view, 
for it was the custom to read the original before the Targum was 
read. Therefore the Targum gives evidence as to the traditional 
Hebrew text, with all the development that that tradition had from 
the first till the ninth century, ever restrained, however, by the 
original text. The Targum, however, was not simply a translation, 
but at the same time an explanation of the original, enlarging upon 
it to give the sense by way of paraphrase. It avoids anthropo- 
morphism, and entirely disregards the poetic form and style. 

& of \p was first published by Bomberg, 15 17, with Jb., Pr., and the Rolls. 
Lagarde's edition Hagiographa Chaldaice, 1873, is based on that of Bomberg. 
It was republished by Nestle, in his Psalterium Tetraglottum* 1879. Bacher 



THE ORIGINAL TEXT XXXlll 

{Das Targum zu den Psalmen, Gratz, Monatsschrift, 1872) states that the 
& of yj/ and Jb. came from the same hand. 

§ 10. The critical use of Hebrew texts and versions leads back 
in several stages from the official text of Ben Asher of the tenth 
century, through the text used by Jerome of the fourth century, the 
official text of the School of Jam ni a of the second century, to 
the unofficial codices of the second century B.C., which gave the 
Canonical Psalter in its final edition. But it had already passed 
through centuries of transmission by the hands of copyists and 
editors. We have to distinguish, therefore, betzueen the original 
text of the Psalter of the Canon and the original text of the psalms 
themselves as they came from their authors. 

The existing Hebrew codd. lead us to the official MT. of the tenth 
century as edited by Ben Asher, with Massoretic notes indicating 
traditional variations in the text coming down from ancient times. 
3 takes us back to a Hebrew text of the fourth century prior to the 
work of the Massorites, and therefore to a text composed of con- 
sonants only. The Hebrew text of Origen's Hexapla, and %>, also 
tend in the same direction, although they are to be used with 
more reserve, because of modifying influences traceable in these 
Vrss. The Greek translations of Aq., ©, are all important helps 
to determine the official Hebrew text of the Synod of Jamnia of the 
second Christian century. The text of (3 carries us still farther 
back, to a Hebrew text of the second century B.C., very soon after 
the Psalter had received its final editing. In this way, by the use 
of the genealogical principle of Textual Criticism the original He- 
brew text of the Psalter may be determined, at the time when it 
was finally edited for use in the synagogue and temple, and took 
its place in the Canon of the Writings. But it is evident that even 
then we are a long distance from the original text of the Pss. as 
composed by their authors. The Pss. had passed through the hands 
of a multitude of copyists, and of many editors, who had made 
changes of various kinds, partly intentional and partly uninten- 
tional. The Pss. were changed and adapted for public worship, 
just as has ever been the case with hymns, prayers, and other 
liturgical forms. The personal, local, and historical features were 
gradually effaced, and additions of various kinds were made to 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION 

make them more appropriate for congregational use. The text 
of the Psalter is one thing, the text of the original Pss. is another 
thin, determined the former as far as possible, we 

still have to determine the latter by the use of additional internal 
evidence in the Psalter itself, and of external evidence from other 
books of OT. 

There are several Psalms which appear in different texts 
in the Psalter itself, or in the Psalter and other Bocks of the Old 
Testament These give evidence of originals differing in some 
respects from the varying texts that have been pres< 

s. 14 and 53 are evidently the same Ps. in different texts. The latter 
betrays more dearly its historical origin, although the original divine name 
-as been changed to sviSt, as in other Pss. of E I ne former 

has been generalised and made smoother and more didactic They both show 
editorial changes as well as errors of copyists. (2) Ps. iS is the same song 
as that given in 2 S. 22. The text of the latter is more archaic, although it 
has many of the same late glosses as the Ps. The Ps*, however, received still 
later revision, making it more suitable for public use. (These variations are 
given in the Massora of Baers text, pp. 150-135.) (3) Ps. 70 is the same 
essentially as 4D U - 1T . It was appended to Ps. 40 for liturgical purposes. 
adapted to its context. (4) An early Ps. has been used both by 57*-" and 
ioS*-«, another by oo 7 -* 4 and ioS 7 " 14 , these three Pss. being all composite 
(5) I Ch. 16 s -* gives a Song of thanksgiving, which is composed 
of Pss. ioc^ 1 * and 96. The former is part of a tetralogy, 104-107 ; the latter 
is a part of the royal Ps. broken up into 93, 96-100. The Song of Ch. is 
therefore a mosaic of parts of two Pss., to which a doxology was added by a 
hte editor of Ql, who inserted it as a specimen of the temple Pss. of his time. 

§ 12. The Psalms were composed in the parallelisms, measures, 
and strophical organisations of lyric poetry. When these have been 
determined with reference to any particular Psalm it is not aiffuult 
to see the changes that have been made in the original text. 

(A) Hebrew poetry is dominated by the principle of parallelism 
of members- The simplest form is seen in the couplet ; but it is 
extended to a considerable number of lines. There are three 
primary forms of parallelism: (1) the synonymous, (2) the 
thetic, and (3) the antithetic ; the synonymous having a more 
ornate variety which may be called (4) emblematic ; the synthetic 
a more vigorous variety which is (5) stairiike in character. An 



POETRY OF THE PSALTER XXXV 

important variation appears in what is called (6) introverted paral- 
lelism. But within these six varieties there are still a great number 
of combinations in accordance with the nature of the parallelism, 
whether it extends to entire lines or to the more emphatic words 
in them. 

Bishop Lowth (De sacra Poesi Heb. 1753 ; ct Prebminary Dissertation to 
Isaiah, 1778) was the first to establish the principle of parallrfisni in Hebrew 
poetry, although he based his conclusions on older writers, Rabbi Asarias and 
especially Schdttgen (Horar Heb. Diss. VL De ExergasU Sacra). Lowths 
views were at once accepted and bare maintained themselves. Lowtb dis- 
tingnished three kinds of paraDensm, — the lya wyaw , the anffthrrira L and 
the synthetic Bishop Jebb {Sacred Literature* § IV. 1820) called atten- 
tion to a fourth kind, which he properly named - introverted." Lowth bad 
already recognised it (Prelim. Diss. Isaiah xiv), but did not name k or 
emphasize it. Other scholars hare noted the stairiike and the 
p.Br.*« ■ 5 -« . 

Attention may be called to the following 



(1) Synonjm ons. 

YAHWEH. who shaD be a guest in Thy tent ? 

Who shan dwell on Thy hoiy mount ? 
17 :i-iw q RISE, Yahweh, confront him. cast him down; 

defiverme from the wicked, destroy with Thy sword: 

May they be slain with Thy hand. Yahweh; steam from the world. 
7 ia-M jf not. He whets His sword. 

Doth tread His bow and make it ready. 

A- 1 i::: rrrr-ire :::'-.- :t_: ;■ ■■-:■:": 

His arrows He maketh into fiery ones. 
6M pOR I am weary with my groaning; 

I must com plain every nnjht on wej bed ; 

1 make dissolve whh my tears «r couch. 
Wasteth away b ec au se of grief mime eye. 
Waxeth old because of all wume adversaries. 

\z^'-- *Y HE Law of Yahweh is perfect, refreshing the soul; 

The Tesc-mD-T o: Yahweh is trusnrorr-T. r-jkr-g wise me simple 
~ e :Tr;fr-5 ::" Vi". • . ~ :■-' r r.z ' : ^; : :~ Z "t ----- 
The Commandment of Yahweh is pure, enfiglmmmg the eyes; 
T"r 5.-.;. " r :: Vi" ■:': s : ^ 



y.-.}-:".VZ:-: -;:-:-: :-:- --v- --.p.-- :he >:r? ::" =iri.-i 



They purpose to camp in the tend, they 



XXXVI INTRODUCTION 

2 g&-6 'T'HOU spreadest before me a table in the presence of mine adversaries. 

Hast thou anointed my head with oil ; my cup is exhilarating. 

Surely goodness and kindness pursue me all the days of my life, 

And I shall dwell in the house of Yahweh for length of days. 
40 2 - 4 T WAITED steadfastly on Yahweh, and He inclined unto me; 

And brought me up from the pit of desolation, from the clay of the 
mire ; 

And set my feet upon a rock ; He established my steps ; 

And gave a new song in my mouth, a song of praise to my God. 

Many see and they fear, and they trust in Yahweh. 

(3) Antithetical. 

3712-13 THE wicked deviseth against the righteous and gnasheth his teeth at him. 

The Lord laugheth at him ; for He seeth that his day cometh. 
!7i46-i5 t ex their portion be during life; their belly fill Thou with Thy stored up 
penalty. 
May their sons be sated, may they leave their residue to their children. 
But as for me, let me behold Thy face ; let me be satisfied with Thy 
favour. 
126 46 C\ RESTORE, Yahweh, our prosperity, as streams do in the south country. 
They that sow seed in tears, may they reap with jubilation. 
He may go forth weeping, bearing the load of seed ; 
Let him come home with jubilation, bearing the load of sheaves. 
37&-H T70R evil-doers will be cut off; but those that wait on Yahweh will inherit 
the land. 
And yet a little while, and the wicked will be no more, and thou wilt 

attentively consider his place, and he will be no more; 
But the afflicted will inherit the land, and take delight in abundance 
of peace. 
3 818-15 'pHEY also that seek my life lay snares ; 
Of my distress they speak, of ruin; 
And utter deceits all the day. 
But I am like a deaf man that heareth not, 
And as a dumb man that openeth not his mouth, 
And in whose mouth are no arguments. 

(4) Emblematic. 

37I-2 pRET not thyself because of evil-doers, and be not envious against them 
that do wrong ; 
As grass they will speedily wither, and like the fresh grass fade. 
124 6 - 8 "DLESSED be Yahweh! who hath not given us over as a prey to their 
teeth. 
Lo, we are like a bird, that has escaped out of the trap of the fowler. 
Lo, the trap was broken, and we escaped from it. 
Our help is in the name of Yahweh, maker of heaven and earth. 
I2 96-8a t ET them be put to shame, and let them be turned backward, all the 
# haters of Zion, 

Let them become as grass of the housetops, which, before one can 
draw the scythe, withereth. 



POETRY OF THE PSALTER XXXV11 

Wherewith the reaper does not fill his hand, or he that bindeth sheaves 

his bosom. 
And they who pass by say not, " The blessing of Yahweh unto you." 

(5) Stair like. 

2486. c Y AHWEH - strong and mighty, 

Yahweh, 7nighty in battle. 
32-3 VAHWEH, how many are mine adversaries! 

Many are rising up against me ; 
Many are saying of me : 
"There is no salvation for him." 
251-7 TJNTO Thee, Yahweh, I lift up my soul; O my God, let me not be 

ashamed. 
In Thee I trust, therefore let not mine enemies exult, even mine. 
Yea, let none that wait on Thee be ashamed ; let them be ashamed that 

deal treacherously without effect. 
Thy ways make me know, Yahweh, and Thy thoughts teach me; 
Lead me in Thy faithfulness, and teach me ; for Thou art the God of 

my salvation. 
Remember Thy compassion, Yahweh, and Thy kindness, for they are 

of old. 
The sins of my youth remember not; according to Thy kindness 

remember me. 

In the other two Strs. of this Ps. the stairlike parall. is carried out on the 
scheme : 2 + 2 + 3, Str. II.; 3 + 2 + 2, Str. III., as Str. I. In every tristich 
the middle line does not have the catchword. 

I2 i-5 MAY Yahweh cut off every flattering lip, 

And every tongue speaking great words ; 
Those who say, "To our tongues we give might, 
Our lip is our own ; who is lord over us." 

(6) Introverted. 

30 9 - 11 TJNTO Thee I was crying, and unto my God I was making supplication 
for favour : 
" What profit is there in my blood, when I go down to the Pit ? 
Will the dust praise Thee, declare Thy faithfulness ? 
Hear and be gracious, become helper to me." 
6»-ll J^EPART, ye workers of trouble, from me; 

For He hath heard the voice of my weeping, 
Yahweh hath heard my supplication, 
Yahweh accepteth my prayer. 
They will turn back, they will be put to shame in a moment. 
34I&-22 yHE face of Yahweh is against them that do evil, to cut off their memory 
from the land. 
The eyes of Yahweh are unto the righteous, and His ears unto their 

cry for help ; 
They cry and Yahweh heareth, and delivereth them out of all their 
distresses. 



XXXV111 INTRODUCTION 

Yahweh is nigh unto the brokenhearted, and the crushed in spirit 
saveth. 

Many are the misfortunes of the righteous, but out of them all Yah- 
weh delivereth him ; 

He keepeth all his bones ; not one of them is broken. 
Misfortune shall slay the wicked, and they that hate the righteous shall 
suffer punishment. 

(B) The Pss., as Philo, Josephus, Origen, Eusebius, and Jerome 
tell us, were composed in several kinds of meter. The measures, 
however, were not of feet, as in classic Latin and Greek, or of 
syllables as in Syriac poetry ; but of words or word accents, as in 
Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, and the most ancient poetry of 
other nations. The simplest measure is : (i) the trimeter, meas- 
ured by three tonic beats; (2) the tetrameter, which has four 
tones, usually with a caesura in the middle; (3) the pentameter, 
which has five tones, the caesura usually coming after the third 
tone, but sometimes for variety of effect after the second ; (4) the 
hexameter, which has six tones, with the caesura usually in the 
middle, but sometimes for variety after the second or the fourth 
tones, and occasionally with two caesuras dividing the line into 
three parts. In the estimation of tones we have to consider that 
on the one side monosyllabic words are usually not counted, but 
are attached to the following word and not accented ; and on the 
other side that words of four or more syllables have a secondary 
accent which is counted in the measures. This is true occasionally 
of words of three syllables. 

The statements of Josephus {Ant. II. 16 (4); IV. 8 (44); VII. 12 (30)) 
that Hebrew poetry was composed of trimeters and pentameters and hexame- 
ters are so distinct that they cannot justly be questioned. He is sustained by 
Philo (de Vita Mosis, I. 5). Although it may be said that Origen (on 
Ps. 118, Pitra, Analecta Sacra, II. 341), Eusebius {De praep. Evang. XI. 5 
Migne, XXI. 852), and Jerome (in librum Job, praef.*) depended upon 
Josephus, yet they were near enough to the original Hebrew text to have an 
independent judgment in this matter; and their judgment has been confirmed 
by modern investigation in the teeth of a stubborn traditional opposition. As 
Ley shows {ZATIV. XII. 212), Origen distinguishes between the Hebrew 
pentameter and hexameter written in one line and the Greek method of 
dividing them into two. I. Many efforts have been made to measure syllables 
after classic models: (1) Franc. Gomarus {Davidis lyra, 1637), followed by 
Heinsius, De Dieu, Hottinger, and the younger Buxtorf. (2) Marc. Maibon 



POETRY OF THE PSALTER XXXIX 

(Davidis Psalmi X. item VI. 1690). (3) Francis Hare (Psalmorum libri in 
versiculos metrice divisus, 1736), followed especially by Weisse. The treatises 
of Gomarus, Maibon, and Hare were republished in Ugolino, Thesaurus 
(XXXI.). Lowth severely criticised Hare's measures. He had no doubt that 
Hebrew poetry had measured lines, and he distinguished between long and 
short measures, in the former recognizing the " small rest or interval "; but he 
thought that it would be impracticable to find more definite measures because 
the original pronunciation of the Hebrew language could not be known (v. 
Prelim. Diss, to Isaiah, xxv.). (4) William Jones (Poeseos Asiaticae com- 
mentariorum, 1776) applied the rules of Arabic meter to Hebrew poetry, 
involving the doing away with the Massoretic system of vowels. So, essen- 
tially, E. J. Greve. (5) J. J. Bellermann ( Versuch uber die Meirik der 
Hebrder, 181 3), applied the system of morae to Hebrew poetry. (6) J. L. 
Saalschiitz (Von der Form der Hebr'dischen Poesie, 1853) rejected the Masso- 
retic system and built on the pronunciation of the Polish and German Jews, 
after the Aramaic method. II. G. Bickell (Metrices Biblicae, 1879; Car- 
mina Veteris Metrici, 1882; Dichtungen der Hebr'der, 1882- 1884), followed 
by G. Gietmann (de re metrica Hebraeorum, 1880), finds a Hebrew meter in 
the number of syllables after the method of Syriac poetry. There is a con- 
stant alternation of rise and fall, so that only iambic and trochaic feet are 
possible. The Massoretic system is rejected and the Aramaic virtually put 
in its place. The accent is generally, as in Syriac, on the penult. An elaborate 
criticism of BickelPs theory is given by Ecker (Porta Sion, 1903, pp. 147 sq.). 
Doubtless the original Hebrew pronunciation was different from that of the 
Massoretic system, but Hebrew was not a mere dialect of the Aramaic, still 
less of so late a form of it as the Syriac. It has recently been shewn that the 
earliest Syriac poetry did not measure by number of syllables. III. The 
measurement of Hebrew verse by the beat of the accent has been maintained 
by a great number of scholars with increasing conviction. This is indepen- 
dent of the doctrine of syllables, whether more like the Arabic, Aramaic, or 
the Massoretic system. Moreover, it is independent of the theory on what 
syllable of the word the accent should fall. In any case, we have just so many 
accents in the verse. The earliest writer to make the accent the determin- 
ing principle of measurement, so far as I have been able to discover, was 
C. G. Anton (conjectura de metro Hebraeorum, 1 770, Specimen editionis 
Psalmorum, 1780). In this he was followed by Leutwein (Versuch einer 
richtigen Theorie von der Biblischen Verskunst, 1775), Ernst Meier (Die Form 
der Hebr. Poesie, 1853), but especially Julius Ley (Die metrischen Formen der 
Hebr. Poesie, 1866 ; Grundzuge des Rhythmus des Vers- tmd Strophenbaues 
in der Hebr. Poesie, 1875 ; Leiifaden der Metrik der Hebr. Poesie, 1887, and 
other minor writings). To Ley, more than to any other scholar, is due the 
credit of leading to a correct conception of the measures of Hebrew poetry. 
I accepted the principle of measurement of Hebrew poetry by accents soon 
after I began to teach as Professor of Hebrew and cognate languages in 
Union Theological Seminary, in 1874 ; and from that time I have given much 



xl INTRODUCTION 

attention to the subject. My views were published in 1881 {Homiletic Quar- 
terly, pp. 398 sq., 555 sq. ; Biblical Study, first edition, 1883, pp. 262 sq.). The 
principles were applied in the study of the Poem of the Fall of Mankind 
{Reformed Quarterly Review, 1866), Poem of the Creation {Old 7'estamenl 
Student, 1884), and of all the poetic Messianic passages {Messianic Prophecy, 
1886). My views were more fully stated in five articles {Hebraica, 1886- 
1888), and in the tenth edition of Biblical Study, enlarged under the title 
General Introduction to the Study of Holy Scripture, 1899. In 1883 I criti- 
cised Ley's octameters and decameters as simply double tetrameters and pen- 
tameters, and objected to his theory of substitution and compensation, which 
he has since abandoned. This principle of tonic measures was adopted by 
Francis Brown {Measures of Heb. Poetry as an Aid to Literary Analysis, 
JBL. IX. pp. 91-106) and many other Americans. C. H. Toy {Commentary 
on Proverbs, 1899) uses the tonic principle, but objects to the terms trimeter 
and tetrameter, and uses ternary, quaternary, etc. \V. R. Harper used the 
method on the basis of my article in Hebraica, in the preparation of his Com- 
mentary on Amos and Hosea, 1905 {v. Preface, ix.). Cheyne employs the 
tonic principle (in his commentaries on the Psalms 1 - 8 , Book of the Prophet 
Isaiah, SBOT. 1899). Most Biblical scholars since Jebb have been reac- 
tionary in their views of Hebrew poetry. Budde {Das Hebraische Klagelied, 
ZATW. 1882) deserves great credit for his investigation of the pentameter 
in the Old Testament ; but the name, Kina verse, that he gave to it, though 
adopted by many scholars, has little to justify it, for the earliest Kina uses the 
tetrameter measure (2 S. i 17_2; ), and the pentameter measure is used for all 
kinds of poems, especially for those in praise of the Law, 19*- 15 119, which 
are the reverse of Kind's. Budde's long hesitation to accept other measures 
is difficult to understand. He says, however (article Hebrew Poetry, DB.), 
" The vastly preponderating probability appears to belong to the theory of 
Ley, who counts the « rises' without taking account of the * falls.' " Duhm, in 
his Commentaries on Isaiah, 1892, and the Psalter, 1899, also uses the tonic 
principle, but without any explanation of his principles or his relation to others. 
It is astonishing how exactly his views, as to many passages, correspond with 
those given previously in my Messianic Prophecy, 1886. In the meanwhile the 
principle of tonic measure was greatly strengthened by the discovery that the 
same principle determined the structure of the more ancient Egyptian, Baby- 
lonian, and Assyrian poetry. F. Brown {Religious Poetry of Babylonia, Pres- 
byterian Review, 1888), among other examples, shewed that the epic of the 
descent of Istar to Sheol is pentameter. The Hymn to the Nile was recognised 
as measured by the tonic accent, by Guieysse {Records of the Past, new ed., III. 
47-48). Erman also {Life in Ancient Egypt, p. 395) stated that Egyptian 
poetry was measured by the tonic accent. Two recent scholars have endeav- 
oured to fortify the tonic principle by a closer study of the syllable. H. Grimme 
{Abriss der Bib. Hebr. Metrik, ZDMG. 1895; Grundziige der Hebr. Akzent 
und Vokallehre, 1896; Psalmen Probleme, 1902) revives the use of morae, 
but builds essentially on the accents for measurement of lines. His last book 



POETRY OF THE PSALTER xli 

has only come into my hands since I completed my Ms. for this Com- 
mentary. Our independent work agrees as to the measures of Pss. 1-50, 
except in 7, 9-10, 11, 17, 19" 23, 25, 31, 32, 34, 37, 38. Pss. 25, 34, 37, 
hexameters, he interprets as trimeters, dividing the lines at the caesuras. 
The other Pss. are full of difficulty, due chiefly to glosses where there is 
room for difference in reconstruction. E. Sievers in 1901 published his 
Metrische Studien. While building on the tonic principle, he fortifies it 
by giving it a foundation in the laws of speech, song, and music, and by 
a careful study of the unaccented syllables. His principles have been 
adopted for the most part in Bathgen's Psalmeri*, 1904. Sievers, in his 
double fours and sevens, falls into an error similar to that of Ley. His 
double fours of Ex. 15, 2 S. I, Ju. 5 are nothing but tetrameters, and his 
sevens limited, so far as xp is concerned, to 4, 9-10, are due to mistaken 
interpretation of the measures, which in both cases in the original Pss. 
were trimeters, disturbed, however, by many glosses. Those who have 
used the principle of tonic measure since Anton, have not failed to rec- 
ognise that the stress of the accent alternates with a falling of the voice in 
one, two, or three syllables, in varied relation to the tonic syllable ; but they 
have not thought it needful to count these syllables as Sievers does. Indeed, 
Sievers (p. 77) recognises that Anton instinctively came nearest the truth, 
that his theory needs few modifications, and that he only failed in working it 
out in detail. But it is just this detail in Sievers' method which is of doubtful 
value. It is based on the essential accuracy of the Massoretic system, which, 
as is evident from the transliterations in Origen's Hexapla, was artificial ; and, 
as many Hebrew scholars since Lowth have recognised, is of doubtful origi- 
nality. And in fact Sievers' measures, as those of Grimme, really depend 
upon the tonic accents, which alone are of any great importance even 
in his system. In the use of the natural laws of speech and music as the 
basis of the measures of poetry, Sievers was anticipated by the eminent 
American poet, Sydney Lanier (Science of English Verse, 1880), whom I 
used at an early date. A most thoroughgoing and invariably hostile criti- 
cism of metrical theories of Hebrew poetry is given by Ecker (Porta Sion, 
22-181 ; 1903). A more recent, less complete, more sympathetic, yet uncer- 
tain criticism is given by W. H. Cobb (Criticism of Systems of Hebrew 
Metre, 1905). 

The following is the result of my study of the measures of the Psalms : — 

I. There are eighty-nine trimeter Pss. in the Psalter. This is a favourite 

measure for lyrics. These Pss. are 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9-10, II, 15, 18, 19 2 - 7 20, 21, 

22, 241-6 24^-10 26, 27-12 33> 366-10 38, 44, 47, 49, 51, 54,552-3.5-* 56, 572-s 

57 e.8-i2 (_ IQ 82-6) 59f 6o 3 -"-!26-i4 6o 8 -i 2a (=io8 8 " 14 ) 63, 66 1 " 9 66 13 " 19 67, 

6 9 8-14.20-29 ?I> 73> 75> y6f 77 2-16 77 17-20 78> 79> 8^ gl 2-66 8l 6c-15 $2, 83, 85, 88, 
g 9 4-5. 18-46 90> 9I> ^2, 93 + 96-IOO, 94, 95 1 " 6 95 7 - 11 I02 2 -12 I0 3, 104, IO5-I06, IO7, 
I09 l-5. 16-18. 21-27 j 096-16 nlj ll2f „ 3) II4> ,^1-8 n 5 9-16 H 6, 117, u8, I35, 
I36, I38, 139W. 18-16. 28-24 I39 7-12 I39 17-22 I42> j^l-S. 7-11 ^ ,471-6. 7-11. 12-21 

148, 149, 150. We may give as a specimen 2^-^ : — 



Xlii INTRODUCTION 

hniSdi f\Nn nvrS 

na >3!fM San 

mo^ o^-Sy Nin-»3 

njjia> nnnj Sjn 

nin> -ina nSp-^D 
UBHp DlpD3 Olp^D 
3aS 131 »pj 
WDJ NIB'S NCJ-nS 

mn>o nana ns» 
W2» \-iSnd n,-nxi 

ism nn nr 
apjn vjd »rp3D 

II. There are twenty tetrameters in the Psalter: I, 4, 12, 13, 16, 29, 30, 41, 

46, 58, 61, 64, 68, 74, 86, 89 2 - 3 -6-i* 89*^2 , 40> I4I> I44 i2-i5 # Ps> I3 may be 
given as a specimen. The caesura is always in the middle when it occurs. 

wwn nxj — mn> njn-ip 

^cja nixj; PTN NjN-np 

o^n >Sj? on> njn— 17 

^jy noon — tiSn nrp 

wj; n^Nn — nion ?b»n-id 

nx B1CN >3 Sj>~jd 

III. There are twenty-five pentameters in the Psalter: 5, 14 (= 53), 17, 

, 9 8-15 27 l-6 2g> 32> 35> 36 2-6 39 40 2-l 2 ^.^ ^ ^ 55l0 _i 6 . 21 _ 22 . M ^ 
6Q2-7. 16-19. 80-32 40 H-18 (=70)> ^ g^ IOI> ^ „ 9> ^ ^ p g ^ may 

be given as a specimen. The caesura usually comes after the third beat, but 
occasionally for variety after the second. 

otiSn ]"h — taVa S33 iDM 
a)B~n»j;-^N — nS^S? la^nn in^rwn 

oviSn Clt — S»3W C",n DSlS 

viSnj nn> — jd ->d San 

TIN DJ pN — awnpjrpM 

>Qy iSaN — jhH>j» ijn> NSn 

w-ip nS mn> — onS iSa« 

ditd 7103 — nno hpid ne» 

ddnd nin> -o — e>an orxp 

IV. There are twenty-five hexameters: the alphabetical 25, 34, 37, 145 ; 
the pilgrim Pss. 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127 1 - 2 127 3 - 6 128, 129, 130, 



POETRY OF THE PSALTER xliii 

131. 132, 133, 134; and 31, 50, 62, 72, I02 13 " 23 - 29 . Pss. 124, 125 illustrate 
the varied use of the caesura. 

S*ne» w ' idki — uS rww iw <W> 

wSy Dipa — vh nTus* mm >SV? 

ua ddn nnna — wj^a D"n v« 

UB'flj nap rrVru — "dbmv wen nM 

onijc 1 ? tpo ijjpj nW — mm ynz 

B*vpv non ntaSnj — naxa upm (njn) 

(njoc) uoSdj umxi — naw non (nan) 

jnsi d^dc ns?;* — mm ots>a unrj; 

d?^ bwkS — jrx "via — mma 0"nBan 

nh 3'3D onn — o»%rni ats" 

dSij? tjn nnjna — idjjS aoD nwi 

a"|i>nxn "mrS? — jwnn Bats' nw KT^a 

V. There are long Pss. of varying measures. Ps. 23 has three Strs. of 
three, four, and five tones, increasing with each Str. Ps. 45 is essentially 
a tetrameter, but it uses occasional trimeters with striking effect for a more 
rapid movement of the thought. In this it resembles the Song of Deborah, 
Ju. 5. Some scholars, as Toy and Duhm, recognise dimeters of two tones, 
but these are parts of tetrameters or hexameters. The division made by these 
scholars are at the caesuras. There are no dimeters except in broken lines 
used at times for a metrical pause (e.g. Pss. I 1 - 4 8 2 - 10 ). Many of Grimme's 
trimeters are really hexameters. Sievers' double threes and double fours are 
trimeters and tetrameters. 

VI. The Hebrew poets seldom accent a monosyllable. It usually loses 
its tone by being attached to the previous or the subsequent word. Two 
successive tonic syllables make very bad euphony, especially at the end of 1. 
There were various devices for overcoming this difficulty. At the end of 1., 
the accent of the word before the monosyllable was retracted ; e.g. y-\n ^Bfiit' 
2 !0 , "»a 'Din 2 12 , ]w San* "XW nS;i 7 15 , >a yen 18 20 , na »a«^i 24 1 . Two tones 
were gained by attaching three short words ; e.g. ^arno"*? 5 11 , ia~*C»n-?? 5 12 , 
iSi~*a«P^"Sa 49 2 . The insertion of the conj. 1 before a monosyllable makes a 
sufficient vocalic utterance to justify giving the word a tone. It is sometimes 
used to make it easier to give a long word two tones ; e.g. nS>, 37 31 41 9 , Sni 25 s 
37 1 , hp 3 9 , in all cases given by (5 but omitted by |^. 

( C) The Hebrew poets, as poets of other nations, used archaic 
words and forms for metrical purposes : (a) The archaic case 
endings softened the transition from word to word and made the 
language more melodious, (b) The archaic suffixes and modal 



xliv INTRODUCTION 

forms were used partly for the same purpose and partly to give the 
tone a more melodious position, (c) The archaic prepositions 
were employed in order to get independent words or variation in 
the tonic syllable (Ley.^^^.s.ioo^. . Bn sas my 

{a) \ 50 10 79 2 104 20 114 8 . 

\ 123 1 . 

nn* for n„ 3 3 44 s7 63 s 80 3 92 16 94 17 120 1 125 3 . 
(£) u T T 5 18 2512414+. 

n'5 10 ii 2 - 8 i2 9 35" 36 s + . 

*D- sf. 2 8 - 5 II 7 2I 10 - n - 13 22 5 + ; to 1 ? for an 1, 2 4 44 4 - u 49 14 -f . 
(<■) >E3 for 2 II 2 . 

ID} for ^ 29 6 58 s - 8 - 10 63 s 78 13 90 9 92 s + . 

np for nj; 104 28 . 

^V for S;; 50 s - *« 92* 94 s1 . 

*J0 for jd 44 11 45 9 78 s . 

*Sa for S3 19 4 63 s 72 7 . 

(D) The Hebrew poets ornamented their lines by various devices 
at the beginning, in the middle, before caesuras, and at the end. 
At the beginning the order of the alphabet was followed and acros- 
tics were made of various kinds. Certain important words were 
repeated in several successive lines. At the ends of lines a kind 
of assonance or rhyme was made, especially by the use of identical 
suffixes. The same device was also used at times before caesuras. 

(a) The Alphabetic Pss. are 9-10, 25, 34, 37, III, 112, 119, 145. Usually 
the letter of the alphabet begins a 1., a couplet, or a Str.; but in g' 2 - 3 it is 
repeated at the beginning of each of the four 11. of the Str., and in 119 
throughout the twenty-two alphabetical Strs. it is repeated eight times (cf. 
La. 3). (b) Ps. 13 2 " 5 has ruK~tJ at the beginning of each of the four lines of 
the Str. ; and v. 4-5 has jd at the beginning of three of the four 11. Ps. 29 re- 
peats mm Sip eight times and on thrice. Ps. 62 repeats "]H eight times. Ps. 148 
repeats VllSSn six times, and Ps. 150 the same nine times, (c) Rhyming with 
identical suffixes is used as an ornament, rather than as in modern poetry to 
mark the ends of all 11. of the poem. The following examples may suffice. — 

, D _ 2**. «•».** _ ,_ I3 throughout, 27 B 7-8.9.11-12 22 206-22 3Q 2.4 ^ ^A , 42 

— q_ 9 2 ' 3 15 1 20 2 " 45 4 .— V 45 11 . — s _ 15 2 - 3 . — n_ 24 1 - 2 45 13 - 16 (6 1.).— 
The Pss. that use this method usually vary in their use of it. — Ps. 6 has 

*_ for the most part ()^ob.3ab.4ab.5a. 7a6c.8ac.9aft .10a6 DU £ -, v 56. Gab ,_ v 86.11a 

Ps. 31 has », v. *■", but x\ v. 20 - 21 - 23 . — Ps. 35 has »_ v. 1 ^- "- 14 , but o_ v. 6 ^. 

— Ps. 119 has a variation, some Strs. ending in r\, others in '•_.. — (d) Ps. no 
has "_ after caesura and at end of 1. 1, but 7\ in 11. 2, 3, 4, 5 ; D_ 1. 6 ; 1 1. 7 ; d<_ 



POETRY OF THE PSALTER xlv 

11. 8, 10 ; n_ 1. 9. At the beginning of six 11. of 45 13 " 16 the words end in m_. 
— Ps. 143 has in ten 11. the first and last words in >_, before caesuras r\. — 
144 s has assonance in every word of the tetrameter hexastich ; all the words 
of 11. I, 3, 5 end in 3^_; those of 2, 4, 6 in n'\ The later scribes and editors 
did not care for this ornament of style, and so obscured it and even effaced 
it partly by changing the order of words in the sentence, or by glosses of 
various kinds. 

(E) The Pss. were also arranged in regular strophical organiza- 
tion, as was indeed almost necessary for musical rendering in early 
lyric forms of song. The reason why this has not been evident is 
that the liturgical glosses of later times have obscured or destroyed 
them. These strophes are of great variety as coming from so 
many different authors and so many different periods of time. 
Strophes may be simple or complex, just as in the case of parallel- 
ism of lines. The simple strophes are of few lines of one kind of 
parallelism. The complex strophes have more lines and two or 
more kinds of parallelism. In this case the connection of thought 
is usually clear. The strophical divisions may be determined by 
a more decided separation in the thought of the poem. Some- 
times it is not easy to distinguish between the lesser and greater 
separations because of a lack of familiarity of modern scholars with 
the delicate shades of parallelism, which constituted the most char- 
acteristic feature of Hebrew thought ; and because of the prejudices 
due to other rhetorical and logical uses of Western races and mod- 
ern times. The simple strophes of one kind of parall. only are not 
common. They tend to a monotonous style. The usual method 
in the strophe is to combine the several kinds. This puts at the 
disposal of the poet a very great variety of combinations. These 
will appear in the commentary on the particular Pss. As Lowth 
well says : " A happy mixture of the several sorts gives an agreeable 
variety, and they serve mutually to recommend and set off one 
another." (Prelim. Diss, to Isaiah, p. xxvi.) I may, however, 
sum up the results of my investigation of the strophical structure 
of the Pss. as follows : — 

The Strs. are arranged on the same principles of parallelism as the 11., in all 
its varieties. Poems of single Strs. are uncommon. The most frequent structure 
is the pair of Strs. frequently doubled in two pairs, rarely as eight and sixteen 
Strs. The triplet of Strs. is also common, less frequent its multiples of six, 



xlvi INTRODUCTION 

nine, and twenty-four Strs. There are also poems of five, and its multiples, 
ten, fifteen, and twenty Strs. Poems of seven Strs. are uncommon. Poems 
of eleven and twenty-two Strs. are limited to alphabetical poems. I do not 
attempt to separate the glosses in the verses given below. Duplicates are not 
counted, (i) Poems of single Strs. are the Pilgrim Pss., 123, 125, 127 1 - 2 
! 273-5 128, 131, 133, 134. There are only four others: 15, 36 2 - 117, 144 12 - 15 , 
which have special reasons. (2) Poems with a pair of Strs. are fifty in 
number: I, 7, 8, II, 13, 19 2 - 7 19 8 - 15 20, 21, 24 1 - 6 24 7 - 10 27 1 - 6 32, 36 s " 10 39, 
4 o»-" (= 70), 49, 52, 54, 57*- 8-12 (= 1082-6), 58, 59, 62, 65, 6613-2J 72, 79, 
81 2 - 66 Sg*"- 52 95 1 - 6 95 7 " 11 101, 102 13 - 29 no, 114, 120, 121, 122, 124, 126, 129, 
130, 136, 139 17 - 22 142, 143, I44 1 " 2 - 7_n 147 1 " 147 7 " 11 150. Poems with four 
Strs. are thirty-one in number: 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 26, 30, 33, 40 2 - 12 41, 44, 48, 51, 
56, 6o :J " 7 - 126 -" 6o8- 12 « (= io8 8 " 14 ) 71, 77 17 - 20 8i<*- 15 83, 85, 91, 92, 102 2 - 12 107, 
113, 115 1 - 8 ii8 2 - 7 - 10 " 12 132, 141, 148. Poems of eight Strs. are: 17, 68, 116; 
of sixteen Strs. Sg 4 " 5 - 18_46 . (3) Poems of three Strs. are thirty-six in number: 
16, 23, 25, 2f 12 28, 34, 35, 42-43, 45, 46, 50, 55 2 " j - 5 " 9a 55 96 " 16 - 21 " 24 Sf 2 -* 61, 
63, 64, 66 1 " 9 67, 69 s - 7 - 14 - 19 - so- 32 76, 82, 84, 87, 88, 115 9 - 16 118 19 - 26 135, 137, 138, 
I39 7 " 12 140, 145, 146, 147 12 -' 21 149. Poems of six Strs. are : 18, 75, 89'-" 3 - *- 16 
90, 94, I09 1 " 5 - 16 " 18 - 2I " 27 I39 1 " 6 - 13_16 - 23_24 . Poems of nine Strs. : 74 ; of twenty- 
four Strs. : 105-106. (4) There are twelve poems of five Strs. : 5, 14 ( = 53), 
22, 29, 31, 38, 47, 69 s - 13 - 2j -- >9 77'2-ig g , 86, 109 6 - 15 . There is also one of 
ten Strs. : 73 ; one of fifteen Strs. : 93 -f 96-100; and one of twenty : 78. 
(5) There are three poems of seven Strs. : 37, 103, 104. (6) Alphabetical 
poems are two of eleven Strs.: Ill, 112 ; and two of twenty-two: 9-10, 119. 
These Strs. vary in number of 11. and in combinations of parall. The 
Refrains are not counted in the Strs. (1) The only apparent monostichs are 
in alphabetical Pss. : 25, 34, in, 112, 145. But these are not really mono- 
stichs, but 11. grouped in several kinds of stichs: 25, 34, 145 heptastichs ; III, 
112, distichs. (2) Distichs are not common in the Psalter. They are more 
appropriate to sentences of Wisdom. There are, however, five : 14 (= 53), 

62, 66 1-9 in, 112. (3) Tristichs are not common: 17, 74, 75, 7717-20 g^ 
116. (4) The tetrastich is the most frequent lyric form. There are sixty- 
two of them : 3, 4, 5, 9-10, 12, 13, 23, 26, 27 7 - 12 28, 29, 30, 40 14 - 18 (=70), 
47, 48, 55 2 - 3 - 6 " 90 S7 2 - 5 57 6 - 8 " 12 (= I08 2 -*), 6o»- 7 - 12 ^ 14 6o 8 - 12a (= 108 8 - 14 ), 61, 

6 3, 6 5» 73, 7 8 , 8l6c ' 16 82 , 86 » 89 2 - 3 - 6 - 15 89 4 - 518 " 43 94, 101, 103, 105-106, 
109 6 - 15 I09 1 " 5 - 16 - 18 - 21 ~ 27 113, 115 1 - 8 117, 118 19 -' 26 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 

126, I27 1 - 2 I27 3 - 5 128, 129, I3O, I3I, I32, I33, I34, I37, 139I-6. 13-10. 23-24 

I39 7 " 12 139 17 " 22 141, I44 1 " 2- 7_n . (5) There are thirteen pentastichs : 6, 31, 
32, 36 6 " 10 4O 2 - 12 41, 5596-16. 21-24 6 4( 67, &\^ h 90, no, 143. (6) There are 
forty-three hexastichs : 1, 19 2 - 7 19 8 - 15 27 1 - 6 36 2-6 37, 38, 46, 50, 52, 54, 56, 68, 

69 2-7. 14-19. 30-32 ^S-l*. 2)-29 ?6> ^2-16 ^ 8o> g 4> g 5j g 9 47-62 ^ 93 + 9 6-IOO, 

95^5 95 7-n I02 2-i2 to^s- 29 114, H5 9 -!* H8 2 - 7 - w-m 135, 1 36, 1 38, 140, I44 12 " 15 
146, I47 1 " 6 I47 7-11 147 12 - 21 148, 149, 150. (7) There are nine heptastichs: 2, 
25, 34, 39, 66 18 - 20 71, 72, 91, 145. (8) There are nine octastichs: 8, II, 16, 
20, 44, 58, 83, 104, 119. (9) There is one nonastich : 42-43. (10) There are 



POETRY OF THE PSALTER xlvii 

seven decastichs : 7, 15, 22, 33, 35, 51, 142. (11) There are four duodeca- 
stichs : 21, 59, 88, 107. (12) There are two fourteen-lined Strs. : 18, 49. 
(13) There are several Pss. with varying Strs., 24 1 - 6 24 7 - 10 , with responsive 
choirs. Ps. 45 has Strs. of increasing length with Rfs. and measures varying 
as the Song of Deborah, Ju. 5. 

The credit of calling the attention of scholars to the strophical organisation 
of Hebrew poetry is usually given to Koster (Das Buck Hiob und der Prediger 
Solomos nach ihrer strophischen Anordnung, 1813; Die Psalmen nach ihrer 
strophischen Anordnung, 1S37 ; and especially Die Strophen oder Parallelisnms 
der Verse der Heb. Poesie, S. K. 1831). But in fact many older scholars had 
recognised the strophe and antistrophe in Hebrew poetry ; so especially 
Anton. Even Lowth pointed out that there were stanzas of different numbers 
of lines (Prelim. Diss, to Isaiah). Koster builds on Lowth's system of par- 
allelism and maintains that groups of verses are arranged on the same princi- 
ples of parallelism as the verses themselves, and thus he gets various kinds of 
strophic parallelism corresponding with the various kinds of parallels of lines. 
He distinguishes (1) word strophes, (2) thought strophes, (a) synonymous, 
(b) antithetical, (c) synthetic, and (d) identical. In this he is essentially 
correct. De Wette, in the fourth edition of his Commentary, 1836, recognises 
that about all the Psalms are divided into strophes ; so Ewald, Olshausen, 
Delitzsch, and others in their Commentaries. There were, however, great 
differences of opinion as to the principles for determining the strophical 
organisation, as these scholars, one and all, made the strophical divisions 
dependent upon their opinions of the most important breaks in the thought of 
the poems. If they had built on Koster they would have been more success- 
ful. D. H. Miiller (Die Propheten in ihrer ursprtinglichen Form, 1895, Stro- 
phenbau und Responsion, 1898) classified the strophes under the terms, 
responsion, concatenation, and inclusion. As I said in 1899 ( SHS - 3 ") : "There 
is nothing new in his theory but the terminology and some of the illustrations. 
Responsion is simply the antithetical parallelism of strophes, concatenation is 
the stairlike parallelism of lines used in strophical relations, and inclusion is 
the introverted parallelism of strophes. I have taught all this for thirty years 
and given the doctrine of the strophe in the writings above referred to." 
Miiller was hardly justified in objecting to Zenner (Chorges'dnge im Buche 
der Psalmen, 1 896) as appropriating his ideas, for they were common prop- 
erty, the inevitable result of the application, since Koster, of the principles of 
parallelism to strophes. Rather Miiller himself was to blame for not properly 
recognising the work of his predecessors, which would have shown him that 
his views were not as original as he supposed. 

(F} There are also Refrains which some poets use in connec- 
tion with the various strophes of their poems. These are of sev- 
eral kinds : (a) they are often identical in thought and expression ; 
(b) the thought is the same but its expression varies ; (V) the 
d 



xlviii INTRODUCTION 

thought and expression both vary; (a 7 ) a number of Pss. were 
composed and arranged for singing by responsive choirs; and 
(e) some for solo voices and choruses. 

(a) Ps. 39 has 2 Str. 7 5 with identical Rf. I 5 ; Ps. 42-43 has 3 Str. g 5 with 
identical Rf. 3 5 . The following also have identical Rfs. : 46, 49, 56, 59, 62, 80, 
85, 116, I44 A . (b) Ps. 8 has an identical couplet of Rf. ; but it is before the first 
Str. and after the second Str., on the principle of inclusion or introverted 
parallelism, so 57 B (= io8 A ), cf. 58. Ps. 107 has double Rfs. (c) Ps. 45 has 
3 Str. of increasing length, 2, 6, 18, with a Rf. of one line at the close of each 
beginning with an identical term, but varying in thought and expression in 
other respects. Ps. 66 A has two Str. couplets, each introduced by a Rf. varying 
only in expression. The following Pss. are uniform in structure, with varying 
Rfs., 50, 84. (d) Pss. 20, 21 were sung by responsive choirs. The Rfs. vary 
in expression. They are trimeter couplets following 2 Str. S 3 in Ps. 20, and 
2 Str. 12 3 in Ps. 21. Ps. 24"- 10 was also arranged for responsive choirs with Rfs. 
in which there is identical expression in part, and in part variation. Pss. n8 A 
n8 B were also arranged for responsive choirs, (e) Ps. 15 has a couplet of 
inquiry, followed by a decalogue of moral requirement and a monostich of 
conclusion. Ps. 24 1 " 6 has a similar variety of inquiry, response, and statement. 
The recognition of Refrains and responsive choirs in the Psalter has been quite 
general. But there has been a great difference of opinion as to particular 
Pss. Zenner ( Chorges'dngc im Buche der Psalmen, 1896) pushes responsion to 
extraordinary lengths, and includes in his scheme a large number of Pss. that 
give no other suggestion of responsive choirs than the principle of responsion, 
which is, as we have seen, rather a characteristic of one kind of parallelism of 
Strophes as well as lines of Hebrew poetry. At the same time it is quite 
possible that the choirs of temple and synagogues made a more extended use 
of responsive singing than has ordinarily been supposed. This feature of 
responsion of Strophes certainly made such responsive singing easier; cf. 
Condamin, Le Livre dWsaie, 1905. The attempt of Baumann (ZDMG. 1905, 
S. I29sq.) to discredit the Rf. is based on false conceptions of the nature of a 
Rf., and is made in such a way as to discredit rather the author. 

§ 13. Several Pss. give evidence that they were parts of longer 
Pss. 

(1) Pss. 9 and 10 were originally one alphabetical Ps., as indeed they are 
given in ©, "B, and in the uses of the Roman Catholic, Greek, and Syriac 
Churches, making a difference of numbering of one less Ps. from Pss. 10- 113. 
Ps. 9 in the order of the alphabet reaches the Str. with 0, Ps. 10 begins with *? 
and continues the alphabetical structure to the end. However, there are 
several Strs. in which the letter has been lost, partly through mistake, partly 
from the intentional substitution of other words and sentences by editors. 



PSALMS DIVIDED OR COMPOSITE xlix 

(2) Pss. 42 and 43 were originally one. This is evident from the Rf., which 
comes twice in 42 and once in 43, and from the fact that the measures, 
strophical organisation, and entire character of the Pss. are the same. 

(3) Pss. 93, 96-100 were originally parts of a great royal advent Ps. of fifteen 
trimeter hexastichs. It was broken into six Pss., and these were edited with 
many changes for liturgical purposes. Even in f^ in twelve codd. 93 is part 
of 92, in nine codd. 95 of 94, in four codd. 96 of 95, in fourteen codd. 97 of 
96, in eight codd. 99 of 98. (4) Pss. 105 and 106 were originally one, each 
having twelve trimeter tetrastichs. (5) (3 also divides 116 and 147 into two 
Pss. each, followed by U, so that 1 17-147 f^, EV 8 ., are numbered differently 
from (3, 1J. 148-150 have the same number in all. 

§ 14. Many Pss. are composite of two or more original Pss. 
or parts of Pss. combined for liturgical purposes. Usually the 
original Pss. were of different poetic structure, and they are com- 
bitied in various ways by editorial seams. 

(1) Ps. 19 is composed of an early trimeter morning hymn in praise 
of the sun, v. 2-7 , and a late pentameter in praise of the divine Law, v. 8-16 . 
(2) Ps. 24 is composed of an original choral, v. 7-10 , and a later ethical Ps., 
v. 1-5 . (3) Ps. 40 is composed of an original Ps., v. 2-12 , of four pentameter pen- 
tastichs, to which was appended v. 13s< i- = Ps. 70 with editorial modifications. 

(4) Ps. 60 is composed of v. 8_12a , an ancient piece, and v. 3-7 - 12b " 14 , a more 
modern one. Ps. 108 is composed of v. 1_c = 57 8 " 12 and v. 7-14 = 6o 7-14 , not 
that this Ps. actually used parts of 57 and 60, but that it used one of the orig- 
inals of each of these Pss. (5) Ps. 89 is composed of a paraphrase of the 
Davidic covenant in four parts, each of four trimeter tetrastichs, v. 4-5 - 18 " 46 ; 
a much later tetrameter poem of six tetrastichs in praise of the fidelity of 
Yahweh in the creation and government of the world, v. 2-3 - 6_15 . These were 
combined at a still later date, and given a conclusion of two tetrameter hexa- 
stichs expressing an intense longing for divine interposition, v. 47-02 . (6) ©, 
5$, and even Ki. combine 114 with 115 in their 113 ; but in fact 115 is com- 
posed of four trimeter tetrastichs, v. 1-8 , and three trimeter hexastichs, v. 9-16 . 
(7) The following Pss. are also composite of two or three earlier Pss. : 27, 
36, 55» 57» 66 > 69, 77, 81, 95, 102, 109, 118, 127, 139, 144, 147. 

§ 15. Many early Pss. have been adapted by editors of the several 
minor and major Psalters for later use by glosses of various hinds. 
These are usually i?i different measures from those of the Pss. ; and 
frequently the persons and numbers of nouns and verbs differ from 
those of the original poems, as if the editors would carefully distin- 
guish their additions from the originals. 



1 INTRODUCTION 

These glosses are of several kinds. The simplest and most 
natural are liturgical in character, petitions, intercessions, calls to 
worship, expressions of praise and the like. Pss. expressive of 
piety and protestations of integrity are modified by the insertions 
of confessions of sin and pleas for forgiveness. Protestations of 
innocence are inserted in Pss. which lament the sufferings of the 
people of God from vindictive and cruel enemies. Personal, local, 
and earlier national relations are generalised so that earlier Pss. 
might with propriety be used in the public worship of late times. 
Early Pss. were adapted to the time of the supremacy of Law by 
legal glosses, to the times of Hebrew Wisdom by legal glosses, to 
the Maccabean times by lamentations for defeat, imprecations 
upon enemies, and other warlike expressions appropriate to a 
period of persecution and conflict. Early Pss. were enriched by 
illustrations from earlier literature, or by fuller and expansive 
statements. Several Pss. were given a Messianic reference in this 
way. Thus the editors of the various Psalters did exactly what 
the editors of prayer-books, liturgies, and hymn-books have always 
done. They had greater interest in editing the Pss. for public 
worship than in preserving their original literary form and mean- 
ing. Accordingly, many of the Pss. have lost their original literary 
form. They express varied states of mind, differences of experi- 
ence, inconsistent situations ; there are sudden and unexpected 
changes in tense of verbs, and in person and number of pronouns 
and suffixes. All this makes the Pss. richer in the expression of 
religious experience, and in this respect more suited to the varied 
needs of the congregation, but greatly injures their literary and 
historical value. 

It will be sufficient to call attention to several Pss. in which editorial work 
of various kinds appears. 

(i) The alphabetic Pss. show signs of changes of the text. Ps. 9 has the 
alphabetical structure preserved with Strs. n , 2, \ r, n. But the Strs. J, n, c, 
\ 3 have been modified. Ps. 10 has the alphabetic structure in S, p, 1, y, p. 
But the Strs. D, J, D, >, X are confused. Ps. 25 has an additional line with 
l for an original p. Ps. 34 adds two tetrameters. Ps. 37 has the Str. >' con- 
fused. Ps. 119 shows evidence of a great number of changes in the uses of 
terms for divine Law and in their order in the Strs. Ps. 145 lacks the Str. 1. 
The alphabetic form of La. has been well preserved, but that of Na. 1 has 
been confused still more than that of Pss. 9-10. (2) Ps. I 3 is a mosaic 



TEXTUAL GLOSSES AND ERRORS li 

from Je. 17 5 - 8 Ez. 47 12 Jos. I 8 interposed between two antithetical Strs.> mak- 
ing a metrical arrangement of the present Ps. impracticable. (3) Ps. 18 was 
a graphic ode of the time of David, preserved in another edition 1 S. 22. An 
editor prefixed a protestation of love, v. 2 . Another inserted an assertion of 
fidelity to the Deuteronomic Law, v. 21-24 ; still another of fidelity to the morals 
of Hebrew Wisdom, v. 25-28 , and there are other expressions indicating a later 
attitude of Israel to the nations than that represented in the original ode, 
v 36.456.46 50 # (^) p S- 2 2 was a graphic plea of suffering Israel. A later editor 
appended a liturgical gloss, v. 24-25 - 27 , another v. 28-32 , to give the sufferings a 
world-wide and Messianic significance. (5) Ps. 32, a simple penitential Ps., 
was enlarged by an ethical gloss, v. 2 , a gloss of intensification, v.", a gloss of 
warning, v. 8-9 , and a concluding liturgical gloss. (6) Ps. 44, an original Ps. 
of 3& was edited in f£ with a gloss of adaptation, v. 5 - 7 . Maccabean glosses 
appear in v. G - 8_9 , the exultation of victory, and in v. 10 - 12 , by another hand, the 
humiliation of defeat. (7) Ps. 65 is an ancient song of praise in the temple, 
v# 2. 3a. 5. 6a. 7. 8a 9'^ a gloss makes the worship universal, v. 35 - 66 ; another makes 
the divine wonders in nature an object of fear, v. 9a ; another thinks of the 
covering over of transgression, v. 4 . Later editors add fragments of two har- 
vest songs, the one, v. 10-11 , of the grain harvest; the other of the richness of 
flocks, v. 12-14 . (8) Ps. 72 8 - 12 is a mosaic of citations from Zee. 9 10 Is. 2 Jb. 29 12 . 
A large proportion of the Pss. have such glosses as these, adapting early Pss. 
to later uses, in the several successive editings of the Psalter. 

§ 16. The text of the Psalter shows a large number of errors, 
just such as o?ie would expect from its transmission through the 
hands of many different editors and copyists. There are essentially 
the same kinds of errors and subject to the same rules and principles 
of classification as those that are found in all Literature. 

The most of the Pss. were composed in the ancient Hebrew 
script, resembling the Samaritan letters. They were transliterated 
into the Egyptian Aramaic script, and finally into the later square 
Aramaic letters. In each of these scripts errors arose from mistakes 
as to similar letters both in form and in sound ; the transposition 
of letters in a word or of words in a sentence ; the wrong attach- 
ment of letters to words, or of words to sentences ; the trans- 
position of clauses ; and conjectures in the case of defective or 
illegible Mss. 

(1) There is a large number of mistakes of letters. A list of these is given 
in Or. {Com. on Pss., Vol. I. 128 sq.); cf. Baumgartner (£tude Critique 
sur Vetat du texte du livre des Proverbes, 2'j'j sq.). The following speci- 
mens of a very large number may suffice: 12 6 r\w, <&, J5, 2, j?dn. 14 6 Dnn 
= 53 6 DXD. l6 4 D.-PrDj; <S WilO}. l8 n NT = 2 S. 22 u K"V. 28 7 nVDj <&, &, 



Ui INTRO DUCriON 

nva. 29 2 n*nn; © msn. 30 8 nvi; (5 mn. 40 16 hjb* = 70 4 )2V\ 42 s d-hn; 
6 dtw. 40 5 oom; (5 D^an. 68 16 |*a; <S, &, jm. 71 21 aon; <g, 3, &, a»n. 
90 5 dhd-it; (5, &, onjnT. 9 1 13 W; (5, S, 3, ^nr. 97 11 jnr; @, 3, Sb, m?. 
109 10 rfflj <S W"U\ 109 11 rpr; <S, 3, B»p3\ 109 13 inn; (5 ins. 

(2) Transposition of letters : io° jna n"? for ©, 3, jn nS:j. i i c ano; 2 >cno. 
18 13 nay = 2 S. 22 18 nya. 18 48 na"vi = 2 S. 22 48 -p-ci, so 144' 2 . 25 s n^; <& h*. 
26 s pjro; (5 djh. 45 10 "^h; @» &» ion; 3 inc. 49 12 oanp; <S, &, &, onap. 
72 5 -px-P' 1 ; @ "jniw. 104 6 WD3j <J5 irrD. 

(3) Letters differently connected : 4 s no^aS maa for <g ncS 3V H33. II 1 
"lies D3*Vi nu, Vrss. -no* 1D3 in HU. 85° hSddS taw" Ski for <S nS D3S o«» n*o. 
106 7 d^ S>' for © O'Sjj. 

(4) Verses differently connected: 22 31 ma* : inS; but <S, U, Kiai nnS. 

25 1 *Phn I KVH, but <S ^nSM NfrK. 42 6 n^N : VJD, but V. 12 43 s \"I S N1 >JD. 

(5) 7^r*? tf/v many examples of dittography : io 10 DnSS" O'KaSn; io 14 
nnN »3 finm; 32 7 \n »ywn; 44 4 >j after r, so v. 20 . 

(6) The following specimens of haplography may be given : 38° ^m (n)o l, j 
42 2 n>'P (n)?*N3; 28 22 *?* ( ,1 ?n); 45 4 "p> for rp-p required for assonance. 

(7) Displacements : 5 18 fl«3 displaced from lonp "pr, making a confusion 
of similes. 

(8) Conflation by error : 32 8 pi nxo for piso confused with nWD ; 44 s 
T* nn *» but nnH not in ©, <£ ; 27 13 nSiS, <g only n. 

(9) Compression by omission: 3 9 nwS for mrv "|S t needed for measure; 
4 2 1x3 for h -\?2, needed for measure ; 7 3 pnb for pic ps <S, J5, required 
for measure ; 14 3 ~*D = jd 53 4 for jd nD, both needed for measure ; 19 5 en for 
oSn @, 3, 2 ; 23 s H?a«n for »l?ari <S, 2, for »nae«l 3, S, C required by con- 
text ; 24 10 P)N3X mni for niN3X vV?K nw, required for measure, so 46 s - 12 ; 
28 s idS for >epS <S, io ; 39 2 morn for n:c« <S, U ; 45 s nwD< for nw ^d" 1 <S, 
Aq., 2, £>, 3, required for measure. 

§ 17. A very large proportion of the changes in the text of the 
Psalms 7cas due to corrections of the scribes and glossators, who for 
various reasons endeavoured to improve the text to make it more 
intelligible and useful. 

The scribes corrected the text to make it more intelligible. 
The older writers were concise, and left many things to be inferred 
by the attentive reader. In the unpointed consonant text the 
words were not distinctly separated, and forms were written as 
briefly as possible, so that various interpretations were possible. 
There were also many abbreviations which might easily have been 
misunderstood. 

(A) There is a large number of grammatical glosses. (1) The most fre- 
quent change was the addition of suffixes to the noun or verb. In this <S 



EDITORIAL GLOSSES liii 

and f^ differ so frequently that it is improbable that they used different texts. 
It seems evident that they appended different suffixes to an original text, 
which was without them. The article in Hebrew, as in Greek, often expresses 
the possessive, and in poetry the article is frequently omitted. (2) The 
variations of number in nouns and verbs is due to the failure to distinguish 
numbers in the originals and the various interpretations of the scribes. It is 
probable that in the most ancient Hebrew texts, as in Syriac, the number 
of nouns and verbs was not always distinguished. (3) The same form is 
sometimes interpreted as a noun, sometimes as a verb, which was quite pos- 
sible when only the consonants of the form were written. It is precisely the 
same in unpointed Syriac texts. (4) In ^ and Vrss. forms are interpreted 
differently, as pf., impf., or ptc, all often for an original inf. abs. (5) Prepo- 
sitions were often inserted in order to make the relation of nouns and verbs 
more definite, especially after the older case distinctions had been lost. 
(6) Particles were inserted to make the connection of clauses more distinct, 
especially the relative "Y&x and the conjunctions "o and \ (7) The divine 
names were inserted very often in order to make it evident that God was the 
subject or object of the verb. (8) Personal and emphatic pronouns are frequent 
additions to the text. (9) Other subjects and objects were also inserted in 
order to make the meaning of the sentences more clear. In all these cases 
even f£j has been changed from a simpler original. In a very large number 
of instances the ancient Vrss., especially <S5 and 3, are more correct than 
ffi. Modern scholars have greatly erred in a too exalted estimate of the 
correctness of the unpointed Hebrew text in this regard. The measures 
make it evident that even $?, by its numerous additions and changes of 
the original, is as truly an interpretation of an older text as © and other 
ancient Vrss. 

(B) The glossators are responsible for many changes in the text. The earliest 
and simplest glosses are those originally put on the margins of Mss., which sub- 
sequently crept into the text. (1) These were often explanations of rare and 
obsolete words by more familiar ones. In this way doublets arose which are 
easily detected, especially when they make the line overfull. These sometimes 
extend to phrases, sentences, and even lines. (2) There are many ejacula- 
tions of prayer, or praise, or pious exclamation on the part of devout scribes, 
which were proper on the margin, but make confusion with measure and 
sense in the text itself. Many imprecations maybe thus explained. (3) There 
are many minor glosses due to the desire of the scribes to make the expres- 
sions stronger or clearer, and so they enlarge upon the original, intensify it, 
and elaborate it. (4) There are many Qrs. of the divine name in accordance 
with the uses of Elohim and Adonay in different periods for an original 
Yahweh ; and not infrequently both readings appear as a conflation of the 
original text. (5) Citations of older Scriptures were made to illustrate and 
strengthen the force of the original. Sometimes these were originally in the 
margin and afterward crept into the text. (6) Some of these glosses were 
absent from <g and other Vrss., and sometimes <g and other Vrss. have similar 



liv INTRODUCTION 

glosses which are not in f^. The measures and strophical organisation give 
great help in the detection of all such glosses. 

(C) By far the larger proportion of variations between |$ and the Vrss. 
consists in differences of interpretation of the same forms in the unpointed 
text. With these should be associated the variations in the use of the vowel 
letters and difference of interpretation as to their place in the form. It is 
altogether probable that vowel letters were much more sparingly used in the 
codd. of the first century B.C. than in |^. 2 6 'i?30£, but <& 'naojj 7 7 *Sh, but 
<S *V*» 9 14 n !Pi but Ac l-» $> n ?"J5 9 17 **&*» but ®» Aq., J5, C 0g*j; 9 21 htid, 
but @, &, ?rV>D; io 8 Vvrr, but j(, Aq., lVirr, @, j&, Es **v>; 12- DWDK, but © 
D^DK; 14 7 njW»,but 53 s rtynr*; 18' 26 -oj, but 2 S. 22^ niaj; 22 4 Brtnp, but 
<S, 3, e>7.p; 22 10 'woac, but ©, 3, S, 'noar, as 71 6 ; 27 s dw, but <@, 3, D»*v; 
29 9 rwW, but niSn; 31 11 ^>', but ©, 5, »JF, 2 "jjr; 32* ni6, but <S, 3, S 
prep, and nr, & IB'; 32 4 f*p, but @ fip; 32 s «Sp, (5 »Vy; 36 s2 JKP9, <g p»a. 
These are a few specimens only of a very great number throughout the 
Psalter. 

B. HIGHER CRITICISM OF THE PSALTER. 

§ 18. Ancient Jewish opinion regarded David as the editor of the 
Psalter and the author of a great portion of the Psalms, so that 
David and the Psalter were essentially synonymous terms. 

In a Beraitha of the tract Baba Bathra of the Talmud, the 
Psalter is placed second in the roll of Writings ; and it is said, 
" David wrote the Book of Psalms with the aid of the ten ancients, 
with the aid of Adam the first, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, 
Heman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Koran." The 
writing of David here is evidently editorship, and the Psalter is 
represented as containing Psalms from these ten worthies as well 
as from David. This statement comes from the second century 
a.d., and is stereotyped in Jewish tradition. But it will not sustain 
the test of criticism. Moses' name is in the title of Ps. 90; He- 
man's in 88 ; those of Asaph and the sons of Korah in groups of 
Pss. j Jeduthun's in Pss. 39, 62, 77 ; but in none of these cases can 
we think of authorship {v. §§ 28, 29, 34). The names of Adam 
and Melchizedek do not appear in the titles, but Melchizedek's 
name is in no 4 . Adam's name was possibly thought of in con- 
nection with the Ps. of creation, 104. But it is impossible to 
think of either of them as authors of Pss. Moreover, as will soon 
appear, no Ps. can be regarded as earlier than David, and few 
belong to his time. 



REFERENCES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT lv 

The apocalypse of Ezra represents that the ancient Psalter was destroyed 
with the other Writings and restored by Ezra, but that does not affect the 
question of original authorship. Josephus says that, " David, being freed 
from wars and dangers and enjoying a profound peace, composed songs and 
hymns to God of various sorts of meter. Some of those which he made were 
trimeters and some pentameters." David here stands essentially for the 
Psalter. This statement is not inconsistent with the Jewish tradition already 
given that David was aided by others in the composition of Pss., for it is a 
general and comprehensive statement. 

§ 19. In the New Testament David is used as the equivalent 
of the Psalter, and as such personified in the references to particular 
Psalms. Questions were not raised as to authorship or editorship. 

The Psalter is referred to as the Psalms, Lk. 24 44 , the Book of 
Psalms, Lk. 20 42 , Acts i 20 , and David, Heb. 4/. The latter passage 
cites from Ps. 95, which has no title. There are in the NT. many 
citations, direct or indirect, from the Psalter. Six are cited under 
the name of David, 2, 16, 32, 69, 109, no, and these simply use 
the name as a common designation which amounts to nothing 
more than " the Psalter " itself. Only one of these Pss. could by 
any possibility have come from the time of David, and that is 
altogether improbable. 

Ps. 2 1-2 is cited in Acts 4 C5 - 2 ~ as by "the mouth of our father David"; but 2 7 
is cited, Acts 13 s3 as " in the second Ps.," and in Heb. I 5 5 5 as a word of God. 
Ps. i6 8_n is cited in Acts 2 25 ~ 28 as "David saith " ; but 16 106 in Acts 13 35 as 
"in another (Ps.)." Ps. 32 1 - 2 is cited in Rom. 4 7-8 as David's blessing. 
Ps. 69' 2? " 24 is cited in Rom. u 9 " 10 as "David saith" ; but 69 5 in Jn. 15 25 as 
"written in their Law"; 69 10a in Jn. 2 17 as "it was written"; 69 106 in 
Rom. 15 3 as " it is written" ; 69 s2 in Jn. 19^-29 as "that the scripture might 
be accomplished"; 69' 2 ' 3 in Acts i 2) as "written in the Book of Psalms," 
though doubtless included under the general statement Acts i 16 "by the 
mouth of David." The same is true of 109 8 cited in the same passage. 
Ps. no 1 is cited by our Lord as " David himself said in the Holy Spirit," 
Mk. 12 36 . Cf. Mt. 22 43 " 44 ; but Lk. 20 42 - 43 as "David himself saith in the 
Book of Psalms"; and so Acts 2 34 ~ 36 "(David) saith himself"; and in 
Heb. i 13 as God's words. Jesus and Peter were arguing with the Pharisees 
in the Halacha method on the basis of received opinion. There were no good 
reasons why Jesus and his apostles should depart from these opinions, even if 
they did not share them. There was no reason why Jesus as a teacher should 
have come to any other opinion on this subject than his contemporaries held. 
This was not a matter in which his divine knowledge would have influenced 



lvi INTRODUCTION 

his human training. He was doubtless not informed as to matters of criticism 
which did not confront him in his day. We cannot, therefore, regard this 
single statement of Jesus as decisive of the authorship of Ps. 1 10 {v. Br. He «- »• 
Gore, Lux Afundi, 360). The other citations (a table of which is given by 
Kirk. vol. III. 838 sq.) will be considered in connection with the History of 
the Interpretation of the Psalter ; v. § 47. 

§ 20. There zvas no consensus of the Fathers, and there was no 
decision of the Church, as to questions of the Higher Criticism of 
the Psalter, although the common traditional opinion, in the ancient 
and medieval Church, was that David was its author. 

Jerome (Ep. 140 ad Cyprianum) held that Moses wrote besides 
Ps. 90 also 91-100, on the theory that anonymous Pss. are to be 
attributed to the author last nanred. In this he follows Jewish 
opinion that the Psalter was edited as well as written by David. 
Augustine (Be Civitate Dei 17 14 ) held that the more credible 
opinion was that David was the author of the Psalter. Theodore 
of Mopsuestia explains seventeen Pss. as referring to the Macca- 
bean age, but he seems to suppose that they were written by David 
in the spirit of prophecy. 

§ 21. Calvin among the Refonners regarded Ezra as the editor 
of the Psalter, and in this was followed by Du Pin and others ; 
but the prevailing opinion until the eighteenth centujy was that 
David wrote the entire Psalter. 

Calvin held that Ezra or some one else edited the Psalter, and 
made the first Ps. an introduction to the collection. Andrew 
Rivetus says : " This only is to be held as certain, whether Moses 
or David or any other composed the Psalms, they themselves were 
as pens, but the Holy Spirit wrote through them " (prolog, to his 
Com. on the Psalms). Casaubon says, " The truth is they are not 
all David's Psalms, some having been made before and some long 
after him, as shall be shown in due place " (preface to Com. on 
Psalms). Du Pin said, " Though the Psalms are commonly called 
the Psalms of David, or rather the Book of the Psalms of David, 
yet 'tis certain, as St. Jerome has observed in many places, that 
they are not all of 'em his, and that there are some written long 
after his death. 'Tis therefore a collection of songs that was made 
by Ezra " (Dissert. Prelim. Bib. des Auteurs eccl. 1696, pp. 1-5). 
These represent Protestant and Roman Catholic opinions, freely 



CRITICAL THEORIES lvii 

expressed without censure, against the still prevailing traditional 
opinion that David was the author of all the Psalms {v. Br/ HS - 262 ). 

§ 22. With the rise of the Higher Criticism, the traditio7ial 
opinion as to the Davidic authorship of the Psalter was questioned, 
and soon abandoned by all critics. At first editorship by Ezra and 
the Davidic authorship of only those Psalms which have David in 
their titles was proposed ; but subsequently ijiternal evidence showed 
this to be impossible, so that critical opinion gradually came to the 
result that the final editorship of the Psalter could not have been 
earlier than the Maccabean period, and that David wrote few, if 
any, of the Psalms, the most of them being postexilic. 

After the Davidic authorship of the entire Psalter had been 
generally abandoned, an effort was made to rally about the Davidic 
authorship of those Pss. which have TTI7 in their title, on the 
theory that the 7 is ? of ascription to an author. But this position 
could not be maintained ; for a constantly increasing number of 
scholars, such as Eichhorn, Ros., Bauer, Jahn, De W., al., recognised 
many of these Pss. as later than David. Horsley says, " The mis- 
application of the Psalms to the literal David has done more mis- 
chief than the misapplication of any other part of the Scriptures, 
among those who profess the Christian religion " {Book of Psalms, 
Vol. L, Pref. 14). Ewald recognised 11 Pss. of David, besides a 
few fragments taken up into later Pss. ; Hi. found 14, Schultz 
36, De. 44. After De. had abandoned the Davidic authorship of 
30 of the 74, and Schultz 38 of them, it was no longer possible to 
urge Davidic authorship from the titles, and scholars had to depend 
on internal evidence alone. Many recent critics refuse to recog- 
nise a single Psalm as written by David ; so Gr., Ku., Reu., Stade, 
Che., Du. ; and the most of them no preexilic Pss. But other 
critics, such as Ba\, Dr., Kirk., rightly refuse this extreme position, 
and still think of preexilic and even Davidic Psalms. 

§ 23. The Higher Criticism of the Psalter depends chiefly upon 
the internal evidence of the Psalms themselves. The titles are valu- 
able for traces of the history of their use ; but their contents, their 
interrelation, and their relation to other writings of the OT, give 
the only reliable evidence as to their origin a?id transmission. 

The Higher Criticism of the Psalter has made it evident that 
there is no dependence to be placed upon any of the traditional 



lviii INTRODUCTION 

theories ; for it is manifest that they were all conjectural, and rested 
upon insufficient evidence. We are thrown back first upon the 
titles. These came from the hands of editors, and with the excep- 
tion of a few words, were not attached to the original Pss. They 
therefore give evidence of the different stages in the editing and 
use of the Pss. ; and not of the authorship, date, or character of 
the originals. For these questions we must depend on a few 
external evidences of citation and silence, but for the most part 
on internal evidence alone : the poetic form and spirit, the subject 
matter in its relation to the development of religion, faith, and 
morals, the slight traces of historic circumstances and conditions, 
citations from earlier writings, the use of words and phrases in 
their relation to the development of the Hebrew language and 
literature, and other like evidences used in the Higher Criticism 
of all literature (v. Br. 8HS - Wi *). 

The Pss. are divided into two great classes, those with titles and those 
without. The latter are usually designated as " orphans." The titles cer- 
tainly came from the hands of editors. There are a few instances in which 
parts of the titles may have been attached to the original Pss., but these are 
comparatively unimportant. The titles represent several stages of editing. 
This process still continued in <@ and j§ after the Hebrew text became stereo- 
typed. These Vrss. do not hesitate to make conjectural additions to the 
titles, and even, in some cases, to make substitutions. The neglect into 
which the titles fell, soon after their traditional interpretation was abandoned, 
was really discreditable to Criticism ; for they give the opinion and show the 
methods of a number of different editors. They are, as it were, the prints of 
their fingers, which give important evidence as to the condition and use of the 
Pss., at several different periods. Much work has been given to the subject 
in more recent times. The views which I shall present are based chiefly 
on my own private study during the past forty years. I cannot agree with 
my friend Cheyne in his opinion that the titles are chiefly corruptions of 
original local and personal references which he restores by purely specu- 
lative criticism. Undoubtedly we must resort to speculative criticism when 
all other means fail us, but there is no such necessity as regards the titles 
of the Pss. All the evidences used in the Higher Criticism come into play 
in the investigation of the Pss. There are many citations in the NT. and 
other later literature, but there are few citations in the OT. books themselves, 
or in the Apocrypha or Pseudepigrapha. So far as those in the Apocrypha 
or Pseudepigrapha are concerned, they give no help back of the Maccabean 
period. The argument from silence has little part in the study of the Psalter, 
because of the special lyric character and the limited extent of the Pss. Very 



ANCIENT SONGS lix 

great importance must be attached to the study of words and phrases. These 
give evidence of relative position in the development of the Hebrew language 
and literature. We have to take account of the archaic character of poetic 
composition ; but with due allowance for this feature, great help has been 
found in this study. I have made a lexicon of the Psalter, giving every word 
and every use of every word, and comparing these with the uses of other OT. 
literature. This has cost me an immense labour for some years, but has 
amply repaid me by the fresh light cast upon the Pss. The study of Biblical 
Theology in its historical development, to which I have given many years of 
labour and teaching, has also aided in the Higher Criticism of the Psalter. 
There are comparatively few historical traces, but these, though often obscure, 
have sometimes been found illuminating. 

§ 24. The earliest term to appear in the titles was doubtless 
" Song" which, in some cases at least, was attached to the originals. 
It indicated a lyric poem used for singing, especially on joyous occa- 
sions ; in later times especially in religious worship of praise, and 
by the Levitical choirs. 

Ps. 18 1 (=2 S. 22 1 ) has in the title, f ITVttf n.f., a song, espe- 
cially an ode, as that of the crossing of the Red Sea, Ex. 15 1 ; the 
Song of the Fountain, Nu. 2 1 17 ; the Song of Moses, Ut. 3 1 19 - 19 2L 22 - » 
32 44 ; the Song of the Vineyard, Is. 5 1 ; love songs accompanied by 
a lyre, Is. 23 15 . This ancient term, not used after the time of Heze- 
kiah, was in all probability attached to this earliest of the Pss. 

\ "vc ; n. i?i. song : (1) of a lyric character, distinguished from bun I K. 5 12 , 
antith. to nyp Am. 8 10 , sung on joyous occasions Gn. 3i 27 +; of love songs 
Ps. 45 1 n-p-p "pit, cf. Ct. i 1 title ; not suited to sorrow Ps. 137 3 ; (2) of a 
religious type used in worship of God : || nSon 42 s ; usually of praise "veto ^Sn 
698I; -yiPD mm 28 7 , cf. Ne. 12 46 ; nw 'v Ps. 137 4 , cf. 2 Ch. 2a/ 27 ; pw 'V 
Ps. 137 3 ; Bhn 'V 33 3 40 4 96 1 98 1 144 9 149 1 , cf. Is. 42 10 (indicating a fresh 
outburst of song) ; so in titles of Pss. : "vtf 46 1 ; rrrVynn ne pilgrim songs in 
titles of 120-134 ; -iidtd 'tf 48 1 66 1 83 1 88 1 108 1 ; -ptf 1TOTD 30 1 65 1 67 1 68 1 
75 1 76 1 87 1 92 1 ; 'tf S'ofc'D 45 1 v. supr. sub (1). In all these cases except 30 1 
92 1 108 1 other terms are added to an original "va* (v. Br. JBL - xvin. 138) 

Ps. 30 1 has nun rojn "V3> song for the dedication of the house or temple ; 
Ps. 92 1 navn z\h "\*>v song for the Sabbath day. These indicate liturgical 
uses, and must have come from editors and not from authors. Ps. 108 is a 
late composite Ps., and -v:r in the title may have come from the title of the 
original, v. 8 ~ 14 = 6o 8 " 14 , which is an early song of triumph. The character of 
8^, 88 does not seem to suit the term, for the former is essentially an impre- 
cation upon enemies of the time of Nehemiah, the latter a lament of the early 
exile. At the same time these terms seem to be original to the Pss. and 



lx INTRODUCTION 

probably imply a more comprehensive meaning for W, such as is certainly 
found in the nV?;'-'" 1 "V*% Pss. 120-134, a collection of Pss. of great variety, 
hymns, prayers, and didactic Pss. ; a little social song book for pilgrims to the 
great feasts (v. § 36). (3 also uses yb-fi for "vs> in Pss. 91, 93, 95, 96, for 
reasons difficult to discover, for, while it is appropriate enough in 93, 95, 96, 
it seems not appropriate to 39, 91. 

§ 25. Miktam hi the titles of seven Psalms indicates that they 
7vere tahen from an early collection of choice pieces, made in the 
middle Persian period. 

Pss. 56-60 have Miktam in their titles, so also Ps. 16. To these 
must be added Is. 38 9_:20 . There were probably other pieces which 
have been lost because they were not used by the editors of the 
early Psalters. These all bear on their faces evidences of 
antiquity. None of them were composed later than the early 
Persian period. 

The most of the Rabbis rightly interpret DD3D, as formed by prefix d from 
the noun DPS gold, and thus think of golden piece, in accordance with the 
ancient custom to name select poems, gems, jewels, choice pieces, and the 
like. This indeed indicates their character, for they are artistic in form and 
choice in their contents. Pss. 56, 57, 59, 60, are trimeters; 16, 58, are tetram- 
eters. Is. 38 9 " 20 is a pentameter. 56, 57, 58, 59, have refrains, catch words, 
and other ornaments of style. They all have rare words, strange combina- 
tions, and a vigorous roughness of style, and express strong emotions. They 
resemble in this respect the preexilic prophets, and are among the most 
ancient of the Pss. Ps. 60° belongs to the early monarchy; 58, Is. 38 9 - 20 , to 
the middle monarchy; 56 to the late monarchy; 16, 57", 59, to the early 
Persian period. Five have editorial assignments: 56, 57, 59, 60, to circum- 
stances of David's career ; Is. 38 9 ~ 2:i of Hezekiah's. The 3nos of Is. 38° is 
probably an error for DH3D. Pss. 16, 56-60, were taken up into TB, the earliest 
Psalter (v. § 27) ; Pss. 56-60 were also used in 12 and Q& (v. §§ 36, 37), 
but 16 was not included in these Psalters. This doubtless explains the sepa- 
ration of 16 from the group. (3 interprets DroD as arrfKoypa^la, inscription 
on a tablet, tituli inscriptio, V ; so & as if it were arOD. De. suggests on 
this basis, a memorial or catchword poem. Ps. 60 has also no^ 1 ? after "in?. 
This was evidently ancient, and, standing by itself, is meaningless. It probably 
has the same meaning as in the title of the Lament of David over Jonathan, 
2 S. i 18 , and probably was originally with it and others of the same kind in 
the Book of Yashar. 

§ 26. Maskil, in the titles of thirteen Psalms, indicates a collectio?i 
of meditations made in the late Persian period. 



THE MASKILIM lxi 

Pss. 32, 42-45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, 142, have Maskil in their 
titles. These were separated because of the selections made by 
the editors of the several minor and major Psalters. None of 
them, in their original forms, were composed later than the Persian 
period, and therefore they were probably collected not later than 
the late Persian period. 

b^yc'TZ was formed by the prefix from Safer in the Hiph. consider, contem- 
plate, and is, therefore, probably a meditation, meditative poem, so De. "pious 
meditation," cf. Ps. 47 s SwD IDT. So essentially <3 aw4(reus or els cvveaiv; 
TiJ intellectus, or ad intellectum ; 3 eruditio. This suits the character of these 
Pss. essentially ; so Ges., De W., Hi., regard them as poems to enforce piety 
and wisdom. ^SPD is defined by Ew. as a song with cheerful music to be 
accompanied with clear-sounding cymbals, and in this is followed by many 
moderns ; so Kirk. " a cunning Psalm " ; but this does not suit the internal 
character of many of these Pss. These Pss. were all comparatively early in 
their original forms: 45 middle monarchy; 52, 54, 55, late monarchy; 42- 
43, 74, 88, 89°, 142, exile ; 32, 53, 78, early Persian period ; 44 late Persian. 
Pss. 32, 52-55, 142, were taken up into 13 ; 42-45 into H£; 74, 78, into %. Of 
these, 42-45, 52-55, were also in H32&, and these with 74-78 in 3S. Moreover, 
these two pseudonyms are Maskilim ; 88 of Heman, which was also in ©3ft, 
and 89" of Ethan, which was not in any of the minor Psalters. None of 
these Pss. are orphans. It is quite probable that there were other Pss. in the 
original collection, which have been lost. 

§ 27. David in the titles of seventy-four Psabjis indicates, not 
authorship, but, with few exceptions, the first of the minor Psalters, 
gathered under the name of David in the late Persia?i period, from 
which these Psalms were take?i by later editors of the major Psalters. 

1. It is evident from the internal character of these Pss., with 
a few possible exceptions, that David could not have written them. 
It is improbable that the word David was designed by the early 
editors to indicate their opinion that these Psalms were Davidic in 
authorship. The v is not the 7 of authorship, as has generally 
been supposed. The earliest collection of Pss. for use in the syna- 
gogue was made under the name of David, the traditional father 
of religious poetry and of the temple worship. The later editors 
left this name in the titles, with the preposition ? attached, to 
indicate that these Psalms belonged to that collection. This 
explains all the facts of the case and the position of these Pss. in 
the Psalter. This view is confirmed by Ps. 72 20 , which states that 



Ixii INTRODUCTION 

this Ps. was the conclusion of the prayers of David, and implies 
that the collection was a prayer-book. This statement is in ac- 
cordance with the contents of these Psalms, for they are for the 
most part prayers. Some of the Pss. with David in the titles could 
not, however, have been in the Davidic Prayer-book. Pss. 86, 
103, 108, 122, 124, 131, 133, 145, all belong to the Greek period. 
David was for various reasons inserted in the titles by later 
editors. Still later editors continued to attach David's name to 
other Pss. in (3, <£, and @L All the other Pss. which bear the 
name of David were composed, in their original form, with a single 
exception, not later than the middle Persian period. Ps. 68 seems 
to belong to the late Persian period, to which, therefore, we may 
assign the final collection of the Davidic Psalter (Q). Thirteen 
of these Pss. have in their titles references to incidents in the life 
of David. It seems probable that they were an original collection 
by themselves, which the editor of 13 used as his nucleus. 

The Pss. with -rnS are the following : 3-9, 11-32, 34-41, 51-65, 68-70, 86, 
101, 103, 108-110, 122, 124, 131, 133, 138-145. To these we must add 10, 
whose title does not appear because it was really, as in ©, the conclusion of 9. 
<S also gives David in the titles of ^2> 43» 67, 71, 91, 93~99, 104, 137, fourteen 
others ; but 43 is a part of 42 of It ; 93, 96-99 are parts of the royal Advent 
Ps. ; 104 is part of the group 104-107; 137 is a Ps. of the captivity not 
suited to a prayer-book, asQ; 71 is dependent on earlier Pss. of Q ; ^ was 
given the title as in the midst of Pss. of ©. It is improbable that this would 
have been omitted in |^ if genuine. 67, 91, 94, 95, have no claim to have been 
in Q. These insertions of <S are all conjectures of later editors. But such 
conjectures appear also in |t?. The four pilgrim Pss. 122, 124, 131, 133, could 
not have been in 3. David came into the title of 145 from its connection 
with the group 138-144. Ps. 108 is composite of earlier Pss. of Q ; 86, 103, 
received David into the titles because of resemblance and use of Pss. of Q. 
None of these Pss. is earlier than the Greek period. All the other Pss. with 
David in the titles in |^ were probably in Q ; and it may be that other Pss. 
were therein which have been lost, or placed ultimately elsewhere in the OT. 
Ps. 72, in its original form, was at the conclusion of the Davidic prayer-book, 
as sufficiently indicated by the subscription v. 20 . It is also probable that Ps. 2 
was its introduction, as is most suitable on account of its reference to the 
Davidic covenant. If now we remove the duplicate 53 (= 14), there are 
68 Pss. which we may regard as in Q. These Pss. have been disturbed from 
their original order by the selections from them made by later editors. Among 
the Mizmorim appear : 3-6, 8-10, 12-13, 15, 19-24, 29-31, 38-41, 51, 62-65, 
68, 101, 109-110, 139-141, 143. For OK were selected: 4-6, 8-14, 18-22, 



PSALTER OF DAVID lxiii 

3 1 * 36, 39-4 1 1 5!-5 2 > 54-62, 64-65, 68-70, 109, 139-140. In E were selected 
51-65, 68-70, 72. 

(2) Thirteen Pss. of IB have in their titles references to certain incidents 
in the life of David. These statements all depend upon the narratives of 
Samuel, and were subsequent to the Deuteronomic redaction of the prophetic 
histories : Ps. 3, " when he fled from Absalom his son," cf. 2 S. 15. Ps. 7, 
" which he sang to Yahweh concerning the words of Cush a Benjamite," cf. 
2 S. 16. Ps. 18, " in the day that Yahweh delivered him from the hand of all 
his enemies and from the hand of Saul," cf. 2 S. 22 1 . Ps. 34, "when he 
changed his behaviour before Abimelech who drove him away and he 
departed," cf. 1 S. 2i 10sc K Ps. 51, "when Nathan the prophet came unto 
him after he had gone in to Bathsheba," cf. 2 S. 12. Ps. 52, "when Doeg the 
Edomite came and told Saul, and said unto him, David is come to the house 
of Abimelech," cf. I S. 22 9 8< K Ps. 54, " when the Ziphites came and said to 
Saul, Doth not David hide himself with us ? " cf. I S. 23 19 «J- || 26 1 8( i-. Ps. 56, 
"when the Philistines took him in Gath," cf. I S. 27. Ps. 57, "when he fled 
from Saul, in the cave," cf. I S. 22. Ps. 59, " when Saul sent, and they 
watched the house to kill him," cf. I S. 19 s-17 . Ps. 60, " when he strove with 
Aram Naharaim and with Aram-zobah, and Joab returned and smote of Edom 
(error for Aram) in the Valley of Salt twelve thousand," cf. 2 S. 8 13 10. 
Ps. 63, " when he was in the wilderness of Judah," I S. 22 5 8< J-. Ps. 142, " when 
he was in the cave," cf. 1 S. 24. These thirteen Pss. were all in 0, but only 
52, 54, 142, are Maskilim ; 56, 57, 59, 60, Miktamim ; 3, 51, 63, Mizmorim. 
Therefore the statements can have nothing to do with these collections. 
Furthermore IE uses eight: 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63, omitting five ; 02ft 
also uses eight : 18, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, omitting five ; 3, 7, 34, 142, were 
used by neither. Therefore these notices could not have come from these 
editors. is thus the only collection in which all are found, and therefore 
either the editor of must have been responsible for them, or these state- 
ments must have been in his sources. It is improbable that he would assign 
historical occasions to only thirteen out of his collection of sixty-eight. We 
must therefore seek them in his sources. But it is evident that they do not 
belong to the original Pss., for the only one that comes from the time of 
David is the original of Ps. 18, which gets its title from 2 S. 22 1 . 2 S. 23 1 
gives another poem which is attributed to David in the same way. These 
titles of the Pss. came from an editor of the same type as the one who inserted 
these poems in the book of Samuel. It is probable, therefore, that these thir- 
teen Pss. constituted a little collection of Davidic Psalms. The editor of 
used them just as he found them, with these titles as the nucleus of his collec- 
tion. They are not, however, in their original order, if designed to illustrate 
the life and experience of David. Their order, according to the narratives of 
Samuel, would be rather: 59, 57, 63, 52, 54, 142, 56, 34, 6o a , 51, 3, 7, 18. It 
is quite possible that 2 S. 23 ls <i- was originally at the end, and the lament of 
David over Jonathan, 2 S. i 19 " 27 , in the middle before 60, making fifteen in 
all. One of these, Ps. 6o a , was probably in the book of Yashar as well 



lxiv INTRODUCTION 

as 2 S. I 19-27 . These Pss. originated in different periods and in different circum- 
stances, such as accord only in some respects with these titles. Ps. 18 in its 
original form was probably Davidic, and possibly Pss. 7, 6o a . Ps. 3 was from 
the middle monarchy ; 52, 54, 56, the late monarchy ; 63, 142, from the 
exile; 34, 57°, 59, the early Persian; and 51 probably from the time of 
Nehemiah. It is altogether improbable, therefore, that an editor of the 
middle Persian period could have thought that his references to experiences 
of David were historical. He made them to illustrate the Pss., as the editor 
of 2 S. 22-23 used the Pss. to illustrate the close of David's career (cf. the use 
of Pss. in 1 Ch. 16). It is noteworthy that not long before the Pseudonyms, 
Ps. 72, 88, 89, appeared {v. § 34). 

(3) We may determine the original order of the Pss. in Q only by the most 
careful review of all these facts. Ps. 72 was originally the concluding Ps. of 
D (v. 20 ). We shall have to suppose, therefore, that 101, 109-110, 138-144, 
were removed from their original positions before 72. It is altogether prob- 
able that 16 was, in Q, still connected with the group 56-60. The groups 51- 
65, 68-70, 72, selected by IE from Q, are not in their original places. The 
Pss. with historical references 3, 7, 18, 34, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63, 142, 
were, as we have seen, originally in the same group. The key to their order 
is doubtless in 18, originally the last of the series. It is probable that Q3& 
followed the original order for the most part, so far as 4-6, 8-14, 19-22, 31, 
36, 39-41, are concerned, but the order of £ in 51-62, 64-65, 68-70. That 
109, 139-140, appear so late must be due to a still later editor. The order 
of £ft is also substantially original: 3-6, 8-10, 12-13, x 5» I 9 -2 4> 2 9~3 l > 3&- 
41,51,62-65,68, 101, 109-110, 139-141, 143, except as disturbed by later 
editors. The Pss. with nnS alone, 17, 25-28, 34-35, 37, 138, 144, which, there- 
fore, did not appear in the intermediate Psalters, and those used by Q& only, 
n, 14, 36, and by Q& and B only, 61, 69-70, are probably out of their 
original order. Inasmuch as 70 was attached to the end of 40, it is probable 
that the original order of Q was 69, 40, 70. The following may therefore be 
given as a provisional theory of the original order, 2, 4-6, 8-13, 14 (= 53), 
16, 17, 59, 63, 52, 57, 54, 142, 56, 34, 60, 51, 3, 7, 18 (30, 55, 58, 61-62, 64- 
65), 19-24 (15, 101), 25-28 (35, 37, 138-141, 143, 144), 29, 31-32, 36, 38, 39 
(68, 109, no, 69, 40, 70), 41, 72. 

The Pss. of Q, in their original, may be dated as follows: (1) The early 
monarchy, 7, 13, 18, 23, 24* 60° no. (2) The middle monarchy, beginning 
with Tehoshaphat, 3, 20, 21, 2j a 58, 61. (3) The late monarchy, beginning 
with Josiah, 19" 28, 36" 52, 54, 55, 56, 6o^ 62, 72. (4) The exile, 63, 142. 
(5) The early Persian period, before Nehemiah's reforms, 4, 6, 9-10, n, 12, 
14 (= 53). 16, 17, 22, 25, 31, 32, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40^ (= 70), 41, 57° 59, 

64, 69° 101, 109" 140° 143, 144°. (6) Middle Persian period of internal 
and external peace after Nehemiah's reforms, 5, 8, 15, 26, 29, 30, 40 6 51, 57 6 

65, 69^ 138, 139 6 141. (7) Late Persian period of strife and confusion, 68. 
It is probable, therefore, that Q was edited toward the close of the Persian 
period, in Palestine, for use in the synagogues. To these Pss. other Pss. 



PSALTER OF THE KORAHITES lxv 

and glosses were added by later editors, for practical purposes in public 
worship. 

§ 28. The term " sons of Korah " in the titles of eleven Psalms 
indicates a collection of religious poems, made in the early Greek 
period, from which these were taken. 

Two groups of Pss., 42-49, and 84, 85, 87, 88, have in their 
titles " belonging to the Sons of Korah." The separation of the two 
groups was due to a selection of the former group by an editor, 
who united them with 50-83. The other group was appended from 
the original collection by the final editor of the Psalter. These 
Pss. have common features which are not sufficient to imply the 
same author or authors, but yet imply careful selection. These 
are (1) a desire to engage in the worship of the sacred places ; 
(2) confidence in Yahweh, the king enthroned in Jerusalem, who 
watches over the people from thence and saves them ; (3) a highly 
artistic finish and symmetrical poetic forms. These Pss. were 
selected from a collection of Pss. gathered under the name of the 
Sons of Korah, in Palestine, in the early Greek period. 

nip iJ3 is doubtless the same as cmpn ya, 2 Ch. 20 19 , a guild of temple 
singers distinguished from DTinpn >ja, another guild. According to I Ch. 
518 sq. (33 sq.^ Heman, a Kohathite, Asaph, a descendant of Gershom, and 
Ethan, of the sons of Merari, represented the three sons of Levi. According 
to 1 Ch. 26 19 the doorkeepers of the temple were Sons of Korah and Merari. 
Ezr. 2 41 Ne. 7 44 mention only sons of Asaph as singers. According to 
1 Ch. 6 7 - 18s( J- Heman was mp p, a grandson of Kohath, and so both Kohathite 
and Korahite. The term " Korahite " seems to have been substituted for " Ko- 
hathite," and Heman was the representative of the line, as Asaph was of the 
line of Gershom. Both were guilds of temple singers in the temple of the 
Restoration. All of these Pss. except 48 and 87 were taken up into 2B3£. 
These have the title nsjoS at the beginning, but 88 has two titles, and mjr 1 ? 
is at the beginning of the second. This singularity makes it probable that 
the first title was a later addition, due to the conjecture that, inasmuch as 
Heman mentioned in the second title was the chief of the Korahites, his Ps. 
should have that title also. Ps. 88 was simply a Maskil of Heman, as 89 was 
a Maskil of Ethan. Ps. 49 differs so much in character from the other Kora- 
hite Pss. that it seems probable that it was not Griginally with that collection, 
and that the name came into the title by txt. err. or editorial conjecture, 
because the Ps. was attached to the group 42-48, immediately before 50 of 
Asaph. It represents an early type of WL. Ps. 43 was originally the third 
Str. of 42, as is evident from the common Rf. and from internal characteristics 



lxvi INTRODUCTION 

which are common. The remaining nine Pss. have been preserved from 1st. 
We are unable to say whether It had more of them, or not. The group 
42-49 differs from the group 84-85, 87-88, by the use of the divine name 
Elohim in the former and Yahweh in the latter. This difference was not in 
1st, but was due to IE, who changed Yahweh into Elohim. I& originally used 
Yahweh throughout. These Pss. represent different periods of history : 45 
from the time of Jehu; 46, 87, time of Josiah; 42-43, 84, time of Jehoiachin; 
47, middle Persian period after Nehemiah; 44, 48, 85, late Persian period; 
42-43, 44, 45 were taken from the collection of o^3»c. As none of these Pss. 
are later than the Persian period, and so many are late in that period, it is 
probable that the collection was made early in the Greek period. These Pss. 
are highly artistic in form. Five of them have Refrains: 42-43, 45, 46, 84, 
85; three are trimeters, 44, 47, 85; one tetrameter, 46; four pentameters, 
42-43, 48, 84, 87, and one varies between tetrameter and trimeter, 45. They 
are all highly poetic in content, and on the whole the choicest collection in 
the Psalter from a literary point of view. 

§ 29. The term " Asaph " in the titles of twelve Psalms indicates 
a collection of religious poems made in Babylonia in the early Greek 
period, fro?n which these Psalms were derived. 

The group of Pss. 73-83 and the detached 50 have Asaph in 
their titles. The separation of 50 from the group was due to a 
later editor, probably in order to make an appropriate concluding 
Ps. to the first division of 50. These Pss. have common features : 
( 1 ) vivid descriptions of nature ; (2) emphasis of divine providence 
in the life of the individual ; (3) use of history with a didactic pur- 
pose; (4) exalted spiritual conceptions of God; (5) sublimity of 
style. These features are not sufficient to show a common author 
or guild of authors, but imply careful selection by an editor with 
a plan and purpose to set forth those features. The Pss. were 
originally in a collection by themselves, made in the early Greek 
period, probably in Babylonia. 

f|Dx was a Levite, the son of Berechiah, 1 Ch. 6 24 W\ one of the three chiefs 
of the Levitical choir, 1 Ch. 15 17 ; a seer, 2 Ch. 29 30 ; associated with David 
Ne. 12 46 . p| DN ^3 are mentioned I Ch. 25 1 - 2 as set apart to prophesy with 
musical instruments. It is evident that this Asaph could not have been the 
author of the collection, or, indeed, of any of its Pss., for they are all of 
a much later date. "Asaph" is used as a name of the collection, just as 
" David " and " Sons of Korah " of the other collections. Only five of the 
twelve Pss. were used in TB1&, but all by IE. The Pss. of <& are chiefly 
religious poems, in which the didactic element prevails. These Pss., apart 



PSALTER OF ASAPH Ixvii 

from glosses, were composed probably as follows: 74, 77" 79, 8i ft 82, during 
the Exile ; 75, 76, 78, 80, 83, in the early Persian period; 50 in the late Per- 
sian; and 73 in the early Greek period. We may therefore assign the collec- 
tion to the early Greek period. There are additions, 77^ and 8i a , besides 
glosses from the later Greek and Maccabean periods. There is nothing in 
the originals that is opposed to the dates given above. All of the Pss. of % 
were taken up into 25, and were probably used as the basis of that collection. 
The divine name cnn^x seems to have been original to %, and is not to be 
ascribed to the editor of IE. This was probably due to the fact that the 
collection was made in Babylonia, where the use of that divine name pre- 
vailed. In this 21 agrees with P of the Hexateuch, which came from the same 
region. Two of the Pss. of % % 74, 78, in their original form were taken from 
the collection of D^3B>D. These Pss. received many glosses, and in these 
cases d^h^n seems not to have been original. 

§ 30. The other proper names in the Psalter, Solomon, Ps. J 2 ; 
Moses, Ps. go; Neman, Ps. 88; Ethan, Ps. 80 ; 'Ani, Ps. 102, 
are pseudonyms. 

The name of Solomon is in the title of Ps. 72, the closing Ps. 
of the original © ; doubtless placed there as a pseudonym by the 
author, composing from the point of view of Solomon, for it could 
not have been written by Solomon himself, even in its original 
form. Three pseudonyms are together in the midst of the Psalter, 
doubtless by editorial design : 88 ascribed to Heman, 89 to Ethan, 
90 to Moses ; all alike with the same purpose, to compose Pss. in 
the name and from the point of view of these ancient worthies. 
In no case is the name of an author attached to a Ps. e Ani, Ps. 
102, is probably a pseudonym for the suffering pious of Israel. The 
Pss. are all, with the exception of these pseudonyms, anonymous. 

(a) Solomon's name is attached to 72, but it really belongs only to the 
original v. 1 " 7 l*-W«, two hexameter heptastichs constituting a prayer for a king 
on his accession, probably from the time of Josiah, and therefore appropriately 
put into the mouth of Solomon, who might be supposed to have just such 
aspirations for his son. It was originally a Yahwistic Ps. Solomon is also in 
the title of 127 in f^» but not in <§>. This is a pilgrim Ps., and we must ascribe 
the insertion to the conjecture of a late scribe, (b) Heman, the Ezrahite, is 
in the title of 88, originally in the collection of cSuar. It is a Ps. of national 
lamentation during the extreme distress of the Exile, and could not have been 
written either by the sage of Solomon, 1 K. 5 11 (4 31 ), or the singer of David, 
1 Ch. 15 17 " 19 25 s . It was put into his mouth by the author as a pseudonym. 
(<r) Ethan, the Ezrahite, is in the title of Ps. 89. He was one of the sages of 



Ixviii INTRODUCTION 

Solomon, I K. 5 11 (4 31 ). The Ps. in its original form (v. 18 " 46 ) is a paraphrase 
of the Davidic covenant and a lament as to its failure. It came from one 
of the companions of Jehoiachin in his exile. It could not have been written 
by Ethan. It was put into his mouth as a pseudonym, (d) Moses, the man 
of God, is in the title of the prayer Ps. 90, which imitates purposely Dt. 32, 33, 
songs ascribed to Moses, with the view of putting the Ps. in his mouth. It 
could not have been written by Moses. It is not an early Ps., but dates 
probably from the later years of the Exile. (<r) Ps. 102 has in the title, 
WV ")D&i mm ijdVi rpp >2 »jpS rrVan = rrayer of the afflicted one when he was 
fainting and before Yahweh pouring out his complaint, t; is probably a 
pseudonym. The author writes in the name of afflicted Israel. The Ps. is 
composite : v. 2 " 12 seems to come from the closing years of the Persian period, 
but v. 1 * 48 * 89 is a Maccabean Ps. (/) Some codd. (S of 65, 137, so U, have 
Jeremiah in the titles ; conjectures of late scribes, based on the similarity of 
the circumstances of the Ps. with those of Je. and La. (g) @ inserts Haggai 
and Zechariah in the titles of 146, 147, 148, 149, <S A also Zechariah in the 
titles of 138, 139, doubtless for similar reasons. Authorship is not to be 
thought of in these cases, and not even pseudonyms. 

§ 31. Afizmor, in the titles of fifty-seven Psalms, indicates a col- 
lection made for singing in public worship in the early Greek period, 
from which these Psalms were taken. 

The term Mizmor, like the terms Miktam and Maskil, implies 
a selection or collection of Pss. of this class. They were made, as 
the name implies, for public worship in song in the synagogue. 
As all those whose Tlfittt is genuine were derived from the earlier 
Psalters of Q, 1&, &, with the exception of the exilic pseudonym 
88 and two orphan Pss., 66-67, of tne early Greek period, it is 
probable that the collection was made about that time. 

(a) There are 57 Pss. in ^, with "UDTD (v. § 1) ; of these there were de- 
rived from B, 35 (36) Pss.: 3-6; 8-9 (+ 10), 12-13, 15. 19-24, 29-31, 38-41, 
51, 62-65, 68 » IOI » '09, no, 1 39-141, 143 J from U 5 Pss.: 47-48, 84-85, 87 ; 
from & 9: 50, 73, 75-77, 79-80, 82-83. To these were added 5 orphan Pss. : 
66, 67, 92, 98, 100, the pseudonym 88, the gnomic 49, and the composite 108. 
But the term in 92, 98, 100, was doubtless from later scribes, 98, 100, being 
parts of the royal advent Ps., which could not have been written, still less 
broken up, in time to be included in the collection ; 92 doubtless received 
this title in connection with its liturgical assignment. 66 is a composite Ps., 
but in its earliest form v. 10-12 , like 67, was probably composed early in the 
Greek period, possibly for use in this Psalter by its editor. There is no 
ground, therefore, on which to go later than this period for this collection 
of Pss. 



THE MIZMORIM lxix 

(Z>) <g also attaches ^aXyuo'j to ten other Pss. : 7, II, 14, 25 of IB ; 43, 44, 
46 of 5& ; 81 of 3ti and 94, 99, orphans, but omits it from 4, 39 of HB, using 
y5?7 instead. Of these it may be rejected from 99 for the same reasons as from 
98, 100, of f$. 43 was originally a part of 42, and doubtless was not sepa- 
rated in iftfl. In 46 mnrc is a later substitution for "vtf. No good reason can 
be assigned for the omission from II, 14, 25, 94 of |^ or 44 of f& or 81 of &. 
"YiDrD was more likely to have been inserted by assimilation to the groups in 
which they occur. 

(V) In Ps. 7 the use is peculiar, for "\)rz^ of <5 represents the enigmatical 
]^yj of f$. This term is used elsw. only Hb. 3 1 , in pi. niJ^J"', where it is 
doubtless an error for rmj, cf. (@> /xerd. cpdijs. It is derived by Aq., 2, J, &, 
from iXP and rendered error, confusion. Most moderns, as Ew., De., Kirk., al., 
derive from nyy go astray, reel, and think of the wild, passionate dithyrambs, 
with rapid change of rhythm, cf. Lag. 5iV;201f -. But this Ps. does not really 
have these characteristics. It is indeed confused by many glosses from differ- 
ent periods, but the original Ps. was less passionate and rambling than many 
other Pss. The word is doubtless a txt. err., which may have stood for an 
original nwjj, as in Hb. 3 ; but in this case it could not have belonged to this 
Ps., which was not in S$£,and must have come in by mistake from the previous 
Ps. 6. 

(d) The original Mizmorim were probably, therefore, 54(5). Of these 
©iE used 34. The original order of these Pss. in that collection was doubtless 
different in many instances from their order in the present Psalter. 

§ 32. The group of Pss. 4.2-83, characterised by the use of the 
divine name Elohim instead of Yahweh, was originally in a major 
Psalter, edited probably in Babylonia in the middle Greek period, 
and made up chiefly of selections fro?n the previous minor Psalters. 

This group of 42 Pss. in the midst of the Psalter differs from 
the preceding group, Pss. 1-41, and from the following, 84-150, 
by the use of the divine name Elohim, which is seldom used in the 
other Pss., and by an avoidance of Yahweh, which is used ordinarily 
by them. This use was evidently designed, and in the case of the 
selections from 33 and it, was not original, but editorial. These 
Pss. therefore constituted a selection of Pss. made by an editor 
from the earlier collections. Inasmuch as 31 is given complete so 
far as known, Pss. 50, 73-83, <E was probably the basis of the 
collection. Selections from i\, 42-48, 49 (?), and from J9, 51-65, 
68-70, 72, were prefixed to &, and three orphan Pss., 66, 67, 71, 
were added. The changed order of these last and of 50 is due to 
later editors. This collection was probably made in Babylonia, as 
that of & before it, and for similar reasons. 



lxx INTRODUCTION 

It is convenient to give in this connection the use of the divine names in \f/. 

I. mm is used c. 6823 t. in OT. mm Qr. = ^ix = 6 Kvpios in (3, for an 
original mm = Yahweh {v. BDZ?.). It is the proper name of the God of 
Israel, first revealed to Moses according to 35 as " the One ever with His 
people " Ex. 3 1 -" 15 . It is not used by P until Ex. 6 8 . But J uses it from the 
beginning of his narrative, and possibly explains it as meaning " the everlast- 
ing God," Gn. 21 33 . It is used cautiously by E (c. 163 t.), but constantly by 
J (c. 449 t.) and by P after Ex. 6 3 (c. 781 t.). D uses it apart from his phrases 
c. 211 t. In the prophetic histories it is used sparingly by E, but constantly by 
J, D, R. The Chr. uses it in his sources, but avoids it in his own composition. 
It is used throughout the prophetic literature, but in various proportions, and 
in some writers chiefly in combination with other divine names. The book 
of Jb. uses it only in the Prologue and Epilogue (27 t.), the seams (4 t.), and 
in a proverbial expression 12 9 ; but in Pr. it is the characteristic divine name. 
In Dn. it is used only in ch. 9 (7 t.) (source), and in Ec. not at all. It is con- 
stantly used in \j/, except in the group 42-83 (E), where it is used 44 t. (chiefly 
glosses). 

nw is frequently combined with other divine names. Ti^* "* K a P nr - OI " 
D (c. 239 t.) used by Chr. 6 t., Is. 2 4 t, elsw. seldom ; Ps. 81 11 in citation from 
Ex. 20 2 ; OTtjhn 1 is a phr. of D 2 (c. 70 t.) and of H (c. 30 t.), in Jo. 7 t., 
Chr. 11 t., elsw. seldom, Ps. 76 12 (the law of vows); Wfbyt 'i is also a phr. of 
D 2 (28 t.) used by Chr. 16 t., Je. 18 t., elsw. not uncommon ; in \J/ 20 8 g^ 2 * 
99 6 - 8 - 9 - 9 105 7 106 47 113 5 122 9 123 2 . Uses of mm with cnSx and other sfs. 
are characteristic of Je. (11 t.) and Ch. (26 t.); in $ >fhn 1 7 2 - 4 18 29 35 s4 
104 1 (all dub.) 13* 30 s - 18 38 22 40 6 109 26 , vn\x 1 33I' 2 144^ 146 5 . The com- 
binations mm Sx 118' 27 , mm dtiSx Sx 50 1 , are conflations of an original 
mm. 

fm is a poetic contraction of mm, earliest use Ex. 15 2 (cited Is. 12 2 Ps. 
US 14 -") Ex. I7 16 Is. 38 11 Ct. 8 6 ; nw m Is. 26* (?); >DB> m Ps. 68 5 (?); 
o>n^x m 68 19 (?); elsw. m Wyn 104 35 105 45 io6i- 48 in 1 112 1 U3 1 - 9 115 18 
116 19 117 2 1351-3.21 I4 6i-io 1471-20 1481- 1* i 49 i- 9 i5oi- 6 ; m V?m 102I 9 ; 
m Mm 115I 7 ; m SSnr. 150 6 . In other phrs. 77 12 89 9 94 7 - 12 115 18 1196.6.17.18.19 
122 4 130 3 135 4 . 

II. $Sk n.m. strong one: (1) angels, D^x ^a 29I 89 7 ; (2) gods, ni Sx 
44 2i 8ii°, "UJ Sx 8 i 10 Dt. 32I 2 Mai. 2 11 ; (3) mighty things in nature, Sk mn 
Ps. 36 7 , Sx ^nx 80H; (4) used of God as the most primitive term, c. 217 OT. 
as the Strong One. Sxn the true God I8 31 - 33 - 48 68 20 - 2i 77 15 85 s , cf. Is. 42 s ; 
>Sx my God Pss. 18 3 22 2 - 2 - » 63 s 6S 26 89" 102 25 118 28 140 7 , cf. Ex. 15 2 Is. 44I 7 ; 
htnw Sx Ps. 68 :J6 ; apjn Sx 146 5 ; o^Drn K x 136 26 ; >}ho Sx 42 10 , cf. 43 4 ; 
liayi Sx 29*; «n Sx 42 s (prob. also 42* 84 s for ^n Sk); rex Sx 31 6 ; niDpj s x 
941- 1; Snj Sx 77I 4 95 3 Dt. 7 2i ; Dim ^x Ps. 86I 5 Ex. 34 s (J) Dt. 4"; X'^j Sx 
Ps. 99 8 ; (5) Sx without article, of God: indef. 5 6 , elsw. def. 7 X2 io 1U2 i6 x 
17 6 19 2 52 s - 7 55 20 57 3 68 2 i 73 11 - 17 74 s 77 10 7 8 7 - 8 - 18 - 19 - s 4 - 41 82 1 83 2 89 s 90 2 
I04 2 i io6i 4 - 2 i 107H 118 27 I39i 7 - 23 1496 150I; (6) divine name 50I (gl.), as 
Gn. 33™ (E) Dt. 32 18 33^; mS* Sx Ps. 78 s6 . 



PSALTER OF THE ELOHIST lxxi 

III. t ^^ n.m. real pi. : (i) rulers Ex. 2i 6 22*- 8 - 8 - 27 Jn. 5 8 Pss. 82 1 - 6 138*; 

(2) superhuman beings, including God and angels, Gn. I 27 Ps. 8 6 (cf. Jb. 38 7 ); 

(3) angels, ovftM(n) >i2 Jb. i° 2 1 38 7 Gn. 6 2 - 4 (J), cf. D^M »J3; (4) gods 
Pss. 86 8 136 2 ; D>D>'n >nhn 96 s Dt. 6 14 13 8 +; d\-iSn •?:> Pss. 95 s 96* 97 7 - 9 135 5 . 
(5) 7#£ God of Israel, pi. intensive, originally with article, the All Strong, 
retaining this mng. when the article was omitted in usage, but subsequently 
losing its mng. and standing as a common name for the Divine Being, 
like 6e6s, deus, God {v. BDi?.). It is used with article in f only in phrs. : 
DTiSiO v*x title of 90, DTiSttn mp 87 s , where the article really defines the pre- 
vious n. It is used in the cstr. in phr. on-ox >hSn 47 10 , phr. of J, htnw ^nSs 
41 14 72 18 106 48 (benedictions) 59 s 68 9 69 7 , phr. of E, Je., Chr. ; apjp >rb* a 
poetic phr. 20 2 46 s - 12 75 10 76 7 8i 2 - 5 84 s 94 7 ; JKS" >tbH with various sfs. 18 47 
24 s 25 s 27 s 65 s 79 9 85 s ; *njn8»n 'N 51 16 ; t^is" 'n 88 2 ; «pTJ 'n 4 2 ; nDn 'n 
59 11 - 18 ; »nj7D 'n 43 2 (?); rnxux \-iSn 'i 89°; *nSnn 'n 109 1 ; DViSitn 's 136 2 . 
dtiSn is used with sfs. frequently in \f/, because of the emphasis upon personal 
relations with God in lyric poetry. 'rt*?« 3 8 5 8 i8 7 - «■ 30 25 2 31 15 35 s3 40 9 - 18 42 7 - 12 
43 5 59' 2 09 4 7i 4 - 12 - 22 83 14 84 4 - n 86 2 91 2 9 4 22 104 33 118 28 119U 5 143W 145 1 146 2 ; 
:p;f?K 42 4 - n 68 29 ; tjVjSw 146 10 147 12 ; vrt?H 37 31 144 15 ; UV}Sk 18 32 20 6 40 4 44 21 
48 29 '50 3 66 8 92 14 95 7 98 3 115 3 116 5 l&lZl 1 * '; DmrtSg 79 10 "ii5 2 . For other 
uses of d^hSk with mm and '•j-'N, z>. I. IV. dtiSx is used alone for God in U 
c. 180 t., elsw. \f> c. 22 t. ; v. VII. J r^Sx is a poetic sg. of dti^x, used Dt. 
32 15 - 17 , and on this basis as an archaism in late poetry Pss. 18 32 (for Sk 2 S. 
22 32 ) 50 22 (gl.) 114 7 (err.) 139 19 (gl.). It is characteristic of Jb. (41 t.). 

IV. % ^i? divine name, originating in Judah ; syn. of Baal, used in North 
Israel (v. BDB.); always 6 Kvpios in (3- AV., Lord, to be distinguished from 
Lord for mm; also 6 actios in @. The pointing - was to distinguish the 
divine name from 'HN as applied to men. It is intensive pi. sovereign lord. 
In the oldest usage it was : my sovereign Lord, so 2 4 16 2 37 13 59 12 86 3 - 4 - 5 - 12 - 15 
140 8 ; later a proper name Adonay 55 10 57 10 (= mm 108 4 ) 71 s - 16 89 50 - 51 
I30 2 - 8 - 6 . Its use in \p elsw. is questionable. It is not certain whether ij"in 
5 1 17 was original in either sense or a substitute for mm. *>jin is certainly a 
substitute for an original mm 40 18 54 s 68 23 90 1 . Seventeen codd. Kenn. rd. 
mm no 5 , "ij-in either precedes or follows mm in conflation of text for earlier 
Qr. 68 21 69 7 73 s8 109 21 141 8 . It is a real gl., not in <g 38 10 ; and though in <S 
a gl. in 22 31 35 17 - »• as 38I6 398 44 24 6gi2. is. 33 773 (<g D , n s x ) 778 358. It { s part 
of a larger gl. in 38 s3 62 13 66 18 68 20 - 27 73 20 78 s5 79 12 86 9 90 17 . The tendency 
to use it as Qr. for mm in later times, and also its general use for other divine 
names is illustrated by these editorial changes. 

V. pins* is given 24 10 . 

VI. tr 1 ??. n - m - highest (1) name of God, Nu. 24 16 Dt. 32 s Ps. 18 14 
(= 2 S. 22 14 j, used as an archaism 9 3 21 8 50 14 73 11 77 11 78 17 83 19 9I 1 - 9 92 2 
107 11 Is. 14 14 La. 3 35 - 88 ; with other divine names ]vhy h« Gn. 141 s - * 9 - 20 - 22 
Pss. 78 s5 87 s (?),?vSp mm 7" (?) 46* (?) 47 3 97 9 ; ]vhy o^nSx 57 3 78 56 ; (2) of 
rulers, either monarchs or angel princes : \vhy ija 82 6 . 

VII. The group of Elohistic Pss. is composed of selections : — 



lxxii INTRODUCTION 

O) From !& 42-48, 49 (?). These use 0>nSx 36 t.; some doubtless glosses, 
a few possibly original in 3ft, but the great majority editorial substitutions for 
an original mm. niKas.mm was retained in the Rf. 46 s - 12 , but in 48° it is a 
gl. mm in 42 s 46 s 47 3 - 6 4s 2 is either a gl. or a substitution of later editors for 
the vrhn of 35. In the Pss. of 3& not in 35, D^nSw is used : 84 s - 10 (all glosses 
or txt. err.), but mm v. 3 - 12 - 12 nutax IW v. 2 - 4 - 13 . x D^nSw 1 v. 9 is txt. err. for 
nwas ^nSs '\ D^nSun is used 87 s , but mm v. 2 - 6 . D^nSs is not used in 85 (but 

nini v .2. 8. 9. ll f S Nn y.9^ or in g 8 ( ? ) f but „„, v# 2. 10. 14. 15. There can be no 

doubt, therefore, that mm was the divine name of 1&, and that wnhn was 
substituted for it by the editor of 15. 

(b) From Q were taken 51-65, 68-70, 72. In these, dtiSn is used 102 t. 
mm is used : 54 s 55 17 - n 56 11 5S 7 59*- 9 64 11 68 17 69 14 - »• 32 - 84 70'-- 6 . All these 
are glosses, or substitutions of a still later editor. It is evident that D>nhn of 
53 has been substituted for mm of 14. In most other cases it was so also ; 
for in the other Pss. of IB, D»nf?n is used but 15 t. : 3 3 5 11 j™- n . 12 9 18 io 4 - 13 
, 4 l. 2. 5 25 22 36a. 8 I44 o . besides 6 t.in io8 2 - 6 - 8 - 12 - 12 - 14 +, which is a mosaic 
of two Elohistic Pss. Ps. 86 uses wrh* v. 8 - 10 - 14 , mm v. 1 - 6 - n - n , *j-ik 
v 8. 4. 6. 8. 9. 12. 15 jhi s p s j s a i so a mosa i c f glosses of different date. The 
Pss. of S in 35 also use \hn 51 17 54 s 55 10 57W 59 12 62 13 68 12 - 18 - 2 <>- 23 - 27 - 88. 
•■j-ix "> 68 21 is gl. msax OViSn ^ 59 s and nwax '•> >jin 69 7 are conflations of 
late scribes. dtiSn mn< 72 18 is conflation in the doxology. 

(c) All of & that have been preserved were taken up into 35 : 50, 73-83. 
The separation of 50 from the group was not made in 35, but by a later editor. 
These Pss. used the divine name cnSx 40 t. mm is used 50 1 74 18 75° 76 12 
yg4. 21 ygb g^i. 16 g^n. 19^ j n a n cases either glosses themselves or in larger 
glosses. Besides <jin is used 73 20 77 s - 8 78 65 79 12 ; mm ijin 73 28 . nwax d\"iSk 
8o 8 - 15 , and nisax 0*nSn 1 8o 5 - 20 were originally mitas '\ 

(</) The orphan Pss. 66, 67, 71, use cviSn 18 t., mm only 71 1 ; a later 
substitution for dvtSh used v. 11 - 12 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 19 . ijin and mm in v. 6 - 16 belong to 
different 11. >rw is used 66 18 . These Pss. in 15 doubtless followed 72. It is 
improbable that an editor who kept the Pss. of 3ft and % together would not 
have done the same with the Pss. of IB. These were the only Pss. not in 
D, 1ft, ( 3l. Pss. 66 and 67 were in fR of the early Greek period; Ps. 71 in 
its original form, v. 4-9 - 14 ~ 19 , from the Greek period. The Psalter of 35 could 
not therefore have been earlier, or indeed much later. 

§ 33. Fifty -five (57) Psalms have in their titles a reference to the 
director or choir master, which indicates that they were taken from 
a major Psalter which bore this title. They were collected in the 
middle Greek period in Palestine, as a prayer book for the syna- 
gogues, selected from the previous minor Psalters. 

The Pss. with HSMft ; are scattered through the Psalter. The 
term means, " Belonging to the Director." These Pss. were taken 
from a Psalter bearing the Director's name. Thirty-five of the 



PSALTER OF THE DIRECTOR Ixxiii 

fifty-four Mizmorim were probably taken as a basis. To these 
were added sixteen Pss. from ©, four (5) from It, and one from 3L 
As no Ps. later than the previous minor Psalters was used, it is 
probable that the collection was made in the middle Greek period, 
not long after fH. As the divine name Yahweh was retained, this 
Psalter was doubtless collected in Palestine. The term Director 
also suggests the period of the Chronicler, who alone elsewhere uses 
the term. The great majority of these Pss. are prayers. The 
collection was, therefore, like 29, designed as a prayer-book for 
use in the synagogues. Hb. 3 also attaches ffettE? as part of the 
title of the song therein contained. This was originally a part of 
the Psalter of the Director (JB3&) and was subsequently removed 
to Hb. The Psalter of ©& must therefore have been earlier 
than the final editing of Hb. and the close of the Canon of the 
Prophets. This also points to the middle Greek period, prior 
to Simon II. 219-198 B.C. 

nxjnS is Pi. ptc. with prep. S from mi vb. denom. of rwj, v. 9 6 . The vb. is 
not used in Qal, but only in Pi., with the exception of a single Niph. ptc. 
nnxj, Je. 8 5 , enduring (of apostasy), and in Pi. only in Chr. and titles of Pss., 
in the mngs. act as overseer, superintendent, director : (1) in building or repair- 
ing the temple, c. iy 2 Ch. 2 1 Ezr. 3 8, 9 , c. ^ 2 Ch. 34 1 ' 5 , c. s inf. 2 Ch. 2 17 , abs. 
2 Ch. 34 12 ; (2) in the ministry of the temple, c. h'; I Ch. 23*; (3) in the organ- 
ised liturgical service, I Ch. 15 21 , six of them overseeing the basses, nTE^n h';, 
leading them with nru3, and eight over the sopranos, nwSp %', leading them 
with harps (y. § 34). Heman, Asaph, and Ethan were over them all, leading 
with cymbals. This doubtless represents the temple service of the middle 
Greek period, and it is altogether probable that mirh in the titles of the Pss. 
has the same meaning, especially as these and other musical terms are associated 
with it in the titles. We may therefore take it as meaning director, or choir 
master. The preposition ^ has the same meaning here as in other uses in the 
titles, and indicates that these Pss. were taken from a Psalter collected under 
the name of the Director or choir master. The modern view that ? indicates 
assignment to the care of the choir master is improbable, because, as Ols. says, 
this was a matter of course, and would not be specified in titles. And this 
would not explain its use in some Pss. rather than in others. <& interprets 
rvtiu? as late form for rw'j = els rd t£\os. This is explained by Eusebius and 
Theodoret in an eschatological sense: unto the end (of the world). 1& renders 
NrairS to sing in liturgy, taking it as Aram. inf. with the mng. use constantly, 
perpetually, thinking of perpetual use in the liturgy. The explanation of De., 
" for the accomplishment, fulfilment, rendering fully," is improbable. It seems 
most probable that @ and % agree in thinking of these Pss. as selected for 



lxxiv INTRODUCTION 

perpetual use unto the end, in the liturgy. Another tradition is given in Aq. 
t£ inKowoiip, S iwcvLKios, 9 et's t6 vLkos, 3 victor e. These follow a conceit of 
the school of Rabbi Akiba (due probably to the Messianic hopes of that 
period) that they were the triumphal songs of Israel. But this does not suit 
the character of these Pss., which are prayers rather than hymns. The 2T 
preserves the older tradition of <g, which is essentially correct so far as the use 
of the collection is concerned, though it misses the exact sense of the term 
which is given by the Chronicler. 

Fifty-five Pss. have rciV2> in the titles. To these we may add 10 and 43, 
which belong to the previous Pss., 9 and 42. Of these thirty-five were Miz- 
morim: 4-6, 8-10, 12-13, '9-22, 31, 39-41 of © ; 47, 49 (?) of It; 51, 62, 
64, 65 of Q; 66-67 orphans ; 68of©(?) {y. §27); 75-77, 80 of % ; 84-85, 
88(?) {v. § 28) of It; 109, 139-140 of B. To these were added sixteen 
Pss. from 13 (four Maskilim, 52-55, five Miktamim, 56-60; one Shir, 18, 
and six others, II, 14, 36, 61, 69-70) ; moreover five (six) Pss. were added 
from 1st ; (four (five) Maskilim, 42-45, 88, and the Shir, 46) ; one also from 
<E, 81. All of these Pss. were used in previous Psalters, though they were 
adapted by this editor for use in his time. These Pss. are chiefly prayers, the 
great majority of them, thirty-three, being of this kind, as compared with 
eleven hymns and thirteen religious poems. This Psalter was therefore essen- 
tially a prayer book, on the basis of the earlier Q and fft, for use in the 
synagogues of the Greek period. This is confirmed by the fact that mj: s , 
in the sense of director or choir master, is characteristic of the service of 
the temple as described by Chr. 1 Ch. 15, and belongs to his period. It is 
used elsewhere only in Hb. 3 19 , as part of the title of that ode which, doubt- 
less also originally was in $3&, but was separated from it and inserted in 
Hb. The collection of the Twelve Minor Prophets was closed and fixed in 
the Canon in the time of Ben Sira (BS. 49 10 ) because he mentions the 
Twelve by that technical name. Daniel g 2 seems to imply that the Canon 
of the Prophets was closed. The Psalter of the Director must therefore have 
been made in the middle Greek period. 

§ 34. The Director attached to his prayer book instructions to 
the choir with reference to the tones, the voices, and the musical 
instruments to be used in the rendering of certain psalms in 
public worship. 

Twenty-nine of the Pss. of B3& have musical directions attached. 
Several tones are mentioned to which special Pss. were to be 
sung, indicated usually by the initial words of some familiar song. 
There are several special references to the kind of voice that 
was most appropriate. There are also several kinds of musical 
instruments mentioned as suitable for accompanying the singing. 
These are, in all cases, special directions. Where such do not 



MUSICAL DIRECTIONS lxxv 

appear, it is a reasonable inference that the choirs were left free in 
their choice in these respects. This collection of ©3ft was doubt- 
less made for the use of some great synagogue in Jerusalem, where 
it was possible to fulfil these directions. There is no reference 
to those instruments of music that were especially characteristic 
of the feasts and of the more ornate worship in the temple. 

Inasmuch as all the musical directions are attached to Pss. of I33&, it is 
reasonable to suppose that they were first attached to this Psalter. They are 
of three kinds: (i) designation of tone or melody, (2) of voice, (3) of musi- 
cal instrument. 

(1) The tones are usually referred to by the use of initial words of some 
well-known song, in accordance with an ancient usage which continues until 
the present time. The preposition by precedes these words, with the mng. 
in accordance with, after (the tone of). In some cases bn is used instead 
of it, in accordance with a not infrequent misuse of this prep, for V: {v. BZ)B.). 

(a) nna>n bn is used in the titles of Pss. 57-59, Miktamim of B, and 75 of 
21. The bn is pointed as negative in MT., and so the two words seem to mean 
Destroy not ; but the omission of by is striking and improbable. It should be 
Sn for by as usual, and the original piece probably began with Destroy, refer- 
ring to enemies of the nation. RV. does not translate, but transliterates. 
These Pss. have a variety of measures. It is hardly possible that the refer- 
ence could have been to a melody. It was doubtless to a tone for cantilation, 
as the tones of the early synagogue and early Church, which are capable of 
use in pieces of different measure and different strophical length. 

(b) D^pm dSn DiV by is in the title of the Miktam, Ps. 56. The first line of 
the piece referred to was probably, The silent dove of them that are afar off, 
as in RV. m . RV. transliterates, but does not translate. @ virkp rod Xaov tov 
d-rrb t&v ayLuv pLep.aKpvjxp.ivov =for the people retnoved far from the sanctuary, 
is doubtless a paraphrase. 

(<r) nnj? ]VW by is in the title of Ps. 60, a trimeter Miktam of $3. DWW by 
is in the title of Ps. 45, Maskil of Ifc, and of 69 of IB; m-iy QWV Sn is in the 
title of 80 of &. These all undoubtedly refer to the same piece, a Ps. in 
praise of the Law, whose first line was, my testimony is a beautiful anemone. 
The view that it referred to an instrument of music shaped like a lily has 
nothing in its favour, not even the mng. " lily," which cannot be proved in 
the usage of this word. The pi. is the pi. of intensity, " beautiful anemone." 
It is not translated in the text of RV., but RV. m has it essentially as I have 
given it. (3 virep tQ>v aXkoiu)dr]<Top.e't>(>)v or tois aXhoutidyGop.e'voLS -=for those 
who shall be changed, is a misinterpretation. 

(d) nSnD by in the title of 53, a Maskil of ©, and map*? nSnn by in the 
title of 88, Maskil of Heman, both in ©&, are doubtless the same. <f§ virep 
MaeXed rod airoKpidijvai takes the first word as a proper name and the second 
as inf. cstr. r\y; answer, respond. Aq., 0, 3, " for the dance," is inappropriate 



lxxvi INTRODUCTION 

to the sadness of these Pss. M T. rhnq n. cstr. before inf. is improbable. 
$ rd. r>S«ft A ;. -t. v-v<:<-<?, so essentially t>, 1". 3. from SSt\ It is most prob- 
able that we should rd. r*»nr n.f. wounu: ., . from *>Soj and ""u;"' inf. 
ufer dilution. Two words only of the original are preserved, For 
wounding suffering affliction. It is transliterated in RV. 

(<f) Ps. 22 has in the title inr*i - * Sj hind of the dawn. The third word 
is missing. We might supply the vb. leaps* thinking of the fresh vigour of 
the hind in the early morning ; but that does not suit the character of the Ps. 
It is more appropriate to think of the hind hunted to death in the early morn- 
ing. 2T and Midrash regard it as referring to the lamb of the Booming sacri- 
fice But it is improbable that the hind would represent the lamb. The hind 
was not used for sacrifice in the OT. This Ps. was in 13, J'fl, | 

(/) $ adds to Ps. 70 the title eis rd Suwou /ac Kv/wo*, . Lord y 

showing that another tone was added at so late a date. For it is improbable 
that it was original and was omitted from the text in ]^. 

(g) -- — - 1 in the title of Ps 3 D. jjH. Si S 54 of It, JH. 

and 2 irrip nir \rjtn2»; so Y, 3, pro torcularibus, for the wine presses, 
read. _:ers therefore to a harvest song at the vintage or treadi- 
grapes. This suits the triumphant, joyous character oi these Pss., and is prob- 
ably correct. They were to be sung to the tone of some well-known vintage 
song. Aq., 6, have in Ps. irwtp rijs yerOLTidos, but the Syr. -Hex. of Aq. in 

3 1 M tqO \yfvoO or iirl t2p \if»w». This is more probable than a Git- 
tite musical instrument. £ ■ the harp which David brought from Gath," or 
a tone of Gath, the march of the Gittite guard - , explanation of r\"\i 

Ml'., both equally improbable. 

1 v in 62 of 3, ill, pn*T Sj in 77 of &, fR,, plW? in 39 of E, Jft, 
all doubtless refer to the same thing. S in 59 is doubtless err. for >7, and the 
ion of ' and 1 in the penult is a variation of MT., not of the original 
of J£. It is probable that Jeduthun, the choir master, is referred to, v. 1 Ch. 
-' his choir, I Ch . u ; "; but it is im- 

probable that this name is in apposition with hs:?^ as De., in which case **;* 
would be err. for "; rather it refers to a tone of this choir. The reference to 
a lily-shaped musical instrument of seme Rabbis, though followed by Gcs*, 
is without justification. 

(2) There are two voices referred to. the falsetto and the b. 

(<*) ~ ' ' - - in the title of Ps. 46, tetrameter of It. 6 interprets it as 
irrip tQp Kpv$l<av — Y pro arcanis, deriving from rrchy n.f. in the sens 
secret, hidden. This was interpreted as in a gentle, quiet style. - \nckp tQv 
aiu/yiwv derives as pi. of zh*T 9 ever, in the late sense of ages. Aq. hrl p*a>io- 
r-irrtnv an i | t-entutibus follow MT. and derive from ncSy n.f. abst., 

youth. These last are nearer the correct view, for the explanation is found in 

1 Ch. 15 20 , where it refers to the maidenlike style. Some think of maidens, as 
Ps. 6S*, where they play upon timbrels in the march of Yahweh ; but maidens 
took no part in the service of song. Bo. thinks of the tenor voice ; but more 
probably it was the falsetto male voice. At the end of Ps. 4S ? >cems 



MUSICAL DIRECTIONS lxxvii 

out of place- It probably belongs to 49, from the title of which it has been 
detached by error, the r; being omitted as s npposed dittog., or for the oppo- 
site reason. It is also probable that pV nc "; in the title of Ps. 9 belongs 
here. It is usually interpreted on the basis of MT. as a reference to a tone in 
accordance irith (1); this tone being designated by two words of the first 
line, ** Death to the son," or, 4 * Death for the son "; bat this is in itself improb- 
able and has no support in Vrss^ which all rd. rr: - *;. © vwkp rHo Kpm+Uow 
tov viou, Aq. HanSnrrot rou viov, 9 owep axjeff to* viov. These are donbtless 
correct as to the form. But then we most follow them in interpreting it in 
the same way as in 46, and refer it to the falsetto Yoke. \2*f is then the 
fuller designation, showing that it was the maiienUke voice of a son, think- 
ing of a boy or a youth. 

-.:.--, is in the titles of Pss. 6, 12, both prayers of fH and 8. 
6 interprets it as vwip rif% 07009*, on the octave, so Y pro octava. This is 
donbtless correct, as it is in accord with 1 Ch. 15°, which refers to the lower 
octave or the bass roice. The opinion of some that it refers to an instrument 
of eight strings is a mere conceit, without support in the OT. 

(3) There are references to two kinds of musical instruments — stringed 
instruments and wind instruments. 

(<j) rvx is in the titles of Pss. 4, 6, 54, 53, 67, 76, with 2 of accompani- 
ment, and in 61 (sg.) with *♦?. Of these, 54, 55, were Masldhm ; 4, 6, 67, 
76, in fH ; 4, 6, 54, 55, in B ; 76 in % ; 4, 6, 54, 55, 61, are prayers ; 67, a 
hymn ; 76, a poem. They are of different measures. has cV Spates in 6* 
34, 55, 61, 67, 76, and r> faXfioU in 4. The form is pL f. of Tri: njf. stringed 
instrument. •:: vb. denom. PL to play on stringed instruments^ r*2" flayers 
on stringed instruments, Ps. 68". Hb. 3 1 - *• hare in 6 the same word, donbt- 
less in both cases mrjfc correct for £• ITiese seven Pss. and Hb. 3 
were to be accompanied by stringed instru ments, such as the lyre and harp. 

ib) ~ 5 in the title of Ps. 5, a morning prayer of fH and B. It is 

interpreted by 6 and 6 as inrip rHp mXnpmmpwtan*, If pro ea quae kereditatem 
consequitur, Ao^, 2, 3, pro kereditatious, all deriving the form as pL nX from 
— : inherit. The ~* is doubtless variation for "7 as often. No reasonable 
explanation of this term has yet been given. It is probable that it is a n. 

formed by 2 from tt, a variation of I P*P** ** Hil, or abstr., as 

De., MolL, forfiute playing, cf 1 S. to* 1 K. i*» Is. 30*. It is probable that 
instruments of the class of the pipe or simple Ante are referred to. 

It is noteworthy that these re f erences are not only few, bat in general 
terms, and that no particular musical instrum ent is refer r ed to. The music 
especially characteristic of festivals in the temple worship does not appear. 
The music was probably that of a simple orchestra of two or four pieces of the 
'■ j'' :-: --■:- z ir. : •. - : ;--•;.----:?. ;.- ; - ; ; - : ; . . • -• -_?:: _-- ' " :'~t 
temple courts. And it is also probable that musical ins t r u men ts were seldom 
used in the synagogues, or we would have had more assi g nmen ts of this kind. 

(d) There is little reference to musical instruments in the earner minor 
Psalters. There is no reference in B, for 57* = io8» = 144* were not originally 



lxxviii INTRODUCTION 

in D (v. § 27). In 21 the only reference is in Si^ 4 to a ne.v moon celebration, 
doubtless in the temple courts, with the use of the Ssj and 11:3 the harp and 
lyre, the two chief kinds of stringed instruments usually associated ; the new 
the horn, and the ^n timbrel. In |& 43* the tu:> is used in temple worship ; 
so in the orphan 3$ 2 92* both iu:> and Sij. This probably represents the 
ordinary worship of the Greek period. On great occasions, such as feasts or 
celebrations of victories, more instruments of music were used ; so in the 
royal advent Ps. 47 s (It) the new, and in 98 s - 6 the nuD, the new, and the 
mssn the straight trumpet. In the Maccabean Hallels a greater number and 
variety of instruments appear ; due to the reorganisation of the temple wor- 
ship with greater pomp than ever before. 147 7 mentions only the nur, 149 3 
the nij3 and f|n, but I50 :i_5 the 1U3 and Ssj, the "\BW and qr, and also the 
instruments not mentioned earlier : 2ir; the small organ, D^JD stringed instru- 
ments, and D^SxSx cymbals. The Pss. also mention the use of musical instru- 
ments by minstrels apart from public worship ; so the 1U3 in 49 s of I& ( ?) and 
in the orphan 137- ; and both the "»U3 and ^21 in the orphan ji* 2 57 s (= 108 3 
= 144 9 all glosses). 

§ 35. A collection 0/ Hallels, or songs of praise, was made for 
the temple sennce in the Greek period. It was subsequently en- 
larged in the Maccabean period. These Psalms have in their 
titles the term Hallelujah. 

The term r^iSSn = Praise ye Yah is found at the close of Pss. 104, 105, 115, 
116, 117, and the beginning of Pss. Ill, 112, and at both beginning and end 
of Pss. 106, 113, 135, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150. <S gives it also at the begin- 
ning of 105, 107, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 136. In the case of 105, 107, 114, 
116, 117, 136, it seems to have been detached by error from the beginning 
of these Pss. and attached to the close of the previous Pss. in ^. All of these 
Pss. are Hallels except 118 and 119, which are only so given in <&, the former 
being a triumphal Maccabean song, the latter the great alphabetical praise 
of the Law. Both of these were regarded as Hallels in later usage. These 
Hallels are in the present Psalter in four groups: 104-107, m-117, 135-136, 
146-150. This separation was due to the final editor of the Psalter. 104-107 
constitute a tetralogy, 104 being a Ps. of creation, 105 telling the early history 
of Israel, 106 of the Exodus, 107 of the Restoration. The second group begins 
with 1 1 1-1 1 2, a pair complementary in subject and alphabetic in structure; 
113 begins the special Hallel of the great feasts, according to later liturgical 
assignment. At the Passover the order was 11 3-1 14 before supper, 11 5-1 18 
after supper. In the third group 136 is the ordinary Great Hallel, with its 
Rf. repeated twenty-six times in the present Ps., though the earliest text was 
much simpler. In later times Pss. 1 19-136 were likewise called the Great 
Hallel in distinction from the ordinary Hallel 11 3-1 18. The last group of 
Hallels consisted of the doxologies 146-150. All of these Hallels except 147, 



HALLELS AND PILGRIM PSALTER lxxix 

149, belong to the Greek period and were doubtless in their original form in 
the collection of that period, composed for public use by the choirs especially 
on the great feasts. The collection consisted of sixteen Pss. A Maccabean 
editor added 147, 149. The final editor of \f/ distributed these Hallels in the 
present four groups. In later liturgical use 118 and 119 were regarded as 
Hallels and still later 120-134. The technical terms of the Hallels are rmSSn, 
nin, and ma. For SSn and nSnn v. § 1 ; for rv v. § 32 (I.) ; for wa v. Pss. 
5 13 18W. nm Hiph. imv. 2 pi. % [it]. Qal is not in \p, but only Hiph. 
t(l) con/ess, a late usage Ps. 32*, cf. Pr. 28 13 I K. $*>• 35 = 2 Ch. 624-26. 
(2) praise: (a) the king Ps. 45 18 , the rich 49 19 ; elsw. (b) Yahweh in the 
ritual: c. ace. nvv 7 18 g 2 109 80 III 1 , n; 118 19 , '> W 44 9 54 s 99 3 138 2 142 8 , 
1 a^D 89 s ; sfs. referring to mm 18 50 28 7 3 o 10 - 18 35 18 42*- u 43*- 6 52 11 57 10 

6 7 4.4.6.6 7I 22 76 11 86 12 ggll I0 g4 „ 821. 28 ug7 ^L* 139^ ^jM . c . S, nwS 
33 2 92 2 IO5 1 IO6 1 107!- 8 - 15- 21- 31 Il8 L29 I36 1 , Cf. V.2-3.26, 1 Dir S IQ 6 47 122* 

140 14 ; sfs. referring to Yahweh 6 6 (?), cf. Is. 38 18 , Pss. 75 2 - 2 7913 ioo 4 119 62 ; 
abs. w~\p ~\yh 30 5 97 12 . 

§ 36. A collection of songs for the use of pilgrims on their way 
to the three great feasts was made in the middle Greek period. 
These Psalms have in their titles, " Songs of Pilgrimage ." 

Pss. 120-134 have in their titles nnyon T^. This is rendered in © ySr; 
tCjv avafiadix&v, ode of ascents, U and 3 canticum graduum, gradual psalms, 
Aq., S eis tAs avafidcreis, 6 g-cr/xa tG>v avafiaaeuv. These variations have given 
rise to three different theories: (i) The phrase refers to the fifteen steps in 
the temple leading up from the court of the women to the court of the men 
of Israel upon which these Pss. were chanted ; so Lyra, Luther, Horsley, Gr. 
The Talmud indeed mentions these Pss. in that connection (Middoth, II. 5, 
Sukka, 51 b), but simply to compare them with those steps on which the music 
resounded on the first day of the feast of Tabernacles ; it does not explain the 
Pss. as used thereon {v. De., p. 780). Furthermore, the contents of these Pss. 
were not suited to that purpose. They are not temple Pss. (2) The term 
has metrical significance indicating the stairlike parallelism, advancing by 
steps or degrees ; so Ges., Koster, De., Moll., De W. This is a modern 
theory based on the fact that this method of parallelism is frequently used in 
these Pss. But it is not used in them all, and not in a thoroughgoing manner 
in any ; and certainly not to such an extent as to give titles to the group. 
There are other Pss. which use this method of parallelism in a more thorough- 
going manner, v. § 12. (3) The term refers to the ascents of pilgrimage 
(a) j5 and the ancient Fathers thought of the ascent from the Babylonian exile. 
Ew., in 1839, called them "the songs of the homeward marches." (b) Agel- 
lius, Herder, Eichhorn, Ew. in 1866, and most modern scholars, think of the 
ascents to the feasts of the Law. Street thought that they were simply proces- 
sionals. Is. 30 29 Ps. 42 s shew that it was the custom to make pilgrimages to 
f 



lxxx INTRODUCTION 

the temple with song and music, and even sacred dances and shoutings. We 
would expect, therefore, that a collection of songs suitable for this purpose 
would be made. These songs have a common social and patriotic character. 
They are all hexameters composed of one or more hexastichs. They could all 
have been sung to the same tone. They were all composed in the Greek 
period, except 129, which is Maccabean. It is probable that this last Ps. was 
added to the collection, which originally consisted of fourteen Pss. made in 
the middle Greek period. 

§ 37. A considerable number of Psalms, especially those of the 
Greek period, did not find their way into any of the minor or major 
Psalters, but were used at last by the editor of the present Psalter. 

(a) Ps. 1, composed in the middle Greek period, is didactic in character. 
It was probably used for the first time by the editor of the Psalter as its 
introduction. 

{b) Ps. 33 was probably from the Maccabean period. It was given its 
present position by the final editor of the Psalter. 

(c) The pseudonyms, Pss. 88, 89, 90, 102 (v. § 30), were given their 
present position by the final editor. 

(d) Ps. 91 was probably from the early Greek period. It was given its 
present position because it was conceived as a counterpart to 90. 

(<•) Ps. 92 was probably from the later Greek period. It was originally a 
song composed for liturgical use. Its contents justify its present position. 

(/) Pss. 94, 95, were probably from the Greek period. They were given 
their present position for liturgical reasons. 

(g) Pss. 93, 96-100, were originally one great advent hymn from the early 
Greek period. It was broken up into little Pss. for liturgical purposes 

(f. § 13). 

(h) Pss. 86, 103, 145, from the late Greek period, were given their present 
position because of resemblances to Pss. of 13, and, for that reason, subse- 
quently crept into the titles. 

(*') Ps. 137 from the early exile was not taken up into any of the earlier 
Psalters because of its inappropriateness for worship. It was used by the 
final editor of the Psalter as an ancient piece which he thought should be 
preserved. It was inserted after 136 as an appropriate place, on account of 
the historical references in both Pss. 

§ 38. The editor of the present Psalter used the two ?najor 
Psalters as the nucleus of his work. The Babylonian Elohistic 
Psalter, 42-83, was placed in the middle, and appropriate Pss. 
84-89 were added thereto. The first part was based on the Pal- 
estinian Director's Psalter, in which were inserted chiefly Psalms 
from the Davidic Psalter. The third part was arranged about 



THE FINAL PSALTER lxxxi 

the temple Halle Is and the Pilgrim Psalter, to which were added 
the remaining Psalms of the Director's Psalter and other appro- 
priate Psalms, chiefly of late date. This work was accomplished 
in the Maccabean period, after the reorganisation of the worship. 

There can be little doubt that the editor of the present Psalter 
used ©3ft, the prayer-book of the Greek period in Palestine, as the 
basis of his work. He was compelled to do so if he would pro- 
duce a collection which would take its place in public use. He 
also used 25, because that was the Psalter in familiar use in 
Babylonia and among the Jews of the Dispersion all through the 
East. It was necessary to combine that collection with the 
other if he would secure his book a public use in the Orient. 
He must indeed enlarge both collections by the introduction 
of Pss. old and new, in order to justify his task. The editor was 
probably called to his work by public authority and by an under- 
standing between the Jews of the East and the West. It was also 
in the plan to combine the Pss. used in synagogue worship with 
those used in the worship of the temple. And so the Hallels and 
the Pilgrim Psalter were made the nucleus of a much larger col- 
lection, suited for this purpose. The editor also added a number 
of older Pss. of a national character, even though they had not 
previously been used in public worship. It was just because 
he thus satisfied all interests in a most comprehensive way, that 
his book supplanted all others and at once attained universal 
recognition. 

A careful examination of the arrangement of the present Psalter on the 
basis of what has already been determined as to the several minor and major 
Psalters and the Pss. not included in them, enables us to trace, to a great 
extent, the methods of the editor of \p. 

The first part of \p is 1-41 based on IB2&. (a) Ps. 1 was made the general 
introduction to \p, followed by 2, the original introduction to IB, followed by 3, 
the first prayer of IB, ffll. Then came 4-6 of IB&. The enigmatic 7 of IB 
was then inserted. {b) Pss. 8-14 of B& are followed by 15 of IB, iJH, 
describing the true citizen of Zion (in antithesis with the wicked fool of 14), 
and 16, a Miktam of IB, and 17, a prayer of IB. (c) Ps. 18, the ode of 
David, introduces the next group of I31&, 19-22. To these were added the fol- 
lowing : the shepherd Ps. 23 of IB, fft, the choral 24 of IB, ffl, and the group 
of prayers 25-28 from IB only, and of hymns 29-30 from IB, JH. (d) To 31, 
the prayer of 331ft, was appended 32, the penitential Maskil of IB ; and ^, 



lxxxii INTRODUCTION 

an anon, hymn ; 34, an alphabetical hymn of IB ; and 35, a prayer of 13. 
Then follows 36 of IB3& ; 37, a poem of IB ; and 38, a penitential Ps. of 
IB, fH, concluding with 39-41 of IBlft. Thus the editor of ^ used 20 Pss. 
from IBIct, to which he added in appropriate places, 19 of (including 
Ps. 2), and 2, anon. Pss. not used in any previous Psalter. 

The second part of \p was 42-89 based on IE. (a) 42-48 I& 49 (It?) con- 
cluding with 50 of &, which was transferred to this place for the purpose of 
giving an appropriate liturgical close to this group before the penitential 51. 
(d) The group of IB, 51-65, after which 66-67 of fH, I3&, followed by 68-70 
of IB, followed by 71, peculiar to 3B, and 72, the original conclusion of IB. 

(c) The group of & 73-83. Pss. 42-83 were taken from 15, which was thus 
inserted bodily in the middle of ^, without additions, except in glosses. 

(d) \f/ now appended 84-85 from 1st used by £H, I33&, then 86, a prayer, 
later ascribed to IB, but really anon, (see §§ 27, 37), 87 from 5&, £ft, and 
the pseudonyms 88, 89, the latter being the conclusion of this second part. 

The third part of $ was 90-150, based on the Hallels and the Pilgrim 
Psalter, (a) Ps. 90, the pseudonym, was prefixed, 91, 92, 94, 95, anon, were 
added, then the great advent Ps. 93, 96-100, was broken up for liturgical 
reasons, 101 of IB and £ft, and 102, a pseudon. prayer, follow ; then 103 an 
anonym., a late hymn kindred to the first group of Hallels, 104-107, which it 
precedes. (b) To the second group of Hallels, 111-117, was prefixed 108 
of fH, 109 of 13, £H, Q&, and no of IB, £fl. To these, the Maccabean 
Hodn 1 18 was added, (c) The group of Pilgrim Psalms, 120-134, was placed 
in the midst of the third part, preceded by 119, the alphabetical praise of the 
Law. (d) To the Hallels 135-136 were added 137, the anon, exilic Ps. of 
vengeance, and 138 of IB, 139, 140 of IB, £H, I3&, 141 of D, £H, 142 Maskil 
of D, 143 of IB, fH, 144, 145, anon, alphabetical Pss. (the latter ascribed to IB, 
v - §§ 2 7» 37)« ( e ) The concluding Hallels, 146-150. 

§ 39. Liturgical assignments appear in several titles, referring 
to days of week, kinds of sacrifice, and festivals. These are so few 
that they must have been prefixed, not by the final editor, but by 
late scribes. 

(a) Assignment to days of the week in the temple service, naan D^S = 
for the Sabbath Day, in the title of 92, indicates its assignment for use on the 
Sabbath. <S gives several other titles of this kind : in 24, for the first day of 
the week ; in 38, the Sabbath ; 48, for the second day of the week ; 94, for the 
fourth day of the week ; 93, for the day before the Sabbath. Doubtless in late 
liturgical use each day of the week had its appropriate Ps., but only the ear- 
liest assignment, that to the Sabbath, appears in f^. In BS. 50 14 "<*• there is 
an account of these temple services. 

(b) Assignments to sacrifices in the temple. minS for the thank-offering 
is attached to 100. The Ps. was to be used in connection with that kind of a 



DOXOLOGIES lxxxiii 

sacrifice. The word might mean for praise, but it would be meaningless in 
the midst of a multitude of Pss. which, of their very nature, are hymns of 
praise. T??nS in the titles of 38, 70, is a Hiph. denom. (Lv. 2 2 + 6 8 Nu. 5 26 ) 
from n-o?N, the technical term for the offering of the Mincha. It doubtless 
means to make the Azkarah. These Fss. were designated for use at that 
sacrifice. Doubtless other Pss. were used on sacrificial occasions, but refer- 
ences to their use did not make their way into the titles of the Pss. 

(c) Assignments to festivals, n*>an najn "VV in the title of 30 indicates its 
assignment to a festival of the dedication of the temple, probably that of Judas 
the Maccabee, B.C. 164, when the temple was rededicated after its desecration 
by Antiochus, 1 Mace. 4 59 Jn. io 22 . (3 gives in the title of Ps. 29 i^odiov <ricr)- 
vrjs, U in consummatione tabernaculi, referring to its use on the last day of 
Tabernacles. 

§ 40. There are doxologies at the close of the five books into 
which Jfy divides the Psalter. But these were designed to be used 
at the conclusion of every psalm in liturgical service. 

Although these doxologies are counted in the verses of the Pss. 
in MT., so are the titles, and the former are no more parts of the 
original than the latter. These doxologies are benedictions, or 
ascriptions of blessedness to the God of Israel. A series of such 
benedictions has been preserved as the earliest part of the Jewish 
Liturgy apart from the Psalter. Such are also of frequent occur- 
rence in the citations from the early Rabbis in the Misnayoth and 
Beraithoth. Though given usually only at the close of the books, 
the doxologies were really used at the conclusion of every Ps. or 
part of Ps. sung in the liturgy. 

These are the benedictions in \f/ : — 

Ps. 41 14 pNi pi* I oSiyn njn aSiynn | hxw tnSs mrn | ym 

72 18 - 19 naS nwhoi rwy | haw >rhn (o*nS«) mm j -p-o 

jdni }dn I pNn -, ?a-(nN) maa nSdm | oh^h maa ov j "|nai 

89 s3 |dni jdn I dSi^S I nvn \ -jna 

106 48 J thxfn ijn dSwhd | ^tnw ^hn nw \ *n->a 

We also find the last of these in I Ch. 16 36 , where it was used as one of the 
doxologies of the temple service. It was not cited from this Ps. Rather the 
reverse is the case : that the doxology was added to \f/ from the Chronicler ; 
for it could not have been used by the editor of ^ in the time of Judas 
the Maccabee, the early part of the second century B.C., because it divides 
the group of Hallels 104-107, which were designed as a tetralogy to be used 



lxxxiv INTRODUCTION 

together. These four doxologies began with *jn3 Qal ptc. pass., Blessed, 
which was probably uttered by a solo voice, followed by a metrical pause. 
They close with the double Amen ; verily, sung by the choir or by the people 
according to the rubric 106 48 , " Let all the people say A men." The inter- 
vening material is a trimeter couplet, as 41 14 = 106 48 . These differ only in 
the scribal variation 71 \rz for 7ID, the former destroying the measure preserved 
by the latter. 89 s3 is evidently an abridgment of the same couplet. j2 1& - 1 * 
gives a double benediction, and therefore a couplet in each v. nw is a Qr. 
for dviSn at the close of Ps. of £. rs is a prosaic insertion at the expense of 
the measure without affecting the sense. There are virtually, therefore only 
two doxologies : — 

(1) Blessed be \ Yahxoeh the God of Israel \ From everlasting even unto everlasting. 

Amen and Amen. 

(2) Blessed be \ Yahweh the God of Israel, \ Doer of wonders alone. 

Blessed be \ His glorious name for ever \ And may the whole earth be filled with 

His glory. 

A men and Amen. 

The first of these is the ancient benediction, and it was probably used in \p 
at the close of the first and second divisions. The third division needed no 
such benediction because it ended with a series of Hallel doxologies. The 
more elaborate benediction of 72 18 - 19 and that of 106 48 were appended subse- 
quently when \f/ was divided into five books. 

§ 41. Selah indicates the abbreviation of a ptalm in liturgical 
use, and marks the place where the dosing benediction might be 
sung. The word itself means : Lift up {the voice in praise) . This 
interpretation explains the tradition of (5 that it called for an 
" interlude," and the Palestinian tradition, which represents it 
by the last word of the doxology, "forever" The term was first 
attached to psalms in the Psalter of the Mizmorim. It was used 
in the Director's Psalter, and in the Collection of the Elohist, and 
it continued in use at least until the time of the Psalter of Solomon 
and the earliest portions of the Jewish Liturgy. 

Selah is used in J^ 71 t. in thirty-nine Pss. It is also found 
3 t. in Hb. 3. As it is used frequently in ©&, it was probably 
attached to Hb. 3 before the removal of that Ps. from ©& to its 
present position. It is used in all the major Psalters, and in 
32, 89, in addition. The latest uses of Selah in the Psalter of 
5^ are in 66 6 67 from the early Greek period; and in 24° 89°, 
parts of composite Pss. which belong to the later Greek period. 



SELAH 1XXXV 

But Selahs continued to be added in (3 after the completion of 
that translation. They also appear twice in the Psalter of Solo- 
mon, and twice in the Jewish Benedictions. This late use makes 
it impossible to think that the term was misunderstood either in 
the Alexandrian or the Palestinian tradition. The former translates 
the word by htaxl/aXfxa, interlude, the latter by forever. Both ren- 
derings depend on the same usage, regarded from different points 
of view. The former indicates an interlude at which the benedic- 
tion should be sung, and the Ps. concluded for that particular 
service. The latter gives the last word of the benediction as an 
abbreviation for the benediction itself. The word TbO calls for 
the lifting up of the voice in praise. This interpretation satisfies 
all the conditions of the problem, and is in accord with the actual 
position occupied by Selah in the Psalms. 

n^p is used : (a) at the close of a Str. : in Pss. f- 5 - 9 4 3 - 5 f 9 17 - 21 24 s - 10 
32 4 396. 12 4 6 4 - 8 - 12 47 5 48 s 50 6 (before Ef.) 15 («) ^ 59 6 - 14 (before lit.) foe £6 15 
6 7 5 7 6*. 10 77 4. 10. ig g s (®) g 2 2 s 3 9 84* gf 89 s - 38 - 46 - 49 14c) 4 - 6 - 9 (43 t. in 
25 Pss.). This is evidently the prevailing use. (6) At the close of a peri- 
cope made without regard to measure : in Pss. 20 4 2I 3 32 s 49 14 52 s 672 84 s 85 s 
87 s 88 8 - n (° m - •> 143 6 (12 t. in 11 Pss.). Five of these Pss. have also 'D at 
close of Str. : 32, 52, 67, 84, 87. It seems unlikely that both uses came from 
the same hand. The Selahs at end of Strs. are presumably earlier than the 
others. (<r) At the close of a gloss : in Pss. 32 7 44° 49^ 54 s 55 s - 20 57 4ot - 7 61 5 
62 s - 9 66 4 - 7 68 20 75 4 81 8 (16 t. in 12 Pss.). In more than half of these Pss. 'D may 
have been earlier than the gl., and may have stood originally at the close of 
a Str. There can be little doubt that this is the case in 54^ 62 s 66 7 75 4 ; 
it may well have been so in 32 7 61 5 . The Selah in 68 2) may also originally 
have followed the last 1. of Str. if v. 21 be an independent gl.; but if these vs. 
form one gl. 'D is probably the insertion of a later editor. The use of the term 
in 55 8 57 4a is difficult to explain, as the gl. is short and the 'D immediately 
precedes the last 1. of Str. Was the gl. intended to take the place of the 
closing 1.? or are these examples of displacement? <S gives Selah in 57 3 in 
some codd., showing a fluctuating usage for this Ps. It is possible that these 
Selahs also stood originally at close of Str. In any case there are upward of 
six Selahs to be added to the list given above under (a). There remain 
seven Selahs that seem inseparable from the glosses which they follow : 
44 9 49 16 55 21 57 7 °2 9 66 4 81 8 . As these Selahs cannot be earlier than their 
gls., the use must be a late one. 49 1G may be a gl. of % or it may come from 
a later hand. 81 8 is a gl. of 81 6 , 57 7 of 57^. These Pss. were probably joined 
to their present mates in 3E, and these Selahs may all be due to IE. So 55 20 and 
62 9 also preserve late gls. and late uses of 'D. 44 9 66 4 are gls. later than £» 



lxxxvi INTRODUCTION 

and their Selahs may be later still. The use of D in 68 8 - 33 is probably due to 
error, v. 3? to txt. err. (v. Ps.), and v. 8 to err. of transposition, as 'D stands 
here in the midst of a citation from Dt. 5 4-6 . It may have stood originally at 
end of citation, or else of Str., or it may be due to dittog. So many uses of 
the term in this Ps. have been preserved in the different Versions, that it is 
difficult to form any opinion as to its genuineness in $f . nSo was used in all 
three of the major Psalters, (i) There are 28 (26) of the Selah Pss. in j/ft : 
3-4. 7 (©)» 9. 20-21, 24, 39, 47-5°. 62 » 66-68, 75-77, 80 (0), 82-85, 87-88, 
140, 143. The term is used in these Pss. : (a) at close of Str.: 3-4, 9, 24, 39, 
47-48, 50, 66-67, 76-77, 80, 82-84, 8 7» l 4° (*9 Pss.); and prob. also in 62 s 
66 7 68 20 75 4 before the insertion of gl. (/>) Regardless of measure : 20 4 21 3 
49" 67 2 84° 85 3 87 s 88 8 - " 143 6 (9 Pss.). As this usage could hardly have come 
from the same hand, it must be regarded as later than £ft. (V) At close of 
gloss : in 49 16 62 9 66*. These gls. are all from time of 35 or later, so that these 
Selahs could not have been in £$L The characteristic use of D in the Miz- 
morim is therefore at the close of Str., and the editor of fH, when he would 
shorten a Ps., did so by leaving off one or more Strs. (2) There are 29 of 
the Selah Pss. in DK. All of these are found in fH save : 44, 46, 52, 54, 55, 
57, 59, 60, 61, 81 (10 Pss.). In this collection D stands: (a) at close of Sir. : 
in 4, 9, 39, 46-47, 52, 59-60, 62, 66-68, 75-77, 80 (<S), 84, 140 (18 Pss.). Four 
of these Pss. were not in fft : 46, 52, 59, 60. Q& seems therefore to have 
continued the use of D begun in jJH. To these may be added Pss. 54 s 61 5 , 
as D prob. antedates gl., and stood originally at end of Str. The use in 55 s 
57 4a is doubtful, as has been seen, and may be rather that of (c) or (t>) re- 
gardless of measure: 20, 21, 49, 52, 67, 84, 85, 88 (8 Pss.). All of these are 
in £ft save 52 ; but as it seems unreasonable to ascribe a regard for measure 
and a disregard of it to the same editor, it is necessary to consider this usage 
as later than £ft, and hence as due to Q&. It is true that two of the exam- 
ples given in Pss. of fft are lacking in ©&, 87 s 143 6 ; but 87 has another Selah 
at close of Str., so that the use of the term in v. 6 must in any case be due to 
a later hand. As to 143 6 , there is no special propriety in the use of D here, 
and if genuine, it may well be late. A similar use is to be found in 32, one 
of two Selah Pss. outside the major Psalters, (c) At the close of gl. : 44 s 49 16 
55 20 57 7 62 9 66 4 81 8 . All of these Selahs are in Pss. of E& ; but, as has been 
shown, they can hardly be separated from their gls. and must therefore belong 
to the time of £ or later. The Selahs added by JB& seem to have been placed 
with less regard for the strophical organisation of the Ps. than was shown by 
£H, the musical or liturgical interest being paramount. It is worthy of note 
that TB1& has added musical notes to the titles of many of the Selah Pss., 
including all those wanting in fft, excepting 52, 61, and 44 (whose D is too 
late for B&). (3) Twenty-four of the Selah Pss. appear in 15: 44, 46-50, 52, 
54-55, 57, 59-62, 66-68, 75-77, 80-83. AM °f these Pss. are also in Q& 
save 48, 50, 82, 83, which are Pss. of JjH and use D only at close of Str. 
There seems to be no independent use of 'o in 15 apart from gls. All the 
examples of 'D at end of gl. are in Pss. of IE: 44 9 49 16 55 20 57 7 62 9 66 4 81 8 . 



SELAH Ixxxvii 

These could hardly have been earlier than 15, and may all have been later. 
The Selahs in 49 16 55 20 57 7 62 9 Si 8 are possibly due to 15. Those in 44° 66* 
seem to be from a later hand. It is possible that 15 is responsible for some 
of the gls. inserted between Selah and the last 1. of the Str. in Pss. of $3ift. If 
15 added any Selahs to his Psalter, he did so only at the close of gls. Thus of 
the three distinct uses of 'D, one is characteristic of each of the major Psalters. 
There remain for consideration 2 Pss. excluded from the major Psalters: 32, 
89. Both are Maskilim; 32 was in B, and 89 was a pseudonym. In 32* 
'D stands at close of Str. ; so also in v. 7 , the gl. being a later insertion. In 
v. 5 Selah appears in the midst of a Str., though at an appropriate place in 
liturgical use. This Selah is doubtless later than the others. The usage of 
the Ps. corresponds with that of fH, ©&. It is classed among the Mizmorim 
in <g A . 89 is a composite Ps. 89^ is from the time of the Exile, 89° from 
the late Greek period. This Ps. and 24 a are the only Selah Pss. later 
than the major Psalters. All of the Selahs in 89 stand at the close of Strs. 
The 'D in 89° and that at the close of 24" imply a continuation of the use of 
the term through the Greek period. Additional late uses are furnished by 
the Versions. <@> always translates hSd by 5id\pa\/j.a, interlude (9 17 dia\pd\- 
/jLaros). It omits the term from 3° 24 10 46 12 at close of Ps., and would doubt- 
less have done so in 9 21 , if it had not combined 9-10 in one. <J£ also omits 
'D from 88 11 , but some cod. H and P give it in 88 13 . <@> gives 'D in 57 s instead 
of 54 4 , and in 6i 5ct instead of 6i 5,) . It also inserts the term in 2 2 34 11 50 16 
68 4 - 14 80 8 94 15 . Of these, Pss. 2, 34, 94 certainly represent a late Alexan- 
drian usage. Other uses are to be found in codd. of H and P, and in Psal- 
terium Vetus. The Psalter of Solomon uses did\f/a\/j.a in 17 31 18 10 . Many 
codd. begin a new Ps. at the latter passage. The use in 17 81 corresponds 
with those in the Psalter. It is evident that this editor must have under- 
stood the mng. and use of Selah ; so also the later scribes of (§. There are 
additional uses of the term in the Jewish Liturgy. The Selahs in the third 
and eighteenth benedictions of Shemoneh Esreh or Eighteen Benedictions 
stand in the earliest portions of the Liturgy, and are, in all likelihood, genuine 
and ancient. 

nSo is imv. SSd to lift up (the voice in praise), cf. Ps. 68 5 and it indicates 
that a benediction might be sung after the pericope thus designated. The 
explanations of Ew. " loud," a strengthening of the voice or instruments, 
De. forte, as opposed to piano, Bo. "a playing with full power," do not suit 
all the passages where it is used, and imply a use of instrumental music 
which is not justified by the titles of the Pss., or by their contents. The 
explanation of Ges., after Rosenmuller, deriving it from n^D = rest, be quiet, 
and thinking of a pause, is conjectural, and does not explain the problem. 
Fiirst, followed by Ley, derives from nSo = separate, and thinks it indicates 
section. None of these theories explain the Jewish traditions. 2, 6, usually 
follow <& in the rendering 5id\pa\/xa. V does not translate, but omits. & usu- 
ally abbreviates. <5 5id\pa\ixa indicates an interlude, but does not imply its 
purpose. Aq. del followed by Quinta, Sexta, J5 occasionally, and always by 



lxxxviii INTRODUCTION 

3 semper, iugiter, also T& and Jewish tradition cannot be explained by any 
of the older theories. A hint is, however, given by Jerome in his letter to 
Marcella (Ep. 28), where he compares the use of the word with that of Amen 
or Shalom to mark the end of a passage and confirm its contents. So Jacub 
of Edessa, as cited by Bar Heb. in his Com. on Ps. io 1 in a passage quoted 
but not understood by Ba. (Lagarde's Praetermissorum, p. 109). The del = 
oSy was an abbreviation of the second line of the couplet of the Benediction 
oS)j? "i;'i D s i>r:, used for the benediction itself, which was to be sung at this 
place. This interpretation for Selah agrees with and harmonises the ancient 
traditions, the Alexandrian and the Palestinian ; it is in accordance with the 
most natural explanation of the Hebrew word, and it accounts for every in- 
stance of its use as standing at the close of a pericope or liturgical selection. 

§ 42. The Psalter in the middle of the second century, shortly 
before its translation into Greek, was divided into five books, after 
the division of the Pentateuch, and was numbered as 130 psalms, 
with variation of numbering to suit the variations needed for the 
three years' course of Sabbath readings. 

The division of the Psalter into five books was doubtless made to 
accord with the five-fold division of the Law, and was in some way 
connected with the five great feasts of Judaism. Subsequently the 
Five Rolls were arranged in the same way and assigned for read- 
ing at these feasts. The second division of the Psalter was divided 
into two at 72, and a doxology was inserted. The third division 
of the Psalter was also divided at 106 and a doxology added. 

The Pss. of |^ are 150 in number. But, as we have seen, the numbering 
in |fcj differs from that in <S. This has caused endless confusion in citations, 
as Jewish and Protestant Vrss. and usage follow |§; Roman Catholics, Greeks, 
and Orientals @. But neither $ nor @ number according to the originals. 
The arrangement of the numbering of both was for liturgical purposes. The 
differences appear: (1) at Ps. 10 (|^), which in 6 goes with 9, but in $ 
is separated. This makes © number one less than |Q until we come to 
(2) 114 ($|), which is combined with 115 to make 113 of <S. But this 
difference is at once adjusted in (3) 116 of $?, which combines 114, 115 of 
<@. The difference of one now continues till (4) 147 of |§, which combines 
146, 147 of <5. The concluding Pss., 148-150, have the same number. We 
then have in four cases variations which make it possible to number the Pss. 
from 148 to 152. These variations were probably indicated in Mss. which 
lie at the basis of |^ and <S. They remind us of the 153 lections of the 
Thorah, the oldest division of sections, made for a three years' course of 
Sabbath readings. It is probable that the numbering of the Pss. and the 
variations recognised was for the same purpose. Each reading of the Thorah 



EVOLUTION OF THE PSALTER Ixxxix 

had its accompanying Ps. It should be noted that (3 adds Ps. 151, which 
evidently is a late composition, probably to give an additional variation 
for Sabbath readings. It was originally written in Hebrew, and describes the 
anointing of David and his combat with Goliath. It was probably of Macca- 
bean origin. 

§ 43. The Psalter represents many centuries of growth in the 
historical origin doth of its Psalms, extending from the time of 
David to the Maccabean period, and of the various minor and 
major Psalters through which they passed, from the early Persian 
to the late Greek period, before the present Psalter was finally 
edited and arranged, in the middle of the second century B.C. 

We may assign seven Pss. in their original form to the early He- 
brew monarchy, before Jehoshaphat : 7, 13, 18, 23, 24^ 6o a no; 
seven to the middle monarchy : 3, 20, 21, 27° 45, 58, 61 ; and thir- 
teen to the late monarchy : 2, 19" 28, 36 46, 52, 54, 55, 56, 60^ 62, 
72, 87 ; thus twenty-seven to the period of the Hebrew monarchy. 
During the Exile thirteen were composed : 42-43, 63, 74, 77° 79, 
81 6 82, 84, 88, 89* 90, 137, 142. In the early Persian period there 
was a great outburst of psalmody. As many as thirty-three Pss. 
were composed: 4, 6, 9-10, n, 12, 14 (=53), 16, 17, 22, 25, 

3 1 , 3 2 , 34, 35, 37, 3 8 > 39, 4*, Sf 59, 6 4, 69" 70 (= 40") 75, 7$, 
78, 80, S3, 101, 109" 140, 143, 144°. This was due to several 
influences. The conquest of Babylon by Cyrus, which aroused 
the enthusiasm of the exilic Isaiah, called forth lyric songs. The 
rebuilding of the altar and temple, with the restoration of the 
worship in Jerusalem, as it was accompanied by prophetic voices, 
so also by those of lyric poets. The struggles of the pious with 
the unfaithful in the community, and with the neighbouring little 
nations, whose jealousy and hatred constantly interfered with the 
growth and prosperity of the people in Jerusalem, also naturally 
expressed itself in song. Toward the close of this period the col- 
lection of Mikta?ni?n, or golden poems, was made after the example 
of the older collection of the book of Yashar. To the middle 
Persian period, the times of Nehemiah, we may assign sixteen Pss. : 
5, 8, 15, 26, 29, 30, 40" 47, 51, st 65, 66 a 6 9 b 138, 139" 141 j to 
the late Persian period, in which internal and external trouble was 
renewed, eleven Pss. : 27* 36* 44, 48, 49, 50, 68, 8i a 85, 89" i02 a . 
In this last period the collection of Maskilim, or religious medita- 



xc 



INTRODUCTION 



THE EVOLUTION OF 



Dates. 


Pss. APART. 


MlKTAM. 


Maskil. 


David. 


Early Monarchy. 




6o a . 




7, 13, 18, 23, 24" 
6o a no. 


Middle Monarchy. 




58. 


45- 


3, 20, 21, 27° 58, 
61. 


Late Monarchy. 




56. 


52,54,55- 


2, I9« 28, 36*52, 54, 
55, 56, 60* 62, 72. 


Exile. 


90. 137- 




42-43, 74, 
88, 89" 
142. 


63, 142. 


Early Persian. 




16, 57« 59. 


32, 53 ( = 
14), 78. 


4,6,9-10, 11, 12, 14 






( = 53). 16,17,22,25, 
31.32,34,35.37.38, 
39, 40* ( = 70), 41, 
57 a 59, 64, 69* 101, 
io9« 140, 143, i 44 «. 


Middle Persian. 








5, 8, 15, 26, 29, 30, 
40« 51, 57" 65, 69" 
138, i39« 141. 


Late Persian. 


89 102°. 




44. 


27" 36", 68. 


Early Greek. 


86, 91, 95, 

93 + 96- 
100, 108, 

H5- 








Later Greek. 


i, 19 6 24° 

77" 89° 92, 
94, 103, 
119, 139" 
i44>. 








Maccabean. 


33, i°2 ft , 
109 6 118, 
I39 c - 









The final collection of the Present 
The division into five 



EVOLUTION OF THE PSALTER 



XC1 



THE PSALTER. 



Asaph. 


KORAH. 


MlZMOR. 


Director. 


Elohist. 


Hallel. 


Pilgrim. 






n 

a" 


O* 

3 

M 

=r 

3 
® 

+ 

^ 


w 
n 
nT 


0' 
3 
c/i 

O 

3 
P 

h 

3 

a 

+ 


n> 
?T 


0" 
3 
t/i 


3 

tt 

S* 

3 

5 

l 

3* 

£L 



5 
+ 








45- 








46, 87. 






74, 77 a 79, 
8i & 82. 


42-43,84. 






75, 76, 78, 
80, 83. 










47- 


66«. 










5°,49(?). 


44,48,85. 






8i°. 






73- 




67. 


66\ 
























7»- 


104-107, 

IU-117, 

i35-!36, 
146, 148, 
150. 


I20-I28, 






130-134. 












147, 149. 


129. 









Psalter out of all the above material, 
books and 150 Psalms. 



XC11 INTRODUCTION 

tions, was made ; also © was edited as a prayer-book for use in 
the synagogues, and soon after f&, more ornate in character. The 
conquest of Alexander introduced the Greek period, which in its 
early part was advantageous to the Jews. At the beginning of 
this period the great royal advent Ps. was composed, 93, 96-100, 
and soon after eight other Pss. : 66'' 67, 73, 86, 91, 95, 108, 145. 
The Psalter of & was prepared in Babylonia ; and later in Palestine 
the Psalter of the Mizmorim, the first of the major Psalters, as a 
hymn-book for use in the synagogues. Toward the close of this 
period ©& was made, using all the earlier Psalters, as a prayer- 
book for the synagogues, and directions were given for musical 
rendering. The later Greek period was troublous in Palestine, 
owing to the constant strife between the kings of Egypt and Syria, 
and to internal dissensions resulting therefrom. But in the East 
the Jews were less troubled. There in the early part of this period 
1£ was prepared for synagogue use. To this period we may ascribe 
eleven Pss. : 1, 19 6 24" 71, 77* 89* 92, 94, 103, 139'' 144'', and the 
elaborate praise of the Law, 119. In addition fourteen Pilgrim 
Pss., 120-128, 130-134, were composed, and the Pilgrim Psalter 
collected in this period. Also sixteen of the Hallels, 104-107, 
111-117, 135-136, 146, 148, 150, were composed and edited in 
a collection. The Maccabean period began with the persecution 
of Antiochus and the rise of the Maccabees at the head of the 
patriotic party. They gradually triumphed, and organised the 
Maccabean dynasty and kingdom. To this period we may ascribe 
Pss. 33, 102 6 109'' 118, 139°; also 129 of the Pilgrim Psalter, and 
147, 149 of the Hallels. After the rededication of the temple the 
present Psalter was prepared, combining Pss. appropriate for use 
in the synagogue and in the temple, and using all the previous 
Psalters, especially D, D£, IS, the Hallels, and the Pilgrim Pss. 
The collection was divided into three books. Toward the close 
of the second century the final editor divided it into five books 
and 150 Pss., in accordance with the same divisions of the Law, 
allowing for variations in usage. 



CANONICITY xciil 



C. CANONICITY OF THE PSALTER. 

§ 44. The Psalter was the first of the Writings to win canonical 
recognition, and it has maintained this recognition in the unanimous 
consent of Jew and Christian until the present day. The testimony 
of representative Jews and Christians in all ages is that the Psalter 
is a holy Book, divinely authoritative, the norm and guide of worship 
and religious experience. 

The Pss. were collected for the purpose of public worship in the 
synagogues and in the temple, some being appropriate for the 
latter, but the most of them evidently more suitable for the former. 
There were several minor Psalters, and then later several major 
Psalters, long before the present Psalter was edited. These col- 
lections were all made for use in public worship, and it is alto- 
gether probable that each one, as it was adopted, gained recognition 
as canonical. This gave the Pss. their first place in the Canon of 
the Writings, though they did not receive their final form until 
a long time after others of the Writings had been composed and 
had also been received into the Canon. The division of the 
Psalter into five Books is doubtless based on the same division of 
the Pentateuch, and it is probable that the numbering of the Pss. 
had a similar motive to the arrangement of the Pentateuch for 
a three years' course of Sabbath readings. These liturgical motives 
are strong indirect evidences of canonical recognition. 

The Psalter was used in the synagogues in the time of Jesus and his apostles 
alongside of the Law and the Prophets, and is quoted by him and his apostles 
as prophetic and authoritative (Lk. 20 4 * 2 24 44 Acts I 20 ), and used by them in 
worship (Mt. 26 3) Acts 16 25 James 5 13 I Cor. 14 26 Eph. 5 19 Col. 3 16 ). The 
Jews have always used the Pss. in the worship of the synagogue and still con- 
tinue its use (Schiller Szinessy, in Prayer Book Interleaved, p. 255). The 
Christian Church in all its branches has used the Pss. as the basis of its ritual 
and the common expression of divine worship. It is a tradition of the Church 
of Antioch that Ignatius introduced antiphonal singing of the Pss. (Socrates, 
Hist. Eccl. 6 8 ). At all events it is certain that the use of the Pss. in the syna- 
gogues passed over into the Christian churches in all parts of the world (Tert. 
Apol. c. 39 ; Jerome, Ep. Marcella, xlvi. ), and has continued in unbroken 
succession to the present time. In the celebration of the Eucharist, the most 
sacred institution of the Christian religion, the use of appropriate Pss. has 
continued as an essential part of the liturgy from the most primitive times, 



XC1V INTRODUCTION 

doubtless based on their use at the Jewish feasts, especially the Passover. 
Chrysostom thus describes the use of the Pss. in his day : " If we keep vigil in 
the church, David comes first, last, and midst. If early in the morning, we 
seek for the melody of hymns, first, last, and midst is David again. If we are 
occupied with the funeral solemnities of the departed, if virgins sit at home 
and spin, David is first, last, and midst. ... In monasteries, amongst those 
holy choirs of angelic armies, David is first, midst, and last. In the convents 
of virgins, where are bands of them that imitate Mary ; in the deserts, where 
are men crucified to this world and having their conversations with God, first, 
midst, and last is he " (Neale and Littledale, Com. on the Psalms, p. i). In 
the Ambrosian rite, still used in Milan, the Psalter is recited at the hours of 
prayer, once a fortnight ; in the Roman or Gregorian rite once a week : Pss. 
1-109 at Matins, 1 10-150 at Vespers; and fixed Pss. are assigned for use at 
Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext, Nones, and Complines. So also the Benedictine 
rite prescribes a weekly recitation of the Pss., and this usage has been fol- 
lowed by monastic, mendicant, and other religious orders in the Roman Church. 
In the Greek Church the Psalter is recited once a week, except in Lent, when 
it is recited twice. Similar uses are in the Coptic, Syrian, Armenian, Abyssin- 
ian, and other Churches. Proper Pss., or parts of Pss., are also assigned for 
the Mass in all rites ; some fixed, others varying with the kind of Mass or the 
feasts and fasts of the ecclesiastical year. The Church of England, when it 
condensed the hours of prayer into two, matins and vespers, arranged the 
Pss. for recitation once a month, besides assigning proper Pss. for use daily, 
or for the varying sacred days of the ecclesiastical year at Holy Communion. 
The Lutheran and Reformed Churches also make the Psalter an essential part 
of their Liturgies. In the Reformed Churches in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, and, in some of them even in the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries, the Psalter was the only hymn-book apart from a few paraphrases 
of Holy Scripture. The multiplication of Christian hymns in the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries brought about a gradual disuse of the Psalter in Great 
Britain and America in several religious denominations, but toward the close 
of the century a reaction began in the form of responsive readings of the 
Psalter, for which purpose many arrangements have been prepared. 

§ 45. The canonicity of the Psalter is attested by its contents. 
Its religious, doctrinal, and ethical materials give evidence to its 
holy character as coming from God and leading to God. 

The Psalter contains, in the usual numbering, 150 Psalms, of 
great variety of form and content ; but all within the limits of a 
hymn-book and prayer-book, composed for religious worship, 
public in the synagogue and temple, and private in the house- 
hold and in the closet. It is therefore by its very nature essentially 
religious, and indeed in the lyric form. (A) Its religion is at 



RELIGIOUS CONTENTS XCV 

once simple and comprehensive, equally appropriate to all classes 
and conditions of mankind in all nations and in all ages. It ex- 
presses the child-like yearnings of the simple-minded, and the 
loftiest aspirations of the mature man of God. It plays upon all 
the chords of the human soul, and evokes from each and all that 
which is most appropriate to union and communion of the indi- 
vidual or the community with God. 

Many of the Pss. in their original form were composed as an expression 
of private devotion. These features remained even after they were adapted 
by editorial revision for use in the synagogues. Many others were composed 
for use in public worship in the synagogues, to express the worship of the 
congregation. In the synagogue the ceremonies of religion were reduced 
to a minimum, and therefore such ceremonies do not appear in these two 
classes of Pss., notwithstanding the fact that the most of them were composed 
long after the fully developed ritual of the Priest's code had become fixed in 
usage in the temple service. Only a few of the Pss. were composed for or 
even adapted to worship in the temple, and these, especially the Hallels, were 
songs of praise suited to the ritual of the thank-offerings, votive offerings, or 
whole burnt offerings. These offerings are mentioned in appropriate places 
in the Psalter. The sin-offerings and the trespass-offerings do not appear, 
even in the Penitential Pss., doubtless because these offerings were not accom- 
panied with sacred song. Furthermore, local and temporal references were 
gradually eliminated by editorial revision from the older Pss., making them 
more and more appropriate for worship. Therefore the Psalter became a 
hymn-book and prayer-book, having so little of the ceremonial side of reli- 
gion that it was lifted above all that was local, temporal, and occasional, and 
made appropriate for the worship of all places, all times, and all occasions 
and persons. 

(E) The doctrines of the Psalter do not appear in a dogmatic 
form, demanding acceptance by the intellect and will ; but in a 
concrete form, expressing the faith already entertained or estab- 
lished. From this point of view, while on the one side the doc- 
trines are not so complete in detail and not so clearly denned in 
their relations as in the Prophets, yet on the other side they rise 
to the loftiest heights in their conception of God, sink to the lowest 
depths in searching the soul of man, expand to the greatest breadths 
in their comprehension of the union of God and man and the 
world in the divine ideals of redemption. For these reasons the 
Psalter is the nearest to the NT. of all the writings of the OT. 
g 



XCVl INTRODUCTION 

Few of the Pss. are didactic, and these are ethical rather than dogmatic. 
The Pss. are chiefly lyrics, expressing religious emotions, experiences, aspira- 
tions. They are contemplative or intuitive, using the religious imagination 
and fancy rather than the logical faculty and the reasoning powers. They 
are also with few exceptions quite limited in extent, and doctrines appear in 
them in bold, graphic, realistic statement, in detached form, and out of con- 
nection with any system of belief. The Psalter represents in its various Pss. 
many different periods of Hebrew Literature. The temporal characteristics 
have to a great extent been obscured by editorial revisions; but at the same 
time these are in fact, though not on the surface, really embedded in the Pss., 
so that it is quite possible to distinguish the several stages in the development 
of doctrine in correspondence with those that appear in the Prophets. 

The doctrine of God is especially rich in the attributes. The kindness, 
goodness, and love of God stand out more distinctly in the Psalter than in 
any other part of the OT. The vindicatory, saving righteousness of Yahweh 
and His discriminating justice are no less prominent. The doctrine of creation 
appears in simple, beautiful, poetic conceptions, which might have modified 
the rigid dogma of the theologians, based on the early chapters of Genesis, 
if the theologians had been sufficiently comprehensive in their study of the 
Bible to take account of it. It is the divine providence in history as well 
as the experience of the individual upon which religious poets delight to 
dwell. 

The doctrine of man is especially prominent in the Psalter from the very 
fact that the Pss. give expression to human experience, whether of the indi- 
vidual, or of the nation. This is well expressed by Calvin. " This Book not 
unreasonably am I wont to style an anatomy of all parts of the soul, for no 
one will discover in himself a single feeling whereof the image is not reflected 
in this mirror. Nay all griefs, sorrows, doubts, fears, hopes, cares, and anxie- 
ties, in short all those tumultuous agitations wherewith the minds of men are 
wont to be tossed, the Holy Ghost hath here represented to the life. The 
rest of Scripture contains the commands which God gave to His servants to 
be delivered unto us. But here the prophets themselves holding converse with 
God, inasmuch as they lay bare all their inmost feelings, invite or impel every 
one of us to self-examination, that of all the infirmities to which we are liable 
and all the sins of which we are so full none may remain hidden." 

The doctrine of redemption is richly unfolded, especially on its experi- 
mental side, in the personal deliverance of the individual from sin and evil. 
The Penitential Pss. have always been and still are found to be the most 
suitable expression of Christian penitence and the joy of divine forgiveness. 
The elegies express the depths of woe that surge up about the reflective soul 
in all ages as he contemplates the brevity of life, the limitations of man, and 
the certainty and speedy approach of death. The Pss. of expostulation ex- 
press, though often in a daring way, venturing close upon the brink of irrev- 
erence and despair, the writhings of the soul under the sense of injustice and 
wrongs that the faithful servants of God have so often to suffer in this life. 



RELIGIOUS CONTENTS XCV11 

The Pilgrim Pss. are the most suitable expression of social religion that have 
ever been composed. The Guest Pss. sound a note of religious joy in the 
communion with God that has been attained by no other poets so thoroughly 
well. 

In the Psalter the Messianic ideal is in some respects richer than in the 
Prophets. The royal Messiah, the son of David, appears in most vivid, 
dramatic situations in Pss. 2 and no, which find their only realisation in the 
resurrection, enthronement, and reign of Jesus Christ. The suffering servant 
of Pss. 22, 40, 69, transcends that of Is. 53 in his vivid, lifelike picture of the 
suffering Saviour. The royal Pss. have ever been used in the Church as the 
most suitable expression of her longing for the second advent of her Lord. 
The future life of man in a state of redemption after death is more clearly 
depicted in Pss. 16, 49, 73, than anywhere else in the OT. It is not sur- 
prising therefore that Jesus and his apostles used the Psalter so much as 
reflecting and depicting the Messianic redemption. 

(C) The ethics of the Psalter are relatively not so high as in the 
Wisdom Literature, which is essentially ethical. And yet from the 
point of view of ethical experience they are rich enough to give 
very important complementary material to the Law, the Prophets, 
and even Hebrew Wisdom. The ethics of the Law are summed 
up in the terse and comprehensive experience depicted in Pss. 1, 
19, while Ps. 119 presents the Law as a mirror in which the pious 
man sees himself and others in such a wondrous variety of ethical 
experience that he is overwhelmed with a sense of a divine presence 
and influence. The ethics of the Prophets are summed up in that 
chaste and beautiful guest of Yahweh of Ps. 15. 

All along the line of religion, doctrines, and morals the contents 
of the Pss. have always been found to be just what they are to- 
day ; such unique, exalted, comprehensive, and satisfactory expres- 
sions in lyric form of what mankind needs for union and communion 
with God, that men in all ages and countries have been convinced 
that the Psalter is a divinely inspired Book, a rule of faith and life. 

§ 46. The only objections to the canonicity of the Psalter seriously 
entertained are based on a number of imprecations upon enemies 
and protestations of righteousness on the part of suffering servants 
of God. These objections are invalid because they fail to appre- 
hend that these imprecations and protestations belong necessarily to 
earlier stages of religion and to certain historic situations where 
they have their essential propriety. 



xcviii INTRODUCTION 

These objections to the canonicity of the Psalter are quite mod- 
ern. They have arisen in the Protestant world in connection with 
the stress laid upon the doctrine of justification by faith only, 
which makes any form of self-righteousness impossible ; and by the 
growth of individualism, with its liberty of conscience and opinion, 
which is necessarily opposed to any kind of persecution or violence, 
even toward the enemies of religion. 

The protestations of righteousness are in the Pss. which appeal 
to God for help from sufferings of body or of mind in connection 
with the experience of injustice and wrong. These protestations 
do not imply sinless perfection, or absolute conformity to the 
divine ideal of conduct, for they not infrequently are connected 
with the confession of sin ; they are rather protestations of fidelity 
to God and His religion, which is essentially righteousness (cf. 
Gn. 15 6 Hb. 2 4 ). Such fidelity demands divine interposition on 
its behalf, vindication from enemies and deliverance from sufferings 
and trouble. Though these protestations sometimes rise from 
plaintive expostulation with God to complaint of injustice and 
wrong, which seem in their intensity of passion to the modern 
mind to come close to irreverence, they do not really go so far, for 
it is in these very Pss. that are found the most sublime conceptions 
of the righteousness and justice of God, and it is to their God that 
they appeal in sublime confidence as they plead in intense and 
agonising petitions which will not be refused. 

It is not without significance that the strongest protestations of this kind 
are found in Pss. 22, 40, 69, which are usually regarded as Messianic, and 
which Jesus himself used to express his own feelings in his most trying hours, 
and which his apostles regarded as most aptly suited to the situation of the 
Passion of their Lord. It is quite true that Jesus Christ was exceptional in 
his righteousness ; but that does not in any way impair their propriety of 
use for others, for Jesus and his apostles used these Pss. as familiar to them 
from the liturgical use of the synagogue and the home, and thereby gave their 
sanction to the legitimacy of this experience for suffering Christians. Not- 
withstanding the fact that these protestations of righteousness seem to be 
inconsistent with the experience of sin and ill-desert that are felt by many 
of the best of men, yet there is no real inconsistency between general fidelity 
to God and occasional faults and failures. The Christian Church, in the greater 
part of its history and in the greater part of its membership at the pres- 
ent time, finds no inconsistency between the experience of merit and the 



OBJECTIONS TO CANONICITY xcix 

experience of sin. Such a sense of inconsistency is a peculiarity of the Protes- 
tant world. And even among Protestants it is the common experience, not- 
withstanding the recognition of personal sinfulness and that justification is by 
faith only, that suffering and trouble are not in accord with demerit, and that 
there is injustice and wrong in the sufferings that the God-fearing often have 
to endure, and which the wicked often escape. Jesus Christ in the endur- 
ance of suffering and wrong taught his disciples how to undergo the sad 
experience, but that does not remove from him or from his disciples the 
injustice that there is in the sufferings of the righteous and the inconsistency 
that there is in the greater welfare of the wicked and their triumph over the 
righteous. The pious are justified, as Jesus was, in pleading with God against 
it, and it is not self-righteousness to do so. 

It is an exaggeration of the doctrine of justification by faith only, which 
excludes from Christian experience the consciousness of personal righteous- 
ness and merit. Luther misled in his interpretation of Gn. 15 6 and Hb. 2 4 . 
The former represents that God accounted Abraham as really righteous be- 
cause of his trust in Him. The latter states that the pious live by fidelity, 
faithfulness, djidn, and not by faith only. When Nehemiah prayed to God 
to remember his faithfulness and acts of kindness in His behalf and spare 
him in the greatness of His kindness, Ne. I3 14 - 22 , he was not self-righteous, 
but acting in accordance with the common experience of the OT. His prayer 
of penitence (Ne. 9) is among the finest in the Bible. Jesus distinctly taught 
the meritoriousness of deeds of love. The only passage that can be adduced 
to the contrary in his teaching, Lk. 17 10 , is wrongly interpreted in this regard 
(v. Br. Ethical Teaching of Jesus, pp. 218 sq.). St. Paul, the apostle of jus- 
tification by faith, did not hesitate to say, as his hour of martyrdom drew near, 
" I have fought the good fight, I have finished the course, I have kept the 
faith ; henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness which 
the Lord, the righteous judge, will give me at that day: and not only to 
me, but also to all them that have loved his appearing," 2 Tim. 4 7-8 , cf. Acts 

2^26 sq. 23I. 

The imprecations are not so frequent in the Pss. as in the Law 
and the Prophets. Although they have a lyric intensity of passion, 
they are not more bitter than those of other parts of the OT. 
If imprecations are inconsistent with canonicity, the whole OT. is 
excluded, and not the Psalter especially. The imprecations of the 
OT. are connected with the sense of the solidarity of the interests 
of the individual servant of God with those of the nation of Israel, 
and with the religion of God itself; so that all personal and national 
considerations are merged in those of the kingdom of God, whose 
aggressive, unscrupulous, and deadly foes must be remorselessly 
crushed in order that the holy religion may continue to exist and 



C INTRODUCTION 

accomplish its sacred mission to the world. Whenever and wher- 
ever this sense of solidarity of interests has existed, or still exists, 
these imprecations express the religious feelings of God's people 
toward the enemies of God. 

It is the modern discrimination between the religion of the individual and 
that of the nation, and between both of these and the ideal religion of man- 
kind that makes these imprecations impossible to the experience of many 
moderns. These discriminations certainly belong to a later stage in the 
development of religion than the indiscriminating sense of solidarity. But 
individualism, however important, whether we think of the person or the 
denomination or the nation, ought not to impair the higher interests of 
the organism of the kingdom of God, as the embodiment of the divine religion 
of mankind. It is indeed excessive individualism with its lack of appreciation 
of organic religion, that sees no place for imprecations against the enemies of 
the kingdom of God. Jesus Christ taught the exceeding value of the soul of 
the individual and gave an example of self-sacrificing love in dying for his 
enemies with the prayer for their forgiveness upon his lips ; but these ene- 
mies knew not the wrong they did to him, to the world, and to themselves. 
Jesus Christ distinguishes between sins of ignorance and sins of self-will, sins 
repented of and sins glossed over by self-righteousness and hypocrisy. He 
pronounced woes upon the Pharisees because they were hypocrites, tempters 
to sin, and obstructors to the kingdom of God. He denounced them as blind 
guides and serpents, and dooms them to Gehenna (Br., Ethical Teaching of 
Jesus, pp. 1 75 sq., 184 sq.). He announced the doom of the traitor Judas. He 
proclaimed the judgment of the cities that rejected him and his apostles, cul- 
minating in the destruction of Jerusalem and the world. The Apocalypse 
does not misinterpret the spirit of Christ, when it tells of the wrath of the 
Lamb and describes him in his second Advent as treading the wine-press of 
the wrath of Almighty God ; and when it pictures the martyrs underneath 
the altar crying aloud : " How long, O Master, the holy and true, dost thou 
not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? " (Rev. 6 10 ). 
The righteousness of God is on the one side vindicatory and saving, on the 
other retributive and destructive. The unfolding of vindicatory righteousness 
into the highest conception of self-sacrificing love is accompanied with the 
development of retribution into the most intense hatred and awful wrath. No 
one knows what love is, who cannot truly hate. It is a weak and sickly 
individualism which shuts its eyes against the wrath of God, and of the Lamb, 
and of the Church, the Bride of the Lamb, against evil and incorrigible sin. 
There is a place, therefore, for imprecation in the highest forms of Chris- 
tianity, only it is more discriminating than in the OT. religion and much more 
refined. In substance, the imprecations of the Psalter are normal and valid ; 
in their external form and modes of expression they belong to an age of 
religion which has been displaced by Christianity. 



INTERPRETATION CI 

The imprecations of the Psalter belong to four historic situations: (i) The 
persecutions of Jeremiah and his associates by those who were pushing the 
national religion to destruction, Ps. 52* 8( J-, cf. Je. n 18 «i- 15 15 K- 17 18 i8 19s( i- 
20 11 S( J-. (2) The brutal cruelty of Edom and Moab toward the Jews at the 
time of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians, Ps. 137, cf. Ob. 10 8 i\ 
(3) The treachery of Sanballat and Tobiah, Ne. 2-6, which threatened the very 
existence of the congregation of the Restoration. The imprecations of Ne. 
4 4-5 6 u I3 29 are in acC ord with those of Pss. 9 2; *- 21 io 15 60/ 23 - 29 83 l °- 18 . (4) The 
persecution of Antiochus, which aimed at the extermination of the worship- 
pers of Yahweh. To this period the majority of the imprecations belong, 
many of them glosses in older Pss. At that time, if ever, imprecations were 
appropriate, cf. Pss. 79 10 - 12 i09 6-15 - 19 -' 20 - 28_29 . Thus all the imprecations of 
the Pss. are upon just such treacherous hypocrites, traitors, and bloodthirsty 
enemies of the kingdom of God, as Jesus himself pronounces imprecations 
upon, who aim at nothing else than the wilful destruction of the true religion. 
It is the form and general character of these imprecations which are most 
obnoxious to the modern mind, especially the physical sufferings that are 
invoked, the dishonouring of wives and daughters, and the slaughter of babes, 
even of the unborn. This is from the point of view of the solidarity of interest 
in the family, tribe, and nation ; and especially from the ancient principle of 
the duty of revenge which was inherited by sons and kinsmen ; so that the 
only way to avoid future peril of revenge was the extermination of all who 
would be likely in the future to undertake it. 



D. THE INTERPRETATION OF THE PSALTER. 

§ 47. Jesus and his apostles interpreted the Psalter usually in 
accordance with the methods of their time, literally or allegoric ally, 
as they had need. But they chiefly used it either for practical ex- 
hortation, for dogmatic or ethical instruction, or for prophetic 
anticipations of the life and work of Jesus and his Church. 

(1) Jesus used the Psalter more than any other part of the OT. He used 
it to describe his own state of mind : Ps. 6 4 in Jn. 12 27 , Ps. 22 2 in Mt. 27 46 = 
Mk. 15 34 , Ps. 31 6 in Lk. 23 46 , Ps. 35 19 (= 69 s ) in Jn. 15 25 , Ps. 42 s in Mt. 26 s8 
= Mk. 14 34 ; his actions, Ps. 6 9 in Mt. 7 23 = Lk. 13 27 ; and the actions of 
others in his time, Ts. 8 3 in Mt. 21 16 , Ps. 41 10 in Jn. 13 18 . He also used it for 
authoritative teaching, Ps. 37 11 in Mt. 5 5 , Ps. 48 s in Mt. 5 s5 , and for historical 
reference, Ps. 78 24 in Jn. 6 81 . He used Ps. 82 6 in argument with the Pharisees 
after the Halacha method in Jn. io 34 , arguing from less to greater. He used 
Ps. no 1 in Mt. 22 44 = Mk. 12 86 = Lk. 20 42 - 43 , in argument with the Phari- 
sees, to show that the Messianic son of David must be at the same time his 
Lord; cf. 1 Cor. 15 25 Eph. i 20 Col. 3 1 Heb. i 3 8 1 12 2 1 Pet. 3 22 . Pie also 



Cll INTRODUCTION 

applied Ps. n8 22-23 to himself as the headstone of the spiritual temple, 
Mt. 21 42 = Mk. I2 10 - 11 = Lk. 20" ( c f. Acts 4 11 1 Pet. 2*- 7 ). 

(2) The Gospels use the Pss. freely, applying them to Jesus and his work : 
{a) to his entrance into the world. Ps. 91 11 - 12 is cited by the devil Mt. 4 6 = 
Lk. 4 10 - n ; {b) to his experience in life Ps. 69 10 in Jn. 2 17 , his teaching Ps. 78 2 
in Mt. 13 35 , his entrance into Jerusalem Ps. iiS 25-2 ' 5 in Mt. 21 9 23 s9 Mk. n 9 
Lk. 13 36 19 38 Jn. 12 13 ; (c) to his passion Pss. 22 8 " 9 - 19 Jn. 19 24 , cf. Mt. 27 s5 - "• 43 
= Mk. i5 2429 = Lk. 23 :i *- 35 , Ps. 34 21 in Jn. 19 36 , Ps. 69 22 in Mt. 27 s4 - 48 = 
Mk. 1526 = Lk. 23 % = Jn. 19 28 - 29 , Ps. 109 25 in Mt. 27 39 . The canticles Lk. 1 
are also chiefly mosaics of the Pss. (3) In the book of Acts : (a) Ps. 89 20 is 
cited by Paul in Acts 13 22 in historical reference, so Ps. 132 5 by Stephen 
Acts 7 46 ; (b) Ps. 2 1 - 2 in Acts 4- 5 -' 20 is applied to the persecution of Christ 
in his disciples, Ps. 69 26 109 8 in Acts I 20 as fulfilled in Judas; Ps. 2' is 
applied in Acts 13 33 to the resurrection of Jesus; so Ps. 16 8 " 11 in Acts 2 28 ~ 8a 
13 35 , and Ps. no 1 in Acts 2 34 - 30 , Ps. 132 11 in Acts 2 30 to his reign; (c) in litur- 
gical use Ps. 146 6 in Acts 4™, cf. 14 15 . (4) In the epistles of Peter : (a) as 
practical exhortation Ps. 34 13-17 in 1 Pet. 3 10 " 12 , Ps. 55 s * in 1 Pet. 5 7 ; as real- 
ised in Christian experience, Ps. 34 s in 1 Pet. 2 3 ; (7) as authoritative doc- 
trine Ps. 90 4 in 2 Pet. 3 8 . 

(5) St. Paul uses the Psalter freely: (a) as practical exhortation Ps. 4 5 in 
Eph. 4 2c , Ps. 112 9 in 2 Cor. 9 9 , Ps. 116 10 in 2 Cor. 4 13 ; (b) as authoritative 
teaching Ps. 24 1 in 1 Cor. io 26 W\ Ps. 32 1 - 2 in Rom. 4 7 - 8 , Ps. 51 6 in Rom. 3 4 , 
Ps. 94 11 in 1 Cor. 3 20 . P s. 5 10 io 7 14 1 - 3 (= 53 2 - 1 ) 36 2 140 4 are cited as descrip- 
tive of the utter wickedness of mankind, in Rom. 3 10 - 18 ; (c) Ps. 44 23 is cited 
Rom. 8 s6 as realised in Christian experience; (d) Ps. 69 10 is cited Rom. 15 3 
and applied to the humiliation of Christ. Ps. 8 7 is cited in 1 Cor. 15 27 Eph. I 22 
and applied to the resurrection and reign of Christ ; so Ps. 68 19 in Eph. 4 8 . 
Ps. 09 23 - 24 is cited Rom. 1 1 9 " 10 and applied to the fall of Israel. Pss. 18 50 1 1 7 1 
are cited Rom. 15 9 " 11 and applied to the conversion of the Gentiles. Ps. 19 5 
in Rom. io 18 is applied to the preaching of the Gospel. (6) The epistle to the 
Hebrews makes great use of the Pss. : (a) as practical exhortation Ps. 95 7 " 11 
in Heb. S 7 Bq * ? s - ll % e ' m Heb. 13 6 ; (b) as authoritative teaching Ps. 104 4 in 
Heb. i 7 ; Ps. 135 14 in Heb. io 80 ; (c) Ps. 2 7 is applied to the resurrection and 
reign of Christ Heb. I 5 5 5 ; so Ps. S^ 1 in Heb. 2 6 " 8 , Ps. 97 7 in Heb. I 6 , Ps. 45 7 " 8 
I02 26-28 i n Heb. i 8 " 13 , Ps. no* in Heb. 5 s 6 20 7 1721 . Ps. 18 3 22 23 are applied 
to his redemptive work in Heb. 2 12 " 13 ; so Ps. 40 7 - 9 in Heb. io 5-7 . In Heb. 4 1 - 11 
Ps. 95 7 " 11 is interpreted at length in an allegorical way. (7) In the Apocalypse : 
the Psalter is often used in hymns and incidental allusions. Besides these it 
is cited as predictive of the reign of Christ, Ps. 2 s " 9 in Rev. 2 26 " 27 12 6 19 15 . 

§ 48. In the ancient Catholic Church the Apostolic Fathers and 
Apologists used the Psalter for practical purposes. The School of 
Alexandria emphasized the allegorical method of interpretation, the 
School of Antioch the typical method. 



INTERPRETATION OF CATHOLIC CHURCH cm 

The Christian writers of the second Christian century followed 
the example of the apostles in using the Psalter for practical pur- 
poses. Nothing at all resembling a Commentary, so far as we 
know, was composed by any of them. The citations of the Pss. 
in the Apostolic Fathers, Apologists, and early Fathers, Tertullian, 
Irenaeus, Cyprian, and others, are similar to those in the New 
Testament, using the same methods of interpretation, with a more 
decided tendency to the allegorical method and less restraint from 
its exaggeration. The School of Alexandria was established by 
Pantaenus, c. 200, and made famous by the great teachers and 
theologians, Clement and Origen. Pantaenus is said to have com- 
posed the first Commentary (Eusebius, Ecc. Hist. 5 10 ). Clement 
distinguished between the body and soul of Scripture, and called 
attention to its fourfold use. Origen made a Commentary on the 
Psalms, using the allegorical method of Philo, which he worked 
out in a Christian form and became its father in the Church. He 
distinguished a threefold sense, body, soul, and spirit, and used 
thirteen of Philo's rules (v. Br. SHS 448 " 449 ). The School of Antioch 
was established by Lucian and Dorotheus at the close of the third 
century. Its fundamental principles of interpretation were : 

( 1 ) Every passage has its literal meaning and only one meaning j 

(2) alongside of the literal sense is the typical sense which arises 
out of the relation of the Old Covenant to the New (Kihn, Theodor 
von Mopsuestia, s. 29). The most of the Commentators on the 
Pss. in the Greek Church were from writers of this school. Jerome 
occupied an intermediate and not altogether consistent position. 
He strives for historical and grammatical exposition, yet it is easy 
to see that at the bottom he is more inclined to the allegorical 
method. Thus there grew up in the ancient Church three exe- 
getical tendencies, the literal and traditional, the allegorical and 
mystical, the historical and ethical, and these became gradually 
interwoven in the writings of the Fathers, and in all sorts of 
abnormal forms of exegesis in others {v. Br. SHS - 453 ) . 

Corderius {Expositio Patrum Graecorum in Psalmos, 3 Tom. 1643) uses 
the following Greek Commentators: Athanasius, Ammonius, Anonymous, 
Apollinarius, Asterius, Basilius, Gennadius, Geo. Alexandrinus, Gregorius 
Nazianzenus, Gregorius Nyssenus, Didymus, Dionysius Areopag., Eusebius 
Caesariensis, Hesychius, Theodoretus, Theodorus Antiochenus, Theodorus 



Civ INTRODUCTION 

Heracleota, Isidorus, Cyrillus Alexandrinus, Maximus, Pachymera, Chrysosto- 
mms, Psellus, Origincs. I have italicised those most frequently cited. Jerome 
(ep. ad August, cxii.) mentions the following Greek interpreters of the Psalter 
up to his time : Origen, Eusebius of Caesarea, Theodore of Heraklea (the Anon- 
ymous of Corderius), Astelios of Skythopolis, Apollinaris of Laodicea, Didymos 
of Alexandria. All of these interpretations of the Psalter, so far as preserved, 
are given by Migne in his Greek Patrology. For additional information we 
may refer to Pitra, Analecta Sacra, Bathgen, ZA TfV., 1886, Lietzmann, Der 
Psalmencommentar Theodore von Mopsuestia, 1902. The work of the great 
Syrian scholar, Gregory Bar Hebraeus (fi286, given by Lagarde, Prae- 
termissorum, 1S79), must be added here as the noblest representation of the 
late Syrian School. The work of Jerome on the Pss. is given in his Epistles, 
XX., XXVIII., XXX., XXXIV., LXV., CVI., CXL. (Migne, XXII.), and his 
commentary (edited by Morin, Anecdota Afaredso/ana, III., 1895). 

§ 49. In the Latin Church the allegorical method of interpreting 
the Psalter prevailed, chiefly through the influence of Ambrose and 
Augustine, although Junilius and Cassiodorus exerted a modifying 
influence in the use of the principles of the Antiochan School. 

Ambrose may be regarded as the father of the interpretation 
of the Psalter in the Western Church ; but Augustine, his pupil, 
was the one who dominated all subsequent times. He distinguishes 
four kinds of exegesis, — the historical, aetiological, analogical, and 
allegorical, — and laid down the principle that whatever cannot 
be referred to good conduct or truth of faith must be regarded as 
figurative. Junilius, and still more Cassiodorus, exerted a whole- 
some influence by the introduction into the West of the principles 
of the Schools of Antioch and Nisibis. He urged the comparison 
of Scripture with Scriptures, and points out that frequent and 
intense meditation is the way to a true understanding of them 
(v. Br. sns 449_45s ). 

Jerome {ep. ad August, cxii.) mentions the following Latin interpreters of 
the Pss. : (1) Hilary of Poitiers, based on Origen and Eusebius ; (2) Eusebius 
of Vercelli, who translated the Commentary of Eusebius of Caesarea ; (3) Am- 
brose. Ambrose (f 397) is the only one who was independent and original. 
Ambrose was a practical prelate, possessed of the true Roman spirit, and he 
gave the allegorical method a Western practical turn. His Enarrationes have 
had great influence on the Church. Augustine (f43o) built his Enarrationes 
on those of Ambrose, and became the basal authority for all subsequent writers. 
The most wholesome commentary of the times is that of Cassiodorus (1563). 
Other early Western writers on the Psalter were Hippolytus (t^35), Arnobius 



INTERPRETATION IN MIDDLE AGES CV 

(fc. 406), Asterius (f4io), Gregory of Tours (t 594)> Gregory the Great 
(too4), Prudentius (eighth century). All of these are given by Migne in 
his Latin Patrology. 

§ 50. In the Middle Ages the Commentaries were chiefly com- 
pilations of the earlier writers, called Epitomes, Glosses, Pos titles, 
Chains, which appeared in great numbers, all under the do?ninatio7i 
of the allegorical principles of Augustine, often in exaggerated 
forms. 

The compilers of the Oriental Church were Euthymius Zigabenus (f 1118, 
v. Pitra, Analecta, IV.); Nicephorus, thirteenth century (given by Migne). 
A host of writers on the Pss. appear in the West: Beda (f 735) ; Alcuin 
(f8o4); Walafrid Strabo (f849); Haymo (f853); Rhabamus Maurus 
(1856); Paschasius Radbertus (f866); Hincmar (f882); Remigius (ninth 
century); Bruno Herb. (11045); Romualdus (fi027); Anselm (fno9); 
Bruno Carth. (fuoi); Richard St. Victor (f 1 173) ; Jnnocentius III. 
(t 1216) ; Hugo S. Caro, Postillae (fi263) (commentaries 1496 attributed 
wrongly to Alexander Hales, f 1245); Antonius Patavinus (f 1231, Sermones 
in Pss., 1757); Thomas Aquinas (11274, In Psalmos Expositio, 1876); 
Albertus Magnus (f 1280, Comm. on Pss., Col. 1536); Ayguanus (11396, 
Com. on Ps., 1524 +); Nicolaus de Lyra (f 1340, Postillae, Rom. 1471; 
Biblia cum glossa ordinaria, 6 v., Basel, 1506); Herenthal (f 1400, Catena, 
Col. 1483) ; Turrecremata(f 1468, Expositio, 1474). Those italicised are found 
in Migne's Patrology. 

§ 51. In the Middle Ages Jewish Commentators distinguished 
themselves as compared with the Christian by a fuller use of the 
literal and historical methods of interpretation, although no less 
dependent on Rabbinical tradition than Christian scholars were 
on Christian tradition. 

The earliest important interpreter of the Pss. whose writings have been 
preserved was Saadia (1942), author of the Arabic translation of the OT. 
His Commentary was published in Cracow in 1660. Raschi's Commentary 
(R. Solomon Isaaki, f 1 105) was published in the Rabbinical Bibles, also a 
Latin translation by Breithaupt, 1710. Aben Ezra's Commentary (fn67) 
was published in the Rabbinical Bibles. His Commentary on the first ten Pss. 
was published in Latin and Hebrew by P. Fagius, 1542. David Kimchi's Com- 
mentary (f 1235) was published, Naples, 1487; Venice, 15 18; Isny, 1541 ; 
Amsterdam, 1765 ; Latin translation by Janvier, 1566. The first book of 
Psalms was published according to the text of the Cambridge Ms. Bible with 
the larger Commentary of R. David Kimchi, critically edited from nineteen 



CV1 INTRODUCTION 

Mss. and early editions by Schiller Szinessy, Cambridge, 1883. The most 
important of later commentaries was by Obadiah Sforno, teacher of Reuchlin, 
Venice, 1586; Amsterdam, 1724. 

§ 52. The Reformation involved a great revival of Biblical study, 
and especially of the Psalter, the chief book of the OT. The alle- 
gorical 'method was pushed in the background by the Humanists in 
the interests of the grammatical sense, and so by Roman Catholics 
as well, and Protestants who were ififluenced by them. The chief 
difference was that the Protestants resorted to the Hebrew text as 
the original supreme authority, the Roman Catholics based them- 
selves on the Vulgate Version, a?id interpreted it in submission to 
the authority of the Church and the Fathers. The successors of 
the Reformers fell back into pedantic and dogmatic methods. 

The Humanists revived the study of the ancient languages and the ancient 
literatures, and thus the grammatical and literary study of the original texts 
was employed over against the allegorical method. Lyra and the Jewish 
Commentators were used more than the Christian Commentators of the 
Middle Ages. The Protestant Reformers were great exegetes. Luther began 
his academic lectures with an exposition of the Psalter in 15 13. These lec- 
tures were published by Seidemann in 1876, under the title, Dr. Martin 
Lut/ier's erste und alteste Vorlesungen iiber die Psalmen aus den Jahren 
13/3-/5/6 nach der eigenh'dndigen lateinischen Handschrift Luther s auf der 
Koniglichen offentlichen Bibliothek zu Dresden. Reuchlin published his 
Auslegung der sieben Psalmi poenitentiales, 1512; Bugenhagen, his in lib. 
Psalmorum, 1524; Bucer (Aretius), Psalmorum libri 3, 1526. Calvin's 
Commentary on the Psalms, 1564, was by far the best up to his own time. 
Other commentators of the time of the Reformation were Pellican, 1532; 
Miinster, 1534— 1535 ; Musculus, 1550 ; Castalio, 1551 + ; Marloratus, 1562. 
The Moravian Riidinger also issued a valuable Commentary in 1 580-1 581. 
The Protestants of the next generation fell back from the vital principle of 
the Reformers and became dependent on Protestant rules of faith, and were 
dogmatic and pedantic in their Commentaries. In the following lists, I give, 
so far as I know, the first edition ; when there were subsequent editions, it is 
indicated by -f. The works of Selnecker, 1581 ; Moller, 1573; Menzel, 
1594; Gesner, 1609; Piscator, 1646+ ; Quistorp, 1648 ; Amyraldus, 1662 ; 
Bakius, 1664+ ; Geier, 1668 + ; Carlov, 16724-, though with valuable and 
useful material are reactionary and of no permanent value. The Roman 
Catholics vied with the Protestants in the sixteenth century in their work on 
the Psalter : Clarius, 1542 + ; Vatablus, 1545 ; Palisse, 1548 ; Cajetan, 1530 ; 
Campensis, 1533 + ; Flaminius, 1558; Gennebradus, 1577 + ; Jansenius, 
1586. In the early seventeenth century R. C. exegetes employed better 



INTERPRETATION SINCE THE REFORMATION cvii 

methods, and were more able and fruitful than Protestants, as is evident in 

Agellius, 1606+ ; Faber Stapulensis, 1609; Lorinus, 1612+; Bellarmin, 

1611 + ; Mariana, 1619 + ; Torinus, 1632 + ; Muis, 1636+ ; Corderius, 
1643 + ; Drexelius, 1643; Hulsius, 1650; Heser. 1654 +. 

§ 53. In the middle of the seventeenth century the English Puri- 
tans emphasized gra?nmatical and practical exegesis ; Grotius, 
Hammond and the Arminians, the historical method ; Cocceius 
and the Federalists, the allegorical. The dogmatic method still pre- 
vailed to some extent. 

Ainsworth is the prince of Puritan Commentators. His Commentary on 
the Pss., issued in 1626, is a monument of learning. He was too much influ- 
enced by Rabbinical subtilties, but he employed the grammatical method with 
great practical skill. Thomas Smith, Thomas Pierson, and especially William 
Gouge issued practical commentaries introducing a long and valuable series 
in Great Britain. Hugo Grotius in Holland and Henry Hammond in Eng- 
land revived the Humanistic spirit and laid stress on the literal and historical 
sense. The Commentaries on the Pss. of Grotius, 1645, and of Hammond, 
1653, especially the latter, introduce a new epoch in the interpretation of the 
Psalter. Cocceius, the founder of the Federal School of Holland, 1660, 
revived the allegorical method, but with sobriety and practical sense. The 
Criticorum Sacrorum, 1660, sums up the chief material of previous authors, 
using Munster, Vatablus, Castalio, Clarius, Drusius, and Grotius. This was 
followed by Poole's Synopsis Criticorum, 1669, which uses Muis, Geier, Ains- 
worth, Hammond, Rivetus, Cocceius, Genebradus, Calovius. The Biblia 
Magna, 1643, and the Biblia Maxima, Paris, 1660, both by John de la Haye, 
are a magnificent summing up of R. C. exegesis, embracing a thorough study 
of texts and Vrss., and the expositions of Nic. de Lyra, Gagnae, Estii, Me- 
nochii, and Tirini. Vol. VI. of the latter contains the Psalter. There was 
then a lull in work on the Pss. which continued for a century. We may men- 
tion, however, the R. C, Le Blanc, 1682 + ; Ferrandus, 1683 ; Bossuet, 1691 ; 
Berthier, 1788 + ; Calmet, 1791 + ; Camponi, 1692 + ; the Protestants, 
Bythner, 1664; J. H. Michaelis, 1720; Clericus, 1731 ; Venema, 1762. 

§ 54. The study of the Psalter was enriched through the work 
of Kennicott upon the text and of Hare and Lowth upon Hebrew 
poetry, connected in all these with original work upon the Psalter 
which influenced all subsequent scholars. 

I have already called attention to the work of Hare, Lowth, and Kenni- 
cott on the text and Hebrew Poetry. These scholars carried on the gram- 
matical and historical exegesis of Grotius and Hammond. Lowth in his notes 



CV111 INTRODUCTION 

attached to Merrick's Version, 1768, supported also by an Anonymous, made 
contributions which were often original and of great value. Kennicott, in 
his notes on the Psalms, 1772, also greatly advanced the study of the Psalter. 
All this material was used by Street, 1790, with independent and excellent 
judgment, resulting in the best Commentary on the Psalms of the eighteenth 
century. Bishop Horsley, 1815 (posthumous), inherited their spirit. These 
scholars are the real fathers of a large number of emendations of the text and 
of new interpretations for which later scholars, especially Germans, have re- 
ceived the credit. Many practical commentaries of great value appeared in 
this period, such as Henry, 17 10 ; Home, 1771 ; Gill, 1 774-1 776. The Com- 
mentaries of Dathe, 1787, and especially Rosenmuller, 1 798-1804, represented 
this period in Germany. 

§ 55. The study of the Psalter has been improved in the last 
century by a more comprehensive and thoroughgoing study of all the 
material by Textual Criticism, Higher Criticism, Historical Criti- 
cism, and Biblical Theology, with a just estimate of Exegesis in 
its different phases. 

De Wette, 181 1 +, began this most fruitful period, and was followed by 
Ewald, 1836 -f , both with remarkable critical sagacity and profound historical 
sense. Hitzig, 1836 -f, and Olshausen, 1853 +, opened wide the field of 
Textual Criticism; Hupfeld, 1855 +, and Bottcher, 1864, grammatical and 
lexicographical exegesis. Delitzsch, 1859 -f, shows a deep spiritual sense 
and a thorough understanding of the genius of the ancient Hebrew people. 
Hengstenberg, 1842 -f, is the father of the reactionaries. On these princes 
of modern German exegesis a great number of scholars build. Among these 
we may mention on the continent of Europe: Tholuck, 1843+ '■> Koster, 
1837; Vaihinger, 1845; Reuss, 1879+ ; Gratz, 1 882-1 883 ; Hirsch, 1882; 
Moll, 1884 + ; Schultz, 18S8 + ; Bachmann, 1891 ; Bathgen, 1892 + ; 
Wellhausen, 1895 > Duhm, 1899 ; Valeton, 1903. Among R. C. scholars, we 
may mention Alioli, 1832 -f ; Aigner, 1850 ; Schegg, 1857- ; Crelier, 1858 ; 
Rohling, 1 87 1 ; Thalhofer, 18S9 5 . Migne, Cur sits Computus, 1 841, and Cor- 
nely, Knabenbauer, and Hammelauer in Cursus Completus, 1885, give a the- 
saurus of interpretation of many scholars, ancient and modern. Many British 
and American interpreters of the Pss. have been reactionary in the spirit of 
Hengstenberg, such as Phillips, 1846; Neale, i860; Wordsworth, 1867; Alex- 
ander, 1868+ ; Murphy, 1875; Cowles, 1872. The Puritan spirit was inherited 
in Spurgeon, 1870, and Barnes, 1871. Perowne, 1864 -f, deserves the credit 
for the introduction into the English-speaking world of the modern spirit, 
w hich indeed is only a rebuilding on the work of the older English scholars of 
the eighteenth century. The following Commentators deserve mention : The 
Psalms Chronologically arranged by Four Friends, 1867 ; Kay, 187 1 ; Cook, 
1873; Jennings and Low, 1875; Burgess, 1879; Aglen, 1884; Cheyne, 1888+ ; 



ENGLISH VERSIONS C1X 

Maclaren, 1893-1894 + ; Montefiore, 1901 ; Kirkpatrick, 1903 ; W.T. David- 
son, 1903 -f ; Ehrlich, 1904. Cheyne and Kirkpatrick are preeminent, the 
former for his brave investigation of the most difficult problems and his gener- 
ous recognition of the work of other scholars, the latter for his sound judg- 
ment and excellent exegetical method. These scholars easily outrank all their 
predecessors. Their occasional faults and failures are cordially overlooked in 
view of their magnificent contributions to Biblical Science. 

§ 56. English Versions of the Psalms began with Wy cliff e in 
1382. The Version of Coverdale of 1535, revised for the great 
Bible of 1539, has been used since as the Version of the Book of 
Common Prayer. The Version of 1611 was made from the He- 
brew ', with a limited study of other versions. It supplanted all other 
English Versions except that of PB V. The Version of 1885 was 
a revision of that of 1611, in closer conformity to the Massoretic 
text. The R. C. Version is that of Douay. 

John Wycliffe made the first English translation of the Bible from the Vul- 
gate Version, 1382. It was revised by John Purvey in 1388 (v. Forshall and 
Madden's text, 4 v., 1850; Skeats, reprint of Purvey's revision in 1879V 
Coverdale published a translation of the whole Bible in 1535. His translation 
of the Psalter was taken up into Matthew's Bible in 1537, and into the Great 
Bible in 1539-1541. Coverdale, in his dedicatory Epistle to the King and 
in Prologue, states that he had followed largely five sundry interpreters ; to 
judge from internal evidence, the Vulgate, Luther, the Zurich Version, Pagninus, 
and Tyndale, the latter not giving the Psalter. The Zurich Version was com- 
pleted in 1529 by Zwingli, Pellican, Leo Juda, and others. Pagninus' version 
was a translation of the Psalter into Latin (1527). The Psalter of the PBV. is 
from the last revision of the Great Bible of 1540 (v. Westcott, The Paragraph 
Psalter ; Earle, The Psalter of fjjg a Landmark in English Literature, 
1892 ; Driver, The Parallel Psalter, Int. 1904 2 ; Fry, Description of the Great 
Psalter, 1865). The Genevan Version of 1560 was translated into Eng- 
lish and used by the Puritans from that time onward. The Bishop's Bible 
of 1568 was used in the scriptural readings in the Church of England, but 
not in the recitations of the Psalter. In 161 1 the Authorized Version was 
made by a select company of scholars under the authority of the crown. It 
displaced all other Vrss. for Protestants in the public and private reading 
of the Scripture : but did not succeed in displacing the Vrs. of the Great 
Bible in the recitation of the Psalter. The Roman Catholics continued to 
adhere to the Douay Version, which was a literal translation of the Vulgate, 
whereas the AV. was translated from the Hebrew. The AV. has maintained 
its hold on the English Protestant world until the present time. The RV. 0/ 
1885, prepared by a joint British and American Committee, under the authority 



CX INTRODUCTION 

of the convocation of Canterbury, has thus far been unable to replace it. The 
RV. is a more accurate rendering of the Hebrew text of Ben Asher ; but it is 
literalistic and pedantic. It was prepared in a period of transition of Hebrew 
scholarship and does not satisfy the present conditions of OT. scholarship or 
the needs of the Church or people. Furthermore, it does not sufficiently con- 
sider the Ancient Vrss., and is not based on a revision of the Hebrew text. 
The margin of the RV. gives the most important part of the work of the 
Revisers and is of great value. Several independent versions have been made 
in recent times: John De Witt, 1884 ; T. K. Cheyne, 1888 ; Furness, 1898 ; 
S. R. Driver, The Parallel Psalter, 1904 2 (an important and valuable revision 
of FBV.). The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1903, gave a new and 
excellent translation from the Massoretic text. There is no sound reason why 
Roman Catholics, Protestants, and Jews should not unke and agree in a Ver- 
sion far better than any that has yet been made. 

Many metrical versions of the Psalter have been made for use in Christian 
worship in the service of song, the chief of which are those of Sternhold and 
Hopkins, and Tate and Brady, used in England; Rouse, used in Scotland; and 
Watts, used by the Nonconformists of England and their children in America. 
From a literary point of view the most valuable paraphrase is still that of Mer- 
rick, 1765. The fault of all these versions is that they are based either upon 
English Versions or the Massoretic text. None of them were made with any 
knowledge whatever of the measures of Hebrew poetry. It is now quite pos- 
sible to reproduce the poetry of the Psalms in essentially the same measures 
in English poetry. Scholars who have the poetic gift should undertake this 
task, which when accomplished will greatly enlarge the use of the Psalter for 
English-speaking peoples, and enrich their devotion, public and private, with 
a finer literary flavour. 



A COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF 

PSALMS. 



A COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF 
PSALMS. 



PSALM I., 2 str. 6 4 . 

Ps. i is a didactic Ps. of the Greek period, introductory to the 
Psalter. In two antith. Strs. it contrasts the happiness of the 
righteous man (v. 12 ) with the ultimate ruin of the wicked (v. 4-6 ) . 
The righteous man avoids the company of wicked men, and dili- 
gently studies the Law. An intermediate gloss compares the 
righteous to a fruitful tree in a well-watered garden (v. 3 ) . 

J-[APPY the man! 

Who doth not walk in the counsel of wicked men, 

And in the way of sinners doth not stand, 

And in the session of scorners doth not sit down ; 

But rather in the Law of Yahweh is his delight, 

And in His Law he studies day and night. 
JS^OT so the wicked! 

But rather they are as the chaff which the wind driveth away; 

Therefore wicked men will not rise up in the Judgment, 

And sinners (will not enter) into the congregation of righteous men ; 

For Yahweh knoweth the way of righteous men, 

But the way of wicked men will perish (everlastingly). 

Ps. i is orphan (Intr.S 37 ) and therefore was not in any of the Psalters 
prior to the last. It was doubtless later than any of them. It was not counted 
originally, for 2 codd. DeR. do not number it; and 5 codd. Kenn., 3 DeR., 
some codd. <£, Justin (Ap. I 40 ), and many fathers (especially Western), and 
rabbis, combine it with Ps. 2; according to the ancient saying that the first 
Ps. begins and closes with beatitude (Talm. Berakoth f. c/). In Western 
texts and Vrss. of Acts 13 33 , Ps. 2 is cited as Ps. I ; so Meyer, Tisch., Blass ; 
but the great Uncials have Sevrtpy, so Westcott and Hort, and Wendt. It 
was selected as an introduction to \p by the final editor. The date of Ps. I 
maybe determined by the following considerations: (1) It is characteristic 
of late writings that they make much use of earlier ones. V. 3 is based on 
Je. 1 7^-8 and Ez. 47 12 , and is therefore postexilic. If v. 3 be original, it gives 

3 



4 PSALMS 

evidence of date of Ps.; if a gloss, only as to date of the gloss. The argument 
of Ba. that the prose writer uses the poet and not the poet the prose, is with- 
out force if v. 3 is a prosaic gloss. V. 26 is based on Jos. I 8 (D), and is post- 
deuteronomic ; for the Ps. substitutes for the external, " depart out of thy 
mouth," the first clause of Jos. I 8 , the internal "delight in," indicating a later 
and more matured conception. The language of the Ps. is that of the Greek 
period : oyvh nxj? v. 15 , D>xS nvho v. ld , q^d ^b v. 3 *. The syntax is also late : 
mm v. 3 *, jnv v. 6 . (2) The o^ch and o\*>ns are classes in the Jewish com- 
munity. The earlier antitheses between wicked rulers and an oppressed peo- 
ple, characteristic of preexilic writings; and of righteous Israel and her wicked 
foes, characteristic of the long period of foreign domination, do not appear; 
the antithesis is between two classes among the Jews, the righteous, the 
strict students of the Law, who keep apart from the company of the wicked ; 
and the wicked, who scorn the ethical teachings of Wisdom and transgress 
the Law. All this implies a fully developed school of Wisdom, as well as an 
intense scribal devotion to the Law. There is not that exclusive devotion to 
the Law of Pss. 19 8 - 15 119, or to Wisdom of Pr. 1-9; but the author blends 
the teachings and practice of these two types. He lived in peaceful times 
before the antagonisms of religious parties, and thus probably in the late 
Greek period. A similar situation is in BS 6 37 14 20 " 21 , which seem to be based 
on this Ps. (3) The reference to the Judgment, v. 5 °, implies a judicial inter- 
ference of Yahweh ; not as between Israel and her oppressors, as in the pro- 
phetic books, but as between the righteous and wicked in Israel itself. As 
the result of that Judgment the righteous will rise up, an organized congrega- 
tion, v. 5 *, from which the wicked will be excluded. The wicked will not rise. 
If the rising here is to be interpreted as a resurrection, then the exclusion of 
the wicked implies an earlier date tn*n Dn., which includes wicked Israelites 
in the resurrection, Dn. 12 2 , and is more in accord with Is. 26 14 " 19 , where the 
wicked oppressors do not rise with God's people. The apocalypse, Is. 24-27, 
seems to belong to the time of Alexander the Great. The resemblance in 
doctrine between Ps. 1 and Is. 26 would favour the putting of our Ps. between 
that apocalypse and Dn. ; that is, in the Greek period before the persecutions 
of Antiochus. This Ps. was probably the basis of the doctrine of the Two 
Ways which plays such an important part in Jewish and early Christian Litera- 
ture (Mt. 7 13 - 14 . V. Br. Ethical Teaching of Jesus, pp. 82 sq.). 

The Ps. has two antith. Strs. of s:x tetrameter lines each. This has 
not been observed by Du. or Siev., both of whom regard v. 8 as original to 
the Ps. The former says : " Keine Strophen, wie mir scheint, sondern nur 
unregelmassig gebildete Stichen, die sich auch in Stil und Ausdruck der Prosa 
nahern." The latter says : " Ps. 1 enthalt so viel metrisch Anstossiges oder 
Auffalliges, dass man nicht fiber den Zweifel herauskommt wie viel davon 
spaterer Verderbnis oder personlichem Form-ungeschick des Verfassers ent- 
stammt." The real difficulty is with both that they did not discern the gloss, 
and so could not understand the measure, which is really one of the simplest 
and finest in the Psalter. 



PSALM I. 5 

Str. I. 1. The poet, in view of the description of the righteous 
man he is about to give, exclaims : Happy the man / He uses a 
dimeter, or half line, to allow a metrical pause after the exclama- 
tion. He is not thinking of mankind, men, women, and children j 
but of men only. He has not in mind all men, or all Jews, or all 
pious men; but specifically that kind of a man he is about to 
describe, one devoting his whole time, night and day, to the study 
of the Law ; that is, the ideal scribe such as Ezra. Jerome tells 
us the pious Jews thought of King Josiah as the ideal. The right- 
eous man is described first negatively in three syn. tetrameters 
which yet gradually became more intense, reaching a climax in 
the last line : who doth not walk\ cf. Mi. 6 16 Je. 7 24 ; doth not 
stand^ cease from walking and so remain standing j doth not sit 
down~\ continual participation in. — in the counsel] while walking, 
listening to and receiving counsel or advice, in the way] the moral 
conduct, the course of life, in the session] not settling down in the 
session, or assembly of the scorners, and so being in entire accord 
with them. — Wicked men] a class in antithesis to righteous men, 
who studied and practised the Law ; sinners'] antith. to upright, a 
more general term referring to all who fail from or do not conform 
to the ethical and religious goal or way of life ; scorners] antith. 
to wise men ; those who mock at and scorn the discipline of 
wisdom. The righteous man abstains from all such conduct and 
avoids the company of all such men. — 2. The righteous man 
is described positively in two syn. lines antith. to the previous 
three. — In the Law of Yahweh] embracing the entire legislation 
compacted in the Pentateuch, and so called the Law as the first 
layer of the Canon, in the Greek period when this Ps. was com- 
posed {v. Br. SHS120 ), repeated for emphasis. — his delight] the good 
pleasure the righteous man took in the Law, || studies day and 
night] reading it over and over again in the low, murmuring tone 
of one reading to oneself, to impress it upon the mind and com- 
mit it to memory, a method characteristic of oriental students, 
rather than meditating or musing upon what had been previously 
read. This study is habitual not only during the day but also 
during the night. The second line is cited from Jos. i 8 (D). 

3. The editor of \p inserts four lines of illustration before the 
antistrophe. 



6 PSALMS 

^ND he is like a tree transplanted beside channels of water, 
Which yieldeth his fruit in his season, 
Whose leaf withers not ; 
So all that he doeth, he carries through successfully. 

The happiness of the righteous man is illustrated by the simile 
of a tree, which is removed from its native soil and transplanted 
to the most favoured soil, in a fertile garden irrigated by many 
channels of water, such as Wady Urtas, where were the gardens 
of Solomon; Engedi, famed for its fertility (Rob. 1477,01550 ) ; the 
gardens of Damascus, Egypt, and Babylon, irrigated by canals 
drawn from the great rivers ; and it is probable that the story of 
the streams of Eden, Gn. 2, was in the mind of the poet ; for he 
adapts and combines from Je. 1 7 s the beautiful and fully stated 
simile of the man trusting in Yahweh ; from Ez. 47 126 the descrip- 
tion of the living trees on the banks of the river of life in the 
future paradise, which bear fruit monthly and whose leaves are 
ever green and medicinal (cf. Rev. 2 2 2 ) ; with the irrigated gar- 
dens of his own time, for a condensed simile, suggesting a com- 
prehensive ideal to one familiar with the sacred writings. He 
then interprets the simile of the last line by an adaptation of 
Jos. i 86 . The righteous man has in him such life and vigour from 
his study of God's word that he makes everything that he does to 
succeed and be prosperous. This verse is thus a mosaic of three 
earlier passages. The lines are irregular and prosaic (5.4. 3.4). 
The two middle lines are synonymous but synthetic to the first 
line, and the last line is a synthetic explanation of the simile. 

Str. II. is an antistrophe to Str. I. V. 4 is composed (a) of a 
dimeter line, v. 4a , with metrical pause antithetical to v. la , con- 
trasting the wicked with the righteous man ; and of a tetrameter 
simile, v. 46 , likening the wicked to chaff on the threshing floor. 
This, in Palestine, is usually on flat, open places on hilltops, so 
that when the ears of grain are thrown up, the heavy grain falls 
to the ground, while the wind drives away the light chaff. This 
simile is antith. to that in v. 3 , so far as a fruit-bearing tree may be 
to chaff of grain j but the original antith. was probably of " driveth 
away" to deliberate walking in counsel, v. 16 . — 5. Rise up in the 
Judgment] is antith. to standing in the way, v. lc ; enter into the con- 
gregation'] antith. to the sitting down in the session, v. 7d . Wicked 



PSALM I. 7 

men will not rise up, that is, in the resurrection which takes place 
in the Judgment, at the end of the age of the world. Only the 
righteous share in that resurrection. So Is. 26 14 " 19 , the people of 
God rise, their wicked oppressors do not. So Jesus speaks of the 
resurrection of the just, Lk. 14 14 , without mentioning that of the 
unjust ; and St. Paul sets forth the resurrection of Christians 
1 Cor. 15, those who are not, apparently, being in the back- 
ground of his thoughts and so unmentioned {v. Br. MA113sq ). The 
resurrection of the wicked appears in OT. only Dn. 12 2 , and 
in NT. explicitly only Jn. 5 s8 - 99 Rev. 20 11 - 15 {v. Br. MG273 ). This 
interpretation, given by <&, F, 2T, Ba\, is more suitable, in view of 
the late date of the Ps., than the usual modern interpretation, 
" stand in the judgment," that is, God's providential judgment in 
the course of human history. The congregation of the righteous 
men may be conceived as the congregation of the zealous Jews 
from which the wicked would be kept apart by divine judg- 
ment ; but better, of the congregation after the judgment of the 
resurrection, in which there can be no wicked, for they have not 
been permitted to rise. — 6. The Str. concludes with two antith. 
tetrameters summing up the contrast already drawn. There are 
two ways. The way of the righteous is a way which Yahweh 
knoweth ; not merely theoretically and ideally, but practically and 
really by personal acquaintance with and attentive supervision of 
it, so that it is Yahweh's way, leading unto true and lasting hap- 
piness. The way of wicked men is a way which goeth on to ever- 
lasting ruin, cf. 6c) 29 . The Ps. begins with happiness and concludes 
with ruin, cf. Ps. 112. All is comprehended between these two 
ends and in these two ways. 

1. fneta] cstr. pi. abstr. wx or nm< y/-\v« Ew.*™ Lag. BN143 , BDB., 
33 t. always exclam., of man (never of God), O the happiness, happy is or be, 
c. BhH elsw. 112 1 ; D1K 32 s 84 6 - 13 Pr. 3 13 8 s4 28 14 ; n^j Pss. 34 s 40 5 94 12 127 5 ; 
njn 33 12 ; o;*n 89 16 I44 15 - 15 ; ptc. 2 12 32 1 41 2 84 s 106 3 119 2 128 1 Is. 30 18 
Dn. 12 12 ; other words Dt. 33^ 1 K. io8-8( = 2 C. 9 7 - 7 ) Jb. 5 17 Pss. 65 s 119 1 
128 2 1378-9 146 5 Pr. 8 32 14 21 16 20 20 7 29 18 Ec. io 17 Is. 32 20 56 s . — -v^n] rel. 
pron., usually omitted in \p, dub. here; often gloss of prosaic copyists. — "\hn, 
"icy, nvi] Pfs. abstr. emphatic presents of characteristic and established state 
or condition, Ew.§ 135 , Ges.§ m 2 , usually expressed in Eng. by auxiliary do. — 
cyan nxj?] Jb. io 3 21 16 22 18 . % nxp counsel, either as (1) advice, guidance, when 
used of God, Pss. 33 11 73 24 106 13 107 11 , cf. 119 2 * of His Law; or (2) purpose, 



8 PSALMS 

design, plan, of men, i 1 I3 3 (?) I4 6 (?) 20 5 33 10 106 48 . — % rah adj. wicked; 
in ^ either (1) guilty of hostility to God or His people, syn. enemies ; sg. 
17 13 71 4 109 2 * 7 140 59 ; coll. 9 6 -i7 io 2. 3. 4. 13. 15 55 4 5 gn 94 i3 I39 i9. pl> 3 » 7 io 

9 18 „2. 6 I2 9 I7 9 2 g8 3 ,18 58* 68 8 75 s - ll 82 2 - 4 9I 8 92 8 94 3 - 3 97IO I04 36 
II9 5361.95.110.112 I29 4 , 4I 10 I45 20 ^76. or ( 2 ) guilty of sin a g a i nst God Or 

man, ethically wicked: sg. n 5 32 10 362 3 710. 12. 21. 32. 35 II2 w co n. 342-2 3^ 

pi. jl.i.5.6 2 & 36 12 37M. 16- 17. 20. 28. 34. 38. 40 50 16 733. 12 jofclS II2 10 I4 6». , ?eh 

p«(n) 75 9 101 8 119 119 . This word is little used in preex. Lit. and not at all in 
sense (2). It is chiefly used in Ez., W. L., and \p, antith. p>ix. — d^kbh ^via] 
phr. a.X. % l\y\ in \p, (1) way, road, path, 2 12 77 20 80 13 89*2 107 47 * no 7 , 
(2) fig. of course of life or action, undertaking io 5 18 33 35 s 37 s - 7 - & 91 11 
102 24 119 87 128 1 139 8 146 9 , (3) esp. of moral action and character 5° 39 s 49 14 
50 23 1195.26.59.168^ ( 4 ) f duty (commanded by God) 25 s - 12 32 s 119I 143 8 , 
(5) specif, in good sense i 6 37 14 ioi 2 - 6 119 30 139 24 , or (6) in bad sense 
jl.6 365 I07 n II9 29 i3 9 24. ( 7 ) wa y f God, His moral administration, 18 31 
77 14 85 14 103 7 138 5 145 17 , or His commands 18 22 25 4 - 9 27 11 37 s4 51^ 67 s 81 14 
86 11 95 10 ii 9 3.i4.27.32.33._j D ,^n pi. adj. [Nan]. Sg. only f. nxun Am. 9 8 ; 
alw. in \p in ethical sense, more comprehensive than D^pcn, and antith. onc ; % 
those who fail or err from the norm of right i 1 - 5 25 s 26 9 51 16 104 35 ; used 
both in earliest and latest Lit. — o^xS ac^oa] phr. d.X. J atf»D might be seat, 
place of sitting down, as (5, V, cf. attOD "vp city as dwelling-place I07 4 - 7 - 36 , or 
Zion as place of enthronement of God 132 13 ; but better sitting, session, 
assembly, as 107 82 , Aim, Kirk. — ffS scorner Pr. I 22 3 34 9?- 8 13I 146 1512 
192529 20 i 2I n.24 22 io 24 9 j s# 29 20 t a term characteristic of fully developed 
Wisdom, not used prob. till Greek period. @ \oiy.G>v is interpret, and does 
not imply a different text. U pestilentiae, takes the word as abstr. = homines 
pestiferi. Aug. "whose word spreadeth as a canker." — 2. on 13] = v. 4 
£w/ rather, on the contrary, stronger than »a, but, BDB. Makkeph alw. used 
after on except Gn. 15 4 Nu. 35 s * Ne. 2 2 (v. Intr. § 12). — 1 n"Y*na] cstr. sg. 
X fTYifl n.f. y'n'v (1) the Law in its completion, as 19 8 78 s - 10 89 31 94 12 105 46 
119 1 + 21 t. (v. txt.); min elsw. \f/, (2) of instruction of poet 78 1 , (3) of 
divine teaching, in the mind 37 31 40 9 . Lag. Du. rd. PK*va, cf. 19 10 , on ground 
that the poet would not repeat himself in syn. lines. But the use of identical 
words in syn. lines is not uncommon to emphasize the variation in other 
words. — X TP 1 ?] c. a. (1) delight as 1 6 s , so usually, but (2) © dt\-qixa, 
TB voluntas, will, purpose, as Is. 44 s8 46 10 48 14 ; elsw. (3) desire, longing, 
Ps. 107 80 . — Jos. i 8 has nVSi odv 1a n\m yen nrn rrnnn -\bd vxa> kS. The 
change from ">a to tmwa was necess. because of omission of noD in previous 
line, otherwise it would have furnished a good tetrameter. — njrrj Qal 
impf. frequentative Jnjn: (1) growl, groan, moan, not in \j/. (2) utter 
c. ace. rei. 38 13 , subj. \vdh 35 28 71 24 ; dd 37 80 speak abs. 115 7 . (3) utter 
indistinct sound as in soliloquy, meditations, c. a, || rri? 63 7 77 13 ; so prob. 
77 7 as <g for ffy *rmu 143 5 ; so possibly Jos. I 8 and here. (4) But better of 
the low, murmuring sound of reading aloud to oneself, or the repetition 
of study, Ains. ; (5) imagine, devise, c. ace. 2' 1 , as Pr. 15 28 24 2 . — J DD^] 



PSALM I. 9 

= o"n + o_ adv. in the daytime, by day, sq. rh>h, also 32* 42* 55 11 , possibly 
13 3 &, also 88 2 (for or rd. ddv); || nS>S 22 3 42 9 78 14 91 6 121 5 . — 3. rum] 
cannot be 1 consec, for there is no previous impf. upon which it can depend. 
The only previous impf. is frequentative. It cannot be consec. to the str. 
as a whole, for it introduces a simile, not a consequence. In fact, it is a 
simple citation from Je. 17 8 , where it is l consec. in its context. But taken 
from its context it can only be 1 conj. of late style, introducing a new and 
independent clause. — o^D ijho Sj? Sintf pp] is the same as Je. 17 8 except for 
the insertion of >J*?D. Je. cannot have cited from Ps., for the clause in Je. is 
part of a beautiful simile, and necessary both in syntax and idea; whereas it 
is loosely attached to Ps., the first clause of a mosaic of three earlier passages, 
without measure and disturbing the symmetry of Ps. — Sinr Ptc. pass. = 
Je. 17 8 . Vt "?ntf transplant (not plant) 92 14 Ez. 178.10.22.23 IO H) T .i3 Ho . Q 13 (?). 
f rVntr] transplanted shoot Ps. 128 3 . — f d^d vjSs artificial watercourses used 
to irrigate gardens, parks, and arable land; so here Is. 32 s Pr. 5 16 21 1 , cf. 
Ps. 46 s ; fig. of tears from eyes Ps. 119 136 La. 3 48 , cf. Jb. 29 s of outrun of 
oil from vat; D'uSd elsw. of overflow of river Is. 30 25 , sg. of downfall of rain 
Ps. 65 10 . — inj?3 jm vnc] is generalization of Ez. 47 12a . — t W2 it his season, 
i.e. of ripe fruit Ho. 2 11 Jb. 5 26 , when food is needed Ps. 104 27 145 15 , of rain 
Dt. II 14 28 12 Je. 5 24 Ez. 34 26 , appearance of constellation Jb. 38 32 , appropriate 
time Pr. 15 23 Ec. 3 11 . — hm nS vrhy\] direct citation from Ez. 47 126 . — inSp 
archaic poetic sf. J Thy leaf, foliage, only here \f/, usually of fading Is. I 30 34* 
64 s Je. 8 13 Ez. 47 12 .— \w Qal impf. fSai (1) sink, drop down, 18 46 = 
2 S. 22 46 , of exhaustion of Israel's foes Ex. 18 18 (E) Jb. 14 18 . (2) fall like 
leaf or flower, wither, fade Is. I 30 24* 28 1 - 4 34 4 40 78 64 5 Je. 8 13 Ps. 37 2 , so 
here and Ez. 47 12 . — Sdi] not subj. as AV. after (S, which prob. rd. Qal of 
Vb.; but obj. after Hiph., 60 Dr. accord, to Jos. I 8 on which the clause is 
based. See v. 26 . — n>*?*i] Hiph. impf. % nSx Qal have success 45 s , Hiph. 
carry a thing through to success or victory, of man 37 7 as here; of God 118 25 . 

— 4. p"** 1 ?] not so, strong antithesis to v. la . It is repeated in <&. So We., 
Oort, Ba., Che., but by dittog. : exact antith. to v. la requires dimeter. — D^isnn] 
article, here only in Ps. because of antithesis to tt"xn v. la . — ffD?] as chaff, 
always as driven by wind, and c. 3 of sim.; of wicked 35 s Ho. 13 3 Jb. 21 18 as 
here; of hostile nations Is. 17 13 29 5 , of Judah's power Is. 41 16 , of passing 
time Zp. 2 2 . — "V£>n] relative unnecessary prosaic gloss, destroys measure. — 
WOTFi] Qal impf. 3 f. with strong sf., Ges.? 58 ^). -y/t rpj Qal drive about, here 
chaff, but smoke 68 3 , man Jb. 32 13 , Niph. be driven, of smoke by wind Ps. 68 3 , 
cf. Pr. 21 6 ; various things Lv. 26 36 Is. 19 7 41 2 Jb. 13 25 . <£, IB, PBV add d7r6 
irpoad)Trov ttjs yrjs, so Bi., Du., in order to get rid of abruptness of first line. 
But <3 is an explanatory gloss. — 5. J l.?"^] " upon ground of such conditions, 
therefore, introducing, more generally than \"h, the statement of a fact, rather 
than a declaration " BDB; also 18 50 25 s 42' 45 s - «• 18 46 s I io 7 1 19 104 - 127 - 128 - 129 . 

— •1DP'»] def. written Qal impf. 3 pi. rise up, of resurrection, (3 avavT-fiaovTai, 
7B resurgunt, &, 88 11 Is. 26 14 - 19 ; most moderns, because of supposed early 
date of Ps., stand, abide, c. 3 as 24 s ; no other mng. of Qal suits context. — 



tO PSALMS 

Bscb?] in the judgment, the time when God will pronounce His final judg- 
ment at His advent, as Ec. 1 1 9 12 14 = pi Dn. 710-22-26. It is usually inter- 
preted by moderns of any historic judgment. J osc'p (1) act of judgment, 
deciding a case, by God, in historic time 9 8 35 23 76 10 , of Davidic kings 122 5 ; 
(2) the process, procedure, litigation, before the judge II2 5 143 2 ; (3) the 
sentence or decision 7" (if n« is used, otherwise as (1), so possibly original), 
17 2 ; (4) the execution of the judgment 9 517 119 84 146 7 149 9 , acts in execution 
of io 5 48 12 978 103 6 105 s - 7 . (5) attribute of the Dotf, justice ; of God 33 s 
3728 ^4.4 j,^ a i so ^6 7 72 1 (|^ pi.), T3i p-ix bases of divine throne 89 15 = 97 s ; 
of man 37 s30 72 2 94 16 101 1 106 8 ; (6) ordinance promulgated by Dec, judg- 
ment as law 19 10 25 s 81 6 ii9 7 + 2it 14720, (7) decision of the optf in a case 
of law {v. Br. IIex25 28q-); pi. of series of decisions; in Covt. code and D, 
collection of pentades in conditional or temporal clauses, c. *o or dn in D, in 
combination 'si oipn Dt. 4* + , in Code of H and after in combin. rnpn 
Ti Lv. 1 8* + , cf. Ps. 18 23 (= 2 S. 2223) 89 81 147 19 ; (8) that which belongs 
to one by justice or law, his right, due, 140 18 ; (9) the time of judgment, 
only here ^ as above. For other uses than those of \f/ see BDB. — 
rma] cstr. sg. J rn? congregation, or company, properly assembled by ap- 
pointment, y/^T> (1) of nations 7 8 , of angels 82 1 , of evil-doers 22 17 , cf. 
106 1718 , of bulls, fig. nobles 68 31 , D^>i; y 86 14 ; (2) specif, of the congrega- 
tion of Israel. <S o-vvayuy-f) 74 s as usual in P, also 62° (<S), in 1 (|| iid), so 
here. (S has here iv /3ou\^ as v. 16 . rxyj, by editorial assimilation is error. 
This line is trimeter; we should probably supply vb. inu\ It is improb. that 
poet shortened his line to make both lines dependent on XDp\ That looks 
more like the work of a prosaic copyist. — D , f? , 7*] pi. Jp , 7?i (0 just, 
righteous in government, of God, in general 119 137 129 4 , in discrimination 
yio. 12 II 7 ) j n redemption 116 6 , in all His ways 145 17 ; (2) righteous, as vindi- 
cated and justified by God, (a) his people over against enemies sg. coll. n 3 5 

, 4 5 3 ,19 55 23 58 11.12 64 11 75 11 Q2 13 Q 4 21 ^11 I4I 5 f pl# 33I 52 8 68 4 OQ 29 ^12 

1 1 8 15 - 2° I25 3 - 3 140 14 142 8 146 8 , passing over into, and not always distinguish- 
able from, (b) because of zeal for righteousness of Law, sg. coll. 37 1 " 16 - 2L 25- 30. 32 
3420. 22^ pi # 3 4 ie 37i7.29.39 an( | h ere i 5& ; (3) just, righteous in conduct and 
character, more ethical than above, as in W. L. sg. coll. 5 18 7 10 72 7 112 46 , 
pi. 32 11 . — 6. £^] Qal ptc. In classic usage ptc. would imply continuous 
knowledge as disting. fr. impf. frequentative, oft-repeated action, but || impf. 
nasn suggests in such a late Ps. the late Heb. usage of ptc. for verbal action 
without distinction of kind or sphere of time. jn», vb. J Qal in \p has but two 
classes of mng., (i) know, learn to know things, of man know, understand 
73 16 74 9 8i'\ know so as to estimate and tell 71 15 , know by experience 9 21 14 4 
(= 53 5 ) 39 s - 7 73 22 78 s - 6 82 s 89 16 90 11 92 7 139 14 ; be conscious, aware 0/35 11 15 , 
recognize, admit, acknoxvledge 5 1 6 , anticipate, expect 35 s , know that c. >3 4 4 20 7 
4i 12 46 n 56 10 59 14 83 19 100 3 109 27 U9 7 5i52 I35 5 I40 i3. t he sun knows his 
setting 104 19 ; (2) know a person, be acquainted with him and his affairs, 
(a) subj. man, know God in intelligent worship and obedience 36 u 79 s 87 4 , 
His name 9 11 91 14 , His ways 67 s 95 10 , His testimonies U9 79 - 125 , His judg- 



PSALM II. II 

ments 147 20 ; be acquainted with men 18 44 ioi 4 ; (b) sub]. God, know a per- 
son, be acquainted with him, personally interested in his actions and affairs, 
taking notice of him and regarding him, c. ace., so here as 37 18 44 s2 69 20 
94 11 103 14 138 6 1392.4.23,23 I4 2 4 144 3 , fowls 50 11 , c. >VDi nnxa 31 8 , c. S 69 s , 
abs. 40 10 73 11 139 1 . — na«n] Qal impf. i.p. for "QKn, c. yxi only here, elsw. -on 
vb. J Qal, (1) perish, vanish away, die 49 11 1 19 92 , emphasis on mortality 146 4 , 
the wicked by divine judgment 37 2) 68 3 73 127 92 10 so here; stronger meaning 
be exterminated, of Israel 8o 17 , other nations 2 1 ' 2 &3 18 , cf. 9*; of inanimate 
things, a vessel 31 13 , heavens and earth 102' 27 ; (2) fig. the memory 9", name 
41 6 , hope 9 19 , desire 112 10 , place of flight 142 5 ; (3) be tost, strayed, of sheep, 
fig. 119 176 . A trimeter line at the end is possible, but not probable. The 
inf. abs. -on has probably been lost by copyist error because of identity of 
letters with "Onp. This is so appropriate metrically and intensively that it 
is altogether probable. 

PSALM II., 4 str. f. 

Ps. 2. was the Messianic introduction to ©, It describes the 
nations plotting against Yahweh and His Messiah (v. 1-3 ) ; and in 
antistr. Yahweh Himself laughing at them and telling them of His 
installation of His king (v. 4 ~ 7a ). The Messiah then cites the word 
of Yahweh constituting him Son of God and giving him the nations 
as his inheritance (v. 76-9 ) ; and in antistr. warns them to serve 
Yahweh (v. 10 ~ 12c ). A liturgical addition pronounces all happy who 
seek refuge in Him (v. 12d ). 

Yy HY do nations consent together, 

And peoples devise plans in vain ? 

Kings of earth take their stand, 

And princes do consult together, 

Against Yahweh and against His anointed: 

" Let us tear apart their bands, 

And let us cast away from us their cords." 
(~)NE throned in heaven laughs (at them), 

My sovereign Lord mocks at them : 

Then in His anger He speaks unto them, 

And in His burning anger terrifies them : 

(Declaring) the decree (of Yahweh), 

" Now I, I have set My king, 

Upon Zion, My sacred mount." 
yAHWEH said unto me: 

" My son art thou, 

I, to-day, have begotten thee; 

\ will give nations for thine inheritance, 

And for thy possession the ends of the earth. 



12 PSALMS 

Thou shalt rule them with an iron sceptre, 
As a potter's vessel thou shalt dash them in pieces." 
" MOW therefore act prudently, O kings, 
Be admonished, governors of earth, 
Serve Yahweh with fear, 
And rejoice in Him with trembling. 
Kiss sincerely, lest He be angry. 
And ye perish from the right way, 
For quickly His anger will be kindled." 

Pss. 2 and 72 are without Q in titles in $. But <g has Tj/a\nbs t£ AavlS in 
title of Ps. 2 in <g R Aid. Compl., and in title of Ps. 72 in 42 codd. HP. none 
earlier than eleventh century. These rest probably on editorial conjecture. 
Ps. 72 2) after doxology, and therefore after attachment of doxologies to \p, 
ends with a statement which implies that Ps. 72 concluded IB (z>. Intr. §27). 
Ps. 2 was therefore introductory to Q and Ps. 72 its conclusion, and being 
used for the same purpose by the editor of ^, he omits the reference to Q. 
The Ps. describes an ideal situation, in the universal dominion of the monarch 
and the vain plotting of the nations. Such a situation never emerged in the 
history of Israel before the exile, in David and his successors ; or subsequent 
to the exile, in the Greek kings of Palestine or the Maccabean princes. The 
situation is rather that of the Assyrian and Babylonian world-powers, against 
which there was continual vain rebellion, according to the Hebrew prophets, 
and the cuneiform monuments of these kings. The same world-wide dominion 
was held by Persia and Alexander, but there was not the same situation 
of plotting and rebellion. It is probable that the poet idealizes the dynasty 
of David into just such a world-power as Assyria or Babylonia, and that he 
wrote during the supremacy of one of them. The seat of the dominion is 
Mt. Zion, and therefore we cannot think with Hi. of a Greek king, such as 
Alexander Jannaeus, or with Du. of Aristobulus I. The king cites a divine 
word as his title to his dominion. This is based on the covenant made by 
Yahweh with David, 2 S. 7 11 - 16 = 1 Ch. 17 10 - 14 , adopting the seed of David as 
son of God. This is paraphrased Pss. 89 s " «»• i32"-i 2 (Br.M p 126 ■* 258 "«•)• 
The king, Messiah and Son of God, of this Ps. must be of the dynasty of 
David. Therefore we cannot think of Maccabean princes who were not of 
the line of David. The Ps. refers to a birthday, a time of the installation 
of the king on Zion. We must therefore think of the day of the institution of 
the covenant, which is ideally combined with the installation of the dynasty 
in Jerusalem. It is probable that the Ps. represents David as himself speaking 
for himself and his seed in Strs. III. and IV.; just as in Str. II. Yahweh speaks, 
in Str. I. the nations. It is true that, in fact, David was not installed in Jeru- 
salem and on Zion, but at Hebron first by Judah 2 S. 2 1-4 , and then some 
years after by all the tribes 5 1 - 3 ; after seven years' reign in Hebron he 
captured Jerusalem and removed his capitol thither 5 4- * without any further 
installation ; and the covenant established by Yahweh confirmed him in his 
dominion there. But the poet combines all these several things in one pic- 



PSALM IL 13 

ture and regards them all as the installation of the dynasty on Zion. Undei 
these circumstances, it is not so important to determine when the Ps. was 
written, for in any case the Messianic dynasty is in view. It must, however, 
be later than the covenant which thinks only of an everlasting dominion and 
not of a world-wide dominion ; and so must be in the period of the supremacy 
of the world-powers, when first universal dominion could be conceived in 
connection with the universal rule of God. Therefore we cannot think of the 
time of David (older scholars even Pe.), or of Solomon (Ew., Bleek, Kirk.), 
or of Uzziah (Meier), or the time of the prophecy of Immanuel (De.). The 
earliest time conceivable would be the reign of Hezekiah (Maurer, Gr.); but 
many arguments point rather to the reign of Josiah, or the time of Jeremiah. 
These are also against the views that it was composed in the pre-Maccabean 
times (Che.) or the Maccabean (Ba.). The language does not favour a late 
date, unless itfjn v. 1 , Djpn v. 9 and 13 v. 12 be Aramaisms. But they are all 
good Heb. words appropriate to the age of Je., to which also the phrase 
iD>nnDio nt* npruj v. 3 points. There is no departure from strict classic style of 
syntax. The style, rhythm, and poetic conception are of the best types. There 
is no dependence on other Lit.; the Ps. is throughout original in conception. 
Ps. 59 9 has essentially the same two lines as 2 4 quoting our Ps.; Ps. 59 is a 
Droc, probably the oldest group in ^ (z\ Intr. § 25). This would prove the 
preex. date of the Ps., were it not that Ps. 59° is probably a gloss. Ps. 1 10 
has the same essential theme. There is a possible connection between the 
pn of v. 7 ° and the mm dnj no 1 , nirp jd#j no 4 , although the situation of the 
king is dissimilar. There is possibly a verbal correspondence between ^R^h* 
v. 7c and "|mSi no 36 . It is difficult to show dependence; but probably no 
is earlier ; at least it reflects a more warlike condition of the Davidic mon- 
archy. Ps. 89 s8 has the same idea of extensive dominion and sonship in "113:1 
firstborn and ynN "oSd 1 ? f"hy. However, with Ps. 132 it laments the failure 
to realize the covenant and is probably later than Ps. 2, which is so con- 
fident of its realization. The Ps. is composed of four strs. of 7 trimeters each. 
There are two parts each of two antith. strs. The two parts are in introverted 
parall. or inclusion. Str. IV. is synon. with Str. I. ; these include Str. III. synon. 
with Str. II. The parall. of the lines of strs. with the corresponding lines of 
synon., or antith. strs. has nothing to surpass it. A number of lines are in 
assonance in "id — v. 3a 6 < 4a 6 > 5a b . The Ps. is Messianic because it presents a 
world-wide dominion of the Son of David, such as was not a historical reality 
in the time of the poet or in any previous or subsequent time in history, but 
remains an ideal at the goal of history. Jesus of Nazareth is represented in 
the NT. as the Son of David and heir of this ideal. God at his baptism recog- 
nized him, " Thou art my beloved Son'" (that is, Messianic Son) Mk. I 11 , and 
at his transfiguration (Mk. 9 2 " 8 ). In his reign from heaven over the world he 
is gradually fulfilling it. When he ascended into heaven and sat down on 
the right hand of God, he was installed as Son of God in his world-wide 
dominion as Messiah. So St. Paul Acts 13 38 , Rom. I 4 , applies this Ps. to him. 
Also Heb. i 6 combines our Ps. with 2 S. 7 14 , and refers them to the enthroned 



14 PSALMS 

Christ, cf. Heb. 5 6 . Acts 4 s6 applies the fruitless rebellion of the nations to 
the gathering together of Herod and Pilate, the Gentiles and the people 
of Israel against the crown rights of Jesus. The universal dominion of the 
Messiah is stated in connection with the enthronement Phil. 2 1(M1 . It is only 
gradually realized, for he must reign until he hath put all his enemies under 
his feet, 1 Cor. 15 20 - 28 . At the Second Advent he is to rule with a rod of iron, 
Rev. 2 27 12 6 19 16 . The Ps. is a proper Ps. for Easter. 

Str. I. The Ps. conceives of Yahweh as sovereign of all na- 
tions ; and of the king anointed by Him, as ruling over the kings 
of the earth. His kingdom is world-wide, cf. 89 s8 . The nations, 
like those subjected by the world-power Babylon, are impatient 
of this dominion, and accordingly they secretly plot together to 
throw it off. This is graphically described in 4 syn. lines. — 
1. Why do nations consent together ?~\ meet in council and come 
to a common agreement in their desire of rebellion ; so most 
probably from mng. of Heb. stem and context ; " rage " AV., RV., 
JPSV, " rage furiously " PBV," tumultously assemble " RV m , Kirk., 
and so variously, most moderns, are not sustained by usage or con- 
text. — peoples devise plans] to make their rebellion successful all 
in vain] for no plan that they can think of, is possible of realiza- 
tion. 2. Kings of earth take their stand] at the head of their na- 
tions, to embolden them and arouse their courage ; finally, princes 
do consu/t together] in order for common action in real rebellion. 
They regard themselves as in bondage, bound by bands and tied 
by cords, as captives and slaves ; and with one voice they resolve : 
3. Let us tear apart their bands || And let us cast away from us 
their cords] This is the outcome of their plotting, the climax of 
their efforts, words and nothing more. They never get so far as 
actual rebellion. The reason appears in the antistrophe. 

Str. II. describes, in 4 syn. lines, 4-5, One throned in heaven] 
in sublime contrast with the plotting nations. He laughs at them] 
those nations consenting together. — My sovereign Lord] giving 
the word its original mng. which is more suited to the context 
than the proper name Adonay y of Vrss. — mocks at them] those 
peoples devising plans in vain. — Ln Bis anger He speaks unto 
them] those kings taking their stand ; and finally in His burning 
anger terrifies them] those princes consulting together. Nothing 
more is necessary. The nations are ready to revolt, but Yahweh 



PSALM II. 15 

is ready for war ; and He terrifies the plotters so that they can do 
nothing. Yahweh's words sound forth in antithesis to the words 
of the plotters. 6. 7, I have set My king~] he is already installed, 
Yahweh's response to v. 3 " — upon Zion, My sacred mount,'] the sa- 
cred capitol, to which the vassal nations and kings are bound, His 
response to their resolution, v. 36 . 7a. Declaring the decree of Yah- 
weh] so (3 ; these are, however, the words of the poet depending 
on v. 6 , and probably originally immediately following it, the decree 
being the words of Yahweh v. 6 , the inviolable law binding all vas- 
sals to His dominion : in antith. to v. 2c . The transposition of this 
line led (3 to interpret it as words of the king beginning, however, 
v. 6 , and f^ to make the words of the king begin with v. 7 , both at the 
expense of the parall. and strs. The Ps. in this decree is thinking of 
the covenant which Yahweh made with David through Nathan the 
prophet, constituting David and his seed an everlasting dynasty. 
That dynasty was set or installed in David, and continued in his 
seed forever. This covenanted dominion cannot be thrown off. 
Though it be limited in the time of the poet to a small territory 
and to a small people, it is, in his ideal, world-wide, universal, over 
all the nations and kings of the earth. The ideal will certainly be 
realized, for it is a divine decree ; and though nations and kings 
may plot to overthrow the dominion, as they did that of the world- 
powers of Assyria and Babylonia, they will not succeed ; for the 
world-power of the king is so identified with Yahweh's dominion 
that that very thought will terrify the rebellious into submission. 
Zion the sacred mount, consecrated by the theophanic presence of 
Yahweh in His temple, is the seat of the dominion, the residence, 
of the anointed king, the capitol of the world, to which all nations 
and kings are bound, whether by cords of love or bands of iron, 
cf. Is. 2 2-4 ; Mi. 4 1 " 4 where the mountain of the house of Yahweh 
is the resort of all nations for instruction and government, in order 
to universal peace. 

Str. III. 7b. Yahweh said unto me~\ David himself speaks as the 
father and representative of his dynasty, quoting Yahweh's words 
to him by Nathan the prophet. These words are in three pro- 
gressive couplets, each in syn. parall. within itself. — My son art 
thou || I, to-day, have begotten thee~\ David and his seed were 
adopted as Yahweh's Son on the day of the institution of the 



16 PSALMS 

Davidic covenant, when first David reigned by right of divine 
sonship. The poet ideally combines the installation of David, 
2 S. 2 4 , with the covenant recognition of sonship, 2 S. 7 11 " 16 ; al- 
though the former took place some years earlier. This was an 
unfolding of the earlier covenant with Israel which constituted 
Israel as a people, the firstborn son of God, Ex. 4 2 ^ 23 (J.), a 
kingdom of priests, Ex. 19 s-6 (E.). Now the Davidic line, by 
divine institution, becomes the son and king in a nation, which 
remains both son and kingdom in larger relations. — 8. The 
nations || the ends of the earth] A universal, world-wide dominion 
over them was not contemplated in the covenant with David. The 
i?iherita?ice || possession of the kingdom of Israel was the holy land, 
Gen. 12 1 - 3 , 49 10Bq - {v. Br. MP48lBq ) ; that of David's seed, the holy 
land and holy people. The rule of David extended over Ammon, 
Moab, Edom, Syria, Philistia ; but never reached the extent of the 
old empires of Egypt, Babylonia, or the Hittites. Subsequently 
the kingdom of David was divided, each section was reduced, and 
finally destroyed, the Northern kingdom by Assyria, the Southern 
by Babylon. These arose successively as the great world-powers ; 
making it evident that if the Davidic kingdom was to be in fact 
an everlasting kingdom, it must be a world-power, and have ulti- 
mate and universal dominion. This logical result of the Davidic 
covenant, in the light of the history of Babylonia, becomes to the 
poets of Pss. 2, 89 an essential part of the original covenant, and 
is put here ideally in the mouth of David himself. — 9. The rule 
of the Messiah is to be with an iron sceptre, because he has to do 
with rebellious nations, and these will only obey an iron rule ; 
even though all their array of kings and nations are as a potter's 
vessel when brought in conflict with the power of the one king 
who rules as the son of God. 

Str. IV. If we take the last line of the Psalm as original, it is 
necessary to think of the poet as speaking the warning ; but then 
we are struck by the absence of the Messiah. If, however, we 
regard that line as a liturgical addition, it is better to think of 
David himself as warning the kings. There are three couplets 
of warning, with a concluding line giving the reason for it. The 
first and second are syn. couplets, progressive one to the other ; 
the third is a synth. couplet progressive to the second. Line by 



PSALM II. 17 

line this antistr. corresponds with its str. 10-11. Act prudently, O 
kings']. You have to deal with Yahweh's words, v. 7a || be admonished, 
governors of earth] . You have to do with Yahweh's son, v. 75 || Serve 
Yahweh with /ear], as vassals, not in the usual religious sense of 
worship and obedience to the Law; to serve Yahweh's son is to 
serve Him, v. 7c . — rejoice in Him with trembling]. Yahweh has 
given the nations for the king's inheritance, v. 8 *, that is a reason 
for rejoicing ; but that joy should be accompanied with trembling 
lest He be displeased. — 12. Kiss sincerely] the kiss of the hands 
in worship, cf. Jb. 31 27 . Worship in purity and fidelity, "with a 
pure heart " JPSV. because He has given the ends of the earth for 
the possession of His king, v. 86 . (3 paraphrases or had a different 
text in rendering " lay hold of instruction." EV 8 . " kiss the son," 
the Messiah, cannot be justified by usage or context, and is based 
on a misinterpretation due to Syriac and x^ramaic influence. If 
the rulers do not render sincere homage, they may fear lest He be 
angry || lest ye perish]. He rules with an iron sceptre, v. 9a ; you 
cannot resist it successfully, you will perish if you try, therefore 
submit in joy and fear. The reason for this warning is now given, 
For quickly His anger will be kindled]. This is the climax corre- 
sponding with the climax of the previous str., v. 96 . A liturgical 
editor adds a general statement which does not suit the ideal 
situation of the Ps., but which is appropriate to the congregation 
when they use it in worship. — Happy are all seeking refuge in 
Him. 

1. Jn$] *1 42™ 432 4424. 25 49 e 68 n 74 n 79 io 80I 3 115 2 ; but JnpS 
io l 22 2 42 10 43 2 74 1 88 15 ; no satisfactory explanation of difference has yet 
been given (Ges.§ 102 ( 2 ) \ Ges. L49 - 2R ; 102R , Ko. i-P.i44;il. P p. 4616, 517 (2) f B£>B.). 
(a) expostulation, for what reason, why, wherefore : c. pf. of God 22 2 42 10 
432 74I 80 13 ; of nations ** ; impf. of God io 1 44 24 - 25 74 11 88 15 ; of man 42 10 
= 43 2 ; mountains 68 17 . (b) Deprecating, why should, c. impf. of man 49 s 
79 10 = 115 2 . — fv^n] a.X. Qal pf. 3 pi. yjvr\ usually explained as cog. with 
Efyn and so a noisy, tumultuous assembling, after U turbabuntur ; but in late 
Heb. this mng. is confined to Hithp., and it is doubtful whether the mng. 
tumultuatus est of j$ is early. At all events this mng. is not suited to the 
context in any of the forms from the stem in the Heb. or Aram, of OT. The 
ordinary mng. of the simple form of the stem in Aram, and Syr. is observe, 
experience, so Hiph. of late Heb. It is better to build on this. The noun 
[^Tl] II 11D 55 15 must mean either company, companionship, or concord; so 
C 



1 8 PSALMS 

(S iv buovolq. in concord, AV. in company ; but 3 cum lerrore, RV. with the 
throng are both unsuited to the intimate fellowship of friendship in syn. line. 
The noun ['"»tfjn] || "^D 64 s = 3 a tumultu, <S dirb wX-^dovs, AV. insurrec- 
tion, RV. tumult ; but none of these is so appropriate as companionship, con- 
cord, or possibly conspiracy, for some such mng. seems to be required by the 
synonymous td. It is noteworthy that in our Ps. tfjn vb. is synonymous 
with hdu from -iD" 1 denom. -no (see below), and the syn. parall. urges a 
similar mng. such as be in concord, consent together, for consensus is an easy 
derivative from sensus, the normal mng. of stem in Aram. This mng. best 
suits the context. Such a poet as the author of our Ps. would hardly begin 
with an anticlimax. It should also be said that these three uses, the only 
ones in Bibl. Heb., are all in Q. It may also be said that the Aphel of tfn 
Aram. Dn. 6 7 - 12 - 16 cannot with propriety have the strong mng. of tumultuous 
assembling. The Persian officials would hardly come to their king ty s v. 7 - 16 
in such a fashion, nor would they be likely in this way to assemble to watch 
Daniel at prayer, v. 1 ' 2 . The context and the situation would suit better their 
coming together in concord or in common consent, with one accord, to watch 
Daniel and to influence the king. <S icppva^av behave arrogantly seems to 
be a paraphrase, rather than a translation. Since writing the above I have 
noticed that Ehr. takes essentially the same view with me. — d^j] pi. 53 t. 
in \f/, always of foreign nations ; sg. coll. of foreign nations 43 1 I05 13 - 13 147 20 ; 
of Israel 33 12 83 s 106 6 . — d^nS] pi. of J cs^ prop, common, vulgar people 
(BDB.); poet. sg. people, both of Israel and Edom Gn. 25 28 (J), elsw. of 
Israel Is. 51 4 ; usually pi. of foreign peoples 2 1 7 s 9 9 44 s - 15 47* 57 10 65 s 67 s - 6 
105 44 108 4 148 11 149 7 . — «n;] Qal impf. 3 pi. run (see i 2 ) frequentative of 
repeated action, in the discussion and elaboration of devices over against the 
emphatic present tw*\ The tetrastich begins and closes with pf., including 
the two impfs. The change of tense is awkward in a question. It is proba- 
ble that the question closes with v. 1 , and that v. 2 is a statement of fact. — pn 
and pn] are mixed in MT., both adj. [pn] vb. Hiph. (1) pour out or down, 
of rain, empty vessels, not in \p. (2) c. ace. draw sword, either from scabbard 
(emptying it) or as using to pour out blood, common in Ez., not in \p, which 
uses, however, || draw out lance Pss. 35 s 18 43 (text err.), pn adj. is not used 
in $J of \p either in mng. empty of vessels, or vain, idle, worthless of persons 
or things, pn adj. is usually f adverbial pnS in vain, of labour without 
benefit or advantage Lv. 26 16 - 20 (H.) Is. 4c; 4 65 s3 Jb. 39 16 , abbreviated pn 
Ps. 73 18 Is. 30 7 Je. 5 1 58 = Hb. 2 18 . It is prob. that pn in Ps. 2 1 belongs here 
= in vain, and that pn 4 8 should be pointed pn vain, unprofitable thing 
|| 3TD as Pr. 12 11 = 28 19 . If Ps. 2 1 is to have that mng., it also should be 
pointed p>-\ — 2. !a*Mi»] Hithp. impf. of graphic description -^[a^], Niph., 
Hiph., Hoph. are derived from [2*:]. Both Niph. (V a *0 anc * Hithp. 
( V /3X' 1 ) have the same mng., station oneself, take one's stand. % Hithp. abs. 
here (2 2 ) and I S. 17 16 taking a stand to fight, elsw. in \f/ taking a stand for 
one against the workers of iniquity 94 16 ; holding one's ground cf> ; in a way of 
life 36 6 . % Kxyh.take one's stand: c. 2 of place, God to plead 82 1 ; queen at right 



PSALM II. 19 

hand of monarch in ceremony of marriage 45 10 ; stand firm, of man 39 s (text 
dub.) ; of Yahweh's word 1 19 89 . % Hiph. (1) set, station 41 13 ; (2) fix, estab- 
lish, boundary 74 17 , cf. Dt. 32 s ; (3) cause to stand erect, of waters 78 13 . 
There is no sufficient reason to substitute here wjprn as Lag., We., Oort. — 
tr?? \pkp] te"gs of earth : a* 76 13 89 28 148 11 Ez. 27 s3 La. 4 12 ; with ^ prefixed 
Pss.102 16 138 4 1 K. io 23 = 2 Ch. 9 22 - 23 ; earlier kings of the land Jos. I2 1 - 7 ; 
similar f pN *BB#] Ps. 2 10 Is. 40 23 , with hD prefixed Ps. 148 11 Pr. 8 16 ; also 
tH«? niD '? ! ?'? ^ al1 the kingdoms of earth Dt. 28 25 2 K. 1915.19 (-l s . 
37 16 '- 20 ) Ezr. ! i 2 (= 2 C. 36 23 ) Is. 23I 7 Je. 15* 2 4 9 25* 29 18 341- ", without Sa 
Ps. 68 33 . Chr. uses rather f rrtrwn n"»i»DO (Sd) i Ch. 29 30 2 Ch. 1 2 8 1 7 10 20 29 . 
The phrases centre in the time of Jeremiah, f D*J»"h] princes, Qal ptc. 
[V?n], only pi. || d^Sd here (2 2 ) Ju. 5 3 Hb. I 10 Pr. 8 16 ' 31 4 ; p^DV Is. 40 23 . 

— t-Vto'ij] Niph. pf. emphatic present nD> denom. niD Ges.§ 78 (z>. £ ; .n 
above), /r<?#/ about, discuss, consult, 3 traclabunt, 2 av<XKiirTOVTai, so Ba\, 
Bu., Du., so D^D-in 3 1 14 . (g (of 2' 2 ) <rwrix&V (rav seems to have rd. VWty so 
Lag., Oort, BDB. ; Ges., SS., al. derive from nD"' fix, establish, Niph. sit in 
conclave. % nrv] as adv. together : (1) community, in action, consult. 2 2 31 14 ; 
place, in same place 88 18 133 1 ; in time, at the same time 141 10 . (2) all to- 
gether, altogether 33 15 40 15 41 8 62 10 74° • 8 98 s . (3) together in the sense of 
alike, the one as well as the other 49 s - n . See BDB. — Sjj] against, repeated 
before ^rvi?D, separates him emphatically from mn\ There are two beats 
of accent on Tr^D'Spi. — "irvtfo] n. m. sf. His anointed, sf. referring to Yah- 
weh. y/nvn anoint, spec, consecrate to an office, f H^tto is used of high 
priest of Israel Lv. 4 3 - 6 - 16 6 15 < p > Ps. 84 10 ; of Cyrus as commissioned by Yah- 
weh Is. 45 1 ; of the prince Dn. 9 25 - 26 ; of patriarchs Ps. 105 15 = 1 Ch. 16 22 ; 
elsw. of kings of Israel anointed by divine command 1 S. I2 3 - & i6 G 20 7 24 7 - 7 - u 
26 9 - "• 1 6 - 23 , 2S. i u • 16 19 22 23 1 La. 4 20 Hb. 3 13 Pss. 20 7 28 s , and esp. of Davidic 
dynasty with Messianic ideals Pss. 2 2 18 51 (= 2 S. 22 51 ) 89 s9 - &2 132 10 (= 2 Ch. 
6 42 ) 17 , 1 S. 2 10 - 35 . — 3. npnjj] Piel impf. cohort. I pi., expressing resolution, 
we willy or exhortation, let us tear apart. Jpnj Piel tear apart, snap: c. 
ace. rvnt^D Je. 2 20 5 5 30 8 Na. i 13 Ps. 2 s 107 14 . — 'iD^rYiTD'iD] 3 pi. sf., fuller 
form for on\_, used to soften, make more euphonious the ending; espec. for 
the assonance which continues for six successive lines, f ^o] = npND bond 
( -ypDN tie, bind) ; subj. bonds made strong (those imposed by Assyria) Is. 28 22 ; 
elsw. obj. made to symbolize those of Babylon Je. 27 s ; 'D rwfl loose bonds Ps. 
116 6 Is. 52 s Jb. 39 5 ; cf. 12 18 ; elsw. 'D pFiJ 2* 107 14 Je. 2 20 5 5 30 8 Na. I 13 . 

— nrr^ji] Waw coord, with Hiph. cohort. I pi. — MJ??] reduplication of p 
with strong sf. 1 pi. 2 s 103 12 ; same as 3 mpl. (but Orientals point I pi. W^D 
Baer Jb -P- 57 , Ko. L29!) ). — % nh}? twisted cord, rope: 2 s 118 27 129 4 . — 4. 38^] 
Qal ptc. nominal force : the ordinary mngs., sit, sit down, dwell, do not suit 
here, only the % pregn. one sitting enthroned : (1) usually of God 9 8 29 10 55 20 
102 13 132 14 ; also matf pan place of His sitting enthroned (heaven) 33 14 ; 
nat^S wajon He who exalts to sit enthroned 113 5 ; inatrS nDn inn the 
mount on which He desired to sit enthroned 68 17 ; D'Dtfa 2 1 * 123 1 ; c. h loci 
nd^S 9 6 ; VudS 29 10 j c. iy loci ndd h? 47 9 ; ace. loci ]Vi 9 12 ; oona(n) 80 2 



20 PSALMS 

99 1 ; Ssnfc" mSnn 22*. (2) of Davidic king, before God 61 8 ; at His right 
hand no 1 ; successive kings NDaS 132 12 ; c. ace. nwDo 122 6 . — pryf;] impf. 
Qal i. p. graphic description, y/ J pnir laugh at, of God, c. S 37 18 59 s ; of man, 
c. *?? 52 s . As 59 9 depends on ,?•*, it is prob. that IDS followed pnt"> in original 
text. This is sustained by <& and rhyme of previous and subsequent lines. 
Piel sport, play 104 26 . — >fv* (pointing » T to disting. from \, used of 
men): originally my sovereign lord 16 2 86 8 - 4 - 6 ; so here || one enthroned 
(though 59 9 cites as nw); subsequently Adonay, as proper name {v. Intr. 
§ 32). — jj?^] Qal impf. 3 p. cited as 2 p. 59 s y/% JJ?S mock, deride ; also 80 7 
and prob. 35 16 (<S). Hiph. 22 8 same mng., prob. also Qal originally. — 
5. Jtn] adv. v. BZ>B. (1) temporal (a) past, //&<?«, sq. pf. 89 20 ; (£) future, 
sq. impf. 56 10 (?); (c) emph. of particular features of description 2 s 40 8 (?) 
96 12 ; (d) pointing back with emph. to inf. with a I26' 2 - 2 ; (2) logical 
sequence, sq. impf. 19 14 51 s1 - 21 69 s (?) U9 6 - 92 . — >D'Vk] full sf. for rhyme, 
prob. therefore original close of line : usual prep, with n3"\ — ^nis] prep. 3 and 
sf. J«]N: (i) nostril as organ of breathing i8 9 - 16 , smelling II5 6 ; CCN "pN 
prolonged breathing, long suffering of God 86 15 103 8 145 8 , based on Ex. 34 s (J) ; 
elsw. (2) anger, {a) of man Pss. 37 s 55* 124 3 1 3s 7 ; usually (b) of God 2 12 
IO 4 74 1 76 s 78 21 ' 81 - **• *> 85 s OO 11 I06 40 IIO 6 , t]H2 2$&f 2I 10 27 s 3O 6 56 s 77 10 

90 7 95 11 , «ik jnn 69 s5 7s 49 85*; denom. vb. f 1JN is term of D. Qal be angry, 
of Yahweh, c. 2 85 s 1 K. 8 46 (=2 C. 6 s6 ) Is. 12 1 Ezr. 9 14 , abs. Ps. 2™ 60 8 
79 6 Hithp. id. of Yahweh c. 3 Dt. i 87 4 21 9 8 - 2° 1 K. II 9 2 K. 17 18 . — 
Wvij] prep. 2 sf. jnn nm. -y/J rnn with i)H subj. 106 40 124 3 anger burn agst., 
but without and so impers., c. 7 18 8 ; term of EJD. chiefly with preexilic 
writers, not of HP., Je., Ez., Is. 2 f Hithp. >&^/ oneself 'in vexation Ps. 37 1 - 7 - 8 
Pr. 24 19 , J pnn alw. of God's burning anger, usually in phr. r\n jnn 69 26 78 49 
85 4 as Ex. 32 12 Nu. 25 4 32 14 Jos. 7 26 (all J)+, phr. chiefly preexilic prophets; 
IN is omitted only Ex. 15 7 (song) Ne. 13 18 Ez. 7 12 (del. Co.) 14 Ps. 58 10 (dub. 
text) 88 17 (pi. bursts 0/ burning anger). It is quite prob. that in 2 5 originally 
the text was ifiN jnn which is certainly more rhythmical. — toSn^] Piel 
impf. full sf. for rhyme. J LaA" 13 ] not in Q al but Niph. be disturbed, dis- 
mayed, terrified 6 8 - 4 - " 30 8 48 s 83 18 90 7 104 29 Gn. 45 s (E) Ex. 15 16 (song). 
Piel subj. Yahweh, dismay, terrify Pss. 2 5 83 16 , elsw. late 2 C. 32 18 Dn. 1 1 44 
Jb. 22 10 . — 6. *jni] 1 introd. <S, U, 3, pron. emphatic, solemn proclamation. 
— t ^Di] pf- Qal aorist of single historic act. Vb. variously explained : 
(1) pour out, of libation and of molten metal, and so anoint king; so % 
2 «xpto-a (cf. Acts 4 27 6xpt<ras) Ges., Ew., JPSV. (2) weave a web, after 
Is. 25 7 , so idtaadfirjv Aq. Quinta 3. (3) <S Kareardd^p, V ordinatus sum, 
j& set, install, cf. As. nasaku, whence nasiku prince, cf. Heb. f [TPj>] J os - 
I3 2J Ez- 32 30 Mi. 5 4 Ps. 83 12 ; so AV., RV., most moderns, who differ only as 
to whether (3) is derived from (1) as De., Pe., Bu., SS., or whether it was 
an independent original stem, BDB. There are but two examples : here (2*) 
Qal pf. and Pr. 8 23 Niph. pf. Vl3©}j but <S rds. Niph. here also tyw 8t /care- 
o-Tddrjv /Sao-tXevs vir avrov = ^Sd >F\3Q) ^ni now I, I was installed His king. 
This is preferred by Du. There has been an assimilation by (g of Ps. 2 s to 



PSALM II. 21 

Pr. 8 23 , which required ittnp for >Bhp of ^ v 65 and subordination of rnspN in 
ptc. clause. However, U rds. sanctum eius. f^ suits context and division 
of strophes. Introduction of the king, as speaking in v. 6 instead of Yahweh, 
destroys parall. with Str. I. and makes v. 76 tautological. — % sho] my king, so 
as Yahweh's representative = VWD v. 2 ; <£ "dVd = It both interp. of origi 
nal -j^Dn. — TjSg nm. (i) for kings other than the line of David 33 16 45 14 
IO5 20.80(rd. 8?: .)'i35 n - 11 = I36 19 - 20 ; pi. see v. 2 \ (2) for king of David's line 
(either real or ideal of Mess, promise) ^ 18 51 20 10 2i 2 - 8 45 s - 6 - 12 - 1 5 - ™ 61 7 63 12 
72 1 - l 89 19 144 10 (rd. sg. d_). X (3) of God as the king 5 3 io 16 24'- 8 - 9 - 10 - 10 
29 10 44 5 47 2 - 7 - 8 48 s 6S 25 74 12 84* 95 3 98 s 99* 145 1 149 2 . There is no usage in \f/ 
justifying the opinion of some recent scholars that "|Sd was used for the nation 
as the kingdom of God. — j>>nf Sy] upon Zion, poetic name for the city of 
God, where He resides as king and from whence in theophanic presence He 
rules. % p»j usually in rj/ alone 9 12 - 15 48 13 51 20 6f 69 s6 76 s 84 s 87 s - 5 97 s 99 2 

I02 14.17.22 I2D 1 i2 9 5 132 13 I37L8 I46 10 I47 12 ; JVXD I4 7 (= 53 7 ) 20 s 5O 2 I IO 2 

128 5 134 3 135 21 149 2 ; fvx nn 4 8 3 - 12 74 2 78 s8 125 1 Is. 24 s3 + ; x n-\n 1338. 
— nehp -in] /wy >fo/j/ mount ; cstr. best translated in Eng. by adj., not mount of 
my holiness. (3 dyiop ai/rov is a diff. interp. from "$% of an original Bhpn. 
fchp "»n as seat of Yahweh's presence 3 s 15 1 43 s 48 2 99 s , elsw. Is. n 9 27 18 
5 6 7 57 13 65 11 - 25 66 2) , Zp. 311 Jo. 21 Ob. 16 Zc. 8 3 Ez. 20 40 Je. 31 23 Dn. 916- 20; 
in Ez. 28 s4 the reference is to the Oriental Olympus in N.W. Asia ; Bhp nn p>* 
ouly Ps. 2 s Jo. 4 17 , uhp ox "VI Dn. n 45 . The sacred mount elsw. jvx in 
(see above), rwii nn 24 s , OTiSsn -in 68 16 , and vi(n) defined by context 68 17 
78 s4 ; cf. 'p nnn 87 1 no 3 (?) also 30 8 (?) 76 5 (?). — 7. -Tjsdn] Pi. impf. 
I sg. cohort. "idD; attached by O as ptc. clause to previous v.; so Aq., U, Du., 
and by j$ as a final clause impf. 3 sg. As usual in such cases they are varied 
interpretations of an original text which in this case would be ncD inf. abs., 
v. Ges.§ 113 . Str. II. is one line too short, which is improb. in such an artistic 
poem. Either it has been omitted by copyist, or is to be found in v. 7 , which 
is too long. v. 7a seems more appropriate before v. 6 , where it gives fine antith. 
to v. 2c ; so Bi., Che. ; prob. it was transposed by scribal error. This occa- 
sioned all the difficulties. — pn Sx] J pn n. m. something prescribed, a statute, or 
due, (1) prescribed limit, boundary, of heavens 148 6 , (2) enactment, decree, 
ordinance, law of festival 81 5 ; so here, decree of Yahweh respecting Mess. 
king ; covenant with Jacob 105 10 ; law in general 94 20 99 7 , pi. D^pn statutes, 
of the Law 50 16 105 46 1196 + 21^ (em.txt.) 147W. rrtpn pi. of r\pn n.f. statutes 
of type of Holiness code (see Br. 1 ^*- 251 ) 18 28 89 s2 119 16 (?). It is prob. that, 
with Houb., Bi., Gr., We., Du., Oort, original reading here was mn> pn de- 
cree of Yahweh, which is favoured by Vrss. ; rb irpdaTay/xa Kvpiov. ictpios 
elirev <g>, praeceptum eius. dominus dixit 3J, dei praeceptum. dominus dixit 3. 
pn without article is too indefinite. Sn is prob. interp. of f$, as it was not in 
text of (& and is a late use of Ss for hy. The emendation nx, Houb., Bi., 
We., is improbable. Jf, Aq., 0, J5, 4 codd. De R. have Sn = God, which may 
be, by an error of transposition, for an original hx pn. This, however, gives 
bad measure. © is in all respects the best reading. — nnN <pa] is a defec- 



22 PSALMS 

tive line ; add n«n after 2 S. 7 14 (pS >S mm ton)) ; the vb. omitted by 
prosaic copyist because unnecessary to the sense, the copula often being 
implied in pers. pronouns. nn« with pattach in pause, for nnN, an early 
copyist's mistake to which attention is called by Mas. — >jn] emph. as above, 
v. 6 *.— Jo^n] to-day, this day : 2* 95 7 1 19M. — TPnS<] Qal perf. of completed 
action in time of speaker for Tn^"., which is explained by Ew.§ 1996 from 
attraction of antecedent '; by Ges.S 44 ** as possibly derived from tV ; by Hu. 
as due to removal of accent (cf. wfy Je. 15 10 ; •wrn L, ;> Nu. II 12 ); prob. 
copyist's mistake. \ "k> vb. Qal used (1) c. 208 t. for mother bearing child, 
so Ps. 48 7 , fig. 7 15 ; (2) of father begetting child, in J II t (= I C i 10 + 5t ) 
Dt. 32 18 (song) Nu. II 12 (E both dub.) ; elsw. only Pr. 17 21 23 22 - 24 Dn. u 6 ; 
P. and Ch. use Hiph. "vSn in this sense, so Ru. 4 18 + 8t. j u# n i 2 K. 20 18 = 
Is. 39 T Je. 16 3 29 s Ez. i8 10 - 14 47" Ec. 5 18 6 8 Is. 45W. The usage of our Ps. 
is either early or very late, not in accord with that of exilic literature. Niph. 
be born : Pss. 22 32 78°. Pual be born : 87*- 6 - 6 90 2 . — 8. "»jpp ^Ntr] is prob. a 
gloss. It makes line too long, however we may divide vers. ; and str. is com- 
plete without it as additional line. It was natural that a gloss of petition 
should come on the margin of such a divine promise yet unrealized ; cf. for 
similar gloss no 23 . — ^nto] i introducing apodosis of Skit, but prob. it came 
into text with gloss ; vb. Qal impf. cohort, of |PJ, corresponding with cohorta- 
tive of two previous strophes v. 3 - 7a . — n*?!^*] inheritance, cf. Ill 6 ; a term esp. 
characteristic of D. and Je., but also used by P. and later writers. \ ninn] 
possession, a.X. \j/, but term of P., Ez., Chr. — tr™ - "'!??*] ends, extreme limits 
of earth. There should be a secondary accent here. The phr. elsw. 22 28 59 14 
67 s 72 s (= Zc. 9 10 ) 98^ (= Is. 52 106 ) Is. 45 122 Je. 16 19 Dt. 33 17 1 S. 2 10 Mi. 58 
Pr. 30 4 . — 9. opn] Qal impf. 2 m. sf. 3 pi. of j?jn break in pieces, so 2, 3T, 
Aram, of psn, not used elsw. in \f/ ; Qal only Jb. 34 24 and other very late pas- 
sages of Greek period (see BDB.) Je. n 16 15 12 Pr. 25 19 . Hithpo. only Is. 
24 19 ( ?) Pr. 18 24 . But & Rev. 2™ Troifxaveiv, op.i &,YJ, 3 rule as shepherd king 
over them, is more suited to the context of the sceptre, even if it be of iron ; 
so 7 8 7 i- 72 , cf. 28 9 491* 80 2 2 S. 5 2 7 7 Je. 3 15 Mi. 5 s Ez. 37^ Na. 3 i 8 + . 

— k n3 03U-] phr. a.X. \ D3tf n. rod : (i) sceptre of monarch ^ 45 7 - 7 125 8 , of 
rod* of Yahweh 23* %<y* ; (2) tribe 74 2 1%^- 67 - 68 105 37 I22 4 - 4 . — DX^r-] Piel 
impf. sf. ^fyo:. Qal shatter, vessels Ju. 7 19 , fig. Je. 22 s8 Dn. 12 7 (possibly 
Piel). Piel dash in pieces, c. ace. infants, Ps. 137 9 agst. rock; nations with 
Babylon as a war club Je. 5i 20 + 8t -, people like jars Je. 13 14 48 12 , so here like 
pottery cf. 1 K. 5 23 . Pual pass. Is. 27° altar stones pulverized. — f n*"" "'So] pot- 
ter's vessel, made by the potter out of clay, and so easily broken 2 S. 17 28 Je. 19 11 . 

— 10. Jnrw] as 27 s 39 s 119 67 , cf. i"«oi 74 s \ nnj 12 6 17 11 20 7 . \ nnj:p 113 2 
115I8 I2 i8 ^52 I ^ I 8 # — y^ 3 irn] Hiph. imv. 2 pi. y/\ Syo (1) consider, regard, 
give attention to, c. ace. 64 10 106 7 , c. S*» pers. 4I 2 (?), c. 2 rei 101 2 , abs. 94 s ; 
(2) have insight 119 99 ; (3) act with circumspection, prudence, insight 2 10 36 4 , 
ptc. S^icc 14 2 = 53 8 Am. 5 18 Pr. io 6 + 5t Pr. Jb. 22 2 ; (4) later, give insight, 
teach Ps. 32 s ; cf. Swd n. in titles {v. Intr.i 26 ). — nenn] imv. Niph. \ "^ 
Qal discipline, subj. God 94 90 Ho. IO 10 . t Niph. let oneself be admonished, cor- 



PSALM II. 23 

reeled Vs. 2 10 as Pr. 29 19 , chastened by discipline of God Je. 6 8 31 18 Lv. 26 23 . 
Piel (1) discipline, correct the moral nature, with more or less severity ace. 
to circumstances, subj. God 94 12 u8 18 - 18 , subj. man's reins 16 7 ; (2) more 
severely, chasten, chastise, subj. God 6 2 (= 38 s ) 39 12 Je. io 24 30 11 31 18 46 s8 
Lv. 26 18 - 28 ; common in WL. — yy*, >Bfl^] retracted accent on acct. of fol- 
lowing monosyl.; so ri3Kn v. 12a , •'Din v. 12c : for phr. v. v. 2 . — 11. nin*-nK nr;] 
Qal imv. y/% "\2}J (i) the primitive mng. serve with service, work, is not in \p; 
but (2) as vassals of Davidic king 18 44 72 11 , of Yahweh 2 11 102 23 ; (3) with 
worship, as His people 22 31 ioo 2 ; so idols <)f 106 33 . — n**V3] X nx " v n -f- 
(1) fear, terror 2 11 55 s ; usually (2) fear of God, reverence, piety 5 8 34 12 
90 11 in 10 119" 8 ; so for NllD, the Law as object of reverence 19 10 , cf. 76 12 . 
— V?^] Qal imv. \ S\> vb. Qal rejoice: abs. 13 5 51 10 ; || rofr 14 7 16 9 32 11 48 12 
53 7 96 11 97 1 - 8 ; c. 3 149 2 ; injnva 9 15 13 6 21 2 ; nwa 35°; 1 oeta 89 17 ; 
3 nvt'i hi) 31 8 118 24 Ct. I 4 Is. 25 9 Jo. 2 23 ; all these with pers. subj., but subj. 
^2 Ps. 13 6 , U'dj 35 9 , 1133 (II tfflj) 16 9 , pnx 96 11 97 1 ; such overwhelming usage 
makes it improb. that 2 11 and Hos. io 5 should have the exceptional mng. 
tremble (cf. Ar. stems with the mng.^0 round or aboitt, be excited to levity, etc.), 
although supported by Ges., Ew., Hi., Che. for Ps. 2 11 and by Ges. and most 
moderns for Ho. io 5 ; but (g, Hu., De., Pe., AV., RV., rejoice for Ps. 2 11 , and 
AV., RV. for Ho. io 5 (the latter possibly error for S*n Ew., Gr.). J 1 ?^ n. 
rejoicing: 43 4 45 16 65 13 . <& rds. ayaWiaade clvt$, which implies "13 -lS^. 
This completes the line and makes it entirely synonymous with the preceding. 
^3 was omitted by txt. err. because of confusion of 13 with lS in iS^j. — 
frnpj n.f., c. 3; cf. 55 6 ; || ins Jb. 4 14 ; elsw. Ps. 48 7 , cf. Is. 33 14 also Ex. 15 15 . 
— 12. lptfj] Pi. imv. of fptfj Qal hiss (1) of affection, usually c. h pers. 
Gn. 27 26 - 27 " 29U 50 1 Ex. 4 27 (J) Gn. 48 10 Ex. 18 7 (E) 2 S. 14 33 15 5 19 40 20 9 
1 K. 19 20 Pr. 7 13 Ru. i 9 - 14 ; c. ace. pers. Gn. 33 4 (JE dub. form) 1 S. io 1 20 41 
Ct. i 2 8 1 ; lips Pr. 24 26 ; of divine attributes, abs. Ps. 85 11 ; (2) of idolatrous 
worship: c. *? I K. 19 18 Jb. 31 27 (hand to the mouth); c. ace. calves Ho. 13 2 : 
id Vy Gn. 41 40 (dub.). Pi. kiss: (1) of affection; c. h pers. Gn. 29 13 (J) 
31 28 32 1 45 15 (E) ; (2) here only of worship ; Aq. KaracpCk-qaaTe, 2 irpoaKV- 
vrjaare, 3 adorate. Hiph. kiss : c. hx of wings of cherubim gently touching 
Ez. 3 13 . But Hu. regards vb. in our Ps. as from other stem pm with sup- 
posed mng. lay hold of, handle, which is elsewhere in Heb. only as Qal ptc. 
pi. cstr. ntfp ipm equipped with bow I C. 12 2 2 C. 17 17 (possibly also Ps. 78 s , 
BDB.); so here submit yourselves sincerely, " fuget euch aufrichtig" ; and 
thus he explains (g dpd^aade, "S apprehendite ; so Ew., Hi., Reuss. — "13] dub. 
mng. son (£>, AE., Maimonides, Ges., De W., Pe., Ba., and most moderns), 
elsw. only Pr. 312.2.2 ( a passage very late, full of Aramaisms) ; absence of 
article and use of p v. 7 insuperable objections, and no reference to the king 
in this str., the following as well as preceding context referring to Yahweh. 
Rd. f nb n. cleanness : of hands Ps. i8 21 - 25 (= 2 S. 22 21 - 25 ) Jb. 9 30 22 30 ; so Aq., 
2, % here worship in purity, possibly reading 133 || mjn3, PIKT3; <3 dpd^aade 
iraideias, VL njd s in iSop rest upon a different text. Ba. thinks the & para- 
phrases in reference to Law, for it translates in the same way mm j?Di? Is. 30 9 . 



24 PSALMS 

Possibly -o of the Law in Ps. 19 9 suggested this reference. -rratSda. of © 
might rest upon id^d or be a paraphrase as 5T. Lag. rds. id^d as v. 8 , ^D of -\Din 
having fallen out after lp of tptrj, so Now. Marti suggests *o as abbr. mjn:j 
and then lpafa as variant of iSm ; so Prince ; but these radical changes are un- 
necessary. Dy., Oort, IIu. : >3 Iptfj has little in its favour. — jd] lest: final 
clause with subj. r |JN\ (5 inserts Ktfptos. J JD conj. always neg. with impf. 
subj. 2 12 7 3 13 46 ;?<?* 38 17 50 22 59 12 91 12 . — TON'nV] 1 coord, impf. || subjunctive 
dependent on jd. — !p"i] ace. of reference Ri., Ba., Du., ace. of limitation Hi., 
De., local ace. on the xvay. <3 £$■ 65ov Sikcuos = n,-jn* yyi. This might be inter- 
pretation, but it makes the line a trimeter, and gives a complete and excel- 
lent parall. ">3 »B*n cstr. before prep. Ges.§ 13 °- W. f non vb. Qal seek refuge 
in: c. 3, always in ^ in God 2™ 5 12 7 2 u 1 16 1 i8 8 - 81 (= 2 S. 22 881 ) 25 20 
312.20 34 9.28 37 40 57 2 6411 7I i n8«-9 1418 144 2 ; a to be supplied in thought 
at least 17 7 ; q^DJD Sx3 36 s 57 2 ; "vms v»Oa 61 5 ; vdjd nnn 91 4 (= Ru. 2 1 ' 2 ); 
apart from i/' seldom used : Sx3 Ju. 9 16 Is. 30 2 ; in Zion Is. 14 32 ; in gods 
Dt. 32 s7 (poem); in God Is. 57 18 Nu. i 7 Pr. 30 5 14 82 (without 2); 1 oeta Zp. 
3 12 . f npna «. m. also common in i/' of God as refuge of His people 14 6 46 s 
61 4 62 s - 9 7 1 7 73 28 9i 2 - 9 94 22 142 6 Pr. 14 26 Je. 17 17 Jo. 4 16 ; so rocks for conies 
Ps. 104 18 ; falsehood as refuge Is. 28 15 - n ; from rain and storm Is. 4 6 25* 
Jb. 2 4 8 . 

PSALM III., 4STR.4 8 . 

Ps. 3 is a morning prayer ; the first in the order of the Davidic 
prayer book. The poet exclaims at the number of his adversaries 
and their denying salvation to him from God (v. 2-3 ) ; asserts that 
Yahweh was his shield and had answered him (v. 4 " 5 ). He had 
slept without fear sustained by Yahweh (v. 6-7 ), Who had smitten 
all his enemies, and was his salvation (v. 8 " 9 ). 

VAHWEH, how many are mine adversaries! 

Many are rising up against me ; 

Many are saying of me, 

There is no salvation for him. 
DUT Thou art a shield about me, 

My glory and the lifter-up of my head. 

Unto Yahweh I called with my voice, 

And He answered me from His holy mountain. 
T LAID me down and slept; 

I awaked, for He kept sustaining me. 

I am not afraid of myriads of people, 

Which round about were arrayed against me. 
T70R Thou hast smitten all my enemies, 

The teeth of the wicked Thou hast broken of! 

To Thee Yahweh belongeth my salvation ; 

And upon Thy people rests Thy blessing. 



PSALM III. 25 

The Ps. was in © (in 1 ? v. Intr. §27) and M (niDTD v. Intr. §31). The 
title mentions an event in the life of David which in many respects suits the 
experience of the poet. His derision as one forsaken by God 2 S. i6 7-8 , 
the danger by night 2 S. 17 1 8 i-, the myriads of people 2 S. 15 13 , 17 11 , and his 
high and honourable position. The Ps. certainly expresses the experience of a 
monarch, or some chief of the people, whose blessing was wrapt up in his 
salvation v. 9 and whose enemies were a myriad, in arms against him v. 7 . He 
is a Davidic chief far from the holy hill of Zion. Yahweh has answered him 
v. 6 and smitten his enemies v. 8 . The language and style of the Ps. are simple 
and of the best type. There is no reference to other scripture unless possibly 
to Gen. 15 1 (E) in the imagery of the shield; but though the word is the 
same, the construction is different. The expression " sacred hill " is used in 
preex. writings. The use of rptf v. 7 in the sense of set in battle array, is 
elsewhere Is. 22". The Ps. is one of the earliest, and cannot well be later 
than the period of the monarchy, when it was exposed to the attack of the 
minor surrounding nations. It would suit well the situation of Jehoshaphat 
2 Ch. 20. But, as this is only given in Chr. and not in the parallel of K., it is 
probable that many other historical experiences, such as that in our Ps., are 
not recorded in the condensed narratives of the historians. The Ps. gives 
individual experience, but this became characteristic for the nation, and so 
the Ps. was adapted to common use, although the language was left in its 
individual form. 

Str. I. 2-3. The poet vividly describes adversaries in four 
synth. trimeters as many, as rising up against him, as saying of him, 
and what they say, There is no salvation for him'] he does not 
possess it, and there is no prospect of his ever having it. 

Str. II. 4-5. The antistr., in four synth. trimeters, contrasts 
his real experience with the actions and words of the adversaries : 
Yahweh a shield about me~\ antith. v. 2a ; my glory and the lifter up 
of my head], that is, the one in whom I glory, and the one who 
has exalted my head in victory over adversaries, antith. v. 25 ; — 
Unto Yahweh I called] in oft-repeated pleading, aloud with my 
voice] antith. v. 3 *; He answered me] as an historical fact, the 
climax, antith. v. 36 . — From His holy mountain] from Zion {v. 
2 6 ) ; salvation has come in response to my prayer and I am in 
possession of it. 

Str. III. 6-7 has two synth. couplets. The poet had not 
been in such peril and anxiety as his adversaries supposed. He 
had not been wakeful during the night : far otherwise, he says, / 
laid me down], calm and undisturbed ; and slept] ; and when I 
had sufficient refreshment, / awaked, for], all night long Yahweh 



26 PSALMS 

kept sustaining me]. Under such an experience of the support of 
Yahweh, / am not afraid, even of myriads of people. The poet 
is a king, these myriads are enemies who have come up against 
him in war ; they are foreign people in very great numbers. 
They are round about], so numerous are they, they surround the 
king and his army. — they were arrayed'] his adversaries put 
these myriads in battle array against him. 

8 a. O rise up, Yahweh, Save ?ne, my God~] appeal to Yahweh 
to rise up to activity : a gloss, giving the plea of the people of 
Israel in troublous times, when surrounded by myriads of enemies, 
and when they were in a less calm and confident frame of mind 
than the author of the Ps. 

Str. IV. 8i>-9. The antistr. gives the well-grounded reason for 
the calm confidence expressed in the previous str. Yahweh had 
already given victory and wrought salvation. Thou hast smitten 
all ?nine enemies] they have been defeated in battle ; that is a 
reason why he has had a calm and refreshing sleep v. 6 " ; — The 
teeth of the wicked Thou hast broken off], so severely have they 
been smitten, that they are no longer able to bite. This is the 
reason for the assurance that God kept sustaining him all night 
long, v. 66 . — To Thee belongeth my salvation] Yahweh was his pro- 
tector, and it was His affair to save him. Therefore he was not 
afraid of the myriads of enemies, v. 7a . — Upon Thy people rests 
Thy blessing] ; What matters it then if the enemies are arrayed 
in arms against them, v. 76 ? Yahweh's blessing not only saves them 
from evil, but bestows upon them every good that is needful. 

2-3. nn] adv. X how exclam. as 8 2 - 10 2i 2 31 20 36 s 66 8 842 92 s 104 24 1 19 s7 - 108 
'33 1 ' l I 39 17, 17 » i n indirect questions 39 6 , why 42 s - 12 - 12 43 s - 6 52 s . — «n] Qal 
pf. 3 pi. y/X 331 be many in numbers, of enemies j 2 25 19 38' 20 69 s , works of 
Yahweh 104 24 , be much in quantity 4 8 . — nx] n. pi. sf. i.p. % -is n. m. sg. 
coll., adversaries 44 11 74 10 78 42 - 61 107 2 , pi. J 2 I3 5 27 s - 12 44 s - 8 60 14 (= 108 14 ) 8l 16 

8 9 24.43 IQ5 24 Io6 U II2 8 n9 189. 157 ,3^ agst Qod 78 s5 97 s . — D^ DnDfc] ptCS. 

of continual action Dr.& 135 . — X ^ "* CN ] usually say to II 1 16 2 (= 140 7 ) 35 s 
40 16 (?) 42 10 50 12 52 2 54 2 66 8 75 5 122 1 ; but also of, about, concerning j 3 41 6 
71 10 91 2 . — "'f?^] + paraphrase for personal pronoun me JPSV. so j s 7 3 n 1 17 18 

2 6» 318 348 35 8.7.12 4I 5 54 6 ^2.5 02 2. 6 6 616 69I 9 Jl™ 86 2 88 15 94 17 I03 1 - 2 - 22 
I04 1 - 35 109^ Il6 7 ll 9 25.129. 167 I2 o 2 -6 1308.6 I4I 8 I42 5. 8 143II. 12 146 1 ; *\VD2 

thee 121 7 , v^ ; d: he 25 18 105 18 109 31 , ucdj we 33 20 124 7 {v. BD^., Br. JBL. 
1897, l 7 s q0- — r^J n « cstr - W* t (0 nothing, naught, seldom, ]\t<D as nothing 



PSALM III. 27 

39 6 73 2 » ( 2 ) cs ^ r - or WRL h s ^ s - frequent in sense of denial of thing, % sq. ? of 
possession j 3 34 10 55 20 119 165 146 3 v. BZ>B. — nnjntjH] n. f., fuller form nyw> 
ancient case ending (K6. 111 § 124 ( 3 ) Ges.S 90 ^ 2 ), Dr.§ 182 ° 5 -) not used with gram- 
matical mng. but euphonic to retract accent before iS. % ^'^\ n. f. [-y/yw"] 
(1) salvation from God j 3 - 9 14 7 (— 53 7 ) 22 2 35 s 62 2 67 s 69 30 70 5 (= njwn 
40 17 ) 7s 22 80 3 91" 96 2 98 s - 3 106 4 ii9 123 - 155 - 166 - 174 140 8 , with vbs. of rejoicing 
c. a 9 15 13 6 3 5 9 , '«« \-iSn 88 2 (dub.). W> t» Dt. 32 15 Ps. 89 27 , cf. 62 s - 7 , pi. 
saving acts 42 6 - 12 43 s 116 13 . (2) victory wrought by God for His people 
Ex. 15 2 Is. 12 2 Hb. 3 8 Pss. 20 6 2i 2 - 6 68 20 n8 14 - 15 - 21 149 4 , pi. 18 51 28 s 44 s 
74 12 . The cognate yvfr see 18 3 , njntfn 33 17 BDi?. — D^nS»<a] is gloss; makes 
line too long and is improbable in $9. <3 £v r£ 0e<j avrov = t? DTiSlG shows 
that some codd. inserted the divine name before, others after v?. — 4. nnxi] 
emphatic is sufficiently definite in reference to Yahweh without need of mm 
which is gloss, making line too long. — % pD] shield carried by warrior for 
defence 76* ; of "» as warrior 35 2 ; fig. of king 89 19 , rulers 47 10 , elsw. of 
Yahweh's defence of His people j* 7 11 i8 3 - «• 36 28 7 33 20 59 12 84 10 - 12 115 9 - 10 - n 
119 114 144 2 . — Hjn] about me % *ipa always with sfs., here of shield ; 139 11 of 
light; 72 15 1 38 s on behalf of : other mngs. though more fundamental not in 
\p BZ>B. — H^a] my glory, the one in whom I glory, cf. omaa 106 20 . — 
Dn .v?] Hiph. ptc. on I with e>»n elsw. 27 s no 7 {v. <p 1J >). — 5. ^p] ace. of 
closer definition, with my voice (most) as I42 2 - 2 cf. 77 s - 2 . Hi., Bo., Hu. regard 
it as giving vb. double subj., active member coming first. The emph. position 
of "hyp is without good reason. The lines rhyme in ■>_ and it is prob. *yip 
originally came last in line. — tnpN Qal impf. freq. oft repeated calling with 
the result expressed by 1 consec. impf. > }W*}. aorist single act. — % top] 
(1) usually in \p, cry, call out for help to God 1478 (ravens), in prayer, abs. 
4 2 20 10 22 3 27 7 34 7 56 10 69* 81 8 102 3 116 2 (?) 119 145 120 1 138 3 ; c. ace. sf. 17 6 
3ii8 5 o 15 86 5 - 7 88 10 9i 15 ii9 146 130* 141 1 H5 18 - 18 ; mm i4«(=omSn 53 s ) i8 4 - 7 , 
m Ii8 5 ; c. \ pers. 57 s 141 1 , "™ J 5 4 4 28 1 30 9 55 17 61 3 66 17 86 3 99 s , in worship 
Otfa 'p 79 6 80 19 105 1 n6 4 - 13 - 17 , cf. DS7 *¥nj> 99 s . (2) call unto c. hu one to 
another 42 s . (3) call, summon c. ace. 50 1 , c. hn 50 4 , c. h'j 105 16 . (4) call, 
name 49 12 89 s7 147 4 . — % nj "] (0 usually God's answer to prayer, abs. 38 16 
c. ace. pers. 13 4 20 2 - 7 22 22 6o 7 (= 108 7 ) 69 14 - 17 81 8 99 s 118 21 119 26 143 1 , 
%«y VJD 69 18 102 3 143 7 , after H"\p j 5 4 2 17 6 20 10 22 3 86 7 91 15 99 s 102 3 118 5 
119 145 120 1 138 3 , other vbs. 18 42 27 7 34 s 55 s - 20 86 1 . (2) respond, c. ace. 
pers. 18 36 (?) 119 4 * 2 , ace. rei. 65°. — 6. y«] emph. antith. nnxi v. 4a . — 
Viaatf] pf. aorist sq. l consec. impf. result : mt^jn cohort, for jussive 1st p. 
1 astf vb. lie down to sleep j 6 4°, in ease 68 14 , prostrate in peril 57 s , in death 
41 9 , in the grave 88 6 . — XV^l y b- go to sleep, be asleep, sleep j 6 4 9 of "> 44 s - 
121 4 , in death 13 4 cf. J ?? ; ; adj. '•> 78 65 . — *nl*V»n] Hiph. pf. aorist J y/V\> only 
Hiph. awake from sleep j 6 73 20 139 18 , of death 17 15 , "» subj. 35 23 44 24 59 s . — 
y3DD^] Qal impf. freq. oft repeated, sustain during the night Dr. 30 " 1104336 . 
X 1JM Qal (1) trans, lean or lay hand upon 88 8 . (2) God upholds, sustains 
His people j 6 37 17, 24 51 14 54 6 119 116 145 14 , pass. ptc. in 8 (Yahweh's Law) 
112 8 the mind. Niph. support oneself 71 6 .™ 7. ntm *r] Qal impf. present 



28 PSALMS 

%c. p afraid of 3! 27 1 65° 91 6 112 7 119 120 . — rvo:n] cstr. pi. fnaan n. f. 
myriad c. f 91 7 , Gn. 24 60 Nu. io 86 (J) Lv. 26 s Dt 32 80 33 s (?) Jil2oM 
Is. i8 7 - 8 21 12 29 5 Ct. 5 10 Ez. i6 7 - 17 Mi. 6 7 , cf. denom. Pual Ps. 144 13 .— 
% o>] /«>//* in \p (1) sg. coll. M* /«>//* 0/ 6W 3 9 14 47 (= 536- 7 ) 18 28 28 s 
2911. 11 3312 35 i8 ^13 so 4. 7 59 i2 6o5 62 9 68 s - » 72* 8 - 4 73 10 77 16 - 21 78 1 - 20 - 62 - 62 - 71 
79 18 80 6 8i 9 - 12 - 14 83* 85 s - 7 - 9 89 16 - 20 94 6 - 14 95 7 - 10 ioo 3 I05 24 - 26 - 43 io6 4 - 40 - 48 
107 32 in 6 - 9 113 8 u6 14 - 18 125 2 135 1214 136 16 I44 15 - 15 i 4 8 14 - 14 149 4 , the future 
generation 22 32 102 19 , so people of king no 3 ; in no case hostile to king or 
God, and therefore it cannot be interpreted in v. 7 of that portion of Israel 
hostile to David. (2) sg. coll. of foreign nations i8 44 - 44 47 10 74 18 94 s 105 13 
so dj? v iT3 22 7 and j 7 of hostile foreign people, also 144 2 ('D? for D^DJf) 18 48 
as J5, Aq., 3, K. (3) sg. of single people 45 11 , prob. also 45 13 114 1 [d>">xS dv 
74 14 dub.). (4) pi. d^dj; always foreign nations 7 9 18 48 33 10 45 6 - 18 47 4 - 10 56 s 
67 s 68 31 - 81 89 51 96 s - 7 - 10 - 18 98 s 105 20 106 34 , often conceived as taking part ulti- 
mately in worship of 1 66 8 87 s 99 1 102 28 , subj. vr»jn 9 12 rnn 57 10 67 4 - 4 - 6 - 6 108 4 , 
jp-nn 77 15 105 1 , D*IFI S3 47 2 49 2 96 s 97 s 99 s . — "^ ; n] is unnecessary and dub. 

— 3"OD] adv. round-about, emph. ^5? rr] phr. a.X. Qal real pf. indef. subj^ 
they have arrayed against me, cf. Is. 22", best given in English as passive. 
The context indicates an army composed of myriads set or put in battle array. 

— 8. HMp] Qal imv. cohort., urgent entreaty. — vrV" 1,1 ] Hiph. imv. sf. 1 sg. 

— V* ['-''J Niph. be saved, placed in freedom (1) from evils by God 8o 4 - 8,20 
I19 117 c. p 18 4 , (2) in battle and so be victorious 33 1 *. Hiph. (1) deliver^ 
save in peril 36 7 72 18 c. S pers. 72 4 Ii6 6 from evils 18 42 , of heroic man, frequent 
in early Lit. ; usually of God, who saves His people from external evils 28 9 
69 s6 106 8 118 25 , or the pious among them f 6 5 7 2 - " 12 2 17 7 18 28 34 19 37 40 54 s 
55 17 $j* 69 2 71 28 76 10 86 2 16 106 47 109* ii9 94 - 146 138 7 145 19 , the king 20 7 - 10 . 
God is saviour 106 21 and is with His people to save them 31 8 ; Israel prays, 
O save with Thy right hand, 60 7 = 108 7 cf. Is. 59 1 . That from which one is 
saved c. p 22 M 34 7 44 s 59 s 106 10 io7 18 - 19 109 31 ; there is no other salvation, 
the sword saves not 44 7 ; (2) save from moral troubles or sin ; not in ^ or OT. 
except Ez. 36 M 37 s3 ; (3) give victory, of man 31 17 44 4 , God 98 1 . — n\?n *o] 
the reason with Hiph. pf. 2 m. action just completed. — V^] Hiph- smite 
(1) with a single blow j 8 , if tiS original, as La. 3 s0 but it is not found elsw. 
in \f/, it is not in <S which rds. fmralus = °fi?. Both are glosses, |$ to make 
the enemies into later religious enemies; therefore the smiting is the defeat 
of enemies as in battle as 78^ 135 10 136 17 . — ♦a**" 4 ??] Qal ptc. pi. sf. 1 p. J [:tn] 
Qal pf. only ^np^N Ex. 23 s2 (E) elsw. ptc. enemy (1) sg. of nation 9 7 74 s - 10 - 18 
89^ 106 10 colk f 31 9 42 10 43 2 55 4 61 4 64 s 143 8 , individual only 55 18 (but cf. 
55 4 ) ^s is always coll. 13 s - 6 18 18 41 12 (possibly all should be pointed ^_) 
B&nrp 3*H 8 8 = 44 17 ; (2) pi. preceded by Vd 38 6 11 18 1 21 9 mm *a»n 37^ 
Y?Dn >a>N 45 6 , elsw. simply general 9 4 17 9 i8 4 - 88 - «• 49 25 2 - 19 27 2 - 6 30 2 31 16 35 19 
38 20 41 s - 6 54 9 56 10 59 2 66 8 68 2 - K - 24 69 s - 19 71 10 72* 78 58 80 7 81 16 S3 9 89 11 - 48 - 62 
92 io.io I02 9 ioo 42 IIO i.2 II9 98 ^ 132 18 138 7 139 22 143 9 u . — rn|tf >;r] phr. 
o.X. cf. 58 7 La. 3 16 also comparison of their teeth with weapons Ps. 57 s cf. Pr. 30 14 , 
other phr. (S>') D'JT pin gnashed teeth upon 35 16 37 12 112 10 La. 2 16 cf. Jb. 16 9 



PSALM IV. 29 

DmcS *pa 124 6 . — 9. nin^ 1 ?] rd. mm :p to get the missing word of measure 

^DJT^y] <t§ has *pj? Sj?> which gives us the missing accent for measure. 

In both lines rpfi is understood in the sense of present and abiding experi- 
ence. — Jno->3] n. f. (1) blessing of God j> 9 21 4 24 s 129 8 133 3 , of the people in 
recognition of good men 109 17 ; (2) source of blessing, seed of righteous 37 26 , 
king 21 7 ; (3) blessing, prosperity $>£, 



PSALM IV., 4 str. 4 4 . 

Ps. 4 is an evening prayer. The poet is confident that the 
God of his right has answered his prayer (v. 2-3 ). He tells his 
adversaries that Yahweh hath shewn extraordinary kindness to 
him, and warns them to tremble and not sin (v. 4 * 5 ). He then 
urges his followers to offer the right sacrifices, trust in Yahweh, 
and pray for prosperity and the priestly benediction (v. 6-7 ); then 
affirms his own gladness and peace and goes to sleep in safety 
(v.^ 9 ). 

VAfHEN I call, answer me, O God of my right; 

In my distress Thou hast made room ; shew me favour (by hearing) my prayer. 

Ye sons of men, how long shall my honour be a reproach, 

Will ye love a vain thing, seek after a lie? 
"PUT know that Yahweh hath shewn extraordinary kindness, 

Yahweh heareth when I call unto Him. 

Tremble and sin not (ye sons of men). 

Say (it) in your heart, (lying) upon your bed, and be still. 
(VE sons of mankind) sacrifice right sacrifices, 

And trust unto Yahweh, ye many. 

Keep saying: " O that He would shew us prosperity, 

Lift the light of Thy countenance upon us." 
VAHWEH, Thou hast put gladness in my heart 

More than that of the season when their corn and new wine were abundant. 

In peace at once will I lay me down and I will sleep, 

For Thou makest me dwell apart, in safety. 

Ps. 4 was originally in IB as a mate to Ps. 3, an evening prayer following 
naturally a morning prayer. It was then taken up into jftfl and JB1& and assigned 
for rendering with the music of stringed instruments mj\U3. (See Intr. § 39.) 
The date of the Ps. depends upon a variety of considerations : (1) The 
high priestly benediction Nu. 6 24-26 is familiar to the author, for two of its 
clauses melt together in yiD tin hdj v. 7& ; and DlSa»a v. 9 ** is suggested by it 
This blessing belongs to the sources of P, and was familiar, especially in 
priestly circles, long before the Exile. (2) The blessing of Moses Dt. 33 is 
familiar to the author in the phrs. pw ^m? v. 6 = Dt. 33 19 ; DPWni djjt v. 86 ; 



30 PSALMS 

»j3»nn nssS TiaS v. 96 = Dt. 33 28 . These favour an early date. (3) The 
language is of best classic type. tt"N >J3 v. 3 men of high degree in antith. with 
onN U3 men of low degree, elsw. in Pss. 49 s 62 10 ; nDn nScn v. 4 elsw. Ps. 17 7 = 
N^Son Ps. 3 i 2i . If nSen were from y/n^D a dependence upon Ex. 8 18 9 4 1 1 7 (J) 
would appear ; but this derivation is improbable. izhi icn v. 6 is a phr. of D, 
here only in \f/. There are two resemblances to previous Ps., cf. v. 7a with 3 s , 
and v. 9a with 3 r,a ; but these are not sufficient to establish common author 
or date. The language favours a date not earlier than Je. (4) The historical 
situation is entirely different from that of Ps. 3, where a monarch was in peril 
from hostile peoples. Here a ruler, probably not a king, is sustained by the 
people, but oppressed by men of station and influence. By lying, and empty, 
baseless misrepresentation, they have changed his position of honour to one 
of reproach. This docs not suit the experience of David during the rebellion 
of Absalom ; for the adversaries were not men of rank. These were with 
David, but the common people were against him, having been seduced by 
Absalom 2 S. 15 1 " 6 ; and David was not in fact in peace and safety 2 S. 1 7 24 — 18. 
The experience of the Ps. is that of a reformer. The language of the Ps. 
favours a priest such as Amariah 2 C. 19 11 , Jehoiada 2 K. 1 1, Hilkiah 2 K. 22 ; 
but all of these excepting the last are too early and none of them were prob- 
ably sustained by the people over against the princes. The situation is well 
given in Ezr. 4, where Zerubbabel and Jeshua were opposed at the court of 
Persia by lies and slanders, which had no basis in fact; and their honour was 
clouded by such attacks and their work really stayed. This would suit all the 
conditions of the Ps. 

Str. I. 2. The poet prays that when he calls, Yahweh will answer 
him. It is just because Yahweh is the God of my right] the God 
who vindicates his cause against his adversaries and establishes 
his right, that he can so address Him and pray with confidence 
to Him. This is fortified in the syn. line by past experience ; 
the God of his right has vindicated his right, when in distress, 
and has made room for him. Distress is here a being constrained 
into narrow limits ; pressed from rightful freedom, and shut in 
on every side. The antith. is the removal of such restraint and 
pressure, giving room and freedom. The request for answer is 
strengthened into shew me favour (by hearing) my prayer. " The 
word suggests the free bestowal of favour rather than the exercise 
of forgiving clemency" (Kirk); or pity for sufferers. — 3. The 
call upon God is followed by antith. remonstrance with his adver- 
saries, who refuse his right and have brought him into distress. 
They are sons of men\ men of rank, of high degree, and so have 
had the power to reduce his honour || right, to reproach, || distress. 



PSALM IV. 31 

They have done this because they are themselves false and dis- 
honourable men. — Will ye love a vain thing f\ empty and without 
reality, more specific — seek after a lie]. The reproach that they 
have brought upon him is thus branded as false, without founda- 
tion, and a lie. The charge is concrete and specific ; " false- 
hood " (RV., Dr., JPSV) is too general ; " leasing " (PBV, AV.) is 
obsolete for lie. 

Str. II. 4. In the antistr., the poet gives his adversaries to know, 
in the first syn. couplet, that Yahweh hath shewn extraordinary 
kindness] as 17 7 31 22 renewing the experience of v. 2 . J^, though 
sustained by Vrss. ancient and modern and most critics with the 
mng. : hath separated, set apart, or distinguished, for Himself, the 
pious, godly man, is not so well suited to context and is not sus- 
tained by good usage. — Yahweh heareth when I call unto Him] 
constant experience resuming v. 2a . 5. In the second syn. couplet, 
he warns them that had brought his honour to reproach, to 
trejnble and not sin~\ by taking the steps necessary to realise their 
thoughts, make them effective in conduct. Over against their 
loving a vain thing and seeking out a lie against him, the poet 
warns them ; say (what you have to say) in your heart, to your- 
selves, in secret, while lying upon your bed, and be still] give no 
expression to your wicked thoughts. 

Str. III. The poet now turns to his discouraged people. 6. They 
are sons 0/ mankind] men of low degree over against the sons of 
men, men of high degree v. 3 ; the measure as well as the antith. 
requires this insertion. He exhorts them to sacrifice right sacri- 
fices] while he is calling on the God of his right, v. 2a . These were 
the normal sacrifices, in accordance with law and custom (Du., 
Ba\), rather than " of righteousness " offered in a right spirit (Pe., 
De., Hu., Kirk) or symb. of righteous acts (Aug, Chrysostom) or 
which justify, cf. v. 2 , Genebr. 7. He reminds his followers that they 
are many in numbers, and they should trust unto Yahweh, Who 
has made room for him in the past and Who shews favour to him 
in his prayer v. 2 *. He urges them to keep saying] expressing the 
wish, the strong desire, "O that He would shew us prosperity "], so 
JPSV, antith. to the reproach that has come upon their chiefs, cf. 
v. 3a . This is better suited to the context than the question " Who 
will shew us?" of EV S . They should beg the bestowal of the 



32 PSALMS 

divine benediction, Lift the light of Thy countenance upon us, in 
place of the vain thing and the lie, that the adversaries have 
sought out against him. The poet is thinking of the blessing of 
the high priest, Nu. 6 24-26 (P), which wishes that the light of Yah- 
weh's face may shine upon His people with favour, bestowing 
peace and prosperity. This blessing the Psalmist seeks directly 
from Yahweh Himself, so 6f~, cf. 44* 89 16 . 

Str. IV. The antistr. asserts the poet's gladness, peace, and 
safety, over against the prayers of his people in the previous str., 
in introverted parallel clauses. Yahweh , Thou hast put gladness 
in my hearty the response to the prayer v. 76 . This joy is greater 
than that of those who in harvest season rejoice that their corn 
and new zvine were abundant]. This is in response to the peti- 
tion v. 7a . He resolves to lay him down and go to sleep at once, in 
peace, in the experience of that same trusting unto Yahweh which 
he has commended to his followers v. 66 . He enjoys the calm 
peace which is imparted in the priestly benediction for which 
they had asked. Thou makest me dwell apart in safety'] response 
to the offering of right sacrifices by his people v. 6 *. In calm, 
peaceful trust he goes to sleep upon his bed with this evening 
prayer upon his lips. 

2. 'MTQa] Qal inf. cstr. sf. 1 p., temporal clause ; imv. Qal sf. 1 p. in apodosis 
UJi? v. j 5 . — ifryt vV?«] phr. a.X. God of my right, who rights me, vindicates 
my right, cf. v«" >hSn 18 47 ; hdq 'N 59 11 - 18 . J p??. n.m. : (1) what is right, 
just,'* •hijfB right paths 23 s , x >r\2\ 4 6 51 21 Dt. 33 19 ; (2) righteousness in 
government (a) of rulers 58 s 94 16 , (d) of laws 1 I9 7 - 62 - 76 - 106 - 188 - 144 - 16 °- 164 - 172 , 
(c) of king 45 6 72 2 Is. n 4 - 6 , (d) of God's attitude as sovereign: personified 
agent 85 11, 12 - 14 , foundation of His throne 89 15 = 97 2 , in His government 
9 9 °5 6 96 13 = 98 9 , administration of justice 7 18 48 11 50 6 = 97°, vindication 
of His people 9 5 35 24, ^ ^pis t6n 4 2 , it is everlasting 119 142 . (3) right- 
eousness, justice in a cause 35 27 Is. 59S '3 vdv 7 9 , '3 Sdj 18 21 , '3 3*e>n v. 25 , 
'X yev 17 1 , '* K»SV1 37 6 ; (4) Tightness in speech 52 5 ; (5) ethically right 
'7 16 45 8 J e - 2218 Ho. io 12 W.L. x ncp 119 121 , 'x S^d 15 2 ; (6) righteous- 
ness as vindicated in deliverance 40 10 119 128 ; (7) p-rs nj?c ; gates of the 
God Zedek u8 19 ; cf. Is. I 26 Je. 31 23 50 7 . — -155] emphatic position; 2 
temporal c. yt for usual J ~tt n. in \j/ straits, distress yi 1 60 13 108 13 119 143 , 
alw. elsw. either h -rca 18 7 66 14 106 44 107°- 18 - 19 - 28 = h "t| d»3 59 17 102 3 , 
or *•? ->x *3 31 10 69I 8 : therefore here also »S— wa, the transposition of »S a 
copyist's error. Moreover, this construction improves the measure, for the 
superfluous tone disappears. — n3rnn] Hiph. pf. 2 sg. hast made room, only 



PSALM IV. 33 

here in this fig. sense, but cf. 18 37 . The pf. prob. refers to past experience, 
Dr.§ 9 . It is tempting with Bo.§ 939 ^> 947( s r > to think of a precative pf. here; 
but, as Dr.§ 20 , there is lack of evidence of such a usage in Heb., v. Ges. § i° 6 ( 3i ); 
although Ew.§ 2236 sustains it. — >jan] Qal imv. sf. I p. \ ^J\v\ (i) shew favour, 
be gracious ; so usually of God as bestowing redemption from enemies, evils 
and sins c. ace. 4* 6 3 9 14 25 16 26 11 2? 30 11 31 10 41 s - n 51 3 56 2 57 s - 2 59 s 86 3 - 16 , 
all IB; elsw. 672 102 1 * 11988.182 i2 3 2 - 3 - 3 ; not use d in It or a exc. abs. 77 10 ; 
(2) of God in bestowal of favours in more general sense : 'jan !pvV>fl preg. 
with two ace. be gracious to me (in giving) Thy Law 119' 29 ; (3) of man in 
dealing with poor, alw. ptc, abs. \i}T\ 37 s1 ' * II2 5 , c. S 109 1 ' 2 . Poel direct 
favour toward io2 1& as Pr. 14 21 . Hithp. Sn t^nriN seek or implore favour of 
God 30 9 142 2 . — ypc'i] makes line too long; is a gloss, being implied in 
pregnant clause; cf. 119 29 . — nSen] v. Intr. § 1. — 3. \ Vh* \j3] pi. cstr., 
vocative, n. of relation c. coll. sg. B*K. This phr. in \p elsw. only antith. 
D-tN »33 49 3 62 D , where men of high degree are contrasted with men of low 
degree : so here, esp. if we insert din >J3 in v. 6 . In fact V">t< in \p usually 
means man as a self-respecting individual with a certain amount of dignity 
62 4 , having talent 105 17 , sometimes pious 25 12 34 13 109 16 II2 1 - 5 , sometimes an 
enemy or wicked 31 21 37 7 38 15 92 7 . % d^n \)3 in \p alw. mankind n 4 i2 2 - 9 
14 2 (= 5 3 3 ) 21 11 31 20 33 13 36 s 45 3 66 5 89 48T 90 8 107 s - 15 - 2L 31 115 10 145 12 . In 
57 5 58 2 it must have the special sense of &"N *J3 if subj., but this is improb. 
It is obj., and so has same mng. as all other passages. — % TO— ip] how long 
as 74 9 (?) 79 5 89 47 . — nos] antith. with noSs, only here \}/. 1133 in the mng. 
honour, reputation, character of man is elsewhere only 2 Ch. 26 18 Pr. 20 3 21 * 
25 27 Ec. io 1 ; but cf. 7 6 . — h~\ before T\rhs is preg., implying mn become. — 

1 ns^p] n. f. in its original sense of insult, not in \f/, but as reproach; elsw. 
35 2 6 (44I6 69 s - 20 71 13 IO9 29 ; cf. 89 51 . <g £ws 7r6r€ papvK&pSioi ha tl = 
naS 3S >n33, though sustained by Houb., Genebr., We., is better explained as 
due to a mistake quite common, esp. in Egyptian Aramaic script, of 3 for 
3; J incliti mei after Aq. oi £v8o£oL jxov n33 = H33} \\$> my honourable men. 
But MT followed by 2, {£, J2> suits rhythm and context. — p3HKn] Qal impf. 

2 pi. 3DN, fuller archaic form to get full-toned penult before monosyl.; obj. 
pn (v. 2 1 ) : cf. II 5 52 s - 6 109 17 for loving other forms of evil. — 3T3 1#p3fl] 
phr. a.X. Vb. Piel impf. 2 pi. cf. jn '3 Ps. 17 11 . J 3T3 /*>, falsehood 4 s , 5 7 40 5 
58* 62 5 - 10 . — 4. >h -rDn '> nSon] phr. a.X. vb. Hiph. pf. aorist. The line is 
too long in p£, either "> or 'h must be a gloss. But it is the latter, bee. we 
should rd. \ "\pn xSsn as 17 7 31 22 , shew extraordinary kindness. The mis- 
interpretation as -PDn occasioned the addition of ^S; 37 cedd. Ken. 28 De Rossi 
rd. Ktan. Most recent critics, Dy., Che., Gr., We., Oort, Du. rd. npn, but 
differ as to "h non or h nDn or >S iDn. The use of iDn is so important 
in \p that it seems best to give the complete usage here. t("* Dn ) vb. denom. 
only Hithp. shew oneself kind : Ps. 18 26 = 2 S. 22 26 . J ipn n.m. (1) of man 
kindness (a) toward men in doing favours and benefits 141 5 , (b) especially as 
extended to the lowly, needy, and miserable I09 12 - 16 ; (2) of God kindness, 
lovingkindness, in condescension to the needs of His creatures. He is non 

D 



34 PSALMS 

144 2 ; non vfy| 59 18 ; HDn >hSn 59 11 (so<g,lJ, Ew., Hup., De., Pe., Che.,Ba.); 
His is the kindness 62 18 ; it is with Him 130 7 ; specifically (a) in redemption 
frorn enemies and troubles : 2i 8 3i 17 - 22 (= ^4)32 i0 33 2 ' 2 36 s 42 s 44 27 48 10 59' 17 
66 20 85 s 90 14 94 18 107 s - 18 - 21 - 31 143 s - 12 ; men should trust in it 13 6 52 10 ; rejoice 
in it 3 1 8 ; hope in it 33 18 147 11 . (b) in preservation of life from death: 6 6 
86 18 . 0) in quickening spiritual life: 109 26 no"- 76. 88. 124. 149. i59 # ^) in 
redemption from sin : 25" 51 3 . (e) in keeping the covenants with David and 
his dynasty : 18 61 89 29 - 84 . (/) grouped with other divine attributes: DDNi ion 
Pss. 25 10 40 11 - 12 57* 61 8 85 11 89 16 H5 1 i38 2 Gn. 24 s7 (J); POM -iDn an Ex. 34 s 
(J) Ps. 86 15 ; || DDK Pss. 26 s 1 1 7 2 Mi. 7 20 ; || njiDM Pss. 88 12 89 s - * 92 s ; || D'crn 77' 
98 s 103 4 ; eectal ->Dn 101 1 Je. 9 28 ; || np~\v Ps. 36 11 ; -iDm arj 23 s . (£•) The 
kindness of God is (a) abundant: "iDn an abundant, plenteous in kindness 
Nu. 14 18 (J) Ne. 9 17 (Qr.) Jo. 2 18 Jon. 4 2 Ps. 86 6 103 8 (cf. Ex. 34° (J) Ps. 86 15 ) ; 
ri-tDn an Ne. 13 22 Pss. 5 8 69 14 106 7 (®, F, Aq., & to be preferred to MT. 
T7!?n); i^pn a^ La. 3 s2 Ps. 106 45 (Kt., (8 in both preferable), (b) great in 
extent: ^Dn Sru 145 8 ; great as the heavens 57 11 103 11 ; cf. 36 s 108 5 ; the 
earth is full of it ^ 1 19 64 . (c) everlasting: nDn dSi>*S Je. 33 11 I Ch. 16 s4 - 41 
2Ch. 5 13 7 8 - 6 20 21 Ezr.3 11 Pss. ioo 6 106 1 107 1 u8i- 2 - s- 4 - 29 1361-2* (»».). c f. 52 s 
103 17 1 38 s . (d) good: 63 4 69 17 109 21 . (h) pi. mercies, deeds of kindness .• 
the historic displays, mostly late: Pss. 25 s 89 s Is. 63 7 ; promised in Davidic 
covenant Ps. 89 50 ; in general La. 3 22 Ps. 17 7 ; cf. 31 22 4 1 * (sg.) 107 48 . 
J -n?n adj. (1) kind : of man 18' 26 = 2 S. 22 26 ; of nation Ps. 43 1 ; of God, only 
145 17 Je. 3 12 . (2) as n. pious, godly : because kindness, as prominent in the 
godly, comes to imply other attributes and be a designation of the godly 
character, piety; sg. 4 4 12 2 (?) 32 s 86 2 ; Thy pious one 16 10 (Kt. pi.) pi. the 
pious, godly, those of the people who were faithful, devoted to God's service, 
only in \f> and chiefly if not entirely in late Pss. I49 1 - 6 ; His pious ones 30 6 31 24 
37' 28 85 s 97 10 116 16 148 14 149 9 ; Thy pious ones 52 11 79 s 89 20 132 9 145 10 ; My 
pious ones 50 5 ; her (Zion's) pious ones 132 16 . In the Maccabean age <rvpay(»ryr) 
'A<xi8alwv denoted, technically, the party of the pious who opposed the Helleni- 
sation of Judaea. See 1 Mace. 2 42 7 18 2 Mace. 14 6 ; so perhaps Pss. 116 16 
1491-6.9. — 5. 1T _n] i mv . Qal 2 pi. refers to b^m \ja v. 8 J m Qal be agitated, 
quiver, tremble, of foundations of mountains 18 8 , depths of sea 77 17 , of the earth 
77 19 , peoples 99 1 , so here most suitably. (S, 2 dpyt^eo-de = Eph. 4 s6 , 3, be angry, 
AV. is sustained by Is. 28 21 of God's anger and Pr. 29 s of man's. But in these 
cases it is rather the quivering and trembling of passion, which is justifiable; 
and is regarded by many as Hiph. v. BDB. — wanrrSw] two tones, neg. 
Qal impf. pi. 2 m. jussive 1 conj. and not advers. but, as required by interp. of 
&, 3. 3 nolile (peccare) might imply la^n and so give us the missing word of 
this tetrameter. But <S has d \tyere. This may be an interp. to get an obj. for 
now or it may rest upon an original "HP* = J nv^x step, going, for mode of life 
as 17 6 37 31 40 8 44 19 73 2 cf. 17 11 . Probably d-<n p is the missing word which 
must be supplied in thought and might have been omitted by prosaic copyist as 
unnecessary. X sari vb. Qal in \p alw. miss the goal or path of right and duty, 
sin (agst. God): abs. <f 78 s2 , in confession 106 6 ; c. S 78 17 119 11 in con- 



PSALM IV. 35 

fession 41 5 51 6 j c. a of instr. 3Q 2 cf. Jb. 2 10 . Piel in \p only f purify from 
uncleanness 51 9 ; elsw. in this sense Lv. i4 49 - 62 Nu. 19 19 (P). Hiph. bring to 
condemnation or punishment Dt. 24* Is. 29 21 , possibly Ps. 59 13 (insertion in 
text). — oaaaVa nDK]. t aa^a id« phr. a.X. ^, but Dt. 7 17 8 17 9* 18 21 Is. 14 13 47 s 

49 21 j e< 5 '24* I3 22 Zp. il 2 2 15 Cf. HO. 7 2 (?), cf. \ 2^2 "»DM Ps. IO 6 - n - 13 I4 1 

(=53 2 ) 35 25 74 8 > elsw. Gn. 17 17 (P) 27 41 (JE) 1 K. 12 26 Est. 6 6 Ec. 2 1 - 15 
317. is is. 47 io ob. 3 Zc. 12 5 cf. Gn. 8 21 (J) 1 S. 27 1 . t aaVa nan Ps. 15 2 aSa Ec. 
2 15 . The use of aa^ is so important in ^ that the entire usage is given below : 
Jaa^ n.m. the inner, middle or central part : usually of men (1) the inner 
man in contrast with the outer, aaSi nN*tf 73 s6 ; hands 73 13 (La. 3 41 ?); 
speech 28 s 78 18 . (2) the inner man indef. the soul, comprehending mind, 
affections and will ; or in connection with certain vbs. having more specif, 
reference to some one of them 62 9 73 26 86 11 139 23 ; asS noa 86 12 in 1 I S. 7 3 
I2 20.24 j k. 148 2 K. :o 31 2 Ch. 15 15 22 9 31 21 Je. 29 13 Jo. 2 12 j abbr. from phr. 
tsterSaai VSaa characteristic of D. '?a Ps. 84° (?); 'S D}? 77 7 (rd. c. mr\ as 
<S) ; 'Va 20 5 1 S. 13 14 14 7 . (3) specif, ref. to mind (characteristic of aa?) ; 
(a) knowledge: ncan 'h 90 12 (cf. Jb. 9 4 ). (^) thinking, reflection: 73 7 
(77 7 supra <?). (4) specif, ref. to moral character (charact. of 337) : 
'S ntf. H9 7 (?) Dt. 9 5 1 Ch. 29 17 , cf. 2 Ch. 29 34 1 K. 3 6 2 K. io 15 ; Vdfi Ps. 78 72 
ioi 2 Gn. 20 5 - 6 (E) 1 K. 9 4 ; 'S -ia Ps. 24*, cf. "S na 73 1 ; as seat of erring 
95 10 ; as froward ioi 4 ; as seat of pride ioi 5 ; 'V ntppn 95 s . (5) = the man 
himself (mng. charact. of vdi); so here (^r 5 ) and in all uses of phrases with 
33S given above, including 15 2 ; also DaaaS >rv let your heart (you yourselves) 
live (late) 22 27 69 s3 , cf. 119 175 . (6) specif, as seat of the appetites (for which 
usually tfflj) 104 15 ; 'S TJp slay the heart (with food) 104 15 (Ju. I9 8 (?)). 
(7) specif, z.% seat of the emotions and passions (for which usually trsj); of 
trouble 13 3 25 17 73 21 109 16 . (8) seat of courage (for which usually D n ) 31 25 , 
elsw. only Dn. n 25 . — Daa3#D~Sj?] preg. lying upon your bed, % api^p n.m. 
4 5 36 s 41 4 149 5 . — rani] t conj., Qal imv. 2 p. ; % DD1 vb. (1) be silent, still .fi 
30 13 35 15 (prob.) ; (2) be still = perish 31 18 ; c. S resigned to 37 7 62° ( ?) . Poal 
A? quieted, composed 131 2 . — 6. <rj3| maj] Qal imv. 2 pi. The subj. cannot 
be a»N >ja, but their antithesis. That is elsewhere DnN ^3, v. 3 . It was 
omitted by prosaic copyist in text, making measure at fault. % nar vb. slaughter 
sacrifice, espec. for communion meals ; c. ace. of the kind of sacrifice <fi 27 s 
50 14 - 23 107 2 ' 2 116 17 , c. a, 54 s ; all made to God, but of sons and daughters 
offered to idols 106 37 (Qal) 88 (Piel, as usual of such sacrifices). % rOT n.m. sac- 
rifice, esp. of the class, peace offerings (a) for communion meals || nSip, nruD 
40 7 51 18 ; (b) covenant 50 5 , cf. v. 8 ; (c) mtn (vna? thank offerings 107 22 116 17 ; 
(d) njjnn ••nar for festivals 27 s ; (e) phrs. cnSs ''nar 51 19 ; pn| *ria? right, 
normal sacrifices here as Dt. 33 19 Ps. 51 21 ; (/) heathen sacrifices 106 28 . — 
fnvr ?k tfwai] Qal imv. 2 p. phr. 2 K. 18 22 (= Is. 36 7 ) Pss. / 31 7 56 4 86 2 
Pr. 3 5 to God ; to persons Ju. 20 36 ; things Je. 7 4 ; disting. from a naa, v. Ps. 
9 11 ; hy nsa rely upon, v. J/ 15 . This line is also defective. Gr. attaches D^an 
in sense of nobles ; but these were the B»H i}2, v. 3a , and that mng. of Don is 
rare and very late. We might, however, take it in the usual sense of the 



36 PSALMS 

many, the common multitude || d^n \n. The displacement was due to the 
influence of 3 2 upon copyist. — 7. D»"\DK] ptc. pi. verbal force as y i . — WK"V ""d] 
Makkeph should be stricken out ; for there are two tones, not one, if D>ai 
goes with previous line. The ^ might be question : Who can or will shew 
us? expressing discontent and despair; but better as wish, GesJ 151 * 1 ). 
% 3T3 n.m. (i) welfare, happiness, obj. nsn 4I 34 13 Ec. 2 24 3 13 Jb. f (cf. Je. 
29 s2 ), ppa Ps. 122 9 , cf. 34 11 84 12 85 13 , torn ana 23 s , aioa in prosperity 25 13 , 
a^BD afar from happiness 39 s ; (2) ^tW things, sg. coll. 21 4 , obj. j?afc> 104 28 , 
cf. 103 5 , n?d 107 9 ; (3) good, benefit, 11966.122. ^ moral good in antith. to 
P 34 15 37 27 52 5 Dt. 30 l& Is. 5 20 Am. 5 14 - 15 , 31a rwy Ps. h 1 - 3 ( = 53a-*) 37 s - 27 
Ec. 3 12 (?) 7 20 , 3W l"*" 1 pursue good Ps. 38 21 . — npl] a.X. Qal imv. cohort.; 
incorrect for n^3 -y/DDj denom. Di banner, standard, and so wave the same, 
2 ewlarj/xov iroir)<xov. © ia-rj/jLeiudrj, U signatum est = hdj Niph. pf., so 
Genebr., cf. 60 6 . DD^jnnS Hithp. that it may be displayed, of the banner, (g 
£5u>/ca5 o-rjfxetwo-iv. This suits S7, but not the light of the divine countenance. 
Moderns after iirapov Aq., G, leva, 3, &, AE., De W., Ges.§ 7G < 2 >°, Ew.8 2276 , 
K5 # I.4i(iO)c regard it as error for xirj jo 12 , so cod. 245 Kenn., nirj cod. 30, usu- 
ally Nr 25 18 , wir 24 7 - 9 81 3 96 s 134 2 . It refers to the blessing of the high 
priest, Nu. 6 24-26 (source of P) in the syn. clause rj'S* V}* nN^-p^N vjs su" 1 
Nu. 6 26 , the two melting together in the phr. y:o -vx xirj, cf. 67 s ; the prep. 
hy is a late inexactness for s s, cf. also 44* 89 16 . J -pn n.m. (1) light as dif- 
fused, created 104 2 ; (2) light of luminaries, stars 148 3 , cf. 136 7 ; (3) day- 
light 49 20 , cf. 139 11 ; (4) light of fire 78 14 ; (5) of life 56 14 ; (6) of prosperity 
97 11 112 4 ; (7) of instruction 37 s 119 105 ; (8) of face 38 11 , of God's enlightening 
face 4 7 44 4 89 16 , cf. 27 1 36 10 43 s . — D^f as used X of God in anthropomorphic 
and theophanic sense (a) His face in favour 'D nix 4? 44 4 89 16 , 'd "nKD 
90 8 , 'fi -vm 31 17 67 s 8o 4 - 8 - 20 119 135 , indifference (|d) 'd n\-iDn io 11 13 2 
22 25 27 9 30 8 ^26 5I u 69 18 88 16 I02 3 104 29 143 7 , in hostility c. a 34 17 
8o 17 ; (b) His presence 'D trpa 24 s 27 s - 8 105 4 , 'c nSn 119 58 , d Dip 89 16 95 2 , 
'D dn-is 42 s , '£> nin 11 7 17 15 , 'd n.~D 31 21 , in anger 21 10 La. 4 16 , 'd •?;• in 
judgment Ps. 9 20 . — nw] at close of line makes it too long. It should 
go with next line to make that a tetrameter; so £>, Che., Du. — 
8. nnrj] fully written Qal pf. 2 m. y/]n}, — nn^r] n.f. joy, gladness 4 s 16 11 
21 7 30 12 43 4 45 16 51 10 68 4 97 11 ioo 2 106 6 137 s - 6 - — *3Sa] short form; cf. long 
form DD33^ v. 6 . The difference was due to the carelessness of a copyist. 
The long form is unusual in \J/, therefore more prob. original here. The 2J? 
as X seat of emotions and passions; of joy in some form of ncir 4 s 16 9 19 9 33 21 
105 8 (= 1 Ch. 16 10 ) Ex. 4 14 (J) Pr. i5 18 - 3 o 17 22 27 9 - " Ec. 2 1( >- 10 5 19 Ct. 3" 
Is. 24 7 Zc. io 7 (cf. aaS Dt. 28 47 Is. 30 29 Je. 15 16 Ez. 36*), fertfr Ps. 119 111 , S\> 
13 6 , rSy 28 7 ; of desire 21 8 37 4 ; of trouble 38 9 - n 55 s ; other emotions 22 15 
2 7 3 39 4 4° 18 61 8 107 12 109 22 143 4 ; of courage 27 14 76 s 119 82 . — n;'r] pregn. 
= ~\vx npn nnD2>D 3W; <!£, 5 add i\aiov = tn.TTO. This makes line too long, 

and is gloss to make statement of harvest more complete, as Ho. 2 24 D_ 

sf. indef., ace. to Ew., Ol., Ba., as proverbial comparison of the Psalmist's 
personal joy in God with the harvest joy of others, cf. Is. 9 2 . Moll., Pe., think 



PSALM V. 37 

of the prosperous harvest of the enemy as contrasted with the joy in God of 
the Psalmist. It is better to think of the former prosperity in harvest, and 
that which they have been urged to pray for = 310 v. 7a . — 9. B^8T3] emph. 
suggested by oV?is> "|S D£" Nu. 6 23 , the other parts of formula used v. 76 (v. 28 s ). 
J hit] adv. together: (1) of community of action 34* 55 15 71 10 S^(?) 102 28 ; 
of parts of building 122 3 ; (2) at once, at one and the same time, joining both 
vbs. in action of same persons, only here 4 9 in this sense, elsewhere (3) emph. 
all together 14 3 (= 53*) 19 10 35 26 37 s8 48 s . — nasp^] Qal impf. 1 p. s. cohort, 
resolution / will lie down or lay me down. |8^Kl| because of adv. coordinating 
two vbs. must be i coord, and the form should be mtr>N, as 3 6 . Coordination 
may be expressed by repeating the subj. in English. — ^n^] emph. pr. 2 m. 
referring to mm v. 8 " < 76 ), therefore mm, unnecessary in this line and making it 
too long, is a gloss. — "naV] adv. apart, in solitariness, Nu. 23 s Mi. 7 14 (both 
with pi?), here emphasized by rwg^ in security n.m. with S prep., with 2th 
not elsw. x/s, but Lv. 25 18 - 19 26 6 Ju. 18 7 1 K. 5 5 Je. 32 s " 49 31 Zp. 2 15 , c. 33W 
Pr. 3^ Is. 47 8 Ez. 28 26 34 25 - 28 38 s - n - 14 39 s - * Zc. 14 11 Dt. 33 12 Ps. 16 9 Je. 23 s 
33 16 ; S omitted with aan Dt. 12 10 1 S. 12 11 with p* Dt. 33 28 Pr. I 33 . This 
passage is prob. based on Dt. 33 28 , espec. as there it is in a land anmm \:n as 
v. 8 "^S^fl] Hiph. impf. 2 m. sf. I s. make to dwell as in Je. 32 37 , 



PSALM V., 5 str. 4 5 . 

Ps. 5 is a prayer composed for public worship. The choir, at 
morning sacrifice, prays Yahweh to hearken to the cry for help 
(v. 2-4 ) ; for evil and wickedness of speech and action have no place 
in His presence and are abhorrent to Him (v. 5 " 7 ). Standing in 
the court and worshipping towards the temple, they pray for guid- 
ance (v. 8-9 ) ; because the adversaries have abundant wickedness 
in mind, speech, and act, they plead that God would thrust 
them forth from His people (v. 10-11 ) ; and they intercede for bless- 
ing upon all who seek refuge in Him (v. 12-13 ) . 

C\ GIVE ear to my words, Yahweh ; consider my murmuring; 

hearken to the voice of my crying for help, my King, and my God; 
For unto Thee I pray in the morning, Thou hearest my voice ; 

In the morning I set in order (my prayer) for Thee and I keep watch (for Thee). 
ThOR Thou art not a God taking delight in wickedness, evil cannot be Thy guest ; 

Boasters cannot take their stand before Thine eyes ; 

Thou dost hate all workers of trouble, speakers of a lie ; 

Men of blood and deceit Thou abhorrest, Yahweh. 
"RUT as for me through the abundance of Thy kindness I enter Thy house ; 

1 worship with the reverence that is due Thee, towards Thy holy temple. 
Yahweh lead me in Thy righteousness because of those lying in wait for me; 
Even before me Thy way : (before Thee are my ways). 



38 PSALMS 

J70R there is no right in their mouth, in their heart is ruin ; 

An open grave is their throat, with their tongue they flatter. 

Declare them guilty, O (my) God, let them fall from their plans : 

In the abundance of their wickedness thrust them out, for they rebelled against 
Thee. 
gUT let all that seek refuge in Thee, rejoice, forever shout for joy; 

And let them exult in Thee, all that love Thy name ; 

For Thou on Thy part blessest the righteous, Yahweh, 

And Thou coverest them over with a great shield, with favour crownest them. 

Ps. 5 was in Q as the 2d morning prayer, then in fH and also in Qlft 
as its ist morning prayer (v. Intr. § 27. 31. 33). There seems to be a designed 
antithesis between the assignment of Ps. 4, an evening prayer rn^jjj with 
stringed instruments, and Ps. 5 a morning prayer m^run ^n for flute playing 
(v. Intr. § 39), probably because the former was regarded as more suited 
to evening prayer, the preparation for sleep; and the latter to morning 
prayer, the preparation for work. The antith. between the righteous and 
the wicked differs much from that of Ps. 1 and implies a much earlier date. 
The Ps. lacks the personal experience of Pss. 3-4, and is throughout that of 
the congregation of righteous worshippers. The wicked are wicked men in 
Israel itself. They are chiefly wicked in tongue : expressions are heaped up 
for this, boasters, v. 6 , speakers of a lie, men of deceits?, no right in their mouth, 
an open grave their throat, with their tongue they flatter, v. 10 . Such do not 
appear in Preex. or Exil. Literature ; but in the peaceful times of Persian and 
Greek dominion. They are also men, who in their mind plot ruin, v. 10 , and 
have plans against the righteous, v. 11 , and they are also workers of trouble, v. 6 , 
men of blood, v. 7 ; they rebel against Yahweh, v. 11 . The righteous on the other 
hand are those who observe morning prayer and sacrifice in the courts of the 
temple, v. 4 ' 8 , from which evil is excluded from being a guest, v. 5 ; they seek 
refuge in Yahweh and love His name, v. 12 . The author may have been one 
of the Levitical singers of the 2d temple. If so, his Ps. must have been com- 
posed earlier than those Levitical Pss. which appear in Jet and 21. It must 
have been written in times of external peace and internal strife ; after the 
second temple had been long built; and sacrifices were habitual in its courts — 
thus in the middle Persian period. 

Str. I. 2. The choir, standing in the court of the temple, v. 8 , 
prays : O give ear to my words, Yahweh~\, those of this Ps., which 
has as its complement, consider my murmuring~\, the faint utterance 
which accompanies the words, and also has its petition. This 
makes better parall. than EV* " meditation." — 3. The syn. clause 
is O hearken to the voice of my crying for help~\. The righteous 
need help as the next Str. shows ; and their words are a cry, aloud 
with the voice to Yahweh for it. The complement of 1. 2 is syn. 



PSALM V. 39 

with Yahweh, who is here in the plea, my King and my God], in 
personal special relations to the righteous petitioners, and in the 
double relation as King of the kingdom of Israel, and God of His 
people. — 4. The reason for hearing is given in the syn. couplet, 
which is also syn. to the previous couplet. For unto Thee I pray 
in the morning'], at the appointed hour of sacrifice, when Yahweh 
was accustomed to hear the voice of His worshippers in the litur- 
gical morning prayer at the morning sacrifice. — / set in order] 
arrange, supplying " my prayer " EV 8 - JPSV, " my case," Dr., 
" cause," Kirk, possibly of the parts of prayer with an allusion to 
the parts of the sacrifice. — and I keep watch], for God's manifes- 
tation of His acceptance of the prayer as it ascends to Him, with 
the flame of the sacrifice of the altar. 

Str. II. 5-7. The reason for the prayer for help is given in 
four syn. lines. Those who occasion the cry for help are de- 
scribed as having wickedness and its complement evil, syn. with 
which are boasters of the evil which they plan and do, workers of 
trouble, with its complement, speakers of a lie ; and men of blood 
and deceit. Wickedness and evil of speech are chiefly emphasized 
in these boasters, characteristics of wickedness in postex. Israel ; 
but wickedness of violent action is also involved in men of blood 
and workers of trouble. God's attitude towards these men is graph- 
ically stated in the syn. clauses : Thou art not a God taking delight 
in], but the very reverse, as is brought out in the complementary 
statement, evil cannot be Thy guest], be welcome in the house, in 
the courts of Yahweh, among His worshippers j || stand before 
Thine eyes], in the choir of worshippers, standing before the 
temple building; followed by the positive statement, Thou dost 
hate ; and the climax, abhor. This attitude of God towards those 
against whom the choir of Israel cries for help, gives strong reason 
for the assurance that He will give that help. 

Str. III. 8. The choir returns to the direct petition of the first 
Str. ; stating in a syn. couplet, parall. to the second couplet of the 
first Str., the fact : I enter Thy house || I worship towards Thy holy 
temple], indicating with sufficient clearness that the choir is in 
the precincts of the temple, and prostrating themselves in the 
court, looking towards the temple, the throne room of Yahweh's 
abode. These clauses are qualified with the recognition of the 



40 PSALMS 

abundance of kindness of Yahweh which permitted this entrance, 
and a devout statement of the reverence with which the worship 
was accompanied. — 9. The second couplet is parallel with the 
first couplet of Str. I., only the petition, " give ear, consider, 
hearken," advances to, lead me, with its syn., even before me, and 
the sphere of it, Thy righteousness || Thy way. Guidance in life is 
needed because of those lying in wait, the insidious foes described 
above in the previous Str. and again in the following. The last 
clause omitted by MT., but suggested by Vrss., is the climax, be- 
fore Thee are my ways'] complementary of, Even before me 77iy 
way,] even them, make them Thy way.] 

Str. IV. 10-11 is syn. with the second Str. and is a stronger 
representation of the attitude of God towards the wicked. There 
are two couplets, making four syn. lines. The emphasis upon 
wickedness of speech is still stronger ; There is no right in their 
mouth], with its complement in their heart], that is in their 
mind, — ruin], the plan in their mind is to engulf the righteous 
in ruins ; cf. 5 2 4 and so || an open grave is their throat, with its 
complement, with their tongue they flatter. There is yet in the 
last line wickedness of action, in the abundance of their wicked- 
ness, with its complement, for they rebelled against Thee. The 
attitude of God towards them passes over, from their exclusion 
from the temple worship, God's hatred and abhorrence of them, 
in Str. II., to the stronger and more aggressive ; declare them 
guilt}', with its complement, let them fall from their plans], fail in 
them, and the climax, thrust them out. 

Str. V. 12-13 is a final intercession which is parall. with 
Str. I. and III.; but needs no subsequent Str. parall. with II. 
and IV. ; for the wicked have been left behind, thrust out from 
the community, as well as excluded from the temple. The choir 
accordingly rises, from petition for help, to intercession for the 
righteous. This is in two couplets, which again are syn. through- 
out. They are described as those that seek refuge in Thee], in 
the temple worship || ; love Thy name], the holy name of Yahweh, 
as connected with His holy temple. They are finally designated 
as the righteous. These, in the syn. clauses ; rejoice, with its 
complement, forever shout for joy ; || exult in Thee; three terms 
for the liturgy of temple worship. The climax is reached in the 

(iniusr) 



PSALM V. 41 

more comprehensive blessest, and its specific double simile of 
tender care and loving attention ; coverest them over with a great 
shield\ so guarding from all evil and adversaries ; and its com- 
plement, with favour crownest them~], as favoured guests rejoicing 
at a feast in their honour, cf. 23 s , 103 4 . 

2. , HO*$] pi. sf. 1. p. emph. \ nps n.m. (1) utterance, word 19 4 , of men 
esp. in prayer 5 2 141 6 . ^ nn« Dt. zz l Ps. 19 15 54* 78 1 138 4 , fig. day to day 19 3 ; 
of God, ^n ncs 107 11 . (2) promise of God 77 s , command 68 12 . — nrrxn] 
Hiph. imv. cohort. — tV [?!*<] denom. fT« n.f. ear, only Hiph. (1) give ear 
to, of God's listening to prayer, c. ace. rei 5 2 17 1 55^ 86 6 140 7 141 1 , c. Sx 
rei 39 13 143 1 , c. S rei 54*; bn pers. 77 s , Dt. I 45 , abs. Pss. 80 2 84°. (2) per- 
ceive by ear, hear, abs. 135 17 , listen to; of men, abs. 49 s , c. ty rei 78 1 . — 
hpd] Qal imv. cohort, pa observe, mark, give heed to, c. ace. as Dt. 32 7 Pss. 
50 22 94 7 - 8 , but only here in connection with prayer. — f \rjn] j2 ^9* my 
musing, my murmuring, faint utterance, rather than meditation of EV 8 . 
(3 icpavyrjs /xov, U clamorem meum. The former is too weak, the latter too 
strong. — 3. na^n] Hiph. imv. cohort. % [atfp] Hiph. hearken, Sip 1 ? only 
here ; but c. S pers. 55 s , c. h>p2 66 19 86 6 , c. Sn 142 7 , c. ace. 17 1 61 2 , abs. with 
qjTN io 17 , dub. (jtn gloss), cf. 130 2 . — ^c ; ] Piel inf. cstr. BDB., 01s.§ 182<i , so 
Du. for 7-Vty. fV O^] only Piel cry for help, abs. 5 3 18 42 72 12 119 147 Jb. 
19 7 24 12 29 12 30 28 35 9 36 13 Is. 5s 9 La. f, Jon. 2 3 Hb. i 2 , so prob. 88 2 , c. h* 
pers. Pss. 18 7 22 25 28 2 (= 31 23 ) 30 3 88 14 Jb. 30 20 38 41 . Ba. regards it as n., 
for usual vyntf i8 T , cf. Ko. 11 - L p- «>. — % »nSin ^0] = 84*, D'n*?i« ^D 44 s 
(@ inhw). ^9 J God as King of Israel, Dt 33 s Pss. io 16 29 10 48 s 68 s5 74 12 
145 1 149 2 , -naan -jSd 24 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 10 , universal king 47 s - 7 - 8 95 s 98 s 99 4 Je. io 7 10 . 
— t^Sn-is emph. beginning a new line. — ^dpn] Hiph. impf. I sg. present. 
$ SSonn c. Sn pray unto, elsw. 32 s , c. "»M intercede for 72 15 . — 4. nw] is 
attached by <& Du. to previous clause, and properly, if original, but it is a 
gloss making line too long. — typ POtfn npaj belongs with previous clause to 
complete pentameter. 1£3 ace. time in the morning, the hour of prayer, so 
59 17 88 14 92 s , the three hours of prayer 55 18 . It belongs with ^enx and not 
with PD8T. — "P?j*] shortened form due to Makkeph, which, however, is an 
erroneous combination. Separate words are needed for measure. \ ~\yj 
(1) arrange, used Gn. 22 9 (E) for arranging wood of sacrifice, Ex. 40 4 - 23 , 
(P) of shew bread, so here in fig. sense as most, or as Jb. 32 14 33 s 37 19 
arrange, set forth, words in order; elsw. arrange lamp Ps. 132 17 , table 23 s 78 10 , 
set forth in order thoughts 40 6 , a case 50 21 . (2) c. S resemble 89 7 (|| hdi). — 
r;S] should be repeated with hsxn for the completion of the line. This is 
necess. to get two tones after caesura, and gives better euphony. Moreover, 
this prep, is required by the vb. — !"»?*«] Piel impf. 1 p. \ nas Qal watch, 
c. b 37 32 , c. 3 66 7 . Piel c. S*t La. 4 17 , c. a Mi. 7 7 , so c. ) Ps. jl. — 5. This v. Is 
too long, a Makkeph should combine Vn'nS, and if original »3 also, npN if 
original, is out of place separated from so. It is doubtless a prosaic gloss. — 



42 PSALMS 

Sn] n.m. archaic name of God as the Strong one (for use in \p v. Intr. § 36). — 
X yon] vb. adj. cstr. ace. of God only here, but of man 34 13 35 27 , pi. cstr. before 
names 35 27 40 15 = 70 3 with sf. 1 1 i 2 . The vb. itself J used of God, c. with 2 pers. 
18 20 22 J 41 12 , rei. 147 10 , c ace. rei. 37 28 40 7 51 s - 18 - 21 115 8 1356, all in mng. 
delight in, have pleasure in. For syn. pm v. v. 18 . — \ >?cn] n.m. wickedness ( 1) in 
violence and crime 141 4 Pr. 12 3 ; (2) of enemies Ps. 125 8 (but <S SS. >"tp) ; 
(3) in ethical sense j 5 io 15 45 s 84 11 (?), cf. Pr. 8 7 Jb. 34 s - 10 358 Ec. 7 2 ° T 8 8 . 
(For pah v. Ps. i 1 .) — t^j ] Qal impf. 3 sg. sf. 2 sg. defective for :pw poten- 
tial mood, Ges.§ 107 (®>, Dr.§ 37 . J "WJ Qal (1) sojourn in land, c. 3 loci 
105 12 - 23 , of Israel in Egypt and patriarchs in Canaan, cf. Gn. 26 3 (J); (2) fig. 
be a guest of Yahweh, c. 3 loci, in Flis temple Pss. 15 1 61 6 , c. ace. pers. fig. j 5 , 
cf. 120 5 . JlJ n.m. only in sense of sojourner, c 3 loci 119 19 , c. oy pers. 39 13 : 
abs. || widow and orphan 94° 146 9 . — yn] either adj. evil man @, 3, Hu., De., 
Ki., al. as io 15 || D'9w v. 6 ; or n.m. evil || ?#?, EV 8 ., Dr. most, in accord with com- 
plementary part of a pentameter. — J jn] adj. : (1) bad, disagreeable, malignant 
I44 10 (sword) ; fierce 78 49 (messenger of God). (2) unpleasant 112 7 Je. 
49 23 « (3) ^'A wicked ethically, of pers. 37*1 ms Ps. 140 2 , pn «*7 w«« /c^ 5 Jb. 
2i 80 Pr. II 21 12 13 , thing >iy2 pn WjJ Ps. 51 6 phr. of D. Dt. 4 25 -f ,c. 60 t.; of 
deeds Pss. 55 16 64 s 141 4 . $ >? n.m.: (1) evil distress, adversity 23*; t jn <D* 
49° 94 13 , cf. Am. 6 3 ; jna in adversity Ps. io 6 , cf. 121 7 140 12 . (2) evil, injury, 
wrong 7 5 41 6 54 7 73 s 109 20 ; >n s for harm 56 s Je. 7° 25 7 Is. 59 7 . (3) evil, in 
ethical sense, Pss. 7 10 34 14 - n 36 5 52 s 97 10 101 4 119 101 , prob. also j 5 (others 
adj. evil man) ; jng ^d 34 16 37 27 Is. 59I 5 Pr. 3 7 13W 14W i6 6 - 17 Jb. i*- 8 2 3 2^, 
cf. njn Ps. 21 12 . — 6. taxing] Hithp. impf. 3 pi. potential v. 2 2 . — oMvi] ptc.pl. 
X [ sL,n ] VD « Q a ^ oe boastful 75 s , elsw. only ptc. boasters j 6 73 s 75 s ; Piel same 
mng., c. S? io 3 ( ?) and in good sense, c. 2 44 9 56 s - n ; Hithp. make one's boast 
c. 3 in bad sense 49 7 52 3 97s in good sense 34 s 105 8 , abs. 63 12 C4 11 106 5 . v. Intr. 
§ 35 for the use of vb. in the sense of praise. — \ jpjpg "UjlS] before Thine eyes, 
locally, in temple worship ; elsw. ideally of God 18 25 , of man 26 3 36 2 101 3 . — 
rNr-] Qal pf. 2 sg. emph. present y/ njc hate, cf. 1 1 5 where alone, elsw. in ^ God 
hates evil. But the idea is common in Prophets. The vb. is frequently used 
of righteous men hating evil 26 5 31 7 + iot.f. — f H* 'J?^"^;] a ^ workers of 
trouble, Qal ptc. pi. cstr. nominal force phr. 6 9 I4 4 (= 53 5 without s d) 92 s 94 4 
101 8 (without Sa) 28 3 36 13 59 8 64 s 94 16 125 6 I4I 4 - 9 , elsw. Ho. 6 8 Is. 31 2 Jb. 31 8 
34 8 - 22 Pr. io 29 21 16 . Text is wrongly divided here, giving only first part of 
pentameter. The second or complementary part is v. 7a . an nan. The separa- 
tion, or else prosaic view of a copyist, occasioned the insertion of the vb. 
laxn, which is inappropriate between Njir and a?n. — 7. J an nai] = 58 4 Qal 

ptc. pi. V[" a "'] s P eak Q al onl y inf - and P tc - cf - antitn - PDN ' n l 5 2 > elsw - 2g3 
31 19 51 6 63 12 101 7 io9 2) ; v. £ for an. — f cct C"n] n. of relation coll., cf. 2 S. 
i6 7 - 8 , for usual f 3^7 'ins Mow ^"zV/y of bloodshed Pss. 26 9 55" 59 3 139 19 Pr. 
29 10 , cf. Pss. 9 13 5 1 16 . There should be no Makkeph after r<N, and possibly 
we should rd. >vf)H as usual. — J n p n w] is also dependent on r"N, cf. Pss. 43 1 
55 24 . Other uses of n ? n ? deceit ii* 17 1 24* 34 14 35 20 36* 3& 18 5° 19 5 2<i 55 12 
109 2 . — aym] Piel impf. 3 sg. nw subj. is an unnatural change of tense 



PSALM V. 43 

though in ffy, <3. But 3 abominaberis has preserved the original a?nfi ; the 
weak n having been omitted in other texts by txt. err. on acct. of the follow- 
ing P, which would then very easily be interp. as 3 pers. \ [V :i > r ] not m 
Qal, but Piel : abhor (1) in ritual sense, of God, Israel 106 40 ; (2) in ethical 
sense, of God 5~, man lie; 163 ; (3) in physical sense 107 18 . Hiph. in ethical 
sense 14* = 53 2 make abowinab/e, catise their evil deeds to be abhorred. — 8. ijni ] 
emph. antith. 2 pers. v. 5 . — f -^Dn a**] abundance of kindness as 69 14 106 7 (<5§,3J, 
Aq. % to be preferred to |$ -p-tDn) Ne. 13 22 , HDn 31 106 45 (?) La. 3 3 ' 2 , cf. 
f-iDn an 86 5 * 15 103 8 based on Ec. 34 s Nu. 14 18 (J.) and later Ne. 9 17 Jo. 2 13 
Jon. 4 2 . — inoj ace. loci after nun Qal impf. I p. sg. present, / enter Thy 
house for ordinary worship, so 66 13 , cf. entrance of processions 42 s 55 15 122 1 , 
in other phr. see 23 s . Ni3 c. ace. loci seldom in \p, elsw. 71 3 105 23 , more 
common with a or ^n (26^. — ninnipNt] Hithp. impf. I p. \ y^nnt?) only 
Hithp. (1) do homage to a king c. S 45 12 72 11 ; (2) {a) bow down in worship 
of God c. \3D7 22 28 - 30 86 9 , c. *?n, looking towards s 8 l 3% 2 > c - *> 99 6, 9 x 3 27 ; 

(b) in the more general sense of worship, abs. 95 s , c. S 29 2 66 4 96° 97 7 ; 

(c) idolatrous worship, c. s 81 10 106 19 . — riBhj} ^n] refers to the hall of the 
temple into which priests only were admitted to worship with the holy incense, 
as the place unto which worship was directed, j 8 = 138 2 Jon. 2 5 - 8 without 
prep.; as place defiled by enemy Ps. 79 1 . tSdti uhp as source of blessing 65 s . 
i«hp Sdti is used n 4 Mi. I 2 Hb. 2 20 in more general sense for the heavenly 
temple in which God resides. Other uses of J ^n without Bhp are (1) palace 
of king Ps. 45 10 , fig. of ivory boxes 45 s , of well-shaped daughters 144 12 ; (2) of 
the hall of the temple 27 4 48 10 , of the heavenly temple 1S 7 29 s 68 80 . — rp^] 
obj. sf. Ges.§ 135 < 4 > reverence due Thee, cf. 34 12 90 11 in 10 119 38 , v. 2^. — 
9. ^nj] Qal imv. sf. I p. sq. \ nru Q a ^ lead sq. ace. usually, God subj. Ex. 15 18 
Ps. 77 21 , fig. j 9 27 11 , c. a 139 24 , man subj. c. "9 6o n =: 108 11 , Hiph. lead, guide 
78 14 - 53 - 72 107 30 , esp. in path of blessing 23 s 31 4 61 3 67 s , 73 s4 , cf. 43 s 139 10 143 10 . 
% npix n.f. righteousness : (1) in government of king 72 1 - 3 , of God, as attri- 
bute 33 5 36 7 7 1 19 99 4 Je. 9 23 ; (2) righteousness, as ethically right Ps. io6 3 - 31 , 
cf. Gn. 15 6 ( JE) ; (3) as vindicated, justification, salvation (a) of God || 
nana 24 6 , iDn 36 11 103 17 . Tta He guides, delivers, exalts His people j 9 31 2 71 2 
89 17 119 40 I43 1, u , cf. 69 28 (denied to wicked). His saving righteousness 22 32 

40" 5 1 16 7 ll5- 16.24 9 g2 I45 7 > 3 y-p ggl 8f -0 nnDJ ; m3 II2 3. 9 } cf> „ 9 142 . (4) p l # 

the righteous acts (a) of God in vindication of right 103 6 ; (b) of man's moral 
conduct n 7 (si vera) Is. 64 s Je. 51 10 . — IE? 1 ?] prep, because of, referring to 
enemies, Dnw/27 11 , Dmw 8 3 , ao^ 60 19 . — "^ir] Polel ptc. pi. sf. I p. sg. 
d prefix elided BDB. Ges.§ 52 . J y/ iic ; , always in same form 5 9 = 27 11 54' 
56 s 59 11 ; (3 ixdp&v 3 insidiatores, Dr. watchful foes = more strictly Hers in 
wait for me. — m \&r\~\ Kt. tthn Qr. Ges.§"°( 2 > Hiph. imv. t y/'Vfr Qal be 
smooth, straight, right, Piel estee?n right II9 128 , t Hiph. make smooth, even only 
here, elsw. look straight, only Pr. 4 25 . Vrss. differ (J5, Bar. Heb. ivdoiribv aov ttjv 
686v fj.ov, some codd. <& iv&iribv \wv, few 6S6v <rov, Aq. 2, 3, Sb, % agree with |§. 
It is prob. as the line is defective, that the difference represents two parts of 
an original complete line >am yish p"n *jfiS ltf">n. This gives us rhyme in 



44 PSALMS 

-kd and 4. — 10. we] txt. err. for *D>fi 17 10 as <S, 3; sg. improb. in the midst of 
pis. — '">^3JJ Niph. ptc. fem. y/ pa v. 7 10 what is right, as Jb. 42 7 - 8 <5 dXrjdeia 
3 rectum. — D|np] their inward part (@ tcapdla interprets, 3 interiora is 
literal), as the seat of thought, and so local ace. antith. no 49 1 "- (?) 62 s 64J (?) 
94 19 103 1 ; seat of aS 39* 55 5 109 22 , of nn 51 12 , ih anpa 36 s . — nun] pi. J mn 
n.f. in \f/ always pi. of intensity, ruin into which one has fallen and been 
engulfed, either as meditated 3 10 52*, spoken 38 13 , or accomplished 55 12 57-, all 
$B; elsw. of pestilence 91 3 and of wicked throne 94 20 . Ps. 52 s irin ]fy error for 
"ijin (5, 2T and most moderns. — f rnno 157] There should be no Makkeph, 
phr. elsw. Je. 5 16 (of quiver), J 135 n. tomb 88 6, 12 , cf. 49 12 (Vrss. not f§). — 
ft'vSrn] Hiph. impf. 3 pi. fuller form. f y/ pSn Qal <k smooth, slippery, of 
deceptive words 55 22 . Hiph. flatter with tongue 5 10 Pr. 28 23 , abs. deal smoothly, 
c. Sk Ps. 36 3 . — 11. Dg'ftan] a.\. Hiph. imv. sf. 3 pi. y/zvt* Qal (1) commit 
an offence, do a wrong ; (2) be or become guilty, not in i/' ; but (3) be held guilty, 
bear punishment 34 22 - 23 . Hiph. declare guilty 5 11 . <S /c/nj'oj' ai/rovs, Aq. S 
Kardicpipov clvtovs, 3 condemna eos. — d^hSn] is surprising in a petition of S, 
though sustained by <3, 3 al. It is probable that the original was *.tV?k. — 
'D i s p"'] Qal impf. juss. pi. 3 m. either (1) fall from, as (3, 3, DeW., 
Ew., Hi., Ba., as BS. 14 2 \f/ Solomon 4 16 ; or (2) fall, perish, because of 
by, as Pe., Che., Dr., Kirk, Du., which suits parall., so 27 s . — onvrtxpbo] 
should have two accents in measure, pi. sf. 3 pi. with prep. fp. — f [nx^c] 
n.f. only pi. counsels, plans $ n 8l 18 Mi. 6 18 Ho. II 6 Je. 7 24 Pr. I 81 22*°".— 
Dniyirc 3^d] is attached by <S to previous clause, but that destroys the 
measure. ©, 3 Kara,juxta = s not so good as 2 $£. — t J7Bta] n.m. trans- 
gression against God 107 17 , personified as evil spirit 36 s , recognised by sinner 
32 5 5 1 6 , God visits it 89 s3 , forgives 32 1 , removes 103 12 , covers it over 65*, 
blots it out 5 1 3 , remembers it not 25 7 , delivers from it 39 s ; (2) guilt of 
transgression j 11 19 14 59*. — l »Drp%n] Hiph. imv. with full sounding sf. 3 pi. 
for D_ above. tV n " ,J thrust out, banish, here the wicked, but 62 5 the good 
man from his position. Hiph. be thrust out 147 2 . — !ja nO"'a] should have 
two accents for measure, nn because of following monosyl. (3 adds /ctfpie 
= 3 domine, but this is gloss making line too long. \ mo vb. Qal be dis- 
obedient, rebellious, c. 3 Ho. 14 1 and here, elsw. c. ace. pers., also words of God 
Ps. 105 28 abs. 78 s . Hiph. shew disobedience, alw. towards God, abs. io6 7 - 48 , 
c. ace. 78 17 - 40 - 56 106 33 107 11 , prob. also 139 20 (ace. 3, 2, Aq., not $).— 
12. i] adversative to previous Str. — inDtr , J Qal impf. 3 pi. juss. nzfr vb. 
Qal be glad, rejoice : % in relation to God and sacred things : (a) abs. j 12 g 8 14 7 
(= 53 7 ) 16 9 34 8 35 27 48 12 67 s 68 4 69 s3 90" 96" 97*- 8 105 3 107 42 1 19 74 ; (b) c. 3 
rei velpers. 31 8 32 11 33 21 40 17 (= 70 5 ) 63 12 64 11 66 6 85 7 97 12 104 34 118 24 149 2 ; 
in other relations v. BDB. — M > D y n~\ Qal ptc. pi. cstr. with retracted accent, 
v. 2 12 . — un*] Piel impf. juss. % P^ y b. Qal be jubilant, shout for joy: 
only 35 27 , for which 40 17 = 70 5 substitute trftf. But Qal is 8 t. in Is. 2 - 3 . Piel 
same mng. more intensive (1) abs. 5 12 63 s 67 s 71 28 90 14 96 12 98 4 - 8 i32 9 « 16 - 16 
149 5 ; (2) c. a of theme 20 6 33 1 89 13 92 s , c. ace. 51 16 59 17 145 7 , c. S 95 1 , 
c. *?H 84 8 (?). Hiph. (1) same mng.: abs. 32 11 , c. i Si 2 ; (2) cause to jubilate 



PSALM VI. 45 

65 9 . For nouns v. if 1 . — >D*Vj7 }Dni] is out of place, destroying the measure 
of this line and making the construction difficult. It is needed in v. 136 to 
complete the line and give an appropriate vb. to HJ*. — *ip~i] Hiph. impf 
2 p. juss. form appropriate to its present context; but it should correspond with 
ij~ia>n v. 13 if transferred, and be pointed as indicative. % -jdd vb. Qal screen, 
cover, c. S I40 8 (?) usually c. Sy in other Lit. Hiph. same c. SjJ, here, h 91 4 . — 
«*?JP] Qal impf. juss. as syn. verbs, f 1^2 VD - exult c. 3 5 12 9 3 1 S. 2 1 , abs. 
Ps. : 25 2 68* Pr. nio 28 12 1 C. 16 32 (= hy Ps~96 12 ), cf. hy 28 7 , dSj? Jb. 20 18 , diff. 
forms of same word, softened in later usage. — qp^ *3?"U«] ptc. pi. cstr. nominal 
force jjhn. Phr. elsw. 69 37 119 132 , cf. 9 11 61 6 83 17 . (3 has irdw-es, which 
represents an original hi, needed for measure. J Love to God is post Deuter- 
onomic 31 24 97 10 1 16 1 145 20 , to house 26 s , to salvation 40 17 70 6 , to law 1 19 47 + 10t , 
Jerusalem 1 22°. — 13. nns "o] causal with emph. pro. There should be no 
Makkeph : the two tones are needed for measure. <&, 3 attach nw to second 
clause, f^ to first; that suits the measure. — pnx T]! 11 '?] Piel impf. 2 ms., 
general statement. This phr. is a.\., but cf. Ii5 13 "» *K*V '2. J T]3 (1) bless 
Yahweh 16 7 26 12 3 4 2 63^ 103!- 2 - 2 <>- »• »• 22 104!- 35 115 18 V^ 1 - 2 135™" 20 M5 2 - 10 , 
Dtf '2 96 2 ioo 4 I45 1 - 21 , Elohim 66 8 68 27 ; (2) Piel used of God abs. 109 28 , 
c. ace. the king 45 s , the people 29 11 67 s - 7 - 8 107 38 11512. 12. is I2 $z> 134 3 147 13 , 
His inheritance 28 9 , house of Aaron 115 12 , vegetation 65 11 , provisions I32 15 - 15 , 
as well as those given above; (3) used of men, bless 118 26 129 8 ; (4) con- 
gratulation io 3 (?) 49 19 62 s , homage 72 15 . For Qal v. i 1 . — nisp] belongs to 
W?y "pri v. v. 12 . \ T\vi is the large shield ; j:n 3 4 , the smaller one, elsw. 35' 2 91 4 . 
— X T" 1 *^] II • n ?* (0 °f tne g°°d will, favour of God, elsw. 30 s - 8 5 1 20 69 14 89 18 
106 4 Is. 49 s ; (2) acceptance of persons offering sacrifice, \1S*fo Ps. 19 15 as 
Je. 6 20 Lv. 22 21 Is. 56 7 ; (3) of God's will Pss. 40 9 103 21 143 10 , of man's desire 
I45 16 - 19 as 2 C. 15 15 . — M"V9j;n] Qal impf. 2 m. sf. 3 pi. f [nay] vb. surround, 
elsw. only 1 S. 23 26 . This is necessary according to arrangement of |^, but if 
not connected with rnx it is better to take it as % [ntoy] vb. crown Pss. 8 6 65 12 
103 4 , denom. of % n ^. crown 21 4 , and point as Piel •unt^n. So @, 3. 



PSALM VI., 4 str. 5 3 . 

Ps. 6 is a penitential prayer. The congregation prays 
Yahweh not to chasten in anger; but to heal the long-continued 
languishing and dismay (v. 2_4a ) ; pleads that the peril of death 
may cease, for there can be no ritual commemoration of Yahweh 
in Sheol (v. 46-6 ). The sufferings are indeed extreme : weariness, 
nights of complaining, bursts of tears, and eye wasting because 
of the adversaries (v. 7-8 ). But Yahweh has heard the prayer, and 
the enemies must depart in shame (y. 9 ~ n ). 



46 PSALMS 

Y^HWEH, do not in Thine anger rebuke ifie : 

Do not in Thy rage chasten me : 

Be gracious to me, for / am languishing; 

Heal me, for dismayed are my bones; 

Yea exceedingly dismayed is my soul. 
J3UT Thou, O Yahweh, how long (shall it continue)? 

return, deliver my life; 

Save me for the sake of Thy kindness ; 
For in death there is no commemoration of Thee; 
In Sheol who can give Thee (ritual) praise ? 
(T-TOR) I am weary with my groaning; 

1 must complain every night on my bed; 
I make dissolve with my tears my couch* 
Wasteth away because of grief mine eye ; 
Waxeth old because of all mine adversaries. 

T)EPART, ye workers of trouble from me ; 
For He hath heard the voice of my weeping, 
Yahweh hath heard my supplication, 
Yahweh accepteth my prayer ; 
They will turn back, they will be put to shame in a moment. 

Ps. 6 was in TB, its first penitential prayer. It was taken up into £H and 
Q& {v. Intr. §§ 27, 31, 23), and appointed to be sung with the bass voice 
n^^Drn'S;' to the accompaniment of stringed instruments mrjj3 (v. Intr. 
§ 39). botn peculiarly appropriate to the musical expression of penitence. 
The Ps. was composed for the congregation, and there is no trace in it of the 
experience of an individual. It is doubtless the earliest of the seven peni- 
tential Pss. 6, 32, 38, 51, 102, 130, 143, and prior to the penitential prayers 
Ezr. 9; Ne. 9; Dn. 9. The church appropriately assigns these Pss. to Ash 
Wednesday. Ps. 6 is related to several other passages of OT. (1) v. 2 differs 
from Ps. 38 2 only in that the latter omits ^s in second clause, and substitutes 
the late H?P for the earlier and simpler p|N. Je. io 21 has a similar thought, 
and possibly was in the mind of the author. (2) v. 66 is similar to Is. 38 18 
(aros = onac, v. Intr. § 25), where we have r^n V«Ntf sS •o = "i s ~"H' n ' , D S'mtfa 
v. 65 ; but the measure shows that we must read r\^\ Is. 38 is pentameter, 
Ps. 6, trimeter, therefore changes were necessary. In || line of Ps. 6 -or is 
used, and in the other half of line of Is. 38 18 S^n. The latter is the simpler and 
probably the earlier usage, -it? in the sense of commemoration is only elsw. 
Pss. 30 5 97 12 102 13 in 4 . The thought is more natural and more appropriate 
to the context of Is. 38 than to Ps. 6; it was essential there, but not so essen- 
tial here. The Ps. is therefore later. (3) v. 7a is identical with Je., which 
latter is certainly original. (4) v. 8a is the same as Ps. 31 106 , except that p 
takes the place of 3. We may safely conclude that Ps. 6 was later than Je. 
and Is. 38, but earlier than Pss. 31 and 38. The adversaries, who caused so 
much grief to the congregation, were not wicked rulers of Israel or hostile 
nations, but workers of trouble in Israel itself. They are not represented as a 
class over against the D^pnx and an^on (cf. Ps. I 8 ); but in a simpler and 



PSALM VI. 47 

more primitive way. They were probably the enemies of the congregation of 
the Restoration, who were restoring the ritual worship in Jerusalem, in the 
midst of great hostility on the part of their neighbours and also of the lower 
grade of people, who did not cordially unite in their reform. The Ps. is one 
of the choicest specimens of the use of assonance. The lines require but few 
transpositions to have them all end in •>_, except in the Str. II. v. 56 - 6o ~ 5 , which 
purposely end in q for the expression of formal antithesis, and in the last 
lines of Strs. III. and IV. v. 86 - lla , where intentionally pi. »_ takes the place 
of sing, v for the other four lines of these strs. Besides, there is assonance 
in n_ in v. 76 - ' 8 **- 6 . Several trimeters were injured by later scribes by the 
insertion of nvr for greater clearness of meaning, v. 30 - 6 (not in @) 5a - 9& , and 
by amplification, by insertion of S3 v. 8a and tnd v. n °. Only one line is too 
short in $%, occasioned by the omission of "O after r\h. 

Str. I. 2. The congregation prays Yahweh in two syn. couplets ; 
negatively, do not rebuke || do not chasten, in thine anger || in thy 
rage ; thus recognising that Yahweh had sufficient reason to be 
angry with them and to be in rage against them ; and that their 
sufferings were due to His rebuke and chastisement. — 3. They 
have now suffered sufficiently, and so, in a second syn. couplet, 
also syn. to the first, they pray positively be gracious to me, more 
specifically, heal me, the reason for which is their great need : 
I am languishing \ I am dismayed. This latter is in the last line 
limited to the bones, which does not imply physical injury ; but, 
as in other Pss. of penitence and lamentation, the sympathy of 
nerves and bones with the emotions and passions ; and so the 
aching of the bodily frame in accord with the internal emotional 
agony, which now is expressed in climax. — 4a. yea exceedingly 
dismayed is my soul. 

Str. II. 4&. The prayer becomes more intense. The first line 
expostulates with Yahweh for the long continuance of the chastise- 
ment, with its suffering and peril. — How long ?] shall it yet 
continue? This is followed by two syn. couplets, the second 
synth. to the first, giving the reason for it. — 5. In the first 
couplet is the plea, — O return] with favour, condensing the 
thought of the previous line. The long continuance of suffering 
seems to imply divine absence or inattention. — Deliver || save] 
make the return effective by redemptive interposition. It is the 
life of the congregation that is in peril by the continuance of this 
chastisement, and the kindness of Yahweh which is strained by 



48 PSALMS 

it. — 6. The motive proposed for this deliverance is, that if the 
life of the community is destroyed, the commemoration of Yah- 
weh || His praise, in the worship of the ritual, will be destroyed ; 
and though the congregation may continue their existence in the 
realm of Death and the cavern of Sheol, the abode of the dead, 
they will be no longer a congregation worshipping Yahweh in the 
ritual of the temple, as prescribed by Yahweh in His Law, and so 
well pleasing to Him. The Sheol of the Hebrews corresponds 
with Hades of the Greeks, the subterranean region whither aUU 
mankind go at death and live in a shadowy state of existence. 

Str. III. 7. The congregation now intensifies the plea in five 
syn. lines, describing their sad condition, which again subdivides 
into an introductory line and two syn. couplets. The groaning 
has continued so long, and has become so intense, that they are 
weary, worn out with it. — Every night on the bed, || the couch, 
they must complain, and with such an intensity of grief, that tears 
burst from the eyes in a flood, wet the couch, and cause it to 
dissolve, as in a stream of rushing water. The figure seems extrav- 
agant to Western taste, but not to the Oriental. But it is still 
more extravagant in MT. and Vrss. in the previous line : " make 
my bed swim." This, by a change of vocalisation merely, gives 
the more suitable mng. " must complain," as we have given it 
above. — 8. The eye wasteth away by this continual weeping, 
because of grief ; and it waxeth old, becomes like the weakened, 
enfeebled eye of an old man, with little power of vision, — because 
of all mine adversaries^ whose actions cause such grief "and such 
bursts of tears. 

Str. IV. 9-11. — The congregation have not been overwhelmed 
by their grief and the divine chastisement ; their prayer receives 
its answer while they are making it. They express their confi- 
dence in a Str. of introverted parall. wherein the first and last 
lines are syn., and find their reason in the intervening syn. triplet. 
The reason is that Yahweh hath heard (repeated in emphasis) || 
accepteth\ That which he heard was the voice of my weeping || 
my supplication \\ my prayer. Therefore the congregation warns 
the workers of trouble = adversaries, v. 86 : Depart from me ; and 
expresses the assurance that they will turn back, they will be put 
to sha?ne } and that in a mo?nent i instantly without delay. This 



PSALM VI. 49 

shaming of the enemies in the climax is in striking antith. to the 
anxiety they have caused the congregation, v. 36 - 4a . A later editor, 
wishing to emphasise this still more, inserts v. lla . 

They shall be shamed, and they shall be dismayed exceedingly, all 
mine enemies. 

2. Sn] with Hiph. juss. ^rnrnn is usually attached to vb., here separated for 
assonance in >j so 1.2. — % r\y~\ vb. Hiph. (i) decide, judge 94 10 ; (2) convince, 
convict 50 21 ; (3) reprove, chide 50 8 105 14 ; (4) correct, rebuke 6 2 =38 2 141 5 
Jb. 5 17 i3 10 - 10 Pr. 3 12 . — ^nona" 1 ?*^] has two beats. % n^n n.f. (1) venom, of 
serpents 58 5 ( 5?) , as Dt. 32 24, 33 , of arrows 140 4 ; (2) burning anger, rage, of 
man 37 s 76 11 - n , of God 6 2 38 2 59 14 78 38 79 88 8 8g 47 90 7 106 23 . — mm] is a 
gloss in both lines. In 3 6 it is not in <g. — 3. t' ?l ? D *] a -^- adj. = + ^Snx 
Ne. 3 34 ; but better ptc. S^dno with omitted as frequently in intensives when 
with shewa. — ^K9"\] Qal imv. J Nan vb. heal from peril of death as 30 3 41 5 
103 3 I07 2) , more general mng. 147 3 . — JOH] n «f« bone for bodily suffering as 
22 i5. is ^i 11 32 s 34 21 35 10 38 4 42 11 51 10 I02 4 - 6 109 18 , for skeleton of the dead 
53 6 141 7 . — 4. IKE] adv. exceedingly 35 t. in \p. — n*o] Kt. nn*o Qr (3 <ri> dub. 

— >nD~nj?] <& £ws tt6t€, abs. how long (shall it be). J \~d adv. when 41 6 42 s 
94 8 ioi 2 119 8284 . — *no— 1>? until when, how long? sq. pf. So 5 , impf. 74 10 82 2 
94 3 , abs. 6 4 90 13 94 s . It is difficult to see with this interp. why |^ connects 
with previous line. By connecting with subsequent context we get 2 str. of 
5 1. each, which is evidently correct. We might read vib~-i£ riNM Qal impf. 1 
consec. % nn« vb. come Ps. 68 32 Dt. 33 21 , c. "ij? Mi. 4 8 and *nb n. I sf. my 
death (v. v. 6 ) and render, And so it is come unto my death, I am at the point 
of death, which admirably suits the context (Br. SHS 374 ). — 5. naitf] Qal. 
imv. cohort. 3-ltf as 7 8 80 15 90 3 all of God. — mm] is a gloss as v. 3 " 5 . — nxSn] 
Piel imv. cohort. % Vr ,L,n Q a l draw off, not in \p but f Niph. be delivered 
60" = 108 7 Pr. II 8 - 9 Piel rescue, deliver sq. Bfal life 6 5 116 8 , c. ace. p. 18 20 
(=2 S. 22 20 ) 34 8 50 15 81 8 91 15 119 153 140 2 (Ps. f dub.). — tfei] I in the 
sense of life, elsw. 'j h^n 22 21 33 19 56 14 , bVd 89 49 116 4 , 'J mo 34 s3 55 19 71 23 , 
cf. 49°, -j isc* 25 20 97 10 , '} vp2 35 4 38 13 40 15 54 5 63 10 70 3 86 14 ; other uses f 
31 14 56 7 59 4 69 s 71 10 7 2 13 - 14 74 19 78 50 119 109 I2 4 4 - 5 . For u ; dj with other 
mngs. v. f io 3 16 10 17 9 22 30 £DR. Br. JBL 1897 > 17 s <i-. — rnpn flgS] = 44 27 v. ^. 

— 6. nijM] 3 local, in the place or state of death. J niD n.m. (1) ofca^ 
as opp. life 13 4 33 19 49 18 56 14 68 21 73 4 78 50 Ii6 8 - 15 ; (2) death by violence 
7 14 18 53 22 16 55 5 116 3 , as penalty 118 18 ; f (3) state or place of death W 49 15 
Is. 28 15 - 18 38 18 Ho. 13 14 Hb. 2 5 Ct. 8 6 Pr. 5 s 7 27 ||. jna« Jb. 28 22 , tj nytf 
£#tey of death Pss. 9 14 107 18 Jb. 38 17 . — f^T n«£ ^ underworld Dt. 32 22 
Is 14 9 Pr. 15 24 ; under mts. and sea Jb. 26 6 Jon. 2 3 , contrasted with height of 
heaven Am. 9 2 Jb. n 8 Ps. 139 8 Is. 7 11 . Thither men descend at death 
Gn. 37^ (E) 42 38 44 29 -3i (J) 1 S. 2 6 1 K. 2*- 9 Jb. 7 9 2i* 3 Is. 14U. ™ Ps. 88 4 , 
Korah and his associates by divine judgment Nu. i6 30 - 33 (J) cf. Ps. 55 16 . It 
has a mouth Ps. 141 7 and is a city with gates Is. 38 10 and has bars Jb. I7 16 ( ? >. 

E 



50 PSALMS 

It is syn. with mn Pr. 5* f Ct. 8 G Ps. 89 49 . It is personified Is. 28 15 - 18 , as 
insatiable monster 5 14 Hb. 2 s Pr. I u 27 20 30 10 , and has snares Ps. 18° 
(= 2 S 22'), cf. 116 3 . It is dark and gloomy and from it there is no return 
Jb. 17 18 (cf. v. 16 7 9 ); earthly distinctions cease there Jb. 3 17 " 19 2I 23-20 . 
Ec. 9 5 - 6 - 10 represent the dead as without work or knowledge or wisdom : but 
these gloomy passages of Jb. and Ec. are not to be taken too seriously, for 
they do not correspond with the ordinary representation of other passages. 
In postex. Lit. the condition of the righteous and the wicked is often dis- 
tinguished. The wicked, whether nations or individuals, descend to Sheol 
Pss. 9 18 3 1 18 (cf. Nu. I6 30 - 38 ); death acts as their shepherd, and they waste 
away without power or honour Ps. 49 15 ' 15 . Sheol consumes them as drought- 
water Jb. 24 19 . The righteous dread to go thither because there is no ritual 
worship there Ps. 6 6 , cf. 88 s Is. j8 18 ; deliverance from Sheol is a blessing 
Pss. 30 4 86 13 Pr. 23 14 . In Ez. it is a place of reproach, the abode of uncircum- 
cised 31I6. 16. 17 -j2 21 - 27 . The righteous will not be abandoned to Sheol 
Ps. 16 10 , cf. 17 15 , but will be ransomed from it 49 16 , cf. 73 J3 - -25 Is. 57 1 - 2 
Jb. 14 18 17 13 . In latest Lit. there is a distinction in Sheol. It has depths 
to which the wicked fools descend Pr. 9 18 . It is contrasted with jvon 
Pr. 15 11 . "N3, ~nr when || s inu ; are in the bad sense of a pit or place of the 
lost v. 7 16 which prepares the way for local distinction in later Judaism as re- 
flected in Lk. 16 19 " 81 . *?wtf is also used fig. of degradation in sin Is. 57 s and of 
place of exile for Israel Ho. I3 14 - 14 . — T^l] sf. obj. X ~\y n.m. (1) remembrance, 
memory of person or people 1 12 6 blotted out by their destruction g 1 34 17 109 16 ; 

(2) commemoration of Vahweh in the ritual (fi 30 5 97 12 102 18 III 4 145 7 ; 

(3) memorial by which one is remembered 135 8 . — <p] who can, implying 
neg. answer (v. <p). — iS n-V»»] Hiph. impf. 3 m. irv (v. Intr. § 39). -^ 
makes the line too long. It is an error of late style for earlier rpfti of Is. 38 18 . — 
7. »£J?J*] Qal pf. I p., of state or condition Dr. § n % yv c. a 6 7 69 4 Is. 43 s2 
57 10 Je. 45 3 . — ♦I?* 1 ??] n.f. sf. I p. JnmM n.f. sighing, groaning, in distress, 
physical or mental 6 7 31 11 38 10 102 8 . The line lacks a word. Du. rightly 
prefixes '3, giving reason of foregoing. It was omitted because of previous "j 1 -. 
— •T^'n] Hiph. impf. I p. frequentative, VTr' v ^* SW2m t elsw. Is. 25 1] 
Ez. 47 5 , so here (S Xovcxu), 3 natare faciam. This suits subsequent context, but 
not the previous, or mention of time, and is indeed an extravagant metaphor. 
It is more natural to take it as parallel with the next line. Therefore we 
should point it rirrirN, Qal impf. cohort, rvir as 55 18 77 4 Jb. 23 s . — nS^-Saa] in 
every night, phr. a.X. dub., a later intensification by inserting Ss. Rd. % r,l ? ,i ?3 
as 42 9 77 7 88 2 90 11 119 55 121 6 136 9 . — y ~:'?r~\ n.f. sf. my couch % nwp n.f. a.X. \p 
|| \ trip 6 7 41 4 132 8 . — ngDM] Hiph. impf. freq., tr. to beginning of 1. in order to 
assonance, of " , " i- >" in , _. f hd*: vb. melt for usual DD2 Hiph. cause to melt, 
dissolve elsw. of ice 147 18 , cause to vanish 39 12 , fig. ^h, intimidate Jos. 14 8 . 
ddo Hiph. only Dt. I 28 . It is possible that we should rd. here cohort, nrrs 
IJnrpirN in order to assonance with nrrr, n^~r. — 8. fn^p] vb. Qal pf. 3 f. 
denom. r? n.m. moth, as waster, consumer 39 12 ; vb. elsw. 31 1011 . — + D *r] 
n.m vexation, as (1) grief & io 14 31 10 Ec. I 18 2 128 7 8 II 10 ; (2) as anger of 



PSALM VII. 51 

X nprw] vb. Qal pf. sf. 

advance in years, grow old, as Jb. 21 7 . — nmx] Qal ptc. pi. sf. I p. f -nx vb. 
be an adversary Nu. io 9 25 17 - 18 33 s5 (allP) Is. II 13 Ps. I2Q 1 - 2 Est. 3 10 8 1 
9 10 - 24 ; ptc. sg., usually single person, but Ps. 7 s prob. coll. ; pi. of God's 
adversaries 8 3 74 4 - 23 , man's Ex. 23 22 (E) Am. 5 1 * 2 Pss. f 23 5 31 12 42 11 ; c. Sj 
io 5 69 23 143 12 ; so prob. here except that assonance in ■>_ is then abandoned. — 

9. '2 niD] Qal imv. J i-id vb. Qal (1) turn aside Ps. 119 102 , fjPO 34 15 37 27 Jb. 
28 28 Pr. 3 7 13 19 i6 6 - 7 , revolt Ps. 14 3 Je. 5 23 Dt. n 16 17 17 ; (2) depart, c. p pers. 
Ps. 6 s 119 115 139 19 ; (3) &? removed, c. p pers. ioi 4 . Hiph. (1) remove, take 
away, c. p 18 23 39 11 81 7 1 19 29 Ex. 8 4 - 27 (J) 23 s5 (E) Is. 3 1 ; (2) put aside, reject, 
Ps. 66 20 , cf. Is. 31 2 . — fix *hvp] v. j 6 . Sa is gloss, as 28 s 36 13 59 s 64 s 125 6 
I4i 4 - 9 unnecessary amplification. — ^DD] should be tr. to the end of the line 
for assonance. — mm] is a gloss, destroying the measure. — «aa S'^p ypir] 
phr. a.\. but Sip J?DB> 18 7 55 18 64 s 1 19 149 v. ^4. J 13a n.m. weeping 30 6 102 10 . — 

10. »P3rw jptf] cf. »yurn Sip 'tf 28 2 -° 31 23 I16 1 . J^runri n.f. sf. 1 p. alw. this 
form Pss. 55 2 H9 17) . — 11. iSmn icb;] Qal impf. tfia coordinate by simple 
l with Niph. impf. Sna as S^ 18 . For other uses of Sna v. v. 3 ^. J Bha vb. Qal 
(1) feel shame 22 6 25 s - 3 31 18 37 19 86 17 97 7 109 28 1196. 46. 78. so I2 y» ( nroN l, x 
31 2 (= 71 1 ) 18 25 s , cf. 25 20 ; (2) be ashamed, put to shame 6 n 71 13 , sq. dSdh 
35 4 09 7 Je. 14 3 22 22 Is. 41 11 45 16 - 17 Ez. 16 52 36 s2 Ezr. g G , nan Pss. 35 s6 40 15 70 8 
7 1 24 Je. 15 9 Mi. 3 7 Jb. 6 20 , JD Ps. 129 5 , Snaj 6"- 83 18 . Hiph. put to shame 14 6 
H9 31,11G , enemies by defeat 44 s 53 6 . — ^aj or] impfs. without 1 coordinate 
more emphatic. 1 is given, however, (&. B"a preceded by 3-iir a.X. It evi- 
dently has the mng. here of turn back in defeat, as 9*- 18 56 10 . — yn] i.p. 
X yn n.m. moment of time 30 6 , elsw. adv. ace. in a moment 6 11 , >'J~o 73 19 as 
Nu. 16 21 = 17 10 . <3 inserts (r<p68pa nxp as above. Du. thinks v. 10a a gloss as 
variation of v. 95 . It suits the measure and assonance better than v. lla . The 
Str. is just one line too long, and one of the lines must be thrown out. V. lla 
is a pentameter and least suitable to the context. 



PSALM VII., 2 str. io 3 . 

Ps. 7 is a prayer for deliverance from a personal enemy : (i) a 
petition for salvation from his pursuer, with an imprecation of 
death upon himself, if he had done the wrong charged against 
him (v. 2-6 ) ; (2) expressing confidence that Yahweh was prepar- 
ing weapons against his pursuer, and that his mischief and 
treachery would receive just retribution (v. 13-17 ). Subsequent 
editors inserted a plea for the judgment of the nations in an 
ultimate world judgment (v. 7-8 ), a judgment between the right- 
eous and wicked in Israel (v. 96-12 ), and a liturgical couplet of 
praise (v. 18 ). 



52 PSALMS 

A/TYGod, in Thee do I seek refuge; 

Save me from him that pursues, and deliver me; 
Lest, like a lion, he tear me, 

While there be (none) to tear away and none to deliver. 
My God, if I have done this, 
If there be iniquity in my palms, 

If I requited him that was at peace with me with evil; 
Let him pursue me, and let him overtake me, 
And let him tread to the earth my life, 
And my honour let him lay in the dust. 
TF not, He whets His sword, 

Doth tread His bow and make it ready. 

And doth prepare for him deadly weapons; 

His arrows He maketh into fiery ones. 

Lo! he travaileth with iniquity, 

And conceiveth mischief and bringeth (it) forth. 

A pit he hath dug and dug out, 

And he will fall into the hole he is making. 

His mischief will return on his own head, 

And upon his own pate his violence come down. 

Ps. 7 was in Q, but only in its original form. In that form the historical 
reference in the title "which he sang to Yahweh because of the words of 
Cush, the Benjamite" has some propriety; although there is no mention 
of such a person in the history of the times of David. This fact gives some 
force to the correctness of a tradition only preserved here; for we know of 
nothing in the Literature upon which it could be based. There is nothing 
in the original form of the Ps. that prevents the composition by David under 
some such circumstances, when he was pursued by Saul and his Ben- 
jamite warriors. The traditional circumstance may, however, have been an 
editorial conjecture. This prayer appropriately follows Ps. 6 in Q. It was 
not included in 15 or Q&. Accordingly, no musical assignment was made. 
<@, U have n)DTC, implying its use in £H {v. Intr. § j/) instead of ]VW of $ 
which was probably a txt. err. The word has not yet been explained (v. Intr. 
§ 34). There is a striking inconsistency between the plea for interposition 
against an individual enemy in v. 2 " 6 - 13 " 17 and the judgment of nations v. 79a , 
and between the righteous and wicked in Israel v. 10 " 1 - (v. Bi., Che.). This 
can only be explained by the insertion of these latter as glosses, to give the 
Ps. a more general reference for congregational use under later circumstances. 
Moreover v. 2 " 6 - 13_17 are trimeters : v. 7-12 in the main at least pentameters. 
Che. is mistaken in regarding v. 7-12 as homogeneous. There is a difference 
between Yahweh's judgment of the nations v. 7 " 8 and Elohim's judgment of 
the wicked in Israel v. 10 " 12 . The original Ps. is very early, possibly as early 
as David; the Yahwistic gloss belongs to the Persian period, the Elohistic 
gloss to the Greek period. Other minor glosses harmonized in a measure the 
differences, and a liturgical addition made the Ps. more appropriate for use 



PSALM VII. 53 

Str. I. is composed of a trimeter tetrastich followed by two 
trimeter tristichs. — 2-3. The tetrastich has a synth. couplet stat- 
ing, My God, in Thee do I seek refuge~\ followed by the petition, 
save me from him that pursues me and deliver me] . The poet 
was pursued by a personal enemy, an individual ; and has sought 
refuge in Yahweh for deliverance, possibly at the sanctuary itself. 
A synth. couplet gives the reason for the plea, lest, like a lion, he 
tear me]. The pursuer will tear him, as a lion his prey, unless his 
God saves him. There is none (other) to tear him away, from 
this lion, and none (else) to deliver him. The pursuer seems to 
have some pretext for this pursuit : he charges the poet with viola- 
tion of covenant and personal injury. This the poet repudiates 
before his God, in a syn. tristich of conditional clauses, followed 
by a syn. tristich of imprecation upon himself if the condition 
which he denies be true. — 4-5a. If I have done this] the 
specific thing charged against him by his pursuer ; if there be ini- 
quity in my palms] a phr. usually referring to the acceptance 
of bribes : it can hardly be physical injury by the hands, for there 
could be no dispute about that. — if I requited him that was at 
peace with me with evil] that is, one in a covenant of peace, a 
friend who had a right to look for good treatment, involving there- 
fore treacherous breach of friendship and covenant, justly exciting 
the penalty of pursuit and death. He recognises the rightfulness 
of the pursuit if his statement be false. — 6. Let him pursue me] as 
he is doing, v 26 , and furthermore, let him overtake me], do not save 
me from him, v. 26 , and let him tread to the earth my life], trample 
me under foot and kill me as v. 3a , and my honour], phr. for living 
soul, life, let him lay in the dust], throw down prostrate in the dust 
of death, cf. v. 35 . A later editor, adapting the Str. for congrega- 
tional use, makes the pursuer pi. : "all that pursue me" v. 26 , inserts 
"enemy " v. 606 , and makes a premature renouncement of treachery. 

Nay, I used to rescue them that were my adversaries to no purpose (v. 56 ). 

7-12 constitute a series of glosses separating the two Strs. of the 
original Ps. They take a wider outlook than the rescue of an 
individual from his personal enemy ; they contemplate the judg- 
ment of the nations, and of the wicked adversaries of the righteous 
in Israel. There were probably three separate stages in these 



54 PSALMS 

glosses v. 7-8 , v. 9a , and v. 96 " 12 . 7-8 were probably three pentameters 
in the original text. They are syn. lines of beauty and power 
written by a real poet. 

O arise, Yahweh, in Thine anger; lift Thyself up in outbursts of rage; 

O rouse Thyself, Yahweh my God, to the judgment Thou hast commanded, 

While the congregation of peoples assemble around Thee, on high O sit enthroned. 

Yahweh is urged in a pressing appeal : O arise, Yahweh,\\ lift 
Thyself up || O rouse Thyself, Yahweh my God || on high O sit 
enthroned.] These were probably the original readings. (For 
variations see textual notes.) It is an invocation of the congre- 
gation of Israel to their national God to intervene on their behalf; 
to sit on His throne of judgment and convoke all parties to His 
judgment seat. It is assumed that the decision will be in favour 
of His people, in anger I outbursts of rage] manifested in striking 
ways. It is also affirmed that such a judgment has been already 
commanded. The people of God were sure that it would eventually 
take place, they are in such straits that they urge that it shall be 
at once. — Wliile the congregation of peoples assemble around 
Thee]. It is a judgment of nations, gathered from all parts about 
the divine throne for that purpose. This reflects an entirely 
different situation from that of the original Ps., and a state of mind 
represented in Pss. 96-100, cf. Jo. 3. 

9a, a trimeter line, Yahweh judgeth the peoples], is entirely 
apart from previous or subsequent context, stating a fact in the 
midst of earnest entreaties for judgment. It is a marginal gloss. 

96-12 is a series of pentameters of a different type from the 
original Ps. and also from v. 7-8 . 

JUDGE me, Yahweh, according to my righteousness, according to the integrity 
that is upon me. 
O let the evil of the wicked come to an end, and establish the righteous. 
A trier of hearts and reins is the righteous God. 
My shield is upon God, a Saviour of the upright in mind. 
God is a righteous judge, an 'El taking vengeance every day. 

The antith. is now, not between the individual and his pursuer, 
nor between Yahweh and the nations, but between the righteous 
and the wicked in Israel itself; and so is of a much later date. 
The judgment is not an ultimate one, but a daily testing and tak- 
ing vengeance ; and the divine name is Elohim and not Yahweh. 



PSALM VII. 55 

This gloss is not earlier than the Greek period (cf. Ps. i). The 
author represents the righteous in Israel. The key word of the 
five lines is righteousness, according to my righteousness v. 96 , the 
righteous v. 10a , the righteous God v. 105 , the upright in mind v. 115 , 
righteous judge v. 12 ; cf. the syn. terms for judgment: judge me 
v. 96 , establish v. 10a , in the sense of vindicate, cf. 99*; trier v. 105 , 
Saviour v. 11 , judge v. 12 . In the other parts of the lines according 
to the integrity that is upon me v. 96 has as its antith., O let the evil 
of the wicked come to an end v. 10a ; trier of hearts and reins has 
as its antith. taking vengeance every day. — My shield over me is 
God], protecting me from all enemies as 3 4 . J^ " upon God " 
makes God the shield bearer of His people, a conception which 
all EV. 8 shrink from, in their varied modes of paraphrase. It is 
possible that the text of (3 v. 12a is correct : strong and patient; if 
so, the pentameter line is complete without " El taking vengeance 
every day," and that must be regarded as a minor gloss. But it 
is better suited to the context than the additional words of (3, and 
gives a better climax. Rather (3 is a gloss. 

Str. II. 13 sq. is an antistr. The condition of the imprecation 
in the previous Str. is taken for granted as false, in the abrupt 
if not] without vb. in the original, (" if it is not so, and it is not " ; 
explained by gloss, if he, the pursuer, turn not). Yahweh be- 
comes the pursuer of the poet's pursuer. This is expressed in 
four syn. trimeters in antith. with v. 2-3 , so ancient Vrss. EV. B and 
most comm., but many moderns Che., Ba\, Du., Ehr. make the 
enemies of Str. I. the actor here also. — 13-14. He whets His 
sword] in behalf of the one who has sought refuge in Him v. 2a ; 
He doth tread His bow and make it ready], to save from the pur- 
suer v. 25 ; He doth prepare for him deadly weapons], to kill the lion 
ready to tear his prey v. 3a ; His arrows He makeih into fiery 
ones], in response to the apparent abandonment of W 5 *. This 
tetrastich is followed by two trimeter tristichs v. 15_16a v. 165-17 , bringing 
out the true character of the pursuer and his ultimate ruin. — 15- 
16a. Lot he travaileth with iniquity], over against the false 
charge against the poet v. 4a ; and conceiveth mischief and bringeth 
it forth], in antith. with v. 4& . A gloss gives an object "falsehood " 
to the third vb., but that makes the line too long and mars the 
effect of the single word, mischief, syn. with iniquity. The pursuer 



56 PSALMS 

is compared to a woman in childbirth : mischief is the babe which 
is born. — A pit he hath dug and dug out], passing over from the 
metaphor of childbirth to the metaphor of making a pit to ensnare 
animals, common in if/. This is antith. to v. 5a ; instead of the 
poet being the treacherous violator of covenant and friend- 
ship, the man, who pursues him with false charges, has tried to 
take him like an animal in the covered pit. — 166-17. The final 
tristich is in antith. with the imprecation v. 6 j the imprecation falls 
on the pursuer and not on the pursued. He will fall into the hole 
he is making] antith. with v. 6 *; his mischief will return on his own 
head] antith. with v. 66 ; and upon his own pate will his violence 
come down] over against v. 60 . And so, seeking refuge in God, the 
poet sees God pursuing his pursuer, and bringing upon him the 
retribution which he demanded for the wrong which he himself 
had done. 

18. A later editor added a liturgical gloss as a suitable close 
of the Ps. in its final form after it had been generalised and 
adapted for public worship. 

I will praise Yahweh according to His righteousness 
And I will make melody to the name of Elyon. 

This liturgical couplet is a trimeter like the original Ps. It is syn. 
■ — I will praise] in public praise || I will make melody. Yahweh is 
the object of the first line, Elyon, the Most High, of the second 
line. The second Yahweh has been inserted as gloss. The name] 
of the second line is syn. with according to His righteousness of 
the first. 

2. f ^K IWV] 7 2 - i I3 4 I8 29 303 ? H 3524 40 6 IQ4 1 I09 26 JJu. 22 18 (JE) Dt. 4 8 

IS 16 26 14 Jos. I4 8 - 9 2 S. 24 24 1 K. 3 7 5 18 - 19 ( = 2 Ch. 2 3 ) 8 28 ( = 2 Ch. 6 19 ) I7 20 - 21 
Je. 3 1 18 Hb. i 1 ' 2 , thus phr. of D; elsw. Postex. 1 Ch. 21 17 22 7 Ezr. 7 28 g s Is. 25 1 
Dn. 9 420 Jon. 2 7 Zc. II* 13 9 14 6 . The line is too long both here and in v. 4 , 
therefore mrv is a gloss; so also Pss. 18 29 35 s4 104 1 . — S^p] s r is intensifica- 
tion, only T is original. — '?7 S ] Qal ptc. pi. sf. 1 s.; pi. later interpretation for 
an original sg. J VlT 1 y h- Qal: (1) pursue enemy in war 18 38 31 16 35 s - 6 
7 1 11 83 16 ; so here, for v. 3 - 6 favour reference to pursuit of warrior. (2) perse- 
cute 69 s7 109 16 1198*. 86. 157. 161 I42 7 j^s, (3) follow after, in good sense 
34 15 38 21 , in bad sense 119 150 . (4) follow after in order to benefit 23°. 
Pi. pursue ardently, possibly v. 6 , but prob. = 143 3 . 1TV is a Massoretic 
conceit prob. giving choice of q-n- Qal or *jtv Pi., Ges.§ 63n , K6. L § 160 . — ■ 
•jSwV] i coord. Hiph. imv. sf. 1 p. [v/J^] not use d * n Qal, but Hiph. : 



PSALM VII. 57 

(i) snatch away words from mouth 119 43 ; (2) deliver from enemies and 
troubles, c. ace. f 22 9 25 20 31 3 40 14 70 2 71 2 72 12 106 43 109 21 , c. p i8 18 - 49 22 2 i 

34 5. 18. 20 35 10 54 9 59 2. 3 6 9 15 9I 3 joyC I20 2i 4 2 7 1438 144^ T g 3^6 g 2 4 97IO 144X1, 

ipp 18 1 (=2 S. 22 1 ), abs. Svsd pw 7 s 50 22 71 11 Is. 5 s9 42 s2 Ho. 5« Mi. s 7 ; 
(3) deliver from, c. p death 33 19 56 14 , Sheol 86 13 ; (4) deliver from sin and 
guilt 39 9 51 16 79 9 119 170 , Niph. pass, be delivered, abs. 33™, c. p 69 15 . — 
3. «ra?-JB] negative final clause, lest. % rps tear, rend, of wild beasts Gn. 37 s3 
44 28 (J) Ex. 22 12 (E), elsw. only in metaphor in Fss. y 3 17 12 22 14 of men com- 
pared to lions, and Ps. 50 22 of God. — X T.'™] H° n 7 3 iq9 i 7 12 22 14 - 22 , cf. n« 
22 17 (?). — v ^dj] me (v. j 3 ). — pns] Qal ptc. Jpifl: (1) tear away from, 
deliver, c. p 136 24 La. 5 s , so here if after @, /i?7 6ptos \vrpovfx4vov, we read 
pnb pn; so 5, Gr., We., Du., al.; but $} interpreted as (2) tear in pieces, in 
same sense as Pi. 1 K. 19 11 . — 4. *ntferjraN] is Qal pf. I s. protasis conditional 
clause continued in v. 465a with apod, v. 6 in juss. of imprecation. — nw] is 
neuter, this thing, with ntsty, phr. a.X. \p, but Gn. 3 14 (J) 20 5 - 6 45 19 (E). — 
r; - ON] conditional, implying neg. answer. J vh originally n. but in usage 
subst. vb. is, are, tvas, etc., " not as a mere copula, but implying existence 
with emphasis" BDB.; elsw. (1) affirmative, vfr ^H 5S 12 , t^'" 1 T N 135 17 (pleon- 
astic). (2) interrogative ir;n 14 2 = 53 s without n 73 11 . — J Sip] n.m. injustice 
antith. np-ix yi 53* 82 2 . — 5. V?Sdj] Qal pf. 1 p. s. J y'pj (1) c. "?•; deal 
bountifully with 13 6 116 7 119 17 142 8 , so prob. 57 2 as @. (2) c. ace. pers. et rei 
requite y 5 18 21 ; elsw. c. h pers. 137 8 Dt. 32 s , hp Ps. 103 10 Jo. 4 4 2 Ch. 20 11 . 
(3) wean a child, only ptc. Ps. I3I 2 - 2 Is. II 8 , jnfroj elsw. Pr. 31 12 , cf. 
jnn awn Ps. 54 7 . — p 1 ? 1 ^] Qal ptc. oW denom. tfiStf peace, the one in 
covenant of peace with me; but prob. error for piVtr obj. sf. as »dV?B? tr>N 41 10 
vdW 55 21 , D^DiStf 69' 23 . — njVwn ] Pi. impf. cohort. 1 s., c. 1 consec. y/yhn 
(v. 6 s ). i consec. after three syn. lines with dn and before three syn. lines 
of apodosis, suspicious, esp. as sense of vb. rescue is antith. to the protasis and 
must be of the nature of a parenthesis. But such a parenthesis would not be 
expressed by 1 consec, and has more of the nature of a gloss than the thought 
of the poet, who seems to balance the three lines of apodosis over against the 
three of protasis. Such a parenthesis would use 1 coord, and perfect for 
single act, or imperfect for frequentative; but then why cohort, form? Ges., 
De., Ba. think of a derivative mng. spoil, despoiled not known to Heb. elsw. exc. 
in n. r\ihr\ plunder 2 S. 2 21 Ju. 14 19 ; but found in Aram. %, E, Houb., Dy., Gr., 
Che., Du., rd. nxn^x"<, y/yrh oppress Pss. 56' 2 106 42 . But this is not in accord with 
other lines of protasis, where the one supposed to be injured is a friend and ally, 
and not an adversary, still less an adversary who has not succeeded in accom- 
plishing anything. The line is not consistent with the context. It is really an 
antith. gloss which anticipates the apodosis. The glossator means to say, he has 
done the very reverse of injury to his friend : he has delivered habitually his 
adversaries, while they have vainly and without result striven against him. — 
X Dpn] adv. in vain, without accomplishing anything, v. Ps. 25 s 2 S. I 22 Is. 55 11 . 
— 6. 3^n] is a gloss, v. j 8 . — ''C'oj] me, as v. 3 — rirn] 1 coord, with Hiph. 
juss. 3 s. X [ J ^ ,J ] VD> > n °t found in Qal. Hiph. overtake, c. ace. after rpi in 



58 PSALMS 

Ex. 15 9 , often J Pss. f 18 58 , fig. of battle 40 18 69 25 . — Dbl»l] 1 coord. Qal 
juss. \ Don, elsw. 91 13 /raz*/ under foot. — P*<^] <&w« to the earth J4 1 89 40 , the 
life 143 3 || no> ,s 44 26 . — >>n] n. pi. sf. 1 m. ///y ///Jr. Jo^n only, n.m. pi. abst. 
life : (1) physical f 17" 21 5 26 9 31 11 34 18 63* 642 66 9 88 4 103 4 , 71 n* fc 23°' 27* 
128 5 , 712 during life 49 19 63 s 104 33 146 2 ; (2) as welfare, happiness 30 6 133 3 , 
»»n ■?*< 42° (so also by emendation 42 s 84 s ), 71 ItyD 27 1 , Tl "VpD 36 10 Pr. io 11 
13 14 14 27 16 22 , 71 mx Ps. 16 11 Pr. 5 6 15 24 . — **?33] *«y honour, J of seat of 
honour. || B^fij ; as 16 9 108 2 || 2^, cf. 30 18 c. nor, 57° c. rnqr. — " , ?" u> ] down to 
the dust, of death, as 22 80 30 10 , cf. Is. 26 19 ; or possibly of humiliation, as 44 s0 
113 7 119 25 , as Is. 47 1 Mi. 7 17 . — 7. nwp] Qal imv. cohort, v. j 5 . so my v. 7c , 
najtf v. 8 * — Nfc^jn] Niph. imv. cohort. N'J'j J Niph. of God, lift oneself elsw. 
94 2 ; of gates personified 24 7 . — nV^aga] pi. cstr. obj. against adversaries. 
% nnaj overfloxv, usually of anger and only such in \f/, and of divine anger, 
rage, fury 78 49 85* 90°- n ; pi. outbursts of rage here, cf. Jb. 2I 30 , contr. 
rps nn3? Jb. 40 11 . — rwjj] Qal imv. cohort. J "M?] vb. Qal r<?«^ oneself to 
action: of God 7~ 44 s4 59 s ; of man 57 s , as Ju. 5 12 ; harp and lyre Ps. 57 7 - 9 
= 108 3 ; rage Ps. 78 s8 . Polel. rouse, incite to activity, subj. Yahweh 80 8 . 
Hiph. as Qal 35 23 , prob. also 73 20 . — ,s n] usually interpreted as prep, ht* 
3 sf. 1 ad me, for me, but <S Kvpte 6 6e6s fwv — »^K nw as in v. 2a3a . \"iSk 1 
gives us needed word for pentameter and prob. occasioned the v-iSn "» v. 2a • 3a , 
where nm was not needed. — 8. ti3.td.-i] Polel impf., might be juss., relating 
to run" 1 , || imvs. ; but is prob. circumstantial clause, while they assemble, v. 
17 11 . — 7^?] over, above it, sf., refers to the congregation, prob. gloss of interp. 
— X av>;:] n.m. height; poetic (1) on high, elevated place 75°, cf. Jb. 39 18 ; 

(2) elsw. yf, height of heaven io 5 18 17 (= 144 7 ) 68 19 71 19 73 s 93* 102 20 148 1 , 
so here ; (3) without prep., The One on High, pred. of nw 56 s 92°. — naitr] 
Qal imv. cohort., of God, implies His absence from His heavenly throne of 
judgment. So |^, Vrss. and most, but this seems not to suit context. 
Rd. with Ra., Dy., Oort, Gr., al. natf, vb. sit enthroned, which suits context 
better, as 9 5 , and was prob. in original. — 9. wqv p*v *<\ is a gloss from 
96 10 . The original Ps. thought of a controversy between friends. This 
is generalized into a conflict of Israel with the nations. % pn vb. Qal : 
(1) act as judge, minister judgment, iDJJ 50 4 i35 14 = Dt. 32 s6 , D^Dp Pss. J 9 
96™, o^n 1 ' 9 9 , so the king 72 2 ; (2) execute judgment, vindicate in battle, 
of God 54 8 , the king no 6 . This vb. is syn. with the more comprehensive 
$ Bsc : (1) act as lazvgiver, governor, and judge, in the most comprehensive 
sense, of early date before Jehoshaphat established w*OBV t — only of men 
in \f/, px >DDB> 2 10 148 11 ; (2) decide controversies, discriminating betw. per- 
sons, of God 7 12 9 5 82 1 . There is no reference to judgment by men in \p. 

(3) execute judgment; {a) discriminating, of man only 58 s 82 2 ; (b) vindi- 
cating, of God, c. ace. pers. io 18 26 1 43 1 58 12 . fr»J3 7 9 35 24 , of man, c. ace. 
72 4 82 8 ; (c) condemning, punishing, of man 109 31 I4i 6 (?), of God 51 6 ; 
(d) esp. of God's theophanic advent to judge 50° 75 s 94 s . Vb. c. ace. San 9° 
96 18 98 9 , ps 82 8 96 18 98 9 , 0*DP 67 s , onc^D 75 s . Niph. be judged 9 20 37 s8 109 7 . 
For DBPD v. i 5 . A series of pentameters begins here, all of which are glosses. — 



PSALM VII. 59 

*|yiX3] cf. I8 21 - 25 17*0 35 27 37 6 and v. 42. — ty *sr>3] phr. a.\. Jon n.m. 
integrity 7 9 25 21 41 13 . t C. ~\hn Ps. 26 l - n Pr. io 9 ' 19I '20 7 28 6 . f »S °n Pss. 
78™ 101 2 Gn. 20 5 - 6 (E) 1 K. 9 4 . — 10. Nr-\DJ;"| Qal impf. juss. with particle. 
J nj particle of entreaty or exhortation: (1) attached to imv. 80 15 u8 25 - 25 
119 108 , ironically 50 2 ' 2 , cf. Is. 47 12 Jb. 40 10 ; (2) to impf. now I pray Thee Pss. 
yio n8 2 -3.4 II9 76 I22 8 I24 1 =i29 1 ; (3) with particles 115 2 u6 14 - 18 . — 
t "in i vb. Qal: (1) come to an end, be no more 7 10 I2 2 77°; (2) bring to an 
end, complete 57 s (?) 138 8 . It is a late word. In New Heb., Aram., and 
Syriac, complete. — D>?Bh jn] phr. a.X. For>n v.^O^tth /*. — n^Sp-i rrtaS fro] 
is based on Je. II 20 , where, however, the order of nouns is reversed, and 2 1 ? 
is used for rVaS, which has been here assimilated in form to n^Sp. n"»aS is 
used elsw. only Is. 44 18 Ps. 125 4 and Pr. 4t., and is late. % n^Sa n.f. only pi. : 
(1) physical organ, kidneys 139 13 ; (2) the reins, as seat of affections and 
emotions 16 7 73 21 Je. 12 2 , and so obj. of divine scrutiny, alw. || 2"? Pss. 7 10 
26' 2 Je. u 20 17 10 20 1 ' 2 . — tna ptc. with nominal force J VlJ n:i ] examine, 
scrutinise, test: (1) God subj. II 5 26 2 66 10 81 8 139 23 Je. cp, eyelids of God 
Ps. 11 4 , c. ace. 3^ 17 2 Je. 12 3 and nrSj 7 10 Je. II 20 , cf. 20 1 ' 2 + ; (2) subj. man, 
test, tempt, God Ps. 95 s Mai. 3 10 - 15 . — pn* D^rtSw] late style, as v. 11 , cf. Je. 
1 1 20 |i>"is Og^. 13 did not use D^nSw in such phrases. — 11. chSn Sp] cf. 62 s 
that is resting upon God as shield-bearer. <J£ attaches p^W to this v., and 
renders diKaia ij fiorideia fiov, reading *T?0 for "OJr;. But as Che. exclaims, 
" Yahweh, his servant's shield-bearer ! " hy is as Ba., Dy., Gr. for ^hy expl. 
as »Si? instead of »SvJ i?wr w<?, covering me, cf. 3 4 . — T^'] P^ cstr - X ~^\ adj.: 
(1) straight, of a way 107 7 Je. 31 9 ; (2) just, upright, (a) of God Pss. 25 s 92 16 , 
His laws 19 9 119 187 , nil 33 4 ; (b) of man 37 s7 , yn >?V] 37 14 (<g aS) f S3 n«£ 
7-" II 2 32 11 36 11 64 11 94 15 97 11 , cf. 125 4 ; (3) as noun sg. coll., of men 
II 7 (dub.), cf. Jos. io 13 , elsw. pi. of the upright among the people over 
against the wicked, common in WL. and late Pss. 33 1 49 15 107 42 in 1 112 24 
140 14 ; (4) abstr. uprightness 1 1 1 8 , prob. error ^ for itf <&, £,{£, 3, Hi., Ba. — 
12. DO^tr] Qal ptc. nominal force, see v. 9 ; (g adds *ai i<rxvpbs ical p.aKpbdvjxos, 
PBV. strong and patient, which makes a good pentameter. But this leaves 
D^'Sd^ DlU 7SO, for which <3 ^77 dpyrjv iirdywv nad' eK&crTrjv T\p.£pav, which 
would need still further enlargement to make another pentameter. Sx, if 
negative would require juss. and could not be with ptc. cj?'r Sn a.X., but v. 
ff> for Sk. cv'r Qal ptc. nominal force, % D>n, vb. be indignant, only here \}/, but 
Zc. I 12 Is. 66 14 Mai. I 4 +. \ Dtf n.m., indignation, of God 38 4 69 25 78 49 102 11 . 
| d'i , '~Sd3 every day, as 88 10 145 2 . — 13. :ntl'> nS-dn] is suited to the gloss. 
yc6\ was inserted as a seam. It is not suited to context of v. 2-6 in the original Ps., 
and it makes the line tetrameter instead of trimeter. nS~ox is protasis antith. 
to dn, cf. v. 4-6 , followed by apodosis. — B^O 1 ?* ">3"^n] Qal impf. c. s :nn emph. 
in position. This phr. is a.X. f B^oS vb. Qal: (l) hammer Gn.4. 22 ; (2) whet 
sword here, cf. I S. 13' 20 , of eyes Jb. 16 9 . Pu. ptc. 52 4 , sharpened razor, as 
sim. of tongue. — ~\y\ "intfpj n. emph. 'p "|-yi tread the bow, the ancient method 
of bending it with the foot instead of with the arm, y 13 n 2 37 14 , cf. Je. 51 8 
La. 2 4 , 3 12 Zc. 9 13 , cf. also yn-j-n 58 s (?) 64 4 . — ^.r^] ) consec. Polel ]ia 



60 PSALMS 

impf. 3 m. sg. sf. 3 f., continuation of previous action. The pf. with 1 consec. 
impf. instead of impf. of first clause was to emphasize over against the 
repeated action of whetting a sword, the immediateness of the single act of 
treading the bow and getting ready to shoot; both are graphic — 14. ^1] 
emph. i sf. 3 sg. refers to enemy. — nig-^a] a.X., but cf. Den '3 Gn. 495, 
mrwo o Ez. 9 1 . — D',?S-i] Qal ptc. pi. nominal force, f [p*«i] burn, hotly pur- 
sue, either mng. suitable here, cf. Ob. 18 , of Israel ravaging Edom, Ps. io 2 , of 
enemies as La. 4 1 *.— hyo\\ Qal impf. freq. as in v. 13 of whetting of sword.— 
15. njn] Io, behold, of graphic description v. BZ>B. — lu^am] Retracted 
accent on acct. of monosyl. that follows, so "imV 166 v. 2 12 ; * both accents are 
needed for measure. Vb. Pi. impf. 3 m., graphic description, \ ^n, elsw. 
Ct. 8 5 - 6 , denom. s pn birth pangs, and so writhe in travail. — mm] 1 consec. 
Qal perf. 3 m. carries on "?3n\ \ rnn conceive only here \p, but in fig. sense 
also Is. 59 4 Jb. 15 35 . J Spy n.m. : (1) trouble, of sorrow io 14 25 18 73 s - ™ 90 10 ; 

(2) trouble, mischief, as done to others 7 17 94 20 140 10 ||. px 7^ io 7 cc 1 *; 

(3) /W, A/^«r, very late WL. Pss. 105** 107 12 .— J -*gg n.m. in pause: 
(1) falsehood, in testimony, doing one hurt, 'ir ip 27 12 Ex. 20 16 Dt. 19 18 . 
•tf -qi Pss. 52 s 63 12 Mi. 6 12 Je. 9* 40 16 . f v net Pss. 31 19 120 2 Pr. io 18 
17 7 . t '* 'JBO Ps. 1 19™ Jb. 13*; (2) deceit, fraud, tr o>« Pss. 35™ 38 20 , cf. 69* 
II9 78. 86. (-j) deception, what deceives, disappoints, and betrays 33 17 

1IQ 29.104.118.128.163 ,^8.11. (4) He% of speech fa genera]> , ate u§age IQl7 

109-, as WL. Here -»ptf in unusual sense makes the line too long, and is 
interpretative gloss. — 16. J -V»3] emph. The early mngs. cistern, well, 
dungeon are not in yp, but (i) pit, as dug out 7 16 40 8 + ; (2) the Pit, in local 
sense || hwv, not, however, another name for Sheol, but a distinct place in 
Sheol, subsequent to Ez., Ez. 32 23 La. 3 53 - 55 Is. I4 15 - 19 Pss. 30 4 88 5 - 7 , no ni^ 
28 1 143 7 Is. 38' 8 Ez. 26 20 32- 5 - 29 - » so also Ez. 26 20 3 iH-i6 32 i8.-24 p r .~ii2 
2 8 17 . — i^o?!. 1 ] 1 consec. Qal impf. carrying on the action, still further con- 
tinued as result in bb*\. — ^p?] Qal impf. i.p. rel. clause, rel. omitted, as 
frequent in Poetry.— J rnr] n. : (1) sink, hole, pit, elsw. 9™ (?) 35? 94I8 
-f 4 t. ; (2) Pit, of Sheol, syn. ma, subsequent to Ezr. 16 10 30 10 49 10 55 24 103 4 
+ lot. — 17. ^BMna a v.: 1 ;] phr., elsw. 1 K. 2 33 Ob. 15 ; Qal impf. of future 
expectation. air in the sense of J requital, c. 2, elsw. c. S? 35 13 (?), i; 94 15 , 
S 54 7 (Kt.). — Ji.-.n] n. /a*, top of head, as 68**.— J D=n] n.m. violence, 
wrong, || Sdj? 7#, an 55 10 , nwj 73° interp. of ^n 72 14 , other uses 11 5 25 19 27 12 
35 11 5 83 74 20 - fDCn tr« violent man 18 49 (= CD-n b*H 2 S. 22 49 ) 140 12 
Pr. 3 31 16 29 . D'Dcn e*K Ps. 140 26 men of violent deeds. — 18. rrrm] Hiph. 
impf. || rngitn Pi. impf., both cohort, united by 1 coord. ID? denom. mor 
song {v. Intr. § 31). — mm] is gl., makes line too long, and is not needed 
with f»S? (v. Intr. % 32). 



PSALM VIII. 6 1 



PSALM VIII., 2 STR. 8 3 -f-RF. 2 3 . 

Ps. 8 is an evening hymn in two synth. trimeter octastichs, 
contrasting the glory of man as creature with the glory of the 
Creator. The Strs. are enclosed by identical trimeter couplets, 
praising the name of Yahweh as widespread in all the earth 
(v. 2a10 ). An initial prayer that Yahweh would set His splen- 
dour above the heavens, is followed by a contemplation of His 
strength, in the speech of sucklings, overcoming His enemies; 
and of the insignificance of man when compared with moon 
and stars (v. 26 ' 5 ). Man made lower than the gods is yet sover- 
eign of all creatures (v. 6 * 9 ). 

"yAHWEH, our Sovereign Lord, 

How magnificent is Thy name in all the earth. 
C\ SET Thy splendour above the heavens ! 

Out of the mouth of little children and sucklings 
Thou dost establish strength, because of Thine adversaries, 
To still the enemy and the avenger. 
When I see the work of Thy fingers. 
Moon and stars which Thou hast prepared; 
What is man that Thou shouldst be mindful of him? 
Or the son of mankind that Thou shouldst visit him? 
"VlfHEN Thou didst make him a little lower than the Elohim, 
With glory and honour crowning him, 

Making him to have dominion over the works of Thine hands; 
All things Thou didst put under his feet ; 
Cattle small and large, all of them, 
And also beasts of the field, 
Birds, and fish of the sea, 
Those that pass through the paths of the sea. 

YAHWEH, our Sovereign Lord, 

How magnificent is Thy name in all the earth. 

Ps. 8 was originally in IB, and then taken up into iftfl and IBIft 
{v. Intr. §§ 27, 31, 33). In the latter it received the assignment hy 
mrun, probably to be sung to a well-known vintage song (v. Intr. § 30). 
The linguistic evidence favours the Persian period wjin "> v. 2 - 10 , elsw. 
only Ne. io 30 ; the glory of God D^Dtfri by v. 2 , cf. 57 s 12 (= 108 6 ) 83 19 +, all 
late; opjnoi 3">in v. 3 elsw. 44 17 , njx v. 8 a.X., for mis. The relation of v. 6 " 9 to 
Gn. i 26 " 28 is evident. dtiSn dSx3 Gn. I 27 and dttSnd v. 6 must be interpreted 
in the same way as referring to gods, that is God and angels, in accordance 
with usage; cf. Pss. 86 8 07 7 136 2 ; cf. v. 7 with Gn. I 28 . We can hardly sup- 
pose that Gn. 1 derived its conception from Ps. 8, for it is there part of the 



62 PSALMS 

larger conception, and is therefore original and Ps. 8 derivative. The mode 
of creation is, however, different. Moon and stars are not created by com- 
mand, but by tht ringers of God, v 4 . This is more like the mode of creation 
in Gn. 2 7> 19 ; and there seems to be a reference to the superiority of man in 
speech of Gn. 2 16 - 2 ', in the emphasis upon the speech of sucklings v 3 . This 
free use of both of the poems of creation, originally in separate documents ot 
the Hexateuch, but first compacted in the age of Ezra, is best explained by 
the supposition that, when the Ps. was composed, the Pentateuch had already 
been compacted in essentially its present form. The Ps. must therefore be 
subsequent to Ezra. The Ps. is an evening hymn ; with no personal or his- 
toric references, but entirely general, adapted to the whole congregation of 
Israel ; and therefore we may conclude that it was composed for the con- 
gregation, and for purposes of public worship. It is admirably suited for 
this purpose, being symmetrical in structure, of two equal Strs., having an 
introductory and concluding Rf. The Ps. was probably composed in time 
of peace and prosperity, for the tone is peaceful and joyous. 



Rf. 2a, b is a trimeter couplet, the first line however without the 
last beat, in order to get a metrical pause before the utterance of 
the supreme thought. This is the Rf. which also closes the Ps. 
v 10 and so encloses it. Our Sovereign Lord ] pi. emph. Heb., 
not sufficiently expressed by "Lord" EV 8 . — How magnificent^ 
the majesty of God in its wide extent, amplitude, in all the earth~\ 
throughout its entire extent, cf. 76 s 93*. " Excellent," EV 8 ., sug- 
gests ethical rather than physical extent ; " glorious," Dr., " ma- 
jestic," Kirk, are too general. — Thy name'] summing up God's 
manifestation of Himself as the object of commemoration and 
praise. 

St. I. is a trimeter octastich, composed of an introductory line of 
petition, a synth. tristich, and a tetrastich of two syn. couplets, the 
second synthetic to the first. — 2c. O set] so most easily the Heb. 
cohort, imv. But a later scribe, wishing to connect with previous 
lines, and overlooking their independence as the Rf., inserted the 
relative, without venturing to change the form, and so has given 
difficulty to interpreters from the most ancient times. — Thy splen- 
dour] rich and brilliant display of majesty ; " glory," EV 8 ., " maj- 
esty," Dr., JPSV. are too general. — above the heavens] PBV., 
AV., as in all other passages ; " upon the heavens " RV., Dr., 
JPSV., Kirk., al., though grammatically correct, is not justified by 
usage. The heavens are antith. to earth of the Rf. The poet 



PSALM VIII. 63 

would say : "Thy name is widespread in all the earth, magnify it 
still more, set it above the heavens in the splendour of its mani- 
festations." — 3. Out of the mouth of little children] those just 
able to speak, and in this respect, notwithstanding their weakness 
especially as sucklings, superior to all other creatures, — a con- 
ception based on the naming of the animals by Adam Gn. 2 19 ~ 20 . — 
Thou dost establish'] emph. present. " Ordain " PBV., AV. in mod- 
ern usage is too strong and specific. — Strength'] over against the 
enemies of God, sufficient to silence them if not destroy them. 
The poet may have been thinking of the creative strength of God's 
speech, of Gn. 1, and so of the strength that God had established 
in human speech even of little children as superior to physical 
prowess. It is probable that he was thinking of the divine strength 
as recognised and praised by children, in accord with the render- 
ing of (3. — because of thine adversaries] RV., in accord with 
Heb., and not " enemies," PBV., AV., which so translate two dif- 
ferent Heb. words. — to still] to silence their hostile speech by 
the praise of children. — 4. When I see the work of Thy fingers^] 
The poet looks up to the heavens by night, above which he would 
have the splendour of Yahweh set, and sees there the work of His 
fingers. — the moon and stars] sufficiently indicate, in the ab- 
sence of the sun, that it is night, and that the author is thinking 
of the heavens. A prosaic copyist inserted heavens in the first 
line, and so destroyed its measure. Moon and stars were created, 
and put in their places in the heavens by the fingers of God. 
Gn. 2 7 " 19 seems to underlie this conception of the mode of creation ; 
only there man and animals were formed by the hand of God, as 
a sculptor carves out images or as a potter moulds them into clay. 
Here fingers are used with reference to moon and stars, and 
the verb prepared suggests the builder of 24 s 6$ 7 119 90 Pr. 3 19 8 s7 , 
the most frequent conception of the mode of creation, especially 
in later poets ; only the builder in this particular reference to 
moon and stars is an artist executing the finest kind of work by 
the artistic skill of his fingers. The " ordained " of EV S . is not 
suited in modern usage (as it was in old English) to the concep- 
tion of the use of the fingers of God. — 5. What is man. II The 
son of mankind] not any particular man, but the human kind, 
man as a race. When compared with moon and stars created by 



64 PSALMS 

God and manifesting His splendour, what does mankind amount 
to, that God should take any account of him ? — that thou shouldst 
be mindful of him. || that thou shouldst visit him']. These in 
Heb. are final clauses, with subjunctive mood, and not to be 
rendered with EV 8 . by the indicative mood as statements of 
fact. 

Str. II. is also a trimeter octastich, composed of an introduc- 
tory line as protasis, and an apod, consisting of a syn. distich, 
and a synth. pentastich, all in one sentence. — 6. When Thou 
didst make him]. The Heb. Waw consec. does not admit of the 
rendering as an independent clause, "Thou madest " PBV., or 
causal, "for Thou hast made" AV., RV., or adv., "and yet" 
JPSV. ; but requires either "and thou hast" Dr., going back to 
the historic act of creation of moon and stars of v 4 , and carrying it 
on into this new act of creation of man ; or else protasis of tem- 
poral clause as given above. — a little lower than the Elohim] 
referring to the creation of man in the image of Elohim Gn. i 27 , 
and the consultation of God with other Elohim, " Let us make " 
Gn. i 26 . As the context is strictly monotheistic, and the whole 
passage is so late in origin that polytheism is not to be thought of 
in the mind of the poet, we must think of the Elohim as com- 
prehending God and angels, the latter being in their historic 
origin, the ancient polytheistic gods, degraded to ministering ser- 
vants of the one God Yahweh. Therefore, they are not merely 
"angels" Heb. 2 7 , PBV., AV., or "God" RV., JPSV. and most 
moderns, or " divinity," as abstract Heng., Hu., Pe. ; but God and 
angels, divine beings, gods. — With glory and honour crowning 
him]. When man was created in the image of the Elohim , Gn. 
i 26 " 27 , he was crowned with their glory and honour, at his inaugu- 
ration as sovereign of the creatures. The splendour of Yahweh 
set above the heavens is reflected in His image, man, whom He 
has crowned as His representative to rule over the earth. — Making 
him to have dominion] as crowned king of the animal and vege- 
table kingdom man has rule over them. — Thou didst put under 
his feet] a paraphrase of Gn. i 26 " 28 ; two different but syn. verbs 
are used with essentially the same meaning. — Over the works of 
Thine hands || all things] on earth antith. moon and stars, the 
work of Yahweh's fingers in heaven. These works are described 



PSALM VIII. 65 

by specimens, using syn. words to those of Gn. i 26 " 28 . — those that 
pass through^ doubtless refers to the sea monsters of Gn. i 21 . 

2. irjiN nw] line shortened for metrical pause as I 1 . % |nx n.m. lord 

(1) master 12 5 105 21 , intensive pi. 123 2 ; (2) husband 45 12 , intensive pi.; 
(3) king no 1 , pi. 136 3 ; (4) God jhn 114 7 , tP** n Ss pin 07 5 Jos. 311. 13 (j) 
Zc. 4 14 6 5 Mi. 4 13 ; intensive pi. sovereign lord DunNn >jnN Ps. 136 3 = Dt. io 17 , 
irj-w 135 5 147 5 Ne. 8 10 , u>j-\n mm Ps. 5 2 - 10 Ne. io 30 . For »jt* 7/. Intr. § 32. 
— + "P^] ac U- wzafe spread, magnificent, majestic, of waters of sea 93* Ex. 15 10 , 
of kings Ps. 136 18 , of Yahweh 76 s 93*, His name 52-10; of nobles 16 3 (f^) 
(as Ju. 5 13 - 25 Je. 14 3 25 s4 Is. io 34 ), but better 4§ vb. ■nN.-JfiNrb] as 
v. 10 19 5 45 7 105 7 . — nn— iu ; n] rel. c. Qal imv. cohort, ^/jnj, rel. defined by 
rpin. Bo. interprets as permissive " mayst thou set." Ki., Genebr., al. as infin. 
cstr. for usual nn, as mi for nvj Gn. 46 s , " the setting of whose splendour." 
3 qui posuisti, <§, J&, 2, Hu., De., Pe., Gr., al., RV. This would imply nnnj, 
Ammon, Koster, Oort, al., unless as Ba. these Vrss. interpreted thus an inf. 
cstr. @ 6'rt eirripOr] suggested to Ew., Ri., al. run = jjn, extend, stretch out; but 
these vbs. do not exist in Heb., and this mng. does not correspond with (5f. 
Schultens rd. run x\. = praise ; Michaelis, njn Qal pf. = sonat, Dy. n_jn = Pu.pf. 
be praised; cf. Ju. 5 11 , so Ko. IL ^ § 595 = quod narratur. Buhl suggests the 
familiar nsj, but this would be so difficult textually that it would be just as 
easy to think of at':, which corresponds exactly with @. It is best to suppose 
with Che. that "WH is gloss of a prosaic copyist who wished to connect with 
previous line, not knowing that it was a Rf., and therefore should be as inde- 
pendent here as in v. 10 . Then the cohort, imv. is most appropriate at be- 
ginning of the Str. This also corresponds with the usage of d^d^.tSj?, 
which is alw. over, above the heavens 57 6 - 12 =io8 6 113 4 , cf. 83 19 . — 
\ Tin] n.m. vigour, splendour, majesty, (i) of king -nm 1W 21 6 45 4 III 3 ; 

(2) of God 8 2 148 13 , 11m -nn 96 s 104 1 ; cf. 145 5 — 3. Ping?] Pi. pf. 2 ms. God 
subject, possibly aorist referring to creation of man ; but prob. pf. of general 
truth. X icp vb. Qal fotmd, of creation c. ace. earth 24 s ; cf. 78 s9 89 12 102 26 
104 5 , cf. v. 8 sq. S, God's commands 119 152 ; Pi. establish 8 3 . — J rj;] n.m. 
strength, (1) material and physical 30 8 62 s 68 34 71 7 89 11 no 2 150 1 , ry S"up 61 4 
Ju. 9 51 Pr. 18 10 ; (2) personal, social, political, bestowed by Yahweh 1 S. 2 10 
Pss. 29 11 68 36 84 s 86 10 1 38 s , Yahweh the strength of His people 81 2 , for de- 
fence 28 7 - 8 46 2 59 10 - 18 84 s 89 18 , || nyvth n8 14 = Ex. 15 2 = Is. 12 2 , cf. 140 8 ; 

(3) strength of Yahweh as attribute 62 12 68 35 93 1 99 4 , as theme of praise 29 1 
96 7 (6 ri/ijw) 68 35 (<g Ufrv), so 8 3 (<g alvov, J},3,&, 2, Bar. Heb., Mt. 21 16 ) 
59 17 , in connection with sacred places 63 s (|| iUd), cf. 96 s , exerted against 
enemies Ex. 15 13 Pss. 2i 2 - 14 66 3 68 29 74 13 77 16 78 s6 90 11 105 4 , manifested in con- 
nection with the Ark 78 61 132 8 Aq., 2 icpdros 8 3 . 1& Htvhp. — Dgjnp* a^t»] 
elsw. 44 17 . 2^;x v. j 8 . D^nn Hithp. ptc. nominal force, J Dp) vb. Qal 
take vengeance, subj. God c. S>' 99 s . Hithp. ptc. 8 3 44 17 , avenge oneself, of 
men. — 4. nN-iN~\:>] Temporal clause apod. v. 5 . — T5'f] is a gloss; it makes 
line too long, and is unnecessary for mng. — rpn'paXN nn?c] phr. a.\. nirprj 

F 



66 PSALMS 

work of God in creation Pss. 103 22 ic>4 18 - 24 - 31 139 14 , of God's hands 8 7 19 2 

102 26 138 8 . — ">#*] unnecessary gl., it makes line too long. n/ijj >a] fully 

written Polel pf. 2 m. i.p. pr. — 5. no] in antithesis to re v. 2a ; cf. i44 3 (:nN). — 
X " nj £ (0 co11 - f° r mankind 8 5 90 3 144 3 , antith. D^nSn 73 s , cf. 103 16 io4 15 - 16 , 
antith. Yahweh and Israel, mere man 9 20 - 21 io 18 56 2 66 12 ; (2) of individual 
man 55 14 , pi. 26 9 55 24 59 s 76 s 119 24 139 19 . — || D^K-fa] J D^s n.m. (1) ;«««■ 
*t»4 coll. 17 4 22 7 36 7 49 18 - 21 56 12 58 12 60 13 68 19 73* 76 1 ' 1 78°° 82 7 94 10 - n I04 14 - 23 
105 14 108 13 115 4 u8 6 - 8 119 184 124 2 i35 8 - K 140 2 144 4 , dika Sa 116", onuSa 
39 6 - 12 6410, also cpn ]2 8 5 (= d^h 144 3 ) 8o 18 146 3 , usually 07s ya n 4 i2 2 - 9 
H 2 (= 53 3 ) 21 n 3V 20 '33 13 36 18 458 57 5 58 2 (?) 66 6 89 48 90 3 iojr 8 - 16 ' »• •> 115™ 
145 12 , antith. u ;, s >ja, elsw. 49 s 62 10 to D^Sn; (2) individual man, only 32 s 
84 s - 13 . — *a] that, introducing final clauses with Qal impf. 2 s. c. sf. 3 m. 
"U7.-T7, U^pn in rhyme. J "dt vb. remember, recall to mind I. (1) ««« subj. 
(a) past experience 42° 137 1 , cf. jf, neg. 137 6 ; (b) doings of Yahweh 77 12 
(Qr. Kt. Hiph. better) 105 5 143 5 , neg. 78" 106 7 , obj. clause with >z 78 36 , 
style of D ; (2) remember persons 109 16 ; (3) remember Yahweh, keep 
Him in mind 42 7 63 7 77*, abs. 22^, name of Yahweh 119 55 , His laws, 
103 18 119 52 . II. God subj. (1) remember persons with kindness, neg. 
88 6 , c. ace. 9 13 74 2 106 4 I15 12 , mankind 8 5 , c. V pers. 25 7 136 23 ; (2) re- 
member the devotion of His servants, c. ace. 20 4 132 1 ; (3) His cove- 
nant 105 8 106 45 in 6 119 49 , His mercy 25° 98 s , His word 105 42 , extenuating 
circumstances 78 s9 89 48 103 14 ; (4) sins 25 7 79 s , reproach 74 18 - 22 89^, the day 
of Jerusalem 137 7 . Niph. be remembered, c. s x 109 14 ; neg. = no longer 
exist 83 s . Hiph. (1) cause to be remembered, keep in reviembrance, c. ace. 
rei 45 18 ; (2) mention, c. a 20 8 , c. ace. 8j*, works of Jahweh 77 12 (?), His 
righteousness 71 16 ; (3) make an Azkara, titles of, 38 1 70 1 . — n,->5 vb. Qal 
(1) visit graciously 8 5 65 10 80 15 106 4 ; (2) to search 17 3 , punish 59° 89 s3 . 
Hiph. (1) entrust, c. T3 31 6 ; (2) appoint over, c. <*?j? 109 6 . — 6. wnDHFij] 1 con- 
sec. Pi. impf. 2 s. with sf. 3 s., introduces a new Str., and is a change of tense 
and cannot carry on previous impfs., protasis of temporal clause with apod. 
v 76 Tintf, the intervening clauses being circumstantial. — 3\"6nd] <3,S&, ?£, Heb. 
2 7 AV. angels ; Aq., 2, 6, 3 God ; so most moderns. Hu., Pe. divinity, abst., 
but there is no usage to justify it. D^nSn n.m. pi., % as real pi.: (1) rulers 
Ex. 21 6 22 7 8 - 8 - 27 Ju. 5 8 Pss. 82 1 - 6 138 1 ; (2) superhuman, divine beings, in- 
cluding God and angels. This is the most natural interp. of Gn. I 26 - 27 with 
1 pi. vb., so here, cf. Jb. 38 7 , where the O^Sh \n take part in the creation ; 
(3) angels Ps. 97 7 = DViSn(n) ^a Jb. i« 2* 3 8 7 Gn. 6 2 - 4 (J) ; (4) gods Pss. 86 8 
136 2 , D^Djyn »nSn 96 s Dt. 6 14 13 8 , 'n Sd Pss. 95 s 96 4 97 7 « 9 135 6 . For use of d\-iSn 
for God (v. Intr. § 32). — "nrn T>aa] phr. a.\., cf. TOT' -v\n 21 6 of king. — 
X far] n.m. (1) abundance, riches, 49 17 - 18 Gn. 31 x (J) Is. io 3 +. (2) honour, 
splendour, glory : of extern, conditional circumstances, (a) of man, at his crea- 
tion as crowned by God with -nrn 'a Ps. 8 s ; the king is given 'a (|| -nm tin) 
21 6 ; (b) of things: the restored holy land 84 12 ; (<r) of God's glory in his- 
toric and ideal manifestations to the pious mind: Yahweh's name is a name 
of glory 72 19 ; in the temple His glory is seen 26 s 63 s ; it is D^Dtf Sp 113 4 ; 



PSALM viii. 6y 

p«n ^3 Sy 57 6 - n = 108 5 ; in a thunderstorm He is m33n Sn 29 s ; His glory 
is oSiyS 104 81 ; great 138 5 ; the heavens declare *?H 'a 19 2 ; with refer, to the 
divine reign 14^- 12 ; He is 1133P tjSd. 24 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 . He will appear in glory 
102 17 ; His glory wiil dwell in the land 85 10 ; the earth will be filled with 
it 72 19 ; it will be declared among the nations and all will see it 97 s ; and 
peoples and kings revere it 102 16 . (3) honour: of position, '33 on II2 9 ; '3 np 1 ? 
73 24 . (4) honour, reputation, of character : of man, antith. noSp 4 s (also 2 Ch. 
26 18 Ec. io 1 Pr. 20 3 21 21 25 s7 ). (5) »iy honour: poet, of seat of honour in 
the inner man, the noblest part of man, || tfw f ; || a? 16 9 108 2 ; called upon 
to idt 30 13 (rd. >ni33 for "1133); nil? 57 s . (6) honour, reverence, glory : as 
due or ascribed to one: (a) of man : ||j:sr> 62 s ; (0) of God: rpv '3 79 9 ; 
S '3 pj 115 1 ; inSnn '3 o^ 66 2 ; S ryi '3 am 29 1 96 7 ; S intf '3 an> 29 s 96 s ; 

M3tf '3 "IDT 66 2 ; 0MJ3 MW3 13D 96 s ; fnttfeo '3 1DN I45 11 ; 1133 1CN 29 9 ; 
'33 «Sr exult with (ascription of) glory 149 5 . (7) glory : as object of 
honour and reverence : my glory (the one I glorify) 3 4 ; D1133 their glory 
106 20 ; for n-1133 v. 45 14 . \ inn n.m. (1) ornament, Wp *37?a, priestly robes 
as sacred ornaments no 3 (but rd. mn mountains, after (5, 2). (2) splen- 
dour: majesty conferred on man 8 s , king 21 6 , cf. 45 4 - 5 ; but esp. of Yahweh 
Himself 29* 90 16 96 s 104 1 in 3 145 5 , His kingdom 145 12 . (3) honour, glory : 
for saints of Yahweh 149 9 . — *niB?n] Pi. impf. 2 m. sf. 3 s. circumstantial. — 
7. -inWpn] Hiph. impf. 2 m. sf. 3 s., prob. originally at end of line for rhyme, 
and most proper for circumstantial clause. % S^_'?3 vb. Qal, rule, have do?nin- 
ion, over: c. 3 of man 19 14 105 21 106 41 , cf. ptc. D* 1 ^. S#D I05 20 ; of God 22 29 
59 14 89 10 103 19 ; abs. 66 7 . f Hiph. cause to rule, c. ace. pers., 3 rei 8 7 Jb. 
25 s Dn. II 39 . — Sb] emph. in position; abs. without article elsw. 74 s 145 16 
comprehending all that context suggests. — nn#] fully written Qal pf. 2 m. 
n^. — 8. t n .J*] n.m. flock, cf. DJKJi Nu. 32 s4 (JE), variation of J*tt small cattle. 
— to'flSs] large cattle, oxen, as Dt. 7 13 28 4 - 18 - 61 Is. 30 24 Pr. 14 4 . — oVu] sum- 
ming up, "made more independent and emphatic by being placed . . . after 
the word which it qualifies," BZ>B. — ^3 \ with suffixes 8* 34 20 62* 67 4 - 6 82 6 
102 27 io4 24 - 27 i39 4 - 1 6 147 4 ; 1^3 " referring to the mass of things or persons 
meant," B£>B. 29 s 53 4 (= Van I4 3 ). — Jan] and also 88 ji™ 78 21 84 s 
148 12 . — nfe> monaj Jo. 2 22 , mfc niona Jo. i 20 , cf. i S. 17 44 . % nnna n.f. 

(1) &<m/, antith. man 36 7 104 1 * 135 8 , as inferior to man 49 18 21 73 s2 ; 

(2) antith. wild beasts 148 10 , associated with field 8 8 , mountains 50 10 , cf. 
107 38 ; (3) seldom wild beast 147 9 . — 9. o;p^ nsx] phr. a.X. takes place of 
D^Dtfn tyiy Gn. i 26 to which it is assimilated, wvy is unnecessary here, and 
makes line too long. — 13'j?] Qal ptc. lap vb. pass over, through : large body 
of water, Is. ^ 21 of ship; here of water animals. It is a poetic substitute for 
n^% Gn. 121.28. cf> Lv# Il4 6 ( H ) Ps. 69 s5 . — 3<K plniK] phr. a.X. Jni* 
n.m. path: (1) literal, of sea-animals 8 9 , of sun 19 6 ; (2) kg., path of life, for- 
tune 139 3 142 4 , iieHp 'n 27 11 ; (3) fig., »W« 0/life 119 9 , ways of Yahweh 
215 10 , as norm for man 25* 44 19 119 15 , D«n nit* i6 u Pr. 2 19 5 6 15 24 , path of 
wickedness Pss. 17 4 119101. 104. 128 ; c f # svnt ^-, t i m 



68 PSALMS 



PSALMS IX. AND X., 22 alphabetical str. 4*. 

Pss. 9 and 10 were originally one. The congregation thanks 
Yahweh in temple worship for His wondrous works of deliverance 
from the nations, and that He has become a high refuge to His 
oppressed people (9 2-5 ' 10 " n ). They pray that He, who has in the 
past lifted them from the gates of death, may be gracious and ter- 
rorise the nations now afflicting them (9 14 " 15 ' 20 - 21 ). He seems to 
stand afar off, while the nations are contending, and ignoring Him ; 
and with craft are crushing His host with impunity (io 1 " 11 ). They 
plead that Yahweh, their everlasting king, will arise, destroy the 
nations from the land, and do justice for the oppressed (io 12 ~ 18 ). 
Later editors substitute for the original, detailed statements of a 
more external and dogmatic kind : that Yahweh had given over 
the nations to everlasting destruction (9^ 7 ), that He was the ever- 
lasting king, ruling in justice (9 s " 9 ), that the nations were caught 
in their own pits and snares (9 16 ~ 17 ), and tnat they were doomed to 
Sheol (9 18 ) ; but that Yahweh' s people would not be forgotten (9 19 ) ; 
and the congregation are invoked to praise their king enthroned in 
Zion (9 12 - 13 ). 

[ WILL give thanks with all my mind unto Thee, 
I will tell all Thy wondrous works, 
I will be glad and I will exult in Thee, 
I will make melody, 'Elyon unto Thy name. 
"DECAUSE mine enemies turned backward, 

They stumble and they perish at Thy presence; 

For Thou hast done judgment and right in my favour, 

Thou didst sit on Thy throne judging righteously. 



AND so Thou art become a high refuge for the oppressed, 
A high refuge for times of dearth ; 
And they that know Thee trust in Thee; 
For Thou dost not forsake them that seek Thee. 

"RE gracious to me, see my affliction ; 

Thou that liftest me up from the gates of death ; 

In order that I may tell Thy praise. 

In the gates of the daughter of Zion may rejoice. 



* These marks indicate that parts of the Ps. have been omitted. V. Comments 
and notes. 



PSALMS IX. AND X. 69 

YAHWEH, let not (mere) men prevail; 

Let the nations be judged before Thy face. 

O appoint Terror for them 

That the nations may know that they are (mere) men. 

Yy HY standest Thou in the distance, 
Hidest in times of dearth ? 
In their pride they hotly pursue the afflicted; 
Let them be caught in that they have planned. 
HTHE wicked doth contemn Yahweh: 

"According to the height of His anger, He will not require, 
There is no God," are his devices. 
His ways are defiled at all times. 
f")N high are Thine acts of judgment, at a distance from him; 
As for his adversaries, he puffeth at them ; 
He saith in his mind, " I shall not be moved," 
(He doth swear) " In all generations (I shall be) without evil." 
UIS mouth is full of deceits, 
Under his tongue is mischief ; 

He sitteth down in the places of ambush of settlements, 
In secret places he slayeth the innocent. 
LJ IS eyes spy on Thy host, 

He lieth in ambush in his secret place as a lion, 
In his covert to seize the afflicted, 

That he may seize hold of the afflicted, dragging him away, 
(UE doth hunt) the oppressed with his net, and he sinks down, 
And Thy host falls because of his great numbers ; 
He doth say in his mind, "'El hath forgotten, 
He hath hidden His face, He doth not see." 
Q ARISE, lift up Thy hand, 
Forget not, 'El, the afflicted. 
Wherefore doth the wicked contemn, 
Say in his mind, " Thou dost not require it " ? 
"THOU hast seen the trouble and grief, 

Thou beholdest to requite with Thy hand ; 
Upon Thee Thy host leaveth it, 
Of the orphan Thou art the helper. 
"D REAK the arm of the wicked, 

Let his wickedness be sought out, let it not be found ; 
O King, forever and ever, 
Destroy the nations out of the land, 
•y HE desire of the afflicted Thou hast heard, 

Thou settest Thy mind (upon them), Thou harkenest; 
To judge the orphan and oppressed, 
To terrify (mere) man from the land. 



Pss. 9-10 were originally one as in ®, U, 3. They were separated for 
liturgical purposes as in |§, and therefore Ps. 10 was left without title, and in 
modern Protestant and Jewish Vrss. the Pss. are numbered one higher than 



JO PSALMS 

in the Oriental, Greek, and Roman Churches from Ps. 10 to Ps. 147 (v. Intr. 
§ 42). The .t?d at the close of Ps. 9 is an additional evidence of the original 
unity of the two Pss., for it indicates a place where a selection might close 
(v. Intr. §41). The Ps. was in $3, then in £H, and subsequently in J32& 
(v. Intr. §§ 27, 31, 33), in which last it was appointed to be sung by male 
sopranos, or falsettos (pS pidS;? [*?;?] v. Intr. § 34). As Che. says, the Ps. 
is " partly trimeters, partly tetrameters, indicating either the imperfect skill 
of the psalmist in the management of his metre, or the interference of a 
second writer with the original poem. The second hypothesis is the more 
probable. Originally the poem was, no doubt, a perfect alphabetical psalm, 
at least so far as relates to the consistency of the metre and the number of 
stanzas." The nine strophes with K, 3, \ n, S, p, -\, v, n are essentially 
in their original form. Six others may be recovered from the present text. 
(1) Str. * in the present text is 9I8-19. but this is really composed of a trimeter 
couplet, v. 18 , and a tetrameter couplet, v. 19 , and is a late addition. The 
Str. is really v. 20-21 , disguised by the prefixing of ncip prematurely before io 12 , 
in order to make a suitable close for the Ts. (2) Str. j is disguised in $£? in 
the last clause of io 3 , but in <S it rightly begins v. 4 . (3) Str. D is disguised 
in the midst of io 5 , its o'no is at beginning of 1. 2 of v. 5 . (4) Str. c is also 
disguised as second word of io 7 . n s N is vb., belonging to previous line. 
(5) Str. y is disguised at beginning of 1. 3 of io 8 . (6) Str. x lacks the first 
word, the first line being defective. It may be restored by conjecture as ix. 
Three Strs. have been displaced by others which have been substituted for 
them. It is possible to conjecture originals as underlying them ; but only by 
entire reconstruction, and even then the form and substance of the thought is 
different from the original. (1) The Str. J is a tetrameter with caesura, 
evident in the midst of three of the lines, less evident but probable in the 
other. (2) Str. d is also a tetrameter with caesuras. (3) Str. r is a trimeter ; 
a call to praise, not suited to the context of the original Ps., but adapted 
to later liturgical use, and using late liturgical terms. The remaining Strs. are 
more difficult to find. Many efforts have been made to find them by recon- 
struction and conjecture. I have made several such efforts myself, accepting 
them provisionally, only to finally abandon them as unsatisfactory. (1) The 
Strs. with -1 and n have disappeared. In place of them is a trimeter tetrastich, 
beginning with mm in third person. But it uses terms of the royal Pss. 98 9 , 
^510. 13^ anc i these are statements, in liturgical language, of the general truth 
of the divine dominion, cognate with the idea of the Ps., but in more objec- 
tive and less personal relations. (2) Str. 3 is missing. Possibly a relic of it 
is present in io 3 , in the clause beginning S s n >d, but only one trimeter line 
and two words of a second line are there; and it is out of place between S 
and 1. It is therefore more probable that the verse is a prosaic gloss. 
(3) Str. D has disappeared entirely. We can only make it by a readjustment 
of the lines about where it should come, and at the expense of other Strs. The 
order of the Strs. is the usual one of the Heb. alphabet, except that ';, x come 
together as in La. 2, 3, 4, probably an older order, i and d are transposed. 



PSALMS IX. AND X. 7 1 

This is probably an editorial change and not original. The historical situation 
of the Ps. is indicated by internal evidence. The Temple worship was carried 
on 9 2 " 15 . The people surfer from crafty and cruel enemies, who ignore and 
contemn Yahweh. These are nations, 9 20 - 21 , io 16 , described by coll. pen 
io 2. 4. 13. w ^ 1JN 920. 2i ? io 18^ w h invade the land and imperil its existence. 
They are not the great conquering nations, but lesser ones, such as those 
which troubled Jerusalem before the walls were built by Nehemiah ; Moabites, 
Ammonites, Arabs, and Philistines, Ne. 2 10 , 4 7 , 6 1 . The glosses indicate a later 
time of calm historical retrospect and confidence in Yahweh, the King en- 
throned in Zion; and therefore probably in the Greek period. 



Str. K. 2-3. Each line begins with K and closes with kah. 
The four lines are syn., using cohortatives, expressing resolutions 
or determinations. — / will give thanks || tell || exult || make 
melody], terms indicating in their usage public songs of praise. 
Each vb. has syn. obj. — unto Thee~\, so (3, adding also the divine 
name, Yahweh, which J^ substitutes for it, and so destroys rhyme. 
|| Thy wondrous works'], as context shows, of deliverance from 
enemies, cf. Ex. 3 20 (J) Ju. 6 13 Pss. 26 7 78 11 +• || unto Thy name], 
cf. Pss. 6 1 9 66 4 68 5 . The qualifying ideas are with all my mind], 
better than " heart," EV 8 ., which in modern usage rather suggests 
affections, || all] intensifying wondrous works, || / will be glad] 
intensifying " exult." — 'Elyon], divine name, " Most High," EV 8 ., 
intensifying Thy name. 

Str. 3 has two syn. couplets. — 4. The enemies are in subse- 
quent context, not private but public enemies, nations. — Because] 
giving a reason for the praise of the previous Str. — turned back- 
ward], in retreat. The context indicates a historical reference 
and not present experience or general truth. It is true stumble 
and perish are impfs., but they give graphic description of past 
events. They intensify the retreat as disastrous. — At Thy pres- 
ence], the presence and power of Yahweh brought about the 
retreat; the whole credit of it is due to Him. — 5. For], causal 
particle with pf., either syn. with v. 4 as second ground of praise, 
emphasizing Yahweh's dealing with His people over against His 
dealing with their enemies, or else reason of previous couplet, 
possibly not distinguished in author's mind. The syn. words 
judgment and right intensify the idea. The sf. is objective, and 
can only be expressed by paraphrase: in my favour], that is, of 



72 PSALMS 

the congregation speaking in its solidarity as an individual. — 
Thou hast done judgment || judging righteously], executed it on 
the enemies. — Thou didst sit on Thy throne], in heaven, as 
Pss. ii 4 45 7 47 9 89 15 93 2 Q7 2 , from which God executes judgment 
on earth in favour of His people and against their enemies. 

Str. J is a syn. tetrameter tetrastich, substituted for an original 
trimeter, giving a more comprehensive and general statement, and 
so differing from the personal experience expressed throughout 
the original Ps. 

Thou hast rebuked the nations. Thou hast destroyed the wicked ; 
Their name Thou hast blotted out forever and ever. 
As for the enemy, they have come to an end. The ruins are forever. 
And cities Thou didst uproot, — their memory is perished. 

6. Thou hast rebuked the nations]. This was probably in the 
original Str., but is now followed by a caesura and a comple- 
mentary phrase : Thou hast destroyed the wicked], of two beats, 
instead of one complementary word, as in the original Ps. Both 
phrs. are further expositions of v. 4 . The term wicked is coll. for 
nations, as 9 17 io 23 - 4 1315 5 5 4 139 19 Is. n 4 Hb. 3 13 pi. Pss. 9. 18 3 8 7 10 
i7 9 + . — Their name Thou hast blotted out], so utterly have they 
been destroyed that their names are no longer known, save to the 
antiquarian. The author was thinking probably of the nations 
exterminated by Israel at the Exodus, as it is a phr. of D., Dt. 9 14 
29 19 2 K. 14 27 . — 7. As for the enemy], coll. for nations. The 
position of noun and the article are emph., cf. pi. v. 4 . — they have 
come to an end], so that they exist no longer as nations. The 
caesura requires an independent clause. — Their ruins are for- 
ever], possibly their land, as Je. 7 s4 44 s2 , but more probably cities, 
as v. 76 and Je. 49 13 , cities of Bosra ; Ez. 26 20 , of Tyre ; Is. 61 4 , of 
Judah. There is no sufficient authority in usage for referring these 
to enemies. — And their cities], the possessive here and above is not 
expressed but implied in the context. — Thou didst uproot], only 
here of cities, but of nations Dt. 29 s7 Je. 12 14 -f , fig. of tree or 
plant. We might think of the use of cities for inhabitants. — 
Their memory is perished], syn. v. 66 , cf. Dt. 12 3 Is. 26 14 Ps. 41 6 . 

8-9. This Str. is a syn. trimeter tetrastich, generalising v. 5 , as 
the previous Str. did v. 4 . It takes the place of Str. n of the original 
Ps. The initial n might be gained by reading r\:n " Lo," with Du. 



PSALMS IX. AND X. 73 

for the rtbn at close of previous line ; but this would make the 
line too long, unless we reject Yahweh as a gloss. But in any 
case we do not overcome the use of 3 sg. for 2 sg. of previous 
Strs. and the generalisation and late liturgical phrasing. 

Yahweh sitteth enthroned forever, 
He hath set up His throne for judgment: 
He judgeth the world in righteousness, 
He governeth the peoples with equity. 

8. He hath set up His throne\ phr. here of divine throne, cf. 103 19 , 
but 2 S. 7 13 of David's. — He judgeth the world in righteous ness~] 
= 98° ; |j He governeth the peoples with equity~\ cf. 96 10 ; both im- 
plying a late comprehensive view of Yahweh, as sovereign of all 
nations, and of the entire habitable world. 

Str. 1 is a syn. trimeter tetrastich. — 10. It has been changed 
to 3d pers. and assimilated to previous Str., and Yahweh has been 
inserted as gloss ; and so most Vrss. and commentators, " Yahweh 
also will be," some ignoring the juss. form, others recognising it, 
as Dr. " So may Yahweh be." But Du. after (3 reads rightly 
1 consec. ; but then better, if connected with original Strs. v. 2-5 - 14 " 15 , 
2d pers. : And so Thou art become~\ referring to historical experi- 
ence, as in previous Strs. — A high refuge"], a high place of refuge, 
cf. Pss. 18 3 46 812 48 4 59 1017 62 3 - 7 94 22 144 2 .— for the oppressed], 
coll. referring to the congregation, as so oppressed by the 
enemies as to be literally crushed, elsw. | io 18 74 21 Pr. 2 6 28 , in this 
form, but cog. forms also io 10 34 19 51 19 Is. 57 15 . — for times of 
dearth], phr., elsw. io 1 , cf. Je. 14 1 (v. i?DB), the exact mng. 
uncertain. — 11. They that knoiu Thee, so originally, syn. them 
that seek Thee.~] "Thy name" has been substituted for sf. at 
such an early date as to appear in all Vrss., but it makes the line 
too long in its measure, and is in accord with later tendency to 
interpose something between God Himself and His people, as 
obj. of knowledge, cf. 91 14 Is. 52 s Je. 48 ir . Knowing Yahweh 
Himself is an earlier idea, cf. Ex. 5 2 (J) Ho. 2 22 5 4 8 2 Ps. 79 6 . 

Str. 1 is composed of two trimeter couplets, and is a call to the 
congregation, to the praise resolved upon in Str. K. It is the 
same kind of a generalised explication of previous Str. as we have 
seen in v. 6 " 8 , and probably came from the same later hand. 



74 PSALMS 

Make melody to Him who is enthroned in Zion, 
Declare among the peoples His doings; 
For He that requireth blood doth remember ; 
He doth not forget the cry of the afflicted. 

12. To Him who is enthroned in Zion], in the Holy of Holies of 
temple, the throne room of the king of Israel, cf. Am. i 2 Mi. 4 2 
Pss. 76 s 102 22 135 21 147 12 , added to the conception of throned in 
heaven of v. 8-9 . — Declare among the peoples His doings'], universal 
proclamation of the interposition of Yahvveh in behalf of His 
people. — 13. For He that requireth blood], as Ez. 33 6 , from 
the enemies of His people as their avenger, based on the primi- 
tive conception of relationship of blood, and the obligation to 
avenge blood. 

Str. H is composed of two couplets, the former synth., the 
latter syn. — 14. Be gracious to me], intensified by see my afflic- 
tion], the past experience of previous Strs. being the basis for 
second part of Ps., which now, as Calv., becomes petition for 
deliverance in present needs. — Thou that liftest me up], past 
experience renewed to enforce the plea. — from the gates of 
death], cf. 107 18 Is. 38 10 Jb. 38 17 , all referring to the abode of the 
dead, conceived as a city with gates. The nation had been in peril 
of death, and so of going down into Sheol the place of the dead ; 
but Yahweh hath lifted the nation up from that awful descent. — 
15. In order that], final clause, expressing object of lifting 
up to life. — In the gates of the daughter of Zion], the gates of 
Zion or Jerusalem, over against gates of Sheol. The daughter of 
Zion is a personification of the people of Zion, cf. Is. i 8 io' 32 Mi. i 13 
Je. 4 3 Zc. 2 14 ; cf. daughter of Tyre Ps. 45 13 , daughter of Babylon 
137 8 Is. 47 1 , daughter of Jerusalem Is. 37 22 Mi. 4 8 La. 2 1315 . The 
conception here is as Ps. 6 6 Is. 38™'™ that the public praise of Yah- 
weh in His temple, or royal residence in Jerusalem, is something 
unique, and of such special acceptance with Him, that it can be 
had nowhere else, not in Sheol any more than outside the Holy 
Land, or apart from the divine residence in Jerusalem. 

Str. ID is composed of two tetrameter couplets, and is the same 
kind of substitution, and doubtless by the same editor, as Str. j. 

The nations are sunk down in the pit that they made; 
In the net which they hid is their foot caught. 



PSALMS IX. AND X. 75 

Yahweh hath made Himself known, He hath executed judgment; 
In the work of His hands the wicked are trapped. 

16. The nations are sunk down in the pit]. This is probably 
from the original Ps., where the pit referred to is the pit of Sheol 
as usual subsequent to Ez., Pss. 16 10 30 10 49 10 55 24 103 4 , and so antith. 
to the lifting up of the congregation of Israel from Sheol v. 14 . 
But the editor, by the addition of that they made'], refers it to a 
pit dug by the nations into which they hoped Israel would fall, 
cf. 7 16 ; syn. with in the net which they hid], cf. io° 31 5 35 7 - 8 140 6 . 
— is their foot caught], the nations snare themselves instead of 
Israel and receive retribution in kind. — 17. Yahweh hath made 
Hi?nself known], reflex., cf. 48 4 , expl. hath executed judgment], 
cf. v. 5 , so RV., Pe., Dr., Ba., Kirk., cf. JPSV. as emphatic inde- 
pendent classes ; better than AV., which explains the second 
clause as dependent and so relative : " by the judgment which 
He executeth," cf. PBV. after (3. — In the work of His hands], 
Yahweh's put forth in judgment, syn. with previous line of the 
couplet \ and not those of the nation, hiding nets and digging pits, 
of previous couplet, as EV 8 ., though sustained by Dr., Che., and 
JPSV. — are trapped], by Yahweh's hands, who lays traps for 
them. 

18-19. This Str. begins with \ but it is not the original Str. \ 
which we find rather in v. 20 " 21 . It was inserted by an editor. It is 
composed of a trimeter syn. couplet and a tetrameter syn. couplet. 

The wicked shall turn back to Sheol, 
All the nations that forget God. 
For the poor shall not always be forgotten, 
Nor the hope of the afflicted perish forever. 

18. The wicked], pi. for sg., coll. above, v. 17 , but not, however, in- 
dividuals, but syn. with all the nations. — turn back to Sheol], antith. 
v. 14 . The wicked nations turn back in defeat and slaughter. So 
disastrous will be their fate that they will surfer national death 
and so descend as nations to the abode of the dead. There is no 
reference in this passage to the future destiny of individuals, cf. 
Is. 26 14 - 19 Ez. 37 7 - 14 Ho. 13 14 (v. Br.^- 176 - 276 - 307 ).— That forget 
God], here of nations, cf. Ps. 50 22 of wicked Israelites ; {v. io 411 ), 
an ignoring of the presence of God and His interest in His 



y6 PSALMS 

people. — 19. For the poor || the afflicted shall not be forgotten'], 
by God, antith. to their enemies forgetting Him. — Perish for- 
ever], the hope of God's people will not perish, but will be realised 
in renewed life in the Holy Land when the nations perish in death 
and Sheol. 

20-21. Str. < is disguised by prefixing O arise to 9 20 in order 
to make a suitable close for the Ps. before the Selah ; but it 
destroys the measure. It is a trimeter tetrastich, having three 
lines syn., the fourth synth. — mere men, syn. nations], cf. v. 21 
io 18 56 2 66 12 all referring to enemies conceived, over against 
Yahweh and His people, as mere men. The congregation plead 
that the nations may know this at last, through the exposure of 
their weakness. — prevail], be stronger than Israel, cf. 52° 89 14 , to 
prevent which let them be judged, cf. v. 5 . — before Thy face], the 
divine face looking in wrath upon them. — O appoint Terror] 
Their defeat will be that of a panic-stricken army. Terror is 
personified as an angel of vengeance appointed by God to drive 
them on to their doom. (3, F, &, RC.Vrss. render " appoint a 
lawgiver," with a slightly different text ; so Luther " einen Meister, >} 
which is usually interpreted in a bad sense, as tyrant, Genebr. ; 
Antichrist, Aug., Cassiodorus ; but by some in a good sense, as 
Christ, Theodoret, Euthymius ; as Yahweh Himself, Ba. 

Str. 7 is composed of two trimeter distichs, the first syn., the 
second synth. It expostulates with Yahweh for delay in inter- 
position, already suggested in previous Str. — X. 1. Why standest 
Thou], as looking on with indifference, ready, but slow to act. — 
in the distance], phr. only here, stronger than the usual afar 
off. — Hidest]. The divine presence, not being manifest when 
so greatly needed, seems to imply a deliberate hiding from His 
people. — in times of dearth], resuming 9 10 . — 2. In pride], emph. 
in position, to lay stress on this as a chief characteristic of the 
enemies. — hotly pursue], cf. La. 4 19 , RV., i?DB., so essentially 
Kirk., al. ; "persecute," PBV., AV., is too general; "set on fire," 
Dr., Ba., after Vrss., is too strong. Most think of the heat of 
anxiety, but some of the heat of affliction. — Let them be caught], 
the wicked nations, in accordance with the expostulation of 
previous context, so EV 8 ., JPSV., Ba., al. But (3, U render as 
indicative, " they (the afflicted) are caught, taken," so Pe., Dr. ; 



PSALMS IX. AND X. *]*] 

"a further description of the wrongs of the poor," Kirk. — that 
they planned] . They planned to catch the afflicted ; but Yahweh 
is entreated to catch them in their own crafty schemes. 

X. 3. This syn. trimeter distich resembles the sentences of Heb. 
Wisdom, as Du. suggests, and is a late gloss. Its original meaning 
was obscured by an early copyist who by dittog. of suffix inserted 
the conjunction waw, and so divided the sentence after the fourth 
tone, making it into a prose sentence, difficult of explanation. 

For the wicked doth boast about (his) covetousness, 
The robber doth congratulate himself. 

3. For the wicked, syn. the robber] so Pe. ; " covetous," EV 8 . is 
too weak. If a gloss, then it is no longer the nations, but the in- 
dividual Jew, of the period of Heb. Wisdom. — Doth boast about 
his covetousness], in a bad sense, as 112 10 , Pr. 2I 25 " 26 , cf. Ps. 32 s , 
" desire" of EV 8 . is too general. — congratulate himself] as 49 19 , 
on his success in gaining what he coveted, cf. 36 2 " 3 . 

Str. 3 was recognised by <3, which begins with p«, but ob- 
scured by J^, which attaches this vb. to previous line with Yahweh, 
prob. in order to avoid a blasphemous expression, and get the 
thought, "whom Yahweh abhorreth," PBV., AV. It is com- 
posed of a trimeter tetrastich, two syn. lines enclosing a syn. 
couplet. — 4. The wicked] sg. coll., refers to nations of orig- 
inal Ps. as v. 2 . — doth contemn Yahweh] as shown in their 
thoughts, words, and deeds, v. 4 " 11 , cf. v. 13 , where the same ex- 
pression is resumed in expostulation. — According to the height of 
His anger]. It is difficult to think of the wicked man's anger in 
such a connection, and therefore most moderns think of loftiness 
of nostrils (Hochndsigkeit, Ba\), or "face" i?DB., or "looks" 
Dr. ; as of eyes, 101 5 , mind, Pr. 16 5 , disposition, Ec. 7 s ; but Du. 
rightly explains of divine anger ; and so as included in the 
thoughts of the wicked as well as the phr. : He will not require] . 
Yahweh may be very angry, as His people claim ; but however 
great or exalted He may be in anger, He will not interpose on 
their behalf, He will not require satisfaction from their enemies. 
— There is no God] not a denial of the divine existence, but of 
His presence and interposition. The PBV. " careth not for God," 
and AV. " will not seek after God," supply the object of vb. and 



78 PSALMS 

take the wicked as subj. after most ancients. — his devices'] his 
evil thoughts, that he is devising, his calculations, what he is 
saying to himself, in self-flattery, syn. with his contemning. — 
5a. are defiled] so (3, <£, U " His thoughts and counsels are un- 
clean," Aug. " He always acts badly," Genebr. This is well suited 
to context though resting on a different interp. of the form from J^, 
which may be read parturiunt as 3, Aq., or " strong," " sure," Pe., 
"stable" Dr., "firm" RV., "prosperous" JPSV. after ft, "His 
plans succeed ; he is never harassed by the vicissitudes of for- 
tune," Kirk. 

Str. ft is disguised by J^, which puts the first line as second, in 
v. 5 ; and also in all texts by letting it follow Str. 3. This order 
cannot be original, but is due to editorial transposition, and pos- 
sibly the insertion of the gloss v. 3 . It is composed of two trimeter 
couplets, the one synth., the other syn. — 5b. On high] in heaven, 
cf. 92 s , where Yahweh is standing v. 1 , not yet interposing v. 12 . — 
at a distance from him], cf. v. 1 . — Thine acts of judgment], they 
are still with Yahweh, not yet executed on earth against the 
wicked. — As for his adversaries] emph. in position. — He puffeth 
at them], possibly snorting, as gesture of contempt. — 6. He saith 
in his mind], so v. 11 , cf. v. 4 , syn. he doth swear], interp. as perf. 
vb. and not as noun, " cursing," as beginning of v. 7 , so disguising 
Str. S and destroying its measure. — I shall not be moved], phr. 
frequently used of the righteous 15 5 16 8 21 8 62 s " 7 112 6 ; pre- 
sumptuous words of the pious when in prosperity 30 7 ; here 
presumptuous words of the wicked enemies of God and His 
people. This is intensified in syn. clause, in all generations with- 
out evil], so (©, 3. ?^ has another reading with relative, which 
is disregarded in PBV., RV., Pe., Kirk., but given in AV. as 
causal " for," by Dr. " I who." Both these are interpretations 
and were not original. 

Str. £, disguised in ancient texts, is composed of a tetrameter 
syn. couplet, and a syn. trimeter couplet, the former stating what 
seems to be a general truth in a proverbial form ; the latter speci- 
fying action of the enemies against innocent Israel. The former 
is therefore a substitution of the editor for the original couplet, 
which doubtless began with the same word, and set forth the craft 
and deceit of the enemy, but hardly in this form and in this gen- 



PSALMS IX. AND X. 79 

eral way. — 7. His mouth is full of deceits || mischief], so in the 
original, expressing the craft of the enemy. — and oppression 
|| trouble] were added by later editor to indicate the actual in- 
jury that they had done to the people of God. — Under his 
tongue], secreted as Aug., and ready to spring forth; and not as 
Che., Dr., Kirk, after Jb. 20 12 , as a delicious morsel, which suits 
the context of that passage, but not of this. — 8. In places of am- 
bush], as Jos. 8 9 Ju. g 35 2 Ch. 13 13 , enemies lying in wait to sur- 
prise, syn. in secret places], where they remain in secret until the 
time for attack. — of settlements], that is near settlements, whether 
of tents, Gn. 25 16 (P), or houses, Lv. 25 31 , referring to the un- 
walled villages exposed to sudden attacks of treacherous foes. — 
slayeth], his object is murder as well as robbery. — the innocent], 
those who have done them no wrong, who were not at war with 
them. 

Str. 2 is disguised by the ancient texts, because its first line is 
in the middle of the verse. It follows a as in La. 2, 3, 4, an 
older order of the alphabet. It is composed of a trimeter tetra- 
stich of stair-like parall. — 9. His eyes spy], cf. 56 7 , carrying on 
the thought of previous verse. — Thy host], as v. 1014 , the people 
of Yahweh regarded as a host or army, however small, when com- 
pared with the enemy. — He lieth in ambush], vb. for noun of 
v. 8a , in his secret place], sing, for pi. of v. 86 , article for possessive, 
thus taking up both previous words of that verse, in order to stair- 
like advance in thought. This is made still more definite by un- 
necessary insertions of later editor. — as a lion], frequent simile 
for enemies, see f 17 12 22 14 , and accordingly, in his covert], cf. 
76 s Jb. 38 40 . — to seize], by the paws of the lion. — dragging him 
away], as a lion does his prey to his den. J^ attaches in his net 
to this vb. and is followed by most versions and interpreters, thus 
adding the simile of the hunter to that of the lion, and so losing 
the force of the stair-like parall., graphically describing the lion's 
mode of dealing with his prey. (3, U attach it to subsequent v., 
where it is needed for measure, 

Str. !£ lacks initial word with ¥ in ancient texts. If with (3, 
"in his net " goes with this Str., we may supply the cognate vb. n^ 
" hunt." The Str. then is composed of two syn. trimeter couplets 
resembling v. 5 - 6 . In the first, the simile of the hunter takes the place 



80 PSALMS 

of the lion of the previous Str. — 10. The oppressed] as o 10 io 13 , 
the Kt. here which is better sustained by usage and context than 
vb. of Qr., which is variously rendered " he falleth down " PBV., 
"croucheth," AV., RV., (of lion) without justification from usage 
of vb. ; better " is crushed," JPSV., Pe., Kirk. But Qal is not used 
elsewhere, and so is improbable here. — and he sinks down], cf. 
35 u 3& 7 107 39 , that is overpowered, because of his great numbers], 
in accordance with usage referring to great numbers of the enemy, 
rather than their strength and prowess, " his captains," PBV., " his 
strong ones," AV., RV., Dr., i.e. ruffians, Kirk. ; or with reference 
to the claws of lion, as Ew., De., Che., Ba\, i?DB., as if this carried 
on the simile of previous Str. — 11. The enemies now say, to them- 
selves as in v. 6 "" 136 , 'El hath forgotten], cf. v. 13 19 . —Be hath hidden 
His face], cf. the expostulation of v. 1 , where the congregation 
make a similar statement and complaint ; and therefore He doth 
not see], cf. 9 14 . And so the enemy afflict His people with im- 
punity. 

Str. p is preserved in its original form. It is an expostulation 
renewing v. 1 , and taking up the most important terms in the inter- 
vening Strs. It is composed of two trimeter syn. couplets. — 

12. lift up Thy hand], in order to interpose and smite the enemy 
with it. — Forget not *El], plea over against the word of the 
enemies, v. 11 . On account of this exact antith., as well as the 
requirement of measure, 'El belongs in this line and not in 
previous one, though so given in all ancient texts, cf. 9 13 . — 

13. Wherefore doth the wicked contemn ?] taking up the state- 
ment of the fact v. 4a , and also the words of the wicked to them- 
selves, Thou wilt not require], already given in third person v. 45 . 

Str. *"| is composed of two syn. trimeter couplets. — 14. Thou 
hast seen, || Thou beholdest], an appeal to the divine knowledge 
over against the words of the wicked, v. 11 — the trouble and grief ] 
that caused Yahweh's host by the crafty enemies described above. 
— To requite with Thy hand], antith. with v. 13 . — Upon Thee], 
emph. in position, implying reliance on their God only. — Thy 
host] as v. 9 " 10 , — leaveth it], that is in trust that God will attend 
to it, strengthened by past experience. — Of the orphan], emph. ; 
the nation is conceived as fatherless, without a ruler of their own, 
dependent upon the caprice of governors appointed by the world 



PSALMS IX. AND X. 8 1 

power Persia, cf. La. 5 3 . — Thou art the helper] t cf. 37 40 46 s 
109 26 . 

Str. Itf is composed of a trimeter tetrastich with introverted 
parall. — 15. Break the arm of the wicked], cf. 37 17 Jb. 38 15 . 
make them powerless, smiting them with the hand, cf. v. 12 " 14 . — 
Let his wickedness be sought], as most ancient Vrss., cf. v. 4 13 , tak- 
ing vbs. as Niphal, that is in vain, let it not be found'], it will no 
longer exist ; so complete has been the requital, that further requi- 
sition finds nothing more to be requited. But EV 8 . follow J^, J 
and regard the vb. as Qal with juss. force and render "seek 
out till Thou find none," AV., RV., or more exactly as Dr., 
"mayest Thou require." "When God ' makes inquisition' and 
holds His assize, He will find no crime to punish," Kirk. — 16. O 
Xing'], vocative, in order to give force to the plea, and not 
11 Yahweh is king," EV 8 ., for Yahweh is a gloss. The conception 
of Yahweh as king is frequent, Pss. 29 10 44 s 47 7 48 s 68 25 -}-. — for- 
ever and ever], antith. to the disappearance of the wicked nations 
when called to account. — Destroy the nations]. Pi. imv. syn. 
" break," v. 5 as Du., cf. 5 7 g 6 21 11 , not Qal perf., "the nations 
are perished," as f^, AV., RV., and most Comm. ; or impf., " will 
perish," as (3, IT, Gr. — out of the land], as v. 18 , the holy land of 
Israel. 

Str. H is composed of a syn. trimeter couplet and an antith. 
trimeter couplet. It expresses confidence that the plea has been 
accepted by Yahweh. — 17. Thou hast heard], more fully : settest 
Thy mind], as 78 s , and so preparatory to Thou harkenest]. The 
sf. " their " with mind (J^) is a mistake of an early copyist, due to 
the desire of the afflicted in previous line. It has given trouble to 
all interpreters by a phr. not known elsw. and difficult to explain. 
— 18. To judge], execute justice in favour of as g 5 , the orphan as v. 15 , 
and oppressed as 9 10 ; to terrify, cf. 9 21 ; mere man, cf. 9 20 " 21 ; from 
the la?id as v. 16 , summing all these up in the final Str. An early 
copyist inserted in the margin a cognate thought in a familiar 
phrase " he shall not do it again," namely the mere man, that is, 
what he had done as described in the Ps., because he will no more 
be in the land. This was subsequently incorporated in the text, 
destroying the measures of the last couplet, and so confusing the 
meaning of the clause as to give trouble to all subsequent readers. 

G 



82 PSALMS 

2. ^aS-Saa rrtf*] = 138 1 . mm is substitute for an original r^ = col © 
which should be for rhyme at end of line. m"iK Hiph. impf. cohort. 1 p. 
v.&\\. rnspN Pi. impf. cohort. 1 p., v. 2\ f a 1 ? ^a] 1 K. 8 23 = 2 Ch. 6 14 Pss. 9* 

, IQ 2. 10. 84. 58. 69. 145 ^ p r# 30 J e< 3IO ^T. _ ^D}] Niph# ptc> pl# f ^(^ 

vb. denom. J n^d wonder of God's acts of judgment and redemption 77 12 
88> 3 8 9 < ; , 'fl nu7 '77M 7 8* 2 88 11 Ex. 15" Is. 251, of Law 119I 29 . + [ M Sj] vb. 
Niph. (1) &? difficult to understand 131 1 Dt. 17 8 ; (2) extraordinary, won- 
derful, Pss. 118 23 11918-27 I39 u p t , pi. mH So; wonderful acts of Yahweh in 
redemption and judgment ? 2 26 7 71 17 75 2 78 s2 96 s 105 2 106 7 107 s - 15 - 21 - 24 - 81 
in 4 145 5 Ex. 3 2 ° (J) Je. 21 2 ; 'j niry Pss. 40* 72 18 78 4 86 10 98 1 105* 106 22 136 4 
Ex. 34 1} Jos. 3 5 (J); 'j nN-n Ps. 78 11 Mi. 7 16 . Hiph. make wonderful in phr. 
*S non 'Bn Ps. 31-' 2 , cf. 4 4 17 7 .— 4. -vnx ^m = 56 10 . Qal inf. cstr. not 
protasis temporal clause as AV., RV. but causal. Pe., Dr. turn back in defeat, 
so v. 18 6 11 70 4 , Hiph. 44 11 . — iStsb*] Niph. impf. 3 pi. apodosis. % Ws Qal. 
(1) stumble sq. Spa 27 2 , in anxiety and distress 107 12 , Is. 59 10 ; (2) /0/fer of 
knees Ps. 109 24 . Stf>3 tottering one 105 37 Jb. 4 4 ; fig. yfc*/ of strength, Ps. 31 11 
Ne. 4 4 . Niph. stumble sq. -as Ps. 9^, cf. Ho. 5 5 Je. 6 15 . Hiph. cause to 
stumble in punishment Ps. 6^. — i^sm] 1 coord. Qal impf. 3 pi. v. i 6 . — 
T.}??] at Thy presence. $\j?l? (1) /h?w the face of, because of peril 61 4 , ma 
3 1 57 1 (titles) 139 7 , D^j 6o 6 (?) 68 3 , TPDn 17 9 ; (2) from the presence of, 
enemies banished 7s 55 89 24 ; (3) before, at Vie presence <?/God 9^ 68-( 3 - 9 +) 96 9 , 
Je. 4 26 Na. I 5 Is. 63 19 , of fire Ps. 68 3 ; (4) by reason of because <?/38 4 - 4 - 6 44 17 
55 4 102 11 . — 5. 'IJSBta] obj. sf. execute judgment in favour of me, cf. 146 7 
Mi. 7 9 . For BBB^p v. I 5 . || % pt] n.m. judgment, cause g 5 76 s 140 13 . For vbs. 
fn and dbk» v. f\ p-n; /; r:; ^. — 6. fnns Dtf] phr. elsw. Dt. 9 14 29 19 
2 K. 14 27 , from remembrance. % nns vb. Qal blot out, elsw. t sins, by God, 
51 s - n Is. 43^ 44 22 . Niph. (1) be wiped out from a book 69 s9 , the name 
109 13 , sins 109 14 , Ne. 3 37 . — t "»£ 0*? '>'(?)] 9 s Iolc 2l5 45 7, 18 4-8 15 52 10 104 6 
119 44 I45 1 - 2 - 21 Ex. 15 18 Mi. 4 5 Dn. 12 3 , to emphasize long-continued duration, 
cf. oStyS "ljrS in 8 148 6 ; other uses of % ny in \p from V n T^ advance, pass on and 
so advancing, passing time, (1) of future time ->;; s forever, during lifetime 
9 19 21" 22 27 61 9 ; (2) of continuous existence ig ng 83 18 92 s Is. 26 4 65 18 ; 
(3) of divine attributes iyh Pss. 19 10 37^ 89 30 in 3 -' 10 112 39 , also <S of 84 s , 
= 1? *"V I32 12 - 14 . I D^p is more frequently used : n.m. <y/[thy]. II ma y be tne 
same as D 1 ?;*, conceal, as many suppose, and so hidden, mysterious time ; or 
possibly dS;% &? mature, ripe sexually and so fulness, ripeness of lime ; or an 
independent stem of unknown meaning. The n. means long duration : (i) of 
past time, ancient gates 24 7,9 , the long dead 143 3 La. 3 6 , former acts of God 
dSi>-d Ps. 25 s 119 62 , long silence Is. 42 14 57 11 , God's past existence Ps. 93 2 , 
years of ancient time 77 s . (2) (a) indef futurity, always at ease 73 12 , of 
King 7 ae* 61 8 , of duration of pious ^r;^> 12 8 15 5 30 7 37I8. 27. 28 ^ji3 ^28 y^26 
112 6 (long life), sq. ever 892 (as long as I live), yS mm 30 13 44 s 52 11 79 13 , 
other emotions and activities during life 5 12 31 2 71 1 75 10 86 12 H9 93 - 98 - m - lx2 ; 
(b) continuous existence of things 78 s9 104 5 148 6 , nations 8i 16 , families 49 12 
106 31 , Jerusalem 48° 125 1 Je. 17 25 , reproach Ps. 78°°. memory 112 6 ; (c) of 



PSALMS IX. AND X. 83 

divine blessing and praise 72 19 135 13 , of Yahweh Himself 89 s3 , His attributes 
ion 89 s 138 8 , HDn oSipS ioo 5 106 1 107 1 H8 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 29 1^+^^, y^ I04 3i > 
hdn 117 2 146 6 , p"tt 119 142 , my 3311, His reign io 16 66 7 92 9 146 10 Ex. 15 18 (E) 
Je. io 10 Mi. 4 7 , yh w Ps. 9 8 29 10 102 13 La. 5 19 , His covenant Ps. 105 s - 10 
in 5 - 9 2 S. 23 5 , laws Ps. 11989.144.152.^ pr0 mise to David 18 51 89 s - 29 , other 
blessings 133 3 , 7 ^"vr 139 24 , God's relations with His people V? 85 s 103 9 145 21 , 
oVl? "v; 28 9 , Davidic dynasty 45 s - 7 - 18 72 17 89 s7 - 38 no 4 . (3) indefinite un- 
ending future 49 9 phr. T(n)"V0) oVy(n)D 41 14 9° 2 i°3 17 Io648 > "W bSv j« 
above, oSiy "ijn r\p,yvs from now on and forever 115 18 121 8 (as long as one lives), 
hope in God 131 3 , God's acts and words 113 2 125 2 Mi. 4 7 Is. 59 21 , DV01 -\y"i 
Ps. in 8 148 6 . PI. f D^dSw abstr. everlastingness, eternity 61 5 77 s 145 13 1 K. 8 13 
= 2 Ch. 6 2 Is. 26* 45 17 5 1 9 Ec. I 10 Dn. 9 24 . For completeness here we may 
consider % n$l n.m. y/msi with the conception of preeminence, so that the 
noun is time as enduring, perpetuity, '3 niNtro perpetual desolations 74 s , 'j "\y 
unto perpetuity 49 20 Jb. 34 s6 , cf. nxj Ps. 13 2 16 11 elsw. m^ forever <p 7 - 19 io 11 
44 24 49 10 52 7 68 17 74 1 - 10 - 19 77 9 79 6 89 47 103 9 . None of these terms have in 
themselves the conception of never-ending and always-enduring existence. 
That mng. can only come from context of the passages. — 7. 3MKn] emph. in 
position sg. coll. v. v. 4 . — X niann] pi. f. ruins 102 7 of cities Je. 25 s as Bosra 
49 13 , Tyre Ez. 26 20 . There is no evidence for the reference to nations in usage. 
Ps. 109 10 ruined dwellings. — -ion] goes with aMKfl, coll. interpreted as pi. It 
is not homogeneous with niann which requires vb. or copula understood. Du., 
Marti, suggest ici absorbed in similar ion. This is tempting but unnecessary. 

— no?] unnecessary gl., supposed by Du. to be relict of Str. n and to stand 
for mn, but improb. Besides, it is difficult to explain. It cannot be copula, 
and the emphatic definition of sf. is not justified by any example in \p ; v. 
16 3 . — 8. mm] 1 adver. mm emphatic in antith. with jriNn. — 9. Nim] un- 
necessary and improbable. — ,"nx3 San B9B*] = 98°. — Dn«f»D3 D^DnV pm] = 
96 10 (o\?v)- X ^: n.f. world <? 18 16 19 5 24 1 33s 50*2 77 19 89*2 90 2 93 1 96 1013 
97 4 98 7 - 9 . — % [*^?] n « m « pl- abst., in \}/ alw. ethical; of government cf 58 s 
75 3 96 10 98 s 99 4 , adv. 17 2 . — 10. wj] i coord, juss. Dr., but this is against 
context, an abrupt change. Usually juss. form is interpreted as of late style 
and without force. Du. points wi after (3 Kal iytitero. But then if v. 6-9 are 
glosses of late editor, it is best to return to 2d pers. of v. 2-5 and rd. ">nm. — 
mm] is an unnecessary gloss. — 1 3 |^?] n - m « inaccessible place, of refuge in 
physical sense Is. 25 12 33™, of God ^10 18 3 ( = 2 S. 22 3 ) 46 s - 12 48 4 59 10 - 17 - 18 
6 2 3. 7 94 -22 l ^2 t — frf-T] adj. crushed, oppressed, 9 10 io 18 74 21 Pr. 26 28 ; cf. Nn 
Ps. 34 19 , na-ij 51 19 , nai io 10 . — nn-xa rW>] = io 1 , cf. nv-wa na^ Je. 14 1 , but 
mny is a.X., >nnp 31 6 for usual DVijf; and rnss dearth, destitution, 2?DB. might 
be interpreted as prep. 2 and mx. Gr. would rd. nnxa nnrjj 1 ? as 46 2 . — 
11. mtpaM] 1 coord. Qal impf. 3 p., v. ^. — rjDtf »jh"i*] Qal ptc. nominal force. 
JTV 2/. A Earlier usage, know Yahweh Ex. 5 2 (J) Ho. 2 22 5 4 8 2 \ft 79 s ; so 
shorten here to TV"}" to get proper measure, cv ym elsw. 91 14 Is. 52 s Je. 48 17 . 

— T*Tp] Qal ptc. pi. sf. 2 s. X &YI vb. (1) resort to God to consult or in- 
quire of Him 24° 78 s4 , older mng. Gn. 25 22 (J) Ex. 18 15 (E); (2) seek in 



84 PSALMS 

prayer and worship Pss. g 11 14 2 (= 53 s ) 22 27 34 s - n 69 s8 77 s 105 4 1 19 s - 10 Am. 
5 4 - 6 Ho. io 12 Dt. 4" 29 ; (3) ask for, demand, require, subj. God Pss. 9 13 
io 4. 18. 16. (j^ see k w j tn application, study, late, 38 13 , cf. Pr. n 27 in bad sense; 
Pss. in 2 n945.94.155 j n good sense; (5) seek for, care for, 142 5 . — 12. nor] 
Pi. imv. 3 pi. c. S for ace. v. 3 . — vrvfrhy d>dj?3 wjn] cf. 105 1 = Is. 12 4 = 1 Ch. 
16 8 (lymn). — f>»j| ;jr>] phr. a.X.; cf. 2 4 - 6 . — 13. DM?"] Bhfi] Qal ptc. vyi 
nominal force, v. v. 11 ; avenger of blood, cf. Gn. 9 5 (P) Ez. 33 s , cf. Ps. io 4 - 13 
for similar mng. with d^di omitted. — OH^k] is prosaic gl. — % nntr] vb. forget. 
(1) God subj. : abs. io 11 , c. ace. His people, their cry or needs 9 13 io 12 13 2 
42 io ^25 74 i9.23 77 io. ( 2 ) man sub j >: ( a ) f orget God 44 18 50 22 106 21 , divine 
name 44 21 , deeds 78 7 - n 106 13 , benefits 103 2 , laws U9 16 + 8t , abs. 59 12 ; 
(b) forget persons 45 11 , things 102 5 I37 6 - 5 . Niph. be forgotten 9 19 31 13 . — 
t"i^P»] n.f. cry of distress, as Ex. 3 7 (J) 22 23 (E). — a"j;] Kt., d\U]J Qr., so 
io 12 ; the reverse 9 19 , D*up io 17 , »w sg. coll. io-- 9 - 9 , *jj> abst. 9 14 . These vari- 
ations illustrate confusion in MT. (3 has 9 13 * 19 io 12 - 17 , for the pis. of both 
forms, TrivrjTes; elsw. it uses for both pis. without discrimination : ir£vr)Tes 22 27 
(o^y;) 74 19 (o"jp)j trruxol 69 s3 (omj?) 12 6 72 2 - 4 (o"#); irpQcts 25 s - 9 34 s 
37 11 76 10 147 5 149 4 (only for D^up) ; for sg. uniformly irruxfo. It is doubtful 
whether the difference in form of pis. is any more than variation of same pi. 
from the sg. ^y;. M % ;, the supposed sg. of DMJ?, does not exist. Nu. 12 3 Kt. is 
improb. ; v. BDZ?. However, many think them different (cf. Rahlfs, *<y; und 
UJJ in d. Psalmen, 1892, Dr. DB - art - Poor ). J»« is usually coll. for Israel 
as afflicted by enemies, or the pious in Israel afflicted by the wicked, the 
latter later than the former ; not alw. easy to determine. The sg. coll. is 
usually earlier than pi. The usage of \f/ is (a) coll. sg. as above io 2 - 9 - 9 14 6 22 25 
34 7 35 10 °8 11 102 1 (unless n. pr.) Hb. 3 14 , jvaNi »JJ Pss. 35 10 37 14 40 18 
( = 7 o 6 ) 74 21 86 1 log 16 - 22 , llrras 140 13 , 3M131 <y; 09 39 , chi >y; 82 s , yui >y; 88™, 
yjn -prv 25 16 , || ^ Is. 26 s Zp. 3 12 , cf. naji up Is. 66 2 , n>iy of Zion Is. 51 21 54I 1 ; 
pi. in this sense Pss. 9 13 - 19 io 12 - 17 12 6 22' 27 25 9 - 9 34 s 37 11 69 s3 74 19 76 10 147 6 149 4 , 
cf. Is. 14 32 41 17 49 13 Zc. ii 7u ; (b) of the people as subjects, poor and needy 
Ps. 72 2 - 412 ; (c) humble, over against proud 18 28 (= 2 S. 22' 28 ) gl. as Pr. 3 s4 
16 19 Zc. 9 9 . — 14. >n:n] Qal imv. sf. error for usual UJn 4 2 + nt. f ks. 11 - 1 -*" 
BDB., but v. Ges.S 2 ^, EwJ 251 *. n*n] <g>, £, &, in accord with 2d pers. of 
original Ps. But Aq., J, Ba., Now., Du., would rd. pf. 'jlin and nsn in accord 
with immediate context. — J >jv] n.m. affliction 44™ 88 10 107 1041 119 s0 - 92 , obj. 
njo q 11 * 25 18 31 8 119 153 Gn. 31 42 (E) Ex. 3 7 4 81 (J). — ■•njc'd] prep, p causal. 
Qal ptc. pi. sf. I s. i.p. It is an explanatory gl. — mo \"%T] = 107 18 Jb. 38 17 
|| nipS| 'V, Swtf tr Is. 38 10 . For niD as abode of the dead v. W. — 15. rnsDK VZ^~\ 
final clause Pi. cohort, impf. 1 p. c. ace. as v. 2 , obj. — TnSnrrVs] v. Intr.S 1 . 
?3 is gl. as often. — r>~ro nptf] phr. a.X., cf. \vx 'V 8j 2 . ]V% n:s not elsw. in 
\j/, but Is. I 8 io 32 Je. 4 31 Mi. I 13 +. — nnwe^a n^M«] is vb. Qal cohort, impf. 
1 p., also dependent on jpoS, v. 2 11 . The line is complete without noun, which 
is a gl. — 16. % V30] c. 2 as 69 s - 15 . The change to 3 p. and tetrameter indi- 
cates a gl. nntf is the Pit of Sheol, or a pit dug out, v. y 16 \ v. 14 suggests the 
former, and that was probably the original mng. But when the Str. was 



PSALMS IX. AND X. 85 

changed to tetrameter the relative clause with rev made the latter mng. neces- 
sary. The remaining three lines of the Str. were in no part original. — f w] 
pron. poetic: (1) demonstrative 12 8 Hb. I 11 , so here <g, Aq., 2, PBV.; but 
j$, 3, and most moderns, as (2) rel. as Pss. io 2 17 9 31 5 32 s 62 12 68 29 142 4 143 8 
(all 13) Ex. 1513.16 i s# 42 24 4321. _ 17. Xy^i] vb. Niph. pf. refl. as 48* 76* 
and not pass, as elsw. of things 74 5 77 20 79 10 88 13 . — roa Vd] phr. a.X. sf. 
ref. to Yahweh and not to peh, sg. coll. || w>m as io 2 - 3 - 4 - 13 (v. i 1 ). — tfj^j] 
pointing favours Qal ptc. J upl vb. knock down, c. Yahweh subj. elsw. Pi. 
38 13 109 11 ; so Hu., 3 De. But rd. with &, Aq., &, E, Ols., Ew., Ba., We., 
Buhl, tfg'U Niph. J tf ( *n vb. be trapped; elsw. Qal lay snares 124 7 141 9 . — 
18. laitf'] future ; not return to the place from which they came, but as v. 4 
56 10 turn back in defeat ; cf. 6 11 70 4 . — nS">Kts>S], S of late style with local ace, 
v. £P. — , nrf] adj. pi. cstr. elsw. Is. 65 11 , cf. Ps. 50' 22 . — % r^x] adj. needy, 
poor, in Hex. J, E, D, mostly poetic; as adj. 109 16 , elsw. n. 49 s ; subject to 
oppression and abuse 37 14 ; to be cared for by the righteous 82 4 112 9 , by God 
35 10 107 41 113 7 132 15 140 13 , by king 72 4 - 12 - 13 - 13 ; needing help from God g 19 
12 6 40 18 (= 70 6 ) 74 21 86 1 109 22 (all || >r;) 69 s4 109 31 . — 20. nr»p] imv. cohort, 
is a gl. adapted to io 2 , destroying measure and the proper beginning of 
Str. \ — B?UK] sg. coll. of enemy as mere man antith. Yahweh; so v. 21 io 18 56 2 
66 12 (v. 8*). — T»"^] "more def. and distinct than T#%" BDB; cf. 18 43 
Je. 6 7 . — 21. nw] is a gl. — fvvc] ctr. nK"V>D txt. err. for J nyi2 n. terror 76 12 , 
so 3, Aq., 9, t£, £DB., Dr., Du. But 6, 5, voyjoBtr-qv = rn"»D teacher, so Ba. 
after Luther, " Meister." But there is no usage to justify the use of teacher in 
such a severe sense. — i"" 7 ."'.] final clause. — n.pn] prosaic gl., making 1. too long. — 
X. 1. TVuh~\ as 22 2 42 10 43 2 74 1 88 15 with impf. expostulation; cf. no^ 2 1 . — 
nirr>] is a gl. — P"»rna] adj. c. 2, a.X. possibly txt. err. for p^rnr (S, 3, as elsw. 
38 12 139 2 . — 2. ?y-\ nwia] )?8h is gl. defining subj. vb., but making 1. too 
long; rd.imN.ja. — niDTDu] is an explanatory gl. J npyo n.f. devices, alw. in 
bad sense, elsw. 21 12 , wickedness, in act 37 7 139 20 . — larri] i.p. $atfn vb. Qal 

(1) devise, plan, c. ace. alw. evil in \}/, elsw. 21 12 35 4 - 20 36 s 41 8 52 4 140 s - 5 ; 

(2) c. S pers. 40 18 (good?); (3) impute iniquity 32 2 . Niph. be accounted 
44 23 88 5 , imputed 106 31 . Pi. (1) consider, be mindful of 77 s 119 59 144 3 ; 
(2) devise, c. *? inf. 73 16 Pr. 24 s . — 3. SSn *?] might begin Str. ?, but it has a 
different tone and is gnomic in character (v.3 6 ). — ^p; rjx~] makes a prose 
sentence, improb. because of parall. vbs. and gnomic style. Rd. Snwr, then 
"itfoj is its syn., obj. of ^a of 1. 2; and 1 before >xa is error of interpreta- 
tion. — rpa] syn. SSn, c. ^DJ as49 19 , congratulate self (v. j 13 ). ^ by attaching 
'> v^'J to this v. as rel. clause mutilated Str. j and made an awkward sentence. — 
It is possible then that *pa was originally interpreted in bad sense as curse, 
euphemism for S*?p, as Gr., to avoid the cursing and contemning of Yahweh 
even by the wicked (v. Br. SIIS p- 178 ). But all these difficulties are due to 
err. of |§ in arrangement of lines. — fMj] Pi. pf. J Y*<) vb. Qal contemn 107 11 
Je. 3?* Dt. 32 19 , Pi. elsw. v. 13 74 10 - 18 Nu. 14"- 23 16 30 (J) Je. 23 17 +. It begins 
Str. } as (5. — 4. 1bk najp] phr. o.X. J nai n.m. only here \p interp. i?DB. of 
haughtiness of the wicked; cf. D*rjJ 'J ioi 5 , vb. a 1 ? 'J 131 1 . But © Kara rb 



86 PSALMS 

tt\t]6os ttjs dpyrjs avrov; 3 secundum altititdinem fur oris sui ; so Du., who, 
however, thinks © rd. ann, but this is improbable ; it rather interprets the 
difficult phr. Du. is correct in thinking of the greatness of divine anger, and 
these as words of wicked just as in next clause. — d^Vn pn] 14 1 = 53 s , not 
a denial of the existence of God, but of His presence and interest in the 
matter. — l»rftDJD"Sa] the noun as v. 26 ; but is is a gl., making 1. too long. 
(3 tv&Tuov avrov, as 9 2:) is prob. interpretation. — 5. htv] a.X. Qal impf. 
I [>;n] =be strong; cf. s ;n strength ; so RV., Ols., De., Pe., Che., Ba., Du., Dr. 
But 3 partureunt ; so Aq., Quinta impf. Sin. <g ^e^TjXolvrai, so & be pro- 
faned ' = V?n\ Niph. impf. J ^n. % pnSxn is followed by Gr., Lag., We. in 
reading rvSr, but that was probably interpretation. The text of (3 best suits 
context. The ways of Yahweh are defiled here, as holy places Ez. 7 24 25 s , 
name of God Is. 48 11 Ez. 20 9 - 14 - 22 , even God Himself Ez. 22 16 - >,-ffn] Kt. 
err. for v:ni, Qr., <g, as 25*- 9 27 11 37 s4 51 15 +, term of D for divine laws (v. i 1 ). 

— f nySaa] elsw - 34 2 629 lo63 "9*« — D^o] n.m. height {v. y s ) begins Str. 
D. |^ wrongly attaches this n. to the previous context. — Sa] is gl., spoiling 
measure. — 6. ^3 nc«] phr. v. 11 - 18 14 1 (= 53 2 ) 35 26 74 s . — 63>si<-?aJ Niph. 
impf. % 01D VD « Q a ^ totter, slip of foot 38 1 " 94 18 , mts. 46 s , kingdom 46 7 , land 
60 4 . Niph. made to totter, be shaken, overthrown, usually with neg., earth 
104 5 , its foundations 82 5 , ^a? 93I 96 10 , the holy city 46 s , Mt. Zion 125 1 , 
usually of men, espec. the righteous, with neg. s a, elsw. 15 5 16 8 21 8 30 7 62 s - 7 
112 6 , without neg. 13 6 140 11 , fig. of steadfast obedience 17 5 . Hiph. dislodge, 
let fall 5s 4 140 11 . — f "Hi 1-6] at close of 1. 33 11 49 12 77 9 85 s 102 18 135 18 146 10 , 
at beginning icP 79 13 89 2 106 31 1 19 90 , in the middle 89 5 . Therefore Du. is 
not justified in saying "gehort das mi -nV nach stehendem Sprachgebrauch 
zum Vorhergehenden." — jna~«S nu ; N] is awkward. <g &vev kolkov, 3 sine 
malo = jn K^a without rel. is more prob. — 7. n s s] is vb. swear, syn. iek, 
and not noun cursing, as f*3 59 18 , with subsequent clause, which makes an 
awkward sentence, gives a line too long, and obscures the Str. d which began 
with irre. — n^d wo] phr. a.X. — «pni rV»Dnc] phr. a.X., but cf. nipz?l Tf»n 55 12 . 

— ?>?} ^DV] P hr -» elsw - 9° 10 J D - 4 8 5 6 Is. io 1 ; cf. Ps. 55 11 . For ' Vdj? v. 7 15 . 
px v. j 6 . This couplet is tetrameter and gnomic, and if original there must be 
a gl. But it takes the place of Str. c, and deceit is suited to the context. The 
original was doubtless without "pm and pm, which were amplifications. — 
8. J O^sn] n. pi. settlements of tents Gn. 25 16 (P), or houses Lv. 25 81 (H), 
so Ba., Du., Dr. (g /J*ra irXovaicov, V cum divitibus — Dngga (cf. Is. 53°), is 
improb. QL WVT) suits the context, but would be prosaic. — J onnDJp] n. pi. 
secret places for hiding, elsw. 17 12 646, sg. v. 9 dub. — vrv] begins Str. >•, which 
follows D, as La. 2, 3, 4 ace. to ancient order of Heb. alphabet. MT. neglects 
it by appending this 1. to v. 8 . — naVrb] =tyrb. 3 robustos tuos, Aq. rrju 
eirrroplav <xov, as 48 14 , na^ri v. 14 ; cf. D*K3 hn Qr. v. 10 ; this last as Gr. dittog. 
for D'N of 1DK leaving ySn. But & els rbu tr^v-qra, so &, UL = naSn adj. 
Aap/ess, BDB.; n;Sn Ew.S 1 *^); rrSp Ko. 11 -* 1 )"*. But these are the only 
possible passages, and the derivation from y/^n after Arabic is dub. — 
I >pj] adj. innocent, elsw. 15 5 24 4 94 21 106 s8 Dt. 19 10 27 25 . — 9. naoa] Kt. a 



PSALMS IX. AND X. 87 

c. X nap n. f. thicket, booth, as 18 12 31 21 and Kt. 27 5 , but Qr. ^rp, sf. c. % 1 D 
76 s Je. 25 s8 , Qr. Ps. 27 s . — 3*w] repeated 1. 2 at expense of measure. — 
rponS] inf. fully written, also TBTP impf. \*pn vb. catch, seize, elsw. Ju. 21 21 . — 
"Ottos] inf. cstr. c. 3 temporal. t~\?? vD - C 1 ) d ra i away; cf. 28 3 , both of 
lion; (2) draw out, prolong 36 11 85 s 109 12 . — ^^3] is usually attached to 
Wt^C, but the use of a net is not suited to a lion. © attaches it to next Str. 
The initial x of Str. is missing. We might supply X ■* Qal pf. "ira vb. hunt 
as 140 12 La. 3 52 . — ro-n] Kt. adj. rvr, so Aq., 2, 3, &, Hu. 3 , Ba., confractus ; 
cf. jp 9 10 io 18 ; but Qr. ns-v. Qal impf. ['13-] = K3"i vb. <rr«^, elsw. Pi. 
44 20 5 1 10 ; so <§ TaTrei.vd:aei, U hwjiiliabit, Gr.; Niph. &? crushed 38° 5 1 19 . 
Ew., Ols., De. al. interpret nyn as i consec. Qal pf. = and he is crushed. Such 
a vb. does not suit the use of a net, and does not yield the needed X, It is 
prob. that the original reading was n:jn incn3 -p~ix. The "is fell off owing 
to haplog. of i. The 1 is txt. err. for s originally in the Egyptian Aramaic 
script. The n added to "p was interpretation of form. VHtna was transposed, 
and thus easily went into previous v. — VDWV3] 3 of instrument and pi. % cixy 
adj. ace. to usage (1) strong numbers, here as 35 18 Am. 5 1 ' 2 , cf. vb. Ps. 38 20 
40 s - 13 69 s 139 17 ; elsw. (2) mighty 135 10 . — 11. % via "Trip?] phr. elsw. 13 2 
22 25 279 30 8 5 1 11 69 18 88 15 102 3 143 7 ; cf. 44 25 104 29 . — nxjS] is gl., destroys 
the measure. — 12. PiD-ip] Qal cohort, imv. urgent entreaty, v. f. — Sn mm] 
makes 1. too long ; the former is a gl., the latter goes into the next line. It is 
an early error, for ({§, 3 have it. — Nfe'j] Qal archaic strong imv. for usual 
Ht' from Hfcl, v. 4 7 . Lift up the hand, to smite, as 106 26 , usually in prayer 
28 2 63 s 134 2 . — D"j>?] Kt. dmj;*, Qr., v. gl 3 , so v. 17 , □"•uj? for an original »jj?. — 
13. X n P" L, > ? ] wherefore, as 8g* s . — d\-iSn] is a gl. — 14. hpn";] Qal pf. 2 m., 
fully written r, defective \s*. — nnx '? although in 4§, is yet dittog. of nnm. — 
d>*di Scy] phr. a.X., cf. jini hvy v. 7 90 10 . — r\^2 nnS] Qal inf. est. of jnj, h pur- 
pose, to requite with the hand, the hand lifted up, as v. 12 . jru in the sense of 
requital 28 4 - 4 120 3 . The usual rendering, as syn. of taking into the hand, has 
no justification in usage. — :^J?p] emph. — Join] n. (m.) orphan: (1) of 
individuals 68 6 82 3 946 ic>9 9 - 12 i46 9 ; (2) of nation ioU-U La. 5*. — 15. pm] 
is a gl., though in <3. It makes 1. too long, is dittog. of peh v.j 5 . — E*n*in] inter- 
preted by |^, 3 as Qal impf.; by AV., Dr., JPSV. as juss., and following vb. as 
in final clause; by <&, U, Aq., 2, j$, 0, Gr., Du. as Niph. impf., so also Nxcn. — 

16. 1\h$ but© paaiXetiaei,!*! regnabit; so Gr. r\hr:\ — nw] is a gl. defining 
7 l, r:. — ^3**] Qal. pf., v. i 6 . & diroXriade, U peribitis ; so Gr. n3X% better as 
Du., Pi. imv. — '*"??<£] The sf. is an interpretation of the original y~\i<^ v. v. 18 . — 

17. mm] is gl., makes the 1. too long. — 337 pan] Hiph. impf. 2 m. J13 set 
the mind, give attention to, as 78 s Jb. II 13 2 Ch. 12 14 . The sf. is a misinter- 
pretation. Hi., Du. would rd. 2d pers. — 7}* N ] is used with 3'^pn, elsw. 
only Pr. 2 2 , and is here an unnecessary gl., v. $ 3 17 6 . — 18. Tip mp'T'-Ss] is a 
marginal gl. which has crept into the text. It disturbs the sentence, and 
makes the line too full. — PJ^] || 23tt : 7 Qal inf. cstr. expressing purpose of 
Yahweh. Jpp vb. Qal (1) usually intrans., tremble, be in terror Dt. I 29 7 21 
20 3 31 6 Jos. i 9 Jb. 31 34 , but this does not suit context; (2) trans., cause to 



88 PSALMS 

tremble, terrify Is. 2 19 - 21 suits this passage and gives intensity to v. 166 . Niph. 
ptc. of 'El, as terrible, exciting terror, Ps. 89 s . — cmjn] as 9 30,21 . — jnNn ;d] 
(5 pNH Sj?. This is interpretation, and not suited to v. 166 . 



PSALM XL, 2 str. 81 

Ps. 1 1 is a guest Ps. The Psalmist has taken refuge in Yah- 
weh (v. 16 ), and expostulates with those who urge him to flee from 
his enemies to the mountains (v. lc ~ 3 ). Yahweh is in His heav- 
enly temple (v. 4 ), testing the righteous (v. 5a ), hating the wicked 
(v. 56 ), and about to destroy them (v. 6 ). A liturgical couplet states 
the general truth that Yahweh loveth the righteous, and they 
will behold His face (v. 7 ). 

JN (Thee), Yahweh, have I taken refuge. 
How say ye to me : 
" Flee to (the) mountain as a bird ; 
" For lo they tread the bow, 
" They have prepared their arrow on the string, 
" To shoot in darkness at the rightminded. 
" When the foundations are being thrown down, 
" The righteous — what has he done ? " 
YAHWEH is in His holy temple; 
Yahweh is in heaven, His throne ; 
His eyes behold (the world), 
His eyelids try the sons of mankind. 
Yahweh trieth the righteous, 
But the wicked His soul doth hate; 
He will rain upon the wicked coals of fire, 
Brimstone and a burning wind will be the portion of their cup. 

The Ps. was in Q and then subsequently in 331ft (v. Intr. §§ 27. 33). It is 
a Ps. of refuge, giving the experience of an individual, and stating it objec- 
tively. It was generalised by glosses and a concluding couplet, and so 
adapted to public worship. The following are the evidences of date : 
(1) There is no reference to earlier literature, except possibly to the story 
of the destruction of Sodom: Gen. 19 24 (J), in the original v. 6 . (2) The 
words: mnirn v. 3 , elsw. Is. 20 4 2 S. io 4 in a different sense; rioySi v. 6 , elsw. 
La. 5 10 Ps. 119 53 ; and syntax, ine; v. 6 showing neglect of juss. characteristic 
of Is. 2 give evidence of a date not earlier than the Exile. (3) The pnx 
v 3. 5. 7 j s one w h S eeks refuge in Yahweh and is rightminded; there is no 
trace of legal or gnomic conceptions. The enemies are not foreign but 
domestic, and are men of disorder. (4) (a) The reference to the heavenly 
temple and neglect of the earthly, points to a time when the earthly temple 



PSALM XL 89 

had little religious influence. (b) The wide outlook of the divine inspection 
of the world implies the world-point of view rather than the provincial. 
(c) The conception of the disciplinary testing of the righteous and the sure 
destruction of the violent enemies is post-deuteronomic. On the whole the 
Ps. seems to be subsequent to J, D, and Is. 2 , and to precede the legal attitude 
of Ezra and his times. It is best explained as from the circumstances of the 
feeble community in Jerusalem shortly after the Restoration. 

Str. I. 1. The Psalmist states emphatically, / have taken 
refuge], probably in the original less objectively. — in Thee, 
Yahweh], as 31 2 71 1 , condensed by a late editor to "in Yahweh," 
cf. Vrss. Therefore he is not dismayed by his perils or the 
anxieties of his advisers, but on the contrary expostulates with 
them. — How say ye to me ?]. The remainder of the Str. is taken 
up with their advice, in which the poet describes the perilous 
situation. — Flee (thou)], so all ancient Vrss. and Qr., over 
against Kt. " flee ye," which originated from " your mountain," 
an error of MT., for mountain as of Vrss. — as a bird\ This 
is thought to be a proverbial popular phrase by Evv., Hu., al. 
Birds flee to forests when in peril, and as these in Palestine were 
on mountains, naturally to the mountains. The mountains of 
Judah were especially places of refuge on account of numerous 
caves, steep cliffs, and inaccessible rocks ; therefore from the 
earliest to the latest times they have been refuges of the perse- 
cuted ; so for David 1 S. 24, 26; for Mattathias 1 Mac. 2 28 . — 
2. The reason for this advice is they tread the bow || they have 
prepared their arrow o?i the string]. The enemies are archers, 
they are all ready to shoot, he is in deadly peril. — to shoot in 
darkness]. They are not in battle array, they are not face to face 
with him ; but they are hidden, concealed in the darkness, so 
that he cannot tell when they will shoot or from what direction ; 
they are secret, treacherous, though deadly enemies. They are 
probably not real archers, but they are compared to bowmen in 
ambush. — at the rightminded]. They are not only the enemies 
of the Psalmist, but of all the rightminded, and for the reason that 
they are rightminded. Their purpose is to destroy the righteous. 
The poet is in peril just because he is righteous. — 3. When 
the foundations are being thrown down] : the foundations are the 
established institutions, the social and civil order of the com- 



90 PSALMS 

munity. (3, SS, V interpret as vb. with rel. : " For what Thou hast 
established they throw down," which thinks of the institutions as 
divine. These enemies are not only enemies of the righteous, 
but they are pulling down all the institutions and good order of 
society. These institutions protect the rightminded righteous : 
when they are destroyed the righteous are exposed to violence 
of all kinds. — The righteous'], emph. in position, for his right- 
eousness is the real issue. That describes the Psalmist in the 
statement of his timid advisers. — what has he done], so PBV., 
Kirk, rightly. Experience shows that he has not accomplished 
anything under such circumstances ; therefore in such a time, 
and in such peril, the best advice is " flee," take refuge in the 
mountains — in striking antith. to the Psalmist's action in taking 
refuge in Yahweh. The translations : " What can the righteous 
do?" AV., RV., though sustained by Dr.§ 19 ; "shall do," JPSV., 
are difficult to reconcile with the Heb. perfect tense. The 
eight lines of this Str. are synth. each to the previous in regu- 
lar order. 

Str. II. The advisers have stated strongly what the enemies 
are doing. The Psalmist now in antith. states more strongly what 
Yahweh is doing, as a justification of his seeking refuge in Him. 
It is therefore an antistr. to the previous one. This Str. is com- 
posed of four couplets, three syn. v. 4a - 6 ' 4c ■* 6 , one antith. vA — 
4. Yahweh is in His holy temple], sometimes Yahweh is con- 
ceived as resident in His holy temple in Jerusalem, in the throne 
room of that temple, as 5 s 79 1 138 2 ; but here from the syn. 
Yahweh is in heaven, the temple is the heavenly one, as Mi. i 2 
Hb. 2 20 Ps. 18 7 . — His throne], either in apposition with heaven 
as a closer definition of heaven itself as the throne, cf. Is. 66\ or 
local accusative on His throne ; in either case, seated on His 
throne in His heavenly palace. Enthroned there He is not indif- 
ferent to what transpires on earth and among men. — His eyes 
behold], the object has fallen out of J^, but is given in some Vrss. 
as the world, which is most appropriate to the context. It is 
especially favoured by the syn. His eyelids try the sons of man- 
kind]. The eyelids are strained in the severe scrutiny, which 
marks closely and accurately all that men do in the world. This 
tetrastich is in antith. to v. 1 , the statement of the Psalmist that he 



PSALM XL 91 

has taken refuge in Yahweh, and the advice to seek refuge in the 
mountains. He has in fact sought refuge in heaven, a place 
infinitely higher and more secure than the mountains ; and in 
Yahweh, the heavenly King, who is investigating just this situation 
in which he is involved. — 5. Yahweh trieth the righteous']. If, 
as his advisers admit, he is righteous v. 35 and rightminded v. 2c , 
Yahweh is scrutinising him, trying him and his case thoroughly. — 
but the wicked His soul doth hate]. This exact antith. to the 
previous line is weakened by a later editor, at the expense also 
of the measure, in his effort to describe the wicked more par- 
ticularly by him that loveth violence. They are the archers of v. 2 . 
Their treacherous preparations to shoot the righteous are all 
observed by Yahweh, and He hates them from His very soul. 
The soul is the seat of the passion of anger and hatred, for God 
as well as for man. If, therefore, Yahweh is trying the righteous 
man, and hating his deadly enemies, the reason given by the 
advisers for fleeing to the mountains is not a sound one ; it is 
rather a reason why he should do what he has done : take refuge 
in Yahweh. — 6. This couplet is synth. to the previous one and 
in antith. to v. 3 . — He will rain upon the wicked]. The figure of 
rain is suggested by the fact that Yahweh is on His heavenly 
throne and is looking down from heaven upon the earthly situa- 
tion ; and also by the fact that divine interpositions are ordinarily 
conceived as coming from heaven. — Coals of fire], so after 2. 
For an image of lightning flashes and thunderbolts in similar 
terms, v. Ps. 18 13 " 15 . J^ snares and fire gives a heterogeneous 
combination, and it is difficult to understand what snares have to 
do with this storm of judgment. The syn. brimstone reminds of 
the destruction of Sodom Gn. 19 24 (J), and a burning wind of 
the Samum or Sirocco of the East. — will be the portion of their 
cup], not that they were to drink in their cup such a mixture of 
brimstone and burning, but the cup is fig., as Ps. 16 5 , of what one 
enjoys at a feast. Yahweh rains from heaven upon these wicked 
men, and they drink their portion. Instead of a draught of joy, it 
is a draught of burning judgment. In antith. to these wicked men 
casting down the foundations of society v. 3a , is Yahweh raining fire 
from heaven upon them ; and so in response to the final question 
of the previous Str. " What has he done " v. 36 is the answer — 



92 PSALMS 

there is no call for him to do anything. Yahweh has done it for 
him. The wicked have their portion already in hand. 

7. The Ps. has reached its splendid climax. There was nothing 
more to be said. But a later editor, thinking he might give it a 
better devotional ending, appends an appropriate couplet. — 

For the righteous Yahweh loveth ; 
The upright will behold His face. 

This is a synth. couplet enhancing the privileges of the righteous 
of the Ps. The righteous || the upright] are the " rightminded " 
(v. 2c ). A still later editor, probably on account of the unusual 
emph. position of " the righteous," regards it as predicate of 
Yahweh, or adjective, and so either " Yahweh is righteous " or 
" the righteous Yahweh," and accordingly supplies an object to 
the vb. : " righteous acts" which may be interpreted either of 
righteous acts of the righteous man, as Is. 64 s , or of the righteous 
acts which Yahweh Himself loves to do. — behold His face~], so 
RV., Dr., that is, see the face of Yahweh, as His guest in the 
temple, Kirk., cf. 5^, or after death, cf. 16 11 17 15 . That is the 
highest privilege of the one whom Yahweh loves. But it may be 
rendered " His face beholdeth the upright," so essentially AV., 
JPSV., which is a rather tame repetition of v. 4c , and is improbable, 
even in a liturgical addition to the Ps. 

1. rnn-o] emph. — ^Dn] Qal pf. action completed in present, v. 2 12 . This 
1. is defective. It is probable that the original was T^on nvr> *p as 31 2 71 1 . 
— $T?] a( ^ v * (0 i nterr °g« how? in expostulation 137 4 as Gn. 39° 44 s ' 34 
Jos. 9 7 (J), t 0)" ,ONn T? how canst thou {ox you) Ps. u 1 as Ju. 16 15 Is. 19 11 
Je. 2^; (2) exclam. how! in satisfaction Ps. 73 19 Is. I4 4 - 12 Je. 48 s9 . — T?^] 
to me, v. j 3 . — n«] Kt. Qal imv. m. pi. originated from sf. D^n which is not 
sustained by context nor by Vrss. which rd. -ncx ied in. Accordingly »"»u Qr. 
fs. is correct. J "nj vb. Qal move to and fro, flutter as bird //-*, elsw. in sympathy 
69' 21 Jb. 2 11 42 11 , Hiph. cause to wander aimlessly as fugitives 36 12 59 12 v. txt. — 
ton] is fuller archaic form of prep, r sim. v. 2(f. — 2. D^ytfin] a class as v. 5 - 6 
antith. pns, v. i 1 , here an unnecessary gl. — n#j5 fWi»] Qal impf. 3 pi. full 
form in p descriptive, v. 7 13 . — urr] Polel pf. 3 pi. proper perfect. — "^"V?] 
i.p. without pausal vowel as indicated by Mas. — nn^] Qal inf. cstr. c. 7 pur- 
pose. X n-v vb. Qal (1) shoot arrows c.acc. p. 64 s , c. S p. u 2 . Hiph (i) same 
c. ace. p. 64 5 - 8 prob. also 45 s {v. txt.). (2) direct, teach -p-ci 25 s 32 s , of God 
c. ace. p. 1 19 102 ; also ace. rei 27 11 86 n 1 19 83 , -p-o 25 12 . — t '•03] poetic, archaic 
for 3 elsw. Is. 25 10 (Qr.) 43 s 44 16 - 19 Jb. 9 30 (Kt.) i6 4 -* 19I6 378. Before Son 



PSALM XL 93 

more euphonic than a. — f aS neh] v. y 11 32 11 36 11 64 11 94 15 97 11 . — 3. *a] 
conj. when. — rVmtfn] n. pi. emph. f ntf n. : (1) sitting place, buttocks 2 S io 4 
Is. 20 4 . This does not suit our passage. 3 has leges. 2. de<r/AoL, so usually 
foundations, Dr. buttresses (Is. 19 10 J§ is interpreted as same; but <J§, 9T 
n>ntf, so Bu.). <g, ^ interpret 6'ti A KarripTiaio here, n article for relative and 
verb, rYintf = «//W T/fow ^tftf established, n>v v. 8 7 . This is tempting but 
improb. — piDnrr] Niph. impf. 3 pi. full form, cf. v. 2 (3 interprets as Qal. 
I D-p Q al : C 1 ) throw down 28 5 ; (2) £?va/£ away teeth 5s 7 . Niph. be thrown 
down, so here of walls of city Je. 50 15 , cities Ez. 36 s5 . — "?^B"noJ cf. Jb. n 8 . 
Two tones are needed; there should be no Makkeph. — wn* vr>] phr. a.X.; 
n. emph.; vb. Qal impf. 3 pi. of habitual action. The obj. is needed for meas- 
ure. (3 has els rbv irivrjTa = naSnS as io 8 - 10 - 14 probably assimilated to that 
passage; 6 Syr. Hexapla nSnS to world is better suited to context v. i?U. — 
4. % nrn] vb. Qal see, behold: (1) (a) c. ace. rei 58°- n , God's face n 7 17 15 ; 
(b) God subj. His eyes iA 17 2 ; {c) c. a look on, "> a;a in temple 27*. (2) see, 
perceive c. ace. Yahweh in His temple 63 3 , in His providential working 46 9 
Is. 26 11 - n Jb. 23 9 . — X D*5';_D';J n.m. pi. eyelids 1 I 4 132 4 . — 5. jna"> pv« ">]. |§, 
3 make this a complete sentence attaching jfBhl to next line. 4§ followed by 
Du. attaches it to previous clause, making two tetrameters. But the testing 
is more appropriate to the righteous, and we get a better antith. by contrasting 
God's dealings with the righteous and the wicked in the two lines, jneni is 
the proper antith. to pnx. Then Don anxi must be a gl. of specification. — 
■itfDj nNjir] Qal pf. 3 f. trsj subj.; but <§ fuaei ttjv eavrov tyvxhv (cf. 
Pr. 8 s6 ) must have rd. n:t\ In <g itfBJ is himself; in $? K^p3 is the seat 
of anger. <& makes the antith. in the person of the wicked, f^ with the 
previous line, tfgj n.f. as X reflexive 49 19 69 11 , for paraphrase of pers. pronouns 
v. j 3 , as seat of emotions and passions v. id 3 . — 6. nap?] Qal impf., in form 
juss. ; but it has lost its juss. force, as often in later poetry after Is. 2 . 
$"V2D vb. denom. rain, Qal, Am. 4 7 . Hiph. in \f/ only fig.; manna jS 24 , flesh 
78 27 , cf. bread Ex. 16 4 (J) and coals of fire Ps. n 6 . — DTO] is scribal error for 
ipns after 2, Ew., Ba., J3DK, Du. f ^ns coal Pr. 26 21 . ana ex Is. 54 16 , cf. 44 12 . 
X n? n.m. bird trap, in i/' only fig. of calamities and plots 1 19 110 124 7 140 6 142 4 
Je. 18 22 , u ; ip> 's Pss. 91 3 , cf. 124 7 141 9 Ho. 9 8 ; as source or agent of calamity 
Ps. 69 23 Ho. 5 1 Is. 8 14 Jos. 23 13 ; so here if correct, but altogether improbable. 

— X tf*f] n> f- fi re > °f conflagration, antith. D^D 66 12 , as consuming 68 3 74 7 
118 12 ; subj. mpa 83 15 , exa «ptf 46 10 80 17 , ex nun 21 10 ; (2) of lightning, 
(a) natural 29 7 104 4 105 32 148 8 ; (b) theophanic, ex >Sm i8 13 - 14 , cf. 140 11 , so 
here if ex >Dnfl. It precedes Yahweh 50 3 97 s . (3) The historic theophanies 
of the Exodus 78 14 105 39 , consuming Korah ex nyan 106 18 . (4) Fire of anger 
nSax 18 9 21 10 78 s3 , exa mpa 79 5 = 89 47 , cf. 78 21 , of strong emotion ex nyan 39 4 .— 
Jnnoj] n.f. brimstone, fig. of judgment, with nnocn also Gn. 19 24 (J) Ez. 38 22 . 

— fnW?}] n.f. pi. raging heat, fig. zeal sg. Ps. 119 53 , pi. of the wind Samum 
11 6 , no need however of rvn, which makes 1. too long; of fever of famine La. 5 10 . 

— t njp] n.f. portion, cstr. n>jn. y'njn (v. GesJ 95 " Lag. 5Ar81 - 15 °) in good sense, 
of Yahweh 16 5 , in bad sense n 6 63 11 , cf. 6S 24 . It was contr. for euphony and 



94 PSALMS 

should be connected with cdid by a Makkeph for a single tone. J Do n.f. 
cup in good sense as given by Yahweh 23 s 116 15 , Yahweh Himself 16 5 ; in 
bad sense given the wicked to drink u 6 75 s Je. 49 12 La. 4' 21 Is. 51 17 Ez. 23 33 . 
— 7. 2ns nin' |-mx >r] cf. v. 5a . The position of pns is unusual. Accordingly 
it was regarded by }fy, (S, 3 as an attribute of Yahweh, and a cognate obj. was 
supplied in rh\*Tt righteous ads, of divine acts 103 6 -f- 6 t., but if correct here of 
human acts as Is. 64 s Je. 51 10 + 4 t. But it is doubtless a gl. making the 
1. too long. — 'idvio vn\ "V£}]. ">& v. y 11 here only coll., and therefore doubtful. 
<S interprets as -vr\ The vb. may be pi. if connected with p>Tt t coll. as 
subj.; if not it may be an interpretation and not original with ir, as sub- 
ject. '•DVjO archaic suffix for vjo, usually pi., but here sg. as Jb. 20 28 2j 2: \ v. 
Ges.§ 103(2 ) n - 3 . This form of suffix gives a more melodious ending to the Ps. 
These two lines expressing a general truth are a later gl. for congregation, 
not suited to the original Ps. 



PSALM XII., 4 str. 4 4 . 

Ps. 12 is a prayer, in which the congregation implores Yahweh 
to save them, for the faithful vanish away and liars prevail 
(v. 2-3 ) j and to cut off the liars (v. 4 ~ 5 ). Yahweh Himself says that 
He will arise, and set the afflicted in safety (v. 6 - 7b ). The congre- 
gation finally expresses confidence that Yahweh will preserve them 
from the wicked round about (v. 8-9 ) . 

r\ SAVE, Yahweh, for (kindness) is no more; 

For (faithfulness) is vanished from among the sons of mankind; 

Empty lies they speak, each with his neighbour, 

With flattering lip, with double mind they speak. 
TyTAY Yahweh cut off every flattering lip, 

And (every) tongue speaking great words : 

Those who say, " To our tongues we give might, 

Our lip is our own ; who is lord over us? " 
" RECAUSE of the spoiling of the afflicted, because of the sighing of the poor, 

Now will I arise," saith Yahweh. 

" I will set (him) in safety, I will (shine forth for) him, 

(When thrust down) to the earth he shall be purified seven times." 
'P'HOU, Yahweh, wilt preserve (his life), 

Wilt keep (him) from this generation forever. 

(Though) round about the wicked walk, 

(When Thou risest up), (Thou dost lightly esteem) the sons of mankind. 

The Ps. was in B, then in £H and E& (v. Intr. §§27, 31, 33). In the 
latter it received the assignment rirr^n"^, indicating that it was to be sung 
an octave lower, that is, by the bass voice (jv. Intr. § 34). The Ps. is unusually 



PSALM XII. 95 

symmetrical in structure, 4x4x4. This is disturbed by the gnomic gl. in 
v. 7 . The date of the Ps. cannot be too late because of juss. v.*, cohort v.' 2 ; 
but demonst. 1? without article v. 8 is not classic, -idj v. 26 as 7 10 77 9 and ids 
v. 2 = 1D3N 77 9 ; the use of -pan, D'UiDN v. 2 , D"jy, DW3M v. 6 , for the righteous 
members of the congregation over against wicked members, all indicate a 
time of religious declension, in which the pious were in great suffering and 
peril, especially from slander and violence. It was a time of external peace 
and internal corruption. The great stress laid upon sins of speech, v. 3 , cf. 41 7 
144 8 Pr. 6 24 1 Ch. 12 33 ; v. 4 cf. 131 1 ; indicates the influence of Persian ethics. 
V. 6 gives a citation from Is. 33 10 , and not the reverse. All this favours the 
Persian period, at the time when the people were corrupted by mingling too 
freely with the neighbouring nations, subsequent to the building of the second 
temple and prior to the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah. 

Str. I. is composed of two tetrameter syn. couplets. The 
couplets themselves are antith. — 2. O save'], cohort, imv., earnest 
entreaty to Yahweh. — for], giving the reason. — kindness || faith- 
fulness] as suggested by chief ancient Vrss. and best suited to 
context. ^ and other Vrss. followed by EV 8 . have " godly " and 
"faithful." — is no more], have come to an end as 7 10 77 9 . — is 
vanished], has disappeared, ceased, as 77 s . According to the in- 
terpretation adopted, kindness, trustworthiness seem no longer 
to exist in the community, cf. Ho. 4 1 Je. 7 28 . In the other 
case the persons themselves who should have these characteristics 
are no more, cf. Mi. f Is. 57 1 . — 3. Empty lies they speak], fre- 
quentative, of their custom or habit, cf. 41 7 144 s - n . — each with 
his neighbour]. Unfaithfulness has so spread throughout the con- 
gregation that it has become a personal matter of man with man. 
— With flattering lip], as v. 4 , cf. Pr. 6 24 . — with double mind], 
with two different minds, cf. 1 Ch. 12 33 Ja. i 8 . 

Str. II. has two syn. couplets. — 4. May Yahweh cut off]. 
The juss. takes place of imv. of previous Str. — every flattering 
lip || every tongue speaking great words]. These do not refer to the 
character of the words as related to the speaker, and so " proud 
things " PBV., boastful ; but as related to the hearer, greater than 
the reality, and so flattering, deceiving, and misleading. — 5. Those 
who say], referring to persons who use lip and tongue. — To our 
tongue we give might], as (3, 3, Hi., De., Dr., Kirk., that it may 
speak these great words. We are mighty, with no one mightier 
than we are. — who is lord over us ?] implying negative answer, 



g6 PSALMS 

no one. We are our own lord, our lips are our own], in our own 
possession and power, and therefore we may make them as mighty 
as we please. " Proud hypocrites are meant, putting confidence 
in their speech to deceive men, and not submitting themselves to 
God," Aug. The translation "with our tongue will we prevail," 
EV 8 ., JPSV., after ft, though followed by Ba\, Du., al., is gram- 
matically not so easy and not so well suited to context. 

Str. III. is a synth. tetrastich disordered by a gnomic gloss. — 
6. Because of the spoiling]. The crafty enemies were also violent. 
They had attacked the people unprepared and had taken spoils 
from them. — sighing], indicating a sad condition as the result of 
this grievous wrong. — the afflicted || poor], as 35 10 37 14 40 18 ( = 70 6 ) 
74 21 86 1 109 1622 ; the prey of the liars and flatterers among their 
neighbours. These are the words of Yahweh Himself, who is re- 
solved to interpose on their behalf — the reason for which is men- 
tioned first for emphasis. — Now will I arise, saith Yahweh], an 
exact quotation from Is. 33 10 . Yahweh rises up, when He would 
interpose on behalf of His people or the righteous among them, 
cf. io 12 . — / will set in safety], phr. only here, an exact response 
to the entreaty v. 2a . — / will shine forth for him], in theophanic 
manifestation as Dt. 33 s Pss. 50 2 80 2 94 1 , in accordance with Vrss. 
The three vbs. without conj. give emph. utterance to the purpose 
of Yahweh. But J^ gives a vb. that occasions great difficulty, 
which is interpreted as a relative clause ; " from him that pufifeth 
at him " AV. ; " at whom they puff" RV., as io 5 ; " at whom they 
scoff" JPSV., or, "that he panteth for" RV. m , Dr., or temporal 
" when they pant for him " Kirk. ; none of which are satisfactory. 
— 7. The words of Yahweh are pure words, silver refined]. This 
clause constitutes a gl., interrupting the words of Yahweh and 
destroying the structure of the Str., which has its fourth line at 
the close of v. 7 . It is a glossator's expression of admiration of 
the words of Yahweh uttered in the Str. It is, moreover, a gnomic 
sentence, cf. Pr. 30 5 Pss. 18 31 19 10 . His words are as pure as re- 
fined silver. — When thrust down to the earth], referring to the 
afflicted among the people, continuing the words of Yahweh, 
cf. 74 7 143 3 La. 2 2 Jb. 16 15 . The usual interpretation, referring 
this clause to the silver, is difficult in every respect. The trans- 
lations : " As silver tried in a furnace of earth " AV ; or " on 



PSALM XII. 97 

earth" RV. ; "refined in an earthen furnace " JPSV., are not sus- 
tained by etymology or syntax. The Vrss. and interpreters differ 
greatly, without in any case finding the sentence appropriate to 
the context. — he shall be purified], that is the afflicted, by suf- 
ferings j cf. Mai. 3 3 . — seven times], the holy number of complete 
purification. 

Str. IV. is composed of a syn. and a synth. couplet. The pious 
now express their confidence in Yahweh, who has spoken with so 
great promptness and decision. — 8. Wilt preserve || wilt keep~\. 
The obj. is dub. in text. The suffixes in J^ are 3 pers. This is 
better suited to context than 1 pers. of (3, J. Probably both are 
interpretations, the Heb. vbs. being without suffixes in the original 
text. This is confirmed by the absence of one word in the first 
line, shortening the measure without reason. We should supply 
the usual object in such cases, probably his life, — fro?n this gener- 
ation^, the class of men described above as liars and deceivers, 
cf. Dt. 32 s Ps. 78 s - 8 Pr. 30 11121314 . — 9. Though'], the conjunction 
is needed for measure and meaning. — round about the wicked 
walk], familiar association with the righteous as in v. 3 , close 
neighbourly conversation, and also publicity and boldness of their 
wicked life. — When Thou risest up], going back upon the promise 
of Yahweh v. 6 , after (3, which interprets it of Yahweh, though re- 
garding the form as noun. It is usually regarded as infin. with 
prep, in a temporal clause, referring to the wicked, according to 
the interpretation of the subsequent context as " the vilest men " 
3, AV. But $f makes it abstr. " vileness " RV., Kirk., " worthless- 
ness " BDB. Such a word is, however, unknown elsw. in Heb. 
It is best therefore to follow (3, and to regard it as vb. and refer 
it to Yahweh : Thou dost lightly esteem], so Gr., cf. La. i 8 . This 
gives an appropriate climax to the Ps. 



2. njr^n] Hiph. cohort, imv. y/yw v. j s . (3 oCxrbv fie, so Che. is prob. inter- 
pretation. — ">p.p?] causal conj.Qalpf. v /-)DJ v. 7 I0 real pf.,subj. — Tpn] |$, @||. 
D^TOH ?§, 3, %, pi. ptc. pass. Qal, y/]l2H, cf. 31* 24 , v. 19? ; but (H pi. ai aX-qdeiai 
= V veritates — truths, cf. &, 2, RV. m . \ JDK n.m. faithfulness sg. Dt. 32 20 , pi. 
abstr. Pr. 13 17 14 5 20 6 Is. 26 2 . <g and |$ differ also Ps. 31 24 . Probably <g is cor- 
rect in interp. of form, but they were both abstract. In this case we should rd. 
-<cn as We. For similar mistake v. 4k We should remember that in original 
Mss. only iDn was written, and it might be interpreted either as vpn or ion. — 
H 



98 PSALMS 

ids] is prob. error for f D?x fail, come to an end as 77 s Gn. 47 15 16 Is. 16 4 29 20 . 
(3 d}\iyu)dr)o-cip. The pi. of vb. may be as often elsw. an interpretation. — 
3. J HUP] emph. : (l) emptiness, nothingness, vanity, a vain expectation 6o 13 
( = io8 13 ) 89 48 119 37 127 2 . 'V ""San vanities, mere nothings, idols 31" = Jon. 2 9 ; 
K">#7 tif vain, Ps. 139 20 , so n^ I27 1 - J Mai. 3 14 ; (2) emptiness of speech here 
as Pss. 24* 41 7 144 s - 11 ; (3) of conduct, 'V »HD worthless men 26 4 Jb. II 11 . — 
w^Pi! ***] "«* wi/54 another, cf. ^trnH 49 s , B^m c\s 87°. — rnpSq netr] emph. 
= 'n »nut? v. 4 , prob. both should be sg. syn. p£ ; S. — f [nj;Sn] n.f. : (1) slippery 
place 73 18 ; (2) smoothness, flattery i^-i Pr. G 24 Is. 30 10 ; (3) smoothness 
Gn. 27 16 . — aSi aSa] w/Z/i too minds, cf. 8l\j/vx<>s Ja. I 8 . — 4. rnir] Hiph. 
juss. X n "33 Q a ^ *** or conclude a covenant 50 5 83° 89 4 105 9 . Niph. be cut off, of 
wicked 37 9 - 22 - 28 - 84 - s 8 Ho. 8 4 Is. 29^ Na. 2 1 . Hiph. cut off, destroy Pss. 7^4 101 8 
109 13 , p«D 34 17 = 109 16 . — V^~\ as use d for evil purposes v. j 10 . It should 
have S3 for good measure as in syn. 1. — HVHJ] adj. f. pi. great, grand words, 
<Q ixcyaXoprj/jLova, 3 magniloquam, cf. nu ; p rough words, Gn. 42"' 3) , nnaj proud 
words 1 S. 2 3 , rmj friendly words Je. 12 6 . — 5. "vaJJ ur-^] a.X. n. is emph. 
vb. is Hiph. impf. I pi., and construction difficult. © ttjv yXQao-av rjfxQv 
/xeyaXwodfiev = 3 lingua m nostram roboremus, suits context and is followed by 
Hi., De., Dr. " our tongue will we make mighty," and most. &, "through our 
tongue are we strong," so Ba., Du. But Ew., Ols. after Dn. 9 27 would supply 
jrna, but this makes 1. too long. jTSi vb. Qal : (1) be strong, mighty, c. 
p 65 4 ; (2) prevail, of divine "»Dn, c. 7JJ 103 11 117 2 . Hiph. here only, c. *-. — 
WW] prep, rx, c. sf. I pi. with us, on our side or in our own possession. — 
6. 7#d], ?D causal. t*ife> n. spoiling as Je. 6 7 20 8 . — f hpjn] n.f. groaning 
79II 102 21 Mai. 2 13 . — V^o] in jtf/£/j/. Jj?t* n.m. elsw.: (1) salvation, 

jg8.86 27 1 50 23 5I 14 6 2 8 69 14 85 s - 10 95 1 I32 16 , f >J?B* *7H l8 47 (cf. 2 S. 22 47 ) 

24 s 25 s 27 s 656 79 9 85 s Mi. 7 7 Hb. 3 18 Is. 17 10 1 Ch. : i6 35 ;"(2) victory Ps. 20 7 .— 
^7 rvp*] is usually taken as rel. clause, either against whom one puffs, cf. jo 5 , 
RV., Ges., Hi., or that he panteth for Ew., De., Bo., Ols., Dr., RV. m . Du. 
would rd. rPBK. But (S Traprjaida-o/jLai as 94 1 presupposes ;*cx, <£, 2, >Din. 
Both may be explained as interpretations of an inf. abs. shine forth, in theo- 
phanic or ideal manifestation as Dt. 33' 2 Pss. 50 2 80 2 94 1 . 3 auxilium eorum — 
17 (n)-ttjf is probably a paraphrase. — 7. rVnon] pi. cstr. % ivvpN n.f. utterance, 
speech, of man in prayer 17 6 , elsw. of God's word I2 7 - 7 18 31 105 19 1 1911+211. ^g 2 
147 15 . — % r^nv'] f. pi. T»na adj. ethically clean, pure, of the heart 51 12 , words 
of Yahweh 12 7 , Law 19 10 . — TH*] Qal ptc. pass. X T* VD - : (0 smelt, refine, of 
silver 12 7 66 10 , words of Yahweh 18 31 I19 140 Pr. 30 5 ; (2) test, the mind, Yahweh 
subj. Pss. 17 3 26 2 66 10 Je. 9 6 Is. 48 10 Ze. 13 9 ; (3) lest,prove Ps. 105 19 . — 7^£3] a.X. 
dub. {£ Kliaa interprets as a loc. and bty n. furnace; but then p«7 must be 
pregnant, Dr., Ba., flowing dozvn to the earth. Gr. thinks the last S dittog. and 
rds. "hy as Pr. 27* 22 . Houb. rds. y-nm for ps 1 ?; Dy., Gr. pns, Oort, Ehr. pnn. 
Vrss. had a different text. <g, J5 doKLpuov ry 777; U probatum terrae ; 3 se- 
paratum a terra; Aq. xwpouj' 7-77 77J. All seem to depend on "?7a vb. be 
divided, separate, not used in Heb. in Qal, but only in N.H. and Aramaic. In 
Egyptian Aramaic script 7 and p were so similar that interchange was easy- 



PSALM XIII. 99 

We might retain hhyn, but instead of interpreting it as S'Vpa interpret as 
^Sipa, Polal inf. cstr. fy?p with 3, as Jb. i6 1& , //*r«^ <fc«/»; cf. p* 1 ? S^n 
Pss. 74 7 89 40 , ^-in 1 ? NDt 143 3 , yMt*? jpjn Is. 25 12 La. 2 2 . It would then refer to 
the afflicted of v. 6 and introduce the last line of the tetrastich. The interven- 
ing six words would then be a gnomic gl. — Pj5TD] Pu. ptc. f ppr vb. Qal, 
refine, purify Jb. 28 1 36'-" ; Pi. same, Mai. 3 3 ; Pu. be refined, only ptc. of metals, 
elsw. 1 Ch. 28 18 29 4 , of settled wines Is. 25 s . — D]P?3r] i.p. dual form of 
%yy<B adj. seven 119 104 , dual sevenfold, elsw. 79 12 , pi. seventy 90 10 . — 8. nrw] 
emph. — DnoB^n] Qal impf. 2 m. sf. 3 pi. || u^SFi sf. 3 sg.; but <3 in both cases 
has 7]/j.ds. 3, Aq., 9 agree with $%, and refer sf. of the first vb. to the divine 
words. Probably all are interpretations of originals without any sfs. at all. 
The first line lacks a tone. The missing word was prob. ^C'o], as 25 20 97 10 , 
either his life or as poetic paraphrase of pron., v. j 3 . — v] without article as 
adj., Ges.§ 126 ^, v. g 16 . ({5 inserts Kal in order to give in a temporal force. 
— 9. avpp] emph., v. j~, begins the line too abruptly, slating a fact which is 
singular in view of d before 0^; moreover a tone is missing from the line. 
Probably an original n has fallen out by copyist's error. — ^^:> s ?? , ,] Hithp. 
impf. 3 pi. full form in conditional clause with *3 though, — onr] inf. cstr. 
defectively written with 3 temporal. — t -'?!] a.X. worthlessness. yT^ 7 ] & e 
worthless Je. 15 9 , 3 vilissimi filiorum hominum. (3, vb. iiroXvivprjaas, Sexta, 
£%ov6tp7}cras. Ba., building on x a PP- °f Origen's Hexapla, thinks of D^3 vine- 
yard, as Is. 5 7 27 2 Je. 2 21 12 10 , a vineyard lightly esteemed by the wicked. 
Gr. rightly rds. n'^T, pf. 2 sg. f [•?**?] Qal, trans. Thou dost lightly esteem, 
as La. i 8 (Hiph.) for intrans. La. I 11 Je. 15 9 and trans, lavish, squander Dt. 21 20 
Pr. 23 20 - 21 28 7 . 

PSALM XIII., 2 str. 4 4 . 

Ps. 13 is a prayer expostulating with Yahweh for long-con- 
tinued neglect (v. 2-3 ) ; and petitioning for deliverance from deadly 
peril from an enemy (v. 4-5 ). A liturgical addition rejoices in sal- 
vation already enjoyed (v. 6 ). 

J-TOW long, Yahweh, wilt Thou continually forget me? 
How long wilt Thou hide Thy face from me? 
How long (must) I put (grief) in my soul ? 
How long shall mine enemy be exalted over me? 

VAHWEH, my God, O look, answer me ; 
Lest I sleep in death, O lighten mine eye, 
Lest mine enemy say, " / have prevailed over him," 
Lest he rejoice that I am moved — even mine adversary. 

Ps. 13 was in Q then in f& and W& {v. Intr. §§ 27, 31, 33). In its 
present form, it has three Strs. of 5, 4, 3 lines in H; in <&> the last Str. has 
an additional line. It is tempting therefore to think of gradually decreasing 



IOO PSALMS 

strophes as De. "Das Lied wirft gleichsam immer kiirzere Wellen, bis es, 
zuletzt nur noch freudig bewegt, still wird wie die spiegel-glatte See." But 
closer examination shows that the man responsible for the present form of the 
Ps. had not such a fine poetic sense for form. The original Ps. was composed 
of two tetrameter tetrastichs, rhyming in i, the first Str. also in its four lines 
begins with njK—ij?; the second in three lines with ja. In the Ps. as it now 
is, the tetrameter measure is changed to trimeter in v. 6 * 16 , the extra line in v. 36 
is without njN "»j?; the assonance of ja is neglected in v. 4 ; je is omitted alto- 
gether in v. 56 ; and rhyme is disregarded in an unnecessary change of order 
of words in both Strs., and also in change of sg. sf. to pi. in v. 4 - 5 . It is 
quite easy to restore the Ps. to its original form in these respects. It is true 
njs -t; might be prefixed to v. 36 (Br. SHS - 3 80 ), and it is possible with Du. to 
make over the trimeter in v. 6 to tetrameter; but even then there is a lack 
of harmony between v.° and v. 2 ^ 5 , which is best explained by regarding v. 6 as 
a liturgical gl. In that case the rejection of v. 3 * as expl. gl. is necessary. 
The Ps. in its present form is doubtless a congregational Ps. of prayer closing 
with praise. But if v. 6 be a gl., the two Strs. are most naturally explained 
as the prayer of an individual; and in that case the evidences favour an early 
date. The Ps. was not composed for public worship; but was adapted for 
the purpose, when it was taken up into IB. There is no evidence of late 
date apart from gls. There is no intrinsic evidence against as early a date 
as the time of David. The Ps. is brief, terse, simple, and yet symmetrical 
and ornate in style and form. The author of 2 S. I 1 *-* 7 might have written it. 
The use of ja there v. 20 is similar to its use in this Ps. v. 4 - 5 . Hi., De., Kirk., 
refer it to Saul's persecution of David, and it admirably suits that historic 
situation. 

Str. I. is a syn. tetrastich. — 2. How long?~\ emph. repetition 
in four lines ; earnest expostulation with Yahweh because of long- 
continued neglect of His servant. Wilt Thou forget me? || hide 
Thy face from me?\ so as not to see, as io 11 , where we have same 
parall. terms in mouth of the enemy. — Continually^ as 16 11 
Pr. 2 1 28 , and not "forever," RV. after Vrss. which is not suited to 
the sentence. There is no sufficient reason to break the sentence 
in two as AV. or paraphrase by "utterly" as JPSV. — 3. Must 
I put in my soul\ The change from second person, referring 
to Yahweh, to the first person of psalmist, before third person of 
enemy is striking in these lines of expostulation. We may be sure 
this action was not a simple fact feared for in the future, but in- 
voluntary action ; and so the mood of vb. cannot be indicative 
as EV 8 ., but must be juss. — griej f ], so by an easy emenda- 
tion of many scholars in accordance with context, and also with 



PSALM XIII. 10 1 

the usual meaning of nephesh. But the conception, of a person 
putting grief in his own soul, was so unusual, that an early scribe 
by the omission of a letter read " counsels," " advices," so EV\ 
This is thus explained by Pe. : " plan after plan suggests itself, is 
resolved upon, and then abandoned in despondency as utterly un- 
availing." But nephesh is seldom used of mental states, and this 
thought is not easy to adjust to the context. It had to be ex- 
plained by the gl. : sorrow daily in my mind. — Mine enemy], 
personal in the original Ps., but congregational in the present 
text. — be exalted over me], in success, supremacy, and triumph : 
elsw. of God or His people ; here only of enemy over a pious 
man : all the more therefore emphasising the abnormal situation, 
the reverse of what it should be. 

Str. II. is a tetrameter tetrastich, three syn. lines, synth. to the 
first line, and is all petition to Yahweh. — 4. My God], to empha- 
sise personal relation of psalmist to Him. — O look] earnest en- 
treaty followed by imv. answer me, without conj. expressive of 
urgency, antith. to v. 2a . — Lest], in three lines antith. " how long," 
Str. I. — O lighten mine eye], cf. 19 9 , to which it has been assimi- 
lated by copyist in use of pi. eyes destroying rhyme. The antith. 
with " hide Thy face " v. 26 indicates that it is here the turning of 
Yah weh's face upon the psalmist that lightens his eye as 4 1 31 17 6f 
go 4. s. 20 1 lg 27 T I9 i» a u on basis of the High-priest's blessing Nu. 6 25 . 
The use of the phr. 1 S. I4 27 - 29 Pr. 29 13 Ezr. 9 s , as well as context, 
favours the enlightenment of the eyes in the sense of the revival 
of physical strength and moral energy. But it is due here to the 
light of Yahweh's countenance, so that probably lighten is here 
pregnant, comprehending both conceptions. — / sleep in death]. 
Death is often conceived as sleep 76 s 90 5 Je. ^- hl Jb. 14 12 , not 
implying that the dead continue in a state of sleep in Sheol, but 
that the state of dying is a falling asleep to awake in another 
world. The psalmist is in peril of death, unless the favour of God 
shine forth from the divine face upon him, with its quickening 
power. — 5. Mine enemy say], boastfully, antith. " grief," which the 
poet was obliged to put in his own soul v. 3a . — / have prevailed 
over him], have the ability and power to overcome him, slay him, 
as parall. implies. — that I am moved], shaken, overthrown, re- 
moved from my place : the theme of the rejoicing of the adver- 



102 PSALMS 

sary, who looks upon his plans as already accomplished. The 
poet is in grave peril of this result, but it has not yet transpired ; 
and his urgent plea to Yahweh is that he may be delivered in 
good time. Elsw. in \p this vb. is used of man with a neg. in the 
assurance that one "will not be moved" io 6 15 5 16 8 21 8 30 7 62 s - 7 

II2 fi . 

6. An editor, desiring to make the Ps. more appropriate for 
public use, adds a trimeter couplet of faith and joy : 

But I in Thy kindness trust ; 

My heart rejoices in Thy salvation. 

A still later editor, with the same purpose, adds a resolution of 
public praise : 

I will sing to Yahweh, because He hath dealt bountifully with me. 

(3, IT give a fourth and still later liturgical line from 7 18 , preserved 

in PBV. : 

Yea I will praise the name of the Lord Most Highest. 

2. X fUK— lg] 4 t. repeated for assonance at beginning of each 1. of original 
Str.; elsw. 62* Ex. 16- 8 Nu. 14 11 (J) Jos. i8 ;{ (E). — nvjj 16 11 Pr. 2I 28 ever, 
continually, and not contr. of nxj'? forever, v. g~, the usual term, wh. is not 
suited to njN-ny. — 3. t^n] c. ^Di2, a.X. and difficult. MT. is an erroneous 
interp. connected with use of r^>, wh. is not suited to context, or the ordi- 
nary use of u*o:, often the seat of emotions and passions, seldom of mental 
states ; v. BDB. Although this text is so ancient and universal as to be in 
most Vrss., yet it is better after & with Dy., Gr., Che., Bu., Du., to rd. ror: 
hurts, griefs (y. 16 4 I47*)> or s g« r2 .*.'l as more suited to VD) and context. Then 
rd. vb. as juss. — J?"^] n.(m.) grief, sorrow, elsw. 31 11 107 39 116 3 Gn. 42 s8 
44 81 (J) J e - 4 t-> i s an early word ; but also late, Est. c/ 22 . It is not, however, 
suited to 22^, which usually is seat of mental and moral states, seldom of 
emotions and passions, and then in careless style. — "2 3 s ?] long form; cf. 
short form *aS v. 6 *; hardly from same writer, v. BDB. — dd^] v. i~, where 
followed by nS»S added here ® A , so Ba\, Du., Gr., Che., al. We., Lag., Hu. Now , 
Kirk., al., rd. DV DV. We must choose between the two, ace. to Dr. The 
whole clause is a gl. of emph. repetition, making Str. just this 1. too long. 

— 4. n^"3n] Hiph. cohort, imv., sq. imv. emph. coordination. — vjVn ">"] sel- 
dom in \p, v. 7 2 . Rhyme requires that the divine names should begin the 1. 
and \^r; close it. — jo] neg. final clause, v. 2 12 , thrice repeated, the last time 
omitted by prosaic editor ; properly sq. subjunctive cohort, form, but combi- 
nation with jo requires shortened form for measure. — r^T 1 ] * s acc - °f state. 

— 5. vr^r;] Qal pf. 1 sg. with sf. 3 sg. a.X. J St vb. (1) be able to do a 
thing, sq! inf. 18 39 36 13 40 13 78 19 - -°, abs. 21 12 ; able to endure 101 6 , as Is. I 18 j 



PSALM XIV. 103 

able to reach, c. S Ps. 139 6 ; (2) abs. have power over, prevail Gn. 30 8 (E) 
32 29 (J) Ho. 12 5 , sq. •? Gn. 32 26 (J) Ps. 129 2 ; so here, as <g Trpds avrdv, %, 
and measure require. Rhyme requires the order inSo 1 " I s , first neglected by 
copyist and then by later copyist reduced to sf. — ns] pi. improb., rd. sg. as 
':pn, and transpose to close of 1. for rhyme. — ^^l] is improb. without }fl. 
Rd. Vji-fD ; pi. due to double error, the omission of |a and pi. nx. — tf»BM \p] 
temporal, AV., Kirk. ; causal, Dr. ; or better obj., subject-matter of exulting ; 
v. 10 6 . — 6. »}«i] emph. of personal determination; here for congregation, 
in liturgical gl. which is trimeter couplet. — 'FMTM qipns], pf. state, phr. 52 10 , 
elsw. usually in God Himself. If this were original to Ps., we might with Du. 
insert mrv, and so get tetrameter. — Sr] juss. with modal sense, if parall. with 
nT>E ? x Qal cohort., so Dr.; but if parall. with previous line has lost modal 
sense as usual in late style. Subj. 2^ Pr. 24 17 Zc. 10", more properly vol 
Ps. 35 9 Is. 61 10 , iod Ps. 16 9 . — nnjnfc^a] might be given either one accent or 
two, ace. to good usage and design of poet as to measure ; v. j 3 . — ^y Spj _,| r] 
deal bountifully with, as 116" 119 17 142 8 , v. ? 5 . >s gives ground or reason of 
exultation. This 1. is a tetrameter and is a still later gl. @ adds a tetrameter 
1., Kal i^aXu) tu) ovbixari Kvplov rod v\f/ia-rov = ]vh'j 7VW QV n-in?N"», a liturgical 
addition from 7 18 . ]vhy nw elsw. 47"*. If this Str. is to be taken as original, 
this line is needed to make up tetrastich. But it is difficult to explain its 
omission from f§. It implies public worship of congregation. But if it be 
gl., the previous three lines are also gl., because they imply the same situation 
and a later date than the previous parts of Ps. 



PSALM XIV. = LIU., 5 str. 2 5 . 

Ps. 14 describes dramatically the impudent nations, acting 
abominably, saying to themselves, " There is no God to interfere " 
(v. 1 ) ; Yahweh from heaven inspecting them (v. 2 ), and declaring 
that there is not a single well-doer among them (v. 3 ) ; the 
devourers of His people, ignoring Him in careless indifference 
(v. 4 ) ; Yahweh suddenly scattering them, and putting their plan 
to shame (v. 56 ). At a later date the congregation prays that 
salvation may come forth from Zion (v. 7a ) ; and still later, sum- 
mons to the worship of Yahweh, because of the restoration of 
prosperity (v. 76 ). 

HTHE impudent said to themselves, " There is no God (here)." 

They corrupted their deeds, they acted abominably, there was no well-doer. 

VAHWEH looked forth from heaven upon the sons of mankind, 

To see whether there was any acting intelligently in seeking after God. 

THE whole have turned aside, have drawn back, together are become tainted. 
There is no well-doer, there is not even one. 



104 PSALMS 

J-J AVE the workers of trouble no knowledge — devourers of my people ? 

They eat bread : Yahweh they do not invoke. 
'pHERE feared they a fear ; for God scattered them ; 

Their plan was put to shame : for Yahweh rejected them. 

Pss. 14 and 53 both have -mS and nsjD 1 ?, and so were in Q and D& (v. Intr. 
§§ 2 7> 33)- Possibly the nxjD 1 ? of 14 was a later assimilation. To 53 is prefixed 
V^K'D, possibly owing to the use of ^otTD in v. ! , but probably original, indicating 
that the Ps. was also in the little collection of Maskelim (v. Intr. § 26). Q3& 
added a direction for the melody n^no ty (v. Intr. § 34). Ps. 53 was also in £ 
(v. Intr. § 32), where dviSm was substituted for an original mm throughout. 
Thus the Ps. had several editings before it received its present positions in two 
different texts. There are several minor differences: (a) "?v; 53' 2 = nStSj? 14 1 ; 
(3) the insertion of 1 before w»jjnn 53'-'; (<:) ^3 53 4 = Ysn 14 3 ; (d) jd 53* for 
id 14 3 ; (e) Sj before ^JJfl 14 4 ; (/) n^r; 53'Vor np«h 14 7 . These are such 
variations as might readily occur in different texts without changing the sense. 
In most cases Ps. 14 seems to be nearer the original. Ps. 53''' is different 
from 14 5 after the first clause nne nne otf. This difference is due not to 
design, but to different interpretations of a difficult text, for the same con- 
sonant letters lie at the basis of both texts (v. v. 5 notes). In this v. Ps. 53 is 
nearer the original, as it points to an actual event of experience, where Ps. 14 
generalises. (§»• *• R F, Syr. Hexapla, PBV, have a number of additional 
lines, cited in Rom. 3 1 °- 1 8 from Pss. 5 9 io 7 36 1 140 4 Is. 5c. 7 - 8 . They came into 
© at an early date by a marginal reference to Rom. 3 10 - 18 , and in cod. Kenn. 
649 of |^ were translated back into Heb. 

Their throat is an open sepulchre; 
With their tongues they have used deceit; 
The poison of asps is under their lips; 
Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness. 
Their feet are swift to shed blood; 
Destruction and misery are in their ways, 
And the way of peace have they not known. 
There is no fear of God before their eyes. 

It is impossible that these lines should be original, because of the textual 
evidence. They are absent from % other Vrss., <$*■ and later codd. <S, and 
are rejected by Origen and Jerome. Moreover, they do not accord with the 
thought of the Ps.; they entirely destroy the strophical organisation, and are 
of several different measures. The Ps. reflects the same situation essentially 
as Pss. 9-10; cf. 14 1 with io 4 - 6 - 11 -^. The hn: here is the same as the yvh 
there. It was a time when the congregation of the Restoration was in great 
peril from the surrounding nations contemning and treating with contumely 
their religion and their God : before the reforms of Nehemiah. The lan- 
guage is in general similar to D, Je., Zp., Ez., and Is. One word has no 
example in this list, rV?w v. 3 , elsw. Jb. 15™; but this is an Arabism, and may 



PSALM XIV. 105 

well have been of this time rather than later, when Aram, influences pre- 
vailed. The divine inspection from heaven v. 2 implies the doctrine that 
Yahweh is not merely the God of Israel, but the God of the nations, the only 
real God; and therefore the triumph of monotheism over polytheism, such as 
is evident in Is. 2 - 3 . The original reference of the Ps. to the nations, which 
is evident in 53 because of the more general interpretation of the situation, 
became in 14, in the worship of the congregation, adapted to the impudent 
contemners and ignorers of God in Israel itself. The Ps. is composed of five 
pentameter couplets, but there are three lines of different measure at the end. 
These represent two different liturgical additions : the one a petition for sal- 
vation from Zion the capital of Yahweh, as in no 2 ; the other a call to vvor- 
ship because the salvation had been accomplished. Both imply the temple 
worship of the Restoration. 

Str. I. A synth. couplet describes the nations in their attitude 
to the people of Yahweh. — 1. The impudent]. They ignore 
God, treating His people with contempt, and acting in a shame- 
ful manner towards the religion of Yahweh and Yahweh Himself. 
The Nabhal is not a " fool " EV 8 . in any of the meanings of this 
word, but a more aggressive personality, one who, in an earlier 
religious stage, represents the scorner of WL. (v. Ps. i 1 ). He is 
not the antith. of the wise, but of the one acting intelligently v. 2 . 
The word is here sg. coll., and so is followed by pi. vbs. In Ps. 
14 there is a generalisation of the earlier historical situation, 
referring to impudent nations hostile to Israel and the God of 
Israel, which, while not altogether destroying, yet so obscures it 
as to make it easy for the congregation in later worship to think 
of the impudent in Israel itself, who act contemptuously towards 
the pious portion of the congregation and their religion ; and later 
still to think of the unbeliever and infidel. — Said to themselves], 
in their mind, as io 6 . — There is no God (here)], not a denial of 
the existence of God, — these nations were polytheists and not 
infidels, — but a denial of the presence of God, to interfere with 
their actions, to interpose on behalf of His people, as io 4 ; inter- 
preted by "He will not require" io 14 and by "God hath for- 
gotten, He hath hidden His face, He doth not see " io 11 . 
Accordingly these nations, in a most impudent manner, went to 
the utmost length with apparent impunity. — They corrupted their 
deeds, they acted abominably]. Some, even Kirk., think that the 
psalmist has in mind the corruption that preceded the deluge 



106 PSALMS 

Gn. 6 12 (P) ; indeed, he uses the first of these vbs., but in a dif- 
ferent phr. The phrasing here is in accord with Zp. 3 7 , all the 
more if we transpose the noun to be the obj. of the first vb., 
although the reference in Zp. is to corrupt Israel, and here to 
the nations. The reference to the universal sinfulness of mankind 
before the deluge is possible only by a generalisation of the text 
of the original even beyond the changes of Ps. 14. The abomi- 
nable deeds towards Israel are more fully described in Ps. io 7 " 10 . — 
There was no well-doer"], among these hostile nations; there was 
no exception, they were all alike ; they had attained a climax, 
the utmost possible limit in their impudent and abominable 
actions. 

Str. II. A synth. couplet, describes Yahweh's attitude, antith. 
to that of the nations, of the first couplet. — 2. Yahweh looked 
forth from heaven]. He was in heaven, cf. io 5 , at a distance 
from the nations. They could not see Him j they might ignore 
Him, and contemn Him, and to themselves deny His presence ; 
but in fact He was there. He was intensely interested in what 
was going on ; so much so that He was looking forth upon the 
sons of mankind], these impudent nations, which yet belong to 
the race of mankind and not to the order of divine beings, — to see 
whether], making a careful, thorough, scrutinising inspection, — 
there was any acting intelligently], in order, if possible, to single 
out one from among these impudent ones that was their real 
antith. in seeking after God], in prayer and worship, cf. 9 11 . 

Str. III. A synth. couplet, still further describing the char- 
acter of the impudent nations. The result of the divine inspec- 
tion corresponds entirely with the psalmist's description (v. 1 ). — 
3. The whole, 14 3 = all of them, 53 4 ], variations of style merely, 
intensified in together, of joint action. They all alike share in 
the same characteristic doings. — have turned aside 14 3 || have 
drawn back] 53*: syn. vbs., both needed for measure, the two 
different prosaic editors preferring, one the one term, the other 
the other term ; both further explication of v. 16 . Instead of seek- 
ing after God and doing good, they have drawn back and away 
from God and good. — are become tainted], corrupt, spoiled, alto- 
gether bad. This is not, as has been commonly supposed, an 
assertion of universal human corruption ; but, as the context shows, 



PSALM XIV. 107 

of the total depravity of the impudent oppressors of the people 
of Yahweh, described in v. 1, 4 . — There is no well-doer], showing 
in the climax the exact agreement of Yahweh with the psalmist as 
to the character of these nations, intensified, however, by the 
additional clause : there is not even one, 

Strs. IV, and V. are synth. couplets, giving the psalmist's 
description of the final result of the antithetical situation de- 
scribed in the previous couplets. — 4. He first expostulates with 
these nations : have {they) no knowledge ?]. Is it possible that 
they do not know that Yahweh is inspecting them, and declaring 
their character and doom ? How can they go on ignoring God 
as they have done ? It seems incredible that they should act 
so. — The workers of trouble] take the place of " sons of man- 
kind " v. 2 and "the impudent" v. 1 , as a more suitable term to 
sum up all that has been said about them. — Devourers of my 
people]. The bitter enmity and severe attacks made upon the 
people by their enemies to destroy them are compared to eating, 
devouring, as Hb. 3 14 Ps. 27*. This suggests the corresponding 
thought resuming that of v. 1 , that they so ignore God, are so 
impudent and contemptuous in their attitude towards Him, that 
they eat bread], partake of their ordinary food without regard to 
Him, without at all considering Him. — Yahweh they do not in- 
voke], renewing the thought of v. 2 They have no thought of 
seeking after God, or of recognising Him at all, even in the 
enjoyment of His benefits. — 5. There], pointing to a place and 
a historic event known to the original psalmist, but not indicated. 
— feared they a fear]. This is mentioned abruptly and dra- 
matically, as if they were taken by surprise. It is still further 
emphasised by the gloss 53 s , "where no fear was" ; that is, 
either, when there was no apparent reason for fear, suddenly it 
came upon them without warning, or they were seized with a 
panic without external cause, due to the sudden realisation in 
their minds of the real situation described above. — For God 
scattered {theni)\ so 53 s , in accordance with the panic of the 
previous context. The vb. admirably suits that scattering in all 
directions which takes place whenever a sudden panic comes 
upon a body of men, cf. 89 11 . But 14 5 , by error of copyist, has : 
"for God is in the generation of the righteous," which gives, 



108 PSALMS 

indeed, a general reason why the nations should fear Yahweh, 
and stay their evil deeds against His people, but no reason for 
this sudden fear that has come upon them. Ps. 53° gives as the 
obj. of " scatter " : u the bones of Thy besiegers." This conceives 
of the nations as besieging the people of Yahweh when the panic 
suddenly came upon them. This admirably suits the context and 
is tempting as a historical basis of the Ps., but in fact it is due to 
a misreading of the original, and destroys the measure. — 6. Their 
plan was put to shame\ This underlies and best explains both 
texts. Their plan was, as the previous context shows, to devour, 
utterly destroy, the people of God ; and their deeds were most 
impudent, abominable, and corrupt. Their plan was frustrated 
and put to shame, because they were scattered in a disgraceful 
panic. Ps. 14 misreads so as to give either a statement of fact : 
" Ye put to shame the counsel of the afflicted," or a hypothetical 
clause : " Ye may put to shame " ; but in either case it is difficult 
to adjust to the context. It is true that this clause might be 
regarded as a reiteration of the impudent conduct of the nations, 
but there is no apparent reason for it here, and we still lack, 
according to that interpretation, any explanation of the sudden 
panic with which the verse began. Ps. 53 s takes the vb. as abs. 
and 2 sg. with God as subject, " Thou hast put to shame," which 
suits the vb. " scattered," but leaves the obj. to be supplied ; while 
the 2 pers. sg. is strikingly out of place in the midst of 3 pers. 
sg. in previous and subsequent lines, all pers. alike referring to 
God. — For Yahweh rejected them\ so 53°, in accord with its 
context; 14 6 , "is his refuge," is due to the mistake of a single 
letter of the original word, though it is quite well suited to the 
previous context. The original Ps. came to an end with this 
couplet. 

7. A later editor, probably of ©, adds, as a liturgical prayer, a 
tetrameter line. 

Oh, that the salvation of Israel might come forth from Zion ! 

Zion is here conceived as the capital seat of Yahweh's dominion, 
from whence therefore salvation comes. This implies a well- 
ordered worship in the temple and a strongly defended city, as in 
Pss. 46, 47. Here is an entirely different situation from that of 



PSALM XIV. 109 

v. 2 , where salvation comes from Yahweh in heaven ; cf. 1 io 2 for a 
similar gloss. 

A still later liturgical addition, a tetrameter couplet, was made, 
probably in if/, calling upon the congregation in public worship : — 

In that Yahweh hath restored the prosperity of His people, 
Let Jacob rejoice, let Israel be glad. 

The juss. form probably has juss. sense, although at this late 
date it might be regarded as having lost its distinctive mng., and 
so be translated as indicative future, " shall rejoice," " shall be 
glad," EV S . ; the former is more suited to a liturgical gloss, the 
latter is tolerable only in the view that it was original to the Ps., 
and then the early date would be against this interpretation of the 
jussive. — In that\ The infinitive cstr. with prep, may be inter- 
preted as temporal clause, "when" 3 and most Vrss. and inter- 
preters, but better as giving ground or reason for the exhortation, 
cf. 9 4 . — Yahweh hath restored the prosperity of His people~\. This 
is to be preferred, especially at this late date, to the more specific 
and earlier rendering of the phr., " bring back the captivity," EV 8 ., 
which does not suit a late liturgical addition. 

1. fSaj] adj.; not dcppcov <§, stultus 3, fool EV 8 ., but impudent, contu- 
melious, shameless, as impudens with the double sense of immodest and impu- 
dent : (a) towards God 14 1 = 53 s 74I8.22 jj t# 32 21 all of heathen, Dt. 32° of 
Israel ; (b) towards men, antith. to 3-7] nobleminded, and so shameless, base- 
minded Is. 32 f) - 6 2 S. 3 33 13 13 Je. 17 11 Ez. 13 3 (?); coll. of the contumelious 
Sai n?nn Ps. 39 s , cf. Pr. iy 7 - 21 30 22 Jb. 2 10 30 8 . This mng. is confirmed by 
nSaj n. f. wanton, immodest, impudent deed, not in \f/, but Gn. 34 7 (J) Ju. 19 23 

2 S. 13 12 +, and the denom. vb. fSaj not in \f>, but Qal be impudent Pr. 30 32 , 
Pi. treat with impudence or contumely : God Dt. 32 15 , father by son Mi. 7 6 , 
the divine throne Je. 14 21 , Nineveh by Yahweh Na. 3°. — ir^nirn] Hiph. pf. 

3 pi. action completed in present. % nnt? vb. Hiph. (1) destroy 78 s8 - 45 106 23 
and prob. 57, 58, 59, 75 (titles); (2) corrupt in moral sense Gn. 6 12 (P) 
Zp. 3 7 , act corruptly Ps. 14I = 53 s Dt. 4 16 31 29 Is. I 4 Je. 6 28 . — ia^nn] Hiph. 
pf. pi. 3 m. without conj., emph. coordination, v. j; 7 . — n^p] v. 9 12 . Ps. 53 2 
has Svj, v. j 1 *, but this is prob. an error of copyist. The conj. 1 between the 
vbs. in 53 2 is prosaic and not original. The resemblance of the passage to 
Zp. 3 7 favours the view that the noun is really obj. of both vbs. — a'lErnfety ps] 
= v. 36 antith. to c^nSs p*. The phr. = 532- 4 , cf. 37 s Ecc. 7 20 . The ptc. has 
nominal force, well-doer, ara, good is seldom in an ethical sense 34 15 37 27 52 s , 
v. 4K adds ovk €<xtiv 2ws £i>6s, assimilated to v. 3 and not original. — 2. mrr] 



110 PSALMS 

emph. antith. Saj ; the situation is dramatic as Ps. 2. — d>db>d] also emph., 
the heavenly residence in antith. with earthly men. — TRtfn] Hiph. pf. emph. 
present. X *)£$ vb., Niph. look forth from heaven 85 12 , % Hiph. same, elsw. 
102 20 La. 3 60 Dt. 26 15 ; cf. B^an same, 33™ 80 15 102 20 . — ^?frc] Hiph. ptc. 
nominal force, as 3W nfe*?, acting with understanding ox having insight, antith. 
to V^j ; cf. 2 10 . — 3. S3n] M«r «//W<? = ^3 53* the whole of it. @ in both irdv- 
res. The former as 49 18 103 19 119 91 145 9 , the latter as 29A — -\d] Qal pf. 3 m. 
mo v. 6 9 , of r^W/ as Dt. u 15 17 17 Je. 5 23 . For this 53* has jd Qal pf. 3 m. 
X JiD Qal backslide, prove recreant, to Yahweh, abs. jji Pr. 14 14 , c. }c Ps. 8o 19 . 
Niph. (1) reflexive turn oneself back, prove faithless, c. nnsn Zp. I 6 , ninN 
Is. 50 5 Je. 38^ Pss. 44 19 78" (prep, omitted) ; (2) passive, be turned back, 
repulsed by foes, with iinx 35* 40 16 ( = 70 3 ) 1 29 s Is. 42 17 Je. 46 5 . This 
1. lacks a tone. We might think that in the original both vbs. nD and jd 
stood, as two vbs. v. 16 ; and that one copyist took one vb., the other the 
other. — hit] v. 4 9 , together, of joint action. — VtSkj] Niph. pf. 3 pi. f [rV?N] 
an Arabism, be tainted, corrupt, elsw. ptc. rHKJ Jb. 15 16 . — nns Dl pK], there is 
not even a single one. Z\ in the sense of X even 3% n 78 20 132 12 , 0)1 v. S 8 . — 
4. «Sn] intcrrog. with neg. expostulation. — ijp* ] emph. present, v. I 6 . — 
P« '^■"^a] so @ of 53 5 , but $? omits s 3 there. It is an easy and frequent 
insertion, v. 5 6 6 9 , and it makes the 1. too long. — *DJ? ^sk] Qal ptc. pi. 
cstr. nominal force. X S - N (0 "*'•' man subj. 128 2 ; (a) manna 7s 24 - 25 , birds 
78 29 , cnS *7DN take a meal 14^ (= 53 s ) 41 10 102 6 127 2 Gn. 3 19 31 64 37 s6 tf*-™ 
2 K. 4 8 ; (&) sacrificial meals Pss. 22 27, 80 106 28 , even of God, in question 50 13 ; 
(c) in mourning, fig. ashes 102 10 , cf. 80 6 (Hiph.); (2) animals subj.: insects 
yg45 io ^35. 35 j dogs 59 16 , ox 106 20 ; (3) enemies, devour, oy 146 = 53 s , Jacob 
79 7 , the flesh of the people 27 s ; (4) subj. things, devour, fire 18 9 21 10 50 3 
78 ,;3 , zeal 69 10 . Hiph. give to eat, God subj. rmn aSrrc 81 17 , fig. nyvi ovh 80 6 . 
Usage makes it plain what is meant here, — a taking of the ordinary meal. 
— 5. X -£] a dv. dem. there: (1) simple designation of place after 3Bfc 69 s6 
107 36 137 1 , defining nvrx 104 17 ; "u J relative 122 4 ; (2) pointing to a place at 
the end of the clause 48 7 87 4 - 6 ; (3) emph. at beginning of sentence, point- 
ing to a place where something important had happened or will happen, 
especially in description, 14 5 (= 53 s ) 36 13 where defeat had taken place, 66 6 
rejoicing, 68 28 procession, I04 25 - '*> movement of animals or ships in the sea ; 
other conceptions 132 17 133 8 137 3 139 s - 10 . njtr, same with n local, place 122 5 , 
emph. 76 4 ; v. BDB. — ttvj nns] vb. Qal pf. 3 pi. aorist t"V?$. Vb. dread, 
abs. 78 s3 Dt. 28 s6 Je. 36*0™! -via cog. ace. Pss. 14? = 536 Dt". 28" Jb. 3 25 ; 
c. JD Pss. 27 1 119 161 . X ""?? n - elsw. ^ (1) dread, before Yahweh 105 38 1 1 9 120 , 
the enemy 64 s2 , peril at night 91 5 ; (2) obj. of dread 31 12 30 2 53 s . 53 s adds 
nnc rrn nS, an explanatory addition to emphasise either that the calamity 
came when there was no apparent reason for dread, or else that there was no 
real reason for it. — The great difference between 14 and 53 now appears. 
dti^x -o] 14^ 5366 i s parallel with nw "3 14 66 = D'n^s *o 53^, both causal 
clauses with God subj. It is, however, improbable that dti^n was in the orig- 
inal Ps. of IB. — «*an *ty TMV P""rc "Vnal 14 56 ** for which nnthan nan nicsy ms 



PSALM XIV. Ill 

53 66 - c . These variations are evidently due to a copyist's error, and not to 
intentional change. The texts were written originally thus in pj : 

14. tfan >jy my pnj -na 
53. niton -pn nnxy "us 

There is nothing to correspond with pis in 53, therefore it was an explanatory 
addition to Tn, which without it is unintelligible. "Ha might be interpreted 
as Aram. "173 scatter = -its, and it might have been an unconscious substitu- 
tion or interpretation of the form of the original Jnrs vb. Niph., bones are 
scattered at the mouth of Sheol 141 7 . Pi. subj. Yahweh, scatter, disperse, 
enemy 89 11 , hoar frost 147 16 ; subj. man, his ways, so to run hither and thither 
to other gods Je. 3 13 , scatter money Ps. 112 9 Pr. II 24 . nra in the sense of 
scattering enemies is most suited to context, and in all probability original 
here, crv", their counsel, plan (v. i 1 ), best explains both readings. In the 
one text it was explained as against the \r, the afflicted (v. <? 13 ) ; in the other, 
it was rd. as rrtDSJ bones (v. 6 3 ), due possibly to 14 1 7 . This then had to be 
explained, and so the gl. originated either f|jn, <3 avOpioiraplaKiov, U qui homi- 
nes placet, or ^jn thy besieger, Qal ptc. sf. 2 s. Jnjn vb. Qal enca??ip, of army, 
c. S? 27 3 ; S aoD metaphor for protection 34 s ; here c. ace. besiege. But sf. 
2 pers. and ace, both suspicious, and improbable in original. 14 has iB^an 
Hiph. impf. 2 pi. e^a (v. 6 11 ). 53 has nnft^an Hiph. pf. 2 m. fully written 
form. But neither of these is suited to context, which requires 3 sg. The 
Hiph. in the sense of be put to shame is common, as 1 19 s1 - 116 Je. 2 26 6 15 46 24 
431.1.20 5o 2 - 2 ; then rvsy might be subj. and the form have been B»an. The 

2 pi. is a later interpretation. The 2 sg. pf. is also an interpretation. — iriDno] 
14" for wh. CDxrp 53. Here again the resemblance is so great in form that the 
difference must be due to interpretation and not intention. The sfs. are in 
both cases later interpretations ; the difference between Dm and D.xs is slight 
in ancient scripts and in some dialects in pronunciation. J ^vnv n.m. refuge, 
esp. of God, elsw. 46 s 61 4 62 s - 9 71 7 73^ 91 29 94 s2 142 6 , rocks for conies 104 18 . 
This is suited to the context of 14 in part, but not to the original Ps. — 
\ [DND] Qal reject, refuse, c. ace, subj. God 53 s 89 s9 , subj. men 36 5 118 22 ; 
c. 2 subj. God 78 s9 - 67 subj. men 106 24 ; Niph. be rejected ij^. This vb. in perf. 

3 m., suits context and the original Ps. — 7. fn;~ , p] expressive of wish = 53 7 
55 7 (y. 4 7 ) and introduces a liturgical addition, as no 2 . — njne^] sg. cstr. = 
53 rnyir^ pi. cstr., the former salvation, the latter saving acts, the former more 
probable, v. j 3 . — ^"^) || ap£*J poetic terms for the nation and later for the 
religious community, v. BDB. — a-lBto] inf. cstr. temporal, Hu., Ba., Du., 
Dr., Kirk. ; but this is not so well suited to context as causal, giving reason 
of rejoicing ; cf. 9 4 . The phr. f matf 310 is technical, 14? ( = 53 7 ) 85 2 I26 1 - 4 
Dt. 30 3 Je. 29 14 30 s - 18 3 1 23 33™ 4 8 47 49 s9 Ho. 6 11 Am. 9 14 Zp. 2 7 3 20 Ez. 16 53 
29 14 Jo. 4 1 Jb. 42 10 . In most of these passages we might render, restore cap- 
tivity, bring back captives ; but some of them must have the more general 
mng. restore prosperity. If the former here, the liturgical addition muse have 
been very early, after the restoration of Zion to the centre of the Jewish reli- 



112 PSALMS 

gion ; if the latter, it may have been at a much later date. Possibly there 
are two stages of liturgical addition in this verse. — not?;] v. j 12 , || ii\ v. 2 n y 
both juss., the latter in form. They should be interpreted as real juss. If, 
however, the previous clauses be temporal, it would seem necessary to inter- 
pret them as future indicatives, and to regard the juss. form as having lost its 
significance. 

PSALM XV., strs. 2 3 io 3 i 3 . 

Ps. 15 is a didactic poem, inquiring what sort of a man is 
qualified to be a guest of Yahweh (v. 1 ) ; describing him in ac- 
cordance with a decalogue of duties (v. 2-56 ) \ and declaring such 
a man secure (v. 5c ). 

yAH VVEH, who shall be a guest in Thy tent? 
Who shall dwell on Thy holy mount f 
l-JE that walketh perfect in his righteousness; 
He that speaketh truth in his mind; 
Who hath not played the spy upon his neighbour, 
Hath not done harm to his friend, 

Hath not taken up a reproach against the one near to him 
Despised in his eyes is the reprobate ; 
But them that fear Yahweh he honoureth. 
He doth swear to (his friend) and changeth not. 
His silver he hath not given in usury, 
Nor taken a bribe against the innocent. 

TI/HOSO doeth these things shall not be moved. 

Ps. 15 was in O and £ft (v. Intr. §§ 27, 31). It was not taken up into 
the earlier major Psalters, because it was neither hymn nor prayer, but simply 
didactic in character, and so less suited for public worship. It resembles 
Ps. 24 s - 6 , which has a similar couplet of inquiry and a similar response; now 
a tristich, but probably originally a couplet, with a concluding couplet; and 
therefore more artistic than Ps. 15. The measure of Ps. 24 is also trimeter, 
the response is simpler and earlier. The language and phrasing are so dif- 
ferent that there seems to be no interdependence. The situation is entirely 
different with Is. 33 14 " 16 , where there is a couplet of inquiry, a pentastich of 
response and a concluding tristich. These are tetrameters. But the language 
and phrasing are so similar to Ps. 15 that there is interdependence; and prob- 
ably the briefer ethical conception of Is. 8 is earlier than the more complete 
one of the Ps. The question has the same conception of guest -\ij; although 
in Is. 3 Yahweh is a consuming fire, in the Ps. He has a hospitable tent. The 
different situations at the time of composition explain this variation. Three 
of the ethical requirements are the same: (1) Dnsn "jSn v. fa = nipTS *|Sri 
Is. 33 15a . This is all the more the case if we read in v. 2a ip*wa d>dp -rSn. 



PSALM XV. 113 

(2) nDx "oi v. a =onB»D nai Is. 33 156 . (3) npS nS ttwJ v. 56 =:"inBb "jdhd ves -ipj 
Is* 33 15d - The conclusion v. 5c may be regarded as a summary statement of 
Is. 33 16 . The Gemara {Makkoth f. 24*7) states : " David compresses the 
613 commands of the Law in eleven, Isaiah in six, Micah (6 8 ) in three; 
Amos (5 4 ) and Hb. (2 4 ) each in one." The comparison is good though the 
conception of the author is unhistoric. V. 26 shows such a highly developed 
sense of mental truthfulness, that it implies the influence of Persian ethics, and 
therefore the Persian period. The form of the decalogue implies familiarity 
with its use in the earlier Heb. codes, and a legal habit of mind. This dec- 
alogue does not include duties to God as the primitive Decalogue; but is 
rather like those decalogues of E, D, H, which comprehend duties to man. 
V. 56 npS'KS >j?j"Sp intf implies ipi on #DJ mon 1 ? nntf npS "ins Dt. 27 25 , one 
command of a primitive decalogue among the sources of D; cf. also Ex. 23 s . 
V. 5a i#J3 jnj~«S "\ddd implies "\v:2 iS jnn nS 1C03TH Lv. 25 37 out of one of 
the groups of laws of H; cf. Ex. 22 24 (v. Br. Hex - 224 - 229 - 239 ). The codes of D 
and H were familiar to our psalmist, but he betrays no knowledge of P. The 
Ps. seems to give an appropriate answer to the demand of Samaritans to 
participate with the Jews in the rebuilding of the temple, Ezr. 4 2 sq. 

Str. I. is a couplet of inquiry, as 24 s - 8 10 Is. 33 14 . — 1. Who\ 
not, what person? but as often, what sort of a person? what shall 
be his character? — shall be a guest in Thy tent], v. Ps. 5 5 . The 
tent is a poetic term for the temple 27^ 61 5 , based upon the 
ancient sacred tent of Yahweh, prior to the building of the temple 
78 6067 . The temple was really the house or palace of Yahweh; 
sometimes conceived as the place of sacrifice and worship, some- 
times as the place of His royal presence, to which He admits His 
servants, either as guests or to shelter them from their enemies. 
— dwell on Thy holy Mount], parall. with previous line, but not 
entirely synonymous. The privilege of access to the sacred tent 
as guests is one thing; the privilege of a residence on the holy 
mountain as citizens is another. The holy mount is here as else- 
where Jerusalem or Zion {v. 2 6 ). 

Str. II. is a decalogue composed of two pentades of ethical 
requirements. The first, 2-3, comprehends a couplet and a trip- 
let. The couplet is more general, requiring: (1) Moral walk or 
conduct. In this the guest of Yahweh should be perfect in his 
righteousness'], complete, faultless, so probably the original, to 
rhyme with the other lines of the pentade. These two kindred 
words seemed to a later prosaic editor to require each its own 
verb, and so he inserted "worketh" before "righteousness," and 
1 



1 14 PSALMS 

destroyed the measure. (2) Moral speech. — He that speaketh 
truth], not merely of external speech to others as 1 K. 22 16 Je. 9* 
Zc. 8 1 ' 5 , where truth and falsehood are conceived in the preexilic 
sense as connected with injury to others; but, internal speech, to 
himself, in his mind], the later and much higher conception 
of truthfulness, due to Persian influence j the Persians, from an 
earlier date than their contact with Israel, being distinguished 
above all other ancient nations for the stress they put upon moral 
truthfulness. The more general attitude of this first pair of ethical 
requirements passes over into the more specific negative conduct 
in the triplet, which is progressive in order of thought. The rela- 
tionship becomes constantly closer in the order : his neighbour, his 
friend, the one near to him, so also in the actions, — play the spy 
upon]. This is the ordinary meaning of the Heb. phr. ; but a 
copyist in the omission of a single letter of the original " neigh- 
bour," substituted a Hebrew word meaning " tongue," and so made 
an obscure and unexampled phr. and construction, which has been 
rendered in various ways. Those most familiar to English readers, 
are : " He that hath used no deceit in his tongue " PBV., " He that 
backbiteth not with his tongue " AV., " He that slandereth not 
with his tongue " RV. ; none of which is well sustained. — Hath 
not done harm to~\. The evil disposition, as expressed in spying, has 
passed over into an active doing of injuries, and reaches its climax 
in : hath not taken up a reproach against the one near to him. 

The second pentade, 4-5 b, is also composed of a couplet and 
triplet, the couplet general, the triplet specific. The couplet is 
antith. — The reprobate], the one rejected by Yahweh (v. 14 6 
(revued txt.) =536), antith. them that fear Yahweh], His worshippers, 
cf. 22 24 25 12 34 10 112 1 115 1113 118 4 128 14 135 20 . The former are 
despised in his eyes], his eyes look upon them with contempt; the 
latter he honoureth. The triplet is progressive, as the previous one, 
in the rejection of degrees of wickedness. — He doth swear to his 
friend], so (3 "neighbour" PBV. ; which is easier and more suited 
to the context than the stronger and tempting, "to his own hurt" 
3, AV., RV., JPSV., and most moderns. This rests upon a dif- 
ferent interpretation of the same original consonant letters, which 
in the unpointed text may be interpreted by two different words 
— and cha?igeth not], that is, adheres to his oath and does not 



PSALM XV. 115 

violate it. This probably refers in accordance with the subsequent 
context to a promise made to a friend of some benefit or help. 
The violation of the oath of promise now passes over to the more 
positive usury, and more guilty bribery, in violation of the ancient 
codes; the former of Ex. 22 24 (E) Lv. 25 s7 (H) Dt. 23 20 , cf. 
Ez. i8 8 - 13 - 17 Pr. 28 s ; the latter of Ex. 23 s (E) Dt. 27- 05 (Deca- 
logue) Dt. io 17 16 19 1 S. 8 3 , cf. Is. i 23 s 23 33 15 Ez. 22 12 Ps. 26 10 
Pr. 17 23 . 

Str. III. is a monostich, summing up the decalogue in final re- 
sponse to Str. I. — 5 c. Whoso doeth these things shall not be 
moved']. This phr. is often employed to indicate the firm, secure 
condition of the people of God, in Zion, v. io°. A later editor 
thought that he strengthened it by adding " forever." 

1. mrp] unnecessary gl. — 1^7P Via] the sacred mountain Zion; see 2 s . 
This couplet rhymes in ka. and is syn. throughout. — 2. JfSto] ptc. fully writ- 
ten, rel. indefinite, so na'"i. "pn of moral, religious walk, course of life; v.i 1 . 
— X D^n] adj.; the physical mngs., whole, entire, sound, are not in \f/, but 
only the ethical mng., sound, innocent, having integrity : {a) of God's way 
18 31 , as Dt. 32*, law Ps. 19 8 ; (b) of man 18 24 , his way ioi 2 - 119 1 , cf. 18 33 , 
without "p/i, o^Dna 84 12 , d^dh ace, of way ij 2 Pr. 28 18 . Other constructions 
Pss. 18 26 119 80 , adj. for noun late ; pi. 37 18 Pr. 2 21 28 10 ; v. oh 7 9 , wn cf.— 
PH* ^"2] antith. ]Mt ^pD§ v. j 6 . This makes a tetrameter with caesura, and 
also a double requirement at the beginning ; whereas in every other line 
there is a single trimeter requirement, iyh is therefore a gl. to separate p?* 
and 0>DD, which originally belonged together. We should rd. ^p*jjf for rhyme. 
For p-ix, v. 4 2 : cf. Is. 23^ ^p"ys ^n. — X n$K] n.f. (1) faithfidness, reliableness, 
(a) of man 45 s 51 8 119 43 ; (b) of God: nDNa as the sphere in which man may 
walk 26 s 86 11 , cf. 25 s ; (2) attribute of God 30 10 31 6 54 7 71 22 , associated with 
npn 25 10 40 11 - 12 69 14 86 15 115 1 138 2 Gn. 24 27 (J) Is. 16 5 , as messenger of God 
Pss. 57 4 61 8 85 11 89 15 , cf. 43 3 ; His faithfulness endureth forever 117 2 , cf. 146 6 ; 
it reacheth unto the skies 57 11 108 5 , is shield and buckler 91 4 ; used with "iBh 
in 8 , pis 85 12 , QD&D in 7 ; (3) seldom truth, and then not in an abstr. sense, 
but rather fa ithfully, truly, dcn -on /j 2 I K. 22 16 Je. 9 4 Zc. 8 16 ; so the divine 
laws are true, reliable, Pss. 19 10 II9 142 - 151 - 160 Mai. 2 6 ; (4) adv. in truth, truly, 
Ps. 132 11 Je. io 10 , PT2X2 Ps. 145 18 , cf. jdn 12 2 , ruicx jji. — '•ahSa] the long 
form for the usual "laSa ; c. nai only here, elsw. c. nnx, v. 4 s ; cf. aSa nan 
Ec. 2I 5 , aS oy Ec. ii«,'aS Sn Gn. 2 4 45 (J), a 1 ? hy 1 S. i 13 (?); cf. Is. 33 15 .— 
3. Sn~sS] the ptcs. of previous v. pass over into Qal pf. of general truth, 
in negative rel. clause, nu ; x omitted as usual in poetry, fhr) a.X. Qal pf. 
denom. brt foot, v. 8 7 , dub. mng. <g iSSXua-ev also for p^nn 36 s is prob. 
interpretation; so 3 non est facilis in lingua. It is better to render play the 



Il6 PSALMS 

spy upon. This is urged by the mng. of Pi. in Gn. 42° + 6t - (E) Nu. 21 32 
Dt. i 24 Jos. 2 1 6' 2 -- 25 7 2 - 2 14 7 (JE) Ju. i8 2 - 14 - 17 1 S. 26 4 2 S. io 3 15 10 1 Ch. 19*, 
go about as spy or explorer. 2 S. 19 28 is usually rendered slander, but it might 
just as well have the mng. play the spy, and usage urges it. The only other 
use of vb. is Tiph. Ho. n 3 teach to walk (dub.). The difficulty with Sri is 
due to Wh by, which is not homogeneous to the vb. The context suggests 
\}DVt *?Jj| upon his neighbour, Che. The h of U'~ ,Ll originated from dittog. after 
the omission of d. We should probably also rd. ^by for better measure. It is 
possible that some of the Vrss. interpreted S:n as Aram. bit lie, deceive. — 
\ r\y^\ n. f. (1) evil, distress, 34 22 90 15 91 10 I07 26 - 39 , T\yr\ DV 2f 41 2 Je. I7 17 - * 8 
5i f , T j*jn evils Pss. 34 20 40 13 71 20 88 4 141 6 Dt. 32 28 ,'i nj Ps. 37 19 Je. 2 27 - 28 n 12 
15 11 Am. 5 13 ; (2) evil, injury, wrong, Pss. 21 12 28 3 35 20 5c) 19 52 s 109 5 , 
c. S nfrjj 15 3 , airn 35* 41 8 140 8 Gn. 50 20 (E) Je. 36 3 48 2 , rpa Pss. 71I 324 
1 S 5 . 24 10 25 26 , Bhn Ps. 38 18 , ron 40 15 = 70 8 , dW 35 12 38 21 Gn. 44* (J) Je. 18 20 
5 1 24 ; (3) evil in ethical sense Pss. 94 23 107 34 . — X nsnn] n.f. emph. (1) reproach 
(a) against man, taunt, scorn, of enemy 69 20 - 21 7 1 13 89 61 119 22 , nonn Nirj 
Je. 3 1 19 Ez. 36 15 Mi. 6 16 all against, so Ps. ij 3 (no reason to suppose a special 
sense of slander here), 'n Nt'j c. by bear reproach for 69 s Je. 15 15 Zp. 3 18 , 
'n l^apn 119 39 ; (3) against God 69 10 74 22 79 12 ; (2) object of reproach 22 7 
39 9 , 'S 'n n>n become an object of reproach to 31 12 79 4 89 4 ' 2 109 25 , cf. 44 14 69 11 
78 s6 . — Ktn] in the sense of J /a&? «/, u/fer/ elsw. rr.rr 81 3 , KltfS 139 20 , cf. 
24 4 , names 16 4 , covenant 50 16 . — ^i?] the one near to him, of relationship, as 
38 12 , cf. Ex. 32 27 neighbour. — 4. nrrn] and Dn^: Niphs. may be either pfs. or 
ptcs. The impf. -or does not help. It is itself doubtful. The connection 
of vr>a with nop and the antith. with -or make it most probable that this is 
the chief vb., and that there is another antith. between the obj. of Dxcj and 
'•n\ — X n *3 VD - despise, regard with contempt, subj. God 22 25 5 1 19 69 s4 73 20 
102 18 ; ptc. pass. 22 7 Je. 49 15 ; Niph. be despised Pss. yj-4 119 141 Is. 53 3 - 3 
Je. 22 28 . — 1 *ip?~nKi] emph.; but r« dub. in measure. K*v v.f. — "»3?\). 
The change of tense was due to change of order of words in sentence and is 
of doubtful originality. — >ap] Niph. pf. 3 m. X V*$ Niph. (1) of man, sivear 
a solemn oath, abs. 119 106 , TO^dS 24 4 , jnnS 15 4 ; c. a by God 63 12 , by man in 
imprecation io2 9 , nn>S 132 2 ; (2) of God, abs. no 4 , inS 89 4 - 60 132 11 , uhpa 
8^, p|sa 95 11 . — pnnS] may be to his hurt, article for sf. and $n hurt, v. j 5 ; 
so %, Ew., Hu.; inf. Hiph. pjn, v. 22 17 , Aq., 9. 3 ut se affligat ; so De., 
Ba., as Lv. 5 4 . (S t# irXrjo-Lov avrov, Ty proximo suo, so j$, Gr., Dathe ; = jrh 
as v. 36 . This is easier and more suited to the context, though not so noble 
a conception as is MT. At the same time it would be difficult to prove 
the existence of such an ethical conception at so early a date as this Ps. — 
nir] Hiph. impf. 3 m. defectively written X nic > VD « not use ^ m Q a ^ 5 DUt 
Hiph. change of earth in earthquake 46** (?), c. ace. pbn Mi. 2 4 , here abs. ; 
(2) exchange, Ps. 106 20 Ho. 4 7 . 



PSALM XVI. 117 



PSALM XVL, 3 str. 8\ 

Ps. 16 is a psalm of faith. The psalmist has sought refuge 
in Yahweh his sovereign Lord, and supreme welfare (v. 1-2 ) ; whose 
good pleasure is in His saints (v. 3 ). The apostates have many- 
sorrows, and he keeps apart from them and their impious wor- 
ship (v. 4 ). Yahweh is his portion and his inheritance in pleasant 
places (v. 5-6 ) ; he enjoys His counsel (v. 7 ) and continual helpful 
presence (v. 8 ); he is glad and secure (v. 9 ), confident that Yahweh 
will not abandon him in Sheol (v. 10 ), but will grant him life and 
joy forever in His presence (v. 11 ). 

X^EEP me, 'El ; for I have sought refuge in Thee. 

I said to Yahweh : " Thou art my sovereign Lord," 

For my welfare is not (without) Thee. 

To the saints who are in the land, 

(Yahweh) makes wonderful all His good pleasure in them. 

They shall multiply their sorrows who hurry backwards. 

I will not offer their drink offerings, because of bloodshed; 

I will not take up their names upon my lips. 
YAHWEH is my share, (my) portion, and my cup; 

(Yahweh is) the maintainer of my lot (for me). 

The lines are fallen for me in pleasant places ; 

Yea, mine inheritance is (mighty over) me. 

I will bless Yahweh, who hath given me counsel : 

Yea, in the dark night my reins admonish me. 

I have set Yahweh continually before me : 

Since He is on my right hand, I shall not be moved. 
THEREFORE my heart is glad (in Yahweh) ; 

(Also) my glory rejoiceth (in Yahweh) ; 

Also my flesh dwelleth securely : 

For Thou wilt not leave me to Sheol; 

Thou wilt not suffer Thy pious one to see the Pit; 

Thou wilt make known to me the path to Life. 

Fulness of gladness is in Thy presence; 

Loveliness is on Thy right hand forever. 

Ps. 16 was in Q belonging to the group of D^ron (v. Intr. §§ 25, 27). 
It was not in $3$L That is the reason probably why it was separated from 
the other Miktamim, 56-60, which have been preserved, all of which were in 
332ft. This favours an early date for the Ps. (1) There is a use of Je. 23° 33™ 
Dr.. 33 12 , nanS ptf in v. 96 ; (2) a dependence upon Ez. in the conception (a) 
of saints, consecrated ones, for faithful Israelites in accordance with the code 
of H v. 3 , and (h) of the pit in Sheol v. 10 ; (3) a much greater dependence upon 



Il8 PSALMS 

Is. 2, 8 (a) in the phrase, His good pleasure in them v. ,% , cf. Is. 44 28 46 10 48 14 ; 
(ti) apostasy expressed by hurrying backwards v. 4 * 1 , cf. Is. 50 5 ; (c) the drink 
offerings v. 46 if of blood, correspond with the abominations described in 
Is. 575 B q- 65 11 66 3 ; and it may be that v. 40 finds its best illustration in 
Is. 65 15 , as Ba. suggests. The worship there repudiated is that of Palestine 
and Syria, not that of Babylonia or Egypt. If the situation is the same, we 
must think of the late days of the Exile or the early days of the Restoration. 
But it is more probable that these drink offerings were repudiated because 
those who made them were guilty of bloodshed, of murder of innocent per- 
sons. This favours a time when there was no strong government to repress 
such disorders. (4) The reference to a share or portion in the land (v. 5 ) 
also favours one who has recently returned to the Holy Land. The ex- 
pression " Saints who are in the land " implies an antith. to those who were 
not in the land, those still in exile, such as would be quite natural for one 
recently come to the land from among the exiles. (5) The tone of the Ps. 
is one of calm trust in Yahweh and the enjoyment of prosperity attributed to 
Yahweh. The author calmly separates himself from the apostates ; but there 
is no evidence of active hostility, still less of peril or warfare. This does not 
favour the times of hardship and poverty described by Hg. and Zc, or the 
times of conflict of Ne. and Ezr. The Ps. was composed either between 
these times or subsequent thereto. (6) There is a single Aramaism, v. 66 
*VjJ mrjr, which is found elsewhere only Dn. This might have been used 
at any time in the Persian period; but most likely not at its beginning. 
However, it is a copyist's error. <& has the correct text in a common word 
n-oj). (7) The calm view of death and the expectation of the presence 
of God and blessedness after death imply an advance beyond Is. 57 1 " 2 ; but 
prior to the emergence of the doctrine of the resurrection of the righteous 
Is. 26 19 , that is, in the Persian period. The same point of view is in Pss. 17 15 
49 16 73^'^ Jb. 1 9 s5 - 27 . (8) The author was one of the anon v. 106 , the pious 
who distinguished themselves carefully from those who were not faithful to 
Yahweh, and kept apart from them. (9) There is no trace of the observance 
of P, or of the practice of temple worship, in this profession of piety, probably, 
therefore, the date was prior to these. On the whole the composition of the Ps. 
is best assigned to the time subsequent to Zerubbabel and prior to Nehemiah. 
The Ps. is tetrameter and of three strophes. It is doubtful whether these are 
of eight lines or seven. If the text of Str. III. v. 9-11 is the test, it is not diffi- 
cult to find glosses in v. 30 - 5 " with Du. If these are regarded as original, it is 
not difficult to reconstruct v. 9 into three lines and regard v. 9a6 as condensed 
by a prosaic scribe into one line, leaving a trace of it in having one word too 
many. V.*- 116 is cited Acts 2 25-32 from @, and applied by St. Peter to the 
resurrection of Christ; so v. 106 by St. Paul, Acts 13 35 . The hopes of the 
Ps., which apply only to the enjoyment of the presence of God after death, in 
view of the subsequent emergence of the doctrine of the resurrection, are 
realised in the eternal life of the resurrection, and so first in Christ, the first 
fruits of that resurrection. 



PSALM XVI. 119 

Str. I. is a tetrameter octastich j three synth. lines giving the 
psalmist's attitude toward God, two Yahweh's attitude toward 
the saints of the land, and three the attitude of both toward the 
apostates. 1-2. Keep me], a plea for protection based on: 
/ have sought refuge in Thee~], cf. 2 12 5 12 y 2 n 1 -^. — / said to 
Yahweh], so Vrss., RV., JPSV., Dr., Kirk. ; and not "(O my soul) 
thou hast said," MT., PBV., AV., which is not well sustained by 
text or context. — Thou art ?ny sovereign Lord], "my Master" 
JPSV., " my Lord " AV. \ pi. intensive, as 2 4 8 1 , and not the 
divine name " Adonay," " the Lord " RV. m — My welfare], pros- 
perity, is to be preferred to " my goods," possessions, (3, U, PBV., 
elsw. only Ec. 5 10 ; or to " goodness " AV. " Good " RV. is too 
general. — is not {without) Thee], as 3, is most prob. "Nothing 
unto Thee" PBV., "(extendeth) not to Thee" AV., cannot be 
sustained. RV. " beyond Thee " is dub. (Dr.) ; though urged by 
Ew., RS., Kirk. : " Not merely is God the source of all his weal, 
but everything which he recognizes as a true good, God actually 
contains within Himself." The simpler idea that the psalmist is 
entirely dependent on Yahweh, the source of all good, for his 
welfare, and cannot prosper without divine favour, is much more 
probable. — 3. To the saints who are in the land], as distin- 
guished from those abroad, those of the dispersion. — ( Yahweh) 
mahes wonderful all His good pleasure in them'], so (3, U ; prefer- 
able to f^, which is so difficult to interpret that there is no 
agreement among later Vrss. or commentators. Yahweh takes 
good pleasure in these saints, and He magnifies His good pleasure 
in them in a wonderful manner. — 4. They shall multiply their 
sorrows, who hurry backwards], cf. 44 19 Is. 50 5 ; apostates who 
turn away from Yahweh and go backwards in apostasy from Him. 
This is better sustained by J^ and Vrss. than " hasten after 
another (God)" AV., " run after " PBV., " make suit unto " JPSV., 
which are not sustained by Hebrew usage ; or than " exchange 
(the Lord) for another (god) " RV., Kirk., so essentially Dr., which 
requires unnecessary emendation of text. The psalmist, having 
represented that the saints enjoyed the wonderful good pleasure 
of Yahweh, now turns to the apostate Israelites who have gone 
backwards from Yahweh to the worship of other gods, and repre- 
sents that they, in reverse of enjoying Yahweh's good pleasure, 



120 PSALMS 

incur a multitude of sorrows. — I will not offer their drink offerings 
because of bloodshed] j that is, participate with them in their drink 
offerings to Yahweh, which were abominable because they were 
associated with bloodshed, the murder of innocent persons. Ba. 
thinks of the offering of children Is. 57 5sq 65 11 ; Du. of the blood- 
guiltiness of such offerings as they make, cf. Is. 66 8 . — I will not 
take up their names upon my lips], cf. 50 16 , in order to speak to 
them or about them, — not the names of the gods so worshipped, 
according to the law, Ex. 23 13 (E), or their names as the names 
these apostates take on their lips, Ri., but the names of the 
apostates themselves, Ba., as Is. 65 15 . The poet repudiates them 
utterly, he will have nothing to do with them, will not even 
mention them in conversation. The psalmist was undoubtedly 
influenced by Is. 2 . If the Ps. belongs to the Persian period, we 
may think of the apostates to idolatry described in antith. with 
the pious, the saints, v. 3 . 

Str. II. is composed of four syn. couplets. — 5. Yahweh is my 
share], in assonance with (my) portion and my cup, rather than 
" share of my portion " %\, though sustained by Vrss. and most 
authorities. — Yahweh is the ?naintainer of my lot (for me)]. This 
was probably the original text, according to the context. The 
change to the 2d person is improbable. It was doubtless due 
to supposed editorial improvement of style. The poet here en- 
larges upon v. 26 . Yahweh, the source of welfare, also embodies 
in Himself the share which He gives to His people, the portion 
assigned them, the cup of pleasure which they enjoy; and all 
this He maintains for them against all enemies and perils. 
"The language used here reminds us of the Levites who had 
no portion or inheritance, but Jehovah was their portion, Nu. 18 20 
Dt. io 9 18 1 ," Kirk. "Let others choose for themselves portions, 
earthly and temporal, to enjoy ; the portion of saints is the Lord 
eternal. Let others drink of deadly pleasures, the portion of my 
cup is the Lord," Aug. — 6. The lines], the measuring lines of 
the portion, or share in the land, cf. Ps. 78 s5 Mi. 2 5 Am. 7 17 . — 
are fallen for me in pleasant places], the lot in the holy land is 
a delightful one. — Yea, mine inheritance is (mighty over) me], 
the inheritance in Yahweh, Yahweh Himself as the inheritance, || 
share, v. 5 *, as (3, and so similar to 103 11 n f, where the mercy of 



PSALM XVI. 121 

God is mighty over His people. The " goodly heritage " of EV B . 
is a paraphrase based on J^ which cannot be sustained. — 7. I will 
bless Yahweh who hath given me connsel~\. The psalmist passes 
over from his portion in the land to his more intimate relations 
with Yahweh, whom he has sought as his sovereign Lord, v. 12a ; He 
has counselled him in his life and conduct. — My reins admoiiish 
me~\. The reins are the seat of the emotions and affections, 
cf. Jb. 19 27 Pr. 23 16 Ps. 73 21 Je. 12 2 || mind, Je. n 20 17 10 2 o 12 Pss. 7 10 
26 2 . His own experience corresponds with Yahweh's counsel. 
This admonition is in the dark night~\, as 92 s 134 1 , intensive pi., 
rather than "night seasons," AV., RV. — 8. / have set Yahweh 
continually befoi'e me], before the mind, keeping Him continually 
in mind. — since He is on my right hand~\, present, near at hand, 
as close as possible to help. This is the reason why, / shall not 
be moved], the usual expression of confidence in God, Pss. io 6 15 5 
16 8 2 1 8 30 7 62 3 - 7 112 6 , cf. Pr. io 30 12 3 . 

Str. III. is composed of a syn. couplet between two syn. 
triplets. — 9. Therefore], because of confidence in Yahweh's 
presence as sovereign Lord and portion. — my heart is glad || my 
glory rejoiceth]. In both lines, in Yahweh, was probably in the 
original, completing the measures. A prosaic copyist condensed 
the two lines into a simple line, too long for the measure of the 
Ps. — also my flesh~], the body in antith. with "heart" and 
" glory," so making up the entire man, body and soul. — dwelleth 
securely~], liveth without anxiety, without fear of enemies, cf. Dt. 
33 12 Je. 23 s 33™. — 10. For thou wilt not leave me to Sheol~\. 
Nephesh is here, as often, the person of the man himself. The 
poet is not thinking of the soul as distinguished from the flesh, 
but of himself as composed of both soul and body. It is true 
the flesh does not go to Sheol at death, but only the soul. The 
psalmist is here thinking of his entire self and not specifically 
of that part of himself which goes to the abode of the dead. 
He expects to die and to go to Sheol, but he prays that God 
will not abandon him there ; will not leave him in the power 
of Sheol ; but will go with him and remain with him there. — 
Thou wilt not suffer Thy pious one to see the Tit']. The Heb. 
nnt' is not abstract " corruption," which, though given in (3 and 
3, and followed by EV 8 ., has no authority in the usage of OT. 



122 PSALMS 

The Pit is not the tomb, but is syn. with Sheol, usually under- 
stood as another name of Sheol itself as a pit or cavern under 
the earth ; but usage favours the opinion that it is a Pit in Sheol, 
as a deeper place than Sheol, syn. Abaddon, the dungeon of Sheol. 
The psalmist will see Sheol, but he will not be abandoned there ; 
he will not see the Pit, the dungeon of Sheol, the place of the 
wicked. The pious could hardly go there. In antithesis with 
this, the psalmist has hope and confident expectation of the 
presence and favour of God after death. — 11. Thou wilt make 
known to me the path to Life']. This might imply resurrection 
if the Ps. were late enough, a path leading up out of Sheol to 
eternal Life. But the context does not suggest this; the path 
rather leads to the presence of God in the abode of the dead. 
The path to life is antith. to the Pit in Sheol. — Fulness of gladness 
is in Thy presence]. The presence of Yahweh, to which the 
path to life leads, gives gladness to the full, and complete satis- 
faction, leaving nothing more to be desired. It is possible that 
the glossator had this in mind as the supreme good or wel- 
fare, v. 26 , — Loveliness || gladness, on Thy right hand], as the 
place of honour, || in Thy presence, antith. to Yahweh's being on 
his right hand in life, v. 86 . — forever]. Such a hope he could not 
express for this life ; he is thinking of everlasting life in the 
presence of Yahweh and on His right hand, after he has departed 
this life and gone to Sheol. 

1 . ^Dtf] Qal imv. sf. I sg. notf, see /2 s . The metheg of |^ interprets 
quametz as a, but this is erroneous, and should be corrected to o as Ges.§ 9v - 
Ko. 1 - 9 - 101 . — Sx poetic for God (v. Intr. §32). — 2. rnrs] Qal pf. 3 f. imply- 
ing iroj as subj., so %, Rabb., RV. ,n . But it should be rncK, defectively 
written 1 pers., as 22 codd. De R., <£, IT, £, Houb., Ols., Ges. §*» K6. L »- 1W 
Ew., al., cf. Ps. 140 18 Jb. 42 2 1 K. 8 4S Ez. 16 69 . 3, dicens also favours this 
form. — mis] refers to God as distinguished from mix referring to men. But 
it is not necessarily Adonay. The context suggests the original mng. my 
sovereign lord, as predicate of m*< v. 2^. — J m s a] n.f. : (1) welfare, pros- 
perity, happiness 16 2 , as Dt. 23 7 Je. 33 s , obj. n*-\ Ps. 106 5 Jb. 9 25 Ec. 5 17 6 6 ; 
(2) bounty, good, as bestowed by God, Pss. 65 12 68 11 86 17 . mis nnn n;n 35 1 - 
38 21 109 5 Gn. 44 4 (J) 1 S. 25 21 Je. 18 20 Pr. 17 18 . v. ato 4'. This clause is not 
in (§ B , but in (S >% A ' R , where rois is interpreted as my goods, U bonorum, a 
mng. very late, Ec. 5 10 . 3 translates bene mihi, S 070^6^ /jloi, IE TOV£. — 
:pSp] is difficult and is variously interpreted: (1) <j£ s '' A < R 8ti ov xp^^-v exets, 



PSALM XVI. 123 

thou hast no need or advantage, in a causal sentence. The &tl may be an 
interpretation or imply >3 in the original. The h % ; is interpreted in the sense 
of for the sake of, as \ 45 s 79° 105 14 . (2) 3 sine te, 2 &vev <rov, paraphrased by 
sS " from Thee," is a translation of Hjfra, which Houb., Hi., Du. think was 
in the original text. (3) Over, beyond, Ew. " Thou art my highest good? Dr. 
" My welfare is not beyond (?) Thee." BDB. gives in this mng. of excess % 138 2 , 
above all Thy name (dub.), in the sense of above, beyond Gn. 48' 22 Ex. 16 5 
Nu. 3 46 Dt. 25 s Jos. 3 15 Ec. i 16 Dn. I 20 , in local relations, Lv. 15 25 of time. 
But none of these have precisely the sense proposed for this passage. (4) The 
more usual mng. of *?;-, incumbent on, of duty, or care \ 7 11 iqU 37 5 4° 8 56 13 
62 s , c. yhvn 22 11 55' 23 71 6 is adopted by Ra. But it is then necessary to 
make the clause interrog. or get a mng. the reverse of the context. Pe. 
avoids this by changing "?3 to "?D. (5) The mng. % in addition to 61 7 6o/ 28 
7 i u 1 15 14 is adopted by Ri., Moll., but it is improbable. The line is too short 
in p£. It is better to rd. as the original a real tetrameter "pij^a *?3 »naiB "O. 
This explains 3. The err. of f^ is chiefly the omission of ^a of nyVa by 
haplog. and then the err. of q>Sy for qn; % . — 3. D^TpS] is also difficult and is 
variously interpreted: (i) S in the sense of as for, as regards 17 4 , <5, 3, De 
W., Ew., Dr.; (2) belonging to, Calv., Hengst., Hu., Pe., Moll; (3) depend- 
ing on 1DN as a second indirect obj. in antith. rwrrh Ki., De., RV. m . This is 
most suitable to context if the present text be correct. D^Hjp pi. \ unp adj. 
sacred, holy: (1) used of God, as exalted on theophanic throne 22 4 Is. 6 3 , 
exalted in victory Ps. 99 s - 5 - 9 Is. 5 1G I S. 2' 2 , His name Ps. in 9 , Sfcnfe" ty'np, 
a divine name originating in the Trisagion, Is. 6 3 , used in Is. i 4 + iot. j s 2 3 
4I i4 + i2t. j elsw. Je. 50 29 5i 5 2 K. 19 22 Is. 37 23 Pss. 71 22 78 41 89 19 ; (2) of 
sacred place of temple in Jerusalem 46 s 65 s ; (3) of persons, Aaron, 106 16 , 
D>Khp sacred ones, either f angels 89 s - 8 Jb. 5 1 15 15 Zc. 14 5 Dn. 8 1313 , or 
Israelites Dt. 33* Pss. 16 3 34 10 Dn. 8 24 . — ?!?*?] © <?" ry 777 clvtov = nnK2 : sf. 
is doubtless an interp., as io 16 . — $ n,on] they ; this fuller, more euphonic 
form is alw. in \p, except 38 11 Dn~ai and 95 10c on\ to which on 95IO& has 
been assimilated by copyist: (1) emph. they, (a) antith. to other persons 
>:n 120 7 , urus 20 9 , n.nx 102 27 109 28 , with 1 adv., but they 55 s2 63 10 106 43 , at 
close of sentence emph. previous sf. even theirs g 7 without justification in 
usage, and doubtless txt. err. ; (2) resuming subj. with emphasis at the 
beginning of a new sentence 22 18 23 4 27 2 37° 43 s 48 s 56" 59 16 62 10 107 24 , 
stronger DiVDJ 38 11 ; (3) as copula, properly at end of clause, they are or 
were 9 21 (?) 25 s 78 s9 94 11 95 10 119 111 , after -\vx only 16* ; (4) in circum- 
stantial clause noni 88*, om 95 10 . — nn«t] is also difficult. 3 et magnificis || 
D'BhpS, but the word is too distinct to dispense with the prep., and it is cstr., 
not abs., unless we suppose that 3 had in« sg. coll. "vus (v. 8 2 ) is not used 
elsw. in \f/ in this sense, though not infrequent in early poetry. Ges. 4 § 17Gd 
allows an occasional cstr. in the sense of abs., but this is not allowed by more 
recent grammars. We might, however, regard the cstr. as before a rel. 
clause, De W., RV., Dr., and 1 as introducing an apod. <3 renders as vb. 
edav/JLaaTuxrev iravTa ra OeX^jxara aiirov = "ihn\ More than 90 codd. HP., so 



124 rSALMS 

Theodoret, give Kvpios after the vb. This might be regarded as a gl. of inter- 
pretation, but it may also be an interpretation of the final "• as an abr., for 
nin\ This would, moreover, give us a needed tetrameter and a suitable 
couplet : — 

nan psa i^n D^tenp 1 ? 
of narr^S mm in«> 

t [tin] vb. is used in Niph. ptc. Ex. 15 11 of the majesty of God, cf. v. 6 and 
Is. 42 21 in the Hiph. make glorious, which is appropriate to this passage. 
This is the view essentially of Koehler, Schnurer, Ba., Hu. 3 . — 4. DrV»a*g] is 
regarded by W, 0, Quinta, 3, Mich., Ols., Ew., Du. as fpl. for usual % D\»P 
n.(m.) images, idols, v. io6 36 - 38 115 4 135 15 ; but ni3*P elsw. pi. t [•"•.?*?] n.f. 
hurt, injury 147 3 Jb. 9 28 , sg. Pr. io 10 15 18 , so doubtless here after <S, j$, Aq., 
RV., and most, v. 13 3 .. The lack of agreement between n.f. and vb. m. still 
remains difficult. The sf. D_ cannot refer to previous context, but to the rel. 
clause which follows. The vb. is interpreted by S, & as Hiph., and so the 
neglect of agreement is avoided, and this is to be preferred, though <&, Aq., 
2, 0, 3 take it as Qal. — nnN] is variously interpreted: (1) by J, post 
tergum as Tnx adv. backwards, v. gi. This is most prob. (2) (5 /xerd ravra 
iraxwav, V postea acceleraverunt "VW, either having sf. or Vrss. supplying it, 
cf. 49 18 50 17 63 9 . (3) J^, Aq. as adj. Aq. refers to one's neighbour. But 
most think of another god in accordance with subsequent context. — \ nnx 
adj. another, properly one coming behind, successors 49 11 , aliens 109 8 , nriN oy 
i°5 13 > n D* *™ Ex. 34 14 (J), nnx Is. 42 s , so Ps. /&> ($). It is used of time 
nns in 109 18 Jo. I 8 . — nno] Qal pf. 3 m. i.p.; J ins denom. -inj purchase 
price of wife Gn. 34 12 (J) Ex. 22 16 (E) 1 S. 18 25 , so vb. acquire by purchase 
Ex. 22 15 (E.) But there is no evidence of such a generalisation of the mng. 
as is necessary if that is to be used here with De., Dr. (2) <J£, 3, j$, 0, 2, C 
take it as Pi. pf. \ [tto] vb. Pi. (a) hasten Gn. 18 6 Na. 2 6 Is. 49 17 . It is not used 
in \p unless here in this sense; but (b) as auxiliary having adv. force, sq. perf. 
106 13 , elsw. imv. »jjjr "»?D 69 18 102 3 143 7 , so also prob. 79 s sq. impf. (3) Aq. 
ot &\\ov tKCLKuo-ev implies ^^r\ Hiph. pf. -no act bitterly towards, a vb. used 
nowhere in \f/ unless here. (4) It is possible to think of such a transposition 
as the foregoing and then rd. ^Dn Hiph. pf. "vc, as 106 20 . The conception 
would be simila- if VIH referred to another god, but the construction would 
be different, and so condensed as to be necessarily obscure. This is the view 
of Gr., once held by Ba., but subsequently abandoned. (5) Dy., followed by 
Du., rds. Tin onns; but where is mm used for worship of other gods ? v. (fi. 
We must choose between (2) and (4). — a?'9D) T?£ ^1 Hiph. impf. 1 p. of 
resolution in classic style should have cohortative. J ^Dl vb. Qal cog. ace. 
pour out libation Ex. 30 9 (P), p Ho. 9*, Hiph. same cog. ace. Gn. 35 14 (E) 
2 K. 16 18 Nu. 28 7 (P), so prob. here, to other gods Je. 7 18 , + 7 t. Je. The 
noun % IP). on ty nere $• © crvvaydyw t&s cvvayuryas clvtujv, U congregabo 
conventicula= D^oDJ r|DX Qal impf. I p. p)DN gather together, collect, cf. 39 7 , 
and Niph. ptc. in shortened form, as ri3DJ Is. 13 15 , cf. Gn. 49^ 1 S. 13 11 , inter- 



PSALM XVI. 125 

preted of assemblages in accordance with nrps NH. 3 and a were easily con- 
fused in Egyptian Aram, script. — 0J9]. It is interpreted by RV., Dr. as 
p of material, consisting of blood. Ba. compares Is. 57^ 65 11 , and thinks of 
drink offerings connected with the sacrifice of children. De. thinks of the 
guilty hands of the offerer. Moll, and Du. refer to Is. 66 3 " he that killeth an 
ox is as he that slayeth a man." Kirk., " their libations are as detestable as 
though they were composed of blood." The usage of DT3 favours bloodshed 
and not drink offerings of blood, which are unknown to OT. The p is never 
used of material in connection with blood; it is therefore, in the common 
sense, of on account of, because of bloodshed, as Hb. 2 8, n . For this mng. of 
prep. v. 5 11 12 6 107 17 . — , n | 5t , "Sy DmDtf~n*» n&x S51] phr. a. A. Nir in the sense 
of utter, v. ij 3 , paraphrased by (3 fimjirdw, U memor, so j£, 3T. The sf. may 
refer to gods, in accordance with Ex. 23 13 (E), if we interpret nns* of foreign 
gods; but if not, it must refer to the apostates, in accordance with Is. 65 15 . — 
5. His] v. n 6 . It is prob. that in this case it was originally ■•~je my portion, 
the three words each with sf. in emph. coordination. % p^n n.m. : (1) portion, 
acquired possession, of Yahweh as the possession of His people 16 5 73 26 119 57 
142 6 ; (2) chosen portion, in bad sense, 50 18 ; (3) portion, award from God, 
punishment 17 14 , as Is. 17 14 Jb. 20 29 27 13 . — T^n] is variously explained. It 
is pointed as Hiph. impf. 2 sg. after ms, which is then emph., but without 
apparent reason. ^c> is not, however, used in OT., and the Arabic stem does 
not sufficiently explain its use here. <& crv e? 6 diroKadio-rCov ttjp Khr)povoixlav 
/xov i/xot, U restilues hereditatem meam mihi, is based on "h *S*vj| "ph, which 
gives the missing tone of the tetrameter line and a form which is known and 
suits the context. 3 has possessor sortis meae. — % "|cn vb. Qal: (1) hold 
fast, c. ace. Am. I 5 - 8 as here, c. 3 Ps. 17 5 Is. 33 15 ; (2) sustain, subj. God, 
c. 3 pers. Pss. 41 13 63 s Is. 41 10 42 1 . The conjectural emendations of Ols. 
*pDW, of Hi., Bi. TDH are not so suited to the context as the above. — ^^j] 
sf. 1 p. — \ S"vi\ n.m. lot: (1) as cast over garments to distribute them 22 19 ; 
(2) as portion assigned by Yahweh 16 5 , espec. the land of the righteous 
1 25 s . ^ of the original has fallen out by haplog. The change to nrm is strik- 
ing and out of harmony with context. It prob. was a substitution for an 
original mm. — 6. op*;;] defective pi. Jo'jnadj. : (1) delightful 133 1 135 3 
147 1 , as delightful things or places iff- 11 , cf. 141 4 2 S. I 25 ; (2) lovely, 
beautiful Ps. 81 3 2 S. 23 1 Ct. I 16 . — *\h] also, yea, "introducing emph. a new 
thought " BZ>B. — r^m] ace. to 3, E, GesJ 80 ?, Ki., De., a stronger fern, form 
for usual r£ni (v. 2*).' But <g, S, Hu. 3 , Ew., We., Ko. 11 ^ 1 ) 425 , Dr. defectively 
written >n^nj. — rnog] Qal pf. 3 f. lair a.X. in Heb.; in Aram. Dn. 4 24 6 2 , 
be agreeable, acceptable, beautiful ; cf. f "1!># n. beauty Gn. 49 21 . But <g Kpa- 
rla-Tr] fxoi = ^3); cf. 103 11 117 2 . <J| gives a well-known word, a usual con- 
struction and an appropriate meaning. — 7. "H"i>;] Pi. impf. 1 p. resolution 
would be cohort, form in classic style. Bless Yahweh, common in if/, 26 12 
34 2 63 s I03 1 - «•».«. 22. 83 to 4 i-35 II5 i8 I34 i.2 I35 i9.2o 1458.10, D , n S»< f or an 
original mm 66 8 68 27 ; v. 3 13 for other uses of "pa. — w] Qal. pf. 3 m. i.p. 
sf. 1 pers. X Y'tl' Vb. Qal advise, counsel, c. ace. pers. 16 7 sq. inf. 62 5 , abs. with 



1 26 PSALMS 

pjj, secondary subj. 32 s . Niph. consult together, nm 71 10 83 6 . Hithp. sq. Sy, 
conspire against $3 4 . — n"^ 1 ?] pi. emph. night seasons, better dark nights, as 
pi. abst. intensive; cf. 92 s 134 1 . — ^D".] Pi. pf. 3 pi. sf. i.p. ~\v\ v. 2 10 , 
discipline, correct, as 94 12 118 18 , subj. God. — 8. v^iir] Pi. pf. 1 s. % mtf vb. 
Pi. lay, set 16 8 1 19 30 , lay upon 21 6 89 20 , set or make like 18 34 . — H|?*>] in front 
of, before, intellectually and morally as 54 s 86 14 , v. j 6 10 5 . — J TDfi] in ^ only 
adv. continually 25 15 40 1 - 69 s * 718.6.14 73 23 ^^ lo <\ I09 i5. 19 ,^44. 109. in. 
Ti njj( s ) /6 s 38 18 50 8 51 5 , in prayer 34 s 72 15 ; TDn now 35 27 = 40 17 = 70 5 , a 
favourite term of Is. 2 49 16 4- 5 t., seldom elsw. apart from ritual, Je. 6 7 Ho. 12 7 
L)t. II 12 4- 16 t OT., common, however, in P, Ez., Ch. for the perpetual burnt 
offering. — 9. \jf\ therefore "according to such conditions, that being so," 
BDK 200 t. in OT., i& 73 s - 10 78 21 119 119 , v. g S\ A — aS nrir] same phr. 
105 3 , c. ">3 33* 21 . The line has three tones unless we use Makkeph, which 
makes rather a long word for one accent, and then add nNas Sjm to complete 
the tetrameter. But then the Str. would be one line less than the others. 
Du. reduces them by finding a gl. of one line in each Str. We may easily 
complete this 1. after ^ 21 by adding »a for nwa, which fell out by haplog. 
of o\ — Si«] i consec. Qal impf. Svi, v. 2 11 . 3 has et here as well as for «]« 
of next line, and also renders by future, ignoring the ) consec. It is the only 
use of such a 1 in the Ps., and is, indeed, against its style. Rd., therefore, 
?\P i\h; then the juss. must be abandoned for the indicative. — "T^r] is here 
used for the inner man, as f> || vd:, 108' 2 || aS, 30 13 subj. tDT, 57 9 subj. mi?. 
We should add also mrra. The two lines have been condensed into one by a 
prosaic copyist. {•>£$, n.m. flesh (1) of body, (a) of animals 50 13 , {b) of 
man 27 s 3s 4 - 8 79 s 102 6 109 24 ; (2) for the body itself, antith. e»BJ 63 2 Is. io 18 , 
Jb. 14- 2 , antith. aS Pss. i& 84 3 Pr. 14 30 , subj. trembling Ps. 119 120 ; (3) as 
frail over against God 56 s 78 39 ; (4) -»jra ■?£ all flesh, all mankind 6f 136 25 
145 21 Je. 12 12 25 31 Ez. 2i 4 - 9 - 10 Dt. 5 23 . — npaS \SV\] v. 4 9 , f phr. Dt. 33 12 Je. 23 s 
33 16 ; cf. Dt. 33 28 Pr. I 33 . — 10. *#pj] my soul, vc) is usually interpreted as 
I the z'wwfr being of man as distinguished from the body, 31 10 . <1D31 ^Di, some- 
times conceived as resting together with the "tea upon a common substratum, 
,s% ; 131 2 ; cf. 42 s - 7 , and especially in ^ as in need of deliverance from hwv 
/6l° 30 4 49 16 86 13 89 49 ; but some of these might be interpreted of another 
mng. of vol, the paraphrase for the personal pronoun, me, v. j 3 . — Sixr] v. W. 
— I.?-? «?] Qal impf. 2 m. indie, c. neg. pj in the sense of permit, c. ace. 
+ infin. Gn. 20 6 (E) as here, or ace. 4- S nomen. Ps. 132 4 Pr. 6 4 . — TTPP] 
Kt. pi. is scribal interp. of ^7;Dn, Qr. and Vrss. sg., referring to an individual 
pious man, v. 4I. — rnv] the Pit in Sheol as distinguished from Sheol itself, 
v. 7 16 , and not another name for Sheol, or the abstract dia<pdopdv &, corrup- 
tionem, 3, corruption or destruction, which are interpretations of the name of 
the place. — 11. o»n ms] the path to life. It might imply resurrection, if the 
Ps. were late enough, but at its probable date it implied a path leading to the 
presence of God, || yjB"nK; a joyous state, antith. tt\z', both yet conceived as 
parts of the more comprehensive Swtf. — voir] n.m. fulness 16 11 Dt. 23 s25 
Ru. 2 18 , jjafcrS Ex. 16 3 Lv. 25 19 26 s Pr. 13 25 Ps. 78*. — rrtrotf ] pi. nroft v. & 



PSALM XVII. 127 

either joy s, or abst. pi. gladness. — T.??~ n ?>'] 2I? M "* <S A^™ T °v Trpoauirov 
<rov, in association with, communion with the divine face or presence, and not 
ante vultum tunm J, a weakened explanation. 



PSALM XVII., 8 str. 3 5 . 

Ps. 17 is a prayer for divine interposition in behalf of the 
righteous (v. 1-2 ). The psalmist has been tested by God in mind 
and conduct, and approved (v.*" 4 *) ; he has kept the divine ways 
and avoided wicked deeds (v. 45-5 ), therefore he invokes God with 
confidence (v. 6a ). He prays again that his Saviour may show 
kindness and keep him as the pupil of the eye (v. 66_8a ); that 
he may be sheltered from his greedy and arrogant enemies 
(v. 85-10 ), who surround him to prey upon him (v. 11 " 12 ). Again 
he prays for the divine interposition and deliverance by the 
slaying of the wicked (v. 13 ~ 14a ) ; that penalty may be visited on 
them to the third generation, but that he himself may enjoy 
the divine presence (v. 145-15 ). 

r\ HEAR, Yahweh (a righteous man) ; attend to my yell; 

give ear to my prayer, which is without lips of deceit ; 

Let my judgment come forth from Thy presence, that mine eyes may behold it. 
TN equity Thou hast proved my mind; Thou hast visited me by night; 

Thou hast tested me, and Thou findest no evil purpose in me; my mouth 
transgresseth not. 

As to deeds of man, (I intend) according to the word of Thy lips. 
T ON my part have kept from the ways of the violent ; 

My steps hold fast to Thy tracks, my footsteps slip not ; 

1 invoke Thee : for Thou answerest me, 'El. 
TNCLINE Thine ear to me, hear my speech; 

Show Thy kind deeds, O Saviour from those who rise up in hostility; 

I am seeking refuge on Thy right hand ; keep me as the pupil, the daughter 
of the eye. 
J-JIDE me in the shadow of Thy wings from the wicked, 

Those mine enemies that assail me, with greed encompass me. 

They shut up their gross heart, with their mouth they speak arrogantly. 
(T^HEY advance), now they march about, they fix their eyes; 

(They purpose) to camp in the land, (they maltreat) as a lion ; 

They are greedy for prey, they are like a young lion lurking in secret places. 
Q RISE, Yahweh, confront him, cast him down ; 

O deliver me from the wicked, destroy with Thy sword ; 

May they be slain with Thy hand, Yahweh ; slain from the world. 
J^ET their portion be during life ; their belly fill Thou with Thy stored-up penalty 

May their sons be sated, may they leave their residue to their children : 

But as for me, let me behold Thy face ; let me be satisfied with Thy form. 



128 PSALMS 

Ps. 17 was in 13, but not in any of the subsequent collections until \p. It 
is rightly termed a nhuD, prayer (v. Intr. § 1). This probably is original, 
because the greater portion of Pss. of $3 were prayers, and there could have 
been no reason why the editor of ©, or any subsequent editor, should have 
singled out this Ps. as a prayer, rather than a multitude of others. The Ps. 
resembles Ps. 16 in words and phrases : \J"?.?£ ; v. 8 = 16 1 ; communion with God 
at night v. 3 = 16 7 ; the use of *?n in prayer v. 6 = 16 1 ; the vb. rpn v. 5 = 16 5 ; 
the reference to the hand of God as protecting and defending v. 7 - 14 = 16 8 ; 
the contrasted portions of the poet and the wicked v. 14 - 15 = 16 2 - 6 ; the longing 
for the divine presence v. ]5 = 16 11 . All this favours a similar situation, if not 
the same author. The use of nSn v. 14 is the same as that of 49-, cf. Is. 38 11 , 
although the phr. of the latter and the conception are different. There is a 
reference in the use of D"jd and njinn of God, v. 15 to Nu. 12 8 (E). The 
visitation of penalty on the third generation v. 14 is based on the Ten Words 
Ex. 20 5 = Dt. 5 9 . The conception of righteousness v. 4-5 is that of D, and prior 
to P. And yet the conception of truthfulness v. 1 and the testing the mind 
v. 3 , show the higher ethical conception of the Persian period. The phr. 
iDn nVon v. 7 = 4 4 , yoi2 Sxa v. 8 = 36 s 57' 2 63 s , cf. 61 5 91 4 (all post-exilic 
Pss.) Ru. 2 1 ' 2 , implies the existence of the temple and probably the cherubic 
throne. The pupil of the eye v. 8 = Dt. 32 10 . The Ps. must belong to the 
Persian period subsequent to the Restoration and prior to the reform of Ezra, 
a time of greater peril than that of Ps. 16, and therefore later than Zerub- 
babel. The Ps. was originally the prayer of an individual. It has been 
generalised and made into a congregational prayer. 

Part I. has three pentameter tristichs, the first of these a peti- 
tion in two syn. lines followed by a synth. line. — 1-2. O hear || 
a fiend || give ear], the usual terms for importunate prayer, v. 4 4 5* 3 . 

— {a righteous man)], so J in accordance with v. 3 "*, more prob- 
able than " my righteousness," (3, U, or simply " righteousness." 
% Dr., or inexactly "the right" EV\, "righteous cause" JPSV. 

— my yell], shrill, piercing cry for help, || my prayer, as 61 2 %%''. — 
without lips of deceit]. The lips which utter the prayer are sin- 
cere, entirely truthful. — My judgment], either my just cause, or 
judgment in my favour. — come forth from Thy presence], from the 
judgment throne of Yahweh in heaven, cf. 9 5 . — that mine eyes 
may behold it]. He desires a visible manifestation from God that 
He has vindicated him. — /// equity] properly goes with the next 
line as qualifying the divine proving. To make it an object of 
behold, with ^ and Vrss. destroys the measure of both lines. — 
3-4a. The second tristich is composed of three lines essentially 
syn. : yet there is synth. in part, in the second line, and in greater 



PSALM XVII. 129 

degree in the third. — Thou hast proved || hast tested], v. 7 10 12 7 . 
This has been by a personal visitation. Yahweh has not remained 
afar off on His throne in heaven ; but has come down in spiritual 
presence to the bed of the psalmist. — visited by night], during the 
quiet hours, when he was alone by himself, and so most open to 
inspection ; and especially so, as the inspection had to do not only 
with acts done during the day, the usual time of activity, but still 
more searchingly with the mind, which often is most active while 
the body is at rest. — Thou findest no evil purpose in me], as io 4 
26 10 119 150 . There was no evil in the mind after the most search- 
ing examination. — My mouth transgresseth not] . This statement, 
intermediate between the purpose of the mind and the deeds of 
man, external actions, supplements the previous clause and is still 
connected with the test by night. It probably refers to private, 
secret utterances, rather than words spoken publicly to other per- 
sons. And so, while deeds of men are mentioned, that is ordinary 
human actions, yet these are deeds not as done, but as intended, 
purposed ; for so we should translate, inserting in the text the vb. 
(/ intend). This insertion removes the difficulty of the verse 
and explains the antith. between " deeds of man " and according 
to word of Thy lips. The intent of the psalmist was that his 
deeds should be according to the word which came forth from 
the lips of God. Having set forth the righteousness of his mind, 
as attested by divine inspection, he now turns to a justification of 
his conduct. — 4fc-6a. The third tristich is composed of an anti- 
thetical couplet followed by a synth. line returning to v. la , the 
ground of assurance in prayer having been given. — I on my part], 
emph. personal asseveration, on the negative side, have kept from 
the ways of the violent], the deeds of those who commit robbery or 
murder, or both. On the positive side, My steps hold fast to Thy 
tracks], those prescribed by God in the Deuteronomic laws. — My 
footsteps slip not]. The context suggests the complement of the 
previous clause ; the steps hold fast on the positive side and do 
not slip from the divine tracks on the other. Elsewhere the phrase 
is used for the firm standing, the security of the righteous under 
the divine protection, v. io 6 . If we follow that meaning here, we 
have an expression of confidence in accordance with v. 6a . 

Part II. has three pentameter tristichs, setting forth the rela- 



130 PSALMS 

tion of the poet to his enemies, antith. to the previous part, 
setting forth his relation to his God. The first tristich is petition 
|| v. 1-2 , an introductory line and a syn. couplet synth. thereto. — 
6bSa. Show Thy kind deeds], cf. 4 4 , literally " make them mar- 
vellous," or "wonderful," in accordance with v. 26 ; let them be 
visible in acts of vindication of the righteous. — O Saviour], title 
of Yahweh as one whose character and habit it is to save His 
people from their enemies; especially characteristic of Is. 2 — / 
am seeking refuge]. By an unfortunate transposition of the 
original text it has been attached as an object to the ptc, forcing 
the rendering with verbal force as ptc. absolute " savest," and then 
as a general truth applying to all persons seeking refuge, without 
specification of the place of refuge. This also destroys the 
measure of the two lines and makes their interpretation difficult. 
Attaching it to, on Thy right hand], we get the place of refuge, 
recover the measures, and find an easy and natural explanation 
in accordance with good usage. The right hand of God is often 
the instrument of judgment and blessing, but also the place of 
safety, as 16 811 . The resemblance of Pss. 1 6 to 17 in so many 
other respects favours the same meaning of right hand of God 
here. This also is a proper basis for the closer and affectionate 
care indicated in the phr. : Keep me as the pupil of the eye], as 
Dt. 32 10 Pr. 7 2 1| the daughter of the eye, a Hebraism as La. 2 18 , ex- 
pressing a filial relation, implying affectionate care. The second 
tristich has also an introductory line with a synonymous couplet 
synthetic to it. — 86-10. Hide me in the shadow of Thy wings], 
a favourite conception of poets of the Restoration 36 s 57 2 6$ H , 
cf. 6 1 5 9 1 4 Ru. 2 12 . It is usually referred to the care of the 
mother bird for her young j not, however, the hen, Mt. 23 s7 , which 
is not used in OT., but rather the eagle, cf. Dt. 32 11 , though the 
working out of the simile is different. It probably, however, 
refers to the cherubic wings of the most Holy Place of the temple 
in accord with the frequent conception that the temple itself is 
a sure refuge for the people of God, involving the idea that the 
protecting cherubic wings extended their influence to the holy 
temple and the holy city and its inhabitants. — from the wicked]. 
These are, as the context shows, not wicked Israelites, but wicked 
nations, who oppress and maltreat the Israelites, cf. 9 4 - 6 - 18 . — 



tsalm xvii. 131 

Mine enemies that assail me]. They assault, act violently. — with 
greed], cf. 107 9 . They are not only violent, but greedy for their 
prey. — encompass me], surround so as to make escape impossible, 
v. v. 11 . — They shut up their gross heart~\. They are not only 
greedy, but pitiless. They are so greedy that they have become 
fat and gross ; their midriff, the seat of feelings, has become ex- 
ceedingly insensible. " They have closed it against every influence 
for good and all sympathy " Kirk. It is necessary in accordance 
with English usage to substitute heart for midriff. — with their 
mouth], antith. with the mouth of the poet, v. 36 . — they speak ar- 
rogantly'], v. io 2 for the same kind of enemies and a similar situa- 
tion. — 11-12. The third tristich describes the action of these 
enemies in three progressive pentameters — {They advance)], as 
J, resuming the thought of v. 9 . This is much better suited to the 
context than " our steps " MT., EV 8 ., which is not well sustained, 
and is difficult to construct and understand in this context. The 
enemies advance to the attack. — now], graphic description. — 
they march about], the people of God, probably the holy city, 
as 55 11 . — they fix their eyes], watching intently, so that no move- 
ment of Israel may escape them, showing their greed v. 96 . — (They 
purpose) to camp in the land]. This is a most difficult clause in 
the original, and is variously explained in Vrss. and commentaries. 
The difficulty may be removed by finding the verb, missing in this 
line, to complete the measure. The infinitive that follows then 
becomes intelligible, having the ordinary meaning, "pitch," which 
is used without its usual object " tent," syn. with English " en- 
camp." We then have the enemy purposing to encamp in the 
land, and so besiege the people, cf. Jb. 19 12 , and a very natural 
and appropriate progress in the activity of the enemy. The 
various renderings : " turning their eyes down to the ground " 
PBV., " bowing down to the earth " AV., " to cast us down to the 
earth" RV., "to spread out in the land" JPSV., all depending 
on MT., show how impracticable it is to get a good sense on 
that basis. — they maltreat as a lion]. This refers to the acts 
of violence of a besieging army ravaging for prey, seizing it 
with violence and abusing it without pity. — They are greedy 
for prey], reiterating v. 96 . — like a young lion lurking in secret 
places]. They lie in ambush and lurk for their prey, to fall 



132 PSALMS 

on it unawares. This situation resembles very much that of 
Ps. io 8 " 10 . 

Part III. has two pentameter tristichs, a petition that Yahweh 
may by theophanic interposition destroy the wicked enemies and 
let the people see His presence. — 13-14a. The first tristich is 
syn. — O rise, Yahweh], as frequent in such prayers 3 8 f 9 20 io 12 . 
— confront Aim'], in hostility, cf. i8 6-19 . — cast him down], over- 
throw and prostrate in death, as 18 40 . — O deliver me from the 
wicked], the enemies, cf. v. 9a . — destroy with Thy sword]. Yah- 
weh interposes as a warrior, and so uses His sword, as 7 13 (cf. 35 1 " 3 
for God's use of other warlike weapons). It is necessary, however, 
to supply a missing verb to complete the measure of line. This 
was probably " destroy." The omission lies back of Jfy and Vrss., 
several of which take " sword " as in relative clause, " who is Thy 
sword " PBV., AV. The idea, though a good one after the 
analogy of Is. io 5 , is yet inappropriate to the context, and calls 
attention needlessly from the main thought and its ready advance 
to a climax. RV., JPSV. rightfully render "by Thy sword." — 
May they be slain by Thy hand]. This rendering is in accord with 
the context, the use of the sword by Yahweh, and with a strict inter- 
pretation of the unpointed Hebrew text, and is favoured by ancient 
Vrss. The MT. is pointed so as to give the rendering " men," 
both here and in the next clause, " from men of Thy hand — 
from the men " PBV., " from men which are Thy hand " AV., 
" from men by Thy hand " RV., JPSV., none of which are satis- 
fying. — from the world], away from the world, so as no longer to 
live in the world, v. 4Q 2 , cf. Is. 38 11 . " O Lord, destroy them 
from off the earth, which they inhabit " Aug. The usual rendering 
"from the evil world" PBV., "men of the world" AV., RV., 
implies an antith. between the world as evil and the righteous 
Israelite, which while in accord with the NT., Jn. 15 19 , is not in 
accord with the OT. religion and has no justification whatever 
in OT. usage. This supposed antith. has occasioned a general 
misinterpretation of the subsequent context, as if it contrasted 
the earthly joys of the wicked with the heavenly joys of the 
righteous j which also is a later Biblical conception, but not 
justified at such a date as that of our Ps. The idea can only 
be gained by awkward adjustments and renderings. This clos- 



PSALM XVII. 133 

ing tristich is indeed a continuation of the petition for divine 
interposition, and contrasts the visitation upon the wicked in 
a synth. couplet with the vindication of the righteous in the 
closing line, and so is harmonious with the petition with which 
the Ps. opens. — 146-15. Let their portion be during life] ; that 
is, the portion allotted to them as penalty, as Is. 17 14 Jb. 20 29 27 13 , 
and not a good portion enjoyed by them in this life, but no longer 
to be theirs. — their belly fill Thou with Thy stored-up penally], 
as Jb. 2 1 19 ; and not treasures of wealth, in accordance with other 
interpretations. This penalty they are to partake of to the full 
extent of their capacity. Their belly is to be filled with it, and 
yet it will not be exhausted. It passes over to their sons. — may 
their sons be sated], may they also be so filled that they cannot 
partake of any more; and still further in the climax — may they 
leave their residue to their children]. There still remains to the 
sons a residue of this penalty that they cannot appropriate. This 
they transmit as an inheritance of woe to their children ; and so 
the ancient law is fulfilled, in a visiting of the iniquity of the 
fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation, 
Ex. 20 5 = Dt. 5 9 . In antith. with this dreadful punishment of the 
enemies, the poet prays for himself — let me behold Thy face], un- 
folding the thought of v. 2 . A later editor, doubtless influenced 
by v. 1 , inserts " in righteousness " as a qualification ; thereby de- 
stroying the measure, making the first half of this line of four 
tones instead of three. — let me be satisfied with Thy form], the 
form of God; that is, as seen in the theophanic vindication, 
based on the conception of the privilege of Moses, Nu. 12 8 . The 
form of God gratifies and satisfies the psalmist, while the wicked 
are sated with the divine penalty. This conception of beholding 
the face and form of God, gave difficulty to later editors ; and so 
(3, U, paraphrase " when Thy glory appears," thus interpreting it 
correctly as theophanic in character. In ^ a scribe inserted 
"when I awake " so EV 8 ., which he probably meant to be inter- 
preted, as awakening from the sleep of death, when the vision of 
the face and form of God was conceived as possible to the highly 
privileged righteous. But the vb. without suffix leaves other in- 
terpretations open, such as awakening from the sleep of anxiety 
and sorrow, or awakening in the morning from a night of anxiety 



134 PSALMS 

and petition. The insertions of (3 ana $ make the last half of 
the line into three tones instead of the needed two, and thus 
destroy the measure of the closing part of the Ps. as well as the 
return to the conception of the petition with which it began. 

1. |rgj as obj. of hearing. »p-« @, F is novel and dub., rd. with 3 justum 
pm, v. /6 4 2. — >pp-] S f. i pers. J nf\ n.f. : (i) jubilation, antith oa 30°, 
njran 126'' 6 , || mm 107 22 , ptrfr 105 43 , pynto 126 2 , n|-i "yp 42 s 47 s u8 1& ; 
(2) ;r// for help 106 44 119I69 i 42 7 , || n^n if 6l» 88 3 . — N s ? ] a . x . y> un i es s 
possibly 10* ace. <S, 3; but Je. 22 13 Is. 55I + in the sense without (Ps. 44I 3 
n s 3 is different, kS belonging to DfiBto).— 2. T^?] emph. compound prep, 
with sf. 2 m. /hw /;<?/t?r*\ J *JfiSo : (i) at the presence of God 97 s - 6 1 14"- 7 ; 
(2) away from 51 13 , cf. use with maj Je. 16 17 3186 33I8 l s . 48^; (2) pro- 
ceeding from Ps. 772. — iBsirc] also emph., my just cause or judgment in my 
favour, v. /S. — hvJ juss. continuing petition, as Dr., Ba. The sentence 
coming forth from the decision of the judge, cf. Hb. I 4 - 4 for Qal and Ps. 376 
Je. 5 1 10 , Hiph. — rrrg] emph. <g ^ prob. both interpretations of noun 
without sf. — ^nrjn] final clause, subjunctive not juss. — one^r] makes the 
1. too long and is needed in next 1. If with mn, it must be adv. rightly, a 
mng. elsw. Ct. I 4 . In \J/ it is used in the ethical sense of equity in govern- 
ment, v. <f>. — 3. K|pn] statement of fact, result of divine inspection as Dr., 
rather than conditional clause without usual particles as Ba., Du. — 'nbr] 
Qal pf. 1 m. Ko.S"'""' p- 124 Ges> §67« j CCT vb# de7)is£i in bad sense as '^ u 

37 12 , cf. Je. 4'- 8 . Ba. regards it as inf. cstr. Ew.i 238 . But ©, F, Aq., 2, 3 
and most comm. rd. >DQ) or »Pi3T, better o no? for measure as &, Grimme. <S 
properly attaches it to nxo as obj. J npr n.f. evil device, purpose elsw. 26 10 
119 150 , cf. ri^tn M-^pr^3] the two Makkephs enable one to distribute 
the two accents better for euphony. >d is prob. subj. and not obj. This is 
not a final clause, as Dr., but statement of fact, as Ba., Kirk. -ia; is then in 
the sense of transgress, abs. only here, but c. ace. 148 6 Nu. 14 41 Jos. 7 11 - 15 
Dt. I7 2 + . — 4. o-nj rn^pS] the prep. S has the force of as for, as regards 
Dr. This is to be preferred to the temporal force at, Ba., cf. 32 s . % [nSos] 
n.f.: (1) work, pi. deeds of men if, of Yahweh 28 5 ; (2) wages in punish- 
ment 109 20 . It is a favourite word of Is. 2 , of actions of wicked 65% of wages 
40 10 49 4 61 8 62 11 , infrequent elsw. Dy., Du. rd. dMk I keep silent. The 1. is 
defective; a word is missing; rd. o^k q-<x, the latter omitted by haplog. D"U< 
is contr. of np-iM Pi. impf. 1 pers. Jnrn Qal be like, resemble sq. s 89 7 102 7 
144 4 ; Pi. liken, imagine, think c. ace. 48 10 , obj. clause 50 21 , here intend as 
Nu « 33™ (J) Ju. 20 6 Is. io 7 . This gives an appropriate sense. <g by its dif- 
ferent division of verses increases the difficulty. — P"»mR] v. 8 9 . & prefixes 
jr. This may be explanatory; and yet it gives us the missing tone, removes 
a difficult phrase, and enables us to explain after Jos. 6 18 , cf. Dt. 4 9 take heed, 
beware of — f P"^] n.m. violent one, robber or murderer elsw. Is. 35 s Je. 7 11 
Ez. 7 22 18 10 Dn. 1V 4 . — 5. -pn] Qal inf. abs. i?n v. itf. <S, % 2, 9, 3, E 



PSALM XVII. 135 

have imv. — T£^?JJ?p] f. pi. sf. 2 m., cf. Pr. 5 21 from sg. — J Sjyc] n. track 
in fig. sense of snares of wicked 140 6 , course of life 23 s , prescribed by Yahweh 
17 6 , those traversed by Him 65 12 . — 6. :|JT»J-Bn] vb. imv. Hiph. TO c. ace. 
JTK; phr. elsw. of man 45" 49 s 78 1 , of God' if 31 3 71 2 86 1 88 3 102 3 116 2 .— 
7. T"Dn nSon] v. 4 1 *. — JPttftD] should be connected with D^DipppD (with two 
tones). — cpn] rd. ntrn and attach to r#W*. It has been transposed by 
txt. err. These two words then belong to the next line in v. 8 to make both 
lines of normal measure. — 8. pfc^N] n.m. diminutive of t^x pupil of eye, elsw. 
Dt. 32 10 Pr. 7 2 ; midst of night Pr. 7°, cf. 2O 20 ( ? ). — ?:>7' n ?] syn. term elsw. 
La. 2 18 . — Sxa] emph. % h\ n.m. : (1) shadow, shade, protection from sun, fig. 
80 11 , of Yahweh 91 1 121 5 , -pfljo "* iy 8 36 s 57 s 63 s , cf. 91 4 Ru. 2 12 , where «]jd 
alone is used; (2) shadow as symbol of the transitoriness of life 144 4 , cf. 
102 12 109 23 . — 9. D^Bh ^8p] depends on previous context to complete its 
line. — it] rel. as g 16 . — ^-nr] Qal pf. 3 m. pi. sf. I sg. J-nu ; : act violently 
towards iy 9 ; lay waste 91 6 137 8 . — IPDJa] with greed Ba., Dr. tffij in this 
sense J as seat of appetite : (a) hunger 78 18 107 9 , with some form of j?3B" 63° 
107 9 Is. 56 11 Je. 50 19 Ez. 7 19 , with other terms Pss. 106 15 107 18 ; (b) thirst for 
God 42 2 - 3 63 s 143 6 ; (<:) more general greed iy 9 , cf. 107 5 , v. 10 3 . — is" 1 ^] 
Hiph. impf. 3 pi. J*|pj Hiph.: (1) £» round abo tit a city 48 13 ; (2) sur- 
round, encompass c. S;' pers. iy 9 88 18 , c. ace. pers. 22 17 . — 10. "*D3Vn] emph. 
% 2^n fat (1) of human body, of midriff, v. RS. Religion of Semites 360; so 
here, unreceptive mind; sf. archaic for c ? for better rhythm, also H9 70 and 
prob. 73'; (2) of beasts as rich food 63 s ; (3) choicest, best of wheat 81 1T 
147 14 , cf. Dt. 32 14 Is. 34 . — in-'s] ns c. archaic sf. emph. v.x. s — $rwna] n.f. : 
(1) swelling of sea 89 10 ; (2) majesty of God 93 1 ; (3) pride, haughtiness, 
arrogance iy 10 , possibly 74 20 , v. nwa io 2 . — 11. u*Ti#M~Jn. sf. 1 pi. so %. t [mrs*] 
n.f. step, going elsw. Jb. 31 7 . It is improb. that it is different from nrs 
v. 5 ; the pointing here might be either txt. err. or a conceit of the punctua- 
tors, but is prob. a relict of tradition that it was Pi. of vb. Vrss. have vb., <S 
£kP&\\ovt£s /xe, U projicientes me = ^Bhj,3 incedentes, S. naKapl^ovris ^ce, so 
£. 'jntta in both mngs. prob. original in sense of 3, as Cap. — >ji32D] Kt. , 6, 
3, & uuaD Qr. The sfs. with both vbs. in all texts and Vrss. are interpreta- 
tions and were not original. J a 3D vb. Qal turn about, of Jordan -vimx 1 ? back 
Ii4 3 - 6 ; c. impf. almost auxil. as 21$ 7i 21 ( ? ); (2) march or walk about a 
city 48 13 so here; (3) surround, encompass, fig. c. ace. 18 6 22 13 - n 49 s 88 18 
ugio. 11. 11. 12 Ct double ace. 109 3 . Polel: (1) encompass c. ace, subj. divine 
nDn 32 10 , cf. v. 7 ( dub >; (2) assemble round c. ace. pers. 7 s ; (3) march or go 
about a place 55 11 59 7 - 15 , an altar 26 s . — Dfpjpr] emph. construe with lri'Bh 
graphic impf, cf. 48 14 62 11 (c. ^). — p«a PUmS] belongs to the next v. to 
make measures correct. The inf. cstr. naj with S is emph. dependent on 
some vb. given or understood, PiBJ c. y\X2 v. 6 , cf. Jb. 15 29 c. fMth. It is 
prob. that in both TOj is contr. of Snx naj pitched the tent Gn. 12 8 26 25 35 21 
(J) 33 19 (E). To pitch the tent, camp in the land, suits the context and 
is especially appropriate after previous vbs. as I have interpreted them. — 
12. ^d-i] n. sf. 3 sg. f [r?"]] «•*• likeness, so 3, E, Aq., &, but <& vTrt\a(36u 



13^ PSALMS 

fxe, F susceperunt me = ywi Cap. ncn Pi. think, purpose as v. 4 . A word is 
missing in the line. If now we separate U 1 from (i)ot we get the missing 
word : then id-j is the principal vb. upon which maj 1 ? depends, coming at close 
of clause, as frequent in this Ps. To pitch {their tents) in the land they in- 
tended or thought, v. v. 4 . Then ir is Qal pf. 3 pi., prob. for irn Hiph. % fir 
vb. Qal o//r«j 123 4 Qr., suppress 74 s (?). Hiph. ^m, maltreat, as Is. 49^ 
Je. 22 8 Ez. 18 7 . — 1 Dp-] txt. err. for i£D^ by transposition of \ f rp 3 vb. Qal 
long for c. S //** Jb. 14 15 , Niph. same Ps. 84 s Gn. 3180, abs. Zp. 2 1 (?).— 
Jvps n.m. young lion 17™ 104 21 , || hrvff 91^, of bloodthirsty enemies 34" 
35 17 5 87 - — 13 - n 97E] Pi - imv. cohort. J B"»p vb. Pi. denom. : (1) meet, con- 
front c. ace. i8 6 -i 9 77^; come to meet as friend 21 4 59" (?) 798, -> 88 14 , 
face of Yahweh 95 2 , cf. 89 15 ; go before, in front of 68 26 ; be beforehand I19 147 '; 
anticipate, forestall 119I 48 . — Viynan] Hiph. imv. cohort, with sf. 3 m. % >"P 
vb. Qal bow down in worship 22 30 72 s 95 s , of enemies in death 20 9 . f Hiph! 
cause to bow down in death 17 13 78^, c. rm 18 40 (= 2 S. 22 40 ) Ju. n 86 (in 
grief). — ne?»] Pi. imv. cohort. J [oSfl] vb. Pi. deliver esp. of Yahweh, c. 
ace. pers. 22*- * 31 2 3? 40 7 ,a 82 4 91I 4 , c. fD/hww iyO ^"-^i 71*, p tc . c. sfs. 
18 8 40 18 70 6 144 2 ; elsw. in this sense Mi. 6 14 . — »tfai] me> v.j^ — -;v<\ coll. 
as cf, v. iK — ri^n] ace. instrument with sf. 7» & has and from the 
sword; but ©, 3 take it as relative clause, who is Thy sivord. The line is 
defective; insert 3^n Qal imv. as Je. 5c 21 - 27 omitted by haplog. — 14. D'HCD 
&V] emph., so 3 has <z otWj manus tuae interp. as prep. p. \ [no] ///#&, 
maw. itpa >-? w^« 0/ number Gn. 34 80 (J) Dt. 4 27 Je. 44 s8 Ps. 105 12 , 
men, simply if*- 14 , KW *nc 26 4 , Jb. u", ps T3 22 15 niD 'D 19 19 . The testi- 
mony of 3 is vitiated by the rendering qui morlui sunt in the second in- 
stance; 2 Airb vtKpGiv, so &, Aq. d?rd Tedv-qKbruv, point to DV7§D />0W /V&<? 
dead. @ d?r6 ixOp&v, U inimicis for the first, and for the second dXlyuv 
<S SAR , U paucis. But <g B has in the second case diroXtwv, so Aug. It is 
better to read in both instances Hoph. ptc. of vb. D^PDIC, as 2 K. n 2 defec- 
tively written as D'DDD may they be slain with Thy hand. \ nc vb. Qal : 

(1) die of natural causes, man 41 6 49 11 82 7 1 18 17 , no dead man 31 13 , d>PD 88 6 - u 
115 17 , c s i; \id 143 3 = La. 3 6 , D'PD Tiar Ps. ioo 28 . (For nw 9 1 48 15 v. Intr.8 84 .) 
Polel kill, put to death, c. ace. 34 22 109 16 Ju. 9 54 1 S. 17 51 Je. 20 17 . Hiph. kill, 
put to death Ps. 37 s2 59 1 Ez. 13 19 , fish Ps. 105 29 . Hoph. be put to death would 
then be here and 2 K. u 2 +.— f-^n] n.m. duration: (1) of life 39 s 89 48 
Jb. 1 1 17 , cf. Ps. 39 5 ; (2) of world Ps. 17U 492, c f. 1 1 4 Is. 38 11 . iSnn out of the 
world, removed from it by death. — Hfps] a.X. Kt. n.(m.) treasure, but Qr. 
1«M Qal ptc. pass, treasured, in either case stored-up penalty as Jb. 21 19 v. /0 s . 

— irvjni] 1 conseq. pf. Hiph. 3 pi. J mj Qal r^/, j*///* down, sq. S;« 125 8 , cf. 
Gn. 8 4 2 S. 21 10 Is. 7 2 . Hiph. : (1) let remain, leave, bequeath ijU, cf. Ec. 2 18 ; 

(2) abandon c. S pers. Ps. 119 121 ; (3) permit c. ace. pers. 105 14 . — 15. >j*m 
emph. — P"?M] emph. w. v. 1 . It is a gl. of qualification, making line too long. 

— r , i'?v'2] Hiph. inf. cstr. a temporal, pp p. j«, here sleep of death as Is. 26 19 
Dn. 12 2 . It is a gl. of interpretation. <g has a different gl. iv ry depdijvat. — 
t f\HCn] n.f. : (1) likeness, representation of idols Ex. 20 4 = Dt. 5 s , cf. 4 1G - 23 - ,26 ; 



PSALM XVIII. 137 

(2) form, semblance of Yahweh here, so Aq,, S as Nu. 12 8 , cf. Dt. 4 12 - 15 , of 
apparition at night Jb. 4 16 . (3 interprets Tr\v 86£au crov, 37 gloria tua, 6 8e£idv 
<rov = rjrp 1 <£ ^"Ji^M all these due to a shrinking from the thought of d./orm 
of God. Aq t> 2, 3, QL all regard rmcn as obj. of p2V and the parall. demands 
it. 

PSALM XVIIL, 2 pts. of 3 strs. 14 3 . 

Ps. 18, originally an ode of victory of David over his enemies, 
was subsequently adapted to public worship. I. David praises 
Yahweh as his Saviour from a deadly peril described under the 
metaphor of drowning. He heard his cry for help (v. 3-7 ) ; His 
anger caused earth and heaven to quake; He descended upon a 
cherubic chariot in a storm cloud (v. 8-13 ). Thunder, lightning, 
and earthquake were His weapons, and He delivered David from 
his peril and became his stay (v. 1420 ). II. David praises God 
as his lamp and shield, who girded him with strength for war 
(v. 29-35 ), giving him a broad position on which to pursue his 
enemies and exterminate them (v. 3743 ) ; delivered him from the 
strivings of his own people, made him head of nations, and 
doeth kindness to the anointed seed of David forever (v. 44-45 "- 47 ' 49 - 51 ). 
The ode was generalised for public worship by several changes 
in the body of the song; but especially (1) by prefixing an 
assertion of love to Yahweh (v. 2 ) ; (2) by inserting two glosses, 
the first teaching that God rewards according to righteousness 
(v. 21-24 ) ; the second, that God acts towards men just as they act 
towards others, especially in saving the humble and humiliating 
the lofty (v. 25-28 ) ; (3) a reference to nations cringing, in the 
spirit of later times (v. 456-46 ) ; and (4) a resolution of liturgical 
praise (v. 50 ). 

Part I. 

TWTY crag and my fortress and my deliverer, 
My God, my Rock in whom I seek refuge, 
My shield and horn of my salvation, my high tower, 
(My Saviour, from violence Thou savest me). 
Worthy to be praised I proclaim Yahweh, 
Since from mine enemies I am saved. 
The (breakers) of death encompassed me, 
And torrents of Belial fell upon me ; 
Cords of Sheol came round me, 
fcnares of Death came to meet me : 



138 PSALMS 

In my distress I called upon Yahweh, 

And unto my God cried lor help ; 

And He heard from His palace my voice, 

And my cry for help (came) before Him in His eais. 
THEN the earth swayed and quaked, 

And the foundations of (the heavens) trembled, 

And tossed to and fro because He burned with anger; 

Smoke went up in His nostril, 

And fire from His mouth devoured; 

Coals were kindled from Him. 

Then He bowed the heavens and came down, 

Thick darkness under His feet; 

And He rode upon the cherub and flew, 

And swooped down upon wings of wind ; 

And put darkness round about Him, 

A covering (of) darkness of waters, 

Thick clouds of the skies without brightness ; 

Before Him passed His thick clouds. 
THEN Yahweh thundered (from) heaven, 

And Elyon gave forth His voice; 

And sent forth His arrows and scattered them, 

And (flashed) flashes and made them rumble; 

And the channels of the (sea) appeared, 

(And) the foundations of the world were laid bare. 

He sends from on high, He takes me, 

He draws me out of many waters ; 

He delivers me from my strong enemy, 

And from those hating me ; for they were too strong for vne: 

Who came to meet me in the day of my calamity. 

And so Yahweh became a stay to me, 

And led me forth into a wide place, 

And rescued me, because He took pleasure in me. 



Part II. 

T70R Thou art my lamp, Yahweh, 

My God who lightens my darkness : 

For in Thee I run up to a troop, 

And in my God I leap a wall. 

The 'El whose way is perfect, 

A shield is He to the one seeking refuge in Him. 

For who is a God (like) Yahweh ? 

And who is a Rock (like) our God? 

The 'El who girdeth me with strength, 

And made my way perfect ; 

Who setteth my feet like hinds, 

And upon high places made me hold my ground 

Who teacheth my hands for war, 

And maketh mine arms bronze. 



PSALM XVIII. 139 

'THOU broadenest my steps under me, 

And my limbs do not slip; 

I pursue mine enemies and I overtake them ; 

And I return not until I have finished them. 

(And) I smote them down so that they could not rise, 

(And) they fell under my feet. 

And Thou girdest me with strength for war, 

Thou causeth them that rise up against me to bow down under me ; 

And mine enemies Thou madest give the back to me, 

And them that hate me I exterminated. 

And they cry for help, but there is no saviour, 

Unto Yahweh, but He doth not answer them ; 

And I beat them small as dust of the earth, 

And as clay of the streets pulverised them. 
THOU deliverest me from the strivings of (my) people; 

Thou settest me to be head of nations ; 

A people I knew not serve me, 

At the hearing of the ear shew themselves obedient to me. 

Liveth and blessed is my Rock, 

And the God of my salvation is exalted. 

The 'El who giveth to me deeds of vengeance, 

And who bringeth down peoples under me, 

And who bringeth me forth from mine enemies, 

And lifteth me up above them that rise up against me, 

From the man of violence rescueth me ; 

Who magnifieth acts of salvation to His king, 

And doeth kindness to His anointed, 

To David and to his seed forever. 

The Ps. is described in the title as nm^n the song, just as other odes of 
victory over enemies bear this title, Ex. 15 1 (ode of victory over the 
Egyptians); Dt. 31 30 (Moses' ode of the triumph of Yahweh); cf. Ju. 5 1 
(Deborah's ode, where vb. "vtf is used). The original form of the title is 
given in 2 S. 22 1 , " And David spake unto Yahweh the words of this song 
in the day that Yahweh delivered him from the hand of all his enemies and 
from the hand of Saul." This has been adopted by an editor of the Ps., only 
changing the second *p to the familiar T for richness of expression, and 
removing the name of David into the principal clause, making the rest a 
relative clause and prefixing t^n inS mm nay 1 '. This raises the question 
whether miS here has the same meaning as in the other titles of Pss., all the 
more that the term servant of Yahweh precedes it. The titles both represent 
David as the speaker in the ode, and probably also designate him as the 
author. It is doubtful, therefore, whether the ode was in B. It was in Q2cl, 
and was probably taken from 2 S. 22. The text of 2 S. has many variations 
from that of the Ps. It lacks its Aramaisms : Dm v. 1 , -15:1 v. 26 , jnn v. 46 , "Di v. 48 . 
It also uses many "> consec. impfs. as historical aorist, which in the Ps. are 
simply impf., with more general reference to present or future, v. 7c - 12 - 39a " 5 . 
In other respects the text of 2 S. is more archaic. The ode, in both forms 



I40 PSALMS 

of the text, gives many evidences of late date, (i) There are late words 
>J? oy v. 28 , nuy v. 366 (but 2 S. r\y;), nsj »« v. 456 - 46a ; but these are all in glosses. 

(2) The ode is cited (a) Ps. n6 1 ^* in the text of Ps., niD ton v. 5 , and 
»nan« || qomx v. 2 ; (b) Ps. 144 1 " 7 in the text of 2 S., TVnn 144 2 = in:i 2 S. 22 48 , 
not nrni Ps. 18 48 ; ^ vshot: 144 2 = 2 S. 22 2 = vhon Ps. 18 3 ; (c) Hb. 3 19 cites v. 84 , 
only changing vbs. nw, TDJfn into more common ones, D^fe% Tp"nn; (</) Pr. 30 5 
cites v. 31 , giving an earlier form of text, ^ D^DvV? for w a^Dinn SaS, and 
niSs mss for "» mDN; (<?) Is. 55 6 cites v. 44 in two lines in fuller and more 
comprehensive style, using also mj for o;\ The Ps. is, therefore, preexilic. 

(3) The ode cites {a) Mi. 7 17 in v. 46 ; the texts of Ps. and 2 S. vary as to the 
vb., both best explained by the vb. of Micah ?J1 as the original, but this is a 
gloss, (b) 2 S. 7 12 - 1C in v. 61 . (c) It is not easy to determine whether v. 31 or 
Dt. 32 4 is the original. The evidence of citation favours a preex. date for 
the ode. (4) There are many late doctrinal conceptions in the ode : 
(a) The affectionate love of Yahweh, v. 2 , is post-Deuteronomic ; but it is not 
in text of 2 S., and was a later addition to the ode. (£) The doctrine of the 
absoluteness of Yahweh as the only God is stated, v. 3 -', in terms of Is. 2 ; but 
this statement is incongruous to the context, which favours the assertion of the 
incomparableness of God, as in other early poetry. This couplet has probably 
been adapted to later conceptions. (V) The legal righteousness and its 
exact retribution of v. 21-24 with the terms D'O-n 1D» v. 22 ", 'D "vid v. 236 , charac- 
teristic of D. 2 , m -o v. 216 , T3 Jfvh v. 226 , nv>n v. 236 still later. But this passage 
is evidently a gl. from its smoothness, calmness, and didactic character, as 
compared with the rapid, passionate movement in the ode. This gloss comes 
from the period of the reign of Levitical law, and states the doctrine ques- 
tioned in the Book of Job. (</) The gnomic couplets, v. 25-28 , are still later, 
implying the supremacy of Hebrew wisdom, and are ethical as compared with 
the legal character of the previous context. They begin with a line similar to 
v. 21 °. (*) The cringing of foreign nations, v. 456-46 , suits the conceptions of 
postex. Judaism, and is favoured by Is. 2 - 3 . This is a gl. also. (/) The 
liturgical formula, v. 50 , is similar to corresponding liturgical additions to other 
Pss. This is a gl. (5) On the other hand, («) the conception of the cherubic 
chariot in the storm cloud, v. 11 , is more primitive than the cherubic chariot 
of Ez. 1. (6) The theophany to decide battles is a primitive conception in 
the ancient odes, Ex. 15, Ju. 5; cf. Jos. io 1214 ; as with Moses, Joshua, 
Deborah, so also with David. (c) The high places as battle fields is also 
an expression of the old songs, 2 S. i™- 2 * Dt. 32 13 sj 29 . If the ode in its 
present form, in text either of 2 S. or of Ps., is regarded as a unit, one com- 
position without interpolation, there can be no escape from the opinion that 
it was composed at the earliest in the late Persian period, more probably in 
the early Greek period. But if we remove the glosses, which have adapted 
an ode of victory of David to later religious uses, the ode stands out in 
simple grandeur as fitting appropriately to the historical experience of David, 
whether he wrote it or another wrote it for him by historic imagination, 
entering into the experience of the heroic king. After removing the glosses 



PSALM XVIII. 141 

there is nothing that bars the way to his authorship. The Ps., with the glosses 
removed, is divided into two parts, each part of three fourteen-lined tri- 
meters; the first part sets forth his deliverance by theophany from peril of 
death, the second part his strengthening for war by his God and his victory 
over all his enemies. The two chief glosses, the legal gloss, v. 21 " 24 , and the 
ethical gloss, v. 25-28 , are inserted between the two parts. Remove them, and 
the unity and harmony of the ode appear. The other minor glosses are easy 
to distinguish. Their removal improves the poetic conception and movement 
of the poem. There are very few departures from the trimeter measure, and 
these are clearly due to textual errors. 



An editor, wishing to adapt the ancient ode to congregational 
use, in view of the entire thought which follows, prefixes the 
exclamation / love Thee, Yahweh, my strength]. This line is not 
in the text of 2 S., taking the place of its v. 3c , which was inten- 
tionally omitted from Ps. The words for love and strength are Ara- 
maisms, and the conception of loving Yahweh is post-Deuteronomic. 

Pt. I., Str. I. The Str. is composed of six trimeters, followed 
by eight. 3. Four syn. lines heap up terms to emphasise David's 
God as his Saviour from an enemy in war. — my crag and my 
fortress , my high tower], a place of refuge inaccessible to an 
enemy, too strong for him. — My God and my Rock are divine 
names, Rock being an ancient term for God, also v. 32 - 47 Dt. 32 4 - 31 - 37 . 
— My shield]. God is a warrior with a shield covering David's 
body. — horn of salvation]. God is like a great bull guarding 
him with his horns ; cf. Gn. 4Q 24 . The syn. my deliverer, in whotn 
I seek refuge, attain their climax in my Saviour, Thou savest me. 
One word, from violence, or possibly in the earliest txt. of the 
Vs., from the man of violence, cf. v. 49 , is the only indication of the 
peril in this part of the Str. A personal enemy who sought to 
use violence upon him and put him to death, is the reason of 
his seeking refuge in God. This situation aptly suits that of David 
when pursued in the wilderness of Judah by the violent Saul. 
4. A synth. distich, synthetic to the tetrastich which precedes, in 
the first line proclaims Yahweh as the one worthy to be praised], 
a summing up of all the titles given to Him, v. 3 ; and in the 
second line gives the reason for it. — Since from mine enemies I 
am saved]. The man of violence was accompanied by a number 
of enemies. — 5-7. Two tetrastichs, the first, v. 5 - 6 , describes the 



142 PSALMS 

peril of death, the second, v. 7 , the cry for help and its answer. 
The peril of death is graphically described in four syn. lines. 
David conceives of himself as in a rushing stream, like the rapids 
of the Jordan or the Kishon, which is hurrying him on to death 
(cf. Pss. 32 6 42 s 69 s ). These are the agents of Death. Death 
has its synonym Belial because of the destruction and ruin in- 
volved in it, and Sheol, the ordinary name for the place of the 
dead. David is, as it were, in the stream, rushing on to death. 
He says, breakers, agitated waves, breaking on me, encompassed 
me on every side, torrents fell upon me, attacking me as lines 
of an army to destroy me. And under the surface of the stream, 
cords ca?ne round me, the waters seemed like cords binding my 
limbs fast so that I could not move them ; snares came to tneet me, 
to ensnare me like an animal, draw me down so that I could not 
escape. — 7. In this deadly peril he cries for help to Yahweh in 
1 syn. couplet, and the answer is stated in another syn. couplet. — 
from His palace], in heaven, where Yahweh was enthroned ; some- 
times conceived as a heavenly temple, where He is worshipped 
by heavenly beings ; but here as a palace because royal help is 
given, rather than response to worship. 

Str. II. The salvation of David from his peril of death was 
through a theophany. — 8-9. This is first described in two tri- 
meter tristichs, the first of syn. lines picturing the heaven and 
earth in agitation. Then the earth swayed and quaked || and the 
foundations of the heavens trembled]. The heavens share in 
the agitation as in subsequent context and in usage in connection 
with theophanies; see Is. 13 9 - 1013 Jo. 4 15 - 16 . So 2 S., but the Ps. 
"mountains" limits agitation to earth. — Tossed to and fro], 
both earth and heaven, because He burned with anger, in behalf 
of the one who sought refuge in Him against his enemies. The 
second tristich is composed of two syn. and one synth. line, the 
former describing the anger ; He breathed hard and rapidly and 
His breath like smoke went up in His nostril, and so hot was it 
that it appeared like a flame of f re from His mouth, and (like 
a flame), devoured whatever came in its way. The last line in 
synthesis represents that coals we7-e kindled] ; whatever the fiery 
breath of His anger reached became coals, were kindled, and 
burned like coals from Him, that is, from the breath that issued 



PSALM XVIII. 143 

from Him. — 10-13. The theophany itself is described in two 
tetrastichs ; in the first as a coming down of God from heaven to 
earth. — 10. He bowed the heavens and came dozen']. God, en- 
throned above the physical heavens, the blue expanse, bends them 
when He would descend in theophany. He comes down on 
them. So Ex. 24 10 , the elders of Israel " saw the God of Israel ; 
and there was under His feet, as it were, a work of bright sapphire, 
and as it were the very heaven for brightness." The very heaven, 
its sapphire-blue expanse, was the base on which the feet of the 
theophanic God stood. Here, however, under His feet was thick 
darkness, because the theophany was in a storm of wrath ; there 
it was in the bright sunshine of favour to establish a covenant with 
His people. So Solomon, in the snatch of an ancient poem pre- 
served from the book of Yashar (according to 0), says, " Yahweh 
dwelt in thick darkness," 1 K. 8 12 = 2 Ch. 6 1 ; cf. Ps. 97 s and the 
cloud of the theophany at Horeb, Ex. 20 18 (E), Dt. 4 11 5 22 .— 
11. And rode upon the cherub]. The cherub, coll. sg. for usual 
pi. cherubim, is conceived as the living chariot upon which God 
rides when He descends from heaven to earth. So Ez. i 4 ~ 28 9 s 
10 11 22 , describe four cherubim inseparably attached to the living 
chariot of Yahweh ; and 1 Ch. 28 18 connects the cherubic chariot 
with the cherubim of the Holy of Holies of the temple. They 
were the guards of Eden, Gn. 3 24 (J), and of the tabernacle and 
temple, in which two of them with outstretched wings sustained 
the base of the divine throne. They always have wings. The 
conception of the Ps. is a primitive one, but harmonious with the 
other representations. — And flew~\. The cherubim constitute a 
winged chariot. — And swooped down upon wings ofwind~\. The 
wings of wind may be conceived as wings which the wind has, in 
which case wind and cherub seem to be synonymous, and we may 
think of Ps. io4 ,V4 . But the thick cloud of Ps. 104 3 appears in 
18 13 as "thick clouds of the skies," and the cherubim are the 
chariot here in a different sense from the thick clouds there. 
The conception here is that heaven, thick darkness, cherub, wings 
of wind, are all under the feet of God, all constitute the platform on 
which He descends to earth. The cherubim are the living beings 
of the theophany as in other passages mentioned, and there is no 
sufficient reason to identify them with the thick storm cloud. 



144 PSALMS 

The second tetrastich, 12-13, in three syn. lines describes what 
was round about God in His descent, as the previous lines what 
was under His feet. The texts of Ps. and 2 S. differ greatly here, 
and it is difficult to find the original text and interpret it. — God 
put darkness round about Him], enveloped Himself in darkness 
when He descended || a covering of darkness of waters'], a dark 
mass of waters was the covering ; He was bringing with Him a 
great storm cloud heavily heaped up with waters, || thick clouds 
of the skies without brightness']. The Str. concludes with a line 
stating what preceded Him — before Him passed His thick clouds. 
Theophanies in storm for salvation in battle are reported for 
Israel under Moses at the crossing of the Red Sea, Ex. 14 19 - 25 
15 1 " 18 ; Joshua at Bethhoron, Jos. io 11 ; Barak and Deborah at the 
Kishon, Ju. 5 20 " 21 ; and so also for David against the Philistines, for 
2 S. 5 20 , "Yahweh hath broken forth upon mine enemies before 
me, like the breaking forth of waters," implies the breaking forth 
of a storm ; 5 24 , " when thou hearest the sound of marching in 
the tops of the mulberry trees," the onward march of Yahweh 
in a storm manifested first in the tops of the trees. 

Str. III. 14-16. The theophany is still further described as a 
storm in a syn. tetrastich and a syn. couplet synth. thereto. The 
approach of Yahweh in the storm has been described in the previ- 
ous Str.: now the storm bursts forth. — Yahweh thundered from 
heaven (so 2 S. better than " in heaven " of Ps.) II and Elyon gave 
forth His voice], the sound of thunder as Ps. 29 s . — And sent forth 
His arrows]. The thunderbolts are compared with arrows shot forth 
from a bow || flashed flashes], so 144 6 , citing this passage, prefer- 
able to Ps., whose text was corrupted into "many" flashes. The 
resulting clause, and scattered them, is usually referred to the 
enemy ; but the enemy has not been mentioned since v. 4 and 
does not appear again till v. 18 , so the reference is here premature. 
It is rather the arrows which are scattered, so many are the 
thunderbolts in this great storm. — made them rumble], the long 
reverberating rumbling of the thunder which accompanies the 
flashes of lightning, all representing a terrible thunder-storm. The 
result of this terrific storm is described in the closing syn. couplet. 
— And the channels of the (sea)] 2 S. better than the weaker 
" waters " of Ps. — appeared ; || (and) the foundations of the world 



PSALM XVIII. 145 

were laid bare']. This is a return to the thought of the earth- 
quake as preceding the storm, and now renewed during the storm. 
A later editor added a gloss corresponding with v. 9c , only stronger : 
because of Thy rebuke, Yahweh, because of the breathing of the 
breath of Thy nostrils. — 17-19. The second section of the Str. 
is composed of a couplet and two triplets. The couplet con- 
tinues the description of the theophany and gives the result of it. 
He sends from on high, He takes me || He draws me out of many 
waters], that is, the waters described in v. 5 . — The first triplet of 
syn. lines then explains the imagery. He delivers me from my 
strong enemy, || from those hating me ; for they were too strong for 
me || who came to meet me in the day of my calamity], the same 
as the enemies and man of violence of v. 3-4 . — The last triplet is 
also syn. — And so Yahweh became a stay to me], a firm prop and 
support referring back in correspondence of thought to v. 30 . — 
and led me forth into a wide place], giving breadth and freedom 
of action without peril, and so antith. to his seeking refuge on a crag 
and in a fortress and high tower v. 3a - c . — and rescued me, because 
He took pleasure in me], the climax resuming the thought of v. 36 . 
Thus this part of the Ps. reaches a good conclusion, returning on 
itself, as is frequent in Hebrew poetry. 

21-24. An entirely new conception now appears which is ex- 
pressed in four syn. couplets. These set forth the doctrine of the 
reward of righteousness, and especially of legal righteousness, a 
doctrine which did not originate till after the Deuteronomic Law 
and which did not attain its height till after the giving of the 
priestly Law. It is doubtless a gloss from the Persian period. It 
has nothing in keeping with the previous thought of the Ps. The 
original Ps. is hot with passion ; this section is calm and placid. 

Yahweh rewards me according to my righteousness, 
According to the cleanness of my hands returns to me ; 
Because I have kept the ways of Yahweh, 
And have not acted wickedly (in departing) from my God. 
For all His judgments are before me, 
And His statutes I did not depart from them ; 
And I was perfect towards Him, 
And kept myself from mine iniquity. 

21. Yahweh rewards me || returns to me], exact retribution, 
according to my righteousness || according to the cleanness of my 



146 PSALMS 

hands], not using the hands for unclean purposes. This seems 
to imply not Levitical purity or purity from bribery, which 
never are expressed in this way ; but, in accordance with Jb. 9 30 
22 30 , innocence from unrighteousness and so || "righteousness." — 
22. The ways of Yahweh], ways for ways commanded Dt. 8 6 io 12 
1 1 22 19 9 26 17 28 9 30 16 Jos. 22 5 . — 23. For all His judgments], legal 
decisions in law codes || and His statutes], f. pi. usage of code of 
H. — depart fro ?n], Deuteronomic expression Dt. 9 12 -f 7 t. — 
24. And I was perfect towards Him and kept myself from mine 
iniquity]. This is given as a single pentameter line. It may be 
arranged as two trimeters by separating the preposition from its 
noun ; but it was probably not so intended by the glossator. 
These verses can hardly be earlier than the later Deuteronomic 
writers. 

25-28. This section constitutes another and still later gloss, 
gnomic in character, from the period of Hebrew Wisdom, and so 
probably as late as the Greek period. They begin with a couplet 
which is essentially the same as v. 21 . The retribution in the fol- 
lowing couplets is ethical rather than legal. 

And Yahweh returned me according to my righteousness, 
According to the cleanness of my hands before His eyes. 
With the pious Thou shewest Thyself kind ; 
With the perfect Thou shewest Thyself perfect ; 
With the clean Thou shewest Thyself clean ; 
But with the crooked thou shewest Thyself crooked : 
For Thou savest humble folk ; 
But (Thine) eyes are (against) the lofty. 

26. With the pious Thou shewest Thyself kind \ with the perfect 
Thou shewest Thyself perfect]. The pious are those who are 
devoted to God and His law of kindness ; and who are also com- 
plete, entire in their devotion to Him, and are so without blame. 
To such God is kind and perfect in His dealings. — 27. With the 
clean Thou shewest Thyself clean in antith. with but with the 
crooked (cf. Pr. 22 s ) Thou shewest Thyself crooked.— 28. For 
Thou savest humble folk]. The antith. compels the meaning 
"humble," elsw. only Pr. 3 s4 16 19 , possibly also Zc. 9 9 ; the earlier 
sense, "poor, needy, afflicted," is not appropriate here. — But 
{Thine) eyes are {against) the lofty]. The texts of this line are 



PSALM XVIII. I47 

difficult tQ explain : " lofty eyes Thou humblest " of Ps. is too 
easy and does not explain 2 S. : Thine eyes are upon the lofty that 
Thou mayest bring them down. The translation given above best 
explains both variations. 

Pt. II., Str. I. begins with a personal reference to Yahweh 
reminding one of v. 3 . The Str. describes what God had done 
for David in war, in two parts of three and four couplets. — ■ 
29-31. has three syn. couplets advancing one upon another. 
— For Thou art my lamp, Yahweh~\, changed in Ps. to " lightest 
lamp " in order to better parallel, with : My God who lightens 
my darkness. Yahweh was the lamp, as in v. 30 , horn of salvation ; 
the lamp to light up a dark path, fig. of a difficult task, so of 
prosperous way through it, cf. Ps. 132 17 , probably based on this 
passage. — For in Thee (through Thy help) / run up to a troop], 
a hostile marauding band of the enemy, to attack them. — and 
in my God J leap a waif], to get at them behind the wall. 
These expressions seem to refer to some difficult campaign in 
which personal courage, strength, and valour were required. — 
The 'El whose way], providential way of acting, cf. Dt. 32 4 . — 
is perfect], in help and defence, as appears from || a shield is He 
to the one (made more comprehensive by a later editor by inser- 
tion of "all") seeking refuge in Him] ; cf. v. 36 for both expres- 
sions. — 32-35. The second part of the Str. is composed of four 
syn. couplets, setting forth in relative clauses what sort of a God 
Yahweh is and what He has done for David. The first couplet 
asks, For who is a God like Yahweh ? || and who is a Rock like 
our God?], implying a negative answer: there is none like Him, 
the incomparable One. ('El and Rock are as in v. 35 .) So Ex. 15 11 , 
cf. 1 S. 2 2 Dt. 33 2G29 . A later editor, adapting the Ps. for congre- 
gational use, substitutes for the comparison the terminology of 
Is. 2 43 11 44 6 8 45 21 , asserting that God is the only God ; that is, 
monotheism, a doctrine without anything to suggest it in the 
context, which rather holds up Yahweh as the incomparable One in 
what He has done for David. — The 'El who girdeth me with 
strength]. Strength is compared to a girdle wrapt about him by his 
God. — Who setteth my feet like hinds], swift to run, as v. 30 || And 
upon high places], battlefields, as Dt. 32 13 33^ 2 S. i™ 25 . — made 
me hold my ground], stand firm in battle, cf. Am. 2 15 2 K. io 4 . — 



148 PSALMS 

Who teacheth mine hands for war]. As a warrior of Yahweh he 
has been trained by Yahweh Himself. — And maketh mine arms 
bronze]. The arms by divine discipline become so strong that 
they are like bronze weapons ; so essentially ancient Vrss. The 
" bow " is an ancient interpretation which spoiled the measure 
and misled as to the sense, and in J^ led to a change in the form 
of the vb., which is followed by AV. " so that a bow of steel is 
broken by mine arms " and RV. " mine arms do bend a bow of 
brass," neither of which suits the context. 

36. These two lines are doubtless a gloss. They are not in 
accord with the previous or following context, which describe what 
God enabled David to do and not what God was to David. 

And Thou gavest me the shield of Thy salvation, 

And Thy right hand supported me, and with docility to Thee Thou broughtest me up. 

The shield is suited to the previous bronze weapon and the 
hands and arms, but then it should be a shield of victory and not 
shield of salvation. But the glossator was evidently influenced by 
the horn of salvation v. 3c and the shield v. 31c . The last two lines 
vary in texts and Vrss. 2 S. omits : And Thy right hand supported 
me ; and the first word of the next clause is pointed so as to read 
" Thy response," or " Thy docility," which suits better the vb. than 
MT. of Ps. " Thy condescension " or "Thy humility." So also 
we may read the vb. " either made me great " or brought me up. 
But in either case the conceptions are later than those of the Ps. 
as a whole. Two different stages of glosses are represented by 
the two texts. 

Str. II. describes the triumph of David over his enemies. It is 
composed of a couplet followed by a tetrastich in the first section, 
and of a tetrastich and two couplets in the second. — 37. The 
first section begins with a synth. couplet : Thou broadenest my 
steps under me], taking up the thought of v. 34 . The step is the 
place on which the feet step or stand ; it is broadened so as to 
give ample room for standing, cf. v. 206 , plenty of room for exercise 
and development. — And my limbs do not slip]. They stand firm 
on the broad stepping place. This may refer to the enlargement 
of the power of David after his final defeat of the Philistines. — 
38. David now describes his victorious pursuit of his enemies. 



PSALM XVIII. 149 

He is no longer on the defence. — / pursue mine enemies and I 
overtake them'] ; cf. v. 30 of his running and leaping against them ; 
|| and I return not (from the pursuit) until (I have overtaken 
them and) I have finished them (destroyed them completely). — 
39. And I smote them down so that they could not rise || and they 
fell under my feet~\. This, in the original poem, described a 
historic experience of David, probably in his wars against Edom 
and Moab ; but an editor, wishing to make future triumphs pos- 
sible to the thought of the congregation, omits the waws con- 
secutive, so that the verbs may be either futures or presents. The 
second section opens with a tetrastich : 40-41. And Thou girdest 
me with strength for war], resuming the thought of v. 330 , then 
synth. as result of this warlike strength, Thou causest them that 
rise up against me to bow down under me~\ ; they rise up only to 
bow down under my blows ; || And mine enemies Thou madest give 
the back to me], turn the back of their necks in flight ; || and them 
that hate me I exterminated. — 42. The pitiful condition of the 
helpless enemy is now stated in a couplet : And they cry for help, 
but there is no saviour || unto Yahweh, but He doth not afiswer 
them. — 43. The Str. concludes with a couplet bringing to a 
climax the final victory : And I beat them small as dust of the 
earth]. An editor substitutes for earth, " before the wind," 
thinking of pursuit. — And as clay of the streets pulverized them]. 
This is probably an indirect reference to captured cities. The 
entire Str., describing victories over enemies, may be regarded 
as a poetic representation of the wars of David described in 
2 S. 8, 10. 

Str. III. sums up and generalizes all that has gone before ; but 
it is mingled with two glosses, which make it more appropriate 
for congregational worship in later times. — 44-47. The first sec- 
tion is a hexastich as usual. — 44-45a. It begins with a single 
line: Thou deliverest me from the strivings of (my) people], 
which, if the text of 2 S. is correct, is the only reference in the 
ode to civil commotions. This is generalized in the text of Ps. 
to "people," but the strivings are more suited in usage to civil 
commotion than to external war, cf. Ps. 55 10 . The three lines 
that follow are syn., referring to foreign nations. — Thou settest 
me to be head of nations] ; the conquered nations submit to him 



150 PSALMS 

as their head or chief. — A people I knew ?iot serve me~\, unknown 
distant foreign peoples, such as the Syrians of Hamath, 2 S. 8' J ; 
|| At the hearing of the ear shew themselves obedient to me~\ . This 
is followed by a gloss, in the hostile spirit to foreign nations of 
later times. — 45&-46. Foreigners come cringing unto me || for- 
eigners fade away and come trembling out of their fastnesses] . 
These lines are in both texts, but there has been a transposition 
of v. 45a " 6 in the text of 2 S. There is nothing in this part of the 
Str. apart from the gloss that transcends the experience of David ; 
although naturally in later times it was given a more general 
reference, in accordance with the royal Pss., to a world-wide 
dominion of the Davidic dynasty. — 47. A concluding couplet 
ascribes life and blessedness to God. — Liveth and blessed is my 
Rock]. " Yahweh " has been inserted after " liveth," but elsewhere 
"Yahweh liveth" is the formula of the oath, and here it seems 
to balance two clauses with two beats each, making a tetrameter. 
It is not expressive of a wish, as one says, " May the king live ;" 
but is a statement of fact, as to the "Rock," the divine name 
of the Song. — And the God of my salvation is exalted'] ; cf. v. 30 
and this exclamation of the fact to the couplet of challenge, v. 32 . — 
48-51. The second section is constructed somewhat as v. 32 " 35 in 
relative clauses. — 48-49. The J El who giveth to me deeds of 
vengeance], such as those described in v. 38 " 43 . — And who bringeth 
down peoples under me] ; cf. v. 40 " 41 . An editor of the Ps. sub- 
stituted a later Aramaic word " subdueth " for this ptc. — From 
the man of violence rescue th me]. This is the climax, going back upon 
v. 3 **, which is left out of text of Ps., but is preserved in text of 
2 S., probably referring to Saul, as indicated in title. It was quite 
natural that the first reference in the ode to the peril, and the last, 
should refer to him; and as "a man of violence" rather than as 
classed with the other enemies. — This is followed by a gloss, 50, 
which is left in the text as a hexameter, a liturgical addition 
suitable for congregational worship at this point. — Therefore will 
I praise Thee, Yahweh, among the nations, and to Thy name will 
I make melody]. All the terms are common liturgical terms. — 
51. The final triplet of the Str. is individual in its reference to 
David as the anointed king over against the man of violence. — 
Who magnifieth acts of salvation to His king, || And doe th kindness 



PSALM XVIII. 151 

to His anointed^. There is a reference here to the covenant 
of David, 2 S. 7 15sq \ "My kindness shall not depart from him, 
as I took it from Saul," cf. also Ps. 89 s934 ; and so the climax is 
appropriate in the mouth of David, To David and to his seed 
forever. 

1. riprnx] / love thee, Qal impf. 1 p. sf. 2 m. of } Dm, a.X. in Qal ; Pi. 
have compassion, frequent } Pss. 102 14 ic>3 13 - 13 Ii6 5 and elsw. However, in 
As., Ar., Aram., Syr., used in Qal with mng. love. Possibly an early and rare 
use in Heb., but prob. a later one, an Aramaism. The idea itself is not earlier 
than Hosea, and is only common with an* subsequent to D. This 1. is cited 
Ps. 116 1 ; but vons is there substituted, or else gives evidence of an original 
"runs in poem. This vb. is not found in 2 S. and is doubtless a gl. — 'j5?p] 
my strength : t ptn o.X. (2 S. 22- 6 L has icxvs fwv, but this is gl. from Ps.) ; 
cf. ngjn Is. 8 11 , tr^rn 2 Ch. 12 1 26 1 " Dn. 1 I 2 , t P.^ is used Ex. if- 14 - 16 Am. 6 13 
Hg. 2 22 ; [rn adj. is used of the hand and arm of "> in delivering Israel from 
Egypt, especially in D. Cf. Ps. 136 12 and Is. 40 10 (prna as in the character 
of a strong one). — 3. ^Vd] my crag; \ y^D n.m. fig. of "• 18 3 (= 2 S. 22 2 ) ; 
also 31 4 = 71 3 (both nrix *rn«lM 'D); 42 10 (vVp Sn); fig. of security 40 8 ; in 
physical sense 78 16 104 18 137 9 141 6 . — f i"HWE>] nS. fastness, stronghold, used 
in ^ of God i83 (= 2 S. 22 2 ) 31 s - 4 = 71 3 (all || ^d), 91 2 (|| *©ro), 66 11 144 2 
(both dub.) ; elsw. common in narrative of I S. 22 4 - 5 24 23 2 S. 5 T - 9 - n (= 1 Ch. 
II 5 - 16 ) 23 14 ; also in Ez. 12 13 13 21 17 20 Jb. 39 28 . It is therefore an early word, 
extremely suitable in the mouth of David. — H^OD] my deliverer, Pi. ptc. sf. 
I (v. 17 13 ); elsw. in this ptc. form v. 49 (for which 2 S. more correctly WtfD); 
40 18 = 70% 144 2 , as above, agreeing with 2 S. in adding »S, which is doubtless 
original. But Ba., Du., rd. HsScr, as Ps. 55°, more in accord, with context. 
The Ps. is without doubt a trimeter ; therefore the initial nw> must be 
a gl., though in both texts. — ^»«] my God; v?h* of 2 S. is prob. later; cf. 
>> ,l ?D Sn 42 1} . — nix] my rock, here as in Dt. 32 37 sq. "a nDn. In that poem 
it is a divine name, given in @ there as elsw., v. 18 - 30 - 81 - 31 - 37 , by debs ; so <S 
of 2 S. 23 s Ps. i8 32 - 47 . This usage and the personal reference favours its 
interpretation as a divine name here, although (g renders porjdds ; ® of 2 S. 
has 6 6e6s /jlov 0tf\a£ carat jxoi, showing that (3 rd. 'JjVk. J iix n.m. rock; 
used elsw. (1) in late Pss. for God as refuge of His people 19 15 28 1 31 3 ( = 
71 3 ) 62 3 - 7 - 8 73^ 7 8 35 89 2 " 92I6 9422 95 i I44 i. ( 2 ) in physical sense 27* 61 3 
78 16 - 20 81 17 105 41 114 8 ; (3) of edge of sword "i3"jn 'X 89 44 . — yvfr pp] phr. 
a.X. horn of my salvation. J fv n. horn (1) of animal 22 22 92 11 , so fig. of 
God here ; (2) of altar 118 27 ; (3) fig. of exaltation, 'p D^pn lift up the horn 
is used fig. of men of power and honour, compared with the wild bulls ; so 
of wicked 75 s - 6 - n ; of God's people, with God as subj. 89 18 148 14 ; intrans. 
'p an 89 s5 112 9 1 S. 2 1 ; so of the king nnS 'p rvnxn 132 17 ; cf. "irreto 'p ay 
I S. 2 10 (Song of Hannah). — H 3J^c] my high tower ; always fig. of God ex- 
cept Is. 25 12 33 16 (of forts). 2 S. adds ^dudi, but this makes line too long; 



152 PSALMS 

prob. a gl. 2 S. 22 M ^J?tfn Dcnn >;u ; d is not in Ps. We need it to make up 
six lines of Str. It was doubtless original, 01s., Ley, Gr., Bi., Che., Ba., Ecker. 
Its place was taken by the first line of Ps. — 4. SSno] Pual ptc. gerundive, 
worthy to be praised, always of "> ; elsw. 48 s 96* (= 1 Ch. 16 25 ) 145 3 , of name 
of 1 113 3 . For SSn vb. v. Intr. § 35. — o;x jpi] is to be preferred to 2 S. 
*>:tndi on account of rhythm. — 5. \?] of 2 S. is unnecessary; not in Ps. — 
WfiDM] Qal pf. 3 pi. sf. 1 S. (of past experience) f p|DN surround, encompass : 
waters Jon. 2 6 ; fig. evils, misfortune rnjn Ps. 40 13 , niD ^aeto 2 S. 22 s = 'd *San 
Ps. 18 5 = 116 3 (where it is cited). *San of Ps. has come in from next couplet 
v. 6 . It is improbable that the original was so unnecessarily tautological. — 
t natfo] n. pi. cstr. breakers, waves breaking on the shore, gives a beautiful 
metaphor, which is found elsw., lit. o^ ♦'jatfD 93 4 ; fig. of D"»nn 42 s = Jon. 2 4 ; 
of rhws Ps. 88 8 . 2 S. 22 5 is prob. the original of all these fig. uses, as oinn 
and nSixn refer to niD and Swtf. — Sg»Sa <Snii] torrents of Belial.— J. Sru] 
n.m. (1) torrent of rushing water, || breakers, so sim. of foes 124 4 ; fig. of ruin 
here, of pleasures 36°; elsw. in yp lit. 74 15 78 20 83 10 no 7 , cf. Ju. 5 21 ; (2) /i?r- 
rent bed, wady, Ps. 104 10 . J h';^2 worthlessness : (1) '3 "ia~ <fo.y<?, wicked thing, 
IOI 8 ; t(2) ritti*, destruction, Na. 2 1 ; '3 pgi Na. I 11 ; and so here destruction 
|| mc and Swtf; '3 iai Ps. 41 9 (destructive thing) deadly injury. 2 S. omits 
) without reason. — Wipy] Pi. impf. varies from pf. of previous and follow- 
ing lines to express the oft-repeated action, f ppa vb. Qal not used. Niph. be 
terrified 1 Ch. 21 30 Est. 7 6 Dn. 8 17 ; not in \p. Pi. (1) fall upon, overwhelm t 
assail, 1 S. i6 14 - 15 prose, elsw. poetry, Ps. 18 5 (= 2 S. 22 5 ) Jb. 3 5 + 6 1. Jb. Is.21 4 ; 
(2) terrify Jb. 7 14 (|nnn). — 6. % tf^D] n.m. snare i& (= 2 S. 22 6 ) 69 s8 
106 36 , of plots of wicked 64 s 140 6 141 9 (v. 9 17 ). — 7. »V— wa] in the distress 
which I had (v. 4 2 ). — J£C j n] Pi. impf. 1 p. (v. j 3 ). This is original; inpN 
of 2 S. 22 76 is error of repetition from previous line. — J7DB*] impf. (of vivid 
description) ; 2 S. has better JJDB*], 1 consec. of result. — Ps. has two words, 
Mian PloS, which are not in 2 S., inserted betw. the two words vyr^i and 
VJTtO. 2 S. is one word too short. Kian may be explained as a gl. implied 
by vjTNa ; but Vioh is not a natural gl. and is therefore probably original. — 
t [ n r'f ] n -f- cry for help; not found abs., but cstr. 1 S. 5 12 Je. 8 19 , »Pjntf 
Ps. i& (= 2 S. 22 7 ) 39 18 40 2 102 2 La. 3 56 , onjntf Pss. 34 16 145 19 Ex. 2 23 (J). 
— 8. tf.gJfiV] Qal impf. 3 f. c. 1 consec. of result, f #?<! Q & 1 a '^-> Dr. = sway; 
but 2 S. Qr. Hithp. tifyurm which is found also of waters tossing Je. s 22 46 7 , 
and of mountains (2 S. heavens) swaying here, v. 86 = 2 S. 22 80 ; so Hithpolel 
of waters Je. 46 s , and of drunken men reeling Je. 25 16 . Pu. Jb. 34 20 , a people 
convulsed. There is no sufficient reason to doubt the Qal, which is the more 
difficult form. — tfjnr»] Qal impf. c. 1 consec. quaked. % vy\ vb. Qal quake : 
of earth 18 8 68 9 77 19 , mountains 46 4 72 16 (dub.). Hiph. cause to quake, earth 
60 4 . — onn ^O^w] 2 S. omits 1. In that case it is difficult to explain 1 consec. 
with 1w7jt\ i may be taken as circumstantial, or we may think that it has 
consec. power notwithstanding the change of order. It certainly would be 
more natural to read BJ^«, and possibly that was the original. There was a 
tendency in later times, when 1 consec. had lost its force and usage, to change 



PSALM XVIII. 153 

order of vbs. in the older poems. D^Dtfn phdis of 2 S. is a.X. and as the more 
difficult reading is to be preferred ; that of Ps. is favoured by the use of 
San nnoiD v. 16 ( = 2 S. 22 16 ), and p« over against onn Dt. 32 s2 . — nS n^n] 
retracted accent (v. 2 12 ). J mn vb. Qal burn in anger : of man *\x subj. 124 3 , 
God io6 4a ; f|N omitted, impersonal 18 8 . Hithp. heat oneself in vexation 
37 1 - 7 - 8 Pr. 24 19 . — 9. 1©N3 yc>~\ smoke in his nostril, because of hard breath- 
ing in anger. So vsp #n fire from his mouth ; the breath of his mouth in 
hot anger was a breath of fire. — SaMfl at end, instead of with 1 consec. at 
beginning. — D^Sru] n.m. pi. + n^m n.f. coal; in \J/ only pi. n?3 'i 18 9 = 
2 S. 22 9 ; so tfx "hn\ -np 2 S. 22 13 — d : n iSrui vis nap ray Ps. 18 13 (corrupt 
txt.), cf. v. 14 (gl.). &$ ^™ a l so use d °f cherubim Ez. I w ; so rd. Ps. 140 11 ; 
cf. 120 4 (of coals of broom plant). — 10. DjDBf E£i] Qal impf. c. 1 consec. 
carrying on result ; so also 2 S., but Ps. 144 5 Hiph., and this is the more 
probable pointing. Cf. Ex. 24 10 . — *n»]] Q a ^ impf- c. 1 consec, and descended, 
as context shows, in theophany. In this sense only here 18 10 — 144 5 in \p, but 
common in early writers Ex. i 9 n-i8(E)« 3 8 u 5 - 7 18 21 (J) Nu. n 17 (JE); 
sq. yjja Ex. 34 s Nu. n 25 , cf. 12 5 (all JE); pillar of cloud Ex. 33 s (JE); his- 
torical references in later writers Ne. 9 13 ; prophetic anticipations of future 
theophanies Mi. I 3 Is. 31 4 63 19 64 s Jb. 22 13 . — fw?] n.m. heavy cloud; 

1 K. 8 12 = 2 Ch. 6 1 (poet.), God dwells in it, so Pfc 97 s . It is used of the 
cloud in which "> descended in theophany at Sinai Ex. 20' 21 (E) Dt. 4 11 5 19 , 
so to David Ps. i8 10 (= 2 S. 22 10 ); of advent in judgment Je. 13 16 Zp. I 15 
Jo. 2 2 ; in more general sense of clouds Jb. 22 13 , as swaddling bands of sea 
Jb. 38 9 ; of a stormy day Ez. 34 12 ; fig. misery Is. 60 2 . — 11. 33"vJ and rode, 
"s consec. carrying on the thought. \ aa~\ vb. Qal, ride in chariot ; so of mon- 
arch into battle 45 s ; elsw. in \p of "< in theophany; in the heavens 68 34 ; on 
a highway in the nan? 68 5 ; so here the 3na is conceived as His chariot 18 11 
= 2 S. 22 11 ; cf. use of 313"> in Ps. 104 3 and of 3an collective of the army of 
God in theophany, D^ron a^n 68 18 . Hiph. cause to ride 66 12 . J an? n.m. only 
here in this relation as chariot of "> in the clouds ; but Ez. describes four 
cherubim as inseparably attached to four wheels of chariot and supporting a 
throne platform, Ez. i 4 " 28 g 3 10 II 22 ; so 1 Ch. 28 18 connects this cherubic 
chariot with the cherubim of the Holy of Holies of the temple. They are 
always conceived as having wings, even when stationary on the slab of gold 
constituting the throne of "> in the tabernacle of P ; and also in the temple 
cherubim. They are also conceived as guards of the tabernacle and temple, 
and so woven into the texture of the curtains and carved on the golden planks ; 
also in the poem of J, as the guards of Eden Gn. 3 24 They are always theo- 
phanic. Elsw. in \p 80 2 99 1 ; cf. 2 K. 19 15 = Is. 37 16 I S. 4* 2 S. 6 2 = 1 Ch. 
13 6 (refer, to the cherubim of the throne) oonan ar\ — ni^ij and flew, subj. 
God, flew by means of the wings of the cherubic chariot, which He rode. 
X IV vb. QsA,fi}> ; in \p of God only here 18 11 = 2 S. 22 11 ; elsw. fig. of arrow 
91 5 , of a man as a dove 55 7 , of men as birds, at end of life 90 10 . — n-»i] = in 

2 S. N"v^ which latter is an error of transcription, n for "i, as old as (SI. n»r% 
as rare word and suited to context, is to be preferred as original, f nsi vb. 



1 54 PSALMS 

Qal, dart through the air; here only in \J/ ; elsw. Dt. 28 40 (of eagle), fig 
Je. 48 40 49"' 2 . Dr. swoop down is the most prob. rendering. — 

12. Ps. = D"D rwn iroD vmaoo nno -|&ti ntf> 
2 S. = a^D rnpn niDD vraoo — Tw'n ntp>i 

1 consec. of 2 S. is evidently correct, for the movement of thought goes right 
on. vpood in both texts suits the clause. Then nrp of Ps. must be either 
an addition or out of place. It was prob. a gl. to get a synonym of in?D. 
n-p in this sense of booth, of God in storm, only here and Jb. 36-°, where it is 
prob. borrowed from Ps. cf. io 9 . In Ps. 27 s (Kt.) 31 21 Yahweh is booth and 
shelter to the psalmist. The idea of a booth on a chariot of cherubs is not 
congruous. We might derive roD from the other stem "j:D = overshadow, 
screen (v. J 12 ). It is true that from this stem no form rrp is known, but only 
r\D2 and JVpr, both in sense of covering ; but there is no reason why nrp cov- 
ering, screen, should not be derived from this -|:D, as well as rvp booth from 
the other -pD. Besides, this explanation would bring into comparison La. 3**, 
where of Yahweh it is said, ^S JJJ73 'D Thou hast covered Thyself ivith a cloud; 
so of anger La. 3 43 . — \ nrp] n.m. frequent in \f/ as hiding-place. DJH 'D hid- 
ing-place of thunder 81 8 ; elsw. in sense of shelter in '< 27* 31 21 61 5 91 1 , cf. 
32 7 119 114 , secret place of womb 139 15 , secrecy 101 5 . It is an easy gl. here; 
so airoi<pv(prjs has gone into <S> of 2 S. — "^Bfn of 2 S. a word unknown elsw., 
and from stem unknown in Heb.; mng. conjectural, collection, mass. As. 
aidru, collect, gather; prob. txt. err. for npttfn, Hi., Gr., a mistaken for 1, all 
the more that (3 has <t/c6tos. t>"i3#n darkness: opposed to light 139 12 ; of 
theophany only here (18 12 ), cf. Gn. I5 12 (JE); fig. lack of understanding 82 5 , 
distress Is. 8-* 2 50 10 . Tjtfn is more common. rro is an original out of which 
both 1D30 of Ps. and rflaD 2 S. might be derived ; rd. it, therefore, as cstr. sing, 
and connect it with next word, D*v P?vn rrp. Then the covering of darkness 
of waters is syn. with lie put darkness about Him, i.e. He came enveloped in 
dark storm clouds, as in subsequent content. D^pntf »3P goes therefore with 
next v. and takes as its complement rujr. — ^y] pi. cstr. of J r: n.m. thick, 
dense cloud : (1) rain cloud 77 18 147 8 Ju. 5* Is. 5 6 ; (2) cloud mass ; so char- 
iot of '1 Is. 19 1 Ps. 104 3 ; connected with theophany i8 n - 13 . — J D^fjntf] skies, 
the region of thin clouds ; this phr. a.X. ; elsw. in ^ pi. Qipnvt ip (of the 
divine faithfulness reaching) 36° = 57 11 = 108 5 , '22 My (God's) 68 s5 , SpDD r 
78 28 Pr. 8 28 , ■? unj "?lp Ps. 77 18 ; sg. sky 89- s8 . ffintf vb. Qal, grind to 
powder or dust : of the fine incense of sanctuary Ex. 30 36 (P), of waters wear- 
ing away stones and reducing them to dust Jb. 14 19 , of crushing enemies io?3 
Ps. 18& = 2 S. 22 43 . — 13. nnc] emph. fr, without brightness, referring to 
the dense clouds of the sky. If taken as beginning next line, inconsistent 
with context and only to be justified in connection with a new conception 
of lightning, but that would be premature here. J r\n n.f. brightness : a.X. in 
\p, but cf. 2 S. 23 4 ; after rain Is. 60 3 62 1 . fnij vb. Qal, shine, of light Is. 9 1 
Jb. 18 5 22 28 . Hiph. cause to shine, of moon Is. 13 10 ; enlighten Ps. 18 29 — 

2 S. 22 29 . 



PSALM XVIII. 155 

Ps. = vh nrui nna 1 nap rap njj 
2 S. = eta nm npa njj 

Ps. gives two lines, 2 S. one line, #M nan "in 3 is given again in v. 14c , but 
not in 2 S. It is an easy assimilation, nap Ps. = 2 S. n;'j, a transposition of 
a by txt. err. rap is not appropriate to npa, but is needed with nap and 
would be easily suggested by "op of previous line, npa is more appropriate to 
vx nru, if alone without nna, and goes back upon v. 9c , coals of fire zuere kindled 
from JJim. This reference back to v. 9c , the closing line of first six lines of 
Str., is similar to the reference in previous Str. of v. 7ab back to v. 4a& . But the 
reference to hailstones and coals of fire here seems premature in connection 
with the descent of Yahweh in the storm cloud, and before the storm bursts 
in subsequent Str. It is best, therefore, to think that the Ps. has preserved 
the original of the first line. The transposition of nap into npa has occa- 
sioned the insertion of vn ">Sm from v. 90 , and the omission of raj? is by error 
of not observing similar letters. — 14. D?jn»j] Hiph. impf. c. 1 consec. continu- 
ing the movement of thought. % opn vb. Qal, thunder: of the sea 96 11 98 7 . 
Hiph. let it thunder, trans, thunder of "> 18U (= 2 S. 22 u ) 29 s I S. 2 10 ; cf. 
Vipa 1 S. 7 10 Jb. 37 4 - 5 40 9 . — a:cy ; a] not so suited to nip jm as 2 S. p. — 
vt* 'tell n-ja] not in 2 S., is a gl. — 15. Dypi] Hiph. impf. c. 1 consec. X no 
Qal 68 2 , where enemies are scattered by God. Hiph. scatter, only here (18 15 ) 
and 144 6 (quoted from this Ps.). Usually sf. is referred to enemies, but these 
have not yet appeared in Ps. It is better with Gr., Du., to think of the scattering 
wide the arrows (of thunderbolts) ; Ps. I44 c reverses the order of pna and yn in 
the verse. The 1 of Ps. is not in 2 S. and not original. 2 S. has DDh*i pna (Kt., 
D.T1 Qr.) for DD.iM an nn.nai of Ps. 2 S. is one word too short. But Ps. 144 6 
= Donni n;xn rhyj Djp$rvi pna pna. We may explain text of Ps. 18 as an 
attempt to improve pna pna, and the text of 2 S. as resulting from the omis- 
sion of one of these. When Ps. 144° was written the text must have been 
pna pna, so Che., Bu. X?1% n.m.. flash of lightning 18 15 (— 144'') 77 19 97* 
135 7 . — an] before i consec. impf. is prob. vb. as in parallel line, (3 iir\y}dvvev, 
3 multiplicavit, from aan vb. be many, trans, sense, but not found elsw. It is 
usually taken, after Ki., Qal pf. of f aan vb. shoot, cf. Gn. 49 s3 ; also cf. Je. 50 29 
Jb. 16 13 . It is taken by Hu., De., al., as an adv. much, exceedingly, as Ps. 123 3 , 
but it is doubtless a relict of pna, as Ba., Che., al. — d§hm] Qal impf. c. 1 con- 
sec. \ DDfi trans, make a noise, drive with rumbling noise, as a wagon in 
threshing Is. 28 28 ; so here, cause thunder to rumble (18 15 = 2 S. 22 15 = 
Ps. 144 6 ), necessarily so if we refer sf. to thunderbolts, and the conception is 
much more poetic than the usual rendering discomfort, justified by usage, 
Ex. 14 24 (J) 23 27 Jos. io 19 (E) Ju. 4 15 1 S. 7 19 . — 16. mom] Niph. impf. c. ^ 
consec; nxn X Niph. appear : of God 84 s 102 17 , of things 18 16 90 16 , of men 

1 ^d 42 s Ex. 23 15 (E) 34 20 - 23 - 24 (J) + ; possibly all originally Qal. — djd »B'$k] 

2 S. DJ, or 0>Ql Ecker, is better on account of || Sa?. X D" ,, '?n] n.m. channel ; 
elsw. d^d Visn Ps. 42 2 Jo. i 20 Ct. 5 12 ; without defining word Ps. 126 4 , as 
Ez. 31 12 32 6 +. — ^\\\\ Niph. impf. 1 consec; this better than lS^ of 2 S. 



1 56 PSALMS 

{ nSj vb. Niph. be uncovered, a.X. in \f/. Pi. uncover eyes 119 18 ; make known 
righteousness of God wpS 98''. — rjmjJJD] = 2 S. rnjna, in accordance with 
which ^5N = >sn 2 S. The text of Ps. changes to 2 pers. without sufficient 
reason. The line lacks one word. This we may get by reading nin> m?j yc\ 
t rnpj n.f. rebuke ; alw. of God in \p, 18 16 (=2 S. 22 16 ) 76 7 80 17 104 7 , also 
Is. 50 2 51 20 66 15 Jb. 26 11 , of man Pr. I3 1 - 8 17 10 Ec. f Is. 3 o 17 - 17 .— nn] in 
sense of X breath of mouth or nostrils (= 2 S. 22 16 ), elsw. Pss. 33 s 135 17 ; cf. 
Ex. 15 8 Jb. 4 9 . — 17. Wj£] Qal impf. emph. coordination. — V^?2] Hiph. 
impf. of graphic description, fnttte Qal, draw out: of water Ex. 2 10 ; Hiph. 
only Ps. 18 17 = 2 S. 22 17 . — Jean D»p] (= 2 S. 22 1T ) elsw. Pss. 29 s 32 s 77 20 
93 4 107 23 144 7 . — 18. ^'v] Hiph. impf. of graphic description. — rj? o>n] a.X. 
cf. 59 4 , where alone elsw. in \f/ v; adv. is used. — 19. J^h] n.m. distress; in 
^ only in this phr. which is found also Dt. 32 s5 Je. 18 17 46 21 Jb. 21 30 Pr. 27 10 . 

— *•?*!] 1 consec. in place of previous impfs., emph. change of tense to express 
result. — t ?P*te] n - m - prop, support (= 2 S. 22 19 ), elsw. Is. 3 1 . — 20. ^»ox »>_] 
) consec, carrying on previous line. 2 S. has -on wm, which gives proper 
measure and is doubtless original. — f an*y£] cf. amoa 31 s ; also 118 5 Ho. 4 16 
Hb. i 6 . — *}*Vrr] Pi. impf. pVn {v. 6 s ), a return to impf. of vivid description. 

— "3 yon \a] reason of previous deliverance. % yon vb. Qal: (1) of men 
(a) take pleasure in, delight in; c. a 109 17 112 1 119 35 , c. ace. 68 31 73 26 Is. 58 s 
Ec. 8 8 ; (b) delight, be pleased to do a thing, Ps. 40 9 Dt. 25 7 - 8 ; (2) of God, 
delight in, have pleasure in; c. a pers. /S-° (= 2 S. 22 20 ) 22 9 41 12 , horse 
147 10 ; c. ace. 37 23 40 7 5i 8 - 18 - 21 115 s 135 6 Pr. 21 1 . — 21. >fp,??] = 2 S. »£|ri»; 
so also same variation v. 25 ; pTj is the older form (v. 4 2 ). — ni nar] cleanness 
of my hands = v. 25 (contracted in 2 S. to »"53a); elsw. *\} na Jb. 9 30 22 30 (later 
usage); cf. aa^)"U from na adj. 24* 73 1 (v. 2 12 ). — a^] Hiph. impf. in 
sense of \ return, recompense ; c. \ here (= 2 S. 22 21 ) v. 25 28 4 54 7 (Qr.) 79 12 
116 12 ; c. s ; % 94 2 - 23 — 22. , n~)cu ; <a] causal clause, Qal pf. of action completed 
in present, keep, observe : laws of 'i (post-Deuteron.), elsw. in this sense "j~n 
37 84 , rrwi 1 1934. 44. 56. im nna 7 8 10 103 18 132 12 , nny 7s 66 99 7 11988.146.^ 
nan ii9 17 - 67 - 101 , nn^N 119 57158 , nwo 89 s2 U9 6) , DHMtto 106 3 119 106 , D>pn 105 45 
119 58 , ompD 1194.63. 184. 168^ j n general 19 12 ; all late Pss. — D^a^t] pi. of 
Yahweh's commands ; Dt. 8 6 io 12 u 22 19 9 26 17 28 9 30 16 Jos. 22 5 (D. v. /*). 

— 'D *n?Bh] pregnant, acted xvickedly (in departing) from; vb. denom. JjTBh 
a.X. in this phr. ; elsw. a late word, in Qal 1 K. 8 47 Dn. 9 15 2 Ch. 6 37 Ec. 7 17 
Jb. 9^ io 7 - 15 ; Hiph. condemn as guilty Pss. 37 s8 94 21 , as Qal 106 6 . For 
V^~>. v. s> — 23. D^giBte] judgments {v. / 5 ), a type of law in form of judicial 
cases (introduced by as or »a, with protasis and apodosis (v. Br. Hex - pp- 252 - 255 ) . 
|| ao-n (above); earlier usage in code of E = Ex. 21-23. Kt. of 2 S. 
WDBto is possible. — npn] statutes, in fpl. characteristic of the code of f^ 
(v. Br.H^-PP- 251 - 252 ). — md vox] Hiph. impf. frequentative; but 2 S. = 
hid? "WOK depart from it, is simpler, except for lack of agreement in number, 
which might be explained by an original "ipjsn. Departing from laws of God 
is an expression of D. in Qal which is prob. original, Dt. 9 12 + 7 t., n'DBffDE 
Ps. 119 102 ; not elsw. in \p in this sense. — 24. ^nxi] = 2 S. rpn»n; shortened 



PSALM XVIII. 157 

form is earlier and more suited to 1 consec. — ^QJ? J = 2 S. v?, the latter better, 
more likely uy assimilated to subsequent context. — rnen^in] Hithp. cohort, 
impf. c. 1 consec. idip with two accents. This form of 2 S. is older and better 
than the "igfJBM of Ps. Two accents are needed, unless we separate 'D and 
rd. W)> ID ; but the rhythm is not so good. — J pjfl n.m. (1) iniquity 18 21 * ( = 
2 S. 22 24 ) 107 17 , as recognised y Tin 38 19 , y hdd nS 32 s ; (a) of punishment : 
'1 y -ypD 89 s3 , y by -ia> 39 12 , rp^S y htf 90 8 , 73 Sdj 103 10 , y iDtf 130 3 ; (t>) of 
forgiveness or removal: yh rho 25 11 103 3 Ex. 34 s Nu. 14 19 (J) Je. 31 34 33 s 
36 s , y xvi Pss. 32 s 85 3 Ex. 34 7 Nu. 14 18 (J) Is. 33 s4 Ho. 14 3 Mi. 7 18 ; (c) of 
covering over: y nso Ps. 78 38 Pr. 16 6 Is. 22 14 27 s Dn. 9 24 , cf. 1 S. 3 14 Je. 18 23 ; 
(d) of cleansing from : yn D2D Ps. 51 4 , y nnn v. 11 ; (e) of imputing, reckon- 
ing to one: b y atfn 32 s 2 S. 19 20 , (b) y nor Ps. 79 s Is. 64 s Je. 14 10 Ho. 8 13 
9 9 i y "*?}) Ps. 109 14 ; (/) of ransoming from : yn mo 130 8 . (2) Guilt of 
iniquity (not always easy to distinguish from (1)), 7 nxd Ps. 36 s Gn. 44 16 (E), 
y "hi Ps. 59 5 ; as great, increased, 38 s 40 13 49 s 65*; f as a condition yi: 
c. SSin Ps. 51 7 ; c. jnj Jos. 22 20 P; c. mo Je. 31 s0 Ez. 31 s - 19 i8 17 - 18 33 s - 9 . 
(3) Consequence of, or punishment for iniquity : y by y run Ps. 69 28 , y2 
c. various vbs. 31 11 106 43 Gn. 19 15 (J) Lv. 26 39 (H) Je. 51 6 Ez. 4 17 + 3 t.— 
25. "»f7"7V? *!? nin ' 1 3#*l] vb. = Hiph. impf. c. ) consec. of aitf. This phr. 
repeats essentially v. 21 ; it begins another and still later gl. of a gnomic type, 
coming from the Greek period of WL — >*v -02] reduction to »*p in 2 S. is 
a unique expression and doubtless txt. err. — 26. TtKjnn] Hithp. impf. 2 m. 
iDn vb. denom. (v.4 4 ). — a^pn laa] = 2 S. ccri -naj. Neither 13J nor niaj is 
needed ; in all other lines there is a single word. naj is an Aramaism for 
naj. and not original. ni3J is an interpretation of a "DJ which has come in by 
mistake from the line below. — 27. 121] Niph. ptc. of % *na vb. purify, and 
so Niph. be purified, pure ; a.X. in ptc; in pf. Is. 52 11 of ceremonial purifica- 
tion of those bearing sacred vessels. Hithp. here and Dn. 12 10 . These three 
lines are in exact parallelism, with same preposition a;', syn. nouns, and syn. vbs. 
reflexive of the nouns, nonnn, DOfin, "nann. — ^nsnn b^jj d;;] f tfjW adj. twisted, 
perverted: (1) as adj. Dt. 32 5 Ps. ioi 4 ; (2) as noun masc, of persons Ps. 
18W - 2 S. 22 27 Pr. 22 5 , of things Pr. 8 8 , cstr. Pr. 17 20 19 1 28°, pi. 2 15 u 20 . 
Hithp. of vb. &py is not used, so the glossator substituted the kindred Snsnn 
Hithp. of f [^fi] twist, a.X. in Hithp. and only usage of this vb. in \p. 2 S. 
has corrupted it to *?9nn = shew oneself perverse, or crooked ; elsw. found only 
in Niph. Gn. 30 8 (E) of struggling in a circle, Jb. 5 13 of acting falsely ; so 
also Pr. 8 8 (|| ^P>). — 28. nn« >?] = 2 S. nx\ The two readings may best be 
explained on the basis of an original nxi. The 1 is intensive and so expressed 
by >a in the Ps., and the nx is nx, as usual in most ancient Hebrew. — *>r; uy] 
phr. a.X. For *y; v. 9 13 . — r^nV] = 2 S. D^on, Qal ptc. pi. nn (z/. 9 14 ) for the 
lofty, powerful {v. also Jb. 21 22 , where Di., Bu., refer to angels); of enemies 
exalting themselves against, c. by Ps. 13 3 27 s ; c. jo Nu. 24 7 (poet.), by dtj? 
of 2 S. here is justified by Ps. 32 s . It is impossible to explain txt. of Ps. from 
txt. of 2 S. ; but if we start with the latter, D*D"1 by rpj*p thine eyes are upon 
the lofty, we may regard the txt. of Ps. as a paraphrase, S'fitfn being exegetical 



158 PSALMS 

of s ;* and 2 pers. sf. of Yr>, and then moi owy explanation of o*n"\ in terms 
of WL The line is complete without Swn ; we may suppose that it came 
into the text of 2 S. from text of Ps. The original would then be : 

o^di hy r\wjn 

— 29. Ps. = oar! n^ >r^n mni m *vNn nnN >3 
2 S. = wn n\p mm mm i-vj nn« ^ 

The vb. "VHP in Ps. is unnecessary ; it is doubtless a paraphrase. >jjSk is the 
usage of the Ps., and is more probable than double ron\ J -0 'lamp ; in ^ 
only fig.; of prosperity here and 132 17 (wpd 1 ? "U T3V)i latter prob. based 
on this passage ; of the Law as guide 119 106 . "vnn Hiph. impf. 2 m. ~\iN vb. 
shine (v. 13 4 ). Hiph. light a lamp only here, but light wood Is. 27 ll , altar 
fire, Mai. i 1 '. — 30. r|3] instrumental, emph. — tfm pw] /f«« tip to a band. 
Ba., after Lag., Ki., rds. tru fW, / <$m//6 aW» a walled (town) ; so Lucian 
of 2 S. irecppay/JL^vos ; Du. favours pm, but doubts nnj. But there is no 
usage to justify inj pxn. There is more to justify pn vb. Qal, run; in 

1 S. 17 22 David runs c. ace. navon up to the army; although this is not in 
hostility, yet there is no reason why ace. should not be used in case of hos- 
tility, as well as in case of friendly running ; so fig. Pss. 19 6 119 32 ; run and 
prepare (in hostility) 59 s . — % "Wf n - m « troop, or band of marauders; this is 
suited to early hostile relations; cf. Gn. 49 19 (poem), also vb. Ps. 94' 21 . — 
"«tf ^"!«] vb. = Pi. impf. of f •> t, *< Qal, leap, not in \p, 1 S. 5 s (6) Zp. I 9 . Pi. 
leap a.X. in \f/ (18 30 = 2 S. 22 30 ) ; as a stag Is. 35 s ; c. hy loci Ct. 2 8 . It is 
nowhere else connected with -nr, or cstr. with ace. fiitf n. Ttw//, rare 
word in Heb., but same in Ar. and Aram. = 2 S. 22 30 ; elsw. Gn. 49 2 ' 2 . — 
31. ^-n o^pn *?n-i] cf. Dt. 32* )Syc D^on nwn. — nens mm rnon] although in 

2 S. also, yet an early gl. from Pr. 30 6 . — "o D*D^nn SbS Kin jir] It might be 
that this 1. was taken from the same place. Certainly it has been influenced 
by Pr. 30 5 , although S3 is a later expansion, marring the rhythm. But this 
section of Ps. is composed of couplets, and v. 31 ° needs its complement, and 
that is found in v. 31c ; v.' !16 is a late gnomic utterance, out of harmony with 
the Ps., but v. 31c is suited to it. God as a shield po is an early idea (v. j4). 
For 3 non v. v. 36 ; but the original was prob. sg., as context is I sg. ; rd. 
^3 «trrV\ — 32. '^ao m*?« *D »a], 2 S, has ^n, an earlier form of the divine 
name, and doubtless correct. — 'P^i? ">w *Dl]. 2 S. repeats HjfSaD. | , ip L, 3 
(composite Sa neg. and "^ unto) used in the sense besides, except, elsw. 
Jos. 22 19 (P) Is. 4311 446- 8 ' 45 2i # j, pi,,, is more common, 2 S. 7 22 Ho. 13* 
Is. 45 5 - 21 64 s . The term is monotheistic like Is. 2 , and not like D^K3 nsiD3 "«D 
Ex. 15 11 . It seems prob. that the original was r, and that an editor under 
influence of Is.' 2 adapted it by inserting nySac, which appears in both 11. in 
2 S., while the second 1. of Ps. in better style uses viSit. The 11. are too long 
with these words inserted. — \ p^Sk] God ; used Dt. 32 15 - 17 , and on this basis 
as archaism in late poetry Pss. 50' 22 114 7 139 19 Jb. 3* + 40 t. Jb. Pr. 30 5 Is. 44 s 



PSALM XVIII. 159 

Hb. 3 3 Ne. 9 17 (v. Intr. § 32). — 33. >^tKDn] Pi. ptc. of im, rel. with art. 
2 S. \n>'D; nix is sustained by *jnjKfl] v. 40a of Ps. and unirn contr. from -uxn 
of 2 S. "its vb. Qal, gird, gird on, not in \f/ ; but Pi. i8 33 -4° (c. ace. h]r\); 
30 12 (nncir); elsw. Is. 45 s 50 11 . Hithp. Ps. 93 1 c. ace. ?;; cf. Is. 8 9 - 9 . — 
•o-n ]n\\] = 2 S. °i~)1 nnn, but text of latter uncertain and it makes no good 
sense, fro in sense of make elsw. v. 41 39 s 69 12 135 12 , etc. tjti here is the 
way for the feet. 1 consec. expresses result here and below, and so. — 
34. r*S»«] pi. of f n^;N n.f. /h'^, doe, 18U (= 2 S. 22 34 ) 29 9 (?) Hb. 3 19 Jb. 39 1 
Gn. 4921 (j) Ct 2 7 3 5 T . c f # n s»M Ps. 22 1 Pr. 5 19 Je. 14 5 . — >jy^P »rJD3 ^] emph. 
noun first. niDJ for battle-fields, pi. of J nna n.f. >&z£7& //aw 2 S. I 19 - 25 (poem) 
Ps. 78 58 , of Israel Ps. 18U = 28. 22 s4 Dt."^ 13 Is. 58 14 , cf. Dt. 33 29 Hb. 3 19 ; 
of God Am. 4 13 , cf. Mi. i 3 Jb. 9* Is. I4 M . — VjvpjP] Hiph. only here in 
this connection with mng. cause to hold one's ground in battle. Qal is 
used in sense of making a stand, holding one's ground, Am. 2 15 2 K. io 4 
Mai. 3 2 , 'JfiS Ju. 2 14 et al., c. by for one's life Est. 8 11 9 10 . — 35. w id|?D 
ncn^p^] adopted in 144 1 and enlarged : ncnSpS vnyasK anp? >y nnScn. 
— >njnn? ntf-iru naff? nnrui]. The 1. is too long. n#i2 is a gl. explaining nirim, 
copper, bronze, as material of bow, elsw. Jb. 20 24 , from which nfift» may have 
come into the text, nrrui = 2 S. nrm, usually explained after AE. as Pi., the 
latter 3 m. sg., c. 1 consec. for 3 f. sg. of Ps. — % [rrn] vb. Qal,^<? down, 
descend: to attack Je. 21 13 , into Sheol Jb. 21 13 , fig. in chastisement (hand of 
"*) Ps. 38 s ; c. a descend into, make an impression (of reproof) Pr. 17 10 . 
Niph. sq. a penetrate Ps. 38^ (arrows of" 1 ). Pi. /r^5J down, furrows of land 
Ps. 65 11 , so £D~B (but with doubt), press down, stretch bronze weapon (bow) 
18 35 = 2 S. 22 15 , but bow was not stretched with hands, but with feet, v. 7 13 . 
Ki. regards the forms as Niph. of nnn be broken, cf. Je. 51 66 . (g edov, 
U posuisti ; so essentially &, 3, 01, all suggest nnro, which is most prob. — 
36. >S ffjnij 1 consec. as v. 336 . — ir^ ,, i] l circumstantial. — uann rpiJ> ] = 
2 S. ^ann nnjjn; ®> ©» ^ ireuhda <rov ; T5 et disciplina tua ; so j$, Aq., 
17 irpabr-qs aov ; 3 mansuetudo tua ; Ols., We., rd. "]mr>?. The shorter text 
of 2 S. is alone sustained by both Vrss. and the unpointed ijann injyi ; but 
this makes too short a line. — t niJ :.] n -f« (') humility, meekness, 45 s ; so 22 25 
(Aq., 3); elsw. Pr. 15 33 18 12 22 4 Zp. 2 3 ; (2) condescension, usually given 
here is without authority, and to be rejected ; the idea itself is a late one. 
Jpjp Qal inf. cstr. c. sf. 2 sg. of ny; answer (v. 3 5 ) in the sense of response, 
in docility to the divine guidance, is sustained by Ho. 2 17 , and this is near to 
@ of 2 S. wraKor/. <& of Ps. iraifiela suggests nij" afflicting, disciplining ; 
cf. Ps. 132 1 . The sf. would then be objective, ^ann Hiph. impf. 2 m., c. sf. 
1 sg. of nan in the sense of educate, found in Pi. (of the bringing up of chil- 
dren) La. 2 22 Ez. 19 2 , but in its application to the training of men it is late ; 
so that in this case also we get a late conception. The <& of Ps. gives us a 
conflation: 77 iraideia aov a.vibpduae'v /xe els tAos, kclI tj Taidela aov ami) fie 
5i5ct£ei. — 37. a'rnn] enlarge; Hiph. impf. 2 m. (of graphic description, 
v. 4 2 ). — Jngs] nm - ste P> so 2 S. 22 37 for place of stepping, not elsw. in \L>. 
X V* vb. Qal, step Ps. 68 8 = Ju. 5 4 of 1 stepping in theophany. f [*W*?] 



IbO PSALMS 

n.[m.] step Dn. II 4G {at his steps) ; fig. of course of life Ps. 37 s23 Pr. 20 24 .— 
V70-9 nyn] phr. a.X. t ["'>-] VD - Qal, to/ter, *//#/£<? : of ankles Ps. 18 37 = 
2 S." 22 37 Jb. 12 5 ; subj. on-^N Ps. 37 31 ; cf. 26 1 . Hiph. cause to totter, shake, 
Ps. 69 s4 Ez. 29 7 (?). Pu. not in $, but Pr. 25 10 . ^oy_ pi. c. sf. 1 sg. of [>D-\,->] 
n.f. ankles (BDB.) a.X. — 38. Dn'ta iy] Pi. inf. cstr. c. sf. 3 pi. J ."to v b. be 
complete, at an end, finished. Qal in \f/ only: (i) w^ away, be exhausted, 
fail, 31 11 71 9 73' 26 102* 143 7 ; pine, languish, 69*, cf. 119 s -- 123 ; with longing 
84* 119 81 ; (2) come to an end, vanish, perish (by judgment of '*•) 71 13 ; 
hyperb., by severe discipline 37 20 * 20 39 11 90 7 . Pi. (1) put an end to, cause 
to cease, 78 81 ; (2) cause to fail, use up, spend, years 90 9 ; (3) destroy, exter- 
minate, subj. man 119 87 ; t mV:) i? = 2 S. 22 38 , also 1 S. 15 18 , 1 K. 22 11 = 
2 Ch. 18 10 ; subj. God, abs. Ps. 59"- 14 74 11 (?). Pual, be finished, ended, 72 20 .— 

39. Ps. = oip -V?3> kSl osncN 

2 S. = pWp 1 N^ D 5™?£} D ^?^ 

(S of 2 S. has *al ^Xdcw aurous nal ou/c dvao-T^o'oj'Tcu. D^3Kl is a repetition 
of m^a by error of enlargement and addition to the text ; but 1 consec. is 
possibly expressive of result, and original. *hy nS) is also an interpretation 
of the modal force of plMp*. c*n?N Hiph. impf. 1 sg. c. sf. 3 pi. of X t'no vb. 
Qal, smile through foes ; elsw. in Ps. no 5 , their heads 6S 22 no 6 Hb. 3 13 Ju. s 26 , 
loins Dt. 33 11 ; cf. Ps. 68 24 (?). — l'-'S'] in 2 S. more correctly ftin; the Ps. 
would make it future, for Israel ; 2 S. makes it past, of David's experience. 
40. nsnSipS S?n 'rimm (= 2 S. V?*™) is so near v. 330 as to be suspicious; 
however, it is in both texts, and it might be a resumption of thought at begin- 
ning of new Str. — S^.3?] Hiph. impf. 2 m., 1 consec. omitted here and in 
2 S. also. X Hiph. of 9*0 cause to bow down in death; in \p elsw. /7 13 78 31 . — 
••ruin] 2 S. *jnnri older form. — 41. "?^], 1 is either emph. or circumstantial. 
— H"y FJ] phr» elsw. Ex. 23 s7 (E) 2 Ch. 29 s ; of hand on neck of fleeing 
foe Gn. 49 8 , 7 "ion Jos. 7 8 , y njo 7 12 (JE); *\y n.m. not elsw. in \p. — 
D^DJK wlfeflDi] = 2 S. dp'-esni *wfPD. The transposition of 1 is all the more 
significant that 2 S. attaches »wfrD to «pjj ; but that makes the previous line 
too long. If 2 S. be correct, it is best to take 1 as l consec. emph. change of 
tense, so making two tones for measure. If Ps. be correct, 1 is probably cir- 
cumstantial, but a tone is missing, f (>::x] vb. put an end to, exterminate .' 
Qal only La. 3 s3 . Niph. only Jb. 6 17 23 17 . Pi. only Ps. 119 139 . Pilel only 
Ps. 88 l7 (?). Hiph. only in ^ ; of man's extermination of enemies 18U ( = 
2 S. 22 41 ), of wicked ioi 5 - 8 09 6 (txt. err.), of God's exterminating 54? 73 s27 
94 23 - 23 143 12 . & has here, both in Ps. and 2 S., ifaXtdpevaas ; F, 3, disper- 
didisti, on^Din refer, to God, but Aq., Sb, 2, and QL 1 p. as %— 42. iyiir>] 
#<?/ <rry /or /&<•//, Pi. impf. 3 m. pi. (v. j 3 ), for which 2 S. has i?V) impf. of 
n;«c ; look about (for help), but this sense elsw. only in Hithp. Is. 41 10 . Du. 
suggests r;v" as a play upon jpb^d ; this is tempting (v. 3 8 ). — s ;*] of Ps. err. 
of late style for "?n of 2 S. — 43. DfWiBtel] 1 coord.; but original was 1 consec. 
as above. — irmn'hf iDp] of Ps. is a later metaphor for the simpler ps -idi?3 



PSALM XVIIL l6l 

of 2 S. — nixin BMD3J m»f/ of the streets, always sim„ of ignominious defeat or 
treatment; elsw. Mi. 7 10 Zc. 9 3 io 6 ; cf. Ps. 69 15 of a bog, fig. of distress; 
|i»n -b Ps. 40 3 ; o»o n.m. not elsw. in ^. — OiTT*] = 2 S. DgjpM Dg"W, The 
second word in 2 S. is gl. of first. (£ \eavC), V delebo ; so &, 2T, of Ps. give 
DjnN, for which cpnx, npnx is a txt. err. pn (z/. 35 s ) does not suit B^B, but 
opix does = Hiph. impf. 1 sg. c. sf. 3 pi. of \ pp^. Qal not in \p. Hiph. 
make dust of, pulverise : "\Djt> 2 K. 23 s (of Ashera) || 2 Ch. 34 4 - 7 ; so of the 
nsj 2 K. 23 15 ; fig. Mi. 4 13 (201 DMD?); so here also. — 44. ^aSon] = 2 S. 
*xhbF\i; 1 consec. original, makes new start as v. 28 - 33 - 36 - 40 . — DJ Onn] 
2 S. iqy is original ; the Ps. generalises. JD prep., "on pi. cstr. J an n.m. 

(1) strife: mpa "\ 55 10 ; PUB'S -\ 31 21 ; (2) a cause 35' 23 43 1 74 22 119 154 ; 
112'j >an 2 S. 22 44 seems to imply civil contention, and so was generalised in 
Ps. to refer to foreign peoples. — UgMrn] = 2 S. U/),D«fa ; the latter presup- 
poses David already chief of nations ; the former, his being set there by 
Yahweh for the first time. The text of Ps. is simpler and more probable. 
D*fe is also more suited to tfsnS. — trso] in sense of chief not elsw. in \f/, but 
in early writers Dt. 33 s I S. 15 17 Ju. II 8 Ho. 2 2 ; cf. Jb. 29 25 . — 45. J nji] 
n.[m.] that which is foreign : t"^K"0 *# 18^'^ = 2 S. 22 45 - 46 Ps. I44 7 - u 
Ez. 44 7 Is. 56° 60 10 61 5 62 s , naj(n) p Gn. 1 7 12 - 27 Ex. I2 43 (P) Lv. 22 25 (H) 
Ez. 44 9 - 9 Ne.9 2 Is. 56 s , none earlier than Ez.; elsw. in \p, '} hs-jn 137 4 , -nj S« 
81 10 Dt. 32 12 Mai. 2 11 . t^?l a foreigner 69°. This phr. implies either an 
insertion not earlier than the Persian Period, or else that the whole \j/ is so 
late. — ^"ictt] = 2 S. *S~*tfr©m. % ^ n: > VD - t Q a l» grow lean (of flesh) only 
109 24 ; usually Pi. in early writers deceive, but in \J/ only cringe sq. S pers. 18& 
66 3 8i 16 . Cf. f Niph. cringe sq. •? pers. only Dt. 33 29 . f Hithp. only 2 S. 22$. 
— 46. "> s i , 'J Qal impf. 3 pi. of Saj (v. i 3 ) sink, drop down exhausted ; elsw. 
in this sense Ex. 18 18 (E) Jb. 14 18 . — M*y™] = 2 S. FUHM, 1 coord, f jnn vb. 
Qal, quake ; Aramaism, a.X. -un of 2 S. gird, gird on, is a common vb., but 
gives no sense ; rd. either warn as Mi. 7 17 , which greatly resembles this pas- 
sage (v. 4 5 ), or l-nrp tremble, which is often used pregnantly with JB, come 
trembling Ho. n^.U an d w ith other prep. I S. 13 7 16 4 21 2 Gn. 42 28 (E). — 
DmnniDOB] = 2 S. DnnaDBB has two accents as long word with prep. p. 
JrnaOB n.f. fastness; in this sense elsw. Mi. 7 17 , but in sense of border, rim, 
in Historical Books. Cf. % "UpO dungeon Is. 24 22 , fig. of exile 42 7 Ps. 142 8 . — 
47. mm ">n] Yahweh liveth, elsw. formula of oath (Ju. 8 19 +)• XV a ^J« alive, 
living: (1) (a) of God, as the living One, fountain of life; so here = 
2 S. 22 47 ; cf. n ^n Pss. 42 s 84 s (rd. «n both cases, and so D"n), also Jos. 3 10 (J) 
Ho. 2 1 ; cf. >n 0'nSn 2 K. I9 4 - 16 = Is. 37 4 - 17 , D"n h Dt. 5 23 1 S. i7 20 - 36 Je. io 10 
2 3 36 - (°) Of man > usually pi. o^n alive, living, Ps. 55 16 124 3 ; D"n(n) y\H 
land of the living Pss. 27 13 52 7 142 5 , also Is. 38 11 53 s Je. II 19 Ez. 26 20 3 2 23 + 5t - 
Jb. 28 13 ; m nvroc Ps. 116 9 ; Ti -ibd 69 29 ; 'nn lis 56 14 Jb. 33 30 . (c) Animals 
and man, phr. for either or both, >n Sd Pss. 143 2 145 16 Gn. 3 20 8 21 (J) Jb. 12 10 
28 21 30 23 ; cf. Gn. 6 19 (P). (d) Vegetation, as thorns, green Ps. 58 10 (dub.). 

(2) Lively, active : a in la* 1 ** Ps. 38 20 (dub.) ; elsw. in this sense only 2S. 23 20 
(but Qr. preferable-, -mm comes with following phr. in Ps. 144 1 , which has 



1 62 PSALMS 

nw i inn; this, being in a pentameter line, one word must be omitted. If 
mm be omitted, we have the citation »*\W T|n3. mm has prob. been inserted 
after fna in 144 1 and before it in 18 47 . *yru Qal ptc. pass, of "pa (v. j 13 ) : 
J 1 inn blessed be or u Ka/fcz^/fc 28 s 31 22 41 14 72 18 89 63 106 48 119 12 124 6 135 21 
144 1 (but v. above); 0>rbn '2 66 20 68 8G ; »nr '3 6S 2) ; cf. ]vhy Sn '3 Gn. 14 20 ; 
n« '3 Ps. /<?# = 2 S. 22 47 (also Ps. 144 1 , z>. above) ; 1*n33 Dtf '2 Ps. 72 19 . — 
cn;i] = 2 S. DTI & exalted, of God; elsw. 21 14 46"- n 57 s - 12 = 108 6 113* 
138 6 (v. ptt). — yth ^mSx] = 2 S. yth "MX ^hSn. mx is more primitive and 
the term of original Ps. It may, however, have come into text from line 
above, as it is tautological. Cf. nw »Sh v. 8 , y& pp v. 8 . — 48. rV»DM] deeds 
of vengeance, pi. of \ nopJ n.f. vengeance : c. jnj Ps. 18& = 2 S. 22 48 4 8 Ez. 
25 i4. 17 ( f God); Nu. 31 3 (P) of Israel 1 1 'J jruj elsw. D1 'j Ps. 79 10 ; 
'j ^n 94 1 " 1 ; of Israel and its chiefs 'J nfcp 149 7 . — ijpy] = 2 S. m-vc-i. Text 
of Ps. gives an Aramaic word, Hiph. of nai subdue, elsw. only 47*. But text 
of 2 S., Hiph. of TV, gives a good ancient word in sense of bring down, lay 
prostrate, Am. 3 1 Is. io 18 63 s Ps. 56 s . TW is favoured by 144 2 , which is 
based on this Ps. and reads win *oj "nVVi (Aq., 3, 5>, E, all have pi.). — 
Win] = 2 S. »jpnn as above, v. 40 . — 49. Hptao] = 2 S. wjtm. This is inten- 
tional variation HflkfiD v. 3 ", "•joScn v. 44 ". 2 S. gives better parallel with >JDD^nn, 
— '3 wig] contracted from "O^s \x^ needed for third beat as in v. 4u6 . — *Dp jo] 
for 2 S. »pj|0 ; only ■)* of Ps. is explanatory of 1 of 2 S. — Den B^kd] = 2 S. 
D'DDn VfrHQ. This makes third 1. of verse and is suspicious. The sg. is usual 
140 12 Pr. 3 31 16' 29 ; but pi. 140- 6 man of violent deeds. The pi. is favoured 
by rV»D£J v. 48 *, n^JWtH v. 51 ° (v. j 3 ) ; but the sg. by the individual reference of 
the original Ps. — 51. ntyw; ^9] phr. a.\. 'ryo Hiph. ptc. V-u vb. Qal, 
become great 92*+, be magnified 35 27 +. Hiph. (1) make great 41 10 (?) 
Ob. 12 ; (2) magnify, here as Gn. 19 19 (J) Is. 42 21 Ps. 138 2 . 2 S. SnjD Kt., 
but Vnjp Qr. n.m. tower, a.X. for 'j-ud 48 18 61 4 . 



PSALM XIX. 

Ps. 19 is composed of two originally separate poems: (A) a 
morning hymn, praising the glory of 'El in the heavens (v. 2 " 5 *), 
and glorious movements of the sun (v. w ) ; (2?) a didactic poem, 
describing the excellence of the Law (v.*" n ), with a petition for 
absolution, restraint from sin, and acceptance in worship (v. 12 " 15 ). 

A. V. 2 " 7 , 2 STR. 6 3 . 

THE heavens are telling the glory of 'El, 
His handiwork the firmament is declaring; 
Day poureth forth speech unto day, 
Night maketh known knowledge unto night; 
In all the earth their voice is gone out, 
And in the rounds of the world are their words. 



PSALM XIX. 163 

p OR the sun there is set up his tent. 

As a bridegroom he is going forth from his canopy. 

He rejoiceth as a hero to run his course. 

From the bound of the heavens is his going forth, 

And unto their bounds is his circuit, 

And there is nothing hidden from His sun. 

B. V. 8 " 15 , 2 STR. 6 5 . 

HPHE Law of Yahweh is perfect, refreshing the soul; 

The Testimony of Yahweh is trustworthy, making wise the simple ; 

The Precepts of Yahweh are right, rejoicing the heart ; 

The Commandment of Yahweh is pure, enlightening the eyes; 

The (Saying) of Yahweh is clean, enduring forever ; 

The Judgments of Yahweh are true, vindicated altogether. 
TV/TOREOVER Thy servant is warned by them ; in keeping them there is much 
reward. 

Errors who can discern ? Clear me from hidden ones. 

Moreover from presumptuous ones restrain Thy servant ; let them not rule 
over me. 

Then shall I be perfect, and cleared from much transgression. 

Let the words of my mouth be for acceptance, and the musing of my mind, 

Before Thee continually, Yahweh, my Rock and my Redeemer. 

Ps. 19 was in IB, then in fffl and ©3& (v. Intr. §§ 27, 31, 33) ; but this only 
applies to the first half of the Ps. v. 2-7 , for the second half was originally a 
separate poem. The first half has the trimeter measure, the second half the 
pentameter. The first half is a morning hymn of praise of the glory of 'El as 
witnessed by heaven, and especially of the sun. The second half is not a 
hymn, but a didactic poem in praise of the Law. These were combined in 
order that, in public worship, a synthesis of the two might be made, and that 
it might be seen that the glory of Yahweh in the Law transcends His glory in 
the heavens. The latter is used as a foil to emphasize the former by its 
antithesis. The date of the first half is not difficult to determine. Its con- 
ception of the creation v. 2 , as the work of God's hands, resembles that of 
Ps. 8, yet without betraying the influence of the conceptions of creation 
either of Gn. 1 or of Gn. 2. It has a single Aramaism n?o v. 5 ; but that is 
found in 2 S. 23' 2 , and cannot therefore be regarded as very late, non v. 7 is 
also, as a poetic term for sun, not earlier than Is. 30 26 , used elsw. Is. 24 23 , 
Jb. 30' 28 , Ct. 6 10 . This is, however, a poetic term which might have been 
used first in this Ps., and may be due to the circumstances out of which it 
was composed. The author was a true poet ; an enthusiastic admirer of the sun, 
which is here personified, as are days and nights, the heavens and the firma- 
ment. It may have been written as a protest of a monotheist against the 
worship of Shemesh as a deity, described in Ez. 8 16 , and common among the 
Jews in the Babylonian period. At the same time it must be admitted that 
the sun in the second Str. is not declaring the glory of '£/, as are the heavens 



1 64 PSALMS 

and firmament, days and nights of the first Str., but is himself the object ot 
admiration; and therefore it is quite possible that in the original the Ps. was a 
hymn to the God Shemesh, and was subsequently adapted to the worship of 
Yahweh. JLn cither case we must put the composition in the Babylonian 
period, when such sun worship was characteristic and prevalent among the 
Hebrews and the nations which influenced them. Since writing the above I 
have read GunkeFs Ausgew'dhlte Psalmen, s. 24, and find that he has inde- 
pendently come to a similar conclusion. The second half of the Ps. v. 8-15 is of 
an entirely different character. It is a pentameter in praise of the divine Law, 
using six different terms for it. In this respect it resembles Ps. 119, which is 
also a pentameter, but uses eight terms. The limitation in Ps. 19 is due to 
the number of lines in the Str. D. H. Miiller (Strophenbau unci Kesponsion, 
s. 60), followed by Che., supplies the other two terms for Law by prefixing 
them to the two tetrameter lines that follow, thus making them pentameters. 
This is tempting from that point of view. But it would be difficult to explain 
their omission from all texts and Vrss.; and, furthermore, as will appear in 
textual notes, this couplet is a gloss, making the Str. just so much too long as 
compared with the subsequent Str. In other respects these Pss. are so alike 
that they must be attributed to the same period, when the legislation of P was 
the great central and substantial fact in the Hebrew religion. The term and 
conceptions of the priestly legislation are evident : BMW, sins of ignorance 01 
inadvertence || nnnto, over against D"-*?, 2-> pro v. 13 - u . The use of the sacri- 
ficial term pxn s v. 15 is to be noted. The term nnjj v. 8 is characteristic of P, 
and is emphasised by having the second place after mm. cnips v. 9 is used 
elsw. only Pss. 1 19* + 2° (°) *• 103 18 in 7 , and is very late. This part of the Ps. 
cannot be put any earlier than the Greek period. V. 11 is gnomic in character, 
using terms and conceptions characteristic of WL If original, it implies the 
Greek period also. But it is a tetrameter couplet. It makes the Str. just 
these two lines too long; it is therefore a gloss. This part of the Ps. was 
probably earlier than Ps. 119. 

PSALM XIX. A. 

Str. I. is composed of three syn. couplets, the first and second 
syn. to each other v. 2-3 , the third synth. v. 5 to them. A prosaic 
gloss has been inserted between them v. 4 . — 2-3. The heavens, 
the firmament, day and night, are all personified; as the heavens 
50° 97°, the morning stars Jb. ^S 7 , the hills and trees Is. 55 1 -, 
and nature in general Ps. i48 2sq - Jb. i2 7sq -. — are telling || is 
declaring^. The participles indicate that this action goes on 
continually without interruption. These pass over into imper- 
fects, poureth forth || maketh known\ because it is necessary to 
express the oft-repeated action of one day pouring forth unto 



PSALM XIXo 165 

another day, and one night making known to another night \ and 
these latter taking up the strain and passing it on to their succes- 
sors in an endless chain of praise, which Ros. compares to a ring 
of dancers repeating the song in a series, and Home, " like two 
parts of a choir chanting forth alternately the praises of God." 
These are illustrative conceptions from usages of other nations ; 
but there is no evidence that the Hebrews had these usages, or 
that the poet thought of them. The theme is the glory of*El, 
especially as manifested in His handiwork. The firmament, the 
expanse of heaven, is conceived as having been spread out by the 
hands of God at the creation, as elsewhere the earth Is. 42* 44 24 
Ps. 136 6 , and so as ever after exhibiting and praising the master 
workman's power and honour. This is a different conception of 
their creation from that of Gn. 1, where they are created by word 
of command. It rather resembles Ps. 8 4 . It is tempting under 
the circumstances, with Ges., to think of the speech in the more 
specific sense of hymn ; but this has no authority in Hebrew 
usage, and is too specific for the subsequent as well as the pre- 
vious syn. terms. The speech and the knowledge, though unde- 
fined by suffix, must, from the context, mean speech about 'El, 
and knowledge of 'El. — 4. There is no speech and there are no 
words, their voice is not heard '], so most naturally translated, is 
rather a tame explanation of the previous lines. " This seems to be 
a kind of correction or explanation of the bold figure which had 
ascribed language to the heavens," Pe. It is difficult to see, then, 
why Pe. did not draw the reasonable inference with Ols., followed 
by Du., that it is a prosaic gloss. This internal reason is fortified 
by the external one that these two lines make this Str. just two 
lines too long in proportion to its antistr. The numerous attempts 
to get an appropriate meaning out of the verse have all failed to 
give satisfaction ; as indeed they are all awkward and entirely out of 
place in a Ps. of such wonderful simplicity, terseness, and graphic 
power. There is no agreement of EV\ in their translations. — 
— 5aZ>. In all the earth], emph., in antith. to the heavens v. 2 °. 
The heavens are telling to the earth, and their message extends 
throughout the earth |[ in the bounds of the world], that is in the 
extreme limits of the inhabited world. — their voice], in accord- 
ance with the parallel, their words'], but this requires, with most 



1 66 PSALMS 

modern scholars, after the ancient versions, the correction of the 
Hebrew text, which by the change of a single letter reads " their 
line," instead of " their voice." The Hebrew word translated 
" their line " admits only of the meaning measuring line, which, 
while it is suited to the thought of extension to the earth's limits, 
and might spring into the mind of a copyist whose attention was 
confined, in copying, to this single line, is yet out of harmony with 
the thought which is emphasised in each of the other five lines of 
the Str. The proposal to render the Hebrew word " string " of a 
musical instrument, and so the string, for the sound of it, though 
urged by Ew. and others, and possibly in accordance with usage 
in other languages, is not justified by Hebrew usage. 

Str. II. is progressive throughout, and is an antistr. to the 
previous one. As the previous Str. sets forth the glory of 'El, this 
Str. describes the glory of the sun. — be. For the sun is set~\. 
The sun is personified, as were heavens and firmament, day and 
night, of the previous Str., yet not as praising the creator, but as 
the theme of the praise of the poet. The *El of the previous Str. 
does not appear at all in this Str., unless we suppose Him to be 
the unexpressed subject of the verb "set," and so render" He hath 
set." The vb. may, however, be more properly regarded in the 
present context as having a general subject expressed in English 
by the passive, " is set." The sun is emphasised at the beginning 
and also at the close of this Str. v. :i , as the great theme of its 
praise. It is therefore really put in parall. with the *El of the 
previous Str., while the poet puts himself in parall. with the per- 
sonified heavens, firmament, day and night. It seems most 
natural, therefore, to identify the sun with 'El. Was the Ps., 
then, originally a hymn in praise of the god Shemesh, who was 
worshipped in Jerusalem just before the exile, Ez. 8 16 ? or is 
Shemesh used for the God of Israel, as in Ps. 84 12 ? The praise 
of God by the sun, so conspicuous in 148 3 , is here conspicuous by 
its absence. On the whole, it seems probable that the Ps. was 
originally composed in honour of the god Shemesh, and that it 
was subsequently adapted by a few changes to the worship of the 
God of Israel, by interpreting 'El in accordance with Hebrew 
usage, and by interpreting the vb. as having 'El as subject, and so 
giving the sun a subordinate position. It is probable that the 



PSALM XIX. 167 

preposition b was prefixed by the editor, and was not original. 
The original probably read, "Shemesh has set up his tent." 
J^ makes a still further modification of the original in order to 
connect with the previous Str. by adding "in them," which was 
not in the original of (3, and makes the line too long for the 
normal measure. The reference to the heavens, which was doubt- 
less designed by this addition, can only be made proper by fol- 
lowing |^, and attaching this line to the previous one, and so 
destroying the strophical organisation of the Ps. All other ex- 
planations give grammatical difficulties. De W. thinks of the 
End of the world as the dwelling of the sun. Thus Helios turns 
into Thetis ; and Ossian gives the sun a shady cave in which to 
pass the night. But all this is in the realm of mythology, and in 
so far as these ideas are based on primitive worship of the sun, 
rather favours the thought that the Ps. was originally a hymn to 
Shemesh = Helios. We may think of the tent of the sun as in 
Hb. 3 11 , where sun and moon have their dwelling; or of the 
tent of the god Shemesh, in accordance with the constant concep- 
tion of the heavenly temple or abode of God. — 6. " And he," 
emph. reference to the sun, is unnecessary and difficult to justify 
from the context, and it destroys the measure. It is doub t less a 
gloss due to the effort to distinguish between 'El and the sun. — 
As a bridegroom], not implying a marriage of the sun, but setting 
forth the freshness, the vigour, and the joy with which the rising 
sun appears in the East. — He is going forth from his canopy]. 
During the night he has been in his tent, or abode, and behind 
and beneath his canopy; at daybreak he comes forth from the 
night's retirement with fresh, youthful, full-grown vigour. — He 
rejoiceth as a hero to run his course]. The path of the sun in 
the heavens is conceived as a racecourse. The ancient warrior or 
hero was a runner as well as a fighter, and he enjoyed running as 
well as fighting. — 7. From the bound of the heavens], the extreme 
East, is his going forth], rising.— -unto their bounds], the extreme 
limits of the West, is his circuit], the fully rounded course. — And 
there is nothing hidden], all things throughout the earth come 
under his inspection during his circuit ; nothing on the earth's 
surface escapes from his rays. — from His sun], that is God's 
sun ; so the Hebrew word is elsewhere always translated, and in 



1 68 PSALMS 

this sense it gives the most appropriate climax in antith. to the 
beginning of the Str. The usual rendering, " from his heat," 
while etymologically possible, has no usage whatever to justify it, 
and unduly limits the thought to heat, when the term " hid" would 
more naturally suggest light of the sun, which is thought of also 
under the more general word " His sun." At the same time it 
seems likely that the editor, who adapted the Ps. to the worship 
of the God of Israel, was responsible for the addition of the suffix, 
and that the original simply used Hamah as a parallel word to 
Shemesh, both alike referring to the same god. This, then, gives 
us the most appropriate climax, that all things earthly are under 
the eye of God, in accordance with a conception common to the 
OT., that God, enthroned in heaven, sees, knows, and inspects 
all things earthly. It is also common to the hymns to the god 
Shemesh, that he is the great inspector and judge of all the earth. 

PSALM XIX. B. 

Str. I. 7-10 has six syn. lines in praise of the Law. There are 
six different terms for Law, one for each line of the Str., each 
technically expressing some one special type of Law in ancient 
usage ; but it is doubtful how far those distinctions were felt in 
the time when this Ps. was composed. The Law of Yahweh 
is the Law conceived as teaching, doctrine, and is especially 
characteristic of special laws of priestly origin. The Testimony is 
a term characteristic of the priestly legislation, and is the Law 
conceived as giving testimony for Yahweh, and so is appropriate 
as a mate of " Law." Precepts are types of Law known only to 
late psalmists. They are divine prescriptions of Law. This term 
is, indeed, a late syn. for Commandment, which is characteristic 
of the prophetic commands of the Deuteronomic code. — The 
Saying], for so we must correct the text, for "The fear of Yah- 
weh," which is unknown elsw. as a term for Law, and was a mistake 
for the similar Hebrew word, which is a poetic synonym of "Word " 
in the usage of Ps. 119, a characteristic term of the most ancient 
type of prophetic Law, and one which least of all could be omitted 
from the series. It is, moreover, most appropriate as a mate for 
Judgments, which is also an ancient pre-Deuteronomic type of 
Law, characteristic of the Code of the Covenant, Ex. 21-22, and 



PSALM XIX. 169 

also of the recently discovered code of the ancient king Hamu- 
rabbi. The only terms of Ps. 119 absent are the "Word," the 
syn. of " Saying," and the " Statute," an earlier type of the "Judg- 
ment " ; the terms most likely to be omitted by a late Hebrew 
poet, if he must make an omission, due to the limitations of his 
Str. Each one of the terms for Law has its adjective. These do 
not seem specially appropriate to the particular terms. There 
seems to be no good reason why they should not be used inter- 
changeably here, as in Ps. 119 on a much larger scale, extending 
through twenty-two strophes. These adjectives are : perfect, 
complete, entire, without defect, v. 18 31 ; trustworthy, firm, re- 
liable, to be depended upon ; right, equitable, just ; pure, spotless ; 
clean, without impurity or contamination ; true, in their exact 
conformity to justice. Each of the legal terms has also its benefi- 
cent activity : " refreshing the soul," or " restoring " it, RV., impart- 
ing refreshment to the inner man, his true soul-food, as Dt. 8 3 
Mt. 4 4 . The translation " converting the soul," PBV., AV., while 
true enough in itself, and in accordance with other uses of the 
term, is too specific here and not in accord with the context. — 
making wise the simple], imparting the divine wisdom contained 
in the Law to those who are so open-minded that they are capable 
of receiving it. — ?'ejoici?ig the heart], taking hold of the affections 
and imparting gladness as well as instruction. — enlightening the 
eyes'], the eyes of the mind, so that they may see and understand, 
cf. n^ 105130 Eph. i 18 . — enduring forever], not transient, but per- 
manent ; not changeable, but standing firm and immovable. — 
vindicated altogether], cf. 51 6 ; so in accordance with all the 
previous lines, and not " righteous " as a quality ; for statements as 
to quality are reserved in all the other lines for the first half of the 
verse. The Str. has come to an appropriate conclusion. If it 
were to be continued, the two missing words for Law would be 
used with appropriate adjectives and verbal clauses. 

11. These two words are indeed supplied by D. H. Miiller, and 
Che. at the beginning of the two lines of the following couplet, 
but even then these lines would be entirely different in character 
from the previous ones. 

They are to be desired more than gold, yea than much fine gold ; 
They are sweeter than honey, and the droppings of honeycombs. 



170 PSALMS 

A similar thought to v. lla is indeed in 119 72127 ; but the couplet 
resembles more closely Pr. 3 14 - 15 8 1(M1 Jb. 28 15 - 19 , and its thought 
may be regarded as characteristic of Hebrew Wisdom rather 
than of Hebrew Law. The use of it here was doubtless on the 
basis of the uses of Hebrew Wisdom and from a glossator whose 
enthusiasm for the Law justified him in ascribing to it the 
characteristics also of Wisdom. 

Str. II. has six progressive pentameters. — 12. Moreover], em- 
phasizing following words. — Thy servant], emphatic in position, 
whether we think of the individual Israelite as a worshipper of 
God, or of the nation as in a special sense the servant of Yahweh, 
in accord with the conception of Is. 2 . — is warned]. The posi- 
tive benefits of the Law, in the previous Str., now pass over into 
negative benefits, in relation to transgression, in warning against 
it. — in keeping them], observing the Law by obedience. — there 
is much reward], in consequence of a beneficent kindness. — 
13. Errors], transgressions of Law, due to ignorance or inadvert- 
ence ; characteristic of the distinctions of the priestly legislation. 
These committed unconsciously trouble the psalmist; for, who 
can discern], either their number or their enormity, and the 
extent of their departure from the norm of duty. — Clear me], is 
the prayer; acquit, absolve, or possibly, as often, leave me un- 
punished. — from hidden ones], those errors which are so hidden 
from the psalmist that he cannot discern them, and which yet he 
knows are not hidden from God, and therefore may imperil his 
relations to God. He knows of no other way of deliverance from 
them except the divine gracious acquittal. — 14. Moreover], in- 
creased emphasis, calling attention to another class of transgres- 
sions. — from presumptuous ones], proud ones; known, clearly 
discerned, boldly and wilfully committed, corresponding with " high- 
handed " of the code of P, Num. 15 30 . — restrain Thy servant], 
hold him back, for he knows his peril of committing them and the 
serious consequences. — let them not rule over me]. Such trans- 
gressions overpower the man and reduce him to servitude. The 
phrase so greatly resembles that of Gn. 4' that it is probable the 
author had in mind the story of Cain, where sin like a wild beast 
couches at the door greedy to take possession of him and rule 
him, which it actually did, with terrible consequences. So here 



PSALM XIX. 171 

the presumptuous sins are personified; they strive to dominate 
the man, cf. 36 s Jn. 8 34 . — Then shall I be perfect], that is, if 
cleared from sins of ignorance, and restrained from sins of know- 
ledge and intention, he will be free from all sin, and so be com- 
plete, entire, faultless. — and cleared from much transgression]. 
This does not naturally refer to some great extreme transgression 
as parallel with the presumptuous ones, but rather to the trans- 
gressions hidden and to the errors to which he is so sensitive 
that he fears they may be many, and in their sum amount to 
much ; for clear in the passive seems to refer to the same kind of 
sins as clear in the active, and to those from which he would be 
absolved, rather than to those from which he would be restrained. 
— 15. Let the words of my mouth be for acceptance], namely, 
those of the prayer which accompany the sacrifice made in the 
temple, making the sacrifices real earnest sacrifices, and so accept- 
able to God; as in Ho. 14 2 the calves (or fruit, v. Br. MP177 ) of 
the lips are thus offered, and Ps. 141 2 prayer as sacrifice. — and 
the musing of my mind], the mind acting in harmony with the 
mouth, as the mouth with the hand that presents the sacrifice. — 
Before Thee], all the activities of devotion, of mind, mouth, hand, 
tend to the divine presence where alone acceptance can be found. 
— continually], so 0, as the measure requires, but omitted by J^ 
and most Vrss. by error. The psalmist is not thinking of one 
single sacrifice, but of oft-repeated, continual approaches to God 
in sacrifice. All this is fortified and reaches its climax in the plea 
which gives assurance of success; my Rock and my Redeemer], 
cf. 1 8 3 69 19 . The Rock is the negative refuge ; the Redeemer is 
the one who grants the positive redemption from the sins so 
dreaded in the previous context. 

XIX. A. 

2. anspp] Pi. ptc. pi. of IfiD; with verbal force, are telling constantly; 
|| "PJD. — \ T\>~\\ n.m. firmament, expanse of physical heaven, elsw. in \f/, 150 1 , 
|| D^Dtrn. — vr nferpc]. Ba. interprets as applying to God's government of the 
world, || 1133; but usage (8 7 102 26 138 8 ) favours creation. The measure is 
most easy as tetrameter, although first line is pointed as trimeter. ) is prob. a 
gl. Possibly dtiSn stood in original; it makes better measure. — 3. ^3>] 
Hiph. impf., habitual action for ptc. of continuous action of previous clause. 
X J?3J vb. Hiph. pour forth as from a spring, bubble : of speech, in bad sense 



172 PSALMS 

59 8 94 4 J in good sense 78 12 119 171 145 7 and here, || nvi> Pi. impf. f [n*i] vb. 
Pi. poetic, tell, declare, make knozun : only here in \J/ (unless we correct 52 11 
with Hi., Che., et a/.); but Jb. 15 17 32°- »• 17 36 2 .— -is*] Ges. renders ?ttos 
hymn, but really it is saying, speech, utterance, as v. 4 || Dnai, — J njn] n.f. 
knowledge : here = their knowledge of the glory; elsw. in \p only of knowledge 
as possessed by God 139 6 ; as taught by God to man 94 10 119 66 . These two 
lines are most easily tetrameters, but might be taken as trimeters by use of 
Makkephs. — 4. -\r.n pn || D^rn ps] are most easily explained as a denial of 
the use of speech and words in this praise of the heavens; then potfj ^a would 
assert the same thing more strongly. X **?a neg. adv. with vb. only here in 
\p; but with n. = without 59 s 6$ 2 (v. *Sa 15 72 7 ). Their voice is not heard, 
M inaudible, i.e. except for the intelligent, pious mind. But why this qualifi- 
cation? It seems in direct antith. to v. 3 and 6 and is tame. <S takes it as a 
relative clause : ovk eialv XaXial ovdt \6yoi &v ovxl anovovTat al (pcoval clutQv. 
3 also : non est sermo et non sunt verba, quibus non audiatur vox eorum. 
This seems a roundabout, unpoetic way of asserting that their speech was 
intelligible, although it is followed by De., Moll., Now. Ew. attaches to next 
v. : " without talk, without words, without their voice being heard, their sound 
becomes loud throughout the whole earth." The measure of the last line can 
be only trimeter. This Str. is just the two lines longer than the second Str., 
and, therefore, in all probability they are a gl.; so Ols., Bi., Ba., Du. — 

5. n^'" 1 ^ || San nxpa] emph., the first a spreading abroad, the second a 
reaching unto the utmost limits. p«n S:a also in 8-- 10 45 7 105 7 . — dp] sf. of 
3 pi. X V2 n.m. line* string: (1) measuring line, extending over wide ter- 
ritory, as Je. 31 89 Ez. 47 s and elsw. Aq. kolvuv, so Ra., Ba., and most here. 
Hi. = " line or chain of praise." Others think of (2) string of musical instru- 
ment, so Ew. 3 sonus, (f§ 006770s, 2 ^x os > but there is no usage to justify 
this mng. Cap., Ols., Ge., Bo., Dy., Bi., Gr., Che., Du., SS., BDB rd. oh'p, but 
<S renders this by <pwrf and 3 by vox, and not by words they actually use 
here. — X n *pJ ".[m.] end, bound, extremity : y-\nn rrcpo 61 3 135 7 Is. 5 26 43° 
Dt. 28 49 ; pin 'p ij> Ps. 46 10 Je. 25 81 Is. 48 20 496; San 'pa Ps. i(p; D'Dtfn nxpn 
I 9 7 - X n ?";] n.f. end, bound, in \p pi. Dn^xp Sjp (of D<D0) ig 7 , prob., therefore, 
only pi. of n*P. — DrnSl?] || Wp_ X n ^r n.f. word, speech, utterance: elsw. 139* 
2 S. 23- Pr. 23 9 Jb. 34 t. This line is trimeter as it stands. — BfctfS] emph., 
(3 iv t£ -nXiif. X #?# n. sun: $$ 9 72 17 74 16 121 6 136 8 ; 'tf nni rt« of sun 
50 1 104 22 113 3 ; fig. of long duration r 3; 72 s , 'tfa Sg 37 ; personified icp 104 19 
148 3 ; fig. of God 84 12 . — ona] f*M ///<?/;/, ?>. d^DW Hu., Pe., Ba., Kirk., not 
indefinite, as De W., Ges., Hi., De. But ona not in <g, and is prob. a gl. 
auToO with o-Kr/vu/xa of © is possibly an interpretation, as 68bv avrod for mn 
v. 66 ; but as most of the lines of the Str. end in \ the original was prob. lSnn. — 

6. Nvn] emph., referring to vfev personified, masc. usually. There is no need 
of it, and it should be stricken out, if verse is trimeter. — pns] as a bride- 
groom, a.\. \p. — Tsn] his canopy, a.X. \f/; elsw. Jo. 2 16 (of bride), Is. 4 5 
(of God's protection). — fc^fr;] Qal impf. of tfc"tr, vb. Qal, rejoice : usu. with 
a 35 9 40 17 68 4 70 5 1 19 11 ; c. hy 1 19 16 ' 2 . — ntajs] <« a //^-^, J -raj (1) adj., j//-^, 



PSALM XIX. 173 

mighty : ynxa 'J U2 2 ; 113J Sn (of the Messiah) Is. o. 6 ; attribute of God 
righting for His people Ps. 24 s - 8 ; cf. Dt. io 17 Is. io 21 + . (2) n.m. strong, 
valiant man Pss. icf 33 16 45* 52 s 78 65 89 20 120 4 127 4 ; nj naa 103 20 . — 
nnx yn] rzm along a path: ace. of measure; cf. 'N ma £*? <z /#//& Is. 41 3 ; 
@ imx, prob. correct. — 7. iwpe] sf. 3 sg. J KtfD n.m. (1) act of going forth: 
of sunrise 79% so of the place, the East 75 7 ; Tpa »KS1B 65°; (2) that which 
goes forth, utterance of lips 89 s5 Je. 17 16 ; (3) place of going forth, source of 
water Ps. I07 33 - 35 2 K. 2 21 Is. 58 11 . — *nMpra] his circuit (^/^p), a. A. \p. 
BS. 43 7 (of moon) ; Ex. 34" (J) 2 Ch. 24 s " (of year) ; I S. I 20 (of days of 
year). This should for assonance come at end of line. — Drrtlj? Sr] © ews 
<£/cpoi> roO ovpavov, cf. 48 11 pn V8£ *?£, SjJ late style for Sk. The measure is 
difficult with MT., but easy if, after <3, we transpose and rd. Mwpn Dnwp Sxi. 
The roO ovpavov of (£ is interpretation. — *ViDl] rel. clause as @, 5. — Tionp] 
usually /row Aw /W (». nrn 6*), but f nsn J*» Jb. 30 28 Is. 24 s8 30 s6 - 26 Ct.V ; 
so also here His sun — 'El's sun, but originally nnn j| Pots'. 

XIX. B. 

8-10. rrvn] the Law as instruction, most common and comprehensive 
term from earliest time (v./ 2 ). — J pit;] n.f., the Law as testimony, charac- 
teristic term of P, so 78 5 81 6 upM+at (em.tat) I22 4 , and titles 60 1 80 1 .— 
J □>-nps] n. pi., the Law as precepts, only pi. cstr. and sfs. elsw. 103 18 in 7 
U9 4 + 21t - (em. txt.). — t n«p] n.f., the Law as command??ient, characteristic 
of D.; elsw. in \J/ always pi., 78 7 89 s2 112 1 U9 6 + 21t -. — nirv] the Law as 
object of reverence, only here in this sense, but frequently for piety, reverence, 
34 12 in 10 + (v. 2 11 ). Though |^ is sustained by Vrss., it is improb. A term 
for Law is needed. Rd. mOK, as Gr., D. H. Miiller, Kau., Che. — DHpstfc] 
judgments, decisions of rulers in the cases brought before them. A collection 
of such judgments is the Covenant Code, Ex. 21-22. They are also scattered 
through the Deuteronomic Code (v. i 5 ). We notice the absence of the most 
ancient terms anan words, and o>pn statutes, given in the Psalm of the Law, 
119. For uses of these technical terms v. Br. Hex - 242 "1-, and BDB. — ne»on] 
adj. f. (v. ij 2 ), whole, sound, having moral integrity, perfect; of God's way 18 31 . 

— HJDK3] Niph. ptc. f. % P N v ^» confirm, support: Qal ptc. pass. D\MDN in- 
trans. faithful (as firm, stable), fas subst. m. faithful ones 12 2 (> 0, j$, al. 
faithfulness) , cf. 2 S. 20 19 ; faithful ones Yahweh keepeth Ps. 31 24 (but '« is 
here taken by <f§, Ri., De., Che. as n. abstr., v. JDK). Other mngs. not in \p. 
Niph. (1) be verified, confirmed : precepts of God in 7 , His testimonies i<pS 
93 5 , covenant 89 29 . (2) be reliable, faithful, trusty: persons 89 s8 ioi 6 ; 
nn, c. pn 78 s (cf. Pr. n 13 ); c. 3 rei Ps. 78 s7 . Other mngs. not in rf/. Hiph. 
trust, believe: abs. 116 10 ; c. S rei 106 24 ; c. a pers. trust in, believe in (the 
usual construction with God) 78 22 ; c. a rei 78 s2 106 12 119 66 ; c. infin. 27 13 , 
cf. Jb. 15 22 . — an;^] adj. pi. m., right {v. 7 11 ). — n^3] adj. f., pure {v. 2 12 ). 

— n T n; ?] a dj. f«i clean (v. 12 7 ). — DDK] <& a\rjdivd, 3 vera, adj. is required, 
but net* has frequently force of an adj., and is frequently rendered by adj. in 



174 PSALMS 

©; cf. Dt. 13 15 17* 22 20 Je. 42 6 (v. 15 2 ). The ptc. clauses, v. 8 " 10 , constitute 
complementary parts of pentameters, with two tones. — tfjp] pa^Bto] Hiph. 
ptc. cstr. of aitf, may be taken with nominal force refresher of, or with verbal 
force refreshing. Hiph. in sense of \ restore, recover, elsw. in \J/, c. ace. 
go4. 8. 20. c# p 35^ u ;gj j s jjgjg j^g an i ma i iif e j n th e sensuous nature (z/. io 3 ). 
— np^np] Hiph. ptc. cstr. of X D ^ n = making wise; form only here; why 
not nprnp, Pi., as 105 22 119 98 Jb. 35 11 ? Qal not in \p. Pu. made wise 58 s , 
cf. Pr. 30 24 . — f ,J ?§] ac l)- simple : as subst., open to the instruction of wisdom 
or folly Pr. 9 4 - 16 , believing every word 14 15 , needing pa Ps. 119 130 , nc^n /o* 
Pr. 21 11 , lacking npny i 4 8 5 19 25 , in good sense cnpd "• "»Dtf Ps. 116 6 , but usual 
tendency is to bad sense Pr. I 22 14 18 + 6 t. Pr., Ez. 45 20 . — aS TiDfep] Pi. ptc. 
cstr. of r\i:t' giving Joy to (v.j 12 ). — dwj rin*«N?:] Hiph. ptc. cstr. of -iin /i^4/ 
«/, <-a«j<r to shine; also £-i'z>£ /*£•/// to, lighten {v. 13 4 ). — -vpS rnDty] Qal ptc. 
of ir> stand firm, endure. — •ip"]*] Qal pf. 3 pi. Change from ptc. is striking 
and improbable. <S has deducaiufxtva, 3 justificata, which implies ptc. D'pTO. 
Hare rds. p^tx, — 11. This verse has two tetrameters. These appear in an 
awkward change of construction. — D^rnpn] Niph. ptc. pi. of J ion with 
article, nominal force = the things to be desired, or relative force = they are 
the things io be desired ; only here with the article, f Niph. ptc. elsw. = 
desirable Gn. 2 9 f (J) Pr. 21 20 ; vb. elsw. in $ only Qal, desire 68 17 (of God), 
desired, taken pleasure in 39 12 . — t r ?] n.m., refined, pure gold : of crown of 
king 21 4 , of Law 19U 119 127 , elsw. La. 4 2 Jb. 28 17 Is. 13 12 Ct. 5 11 - 15 Pr. 8 19 .— 
3-)] much in quantity, also v. 14 25 11 119 162 . — d^pdi] pi. of % p>nn, adj., sweet: 
of honey, as Ju. 14 14 , here || O^Dnin; article required as much for the one as 
for the other. Du. suggests that it be prefixed. — f rpi\ n.m., flowing honey, 
from the comb: elsw. Pr. 5 s 24 18 27 7 Ct. 4 11 . — fowx] pi. of «l«, n.m., honey- 
comb : elsw. Pr. 16 24 . This verse is a gl. from the period of \VL. It makes 
the previous Str. too long, if attached to it, and mars the uniformity of its 
use of legal terms. It is not suited to the second Str. — 12. oj] moreover: 
J as emphasising the following word 19M 71 22 83* 133 1 ; as emph. and 37 s26 
107 5 137 1 ; also 8 8 14 3 . — n" 13 ?] Thy servant, prob. Israel as nation; cf.Je.30 10 
and Is. 2 . — $"0>] n.m. (1) slave 105 17 123 2 ; (2) worshipper, map 34 s3 69 s7 
I35 9.i4 ( = Dt 3*»); ||rap 105 26 ; rpnap 79 2 - 10 89 51 go 18 - 16 I02 15 - 29 1198I; 
Tpa? n 9 i7 + i2t. 14312; || qpcK-ra 86 16 " cf - 2 - 4 u6 16 - 16 ; Abraham I05«- 42 
Gn/26 24 (J); Moses Ps. io'^ 26 "'; David 18 1 36 1 78 70 89 4 - 21 - 40 132 10 144™. 
(3) in special sense, Levitical singers, nin> nap 113 1 134 1 135 1 . (4) Israel 
as a people 136' 22 , as Is. 41 s - 9 44 21 49 s . (5) addressing God in prayer, some- 
times (4), sometimes (2), and sometimes simply honorary address i<? 12 - 1 * 
27 9 31 17 35 s27 69 18 109* 28 143 2 . — Vi?j] Niph. ptc. of X V»T, t Niph. be instructed, 
warned: elsw. Ez. 3 21 33 4 - 5 - 6 - 6 Ec. 4 18 12 12 . — X 2 V.l] n-[ m -] consequence. 
(1) adv. ace, in consequence of 40 16 = 70 4 ; (2) reward, gain ic/ 2 Pr. 22 4 ; 
(3) end Vs. U9 83 - 112 . — 13. r^jr] a.X., doubtless error for nVutf, sins of 
error, inadvertence, f n*iti t n.f., error, characteristic of P. Lv. 4 2 + 16 t. (P) ; 
elsw. Ec. 5 5 io 5 . X ***>» vb - Q al err > from Law Ps - "9 67 « X ny ^> vb - Q al err * 
from Law U9 21 - 118 . Hiph. let err, from Law 119 10 . — pa»"*p] exclamation, 



PSALM XIX. I/S 

implying negative answer (v. 4 7 ). — nnppsp] Niph. ptc. pi. with fc f from -inD 
here of secret, hidden sins, but hide oneself 55 13 89 47 ; be hidv? 38 10 — 'Jgj] 
Pi. imv. sf. of \ npj. Pi. (1) A?/i innocent, or acquit here and Jb. 9 s8 io 14 , 
both c. JDj Dr. renders absolve, @ Kaddpiaov, 3 munda ; elsw. (2) &tfz/<? ««- 
punished, by God Ex. 34? = Na. 14 18 (J) = Na. I 3 ; c. ace. Ex. 20 7 = Dt. 5 11 
Je. 30 11 = 46' 28 . Niph. be clean, free from guilt, innocent, wpj v. 14 , only 
here ^; cf. Nu. 5 31 (P) Je. 2 35 ; <§ Kadapi<rdri<rofxou, 3 mundabor. — 14. Dj] 
begins second couplet, dealing with grosser sins, used as $ introducing the 
climax here and in 25 s 41*0 84 4 - 7 85 13 118 11 II9 23 - 24 139^ 1 2 («,. v .^)._ 
D, 7-] pl« °f t "lt» a 4J«» proud, presumptuous, here of men, Ew., Ols., Hup., Che., 
RV., BDB., Ba., Du., but De., Dr., AV. of sins ; elsw. in \f/ of men 86 14 
II9 2i + 5t. # — r^frn] Qal imv. of X l\fn, vb. Qal, restrain, hold bach, nco 78 50 . — 
o'iSc'o^^n] Qal juss. of Wd (v. 8 7 ), involving personification of d^t just as 
in Gn. 4 7 , where riNan is personified as wild beast with same vb. and same 
construction, in, implying a condition (v. 2 5 ). — ornN] Qal impf. I sg., fully 
written, d.-n; odd intrans. Ges.§ ^ ( 3 > (z/. 9 7 ). — >rnjy] Niph. pf. of r\p), free 
from, innocent of, Dr. absolved (v. v. 13 ). — 2~\ JJK's] much transgression 
(iniquity), so 31 in I9 11 - 12 25 11 119 162 . ptf» (v.5 11 ). — 15. pSH 1 ?] the sacri- 
ficial term for acceptance by Yahweh of sacrifices Lv. I 3 + ; cf. Ho. 14 3 
Ps. 141 2 . — $0 , 1 D ^ ! ] words of my mouth: elsw. 54 4 78 1 138 4 Dt. 32*+. — 
pun] cstr. of f ?^?> n.m., meditation, or musing, of prayer, so here; cf. La, 3 s2 
(in bad sense of plotting); elsw. Pss. 9 17 92 4 (dub., v. Intr. § 34); cf. nun 
49 4 . — 2^~] n.m., inner part, midst: f I. seldom of things, D^ep 3J?3 46 s . 
0>x aj?3, m /$<? »«*^/ 0/ /^<r enemies of Vs. 45 s . II. Of men: J (1) (a) the 
inner man in contrast with the outer 55 s2 64 7 84 s 102 5 , as within the breast, 
2^2 37 15 119 11 2 S. 18 14 , cf. Ps. 40 11 ; (b) the inner man, indef. soul, compre- 
hending mind, affections, and will, 33 15 , with occas. emphasis of one or the 
other by means of certain vbs., faS Saa 9 2 1 192. 10. 34. 58.69. 145 I3 gi , K# 323 
= 2 Ch. 6 14 Pr. 3 5 Je. 3 10 24 7 ; secrets of the heart Ps. 44 s2 . J (2) specif, 
reference to mind : (a) knowledge, c. nsn 66 18 Ec. I 16 ; (b~) thinking, reflexion, 
Pss. 33 11 49 4 83* 140 3 , so here, cf. 45 s ; f ^ ntf 62 11 Pr. 22 17 24 s2 , c. 7 Ps. 48 14 
Ex. 7 2} JE, 1 S. 4 20 Pr. 27 23 Je. 31 21 , and c. ■?« Jb. 7 17 ; (c) memory Pss. 31 18 
37 31 ; (d) spec, refer, to inclinations, resolutions, determinations of the will: 
t 2b pan set the mind on io 17 78 s 2 Ch. 12 14 Jb. u 13 ; f aS paa Ps. 57 s - 8 (= 108 2 ) 
78 s7 112 7 ; other phrs. 44 19 105 25 112 8 11936.112 I4I 4 # p or ther uses of a 1 ? 
v. 4 8 70 s 12 3 . — TJ.o 1 ?] goes with last line. (H has 5td iravrds = Tpn or tfojh, 
which is required by measure, soDu.,Ba\, Che. — "^j] my redeemer, cf. Jb. 19 25 . 
X ^NJ vb. Qal, redeem, act as kinsman : in \p only redeem with God as subj., 
implying pers. relationship : (a) individuals from death Ps. 103 4 La. 3 58 
Ho. 13 14 , jn San Gn. 48 16 (Epoem), eta Pss. 69 19 72 14 , titan on nan 119 154 , 
^kj /^5 Jb. i9 2 5 ; (b) Israel, from Egyptian bondage Ex. 6 6 (P?) 15 18 (song) 
Pss. 74 2 77 16 78 s5 , a"N td 106 10 ; f (c) from exile (chiefly Is. 2 - 3 the vb., not 
in Is. 1 ), Is. 43 1 + 5 t. Is., Mi. 4 10 , td Ps. 107 2 Je. 31 11 , 1 is Snj Is. 41 14 + 12 1, 
Is., and the people o^wi Ps. 107 2 Is. 35 s 51 10 62 12 63 4 (?). 



1 76 PSALMS 



PSALM XX., 2 PARTS 8 3 + RF. 2 s . 

Ps 20 is a Litany before a battle, in two parts : (i) During the 
offering of sacrifice, the leaders of the choir make a petition for 
the king that he may be victorious in the day of trouble (v. M ), and 
a chorus sums it up with a vow of exultation and praise (v. 6 ) ; 
(2) the leaders make a declaration of the certitude of victory, 
accomplished by Yahweh's hand rather than by the army (v. 7-9 ), 
which is enthusiastically reaffirmed by the chorus (v. 10 ). 

TN the day of trouble may He answer thee, 
May the God of Jacob set thee on high ; 
May He send from the sanctuary help 10 thee, 
And from Zion sustain thee ; 
May He be mindful of all thy grain offerings, 
And accept as fat (all) thy whole burnt offering(s) ; 
May He give thee according to thy mind, 
And fulfil all thy plan. 

We will be jubilant in thy victory \ 

And in the name of our God will we {rejoice), 
MOW (the hand of Yahweh is made known) ; 
Yahweh hath given His anointed victory. 
He answereth him from His sacred heavens, 
By the mighty deeds of victory of His right hand. 
These by chariots and by horses ; 
But by Yahweh our God are we strong. 
They, on their part, bow down and they fall ; 
We, on our part, stand and are established. 

Yahweh hath given victory to the king ; 

He answereth us in the day we invoke Him. 

Ps. 20 was in D, then in fH and Q2& (v. Intr. §§ 27, 31, 33). It is a prayer 
for a king going forth to battle ; implying the existence of the Hebrew 
monarchy v.". It is a prayer at a sacrifice in the temple, with whole burnt 
offerings and accompanying grain offerings, and the use of ritual language v. 4 . 
The use of 22^ v. 5 indicates, in preex. literature, the period prior to Je. The use 
of chariots and horses by the enemy v. 8 might refer to the Syrians, Assyrians, 
or Egyptians, and therefore gives no evidence of date. Theodore of Mop- 
suestia, and many since his time, have thought of Hezekiah; but the history 
of Hezekiah gives us no such situation as that described in the Ps. The 
victory of Jehoshaphat in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, cf. 2 Ch. 20, gives 
us a most appropriate historical situation; and the promise of victory, given 
by the prophet, gives an appropriate explanation of the change from petition 
to certitude in the two parts of the Ps. 



PSALM XX. 177 

Pt. 1. is composed of five couplets, sung by the choir. Lead- 
ing voices make the petition for the king, in eight trimeter 
lines, arranged in four synonymous couplets, all rhyming in Ka, 
which in English must be expressed sometimes by the personal 
pronoun thee, sometimes by the possessive thy. The reference to 
the king is not evident in this petition, but comes out clearly in 
the chorus v. 10 . Although we cannot suppose that the Levitical 
choruses were organised at so early a date, in accordance with 
the usage projected by the chronicler back even into the time of 
David, we may yet suppose that, with the institution of temple 
worship, some kind of an official choir was also instituted among 
the priests in Jerusalem, as in the ancient temples of other reli- 
gions. — 2. In the day of trouble'], implying a serious situation. 
The nation was in straits and in peril, and victory doubtful so far 
as their own ability to repel the invaders was concerned ; their 
only hope was in divine assistance. — The God of Jacob]. The 
reference to the God of the ancestor of the nation, often used in 
such pleas, enforces the petition, especially as the name of their 
national and ancestral God was the pledge and security for their 
national existence and perpetuity. The honour of their God was 
necessarily involved in the honour of His people, according to the 
conception of the ancient Biblical writers. — set thee on high], in 
the exaltation of victory. — 3. From the sanctuary || from Zion], 
the source of divine assistance, according to the conception that it 
was God's place of residence among His people, the place of His 
theophanic presence, and therefore not only the place of prayer 
and sacrifice, but also the place from which His people may 
expect help in answer to prayer. — 4. all thy grain offerings], 
specific offerings of some kind of grain, which usually, especially 
in public sacrifices, accompanied all kinds of sacrifices of animals ; 
the kind of grain offering differing, whether the simple grain, or 
roasted in the ear, or ground into meal for wafers or cakes or 
loaves, all depending upon the kind of sacrifice as discriminated 
in a later priestly legislation, not probably applicable at this early 
date. — all thy whole burnt offerings], special kinds of sacrifice 
of animals which differed from all other sacrifices of animals in 
that the entire victim, or rather all the parts that were in their 
nature clean, or that could be cleansed by washing, were entirely 



178 PSALMS 

consumed on the altar and went up in the flame to God. This 
ancient form of sacrifice of animals, with its associated sacrifice of 
grain, was appropriate for the expression of worship, in the form 
of prayer. The nation were assembled, led by priests and choirs 
of singers, to participate in the sacrifice and prayer for the vic- 
tory of their king and army. — May He be mindful]. There is 
little reason to doubt that this is a sacrificial term as truly as the 
|| accept as fat], for it was characteristic of the grain offerings 
that they were offered Azkarah, to bring the offerer to the remem- 
brance of Yahweh. For that service in the later ritual various 
Psalms were assigned (3& 1 70 1 , v. Intr. § 39). There is no good 
reason why we should not think that this conception of the 
grain offering was ancient. Such a conception does not by any 
means involve the numerous distinctions of the later priestly legis- 
lation. So also the phrase, " accept as fat," is a sacrificial term, 
which indicates the essential thing in the sacrifice of animals, 
already recognised in the primitive story of Cain and Abel, Gn. 4 4 , 
that fat ones should be selected in order to find acceptance with 
God, implying that sacrifices, without such selection, would be 
regarded as niggardly and unacceptable. To accept or recognise 
the whole burnt offerings of animals as fat is, therefore, saying, in 
ritual terms, that they are entirely acceptable to God. — 5. Accord- 
ing to thy mind || all thy plan], the plan devised already in the 
mind of the king for conducting the campaign or making the 
battle. — 6. The chorus now sings as it were a refrain, summing 
up the contents of the petition in a vow of jubilation and praise. 
That the chorus speaks is evident from the introduction of the 
first person plural, now for the first time, into the Psalm ; as well 
as by the change of tone. — in thy victory]. The Hebrew word 
often means salvation from enemies, and so victory, which alone 
is appropriate to the context. The word may, however, be ren- 
dered " salvation," in general, as Vrss., which was preferred for a 
liturgical use of the Ps. — will rejoice]. So some ancient codd. of 
(3 and many modern scholars, which is more natural than the 
unusual word of ^, which is due to a copyist's mistake of a single 
letter. The word of J^ is used elsewhere Ct. 6 410 ; but here it 
can only be interpreted in a different sense, whether as " set up 
our banners," AV., RV., or " wave " them, Kirk, and most. A later 



PSALM XX. 179 

editor appended a line, " may Yahweh fulfil all thy askings," which 
is only a repetition of v. 56 , in the use of an unusual word of late 
formation and out of harmony with the thought of the couplet. 
It might, however, be more appropriate for later congregational 
use to resume the tone of prayer, as indeed the editor aims to do 
at the close of the Ps. v. 10 . 

Pt. II. 7. The leading voices again sing, not a soloist, as a late 
editor supposed, who wrote the first singular in place of the first 
plural of the chorus in an introductory statement which is prosaic. 
This destroys the symmetry of the couplets of the Ps. It is 
doubtless a textual error for the original line, which we have ven- 
tured to restore by conjecture. — Now], as the result of the peti- 
tion. The time has come in which certitude takes the place of 
anxiety. — The hand of Yahweh is made known]. We may think 
of certitude born of internal evidence of answer to prayer, or due 
to the promises of a prophet intervening between the parts of the 
Ps. in accordance with 2 Ch. 20 14-17 , or to some external token of 
the acceptance of the sacrifice just offered. This last is most 
probable, if the restoration of the line given above is correct. 
The hand of Yahweh is displayed in behalf of His people j cf. for 
the use of the hand Is. 66 14 , of the arm Is. 52 10 , and of both 
Ps. 98 1 . This also makes the tetrastich one of introverted paral- 
lelism. — Yahweh hath given victory], not that the victory has 
actually taken place, but that it has already been given to the 
king in answer to the prayers of his people, and will surely take 
place. — His anointed'], as anointed, installed on his throne by 
Yahweh, in accordance with 2 2 . — from His sacred heavens'], the 
heavens as the sacred place in which God resides, and from which 
He gives victory to His people, especially in theophanic mani- 
festations, when He would throw His enemies into a panic, such 
as those described in 2 Ch. 20, at the crossing of the Red Sea 
Ex. 14-15, at the battle of Bethhoron Jos. io 12-14 , at the battle of 
the Kishon Ju. 5, at the battle of Rephaim 2 S. 5 22-25 ; cf. also 
Ps. 18, Hb. 3, Jb. 38 23 . This turning toward heaven is not incon- 
sistent with the previous turning toward the sanctuary as the source 
of help, for the conception of theophanic residence in sacred 
places on earth did not, from the earliest times of the Hebrew 
religion, lead them away from the thought that the real residence 



1 80 PSALMS 

of Yahweh was in heaven. — mighty deeds'], by acts of God Him- 
self putting forth His might. — of victory'], gained by those acts of 
might and overwhelming strength. — His right hand], theophanic 
and anthropomorphic expressions, frequent, especially in poetic 
literature, in connection with the divine deliverance of His people 
and judgment upon their enemies, from Ex. 15 612 onward. — 

8. These by chariots and by horses]. These were the chief reli- 
ance of the ancient enemies of Israel in their wars from the 
earliest times. Israel, living chiefly in hilly and mountainous 
districts, had little use for them. The law of the king (Dt. 
17 16 ) forbids them, although Solomon and other luxurious mon- 
archs made use of them. The sentiment of the prophets was ever 
against their use. — Bui by Yahweh our God]. Yahweh is the 
chief, if not the sole, author of victory to His anointed king and 
people, cf. 33 16 " 1<J . — are we strong], suited to the context, so (g 
and many critics. %, followed by " we will remember " PBV., 
AV. ; " we will make mention " RV., does not suit the context. — 

9. They on their part], the enemy, in strong antith. to we on our 
part], the worshipping people of God. — bow down and they 
fall], a graphic description of the enemy as the mighty hand of 
God lays hold upon them, bending them down to the ground and 
prostrating them on the ground ; frequent expressions for humilia- 
tion of enemies in defeat, v. 7 16 17 13 18 40 . — stand and are estab- 
lished], stand firm, upright and immovable. Each verb is in 
direct antith. to its mate in the previous line, to set forth the 
exaltation of the victorious king and people. — 10. The chorus 
now bursts forth in a couplet of enthusiasm, the climax of the Ps. 
Yahweh hath given victory], a renewal of the statement of the 
leading voices v. 7a . — to the king], taking the place of " His 
anointed," in accordance with the context. A later editor, 
whether because of dittog. of a copyist, changing a perfect into 
a cohortative imperative, or by intentional alteration to make the 
close of the Ps. more appropriate for public worship, as in v. & , 
changes the certitude as to the victory, which pervades and domi- 
nates the entire second half of the Ps. up to this verse, into a 
petition for victory, in accordance with the first half of the Ps. — 
The texts vary in the second line. But ^ is doubtless correct in 
the impf. He answereth us, which resumes v. 76 , and asserts the 



PSALM XX. l8l 

assuring fact that Yahvveh habitually answers His people in their 
need. — in the day we invoke Him'], in the very day, at the very 
time, they call upon Him in their distress. The whole Ps. is thus 
included between the day of trouble v. 2 and this day of prayer. 

2. r^v] juss. of ny; (v. j 5 ). — mrv] is a gl. making line too long. — 
nnx o'"3] in the day of trouble, % n-j| n.f. strait, distress : sg. 22 12 78 49 116 3 
138 7 142 3 , pi. 25 17 71 20 , mx ^jd 54 9 , nns ^jd 25 s2 34 7 - 18 , m»D 143 11 , -x or 

^ 2 50 15 ^3 g 6 7 Gn- 35 3 ( E ) } < s n> . p s< 3739 Is# 33^ ^j p s . g^ c f, 3^ 4 62 

91 15 120 1 , also 9 10 io 1 (?). — ^?.-?t"!] Pi- J uss « °f t *& be high, inaccessible, in 
\p only, Niph.: (i) be exalted in glory 148 13 , cf. Is. 12 4 ; (2) be inaccessible, 
of divine knowledge 139 6 , Pi. ;##&? inaccessible to an enemy, unassailable, c. 
ace. <?o 3 69 30 91 14 , c. p 59 2 107 41 . — cr] «d7#<? of God (v. j 12 ), is a gl., as 
Hare, making line too long, so v. 8 from a late point of view. — f 3PJP ^"i*?*] 
2 S. 23 1 Ps. i?0 3 46 s - 12 (59 14 ©) 75 10 76 7 8i 2 - 5 84 s 94 7 Is. 2 3 = Mi. 4 2 , cf. 
apjp hiSn Ps. 114 7 , spy "?n 146 5 , 2pp ion I32 2 - 5 Gn. 49 24 Is. 49' 26 6o 16 . — 
3. T)!"] obj. sf. = help to thee. % in n.m. : (1) help, succour, from "» 20 s 
I2I 1 - 2 124 8 , cf. 89 20 (?); (2) concrete, one who helps, espec. '' Dt. 33 7 , with 
pD Pss. 33 20 U5 9 - 10 - n , b^bc 70 6 , -\v;2 146 5 Dt. 33 26 . — P»*d] should be written 
for measure px JD"), cf. 24 s 63 s 68' 25 . — H^VD'] juss. strong sf. v. 18 36 . — 4. -Vrr] 
Qal impf. juss. continued, "D? (v. 8 5 ). This has doubtless a sacrificial mng., 
corresponding with the term m:)?N, which belongs espec. to the nnj2 in P, and 
is expressed in the Torn in titles of Pss. 38, 70. — Tl?jug ^;] the grain offering 
accompanying the nS'v, both expressing worship and prayer. The offering 
here is a special one for the king, and not a sacrifice which he might make 
during his reign. The use of pi. for grain offering and sg. for whole burnt 
offering is improbable, the one accompanied the other; rd. either both sg. or 
both pi. ^d is also needed for measure in 2d line. — % nn l ? ? n -f« : (0 gift* 
present 45 13 Gn. 32 14 (E) Is. 39 1 + ; (2) tribute Ps. 72 10 Ju. 3 15 Ho. io 6 -f ; 
(3) offering made to God, of any kind, Ps. 96 s ; (4) grain offering (as || nViy 
and accompanying it) 20 1 * in common use OT., so also 40 7 14 1 2 ; the special 
grain offering of P not in \p unless in 141 2 . J r^jj n.f. whole burnt offering 
20 1 * 40 7 50 8 66 13 , nSy nm 5i 18 - 21 , nSy rhyn 66 15 . — nnf^] cohort, (unusual 
form in Heb. in 3 pers.) Ges. § 48d De. ; but Hare, Hi., Ba. sf. nj or p»>. In 
this case sf. is a later addition of glossator after the order of the words was 
changed. | Jtfh vb. Qal be fat, gr 02a fat, not in \f>. Pi. make fat, JDB»2 anoint 
23 s ; of offering rich in fat parts and so acceptable 20^. Gr., Che. rd. nnn; 
accept as zvell pleasing ; AE., Ki. make it denom. fjBh reduce to ashes. It 
may, however, be conflation of two readings, nnaN Pi. imv. and ]&y juss., the 
latter alone suited to context. — 5. ^aaS?] long form for usual 2 s , doubt- 
less original to this Ps. = according to thy mind. — 1?xj?] counsel, design, pur- 
pose (v. /*), here for war, as Is. 36 s . These eight lines are in syn. parall. 
r\ is in each one and also juss. of vb. This gives assonance, and it is probable 
that the lines all began or else closed with words ending in r\ t most probably 
the latter. I pi. now takes the place of 3 sg.; there is prob. a different 



1 82 PSALMS 

speaker, a chorus. — 6. qn^w^] in thy victory, i.e. the victory given thee (by 
"'). rxyafr (v. j 3 ). — *?jhj] Qal impf. i pi. of t D'-n] v b. denom. from Sri 
standard (not in \p) only here in Qal = set up standard, in Niph. Ct. 6 4 - 10 . 
Gr., Che., Ehr. rd. "?V T 1» after (gB. a. b. na dyaWiaadjxeda, which best suits 
parall. <5 B fxeyaXwdrjad/xeda, U magnijicabimur, so J5. *?TH ^^// he be mag- 
nified Ecker., Houb., Lowth. Ew., Bi., Du., We. 2 "ryj (Pi.)« Ba. objects 
that there is no Heb. usage to justify the construction of Pi. with 2, but Du. 
refers to the use of the syn. hin 44?, cf. v. 26 (v. 18 51 ). — f TH^l^P] askings, 
form, elsw. 37"*, late. The whole clause is a mere repetition of v. 56 . — 7. nnj;] 
= now, temporal (v. 2 10 ). This part of Ps. was sung later than the first part, 
after the sacrifice. — ^jHj] I know, present emph. (v. i 6 ). ^n should be 
added to complete the measure. 1 pers. sg. for I pers. pi. is striking here. 
Does it indicate a soloist, or should we read UJ7T? This is certainly prosaic 
and not at all suited in the parall. of poetry. The original was prob. 
njn> nvn -v, cf. Is. 12 5 njn»E, 66 14 1 t njnu. mrv was, as often in ancient 
codd., abbreviated to '^; this by haplog. fell out before nyi\ -p still later 
fell out for a similar reason. r>"r Pu. ptc. f. without r, as often in Pi. and 
Pu., was wrongly interpreted as pf. Qal 1 sg. "o was inserted as often. — 
P'j/i-i] Hiph. pf. sure anticipation, assured future (v. j 8 ). — 'irvtrc] His 
anointed one = king (v. 2 2 ). — i"U"l] i m pf- freq. (v. v.* 2 ). — '•Bhp *CBta] phr. 
a.X. || Bh^p v. 8 ; more suited to the giving of victory on battlefield, as the 
sanctuary was more suited to the offering of sacrifices. — nnon] = acts of 
might, pi. of \ moj n.f. in xf/ only: (1) strength, might, of horse 147 10 , body 
of man 90 10 ; (2) might, of God 21 14 54 s 65' 66 7 71 18 80 3 89 14 106 8 145 11 , pi. 
mighty deeds 20 7 71 16 106 2 I45 4 - 1>2 150 2 Is. 63 15 . — 8. nSs, nSn)] in antith. 
UnjM. But there is too much emphasis for the measure. The second hSn 
and urns are glosses of intensification. — "V?T|] Hiph. impf. 1 pi. mention, 
c. ace. 7 1 16 77 12 87 4 , here only with p. (S has fMyaKwdrjo-d/Aeda, as in v. 66 = 
Sijj, so &, Aug., Cassiodorus, Psalt. Rom., Lowth. Now., Ba\, Du., Oort, 
Che. rd. -vajj we are strong. All other Vrss. agree with $%, even (S Nc -», 
and most Greek fathers. — 9. iSoii ijrr] 1 coord, with pf., referring to the 
defeat of enemy, cf. 18 40 . — "^Hii] Hithpol. impf. with 1 consec. t [ TV -] 
only intensive: Pi. surround 119 61 , Pol. restore, relieve, c. ace. pers. 146 9 
(antith. rv;), 147 6 (antith. S^ltfn), both dvaXanfUdvu (g. Hithpol. be restored 
20 9 , and so are established, stand upright, AV., RV., PBV., Dr.; apupOudti/jjep 
<g, vwofxtvo/xev 2, erecti sumus 3. — 10. njPB*n] cohort, imv. O save, give 
victory, but the pf. without n is more prob., as v. 7 . n of cohort, is dittog. — 
*1?pn] = "»rrfeM? v. 76 , cf. 2 2 , obj. of vb., as <S, U, and most moderns. MT. and 
other Vrss. refer 'D to God as king and attach it to uip\ However, Jerome 
(Com.) says that in the Heb. text of his time it was Domine salvum fac 
regem. — WJPj impf. freq., as v. 76 . <S has wjpi imv., so Hare, Bi., Che., Ba., 
al., which is an assimilation to previous imv. and less prob. The uncertainty 
of the interpretation of this text in |^ and the Vrss. is due probably to an 
editorial change, making an original statement of the assurance of victory 
into a petition more appropriate for later congregational use. 



PSALM XXL 183 



PSALM XXL, 2 PARTS I2 3 + RF. 2 3 . 

Ps. 21 is a Te Deum for the victory won by the king through 
divine help ; composed of two parts, each of twelve trimeters, and 
a couplet of refrain; the former during sacrifice rehearsing the 
reasons for thanksgiving (v. 27 ), with a chorus asserting the king's 
trust in Yahweh (v. 8 ) ; the latter after sacrifice, expressing certitude 
of future victories of the king (v. 9-13 ) with a fresh chorus of praise 

(v.»> 

yAHWEH, in Thy strength the king is glad, 
And in Thy victory he greatly rejoiceth ; 
Thou hast given him his heart's desire, 
And the request of his lips Thou hast not withheld ; 
For Thou earnest to meet him with blessings of good things; 
Thou settest on his head a crown of fine gold. 
Life he asked Thee, Thou gavest it him, 
Length of days forever and ever. 
His glory is great in Thy victory; 
Honour and majesty Thou layest on him ; 
For Thou givest him everlasting blessings ; 
Thou makest him joyful in Thy presence with gladness. 

Yea, the king is trusting in Yahweh, 

And through the kindness of 'Ely on he cannot be moved. 
Thine hand will find all thine enemies, 
Thy right hand find all those hating thee ; 
Thou wilt put them in a furnace of fire, 
In the time (of the setting) of thy face (against them). 
Yahweh will swallow them up in His anger, 
And the fire (of His rage) will devour them ; 
Their offspring thou wilt destroy from the earth, 
And their seed from among the sons of men. 
Though they have extended evil unto thee, 
Thought an evil device, they shall not prevail ; 
For thou wilt make them turn their shoulder in flight, 
With thy bowstrings thou wilt aim against their faces. 

Be Thou exalted, Yahweh, in Thy strength; 

We will sing and we will praise Thy might. 

Ps. 21 was in $B, then in |H and I91& (v. Intr. §§ 27, 31, 33). It is a royal 
Ps. like the 20th and its complement : the former a litany before a battle, 
the latter a Te Deum after a victory. It was therefore probably composed 
for the same occasion. That which was the theme of the petition was after- 
ward the theme of the thanksgiving. As Ps. 20 it has two parts : one of 
thanksgiving made during sacrifice, one of certitude after the sacrifice; each 
with its chorus. Some have thought of a Coronation Ps. because of the 



1 84 PSALMS 

reference to the crowning v 4 . But it is not necessary to think of that corona- 
tion as connected with the thanksgiving; we may suppose that it was at an 
earlier date, as was the request that follows it. It was only natural that the 
poet should go back to the coronation, a previous experience of blessing on 
the part of the king, as a prelude to the additional blessing of victory now 
enjoyed. 

Part I. has six couplets, all syn. except v. 5, which is synth. — 
2. In Thy strength], God's, exerted against the enemy in defeating 
them, and for the king, in giving him the victory, in which he 
greatly rejoiceth. The second line has been intensified by the in- 
sertion, by a later editor, of the exclamation " how " which was 
not in (3, 3, <£. — 3. His heart's desire || the request of his lips], 
that specified in 20 5 , for victory over enemies. — 4. For Thou 
earnest to meet him]. This causal clause, with imperfects between 
perfects, changes the tense as well as construction, in order to go 
back to the inauguration of the king which it vividly describes. 
The poet conceives that Yahweh Himself came to that festival 
with appropriate gifts. — blessings 0/ good things], the general wel- 
fare of the monarch in property and government. — Thou settest 
on his head]. Yahweh Himself was the chief actor, though the 
ceremonial was performed by His agents, probably the priests. 
The king was Yahweh's king, His son, in accordance with the 
covenant of David, making David's seed an everlasting dynasty for 
His people. — a crown of fine gold], the choicest gold for the 
royal crown. — 5. Life he asked], not because of previous illness 
or peril, but length of days], a petition for a long reign, undisturbed 
by perils of succession, as expressed in the usual address to kings, 
not only in Hebrew, cf. 72 15 1 S. io 24 2 S. 16 16 1 K. i 25 2 K. n 12 
Ne. 2 3 , but also among Egyptians, Babylonians, and other ancient 
nations. — forever and ever], not in the absolute sense of a never- 
ending life, and so realised alone in the Messiah, according to later 
conceptions ; but in the ordinary concrete sense of a very long 
time. — 6. His glory || honour and majesty], heaping up terms to 
represent the exaltation and renown of the king due to Thy victoty], 
recognising that it was Yahweh's gift to the king and that all this 
majesty was put upon him by his God. — 7. For Thou give st him], 
returning to the causal clause of v. 4 , in order to make a more gen- 
eral reference to the king's entire career j now in the climax de- 



PSALM XXL 185 

parting from the specific reference to the victory. — everlasting 
blessings'], sums up the blessings of good things of v. 4 , and the life, 
forever and ever of v. 5 . — in Thy presence]. The king as the son of 
God is conceived as not only enjoying the presence of Yahweh at 
his coronation and in the hour of victory ; but also as living in the 
presence and favour of Yahweh, and so as ever joyful and with 
gladness. — 8. The chorus, in a couplet of refrain, asserts that the 
king is trusting in Yahweh], the reason for all his experience of 
divine favour and blessing. It is through the kindness] as thus ex- 
hibited that he has the confidence that he cannot be moved ; he 
will be in the future, as in the past, firm and immovable, and not 
be shaken by any wars or troubles that may arise in his realm. — 
% Elyon], the name of God as the most High, the Exalted, is most 
appropriate in the mouth of the chorus, in the exaltation of His 
victory. 

Part II. is an antistr. to the first part. It seems to have been 
sung after the sacrifice had been made. It thus resembles the 
second part of Ps. 20. On that account it probably expresses 
certitude with reference to the future, and the imperfects should 
be conceived as futures ; although they might grammatically be 
rendered as jussives, expressing wish, as many interpreters would 
have them. Where the grammar does not decide, we have to de- 
pend upon the context and the circumstances of the Ps. This 
Str. has the same number of lines as the previous one, although ^ 
has abridged one of them ; there are also six couplets, all syn. but 
v. 10 , which is synth. — 9. Thine hand || Thy right hand . . . find], 
in pursuit in battle, overtaking, laying hold of thine enemies || those 
hating thee. — 10. Thou wilt put them in a furnace of fire], not as 
some, fig. of fiery indignation as expressed by the || in the time of 
the setting of thy face~]. This is the angry countenance, in accord- 
ance with the conception of God's wrath as a consuming fire, Is. 31 6 , 
and the fiery furnace of the day of judgment, Mai. 3 19 ; but inasmuch 
as these passages refer to God's anger, and this Ps. to the kings, the 
furnace is probably literal, in accordance with the cruel methods 
of war of the early Davidic monarchy, as shown in David's treat- 
ment of the Ammonites, 2 S. 12 31 . " He put them under saws, 
and under harrows of iron, and under axes of iron, and made them 
pass through the brick kiln." What David did to the Ammonites 



1 86 PSALMS 

his successors in the monarchy might be conceived as doing to 
other enemies. This interpretation, which is confirmed by v. 11 , 
was softened by a later editor into a simile, whether by mistaking 
2 in for 3 as, or intentionally, we may not be able to deter- 
mine. V. 10 in the present text and Vrss. is two pentameters. We 
cannot regard it as a gloss because the entire conception of the 
verse is primitive, and not such as a glossator would insert. The 
loss of this verse would reduce the Str. by four lines, and so destroy 
the exact proportion of the two parts of the Ps. The difficulty 
originated by the condensations of a prosaic copyist, if not by 
mistakes of copying. The verb has fallen out of the clause : In 
the time {of the setting) of thy face (against them); and the noun 
has fallen out of the clause : and the fire (of His rage) will devour 
them. The poet emphasizes the angry face of the king by putting 
in parall. with it the divine activity : Yahweh will swallow them 
up in His anger. — 11. Their offspring || their seed~\. The cruelty 
of ancient warfare, based on the principle of blood vengeance, 
which required children to avenge the blood of their parents, and 
descendants of a tribe to avenge the blood of their tribe, involved 
the apparent necessity of putting to death all male children in war 
in order to make such vengeance impossible. The poet simply 
shares these ancient conceptions, as expressed in the wars of ex- 
termination of the Canaanites at the conquest, Jos. 6 21 io 28-39 n 14 , 
and even in Pss. g 6 137 9 . — 12. Though they have extended unto 
thee || thought"], completed action in the future, in a hypothetical 
clause. — evil || evil device], the plan, the purpose, the attitude of 
enemies in the future may be evil. Even if they have planned a 
campaign of injury, they shall not prevail], they cannot succeed 
any more in the future than they have in the past. They will be 
defeated with humiliation. — 13. For thou wilt make them turn 
their shoulder in flight]. The reason for their flight is given in the 
parallel clause which otherwise would be inconsistent with it. — 
With thy bowstrings]. The bow was one of the chief weapons of 
Israel in the royal period, especially of the king, v. 2 S. i 18,22 , 
Ps. 45 5-6 . — thou wilt aim against their faces]. This deadly peril 
to the faces of the enemy, as the king and his army advanced 
against them, is, in the climax, in antith. to their backs as seen 
in retreat. — 14. The chorus appropriately concludes the festival 



PSALM XXI. 187 

by praising the strength || might of Yahweh, which has given the 
king the victory. They are impelled therefore not only to honour 
and magnify their king, but also to recognise that honour is due to 
Yahweh, and therefore they sing a glad choral : Be thou exalted, 
Yahweh. 

2. Sijj -id j Kt., hg~r\iD Qr. But nn is not translated by <&, &, 3; prob. as 
Hare, gl. to strengthen the text: original reading = isd- 1 ?.];. — 3. nwn] 
cstr. of niso n.f. v. 10 17 , in f usually of physical appetite; but thing desired 
in bad sense 78 2 , here in good sense. — ^f] <5 has rrjs if/vxys ai)roG = ^DJ 
more suitable to usage (v. 4 8 io 3 ). nrina] fully written for pr\: so v. 5 . I*? is 
poss. a gl.; no more needed here than in v. 36 , but cf. v 5a ; if original must 
have Makkeph ^~nnj. — fnEhK] n.f. cstr. request a.X. ^BhH not in Heb , 
but cf. As. erelu. — \ njMB] vb. Qal withhold; usually sq. p 84 12 , sq. S. — 
4. un"i|?n 13] Pi. impf. referring to past between pfs. v. 35 , come to meet,c. 2 
95 2 Dt. 23 5 ; double ace. here. Hare thinks the 2 has fallen off by haplog. — 
a"ia rVD*n] blessings consisting of welfare, prosperity Ps. 4 7 23 s 34 11 30/ 5 85 13 , 
or better, good things 103 5 104 28 107 9 v. 3 9 4 1 . — nn03|l crown a.X. \f/ for n-joj^ 
— 5. D\»n] emph. /?)£, /<?«£• life. — ?|DD] a gl., explanation not needed, im- 
pares measure ; for an original ^Sne>, <@> 777-170^x6 <re. — f 0^ H s ] Dt. 30 20 
Jb. 12 12 Pr. 3 2 - 16 La. 5 20 Pss. zfi 23 s 91 16 93 s . — i^i o^p] 9^/0** 21 5 457-18 
48 15 52 10 104 5 119 44 I45 1 - 2 - 2 ! Ex. 15 18 Mi. 4 6 Dn. 12 3 . — 6. mtfn] impf. de- 
scriptive of past victory, cf. 16 8 . — 7. ViP^rv^s] cf. v. 46 here c. double ace. 
in sense of give to; c. S pers. 9 21 . — n^S rflana] blessings forever || 3H3 ni3"U, 
therefore blessings given to the king and not " most blessed forever " AV., 
RV., taking n)313 as abst. pi. intensive. The usual sense of rvtf (8 7 ) with 
double ace. is, however, to make a thing over into another 18 12 21 13 84 7 88 9 
no 1 ; and c. ace. + a 21 10 83 1 ' 2 - 14 . — irmn] Pi. impf. 3 f., c. sf. 3 sg. of f n-n 
vb. Qal rejoice Ex. 18 9 (E) Jb. f (dub.) Pi. make joyful a.X. here.— 
9. N*pn] Qal impf. 3 f. of nxd come or light upon (often unexpectedly) ; so 
here c. S; befall, c. ace. 116 3 119 143 , cf. 89 21 . Return to 2d pers., referred to 
Yahweh by some, to king by others, the latter better. The repetition of nxd 
in this sense is rather tautological. Du. would change to man. <5£ has Sd 
before TNlfr, this prob. the correct text. — 10. lon^n] Qal impf. 2 m., c. sf. 
archaic 3 pi. as v. 13 . — trs nuns] a.X. as an oven of fire, 2 improb. rd. 2. 
■vnn ftirnace, a.X. \J/; but not uncommon elsw. — rpji nj?S] a/ the lime of 
thy presence, i.e. in anger, from context, cf. La. 4 16 . The line is defective. 
Insert nn as Lv. 20 s - 6 26 17 Ez. 14 8 , w:b jnj of angry looks, mm is attached 
to previous words to complete the line against $% by Ba, but Vrss. and most 
scholars attach it to subsequent words. — e ; n ctasrn vy'yii "<3N3 mm] as it stands 
is of a different measure, also 3d pers. appears for 2d pers. of preceding and 
following context. It interrupts either as gl., so Ba., Be., or as another voice, 
as above v. 8 . Two lines are needed here to make the second half of Ps. equal 
with the first half. We have only five words in the text where we need 



1 88 PSALMS 

six. The second 1. might easily be restored by inserting imap as Ez. 2I 38 

22 31 38 19 . 

DJ,' 1 ?^ 1«3N3 mm 

wnap rs dSsn™ 

t^a] vb. Qal swallow up, engulf; subj. pK 106 17 as Ex. 15 12 Nu. 16 80 , 
etc.; of devastation of enemy Ps. 124 3 Ho. 8 7 Je. 5 1 84 ; of calamity Ps. 69 16 . 
Pi. swallow tip, engulf 21 10 55 10 subj. '», 35' 2& subj. enemies. Hithp. />*? 
swallowed up, their wisdom Ps. 107- 7 . — 11. ''DnsJ archaic sf. 3 pi. of "no 
n.m. //-«//. — 12. njn W'] antith. to nonnoj : stretch out, extend hand, so <?.*- 
/*>*/ *** in the hand, cf. non Gn. 39- 1 (J), mktf Is. 66 12 . — % n;n n.f. : (1) «*/, 
misery, distress 34^ 91 10 I07 26 - 89 ; n;n tf» 27 s 41- Je. I7 17 - 18 51 2 ; p"»j?n «///y 
Pss. 34 20 40 13 7I» 88 4 141 6 (cf. Dt. 32 23 ); «n np Ps. 37 19 Je. 2 27 + 3 t. Am. 5" 
Mi. 2 8 Ec. 9 12 ; njn nxn Ps. 90 15 , cf. Je. 44 17 . (2) Evil, injury, wrong Pss. 2/ 12 
2S 3 35^ 52* 109 5 , -1 nfrj? c> 1 5 3 + . Obj. vbs. t 3»n 35 4 41 8 140 3 Gn. 50 20 (E) 
Je. 36 s 48* Mi. 2 ;! ; tip2 Ps. 71 182 *, cf. 1 S. 24 10 25 26 I K. 20 7 ; vhi Ps. 38 13 ; fen 
4 o 15 = 70 3 ; fa*?* 35 12 38^1 Gn. 44* (J) Je. iS 2j 51-'*. (3) Evil in ethical 
sense: "\2 rr?:j> 50 19 of speech, 94 23 107 34 . — •i t, ,v v ~ s ?] relative clause, which 
they cannot or could not, e.g. mirpS; ^ (v. 13 5 ). — 13. D3# toP^n ";] vb. 
with double ace. v. Ges.§ 117lV , Dr.§ 189ob9 -. The shoulder here for back, cf. 
r\y nju Jos. 7 12 Je. 48 39 (Hiph.); »p? ?nj Ps. 18 41 ; oatf njon 1 S. io 9 . — npip] 
n. bowstring, a.\. in this sense; elsw. tent cords, but not in ^, cf. nP> 11 2 . 



PSALM XXII., 5 str. io 3 . 

Ps. 22 is the lamentation of a great sufferer in peril of deadly 
enemies. In five strophes, the situation is vividly described : 

(1) He is forsaken by God in his extremity (v. 2-3 ), notwith- 
standing the fathers had ever been delivered by Him (v. 4 ^). 

(2) He is despised by the nations, as a mere worm, and mocked 
for his trust in God (v. 7 " 9 ), who has cared for him hitherto 
since his birth (v. 10-11 ). (3) He is abandoned to bulls and lions 
(v. 12-14 ), and is wasting away body and soul in agony (v. 15 ). 
(4) He is about to die by the cruelty of dogs (v. 16-17 ), who are 
greedily gazing on him, anxious for their prey (v. 18-19 ). (5) His 
life is abandoned to all these enemies, and in despair he prays 
for deliverance (v. 20-22 ), with the vow to praise Yahweh in the 
congregation of the temple (v. 2326 ). A later editor makes the 
deliverance more distinct by stating it as a fact (v. 24 ' 2527 ). A 
still later editor gives the deliverance a world-wide significance, 
with a meaning to subsequent generations (v. 2 * -32 ). 



i J SALM XX1J. 189 



TV/TY 'El, why dost Thou forsake me? 
Far from my salvation is my roaring. 
I cry in the daytime, but Thou answerest not; 
And in the night, there is no respite for me. 
But, O Thou (Yahweh), Holy One, 
Enthroned upon the praises of Israel; 
In Thee our fathers trusted, 

(In Thee) they trusted, and Thou didst deliver them, 
Unto Thee they cried and they escaped, 
In Thee they trusted and were not ashamed. 
"DUT I am a worm, and no man, 

A reproach of mankind, and despised of peoples. 

All seeing me deride me ; 

They let out (words), they shake their head, 

(Saying) " Roll on Yahweh, let Him deliver him ; 

Let Him rescue him, seeing that He delights in him." 

But, O Thou who drewest me forth from the belly, 

(My trust) upon the breast of my mother; 

Upon Thee was I cast from the womb. 

From the belly of my mother Thou art my 'Eh 

II. 

"RE not far from me, for there is distress; 
Be near, for there is no helper. 
Many bulls encompass me, 
Mighty ones of Bashan encircle me. 
They open wide upon me their mouth, 
As a lion rending and roaring. 
As water I am poured out ; 
Yea, all my bones are parted ; 
My heart is become like wax. 
It is melted in the midst of mine inwards. 
TVTY strength is dried up like a potsherd. 

And my tongue is made to cleave to my jaws* 

And in the dust of death (they) lay me. 

(Many) dogs encompass me, 

An assembly of maltreaters enclose me; 

They dig into my hands and my feet. 

I count all my bones; 

While they look, they stare upon me. 

They divide my garments among them, 

And on my clothing they cast lots. 

III. 

QH Thou, put not afar off my (hind) ; 
Yahweh, O haste to my help; 
O deliver from the sword my life, 
From the power of the dog mine only one. 



J90 rSALMS 

From the mouth of the lion save me, 

From the horns of the yore ox, mine afflicted one. 

Then will I declare Thy name to my brethren ; 

In the midst of the congregation will I praise Thee. 

From Thee will be my praise in the great congregation ; 

My vows will I pay in Thy presence. 

Ps. 22 was in JB; then in ffl and Eft (v. Intr. §§ 27, 31, 33). The latter 
designated the melody to which it was to be sung -trwn nW (v. Intr. § 34) : 
a hind in the dawn {leaps). This is referred by some Rabbins to the dawn 
itself as a hind leaping in fresh vigour; by others to the hind hunted in the 
early morning {v. De., Psalmen^ s. 225). The former would be a joyous 
melody not suited to the Ps.; the latter is most suitable, especially if there be 
a connection between the hind in the title and the rV?>K v.' 20 . The Ps. is 
composed of five trimeter decastichs, each of two sections, hexastich and 
tetrastich v. 2 " 6 ' 7 ~ n ' 12 ~^ 16 " 19 ' ^^ ^ These are arranged in three parts, each 
characterised by the use of pm v. 2 - 12 - *. The first two parts consist of Str. 
and Antistr., the third of a single Str. It is possible that the third also had an 
antistr. whose place has been taken up by the later additions to the Ps. The 
Ps. is a simple, graphic, and powerful description of a sufferer, trusting in God, 
though apparently forsaken by Him and left in the hands of cruel enemies, 
who have already brought him to the point of death. He yet continues his 
plaintive cry for deliverance, and concludes with a vow of thanksgiving in the 
congregation assembled in temple worship. The description is too varied for 
any individual experience. It heaps up similes and situations which are not 
always consistent, and which cannot be attached to any real historical event, 
either of a heroic sufferer, or of the pious part of the community, or of the 
nation itself. It is indeed an ideal situation such as that described in Lam. 
with reference to Jerusalem, and that of Is. 2 with reference to Mother Zion 
and the servant of Yahweh. In these writings many different situations are 
described in which individuals might be conceived as suffering, and are com- 
bined with national experiences, and the whole made into a mosaic of afflic- 
tion to represent the woes of a pious community, abandoned by God to their 
cruel foes. The ideal of the Ps. is so nearly related to the suffering servant 
of Is. 2 that there must be dependence of the one upon the other: vrnp v. 4 , 
cf. Is. 40 26 ; njrSin v. 7 , cf. Is. 41 14 ; op nra v. 7 , cf. Is. 497 53 s ; wh nSi v. 7 , cf. 
Is. 52 14 ; din ncnn v. 7 ,cf. Is. 51 7 . But the poet is also independent; for his use 
of animals, lions, bulls, dogs, for enemies, and probably also of the hind for 
himself is characteristic, and while not without example in Pss., is yet beyond 
anything else in the OT. The authors cannot be the same. The poets use, 
however, the same trimeter measure, and in the main the same ideals; and 
the historical situation which occasioned the poems is similar. If the suffer- 
ing servant of Is. 2 is exilic, that of the Ps. is post-exilic, for, (1) the reference 
to the fathers v. 5 is in the style of post-ex. writers, (2) the existence of the 
temple is implied in the assembly for worship, v. 23 - 26 ; the payment of vows, 



PSALM XXII. 191 

v. 26 ; and probably also the cherubic throne idealised in the niSnn of Israel, 
v. 4 , which in itself seems to imply the temple hymns. But we cannot go too 
far from the exile because, (1) Ps. 71 5 - 6 cites from v. 10-11 . (2) The use of ns 
v. 23 for the brethren of the Snp, cf. 133 1 , Pr, 6 19 , implies a time when the people 
were compacted by persecution into a brotherhood. (3) The kingdom or 
nation no longer exists. The persecutors are foreign nations, o^no my v. 17 , 
an organised body, over against the bnp of the people of God. They are 
compared to bulls v. 13 - 22 , lions v. 14 - 22 , and yet also to dogs v. 17 - 21 ; thus im- 
plying a number of enemies, and enemies of different characteristics. This 
is the situation of the infant community of the restoration, when they were 
exposed to the cruel and treacherous attacks of the minor nations as described 
in many Pss. of the period {v. Pss. 9-10 and Ne.). There is, in the fifth Str., 
the same kind of a distinction between the poet and the sufferer that we find 
also in Is. 53. This is due to the fact that the poet is not speaking altogether 
for himself, but for the pious community as the servant of God. And so he 
speaks of my hind || mine only one || mine afflicted one, as of my help, my life, 
and me, v. 20-22 . The sufferer is thus the ideal community, and the sufferings 
are idealised in a mosaic of varied experiences. The Ps. received additions 
in order to give it a wider outlook: (1) the fact that the sufferer was heard 
and answered, and that the entire seed of Jacob united in the praise of Yah- 
weh in sacrificial meals, is stated in v. 24-25 - 27 . In this section v. 27 in its use of 
W\r>, at the sacrificial meals at the temple, particularly in public praise, and 
the use of the phrase D33aS tv for D3PDJ »nn, Is. 55 s , implies a later period 
of composition. The vbs. in v. 27 have been changed from original imvs., as 
v. 24 , into 3 pi. in accordance with the subsequent pentameter. This was 
made easier by the separation of v. 27 from v. 24 - 25 by v.' 26 . (2) The world-wide 
significance of this deliverance is brought out in a pentameter heptastich. 
This addition was probably earlier than the other, and is similar to the com- 
bination of the trimeter and pentameter poems in Is. 2 {v. Br. MP339 ). This 
heptastich also has features of resemblance to the last parts of Is. 3 , especially 
in the conversion of the nations and their participation in the worship of 
Yahweh in sacrificial meals in Jerusalem, v. 28-30 , cf. Is. 66 19-23 . The concep- 
tion of Yahweh as the universal king, v. 29 , is in accordance with that of the 
royal group of Pss. 93, 95-100. For in:t ih, nSu ay, v . 31 " 32 ; cf. jnnx -m, 
n-dj oj?, 102 19 . All this indicates a period in which the minor persecuting 
nations have passed out of view, and the greater and more distant nations, 
who are not persecutors, but friendly, have come into the range of thought 
as hopeful converts to the God of Israel. This addition gave the earlier Ps. 
a wider outlook and made the deliverance of the sufferer of world-wide im- 
portance. The Ps. has been regarded by the Church from the most ancient 
times as the great Passion Ps., and it is the proper Ps. for Good Friday. This 
was due: (1) to the use of v. 2 by Jesus Himself when dying on the cross, 
Mt. 27 46 Mk. 1 5 s4 ; and the remarkable resemblance in the situation of Jesus 
at that time to the situation described in the Ps.; (2) the casting lots for His 
garments, v. 19 , Mk. 15 24 Jn. 19 23 - 24 ; (3) the parching thirst, v. 1G , Jn. ig 28 ~^; 



192 PSALMS 

(4) the agony of the stretched bones on the cross, v. 16 , and the digging into 
the hands and feet by the nailing to the cross, v. 17 ; (5) the cruel gazing on 
His sufferings, v. 18 , Mt. 27 3tM4 ; (6) the mocking of His enemies in the words of 
the Ps., v. 9 , cf. Mt. 2T 43 Lk. 2$*. It seems to the Christian that the psalmist 
indeed gives a more vivid description of the sufferings of Christ on the cross 
than the authors of the Gospels. Has the psalmist's description of the suffer- 
ing servant of Yahweh an accidental coincidence with the sufferings of Christ, 
or is the coincidence due to prophetic anticipation ? We cannot think of 
direct prophecy. The reference to a historical situation is unmistakable. But 
inasmuch as the poet, like the author of the conception of the suffering servant 
of Is.' 2 , idealises the sufferings of Israel, and gives his sufferer a mediatorial 
relation to the nations, and does this in order to hold up to the pious a com- 
forting conception of a divine purpose in their sufferings, we may suppose 
that this ideal was designed to prepare the minds of the people of God for 
the ultimate realisation of that purpose of redemption in a sufferer who first 
summed up in his historical experiences this ideal of suffering. In this sense 
the Ps. is Messianic {v. Br.*"* 82 *"*). 



Pt. I., Str. I. is composed of a trimeter tetrastich antith. to a 
trimeter hexastich. In the tetrastich, the experience of the suf- 
ferer is described, as the reverse of the experience of the fathers. 

— 2-3. My 'El\ the ancient poetic name of God, intensified by 
repetition by a later editor, but at the expense of the measure. — 
why dost Thou forsake me], expostulation with God for a situation 
which to the sufferer seems inexplicable, cf. Is. 49 14 . EV 8 . con- 
tinue the question through the next line, so Dr., Kirk. ; but it 
makes a difficult construction in Hebrew. The ancient Vrss. 
regard the second line as the beginning of the description of 
suffering, and this is easier and more natural. It begins a syn. 
tristich as the basis of the expostulation. — Far from my salva- 
tion^. There is an awful gap and appalling distance between the 
agony and the salvation from it. It is this long distance in time, 
this prolonged postponement of salvation, which the psalmist can- 
not understand. — is my roaring'], the loud continued outcry of 
intense suffering, lengthened by a prosaic copyist at the expense 
of the measure, and weakened into " words of my roaring." || I cry 
in the daytime, which passes over into, and in the night, all day 
and all night long. A later editor inserted " O my God," to 
emphasize the appeal to God, but at the expense of the measure. 

— Thou answerest not]. God is silent in this long interval. — 



PSALM XXII. 193 

— there is no respite for me]. His agony continues without inter- 
ruption, his cry for help has no pause. — 4-6. The expostulation is 
strengthened by a reference to the past experience of the fathers 
which was so different ; an appeal to Yahweh in a syn. couplet, 
and a statement of the experience of the fathers in a syn. tetra- 
stich. — O Thou {Yahweh), Holy One], an exclamation, not a state- 
ment of fact, "Thou art holy," which is tame and unpoetical, and 
not in accord with the state of mind of the sufferer. The divine 
name "Yahweh" is necessary to the measure; it was omitted by 
an unpoetic copyist. The term " Holy One " is characteristic of 
Isaiah, and represents God in His majestic aloofness, a concep- 
tion peculiarly appropriate here ; rather than in accordance with 
later ideas, God as the ethically complete and perfect Being. — 
Enthroned upon the praises of Israel r ], a poetical spiritualisa- 
tion of the more physical idea that He was enthroned upon the 
cherubim in the Holy of Holies of the temple, cf. Ps. 80 2 . 
Thither the praises of Israel were directed in temple worship ; 
thither they were conceived as entering, with the clouds of incense 
from the altar of incense, which stood in front of this most sacred 
place. This incense, whose very idea is to give efficacy to prayer 
and praise, sweetens them and makes them acceptable to Yahweh, 
goes up and envelopes the cherubic throne so that the throne 
of Yahweh is conceived as sustained by them. (3, U, 3 give a 
simpler text, " O Thou enthroned in the sanctuary, the praise of 
Israel," which is tempting, and followed by Genebr. and R. C. 
scholars generally ; but not by modern Protestants, who follow Calv. 
in the interpretation given above. Aug., Euthymius, al., interpret 
the holy as of holy persons. Horsley follows (3 except that he 
thinks of the abstract " holiness " instead of holy place. PBV. 
" And Thou continuest holy ; O Thou worship of Israel," is an 
intermediate rendering, which though advocated by the older 
English scholars such as Ham., Jebb, " is based on an untenable 
construction of the words," Kirk. — In Thee], emphatic in posi- 
tion, repeated in the second line, though omitted in J^ by a 
copyist's mistake at the expense of the measure ; so also in the 
fourth line, with the syn. unto Thee], required by its verb in 
the third line. — our fathers], the common subject of the verbs 
of the four lines, and so emphasized over against their suffering 



194 PSALMS 

descendants. — trusted '], repeated for emphasis in the second and 
fourth lines, with the intervening cried, of the third line, so plain- 
tively expressed, in view of the present situation. The fathers 
were not forsaken, as is their son. Thou didst deliver them || 
they escaped || they were not ashamed. This is the climax ; the 
shame of his present position was in its being so much the reverse 
of theirs. 

Str. II. is composed of a hexastich, describing his miserable 
situation, and a tetrastich of expostulation, based on his own 
previous experience. — 7. But I am a worm, and no man], tak- 
ing up the sense of shame, expressed in the last vb. of the previous 
str. He has lost his manhood and is become a miserable worm. 

— a ?'eproach of mankind], an object of reproach to mankind in 
general. — despised of peoples'], the nations by whom he was sur- 
rounded. Such is also the description of the servant of Yahweh 
in Is. 2 : "thou worm Jacob" 41 14 , "whom man despiseth," "de- 
spised of person," " abhorred of the nation " 49 7 , " the reproach 
of men " 5 i 7 , " so disfigured more than man was his appearance 
and his form than the sons of men" 52 14 , "despised, and for- 
saken of men ; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief" 53 s 
(v. Br. MP 349_;357 ) . — 8. All seeing me]. These same nations, looking 
upon the affliction of the people of God, have no compassion, but 
deride in word and gesture ; they let out {words'), so essentially <&, 
words that they would not venture to speak to a self-respecting 
people able to vindicate themselves ; they do not restrain them- 
selves, but give full vent to their maliciousness. This seems more 
appropriate to the use of the Hebrew term, and more in accord- 
ance with their words given in v. 9 , than the usual rendering, 
" shoot out the lip " EV\, explaining the original as an insulting 
gesture, although apparently sustained by similar expressions 35 21 
Jb. 16 10 . This interpretation was due to the insertion of the word 
"with the lip" in the text, with the same motive, at the expense 
cf the measure. But this is difficult to reconcile with the other 
uses of the Hebrew word, or with any known gesture of that time. 

— they shake their head]. This is the gesture of derision accom- 
panying their words. The same gesture appears in those who 
mocked the crucified Jesus. "And they that passed by railed 
on him, wagging their heads, and saying" Mt. 2 7 39 . — 9. Roll on 



PSALM XXII. 195 

Yahweh], so % imv. j "commit thyself" RV. ; "cast thyself" 
JPSV. ; which is better than ancient Vrss., which render as pf., 
so " He trusted " PBV., AV. The enemies say this in derision. 
The burden, to be rolled off on Yahweh, for Him to bear for His 
people, was the agony and reproach. — Seeing that He delights in 
him]. The people were well known to be trusting in Yahweh, 
their God, and as therefore presumably acceptable to Him, and 
delighted in by Him, cf. Wisd. 2 16sq -. The derision of suffering 
Israel is here, as ever, accompanied with the derision of Yahweh 
their God by the hostile nations. — 10. But, O Thou], emphatic 
repetition of personal address to Yahweh in antithesis to But I 
v. 7 ; better than the usual interpretation stating a fact, " Thou art 
He." This syn. tetrastich emphasises the previous experience, 
that Yahweh had not only taken an active part at the birth and 
during the infancy of the nation, but had continued to be their 
God without ceasing until the present, cf. Is. 46H — 11. My 'El], 
at the close of this Str. and at the beginning of the Ps., incloses 
the entire first part within this most comprehensive relation. 

Pt. II., Str. III. begins with a description of the external 
situation in three couplets, and concludes with the effect upon 
the person himself in two couplets. — 12. Be not far from me], 
renewing v. 26 , and renewed in v. 20a || Be near], the negative 
transformed into a positive, more probable than the present 
text, which makes "near," an adj. predicate of distress, at the 
expense of the measure and parallelism. — for there is distress 
\for there is no (other) helper], the reason for the plaintive 
appeal to God. — 13. Many bulls], intensified in mighty ones of 
Bashan], Bashan was famed for its rich pastures, fat cattle, and 
powerful and fierce bulls. The enemies are compared to them, 
cf. Am. 4 1 . They encompass || encircle], enclose and shut in on 
every side with their horns, cf. v. 22 , so that there is no escape, no 
one within that enclosure to help. — 14. Leaving the bulls and 
reverting to the enemies : they open wide upon me their mouth], 
in order to devour, swallow up. This statement is appropriate 
not to bulls, but to beasts of prey, and so as a lion rending and 
roaring], opening the mouth to roar as well as to devour. Cruel 
enemies are frequently compared to lions, see v. 22 f io 9 17 12 . — 
15. As water I am poured out'], so Jos. f, " the hearts of the 



196 PSALMS 

people melted and became as water." — all my bones are parted], 
each one distinct in pain, all aching and seeming as if they had 
broken apart ; both graphic descriptions of feverish anxiety. 
The reference to the heart is renewed and enlarged as the prin- 
cipal thing. It melts as if it were wax within him, cf. 68 3 . 

Str. IV. The antistr. is composed of two tristichs and two 
couplets. — 16. The agony of the previous tetrastich is continued, 
the result of the feverish anxiety is still further described. — My 
strength is dried up], is sapped ; the blood is dried up and the 
body is become brittle and breakable, like a potsherd, a piece of 
pottery. — My tongue is made to eleave to my jaws]. By intense 
thirst, the tongue adheres to the roof of the mouth so that he 
cannot use it, cf. Jn. 19 28 . — In the dust of death], a phrase 
especially appropriate not only to the previous context, the dry, 
brittle potsherd, but also because it involves the idea of the for- 
mation of the original man out of dust, as a potter makes his 
pottery, Gn. 2 1 , and also the conception of death as a return of 
the body to the dust, Gn. 3 19 . This is probably the reason why 
the 2 pers. sg. is given in J^, " Thou layest me," referring to God 
as the primary agent, instead of the simpler and more natural 3 pi. 
referring to the enemies, cf. v. 13 . — they lay me]. The enemies 
have been active against the sufferer, while his God, through it 
all, has remained afar off. — 17. {Many) dogs], so (3, U, PBV. 
|| " many bulls " v. 13 more suited to parallel. " For dogs," J^, 
AV., RV. The enemies are now compared to the more ignoble 
animals. Dogs in the OT. are the fierce prowlers of the night 
and scavengers of the streets, v. 2 K. 9 35 " 36 Pss. $g 7 15 68 24 Je. 15 s . 
They come in a pack, and so are called an assembly of mal- 
treaters], cf. 86 14 , greedy to seize, maul, and in every way maltreat 
their victim. — They dig into], the dogs with their teeth. — my 
hands and my feet]. The extremities are first gnawed by the dogs. 
This is the translation best sustained by the Vrss. and the context. 
EV 8 . " pierce " is not justified by the Hebrew word, and was due 
to a desire for a specific reference to the crucifixion. ^ " as a 
lion," used a word for lion not found elsewhere in \p for the usual 
word given above v. 14 , and not suited to the previous mention of 
dogs, or of hands and feet. The sufferer here v. 1Gc is lying in the 
dust in extreme peril of death, and his enemies have already 



PSALM XXII. 197 

begun to devour him. — 18. I count all my bones'], renewing v. 156 . 
Each one stands out with its own special ache. — While they look 
|| they stare], a circumstantial clause. While the enemies are 
looking with intense eagerness, staring greedily upon him, he is 
aching all over from head to foot, in all his framework of bones. 
The usual rendering, as an independent and emphatic clause, 
makes two lines in this verse, in no proper relation of parallelism, 
and justifies in a measure the proposal of some moderns to trans- 
fer v. 18a to the beginning of the Str. — 19. They divide || cast lots], 
returning from the dogs to the enemies they represent, as above 
v. 16c . They have stripped him of garments || clothing, and they 
divide these as their spoil in the usual way by lots. 

Str. V. is composed of a hexastich of petition and a tetrastich 
of vows. — 20-22. The Str. begins with a plea similar to that of 
v. 12 . — O Thou, put not far off], as (3, required by the object and 
to be preferred to J^ " be not far from." Yahweh has been trans- 
posed with my hind, because of a misconception of the meaning 
of the Hebrew word, which is usually interpreted after (3 as " my 
help " or " succour," by EV 8 . and most after 3 as " my strength." 
But really it is the same word as that in the title translated by 
(3 as " help," but pointed by J^ as " hind." Indeed the suffix, in 
accordance with Hebrew usage, which regards the soul as well as 
the body as resting on a common substratum, the person himself, 
(v. 42 s - 7 131 2 ) objectifies the soul as the seat of his suffering. It 
is first compared to a hind, hunted until its strength fails and it 
pants, ready to perish, cf. 42 s ; just as in the parallel v. 21ct my life, 
v. 215 mine only one (cf. 35 17 ), as his unique priceless possession, 
and again in v. 226 after (3, mine afflicted one. Here also later 
copyists, not understanding the original usage, interpret it in MT. 
as vb. pf. 2 m. "Thou hast answered me," making a very abrupt 
conclusion to the petition, by a single word of divine response, 
and making it difficult to explain the phrase from the horns of the 
yore ox, which occasions great difference of opinion among inter- 
preters. In fact the six lines all rhyme in i. Each couplet has 
its verb. — O haste to my help], a phrase frequent in Pss. of 
lamentation || deliver || save. The four kinds of enemies of the 
previous Str. appear also in this climax of petition : the sword of 
the enemies themselves, the dog, the lion, the yore ox. The latter 



198 PSALMS 

is an intensification of the bulls of Bashan, and refers to that large, 
fierce bull of ancient times which has now become extinct. — 
23, 26. The petition is sustained by a vow in four lines : / will 
declare Thy name], make it known as a saving name, praise || pay 
vows], make votive offerings. The declaration is to be to my 
brethren], those associated in the community of God's people. 
See Heb. 2 12 , where these words are put in the mouth of Christ. — 
the great congregation] assembled for worship in the temple. — 
in Thy presence], before the sacred place where Yahweh dwelt, in 
the most Holy Place of the temple. The phrase, From Thee] is 
probably to be interpreted as the source of the deliverance, and 
therefore of the praise for it. This last couplet, which is parallel 
to the previous couplet, has been separated by the insertion of a 
gloss v. 24-25 which changes the reference to God to the 3d pers., 
and so makes awkward changes to and from 2d to 3d pers., and 
also destroys the organisation of the Str. The original Ps. comes 
to an appropriate close here with a vow of public recognition and 
thankoffering in the temple for the deliverance, the prayer for 
which has been the theme of the Ps. 

24-25. This piece is composed of two syn. trimeter triplets. 
It is a call upon the congregation to praise Yahweh because of 
His deliverance of the afflicted people. It is a generalisation 
of the situation by a later editor. 

Ye that fear Yahweh praise Him, 

All the seed of Jacob glorify Him, 

All the seed of Israel stand in awe of Him ; 

For He hath not abhorred to answer the afflicted, 

And He hath not hid His face, 

But when he cried unto Him He heard. 

24. Ye that fear Yahweh], those that have the religion of 
Yahweh and are in the habit of doing reverence to Him. — All 
the seed of Jacob || seed of Israel], phrases for the people Is. 45 1925 
Je. 3 1 36 - * ^y 6 . — praise \\ glorify || stand in awe], usual phrases 
of public worship. — 25. For He hath not abhorred]. This strong 
and unusual term, in this connection, received a milder variant in 
the margin, " He hath not despised," which subsequently came 
into the text by conflation and so destroyed the measure. The 
uncommon expression is weakened in the following line to the 



PSALM XXII. 199 

usual one, hath not hid His face, and the ordinary one, heard. — 
to answer the afflicted]. This seems to be the best interpretation 
of the unpointed text, taking the first word as infin. construct of 
the vb. " answer " after (&. But J^ points it as abstract noun from 
the stem meaning affliction, which gives us the tautological " afflic- 
tion of the afflicted," AV., RV., 3 modestiam, so Aq. takes it as 
another abstract noun, PBV. " low estate," which gives a better 
sense, but is not suited to the context. 

27. This tristich resembles in form the previous two, v. 24-25 , of 
which it was originally a continuation ; but it changes from 2d to 
3d pi., and in this respect agrees with subsequent context. 

The afflicted will eat and be satisfied ; 
Those who seek Him will praise Yahweh, 
Saying, " Let your heart live forever." 

The afflicted"], pi. for the sg. v. 25a . — will eat and be satisfied], 
partake of the thankofferings in the temple, as Calv., Ges., De W., 
Hi. ; and not to be understood in a merely spiritual sense, as Ew., 
De., or in the still more general sense of refreshment by divine 
blessing Hu., cf. 23 s . — Those who seek Him] are worshippers in 
general ; they praise Yahweh. — Let your heart live forever]. 
Owing to the change of person this can only be words of those 
who seek Yahweh, addressed to the afflicted ; and therefore con- 
gratulatory, and wishing perpetual health and prosperity to them, 
as an antidote to their previous affliction. The heart stands here 
for the man himself, in late usage, confounding zb with ttfB3. 

28-32. This is a pentameter heptastich, a later addition to the 
Ps., composed of a triplet and two couplets. 

All the ends of the earth will remember, and they will turn unto Yahweh, 

And all the families of the nations will worship before Him; 

For unto Yahweh belongs the kingdom, and He rules over the nations. 

Have all the fat ones of earth eaten and worshipped, 

Then will bow down all about to descend to the dust, and he who doth not keep 

himself alive. 
A seed will serve Him. It will be told to a generation to come; 
And they will declare His righteousness to a people to be born, that He hath 

done (it). 

28. All the ends of the earth], as 2 8 67 s 72 s Is. 45 22 52 10 , to 
comprehend the entire earth. — all the families oj the nations], cf. 



200 PSALMS 

Ps. 96* : all the families or clans into which the nations may be 
subdivided, with a probable reference to the patriarchal blessings, 
Gn. 12 3 28 14 . — will remember], call to mind their obligations to 
Yahweh, whom they have forgotten in going after other gods, and 
so, will turn, in repentance for previous neglect, in entire change 
of attitude, unto Yahweh, so that Yahweh will be recognised as 
the universal God. — and worship before Him'], unite in the pre- 
scribed worship in His temple. J^ " before Thee " is certainly an 
error of a copyist. (@> has the correct text. — 29. For unto Yah- 
weh belongs the kingdom]. The reason for the conversion of the 
nations is that they all are in His kingdom, subject to His 
dominion. He rules over the nations as the universal king. — 
30. Two classes of worshippers are brought into sharp antithesis : 
all the fat ones of earth], the rich, prosperous, powerful nations, 
and all about to descend to the dust], those decaying, dying, who 
are going down to the Pit 28 1 30 4 10 88 5 143 7 , to Sheol 55™, an 
expression used frequently of dying nations, Is. 14 15 Ez. 26 20 
32 18 - 30 . — He who doth not keep himself alive], the nation unable 
to protect its life against more powerful neighbours seeking to 
destroy it. The Vrss. and interpreters have many suggestions 
here, but none of them are so simple as Jff, which gives an 
explanatory complement to the previous clause. This does not 
refer to the nations in Sheol after death, in contrast with those 
still alive on earth, for this would leave us with only the rich 
nations worshipping Yahweh on earth. The context demands 
poor, feeble nations, and that is admirably expressed in the terms 
above where they are represented as dying. The ptc. represents 
rather the process than the result. The rich and prosperous 
come first, in a clause which is conditional in form. Have they 
eaten and worshipped], taken part in the sacrificial meals of the 
temple, and worshipped in connection with these sacrifices ; 
then will bow down], in the prostration of worship, the other 
class also, the poor and perishing nations, and so the worship of 
Yahweh will be universal. The universality of worship having 
been stated as to its comprehending all nations and classes, it is 
now represented in temporal forms. — 31. A seed will sewe Him], 
a seed descending from the nations mentioned above, their next 
generation. — 7/ will be told to a generation to come], either the 



PSALM XXII. 20 1 

seed previously mentioned, or more probably a generation to 
come after them, a second generation. The measure and paral- 
lelism requires the exclusion of " of the Lord" as a gloss, and the 
attachment of " come " to this line with (H, rather than to the 
next with Jfy. — 32. And they will declare His righteousness'], His 
vindication of His suffering servant, His salvation of His people, 
in accordance with the usual meaning of righteousness in \\i and 
Is. 23 . — to a people to be born], a people in the distant future, 
beyond the second generation, after this universal conversion of 
the nations ; a people not yet born, but ultimately to be bom, 
probably conceived as summing up all the nations in itself, in 
accordance with concept, cf. Ps. 87, where one after another is 
born in Zion and all inscribed as citizens. — That He hath done 
(it)], the salvation He has wrought; in the full sense of this 
universal conversion, and worship of Yahweh in Jerusalem. This 
ideal is a Messianic ideal, as connected with a sufferer whose 
suffering is mediatorial, and whose salvation mediates universal 
salvation. 

2-3. unary nth *hx 'hvt], <& has 6 0e6$ 6 0e6$ fiov 7rp6<r%es fxoi = ^-r\fm >hn h* t 
v. v. 20 . Che. and Du. think that $% has been shortened and rd. *h nan^pn; but 
(S gives the clue to the insertion, if one is thought necessary. Toy thinks <f§ 
rd. second •'Sn as a prep., My God unto me (attend), so Hare >Sk Bn. This 
would make two trimeter lines instead of one in first half of v. — »njpe^p] Hi., 

Dy., Gr., Ehr. rd. ^ntntato, 'riKtf *"].;n] © has ol \6yoi tQp it a pair r W fidr uv 

p.ov = ipiotf na'l affairs of my errors, so U, cf. 19 13 . — ^Sn] is a gloss. It 
certainly does not go with v. 3 . V. 2a is given in NT. in : 

Mt. 27 46 | * Xw£ * Xw * Xe ^<* o-a^axdapei; 

\ — Gee" fiov Bee" fiov, tva tL fie iyKartXnres; (as ©). 
Mir tcS*/ A«£ iXcai Xafioi. o-a.j3ax0ct.vel; 

\ = Qe6s fiov [6 0e6s fiov~\, els tL e'yKare'Xure's fie; 

& ynpav no "?WD J?* *h«. Cod. D for Mt. and Mk. rds. : r/Xel Xafia fa<p0avel, 
which, according to Resch, implies a Heb. original unajP; for Aram. pas\ 
If Ps. is a trimeter, it is not difficult to explain the glosses, which destroy the 
measure. It was natural that ^n should be repeated for greater emphasis. 
The pirn is sustained by its use in v. 12 - 20 ; therefore we must regard n:n as 
an unnecessary addition. tiSn is the usual insertion of the divine name. 

Therefore read : 

•unary ncS *>Sn 

vuk* >njne»D pirn 



202 PSALMS 

irpbs at of <S after K€Kpd£o/xai is a prosaic addition, "v nan is taken by AV. 
as || t;?V£"> and so the force of nnS is retained. It is better to regard the 1. 
as statement of fact upon which the anxious plea is based : so (Jg, 3, 9, Aq., {£, 
2, Quinta and Sexta, also Horsley, Ba., al. — f nnttf n.f. roaring in agony, of 
person Ps. 22 2 32 s , pi. Jb. 3 24 ; elsw. of lion Is. 5 >29 Ez. 19" Zc. II 8 Jb. 4 10 
(v. vb. in v. 14 ). — f n ;r^] n -f- «/**« : elsw. 39 s 62 2 65 s (all dub.) ; 3 silentium, 
<S ei's Avoiav = folly. Hatch {Essays in Biblical Greek, p. 174) rds. avdav 
(from dvl7]/j.i, rare word, not in Lex. of Liddell and Scott) ; not silence from 
groanings or complaint, but from trouble; no remission of, no respite from, 
pain. — 4. tfnq nrixi] shortened 1. in ffi. But <J§ ait ot ly 07^ KaroiKeTs 6 
eiraivos rod 'iapa^X; U »« sancto habitas, laus Israel: 3 <f/ /# sancte : habi- 
tator, laus Israel, rd. vhjp and nSnn sg., " habitans in loco, nempe tabernaculo, 
quae Israelis laus est," Hare; S iv ay Lois KaroiKeis; Du. follows this and 
adds after Israel "p, omitted because of rja in next 1. Gr. inserts dotoi after 
3B^ and Nnu before PlVnn. But this is unnecessary, t^ is a favourite term 
for God in Is. 1 - 2 - 8 (37. /#), cf. Fss. 71 22 78 41 89 19 . Insert mm as Bi. to make 
up 1. as in v. 20 . — rY^nn] praises regarded as a cloud upon which Yahweh is 
enthroned (v. 2^ and Intr. § 1). — 5. inog], r\2 should be prefixed tov. 56 
before VIM as in 5° and 6 h to make up measure; in all these cases it is emph. 
n'J2 (v. 4 6 9 11 ). — ^DO^pni] 1 consec. expressing result; full sf. for D_. For o s o 
v. 17 18 . — 6. whppj] 1 coord., Niph. pf. 3 pi. of \ 2 S £. Niph. slip away, escape 
I24 7 - 7 , as often in early Lit. Ju. 3 >29 1 S. 19 10 Am. 9 1 ; so here, no sufficient 
reason for later pass., be delivered (WL. and Dn. 12 1 ). Pi. deliver Ps. 41 2 , 
c. JD 107 20 . u ; dj 137D .raz* life 89 49 116 4 1 S. 19 11 Je. 48 s Am. 2 14 - 15 ; vbi 
omitted Ps. 33 17 , as Am. 2 16 . — 7. *3Jn] emph. antith. nnx v. 4 ; full form as 
46 11 50 7 81 11 91 16 104 34 141 10 (v. Br! H «™).— Xr^n] worm, cf. Is. 41 14 
apy nj^in. — B^K'kSi] to make it more emph.: no man as he should be 
(antith. with animals), cf. 147 10 . — D*in rsnn] object of reproach by mankind, 
cf. 39 9 *9fl 'n, also 6 nfl-in 31 12 79 4 89 42 109 26 Je. 6 10 (+ 5 t. Je.), v. also 15 3 . 
— ojr v in] ptc. pass, of nra one despised, cf. Is. 49 7 vdi fits, 53 s c , 2" , n Snm noj, 
Je. 49 15 2"<N2 V V3. — 8. »S iJi7:] Hiph. impf., J j;'S miafc, deride, cf. ^ 59° 
80 7 for Qal., not elsw. in \f/ but Hiph. Ne. 2 19 3 s8 + ; Qal is early, Hiph. late. 
There is no good reason for pointing Hiph. here; ugj?i is just as good here as 
in Ps. 8o T . Hiph. pointing assimilated to next vb. n»BD* Hiph. Impf. of 
X "VJD Hiph. separate with the lip, open wide with an insulting expression, only 
here (22 8 ), elsw. Qal. set free from duty 2 Ch. 23 s , let out waters Pr. 17 14 
(eg. in strife). <S i\d\7](Tav h x^l-Xeaiv, U locuti sunt labiis : " blasphemy " 
Genebr., cf. rip out (an oath), 3 dimittunt labium, n^fra is a gl. ; without 
it the mng. is simply let out. — vx^ v;\r] phr. 109 25 2 K. 19 21 = Is. 37 22 , sq. 
S; Jb. 16 4 , of mocking, cf. Mt. 27 s9 ; form of vb. Hiph. impf. 3 pi. of $ jnj. 
Hiph. in above phr. and in 59 12 (dub.) cause to stagger along, elsw. Qal stagger, 
as a drunkard 107 27 , as a vagabond I09 10 - 10 , cf. 59 16 Am. 4 8 . — 9. Sj] imv. of 
Vm vb. roll, so De., Ba., Dr., but <g, 3, &, Mt. 27 48 , Ew., Bi., Du., AV., RV." 
hi pf. 3 m. K6. s . vntax n7c inf. abs., J S^j in \j/ only 119 22 (sq. Sj?D) 37 s (c. 1 Sj?), 
and here, Sn incorrect for "?£. Vb. TOnS is implied as often in poetry. — 



PSALM XXII. 203 

10. nnN-o] begins a new Str., cf. v. 4a antith. v. r °, 3 autem, <g 6'rt, so Aq., V. 

— •■ru] = >v* 71 6 (derived from this passage, but prob. error for Mil*). *ru 
ptc. of nru draw forth, so <§, &: || rpj Jb. 38 s burst forth of babe from womb; 
propugnator meus 3, similarly Aq. is after Aram. mng. of rvi also transitive. 
But K6. L 505 regards it as ptc. rvj. — , ryto:ir!] Hiph. ptc. of naa (cf. v. 5 ), but <g 
has i] iXiris /jlov,3 fiducia mea = TMD3B, so H, <S, PBV., cf. 71 5 *]vi?JD ">noai? and 
that is doubtless correct. % H33D n.[m.] in i/' only, obj. of confidence elsw. 40 5 65 s 
71 5 . — 11. rpS"] emph. as v. 5 . — nn« <Sk] Du. would rd. *3K for >Sx, but that 
would be an anachronism in biblical theology. The 1. is too long, unless 
we connect with Makkeph, rw»oSH. — 12. nanp n'vpa prnn Sn] ; juss. of 
pm, cf. v. 26 . % pm vb. Qal ^ or become distant, Yahweh subj. 22 12 - 2 <> 35 s2 38 22 
71 12 , blessing 109 17 , elsw. 103 12 119 150 . Hiph.: (1) intr. remove 88 9 - 19 103 12 ; 
(2) trans. 55 s . L. I is too long and 1. 2 too short. Du. inserts mm to get 
three lines, but 1. 3 still has but four syllables for three tones. Better divide 
at ms and rd. nanp imv. of anpj then we have antith. parall. — 13. "onnr] 
enclose me : Pi. pf. % [" ,n:3 ] v ^- surround, Pi. elsw. Ju. 20 43 , of surrounding 
enemy. Hiph. Hb. I 4 (as Pi.) Ps. 142 8 (?). — f#3 **V3K] bulls of Bashan. 
J"V3N adj. mighty, valiant : (1) 3^ n^3« Ps. 76 s Is. 46 12 ; (2) of angels 
Ps. 78 25 , cf. 103 20 ; (3) of bulls, elsw. for princes 68 31 , and so in sacrifice 50 13 . 
\ fttb n. pr. country E. of Jordan, esp. between sea of Galilee and Mts. of 
Hauran, and from Jabbok north to Hermon, elsw. in \f/, 68 16 - 16, 23 135 11 136 20 . 

— 15. '$3»0J d:P5] cf. Jos. y 5 , also La. 2 19 Ps. 58 s . The 1. is too short. Pre- 
fix vjjni as v. 7a or let -ojn follow. — n^snni] 1 coord Hithp. pf. X Tia divide. 
fHithp. be divided, separated, parted from each other, elsw. Jb. 41 9 of scales 
of crocodile, Jb. 4 11 Ps. 92 10 be scattered, dispersed. — aria] like wax, alw. sim. 
of melting, cf. 68 3 97 5 Mi. I 4 . — Dpi] Niph. pf. of X DD ~] VD - melt, not used in 
Qal except Is. io 18 , but Niph. melt away 68 3 97 s 112 10 , fig. faint, grow fearful 
22 15 , as frequently in D. Hiph. cause to melt, intimidate Dt. I 28 , elsw. Hiph. 
formed from HDD (v. 6 7 ). — J [ n JJS] n ' m - on ty pl« inwards, intestines, usual 
mng. not in \p, but, (1) womb 71 6 ; (2) || 3 1 ? inner man, elsw. 40 9 . — 16. "nr] sf. 
1 pers. J n~, n.m. strength, power: (1) human strength: (a) physical vigour 
in general 31 11 38 11 71 9 102 24 , so here <&, 3; but Ols., Ew., Ba., Kau., Oort, 
Ehr., JPSV. rd. >an palate, on account of || \xih\ power opp. to that of God 
33 16 ; (2) strength of 'angels 103 20 ; (3) power of God in creation 65 7 ; PfcrjJD na 
III 6 ; God is np 3"] 147 5 , cf. Ina an Is. 63 1 Jb. 23 s , ns'a 1 S^p Ps. 29 4 (of 
thunder). — 'rnpSc] a.X. pi. sf. yftlpS: jaws as taking, seizing food. — 
ni.D nay] <aW <?/ death, phr. a.X., but cf. nay mr v. 30 , 7 \2a1r Is. 26 19 , 
y ddin yen Dn. 12 2 , aarx '?S Jb. 7 21 , c. hy Jb. 20 11 2i 2C . — W?ft<fo] Qal 
impf. 2 m., c. sf. I sing, of t niHP vb. Qal .&?/, ^/lr, /«/, /ay : here impf. for 
present, referring back to God as primary agent, thou art laying me ; this seems 
strange in the midst of the description: rather rd. 3 pi. as above; vb. elsw. 
Is. 26 12 2 K. 4 38 Ez. 24 s - 3 . — 17. \ 3*3^3] dogs, as ignoble animals, elsw. in \f/, 
V- 2i 597.15 6g24. here || ana as noble ones v. 13a . <3 has Ki^es -rroXXoi = doi DoSr, 
so Jer. in Com., Hare, Horsley; this prob. correct, but then >a should be striken 
out. — 3^p rnp] fig. passes over into reality, cf. o^ny *p 86 14 , rpn *j? Jb. 15 34 , 



204 PSALMS 

D'van 7 Ps. 68 31 (fig. nobles), rn? (v. / 5 ). D»jTJD Hiph. ptc. pi. Jwn vb. 
Qal ^ injurious, evil, c. s 106 32 . Hiph.: (i) do an injury, hurt, here abs., 
c. S 105 15 (= c. 1 1 Ch. 16' 22 ), c. ace. pers. Ps. 44 s , c. 3 74*. jn.-i*? do something 
to one's own hurt 15 4 (cf. Lv. 5* P), but improb. rd. jr£ as <S; (2) do evil 
wickedly abs. 37 s , pi. ptc. 27 s 37 1,9 92 12 94 16 119 116 , no Snp 26 6 , no i D 64 s . 
— n ? ? ] ^ ' 7 ^ w » Rabbins, Hi., Koster, Hu., Ehr., al.; but ns is not elsw. \f/ 
only nns as v. 14 . Moreover the fig. of lion and bulls has been left for that of 
ignoble dogs. (S &pv%av, 1J foderunt — nN3 = ro or no i?DB, Bu. dig, so 
Compl., Cap., Ham., De., Ba\, Oort, al. Others as Pocock, Phillips, Pe., Moll, 
Ko.'y tax - p- m , interpret as ptc. pi., either cstr. nitb or defective. 3 vinxerunt, 
Aq.' 2 lirtbyaav, 2 ws ftrovvres 5^<rai = nNj = they bound ; so J5 and among mod- 
erns Ew. Aq. 1 tfax vvav > Aram. ">S3 = 1JJ3 they soiled, or marred, so Du., who rds. 
nNr. (£ has a conflation of noun and vb. showing an uncertainty in early 
Jewish opinion. Ols., Bruston, We. regard the 1. as a gl., but without ground, 
for it is needed to complete the Str. — 18. "v?px] Pi. impf. 1 sg. The 1. is 
|| v. 156 . The interposition of 1 sg. between lines of 3 pers. leads some to trans- 
pose 1. to the beginning of Str. v. 16a ; but it is more forceful as it is. — hep] 
emph. summing up, or better, to indicate circumstantial clause. — *b*;p] impf. 
of description || wy — 19. ^"yj ^Pl] cast lot, cf. 16 5 lot for portion assigned 
by \ also 125 8 c^nsn Sm — 20. nnsi] emph. introducing a new section, 
cf. v. 1 - " a . — ^-Vvn] 0:\. (& tt)p fiorfdeidv fiov, obj. of firj iia.Kpvvrj$. 3 fortitudo 
mea connecting with *mr?S as |^. The word is abstr. in form, but improb. 
in itself and difficult to explain, whether from ^in or S'N. This v. is used in 
essentially the same terms : 





n 




''JIN 


•mryS riBhn 


^CD 


prnn 


Sn 


^dSn; 


40" 


= 


70 2 


nuhn 


*m?pS 


nw ; 










7I 12 






nehn 


*m?p 


>n^N 


'JDD 


pmr 


iSn 


DVI^N. 



In 38 23 "jin stands for an original nw; therefore the last clause has always 
nw except in 71 1 ' 2 E, which has changed an original nw in the first clause to 
dviSn. The nvT in the original of the first clause here would sufficiently 
account for the *n*?H in the second. Accordingly Gr. thinks the original here 
was nrm nx compressed into Tnw. It is noteworthy that (3 interprets n'vK 
of title as vwtp 7-77$ avriX-fixf/ews, the same word that it uses for *mTJ7 here. 
This shows that in the original text the two words were regarded as syn., and 
that the 1 of v. 20 is fully written 1 of interpretation. If the original was pSk, 
we might in both cases rd. p^»n and think of the vol as the r^s in accordance 
with 42 s . In this case it goes with 1. 1 || *rnw of v. 216 , and we would have a 
rhyme in V for each 1. of this Str. if »m?p also is transposed to the end of 1. 
nw would then go with neftn *nnrpS as in the other similar passages. We 
must then follow (5 and make the vb. Pi. or Hiph. with hind the obj. — 
I -n?::] n.f. : (1) help, succour from \ elsw. 38 23 40 14 70 2 71 12 , mo 60 13 = 108 13 ; 
(2) embodied help, one who helps, of "• 27 s 35 2 40 18 44 s7 46 2 63 s 94 17 . — 
nrrn ^nnr^] phr. elsw. 40 14 = 70 2 71 12 with words transposed 38 23 . % u ; n vh. 
Qal haste, make haste 119"' ; imv. as above, elsw. sq. »S 70 6 141 1 . Hiph. trans. 



PSALM XXII. 205 

hasten 55 s . — 21. *rnw] my only one. % "vrv adj. || vd), also 35 17 as the one 
unique and priceless possession, elsw. in \J/ solitary, alone 25 16 68 7 141 10 (<g). — 

22. , J>?/t£ ; ''i] Hiph. imv. (v.3 8 ) should go to the end of 1. for rhyme. — ETCH] = 
Dip the yore ox, the gigantic bull of ancient times, cf. 29° 92 11 Nu. 23 22 24 s (E) 
Dt. 33 11 , <& /j.ovoic4pu)s, unicorn, so 3. — ^JS,] pf- statement of fact : thou 
hast heard me, so Aq., %, cf. v. 16 ° impf.; <& tt)v Tairelvualv /jlov, &, 3J, cf. 2 
tt]v k&ku<jIv ixov, cf. nuy i8 36 (?) a late word. Thrupp, Oort, We., Ba. »n»w 
#zy /<?cr soul. This is doubtless correct and was prob. in text of <3. — 

23. nnsDN] Pi. impf. cohort, expressing resolution (v. v. 18a ), obj. Dtf of 
Yahweh (v. 5 12 ), so 102 22 , nnj 19 2 96 s , niNSoj 9 2 26 7 -f. — Jnx] n.m. : 
(1) real brother 49 s 50 20 69 9 ; (2) friend 35 14 122 8 2 S. I 26 I K. 9 13 20 32 - 33 ; 
(3) me?nber of the congregation Pss. 22 23 I33 1 ' of the unity of the brother- 
hood Pr. 6 19 . This is public worship in the \ *?np n.m. assembly, convocation, 
congregation : (1) of evil doers 26 5 , cf. 22 17 ; (2) assemblage for worship, so 
here, 107 32 , 2~\ bnp v. 26 35 18 40 10 - 11 ; (3) of the pious 149 1 ; (4) of angels 
89°. — 24. "1 W'v] = the god-fearing (v. j 7 ). A change here to 3 pers. from 
2pers.; not original. — 3pS^ JHT Ss] phr. a.X., cf. apjP jnr Is. 45 19 Je. 33 26 . 
|| •jjofen jpr S;, elsw. 2 K. 17 20 Is. 45 25 Je. 31 37 , without Sd Ne. 9 2 Je. 31 36 
1 Ch. 16 13 ; Post-deuteron. usage shewing influence of Je. and Is. 2 . — «DD rvm] 
i coord. Qal imv. J ~vu vb. Qal stand in awe of, c. fC, elsw. 33 s , usually ^ 
a/h«V 0/ sq. ^dd Nu. 22 3 Dt. i 1T 1 S. 18 15 , }D Jb. 19 29 ; but Dt. 32 27 c. ace, 
therefore rd. here v>nu in assonance with -inro:> and imSS-i. A later copyist 
followed the more common prosaic usage with JD. The measure requires the 
change. — 25. htn 1 ? ^r]. nr 2 (15 4 ) usually despise, regard with conte?npt : so 
5 1 19 69 s4 73 20 102 18 , cf. v. 7 . This is either a defective 1. in which nay should 
be inserted, or, as Du., an explanatory gl. to next vb. — f fplff"] vb. denom. 
abhor, elsw. Lv. nil. 13.43 2 o 25 Dt. 7 26, 26 . — njy] a.X. usually explained as 
n.f. affliction; <S be-qaei, £>, @E imply another word such as npJJS || v;r&. But 
npj?S is not easily changed into nwp in any transliteration. We might take it 
as mjj? , inf. cstr. of njp answer, abhor to answer, paraphrased into the petition 
answered. 3 modestiam, prob. rd. PW from n>v: : humility, meekness, so Aq. 
V? (z\ 9 i3 ). — d^jd -\TDn] subj. '", c. p 5 1 11 , abs. io 11 , withdraw from 13 2 22 25 
27 9 69 18 88 15 102 3 143 7 , abs. 30 8 . — MOD] so J, <!I has d7r' i/xov, Y a me, prob. 
both gl. of interp. — '•jwa] Pi. inf. cstr. sf. 3 m., c. 3 temporal {v. j 3 ). <3, V 
i';Y£'2, better suited to their interpretation of rr;. Sfs. in all cases interp. — 
26. ^nx?] from thy presence, of God, cf. 109 20 118 23 . Jn«p from proximity 
with — de chez, cf. Djrp : pxd Hiffl 24 s , bear away from, as a gift; pno Snc ; 27* 
Ju. i 14 1 K. 2 !6 ask from ; n«D TDn Ps. 66 20 remove from ; HMD rpn u8' 23 
come from ; source in Yahweh a?* 109 20 . This return to the 2 pers. is diffi- 
cult in the midst of the 3 pers. It seems to go with v. 23 ; if so, the intervening 
matter is a gl. — 3*> Vnna] phr. elsw. 35 18 40 10 - 11 (v. v. 23 ) numerous con- 
gregation. — 0W5] Pi. impf. fahv vb. be completed, finished. Pi. in \j/ only 
(1) pay or perform: c. ace, vows omj Iff 22^ 61 9 ; c. h of God 50 14 66 13 
Ii6 14 - 18 , obj. omitted 76 12 ; S rnT^n 'tf (to God) 56 13 . (2) requite, recom- 
pense, reward : subj. man, c. *? pers. 41 11 137 8 ; c. ace. pers. et rei njn 'ttf 



206 PSALMS 

row nnn 35 12 , cf. 38 21 ; c. ace. pers. of God, hinj nt? 'tf 31 24 ; c. S, c^nS 'tf 
fclfcrjHM 62 13 . (3) Repay debt 37 21 . Vw. be paid ox performed : vow 65 s . — 
J inj] n.m. wft'w offering 22- 6 50 14 56 13 6i 6 - 9 652 66 18 n6 14 - 18 (class of peace 
offerings). The || requires 2 pers. here: rd. t^j: || r|ns^. The editor has 
assimilated to v. 24 by insertion of vnt. — 27. *rv] Qal impf. juss. J irn vb. 
Qal. live : (1) continue in life, antith. die 49 10 Sc) 49 118 1 "; (2) live in divine 
favour 11917. 77. lie. 144. (3) n ve prosperously, of king 72 15 , others 22^ 69 ^ 
Pi. (1) preserve alive 33 19 41 3 138 7 , u ; dj 71 22 30 ; (2) quicken, restore to life 
30 4 71 20 ; (3) revive, by divine favour 8o 19 85 7 u 9 2 5. 37.40. so. 88. 93. 107. 149. 15*. 
156. 1&9.175 14311. — DpaaS] full form, 33"? {v. 4 s ) in the sense of selves, syn. VD2, 
a late and dub. usage, sf. refer, to the worshippers, participants in the feast, 
who are the objects of congratulation and good wishes by all without. <& al 
Kap5iai clvtQv, U cor da eorum, is doubtless a correction of the awkward 
change of persons, making the 1. syn. with the previous 1. But it neglects 
the juss., and also would require ZD2^, not so easy to explain as 2222^. The 
long form may be due to the sf. This awkwardness is removed by Gr., who 
changes all the previous vbs. into imvs., and so makes this triplet harmonious 
with the other two. — 28. Here begins a series of pentameters, certainly a 
later addition to the Ps. — or;i] Qal impf. 1 coord, may be juss. or predic- 
tive. — ps 'Ddn Vr] (v. 2 8 ). — iirnrM] Hithp. impf. 3 pi. of nntf (v. s 8 ) 
i coord., possibly preceded by talc, as v. 80 , c. "OD 1 -, also 86 9 Dt. 26 10 1 S. I 19 
Is. 66 23 , here "pjcS |&, but <@> vjdS U in conspectu eius, so Du. — 29. noV-^n] 
= royalty, not elsw. in \}/, but Ob. 21 1 S. io 1G - M Is. 34 12 -f. — 30. linnet] iS:>k] 
eating and so worshipping in the festal sacrifice, as v. 27 ; either a predictive 
pf., which is difficult here, or pf. of protasis of condition, prob. latter. vjcS 
should be attached to vb. in first half of 1., as in v. 29 . There is no good 
reason to change iSjn to V? *|X, as Oort, Bruston, Ba., Du., Kau., Kirk., al. 
With this goes the substitution of 'th for \:zn in Du., but \>eh is quite appro- 
priate; pi. cstr. of f ]Vh adj. =fat ones, rich, prosperous, flourishing, cf. 92 16 
for fat trees, Is. 30 23 for fat grain. — 1M nl"~S:>] phr. a.X. || the dying, cf. 
113 *TW 28 1 30 4 88 5 143 7 , IB? V2V Is. 26 19 , mo icy Pr. 22 16 . This is explained 
by rvn sS Wbi who doth not preserve alive his life, vb. with this mng., revive 
80 19 85 7 +, cf. 33 19 41 3 138 7 . This does not satisfy many scholars. <3 has 
kclI i) if/vxrf fJiov avr$ {rj = rvn ">S >VDr, 3 anima eius ipsi vivet, so Quinta, 
Sexta ; <S, £, V ^OJ; 2, 0, 3, % ic ; dj; @, Aq., V, 2, 9, 3, & lS . All the 
Vrss. take the vb. as Qal pf. 3 f. "n, so Ba. " aber meine Seele lebt ihm" Du. 
retains the neg. and translates " dessen Seele kein Leben hat." There is 
antith. in this couplet — two classes, the rich and prosperous, and the poor 
and perishing. — 31. jnr] indefin., so 3, 2, &, E, but 6, 0, F 'j?iT> the latter 
is explanatory. — mi^] is striking here; nw and *?K are used in the original 
Ps., so nw v. 28 - 29 in this addition. The word is prob. a gl. — *^"^] is diffi- 
cult as undefined. & adds from next line W3' and rds. it ij tpxoiitvr}, Ni3% 
so T5 generatio ventura, cf. pins -n 102 19 , so Hare, Ba., Du., Ehr., al. || iSu D? 1 ?. 
For in v. 12 s . — 32. nbv '?] statement of the fact that he hath done it, 
(S. £> add mrr, so Ba. It is not, however, in other Vrss., is explan. and not 



PSALM XXIII. 207 

needed for sense or measure, nfrp in this emph. sense, of God's accomplish- 
ing something, is common in \J/, elsw. 37 5 39 10 52 11 109' 27 in 8 115 3 119 126 135 6 
147 20 . 

PSALM XXIIL, 3 strs. 4 3 , 4 4 , 4 5 . 

Ps. 23 is a guest psalm. It expresses calm confidence in 
Yahweh: (1) as shepherd, providing His sheep with plentiful 
pasture and water (v. 1_3 °) ; (2) as guide, conducting His com- 
panion safely in right paths through a gloomy ravine (v. 364 ) ; 
(3) as host, anointing His guest for the banquet and granting 
him perpetual hospitality (v. 5 " 6 ). 

VAHWEH is my shepherd, I have no want. 

In grassy pastures He maketh me lie down ; 

Unto refreshing waters He leadeth me ; 

He restoreth (forever) my soul. 
T-TE guideth me in right tracks for His name's sake. 

Yea, when I walk in a gloomy ravine, 

I fear no evil, for Thou art with me ; 

Thy rod and Thy staff, they comfort me. 
T^HOU spreadest before me a table in the presence of mine adversaries. 

Hast Thou anointed my head with oil ; my cup is exhilarating. 

Surely goodness and kindness pursue me all the days of my life ; 

And I shall dwell in the house of Yahweh for length of days. 

Ps. 23 was in $B and |H (v. Intr. §§ 27, 31). No other statement appears 
in the title. Its structure is artistic. The three Strs. are tetrastichs, with 
parallel themes : shepherd v. 1_3a , guide v. 36-4 , host v. 5-6 . It is a mistake to 
suppose that the theme of the shepherd extends into the 2d Str. While it is 
true that the shepherd may conduct his flocks through the gloomy wadys 
safely, yet there is nothing in any terms used to suggest a flock. The flock 
is conducted into safety in Str. I. Why take the flock back to a gloomy 
wady in Str. II. ? The new and parallel figure of the guide takes the people 
to the same safety as that to which the shepherd had taken his sheep already 
in Str. I. We then have three syn. Strs., each with its own simple and 
beautiful imagery to set forth the central idea of the Ps. The Strs. have 
the unusual feature that the measure changes from a trimeter in the first 
Str. to a tetrameter in the second, and a pentameter in the third. This is an 
advance towards a climax of joyous faith in Yahweh. The language and 
syntax of the Ps. and all its ideals are early. There is not the slightest trace 
of anything that is post-deuteronomic. The historical circumstances of the 
poet must have been peaceful and prosperous. We cannot go down so late 
as the prosperous times of the Greek period, or the late Persian period. 
We cannot think of the Exile, or early Restoration, for the literature of those 



208 PSALMS 

times is fall of trial and sorrow. Absence from the temple is indicated by $|. 
but that is due to a textual error. The temple was the habitual resort of the 
poet. He was a guest there. We cannot, therefore, think of the Exile, or 
of the time of David, the traditional author of the Ps. That he was a shep- 
herd before he became king affords no evidence, for the conception of Yahweh 
as shepherd is as early as the story of Jacob, Gn. 48 16 49 21 , is used in Mi. 7 14 
Zc. 1 1 4 of the early prophets, Is. 40 11 63 11 , and especially in % 74 1 78 s2 79 13 80 1 , 
and in the royal Pss. 95 7 ioo 3 , and also in the NT. Lk. 15 '- 7 Jn. io 1 " 10 . In 
fact, the three figures, shepherd, guide, host, are all simple, natural, and char- 
acteristic of the life in Jerusalem and its vicinity at any period in Biblical 
history. A short walk from Jerusalem at any time would lead to gloomy 
wadys and the pastures of shepherds. We cannot think of the period of 
conflict with the Assyrians and Babylonians. We must, therefore, go back 
to an earlier and simpler period, the days of the early monarchy, not earlier 
than Solomon, or later than Jehoshaphat. 

Str. I. is a trimeter tetrastich expressing the confidence and 
joy of the sheep in the shepherd. — 1. Yahweh is my shepherd '], 
as frequently in OT., a conception which doubtless originated 
in the pastoral life of the early Israelites, especially that of the 
ancestor Jacob, which was also the employment of David when 
a youth, and which was ever one of the chief occupations of the 
inhabitants of Bethlehem; cf. 1 S. 16 11 Lk. 2 8 . Yahweh was con- 
ceived as taking the same patient, unwearying care of His people 
as the shepherd of his flock. — / have no want'], because the 
shepherd has provided for all wants. The imperf. is not future, 
but a present of habitual experience. — 2. In grassy pastures'], 
those where the tender grass, the young herbage, was abundant. 
— makes me lie down], in the midst of plenty, so that it may 
be enjoyed with ease and comfort. — Unto refreshing waters], 
not "beside," "along side of," AV., RV., thinking of a stream, 
which is not easy to find in the grazing lands of Palestine except 
in the rainy season ; but " unto," thinking of the wells, or foun- 
tains, from which flocks are usually watered, Gn. 29 10 " 11 Ex. 2 16 " 21 
(v. Tristram, Natural History of the Bible, 142). These waters 
are not merely drinking water, but choice water ; not only satis- 
fying thirst, but giving refreshment, implying the same kind of 
rich provision for the sheep as the grassy pastures. — He leadeth 
me]. The shepherd, in the East, leads his flock, and they follow 
him. He does not drive them as in the West, v. Jn. io 4 ,5 (Thorn- 



PSALM XXIII. 209 

son, The Land and the Book, 202 sq.). — 3 a. He restoreth (for- 
ever) my soul~\. By the rich provision for eating and drinking, 
He revives, strengthens, restores to full activity and enjoyment ; 
passing over from the figure of the sheep to the man himself. 
The soul is here, as usually in Hebrew, the seat of the appetites 
and desires. The original text has but two tones, when three 
are needed for measure. It has also an unusual verbal form for 
the usual one in this phrase. This was probably due to a copyist's 
error in condensing two similar words, the infin. absolute, ex- 
pressing temporal intensity, "for ever," after its verb, and the 
usual Hiph. imperf. form. 

Str. II. is a progressive tetrameter tetrastich with a caesura in 
each line. The guide takes the place of the shepherd in a 
parallel conception. — 3 b. He guide th me], on a journey, in which 
it is easy to stray from the right path. A guide was needed. 
Yahweh is the guide. — in right tracks'], those that lead directly 
and safely to the place of destination, as distinguished from wrong 
tracks that would lead astray. The moral and religious reference 
is involved in the whole figure, and is not to be gained by de- 
parting from it in the rendering "righteousness" of EV 8 ., after 
the ancient Vrss. — For His name's sake]. The divine name, 
or honour is involved in guiding rightly. — 4. Yea, when J walk 
i?i a gloomy ravine]. The hill country of Judah is broken up 
by narrow and precipitous ravines, or wadys, difficult to descend 
and ascend, dark, gloomy, and abounding in caves, the abode 
of wild beasts and robbers {v. 1 S. 24). To pass through these 
wadys was still more difficult than to find the right path over 
the hills. The desire to depart from the figure of speech too 
soon is probably responsible for the pointing of J^, so as to get 
" death shade," " shadow of death," as if it implied the peril 
of death ; which interpretation, through the EV S . and Bunyan's 
use of it in his Pilgrim's Progress, has become well nigh universal 
in English Literature until recent times. — I fear no evil], harm, 
or injury of any kind, either from falling or going astray, or from 
wild beasts, or robbers. — for Thou art with me]. The com- 
panionship of his trusty guide removes all fear. — Thy rod and 
Thy staff]. The rod for giving blows in defence, the staff for 
support in walking. The reference to the shepherd's crook, 



2IO PSALMS 

though justified by an occasional use of the word translated " rod," 
has no usage to justify it in connection with the word translated 
"staff." It involves the continuation of the figure of the shep- 
herd throughout this Str., which is improbable. — they comfort 
me~\. The presence of the guide with rod and staff in hand 
ready for use in his defence, assures him of safety, of true guid- 
ance, and of eventually reaching his destination. Any tendencies 
to fear are at once checked, and any agitation or anxiety is 
soothed and calmed. 

Str. III. is a progressive pentameter tetrastich, in which the 
host takes the place of the shepherd and the guide of the previous 
Strs. — 5. Thou spreadest before me a table]. The host welcomes 
his guest to a feast all prepared for him on the table. — in the 
prese?ice of mine adversaries]. The psalmist is not without 
adversaries, but they are not dangerous. He has guest-right 
with Yahweh. He is safe and secure, because, in accordance with 
Oriental customs, the host is obliged to protect his guest from 
all enemies, at all costs. — Hast Thou anointed my head with oil]. 
A temporal clause with an apodosis subsequent thereto. It was 
the custom in the Orient to honour guests by anointing the head 
with oil, or scented grease, before entering the banqueting room ; 
cf. Am. 6 6 , v. also Lk. 7 4C . It was also the custom to sprinkle the 
guests with perfumes (Lane, Modern Egyptians, p. 203). The 
entertainment here conceived is royal. — My cup is exhi/a rating], 
the cup given to me by my host, the wine cup of welcome. 
It is conceived here not so much as a cup full to overflowing, 
as EV\ and most moderns, but as one whose wine saturates, 
drenches, or soaks the one who drinks it, so excellent its quality 
and so ample its quantity, intoxicating, as the ancient Vrss. ; so 
Aug., explaining inebrians, " And Thy cup yielding forgetfulness 
of former vain delights." " Inebrians, irrigans, laetificans, con- 
solatione plenus, exuberans, redundans excellentissimo liquore," 
Genebr. ; cf. Ps. 104 15 "wine that maketh glad the heart of man." 
The Fathers generally find here a mystic reference to the cup 
of the Eucharist. — 6. Surety goodness and kindness], of the host 
to his guest. — pursue me]. These attributes are personified, as 
attendants waiting upon the guest, just as other attributes, 
43 3 85 11 - 1214 ; cf. Is. 35 10 . — all the days of my life \\ for length oj 



PSALM XXIII. 211 

days']. This one is not a guest who is to be entertained once, 
and then depart ; or one who is permitted occasionally to return ; 
but a guest who is to have a permanent and perpetual place at 
the table of Yahweh. Kindness is to follow him about, to wait 
on him continually throughout his life ; and so in the parallel. — 
/ shall dwell in the house of Yahweh]. He takes up his con- 
tinual residence as guest in Yahweh's house. This which is given 
in <&, 3 is more suited to the context than J^, which by another 
pointing of the same consonant gives another vb. and construc- 
tion, "and I will return." This is difficult to explain gram- 
matically, and also is not in accordance with the context which 
emphasises presence in the house and not absence from it. The 
house of Yahweh is, indeed, the temple, and the feasts are the 
sacrificial feasts continually provided in the temple. The con- 
ception that Yahweh is the host to those partaking of the sacri- 
ficial meals in His temple is not uncommon, v. 5 5 15 1 27* 61 5 84 s . 

1. \p] Qal ptc. c. sf. I sg. njn {v. 2 s ) ; taken by <f§, 3, with verbal force, 
TTotixalvei fie, pascit ?ne, as parall. requires. It is prob. that for rhyme in >_ it 
originally stood last in 1. like the other vbs. of the Str. For Yahweh as 
shepherd cf. Gn. 48 15 49 24 Mi. 7I 4 Ez. ZA n ~ 12 Is. 49 9 - 10 Ps. 80 2 . — 2. rYsKi] pi. 
cstr. of \ rvy n.f. pasture, meadow, mj Zp. 2 6 , n s xj I2t.; elsw. in Pss. 65 13 74 20 
83 13 , cf. Je. 9 9 23 10 25 s7 . — % N#i] n.m. tender grass, young herbage, as 37 s2 
Dt. 32' 2 . — ^x;3"v] Hiph. impf. 3 m. c. sf. 1 sg. of f *pn vb. Qal lie down, of 
lion 104 22 Gn. 49°, Hiph. cause to He down, of flock Ps. 23% Je. 33 12 Ez. 34 15 . 
— Vy] for Sn of late style, unto, as (J| i-rrl, not by, alongside of, or even down to 
from above. — rV»njE"] pi. abstr., rest, refreshment, cf. Is. 28 12 . % nrrnn n.f., 
elsw. resting place 95 11 132 s - 14 Is. n 10 . — ^bin Pi- impf. X Snj y b. Pi- lead 
ox guide, of flock here, prob. after Is. 49 10 , cf. Is. 40 11 ; subj. Yahweh Ps. 31 4 
Is. 51 18 . — 3. ^Di] not soul as distinguished from body, but paraphrase for 
pers. pron. me (v. j 3 ), or soul as seat of emotion and passion, v. BDi?. — ■ 
aaiBh] : Polel impf. of aitf (v. 18' 21 ) phr. a.X., but cf. trsj 3*>tfn Pr. 25 13 Ru. 4 15 
La. ill- 16- 19 p s# jg8 # This j s a defective 1., rd. prob. atf 2Vfr (inf. abs. after 
the vb., intensifying its temporal idea, forever, cf. Ju. 5 23 ), and put '•itdj at 
end. We have thus far four trimeter lines with rhyme. — "^JTC?] cstr. pi. of 
Sjyr, track (of waggon or cart), of snares of wicked 140 6 , course of life Pr. 4 26 
5 21 , here pin *D in physical sense, right as || leading to the proper place. — 
■iDltf 13?nS] supplementary; phr. also in 25 11 31 4 79° 106 8 109 21 143 11 Is. 48° 
Ez. 20 44 . — 4. 13 cj] even when, or if, ox yea though (Dr.), 3 sed et, cf. Is. I 16 
Ho. 8 10 9 i6 ; v. for other uses of 0) 8 8 14 3 ig 12 - 1J >. — J loa] n.m. valley, wady, 
elsw.i/' only 60 2 , nSc 'j>, as 2 S. 8 13 . — HTO 1 ??] compound, Sj shadotv and nio death, 
as pointed ; but this is a rabbinical conceit. It should be pointed X nwSjf 



212 PSALMS 

n.m. dense darkness, elsw. 44 20 I07 10 - 14 Ew.i 270 ' K6. n,1 -P-»*a).4M qrintfD] 

n. sf. i.p. $ PttlfD n.f. (^ j;c ; ) ///a/ <?w w/&*V^ <?«<? r«/j, walking-stick, staff, 
not elsw. f, but Ex. 21 19 Nu. 21 18 Is 36 s Ez. 29 s Zc. 8 4 . — n^n] resuming 
subj. with emph., so 27 2 37 s ic>7 2A (z/. i&). — 'j:nr] Pi. impf. 3 pi. c. sf. 1 sg. 
J [oru] vb. Niph. : (1) be sorry, have compassion, c. hy 90 13 = Sk Ju. 21 6 ; 
(2) r;^, ty^tv/ one's doings Pss. 106 45 no 4 Je. 20 10 Ex. 13 17 (E); (3) com- 
fort oneself Vs. jy s Gn. 38 12 (J); Pi. comfort, console, abs., Ps. 69 21 , c. ace. 
pers. 23I 71* 1 1 9-6. 82 || ^ r; 86 i7 # Hithp.: (l) & wrj, have compassion, 
c. S; i35 14 = Dt. 32^; (2) comfort oneself Vs. 119 52 Gn. 37** (J). These 
four lines are tetrameters. —5. J jnStf] n.m. table, mat or piece of leather 
spread on ground, elsw. O9- 3 78 19 128 3 . — })tf-t] Ti. pf. 2 m., prut, conditional 
clause, hast thou made fat, greased, cf. Lk. 7**. ]Vh (v. 20^), here of anoint- 
ing with oil for banquet. — f n;n] n.f. saturation, elsw. 66 12 (?). J nn Qal 
</r///£ to satiety 36°, Pi. drench 65 11 . <S /cai rd ttottjpiov aov padvaKov, F *;*- 
ebrians, so 5$. These two lines are pentameters. — 6. 2^ }«]. In $, 5, 3 
begins v. 6 , but in (5 us Kpariarov, V quam praeclarus est, are at the end of 
v. 5 . They are needed for measure in v. 6 . The phr. -<Drn 31a is a.\. For 3'B 
(v. 4?), -<cn (v. ji). They are personified and so subj. of vb. »jwtv. — vor ] 
Qal pf. 1 sg. c. ) consec, 3ic ; pregnant return to divell, Maurer, Baur, Roster, 
De.; but (S rb KaroiKeiv /xe, so 2, U, as 27* 84A "> n*33 V*3tf, 1 coord, inf. 
cstr. c. sf. 1 sg. of 3U»> (v. 2i) my dwelling, so Ros., Geier, De W., IIu., 
Heng., Dr., Kirk. 3 habitabo, so &, &, *7UV>\ Hare, De Muis, Hi., Oort, 
Che., Ba., Ew.§ 234 <3), Ges. I®m(i). — nw no], no £««* J for dwelling of God, 
temple 36 9 52 10 65 s 92 14 93 s 118* 26 122 9 ; 'an nrin dedication of 30 1 (title), 
'3 nnxn 1 16 19 135 2 , 'a pjna 26 s , a nxjp 69 10 ; of entrance for worship, ace. after 
N3 5 8 66 13 ; of processions, ace. after "\hn 122 1 , c. 3 55 15 , '3 ip mi 42 s , 
'33 DnDP 134 1 135 2 ; of permanent residence for worship, ace. after iv\2j*> 27* 
84 s , cf. 84 11 , D^pj TQ* {v. 2/5). This verse is a pentameter. 



PSALM XXIV. 

Ps. 24 combines two Pss., originally independent, in the one 
theme, entrance into the holy temple and city. The first is a 
didactic choral. A choir within the court of the temple praises 
Yahweh as creator and owner of all things (v. 1 " 8 ). A choir at the 
gate inquires what sort of a man may enter the holy place (v. 3 ). 
The choir within responds, giving both the characteristics of the 
man and the benefits he will receive (v. 4-5 ). The choir without 
asserts the claims of Jacob to such a character, and to an entrance 
(v. 6 ) . The second Ps. is a triumphal choral. Yahweh has come 
to the holy city after a victory. The choir without the city de- 
mands that the gate be raised that the glorious king may enter 



PSALM XXIV. 213 

into Jerusalem (v. 7 ) . The choir within inquires who he is ; and 
is answered that it is the victorious Yahweh (v. 8 ). Entrance is 
again demanded (v. 9 ), the same inquiry is renewed, and the effec- 
tual reply is made that it is Yahweh, God of hosts (v. 10 ) . 

A. V. 1 " 6 , 2 STR. 4 3 + 2 3 . 

TO Yahweh belongs the earth and its fulness, 
The world and those that dwell therein ; 
For He founded it upon the seas, 
And upon streams establisheth it. 

Who may ascend the hill of Yahweh ? 

Who may stand in His holy place f 
(~\NE clean, and pure of mind, 

Who hath not lifted up his soul to a lie ; 
He shall bear away a blessing from Yahweh, 
And righteousness from the God of his salvation. 

This is a generation which resorts to Him ; 

Those who seek His face are Jacob. 

B. V. 7-10 , 2 STR. 3 3 -f I 3 -f- 2 3 . 

T IFT up, O gates, (your) heads ; 

And exalt yourselves, ye ancient doors : 

And the King of giory will enter. 
Who, then, is the King of glory? 

Yahweh, strong and mighty, 

Yahweh, mighty in battle. 
TIFT up, O gates, (your) heads; 

And (exalt yourselves) ye ancient doors : 

And the King of glory will enter. 
Who, then, is the King of glory f 

Yahweh, (God of) hosts, 

He is the King of glory. 

Ps. 24 was in $3 and fft {y. Intr. §§ 27, 31). <& adds to the title an 
assignment to the first day of the week, which corresponds with the statement 
of the Talm. as to its liturgical use {v. Intr. § 39). In Christian usage it is 
a proper Ps. for Ascension day. The Ps. is composed of two Pss. of entirely 
different character, composed at widely different periods. The older of these 
is evidently the second, v. 7-10 , which probably alone bore the title. The first, 
v. 1-6 , was probably inserted subsequent to the prefixing of the title to the 
second. The combination was made in order to make a Ps. appropriate to 
some special occasion in the late Greek or the Maccabean period, otherwise 
the Ps. would have been taken up into 15 and 132ft (v. Intr. §§ 32, 33). The 
second Ps. alone would hardly be suitable for worship either in the temple or 
synagogue. The second Ps. in its use of niNax ("t^n) nvr, v. 10 , and its em- 



214 PSALMS 

phasis upon I lis warlike characteristics, v. 8 , implies the warlike Yahweh of 
David's time. The entrance into the city is that of Yahweh at the head of a 
victorious army, which suits the removal of the ark to Jerusalem ; cf. 2 S. 6. 
There is no mention in the history of any subsequent going forth of the ark 
to war, and it is improbable. From that time on, Jerusalem was the holy city, 
the capital of Yahweh the king, from whence He granted victory ; cf. Ps. 20 3 . 
Put He is not conceived as going forth from the city to make war. Moreover, 
the entrance is into the city, and not into the temple, as we would expect 
in later times after the temple was built. The tib)y tod, v. 7 - 9 the ancient 
gates, are the gates of the city, which, though a recent conquest of David, 
had been a royal city for centuries earlier than his time, and whose gates 
might justly be named ancient, reaching back into an antiquity beyond the 
memory of man. There is nothing in the Ps. which requires a later date. 
It is difficult to see how a Ps. could better fit a historical situation. V. 16 are 
entirely different. It is the temple, not the city, which is to be entered. It 
is not Yahweh who enters, but men into His presence. He is enthroned in 
the city, and is not at its gates. The mountain is the mountain of Yahweh, 
His sacred place, v. 3 . His face they seek, v.°, from Him they are to receive 
a blessing, v. 5 But not only is the city His ; the earth and all the inhabit- 
ants of the world are His, v. 1 . That implies the later postex. conception that 
Yahweh is king of the whole world, and that His temple is the central place 
of worship for the world. The conception of creation is that of the erection 
of a building, an idea which we find Pss. 89 12 , 104 5 , Jb. 38* "i- Is. 48 13 , although 
here it is conceived as upon subterranean seas. The characteristics of the 
one privileged to enter the sacred place are not external conformity to Law, 
but internal, in the mind and soul, v. 4 , implying a lofty ethical conception, 
not earlier than the late Persian period, and sufficiently late to be influenced 
by Heb. Wisdom rather than Law. The emphasis upon Jacob as the name 
of the nation is based upon the Is. 2 ; but the implication that he has such 
ethical characteristics as are required by Yahweh, is a conception which could 
only have originated in peaceful times, when Pss. of lamentation and peni- 
tence were no longer written, and when the pious might attend to their 
internal, ethical development. On the whole, this Ps. seems to belong to the 
Greek period subsequent to Qft, the early time of Heb. Wisdom. 

PSALM XXIV. A. 

Str. I. 1-2 was sung by a choir within the outer court of the 
temple, praising Yahweh as creator and owner of all things. It 
is a trimeter tetrastich of two syn. couplets, the latter giving the 
reason for the former. — 1. To Yahweh belongs]. He is the 
possessor and owner, cf. 89 12 . — the earth and its fulness], all that 
fills it, its contents, its creatures. — the world'], with the special 
signification that it is habitable, and accordingly associated with 



PSALM XXIV. 215 

it are those that dwell therein], its inhabitants. Thus is asserted 
the universal ownership of Yahweh, in accordance with the post- 
exilic conception that Yahweh is the universal God and the only 
God for the whole earth. His ownership is based upon the fact 
that He had created them. The creation is conceived as the erec- 
tion of a great building, as in 89 12 104 5 Jb. 38 4sq - Pr. 8 a5w >-. — 2. For 
He], emphatic, He and no other. — founded it || establisheth it]. 
The single act of creation passes over, as usual in OT., into the 
habitual act of God's sustaining providence ; both later and more 
comprehensive ideas than those given in the poems, Gn. 1-2, 
although the primitive conception of subterranean seas and 
streams is still retained, cf. Gn. 7 11 Ex. 20 4 Ps. 136 6 . For vari- 
ous other conceptions of the relations of sea and dry land, cf. 
Gn. i 9 Pr. 8 2! ' Jb. 26 7fiq -. — 3 is a trimeter couplet sung by a choir 
outside the gate, inquiring the conditions of entrance. — Who 
may], not what person, but what sort of a person, as 15 1 . — 
ascend], go up the hill, which is called the hill of Yahweh, be- 
cause His temple or residence was upon it, as Is. 2 3 = Mi. 4* 
Is. 30 29 . — may stand], among the accepted worshippers, admitted 
to the sacred precincts. — in His holy place], as consecrated to 
His worship. 

Str. II. 4-5 is the response of the choir within, in two syn. 
couplets, the first giving the characteristics of the one who might 
be admitted to Yahweh's presence. These are two in number. 
— 4. One clean]. An innocent man, as io 8 15 6 . This one is still 
further defined as pure of mind. He is characterized by internal 
innocence, cleanness, and purity. This has been weakened in 
the ancient texts by the insertion of " hands " after " clean," which 
makes it refer to action, giving two characteristics and making the 
line into a tetrameter. — Who hath not lifted up his soul], in 
desire, cf. 25 1 86 4 143 8 . — to a lie], falsehood, in accordance with 
12 3 41 7 144 811 . This is an internal desire, harmonious with the 
previous purity of mind. This explanation is favoured not only 
by the parallel, of the previous line, but also by the subsequent 
line, J^, and Vrss. — and hath not sworn to deceit]. This was 
doubtless an explanatory gloss ; but it changes the tetrastich into 
a pentastich, and so destroys the symmetry of the Ps. — 5. The 
second couplet sets forth the benefits to be derived from Yahweh 



2l6 PSALMS 

in His house. — He shall bear away], take with him, when he 
departs from the temple. — a blessing], suited to the pure in mind, 
|| righteousness, suited to the sincere desire. This latter is not in 
the sense of alms, as (3, a meaning not known to OT. ; or in the 
sense of that which is ethically right, which could hardly be 
bestowed upon him ; but in the meaning urged by the phr. God 
of his salvation, saving righteousness, righteousness of vindication, 
as usual, Pss. 5 9 2 2 32 36 u + and Is. 2 45 s 46 13 5 1 6 + . — 6. The choir 
without claims the right of entrance in a couplet responding to the 
demand as to character, by stating the privilege belonging by 
inheritance to the seed of Jacob. They are not strangers who 
seek access to Yahweh, but His own people. — This is a genera- 
tion^, a class of men whose characteristic it is, that they resort to 
Him || seek Bis face']. The ptcs. express continual resort to the 
sacred place for worship. J^ has "Thy face," which gives an 
abrupt change of person and makes it difficult to explain the 
context. " O Jacob," PBV., is an adaptation to %} of some texts 
of 3 which have " face of Jacob." But the context makes it evi- 
dent that these are not strangers seeking Jacob, but Israel resort- 
ing to his God. "Thy face, O God of Jacob," RV., adapts Jff to 
(§», which gives " the face of the God of Jacob," but the insertion 
of "God" looks like an interpretation and it leaves the subj. out 
of the parall. The subj., syn. with generation, is exceedingly for- 
cible in the climax if it is defined as Jacob, with all the historic 
rights to the covenanted promises contained in the name. Inas- 
much as the suffix " they " is not in (3, <&, U, it is an interpreter's 
addition. It is easy to correct the text after the parall. and read 
" His face," and to regard the couplet as inclusive, " generation " 
beginning and "Jacob" closing it. 

PSALM XXIV. B. 

Str. I. is a trimeter tristich, the first two lines syn., the third 
synth. A triumphal army, with Yahweh at its head, is at the 
gates of Jerusalem demanding entrance. The choir summons the 
gates to open to admit the king. — 7.0 gales], personified and 
addressed as persons, || Ye ancient doors], as reaching back in 
history into hoary antiquity. Jerusalem was a very ancient city 



PSALM XXIV. 217 

before David captured it, whose origin is so remote that it is 
earlier than all historical accounts of it. — lift up your heads || 
exalt yourselves]. The reflexive is more in accord with the par- 
allelism than the passive " Be ye lift up," EV 8 . It is well explained 
by Ewald : " A new king is about to enter the ancient and venerable 
city, and indeed the highest and mightiest conceivable, Yahweh 
Himself, enthroned upon the ark of the Covenant. Such a king 
has never entered this city, and the gray gates, although venerable 
with age, are too small and mean for Him." — And the King of 
glory"], a phr. only here; but Yahweh is frequently conceived as 
king, Ex. 15 18 Pss. 5 s io 16 29 10 44* 47 s7 - 8 48 s 68^ 74 12 8 4 4 95 s 9 8 6 
99 4 145 1 149 2 ; and glory is one of the most common attributes of 
Yahweh, 29 s 72 19 145 12 . Here the glory is that of warlike achieve- 
ments, such as that ascribed to the king of David's dynasty, 21 6 . 
— 8. The choir within the gates responds to the summons in a 
monostich of inquiry. It is not necessary to think of the gates 
as speaking. It is the challenge of the sentinels, who must 
demand the password officially, even if they know what the 
answer will be. It is the poet's art to thus get a reason for the 
glorification of Yahweh the king. The choir without respond 
in a couplet setting forth who the king is. — Yahweh], the God 
of Israel, is this king, and not David, God's son, the divine repre- 
sentative in kingship. — strong and mighty]. These attributes are 
those of a warrior, as defined in the stairlike parall. mighty in 
battle. The king is a valiant hero, victorious in battle, a great 
conqueror. He has returned from a glorious war ; cf. " Yahweh 
is a man of war" Ex. 15 23 ; cf. also Num. io 35 1 S. 4 21sq - for the 
warlike character of the Ark, as bearing the divine presence. 

Str. II. 9-10. The choir of the army repeats the trimeter trip- 
let, renewing the demand for entrance in identical terms. 

10. The sentinels make an identical challenge. The choir 
respond in terms that cannot be questioned, by giving the divine 
name, characteristic of the Davidic dynasty. The longer and more 
ancient title, Yahweh {God) of Hosts, is required by the measure. 
It was shortened by an early editor at the expense of the measure, 
in accordance with the usage of his time, into "Yahweh Sabaoth," 
and so in all Vrss. after (3 "Lord of Hosts." The original' title 
of Yahweh, given as the countersign or military password for 



2 1 8 PSALMS 

entrance to the royal city, is used here in accordance with the 
original meaning of this divine name as given in i S. 1 7", " God 
of the battle array of Israel." It was especially appropriate if we 
suppose that the entire army of Israel was then at the gates of 
Jerusalem with king David at their head, conducting the Ark 
of Yahweh to the sacred place consecrated for it. — He\ t emphatic, 
and no other, is the King of glory, cf. v. 7- 9 . 

XXIV. A. 
1. nvnS] S of possession, emph. — \ n« st ?w fn«n] phr. Dt. 33 16 Is. 34 1 
Mi. i 2 Je. 8 16 47 2 Ez. 19 7 30 12 ; cf. TN "jan'Pte. so 12 " 89 12 , 'Dl D\n 96 11 Q8 7 .— 
na ♦at/')] retracted accent because of final monosyl. @ inserts iravTes = 
Va; but it is absent in this same phr. 98 7 107 84 , and is interp. Van (v. 9 s ). 
3B* (v. 2*). V. 1-2 rhymes in final n_. — 3. *pi], l is a prosaic addition im- 
pairing the measure. — nw in] the temple mount, elsw. Is. 2 3 ( = Mi. 4 2 ) 30 29 ; 
of Horeb, Nu. 10™ (JE), nwax 1 nn Zc. 8*, cf. Ps. /j'. — 4. o:§3 »bj] a.X., 
but 'pj used for innocent person, v. 10 8 . D^oa is a gl. of interpretation, mak- 
ing the 1. tetrameter. — 3aV*na] cf. aaS »na 73 1 , aa 1 ? v. <f. — nrn] rel. is a 
gl. balanced with coa, making this 1. also tetrameter. A tetrameter couplet 
in the midst of trimeters is altogether improbable. — lBtoj NiirS Nirj n'?] Kt. f 
<S, 3. But Qr. ""irpj, as if it were a citation from Ex. 20 7 = Dt. 5 11 . re: for 
cr, cf. Ps. 139 20 . nvj* z/. /^3. Syn. is nonnS patfj kSV]. For patf v. 75*. 
nDnE v. y. This favours falsehood in the previous 1. rather than the dis- 
honouring of the name of God. It is prob. that this 1. is an explanatory gl., 
so Bi., Ba. It makes the only tristich in the Ps. @ adds the gl. ry irXrjaiov 
airrov, IB proximo suo. — 5. np**x], @ has iXerjfjLoavvrjv, but this is a late mng. 
of rip-ix not used in OT. Here npTt \\ nana is || yvfr, as in Is. 2 (espec.) and 
subsequent writers, v.j 9 . — tyt/> vJSk] cf. 18 47 25 s 27 s 65 s 79° 85 s , and for 
other uses of yr.'. v. 12 6 . © awTrjpos is concrete for abstr. — 6. ^"n] Kt., PBh'i 
Qr., both ptc. as rel. clauses, || 'tfpac, <S, 3, both pi., as in 9 11 . Bhl vb. seek, 
consult, by resorting to a sacred place, so ace. of"- 78 34 Gn. 2^ (J) Ex. 18 15 
(E) +. — app ?\\}D 'f/pao]. Jacob is not vocative, the suffix cannot refer to 
him. It is not the face of Jacob that is sought, but God's face. It is possible 
to make app an independent clause, it is Jacob, but that is harsh. @ has 
rod GeoO 'IaAcw/3, so £>, IB, and most moderns, which makes the 1. too long 
unless with Hare and Grimme Stoao. It gives good sense in accordance 
with parall. 3 in text of Lag. has faciem tuam Jacob, as |^, but in text of 
Nestle, faciem Jacob, apjn *1D, cf. PBV. But it is not foreign peoples seeking 
the face of Jacob, as in the conception of second Isaiah and Zechariah, but 
faithful Israelites seeking the presence of their God in the temple in Zion. 
A simple and natural interpretation would be to regard this 1. as in introverted 
parall. with previous 1. : 

This is a generation which resorts to Him ; 

Those who seek His face are Jacob. 



PSALM XXV. 219 

r\ in t»jd is txt. err., not in <&, £, rd. v:a \\ Ptht. > has been omitted in the 
one place, 1 in the other, and -\ has been inserted in |^, 3 as interpretation. 
— 7. dd^ni onytf wir] so Aq., 3, <£, C <&, 2 make D3Mtrm = ol dpxovres 
bfiuv here and in v. 9 the subj., and an;^ obj., so "B principes; the chiefs are 
to lift the gates instead of their spreading themselves open; but the sf. with 
DD^m is not easy; in this case it ought to be with gates. Prob. both sfs. were 
interp. and the original had none. — ^ajj]. The 1 might be subordinate with 
subjunctive, that he may enter : better introducing apod, of imv., and he will 
enter, v. Dr.§ 152 . — 8. npc] enclitic, who then, so v. 10 25 12 . — mjj] adj. only 
here of '\ and Is. 43 17 of army; vb. for "> Ps. 68 29 , cf. y; j?nr 89 11 , and Tj? as 
attributive 62 12 63 s 68 s6 93 1 96 s , ^So ?>' 99*. — "V>33] adj. for might of God 
fighting for His people, elsw. Dt. io 17 Ne. 9 32 Is. io 21 Je. 32 18 ; of valiant 
man, v. icf. — ncn^D "V3?] stairlike parall., for this 1. completes what the 
previous 1. began, defining mighty as mighty in battle. — 9 = v. 7 save that 
iKfenn gives place to ixr; but this is doubtless txt. err., for there is no obj. 
<f§ had Niph., so Hare, al. 3 changes to erigite from elevamini. But a 
change is improb. in this word only. — 10. nr wn *p]. The inquiry is repeated, 
differing only from v. 8a by insertion of KVl, but this makes the 1. too long. 
Nin is copula and interpretative. <& is same as v. 8 *, so also 3. — rvxnx mrp] 
so <& and 3, makes a dimeter. This is possible, but it is more likely that it 
was a copyist's shortening of the older phr. nix^s tiSn nw, which gives a 
good trimeter, into the phr. used in his own time. — J N3v] n.m. : (i) army, 
organised for war 44 10 60 12 68 13 108 12 ; (2) of angels 103 21 148 2 ; (3) fig. of 
heavenly bodies 33 s ; (4) war 68 12 (?), others fig. (1); (5) nwas as name of 
God of David and dynasty, based on 1 S. 17 46 , S*oir , > ni3"tyD "K 'X '\ originally 
nwasn ^nSx "», Am. 6 14 Ho. 12 6 , .usually nwax tiSn 1 Ps. 89°, reduced to 
nixas 1 24M 46 s - 12 48 9 84 2 - 4 13 , preceded by \n N 69 7 Is. 3 15 Je. 2 19 +. 
niN3$ O^hSn Ps. 8o 8 - 15 , preceded by nw 59 s 8o 5 - 20 84 s ; in all cases Qirh* for 
an original mrp and where preceded by mm conflation. — "113311 "|Sd Hin] 
emph. conclusion. <& has avrds iariv oDros = nr Nin. 



PSALM XXV., 3 str. 7 6 . 

Ps. 25 is a prayer of the congregation in three parts. (1) Peti- 
tion, that they that trust in Yahweh may not be shamed, but 
rather those dealing treacherously (v. 13 ) ; that Yahweh will teach 
His ways (v. 4-5 ), and remember His compassion rather than sins 
of youth (v.^ 7 ). (2) Confidence, that Yahweh will teach the 
afflicted His way (v. 8-9 ) ; that His paths are kindness and faith- 
fulness (v. 10 ) ; and that He will instruct and give His intimacy 
to those fearing Him (v. 12-14 ). (3) Petition, that Yahweh will 
bring out of distresses (v. 15-17 ) ; that He will see his enemies (v. 19 ) ; 



220 PSALMS 

and that He will deliver those that wait on Him (v. 2 * -21 ). Peti- 
tions for pardon were inserted by an editor in place of lines which 
he threw out (v. 1118 ). A liturgical addition makes a general plea 
for the ransom of Israel (v. 22 ). 

TJNTO Thee, Yahweh, I lift up my soul ; (O my God,) let me not be ashamed. 
In Thee I trust, (therefore) let not mine enemies exult; even mine; 
Yea, let none that wait on Thee be ashamed ; let them be ashamed that deal 

treacherously without effect. 
Thy ways make me know, Yahweh, (and) Thy paths teach me; 
Lead me in Thy faithfulness and teach me ; for Thou art the God of my salvation. 
Remember Thy compassion, Yahweh, and Thy kindness, for they are of old. 
The sins of my youth remember not ; according to Thy kindness, remember me. 
(TIOOD and upright is Yahweh : therefore will He instruct in the way : 

He will lead the afflicted in (His) judgment, and He will teach the afflicted 

His way. 
All the paths of Yahweh are kindness and faithfulness to them that keep His 

covenant. 
* 

Who then is (he) that feareth Yahweh ? He will instruct him in the way He 

chooseth ; 
He himself will dwell in prosperity; and his seed will inherit the land. 
The intimacy of Yahweh have they that fear (His name), and His covenant, 

to make them know it. 
A/TINE eyes are continually unto Yahweh, that He may bring forth my feet. 
Turn unto me and be gracious unto me; for desolate and afflicted am I. 
As for the troubles of my mind, O make room from my distresses ; O bring me 

forth. 
* 

O see mine enemies; for they are many, and they hate me with a hatred of 

violence. 
O keep me and deliver me ; let me not be ashamed, for I seek refuge in Thee. 
Let integrity and uprightness {deliver me) ; for, Yahweh, I wait on Thee. 

Ps. 25 was in Q (v. Intr. § 27). <S has if/aXfids ; but it is not in f$, and 
it is improbable that it would have been omitted if original. The Ps. is an 
acrostic hexameter ; all the letters of the alphabet appear except 1 and p. 
The 1 might be found if with @ we read fnKi for |§ -jniN v. 50 ; but then only 
three of the six words would be given, and that at the expense of the strophi- 
cal organisation of the Ps. These words are more like a gloss of intensifica- 
tion. The analogy of Ps. 34 favours the opinion that the omission of 1 was 
intentional. With twenty-two letters it was impracticable to get symmetrical 
Strs. without such an omission. The p Str. might be restored by substituting 
nxnp for n«n, v. 18 , regarding the repetition of the latter word as due to dit- 

* This indicates the omission of an original line. The words italicised indicate 
the stairlike parallelism characteristic of this Ps. 



PSALM XXV. 221 

tography. But it is probable that this line was a later substitution for the 
original line, as was v. 11 , in order to introduce into the Ps. two petitions for 
forgiveness of sins. For these two lines are awkward in their relation to their 
context, interrupting the movement of the thought; and they lack the catch- 
word of the stairlike parallelism (v. Intr. § 12 A) characteristic of the Ps. in 
every other line : trn v. 1 - 8 , IdS v. 4 - 5 , ~ot v. 6 - 7 , "pi v. 8 - 9 , nt> v. 12-14 , N">xin 
v. 15 - 17 , and it is probable Ssj v. 20, 21 , the "ixj v. 21 being due to a copyist's error 
or a stylistic change. It is noteworthy that the catchword is in both lines of 
the distichs, but only in first and third lines of the tristichs, v x ~ 3 - 12 " 14 - 15_17 . 
V. 22 , as Ps. 34 23 , is a liturgical addition. It is improbable that any writer would 
omit a letter of the alphabet from his acrostic, and then add a supplementary 
line to rectify the omission. Moreover, the use of dtiSn for nirp of the Ps. is 
evidence of a later hand, as well as the use of hH"\V by way of generalisation of 
the petition and confidence of the Ps. The Ps. has three Strs., the first and the 
third petitions, separated by the second, expressing trust in Yahweh. It shows 
no dependence on earlier writings. It is entirely original as a composition. 
The language is not early and not very late. The phrase mj?J nixan v. 7 , 
cf. Ez. 23 21 Jb. 13 26 , looks back on the youth of the nation. The terms 
("P*0 y-'in v. 4 - 14 , mmx -teh v. 4 , ymn v. 5 - 9 , mv v. 8 - 12 , all show the influence 
of D. There is no evidence of the influence of P save in rmj v. 10 , which is 
a gloss, nna nxj v. 10 is elsewhere only Dt. 3^, and may be regarded as a 
poetic synonym of nna "ictf. The use of 22S v. 17 , as 15 2 24 4 90 12 104 15 , is 
that of the Prophets of the Restoration Zc. 1-8 Hg., Jo. There are phrases 
and words peculiar to the Ps. : '< "»8"l 2)t3 v. 8 , the ethical use of 310 for God 
elsw. \p 11939.08 . nna f or alliance or friendship with God v. 14 , Dm rsjfc' v. 19 , 
■vi»i an v. 21 personified attributes. Other noteworthy words and phrases 
are: 2V22 pVn v. 13 , cf. Jb. 21 13 36 11 Ec. 7 14 ; 1 -hd v. 14 , cf. Jb. 29 4 Pr. 3 32 ; 
rjjm ihn nj3 v. 16 86 16 119 132 ; t^ alone, solitary v. 16 68"; 3*mn v. 17 dubious 
meaning, cf. Ps. 4 2 ; f ^pi^D v. 17 107 s - 13 - 19 - 28 Jb. 15 24 Zp. I 15 . These tend to 
the terminology of Job. The language and style favour the Persian period 
prior to Nehemiah. 

Str. I. is a hexameter heptastich of petition, composed of a tristich 
and two distichs, each with its catchword, in stairlike parallelism. — 
1-3. Unto Thee || in Thee~\, both emphatic in position, to indicate 
that Yahweh, || my God, was the only person to whom it could be 
said, / lift up my soul, in longing desire, || / trust, of confidence 
and reliance, || wait on Thee, cf. v. 21 , hoping, expecting help. — let 
me not be asha7ned\ by being overcome by enemies : the catch- 
word of the tristich, repeated both negatively and positively in 
v. 3 . — let not mine enemies exult~], in triumph. These two vbs., 
originally in synonymous clauses in two different lines, were by 
a prosaic editor brought together in one line in ^ and so in EV 8 ., 



222 PSALMS 

at the expense of the parall., the measure, and the acrostic of the 
second line. — them that deal treacherously], they are crafty, in- 
triguing, treacherous enemies. — without effect], without accomplish- 
ing anything, as f, "disappointed of their expectations," Ham.; 
" without cause " of EV 9 . is not justified by usage. All this is not 
the prayer of an individual, but of a community in peril from crafty 
enemies. — 4-5. Thy ways || Thy paths], terms of the legislation 
of D., in which the people were to walk in their course of life. — 
make ??ie know || teach me], the latter the keyword, reappearing 
therefore in v. 5 || lead me ; all bringing out the divine discipline 
of Israel on its positive side of instruction and guidance in the 
Law. This is enforced by an appeal to historic experience, in 
Thy faithfulness], that is, to the promises of the covenants with 
the fathers. — God of my salvation'], whose character it is to save, 
and from whom salvation comes. A later editor adds, either to 
the text or originally on the margin, so that it subsequently came 
into the text, on Thee do I wait all the day]. This is parallel in 
thought to the previous clause, and a repetition of that of v. 3 , with- 
out any proper motive in the Ps. itself, and at the expense of 
the measure and strophical organisation. — 6-7. Remember], the 
keyword of the distich, repeated therefore in both negative and 
positive form in v. 7 ; cf. v. 3 . — Thy compassion], the sympathetic 
attitude of Yahweh towards His people as their Sovereign and 
Father ; || kindness, as in v. 7 , which is the only measure of the 
remembrance. This is more probable than the pi. " loving kind- 
nesses " EV 8 ., more properly " loving deeds " JPSV., which, though 
sustained by J^ and Vrss., is a late and uncommon usage, and is 
probably an assimilation to the previous plural, which, however, 
is an abstract plural and not, as this would be, a plural of number. 
The difference is one of interpretation and not of an originally 
different text. — They are of old]. These gracious attributes of 
Yahweh have characterised Him from the most ancient times in 
the historical experience of His people. This suggests in antithe- 
sis, The sins of my youth remember not], the sins that the people 
had committed in former generations, in the beginning of the 
national existence, as in Ez. 23 21 in connection with the abode in 
Egypt. — and my transgressions] is a gloss of amplification, mak- 
ing the line over full. " Remember not sins " is a prophetic term, 



PSALM XXV. 223 

Je. 3 1 34 Ez. 18 22 33 16 Is. 43^ Ps. 79 s -f, to indicate that Yahweh, 
in His sovereign grace, puts them out of mind, treats them as 
if they had never existed. It is parallel to " not impute " Fs. 32 s2 , 
"not reward according to" 103 10 . It is also syn. with "passing 
over, overlooking, ignoring " them, Acts 1 7 30 Rom. tf 5 . — O Thou 
for Thy goodness sake~\. This is a gloss, introducing an additional 
plea, and adding a prosaic short sentence to a line and a Str. 
which are already complete. 

Str. II. expresses trust and confidence in Yahweh, intervening 
between Strs. of petition. It is composed of a distich, v. 8-9 , and 
a tristich, v. 12-14 , with catchwords and stairlike parallelism, and two 
intervening lines, v. 10-11 . — 8-9. Good and upright is Yahweh']. 
The ethical character of Yahweh is here emphasised, at the begin- 
ning, in order to indicate that His disciplinary guidance is ethical. 
Usually God is good, as benignant; here, as 119 s9 - 68 , seldom else- 
where in OT., ethically good. — Therefore], on the basis of this 
character of Yahweh. — will He instruct || lead || teach"], stating 
as a fact what was prayed for in v. 4 ' 5 . — the way], the keyword 
of this distich, therefore, repeated in v. 9 , which also takes up the 
term of v. 4 " 5 , the afflicted ; pious Israel, as afflicted by enemies, v. 2 ; 
v. 9 13 . Therefore sinners v. 8 is improbable in the parallelism. It 
is a later gloss, making the line over full, and preparatory to the 
petition for pardon v. n — 10. All the paths of Yahweh], not the 
paths in which Yahweh goes, but the paths which Yahweh teaches 
His people, as v. 4 — are kindness and faithfulness], as in v. 5, 7 . He 
leads in faithfulness, and kindness is the norm of His remembrance 
of His people. — to them that keep His covenant], the covenant 
between Yahweh and His people, whose substance is the Deutero- 
nomic instruction in those ways and paths already spoken of. The 
keeping of this covenant is a walking in its ways under the guid- 
ance of Yahweh. — and His testimonies], a gloss of amplification 
from the point of view of the later priestly legislation, making the 
line over full. We should now expect, in accordance with the 
method of this psalmist, a synonymous line with the catchword 
of this line repeated, and that covenant would be this word. In 
fact the expression of trust and confidence which characterises 
this Str. is suddenly abandoned, and petition abruptly appears. — 
11. For Thy name's sake], an urgent plea, as the basis of the 



224 PSALMS 

petition, thrown before for emphasis, that the good name, the 
honour of Yahweh may not suffer in His people. — pardon mine 
iniquity], lift it up as a burden, and bear it away from me and 
from Thee; syn. " forgive," as v. 18 . — for it is great], not in 
intensity, but in amount, cf. 19 14 . All this is well suited to a 
worshipping congregation ; but it is not in accord with the con- 
text, or the course of thought of the Ps. It doubtless was a 
liturgical substitution for the original line, which was parall. with 
v. 10 — 12. Who then is he ?] This inquiry is in order to prepare 
the mind for the emphatic answer, thatfeareth Yahweh\ the key- 
word of this tristich, reappearing therefore in v. 14 — He will in- 
struct him in the way, as v. 8 , || make them know it, as v. 4 . — He 
chooseth], relative clause with Yahweh subj., as i^ 1 65'\ It is 
usually interpreted as " he should choose," with man as subject. 
The context favours the former interpretation. — 13. He himself] 
antith, to his seed, or posterity ; the former will dwell in prosperity, 
in accordance with the blessedness and prosperity promised to 
those who fear Yahweh and walk in His ways, cf. Dt. 28; the 
latter will inherit the land, the promised land of Canaan, as Pss. 
37 9 ~ 34 44 4 , in accordance with Gn. 15 7 Num. 13 30 21 2435 Jos. 18 3 (JE) 
Dt. i 8 - 21 - w + . — 14. The intimacy of Yahweh], the intimate, secret 
fellowship granted to those admitted to the inner circle of friend- 
ship or alliance, cf. Pr. $*, Jb. 29 4 ; II covenant, which, while refer- 
ring to the Deuteronomic covenant, as above v. 10 , has yet in this 
connection the more fundamental meaning of an alliance, as Ps. 
55 21 . — they that fear {His name)], as 6i G 86 11 i02 1G , for so the 
text originally read, as the measure requires, instead of " fear 
Him " of ty, followed by EV 8 ., which leaves the measure defective 
by just one word, which appears, however, in (£>, although " His 
name " is there expanded into a clause, practically identical in 
other respects with the previous one. 

Str. III. is composed of a tristich, v. 15 " 17 , and a distich, v. 20-21 * 
with the usual catchwords and intervening lines, v. 18 " 19 , of a differ- 
ent character ; cf. v. 10-11 . — 15. Mine eyes] in antithesis with my 
feet. The former look continually unto Yahweh ; the latter, Yah- 
weh on His part, in response to the pleading look, brings forth 
irom a place of peril. — that He may firing forth], in accordance 
with the petition which is characteristic of the entire Str., as 



PSALM XXV. 225 

distinguished from the calm statement of fact which is charac- 
teristic of the previous Str. The EV 8 . and interpreters generally 
regard the clause as causal in accordance with previous context, 
" for He shall pluck," a loose but poetic rendering of vb. meaning 
" bring forth," which is the keyword of the tristich. — from the 
net~\ in J^ and Verss. is due to an interpretative gloss after 9 16 ; 
but it is at the expense of the measure and has nothing to suggest 
it in the context, and really is too specific, leading away from the 
more general thought of the tristich. — from my distresses^, the 
parallel of v. 17 , where the vb. is repeated, also syn. with the adj. 
desolate, abandoned to enemies, left alone (v. 22 21 68 7 ), and 
afflicted, suffering from words and deeds of the enemies, as v. 2,9 ; 
so also with troubles of my mind, mental distress, anxiety caused 
by the treachery of the enemies. — 16. Turn unto me and be 
gracious unto me~\. The turning unto the people on the part 
of Yahweh is an appropriate response to their eyes continually 
directed unto Him. — 17. O make room\, in accordance with the 
usage of 4 2 ; give breathing-place, breadth of position, in contrast 
to the straits, the cramped and narrow position, in which they were 
now situated, a mng. entirely appropriate between the verbs " bring 
forth." The rendering of (3, J, EV 8 ., al., " the troubles of my 
heart are enlarged," has no usage in Heb. to justify it ; and the 
interpretation of the vb. as perfect, while justified by J^, is against 
the context, and due to an ancient misreading of the text, attach- 
ing the letter Waw to the preceding instead of the following word. 
— 18. O see mine affliction and my travail ']. This line is ren- 
dered suspicious at the start by its substitution of a vb. with "1, and 
indeed the same as that of v. 19, for the expected one with p, 
which should appear here in the order of the alphabet. An easy 
emendation would give us this ; but there remain the same objec- 
tions that we have found against v. 11 , namely, the unexpected plea, 
and forgive all my sins, and the absence of the catchword of the 
distich. It is probable, therefore, that we have a liturgical substi- 
tution for the original line syn. with v. 19 . — 19. O see mine ene- 
mies^, the same as those mentioned v. 2 , only there they were 
treacherous, and so dangerous \ here they are many, numerous, 
and so outnumbering the people of Yahweh that they need rein- 
forcement. — and they hate me]. This is probably the catchword 
Q 



226 PSALMS 

of the distich, and was to be found in the original mate to this 
line ; intensified by with a hatred of violence, a hatred that 
prompts to deeds of violence. — 20-21. O keep me and deliver 
me], the latter probably the keyword of the distich, reappearing 
in v. 21 in the original text; but an early copyist by the mistake 
of a single letter read it " preserve me," which really implies a 
previous deliverance, and is not so well suited to wait on Thee 
II seek refuge in Thee, which imply that the deliverance has not 
yet been granted. — Let me not be ashamed] goes back to the 
beginning of the Ps. v. 1 " 3 , and implies the continuance of the same 
situation. — Let integrity and uprightness], personified as messen- 
gers of God sent forth to deliver His people, cf. 23° 43 s . — Yah- 
weh~\ concludes as well as begins the Ps., according to (0> ; but J£f 
omits it, and so loses one tone from the measure. — 22. This is 
a liturgical addition by a late editor, as 34 23 . — O God~\ is charac- 
teristic of !£ and an Elohistic period of composition. Yahweh 
was this psalmist's God. — ransom out of all his troubles'], cf. 78^ 
130 8 . — Israel], the name of the people of God, cf. 14 7 . This 
final petition was suited for the congregation in worship at all 
times j it generalises the Ps., which was based upon a particular 
historical experience. 

1-2. tS*<] emph., so also Mttel as the seat of desire; vq: xz'i lift up the 
soul, in desire, nvn ^n 86 4 143 8 ; Sk rei 24k Dt. 24 15 Ho. 4 8 Pr. 19 18 . The 
1. is defective, lacking two words to make up the hexameter characteristic 
of this alphabetical Ps. One of these is ^nSy, after (@l ; the other is the 
superfluous nros^x of next 1., which a prosaic editor has attached to the 
juss. that follows, bringing the two together. Then 1. 2 begins with its letter, 
H3, also emph., and has its right measure, ro is the keyword of the first 
tristich, thrice repeated (v. 6 11 ), this poet showing a liking to the stairlike 
parallelism {v. Intr. § 12 a). — 'JVW3] emph. present (v. j 6 ). — uSg S'] Q a l 
3 pi. neg. juss. ~>n should be ?ki as (@> in order to be a separate word with 
tone. <3 also has KarayeXaa-druxxdv /jlov, JJ irrideant me, i?v s *, so Che. *S is 
not constructed with the vb., which elsw. is always with 2, but with the noun, 
to intensify personal reference. — 3. TP'Vr] vb. Qal ptc. pi. sf. 2 m. \ nip. 
t Qal ptc, those waiting for Yahweh 2j 3 37 9 6c; 7 Is. 40 31 49 23 La. 3'- 15 . Pi. 
(i) wait, look eagerly for, c. ace. rei Ps. 39 s La. 2 16 , sq. inf. Ps. 69 21 Is. 5 2 - 4 , 
c. ace. Yahweh Ps. 2J 5 - 21 40 2 130 5 ; ov 52 11 (?); abs. 130 5 ; c. L, s Yahwel 
27U.H 3734 t s# ^5 # ( 2 ) Lie in wait for, c. ace. Ps. 56 7 , c. S pers. 119 95 . 
*?3 should be attached by Makkeph to 01 and not to following ptc. for better 
euphony. — itfai n s ] Qal. impf. 3 pi. indie, with neg. K*7 is not suited to con- 



PSALM XXV. 227 

text. (3 had juss. with Sn, which is much more probable. The "?H should be 
attached by Makkeph to the vb. to make one tone. — D**wan] Qal ptc. pi., 
article with force of rel. | -U3, vb. Qal, act or deal treacherously, ptc. pi., 
2 j3 ngi58 j s# 21 2 24 16 33 1 Je. 3 8 - n 9 1 + ; px HJ3 Ps. 59°, abs. 78 s ", c. ace. 
pers., 73 15 , elsw. c. 3 pers. — Dpn], not without cause, for which no usage can 
be shown; but without accomplishing anything, as ? 5 ; cf. 2 S. i 22 Is. 55 11 . — 

4. TiPl] emph. Str. -■, pi. sf. 2 m. ?pT ways for laws, so v. 9 (v. i 1 ), term 
of D. — ^nms] pi. sf. 2 m., m*< (v. 8 9 ), paths for laws. This word has to 
bear two beats in the measure, therefore it should be preceded by \ as <&. — 
ij^g 1 ^] Pi. imv. sf. 1 p. no 1 ? (v. 18 35 ), teach, the keyword of the distich, v. 4-5 . — 

5. This v. is overfull. The three words of the last clause are suspicious. Are 
they a gl. or part of the missing Str. i ? If with <g we read rp^m we might 
begin with ). However tempting it may be to find Str. 1 here, yet the argu- 
ments against it are irresistible. The last clause is a gl. — 6. "Vjr] (v. S 5 ), 
the keyword of the distich, v. 6-7 . — T£nn] pi. sf. 2 m. J cm, n.m. only abst. 
intensive pi.: compassion, (1) usually of God 77 1J 79 s H9 77 - 153 , || non 23 s 
40 12 103 4 Ho. 2 21 Je. 16 5 ; phr. -pern a-o Pss. 51 3 69 17 ; c. ty 145 9 ; (2) of man 
106 46 . — T?.p£)] Thy deeds of kindness (v. 4^) , pi., mostly late 1 7 7 Sg 2 - 50 107 43 La. 
3 s2 Is. 63 7 , improb. in view of its use with an attribute here and the use of the sg. 
in parall. 1.; rd. ^idh. It has been assimilated to "pcm. — >r] though sustained 
by (!I 8ti, is prob. a gl. of interpretation. — 7. *7>J?J risen] pi. emph., phr. 
a.X., but cf. Jb. I3 2G Ez. 23 21 . J -n>*j, n.m., only pi. abst., youth, elsw. 103 5 
I27 4 ,'js 7i 6 - 17 129 1 - 2 , from youth up, cf. 'ja 144 12 . — '?^»] pi- sf. I sg. (v. ig 1 ^). 
(3 has dyvolas, which is better suited to context; but both are probably 
glosses, as are also the words that follow ^, for the 1. is just so much overfull. 
nnN is not in <&, 3. It is an emph. reference to Yahweh in connection with 
the imv., due to the insertion of ^2V2 Jj?oS, which is only an emph. reiteration 
of -pcro. X 3V -° n - m - (0 i°°d things, coll. as given by Yahweh 27 10 65°; 
(2) abst. prosperity of Jerusalem 1 28 s , goodness of taste 119 66 ; (3) goodness 
of God, in salvation of His people 25 1 145 7 , cf. Is. 63 7 ; stored up for His 
saints Ps. 31 20 . — 8. nw ip> aMo] phr., a.X. %^c, adj. (1) good, pleasant 
45 2 I 33 1 ; ( 2 ) excellent of its kind, oil 133 2 ; (3) appropriate, becoming 73 28 
92 2 147 1 ; (4) c. jr, comp. better than 37 16 63 4 84 11 n8 8 - 9 119 72 ; (5) well, 
prosperous 112 5 ; (6) good, understanding in 10 , as 2 Ch. n 10 Pr. 3 4 +; 
(7) benign, of God 86 5 ; phr. aw »3 34 s 106 1 107 1 118 129 135 3 136 1 Je. 33 n + ; 
cf. Ps. ioo 5 ; c. S 73 1 145 9 ; attribute of divine Spirit 143 10 = Ne. 9 20 , of divine 
name Pss. 52 11 54 s , of divine kindness 69 17 109 21 ; (8) good, right, ethically, 
{a) of man 125 4 , the way 36 5 ; (b) of God 2j 8 ii9 39 - 68 . nr (v. 7 11 ), 13~hl 
(v. / 5 ). — O'H^n] {v. i 1 ) is prob. gl., as the 1. is overfull and the thought 
of sinners is not suited to the context, for v. 8 begins the second heptastich 
of the poem and is closely related not to v. 7 but to v. 9 , and 37.7 is the key- 
word of the tristich || my, v. v. 4 . — 9. *n^] Hiph. juss. form, but improb. that 
it has juss. mng., v. v. 5 . — a«w] v. 9 13 . — »«jtfo}] in the Law of the type of 
judgment; usually in pi. (v. i 5 ). — 10. ppjo "«Dn] phr., Gn. 24 s7 (J) Pss.40 11 - 12 
57 4 61 8 85 11 86 15 89 15 115 1 138 2 (v. 4I /j^».'— Vnna n«] phr., elsw. Dt. 33 s , 



228 PSALMS 

usually nna IDtf Pss. 78 10 103 18 132 12 . J nna, n.f. (1) />w/y, alliance, league, 
of nations against Israel 83 s Ho. 12 2 Ez. 1713-19- ( 2 ) alliance of friendship 
Ps. 55' 21 1 S. 18 3 20 8 23 18 , so with God || niD Ps. 2jU; (3) covenant, (a) with 
patriarchs 105 s - 10 Gn. 15 18 (J) I7 2 - 21 (P), (b) with Israel at Horeb Pss. 2s 10 
44 18 50 s - 16 74 20 (?) 78 10 - 37 103 18 106 45 in 5 - 9 , 0) with David 89*. 29. 85. 40 
132 12 ; cf. 2 S. 7 = 1 Ch. 17 Je. 33 21 . — wn;?i] makes 1. overfull and is a late 
gl. : a late term characteristic of P, and found only in writers subsequent to 
P (v. i<f). — 11. nDBf-fgpS] emph., as 23* 31 4 79 s 106 8 109 21 143 11 . — nrrSo>] 
l consec. pf. carrying on juss. implicit in previous clause. % n ^ D > VD -» pardon 
(syn. of Ht'i forgive), Qal, c. i of sin 23 11 103 3 Ex. 34 s Nu. 14 19 (J) Je. 31 34 
33 8 30 8 . — *T>] ^« / ^- This 1. was probably a later substitution for an earlier 
1. that has been thrown out. It lacks the catchword. — 12. nt *d] ?</^, /^« 
(v. 24 s ) should be connected by Makkeph. — B^Kri] (v. 4 s ) is unnecessary. 
The 1. is more euphonic without it. — U"Y"] Hiph. impf. 3 m. strong sf. 3 s. 
•ij_ for in_. There is word play here with previous nv. — "via?] Q a l impf. 
i.p. rel. clause, without rel. J VD, vb., Qal choose: (1) c. 3, divine choice, 
Aaron 105 26 , not Ephraim 78 c7 , espec. David 78™, Zion 132 13 ; (2) rel. clause, 
subj. God 25 12 33 12 65 s ; (3) c. ace. and % choose something or some one for, 
divine choice 47 s 135 4 ; (4) c. ace. divine choice 78 c8 , human choice 84 11 
H9S0. 73. (5) pt c> -, in 2, chosen, of ruler 89 20 ; cf. ^N-\ty nwa 78 31 = 1 S. 26 2 . — 
13. 3>B3] in prosperity Jb. 21 13 36 11 Ec. 7 14 (z/. 4 7 ). — pSn] vb., Qal future. J pS, 
vb., Qal, lodge, dwell 30 6 59 16 < ?) ; c. 3 2j 13 55 s ; abs. continue, endure 49 13 . 
Hithp., </zf<?//, a£t<&, c. 2 of man 91 1 , of eagle Jb. 39 28 . — Bh^] Qal impf. 
\ Bh% vb., Qal, (1) ta^ possession of as an inheritance, usually Israel subj., 
c. ace. the land of Canaan 23 13 378. 11. 22. ». a* 444, c f. 105 44 ; enemies, subj. 
83 13 ; (2) dwell and inherit 69^. Hiph., dispossess 44 s . — 14. Jtd] n. 
(1) council, of a divan, in bad sense 64 s , good sense Jb. 15 8 19 19 ; assembly, 
of angels Ps. 89 s ; (2) counsel, intimate friendship, of men 55 16 in 7 , with 
God 2jU Pr. 3 32 Jb. 29 4 , in bad sense of crafty plotting Ps. 83 4 . @ tid* 1 is 
misinterpretation. @ has a parall. clause, kolI rb 6vo/xa Kvpiov tQv (pofiovixtvwv 
avrbv, which might be regarded as a variant ; but a word is missing from 1., 
and it is probable that the clue to it is given in 6vofia = QV; then we should 
rd. >Dtf »jn*S, the l in vn-p bejng dittog. from tnnai; cf. 61 6 86 11 102 16 . — 
15. , r>] c. " ,-L, n, as 123 2 antith. to "»Sr\ — *s] not causal for, as usual, but 
final that, as 8 5 , as the subsequent context requires. — nnc] is doubtless a 
gl., making 1. too long. It is not suggested by the context. — 16. nj9] Qal 
imv. X ™-> vb -» Q a U *«>*»» (1) of days of life 90 9 ; ipan nuflS a/ ///<? /«r« 0///^ 
morning 46 s Ex. 14 27 Ju. 19 26 ; (2) /«r« and look, c. Vn, man, subj. Ps. 40 6 ; 
Yahweh, subj. 69 17 ; *janj »Sh njp, the two imvs. with 1 coord, ^j 26 86 16 119 182 ; 
nSon Sn 102 18 1 K. 8 28 = 2 Ch. 6 19 . Pi., turn away, put away 80 10 (?).— 
n^n>] adj., solitary, as 68 7 141 10 (<S) {v. 22 21 ); w (z/. 9 13 ). — 17. n'nx] emph. 
v. 22 (v. 2d 2 ), not elsw. connected with 33S as the seat of anxiety and trouble 
(v. 4P). This clause is not the obj. of vb. o^nnn. Hiph. pf. 3 m. indef. subj., 
and so passive, they have enlarged, increased, for the vb. is not elsw. in this 
sense, but only in the sense of increase extent, make more room, and so in the 



PSALM XXVI. 229 

sense of deliverance from troubles (v. 4 2 ). The 1 should go with the next 
word, and then the form is Hiph. imv. || soxin, and so make room, as Lowth, 
Horsley. The previous clause is then ace. abs., as for, as regards the troubles. 
— *nip«sc], JD prep, out of with f pijttcc, n.f. straitness, straits 23 17 I07 6 - 13 - 19 - 28 
Jb. 15 24 Zp. I 15 . — 18. rmn] at the beginning of 1. where we would expect p 
is suspicious, especially as it is repeated v. 19 . It was either an intentional 
change of editor or txt. err. Various suggestions have been made as to the 
initial word of Str. p, so Dip Du., 29p Che., *wp Houb., Kenn., Horsley; but 
the easiest and most suitable is nN-\p, cohort, imv. J Nip, vb., Qal meet : 
(1) in hostility 35 s , (2) in helpfulness 59 s ; so prob. here. — Mfen] 1 coord. Qal 
imv. sirj forgive, syn., n^D pardon v. 11 . The 1. lacks the catchword so charac- 
teristic of the Ps., and it is probably a later substitution for a 1. that has been 
thrown out. — nwan] n.f. in \p alw. sin against God v. 7 32 s 38*- 19 51 5 59*, 
of the mouth 59 13 ; ace. after hv: 32 s , nno Ps. 109 14 Is. 44 s2 Je. 18 23 , hdo 
Ps. 85*, with prep. TiS X9i 2j 18 , n Sy -123 Ps. 79°, tid nno 51 4 . rtrj is not used 
in this sense in D, P, Je., Is. 2 , La., Ch., and is therefore either before D or else 
later than P. — 19. Den nxptr*] phr. a.X., but J riKifc n.f., hatred 25 19 109 s - 5 
139 22 . — 20. *rn5n] Qal pf. 1 p.s. emph. present, retracted accent because of 
following monosyllable {v. 2 12 ). — 21. nc"i oh] phr. a.X., personified qualities. 
ah (v. 7 9 ). X n ^ 1 n.m., straightness, Tightness, right, elsw. aaS "Vtfr 119 7 Dt.9 5 
1 Ch. 29 17 . — " , |i~i^] Qal impf. 3 pi. sf. juss., nxj. But this prob. an err. for 
the catchword ^v, txt. err. n for S in Egyptian Aram, script. — T? v }p] Pi- pf- 
1 s. sf. 2 m. emph. present (v. v. 3 ). © has nm> omitted by H, but necessary 
to the measure. — 22. 179] Qal imv. % PH9 vb., Qal ransom from violence 
and death, man subj. 49 s I S. 14 45 ; God subj., from enemies and troubles 
Pss. 2s 22 26 11 31 6 34 23 44 27 55 19 69 19 71 23 78 42 119 134 , from Sheol 49 16 , from 
iniquities 130 8 . This is a liturgical appendix. The Ps. has come to an end 
with Str. n. Str. 1 was omitted by design, and therefore there was no reason 
to complete the alphabetical number of lines. Ps. 34 has the same situation. 
otiSn is not the divine name of the Ps., but of a later editor. 



PSALM XXVI., 4 str. 4 3 . 

Ps. 26 is a profession of integrity by a Levite, engaged in wor- 
shipping Yahweh in the temple choir. ( 1 ) He professes integrity 
in walk, and unwavering trust in Yahweh, as attested by Yahweh 
Himself (v. 12 ). (2) Ever conscious of the divine kindness and 
faithfulness, he abstains from all association with the wicked (v. 3 ^). 
(3) He hates the company of the wicked and purifies himself for 
sacrifice (v. 5-6 ). (4) He loves the temple (v. 8 ), and stands in 
its choir blessing Yahweh (v. 12 ). A later editor by additions 
and changes introduces the elements of prayer (v. la ' iW1 ) and wor- 
ship (v. 7 ). 



230 PSALMS 

T HAVE walked in mine integrity; 

In Yahweh I have trusted without wavering. 

Yahweh hath tested me and proved me ; 

Tried out are my reins and my mind. 
"V"EA, Thy kindness is before mine eyes; 

And I walk in Thy faithfulness. 

I do not sit down with worthless men ; 

And with dissemblers I will not come. 
T HATE the assembly of evildoers, 

And with the wicked I will not sit down. 

I will wash my hands in innocency, 

And I will march around Thine altar, Yahweh. 
J LOVE the habitation of Thine house, 

And the place of the tabernacle of Thy glory. 

My foot doth stand in the level place, 

And in the choirs I bless Yahweh. 

The title has only inS, as the entire group 25-28. This Ps. was not taken 
up into £H, QH, or 3E. It was, in its original form, not appropriate for wor- 
ship in the synagogue, for it was a profession of right conduct from an ethical 
point of view, as required by Pss. 15, 24 s-6 , rather than from the legal of Ps. I, 
which in other respects it resembles in v. 4-5 by repudiation of any association 
with the wicked. D^«h v. 5 are not wicked nations, but wicked Israelites 
JOB^DD, dtS;*: v. 4 ; D^jno ?np v. 5 , whom the author is only anxious to avoid. 
The cs-jn, cm >^jn v. 9 , with their nsr and tfltf v. 10 , are of an entirely different 
type, who are in deadly hostility. These terms represent a different situation 
and come from a later editor. The author of the Ps. is in no other peril than 
that of ethical contamination. Therefore he purifies himself by Levitical 
purifications for participation in the service of the altar v. 6 , and worship in 
the temple choir v 1 -. "n#>D v. 12 is probably the level place of the court before 
the temple where the choir took its stand. The D^SnpB, elsw. only 68 27 , might 
mean assemblies but more probably choirs. This ethical and religious situa- 
tion in times of peace and prosperity is best suited to the middle Persian 
period, before Hebrew Wisdom had become the mould for Hebrew ethics. 
This profession of integrity is not so inappropriate as many moderns think. 
It is not self-righteousness. It is not so much self-conscious, as conscious of 
the divine presence and the requirements that invoke it. It is the ethical 
answer to the requirements of Pss. 15, 24 s-6 , Is. 33 14 - 16 . It reminds us also of 
Dt. 26 1-11 on the one side and of Jb. 31 on the other. The language of the 
Ps. has no other special features than those mentioned above. The Ps. is a 
trimeter. The first line has prefixed a petition which makes the line too long, 
or, if regarded as an abbreviated line, makes the Str. too long. It is an 
editorial change in order to begin with a petition. It is also probable that 
original perfects v.' 2 as implied by the Kt. now, have been changed by 
pointing as imv. for the same reason. V. 7 , for similar reasons, introduces 
praise, and v. 9-11 urges petition again, all of which make the Ps. more suited 
to public worship in the synagogue, and so later in the church; but spoil the 



PSALM XXVI. 231 

simplicity and symmetry of the original, which was two pairs of trimeter 
tetrastichs. 

Str. I. la. Judge me, Yahweh], This in the present context 
must be interpreted in the sense of vindication. But it is difficult 
to see in what respect vindication was needed. The context 
shows that the psalmist was assured of his integrity, and all that 
he really needed was divine recognition and acceptance in wor- 
ship. This petition is not in harmony with the context ; but it is 
an appropriate one in liturgical worship, where various emotions 
of the congregation mingle together, and logical consistency is the 
last thing that is thought of. It is an editorial gloss. The first 
half of the Ps. is composed of two trimeter tetrastichs, as Str. and 
Antistr., each composed of two syn. couplets. — \b. I have 
walked], the course of life, conduct. This has been in mine in- 
tegrity^, in entire accord with ethical requirements, complete and 
perfect ; not in the absolute sense, but in the plain, popular sense 
that, so far as he knew, he was unconscious of any wickedness in 
his conduct. This he asserts as a fact, professes it in the presence 
of his God. He makes not a profession of faith, but a profession 
of morals, as Job 31. The ancient Hebrew was not a philosopher 
and had no thought of speculative ethics. The editor is obliged 
to introduce this by " for " and make it a reason for the plea for 
vindication; but the connection is remote. — In Yahweh I have 
trusted], inner disposition, as parallel with outward conduct; the 
God-ward attitude of soul, corresponding with the man-ward 
attitude of body, faith and works united in one. — without waver- 
ing'], steady, unshaken, uninterrupted was his communion with 
Yahweh, in faith, as the counterpart of the integrity, completeness 
of conduct. The faith and the works were both alike complete, 
entire, unimpeachable. — 2. Yahweh hath tested me], with its 
complement, proved me, and its parallel, tried out, as by the re- 
fining of metals, v. 1 7 3 . A most searching examination has been 
made by Yahweh Himself, and that has been complete, for it has 
extended to my reins and my mind], v. 7 10 Je n 20 17 10 20 12 , the 
seat of emotions and passions as well as the seat of the intellectual 
and moral nature. The profession of faith and morals therefore 
rests upon the divine examination and approval. This assertion of 
fact did not suit the requirements of a later worship, and therefore 



232 rSALMS 

probably the Ps. was left out of the collection made by I33i£ and 
32. But by changing the pfs. of the vb. to the imvs. " test me 
|| prove me || try out," especially when introduced by "judge me," 
the Ps. was made more suited to the worship of the synagogue and 
so also for the Christian congregation. 

Str. II. 3. Yea], if our interpretation of the foregoing is correct ; 
but doubtless the editor interpreted it as "for" in accordance 
with v. 16 which it resumes ; so all Vrss. — Thy kindness], as usual 
parallel with Thy faithfulness ; the former in accordance with the 
trust of v. lc , although it is before ?nine eyes; the latter in accordance 
with the walk, which is indeed expressed in this clause. This 
latter is not a qualification of the psalmist, or of the way in which 
he walks, and so to be rendered "Thy truth " as EV\ because this 
Hebrew word seldom has the meaning of " truth," and never when 
it is connected with the divine kindness. The " faithfulness " is 
syn. with the " kindness," both of which divine attributes as 
present with him, before the eyes of his mind, enable him to walk 
in his integrity. — 4. / do not sit down with~\. In this and the 
syn. line, so also in v. 5 , the poet repudiates any association whatever 
with the wicked. This reminds us of Ps. i 1 , where walking, standing, 
and sitting down with the wicked are repudiated. Here only two 
of these actions are mentioned. The action of sitting down with, 
is greatly emphasised here because it is repeated in v.*, as indeed 
it is the climax of the actions in Ps. i 1 . Such a sitting down with 
them would imply prolonged association and greater intimacy 
and responsibility for companionship, than walking with them or 
standing with them. — / will not come with], that is, be seen 
approaching in company with. The vb. has been intentionally 
changed from that of v. 1636 and implies a movement the reverse 
of going ; therefore it is improbable that it should have the specific 
meaning " go in " of EV 8 . implying entrance to a house or assembly, 
which is awkward without designation of place. — worthless men~], 
men whose speech and conduct is empty, false ; their speech and 
professions empty of reality ; with nothing in them that is reliable ; 
and so parallel with dissemblers, those who conceal their thoughts 
so that they may appear differently from what they are. 

Str. III. The second part of the Ps. is composed of two tri- 
meter tetrastichs, Str. and Antistr., contrasting what the psalmist 



PSALM XXVI. 233 

loves and hates, the first couplet of each syn., the second couplet 
of each synth. — 5.7 hale], in antithesis with " I love " v. 8 . The 
object of the former is the assembly, or congregation of evildoers 
|| wicked, more general and positive terms for those of v. 4 ; the 
object of the latter is the assembly of the worshippers of Yahweh 
in the temple choir, although that is not brought out distinctly 
until the closing line of the Str. — 6. I will wash my hands'], 
doubtless referring to the ceremonial purifications prescribed by 
the Law for those who were to serve in the temple worship ; the 
use of pure, running water from the sacred lavers of the temple 
courts. This washing was not made symbolical by the use of the 
ethical term, in innocency, which recurs to the integrity of v. 15 ; 
but in order to show that the external ceremonial purification was 
only expressive of an internal purity of mind, as indeed the Law 
and the Prophets require. — And I will ?narch around Thine altar], 
in festal procession, with music and song, while the sacrifice was 
being made by the priests. There is no good reason to doubt 
this ceremonial among the Hebrews, although the direct evidence 
for it is slight. But there are many indirect references, cf. 42* 
118 27 1 S. 16 11 30 16 ; and the usual meaning of the Hebrew word 
favours this interpretation, as well as the reference to choirs v. 12 . 
There is still less justification, from anything we know of Hebrew 
customs at sacrifice, to interpret it of the psalmist's taking his 
place in the ring of worshippers around the altar. 
7. This v. is a couplet of gloss. 

To cause the sound of thanksgiving to be heard 
And to tell of all Thy wondrous deeds. 

This couplet is attached to v. 6 as an explanation of the march 
about the altar, to show that it was accompanied with song and 
music. The contents of the song were thanksgiving and praise ; 
thanksgiving, sounding forth from human voices and musical in- 
struments so as to be heard far and near. The wondrous deeds of 
Yahweh, especially in the redemption of His people, are what these 
Pss. of praise commonly tell. This addition is quite appropriate 
and in accordance with v. 12 ; but it is hung on to v. 6 by an infinitive, 
so that it must go with v. 5-6 . It makes the Str. just these lines too 
long, as compared with other Strs. ; and it is also overfull in state- 



234 PSALMS 

ment as compared with the simplicity of thought and expression 
of the previous context. The motive of the addition was evidently 
to introduce the missing element of praise to Yahweh, and so 
make the Ps. more appropriate for public worship. 

Str. IV. 8. / love the habitation of Thi?ie house], that is, the 
divine abode itself in the temple, the Debir or Holy of Holies, 
behind the curtain of which Yahweh was conceived as in resi- 
dence ; and so syn. with place of the tabernacle of Thy glory]. The 
glory of the divine presence was centred there. 

A late editor inserts a hexastich gloss — 

Gather not my soul with sinners, 
Or with men of blood my life; 
In whose hands is an evil device, 
And whose right hand is full of bribery. 
Since I in mine integrity walk, 
Redeem me and be gracious to me, (Yahweh). 

This hexastich is composed of a tetrastich of two syn. couplets, 
the latter synth. to the first, followed by an antith. synth. couplet. 
This is also a gloss introduced for the purpose of making the Ps. 
more appropriate for public prayer. — 9. Gather not'], as the 
context shows in order to take away the soul in death || life, 
cf. 104 29 , antith. v. 116 Redeem me, and its complement, be gracious 
to me. Yahweh is needed here for the measure, unless we are to 
regard v. 11 as a pentameter appended still later than v. 9 " 10 , without 
regard to the measure of the previous or subsequent context. — 
With sinners || men of blood], violent men who shrink not from 
bloodshed, implying a different set of men from the false and dis- 
sembling of v. 4 — 10. In whose hand] emphasised in the parallel 
right hand, as stretched out to give an evil device, or plan. In the 
hand it is something tangible, defined by full of bribery, a gift of 
money, or jewels, or something valuable, to purchase immunity 
from crime. These are probably criminals who bribe, and not 
judges or rulers accepting bribes. — 11. Since I in mine integrity 
walk], a repetition of v. 16 in order to get an antith. with the blood- 
thirsty men, as a basis for the final plea for redemption. The 
construction is, however, changed from the perfect to the imper- 
fect of the habit of life, and the whole is put in a circumstantial 
clause. 



PSALM XXVI. 235 

12. My foot doth stand in the level place"]. This couplet is 
closely associated with v. 8 as its complement, although separated 
by the intervening gloss. The psalmist is standing on his feet 
in the levelled place of the court, where the sacrifices were made 
at the divine altar. — A?id in the choirs'], the group of singers, 
who unite in the chorus of the benediction. This is more probable 
than assembly of worshippers in general, especially as / will bless 
Yahweh is not merely an attitude of the soul in worship, but 
doubtless refers to the benedictions as sung. These benedictions 
were sung in full chorus at the close of every Ps. or liturgical 
selection (v. Intr. § 40). We may either think of them or of the 
entire liturgy as sung by the choir. 

1. wpSn ^na ox] ox emph.; vp^a also emph. (v. y 9 ). V. 11 has ^M, 
otherwise the clause is the same. The 1. is too long. Du. thinks this v. has 
been assimilated to v. 11 , and therefore rds. \jN~an mrp »jBDtf. But the 
parall. 1. requires iroSn "»DP3 •on, and therefore o 1 >JQDVt is the gl. — nino] 
emph., antith. ox. — "^BN x 1 *] not future of independent clause, but circum- 
stantial, without slipping, shaking, wavering. — 2. or 3] Pi. imv. % [<~idj] 
vb. only Pi. test, prove: (a) God subj. 26* Dt. 33 s Ex. 15 25 +; f (b) Israel 
tests, tries, God Pss. 7 8 18 - 41 - 5 o 95 s 106 14 Ex. if-' Nu. 14 22 (J) Dt. 6 16 , so 
Ahaz Is. 7 1 ' 2 . || njnx] Qr. Qal imv. cohort, of *px (v. 12 7 17 3 ), Kt. nw*W Qal 
ptc, prob. implies an original txt. in which previous vbs. were pfs. — *aVl »n^S?] 
v. 7 10 Je. 11 20 17W 20 12 . — 3. :|p9H3 tjgiafonrn] c f. 25 s 86 11 , 1 coord'.;' Hithp. 
pf. 1 p. of T]S-i, as v. 1 . <3 ev-qptvT-qaa is prob. paraphrase. — 4. KlB^rjD] cf. 
Jb. II 11 , men of emptiness of speech, falsehood ; worthless men. — D^EHJtt] Niph. 
ptc. pi. a.X., those who conceal themselves or their thoughts, dissemblers. — 
xox] Qal future, not go, for which there is no certain usage, but come. The 
rendering of EV 8 . go in, though possible, is without example apart from desig- 
nation of place, and to have force should be emphasised by some such 
particle as 21 v. 14. 3 . — 5. D^JPD *?np] phr. a.X., assembly of evildoers, cf. T my 
22 17 , 'C T>D 64 s . For Snp v. 22 23 , D^JHD Hiph. ptc. of Jfjn v. 22 17 . — 
6- $2 V^)} frnnj = 73 13 , of purification before sacrifice. J fm Qal wash, 
elsw. \p 58 11 (feet with blood in vengeance). J fwp j n.[m.] innocency, in \f/ 
only in this phr., cf. Gn. 20 5 (RJE). — ^q3?p-nH naaD«] march about in 
solemn procession, cf. 1 S. 16 11 . % riDtp n.m. altar, as place of sacrifice, elsw. 
43* 5 1 21 84* 118 27 . — 7. £DE»S] Hiph. inf. cstr., defectively written for jnctfnS 
= to cause to be heard, the song of thanksgiving; here gerundive, but then the 
Str. must be six lines. Du. proposes to transpose v. 7 with v. 8 , and then 
inf. becomes dependent on \-anx. This seems necessary because of the 
antith. of 3HN and x:t\ But it looks like an expansive gl. We would, how- 
ever, expect Sip, as 66 8 . Slpa is elsw. connected with Qal, and it may be that 
was the original txt. as interpreted by <g. 3 interprets as Hiph., and Sipa 



2 $6 rSALMS 

as clara voce. — \ fTfifi] n.f. : (1) thanksgiving in song, Ti iy> 2& 42 s Jon. 2 10 , 
|| •vir Ps. 69 31 , nnnr 95 12 , nSin ioo 4 , nu? 147 7 ; (2) thankoffering mm corar 
107 22 116 17 , mm 1 ? ioo 1 (title), min nar 5o 14 - - 3 , ti c^ir 56 13 . — r^rYiK^-Sa ^?d s ] 
contents of rnin sung by procession, as o 2 73'- 8 75 2 . — 8. mn>] gl., makes 1. too 
long, due to the insertion or transposition of the previous distich. — % ppo] 
n.[m.] dwelling, of 1 in heaven, thp 'D 68 6 Dt. 26 15 Je. 25 30 Zc. 2 17 ; in the 
temple, n*a T3 Ps. ^6*; usually 71 8 90 1 91° are interpreted fig. of 1 as the 
abode of His people, but all dub. <J5 evirpiireiav = d>j, error of transposition 
of original \jns. — Tl s * 3 ]--^1 Thy glorious tabernacle, poetic for temple. 
Jp#D n.m. dwelling-place, tabernacle, of P, not used in f ; of Shilo 78 60 ; 
elsw. (a) of temple in a more general sense as dwelling-place of" 1 ; in sg. 
rpiaa *D .26 s , qou ; td 74 7 , cf. 46 s ; (b) pi. nuaBte, used of tabernacles of Israel 
78 s8 87 s ; of the tomb 49 12 (cf. sg. Is. 22 lc ); of divine residence in Zion 
I32 5 - 7 ; holy mountain 43 s ; courts of temple 84 s . — 9. onyi ^jk] elsw. 55 s4 
59 3 I39 19 Pr. 29 10 , cf. D*»DT B^K 5 7 . — 10. nu ; N] rel., referring back to men of 
blood, defined by Dn^a. V. 9-10 are a late gl. — 11. A repetition of v. la . — 
*JNi] 1 circumstantial since, or in that, seeing that. — n^x] Qal freq., antith. 
to actions of men of blood. — *}im *pjf\ both Qal imv. 1 coord. The 1. is 
defective in the midst of trimeters. Supply nvv unless it be a gl., and 
possibly even then. This 1. may have been added subsequently to v. 9-10 , and 
so have been really pentameter. — 12. »Sn] emph. subj. vb. — n*»Dtf] Qal pf. 

3 f., c. 3 loci as usual, take one's stand, cf. rnaa 134 1 135 2 . — f ^•: ; > > :] n.m.: 
f (1) a level place 26 12 27 11 143 10 , prob. also 68 7 (for nntha); f (2) abstr., 
uprightness 45 7 67 s Is. n 4 Mai. 2 6 ; (3) the prose mng., level country, not in 
\f/. — f D^Snpo] n.[m.] pi. 26 12 = 68 27 , either choirs or assemblies for worship. 
— "H™] Pi* impf. I sg. i~\D (v. 5 13 ). This distich seems to be the comple- 
ment of v. 8 . 

PSALM XXVII. 

Ps. 27 is composite. (1) A guest Ps. expresses confidence in 
Yahweh in time of war (v. 1-3 ), and in the security afforded by 
the temple to worshippers (v. 4-6 ). (2) An anxious petition urges 
Yahweh to answer prayer (v. 78 ), not to forsake His servant 
(v. 9 ), but to give instruction and deliverance (v. 1112 ). (3) Glosses 
adapt the Ps. for congregational worship (v. 10 - 126 - 13 - 14 ). 

A. V. 1_fi , 2 STR. 6 5 . 

YAHWEH, my light and my salvation, of whom shall I be afraid ? 
Yahweh, the refuge of my life, of whom shall I be in dread ? 
When evildoers drew near against me to eat up my flesh, 
Those who were mine adversaries and enemies to me, stumbled and they fell. 
Though a camp encamp against me, my heart will not be afraid ; 
Though battle rise up against me, I shall be trusting. 



PSALM XXVII. 237 

QNE thing I ask from Yahweh, that will I seek after; 

To gaze on the loveliness of Yahweh (in the morning) in His temple. 

For He will conceal me in His covert in the day of distress ; 

Hide me in the hiding-place of His tent, (in straits) lift me up. 

Now therefore He will lift up mine head above mine enemies round about me; 

And I will sacrifice in His tent sacrifices of shouting to Yahweh. 

B. v. 7 " 911 " 12 , 3 STR. 4 3 . 

T-JEAR, Yahweh, my voice. 

I call, therefore be gracious to me and answer me. 

To Thee said my heart : 

" Thy face, Yahweh, (do) / seek." 
T-TIDE not Thy face from me ; 

Turn not in anger (against me) . 

My help, abandon me not; 

Forsake me not, my salvation. 
TN Thy Way instruct me, 

In an even path lead me; 

Give me not over to the greed of mine adversary, 

He that breatheth out violence to me. 

Ps. 27 was in JB. There is nothing else in the title of f^, but <S 
has in addition irpb rod xP La '^V vai ^ priusquam liniretur. Jerome in 
his Commentary has antequam ungueretur ; but says that it was not in 
|$ and omits it from 3. Since Kenn. the Ps. has been generally regarded 
as composite, the second Ps. beginning v. 7 . So Horsley, Che., Kirk., 
Dy., Ew., Ols., Reu., De., al. As De. says : " Aber auch iibrigens sind die 
zwei Halften einander sehr unahnlich. Sie bilden ein Hysteronproteron, 
idem die fides triumphans der 1 in der 2 in fides supplex umschlagt und mit 
Beginn der dtrjais v. 7 der Stil schwerfallig, die strophische Anlage unklar 
und sogar die Begrenzung der Verszeilen unsicher wird." The first Ps. v. 1 " 
has two pentameter hexastichs. It was composed in time of war, when the 
army of the enemy was to be feared v. 3 . The enemies were national "MP3 S:jn 
v. 2 as 14 4 . The refuge was the hyn v. 4 , rno v. 5< % Shn nno v. 55 . The worship 
was carried on by sacrifice ror with nynn v. 6 . Tp3*? v. 4 , if a verb, is an 
Aramaism and implies post ex. date; but it is doubtless a noun, in the morn- 
ing, referring to morning sacrifice as 5 4 , and the -\in of v. 1 may be compared 
with 4 7 . The Ps. is then preexilic. The calm confidence in connection with 
extreme peril from enemies, apparently besieging the city, reminds us of the 
situation of Jerusalem in the time of Hezekiah and Isaiah, v. 2 K. 18-19. 
The second Ps., v. 7 " 9 - 1112 , has three trimeter tetrastichs of prayer for deliver- 
ance. Nothing indicates any particular occasion. It was probably added to 
the first Ps. in the Persian period at the time of the editing of IB in order 
to make this ancient Ps. appropriate for synagogue worship. The difficulties 
to which De. alludes are due to glosses of a still later date, adapting the Ps. 
by generalisation for later situations, (a) The forsaking of a person by his 



238 PSALMS 

parents, v. 10 , suits a time of persecution such as the Maccabean period, when 
families were divided. (f>) v. 13-14 , at the conclusion, seem to be an effort to 
harmonise the two parts by combining the elements of trust and petition. 
They bring the composite Ps. to a more appropriate conclusion. This was 
probably the work of the final editor. 

Str. I. is composed of three syn. pentameter couplets, progres- 
sive one to another in their order. — 1. Yahweh], not probably, 
"is" EV. ; but vocative. — my light], light to me, that is light 
coming forth from the face of Yahweh, turned toward the people 
in favour, in accordance with the priestly blessing, Nu. 6 24-26 , 
cf. 4 7 44 4 89 16 ; here conceived as in its source, the face of Yah- 
weh being itself a light-giving body or luminary, as in 84 12 Yahweh 
is a sun. The light is a saving light, and so the source of it is, 
my salvation || refuge of my life], or for my life. The people seek- 
ing refuge in Yahweh found their life secure, safe from the enemy. 
— of whom'], is therefore a triumphant challenge, implying a 
negative answer, of none. — shall I be afraid \ be in dread]. 
However great the external reasons for fear, because of the num- 
bers and strength of the enemies ; under divine protection His 
people are sure that they are absolutely safe. We are reminded 
of the sublime challenge, Is. 37 21 " 35 . — 2. When evil doers], here 
as elsw. referring to cruel, ruthless enemies, who maltreat their 
foes j || mine adversaries || enemies to me], not private enemies, 
individuals; but public enemies engaged in war. — drew near 
against me], in hostility and probably to besiege. — to cat up my 
flesh], as in 14 4 , as beasts of prey to devour, consume utterly. 
What the enemies expected did not come to pass, but the reverse. 
The latter is reserved therefore for stronger antith. in the com- 
plementary section of the second line of the couplet. — stumbled], 
over obstacles they did not anticipate, and they fell, that is to the 
ground in defeat and death. — 3. Though a camp encamp against 
me], surround the people of God in siege, as the army of Assyrians, 
2 K. i8 17seq - It is better to preserve the identity of words in Eng- 
lish than to use the syn. "host" EV 8 . — Though battle rise up 
against me]. The specific meaning is more probable here than 
the general meaning war. The battle was something to be feared 
as the consequence of the siege already begun. In these circum- 
stances, justifying fear, my heart will not be afraid], resuming v. 1 ; 



PSALM XXVII. 239 

but the reverse, / shall be trusting], the ptc. expressing the unin- 
terrupted, unbroken continuance of the trust in Yahweh. 

Str. II. is composed of two synth. couplets, and an intermediate 
syn. couplet. — 4. One thing], emph. at the beginning. He is 
confident of deliverance from the enemy j he need not ask for 
that ; but there is one, and one only thing, he desires : / ask], 
emph. of present experience and not of past experience, or ex- 
perience just completed. — that], resuming the one thing with 
the syn. vbs. : ask || seek after. — To gaze on], defining the one 
thing, the privilege of beholding steadfastly, contemplating with 
a joyous gaze, the loveliness of Yahweh], His glory as manifested 
to the devout mind in public worship. — in His temple], the place 
where Yahweh resides and where He manifests Himself to His 
worshippers. This worship, especially in early times, was chiefly 
in the morning, the chief time of sacrifice, as 5 4 59 17 88 14 . This He- 
brew word has been interpreted, by a difference of vowel points, 
as a vb. which properly means "inquire" AV., RV. ; but this is 
so unsuited to the context and so difficult to explain satisfactorily 
that Vrss. are compelled to resort to speculative mngs. : " visit " 
PBV., " consider " RV m ., " contemplate " ^DB. \ some such mean- 
ing being required to suit the parall. A later editor, not satisfied 
with this designation of the one thing, proposes another, though 
similar thing, from 23 s : dwell in the house of Yahweh all the days 
of my life, at the expense of the strophical organization. — 5. For 
He will conceal me || hide me], renewed expression of confidence. 
— in His covert || the hiding-place of His tent], both referring to 
the temple as a place of refuge ; not that the enemy might cap- 
ture the city, but be compelled to respect the sacred right of 
refuge in the temple ; for no such respect for the temple appears 
among the historic enemies of Israel. The conception is rather 
that the temple is such a covert and hiding-place that it protects 
the entire city in which it is situated, so that God's people, when 
they resort to the temple for worship, will be kept in safety from 
all enemies. Accordingly, this is definitely asserted, in the day 
of distress]. The siege has caused distress, notwithstanding the 
courage and confidence of the people. — in straits'], as the parall. 
suggests ; but an early editor has interpreted the Hebrew word by 
a different pointing, as " upon a rock " ; and this has gone into 



240 PSALMS 

Vrss. ancient and modern, introducing a thought which, however 
appropriate in itself, is difficult to reconcile with the context. 
The people have their refuge in the temple. The rock was the 
refuge of those who were pursued by enemies away from the city 
and temple, in the country, where by climbing a lofty rock they 
would be inaccessible. — lift me up], in victory, the same antith. 
to the previous vbs., as is found in the couplet v. 2 . — 6. Now 
therefore], logical sequence and not temporal. — He will lift up 
mine head above mine enemies], in victory, repeating the previous 
vb. in stair-like parall. in accordance with (3, 3, PBV., Pss. 3 4 no 7 , 
interpreting it as Hiphil of vb., which is much more probable than 
J^, though sustained by other ancient and modern Vrss. " shall 
mine head be lifted up," interpreting it as Qal. — round about 
me]. The enemies are besieging the city, in accordance with v 3 ; 
so most Vrss. to be preferred to (3, interpreting it as vb. "go 
about in procession " as 26 s , attaching it to the next line, at the 
expense of the measure of both lines. — And I 7vill sacrifice] in 
the morning hour of worship, as v. 46 . — in His tent], poetic for 
temple as v. 5 , including the court of the brazen altar, the place of 
sacrifice. — Sacrifices of shouting], sacrifices of peace-offerings in 
the form of thank-offerings for the victory granted by Yahweh, 
whose chief characteristic was feasting on the flesh of the victims 
together with bread and wine in joyful festivity, and therefore ac- 
companied with the sacred shout to Yahweh. A later editor, at 
the expense of the measure, inserts two vbs. : " I will sing, yea 
I will sing psalms," more appropriate to the fully developed temple 
service of later times. 

PS. XXVII. B. 

Str. I. is a syn. tetrastich. — 7. The first two lines are composed 
of usual phrases, v. 3 s 4 24 . — / call] is attached by MT., (3, 3, 
and all Vrss., to the first line, usually as a relative or temporal 
clause ; but they differ as regards the connection of my voice. 
(3, 3, PBV. make it the object of hear, but AV., RV., and most 
moderns attach it to call. The former is required by the measure, 
and then it is better to attach call to the second line as the ante- 
cedent of the two vbs., and so the first trimeter couplet is simple 
and harmonious. — 8. To thee], emph., referring to Yahweh. — 



PSALM XXVII. 241 

said my heart], a late expression instead of the usual " in my 
heart." We would expect at once what was said. — Thy face, 
Yahweh, do I seek], that is, resort to the temple, the place of the 
divine presence. This simple trimeter couplet was disturbed by 
an early marginal exclamation " seek ye My face." This marginal 
exhortation eventually, as in so many other cases, came into the 
text at the expense of the rhythm. 

Str. II. is a syn. tetrastich. — 9. Hide not Thy face], in indif- 
ference, not looking at me, ignoring my need of Thee ; || abandon 
me not || forsake me not~\ \ so the intermediate, turn not, as (3, 3, 
interpreting the verb as Qal. But ^ followed by EV S . and 
most moderns interpret it as Hiphil, " cast away " PBV. ; " put 
away " AV., RV. None of these has any sure warrant in Hebrew 
usage, and all are against the parall. — in anger against me~\, so 
probably in the original. But as often " Thy servant " has been 
substituted for " me " by an editor. This is more natural than 
to take " servant " as obj. of verb, in accordance with the inter- 
pretation rejected above, or "from Thy servant" of (3, 3, which 
requires the insertion of a preposition in the original text. — my 
help || my salvation] : the assertion of past experience is the basis 
of the plea. 

10. When my father and my mother have forsaken me~], as 
PBV., AV. is more probable than " for " RV., though sustained 
by (3, 3. It is then the protasis with perfect of vb. This most 
naturally is to be referred to a time of religious persecution, such 
as the times of Antiochus and the early Maccabees, when families 
were divided, and subsequently when parties in Israel became 
bitterly antagonistic even in families, an idea hardly suited to the 
Ps. in this context. The apodosis is : then will Yahweh take me 
up]. This is a late meaning of the Hebrew word. The verse 
may be regarded as a pentameter, but more probably is a mere 
prose sentence. In either case it does not correspond with the 
rhythm of the simple trimeter in which it is embedded, or the 
construction of its Strs. This verse is therefore a gloss, not earlier 
than the Maccabean period. 

Str. III. is composed of two syn. couplets in antith. — 11. In 
Thy way instruct me~\. In 25 s - 12 , this phr. refers to the Deute- 
ronomic legislation ; but that does not suit the present context, 



242 PSALMS 

which suggests rather a way of safety from enemies. This is 
favoured by the |j hi an even path lead me], a path leading to a 
level place, a place upon which one can stand securely. This was 
certainly the interpretation of the glossator, who at the expense 
of the measure, added from, 5° : because of those lying in wait 
for me. — 12. Give me not over'], taking up the abandonment 
of v. 9 and putting it in another syn. form. — to the greed ~\. The 
soul of the adversaries, as the seat of greedy desire, is all greed. 
Parallel with this is, he that breathe th out], the greed is expressed 
by excited, eager, hot breath. The greed of soul is expressed in 
violence of word and deed. The same glossator, probably, as the 
one who inserted v. 10 , also inserted between the two lines of the 
couplet the words : For false witnesses have risen up against me, 
which suits quite well the situation in the strife of parties in 
the Maccabean times. 

13-14. An editor, probably earlier than the glossator mentioned 
above, possibly the one who combined the prayer with the original 
Ps., made that combination more appropriate by summing up the 
essential ideas of both parts in these verses. 

I believe that I shall look on the good things of Yahweh in the land of the living. 
Wait on Yahweh. Be strong and let thy heart take courage. 

J^ " unless " followed by EV 8 . is marked in MT. as doubtful by 
extraordinary points, and it is not justified by most ancient 
Vrss. 

13. / believe,] emphatic present with infin. const, of obj. — 
that I shall look on the good things of Yahweh], those given by 
Yahweh j which takes the place of the loveliness of Yahweh of 
v. 4 as a practical interpretation of it. — in the land of the living] : 
cf. 142 6 , as distinguished from the realm of the dead, emphasising 
continuance of life on the earth. This also generalises the more 
specific and devout thought of v. 4 . — 14. Wait on Yahweh], in 
faith, confidence, and hope ; paraphrased in PBV. " the Lord's 
leisure " ; repeated at the close of the verse for emphasis, probably 
added by a much later hand. As the previous line expressed the 
confidence of the first Ps. by the perfect of the vb., this line ex- 
presses the prayer of the second Ps. by imperatives : Be strong, 
intensified in, let thine heart take courage], cf. 31 25 , which is a 



PSALM XXVII. 243 

more probable interpretation of the vb., as (3, J, RV., Dr., Kirk., 
al., than PBV. " He shall comfort thine heart," interpreting the 
vb. as apodosis of imv. and giving it a causative force. 

XXVII. A. 

1. »jNShi i-yx] phr. a.X. sfs. obj. mlN v. 4? ; pt£ v. 12 6 . — «n rtyo] phr. a.X.; 
% r>'E n.m. place or means of refuge, safety : (1) place, not in \j/ ; but (2) fig. 
of God as refuge 27 1 31 5 37 s9 52° Is. 25 4 - 4 Na. i 7 Jo. 4 16 , nipr> ra Ps. 28 s , 
T3 nra 31 8 Is. 17 10 , 'D vi^X Ps. 43 2 ; (3) fig. of human protection ">p : xn 'D 60 9 = 
108 9 . D"n v. J 6 . — 2. a^iTn] Qal inf. cstr., 2 temporal, apod. iVtfs pf. past ex- 
perience || iSor, i coord. — >S] attached to ^N, emphasising the sf., was 
doubtless original, completing the pentameter. — nan] is a gl. to emphatically 
resume the subj. (v. /6 s ). — 3. cn] protasis of condition, parall. with previous 
temporal clause, with apodosis nt»\ — ~kt3] gl., either emph., to call atten- 
tion to the object of trust ; or in spite of this, even then, as RV., Dr., Kirk., al. 
— 1^13] Qal ptc. (v. <f) continuous action, with verbal force, and subj. \ik 
completing the 1. — 4. T7\*~\ emph., one thing. — ^Ntf] Qal pf, emph. pres- 
ent. — T\~*vC\ emph. object, that thing. — mm maa >patf] gl- from 23 65 ; *naB> 
inf. cstr., c. sf. 1 s. from 2V> without *? is striking in view of S with the subse- 
quent infs. The glossator did not assimilate it to the context. — '»n w ?r] 
gl. from 23 6a . — PiinS] Qal inf. cstr., obj. of previous vbs. : behold, usually c. 
ace. (v. 11 1 *), here more intense with a, look intently, gaze on. — t -"'] n - m - 
delightfulness, loveliness ; f of '", in temple here, in His favour 90 17 , elsw. Zc. 
II 7 - 10 Pr. 3 17 15 26 16 24 . — IjaSi] is a second inf. Pi. cstr. of Jnpa, Aramaism, 
rare in Heb., Lv. 13 36 c. *? seek, look for ; Ez. 34 11 c. ace. seek flock, to care for 
it ; Pr. 20 25 is difficult. Toy renders make inquiry. The proper mng. of the 
vb. is improper here. What was he to seek in the temple syn. with gaze ? 
i?DB. contemplate suits context, but Toy says there is no authority for such 
a rendering. Point it therefore "V^aS in the morning, the hour of prayer, as 
5 4 59 17 88 14 . — 5. v] is causal and the vbs. are futures. — pcd] >:D Qr. [?|b] 
thicket, covert, lair (v. 10 9 ) not suited to context ; better Kt. nrp booth, a 
refuge in storm, as 18 12 . — n;n 3113] in the day of distress, as 41 2 {v. 21 12 ). — 
"^St n ~? a ] P^ r - a -^->but nro hiding-place (v. 18 12 ). Sns lent, for the temple. 
— 11x3] (v. 18 2 ) not suited to the situation in the courts of the temple, though 
pj is sustained by ancient Vrss. Rd. nxa in straits. An ancient editor inter- 
preted it as nx and wrote it fully "VIS. — 6. nnyji] not temporal, but logical 
(y. 2 10 ). — on;] Qal impf. f$; but <&, 3, PBV., D>n> Hiph. more prob. in 
accord, with previous context, as 3 4 no 7 . — >no>3p] ^ and all Vrss. except 
4§, U, as 18 12 79 3 (v. j 7 ). It then has two tones as the complement of the 
line. d§ rd. vb. TiaaiD Polel pf. I s. go about in procession, as 26 6 {v. 17 11 ), 
and attached it to next vb., which is then interpreted as i consec. impf. ; but 
the obj. of vb. in this sense could hardly be missing, and no adjustment of the 
measure is practicable. — ^roTNi] 1 coord., with Qal cohort, expressing resolu- 
tion. For nai vb. and noun, v. 4 s . — J njn-in] n.f. shout, in \p (1) religious shout 



244 PSALMS 

in temple, in connection with sacrifices ; so here, 33 3 47° 89 16 ; (2) clashing, 
of cymbals 150 8 ; cf. vb. j?n, v. 41 12 . The 1. needs a word to complete its 
measure. That is probably mrpS. Then iTVBW and moTKi are expansive gls. 

XXVII. B. 

7. A new measure, trimeter ; and doubtless another Fs. begins here, which 
was pieced on to the previous Ps. ; cf. Pss. 19, 24. — pptf] Qal imv. of peti- 
tion, sq. ace. typ, as 18 7 55 18 642 119 149 ; so @, PBV. — >^p] does not go with 
tnpH as AV., RV., for this vb. belongs with 1. 2. — 'JJjn 'Jam] vbs. in emph. 
coordination preceded by i of consequence ; both Qal imvs. c. sf. 1 s. For 
pn v. 4 2 ; ny; v. j 5 . — 8. qS] emph. — *aS nrN] phr. a.X., elsw. aVa io 6 - n - 13 
141 (= 532) 3525 74^ 33S3 4 5 . but cf. 3 1 ? nvi 28 7 . — >jo Wjw] 2 pi. is striking 
here in the midst of 2 sgs. referring to God, and 1 sg. referring to the poet. 
But Vrss. had a different text : <S B i^e^rrjaa rb irpbawirbv aov, so Roman Psal- 
ter quaesivi facie m tuam, t^jd 'fltfga ; U exquisivit te fades mea, 3 qnaesivit 
vultus metis, so 2 and <gxc.a.T. an( j ^g other codd., HP. Compl., Theodoret, 
"OD *tfjpa. <£ has the shorter text po >JB 11:70 and attaches mm to the next 1. 
The latter is tempting, but improbable. All but jo agree in this 1., which is 
entirely appropriate to context. All but <§ in the oldest codd. agree in "^d K ; p3 
which is best explained in f£| and then regarded as a marginal pious gl. — 
9- V.?? 1**3 ■*T ,J ?] P nr « a -^' and difficult. Vb. Hiph. of |^ improb. <g, Y, 
3, take it as Qal, as if with "pa>::, so Horsley. "pa? is prob. a later substitu- 
tion for "O, which is required by rhyme. The vb. is best interpreted as Qal. 

— ,J ?^I?J em ph. ( v - 22 20 ). — y.\f\ aorist of past experience in order to get a 
basis for plea. It makes the 1. too long and is gl. — pu/arr^N] juss. with neg., 
two tones. % ^» vb - Q a * abandon, elsw. 78 60 94 14 . — ^yh ^i*] v - I2G > fuller 
for original ^"; 1 ;, as v. 1 — 10. mm] emph. — "JOD^] Qal impf. f\0H in sense 
of take up, care for, late {v. 2tP}. This v. is a general statement, not in 
accord with the urgent petition of the psalmist in a real situation of difficulty. 
It has five tones and is not in accord with the rhythm. It disturbs thestrophi- 
cal organisation. It is a generalising gl. to make the Ps. more appropriate 
for synagogue worship, when such breaking up of families took place as in 
Maccabean times. — 11. mB^tJ rn«a] phr. a.X.; for m_« v. 8 9 , mfc^p v. 26 12 . 

— **vfl*' f> , P L '] gl. from j 9 , which was in the mind of the copyist. The vbs. 
\11 ,,n » ^O?* were originally at end of line for rhyme in % characteristic of 
the Ps. — 12. *"«] pi. sf. i.p. Rhyme and || nc require sg. \ — *Df5] real pf. 
3 pi. c. 3 pers., elsw. c. hy 27 s 54 5 (?) 86 14 92 12 124 2 ; evidence of another and 
later hand. — f T«T V 2?] as Ex. 20 16 Dt. I9 18 - 18 Pr. 6 19 14 5 , cf. 12 17 19 s - 9 (pi.), 
a legal term of generalisation ; there is nothing in the rest of the Ps. similar 
to it. X i? n.m. in f elsw. phr. f Drn n? 35 11 , as Ex. 23 1 (E) Dt. 19 16 ; and 
of the moon Ps. 89 s8 . This clause disturbs the thought and is a gl. — no"] dub., 
j9DB. adj. f 0?} a.X. \/ nD '' on ty J e - 4 81 » botn dub. 5 better n. formed by * from 
nw, which vb. is used in D, Pss. io 5 12 6 , in the same sense as here. — 13. nSiS] 
marked as doubtful in MT. by extraordinary points (v. Intr. § 3). J K?*S if 
not, unless ; in \p elsw. »SV? 94 17 io6 23 1 19 92 I24 1 -*. (g has eavrrj = ^, and 



PSALM XXVIII. 245 

the measure requires another word with the previous clause. nSiS is proba- 
bly a conflation of two readings, "h and vh. But the original was doubtless "h 
in rhyme, as all other lines of this Ps. The Ps. is complete here. The 
remaining lines are liturgical additions. — D^n H???] P nr - e l sw » * n S 2 " 7 l 4 2 * 
Is. 38 11 53 8 Je. 11 19 Ez. 26 20 32 23 (+ 5 t. Ez.) JbV 28 13 . — 14. rnp_] Pi. imv. 
repeated in last clause (v. 2jj 3 ), c. Ss here, as in 37* 1 Is. 51 5 ; usually c. ace, 
as in 25 s . 

PSALM XXVIIL, 3 str. 4 5 . 

Ps. 28 is a prayer : (1) expostulating with Yahweh for aban- 
doning His people in peril of death, and crying aloud for help, with 
hands uplifted towards the holy shrine (v. 1-2 ) \ (2) urging that He 
discriminate between them and their enemies, visiting the latter 
with retribution for their deeds (v. 3 ^) ; (3) blessing Yahweh, the 
strength and shield, and rejoicing in Him as the refuge for king 
and people (v. 6-8 ) . Glosses give a reason for the imprecation upon 
enemies (v. 5 ) and a liturgical petition for salvation (v. 9 ) . 

T JNTO Thee I call, my Rock : be not silent (turning) from me ; 

Lest, if Thou be still (turning) from me, I be compared to them that go down 

to the Pit. 
Hear the voice of my supplication for grace, while I cry unto Thee for help; 
While I lift up my hands, (my God) unto Thy holy Shrine. 
■P)RAG me not away with the wicked, and with workers of trouble ; 

Who are speaking peace with their neighbours, while wrong is in their minds. 
O give them according to their deed, and according to the badness of their doings ; 
According to the work of their hands, render them their recompense. 
"DLESSED be Yahweh, because He hath heard the word of my supplication for 

grace ! 
Yahweh, my strength and my shield, in whom my heart doth trust! 
And I am helped, and my heart doth exult, therefore with my song will I praise 

Him, 
Yahweh, the strength (for His people), and the refuge for victorious deeds for 

His anointed. 

Ps. 28 was in 13. It received two important glosses: (1) v. 5 , a mosaic 
from Is. 5 12 and Je. 246 42 10 45*; (2) v. 9 , a liturgical addition. The Ps. is a 
prayer for help in time of war, closing with a certitude of victory. It resembles 
Pss. 20, 21 : iitw'd v. 7 = 20 7 ; v; v. 7 - 8 = 2i 2 - 14 ; mjnts" v. 7 = 2i 2 - 6 ; ~\>v v. 7 =2i li . 
The lifting up of hands towards the "vai v. 2 , is similar in situation to the 
sacrifices offered in 20 4 . The Davidic monarchy was still in existence v. 8 , 
and the temple worship was carried on v. 2 . The wicked are foreign enemies 
who are treacherous, professing peace, but really bent on mischief v. 3 . The 
situation is one of extreme peril. The nation is in danger of perishing. 



246 PSALMS 

nn »VW v. 1 is a phrase, of which no earlier usage can be assigned than Ez. 
and the exilic apocalypse Is. 14. The Pit is the Pit of Sheol. We are led to 
think, therefore, of the late Babylonian period shortly before the exile. The 
king was probably Jehoiakim. The wicked nations were probably the Moab- 
ites, Ammonites, and Syrians of 2 K. 24-. 

Str. I. is composed of two stair-like couplets. — 1. Unto Thee], 
emph. in position, Thee, and no other, defined by my Rock, which 
in the earlier literature is a divine name ; but which has become 
in the time of composition of this Ps. a concrete expression for 
Yahweh as the safe refuge of His people (7;. 19 15 73^ 92 16 144 1 ), 
an idea taken up again in syn. phrases in v. 7 "*. A later editor in- 
serted Yahweh, at the expense of the measure. — I call], em- 
phatic present, what is now being done, and not as EV e . " will call " 
future action. — be not silent], changed in the syn. line into a 
conditional clause, // Thou be still; that is ignoring, neglecting 
the prayer, and the serious situation of the people. These verbs 
have a pregnant construction in Hebrew involving the insertion 
of an appropriate verb turning from me. — I be compared to], not 
only become like, resemble, but in the eyes of others, before the 
enemies, be compared to the other nations they have conquered 
and destroyed. — that go down to the Pit]. The Pit is the deep 
dark dungeon in Sheol, to which the wicked nations descend, 
according to Is. 14 1519 Ez. 26 20 3 2 2520 - 30 , cf. Ps. 7 16 , and not 
another name for Sheol itself. So the people of God would lose 
their national existence, just like the other nations destroyed by 
the Babylonian empire, unless Yahweh their God saved them. — 
2. Hear the voice of my supplication for grace]. The prayer is a 
supplication for favour and bestowal of gracious deliverance. It 
is aloud, the voice of the petitioners sounding forth in the court of 
the temple in plaintive tones ; defined by while I ay unto Thee 
for help. These public prayers, recited aloud by priests and 
people, doubtless, as always, accompanied the sacrifice of whole 
burnt -offerings in the courts, and the burning of incense in the 
temple itself. At the same time, the attitude of supplication is ex- 
pressed in the gesture, / lift up my hands, the ancient and natural 
attitude of invocation and supplication, stretching forth the hands 
to call and to receive. So in La. 3 4i " Let us lift up our heart to 
our hands unto God in the heavens." The heart goes up to the 



PSALM XXVIII. 247 

uplifted hands and from them upward to God in heaven. But to 
the author of La. there was no temple ; it had been destroyed. 
This Ps. was, however, sung in the temple, and the hands were 
lifted up towards the place where Yahweh was conceived as 
resident. — Unto Thy holy Shrine"], the Debir, the throne room, 
otherwise called the Holy of Holies of the temple. The measure 
requires the insertion of My God, which was omitted by copy- 
ist's mistake, due to the similarity of the Hebrew word with the 
preposition that follows. 

Str. II. is composed of a synth. couplet and one of introverted 
parallel. — 3. Drag me not away]. The petition for discrimination 
between the people of Yahweh and the nations that have perished, 
or are ready to perish, at the hands of the Babylonian empire, now 
passes over into a plea for discrimination between them and the 
minor surrounding nations, who are in similar peril, lest they be 
involved in the common ruin. Israel would not be dragged along 
and away as captives with them. — with the wicked]. These are, 
as frequently in the preexilic Pss., wicked nations || workers of 
trouble, the trouble, mischief, injury that they were doing to the 
people of God in their extremity. They are also treacherous, 
speaking peace with their neighbours]. They pretended to be 
friendly and in alliance against a common foe ; but in reality they 
were hostile, ready to betray Israel on the first opportunity. — 
wrong is in their minds], their real intent was to take advantage 
of the troubles of Israel, to unite with their enemies and prey 
upon them. This is exactly what Moab and Ammon, the Syrians 
and Edomites, did, according to 2 K. 24 2 ; cf. also Ez. 25 for the 
prophet's denunciation of them. — 4. O give them || render them 
their recompense], an imprecation, in introverted parallel., not upon 
individuals, but upon the treacherous, cruel, neighbouring nations, 
calling upon Yahweh to give them exact retribution. — according 
to their deed || the badness of their doings || the work of their hands], 
the treachery of which they have been guilty and the trouble which 
they have wrought upon His people. A later editor feels con- 
strained to add a reason for this imprecation, which was evident 
enough to the author of the Ps. in the historical situation in which 
he wrote, but not so evident in later times: — 5. Because they 
regard not the works of Yahweh, nor the operation of His hands, 



248 PSALMS 

He breaketh them down and buildcth them not again~\. The first 
of these clauses is a free citation from Is. 5 12 , contrasting the work 
of Yahweh's hands with the work of the hands of the wicked 
nations, and His work with their work ; with the implication that, 
if they had paid attention to His work they would not have done 
their work, and because of this neglect, retribution comes upon 
them. The second clause is a free citation of a favourite expres- 
sion of Je. 24 6 42 10 45 4 . Yahweh will break them down, destroy 
their national existence, and not build them up again ; their ruin 
will be complete and final. 

Str. III. is a tetrastich with introverted parallel. It expresses 
certitude that the previous petition has been granted, and that by 
using again the exact words of v. 2a . This certitude was probably 
due, as in Ps. 20, to some external evidence, given either by a 
prophetic utterance, or by some sign of the acceptance of the 
sacrifice ; and so the Ps. changes its entire tone to a bless- 
ing. — 6-7. Blessed be Yahweh']. Such benedictions subsequently 
became the ritual conclusion of every Ps. or liturgical selection 
(7'. Intr., § 40). Yahweh is repeated for emphasis in the second 
line in order to attach to Him, in apposition, the attributes 
already involved in " my Rock " v. 1 , namely, my strength and my 
shield. This phrase, only found here, combines the usual concep- 
tions that Yahweh is the source of strength to His people {v. 21 1 
46 2 84°), and that He is the shield, interposing between them and 
their enemies (as 3* 7 11 18 3 ). — in whom my heart doth trust~\. 
The calm confidence to which the psalmist has now come, is in 
striking antithesis to the expostulation for neglect and the cry for 
help with which it begins. — And J am helped], the help has been 
given and is now enjoyed, and as a necessary consequence, my 
heart doth exult]. The trust of the heart has passed over into 
exultation, and the vow, with my song will J praise Him], the 
song of thanksgiving which is to accompany a thank-offering for 
the victory over enemies, now regarded as certain. The whole is 
summed up in the common experience of king and people. — 
8. YaJnveh], in apposition with the object of the previous verb, 
and not an independent clause ; and therefore having in apposi- 
tion, as v. 7 , and not as predicates, the strength, as v. 7 , explained 
more fully as the refuge. — victorious deeds], from whom deeds 



PSALM XXVIII. 249 

of victory come as a gift, as in 21 2 . — for His people], the nation, 
as (3 ; but J^, by error, has " for them," which must have the 
same interpretation, although there is nothing to which the 3d 
plural refers. — for His anointed], their king, anointed by Yah- 
weh over His people, and so His representative, belonging to 
Him as His own. 

9. When the Ps. was adapted for public worship, probably in 
the final Psalter, a liturgical addition was made in order to gen- 
eralise this warlike situation. This is a tetrameter couplet. — 
O save], in the later situation more probable than " give victory," 
which would be necessary in accordance with v. 8 if original to the 
Psalm. But then we miss the reference to "Thine anointed," 
which would be expected rather than "Thy people," as in v. 8 ; 
|| thine inheritance, which also must refer to the people, conceived 
as the special divine possession. The absence of reference to the 
king here can hardly be explained otherwise than that this couplet 
was appended when Israel had been so long without a king that 
it was not natural to think of him any more. — And be Thou shep- 
herd], and as a shepherd lifts up and carries in his bosom the 
lambs of the flock, carry them forever. The author probably had 
in mind Yahweh the shepherd of Is. 40 11 . 

1. mrr] makes 1. too long, and is a gl. — nix] for Yahweh, as 18 2 ; in early 
literature as name, later as archaism, fig. of" 1 as refuge, v. 19 15 73 s6 92 16 144 1 . 
(&, U, as usual, 6 0e6s fxov, Deus mens. — BhTW Sm] Qal juss. 2 m., with neg. 
X \vyf\ VD « t Qal be silent : (1) alw. of God keeping silence or neglecting 
prayer 35 22 50 3 83 2 109 1 , c. Sx 39 13 , p 28 1 ; (2) subj. D"jtn Mi. 7 16 (be deaf). 
Hiph. keep silence, neglecting evil Ps. 50 21 Hb. I 13 Is. 42 14 , neglecting repent- 
ance Ps. 32 s . — \JDn] is pregnant, turning from me, cf. 22 22 43 1 . — 'T^nn] 
final clause. % [ntfn] vb. Qal be silent, inactive, still, of Yahweh 28 1 ; of 
waves 107 29 . Hiph. exhibit silence, be silent 39 3 , 2130 preg. away fro?n good. — 
^nWpji] 1 consec, Niph. pf. I sg., conj. introducing the apod, of the condi- 
tional clause, f *?tfD VD - represent, be like, in \p only Niph. be like, similar, 
be compared; c. Dy 28 1 = 143 7 , c. 3 49 13 - 21 ; cf. c. Sx Is. 14 10 ; elsw. Hiph. 
Is. 46 s ; Hithp. c. a Jb. 30 19 . — 2. '^ajqn Vip] V^r., elsw. ^ v. 6 31 23 86 6 130 2 
140", cf. 116 1 . % [junn] n.[m.] only pi. abstr., supplication for favour, alw. 
in \p to God; elsw. 143 1 ; alw. vrnnn, except 86 6 v^runn. — <jntfa] Pi. inf. 
cstr. sf., c. 2 temporal (v. j 3 ). — "h> »KlPja] inf. cstr., n temporal, cf. for this 
gesture 63 s La. 2 19 ; cf. also Sn vqi xt) Pss. 25 1 86 4 143 8 . — J "v:n] n.m. the 
hindmost room of the temple I K. 6 5-31 ; the earlier name for D^Bhpn v~\p, 
only here in \p, translated oracle, AN., RV., after 2, Aq., 3, on the incorrect 



250 PSALMS 

theory that it was derived from "Ot speak. " Chancel," Dr., is tempting, but 
does not really correspond with the mug. of the word. (& eh vabv ayidp o~ov, 
cf. PBV., is correct, distinguishing the va6s as the inner sanctuary, the shrine, 
from the Up6v, the temple as a whole. — T l" ; "! ;] might be interpreted of the 
larger sanctuary, as in 74 s ; but better, as in 5 8 , as attribute of the "vat. 
The 1. is defective; prob. add »Sh omitted because of similarity to h*. — 
3. -jr^'prr'TN] Qal ]uss., c. neg. "]#D (v. /o 9 ) drag along and away. We must 
give these two words, though connected by Makkeph, two beats. <S sub- 
stitutes for sf. tt)v ^vx^v /xov, which is more prob., for then "]^Dn"S« would 
have but one tone and »Btej the other. — T?' 1 ] Qal. ptc. pi. cstr., verbal force, 
rel. clause, c. c>, usage of JED and earlier writers; P and later writers prefer 
PH "Q-t. — I D^r] n.m. : (1) soundness, health 38*; (2) -welfare, prosperity 
73 3 i22°- 7 - 8 ; f 2,S;:i 3 i 37 11 7 2 "; (3) quiet, peacefulness, tranquillity, security 
4 9 37 !7 > (4) peace, friendship, alliance, between men, ">D'i L, ir w ;, n man of my 
friendship 41 10 , cf. Je. 20 10 ?$ n Oh. 7, vfry (|| nna) Ps. 55 21 , cf. f 69' 23 , 
DJ? v -\2-y 28 s 35 20 Je. 9 7 , 'V tfpa Ps. 34 15 , || npnx 72 s ; (5) peace with God in 
establishment of covenant relations (common in Je., Ez., Is. 2 , P) 29 11 35 21 
85 s - n , cf. Is. 54 13 6o 17 ; invoked upon Jerusalem ^-; 'tf Pss. 125 5 128 6 , 31 'tf 
119 165 ; (6) peace from war (freq. in hist, and prophet, bks.) 55 19 147 14 , 
antith. n-n s ^ I20 6 - 7 . — D33^] long form (v. f 5 ), cf. with "S^ v. 7 short form 
used twice, is dub.; prob. due to dittog. of 3. — 4. Dn s ~JPi]. The Makkeph 
reduces the tones of the 1. to four. This is impossible. We would natur- 
ally expect here cohort, n^n, as 69 ,2S 86 16 . But the txt. must have been 
changed at an early date, for the same phr. has been inserted by copyist's 
error in next 1. at the expense of the measure. For jnj in the sense of requite 
v. io 1! *. — ?*>] a.X. y, but in this phr. found also in Dt. 28' 20 Is. I 16 Je. 4 4 -f 6 t. 
Ho. 9 15 , cf. 1 S. 25 3 , evil, badness, for n;n v. 8 . — DjvSSgE] pi. cstr. sf. 3 pi. 
+ ("I"* 2 .) n - m « deed: (1) of God 77 12 78 7 ; (2) wanton deeds of men 28^ 
io6' 29 - 89 and passages given above in other Liter. — dh 1 fife^c] of God, as v. 6 , 
92 5 III 7 143 5 , v. 8'-*\ of men, as here, 90 17 1 15 4 135 13 . — % S-idj] n.m.: (1) re- 
quital, recompense 28 1 * 94 2 137 8 ; (2) benefit from God 103 2 , v. vb. ^cj (7 5 )- — 
5. irr] prob. Hiph., as 33 15 , where ^n is used. Qal in \p alw. c. ace. or s , 
although Qal form is the same and the mng. essentially the same. — riVjte] pi. 
cstr. of nr;p {v. 17^) deeds of Yahweh, change from ^"D of v. 4 . The use of 
this word together with v-n ntrjna shows an intentional antith. between human 

° ATT • 

deeds and divine deeds. The sentence resembles Is. 5 12 , and is a loose cita- 
tion from it. — DJ3J n l, i Dtn?v] (5 Kad€\€?s,olKoSo/j.^o-€is,V,3 deslrues,aedificabis. 
Possibly an older txt. had ptc, as Je. 45*. This clause is free citation from 
Je. 24 s 42 10 45 4 . The v. has most naturally a sentence of 4 + 3 tones from 
Is. 5 12 , and a sentence of 3 tones from Je. The first sentence is too long, the 
second too short, and they cannot be properly arranged in accordance with 
the measure of the Ps. They are glosses, so Che. — 7. »331M m>] phr. a.X., but 
v; as strength of Yahweh bestowed for the defence of His people also 46 2 84° 
(v. 8 3 ). — Va] defines rel. clause with rel. omitted. — >*??!}] 1 consec, Qal 
impf., result of previous pf. t ty vb. exult, only Qal, alw. abs. 28? 60* 



PSALM XXIX. 251 

(=io8 8 ) 68 5 94 3 96 12 149 5 , elsw. Is. 23 12 Je. n 15 15 17 50 11 51 39 2 S. I 20 
Zp. 3 14 Hb. 3 18 Pr. 23 16 . Here subj. 3*7 as seat of emotions, cf. 4? 13 6 . — *TlftV] 
with my song, v. Intr. § 24. — ttTtow] strong form of Hiph. impf. I sg., c. 
strong sf. 3 sg. (v. Ges.S 5311 - 7 ). ht (v. Intr. §39) expressing resolution, 
future purpose of praise. (3 has a variant txt. here: Kal avidaXev ij trapi- 
ftov ' Kal £k 6e\^fxaT6s fiov i^ofwXoyricroficu airry, so 5J. <& agrees with <3 in 
the first clause, but with ^ and other Vrss. in the second. @ had nfc'3 or 
nNtf for n^B'D, and prob. >aS was transposed with it, and possibly ^ L, n was read 
for i 1 ?;'. — 8. '•dSt?] <S, &, F have icy, so Horsley, Jebb, Dathe, Koster, Che., 
Ba., al.; more prob., espec. in view of the use of DJJ in v. 9 and its parall. with 
utet, so mentioning both king and people. — mn] emph., at end of 1., Str., 
and Ps., is unnecessary, and as it makes 1. too long, it is doubtless a gl. 



PSALM XXIX., 5 str. 4 4 . 

Ps. 29 is a hymn, describing the advent of Yahweh in a storm. 

(1) The angels worship Yahweh in the heavenly temple (v. 1-2 ); 

(2) the thunder of Yahweh's voice is a great power (a) on the 
waters (v. 3-4 ); (6) upon Lebanon and its cedars (v. 5-6 ) ; (c) upon 
the wilderness and its forests (v. 8 " 9 ) ; (3) Yahweh, enthroned 
over the Flood, reigns forever and bestows blessings on His 
people (v. 10 - 11 ). 

^SCRIBE to Yahweh, ye sons of gods, 

Ascribe to Yahweh glory and strength ; 

Ascribe to Yahweh the glory of His name ; 

Render worship to Yahweh in holy ornaments. 
'T'HE voice of Yahweh is upon the waters, 

(The voice of) Yahweh is upon great waters; 

The voice of Yahweh is in power, 

The voice of Yahweh is in majesty. 
T^HE voice of Yahweh breaketh cedars, 

Yahweh breaketh in pieces the cedars of Lebanon. 

And He maketh Lebanon skip like a calf, 

Sirion like a young yore-ox. 
'"rHE voice of Yahweh whirleth the wilderness about, 

Yahweh whirleth about the wilderness of Kadesh. 
£ The voice of Yahweh whirleth about the (terebinths), 

(The voice of Yahweh) strippeth bare the forests. 
yAHWEH sat enthroned (over) the Flood, 

Yahweh (will sit) enthroned forever ; 

Yahweh giveth strength to His people, 

Yahweh blesseth His people with peace. 



2 52 PSALMS 

Ps. 29 was in © and £H (v. Intr. §§ 27, 31). In © a liturgical as- 
signment appears ^odiov <rKT)vi}s, the msp, coming in the Jewish year the 
next day after the seventh day of Tabernacles, so Bar Hebraeus. But the 
earliest Palestinian tradition knows nothing of this. So/rim, c. 18, § 3, assigns 
it to Pentecost. The Ps. for the mjp is 65 (v. De., Psalmen, pp. 266-267) • 
The advent of Yahweh in a storm may be compared with i8 8b( K The d^Sn ^2 
angels, v. 1 = 89/, cf. Jb. 38% implies the influence of Persian angelology. 
Ehp mm v. 2 , the holy ornament, or vestment of angelic priests, implies a fully 
developed priesthood as expressed in P. The use of V12D v. 10 for the ancient 
Flood is also in accordance with P. V. 1-2 are cited in 96 7-9a except that 
cny nmoPD is used for d^Sn >J3, an intentional change. Ps. 29 must be 
earlier than this royal Ps., which is used in 1 Ch. i6 23b( i-. The Ps. seems to 
belong to the Persian period subsequent to Nehemiah. 

Str. I. The parall. of this tetrastich is stairlike ; though syn. in 
the main, each line gives an additional idea. — 1-2. Ascribe to 
Yahweh], thrice repeated; the recognition of Yahweh and the 
giving utterance to this recognition in worship. — Render wor- 
ship^ expressed usually by bowing down or prostration. — ye sons 
of gods], a term for angels as belonging to the class of divine 
beings ; and yet in Hebrew conception the servants and wor- 
shippers of Yahweh, cf. Ps. 8g 7 Jb. 38 7 . That which is ascribed 
is glory and strength, the former intensified in the next line, the 
glory of His name'], manifested in His revelation of Himself in 
His name, or that which is made known and is known of Him. 
The latter is the theme of praise as 8 3 , and so in (3 conceived as 
the praise itself. — in holy ornaments]. The angels are conceived 
after the manner of ministering priests in the earthly temple as 
clothed in sacred vestments. 

Three tetrastichs describe the voice of Yahweh, the thunder- 
storm, in its effects upon nature, upon the sea, the mountains, and 
the wilderness. Str. II. The thunder-storm is first described on 
the sea. — 3^4. The voice of Yahweh], eight times repeated in the 
original, but omitted by copyists in v. 3 *, v. 96 , inserted m gloss v. 7 , 
leaving seven times, the symbolical holy number. In accordance 
with ancient conceptions the thunder is the voice of God. Yahweh 
descends in theophany to earth, in a storm, either for vengeance 
upon His enemies or for the deliverance of His people, v. i8 8Bq \ 
— upon the waters || upon great waters], in accordance with usage 
of the phrase, the waters of the Mediterranean Sea. producing, as 



PSALM XXIX. 253 

is suggested, by in power || in majesty, powerful, majestic waves, 
cf. 93 4 . An ancient scribe inserted an explanatory gloss in different 
measure : " The God of glory thundered," which destroys the sym- 
metry of the Str. — Str. III. 5-6. The thunder-storm is next de- 
scribed in the mountains. — breaketh], is intensified into, breaketh 
in pieces the cedars], intensified into cedars of Lebanon, the giant 
trees growing in that region, famed in antiquity. The storm is 
of such extreme violence that it breaks off the limbs, breaks 
down the trees themselves and breaks them in pieces. — He 
maketh to skip~\, implying an earthquake accompanying the storm, 
as i8 8sq - 114 4 " 6 as usual in connection with theophanies. It shakes 
the mountains on which the cedars grew. J^, 0, and all Vrss. 
make the obj. them refer to cedars, which would not be harmonious 
with breaking them in pieces. The suffix is therefore a copyist's 
error. Lebanon is the object in this line, as Sirion in the next. — 
Lebanon], the range of mountains along the coast dividing Syria 
from Phoenicia. — Sirion], the Phoenician name for Mt. Hermon, 
the giant of the parallel range of Anti-Lebanon, as Dt. 3 9 . These 
great mountain ranges skip and dance about under the power of 
the earthquake ; like a calf || a young yore-ox], leaping and danc- 
ing about when they are excited. 

7. The voice of Yahweh divide th the flames of fire], so (3, U, 3, 
PBV., AV., referring doubtless to the forked lightning; but pf, 
followed by RV m ., has " heweth out," which is difficult to under- 
stand and is probably erroneous. This line, in any case, inter- 
rupts the thought, is isolated, having no place in the strophical 
organisation of the Ps., and is a gloss. 

Str. IV. 8-95. The author now turns to the wilderness to 
describe the storm there. — whirleth about], thrice repeated, an 
appropriate term for the whirling effect of a severe storm ; so (3. 
3 takes the alternate meaning of the vb. " make writhe," in pangs, 
especially of childbirth, so Dr. for the three. It is improbable that 
the meaning would change. The difficulty is in the Hebrew word 
rendered "hinds," which seems to favour the latter rendering, the 
thought being that the storm so frightens them that it brings a 
premature delivery. But it is difficult to see why hinds should be 
mentioned rather than other animals, or why they should be men- 
tioned alone, when this Ps. is so striking in the use of parallelism. 



254 PSALMS 

It seems better therefore to read by a different interpretation of 
the same original form, terebinths, and so || with forests ; the 
former being the great trees characteristic of this region. This 
makes the entire Str. simple and harmonious. The power of the 
storm is emphasised in whirling them about. — strippeth bare], 
the leaves, boughs, and probably also barks of trees. — the wilder- 
ness], as we would suppose from the antith. to Lebanon would 
be in the South, the wilderness of the wanderings, when Israel 
came up out of Egypt ; more specifically Kadesh, that part of 
the wilderness which centres in the ancient sacred place, where 
Israel sojourned a long time prior to their entrance into the Holy 
Land, elsewhere known as Kadesh Barnea. 

9 c. A copyist introduced a line, taking up in part the ideas 
of the first Str. : and in His temple, probably referring to the 
heavenly temple, although this is not certain ; especially as all of 
them pj, all i3, 3, seems to refer to the angels, and saith glory 
is a repetition of v. 162a . But the difficulty which then arises is, 
that this line comes in here without any apparent propriety. It 
has no manner of connection with the twelve previous lines, mak- 
ing three tetrastichs, and none with the tetrastich that follows. 
The original author, if he wished to introduce that thought, would 
have used a tetrastich for that purpose. It is evidently a litur- 
gical gloss, and in that case may refer to the earthly temple. 
Doubtless the thought is an appropriate one, if it were expressed 
in the style and method of the author of the Ps. As Umbreit 
says, " Whilst we still hear the voice of the Lord in the rushing 
of the storm through the forests stripped of their leaves, the poet 
snatches us away at once from the tumult of earth, and places us 
amid the choirs of the heavenly temple, which above, in a holy 
silence, sing glory and praise to the Eternal." But the difficulty 
is that this idea is not clearly brought out, and the single line 
tacked on here is too indefinite to give such a grand conception. 

Str. V. 10-11 describes Yahweh on His throne bestowing 
strength and blessing on His people in a stairlike tetrastich. — 
Yahweh] is repeated four times, once in each line, in accordance 
with the style of the Ps. — sat enthroned'], historical aorist. — over 
the Flood], so by an easy emendation of a separable preposition 
for an inseparable one, regaining thereby the lost tone for the 



PSALM XXIX. 255 

measure. The inseparable preposition might be rendered, "at 
the Flood " RV. j but (3, 3, give it a local sense which is more 
probable. — will sit enthroned^ future, in accordance with (3, 3, 
which is more probable than Pf with 1 consec, making the second 
use of the vb. of the same tense as the first, which can hardly be 
reconciled with forever. There is indeed an antith. between His 
reigning in the past, at the time of the greatest of all trad